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Full text of "Catalogue of the fossil Mammalia in the British museum, (Natural History)"

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CATALOGUE 



or 



FOSSIL MAMMALIA 



PART I. 



■ 



FOSSIL MAMMALIA 



CATALOGUE 



OF THE 






IN THE 



BRITISH MUSEUM, 

» » ♦ 

(NATURAL HISTORY) 



CROMWELL HO AD, S.W. 



PART I. 

CONTAINING THE ORDERS 

PRIMATES, CHIROPTERA, INSECTTYORA, 
CARNIYORA, and RODENTTA. 



RICHAR 




F.G.S., ETC. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 

1885. 



PRINTED BY TATLOE AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 






PRESENTED 



CIj£ Cnrstccs 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM 



PREFACE. 



The recent removal of the Geological Collections from the over- 
crowded apartments of the British Museum in Bloomsbury to the 
new and spacious galleries of the present building, has afforded 
ample convenience to the scientific staff of the Department to 
carefully examine and re-arrange the entire Collection — a work 
upon which they are still engaged, and one that must necessarily 
occupy many years to complete. 

One result of the re-arrangement has been to bring into greater 
prominence the need, long felt, of a series of Descriptive Catalogues 
of each class of Fossil Remains, suited to the wants of the scientific 
worker, in the same manner that it is hoped the Guide-books 
satisfy the requirements of the ordinary visitor. 

The present volume, which has been most carefully prepared by 
Mr. R. Lydekker, forms Part I. of a series intended to embrace the 
whole of the Eossil Yertebrata. 

Catalogues of other Classes have been already printed or are 
now in course of preparation ; and it is confidently hoped that, 
before many years have elapsed, similar records of the entire 
Geological Collection will have been published. 



HENRY WOODWARD. 

British Museum 

(Natural History), 

Department of Geology, 

January 1, 1885. 



INTRODUCTION, 



Ix the present Catalogue I have endeavoured, as far as possible, to 
follow in the lines laid down by Professor "W. H. Mower l in respect 
to the nomenclature of species and genera, and in regard to general 
systematic arrangement. A larger number of synonyms are, how- 
ever, introduced, because in the case of fossils there is at present, 
unfortunately, but little uniformity in nomenclature, and the same 
species is still quoted by different writers under different designa- 
tions. In the case of the less frequently employed synonyms 
references are not always given. For each generic and specific 
name adopted I have given, as far as possible, the place and date of 
its first occurrence, and in many of the less perfectly known forms 
references are added to figures or full descriptions. Great care has 
been taken in endeavouring to find the proper name of each genus 
and species. 

In regard to systematic arrangement, I have endeavoured to so 
modify that adopted by Professor Flower as to make it include the 
host of extinct forms which are here dealt with, as it would be 
inconvenient to be continually referring groups to an Incerta secies. 

In the case of well-known forms very frequently no specific or 
generic characters are given ; but in instances where there are a 
number of closely allied genera, or a large number of species be- 
longing to one genus, and distinguished by characters which are 
not always readily apparent, I have frequently added a short notice 
of some of the more important generic and specific characters which 
are applicable to fossils. These characters are more fully given in 
the case of imperfectly known forms ; and in some instances indi- 
vidual specimens which are of more than ordinary interest are more 
or less fully described. Species which still exist are indicated by 
their names being printed in Old-English characters. 

1 Catalogue of Specimens of Vertebrated Animals in the Museum of the 
Eoyal College of Surgeons, part ii. (1884). 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

There has been some difficulty in deciding on the number of 
specimens which should be introduced into the Catalogue, since the 
Museum contains such vast quantities of the remains of some of 
the commoner species that the introduction of the whole would be 
utterly useless. In such instances the principle of introducing 
nearly all the specimens displayed to the public in the cases of the 
Mammalian Gallery has been adopted, together with such speci- 
mens in the drawers as are of interest, either from their intrinsic 
characters or on distributional grounds. 

As far as possible references are given to all works in which 
individual specimens have been either described or figured. In 
the case of figured specimens the word {Fig.) is placed below 
the number of the specimen. The specimens are referred to in this 
Catalogue by their Eegister numbers. In the majority of cases 
these numbers are written on oval yellow labels attached to the. 
specimens, the more recent acquisitions being ranged under the 
letter M. In the case of some of the specimens which have been 
longest in the collection the numbers are written on oblong white 
labels, these numbers referring to a separate volume known as the 
" Old Catalogue." Such specimens are entered with the affix O.C. 
to their numbers. 

In the present state of science it is almost impossible to render 
mammalian genera of equivalent value, since some writers regard 
extremely minute differences as of generic value, while others 
(among whom is the present writer) use generic terms in a wider 
sense. Thus, among the Carnivora, the genera Hycena, Viverra, and 
Cynodictis, as these terms are employed below, are examples of 
generic terms used in the latter sense ; while some of the other 
genera of the Viverridce are founded on very small differences 1 . In 
cases of imperfectly known forms, or those whose existing allies 
belong to groups very difficult to distinguish merely by those cha- 
racters available in the case of fossils, the generic terms employed 
by contemporary writers are very generally retained. 

In enumerating the teeth of the typical heterodont eutherian 
Mammals, each tooth of the cheek-series is referred to its proper 
position in the complete series, the first premolar always meaning 
the first tooth in the typical series of four, and so with the succeed- ' 
ing teeth. 

1 Tims, as far as can be judged from the mandible, it seems very doubtful 
whether Palaoprionodon can be distinguished from Prionodon. 



LNTKODUCTION. IX 

With regard to geological horizons, I have adopted, after mature 
consideration, the following classification of the Tertiaries of 
Europe, which is modified from the tables given by Messrs. Gaudry, 
Boyd Dawkins, and Max Schlosser. I have included the Pikermi 
and Mont-Leberon beds in the Pliocene, but have retained the 
Eppelsheim beds, which are sometimes classed in the same division, 
at the top of the Miocene. As regards their mammalian fauna, the 
Eppelsheim beds seem transitional between the Pliocene and the 
Miocene. Thus they contain Dinoiherium, which is common to 
the Middle Miocene and Lower Pliocene (Pikermi) ; and likewise 
Rhinoceros sclileiermacheri, which ranges from the Middle Miocene 
of Sansan * to the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi, as well as the Middle 
Miocene Lutra clubia 2 . Their affinity to the Lower Pliocene is 
marked by the commencement of the genera Hipparion and 
Simocyon, the Pikermi species of which genera are identical with 
those of Eppelsheim. Professor Gaudry 3 is also inclined to identify 
the Pikermi Aceratlierium with the Eppelsheim A. incisivum. The 
Eppelsheim beds do not, however, contain the highly specialized 
Euminants of Pikermi. The probable nearness in time of the 
QEningen beds to those of Eppelsheim, and the affinity of the mam- 
malian fauna of the former to that of the Middle Miocene of Sansan, 
tends to connect the Eppelsheim beds with the Miocene. I have 
discarded the term Oligocene (although its place is shown in the 
table), as it appears to me to be an unnecessary encumbrance. The 
Konzon beds, with which, from the occurrence in both of Hyopotamus 
bovinus*, the Hempstead beds are associated, are placed at the 
bottom of the Miocene, while the French phosphorites are placed at 
the top of the Eocene, as transition beds between the Miocene and 
Eocene. The mixture of Miocene and Eocene forms in the latter 
deposits is shown by the circumstance that they contain species like 
Cepludogale brevirostris 5 , Hywnodon vidpinus 6 , Antliracotlierium 
magnum, and Hyotherium typus, common to the Lower Miocene, 
and others like Hyamodon heberti', Pterodon dasyuroides, Palcro- 
therium magnum, and P. crassum, common to the Upper Eocene. 
The Egerkingen beds of Switzerland are placed in the Upper Eocene, 
following in this respect the views of Dr. Max Schlosser 8 . They 

1 This is on the assumption that R. sansaniensis is specifically the same. 

2 Vide infra, p. 192. 

3 Les Enchainements, Mam. Tert. pp. 47, 51 (1878). 

4 Vide Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. i. p. 547 (18S4). 

6 Vide infra, p. 147. G Ibid. p. 28. "' Ibid. p. 21. 

8 Palreontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 96 (1884). 



X INTRODUCTION-. 

contain Antliracotlierium gresslyi (Meyer), common to the Headon 
series of Hordwell 1 . These observations indicate that the terms 
Pliocene, Miocene, and Eocene cannot be categorically defined, but 
must merely be regarded as marking stages in geological evolution. 

The subvolcanic alluvium of Puy-de-D6me, from the number of 
its extinct mammalian forms, is classed at the top of the Pliocene ; 
but it is quite probable that it may really be transitional between 
the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The ossiferous strata of the typical 
Siwalik hills of India, the contemporary strata of Burma and China, 
and part of the Siwaliks of the Punjab are referred to the Pliocene ; 
while the lower Siwaliks of Sind and the Bugti hills may not impro- 
bably be referred to the lower part of the same epoch, or may be 
regarded as transitional between the Pliocene and Miocene. The 
Narbadas of India are classed with the Pleistocene. 

Table of European Tertiary Strata 2 . 



1. Upper Pliocene. 



2. Lower Pliocene. 



Alluvium of Puy-de-D6ine. 
Yal d'Arno (in part). 
Norwich Crag. 
(?) Eed Crag (Suffolk, &c). 

fMontpellier and Casino (Tuscany). 
\ Coralline Crag (Suffolk). 

{Pikermi (Attica) and Mont Leberon (Yaucluse). 
Baltavar (Hungary). 
Concud (Spain). 



3. Upper Miocene. 



5. Lower Miocene. 



f Eppelsheim (Hesse Darmstadt). 
\ OEningen (Switzerland). 
b. Georgensnhind (Wiirtemberg). 



4. Middle Miocene, a. 



Vienna basin (in part). 
^Eibiswald (Styria). 

Kapfnach (Switzerland). 

Steinheim (Bavaria). 
\ Sansan and Simorre (Gers). 
I St. Gaudens (Haute-Garonne). 
| Grive St. Alban (Isere). 
\ Chaux-de-Eonds (Switzerland). 

{Montabnzard. 
Orleannais. 
Monte Bamboli (Tuscany). 



(Weissenau (near Mayence). 
Haslach (near Ulm). 
Hochheim (near Wiesbaden). 
, f St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier). 
' [ Puy de-Dome. 



1 See Lydekker, Gcol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. ii. February 1885. 

2 It has not been considered necessary, to introduce the Pleistocene. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XI 



Lower Miocene {con- 
tinued). 



6. Upper Eocene. 



7. Middle Eocene. 



8. Lower Eocene. 



( Fontainebleau (Seine-et-Marne). 

Ferte Alais (Seine-et-Loire). 

Yillebramar (Lot-et-Garcnne). 
\ Lausanne (Switzerland). 

Caclibona (Italy). 

Eonzon, near Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire). 

? Hempstead (Isle of Wight). 



Mouillac, &c. 



fQuercy phosphorites, Caylux, 

| (Central France). 

J (Erlinger-Thal (Switzerland). 

j Pappenheim, (?) Egerkingen (Switzerland) (in )■ © 

J part). 

^ Brie (Charente). 

1 Paris gypsum. 
Debruge (Vaucluse). 
Bembridge (Isle of Wight). 
Souvignargues (Gard). 
f Beauchamp, New Forest. 
| Headon (Isle of Wight). 
\ ? Mauremont (Switzerland) (in part). 
| ? Egerkingen (in part), and Ober-Gosken (in 
{ part). 



Calcaire Grossier. 
Argenton (Indre). 
Issel (Aude). 
Bracklesham (Susses). 

Loudon Clay. 
Cuyse-la-Motte. 
Soissonnais. 
La Eere (Aisne). 



In regard to the history of individual specimens, a large number 
of them have been obtained from dealers, and these are entered 
merely as Purchased, with the date of snch purchase. The same 
remark applies to many specimens bought at sales ; the original 
ownership of such specimens not being a matter of especial interest. 
Specimens which form part of Collections of more or less historic 
value, are entered with the name of the collection to which they 
respectively belonged. The following list gives some particulars 
relating to these Collections : — 



Bean Collection. — Purchased from Mr. William Bean of Scar- 
borough in 1859. 

Bracly Collection. — Purchased from Sir Antonio Brady, late of 
Stratford, Essex, in 1878. Consists of specimens from the Pleis- 
tocene deposits of Ilford, Essex ; and is described in a Catalogue by 
Mr. W. Davies, F.G.S., printed for private circulation in IS 74. 

Bravard Collection. — This collection comprises two portions, both 
of which were collected by M. Bravard, and were purchased from 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

him by the Trustees. The first part consists of specimens from 
the Tertiaries of Prance, and was acquired in 1852. The second 
portion is from the Pleistocene of South America ; it was collected 
in 1852 and 1853, and acquired in 1854. 

Van Breda Collection. — Purchased in 1871 from the executors 
of Professor Van Breda of Haarlem. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. — Presented through the Council of the 
Royal Society in 1876. 

Brome Collection. — Consists of specimens from the caves of Gib- 
raltar ; it was made by Captain P. Brome, sometime Governor of the 
Military prison at Gibraltar, and was presented through the Governor 
of Gibraltar in 1876. 

BucJdand Collection. — Purchased at the sale of the Collection of 
the Rev. Prof. Buckland, D.D. (Dean of Westminster). 

Cautley Collection. — This magnificent collection is entirely made 
up of specimens from the Siwaliks of India, and was presented by 
Colonel Sir Proby T. Cautley, K.C.B., in 1842. 

Claussen Collection. — Purchased from M. Claussen in 1845 and 

1848. It consists of specimens from the caverns and Pleistocene 
deposits of South America. 

Croizet Collection. — Purchased from the Abbe Croizet in 1848 and 

1849. This collection comprises specimens from the Tertiaries in 
the district of the Auvergne. 

Egerton Collection. — Purchased from the executors of the late Sir 
Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton, Bart. (Trustee Brit. Mus.), in 1882. 

Enniskillen Collection. — Purchased from the Bight Hon the Earl 
of Enniskillen, D.C.L., in 1882. 

Green Collection. — Purchased in 1843 from the Rev. C. Green, 
of Bacton, Norfolk. Mainly consists of specimens from the Porest- 
bed of Norfolk and the fens of the adjacent counties. 

Hastings Collection. — Purchased from the Marchioness of Hastings 
in 1855. A collection rich in specimens from the Tertiaries of 
Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. 

Leitli-Aclams Collection. — Purchased from the late Professor 
Andrew Leith-Adams, M.D., in 1873. Composed of specimens from 
the caverns and fissures of Malta. 

Owles Collection. — Purchased in 1874 from Mr. J. J. Owles of 
Great Yarmouth. This collection mainly consists of specimens" 
dredged off the " Dogger-Bank " and the Eastern coast of England. 

McEnery Collection. — Purchased in 1842 at Torquay, at the sale 
of the collection of the Rev. J. McEnery. Mainly a collection of 
specimens from Kent's-Holo Cavern, Torquay. 






INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

Mantell Collection. — This was purchased in two parts : the first 
from Dr. Gideon A. Mantell in 1836, and the second from his 
executors in 1853. 

Pomel Collection. — Purchased from M. J. Pomel in 1851. The 
greater part of this collection is made up of specimens from the 
French Miocene. 

Sommering Collection. — Purchased from Herr Sommering in 1827. 

Spratt Collection. — Presented by Admiral Spratt, C.B., in 1874 
and 1878. Exclusively from the caverns and fissures of Malta. 

Tesson Collection. — Purchased from M. Tesson in 1857. 

Toulmin- Smith Collection. — Purchased in 1869 from the widow 
of Mr. Toulmin-Smith. 

Wetlierell Collection. — Purchased from Mr. N". T. Wetherell, of 
Highgate, in 1871, through Mr. J. Tennant. 

The specimens presented by Mr. C. Falconer are from the collec- 
tion of Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

The abbreviations employed for serial publications are in the main 
those used in the ' Geological Record' for 1878 ; but an explanation 
of those used in this part has been appended. 

The metrical system is employed for all measurements. 

In conclusion, I have to express my best thanks to Mr. William 
Davies, of the Geological Department of the Museum, for the 
valuable information he has given me regarding the history of 
individual specimens, and of the different collections, as well as for 
some MS. notes. I also owe him thanks for having looked over 
the proof-sheets of this Catalogue. My thanks are likewise due to 
Mr. Oldfield Thomas, of the Zoological Department of the Museum, 
for much valuable assistance in identifying existing species of 
Mammals, and more especially in the case of the Rodents \ 

RICHARD LTDEKKER. 

The Lodge, Harpenden, 

Hertfordshire. 

Christmas, 1884. 

1 It may not be out of place to observe that, in my work on the Fossil 
Mammals of India, published in the ' Palceontologia Indica ' (Memoirs of the 
Geological Survey of India), ser. 10, vols, i., ii., and iii., the names employed 
for several species of European fossil mammals are different from those given 
in the present work. This is owing to the circumstance that I had not then 
the time, or in many cases the means, of entering into the question of the rio-ht 
of priority of the names employed, but merely took them on the authority of 
other writers. Some errors in the authority for various specific names also 
occur in that work. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



[Existing species are denoted by an asterisk.] 

Page 

Order PRIMATES 1 

Suborder ANTHBOPOIDEA 1 

Family SIMIID^E 1 

Dryopithecus fontani 1 

Hylobates antiquus 2 

Eamily CERCOPITHECKLE 2 

Semnopithecus palseindicus 2 

monspessulanus 3 

Macacus pliocenus 4 

Cynocephalus subhinialayanus .... 4 

sp 6 

Genus non det 6 

Mesopithecus pentelici 7 

Family CEBID^E 7 

*Cebus apella 7 

*Mycetes ursinus 8 

Suborder LEMUROIDEA 8 

Family LEMUEID^E 8 

Subfamily Adapisd^ 8 

Adapis magna 262 

parisiensis 9 

, var. crassus ...... 10 

Necrolemur antiquus ....... 10 

edwardsi 10 



XVI SrSTEMlTIC INDEX. 

Page 

Order CHIROPTERA 11 

Suborder MIGR0OHIR0PTEBA 11 

Family RHINOLOPHID.E . . 11 

*B,hinolophus ferrum-equinum .... 11 

antiquus 11 

Phyllorhina (?), sp 13 



Family VESPEKTILIONIILS: 13 

Vespertilio murinoides 14 

insignis 14 



Order INSECTIVOBA 14 

Suborder INSECTIVORA VERA 15 

Family TALPID^E . 15 

Subfamily Talpin^i 15 

*Talpa europaea 15 

telluris 15 

sp 15 

Subfamily Myogallplze 16 

*Myogale moschata 16 

Family SORICKLE 16 

Sorex, sp 16 

*Crossopus fodieus 17 

* remifer 17 

Family ERIN ACEKLE 17 

Erinaceus arvernensis 17 

Genus non clet '19 

Family TUP AIULE 19 

Plesiosorex soricinoides 19 



SYSTEMATIC EtfDEX. XV11 

Page 

Order CAEKIYOEA 20 

Suborder GAUNIVOBA PBIMIGENIA 20 

Family HY^EjTODOjSTTID^E 20 

Hyaenodon heberti 21 

brachyrhynchus 23 

minor 2d 

leptorhynchus 26 

dubius 27 

Yiilpinus 28 

(?),sp 31 

Pterodon dasyuroides 33 

Oxyama gallise 35 

Family non det 40 

Argillotherium toliapicum 41 

Suborder CAENIVOEA VERA 41 

Family FELLOE 41 

Machasrodus meganthereon 42 

cultridens 42 

latidens 43 

sivalensis 44 

paleeindicus 46 

neogeeus 47 

*Felis leo 50 

cristata ......... 58 

bracbygnatha 58 

prisca 59 

* pardus 59 

sp 60 

* onca 60 

* pardalis 61 

* pardina 61 

* caffra 62 

brevirostris 62 

issiodorensis 63 

ogygia 63 

* catus 64 

Pseudaelurus intermedius 64 

b 



XV111 SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Family FELIDiE (continued). 

Proselurus lemanensis 65 

iElurogale sivalensis 66 

iEluropsis annectans 66 

Family HY^NIDJE 68 

^Hyaena crocuta 69 

perrieri 79 

sinensis 80 

felina 80 

colvini 84 

■ eximia 87 

antiqua 87 

* striata 88 

sivalensis 88 

macrostoma 91 

Lepthysena sivalensis 93 

Family VIYEKRIM) 93 

Ictitherium hipparionum 93 

robustum 94 

Palseoprionodon nmtabilis 94 

sp 95 

— — sp 96 

Stenoplesictis cayluxi 96 

Viverra bakeri 99 

durandi ......... 99 

hastingsise 100 

angustidens 102 

Amphictis antiqua 102 

sp 103 

Genus non det. 103 

Herpestes minimus 104 

Genus non det. ........ 106 

Family UESLCLE 106 

Subfamily Canine 107 

Cynodictis lacustris 108 

crassidens X09 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XIX 

Family URSIDiE (continued). 

Page 

Cynodictis gryei 110 

longirostris Ill 

compressidens 112 

-, var. viverroides 113 

curvirostris 114 

brachyrostris 114 

intermedia 1 115 

boriei 315 

dubia 116 

, var . . 116 

leptorhyncha 117 

, var. viverroides 117 

sp 118 

(?), sp 118 

*Icticyon venations 120 

Lycaon anglicns 122 

*Canis lupns 123 

cantleyi 128 

sp 129 

sp 129 

neschersensis 130 

sp 130 

* vulpes 130 

sp 134 

sp 134 

curvipalatus 135 

palnstris 135 

(?), sp 136 

Amphicyon giganteus 136 

major 137 

palaeindicus 138 

lemanensis 13<) 

ambignus 141 

■ dominans 142 

( ? )> SP 142 

Simocyon diaphorus 145 

Cephalogale geoffroyi 147 

brevirostris I47 

6 2 



XV111 SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Family FELIDiE (continued). 

Proselurus lemanensis 65 

JElurogale sivalensis 66 

iEluropsis annectans 66 

Family HY^ENLD^E 68 

*Hyaena crocuta 69 

perrieri 79 

sinensis 80 

felina 80 

colvini 84 

eximia 87 

antiqua 87 

* striata 88 

sivalensis 88 

■ macrostoma 91 

Lepthysena sivalensis 93 

Family YIYEEEID^E 93 

Ictitherium hipparionum 93 

robustum 94 

Palseo-prionodon mutabilis 94 

sp 95 

sp 96 

Stenoplesictis cayluxi 96 

Viverra bakeri 99 

durandi ......... 99 

hastingsise 100 

angustidens 102 

Amphictis antiqua 102 

sp 103 

Genus non det, 103 

Herpestes minimus 104 

Genus non det. ........ 106 

Family URSKLE 106 

Subfamily Canine 107 

Cynodictis lacustris 108 

crassidens 109 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XIX 

Family UBSIDJE (continued). 

Page 

Cynodictis gryei 110 

longirostris Ill 

compressidens 112 

, var. viverroides 113 

■ curvirostris 114 

brachyrostris 114 

intermedia 1 115 

boriei ]15 

dubia 116 

, var 116 

leptorhyncha 117 

, var. viverroides 117 

sp 118 

(?), sp 118 

*Icticyon venaticus 120 

Lycaon anglicus 122 

*Canis lupus 123 

cautleyi 128 

sp 129 

sp 129 

neschersensis 130 

sp 130 

* vulpes 130 

sp 134 

sp 134 

curvipalatus 135 

palustris 135 

(?), sp 136 

Amphicyon giganteus 136 

major 137 

palaeindicus 138 

lemanensis 139 

ambiguus 141 

dominans 142 

( ? )> sp 142 

Simocyon diaphorus 145 

Cephalogale geoffroyi 147 

brevirostris I47 

12 



XX SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family TTBSID^E (continued). 

Subfamily Ursinje 150 

Dinocyon thenardi 150 

Hyamarctos sivalensis 150 

punjabiensis 153 

palseindicus • 154 

sp 155 

(?),sp 155 

sp 156 

Arctotherium bonariense 157 

Ursus spelseus 159 

* borribilis 166 

* arctos 173 

arvernensis 175 

namadicus 175 

* americanus 176 

Family MUSTELID^E 176 

*Mustela martes 176 

sp 177 

* putorius 179 

* vulgaris 179 

* erminea 180 

angustifrons 180 

sectoria 181 

mustelina 181 

waterhousei 182 

(?),sp . . 183 

sp 183 

Plesictis palustris ■ . . 184 

croizeti 184 

lemanensis 185 

(?),sp 186 

*Guloluscus 187 

Mellivora sivalensis 188 

*Meles taxus 189 

*Lutra vulgaris 191 

palaeindica 191 

dubia 191 

campani 192 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XXI 

Family MUSTELIDJE (continued). p age 

Lutra sivalensis 192 

valetoui 194 

minor 195 

Suborder CARNIVORA PINNIPEDIA 196 

Family OTAKIULE 196 

*Otaria forsteri 196 

sp 196 

Family TEICHECHIDJE 197 

*Tricbecnus rosmarus 197 

huxleyi 197 

Alachtherium cretsi 198 

Trichechodon konincki 200 

Family PHOCIILE 201 

Mesotaria ambigua 201 

Palaeophoca nysti 202 

Callopboca obscura 203 

Platyphoca vulgaris 203 

Gryphoca similis 204 

Pbocanella pumila 204 

minor 205 

Phoca vitulinoides 205 

Monatberium delogni 206 

affine 206 

aberrativm 207 

Propboca rousseaui 208 

proxima 208 

Order BODENTIA 209 

Suborder RODENTIA SIMPLICIDEXTATA ... 209 

Section Sciuhomorpha 209 

Family SCIURID^E 209 

*Sciurus vulgaris 209 

feignouxi 209 

cbalaniati 210 

sp. (cf. S. bredai) 211 

Pseudosciurus suevicus 211 



XX11 SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family SCIUBIDiE (continued). Page 

Sciuroides quercyi 212 

' ■ intermedius 212 

Spermophilus superciliosus 212 

erytkrogenoides 212 

Plesiarctomys gervaisi 213 

*Arctomys marmotta 214 

Family CASTOEID^E 214 

*Castor canadensis 263 

* fiber. 214 

Trogontherium cuvieri 216 

Chalicomys eseri 218 

jsegeri 220 

Castoroides ohioensis 221 

Genus non det 221 

Section Myomoepha 222 

Family MYOXKLE 222 

Myoxus melitensis 222 

sansaniensis 224 

murinus 224 

sp 225 

Family MUBID^S .225 

Nesokia, sp 226 

Cricetus musculus 226 

*Mus lineolatus - . . 227 

(?), sp 227 

*Mastacomys fuscus 227 

*Hapalotis albipes 227 

Cricetodon minor • . 228 

medius 228 

cadurcensis 228 

gergoviamis 229 

sansaniensis 229 

Hesperomys, sp. 1 229 

sp. 2 230 

sp. 3 230 

sp. 4 -230 

*Arvicola amphibius 230 



SYSTEMATIC IXDEX. XX111 

Family MUEID^E (continued). Page 

Arvicola ambiguus 231 

* ratticeps 232 

* agrestis 232 

* glareolus 233 

sp 233 

Family SPALACHLE 233 

Ehizomys sivalensis 233 

Section Histeicomoepha 234 

Family THEEIDOMYID^E 234 

Theridomys lembronicns 235 

aqnatilis 237 

Protechinomys major 240 

gracilis 241 

breviceps '. 241 

Archseomys laurillardi 242 

Trechomys platyceps 243 

intermedins 244 

Family OCTODONTIDJE 244 

Loncheres, sp 244 

*Carterodon snlcidens 245 

Ctenomys, sp. 1 245 

sp. 2 246 

Family HYSTEICKLE 246 

Synefcheres fossilis 246 

Hystrix refossa 247 

sp 247 

sivalensis 248 

Family CHIIS T CHILLID^ 249 

*Lagostomns trichodactylus 249 

Family DASYPEOCTIME 250 

Dasyprocta, sp 250 

*Ccelogenys paca 250 



XXIV SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Page 

Family CAVIIDJE 251 

*Cavia porcellus 251 

Microcavia, sp 251 

Issiodoromys pseudansema 252 

Nesocerodon quercyi 253 

minor . 253 

Dolichotis, sp. 1 254 

sp. 2 254 

*Hydrocho3rus capybara 254 



Suborder RODENTIA DUPLICIDENTATA .... 255 

Family LAGOMTID^E 255 

*Lagomys pusillus 255 

sardus 256 

oeningensis 256 

— meyeri 257 

visenoviensis 258 

Family LEPORID^ 259 

*Lepus timidus 259 

lacosti 260 

* braziliensis 260 

* cuniculus ......... 261 

sp. . , .262 



XXV 



LIST OF WOODCUTS. 



Page 

Pig. 1. Hysenodon indicus. Lower premolar 31 

2. (?), sp. Lower molar 32 

3. Oxysena gallise. Palate 36 

4. Machserodus sivalensis. Upper teeth 45 

5. . Mandible 46 

6. neogeeus. Skull 48 

7. Hyaena felina. Cranium 81 

8. colvini. Mandible 86 

9. Stenoplesictis cayluxi. Cranium 97 

10. Yiverra zibetha. Palate 98 

11. hastingsise. SJcidl 101 

12. . Upper dentition 101 

13. Herpestes minimus. Mandible 104 

14. Cynodictis gryei. Upper molars 110 

15. longirostris (?). Palate Ill 

16. compressidens. Mandible 113 

17. dubia. Mandible 117 

18. Canis cautleyi. Palate and mandible 128 

19. vulpes. Palate 131 

20. Cepbalogale brevirostris. Mandible 148 

21. Hysenarctos punjabiensis. Upper molar .... 153 

22. sp. Upper molar 155 

23. sp. Lower molar 157 

24. Arctotherium bonariense. Palate 158 

25. Mustela, sp. Mandible 177 

26. sectoria. Mandible ] 81 

27. Mellivora sivalensis. Palate and mandible . . . 189 

28. Lutra campani. Upper carnassial 192 

29. sivalensis. Upper carnassial 193 

30. Castoroid, gen. non det. Lower molar .... 221 

31. Bhizomys sivalensis. Mandible 234 

32. Hystrix sivalensis. Mandible 248 

33. (?). Cranium 249 



ABBREVIATIONS USED IN REFERENCES TO 
SERIALS QUOTED IN PART I. 

[Where not otherwise stated, the works are in 8vo.] 



Abh. k. Ah. Wiss. Berlin. — Abhandlungen der koniglichen Akademie der 

Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 4to. Berlin. 
Abh. math.-phys. CI. ~k.-bay. Ah. Wiss. — Abhandlungen der mathematisch- 

physikaliscken Classe der kbniglich-bayerischen Akademie der 

Wissenschaften zu Miinchen. Munich. 

Abh. schiveiz. pal. Ges. — Abhandlungen der schweizerischen palaeonto- 
graphischen Gesellschaft. 4to. Basle. 

Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux. — Actes de la Societe Linneenne de Bordeaux. 
Bordeaux, 

Amer. Journ.— The American Journal of Science and Arts. Neivhaven 
(U.S.A.). 

Amer. Nat. — American Naturalist. — Salem, Mass. (U.S.A.). 

Ann. d. Museum. — Annales du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle a Paris. 
Paris. 

Ann. Fr. et Mr. d'Anat. et de Physiol. — Annales Francaises et Etrangeres 
d'Anatomie et de Physiologie, &c, &c. (Laurent). Paris. 

Ann. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. — Annales du Musee Royal d'Histoire Natu- 
relle de Belgique. Bi-ussels. 

Ann. Sci. Geol. Annales des Sciences Greologiques. Paris. m 

The memoirs of Dr. Filhol quoted in this serial are also published 
in the ' Bibliotheque de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes/ Paris. 
Ann. Sci. Nat. — Annales des Sciences Naturelles. Paris. 
Ann. Soc. Agric. Sci. le Puy. — Annales de la Societe d' Agriculture, 
Sciences, Arts et Commerce du Puy. Le Puy. 

Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toidouse. — Annales de la Societe des Sciences 
Physiques et Naturelles de Toulouse. Toidouse. 

Arch. d. Museum. — Nouvelles Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle 
a Paris. 4to. Paris. 

Arch. Mus. Lyon. — Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Lyon. 
4to. Lyon. 

Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. — Bibliotheque Universelle et Eevue Suisse. — 
Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles. Geneva. 

Archiv filr Natur. — Archiv fur die gesammte Naturlehre (Kastner). 
Nuremberg. 



XXV111 ABBREVIATIONS. 

Asiatic 'Researches. Calcutta. 

Aiti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. — Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali. 
Milan. 

Bull. Ac. R. Belg. — Bulletin de l'Academie Royale des Sciences, &c. de 
Belgique. Brussels. 

Bull. Soc. Geol. France. — Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de la France. 
Paris. 

Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris. — Bulletin de la Societe Philomatique de Paris. 
Paris. 

Bull. Soc. Sav. — Bulletin des Societe Savantes, &c. Paris. 

Comptes Rendus. — Comptes Bendus hebdomadaires des Seances de 
l'Academie des Sciences de l'lnstitut de France, 4to. Paris. 

Denhschr. h. Ah. Wiss. — Denkschriften der kaiserlichen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Olasse. 
4to. Vienna. 

Denkschr. sclvw. nat. Ges. — Denkschriften der schweizerischen natur- 
forsclienden Gesellschaft. 4to. Various Swiss Towns. 

Gelehrte Anzeigen. — Gelehrte Anzeigen der koniglich-bayerischen Aka- 
demie der Wissenschaften. Munich. 

Geol. Mag.— Geological Magazine. London. 
Isis. — Isis von Oken. 4to. Leipsic. 

Journ. As. Soc. Beng. — Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Calcutta. 
Journ. R. Dublin Soc. — Journal of the Koyal Dublin Society. Dublin. 
Journ. Zool. — Journal de Zoologie. Paris. 

K. Danshe Vid. Selsh. Skr.—Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes 
Selskabs Skrifter, naturvidenskabelig og mathematisk Afdee- 
ling. 4to. Copenhagen. 

Magazin Encyclopedique. — Magazin Encyclopddique, &c. (Milin). Paris. 

Mem. Ac. Imp. St. Petersbourg. — Memoires de l'Academie Impe'riale des 
Sciences de St. Petersbourg. St. Petersburg. 

Mem. Ac. R. Belg. — Memoires de l'Academie Boyale des Sciences, &c. 
de Belgique. 4to. Brussels. 

Mem. d. Museum. — Mdmoires du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle a Paris. 
4to. Paris. 



ABBKEVIATIONS. XXIX 

Mem. de VInstitut. — Memoires de l'lnstitut de France : Academie des 
Sciences. Paris. 

Mem. Geol. Surv. Eng. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great 
Britain. 8vo and 4to. London. 

Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. Cal- 
cutta. (Palseontologia Indica. 4to.) 

Monatsb. Jc.preuss. Ah. Wiss. — Monatsberichte der koniglich-preussischen 
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Berlin. 

Nature. — Nature, a weekly illustrated Journal of Science. 4to. London. 
Neues Jdlirb. — Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Geologie und Palaonto- 
logie. Stuttgart. 

Nova Acta Ac. Cees. Leop.-Car. — Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academiae 
CeesareaB Leopoldino-Carolinge Germanicaa Naturce-Curio- 
sorum. Dresden. 

Nov. Comm. Petrop. — Novi Commentarii Academise Scientiarium Irnpe- 
rialis Petropolitana. 4to. St. Petersburg. 

Palceontographica. — Palseontographica. Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der 
Vorwelt. 4to. Cassel. 

Palceontologia Lndica. — See Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind. 

Pal. Soc. — Palaeontographical Society (Monographs of). 4to. London. 

Phil. Trans. — Philosophical Transactions of the Eoyal Society of London. 
4to. London. 

Proc. Geol. Soc. W. Riding Yorksh. — Proceedings of the Geological and 
Polytechnic Society of the West Riding of Yorkshire. Leeds. 

Proc. R. Dublin Soc. — Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society. 

Dublin. 
Proc. R. Irish Ac. — Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Dublin. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. — Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological 
Society of London. London. 

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. — The Quarterly Journal of the Geological So- 
ciety of London. London. 

Rec. Geol. Surv. Ind. — Records of the Geological Survey of India. 
Calcutta. 

Rep. Brit. Assoc. — Report of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science. London. 

Report U.S. Geogr. Surv. W. of 100th Meridian. — Report upon United- 
States Geographical Surveys West of the One-Hundredth 
Meridian. 4to. Washington. 

Revue JEncyclopediaue. — Revue Encyclopedique &c, &c. (Julien). Paris, 



XXX ABBKEVTATIONS. 

Trans. Geol. Soc. — Transactions of the Geological Society of London. 
4to. London. 

Trans. Linn. Soc. — Transactions of the Linnean Society. 4to. London. 
Trans. Zool. Soc. — Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. 
4to. London. 

Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Ges. — Zeitschrift der deutschen geologischen 
Gesellschaft. Berlin. 



Note. — The abbreviations of separate works are readily recognizable, 
and do not require explanation. Memoirs that appeared in serials are 
always quoted from such serials, with one or two exceptions, like Pomel's 
1 Catalogue Methodique ' 1 (Paris, 1853) and H. von Meyer's ' Die fossile 
Zahne und Knochen von Georgensmund ' (Stuttgart, 1834), which ori- 
ginally appeared in serials but are better known as separate volumes. 

1 The first part of this Catalogue appeared in its original form in 1852, in 
the ' Ann. Sci. Aireergne ' ( Clermont-Ferrand). 



CORBIGENDA. 

Page 67. In the description of Nos. 40827 a, and 40827 b, transpose 

the words right and left. 
Pa<?e 74. For No. 15436 read 15434. 



CATALOGUE 



OP 



FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 



Class MAMMALIA. 

Subclass EUTHEKIA. 

Order PEIMATES. 
Suborder ANTHROPOIDEA. 
Family SIMIID^E. 
:— I" - C - Pm - M 5 

Genus DRYOPITHECUS, Larfcet 1 . 

Dryopithecus fontani, Lartet 2 . 

Hah. Europe. 

40340. Cast of two portions of the mandible. The original was 
obtained from the Middle Miocene of St. Gaudens (Haute- 
Garonne), France, and is preserved in the Paris Museum. 
It is figured by Lartet in the memoir cited, and also by 
Gervais in the second edition of the ' Zoologie et Paleon- 
tologie Erancaises/ p. 8. The specimen probably belonged 
to a female, and is "of the same 3ize as the existing 
Chimpanzee, though in dental characters more resembling 
the Gorilla." Purchased, 1867. 

1 Comptes Kendus, vol. xliii. p. 219 (1856). 2 Loc. cit. 



^ PRIMATES. 

26491. Cast of the right femur. The original (which is said to be 
lost) was obtained from the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, 
Hesse-Darmstadt, and is figured by Kaup in the ' Beitrage,' 
pt. 5, pi. i. figs. 3, 3 a (1861). Purchased, 1851. 

Genus HYLOBATES, Illiger 1 . 
Syn. Pliopithecus, P. Gervais 2 . 

Hylobates antiquus (Blainville 3 ). 
Syn. Pithecus antiquus, Blainville 4 . 

Pliopithecus antiquus, P. Geryais 5 . 
Pliopithecus platyodon, Biedermann. 

Hah. S. Europe. 

29614. Cast of the greater portion of the mandible. The original 
is from the Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers), France, and 
is preserved in the Paris Museum. It is figured by Gervais 
in the second edition of the Zool. et Pal. Frangaises, p. 9. 
Butimeyer refers the species to Hylobates. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Family CERCOPITHECID^E. 

Dentition. — The dental formula is the same as in the Simiidce. 
The cusps on the molars are, however, more strongly developed, and 
form ridges running directly across the crown. 

Genus SEMNOPITHECUS, F. Cuvier 6 . 

Semnopithecus paiseindicus, Lydekker 7 . 

Hab. India. 

15710. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
{Fig.) the last premolar and the three true molars, in an early 
condition of wear ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, 
India. This specimen is described by Falconer and Cautley 
in the ' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,' vol. vi. 
p. 354, and is figured in ' Falconer's Palseontological 
Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxiv. figs. 5, 6. The teeth correspond 

1 Prodromus Syst. Mamrn. et Avium, p. 67 (1811). 

2 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 1st ed. p. 5 (1848-52). 

3 Osteographie, Genus Pithecus, p. 57 (1841). 

4 Log. cit. 6 Loc. cit. 

6 Hist. Nat. d. Mammiferes (1821) (Semno-pitheque). 

7 Palseontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 123 (1884). 



CEKCOPITHECID^. & 

precisely in size and form 1 with those of Semnopithecus 
entellus, but the depth of the ramus is considerably less. 
The resemblance is so close that there is every probability 
that the fossil belongs to the same genus ; and as it can- 
not be identified with any living form, it has received the 
name of 8. jpalceindicus. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15711. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
{Fig.) last true molar, in an unworn condition ; from the Plio- 
cene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is described by 
Falconer and Cautley in the memoir cited above, and is 
represented in figs. 7, 8 of the above-mentioned plate of 
' Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs.' It is regarded by 
its describers as belonging to the same species as the last 
specimen, with which it agrees in size. There is a slight 
difference in the form of the talon of the last molar, but 
it is quite probable that this may be merely an individual 
variety. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 1539. Cast of the right astragalus. The original was obtained 
from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, and is preserved 
in the Museum of the Geological Society. It is described 
and figured by Falconer and Cautley in the Trans. Geol. 
Soc. ser. 2, vol. v. p. 499 ; and differs very slightly from 
the corresponding bone of Semnojpithecus entellus, whence 
it is highly probable that it may belong to the same species 
as the two mandibles noticed above. Made by permission 
of the Council of the Geological Society. 

Semnopithecus monspessulanus, P. Gervais 2 . 
Hah. France. 
M. 1893. Five casts of detached teeth. The originals are from the 
Lower Pliocene of Montpellier (Herault), France ; and are 
described and figured by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. 
Francaises, 2nd ed. p. 19, pi. i. figs. 7-11. 

Presented by Sir K. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 

1 Falconer and Cautley stated that there is a difference in the form of the 
last molar ; but many specimens of S. entellus exhibit the same character. In 
consequence of this supposed difference they were disposed to refer the spe- 
cimen to Macacus {Plthecus). It may be observed that a species of that genus 
allied to M. rhesus has been described from the Siwaliks by the present writer 
(Rec. G-eol. Surv. Ind. vol. xi. p. 66, xii. p. 41) under the name of M. sivaknsis. 

- Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 6 (1848-52). 

b2 



4 PKHCATES. 

Genus MACACUS, Cuv. and Greoffroy 1 . 
Syn. InuuS) Geofiroy 2 . 

Macacus pliocenus, Owen 8 . 
Hab. England. 

M. 1892. Fragment of the right maxilla, with the penultimate true 
Fig.) molar, in a partially worn condition ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays, Essex. This specimen is the type of the species, 
and is figured by Owen in the passage cited. It appears 
extremely doubtful whether the specimen is sufficient for 
the determination even of the genus to which it belonged ; 
and it is highly probable that it may be specifically iden- 
tical with one of the existing African species of Macacus 
or Cercocebus*. Presented by Sir U. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 



Genus CYNOCEPHALUS, Lacepede 5 . 
Syn. Papio, Erxleben 6 . 

Cynocephalus subhimalayanus, H. v. Meyer 7 . 
Syn. Semnopithecus suhhimalayanus, H. v. Meyer 8 . 

Hah. India. 

31157. The greater portion of the right maxilla and premaxilla, 
{Fig.) showing the root of the zygomatic arch and the inferior 
border of the orbit, and containing the whole of the five 
teeth of the cheek-series and the broken base of the 
canine; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. 
This specimen is described and figured by Baker and 
Durand in the ' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal/ 



1 Magasin Encyclopedique, 1795 (teste Geoffroy), Macaque. 

2 Ann. d. Museum, vol. xix. p. 97 (1812). 

3 British Fossil Mammals and Birds, p. xlvi (1846). 

4 Assuming the correctness of the ordinal determination of this specimen (of 
which there seems no reasonable doubt), it disproves the statement made by 
Prof. Boyd Dawkins in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 394 (1880), 
that "the family of Apes passed away from among the European fauna" with 
the extinction of Macacus fiorentinus of the Upper Pliocene. 

5 "Nouvelle Table Methodique " (1799), in Mem. d. l'lnstitut, vol. iii. p. 490 
(1801). 

6 Syst. Reg. Animal, p. 15 (1777). 

7 In Bronn's 'Index Palaeontologicus,' p. 1133 (1848), Semnopithecus. 

8 Loc. cit. 



CEKCOPITHECmS. 5 

vol. v. p. 739 (1836), but the genus was not determined. 
It is figured in ' Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. i. 
pi. xxiv. figs. 1,2; and has been referred by H. von Meyer, 
in the passage cited, to Semnopiihecus, with the specific 
name subhimalayarms. This generic reference has been 
till lately provisionally adopted by the present writer 1 . 

The small size of the canine shows that the specimen 
belongs to a female individual, while the horizontal flat- 
tening of the infraorbital portion of the maxilla, the nearly 
horizontal and elongated inferior border of the orbit, the 
forward position of the cheek-teeth relatively to the orbit, 
and the general "prognathism," conclusively show that 
it belongs to a species of Cynoceplialus -. This identifica- 
tion is confirmed by the character of the molars, which 
are of relatively large size, and have their inner cusps, or 
columns, expanded antero-posteriorly, so as to partially 
block the median transverse valleys 3 : in both these respects 
these teeth differ from the molars of Semnopiihecus, Cer- 
copithecus, Macacus, &c. The writer has been unable to 
compare the specimen with female skulls of all the species 
of the genus. The general contour is not unlike that of 
Cynoceplialus bahouin ; but the lateral surface of the 
maxilla is convex instead of concave ; and the teeth are 
of considerably larger size. In respect of the form of the 
maxilla, the female of G. anubis comes nearer to the fossil. 
The space occupied by the five cheek-teeth is the same as 
in a full-sized male of G. porcarius, but the true molars 
of the fossil are considerably wider. The males of the 
fossil species were probably considerably larger than any 
of the existing species. In the absence of a complete 
series of female skulls of the various existing species, the 
affinities of the fossil cannot be further indicated 4 . 

Presented by Generals Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 
and Sir H. J/. Durand, K.C.B., 1848. 

1 The specimen is referred to Cynocephalus iu the ' Palaeontologia Indica/ 
ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 123 (1884). 

2 The latter features are shown in the figures ; the perforation in the lateral 
wall of the maxilla is accidental. 

3 Well shown in the figures. 

4 It may be observed that the maxilla of a large Siwalik ape has been de- 
scribed and figured by the writer (Rec. Geol. Surw lad. vol. xii. p. 33) under 
the name of Palcsopithccus sivalcnsis ; the molars of this species are, however, 
like those of the living Anthropoid apes. 



D PRIMATES. 

Cynocephalus, sp. 

Hab. India. 
15709. The greater portion of the mandible of a species of the 
{Fig.) present genus, showing the three true molars of the right 
side (in a much- worn condition), the broken bases of some 
of the premolars and two incisors. This specimen is 
described by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal/ vol. vi. p. 354 (1837), and is 
figured in 'Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. 
pi. xxiv. figs. 3, 4. It was originally compared with the 
mandible of JSemnopithecus entellus, and shown to be of 
much larger size, with a relatively narrower symphysis, and 
was considered too small to belong to the same species as 
the large maxilla described above. 

In general form the specimen corresponds so closely 
with the mandible of Cynoceplialus that it may be safely 
referred to that genus. The canine is unfortunately 
wanting, but the protuberance of the jaw at the point 
where this tooth should be, the form of pm. 3, and the 
generally elongated form of the jaw, seem to indicate that 
the specimen probably belonged to a male. The length of 
the three true molars is the same as in a female jaw 
of C. babouin; and the form of the teeth is precisely 
the same in the two, the last molar having a very short 
talon. The teeth are considerably smaller than those of 
a male C. porcarius, in which the talon of mT3 is much 
longer. The size of the present specimen indicates that 
it probably belongs to a second Siwalik species of Cyno- 
cephcdus, smaller than C. subJiimalayanus. The occurrence 
of this African genus in the Siwaliks of India is a well- 
marked instance of the former unity of the faunas of these 
two countries. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Genus non det. 
Hab. India. 
17135. The premaxillae of a species of Monkey, containing the in- 
cisors, in a much- worn condition ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills, India. In size this specimen agrees nearly 
with Semnopithecus entellus ; but the inferior border of the 
nasal aperture is much wider than in that genus or Macacus, 
being more like that of some of the higher Primates. . The 
specimen is apparently too small for Palceopithecus or 
Cynocephalus. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 






CEBITS. 7 

Genus MESOPITHECUS, Wagner 1 . 
Mesopithecus pentelici, Wagner 2 . 

Syn. Mesopithecus major. Roth and Wagner 3 . 

Semnopithecus pentelici, Grandly and Lartet 4 . 

Rah. S. Europe. 

49671. Cast of the cranium, much crushed and wanting the pre- 

maxillae. The original is from the Lower Pliocene of 
Pikermi, Attica, and is preserved in the Museum at 
Munich. It is figured by Wagner in the Abh. math.-phys. 
CI. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. viii. pi. iii. fig. 2. 

Purchased, 1879. 

49672. Cast of the cranium of a small individual. The original is 

from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi, and is preserved in 
the Museum at Munich. It is figured by Wagner (op. cit. 
fig. 1). Purchased, 1879. 

49672 a. Cast of the mandible of an adolescent individual. The 
original is from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi, and is 
preserved in the Museum at Munich. Purchased, 1879. 

49719. Fragment of the premaxillae and the right maxilla, showing 
the anterior teeth, and another of the left ramus of the 
mandible, showing the last two molars, in a well-worn 
condition ; from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi. 

Purchased, 1879. 



Family CEBID^E. 
Dentition :— 1. 1 C. \, Pm. | M. |. 

Genus CEBUS, Erxleben 5 . 
CcfcuS apclla (Linn. 6 ). 
Syn. Simia apella, Linn. 

Cebus macrocephalus, Spix {teste Gray). 
? Cebus macrognathus, Lund. 

Hab. Brazil. 

1 Gelehrte Anzeigen, vol. viii. no. 38, p. 310 (1839). 

2 Loo. cit. The name was originally given pentelicus, but was amended by 
Gaudry. 

3 Abb. math.-phys. CI. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vii. pi. i. (1854). 

4 Comptes Eendus, vol. xliii. (1856). 

5 Syst. Reg. An. p. 44 (1777). G Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 42 (1776). 



8 PRIMATES. 

18870. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 
showing the first and second true molars and the alveoli 
of the other cheek-teeth ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes, 
Brazil. This specimen agrees exactly with the mandible 
of the form known as G. macrocephalus, which is included 
by Gray in C. apella. This species is not mentioned by 
H. Gervais and Ameghino in ' Les Mammiferes Fossiles de 
l'Amerique de Sud' (Paris, 1880) ; but it is not improbable 
that the so-called C. macrognaihus, Lund (G. & A. op. cit. 
p. 7), is really the same. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845-8. 

Genus MYCETES, Illiger 1 . 
Dentition. — The crowns of the molars have a structure not un- 
like those of certain Selenodont Artiodactyla like Anthracotherium ; 
a similar structure prevailing in many Lemuroids. 

JHpateS urSimtS (Geoffroy 2 ). .' 
Syn. Stentor ur sinus, Geoff. 3 
Hah. Brazil. 

18866. The cranium (wanting the zygomatic arches and some of 
the anterior teeth) and the greater part of the mandible ; 
from a cavern in Minas Geraes, Brazil. No species of 
this genus is mentioned from the Brazilian caverns by 
Gervais and Ameghino {op. cit.). 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845-8. 



Suborder LEMUROWEA. 

Family LEMURIDtE. 

Subfamily Adapisin^i. 

Genus AD APIS, Cuvier 4 . 
Syn. Aphelotherium Gervais 6 . 

(?) Ccenopithecus, Riitimeyer 6 . 
Palceolemur, Delfortrie 7 . 

1 Prodromus Syst. Mam. et Av. p. 70 (1811). 

2 Ann. d. Museum, vol. xix. p. 108 (1812). 3 Loc. cit. 

4 Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. iii. p. 265 (1822). 

5 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. ii., Explanation no. 34 (1848-52). 
G Denkschr. schw. nat. Ges. vol. xix. art. 3, p. 88 (1862). 

7 Comptes Eendus, vol. lxxvii. p. 64 (1873). 



LEMTTRID^:. 



Dentition:— 1. f, C. \, Pm. f, M. 



This and the next genns are referred by Filhol, in the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. v. art. 4, pp. 1-36 (1874), to a separate group, under the 
name of " Pachylemuriens." Adapis is referred, however, by Flower 
to the family Lemuriclce and the subfamily Lorisince. It is, however, 
distinguished from the latter by the presence of an additional pre- 
molar. The two fossil genera are here provisionally referred to a 
distinct subfamily. 

Adapis parisiensis, Cuvier 1 . 

Syn. Aphelotherium duvernoyi, Gervais 2 . 
Palceolemur betillei, Delfortrie 3 . 
Adapis duvernoyi, Gaudry i . 

Hah. S. Europe. 

M. 1345. The nearly complete cranium, wanting the premaxillse 
and nasals, and pm. 1 of either side ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), Erance. 

Purchased, 1884. 

44892. Cast of the cranium. The original is from the "Upper 
Eocene of Beduer (Lot), Erance ; and is described and 
figured by Delfortrie in the Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 
vol. xxix. pt. 1, pi. v. (1873). 

Presented by M. Delfortrie, 1874. 

M. 1633. Cranium, with the hinder portion of the right ramus of 
the mandible attached ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach, 
near Lalbenque (Lot), Erance. This specimen, although 
somewhat obscured by matrix, is valuable, as it shows the 
enormously developed coronoid process of the mandible, 
as in the perfect specimen figured by Eilhol in the Ann. 
Sci. Geol. vol. xiv. pi. x. fig. 4. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1634. The mandible, imperfect posteriorly, and wanting the 
incisors, canines, and first premolars; from the Upper 
Eocene of Bach. This specimen is precisely similar to one 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. pi. v. 
fig. 229. Purcliased, 1884. 

1 Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. iii. p. 265 (1822). 

2 Loc. cit. (1848-52). 3 Loc. cit. (1873). 

4 Les Enchainements, Mam. Tert. p. 224 (1878). Gaudry identifies A* pari- 
siensis with A. magna, Filhol ; but Filhol (Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xiv. art. 5) does 
not accept this. Cope was inclined to identify Kotharctus, Leidy, with Adapis ; 
but this is not accepted by Filhol. 



10 

M. 1721. Five imperfect rami of the mandible; from the Upper 
Eocene of Bach. Purchased, 1884. 

Yar. crassus, Filhol \ 

M. 1721 a. Portion of the right ramus of the mandible ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Bach. This specimen agrees very closely 
with the specimen figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Ge'ol. 
vol. xiv. pi. xi. figs. 11, 12. Purchased, 1884. 

Genus NECROLEMUR, Eilhol 2 . 
Dentition :— I. \, C. \, Pm. \, M. |. 

Necrolemur antiquus, Eilhol 3 . 
Hob. France. 

M. 1647. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
three true molars, the third and fourth premolars, and the 
alveolus of pm. 2 ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach, near 
Lalbenque (Lot), France. This specimen appears to agree 
precisely with the mandible of the specimen figured by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. pi. iv. fig. 213. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1648. Fragments of the mandible ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Bach. Purchased, 1884. 

Necrolemur edwardsi, Filhol 4 . 
Hah. France. 

M. 1649. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
first and second true molars ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Bach. This specimen agrees exactly with the mandible 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xiv. pi. xi. 
fig. 4. Purchased, 1884. 

1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xiv. art. 5, p. 34 (1883). 

2 Comptes Rendus, vol. lxxvii. p. 1112 (1873). Cope considered this genus 
the same as Anaptomorphus ; but this is denied by Filhol (Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xiv. 
art. 5, p. 3). 

8 Loc. cit. 

4 Comptes Eendus, vol. xc. p. 1580 (1880). 



CHIEOPTEEA. 1 1 



Order CHIROPTEEA. 
Suborder MICROCHIROPTERA. 

Family RHINOLOPHID^]. 
Genus RHINOLOPHUS, Geoffroy 1 . 

Dentition :— I. \ C. \ Pm. |, M. |. 

2ft!)tnotopl)u£ feiTum-equtnum (Schreb. 2 ). 
Syn. Vespertilio ferrum-equinum, Sclireb. 3 
Hab. Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

15082-92. Fragments of tbe cranium and mandible ; from Kent's- 
Hole Cavern, Torquay. Tbese specimens are mentioned 
by Owen in the ' History of British Fossil Mammals and 
Birds,' p. 16. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

Rhinolophus antiquus, Filhol 4 . 
Hah. France. 

M. 1346. Palatal portion of the cranium, showing the cheek-dentition 
of both sides ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn- 
et-Garonne), France. A figure of the upper dentition is 
given by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xi. 
fig. 2 ; but in that specimen the minute pm. 3 is not 
shown. This tooth is present in the British-Museum spe- 
cimen, and is wedged in between the canine and pm- 4 ? 
which are almost in contact. In this respect, therefore, 
the species agrees with the JR. ferrum-equinum section 
of the genus 3 ; but it will be shown to differ in the denti- 
tion of the lower jaw. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1640. Cranium, with the mandible attached ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. This specimen is much obscured by 
matrix ; and the minute pm. 3 is not visible. 

Purchased, 1884. 

1 Desm. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. vol. xix. p. 383 (1803). 

2 Saugeth. vol. i. p. 174 (1775), Vespertilio. 

3 Loc. cit. 

4 Comptes Eendus, vol. lxv. p. 94 (1872). 

5 Vide Dobson, 'Catalogue of Chiroptera in the British Museum,' pp. 101, 
104 (1878). 



12 CHTROPTERA. 

M. 1637. Three specimens of the right maxilla ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. The two complete specimens show the 
minute pm, 3 . Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1638. Two specimens of the maxilla ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. These specimens are rather smaller than any of 
the others ; but as the dentition is precisely similar, it is 
not improbable that the difference in size is merely an 
individual or sexual character. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1639. The hinder portion of the cranium ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. This specimen agrees precisely with 
the smaller crania figured by Eilhol in the Ann. Sci. Greol. 
vol. vii. pi. x. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1635. Two specimens of the right ramus of the mandible ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. One specimen shows the three 
true molars, the alveoli of three premolars, the alveolus of 
the canine, and the two incisive alveoli. The other speci- 
men shows the three true molars and the three premolars. 
The penultimate premolar is in contact with the two teeth 
on either side, and is placed in the tooth-row. In this 
respect the species differs from the R. ferrum-equinum 
section, and agrees with the R. coelophyllus section 1 ; which 
is precisely contrary to the condition prevailing in the 
upper dentition. This is one more of the many instances 
where the fossil forms do not agree with the subdivisions 
in which the recent forms are arranged. These specimens 
agree precisely with an enlarged figure of the mandible, in 
which the anterior teeth are wanting, given by Filhol 
in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xi. fig. 4. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1636. Eleven specimens of the mandible, more or less complete ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

Genus PHYLLORHINA, Leach 2 . 

Dentition :— I. \, C. \, Pm. fi=fi, M. \. 

The genus is confined at the present day to the tropical regions of 
the Old World and Australia. 

1 Vide Dobson, op. cit. 

2 Sysfc. Cat. Iudig. Mainrn. and Birds Brit. Mus. p. 5 (1816). 






VESPEETILIONID^. 13 

Phyllorhina (?), sp. 



Bab. France. 



M. 1641. Cranium, with the mandible attached, and two specimens of 
the left ramus of the mandible ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. The dentition is that 
of Phyllorhina (there being only two premolars in the 
mandible) ; and the specimens are practically indistin- 
guishable from the skull of the existing Australian Phyl- 
lorhina cervina ; and it is therefore most probable that 
they belong to the same genus. The occurrence of that 
genus in the Lower Tertiaries of Europe is quite what 
might have been expected. It may be added that Palceo- 
nycteris robustus, from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand- 
le-Puy \ and Vesjpertilio murinoides 9 ', from Sansan, are 
distinguished by the presence of three lower premolars. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1642. Numerous rami of the mandible ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 



Family VESPERTILIONID^]. 
Genus VESPERTILIO, Linn. 3 

Dentition :— I. |, C. -J, Pm. |, M. |. 

It is probable that for palseontological purposes this generic term 
must be employed in a wider sense than in recent zoology, although 
it may be restricted to forms having the above-mentioned dental 
formula 4 . 

1 Vide Filhol, Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, p. 4, pi. i. (1879). 

2 Vide infra. 

3 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 46 (1766). 

* In the so-called Vespertilio bourguignati, Filhol (Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. 
art. 7, p. 45, pi. xi. figs. 5,8 [1876]), the second and third upper premolars are 
well developed, and the third is larger than the second ; in the mandible the 
third premolar is minute. This species does not therefore agree with Vesper- 
tilio, as defined by Dobson {pp. cit. p. 284), in which the second and third upper 
premolars (first and second of Dobson) are very small, and the third always 
smaller than the second ; the lower dentition is not dissimilar. In respect of 
the upper premolars the fossil agrees with the South- American genera Natalus 
and Thyroptera (Dobson, op. cit. pp. 341, 345) ; but in those genera j^T-j is a 
large tooth. 



14 INSECTIVOEA. 

Vespertilio murinoides, Lartet 1 . 
Hob. France. 

33265. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last premolar and the first and second true molars, as well 
as the alveoli of p m . 'Z and p m . 3 and of the canines ; from 
the Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers), France. This spe- 
cimen seems to agree with the enlarged figures given by 
Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 2nd ed. pi. xliv. 
figs. 5-7. Judging from the size of its alveolus, it appears 
that pm. 3 was relatively large ; and it is therefore doubt- 
ful whether the species belongs to the genus in the sense 
in which it is employed in recent zoology. 

Presented by M. Ed. Lartet, 1858. 

33265 a. Distal half of the femur ; from the Miocene of Sansan. 

Presented by M. Ed. Lartet, 1858. 

Vespertilio insignis, H. von Meyer 2 . 
Hab. Europe. 

25452. The greater part of the humerus ; from the Lower Mio- 
cene of Mayence. The specific distinctness of this form is 
very doubtful, as it was mainly named from the humerus ; 
there is equal doubt as to the correctness of the generic 
determination. Purchased, 1850. 



Order INSECTIVOEA. 

It has been deemed advisable to follow the arrangement adopted 
in the Zoological Department of the Museum, and to place this order 
and the Chiroptera between the Primates and the Carnivora. The 
writer would, however, have preferred placing the present order after 
the Carnivora, in proximity to the Carnivora Primigenia, which 
would then have been placed after the existing Carnivora. As will 
be noticed below, it is highly probable that the present order should 
be regarded as a suborder of Carnivora. 






'6' 



1 Notice sur la Colline de Sapsan, p. 12 (1851). 

2 Neues Jahrb. 1845, p. 798. 



talpidjE. 1 5 

Suborder 1NSECTIVORA VERA, 
Family TALPIM]. 

Subfamily T alpine. 

Genus TALPA, Linn. 1 
(Including Geotrypus and Hyporyssus, Pomel. 2 ) 

- Pm - M - 

v xm. 4 , m. 3 . 

Catpa ^urop^a, Linn. 3 



Dentition :— I. | C. \, Pm. |, M. | 



Hab. Europe. 

17645-52. Fragments of the mandible, and several bones of the axial 
and appendicular skeleton ; from the Forest-bed of Ostend, 
near Bacton, Norfolk. Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

Talpa telluris (Pomel 4 ). 
Syn. Hyporyssus telluris, Pomel 5 . 
Talpa sansaniensis, Lartet 6 . 

Hab, France. 

21849. The greater portion of the humerus ; from the Middle Mio- 
cene of Sansan. This specimen agrees with the one from 
the same locality figured by De Blainville (' Osteographie,' 
Insectivores, pi. xi.), which is referred by P. Gervais to 
T. telluris. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848-9. 

Talpa, sp. non. det. 
Hab. Europe. 

48196. Two humeri ; from the Middle Miocene of Steinheim, 
Bavaria. Purchased, 1877. 

21849 a. Humerus ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier, France. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848-9. 

M. 413. Several specimens of the humerus ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux, France. These bones are more elongated than 
in typical forms. Purchased, 1884. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 73 (1766). 

2 Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. vol. ix. pp. 159-161 (1848). 

3 Loc. cit. * Op. cit. p. 161. 

5 Ibid. 6 Notice sur la Colliue de Sansan, p. 14 (1851). 



16 IBTSECTIVOKA. 

Subfamily Myogalin^e. 

Genus MYOGALE, Cuyier 1 . 
Syn. Palceospalax, Owen 2 . 
Desman, Lac6pede. 

Dentition:— 1. §, C. \, Pm. f, M. |. 

Plpgale nw^rijata (Linn. 3 ). 

Syn. Castor moschatus, Linn. 4 

Mygale muscovitica, Geoftroy. 
Palceospalax magnus, Owen 5 . 
Talpa magna, Pomel 6 . 

Hab. Europe. 

16120. Portion of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
{Fig.) three true molars and the last three premolars ; from the 
Forest-bed of Ostend, near Bacton, Norfolk. This spe- 
cimen is described and figured by Owen in the ' British 
Possil Mammalia and Birds/ pp. 25, 26, figs. 12, 13, under 
the name of Palceospalax magnus, of which it is the type. 
Por the authority for the present generic reference, see 
Newton, Geol. Mag. dec. 2, vol. viii. p. 256 (1881). 

Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

Family SORICID^E. 
Genus SOREX, Linn. 7 
Dentition:— I. =*, C. \, Pm. =p, M. §. 

Sorex (?), sp. non det. 

28079. Fragments of the mandible ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, 
Essex. Presented by J. Broun, Esq., 1852. 

31059-60. Fragments of the mandible and humerus ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier, France. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

1 Tab. de Classification, appended to ' Lecons d'Anat. Coinp.' vol. i. (1800) 
{Mygale). 

2 Brit. Foss. Mamm. and Birds, p. 25 (1846). 

8 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 79 (1766), Castor. 
4 Log. cit. 5 Op. cit. 

6 Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. vol. ix. p. 160 (1848). 

7 Syst. Nat. ed, 12, vol. i. p. 73 (1766). 



EEINACEID^. 



17 



Genus CROSSOPUS, Wagler 1 . 
Dentition. — Teeth nearly the same in number as in Sorex, but 
different in colour. 

CroSgopug fcifcltfng (Pallas 2 ). 
Syn. Sorex fodiens, Pallas. 

Hob. Europe. 

15949, 17653a. Three portions of the mandible; from the Forest- 
(Fig.) bed of Ostend, near Bacton, Norfolk. One of these speci- 
mens is figured in Owen's ' British Possil Mammals and 
Birds,' p. 28, fig. 14. Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

CroStfopug remtfer (Geoffroy 3 ). 
Syn. Sorex remifer, Geoflr. 4 

Hah. Europe. 

15949 a, 17653. Two rami of the mandible ; from the Porest-bed of 
{Fig.) Ostend, near Bacton, Norfolk. One of these specimens 
is figured by Owen in the figure cited. Newton (Geol. 
Mag. dec. 2, vol. viii. p. 259) expresses some doubt as to 
the correctness of the specific determination of the present 
specimens, as well as those referred to the preceding 
species. Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

Family EBINACEID.E. 
Genus ERINACEUS, Linn. 5 

Dentition :— 1. 1, C. \, Pm. |, M. |. 

Erinaceus arvernensis, P. Gervais 6 (non Blainv.). 

Hab. Europe. 

History.' — The name E. arvernensis was assigned by De Blainville 
(' Osteographie,' Insectivores, p. 102, pi. xi.) to certain remains from 
Prance, which were said by Croizet to exhibit affinities with Tupaia. 
Subsequently Gervais, in the passage cited, figured certain remains 
from Auvergne (noticed below) under the same name. Still later 

1 Isis, 1832, p. 275. 

2 In Schreber's ' Siiugethiere,' vol. iii. p. 571 (1778), Sorex. 

3 Ann. d. Mus. vol. xvii. p. 182 (1811), Sorex. * Loc. cit. 
6 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 75 (1766). 

6 Zool. et Pal. Francises, 2nd ed. p. 53, figs. 10, 11 (1859). 



18 ItfSECTIYOKA. 

Fraas (' Fauna von Steinheim,' p. 4) referred BlainviUe's specimens 
to another genus, under the name of Parasorex socialis. It appears, 
from a comparison of Gervais's specimens with De BlainviUe's figures, 
that the two belong to different genera, the former being really an 
Erinaceus. Under these circumstances it appears, on the whole, 
advisable to apply the name arvernensis to the Erinaceus, and to take 
another specific name for De BlainviUe's specimens, which are 
referred below to Plesiosoreoc. 

27825. The nearly complete left ramus of the mandible, showing 
(Fig.) all the teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Cournon (Puy- 
de-D6me), Prance. This specimen is the type, and shows 
all the teeth, which agree precisely with those of Erina- 
ceus, especially in the small size of the last true molar and 
of the three teeth in front of pm. 4 ; it is figured by Gervais 
in the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. p. 53, fig; 11. In 
size and form it is very like the mandible of some of the 
smaller Asiatic species \ 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27825 a. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
premolar and the first true molar ; from Lower Miocene 
of Cournon. This specimen is figured by Gervais, op. cit. 
figs. 10, 10 a. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27825 b. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
broken bases of pm. 4 and m. 1 ; from the the Lower Miocene 
of Cournon. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27825 d. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the inner incisor and the last premolar ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Cournon. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27825 c. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
inner incisor, pm. 4, and m. 1 ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Cournon. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27814. Fragment of the right ramus of a mandible, without teeth, 
which may belong to the present species ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Sauvetat (Puy-de-D6me), France. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

1 E. g. E. micropus, Blyth. Vide Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. xlvii. pt. 2, 
pi. Va (1878). 



TUPAITD^E. 19 

Genus non det. 

M. 1492. Two fragments of the symphysial extremity of the right 
ramus of the mandible, and a fragment of the maxilla, of 
an Insectivore apparently allied to Erinaceus ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux, France. The specimens are too 
imperfect to admit of certain determination. 

Purchased, 1884. 



Family TUPAIID^E. 

Genus PLESIOSOREX, Pomel 1 . 
Syn. Parasorex, H. von Meyer 2 . 

Dentition:— I. 1, C. \, Pm. \, M. f. 

Plesiosorex soricinoides (Blainville 3 ). 
Syn. Erinaceus soricinoides, Blainville 4 . 

Erinaceus arvernensis, Blainville 5 (non Gervais). 
Plesiosorex talpoides, Pomel 6 . 
Parasorex socialis, H. von Meyer 7 . 

Hah. Europe. 

48197. Two fragments of the mandible ; from the Middle Miocene 
of Steinheim, Bavaria. A perfect cranium and mandible 
are figured by 0. Fraas, in the ' Fauna von Steinheim/ 
pi. i. figs. 2-5, under the name of Parasorex socialis. 
The species differs from the genus Twpaia by the presence 
of an additional premolar in both jaws, but is otherwise 
closely allied, and it is not improbable that it should 
really be referred to the same genus. Purchased, 1877. 

1 Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. vol. ix. p. 162 (1848). 

2 Neues Jahrb. 1865, p. 844, 

3 ' Osteographie,' Inscctivorcs, p, 100, pi. xi. (1842 ?), Erinaceus. 

4 Loc. cit. 5 Loc. at. p. 102. 

6 Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. vol. ix. p. 162 (1848). 

7 Neues Jahrb. 1865, p. 844. 



c2 



20 CAKNIVOKA. 

Order CAENIVORA. 

Suborder CARNIVORA PRIMIGENIA. 

The present suborder includes the genera Hycenodon, Pterodon, 
Oxycena, and probably Proviverra (Cynhycenodon, Eilhol), together 
with numerous other forms from the older Tertiaries of North 
America and Europe. In his latest memoir on these animals, Cope 1 
includes the whole of them, together with the existing Insectivora, 
in the suborder Creodonta of his order Bunotheria 2 , the latter being 
a group of primitive mammals comprehending a number of types, 
and. being somewhat analogous to the subclass Metatheria (Marsu- 
pialia). By Huxley 3 it is considered probable that Hycenodon and 
its allies occupy a position connecting the Carnivora with the 
Insectivora ; and as Proviverra seems to connect them very closely 
with some of the canoid Carnivora Vera, they are provisionally 
placed in the former order, with the title of Carnivora Primigenia 4 . 
It is highly probable that the so-called Insectivora should really 
• form another suborder (Carnivora Insectivora) of the Carnivora ; 
but as it seems best, as far as possible, to avoid interfering with the 
arrangement adopted in recent Zoology, the order has been retained 
for the present. One of the most distinctive points of the present 
suborder is the small size of the brain, which in Proviverra is more 
like that of an Insectivore than a Carnivore ; while another is the 
structure of the last three cheek-teeth, all of which assume a 
sectorial character. 

Family HYjENODONTID^E. 

Cope 5 includes in this family only the single genus Hycenodon, 
referring the genera Oxycena, Pterodon, and others to the family 
Oxycenidce 6 ; the relations between Hycenodon and Pterodon seem, 
however, to be so intimate that it appears more advisable to include 
them in a single family. 

1 Amer. Nat. 1884, pp. 255, 344, 478. 

2 In a former work (Eep. U.S. Geog. Surv. West of 100th Meridian, vol. iv. 
pt. ii. p. 89) Hycenodon, on account of its larger brain, was separated from' the 
Creodonta and referred to the Carnivora. 

3 Proc. ZooL Soc. 1880, p. 284. 

4 The term " Creodonta " would be inappropriate if applied in this con- 
junction. 

5 Amer. Nat. 1884, p. 261. 6 Ibid. p. 480. 



HY^NODONTIDJE. 21 



Genus HYJENODON, Laizer and Parieu 1 . 
Syn. Taxotherium, Blainville 2 {teste P. Gervais). 
Eutemnodus, Bravard, MS. 

Dentition: — I. -, C. |, Pm. J, M. g. Cope 3 gives the number of 
cheek-teeth as Pm. j, M. g, reckoning the fourth upper tooth as a 
• molar instead of a premolar. If, however, the crania of Hyamoclon and 
Pterodon, figured by Eilhol in the Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 
1882, pis. i. & ii., be compared together, it will be pretty evident 
that the fourth cheek-tooth in the two specimens is homologous ; 
and it is quite clear that this tooth is a premolar in Pterodon. 
Eilhol, in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. art. 7, p. 211, remarks that 
Hycenodon vulpinus differs from all the other species by the presence 
of six in place of seven upper cheek-teeth ; but the present writer 
has never seen any instance of the presence of m. 3 in any species, 
and it is certainly wanting in all the specimens figured by Eilhol. 

The genus is abundantly distributed in the Lower Tertiaries of 
Europe and North America, and one species (or a closely allied 
form) has been described from the Siwaliks of India (vide infra). 

Hysenodon heberti, Eilhol 4 . 
This is the largest European species of the genus. It has not 
hitherto been recorded from Yaucluse. 
Rah. Erance. 

26749. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible 5 , con- 
taining the whole of the cheek-dentition and the canine ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge, near Apt (Yaucluse), 

1 Comptes Kendus, vol. vii. p. 442 (1838). 

2 ' Osteographie,' Genus Subursus, p. 55 (1841). Taxotherium is identified 
with Hycenodon on the authority of P. Gervais (Zool. et Pal. Franc. 2nd edit, 
pp. 232-235) ; but it is very doubtful what Taxotherium (Hycenodon) parisiense 
really is. Gervais refers Pomel's Pterodon cuvieri to it ; but that species seems 
to be the same as Pterodon dasyuroides. 

3 Amer. IN at, 1884, p. 345. 

4 Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, ser. 6, vol. xi. pp. 16-21 (1874). 

5 This and other specimens from Vaucluse have been hitherto labelled 
H. requieni ; but they are of much larger size, as will be shown below. Some 
(e. g. No. 28203) are entered in Bravard's MS. Catalogue as Eutemnodus eury- 
rhynchus, Bravard. The same generic term has been employed by Bravard 
(vide H. Gervais and Ameghino, ' Les Mammiferes fossiles de l'Amerique du 
Sud,' p. 21 [1880]) for a fossil Carnivore from the Pleistocene of S. America, 
which cannot now be identified. It would be very remarkable if Hycenodon 
were found in those deposits. 



22 CARNIVORA. 

France. This specimen agrees precisely with the type 
mandible figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. 
pi. xxxii. fig. 160. The following are the dimensions of 
the type and the present specimen, viz. : — 

Type. No. 26749. 

Length of pm. 3 0,017 0,016 

„ „ pm. 4 0,0175 0,0161 

„ m. 1 0,009 0,010 

„ „ m. 2 0,014 0,0141 

„ „ m. 3 0,021 0,023 

Space occupied by last five teeth . . 0,080 0,079 
Interval between canine and hinder 

border of m. 3 0,107 

Depth of jaw at m. 1 0,043 0,040 

The present specimen shows the first and second pre- 
molars, which are wanting in the type ; the crown of the 
first premolar is very low, while that of the second is not 
very high and is elongated antero-posteriorly. The canine, 
of which the summit is broken off, is relatively short and 
thick. There is but one mental foramen. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28203. The cranium and mandible in a much-crushed condition ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. This specimen is 
important, as showing the association of the cranium and 
mandible, although all the mandibular teeth are wanting, 
except the canine and pm. 2 ; the form of the mandible 
agrees precisely with that of the last specimen. The last 
upper premolar has a small anterior talon. The interval 
between the canine and the hinder border of the last true 
molar is 0,090, and the antero-posterior diameter of the 
canine is 0,017. This specimen is the type of Bravard's 
Eutemnodus. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28172. The mandible, wanting the symphysis, and showing all the 
cheek-teeth except pm. 1 ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26756. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, with 
the teeth much worn ; from the Upper Eocene of Vau- 
cluse. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

M. 1673. The hinder portion of the cranium of a Hyosnodon, which, 
from its large size, may probably be referred to the pre- 



HY^NODOXTID.E. 23 

sent species ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), Prance. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1674. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
second and third true molars ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. This specimen seems to he precisely similar to 
the type mandible figured by Pilhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. vii. pi. xxxii. fig. 160. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1675. Three canines, not improbably belonging to this species ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), 
Prance. Purchased, 1884. 

28181. The left ramus of the mandible, with the teeth in a broken 
and much-worn condition ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27180-6. Several incisor and premolar teeth ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28204. Pragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing five 

cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28178-9. Two canines ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28206-9. Pour canines ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28222. A canine ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28174. The second left upper true molar, of unusually large size 
and in an unworn condition ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Yaucluse. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28205, 28227. A premolar and an upper true molar ; from the 

Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Hyaenodon brachyrhynchus, Blainville 1 . 
Syn. Pterodon brachyrhynchus, Pomel 2 . 
Pterodon requieni, P. Gervais 3 . 
Hycenodon requieni, P. Gervais i . 

1 ' Osteographie,' Genus Canis, p. 113 (1842?). 

2 Bull. Soc. Geol. Prance, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 392 (1846). 

3 Comptes Kendus, vol. xxii. p. 846 (1846). 

4 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 129 (184S-52). 



24 



CARNIVORA. 



This species has been identified by Filhol, in the Ann. Soc. Sci. 
Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, p. 12, with Hycenodon requieni. The 
name H. brachyrhynchus apparently has the priority 1 . This species 
is of considerably smaller size than the last, and is readily distin- 
guished by the crown of the second lower premolar being extremely 
tall and narrow. The last upper premolar has no distinct anterior 
talon, and the crown of the second upper premolar is very tall and 
narrow ; the first premolar is small. 

Hab. Prance. 

M. 1668. Anterior portion of the cranium and mandible of an 
immature individual; from the Upper Eocene of Bach, 
near Lalbenque (Lot), France. This specimen is very 
important and valuable, as it shows the cranium and 
mandible in association, which is a comparatively rare 
condition. It exhibits the upper incisors, the upper and 
lower canines, most of the upper premolars, m. 3 , and the 
second and third lower premolars — the latter not fully 
protruded. In the long and narrow pm. 2 , and the absence 
of a distinct anterior talon to pm. 4 , this specimen agrees 
with the cranium figured by Filhol in the Ann. Soc. Sci. 
Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, pi. i. It also agrees precisely 
in every detail of shape and size with a more perfect 
cranium figured by the same writer in a memoir not yet 
published. The specimen shows that pm. 2 was a tall 
narrow tooth, very different from that of H. heberti 
(No. 26749). The interval between the canine and 
mTT is 0,041, as compared with 0,051 in H. heberti 
(No. 28203). Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1351. Fragment of the middle portion of the cranium, com- 
prising part of the palate, the frontals, and nasals, and 
showing the last three premolars and the two true molars ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux, France. This spe- 
cimen belonged to an immature individual ; but, except in 
being slightly smaller, it agrees precisely with the cranium 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 
1882, pi. i. There is no anterior talon to pm. 4 . 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1363. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last two 
molars ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. This spe- 

1 In the notiee by Filhol, already cited, the impression is given that the 
specific name brachyrhynchus was applied in the original notice by Dujarclin 
(Comptes Eendus, vol. x. p. 134 [1840]) ; but this is not really the case. 



HY^NODOtfTID^. 25 

cimen agrees exactly with the corresponding portion of 
the last specimen. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1669. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the three true molars, the last two premolars, and the 
alveolus of the canine ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 
This specimen appears to agree very closely with the 
mandible figured by P. Gervais in the ' Zoologie et 
Paleontologie Franchises/ 2nd ed. pi. xxiv. fig. 11. The 
space occupied by the last five cheek-teeth is 0,057, and 
the interval between the alveolus of the canine and the 
hinder border of m. 3 is 0,070. Purchased, 1884. 

Hysenodon minor, P. Gervais 1 . 

This species is larger than Hycenodon brachyrhynchus, from 
which it is distinguished by its relatively longer mandible, larger 
canine, and smaller last lower true molar. The type specimen was 
obtained from the Upper Eocene near Alais (Gard), France. 

Hab. Europe. 

29752. The mandible of a very aged individual ; from the Headon 
beds (Upper Eocene) of Hordwell, Hampshire. The teeth 
are very much worn, the crowns of most of the true molars 
having completely disappeared ; the incisors and the first 
premolar are wanting, and the crown of the left canine is 
broken off. The specimen seems to agree precisely with 
the type mandible figured by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. 
Franchises, 2nd ed. pi. xxv. fig. 9. It differs from the 
mandible of H. brachyrhynchus by its more elongated 
form, and is considerably larger than that of H. compressus, 
FilhoP, although somewhat similar in form. It is on the 
evidence of this specimen (which has been already noticed 
by the present writer in the Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. i. 
p. 444) that the occurrence of Hycenodon in the Hamp- 
shire basin 3 is recorded in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
vol. xxxix. p. 571. The interval between the canine and 
the hinder border of m. 3 is 0,076. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

1 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 129 (1848-52). 

2 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xxxiii. figs. 161-163. 

3 The exact position of the bed from which this fossil was obtained is given 
in the memoir cited. In the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 383, Boyd 
Dawkins mentions the occurrence of Hycenodon leptorhynchus in the Headon 
beds. This statement probably rests on a misidentification of the present 
specimen. 



26 



CAKNIVOEA. 



29814. The last right lower true molar ; from the Headon beds of 
the Isle of Wight. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29807. A canine ; from the Headon beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Hysenodon leptorhynchus, Laizer and Parieu 1 . 
Syn. Pterodon leptorhynchus, Poinel 2 . 

In this species the last upper premolar has a well-marked anterior 
talon, and the second upper premolar has a long and low crown. 
Hah. Prance. 

M. 1350. The nearly complete mandible, wanting the incisors and 
the articular extremity of the left ramus ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), Prance. This 
beautiful specimen, in which the teeth are but very 
slightly worn, agrees very closely with the one figured by 
P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Prangaises, 2nd ed. pi. xxv. 
fig. 10, but is slightly smaller, and the crowns of the two 
middle premolars appear slightly higher. 

Purchased, 1848. 

27821. The imperfect mandible, showing the canine and all the 
cheek-teeth of the right side except m . 3 ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Sauvetat (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. Slight dif- 
ferences can be detected between the premolars of this and 
the last specimen. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 1379. The last left lower true molar ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. Purchased, 1848. 

27793, 27820. A premolar and the last molar of the lower jaw ; 
from the Lower Miocene of Sauvetat. These specimens 
are provisionally referred to the present species ; they are 
somewhat larger than the corresponding teeth of the fore- 
going specimen, but they are not larger than those of a 
specimen figured by Pilhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. 
pi. xxix. fig. 143. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 1670. Part of the right maxilla, containing the last premolar and 
the two true molars ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 
This specimen agrees precisely with the corresponding 

1 Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, vol. xi. p. 27 (1839). 

2 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 392 (1846). 



Hr^NODONTID^. 27 

portion of the skull figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. vii. pi. xxix. fig. 143, showing the distinct 
anterior talon and the low crown of pm. 2 , and differing 
thereby from No. M. 1351 (H. bracliyrhynchus). It appears 
that the present specimen cannot, however, be distinguished 
from the corresponding portion of the skull of H. aymardi 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xii. pi. vii., 
although that species is distinguished from H. leptorliynchus 
by the presence of a distinct anterior talon to the last lower 
premolar. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1671- Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last premolar and the three true molars ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. This specimen is precisely 
similar to the corresponding portion of No. M. 1350. 

Purchased, 1884. 

f M. 1672. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last true molar ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 
The tooth has the elongated form characteristic of this 
species and H. cayluxi ; in the relatively greater depth of 
the jaw the present specimen agrees more nearly with 
H. leptorhynchus than with H. cayluxi. {Vide Filhol, 
Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. art. 7, pp. 183, 206.) The 
dimensions of the specimen are compared below with 
those of the mandible of H. leptorhynchus described by 
Filhol, viz. : — 

Filhol. B.M. 

Length of carnassial 0,018 0,019 

Height of first lobe of carnassial . . 0,010 0,010 
second „ „ • ■ 0,006 0,007 

Depth of jaw at carnassial 0,026 0,027 

Purchased, 1884. 

Hyaenodon dubius, Filhol 1 . 

This' species is about the size of U. bracliyrhynchus ; from which 
it is at once distinguished by the much greater vertical depth of the 
mandible. 

Hab. France. 

M. 1676. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the third and fourth true molars ; from the Upper Eocene 

1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. iii. art. 7, p. 29 (1872). 



28 CAKNJVOKA. 

of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), France. This specimen 
is precisely similar to the one figured by Filhol in the 
Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xxxv. figs. 182, 183, with 
the exception that the depth of the mandible is still 
greater in the present specimen, being 0,029 at the 
interval between pm. 3 and pm. 4. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1677. Fragment of %e right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the first and second true molars ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Bach. This specimen agrees precisely with the one figured 
by Filhol in the plate cited above. Purchased, 1884. 

Hysenodon vulpimis, P. Gervais \ 

Syn. Hycenodon exiguus, P. Gervais (teste Filhol). 
Pterodon exiguus, P. Gervais. 

This species is readily distinguished from any of the preceding by 
its greatly inferior size. The species has not hitherto been recorded 
from the Lower Miocene of Puy-de-D6me. 

Rah. France. 

36766. Fragment of the cranium, containing all the teeth of the 
right side as far back as the first true molar, and a frag- 
ment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last premolar and the first and second true molars ; from 
the Lower Miocene of Puy-de-D6me, France 2 . The teeth 
are unworn and in beautiful preservation ; and the speci- 
men is valuable as showing the upper and lower jaws in 
association. The specimen is of considerably smaller size 
than the cranium of H. vulpinum figured by Filhol in the 
Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xxxiv. fig. 170 ; but it will 
be seen, from the figures of three specimens of the man- 
dible given on the same plate (figs. 167-169), that there 
is a considerable range of variation in size ; and since the 
three teeth of the mandible of the present specimen agree 
precisely with the corresponding teeth of the specimen 
represented by Filhol in fig. 168, the present specimen 
may be pretty safely referred to the same species, thus 
extending its range into the Lower Miocene. The upper 
teeth agree exactly with those of the specimen No. M. 1678, 
noticed below. The following dimensions indicate the 

1 Journ. Zool. vol. ii. p. 374 (1873). 

2 The specimen is entered in the Museum Kegister as Hy amotion croizeti, 
Kaup ; the name being apparently a manuscript one. 



HYiENODONTlD^. ZM 

difference in the size of this specimen and the larger 
specimens described by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. vii. art. 4, pp. 200-214, viz. : — 

Upper teeth : B.M. Filhol. 

Length of pm. 1 0,0065 0,0066 

Height „ 0,004 0,0069 

Interval between pm. 1 and pm. 2. . . . 0,006 0,002 

Length of pm. 2 0,009 0,0095 

Height „ 0,005 0,009 

Length of pm. 3 0,011 0,01 

Height „ 0,005 0,0089 

Length of pm. 4 0,009 0,0096 

Height „ 0,006 0,009 

Length of m. 1 0,006 0,009 

Height „ 0,003 0,007 

Interval between canine and m. 1 .... 0,0475 0,037 

Lower teeth : 

Length of pm. 4 0,015 0,009 

Height „ 0,008 0,0096 

Length of m. 1 0,006 0,0065 

Height „ 0,004 0,0065 

Length of m. 2 0,008 0,0085 

Height „ 0,006 0,0073 

Purchased, 1859. 

M. 1678. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the third 
and fourth premolars and the two true molars ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Bach. This specimen, with the excep- 
tion of being slightly smaller, is very similar to the corre- 
sponding portion of a cranium figured by Filhol in the 
Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xxxiv. fig. 170 ; but the last 
premolar is relatively smaller. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1679. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the four pre- 
molars and the alveolus of the canine; from the Upper 
Eocene of Bach. This specimen is of the same size as the 
last, but corresponds otherwise to the cranium figured by 
Filhol (loc. rit.). Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1680. The symphysis and part of the left ramus of the mandible, 
showing the premolars and the first true molar ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Bach. This specimen is rather larger 



30 CAENIVOKA. 

than the mandible figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. vii. pi. xxxiv. fig. 169, but is otherwise similar. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1365. Symphysis of the mandible, showing the right canine, the 
first two premolars of either side, and a part of the left 
pm. 3 ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. This specimen 
is rather smaller than the last, and agrees in size with the 
one figured by Pilhol, loc. cit. fig. 167. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1681. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last premolar and the second and third true molars ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Bach. This specimen agrees very 
closely with the mandible figured by Eilhol, loc. cit. 
fig. ] 69. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1682. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
first and second true molars, and the broken base of m . 2 ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Bach. The teeth of this 
specimen agree in size with those of the last, but the 
depth of the jaw is considerably greater. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1683. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last true molar; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 
The tooth is smaller in this specimen than in any of those 
noticed above. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1684. Hinder portion of the cranium of a small Hyamodon, 
which may perhaps belong to the present species ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1367. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last two premolars and the first true molar; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1367 a. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last premolar and the first and second true molars ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1367 b. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last premolar and the first true molar ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1364. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last true molar ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1884. 



HY^NODONTTD^. 31 

M. 1379. The last right lower premolar ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

Hyaenodon (?) sp. 

(Cf . Hyamodon i?idicus, Lydekker l .) 
Bab. Prance and (?) India. 

The species H. indicus was founded on the evidence of a fourth 
right lower premolar from the Pliocene Siwaliks of the Punjab, 
India, which indicates a species of very large size. This tooth is 
represented in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 1). At the same 

Fig. 1. 




Hycenodon indicus,. — The fourth right lower premolar ; from the Siwaliks of 
Kushalghar, Punjab. Indian Museum, Calcutta. \. (From the ' Pahe- 
ontologia Indica.') 

time two other teeth, which were regarded as being third lower 
true molars, were described and figured (' Palaeontologia Indica,' 
ser. 10, vol. ii. pi. xliii. figs. 5, 6), and provisionally referred to the 
same species, although it was suggested that they might possibly 
belong to a distinct species, or even genus. The most perfect of the 
two Indian teeth belongs to the left side, and was described in the 
following words, viz. : — " It is divided into two distinct lobes, of 
which the first is the stoutest : externally there is a stout cingulum 
forming the base of the crown. Posteriorly the lower border of the 
enamel of the crown runs suddenly upwards on both sides, nearly 
to the summit of the hind lobe." The tooth comes nearest to " the 
last lower true molar of Hycenodon 2 ; in some species of which (e. g. 

1 Paleeontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 349 
(1884). 

2 The tooth might be taken for the lower carnassial of a feline ; but is distin- 
guished by the form of the lower border of the enamel, and of the worn sur- 
faces of the summits of the lobes, by the presence of the cingulum, and the size 
and direction of the fangs. In the large primitive felines (e.g. Mlurogale inter- 
media) there is a hind talon to the lower carnassial. 



32 CARNIVORA. 

H. lieberti, H. leptorhynchus) the lower border of the enamel bends 
upwards at the posterior extremity of the tooth in precisely the 
same manner, although not quite to the same extent, as in the 
Siwalik teeth. In none of the European or American species, how- 
ever, is there the marked cingulum of the latter ; while in all the 
larger forms the hinder lobe is relatively larger ; although in the 
much smaller H. crucians, Leidy 1 , the two lobes are more nearly of 
the same length. In all, the anterior lobe is much stouter than the 
posterior ; and the wear of the summits of the lobes is similar to 
that of the Indian teeth." The length of the complete Indian tooth 
is 0,026. 

M. 1685. The third right lower true molar ; from the Upper Eocene 

(Fig.) of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), Erance. This tooth, 

which is represented in the accompanying woodcut (fig^ 2), 

Eig. 2. 




Hycenodon (?) sp. — The third right lower true molar; from the Upper 
. Eocene of Bach. \. 

has lost the anterior fang, and agrees precisely, with the 
exception of its inferior size, with the Indian teeth noticed 
above. Its length is 0,020, and it evidently belonged 
to the same genus, if not to a smaller race of the same 
species, as the Indian specimens. It is different from the 
corresponding tooth of all the European species of Hycen- 
odon described by Eilhol, and presents no resemblance to 
Proviverra, Pterodon, or Ooeyama ; while the writer has 
been unable to identify it with any of the allied genera 
from the American Tertiaries. To whatever genus it 
really belongs, the occurrence in the Lower Tertiaries of 

1 Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philadel. vol. vii. pi. ii. 



HYJENODONTIDJE. 33 

Prance and the Upper Tertiaries of India of this peculiar 
form of tooth is a very interesting and noteworthy circum- 
stance, and affords a well-marked instance of the survival 
in India and other eastern regions of forms which dis- 
appeared at a much earlier period in Europe. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Genus PTERODON, Blainville 1 . 

Dentition 2 : — I. Mp^, C. ^ Pm. ^ , M. |. Cope places this genus 
and Oxycena in a distinct family — Oxycenidaz. 

Pterodon dasyuroides, Blainville 3 . 

Syn. Pterodon parisiensis, Blainville 4 . 
(?) Pterodon cuvieri, Pomel 5 . 
(?) Pterodon coquandi, Pomel 6 . 

Hah. Europe. 

M. 1361. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the first and 
second true molars, in an almost unworn condition ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), Prance. 
These teeth are rather larger than those of a fine cranium 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 
1882, pi. ii. Purchased, 1884. 

27579. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last premolar 
and the three true molars, in a partially worn condition ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge, near Apt (Yaucluse), 
France. The teeth of this specimen (which apparently 
corresponds to P. cuvieri, Pomel) are considerably smaller 
than those of the last specimen, but do not present any 
structural difference, and seem to belong to a smaller race 
of the same species. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1689. Part of the left maxilla, containing the three true molars ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), 
France. The teeth of this specimen are slightly smaller 

1 Ann. Fr. et Etr. d'Anat. et de Physiol, vol. iii. p. 23 (1839), teste P. Gervais. 

2 Cope (Amer. Nat. 1884, p. 481) gives the number of the cheek-teeth simply 
as Pm. f , M. f . There are, however, seven of these teeth in typical examples 
of P. dasyuroides ; vide Filhol, Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1S82, pi. ii. 

3 Loc. cit. 4 Osteographie, genus Subursus, p. 48 (1841). 

5 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 392 (1846). 

6 Catalogue Methodique, p. 117 (1853). 

D 



34 CAKNTVOKA. 

than those of the cranium figured by Filhol in the Ann. Soc. 
Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, pi. ii. Purchased, 1884. 

HI. 1690. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the second and 
third true molars ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach. The 
teeth are slightly larger than those of the last. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1691. Detached teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Jamblouise, 
near Limogne (Lot), France. Purchased, 1884. 

27578. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the second and 
fourth premolars and the first and second true molars ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. This specimen agrees 
with the last. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26759. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the three true 
molars, the first in a well-worn condition ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Vaucluse. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

28152. Cast of the dental portion of the maxilla, showing most of the 

teeth ; the original is from the Upper Eocene of Debruge \ 
The teeth of this specimen agree exactly in size with those 
of the above-mentioned cranium figured by Filhol. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27577. The second or third left lower true molar 2 , in a well-worn 
condition ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. The talon 
is relatively small. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

36947. Three specimens of the second or third lower true molar, 
two of which have lost their talons ; from the Bembridge 
Limestone (Upper Eocene) of the Isle of Wight. These 
specimens appear to agree exactly with specimens figured 
by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xxxiii. figs. 
164, 188 ; and there can be no doubt as to the generic 
reference. These specimens (which have been previously 
noticed by the present writer in the Geol. Mag. dec. 3, 
vol. i. p. 444) are important as proving the occurrence of 
the genus in England. Purchased, 1861. 

28153. A canine 3 ; from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. This 

1 This specimen is entered in the Museum Register as Pterodon laurittardi, 
Bravard & Pomel, which is apparently a manuscript name. 

2 Entered in the Museum Register as P. laurillardi. 
8 Entered in the Museum Register as P. laurillardi. 



HYJE^ODONTIDjE. do 

specimen is referred to the present germs on the authority 
of Bravard. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28163-4. Three lower premolars l of small size, not improbably 
belonging to a small race of the present species ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28154. Cast of a portion of the right ramus of the mandible, showing 
the last three premolars : the original is from the Upper 
Eocene of Yaucluse. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1719. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a large- 
sized individual, containing the two last molars ; and a 
fragment of the anterior part of a ramus with two worn 
teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach. Purchased, 1884. 



Genus OXYiENA, Cope 2 . 
This genus is apparently distinguished from Pterodon merely by 
the absence of the third molars in both jaws, and by the diminu- 
tion in the number of the incisors. Since one species of Pterodon 
(P. biincisivus) has only two pairs of incisors in the upper jaw, and 
possibly only the same number in the mandible, there is a transition 
in this respect towards the present genus ; and as the only other 
distinction is the absence of the last true molars, the writer is 
strongly inclined to think that Oocyazna might be merged in Pterodon. 
The following formula 3 represents the range of variation in the 
number of teeth of Oxyoena, viz. I. -^p-, C. j, Pm. |, M. |. 

Oxyaena galliae, Filhol 4 . 

Dentition : — I. ?, C. |, Pm. J, M. -. Eilhol founded this species 
on a fragment of the maxilla in which the incisors were not shown. 
He was not, therefore, aware that these teeth were only two in 
number, in place of three, as in the American species. 

Hab. Prance. 

1 Entered in the Museum Register as P. aymardi, Bravard, MS. 

2 Report U.S. Geogr. Surv. W. of 100th Meridian, 1874, p. 11. Vert. Foss. New 
Mexico. 

3 In his latest notice (Amer. Nat. 1884, p. 480) Cope gives the number of 
cheek-teeth as Pm. f, M. f. The figure of the upper dentition given on the 
opposite page of his memoir shows, however, that this is incorrect. 

4 Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, p. 34. 

d2 



36 



CAKNIVOEA. 



M. 1692. The extremity of the muzzle ; from the Upper Eocene of 
{Fig.) Mouillac, near Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), Prance. This 
specimen \ of which the palatal aspect of one side is repre- 
sented in the woodcut (fig. 3), shows on the left side the 

Pig. 3. 




i. 3 i. 1 



Oxycena gallice. — Anterior part of the left half of the palate : 
from the Upper Eocene of Mouillac. \. 



alveoli of the two incisors (of which the outer is much 
larger than the inner), the canine (with the greater part 
of the crown broken away), and the first and second pre- 
molars. There is a small interval between the outer 
incisor and the canine ; the first premolar (which has but 
one root) is in apposition to the canine ; and the second 
premolar (which has two roots) is very close to the first. 
In the following table the dimensions of this specimen are 
compared with those of the type specimen as given by 
Pilhol, viz. : — 



Antero-posterior diam. of base of canine 
Transverse , „ „ ,, 

Antero-posterior diam. of base of pm. 1. . 

pm. 2.. 



B.M. 


Filhol. 


0,021 


0,020 


0,014 


0,012 


0,012 


0,006 


0,0135 


0,0137 



1 This specimen has been previously noticed and figured by the present 
wriior in the Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. i. p. 445. 



HT^iS'ODONTTD^;. 37 

B.M. 

Antero-posterior diam. of alveolus of inner 

incisor 0,008 

Antero-posterior diam. of alveolus of 

outer incisor 0,013 

Interval between canines 0,026 

It will be seen that the only difference in the two 
specimens consists in the superior size of the first premolar 
in the present specimen. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1693. The symphysis of the mandible; from the Upper Eocene 
of Escamps, near Lalbenque (Lot), Erance. This specimen 
shows the alveoli of the canines and the first premolars, 
the second premolars, and parts of the third. The dimen- 
sions are as follows : — 

Length of symphysis superiorly 0,067 

Yertical diameter of alveolus of canine .... 0,019 
Transverse „ „ „ .... 0,013 

Length of crown of pm. 2 0,0158 

This specimen is important, because no portion of the 
mandible has been described by Eilhol. It is considerably 
larger than the mandible of O. forcipata, Cope \ which is 
the largest American species, and the incisors appear to 
have been inclined more directly forwards. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Limb-bones of Hyamodontidaz 2 . 
A large series of limb-bones probably belonging to this family are 
contained in the Museum, and many of these have been labelled 
Hyamodon or Pterodon. There do not appear, however, to be any 
reasons known for assigning any of them to one genus rather than 
to the other; and they are accordingly entered here merely as 
belonging to the family, although suggestions are in some instances 
made as to the species to which they may possibly belong. 

28165. Glenoidal extremity of the right scapula of a large species ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27576. The greater portion of the right humerus of a large species ; 

1 In the Eeport U.S. Geogr. Surv. W. of 100th Meridian, vol. iv. pt. 2, 
pi. xxxvi. (1877), a fine specimen of the mandible is figured. 

2 These specimens are mainly referred to this family on the authority of 
Bravard. 



38 CAKNIVORA. 

from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. There is a large 
entepicondylar foramen. 

Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28187. The imperfect distal portion of the left humerus of a large 

species, different from the last ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Yaucluse. It is not improbable that this specimen and 
the last respectively belong to H. brachyrhynchus and 
P. dasyuroides. Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26758. The broken distal portion of the right humerus, apparently 

similar to No. 27576 ; from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

28166. The greater portion of the broken right humerus of a large 

species ; from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28167. The greater portion of the left humerus of a smaller form ; 

from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27709. The greater portion of the right humerus of a small species ; 
from the Lower Miocene of Sauvetat, Puy-de-Dome. It 
is not improbable that this specimen may belong to H. vul- 
pinus. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28188. The greater portion of the right ulna of a large species ; 

from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26760. The proximal half of the left ulna, slightly smaller than the 
last ; from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

28168. The lesser sigmoidal fossa of the right ulna, similar to the 
last specimen ; from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

11909. Cast of trie right ulna, wanting the distal epiphysis. The 
original is from the Upper Eocene of Paris, and is figured 
in De Blainville's ' Osteographie ' (genus Subursus), pi. xii., 
under the name of Taxotherium parisiense. It is of the 
same size as the last two specimens. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

29869. The right radius of a small species ; from the Headon beds 
(Upper Eocene) of Hordwell, Hampshire. This bone is 
too small to have belonged to Uyoenodon minor (unless 



Hr^jsroDoisrTiD^;. 39 

that species varied greatly in size), and more nearly corre- 
sponds to H. vu'lpinus. It probably belongs to the same 
species as a femur from the same locality noticed below, 
and would seem to indicate a second British species of 
Hycenodon, since no small forms of Pterodon are known. 
Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

28155. The left radius of a large species, imperfect distally; from 
the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28169. The left radius, slightly smaller than, but otherwise similar 

to, the last specimen ; from the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26759. The right radius, similar in size to the last, but with a 
squarer proximal articular surface ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Yaucluse. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

28239. The left radius, similar in size to the last two specimens, 
but with the distal articular surface more elongated ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28289. The right radius, agreeing in size and the form of the proximal 
articular surface with No. 26759 ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Vaucluse. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28210. The greater portion of the right radius of a smaller form ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28196. Distal two thirds of the radius of a small form ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Vaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27583. The bones of the right fore-foot of a medium-sized form ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26751. The three inner right metacarpals of a larger form ; from 

the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26752. The left scapho-lunar ; from the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse, 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

28193. The distal half of the femur of a large specimen, in a much- 
crushed condition ; from the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



40 CAKNTVOKA. 

29726. The left femur of an animal probably belonging to the pre- 
sent family ; from the Headon beds (Upper Eocene )of 
Hordwell, Hampshire. This bone indicates a small species 
and corresponds in size to the ulna, No. 29869. Its 
extreme length is 0,127, and the width of the distal ex- 
tremity 0,027. The larger and smaller trochanters are 
strongly developed, and there is a very distinct ridge on 
the upper portion of the outer border, foreshadowing a 
third trochanter. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

28195. The left tibia of a large species, in a much-crushed condi- 
tion ; from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. The cnemial 
crest extends far down the shaft. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30132. The greater portion of the left tibia of a small species ; from 
the Headon Beds of Hordwell. This specimen agrees in 
relative size with the femur, No. 29726 : it exhibits an 
elongated cnemial crest. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27582. The distal extremity of the right tibia of a large species ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26750. The right calcaneum of a large species ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Yaucluse. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

27581, 28197. Two specimens of the left astragalus of a large 
species ; from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28162, 28170. Two specimens of the four metatarsals ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30342. Three terminal phalangeals, very probably belonging to the 
present genus ; from the Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Serial position uncertain. 

Genus ARGILLOTHERIUM, Davies l . 

This genus has been established on the evidence of the cranium 

noticed below, the teeth of which are unfortunately wanting. The 

describer considered that it might be allied to the Canoids ; but the 

1 Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol, i. p. 438 (1884). 



FELID^E. 41 

present writer thinks it may possibly be intermediate between some 
of the Carnivora Primigenia (like the IS". American Mesonyx) and 
the Carnivora Vera. The brain-case is larger than in Mesonyx, and 
the dentition less numerous and more macrodont. 

Argillothermm toliapicum 9 Bavies \ 
Bah. England. 

35688. Part of the cranium, showing portions of the parietals, the 
maxillae, palatals, pterygoids, and presphenoid; from the 
Lower Eocene (London Clay) of the Isle of Sheppey. The 
alveoli of pm. 3 , pm, 4 , and m. 1 are shown ; if m- 2 was 
present it must have been very small. This specimen is 
the type, and is described by Davies in the passage cited. 

Purchased, 1859. 

Suborder CARNIVORA VERA. 

The true Carnivora which come nearest to the Carnivora Primi- 
genia are some of the Yiverro-canoids ; but it is necessary that these 
should be placed near the middle of the suborder. The juxtaposition 
of the Eelidse to the Carnivora Primigenia does not therefore indi- 
cate any close relationship between the two. 

Family FELID^E. 

This family is taken to include the Nimravidce of Cope as well 
as the typical felines 2 . 

Genus MACHiERODUS, Kaup 3 . 
Syn. Agnotherium, Kaup 4 . 
Cultridens, Croizet 5 . 
Drepanodon, auct. 6 
Meganthereon, Pomel 7 . 
Smilodon, Lund 8 . 



1 Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. i. p. 438 (1884). 

2 Vide PalaBontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv- Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 313 
(1884). 

3 Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 2, p. 24 (1833), Machairodus. 

4 Ibid. p. 28 (1833). 

5 In Huot's 'Nouveau Cours Elementaire de Geologie,' vol. i. p. 265 (1837). 

6 Given in 1826 as a specific name by Nesti. 

7 Catalogue Methodique, p. 58 (1853). Originally given by Croizet and 
Bravard as a specific name. 

8 K. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr. vol. ix. p. 293 (1842). / 



42 CARNTVOEA. 

Steneodon, Croizet 1 . 
Trucifelis, Leidy (teste Cope). 

Dentition :— I. | C. -J, Pm. ~^, M. \, 

Machserodus meganthereon (Croizefc and Jobert 2 ). 
Syn. Drepanodon meganthereon, Cope. 

Felis meganthereon, Croizet and Jobert 3 . 
Felis meganthereon, Bravard 4 . 
Meganthereon macrocelis, Pomel 5 . 
Steneodon meganthereon, Croizet 6 . 

Hah. S. Europe. 

28882. Cast of tbe cranium and tbe rigbt ramus of tbe mandible. 
The original is from the Upper Pliocene of Mont Perrier, 
near Issoire (Puy-de-D6me), Prance, and is in the Paris 
Museum : it is figured by Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. 
Franchises, 2nd ed. pi. xxvii. figs. 1, 2. It shows pm. 3 
and pm- 4 on the left, and V m -^ on the right side ; there is 
an alveolus for m. 1 . Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

15433. The right upper canine, wanting the lower half; from the 
Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno, Italy. This specimen belongs 
to a larger individual than the last. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

Machserodus cultridens (Cuvier 7 ). 
Syn. 8 Agnotherium antiquum, Kaup {in parte). 
Cultridens arvernensis, Croizet. 
Drepanodon aphanista, Cope. 
Pelts aphanista, Kaup. 
Felis cidtridens, Bravard. 
Felis gigantea, Wagner. 
Machozrodus leoninus, Roth and Wagner. 
Meganthereon aphanista, Pornel. 
Meganthereon cultridens, Pomel. 
Steneodon cultridens, Croizet. 

1 Eevue Encyclopedique, vol. lix. p. 76 (1833) (teste E. Geoffroy). This 
name has the same date as Mackcerodus. 

2 Oss. Foss. d. Puy-de-D6me, vol. i. p. 215 (1828), Felis. 

3 Loc. cit. 

4 Monographie de deux Felis dAuvergne, p. 143 (1828). 

5 Catalogue Methodique, p. 55 (1853). 

6 Revue Encyclopedique, op. cit. 

7 Ossemens Fossiles, vol. v. pt. 2, p. 517 (1824), Ursas. 

8 The synonymy is taken from Gaudry's ' Animaux fossiles et Geologie de 
TAttique,' p. 105, where full quotations are given. 



FEL1DJE. 43 

Ursus cultridens, Cuvier. 

Ursus cultridens arvernensis, Cr. and J obert. 

Ursus drepanodon, Nesti. 

Hab. S. Europe. 

59674. Cast of the dental portion of the upper and lower jaws. 
The original is from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi, 
Attica, and is preserved in the Museum at Munich ; it is 
figured by Roth and Wagner in the Abh. math.-phys. CI. 
k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vii. pi. ix. fig. 1, under the name of 
M. leoninus, and by Kaup in the ' Beitrage,' pt. 5, pi. ii. 
fig. 2 (1861), under the name of M. cultridens. The spe- 
cimen exhibits pm. 3 and pm. 4 , and the three mandibular 
cheek-teeth. Purchased, 1879. 

11929. Cast of the left upper canine. The original is from Puy-de- 
Dome (? Lower Pliocene), and is preserved in the Paris 
Museum ; it is figured by De Blainville in the ' Osteo- 
graphie,' genus Felis, plate xvii. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

49674. Cast of the right ramus of the mandible. The original is 
from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi, and is preserved in 
the Museum at Munich. It is figured by Wagner in 
the Abh. math.-phys. CI. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vii. pi. v. 
fig. 11, under the name of M. leoninus. From its slender 
form and small canine, this specimen may probably be 
referred to a female. Purchased, 1879. 

49967 a. Anterior portion of the left ramus of the mandible ; from 
the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, Hesse Darmstadt. The 
crown of the canine, and the summits of p m . 4 and m . i are 
broken away, but ^71 is perfect. This specimen belongs 
to Kaup's so-called Felis aphanista ; but appears to differ in 
no respect from the mandible of No. 49674. No history. 

M. 413. Cast of part of the right ramus of the mandible. The 
original is from the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

40873. A fragment of the upper canine of a Machcerodus, probably 
belonging to the present species ; locality unknown. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

28845 x. Wax model of a right upper canine, of comparatively small 
size. The original is from the Lower Pliocene of the Yal 
dArno, Italy. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 



44 CAKNIVORA. 

t 

Macheerodus latidens, Owen 1 . 

Syn. Drepanodon latidens, Cope. 

Meganthereon latidens, Pomel. 

Hab. England. 

46842. Cast of the right upper canine ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern, Tor- 
quay, Devon. The original of this specimen is preserved 
in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons (no. 443), 
and is figured by Owen in the ' British Fossil Mammals 
and Birds,' p. 180. Presented by Professor Flower, 1875. 

14954. Left upper canine ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. This speci- 
(Fig.) men is figured by Dawkins and Sanford in their 4 Mono- 
graph of the British Pleistocene Mammalia ' (Palaeonto- 
graphical Society, 1872), p. 184, pi. xxv. figs. 1-3 ; and 
is mentioned by Falconer in a note published in the 
1 Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. p. 461, who remarks 
on its excessively crenulated edges. 

Presented by Dr. L. Phillips, by whom it was 
purchased at the sale of the McEnery Collection in 1842. 

46842 a. Cast of the upper canine ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

No history. 

46767. Cast of the third left upper incisor ; from Kent's-Hole 

Cavern. The original of this specimen is figured by Owen 

in the ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 182, and is 

in the Albert Museum, Exeter 2 . Made by permission 

of the Committee of the Albert Museum, Exeter. 

M. 582. The third right upper incisor ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 
This specimen is mentioned by Pengelly in Brit. Assoc. Rep. 
1872, p. 46 (JS T o. 5962). Presented by Lord Haldon, 1883. 

Machserodus sivalensis (Ealconer and Cautley 3 ). 
Syn. Drepanodon sivalensis, Falc. and Caut. 4 
Meganthereon falconeri, Pomel 5 . 
Machcerodus falconer i, Gaudry 6 . 

Hab. India. 

1 British Fossil Mammals and Birds, p. 179 (1846). 

2 In the 'Catalogue of the Osteological Specimens in the Koyal College of 
Surgeons,' Pt. II. Mammalia, p. 92 (1884), this specimen (No. 445, cast) is 
stated to be in the British Museum. 

3 Palseontological Memoirs of Hugh Falconer, vol. i. p. 550 (1868), Drepan- 
odon. 

4 Loc. cit. 5 Catalogue Methodique, p. 56 (1853). 
6 Aniinaux fossiles et Geologie de l'Attique, p. 113. 



FELID.E. 45 

39730. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm. 3 , pm. 4 , and 

(Fig.) m. 1 ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. This 

specimen, of which the last two teeth are represented in 

the accompanying woodcnt (fig. 4), has been described and 

Pig. 4. 



pm. 4. 



MachcBrodiLS sivalensis. — Posterior left upper cheek-teeth ; from the Plio- 
cene of the Siwalik Hills. \. (From the ' Palseontologia Indica.') 

figured by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia In- 
dica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 338, pi. xliv. fig. 4, and is also 
figured in plate N. figs. 5, 5a of the ' Fauna Antiqua Siva- 
lensis.' It exhibits the small pm- 3 characteristic of the 
species, of which this and the following specimens are the 
types. Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16350. Fragment of the right maxilla of a young individual, 
{Fig.) showing the milk-canine, the penultimate milk-molar, and 
the alveolus of the last milk-molar ; from the Pliocene of 
the Siwaliks. This specimen is figured in the ' Fauna An- 
tiqua Sivalensis,' plate 1ST. figs. 3, 3«; in ' Falconer's 
Palaeontological -Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxv. fig. 5 ; by 
Bose in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. pi. vi. 
fig. 5 ; and by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pi. xliv. figs. 1, 1 a. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16557. The middle portion of the left ramus of the mandible of a 
(Fig.) female ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This 
specimen has been described and figured by the present 
writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. 
pi. xliv. figs. 4, 4 a ; and is also figured in the ' Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. IS", fig. 6, and in Falconer's ' Palae- 
ontological Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxv. fig. 6. It shows pmTl 
and nT 1 , and the broken base of pm. 3. The specimen of the 



46 CAKNTVOKA. 

mandible of a male, figured in the accompanying woodcut 
(fig. 5), shows the larger symphysial expansion charac- 
teristic of that sex. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Pig. 5. 
pm. 3. pm. 4. m. 1. 




Macharodus sivalensis. — Outer view of the left ramus of the mandible of a 
male ; from the Siwalik Hills. Dublin Museum. (From the ' Palgeon- 
tologia Indica.') 

16554. The middle portion of the right ramus of the mandible ; from 

{Fig.) the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is 

figured in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. N. figs. 8, 

8 a, and is briefly mentioned by the present writer in the 

4 Palseontologia Indica/ ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 336. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Machserodus palseindicns, Bose \ 
Hab. India. 

48436. Symphysial extremity of the left ramus of the mandible, 
{Fig.) showing the alveoli of an incisor, the canine, and pm. 3, 

with the broken crown of p m . 4 ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen, which is the type of 
the species, is described and figured by Bose in the Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 125, pi. vi. figs. 1-3 ; 
and by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' 
ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 341, pi. xliv. fig. 3. The species seems 
more nearly allied to the last Siwalik species and the 
American forms than to any of the European species • 
although in the structure of the mandible and pm. 3 it 
presents certain indications of affinity with the latter. 

I resented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

48437. Part of tha right ramus of the mandible, containing p m . 4 
{Fig.) and mTl ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This 

specimen is figured by Bose in the Quart. Journ. Geol. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 125 (1880). 



FELID.E. 47 

Soc. vol. xxxvi. pi. vi. fig. 4 ; and is described by the 
present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 341. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

M. 1567. Fragment of the right ramns of the mandible, containing 
{Fig.) the broken p m . 4 and the roots of pm. 3 ; from the Pliocene 
of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is described and 
figured by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia In- 
dica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 341, pi. xliii. fig. 8. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39728. Occipital portion of the cranium; from the Pliocene of the 
{Fig.) Siwalik Hills. This specimen is described by the present 

writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. 
p. 343; and is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the 
' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi- IS", figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39729. A much-damaged cranium, probably belonging to this 
{Fig.) species ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This 

specimen is mentioned by the present writer in the ' Palae- 
ontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 344; and is figured by 
Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' 
pi. N. fig. 2. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Undetermined Specimens. 

43525. Hinder portion of a cranium ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills. This undescribed specimen indicates an 
individual of gigantic size, larger even than M. neogceus. 
It differs in some respects from No. 39728 ; but both speci- 
mens are too imperfect to determine whether they belong 
to the same species. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

49177. Occipital portion of a cranium ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwaliks. This specimen is in too imperfect condition to 
determine whether it belongs to the present genus or to 
Felis. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Machserodus neogaeus (Lund 1 ). 
Syn. Felis smilodon, Blainville. 
Hycena neogcea, Lund 2 . 
Megantliereon neogceus, Pomel. 

1 K. Dankse Vid. Selsk. Skr. vol. viii. p. 94 (1841), memoir dated 1837, 
Hycena. 

2 hoc. cit. 



48 CARSTVORA. 

Smilodon neogceus, Cope. 
Smilodon populator , Lund 1 . 

Hah. S. America. 

21000. The cranium and mandible, wanting the maxillae and the 
left premaxilla ; from the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. 
The upper portion of the left canine remains ; there are 
only two cheek-teeth on each side of the mandible. 

Purchased, 1846. 

M. 1572. Cast of the cranium and mandible ; from a cavern in 
Minas Geraes, Brazil. The original of this specimen (from 
which the woodcut fig. 6 is modified) is in the Paris 

Pig. 6. 







Machcerodus neogceus. — Cranium, much reduced ; from South America. 

Museum ; and is figured by De Blainville in his ' Osteo- 
graphie,' genus Felis, pi. xx. A small p m . 3, of different 
sizes on the two sides, is present in the mandible. 

No history. 

43235. The left ramus of the mandible, wanting the cutting-teeth ; 

from the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. In this specimen 
pm. a is absent. Presented by Senor L. J. Fontana, 1871. 

43236. The left ramus of the mandible, wanting the cutting-teeth ; 

from the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. In this specimen 
the teeth are in beautiful preservation ; pm73 is present, 
and is of considerably larger size than in the Paris skull 
(No. M. 1572). Presented by Senor L. J. Fontana, 1871. 
1 Loc. cit. vol. ix. p. 293 (1842). 



FELIJLEE. 



49 



18972. The associated third and fourth left upper premolars ; from 
a cavern in Minas Geraes, Brazil. This specimen, with the 
bones under the same number, is believed to belong to the 
same individual as the Paris skull (No. M. 1572). 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18972 a. Shaft of the left femur, associated with No. 18972. 

18972 b. The greater part of the right humerus, broken off infe- 
riorly at the entepicondylar foramen ; associated with 
No. 18972. 

18972 C. The right ulna, wanting the proximal articular extremity; 
associated with No. 18972. 

18972 d. The distal extremity of the right tibia ; associated with 
No. 18972. 

18972 e. The right astragalus; associated with No. 18972. 

18972 f. A phalangeal bone; associated with No. 18972. 

18972 g. Three cervical vertebrae ; associated with No. 18972. 

18975. The right calcaneum ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes, 
Brazil. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

32993. The centrum of a dorsal vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of 
Buenos Ayres. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

32992. The proximal half of the right radius ; from the Pleistocene 
of Buenos Ayres. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

43234. The left femur, wanting the articular extremities ; from the 
Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. This bone is of rather more 
slender form than No. 18972 a. 

Presented by Senor L. J. Fontana, 1871. 

39400. Distal extremity of a right femur, probably belonging to the 
present species ; from the Pleistocene of the Eio Negro, 
Uruguay. This bone is apparently very similar to the 
last. Presented by D. A. Stoddart, Esq., 18G5. 

21000 i. The root of an upper canine, of enormous size ; from the 
Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. The crown of this specimen 
appears to have been broken off during the life of the 
animal. Purchased, 1846. 

B 



50 



CAENIVOEA. 



Genus FELIS, Linn. 1 
(including Leo, Leopardus, Lynx, Tigris, JJncia, &c). 
Dentition:— I. f, C. \, Pm. 2=9, M. \. 



dFeli^ l*o, Linn. 2 

Syn. .Fe&s spelcea, Goldf. 3 

Hab. Africa and South-western Asia (Recent) ; Europe (Pleisto- 
cene). 

28553. The nearly complete cranium and mandible, wanting the 
(Fig.) zygomatic arches, two upper incisors, and the first and 

second upper premolars of either side ; from the Gailen- 
-reuth Cave, Eranconia. This specimen is described and 

figured by Owen in the Phil. Trans. 1859, p. 317, pi. xii. 

figs. 1, la. Purchased, 1853. 

17921. Part of the right maxilla and premaxilla, containing the 
Fig.) third incisor, canine, p m . 3, and pm. 4 , from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern, Torquay. This specimen belonged to a male, and 
is described and figured in Owen's ' British Fossil Mam- 
mals and Birds/ pp. 161, 164, fig. 63 ; and is described in 
Dawkins and Sanford's 'British Pleistocene Mammalia' 
(Pal. Soc. 1866), p. 31. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

43681. The right upper canine; from the cavernous fissures of 
Oreston, near Plymouth ; identical in form with the 
corresponding tooth of No. 17921. Purchased, 1872. 

40967. Two fragments of the right ramus of the mandible, contain- 
ing the canine and the third and fourth premolars, in an 
unworn condition ; from the Pleistocene of Crayford, Kent. 

Purchased, 1868. 

44920. The anterior half of the right ramus of the mandible ; from 
the Pleistocene of Ilford, Essex. The specimen is broken 
off behind the carnassial ; and, with the exception of a 
portion of the last premolar, the crowns of all the cheek- 
teeth are wanting ; the symphysis is entire, and there are 
three mentary foramina. This specimen is noticed .by 
Dawkins and Sanford in their ' Monograph of the British 
Pleistocene Mammalia' (Pal. Soc. 1866), pt. 1, p. 4, and 



Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. C>0 (1766). 

Nova Acta Ac. Ca;s. Leop.-Car. vol x. p. 489 (1821). 



2 hoc. cit. 



FELID^I. 



51 



is No. A 1 of Davies's ' Catalogue of the Brady Collection ' 
(1874). Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

44921. The second phalangeal of the second digit of the left fore- 
foot ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. This specimen is 
No. A 2 of the Catalogue cited above. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

48691. Fragment of the right maxilla, showing part of the alveolus 
of the canine, the alveolus of pm. 2 , and the complete 
pm. 3 ; from Brixham Cave, near Torquay. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48687. The corresponding portion of the left maxilla to No. 48691, 
(Fig.) showing the same teeth ; from Brixham Cave. This 

specimen is figured by Busk in the Phil. Trans, for 1873, 
pi. xlv. fig. 4. Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48688. The left premaxilla, containing the outer incisor, and the 

bases of the other two teeth of the same series ; from Brix- 
ham Cave. Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48690. The right upper carnassial, in a much-worn condition ; from 

(Fig.) Brixham Cave. This specimen is figured by Busk, loc. cit. 

fig. 6. Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

34 (0. C). A part of the left maxilla, containing the much-worn 
pm- 4 , and the alveoli of the canine and the other cheek- 
teeth ; from a cavern in Muggendorf, Pranconia. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

M. 179. The right upper canine, with the enamel of the crown 

broken ; from the cave of Durdham Down, Gloucestershire. 

EnnisJcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 176. The right upper canine ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

EnnisJcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 180. The right upper canine ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

EnnisJcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 177. Three specimens of the upper carnassial ; from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern. EnnisJcillen Collection. Purcliased, 1882. 

M. 181. Three specimens of the upper carnassial, and one third pre- 
molar ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

EnnisJcillen Collection. PurcJiased, 1882. 

e2 



§2 CAENIVOEA. 

M. 369. The right lower carnassial, of very large size, and much 
worn ; from a cave at Adelsberg. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 178. The left lower carnassial; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

Emiskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 178 a. The third and fourth lower premolars ; from the Gailen- 
reuth Cave. Ennishillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 369. The third and fourth right lower premolars ; from a 
cave at Adelsberg. Egerton Collection. Purchased,18S2. 

48683. A left outer incisor ; from Brixham Cave. 

Briooham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48689. A canine ; from Brixham Cave. This specimen is figured 
{Fig.) by Busk in the Phil. Trans, for 1873, pi. xlv. fig. 5. 

Briocham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48686. A canine ; from Brixham Cave. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

16691. Two specimens of the lower carnassial of opposite sides ; from 
Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

17921. The left lower carnassial ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

43191. The left upper canine, of an extremely small individual 
(determined by Falconer) ; locality unknown. 

Wetherell Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

28554. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
showing the canine (broken) and cheek-teeth: from a 
cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. Purchased, 1853. 

M. 272. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
showing the canine and cheek-teeth ; from the Gailen- 
reuth Cave. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 273. The perfect left upper canine, exhibiting very clearly the ver- 
tical groovings on the outer and inner surfaces ; from the 
Gailenreuth Cave. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

40951. The left lower canine of a Felis ; from the cavern of " North 

(Fig.) Hill Tor," Gower, Glamorganshire. This specimen is 

figured in ' Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. 

pi. xxxvi. figs. 5 & 6, and is. said by Falconer (ibid. p. 457) 

to resemble very closely the corresponding tooth of a young 



FELIDJ5. 53 

Lion ; it not improbably belongs to a small individual of 
the present species. Presented by Gen. Wood, 1865. 

M. 209. A right upper canine tooth, from the Gailenreuth Cave ; 
probably belonging to the milk -dentition of this species. 
Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 186. The glenoidal half of the left scapula ; from the Gailen- 
reuth Cave. Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 187. The left humerus, wanting the distal extremity ; from the 
Gailenreuth Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 271. Middle portion of the shaft of the left humerus, in a 
much-rolled condition ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

28041. The distal extremity of the right humerus ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Clacton, Essex. Presented by J. Broiun, Esq., 1852. 

23735 C. The distal extremity of the left humerus ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Slade Green, near Erith, Kent. Purchased, 1852. 

43685. The broken distal extremity of the right humerus ; from the 

cavernous fissures of Oreston. Purchased, 1849. 

40875. The left radius of a large individual. The locality of this 
fine specimen is unknown. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

43686. Two specimens of the proximal extremity of the radius 

belonging to opposite sides ; from the cavernous fissures 
of Oreston. Purchased, 1872. 

43687. The distal extremity of the radius ; from the cavernous 

fissures of Oreston. Purchased, 1872. 

M. 207. The right scapho-lunar ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882 

43698. The left scapho-lunar ; from the cavernous fissures of 

Oreston. Purchased, 1872. 

43699. The left scapho-lunar ; from the cavernous fissures of 

Oreston. Purchased, 1872. 

M. 103. The left scapho-lunar ; from Cat's-Hole Cave, Gower, 
Glamorganshire, Presented by Gen. Wood, 1865. 



54 CAKNTVORA. 

M. 195. The associated second and third left metacarpals ; from the 
Gailenreuth Cave. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 196. The associated second and third left metacarpals; from 
the Gailenreuth Cave. These bones are longer and more 
slender than No. M. 195. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 179. The associated fourth and fifth left metacarpals ; from the 
Gailenreuth Cave. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 194. The associated fourth and fifth right metacarpals ; from the 
Gailenreuth Cave. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 194 a. The second right metacarpal ; from the Gailenreuth 

Cave. EnnisTcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 197. The second right metacarpal ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 
EnnisTcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 369 b. The third left metacarpal ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 369 a. The fifth right metacarpal ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 369. Three specimens of the second metacarpal ; from the Gai- 
lenreuth Cave. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

43688. Two specimens of the proximal half of the left fifth meta- 

carpal ; from the cavernous fissures of Oreston. 

Purchased, 1872. 

43689. The proximal half of the right third metacarpal ; from the 

cavernous fissures of Oreston ; the articular surface im- 
perfect. Purchased, 1872. 

43690. Three specimens of phalangeals of the proximal row ; from 

the cavernous fissures of Oreston. Purchased, 1872. 

M. 204. Two specimens of phalangeals of the proximal row ; from the 
Gailenrouth Cave. 

Ennislcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 280. Two specimens of phalangeals of the proximal row ; from 
the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 






felid^;. 55 

43691. A phalangeal of the middle row ; from the cavernous 
fissures of Oreston. Purchased, 1872. 

M. 281. Two specimens of the second phalangeal of the fourth digit 
of the right manus ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 205. The second phalangeal of the third digit of the right 
manus ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 275. Ungual phalangeal ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 206. Three specimens of the ungual phalangeal ; from the Gai- 
lenreuth Cave. Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

48684-5. Two phalangeals of the proximal row; from Brixham 
(Fig.) Cave. These specimens are figured by Busk in the Phil. 
Trans, for 1873, pi. xlv. figs. 7, 8. 

Briccham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

23733. The left innominate hone, wanting the greater part of the 
(Fig.') pubis; from the Pleistocene of Slade Green, near Erith, 
Kent. This specimen is described and figured (|) by 
Dawkins and Sanford in their ' Monograph of the British 
Pleistocene Mammalia' (Palseontographical Society, 1866), 
p. 10, pi. iii. fig. 1. Purchased, 1849. 

M. 188. Acetabulum and ischiatic portion of the left innominate 
bone ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. This specimen is of 
considerably smaller size than the last. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 270. The right femur ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. This 

(Fig.) specimen is figured in plate xviii. fig. 4 of Dawkins and 

Sanford's ' Monograph of the British Pleistocene Mammalia/ 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 189. The proximal half of the left femur; from the Gailen- 
reuth Cave. Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 190. The distal half of the left femur, from the Gailenreuth 
Cave. Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

40642. The greater portion of the left femur, wanting a portion 
of the head, the great trochanter, and the distal articular 



56 CAEIOVORA. 

extremity; from the Pleistocene gravels of Barnwell, 
Cambridge. This specimen, although of smaller size, 
agrees so closely with No. M. 270 that it may be safely 
referred to the same species. Purchased, 1867. 

M. 191. The right tibia, wanting the greater part of the cnemial 
crest, the proximal articular surface, and the inner mal- 
leolus; from the Gailenreuth Cave. This specimen 
belonged to a small individual. 

Ennishillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

43692. The distal extremity of the left tibia ; from the cavernous 

fissures of Oreston. This specimen is of very large size. 

Purchased, 1872. 

43694. The right astragalus, associated with the last specimen. 

Purchased, 1872. 

M. 193. A broken left astragalus ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Ennishillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 277. The right astragalus, of very large size ; from the Gailen- 
reuth Cave. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

43693. A broken right astragalus ; from the cavernous fissures of 

Oreston. Purchased, 1872. 

M. 276. A left astragalus ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 277. A right astragalus ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 192. A left calcaneum ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 188.2. 

43695. The articular portion of the left calcaneum ; from the 

cavernous fissures of Oreston. Purchased, 1876. 

43696. The cuboid ; from the cavernous fissures of Oreston. 

Purchased, 1876. 

43697. The right navicular ; from the cavernous fissures of Oreston. 

Purchased, 1876. 

M. 203. The right ecto- cuneiform ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Ennislcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

UL 198. The associated second, third, and fourth metatarsals of the 






right side ; from the Gailenreuth Cave ; associated with 
No. M. 203. Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 273. The associated first, second, third, and fourth metatarsals 
of the left side ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

51 (0. C). The second right metatarsal of a small individual ; from 
Kirkdale Cave, Yorkshire. 

_ resented hy W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

M. 201. Two specimens of the second left metatarsal; from the 
Gailenreuth Cave. Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 370. The second left metatarsal ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 202. The third left metatarsal ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 199. Two specimens of the fourth right metatarsal ; from the Gai- 
lenreuth Cave. Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 370. The fourth right metatarsal ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

40368. The proximal extremity of the fourth right metatarsal ; 
from Kirkdale Cave. Purchased, 1867. 

M. 200. Two specimens of the fifth left metatarsal ; from the Gailen- 
reuth Cave. Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 370. The fifth left metatarsal ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 182. The atlas vertebra, imperfect on the left side ; from the Gai- 
lenreuth Cave. Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 18. A cervical vertebra ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 184. A dorsal vertebra ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 274. Two broken specimens of lumbar vertebrae ; from the Gai- 
lenreuth Cave. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 185. A lumbar vertebra, with the processes broken and the 



58 



CARNIVOKA. 



neural canal coated with stalagmite; from the Gailen- 
reuth Cave. EnnisJcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 208. Three caudal vertebrae ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

EnnisJcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 208 a. Three caudal vertebrae ; from the Gailenreuth cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

Felis cristata 9 Falconer and Cautley 1 . 
Syn. Uncia cristata, Cope. 

Uncia grandicristata, Cope. 
Felis grandicristata, Bose' 2 . 
(?) Felis palceotigris, Falc. (MSS.). 

Sab. India. 

28913. Cast of the cranium. The original specimen, which is the 
type, is from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India, and 
is preserved in the Museum of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons (No. 358) ; it is figured and described by the pre- 
sent writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. 
p. 320, pis. xli. and xlii. The original was presented to 
the College of Surgeons by Walter Ewer, Esq. 
Presented by the Directors of the East-India Company, 1854. 

49176. Hinder portion of the cranium ; from the Pliocene of the 
{Fig.) Siwalik Hills. This specimen is described and figured by 

the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 

vol. ii. pp. 323-4, pi. xl. fig. 1. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

49175. Hinder portion of the cranium of a very large individual. 

{Fig.) This specimen is described by Pose in the Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 127, under the name ofF. grandi- 
cristata ; but is figured and referred by the present writer 
in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 324, pi. xl. 
fig. 2, to the present species. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Felis (? Cynaelurus) brachygnatha, Lydckker 3 . 
Hab. India. 

16537. Greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, wanting 
{Fig.) the canine ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. 

1 Asiatic Eesearches, vol. xix. p. 135 (1836). 

2 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 127 (1880). 

3 Pakeontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 326 (1884). 



FELZDiE. 59 

This specimen (which with the next forms the type of the 
species) is described and figured by the present writer in 
the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 326, pi. xliii. 
figs. 2, 2a. Cauiley Collection. Presented. 1842. 

16573. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible of 

{Fig.) an immature individual ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 

Hills. This specimen is described and figured by the 

present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica/ ser. 10, vol. ii. 

pi. xliii. figs. 1, la. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Felis prisca, Kaup \ 
Rah. Germany. 

M. 1575. A cast of the right upper carnassial tooth : from the Upper 
Miocene of Eppelsheim, Hesse-Darmstadt. The original, 
which is preserved in the Museum at Darmstadt, is the 
type of the species, and is described and figured by Kaup 
in the 'Ossemens Fossiles du Museum de Darmstadt,' 
pt. ii. p. 20, pi. ii. fig. 2. Purchased. 

dfclte partrus, Linn. 2 
Hah. Southern Asia and Africa (Eecent), and Europe (Pleistocene). 

47704. Fragment of the left maxilla and premaxilla, containing the 
{Fig.) broken canine, the alveolus of pra. s 2 , and the complete pm. 3 ; 
from the Genista Gave, Gibraltar. This specimen is de- 
scribed and figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. 
vol. x. pi. iii. fig. 2, p. 79 (1877). 

B^ome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47693. The mandible, wanting the hinder half of the left, and the 
{Fig.) condylar and angular portions of the right ramus ; from 

the Genista Cave. This specimen is figured by Busk in 

the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. iii. fig. 1. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47695. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a young 
individual ; from the Genista Cave. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

27659. The left lower carnassial of a Felis of the size of the present 
species ; from a cave near Montpellier. This tooth is 
apparently indistinguishable from the corresponding tooth 
of the present species ; it is, however, possible that it may 

1 Oss. Foss. de Darmstadt, pt. ii. p. 20 (1833). 

2 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 61 (1766). 



60 CAKNIVORA. 

belong to some of the other species described by Bourgui- 
gnat x from the French Pleistocene. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

47705- Two specimens of the proximal extremity of the ulna of 
opposite sides ; from the Genista Cave. 

Brome Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

47703. The distal extremity of the left tibia ; from a cavern at Wind- 
mill Hill, Gibraltar. Brome Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

M. 373. The left lower carnassial of a large Felis which may belong 
to the present species ; from the Pleistocene (?) of the Val 
d'Arno. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

Felis (sp. ; allied to F. pardus). 
Hah. India. 

16537 a. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the 

{Fig.) three cheek-teeth ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, 

India. This specimen is described and figured by the 

present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica/ ser. 10, 

vol. ii. p. 328, pi. xliii. figs. 4, 4a. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

48929. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
two last cheek-teeth ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills. This specimen is mentioned by the present writer 
in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 329, where 
it is referred to the same species as the last. It is, how- 
ever, possible that it may belong to F. brachygnatha. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Jelfe onca, Linn. 2 

Syn. (?) Felis affinis onca, Lund 3 . 
Hah. America. 

18892. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
pm. 3, and nTl in an almost unworn condition, and the 
broken base of pm. 4 ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes, 
Brazil. This specimen is indistinguishable from the man- 
dible of large individuals of the Jaguar. H. Gervais and 
Ameghino (loc. cit.) record this species from the Pleistocene 

1 Histoire des Felidse fossiles constates en France, etc. (1879). 

2 Syst. Nat, ed. 12, vol. i. p. 61 CL766). 

:) Vide H. Gervais and Ameghino, 'Les Mammiferes fossiles de l'Amerique du 
Sucl,' p. 17 (1880). 



FELID^. 



61 



of Buenos Ayres ; and it seems highly probable that 
the so-called F. affinis onca, Lund, should be referred to 
the same species. Glaussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

37684. The fourth right metatarsal, probably belonging to the 
present species ; from the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. 

Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

jfalfe partialis?, Liim. 1 
Syn. (?) Felis affinis partialis, Lund 2 . 

Hob. America. 

18877. Three specimens of the humerus of a Felis, agreeing pre- 
cisely with the corresponding bone of the Ocelot; from 
a cavern in Minas Geraes, Brazil. This species is not 
recorded by H. Gervais and Ameghino from the S. 
American Pleistocene; but it is probable that Lund's 
F. affinis joardalis is really the same. 

Glaussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

dftlfe tmrfcma (Oken 3 ). 
Syn. Lynx partialis, Oken. 
Hab. Spain. 

47690. Fragment of the anterior portion of the cranium, showing 
(Fig.) the complete dentition ; from the Genista Cave, Gibraltar. 

This specimen is figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. 
vol. x. pi. iii. fig. 3. The second premolar is absent. 

Browne Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47691. The nearly complete mandible, wanting a large portion of 
(Fig.) the right ramus ; from the Genista Cave. This specimen 

is figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. iii. 
fig. 4. Brome Collection. Presented, i876. 

47694. Fragment of the right maxilla, with the teeth broken ; 
from the Genista Cave. The second premolar is absent. 
Brome Collection. Presented, 1870. 

47699. Distal portion of the left humerus ; from the Genista Cave. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47700. Proximal extremity of the left ulna; from the Genista 

Cave. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 62 (1766). 

2 Vide H. Gervais and Aineghino, op. cit. p. 15. 

3 In Teinminck's ' Monographic de Mammal ogic,' p. 116 (1827). 



62 CARNIVORA. 

jfrttS caffra, Desmarest \ 
Syn. Felts caliyata, Temm. 2 

Felis maniculata, Riippell 3 . 

Hob. Africa and S. Asia (Eecent), and Europe (Pleistocene). 

47696. The left ramus of the mandible, from a cavern in Windmill 
{Fig.) Hill, Gibraltar. This specimen is figured by Busk in the 

Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. iii. fig. 6 (1877), under the 
name of F. caligata. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47697. The hinder portion of the left ramus of the mandible, showing 

the carnassial tooth ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

46798. The right humerus ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47701. The distal extremity of the left humerus; from a cavern in 

Windmill Hill. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47702. The proximal extremity of the left radius ; from a cavern in 

Windmill Hill. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47706. The left tibia; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47707. The fourth and fifth left metatarsals; from a cavern in 

Windmill Hill. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

Felis brevirostris, Croizet and Jobert \ 
Syn. F. leptorhyncha, P. Gervais 5 {ex Bravard). 
Hob. France. 

29622. Cast of the cranium. The original is from the Upper Pliocene 

of Mont Perrier, near Issoire (Puy-de-D6me), France ; and 
is figured by P. Gervais, unde* the name of F. leptorhyncha, 
in the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. pi. xxvii. fig. 3. 
The second premolar is absent. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29623. Cast of the mandible. The original is from the Upper 

1 Mammalogie, Suppl. p. 540 (1822). 

2 Monographie de Mammalogie, vol. i. p. 123 (1827). 

3 In Temminck, op. cit. p. 128. 

1 Oss. Fobs, du Puy-de-D6me, vol. i. p. 200 (1828). 
5 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st. ed. pi. xxvii. (1848-52). 



felid^;. 63 

Pliocene of Mt. Perrier ; and is figured by P. Gervais in 
the Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 2nd ed. pi. xxvii. fig. 4. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

28864. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 

showing the canine and the three cheek-teeth ; from the 
Upper Pliocene of Puy-de-D6me. 

Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28865. The right humerus ; from the Upper Pliocene of Puy-de- 

Dome. Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28866. The right ulna ; associated with No. 28865. 

28867. The right radius ; associated with No. 28865. 

27651. The distal extremity of the left humerus; from the Upper 

{Fig.) Pliocene of Mont Perrier. This specimen is figured by 

Croizet and Jobert in the ' Oss. Foss. du Puy-de-D6me,' 

vol. i. pi. vi. fig. 6. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27658. The proximal extremity of the radius; from the Upper 
(Fig.) Pliocene of Mont Perrier. This specimen is figured by 
Croizet and Jobert. ojo. cit. fig. 9. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28868. The left femur ; from the Upper Pliocene of Mont Perrier. 

Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Felis issiodorensis, Croizet and Jobert \ 
Hab. France. 

27614. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
(Fig.) carnassial: from the Upper Pliocene of Mont Perrier. 

This specimen is figured by Croizet and Jobert in the 'Oss. 

Foss. du Puy-de-D6me,' vol. i. pi. iv. fig. 4. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28860. The nearly complete left ramus of the mandible ; from the 

Pliocene of Puy-de-D6me. 

Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28861. The left ulna; from the Pliocene of Puy-de-D6me. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Felis ogygia, Kaup \ 
M. 1574. Cast of the symphysial extremity of the left ramus of the 

1 Oss. Foss. du Puy-de-Doine, vol. i. p. 19S (1828). 
- Oss. Foss. de Darmstadt, pt. ii. p. 21 (1S33). 



64 CAENIVOEA. 

mandible. The original of this specimen was obtained 
from the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, Hesse Darmstadt ; 
and is figured by Kaup in the ' Oss. Foss. de Darmstadt/ 
pt. ii. pi. ii. fig. 3, and by De Blainville in the ' Osteo- 
graphie,' genus Felis, pi. xvi. Purchased. 

dfclfe atU$ (Linn.) 1 . 
Hab. Europe. 

16710. The left ramus of the mandible, from Kent's-Hole Cavern, 
{Fig.) Torquay. This specimen is mentioned in Owen's ' British 
Fossil Mammals and Birds/ p. 173, and the teeth are 
figured in outline in the figure on p. 172. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

M. 95. The left ramus of the mandible, containing the carnassial ; 
from Cat's-Hole Cavern, Gower, Glamorganshire. 

Presented by Gen. Wood, 1865. 

M. 96. The left ramus of the mandible, containing the canine and 
the three cheek-teeth ; from Cat's-Hole Cavern. 

Presented by Gen. Wood, 1865. 

Genus PSEUDJELURUS, Gervais 2 . 

Dentition : — I. |, C. \ Pm. ( -^- ) , M. ^-^. The inner cusp of the 
lower carnassial is absent in the typical forms, but is present in 
P. intermedins* . 

Pseudselurus intermedius, Eilhol 1 . 
Hab. France. 
M. 1367. Two portions of the opposite rami of the mandible, one 
showing the two last premolars and the carnassial, and 
the other the last premolar and the carnassial (broken), 
and both showing the alveolus of a small m . 2 ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. These 
specimens are similar to the type specimen figured by 
Filhol 5 , with the exception of the presence of m. 2. In the 
presence of a minute inner cusp to m . 1 this species forms 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 62 (1766). 

2 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 127 (1848-52). 

3 In the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 314, it is stated that this 
cusp is invariably absent. 

1 Ann. Sci. Gcol. vol. vii. art, 7, p. 167 (1876). 
' Ibid. pi. xxv. figs. 128-9. 



FELID.3B. 65 

an almost complete transition from more typical species of 
the genus to the viverrine Palceojorionodon. 

Purchased, 1884. 



Genus PROiELURUS, Filhol \ 

Dentition :— I. |, C. \, Pm. \, M. |. This genus is doubtfully 
placed in the present family ; it seems to connect Pseudcelurus with 
the viverrine Palceoprionodon, and also exhibits affinity with the 
Mustelidce. There is a talon and a small inner cusp to the lower 
carnassial. The first lobe of pm. 4 is rudimentary or wanting. 

Froselurus lemanensis, Filhol 2 . 

Bab. France. 

M. 1645. Hinder portion of the left ramus of the mandible, show- 
ing the third and fourth premolars, the carnassial (broken), 
and the alveolus of the minute m . 2 ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), France. This 
specimen agrees precisely with the mandibles figured by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. pi. xxvi. figs. 7-10. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1646. Two specimens of the right maxilla of a Carnivore, 
probably belonging to the present species ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Bach. The more perfect specimen contains 
the third premolar and the carnassial, and the alveoli of 
pm. 2 and m. 1, behind which there was no other tooth. 
The carnassial is musteline, having a rudimentary anterior 
lobe, and the third premolar is feline. The teeth agree so 
exactly in size and general character with those of the 
mandible, that there is every probability that the maxilla 
belongs to the same species. The length of the upper 
carnassial is 0,014. Purchased, 1884. 

Genus JELUROGALE, Filhol 3 . 

Dentition : — I. |> C. 1 p m . j~ } , M. —^ 

1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, p. 192 (1879), Proailurus. 

Ibid. 
3 Ibid. vol. iii. art. 7, p. 14 (1872). 

F 



DO CAENIYOEA. 

iElurogale sivalensis, Lydekker 1 . 
Syn. Pseudcelurus sivalensis, Lydekker 2 . 
Hob. India. 

M. 1560. Cast of the greater portion of the right ramus of the man- 
dible, showing the broken base of the canine, the alveoli 
of the three premolars, and the broken carnassial. The 
original of this specimen, which is the type of the species, 
is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and was 
obtained from the Siwaliks of the Punjab. It is described 
and figured by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia 
Indiea,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 317, pi. xliv. figs. 7, 7a. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Genus JELUROPSIS, Lydekker 3 . 
Dentition :— I. 1, C. \, Pm. (?), M. |. 

iEluropsis annectans, Lydekker 4 . 
Hob. India. 

M. 1559. Cast of the hinder portion of the right ramus of the 
mandible, containing the last premolar, the broken car- 
nassial, and the aveolus of m. 2. The original of this 
specimen, which is the type of the genus and species, is 
preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and was 
obtained from the Siwaliks of the Punjab. It is described 
and figured by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia 
Indiea,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 316, pi. xxxiii. figs. 4, 4a. 

Purchased, 1884. 

LlMB-BONES OF UNDETEKMINED FELINES. 

a. From the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. 

37144. The centrum of the axis vertebra of a large species of Felis 
or Machcerodus. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37146. The distal extremity of the right humerus of a large species. 

(Fig.). This specimen is described and figured by the present 

writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indiea,' ser. 10, vol. ii. 

1 Rec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. x. p. 83 (1877), Pseudcelurus. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Paheontologia Indiea (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 316 (1884). 

4 Log. cit. 



FELIDJ3. 67 

pp. 345-6, pi. xliii. fig. 11, where it is suggested that it 
may belong to Felis cristata. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37142. The distal extremity of the left humerus, of still larger size 
than the last specimen. This specimen is alluded to by 
the present writer in the passage quoted above. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37156. Fragment of the left carpus and metacarpus of a species 
about the size of F. pardus, showing several of the carpal 
bones, and the proximal extremities of the third, fourth, 
and fifth metacarpals. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

40827. Distal extremity of the left femur of a very large species, 
which is probably either Felis cristata or Machcerodus 
palazindicus. The dimensions of this specimen are given 
by the present writer 1 in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 
10, vol. ii. p. 347. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

40827 a. The distal extremity of the right femur, of smaller size 
than the last. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

40827 b. The distal extremity of the left femur, of the same size as 
the last. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37145. The proximal extremity of a right tibia, of about the same 
size as Felis pardus. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 1566. The distal half of a right tibia, of about the same size as 
the corresponding bone of a small Tiger. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15135. The left astragalus of a species about the size of a large 
Leopard. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16565. The distal elements of the left tarsus, with the proximal 
halves of the five metatarsals, belonging to a species about 
the size of Felis pardus. This specimen not improbably 
belongs to the same individual as No. 37156. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

1 The number is erroneously given as 40527. 

f2 



68 GAENIVOEA. 

b. From the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. 
37682. The distal extremity of the left humerus of a feline Car- 
nivore about the size of a Leopard, exhibiting a large ent 
e-picondylar foramen. This bone belonged to an adult 
animal, and is far too small for Machcerodus neogceus. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

c. From the Pleistocene of the Narhada Valley, India. 
15924. Distal extremity of the right femur of a species of the size 
of a large Tiger. Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. 

15922. Distal extremity of the left femur, of rather smaller size 
than the last specimen ; collected at the village of Naogaon 
in 1839. M history. 

d. From the Pleistocene of England. 
M. 1625. Portion of the humerus (apparently) of a large feline ; 
from the Forest-bed of Kessingland, Norfolk. This speci- 
men is noticed by Newton in the Mem. Geol. Surv. 
England and Wales, " Yertebrata of Forest-bed Series of 
Norfolk and Suffolk," p. 23 (1882). 

Presented by Miss L. Martineau, 1884. 

Family HY^NID^E. 

In many respects the typical genus is more intimately allied to 
Canis (notably in the structure of the feet and the absence of an 
entepicondylar foramen to the humerus) than to the preceding 
family ; and as some of the Viverridce are extremely close to the 
Felidce, the former family is very frequently placed next to the 
latter, The relationship of Cynodictis to the Viverridae, is, how- 
ever, so extremely intimate that it seems imperative to place the 
Canoids and Viverroids in juxtaposition. The dentition of some of 
the most specialized species of Hycena is moreover extremely feline, 
while some of the more generalized forms (Lepthyama) are very like 
those of some of the primitive felines, so that there are strong indi- 
cations of affinity between the two families. On the other hand, the 
more generalized species of Hycena (H. macrostoma) exhibit very 
strongly marked affinities to the Canoids, while the genus Ictithe- 
rium closely connects other species {H. sivalensis) with the Viver- 
roids ; so that the impossibility of exhibiting the full affinities of a 
group by any lineal system of classification is very strongly exem- 
plified. 






wzm?iT>M. 69 

Genus HYiENA, Zimm. 1 
Syn. Crocotta, Kaup. 
Crocuta, Gray, 
JSuhycena, Falconer. 
Hycenictis, Gaudry 2 . 
Lycycena, Hensel 3 . 

Dentition. — The normal adult dental formula o£ Hycena, in which, 
for palaeontological purposes, at all events, Crocuta is best included, 
is I. |, C. |, Pm. |, M. j. In certain fossil forms, however, pm. 1 is, 
either occasionally or normally, absent, while in others pm. 1 is 
normally developed ; and in others again m . 2 may be present. The 
range of variation in the dentition may therefore be expressed 
by the following formula :— viz. I. |, C. \, Pm. g=g, M. (1 ^. It 
is, however, not improbable that the upper true molar may be 
entirely wanting in some instances. 



f^^ama nrocuta (Erxleben 4 ). 

Syn. Hycena capensis, Desmarest. 

Hycena maculata, Zimmermann. 

Hycena rufa, Cuvier. 

Hycena spelcea, Goldfuss 5 (? var.). 

Crocotta maculata, Kaup. 

Crocotta spelcea, Kaup (? var.). 

Crocuta maculata, Gray. 

Canis crocuta, Erxleben 6 . 

In this species m . 1 has a small talon and no inner cusp ; 
m. 1 is always minute, and may possibly bejjjabsent'in some instances ; 
it has either one or two fangs. In one skull 7 there is on one side 
the alveolus of a minute m . 2. The hinder lobe of pm. 4 is larger 
than the middle ; and there is no distinct anterior talon to pm. 3 , 
which is set parallel to the molar alveoli. 

Hab. Africa (Recent), and Europe (Pleistocene). 

1 Specimen Zoologies Geographies, p. 365 (1777). The genus also has the 
pre-Linnean authority of Brisson, under which it is frequently quoted. 

2 Comptes Eendus, vol. lii. p. 722 (1861). The reasons for including this 
^enus in Hycena are given under the head of H. sivalensis. 

3 Monatsb. k. preuss. Ak. Wiss. 1862 (vol. for 1863), p. 567. The reasons 
for including this genus in Hycena are given under the head of Hmacrostoma. 

4 Syst. Eeg. Animal, p. 578 (1777), Cawis crocuta. 

5 Nova Acta Ac. Cass. Leop.-Car. vol. xi. pt. 2, p. 456 (1823). 

6 Loc. cit. 

7 This specimen is in the Museum of the Koyal College of Surgeons 
(No. 523). " 



70 CAENIVORA. 

28557. The nearly complete cranium, wanting the left zygomatic 
region, the incisors, the right canine, and the second 
left premolar ; from a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. 
This specimen belonged to an extremely aged individual, 
the teeth being very much worn ; there is no sign of the 
presence of m. 1 . Purchased, 1853. 

29 (0. C). Cranium, wanting the zygomatic, nasal, and premaxillary 
{Fig.) regions ; from a cavern in Muggendorf, Pranconia. 
This specimen exhibits a severe lesion in the parietal 
region, which had, however, healed before the death of 
the animal. It has been described and figured by Som- 
mering in ' Nova Acta Ac. Cses. Leop.-Car.' vol. xiv. p. 1, 
pis. 1, 2 ; by Cuvier in the ' Ossemens Fossiles, 7 ed. 1822, 
vol. iv. p. 399, pi. xx. figs. 6, 7 ; and by Owen in the 
' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' pp. 153-4, fig. 59. 
The teeth are well worn, the greater portion of pm. 4 being 
broken away ; there is no trace of m^J., The condition of 
the bone is remarkably fresh, there being no adhesion to 
the tongue in any part. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

14274. The right maxilla, showing the whole of the teeth in an al- 
most unworn and very perfect condition ; from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern, Torquay. There is a minute alveolus for m. ] . 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16693. A portion of the left maxilla, showing the three last pre- 
molars ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. There is no trace of 
m. 1 . McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

37162. A portion of the left maxilla, showing the three last pre- 
molars; from Brixham Cave, near Torquay. The teeth 
are well worn, and there is no trace of m. 1. 

Presented by E. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

32 (0. C). Damaged occipital portion of a cranium ; from Kirkdale 
Cave, Yorkshire. 

Presented by W. Sahnond, Esq. Before 1836. 

27959. The hinder half of the cranium ; from Westcregeln, near 
Magdeburg. Presented by J. Brown, Esq., 1852. 

37165. The hinder portion of the cranium ; from Brixham Cave. 

Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 



hy^ntdjE. 71 

37166. A fragment of the parietal portion of the cranium ; from 
Brixham Cave. Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

28582. Basis of the cranium ; from a cavern in Sundwig, West- 
phalia. Purchased, 1853. 

30 x (0. C). Fragment of right maxilla, containing the last three 
premolars ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

42927. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the unworn pm. 3 
and the alveoli of the other teeth ; from the Grotto de 
Eemouchamps. Purchased, 1853. 

44748. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm. 3 and pm. 4 
and the alveolus of m. 1 ; from a cavern at Bleadon. 
The teeth are little worn and of very large size. 

Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

44750. Fragment of the upper canine tooth; from a cavern at 
Bleadon. Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

18982. The greater portion of the left maxilla and premaxilla; 
from Kent's-Hole Cavern. All the teeth are present with 
the exception of pm. 1 and m. l ? f both of which the 
alveoli are visible. Presented by Bev. Upton Bichards, 1845. 

16695. The greater portion of the right maxilla; from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern. The canine is broken ; the four premolars are 
present, in a well-worn condition ; but there is no trace 
of m. 1 . McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

37163. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm. 3 and pm. 4 ; 
from Kent's-Hole Cavern. The teeth are little worn, and 
there is a minute alveolus for m. 1 . 

Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq,, 1863. 

18273. Fragment of the left maxilla of a very old individual, con- 
taining the alveolus of pm. 2 ? the complete pm. 3, and a 
part of pm. 4 ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

18982. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the three last 
cheek-teeth in an early stage of wear ; from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 



72 CA-RNIVORA. 

35 (0. C). The right premaxilla, containing the three incisors ; from 
Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

48708. Part of the left maxilla, containing the second and third 
premolars and the canine ; from Brixham Cave. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

M. 1340. Casts of the associated canine, and second, third, and 
fourth upper premolars ; from the Forest-bed Series of 
Corton Cliff, Suffolk. The originals of these specimens 
are in the possession of J. J. Colman, Esq., and are described 
and figured by Newton in the ' Geological Magazine ' for 
1883, pp. 433-5, pi. x. 

Presented by E. T. Newton, Esq., 1884. 

47708. Palate; from the Genista Cave, Gibraltar. This specimen 
(Fig.) is described and figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. 

vol. x. p. 75, pi. ii. figs. 1, 2, 3. It shows the first three 
premolars, in a well-worn condition, and the broken 
carnassial of the right side. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47709. The occipital portion of the same cranium as the last ; from 
(Fig.) the Genista Cave, Gibraltar. This specimen is described 

and figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. 
p. 75, pi. ii. fig. 4. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

M. 91. The right maxilla, containing the canine and the first three 
premolars, in a much-worn condition ; from Cat's -Hole 
Cave, Gower, Glamorganshire. 

Presented by Gen. Wood, 1865. 

M. 1573. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting the incisors 

(Fig.) and the last premolar ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

This specimen is figured by Cuvier in the 1836 edition of 

the ' Ossemens Fossiles,' pi. cxcii. fig. 9 ; it belonged to 

an animal of medium age. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

17988. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible of 
an immature individual ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842-. 

14174. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
showing all the teeth except the third incisor ; from 
Kent's-Hole Cavern. The true molar is much worn. 

No history. 






HY^XIT)^. 



73 



28559. The nearly complete right ramus of the mandible, wanting 

the incisors and canine ; from a cavern in Sundwig, 
Westphalia. The teeth are well worn, and indicate an 
old animal. Purchased, 1853. 

18982 a. The horizontal part of the right ramns of the mandible, 
wanting the symphysis ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. All 
the cheek-teeth are present, and are but slightly worn. 

Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

14172. The anterior portion of the mandible of an immature in- 
dividual : from Kent's-Hole Cavern. This specimen lacks 
the incisors, but shows all the other teeth in beautiful 
preservation. No history. 

28560. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 

containing the last three cheek-teeth ; from a cavern in 
Sundwig, Westphalia. Purchased, 1853. 

28560 a. The horizontal portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 
showing all the teeth except the incisors, in a well-worn 
condition ; from a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. 

Purchased, 1853. 

28560 b. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible 
of an immature individual, showing the partially pro- 
truded canine, the third and fourth premolars, and the 
alveoli of pm. 2 and m . 1 ; from a cavern in Sundwig, 
Westphalia. Purchased, 1853. 

28015. The greater part of the horizontal portion of the right 
{Fig.) ramus of the mandible; from the Pleistocene "till" of 
Walton-on-the-Xaze, Essex. This specimen is described 
and figured by Owen in the ' British Fossil Mammals 
and Birds,' p. 151, fig. 58. It shows the whole of the 
cheek-teeth in a much-worn condition, and the alveolus of 
the canine and one incisor. 

Presented by J. Broivn, Esq., 1852. 

33 (0. C). The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 
showing all the teeth except the incisors ; from Kirkdale 
Cave. Presented by W. Sahnond, Esq. Before 1S3G. 

46135. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible of an 
old individual ; dredged off the Dogger Bank. 

Owles Collection. Purchased. 1S7A. 



74 CARKTVORA. 

37167. The anterior portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 

showing the canine and cheek-teeth; from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern. Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

♦ 

37168. The middle portion of the left ramus of the mandible, show- 

ing the four cheek-teeth, in a very slightly worn condition ; 
from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

37169. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 

second and third premolars ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

37170. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a young 

individual, showing the canine and p m . 3 ; from Kent's- 
Hole Cavern. Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

37171. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a young 

individual, showing the third premolar ; from Kent's- 
Hole Cavern. Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

22028. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
canine, pm. 3, and pm. 1, with the associated caruassial of 
the opposite side ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. 

Purchased, 1848. 

48698. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the 
two last premolars and the carnassial; from Brixham 
Cave. Briocham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

15436. Anterior portion of the right ramus of the mandible, showing 
the canine and the three premolars ; from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern. In this specimen pm . 3 is double, there being one 
tooth in the regular line (which is much more worn than the 
teeth in front and behind), and a second tooth on the outer 
side of the regular line, which is in the same state of wear as 
the teeth in front and behind ; the large size of the much- 
worn tooth proves that it cannot be a retained milk-molar. 
McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

17964. The left half of the symphysis of the mandible, containing 
two incisors, the canine, and pm. 2 ; from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16700. The anterior extremity of the right ramus of the mandible, 



containing the incisors, canine, and premolars ; from 
Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

M. 441. Fragment of the right ramns of the mandible, containing 
pm. 4, and mTT ; both in a much-worn condition. This 
specimen is marked "Kent's Hole ? " ; but its condition is not 
that of the bones from that place. 

EnnisJcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

48721. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
{Fig.) canine and the three premolars ; from Brixham Cave. 

This specimen is figured by Busk in the Phil. Trans. 

1873, pi. xlv. fig. 1. 

Briocham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

22038. An associated left lower pm. 4 and the right upper pm. 3 ; 
from the Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. Purchased, 1848. 

50020. Eight specimens of teeth and fragments of the mandible; 
from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

Bequeathed by Sir Walter C. Trevelyan, 1879. 

18982. Several fragments of upper and lower jaws ; from Kent's- 
Hole Cavern. Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

16694. Greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
nearly all the teeth, in a well-worn condition ; from Kent's- 
Hole Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

17987. Greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, showing 
the four cheek-teeth and the canine ; from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16706. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the three 
last cheek-teeth ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

32260. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with the three 
unworn premolars ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

17933. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a young 
individual ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

17932. Fragment of tho right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the four cheek-teeth ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 



76 CARNIVORA. 

16702. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the 
four cheek-teeth ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

MeEnery Collection. Purchased , 1842. 

16701. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, want- 
ing pm. 3 ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

MeEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

33 a (0. C). The condylar extremity of the left ramus of the man- 
dible ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

32509. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last two teeth ; from the osseous breccia of Yallieux (Loir- 
et-Cher), France. Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

M. 92. Two specimens of the mandible, one very perfect and con- 
taining all the cheek-teeth ; from Cat's-Hole Cave, Gower, 
Glamorganshire. Presented by Gen. Wood, 1865. 

28560. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, contain- 
ing all the cheek-teeth except the incisors ; from a cavern 
in Sundwig, Westphalia. Purchased, 1853. 

16696. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, contain- 
ing the four cheek-teeth and the alveoli of the incisors 
and canines ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

MeEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

17989. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, contain- 
ing the four cheek-teeth in an early stage of wear ; from 
Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

MeEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

17437. The left ramus of the mandible, showing the milk-teeth, and 
the germs of the permanent teeth in alveolo ; from Kent's- 
Hole Cavern. MeEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

M. 440. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the 
germs of the permanent cheek-teeth ; from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern. Ennislcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

36 (0. C). A fragment of the right maxilla, and the left ramus of 
the mandible, containing the milk-teeth and the germs of 
those of the permanent series ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1886. 

17909. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a young 



hy^itcd^. 77 

individual, with the second and third milk-molars ; from 
Kent's-Hole Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

37164. Fragment of the right maxilla of a very young individual, 
showing the three milk-teeth in an unworn condition ; 
from Brixham Cave. 

Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

37 (0. C). The glenoidal extremity of the left scapula ; from Kirk- 
dale Cave. Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

40 (0. C). The distal two-thirds of the left humerus ; from Kirk- 

dale Cave. Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

37181. The right humerus, wanting the proximal extremity; from 
Brixham Cave. Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

41 (0. C). The right radius, wanting the distal extremity ; from 

Kirkdale Cave. Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

37180. The right radius, wanting the distal extremity; from 
Brixham Cave. Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

42 (0. C). The right ulna, wanting the distal extremity and the 

summit of the olecranon ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

37181 a. The right ulna, wanting the distal extremity and the greater 
portion of the olecranon ; from Brixham Cave. 

Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

48 (0. C). The pisiform ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

44 (0. C). The second left metacarpal ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

16758. The third right metacarpal ; from Brixham Cave. 

Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

16758 a. The fifth left metacarpal; from Brixham Cave. 

Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

44 a (0. C). The fifth left metacarpal ; from Kirkdale Cave. This 
bone is of a much stouter type than the last. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

39 a (0. C). The iliac and acetabular portion of the left innominate; 
from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 



78 CARNIVOBA. 

39 (0. C). The proximal half of the right femur, wanting the great 
trochanter ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

19843. The right femur, wanting the distal extremity • from the 
Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. Purchased, 1845. 

37184. The left tibia ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

37185. The distal portion of the right tibia ; from Kent's-Hole 

Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

43 (0. C). The distal extremity of the right tibia ; from Kirkdale 
Cave. Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

49 (0. C). The left calcaneum ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

45 (0. C). The left astragalus ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

18278. The left astragalus ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased. 1842. 

47 (0. C). The right navicular ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

16783. The distal portion of a metatarsal ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

37197. A second phalangeal ; from Brixham Cave. 

Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

38 (0. C). The atlas vertebra, wanting the alse ; from Kirkdale 
Cave. Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

37176. The atlas vertebra, wanting the alee ; from Brixham Cave. 

Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

48709. The atlas vertebra, nearly perfect; from Brixham Cave. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

37175. The atlas vertebra, wanting the alse; from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

37177. The axis vertebra ; from Brixham Cave. 

Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863» 



HY-ENID.E. 79 

38 (0. C). The axis vertebra, much broken ; from Kirkdale Cave. 
Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

58719. The fourth cervical vertebra ; from Brixham Cave. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

38 b (0. C). The fourth cervical vertebra ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

38 (0. C). The fifth cervical vertebra ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

38 C (0. C). The sixth cervical vertebra; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

48722. The seventh cervical vertebra ; from Brixham Cave. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

37178. A late cervical vertebra; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

Hyaena perrieri, Croizet and Jobert l . 

In this form the lower carnassial has a large talon, but no inner 
tubercle ; the upper true molar is of medium size. It is probable 
that it is closely related to H. crocuta, of which it has been con- 
sidered merely a variety. 

Eab. Europe. 

27654. The germ of the left lower carnassial tooth ; from the Upper 
(Eig.) Pliocene of Mt. Perrier, nearlssoire, (Puy-de-D6me), France. 
This tooth is about the size of the corresponding tooth of 
a small individual of H. crocuta, but has a relatively larger 
talon, bearing two cusps, which are more developed than 
in that species. The specimen is figured by Croizet and 
Jobert in the Oss. Foss. du Puy-de-D6me,vol.i. pi. iv.fig. 3. 
Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27650. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a young 
Hyaena, probably belonging to the present species ; from 
the Upper Pliocene of Arde, near Issoire. This specimen 
shows the three milk-molars and the germ of the per- 
manent canine. The second and third milk-molars are 
longer in proportion to the length of the milk-carnassial 
than in H. crocuta ; there is no inner tubercle to mm. 4. 
This specimen and the last appear to indicate that the 
present form is distinct from H. crocuta. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 
1 Oss. Foss. du Puy-de-D6nie, vol. i. p. 169 (1828). 



80 C1ENIVOEA. 

Hyaena sinensis? Owen 1 . 
Hah China. 

It has been suggested by the present writer, in the ' Palaeontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 288-9, that this species is not improbably 
the same as the Siwalik H. felina. The species is described solely 
upon the evidence of the three teeth mentioned below, all of which 
were obtained from a cave in the province of Sechuen (Sez-chuen), 
N".*W. China, near the city of Chung-king-foo. 

41937. The third right upper premolar. This specimen is figured 
(Fig.) by Owen in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. 

pi. xxviii. figs. 5, 6. 

Purchased from R..Swinhoe, Esq., 1870. 

41938. The third right lower premolar. This specimen is figured 
(Fig.) by Owen, op. cit. pi. xxviii. fig 7. 

Purchased from M. Swinhoe, Esq., 1870. 

41939. The lower canine, wanting the greater portion of the crown. 

Purchased from B. Swinhoe, Esq., 1870. 

Hyaena felina, Bose 2 . 

Syn. Hycena sivalensis, Falconer and Cautley (in parte). 

The dentition of this species is of the general type of that of 
H. crocuta, ***. 1 being of small size. The first upper premolar is 
absent in some instances. 

Hah. India. 

15902. Cranium of a very old individual, with the teeth much worn 
(Fig.) and battered ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, 
India. The alveolus of a minute m. 1 may be seen on the 
right side : pm- 1 is absent. This specimen, which is the 
type of the species, is figured by Falconer and Cautley in 
the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. K. 3 figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c ; 
but it wanted at that time the left half of the palate, 
which has been subsequently added ; it is also described 
and figured by Bose in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
vol. xxxvi. p. 130, pi. vi. fig. 6, and is described by the 
present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica ' in the pas- 
sage cited below. The accompanying woodcut (fig. 7) 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 422 (1870). 

2 Loc. cit. vol. xxxvi. p. 130 (1880). 

A This plate was erroneously lettered Felts cristata in place of Hycena siva- 
lensis. 



Tsj&mvm. 



8J 




82 CARNIVOKA. 

represents another cranium, with the mandible attached, 
belonging to the present species, which was obtained by 
Messrs. Baker and Durand from the Siwalik Hills, and is 
now preserved in the Museum of Science and Art, Dublin. 
This specimen is described and figured by the present 
writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. 
pp. 282-5. The teeth are but little worn, and show that 
the diastema was short, and that pm. 4 had large fore-and- 
aft talons ; the first upper premolar is present in this 
specimen. Gautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37138. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last three 
{Fig.) premolars and the broken base of a minute m. 1 ; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. The greater part of the 
crown of the carnassial is broken away, and the other 
teeth are in a middle condition of wear. This specimen 
is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua 
Sivalensis,' pi. L. fig. 8 ; and is described and figured by 
the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 283, pi. xxxv. a. fig. 2. It is referred to the 
present species on account of its precise resemblance to the 
corresponding portion of the Dublin skull ; and from being 
the only specimen exhibiting the inner sides of the 
undamaged teeth, has been taken as the type specimen 
of the teeth. The second premolar is relatively long 
and narrow, and pm- 3 has a relatively low crown with an 
extremely convex external vertical contour. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 1549. Cast of the left ramus of the mandible of a sub-adult indi- 
vidual, showing the canine (not fully protruded) and the 
four cbeek- teeth. The original of this specimen is from 
the Siwaliks of the Punjab, and is in the Indian Mu- 
seum, Calcutta ; it is described and figured by the present 
writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 285, 
pis. xxxvii.-ix. fig. 1. It is referred to the present 
species from its large size and its agreement with the 
Dublin skull, especially in the presence of large fore-and- 
aft talons to pm. 4 ; the preceding tooth exhibits a highly 
convex external vertical contour. Purchased, 1884. 

16565. Hinder portion of the right ramus of the mandible, showing 
{Fig.) the last three teeth in a much battered and worn con- 



HYJE^ID^. 



83 



dition; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This 
specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. M. fig. 1 ; and has been described 
and figured by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 285, pi. xxxix. figs. 2, 2 a. 

Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842 

39731. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a Hyaena, no 
{Fig.) improbably belonging to the present species; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen shows the 
broken base of the canine, the second and third premolars, 
and the carnassial ; it is figured by Falconer and Cautley 
in the * Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. M. figs. 5, 5a; and 
is briefly noticed by the present writer in the ' Palaeon- 
tologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 286, where it is pro- 
visionally referred to the present species. It agrees with 
No. M. 1549 in the long interval between pm. 3 and m . 1, 
thus indicating the large size of pm . 4 ; but differs in having 
a cingulum to m . 1, which is a character of the specimens 
referred to the next species. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37141. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a Hyaena, 
(Fig.) containing the last three cheek-teeth in a somewhat 
broken condition ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 
This specimen has been figured by Falconer and Cautley 
in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. M. fig. 7 ; and is 
alluded to by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 287, and provisionally referred 
to the present species 1 . 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 1550. Cast of a fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a 
Hyaena, containing the last three cheek-teeth in a middle 
condition of wear. The original of this specimen is from 
the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, and is preserved in the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta : it is figured and described 
by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 286, where it is provisionally referred to the 
present species. Purchased, 1884. 

1 The number is erroneously given 37140. 

G Z 



84 CAKNIVOEA. 

16584. Distal extremity of the left ramus of the mandible of a 
{Fig.) Hyaena, containing the broken base of the canine and the 
three premolars ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 
This specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the 
' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. M. fig. 3 ; and is alluded to 
by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica/ ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 287. Its teeth agree with those of No. 39731, 
and the two evidently belong to the same species. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 



Hyaena colvini, Lydekker 1 . 

This species is distinguished from the preceding one by the 
larger size of the upper true molar, and by the taller and more 
slender crown of the third upper premolar, and the shorter crown 
of the second tooth of the same series ; the first upper premolar is 
absent. In the lower jaw the premolars are likewise tall and 
slender, but there is very great difficulty in determining which jaws 
belong to this specimen and which to the last. It is highly probable 
that there is in reality an almost, or quite, complete passage from 
the last to the present species. 

Hah. India. 

M. 1552. Cast of the cranium of an adult individual, containing 
the third and fourth premolars of the right side, and 
showing the broken bases of most of the other teeth, but 
wanting the greater part of the left maxilla. The original 
of this specimen, which is the type of the species, is from 
the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, and is preserved in the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta; a specimen in the Science 
and Art Museum, Dublin, is believed to be the missing 
portion of the left maxilla. The cranium is described and 
figured by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica/ 
ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 290, pi. xxxv. fig. 2. It shows that 
pm. 3 is very different from the corresponding tooth of 
H. felina in No. 37138. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1551. Cast of the cranium of an immature individual, showing 
the bases of all the teeth and the complete pm. 2 . The 
original of this specimen is from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills, and is preserved in the Indian Museum, 

1 Palaeontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. p 290 

(1884). 



HY-Eira)^. 85 

Calcutta. It is described and figured by the present 
writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 292, 
pis. xxxv. fig. 1, xxxvi. fig. 1, and exhibits the distinctive 
characters of pm. 2 , which tooth is very different from the 
corresponding tooth of E. felina in No. 37138. 

Purchased, 1884. 

37139. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last two pre- 
(Fig.) molars; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This 

specimen, in which m. 1 has probably been broken away, 
has been figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. L. fig. 7 ; and is described and 
figured by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia In- 
dica/ ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 293, pi. xxxv. a. fig. 1. The 
teeth are very similar to those of the type cranium. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37139 a. The germ of a right upper carnassial tooth, probably be- 
(Fig.) longing to the present species ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured by Falconer and 
Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. L. fig. 9. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37140. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last two pre- 
(Fig.) molars and the true molar, in a slightly worn condition ; 

from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is 
figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua 
Sivalensis,' pi. L. fig. 5 ; and is described and figured by 
the present writer in the f Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 293, pi. xxxv. a. figs. 3, 3 a. The teeth agree 
very nearly with those of the type cranium. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16578. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
(Fig.) last three cheek-teeth, in an unworn condition ; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured 
by Falconer and Cautley in the 'Fauna Antiqua Siva- 
lensis ;' and is described and figured by the present writer 
in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 296, 
fig. 14, from which the accompanying woodcut (fig. 8) is 
taken. The teeth agree so closely with those of the type 
cranium of the present species, that there is little doubt 



86 



CARNIVORA. 



but that the specimen should be referred to the same 
species. The premolars are very different from those of 
the mandible (No. M. 1549) of H. felina, but they come 



Fig. 8. 
m. 1. 



ypm. 4. 



pm. 3. 




Hycena colvini. — Part of the right ramus of the mandible ; from the Siwalik 
Hills. \. (From the ' Palgeontologia Indica.') 

very near to those of No. 16565. The present specimen 
and No. M. 1549 have their teeth in precisely the same 
condition of wear. There is a cingulum to m . 1 in the 
present specimen, which is wanting in No. M. 1549, 
although present in No. 39731. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16526. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of an imma- 
(Fig.) ture individual, containing the canine and the three pre- 
molars; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This 
specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. L. fig. 9, and is briefly mentioned 
by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 296. The teeth are similar to those of the last 
specimen. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 



HY^XIDJS. 87 

M. 1553. Cast of a fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, 
showing pm. 4 and m . 1. The original of this specimen is 
from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, and is preserved in 
the Indian Museum, Calcutta. It is described and figured 
by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 295, pis. xxxviii. fig. 3 and xxxix. fig. 4. 

Purchased, 1842. 



Hyaena eximia, Roth and Wagner 1 . 
Syn. Hycena liipparionum, Suess (non Gerv.), in parte. 

In this species m . 1 has a large talon, but no inner cusp ; m. 1 is 
large ; pm. 1 is present ; and in one specimen pm. 1 is absent. Pm- 3 
has no anterior talon ; and in pm. 4 the inner tubercle is very small, 
and the third lobe slightly larger than the second. 

Hah. Greece and Hungary. 

49673. Cast of the complete cranium and mandible, showing the 
whole of the teeth, in a partially worn condition. The 
first upper premolar is wanting on both sides, and there 
is apparently no room for it on the left side. The original 
is from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi, Attica, and is pre- 
served in the Museum at Munich. Purchased, 1879. 

49678. Cast of the left ramus of the mandible of an immature 
individual; the original is from the Lower Pliocene of 
Pikermi, and is preserved in the Munich Museum. 

Purchased, 1879. 

Hyaena antiqua, Lankester 2 . 

Hah. England. 

This is a very doubtful provisional species, founded upon the 
evidence of the one tooth noticed below ; it is said to be allied to 
H. striata. 

37983. The third upper premolar from the Eed Crag (Newer Plio- 
(Fig.) cene) of Felixstowe, Essex. This specimen, which is the 

type, is described and figured by Lankester in the Ann. 

Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xiii. p. 56, pi. viii. figs. 5, 6 (1864). 

Purchased, 1864. 



Abh. math.-phys. CI. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vii. p. 396 (1854). 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xiii. p. 56 (1864). 



88 CAENIVORA. 

f^paeua Striata, Zimmermann 1 . 

Syn. Hycena anliquorum, Temminck. 
Hycena fasciata, Thunberg. 
Hycena intermedia, M. de Serres. 
Hycena monspessulana, Christol. 
Hycena orientalis, Tiedmann. 
Hycena prisca, M. de Serres. 
Hycena veterum, Kaempfer. 
Hijcena virgata, Gray. 
Hycena vulgar-is, Desmarest. 
Euhycsna striata, Falconer. 
Canis hycena, Linnaeus. 

In this species the lower carnassial has a large hind talon and 
inner cusp, and the upper true molar is large ; there are large fore- 
and-aft talons to pm- 3 , and the third lobe of pm- 4 is not larger than 
the second. 

Hah. South-western Asia and North Africa (Recent), and South 
Europe (Pleistocene). 

M. 469. Fragment of the left maxilla; from the Pleistocene (?) of 
the Val d'Arno. This specimen contains the complete 
carnassial, in a well-worn condition, the hinder half of 
pm. 3 , and the broken base of m- 1 . 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased. 1882. 



Hyaena sivalensis, 

Syn. H. sivalensis, Falc. and Oaut. {in parte). 

The permanent dentition of this species is mainly of the type of 
Hycena striata,, but differs by the presence of m . 2. In this cha- 
racter it agrees with the genus Hyamictis of Gaudry, but differs by 
the absence of pm. 1. The absence of the latter, and the minute 
size of m. 2 in one specimen, coupled with the one instance of the 
presence of this tooth in H. crocuta, induces the present writer to 
include Hyamictis in Hycena. 

Hah. India, 

37133. The nearly complete cranium ; from the Pliocene of the 
{Fig.) Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen is figured by Falconer 

and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. K. 

figs. 2, 2a, 26, 2c, and in 'Falconer's Palaeontological 

1 Specimen Zool. Geog. p. 366 (1777). 

2 Quart. Journ. Greol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 128 (1880). The name j£ sivalensis, 
Falc. and Caut., has been dropped. 



Memoirs/ vol. i. pi. xxv. figs. 1-4, being in both instances 
erroneously named Felis cristata. It is also described by 
Bose in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 128 ; 
and is described and figured by the present writer in the 
1 Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 304, 305, 
pi. xxxiv. It is the type specimen of the species, and 
exhibits the three last premolars and the first true molar, 
the latter being of unusually large size; the sockets of 
pm. 1 are also visible, as well as a portion of the canine of 
the right side. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37136. Anterior portion of the cranium ; from the Pliocene of the 
{Fig.) Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured by Falconer and 
Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis/ pi. K. figs. 4, 
4 a, 46 ; and has been noticed by the present writer in the 
1 Palaeontologia Indica/ ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 306. It has 
been somewhat damaged by rolling, but comprises the 
greater part of the skull as far back as the middle of the 
brain-case, where it is broken off by an oblique fracture. 
The teeth are much worn and broken ; but the whole of 
the four premolars are present, and the left pm- 4 exhibits 
clearly the subequality in size of its three lobes. The 
superior aspect is extremely like that of the skull of 
H. striata', and the large postorbital processes of the 
frontals are well displayed, and, in conjunction with the 
corresponding zygomatic processes, enclose a large portion 
of the hinder border of the orbit. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37134. The hinder portion of the cranium; from the Pliocene of 
(Fig-) the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured by Falconer 
and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis/ pi. K. 
figs. 3, 3a, 3b; and is noticed by the present writer in 
the ' Palaeontologia Indica/ ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 306. It 
agrees precisely in size and general form with the two 
skulls noticed above, and doubtless belongs to the same 
species. It exhibits the sagittal crest more fully deve- 
loped than in the type skull, and is therefore nearer to 
H. striata. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16555. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible ; from 

{Fig.) the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured 

by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis/ 

pi. M. figs. 2, 2a; and is described and figured by the 



90 CARNIVOBA. 

present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 306, pi. xxxviii. fig. 5 and xxxix. fig. 7. It is 
complete, with the exception of the summit of the coronoid 
process, and shows the whole of the dentition, the cheek- 
teeth being much worn and the greater part of the crown 
of the canine broken away. A fragment of the right ramus 
is attached to the symphysis ; while the condyle is still 
clasped by the glenoid cavity, which has been torn away 
from the skull. Behind the carnassial there is the broken 
root of an exceedingly minute m. 2, which the present 
writer had not detected in the notice quoted above 1 . The 
small size of this tooth evidently indicates one on the point 
of disappearance; and from this circumstance, and the 
absence of pm. 1 and its presence in H. (Hyamictis) grceca, 
the writer is not inclined to alter his previously expressed 
opinion as to the advisability of inclnding Hycenictis in 
Hyaena. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 554. Cast of a fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing p m . 4 and mTT, in an unworn condition. The 
original of this specimen was obtained from the Pliocene 
Siwaliks of the Punjab, and is preserved in the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. It has been described and figured by 
the present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 307, pis. xxxviii. fig. 2 and xxxix. fig. 5. 
Behind the carnassial there is the empty cylindrical 
alveolus of a small second true molar, which must, how- 
ever, have been considerably larger than the corresponding 
tooth of the last specimen. In this specimen niTI has a 
large talon (the summit broken) and a relatively small 
blade, on the inner side of the hinder lobe of which there 
is a small cusp. Purchased, 1884. 

16585. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
(Fig.) incisors, canine (broken), and the second and third pre- 
molars ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This 
specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the 
' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. M. figs. 6, 6 a. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15714. Distal portion of the right ramus of the mandible, showing 

(Fig.) pm.12 and pmT3, and the broken bases of the incisors, 

canine, and pm.lt ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

1 It has been made visible by subsequent cleaning. 



HY^NID^I. 91 

This specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the 
'Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. M. figs. 4, 4a; and is 
mentioned by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 308. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

14618. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, showing p m . 2 
and pm. 3, in a well-worn condition ; from the Pliocene of 
the Siwalik Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15917. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, showing p m . 2 
and p m . 3, in a partially worn condition ; from the Pliocene 
of the Siwalik Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Hyaena macrostoma, Lydekker 1 . 

In this species, which is apparently closely allied to the Pikermi 
H. choeretis, the first lower premolar is present, and it is highly 
probable that m . 2 was likewise present. The cheek-teeth and 
cranium exhibit many well-marked canoid and viverroid characters. 
Since describing this species in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' the 
writer has noticed that H. choeretis, Gaudry, has been referred by 
Hensel, in the Monatsb. k. preuss. Ak. "Wiss. 1862 (volume for 1863), 
p. 567, to a distinct genus, under the name of Lycyo?na. The pre- 
sent species would likewise belong to the same genus ; but the writer 
being strongly opposed to the multiplication of generic terms, prefers 
to continue to class it with Hyaena and to abolish the term Lycycena. 

Hob. India. 

M. 1547. Cast of the nearly complete cranium, with the crowns of 
all the teeth, except one carnassial and the true molars, 
hammered off. The original of this specimen, which is the 
type of the species, was obtained from the Siwaliks of the 
Punjab, and is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
* It is described and figured by the present writer in the 
' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 298, pis. xxxvi. 
fig. 2 and xxxvii. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1548. Cast of the anterior part of the left ramus of the mandible. 
The original of this specimen was obtained from the 
Siwaliks of the Punjab, and is preserved in the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. It is described and figured by the 
present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 301, pis. xxxviii. fig. 4 and xxxix. fig. 6. The 
specimen shows anteriorly the broken bases of two incisors, 

1 Palasontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 298 (1884). 



92 



CAENIVOKA. 



the base of the canine, of pm. 1 and pm. 2, the nearly 
complete pm7~3 and pm. 4, and the alveoli of m . 1, behind 
which it is broken off. Part of the summit of pm. 4 has 
been carried away ; but this and the preceding tooth are 
otherwise nearly perfect, and being considerably worn 
indicate that the jaw belonged to a fully adult animal. 
The two remaining premolars are constructed on the type 
of those of Rycena, but are considerably longer and 
narrower than those of any existing species of the genus. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Specifically Ufdetekmined Hy^ina-Bemains. 

From the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. 

37137. Fragment of a right maxilla, containing the broken base of 
(Fig.) pm. 1 , the other three premolars in a half-worn condition, 
and the base of m. 1 . This specimen is figured by Falconer 
and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. L. 
figs. 6, 6a; and is noticed and figured by the present 
writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. 
p. 309, who was unable to refer it to either of the four 
species of Siwalik Hyaenas noticed above. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39718. Anterior extremity of a cranium, in a much-damaged con- 
(Fig.) dition. This specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley 

in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. L. figs. 1, la. It 
exhibits the base of a pm. 1 . 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15915. The occipital half of the base of a cranium. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16583. Fragment of the right maxilla and premaxilla, showing the 
(Fig.) incisors, canine, and the alveoli of pm. 1 and pm. 2 . This 
specimen, which belongs to an immature individual, is 
figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua 
Sivalensis/ pi. L. fig. 2 ; and not improbably belongs to 
H. sivalensis. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39719. The right premaxilla, containing the three incisors. This 
(Fig.) specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna 

Antiqua Sivalensis/ pi. L. fig. 3. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15916. The olecranal extremity of the left ulna of a Carnivore, pro- 






VTVEKKID^. 93 

bably belonging to the present genus. This bone differs 
from the ulna of Hyaena crocuta in the less-complete deve- 
lopment of the lower sigmoid cavity and in the wider 
posterior surface ; the two are, however, in other respects 
very similar. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Genus LEPTHY-ffiNA, Lydekker 1 . 
Dentition :— I. f , C. \, Pm. ?, M. \. 

Lepthysena sivalensis, Lydekker 2 . 
Syn. Ictitherium sivalense, Lydekker 3 . 

Hah. India. 

1555-6. Casts of two associated fragments of the mandible, con- 
taining the two last premolars, the carnassial (imperfect 
posteriorly), and the alveolus of m. ■£. The original of 
this specimen, which is the type of the genus and species, 
is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and was 
obtained from the Siwaliks of the Punjab. It is described 
and figured by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 312, pi. xlv. figs. 8, 9, 9 a. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Family VIVEEEID^. 

Genus ICTITHERIUM, Wagner 4 . 
Syn. Thallasictis, P. Gervais 5 (ex Nordmann). 
Galeotherium, Wagner 6 . 
Palhycena, P. Gervais 7 . 

Dentition :— I. §, C. \, Pm. \, M. §. 

Ictitherium hippariormm (P. Gervais 8 ). 
Syn. Hycena hipparionum, P. Gervais 9 . 

Palhycena hipparionum, P. Gervais . 

Hah, Europe. 

1 Palseontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 312 (1884). 

2 Eec. Greol. Surv. Ind. vol. x. p. 32 (1877), Ictitherium. 3 Loc. cit. 

4 Abh. math.-phys. 01. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. v. pt. 2, p. 335 (1848). 

5 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 120 (1848-52). 

6 Abh. matk.-pbys. 01. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. iii. pi. i. (1840). This name 
has the priority over Ictitherium. 

7 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. p. 242 (1858). 

8 Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. ser. 3, vol. v. p. 261 (1846), Hyana. 9 Ibid. 
10 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. p. 242 (1858). 



94 CARNIVOEA. 

28121. A metatarsal and a proximal phalangeal ; from the Lower 
Pliocene of Cugnron (Vaucluse), France. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Ictitherium robustum (P. Gervais 1 ). 
Syn. Thallasictis robusta, P. Gervais 2 . 

Ictitherium viverrinum, Roth and Wagner 3 . 

Hab. Europe. 

49676. Cast of the cranium and mandible. The originals are in the 
Museum at Munich, and were obtained from the Lower 
Pliocene of Pikermi, Attica. Purchased, 1879. 

Genus PALiEOPRIONODOM, Filhol 4 . 

Dentition : — I. g, C. j, Pm. g, M. ^ The second lower molar is 
small, and there is a minute inner cusp to m . 1, by which the genus 
is distinguished from the musteline genus Plesiictis. The genus 
seems to pass almost insensibly in one direction into the feline genus 
Pseudcelurus, and in another through Stenoplesictis to Cynodictis. 
The lower teeth are exceedingly like those of Prionodon. 

Palseoprionodon mutabilis, Filhol 5 , 

Syn. Plesiogale mutabilis, Filhol. 

Palceoprionodon lamandini, Filhol. 
Palcsoprionodon lamandini, var. mutabilis, Filhol. 

History. In 1877 Filhol (Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 42, 
vol. vii. pi. xxv. figs. 6 110-113) described and figured certain 
mandibles of a viverrine Carnivore under the name of Plesiogale 
mutabilis. In 1880 (Compt. Rend, vol. xc. p. 1579) he described 
another lower jaw under the name Palceoprionodon lamandini. In 
1882 (Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, p. 68, pi. iv. fig. 4) the 
same writer figured and fully described the lower jaw on which that 
species was founded. At the same time {ibid. p. 74) he came to the 
conclusion that the so-called Plesiogale mutabilis was only a variety 
of Palceoprionodon lamandini, and proposed to call' it by the name 
of Palceoprionodon lamandini, var mutabilis. It is clear, however, 

1 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 120 (1848-52), Thallasictis. 

2 Ibid. 

3 Abh. math.-phys. CI. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. viii. pt. 1, figs. 5, 6 (1857). 

4 Comptes Eendus, vol. xc. p. 1579 (1880). 

6 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 42 (1877), Plesiogale. 

6 There is some incorrectness in the references to these figures. 



VIVERRID^. 



95 



that the name mutabilis has the priority and must stand for the 
species, the type of which will be the original Plesiogale mutabilis ; 
the name lamandini, if employed at all, should be used in a varietal 
sense for the form with a large m. % figured in the Ann. Soc. Sci. 
Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, pi. iv. fig. 4. 
Hab. France. 

M. 1643. Two specimens of part of the right ramus of the mandible, 
showing the third and fourth premolars, the carnassial, 
and the alveoli of m7~2 and the other teeth; from the 
Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), France. 
These specimens appear to agree precisely with the form 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xxv. 
figs. 112, 113, under the name of Plesiogale mutabilis. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1369. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing the canine and all the cheek-teeth except pm. 1 
(of which the crown is broken off) ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This specimen 
appears to agree precisely with the mandible figured by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xxv. figs. 110, 111, 
under the name of Plesiogale mutabilis, and that in the 
Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, pi. iv. fig. 1, 
under the name of Palceoprionodon lamandini, var. muta- 
bilis; both these specimens differing slightly from the 
preceding specimens. Purchased, 1884. 

Palseoprionodon, sp. 

Hob. Europe. 

M. 1370. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the canine and all the cheek-teeth ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. In this specimen the length of the space 
occupied by the last four cheek-teeth is the same as in No. 
M. 1369 ; the interval between pm. 3 and the canine is, how- 
ever, considerably less, and pm. 2 is smaller. The second 
true molar is small, and there is a distinct inner cusp to 
the carnassial. It is not improbable that these differences 
should be regarded as of specific value. Purchased, 1884. 

JI. 1644. Symphysial extremity of the left ramus of the mandible, 
very similar to the last specimen ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Bach. Purchased, 1884. 



96 CAKNIVORA. 

Palseoprionodon, sp. 

Hob. France. 

M. 1371. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 
containing the canine and all the cheek-teeth except 
pm. 1 ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), France. In this specimen the space occupied 
by the cheek-teeth is the same as in No. M. 1370 ; but 
pm. 2 is larger, the crowns of the other cheek-teeth lower, 
and the ramus of the jaw considerably more slender. 
These distinctive characters are not improbably of specific 
value. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1373. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. This specimen, which 
is in every respect similar to the last, contains the last 
three cheek-teeth and the alveoli of the first three pre- 
molars and the canine. Purchased, 1884. 

Genus STENOPLESICTIS, Filhol 1 . 

Dentition : — 1. 1, C. j, Pm. ~, M. |. The present genus connects 
Paleeoprionodon with Cynodictis ; and also presents an approxi- 
mation to the Mustelidaz. In typical forms the lower carnassial has 
a distinct inner cusp, but this disappears in some varieties ; the last 
lower premolar has fore-and-aft talons. The characters of the 
upper dentition will be gathered from the description of the speci- 
men noticed below. 

Stenoplesictis cayluxi, Filhol 2 . 
Hah. France. 

M. 1723. The cranium, imperfect anteriorly and posteriorly; from 
{Fig.) the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. 
A specimen of the cranium has been described by Filhol in 
the Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. JSTat. Toulouse, 1882, pp. 66-7, 
but is not figured. The present specimen, which is repre- 
sented in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 9), agrees pre- 
cisely with the description of the type specimen ; the 
length of the space occupied by the cheek-teeth being 
0,0255 in the present and 0,027 in the type specimen. 

1 Comptes EenduB, vol. xci. p. 345 (1880). 

2 Loc. cit. 



VIVEERLD.3S. 



9' 



On the left side the specimen shows the alveolus of the 
canine, the broken base of pm. 1 , the other three premolars 
in a perfect condition, the broken base of m. 1 , and the 
extremely minute alveolus 1 of m- 2 . The right side shows 
the last three premolars and the first true molar, in an 
uninjured condition. The first three premolars agree very 

Fig. 9. 




Stenoplesictis cayluxi. — Palatal aspect of the cranium 



closely with those of Viverra malaccensis ; the third tooth 
wanting the inner cusp which occurs in Herpestes. The 
inner tubercle of the carnassial is small, as in Mustela. 
The first true molar is similar to that of Hevpestes ; and 
the alveolus of the second molar is only slightly smaller 
than in some species of the same genus. The posterior 
border of the palate extends only a slight distance behind 
the last molar, which is a character of some species of 
Viverra (woodcut, fig. 10, p. 98), and is different from 
Herjpestes and Mustela. The elongated form of the skull 
is a viverrine character. In the mandible (Filhol, Ann. 
Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, pi. vi. figs. 7, 8, 9) 
the inner cusp of the carnassial is less distinct than in 



This is made rather too large in the figure 



98 CAENIVOEA. 

Herpestes, and the anterior talon of pm. 4 is more strongly 
developed 1 . 

On the whole it appears that the present form is de- 
cidedly a viverrine ; and presents well-marked affinities 
both with Viverra and Herpestes. In the tendency to the 
disappearance of m. 2 and the form of the upper carnassial 
there are indications of a transition to Prionodon and the 
musteline genus Plesictis, which presents viverrine affi- 
nities in the form of m. 1 . Purchased, 1884. 



Genus VIVERRA, Linn. 2 

Dentition : — I. g, C. J, Pm. ^jj, M. |. The accompanying wood- 
cut (fig. 10) shows the characters of the upper dentition in the 
existing Viverra zibetha of India. 

Fig. 10. 




Viverra 



Linn. — Palate. \. (From the 'Pakeontologia Indica.') 



1 The mandible of the present form is much larger than that of Rerpestes 
minimus (woodcut, fig. 12, p. 101) ; and is also distinguished by the higher 
crowns of the teeth, the shorter ^"2, and the presence of a distinct anterior talon 
to m. 4. 

2 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 63 (1766). 



viveeeid^i. yy 

Viverra bakeri, Bose \ 
Syn. Canis ? sp., Falc. and Caut. 

Hah. India. 

40183. Cranium, much damaged posteriorly and superiorly, but 
{Fig.) exhibiting the last four cheek-teeth of either side ; from 
the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen, 
which is the type, is figured by Falconer and Cautley in 
the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis/ pi. Q,. figs. 1, 1 a, 1 h, 1 c, 
where it is doubtfully referred to Canis ; and is described 
and figured by the present writer in the ' Palasontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 269, pi. xxxiii. figs. 1, 1 a. In 
the relative size of the carnassiai teeth this specimen is 
nearer to V. zibetha than to V. civetta, from which it is 
concluded that the species cannot in all probability have 
been the ancestor of the African V. civetta ; it is, however, 
extremely probable that it may have given rise to the 
Indian V. zibetha, the reduced size of the true molars of the 
latter being a later specialization. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

40180. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm. 4 and m- 1 ; 

{Fig.) from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen 
is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua 
Sivalensis/ pi. Q. fig. 3 ; and is described and figured by 
the present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 270, pi. xxxiii. fig. 2. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Viverra durandi, Lydekker 2 . 
Syn. (?) Canis, sp., Falc. and Caut. 

Hah. India. 

M. 1338. Cranium, wanting the anterior portion ; from the Plio- 
(Fig.) ccne of the Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen, which is 
the type of the species, shows the last three cheek-teeth of 
either side in fair preservation. On the left side the zygo- 
matic arch is preserved ; but the specimen is so fragile 
that it has not been deemed advisable to clear it from the 
matrix. It is described and figured by the present writer 

1 Quart. Journ.Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 131 (1880). 

2 Palaeontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 271 
(1884). 

h2 



100 CARNIVOKA. 

in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 271, 
pi. xxxiiii. fig. 3. This species is the largest known 
Civet ; and in respect of dental characters is more nearly 
allied to the Indian V. zibetha and V. baJceri than to the 
African V. civetta ; presenting in some respects characters 
intermediate between the two former. In its cranial cha- 
racters it is markedly distinct from each of the other three 
species. Presented by Prof. George Busk, 1883. 

37150. Anterior portion of the cranium, wanting the extremity of 
(Fig.) the premaxillae and all the teeth, which have fallen from 
their sockets ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 
This specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley in 
the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. Q. figs. 2, 2 a, where 
it is doubtfully referred to Ganis ; and is described by 
the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 273. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37131. Hinder portion of the cranium of a large Civet, apparently 
belonging to the present species ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Viverra hastingsise, Davies 1 . 

This species is about the size of Ganis vulpes, and presents cha- 
racters connecting it with Herpestes and Cynodictis ; its nearest 
ally probably being Viverra antiqua of the Lower Miocene of 
St. Gerand-le-Puy. 

Hab. England. 

30203. The associated cranium and mandible ; from the Headon beds 
{Fig.) (Upper Eocene) of Hordwell, Hampshire. This specimen 
is the type of the species, and is described and figured by 
Davies in the Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. i. p. 433, pi. xv. 
The specimen, which is figured in the woodcuts (figs. 11 
and 12), is on the whole in very perfect condition, and 
exhibits all the dentition. The anterior cervical vertebras 
are still in contact with the occiput. The penultimate 
upper premolar ( pm- 3 , fig. 12) exhibits an inner cusp, as 
in Herpestes. The upper carnassial ( pm. 4 , fig. 12) and 
the true molars (m. 1, m. 2 ) are also like the corresponding 
teeth of that genus. The inner cusp of m. 1 is largely 
developed. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

1 Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. i. p. 437 (1884). 



YIVEKRIDJS. 



101 




Viverra hastingsice. — Masticatory aspect of the right upper cheek- 
dentition of the same specimen as fig. 12. 



Fig. 12. 




Viverra hastingsicB.— Cranium and mandible from the Headon beds of Hord- 
well. The two lower figures show the upper and outer aspects of the right 
ramus of the mandible. \. 



102 CAUNIVORA. 

Viverra angustidens, Filhol \ 
Hob. France. 

M. 1358. Anterior portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the canine and the four premolars, the crown of 
pm. 1 being broken off ; from the Upper Eocene of Cay lux 
(Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This specimen agrees with the 
type mandible figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. vii. pi. xxvi. figs. 121-2, in the extremely minute size of 
pm. 1; pm. 2 is, however, rather smaller in the present 
specimen than in the type, and has apparently but one root. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Genus AMPHICTIS, Pomel 2 . 
This genus is mainly distinguished from existing species of Viverra 
by the form of the second lower true molar, which is elongated and 
implanted by two distinct roots. 

Amphictis antiqua, Pomel 3 . 

The mandible of this species was originally referred by De Blain- 
ville to his Viverra antiqua (Herjpestes antiquus, Pomel), and a simi- 
lar specimen is figured by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 
2nd ed. pi. xxviii. figs. 8, 8 a, under the same name, although a 
doubt is expressed in the text as to the correctness of the generic 
reference. It has beeen shown by Filhol 4 that there is a very con- 
siderable probability that the mandibles which he has figured under 
the name of Herpestes antiquus 5 are really those of Viverra antiqua. 
The length of the space occupied by the six cheek-teeth in those 
specimens is 0,041. 

Hob. France. 

31057. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last three premolars, the anterior half of m . 1, and the 
alveoli of the canine and pm. 1 ; from the Lower Miocene of 
St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), France. This specimen appears 
to agree exactly with the mandible figured by P. Gervais in 
the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. pi. xxviii. figs. 8, 8 a, 
under the name of Viverra antiqua, which is very similar 

1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. art. 7, p. 144 (1876). 

2 Catalogue Methodique, p. 63 (1853). 

3 Ibid. 

* Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, p. 166. 

5 The description in the text is headed Herpestes priscus, but in the Arch. 
Mus. Lyon, vol. iii. art. i. p. 63, this is corrected. 



VIVERRID-E. 103 

to the specimens figured by Pilhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. x. pi. xxiv. figs. 1-4, under the name of Amphictis 
antiqua. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31058. The left ramus of the mandible of an immature individual, 
showing the milk and permanent dentition; from the 
Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased,, 1852. 

31058 a. The distal half of the femur ; apparently associated with 
the last. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Axnphictis, sp. (cf. A. leptorhyncha, Pomel 1 ). 
Hab. France. 

26705. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 
showing the alveoli of the canine and pm. 1, the other 
three premolars in a perfect condition, and the alveoli of 
the two true molars; from the Lower Miocene of St. 
Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), Prance. This specimen differs 
from the mandible of A. antiqua (No. 31037) by its 
generally more slender form, by the absence of a distinct 
interval between p m . 1 and pm72, and the presence of one 
between pm. 2 and pm. 3. In these respects the specimen 
appears to agree with Pomel's A. leptorhyncha, of which it 
is not improbable that the present specimen is the type 2 . 
In the Zool. et Pal. Prancaises, 2nd ed. p. 223, it is stated 
that this specimen had been referred by Pomel to the genus 
Amphicneumon. The length of the space occupied by the 
six cheek-teeth is 0,039 ; and the second true molar is 
inserted by two distinct fangs. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

Genus, non det. 
Hab. Prance. 

M. 1381. The hinder portion of the cranium of a Yiverroid, not 
improbably belonging either to Viverra or Amjphictis ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Cay lux (Tarn-et-Garonne), Prance. 
This specimen is considerably smaller than the cranium of 
Viverra antiqua figured by Pilhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. x. pi. xix. Purchased, 1884. 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. (VS (1853). 

2 Filhol (Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, p. 176) mentions that he could find 
no specimen referable to this species. 



104 CAENIVOEA. 

Genus HERPESTES, Illiger 1 . 
Dentition: — I. |, C. \, Pm. ( jtJEz } > M. |. In existing forms the inner 
cusp of the lower carnassial is well developed and its talon short, 
m. 2 is short, with three main cusps ; p m . 4 has a cusp on its poste- 
rior cutting-edge. Fossil forms seem to indicate a complete tran- 
sition from Viverra to Herpestes. 

Herpestes minimus (Filhol 2 ). 

Syn. Viverra minima, Filhol 3 . 

Hob. France. 

M. 1372. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 

{Fig.) containing all the cheek-teeth, and showing the broken 

base of the canine ; from the Upper Eocene of Cay lux 

(Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This specimen, which is 

represented in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 13), on an 

Fig. 13. 




Herpestes minimus. — Part of the right ramus of the mandible ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. f. 

enlarged scale, appears to agree exactly with the less per- 
fect specimen figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. viii. pi. xx. figs. 334, 336, under the name of Viverra 
minima. The first premolar is present, and of compara- 
tively large size ; and there is a large inner cusp to the 
carnassial. The space occupied by the six cheek-teeth 
measures 0,022, or the same as in the type specimen. 
The present specimen is very slightly larger than the 
mandible of the existing Indian Herpestes nipalensis, but is 
otherwise very similar. The only points of difference, 
indeed, between the two are that m . 2 is relatively larger in 
the fossil, that the cusp on the posterior cutting-edge of 
pm. 4 is placed on the median line, instead of to the outer 

1 Prodromus Syst. Mamm. p. 135 (1811). 

2 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. art. 7, p. 150 (1876), Viverra. 
8 Loc. cit. 



VIVERKID-E. 105 

side, as is generally the case in existing species, and that 
the anterior border of the coronoid process inclines back- 
ward to a considerably greater extent, thus indicating a 
form of jaw of inferior biting-power. The lower jaw of 
the existing African H. gracilis is also of nearly the same 
size as the fossil, but, in addition to the points distinguishing 
the jaw of H. nipalensis from the latter, differs in the very 
general absence of p m . l and the considerably smaller size 
of that tooth when present. It does not appear that any 
other of the living species (most of which are of consider- 
ably larger size) comes so near to the fossil as H. nipa- 
lensis. Although the lower teeth of Genetta are very like 
those of Herpestes 1 , yet the inner cusp of the carnassial is 
usually less strongly developed in the former, and in this 
respect the fossil differs from the smaller Genets, although 
the form of the hinder part of the jaw is more like that of 
Genetta. The extremely close resemblance of the denti- 
tion of the fossil to H. nipalensis renders it extremely 
probable that it should be referred to the same genus 
rather than to Viverra. 

All the sufficiently described fossil species of the genus 
are of considerably larger size than the present specimen ; 
and this is especially the case with H. crassus, Filhol 2 , and 
the so-called H. antiquus 3 , Pomel, which appears to be the 
same as Viverra antiqua, Blainv. 

It may be added that the present specimen is distin- 
guished from Mustela gracilis^ by the absence of any 
interval between the anterior premolars, by the larger size 
of pm. 1, of the inner cusp of m7l (which is only rudimen- 
tary in that form), and of m7~2. It is distinguished from 
Cynodictis exilis'% which is of nearly the same size, by the 
absence of mT3, and by the larger and lower crown of the 
carnassial, which does not exceed the height of the pre- 
molars 6 . Par chased, 1884. 

1 Vide Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1882, p. 177. 

2 Arch. Mus. Lyon, vol. iii. p. 63, pi. iv. figs. 10, 11. 

3 Vide Filhol, Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, pp. 161-163, pi. xxiv. fiffs. 5-9 
(wrongly named H. priscus in letterpress, vide Arch. Mus. Lyon, loc . cit.). 

4 Vide Filhol, Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 45, Plesiogale. 

5 Mid. vol. vii. art. 7, pi- xxiv. figs. 97-101 (misnamed Cynodictis gracilis in 
the description of the plates ; the real mandible of the latter is represented in 
vol. viii. pi. xx. fig. 337). 

6 The present specimen has been already referred to Herpestes by the present 
writer in the Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. i. p. 442 (18S4). 



106 CAKNIVOKA. 

M. 1374. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing all the cheek-teeth except p m . 1 ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. This specimen is precisely 
similar to the last. Purchased, 1884. 

Genus non det. {serial position uncertain). 
Hah. England. 

36791. Portion of the cranium; from the Headon beds (Upper 
Eocene) of Hordwell, Hampshire. This specimen has been 
described by Davies in the Geol. Hag. dec. 3, vol. i. p. 437 
(1884), who was unable to determine its affinities. It 
indicates an animal of considerably larger dimensions than 
Viverra hastingsice (p. 100). It shows a canine and three 
premolars in fair preservation ; and one premolar and a 
carnassial, with their crowns broken, are present in their 
respective alveoli. Presented by Samuel Laing, Esq., 1862. 



Family UKSID^. 

In the • Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 202-204, the 
present writer has shown that it is impossible to draw any distinc- 
tion of more than generic value between the Canoids and the Ursoids. 
and he accordingly united the two modern families of the Canidce 
and Ursidce, adopting the latter name as the family one 1 . The same 
arrangement has been adopted in the present work. It may, how- 
ever, be observed that there are almost equally strong reasons for 
uniting the Canoids and Yiverroids ; but as it is absolutely necessary 
to have a certain number of divisions, the family Viverridce is 
maintained. 

Although, as above said, it is logically impossible to draw any 
divisions of family value between the different genera of the Ursidce 
as thus extended, yet the convenience of having some division for 
working purposes among such a multitude of genera is so great, that 
it will be found advisable to rank the most Bear-like genera under 
one arbitrary group, and the most Dog-like under another. These 
two groups may respectively be termed Ursince and Canince, and 
their most typical representatives will be the members of the modern 
families Ursidce and Canidce. The genus Dinocyon will be ranked 
under the first group, on account of at least one of the species 

1 Were it not for the inadvisability of introducing new terms, and the in- 
trinsic objection to the name Hycenarctos, the name Hycenarctidoe would be in 
many respects more advisable for the family name. 



TJRSID.2E. 107 

referred to it l having an upper carnassial of the Hycenarctos type ; 
but it must be distinctly understood that its separation from the 
true Dogs is a purely arbitrary one, it being connected with the 
group through Cephalogale just as intimately as it is with the Bears 
through Hycenarctos. 

Subfamily Canine. 
Genus CYNODICTIS, Bravard and Pomel 2 . 
Dentition and Affinities. — In typical forms the dentition of this 
genus is numerically the same as that of typical forms of Canis, or 
I. g, C. p Pm. |, M. g. In some species, e. g. C. compressidens, how- 
ever, the last lower molar is normally very small, and in some in- 
stances is entirely absent 3 ; those races in which this tooth is absent 
being frequently distinguished by the varietal name of viverroides. 
In those races the dentition is very close to , certain Viverroids (e. g. 
Amphictis and Herpestes), the blade of the lower carnassial being 
tall and the inner cusp large, and placed relatively far forwards, the 
" cusp-line" being transverse. The dentition oiHerpestes is, however, 
distinguished by the presence of an inner cusp to the upper third 
premolar, and by the smaller size of the second lower true molar. 
In other forms (e. g. C. leptorhyncha^) the blade of the lower car- 
nassial is relatively low, the inner cusp small, and the " cusp-line " 
slightly oblique ; and the dentition is then but very slightly removed 
from that of some of the least specialized species of Canis, like the 
existing C. bengalensis and the fossil Indian C. curvipalatus (although 
a " meinocreodont " character is more marked in the Cynodictis) ; 
and it thus seems probable that there is an almost perfect transition 
from Cynodictis to Canis, the genera Cynodon (distinguished by the 
absence of a cusp on the posterior cutting-edge of pm. 4 ) and Amphi- 
cynodon being allied forms. One variety of C. leptorhyncha has, 
however, lost its last lower molar, and thereby shows a viverrine 

1 It should be observed that the writer, after a suggestion of Filhol, refers the 
so-called Hycenarctos hemicyon to this genus, under the name of Dinocyon 
hemicyon {vide ' Palseontologia Indica,' op. cit.). 

2 Notice sur les Ossemens Fossiles de la Debruge, p. 5 (1850). This refer- 
ence is given by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. p. 216. The 
present writer has been unable to find the memoir quoted in any of the lists to 
which he has access, and it is probable that it was published on the Continent 
in a separate form, and that copies never reached the English scientific libraries. 
The writer is unable to say whether any specific names were given in this 
memoir. 

3 Vide Filhol, Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882 ("Notes sur q Ue l- 
ques Mammiferes fossiles des Phosphorites du Quercy"). 

4 . Vide Filhol, Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pis. xxi., xxii. 



108 CAPJOVORA. 

tendency. Huxley has indicated a strong resemblance between the 
skulls of some species of Cynodictis and certain existing American 
forms of Canis ; and the close resemblance of the skeleton of Cyno- 
dictis to that of Amphicyon has been noticed by Filhol, who has also 
shown that in some of the larger forms the lower dentition is very 
like that of Amphicyon, which is again very like Cephalogale. The 
humerus of Cynodictis (or, at all events, of most of the species) had 
an entepicondylar foramen, thereby differing from that of Canis, 
and agreeing with Viverra, Amphicyon, and Cephalogale. 

It thus appears that Cynodictis is an extremely generalized genus, 
connecting the Yiverroids and the Canoids so intimately that it is 
almost impossible to say with which family it should be classed. 
Future discoveries will probably ere long render it impracticable to 
generically distinguish Herpestes, Amphictis, Cynodictis, and Canis 
from one another, or from the forms to which the names Amphi- 
cynodon and Cynodon have been applied. 

In quite another direction Filhol 1 has indicated that in those 
forms of Cynodictis in which the last lower molar is absent there is 
a complete passage through Stenoplesictis to Palceoprionodon (vide 
Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, pp. 67-8) ; while from 
the former the transition to the musteline genus Plesictis is gradual, 
and the latter is but slightly removed from the feline Pseudcelurus. 

Cynodictis lacustris, P. Gervais 2 . 
Syn. C. mungoides and C. antiqua, Bravard, MS. 
Hob. Prance. 

27572. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing m. 1 , m. 2 , and a 

portion of pm. 4 ; from the Upper Eocene of Apt (Vaucluse), 
France. These teeth, although more perfect, appear to be 
indistinguishable from the corresponding type specimens 
figured by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. 
pi. xxv. fig. 2 ; together with the next specimen, they are 
entered in Bravard's MS. Catalogue in the Museum as 
C. mungoides, Bravard 3 . 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27573. Portion of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 

1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 49, and Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. 
Toulouse, op. cit. 

2 Zool. etPal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 133 (1848-52). The present writer 
is unacquainted with the date of publication of this portion of the work. 

3 This name, together with the names C. dubia (non Filhol), C. antiqua, 
and C. angustidens, occurs in some (apparently) unpublished plates of Bra- 
vard's in the Museum, in which the specimens noticed above are figured. 



UKSIDJE. 109 

last three premolars, the carnassial, and m . 2 ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Apt. The dentition of this specimen 
appears to agree precisely with that of the mandible figured 
by P. Gervais (op. cit. fig. 1). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28122. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the last 

three premolars ; from the Upper Eocene of Apt. In this 
specimen p m . 4 is rather larger than in No. 27573, and the 
ramus is somewhat deeper ; it is, however, very doubtful 
if these differences can be considered more than individual 
characters. The present specimen is entered in Bravard's 
Catalogue as C. antiqua, Bravard. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28123. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 

taining the whole of the teeth in a damaged condition and 
the perfect lower carnassial of the opposite side ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Apt. These specimens are precisely similar 
to jNo. 27573. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28124. Detached teeth provisionally referred to this species ; from 

the Upper Eocene of Apt. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Cynodictis crassidens, Eilhol 1 . 

This is a large species, which, in the small size and backward 
position of the inner cusp of the lower carnassial and the low crown 
of its blade, connects the more Yiverroid species (e. g. C. compres- 
sidens) with Amjphicyon and Canis. 

Hob. Erance. 

M. 1664. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the second premolar, the carnassial, the second true 
molar, and the alveoli of the other cheek-teeth ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), Erance. 
This specimen agrees precisely with the less perfect portion 
of the mandible figured by Eilhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. vii. pi. xvii. figs. 50, 51. The space occupied by the 
seven cheek-teeth is 0,070. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1661. Two specimens of the middle portion of the right ramus of 
the mandible, coutaining the second and third premolars 
and the carnassial ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach. 

Purchased, 1884. 
1 Bull. Soc. Philoin. Paris, ser. 6, vol. xi. pp. 16-21 (1874). 



110 CAENIVORA. 

M. 1662. Hinder portion of the left ramus of the mandible, showing 
the carnassial, m. 2, and the alveolus of m . 3, with the 
complete coronoid process ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Each. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1663. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the 
second true molar ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Cynodictis gryei, Filhol 3 . 

A large species, with " microdont " and " meionocreodont " denti- 
tion. 

Hab. France. 

M. 1368. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last four 

{Fig.) cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 

Garonne), France. This specimen (woodcut, fig. 14) 

Fig. 14. 




Cynodictis gryei, Filhol. — Fragment of the left maxilla ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. \. 

agrees precisely with the type cranium figured by Filhol 
in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xix. fig. 60, but shows 
m. 2 , which is wanting in that specimen. This tooth is 
remarkable for the great development of its inner portion, 
and the extremely low elevation of the cusps on the crown. 
A similar character is presented by m. 3 , and the carnassial 
is also remarkable for its antero-posterior shortness and 
great transverse breadth. In all these characters there is 
good evidence of the species belonging to a very primitive 
type. Purchased, 1884. 

1 Ann. Sci. G6ol. vol. vii. art. 7, p. 74 (1876). 



URSZDJE. 



Ill 



Cynodictis longirostris, Filhol 1 . 

This species has been hitherto known only by the mandible, which 
is of an elongated form, and indicates a medium-sized species. The 
crown of the lower carnassial is comparatively low. 

Hab. Prance. 

M. 1665. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
m. 2 and the alveolus of m . 3, apparently belonging to this 
species ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque 
(Lot), France. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1666. Anterior portion of the cranium of a Cynodictis ; from 
(Fig.) the Upper Eocene of Bach. This specimen, of which the 
left half is figured, from the palatal aspect, in the accom- 
panying woodcut (fig. 15), differs from the crania of any 

Fig. 15. 




Cynodictis longirostris (?). — Left half of the palate ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Bach. \. 

species figured by Filhol. It agrees so well with the man- 
dible of C. longirostris in size and general character that 
it may not improbably belong to that species, although, 
from the number of species of the genus described on the 

1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. iii. art. 7, p. 24 (1872). 



112 CARNIVORA. 

evidence of the mandible, it is very difficult to make any 
certain determinations of the corresponding crania. The 
whole of the cheek-teeth are shown on the left side, and 
the first incisor of the same side is also in situ, the other 
teeth being represented merely by their alveoli. The first 
premolar is small and one-rooted, and is separated by a 
considerable interval from pm- 2 , which is likewise small, 
and separated by an interval from pm. 3 ; the latter has 
a minute cusp on its posterior cutting-edge. The carnas- 
sial is a relatively short tooth, with a well-developed inner 
tubercle. The true molars are transversely elongated. 
The cranium seems not dissimilar in shape and size to that 
of Cynodictis gryei (Filhol, op. cit. vol. vii. pi. xix.) ; but 
the two are very readily distinguished by the different form 
of the teeth (compare woodcut, fig. 14). Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1667. Anterior portion of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the third and fourth premolars and the alveolus of 
the canine ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Cynodictis compressidens, Filhol 1 . 
Syn. Cynodictis angustidens, Pomel and Bravard, MS. (?). 

This is a medium-sized species, with relatively well-developed 
teeth, the cusps of the lower carnassial being very tall. In one race 
rnT~2 is absent. The species has not hitherto been recorded from 
Yaucluse. 

Hob. France. 

M. 1352. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), 
France. This specimen appears to agree precisely with 
the type mandible figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. vii. pi. xxv. figs. 117-119, and shows part of the 
alveolus of the canine, the alveolus of pm. 1, the last three 
premolars, the first two true molars, and the alveolus of 
m . 3, which is of extremely minute size. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1353. The complete left ramus of the mandible, wanting the 
incisors, canines, pm. 1, pm. 3, pm. 4, and m. 3 ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

28128. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
p m . 3 and the anterior half of m . 1 ; from the Upper 
1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. iii. art. 7, p. 26 (1872). 



uesh)^;. 



113 



Eocene of Apt (Vaucluse), France. This specimen appears 
to agree precisely with the last specimen ; it is entered in 
the Museum Register as C. angustidens, Pomel and Bra- 
Yard. The present writer is unaware whether that name is 
merely a manuscript one, or whether it occurs in the memoir 
by those writers already mentioned under the head of the 
genus Cynodictis (p. 107) : if the latter should he the case, 
the name angustidens has the priority over compressidens. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1653. Two fragments of the mandible ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), France. One specimen 
shows the three true molars, and the other the last pre- 
molar, the carnassial, and the alveoli of mT2 and m . 3. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Yar. viverroides, Eilhol l . 
M. 1359. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 
containing all the cheek-teeth, and part of the alveolus 
of the canine ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), France. This specimen, which is figured in 
the accompanying woodcut (fig. 16), differs from the man- 
Fig. 16. 




?, var. viverroides, Filhol. — Part of the left ramus of 
the mandible ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. \. 

dible of the type form by its slightly inferior size, by the 
absence of m . 3, and by the slightly more backward posi- 
tion of the inner cusp of m. 1, and in these respects agrees 
perfectly with the type mandible of the variety described 
by Filhol. This jaw presents a marked resemblance to 
that of Herpestes, but is distinguished by the relatively 
larger size of m . 2 and of the hinder lobe of the blade of 
m. 1 ; in the form of m. 2 it comes very close to Amphictis. 

Purchased, 1884. 
1 Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, p. 56. 

I 



114 CAENTVORA. 

M. 1360. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the four last cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. This specimen is precisely similar to the last. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1654. The complete right ramus of the mandible, showing all 
the teeth, except the incisors, canine, and p m . 1 ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), France. 
This specimen agrees precisely with the type mandible 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xxv. 
figs. 118, 119, with the exception of the absence of nT3. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1655. Two specimens of the anterior portion of the ramus of the 
mandible, with the canines and premolars; from the 
Upper Eocene of Bach. These specimens are slightly 
smaller than the last ; and it is uncertain whether they 
belong to the type form or the present variety. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1367. Two portions of rami of the mandible ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. These specimens agree very closely in 
size with the last. Purchased, 1884. 

Cynodictis curvirostris, Filhol 1 . 

This species is of rather large size, and the crowns of the lower 
cheek-teeth are relatively low. 
Hab. France. 

M. 1660. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last premolar, the carnassial, and m . 2, with the alveoli of 
the other teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach, near 
Lalbenque (Lot), France. This specimen agrees precisely 
with the one figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. vii. pi. xviii. figs. 52-54. Purchased, 1884. 

Cynodictis brachyrostris, Filhol 2 . 

This species is nearly the same size as the last ; but the mandible 
is much shorter. 
Hab. France. 

M. 1355. The nearly complete left ramus of the mandible ; from the 

1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. art. 7, p. 97 (1876). 
a Ibid. .71 



URsma;. 115 

Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This 
specimen shows all the cheek-teeth, except pm. 1, and 
appears to agree precisely with the type specimen figured 
by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xxiv. fig. 102, 
in which the earlier premolars are wanting. It differs 
from the mandible of C. comjpressidens by the shorter pm. 4, 
the longer m . 1, and the larger m. 3. Purchased, 1884. 

Cynodictis intermedia, Filhol 1 . 

Hah. France. 

M. 1356. The anterior portion of the cranium ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This speci- 
men, which wants the nasals, shows the two true molars 
and the last three premolars, as well as the alveoli of the 
remaining teeth. It apparently agrees precisely with the 
type cranium figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. vii. pi. xxiv. fig. 105 2 ; and exhibits well the extreme 
shortness of the facial part and the great width of the 
zygomata, which are such characteristic features of the 
species. The teeth agree very closely with those of the 
type (FilhoL op. cit. fig. 104) ; but the inner portion of 
the true molars is rather shorter antero-posteriorly. In 
the sudden contraction in width immediately in advance 
of the carnassial, this cranium more nearly resembles some 
of the meionocreodont species of Cants (e.g. C. bengalensis) 
than Viverra ; and in the extreme shortness of the face 
and palate is more like Herpestes than either of the other 
two genera. The cheek-teeth are, however, readily distin- 
guished from those of existing species of Herpestes by the 
absence of the inner cusp of pm. 3 : the palatine foramina 
are of the elongated form of those of Canis and Viverra. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Cynodictis boriei, Filhol 3 . 
A large species, with a remarkably meionocreodont dentition. 
Hab. France. 

M. 1652. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the four last 

1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. art. 7, p. 110 (1876). 

2 In the explanation of the plate, fig. 105 is given as C. Icptorhyncha and 
fig. 106 as C. intermedia ; marginal corrections made by M. Filhol in a copy 
presented to the writer indicate, however, that these names should be trans- 

sd. 
Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, ser. 6, vol. x. p. 86 (1874). 

i2 



116 CARNIVOEA. 

cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lal- 
benque (Lot), Prance. This specimen agrees very closely 
with the dentition of the cranium, figured by Filhol in the 
Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xv. fig. 34 ; but the last molar 
is slightly narrower antero-posteriorly. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1357. The anterior portion of the left ramus of the mandible of a 
Cynodictis, not improbably belonging to the present species ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), 
Prance. This specimen shows the canine, the four pre- 
molars, and the blade of the carnassial ; and in the interval 
between the carnassial and the canine agrees very closely 
with the mandible of the smaller race of G. boriei, figured 
by Pilhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xvii. figs. 46- 
48 ; it apparently differs, however, in the greater relative 
height of the carnassial, which exceeds that of pm, 4 \ 

Purchased, 1884. 

Cynodictis dubia, Pilhol 2 . 
Syn. (?) Viverra leptorhyncha, Filhol 3 . 

The typical form of this species is of medium size, and is distin- 
guished by the lowness of the crown of the inferior carnassial, which 
does not exceed that of the last premolar 4 . As noticed below, it 
appears impossible to distinguish one variety from Pilhol's so-called 
Viverra leptorhyncha, which is really more like Amphictis than 
Viverra proper, and whose resemblance to Cynodictis is noticed by 
Pilhol. 

Hah. Prance. 

M. 1650. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
canine, the last three premolars, and the carnassial ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), Prance. 

Purchased, 1884. 
Variety. 
M. 1651. The nearly complete right ramus of the mandible, contain- 
(Fig.) ing the alveolus of the canine and all the cheek-teeth 

1 In his description of Cynodictis dubia (Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 
1882, p. 48), Filhol mentions that that species is distinguished from all others by 
the circumstance that the lower carnassial is not higher than pm. 4 ; it may be 
therefore that the figures of the mandible of C. boriei are erroneous in this respect. 

2 Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, p. 48, pi. vii. figs. 11, 13. 

3 Arch. Mus. Lyon, vol. iii. p. 69, pi. iv. figs. 16-19. The volume is dated 
1883 ; but separate copies of this memoir are dated 1881. 

4 Filhol remarks that this feature is peculiar to the species ; but it appears 
to obtain in C. boriei and others (vide note 1). 



tjksid^;. 



117 



except pni. l ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), Prance. There is no trace of m. 3 (of which a 
minute alveolus exists in the type specimen figured by 
Filhol, op. cit. fig. 13) ; but in all other respects the two 
specimens are precisely similar, with the exception that 
the present specimen (woodcut, fig. 17) is slightly larger. 




Cynodictis dubia, Filhol, var. — Part of the right ramus of the mandible ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. \. 

There do not seem any points by which the present speci- 
men can be distinguished from the mandible of Viverra 
leptorhyncha, Filhol (Arch. Mus. Lyon, vol. iii. pi. iv. 
figs. 16, 17), in which only the last two teeth remain. 
The present form seems to be one of those generalized 
species of which the generic position is extremely doubtful. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Cynodictis leptorhyncha 9 Filhol \ 

This is a smaller species than the last, with the crown of the 
lower cheek-teeth slightly taller, but otherwise very similar. The 
last lower true molar is absent in one race. 

Hob. France. 

M. 1658. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
canine, the alveoli of the first three premolars, the fourth 
premolar, the carnassial, and the alveoli of m. 2 and m. 3, 
the latter very minute ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach, 
near Lalbenque (Lot), France. This specimen agrees very 
closely with the type mandible figured by Filhol in the 
Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xxi. figs. 73, 74. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Yar. viverroides, Filhol 2 . 
M. 1656. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the two last premolars, the carnassial, and ro72 5 with no 

1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. art. 4, p. 124 (1870). 

2 Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, p, 54. 



118 CAENIVOEA. 

trace of m73; from the Upper Eocene of Bach. This 
specimen appears to agree very closely with the one figured 
by Filhol in the Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, 
pi. vi. figs. 3, 4. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1376. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
two last premolars, the carnassial, and m. 2, with no trace 
of mT8 ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), France. This specimen agrees precisely with 
the last. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1367- Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
four premolars ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. In 
this and the next specimen it is impossible to say whether 
m. 3 was present. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1657. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last three premolars and the carnassial ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

Cynodictis, sp. 

Hab. France. 

M. 1659. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, of smaller 
size than any of those referred to the last species, but 
agreeing in general characters, and wanting m73 ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), France. 
It is not improbable that this specimen may belong to a 
small race of G. leptorhyncha. Purchased, 1884. 

Cynodictis (?), sp. 
Hab. France. 

M. 1354. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the 
second and fourth premolars, and the three true molars, 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), 
France. This specimen appears to come nearest in form 
to Cynodictis leptorhyncha ; but is readily distinguished 
by its much shorter form, and the lower crown of the 
carnassial, which is lower than that of p m . 4. The inner 
cusp of m. 1 is strongly developed and very distinct, and 
the talon short and wide ; there is a cusp on the posterior 
border of pm. 4. These characters distinguish the speci- 
men from Oynodon. In Amphicynodon, Filhol \ there is 
a similar cusp to pm. 4, but the ascending ramus of the 

1 Ann. Sci. G60I. vol. xii. pi. viii. fig. 29. 



irasrDiE. 119 

jaw is nearly vertical, whereas it is oblique in the present 
specimen. It appears, on the whole, that the latter 
should probably be referred to the genus Cynodictis ; and 
the lowness of the crown of the carnassial indicates that 
it is one of the least specialized forms. Purchased, 1884. 

Limb -bones op undetermined Species op Cynodictis or 
allied Genera. 

a. From the Upper Eocene of Apt ( Vaucluse), France. 

27574. The distal half of the right humerus ; perhaps belonging to 
C. lacustris. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28126. The distal extremity of a humerus. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28127. The proximal extremity of a right femur. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28121-2, 28129. Three specimens of metacarpals and metatarsals. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28125. The bones of the right manus, nearly complete. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

b. From the Upper Eocene of Caylucc and Bach, France. 
{Purchased, 1884.) 

3VL 1696. Three humeri, probably belonging to a medium-sized 
species. These bones agree with a specimen figured by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. iii. pi. xviii. fig. 44, and 
provisionally referred to C. compressidens. 

M. 1382. Three humeri, slightly smaller than the last. 

M. 1697. Pour humeri, considerably smaller than the last; and 
slightly larger than a specimen figured by Filhol (op. cit. 
fig. 45), and suggested to belong to Viverra. 

M- 1384. A right humerus, considerably smaller than the last. 
This specimen is precisely similar to one figured by 
Filhol (op. cit. fig. 46). This and the preceding specimens 
have a well-developed entepicondylar foramen. 

M. 1698. Seven ulnae, of various sizes. 

M. 1699. Five radii, of various sizes. 



120 CARNIVOEA. 

M. 1700. Several calcanea, of various sizes. 

M. 1701. Several astragali, of various sizes. 

M. 1702-3. Numerous metapodial bones, of various sizes. 

M. 1704. Four specimens of the axis vertebra; and a fifth appa- 
rently belonging to a distinct species. 

M. 1705. Two specimens of the sacrum. 

M. 1706. Numerous caudal vertebrae. 

M. 1412. Numerous limb-bones. 

M. 1380. Numerous canine teeth. 

M. 1707. Ditto. 

Genus ICTICYON, Lund \ 
Syn. Speothos, Lund 2 . 

Dentition (usually) : — I. |, C. \, Pm. |, M. \. In a recent female 
specimen of /. venaticus in the Museum of the Royal College of 
Surgeons (No. 533) a small m- 2 is present ; and in a large recent 
male skull in the British Museum m . 2 is absent on both sides ; the 
range of variation in the number of true molars is therefore ^J* 
In its dentition this genus is the most specialized of the Canince ; 
this being shown by the suppression of the hinder molars, and by 
the absence of the inner cusp of the lower carnassial. In a lineal 
classification it is impossible to assign a satisfactory position to the 
genus, since it is necessary that Cynodictis should be placed next to 
the Viverridce, and Canis close to Aniphicyon, which comes next to 
Dinocyon and Hycenarctos. 

Micron fcenatuus, Lund 3 . 

Syn. Cynogale venatica, Lund 4 . 

(?) Speothos pacivorus, Lund 5 . 
Icticyon affinis venaticus, Lund 6 . 
(?) Icticyon major, Lund 7 . 

1 K. DanskeYid. Selsk. Skr. vol. xi. p. 62 (1845). 

2 Ibid. vol. viii. p. 93, pi. xix. figs. 1, 2 (1841). The probable generic iden- 
tity of Speothos with Icticyon has been indicated by Huxley (Proc Zool. Soc. 
1880, p. 280) ; the former name has the priority. The same remark applies to 
the specific names pacivorus and venaticus. 

8 Ibid. vol. ix. p. 201 (1842), Cynogale. 4 Loc. eit. 

5 Ibid. vol. viii. p. 93(1841). 

c Vide H. Gervais and Ameghino, ' Mammiferes foseiles de l'Amerique du 
Suci; p. 35 (1880). 7 Ibid. 



FRSID^. 121 

A comparison of the specimens mentioned below with specimens 
of the existing form shows that the only difference that can be de- 
tected between the two is that the teeth of the fossil are slightly 
narrower. Judging from Lund's figures it seems very doubtful if 
the so-called Sjoeothos pacivorus and Icticyon major (described from 
a single tooth) can be regarded as more than large races of the 
present species. 

Hah. S. America. 

18911. The hinder portion of the cranium ; from a cavern in Minas 
Geraes, Brazil. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18911 a. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the four pre- 
molars and the true molar; from a cavern in Minas 
Geraes. It is noteworthy that this and other fossil spe- 
cimens show no trace of m. 2 . 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18911 b. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing pm. 4 and m. 1 ; 
from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18911 e. Fragment of the premaxillee, containing the outer in- 
cisors ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18911 d. Fragment of the mandible, containing the canines of 
both sides, and the last three premolars and m. 1 of the 
left side ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18911 e. Hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last two premolars, the carnassial, and the alveolus of 
m. 2 ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18911 f. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing the whole of the cheek-dentition j from a 
cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Genus LYCAON, Brookes 1 . 

Dentition : — I. §, C. j, Pm. -, M. g . The lower dentition differs 
from that of Canis by the presence of an anterior talon, or cusp, to 
pro. 4. 

1 In Griffith's Animal Kiugdom, vol. v. p. 151 (1827). 



122 CARSTIYORA. 

Lycaon anglicus, Lydekker 1 . 
Hah. England. 

40950. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
(Fig.) taining the four premolars and the carnassial, with the 
alveoli of the incisors, canine, and m72 ; from the cave of 
Spritsail-Tor, Gower, Glamorganshire 2 . This specimen 
was described by Falconer in a manuscript note, which 
has been published in his ' Pakeontological Memoirs," 
vol. ii. p. 462, under the name of " Hysenoid Wolf," and 
full measurements are given. Two small-size figures are 
given in plate xxxvi. figs. 1, 2 of the same volume. The 
length of the cheek-teeth is somewhat in excess of that of 
average-sized specimens of Canis lupus, and is very con- 
siderably greater than in Lycaon pictus. The carnassial 
corresponds very closely with that of C. lupus, and has a 
wider talon than in L. pictus : this tooth conclusively 
proves the canoid nature of the specimen. The fourth 
premolar is a very remarkable tooth, being relatively 
much wider than the corresponding tooth of C. lupus or 
L. pictus. It agrees with the latter, and differs from the 
former (and that of all species of Canis) by the presence 
of a distinct anterior talon. The second and third pre- 
molars are also relatively wider than in Canis lupus or 
Lycaon pictus, and have a trace of a minute anterior 
talon, which is generally more or less distinctly developed 
in the latter. The first premolar does not present any 
noteworthy characters. 

There is no question but that the specimen is specifically 
distinct both from Canis lupus and Lycaon pictus. The 
form of the fourth premolar being nearer to the corre- 
sponding tooth of the latter than to that of the former, it 
has appeared advisable to refer the specimen provisionally 
to the genus Lycaon, with the specific name of anglicus. 
The relatively great width of p m . 4 seems to indicate 
affinity with some of the more generalized species of 
Hyaena, like H. macrostoma. 

Presented by Gen. Wood, 1865. 

1 Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. i. p. 443 (1884). 

2 For the position of this cave see ' Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' 
vol. ii. p. 522. 



UBSID^. 123 

Genus CANIS, Linn. 1 

Following Flower's classification this genus is taken to include 
all the existing Canoids, with the exception of Lycaon, Icticyon, and 
Otocyon ; it also includes the fossil genera Galecynus, Owen, and 
Lycorus, Bourguignat. 

Dentition. — In typical forms the dental formula is 1. 1, C. \, 
Pm. J, M. |; in some aberrant forms (Cyon), however, the true 
molars are | ; and in the fossil C. (Lycorus) nemestrinus the pre- 
molars are reduced to |. The formula embracing this range of 
variation 2 will be 1. 1 C. \, Pm. JL. )f M. ^. There is a great 
amount of variation in the relative proportions of the different 
cheek-teeth ; and in the degree of development and position of the 
inner cusp of the lower carnassial 3 . There is no entepicondylar 
foramen to the humerus. 

Catlfe lltpttS, Linn. 4 
Syn. Canis spelceus, Groldfuss s. 
Lupus spelceus, Blainville 6 . 
Canis juvillacus, Blainville 7 (ex Bravard). 

Hab. Europe and Worth Asia. 

44739. Cranium and mandible, wanting several teeth ; from Hutton 
Cave, Somersetshire. This specimen is remarkable for the 
circumstance that the first upper premolar of the left side 
(of which the anterior half is broken away) is of an elon- 
gated form like pm. 2 , and is inserted by two distinct fangs. 
The first three premolars are in contact with one another. 
In the mandible pm. 1 has only a single root; but the 
three preceding teeth are relatively long, and are in 
contact with one another. 

Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1874. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12. vol. i. p. 56 (1766). 

/o 3") 

2 In C. cancrivorus the molars are , p .{ ; and Filhol has shown that in the 

(3—4) ' 

long-jawed domestic races like the greyhound m 3. is occasionally present, while 
in the short-jawed races like the bull-dog m . 3 is sometimes absent. 

3 For a full account of these variations, see Huxley, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1880, 
p. 238 et seq., and the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 240 et seq. 

4 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 50 (1766). 

5 Nov. Acta Ac. Cres, Leop.-Car. vol. x. pt. 2, p. 456 (1823). 
G OstSographie, genus Canis, p. 101 (1841 ?). 

7 Ibid. pp. 125-6. 



124 CAENIVOKA. 

M. 404. Greater portion of the cranium, showing all the cheek- 
teeth ; from Banweil Cave, Somersetshire. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 404 a. Hinder portion of a small cranium ; from Banweil Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

38144. The nearly complete cranium and mandible ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Bernburg, Germany. This is a very typical 
specimen. Purchased, 1864. 

M. 404 b. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last three 
cheek-teeth and the alveolus of pm. 3 ; from the Gailen- 
reuth Cave, Franconia. The teeth of this specimen are in 
beautiful preservation, and are of very large size. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 223. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the four last 
cheek-teeth ; from Banweil Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 403. The greater part of the right maxilla, containing the three 
last cheek-teeth ; from Banweil Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 437. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing pm. 4 and n\. 1 ; 
from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Ennishillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

24 (0. ft). Fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm. 4 and m. 1 ; 
probably from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

28582. Fragment of the right maxilla, showing pm. 4 and m. 2 ; from 
a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. Purchased, 1853. 

28571. The complete left ramus of the mandible, wanting the first 

incisor and the canine ; from a cavern in Sundwig. 

Purchased, 1853. 

23 (0. ft). Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with the cheek- 
teeth ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

15636. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, show- 
ing the canine and all the cheek-teeth except m. 3 ; from 
Kent's-Hole Cavern, Torquay. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

28572. The complete mandible, wanting all the teeth except m. 1 

and mT2 ; from a cavern in Sundwig. Purchased, 1 853. 



URSID^. 125 

M. 223 a. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
fonr premolars and the carnassial ; from Banwell Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

46981. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing all the cheek-teeth except pm. 1 and m. 3 ; from 
the cavernous fissures of Oreston, near Plymouth. 

Purchased, 1876. 

23140. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last three premolars and the carnassial ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Grays, Essex. Purchased, 1849. 

28056. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
canine and the four premolars ; from the Pleistocene of 
Westeregelen, near Magdeburg, Saxony. 

Presented by J. Broivn, Esq., 1852. 

28056. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
canine and the two middle premolars ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Westeregelen. Presented by J. Brown, Esq., 1852. 

M. 403 a. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining aLL the cheek-teeth except m . 3 ; from the Gailen- 
reuth Cave. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

. M. 403 b. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the unworn carnassial ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 403 C. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the canine, pm. i, and pm. 2 ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 
Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 404 c. The complete right ramus of the mandible, wanting two 
incisors and m . 3 ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 403 d. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
m. 1 and m. 2 ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

23732. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
pm. 2, pm. 3, and the blade of mTT; from the Pleistocene of 
Slade Green, near Erith, Kent. Purchased, 1849. 

28573. The hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 






126 CARNXVORA. 

taining the two last premolars and the first molar ; from 
a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. Purchased, 1853. 

M. 436. Portion of the left ramus of the mandible, containing four 
cheek-teeth ; from a cavern in Sundwig. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 404 d. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing all the 
cheek-teeth except pm. 1 and m . 3 ; from Banwell Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 404 e. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the four 
premolars and the carnassial ; from Banwell Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

28570. The greater portion of the mandible, containing several 
teeth in a much-worn condition ; from a cavern in 
Sundwig. Purchased, 1853. 

28872. The left ramus of the mandible, containing all the teeth 

except the incisors and the last molar ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Tour-de-Boulade (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. This 
specimen, together with the others from the same locality, 
is the type of Bravard's Canis juvillacus (vide De Blainville, 
' Osteographie,' genus Canis, pp. 125-6) ; but it does not 
appear to differ in any respect from typical mandibles of 
Canis lupus. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28873. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting the two inner 

incisors and pm. 1 ; from the Pleistocene of Tour-de- 
Boulade. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28870. Greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, in a 

much-broken condition ; from the Pleistocene of Tour-de- 
Boulade. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28871. Greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, in a 

much-broken condition ; from the Pleistocene of Tour-de- 
Boulade. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27625. Greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, with 
the teeth much broken, and a fragment of the scapula and 
ulna ; from the Pleistocene of Vic-le-Conte, near Issoire 
(Puy-de-D6me), Prance. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

29699. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 



URSID.ffi. 



127 



the broken canine, the alveoli of the three first premolars, 
and the complete p m . 4. Purchased, 1853. 

23141. The germ of the right lower carnassial; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Grays, Essex. Purchased, 1849. 

18982. The left lower carnassial ; from the Pleistocene of Kent's- 
Hole Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

M. 213. Two humeri ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 215. A left nlna ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. 

M. 218. A left radius ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

28875. The distal half of the right humerus ; from Tour-de-Boulade, 

Puy-de-D6me. This and other limb-bones from the same 
locality are referred by Bravard to his Canis juvillacus. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

40714. The proximal half of the right femur ; from Banwell Cave, 
Somersetshire. Purchased, 1867. 

M. 219. The right tibia , imperfect at the proximal extremity ; from 
the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

28876. The left tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Tour-de-Boulade. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28877. The left astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Tour-de-Boulade. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 214, 216, 217, 222. Various limb-bones; from the Gailen- 
reuth Cave. Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 403. Numerous limb-bones and vertebras; from the Gailen- 
reuth Cave. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

46137. An atlas vertebra, of large size; dredged off the eastern 

coast of England (Pleistocene). 

Oivles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

46138. A lumbar vertebra, of large size: dredged off the eastern 

coast of England. Ovules Collection. Purchased, 1874. 



128 



CARNIVORA. 



18831. The third cervical vertebra; from the Pleistocene of Grays, 
Essex. Purchased, 1845. 

28874. The sixth cervical vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Tour- 
de-Boulade, Puy-de-D6me. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

37190. A dorsal vertebra; from Brixham Cave, near Torquay. 

Presented by B. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

37189. The sacrum ; from Brixham Cave. 

Presented by E. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

M. 210-11. Numerous vertebrse; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 285. The axis vertebra; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 372. A proximal phalangeal ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

Canis cautleyi, Bose 1 . 
Hab. India. 

40182. The hinder portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 

\Fig.) Fig. 18. 



to. 3 



to. 2 



to. 1 




.pm. 4 



jpm. 



A. B. 

Canis cautleyi. — Part of the left ramus of the mandible (a) and the left side of 
the palate (b) ; from the Siwalik Hills. Dublin Museum. \. (From tbe 
4 Palaeontologia Indica.') 



Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 135 (1880). 



TTRSID^. 129 

taining the three true molars, the last of which is of very 
small size ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. 
This specimen, with the next, is the type of the species, 
and is described and figured by Bose in the Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 135, pi. vi. figs. 7, 8. It is also 
described and figured by the present writer in the ' Palaaon- 
tologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 259, pi. xxxii. figs. 6, 6 a. 
The accompanying woodcut (fig. 18) shows the hinder 
cheek- dentition of a skull of this species, in the Museum 
of Science and Art, Dublin, from the Siwalik Hills. The 
carnassial teeth are relatively longer than in the existing 
Wolves of the Old World. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842 

40181. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
(Fig.) first two true molars and the alveolus of m- 3 ; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen, in which 
the summit of the hinder lobe of the blade is broken off, 
is described and figured by Bose in the memoir quoted 
above (pi. vi. fig. 9). Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15918. The left upper carnassial ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842 

15S20. The associated bones of the hiud foot of a Carnivore; from 
the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. These bones agree 
with those of Canis lupus, but are of rather smaller size ; 
they may very probably belong to the present species. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Cams, sp. 
Bab. Brazil. 

M. 24. Two fragments of the maxillas of opposite sides; from a 
deposit called " Tipitata," in the neighbourhood of San 
Angelo, 10 miles from the city of Mexico. These spe- 
cimens indicate an animal of the size of C. lupus, but 
with a larger pm. 1 ; they are too much damaged for spe- 
cific determination. Presented by P. Geddes, Esq., 1880. 

Canis, sp. (allied to C. aureus, Linn.). 

Hob. India. 

15G21. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing pm. 4 and m- 1 , 
(Fig.) and the alveolus of ym. 3 • from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 

K 



130 CAKNIVOKA. 

Hills, India. This specimen has been described and figured 
by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 264, pi. xxxii. fig. 2. 

Gautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Canis neschersensis, Blainville 1 (ex Croizet). 
Syn. Lupus neschersensis, Bourguignat 2 . 
Hah. Prance. 

28877. Cast of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the canine 

and all the cheek-teeth except pm. 1 and m . 3. The original 
of this specimen is from the Pliocene of Neschers, Prance, 
and is described and figured by De Blainville in his 
1 Osteographie/ genus Canis, p. 125, pi. xiii. It indicates 
a species intermediate in size between the Wolf and the 
Jackal. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27620. The left upper carnassial ; from the Pliocene of Neschers, 
Prance. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27620 a. The associated left upper true molar; from the Pliocene of 
De-la-Grave, Prance. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28878. The distal extremity of the tibia; from the Pliocene of 

Keschers. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Canis, sp. 
Hob. Italy. 

M. 415. A fragment of the right maxilla, containing pm. 3 and 
the anterior part of p m. 4 , and a detached canine ; from 
the Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno, Italy. It is highly pro- 
bable that these specimens belong either to Canis etruscus 
or C. falconeri of Porsyth Major. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

Cams fcutpetf, Linn. 3 

Syn. Vulpes vulgaris, Owen 4 (ex Brisson). 
Vulpes major, Schmerling 5 . 



1 Osteographie, genus Canis, p. 125 (1841?). 

2 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vi. art. 6, p. 45 (1875). 

3 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 59 (1766). 

4 Brit. Fobs. Mamm. and Birds, p. 134 (1846). 

5 Recherche* Owsemens Possiles de Liege, vol. ii. p. 39 (1834). 



tjksib^:. 



131 



Vulpes minor, Schmerling ' . 
Canis vulpes fossilis, Pomel 2 . 
Cunis spelceus minor, Wagner 3 . 

An imperfect cranium has recently been described by the present 
writer (Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. ii. p. 443), from the Eed Crag of 
Boyton, Suffolk (woodcut, fig. 19), which is indistinguishable from 



Pig. 19. 




Canis vulpes. — Eight half of the palate ; from the Eed Crag of Boyton, Suffolk. \ 

crania of the present species, with the exception of its superior 
size. If, as seems probable, the specimen is really contemporary 
with the Crag, it is the earliest recorded occurrence of the species. 
Hah. Europe. 

M. 225. The palate ; from Hutton Cave, Somersetshire. 

EnnisJciUen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

1 Eecherches Ossemens Fossiles de Liege, vol. ii. p. 39 (1834). 

2 Catalogue Methodique, p. 69 (1853). 

3 Archiv fur Natur. toI. xv. p. 17, teste Owen. 

k2 



132 CAKNIVORA. 

48901. Part of the left maxilla, containing all the cheek-teeth 
except pm. 1 • from Brixham Cave, near Torquay. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented. 1876. 



M. 406. Anterior portion of the cranium, showing the hinder cheek- 
teeth of the right side ; from a cavern in the Mendip 
Hills. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 406 a. Anterior portion of the cranium, showing the last four 
cheek-teeth of the left side ; from a cavern in the Mendip 
Hills. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 226. The left ramus of the mandible, showing five cheek-teeth ; 
from Hutton Cave, Somersetshire. 

Ennislcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

41667. The mandible and the upper dentition ; from the Pleistocene 
of Dartford, Kent. 

Toidmin-Smith Collection. Purchased, 1867. 

55 (0. C). The right ramus of the mandible, containing the canine 
and all the cheek-teeth ; from Kirkdale Cave, Yorkshire. 
Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

35681. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, showing m . 1 
and m. 2 ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Bean Collection. Purchased, 1859. 

38495. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing all the 
cheek-teeth except pm. 2 and m73 ; from the Pleistocene 

of Grays, Essex. Purchased, 1864. 

28574. The mandible, showing all the teeth except the incisors and 
the last molar ; from a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. 
This specimen is of very large size. Purchased, 1853. 

27 (0. C). The right ramus of the mandible, wanting all the teeth 
except mT2; from a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. 

Sommerincf Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

17936. The right ramus of the mandible, showing pm . % pm. 3, m7I7 
and m. 2 ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern, Torquay. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

M. 94. The right ramus of the mandible of a very old individual, 

wanting p m . 1 (of which the alveolus has disappeared). 

and m72. Prom Cat's-Hole Cave, Gower, Glamorganshire. 

Presented by Cfen. Wood, 1865. 



UKSIDiE. 133 

18982. Two broken rami of the mandible, from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 
Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

37187. The two upper true molars of the left side; from Brixham 

Cave, near Torquay. 

Presented by R. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

37188. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the last 

three premolars and the carnassial ; from Brixham Cave. 
Presented by R. W. Wolston, Esq., 1863. 

16712. Anterior portion of the left ramus of the mandible, contain- 

(Fig.) ing the canine, the two last premolars, and the canine ; 

from Kent's-Hole Cavern. This specimen is figured by 

Owen in the ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds/ p. 134, 

fig. 51. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16707. Hinder portion of the left ramus of the mandible, contain- 

(Fig.) ing the carnassial, m . 2, and the alveolus of m . 3; from 

Kent's-Hole Cavern. This specimen is figured by Owen 

in the ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds/ p. 137, fig. 53. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16727. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last three premolars and the carnassial ; from Kent's- 
Hole Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

18236. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
(Fig.) m72 and the alveolus of m . 3 ; from the Pleistocene of 
Bacton, Norfolk. This specimen is figured by Newton in 
the Memoirs of the Geological Survey of England, " Ver- 
tebrata of the Forest-bed Series," pi. iv. figs. 2, 2 a, 
and is noticed in the Geol. Mag. dec. 2, vol. vii. p. 153 
(1880) \ Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

48902. The right ramus of the mandible ; from Brixham Cave. 

Brixham- Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48907. The lower cheek-teeth of the right side, in a fragment of 
one side of the ramus of the mandible; from Brixham 
Cave. Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

16757-8. Two specimens of the distal half of the humerus and the 
left ulna ; from Kent's Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

1 Mr. Newton has some doubt whether this specimen may not belong to a 
small Dog; it seems, however, most probable that it really belongs to a Fox. 



134r CAKNIVOKA. 

40948. The left ulna ; from a cavern at Gower, Glamorganshire. 

Presented by Gen. Wood, 1836. 

48903. The left innominate ; from Brixham Cave. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

16757 b, 16758 a. Two specimens of the femur, one broken ; from 
Kent's-Hole Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16757 a, 16758 b. Two specimens of the tibia, one broken ; from 
Kent's-Hole Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

44922, Part of the shaft of the right tibia of a small Carnivore of 
the size of the Common Fox ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford, Essex. This specimen is No. A*l of Davies's 
< Catalogue of the Brady Collection ' (1874), where it is 
provisionally referred to the present species. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

Canis, sp. 

Hob. Brazil. 

18893. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing pm. 4 and the two 
true molars, and a portion of the mandible containing m . i, 
^7~2 ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes, Brazil. In size 
these specimens agree very closely with C. cancrivorus ; 
but they differ by the presence of an additional cusp in 
m. 2 between the two main cusps of the anterior side, and 
another extra cusp in m. 2, situated on the inner border 
behind the first main cusp ; this tooth is also relatively 
wider and has a more distinct cingulum. This specimen 
does not appear to come so near to any other existing 
American species of the genus. The occurrence of Canis 
cancrivorus in the fossil state is not mentioned by P. Ger- 
vais and Ameghino in their Catalogue of the Fossil 
Mammals of S. America. 

Claussen Collection, Purchased, 1845. 

Canis, sp. 

Bab. Brazil. 

18916. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, belonging to 
a species rather smaller than the last ; from a cavern in 
Minas Geraes, Brazil. The second true molar wants the 
accessory cusp on the inner side, and has not such a 
distinct main cusp as in the last specimen. The present 



UESIDiE. 135 

specimen is too incomplete to determine whether it is 
specifically the same as one of the living species. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18911. Numerous canines of an undetermined Canoid ; from the 
caverns of Brazil. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Canis curvipalatus 9 Bose \ 
Hah. India. 

37149. The associated cranium and mandible ; from the Pliocene of 
{Fig.) the Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen, which is the type 
of the species, is described and figured by Baker and 
Durand in the Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. v. pi. xxxvii. 
figs. 9-12; it is also described by Bose in the passage 
cited ; and is described and figured by the present writer 
in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 254, 
pi. xxxii. figs. 1, 1<2, 7. It exhibits some very curious 
points of affinity with the South-African genus Otocyon. 
Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842, 

15919. Five associated limb-bones, comprising the two femora, the 
tibia, astragalus, and calcaneum ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills. These bones are somewhat smaller than 
those of C. vulpes, and on this account might well belong 
to the present species. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15913. The distal two-thirds of the right tibia ; from the Pliocene 

of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen agrees with the 

corresponding bone of the specimens under the last number. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Canis palustris, H. von Meyer 2 . 

Syn. Galecynus ainingensis, Owen 3 . 

Hab. Switzerland. 

27402. Complete skeleton ; from the Upper Miocene of (Eningen, 

{Pig.) Switzerland. This specimen, which is the type of the 

species, and of the genus Galecynus, Owen, was originally 

described and figured by Murchison and Mantell in the 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 134 (1880). 

2 Neues Jahrb. 1843, p. 701. 

3 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. iii. p. 55, figs. 1, 3, 5 (1847, read 1846). 
Owen supersedes Meyer's name palustris from the circumstance that Blain- 
ville had previously referred to the specimen as Vulpe d' (Eningen. 



136 CAKNIVOKA. * 

Trans. Geol. Soc. vol. iii. p. 277, pis. xxxiii.-iv., under 
the name of Canis vulpes. It was subsequently described 
and figured by H. von Meyer in the ' Fauna der Vorwelt/ 
pt. i. p. 4, pi. i. (1845), under the name of Canis palustris, 
and finally by Owen (loc. cit.) under the name of Galecynus 
oeningensis. Huxley has shown in the Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1880, p. 280, that there seems no valid reason why it 
should be separated generically from Canis. 

Presented by Sir B. I. Murchison, Bart., K.C.B., 1852. 

Canis ?, sp. 

Hah. Trance. 

M. 1708. Three humeri, about equal in size to the humerus of 
Canis aureus ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lal- 
benque (Lot), France. These bones differ from the humerus 
of Cynodictis, Cephalogale, and Amphicy on in the absence of 
an entepicondylar foramen, and thereby agree with Canis. 
They probably indicate the existence of a species of 
that genus in the phosphorites, and would therefore seem 
to confirm the generic reference of the so-called Canis 
Jilholi and C. cadurcensis. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1709. Four specimens of the femur, agreeing fairly well in 
relative size with the last specimen, and coming from 
the same locality. They may possibly belong to the same 
species. Purchased, 1884. 

Genus AMPHICYON, Lartet 1 . 
Syn. Agnotherium, Kaup (in parte). 
Cynelos, Jourdan (MS.). 
Pseudocyon, Lartet. 

Dentition :— I. |, C. {, Pm. \, M. |. 

Amphicyon giganteus, Laurillard 2 . 
Syn. Canis tfune tattle gigantesque, Cuvier. 

This is the largest species of the genus. 
Hah. Europe. 

1 Comptes Rendus, vol. v. p. 424 (1837). The name Agnofherium was 
applied by Kaup (Oss. Foss. de Darmstadt, pt. ii.) in 1833, and has there- 
fore the priority over Amphicyon ; but the latter has obtained universal accep- 
tation. 

2 Diet. Univ. d'Histoire Naturelle, vol. iii. p. 5G7 (1849). 



TTRSHLE. 137 

15542 a. Cast of the first left upper true molar. The original, 
which is the type of the species, and is believed to be in 
the Paris Museum, is from the Lower Miocene of Avaray 
(Loir-et-Cher), France ; and is figured by Cuvier in 
pi. cxciii. fig. 20 of the 4th ed. of the ' Ossemens Fossiles ; ' 
it is also figured by De Blainville in the ' Osteographie,' 
genus Subursus, pi. xiv., under the name of Amphicyon, 
d' Avaray ; De Blainville was inclined to consider it as a 
variety of A. major. Purchased. 

Amphicyon major, Blainville l . 

Syn. Amphicyon crassidens, Pomel. 
Amphicyon laurillardi, Pomel. 
Amphicyon minor, Blainville (in parte). 
(?) Pseudocyon sansaniensis, Lartet. 

This species is as large as a Brown Bear. 
Rah. France. 

29615. Cast of the left maxilla and premaxilla, showing the canine, 

* pm. 1 , pm. 4 , m. 1 , and m. 2 . The original of this specimen, 
which is the type, is preserved in the Paris Museum, and 
was obtained from the Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers), 
France. It is figured by De Blainville in the ( Osteo- 
graphie,' genus Subursus, pi. xiv. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

28150. The first left upper true molar (wanting a part of the outer 
half), and the anterior part of the left lower carnassial, 
both in a well-worn condition, and probably associated ; 
from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29616. Cast of the distal half of the left humerus, wanting the 

bridge over the entepicondylar foramen. The original is 
from the Middle Miocene of Sansan, and is preserved in 
the Paris Museum. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

1 'Osteographie,' genus Subursus, p. 78, pis. xiv.,xv. (1841). Pomel (Cat. Meth. 
p. 72) divided Blainville's A. major into the two species A. laurillardi and 
A. cultridens. As, however, he did not give figures or clear definitions it is 
better, with Prof. Peters, to retain all the specimens figured by Blainville under 
the name of A. major, which has the priority over Pomel's names ; the Sansan 
specimens indicate, however, a large and a small race. The lower jaw from 
Monte Bamboli, figured by Meneghini under the name of A. laurillardi (Atti. 
Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. vol. iv. pi. ii.A.), has been referred by Gervais (Zool. et Pal. 
Generales, ser. 2, p. 22 [1876] to a new species of Hycenardos. Pomel referred 
Pseudocyon sansaniensis, Lart., to his A. laurillardi ; a reference which is pro- 
visionally followed here. 



138 



CARNIVOEA. 



29617. Cast of the right radius. The original is from the Middle 

Miocene of Sansan, and is preserved in the Paris Museum. 
Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29618. Cast of the third left metacarpal. The original is from the 

Middle Miocene of Sansan, and is preserved in the Paris 
Museum. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29619. Cast of the left tibia. The original is from the Middle 

Miocene of Sansan, and is preserved in the Paris Museum. 
Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29620. Cast of the right calcaneum. The original is from the 

Middle Miocene of Sansan, and is preserved in the Paris 
Museum. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29621. Cast of the left astragalus. The original is from the Middle 

Miocene of Sansan, and is preserved in the Paris Museum. 
Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Amphicyon palseindicus, Lydekker 1 (ex Pale). 

A species somewhat smaller than the large race of A. major. 
Hab. India. 

M. 1558, 32729. Two casts of the second right upper true molar. The 
original of these specimens, which is the type of the species, 
was obtained from the Siwaliks of Kushalghar, Punjab, 
India, and is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
It is described and figured by the present writer in the 
< Palseontologia Indica/ ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 248, pi. xxxii. 
fig. 8. 
M. 1558 purchased, 1884 ; 32729 presented by Dr. Falconer. 

M. 1557. Cast of a fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing the milk and permanent carnassials. The 
original of this specimen was obtained from the Siwaliks 
of Nurpur, in the sub-Himalayan region, and is preserved 
in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. It is described and 
figured by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 250, pi. xxxiii. figs. 5, 5a. 

Purchased, 1884. 

1 Palseontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. i. p. 84 
(1876). 



TTRSID.E. 



139 



Amphicyon lemanensis, Pomel '. 

Syn. Amphicyon blainvillei, P. Gervais. 
Amphicyon elaverensis, P. Gervais. 
Amphicyon gracilis, Pomel. 
Amphicyon larteti, Bravard (MS.). 
Amphicyon leptorhynchus, Pomel. 
Amphicyon minor, Blaimille (in parte). 
Cynelos langensis, Jour dan (MS.). 

The cheek-teeth, of the typical race of this species are about the 
size of those of Canis lupus, but some specimens are considerably 
smaller. Some of the limb-bones referred to this species are larger 
than the corresponding bones of the Wolf, and it is possible that 
these differences may be of specific value. 

Hob. Europe. 

30975. The hinder portion of the palate, containing the last three 
{Fig.) premolars of the right side, and the first two true molars 

of both sides ; from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le- 
Puy (Allier), France. The dentition of the left side of 
the specimen (reversed) is figured by Filhol in the Ann. 
Sci. Geol. vol. x. pi. xi. fig. 3, under the above name. 
The specimen is entered in the Museum Eegister as 
A. larteti, Bravard, MS. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30879. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the carnassial 
and the first true molar, in an unworn condition ; from 
the Lower Miocene of Puy-de-D6me, France. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30976. An upper true molar ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26732. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing the first and second true molars, and the 
bases of the other cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Allier. This specimen is precisely similar to one 
figured by Filhol in the Arch. Mus. Lyon. vol. iii. pi. i. 
fig. 1. It exhibits remarkably well the meionocreodont 
character of the species, m . 2 being of precisely the 
same size as the homologous tooth of C. lupus, while 

1 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 379 (1846). The synonymy is 
mainly taken from Filhol, Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, p. 77. 



140 



CAENTVOEA. 



m. 1 is not more than two-thirds the size of the lower 
carnassial of that species. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26732. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the unworn carnassial, the alveolus of m . 2, and the germ 
of m. 3 in alveolo ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

30978. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
m. 2 ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Note. — The specific reference of the following limb-bones must 
be considered as more or less provisional ; their determination rests 
mainly on the evidence of specimens figured by Filhol and on 
Bravard's MS. Catalogue. 

26744. The distal extremity of the right humerus ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier. This specimen is almost of exactly 
the same size as one figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. x. pi. xiv. fig. 2, under the name of A. lemanensis, 
var. leptorhynchns. A longer bone, referred by the same 
writer to the typical race, is figured in the Arch. Mus. 
Lyon. vol. iii. pi. i. fig. 6. This bone is much larger than 
the humerus of Canis lupus. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

30985. The distal portion of the left humerus ; from the Lower 

Miocene of Allier. This specimen is rather larger than 
No. 26744. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30986. The distal extremity of the left humerus ; from the Lower 

Miocene of Allier. This specimen is the same size as 
No. 26744. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

43992. The right humerus of a young individual, wanting the 
proximal extremity; from the Lower Miocene of Langy 
(Allier), France. Purchased, 1872. 

26734. The right humerus, wanting the proximal extremity, of a 
small form of Amjphicyon ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. It is doubtful whether this and the preceding 
specimen should be refered to one of the smaller races or 
young individuals of A. lemanensis, or to one of the smaller 
species of the genus. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 



URSID.E. 141 

26746. The distal two-thirds of the right ulna ; from the Lower 

Miocene of Allier. This specimen is very similar to, but 
slightly smaller than, an ulna figured by Filhol in the 
Ann. Sci. Ge'ol. vol. x. pi. xiv. fig. 3 ; it indicates a con- 
siderably smaller form than the humerus, Xo. 26744, and 
its specific reference is provisional. 

Poind Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26747. The acetabular portion of the right innominate ; from the 

Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

30988. The proximal extremity of the right femur ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier. This bone indicates an animal of 
about the same size as that to which the humerus No. 
26744 belonged. JBravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26745. The proximal half of the left femur; wanting the great 
trochanter; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. This 
specimen is of about the same size as the femur of Canis 
lupus; and is very similar to a specimen figured by Filhol 
in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. pi. xv. fig. 5. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

43994. The shaft of the left femur ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Langy, Allier. This bone is somewhat larger than the 
femur of Canis lupus. Purchased, 1872. 

30995. The right astragalus: from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 
This specimen is much larger than the astragalus of Canis 
Iujjus, and somewhat larger than a specimen figured by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. pi. xvi. fig. 4 ; its 
specific determination is open to doubt. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Amp hi cy on ambiguus, Filhol *. 

This is a large species, distinguished by the transversely elongated 
form of the first and second upper true molars, and the minute size 
of m. 3, which is evidently in course of disappearance. 

Hab. France. 

M. 1686. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the carnassial, 
the first and second true molars, and the alveolus of the 
third true molar ; from the L T pper Eocene of Bach, near 
Lalbenque (Lot), France. This specimen agrees precisely 

1 Comptes Eendus, vol. Ixxxii. p. 289 (1S76). 



142 CARNIVOKA. ' 

with the one of the opposite side figured by Filhol in the 
Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xii. fig. 23. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1377. Two specimens of a right lower carnassial, probably be- 
longing to the present species ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. The larger of the 
two specimens corresponds, however, with the same tooth 
in A. lemanensis (No. 26732) ; but that species is not re- 
corded from the phosphorites. Purchased, 1884. 

Amphicyon dominans, H. von Meyer \ 

A species of the size of the smaller race of Amphicyon lemanensis, 
with which it may possibly be identical. It has never been properly 
described. 

Rah. Germany. 

30442. Two detached upper true molars ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Mayence. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855 

Amphicyon (?) sp. 

Hah. France. 

M. 1377 a. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the penultimate 
true molar ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux, France. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Bones specifically undetermined ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Allier, France 2 . 

30984. The glenoidal extremity of the scapula. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31006. The shaft of the right humerus of a young animal of small 

size. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31007. The proximal extremity of a left ulna. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30989. The proximal half of a left radius. This specimen may 
belong to A. lemanensis, but is smaller than the radius 
of Canis lupus. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26735. A left radius, wanting the distal extremity. This specimen 
is considerably smaller than a radius of A. lemanensis 

1 Neues Jahrb. 1843, p. 388. According to Peters in the Denkschr. k. Ak.Wiss. 
vol. xxix. p. 191 (1869), the species is known merely by this preliminary notice. 

2 These specimens are referred to Amphicyon mainly on the authority of 
Bravard. 



URSID^. 143 

figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Ge'ol. vol. x. pi. xv. 
fig. 3. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

30990. The distal extremity of the right radius, not improbably 
belonging to A. lemanensis. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31008. A complete left radius, about half the size of that of Canis 
lupus. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30994. Part of the right innominate. This bone is nearly the same 
size as the innominate of Canis lupus, and may belong 
to A. lemanensis. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26740. The right acetabulum ; of much smaller size than the last 

specimen. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26741. The right calcaneum of a young individual. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26736. The left calcaneum of a young individual. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26737-8. Metapodial bones. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

43990. An axis vertebra, rather larger than that of Canis lupus. 

Purchased, 1872. 

43991. Three dorsal vertebrae. Purchased, 1872. 

26742. A lumbar vertebra, of very large size. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

30982. The centrum of a vertebra. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26743. An early caudal vertebra. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

43992. An early caudal vertebra. Purchased, 1872. 

30983. Two caudal vertebras. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Bones from the Upper Eocene of the South of France, generically 
undetermined, but some of which may belong to Amphicyon. 

M. 1694. Upper portion of the left femur. This specimen agrees 
very closely with a Lower Miocene specimen figured by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. pi. xiv. fig. 4, under 
the name of Amphicyon lemanensis. Purchased, 1884. 



144 CAENIVOEA. 

M. 1695. Upper portion of the left femur. This specimen agrees 
very closely with one from the Lower Miocene figured by 
Filhol (op. cit. fig. 3), under the same name. 

* Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1713. The axis vertebra of a large Carnivore. This specimen is 
about 1| times the size of the axis vertebra from the Lower 
Miocene, figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. 
pi. xiii. fig. 2, and referred to A. lemanensis ; but does 
not appear much too large for the cranium figured in the 
same plate. . Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1714. The calcaneura, nearly of the same size as the specimen 
from the Lower Miocene figured by Filhol in the Ann. 
Sci. Geol. vol. x. pJ. xvi. fig. 6. 

M. 1715. Two smaller calcanea. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1716. Two right astragali. The larger may be feline. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1717. Numerous metapodial bones. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1718. Several caudal vertebrae. Purchased, 1884. 



Genus SIMOCYON, A. Wagner 1 . 
Syn. Metarctos, Gaudry 2 . 
Pseudocyon, Wagner . 

History. The history of this genus is rather complex. In 1833 
Kaup (Oss. Foss. de Darmstadt, pt. ii. p. 15) described and figured 
a lower jaw from Eppelshcim (of which, according to Gaudry, he 
had given a preliminary notice in 1832), under the name of Gulo dia- 
phorus. In 1854 Both and Wagner (Abh. math.-phys. CI. k.-bay. Ak. 
Wiss. vol. vii. pi. ii.) figured part of a lower jaw from Pikermi under 
the name of Gulo primigenius. Later on Wagner described another 
specimen under the name of Canis lupus primigenius. In 1857 (op. 
cit. vol. viii. p. 128, pi. vi. fig. 13) he figured a perfect skull and 
mandible under the name of Pseudocyon robustus, referring to it both 
his Gulo primigenius and Canis lupus primigenius. In the following 
year (' Geschichte der Yorwelt,' vol. ii.), according to Hensel, finding 
that the term Pseudocyon was preoccupied, Wagner proposed the 
new generic term Simocyon. In 1860 Gaudry (' Comptes Eendus,' 

1 Geschichte der Vorwelt, vol. ii. (1858) (teste Hensel). 

2 Comptes Eendus, vol. Ii. p. 926 (I860). 

3 Abh. math.-phys. 01. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. viii. p. 128 (1857). 



UESID^). 145 

vol. li. p. 926) proposed the generic term Metarctos ; and in the 
following year (' Animaux Eossiles et Geologie de l'Attique,' p. 37, 
pi. vi. figs. 1, 2) included in it both the Eppelsheim Gulo diaphorus 
and the Pikermi Gulo primigenius, making, however, no mention 
of the generic terms Pseudocyon and Simocyon. In 1862 Hensel 
(Monatsb. k. preuss. Ak. Wiss. [volume for 1863] p. 566) came to 
the conclusion that, on account of the difference in the number of 
their teeth, Gaudry's reference of the Eppelsheim and Pikermi 
forms to the same species was erroneous ; and he accordingly applied 
the name Simocyon primigenius to the latter. Assuming that both 
specimens belong to the same genus (of which there is no doubt), it 
is evident that the generic term Simocyon is the correct one ; and 
that the specific name diaphorus belongs to the Eppelsheim, and 
primigenius to the Pikermi form, if the latter be distinct. Seeing 
that no differences can be detected between the two forms with the 
exception of the variation in the number of the premolars, and 
bearing in mind the instances of Icticyon venaticus and Hyaena 
felina, the two forms are provisionally associated in this Catalogue. 
Dentition:— I. |, C. \, Pm. g=g, M. §. The position of the 
genus is evidently between the Bears and the Dogs. 



Simocyon diaphorus (Kaup l ). 
Syn. Gulo diaphorus, Kaup. 

Gulo primigenius, Roth and Wagner. 

Cants lupus primigenius, Wagner. 

Amphicyon minor, Blainville 2 {in parte). 

Pseudocyon robustus, Wagner. 

Simocyon robustus, Wagner. 

Metarctos diaphorus, Gaudry. 

Simocyon primigenius, Hensel. 
Hob. Greece and Germany. 

M. 412. Cast of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the two 
true molars, the two last premolars, and the alveoli of 
pmTl and pm. 2. The original of this specimen is from 
the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, Hesse Darmstadt ; and 
is believed to be in the Museum at Darmstadt. It is the 
type of the species ; and is figured by Kaup in the Oss. 
Eoss. de Darmstadt, pt. ii. pi. i. figs. 1, 2, under the name 

1 Archiv fur Natur, vol. v. p. 151, pi. ii. figs. 1, 2 (1832) {teste Gaudry). 
Oss. Foss. de Darmstadt, pt. ii. p. 15 (1833). The references to most of the 
synonyms are given above. 

2 Osteographie, genus Subursus, p. 114 (1841). 



146 CAKOTVORA. 

of Gido diaphorus. There are four premolars, two of 
which have fallen from their alveoli. 

EnnisJcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

37355. Cast of part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the broken canine, the alveolus of pm. 1 (so determined 
from the last specimen), the last premolar, the carnassial, 
and the alveolus of m . 2. The original is from the Lower 
Pliocene of Pikermi, Attica, and is in the Munich Museum ; 
it is figured by Roth and Wagner in the Abh. Math.-phys. 
Cl.k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vii. pt. 2, pi. vii. figs. 1, 2, under 
the name of Gulo primigenius. There are no signs of 
pm. 2 and pm. 3 in this specimen, which agrees in this 
respect with the mandible figured by Gaudry in the ' Ani- 
maux Fossiles et Geologie de l'Attique/ pi. vi. figs. 1, 2, 
under the name of Metarctos diaphorus ; the reference of 
this form to the same species as the Eppelsheim jaw being 
apparently somewhat provisional. In the Pikermi form 
the last premolar is larger than in the Eppelsheim, but 
in other respects the two are precisely similar in the form 
of the jaw and teeth. Purchased, 1863. 

49675. Casts of the associated cranium and mandible. The originals 
of these specimens are from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi 
and are preserved in the Munich Museum. They are 
figured by Wagner in the Abh. Math.-phys. CI. k.-bay. Ak. 
Wiss. vol. viii. pi. vi. fig. 13, as Pseudocyon robustus. The 
cranium shows the incisors and the canine : behind the 
latter there is a small tooth which, judging from the 
analogy of the lower jaw, should probably be regarded as 
pm- 1 ; there is a small interval, without any trace of 
alveoli, between this tooth and the carnassial, the latter 
being followed by the two true molars. The mandible 
shows the incisors and the canine, and contains p m . 4, m. 1, 
and m72. There is no trace of the alveolus of pm. 1, which 
is present in No. 37355. 

The retention of the first premolar in both jaws, after 
the disappearance of the second and third teeth in both 
jaws, is analogous to the condition prevailing in Ursus 
and flyamarctos. Purchased, 1879- 



tjesid^:. 14' 



Genus CEPHALOGALE, Jourdan \ 

Dentition:— I. §, C. \, Pm. \, M. |. 

Cephalogale geoffroyi, Jourdan 2 . 
This species has been recorded both from the Lower Miocene and 
Upper Eocene. 
Hah. France. 

26739. Part of the right maxilla, containing the carnassial and 
the first true molar ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier, 
France. This specimen is referred to the present species 
on the authority of Filhol (Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, 
pp. 117, 118) : it agrees in size with the corresponding 
part of the type cranium (op. cit. pi. xvii.), but the inner 
tubercle of the carnassial appears somewhat smaller. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

Cephalogale brevirostris (Croizet 3 ). 

Syn. Cants brevirostris, Croizet. 

Canis issiodorensis, Blainville (non Croizet). 
Amphicyon brevirostris, Pomel. 
Cephalogale minor, Filhol 4 . 

Hal. Europe. 

This species is referred to Cephalogale by Filhol, in the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. x. art. 3, p. 119 (1879) ; the reasons for uniting with it 
C. minor are given below 5 . Filhol (Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. 
Toulouse, 1882, p. 37) has recorded his C. minor both from the 
Lower Miocene of Allier and the Upper Eocene of Tarn-et- Garonne. 

31004. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the canine and all the cheek-teeth except pm. 1 
and m. 3, which have fallen from their sockets ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Allier, France. This specimen seems 
precisely similar to the one figured by De Blainville 
(' Osteographie,' genus Canis, pi. xiii.) under the name of 
Canis brevirostris, and is intermediate in size between the 

1 Bull. Soc. Sav. 1862 {teste Filhol). 

2 Ibid. The species is described and figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. x. art. 3, p. 107, pi. xvii. (1879). 

3 Gervais and Bronn give the reference for the specific name as Bull. Soc. 
Geol. France, ser. 1, vol. iv. p. 25 ; but it does not occur there. 

4 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, p. 118 (1879). 

5 In the ' Palasontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 247, the species is given 
as an Amphicyon, the writer not having then noticed Filhol's redetermination. 

l2 



148 



CAKNIVOKA. 



two mandibles figured by Filhol in the Ann. Soc. Sci. 
Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, pi. v. figs. 2, 4. There is a 
well-marked cingulum on the outer surface of m. 1. The 
space occupied by the five middle cheek-teeth is 0,045, 
and the depth of the jaw at the carnassial 0,016. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1687. The nearly complete right ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the alveoli of the incisors, the canine, and all the 
cheek-teeth except m. 2 ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach, 
near Lalbenque (Lot), France. This specimen, which is 
represented in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 20), is 

Pig. 20. 




Cephalogale brevirostris (Oroizet). — The right ramus of the mandible ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Bach. \. 

intermediate in size between the larger of the two man- 
dibles figured by Filhol (Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 
1882, pi. v. fig. 4) under the name of Cephalogale minor, 
and the one figured by the same writer in the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. x. pi. xviii. fig. 10, under the name of C. brevi- 
rostris. The space occupied by the five middle cheek- 
teeth is 0,0475, that by the four premolars 0,032, and the 
depth of the jaw at the carnassial 0,0176. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1688. The anterior portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing the alveolus of the canine, the four premolars, 
and the blade of tho carnassial ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Bach. This specimen agrees very closely with the one 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. pi. xviii. 
fig. 10, under the name of C. brevirostris. The length of 



H. 1687. 


M. 1688. 


No. 3. 


0,0475 




0,055 


0,032 


0,0355 




0,0176 


0,0186 


0,020 



TTRSID^. 149 

the space occupied by the four premolars is 0,0355, and 
the depth of the jaw at the carnassial 0,0186. 

In the following table the dimensions of the three 
specimens figured by Filhol under the names of C. minor 
and 0. brevirostris are compared with those of the present 
and the two preceding specimens, viz. : — 

Filhol, No. Filhol, No. No. Filhol. 

No. 1. 31004. No. 2. 
Space occupied by ] 

5 middle cheek- I 0,039 0,045 0,042 

teeth J 

Space occupied by ) 

4 premolars J 

Depth of jaw at ^i. 0,012 0,016 0,0175 

In Filhol's specimen NTo. 2 the second true molar is 
relatively short, and, if this be borne in mind, it will be 
seen that there is such a gradual increase in point of size 
from the smallest to the largest specimen that no distinc- 
tion can be drawn in this respect ; and since there is no 
structural difference in any of the specimens, it seems 
necessary to refer them all to one species, and to abolish 
Filhol's Cephalogale minor. Purchased, 1884. 

Bones provisionally referred to large Canoids ; from the Upper- 
Eocene Phosphorites of France. 

M. 1710-11. An associated right humerus and left tibia; from 
Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), France. These bones are 
slightly larger than two specimens of the homologous 
bones figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. iii. 
pi. xviii. figs. 42, 43, but present precisely similar charac- 
ters. It has been suggested that the figured specimens 
may belong to Brachycyon gaudryi, Filhol. The humerus 
is remarkable for the great width of the distal extremity, 
and especially of the part surrounding the entepicondylar 
foramen, which is of very large sizt. There is a supra- 
condylar perforation, which is not found in Aiuphicyon. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1712. The right calcaneum of a large Carnivore ; from Jamb- 
lousse, near Limogne (Lot), France. Purchased, 1884. 



150 CARNIVOEA. 

Subfamily Ursine. 

As already mentioned, it is difficult to say whether the genus 
Dinocyon should be referred to the present or the preceding sub- 
family. 

Genus DINOCYON, Jourdan \ 

Dentition :— I. 1, C. \, Pm. |, M. ^l The dentition is very 
similar to that of Hycenarctos, the most important difference being 
the more dog-like form of the upper true molars. 

Dinocyon thenardi, Jourdan 2 . 
Hah. France. 

41140. Cast of the hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, 
showing the carnassial and the two tubercular molars. 
The original of this specimen, which is one of the types of 
the genus and species, was obtained from the Middle 
Miocene of Grive-St.-Alban (Isere), France, and is pre- 
served in the Museum of Natural History at Lyons. It 
is figured by Filhol in the Arch. Mus. Lyon, vol. iii. 
pi. iii. figs. 4, 5. Purchased, 1868. 

Genus HYiENARCTOS, Falconer and Cautley 3 . 
Syn. Agriotherium, A. Wagner 4 {teste P. Gervais). 
Amphiarctos, Blainville 5 . 
Sivalarctos (Sivalours), Blainville 6 . 

Hyaenarctos sivalensis, Falconer and Cautley 7 . 
Syn. Ursus sivalensis, Falconer and Cautley 8 . 
Agrioiherium sivalense, Wagner. 
Amphiarctos sivalensis, Blainville. 
Sivalarctos sivalensis, Blainville. 

Dentition :— I. |, C. \, Pm. §, M. |. 
Hob. India. 

1 Comptes Rendus, vol. liii. p. 962 (1861). 2 Loc. cit. 

3 In Owen's < Odontography,' p. 505 (1840-45). For the history of this 
genus see ' Palaontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 219. 

4 G-elehrte Anzeigen, 1837. The present writer has been unable to find the 



6 Osteographie, genus Subursus, p. 102 (1841). 

8 Comptes Rendus, vol. xiii. p. 165 (1841) ; Osteographie, genus Sub- 
ursus, p. 114 (1841). 

7 Asiatic Researches, vol. xix. p. 193 (1836), Ursus. 

8 Loc. cit. 



ursid^:. 151 

39721. Cranium ; fromthe Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. 
{Fig.) This specimen is the type of the genus and species, and is 

described by Falconer and Cautley in the passage of the 
' Asiatic Researches ' already cited. It is also described 
by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 220 et seq. ; and is figured by Falconer and 
Cautley, of one third the natural size, in figs. 1, la, lb, of 
plate of the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis : ' it is also 
figured, of one fourth the natural size, in c Falconer's 
Palgeontological Memoirs ' (pi. xxvi. fig. 1). The dentition 
of one side is figured, of the natural size, in fig. 1 c of the 
first-mentioned plate ; and, of three fourths the natural 
size, in fig. 2 of the second plate. The dentition is also 
figured from the lateral and palatal aspects, of one third 
the natural size, in plate cxxxi. of Owen's ' Odontography.' 
In fig. 5 of plate xxx. of the above -quoted volume of the 
i Palaeontologia Indica,' the dentition of the left side (the 
canine having been restored from the opposite side) is 
figured from the palatal aspect, of the natural size. 

In this specimen the carnassial ( pm 4 - ) and the two true 
molars are perfect on the left, and but slightly damaged 
on the opposite side. Both canines are present, that of 
the right side being nearly perfect. The alveoli of the 
premolars and incisors are distinct, although the teeth 
themselves have dropped out. The only considerable defi- 
ciencies are in the posterior and lower part of the occiput, 
both zygomatic arches, and in the lower end of the nasals, 
where a fissure extends across the face on both sides 
towards the orbits. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39722. Part of the right ramus of the mandible ; from the Pliocene 
{Fig.) of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured by Fal- 
coner and Cautley from the outer side (reversed) in plate 0. 
fig. 2 of the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis ' (^), and in vol. i. 
plate xxvi. fig. 3 of ' Falconer's Palgeontological Memoirs ' 
(|) : it is also figured from the dental aspect in fig. 2 a of 
the former plate (j-), and in fig. 4 of the latter (|) ; and 
in plate cxxxi. figs. 3 and 4 of Owen's ' Odontography ' (^). 
It is described by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 223-4. This specimen is broken 
off where the canine emerges from its alveolus ; the im- 
bedded portion of that tooth presenting an antero-posterior 
diameter of 0,041, and a transverse of 0,025. The 



152 CAENIVOEA. 

cheek-teeth are six in number, but of the first two and 
the last only the alveoli remain. The teeth are much 
worn, indicating the advanced age of the animal. The 
first alveolus is placed a short distance behind the canine, 
and consists of a single cavity, which, judging from the 
analogy of Ursus, probably contained p m . 1 ; pm. 2 being 
absent l . The second alveolus is placed very close to the 
first, and also to the succeeding tooth: it must have 
carried the third premolar (pm. g) ; and there could not 
have been another tooth between this and the first alveolus. 
The fourth premolar is a distinctly trilobed tooth. The 
carnassial is much damaged, and the third molar has 
fallen from its alveolus. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39725-6. The associated right radius and ulna; from the Pliocene 
{Fig.) of the Siwalik Hills. These specimens are figured by 
Falconer and Cautley in supplemental plate 0. fig. 4 of 
the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis ;' and are noticed by the 
present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. 
p. 225. Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.O.B. 1848. 

39724. Distal extremity of a metacarpal ; from the Pliocene of the 
{Fig.) Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured by Falconer and 
Cautley in plate 0. fig. 6 of the ' Fauna Antiqua Siva- 
lensis ;' and is noticed by the writer in the ' Palaeon- 
tologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 225. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37147. Part of a phalangeal ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

(Fig.) This specimen is figured in plate 0. fig. 7 of the ' Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis,' and is noticed by the present writer 
in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 225. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37143. The axis vertebra; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

(Fig.) This bone is figured in plate 0. fig. 3 of the 'Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis,' where it is referred to the present 
species. It is noticed by the present writer in the ' Palae- 
ontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 225, where doubt is 
expressed as to the correctness of the generic reference. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

1 In the memoir cited the present writer considered that the first cheek-tooth 
was probably pm. 2. 



TTKSIM3. 153 

39723. The right femur ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

{Fig.) This specimen is figured in plate 0. fig. 5 of the ' Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis ;' and is described and figured by the 
present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 224, pi. xxix. figs. 1, la, lb. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Hysenarctos punjabiensis, Lydekker 1 . 
Dentition :— I. |, C. \, Pm. ? ~, M. §. 
Hob. India. 

M. 1564. Cast of five associated upper cheek-teeth. The originals 
of these specimens were obtained from the Siwaliks of the 
Punjab, India, and are preserved in the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta: with the mandible noticed below, they are the 
type of the species. These teeth comprehend pm. 4 and 
m. 1 of either side, and an early premolar of one side ; 
they are described and figured by the present writer in 
the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 226-7, 
pi. xxx. fig. 2. The carnassial is distinguished from that 
of H. sivalensis by the smaller size of the anterior talon, 
and a difference in the size and position* of the inner 
tubercle. The true molar is distinguished by the more 
quadrate form of the crown, by the convexity of the pos- 
terior border, and by the smaller degree of development 
of the external cingulum, and the somewhat less bold 
form of the outer lobes : the most marked distinction is, 
however, the closer approximation of the central line of 

Fig. 21. 




Hycenarctos punjabiensis. — Third left upper true molar, from a specimen of the 
maxilla ; from the Siwaliks of the Punjab. Indian Museum, Calcutta. {. 
(From the ' Palrcontologia Indica.') 

1 Palseontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind,), ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 226 (1884). 



154 CAKNIVOKA. 

the outer lobes and the internal ridge. The accompanying 
woodcut (fig. 21) shows a last left upper true molar of the 
present species, taken from a maxilla in the Indian Museum, 
from the Siwaliks of the Punjab, and described by the 
present writer in the passage cited. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1565. Cast of the nearly complete mandible, containing both 
rami, and showing the canines and three true molars, 
with the alveoli of three premolars. The original of this 
specimen was obtained from the Siwaliks of the Punjab, 
and is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. It is 
described and figured by the present writer in the ' Palseon- 
tologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 229-31, pi. xxxi. figs. 1, 
la. In the figure the small tooth behind the canine is 
lettered pm. 2 (?) : it seems, however, from Ursus that it 
is more probably pm. 1. Purchased, 1884. 

Hysenarctos paleeindicus, Lydekker \ 

Dentition :— I. |, C. \, Pm. \, M. ~j. 

Hah. India. 

M. 1561. Cast of a portion of the right maxilla, containing the 
carnassial and the two true molars. The original of this 
specimen, which is the type, was obtained from the 
Siwaliks of the Punjab, and is preserved in the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. It is described and figured by the 
present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. pp. 232-4, pi. xxx. fig. 1. The teeth are more 
dog-like than those of H. sivalensis and II. punjabiensis, and 
thereby indicate nearer affinity to Dinocyon. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1562. Cast of a fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing m . % i n an unworn condition. The original of 
this specimen is from the Siwaliks of the Punjab, and 
is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. It is de- 
scribed and figured by the present writer in the ' Palaeon- 
tologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 234—5, pi. xxxi. fig. 3. 
The reference of this and the next specimen to the present 
species is provisional. There are no traces of any alveolus - 
for m. 3 ; from which it has been inferred that this tooth 
was probably absent. Purchased, 1884. 

1 Palseontologia Indica (Mem. G-eol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 232 
(1884). 



ursid^;. 



155 



M. 1363. Cast of a fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing pm. 4 and m . 1, with the alveolus of pm73. 
The original of this specimen was obtained from the 
Siwaliks of the Punjab, and is preserved in the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. It is figured by the present writer 
in the ' Paleeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 234-5, 
pi. xxxi. fig. 2. The last premolar is much smaller than 
in H. punjabiensis, and pm. 3 is inserted by two distinct 
fangs, which is not the case in that species or in H. siva- 
lensis. Purchased, 1884. 

Hysenarctos, sp. 
Hah. England. 

44583. Cast of the first left upper true molar. The original of this 
specimen was obtained from the Eed Crag of Suffolk; 
and is in the Eeed Collection in the York Museum. This 

Fig. 22. 




Hycenarctos, sp. First right upper true premolar ; from the Eed Crag : a, from 
the masticating surface ; b, from the outer side ; the dotted line in a 
represents the outline of the York specimen. \. (From the Geological 
Society's ' Journal.') 

specimen, together with the corresponding tooth of the 
right side (represented in the accompanying woodcut, 
fig. 22, and now in the Canham Collection of the Ipswich 
Museum), have been provisionally referred by Flower, 
in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiii. p. 534, to 
Hycenarctos sivalensis. The present writer has, however, 
suggested, in the ' Palaeontologia Indica/ ser. 10, vol. ii. 
pp. 227-8, that this provisional reference is doubtful. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Hyaenarctos (?), sp. 

Dentition :— I. ?, C. j, Pm. \, M. J. 



Hah. Italy. 



156 CAKNIVOKA. 

37348. Cast of the right ramus of the mandible. The original of 
this specimen was obtained from the Middle Miocene of 
Monte Bainboli, Tuscany, and is believed to be preserved 
in the Museum at Pisa. The specimen contains the 
canine, the third and fourth premolars, and the three true 
molars. It is described and figured by Meneghini in the 
Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. vol. iv. p. 18, pi. ii. a (1863), 
under the name of Amphicyon laurillardi. P. Gervais 
has, however, in the ' Zoologie et Paleontologie Generales/ 
ser. 2, p. 22 (1876), referred it to Hycenarctos. The 
teeth agree exactly with those of that genus, the carnas- 
sial being of the same form as that of H. palceindicus ; 
but pm. 4 is relatively larger and pm. 3 inserted by one 
fang, as in H. punjabiensis. The Italian jaw is, how- 
ever, greatly inferior in size to either of the three Indian 
species. The fourth premolar is a characteristic tooth, 
and wants the cusps which occur on the posterior border 
in Amphicyon and Oanis. 

It is possible that this specimen really belongs to a new 
species of Hycenarctos ; but it is also possible that it may 
belong to Binocyon, since the upper jaw figured by P. Ger- 
vais in the Zool. et Pal. Prancaises, 2nd ed. pi. lxxxi. 
figs. 8, 9, under the name of Hycenarctos hemicyon, has been 
shown by the present writer, in the ' Palseontologia Indica/ 
ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 202, to probably belong to Binocyon ; 
and the Italian jaw indicates an animal of about the same 
size. Unfortunately, pm. 4 of Binocyon hemicyon is un- 
known ; and until that tooth be discovered it is impossible 
to say whether the present specimen may not have 
belonged to that genus or species. Purchased, 1863. 

Hysenarctos, sp. 

Hob. China. 
28588. The second right lower true molar, in a partially worn 
(Fig.) condition ; from the Pliocene (?) of South China. This 
specimen (woodcut, fig. 23) agrees exactly in size and 
goneral contour with the corresponding tooth of H. punja- 
biensis ; the cusps and ridges are, however, somewhat less 
prominent, and the central depression on the posterior 
half is flatter. The specimen is insufficient for determining 
whether the species to which it belongs is distinct from one 
of the Siwalik species ; but the occurrence of the genus in 
China (assuming that the tooth was not imported into 




157 



Hycenarctos, sp. Second right lower true molar ; from the 
Pliocene (?) of China. \. 

that country) is of considerable interest. The specimen 
has been previously noticed by the present writer in the 
Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. 1, p. 444 (1884). 

Presented by D. Banbury, Esq. 1853. 

Genus ARCTOTHERIUM, Bravard 1 . 
Syn. Arctoidotherium, Bravard, MS. 
Dentition:— I. | C. \, Pm. |, M. §. 



Arctotherium bonariense (P. Gervais 2 ). 
Syn. (?) Ursus braziliensis. Lund 3 . 
TJrsus bonariensis, P. Gervais 4 . 
Arctotherium latidens, Bravard 5 . 

Hob. S. America. 

32915-6. The cranium and mandible, from the Pleistocene of the 
(Fig.) banks of the river Plata, Buenos Ayres. The cranium, of 
wbich the palate is represented in the accompanying 
woodcut (fig. 24), is imperfect posteriorly, and the man- 
dible has lost the hinder part of the right ramus. The 
teeth are in a well-worn condition. 

Prom the suppression of pm- 1 , the double roots of pm. 3 , 
the squareness of m. 1 , and the smaller extent of the back- 
ward prolongation of the talon of m. 2 , it is pretty certain 
that the South- American fossil is generically distinct from 
Ursus, and there is as little doubt that it is equally distinct 
from Hycenarctos. It forms, in fact, a genus almost pre- 

1 Catalogue des Especes d'Animaux Fossiles recueilles dans UAinerique de 
Sud (Parana, 1860), teste P. Gervais. 

2 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 189 (1848-52), Ursus. 

3 Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.), ser. 2, vol. xi. p. 224 (1839). This name, if it 
really belongs to the same species, has the priority. 

4 Loc. tit. 5 Loc. tit. 



158 CAKNIVOKA. 

Fig. 2.4. 




Arctotherium bonariense. Palatal view of the cranium ; from the Pleistocene 
of Buenos Ayres. \. (From the ' Pakeontologia Indica.') 

cisely intermediate between the other two — H. punja- 
biensis being the species of Hycenarctos most nearly related 
to it. Prom the study of the teeth, Falconer came to the 
conclusion that while Hycenarctos was probably carni- 
vorous, Arctotherium subsisted on a vegetable diet. This 
skull, together with the following associated specimens, 
has been recently mounted as a skeleton. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

32917-23. The seven cervical vertebrae, associated with No. 32915. 

32924-36. Thirteen dorsal vertebrae of the same. 

32937-43. Seven lumbar vertebras of the same. 

32944. The sacrum of the same. 

32945-8. Four caudal vertebras of the same. 

32949-68. Twenty ribs of the same. 

32969. The right ulna of the same. 



uksid^. 159 

32970. Part of the right innominate of the same. 

32971. The right femur of the same. 

32972. The right tibia of the same. 

32973. The right radius of the same. 
32974-91. Bones of the right hind foot of the same. 



'O' 



Genus URSUS, Linn. 1 
Dentition : — I. jj, C. \, Pm. |, M. |. " The three anterior pre- 
molars above and below are very small, one-rooted, and often early 
deciduous, especially the second, which is rarely present in adult 
animals" (Flower). 

Ursus spelaeus, Eosenmiiller 2 . 
Syn. Ursus arctoicleus, Blumenbach (teste Owen). 
Ursus fornicatus magnus, Schmerling. 
Ursus fornicatus minutus, Schmerling. 
Ursus planus, Oken. 

The earlier premolars are usually absent ; when present they are 
not crowded together ; the inner tubercle of pm- 4 is elongated. 
The last lower premolar usually has two small cusps on the inner 
side in advance of the main cusps. 

Hah. Europe. 

* . The skeleton, made up from bones belonging to different indi- 
viduals and from different localities. The different bones 
bear distinctive numbers, and some of them are entered 
below. 

28544. The cranium, wanting the incisors and the left canine ; from 
a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. The specimen is of 
enormous size, and the teeth are very much worn. 

Purchased, 1853. 

43713. The cranium, wanting the incisors; from a cavern in 
Lozere, France. This specimen is as large as the last, but 
the teeth are not so much worn. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

4 (0. C). The cranium, wanting most of the teeth ; from the Gai- 
lenreuth Cave. Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 69 (1766). 

2 Oss. Fossil. Animal, p. 18 (1794). 



160 



CAENIVOEA. 



28545. The cranium, wanting the incisors and both zygomatic 

arches ; from a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. This 
specimen is of large size, and the teeth are much worn. 

Purchased, 1853. 

28545 a. The cranium, wanting the incisors and the right canine ; 
from the Sophia Cavern, Franconia, Bavaria. The teeth 
are in a well-worn condition, and the last molar is of 
unusual length, being longer than the two preceding teeth. 

Purchased, 1853. 

28545 b. The cranium, wanting both zygomatic arches, the incisors, 
and the left canine ; from the Sophia Cavern, Franconia. 
The teeth are in a middle condition of wear, and m. 2 is 
somewhat above the normal length. Purchased, 1853. 

7 (0. C). Cranium, wanting the left zygomatic arch and most of the 

teeth ; from a cavern. The molars are very much worn. 

Purchased. 

28545 c. The cranium, wanting the right zygomatic arch and the 
incisors ; from a cavern. Purchased. 

7833. The cranium, imperfect ; from a cavern. The molars are 
scarcely worn; the incisors do not appear to belong to the 
specimen. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

43005. The cranium, imperfect ; from a cavern near Liege, France. 
Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

4 a (0. C.)- The cranium, imperfect; from the Gailenreuth Cave (?). 
The teeth are unworn. Purchased. 

28546. The cranium, wanting both zygomatic arches and all the 

teeth except the carnassial and the first true molar ; from 
a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. The true molar is 
partially worn ; and the specimen is remarkable for exhi- 
biting the alveoli of the first and third premolars. The 
cranium has a very regular profile, probably indicating 
that it belongs to a female individual. Purchased, 1853. 

43798. The cranium, imperfect; from the cavern of jSTabrigas 
(Lozere), Prance. The teeth are scarcely worn. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

8 (0. C). Cranium, with portions of the femur and humerus attached ; 

from a cavern in Muggendorf, Franconia, Bavaria. 

Sommeriny Collection. Purchased, 1857. 



uesid^;. 161 

M. 378. Greater part of the cranium of a female, showing the 
cheek-teeth in a much-worn condition ; from the Gailenreuth 
Cave. Ennishillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 377. Cranium, with the molars in an unworn condition ; from 
the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Ennishillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

6 (0. C). The cranium of a male, with the molars in a well-worn 

condition : from a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. This 
specimen, in which the nasals and zygomatic arches are 
wanting, is remarkable for its extreme length and the 
great development of the sagittal crest. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

17501. Cranium, wanting part of the left zygomatic arch and all the 
cutting-teeth except the left canine, with the molars in a 
much- worn condition; from, the Sophia Cavern, Fran- 
conia. Purchased, 

M. 377 a. Cranium of a male, wanting the incisors and the nasals 
and zygomatic arches ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. Only 
the two last molars remain, which are in a well-worn con- 
dition. Ennishillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 377 b. Cranium, wanting the incisors and the right canine ; from 
the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Ennishillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

2 (0. C). Hinder part of the cranium ; from a cavern in Muggen- 
dorf, Franconia. Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

43795. The anterior portion of the cranium, showing the three 
cheek-teeth in an unworn condition ; from the cavern of 
Nabrigas (Lozere), France. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

7 (0. C). The anterior portion of the cranium, showing nearly all 

the teeth in an unworn condition ; from the Gailenreuth 
Cave. Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

43714. Part of the left maxilla, containing the two true molars, in 

a well-worn condition ; from a cavern. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

43715. Part of the right maxilla, containing the three cheek-teeth 

in an unworn condition ; from a cavern. 

Bravard Collection. PurcJiased, 1852. 

M 



162 



CAE1QT0RA. 



43796. Part of the right maxilla, containing the two true molars 
in an unworn condition ; from a cavern. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

43805. The nearly complete mandible of a sub-adult individual 
showing the canines and the cheek-teeth, in an unworn 
condition ; from a cavern. This specimen is remarkable 
for containing the alveoli of the first premolars of either 
side. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

43005 a. The nearly complete mandible of a sub-adult individual ; 
from a cavern near Liege, France. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

43847. The greater portion of the mandible of a sub-adult indi- 
vidual, showing the canines, pmTI, and mTl ; from a cavern. 
This specimen is remarkable for the almost total absence 
of the cusps on the inner side of pm. 4. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

9 (0. C). The mandible of a small individual, wanting the incisors 
and three of the cheek-teeth ; from a cavern in Sundwig, 
Westphalia. Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

43800. The mandible of an immature individual, showing the per- 
manent dentition imperfectly protruded ; from a cavern. 
On the right side there is the alveolus of an extremely 
minute pm. 3, which evidently had no predecessor. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28548. The right ramus of the mandible of a very large and aged 
individual ; from a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. 

Purchased, 1853. 

17495. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting the incisors ; 

from the Sophia Cavern, Franconia. Purchased. 

17496. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting the incisors ; 

from the Sophia Cavern, Franconia. The last molar is very 
short and wide. Purchased. 

M. 287. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting the incisors, of 
a huge individual; from the Kiihloch Cave, Franconia. 
The last molar is very wide. 

Ennislcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

17497. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting the incisors ; from 

the Sophia Cavern, Franconia. Purchased. 



TTEsmE. 163 

43762. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting the incisors ; from 
a cavern. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28549. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting the incisors, p m .4, 
and mTT ; from a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. 

Purchased, 1853. 

43803. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting the incisors; 
from a cavern. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

9 (0. C). The right ramus of the mandible, containing the last two 
teeth ; from a cavern in Sundwig. 

/Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

43848. The right ramus of the mandible of a young individual, 
wanting the incisors and the last molar ; from a Gavern. 
This specimen shows the alveoli of pm. 1 and p m . 2. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

16448. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting the incisors ; from 
(Fig.) the Forest-bed of Bacton, Norfolk. This specimen is de- 
scribed and its dentition figured by Owen in the ' British 
Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 89, fig. 35 c, p. 106. The 
teeth are of very small size. 

Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

18307. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a very young 

(Fig.) individual, containing the second true molar ; from Kent's- 

Hole Cavern, Torquay. This specimen is figured by Owen 

in the ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' fig. 36, p. 108. 

In the figure the canine is shown, which is now wanting. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

26490. The greater portion of the mandible of an adolescent indi- 
vidual ; from a cavern. This specimen is remarkable in 
that the molars of one side differ in form from those of the 
other. No history. 

17498. The left ramus of the mandible, wanting the incisors ; from 
the Sophia Cavern, Franconia. Purchased. 

28547. The left ramus of the mandible, wanting the incisors, and 
of very large size; from a cavern in Sundwig, West- 
phalia. Purchased, 1853. 

43721. The left ramus of the mandible, with the teeth much worn ; 
from a cavern. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

m2 



164 CARNTVORA. 

9 a (0. C). The left ramus of the mandible, containing the canine 

and the last two molars ; from a cavern in Sundwig, 
Westphalia. Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

10 (0. C). Hinder part of the left ramus of a very large mandible, 

containing the last two molars ; from a cavern in 
Sundwig, 8'ommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

725, 18277. Two canines ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern, Torquay. 
McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

48731. A canine ; from Brixham Cave, near Torquay. This speci- 

{Fig.) men is figured by Busk in the Phil. Trans, for 1873, 

pi. xlvi. fig. 1, and provisionally referred to the present 

species. Briooham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48757. A canine ; from Brixham Cave, Torquay. This specimen is 
similar to the last. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

28552. Two canines of enormous size ; from a cavern in Sundwig, 
Westphalia. Purchased, 1853. 

39786. The last right upper true molar ; from a cavern at Mont- 
martre, Prance. Purchased, 1862. 

21237 x. Several upper molars; from the Gailenreuth Cave. A 
last molar among these specimens is remarkable for the 
excessive width of its talon. Purchased. 

189289. Molar and canine teeth ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern, Torquay. 
Presented by Bev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

16685, 16726, 16747. Molar teeth ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

43811. Two humeri (and others imperfect); from a cavern in 
Nabrigas (Lozere), Prance. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

43729. Proximal extremity of the left humerus, of gigantic size ; 
from a cavern in Nabrigas. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

43812= The right and left ulnae of the same individual; from a 
cavern in Nabrigas. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

43731. The associated left ulna and radius; from a cavern in 
Nabiigas. Bravard Collection., Purchased, 1852. 



TTRSTCLE. 165 

43778. Four specimens of the proximal extremity of the ulna ; from 
a cavern in Nabrigas. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

43776. The right radius ; from a cavern in Nabrigas. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

17489. The left radius, of small size ; from the Sophia Cavern, 
Franconia. Purchased. 

43815. The left carpus and metacarpus ; from a cavern in 
Nabrigas. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

43735-40. The metacarpals and phalanges of the two feet ; from 
the caverns of Lozere. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

32507. Two metacarpals of very large size ; from a cavern in the 
Department of Doubs, France. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

M. 232. The sacrum and pelvis ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 
Mounted in the skeleton. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

17551. The sacrum and pelvis of a small individual, incomplete ; 
from the Sophia Cavern, Franconia. Purchased. 

43749, 43741. Parts of the innominate ; from a cavern in Nabrigas. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

43744, 43751, 43787, 43822. Four specimens of the tibia ; from 
a cavern in Nabrigas. No. 43744 is mounted in the 
skeleton. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

43752. The left fibula ; from a cavern in INabrigas. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

43742. The left femur, of large size ; from a cavern in Nabrigas. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

17472. The left femur, of small size; from the Sophia I vern, 
Franconia. Purchased. 

43742 a. The distal extremity of the right femur, of large size ; 
from a cavern in Nabrigas. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

46139. The proximal two-thirds of the left femur ; dredged off the 
eastern coast of England. 

Owles Collection, Purchased, 1874, 



166 CA.ENTV0EA. 

43747, 43757. The metatarsal and phalangeal bones of the two feet ; 
from a cavern in Nabrigas. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

43723. The greater part of the vertebral column; from a cavern 
in Nabrigas. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

49174. The broken atlas vertebra, of large size ; from the Kiihlock 
Cave, Franconia. 

Presented by the Earl of EnnisJcillen, 1878. 

21273 x. The atlas and axis vertebrae ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Purchased. 

Note. — There is a very large series of remains of this species in the 
Museum which it has not been considered advisable to catalogue. 
It comprehends specimens from the following localities, viz. : — 

Sophia Cavern, Franconia, Bavaria. 

Sundwig, Westphalia. 

Muggendorf, Franconia. 

Kent's-Hole Cavern (McEnery Collection). 

Gailenreuth Cave, Franconia (Egerton Collection). 

Kiihlock Cave, Franconia (Enniskillen Collection). 

2feu3 Ijorrtbttte, Ord. 1 

Syn. Ursus bourguignati, Lartet 2 . 
Ursus cinereus, Desmarest. 
Ursus ferox, Richardson. 
Ursus ferox fossilis, Busk. 
Ursus fossilis, Goldfuss 3 . 
Ursus horridus, Baird. 
Ursus priseus, Cuvier 4 and Goldfuss 5 . 
Ursus planifrons, Denny 6 . 
Ursus richardsoni, Baird. 
Danis cinereus, Gray. 

In this species the jugal arcade is elliptical, and less nearly cir- 
cular than in Ursus arctos, while the posterior narial aperture is 
narrower and usually more rounded than in that species. The 
last upper true molar is but slightly contracted posteriorly, the 
inner tubercle of pm. 4 is very large, the premolars are separate, and 
the palate is flattened. According to Busk there is usually a minute 

1 In Guthrie's 'Geography,' 2nd American ed., vol. ii. pp. 291, 299 (1815),' 
teste Baird. 

2 Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 5, vol. viii. p. 161 (1867). 

8 Nova Acta Ac. Ctes. Leop.-Oar. vol. x. pt. 2, pp. 259-276 (1821). 
4 Oss. Foss. vol. iv. p. 380 (1823). 

6 Nova Acta Ac. Csds. Leop.-Car. vol. xi. pt. 2, p. 468 (1823). 
6 Proc. Geol. Soc. W. Biding Yorksh., April 1864. 



ttrsid;e. 167 

inner cusp to pm. 4, corresponding to the hinder of the two inner 
cusps in the homologous tooth of U. spelceus. In one recent cranium 
(B. M. No. 1137 h), however, this cusp is absent ; and it is also 
wanting in some of the specimens noticed below. 

Hob. North America (Recent), and Europe (Pleistocene). 

1 (0. C). Cranium and mandible, wanting the upper incisors, the 
{Fig.) earlier premolars, and the right zygomatic arch ; from a 
cavern in Muggendorf, Eranconia, Bavaria. This fine 
specimen is the type of the so-called Ursus fossilis, and is 
figured and described under that name by Goldfuss in 
the Nova Acta Ac. Caes. Leop.-Car. vol. x. pt. 2, p. 259, 
pi. xx. c. It is also figured, under the name of U. priscus, 
by Cuvier in the ' Ossemens Eossiles,' vol. iv. pi. clxxxix. 
figs. 5, 6 (1823) ; and the right lower dentition is figured 
by Owen in the ' British Eossil Mammals and Birds/ 
p. 106, fig. 35 b, under the same name. The specimen is 
of relatively small size, and the cheek-teeth are but little 
worn. Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

M. 230. Cranium of a very large male ; from alluvium near Balli- 
{Fig.) namore, County Leitrim, Ireland. In this specimen all 
the teeth except the canines and the last true molars have 
fallen from their sockets. It is described and figured by 
Leith Adams in the Proc. R. Dublin Soc. new ser. vol. ii. 
p. 51, pi. iii. (1878). The last molar is unusually narrow 
behind. Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

28908. Cranium, wanting the incisors, some of the cheek-teeth, 
and part of the left zygomatic arch ; from a bog at 
Clonbourne, near Parsonstown, King's County, Ireland. 
This specimen is of medium size, and the molars are very 
much worn ; it is described by Leith Adams in the Proc. 
R. Dublin Soc. new ser. vol. ii. pp. 53-4. 

Transferred from the Antiquarian Department, 1854. 

38153. Cast of the cranium, wanting all the teeth; from a bog 
between Moyvore and Ballymahon, County Longford, 
Ireland. The original of this specimen is in the Leeds 
Museum, and seems to be the original of Ursus plani- 
frons, Denny : it is described by Leith Adams in the Proc. 
R. Dublin Soc. new ser. vol. ii. pp. 52-3. 

By exchange ivith the Royal Dublin Society. 

23139. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the two true molars, 
in a partially worn condition ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays, Essex. Purchased, 1848. 



168 CAKNIVOEA. 

22030. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last premolar and the three true molars, in an almost 
unworn condition j from the Pleistocene of Grays. The 
molars are of great relative width, and the inner cusp of 
p~m74 is almost wanting. Purchased, 1848. 

21652. Hinder portion of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the second true molar ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. This specimen is of very large size. 

Purchased, 1848. 

22030 a. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the two true molars, in a partially worn condition, and 
-the alveoli of the two preceding teeth ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Grays. Purchased, 1848. 

21289. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last true molar and the alveoli of the three preceding teeth ; 
from the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1848. 

22029. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the four last cheek-teeth and the alveolus of the 
canine ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. The last molar is 
remarkably short in this specimen, and there is no inner 
cusp to pm. 4, although the talon has two distinct cusps. 

Purchased, 1848. 

23138. Portion of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last premolar (broken) and the first and second true 
molars ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1848. 

28977. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the three true molars (the first broken) ; from the Pleis- 
tocene (?) of Woodbridge, Suffolk. The teeth are of large 
size, and m72 is unusually wide behind. Purchased, 1848. 

21651. The left ramus of the mandible, containing the broken 
canine and the alveoli of the cheek-teeth ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Grays. The specific reference of this specimen 
is merely provisional. Purchased, 1848. 

47677. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible,' 

(Pi(f.) containing the alveoli of the incisors, the broken base of 

the canine, the alveolus of pm. l, the first and second true 

molars in a slightly worn condition, and the alveolus of 

KT3 ; from the Genista Cave, Gibraltar. This specimen 



TJRSID.E. 



169 



is described and figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. 
vol. x. p. 64, pi. iv. figs. 1, 2 1 , where (together with the 
specimens from the same locality noticed below) it is 
provisionally referred to the present species, or to a form 
intermediate between it and XT. arctos. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47676. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the two true 
'{Fig.) molars, in a partially worn condition; from the Genista 

Cave, Gibraltar. This specimen is figured by Busk, op. cit. 

pi. iv. fig. 3. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47678. Anterior portion of the right ramus of the mandible of a 
(Fig.) young individual, containing the imperfectly protruded 

canine, the first two true molars, and the alveoli or bases 
of the two preceding cheek-teeth ; from the Genista Cave, 
Gibraltar. This specimen is figured by Busk, op. cit. pi. v. 
fig. 3. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47678 b. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
(Fig.) the broken canine and the first premolar ; from the Ge- 
nista Cave, Gibraltar. This specimen is figured by Busk, 
op. cit. pi. iv. figs. 3, 4. The premolar shows the inner 
cusp, partially worn. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47678 a. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 

(Fig.) the two last true molars, in an unworn condition ; from a 

cavern in Windmill Hill, Gibraltar. This specimen is 

figured by Busk, op. cit. pi. v. figs. 4, 5, 7. The second 

molar is remarkable for its extreme width and shortness. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47679. The crown of the left lower canine ; from a cavern in Wind- 
(Fig.) mill Hill, Gibraltar. This specimen is figured by Busk, 

op. cit. pi. v. fig. 6. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

40949. The right ramus of the mandible, containing the canine, the 
(Fig.) second true molar, and the alveoli of all the other cheek- 
teeth except in. 3, which appears to have been absent 2 ; 
from Deborah's Den Cave, Gower, Glamorganshire 3 . This 
specimen has been described by Falconer in a note pub- 

1 The plates are lettered JJ. arctos. 

2 The jaw has been chiselled away at this point. 

3 For the position of this cave see • Falconer's Palosontological Memoirs,' 
vol. ii. p. 467. 



170 CAKNIVOKA. 

lished in the ' Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. p. 467, 
where it is also figured, pi. xxxvi. figs, 3, 4 ; the alveolus 
of pm. 3 is present. This specimen is remarkable for the 
excessive width and shortness of m . 2, which led Falconer 
to believe that it could not be referred to any species of 
Bear with which he was acquainted. This width is, how- 
ever, scarcely greater than that of the corresponding tooth 
in No. 47678, from which it may be inferred that the 
present specimen perhaps belonged to the present species, 
if the Gibraltar specimens belong to the same. The 
present specimen is, however, very different from typical 
forms of U. Jiorribilis ; and if it belongs to that species it 
indicates a great range of variation. Its molar is very 
similar to that of U. arctos, No. M. 231. 

Presented by Gen. Wood, 1865. 

16816. Two canines, probably belonging to this species ; from 
Kent's-Hole Cavern, Torquay. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

21671. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
two last molars ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. 

Purchased, 1848. 

28079. Distal extremity of the mandible, containing both canines ; 
from the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1 848. 

16816. Canine, probably belonging to this species ; from Kent's- 
Hole Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

M. 267. Fragment of the mandible containing the canine ; from the 

(Fig.) Pleistocene of Grays. This specimen is figured by Morris 

in the Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, for 1838, p. 543, under the 

name of U. spelceus; but there seems little doubt that 

it belongs to the present species. 

Purchased from Prof. Morris. 

M. 1624. Cast of a fragment of the left maxilla, containing the second 
and third true molars. The original of this specimen is 
from an ossiferous fissure at Windy Knoll, near Castleton, 
Derbyshire 1 . Presented by Prof. Boyd Dawlcins. 

15922, 16731. Two rami of the mandible ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

1 See JJoyd Dawkins, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vols. xxxi. p. 246, xxxiii. p. 724. 



TJESHXS!. 



171 



48733. A canine ; from Brixham Cave, near Torquay. This spe- 
(Fig.) cimen is figured by Busk in the Phil. Trans, for 1873, and 
is provisionally referred to the present species. 

Brixham- Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

44926. The glenoidal extremity of the left scapula ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Ilford, Essex 1 . This specimen is No. B. 4 of 
Davies's 'Catalogue of the Brady Collection' (1874). 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

21287. The left humerus ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. 

Purchased, 1848. 

21288. The distal extremity of the right humerus ; from the Pleis- 

tocene of Grays. This specimen is of unusually large 
dimensions. Purchased, 1848. 

38512. The left ulna ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1848. 

24361. The left ulna ; from Pleistocene beds in a railway-cutting 
near Kew Bridge. This specimen is of very large size, 
hut in its slender form agrees with the last example. 

Presented by T. Lay ton, Esq., 1849. 

47683. The proximal half of the left ulna ; from a cavern in Wind- 
er/.) mill Hill, Gibraltar. This specimen is figured by Busk in 
the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. vi. fig. 1 ; its specific 
reference is provisional. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

44927. The distal extremity of the right radius; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Ilford, Essex. This specimen is No. B. 5 of 
Davies's ' Catalogue of the Brady Collection.' 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

16852. The right radius : from Kent's-Hole Cavern, Torquay. The 

reference of this specimen is provisional; but it differs 

from the radius of U. spelceus by its more elongated form. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

24961. The left scapho-lunar ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. 

Presented by D. Sharpe, Esq., 1850. 

1 This and the other specimens of Ursine remains from the Ilford brick-earth 
are only provisionally referred to the present species, as it is said that Ursus 
arctos also occurs there. The complete tibia noticed below agrees so closely with 
that of U. horribilis, that on this account, as well as from the circumstance of 
the common occurrence of that species in the Pleistocene of Grays, the Ilford 
remains are provisionally referred to U. horribilis rather than to U. arctos. 



172 CAKNIVORA. 

46787. Five metacarpals; from the caverns of Gibraltar. These 
{Fig.) specimens are figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. 
vol. x. pi. vi. ; the specific reference is provisional. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

18982. The second and third right metacarpals : from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

44925. A fragment of the right innominate ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. This specimen comprises the entire ischium and 
part of the acetabulum ; it is No. B. 3 of Davies's ' Cata 
logue of the Brady Collection.' 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

44928. The right tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. This very 

perfect specimen is No. B. 6 of Davies's ' Catalogue of the 
Brady Collection,' where its dimensions are given. It is 
there referred to Ursus. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

44929. The distal extremity of the left tibia ; from the Pleistocene 

of Ilford. This specimen, of which the articular surface 
is perfect, is No. B. 5 of the Catalogue cited. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

44930. A terminal phalangeal ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. This 

specimen is No. B. 8 of Davies's ' Catalogue.' 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

19834. The axis vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. 

Purchased, 1846. 

47680. The axis vertebra; from a cavern in Windmill Hill, 

{Fig.) Gibraltar. This specimen is figured by Busk in the 

Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. vi. figs. 7, 8, 9 ; the specific 

reference is provisional. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

24966. A cervical vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Presented by D. Sharp e, Esq., 1850. 

44923. A late dorsal vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. The 

prezygapophyses and neural spine are imperfect. This 
specimen is No. B. 1 of Davies's ' Catalogue of the Brady 
Collection.' Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878.- 

44924. Part of a lumbar vertebra, of which only the centrum 

is perfect ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. This specimen 
is No. B. 2 of Davies's ' Catalogue.' 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 



TTKSID^. 173 

27985. The third left metacarpal, probably belonging to the present 
{Fig.) species; from the Pleistocene of Copford, Essex. This 

specimen is figured by Brown in the Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc. vol. viii. p. 187 (1852). 

Presented by J, Brown, Esq., 1852. 

22031. Numerous teeth; from the Pleistocene of Grays„ 

Purchased, 1848. 

WLx&vti arctoS, Linn. 1 

Syn. At least for paheontological purposes the following forms must be 
grouped under this species, viz. : — 

Ursus cadavarinus, Eversmann. 
Ursus collaris, F. Cuvier. 
(?) Ursus eversmanni, Gray. 

Ursus falcidaris, Reichenbach. 
Ursus formicarius, Eversmann. 
Ursus fuscus, Alb. Magnus. 
Var. a. Ursus isabellinus, Horsfield. 
Ursus lasiotis, Gray. 
Ursus piscator, Pucheran. 
(? Var.) Ursus leuconyx, Severztoff. 
Ursus longirostris, Schinz. 
Ursus niger, Goldfuss. 
Ursus norveygicus, F. Cuvier. 
(?Var.) Ursus pruinosus, Blyth. 

Ursus pyrenaicus, F. Cuvier. 
Var. b. Ursus syriacus, Ehrenberg. 
(?) Myrmarctos eversmanni, Gray. 

According to Busk pm. 4 is very small, and the inner posterior 
cusp generally absent, and if present very small; it is, however, 
fairly well developed in one recent skull (B.M. No. 218/.). It 
appears to be almost, if not quite, impossible to distinguish this 
species by the dentition 2 alone from U. horribilis. 

Hab. Europe and Northern Asia. 

40405. Part of the right maxilla and premaxilla, containing the 
outer incisor, canine, and the last four cheek-teeth. This 
specimen is of large size ; and is mentioned by Owen in 
the ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 78, on whose 
authority it is referred to the present species. 

Presented by Sir P. de M. Grey Egerton, Bart,, 1867. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 69 (1766). 

2 In the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 208, the writer has stated 
that m.2 is as long as the two preceding teeth ; this is, however, by no means 
invariably the case. 



174 CAKNIVOBA. 

M 231. The left ramus of the mandible, containing the canine, 
(Fig.) pm. 4 , and m. 2, together with the alveoli of the other 
cheek-teeth (including pm. 3) ; from Manea Pen, Cam- 
bridgeshire. This fine specimen is figured by Owen in 
the ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 106, fig. 35 a. 
It is of large size ; m. 2 is relatively wide, and very like 
the corresponding tooth of No. 40909 (U. horribilis ?) ; 
there is no inner cusp to p m . 4. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

48732. A canine ; from Brixham Cave, near Torquay. This speci- 

(Fig.) men is figured by Busk in the Phil. Trans, for 1873, 

pi. xlvi. fig. 4, where it is provisionally referred to the 

present species. Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48754. A canine ; from Brixham Cave. This specimen is figured 
(Fig.) by Busk, op. cit. pi. xlvi. fig. 3, and is provisionally referred 

to the present species. 

Brixham- Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48755. A canine ; from Brixham Cave. This specimen is pro- 

visionally referred to the present species. 

Brixham- Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48752-3. The right ramus of the mandible, containing the canine 
and the last premolar, and showing the alveoli of the other 
cheek-teeth (including pm. 1 and pm . 3) • and a fragment of 
the right maxilla, with the two true molars, in a much- 
worn condition, together with the last premolar; from 
Brixham Cave. From its small size and especially the 
form of the canine, it is probable that this specimen be- 
longs to the present species. There is a small inner cusp 
to pm. 4. Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48787. The right ramus of the mandible, containing the canine and 
the second true molar ; from Brixham Cave. The molar 
is very wide, and there remain the sockets of piru 1 and 
pm. 2, although there is no trace of that of p~m73, which 
is a very unusual condition. It is doubtful whether this 
specimen bolongs to U. horribilis or U. arctos. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48832, 48744, 48801. Part of the radius and two humeri of a Bear; 
from Brixham Cave. These specimens may possibly belong 
to the present species. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 



UK8IDJB. 175 

Ursus arvernensis 9 Croizet and Jobert 1 . 

Syn. Ursus minimus, Dev. and Boriel. 

Ursus minutus, P. Gervais. 
Hab. Prance. 
28879. Cast of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the canine 
and the last four cheek-teeth; the original is from the 
Upper Pliocene of Puy-de-D6me, Prance. The alveoli of the 
first three premolars are present ; there is no inner cusp 
to pmTi, and the interval between that tooth and the 
canine is relatively smaller than is usually the case in 
U. arctos. No history. 

27648. Pragment of the left maxilla, containing the last true molar ; 
from the Pliocene of Arde, Prance. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

Ursus namadicus, Palconer and Cautley 2 . 

Hab. India. 

39720. Part of the right maxilla, containing the last three cheek- 

(Fig.) teeth and the broken base of pm. 3 ; from the Pleistocene 

of the Narbada valley, India. This specimen, which is 

the type of the species, is figured by Palconer and Cautley 

in plate of the 'Pauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' and by 

Murchison in vol. i. pi. xxvi. fig. 5, of ' Palconer's Palae- 

ontological Memoirs '; it is described and figured by the 

present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 

vol. ii. p. 216, pi. xxviii. fig. 3. As far as can be judged 

from the extremely imperfect remains at present available, 

this species seems on the whole to have approached nearest 

to the existing Ursus malayanus, but is distinguished by 

its superior size, and the form and relative dimensions of 

pm- 3 , pm. 4 , and m. 2 . It is impossible to say at present 

whether or no the one form may be regarded as on the 

direct line of descent of the other. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39727. The left tibia ; from the Pleistocene of the JNarbada valley. 
(Fig.) This specimen is mentioned 3 and figured by the present 

writer in the ' Palaaontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 218, 

pi. xxix. figs. 3, 3 a. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1813. 

1 'Osseinens Fossiles du Puy-de-D6nie ', p. 188 (1828). 

2 In ' Palconer's Palseontological Memoirs, Vol. i. p. 552 (1868). 
:i The number is erroneously given as 39729. 



176 CAKNIVORA. 

Q&V8U8 ammcantta, Pallas 1 . 
Hab. North America. 

40849. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the second true 
molar ; from " Big-bone Lick," Kentucky, U.S.A. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

Family MUSTELHXE. 

Genus MUSTELA, Linn. 2 

[Including the subgenera Mustela, Cuvier (Martes, Nilsson), and Puto- 
rius, Cuvier (Mustela, Nilsson), and the genus Plesiogale, Pomel 3 .] 

Dentition. — The existing species of the subgenus Mustela have 
the following dental formula, viz., I. |, C. \, Pm. |, M. |; but in 
those belonging to Putorius the number of the premolars is only *« 
In some species belonging to the so-called Plesiogale the dental 
formula, according to Filhol (Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, p. 177), 
is I. |, C. j, Pm. |, M. \, the number of premolars being in the upper 
jaw the same as in Mustela proper, and in the lower as in Putorius. 
If, as is done by Filhol in the work cited, the genus Plesiogale 41 is 
united with Mustela (in its wide sense), it appears that for palseon- 
tological purposes it is impossible to maintain the subgenera Mus- 
tela and Putorius, and all the forms are consequently included in 
Mustela. The dental formula of the genus as thus extended will 
be 1. f , C. \, Pm. fc§> M - \ In tne living species of Mustela 
proper the inner cusp is generally well developed in nTl, but it is 
usually absent in Putorius. 

Plu^tela mart*S, Linn. 5 

Syn. Martes sylvatica, Nilsson. 

Dentition :— I. |, C. ~, Pm. \ , M. \. 
Hab. Northern Europe. 

1 Spicilegia Zoologica, vol. xiv. p. 6 (1780). 

2 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 66 (1766). 

3 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 380 (1846). 

4 In his earlier work on the Quercy Phosphorites (Ann. Sci. G-60I. vol. vii. 
art. 7, pp. 42-45) Filhol maintains the genus Plesiogale. The first species so 
named (P. onutabilis) was, however, subsequently referred to Palceoprionodon 
(vide supra, p. 94) ; and in the Ann. Sci. Gr6ol. vol. x. art. 3, species such as 
P. waterhousei, P. angustifrons, and P. mustelina are all referred to Mustela, 
although the generic term Plesiogale is retained in the description of the 
plates. 

5 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 67 (1766). 



MTTSTELID2E. 177 

22 (0. C). The left ramus of the mandible, wanting the incisors, 

canine, and m . 2 ; from a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

Mustela, sp. 

Hob. India. 

15914. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
{Fig.) carnassial and the broken pm . 4 ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills, India. In this specimen, which is repre- 
sented in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 25), the form of 

Fig. 25. 




Mustela, sp. — Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible ; from the 
Siwalik Hills. \. 



the carnassial is precisely that of the corresponding tooth 
of Mustela proper, so that it may be safely referred to that 
genus. In size the two remaining teeth, as well as the 
ramus itself, agree almost exactly with the mandible of the 
living Indian M.flavigula ; but the carnassial of the fossil 
is readily distinguished by the larger size of the inner 
cusp, and the greater development of the talon, which is 
relatively longer than in the existing species, being wider 
than any other part of the tooth. The inner portion of 
the talon has a distinct rim, which is wanting in the 
existing species, thus causing the talon to be slightly basin- 
shaped. These differences indicate that the Siwalik form 
is, in all probability, specifically distinct from M.flavigula. 
In the form of the carnassial and in general size the speci- 
men is very close to M. martes ; but the last premolar is 
considerably shorter than in that species. No other living 
species appears to come nearer to the fossil. 

Turning to fossil species, the Siwalik jaw is distin- 
guished from that of the Pikermi M. penteleci, Gaudry \ 

Animaux fossiles et Geologie de l'Attique, p. 42, pi. vi. figs. 3, 4. 

N 



178 CARNIVOEA. 

by the larger size of the talon of the carnassial, and the 
lesser vertical depth of the horizontal ramus. M. elongata, 
P. Gervais \ of the Lower Pliocene of Montpellier, is of 
considerably smaller size, but agrees in having a relatively 
long and basin-shaped talon to the caraassial ; this talon 
is, however, proportionately narrower, and the inner cusp 
of the blade is larger and placed more posteriorly, causing 
the "cusp-line" to be more oblique. The mandible 
figured by P. Gervais 2 under the name of M. minuta is at 
once distinguished by its diminutive size. The mandible 
of M. ardea 3 , Bravard, agrees very closely in size, but the 
talon of the carnassial appears relatively smaller; the 
inner aspect of this tooth is not figured. M. taocodon, 
P. Gervais 4 , has the talon of the carnassial still larger 
and more distinctly basin-shaped ; and it is highly probable 
that this form should really be referred to a new genus 
allied to Meles. M. incerta'% Lartet, of Sansan, even if 
it really belong to the present genus, is distinguished by 
its greatly superior size. The so-called M. liydrocyon, P. 
Gervais 6 (Rydrocyon sansaniensis, Lart.), is slightly larger, 
and the ramus of the mandible relatively deeper — its depth 
exceeding, instead of being less than, the length of the 
carnassial ; the inner border of the crown of that tooth is 
also higher. The insufficiently described M. zorilloides 7 , 
Lartet, from Sansan, seems to be of smaller dimensions. 
A species said to be allied to the Martens has been de- 
• scribed by Filhol 8 , from the Quercy phosphorites, under 
the name of M. felina, which is sufficiently distinguished 
from the present specimen by the absence of an inner 
cusp to the lower caraassial. M. angustifrons and M. 
sectoria, P. Gervais, are considerably smaller ; and it does 
not appear that any others of the described fossil forms 
approach the Siwalik jaw. The lower carnassial of the 
allied genus Plesictis is distinguished by the much larger 
development of the inner cusp. 

It thus seems that the present specimen indicates the 
existence of a species of Mustela in the Siwaliks closely 

1 Zool. et Pal. Fra^aises, 2nd ed. p. 248, pi. xxii. fig. 2. 

2 Ibid. pi. xxviii. fig. 4. 3 Ibid. pi. xxvii. fig. 5. 
4 Ibid. p. 249, pi. xxiii. fig. 1. 5 Ibid. pi. xxiii. fig. 3. 

6 Ibid. p. 248, pi. xxiii. fig. 2. 7 Vide P. Gervais, op. cit. p. 251. 

8 Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, ser. 6, vol. x. p. 87 (1874); and Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. viii. art. 1, p. 39 (1877). 



MTJSTELID^. 179 

allied to the existing Martens, and probably belonging to 
a new species. The specimen is, however, too imperfect 
to allow of its specific characters being fully determined, 
and it is therefore inadvisable that it should receive a 
distinct name. Cauiley Collection. Presented. 1842. 



PfaStfla putoritl£, Linn. 1 
Syn. Putorius vulgaris, Owen 2 . 

Dentition :— I. |, C. j, Pm. §, H. \. 

Hah. Northern Europe and Asia. 

48892. The cranium, wanting the zygomatic arches, and many of 

the teeth ; from Brixham Cave, near Torquay. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48893. The mandible ; from Brixham Cave. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48893 a. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last two premolars and the carnassial ; from the Coralline 
Crag of Orford, Suffolk. There does not appear to be any 
evidence to show whether this specimen is a true Crag 
fossil, or whether it has been introduced into that deposit. 
Presented by Dr. H. Woodward. 

48914, 48921, 48922. Numerous limb-bones ; from Brixham Cave. 
Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48894. Six vertebrae and the sacrum ; from Brixham Cave. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 



PluStela Vulgaris, Erxleben 3 . 

Dentition :— 1. 1, C. \, Pm. |, M. \. 

Hab. Northern Europe, Asia, and America. 

48899, 48900. The right and left rami of the mandible ; from Brix- 
ham Cave, near Torquay. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

1 Syst. Nat, ed. 12, vol. i. p. 67 (1766). 

2 Brit. Foss. Mamm. and Birds, p. 112 (1846). 

3 Syst. Reg. Animal, p. 471 (1777). 

n2 



180 CAKNITOEA. 

Plu^tela ermtnea, Linn. 1 
Dentition :— I. |, C. J, Pm. |, M. \. 
Hah. Northern Europe, Asia, and America. 

16709. The anterior portion of the cranium, wanting the canines ; 

(Fig.) from Kent's-Hole Cavern, Torquay. This specimen is 
described and figured, from the palatal aspect, by Owen in 
the ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 118, fig. 42. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16709 a. The cranium and mandible ; from a cave at Berry Head, 
(Fig.) Devonshire. This specimen is figured by Owen in the 

'British Fossil Mammals and Birds/ pp. 116, 118, figs. 

40, 41. (?) Presented by — Bartlett, Esq. 2 

Mustela angustifrons (Pomel 3 ). 

Syn. Plesiogale angustifrons, Pomel 4 . 
Plesiogale pomeli, Laurillard 5 . 

Dentition :— I. |, C. \, Pm. £ M. \ (teste Filhol). 

Hob. Prance. 

26703. The greater portion of the cranium, imperfect posteriorly ; 

(Fig.) from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), 
France. This specimen is the type of the species, and is 
figured by Pomel in the Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, 
vol. iv. pi. iv. fig. 3 (p. 513). It contains all the teeth 
except the right pm. 1 and both the penultimate upper 
premolars. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

31010. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing 
all the cheek-teeth and the broken canine; from the 
Lower Miocene of Allier, France. This specimen appears 
to agree exactly with the one figured under the same 
name by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. pi. xxv. 
figs. 15, 16. There is no inner cusp to the carnassial. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 68 (1776). 2 Vide Owen, loc. cit. 

3 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 385 (1846), Plesiogale : for a 
full description of this species see Filhol, Aim. Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, p. 177. 
* Loc. cit 6 Diet. Univ. d'Hist. Nat. vol. x. p. 268. 



MUSTELID.E. 181 

Mustela sectoria, Gervais \ 
Dentition :— I. | C. \, Pm. % M. |. 
Hah. France. 

27822. Portion of the cranium, in a much-crushed condition, but 
exhibiting the palate and cheek-teeth; from the Lower 
Miocene of Cournon (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. This spe- 
cimen, together with the next, is the type of the species. 
It is described by P. Gervais in the passage cited, and 
also on page 250 of the 2nd edition of the same work. 
" The carnassial has a length of 0,068, and the tuber- 
cular molar is larger externally than internally, forming 
a triangle of which the external border of the crown is 
the base. This tooth is also remarkable by the presence 
on the anterior border of a transverse subtrenchant 
crest." The first premolar is very minute. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

27816. The left ramus of the mandible, showing the outer aspect of 
{Fig.) all the teeth; from the Lower Miocene of Cournon. This 

Pig. 26. 




Mustela sectoria. The left ramus of the mandible ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Cournon, Puy-de-D6me. y. 

specimen is described with the last in the passages cited, 
and is figured in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 26). 
There are four premolars, the first of which is extremely 
minute ; the space occupied by the six cheek-teeth is 
0,019 ; the length of the carnassial is 0,0055, and that of 
m. 2 0,002. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

Mustela mustelina (Pomel 2 ). 
Syn. Plesiogale mustelina, Pomel 3 . 

1 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed., explanation of pi. xxviii. p. 10 (1848-52). 

2 Catalogue Methodique, p. 49 (1853), Plesiogale. 3 Loc. cit. 



182 CAKNIVORA, 

Dentition : — 1. 1, C. j, Pm. |, M. ~. This species is about the size 
of the existing Stoat. 
Hah. France. 

31018. Anterior portion of the cranium of an immature individual, 

wanting all the teeth except the milk and permanent 
carnassials, the latter of which is just protruding on the 
left side ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier, Prance. 
This specimen appears to be precisely similar to the one 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. pi. xxv. 
figs. 1, 4. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31019. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 

last two premolars and the carnassial ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier. This specimen is precisely similar to 
the one figured by Filhol in figs. 6 and 7 of the plate 
quoted above. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



Mustela water-house! (Pomel *). 

Syn. Plesiogale waterhousei, Pomel 2 . 

Dentition:— I. |, C. i, Pm. |, M. |. 

Hah. France. 

27815. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
(Fig.) two last premolars and the carnassial, of which the inner 
cusp is broken off; from the Lower Miocene of Eonzon 
(Puy-en-Velay), France. This specimen is the type of 
the species, and is described by Pomel in the following 
words: — "Espece un peu plus petite que le putois, re- 
marquable par l'acuite des avant-molaires inferieures. 
Cette espece et la suivante [M . mustelina~]-no-u.s montrent que 
l'apophyse coronoi'de est tres-elargie au soumet et comme 
tormine'e en fer de hache. La grande ctendue de la fosse 
massetcrine acheve d'indiquer une tres-grande force dans 
Fappareil musculaire qui mouvait lcs machoires '\ It 
would appear that the coronoid process has been broken 
off since the time of Pomel's description. In the Ann. 
Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, p. 183, pi. xxv. fig. 10, Filhol 
describes and figures a right ramus of the mandible from 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 49 (1853), Plesiogale. 2 Loc. cit. 



MTJSTELID^!. 183 

St. Gerand-le-Puy, which he refers to the same species ; 
he mentions that he was unable to find the present speci- 
men, which was not labelled at the time of his visit to the 
British Museum. The specimen figured by Filhol appears 
very similar to the present specimen, but the blade of the 
carnassial is slightly longer. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 



Hob. France. 



Mustela ?, sp. 



JVL 1366. The greater part of the palatal portion of the cranium, 
showing the canine and all the cheek-teeth ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This 
specimen is rather larger than the cranium of M. angus- 
tifrons, from which it is also distinguished by a great 
difference in the form of m. 1. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1375. The right ramus of the mandible, showing p m . 3 and 
the alveoli of all the other teeth ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux. It is not improbable that this specimen may 
belong to the same species as the last. Purchased, 1884. 

Mustela, sp. 

18232-4. The third lower premolar and the carnassial of a small 
specise ; from the Pleistocene of Suffolk. The carnassial 
is intermediate between that of M. ermineus and M. 
vulgaris. Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

Genus PLESICTIS, Pomel 1 . 

Dentition : — I. |, C. ~, Pm. \, H. \. This genus is distinguished 
from Mustela by the circumstance that the temporal ridges of the 
cranium do not unite to form a sagittal crest. The lower carnassial 
is always furnished with a well-developed inner cusp, and the upper 
true molar is distinguished from that of existing species of Mustela 
by its triangular form, but is very similar to that of M. angustifrons. 
In the above-mentioned general characters the genus indicates 
viverrine tendencies, and the transition to the extinct genus Steno- 
plesictis (page 96) is so gradual that the viverrine and musteline 
families are practically united by the two genera. 

1 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 379 (1846). 



184 CAKNIVOKA. 

Plesictis palustris, Pomel 1 . 
Syn. P. elegans, Pomel (var.). 

P. genetoides, Pomel (var.). 

Hab. Prance. 

31024. The hinder portion of the cranium, exhibiting the third 

and fourth premolars of the left side ; from the Lower 
Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), Prance. This 
specimen appears almost identical with a cranium, from 
the same locality, figured by Pilhol in the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. x. pi. xx. figs. 8—10 ; the only difference 
between the two being that the temporal ridges are more 
widely separated in the present specimen ; these differences, 
are, however, probably due to differences in age. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31025. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the carnassial and 

the alveolus of ra- 1 ; from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand- 
le-Puy. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

24943. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing pm, 4 and m . 1, and the alveoli of the other 
cheek-teeth and canine ; from the Lower Miocene of St. 
Gerand-le-Puy. This specimen appears to be precisely 
similar to a left ramus figured by Pilhol in the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. x. pi. xxii. fig. 2. 

Presented by — Talbot, Esq., 1849. 

Plesictis croizeti, Pomel 2 . 
Syn. ? P. robusta, Pomel. 
? P. gracilis, Pomel. 

Bab. Prance. 

This species was originally described in 1846 by Pomel, on the 
evidence of the mandible catalogued below (No. 26702). Pilhol 
unites, in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, p. 124 et seq., this 
species with P. robusta and P. gracilis, taking P. robusta as the 
name of the species. As, however, those names were not published 
till 1853 (' Catalogue Me'thodique,' p. 60), it is evident that the 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 62 (1853). See also Pilhol, Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. x. art. 3, p. 144 et seq., on whose authority the synonymy is given. 

2 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p! 385 (1846). 



mustelid^:. 185 

name croizeti should stand for the species, on the assumption that 
the three forms are the same. In his quotations from Pomel, Filhol 
(p. 131) has, however, given Pomel's description of P.lemanensis as 
that of P. croizeti, and that of P. croizeti (p. 134) as that of P. lema- 
nensis. According to Pomel's original description, it is P. lemanensis 
that is stouter than P. croizeti ; but as Filhol has reversed the 
two descriptions, it of course happens that P. croizeti is the stouter 
species according to him. It appears, however, that the stouter 
type of skull figured by Pilhol under the name of P. rohusta, var. 
croizeti, does agree more nearly in relative size with the type 
mandible of P. croizeti, Pom., than does the slighter skull figured by 
Filhol under the name of P. lemanensis ; and it therefore seems well 
to provisionally adopt Pilhol's identifications, although they appear 
founded on a misconception. On this view P. croizeti will be (con- 
trary to Pomel's original definition) a larger species than P. lema- 
nensis. 

26702. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
{Fig.) containing the last two premolars and the carnassial, 
and the alveoli of the other cheek-teeth and the canine ; 
from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), 
Prance. This specimen is the type of the species, and is 
figured by Pomel in the Bull. Soc. Ge'ol. Prance, ser. 2, 
vol. iv. pi. iv. fig. 4. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

31022. The hinder part of the cranium, containing the left true 
molar ; from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy. 
This specimen agrees with the cranium figured by Pilhol 
in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. pi. xxi. figs. 3, 4, 5, with 
the exception that the temporal ridges are less closely ap- 
proximated, this character probably depending to a great 
extent on age. As mentioned above, these two specimens 
may be provisionally referred to the present species. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Plesictis lemanensis, Pomel 1 . 

Por the doubt as to the correct identification of this species see 
above under the head of P. croizeti. 
Hah. Prance. 

31028. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 61 (1S53). 



186 CAENIVORA. 

the carnassial and the alveolus of m72 ; from the Lower 
Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), France. This spe- 
cimen appears to he very similar to the one figured under 
the above name by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol, x. 
pi. xxii. fig. 3. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Plesictis(?), sp. 

Hab. Italy. 

31028, a. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the two true molars ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal 
d'Arno di Sopra, Italy. This specimen is larger than any 
of those mentioued above, and not improbably indicates a 
new species. Presented by the Earl of Ennishillen. 

Limb-bones and Vertebrae of undetermined species of Mtjstela 

or allied Gentjs. 

From the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), France. 

Bravard Collection. 

31012. The glenoidal part of the scapula. 

31029-30. Two humeri, of the same size. These bones have an ent- 
epicondylar foramen, and differ thereby from living species 
of Mustela. 

31013-4. The proximal halves of two ulnse. 

31015. The distal half of the radius. 

31016. The distal half of the femur of a large species. 
26704. The greater portion of the tibia. 

31021. The tibia, of smaller size than the last. 
31011. A lumbar vertebra, of large size. 
31020. A cervical vertebra, of small size. 

Genus GULO, Storr 1 . 

Dentition :— 1. §, C. \, Pm. f, M. \. In one of the specimens 
noticed below m72 is wanting. 

1 Prodromus Meth. Mamm. p. 34 (1780). 



MUSTELID^. 187 

&llIo tuScuS (Linn. 1 ). 
Syn. Mustela gulo, Linn. 2 
TJrsus luscus, Linn. 3 
Gulo borealis, Nilsson (teste Wagner). 
Gulo spelcsus, Goldfuss 4 . 

Hob. Northern Europe and America. 

21 (0. C). The cranium and mandible ; from the Gailenreuth (?) 

Cave, Franconia. The cranium wants the zygomatic 

arches, and the carnassials and canines ; the mandible 

has lost the summit of the coronoid process of either side. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

28556. The left ramus of the mandible, containing the last three 
premolars and the carnassial ; from a cavern in Sund- 
wig, Westphalia. Purchased, 1853. 

28556 a. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing all 

- the cheek-teeth except pmTT; from a cavern in Sund- 

wig, Westphalia. Purchased, 1853. 

M. 227. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing pm73, 
pm. 4, and m . 1, in a well-worn condition ; from the Gai- 
lenreuth Cave. EnnisJcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 228. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last premolar and the carnassial, in a very much worn 
condition; from the Gailenreuth Cave. This specimen 
is remarkable for the circumstance that there is not 
the slightest trace of the alveolus of the second true 
molar. EnnisJcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 228 a. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last pm. 3, pm. 4, and m . 1, in an unworn condition ; from 
the Gailenreuth Cave. Egerton Collection. Purchased,18S2, 

M. 228 b. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the unworn last premolar ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 229 a. The distal two-thirds of the right humerus, exhibiting 

the entopicondylar foramen ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 71 (1766), Ursus. 

2 Ibid. p. 67 (1766). 3 md p 71 (1766) 
4 Nova Acta Ac. Cces. Leop.-Car. vol. ix. p. 319 (1818). 



188 CAE1STTV0RA. 

M. 229. The right tibia ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 229 b. The centrum of the axis vertebra, wanting the odontoid 
process ; from the Gailenreuth Cave. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased^ 1882. 

Genus MELLIVORA, Storr 1 . 

Syn. Ursitaxus, Hodgson 2 . 
Ratelus, Bennett 3 . 

Dentition :— I. |, C. 1, Pm. |, M, \. 

Mellivora sivalensis (Falconer and Cautley 4 ). 

Syn. Ursitaxus sivalensis, Falconer and Cautley 5 . 
Gulo, sp., Baker and Durand 6 . 

Hab. India. 

40184. The cranium ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. 

{Fig.) This specimen is the type of the species, and is described 
and figured by Baker and Durand in the Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. vol. v. p. 581, pi. xxvii. fig. 1, under the generic 
name of Gulo. It is also figured by Falconer and Cautley 
in supplemental plate Q of the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis/ 
figs. 4, 4a, 4b, 4c', under the name of Ursitaxus; and is 
described and figured under the above name by the present 
writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. 
p. 180, pi. xxvi. In this specimen all the teeth are shown, 
but the crowns of the canines are broken off and the 
cheek-teeth are very much worn. In the accompanying 
woodcut (fig. 27) there is represented one half of the 
palatal portion of the cranium and the left ramus of the 
mandible, also from the Siwalik Hills, which are preserved 
in the Science and Art Museum, Dublin, and are the 
only other known remains of the species. These speci- 
mens are likewise described by the present writer in 
the ' Palaeontologia Indica '. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

1 Prodromus Meth. Mamra. p. 34 (1780). 

2 Asiatic Researches, vol. xix. p. 60 (J.836). 

3 Gardens &c. Zool. Soc. vol. i. p. 13 (1830). 

4 In 'Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. i. p. 553 (1868), Ursitaxus 
6 Loc. cit. 

8 Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. v. p. 581 (1836). 



MUSTELID^E. 



189 



Fig. 27. 




Mellivora sivalensis. The right half of the palate (a) and the left ramus of 
the mandible (5). ^. Dublin Museum. (From the ' Palseontologia Indica.') 

Genus MELES, Storr x . 
Dentition :— I. |, C. \, Pm. |, M. ~. 

;tfHeto taruS, Boddaert*. 
Syn. Z7rs2«$ ?neks, Linn. 3 

Meles vulgaris, Desniarest 4 . 

Meles vulgaris fossUis, H. von Meyer. 

Bab. Europe and Northern Asia. 

20 (0. C). The hinder part of the cranium and the left half of the 
palate, containing the carnassial and the true molar ; from 
a cavern in Sundwig. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

20 a (0. C). The left ramus of the mandible, containing the canine 
and the carnassial; from a cavern in Sundwig. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

1 Prodromus Meth. Mamm. p. 34 (1780). 

2 Elenchus Animalium, vol. i. p. 80 (1785). 

3 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 70 (1766). 
* Mammalogie, p. 173 (1820). 



190 CAKNIVOKA. 

20 b (0. C). The right ramus of the mandible, containing the car- 
nassial ; from a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. 

S'ommermg Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

16711. The left ramus of the mandible, containing all the teeth except 
(Fig.) the incisors, pm. 1, and p m . 3 ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern, 
Torquay. This specimen is figured by Owen in the 
' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 107, fig. 37. The 
teeth are in an unworn condition, and the alveolus of 
pm. 1 is of minute size. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

M. 1884. The cranium and mandible ; from a brick-field at Grove- 
hurst, Sittingbourne, Kent. The age of this specimen is 
doubtful. Presented by George Payne, Esq., 1884. 

27659. The distal half of the left humerus (showing the entepi- 
condylar foramen) and the proximal half of the left ulna ; 
from a cavern at Montpellier, France. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

Genus LUTRA, Erxleben 1 (ex Ray). 
Including : — Aonyx, Lesson. 

Enhydriodon (Amyxodon), Falconer 2 . 
Lutrictis, Pomel 3 . 
Potamotherium, E. Geoffroy 4 . 
Stephanodon, H. von Meyer 5 . 

Dentition. — In the typical living forms the dental formula is 
I. |, C. \, Pm. J, M. |; but in L. (A.) leptonyx the first upper pre- 
molar is not unf requently absent ; and in some fossil forms this 
tooth is invariably wanting. In another fossil species m. 2 is 
present ; so that the dental formula for all these variations must be 
written as follows, viz. I. \, C. \, Pm. (3 ~ 4) , M. 2=^. The reasons 
for including Enhydriodon in the present genus are given by the 
writer in the f Palseontologia Indica,' ser 10, vol. ii. pp. 195-201. 

1 Syst. Eegn. Animal, p. 445 (1777). 

2 In 'Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. p. 331 (1868). The name 
Amyxodon dates from 183(5, but was never defined. 

3 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 380 (1846). 

4 Eevue Encyclopedique, vol. lix. p. 88 (1833). 

5 Neues Jahrbuch, 1847, p. 182 ; and Suppl. Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. vol. y. 
p. 307 (1847). 



MTJSTELID^!. 191 

Utitra fiulgarte, Erxleben 1 . 
Syn. Mustela lutra, Linn. 2 

Lutra antiqua, M. de Serres 3 . 

Hah. Europe and North Asia. 
39904. The cranium and mandible, showing all the teeth except 
the incisors, canines, and mT2 ; from Watcham Pen, near 
Ely, Cambridgeshire. Purchased, 1866. 

39907. The right scapula ; from "Watcham Pen. Purchased, 1866. 

36631. The left humerus, wanting both extremities; from the 
Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. Purchased, 1848. 

39908. The right ulna ; from Watcham Pen. Purchased, 1866. 

39468 a. The left ulna ; from the fens of Lincolnshire. 

Purchased, 1866. 

Lutra palseindica, Palconer and Cautley 4 . 
Rah. India. 

37151. Cranium, wanting both zygomatic arches, part of the right 
{Fig.) maxilla, and all the teeth except pm. 2 and m^l of the right 

side ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. This 
specimen is the type of the species, and is figured in 
plate xxvii. figs. 6, 7 of ' Palconer's Palgeontological 
Memoirs,' and in supplemental plate P. fig. 1 of the 
'Pauna Antiqua Sivalensis/ It is also described and 
figured by the writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 191, pi. xxvii. fig. 1. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37152. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, wanting all the 
{Fig.) teeth except the carnassial, of which the blade is broken ; 

from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. This spe- 
cimen is described and figured in the same places as the 
last specimen. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Lutra dubia, Blainville 5 {ex Croizet). 
Hah. Europe. 
27486. Pragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 

1 Syst. Eegn. Animal, p. 448 (1777). 

2 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 66 (1766). 

3 Ann. d. Museum, vol. xviii. p. 334. 

4 In ' Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs,' pi. xxvii. (1868). 

5 Osteographie, genus Mustela, p. 67, pi. xiv. (1848?). 



192 CARKIVORA. 

the carnassial and the base of pm. 4 ; probably from the 
Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, Hesse Darmstadt. This 
specimen appears to be precisely similar to the type spe- 
cimen figured by De Blainville (loc. cit.), from the Middle 
Miocene of Sansan (Gers), France. If the locality of the 
ppesent specimen be correct, it extends the range of the 
species to Hesse Darmstadt. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Lutra campani, Meneghini 1 . 
Dentition:— I. §, C. \, Pm. f, M. ~. 

Hob. Italy. 

37347. Cast of the palatal portion of the cranium. The original is 
from the Middle Miocene of Monte Bamboli, Tuscany. 
The original of this specimen, which is the type of the 
species, is believed to be in the Museum at Pisa, and is 
described and figured by Meneghini in the Atti Soc. Ital. 
Sci. Nat. vol. iv. pi. i. a ; the right upper carnassial is re- 
presented in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 28). The 

Pig. 28. 




Lutra campani. Eight upper carnassial ; from the Middle Miocene of 
Monte Bamboli, Tuscany. ^. (From the ' Palasontologia Indica.') 

affinities of the species are alluded to by the present writer 
in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' vol. ii. p. 198, and are 
shown to be nearest to those of the next species. 

Purchased, 1863. 

Lutra sivalensis (Falconer and Cautley 2 ). 

Syn. JBnhydriodon sivalensis, Falconer and Cautley 3 . 
Enhydriodon ferox, Falconer and Cautley. 
Amyxodon, sp., Falconer and Cautley. 

1 Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. vol. iv. p. 18 (1862). 

2 In 'Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. p. 331 (1868), Enhy- 
driodon. The history and synonymy are given by the present writer in the 

Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 196. 

3 Loc. cit. 



mustelid^:. 193 

Dentition-.— I. |, C. |, Pm. |, M. \. 
Hah. India. 

37153. The greater part of the cranium, wanting both zygomatic 
{Fig.) arches and part of the premaxillse ; from the Pliocene of 

the Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen, which, with the 
two next, is the type of the species, contains the hinder 
cheek-teeth of the right side, in a broken condition ; there 
is no sign of the presence of pm. 2 . It is figured in 
'Falconer's Palgeontological Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxvii. 
figs. 3, 4, and in supplemental plate P of the ' Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis :' together with the two next specimens 
it is noticed by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia 
Indica/ ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 197. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37154. The anterior portion of the cranium, exhibiting the alveoli 
{Fig.) or the crowns of all the teeth ; from the Pliocene of the 

Siwalik Hills. This specimen is represented in figs. 1, 2 of 
the above-mentioned plate of 'Falconer's Palaeontological 
Memoirs ' and in plate P of the ' Fauna Antiqua Siva- 
lensis.' It shows the alveolus of pm. 2 , which is of 
extremely minute size, and also that of the outer incisor, 
which is of relatively large size. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37155. The anterior portion of the cranium, showing the alveoli of 
{Fig.) the outer incisors and of the canines, and the broken crowns 

of the last three cheek-teeth of the left side ; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is repre- 
sented in fig. 5 of the above-mentioned plate of ' Falconer's 
Palaeontological Memoirs,' and in plate P of the ' Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis.' The left upper carnassial of this 
specimen is represented, of the natural size, in the accom- 

Fig. 29. 



m 



Lutra sivalensis. Left upper carnassial, broken on the outer side ; from 
the Siwalik Hills. \. (From the ' Palseontologia Indica.') 

panying woodcut (fig. 29). There is no trace of the 
alveolus of pm. 2 , which tooth was probably absent. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 



194 CAKNTVORA. 

Lutra valetoni, E. Geoffroy 1 . 
Syn. Potamotherium valetoni, E. Geoffroy 2 . 
Lutrictis valetoni, Pomel 3 . 
Stephanodon mombachiensis, H. von Meyer 4 . 
Lutra clermontensis, Blainville 5 (in parte). 

Dentition-.— I. f, C. \, Pm. |, M. f. 

Hab. Europe. 

In his memoir on the Eossil Mammals of St. Gerand-le-Puy 6 , 
Eilhol refers this species to the genus Lutra ; and the present 
writer is. inclined to adopt this view. If it be referred to a distinct 
genus, the name Potamotherium is the correct one 7 . 

31031. Fragment of the right maxilla and premaxilla, containing 

the canine and pm. 2 ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier, 
Prance. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

25448. The left ramus of the mandible wanting the proximal 
extremity, and containing the canine and all the cheek- 
teeth except m. 2 ; from the Lower Miocene of Mombach, 
near Mayence. Purchased, 1850. 

31032. Hinder portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 

taining the carnassial ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31033. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 

the carnassial in alveolo ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26699. The left humerus, imperfect superiorly, showing the ent- 
epicondylar foramen ; from the Lower Miocene of St. 
Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), Prance. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

31040. The right humerus, wanting the proximal extremity; from 
the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852 

1 Bevue Encyclopedique, vol. lix. p. 88 (1833)= 2 Loc. cit 

3 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 380 (1846). 

4 Neues Jahrb. 1847, p. 182. 

5 Osteographie, genus Mustela, p. 59 (1842 ?). 

6 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, p. 58. 

7 In the ' Palseontologialndica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 190, the present writer, who 
had not, at the time of writing the passage, entered into the question of priority, 
followed Gaudry in referring the present species to Pomel's genus Lutrictis. 



MT7STELID2E. 195 

31041. The proximal extremity of the right humerus; from the 
Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

40899-900. Two imperfect specimens of the right humerus ; from 
the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

26701. The left ulna ; from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le- 
Puy. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

31044. Two specimens of the proximal portion of the right ulna ; 
from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31045-6-8. Three specimens of the radius ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26701. The right femur; from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand- 
le-Puy. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

31050. The right femur ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31053. The proximal half of the left femur ; from the Lower Mio- 
cene of Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31053 a. The left calcaneum ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31034. The atlas vertebra ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31035. The axis vertebra, imperfect posteriorly ; from the Lower 

Miocene of Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31037-8-9. Three trunk vertebras ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Lutra minor (H. von Meyer 1 ). 
Syn. Stephanodon minor, H. von Meyer. 

Hab. Europe. 

25440. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last premolar and the carnassial ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Mombach, near Mayence. Purchased, 1850. 

1 The writer has been unable to find a reference to this species, which 
may be only a smaller form of the last. 

o2 



196 CAKNIVORA. 

Suborder CARNIVORA PINNIPEDIA. 
Family OTARIIDjE. 

Genus OTARIA, Peron 1 

(including Arctocephalus, &c). 

Dentition :— I. % C. \ Pm. £, M. ( -^. 

<®taria £or?tm, Lesson 2 . 
Syn. Arctocephalus forsteri, Gray. 
#&&. Australian and New-Zealand seas. 

32173. The palatal portion of the cranium, together with numerous 
limb-bones and vertebrae ; from Prehistoric or Pleistocene 
deposits at Ruamora, South Island, New Zealand. The 
cranium agrees precisely with the one figured by J. "W. 
Clark in the Proc. Zool. Soc. 1875, pi. lxxii., showing the 
small cusp on the anterior side only of the cheek-teeth. 
These remains were associated with those of Dinornis and 
a species of Dog 3 . Purchased from Walter Mantell, Esq. 

Otaria, sp. 
Hah. New Zealand. 

32173 a. Fragment of the anterior portion of the cranium of a young 
male of a large species, containing a canine tooth ; from 
Prehistoric or Pleistocene deposits at Euamora, South 
Island, New Zealand. This specimen seems too imperfect 
for specific identification. 

Purchased from Walter Mantell, Esq. 

1 Voyage aux Terres Australes, vol. ii. p. 37, note (1816). 

2 Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat. vol. xii. p. 421 (1828). 

3 The occurrence of the remains of this genus, associated with those of Din- 
ornis and a Dog, in similar deposits is recorded by Haast in 'Nature,' vol. xiv. 
pp. 577-578 (1876). The name of the smaller Otary there found is given as 
Otaria cinerea ; it is, however, not improbable that that form really belongs to 
the present species, since many crania from New Zealand have been erroneously 
referred to 0. cinerea (vide J. W. Clark, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1884, p. 196). That 
species is characterized by the presence of fore-and-aft cusps (talons) to the 
cheek-teeth, as is well exhibited in the figure on p. 191 of the memoir last quoted. 



TKICHECHID^:. 197 

Family TRICHECHIM]. 
Genus TRICHECHUS, Linn. 1 
Dentition. — In the adult of the existing species it appears that the 
following teeth are usually present, viz. : — I. J, C. ^, Pm. |. 

CrtdjecfjuS rosmarug, Linn. 2 

Syn. Odobcenus rosmarus, Allen 3 (ex Malmgren). 
Hab. Arctic Ocean and Northern Europe. 

46134. The nearly complete mandible ; dredged on the Dogger 
Bank, Eastern coast. This specimen shows the alveoli of 
the teeth ; it is noticed by W. Davies in the Geol. Mag. 
dec. 2, vol. v. p. 98 (1878). 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

M. 1133. Cast of the centrum of the twelfth dorsal vertebra. The 
original is from the Antwerp Crag, and is figured by Yan 
Beneden in the Ann. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i. 
pi. viii. fig. 7 (1877). Purchased. 

M. 1134. Cast of the right scaphoid. The original is from the 
Antwerp Crag, and is figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. 
figs. 8, 9. Purchased. 

Trichechus huxleyi, Lankester 4 . 
Syn. Triehechodon huxleyi, Lankester 5 . 

This species was originally referred by its founder to the new 
genus Triehechodon, but subsequently (Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Zool. 
vol. ii. p. 213 [1882]) to Trichechus, the name Triehechodon being 
abolished. By Yan Beneden 6 the species is identified with Alach- 
therium cretsi, but this is doubted by Lankester: if correct, the 
name huxleyi has the priority, and A. cretsi should be referred to 
this species. 

Hab. Europe. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 49 (1766). 2 Loc. cit. 

3 History of North- American Pinnipeds, p. 23 (1880). 

4 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxi. p. 226 (1865), Triehechodon. 
Loc. cit. 

6 Ann. Mus. E. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i. p. 53 (1877). On page 46, Triehechodon 
huxleyi is given as a synonym of Triehechodon konincki. 



198 CAENIVOEA. 

46000. Fragment of the distal portion of the tusk ; from the Red 
{Fig.) Crag of Suffolk. This specimen is the type, and is 

described and figured by Lankester in the Quart. Journ. 

Geol. Soc. vol. xxi. p. 226, pi. x. figs. 1, 5, 6. 

Purchased, 1874. 

40135. Fragment of the basal portion of a very large tusk ; probably 

from the same locality. Purchased, 1866. 

44208. Terminal portion of a crushed tusk ; from the Eed Crag of 
Suffolk. Purchased, 1873. 

43175. Fragment of a tusk ; from the Red Crag of Suffolk. 

Wetherell Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

46921. Portion of a tusk, cut and polished ; from the Red Crag, 
near "Woodbridge, Suffolk. Purchased, 1875. 

40136. Transverse section of a tusk; from the Red Crag, near 

Woodbridge. Purchased, 1866. 

44629. Transverse section of a tusk; from the Red Crag, near 
Felixstow, Essex. • Purchased, 1873. 

43394. Cast of the basal portion of a tusk of a large male. The 

original (from the Red Crag of Suffolk) is figured by 
Lankester in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxi. pi. x. 
fig. 3, and in the Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Zool. vol. ii. 
pi. xxii. fig. 3 ; it is now in the York Museum. 

Purchased, 1872. 

43395. Cast of the extremity of a tusk, much compressed laterally. 

The original (from the Red Crag of Suffolk) is figured by 
Lankester in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxi. pi. x. 
fig. 2, and in the Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Zool. vol. ii. 
pi. xxii. fig. 4 ; it is now in the Ipswich Museum. 

Purchased, 1872. 

Genus ALACHTHERIUM, De Bus 1 . 

Alachtherium cretsi, De Bus 2 . 

Hah. Europe. 

As mentioned above, this species is identified by Yan Beneden 
with Trichechus (Trichechodon) huxleyi ; but this cannot be con- 
sidered certain. If the two are really the same, the name huxleyi 
has the priority ; and if generically distinct from Trichechus it seems 

1 Bull. Ac. E. Belg. ser. 2, vol. xxiv. p. 562 (1867). 2 Loc. cit. 






TEICHECHID^. 199 

best that the generic name Alachtherium should be applied, as Tri- 
chechodon has been withdrawn by Lankester and has been used in 
another sense by Tan Beneden. The originals of the casts of 
A. cretsi and the next species were obtained from the Antwerp 
Crag, and are preserved in the Brussels Aluseum. 

M. 1148. Cast of the hinder portion of the cranium. The original 
is figured by Yan Beneden in the Ann. Mus. K. Hist. Xat. 
Belg. vol. i. pi. i. fig. 1. Purchased. 

M. 1166. Cast of the left ramus of the mandible, showing seven 
teeth. The original is figured by Tan Beneden, op. cit. 
pi. iii. figs. 1, 2. Purchased. 

M. 1151. Cast of the left humerus. The original is figured by Tan 
Beneden, op. cit. pi. iii. figs. 1, 2. Purchased. 

M. 1170. Cast of the distal part of the left ulna. The original is 
figured by Tan Beneden, op. cit. pi. ii. fig. 5. Purchased. 

M. 1169. Cast of the proximal part of the right radius. The 
original is figured by Tan Beneden, op. cit. pi. iv. figs. 5, 6. 

Purchased. 

M. 1168. Cast of the right humerus of a young individual. The 
original is figured by Tan Beneden, op. cit. pi. iv. figs. 3, 4. 

Purchased. 

M. 1171. Cast of the left ilium. The original is figured by Tan 
Beneden, op. cit. pi. v. fig. 5. Purchased. 

M. 1172. Cast of the right femur. The original is figured by Tan 
Beneden, op. cit. pi. v. figs. 1-3. Purchased. 

M. 1173. Cast of the left femur of a young animal. The original is 
figured by Tan Beneden, op. cit. pi. v. fig. 8. Purchased. 

M. 1174. Cast of the distal part of the left tibia. The original is 
figured by Tan Beneden, op. cit. pi. vi. figs. 1-3. 

Purchased. 

M. 1175. Cast of the shaft of the tibia of a young animal. 

Purchased. 

M. 1176. Cast of the left astragalus. The original is figured by 
Tan Beneden, op. cit. pi. vi. fig. 4. Pkerchased. 



200 CaKNIVORA. 

M. 1177- Cast of the inner left metacarpal. The original is figured 
by Yan Beneden, op. cit. pi. ii. fig. 6. Purchased. 

M. 1149. Cast of the centrum of the fifth cervical vertebra. The 
original is figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. pi. v. fig. 6. 

Purchased. 

M. 1167- Cast of the fourth lumbar vertebra. The original is 
figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. pi. v. fig. 7. Purchased. 

M. 1150. Cast of the sacrum. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. pi. v. fig. 4. Purchased. 



Genus TRICHECHODON, Yan Beneden 1 (non Lank.). 

Trichechodon konincki, Yan Beneden 2 . 

Hah. Europe. 

Whether this form is really generically distinct from Trichechus 
may be considered doubtful. 

M. 1135. Cast of part of the right ramus of the mandible. The 
original is figured by Yan Beneden in the Ann. Mus. 
R. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i. pi. vii. figs. 5-7. Purchased. 

M. 1140. Cast of the distal part of the left humerus. The original 
is figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. pis. vii. & viii. figs. 1, 2. 

Purchased. 

M. 1144-6. Casts of the associated first and second right meta- 
carpals. The originals are figured by Yan Beneden, 
op. cit. pi. vii. fig. 6. Purchased. 

M. 1145. Cast of the first left metacarpal. The original is figured 
by Yan Beneden, op. cit. pi. vii. fig. 6. Purchased. 

M. 1147. Cast of a first phalangeal. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. pi. vii. fig. 7. Purchased. 

M. 1142. Cast of the calcaneum. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. pi. viii. fig. 6. Purchased. 

M. 1143. Cast of the astragalus. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. pi. viii. fig. 5. Purchased. 

1 Bull. Ac. E. Belg. ser. 2, vol. xxxii. p. 5 (1871). 

2 Loc. cit. 



PHOCIDJE. 201 

M. 1139. Cast of the first rib. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. pi. vii. fig. 5. Purchased. 

M. 1138. Cast of a portion of the sternum. The original is figured 
by Yan Beneden, op. cit. pi. viii. fig. 4. Purchased. 

M. 1136. Cast of the sixth cervical vertebra (imperfect). The 
original is figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. pi. viii. fig. 3. 

Purchased. 

M. 1137. Cast of the sacrum (imperfect). The original is figured 
by Yan Beneden, op. cit. pi. vii. fig. 4. Purchased. 

M. 1141. Cast of the ilium (imperfect). The original is figured by 
Yan Beneden, op. cit. pi. vii. fig. 3. Purchased. 

Family PHOCID.E. 
Dentition (in existing forms) : — 1. 1, C. p Pm. |, M. p 

Genus MESOTARI A, Yan Beneden \ 

This genus is provisionally referred by its founder to the Otariidaz ; 
but Allen, in the 'History of the North-American Pinnipeds,' 
pp. 217-220 (1880), classes it in the present family. 

Mesotaria ambigua, Yan Beneden 2 . 

This species is considered to be allied to the existing Cystophora 
cristata. 

Hah 3 Europe. 

JI. 1152. Casts of two molars. The originals are figured by Yan 
Beneden in the Ann. Mus. K. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i. 
pi. ix. figs. 1, 2. 

M. 1165. Cast of the left scapula. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 7. 

M. 1155. Cast of the humerus. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. figs. 9, 11. 

M. 1156. Cast of the right innominate. The original is figured by 
Yan Beneden, op. cit. fig. 8. 

1 Bull. Ac. R. Belg. ser. 2, vol. xli. p. 783 (1876). 2 Loc. cit. 

3 The originals of the casts of this and the following genera of Seals were 
obtained from the Antwerp Crag, and are preserved in the Museum at Brussels. 
The casts were acquired by purchase. 



202 



CARXIYOKA. 



M. 1163. Cast of the left femur. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. figs. 12-14. 

M. 1164. Cast of the proximal portion of the left tibia. The ori- 
ginal is figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. figs. 15, 16. 

M. 1153. Cast of the axis vertebra. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. figs. 4, 5. 

M. 1154. Cast of a cervical vertebra (imperfect). The original is 
figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. fig. 6. 

Genus PALiEOPHOCA, Yan Beneden \ 

Palaeophoca nysti, Yan Beneden 2 . 

This species is allied to the existing Monachus albiventer. 
Hah. Europe. 

M. 1181. Cast of part of the left ramus of the mandible. The ori- 
ginal is figured by Yan Beneden in the Ann. Mus. R. Hist. 
Nat. Belg. vol. i. pi. x. figs. 3, 4. 

M. 1178. Cast of a canine. The original is figured by Yan Beneden, 
op. cit. fig. 7. 

M. 1180. Cast of a canine. The original is figured by Yan Beneden, 
op. cit. fig. 6. 

M. 1179. Cast of a molar. The original is figured by Yan Beneden, 
op. cit. fig. 8. 

M. 1182. Cast of the right humerus. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 10. 

M. 1183. Cast of part of the innominate. The original is figured 
by Yan Beneden, op. cit. fig. 9. 

M. 1186. Cast of the left femur. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. figs. 14, 15. 

M. 1186 a. Cast of the proximal extremity of the right tibia. The 
original is figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. fig. 17. 

1 Bull. Ac. R. Belg. ser. 2, vol. viii. p. 142 (1859). 2 Loc. cil. 



PHOCIDiE. 203 

Genus CALLOPHOCA, Van Beneden \ 
Callophoca obscura 9 Yan Beneden 2 . 

This species is allied to the existing Phoca groenlandica. 
Hab. Europe. 

M. 1157. Cast of the humerus. The original is figured by Van 
Beneden in the Ann. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i. pi. xi. 
figs. 1-4. 

M. 1158. Cast of the left radius. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden. op. cit. figs. 5, 6. 

M. 1161. Cast of the left innominate (imperfect). The original is 
figured by Van Beneden, op. cit. fig. 7. 

M. 1160. Cast of the left femur. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. figs. 8-10. 

M. 1159. Cast of the left tibia. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 13. 

M. 1162. Cast of the calcaneum. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. figs. 11, 12. 

Genus PLATYPHOCA, Yan Beneden 3 . 

Platyphoca vulgaris, Yan Beneden \ 

This species is allied to the existing Phoca barbata. 
Hab. Europe. 

M. 1187. Cast of the left humerus. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden in the Ann. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i. 
pi. xii. figs. 1-4. 

M. 1188. Cast of the innominate. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 5. 

M. 1189. Cast of the left femur. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. figs. 6-8. 

M. 1190. Cast of the right tibia. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 9. 

1 Bull. Ac. E. Belg. ser. 2, vol. xli. p. 799 (1876). 

2 Loc. cit, 3 Loc. cit. 4 Loc. cit. 



204 



CAKN1VORA. 



Genus GRYPHOCA, Van Beneden L . 
Gryphoca similis, Yan Beneden 2 . 

This species is allied to the existing Halichoerus gryphus. 
Hah. Europe. 

M. 1191. Cast of the left scapula. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden in the Ann. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i. 
pi. xiii. figs. 1, 2. 

M. 1192. Cast of the left humerus. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. figs. 3-6. 

M. 1195. Cast of the innominate. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 11. 

M. 1196. Cast of the right femur. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. figs. 14-16. 

M. 1197. Cast of the proximal extremity of the right tibia. The 
original is figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. figs. 19, 20. 

M. 1198. Cast of the astragalus. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 21. 

M. 1193. Cast of a lumbar vertebra. The original is figured by 
Yan Beneden, op. cit. 

M. 1194. Cast of the sacrum. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. 

Genus PHOCANELLA, Yan Beneden 3 . 
Phocanella pumila, Yan Beneden 4 . 

This species is allied to the existing Phoca foetida. 
Hah. Europe. 

M. 1199. Cast of the right humerus. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden in the Ann. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i. 
pi. xiv. figs. 1-4. 

M. 1200. Cast of the distal half of the left radius. The original is 
figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. fig. 5. 

1 Bull. Ac. E. Belg. ser. 2, vol. xli. p. 799 (1876). 

2 Loc. cit. 3 Loc. cit. 4 Loc. cit. 



PHOcrcLE. 205 

M. 1202. Cast of the innominate. The original is figured by Van 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 7. 

M. 1203-4. Casts of two humeri. The originals are figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. figs. 8-10. 

M. 1205. Cast of the proximal extremity of the right tibia and fibula. 
The original is figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. fig. 12. 

M. 1201. Cast of a lumbar vertebra. The original is figured by 
Yan Beneden, op. cit. fig. 6. 

Phocanella minor, Yan Beneden \ 

This species is allied to the existing PJioca fcetida. 
Hah. Europe. 

M. 1206. Cast of the right humerus. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden in the Ann. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i. 
pi. xiv. figs. 13-16. 

M. 1209. Cast of the innominate. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 20. 

M. 1208. Cast of the right innominate. The original is figured by 
Yan Beneden, op. cit. figs. 21-23. 

M. 1210. Cast of the right tibia and fibula. The original is figured 
by Yan Beneden, op. cit. fig. 24. 

M. 1207. Cast of the sacrum. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 18. 

Genus PHOCA, Linn. 2 
Phoca vitulinoid.es, Yan Beneden 3 . 

This species is allied to the existing Phoca vitulina. 
Rab. Europe. 

M. 1211. Cast of a portion of the scapula. The original is figured 
by Yan Beneden in the Ann. Mus. B. Hist. Nat. Belg. 
vol. i. pi. xv. fig. 5. 

M. 1212. Cast of the left humerus. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. figs. 6-10. 

1 Bull. Ac. R. Belg. ser. 2, vol. xli. p. 799 (1876). 

2 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 55 (1766). 

3 Bull. Ac. R. Belg. ser. 2, vol. xxxii. p. 5 (1871). 



206 CARNITORA. 

M. 1217-8. Casts of parts of the radius and ulna. The originals 
are figured by Van Beneden, op. cit. figs. 10, 11. 

M. 1215. Cast of the innominate. The original is figured by Van 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 28. 

M. 1216. Cast of the right femur. The original is figured by Van 
Beneden, op. cit. figs. 19-21. 

M. 1219. Cast of the left tibia. The original is figured by Van 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 22. 

M. 1213. Cast of the distal portion of the tibia and fibula. The 
original is figured by Van Beneden, op. cit. fig. 25. 

M. 1214. Cast of the associated femur, innominates, sacrum, and 
three vertebrae. The originals are figured by Van Beneden, 
op. cit. 

Genus MONATHERIUM, Van Beneden \ 

The genus is considered to be closely allied to the existing Mona- 
chus. . 

Monatherium delogni, Van Beneden 2 . 
Bab. Europe. 

M. 1220. Cast of the sacrum and innominate. The original is figured 
by Van Beneden in the Ann. Mus. K. Hist. Nat. Belg. 
vol. i. pi. xvi. figs. 5, 6. 

M. 1221. Cast of the centrum of a dorsal vertebra. The original is 
figured by Van Beneden, op. cit. fig. 1. 

M. 1222. Cast of the centrum of a lumbar vertebra. The original 
is figured by Van Beneden, op. cit. fig. 2. 

M. 1223. Cast of the centrum of a caudal vertebra. The original 
is figured by Van Beneden, op. cit. fig. 3. 

Monatherium affine, Van Beneden 3 . 
Hob. Europe. 

M. 1224. Cast of the right humerus. The original is figured by 
Van Beneden in the Ann. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i. 
pi. xvi. figs. 7-9. 

1 Bull. Ac. R. Belg. ser. 2, vol. xli. p. 800 (1876). 

2 Loc. cit. 3 Loc. cit. 



PH0CTD.E. 207 

M. 1225. Cast of the proximal extremity of the ulna. The original 
is figured by Yan Eeneden, op. cit. fig. 10. 

M. 1226. Cast of the right radius. The original is figured by Van 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 11. 

M. 1228. Cast of the astragalus. The original is figured by "Van 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 12. 

M. 1229. Cast of the calcaneum. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 13. 

M. 1227. Cast of the tibia. The original is figured by Yan Beneden, 
op. cit. fig. 14. 

Monatherium aberratum, Yan Beneden \ 
Hab. Europe. 

M. 1230. Cast of the right humerus. The original is figured by 
Yan Beneden in the Ann. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i 
pi. xvii. figs. 1-4. 

M. 1238. Cast of the radius. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 5. 

M. 1233. Cast of the astragalus. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 14. 

M. 1235. Cast of the fifth left metatarsal. The original is figured 
by Yan Beneden, op. cit. fig. 11. 

M. 1235 a. Cast of the fifth left phalangeal. The original is figured 
by Yan Beneden, op. cit. fig. 10. 

M. 1236. Cast of a portion of the sternum. The original is figured 
by Yan Beneden, op. cit. fig. 6. 

M. 1232. Cast of the centrum of a cervical vertebra. The original 
is figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. fig. 9. 

M. 1231. Cast of the centrum of the fifth dorsal vertebra. The 
original is figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. figs. 7, 8. 

M. 1236-7. Casts of numerous associated bones. The originals are 
figured by Yan Beneden, op. cit. 

5 Bull. Ac. E. Belg. ser. 2, vol. xli. p. 800 (1876). 



208 



CARNIYOEA. 



Genus PROPHOCA, Van Beneden \ 
Although this genus is a true Phocid, its affinities with any one 
of the existing types rather than with another are not apparent 
(Allen). 

Prophoca rousseaui, Yan Beneden 2 . 
Hah. Europe. 

M. 1239. Cast of the right humerus. The original is figured by 
Yan Beneden in the Ann. Mus. E. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i. 
pi. xviii. fig. 1. 

M. 1241. Cast of the left radius. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 3. 

M. 1242. Cast of the right femur. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 8. 

M. 1243. Cast of the left tibia. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 8. 

M. 1240. Casts of three associated lumbar vertebrae, the sacrum, 
and pelvis. The originals are figured by Yan Beneden, 
op. cit. 

Prophoca proxima, Yan Beneden 3 . 
Hah. Europe. 

M. 1244. Cast of the left humerus. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden in the Ann. Mus. K. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i. 
pi. xviii. figs. 12-14. 

M. 1246. Cast of the left radius. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 15. 

M. 1245. Cast of the left ulna. The original is figured by Yan 
Beneden, op. cit. fig. 16. 

1 Bull. Ac. E. Belg. ser. 2, vol. xli. p. 802 (1876). 
3 hoc. cit. 3 Loc. cit. 



EODENTIA. 209 

Order RODENTIA. 

Suborder RODENTIA SIMPLICIDENTATA. 

There is but one pair of incisors developed in the upper jaw. 

Section SCIUEOMOEPHA. 

Family SCIURIDiE. 
Dentition:— I. \, C. £, Pm. ^-\ M. f. 

Genus SCIURUS, Linn. 1 
(Including Palceosciurus, Pomel 2 .) 
Dentition:— I. \, C. 5, Pm. \, M. |. 

iSriurtuf bulgarte, Linn. 3 
Hah. Europe and Northern Asia. 

17644. The right humerus ; from the Forest-bed of Ostend, Nor- 

(Fig.) folk. This specimen is figured by E. T. Newton in the 

Geol. Mag. dec. 2, vol. viii. p. 259 (1881), and in the Mem. 

Geol. Surv. Eng. " Yertebrata of Forest-bed Series," p. 92, 

pi. xiv. fig. 12 (1882). Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

Sciurus feignouxi, Pomel 4 . 

Syn. Palceosciurus feignouxi, Pomel 5 . 

Spermophilus speciosus, H. v. Meyer 6 (teste Schlosser). 

Hob. Europe. 

26713. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
showing all the cheek-teeth except the first true molar ; 
from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), 
France. This specimen is precisely similar to a mandible 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. pi. iv. 
figs. 14, 15. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 86 (1766). 

2 Catalogue Methodique, p. 17 (1853). 

3 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 86 (1766). 

In P. Grervais, Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed., explanation of pi. xlvii. 
p. 7 (1848-52). 

5 Catalogue Methodique, p. 17 (1853). 6 Neues Jahrb. 1859, p. 474. 



210 RODENTIA. 

26714. The right femur ; from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le- 
Puy. A similar specimen is figured by Filhol, op. cit. 
figs. 7, 8. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

31086. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible 1 , containing 

pm. 4 and m. 1 ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31087. An upper incisor ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31088. A lower incisor ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31090 a. Distal half of the humerus ; from the Lower Miocene of 

Allier. A similar specimen is figured by Filhol, op. cit. 

figs. 1, 2. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31089-92. Four specimens of the tibia (two imperfect) ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Allier. A similar specimen is figured 
by Filhol, op. cit. figs. 19, 20. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31093. The left calcaneum ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. A 
similar specimen is figured by Filhol, op. cit. figs. 4, 5. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Sciurus chalaniati, Pomel 2 . 

This is a very minute species, which Filhol thinks does not 
approximate to any existing form. It has hitherto been recorded 
only from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy ; but the writer 
has been unable to distinguish the Upper Eocene specimens noticed 
below from the type form. Sohlosser 3 refers a mandible from the 
phosphorites to a new species, under the name of S. dubius ; that 
mandible is slightly larger than the type of S. chalaniati, but the 
points in which it differs are not distinctly defined. 

Hah. France. 

M. 1630. Three specimens of rami of the mandible, with the den- 
tition imperfect ; from the Upper Eocene of Cay lux (Tarn- 
et-Garonne), France. These specimens apparently agree 

1 This and the other specimens from the Bravard Collection are entered in 
the Museum Eegister as Amphisciurus typus, Bravard, MS. 

2 Catalogue Mcthodique, p. 17 (1853). 

3 Palaeontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 70 (1884). 



SCITTKID^. 211 

precisely with the mandible of S. chalaniati figured by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. G-eol. vol. x. pi. xii. fig. 31. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Sciurus, sp. (cf. S. bredai, H. v. Meyer 1 ). 
Hob. Europe. 

42826. The much-crushed skeleton of a rodent, probably belonging 
to the present genus, from the Upper Miocene of (Eningen, 
Switzerland. It is not improbable that this specimen, 
which indicates an animal rather smaller than S. vul- 
garis, may belong to Meyer's ill- defined S. bredai, which 
Schlosser 2 suggests may be identical with one of the 
Sansan species. Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

Genus PSEUDOSCIURT7S, Hensel 3 . 

Dentition. — The cheek-teeth of this genus are distinguished from 
those of Sciurus by their more elongated crowns. The number of 
the teeth is the same as in Sciurus. 

Pseudosciurus suevicus, Hensel 4 . 

Hah. Switzerland. 

35820. Fragments of the mandible and incisors; from the Upper 
Eocene (" Bohnerz ") of (Erlinger-Thal, Wiirtemberg. 

Purchased, 1860. 

35821-2. Two incisors ; from the Upper Eocene of (Erlinger-Thal. 

Purchased 1860. 

35823. Three vertebrae ; from the Upper Eocene of (Erlinger-Thal. 

Purchased, 1860. 

35824. Fragments of various limb-bones ; from the Upper Eocene 

of (Erlinger-Thal. Purchased 1860. 

Genus SCIUROIDES, Forsyth-Major 5 . 

The cheek-teeth of this genus are also of an elongated form. The 
number of the teeth is the same as in Sciurus. 

1 Neues Jahrb. 1848, p. 472. 

2 Pakeontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 70 (1884). 

3 Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Ges. vol. viii. p. 660 (1856). 4 Ibid. p. 670. 
5 Palseontographica, vol. xxii. p. 83 (1878). 

P2 



212 EODENTIA. 

Sciuroides quercyi, Schlosser 1 . 
Hab. Prance. 

M. 1349. Three rami of the mandible ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), Prance. The perfect spe- 
cimen agrees precisely with the one figured by Schlosser, 
he. cit. pi. i. figs. 3, 8. The space occupied by the four 
cheek-teeth measures 0,016. Purchased, 1884. 

Sciuroides intermedins, Schlosser 2 . 
This species is smaller than the last. 
Hab. Prance. 

3Vt. 1348 C. Pragment of the left maxilla, containing the first three 
cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), Prance. This specimen agrees precisely with 
the one figured by Schlosser, loc. cit. pi. i. figs. 9, 13. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Genus SPERMOPHILUS, P. Cuvier 3 . 

Dentition :— I. \, C. jj, Pm. f , M. §. 

Spermophilus superciliosus, Kaup 4 . 
Syn. Arctomys super ciliosus, Pictet. 
Hab. Europe. 

21500. The cranium and mandible (imperfect) ; from the Pleistocene 
of Eppelsheim, Hesse-Darmstadt. Purchased, 1847. 

26720-4. Two rami of the mandible and numerous limb-bones ; 
from the Pleistocene of Coredes (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. 
Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

Spermophilus erythrogenoides,,Palconer 5 . 

Hab. Europe. 

47500. Anterior portion of the cranium, three portions of the 
mandible, numerous limb-bones, and five vertebrae of a 
species of Souslik ; from the Pleistocene of Erith, Kent. 

1 Palasontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 60 (1884). 2 Ibid. p. 62. 

3 Mem. d. Museum, vol. ix. p. 293 (1822), Spermophile. 

4 In Meyer's ' Palseologia,' p. 58 (1832). 

6 In ' Falconer's Palceontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. p. 453 (1868). 



scruErD^:. 213 

The mandibles appear to be indistinguishable from Fal- 
coner's type mandible of S. erythrogenoides, figured in the 
' Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. pi. xxxv. figs. 1, 2, 3; 
the space occupied by the three true molars being pre- 
cisely the same in both (0,010). JNehring 1 considers 
S. erythrogenoides very close to S. eversmanni, Brandt 
(S. altaicus, Eversmann). The molars of the Erith cranium 
seem indeed indistinguishable from some upper teeth from 
the Forest-bed, figured by E. T. Newton in the Geol. Mag. 
dec. 2, vol. ix. pi. ii. (1882), and provisionally referred to 
that species ; but the three lower molars of the Forest- 
bed form measure only 0,085 ; and the recent mandible 
of S. eversmanni figured by Ealconer (loc. cit. figs. 6, 7) 
is decidedly smaller than the Erith specimens, and rela- 
tively lower at pm. 4. On the whole, apart from the 
question as to the specific distinctness of S. erythrogenoides, 
it appears highly probable that the Erith Souslik belongs 
to that form. Presented by R. W. Cheadle, Esq., 1876. 

Genus PLESIARCTOMYS, Bravard 2 . 
The molars of this genus approach those of the Squirrels. 

Plesiarctomys gervaisi, Bravard 3 . 

Syn. Sciurus arctomynus, Pomel 4 . 

Hah. France. 

27584. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the four 

(Fig.) cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Apt (Vaucluse), 

France. This specimen, which is the type, is figured and 

described by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 

2nd ed. pp. 24, 25, pi. xlvi. fig. 13. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Genus ARCTOMYS, Schreber 5 . 

Dentition :— I. \, C. g, Pm. \ , M. |. 

1 Neues Jahrb. 1880, vol. ii. p. 121. 

2 In P. Gervais's Zool. et Pal. Frai^aises, 1st ed., explanation of pi. xlvi. 
p. 2 (1848-52). 

3 Ibid. 

4 Catalogue Methodique, p. 18 (1853). 

5 Saugethiere, vol. iv. p. 721 (1792). 



214 KODENTIA. 

<&xctom$8 marmotta (Linn. 1 ). 
Syn. Mus marmotta, Linn. 2 

Arctomys 'primigenius, Kaup 3 . 
Myoxus primigenius, Kaup. 
Hah. Europe. 

There appear to be no sufficient grounds for separating Arctomys 
'primigenius from the slightly smaller existing European form. 

27624 a. The cranium and two portions of the mandible ; from the 
Pleistocene of Champeix, near Issoire (Puy-de-D6me), 
France. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 



Family CASTOKHXE. 
Dentition :— I. \, C. jj, Pm. \, M. |. 

Genus CASTOR, Linn. 4 
Castor fiber, Linn. 5 

Syn. Castor fossilis, Goldfuss 6 . 
Castor europceus, Owen 7 . 

Rah. Europe. 

39889. A nearly complete skeleton ; from Watcham Fen, near Ely. 
Cambridgeshire. Purchased, 1866. 

39889 a. The cranium and mandible ; from Isleham Fen, near 
Cambridge. Presented hy — Barrett, Esq. 

41368. The cranium and mandible; from the turbary of the Lea 
valley, near Walthamstow, Essex. Purchased, 1869. 

42922. The cranium, wanting the zygomatic arches, the incisors, 
and some of the cheek-teeth ; from the turbary of Ghent, 
Belgium. Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

46133. Cranium, wanting the malar bones ; dredged off the Dogger 
Bank. Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

37199. Cranium, wanting the right zygomatic arch; from Ditton 
Fen, Cambridgeshire. Purchased, 1863. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed 12, vol. i. p. 81 (1766). 2 Loo. cit. 

3 In Meyer's ' Palseologia,' p. 61 (1832). 

4 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 78 (1766). 5 Loo. cit. 
G Nova Acta Ac. Cses. Leop.-Oar. vol. xi. pt. 2, p. 488 (1823). 

7 ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 190 (1846). 



CA.STOBIILE. 215 

37200. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting the incisor ; from 
Ditton Pen. Purchased, 1863. 

39468. The anterior portion of the cranium and the mandible; from 
the Fens of Lincolnshire. Purchased, 1865. 

42715. The mandible ; from the Fens near Ely, Cambridgeshire. 

Purchased, 1871. 

23767. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible ; 

from the Pleistocene of Ilford, Essex. Purchased, 1849. 

M. 1623. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
wanting the greater part of the canine ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

39900. The right ramus of the mandible of a young individual ; 
from Burwell Fen, Cambridgeshire. Purchased, 1866. 

22038. Two portions of incisors : from the Pleistocene of Grays, 
Essex. Purchased, 1848. 

23768. Five cheek-teeth : from the Pleistocene of Ilford, Essex. 

Purchased, 1849. 

41369. The two scapulae, humeri, radius and ulna, tibia, and parts 
of the vertebral column ; from the turbary of the Lea 
valley, near Walthamstow, Essex. Purchased, 1869. 

41451. The left humerus, wanting the head ; from the turbary of 

the Lea valley, near Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

41452. The left humerus, wanting the epiphyses ; from the turbary 

of the Lea valley, near Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

36629-30. Two humeri (imperfect) ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, 
Essex. Purchased, 1855. 

39468. The associated humerus, radius, ulna, femur, and tibia ; 
from the Fens of Lincolnshire. Purchased, 1865. 

39895. Two humeri, two femora, the tibia and fibula, innominate, 
and part of the vertebral column ; from the Fens, near 
Cambridge. Purchased, 1866. 

41750. The pelvis ; from the turbary of the Lea valley, near 
Walthamstow. Purchased, IS 69 



216 RODENTIA. 

41450. The right innominate ; from the turbary of the Lea valley, 
near Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

39468 a. The scapula, the humerus, radius, and ulna of a young indi- 
vidual ; from the Fens of Lincolnshire. Purchased, 1865. 

Genus TROGONTHERIUM, Fischer 1 . 
Syn. (?) Diobroticus, Pomel 2 . 

History. — The genus Trogoniherium was originally described by 
Fischer on the evidence of a cranium from the Pleistocene of 
Siberia. Remains of a large Rodent from the Pleistocene of 
England and France were subsequently referred by Owen 3 to the 
same genus and species. P. Gervais 4 came, however, to the con- 
clusion that both the English and French specimens were generically 
distinct from Fischer's specimen, and adopted for them Pomel's 
name of Diobroticus. This view is followed by Alston 5 and Flower 6 ; 
but E. T. Newton 7 comes to the conclusion that Owen's view is 
correct, alleging that the difference between Fischer's specimen and 
the English and French form is merely due to differences in the 
degree of wear of the cheek-teeth. As this view has not been dis- 
proved, it is provisionally adopted here. 

Trogontherium cuvieri, Fischer 8 . 

Syn. (?) Diobroticus schmerlingi, Pomel 9 . 
Castor trogontherium, Cuvier 10 . 

Hab. Europe. 

M. 472. Cast of the cranium, wanting the zygomatic arches and the 
nasals. The original, which is Fischer's type specimen, 
was obtained from the Pleistocene of Siberia, and is pre- 
served in the Museum at Moscow. 

Presented by the Moscow University. 

1 Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. vol. ii. p. 260 (1809). 

2 Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. vol. ix. p. 167 (1848). 

3 Catalogue Foss. Rem. of Mammalia and Aves in Mus. Roy. Coll. Surgeons, 
p. 35 (1845) ; British Foss. Mammals and Birds, p. 184 (1846) ; Geol. Mag. 
vol. vi. p. 49 (1869). 

4 Zool. et Pal. Generates, 1st ser. p. 81 (1867-69). 

5 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 78. 

6 Catalogue of Mammalia in Mus. Roy. Coll. Surg. p. 602 (1884). 

7 Geol. Mag. dec. 2, vol. viii. p. 256 (1881). 

8 Loc. cit. 9 Loc. eit. 

10 Ossemens Fossiles, 1st ed. vol. v. pt. 1. p. 59 (1823). The specific name 
trogontherium has the priority over cuvieri; but the former has been so gene- 
rally used in a generic sense that it seems best to retain the latter. 



CASTOKID^I. 217 

16449. The right ramus of the mandible ; from the Forest-bed of 

(Fig.) Baeton, Norfolk. This specimen (which may be regarded 

as the type of Pomel's Diobroticus schmerlingi) is figured 

by Owen in the 'British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' 

fig. 71, p. 184. Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

40978. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the pre- 
(Fig.) molar and the first and second true molars ; from the 

Forest-bed of Cromer, Norfolk. This specimen is figured 
by Owen, oj). cit. figs. 72-3, pp. 186, 189. 

Presented by Sir C. Lyell, Bart., 1868. 

16119. Greater portion of an incisor ; from the Forest-bed of Baeton. 

Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

M. 1570. Casts of an incisor and parts of the mandible. The 
originals are from the Forest-bed of Mundesley, Norfolk. 

No history. 

40979. Distal extremity of the femur ; from the Norwich Crag of 

Thorpe, Norfolk. This specimen is the one mentioned by 
Owen in the 'British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 191, 
where it is referred to Castor fiber (europceus). 

Presented by Sir C. Lyell, Bart., 1868. 

40979 a. Casts of the femur, tibia, and calcaneum. The originals 
are from the Forest-bed of Mundesley, Norfolk, and are 
figured by Owen in the Geol. Mag. vol. vi. pi. iii. (1869). 
The originals were in the collection of the Eev. S. W. King. 

No history. 

Genus CHALICOMYS, Kaup 1 . 

Syn. Steneofiber, Geoflroy 2 . 

Steneotherium, Geoflroy 3 . 
Chloro7nys, H. v. Meyer 4 . 

The writer follows Schlosser, " Die Nager des europaischen Ter- 
tiars" ' Pakeontographica, vol. xxxi., p. 21 (1884), in uniting 
Chalicomys and Steneofiber. The former name, having the priority, 
is adopted for the genus. The genus is distinguished from Castor 
by the presence of an entepicondylar foramen to the humerus. The 
molars are more distinctly rooted and have squarer crowns, with 

i Isis, 1832, p. 994. 

2 Keviie Encyclopedique, vol. lix. p. 95 (1S33). 3 Loc. cit. 

4 Neuea Jabrb. 1843, p. 390. 



218 RODENTIA. 

the enamel-folds obliterated at an earlier stage of wear. The cranium 
presents well-marked differences from Castor. 

Chalicomys eseri, H. v. Meyer 1 . 

Syn. Chloromys, H. v. Meyer 2 . 
Steneofiber eseri, Pomel 3 . 
Steneofiber viciacensis, P. Gervais*. 
Steneofiber nouleti, Pomel 5 (in parte?'). 
Steneofiber castorinus, Poinel 6 . 

The authority for most of the synonymy is that of Filhol, in the 
Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. art. 3, p. 44 (1879). The species is a diffi- 
cult one to define, as there seems a great amount of variation in the 
size of the teeth of different specimens, which appear, however, to 
pass so gradually into one another as to forbid their specific 
separation. 

Hab. Europe. 

26707. Anterior portion of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 

taining the canine and the first three cheek-teeth ; from 
the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), Prance. 
This specimen agrees very well in relative size with the 
cranium figured by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Fran- 
chises, 2nd ed. pi. xlviii. fig. 9 a, and is of very nearly 
the same size as the mandible figured by Pilhol in the 
Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. pi. v. fig. 3; the length of the 
space occupied by the first three cheek-teeth is, however, 
somewhat less. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26708. Articular portion of the left ramus of the mandible ; from 

the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

40897. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing 
all the teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. The 
premolar is smaller than in No. 26707, but the true molars 
are of the same size. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

1 Neues Jahrb. 1846, p. 474. (The species is often quoted as Neues Jahrb. 
1838, p. 414 ; 1843, p. 390 ; but these are incorrect : the names eseri and cas- 
torinus were applied in the same year.) 

2 Ibid. 1843, p. 390. 

3 Catalogue Methodique, p. 21 (1853) ; errorim, eschari. 
* Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 22 (1848-52). 

5 Catalogue Methodique, p. 24 (1853). 

6 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 385 (1846). 



CASTOETT)^). 219 

35747. Fragments of the mandible, showing the cheek-teeth of both 

sides ; from the Lower Miocene of Germany. The pre- 
molar is of the same size as that of No. 26707, but the 
true molars are larger, and are also slightly larger than 
those in the specimen figured by Filhol, loc. cit. The 
length of the space occupied by the first three cheek-teeth 
in this specimen is 0,0165, and in No. 26707, 0,0155. 

Purchased, 1865. 

35748. Part of an incisor ; from the Lower Miocene of Harlach, 

near Ulm, Wurtemberg. Purchased, 1865. 

31064. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with the four cheek- 
teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy. 
The teeth are slightly smaller than those of No. 40897, 
the length of the first three being 0,0135. The differ- 
ence in the size of this specimen and No. 35747 is very 
considerable, but the other specimens afford such a tran- 
sition, that it appears impossible to separate them. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31063. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, agreeing in size 
with the last ; from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le- 
Puy. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31062. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of an immature in- 
dividual, containing the milk-molar and the three true 
molars ; from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy. 
This specimen agrees in size with the two last. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

40901. The right humerus, wanting the head ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier. This specimen is similar to one figured 
by Pilhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. pi. vi. figs. 8, 9. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

26709. The left humerus ; from the Lower Miocene of St. Ge'rand- 

le-Puy. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26710. The left innominate ; from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand- 

le-Puy. This specimen agrees precisely with a less per- 
fect one figured by Pilhol, op. cit. fig. 10. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26711. 31067, 31072. Three specimens of the femur ; from the 



220 EODENTIA. 

Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy. No. 31072 agrees 
precisely with a specimen figured by Filhol, op. cit. figs. 
13, 14. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26712, 31070-1. Three specimens of the tibia ; from the Lower 

Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy. No. 26712 agrees pre- 
cisely with a specimen figured by Filhol, op. cit. figs. 11, 
12. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27756 b. Part of an incisor ; from the Lower Miocene of Puy-de- 
Dome. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 



Chalicomys jsegeri, Kaup 1 . 

Syn. Castor jcegeri, Kaup 2 . 

Castor subpyrenaicus, Lartet 3 . 
Steneojiber jcegeri, Schlosser 4 . 

Hab. Europe. 

48474. Fragments of the upper and lower jaws ; from the Middle 
Miocene of Kapnach, Switzerland. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

21500 a. Cast of a part of the right ramus of the mandible ; the 
original from the Miocene near Mayence. Purchased. 

33263. The third right lower true molar ; from the Middle Miocene 
of Sansan (Gers), France. This specimen belongs to 
Lartet's Castor subpyrenaicus, which Schlosser identifies 
with the present species. Presentedby M. Ed. Lartet, 



Genus CASTOROIDES, Foster 5 . 

In this genus, which is of gigantic size, the incisors have nume- 
rous longitudinal grooves, and the cheek-teeth have their enamel- 
folds completely separate and extending quite across their crowns ; 
there are four folds in the last upper true molar and the lower 
premolar, but only three in all the other teeth. 

i Isis, 1832, p. 995. 

2 Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 5, p. 115 (1839). 

3 Notice sur la Colline Sansan, p. 21 (1851). 

4 Palaeontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 23 (1884). 

5 In Mather's Second Annual Report of the Geological Survey of the State 
of Ohio, p. 81 (Columbus, 1838). 



CABTORID^E. 221 

Castoroides ohioensis, Foster 1 . 

Hab. N. America. 

40341. Cast of the cranium and the right ramus of the mandible. 
The original is from the Pleistocene of Clyde, New York, 
and is preserved in the Geneva College, New York. 

Purchased, 1869. 

Genus non det. 

Hab. England. 

27985. A lower cheek-tooth of a large Rodent; from the Pleisto- 
(Fig.) cene of Copford, Essex. This specimen is figured in the 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. viii. p. 188 (1852), and is 
there provisionally referred to Castor. The figure is re- 
produced in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 30). The 

Fig. 30. 




Lower cheek-tooth of a castoroid rodent ; from the Pleistocene of Copford. 
\. (From the Geological Society's ' Journal.') 

tooth differs from the molars of all species of Castor known 
to the writer, by the circumstance that the enamel-folds 
run directly across the crown. It comes nearer to the 
molars of Trogontherium, but does not seem to a°ree 
exactly with any specimens available for comparison. 

Presented by John Broivn, Esq., 1852. 

1 In Mather's Second Annual Eeport of the Geological Survey of the State 
of Ohio, p. 81 (Columbus, 1838). 



222 EODENTIA. 

Section MYOMORPHA. 

Family MYOXID^E. 
Dentition:— I. \, C. £, Pm. \, M. |. 

Genus MYOXUS, Schreber 1 . 
For palseontological purposes it seems that this genus must be 
taken to include Muscardinus, ffliomys, and Grwphiurus, as many of 
their distinctive characters are not applicable to fossils. Myoxus 
proper and Muscardinus have well-marked and numerous enamel- 
folds on the flat crowns of the cheek-teeth, and no perforation in the 
angle of the mandible. In Eliomys the mandible is perforated, and 
the crowns of the cheek-teeth are concave and have few and faintly- 
marked enamel-folds. In Graphiurus the mandible is imperforate, 
and the crowns of the cheek-teeth are flat, with scarcely any traces 
of enamel-folds. 

Myoxus melitensis, Leith Adams 2 . 
Syn. Myoxus cartel } Leith Adams 3 . 

This is the largest species of the genus. The cheek-teeth have 
flat crowns with complex foldings, and there is no perforation in 
the angle of the mandible. The species consequently belongs to 
Myoxus proper. 

Hob. Malta. 

49342. The nearly complete cranium, wanting the incisors, but 

showing the whole of the cheek-teeth, in a well-worn con- 
dition ; from the Crendi Cave, Malta. The length from 
the inferior border of the foramen magnum to the ex- 
tremity of the premaxilla is 0,060, and the length of the 
space occupied by the four cheek-teeth 0,013. 

Spratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

49343. Anterior portion of the cranium, wanting several of the 

cheek-teeth ; from the Crendi Cave. 

Spratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

49344. Anterior portion of the cranium, wanting the nasals, and 

1 Saugethiere, vol. iv. p. 824 (1792). 

2 Journ. E. Dublin Soc. vol. iv. p. 18 (1863) (read Nov. 1861). The name 
is misprinted miletensis. 

8 Loc. cit. pi. ii. 



MYOXmE. 



223 



with the teeth in an unworn condition ; from the Crendi 
Cave. Spratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

49345. Anterior portion of the cranium, somewhat damaged, but 

with the teeth in an unworn condition ; from the Crendi 
Cave. Spratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

49346. Anterior portion of the cranium, with the teeth in a slightly 

worn condition ; from the Crendi Cave. 

Spratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

49347. The anterior portion of the cranium, with the crowns of the 

teeth hammered ofT; from the Crendi Cave. 

Spratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

49348. The palatal portion of the cranium, wanting the cheek-teeth 

of the left 6ide ; from the Crendi Cave. 

Spratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

49349. The occipital portion of a very large cranium ; from the 

Crendi Cave. ' Spratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

44574. Numerous specimens of the upper and lower dentition ; from 
the caves of Malta. 

Leiih-Adams Collection. Purchased, 1873. 

49350. Numerous specimens of the mandible; from the Crendi 
Cave. The space occupied by the four cheek-teeth in the 
largest individual is 0,016, and the width of the penulti- 
mate molar 0,005. Spratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

49342 a. Five specimens of the mandible ; from the Zebbug Cave, 
Malta. Spratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

44574 a. Glenoidal extremity of the scapula, one complete and five 
{Fig.) broken specimens of the humerus, and two specimens of 

the proximal extremity of the ulna; from the caves of Malta. 

The portion of the scapula and the humerus are figured 

by Leith Adams in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. pi. Hy. 

figs. 10-13. Leith-Adams Collection. Purchased, 1873. 

44574 b. Pour imperfect specimens of the innominate, one perfect 
(Fig.) and three imperfect specimens of the femur, and three 

imperfect specimens of the tibia ; from the caves of Malta. 

The perfect femur is figured by Leith Adams in the Trans. 

Zool. Soc. vol. vi. pi. liv. figs. 8, 9. 

Leith-Adams Collection. Purchased, 1873. 



224 RODENTIA. 

49342 b. Five specimens of the femur (two imperfect) ; from the 
Zebbug Cave. Spratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

49351. Five imperfect specimens of the tibia and five of the cal- 
caneum ; from the Crendi Cave. 

Sjoratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

44574 C. Several vertebrae and ribs ; from the caves of Malta. 

Leith-Adams Collection. Purchased, 1873. 

49351. Several vertebrae and ribs ; from the Crendi Cave. 

Spratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

Myoxus sansaniensis, Lartet 1 . 

This is a minute species, distinguished by the complex arrange- 
ment of the enamel-folds of the lower molars ; the mandible is 
imperforate. 

Hob. France. 

33274. Fragments of the mandible and maxillae (with teeth), and of 
the humerus, femur, and tibia, with several complete 
specimens of the calcaneum ; from the Middle Miocene of 
Sansan (Gers), France. These specimens agree precisely 
with those figured by Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 
2nd ed. pi. xliv. Presented by M. Ed. Lartet. 

Myoxus murinus, Pomel 2 . 

Syn. Brachymus ornatus, H. von Meyer 3 . 
Myoxus obtusangulus, H. von Meyer 4 . 
(?) Myoxus primcevus, Schlosser 5 . 

This species has not hitherto been recorded below the Lower- 
Miocene horizon of St. Gerand-le-Puy. Schlosser has separated a 
mandible from the French phosphorites under the name of M. 
primcevus, that specimen being slightly larger than the typical 
form, but apparently not distinguished by other characters. The 
folds on the crowns of the cheek-teeth are comparatively simple, 
and the angle of the mandible is perforated; whence it is not 
improbable that the species belongs to the so-called genus Ellobius. 

Hob. France. 

M. 1629. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Cay lux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. 

1 Notice sur la Colline de Sansan, p. 20 (1851). 

2 Catalogue Methodique, p. 24 (1853). 

a Neues Jahrb. 1847, p. 454. * Ibid. 1859, p. 172. 

Palaeontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 76 (1884). 



MY0XIDJE. MFEIDJE. 225 

This specimen appears to agree precisely with the spe- 
cimens figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. 
pi. ii. figs. 3-6. The space occupied by the four cheek- 
teeth measures 0,004, or the same as in one of FilhoPs 
specimens. The corresponding space in the mandible 
described by Schlosser as M. jprimcevus measures 0,0046. 

Purchased, 1884. 

34904. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the incisor and the four cheek-teeth; from the 
Lower Miocene of Puy-de-Dome 1 . The space occupied by 
the four cheek-teeth is 0,0036. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31118. The right ramus of the mandible, showing the incisor and 
the first true molar ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier 2 . 
This specimen shows the perforation of the mandible, 
which is broken posteriorly. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

31189. The femur, apparently associated with the last specimen. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Myoxus, sp. 

This species is smaller than M. melitensis, and is also distinguished 
by the perforation of the mandible, in which respect it agrees with 
the group Ellobius. The specimens are too imperfect for specific 
determination. 

Hab. Europe. 

49342 C. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting the cheek- 
teeth ; from the Crendi Cave, Malta. 

JSjpratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 

49351. The left ramus of the mandible, wanting the cheek-teeth ; 
from the Crendi Cave, Malta. 

Spratt Collection. Presented, 1878. 



Family MURIDjE. 

Dentition : — I. \, C. £, Pm. j|, M. | (except in Sminthus [Pm. -J] and 
Hydromys [M. g]). 

1 Entered in Kegister as Ccenomys typus, Brav. MS. 

2 Entered in Eegister as Mus cmtiquus, Brav. MS. 

Q 



226 RODENTIA. 

A. Molars rooted. 
Genus NESOKIA, Gray 1 . 
Characterized mainly by the stoutness of the incisors ; the first 
molars have three, and the others two ridges. 

Nesokia, sp. (cf. N. hardwicki, Gray 2 ). 
Hah. India. 
16529 a. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the incisor, first molar, and the broken bases of the two 
succeeding teeth ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, 
India. This specimen is noticed by the present writer in 
the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 126, under 
the name of Mus (?) sp. ; and is probably the source of the 
statement by Falconer and Cautley, in the Journ. As. Soc. 
Bengal, vol. iv. p. 706 (1835), that the genus occurs in the 
Siwaliks. It is practically undistinguishable from the 
corresponding part of the mandible of the existing Nesokia 
hardwicki, Gray ; but, in view of the doubts as to the 
number of existing species, it would be unwise to say that 
it belongs to the same species, although it is quite possible 
that this may be the case. The Bodents of the Siwaliks are 
precisely the forms of mammals which might be expected to 
have continued unaltered to the present day. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Genus CRICETUS, Cuvier 3 . 
Molars with tubercles arranged in pairs, of which the first has 
three and the rest two only ; these entirely disappear in aged spe- 
cimens (Alston). 

Cricetus musculus, Pomel 4 . 
A minute species. 
Hob. Europe. 
26727-9. Two rami of the mandible, and two specimens of the 
humerus and femur ; from the Pleistocene of Coudes 
(Puy-de-D6me), Prance. The humerus shows the ent- 
epicondy]ar foramen characteristic of the genus. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

Genus MUS, Linn. 5 

Molars with transverse ridges, each composed in youth of three 
tubercles (Alston). 

1 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. x. p. 264 (1842). 

2 Ibid. vol. i. p. 585 (1837), Mus. 

3 Kegne Animal, ed. 1, vol. i. p. 198 (1817). 

4 Cat. Mcth. p. 31 (1853). B Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 79 (1766). 



MUEID^E. 227 

JMusi lineolattiS, Gould 1 . 
Hab. Australia. The modern race of this species is confined to 
Tasmania, while the Pleistocene race occurred on the mainland of 
Australia. A similar distribution occurs in the case of Mastacomys 
and Hapalotis, as well as in Tliylacinus. 

43895. Several fragments of the cranium and mandible ; from the 
caves of the Wellington Yalley, Australia. 
Presented by the Trustees of the Australian Museum, 1867. 

Mus (?) sp. 
Hab. Switzerland. 

42823. The greater part of the skeleton of a murine rodent, in 
a much-crushed condition ; from the Upper Miocene of 
(Eningen, Switzerland. The condition of this specimen 
seems to preclude its exact determination. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

42821. The skeleton of a murine rodent, in a much-crushed con- 
dition ; from the Upper Miocene of (Eningen. This spe- 
cimen, in which only the impression of the bones remains 
in many places, indicates an animal of about the size of 
M. musculus, but is too damaged for specific deter- 
mination. Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

Genus MASTACOMYS, Thomas 2 . 

Distinguished from Mus by the excessive width of the molars, as 
well as by certain differences in the pattern on their crowns. 

;$rTa£tao)mi)£ fus'ntS, Thomas 3 . 
Hab. Australia. 

42673. Fragments of the maxilla and mandible, and two specimens 
of the tibia; from the caves of the Wellington Yalley, 
Australia. 
Presented by the Trustees of the Australian Museum, 1867. 

Genus HAPALOTIS, Lichtenstein 4 . 
The molars of this genus have the same structure as in Mus. 

pjapatotis alfctpcsl, Lichtenstein 5 . 
43895. Two imperfect rami of the mandible, and three detached 

1 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 77. 

2 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. ix. p. 413 (1882). 3 Loc. cit. 
i Dar^t. neuer Saugeth. vol. iv. pi. xxix. (1829). 5 Loc. cit 

q 2 



228 RODENTIA. 

first molars; from the caves of the Wellington Yalley, 

Australia. 

Presented by the Trustees of the Australian Museum, 1867. 

Genus CRICETODON, Lartet l . 

The molars are not unlike those of Cricetus, but there are only 
two pairs of tubercles on the first tooth in each jaw. The molars 
are also very like those of Hesperomys ; and it is not improbable that 
the fossil genus may have been the ancestral form of several of the 
allied existing genera. 

Cricetodon minor, Lartet 2 . 
Syn. Cricetodon pygmceus, Fraas 3 . 

This is a very minute species. 
Hab. Europe. 

33270. Numerous molars; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan 
(Gers), Prance. As these teeth, as well as the specimens 
of the other two named species from the same locality, 
were determined by Lartet, the correctness of the specific 
reference may be assumed. Presented by M. Ed. Lartet. 

Cricetodon medius, Lartet \ 
Syn. Cricetodon minor, Fraas 5 (teste Schlosser). 

This species is rather smaller than Mus rattus, the length of the 
space occupied by the cheek-teeth being about 0,006. 
Hab. Europe. 

33269. Detached teeth and fragments of the maxilla and mandible ; 
from the Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers), France. 

Presented by M. Ed. Lartet. 

Cricetodon cadurcensis, Schlosser 6 . 
Hab. France. 

M. 1632. A ramus of the mandible ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This specimen agrees 
precisely with the one figured by Schlosser, loc. cit. pi. viii. 
figs. 22, 28. The length of the space occupied by the 

1 Notice sur la Colline de Sansan, p. 20 (1851). 2 Loc. cit. 

3 Fauna von Steinheim, p. 14 (1870). 

4 Notice sur la Colline de Sansan, p. 20 (1851). 
8 Fauna von Steinheim, p. 13 (1870). 

8 Paleeontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 00 (1884). 



MTJRIDiE. 229 

three molars is 0,0068, the dimensions of Schlosser's spe- 
cimens ranging from 0,0067 to 0,0073. Purchased, 1884. 

Cricetodon gergovianus (P. Gervais 1 ). 

Syn. Mus gergovianus, P. Gervais 2 . 

Hob. Prance. 

27756. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible ; from 
the Lower Miocene of Cournon (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. 
The length of the space occupied by the three molars is 
0,0058, the length in the type form being 0,006 according 
to Schlosser. It is almost impossible to distinguish the 
present specimen from the mandible of the Upper-Miocene 
G. medius (No. 33269) ; and it appears quite probable that 
the two may be specifically the same. 

Groizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

Cricetodon sansaniensis, Lartet 3 . 

This species is rather larger than the Hamster. 
Hob. Europe. 

33268. A molar tooth ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers), 
Prance. Presented by M. Ed. Lartet. 

48190. Three fragments of the mandible ; from the Middle Miocene 
of Steinheim, Bavaria, The length of the space occupied 
by the three molars is 0,0084. Purchased, 1877. 

Genus HESPEROMYS, Waterhouse 4 . 

Molars narrow, with tubercles arranged in pairs, which soon wear 
away, leaving the crown flat with indenting folds. Cranium with 
or without marked supraorbital ridges. 

Hesperomys, sp. 1. 

Hab. S. America. 

17616. Anterior portion of the cranium of a comparatively large 
species, wanting the incisors, but showing the cheek- 
teeth ; from a cavern near Lette-Lagoas, Brazil. This 
specimen is allied to the existing //. angouya, Desm., but 
is distinct. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

1 Zool. et Pal. Pran^-aises, 1st ed. vol. ii. explan. pi. xlviii. (184S-52), Mus. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Notice sur la Colline de Sansan, p. 20 (1851). 

4 Zoology of the Voyage of the ' Beagle,' vol. i. p. 75 (1839). 



230 RODENTIA. 

Hesperomys, sp. 2. 

Hab. S. America. 

17616 a. Anterior portion of the cranium, and two rami of the 
mandible ; from the caverns of Minas Geraes, Brazil. This 
cranium is smaller than the last, and has not been identified 
with that of any living species. 

Glaussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Hesperomys, sp. 3. 
Hah. S. America. 

18898. Middle portion of the cranium, showing the cheek-teeth; 
from a cavern in Minas Geraes, Brazil. The teeth of 
this species are larger than those of the last. It comes 
nearest to the group Oxymycteris. 

Glaussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Hesperomys, sp. 4. 

Hab. S. America. 

18897- Anterior portion of the cranium, showing all the dentition; 
from a cavern in Minas Geraes, Brazil. This specimen 
belongs to the group Habrothrix, and comes nearest to the 
existing H. arviculoides, Pictet. 

Glaussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

B. Molars semirooted or rootless. 
Genus ARVTCOLA, Lacepede 1 . 

Molars rootless (rarely semirooted), separated into prisms, which 
are placed alternately. 

^Jvbtcola ampfjfttug (Linn. 2 ). 
Syn. Mus amphibius, Linn. 3 

Pour outer and five inner angles in first lower molar ; three outer 
and two inner angles in second upper molar; molars rootless 
throughout life. 

Hab. Europe and North Asia. 

15081. Anterior portion of the cranium and three imperfect rami of 

{Pig.) the mandible ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern, Torquay. The 

cranium and one ramus of the mandible are figured by 

Owen in the Brit. Foss. Mammals and Birds, p. 201, fig. 76. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

1 M6m. de l'lnstitut, vol. iii. p. 495 (1801). 

3 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 82 (1766), Mus. 3 Loc. cit. 



mueid^:. 231 

54 (0. C.) The middle portion of the cranium, the left ramus of the 

mandible, the ulna, innominate, femur, and tibia ; from 
Kirkdale Cave, Yorkshire. 

Presented bg W. JSalmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

30518-9. Seven rami of the mandible; from the Pleistocene of 
Mayence. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

35682. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible; 
from Kirkdale Cave. Bean Collection. Purchased, 1859. 

55 (0. C). Part of the right ramus of the mandible and some detached 

teeth ; from the Bromberg Cave, Posen. 

Sbmmering Collection, Purchased, 1827. 

M. 1125. Anterior portion of the right ramus of the mandible of an 
Arvicola, apparently belonging to a small individual of the 
present species; from the Forest-bed of West Hunton, 
- near Cromer, Norfolk. 

Presented hy W. Barker, Esq., 1883. 

17643. A considerable portion of the skeleton; from the Porest-bed 
of Ostend, near Bacton, Norfolk. 

Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

15944, 17641, 17626, 18231. Numerous specimens of the upper and 
lower jaws ; from the Porest-bed of Ostend. There are 
numerous other specimens from this locality in the same 
collection, which it has been considered unnecessary to 
enter in this Catalogue. 

Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

36568. Two fragments of the mandible ; said to have been obtained 
from the Eocene clay of Kyson, Suffolk. There is every 
probability that these specimens were introduced. 

Purchased, 1853. 

Arvicola ambiguus, Pomcl 1 . 

Syn. Arvicola guliehni, Sanford 2 . 

Pive outer and six inner angles in the first lower molar ; four 
outer and three inner angles in the second upper molar. This 

1 Catalogue Methoclique, p. 27(1S53). 

2 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 125 (1870). 



232 EODENTIA. 

species is slightly smaller than A. arnphibius. There seems no 
reasonable doubt of the identity of A. ambiguus with A. gulielmi. 
Hah. Europe. 

21501. The cranium, mandible, and tibia; from the Pleistocene 
of Eppelsheim, Hesse-Darmstadt. Purchased, 1847. 

55 b (0. C). The first lower molar ; from the Bromberg Cave, Posen. 
Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

flrbtcota ratttcepg, Keys, and Blasius 1 . 
Syn. Lemmus medius, Nilsson. 

Four outer and five inner angles in the first lower molar ; three 
outer and two inner angles in the second upper molar; the first 
angle of m. 1 very large ; molars rootless throughout life. 

Hah. Europe. 

55 a (0. ft). The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, 
showing the incisor and the first and second molars ; from 
the Bromberg Cave, Posen. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

^rbuola agmltte (Linn. 2 ). 
Syn. Mus agrestis, Linn. 3 
Mus gregarius, Linn. 4 

Five outer and six inner angles in the first lower molar ; three 
angles on either side of the second upper molar; molars rootless 
throughout. 

Hah. Europe. 

15084. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, and 
(Fig.) the tibia; from Kent's-Hole Cavern, Torquay. These 

specimens are figured by Owen in the Brit. Foss. Mammals 

and Birds, p. 206, fig. 77. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

15084 a. Numerous fragments of the upper and lower jaws ; from 
Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

30520. Two rami of the mandible ; from the Pleistocene of Mayence. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

1 Mem. Ac. Imp. St. Petersbourg, vol. iv. p. 333 (1841). 

2 Fauna Suecica, ed. alt. p. 11 (1761), Mus. 3 Loc. cit. 
4 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 84 (1760)- 



MUEID^l. SPALACID^J. 233 

flrbuola glareolus (Schrebcr 1 ). 

Syn. Mus glareolus, Schreber 2 . 

Arvicola pratensis, Baillon 3 . 
Arvicola riparia, Yarrell 4 . 
Pour outer and five inner angles in the first lower molar ; three 
outer and two inner angles in the second upper molar; molars 
rooted in adult. 
Hah. Europe. 

48924-5. Numerous specimens of the cranium and mandible ; 
from Brixham Cave, near Torquay. 

Brixham- Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

15095. Anterior portion of the cranium, and the left ramus of the 

{Fig.) mandible; from Kent's-Hole Cavern, Torquay. These 

specimens are figured by Owen in the Brit. loss. Mammals 

and Birds, p. 208, fig. 78, under the name of Arvicola 

pratensis. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

Arvicola, sp. 

Hah. Europe. 

48190. Eragments of the cranium and mandible ; from the Middle 
Miocene of Steinheim, Bavaria. These specimens indicate 
an animal of the size of A. glareolus, and having the same 
number of angles in the first lower molar ; but they are 
probably insufficient for specific determin ation. No species 
of the genus is mentioned by Eraas in the 'Eauna von 
Steinheim ' (1870). Purchased, 1877. 

Family SPALACID^E. 
Genus RHIZOMYS, Gray 5 . 

Dentition :— I. \, C. £, Pm. 2, M. §. 

Rhizomys sivalensis, Lydekker*. 

Syn. (?) TyjModon, Falconer 7 . 

Hah. India. 

15925. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
three molars; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, 

1 Saugetk. vol. iii. p. 680 (1774), Mus. 2 Loc. tit. 

3 In F. Cuvier's Hist. Nat. Mamin. vol. iv. pt. lxviii. p. 2 (1834). 

4 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 109. 5 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 95. 
6 Rec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. xi. p. 101 (1878). 

T Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs, vol. i. p. 23 (1868). 



234 RODENTIA. 

India. This and the next specimen are slightly larger 
than the type specimen (woodcut, fig. 31) ; but as they are 
otherwise precisely similar, they have been provisionally 
referred by the present writer, in the ' Palseontologia In- 
dica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 107, to the same species. The 
length of the space occupied by the three molars is 0,019. 
Gauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Fig. 31. 




m.l. on. 2. m.3. 
Rhizomys sivalensis. — Part of the left ramus of the mandible ; from the Siwaliks 
of the Punjab. Indian Museum, Calcutta, f. (From the ' Palseontologia 
Indica.') 

15926. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 

second molar and the broken bases of the teeth on either 

« 

side ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15927. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 

first and second molars, in a more worn condition than in 
either of the preceding specimens ; from the Pliocene of 
the Siwalik Hills. Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15927 a. Two molar teeth ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 



Section HYSTRICOMORPHA. 
Family THERIDOMYID,E. 

This family was established by Alston 1 for the reception of the 
genera Theridomys, Arcliceomys, and Issiodoromys. Schlosser 2 con- 
siders that the first two genera, together with Protecliinomys and 
TrecJiomys, are most nearly allied to the existing Octodontidce (Lon- 
clieres and EcMnomys) ; while ho refers 3 Issiodoromys and the allied 
Nesocerodon to the Caviidce (DolicJiotis). This arrangement has been 
adopted here. 

Dentition:— I. -J, C. £, Pm. \, M. jj. 

1 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 88. 

2 Palajontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 33 (1884). 3 Ibid. p. 15. 



THEEIDOMYIDJE. 235 

Genus THERIDOMYS, Jourdan 1 . 

Cheek-teeth rooted, with three or four reentering enamel-folds, 
which become isolated enamel-loops on the worn crowns (Alston). 
The structure of the cheek-teeth approaches that of some species of 
Loncheres and Echinomys ; the humerus referred to the fossil differs 
from that of the recent genera in possessing a supracondylar per- 
foration. 

Theridomys lembroniciis (Bravard 2 ). 

Syn. Neomys lembronicus, Bravard 3 . 
Theridomys dubius, Pomel 4 . 

This species is of relatively large size ; on the worn crowns of the 
upper cheek-teeth the large internal enamel-fold persists, and there 
are four enamel-islands on the outer side. 

Hab. Europe. 

34946. The palate, showing the cheek-teeth of both sides ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Antoin (Puy-de-D6me), France. This 
specimen agrees very closely with the one figured by 
P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. pi. xlvii. 
figs. 1, la. The length of the space occupied by the four 
cheek-teeth is 0,011. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34922. The cheek-dentition of the left side ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Antoin. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34924. The first three cheek-teeth of the right side, in a well-worn 
condition; from the Lower Miocene of Antoin. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27760. The palate, showing the cheek-dentition of both sides ; from 
the Lower Miocene of Sauvetat (Puy-de-D6me). 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1S48. 

27715. The right ramus of the mandible, showing the incisor and 
the two first cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of 
St. Yvoine (Puy-de-D6me). 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

1 Comptes Eendus, vol. v. p. 483 (1837). 

2 Consid. s. la Distrib. d. Mamm. Foss. du Puy-de-D6me, p. 40 (1844), teste 
P. Gervais, Neomys. 3 Log. cit. 

4 Catalogue Methodique, p. 34 (1853). 



236 E.0DENT1A. 

27638. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing all the 
teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of St. Yvoine. The length 
of the space occupied by the four cheek-teeth in this speci- 
men is 0,012. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27757. The lower cheek-teeth of the right side : from the Lower 
Miocene of Perrier (Puy-de-D6me). 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

26718. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showiug the incisor 
and the first three cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Perrier. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

27757. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the incisor 
and the first three cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Perrier. The teeth are of large size; and this is pro- 
bably one of the specimens on which Pomel founded his 
T. dubius. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34956. The nearly complete left ramus of the mandible ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Antoin. This specimen agrees exactly 
with the one figured by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. 
Franchises, 2nd ed. pi. xlvii. figs. 3, 3 a. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34949. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the four cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Antoin. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34940. The left ramus of the mandible ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Antoin. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34927. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing all the den- 
tition, with the roots of the molars exposed; from the 
Lower Miocene of Antoin. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34948. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with all the den- 
tition ; from the Lower Miocene of Antoin. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34931. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing three 
cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Antoin. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34931 a. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
incisor and three cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Antoin. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



THERIDOMYID^I. 237 

27760. Three fragments of the mandible ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Sauvetat. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27636. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the first 
three cheek-teeth and the complete incisor; from the 
Lower Miocene of Sauvetat. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34944-5. Fragments of the cranium and mandible ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Antoin. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



Theridomys aquatilis, Aymard 1 . 

Syn. Theridomys jourdani, Aym. (non Gieb.). 
Isoptychus jourdani, Pomel u . 
Isoptychus aquatilis, Pomel 3 . 
? Theridomys rotundidens, Schlosser 4 . 
? Theridomys cuvieri, Pomel. 

This species is considerably smaller than the last, the average 
length of the space occupied by the upper cheek-teeth being 0,008, 
and that by the lower 0,010. The four cheek-teeth are nearly equal 
in size, and there are only three distinct enamel-islands on the worn 
crowns of the upper teeth. 

Hah. Europe. 

27756. The palatal portion of the cranium, showing the left incisor 
and the four cheek-teeth of either side ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Cournon (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. This spe- 
cimen agrees precisely with the one figured by P. Gervais 
in the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. pi. xlvi. figs. 7, 
7 a, and by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Ge'ol. vol. xii. pi. vi. 
fig. 12. The length of the space occupied by the four 
cheek-teeth is 0,009. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27756 a. The nearly complete left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the incisor and the four cheek-teeth ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Cournon. This specimen agrees very closely 
with the mandibles figured by P. Gervais (op. cit. fig. 6) 
and Filhol (op. cit. fig. 14). The length of the space 
occupied by the four cheek-teeth is 0,010. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1S4S. 

1 Ann. Soc. Agric. Sci. le Put, vol. v. p. 82 (1850), teste Filhol. 

2 Catalogue Methodique, p. 35 (1853). This species is identified with aqua- 
tilis on the authority of Filhol, Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xii. art. 3, pp. 14, 16. 

3 Ibid. 4 Pakeontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 38 (1884). 



238 R0DENTIA. 

27635. Two specimens of part of the upper and lower dentition ; 
from the Lower Miocene of Sauvetat (Puy-de-D6me). 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27760. Several specimens of the npper and lower jaws ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Sauvetat. One specimen of the man- 
dible shows the milk-molars. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27760 a. Part of the left, ramus of the mandible of an immature 
individual, showing the premolar partly protruded ; from 
the Lower Miocene of Sanvetat. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 184,8. 

27760 b. The first three right lower cheek-teeth of a young indi- 
vidual, with the milk-molar in situ ; from the Lower Mio- 
cene of Sanvetat. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27694 a. Part of the left ramus of the mandible ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Puy-de-D6me. No history. 

M. 1628. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, show- 
ing the four cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Cay lux 
(Tarn-et-Garonne), Prance. This specimen agrees in size 
with the one from Eonzon figured by Filhol in the Ann. 
Sci. Geol. vol. xii. pi. vi. fig. 16. Schlosser 1 refers a very 
similar specimen from the Upper Eocene of Caylux to the 
new species T. rotundidens, remarking that the only differ- 
ence from T. aquatilis consists in its slightly smaller dimen- 
sions. This distinction does not appear of specific value. 
Pilhol (Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 302) records 
the present species from Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

Specimens provisionally referred to the present Species. 

Schlosser 2 and Pilhol 3 refer the species of Theridomys from the 
Upper Eocene of Yaucluse to T. siderolithicus, Pictet (T. vaillanti^ 
P. Gervais), and T. cuvieri, Pomel ; but the writer has not been able 
to distinguish the specimens from those deposits mentioned below 
from the present species. Seeing that T. aquatilis occurs in the 
phosphorites, there is no reason why it should not also occur in the 
Vaucluse beds. Schlosser is, indeed, inclined to identify the Vau- 
cluse T. cuvieri with his T. rotundidens, which the present writer 
cannot distinguish from T. aquatilis. 

1 Palseontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 38 (1884). 2 Bid. 

3 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 320. 



THERIDOIIYLD^. 239 

28137. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the four 
cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse, France. 
This specimen agrees precisely with the Lower Miocene 
specimen No. 27756 a. 

Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26730. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
first three cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Vau- 
cluse. Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28147. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the four 
cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28146. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the four 
cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28136. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of an imma- 
ture individual, containing two cheek-teeth, the first of 
which is the milk- molar ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Yaucluse. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30159 a. Numerous fragments of the maxilla and mandible, with 
the cheek-teeth ; from the Headon beds (Upper Eocene) 
of Hordwell, Hants. These teeth apparently agree pre- 
cisely with those of the continental specimens of T. 
aquatilis. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

25228. Cranium, with the cheek-teeth in a very much worn con- 
dition ; from the Headon beds of Hordwell. Owing to 
their worn condition the cheek-teeth of this specimen do 
not exhibit the characteristic marking; but from the 
resemblance of the specimen in other respects to the 
cranium of T. aquatilis, there seems little doubt but that 
it belongs to the same species. 

Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

36797. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, with the 
cheek-teeth in an almost unworn condition ; from the 
Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Presented by S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 

40212. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible of a 
small individual, showing the four cheek-teeth ; from the 
Headon beds of Hordwell. Purchased, 1867. 



240 RODENTIA. 

30322. Part of the left ramus of the mandible ; from the Headon 
beds of Hordweli. This specimen is slightly larger than 
the preceding specimens, but probably belongs to the same 
species. Hastings Collection, Purchased, 1855. 

28905 a. Pour upper cheek-teeth, not improbably belonging to a 
large individual of the present species ; from the Headon 
beds of Headon Hill, Isle of Wight. The crowns of the 
teeth do not exhibit the characteristic pattern sufficiently 
clearly to be sure of the specific determination. 

Presented by F. E. Edwards, Esq., 1854. 

36798. Numerous detached teeth; from the Headon beds of Hordweli. 

Presented by S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 

Genus PROTECHINOMYS, Schlosser 1 . 

Cheek-teeth very like those of Archceomys, but rooted ; they also 
resemble those of some species of Echinomys (e. g. E? leptosoma, 
Wagner). 

Protechinomys major, Schlosser 2 . 

The worn upper cheek-teeth exhibit either three or four bands of 
enamel. 

Hob. Prance. 

M. 1348 e. Several specimens of the maxilla ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), Prance. These 
specimens agree precisely with those figured by Schlosser 
(Joe. cit. pi. v. figs. 3, 4, 15), exhibiting three bands of 
dentine on the crowns of the molars. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1347. Several specimens of the maxilla ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux. These specimens exhibit four bands of dentine 
on the crowns of the molars, but agree otherwise with the 
type forms. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1347 a. Numerous rami of the mandible ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux. Most of these specimens agree with the speci- 
mens figured by Schlosser (loc. cit. pi. v. figs. 1, 17, 20) ; 
but some of the smaller ones may correspond with his 
P. gracilis, if that form be really distinct. 

Purchased, 1884. 

1 Palaeontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 45 (1884), Protechimys. 

2 Ibid. p. 48. 






THERIDOMYIDJE. 241 

Protechinomys gracilis, Schlosser 1 . 

This is a smaller species than the last. 
Hab. France. 

M. 1348b. Fragment of the maxilla; from the Lower Eocene of 
Caylnx (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This specimen agrees 
with the one figured by Schlosser, loc. cit. pi. v. figs. 14, 23. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Protechinomys breviceps (Laizer and Parieu 2 ). 

Syn. Echinomys breviceps, Laizer and Parieu 3 . 

Echinomys curvistriatus, Laizer and Parieu 4 . 
Theridomys breviceps, P. Gervais 5 . 
Theridomys jourdani, Giehel 6 . 
(?) Theridomys blainvillei, P. Gervais 7 . 

Schlosser (loc. cit. p. 41) observes that Theridomys blainvillei un- 
doubtedly belongs to Protechinomys, and that it is most probably 
identical with T. breviceps, which he likewise refers to Protechinomys 
(loc. cit. p. 42). In a partially worn condition the upper molars 
show three oblique bands of dentine. The species is about the size 
of Theridomys aquatilis. 

Hab. France. 

27760. Part of the cranium, showing the cheek-dentition of the right 
side : from the Lower Miocene of Sauvetat (Puy-de-Ddme), 
France. This and the next specimen agree in all essential 
characters with the one figured by P. Gervais in the Zool. 
et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. pi. xlvii. figs. 17, 17a, under 
the head of Theridomys blainvillei ; but the length of the 
space occupied by the cheek-teeth is slightly less. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27702. The left upper cheek-dentition ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Sauvetat. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27760 a, 27712, 34900. Numerous specimens of rami of the man- 
dible, several of which are nearly perfect ; from the Lower 

1 Palceontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 46 (1884). 

2 Comptes Eendus, vol. viii. p. 206 (1839), Echi[no]mys. 

3 Loc. cit. 

4 Ibid. p. 25. This name has the priority, but breviceps is very generally 
adopted. 

5 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. p. 31 (1859). 

6 Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. i. p. 96 (1847). 

7 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. ii., explan. pi. xlvii. (1848-52). 

R 



242 RODENTIA. 

Miocene of Sauvetat. The teeth of these specimens agree 
precisely with those figured by Gervais (op. cit. figs. 18, 
18«), and are provisionally referred to Protechinomys 
breviceps. 

Bravard and Croizet Collections. Purchased, 1848-52. 

27689. The palate, showing the cheek-dentition of both sides; from 
the Lower Miocene of St. Yvoine (Puy-de-D6me). 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27757. The right upper cheek-dentition ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Perrier (Puy-de-D6me). 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

Genus ARCHiEOMYS, Laizer and Parieu 1 . 
Cheek-teeth rootless ; the enamel-folds continuing across the 
crown and dividing it into laminae ; the laminae are subequal in 
the lower teeth, but in the upper the first lamina is the largest. 
The genus is connected by the last with Theridomys, and leads on 
to the Chinchillidce. 

Archaeomys laurillardi, P. Gervais 2 (ex Brav.). 
This is the largest species ; there are four laminae of dentine on 
the worn crowns of the upper molars. 
Hah. France. 

25099. Fragment of the cranium, showing the cheek-dentition of 
the left side ; from the Lower Miocene of Cournon (Puy- 
de-D6me), France. This specimen agrees with the type 
cranium figured by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Fran- 
9aises, 2nd ed. pi. xlvii. figs. 15, 15 a, with the exception 
that the length of the space occupied by the four cheek- 
teeth is somewhat less. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

25100. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the four 
cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Cournon. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

25098. Fragment of the palate, containing some of the cheek-teeth ; 
from the Lower Miocene of Cournon. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27674. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the first three 

1 Oomptes Eendus, vol. viii. p. 206 (1839). 

2 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. ii., explanation of pi. xlvii. (1848-52). 



theridomyid^;. 243 

cheek-teeth j from the Lower Miocene of the neighbourhood 
of Clermont (Puy-de-D6me). 

Groizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27713. Part of the palate, containing the first three cheek-teeth of 
the right side ; from the Lower Miocene of Perignat (Puy- 
de-D6me). Groizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34898. The nearly complete left ramus of the mandible ; from the 

Lower Miocene of Perignat. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34899. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible ; from 

the Lower Miocene of Perignat. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27634. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the premolar ; from the Lower Miocene of Perignat. 

Groizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

Genus TRECHOMYS, Lartet 1 . 

Upper cheek-teeth with four outer and one or two inner enamel- 
folds ; lower teeth usually with three inner and one outer enamel- 
fold. The general structure of the cheek-teeth is somewhat similar 
to that of Theridomys, but the incisors are distinguished by their 
lateral compression. 

Trechomys platyceps (Filhol 2 ). 

Syn. Theridomys platyceps, Filhol 3 . 
Trechomys itisignis, Schlosser 4 . 

Schlosser had some doubts whether his Trechomys insignis was 
the same as Filhol's Theridomys platyceps : the specimens in the 
Museum show decisively that this is the case. 

Hah. Prance. 

M. 1627. Two fragments of the maxilla, showing some of the cheek- 
teeth; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), 
Prance. These specimens agree precisely with the maxilla 
figured by Schlosser, loc. cit. pi. iii. figs. 16, 23. 

Purchased, 1884. 

1 Ann. Sci. Nat. vol. xii. p. 151 (1869). 

2 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. art. 7, p. 50 (1876). 3 Loc. cit. 
4 Palaeontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 54 (1884). 

B.2 



244 R0DENTIA. 

M. 1627 a. Five rami of the mandible ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. These specimens agree with the mandible figured 
by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. pi. xii. fig. 16, and 
also with the less perfect one figured by Schlosser, loc. cit. 
pi. iii. figs. 6, 11. The length of the space occupied by 
the four cheek-teeth in the specimen in which the pre- 
molar is present is 0,0121, and the depth of the ramus at 
the second true molar 0,009. Purchased, 1884. 

Trechomys intermedins, Schlosser 1 . 
This species is smaller than the last. 
Bab. France. 

M. 1348 a. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the 
four cheek-teeth and the incisor ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This specimen 
agrees precisely with the type mandible figured by 
Schlosser, loc. cit. pi. iii. figs. 21, 24, 28. Purchased, 1884. 

Family OCTODONTHLE 2 . 

Dentition : — I. \, C. j|, Pm. j, M. ^ ; except in Ctenodactylus (Pm. ^). 

Genus LONCHERES, Illiger 3 . 

JLoncheres 9 sp. 

Hah. S. America. 

18898. Anterior extremity of the left ramus of the mandible, show- 
ing the incisor and the first two cheek-teeth; from a 
cavern in Minas Geraes, Brazil. H. Gervais and Ame- 
ghino 4 mention one fossil species under the name of 
L. affinis elegans. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Genus CARTERODON, Waterhouse \ 
Incisors broad and furrowed longitudinally; upper cheek-teeth 
with one inner and two outer enamel-folds ; the lower similar, but 
reversed. The genns was originally described from a fossil, but has 
subsequently been found existing. 

1 Palseontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 55 (1884). 

2 It is not improbable that this family should be fused with the last. 

3 Prodromus Syst. Mamm. p. 90 (1811). 

4 Les Mammiferes fossiles de l'Amerique du Sud, p. 59 (1880). 
8 Natural History of* the Mammalia, vol. ii. p. 351 (1848). 



OCTODONTIDJE. 245 

Carterotfon SuIctfcensJ (Lund 1 ). 
Syn. Echi\]id]mys suicide ns, Lund -. 
Hal. S. America. 

17617. The cranium, wanting the left incisor and the last true 
{Fig.) molars ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes, Brazil. This 

specimen, which is the type of the genus, is described and 
figured by Waterhouse in the ' Natural History of the 
Mammalia,' vol. ii. p. 352, pi. xvi. fig. 7. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

17619. Cranium, covered with calcareous incrustation; from a 

cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

17618. Anterior portion of the cranium, with three cheek-teeth 

remaining ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

17620. The greater portion of the cranium, with five cheek-teeth 

remaining ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

17621. Two specimens of the left ramus of the mandible; from a 
(Fig-) cavern in Minas Geraes. One of these specimens is 

figured by Waterhouse, op. cit. fig. 7 a. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18891. Five rami of the mandible ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection, Purchased, 1845. 

17620 a. Anterior portion of the cranium, with one much-worn 
molar remaining ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Genus CTENOMYS, Blainville 3 . 
Incisors broad. Cheek-teeth rootless, with kidney-shaped crowns ; 
the third true molar above and below small and subcylindrical 
(Alston). 

Ctenomys, sp. 1. 
Hab. S. America. 

40675 a. Several broken rami of the mandible and incisors ; from 
the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. Four fossil species 
belonging to this genus are recorded by H. Gervais and 
Ameghino from South America. 

Bravard Collection, Purchased, 1854. 

1 K. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr. vol. viii. p. 99 (1841), Echimys. - Loc. cit. 

3 Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, 1826, p. 24. 



246 RODENTIA. 

Ctenomys, sp. 2. 
Hob. S. America. 

40675 b. The associated cranium and mandible, in a somewhat 
broken condition ; from the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. 
These specimens, which indicate a smaller species than 
the lasb, come very close to the existing C. leucodon. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 



Family HYSTEICIDiE. 

Dentition :— I. \, C. £, Pm. \, M. |. 

Genus SYNETHERES, F. Cuvier \ 

Syn. Sphingurus, F. Cuvier 2 . 
Cercolabes, Brandt 3 . 

The teeth of this genus can only be distinguished from those of 
Erethizon by the circumstance that in the latter the first tooth of 
the cheek-series is considerably longer than the last, whereas in the 
former all the teeth are subequal. 

Synetheres fossilis (Waterhouse 4 ). 

Syn. Cercolabes fossilis, Waterhouse 5 . 
(?) Synetheres magnus, Lund 6 . 

As the remains on which this species is founded do not show the 
first tooth of the cheek-series, it is impossible to say whether it 
really belongs to Synetheres or Erethizon. On distributional grounds 
it is, however, more probable that it belongs to the former, to which 
it is accordingly provisionally referred. In size it considerably 
exceeds the existing Erethizon dorsatus, and is therefore very much 
larger than any of the existing species of Synetheres. 

Hob. S. America. 

18869. Two fragments of the opposite rami of the mandible : from 
the caverns of Minas Geraes, Brazil. The more perfect 
specimen shows the three true molars, and the less perfect 

1 Mem. d. Museum, vol. ix. p. 413 (1822), Syntthere. 

2 Loc. cit., Sphingicre. 

'■' Mem. Ac. Imp. St. P6tersbourg, eer. 6, vol. iii. p. 391 (1835). 

4 Natural History of the Mammalia, vol. ii. p. 436 (1848), Cercolabes. 

5 Loc. cit. 

,; K. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr. vol. vii. p. 250 (1840). 



HTSTRICID^J. 247 

the first and second true molars, the teeth in both speci- 
mens being in an early stage of wear and in beautiful 
preservation. The specimens are provisionally referred 
by Waterhouse, in the passage quoted, to the present 
genus, and are said to be too small to belong to Lund's 
S, magnus ; the description of that form seems, however, 
to be too vague to be certain on this point. The following 
dimensions show the length of the space occupied by the 
three true molars in the more perfect fossil and in two 
specimens of the existing Erethizon dorsatus, viz. : — 

S. fossilis. E. dorsatus. 

0,0238 0,0208-0,0195. 

The superior size of these specimens probably indicates 
at least their specific distinction from Erethizon dorsatus. 
If they are identical with Synetheres magnus, that name 
has the priority over S. fossilis. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Genus HYSTRIX, Linn. 1 

The teeth of this genus are indistinguishable from those of Athe- 
rura ; but none of the living species of the latter attain anything 
like the dimensions of the larger species of Hystrix. 

Hystrix refossa, P. Gervais 2 . 
Syn. Hystrix major, P. Gervais 3 (teste Schlosser). 
Hah. France. 

34958-9. A right upper premolar and a first or second left upper 
true molar 4 ; from the Upper Pliocene of Perrier (Puy- de- 
Dome), France. The premolar appears to agree exactly 
with the lower premolar figured by P. Gervais in the Zool. 
et Pal. Franchises, pi. xlviii. fig. 11, and both specimens 
agree with the type in the complexity of the enamel-folds: 
they appear rather larger than average specimens of H. 
cristata, and thereby approach the Pleistocene so-called 
H. major. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

34957. Fragment of the base of the incisor, associated with the 
above. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 76 (1766). 

2 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. ii., explanation of pi. xlviii. (1848-52). 

3 Zool. et Pal. Generates, 1st ser. p. 76 (1876-79). 

4 Entered in the Begister as Castor elaveris, Bravard, MS. 



248 KODEXTIA. 

Hystrix, sp. 

Bab. Italy. 

29692. The right upper premolar ; from the Upper Pliocene of the 
Yal d'Arno, Italy. This specimen is smaller than H. refossa 
(No. 34959), and the folds of the enamel are apparently 
simpler. Presented by the Earl of Ennishillen, 1855. 

29692 a. Terminal portion of an incisor ; from the Upper Pliocene 
of the Yal d'Arno. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

Hystrix sivalensis, Lydekker 1 . 

This species is founded on the evidence of a fragment of the man- 
dible, from the Siwaliks of the Punjab, India, figured in the accom- 
panying woodcut (fig. 32), and is described by the writer in the 

Fig. 32. 




j?m. 4. m.\. m. 2. m. 3. 

Hystrix sivalensis. — Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible ; from the 
Siwaliks of the Punjab. \. Indian Museum, Calcutta. (From the 
' Palseontologia Indica.') 

' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 109 ; the characteristic 
point of the specimen being the short crowns of the cheek-teeth. 
Hab. India. 

15923. The greater portion of the cranium and mandible of a young 
{Fig.) Porcupine ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. 
This specimen, of which the cranium is figured in the 
accompanying woodcut (fig. 33), has been described and 
figured by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. pp. 110, 111, and provisionally 
referred to the present species. The cranium has suffered 
considerably from crush, and has lost the nasals and a 
part of the maxilla. In the upper jaw there are only two 
teeth, and but three in the lower ; thus showing that the 

1 Eec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. xi. p. 100 (1878). 



HYSTRICI U.E. CHI2S T C HILLID M. 



249 



specimen is not adult. The first tooth in each jaw is the 
premolar, and the second the first true molar. On the left 
side of the mandible the whole length of the crown of mA 

Fig. 33. 




Hystrix sivalensis (?). — Left lateral aspect of the cranium of a young individual, 
with the nasals restored ; from the Siwalik Hills. \. (From the ' Palaeon- 
tologia Indica.') 

is exposed ; and it is thus seen that in its lower part the 
dimensions of this tooth are similar to those of the corre- 
sponding tooth of the type mandible represented in fig. 32. 
Presented by Generals Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 
and Sir E. M. Durand, K.C.B., 1848. 



Family CHINCHILLID^E. 

Dentition : — I. j, C. ^ Pm. T , II. g. 



Genus LAGOSTOMUS, Brookes 1 . 
Hagogtomug trtcIjot<acti)Ius', Brookes 2 . 
Eab. S. America. 

M. 1339. The cranium, mandible, and greater portion of the skeleton; 
from the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. Purchased, 1882. 

43246. Part of the cranium and mandible ; from the Pleistocene of 
Buenos Ayres. . Presented by Senor L. J. Fontana, 1S71. 



Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. svi. p. 102 (1828). 



2 Loc, cit. 



250 EODENTIA. 

43246 a. Greater portion of the cranium ; from the Pleistocene of 

Buenos Ayres. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

43246 b. Numerous limb-bones and vertebrae ; from the Pleistocene 

of Buenos Ayres. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

43246 c. The nearly complete hind foot ; from the Pleistocene of 

- Buenos Ayres. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 



Family DASYPEOCTID^]. 

Dentition :— I. ~, C. §, Pm. \, M. f. 

Genus DASYPROCTA, Illiger \ 

Syn. Chloromys, Cuvier (non Meyer). 

The existing species resemble one another so closely in dental and 
cranial characters that it seems impossible to apply specific names to 
fossil forms. 

Dasyprocta, sp. 

Hah. S. America. 

18869. Occipital portion of the cranium ; from a cavern in Minas 
Geraes, Brazil. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18871. Premaxillse and incisors; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18894. Two specimens of the palate, and three rami of the man- 
dible ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18894 a. The tarsus ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Genus CCELOGENYS, F. Cuvier 2 . 
(£ttlogem)S paca (Linn. 3 ). 
Syn. Mus paca, Linn. 4 
Hob. S. America. 
18690. The cranium of a female, imperfect posteriorly; from a 

1 Prod. Syst. Mam. et Avium, p. 93 (1811). 

2 Ann. d. Mus6um, vol. x. p. 203 (1807), Coelogenus. 

3 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 81 (1766), Mus. 4 hoc. cit 



DASTPEOCTID^J. CAVIIDM. 251 

cavern in Minas Geraes, Brazil. This specimen is of the 
size of the skull. of a full-sized living Paca, with which it 
agrees in every respect. It probably corresponds to the 
so-called 0. major of Lund, with which C. laticeps, Lund, 
hould probably be united. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18868. Five rami of the mandible ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

17572, 17590. Two specimens of the humerus ; from a cavern in 
Minas Greraes. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845- 

17579. The left ulna ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection*, Purchased, 1845 

17577-8. Two specimens of the left femur; from a cavern in 
Minas Geraes. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

17574. Two specimens of the left tibia ; from a cavern in Minas 
Geraes. Claussen Collection. Purchased. 1845. 



Family CAVIID^E. 
Dentition :— I. \, C. % Pm. \, M. §. 

Genus CAVIA, Pallas x {ex Klein). 

Ca&ta pomlluS (Linn. 2 ). 
Syn. Mus fjorcettus, ~Lmn. 3 

(?) Cavia aperea, Gmelin. 
? Cavia aperoides, Limd. 

Hah. S. America. 

18898. The distal portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the incisor and the first two cheek-teeth; from 
a cavern in Minas Geraes, Brazil. This specimen is indi- 
stinguishable from the mandible of the existing Guinea- 
pig- Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Genus MICROCAVIA, H. Gervais and Ameghino 4 . 

Microcavia, sp. 

Hah. S. America. 

18898 a. Six rami of the mandible : from the caverns of Miuas 

1 Miscell. Zool. fasc. ii. p. 16 (1767). 

2 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 79 (1766), Mus. 3 Loc. cit. 
4 Mammiferes fossiles de TAinSrique du Sud, p. 51 (1880). 



252 EODENTIA. 

Geraes, Brazil. In the absence of figures, it is impossible 
to say to which of the four species established by Gervais 
and Ameghino these specimens belong. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Genus ISSIODOROMYS, Blainville 1 {ex Croizet). 
Cheek-teeth rootless, with open re-entering enamel-folds dividing 
their crowns into heart-shaped lobes ; the subsidiary folds only 
represented here and there by a minute enamel-island. There has 
been considerable doubt as to the serial position of this genus. It 
was placed by Alston among the Theridomyidce ; but it is very 
closely allied to the next genus, which Schlosser considers allied to 
Dolichotis. 



Issiodoromys pseudansema, P. Gervais 2 . 
Syn. Palancema antiqua, Pomel 3 . 

Hob. Prance. 

27768. The palate, with the cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Perignat, near Issoire (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848 

34901. The upper cheek-dentition; from the Lower Miocene of 

Sauvetat (Puy-de-D6me). 

Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34902. The nearly complete right ramus of the mandible ; from the 

Lower Miocene of Sauvetat. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27691. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible; from the 
Lower Miocene of Perignat. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

26717. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing all the 
cheek-teeth; from the Lower Miocene of Cournon (Puy- 
de-D6me). Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 1495. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the anterior cheek-teeth; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux (Tarn-et- Garonne), France. This specimen is 
indistinguishable from No. 26717. The species is not 
recorded by Filhol or Schlosser from the phosphorites. 

Purchased, 1884. 

1 Comptes Kendus, vol. x. p. 932, note (1840). 

2 Zool. ct Pal. Francaises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 27 (1848-52). 

3 Catalogue Methodique, p. 41 (1853). 



caviidjs. 253 



Genus NESOCERODON, Schlosser 1 . 

Cheek-teeth semi-rooted, otherwise very similar in general struc- 
ture to Issiodoromys, from which the present writer is inclined to 
doubt the propriety of separating the genus. The structure of the 
teeth in different stages of wear is well exhibited in Schlosser's 
figures, loc. cit. pi. vii. It will be seen that the well-worn upper 
molars represented in fig. 12 present precisely the same general 
pattern as those of Issiodoromys figured by P. Gervais in the Zool. 
et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. pi. xlvii. fig. 6 a. 

Nesocerodon quercyi, Schlosser 2 . 

Hah. Erance. 

M. 1348 d. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
incisor and the first three cheek-teeth ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), Erance. This speci- 
men agrees with the mandibles figured by Schlosser, loc. 
cit. pi. vii. figs. 1, 7, 21. Purchased, 1884. 



Nesocerodon minor (Eilhol 3 ). 

Syn. Issiodoromys minor, Filhol 4 . 

This species is smaller than the last, but it is not impossible that 
it will ultimately be found that there is a transition in this respect 
between the two ; in which case the present name should stand for 
the species. 

Hah. Erance. 

M. 1631. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the four cheek- 
teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), 
Erance. This specimen agrees very closely with the one 
described by Filhol, loc. cit., and those figured by Schlosser, 
loc. cit. pi. vii. figs. 8, 16, 20. The length of the space 
occupied by the four cheek-teeth in the present specimen 
is 0,008, in Eilhol's specimen 0,0075, and in Schlosser's 
specimens 0,007 and 0,0065. Purchased, 1881. 



1 Palseontographica, vol. xxxi. p. 16 (1884), Xesokcrodon. 

2 Loc. cit. p. 11). 

3 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. vii. art. 7, p. 52 (1876), Issiodoromys. 

4 Loc. cit. 



254 KODENTIA. 

Genus DOLICHOTIS, Desmarest \ 
Syn. Cerodon, Cuvier. 

The last upper molar with three lobes. 

Dolichotis, sp. 1. 

Dolichotis minor, H. Gervais and Ameghino 2 . 

Hab. S. America. 

40675 C. Palatal portion of the cranium, containing all the cheek- 
teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. This 
species is considerably smaller than the existing D. pata- 
chonica, and may perhaps belong to D. minor, H. Gervais 
and Ameghino, with which it agrees in the strongly de- 
veloped third lobe of the last upper molar. The length 
of the space occupied by the series of cheek-teeth is 0,0207. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

Dolichotis, sp. 2. 
Hah. S. America. 

40675 d. The right ramus of the mandible of a species somewhat 
larger than {he last; from the Pleistocene of Buenos 
Ayres. The length of the space occupied by the series of 
cheek-teeth is 0,0225. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

40675 e, f. Detached teeth and limb-bones, which may belong to 
one or other of the foregoing species ; from the Pleistocene 
of Buenos Ayres. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

Genus HYDROCHCBRUS, Erxl. 3 {ex Brisson). 
f^g&rorijoerus capgbara, Erxl. 4 

Syn. (?) Hydrochcerus affinis capybara, Lund. 

Hab. S. America. 

18925. Portion of an incisor; from a cavern in Minas Geraes, 

Brazil. This specimen agrees exactly in size with the 

incisor of the living form, with which the so-called H. 

affinis capybara 5 , Lund, may in all probability be united. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

1 Mamnialogie, p. 360 (1822). 

2 Mammiferes fossiles de l'Amerique du Slid, p. 47 (1880). 

'■'■ Syst. Eegn. Animal, p. 191 (1777). 4 Op. oil p. 193. 

8 Vide H Gervais and Ameghino, 'Mammiferes fossiles de l'Am6rique du 
Sud,' p. 43 (1880). 



LAGOMTID^. 



255 



Suborder RODENTIA DUPLICIDENTATA. 

Incisors \, at birth | ; the outer upper incisors soon lost ; the next 
pair very small, and placed directly behind the large middle pair. 

Family LAGOMYID^E. 

Genus LAGOMYS, Cuvier 1 . 
Syn. Titanomys, H. v. Meyer 2 . 
Amphilagus, Pomel 3 . 
Myolagus, Hensel 4 . 

Dentition-. — In the existing species the formula of the cheek- 
dentition is Pm. |, H. |. In certain fossil forms, however, to which 
Pomel (Joe. tit.) gave the name Amphilagus, the penultimate lower 
premolar is very minute ; while in others, for which Hensel has 
proposed the name Myolagus, it is wanting. In another group, 
forming Meyer's genus Titanomys (but including Amphilagus), the 
penultimate premolar is normally wanting in both jaws. As there 
is such a gradual and complete transition from the typical Lagomys 
to the so-called Titanomys, it seems inadvisable to retain the three 
genera Lagomys, Myolagus, and Titanomys ; and all the forms are 
accordingly grouped under the type genus, It is remarkable that 
it is the newer forms which retain the penultimate premolar. 

HagomgjS puStHug (Pallas 5 ). 

Syn. Lepus pusillus, Pallas 6 . 
Lagomys spelceus, Owen 7 . 

The so-called L. spelceus, Owen, is considered by Sanford (Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 126) to be in all probability identical 
with the existing Siberian L. pusillus. The penultimate premolar 
is minute. 

Hah. N". Asia and Europe. 

48886. Anterior portion of the cranium, showing the incisors and 
( Fig.) most of the cheek-teeth ; from Kent's Hole Cavern, Tor- 
quay. This specimen is described and figured by Owen 
in the Brit. Foss. Mamm. and Birds, p. 213, figs. 82-4, 
under the name of Lagomys spelceus, of which it is the 
type. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

1 Tabl. Elem. d. Hist. Nat. p. 132 (1798). 

2 Neues Jahrb. 1843, p. 393. 

3 Catalogue Methodique, p. 42 (1853). 

4 Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Ges. vol. viii. p. 688 (1856). 

5 Nov. Coimii. Petrop. vol. xiii. p. 531 (before 1778), Lepus. 6 Loc. cit. 
7 British Fossil Mammals and Birds, p. 213 (1846). 



2o6 



RODENTIA. 



48886. Palatal portion of the cranium; from Brixham Cave, near 
Torquay. The length of the space occupied by the five 
cheek-teeth in this specimen is 0,0077, and 0,0078 in the 
preceding specimen. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

Lagomys sardus (Hensel l ). 

Syn. Myolagus sardus, Hensel 2 . 

Lagomys corsicanus, P. Gervais 3 . 

This species is considerably larger than the last, the length of the 
space occupied by the five upper cheek-teeth varying from 0,0085 
to 0,0115. The penultimate upper premolar is large, but the corre- 
sponding lower tooth is absent ; thus showing its distinctness from 
all the existing species. The limb-bones agree in size with those 
of L. ceningensis. 

Hah. Sardinia and Corsica. 

32333. Several fragments of the maxilla and rami of the mandible ; 
from the Pleistocene breccia of Sardinia. 

Buclcland Collection. Purchased. 

32333 a. Several specimens of the scapula, humerus, innominate, 
femur, and tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Sardinia. 

Buclcland Collection. Purchased. 

Lagomys oeningensis, H, v. Meyer 4 . 

Syn. Lagomys verus, Hensel 5 . 

This is a large-sized species. In one of the specimens figured by 
Von Meyer the last lower true molar is wanting. 
Hab. Europe. 

42815. The skeleton, in a much-crushed and imperfect condition ; 

from the Upper Miocene of (Eningen. This specimen 
agrees very closely in size with the one figured by Yon 
Meyer in the 'Fossile Saugethiere etc. von (Eningen, ' pi. iii. 
fig. 1. The length of the scapula is 0,032, and that of the 
femur 0,046. Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

42816. The hones of the hind limb ; from the Upper Miocene of 

(Eningen. The length of the femur is the same as in the 
last specimen, that of the tibia being 0,0500. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

1 Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Ges. vol. viii. p. 689 (1856), Myolagus. 

2 Loc. cit. 3 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. p. 50 (1859). 
4 Neues Jahrb. 1836, p. 58. 

6 Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Ges. vol. viii. p. 688 (1856). 



LAGOMTID^]. 257 

42820. The bones of the hind limb ; from the Upper Miocene of 
CEningen. Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 



Lagomys meyeri, Tschudi 1 . 

Syn. Ancema amingensis, Koenig 2 . 

Lagomys sansaniensis, Lartet 3 (teste Schlosser). 
Myolagus meyeri, Fraas 4 . 

This species is smaller than the last ; the penultimate premolar is 
absent in the mandible. 
Hal, Europe. 

43195, 48189. Two specimens of the cranium and a fragment of the 
mandible; from the Middle (?) Miocene of Hahnenberg, 
Bavaria. These specimens appear to agree exactly with 
the skull figured by Fraas in the ' Fauna von Steinheim ,' 
pi. ii. fig. 2, under the name of Myolagus meyeri. The 
. palate of both specimens is concealed by matrix. 

Purchased, 1877. 

42819. Palatal aspect of the cranium, in a much-crushed condition ; 
from the Upper Miocene of CEningen. This specimen is 
slightly smaller than the two last, and agrees very closely 
with one figured by Fraas in fig. 4 of the plate cited. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

42819 a. The skeleton, in a crushed condition ; from the Upper 
(Fig.) Miocene of CEningen. This specimen is figured by Kcenig, 
loc. cit. ; it agrees very closely with the one figured by 
H. von Meyer in the ' Fossile Saugethiere von CEningen/ 
pi. iii. fig. 2. The length of the femur is 0,032 (or there- 
abouts), and that of the tibia 0,034. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

42818. Part of a much-crushed skeleton, probably belonging to the 
present species ; from the Upper Miocene of CEningen. 
The length of the femur is very nearly the same as in th« 
last specimen. Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

1 In II. v. Meyer's 'Fossile Saugethiere &c. von CEningen,' p. 7 (1845). 

2 Icones Fossilium Sectiles, pi. x. fig. 126 (about 1825). This name has the 
priority over Tschudi's ; but the latter is generally adopted for this species. 

3 Notice sur la Colline cle Sansan, p. 21 (1851). 

4 Fauna von Steinheim, p. 10 (1870). 



258 RODENTIA.. 

42817. The cranium, in a crushed condition ; from the Upper Miocene 
of (Eningen. Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

48195 a. The right ramus of the mandible ; from the Middle Miocene 
of Steinheim, Bavaria. This specimen agrees precisely 
with the one figured by Fraas in the ' Fauna von Stein- 
heim,' pi. ii. fig. 5, under the name of Myolagus meyeri. 

Purchased, 1877. 

42825. £>ome of the bones of the two hind limbs, in a much-crushed 
condition ; from the Upper Miocene of (Eningen. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

47864. Numerous broken limb-bones, cemented together by a 
calcareous incrustation ; from the Middle (?) Miocene 
of Hahnenberg, Bavaria. 

Presented by Herr von Bezold, 1873. 

42822. The much-crushed cranium of a very small Lagomys, which 
may belong to a young individual of the present species ; 
from the Upper Miocene of (Eningen. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

33267. Five cheek-teeth, the calcaneum, part of the humerus, and 
the radius ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers), 
Prance. These specimens belong to Lartet's M. sansani- 
ensis, which Schlosser identifies with the present species, 
although, in the original description, it if?* stated that pm. 3 
is absent. Presented by M. Ed. Lartet. 



Lagomys visenoviensis (H. von Meyer 1 ). 

Syn. Titanomys visenoviensis, H. von Meyer 2 . 
Lagomys trilobus, P. Gervais 3 . 
Lagomys picoides, Pomel 4 . 
(?)Amphilagus antiquus, Pomel 5 . 

A small species, in which the penultimate premolar is absent in 
both jaws. P. Gervais identifies Pomel's Amphilagus antiquus with 
this species. In the description of that species (Cath. Meth. p. 43) 
it is stated that pm. 3 was present and m. 3 minute and caducous. 

Hob. Europe. 

1 Neues Jahrb. 1 843, p. 393, Titanomys. 2 Loc. cit. 

3 Zool. et Pal. Frar^aises, 1st ed. pi. xlvi. (1848-52). 

4 Catalogue Methodique, p. 42 (1853). 5 Ibid. p. 43. 



LAGOHYIDJE. LEPORIDiE. 259 

26715. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the 

three true molars ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier, 
Prance. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26716. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing all 

the cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

31094r-104. Several fragments of the mandible and limb-bones ; 
from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

21495. Fragments of the mandible, and detached teeth ; from the 
Lower Miocene of TTeissenau, Germany. These specimens 
are mentioned by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Fran- 
chises, 2nd ed. p. 50. Purchased, 1847. 

41085. Impression of the skeleton ; from the Lower-Miocene Brown 
- Coal of Rott, near Bonn. Purchased, 1868. 



Family LEPORIDiE. 
Dentition: — I. f , C. ^ Pm. -, M. ^. 

Genus LEPUS, Linn. 1 

ftqntS ttmtttttS, Linn. 2 
Syn. Lepm europceus, Pallas 3 . 
Hab. Europe. 

57 (0. C). The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible ; 
(Fig.) from Kirkdale Cave, Yorkshire. This specimen is figured 
in Buckland's ' Reliquiae Diluvianae,' pi. xiii. fig. 8. 

(?) Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

15039. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible ; from 

(Fig.) Kent's-Hole Cavern, Torquay. This specimen is figured 

by Owen in the 'British Fossil Mammals and Birds/ 

p. 210, fig. 80. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 77 (1766). 
3 Nov. Spec. Glirium, p. 30 (1778). 



260 RODENTIA. 

15091. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 

containing the last two molars ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

48909. Two broken rami of the mandible; from Brixham Cave, 

near Torquay. Brixham- Cave. Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48910. The greater portion of the left scapula ; from Brixham Cave. 

Brixham-Cave Collection, Presented. 1876. 

48909 a. The left innominate ; from Brixham Cave. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48909 b, 48911. Two specimens of the right femur, wanting the 
epiphyses ; from Brixham Cave. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

48911 a. The sacrum ; from Brixham Cave. 

Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

16713. Four specimens of the innominate (broken); from Kent's- 
Hole Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

44772. The proximal extremity of the right femur ; from Kirkdale 
Cave. Presented by Benjamin Bright, Esq., 1873. 

16752. The associated metatarsals ; from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16752 a. Three specimens of the calcaneum ; from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 3 842. 

17764. The calcaneum ; from the Forest-bed of Ostend, near Bacton, 
Norfolk. Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

16757-8. Three imperfect specimens of the tibia ; from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 



Lepus lacosti, Pomel 1 . 

This species is intermediate in size between L. tumidus and' 
L. cunicidus ; but is nearest in structure to the last. 
Bab. Europe. 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 47 (1853). 



LEPOEID^. 261 

27618, 36952. Two imperfect specimens of the left ramus of the 
mandible, containing the whole of the dentition ; from the 
Upper Pliocene of Perrier (Tuy- de-Dome), Prance. The 
length of the space occupied by the five cheek-teeth is 
0,016. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34952-6. The humerus, femur, tibia, and part of the innominate ; 
from the Pliocene of Perrier. The length of the humerus 
is 0,080, and that of the tibia 0,123 ; the corresponding 
dimensions of Pomel's t3^pe-specimens being 0,078 and 
0,120. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



%t#u$ lira|tlttn£ts', Linn. 1 

Syn. Lepus tapeti, Pallas 2 . 

Lepus ajjinis braziliensis, Lund. 

Hah. S. America. 

18904. The cranium, wanting the zygomatic arches and part of 

the premaxillae ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes, Brazil. 
This specimen is noticed by Waterhouse in the ' Natural 
History of the Mammalia,' vol. ii. pp. 144, 145, who 
observes that it is distinguished from the existing form 
merely by its slightly superior size. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18905. Specimens of the palate and rami of the mandible; from the 

caverns of Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 



?lepu£ cuntcutue!, Linn. 3 

Hab. Europe. 

Prom its burrowing habits Sanford (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
vol. xx vi. p. 128) is strongly inclined to doubt the contemporaneity 
of the Rabbit with the proper members of the Cave-fauna of England. 
All the bones noticed below are in a comparatively fresh condition. 

15089. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible ■ 
(Fiy.) from Kent's-Hole Cavern, Torquay. This specimen is 

1 Syst. Nut. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 78 (17G6). 

2 Nov. Spec. G-lirium, p. 30 (1778). 

3 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 77 (1766). 



262 KODENTIA. 

figured by Owen in the 'British Eossi Mammals and 
Birds,' p. 212, fig. 81. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842* 

15089a. Three broken rami of the mandible; from Kent's-Hole 
Cavern, Torquay. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

15089 "b. The humerus and part of the femur and tibia ; from Kent's- 
Hole Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

48908. The greater portion of the skeleton; from Brixham Cave, 
near Torquay. Brixham-Cave Collection. Presented, 1876. 

Lepus, sp. 
Hah. India. 

16529. Fragment of the mandible, containing two cheek-teeth ; from 
the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen 
is noticed by the present writer in the ' Pakeontologia 
Indica' (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 126. 
It is insufficient for specific determination. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 



ADDENDUM. 



The following specimens were not observed till earlier sheets were 
printed off: — 

Order PRIMATES. 
Genus AD APIS (page 8). 
Adapis magna, Eilhol \ 
This species is of larger size than A. parisiensis : it has hitherto 
been recorded only from the Upper Eocene of the Continent. 
Hah. Europe. 

1 Ann. Sci. G6ol. vol. v. art. 4, p. 1 (1874). 



ADDENDUM. 263 

30346 a. Seven upper true molars, one upper premolar, and two 
lower true molars ; from the Heaclon beds (Upper Eocene) 
of Hordwell, Hampshire. Some of these teeth, as well 
as those of the succeeding specimens, are slightly larger 
than any of those noticed by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. viii. art. 1, pp. 87-103. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29741. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
canine and four cheek-teeth; from the Headon beds of 
Hordwell. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30323. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with the 
three true molars ; from the Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30856. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with ST2 and 
m. 3 ; from the Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29864. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with p^Ti 
and m. 1 : from the Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Order KODENTIA. 

Genus CASTOR (page 216). 

Castor tanatrcns'ts', Kuhl 1 . 
Hob. North America. 

M. 1958. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with the first 
three cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Owyhee, Eocky 
Mountains. Presented by Sir R. Owen, K.C.B., 18S4. 

1 Beitrage z. Zoologie, p. 64 (1820). 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



OP 



GENERA AND SPECIES, INCLUDING SYNONYMS. 



Adapis, 8, 262. 

cluvernoyi, 9. 

magna, 262. 

pari sien sis, 9. 
JElurogale, 65. 

sivalensis, 66. 
.asiuropsis, 66. 

annectans, 66. 
Agnotherium, 41. 

antiquum, 42. 
Agriotherium, 150. 

sivalense, 150. 
Alachtherium, 198. 

cretsi, 198. 
Amphiarctos, 150. 

sivalensis, 150. 
Amphictis, 102. 

antiqua, 102. 

leptorhyncha, 103. 
Ampriicyon, 136. 

ambiguus, 141. 

blainvillei, 139. 

brevirostris, 147. 

crassiclens, 137. 

dominans, 142. 

elaverensis, 139. 

giganteus, 136. 

gracilis, 139. 

larteti, 139. 

laurillardi, 137. 

lemanensis, 139. 

leptorbynchus, 139. 

major, 137. 

minor, 137, 139, 145. 

palaeindicus, 138. 
Amprrilagus, 255. 

antiquus, 258. 



Anaema, 257. 

ceningensis, 257. 
Aphelotherium, 8. 

duvernoyi, 9. 
Arcriaeomys, 242. 

laurillardi, 242. 
Arctocephalus, 196. 

forsteri, 196. 
Arctomys, 213. 

marmotta, 214. 

priinigenius, 214. 

superciliosus, 212. 
Arctotrisrium, 157. 

bonariense, 157. 

latidens, 157. 
Argillotherium, 40. 

toliapicum, 41. 
Arvicola, 230. 

agrestis, 232. 

ambiguus, 231. 

amphibius, 230. 

glareolus, 232. 

gulielmi, 231. 

pratensis, 232. 

ratticeps, 232. 

riparius, 232. 

Brachycyon, 149. 

gaudryi, 149. 
Brachymys, 224. 

ornatus, 224. 

Csenomys, 225. 

typus, 225. 
Callophoca, 203. 
obscura, 203. 



Canis, 123. 

aureus, 129. 

brevirostris, 147. 

cancrivorus, 123, 134. 

cautleyi, 128. 

crocuta, 69. 

curvipalatus, 135. 

hyrena, 88. 

issiodorensis, 147. 

juvillacus, 123. 

lupus, 123. 

neschersensis, 130. 

palusti'is, 135. 

spelasus, 123. 

vulpes, 130. 
CaTterodon, 244. 

sulcidens, 245. 
Castor, 214, 263. 

canadensis, 263. 

europceus, 214. 

fiber, 214, 

i'ossilis, 214. 

moschatus, 16. 

subpyrenaicus, 220. 

trogontherium, 216. 
Castoroides, 220. 

obioensis, 221. 
Cavia, 251. 

aperea, 251. 

aperoides, 251. 

porcellus, 251. 
Cebus, 7. 

apella. 7. 

macrocepbalus, 7. 

macrognatbus, 7. 
Cephalogale, 147 

brevirostris, 147. 



INDEX. 



265 



Cephalogale (cant. 

geoffroyi, 147. 

minor, 147. 
Cercolabes, 246. 

fossilis, 246. 
Chalicomys, 218. 

eseri, 218. 

jaegeri, 220. 
Coelogenys, 250. 

paca, 250. 
Cricetodon, 228. 

cadurcensis, 228. 

gergovianus, 229. 

medius, 228. 

minor, 228. 

pygmaeus, 228. 

sansaniensis, 229. 
Cricetus, 226. 

museums, 226. 
Crocotta, 69. 

maculata, 69. 

spelaea, 69. 
Crocuta, 69. 

maculata, 69. 
Crossopus, 17. 

fodiens, 17. 

remifer, 17. 
Ctenomys, 245. 

leucodon, 246. 
Cultridens, 41. 

arvernensis, 42. 
Cynelos, 136. 

langensis, 139. 
Cynocephalus, 4. 

sp., 6. 

subbimalayauus, 4. 
Cynodictis, 107. 

angustidens, 112. 

antiqua, 108. 

boriei, 115. 

brachyrostris, 114. 

compressidens, 112. 

crassidens, 109. 

curvirostris, 114. 

dubia, 116. 

gryei, 110. 

intermedia, 115. 

lacustris, 108. 

leptorbyncba, 117. 

longirostris, 111. 

mungoides, 108. 
Cynogale, 120. 

venatica, 120. 

Danis, 166. 

cinereus, 166. 
Dasyprocta, 250. 
Dinocyon, 150. 

tbenardi, 150. 
Diobroticus, 216. 

scbmerlingi, 216. 



Dolichotis, 254. 

minor, 254. 
Drepanodon, 41. 

latidens, 43. 
megantbereon, 42. 
sivalensis, 44. 
Dryopithecus, 1. 
fontani, 1. 

Echinomys, 241. 

breviceps, 241. 

curvistriatus, 241. 

sulcidens, 245. 
Ennydriodon, 190. 

ferox, 192. 

sivalensis, 192. 
Erethizon, 246. 

dorsatus, 246. 
Erinaceus, 17. 

arvernensis, 17, 19. 

soricinoides, 19. 
Euhyaena, 69. 

striata, 88. 
Eutemnodus, 21. 

euryrbyncbus, 21. 

Felis, 50. 

aphanista, 42. 
bracbygnatba, 58. 
brevirostris, 62. 
caffra, 62. 
caligata, 62. 
catus, 64. 
cristata, 58. 
cultridens, 42. 
gigantea, 42. 
grandicristata, 58. 
issiodovensis, 63. 
leo, 50. 

leptorhyncba, 62. 
maniculata, 62. 
megantbereon, 42. 
ogygia, 63. 
onca, 60. 
palaaotigris, 58. 
pardalis, 61. 
pardina, 61. 
pardus, 59. 
prisca, 59. 
smilodon, 47. 
spelasa, 50. 

Galecynus, 123. 

oeningensis, 135. 
Gryphoca, 204. 

similis, 204. 
Gulo, 186. 

borealis, 187. 

diapborus, 145. 

luscus, 187. 



Gulo (eont.) 

primigenius, 145. 
spelceus, 187. 

Hapalotis, 227. 

albipes,- 227. 
Herpestes, 104. 

minimus, 104. 
Hesperomys, 229. 

angouy; 
Hyaena, 

antiqua, 87. 

antiquorum, 88. 

capeneis, 69. 

colvini, 84. 

crocuta, 69. 

eximia, 87. 

fasciata, 88. 

felina, 80. 

hipparionum, 87, 93. 

intermedia, 88. 

macrostoma, 91. 

maculata, 69. 

monspessulana, 88. 

neogsea, 47. 

orientaHs, 88. 

perrieri, 79. 

prisca, 88. 

sinensis, 80. 

sivalensis, 88. 

spelasa, 69. 

striata, 88. 

veterum, 88. 

virgata, 88. 

vulgaris, 88. 
Hyaanarctos, 150. 

pabeindicus, 154. 

punjabiensis, 153. 

sivalensis, 150, 155. 
Hyaenodon, 21. 

bracbyrbyncbus, 23. 

exiguus, 28. 

beberti, 21. 

indicus, 31. 

leptorbj-ncbus, 26. 

minor, 25. 

requieni, 23. 

vulpinus, 28. 
Hydrochoerus, 254. 

capybara, 254. 
Hylobates, 2. 

antiquus. 2. 
Hyporyssus, 15. 

telluris, 15. 
Hystrix, 247. 

major, 247. 

refossa, 247. 

sivalensis, 248. 

Icticyon, 120. 
veuaticus, 120. 



266 



Ictitherium, 93. 

hipparionum, 93. 

robustum, 94. 

sivalense, 93. 

viverrinum,. 94. 
Isoptychus, 237. 

aquatilis, 237. 

jourdani, 237. 
Xssiodoromys, 252. 

minor, 253. 

pseudanaerna, 252. 

Lagomys, 255. 

corsicanus, 256. 

meyeri, 257. 

oeningensis, 256. 

picoides, 258. 

pusillus, 255. 

sansaniensis, 257. 

aardus, 256. 

spelasus, 255. 

trilobus, 258. 

verus, 256. 

visenoviensis, 258. 
Lagostomus, 249. 

trichodactylus, 249. 
Lemmus, 232. 

medius, 232. 
Lepthyaena, 93 

sivalensis, 93. 
Lepus, 259. 

braziliensis, 261. 

cuniculus, 261. 

enropams, 259. 

lacosti, 260. 

pusillus, 255. 

tapeti, 26L 

timidus, 259, 
Loncheres, 244. 

elegans, 244. 
Lupus, 123. 

neschersensis, 130. 

spelaeus, 123. 
Lutra, 190. 

antiqua, 191. 

catnpani, 192. 

clermontensis, 194. 

dubia, 191. 

minor, 195. 

palasindica, 191. 

sivalensis, 192. 

valetoni, 194. 

vulgaris, 191. 
Lutrictis, 190. 

valetoni, 194. 
Lycaon, 121. 

anglicus, 122. 

Macacus, 4. 

pliocenus, 4. 
Machaerodus, 41 . 
cultridens, 42. 



Machaerodus (cont.) 

falconeri, 44. 

latidens, 43. 

leoninus, 42. 

meganthereon, 42. 

neogaeus, 47. 

palaeindicus, 46. 

sivalensis, 44. 
Martes, 176. 

sylvatica, 176. 
Mastacomys, 227. 

fuscus, 227. 
Meganthereon, 41. 

aphanistus, 42. 

cultridens, 42. 

falconeri, 44. 

latidens, 43. 

macrocelis, 42. 

neogseus, 47. 
Meles, 189. 

taxus, 189. 

vulgaris, 189. 
Mellivora, 188. 

sivalensis, 188. 
Mesopithecus, 7. 

major, 7. 

pentelici, 7. 
Mesotaria, 201. 

ambigua, 201. 
Metarctos, 144. 

diaphorus, 145. 
Microcavia, 251. 
Monatherium, 206. 

aberratum, 207. 

affine, 206. 

delogni, 206. 
Mus, 226. 

agrestis, 232. 

amphibius, 230. 

antiquus, 225. 

gergovianus, 229. 

glareolus, 232. 

gregarius, 232. 

lineolatus, 227. 

marmotta, 214. 

paca, 250. 

porcellus, 251. 
Mustela, 176. 

angustifrons, 180. 

erminea, 180. 

gulo, 187. 

lutra, 191. 

martes, 176. 

mustelina, 181. 

putorius, 179. 

sectoria, 181. 

waterhousei, 182. 
Mycetes, 8. 

ursinus, 8. 
My gale, 16. 

muscovitica, 16. 



Myogale, 16. 

moschata, 16. 
Myolagus, 255. 

meyeri, 257. 

sardus, 256. 
Myoxus, 222. 

cartei, 222. 

melitensis, 222. 

murinus, 224. 

obtusangulus, 224. 

primsevus, 224. 

primigenius, 214. 

sansaniensis, 224. 
Myrmarctos, 173. 

eversmanni, 173. 

Necrolemur, 10. 

antiquus, 10. 

edwardsi, 10. 
Neomys, 235. 

lembronicus, 235. 
Nesocerodon, 253. 

minor, 253. 

quercyi, 253. 
Nesokia, 225. 

hardwicki, 226. 

Odobaenus, 197. 

rosmarus, 197. 
Otaria, 196. 

forsteri, 196. 
Oxyaena, 35. 

galliae, 35. 

Palaeolemur, 8. 

betillei, 9. 
Palaeoprionodon, 94. 

lemandini, 94. 

mutabilis, 94. 
Palaeoseiurus, 209. 

feignouxi, 209. 
Palaeospalax, 16. 

magnus, 16. 
Palanaema, 252. 

antiqua, 252. 
Palhyaena, 93. 

hipparionum, 93. 
Parasorex, 19. 

socialis, 19. 
Phoca, 205. 

vitulinoides, 205. 
Phocanella, 205. 

minor, 205. 

pumila, 204. 
Phyllorhina, 12. 

sp., 13. 
Pithecus, 2. 

antiquus, 2. 
Platyphoca, 202. 

nysti, 202. 

vulgaris, 203. 



INDEX, 



26: 



Plesiarctomys, 213. 

gervaisi, 213. 
Plesictis, 183. 

croizeti, 184. 

elegans, 184. 

genetoides, 184. 

gracilis, 184. 

lemanensis, 185. 

palustris, 184. 

robusta, 184. 
Plesiogale, 176. 

angustifrons, 180. 

raustelina, 181. 

pomeli, 180. 
Plesiosorex, 19. 

soricinoides, 19. 

talpoides, 19. 
Pliopithecus, 2. 

antiquus, 2. 

platyodon, 2. 
Potamotherium, 190, 

valetoni, 194. 
Proaelurus, 65. 

lemanensis, 65. 
Prophoca, 208. 

proxima, 208. 

rousseaui, 208. 
Protechinomys, 240, 

breviceps, 241. 

gracilis, 241. 

major, 240. 
Pseudaelurus, 64. 

intermedius, 64. 
Pseudocyon, 136, 144. 

robustus, 145. 

sansaniensis, 137. 
Pseudosciurus, 211. 

suevicus, 211. 
Pterodon, 33. 

bracbyrhyncbus, 23. 

coquandi, 33. 

cuvieri, 33. 

dasyuroides, 33. 

exiguus, 28. 

leptorbyncbus, 26. 

parisiensis, 33. 

requieni, 23. 
Putorius, 176. 

vulgaris, 179. 

Rhinolopkus, 11. 

antiquus, 11. 

ferrum-equinum, 11. 
Rhizomys, 233. 

sivalensis, 233. 

Sciuroides, 211. 

intermedins, 212. 
quercyi, 212. 
Sciurus, 209. 
arctomynus, 213. 



Sciurus (cont.) 

bredai, 211. 

chalaniati, 210. 

feignouxi, 209. 

vulgaris, 209. 
Semnopithecus, 2. 

monspessulanus, 3. 

palasindicus, 2. 

pentelici, 7. 

subhimalayanus, 4. 
Simocyon, 144. 

diaphorus, 145. 

primigenius, 145. 

robustus, 145. 
Sivalarctos, 150. 

sivalensis, 150. 
Smilodon, 41. 

neogams, 48. 

populator, 48. 
Sorex, 16. 

fodiens, 17. 

remifer, 17. 
Speothos, 120. 

pacivorus, 120. 
Spermophilus, 212. 

erytbrogenoides, 212. 

speciosus, 209. 

superciliosus, 212. 
Steneodon, 41. 

cultridens, 42. 

megantbereon, 42. 
Steneofiber, 217. 

castorinus, 218. 

eseri, 218. 

jasgeri, 220. 

nouleti, 218. 

viciacensis, 218. 
Stenoplesictis, 96. 

cayluxi, 96. 
Stentor, 8. 

ursinua, 8. 
Stephanodon, 190. 

minor, 195. 

mombacbiensis, 194. 
Synetlxeres, 246. 

fossilis, 246. 

magnus, 246. 

Talpa, 15. 

magna, 16. 

sansaniensis, 15. 

telluris, 15. 
Taxotherium , 21. 

parisiense, 21. 
Thallasictis, 93. 

robusta, 94. 
Theridomys, 235. 

aquatilis, 237. 

blainvillei, 241. 

breviceps, 241. 

cuvieri, 2. 



Theridomys (cont.) 

dubius, 235. 

jourdani, 241. 

lembronicus, 235. 

platyceps, 243. 

rotundidens, 237. 

siderolitbicus, 238. 

vaillanti, 238. 
Titanomys, 255. 

visenoviensis, 258. 
I Trechomys, 243. 

insignis, 243. 

intermedius, 244. 

platyceps, 243. 
Trichecliodon, 197, 
200. 

buxleyi, 197. 

konincki, 200. 
Trichechus, 197. 

buxleyi, 197. 

rosmarus, 197. 
Trogontherium, 216, 

cuvieri, 216. 

Uncia, 50. 

cristata, 58. 

grandicristata, 58. 
Ursitaxus, 188. 

sivalensis, 188. 
Ursus, 159. 

americanus, 176. 

arctoideus, 159. 

arctos, 173. 

arvernensis, 175. 

bouariensis, 157. 

braziliensis, 157. 

cadavarinus, 173. 

cinereus, 166. 

collaris, 173. 

cultridens, 42. 

drepanodon, 42. 

eversmanui, 173. 

falcularis, 173. 

ferox, 166. 

formicarius, 173. 

fornicatus, 159. 

fossilis, 166. 

fuscus, 173. 

borribilis, 166. 

horridus, 166. 

isabellinus, 173. 

lasiotis, 173. 

leuconyx, 173. 

longirostris, 173. 

luscus, 187. 

meles, 189. 

minimus, 175. 

minutus, 175. 

namadicus, 175. 

niger, 173. 

norveygicus, 173. 



y 






268 




Ursus {cont.) i 




piscator, 173. 




planifrons, 166. 




planus, 159. 




priscus, 166. 




pruinosus, 173. 




pyrenaicus, 173. 




richardsoni, 166. 




spelaeus, 159. 




sivalensis, 150. 









INDEX. 

Ursus (cont.) 
syriacus, 173. 

Vespertilio, 13. 

ferrum-equinum, 
insignis, 14. 
murinoides, 14. 
Viverra, 98. 
angustidens, 102. 
bakeri, 99. 



11. 



Viverra (cont.) 

durandi, 99. 

hastingsiae, 100. 

leptorhyncha, 117. 

minima, 104. 

zibetha, 98. 
Vulpes, 130. 

major, 130. 

minor, 130. 

vulgaris, 130. 



END OF PART I. 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



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