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Full text of "Catalogue of the fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural history) ... By Richard Lydekker .."

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CATALOGUE 



OP 



FOSSIL REPTILIA 



AND 



AMPHIBIA 



PART I 



f.V ! 



. 



BSt 






CATALOGUE 



OF THE 



FOSSIL EEPTILIA 



AMPHIBIA 



IN THE 



BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), 



CROMWELL ROAD, S.W. 



PART 



CONTAINING 




The Orders OENITHOSAUEIA, CEOCODILIA, DINOSAITEIA, 

SQUAMATA, EHYNCHOCEPHALIA, and 

PEOTEEOSAUEIA. 



RICHARD LYDEKKER, B.A., F.G.S., etc. 



LONDON: 
PEINTED BY OEDEE OF THE TEUSTEES. 

1888. 



tBINTED I3Y TAYLOK AND FBANClS) 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



PEEFACE. 



In presenting Part I. of Mr. Lydekker's Catalogue of the Fossil 
Reptilia preserved in the Geological Department, it may be de- 
sirable to state that although the British Museum does not possess 
such complete remains of individuals of the order Dinosauria as are 
now to be seen in the Royal Museum of Brussels, or in that of Yale 
College, New Haven, U. S., yet there is probably no other Museum 
which contains so large a number of the original "type-specimens" 
figured and described by Buckland, Mantell, Meyer, Owen, Huxley, 
Hulke, Seeley, and many others during the past seventy years. 

These " types " must always be of the highest importance to all 
students of Comparative Anatomy, and this Catalogue will furnish 
them with exact information as to the nature of the remains upon 
which the various genera and species were originally established. 
Such knowledge becomes all the more needful as so many genera 
and species of Dinosaurs and other Reptilia have been proposed 
based upon fossil remains referable to entirely different parts of the 
skeletons of individuals, thus rendering their correlation a matter 
of extreme difficulty, if not an altogether impossible task. 

The present volume only records those species represented in the 
Collection which belong to the orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, 
Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. 



V PREFACE. 

Part II. will contain the Chelonia, the Sauropterygia, and the 
Ichthyopterygia. 

Part III. the Anomodontia and other forms of South- African 
fossil Eeptilia, together with the Amphibia and the so-called 
" Ichnites." 

HENEY WOODWAED. 

Department of Geology, 
June 1, 1888. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The present Catalogue, like that of the Possil Mammalia, is exclu- 
sively confined to species and genera represented in the Collection 
of the Museum ; although in a few instances the names of certain 
larger groups, which are at present desiderata, have been introduced 
in order to render the general scheme of classification less imperfect 
than would otherwise be the case. Unlike, however, the earlier 
parts of the e Catalogue of Fossil Mammalia,' the present work is 
descriptive throughout — this addition to its bulk being almost 
imperative in order to justify the specific and generic reference of 
many of the individual specimens. 

In order to avoid adding one more to the numerous schemes of 
classification which have been proposed for the Eeptilia, it has been 
thought advisable to take one of those already published, and to 
adhere in the main to the arrangement thus adopted. The classifi- 
cation selected as a guide was recently published by Dr. George 
Baur l , of Yale College, and is a modification of a scheme previously 
proposed by Prof. E. D. Cope 2 , of Philadelphia. In this arrange- 
ment the orders of the Eeptilia are divided into several groups or 
branches, for which the names proposed by Prof, Cope have been 
retained ; although it has been thought better to use them in an 
adjectival form rather than to make them into definite subclasses. 
Dr. Baur's scheme differs from that of Prof. Cope by the removal of 
the Anomodontia (Theromorpha) from the branch which includes 
the Dinosauria, Crocodilia, and Ornithosauria ; and the transference 
of the Bhynchocephalia from the neighbourhood of the Chelonia and 
Sauropterygia to that of the true Lizards- — the latter change being 
in harmony with the views recently expressed by Prof. Huxley 3 . 
The Ichthyopterygia, moreover, instead of being placed as a group 
totally distinct from all other Eeptiles, are regarded by Dr. Baur as 
closely related to the Lizards and Ehynchocephalians — a view which 

1 Sitz. ges. Morph. Miinchen, vol. iii. pp. 46-74 (1887) ; also Jouru. Morphol. 
vol. i. pp. 93-104 (1887); and Biol. Centralblatt, vol. vii. pp. 481-493 (1887). 

2 Ainer. Nat. vol. xix. pp. 245, 246 (1885). 

3 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xliii. pp. 691, 692 (1887). 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

accords with the conclusions arrived at many years ago by Sir 
Richard Owen. In the Dinosauria the classification of Prof. 0. C. 
Marsh has been adopted with some slight simplifications, such as 
the union of the Stegosauria with the Ornithopoda. 

In the present work a few alterations have been introduced into 
Dr. Baur's scheme. Thus, in order to make the value of the divi- 
sions used among the Lacertilia and their allies more nearly equiva- 
lent to those employed in the Dinosauria, it has been considered 
advisable to group the true Lacertilia, the Rhiptoglossa, Ophidia, 
and Pythonomorpha in a single ordinal group under the name of 
Squamata — an association which was suggested by Prof. Cope on 
page 308 of his work entitled ' The Origin of the Fittest' \ 

In deference, moreover, to the views of Prof. Seeley, the Protero- 
sauria have been provisionally allowed an ordinal rank ; although 
the writer is not by any means assured that this view will eventually 
be maintained. Following also the views of the same writer, the 
order Proganosauria of Baur is not retained, since the genus on 
which it is founded appears to be clearly allied to the Triassic 
Sauropterygia. 

In regard to the association of the Ornithosauria, Dinosauria, and 
Crocodilia into a single branch there can be no question whatever ; 
but some divergence of view may be legitimately entertained as to 
the mutual association of some of the other orders. On the latter 
grounds, coupled with the circumstance that when we trace back 
the different branches in which the orders are here arranged into 
the Trias and Permian we find all of them showing more or less 
intimate relationships with one another, it has been considered inad- 
visable, as already observed, to rank these branches as subclasses. 

The study of Fossil Reptiles, when contrasted with that of Fossil 
Mammals, is found to suffer from the want of a common standard 
of comparison, like that afforded by the teeth and jaws, on the evi- 
dence of which by far the greater number of fossil mammalian 
genera and species have been founded. In Reptiles, on the other 
hand, genera and species, even in the same groups, have been 
founded upon totally different parts of the skeleton, which do not 
admit of comparison with one another. This renders it in many 
groups almost or quite impossible to say how many genera or species 
are/ really entitled to distinction ; and consequently entails the 
introduction into a work liko the present of a considerable number 
of names which may prove to be only synonyms. It has, moreover, 
been thought advisable to retain such doubtful genera and species in 

3 8vo, London, 1887. 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

many cases where there is even a cons iderable probability of these 
being synonyms ; since it appears to the author that it is almost as 
great an evil to abolish a well-known name without being almost 
absolutely certain of the necessity of the step, as it is to introduce 
new names. The aid of asterisks has, however, been called in to 
point out some of these doubtful names. Whether many of the 
generic terms which have been applied to Dinosaurians and other 
Reptiles from the strata of North America, which are evidently 
closely allied to European forms, are really entitled to stand, remains 
to be proved ; but since in most cases the names applied to the 
European forms have the priority, the question does not affect the 
majority of those employed in the present work. 

In many instances, however, such American generic names have 
been taken as the foundation for family names ; but since there is a 
possibility of some of these being eventually relegated to the rank 
of synonyms, the earlier European names have generally been sub- 
stituted as the foundation for family names \ In some cases also, 
families have been admitted which it may eventually be found 
advisable to fuse with others. A word is also desirable in regard to 
the supercession of generic and specific names, of which the type 
specimens have never been figured. The writer is not one of those 
who think that a name should never be recognized until the tj T pe 
has been figured 2 : but in cases where the original description is 
altogether unsatisfactory and difficult to recognize, and no figure 
of the type has been subsequently given, he considers that if, 
after a reasonable interval, other specimens have been described and 
figured under a new name, that name is entitled to supersede the 
old one. If, however, an author having the original type of an un- 
figured but described species before him, ignores the old name, 
even if insufficiently characterized, to impose a new one, then there 
appears good reason for reviving the older name. The former 
course has been followed in the instance of the species of the genus 

J Many writers maintain that family names are entitled to rank by priority 
like generic and specific ones. It is, however, merely, so to speak, by accident 
that the earlier generic names were not made types of families ; and the writer 
thinks that when this has been omitted the fair course would be to take such 
names as the foundation for families, rather than to elevate some newly made 
term to this rank. That family names should stand when the genera on which 
they were based have been reduced to the rank of synonyms is practically an 
absurdity. Thus, should it be found eventually advisable to include the genus 
Stegosaurus in Omosattrus, it would be absurd to speak of the Stcgosaurida, or 
Stegosaurus-like reptiles, when no such reptile as Stegosaurus existed. 

- As proposed at the Berlin Geological Congress. 



X INTRODUCTION. 

Cetiosaurus in the present volume ; and the latter in the case of the 
names PlatycJioerops and Miolophus in the 5th part of the ' Catalogue 
of Fossil Mammalia.' In this, as in other analogous instances, it is, 
however, almost impossible to draw any absolutely hard-and-fast rule 
which shall hold good in all cases. 

Among the Dinosauria, the writer has been guided in the asso- 
ciation of certain remains by the memoirs of Prof. 0. C. Marsh ; and 
it is of course obvious that in such cases the association must stand 
or fall by the correctness or otherwise of those memoirs. So far, 
however, as English specimens are naturally associated, they appear 
in all cases to support the restorations and associations given by the 
American palaeontologist 1 . 

The following list furnishes a few particulars relating to the 
history of some of the more important series of specimens col- 
lected by private individuals, and subsequently acquired by the 
Museum : — 

Beckles Collection. — Purchased in 1876 from Mr. S. H. Beckles, 
E.B.S., of Hastings ; and comprises specimens from the Wealden and 
Purbeck. 

Bowerbank Collection. — This collection comprises an extensive 
series of specimens from the English Cretaceous, and was purchased 
in 1865 from the late Dr. J. S. Bowerbank, E.R.S., of Highbury. 

Bravard Collection. — The reptilian remains belonging to this 
collection were obtained from the Erench Tertiaries, and were 
purchased in 1852 from the late M. Bravard. 

Cauiley Collection. — Comprises specimens from the Indian 
Siwaliks, presented by Col. Sir Proby T. Cautley, K.C.B., in 1840. 
[In the Mammal Catalogue it is stated, on the authority of Mr. W. 
Davies, that the presentation was made in 1842 ; a recent perusal 
by that gentleman of original documents preserved in the Museum 
has, however, shown that the earlier date is the correct one.] 

Claussen Collection. — A series of specimens from the Pleistocene 
of South America, purchased in 1845 from the late Herr Claussen. 

Croizet Collection. — Purchased in 1848 from the late Abbe 
Croizet ; and includes specimens from the French Tertiaries, more 
especially from the district of the Auvergne. 

Cunnington Collection. — This collection was purchased in 1875 
from the late Mr. W. Cunnington, of Devizes. 

Dawson Collection. — An important series of mainly Dinosaurian 

1 The absence of the inner trochanter in the femur referred to Stegosaums 
(p. 177) by Prof. Marsh, and its presence in that of Omosaurus, suggests that 
the former reference may be incorrect. 



1NTK0DTJCTI0N. XI 

remains from the Wealden of the neighbourhood of Hastings, pur- 
chased from Mr. T. Dawson, F.G.S., of St. Leonards. The first 
portion was purchased in 1884, since which date additions have been 
continually made to the series. 

Dixon Collection. — A series of specimens, mainly from the Terti- 
aries and Chalk of the South of England, purchased in 1851 from 
the late Mr. F. Dixon, F.G.S., of Worthing. 

Egerton Collection. — Purchased in 1882 from the executors of the 
late Sir Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton, Bart., F.R.S., formerly a 
Trustee of the Museum. 

Fox Collection. — An exceedingly important collection, acquired in 
1882 by purchase from the executors of the late Rev. W. Eox, of 
Brightstone, Isle of Wight. 

Haberlein Collection. — A number of specimens from the Solenhofen 
limestones, purchased in 1862 from Dr. Carl Haberlein, of Pappen- 
heim, Bavaria. 

Hastings Collection. — Purchased in 1855 from the late Mar- 
chioness of Hastings. Includes specimens from the Tertiaries and 
Cretaceous of the South of England. 

Mansel-Pleyclell Collection. — A valuable series of reptilian remains, 
mainly from the Kimeridge Clay of Dorsetshire, presented on dif- 
ferent occasions by J. C. Mansel-Pleydell (formerly Mansel), Esq., 
E.G.S., of Watcombe, Dorsetshire. 

Mantell Collection. — A large and important collection, mainly 
comprising specimens from the Cretaceous of the South of England, 
acquired in two portions. The first portion was purchased in 1838 
from the late Dr. Gideon A. Mantell, F.R.S., and the second from 
his executors in 1853. [In the Catalogue of Mammalia the date of 
the purchase of the first portion was given as 1836, but Mr. Davies 
has subsequently found that it was really in 1838.] 

Morris Collection. — Purchased in 1867 from the late Professor 
John Morris, F.R.S. 

Pomel Collection. — A series of specimens, mainly from the French 
Tertiaries, purchased in 1851 from the late Monsieur J. Pomel, 
formerly of Clermont-Ferrand. 

Saul Collection. — Acquired by purchase in 1863 from the Directors 
of the Metropolitan Institute, to whom it had been presented by the 
late Mr. W. D. Saul, of Bishopsgate Street, London. 

Sharp Collection. — A series of remains mainly from the Jurassics 
of Northampton shire, purchased in .1876 from Mr. S. Sharp, of 
Dallington Hall, Northamptonshire. 

Slirubsole Collection. — Acquired by purchase in 1880 from Mr. 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

W. Shrubsole, of Sheppey, and mainly consisting of specimens 
from the London Clay. 

Sommerring Collection. — Purchased in 1827 from the late Prof. S. 
T. Sommerring of Munich. 

Tesson Collection. A valuable series of specimens from the Lias 
and Jurassics of Normandy ; acquired by purchase in 1S57 from the 
late Monsieur Tesson, of Caen. 

Toulmin-Smith Collection. — Purchased in 1869 from the widow 
of the late Mr. J. Toulmin-Smith, of Highgate. 

Van Breda Collection. — A large collection, chiefly from the Cre- 
taceous of Maastricht and the Solenhofen limestones, purchased 
in 1871 from the executors of the late Professor Van Breda, of 
Haarlem. 

Wetherell Collection. — Purchased, through the late Mr. J". Tennant, 
from Mr. N. T. Wetherell, of Highgate, in 1871. 

In all cases the references to generic and specific names have 
been verified after they were in type, so that they may be consi- 
dered thoroughly reliable. Mr. William Davies, E.G.S., has been 
good enough to come to the Museum for the express purpose 
of checking each individual entry with the specimen to which it 
refers ; and it is solely due to his intimate acquaintance with the 
Collection that it has been possible to give the correct history of 
many of the specimens which have been long in the Museum. 

The author is indebted to Prof. 0. C. Marsh, of Yale College, for 
the loan of many excellent woodcuts of North-American Dinosaurian 
remains with which this volume is illustrated. Thanks are also due 
to the Council of the Geological Society, and to Mr. J. W. Hulke, 
E.R.S., Prof. H. G. Seeley, E.R.S., and Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B., 
E.R.S., for the use of woodcuts from the Geological Society's 
4 Journal.' Prof. H. Alleyne Nicholson and Messrs. Blackwood 
have also been good enough to allow the reproduction of woodcuts 
from the c Manual of Palaeontology.' And the author is also in- 
debted for similar favours to the Director of the Geological Survey 
of India, and to M. L. Dollo, of the Royal Museum of Natural 
History, Brussels. 

Finally, it may be mentioned that since the notice of Scapho- 
gnathus crassirostris (p. 28) was in type, a second species of that . 
genus has been described from the Upper Lias of Whitby by Mr. E. 
T. Newton, in the ' Proc. Roy. Soc' vol. xliii. p. 436 (1888). 

RICHARD LYDEKKER. 

* Harpenden, 
June 1st, 1888. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



[Existing species are denoted by an asterisk, and doubtful 
genera and species by two asterisks.] 

Page 

Archosaurian Branch 1 

Order ORNITHOSAUEIA 2 

Suborder PTERANODONTIA 3 

Suborder PTEROSAURIA 3 

Family PTEHODACTYLID^E 3 

Ptenodracon brevirostris 4 

Pterodactylus antiquus 5 

kochi 6 

pulchellus 7 

spectabilis ........ 7 

rhamphastinus 8 

■ longicollum 9 

Cycnorhamphus suevicus 10 

Family uncertain , , 10 

Ornithochirus compressirostris .... 11 

cuvieri 12 

(?) giganteus 12 

** diomedius 13 

** hlavatschi 14 

sedgwicki 15 

fittoni 15 

(?) simus 16 

daviesi 23 

** nobilis . . . , 24 

** (?) clifti 25 



XIV SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family uncertain (continued). 

Page 

Ornithochirus (?) sp 25 

** (?)curtus . . 26 

validus . 26 

Family RHAMPHORHYNCHID^ 27 

Scaphognathus crassirostris 28 

Rhamphorhynchus longicauda .... 29 

muensteri 30 

gemmingi 31 

grandis 32 

Rhamphocephalus bucklandi 34 

depressirostris 36 

Dimorphodon macronyx 37 

Of uncertain generic position 40 

Species a (Pterodactylus manseli) ... 40 
„ b ( „ pleydelli) . . .41 

„ c . 41 

Okdinal position tjnceetain 42 

Ornithodesmus cluniculus 42 

Order CROCODILI A 42 

Suborder EUSUCHIA . . , 43 

A. Procoelian Series . 44 

Family CROCODILID.E 44 

a. Brevirostrine section 44 

Alligator, sp 45 

Diplocynodon hantoniensis 45 

sp 50 

gracilis 50 

■ plenidens 53 

*Crocodilns palustiis . 54 

sivalensis . 55 

palaeindicuw 58 

* porosus 59 

spenceri .......... 60 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XV 

Family CKOCODILID^E (continued). 

Page 

b. Longirostrine section ........ 62 

Tomistoma eggenburgense 63 

champsoides 64 

macrorbyncbus 64 

*Garialis gangeticus 65 

hysudricus 67 

leptodus 68 

pacbyrhynchus 69 

(?)dixoni 69 

Tboracosaurus neocesariensis .... 70 

Rbampbosucbus crassidens 71 

/Serial position uncertain . . 74 

Pristichampsa rollinati 74 

Heterosucbus valdensis 74 

Genus non det 75 

(Crocodilus cantabrigiensis) ... 75 

B. Amphiccelian Series 76 

Family GONIOPHOLIDID^l 76 

Subfamily Beknissaetun^ 76 

Hylaeocbampsa vectiana 77 

Genus non det 77 

Subfamily Goniopholidin^d 77 

a. Brevirostrine section 77 

Theriosucbus pusillus 78 

Goniopbolis crassidens 79 

simus 83 

tenuidens 83 

rTannosucbus gracilidens 84 

Oweniasuchus major 85 

minor 85 

Generically undetermined specimens . . 86 

b. Longirostrine section 87 

Pbolidosaurus scbaumburgensis .... 87 
meyeri 88 



XVI SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Family GONIOPHOLIDID^E (continued). p age 

Subfamily Petrosuchin^ 88 

Petrosuchus laevidens 89 



uncertain 89 

Genus non det 89 

Suchosaurus eultridens 90 

Hyposaurus derbianus ....... 91 

Family TELEOSAUEID^E 91 

Subfamily Metriorhynchin^ 91 

Dacosaurus maximus 92 

Metriorhynchus super ciliosus 96 

moreli 97 



sp 98 

Specifically undetermined specimens . . 99 

Incertce sedis . . . 101 

iEolodon priscus 101 

Subfamily Teleosatjrin^ 102 

Teleidosaurus joberti 103 

Machimosaurus hughi 103 

— — mosse 104 

Pelagosaurus typus 106 

brongniarti 107 

Stenosaurus bollensis ....... 109 

chapmani 110 

brevior . Ill 

** minimus 112 

latifrons 113 

larteti 114 

stephani . 114 

brevidens 115 

megistorhynchus . 116 

edwardsi 117 

megarhinus ........ 117 

sp 117 

Teleosaums cadomensis 118 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XV11 

Family TELEOSAURID^E (continued). 

Subfamily Teleosatjrin^j (continued). Page 

Teleosaurus geoffroyi 120 

subulidens 121 

Suborder PARASUCHIA 123 

Family PHYTOSAURIDJE 123 

Phytosaurus cylindricodon . . .' . . 124 

pleningeri 128 

Stagonolepis robertsoui 129 

Family PARASUCHID^E 130 

Parasuchus hislopi 130 

Order BINOSAURI_A 131 

Suborder SAVROPODA 131 

Family CETIOSAUEID^E 133 

Titanosaurus indicus 134 

sp. a 135 

sp. b 136 

Dinodocus mackesoni 136 

Cetiosaurus oxouiensis ....... 137 

glymptonensis 138 

brevis 139 

Generically undetermined specimens . . . 142 

Family ATLANTOSAURID^E 143 

Atlantosaurus immanis 145 

**Pelorosaurus conybeari 145 

Oruithopsis hulkei 146 

kumerocristatus 151 

■ manseli 152 

Incertce sedis 152 

Thecospondylus horneri 153 

Macrurosaurus semnus 153 

6 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 
Suborder THEROPODA 154 



Family CCELUKED^E 155 

Coelurus daviesi ......... 156 

Family COMPSOGNATHID^E 156 

Compsognathus longipes 156 

Family MEGALOSAUEID^E 157 

Aristosuchus pusillus 158 

Megalosaurus bucklandi 159 

sp. a 163 

insignis 163 

dunkeri 163 

bredai 168 

Dryptosaurus aquilunguis 170 

Bothriospondylus suffosus 170 

robustus 171 

Zanclodon suevicus 172 

(?) sp. a 172 

(?) spJ 6 173 

Family ANCHISAUEID^E 174 

Thecodontosaurus antiquus 175 

Suborder ORN1THOPODA 175 

Family OMOSATTRULE 176 

Omosaurus armatus 177 

hastiger 179 

(?)sp 180 

Family SCELIDOSAUEID^E 180 

Scelidosaurus harrisoni . . . . . . 181 

Acanthopholis horridus 183 

Eegnosaurus northamptoni 184 

Hylseosaurus oweni 185 

Polacanthus foxi 189 



SrSTEMATIC INDEX. XIX 



Family IGUANODONTIME 191 

Hypsilophodon foxi 193 

Iguanodon prestwichi 196 

dawsoni 196 

bernissartensis 201 

mantelli 218 

sp 226 

Specifically undetermined specimens . , 227 

Sphenospondylus gracilis 238 

Family TRACHODONTID^E 241 

Orthomerus doHoi 241 

Trachodon foulki 244 

cantabrigiensis 244 

Specimens of uncertain position 245 

Ordinal position uncertain 247 

Nuthetes destructor 247 

Echinodon becklesi 247 

Streptostylic Branch 248 

Order SQUAMATA 249 

Suborder OPHIDIA . 249 

Section Coiubeifoeies 250 

Family COLUBBID^E 250 

*Ptyas mucosus 250 

Pilemophis sansaniensis 251 

Elapliis atavus 251 

oweni 252 

Periops gervaisi 252 

Family PYTHONID^E 252 

* Python molurus 253 

Paleryx rliombifcr 254 

** filholi 255 

depressus 255 

Genus non det 256 



XX SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family PAL^EOPHLD^ 256 

Palseophis toliapicus 257 

typhseus 258 

sp 260 

Incertce sedis 260 

Suborder PYTHONOMORPHA 261 

Family MOSASAUBEXE 261 

Mosasaurus camperi ....... 261 

dekayi . 264 

Liodon anceps 265 

sp .266 

haumuriensis 267 

perlatus 267 

Platecarpus oweni ........ 270 

(?) sp .271 

Geosaurus giganteus 271 

Clidastes, sp 272 

Suborder DOL1CHOSAURIA . 274 

Family DOLICHOSAUKID^E 275 

Dolichosaurus longicollis 275 

Suborder LACERTILIA 275 

Family AGAMID^E 276 

*Chlamydosaurus kingi 276 

Family IGUANIDJE 277 

Iguana europsea ........ 277 

Family ANGUID^E 278 

Ophisaurus moguntinus 278 

Placosaurus margariticeps 279 

Genus non det 281 

(Plestiodon cadurcensis) 281 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XXI 

Page 

Family YAEANID^E 281 

*Varanus bengalensis 282 

sp 282 

sivalensis 283 

priscus 284 

Family TEIKLE 286 

*Tupinambis teguixin 286 

Family LACERTID^ 287 

Lacerta lamandini 287 

(?)bifidentata 287 

Family SCINCKLE 288 

Dracaenosaurus croizeti 288 

Family non det 288 

Macellc-dus brodiei 289 

Coniasaurus crassidens 289 

Order KHYtfCHOCEPHALIA 290 

Suborder HOMCEOSAUBIA 290 

Family HOMJEOSAUEID^E 291 

Homceosaurus maximiliani 291 

Ardeosaurus brevipes 291 

Sapheosaurus laticeps 292 

Aphelos auras lutevensis 293 

Family PLEUEOSAUEID^E 293 

Pleurosaurus goldfussi 293 

Family TELERPETID^E 294 

Telerpeton elginense 295 

Saurosternum baini 295 



XX11 SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Page 
Suborder SPHENODONTINA 296 



Family RHYNCHOSAURID^ 296 

Rhynchosaurus articeps 296 

Hyperodapedon gordoni 298 

huxleyi . 299 

Order PROTEROSAURIA 301 

Family PROTEROSAURIDJE 301 

Proterosaurus speneri 302 

Ordinal Position Uncertain 302 

Atoposaurus oberndorferi 302 



LIST OF WOODCUTS. 



Fig. 1. Pteranodon longiceps. Skull 3 

2. Pfcerodactylus antiquus. Skeleton 5 

3. ■ spectabilis. Skeleton 8 

4. Scaphognathus crassirostris. Skeleton 28 

5. Rhamphorhynchus muensteri. Restoration .... 31 

6. Dimorphodon macronyx. Skeleton 38 

7. Crocodilus vulgaris. Pelvis 43 

8. palustris. Skull 54 

9. spenceri. Cranium 61 

10. Tomistoma eggenburgense. Cranium 63 

11. Rhamphosuchus crassidens. Cranium 71 

12. . Mandible 72 

13. Dacosaurus maximus. Tooth 92 

14. Metriorhyncrms hastifer. Cranium 95 

15. Pelagosaurus typus. Skull 105 

16. Steneosaurus heberti. Skull 109 

17. Phytosaurus cylindricodon. Skull 124 

18. . Cranium 125 

19. Diplodocus longus. Skull 132 

20. Morosaurus grandis. Tooth 133 

21. _ . Pelvis 133 

22. Titanosaurus, sp. Caudal vertebra 135 

23. Brontosaurus excelsus. Pelvis . 144 

24. Ornithopsis hulkei. Tooth 147 

25. Allosaurus fragilis. Pelvis 154 

26. Ceratosaurus nasicornis. Skull 157 

27. Megalosaurus bredai. Femur 169 

28. Zanclodon (?), sp. Tooth 173 

29. Epicampodon indicus. Part of mandible .... 174 

30. Thecodontosaurus platyodon. Tooth 174 

31. Stegosaurus stenops. Skull 176 

32. armatus. Limbs 17*) 



XXIV LIST OP WOODCUTS. 

Page 

.Fig. 33. Scelidosaurus harrisoni. Tooth 181 

34. Acanthopholis horridus. Caudal vertebra .... 183 

35. (?) Hylseosaurus oweni. Ilium 187 

36. Camptosaurus dispar. Pelvis 192 

37. Iguanodon, sp. Tooth 195 

38. dawsoni. Dorsal vertebra 197 

39. . p e i v is 199 

40. bernissartensis. Skeleton 201 

41. . skull 202 



42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 



Dorsal vertebra 205 ' 

Caudal vertebra 209 

Scapula 211 

Coracoid 212 

Ilium and pelvic limb 214 

47. Sphenospondylus gracilis. Dorsal vertebra .... 240 

48. Orthomerus dolloi. Caudal vertebra 242 

49. . Femur 243 

50. Trachodon foulki. Tooth . . 244 

51. cantabrigiensis. Tooth 244 

52. Iguana tuberculata. Pectoral girdle 249 

53. ? Ptyas mucosus. Vertebra 250 

54. Python molurus. Vertebra 253 

55. Paleryx rhombifer. Vertebra 255 

56. Palaeophis typhssus. Vertebra 258 

57. Liodon, sp. Tooth .■ 266 

58. . Vertebra 269 

59. Platecarpus curtirostris. Skull ....... 270 

60. Iguanoid Lizard. Pelvis 276 

61. Iguana europsea. Vertebra ........ 277 

62. Placosaurus margariticeps. Vertebra 279 

63. Genus non det. Dentary 281 

64. Varanus bengalensis. Maxilla and vertebra . . . 282 

65. sivalensis. Vertebra 283 

66. priscus. Vertebra 285 

67. Hyperodapedon gordoni. Skidl 297 

68. . Palato-maxilla 298 

69. huxleyi. Palato-maxilla 209 



XXV 



ABBREVIATIONS OF SERIALS QUOTED IN 
THIS VOLUME. 

[Where not otherwise stated, the works are in 8vo.] 



Abh. k.-hay Ah. Wiss. — Abhandlungen der matheniatisch-physikalischen 
Classe der koniglich-bayerischen Akadernie der Wissen- 
schaften zu Miinchen. Munich. 

Acta Ac. Theod. -paled. — Acta physica et historica Academic electoralis 
scientiarum. . . . Theodoro-palatinae. Mannheim. 

Amer. Journ. — The American Journal of Arts and Sciences. Newhaven 
(U.S. A.). 

Amer. Nat. — American Naturalist. Salem, Mass. (U.S.A.). 

Ann. du Museum. — Annales du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle a Paris, 
4to. Paris. 

Ann. Gen. Sci. Fhys. Brussels. — Annales g^ne'rales des Sciences physiques. 
Br 



Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. — Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
London. 

Ami. Sci. Geol. — Annales des Sciences G6ologiques. Paris. 

Ann. Soc. R. Sci. Orleans. — Annales de la Societe Roy ale d 'Orleans. 

Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles. — Annales de la Societe" Scientifique deBruxelles. — 
Brussels. 

Anzeig. h. Ah. Wiss. Wien.— Anzeiger der kaiserlichen Akadernie der 
Wissenschaften zu Wien ; niatheniatisch-naturwissenschaft- 
liche Classe. Vienna. 

Arch. Mus. Teyler. — Archives Musee Teyler. Haarlem. 

Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat.— Bibliotheque Universelle et Revue Suisse; — 
Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles. Geneva. 

Archivf. Nat. — Archiv fur die gesammte Naturlehre (Kastuer). Nurem- 
berg. 

Asiatic Researches. — Calcutta. 



XXVI ABBREVIATIONS. 

Ber. Senckenb. Nat. Ges. — Bericht uber die Senckenbergische Naturfor- 
schende Gesellscliaft. Frankfort. 

Biol. Centralblatt. — Biologisclies Centralblatt. Rosenthal ; Erlangen. 

Bull. Ac. R. Belg. — Bulletin de l'Academie Royale des Sciences . . . de 
Belgique. Brussels. 

Bull. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. — Bulletin du Musee Royal d'Histoire 
Naturelle de Belgique. Brussels. 

Bull. Soc. Geol. France. — Bulletin de la Society Ge"ologique de la France. 
Faris. 

Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie. — Bulletin de la Soci6te Linneenne de Nor- 
mandie. Caen. 

Charlesworth? s London Geological Journal. — London. 

Comptes Rendus. — Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires des Seances de 
l'Academie des Sciences. 4to. Faris. 

Corrblatt. not. Ver. Regensberg. — Correspondenz-Blatt des naturwissen- 
scliaftliclien Vereins in Regensberg. Ratisbon. 

Denkschr. k. Ak. Munclien. — Denkschriften der koniglichen Akademie der 
"Wissenschaften zu Miinchen. 4to. Munich. 

Denkschr. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien. — Denkscbriften der kaiserlicben Akademie 
der Wissenscbaften ; matbematisch-naturwissenscbaftlicbe 
Classe. 4to. Vienna. 

Geol. Mag. — Geological Magazine. London. 

Jahrb. k. preuss. geol. Landesanst. — Jabrbucb der koniglicben preussischen 
geologiscben Landesanstalt und Bergakademie. Berlin. 

Jahresh. Ver. Nat. Wiirtt. — Jabresbefte des Vereins fur vaterlandiscbe 
Naturkunde in Wiirttemberg. Stuttgart. 

Journ. As. Soc. Beng. — Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta. 

Journ. Linn. Soc. — Journal of the Linnean Society : Zoology. 4to. 
London. 

Journ. Morphol. — Journal of Morphology. Boston, U.S. 

London fy Fdinb. Fhilos. Mag. — J^ondon and Edinburgh Philosophical 
Magazine. London and Edinburgh. 

Mem. Ac. R. Line. — Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei ; Memorie. 
4to. Rome. 

Mem. du Museum. — Memoires du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle a Paris. 
4to. Faris. 

Mem. Geol. Surv. Eng. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great 
Britain. Pis., 4to. London. 

Mem. Soc. Geol. France. — Memoires de la Society Geologique de la 
France. 4to. Paris. 

Mem. Soc. Linn. Normandie. — Memoires de la Societe Linne"enile de 
Normandie. 4to. Caen. 



ABBKEVIATIONS. XXV11 

Mon. Pal. Soc. — Monographs of the Palseontographical Society. 
London. 

Museum Senckenberg. — Museum Senckenbergianum : Abhandlungen aus 
dem Gebiete der beschreibenden Naturgeschichte. 4to. 
Frankfort. 

Neues Jdhrb. — Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Geologie und Palaonto- 

logie. Stuttgart. 

Notts. Gebiet. Nat. Heilk. — Notizen aus deni Gebiete der Natur- und 
Heilkunde. Erfurt. 

Nouv. Archiv. d. Museum. — Nouvelles Archives du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle a Paris. 4to. Paris. 

Nova Acta Ac. Cces. Leop- Car. — Nova Acta Academise Ceesarese Leo- 
poldino-Carolinse Germanicee Naturae Curiosorum. 4to. 
Dresden. 

Pal. Abhandl, — Palaontologische Abhandlungen. 4to. Berlin. 

Palteontographica. — Palaeontographica : Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der 
Yorwelt. 4to. Cassel. 

Palaontologia Indica. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India : 
Palseontologia Indica. 4to. Calcutta. 

Phil. Trans. — Philosophical Transactions of the Eoyal Society. 4to. 
London. 

Proc. Ac. Nat. Set. Philad. — Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia. 

Proc. Amer. Assoc. — Proceedings of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science. Salem. 

Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. — Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society. Philadelphia. 

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. — Proceedings of the Boston Society of 
Natural History. Boston, U.S. 

Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. Club. — Proceedings of the Dorset Natural-History 
and Antiquarian Field Club. Sherborne. 

Proc. Geol. Assoc. — Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. London. 

Proc. Geol. Soc. — Proceedings of the Geological Society. London. 

Proc. R. Soc. — Proceedings of the Royal Society. London. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. — Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological 
Society of London. London. 

Quart. Journ. _ Geol. Soc. — The Quarterly Journal of the Geological 
Society of London. London. 

Pec. Geol, Surv. Ltd.— Records of the Geological Survey of India. 
Calcutta. 

Pep. Brit. Assoc. — Report of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science. London. 



XXVU1 ABBREVIATIONS. 

Rev. Quest. Sci. — Revue des Questions scientifiques. Brussels. 

Revue Encyclopedique. — Revue Encyclopedique, etc. Paris. 

Sitz. Ges. Morph. Miinchen. — Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft fur 
Morphologie und Physiologie in Miinchen. Munich. 

Sitz. k. -bay. Ak. Wiss. — Sitzungsberichte der mathematisch-physikalischen 
Classe der k.-bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 
Miinchen. Munich. 

Sitz. k. bbhm. Ges. Wiss. — Sitzungsberichte der k. bohmischen Gesell- 
schaft der Wissenschaften. Prague. 

Smiths. Contrib. Knowl. — Contributions to Knowledge by the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 4to. Washington. 

Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. — Transactions of the American Philosophical 
Society. 4to. Philadelphia. 

Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. — Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society. 4to. Cambridge. 

Trans. Geol. Soc. — Transactions of the Geological Society of London. 
4to. London. 

Trans. N. Zealand Inst. — Transactions and Proceedings of the New 
Zealand Institute. Wellington. 

Ver. schw. nat. Ges. — Verhandlungen der schweizerische naturforschende 
Gesellschaft. Various Swiss Towns. 

Vid. Med. Nat. Foren. Kjobenhavn. — Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den 
Naturhistorisk Forening i Kj obenhavn. Copenhagen. 

Wiegmanris Archiv. — Archiv fur Naturgeschichte . . . . Herausg. von A, 
¥. A. Wiegmann. Berlin. 

Zool. Anzeig. — Zoologischer Anzeiger. Leipsic. 



CATALOGUE 



OF 



FOSSIL REPTILIA 



AMPHIBIA. 



Class REPTILIA. 



ARCHOSAURIAN BRANCH. 

The three Orders included in this branch present the following 
characters in common. 

Teeth usually set in distinct sockets, never anchylosed to the 
jaws, and confined to premaxilla, maxilla, and dentary. No parietal 
foramen ; two temporal arcades ; infratemporal fossa not roofed 
over by bone ; quadrate immovably fixed ; frequently no columella 
(epipterygoid). Anterior ribs double-headed ! ; dorsal vertebrae 
with long transverse processes, which may be placed entirely on the 
arch ; frequently more than two sacral vertebrae. No T-shaped 
interclavicle or precoracoid. Pectoral and pelvic limbs present; 
humerus without distal foramen, but occasionally with ectepi- 

1 Zittel ('Paheontographica,' vol. xxix. pp. 03, 64) suggests that all the ribs 
of Pterouactylus are single-headed ; and Marsh thinks that the same Btructure 
may obtain in Coekcrus. 

B 



^ OKNITHOSAURIA. 

condylar groove ; proximal row of tarsus consisting of astragalus 
and calcaneum. Abdominal ribs generally present. In the limbs 
the number of phalangeals is liable to variation, although approxi- 
mating, more or less, to the arrangement obtaining in the Squamata 
(infra). There may be a lateral vacuity in the mandible. 



Order OENITHOSAURIA. 

Pectoral limb adapted to support a patagium ; body probably 
naked. Vertebrae procoelous, without persistent neuro-central 
suture ; cervicals longer than dorsals ; precaudals not numerous ; 
from three to six in sacrum 1 ; cervical ribs, at least in RJiam-pho- 
rliynch.us, crocodilian 2 . Skull large, more or less bird-like in 
contour, with the bones anchylosed in the adult ; jaws elongated, the 
greater portion of upper one formed by premaxilla ; mandibular sym- 
physis anchylosed ; occipital condyle situated on base of cranium. 
Orbits large, usually with sclerotic ossifications 3 ; narial aperture 
approximated to orbit, but separated by preorbital vacuity, with 
which it may be confluent. Teeth simple and pointed. Scapula 
and coracoid long and slender, latter without fontanelle ; no clavicle ; 
sternum broad, and keeled superiorly. Carpus with a proximal and 
distal bone ; four functional digits in manus ; phalangeals of ulnar 
digit 4 of manus much elongated, and terminal one not clawed. 
Pelvis weak ; ilium generally extended on both sides of acetabulum ; 
pubis directed forwards ; ischium short and wide ; pelvic limb 
short ; fibula, and sometimes astragalus, united with tibia. Bones 
hollow, and frequently with pneumatic foramina. Habits volant. 
The brain seems to have been bird-like. 



1 Seeley (' Ornithosauna, pp. 110, 111) states that there are but two anchy- 
losed vertebrae in the sacrum of Scaphognathus {Pachyrhamphus), and none in 
that of Dimorphodon. 

2 See Baur, ' Amer. Nat.' 1886, p. 980. 

3 Perhaps wanting in Pteranodontia. 

4 Regarded by Owen, Marsh, and Zittel (' Palaeontographica,' vol. xxix. p. 54) 
as the fifth of the typical series; the styliforin ossification on the radial side of 
the carpus (fig. 3) representing the pollex. 



PTEKODACTYLID.E. 



Suborder PTERANODONTIA. 

Teeth absent ; cranium (fig. 1) with a long, backwardly-pro- 
duced supraoccipital crest, and nares completely confluent with 



Fig. 1. 




Pteranodon longiceps, Marsh. — Left lateral view of skull; from the Cretaceous 
of North America. T V a, preorbital vacuity; b, orbit ; c, supraoccipital 
crest ; d, angle of mandible ; q, quadrate ; s, symphysis. (After Marsh.) 

preorbital vacuity. Scapula generally articulating with spines of 
dorsal vertebrae, which are anchylosed together. 

This Suborder is at present unrepresented in the Collection. 



Suborder PTEROSAURIA. 

Teeth in both jaws ; cranium without backwardly-projecting 
supraoccipital crest, and with the nares usually more or less com- 
pletely separated from the preorbital vacuity. Scapula (at least 
usually) not anchylosed to spines of dorsal vertebrae, which are 
distinct from one another ; four phalangeals in ulnar digit of 
maims. 

Family PTERODACTYLID^E. 

Tail short ; skull bird-like, either long or short ; jaws toothed 
to their anterior extremity; nares usually large, and imperfectly 
separated from preorbital vacuity ; length of metacarpus considerably 
exceeding half that of ulna ; proximal half of tarsus distinct from 
tibia. 



Genus PTENODRACON *, Lydekker. 

Skull very short, and the muzzle not produced into a rostrum ; 
teeth confined to anterior extremity of jaws ; nares and preorbital 

1 Seeley (' Ornithosauria,' p. Ill) proposed to use Ornithoecphalus in this 
sense, an application which has been shown by Zittel (' Palseontographica,' 
vol. xxix. p. 80) to be inadmissible. 

b2 



4 OEJS'ITHOSAURIA. 

vacuity apparently not separated ; cervical vertebrae comparatively 
short. 

Ptenodracon brevirostris (Sommerring ] ). 

Syn. Ornithocephalus brevirostris, Sommerring ' 2 . 
Pterodactylus meyeri, Miinster 3 . 
Ornithocephalus meyeri, Wagner 4 . 

Zittel (' Palseontographica,' vol. xxix. p. 79) suggests that the 
so-called P. meyeri is not distinct from the present species, which 
is fully confirmed by a comparison of the type specimens of the 
latter with his figure. The species is the only known example of 
the genus, and is about the size of a sparrow ; the length of the 
cranium being 0,028. 

Hah. Europe (Germany). 

42736. A slab of lithographic limestone, containing the greater 
(Fig.) part of the skeleton ; from the Kimeridgian of Kelheim, 
Bavaria. Figured by von Meyer in the ' Fauna der 
Yorwelt — R,ept. Lith. Schief.' pi. iv. fig. 2, as Ptero- 
dactylus meyeri, of which it is the type. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 
39352. Cast of the preceding specimen. Purchased, 1865. 

Genus PTERODACTYLUS, Cuvier 5 . 

Syn. Onithocephalus, Sommerring 6 . 
Macrotrachelus, Giebel 7 . 
Diopecephalus, Seeley 8 . 

Skull slender and elongated into a narrow rostrum,, of which the 
alveolar margins are straight ; teeth placed vertically, and none 
extending behind the middle of the narial aperture; cervical 
vertebrse frequently much elongated ; scapula and coracoid separate ; 
pubis 9 short and rounded, without bony symphysis ; pes with four 
functional digits, and frequently an aborted fifth digit with only 
one phalangeal 10 . None of the species attain a very large size. 

1 Denkschr. k. Ak. Munchen, vol. vi. p. 89 (1820). — Ornithocephalus. (Bead 
1816.) * Loc. cit. 

3 Neues Jahrb. 1842, p. 35. 

4 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vi. pt. i. p. 167 (1851). 

5 Ann. d. Museum, vol. xiii. p. 424 (1809). — Tterodaetyle. 

6 Denkschr. k. Ak. Miinchen, vol. iii. p. 126 (1812). 

7 Allgemeine Palaontologie, p. 231 (1852). 

» Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. vii. p. 35 (1871). 

n Prepubis, or epipubis of some writers. 

10 Zittel, ' Palacontographica,' vol. xxix. p. 62 (1882). 



PTEEODACTYLID^:. 5 

Pterodactylus antiquus (Sommerring ! ). 

Syn. Ornithocephalus antiquus, Sommerring 2 . 
I^terodactylus longirostris, Cuvier 3 . 
Ornithoceplialus longirostris, Wagler 4 . 
Macrotrachelus longirostris, Giebel 5 . 

This is the type species, and is of medium size ; the length of 
the cranium in the type specimen is 0,107, and that of the entire 
skeleton about 0,300. Typically the neck and rostrum are much 
elongated, and the teeth do not extend backwards to the narial 
aperture : but there are said to be transitions in this respect towards 
the next form 6 . The preorbital vacuity is partially separated from 
the narial aperture. 

Hob. Europe (Grermany). 

Fig. 2. 




Pterodactylus antiquus. — Skeleton ; from the Kimeridgian of Bavaria. About 
i. a, humerus : b : radius and ulna ; c, carpus ; d, metacarpus ; r, clawed 
digits ; /, g, h, i, phalangeals of ulnar digit ; k, rib ; /, femur ; s, tibia ; 
t, tarsus ; m, metatarsals ; t, phalangeals of pes. 

1 Denkschr. k. Ak. Mimchen, vol. iii. p. 126 (1812). — Ornithocephalus. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. v. pt. 2, p. 359 (1824). 
* Syst. Amphib. p. 61 (1830). 

5 Allgemeine Palaontologie, p. 231 (1852;. 

6 Vide Zittel, ' Paheontographica,' vol. xxix. p. 71 (1882). 



b ORNITHOSAUKIA. 

R. 336. Cast of a slab of lithographic limestone, containing the 
nearly entire skeleton. The original (fig. 2) was ob- 
tained from the Kimeridgian of Eichstadt, Bavaria ; and 
is preserved in the Museum at Munich. It is the type 
of the genus and species, and is figured by Collini in the 
Acta Ac. Theod. Palat. vol. v. pi. v. (1784), without 
name ; by Cuvier in the ' Ann. du Museum,' vol. xiii. 
pi. xxxi., without specific name ; by Sommerring in the 
' Deukschr. k. Ak. Miinchen,' vol. iii. pi. v. ; by Cuvier in 
the ' Ossemens Eossiles,' 2nd ed. vol. v. pt. 2, pi. xxiii., 
as P. longirostris ; by Buckland in his Geology and 
Mineralogy (Bridgewater Treatise), pi. xxi. ; and by Meyer 
in the ' Fauna der Yorwelt — Rept. Lith. Schiefer,' pi. ii. 
fig. 1. Purchased, 1883. 

R. 388. A split block of lithographic limestone, containing the 
entire skeleton, but wanting the mandible and the anterior 
half of the cranium ; from Eichstadt. This specimen is 
slightly smaller than the preceding, but otherwise agrees 
exactly. Purchased, 1884. 

Pterodactylus kochi (Wagner 1 ). 

Syn. Ornithocephalus kochi, Wagner 2 . 
Pterodactylus scolopaciceps, Meyer 3 . 
Diopecephahis kochi, Seeley 4 . 

Allied to the preceding, but typically of rather smaller size, with 
a shorter neck and rostrum, and the teeth extending back to the 
narial aperture. The length of the cranium varies from 0,066 to 
0,080. 

The identity of P. scolopaciceps with this form is given on the 
authority of Zittel 5 ; by whom it is suggested that the species may 
be only a variety of P. awtiquus. 

Hah. Europe (Germany). 

37360. Casts of a split slab of lithographic limestone, showing a 
considerable portion of the skeleton. The original is from 
the Kimeridgian of Eichstadt, Bavaria ; and is preserved 
in the Museum at Munich ; it is figured by Meyer in the 

1 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. ii. p. 168 (1837).— Omithocephakis. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Fauna der Vorwelt— Rept. Lith. Schiefer, p. 33 (I860). 

4 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. vii. p, 35 (1871). 
6 Palaeontographica, vol. xxix. p. 71 (1882). 



PTERODACTYLIDJE. 7 

4 Eauna der Yorwelt — Bept. Lith. Schiefer,' pi. iii. fig. 2 ; 
and also by Zittel, in the ' Palaeontographica/ vol. xxix. 
pi. xiii. fig. 1. Purchased, 1863. 

37359. Cast of a slab of lithographic limestone, containing the 
entire skeleton. The history of the original is the same 
as that of the last specimen ; and it is figured by Meyer, 
op. cit. pi. i. fig. 2, under the name of P. scolopaciceps, of 
which it is the type. Purchased, 1863. 

Pterodactylus pulchellus, Meyer l . 

Zittel 2 identifies with this species the somewhat smaller P. 
elegans, Wagner 3 ; in the type specimen of the present form the 
length of the cranium is 0,0465 ; the rostrum is as much elongated 
as in the preceding species ; but the teeth are confined to the ex- 
tremities of the jaws. In some specimens of the so-called P. elegans 
the preorbital vacuity is separated from the narial aperture. 

Hab. Europe (Germany). 

42735. A slab of lithographic limestone, containing the impression 
{Fig.) of the nearly entire skeleton, and a few fragments of bone ; 
from the Kimeridgian of Eichstadt, Bavaria. Counterfeit 
of the specimen figured by Meyer in the ' Eauna der Yor- 
welt — Eept. Lith. Schiefer,' pi. i. fig. 1, under the name of 
P. longirostris ; but subsequently made the type of the 
present species (see * Palaeontographica,' vol. x. p. 9). 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

39351. Partially restored cast of the preceding specimen. 

Purchased, 1865. 



Pterodactylus spectabilis 9 Meyer 4 . 

This is a small species, apparently allied to P. pulchellus, but 
regarded by its describer as having a larger skull, and different 
proportions in some of the limb-bones. Its right to specific distinc- 
tion may be doubtful 5 . 

Hab. Europe (Germany). 

1 Neues Jahrb. 1861, p. 470. 

2 • Palgeontographica,' vol. xxix. p. 77 (1882). 

3 Sitz. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. 1861, vol. i. p. 363. 

4 Neues Jahrb. 1861, p. 467. 

5 See Zittel, ' Palaeontographica,' vol. xxix. p. 77 (1882). 



OKNITHOSAUEIA. 



38150. Casts of a split block of lithographic limestone, containing 
the nearly entire skeleton. The original (fig. 3) was 

Kg. 3. 




Pterodactylus spectabilis. — The nearly entire skeleton, viewed from the ventral 
aspect ; from the Kimeridgian of Bavaria. On the left side the pubis 
(prepubis) is shown at a, while on the right the ilium is exposed, f . 

obtained from the Kimeridgian of Eichstiidt. Bavaria, and 
is the type ; it is figured by Meyer in the ' Palaeonto- 
graphica,' vol. x. pi. i. (1861). Purchased, 1864. 

Pterodactylus rhamphastinus (Wagner '). 

Syn. Omithocephalus rhamphastinus, Wagner 2 . 
Diopecephalus rhamphastinus, Seeley 3 . 



1 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vi. pt. i. p. 132 (18ol). — Orniihocephalus. 

2 Lot: cit. 3 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. % vol. vii. p. 35 (1871). 



PTERODACTYLID^, 



9 



A large species, with the narial aperture and preorbital vacuity 
entirely confluent; the length of the cranium is 0,215; the teeth 
are short and stout, and extend unusually far back, reaching in 
the upper jaw nearly to the middle of the narial aperture ; the 
cervical vertebrae are comparatively thick. 

Hah. Europe (Germany). 

37363-4. Two casts of a split slab of lithographic limestone, show- 
ing the greater portion of the skeleton. The original was 
obtained from the Kimeridgian of Daiting, Bavaria, and 
is the type of the species ; it is figured by Wagner in the 
' Abh. k.-bay, Ak. Wiss/ vol. vi. pt. i. pi. v. 

Purchased, 1863. 

Pterodactylus longicollum, Meyer 1 . 

Syn. Diopecephalus longicollum, Seeley 2 . 

A species of large size, but smaller than the preceding, with the 
narial aperture and preorbital vacuity entirely confluent ; the length 
of the cranium is 0,145 ; the teeth are slender, and those of the 
upper jaw do not extend posteriorly to within a considerable dis- 
tance of the narial aperture. 

Bab. Europe (Germany). 

37990. Cast of a slab of lithographic limestone, showing a con- 
siderable portion of the skeleton. The original is from 
the Kimeridgian of Eichstadt, Bavaria ; and is figured by 
Meyer in the 'Eauna der Yorwelt — Eept. Lith. Schiefer,' 
pi. vii. figs. 1-3. Purchased, 1862. 

37990 a. Two casts of a split slab of lithographic limestone, show- 
ing some of the bones of the fore limb and pes of a Ptero- 
dactyle referred by Meyer to the present species. The 
original is from the Kimeridgian of Bavaria ; and is figured 
by Meyer, op. cit. pi. vii. fig. 4. Purchased, L862. 



Genus CYCNORHAMPHUS, 

Rostrum elongated and expanded into a broad, swan-like beak, 
with the teeth confined to its extremity ; neck long ; and (according 
to Seeley) the pubis of either side meeting in a bony symphysis. 
As mentioned by Zittel, the characters of the nares as given by 
Seeley require modification. 

1 Neues Jahrb. 1854, p. 52. 

2 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. vii. p. 35 (1871). 

3 ' Onitkosauria/ p. Ill (1870). 



10 OBNITHOSATTEIA. 

Cycnorhamphus suevicus (Quenstedt 1 ). 
Syn. Pterodactylus suevicus, Quenstedt 2 . 

Pterodactylus wurtembergicus, Quenstedt 3 . 
Pterodactylus eurychirus, Wagner 4 . 
Ornithocephalus eurychirus, Wagner 5 . 

This is the only known species of the genus, and is of compara- 
tively large size ; the length of the cranium being 0,158. 
Bab. Europe (Germany). 

37370 x. Cast of a slab of lithographic limestone, showing the 
nearly entire skeleton. The original was obtained from 
the Kimeridgian of Nurplingen, Wiirtemberg ; and is the 
type of the species ; it is described and figured by Quenstedt 
in the memoir cited. Purchased, 1863. 

Family Uncertain. 

Tail apparently long ; jaws toothed to their anterior extremity ; 
relative lengths of metacarpus and ulna unknown ; skull long or 
short ; astragalus, at least in some instances, united to tibia. 

It is uncertain whether the members of this group should be 
included in the JRhamphorhynchidce, or should form a distinct 
family. 

Genus ORNITHOCHIRUS, Seeley 6 . 

Including Palcsornis, Mantell 7 , Cimoliornis, Owen 8 , Coloborhynchus, 
Owen 9 , Criorhynchus, Owen 10 , Doratorhynchus, Seeley ll , Cretornis, 
Fritsch 12 . 

All the species are known by such fragmentary remains that no 
accurate diagnosis can be given. In the upper jaw the anterior 
teeth frequently curve in advance of the muzzle ; the teeth may be 
rounded or compressed, and are frequently inclined forwards ; there 

1 TJeber Pterodactylus suevicus (Tubingen, 1855). — Pterodactylus. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Neues Jahrb. 1854, p. 570. — Subsequently withdrawn. 

4 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. viii. pt. ii. p. 444 (1858). 

5 Ibid. p. 448. 

6 Ornithosauria, p. 112 (1870). — Amended. Also mentioned in 'Index to 
Aves, &c, in Cambridge Museum,' p. xvi (1869) ; Ptenodactylus of the latter 
page was withdrawn, on account of being preoccupied. 

7 Medals of Creation, 1st ed. vol. ii. p. 806 (1844). — Preoccupied and in- 
appropriate. 

8 Brit. Foss. Mamm. and Birds, p. 545 (1846). — Inappropriate. 

n Mesozoic Keptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. p. 6 (1874). 10 Ibid, p 7. 

11 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxi. p. 465 (1875). 

12 Sitz. k. bohm. Ges. Wiss. for 1880, p. 276 (1881). 



OKNITHOCHIRUS. 



11 



is a median longitudinal ridge on the palate, and a corresponding 
groove in the mandibular symphysis ; the scapula and coracoid are 
frequently anchylosed. The skull may be either short, or with a 
long rostrum. Seeley 7 considers that there are only three digits in 
the manus of some species ; and there appears to have been a long 
tail 2 in at least some forms. 

This genus includes the largest known members of the Suborder ; 
if less imperfect specimens were forthcoming it might probably be 
subdivided into groups or genera, but at present the only safe 
course seems to arrange the species according to the geological 
horizons from which the type examples were obtained. Many of 
the species are probably invalid. 

A. Species typically from the Chalk. 
Ornithochirus compressirostris (Owen 3 ). 
Syn. Pterodactylus compressirostris, Owen 4 . 

Keferred to this genus by Seeley (' Ornithosauria,' p. 92). The 
species is of very large size, and has the skull produced into a very 
long and narrow rostrum, with numerous small teeth. Owen esti- 
mates the length of the entire skull at about 0,450. 

Hah. Europe (England). 

39410. Two fragments of the cranial rostrum ; from the Lower 

{Fig.) Chalk of Burham, Kent. These specimens are the type, 

and are figured by Owen in his ' Cretaceous B,eptilia,' 

pi. xxviii. figs. 8-10, a restoration of the skull being given 

in pi. xxvii. fig. 1. 

Boiuerbank Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

39416. Fragment of a rostrum probably belonging to this species ; 
from the Chalk of Kent. Same history. 

The following specimens are referred to this species by Owen. 

49004. The imperfect radius and ulna ; from the Chalk of Burham. 
{Fig.) Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. xxx. figs. 5, 5 a. 

Touhnin-Smith Collection. Purchased, 1869. 

1 Vide Geol. Mag. dec. 2, vol. viii. p. 17 (1881). 

2 It has been suggested by Seeley (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxi. p. 466) 
that the vertebrae originally described by him as caudal may be cervical, but 
from the analogy of Bhamphorhynchios the writer is inclined to adhere to the 
original view. 

3 Cretaceous Reptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), p. 95 (1851).— Pterodactylus. 
1 Loc. cit. 



12 



0KNITH0SAUR1A. 



39411. An imperfect wing-bone (? first phalangeal of the ulnar 

{Fig.) digit); from Burham. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. xxx. 

fig. 4. Bowerbank Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

49003. The imperfect proximal extremity of a bone, apparently 
{Fig.) homologous with the preceding ; from Burham. Figured 
by Owen, op. cit. pi. xxxii. fig. 2. 

Toulmin- Smith Collection. Purchased, 1869. 

Ornithochirus cuvieri (Bowerbank '). 

Syn. Pterodactylus cuvieri, Bowerbank 2 . 
Coloborliynchus cuvieri, Owen 3 . 

Referred to this genus by Seeley (' Ornithosauria,' p. 113), by 
whom it is provisionally recorded from the Cambridge Greensand. 
Fully equal in size to the preceding species, but with the rostrum 
shorter and thicker, and the teeth larger and less numerous, and 
characterized by a marked lateral compression. The limb-bones 
referred by Owen to this species are regarded as indicating an 
expanse of wing of not less than 18 feet. 

Hob. Europe (England). 

39409. The greater portion of the cranial rostrum, showing the 
{Fig.) dental alveoli (some with tooth-germs) and two detached 
teeth ; from the Lower Chalk of Burham, Kent. This 
specimen is the type, and is figured by Bowerbank in 
the ' Proc. Zool. Soc' 1851, pi. iv. (lettered longirostris), 
and also by Owen in his ' Cretaceous Heptilia ' (Mon. Pal. 
Soc), pi. xxviii. figs. 1-7. 

Bowerbank Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

The following specimens are provisionally referred to this species. 
37982. An imperfect tooth of very large size; from the Lower 
Chalk of Hailing, Kent. Purchased, 1864. 

41637. An imperfect bone of the wing ; from the Lower Chalk of 
{Fig.) Burham, Kent. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. xxx. figs. 
1-3. (? First phalangeal of ulnar digit.) 

Toulmin- Smith Collection. Purchased, 1869. 

Ornithochirus (?) giganteus (Bowerbank 4 ). 

Syn. Pterodactylus giganteus, Bowerbank 5 . 
Pterodactylus conirostris, Owen 6 . 



1 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 15. — Pterodactylus. 2 Loc. cit. 

3 Mesozoic Reptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. p 6 (1874). 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. ii. p. 8 (1846). — Pterodactyhos. 

5 Loc. cit. 8 In Dixon's ' Greologj of Sussex,' p. 401 (1850). 



ORXITBOCHIRTTS. 13 

Smaller than the preceding, with the skull not produced into a 
distinct rostrum, and with the teeth short, rounded, and not pro- 
jecting in advance of the muzzle ; scapula and coracoid anchylosed. 
The form of the muzzle approximates to that of Scaphognathus 
crassirostris, but the teeth do not extend so far back. The calcu- 
lated length of the cranium on the proportions of that of the latter 
would be 0,255. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

39412. The associated anterior extremities of the upper and lower 
(Fig.) jaws, pectoral girdle, and fragments of bones ; from the 

Lower Chalk of Burham, Kent. These specimens may be 
regarded as the types ; and are figured by Bowerbank in 
the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. ii. pi. i. fig. 1 ; in 
Dixon's ' Geology of Sussex,' pi. xxxviii. figs. 4, 5 (as P. 
conirostris) ; and in Owen's ' Cretaceous Reptilia,' pi. xxxi. 
figs. 1-6. Bowerbank Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

The following specimens from the same locality are referred by Owen 
to this species ; all belong to the BoiverbanV Collection. 

39413. An imperfect bone (?part of sternum). Eigured by Owen, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. xxxi. fig. 9. 

39415 a. Termination of a long-bone. Eigured by Bowerbank, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. i. fig. 5, and by Owen, op. cit. pi. xxxi. fig. 10. 

39417. Shaft of a bone of the wing. Eigured by Bowerbank, op. 
(Fig.) cit. pi. i. fig. 6 ; by Dixon, op. cit. pi. xxxviii. fig. 7 (as 
P. conirostris) ; and by Owen, op. cit. pi. xxxi. fig. 11. 

39414. Part of the shaft of a long-bone (? tibia). Eigured by 
(Fig.) Bowerbank, op. cit. pi. i. fig. 3 ; and by Owen, op. cit. 

pi. xxxi. fig. 12. 

39415 "b. Two portions of long-bones, and portion of a rib. Eigured 
(Fig.) by Bowerbank, op. cit. pi. i. fig. 4 ; and by Owen, op. cit. 
pi. xxxi. fig. 13. 

39413. Eragment of a long-bone. Eigured by Bowerbank, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. i. fig. 7, and by Owen, op. cit. pi. xxxi. fig. ]4. 

** Ornithochirus diomedius (Owen l , ex Gervais). 
Syn. Cimoliornis diomedius, Owen 2 . 

1 Brit. Foss. Mamm. and Birds, p 545 (1846).— Cimoliornis. a Loc. cit. 



14 ORlSTITHOSAirEIA. 

It is probable that this form is identical with one of the preced- 
ing species. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

39418. The distal extremity of the ulnar metacarpal ; from the 
(Fig.) Middle Chalk of Kent. This specimen is the type, and is 

figured by Owen in the ' Trans. Geol. Soc' ser. 2, vol. vi. 

pi. xxxix. fig. 2 (as a bird-bone) ; in his ' British Fossil 

Mammals and Birds,' p. 545, fig. 230 (as Cimoliornis) ; 

and in his ' Cretaceous Reptilia' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pi. xxxii. 

fig. 4. Bowerbanh Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

** Ornithochirus hlavatschi (Fritsch x ). 
Syn. Cretornis hlavatschi, Fritsch 2 . 

The type of Cretornis. Of medium size ; known by the humerus ; 
may be identical with one of the preceding. 
Hab. Europe (Bohemia). 

R. 1031. Cast of the left humerus and some imperfect metacarpals 
and phalangeals of the wing. The originals, which are 
the types, were obtained from the Upper Chalk (Iser- 
schichten) of Zarecka Lhota, near Chotzen, Bohemia ; and 
are described by Fritsch in the ' Sitz. k. bohm. Ges. Wiss.' 
for 1880, pp. 275-6, as belonging to a Bird. The hume- 
rus (described by Fritsch as a coracoid) has a length of 
0,074 ; and, though somewhat smaller, closely resembles 
the Wealden specimen No. 2353. 

Presented by Dr. Anton Fritsch, 1887. 

Specifically undetermined specimens from the Chalk. 

41638. The distal extremity of the ulnar metacarpal ; from the 
(Fig.) Middle Chalk of Kent. Figured in the ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc' vol. iv. pi. ii. figs. 4, 5 ; and in Owen's ' Cre- 
taceous Beptilia' (Mon. Pal. Soc.) pi. xxxii. fig. 5. 

Toidmin-Smith Collection. Purchased, 1869. 

39417. An homologous fragment ; from the same horizon. 

Bowerbanh Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

49005. Part of shaft of a long-bone (? femur) ; from the Lower 

(Fig.) Chalk of Burham, Kent. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. 

xxxii. fig. 3. Smith Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

1 Sitz. k. bohm. Ccs. Wiss. for 1880, p. 27f> (1881).— Cretornis. ~ hoc. cit. 



OENITHOCHIETJS. 15 

R. 39. Four imperfect long-bones ; from the Chalk of Snodland, 
Kent. Shrubsole Collection. Purchased, 1880. 

B. Species typically from the Cambridge Creensand. 
Ornithochirus sedgwicki (Owen J ). 

Syn. Pterodactylus sedgwicki, Owen 2 . 
Coloborhynchus sedgwicki, Owen 3 . 

Apparently allied to 0. cuvieri, but with the anterior dental 
alveoli relatively larger, a corresponding increase in the depth of 
the muzzle, and a larger total number of alveoli in a corresponding 
space. 

Hob. Europe (England). 

35213. Fragment of the premaxillary rostrum, showing three pairs 
of dental alveoli : from the Cambridge Greensand. 

Purchased, 1859. 

35220. A smaller fragment of the premaxillary rostrum, showing 
two pairs of dental alveoli ; from the same formation. 

Purchased, 1859. 

35376. Anterior extremity of the mandibular symphysis ; from the 
same formation. This specimen was determined by Sir 
E. Owen, and agrees generally with the type mandible 
figured in his Cretaceous Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), 1st 
Suppl. p. 2 (1859), pi. i. fig. 2, although of somewhat 
greater depth. Purchased, 1859. 

35412 a. Greater portion of a smaller mandibular symphysis agree- 
ing in general characters with the preceding specimen, 
and perhaps belonging to this species ; from the same 
formation. Closely resembles the specimen figured by 
Owen, op. cit. pi. i. fig. 7. Purchased, 1859. 

39105. Part of a similar mandibular symphysis ; from the same 
formation. BoiuerbanTc Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

Ornithochirus fittoni (Owen 4 ). 
Syn. Pterodactylus fittoni, Owen 5 . 
Eef erred to this genus by Seeley (' Ornithosauria/ p. 118). The 

1 Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1858, Trans, of Sections, p. 98 (1859). — Pterodactylus. 

2 Lor. cit. 3 Mesozoic Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt, i. p. 6 (1874). 

1 Cretaceous Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc.), 1st Suppl. p. 1 (1859). — Pterodactylus. 
5 Loc. cit. 



16 OKNITHOSATTRIA. 

premaxillary rostrum is much less deep than in the preceding 
species ; and the dental alveoli are relatively larger, and separated 
from one another by longer intervals. 
Hah. Europe (England). 

R. 540. The extremity of a mandibular symphysis, showing three 
pairs of dental alveoli, which agree in relative size and 
position with those of the type premaxillary rostrum 
figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. i. fig. 3. Purchased, 1885. 

Ornithochirus (?) simus (Owen *). 

Syn. Pterodactylus simus, Owen 2 . 
Criorhynchus simus, Owen 3 . 
(?) Pterodactylus ivoodwardi, Owen 4 . 

Of very large size, and characterized by the great depth and 
bluntness of the muzzle. If, as is very probable, this species should 
prove generically distinct from the preceding forms, the name 
Criorhynchus might be retained for it 5 . 

Hah. Europe (England). 

35412. Fragment of the muzzle ; from the Cambridge Greensand. 
This specimen, although rather smaller, agrees with the 
type example figured by Owen in his ' Cretaceous Eeptilia,' 
3rd Suppl. pi. i. figs. 1, 2, as belonging to the upper jaw, 
but is referred by Seeley (' Ornithosauria,' p. 127) to the 
mandible. Purchased, 1859. 

R. 546. Fragment of the extremity of the prem axillae, not impro- 
bably belonging to a larger individual of the present 
species ; from Cambridgeshire. This specimen, which 
apparently agrees in character with the one figured by 
Owen, op. cit. pi. ii. fig. 3, under the name of Pterodac- 
tylus ivoodwardi, if rightly determined, would indicate the 
correctness of Seeley's view as to the position of the type 
specimen, and also that P. ivoodwardi may be a synonym 
of this form. Purchased, 1885. 

1 Cretaceous Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), 3rd Suppl. p. 2 (I860).— Pterodactylus. 

2 Loc. cit. 3 Mesozoic Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. p. 7 (1874). 
4 Cretaceous Eeptilia, op. cit. p. 4. 

6 In the preliminary publication of the name Ornithochirus (Seeley, Index 
to Aves &c. in Camb. Mus. p. xvi [1869]) it was applied to this species ; but in 
the later memoir (' Ornithosauria,' p. 127) the forms with spear-shaped jaws 
were taken as the types. See also Geol. Mag. 1881, pp. 15, 16. It would 
apparently only lead to worse confusion to revert to the original application of 
the name. 



ORNITHOCHIRTJS. 1 ( 

35418. An imperfect upper tooth, agreeing with the second tooth 

{Fig.) in the preceding specimen; from Cambridgeshire. Figured 

by Owen, op. cit. pi. iv. fig. 4, and referred to the present 

species. Purchased, 1859. 

35418 a. A very similar specimen ; from Cambridgeshire. 

Same history. 

Specifically undetermined specimens from the Cambridge Greensand. 
(Some of these boyies may perhaps belong to the Pteranodontia \) 

35435. Fragment apparently belonging to the premaxillary rostrum, 
containing one broken tooth. Purchased, 1859. 

41787. Hinder portion of an Ornithosaurian or Avian cranium. 

Purchased, 1869. 

44173. Model of a natural cast of the brain-cavity. The original 
is preserved in the Geological Museum, Cambridge, and is 
described and figured by Seeley in his ' Ornithosauria/ 
p. 87, pi. xi. figs. 10-12. Presented by Mr. H. 



35436. Fragment of a rostrum, with three pairs of dental alveoli. 

Purchased, 1859. 

R. 485. The extremity of a mandibular symphysis, showing three 
pairs of dental alveoli, one of which contains a broken 
tooth. Presented by Sir P. Oiven, K.C.B. 

35241. A large broken tooth (? 0. simus). Purchased, 1859. 

R. 474. Seven teeth, mostly imperfect. 

Presented by Sir P. Owen, K.C.B. 

35241 a, 35419, 35427. Sixteen more or less imperfect teeth. 

Purchased, 1859. 

35411. The axis vertebra of a large species. Purchased, 1859. 

R. 547. The conjoint atlas and axis vertebra of a considerably 
smaller form. Purchased, 1885. 

R. 548. The conjoint atlas and axis vertebra of a rather smaller 
individual. Same history. 

1 The toothless Ornithostoma has been described from these beds ; vide 
Seeley, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. vii. p. 35, note (1871). 

C 



18 ORNITHOSAURIA. 

35410. The conjoint atlas and axis vertebras, in which the centrum 
of the latter is rather shorter than in the preceding 
specimen. Purchased, 1859. 

35410 a. A very similar specimen. Purchased. 1859. 

35242. Another similar specimen, wanting the greater portion of 
the neural spine. Purchased, 1859. 

35829. The axis vertebra of a form in which the centrum is shorter 
than in the preceding. Purchased, 1859. 

43982. A very similar specimen. Purchased, 1872. 

43982 a. The axis vertebra of a smaller form. Purchased, 1872. 

46370. Four imperfect cervical 1 vertebras of a large species. 

Purchased, 1875. 

35215, 35223-4, 35423-4. Five imperfect cervical vertebras of 
large size. Purchased, 1859. 

35215 a. A large imperfect cervical vertebra. Purchased, 1859. 

35245. An imperfect cervical vertebra of a large species. 

Purchased, 1859. 

R. 475. A large imperfect cervical vertebra. 

Presented by Sir R. Owen, K.C.B. 

R. 56. Two large imperfect cervical vertebras. Purchased, 1881. 

R. 549. Five imperfect cervical vertebras belonging to individuals of 
different sizes. Purchased, 1885. 

43983. An imperfect cervical vertebra of a species of medium size. 

Purchased, 1872. 

43983 a. An imperfect cervical vertebra of a smaller form. 

Purchased, 1872. 

41786. Part of a cervical vertebra of a still smaller form. 

Purchased, 1869. 

35243. Two imperfect vertebras provisionally referred to the cervical 
region. Purchased, 1859. 

1 In assigning these vertebrae to the cervical region the writer follows Owen, 
op. ell. 1st Suppl. pi. ii. ; vide supra, note 2; p. 11. 



ORNITHOCHIRTJS. 19 

R. 475. A dorsal vertebra. Very similar to the specimen figured 
by Seeley, op. cit. pi. x. figs. 2-4. 

Presented by Sir B. Owen, K.G.B. 

35425. A very similar dorsal vertebra. Purchased, 1859. 

35244. An imperfect dorsal vertebra of similar type. 

Purchased, 1859. 

35244 a. The centrum of a small trunk vertebra. 

Purchased, 1859. 

35377. A lumbar vertebra. Purchased, 1860. 

35248. An imperfect anterior sacral vertebra. Purchased, 1859. 

R. 459. A caudal vertebra of a large species. Somewhat smaller 
than the specimen figured by Seeley, op. cit. pi. x. figs. 
13, 14. Presented by Sir B. Owen, K.C.B. 

35248. Four caudal vertebrae of rather smaller size. 

Purchased, 1859. 

35247. A smaller imperfect caudal vertebra. Purchased, 1859. 

35249. An imperfect caudal vertebra of still smaller size. 

Purchased, 1859. 

35421. Cast of the anterior portion of the sternum of a large species. 
The original is preserved in the Geological Museum at 
Cambridge, and is figured by Owen, op. cit. 3rd Suppl. 
pi. ii. figs. 7-9, and also by Seeley, op, cit. pi. i. fig. 1. 

Purchased, 1859. 

R. 541. The imperfect anterior portion of a rather smaller sternum. 

Purchased, 1885. 

41782. The anterior portion of a sternum, agreeing in size with 
the preceding. Purchased, 1869. 

35405. The anterior portion of a smaller sternum. Figured by 
{Fig.) Owen, op. cit. 3rd Suppl. pi. ii. figs. 10-12. 

Purchased, 1859. 

35409. The glenoidal extremity of the anchylosed right scapula and 
coracoid of a large species. Very similar to the specimen 
figured in Owen's 'Cretaceous Reptilia/ 1st Suppl. pi. i. 
figs. 1-3. Purchased, 1860. 

c2 



20 ORNITHOSAUEIA. 

35226. A more imperfect, but otherwise very similar, specimen 
belonging to the opposite side. Purchased, 1859. 

R. 553. The glenoidal extremity of the anchylosed scapula and 
coracoid of a smaller form. Purchased, 1885. 

R. 552. The glenoidal extremity of a smaller anchylosed scapula 
and coracoid. Same history. 

R. 551. The glenoidal extremity of the anchylosed right scapula 
and coracoid of a small species. Same 



41780. The glenoidal extremity of the right scapula. 

Purchased, 1869. 

R. 554. The proximal extremity of the right scapula. 

Purchased, 1885. 

35231. Two specimens of the glenoidal extremity of the coracoid. 

Purchased, 1859. 

35232. The glenoidal half of a coracoid. Purchased, 1859. 

35378. The proximal extremity of the right humerus of a large 
species. Purchased, 1860. 

35214. The proximal extremity of the right humerus of an equally 
large form. Purchased, 1859. 

35225. The proximal extremity of a rather smaller left humerus. 

Purchased, 1859. 

35408. The proximal extremity of a nearly similar left humerus. 

Purchased, 1860. 

35830. The proximal extremity of a rather smaller right humerus. 

Purchased, 1860. 

41779. The proximal extremity of a considerably smaller left 
humerus. Purchased, 1869. 

35413. The slightly imperfect right humerus of a small form. Very 
similar to the specimen figured by Seeley, * Ornithosauria/ 
pi. iv. fig. 1. Purchased, 1860. 

R. 1032. Cast of the distal extremity of the left humerus of a large 
species. The original is preserved in the Geological 
Museum at Cambridge, and is figured by Seeley, op. cit. 
pi. iv. fig. 13. Presented by Mr. II. Keeping. 



OKNITHOCHIBUS. 21 

41778. The proximal extremity of the ulna of a large species. 

Purchased, 1869. 

35229. The proximal extremity of the ulna of a small species. 

Purchased, 1859. 

41777. The distal extremity of the ulna of a very large species. 

Purchased, 1869. 

35324. The distal extremity of a rather smaller ulna. 

Purchased, 1859. 

R. 555. A specimen which is apparently the distal portion of the 
ulna of a small species. Purchased, 1885. 

41781. The distal portion of the radius of a small species. 

Purchased, 1869. 

37954. The right proximal carpal of a large species. Very similar 
to the specimen figured by Seeley, op. cit. pi. v. fig. 1. 

Presented by Sir R. Oiven, K.C.B., 1863. 

43987. The right proximal carpal, of equal size with the preceding. 

Purchased, 1872. 

35235. The left proximal carpal of a specifically distinct form. 

Purchased, 1859. 

35330. The left proximal carpal. Purchased, 1859. 

35422. A rather smaller left proximal carpal. Purchased, 1859. 

R. 543. The left distal carpal of a very large species. 

Purchased, 1885. 

33156. The right distal carpal of a rather smaller form. 

Purchased, 1861. 

35407. The imperfect left distal carpal of an apparently similar v 
form. Purchased, 1860. 

35237. A slightly smaller right distal carpal. Purchased, 1859. 

R. 544. A very similar imperfect right distal carpal. 

Purchased, 1885. 

35405. A nearly similar imperfect left distal carpal. 

Purchased, I860. 



22 OENITHOSAURIA. 

35420. The right distal carpal of a rather smaller form. Figured 

{Fig.) by Owen in his ' Cretaceous Beptilia,' 3rd Suppl. pi. iv. 

figs. 7, 10. Purchased, 1859. 

R. 1032 a. Cast of a similar right distal carpal. The original is in 
the Geological Museum, Cambridge, and is said to be the one 
figured by Seeley in his ' Ornithosauria,' pi. v. figs. 7-10. 

Presented by Mr. H. Keeping. 

R. 550. An imperfect right distal carpal, agreeing in size with the 
preceding specimen. Purchased, 1885. 

R. 542. The distal extremity of the ulnar metacarpal of a large 
species. Yery similar to the specimen figured by Owen, 
op. cit. 1st Suppl. pi. iv. figs. 9-11. Same history. 

39108. A rather larger specimen of a corresponding fragment of 
the opposite side, showing none of the shaft. 

Bowerbank Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

39107. A rather smaller specimen of a corresponding fragment, 
with a portion of the shaft. Same history. 

43984. A similar specimen, without any of the shaft. 

Purchased, 1872. 

43985. Four specimens of the distal extremity of the homologous 

bone, two of which show portions of the shaft. 

Purchased, 1872. 

35239. The imperfect proximal extremity of the first phalangeal of 
the ulnar digit of the manus of a very large species. 

Purchased, 1859. 

39106. The proximal extremity of the homologous bone of a smaller 
form. This bone agrees closely with the less imperfect one 
figured by Seeley, op. cit. pi. vii. fig. 1. 

Bowerbank Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

35227. A very similar specimen. Purchased, 1859. 

41783. The imperfect proximal portion of an homologous bone, 
apparently agreeing very closely with the preceding. 

Purchased, 1869. 

35325. The distal extremity of the first phalangeal of the ulnar 
digit of the manus of a large species. Purchased, 1859. 



0RNITH0CHIRTTS. 23 

35325 a. A similar fragment, of rather smaller size. 

35216. Fragment of the shaft of a wing-bone of a large species. 

Purchased, 1859. 

35228, -328-9. Five fragments of shafts of smaller wing-bones. 

Purchased, 1859-60. 

R. 487. The imperfect terminal phalangeal of one of the clawed 
digits of the manus. Very similar to the specimen 
figured by Seeley, op. cit. pi. viii. fig. 16. 

Presented by Sir R. Owen, K.C.B 

41784. Termination of a bone said to belong to the second pha- 
langeal of the ulnar digit of the manus. 

Purchased, 1869. 

43988. The proximal portion of the femur of a small species. Agrees 
closely with the entire bone figured by Seeley, op. cit. 
~pl. viii. figs. 5, 6. Purchased, 1872. 

35230. The distal half of the left femur of a form agreeing closely 
in size with the preceding. Purchased, 1859. 

R. 478. The distal portion of a rather smaller left femur. 

Presented by Sir M. Owen, K.C.B. 

35230 a. The proximal portion of a tibia. Slightly smaller than 
the specimen figured by Seeley, op. cit. pi. viii. figs. 13, 
14. Purchased, 1859. 



C. Species typically from the Gault. 

Ornithochirus daviesi (Owen ] ). 
Syn. Pterodactylus daviesi, Owen 2 . 

A species agreeing approximately in size with 0. fittoni, but with 
smaller and more numerons teeth ; it appears highly probable that 
this form is really identical with 0. denticulatus, Seeley 3 , from the 
Cambridge Greensand. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

1 Mesozoic Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. p. 2 (1874).— Pterodactylus. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 'Ornithosauria,' p. 122, pi. xii. figs. 8, 9 (1870). 



24 OKNITHOSAUKIA. 

43074. The extremity of the mandibular rostrum • from the Gault 

{Fig.) of Folkestone. This specimen is the type, and is figured 

by Owen, op. cit. pi. i. figs. 5, 6. There are five dental 

alveoli in a space equal to that which contains three in 

the mandible referred to O.fittoni. Purchased, 1871. 

Specifically undetermined specimens from the Gault of Folkestone. 

R. 47. Four imperfect bones belonging to the wing. 

Purchased, 1881. 

37238. Two imperfect wing-bones. Purchased, 1863. 

40096. Two imperfect wing-bones. Purchased, 1866. 

47212. The nearly entire tibia, of which the total length is 0,220. 
As in Dimorphodon, this bone has a distal trochlea, looking 
as though the astragalus were anchylosed to it. 

Purchased, 1876. 



J). Species typically from the Wealden. 
** Ornithochirus nobilis (Owen l ). 

Syn. Pterodactylus nobilis, Owen 2 . 

This species is of large size, but is too imperfectly known to 
admit of its distinctive characters being given. 
Hob. Europe (England). 

36552. Part of the second (?) phalangeal of the ulnar digit of the 
{Fig.) manus ; from the Wealden of the Isle of Wight. This 

specimen is figured by Owen in his 'Liassic Reptilia,' 

pt. ii. pi. xix. fig. 10, and is the type. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

36552 a. Fragments of bones associated with the preceding. 

Same history. 

R. 176. Considerable portion of the skeleton of a large Ornitho- 
saurian not improbably belonging to this species ; from 
the Wealden of Brook, Isle of Wight. The skeleton is 



1 Liassic Reptilia (Mon. Tal. Soc), pt. ii. pi. xix. fig. 10 (1870). 

2 Loc. cit. 



OEN]THOCHIKTJS. 



25 



fragmentary, and much crushed ; the hinder part of the 
cranium in preserved, as well as parts of the vertebral 
column and numerous portions of the wing-bones ; the 
anterior part of the sacrum is well shown. The portion 
of the cranium has been bisected in order to show the 
brain-cavity ; but the contour of the latter is not very 
clear. Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

** Ornithochirus (?) clifti (Mantell 1 ). 

Syn. Palceomis clifti, Mantell 2 . 
Pterodactylus clifti, Bronn 3 . 

The following specimens indicate a form considerably smaller 
than the preceding, which is provisionally referred to the present 
genus. 

Hob. Europe (England). 

2353. The proximal extremity of the left humerus; from the 
{Fig.) Wealden of Cuckfield, Sussex. This specimen is figured 
by Mantell in his 'Eossils of Tilgate Eorest,' pi. viii. 
fig. 11 (1827), and also in the 'Trans. Geol. Soc' ser. 2, 
vol. v. pi. xiii. fig. 3, as the bone of a bird ; but was 
refigured by Owen in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. ii. 
pp. 99-100, figs. 5, 7, and referred to the Ornithosauria. 
Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

2353 a. The imperfect distal part of apparently the same left 
(Fig.) humerus. Eigured by Mantell, op. cit. pi. viii. fig. 15, 
and pi. xiii. figs. 1, la (as a bird-bone), and in his 
' Medals of Creation,* 1st ed. vol. i. p. 806, fig. 149 (as 
Palceomis) ; also by Owen, op. cit. p. 97, figs. 1, 2, 3. 
This specimen is the type. Same history. 

Ornithochirus (?), sp. 

Distinguished from the preceding by a considerable difference in 
the contour of the head of the humerus. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

R. 558. The imperfect proximal extremity of the left humerus ; 
from the Wealden of Brook, Isle of Wight. 

Purchased, 1885. 

1 'Medals of Creation,' 1st ed. vol. ii. p. 806 (1844).-- Pakeornis. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 'Index Paheontologicus,' p. 895 (1848). 



26 OKNITHOSATJRTA. 

** Ornithochirus (?) curtus (Owen l ). 

Syn. Pterodactylus curtus, Owen 2 . 

A comparatively small form, definitely known only by the fol- 
lowing specimen. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

R. 1440. The distal extremity of the tibia ; from the Wealden of 

{Fig.) Sussex. Eigured by Owen, loc. cit. In the anchylosis of 

the proximal portion of the tarsus to its distal extremity, 

this bone agrees with the tibia from the Gault (No. 47212). 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

Specifically undetermined specimens from the Wealden. 

2458. Shaft of a long-bone : from the Wealden of Cuckfield, Sussex. 

(Fig.) Eigured by Mantell, in the ' Trans. Geol. Soc' ser. 2, 

vol. v. pi. xiii. fig. 6, as a bird's bone. Same history. 

2470. Shaft of a long-bone ; from the same locality. Eigured by 
(Fig.) Mantell, op. cit. pi. xiii. fig. 5. Same history. 

2455. Three imperfect long-bones ; from the same locality. 

Same history. 

E. Species typically from the Purbeck. 

Ornithochirus validus (Owen 3 ). 

Syn. Pterodactylus validus, Owen 4 . 

? Pterodactylus macrwus, Seeley 5 . 
Doratorhynchus validus, Seeley 6 . 

The lower jaw, originally described by Seeley as P. macrurus, but 
subsequently provisionally identified with this species, has the 
symphysial groove characteristic of Ornithochirus. The species is 
of comparatively large size. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

1 Liassic Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pfc. ii. pi. xix. figs. 8-9 (1870). 
— Pterodactylus. 2 Loc. cit. 

3 Ibid. pi. xix. fig. 7. 

4 Loc. cit. 

5 ' Index to Aves &c, in Camb. Mus.,' p. 89 (1869). 
H Quart. Jo urn. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxi. p. 465 (1875). 



KHAMPHORHYNCHID.E. £l 

40653. The second phalangeal of the ulnar digit of the manus ; 

{Fig.) from the Middle Purbeck beds of Swanage, Dorset- 
shire. This specimen is the type, and is figured (without 
description) by Owen in his ' Liassic Peptilia,' pt. ii. 
pi. xix. fig. 7. Purchased, 1867. 

The following specimen may perhaps belong to the present genus. 

2462. A phalangeal of the ulnar digit of the manus, embedded in 
a slab of the Purbeck Limestone of Swanage. Length 
0,103. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 



Family RHAMPHORHYNCHID^E. 

Tail (at least usually) long ; skull less bird-like than in the 
Pterodactylidce, and often comparatively short and stout ; jaws not 
always toothed to their anterior extremity ; nares frequently small 
and separated by a complete bar from the preorbital vacuity ; meta- 
carpus much shorter than half the length of the ulna ; proximal half 
of tarsus sometimes anchylosed to tibia. 



Genus SCAPHOGNATHUS, Wagner l . 

Syn. Pachyrhamphus, Fitzinger 2 . 
Brachytrachelus, Giebel 3 . 

In the type species, skull massive, without a distinct rostrum ; 
nares small, and separated by a broad bar from preorbital vacuity ; 
teeth subequal, nearly vertical, and extending anteriorly to the 
extremities of the jaws, and backwards to the hinder part of the 
preorbital vacuity ; alveolar border of jaws and inferior border of 
mandible nearly straight ; neck short and thick ; tail unknown ; 
other characters as in Rhamphorliynchus. Zittel 4 would include 
both this genus and Omithochirus in the latter. 

1 Sitz. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. 186] , vol. i. p. 519. 

2 Syst. Eept. p. 35 (1843).— Preoccupied by a genus of Birds (Gray, 1840). 

3 'Allgemeine Palaontologie,' p. 231 (1852). — Preoccupied by a genus of 
Coleoptera (Schonh. 1847). 

4 Palaeontographica, vol. xxix. p. 64 (1882). 



28 



ORNTTHOSATJRIA. 



Scaphognathus crassirostris (Goldfuss ] ). 

Syn. Pterodactylus crassirostris, Goldfuss 2 . 

Pachyrhamphus crassirostris, Fitzinger 3 . 
Ornithocephalus crassirostris, Wagner 4 . 
JBrachytrachelus crassirostris, Giebel 5 . 
Rhamphoi'hynchus crassirostris, Wagner 6 . 



The type species ; the length of the skull is 0,120. 
eludes that the tail was long. 
Hob. Europe (Germany). 



Zittel 7 con- 



Fig. 4. 




Scaphognathus crassirostris ; from the Kimeridgian of Bavaria. ■§•. n, nares; 
o, preorbital vacuity ; t, orbit. The restoration of the tail is incorrect. 

43468. Casts of a split slab of lithographic limestone, showing the 
greater portion of the skeleton. The original (woodcut, 



1 Nova Acta Ac. Cses. Leop.-Car. vol. xv. pt. i. p. 63 (1832). 

2 Loc. cit. 3 Syst. Eept. p. 35 (1843). 
4 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vi. pt. i. p. 189 (1851). 

6 ' Allgemeine Palaontologie,' p. 231 (1852). 
(i Op. cit. vol. viii. pt. ii. p. 505 (1858). 

7 Palaionlographica, vol. xxix. p. 64 (1882). 



-Pterodactylus. 



RHAMPHORHYNCHID^. 



29 



fig. 4) was obtained from the Kimeridgian of Bavaria, and 
is preserved in the Museum at Bonn. It is figured bj 
Goldfuss in the ' Nova Acta Ac. Caes. Leop.-Car.' vol. xv. 
pt. i. pis. 7-9 ; by Buckland in his Mineralogy and 
Geology (Bridgewater Treatise), pi. xxii. ; by Meyer in the 
' Fauna der Yorwelt — Rept. Lith. Schiefer,' pi. v. figs, 1, 
2 ; and by Owen in his ' Cretaceous Reptilia ' (Mon. Pal. 
Soc), pi. xxvii. Presented by K. Murchison, Esq., 1872. 

43437. Cast showing the left side of the skull of the preceding 
specimen. Figured by Meyer, op. cit. pi. v. fig. 3. The 
symphysis of the mandible shows a median descending 
ridge on the ventral surface. Same history. 

Genus RHAMPHORHYNCHUS, Meyer 1 . 

Teeth usually not extending to the extremities of the jaws ; those 
of the mandible subequal in size, and all inclined forwards ; nares 
moderate, and separated by a broad bar from preorbital vacuity ; 
alveolar border of premaxilla concave, and of mandible convex, and 
inferior border of latter concave ; scapula and coracoid separate or 
anchylosed ; neck thick, and of moderate length ; proximal tarsals 
usually distinct, but anchylosed to the tibia in R. grandis ; either 
four or five functional digits in pes, the fifth digit having two 
phalangeals. Pubis narrow, elongated, and bent, and uniting in a 
bony symphysis ; ischium anchylosed to ilium ; sacrum with from 
three to five vertebras. Hind limb usually comparatively weak ; and 
the long tail with a terminal membranous expansion (fig. 5), and 
the vertebras bound together by ossified tendons. 

Rhamphorhynchus longicauda(Miinster 2 ). 

Syn. Pterodactylus longicaudus, Miinster 3 . 

Ornithocephalus longicaudatns, Wagner 4 . 
Rhamphorhynchus longicaudatus, Amnion 5 . 

The type species. Of small size, and perhaps without an eden- 
tulous interval at the extremity of the upper jaw. The length of the 
cranium is 0,043 ; and the scapula and coracoid are distinct, and 
approximate in structure to those of Pterodactylus. 

Bab. Europe (Germany). 

1 Neues Jabrb. 1846, p. 463. 

2 Ibid. 1839, p. 677. — Pterodactylus. 

3 Loc. cit. 

4 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vi. pt. i. p. 190(1851). 

5 Corr.-blatt. Nat. Ver. Regensburg, vol. xxxviii. p. 155 (1884). 



30 



ORNITHOSATJKIA. 



37361. Cast of a slab of lithographic limestone, showing the nearly 
entire skeleton. The original is preserved in the Museum 
at Leucktenberg, and was obtained in 1846 from the Kime- 
ridgian of Eichstadt, Bavaria ; it is one of the types, 
and is figured by Von Meyer in the ' Fauna der Vor- 
welt — Eept. Lith. Schiefer,' pi. ix. fig. 5. Another skeleton 
wanting the skull is figured by Zittel in the ' Palgeonto- 
graphica,' vol. xxix. pi. xi. Purchased, 1863. 

Rhamphorhynchus muensteri (Goldfuss l ). 

Syn. Ornithocephalus muensteri, Goldfuss 2 . 
Pterodactylus muensteri, Meyer 3 . 
Ramphorhynclms phyllurus, Marsh 4 . 

Eegarded by Zittel 5 as closely allied to the following form, but 
with the scapula and coracoid frequently anchylosed, with a fifth 
digit in the pes, and with the patagium rather wider. The same 
writer identifies the so-called R, phyllurus with this species. If the 
next form be also specifically identical, the present name should 
stand. 

Hah. Europe (Germany). 

43004. A slab of lithographic limestone, containing the imperfect 
skeleton, of which the cranium and mandible are entire ; 
from the Kimeridgian of Eichstadt, Bavaria. The length 
of the cranium is 0,080. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

42738. A slab of lithographic limestone containing an imperfect 
{Fig.) skeleton (without the skull), provisionally referred to this 
species ; from Eichstadt. Figured by Yon Meyer in the 
' Fauna der Yorwelt — Rept. Lith. Schiefer,' pi. x. fig. 3, 
under the name of R. gemmingi. It agrees in size with 
the present form. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

39353. Cast of the preceding specimen. Purchased, 1865. 

R. 300. Cast of a slab of lithographic limestone,, showing the nearly 
entire skeleton and the impression of the patagium. The 
original, which was obtained from Eichstadt in 1873, is 

1 Nova Acta Ac. Cses. Leop.-Car. vol. xv. pt. i. p. 112 (1831).— Ornithoceph- 
alus. 

2 hoc. cit. 3 Palseologica, p. 116 (1832). 
1 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. xxiii. p. 256 (1882). 

5 Palaeontograpliica, vol. xxix. pp. 62-63 (1882). 



RHAMPHOKHYNCHID^. 



31 



preserved in the Museum at Yale College, Connecticut, 
U.S.A., and is figured by Marsh in the ' Amer. Journ.' 
ser. 3, vol. xxiii. pi. iii., under the name of R. phyllurus, 
of which it is the type. The length of the cranium is 
about 0,091. A restoration is given in woodcut fig. 5. 

Presented by Prof, 0. 0. Marsh, 1883. 

Fij?. 5. 




Restoration of Rhamphorhynchus muensteri. \. {After Marsh.) 

Rhamphorhynchus gemmingi, Meyer l . 

Syn. Pterodactylus {Rhamphorhynchus) gemmingi, Meyer 2 . 
Ornithocephalus gemmingi, Wagner 3 . 
Rhamphorhynchus longimanus, Wagner 4 . 
Rhamphorhynchus meyeri, Owen 5 . 

Of medium size, the length of the cranium being usually about 
0,125 ; the extremity of the mandible not upwardly recurved ; the 
scapula and coracoid separate ; and apparently either four or five 
digits in the pes. 

Hob. Europe (Germany). 

R. 231. Cast of a slab of lithographic limestone, showing the 
cranium and detached mandible. The original, which is 
the type, was obtained from the Kimeridgian of Stein- 
bruche, near Solenhofen, Bavaria, and is preserved in the 
Museum at Munich. It is figured by Goldfuss in the 
' Nova Acta Ac. Caes. Leop.-Car.' vol. xv. pt. i. pi. xi. 

1 Palasontograpkica, vol. i. p. 1 (1846). - hoc cit 

3 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vi. p. 190 (1851). 

4 Ibid. vol. viii. pt. ii. p. 494 (1858). 

5 Liassic Reptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ii. p. 80 (1870). 



32 



ORNITHOSATJRIA. 



fig. 1 ; by Wagner in the ' Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss.' vol. ii. 
pt. i. pi. vi. ; and by Meyer in the ' Fauna der Yorwelt — 
Eept. Lith. Schiefer,' pi. iii. fig. 4 (as R. gemmingi). The 
length of the cranium is 0,095. . 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

49151. Cast of a slab of lithographic limestone, showing the nearly 
entire skeleton. The original is from the Kimeridgian of 
Bavaria, and is figured by Wagner in the ' Abh. k.-bay. 
Ak. Wiss.' vol. viii. pt. ii. pi. xvi. fig. 1, under the name 
of R. longimanus, of which it is one of the types. The 
length of the cranium is 1,080. Purchased, 1877. 

37362. Cast of a slab of lithographic limestone, showing a consider- 
able portion of the skeleton ; from the Kimeridgian of 
Solenhofen, Bavaria. The original is figured by Wagner, 
op. cit. pi. xvii., under the name of R. longimanus. 

Purchased, 1863. 

37003. A slab of lithographic limestone, showing the mandible 
{Fig.) and a large part of the rest of the skeleton ; from Solen- 
hofen. Figured by Owen in his. ' Liassic Eeptilia ' (Mon. 
Pal. Soc), pt. ii. pi. xix. figs. 5, 6, under the name of 
R. meyerl, of which it is the type. In the presence of 
five digits to the pes (one of the so-called specific characters) 
it agrees with the specimen figured by Zittel in the 
' Pakeontographica/ vol. xix. pi. xii. fig. 2. 

Haberlein Collection. Purchased, 1862. 

37787. A split slab of lithographic limestone, containing the greater 
part of a skeleton, without the skull, provisionally referred 
to a large individual of this species ; from Solenhofen. 
The bones are somewhat longer than those of figured 
examples ; the length of the four phalangeals of the ulnar 
digit of the manus being respectively (1) 0,148, (2) 0,118, 
(3) 0,110, (4) 0,110. Same history. 

Rhamphorhynchus grandis (Cuvier l ). 

Syn. Pterodactylus grandis, Cuvier 2 . 

Ornithocephalus grandis, Wagner 3 . 

This species is of much larger size than the preceding, the length 
of the second phalangeal of the wing-digit in the type-specimen 

1 Oss. Fobs. 2nd ed. vol. v. pt. ii. p. 382 (1824).— Pterodactylus. 

- hoc. cit 3 Abb. Ic.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vi. pt. i. p. 190 (1851). 



KHAMPHORHYtfCHID^ 33 

being 0,194. It was founded upon bones of the manus and pes, 
which were referred both by Wagner and Meyer to Pterodactylus ; 
but the relative shortness of the metacarpals in the figure given by 
Wagner in the <Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss.' vol. vi. pt. iii. pi. xix., shows 
that it belongs to the Rhamphorhynchine type. The proximal 
portion of the tarsus is anchylosed to the tibia, and the hind limb 
was probably stronger than in the other species. The following 
specimen, which is only provisionally referred to this species, indi- 
cates a smaller individual than the type ; the extremity of the 
mandible is strongly recurved upwards, and the length of the skull 
is about 0,200. 

Bab. Europe (Germany). 

37002. A slab of lithographic limestone containing the greater part 
of a skeleton, provisionally referred to the present species ; 
from the Eimeridgian of Eichstadt, Bavaria. The length 
of the second phalangeal of the wing-digit is 0,165, that 
of the third 0,140, and that of the fourth 0,136. The teeth 
are markedly compressed laterally ; the tibia and tarsus 
are not visible. Haberlein Collection. Purchased, 1862. 

42737. A split slab of lithographic limestone showing the conjoint 
tibia and fibula and pes of a large Ornithosaurian, which 
may belong either to the present or an allied form ; from 
Eichstadt. In the anchylosis of the proximal portion of 
the tarsus to the tibia this specimen agrees with the 
imperfect pelvic limb of R. grandis figured by Meyer in the 
' Eauna der Yorwelt — Eept. Lith. Schiefer,' pi. vii. fig. 7. 
The length of the tibia in the present specimen is 0,141, 
against 0,198 in the latter, and thus agrees in relative 
size with No. 37002. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

Genus RHAMPHOCEFHALUS, Seeley \ 

Distinguished from Rhamphorhynchus by the anterior mandibular 
teeth being taller than the posterior, which are directed nearly 
vertically, and by the great constriction of the cranium between 
the orbits. The scapula and coracoid were united 2 . 

The apparent generic distinctness from Rliamjphorhynchus of the 
forms included in this group was first pointed out by Huxley in 
the memoir cited under the head of R. depressirostris. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 27 (1880). 

2 See Huxley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xv. pi. xxiy. fig. 6. 

D 



34 OENITHOSAUEIA. 

Rhamphocephalus bucklandi (Meyer x ). 

Syn. Pterodactylus bucklandi, Meyer 2 . 

Rhamphorhynchus bucklandi, Huxley 3 . 
Including : — Pterodactylus duncani, Owen 4 . 
Pterodactylus kiddi, Owen 5 . 

The mandible figured by Huxley in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xv. pi. xxiv. fig. 2, may be regarded as the type. 

This species is larger than Rhamphorhynchus grandis, and has 
more than five lower teeth, with the inferior border of the mandibular 
ramus highly concave 6 . 

Since no characters have been adduced by which the specimens 
named Pterodactylus duncani and P. kiddi can be distinguished from 
the present species, they are provisionally included under this 
heading, although one or other of them may be distinct. ~R. prest- 
wichi, Seeley 7 , may apparently be identical either with the present 
or following species. 

Hob. Europe (England). 

The following specimens are from the Lower Jurassic of Stonesfield, 
Oxfordshire. Some doubtless belong to the present species, but 
others may be specifically distinct; in the latter event one of the 
names proposed by Owen might perhaps be adopted. 

40126. An imperfect humerus. Slightly smaller than the specimen 
figured by Huxley in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc/ vol. xv. 
pi. xxiv. fig. 7. Purchased. 

38016. A bone, which is probably the radius. Length 0,132. 

Purchased, 1862. 

R. 1030. Cast of the first phalangeal of the ulnar digit of the 

manus. The original is in the Oxford Museum, and is 

probably the specimen noticed in Phillips's ' Geology of 

Oxford,' p. 224, Length 0,135. . Purchased. 

It. 1029. Cast of the proximal extremity of a similar bone. Original 
in the Oxford Museum. Purchased. 

40126 b. The first phalangeal of the ulnar digit of the manus. This 
(Fig.) specimen is figured by Owen in his ' Mesozoic Eeptilia' 

1 Palseologica, p. 117 (1832). — Pterodactylus. 2 Loc. cit. 

3 Quart Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xv. p. 058 (1859). 

4 Mesozoic Eeptilia (Men. Pal. Soc), pt. i. p. 11 (1874). 5 Loc. cit. 
G See p. 000 of the memoir by Huxley above cited. 

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 27 (1880). 



RHAMPHORHYNCHID^. 35 

(Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. pi. i. fig. 18, under the name of 
Pterodactylus duncani, of which it is the type. The length 
(exclusive of the proximal projection) is 0,137, and the 
specimen cannot he distinguished from No. R. 1030. 

Purchased, 1866. 

40126 a. The homologous bone of a smaller individual. This bone 
(Pig.) is figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. i. fig. 17, under the name 
of Pterodactylus Tciddi, of which it is the type. Its length 
(exclusive of the proximal projection) is 0,123 ; and there 
is no reason why it should not have belonged to an 
immature individual of the same species as the preceding 
specimen. Same history. 

38019. The proximal half of a similar bone. Purchased, 1862. 

38020. The proximal extremity of a similar bone. Same history. 

40126 g. A considerably smaller homologous bone belonging to the 
same side as No. 40126 b. Length (exclusive of proximal 
process) 0,100. Purchased, 1866. 

40126 d. The second phalangeal of the ulnar digit of the manus. 
(Pig.) Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. i. fig. 28. Length 0,160. 

Same history. 

38014. The second or third phalangeal of the same digit. Length 

0,142. Purchased, 1862. 

38015. A similar bone. Same history. 

38025. An imperfect homologous bone, with impression of the 
entire shaft. Same history. 

40126 f. A similar bone ; imperfect. Purchased, 1866. 

R. 1028. Cast of a bone which is probably a second or third pha- 
langeal of the wing-digit. Original in Oxford Museum. 

Purchased. 

40126 e. Two vertebras in a crushed condition. Purchased, 1866. 

40126 i. A rib. Purchased. 

37765. A rib. Purchased. 

28610. A rib. Purchased. 

47999 a. A crushed bone not improbably belonging to the pectoral 
girdle. Presented by the lion. P. Marsham, 1877. 

d2 



36 OENITHOSATJKIA. 

28610 a. An undetermined imperfect bone. Purchased. 

40126 n. An undetermined imperfect bone. Purchased. 

* Numerous other imperfect bones in the Collection are not 
catalogued. 

The following specimens may indicate young individuals: — 

40126 p. Four terminal phalangeals of the ulnar digit of the manus. 
Length of smallest 0,023. Purchased. 

28610 b. An homologous bone. Purchased. 

28610 c. A humerus. Length 0,019. Purchased. 

Rhamphocephalus depressirostris (Huxley x ). 

Syn. Phamphorhynchus depressirostris, Huxley 2 . 
(?) Pterodactyhis aclandi, Owen 3 . 

Characterized by the presence of only five lower teeth, and by the 
slight concavity of the inferior border of the mandibular ramus. 
The following specimen indicates a large form agreeing in characters 
with this species, and from its size is probably the same as Owen's 
P. aclandi ; if these specimens should be specifically distinct from 
this species, the latter name might be retained. 

Hob. Europe (England). 

47991. Part of the right ramus of a mandible, provisionally referred 
to this species, and showing the four posterior teeth and 
the alveolus of the first tooth ; from the Lower Jurassic of 
Stonesfield, Oxford. This specimen is larger than the type 
mandible of the present species, but is otherwise similar. 
Presented by the Hon. B. Marsham, 1877. 

The following specimens from the same locality agree in relative size 
with the preceding mandible. 

40126 j. The ulna. Length (excluding olecranon) 0,157. The 
distal extremity agrees very closely with that of the cor- 
responding bone (No. 35324) of Ornithochirus from the 
Cambridge Greensand. Purchased, 1866. 

40126 c. The first phalangeal of the ulnar digit of the manus. 
(Fig.) Figured by Owen in his ' Mesozoic Eeptilia' (Mon. Pa]. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xv. p. 663 (1859). — Bhampkorhynchus. 

Loc. cit. 
3 Mesozoic Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc:), pt. i. p. 11 (1874). 



EHAMPHOEHTNCHID^]. 6 i 

Soc), pt. i. pi. i. fig. 19, under the name of Pterodactylus 
aclandi, of which it is the type. Length (exclusive of 
proximal projection) 0,145. Purchased, 1866. 

40126 k. A second or third phalangeal of the homologous digit. 
Length 0,210. Same history. 

40128 1. An imperfect corresponding bone. Same history. 

40126 m. A terminal phalangeal of the ulnar digit of the manus. 
Length 0,186. Same history. 

40126 n. A similar bone. Same history. 

40126 0. The proximal portion of a similar bone. Same history. 

Genus DIMORPHODON, Owen \ 

Jaws toothed to their extremities ; anterior teeth in both jaws 
large, but posterior mandibular ones very small ; nares large, and 
separated .by a narrow bar from preorbital vacuity ; coracoid aud 
scapula united ; proximal tarsals united to tibia ; five digits in pes. 
According to Owen's restoration 2 , the pubis and ischium form an 
expanded sheet of bone at right angles to the narrow ilium, which is 
extended to an equal length on either side of the acetabulum. 

Dimorphodon macronyx (Buckland 3 ). 

Syn. Pterodactylus macronyx, Buckland 4 . 
(?) Pterodactylus marderi, Owen 5 . 

The type species. Length of the cranium usually about 0,220. 
Orniihocephalus banthensis, Theodori 6 (Dimorjoliodon banthensis, 
Owen 7 ), was identified with it by Meyer ; but the anterior extre- 
mity of the jaws is edentulous, as in Rhamphocephalus, and the 
species is the type of Dorygnathus, Wagner 8 . The specimen on 
which P. marderi is founded does not appear to be specifically 
distinct from the present form. 

Hob. Europe (England). 

1 Eep. Brit. Assoc, for 1858, Transaction of Sections, p. 97 (1859). 

2 Liassic Reptilia (Mon, Pal. Soc), pi. xx. Zittel ('Palseontographica,' 
vol. xxix. p. 64) doubts the correctness of this restoration. 

3 Proc. Geol. Soc. vol. i. p. 127 (l§2§).— Pterodactylus. 

4 Log. cit. 

5 Mesozoic Reptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. p. 12 (1874). 

6 Notiz. Nat. Heilk. vol. xxix. p. 103 (1830).— This name has the priority. 

7 Palaeontology, 2nd edit. p. 275 (1861). 

8 Sitz. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. 1861, p. 520. 



38 OKNITHOSATJKIA. 

Fig. 6. 



Bimorphodon macronyx. — Eestored skeleton ; from the Lower Lias, f . /, proxi- 
mal phalangeal of the ulnar digit of the manus ; m, corresponding phalan- 
geal of adjacent digit ; p, metatarsus. (After Owen.) 

R. 1034. Slab containing a considerable portion of the skeleton ; 

(Fig.) from the Lower Lias of Lyme-Regis, Dorsetshire. The 
type. Figured by Buckland in the 'Trans. Greol. Soc' 
ser. 2, vol. iii. pi. xxvii. (1835). The skull and most of 
the vertebrae are wanting. Purchased. 

R. 1035. The skull and fragments of the rest of the skeleton ; 

(Fig.) from Lyme-Regis. Figured by Owen in his ' Liassic Rep- 

tilia,' pt. ii. pi. xvii. Purchased. About 1858. 

41212-13. The skull and greater portion of the rest of the skeleton ; 
(Fig.) from Lyme-Regis. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. xviii. 

Purchased, 1868. 

43486-7. Two imperfect mandibular rami ; from Lyme-Regis. 

Presented by the Earl of Enniskillen, 1874. 

41346. The entire tail ; from Lyme-Regis. Figured by Owen, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. xix. fig. 4. Purchased, 1869. 

R. 590. Part of the right side of the cranium, showing part of the 
nasal and preorbital vacuities. Purchased, 1885. 

The following specimens from the Lower Lias of Lyme-Regis are all 
provisionally included under this specific heading, but some may 
be distinct. 

42016. The distal extremity of the right humerus. Figured by 

(Fig.) Owen in his ' Mesozoic Reptilia' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. 

pi. i. figs. 13, 14. Purchased, 1870. 

43974. The left humerus. The length of this specimen is 0,076 ; 
the length of tho corresponding bone in No. 41212 being 
0,092 ; both have a similar curved shaft. Purchased, 1872, 



RHAMPH0RHYNCHID2E. 39 

41348. The right humerus, wanting the distal extremity. This 

{Fig.) specimen is figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. i. figs. 7-9, under 

the name of Pterodactylus marderi, of which it is the 

type ; it agrees in size with the last specimen, and presents 

no characters which can be regarded as of specific value. 

Purchased, 1869. 

R. 591. The right humerus, imperfect proximally, of a rather 
smaller individual. Purchased, 1885. 

R. 1036. The imperfect left humerus of an individual agreeing 
approximately in size with the preceding. 

Purchased. About 1858. 

R. 35. The imperfect metacarpus, belonging to a larger individual 
than the one from which Owen's restoration is made. 

Purchased, 1880. 

41347. Three phalangeals of the ulnar digit of the manus. 

Purchased, 1869. 

42016 a. A phalangeal of the ulnar digit of the manus. 

Purchased, 1870. 

43053. A phalangeal of the ulnar digit of the manus. 

Purchased, 1871. 

43052. A bone, probably belonging to the manus. 

Purchased, 1871. 

41347 a. An imperfect bone, which is probably the femur. 

Purchased, 1869. 

43973. The slightly imperfect tibia and fibula. This specimen 
agrees closely with the corresponding element in Owen's 
restoration, the length being 0,125. The distal extremity 
evidently consists of the proximal portion of the tarsus. 

Purchased, 1872. 

43051. The tibia and fibula of a smaller individual. Length 0,104. 

Purchased, 1871. 

41347 b. A similar tibia and fibula, imperfect proximally. 

Purchased, 1869. 

47464. The tibia and fibula of a very young individual. 

Purchased, IS 76. 

41347 C. An undetermined long-bone. Purchased, 1869. 

R. 223. An apparently homologous bone, belonging to a smaller 
individual. Purchased, 1SS2. 



40 ornithosatjria. 

Ornithosattrs of Uncertain Generic Position. 

There is no evidence as to the genus (or genera) to which 
the following forms (which are from the typical horizon of Ptero- 
dactylus and Bhamphorhynchus) should be referred. The distal 
portion of the ulnar metacarpal is remarkable for having a bony 
plate suturally attached to one of its lateral surfaces, which doubtless 
aided in supporting the patagium. 

Species a. 

Pterodactylus manseli, Owen l . 

This species is only known by the following bones, which agree 
approximately in size with those of Dimorphodon. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

41970. The distal portion of the left humerus ; from the Kimeridge 
{Fig.) Clay of Weymouth, Dorsetshire. This specimen is the 
type, and is figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. i. figs. 10-12. 

Purchased, 1870. 

43035. The proximal extremity of the first phalangeal of the ulnar 

(Fig.) digit of the manus ; from Weymouth. This specimen is 

referred to the present species by Owen, and figured by 

him, op. cit. pi, i. figs. 20, 21. Purchased, 1871. 

44182. Seven specimens of the same extremity of the homologous 
bone ; from Weymouth. Purchased, 1873. 

R. 559. A similar specimen ; from Weymouth. Purchased, 1886. 

45918. A similar specimen, showing more of the shaft. 

Purchased, 1874. 

The following specimens from the Kimeridge of Weymouth may 
probably be referred either to the present or the next form. 

R. 563. An extremity of (apparently) one of the bones of the fore- 
arm. Purchased, 1886. 

41404. A similar specimen. Purchased, 1869. 

41232. An homologous specimen of a smaller individual. 

Purchased, 1868. 

42376. Two proximal carpals. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. i. 
{Fig.) figs. 24-27. Purchased, 1870. 

1 Mesozoic Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. p. 8 (1874). 



INCEET^l SEDIS. 41 

42376 a. A similar bone. Purchased, 1870. 

R. 562. A similar bone. Purchased, 1886. 

41886. A similar bone. Purchased, 1869. 

41887. A similar bone, imperfect. Same history. 
43034. The distal extremity of the ulnar metacarpal. 

Purchased, 1871. 

44183. The distal portion of an homologous bone. The accessory 
lateral ossification is well shown. Purchased, 1873. 

R. 561. The distal extremity of a smaller example of the homologous 
bone. Purchased, 1886. 

43571. Three fragments of phalangeals of the ulnar digit of the 
manus. Purchased, 1872. 

43571 a. An imperfect undetermined long-bone. Same history. 

Species 6. 
Pterodactylus pleydelli, Owen 1 . 

Said to be distinguished from the preceding form by its some- 
what inferior dimensions. 
Hah. Europe (England). 

42378. The distal portion of the left humerus ; from the Kimeridge 
{Fig.) Clay of Weymouth, Dorsetshire. This specimen is the 
type, and is figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. i. figs. 15, 16. 

Purchased, 1870. 

42374. The proximal extremity of the first phalangeal of the ulnar 

(Fig.) digit of the manus ; from Weymouth. Eigured by 

Owen, op. cit. pi. i. figs. 22, 23, and provisionally referred 

to this species. Same history. 

41404, 41884, 41885, 41971, 42374, 44182. Six apparently 
similar specimens ; from Weymouth. Purchased. 

Species c. 

Of considerably larger size than either of the preceding forms. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

41179. The distal extremity of the ulnar metacarpal ; from the 
Kimeridge Clay of Weymouth, Dorsetshire. The dia- 
meter across the condyles is 0,016, against 0,008 in 
No. 44183 (Species a). Purchased, 1868. 

1 Mesozoic Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. p. 9 (1874). 



42 crocodilia. 

Ordinal Position- Uncertain. 

Genus ORNITHODESMUS, Seeley \ 

The specimen on which this genus is founded is regarded by its 
describer as probably Avian, although presenting certain indications 
of affinity with Dinosauria. The impossibility of its belonging to 
the present Order does not, however, appear to be proved. 

Ornithodesmus cluniculus, Seeley 2 . 
Hob. Europe (England). 

R. 187. The imperfect sacrum ; from the Wealden of Brook, Isle of 
{Fig.) Wight. The type ; figured by Seeley in the ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xliii. pi. xii. figs. 1-6. 

Fox Collection. Purchased, 1884. 



Order CROCODILIA 3 . 

Limbs and body lacertiform ; the former short ; the latter with a 
dorsal armour of pitted, imbricated, dermal scutes. Vertebrae either 
pro- or amphiccelous, with persistent neuro-central suture; rib- 
facet in middle dorsal vertebras forming a " step " on the transverse 
process ; cervical ribs with long antero-posterior processes ; dorsal 
ribs usually with uncinate processes ; two vertebrae in sacrum ; 
chevrons generally open superiorly. Cranium relatively large, with 
component bones firmly united, and some of them usually sculptured ; 
palatines and pterygoids uniting in middle line, and latter joined to 
base of cranium and giving off processes to unite anteriorly with 
vomers; quadrate wedged in among adjacent bones; tympanum 
with three eustachian canals; usually no columella; mandibular 
symphysis uniting by suture ; no ossifications in sclerotic. Teeth 
pointed and subconical or compressed ; inserted in distinct sockets. 
Sternum cartilaginous ; an interclavicle ; usually no clavicle. Limb- 
bones solid. Coracoid long or short, with fontanelle ; humerus 
with head imperfectly differentiated from tuberosities and trans- 
versely extended, with the deltoid crest terminating abruptly. 
Ilium (fig. 7) without distinct pubic or preacetabular processes; 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xliii. p. 206 (1887). 2 Loc. cit. 

3 Some of the following characters may not be applicable to the Aetosauria, 
which are included by Baur (Sitz. ges. Morph. Munch, vol. iii. p. 55, 1887) 
in this Order. 






CEOCODILIA. 



43 



pubis 1 directed forwards, with cartilaginous symphysis, and fre- 
quently excluded from acetabulum ; ischium short and thick, 
without obturator process ; femur with curved shaft, head oblique 
to condyles, and not differentiated from tuberosities, and no inner 
trochanter ; tibia without cnemial crest ; astragalus not flattened, 
and distinct from tibia. A ventral dermal armour may be present ; 
and the mandible nearly always has a lateral vacuity. Habits 
quadrupedal and subaquatic ; feet plantigrade . 




Crocodilus vulgaris. — Left side of pelvis. }. II, ilium ; pra,psa, pre- and post- 
acetabular processes of ditto ; Is, ischium ; P., pubis ; v, acetabulum. 
(From the 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.') 



Suborder EUSUCHIA. 

Premaxillae, maxillae, aud palatines with palatal plates uniting in 
the median line to separate the narial and oral passages ; no 
columella ; anterior nares terminal and usually undivided ; vomers 
generally invisible on palate ; no distinct postfrontal 2 ; middle 
eustachian canal bony ; and premaxilla with not more than 4 or 5 
teeth. No clavicle ; coracoid elongated, with small fontanelle ; 
humerus without ectepicondylar groove. Pubis 3 excluded from 
acetabulum (fig. 7) ; five digits in manus and four in pes, of which 
three have claws. Yertebrse pro- or amphicoelous. Dorsal scutes 

1 Seeley (Proc. R. Soc. vol. xliii. p. 235 [1887]) regards the bone usually termed 
pubis in the Eusuchia as a prepubis. 

2 See Baur, Zool. Anzeiger, No. 240 (1886). — The bone commonly termed 
postfrontal is really the postorbital. 

3 See note 1. 



44 CROCODILIA. 

keeled or keelless, and arranged in two or more rows; ventrals 
(when present) in eight or more rows. 
This group includes the Mesosuchia of Huxley \ 

A. PROCCELIAN SERIES. 

Vertebrae, except atlas, axis, sacral, and first caudal, proccelous 2 . 
Pterygoids developing palatal plates to prolong narial passage ; 
lateral eustachian passages bony. Dorsal scutes keeled, in more 
than two rows ; ventral buckler (when present) single, with more 
than eight longitudinal rows of imbricating scutes, each scute con- 
sisting of an anterior and posterior element united by suture. 
Acetabular margin of pubis deeply notched. 

Family CROCODILIDiE. 

The orbit communicating with the infratemporal fossa, and 
generally larger than or equal to the supratemporal fossa ; on the 
palate the posterior border of the premaxillae either slightly concave 
posteriorly, straight, or projecting into the maxillae. Usually no 
preorbital vacuity. 

BREVIROSTRINE SECTION. 

The cranium short or moderately elongated, with its alveolar 
border festooned ; the nasals reaching the premaxillae, and frequently 
the nares ; the orbits larger than the supratemporal fossae ; the 
premaxillary fissure either heart-shaped or slit-like ; the mandibular 
symphysis more or less short, and without a splenial element. The 
teeth more or less differentiated ; usually the 3rd and 9th upper, and 
the 4th and frequently the 1st and 11th lower, enlarged. Dorsal 
scutes strongly keeled and usually comparatively narrow. Ventral 
armour present or absent. 

Genus ALLIGATOR, Cuvier 3 . 

Including Caiman and Jacare. 

Cranium short and broad, with the palatal aspect of the pre- 
maxillae short, and their posterior border straight or concave poste- 

1 In order to avoid confusion the writer, who at one time proposed the name 
Crocodilia Vera for this suborder, subsequently came to the conclusion that it 
was better to retain the earlier name in a wider sense. 

2 It is of course possible that a form may be found haying the pterygoids 
with palatal plates, but still retaining amphiccelous vertebras. 

3 Ann. d. Museum, vol. x. p. 25 (1807). — As a subgenus. 



CEOCODILID^. 45 

riorly ; supratemporal fossae very small or obliterated ; premaxillary 
fissure heart-shaped ; upper teeth equal to or less numerous than 
lower, and the smaller lateral ones biting externally to them ; both 
1st and 4th lower teeth received into pits in the cranium ; 3rd 
lower tooth much smaller than 4th ; mandibular vacuity large. 
Frequently a dermal ventral armour. 

Alligator, sp. 

The following spocimen probably belongs to one of the existing 
Brazilian species like A. latirostris, A. multiscutatus, and A. piinc- 
tatus. 

Hah. S. America (Brazil). 

18880. A caudal vertebra of a small individual; from a cave in 
Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Genus DIPLOCYNODON, Pomel 1 . 
Syn. Ortkosaurus, Geonroy 2 ; Pleurodon, Meyer 3 . 

The generic identity of the forms to which the three above- 
mentioned names were applied is indicated by Meyer in the ' Neues 
Jahrb.' 1857, p. 538. Pomel's name is adopted as being the one 
first well defined. 

Cranium short and broad, with the palatal aspect of the pre- 
maxillte short, and their posterior border straight ; upper teeth 
more numerous than lower, and the smaller lateral ones biting 
externally to them ; 1st lower tooth received into a pit, and 4th 
(normally) into a notch in the cranium ; 3rd lower tooth nearly as 
large as 4th; supratemporal fossa of medium size; premaxillary 
fissure heart-shaped ; mandibular vacuity large. A dermal ventral 
armour. 

Diplocynodon hantoniensis (Wood 4 ). 

Syn. Alligator hantoniensis, Wood 5 . 
Crocodilus hastingsife, Owen 6 . 



1 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 383 (1847). 

2 Eevue Eucyclopedique, vol. fix. p. 91 (1833). — Insufficiently described. 

3 Nr.ues Jahrb. 1839, p. 77 (errorim, Plcrodon). 

4 Charleswortk's London Geological Journal, pt. i. p. 6 (1846). — Alligator. 

5 Loc. cit. 6 Eep. Brit. Assoc, for 1847, Trans, of Sections, p. 66 (1848). 



I 



46 CROCODILIA. 

Cranium very broad and blunt, with the premaxillaB uniting 

superiorly and excluding the nasals from the nares. Teeth (usually) 
22 

20* 

The type specimen of Alligator hantoniensis was referred by 
Pomel * to this genus, and the specific identity of Crocodilus has- 
tingsice with the former was suggested by Owen 2 and confirmed by 
Huxley 3 . The so-called Alligator darwini, Ludwig 4 , from the 
Lower Miocene (Upper Oligocene) of the Mayence basin (Weissenau, 
&c), agrees in the characters of the cranium with the present 
species, to which it was evidently very closely allied. Ludwig in- 
cludes in this species Crocodilus rathi, C. bruchi, G. medius, and 
G. brauniorum, Meyer, all of which were obtained from the same 
formation ; and the first of which was identified by Meyer 5 with 
D. rateli, Pomel 6 {Crocodilus elaverensis, Bravard 7 ), from the equiva- 
lent beds of St. Gerand-le-Puy, which was founded upon a mandible 
differing, according to Yaillant, from that of D. gracilis. Meyer 
regarded all these forms as closely allied to D. hantoniensis, but 
some of them probably belong to D. gracilis. The higher horizon of 
the Mayence form allied to the present species may perhaps indicate 
its specific distinctness, in which case it would be advisable that it 
should be known as Diplocynodon darwini, since the other names 
were not sufficiently defined 8 . 

Hab. Europe. 

All the following specimens are from the Upper Eocene (Lower 
Oligocene) of Hordwell, Hampshire. 

25166. The anterior portion of the cranium. This specimen is the 
(Fig.) type, and is described and figured by Searles Wood in 
Charlesworth's ' London Geological Journal/ pt. i. pp. 6, 
122, pi. i. figs. 1-3 ; and also by Owen and Bell in their 
i Peptilia of the London Clay, &c.,' pt. ii. p. 42, pi. viii. 
fig. 2. It presents the peculiarity of having the notch for 
the 4th mandibular tooth converted into a pit, as in 
Alligator. Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 



Catalogue Methodique, p. 124 (1853). 

Eep. Brit. Assoc, for 1847, Trans, of Sections, p. 66 (1848). 

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xv. p. 680 (1859). 

Palacontographica, suppl. vol. iii. pt. iv. p. 4 (1877). 

Neues Jahrb. 1857, p. 538. 

Pull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 372 (1846).— Crocodilus. 

Mamin. du Puy-de-D6me (1844), teste Gervais. 

See Lydekker, Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. iv. p. 307 (1887). 



CKOCODILIDJE. 47 

30393. The skull. Described and figured by Owen, op. cit. p. 37, 
{Fig.) pi. vi. and pi. vii. fig. 1, under the name of C. hastingsice, of 
which it is one of the types ; and also noticed by the writer 
in the ' Geol. Mag.' dec. 3, vol. iv. p. 309. The enlarge- 
ment of the 3rd lower tooth is well shown. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30392. The cranium. Described and figured by Owen, op. cit. 
(Fig.) p. 37, pi. vii. fig. 2, and pi. viii. fig. 1. Same history. 

29694. A subadult cranium, in a very imperfect condition. 

Same history. 

R. 1041. An imperfect immature cranium. Same history. 

R. 1042. The imperfect skull of a young individual. Same history. 

25167. The hinder portion of the cranium of a young individual. 
(Fig.) Described and figured by Owen, op. cit. p. 42, pi. ii. fig. 3. 

Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

25168. The left maxillo-palatine region of a young individual. 

Same history. 

25169. The corresponding region of a smaller individual. 

Same history. 

25170. Two fragments of the palate of a young individual. 

Same history. 

25170 a. The imperfect cranium of a very young individual, show- 
ing the upper surface. Same history. 

25260. Fragment of the maxilla of a young individual, showing two 
teeth. Hastings Collection. 

25188. The quadrato-jugal arch. 

Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

25186. The basisphenoid. Same history. 

25216, 7. Three specimens of the pterygoid. Same history. 

30369-70. Two specimens of the premaxilla, belonging to opposite 
sides of the skull. Hastings Collection. 

30372. Two specimens of the quadrate. Same history. 



48 



CEOCODILIA, 



30394. The mandible. Hastings Collection. 

30396. The mandible. Same history. 

30397. The left ramus of the mandible. Same history. 

R. 1043. The mandible and scutes of an immature individual, pro- 
bably associated with the cranium ~No. R. 1041. 

Same history. 

R. 1044. The right ramus of the mandible of an immature individual. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30307-8. Two specimens of the right angular element of the 
mandible. Same history. 

30363. The left articular element of the same. Same history. 

30274. The homologous bone of the right side. Same history. 

30283-4. Two smaller examples of the homologous bone. 

Same history. 

30363 a,. A similar specimen of the right side. Same history. 

R. 1045. The hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible of an 
immature individual, together with several associated 
vertebrae. Same history. 

25176-7. Three cervical vertebrae. Two are figured by Owen, op. 
{Fig.) cit. pi. ix. figs. 1-4. Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

25201. A cervical vertebra. Same history. 

R. 1046. Numerous cervical vertebrae. Hastings Collection. 

30402. An associated series of cervical and dorsal vertebrae of a 
small individual. Same history. 

30414. Several cervical ribs. Same history. 

25213-4. Two early dorsal vertebrae. 

Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

25222. An early dorsal vertebra. Same history. 

R. 1047. A number of early dorsal vertebrae. Hastings Collection. 

R. 1048. Numerous late dorsal vertebrae. Same history. 

25182. Three associated late dorsal vertebrae. 

Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

25248. Five ribs. Same history. 

25207. The last lumbar vertebra. Same history. 



crocodiltd^:. 49 

R. 1049. Three associated lumbar vertebrae. No history. 

25179. A sacral vertebra. Described and figured by Owen, op. 
(Fig.) cit. p. 44, pi. ix. fig. 6. 

Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

R. 1050. Six sacral vertebrae. Hastings Collection. 

25175. The first caudal vertebra. Described and figured by Owen, 
(Fig.) op. cit. p. 44, pi. ix. fig. 7. 

Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

R. 1051. A smaller first caudal vertebra. Hastings Collection. 

R. 1052. Numerous caudal vertebrae. Same history. 

30414. Two imperfect specimens of the scapula. Same history. 

30247. The imperfect left scapula. Same history. 

25245. The left coracoid. Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

30359. The left coracoid. Hastings Collection. 

30206. The right humerus. Hastings Collection. 

30206 a. A smaller right humerus. Same history. 

30236-7. Two specimens of the ulna. Same history. 

30242. A smaller ulna. Same history. 

30389. A similar specimen. Same history. 

30401. A radius. Same history. 

25242-52. Two metapodials. Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

30239, 30243. Two metapodials. Same history. 

R. 2053. Several phalangeals. Same history. 

25252-3. Two specimens of the ilium. 

Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

30362. An ilium. Hastings Collection. 

30354. Two specimens of the ischium. Same history. 

30210-11-12-13. Four specimens of the femur. Same history. 

30215-17. Three specimens of the tibia. Same history. 

30233, 30234, 30235, 30241. Four specimens of the fibula. 

Same history. 

25244. A fibula. Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 



50 CROCODILIA. 

30366-67. Several dermal scutes. Hastings Collection. 

30318. Two dermal scutes. Same history. 

R. 1068. Slab with five dorsal vertebrae and dermal scutes. 

Same history. 

46434. An imperfect dermal scute ; from the Bembridge Beds of 
Hordwell, Hampshire. 

Cunnington Collection. Purchased, 1875. 

* The Museum also possesses a large series of duplicate specimens 
which have not been catalogued. 

Diplocynodon, sp. 

There is no evidence to show whether either of the forms from 
the Hempstead and Barton beds are distinct from the preceding. 
Hah. Europe (England). 

The following specimens are from the Lower Miocene (Middle 
Oligocene) of Hempstead, Isle of Wight. 

40215. Fragment of jaw with two teeth. Purchased, 1867. 

R. 980. The right premaxilla, the dentary part of the right ramus 
of the mandible, numerous vertebral centra, and a dermal 
scute of a small form. Presented by the Government- 

Grant Committee of the 'Royal Society, per Messrs. 
Gardner and Keeping, 1887. 

R. 980 a. A tooth of a larger form. Same history. 

The following are from the Upper Eocene Barton Beds of 
Lymington, Hampshire. 

R. 1037. The conjoint frontals. Purchased, 1887. 

R. 1037 a. The left quadrate. Same history. 

Diplocynodon gracilis, Vaillant l . 

Cranium somewhat pointed, and the nasals reaching the nares. 
Teeth (20 ~ 21 > 

(18—19)* 

The so-called Crocodilus ebertsi, Ludwig 2 , from the Lower 
Miocene (Upper Oligocene) of the Mayence basin, which evidently 

1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. iii. art. 1, p. 18 (1872). 

3 Palasontographica, euppl. vol. iii. pt. iv. p. 31 (1877). 



CROCODILICE. 51 

belongs to the present genus, agrees in the relations of the nasals 
with the present species, and the difference in the contour of the 
figured skulls of the two forms does not appear greater than that 
obtaining between old and young skulls of a single species. D. 
rateli, from the same beds as the present species, has been noticed 
under the head of D. hantoniensis. 
Hab. Europe. 

R. 789. A slab of limestone, showing the dorsal aspect of the 
cranium and numerous scutes and bones of a small indi- 
vidual ; from the Lower Miocene (Upper Oligocene) of 
St. G-erand-le-Puy (Allier), Prance. The cranium closely 
accords with the typical example figured by Vaillant in 
the 'Ann. Sci. Geol.' vol. iii. art. 1, figs. 8, 12. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26841. The hinder portion of a cranium, agreeing in size with the 
preceding, and probably belonging to the same species; 
from the same locality. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

Of the following specimens some belong to the present species, while 
others may not improbably be referable to D. darwini (supra, 
p. 46). 

26748. The imperfect hinder portion of a large cranium ; from the 
same locality. Same history. 

27751. The crushed cranium (oral surface shown) of a small indi- 
vidual; from the Lower Miocene of Antoign (Puy-de- 
Dome), France. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27719. The hinder portion of a small cranium ; from the same 
locality. Same history. 

26841. The left maxilla of a small individual ; from St. Gerand-le- 
Puy. Pomel Collection. 

26845. A very similar right maxilla ; from the same locality. 

Same history. 

26846. A tooth of a large individual ; from the same locality. 

Same history. 

30959. Two small teeth ; from the same locality 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 
e2 



52 CROCODILIA. 

30949, 30945-6. Three fragments of skull ; from he same locality. 

Same history. 

26841 a -46. Two fragments of skull ; from the same locality. 

Pomel Collection. 

26840. The nearly entire left ramus of the mandible of an adult 
individual, with the fourth tooth remaining ; from the same 
locality. Same history. 

26842. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of a young indi- 
vidual, showing one tooth ; from the same locality. 

Same history. 

41089. A split layer of lignite containing the impression of the 
cranium of a small Crocodile, perhaps belonging to this 
species ; from the Lower Miocene of Kott, near Bonn. 

Purchased, 1868. 

R. 381. The anterior part of the right ramus of the mandible of a 
very small individual ; from the Phosphorites of Cay lux 
(Tarn-et-Garonne), France 1 . Purchased, 1884. 

26842. The articular portion of the left ramus of the mandible of 
an adult ; from St. Gerand-le-Puy. Pomel Collection. 

26846. An early dorsal vertebra ; from the same locality. 

Same history. 

48471. The right humerus of an adult ; from the same locality. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

30963. The left humerus of a small individual ; from the same 
locality. Bravard Collection. 

26846. Two specimens of smaller left humeri, one imperfect ; from 
the same locality. Pomel Collection. 

26846 a. The left ilium and pubis ; from the same locality. 

Same history. 

27676. Slab of rock containing an imperfect humerus, rib, vertebra, 
and other bones ; from the Lower Miocene of Cournon 
(Puy-de-D6me), France. Croizet Collection. 

30965- Eight dermal scutes of the dorsal buckler; from St. Gerand- 
le-Puy. Bravard Collection. 

1 See Filhol, Ann. Sci. G<§ol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 264 (1877). 



C&OCODILIDJE. 



53 



The following specimens probably also belong either to one or 
other of the two above-mentioned species. 

R. 429. A tooth ; from the Phosphorites of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), France. Purchased, 1884. 

R. 488. An imperfect early dorsal vertebra ; from the same de- 
posits. Same history. 

R. 382. A right humerus ; from the same deposits. Same history. 

Diplocynodon plenidens (Meyer l ). 

Syn. Crocodilus plenidens, Meyer 2 . 
Pleurodon crocodiloides, Meyer \ 

A very large form, originally described from teeth obtained from 
the Middle (?) Miocene of Stein (Shaffhausen), Switzerland ; the 
skull is unknown. 

Hab. Europe. 

43634. The imperfect crowns of three teeth ; from the Middle (?) 
Miocene of Allstadt, near Mosskirch, Baden. 

Purchased, 1859, 



Genus CROCODILUS, Linn. 4 

Cranium either short and broad, or moderately elongated and 
narrow, with the mandibular symphysis in proportion ; upper teeth 
more numerous than lower, and the smaller lateral ones of both 
series interlocking ; 1st lower tooth received into a pit or perfora- 
tion, and the 4th into a lateral notch in the cranium ; the 3rd 
lower tooth small ; supra-temporal fossa larger than in Alligator ; 
premaxillary fissure either heart-shaped or slit-like; mandibular 
vacuity small. No dermal armour on the ventral aspect of the 
body. 

Group a. — Cranium short and broad ; mandibular symphysis short ; 
palatal aspect of the premaxilla short, with its posterior border 
nearly straight, or slightly convex posteriorly ; teeth strongly 
differentiated. 



1 Neues Jahrb. 1838, p. 667. — Crocodilus. 

2 Loc. eit. 3 Ibid. 1839, p. 79.-Errorim, Plerodon. 
4 Syst. Nat, ed. 12, vol. i. p. 359 (1766).— As a subgenus. 



54 



CROCODTLIA. 



Crocotltlug paluStrte, Lesson '. 

Syn. Crocodilus bombifrons, Gray 2 . 

The facial sculpture strongly marked and deep, rugose nodules in 
advance of orbit, interorbital bar narrow and deeply concave, 
maxillo-premaxillary suture on palate usually not extending behind 
hinder border of 5th alveolus, premaxillary fissure heart-shaped, 
superior surface of premaxilla shorter than nares, facial profile 
concave. 

Hab. India and Burma. 

R. 1038. Several teeth provisionally referred to this species, as 
being the commonest Crocodile of Western India ; from 
the Pleistocene of the Narbada Yalley, India. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq., 1849. 





Crocodilus palustris. — 1, 2, lateral and upper views of skull; 3, palatal view of 
cranium ; E, aperture of median eustachian canal ; N, posterior nares ; 
O, orbit ; P, palato-pterygoid vacuity ; T, supratemporal fossa ; V, basi- 
occipital. Much reduced. (From the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.') 



1 In Belanger's Voyage Ind. Orient., Zool. Eept. p. 305 (1834). 
3 Cat. Tortoises, &c, in Brit. Mus. p. 59 (1844). 



crocodilid^:. 55 

Crocodilus sivalensis, Lydekker \ 

This species is probably the ancestor of C. palustris, from which 
it is distinguished by the wider interorbital bar, the longer facial 
surface of the premaxilla, the greater posterior convexity of the 
maxillo-premaxillary suture on the palate, the greater rugosity of 
the facial sculpture, the smaller development of the preorbital 
nodules, and the wider nasals. 

Hob. India and Burma. 

All the following specimens are from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills, and, unless it is otherwise stated, belong to the Cautley 
Collection. Presented, 1840. 

39795. The cranium of a half-grown individual. This specimen 
{Fig.) is one of the types, and is described and figured in ' Fal- 
coner's Pakeontological Memoirs,' vol. i. p. 355, pi. xxviii. 
figs. 2, 3 (as C. bomhifrons), and by the present writer in 
the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 214, 
pi. xxviii. figs. 1, 1 a. 

39796. The anterior portion of the cranium and mandible of a 

similar individual. Noticed by the writer, op. cit. p. 214. 

39797. The entire skull of a half-grown individual. Described and 
{Fig.) figured by the writer, op. cit. p. 214, pi. xxviii. fig. 3 

(as No. 39798). Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

39798. The entire skull of a very similar individual. Figured in 
{Fig.) 'Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxviii. 

fig. 1 (as C. bomhifrons), and noticed by the writer op. cit. 
p. 214 (as No. 39797). 

39799. The hinder half of a subadult skull, together with the 
{Fig.) nuchal scutes and the humerus. 

39800. The anterior portion of the cranium of an adult individual, 
{Fig.) with the alveolar region cut and polished. Described and 

figured by the writer, op. cit. p. 215, pi. xxix. figs. 2, 2 a. 

39801. The anterior portion of an adult cranium. Figured by 
{Fig.) Cautley in the ' Asiatic Researches,' vol. xix. pi. ii. figs. 2, 

4 (as O. biporcatus 2 ), and noticed by the writer, op. cit. 
p. 215 (as No. 39081). 

1 Palaeontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, yoI. iii. p. 213 (1886). 

2 C. biporcatus of Cautley is C. palustris, and not C. porossu ; see ' Paleeon- 
tologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 213. 



56 CROCODILIA. 

R. 1039. The anterior extremity of an adult cranium. Pigured by 
(Fig.) Cautley, op. cit. pi. ii. fig. 5. 

R 678. The anterior part of the cranium of a nearly adult indi- 
vidual. 

R. 769. The anterior portion of a cranium provisionally referred to 
this species. 

R. 325. The hinder part of the cranium of a nearly adult individual. 

40823. The entire skull of a very young individual, measuring 
0,010 in length. Noticed by the writer, op. cit. p. 215. 

R. 767. The right maxilla of a somewhat older individual. Noticed 
by the writer, op. cit. p. 215. 

R. 767 a. Part of the left maxilla of au adult, with the ninth tooth 
in position. 

R. 767 b. Part of a right premaxilla apparently belonging to the 
same individual as the preceding. 

R. 770. The associated left quadrate, quadratojugal, and articular 
portion of the mandible of an adult. 

R. 767 C. The articular region of the left ramus of the mandible, 
together with the condyle of the quadrate. 

R. 771. The anterior part of the left ramus of the mandible. 

R. 773. The hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible. 

R. 767 d. The anterior part of the right ramus of the mandible of 
a comparatively young individual. 

R. 767 e. A considerable series of teeth, some of which are probably 
the larger teeth of the present species, while others may 
belong to Rhamphosuchus. 

R 615. Several similar teeth; from the Siwaliks of the Punjab, 
India. 

Presented by the Director of the Geological Survey of 

India, 1887. 
R. 767 f. Two of the uncnlarged teeth. 



CROCODILID.E. 57 

Some of the following specimens may belong to the Longirostrin* 

Section. 

16668. An imperfect cervical vertebra. 

16668 a. A cervical vertebra. 

16668 b. An imperfect cervical vertebra. 

R. 1054. A larger cervical vertebra. 

Transferred from the old Indian Museum, 1880. 

16668 c. An imperfect cervical vertebra. 

16668 d. Three associated cervical vertebras of small size. 

16668 e. Two early dorsal vertebras (associated), of which one is 

imperfect. 

16668 f. An early dorsal vertebra. 

R. 1055. Two middle dorsal vertebras, apparently belonging to a 
single individual. 

16668 g. A large late dorsal or lumbar vertebra. 

16668 h. A very similar specimen. 

R. 777. Several similar specimens. 

R. 777 a. A smaller late dorsal or early lumbar vertebra. 

R. 325. A large late dorsal or early lumbar vertebra. 

16668 i. A sacral vertebra. 

16668 j. An imperfect sacral vertebra. 

16668 k. An imperfect sacral vertebra. 

R. 782. An imperfect sacral vertebra of larger size. 

R. 778. A similar specimen. 

R. 779. A perfect sacral vertebra agreeing in size with the pre- 
ceding. 

R. 780. The centrum of a large first caudal vertebra. 

R. 325 a. A very similar specimen. 

R. 325 b. Another very similar specimen. 

16668 m. A smaller imperfect first caudal vertebra. 

16668 1. An earlv caudal vertebra of a larger form. 



58 CEOCODILIA. 

R. 765. A large imperfect middle caudal vertebra. 

16606. Several dermal scutes. 

38802. A dermal scute. Purchased, 1865. 

39817. Three dermal scutes. 

R. 781. A dermal scute. 

17066. A larger dermal scute. 

R. 1056. An imperfect dermal scute. 

Transferred from the old Indian Museum, 1880. 

R. 788. The distal portion of the left femur. 

16588. The distal portion of a small right femur. 

R. 1057. The distal portion of the left femur of a young individual. 

R. 1058. Part of the pes and vertebral caudal region of a young 
individual. 

Crocodiles palseindicus, Falconer K 

Mainly distinguished from the preceding species by its convex 
facial profile. 

Hob. India (western coast). 

All the following specimens are from the Pliocene ShualiJcs of 
Perim Island, Gulf of Cambay. 

R. 743. The anterior portion of the cranium and mandible. Noticed 
by the writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica ' (Mem. Geol. 
Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 218. 

Transferred from the old Indian Museum, 1880. 

R. 744. The anterior portion of the cranium. Noticed by the writer, 
op. cit. Transferred from the old Indian Museum, to 

which it had been presented by 
A. Bettington, Esq., in 1847. 

R. 745. Part of the right maxilla. Same history. 

Some of the following specimens may belong to Garialis. 

R. 746. An imperfect late dorsal or lumbar vertebra. 

Same history. 

R. 222. Pour imperfect vertebrae. Purchased, 1882. 

1 Cat. Foss. Vert, in Mus. As. Soc. Bengal, 'p. 200(1859). 



CROCODILID.E. 59 

R. 1059. A slightly imperfect late dorsal or early lumbar vertebra. 

Presented by R. LydelcJcer, Esq., 1887. 

Group b. — Cranium moderately broad and short, with mandibidar 
symphysis in proportion ; palatal aspect of premaccillce elongated, 
with its posterior border projecting into maxillae ; teeth strongly 
differentiated, usually about - ? . 

This group includes the majority of existing species. 

CrocotttluS poroSuS, Schneider 1 . 
Syn. Crocodilus biporcatus, Cuvier 2 . 

Facial sculpture slight ; an elongated longitudinal sinuous ridge 
in advance of orbit ; interorbital bar wide and slightly concave ; 
premaxillary fissure a comparatively narrow slit. 

Hob. India, N. Australia (Kecent), and Queensland (Pleistocene). 

43047. Part of the right maxilla, showing the split alveoli of the 
first five teeth; from the Pleistocene of Clifton Plains, 
Darling Downs, Queensland. 

Presented by Prof. Harkness, 1871. 

43047 a. The right premaxilla and anterior extremity of the right 
dentary of a smaller individual ; from Clifton. 

Same history. 

43213. Two imperfect teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Queensland. 

Presented by Sir R. Daintree, 1871. 

43343. The crown of a tooth ; from the Pleistocene of Gowrie, 
Queensland. Presented by Dr. George Bennett, 1872. 

36079. Three imperfect dermal scutes ; from the Pleistocene of the 
lower part of the Condamine Eiver, Queensland. 

Presented by T. H. Hood, Esq., 1861. 

43221. Four associated caudal vertebrae ; from Queensland. 

Presented by Sir R. Daintree, 1871. 

Group c. — Cranium somewhat elongated and narrow ; mandibular 
symphysis long ; palatal aspect of premaxillce elongated, with 
its posterior border projecting into maxillw ; differentiation of 
teeth slight. 

The existing African C. cataphractus and N.-American C. inter- 
medin belong to this group. 

1 Hist. Amphib. pt. ii. p. 159 (1801). 

2 0ssemen8 Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. v. pt. ii. p. 65(1824). 



60 CROCODILIA. 

Crocodilus spenceri, Buckland '. 

Syn. Crocodilus toliapicus, Owen 2 . 

Crocodilus champsoides, Owen 3 . 
Crocodilus arduini, Zigno 4 . 

Teeth |^| ; the nasals reaching the nares 5 . 

It has been shown by the writer in the ' Geol. Mag.' dec. 3, 
vol. iv. p. 310, that C. toliapicus and C. champsoides are apparently 
founded upon old and young individuals of a single species, the 
greater breadth of the facial part of the skull in the adult being 
precisely analogous to that obtaining in the existing C. intermedins b . 
The so-called C. arduini from the Nummulitics of Verona is indis- 
tinguishable from the English form. 

Hah. Europe (England and Italy). 

Ml the following specimens are from the London Clay of the 
Isle of Sheppey, Kent. 

19633. The hinder part of the cranium of an immature individual. 

{Fig.) This specimen is the type, and is figured by Buckland in 
his ' Geology and Mineralogy,' pi. xxv. fig. 1 ; and also by 
Owen in his ' Eeptilia of the London Clay,' pt. ii. pi. ii. 
fig. 2 (as C. champsoides). Purchased. 

38975. The cranium of an immature individual. Figured by Owen, 

{Fig.) op. cit. pi. iii., under the name of C. champsoides, of which 

it is the type. A restored figure is given in woodcut, 

fig. 9. Bowerbank Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

37717. The hinder part of the cranium of an immature individual. 

Purchased, 1863. 

R. 41. The imperfect hinder portion of the cranium of an immature 
individual. /Shrubsole Collection. Purchased. 1880. 

38990-1. The two angular and articular portions of the mandible. 

Bowerbank Collection. 

1 Geology and Mineralogy (Bridgewater Treatise), 1st ed. pi. xxv. fig. 1 
(1837). 

2 Reptilia of London Clay (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ii. p. 29 (1850). 

3 Ibid. p. 31. 

4 Mem. Ac. R. Line. ser. 3, vol. v. p. 67 (1880). 

5 In both C. cataphractus (see ' Falconer's Palceontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. 
pi. xxxviii. fig. 1) and C. intermedins, (see Liitken, ' Vid. Medd. Nat. Foren. 
Kjobenhavn,' 1884, pi. v.) the nasals do not reach the nares. 

" Compare the three crania figured by Liitken, loc. cit. 



CROCODILT DJE. 



61 



Fig. 9. 




Crocodilus spenceri. — Ee3tored cranium ; from the London Clay of Sheppey. 

About \. 



38988. Part of the maxillary region of the cranium. 



Same history. 



The following vertebrae were referred by Owen to C. champsoides ; 
tliey all belong to thz Bowerbank Collection. 

38979. The third cervical vertebra, Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. v. figs. 7, 8. 

38978. The first dorsal vertebra, Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. v. 
(Fig.) fig. 4. 

38980. A late dorsal vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. v. 
(Fig.) fig. 9. 

38981. The first caudal vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 

fig. 10. 



The following vertebrae and other bones (from the same collection) 
were referred by Owen to C. toliapicus, but do not appear speci- 
fically distinct from the preceding. 

38975. The fourth cervical vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. v. figs. 1, 2. 

38977. The sixth cervical vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. v. fig. 3. 

38982. The centrum of a cervical vertebra. 

38983. The centrum of an early dorsal vertebra. 

38984. The centrum of a late dorsal or lumbar vertebra. 



6*2 CBOCODILIA. 

38976. The first sacral vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. at. pi. v. 
(Fig.) fig. 6. 

38986. The distal extremity of the left humerus. 
38985. A sacral rib. 

38987. An undetermined bone. 

The following specimens may probably be referred to this form. 

35691. An imperfect vertebra, of very large size. Purchased, 1859. 

43195. An imperfect dorsal or lumbar vertebra. 

Wetherell Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

38989. The distal half of the right femur. Bowerbanlc Collection. 

38993. Five dermal scutes. Same history. 

28507. A mass of matrix, containing numerous vertebrae and im- 
perfect limb-bones of a small individual. 

Dixon Collection. Purchased, 1847. 

LONGIROSTRINE SECTION. 

The cranium with the facial portion elongated into a rostrum, 
and its alveolar borders straight; the nasals never reaching the 
nares, and frequently separated from the premaxillae ; the supra- 
temporal fossae larger than in the Brevirostrine Section, and some- 
times larger than the orbits ; the premaxillary fissure slit-like ; on 
the palate the posterior border of the premaxillae projecting into the 
maxillae ; the mandibular symphysis very long, and embracing part 
of the splenial. The teeth numerous, and but slightly differen- 
tiated, but the 3rd upper and 4th lower generally enlarged. No 
ventral armour in recent forms ; dorsal scutes very wide, with 
slight keels. Frequently an additional upper tooth between the 
proper first and second. 

Genus TOMISTOMA, S. Miiller \ 

Syn. Rhynchosuchus, Huxley 2 . 
Including Melitosaurus, Owen 3 . 

Gavialosuchus, Toula and Kail i . 

The premaxillaB articulating with the nasals ; both the 1st and 

1 Arcluv f. Nat. 1846, vol. i. p. 122. 

2 Journ. Linn. Soc. [Zool.] vol. iv. p. 16 (1859). 

3 Hulke, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvii. p. 31 (1871). 

4 Anzeig. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 1885, p. 109. 



CROCODILIDJ?. 



63 



4th lower teeth received into notches in the cranium ; the upper 
and lower teeth interlocking ; the supra-temporal fossa smaller than 
orbit ; and the facial profile concave. There are small interdental 
pits in the cranial rostrum for the summits of the unenlarged man- 
dibular teeth. 

In the typical T. schlegeli the anterior border of the orbit is not 
everted ; there are gj teeth ; the mandibular symphysis extends 
to the loth tooth ; there are only four premaxillary teeth ; and the 
premaxilla? are not expanded. 

Tomistoma eggenburgense (Toula and Kail 1 ). 

Syn. Gavkdosuchus eggenburgensis, Toula and Kail 3 . 

Kef erred to this genus by the present writer in the ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xlii. p. 21. 

Eather larger than T. schlegeli, with five premaxillary teeth, the 
anterior border of the orbit slightly everted, and a slight expansion 
of the premaxillse. Teeth y. 

Eab. Europe (Austria). 

R. 797. Cast of the cranium (fig. 10). The original, which is the 
type, was obtained from a Tertiary (? Miocene) deposit near 
Eggenburg, Lower Austria ; and is figured by Toula and 
Kail in the ' Denkschr. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien,' vol. 1. pis. i.-iii. 
(1885). Presented by Prof. Toula, 1886. 

Fig. 10. 




Tomistoma eggenburgense.— Cranium ; from the Miocene (?) of Austria, fa 
pmx, premaxilla; mx, maxilla ; na, nasal; la, lachrymal ; />•, frontal ; or, 
orbit. (After Toula and Kail.) 



1 Anzeig. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 1885.. p. 109.— Gavialosuchus. 



Loc. cit. 



64 



CROCODIUA. 



Tomistoma champsoides (Owen 1 ). 

Syn. Melitosaurus champsoides, Owen 2 . 

Larger than the preceding, with the same number of premaxillary 
teeth, but with no expansion of the premaxillse ; orbit unknown. 
Hah. Europe (Malta). 

41151. The anterior portion of the cranium and mandible, together 
(Fig.) with a detached fragment of the mandible; from the 

Miocene of Malta. This specimen is the type, and is 
described and figured by the writer in the ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xlii. p. 21, pi. ii. (1886). 

Presented by Captain Strickland, 1868. 

41152. Three imperfect vertebras associated with the preceding. 

Same history. 

Tomistoma (?) macrorhynchus (Blainville 3 ). 

Syn. Crocodilus macrorhynchus, Blainville 4 . 
Crocodilus isorhynchus, Pomel \ 
Garialis macrorhynchus, Gervais 6 . 
Thoracosaurus macrorhynchus, Leidy ? . 

According to the figure given by Gervais 9 the premaxillae reach 
the nasals, but do not interlock with them as in the three preceding 
species ; and since the supratemporal fossae are relatively larger than 
in T. eggenburgense, this species would seem to connect the latter 
with Garialis. 

Hah. Europe (France). 

28296. Several teeth ; from the Upper Cretaceous Pisolite of Mont 
Aime (Marne), France. Purchased, 1851. 

28296 a. Several vertebral centra ; from the same locality. 

Same history. 

28296 b. Three specimens of the distal extremity of the femur ; 
from the same locality. Same history. 

1 Hulke, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvii. p. 31 (1871). — Melitosaurus. 
a Loc. cit. 

3 Osteographie — Genus Crocodilus, pi. vi. (before 1848). — Crocodilus. 

4 Loc. cit. 

* Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. vol. v. p. 303 (1847). 

8 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 1st ed. p. 252 (1848-52). 
7 Smiths. Contrib. Knowl. vol. xiv. art. 6, p. 11 (1865). 

* Op. cit. pi. lix. 



CKOCODILIDJS. 65 

Genus GARIALIS, Geoffroy \ 

Syn. Leptorhynchus, Clift 2 . 

The premaxillae widely separated from the nasals ; both the 1st 
and 4th lower teeth received into notches in the cranium ; the upper 
and lower teeth interlocking ; the supratemporal fossa nearly or 
quite as large as the orbit ; and the facial profile concave. There 
may or may not be interdental pits in the cranial rostrum. 



Group a. — No pits in the cranial rostrum for the summits of 
the smaller mandibular teeth. 

(Siariatts' gangetuuS (Gmeliu 3 ). 

Syn. Lacerta gangetica, Gmelin 4 . 

Crocodilus longirostris, Schneider 5 . 
Crocodilus gangeticus, Cuvier 6 . 
Crocodilus tenuirostris, Cuvier 7 . 
Leptorhynchus clifti, Meyer H . 
Leptorhynchus gangeticus, auct. 

The type species. Teeth ;fl~^ . Anterior border of orbit 

(z5 — av) 

everted, premaxillae expanded at their termination, orbits widely 
separated, bar between supratemporal fossae narrow, rostrum 
straight. 

Recent examples attain a length of 20 feet, but fossil crania 
indicate larger individuals. 

Hah. India and Burma. 

Unless otherwise stated, the following specimens were obtained from 
the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India, and belong to the 
Cautley Collection. Presented, 1840. 

39809. The hinder portion of the cranium. Figured in ' Falconer's 
{Pig.) Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxviii. figs. 4, 5; 

and by the writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 

vol. iii. pi. xxx. fig. 2 (1886). 

1 Mem. du Museum, vol. xii. p. 97 (1825).— Amended. 

2 Trans. Geol. Soc. ser. 2, vol. ii. pt. 3, p. 375 (1828). 

3 Syst. Nat. vol. i. pt. 3, p. 1057 (1789).— Lacerta. 4 Los. cit. 
6 Hist. Amphib. pt. ii. p. 160 (1801). 

6 Ann. du Museum, vol. x. p. 66 (1807). 

7 Loc. cit. 

* Pakeologica, p. 108 (1832). 



66 CROCODILTA. 

36726. The hinder portion of the skull. 

R. 784. The occipito-parietal region of a very large individual. 

R. 784 a. The interorbital region of an equally large individual. 

R. 785. The hinder portion of the cranium. 

R. 786. The hinder part of the cranium of an immature individual. 

R. 787. The hinder portion of the cranium. 

R. 791. The hinder part of the cranium. 

36727. The hinder part of the cranium of a half-grown individual, 

with a portion of the mandible attached. Noticed by the 
writer, op. cit. p. 221. 

40206. The hinder part of a young cranium. Figured by Cautley 
{Fig.) in the ' Asiatic Kesearches,' vol. xix. pi, iii. figs. 3, 5. 

R. 772. The hinder part of a young cranium ; from the Siwaliks 
of Perim Island, Gulf of Cambay. Noticed by the writer, 
op. cit. p. 228. 

Transferred from the Old Indian Museum, to which it was 
presented by A. Bettington, Esq., 1847. 

40695. The hinder part of the cranium; from Perim Island. 
Noticed by the writer, ojp. cit. p. 221. Purchased, 1867. 

R. 775. The imperfect hinder portion of the cranium. 

39810. The hinder portion of the cranium of a young individual. 

R. 774. The imperfect hinder portion of the cranium of a still 
younger individual. 

R. 222. The parietal region of a young cranium ; from Perim 
Island. No history. 

39811 a. The anterior portion of the cranial and mandibular rostrum. 
{Fig.) Figured in 'Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. i. 

pi. xxix. fig. 5, and also by the present writer, op>. cit. 

pi. xxx. fig. 1. 

39811. The anterior portion of the cranial rostrum of an immature 
{Fig.) individual. Figured by the writer, op. cit. pi. xxx. 
figs. 3, 3a. 

48461. The anterior extremity of the premaxilla? of a very large 
individual. Presented l>y 0. Falconer, Esq., 1807. 



CROCODILID^. 67 

R. 783 a. The anterior part of the mandibular symphysis. 

Transferred from the Old Indian Museum, 1880. 

39812. The anterior part of the right half of the mandibular sym- 
(Fig.) physis. Figured by the writer, op. cit. pi. xxx. fig. 5. 

Some of the following specimens may belong to the next species. 

R. 615. Several teeth; from the Siwaliks of the Punjab, India. 

Presented by the Director of the 
Geological Survey of India, 1886. 
R. 783 d. A tooth. 

R. 746 a. Several dorsal vertebrae, with the overlying dermal scutes 
of the right side ; from Perim Island. 

Transferred from the Old Indian Museum, 1880. 

R. 783 b. The palatal plates of the pterygoids and part of the pala- 
tines. 

R. 783 C. The imperfect hinder portion of the right ramus of the 
mandible of a very large individual. 

The following specimens probably belong to this genus. 

39813. A mass of dorsal vertebras, together with the dermal scutes 

in an obscure condition. 

39814. A mass of matrix, showing the ventral aspect of a number 

of associated dorsal scutes, belonging to the same form as 
the preceding. This and the last specimen were referred 
by Falconer to G. gangeticus, and are too small to have 
belonged to Rhamphosuchus ; they may have belonged to 
G. leptodus. 

Garialis hysudricus, Lydekker 1 . 

Distinguished from G. gangeticus by the more marked concavity 
of the rostrum in advance of the orbits, and probably by the upward 
curvature of the extremity of the rostrum. The cranium, provision- 
ally referred to this species, has the orbits more approximated, 
smaller supratemporal fossae, with a wider parietal bar between them, 
and a greater lateral expansion of tho jugal and quadrato-jugal 
region, than in the existing species. The extremity of the rostrum 
may have been without expansion. 

Bob. India. 

J Paheontologia Inclica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 222 (1886). 

f2 



68 CROCODILIA. 

The following specimens are from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, 
and belong to the Cautley Collection. Presented, 1840. 

39805. The greater portion of the cranial and mandibular rostrum, 
{Fig.) wanting the narial extremity. This specimen is the type ; 
it is figured in • Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs/ 
vol. i. pi. xxix. fig. 3, where it is referred to G. leptodus ; 
and the cranial portion by the writer in the ' Palaeon- 
tologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. pi. xxxii. figs. 1, 1 a, 
lb,lc. 

R. 325. The hinder portion of the mandibular sympl^sis. Noticed 
by the writer, op. cit. p. 222. 

Transferred from the Old Indian Museum, 1880. 

39808. The hinder portion of an adult cranium, provisionally 
(Pig.) referred to this species. Figured by the writer, op. cit. 
pi. xxxi. fig, 3. 

R. 326. The hinder portion of an immature cranium, agreeing iu 
general characters with the preceding specimen. 

Transferred from the Old Indian Museum, 1880. 

Group b. — Pits in the cranial rostrum for the reception of the summits 
of the majority of the mandibular teeth. 

Garialis leptodus (Falconer and Cautley l ), 

Syn. Crocodilus (Leptorhynchus) leptodus, Falconer and Cautley 2 . 

Slightly larger than G. gangeticus, with a wider and flatter 
rostrum, and proportionately smaller teeth. 
Hob. India. 

39806. Portion of the mandibular symphysis ; from the Pliocene of 
{Fig.) the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is the type, and is 

figured in 'Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. i. 

pi. xxix. fig. 4 ; and by the present writer in the ' Pahe- 

ontologia Indica ' (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iii. 

pi. xxxii. figs. 2, 2a. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1840. 

1 In 'Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol.i. p. 355 (1868). — Crocodilus 
(Lcptorht/nchus). 
* Lo<\ , i! 



crocodilidj;. 69 

Garialis pachyrhynchus, Lydekker l . 

Probably from two and a half to three times the size of G. gan- 
geticus. The extremity of the premaxillas expanded; the teeth 
stout, closely approximated, and the notch in the cranium for the 
first mandibular tooth roofed over; the rostrum was probably 
relatively short. 

Hab. India (Sind). 

R. 602. Cast of the extremity of the cranial rostrum. The original, 
which is the type, was obtained from the Lower Siwaliks 
of Sind, jNorth- we stern India, and is preserved in the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta ; it is figured by the writer in 
the ' Palasontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. pi. xxxiii. 
figs. 1, 2. Made in the Museum, 1886. 

R. 615 a. The crown of a tooth, probably belonging to this species ; 
from Sind. Similar to the specimen figured by the writer, 
op. cit. pi. xxxiii. fig. 4. 
Presented by the Director of the Geological Survey of India, 1886. 

32504. Fragment of one half of a mandibular symphysis, probably 
belonging to a young individual of this species ; from 
Sind. Presented by Col. Sylces. 

32504 a. Four imperfect dorsal scutes, probably belonging to this 
species ; from Sind. Same history. 

32504 b. The imperfect centrum of a late dorsal vertebra, asso- 
ciated with the preceding. Same history. 

Garialis (?) dixoni, Owen 2 . 

Provisionally referred to the present group, but the cranium un- 
known. Of small size, with the teeth relatively larger, placed 
farther apart, and less compressed than in G. gangeticus ; and 
interdental pits present in the hinder part of the mandible. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

The following specimens are the types, and uere obtained from the 
Middle Eocene of Bracldesham, Sussex ; they belong to the Dixon 
Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

1 Pakeontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 227 
(18S6). 

2 Keptilia of the London Clay (Mon. Pal. Soe.), pt. ii. p. 46 (1S50). 



70 CROCODILIA. 

26125. Part of the mandibular symphysis. Figured by Owen in 
(Fig.) his ' Reptilia of the London Clay,' pt. ii. pi. x. fig. 1. 

26126. Fragment of a mandibular ramus. Figured by Owen, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. x. fig. 2. 

26128. The slightly imperfect femur. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. x. fig. 9. 

26129. The centrum of a. cervical vertebra. Figured by Owen, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. x. fig. 8. 



Genus THORACOSAURUS, Leidy \ 

Nasals not reaching premaxillae ; a preorbital vacuity in the 
cranium between the lachrymal and prefrontal ; the supratem- 
poral fossae larger than the orbits ; and the facial profile straight. 

Thoracosaurus neocesariensis (De Kay 2 ). 

Syn. Gavialis neocesariensis, De Kay 3 . 
Crocodilus clavirostris, Morton 4 . 
Crocodilus basifissus, Owen 5 (teste Leidy). 
Thoracosaurus grandis, Leidy 6 . 

The type species. Fully as large as Oaricdis gangeticus, with the 
rostrum relatively wider, and no eversion of the orbit. 
Hob. North America. 

41842. Cast of the cranium. The original, which is the type, 
was obtained from the Cretaceous near Vincenttown, 
Burlington County, New Jersey, and is preserved in the 
Museum of the Academy of Sciences at Philadelphia ; it is 
figured by Leidy in the ' Smiths. Contrib. Knowl.' vol. xiv. 
art. 6, pi. i. figs. 1, 2, pi. ii. fig. 1 (1865). 

Purchased, 1869. 

1 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. vi. p. 35 (1852— vol. dated 1854). 

2 Zool. New York, pt. iii. p. 28 (1842).— Gavialis. 

3 Loc. cit. 

4 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. ii. p. 82 (1844— vol. dated 1846). . 

5 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. v. p. 381 (1849). 

6 Loc. cit. 



CKOCODILID^E. 



71 



Genus RHAMPHOSUCHUS, Lydekker \ 
Premaxilke apparently separated from the nasals ; 1st lower 
tooth received into a notch, and 4th into a pit in the cranium ; 
upper teeth biting externally to the lower ; and the facial profile 
straight ; supratemporal fossa and entire orbit unknown. 



Rhamphosuchus crassidens (Falconer and Cautley 2 ). 

S} r n. Crocodilus (Leptorhynchus) crassidens, Falconer and Cautley 3 . 
Garialis crassidens, Lydekker 4 . 

This is the only known species. The premaxillae are not ex- 
panded, and there are pits in the cranial rostrum for the summits of 
the majority of the lower teeth, of which the 4th is enlarged. 
Total length probably between 50 and 60 feet. 

All the following specimens are from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills : and, unless it is otherwise stated, belong to the Cautley 
Collection. Presented, 1840. 

39802. The greater portion of the rostrum, showing the upper and 
{Fig.) lower jaws in apposition. This specimen is the type, and 

is figured in ' Falconer's Pakeontological Memoirs,' vol. i. 

pi. xxix. fig. 1, and by the present writer in the ' Palae- 

ontologia Indica' (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iii. 

pi. xxxiv. 

39804. The middle portion of the cranium. This specimen (wood- 

(Fig) cut, fig. 11) is figured by the writer, op. cit. p. 232, 

fig. 1. Presented by G. IT. Smith, Esq., 1843. 

Fig. 11. 




Bhamphosuchus crassidens.— Right lateral aspect of middle of cranium ; from 
the Pliocene of tke'Siwalik Hiils. \. (From the ' Palasontologia Indica.') 



1 Pakeontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 2°9 
(1886). 

2 Trans. Geol. Soc. ser. 2, vol. v. p. 503, note (1840).— Crocodilus (Lepto- 
rhynchus). a Loc. cit. 

4 Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. xlix. pt. 2. p. '.YS (1880). 



72 



CKOCODILIA. 



39803. The hinder portion of the mandibular symphysis of the 

{Fig.) same individual. Figured in c Falconer's Palseontological 

Memoirs/ vol. i. pi. xxix. fig. 2 (as part of the cranium), 

Fig. 12. 




fihamphosuchus crassidens. — Hinder part of mandibular symphysis ; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. \. sp, splenial. (From the ' Palseontologia 
Indica.') 

and by the writer, op. cit. p. 233, the latter figure being 
reproduced in fig. 12. One of the teeth has been cut, and 
is noticed by Owen in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. 
xxxv. p. 196. Presented by G. H. Smith, Esq., 1843. 

E. 760. The imperfect quadrate and quadrato-jugal. Noticed by 
the writer, op. cit. p. 232. 

16218. The anterior extremity of the left half of the mandibular 
symphysis, with three dental alveoli. 



CROCODILID^}. 73 

R. 776. A slightly imperfect cervical vertebra. 

R. 776 a. A slightly imperfect early dorsal vertebra. 

R. 759. An imperfect early (? 5th) dorsal vertebra. Noticed by the 
writer, op. cit. p. 234. The vertical diameter of the 
anterior articular cup is 0,112, and the transverse 0,098. 

R. 761. A slightly imperfect early dorsal vertebra. 

R. 761 a. An imperfect early dorsal vertebra. 

R. 732. An imperfect dorsal vertebra. 

R. 763. A very similar specimen. 

R. 783 a. A late dorsal or lumbar vertebra, somewhat imperfect. 

R. 764. A very similar specimen. 

R. 766 a. The left ilium. The longer transverse diameter measures 

0,178. 

R. 766 b. A smaller left ilium, agreeing in contour with the pre- 
ceding specimen. 

18460. The right fibula, wanting the proximal extremity. The 
diameter of the distal extremity is 0,065. 

R. 766. An imperfect large scute, probably belonging to the nuchal 
region of the present form. 

Transferred from the Old Indian Museum, 1880. 

17066. A dorsal scute. Noticed by the writer, op. cit. p. 234. 
Transverse diameter 0,181 ; antero-posterior do., 0,107. 

39817. An imperfect dorsal scute of very large size. 
R. 783. A dorsal scute. 

39815. A smaller dorsal scute, belonging either to this species or to 

Garialis. 

39816. A similar specimen. 

39818. An undetermined bone, perhaps belonging to this genus. 



/ -± CROCODILIA. 

Some of the folloiving smaller specimens may belong to 
immature individuals of this species. 

R. 777. A somewhat imperfect middle dorsal vertebra. 

R. 777 a. A late dorsal or lumbar vertebra. 

R. 777 b. A vertebra from the same region. 

R. 777 C. Another vertebra from the same region. 

R. 777 d. A third specimen from the same region. 

Serial Position Uncertain. 

Genus PRISTICHAMPSA, Gervais 1 . 

Known only by the teeth, which are remarkable for their extreme 
compression and sharp cutting-edges. 

Pristichampsa rollinati (Gray 2 ). 

Syn. Crocodilus rollinati, Gray 3 . 

This is the type and only known species, and is of small size. 
Hab. Europe (France). 

26657. The crowns of two teeth; from the Middle Eocene of 
Argenton (Indre), France. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

Genus HETEROSUCHUS, Seeley 4 . 

This genus is founded on the first of the following specimens, and 
is only provisionally included in the present series. The centra of 
the vertebrae are laterally compressed, and the neuro-central suture 
is obliterated ; while other features are stated to suggest Dinosaurian 
affinities. The genus may possibly prove identical with Hylaio- 
champsa (infra, p. 76). 

Heterosuchus valdensis, Seeley 5 . 
Hab. Europe (England). 

1 Comptes Rendus, vol. xxxvi. p. 376 (1853).- Amended from Pristichampms. 

2 Synopsis Reptilium, p. 61 (1831). — Crocodilus. 
' Loc. cit. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xliii. p. 212 (1887). 5 Loc. cit. 



CROCODILID^. 75 

36555. A nodule of ironstone containing about a dozen vertebrae, 
{Fig.) and what may possibly be part of a cranium ; from the 

Hastings Sand (Wealden) of Hastings, Sussex. The type. 

Figured by Seeley in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xliii. 

pi. xii. fig. 7. It is suggested that the supposed cranium 

may possibly belong to a different animal. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

36527. An imperfect vertebra ; from the Wealden of Cuckfield, 

Sussex. Noticed by Seeley, op. cit. p. 215. Same history. 

36528. A trunk vertebra, somewhat broken, and with the posterior 

convexity of the centrum abraded ; from Cuckfield. 

Same history. 

36525. An imperfect caudal vertebra ; from Brook. Noticed by 

Seeley, op. cit. p. 214. Same history. 

36526. Three imperfect caudal vertebrae ; from Cuckfield. Noticed 

by Seeley, op. cit. pp. 214-215. Same history. 

Genus non det. 
In the following specimens the centra have not the marked lateral 
compression characteristic of Heterosuchus. 

36524. A slightly imperfect trunk vertebra of a small Crocodilian ; 

from the Wealden of the Isle of Wight. Noticed by 

Seeley in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xliii. p. 215. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

48244. A crushed cervical vertebra, partly imbedded in matrix ; 

from the Middle Purbeck Group of Durdlestone Bay, 

Swanage, Dorsetshire. Noticed by Seeley, op. cit. p. 215. 

BecMes Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

R. 188. A mass of vertebrae and imperfect limb-bones of a somewhat 
larger Crocodilian ; from the Hastings Sand (Wealden) of 
Brook, Isle of Wight. Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

\_Crocodilus cantabrigiensis, Seeley \] 

41795. An imperfect posterior dorsal vertebra ; from the Cambridge 
Grcensand. Described by Seeley in the ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xxx. p. 694. Purchased, 1869. 



Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxx. p. 603 (1874). 



76 CROCODILIA. 

B. AMPHICCELIAN SERIES. 

Vertebrae usually amphicoelous t . Pterygoids without palatal 
plates ; lateral eustachian passages not bony. Dorsal scutes keel- 
less, and usually arranged in two rows ; ventral buckler, which is 
usually divided but may be single, with not more than eight or ten 
longitudinal rows of scutes, each scute consisting of a single element. 
Acetabular margin of pubis slightly notched. 

Family GONIOPHOLIDIM], 

Orbit communicating with infratemporal fossa, and either larger 
or only slightly smaller than supratemporal fossa ; no preorbital 
vacuity; in palate posterior border of premaxillae interpenetrated 
by maxillae. Dorsal scutes rectangular, and arranged in two or 
more rows : ventral buckler either single or divided, with the scutes 
imbricating anteriorly, and either imbricating or articulating by 
suture posteriorly. Freshwater. 

Subfamily Bernissartiin ^e. 

Posterior nares placed very far back. Typically the dorsal scutes 
without peg-and-socket articulation, and arranged in more than two 
rows; ventral buckler undivided, with the scutes imbricating 
throughout. 

In the type genus Bernissartia, Dollo 2 , the vertebrae are am- 
phicoelous ; the orbit is larger than the supratemporal fossa ; the 
nasals reach the nares ; the splenial enters into the mandibular 
symphysis ; and the pectoral limb is much shorter than the pelvic. 

Genus HYLiEO CHAMPS A, Owen 3 . 

Imperfectly known : orbits considerably larger than supratemporal 
fossae ; cranium of moderate length. Possibly the proccelous ver- 
tebrae, to which the name Heterosuchus (p. 74) has been applied, 
may prove to belong to the present genus, in which case there will 
be no doubt as to the distinctness of Bernissartia 11 . 

1 As mentioned above, Heterosuchus may belong to this series ; and the same 
may be the case with the procoelian vertebrae described from the Greensand of 
Cambridge and Austria under the names of Crocodilus cantabrigiensis (p. 75) 
and C. proavus. 

2 Bull. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. ii. p. 321 (1883). 

3 Wealden and Purbeck Replilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. vi. p. 1 (1874). 
1 See Geo!. Mag. dec. 3, vol. iv. pp. 310,. 392 (1887). 



GONIOPHOLIDID^. 7 / 

Hylseo champ sa vectiana, Owen 1 . 

The type species ; probably about 2 metres in total length ; orbits 
subcircular, with a slightly outward direction; cranial sculpture 
radiate ; posterior nares rounded and placed close to condyle : palato- 
pterygoid vacuities narrow and elongate. 

Hal. Europe (England). 

R. 177. The hinder portion of the cranium : from the Wealden of 
(Fig.) Brook, Isle of Wight. This specimen is the type, and 
is figured by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck Eep- 
tilia' (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. v. pi. ii. figs. 23-25. 

Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

Genus non. clet. 

The following specimen is too imperfect to admit of generic iden- 
tification, but it may be identical with Bemissartia. The scutes 
have no peg-and-socket articulation. 

37712. A split slab containing fragments of the exo- and endo- 
(Fig.) skeleton of a small Crocodilian: from the Wealden of 
Hastings, Sussex. Figured by Owen in his ' Cretaceous 
Eeptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pi. xv. (1851), and referred to 
by A. Smith Woodward in ' Proc. Geol. Assoc' vol. ix. 
p. 328, as Crococlilus sauli, Owen. 

Saul Collection. Purchased, 1863. 

Subfamily Goniopholidin^. 

Posterior nares placed more anteriorly than in preceding sub- 
family ; two rows of dorsal scutes ; ventral buckler divided, with 
the transverse rows of scutes articulating in the posterior part by 
suture. 

a. BBEVIBOSTBTNE SECTION. 

Cranium more or less short, with its alveolar borders festooned ; 
nasals reaching premaxillse, and frequently the nares ; mandibular 
symphysis short, without or with small splenial element. Teeth 
not numerous, and more or less differentiated. Dorsal scutes with 
peg-and-socket articulation. 

Genus THERIOSUCHUS, Owen 2 . 
Cranium very short ; nasals reaching and partly dividing nares ; 
orbit slightly larger than supratemporal fossa ; no vacuity in 

1 Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc*.). suppl vi. p. .1 (1874), 
a Tbirl. suppl. ix. p. 10 (1879). 



78 CROCODILIA. 

mandible ; teeth extremely differentiated ; fore limb much shorter 
than hinder. 

Theriosuchus pusillus, Owen 1 . 
The type species. Length of cranium 0,087. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

The following specimens include the types, and were obtained from 
the Middle Purbech of Durdlestone Bay, Siuanage, Dorsetshire. 
All belong to the Bechles Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

48330. The cranium. Figured by Owen in his ' Wealden and Pur- 
(Fig.) beck Reptilia,' suppl. ix. pi. iii. tigs. 3-6, and also (restored) 

in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxv. pi. ix. figs. 1-3, 

6 (1879). 

48218. The imperfect skull. Eigured in the ' Wealden Reptilia,' torn. 
(Fig.) cit. pi. iii. fig. 7, and the left maxilla in the ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc' torn. cit. pi. ix. fig. 4. 

48227. The imperfect anterior portion of the cranium. The right 
(Fig.) maxilla is figured in the ' Wealden Reptilia,' torn. cit. pi. iii. 

fig. 10. 

48282. The left maxilla of a young individual. Eigured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. iii. fig. 12. 

48228. The left maxilla of an immature individual. Figured, op. 
(Fig.) cit. pi. iii. fig. 13. 

48240 a. The left maxilla. Eigured, op. cit. pi. iii. fig. 11, and also in 
(Fig.) the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' torn. cit. pi. ix. fig. 5 (wrongly 
described). 

48240 b. A slab containing the imperfect upper and lower jaws. 
(Fig.) Figured in the ' Wealden Reptilia,' torn. cit. pi. iii. figs. 9, 
14, 17. 

48216. A slab containing the greater portion of both the endo- and 
(Fig.) exo-skeleton. Eigured, op. cit. pi. iv. figs. 1, 2. 

48279. Slab with part of mandible and detached scutes. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. iii. fig. 16 (mandible), and pi. iv. figs. 3, 4 

(scutes) ; the mandible is also figured in the ' Quart. Journ. 

Geol. Soc' torn. cit. pi. ix. fig. 7. 

48244. The symphysis and greater part of the left ramus of the 
mandible. 

1 Wealden and Puvbeck Keptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. ix. p. 10 (187D). 



GONIOPHOLJDID^. / » 

48218 a. The mandible, imperfect posteriorly. Figured in the 
{Fig.) ' Wealden Reptilia,' torn. cit. pi. iii. fig. 15. 

48382 a. Extremity of a mandibular ramus. Figured, op. cit. pi. iii. 
{Fig.) fig. 18. 

48302. Slab with the two rami of the mandible. 

48224. The pterygoidal region of the cranium. 

48282. Slab with the right ramus of the mandible and detached 

scutes. 

48240. Slab with fragments of the skull. 

48260. Slab with the left half of the palate, vertebrae, limb-bones, 
and scutes. 

48244. Slab with part of maxilla and scutes. 

48329. Slab with bones and scutes. 

48329 a. Ditto. 

48273. Ditto. 

48274. Ditto. 

48275. Ditto. 

48333. A femur, provisionally referred to this species. 

Genus GONIOPHOLIS, Owen 1 . 

Cranium moderately elongated ; the nasals not reaching the nares ; 
orbits slightly smaller than the supratemporal fossae ; teeth mo- 
derately differentiated, stout, rounded, slightly curved, with the 
enamel ridged and grooved, and well-marked carinas placed in a 
plane coincident with that of the curvature of the crown ; the 
splenial entering slightly into the mandibular symphysis ; the pectoral 
limb at least as long as the pelvic. Number of teeth usually ^|. 

Goniopholis crassidens, Owen 2 . 

The type species ; characterized by the stoutness of the teeth and 
the tapering form of the cranium, of which the length in one specimen 
is 0,600, although other specimens indicate considerably larger 
individuals. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

3798. A slab of stone containing the left mandibular ramus, scutes, 
(Fig.) vertebras, &c. : from the Purbeck of Swanage, Dorsetshire. 

1 Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1841, p. 69 (1842). a Loc. cit. 



80 



CKOCODILIA. 



This specimen is the type, and is figured by Mantell in his 
' Wonders of Geology,' 3rd ed. pi. i. (1839), and described 
by Owen in the ' Rep. Brit. Assoc' 1841, p. 69, and in his 
' Wealden and Purbeck Eeptilia' (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. 
viii. p. 2 (1878). Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

48340. The middle part of the left maxillary region with teeth ; 
from the Middle Purbeck of Durdlestone Bay, Swanage, 
Dorsetshire. BeckJes Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

Specimens, of which a considerable number belong to the 'present or 

next species. 

Among the following the teeth and scutes belong to large species 

of the present genus ; and many of the limb-bones and vertebras 

doubtless also belong to the same \ although some of the latter may 

be generically distinct, and are, perhaps, referable to Suchosaurus. 

37972. The nearly entire right ramus of the nmndible, containing 
several broken teeth of the type of G. crassidens ; from 
the Wealden of Cuckfield. Purchased, 1863. 

R. 606. The anterior part of the left ramus of the mandible ; from 

the Wealden of Ecclesbourne, near Hastings, Sussex. The 

entrance of the splenial into the symphysis is well shown. 

Dawson Collection. Purchased, 1884. 

R. 726. Fragment of a mandibular ramus, with dental alveoli ; 
from the Wealden of Sussex. Purchased, 1886. 

R. 974. The anterior portion of the left ramus of the mandible of 

a young individual, showing thirteen dental alveoli, with 

two perfect teeth in situ ; from the Wealden of Cuckfield. 

Presented by Major Sergison, 1887. 

2512. A tooth ; from the Wealden of Cuckfield. Figured in 
(Fig.) Mantell's ' Fossils of Tilgate Forest,' pi. v. fig. 10. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2350, 2352, 2354. Three teeth ; from the Wealden of Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

1 In addition to the species mentioned here, Koken ('Pal. Abbandl.' vol. iii. 
pt. 5, pp. 327-32 [1887]) has applied the names G. pugnax and G. minor to 
vertebrae from the German Wealden, while Owen (' British Fossil Reptiliar,' 
Crocodilia, pi. xiv.) has figured vertebras from the English Wealden as G. cari- 
natus ; and Moussaye (Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 3, vol. iii. p. 53 [1885]) 
has made the species G. undidens up m the evidence of a tooth from the Upper 
Jurassic of France. The vertebrae upon which G. carinatus is founded are keeled, 
like thoRO referred by Owen to SuchosailTUS. 



GONIOPHOLIDmE. 81 

3301, 3302, 3303, 3304. Four teeth; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

3242, 3243, 3244, 3245, 3246, 3247, 3248, 3256, 3258, 3259, 3263, 
3265, 3271, 3272, 3275, 3280, 3281, 3282, 3284, 3288, 
3290, 3292, 3294. Numerous teeth; from Cuckfield. 

Same history. 

10834. A tooth ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

33122. A tooth ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

36533. Several teeth ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

R. 638, 642. Two small teeth in matrix ; from the Wealden (Tilgate 
Grit) of Battle, Sussex. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

R. 742. A tooth iu matrix; from the Wealden of Brook, Isle of 

Wight. Purchased, 1886. 

R. 607. Several teeth ; from the Wealden of Ecclesbourne. 

Dawson Collection. Purchased, 1884. 

R. 726 a. An imperfect tooth; from the Wealden of Horsham, 
Sussex. Purchased, 1886. 

R. 968. Two teeth, of which one is of very large size ; from the 
Wealden, near Hastings. 

Daivson Collection. Purchased, 1887. 

R. 758. Two teeth ; from the Wealden ; locality unknown. 

Presented by J. S. Gardner, Esq., 1886. 

R. 976. A large tooth; from the Wealden of Cuckfield. 

Presented by Major Sergison, 1887. 

48366. A tooth in matrix ; from the Middle Purbeck of Durdlestone 
Bay, Swan age. This is a typical specimen of G. cras- 
sidens. BecMes Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

R. 605. A number of imperfect cervical, dorsal, and caudal ver- 
tebrae, the left coracoid, several imperfect limb-bones, and 
a broken dermal scute, apparently belonging to a single 
individual ; from the Wealden near Ecclesbourne. 

Dawson Collection. Purchased, 1886. 

2510. The imperfect centrum of a cervical vertebra; from the 
Wealden of Sussex. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 



82 CEOCODILIA. 

26007. An imperfect cervical or anterior dorsal vertebra; from 
Sussex. Dixon Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

40455. An imperfect dorsal vertebra, not improbably belonging to 
this group ; from the Lower Greensand (? derived) of 
Polton, Bedfordshire. Although smaller, closely resembles 
the dorsal centra of No. E. 605. This specimen may be 
Teleosaurian. Purchased, 1869. 

2312. An imperfect sacral vertebra, provisionally referred to this 
group; from Cuckfield. The rib of the right side is want- 
ing. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

43598. The right coracoid ; from the Purbeck of Swanage. Although 
smaller than the corresponding bone of No. R. 605, this 
specimen presents no distinctive features. No history. 

40661. The imperfect left humerus ; from the Purbeck of Swanage. 

Purchased, 1860. 

2480. The right ischium of a large individual, slightly imperfect at 

its acetabular extremity ; from the Wealden of Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

48310. The left ischium of a smaller individual ; from the Middle 
Purbeck of Durdlestone Bay, Swanage. 

Beckles Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

23624. The proximal half of the right femur of a very large indi- 
vidual ; from the Wealden of Perch Hill, Sussex. 

Presented by the Rev. J. Gould, 1849. 

35572. The right femur of a smaller individual; from the Purbeck 
of Swanage. Purchased, 1860. 

35570. The right femur; from Swanage. Purchased, 1859. 

2483. The left femur of a very small individual ; from the Wealden 
of Sussex. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 969. A metapodial ; from the Wealden near Hastings. 

Dawson Collection. 

36534. A dorsal scute ; from the Wealden of Sussex. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

44818. A dorsal scute ; from the Purbeck of Swanage. 

Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

44818 a. A slab showing impression of the outer surface of a dorsal 
scute ; from the Purbeck of Swanage. Same history. 



GONIOPHOLLDID^. 83 

3804. An imperfect dorsal scute ; from the Wealden of Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased , 1838. 

3804 a. Two imperfect dorsal scutes ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

3805. An imperfect dorsal scute; from Cuckfield. Figured in 
{Fig.) Mantell's ' Fossils of Tilgate Forest,' pi. vi. fig. 8, as the 

bone of a Trionyoo. Same history. 

36534 a. An imperfect dorsal scute ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 604. An imperfect ventral scute ; from the Wealden near Hast- 
ings. Dawson Collection. 

Goniopholis simus, Owen 1 . 

The teeth are more slender and the cranium is wider than in the 
type species. 

Hah. Europe (England and Belgium). 

41098. The cranium ; from the Middle Purbeck beds of Swanage, 
{Fig.) Dorsetshire. This specimen is the type, and is figured by 

Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia,' suppl. viii. 

pi. v. ; and also by Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc.' vol. xxxiv. pi. xv. figs. 3, 4 (1878), without specific 

name, Purchased, 1868. 

41098 a. The impression of the upper surface of the preceding spe- 
cimen. Same history. 

Goniopholis tenuidens, Owen 2 , 

Founded on an imperfect mandible of smaller size than that of 
either of the preceding species, but of which the distinctive specific 
characters are not indicated. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

48300. The anterior portion of the mandible ; from the Middle 
{Fig.) Purbeck of Durdlestone Bay, Swanage, Dorsetshire. The 

type specimen ; figured by Owen in his ' Wealden and 

Purbeck Eeptilia ' 3 , suppl. ix. pi. i. fig. 1. 

Beckles Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

1 Wealden and Purbeck Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. viii. p. 7 (1878). 

2 Ibid, suppl. ix. p. 2 (1879). 

3 Loc. cit. 

g2 



84 CKOCODILIA. 

Genus NANNOSUCHUS, Owen \ 

Cranium agreeing in general structure with that of Goniopholis, 
but the teeth slender, recurved, smooth, and but slightly differen- 
tiated. 

Nannosuchus gracilidens, Owen 2 . 

The type species ; length of cranium about 0,115. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

The following specimens are from the Middle Purbeck of Durdlestone 
Bay, Dorsetshire, and include the types. They belong to the 
Beckles Collection. Par chased, 1876. 

48217. The nearly entire cranium. Figured by Owen in his 
{Fig.) Wealden and Purbeck Eeptilia,' suppl. ix. pi. iii. fig. 1. 

48303. Slab containing the mandible, vertebrae, and scutes. Eig- 
(Fig.) ured by Owen, op. cit. pi. ii. figs. 1-5. 

48301. Slab containing the dentary portion of the mandible, de- 
(Fig.) tached teeth, and scutes. Figured, op. cit. pi. ii. figs. 6 
(mandible) and 7 (tooth). 

48328. Slab containing the anterior part of the mandible, and 

(apparently) the tibia and fibula. 

48328 a. The nearly entire right ramus of the mandible. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. ii. fig. 8. 

48328 C. Slab containing the left dentary portion of the mandible, 
the humerus, and fragmentary scutes. 

48329. Slab with the dentary portion of the mandible, the humerus, 
(Fig.) and vertebrae. Figured, op. cit. pi. ii. figs. 9 (mandible) 

and .10 (humerus). 

48244. Slab with portion of cranium, mandible, vertebrae, and scutes. 

Genus OWENIASUCHUS, A. Smith Woodward 3 . 

Syn. Brachydectes, Owen 4 . 

Described from the mandible, in which there is no vacuity and 
the teeth are confined to the anterior third. 

1 Wealden and Purbeck Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. ix. p. 6 (1879). 

2 hoc. cit. 

3 Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. ii. p. 50(> (1885). 

4 Op. cit. p. 3. Preoccupied by Cope (1868) for a genus of Labyrinthodontia. 



GONIOPHOLIDIDJE. 85 

Oweniasuchus major (Owen 1 ). 

Syn. Brachydectes major, Owen 2 . 

Of considerable size, the length of the mandibular ramus being 
0,235. 

Hob. Europe (England). 

The folloiving specimens were obtained from the Middle PurbecJc of 
Durdlestone Bay, Swanage, Dorsetshire, and belong to the 
BecMes Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

48304. The left ramus of the mandible. The type specimen ; figured 
{Fig.) by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck Eeptilia ' (Mon. 
Pal. Soc), suppl. ix. pi. i. fig. 2. 

48287. Slab showing anterior part of a mandibular ramus, vertebrae, 
imperfect limb-bones, and scutes. 

48313. Slab with the right dentary portion of the mandible, de- 
tached teeth, imperfect limb-bones, and scutes. 

48284. A large slab containing a considerable part of a skeleton 
apparently belonging to this species. The mandibular 
symphysis and part of the cranium proper are shown. 

The following specimens are 'provisionally referred to the present form. 
48315. Slab containing limb-bones, vertebras, and scutes. 
48291. Slab with scutes and broken bones. 

Oweniasuchus minor (Owen 3 ). 
Syn. Brachydectes minor, Owen 4 . 

Founded upon a mandibular ramus of much smaller size than the 
type of the preceding species, and showing characters which are 
regarded by its describer as of specific value. 

Hah. Europe (England). 

48328. The left ramus of the mandible ; from the Middle Purbeck 
(Fig.) of Durdlestone Bay, Swanage, Dorsetshire. The type 

specimen ; figured by Owen in his ' "Wealden and Purbeck 

Reptilia/ suppl. ix. pi. i. fig. 3. 

Beckles Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

1 Wealden and Purbeck Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. ix. (1879). — 
Brachydectes. a Loc. cit. 

3 Loc. cit. p. 5. — Brachydectes., 4 Loc. cit. 



86 CROCODILIA. 

48335 a. A slab with four imperfect trunk vertebrae, provisionally 

(Fig.) referred by Owen to the present species ; from Durdle- 

stone Bay. Figured, op. cit. pi. i. fig. 13. Same history. 

Genericallt Undetermined Specimens. 

The following were obtained from the Middle Purbeck of Durdlestone 
Bay, and belong to the BecMes Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

48298. Slab containing dorsal vertebrae, ribs, and scutes. Figured 
(Fig.) by Owen, in his ' Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia,' suppl. ix. 
pi. i. figs. 5, 6. These specimens probably belong either to 
Oweniasuchus major or Goniopholis tenuidens. 

48335. The fourth (?) dorsal vertebra, showing the intersection of 
the costal facet by the neuro-central suture. 

48335 b. An anterior dorsal vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. i. fig. 4. 

48335 d. A late dorsal or lumbar vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. i. fig. 8. 

48335 G. A sacral vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. i. fig. 9. 

(Kg-) 

48335 e. A caudal vertebra and chevron. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. i. fig. 10. 

48335 f. A slab with a tooth and imperfect vertebrae. 

48335 g. Slab with two caudal vertebrae. 

48244 a. Left half of the maxillo-premaxillary region, seen from 
the palatal aspect. 

48337. Slab containing a scapula and rib. 

48287. Slab with part of a mandibular ramus, vertebrae, imperfect 
limb-bones, and scutes. 

48313. Slab with right dentary part of the mandible, teeth, imper- 
fect limb-bones, and scutes. 

48315. Slab with vertebrae, limb-bones, and scutes. 

48291. Slab containing broken limb-bones and scutes. 

The following specimens may not improbably be referable to the 
present group. 

H. 898. A slightly imperfect sacral vertebra ; from the Wealden of 
Brook, Isle of "Wight. Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 



GONIOPHOLIDID^l. 87 

R. 608. Several imperfect vertebrae and the nearly entire left femur ; 
from the Wealden of Ecclesbourne, Sussex. 

Dawson Collection. Purchased, 1884. 



The following specimen indicates a larger form, luhich may belong to 
the next section. 

R. 1090. The imperfect right scapula andcoracoid ; from the "Weal- 
den, locality unknown. The coracoid differs from that of 
Goniopholis (No. 43598, p. 82) by the flattening of its 
posterior surface below the glenoid cavity. No history. 



b. LONGIROSTRINE SECTION. 

Cranium elongated into a rostrum, with its alveolar borders 
straight and nasals not reaching the nares ; mandibular symphysis 
long, with a large splenial element. Teeth numerous, and but 
slightly differentiated. Dorsal scutes without peg-and-socket arti- 
culation. 

Genus PHOLIDOS AURUS, Meyer \ 

Syn. Macrorhynchus, Dunker 2 . 

Orbit apparently slightly smaller than supratemporal fossa ; nasals 
reaching preniaxillse ; vomer appearing on the palate. For the iden- 
tity of Macrorhynchus with this genus see Koken, ' Pal. Abhandl.' 
vol. iii. pt. 5 (1887). 

Pholidosaurus schaumburgensis, Meyer \ 

Syn. Macrorhynchus schaumburghensis, Koken 4 . 

The type species. Fully as large as Garialis gangeticus, with the 
bar dividing the supratemporal fossae flattened. 
Hob. Europe (Germany). 

40643. Casts of the impressions of the dorsal scutes and vertebra?. 
The originals, which are the types, were obtained from 
the Wealden (Hastings Sand) of Harrels, Biickeburg, 
Schaumburg-Lippe, Germany, and are preserved in the 

1 Neues Jahrb. 1841, p. 443. 

2 Program, hoch. Gewerbscbule in Cassel, p. 44 (1844). Preoccupied by 
Lacepede (1800) for a genus of Pisces. s Loc. cit. 

4 Pal. Abhandl. vol. iii. pt. 5, p. 335 (1887). 



88 



CEOCODILIA. 



museum at Biickeburg. They are figured by Meyer in 
Dunker's 'Monographie d. norddeutschenWealdenbildung,' 
pis. xvii.-xix. (1846). Purchased, 1867. 

Pholidosaurus meyeri (Dunker l ). 
Syn. Macrorhynchus 7neyeri, Dunker 2 . 

This form is regarded by Koken as distinguished from the pre- 
ceding by the form of the cranium, the structure of the internal ear, 
and apparently by the rounding of the bar dividing the supratem- 
poral fossae, and the form of the posterior nares. 

Hab. Europe (Germany and ? England). 

28966. The imperfect hinder portion of a skull with attached cer- 
vical vertebrae and scutes, apparently belonging to this 
species ; from the Wealden of Brook, Isle of Wight. This 
specimen is described by the present writer in the ' Geol. 
Mag.' dec. 3, vol. iv. p. 311 (1887) ; it apparently agrees 
precisely with the figure of the upper surface of the type 
skull given by Meyer in Dunker's ' Monographie der nord- 
deutschen Wealdenbildung,' pi. xx. (1846), and differs 
from that of P. schaumburgensis, given by Koken in the 
' Pal. Abhandl.' vol. iii. pis. xxii., xxiii., by the rounding 
of the bar dividing the supratemporal fossae, and the con- 
tour of the posterior nares. The communication of the 
orbit with the supratemporal fossae is well shown, and the 
few hinder teeth still remaining are small and slender. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

The following specimens may belong either to this or the preceding 

species. 
36537. The crown of a tooth ; from the Wealden of Brook. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

46777-8. Two imperfect dorsal vertebrae not improbably belonging 
to the present genus ; from Brook. The centra have no 
trace of a haemal keel. Purchased, 1875. 

Subfamily Petrosuchin^e. 

Posterior nares placed near middle of cranium ; scutes not im- 
probably without peg-and-socket articulation, and of a Teleosauroid 
type. 

1 Program, bocb. Gewerbscbule in Cassel, p. 44 (1844).; — Macrorhynchus. 

2 Loc. cit. 



GONIOPHOLIDID^:. 89 

Genus PETROSUCHUS, Owen \ 

Cranium apparently of a brevirostrine type, but somewhat more 
elongated than in GoniopJiolis ; orbit considerably smaller than 
supratemporal fossa ; mandibular teeth moderately differentiated ; 
a vacuity in the mandible. 

Petrosuchus laevidens, Owen 2 . 

The type species ; length of cranium probably about one foot. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

28432. The cranium, imperfect anteriorly ; from the Purbeck of 
(Fig.) Swanage, Dorsetshire. The type specimen ; figured by 

Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia,' suppl. viii. 

pi. vi. figs. 1, 2. Purchased, 1853. 

41099. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible ; 
(Fig.) from Swanage. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. vi. fig. 3. 

Purchased, 1868. 

43598 a. A slab of Purbeck Limestone containing the hinder part 
of the right ramus of a mandible, three scutes, a late 
caudal vertebra, and an imperfect long bone, which may 
not improbably belong to the present species. The scutes, 
which are seen from their inner surface, have no peg-and- 
socket articulation. No history. 

Family Position Uncertain. 

Genus non det. 

48362. The imperfect dentary element of the right ramus of the 

mandible of a longirostrine Crocodilian probably belonging 

to the Goniopholididce ; from the Purbeck of Swanage, 

Dorsetshire. The teeth are small and widely separated. 

Heckles Collection,. Purchased, 1876. 

Genus SUCHOSAURUS, Owen 3 . 

Founded upon detached teeth, which are slightly curved, much 
compressed, with the enamel thrown into strong ridges and grooves, 
and with two carina placed in a plane at right angles to that of the 



1 Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. viii. p. 10 (1878). 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1841, p. 67 (1842). 



90 CKOCODILIA. 

curvature of the crown. Hyposaurus would seem to suggest that 
these teeth are referable to Goniopholis, but all the known jaws of 
that genus have the whole series of teeth conical. The vertebras re- 
ferred to this genus by Owen are noticed among the Iguanodontidce. 

Suchosaurus cultridens, Owen 1 . 

Syn. Crocodilus cultridens, Owen 2 . 
Suchosaurus Icevidens, Owen 3 . 

The type and only known species ; of large size. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

3309-11-15, 3381. Several imperfect teeth ; from the Wealden 
of Cuckfield, Sussex. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

33121. The crown of a tooth ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

36536. Several specimens of the crowns of teeth ; from Cuckfield. 

Same history. 

R. 635. The crown of a tooth ; from the Hastings Sand of Sandown, 
Isle of Wight. Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

R. 215. An imperfect tooth ; from the Wealden of the Isle of Wight. 

Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

R. 977. The crowns of three teeth ; from the Wealden of Cuckfield. 

Presented by Major Sergison, 1887. 

Genus HYPOSAURUS, Owen 4 . 

Imperfectly known. Mandibular symphysis elongated ; anterior 
dorsal vertebras with a haemal spine ; teeth carinated, the anterior 
ones rounded, the posterior compressed and curved, with the enamel 
ridged and grooved. In the teeth with rounded section the carinae 
are placed in a plane coincident with that of the curvature of the 
crown (as in Goniopholis), while in the compressed teeth they are in 
a plane at right angles to that of the curvature (as in Suchosaurus). 

Cope refers the genus to the Teleosauridw, but its geological 
horizon and the resemblance of the teeth to those of Goniopholis render 
it more probable that it should be referred to the present family. 

1 Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1841, p. 67 (1842). 

2 < Odontography,' p. 287 (1840-45). 

3 British Fossil Reptilia, vol. ii. expl. of Crocodilia, pi. v. fig. 4 (no date). 

4 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soo. vol. v. p. 383 (1849). 



TELEOSATJRID^:. 91 

Hyposaurus derbianus, Cope 1 . 

Twenty lower teeth ; mandibular rami compressed ; splenial ex- 
tending as far forwards as the fourth tooth from the commencement 
of the symphysis ; tweoty alveoli in the symphysis. 

Hob. South America (Brazil). 

R. 86, 305. A series of teeth ; from the Lower Cretaceous of Olaria 
Station, Bahia, Brazil. Some of these specimens agree in 
size with the typical examples from Pernambuco described 
by Cope, while others are much larger. Both the com- 
pressed and rounded types are exhibited, similar to those 
of the corresponding teeth of H. rodgersi, figured by Leidy 
in the ' Smith. Contrib. Knowl/ vol. xiv. pi. iii. 

Presented by Joseph Maivson, Esq., 1881-82. 



Family TELEOSAURID^E. 

Orbit separated from infratemporal fossa, aud smaller than the 
supratemporal fossa, which may be of enormous size ; a preorbital 
vacuity ; on the palate the premaxillae interpenetrated by the 
maxillae. Dorsal scutes rounded, and arranged in two rows ; and 
the ventral buckler divided, with the scutes posteriorly suturally 
united. Marine. 



Subfamily Metriorhynchin^e 2 . 

Skull short or moderately long, with the teeth stout, and not 
very numerous; and the orbits completely lateral, irregular, and 
only visible as triangular notches from the frontal aspect. Anterior 
nares heart-shaped and directed frontally ; nasals large, broad, and 
either reaching the premaxillaB, or separated from them by a short 
interval ; premaxillaB elongated, with a slight or no terminal 
expansion and three dental alveoli. Palatal aspect of maxillae and 
mandible either flat or channelled ; lachrymals invisible externally ; 
frontals and prefrontals very large ; and palato -pterygoid vacuities 
extensive. 

1 Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 15 (1886). 

2 There may be a question whether the term Steneosaurus was not originally 
intended to apply to the members of this group (see Hulke, Proc. Geol. Soc. 
1884, p. 46), but however this may have been, it is advisable to follow the 
nomenclature employed by Deslongchamps. 



92 



CEOCODILIA. 



Genus DACOSAURUS, Quenstedt 1 . 
Syn. Plesiosuchus , Owen 2 . 

The skull short and broad, with no trace of premaxillary expan- 
sion, and without sculpture; palatal aspect of anterior part of 

Fig. 13. 




Dacosaurus maximus. — Crown of tooth ; from the Kimeridge Clay of Ely. 
\. (From the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.') 

maxilla3 flat ; teeth (fig. 13) few in number, stout, smooth, with two 
slightly serrated carina?, and a suboval cross-section. 



Dacosaurus maximus (Plieninger 3 ). 

Syn. Geosaurus maximus, Plieninger 4 . 
Including : — Steneosaurus manseli, Hulke 5 . 

Dacosaurus lissocephalus, Seeley 6 . 

Dacosaurus primcevus, Sauvage 7 . 

Plesiosuchus manseli, Owen 8 . 

Dacosaurus manseli, A. S. Woodward 9 . 

The type species ; somewhat smaller than Machimosaurus mosce. 
Teeth — , three or four of the lower ones being post-symphysial. 

Nasals not reaching the premaxillae {infra No. 40103). The writer 
sees no reason for separating Steneosaurus manseli from the present 

1 Sonst und Jetzt, p. 131 (1856).— Amended. 

2 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xl. p. 153 (1884). 

3 Jahresh Yer. Nat. Wiirtt. vol. ii. p. 150 (1846). — Geosaurus. 

4 Loc. cit. 

5 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 170 (1870). 

6 Index to Aves &c, in Cambridge Museum, p. 92 (1869). — Not figured. 

7 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, se>. 3, vol. i. p. 380 (1873). 

8 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xl. p. 153 (1884). 

9 Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. ii., table facing p. 508 (1885). 



TELEOSAURID^. 93 

form (with which it was originally identified by its describer 1 ), and 
both D. lissocephalus and D. primceuus are in all probability also 
identical. 

Hah. Europe. 

40103. The cranium, imperfect posteriorly ; from the Kimeridge 
{Fig.) Clay of Kimeridge Bay, Dorsetshire. The type specimen 
of Steneosaurus manseli ; figured by Hulke in the ' Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxvi. pi. ix., the extremity of the 
premaxilhe being also figured in vol. xxv. pi. vii. figs. 1-3. 
From a comparison with the figures of Metriorhynchus given 
by Deslongchamps, the writer feels assured that the bones 
marked a in the former figure are the nasals, while those 
marked b appear to be portions of the maxillae and pre- 
maxillse marked otf by a ridge for muscular attachment. 
Figures of two teeth and diagrams of the palatal and 
upper surfaces are also given by Owen in his ' British 
Fossil Reptilia,' — Crocodilia, pi. xx., a reduced figure of the 
diagram of the frontal aspect being also given in the 
' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc/ vol. xl. p. 158, fig. 2 (as Plesio- 
suchus). In these figures Hulke's view of the homology 
and arrangement of the bones on the frontal surface is 
followed, but the orbits are represented as directed front- 
ally in place of laterally. 

Presented by J. C. Mansel-Pleydell, Esq., 1866. 

40103 a. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, 

{Fig.) together with portions of a rib and a femur, doubtless 

belonging to the same individual as the preceding ; from 

Kimeridge. Figured by Hulke, op. cit. vol. xxv. pi. xvii. 

fig. 4. Same history. 

40103 b. A mass of matrix exhibiting the haemal aspect of three 
entire cervical vertebrae with their ribs ; associated with 
the cranium. Same history. 



1 Subsequently referred to a distinct species on account of the presumed 
identity of Dacosaurus maximus with Cuvier's ' Gavial a museau plus court ' ; 
the latter having been shown to be made up of fragments of more than one 
species and genus, some of which belong to the Oxfordian Metriorhynchus 
superciliosus (page 96), while others are Kimeridgian, this identification falls 
to the ground. In describing the species, Hulke employs the term Steneosaurus 
in the sense in which Metriorhynchus is used by Deslongchamps, who is 
followed here. 



94 CEOCODILTA. 

33186. The crowns of two very large teeth ; from the White Jura 
(Kimeridgian) of Schnaitheim. Purchased. About 1858. 

35825-7. The crowns of three smaller teeth ; from Schnaitheim. 

Purchased, 1860. 

35766. The crowns of three large teeth ; from Schnaitheim. 

Purchased, 1860. 

33186. The crowns of five teeth ; from Schnaitheim. 

Purchased, 1860. 

32414. The imperfect crowns of two very large teeth ; from the 
Kimeridge Clay of Boulogne, Erance. Noticed by Wood- 
Mason in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxv. p. 219 
(1869). This specimen agrees precisely with D. primcevus 
of Sauvage. Purchased, 1857. 

44905. The crown of a tooth ; probably from the Kimeridge Clay 
(no locality). Presented by Sir E. Owen, K.G.B., 1877. 

20283. The crown of a tooth ; from the Kimeridge Clay of Ely, 
Cambridgeshire. Noticed by Wood-Mason, loc. cit. 

Purchased, 1846. 

43030. The crown of a small tooth ; from the Kimeridge Clay of 
Weymouth, Dorsetshire. Purchased, 1871. 

46342. The crown of a very small tooth ; from the Kimeridge Clay 
of Culham. Cunnington Collection. Purchased, 1875. 

40438. The crowns of five teeth ; from the Neocomian bone-bed of 
Potton, Cambridgeshire. Probably derived from the 
Kimeridge Clay. Purchased, 1867. 

The following specimens may indicate a distinct species. 

R. 486. The imperfect crown of a tooth • from the Oxford Clay of 
Oxford. Presented by Sir E. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 

47989-90. The crowns of five teeth; from the Oxford Clay of 
Oxford. Presented by the Hon. E. Marsham, 1877. 

32648. The crown of a tooth ; from the Oxford Clay of Yaches 
Noires, Normandy. Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

32643-4. The crowns of two smaller teeth, apparently belonging to 
this genus ; from Vaches Noires. Same history. 



TELEOSAURID^S. 95 



The generic reference of the following specimen is provisional. 

40428. The centrum and part of the arch of a large dorsal vertebra; 
from the Neocomian of Potton (derived). 

Purchased, 1867. 



Genus METRIORHYNCHUS, Meyer 1 . 

Syn. Cricosaurus, Wagner 2 . 

(?) Gnathosaurus, Meyer 3 . 
(?) Rhacheosaurus, Meyer 4 . 
(?) Crocodilcemus, Jourdan 5 . 

The skull (fig. 14) generally longer and more slender than in 
Dacosaurus, with a slight prem axillary expansion, and with 
sculpture ; splenial part of mandibular symphysis forming a narrow 
elongated triangle ; palatal aspect of anterior part of maxillae and 
mandible channelled ; teeth usually more numerous, slender, slightly 
curved, carinated, and frequently with the enamel fluted. 

Pig. 14. 




Metriorhynchus kastifer, Deslongchamps. — The cranium ; from the Kimeridge 
Clay of Normandy, f . pmx, premaxilla ; mx, maxilla ; na, nasal ; la, 
lachrymal ; fr, frontal ; or, orbit. {After Deslongchamps.) 

This genus has been the subject of great confusion owing to the 
false restoration of the original Honfleur skulls, and its real defi- 
nition must date from the description of Deslongchamps. Crico- 
saurus, of the Solenhofen Limestones, presents all the characters of 

1 Paheologica, p. 106 (1832). For application, see page 91, note 2. 

2 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. viii. p. 417 (1860). 

3 Museum Senckenburg, vol. i. p. 3 (1834). 

4 Nova Acta Ac. Caes. Leop.-Car. vol. x. pt. 2, p. 173 (1831). 

5 Quoted in Deslongchamps' 'Notes Paleontologiques,' p. 119 (1867). 



96 CKOCODILIA. 

the present genus, while Gnathosaurus, from the same deposits, may 
perhaps be also included. Bhacheosaurus, which was founded upon 
vertebras from the last-named formation, was identified by D' Alton 
and Burmeister l with JEolodon, but from its larger size it is more 
probable that it may have belonged to the present genus. Croco- 
dilcemus was identified by Deslongchamps provisionally with 2Eo- 
lodon, from which it differs in the character of the teeth and 
armour. 



Metriorhynchus superciliosus, Deslongchamps 2 {ex 
Blainville, MS.). 

Syn. Crocodilus superciliosus, Blainville (MS.). 
Teleosaurus superciliosus, Deslongchamps 3 . 

Of medium size, with the nasals not reaching the premaxillaB ; 
the prefrontals large and very convex externally; the frontals 
strongly pitted posteriorly. 

This species must apparently be regarded as the type of the genus, 
since it was on fragments of its skull joined to those of other genera 
and species that Cuvier founded both his ' Gavial a museau allonge ' 
and ' Gavial a museau plus court d'Honfluer ' 4 ; the latter being the 
Steneosaurus rostro-minor of authors, to which Meyer applied the 
generic name Metriorhynchus with the affix geoffroyi 5 . 

32617. The imperfect hinder portion of the cranium, showing the 
occipito-parietal region and the hinder part of the frontals ; 
from the Oxford Clay (Middle Jurassic) of Yaches-Noires 
(Calvados), Prance. It agrees exactly with the corre- 
sponding portion of the type cranium figured by Deslong- 
champs in his ' Notes Paleontologiques,' pi. xx. fig. 2 a. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

32614. Fragment of the anterior portion of the cranial rostrum, 
showing four dental alveoli on either side, and one re- 
placing tooth in situ ; from Vaches-Noires. 

Same history. 

32616. The imperfect frontal ; from Vaches-Noires. Same history. 

1 Der fossile Gavial von Boll, p. 77 (1854). 

2 Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, vol. i. p. 149 (1867). — Teleosaurus. 

3 Loc. cit. 

4 See Deslongchamps, ' Notes Paleontologiques,' p. 309. 

5 The writer thinks it might have been advisable to retain this name. 



TELEOSAURID^. 9 / 

Metriorhynchus moreli, Deslongchamps 1 . 

Of considerably larger size than the preceding ; from which it is 
readily distinguished by the outer border of the prefrontals being 
much less convex, and the pitting of the posterior part of the frontals 
very indistinct. 

Hah. Europe (Prance and England). 

32618. The imperfect hinder portion of the cranium, showing the 
occipito-parietal region, the frontals, prefrontals, and 
proximal extremities of the nasals ; from the Oxford Clay 
(Middle Jurassic) of Yaches-Noires (Calvados), Erance. 
This specimen accords precisely with the corresponding 
region of the type cranium figured by Deslongchamps in 
his ' Notes Paleontologiques,' pi. xxii. tig. 1 a. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

32625. The imperfect anterior extremity of the cranial rostrum in 
a rolled condition ; from Yaches-Noires. Same history. 

32623. The greater portion of the cranial rostrum, showing the 
imperfect nasals, maxillae, and premaxillse ; from Yaches- 
Noires. Same history. 

32622. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
wanting the two extremities ; from Yaches-Noires. 

Same history. 

46323. The symphysis of the mandible; from the Oxford Clay of 
Chippenham, Wiltshire. This specimen agrees precisely 
with the type mandible figured by Deslongchamps, op. cit. 
pi. xxii. fig. 2a; it is noticed by A. Smith Woodward in 
the ' Geol. Mag.' dec. 3, vol. ii. p. 503 (1885). 

Cunningion Collection. Purchased, 1875. 

46323 a. Crown of a large tooth said to have been found with the 
preceding specimen. Same history. 

46797. Mass of matrix containing portions of the cranium and 
mandible ; from the Oxford Clay of Melksham, Wiltshire. 
The occipital condyle, part of the premaxillaB with teeth, 
as well as a large portion of the left ramus of the man- 
dible with teeth are well preserved ; the enamel of the 
teeth is fluted. Same history. 

1 Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, toI. iii. p. 187 (1869). 

H 



98 CROCODILIA. 

32643, 4, 5, 9. Crowns of teeth, probably belonging to the present 
species ; from Vaches-Noires. Tesson Collection. 

Metriorhynchus elegans (Wagner *). 

Syn. iSteneosaurus elegans, Wagner 2 . 
Cricosaurus elegans, Wagner 3 . 

If the type specimen be adult, this form is distinguished by its 
comparatively small size, the length of the cranium being about 
0,250 ; the details of cranial structure are unknown. 

Hah. Europe (Germany). 

43005. A split slab of lithographic limestone containing the skull 
and part of the vertebral column in a crushed condition ; 
from the Kimeridgian (Upper Jurassic) of Eichstadt, 
Bavaria. The skull agrees exactly in size with the type 
specimen figured by Wagner in the 'Abh. k.-bay. Ak. 
Wiss.' vol. viii. pi. xiv. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

37006. A slab of limestone containing the anterior portion of a 
skull, not improbably belonging to an immature indi- 
vidual of this species ; from the Kimeridgian of Solen- 
hofen, Bavaria. Purchased, 1862. 

Metriorhynchus (?), sp. 

The following form (Crocodilamius of Jourdan, MS.) was pro- 
visionally identified by Deslongchamps 4 with Molodon, but the 
ventral scutes are pitted and the teeth are subequal, so that there 
seems no reason for separating it from the present genus, although 
the upper surface of the cranium is not shown. 

Hab. Europe (France). 

40344. Cast of a slab of limestone exhibiting the ventral aspect of 
the nearly entire endo- and exo-skeleton, probably of a 
young individual. The original was obtained from the 
Kimeridgian (Upper Jurassic) of Cirin (Aix), France, and 
is believed to be in the Museum at Lyons. The man- 
dibular symphysis has been separated ; the scales of the 
ventral buckler are arranged in eight rows, and are 
strongly pitted, with slight carina}. Purchased, 1867. 

1 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vi. p. 705 (1852). — Steneosaurus. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Ibid. vol. viii. p. 436 (1860). 

4 Notes Paleontologiques, p. 119. 



TELEOSA.T7RID2E. 99 

Specimen's of which at least some belong to Metriorhynchus. 

A. From the Middle Jurassic of England, {some may he 
Steneosaurus). 

47044. The crowns of two teeth; from the Calcareous Grit of 
Heddington, Oxfordshire. 

Presented by Sir B. Owen, K.O.B. 

R. 471. Several imperfect and crushed cervical and dorsal vertebrae; 
from the Oxford Clay of Stanground, near Peterborough, 
Northamptonshire. These specimens agree in general 
characters with the vertebrae of M. palpebrosus, figured by 
Phillips in his ' Geology of Oxford/ p. 382, fig. 185 (as 
Steneosaurus). Same history. 

36336-39. The crowns of four teeth; from the Coralline Oolite of 
Malton, Yorkshire. Bean Collection. Purchased, 1862. 

B. From the Middle Jurassic {Oxford Clay) of Vaches-Noires {Cal- 
vados), France {some may be Steneosaurus). Unless it is other- 
ivise stated, these specimens belong to the Tesson Collection. 
Purchased, 1857. 

The following indicate large individuals. 

32627. An imperfect sacral vertebra, with the left rib. 

32628. An imperfect late dorsal or lumbar vertebra. 

32629. A slightly imperfect early dorsal vertebra. 

32630. A somewhat imperfect middle caudal vertebra. 

32632. An imperfect dorsal vertebra. 

32633. A late trunk vertebra. 

32634. An imperfect early dorsal vertebra. 

32635. The centrum and part of the arch of an early caudal 

vertebra. 

Some of the following indicate smaller individuals. 

32636. A slightly imperfect middle dorsal vertebra. 

32637. The somewhat imperfect third dorsal vertebra. 

h2 



100 CEOCOBILIA. 

32639. A mass of matrix with two slightly imperfect late dorsa 

vertebrae. 

i 

32640. The centrum of a late dorsal or lumbar vertebra. 

32641. The rolled centrum of a sacral vertebra. 

27488. The centrum and part of the arch of a cervical vertebra. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27488 a. Two slightly imperfect dorsal vertebrae. Same history. 

27488 b. A somewhat imperfect middle caudal vertebra. 

Same history. 

C. From the Upper Jurassic of England (all are probably 
Metriorhynchus). 

Some of the following may be referable to M, palpebrosus 
(Phillips 1 ), which appears very closely allied to the French 
M. hastifer, Deslongchamps 2 ; the distinction of the latter from the 
German M. grandis (Wagner 3 ) being not apparent. 

43000. The crowns of two teeth ; from the Kimeridge Clay of 
Weymouth, Dorsetshire. Purchased, 1871. 

R. 411. The crown of a tooth ; from the Kimeridge Clay of Wey- 
mouth. Presented by C. Westendarp, Esq., 1884. 

24803. The centrum of a dorsal or lumbar vertebra; from the 
Kimeridge Clay of Wootton-Bassett, Wiltshire. Although 
smaller, this specimen agrees with the vertebra of M. pal- 
pebrosus, figured by Phillips, op. cit. p. 382, fig. 185. 

Purchased, 1849. 

24803 a. An imperfect dorsal vertebra; from Wootton-Bassett. 

Same history. 

46492. An imperfect dorsal vertebra; from the Kimeridge Clay 
of Foxhangers, near Devizes, Wiltshire. 

Purchased, 1875. 

45911. The centrum of a dorsal or lumbar vertebra of a narrower 
type ; from the Kimeridge Clay of Weymouth. 

Purchased, 1874. 

1 ' Geology of Oxford,' p. 381, figs. 182, 183.— Steneosaurm. 

2 See ' Notes Pal6ontologiques,' pi. xxlv. 

3 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. viii. pi. xii.— Cricosaurus. 



TELEOSA.TJRIDJE. 101 

47435. The centrum of a similar vertebra ; from the Kimeridge 
Clay of Ely, Cambridgeshire. 

Sharp Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

43032, 44179. The centra of two caudal vertebras : from Weymouth. 

Purchased, 1873. 

41233. A ventral dermal scute ; from the Kimeridge Clay of Ely. 
Closely resembles the specimen figured by Deslongchamps, 
op. cit. pi. xxiv. fig. 6, as M. incertus. Purchased, 1868. 

41973. Part of a similar scute. Purchased, 1870. 



Incertce sedis. 
Genus 2EOL.ODON, Meyer l . 

Characters of cranium imperfectly known, owing to crushing; 
teeth of unequal size, a long and a short one being arranged alter- 
nately ; orbits apparently directed somewhat outwardly ; mandibular 
symphysis wide and slightly concave anteriorly: anterior nares 
apparently like those of the next subfamily ; ventral armour con- 
sisting of small, closely-joined scutes, only slightly pitted. 

Reasons have been already adduced for doubting the identification 
with this genus of Bhacheosaurus and Grocodilcemus. 

JEolodon prisons (Sommerring 2 ). 

Syn. Crocodilus prisons, Sommerring . 
Teleosaurus soemmeiringi, Holl 4 . 
Gavialis priscus, Gray 5 . 
Teleosaurus priscus, Owen e . 
Teleosaurus gracilis, D' Alton & Burmeister 7 (in parte). 

The type species ; if the type is adult it is of small size, the length 
of the cranium being about 0,175 ; teeth §fEf§- 
Hah. Europe (Germany and Erance). 

R. 1086. A split slab of lithographic limestone, containing the nearly 
(Fig.) entire skeleton ; from the Kimeridgian (Upper Jurassic) 

» Isis, 1830, p. 518. 

2 Denksckr. k. Ak. Munchen, vol. v. p. 9 (1814).— Crocodilus, 

3 hoc. cit. 4 Handbuch der Petrefactenkunde, vol. i. p. 87 (1829). 
5 Synopsis Reptilium, p. 56 (1831). 

15 Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1841, p. 76. 

7 Der fossile Gavial von Boll, p. 77 (1854). 



102 CBOCODILIA. 

of Daiting, near Monheim, Bavaria. The type specimen ; 
figured by Sommerring in the ' Abh. k.-bay. Ak. "Wiss/ 
vol. v. pi. i., and by Cuvier in the ' Ossemens Fossiles,' 
2nd ed. vol. v. pt. 2, pi. vi. fig. 1 ; and noticed by Owen 
in the ' Eep. Brit. Assoc' for 1841, p. 76, and by D'Alton 
and Burmeister in their ' Gavial von Boll,' pp. 69, 77. 

Sommerring Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

37007. A split slab of limestone containing part of a badly pre- 
served skull, not improbably belonging to this species; 
from the Kimeridgian of Solenhofen, Bavaria. 

Purchased, 1862, 



Subfamily TeleosaurinjE. 

Skull either moderately or excessively elongated, with the teeth 
moderately or very slender, and orbits regular and directed more 
or less frontally, so as to be completely visible from the frontal 
aspect. Anterior nares transversely elongated, and directed more 
or less anteriorly ; nasals separated by a long interval from the pre- 
maxillee ; premaxillse usually short and more or less expanded, and 
generally with four dental alveoli. The palatal aspect of the max- 
illae and mandible somewhat convex. Nasals small; lachrymals 
large ; frontals and prefrontals small ; palato-pterygoid vacuities not 
extensive. 

The terms Teleidosaurus, Pelagosaurus, and Steneosaurus were 
originally employed by Deslongchamps as subgenera of Teleosaurus, 
but were subsequently raised to the rank of genera. 

Genus TELEIDOSAURUS, Deslongchamps 1 . 

Skull with the rostrum comparatively short and broad, and the 
teeth few, rather stout, carinated, vertical, and curved ; premaxillae 
elongated and slightly expanded, with three dental alveoli on either 
side ; orbits not perfectly regular, and directed somewhat laterally ; 
supratemporal fossaa moderately large and angulated : frontals large ; 
posterior nares unknown ; 23 upper teeth in type species. 

This and the following genus connect the typical members of this 
subfamily with the Metriorhynchince. 

1 Bull. Soc. Linn. Normaudie, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 142 (1869). — As a subgenus. 



TELEOSATTKID^E. 103 

Teleidosaurus joberti, Deslongchamps 1 . 

Distinguished from the typical T. calvadosi by the narrower and 
more compressed mandible, and the relative position of its four an- 
terior dental alveoli. 

Hab. Europe (France). 

32612. Cast of a portion of the right ramus of the mandible. The 
original was obtained from the Fuller's-earth (Lower 
Jurassic) near Caen (Calvados), France, and forms part of 
the type specimen figured (reversed) by Deslongchamps in 
his ' Notes Paleontologiques/ pi. xviii. fig. 4. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 



Genus MACHIMOSAURUS, Meyer 2 . 

Skull with the rostrum short and broad, and the teeth compara- 
tively few, very stout, vertical, nearly straight, with fluted enamel, but 
without carinas ; premaxillse considerably expanded, with three dental 
alveoli ; orbits directed mainly frontally, and elongated transversely : 
supratemporal fossae very large and ovoid, with posterior angula- 
tion ; frontals small ; posterior nares unknown. About 17 upper 
teeth in type species. Splenial element of symphysis forming a 
short triangle. This genus is regarded by Sauvage and Lienard as 
most nearly allied to Teleidosaurus. 

Machimosaurus hughi, Meyer 3 . 

The type species. Of comparatively large size, but the skull un- 
known. 

Hab. Europe (Germany). 

R. 233. Cast of a tooth. The original was obtained from the Port- 
landian (Upper Jurassic) of Soleure (or Solothurn), Switzer- 
land. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

33239, 43638. Three imperfect teeth ; from Soleure. 

Eastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

R. 5. Five imperfect teeth ; from Soleure. Purchased, 1880. 

1 Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, s6r. 2, vol. iii. p. 155 (1869). 

2 Neues Jahrb. 1837, p. 560. — Errorim Madrimosaunis. 
8 Log. cit. 



104 CKOCODILIA. 

Machimosaurus mosse, Sauvage & Lienard *. 
Syn. Teleosaurus mosce, Lienard 2 (MS.). 

The largest known Crocodilian; its distinctness from the type 
species not very apparent. Typically from the Kimeridgian of 
Prance. Thirteen lower teeth, of which three or four are postsym- 
physial ; the length of the mandible is usually about 1,322 (52 in.). 

Hah. Europe (France and England). 

It. 1089. The occipital region of the cranium and the associated man- 
(Fig.) dible; from the Kimeridge Clay (Upper Jurassic) of 
Kimeridge Bay, Dorsetshire. The mandible is figured by 
Owen in his ' Eeptilia of the Kimeridge Clay ' (Mon. Pal. 
i Soc), pi. xii. figs. 3-5 ( 1868), under the name of Plio- 
saurus trochanterius. Its crocodilian nature was pointed 
out by Deslongchamps in his '.Notes Paleontologiques,' 
p. 329, where it is referred to Metriorhynchus ; and it is 
mentioned under that name by A. Smith Woodward in the 
8 Geol. Mag.' 1885, p. 502. The mandible cannot be dis- 
tinguished from that of the type of the present species 
figured by Sauvage and Lienard, in the ' Mem. Soc. Geol. 
Prance,' ser. 3, vol. i. art. 4, pi. xxiii. (iv.) ; but the pre- 
sent specimen shows there was no terminal expansion of 
the symphysis ; there are thirteen lower teeth ; the hinder 
portion of the cranium is essentially of a Teleosaurine 
type, and agrees with the fragments of the same part in the 
type specimen. The length of the entire mandible is 
1,322 (52 inches), the length of the type mandible, as 
restored by Sauvage and Lienard, to the extremity of the 
glenoid cavity, being 1,296 (51 inches) ; the length from 
the posterior extremity of the glenoid cavity to the extre- 
mity of the splenial is 1,020 (42 inches) in the former, 
and from the condyle 1,090 (42*6 inches) in the latter ; 
and the width of the posterior part of the symphysis 
0,203 (8 inches) in the former, and 0,208 (8-2 inches) in 
the latter. Presented by J. C. Mansel-Pleydell, Esq., 1866. 

1 Mem. Soc. G6ol. France, ser. 3, vol. i. art 4, p. 11 (1879). 
u Vide Sauyage and Lienard, op. cit. p. 7, note 1, 



TELE0SAUE1DJE. 



105 



Genus PELAGOSAURUS, Bronn 1 . 

Syn. Engyommasaurus, Kaup 2 , 
Mosellosaurus, Monard 3 . 

Cranium more or less elongated and narrow, with the teeth nume- 
rous, frequently widely separated, comparatively slender, grooved, 
and implanted nearly vertically ; premaxilhe short and slightly ex- 
panded ; orbits regular, and placed more or less laterally ; supra- 
temporal fossae moderately large and subovate ; postorbital bar in- 
clined obliquely backwards, so that the posterior border of the orbit 
is placed nearly on the same line as the anterior border of the 
supratemporal fossa ; infraorbital bar very shallow ; upper temporal 
arcade sculptured; posterior nares narrow and pear-shaped, with 
their anterior extremity extending between the palatines ; palato- 
pterygoid vacuities large. 

Fig. 15. 









Pelagosaurus typus. — Lateral view of skull and upper and lower views of cra- 
nium ; from the Upper Lias. E, eustachian aperture ; N, posterior nares ; 
0, orbit ; P, palatine vacuity ; T, supratemporal fossa ; V, basioccipital. \. 



1 In Bronn and Kaup's ' Gavialartigen Reptilien,' p. 28 (1841). 

2 Quoted in Neues Jahrb. 1835, p. 623. This name has the priority. 
8 Ann. Soc. R. Sci. Orleans, vol. ix. p. 1 (1847). 



106 CROCODILIA. 

Pelagosaurus typus, Bronn \ 

Syn. Steneosaurus bronni, Laurillard 2 . 

Mosellosaurus rostro-minor, Mohard 3 . 
Crocodilus temporalis, Blainville 4 . 
Teleosaurus mosellana, Terquem 5 . 
Teleosaurus temporalis, Gervais 6 . 

Of small size, measuring from 1 metre to 1*20 in length. Rostrum 
comparatively short, sculpture on cranium (fig. 15) strongly marked; 
orbits extremely lateral ; teeth — , very nearly vertical, and widely 
spaced ; preorbital vacuity of medium size, and placed at some dis- 
tance in advance of the orbit. Length of cranium 0,280. 

Hab. Europe. 

15296. Cast of the nearly entire skeleton. The original, which is 
the type, was obtained from the Upper Lias of Boll, 
Wiirtemberg, and is figured in Bronn and Kaup's ' Gavial- 
artigen Reptilien,' pis. iii., iii. a, iii. b. 

Purchased. About 1840. 

19735. Cast of the skull and anterior cervical vertebrae. The ori- 
ginal is from Boll, and is figured by D 'Alton and Bur- 
meister in their 'Fossile Gavial von Boll,' pi. xi. and 
pi. xii. fig. 1. A similar cast is apparently the one re- 
ferred to by Deslongchamps in his ' Notes Paleontologiques,' 
p. 263. Same history. 

R. 1087. Cast of the entire endo- and exoskeleton. The original 
was obtained from the Upper Lias of Curcy (Calvados), 
France, and is preserved in the Paris Museum of Natural 
History. Purchased. 

14437. The imperfect hinder portion of the cranium, with the 
outer surface of the bones much corroded ; from the Upper 
Lias, probably of Whitby, Yorkshire. No history. 

32598. The nearly entire vertebral column with the overlying 

{Fig.) dermal scutes ; from Curcy. Figured by Deslongchamps 

in the ' Mem. Soc. Linn. Normandie,' vol. xii. pi. vii., and 

1 Gavialartigen Reptilien, p. 28 (1841). 

2 Diet. Univ. Hist. Nat. vol. iv. p. 365 (1841). 

3 Ann. Soc. R. Sci. Orleans, vol. ix. p. 1 (1847). 

4 Osteographie — Genus Crocodilus, pi. vi. (no date). 

5 Paleontologie de la Moselle, p. 22 (1855). 

6 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. p. 449 (1859). 



TELEOSATJRID^. 107 

also by Huxley in the ' Mem. Geol. Surv. Eng.' Monograph 
iii. (Stagonolepis) pi. xii. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

32599. The skull, wanting the anterior extremity ; from the Upper 
(Fig.) Lias of Amaye-sur-Orne (Calvados). Figured (with some 

restoration) by Deslongchamps, op. cit. pi. i. figs. 1-6, and 
(cranium only) in his ' Le Jura Normand,' pt. 4, pi. iv. 
figs. 2a, 2d, and also by Huxley, op. cit. pi. xi. figs. 1, 
la, 1 b. Same history. 

32600. The occipital and fronto-parietal regions of the cranium ; 
(Fig.) from Curcy. Figured by Deslongchamps in the ' Mem. 

Soc. Linn. Normandie,' vol. xii. pi. i. figs. 7-9, and also 
in ' Le Jura Normand,' pi. iv. figs. 4«, 46. Same history 

32601. The greater portion of the ventral dermal buckler ; from 
(Fig.) Curcy. Figured (with restoration) by Deslongchamps in 

the ' Mem. Soc. Linn. Norman die,' vol. xii. pi. viii. fig. 9, 
and also by Huxley, op. cit. pi. xi. fig. 2. Same history. 

32602. Ten dorsal vertebrae ; from Curcy. Same history. 

32603. Four cervical vertebrae ; from Curcy. Same history. 

32604. The left pubis ; from Curcy. Same history. 

32605. The left ischium ; from Curcy. Same history. 

32606. The proximal portions of the right and left femora ; from 

Curcy. Same history. 

32607. Two cervical ribs ; from Curcy. Same history. 

Pelagosaurus brongniarti (Kaup 1 ). 

Syn. Engyommasaurus brongniarti, Kaup 2 . 
Mystriosaurus brongniarti, Bronn 3 . 
Mystriosaurus tenuirostris, Minister 4 . 
Teleosaurus oplites, Deslongchamps 5 . 

Of large size, the entire length being about two metres. Eostrum 
much elongated and slender ; sculpture on cranium slight ; orbits 
more anterior than in the last species ; teeth stouter and less nearly 

1 Quoted in Neues Jahvb. 1835, p. 623. — Engyommasaurus. - Loc. cit. 

3 In Bronn and Kaup's ' Gavialartigen Keptilien,' p. 35 (1841). 

4 Neues Jahrb. 1843, p. 130. 

5 Mem. Soc. Linn. Normandie, vol. xiii. p. 126 (1863). 



108 CEOCODILIA. 

vertical, long and slightly curved, ^ in number ; preorbital vacuity 
large, and approximated to orbit. 

14792. The anterior portion of the skeleton ; from the Upper Lias 
(Fig.) of Whitby, Yorkshire. Figured by Owen in his ' British 
Fossil Eeptiles ' — Crocodilia, pi. xv. fig. 1, under the name 
of Teleosaurus chapmani, and referred to the present 
species by Deslongchamps in ' Le Jura Normand,' pt. iv. 
p. 11. The tail of another Teleosaurian has been affixed 
to the specimen, and represented in the figure. 

Purchased. About 1840. 

15500. The greater part of the skeleton, the skull being entire; 
from Whitby. Purchased. About 1840. 

E. 757. The nearly entire cranium ; from Whitby. No history. 

R. 4. The cranium, wanting the rostrum ; from Whitby. 

Purchased, 1880. 

11589. Cast of a crushed cranium, without the rostrum. The 
original was obtained from Whitby. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

Genus STENEOSAURUS, E. Geoffrey \ 
Including Mystriosaurus, Ka,xvp 2 =Macrospondylus, Meyer 3 . 
Eostrum more or less elongated and narrow, with the teeth nu- 
merous, generally stout and directed somewhat obliquely outwards, 
grooved, and with vertical earinae ; premaxillae obliquely truncated 
anteriorly, with a marked deflection of the extremity, which is more 
or less expanded ; orbits regular, and directed more or less com- 
pletely frontally ; supratemporal fossae usually very large and an- 
gulated : postorbital bar directed more or less nearly at right angles 
to the longer axis of the cranium, so that the posterior border of the 
orbit is placed well in advance of the adjacent border of the supratem- 
poral fossa ; infraorbital bar deep ; upper temporal arcade not sculp- 
tured ; posterior nares broad, ovate or rounded, and placed in advance 
of temporal fossae ; palato-pterygoid vacuities large. 

The writer follows the original view of Deslongchamps i of regard- 
ing Mystriosaurus as not generically separable from Steneosaurus. 

1 Mem. du Museum, vol. xii. p. 146 (1825). Eegarding the application of 
the term, see page 91, note 2. 

2 In Bronn's ' Lethsea,' 1st ed. vol. i. (1835). — (Page 525 in 2nd ed.) 

3 Nova Acta Ac. Caes. Leop.-Car., vol. xv. pt. 2, p. 196 (1831). 

* Notes Paleontologiques, p. 128. Subsequently this writer considered the 
two as distinct. 



TELE0SAURIDJ3. 109 

A. Mystriosaurine Group. 
The orbits placed more or less laterally ; the posterior nares elon- 
gated and ovate, the middle line of the cranium more or less convex, 
and the supratemporal fossae generally not excessively large. 

Steneosaurus heberti, Morel de Glasville ' (fig. 16), from the Lower 
Oxfordian of Normandy, seems to be the latest representative of the 
group, but in its large supratemporal fossse approximates to the next 
group. 

Fig. 16. 




Steneosaurus heberti. — Upper view of the cranium ; from the Lower Oxfordian 
of Normandy, About T V . The bones on the right side of the rostrum are 
imperfect ; there should have been a line connecting the apex of the frontals 
with the suture dividing the maxillae ; the preorbital vacuity is not shown. 

Steneosaurus bollensis (Jager 2 ). 

Syn. Crocodilus bollensis, Jager 3 . 
Teleosaurus bollensis, Holl 4 . 
Macrospondylus bollensis, Meyer 5 . 
Mystriosaurus bollensis, D'Alton and Burmeister e . 
Mystriosaurus teidmanni, Bronn 7 . 
Mystriosaurus egertoni, Kaup 8 . 
Mystriosaurus schmidti, Bronn 9 . 
Mystriosaurus mandelslohi, Bronn 10 . 
Mystriosaurus longipes, Bronn ll . 
Mystriosaurus muensteri, Wagner ]2 . 
Mystriosaurus stukelyi, Winckler 13 (in parte). 

1 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 3, vol. iv. p. 342 (1876). See also vol. viii. 
p. 318 (1880). 

2 Foss. Eept. Wiirtemberg, p. 6 (1828).— Crocodilus. 3 Loc. cit. 

4 Handbuch der Petrefactenkunde, vol. i. p. 87 (1829). 

5 Nova Acta Ac. Cses. Leop.-Car. vol. xv. pt. 2, p. 196 (1831). 

6 Der fossile Gavial von Boll, p. 73 (1854). 

7 In Bronn and Kaup's ' Gavialartigen Eeptilien,' p. 28 (1841). 

8 Ibid. p. 3. 9 Ibid. p. 28. 10 Ibid. p. 28. ll Ibid. p. 46. 

12 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. v. p. 516 (1850). 

13 Arch. Mus. Teyler, vol. iv. art. 1, p. 132 (1876). 



110 



CROCODILIA. 



The rostrum very long and narrow, the teeth slender, the orbits 
small and placed somewhat laterally, the supratemporal fossae 
small. The synonymy is given on the authority of Burmeister and 
D'Alton \ who regard the type vertebrae as belonging to the same 
form as the crania. 

Eab. Europe (Germany and England). 

21546. The nearly entire skeleton ; from the Upper Lias of Boll, 
Wiirtemberg. The skull is perfectly preserved. 

Purchased, 1847. 

15295. Cast of the nearly entire skeleton. The original was 
obtained from Boll, and is figured in Kaup and Bronn's 
' Gavialartigen Reptilien/ pis. ii. a, ii. b, ii. c, under the 
name of Mystriosaurus teidemanni, of which it is the type. 

Purchased. About 1840. 

14436. The hinder part of the cranium and mandible ; from the 
Upper Lias of Whitby, Yorkshire. The characteristic 
form of the postorbital bar is well shown ; while the 
small, ovate orbits, and minute preorbital vacuities are also 
distinctive features of this species. No history. 

Steneosaurus chapmani (Buckland 2 \_ex Kdnig, MS.]). 

Syn. Teleosaurus chapmani, Buckland 3 {in parte). 
Mystriosaurus laurillardi, Kaup 4 . 
Mystriosaurus chapmani, Bronn 5 . 
Mystriosaurus macrolepidotus, Wagner 6 . 
? Mystriosaurus speciosus, Miinster 7 . 
Mystriosaurus stukelyi, Winckler 8 {in parte). 

The rostrum shorter and wider than in the last species, with the 
orbits relatively larger. 

Winckler has proposed to regard this species merely as a variety 
of S. bollensis. 

Hob. Europe (England and Germany). 

1 See Winckler, Arch. Mus. Teyler, vol. iv. art. 1, p. 132 (1876), 
" 2 Geology and Mineralogy (Briclgewater Treatise), 1st ed. vol. ii. p. 35 
(1837). — Teleosaurus (errorim, chapmanm). 

3 Loc. cit. 

4 Quoted in Neues Jahrb. 1835, p. 623. 

5 Gavialartigen Eeptilien, p. 27 (1854). 

y Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. v. p. 555 (1850). 

7 Neues Jahrb. 1843, p. 129. 

8 Arch. Mus. Teyler, vol. iv. art. 1, p. 132 (1876). 



TELEOSATmiD^. Ill 

R. 1087 a. The cranium and the anterior part of the axial skeleton, 
{Fig.) and various dorsal scutes ; from the Upper Lias of Whitby, 
Yorkshire. This specimen appears to be the one dis- 
covered by Captain Chapman in 1758, and figured in the 
Phil. Trans, for that year, pis. xxii. and xxx., and should 
thus be regarded as the type of the species. Originally 
the specimen was curved laterally as in the figure, but 
the head was subsequently chiselled oat and placed in its 
present position. When figured some of the caudal ver- 
tebras remained, but these were lost in extraction. 

Presented by the Council of the Royal Society. 

R. 324. The hinder portion of an immature cranium, apparently 
belonging to this species ; from Whitby. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

14438. The crushed middle and rostral portions of a cranium 

probably referable to an immature individual of this 
species ; from Whitby. No history. 

The following specimens may probably be referred to the present 

species. 

47157, A large portion of the mandibular symphysis ; from the 
Lias of Greens-Norton, near Towcester, Northamptonshire. 
This specimen apparently agrees precisely with the corre- 
sponding portion of the type specimen ; the splenial 
element is long and narrow. 

Sharp Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

39154. The greater portion of the mandibular symphysis, con- 
taining many of the teeth ; from Whitby. 

Bowerbanh Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

14439. A mass of dorsal vertebras, ribs, and dermal scutes, belonging 

either to the present or following species ; from Whitby. 

No history. 

33107. A mass of rock containing two later dorsal vertebras agreeing 
in size with the preceding ; from Whitby. 

Purchased. About 1857. 

Steneosaurus brevior, Blake l {ex Owen, MS). 
Syn. Teleosaurus brevior, Owen 2 . 

Mystriosaurus brevior, A. S. Woodward 3 . 

1 In Tate and Blake's ' Yorkshire Lias,' p. 244 (1876). 

2 ' British Fossil Eeptilia '— Orocodilia, p. 140 (no date). 

3 Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. ii. p. 499 (1885). 



112 CHOCODILIA. 

The rostrum comparatively short and wide; the teeth about 
2I, and stout ; the orbits placed more anteriorly ; the middle line of 
the cranium depressed ; and the supratemporal fossae large. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

14781. The skull ; from the Upper Lias of Whitby, Yorkshire. 

(Fig.) The type specimen ; figured by Tate and Blake in their 
'Yorkshire Lias,' pi. i. figs. 1, 2; and also by Owenin 
his ' British Fossil Beptilia ? — Crocodilia, pi. xvi. 

Purchased. About 1840. 

R. 756. The hinder portion of the cranium, wanting the tem- 
(Fig.) poral arcades ; from Whitby. Figured by Tate and 
Blake, op. cit. pi. i. fig. 3 (without specific name). 

No history. 

R. 282 a. The greater portion of a mandible perhaps belonging to 

an immature individual of this species; from Whitby. 

The splenial element is shorter and wider than in the 

specimen No. 47157 provisionally referred to S. chapmani. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

20691. The anterior extremity of a mandibular symphysis pro- 
visionally referred to this species ; from Whitby. The 
reference is made on account of the large size of the teeth. 

Purchased, 1847. 

** Steneosaurus minimus (Quenstedt 1 ). 

Syn. Teleosaurus minimus, Quenstedt 2 . 
Mystriosaurus minimus, Winckler 3 . 

Probably the young of one of the three preceding species. 
Hab. Europe. 

37991. Cast of a slab containing the entire cranium. The original, 
which is the type, was obtained from the Upper Lias of 
Wiirtemberg, and is figured by Quenstedt in his ' Hand- 
buch der Petrefactenkunde/ pi. vi. fig. 15. 

Purchased, 1864. 

Generically undetermined specimens from the Upper Lias. 

33095. The occipito-parieta] region of a small cranium from Whitby. - 

Purchased. About 1857. 

1 Hanclbuch der Petrefactenkunde, p. 101 (1852). 2 Loo. cit. 

8 Arch. Mus. Teyler, vol. iv. art. 1, p. 117 (1876). 



TELEOSATJEID^J. 113 

R. 1091. The corresponding portion of another cranium, apparently- 
belonging to a different genus ; from Whitby. No history. 

R. 63. The imperfect cranial rostrum of a young individual ; from 
Whitby. Purchased, 1881. 

R. 63 a. The mandibular symphysis of a young individual ; from 
Whitby. Same history. 

R. 405. The anterior portion of the mandibular symphysis of a 
young individual ; from Saltwick Bay, Yorkshire. 

Presented by 0. Westendarjp, Esq., 1884. 

47445. Several imperfect dorsal vertebrae and ventral scutes ; from 
Whitby. Purchased, 1876. 

33105. Two larger imperfect dorsal vertebrae ; from Whitby. 

Purchased. About 1857. 

R. 65. An imperfect 6th or 7th dorsal vertebra ; from Boll. 

Purchased, 1881. 

B. Steneosaurine Group. 

The orbits directed frontally; the posterior nares short and 
rounded, the middle line of the cranium much depressed, and the 
supratemporal fossae in some instances very large. 

Steneosaurus latifrons (Owen *). 

Syn. Teleosaurus latifrons, Owen 2 . 

Rostrum comparatively wide and flattened ; frontals flat ; orbits 
round, and not oblique ; premaxillae moderately expanded ; supra- 
temporal fossae short and wide ; teeth about j|, large. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

The type specimen is from Northamptonshire, and is said to be 
from the Great Oolite, but from the evidence of the following 
specimen its horizon may be lower. 

47171. The nearly entire skull, together with thirteen associated 
imperfect dorsal vertebrae and four dorsal scutes ; from 
the Upper Lias of Northamptonshire. This specimen 
accords so exactly with the type cranium figured in 



1 British Fossil Keptilia, \ol. iii. p. 141 (no date). — Teleosaurus. 

2 Log. cit. 



114 CROCODILIA. 

Owen's 'British Fossil Reptilia' — Crocodilia, pi. xvii., 
that there appears every reason for referring it to the 
same species ; the type is, however, said to be from the 
" Great Oolite " of Northamptonshire, but the horizon may 
perhaps be incorrect. Sharp Collection. Purchased, 187 '6. 

47171 a. A detached tooth perhaps belonging to this species ; from 
the Lias of Northamptonshire. Same history. 

Steneosaurus larteti, Deslongchamps 1 . 
Syn. Teleosaurus larteti, Deslongchamps 2 . 

Bostrum comparatively wide and convex ; frontals strongly pitted 
and concave ; orbits rounded and not oblique ; premaxillse slightly 
expanded ; supratemporal fossae excessively elongated ; teeth ( 32 ~ 33 ^ 
stout, and short. 

Hah. Europe (France). 

32653-4. Two teeth apparently agreeing precisely with the speci- 
men figured in pi. xiv. fig. 5 of the ' Notes Paleontologiques ' 
of Deslongchamps; from the Fuller's earth (Lower Ju- 
rassic) of Caen (Calvados), France. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

33125. The hinder extremity of a mandibular symphysis provi- 
sionally referred to this species ; from Caen. 

Purchased. About 1857. 

Steneosaurus stephani, Hulke 3 . 

Apparently allied to the preceding species, but with the supra- 
temporal fossae relatively wider, and the outer border of the orbit 
straighter, and the inner more curved. Its right to distinction from 
the next species requires confirmation. 

Hal. Europe (England). 

49126. Portions of the cranium and mandible ; from the Cornbrash 
(Fig.) (Lower Jurassic) of Clasworth, Dorsetshire. The type 

specimen ; figured by Hulke in the ' Proc. Dorset. Nat. 

Hist. Club,' vol. i. pi. i. Purchased, 1878. 



1 Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, vol. i. p. 155 (1868). — Teleosaurus. 

2 Loc. tit. 

3 Proc. Dorset. Nat. Hist. Club, vol. i. p. 20 (1877). 



TELEOSATJEID^. 115 

Steneosaums brevidens (Phillips l ). 
Syn. Teleosaurus brevidens, Phillips 2 . 

So far as the small type figure 3 admits of judging, the supra- 
temporal fossas are relatively wider than in 8. larteti, the orbits 
more oval and oblique, and the extremity of the muzzle more 
expanded. Teeth §^f§- 

Hob. Europe (England). 

R. 78. The greater portion of a broken mandible probably belonging 
to this species ; from the Great Oolite (Lower Jurassic) 
of Enslow Bridge, near Bletchington, Oxfordshire. This 
specimen apparently agrees closely with the mandible 
figured by Phillips, op. cit. p. 187, fig. 44. 

Presented by J. Wood-Mason, Esq., 1880. 

28609. Part of the right maxilla of a Steneosaure not improbably 
belonging to this species ; from the Great Oolite of Stones- 
field, Oxfordshire. Pur chased, 1853. 

The following specimens from the Stonesfield Slate agree with the 
teeth referred to the present species by Phillips, op. cit. p. 185, 
%. 42. 

40127. Nine specimens of crowns of teeth; from Stonesfield. 

Purchased. About 1866. 

28611. Three specimens of crowns of teeth ; from Eyeford, Gloucester- 
shire. Purchased, 1853. 

Several of the following specimens may 'probably be referred to 
the present species ; but others may belong to the next. 

4821. The imperfect third (?) cervical vertebra; from the Great 
Oolite of Little Gibraltar, near Enslow Bridge, Oxford- 
shire. Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

R. 79. Three imperfect dorsal vertebrae ; from the Great Oolite of 
Enslow Bridge. These specimens agree precisely with 
the one figured by Phillips, op. cit. p. 190, fig. 47. 

Presented by J. Wood-Mason, Esq., 1880. 

R. 82. An imperfect later dorsal vertebra in a laterally crushed 
condition : probably from the Great Oolite of Oxfordshire. 

Same history. 

1 'Geology of Oxford,' p. 185 (1871). — Teleosaurus. 

- Loc. cit. 3 Ibid. p. 1S6, fig. 43. 

i 2 



116 CROCODILIA. 

37720v Slab of sandstone with an imperfect vertebra ; from Stones- 
field. Purchased, 1863. 

40126. A slab with a crashed late caudal vertebra ; from Stonesfield. 

Purchased. About 1866. 

R. 78. Four fragments of late dorsal scutes ; from Enslow Bridge. 
These resemble the specimen figured by Phillips, op. cit. 
p. 182, fig. 41. Presented by J. Wood-Mason, Esq;., 1880. 

47998. Fragment of a (? dorsal) scute : from Stonesfield. 

Presented by the Hon. B. Mar sham, 1877. 

47998 a. Fragment of stone showing the under surface of a scute ; 
from Stonesfield. Same history, 

28497. Fragment of stone exhibiting the under surface of a scute ; 
from Stonesfield. Dixon Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

41312. An imperfect scute, seen from the inner surface ; from 
Stonesfield. Purchased, 1869. 

Steneosaurus megistorhynchus, Deslongchamps - 1 . 

Syn. Teleosaurus megistorhynchus, Deslongchamps 2 . 
Steneosaurus rostro-major, auct. (in parte). 
Steneosaurus longirostris, auct. {in parte). 

Rostrum extremely elongated, narrow, and depressed; orbits 
ovoid, with the longer axis oblique ; frontals depressed and moderately 
pitted ; supratemporal fossaB comparatively small ; teeth { ~~^> 
slender, 3paced, with elongated curved crowns. 

Hob. Europe (France and.[?] England). 

40907. Fragment of a maxillary rostrum, showing three dental 
alveoli, provisionally referred to this species ; from the 
Gryphite Grit (Upper Inferior Oolite) of Leckhampton, 
Gloucestershire. This specimen apparently agrees precisely 
with the type figured by Deslongchamps in his ' Notes 
Paleontologiques,' pi. xv., and its horizon is only just 
below that of the Fuller's earth. 

Presented by 0. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

1 Bull. Soe. Linn. Normandie. ser. 2, vol. i. p. 155 (1868).— Teleosaurus. 
This name is a modification of Geoffrey's Stentosaure aux longs mamillaries, 
with which Deslongchamps identifies this species, which is thus the type of the 
genus. 

2 Loc. cit. 



TELEOSATTEID-E. 117 

Steneosaurus edwardsi, Deslongchamps \ 

Syn. Tekosaurus edwardsi, Deslongchamps 2 . 

Rostrum comparatively short and wide, with the interval between 
the nasals and premaxillte short ; frontals slightly pitted and con- 
cave : orbits ovoid and oblique ; premaxillge only very slightly 
expanded ; supratemporal fossae probably large : teeth fg, with 
small alveoli. 

Hab. Europe (France). 

32620. Fragment of the hinder part of the cranial rostrum ; from 
the Oxford Clay (Middle Jurassic) of Yaches-Noires (Cal- 
vados) France. It agrees with the corresponding part of 
the cranium figured by Deslongchamps in his ' Notes 
Paleontologiques,' pi. xvii. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

Steneosaurus megarhinus (Hulke ? ). 
Syn. Teleosaurus megarhinus, Hulke *. 

Known only by the cranial rostrum, which is characterized by its 
slenderness, convexity, and great expansion of the premaxilla?. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

43086. The greater portion of the cranial rostrum ; from the 
(Fig.) Kimeridge Clay (Upper Jurassic) of Kimeridge Bay, Dorset- 
shire. The type specimen : figured by Hulke in the 
' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc/ vol. xxvii. pi. xviii. 

Presented by J. C. Hansel- Pley dell, Esq., 1870. 

Steneosaurus, sp. 

The rostrum much elongated and narrow, with the teeth large, 
laterally compressed, and strongly carinated. 
Hab. Europe (France). 

33127. Fragment of the cranial rostrum, showing the bases of 
several teeth broken off in their alveoli together with 
their detached crowns ; from the Fuller's earth (Lower 
Jurassic) of Caen (Calvados), France. In its elongated 

1 Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, vol. i. p. 155 (1868).— Teleosaurus. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvii. p. 442 (1871).— Teleosaurus 

4 Loc. cit. 



118 CROCODILIA. 

form this specimen agrees with S. megistorhynchus \ but 
differs by its much larger teeth, which have an antero- 
posterior diameter of 0,011 and a transverse of 0,007. 

Purchased, 1857. 

Specifically undetermined Specimens. 

32650. The crowns of three teeth ; from the Fuller's earth of Caen 
(Calvados), France. Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

32586. An associated series of smaller teeth : from Caen. 

Same history. 

47419. The right and left femur ; from the Cornbrash of Peter- 
borough, Northamptonshire. 

Sharp Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

47168. The proximal half of the right femur of a smaller form ; from 
the Cornbrash of Peterborough. Same history. 

47170. Fourteen associated ventral scutes of the anterior and middle 
part of the posterior buckler, not improbably belonging to 
this genus ; from the Great Oolite of Belminsthorpe, near 
Stamford, Northamptonshire. Some of these specimens 
are nearly an inch in thickness, and the transition from 
an imbricating junction anteriorly to a sutural one pos- 
teriorly is well exhibited. Same 



Genus TELEOS AURUS, Geoffroy 2 . 

Rostrum greatly elongated, depressed, and slender, with crenulated 
alveolar borders, and the teeth very numerous, slender, and directed 
outwards, without carinse ; premaxilhe very short and obliquely 
truncated ; orbits completely circular and directed anteriorly : supra- 
temporal fossae moderately large and angulated; infraorbital bar 
deep ; posterior nares very broad, rounded, and placed in a line with 
the temporal fossae ; palato-pterygoid vacuities small. 

Teleosaurus cadomensis, Geoffroy 3 . 
Syn. (?) Crocodilus cadomensis, Lamouroux 4 . 
The type species. Of small size, the length of the cranium being' 

1 See Deslongchamps ' Notes Paleontologiques,' pi. xv. 

2 Mem. du Museum, vol. xii. p. 135 (1825). 

3 Ibid. p. 145. 

4 Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. Brux. vol. iii. p. 163 (1820). 



TELEOSAUKIB^). 119 

about 0,340 ; hinder portion of cranium much expanded, with large 
supratemporal fossae ; teeth 5^Z^o )> a PP roxmi ated, and arranged in 
groups of three, of which the middle one is placed on a higher level 
than the others ; nasals simple posteriorly. 
Hob. Europe (France). 

The following specimens are from the Fuller's earth {Lower Jurassic) 
of Caen {Calvados), France, and the majority of them belong to 
the present species, although some may be referable to the closely 
allied T. gladius \ Unless it is stated to the contrary the 
specimens belong to the Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

R. 880. Cast of the left half of the cranium proper. The original is 
one of the types, and is figured by Cuvier in the ' Ossemens 
Fossiles/ 2nd ed. vol. v. pt. 2, pi. vii. figs. 1-5 ; by Geoffroy 
in the ' Mem. du Museum,' vol. xii. pi. xvi. figs. 1-3 ; and 
by De Blainville in his ' Osteographie,' genus Crocodilus, 
pi. vi. Purchased, 

R. 880 a. Cast of the cranium, wanting the rostrum. Purchased. 

32594. Slab containing nine cervical and dorsal vertebras with the 
ribs and dorsal scutes of the right side. 

32594 a. Slab showing the last two lumbar, sacral, and first four 
caudal vertebrae, partly imperfect. 

32575. Block with portions of two late dorsal vertebrae and right 
ribs. 

119. Cast of a block exhibiting fifteen trunk vertebrae and the right 
anterior ribs and dorsal scutes. Purchased, 1836. 

32588. The associated last dorsal, sacral, and first two caudal 
vertebrae. 

32611 a. Two centra of cervical vertebrae. 

32609. Two centra of late trunk vertebrae. 

32610. A slightly imperfect late dorsal vertebra. 
32585. Three ribs. 

32680. The left ischium. 

28296. The right femur. Purchased, 1851. 

28296. Cast of the right femur. 

1 See Deslongckamps, ' Notes Paleontologiques/ pi. xii, 



120 CEOCODILIA. 

32584. An associated series of detached dorsal scutes. 

32584 a. Four ventral (?) scutes. 

32584 x. Matrix, showing the impression of the outer surface of 
the scutes of the dorsal buckler. 

32591. A block, showing a number of ventral scutes in apposition 

belonging to the hinder part of the posterior buckler. 

32592. Slab, showing the inner surface of a number of ventral scutes 

belonging to the anterior or middle regions of the same. 

32593. A smaller slab, showing the inner surface of the ventral scutes. 

32593 a. A similar specimen, in which the impression of the outer 
surface of some of the scutes is seen. 

32505. Slab with ventral scutes and ribs. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

119 a. Cast of the nearly entire posterior ventral buckler. 

Purchased, 1836. 

Teleosaurus geoffroyi, Deslongchamps \ 

Imperfectly known, but larger than the preceding, with the teeth 
arranged in a straight line, of relatively larger size, fewer in number, 
and separated by wider intervals, the number being estimated by 
Deslongchamps at from 35 to 40 on each side. The width of the 
type mandibular symphysis at the extremity of the splenial is 0,029. 

Hob. Europe (France and [?] England). 

33126. Fragment of sandstone, showing a portion of a mandibular 
symphysis apparently belonging to this species ; from the 
Stonesfield Slate (Lower Jurassic) of Stonesfield, Oxford- 
shire. This specimen, of which the inferior aspect is 
exposed, exhibits seven dental alveoli on either side, two 
of which retain their teeth. Except for being slightly 
smaller, the specimen cannot be distinguished from the 
type fragment figured by Deslongchamps in his 'Notes 
Paleontologiques/ pi. xii. fig. 8. 

Purchased. About 1857. 

39788. The greater portion of a cranial rostrum agreeing in size and 
characters with the preceding ; from Stonesfield. Ante- 
] Bull. Soc. Linn, ormandie, s<§r. 2, vol. i. p. 348 (1868). 



TELEOSAUMD^, 



121 



riorly the specimen is broken off at the commencement of 
the premaxillary expansion, which appears to have been 
well marked ; the dental alveoli are arranged in a straight 
line ; and the premaxillge are more elongated than in 
T. cadomensis. Morris Collection. Purchased, 1862. 

R. 236. A slab of sandstone, showing the damaged upper surface of 
the anterior half of a similar rostrum ; from Stonesfield. 
' Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 



Teleosaurus subulidens, Phillips 1 . 

It will be convenient to take as the type the mandible represented 
in Phillips's ' Geology of Oxford/ p. 195, fig. 55, since some of 
the teeth represented in fig. 42 of the same under this name may 
belong to the preceding species. 

Of larger size than T. geoffroyi, the width of the type mandibular 
symphysis at the extremity of the splenial being 0,050 ; the number 
of the teeth in each ramus is estimated by Phillips at 35 or 36. 
"Whether the present form be anything more than the adult of the 
preceding cannot yet be determined. 

Hah. Europe (England). 

R. 236 a. The posterior portion of the mandibular symphysis, show- 
ing several broken teeth; from the Stonesfield Slate of 
Stonesfield, Oxfordshire. The diameter at the anterior 
extremity of the splenial is 0,040. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

33124. The posterior portion of the symphysis of a larger mandible ; 
from Stonesfield. The diameter at the end of the splenial 
is 0,056. Purchased. About 1857. 

Of the following specimens some may belong to the present 
and others to the preceding form. 

28611. Eive teeth ; from the Stonesfield Slate of Eyeford, Gloucester- 
shire. These resemble the specimens figured by Phillips, 
op. Git. fig. 42 (6, 7). Purchased, 1853. 

48041. Two teeth; from Stonesfield. 

Presented by Sir B. Otuen, K.C.B., 1860. 

1 'Geology of Oxford,' p. 194 (1871). 



122 CKOCODILIA. 

23407. A tooth; from Stonesfield. Purchased, 1849. 

11044. A tooth ; from Stonesfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

44863. A tooth; from Stonesfield. 

Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

25584. Two larger teeth ; from Stonesfield. 

Presented by Mrs. Townsend, 1851. 

47996. Four teeth ; from Stonesfield. One is of large size, and 
agrees with the unnamed specimen figured by Phillips, op. 
cit. fig. 42 (4), and in relative size with the mandible 
No. 33124. Presented by the Hon. E. Marsham, 1877. 

28497. Several teeth ; from Stonesfield. 

Dixon Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

11143. A tooth ; from Stonesfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

31830. The imperfect left scapula ; from Stonesfield. 

Purchased. About 1852. 

47997. The left ischium ; from Stonesfield. This specimen agrees 
closely in contour with the corresponding bone of T. cado- 
mensis, and differs both in this respect and its greatly 
inferior size from the ischium probably referable to Steneo- 
saurus brevidens figured by Phillips, op. cit. p. 192, fig. 51. 
Presented by the Hon. B. Marsham, 1877. 

41311. A split slab, showing the left pubis; from Stonesfield. 
Length 0,138. Purchased, 1869. 

Genekically ukdetebmined Specimens. 

The name Oolithes bathonicce, J. Buckman \ has been applied to 
specimens resembling the following : — 

37987. Fragments of rock with natural casts of eggs of Teleo- 
saurians ; from the Great Oolite (Lower Jurassic), near 
Cirencester, Gloucestershire. 

Presented by Joshua Brown, Esq., 1864. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. yol.xvi. p. 110 (1860). 



TELEOSATJRID^]. PHYTOSATJKIDJE. 123 

R. 499. Fragment of rock, showing polished sections of casts of 
similar eggs ; from the Great Oolite, near Cirencester. 

Presented by Joshua Brown, Esq., 1884. 

40308. Two fragments of rock, showing broken hollow natural casts 
of similar eggs ; from the Great Oolite of Burford Road, 
Wiltshire. Morris Collection. Purchased, 1862. 

40361. Two fragments of rock with similar broken natural casts, 
of which some are hollow ; from the Great Oolite near 
Cirencester. Purchased, 1867. 

R. 905. Natural cast of a similar egg ; from the Great Oolite, 
locality unknown. No history. 



Suborder PARASUCHIA. 

No palatal plates developed from the bones of the roof of the mouth, 
and consequently no secondary posterior nares ; a columella ; anterior 
nares posterior and divided ; vomers apparent on the palate ; a 
distinct postfrontal x ; the middle eustachian canal not enclosed in 
bone ; and the premaxillae (typically) carrying some 21 teeth, and 
forming a rostrum. Probably a clavicle; coracoid short and 
rounded, with a very large fontanelle; humerus with an ectepi- 
condylar groove; pubis entering into acetabulum; probably five 
digits in each foot 2 . Vertebrae amphicoelous. Dorsal scutes keeled, 
and arranged in two rows ; ventral scutes (when present) arranged 
in not more than eight rows, and each scute consisting of a single 
bone. 

This Suborder connects the Crocodilia very closely with the Sauro- 
podous Dinosauria. 



Family PHYTOSAURIDiE 3 . 

A descending portion in the basioccipital and basisphenoid ; the 
premaxillaB interpenetrating the maxillae on the palate ; the orbits 
completely separated from the large infratemporal fossae ; the pre- 
orbital vacuities very large; the supratemporal fossae exceedingly 
small and rudimental 4 . 

1 Baur, Zool. Anzeiger, vol. ix. p. 740 (1886). 

2 Baur, loc. cit. 

3 =Belodontid<e. 

4 Many of these characters are known only from the type genus. 



124 CROCODILIA. 



Genus PHYTOSAURUS, Jager l . 

Syn. Belodon, Meyer 2 . 

No ventral buckler. The nasals reaching the premaxillse and 
completely surrounding the nares ; premaxilhe and extremity of 




Phytosaurus cylindricodon. — Skull ; from the Keuper of Wiirtemberg. About 
}. pmx, prernaxilla ; mx, maxilla ; na, nasal ; nar, nares ; or, orbit ; 
p.or, preorbital vacuity. 

mandible much deflected, and more or less expanded ; orbits some- 
what irregular, and directed partly laterally, and partly frontally. 
Teeth sharp and pointed, with serrated carinae ; anteriorly subcir- 
cular in section, but posteriorly much compressed laterally. Sculpture 
of scutes radiate. 

Forms referred to this genus have been obtained from the Lower 
Mesozoic of Europe, N. America, and India 3 . 



Phytosaurus cylindricodon, Jager 4 . 

Syn. Phytosaurus cubicodon, Jager 5 . 
Belodon kapffi, Meyer 6 . 

The type species ; of very large size, with the cranial rostrum of 
great vertical depth, the mandible broad and considerably expanded 
at the extremity, and the teeth stout. Number of teeth ^. 

Hab. Europe (Germany). 

1 Foss. Eept. Wiirtemberg, p. 22 (1828). 

2 Neues Jahrb. 1842, p. 302. 

3 See * Palseontologia Indica' (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 4, vol. i. pt. 5, 
p. 21 (1885). 

4 Op. tit. p. 23 (1828). 5 Ibid. p. 33. 
6 ' Pakeontographica,' vol. vii. art. 5, p. 256.(1861). 



PHYT0SATTKID.a5. 

Fig. 18. 



125 




Phytosaurus cylindricodon. — Frontal and oral aspec ts of the cranium ; from the 
Keuper of Wiirtemberg. "About £ . p.na, posterior nares ; other letters 
as in fig. 17. 

The following specimens were obtained from the Keuper ( Upper Trias) 
of Stuttgart , Wurtemberg, unless it is stated to the contrary. 

39477. Cast of the cranium. The original is figured by Meyer in 
the ' Palaeontographica,' vol. x. pis. xxxviii. to xl. 

Purchased, 1864. 

42743. The cranium. Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

38037. The hinder portion of the cranium. Purchased, 1864. 

38039. Part of the left palato- maxillary region. Same history. 

38040. The hinder part of the left premaxilla. Same history. 

38041. Fragment showing some of the upper dental alveoli, longi- 
(Fig.) tudinally split. Figured by Meyer, op. cit. vol. xiv. 

pi. xxviii. figs. 10, 11. Same history. 

38042. Fragment of the left temporal region. Same history. 

38043. Fragment of the left temporal region. Same histoi-y. 

38044. The right parietal. Same history. 



126 CEOCODILIA. 

37994. Cast of the anterior extremity of the mandibular symphysis. 
The original, which came from Altenberg, near Tubingen, 
is the type of the genus, and, together with an associated 
fragment, is figured by Jager in his ' Foss. Eept. "Wur- 
temberg/ pi. xiii. fig. 3. Some restoration has apparently 
been made in the cast. Purchased, 1864. 

38036. The mandible, containing many of the teeth. 

Purchased, 1864. 

42744. The mandible, with several teeth remaining. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

38045. The imperfect right dentary portion of the mandible, show- 

ing three teeth. Purchased, 1864. 

38046. The greater portion of the left half of the mandibular sym- 

physis of a small individual. Same history. 

38047. The right splenial element of the mandible. Same history. 

38048. Part of the left splenial. Same history. 

38049. Part of the right splenial. Same history. 

38050. Fragment of the right splenial. Same history. 

38052. Part of the right dentary of a young individual. 

Same history. 

38068. A large series of teeth. Same history. 

38060-61. Two bones not improbably belonging to the hyoid 
apparatus. Purchased, 1864. 

At least the majority of the following belong to this species. 

38069. Two cervical vertebrse in apposition. Purchased, 1864. 

38070. The nearly entire sixth (?) dorsal vertebra. Figured by 
{Fig.) Meyer, op. cit. vol. xiv. pi. xxvii. figs. 1-3. Same history. 

38071-79. Several imperfect dorsal vertebrae. Same history. 

38080. The centra of four caudal vertebra?. Same history. 

38081. A chevron-bone. Same history. 

38082. The arch and part of the centrum of the eighth (?) dorsal 

vertebra. Same history. 



PHYTOSATJKID^. 127 

42746. An imperfect late dorsal vertebra. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

38091. Three imperfect ribs. Purchased, 1864. 

42747. An abdominal rib. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

38067. The imperfect right scapula of an immature individual. 

Purchased, 1867. 

38066. The left coracoid. Figured by Meyer, vol. xiv. pi. xxvii. 
(Fig.) fig. 10. Same history. 

38055. The imperfect right humerus of a very large individual. 

Same history. 

38056. The nearly entire left humerus in a somewhat crushed 

condition. The ectepicondylar groove is shown. 

Same history. 

38057. The distal half of a similar left humerus. Same history. 

38063. The left ilium. Figured by Meyer, op. cit. vol. xiv. pi. xxix. 
(Pig.) fig. 1. Same history. 

38064. The imperfect right ilium of a smaller individual. 

Same history. 

38065. A pubis. Figured by Meyer, op. cit. vol. xiv. pi. xxvii, 
(Fig.) fig. 11. Same history. 

38054. The right femur. Same history. 

38059. The left tibia. Same history. 

38083. A nearly entire dorsal scute, probably belonging to the 

middle of the buckler. Same history. 

38084. A somewhat imperfect right dorsal scute from the same 

region. Same history. 

38085. The outer half of a right dorsal scute from the same region. 
(Fig.) Figured by Meyer, op>. cit. vol. xiv. pi. xxviii. figs. 4-6. 

Same history. 

38086. The inner half of a right dorsal scute from the same region. 

Same history. 

38087. A small dorsal scute. Figured by Meyer, op. cit. vol. xiv. 
(Fig.) pi. xxviii. figs. 7-9. Same history. 



128 CROCODILIA. 

38088. A dorsal scute, probably from the anterior part of the 

buckler. Purchased, 1867. 

38089. Three similar dorsal scutes. Same history. 

38090. Several imperfect dorsal scutes. Same history. 

42748. A broken nodule containing a similar scute. 

Van Breda Collection. 

42748 a. An imperfect dorsal scute. Same history. 

Phytosaurus plieningeri (Meyer 1 ). 

Syn. Belodon plieningeri, Meyer 2 . 

Distinguished from the preceding by the cranial rostrum being 
shallow vertically, by the more slender and less expanded mandible, 
the relatively smaller teeth, and the generally smaller and lighter 
structure of the whole skull. Number of teeth 3 gy. 

Hah. Europe (Germany). 

42745. The nearly entire cranium ; from the Keuper (Upper 
{Fig.) Triassic) Sandstone of Stuttgart, Wiirtemberg. Described 

and figured by Meyer in the ' Palaeontographica,' vol. xiv. 

p. 104, pis. xxiv.-xxvi. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

38038. The right ramus of the mandible, containing most of the 
{Fig.) teeth; from the Keuper of Stuttgart. Described and 
figured by Meyer, op. cit. p. 100, pi. xxiii. 

Purchased, 1864. 

Genus STAGONOLEPIS, Agassiz 4 . 

A ventral armour; skull apparently like that of Phytosaurus; 
teeth blunt and swollen ; sculpture of scutes more distinctly pitted. 
Made by some writers the type of a distinct family — Stagono- 



1 Neues Jahrb. 1842, p. 302.— Belodon. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 The great discrepancy in the number of the upper and lower teeth in the 
two known entire specimens indicates the probability of individual variation 
in this respect. 

4 'Kecherches sur les Poissons Fossiles du Vieux Gres-Kouge,' p. 139 (1844), 



PHYTOSAURID.ZE. 12) 

Stagcmolepis robertsoni, Agassiz'. 

The type and only known species. 
Hah. Europe (England). 

All flte following specimens are from the Keuper (Upper Triassic), 
and, unless it is stated to the contrary, were obtained from 
Lossiemouth, Elginshire. 

E-. 582. Cast of a dorsal scute and a bone of the foot. The original 
specimen is in the Elgin Museum, and consists of a block 
of sandstone containing the impression of the scute and 
bone. The cast of the scute is figured by Huxley in the 
6 Mem. Geol. Surv. Eng.' Mon. iii. pi. ii. fig. 1 (reversed). 
Presented by Sir R. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 

27404. Cast of a slab of sandstone exhibiting a considerable por- 
tion of the ventral buckler. The original was obtained 
from Morayshire, and is the type of the genus ; it is 
figured by Agassiz in his ' Poissons Eossiles du Yieux 
Gres-Kouge,' pi. xxxi. figs. 13, 14, and also by Huxley, 
op. cit. pi. i. fig. 1 (reversed). 

Presented by Dr. Mantell, 1851. 

36392. Slab of sandstone, showing five imperfect dorsal scutes in 

sequence, and the impression of a ventral scute. 

Presented by J. Taylor, Esq., 1859. 

36393. Slab of sandstone, with impressions of two or three scutes 

and fragments of a bone. Same history. 

38394. Slab of sandstone showing the inner surfaces or impressions 

of the outer surfaces of eight pairs of scutes belonging to 
the two middle rows of the ventral buckler, together with 
portions of scutes from the adjacent rows. Same history. 

38395. Slab showing the inner surfaces and outer impressions of 

numerous imperfect scutes. Sa7ne history. 

36396. Slab showing several imperfect scutes or their impressions. 

Same history. 

36397. Slab with impressions of several associated apparently ventral 

scutes. Same history. 

1 ' Recherohes but les Poissons Fossiles du Yieux Gres-Rouge,' p. 139 (1844). 

K 



130 



CROCODILIA. 



36398. Slab with part of a large crushed bone. 

Presented by J. Taylor, Esq., 1859, 

36399. Slab showing the inner surface and part of the impression 

of the outer surface of a small scute, and the impression 
of a bone (? femur). Same history. 

R. 581. Cast of a slab showing the distal two thirds of the left 
humerus. The original is preserved in the Museum at 
Elgin, and is figured by Huxley, op. cit. pi. vii. fig. 7 
(reversed). Presented by Sir B. Owen, K.G.B., 1884. 



Family PARASUCHID^]. 

No descending portion in the basioccipital and basisphenoid ; other 
cranial characters unknown. 



Genus PARASUCHUS, Huxley 1 . 
The only known genus. 

Parasuchus hislopi, Lydekker 2 (ex Huxley, MS.) 

The type and only known species. The description of the com- 
plete skeleton of Hyperodapedon by Huxley 3 , together with the 
probable presence of a clavicle in Phytosaurus, renders it most 
likely that the appendicular bones provisionally referred by the 
writer 4 to Hyperodapedon really belong to the present form. 

Hab. India. 

R. 1097- Cast of the conjoint basioccipital and basisphenoid. The 
original, which is one of the types, was obtained from the 
Maleri beds (Lower Mesozoic) of the Gondwana system 
at Maleri, near Sironcha, Central Provinces, India, and is 
preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta ; it is figured 
by the present writer in the * Palaeontologia Indica,' 
ser. 4, vol. i. pt. 5, pi. iii. figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b. 

Presented by the Director of 
the Geological Survey of India, 1887. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 49 (1870). 

2 Eec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. xvi. p. 86 (1883). 

3 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xliii. p. G75 (1887). Vide infra. 

4 •Palaeontologia Indica' (Mem. Geo], Surv. Ind.), ser. iv. vol. i. pt. 5, 
pL iv. (1885). 



DHTOSAURIA. 131 



Order D1NOSAURIA. 

Body and limbs varying from a more or less lacertiform to an 
ornithoid type, the latter feature being especially shown in the 
pelvic girdle and limb ; pelvic limbs moderately or very long ; body 
with or without dermal armour, which does not take the form of 
pitted imbricating scutes. Vertebrae very generally amphiccelous, 
but frequently opisthoccelous in the cervico-dorsal, and very rarely 
proccelous in the caudal region ; neuro- central suture persistent till 
a late date ; usually from three to six sacral vertebrae, but occasionally 
only two ; cervical ribs without long antero-posterior processes ; no 
uncinate processes to ribs ; rib-facets of middle dorsal vertebrae 
sometimes forming a " step " on the transverse process, and in other 
cases placed on the lamina of the arch. Skull relatively small ; 
palate imperfectly known, but probably in some cases approaching 
the type of the Parasuchian Crocodilia, and in others of the Rhyn- 
chocephalia ; quadrate not wedged in among adjacent bones ; mandi- 
bular symphysis cartilaginous ; a columella and sclerotic ossifications 
in some instances. Teeth with compressed and often complex 
crowns ; not always implanted in distinct sockets. Sternal region 
not fully known, but frequently a pair of symmetrical ossifications, of 
which the exact homology is in some cases doubtful, and apparently 
no clavicles 1 . Limb-bones solid or hollow ; coracoid short, with 
fontanelle; humerus with head more differentiated than in the 
Crocodilia, and the deltoid crest terminating less abruptly. Ilium 
(fig. 21) with distinct pubic and preacetabular processes; pubis 
(fig. 21) entering into acetabulum, directed backwards or forwards ; 
ischium frequently with obturator process, and slender. Femur with 
curved or straight shaft, head either oblique or at right angles to 
condyles, and with or without inner trochanter ; tibia with cnemial 
crest; astragalus frequently flattened and applied to tibia. Habits 
quadrupedal or bipedal. 

The less specialized forms approximate to the generalized Croco- 
dilia and it is probable that in the Lower Trias the two orders were 
indistinguishable ; there are also indications of affinity with the 
Ehynchocephalia. 

Suborder SAUROPODA. 
Premaxilla completely toothed ; nares (fig. 19), when known, in 
middle of skull ; a large preorbital vacuity ; quadrate with condyle 

1 The so-called clavicles of Iguanodon are noticed below, where they are 
provisionally referred to the sternal region. 

k2 



132 



DIX0SAT7RIA. 



more or less in advance of the posterior extremity ; teeth (fig. 20) 
simple, usually spatulate, and set in distinct sockets ; generally 
a columella. Vertebrae with zygosphenal articulations ; anterior 
ones opisthocoelous ; centra of presacrals with lateral vacuities 
generally communicating with complex internal cavities by which 
the centra, are more or less penetrated ; cervicals longer than 
dorsals, with anchylosed ribs and no neural spines ; dorsals with 
neural spines laterally expanded ; each posterior sacral arch sup- 
ported by one vertebra ; caudals with or without postzygapophyses ; 

Piff. 19. 




Dvplodocus hwc/ns, Marsh. — Skull ; from the Upper Jurassic of North America. 
l~. (From the ' Amer. Journ.') 



chevrons double, closed, or open. Rib-facets of dorsal vertebras 
placed on the arches. Sternal bones ovate. Limb-bones solid, and 
pectoral limb nearly as long as pelvic ; scapula much expanded 
proximally, and frequently also distally, with concave anterior border ; 
coracoid without descending process ; humerus of a Crocodilian 
type, but with small distinct head, and deltoid crest terminating 
less abruptly ; five digits in manus and pes, armed with short, 
thick, compressed claws. Ilium (fig. 21) deep, with short preace- 
tabular process, and slight arching of superior border ; pubis (fig. 21) 
directed forwards, with cartilaginous symphysis and small distal 
expansion ; ischium short and wide, without obturator process ; 
femur much longer than tibia, with straight shaft, head nearly in 



CETIOSAUBXD.E. 



133 



plane of condyles and not excessively flattened, and no inner 
trochanter ; astragalus not applied to tibia; metacarpals short; feet 
plantigrade. 

All the members were probably mainly of quadrupedal habits. 



Family CETIOSAURIDJE. 

Cervical vertebrae narrow and elongate, with rim of posterior cup 
oblique, inferior surface of middle dorsal vertebrae narrow and more 

Fig. 20. 




Morosaurus grandis, Marsh. — Tooth ; from the Upper Jurassic of 
North America, f . 

or less rounded ; sacral vertebrae mostly solid, and only the posterior 
ones bearing their own arch ; caudals without postzygapophyses, the 
prezygapophyses forming indents on sides of neural spines ; chevrons 

Fig. 21. 




Morosaunis grandis. — Left side of pelvis. y, r . a, acetabulum ; //, ilium 
is, ischium ; p,p', pubis. (From the ' Amcr. Journ.*) 



134 DINOSAURIA. 

usually open and articulating by two facets. Distal extremity of 
scapula much expanded ; humerus relatively wide and stout ; ischium 
(fig. 21) directed backwards, with middle of acetabular portion placed 
considerably above axis of shaft, and latter slender and without 
distal expansion 1 . 

Equivalent to the Morosauridce of Marsh 2 . The apparent close 
relationship of Morosaurus and Cetiosaurus has been noticed by the 
writer in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xliv. p. 58. 



Genus TITANOSAURUS, Lydekker 3 . 

This genus is provisionally included in the present family on 
account of its open chevron-bones which articulate with the vertebrae 
by two facets. 

Postmedian caudal vertebras (fig. 22) procoelous ; femur appa- 
rently like that of Cetiosaurus. It has been suggested that this 
genus might be identical with Ornithojpsis, but the resemblance of 
the type species of the latter to Brontosaurus (in which the caudals 
are amphicoelous) forbids this view ; the procoelous character of the 
caudals has been regarded as indicating a distinct family, but this 
docs not appear a necessary conclusion. 

Titanosaurus indicus, Lydekker 4 . 

The type species; of gigantic size. Centra of posterior caudal 
vertebrae much compressed laterally, and facets for chevrons 
strongly marked. Length of femur about 1,587 (55 inches). 

Hob. India. 

40867. Cast of a postmedian caudal vertebra. The original, which 
is the type, was obtained from the Lameta beds (probably 
Middle Cretaceous = Upper Greensand) near Jabalpur, 
India ; and is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
It is figured and described in ' Falconer's Palaeontological 
Memoirs,' vol. i. p. 418, pi. xxxiv. figs. 3-5, without name ; 

1 In the pelvis of Cetiosaurus figured in Phillips's ' Geology of Oxford,' p. 277, 
the positions of the pubis and ischium are reversed from their natural one, their 
iliac surfaces being placed in apposition, and the proper adjacent surfaces made 
the iliac ones. If the pubis in its correct position be compared with that of 
Morosaurus (fig. 21), it will be seen that the contour of the two is almost iden- 
tical ; the distal expansion in Phillips's figure is incorrect. 

2 l'leurocalus, Marsh, Amer. Journ. ser. '6, vol. xxxv. p. 00 (1888), apparently 
belongs to the tame family. 

3 Kec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. x. p. 38 (1877). ! Loo. cit. 



CETIOSAURID^l. 



135 



it is described by the present writer in ' Rec. Geol. Surv. 
Ind.' vol. x. p. 38, and described and figured in the 
' Palseontologia Indica ' (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 4, 
vol. i. pt. 3, p. 20, pi. iv. figs. 1, 2, and pi. v. fig. 3. On 
p. 37 of pt. 5 of the same work the genus is made the type 
of a distinct family, which, however, may be withdrawn. 
Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

R. 902. The centrum and base of the arch of a smaller caudal 
vertebra apparently belonging to this species ; from the 
Lametas of Pisdura, near Jabalpur. 
Presented by the Director of the Geological Survey of India, 1887. 

R. 903. The centrum of a still smaller caudal vertebra ; from 
Pisdura. Same history. 

R. 904. Part of the neural arch of a vertebra ; from Pisdura. 

Same history. 

Titanosaurus, sp. a. 

Apparently as large as the type species, but with the centrum of 
the caudal vertebra? less compressed. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

R. 151. The centrum of a postmedian caudal vertebra ; from the 
{Fig.) Wealden of Brook, Isle of Wight. Described and figured 



J^g. 



99 




Titanosaurus, sp. — Left lateral aspect of caudal vertebra, with the neural arcli 
restored; from the Wealclen of Brook. ^. (From the 'Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc.') 



136 DINOSAUEIA. 

by the writer in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xliii. 
pp. 156-158 (where it was suggested that it might belong 
to Ornithopsis) ; the figure being reproduced in the accom- 
pany ing woodcut. Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

R. 146 a. The anterior half of the centrum of a caudal vertebra of 
similar general type ; from Brook. Noticed by the writer 
op. cit. p. 158. Same history. 

Titanosaurus, sp. b. 

Apparently larger than either of the preceding. 
Hob. Europe (England). 

32390. A slightly imperfect postmedian caudal vertebra ; from the 
Upper Greensand of the Isle of Wight. Noticed by the 
writer in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xliv. p. 54. 
The length of the centrum is 0,175, the vertical diameter 
of its anterior cup 0,140, and the transverse 0,120. 

Purchased. About 1857- 

Genus DINODOCUS, Owen 1 . 
Very imperfectly known. Erom its geological horizon, as sug- 
gested by the writer in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xliv. 
p. 58, it is not improbable that this form may be identical with 
Titanosaurus, on which grounds it is placed here. 

Dinodocus mackesoni, Owen 2 . 
The type species. 
Hob. Europe (England). 

14695. A series of broken limb and pelvic bones ; from the Lower 
(Fig.) Greensand of Hythe, Kent. The type specimens ; disco- 
vered in 1840. Described by Owen in the ' Proc. Geol. 
Soc' vol. iii. pp. 325, 451 (1842) ; and figured by the same 
writer in his ' Cretaceous Eeptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. 
pis. xii., xiii. (185 J), under the name of Polyptychodon 
continuus. Presented by P. II. Mackeson, Esq., 1841. 

Genus CETIOSAURUS, Owen 3 . 
The type genus. Caudal vertebra) amphiccelous. 

1 History of British Fossil Eeptilia, Index to vol. ii. p. ix (1884). 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Kep. Brit. Assoc, for 1841, p. 94 (1842). 



CETI0SAUR1D.E. 137 

Cetiosaurus oxoniensis, Phillips l . 

Syn. (?) Cetiosaurus medius, Owen 2 . 

Cetiosaurus longus, Owen 3 (in parte). 

The type species 4 . The dorsal vertebrae considerably smaller than 
those of Ornithosis hullcei. Centra of posterior caudal vertebra) 
comparatively short ; chevrons sometimes closed. Length of femur 
1,850 (64 inches). 

Hab. Europe (England). 

R. 979. The imperfect centrum and base of the arch of a trunk 
vertebra provisionally referred to a small individual of this 
species ; found at Bibury, near Cirencester, Gloucester- 
shire, and probably from the Great Oolite (Lower Jurassic). 
There are deep lateral pits in the centrum, which appears 
to be otherwise solid. The transverse diameter of the 
posterior face of the centrum is 0,120, and the length 
0,065. Although smaller it resembles the specimen figured 
" in Phillips's < Geology of Oxford,' p. 254, fig. 86. 

Presented by Hon. and Rev. F. Button, 1887. 

16091. The imperfect centrum of one of the most anterior caudal 
vertebras ; from the Great Oolite of Blisworth, North- 
amptonshire. This specimen closely resembles the ex- 
ample figured by Phillips in his 'Geology of Oxford,' 
p. 262, figs. 92, 93. Together with the following speci- 
men, it was originally in the collection of Miss Baker of 
Nottingham, and is probably one of the specimens men- 
tioned by Owen in the ' Eep. Brit. Assoc' for 1841, p. 101, 
as C. medius. Purchased. About 1843. 

16090. The imperfect centrum and part of the arch of a somewhat 
later caudal vertebra ; from Blisworth. Same history. 

12425. Cast of the centrum of an anterior caudal vertebra. The 
original was obtained from the Great Oolite of Bucking- 
hamshire, but is now lost ; the cast is described in 
Phillips's < Geology of Oxford,' pp. 246, 265 ; the length of 
the centrum is 0,154 (6 inches). 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

1 Geology of Oxford, p. 291 (1871). 

2 Eep. Brit. Assoc, for 1841, p. 100 (1842). Not figured. 

3 Mesozoic Reptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ii. p. 27 (1875). 

4 See Hulke, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxviii. p. ol ; and Owen. Mesozoic 
Reptilia, pt. ii. p. 20, note 4. 



138 



DIN0S1UEIA. 



The originals of the following casts were obtained from the Great 
Oolite of Enslow, Oxfordshire, and are preserved in the Museum 
at Oxford; they are some of the types. 

R. 1092. Cast of one of the sternal bones. The original is figured 
by Phillips in his ' Geology of Oxford,' p. 268, fig. 98, as 
an azygos median bone \ 

By exchange with the Oxford Museum. 

R. 1093. Cast of the right humerus. Original figured by Phillips, 
op. cit. p. 272, fig. 100. Same history. 

R. 1094. Cast of an imperfect ulna. Original figured by Phillips, 
op. cit. p. 275, fig. 103. Same history. 

R. 1095. Cast of the right femur. Original figured by Phillips, op. 

cit. p. 281, fig. 108. Same history. 

R. 1096. Cast of a tibia. Original figured by Phillips, op. cit. 
p. 282, fig. 109. Same history. 



Cetiosaurus glymptonensis, Phillips 2 . 

Founded upon caudal vertebrse, which are of a more elongated 
type than those of the last species, and thereby resemble the Upper 
Jurassic specimens described by Owen as Cetiosaurus longus. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

47150. The centrum of a postmedian caudal vertebra; from the 
Forest Marble (Lower Jurassic) of Cogenhoe, Northamp- 
tonshire. This specimen agrees very closely with the type 
vertebra figured by Phillips in his ' Geology of Oxford,' 
p. 266, fig. 96; its length being 0,165, and its height 
0,081. Sharp Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

47412. The centrum of an earlier caudal vertebra, not improbably 
belonging to this species ; probably from the Lower 
Jurassic of Northamptonshire. Same history. 

1 This and the other figures are reproduced in part ii. of Owen's ' Mesozoic 
Reptilia,' as C. longus. 

3 ' Geology of Oxford,' p. 201 (1871). 



CETIOSAURID^]. 139 

Cetiosaurus brevis, Owen *. 

Imperfectly known, and provisionally referred to this genus. 
Chevrons always open superiorly ; first sacral vertebra with lateral 
pits ; four vertebrae in sacrum. 

Mantell identified this form with Pelorosaurus ; and Seeley, who 
adopts the same view, regards both as referable to Ornitliopsis. 
The anterior caudal vertebrae of the present form resemble those of 
C. oxoniensis in the broad, angulated faces of their centra and open 
chevrons, and thereby differ from those of Brontosaurus, while the 
sacrum differs from that of both the latter and Ornitliopsis. If the 
elongated cervical vertebra?, mentioned on p. 142, belong to this 
form, its distinction from Ornitliopsis will be still more closely 
marked ; while if the fore limb, mentioned on the same page, be 
referable to it, there will be a probability of its distinction from 
Cetiosaurus. 

Hah. Europe (England). 

All the following specimens are from the Wealden. 

2249. One imperfect extremity of a dorsal vertebra, probably be- 
longing to this form : from Cuckfield, Sussex. The 
inferior and one lateral surface, together with the floor of 
one of the lateral vacuities, are shown. This bone is 
smaller and narrower inferiorly than the vertebrae of 
Ornitliopsis, and in this respect comes nearer to the 
smaller undetermined vertebra, No. 2239 (p. 142). 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1828. 

36559. The centrum of the last lumbar vertebra anchylosed to 
the anterior half of that of the first sacral ; from Brook. 
The lumbar vertebra shows small lateral pits descending 
obliquely towards the middle of the centrum. The sacral 
as well as the following specimens from the same part are 
completely solid. Noticed, together with the following 
specimens, by the writer in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc/ 
vol. xliv. p. 56. The lumbar vertebra differs consider- 
ably from that of Ornitliopsis (No. E. 209). 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

36559 a. Portions of the centra of the second and third sacral 
vertebrae, associated with the preceding. Same history. 

1 Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1841, p. 04 (1842). 



140 DINOSAURIA. 

36559 b. The hinder part of the centrum of the third sacral vertebra 
of the same individual. Hastings Collection. 

28640. The centrum of the fourth sacral vertebra of the same 

individual. Mantcll Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

36559 C. The imperfect centrum and arch of an anterior caudal 
vertebra of the same individual. This specimen agrees 
precisely with the type anterior caudals, No. 10390, on 
which resemblance the identification of the entire set of 
associated specimens rests. Hastings Collection. 

36559 d. The lower and one lateral surface of a later dorsal vertebra 
of the same individual. Double chevron-facets are 
shown. Same history. 

36559 e. Two metatarsals and four phalangeals, of which two are 
terminal, of the same individual. The terminal bones are 
much smaller than those of Ornithopsis (No. R. 986). 

Same history. 

28641. The imperfect centrum of a sacral vertebra belonging to a 

different individual from the preceding. 

Mantell Collection. 

2544-50. Pour associated anterior caudal vertebrae, with two asso- 
(Pig.) ciated chevrons ; from Cuckfield. These specimens, which 
are described by Owen in the ' Kep. Brit. Assoc' for 1841, 
pp. 97-99, it will be convenient to regard as the types. 
They are noticed by Melville in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1849, 
p. 296, and figured by Mantell in the < Phil. Trans.' 1850, 
pis. xxii., xxiv., xxv., as Pelorosaurus ; one of them being 
also figured by the latter writer in his ' Petrifactions and 
their Teachings,' p. 331, fig. 72. They are figured by 
Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia,' suppl. ii. 
pi. x. Their close resemblance to the anterior caudals of 
C. oxoniensis figured in Phillips's ' Geology of Oxford,' 
]>. 259, fig. 89, is noticed in that work. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

28943. The centrum and base of the arch of a later caudal vertebra 
of apparently similar type ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

2144. A nearly entire postmedian caudal vertebra, with the chevron 
{Pig.) anchyloscd lo it ; from Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in 









CETIOSAURIDjK. 141 

the ' Phil. Trans.' 1841, pi. ix. fig. 7, and 1850, pi. xxiii. 
figs. 11 a, 115, and pi. xxvi., as a premedian of Peloro- 
saurus, and by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck 
Reptilia,' suppl. ii. pi. v. figs. 3, 4, under the same 
name ; its close resemblance to the postmedian caudal of 
C, oxoniensis figured by Philipps, op. cit. p. 261, fig. 91, 
is noticed on page 266 of the work quoted ; both showing 
the absence of distinct postzygapophyses. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 141. The centrum of a very similar vertebra; from the Isle of 
Wight. Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

2188. The centrum and greater part of the arch of a somewhat later 
caudal vertebra; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

28346. An imperfect posterior caudal vertebra ; from Cuckfield. 
(Fig.) Figured by Mantell in the Phil. Trans. 1850, pi. xxiii. 
figs. 10 or, 10 6, 10 c. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

28543 a. The centrum of a very similar caudal vertebra ; from 
Cuckfield. Same history. 

27500. Three associated bones, comprising the chevron of an anterior 
caudal vertebra, a posterior caudal vertebra, and a portion 
of the pubis and ischium ; from Brook. These specimens 
resemble No. 36559 in their white colour, and may not 
improbably have belonged to the same individual. In the 
posterior ca.udal the prezygapophyses are very long, and 
project far in advance of the centrum. 

Hastings Collection. 

R. 206. A series of associated bones, probably belonging to this 
species, and not improbably to the same individual as 
No. 36559 ; from Brook. They comprise portions of the 
two bones of the second segment of a limb, five meta- 
podials, and four phalangeals. Fox Collection. 



142 DINOSAUKIA. 

Generically undetermine I Specimens, some of which may belong to 
the present family. 

R. 96. Part of the centrum and one rib of a cervical vertebra in a 
decomposed condition ; from the Wealden of Brixton, Isle 
of Wight. The total length is nearly 0,700 (24 inches). 
In its extremely elongated form this specimen approxi- 
mates to the cervical vertebrae of Morosaurus, and may 
perhaps therefore be referable to Cetiosaurus brevis. 

Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

46780. The anterior portion of an apparently similar cervical 
{Fig.) vertebra ; from the Wealden of the Isle of Wight. This 
specimen has been longitudinalty cut and polished, and 
is figured by Owen in his 'Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia ' 
(Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. ii. pi. v., as Chondrosteosaurus 
gigns, of which it is one of the types. Purchased, 1875. 

2239. The centrum and part of the arch of a middle or posterior 
{Fig.) dorsal vertebra ; from the Wealden of Cuckfield, Sussex. 
Figured by Mantell in his ' Geology of the South-east of 
England,' pi. ii. fig. 5, and noticed by Owen in the 'Rep. 
Brit. Assoc' for 1841, p. 124, and figured by him in his 
' Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia,' pt. ii. pi. x., as the 
quadrate (tympanic) of Iguanodon. Described by Seeley 
in the ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' ser. 4, vol. v. pp. 281-282, 
as one of the types of Ornithopsis huVcei. Figured by 
Owen in his ' Mesozoic Reptilia' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ii. 
pi. vii., as Bothriospondylus elongaius, of which species it 
is the type ; and noticed by Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii. p. 375. In the latter notice it is 
proposed that this specimen should be regarded as the 
type of Ornithopsis hullcti. The centrum is much narrower 
and more rounded inferiorly than in the posterior dorsal 
vertebrae of that species, and the specimen may perhaps 
have belonged either to Cetiosaurus brevis or Titanosaurus, 
or to the same form as the undermentioned casts. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

28701. Cast of an associated left humerus, radius, and ulna. The 
originals were obtained from the Wealden of the Isle of 
Wight, and arc in the Collection of Mr. S. H. Bcckles. 
Noticed by the writer in the 'Quart. Journ. Cool. Sue' 



ATLANTOSAURIDiE. 



143 



vol. xliv. p. 58. The humerus has a length of 0,620 
(24-5 inches) ; it has a proportionately much shorter 
shaft than the humerus of Cetiosaurus ooconiensis, but 
approximates to that type in its widely expanded head. 
Possibly these specimens may be referable to Cetiosaurus 
brevis ; but the specialized character, indicated by the 
shortness of the humerus, may perhaps point to their 
affinity with Titanosaurus, of which the procoelous caudal 
vertebrae are evidently of a more specialized type than 
those of other Sauropoda. On the other hand, these spe- 
cimens may indicate a distinct genus. (See No. H. 722, 
p. 246.) Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

2578. An imperfect right ilium ; from the Wealden of Cuckfield. 
This specimen, which wants the two extremities, the 
lower half of the acetabular portion, and the pubic process, 
apparently approximates to the ilium of Morosaurus 
(fig. 21), showing the same outward direction of the 
upper half of the acetabular portion, and the deep con- 
cavity of the external surface of the anterior part of 
the body. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

46017. A bone, wanting the distal extremity, which is probably 
the right fibula; from Sandown, Isle of Wight. The 
absence of a medullary cavity is shown. 

Pur chased, 1874. 



Family ATLANTOSAURID.E. 

Maxillary region of cranium much depressed. Cervical vertebrae 
broad, of moderate length, with rim of posterior cup vertical ; 
inferior surface of middle dorsal vertebrae broad and flat ; typically, 
each sacral bearing its own arch, and the centrum hollowed ; 
caudals typically with postzygapophyses ; chevrons closed, and 
articulating by single facets. Distal extremity of scapula not 
expanded ; humerus comparatively slender ; ischium (fig. 23) 
directed downwards, with middle of acetabular portion on line of 
axis of shaft, and latter broad and distally expanded. 

The transverse diameter of the caudal vertebrae exceeds the 
vertical, and the neural canal is very large. 

The family name is taken from one of the American genera, 
which, although of later date than Ornithopsis, was one of the first 
well-defined forms. 



L44 



DINOSAUETA. 
Fig. 23. 




Brontosaurus ecccelsits, Marsh. — Left side of pelvis ; from the Upper Jurassic of 
North America, -,'g • &, acetabulum ; is, ischium ; p, pubis ; /, pubic 
foramen. (From the ' Amer. Journ.') 



Genus ATLANTOSAURUS, Marsh \ 

ftyn. Titanosawus, Marsh 2 . 

The type genus. Pour sacral vertebra), of which the centra of 
the second and third are constricted interiorly. 



1 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. xiv. p. 514 (1877). 

2 Ibid. p. 88. — Preoccupied. 



ATLANTOSATJKID^. 



145 



Atlantosaurus immanis, Marsh \ 

Distinguished from A. montanus by its superior dimensions; the 
length of the femur being 2,700 (96 inches). Possibly this species 
should be referred to Apatosaurus 2 . 

Hob. North America. 

R. 338. Cast of the left femur. The original is the type, and was 
obtained from the Upper Jurassic of Colorado, U.S.A. ; it 
is preserved in the Museum of Tale College, Newhaven, 
Connecticut, U.S.A., and is described by Marsh in the 
< Amer. Journ.' ser. 3, vol. xv. p. 240 (1878). 

Presented bij Prof. 0. G. Marsh, 1883. 

** Genus PELOROSAURUS, ManteU 3 . 

Known only by the humerus. That bone approximates to the 
humerus of Brontosaurus, and may not improbably, as suggested by 
Seeley 4 , belong to Orniihopsis. The type specimen has a median 
cavity, but this may perhaps be due to decay. Although the name 
Pelorosaurus is much earlier than Ornithopsis, it seems preferable, if 
the two be identical, to retain the latter. 

** Pelorosaurus conybeari, ManteU 5 . 

The type species. The type specimen agrees in relative size with 
the pelvis of Ornithopsis hulkei. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

28626. The slightly imperfect right humerus ; from the Wealden of 
{Fig.) Cuckfield, Sussex. The type specimen ; figured by Man- 
tell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1850, pi. xxi., and by Owen in 
his ' Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia/ suppl. ii. pi. xii. 

ManteU Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 713. The shaft of a left humerus, provisionally referred to a 
young or female individual of this form ; from the Wealden 
of Sandown, Isle of Wight. This bone apparently 
presents no characters by which it can be specifically 
distinguished from the type specimen. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

1 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. xv. p. 241 (1878). 

2 See Marsh, op. cit. vol. xvii. p. 89 (1879). 
Phil. Trans. 1850, p. 379. 

4 G-eol. Mag. 1887, p. 479. 5 Op. cit. p. 386. 

L 



146 



DINOSATTRIA. 



Genus ORNITHOPSIS, Seeley \ 



Including Eacamerotns, Hulke 2 . 

Chondrosteosaurus, Owen 3 . 
Gigantosaurus, Seeley 4 . 
Ischyrosaurus, Hulke 5 . 

Apparently closely allied to the American Brontosaurus. Number 
of sacral vertebras unknown. 

The probability of Pelorosaurus being identical has been men- 
tioned under that head. 

Ornithopsis hulkei, Seeley 6 . 

Syn. Bothriospondylus magnus, Owen 7 . 

Chondrosteosaurus gigas, Owen 8 (in parte). 
Chondrosteosaurus magnus, Owen 9 (in parte). 
Ornithopsis eucamerotus, Hulke 10 . 

The type species. Fully equal in size to Brontosaurus excelsus, 
Marsh, of which the length is estimated at 50 feet. The length of 
the cervical vertebras is usually about 0,350 (12 inches), and that 
of the larger specimens from the dorsal region 0,230 (8 inches). 

Hob. Europe (England). 

The reference of some of the vertebrae is provisional ; all the 
following specimens were obtained from the Wealden. 

R. 964. A nearly entire tooth, probably belonging to the present 
(Fig.) form ; from Brixton Bay, Isle of Wight. Figured by 
Wright in the 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' ser. 2, vol. x. p. 90 
(1852), as the tooth of an unknown reptile ; and also by 
Owen in his e British Fossil Reptilia,' vol. iii. p. 422, 
where it is provisionally referred to Pelorosaurus ; and by 
the present writer in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. 
xliv. pi. iii. fig. 4. The superiority in the size of this 
tooth (fig. 24) over that of Morosaurus (fig. 20) renders it 

1 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. v. p. 279 (1870). 

2 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxviii. p. 36 (1872). Eeference in this 
passage is made to vol. xxvi. p. 318 (1870), but the name does not occur there. 

3 Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. vii. p. 7 (1876). 

4 Index to Aves &c. in Cambridge Museum, p. 94 (1869). — Not figured. 

5 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxx. p. 16 (1874), — Preoccupied by Cope, 
Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xiv. pt. 1, p. 38 (1870). 

8 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. v. p. 283 (1870). 

7 Mesozoic Keptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ii. p. 24 (1875). 

8 Wealden and Purbeck Ecptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. vii. p. 5 (1876). 

: ' lhid. ]). 7. 10 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc vol. xxxviii. p. 375 (1882). 



ATLAJSTTOSATTRIDJ]:. 

Fiar. 24. 



147 




Ornithopsis hulhei (?). — a-b, three views of tooth ; d, section of crown ; 
c, section of root. Prom the Weald en of the Isle of Wight. \. 

probable that it belongs to the present form rather than 
to Cetiosaurus. The tooth of C. oxoniensis figured by 
Phillips in his ' Geology of Oxford,' p. 253, fig. 85, is still 
smaller than that of Morosaurus, but that specimen is 
probably unusually diminutive. 

Wright Collection. Purchased, 18S7. 

R. 751. Part of a right maxilla belonging to the same form as the 

(Fig.) preceding ; from the Isle of Wight. Described and 

figured by the writer in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xliv. p. 54, pi. iii. figs. 1-3. This specimen shows a 

l2 



148 



DINOSAUEIA. 



row of nine dental alveoli on the outer border, internally 
to which, there are seen near the anterior part the crowns 
of two replacing teeth in alveolo. The first and best pre- 
served of these teeth agrees exactly with No. E. 964. 
The maxilla is depressed, like that of a Crocodile, and 
shows three large foramina on the outer surface. It 
apparently agrees very closely with the minute outline of 
the maxilla of Brontosaurus given by Marsh in the ' Amer. 
Journ.' ser. 3, vol. xxvi. pi. i. 

Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

R. 87. An imperfect cervical vertebra; from the Isle of Wight. 

'(Fig.) Figured by Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxvi. pi. iii. fig. 1. Fox Collection. 

R. 87 a. An imperfect cervical vertebra, with the right rib attached ; 

(Fig.) from the Isle of Wight. Figured by Hulke, op. c%t. pi. iii. 

figs. 3, 4. Same history. 

R. 173. Two imperfect cervical vertebrae ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Same history. 

R. 93. Three more or less imperfect centra of cervical vertebrae ; from 
the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

R. 94. Portions of vertebral processes from the thoracic region; 
from the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

46869. The somewhat imperfect centrum of a cervical vertebra, 

(Fig.) provisionally referred to this form ; from the Isle of 

Wight. Figured by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck 

Eeptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. vii. pis. ii. & iii., as 

Chondrosteosaurus gigas, of which it is one of the types. 

Purchased, 1875. 

28632. An imperfect anterior dorsal vertebra ; from the Isle of 
(Fig.) Wight. The type specimen. Noticed by Seeley in his 
' Ornithosauria,' p. 103, note, and described by him in the 
'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' ser. 4, vol. v. p. 280 ; figured by 
Owen in his ' Mesozoic Eeptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ii. 
pi. viii., as the type of Bothriosjpondylus magnus ; and 
noticed by Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. 
xxxv. pp. 754, 755, and vol. xxxviii. p. 357. The latter 
writer, in the former passage (p. 755), distinctly states 
that this specimen must be taken as the type of the genus 
(and therefore of the species) ; but in the second passage 
he makes the specimen No. 2239, noticed on p. 142, 
the type, and refers the present specimen to 0. eucame- 



ATLANTOSATTKIDJS. 149 

rotus, a name of later date than Owen's Bothriospondylus 
magnus. The present writer has the verbal authority of 
the founder of the genus for regarding this specimen as its 
type. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 88. A nearly entire middle or posterior dorsal vertebra ; from 

{Fig.) the Isle of Wight. Figured by Hulke in the ' Quart. 

Journ. Geol. Soc.' vol. xxxvi. pi. iv. Fox Collection. 

R. 89. A slightly imperfect dorsal vertebra of similar type, wanting 
the transverse processes ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Same history. 

R. 90. Two imperfect middle or posterior dorsal vertebras, retaining 
the greater part of their neural arches ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Same history. 

R. 91. Five more or less imperfect centra of trunk vertebras ; from 
the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

R. 92. An imperfect (?) lumbar vertebra ; from the Isle of Wight. 
This specimen is relatively shorter than either of the pre- 
ceding. Same history. 

48410. The imperfect centrum and part of the arch of a similar 
vertebra; from Sandown, Isle of Wight. Purchased, 1877. 

R. 406. The posterior extremity of the centrum of a very large 
trunk vertebra ; from Brook, Isle of Wight. 

Presented hy C. Westendarp, Esq., 1884. 

R. 406 a. The summit of the neural arch of a trunk vertebra ; 
from Brook. Closely resembles the corresponding portion 
of a dorsal of Brontosaurus figured by Marsh in the 
' Amer. Journ.' ser. 3, vol. xxi. pi. xv. (1881). 

Same history. 

R. 208. The anterior articulation of a very large trunk vertebra ; 
from the Isle of Wight. Fox Collection. 

28937. Part of the waterworn centrum of a trunk vertebra ; from 
the Isle of Wight. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

R. 95. Three small imperfect vertebrae, not improbably belonging 
to young individuals of the present form ; from the Isle 
of Wight. Fox Collection. 

R. 98. An imperfect trunk vertebra, provisionally referred to this 
(Fig.) form ; from the Isle of Wight. Figured by Owen in his 

1 Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. 

vii. pi. vi., as Chondrosteosaurus maguus. Same history. 



150 DINOSAURIA. 

R. 985. Fragment of the worn centrum of an enormous trunk 
vertebra, provisionally referred to this form ; from Hastings, 
Sussex. No history. 

R. 209. The right half of the haemal portion of what appears to be 
a posterior (? last) lumbar vertebra ; from the Isle of 
Wight. The floor of a large lateral pit remains, and is 
directed horizontally, while the centrum is internally 
honeycombed by cavities. This specimen differs very 
widely from the last lumbar of Cetiosaurus brevis (No. 
36559) ; it is noticed by the writer in the ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xliv. p. 56. Fox Collection. 

R. 141. The centra and bases of the arches of three associated 
posterior caudal vertebrae, probably belonging to this 
form ; from the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

R. 141 a. Four imperfect posterior caudal vertebrae, probably be- 
longing to this form ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Same history. 

R. 156. A bone, provisionally regarded as a left posterior sacral rib 
of this form ; from the Isle of Wight. Noticed by the 
writer in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xliv. p. 55 ; 
it apparently corresponds fairly with the rib of the fourth 
sacral of Brontosaurus figured by Marsh in the ' Amer. 
Journ.' ser. 3, vol. xxi. pi. xvi. Fox Collection. 

46781. A smaller imperfect bone, of the opposite side, agreeing in 
structure with the preceding ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Purchased, 1875. 

R. 212. The distal extremity of the left scapula ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Noticed by the writer, op. cit. p. 55 ; although 
rather smaller, this specimen closely resembles the corre- 
sponding part of the scapula of Brontosaurus figured by 
Marsh in the 'Amer. Journ.' ser. 3, vol. xxi. pi. xii. 

Fox Collection. 

R. 97. The associated right ischium and pubis, in a slightly im- 
(Fig.) perfect condition; from Brixton, Isle of Wight. The 
type of 0. eucamerotus ; figured by Hulke in the ' Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii. pi. xiv. These specimens 
closely resemble the corresponding bones of Brontosaurus^ 
(fig. 23) ; part of the head of the pubis is wanting. 

Same history. 



ATLAXTOSATJRID^. 151 

R. 97 a. The imperfect left ischium ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Fox Collection. 

28688. The proximal portion of the right ischium of an individual 
of larger size than Ko. R. 97 ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Mantell Collection. Pur chased, 1853. 

R. 164. The proximal portion of the right ischium of a young indi- 
vidual ; from the Isle of Wight. Fox Collection. 

R. 164 a. The proximal portion of the left ischium ; from the Isle 
of Wight. Same history. 

R. 986. A terminal phalangeal of the pes, wanting the extremity, 
together with an associated foot-bone ; from Hastings. 
The phalangeal accords closely with the specimen referred 
to Ornithopsis liumeroeristatus ; its large size indicates 
that it probably belonged to the present species, since 
it is nearly twice the dimensions of the phalangeal of 
Cetiosaurus brevis, No. 36559. JS T o history. 

R. 986 a. A rib, not improbably belonging to this form; locality 
unknown. It differs from the ribs of Iguanodon bernissar- 
tensis, not only by its superior size, but also in contour, 
and appears to resemble those of Brontosaurus. No history. 

R. 986 b. A larger rib of similar type ; from Hastings. 

Dawson Collection. Purchased, 1888. 

Ornithopsis humerocristatus (Hulke 1 ). 

Syn. Cetiosaurus humerocristatus, Hulke 2 . 
(?) Gigantosaums megalonyx, Seeley 3 . 
(?) Ornithopsis leedsi, Hulke 4 . 

The humerus is of the type of Brontosaurus, and quite different 
from that of Cetiosaurus. There is great probability that Giganto- 
saurus megalonyx and Ornithopsis leedsi are specifically identical. 
The pelvis of the latter is of the type of 0. hidkei, although pre- 
senting well-marked specific differences. 

Hal. Europe (England). 

44635. The left humerus : from the Kimeridge Clay (Upper Ju- 

{Fig.) rassic) of Weymouth, Dorsetshire. The type specimen ; 

figured by Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.' vol. 

xxx. pi. ii. ; referred to this genus by the writer in 

vol. xliv. p. 57. Purchased, 1873. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxx. p. 17 (1874). — Crfiosaurus. 2 Loc. cit, 
3 Index to Avcs kc. in Cambridge Museum, p. 04 (1869).— ]S"ot figured. 
* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xliii. p. 695 (1887). 



152 DINOSATJKIA. 

49165. An imperfect bone, which is probably the dorsal half of the 
right pubis; from the Kimeridge Clay of Weymouth. 
Corresponds with the homologous half of the pubis figured 
by Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xliii. 
p. 697, fig. 1, as 0. leedsi. 

Presented by J. 0. Mansel-Pleydell, Esq., 1878. 

The following specimens have been named Gigantosaurus megalonyx 

by Seeley. 

32498. Cast of a fibula, probably belonging to this species. The 

original was obtained from the Kimeridge Clay of Ely, 
Cambridgeshire ; a similar cast is noticed by Seeley, op. cit. 
p. 95, and referred to G. megalonyx. 

Presented by G. Bard, Esq., 1857. 

32499. Cast of a terminal phalangeal, agreeing in relative size 

with the humerus. The original was obtained from the 
Kimeridge Clay of Ely; a similar cast is noticed by 
Seeley, op. cit. p. 95, and appears to be the type of G. me- 
galonyx. Same history. 

Omithopsis manseli (Hulke, MS.). 
Syn. Ischyrosaurus manseli, Hulke (MS.). 

The type of Ischyrosaurus J ; if the type specimen be adult it 
indicates a much smaller species than the preceding. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

41626. The left humerus, with the deltoid ridge broken away ; from 
{Fig.) the Kimeridge Clay (Upper Jurassic) near Kimeridge 
Bay, Dorsetshire. The type specimen ; figured by Hulke 
in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxv. pi. xvi., with- 
out generic determination, but referred to in vol. xxx. 
p. 16 as the type of Ischyrosaurus. When entire this 
bone must have agreed very closely in contour with the 
humerus of 0. humerocristatus. 

Presented by J. C. Mansel-Pleydell, Esq., 1869. 

Incerta sedis. 
Genus THECOSPONDYLUS, Seeley 2 . 
It was suggested in the original description that the specimen on 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxx. p. 16 (1874). 

2 Ibid. vol. xxxviii. p. 457 (1882). 



INCERTJE SEDIS. 153 

which this genus was founded might belong to a member of the 
present Suborder ; it indicates a comparatively large form. (See 
Coelurus daviesi. p. 156.) 

Thecospondylus horneri, Seeley \ 

Hab. Europe (England). 

R. 291. A specimen described in the first notice as a natural cast of 
{Fig.) the neural canal of the sacrum ; from the Hastings Sand 
(Lower Wealden) of Southborough, Kent. The type spe- 
cimen. Figured by Seeley in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xxxviii. pi. xix. ; and noticed in vol. xliv. p. 79, 
where it is regarded as a mould of the entire sacrum. 
Small fragments of bone remain in places. 

Presented by Dr. A. C. Homer, 1882. 



Genus MACRUROSAURUS, 

This genus may belong to the present or next Suborder, and is 
known only by caudal vertebrae, which are much elongated in the 
postmedian region, have no distinct postzygapophyses, and in the 
anterior and medial part of the series are proccelous ; the entire 
length of the tail is estimated at 15 feet. It is suggested by the 
founder of the genus that the metapodium to which the name 
AcanihopJiolis platypus 2, has been applied may belong to the present 
form ; that metapodium is of a Sauropodous type. 

Macrurosaurus semnus, Seeley 4 . 
The type species. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

35252. The centrum and part of the arch of a postmedian caudal 

vertebra ; from the Cambridge Green sand. 

Purchased, 1859. 

35253. A very similar specimen ; from Cambridge. Same history. 

35338. The centrum and greater part of the arch of a somewhat 
smaller caudal vertebra ; from Cambridge. Same history. 

35389. The centrum of a considerably smaller posterior caudal 
vertebra ; from Cambridge. Same history. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxviii. p. 457 (1882). 

2 Ibid. vol. xxxii. p. 440 (1876). 

3 Seeley, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. viii. p. 305, pi. vii. (1871). 

4 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxii. p. 400 (1876). 



154 



DINOSATJRIA. 



Suborder THEROPODA. 

Premaxilla completely toothed; nares, when known (fig. 26) 
terminal, and a large preorbital vacuity ; quadrate elongated, and 
directed backwards; teeth (fig. 28) simple, laterally compressed, 
backwardly curved, with serrations on the posterior and frequently 
on at least a portion of the anterior border, and set in distinct 
sockets. Yertebrse usually with internal cavities, and frequently 

Fig. 25. 




Allosauras fragilis, Marsh. — Leftside of pelvis; from the Upper Jurassic of 



North America. -^ 



acetabulum ; il, ilium ; is, ischium ; p, pubis. 



(From the ' Amer. Journ.') 
lateral pits ; zygosphenal articulations present ; cervicals opistho- 
or amphicoelous, longer or shorter than dorsals, and usually with 
free ribs ; postcervicals amphicoelous ; sacral arches usually sup- 
ported by single vertebrae ; in some instances only two sacral 
vertebra) ; caudals usually with postzygapophyses ; chevrons closed ; 
rib-facets of middle dorsal vertebrae apparently on the transverse 
processes. Limb-bones hollow; pectoral limb much shorter than 



COELURID^. 155 

pelvic ; scapula expanded proximally, with concave anterior border ; 
coracoid with descending process ; humerus usually with head im- 
perfectly differentiated from tuberosities ; terminal phalangeals of 
manus long, curved, and compressed. Ilium (fig. 25) deep, with 
superior border usually greatly arched, and short preacetabular and 
long postacetabular process ; pubis directed downwards and for- 
wards, with an antero-posteriorly expanded bony symphysis, and, 
at least usually, a considerable osseous union of the lower part of 
the anterior border, which consequently resembles an elongated Y ; 
ischium comparatively slender and of moderate length, usually 
with an obturator process. Femur usually with inner trochanter, 
curved shaft, and of a more or less Crocodilian type, slightly longer 
or shorter than tibia; astragalus applied to tibia; metatarsals 
elongated ; terminal digits of pes short and rounded ; feet 
usually digitigrade. The more specialized members were of bipedal 
habits. 

Seeley 1 has proposed to unite the present with the preceding 
Suborder, under the name of Saurischia, and to regard this larger 
group as an Order. 



Family CCELURID^. 

Vertebrae completely hollowed, as in the presacral series of the 
Sauropoda ; cervicals opisthocoelous, longer than dorsals, with 
anchylosed ribs and no neural spines ; sacral arches probably sup- 
ported by single vertebrae. Anterior bony union of pubis much 
elongated. Skull unknown. 

In the structure of the vertebral column this family closely 
resembles the Sauropoda ; it appears connected with the Megalo- 
sauridce by Aristosucluis. 



Genus CCELTJRUS, Marsh 2 . 

The type genus. In allied Triassic forms referred by Cope 3 to 
Tanystroplmus, there are four vertebra3 in the sacrum, and the 
femur has no distinct inner trochanter. All the species were of 
comparatively small size. 

1 Eep. Brit, Assoc, for 1887, p. G99, and Proc. R. Soc. vol. xliii. p. 171 (1887). 

2 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. xviii. p. 504 (1879). 

3 Amer. Nat. vol. xxi. p. 367 (1887). and Proc. Arner. Phil. Soc. vol. xxiv. 
p. 221 (1887). 



156 DIN0SATJR1A. 

Ccelurus daviesi (Seeley x ). 

Syn. Thecospondylus daviesi, Seeley 2 . 

Imperfectly known, and provisionally referred by Hulke 3 to this 
genus. Somewhat larger than the typical C. fragills, Marsh. 
Hal. Europe (England). 

R. 181. The imperfect anterior portion of a cervical vertebra ; from 
{Fig.) the Wealden of the Isle of Wight. The type specimen ; 

described and figured by Seeley in the * Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc.' vol. xliv. p. 79 et seq. 

Fox Collection. Purchased 1882. 



Family COMPSOGNATHID^. 

Internal structure of vertebras unknown ; cervicals opisthocoslous, 
longer than dorsals, probably with free ribs ; sacrum unknown. 
Three functional digits in manus and pes ; femur shorter than tibia ; 
metatarsals greatly elongated ; astragalus suturally united to tibia 4 . 

The Upper Jurassic North-American genus HaUopus may be 
included in this family ; it has two vertebras in the sacrum. 

Genus COMPSOGNATHUS Wagner 5 . 
The type genus. 

Compsognathns longipes, Wagner 6 . 

The type species. Length about 0,450. 
Hah. Europe (Germany). 

49159. Cast of a slab of lithographic limestone, showing the greater 
part of the skeleton. The original, which is the type and 
only known specimen, was obtained from the Kimeridgian 
of Solenhofen, Bavaria, and is preserved in the Museum 
at Munich ; it is figured by Wagner in the ' Abh. k„- 
bay. Ak. Wiss.' vol. ix. pt. i. pi. iii. Marsh (Amer. Journ. 
ser. 3, vol. xxii. p. 340) states that there is the skeleton 
of a young individual within the ribs. Purchased, 1878.- 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xliv. p. 79 (1888). — Thecospondylus. 

2 Loc. cit. * Ibid. p. 87. 

4 Marsh states that it is not anchylosed. 

5 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. ix. pt. i. P ; 94 (1861). 

6 Loc. cit. 



MEGALOSATTRID^. 



157 



Family MEGALOSAURID^E. 

Teeth usually with serrations on some portions of the anterior 
border ; mandible at least in some instances (Ceratosaurus, fig. 26) 
with lateral vacuity. Vertebras with lateral pits and fusiform 
central cavities ; cervicals shorter than dorsals, with free ribs ; 
sacral arches generally supported by single vertebras. Humerus 
with head imperfectly differentiated from tuberosities, and deltoid 
crest terminating abruptly; four or five digits in manus; femur 
slightly longer than tibia, with head much flattened and placed 
obliquely to condyles ; astragalus short and wide ; three to five 
digits in pes. 

This family is taken to include the Zanclodontidce, Labrosauridce, 
and Ceratosauridce of Marsh. 

Fig. 26. 




Ceratosaurus nasicornis, Marsh. — Left lateral view of skull ; from the Upper 
Jurassic of North America. \. a, nares ; b, bony prominence ; c, preorbi- 
tal vacuity ; d, orbit ; e, infratemporal fossa ; f, mandibular vacuity ; t, 
transverse bone. (From the ' Amer. Journ.') 



Genus ARISTOSUCHUS, Seeley l . 

Vertebras with a longitudinal fusiform cavity in the middle of 
centrum ; sacrum with probably five vertebrae, each of which 
supports its own arch. Pubes with very long bony union on the 



Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xliii. p. 221 (1887). 



158 DIN0SAUR1A. 

anterior border, and the symphysis much produced posteriorly. 
This genus, which is provisionally included in the family, appears to 
connect the other members with the Cceluridce. 



Aristosuchus pusillus (Owen *). 
Syn. Pcekilopleuron pusillus, Owen 2 . 

The type species. Approximating in size to Hypsilophodon 
foxi. 

Hob. Europe (England). 

R. 178. Portion of the lumbo-sacral region of the vertebral column, 
(Fig.) containing five centra with portions of their arches, and 
the associated pubes ; from the Wealden of Brook, Isle of 
Wight. This specimen is one of the types, and is 
figured by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia/ 
suppl. vii. pi. i. fig. 4, as Poikilopleuron ; noticed by 
Marsh in the ' Amer. Journ.' ser. 3, vol. xxvii. p. 335 
(1884), as Coelurus ; and figured by Seeley in the ' Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xliii. pi. xii. figs. 13, 14, and wood- 
cut p. 223. Owen (with whom Hulke is inclined to agree) 
considers that there were only two sacral vertebrae (as in 
Creosaurus), but Seeley refers all the five vertebrae of this 
specimen to the sacrum. 

Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

E. 178 a. One lateral half of a dorsal vertebra, of which the split 

(Fig.) surface has been polished ; from Brook. Figured by 

Owen, op. cit. pi. i. fig. 3 ; and noticed by Seeley, op. cit. 

p. 27. /Same history. 

R. 178 b. Two imperfect caudal vertebrae; from Brook. Noticed 
by Seeley, op. cit. p. 27. Same history. 

R. 179. A terminal phalangeal, probably belonging to the manus of 
(Fig.) this form ; from Brook. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. i. 
figs. 12, 13 ; also noticed by Seeley, op. cit. p. 27, who 
suggests that it may be Ornithosaurian. It agrees so 
closely in contour and in the deep lateral claw-groove 
with the corresponding phalangeal of the third digit of the 



1 Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. vii. p. 2 (1876).— 
Volkilopleuron. 
Loc. cit. 



MEGALOSAURID^l. 159 

manus of AUosaurus (Marsh, 'Amer. Journ.' ser. 3, 
vol. xxvii. pi. xii.), that there seems little doubt as to its 
belonging to the present form. Fox Collection. 

R. 899. Part of an apparently similar phalangeal; from the 
Wealden of the Isle of Wight. Same history. 



Genus MEGALOSAURUS, Buckland 1 . 
Syn. Pcekilopleuron, Deslongchamps 2 . 

Serrations not embracing the whole of anterior border of teeth. 
Cervical vertebrae opisthocoelous : dorsals with centra much con- 
stricted inferiorly and laterally, and subcircular terminal faces ; 
their arches tall, with three lateral pits separated by ridges between 
the zygapophyses, and spines very lofty ; five vertebrae in sacrum, 
of which adjacent ones support the arches. Probably four digits in 
manus ; astragalus with process ascending anterior surface of tibia ; 
three digits in pes. 

The North-American genera AUosaurus 3 and Dryptosaurus 4 
appear to be very closely allied ; the pelvis 5 of the former is repre- 
sented in fig. 25. 

Megalosaurus bucklandi, Meyer 6 . 
Syn. Pozkilopleuron bucklandi, Deslongchamps 7 (in parte). 

The type species. Apparently somewhat larger than AUosaurus 
fragilis, Marsh, of which the estimated length is about 25 feet ; the 
length of the femur of the former, figured by Marsh, is 0,850 (30 
inches), and that of Megalosaurus, figured by Phillips, 0,978 (35 
inches). The upper half of the anterior border of the teeth is ser- 
rated. 

Eor the identity of Pozkilopleuron bucklandi with this species see 
Hulke, ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxv. p. 233 (1879). 

Hah. Europe (England and France). 



1 Trans. Geol. Soc. ser. 2, vol. i. p. 390 (1824). 

2 Mem. Soc. Linn. Normandie, vol. vi. p. 37 (1834). 

3 See Marsh, Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. xxvii. pis. xi., xii. (1884). 

4 Infra, p. 169. 

5 In Phillips's ' Geology of Oxford,' p. 210, fig. G4, the ilium of Megalosaurus 
is turned the wrong way forward. 

6 Paheologica, p. 110 (1832). 

Mem. Soc. Linn. Normandie, vol. vi. p. 37 (1838). 



] 60 DINOSAIJKIA. 

The following specimens may indicate more than one species ; they 
are all from Loiver Jurassic strata. 

R. 332, 333. Cast of a split slab containing the right premaxilla 
and maxilla, together with the counterpart of the original 
specimen ; from the Inferior Oolite of Greenhill, Sher- 
bourne, Dorsetshire. The original is figured by Owen in 
the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix. pi. xi. fig. 1, 
and is in the possession of E. Cleminshaw, Esq. 

Counterpart presented by E. Cleminshaw, Esq., 1883 ; 

cast made in the Museum. 

R. 334, 335. Casts of two portions of mandibular rami. The origi- 
nals were obtained from Sherbourne, and are figured by 
Owen, op. cit. pi. xi. figs. 2, 3. Made in the Museum. 

2301. Cast of a portion of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining one fully protruded tooth and others in their alveoli. 
The original, which is one of the types, was obtained from 
the Great Oolite of Stonesfield, Oxfordshire, and is pre- 
served in the museum at Oxford. It is figured by Buck- 
land, in the ' Trans. Geol. Soc/ ser. 2, vol. i. pi. xl. and 
pi. xli. figs. 1-3, and in his ' Geology and Mineralogy ' 
(Bridgewater Treatise), pi. xxiii. figs. 1, 2 ; by Cuvier, in 
the ' Ossemens Eossiles,' 2nd ed. vol. v. pt. 2, pi. xxi. 
figs. 9, 10 ; and also by Owen, in his ' Odontography,' 
pi. lxx. fig. 8, and in his < Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia ' 
(Hon. Pal. Soc), pt. 3, pi. xi. figs. 1, 2. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

28608. A tooth ; from the Stonesfield Slate of Eyeford, Oxfordshire. 

Purchased, 1853. 

47963. A tooth ; from Stonesfield. 

Presented by the Hon. B. Marsham, 1877. 

31834. A small tooth ; from Stonesfield. Purchased. About 1854. 

42024. A tooth ; from Stonesfield. Purchased, 1870. 

R. 234. Two teeth ; from Stonesfield. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

41305. An imperfect tooth ; from Stonesfield. Purchased, 1869. 

39476. A water-worn tooth ; from the Forest Marble of Stanton, 
Wiltshire. Purchased, 1865. 

47152. A small tooth ; from the Inferior Oolite of Daston, North- 
amptonshire. Sharp Collection. Purchased, lfe>76. 



megalosattkim:. 161 

R. 497. The middle part of the crown of a tooth ; from the Inferior 
{Fig.) Oolite of Selsly Hill, Gloucestershire. Figured by Owen, 

in his ' Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia,' pt. iii. pi. xii. fig. 5 ; 

formerly in the collection of Dr. S. P. Woodward. 

Presented by Sir B. Oiven, K.C.B., 1882. 

R. 285. An imperfect small cervical vertebra, provisionally referred 
to this form ; from Stonesfield. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

31813. Two imperfect dorsal vertebrae ; from Stonesfield. 

Purchased. About 1850. 

47169. The centrum of a trunk vertebra, provisionally referred to 
this species ; from the Cornbrash, locality unknown. 

Sharp Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

42028. The imperfect centrum of a (probably) lumbar vertebra, 
provisionally referred to this species ; from the Neocomian 
bone-bed of Potton, Bedfordshire. Purchased, 1 870. 

R. 1027. Cast of the sacrum, imperfect posteriorly. The original 
was obtained from the Coral Rag of Dry Sandford, Oxford- 
shire, and is preserved in the museum of the Geological 
Society ; it is noticed by Owen, op. cit. p. 8. 

Made in the Museum, 1887. 

R. 1098. The imperfect sacrum ; from Stonesfield. Figured by 

(Fig.) Owen, op. cit. pis. ii, & iii., where it is erroneously stated 

to be from the Wealden. No history. 

28957. Portions of two sacral vertebrae ; from Stonesfield. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

R. 700. The first four vertebras of the sacrum of an immature indi- 
vidual ; from Stonesfield. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

36585. A sacral rib; from Stonesfield. Purchased, 1862. 

25581. One extremity of the centrum of a caudal vertebra ; from 
Stonesfield. Presented by Mrs. Townsend, 1851. 

37303. A rib ; from Stonesfield. Purchased, 1863. 

44097. A rib ; from Stonesfield. Purchased, 1873. 

44097 a. A rib ; from Stonesfield. Same history. 

31824-5. A split slab o Stonesfield slate, showing the head of a rib. 

Purchased. About 1850. 

M 



162 DINOSAURIA. 

R. 1099. The left scapula and coracoid ; from Stonesfield. Similar 
to the specimen figured in Phillips's ' Geology of Oxford,' 
p. 208, fig. 63. No history. 

31810. The right coracoid ; from Stonesfield. 

Purchased. About 1850. 

40131. The imperfect left coracoid: from Stonesfield. 

Purchased. About 1866. 

R. 283. The imperfect right ilium ; from Stonesfield. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased. About 1882. 

31811. The left ilium ; from Stonesfield. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. vi. (as a coracoid). Purchased. About 1850. 

R. 1100. The right ilium, imperfect anteriorly; from Stonesfield. 

No history. 

R. 1101. The right ilium; from Stonesfield. No history. 

25582. The ischium, imperfect distally ; from Stonesfield. 

Presented by Mrs. Townsend, 1851. 

28301. An imperfect hone which is apparently a pubis ; from 
Stonesfield. Presented by Lord Alfred Churchill, 1853. 

31806. The right femur; from Stonesfield. Figured by Owen, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pis. vii., viii. Purchased. About 1850. 

31804. The left femur ; from Stonesfield. Same history. 

31808. The left femur ; from Stonesfield. -Same history. 

31809. The right tibia ; from Stonesfield. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. ix. Same history. 

R. 1102. The left tibia ; from Stonesfield. No history. 

R. 1103. The distal portion of the right tibia ; probably from Stones- 
field. No history. 

32725. The proximal extremity of a very large left tibia ; probably 
from the Fuller's earth near Caen (Calvados), France. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

R. 1104. Cast of a median metatarsal. The original was obtained 
from Stonesfield, and is preserved in the museum at Oxford; 
it is described and figured by Phillips, in his ' Geology of 
Oxford,' pp. 216, 217, fig. 79. No history. 



MEGALOSATTRID^. 163 

R. 413. A median metatarsal ; from the Great Oolite of Sarsgrove, 
Sarsden, Chipping Norton, Wiltshire. 

Presented by the Earl of Ducie, 1884. 

40125 a. An imperfect lateral metatarsal ; probably from Stonesfield, 
although labelled Purbeck. Purchased. About 1850. 

31932. A phalangeal; from Stonesfield. Purchased. About 1850. 

Megalosaurus, sp. a. 

The affinities of the Middle Jurassic species are not yet deter- 
mined. 

Hab. Europe (France). 

32724. The centrum and arch of a dorsal vertebra probably belong- 
ing to this genus ; from the ' Argile de Dives ' (Oxford 
Clay) of Vaches-Noires (Calvados), Prance. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

Megalosaurus insignis, Deslongchamps \ 

Of very large size ; the teeth very wide, with the serrations on the 
anterior border usually extending more than two thirds the entire 
length of the border, and the serrations themselves very bold. 

Typically from the Kimeridgian and Portlandian. 

Hab. Europe (Prance and England). 

35553 a. The crown of a small tooth, with the greater part of the 
outer coat scaled off ; from the Portlandian of Mngle, near 
Boulogne, Prance. Presented by Dr. T. Davidson, 1859. 

46388. The summit of the crown of a very large tooth ; from the 
Kimeridge Clay of Poxhangers, Devizes, Wiltshire. This 
specimen is almost identical with the corresponding part 
of the tooth figured by Sauvage in the ' Mem. Soc. Geol. 
France/ ser. 2, vol. x. pi. v. fig. 1. 

Cunnington Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

Megalosaurus dunkeri, Koken 2 . 

The teeth comparatively narrow, with the serrations on the ante- 
rior border extending to about half the length of the crown, and the 
serrations themselves slight and worn away at an early age on the 

1 In Lennier's ' Etudes Geologiques et Paleontologiques BUT l'Enibouchure 
de la Seine, &c.' p. 35 (1870). 

2 Pal. Abhandl. vol. iii. p. 316 (1887). 

m2 



164 DIffOSATTBlA. 

anterior border. Generally of smaller size than M. bucklandi. If 
the undermentioned sacrum belongs to this species it may be entitled 
to generic distinction. The species was founded on the supposition 
that the anterior border of the teeth was devoid of serrations ; but 
a large series of specimens shows that this is due to wear, every 
intermediate gradation between a completely serrated and a smooth 
border being observable. 

Hab. Europe (Germany and England). 

Unless it is stated to the contrary all the following specimens are from 
the Wealden. 

44806. The crown of a large tooth probably belonging to this form ; 
from the Purbeck, locality unknown. 

Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

2828. Fragment of Tilgate Grit containing the crown of a tooth ; 

(Fig.) from Cuckfield, Sussex. Figured by Owen in his ' Wealden 
and Purbeck Eeptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. iii. pi. xi. fig. 4, 
as M. bucklandi. On the anterior border the serrations 
are worn off. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2332. The crown of a tooth in a fragment of sandstone; from 

(Fig.) Cuckfield. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. xi. fig. 3, as 

M. bucklandi. The serrations have nearly disappeared 

from the anterior border, although faint traces here and 

there remain. Same history. 

3222. The imperfect crown of a tooth ; from Cuckfield. Figured by 
(Fig.) Owen, op. cit. pi. xi. fig. 5, as M. bucklandi. A faint trace 
of serrations remains on one part of the anterior border. 

Same history. 

3223-4. The crowns of four small teeth ; from Cuckfield. Figured 
(Fig.) by Owen, op. cit. pi. xi. figs. 7-10, as M. bucklandi. 

Same history. 

3225. The crown of a much abraded tooth; from Cuckfield. Fi- 
(Fig.) gured by Owen, op. cit. pi. xi. fig. 11, as M. bucklandi. 

Same history. 

3221. The crown of a tooth ; from Sussex. Figured by Mantell in 
(Fig.) his ' Geology of the South-east of England,' p. 261, fig. 1. 
The serrations have totally disappeared from the anterior 
border, although they are introduced in the figure. 

Same history. 



MEGALOSATJRID^. 1 65 

36552. The basal half of the crown of a large tooth; from Cuck- 
(Fig.) field. Figured by Mantell in his 4 Fossils of Tilgate 
Forest/ pi. ix. fig. 3. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

36522 a. The crowns of three teeth ; from Cuckfield. The largest 
specimen closely resembles the still larger type specimen 
figured by Koken in the * Pal. Abhandl.' vol. iii. pi. ii. fig. 2, 
but retains a few traces of serrations on the anterior 
border. Same history. 

2315. A tooth in a fragment of sandstone ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

3333. A tooth in a fragment of grit ; from Cuckfield. 

Same history, 

26012. A small tooth in a fragment of grit ; from Cuckfield. 

Dixon Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

28422. A very small tooth in a fragment of sandstone ; from Cuck- 
field. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

36523. A tooth in a fragment of sandstone ; from Cuckfield. 

Same history. 

R. 235. A tooth in a fragment of sandstone • from Cuckfield. The 
serrations have entirely disappeared from the anterior 
border. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

39197. The crown of a small tooth in a fragment of sandstone ; 
from Tunbridge Wells, Sussex. 

Bowerlank Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

39213. Fragment of grit containing a small tooth (together with one 
of Goniojpholis) ; from Battle, near Hastings, Sussex. 

Same history. 

R. 641. Fragment of grit containing the crown of a tooth, and two 
detached crowns of teeth ; from near Hastings. The 
serrations on the anterior borders of these teeth have 
disappeared. Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

R. 604. The crowns of two teeth, one very small ; from the Wad- 
hurst Clay (Lower Wealden), near Hastings. 

Dawson Collection. Purchased, 1884. 



166 DINOSAUHIA. 

R. 210. The crowns of five small teeth ; from the Isle of "Wight. 
In two specimens the serrations on the anterior border 
are very distinct, while in the others they have dis- 
appeared. Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

R. 604 a. An imperfect anterior dorsal vertebra: from the Wad- 
hurst Clay (Lower Wealden), near Hastings, Sussex. This 
specimen is strongly opisthoccelous, which indicates that 
its position is earlier in the series than the three vertebraa 
from Battle figured by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck 
Eeptilia/ pt. ii. pi. xix. Probably associated with the 
teeth No. R. 604. Dawson Collection. 

28958. The imperfect centrum of a more posterior trunk vertebra ; 
probably from the Isle of Wight. Agrees closely with 
the specimens figured by Owen ; a transverse fracture 
shows the central cavity. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

2513. An imperfect trunk vertebra of similar type ; from Sussex. 
Referred by Owen in MS. to Bothriosjpondylus. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 141. The centrum of a trunk vertebra of a somewhat more elon- 
gated type ; from the Isle of Wight. A fracture shows 
the internal cavity. Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

2141. The imperfect neural arch and spine of a lumbar (?) vertebra ; 

(Fig.) from Cuckfield. Pigured by Mantell in his ' Possils of 
Tilgate Forest,' pi. xii. fig. 1, as Iguanodon; the zygo- 
sphenal facet on the postzygapophysis is distinctly shown, 
as well as the characteristic lateral pits. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

42032. The centrum of a trunk vertebra ; from the Lower Greensand 
of Potton, Bedfordshire. Purchased, ] 870. 

37691. The centrum of a trunk vertebra ; from Sussex. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 139. Two fragments of the inferior portion of a sacrum pro-. 
visionally referred to this form ; from the Isle of Wight. 
Although differing considerably from the sacrum of M. 
bucklandi this specimen apparently makes a nearer ap- 
proach to that type than to any other with which the 
writer is acquainted. Fox Collection. 



MEGALOSAtTEID^l. 167 

2294, 2295. Two portions of a caudal vertebra ; from Cuekfield. 
Noticed by Owen in the 'Rep. Brit. Assoc' for 1841, 
p. 84, as Poehilopleuron huchlandi. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

40455. An imperfect posterior caudal vertebra; from the Lower 
Greensand of Potton. Purchased, 1874. 

R. 604 b. An imperfect right scapula provisionally referred to this 
genus and species ; from near Hastings. 

Dawson Collection. Purchased, 1884. 

36495. An imperfect metacarpal ; from Cuekfield. The proportion 

between this bone and the metatarsals is approximately 
the same as that in the corresponding bones of Allosaurus 
referred to below. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

36496. An imperfect metacarpal ; from Cuekfield. Same history. 

2553. Cast of a metacarpal closely resembling the preceding speci- 
men ; original from Cuekfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 1105. The imperfect terminal phalangeal of the third (?) digit 
(Fig.) of the manus ; from Cuekfield. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
pt. iii. pi. x. figs. 1-4, as M. huchlandi. In its extreme 
curvature this specimen closely resembles the terminal 
phalangeal of the third digit of the manus of Allosaurus 
figured by Marsh in the ' Amer. Journ.' ser. 3, vol. xxvii. 
pi. xii. No history. 

R. 604 C. The imperfect shaft of the right tibia ; from the Wad- 
hurst Clay near Hastings. Probably associated with the 
vertebra No. E. 604 a. Dawson Collection. 

R. 604 d. The fourth left metatarsal; from the Wadhurst Clay 
near Hastings. Doubtless associated with the last speci- 
men ; length 0,245. Agrees precisely with the corre- 
sponding bone of M. huchlandi figured by Phillips in his 
' Geology of Oxford/ p. 215, fig. 68, but is of smaller 
dimensions. Dawson Collection. 

2559. The imperfect left metatarsus, the proximal extremities of 

(Fig.) the three metatarsals and the distal portion of the fourth 

being wanting ; from Cuekfield. Figured by Owen in his 

' Wealden and Purbeck Eeptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. iv. 



168 DTNOSA.TJRIA. 

pi. xi., as Hylceosaurus ; noticed by Hulke in the ' Phil. 
Trans.' 1881, p. 660, and its probable distinctness from 
that genus pointed out ; and referred to the present genus 
by the writer in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xliv. 
p. 53. The fourth metatarsal agrees with No. E. 604 d. 
Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2661. The second right metatarsal ; from Cuckfield. 

Same history. 

2680. The third left metatarsal ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

2574. The imperfect distal portion of the third left metatarsal ; 
from Cuckfield. Same history. 

36551. The imperfect proximal extremity of a first phalangeal of 
{Fig.) the pes; from Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in his 
' Fossils of Tilgate Forest,' pi. xiii. fig. 3. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

3640. The proximal extremity of a first phalangeal of the pes ; from 
Cuckfield. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2501. A first phalangeal of the pes ; from Cuckfield. Although 
smaller this bone closely resembles the first phalangeal 
No. 44898 referred to Dryptosaurus. Same history, 

2503. The second phalangeal probably of the third digit of the pes ; 

{Fig.) from Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in his ' Fossils of 
Tilgate Forest,' pi. xvii. figs. 28, 29 ; closely resembles 
the corresponding bone of the phalangeals (No. 44898) 
referred to Dryptosaurus. Same history. 

2482. The terminal phalangeal of one of the digits of the pes ; from 

{Fig.) Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in his ' Geology of the 

South-east of England,' pi. iii. fig. 1, as Iguanodon; and 

by Owen, op. cit. pt. iii. pi. x. fig. 5, as M. bucklandi. 

Same 



Megalosaurus bredai, Seeley \ 

Founded upon a femur, which is provisionally referred to the 
present genus. The distal extremity of that bone (fig. 27) is 
more compressed antero-posteriorly, the great and inner trochanter 
situated more proximally, and the shaft more curved. 

Hah. Europe (Holland). 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxix. p. 246 (1883). 



MEGILOSAURID^:. 



169 



42997. The [right femur, imperfect proximally and distally ; from 
(Fig.) the Upper Cretaceous of Maastricht, Holland. The type 

(fig. 27) ; figured by Seeley in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc/ vol, xxxix. p. 247, fig. 1. 

Van Breda Collection, Purchased, 1871. 

Fig. 27. 




Megalosaurus bredai. — The right femur, from the anter or (A), inner (B), and 
outer (C) aspects ; from the Maastricht beds. ^. h, head ; It, inner 
trochanter ; pt, great (proximal) trochanter. (From the ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc.') 



Genus DRYPTOSAURUS, Marsh \ 
Syn. Lcelaps, Cope 2 . 

Nearly allied to Megalosaurus, with which Leidy (Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Philad. 1868, p. 198) suggests that it may prove identical. 

1 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. xiv. p. 88, note (1877). 

2 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1866, p. 276.— Preoccupied by a genus of 
Arachnida. 



170 DIFOSAUKIA. 

Dryptosaurus aquihmguis (Cope 1 ). 
Syn. Lcelaps aquilinguis, Cope 2 . 

Apparently equal in size to Megalosaurus buchlandi. 
Hab. North America. 

50100. A series of casts of bones, comprising (among others) 
parts of the mandible, dorsal and caudal vertebrae, the 
tibiae, an astragalus, a metatarsal, and phalangeals. The 
originals, which are the types, were obtained from the 
Greensand of Barsborough, Gloucester county, New 
Jersey, U.S.A. ; and are figured by Cope in the ' Trans. 
Amer. Phil. Soc/ vol. xiv. pis, viii.-xi. Purchased. 

44898. Casts of the first and second phalangeals of one digit of the 

pes provisionally referred to this genus. The originals 

were probably obtained from the Greensand of New Jersey. 

Presented by Sir E. Owen, K.C.B., 1874. 

Genus BOTHRIOSPONDYLUS, Owen 3 . 

Cervical vertebrae probably opisthocoelous ; postcervicals with 
their centra greatly constricted inferiorly and laterally, and having 
a large pit on either side below the neuro-central suture ; there 
appear to have been at least three sacral vertebrae, one of which 
carries its own arch. Teeth of this genus may be included under 
the head of Megalosaurus. 

Greosaurus, Marsh 4 , appears to be a closely allied form, in which 
there are two sacral vertebrae, and the ilium has a deep postace- 
tabular portion, with a slight incision above the pubic process. 



Bothriospondylus suffosus, Owen 5 . 

The type species. Considerably smaller than Megalosaurus 
buchlandi, with the pits in the vertebral centra deep. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

1 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1866, p. 276.— Lelaps. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Mesozoic Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ii. p. 15 (1875). 

1 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. xv. p. 243 (1878). See vol. xxvii. pi. xiv. ; the 
vertebrae figured in the latter plate were also figured in vol. xvii. pi. x. as 
Allosaurus. 

5 Loc. cit. 



MEGALOSAUJRIT)^:. 



171 



The following specimens are the types, and were obtained from the 
Kimeridge Clay of Swindon, Wiltshire. 

44592. The centrum of a trunk vertebra. Figured by Owen in his 
(Fig.) ' Mesozoic Eeptilia,' pt. ii. pi. v. figs. I, 2, 4, 5. The 

length is 0,090. Presented by the Swindon 

Brick and Tile Company, 1873, 

44593. The centrum of a trunk vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. 
(Fig.) cit. pi. v. fig. 3. Same history. 

44594-5. Two centra of trunk vertebras. Same history. 

44589. The centrum of a sacral vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. 
(Fig.) cit. pi. iii. figs 1-4. Same history. 

44590. The centrum of a sacral vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. 
(Fig.) cit. pi. iv. figs. 1-3. Same history. 

44591. The centrum of a sacral vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. 
(Fig.) cit. pi. iv. figs. 4-6. Same history. 

Bothriospondylus robustus, Owen 1 . 

Larger than the preceding species. 
Rob. Europe (England). 

22428. The centrum of a trunk vertebra ; from the Forest Marble 
(Fig.) (Lower Jurassic) of Bradford, Wiltshire. The type ; 

figured by Owen in his ' Mesozoic Eeptilia,' pt. ii. pi. vi. 

fig. 1. Purchased, 1848. 



Genus ZANCLODON, Plieninger 2 . 

Syn. Oresslysaurus, Eiitimeyer 3 . 
Dinosaurus, Eiitimeyer i . 
Teratosawus, Meyer 5 . 

Cervical vertebras amphiccelous ; two vertebras in sacrum. Serra- 
tions on anterior border of teeth extending nearly to base of 
crown, of which the compression is excessive. Five digits in 

1 Mesozoic Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ii. p. 21 (1875). 

2 Jahresh. Ver. nat. Wiirtt. vol. ii. p. 248 (1846). 

3 Verh. schw. nat. Ges. vol. xli. p. 64 (1856). 

4 Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. vol.xxxiii. p. 53 (1856). 

5 Palseontographica, vol. vii. p. 258 (1861). 



172 DIN0SA.T7KIA. 

manus and pes ; pubes broad, with long anterior union ; astragalus 
without ascending process. There seems no reasonable doubt as to 
the generic unity of Teratosaurus and Zanclodon ; Huxley x identifies 
the type of the former with the skeleton originally described by 
Plieninger 2 as Belodon, while Baur 3 refers the latter to Zanclodon, 

[Zanclodon suevicus (Meyer 4 ), 

Syn. Teratosaurus suevicus, Meyer 5 . 

Gresslysaurus ingens, Riitinieyer 6 . 
Dinosaurus gresslyi, Riitimeyer 7 . 

Of large size, with the serrations on the anterior border of the 
teeth extending very close to the base. Whether this form is 
really distinct from Z. lcevis } Plieninger 8 , from the Lettenkohle 
(Bunter) of Gaildorf, remains to be proved ; the type specimen of 
the latter is smaller than the type of the present form. 

Hah. Europe. 

38646. The left maxilla, showing five protruded teeth and the germs 

(Fig.) of several in their alveoli ; from the Upper Keuper 

(Upper Trias) of Stuttgart. The type specimen ; figured 

and described by Meyer in the ' Paheontographica,' vol. vii. 

p. 258, pi. xlv. Purchased, 1864. 

38647-8. Two imperfect teeth ; from Stuttgart. Same history. 

38649. An imperfect bone, which is not improbably the right 
coracoid ; from Stuttgart. Same history. 

38058. A crushed bone, which is not improbably a tibia of this 
form ; from Stuttgart. The medullary cavity is distinctly 
shown. The specimen indicates a small individual. 

Same history. 

Zanclodon (?), sp. a. 

This form may be identical with the preceding ; the tooth from 
the Keuper figured by Huxley in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.' 
vol. xxvi. pi. iii. fig. 11, may belong to it. 

Hah. Europe (England). 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 42 (1870). 

2 Jahresh. Ver. nat. Wurtt. vol. viii. pis. viii.-xii. (1852). 

3 Zool. Anzeiger, vol. ix. pp. 742-743 (1886). 

4 Palaeontographica, vol. vii. p. 267 (1861). — Teratosaurus. 5 Loc. cit. 
Verh. schw. nat. Ges. vol. xli. p. 64 (1856). Not figured. 

7 Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. vol. xxiii. p. 53 (1856). Not figured. 

8 Op. cit. pi. iii. fig. 3. 



MEGALOSAUKID^i. 173 

23812. The two extremities of a proximal phalangeal, together 
with a fragment of another (? terminal) phalangeal ; from 
the Ehaetic (Upper Trias) of Aust Cliff, near Bristol, 
Warwickshire. The first specimen, although of rather 
smaller size, resembles one of the phalangeals figured by 
Plieninger in the ' Jahresh. Yer. nat. Wiirtt.' vol. viii. 
pi. ix. fig. 2 (1852), as Belodon. Purchased, 1849. 



Zanclodon (?), sp. b. 

The serrations on the anterior border of the tooth stopping at a 
rather greater distance above the root of the crown. The generic 
reference is provisional. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

Fig. 28. 




Zanclodon (?) sp. — Crown of a tooth ; from the Lower Lias of Lyme-Kegis. l 

41352. The crown of a tooth; from the Lower Lias of Lyme 
(Fig.) Regis, Dorsetshire. Figured in the accompanying wood- 
cut. This specimen indicates a much smaller animal than 
the type of Z. suevicus ; the serrations on the anterior 
border stop at a distance of 0,004 above the root of the 
crown. In its great lateral compression and longitudinal 
raised lines on the enamel this specimen apparently comes 
nearer to Zanclodon than to Megalosaurus. 

Purchased, 1869. 



174 



DINOSATTRIA. 



Family ANCHISAURID^. 

Imperfectly known. Teeth in some instances (fig. 29) without 
serrations on the anterior border, but in others (fig. 30) with 
oblique serrations on both borders. Cervical vertebrae amphiccelous ; 
typically (Anchisaurus l ) five digits in manus and three in pes ; and 
pubis rod-like. 

Fig. 29. 




Epicampodon 2 indicus (Huxley). — Fragment of mandible ; from the Panchet 
beds of the Lower Grondwanas of Bengal, f . A, lateral aspect ; JB, pos- 
terior do. ; C, section of tooth. (From the ' Paleeontologia Indica.') 



Genus THECODONTOSAURUS, Riley & Stutchbury 3 . 

Teeth (fig. 30) with oblique serrations on both borders ; ilium 4 
(provisional) of a Megalosaurian type. Referred to this family by 
Marsh. 

Fig. 30. 




Thecodontosaurus platyodon (R. & S.).^ — Lateral aspect of tooth ; from the 
Upper Trias of Bristol, i . 



1 Originally Amphisaurus, but altered by Marsh in Amer. Journ. ser. 3, 
vol. xxix. p. 169. 

2 Syn. Ankistrodon. — Preoccupied. 

8 Proc. Geol. Soc. vol. ii. p. 398 (1836— vol. dated 1838). 
4 Huxley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. pi. iii. fig. 7 ; the anterior part 
is described as posterior. 

6 Referred to this genus by Huxley, op. cit. 



OKNITHOPODA. 175 

Thecodontosaurus antiquus, Morris 1 . 

The type species. Of small size ; 21 lower teeth. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

R. 1108. Cast of the greater part of the left ramus of the man- 
dible. The original is from the Upper Triassic Conglome- 
rate of Durdham Down, near Bristol, Gloucestershire, and 
is preserved in the Museum at Bristol ; it is figured by 
Huxley in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxvi. pi. iii. 
figs. 1, 2. Made in tlie Museum, 1887. 

Suborder ORNITHOPODA. 

Premaxilla (when known) edentulous entirely or anteriorly ; no 
preorbital vacuity ; nares terminal or subterminal ; quadrate elon- 
gated and slightly inclined forward ; teeth usually serrated, complex, 
and not set in distinct sockets. Erequently a predentary bone. 
Vertebrae without internal cavities 2 or zygosphenal articulations; 
cervicals shorter than dorsals, with free ribs, and either opistho- or 
amphiccelous ; anterior and middle caudals with postzygapophyses ; 
chevrons usually closed ; rib-facets of dorsal vertebras either on 
arches or transverse processes. Pectoral limb much shorter than 
pelvic ; scapula with proximal extremity greatly or moderately ex- 
panded, and frequently with the anterior border convex and pos- 
terior concave ; humerus with head usually well differentiated from 
tuberosities ; five digits in manus. Ilium shallow, generally with 
elongated preacetabular process ; pubis directed backwards parallel 
to ischium, without symphysis, and with large preacetabular (pec- 
tineal) process ; ischium with obturator process, short or elongated. 
Femur with straight shaft, generally large inner trochanter, and the 
head globular, differentiated from upper trochanters, and set nearly 
parallel to condyles ; astragalus applied to tibia ; metatarsals long 
or short ; terminal digits of pes either laterally or vertically com- 
pressed ; feet digitigrade or plantigrade. 

This Suborder is taken (after Cope) to include the Stegosauria of 
Marsh 3 . The more specialized forms were mainly of bipedal habits. 

1 Cat. Brit. Foss. 1st ed. p. 211 (1843). This name is coimnonly quoted as 
Eiley and Stutchbury, but it does not occur in either of their memoirs. 

2 If Stenopelix (see Koken, Pal. Abhandl. toI. iii. pi. xxx. 1887) belong to this 
suborder (with which it agrees in the form of the iliuin) it will be an exception 
in this respect. 

3 Seeley has proposed to substitute the name Ornithischia for this group, and 
to make it of ordinal rank. See Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1887, p. 698, and Proc. 
R. Soc. vol. xliii. p. 170 (1887). 



176 r DtNOSAttKIA. 

Family OMOSAUHID^E. 

Cranium (fig. 31) typically elongated, low, and narrow anteriorly, 
with large orbits, low infratemporal fossae, and moderate nares ; 
mandibular rami rather shallow, with narrow symphysis terminated 
by a predentary bone. Teeth scelidosauroid. Vertebras amphi- 
coelous ; dorsals with slight lateral depressions on centrum, very 
narrow neural canal, and lofty arch without deep pits in front of 
postzygapophyses ; each sacral bearing entirely or partly its own 
arch ; anterior caudals with transverse diameter of centrum longer 
than vertical ; chevrons open ; rib-facets of middle dorsal vertebrae 
on arch. Limb-bones solid ; scapula (fig. 32) with large glenoidal 
expansion, forming a right angle with anterior border of shaft; 
coracoid without descending process : humerus short and thick, with 
expanded extremities. Ilium (fig. 32) with very long and stout 

Fig. 31. 




s, Marsh. — Left lateral view of cranium ; from the Upper 
Jurassic of North America. \. a, nares ; b, orbit ; c, infratemporal fossa ; 
pm, premaxilla ; m, maxilla ; n, nasal ; pf, prefrontal ; so, supraorbital ] ; 
fp, postfrontal ; po, postorbital; I, lachrymal; j, jugal; g, quadrate; sq, 
squamosal ; oc, occipital condyle ; ar, articular ; sa, surangular ; an, 
angular ; s, splenial ; d, dentary ; pd, predentary. (From the ' Amer. 
Journ.') 

preacetabular, and short postacetabular process ; pubis and ischium 
short, without distal expansion ; femur with or without distinct inner 
trochanter, much longer than tibia, which is not greatly longer than 

1 This bone, forming the upper border of the orbit and connecting the pre- 
and post-frontals, appears to be an element usually not represented as a distinct 
bone. 



ohosattrid^. 177 

humerus ; astragalus anchylosed to tibia ; five digits in pes, which 
is plantigrade. A dermal armour, consisting of scutes and long 
spines attached by their expanded bases. 

Equivalent to the Stegosauridw, Marsh ; in the characters of the 
limb-bones and sacrum this family approximates to the Sauropoda> 
which it connects with the Scelidosauridce. 



Genus OMOSAURUS, Owen 1 . 

The type genus. Skull unknown. Four sacral vertebras ; femur 
with inner trochanter, and nearly double the length of tibia ; meta- 
podials extremely short. 

The American Stegosaurus, Marsh 2 , differs by the absence of an 
inner trochanter to the femur 3 . 

Omosaurus armatus, Owen 4 . 

The type species. Of large size, although much smaller than 
Cetiosaurus oxoniensis. 
Hob. Europe (England). 

The following specimens are the types, and belong to a single 
individual ; they were obtained from the Kimeridge Clay ( Upper 
Jurassic) of Swindon, Wiltshire ; and were presented by the 
Swindon Brick and Tile Company, 1879. A note on their 
exhumation, ivith figures of some of them, is given by W. Davies 
in the ' Geol Mag.' dec. 2, vol. iii. pp. 193-197, pis. vii., viii. 

46013. The neural arch of a cervical vertebra. Figured by Owen 
(Fig.) in his ' Mesozoic Reptilia,' pt. ii. pi. xi. (1876). 

46013 a. An imperfect dorsal vertebra. Figured, op. cit. pi. xii. 
(Fig.) figs. 2, 3. 

46013 b. The centrum of a dorsal vertebra. Figured, op. cit. pi. xiii. 
(Fig.) fig. 3. 

46013 C. Six imperfect dorsal vertebras. 

46013 d. An anterior caudal vertebra with its chevron. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. xiv. figs. 1-4, and pi. xv. figs. 1-3. 

1 Mesozoic Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ii. p. 45 (1875). 

2 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. xiv. p. 513 (1S77). See also vol. xix. pp. 253-259, 
pis. vi.-xii. (1880) (the teeth figured in pi. vi. were subsequently referred to 
Diplodocus) ; and vol. xxi. pp. 167-170, pis. vi.-viii. (1881). 

3 See Hulke, Quart. Journ. Gcol. Soc. vol. xliii. p. 702 (1SS7). 

4 Loe. cit. 

N 



178 DINOSATJElA.. 

46103 e. A middle caudal vertebra. Figured, op. cit pi. xvi. 
{Fig.) figs. 1-3. 

46013 f. Two anterior caudal vertebrae. 

46013 g. The left humerus. Figured, op. cit. pi. xvii. figs. 1-5. 

46013 h. The left ulna. Figured, op. cit. pi. xvii. figs. 13, 14. 
(■%•) 

46013 i. The left radius. Figured, op. cit. pi. xvii. figs. 7-11. 
(Fig.) 

46013 j. The third left metacarpal. Figured, op. cit. pi. xviii. 
{Fig.) figs. 3-6. 

46013 k. The fourth left metacarpal. Figured; op. cit. pi. xviii. 
{Fig.) figs. 1-2. 

46013 1. Bones of the carpus and metacarpus, comprising the 
scaphoid, cuneiform, unciform, and three metacarpals. 

46013 m. A phalangeal. Figured, op. cit. pi. xv. figs. 4, 5, as a 
{Fig.) terminal ; the terminals of Stegosaurus (' Amer. Journ. 

ser. 3, vol. xix. pi. viii. fig. 4) show, however, that this 

determination is not correct. 

46013 n. A dermal spine. Figured, op. cit. pi. xxii. figs. 2-3, as 
{Fig.) the left carpal spine ; as noticed by Marsh, it agrees in 
structure with the dermal spine of Stegosaurus, figured in 
the ' Amer. Journ.' op. cit. pi. x. fig. 2, numerous speci- 
mens of which were found with a single skeleton. 

46013 O. A mass of matrix containing dorsal, lumbar, sacral, and 
{Fig.) caudal vertebrae, ribs, both ilia, and the right ischium and 
femur. Figured, op. cit. pi. xix. 

46013 p. The left ischium. Figured, op. cit. pi. xx. figs. 1-3. 

46013 q. The right pubis. Figured, op. cit. pi. xx. figs. 4-6. In 
{Fig.) the diagram in the text this bone is incorrectly placed. 

46013 r. The left pubis. 

46013 s. The right tibia. Figured, op. cit. pi. xxi. figs. 3-6. 



OMOSAUKIDJE. 



1V9 



The following specimen is provisionally referred to this form. 

47329. The centrum of a posterior caudal vertebra from the 
Kimeridge Clay of Swindon. 
Presented by the Swindon Brick and Tile Company, 1876. 



Fig. 32. 




armatus, Marsh ; Upper Jurassic, North America. — Left pectoral 
and pelvic girdle, and limbs ; ^ na *- size : s, scapula ; c, coracoid ; h, 
humerus ; r, radius ; u, ulna ; 1-v, phalangeals ; il, ilium ; is, ischium ; 
p, p 1 , pubis; /', femur; t, tibia; f l , fibula; a, astragalus; c, calcaneum. 
(After Marsh.) 



Omosaurus hastiger, Owen \ 

Founded upon the following specimens, which were described as 
carpal spines, and from their marked difference from the dermal 
spine of the type species, No. 46013 n, were regarded as specifically 
distinct. Other specimens are required to determine the validity 
of this species. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

46320. A dermal spine, wanting the summit ; from the Kimeridge 
(Fig.) Clay (Upper Jurassic) of Wootton-Bassett, Wiltshire. 

1 Mesozoic Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. iii. p. 1 (1877). 



180 



DINOSATJRIA. 



The type; figured by Owen in his 'Mesozoic Reptilia,' 
pt. iii. pi. xxiii. and pi. xxiv. figs. 1-3. 

Gunnington Collection. Purchased, 1875. 

46321. Transverse section from the upper extremity of the pre- 
(Fig.) ceding specimen. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. xxiv. 

fig. 4. Same history. 

46322. A similar dermal spine belonging to the same individual as 

the preceding ; from "Wootton-Bassetfc. Same history. 

Omosaurus (?), sp. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

It. 584. A dermal spine, wanting the summit ; from the Oxford Clay 
(Middle Jurassic) of Bedford. Yery similar in general type 
to No. 46320. Presented by W. B. Graham. Esq., 1886. 

40517. The distal portion of a fibula not improbably belonging to 
this or an allied form ; from the Oxford Clay of Weymouth, 
Dorsetshire. This bone is solid throughout. 

Purchased, 1867. 

Family SCELIDOSAURIM]. 

Typically the cranium tapering anteriorly, with circular orbits 
which are not prominent superiorly, and the infratemporal fossae 
(and probably the nares) small; mandibular rami slender and 
apering to a point, which may have had a predentary; teeth 
(fig. 33) in a single row, with compressed, sharp- edged, triangular 
crowns, of which the borders usually bear oblique serrations. 
Yertebrse amphicoelous ; dorsals with slight depressions on the sides 
of the centrum, narrow neural canal, and no deep pits on the 
arches in front of the postzygapophyses ; sacral arches supported 
by two centra ; anterior caudals with transverse diameter of cen- 
trum longer than vertical; rib-facets of middle dorsal vertebras 
typically forming a " step " on the transverse process, but in the 
later forms placed on the arch. Limb-bones solid. Scapula with 
large glenoid expansion, forming an obtuse angle with anterior 
border of shaft ; coracoid with descending process ; humerus short, 
with much expanded head, and shaft without angulation. Ilium 
with long pre- and postacetabular processes, the latter being broad 
and with an inner horizontal plate ; pubis and ischium compara- 
tively short; femur with distinct inner trochanter, and slightly 



SCELID S ATJEID M . 181 

longer than tibia, the latter being nearly the length of the humerus ; 
astragalus distinct from tibia ; metatarsals short and not inter- 
locking ; four functional digits in pes, which was probably planti- 
grade. A dermal armour in the form of scutes and spines. 



Genus SCELIDOSAURUS, Owen 1 . 

The type genus. The teeth (fig. 33) strongly serrated; tibia 
rather shorter than the humerus ; posterior chevrons not antero- 
posteriorly elongated ; dermal spines forming short subsymmetrical 
cones, slightly compressed, with convex sides and fore-and-aft ridges. 
Preacetabular process of ilium vertically compressed. 

Fig. 33. 




Scelidosaurus harrisoni. — An upper tooth ; from the Lower Lias of 
Dorsetshire, f. 



Scelidosaurus harrisoni, Owen 2 . 

The type species. The larger specimens indicate an animal of 
considerable size. There are four sacral vertebras. 
Hob. Europe (England). 

All the following specimens are from the Lower Lias of Dorsetshire. 

R. 1111. The skeleton, almost entire except the extremity of the 
{Fig.) skull ; from Charmouth. The skull is figured by Owen in 
his ' Liassic Eeptilia,' pt. i. pis. iv.-vi., and the remainder 
of the skeleton in pt. ii. pis. i.-xi. This specimen indicates 
an individual much smaller than the type, its total length 
being about 11 feet 3 inches. Purchased, 1865. 

39517. An imperfect anterior caudal vertebra ; from Lyme-Regis. 

Purchased, 1S66. 

1 ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 8th ed. vol. xvii. p. 150 (1859). 

2 Liassic Eeptilia (Hon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. p. 1 (1861). 



182 DINOSAURIA. 

39517 a. Two posterior caudal vertebrse (one imperfect) ; from 
Lyme-Eegis. Purchased, 1866. 

41327. Two posterior caudal vertebrae ; from Lyme-Eegis. 

Purchased, 1869. 

39518. A chevron-bone ; from Lyme-Eegis. Purchased, 1866. 

41324. The imperfect glenoidal half of the right scapula; from 

Lyme-Eegis. Purchased, 1869. 

41325. The shaft of the right humerus ; from Lyme-Eegis. 

Same history. 

39496. The adjacent extremities of the right femur, tibia, and fibula, 
{Fig.) cemented together by matrix, of a large individual ; from 

Charmouth. The type ; figured by Owen, op. cit. pt. i, 
pi. ii. figs. 1-3. Purchased, 1865. 

41322. The left femur ; from Lyme-Eegis. Smaller than the corre- 
sponding bone of the entire skeleton; closely resembles 
the smaller specimen figured by Owen, op. cit. pt. i. pi. iii. 
figs. 5, 6. Purchased, 1867. 

42069. The distal portion of the right femur of a small individual ; 

from Lyme-Eegis. Purchased, 1870. 

40503. The imperfect proximal half of a small left tibia ; from 
Lyme-Eegis. Purchased, 1867. 

41328. Three metatarsals ; from Lyme-Eegis. Purchased, 1869. 

42070. A phalangeal ; from Lyme-Eegis. Purchased, 1870. 

39519. Two phalangeals (one imperfect) ; from Lyme-Eegis. 

Purchased, 1866. 

39520. A terminal phalangeal ; from Lyme-Eegis. Same history. 

39516. Numerous imperfect dermal spines ; from Lyme-Eegis. 

Purchased, 1866. 

41329. Several dermal spines ; from Lyme-Eegis. 

Purchased, 1869. 

42068. Numerous dermal spines ; from Lyme-Eegis. 

Purchased, 1870. 

39497. An undetermined long-bone, wanting the extremities ; from 

Lyme-Eegis. Purchased, 1865, 



SCELLDOSATJEIDiE. 



183 



41323. An undetermined bone ; from Lyme -Begis. 



Purchased, 1869. 



42074. An undetermined bone ; from Lyme-Kegis. 



Purchased, 1870. 



Genus ACANTHOPHOLIS, Huxley 1 . 

The serrations of the teeth more complex than in Scelidosaurus, 
and descending nearer to the base of the crown, which is lancet- 
shaped. The dermal spines unsymmetrical, compressed, convex on 
one side and concave on the other, with a sinuous convex anterior 
and concave posterior edge. The vertebrae approximate to those 
of Scelidosaurus, but the posterior dorsals are less compressed, and 
the anterior caudals are shorter and less oblique, with the neural 
spine more inclined backwards. 



Acanthopholis horridus, Huxley 2 . 

The type species. The type specimen indicates an individual 
approximately equal in size to the skeleton No. E. 1111 of Scelido- 
saurus harrisoni. 

Hob. Europe (England). 

Fig. 34. 

6 




Acanthopholis horridus. — Anterior (a) and left lateral (b) views of an anterior 
caudal vertebra; from the Chalk-Marl of Folkestone. £. (From the 
' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.') 

44581. An anterior caudal vertebra, wanting the extremities of the 
(Fig.) transverse processes and of the neural spine and the post- 

1 Geol. Mag. dec. 1, vol. iv. p. 65 (1867). 2 Loc. cit. 



184 DINOSAURIA. 

zygapophyses ; from the Lower Chalk of Folkestone, Kent. 
Figured by Seeley in the 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xxxv. p. 597, fig. 2, the figures being reproduced in 
the accompanying woodcut. Purchased, 1873. 

47234. The centra of two trunk vertebrae with two associated 
dermal scutes ; from Folkestone. The less imperfect scute 
is of the type of the one figured by Huxley in the ' Geol. 
Mag.' 1867, pi. v. fig. 2. Purchased, 1876. 

47234 a. Five dermal scutes ; from Folkestone. Same history. 

49917. A dermal scute; from Folkestone. This specimen is of a 
broad and expanded type. Purchased, 1879. 

35280-2. Five imperfect centra of posterior caudal vertebras, provi- 
sionally referred to this species; from the Cambridge 
Greensand. Purchased, 1859. 



Genus REGNOSAURUS, Mantell 1 . 

Founded upon a mandible regarded by Owen as belonging to 
Hylwosaurus. The roots of the teeth in that specimen are, however, 
much smaller than those of the teeth referred by the same writer 
to that genus ; and it may be that Vectisaurus 2 , which appears to 
belong to this family, is identical with the present genus. (See 
' Quart. Journ Geol. Soc' vol. xliv. p. 52.) 

Regnosaurus northamptoni, Mantell 3 . 

The type species. Probably about the size of Acanthopholis 
horridus. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

2422. Part of a right ramus of the mandible, showing dental alveoli 
(Fig.) and the bases of the teeth ; from the Wealden of Cuckfield, 
Sussex. Figured by Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1841, 
pi. v., as Iguanodon, and made the type of the present 
genus in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1848, p. 198 ; figured by Owen 
in his < Wealden and Purbeck Eeptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc.-), 
pt. iv. pi. viii. figs. 1—5, as (?) Hylceosaurus. In general 
contour, and especially in the strong median external ridge 

J Phil. Trans. 1848, p. 198. 

2 Hulke, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxv. p. 421 (1879). 

3 hoc. cit. 



SCELIDOSAT7KID.2E. 185 

and the lozenge-shaped section anteriorly, it approximates 
to the mandible of Sceliclosaurus. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 



Genus HYUEOSAURUS, Mantell 1 . 

The teeth provisionally referred to this genus have no serrations 2 . 
The anterior dorsal vertebras have broad centra, with a thick haemal 
ridge, while the later ones are compressed and show a distinct lateral 
hollow; posterior chevrons ant ero -posteriorly elongated inferiorly. 
Dermal spines much compressed, convex anteriorly and concave 
posteriorly, and sometimes comparatively narrow ; probably placed 
in the anterior part of the trunk. Preacetabular process of ilium 
(provisional) laterally compressed. Feet unknown. 

Hylseosaurus oweni, Mantell I 

The type species. The type specimen indicates an animal consi- 
derably smaller than the type of Sceliclosaurus harrisoni, but other 
specimens provisionally referred to the same species are of larger 
size, and may be distinct. 

Hah. Europe (England). 

All tlie following specimens arc from the Wealden. 

2310, 3326. Several teeth, resembling those figured by Owen in his 
' Wealden and Purbeck Eeptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. iv. 
pi. viii., and provisionally referred to this form ; from 
Cuckfield, Sussex. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

26034, 36488. Two similar teeth ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

43172. A similar tooth ; from Cuckfield. 

Wetherell Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

R. 739. A similar tooth ; from the Wadhurst Clay (Lower Wealden) 
of Silver Hill, near Hastings, Sussex. 

Dawson Collection. Purchased, 18S6. 

R. 647. two similar teeth ; from Battle, near Hastings. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

1 Proc. Geol. Soc. vol. i. p. 411 (1834). 

2 Teeth of similar type are provisionally referred to Crataomus (Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvii. pi. xxvii. figs. 13, 14), another member of this family. 

3 ■ Medals of Creation,' 1st ed. p. 734 (1844). 



186 DINOSATJRIA. 

R. 647 a. A similar tooth ; from St. Leonards, Sussex. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

3775. A slab containing a large portion of the skeleton; from 
(Fig.) Cuckfield. The type specimen ; discovered in 1832, and 
figured by Man tell in his ' Geology of the South-east of 
England,' pi. v. (1833), and also in his ' Wonders of 
Geology,' pi. iv., and ' Petrifactions and their Teachings,' 
p. 316, fig. 66; and by Owen in his 'Wealden and 
Purbeck Keptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. iv. pi. iv. (1858). 
This specimen shows a large series of dorsal vertebrae, 
with their ribs, the scapula, coracoid, dermal bones, and a 
fragment of the cranium. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2123. The centrum and part of the arch of a (? posterior) dorsal 
(Fig.) vertebra, provisionally referred to this species ; from Cuck- 
field. Figured by Mantell in his 'Fossils o& Tilgate 
Forest,' pi. ix. fig. 11 ; and noticed by Owen in the ' Eep. 
Brit. Assoc' for 1841, p. 69, where it is referred to 
Suchosaurus. In its narrow neural canal, the form of 
the centrum, and the depression on the side of the latter, 
this specimen apparently resembles the later dorsals of the 
type. Same history. 

2585. An imperfect trunk (? lumbar) vertebra, referred by Owen 

(Fig.) to this species ; from Cuckfield. Figured by Owen in his 

1 Wealden and Purbeck Eeptilia,' pt. iv. pi. viii. figs. 10, 11. 

The centrum is rounded, but has the depression on its 

lateral surface. Same 



2484. An imperfect sacrum, referred by Owen to this form ; from 
Cuckfield. The reference of this and the next specimen 
is very problematical, and is doubted by Hulke in the 
6 Phil. Trans.' 1881, p. 660. Same history. 

36487. The centra of four anchylosed sacral vertebrae, agreeing in 

(Fig.) structure with the preceding specimen; from Cuckfield. 

Figured by Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1849, pi. xxvii., 

where they are provisionally referred to this genus, and- 

by Owen, op. cit. pi. v. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

28936. The middle of a sacrum, referred by Owen to the present 

(Fig.) genus ; from the Isle of Wight. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 

pi. vi. figs. 3, 4. Same history. 



SCELIDOSAXTEID^J. 187 

2511. An imperfect anterior caudal vertebra; from Cuckfield. In 
general structure this specimen approximates to the 
caudals of Acanthojpholis (fig. 34). 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

3789. A slab containing the greater number of the caudal ver- 
{Fig.) tebrae, with their chevrons ; from Sussex. Figured by 
Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1849, pi. xxxii. fig. 22, and 
by Owen, op. cit. pi. x. The vertebrae accord so closely in 
size and general characters with the dorsals of the type 
specimen that there seems no doubt of the specific identity 
of the two. The chevrons are in several instances attached 
to the caudals. Same history. 

2584. A left scapula, provisionally referred to this species ; from 

(Fig.) Bolney, Sussex. Figured by Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 

1841, pi. x. fig. 10, and described by Owen, op. cit. 

figs. 16, 17 ; of larger size than the scapula of the type, 

but of similar contour. Same history. 

R. 1106. Cast of the left humerus. The original was obtained from 
Brixton, Isle of "Wight, and was formerly in the collection 
of the late Dr. Wilkins, of Newport ; it is figured by 
Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxx. pi. xxxi. 
figs. 3, 4, and provisionally referred to the present genus. 
The resemblance of this specimen to the humerus of Sceli- 
dosaurus, coupled with its association with the tibia No. 
E. 1107, renders it probable that this reference is correct ; 
and in any case the specimen belongs to a member of the 
present family. Made in the Museum. 



(?) Hylcsosaurus oweni. — Outer view of the right ilium, with trausverse section oi 
the postacetabular process ; from the Wealden of Sussex. J. 

2150. A right ilium, provisionally referred to this form ; from 
(Fig.) Cuckfield. This specimen (fig. 35), which wants the 



188 DINOSAURIA. 

extremities of the two dorsal processes, has been already 
figured by the writer in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xliv. p. 53, woodcut fig. 3. It has a considerable 
resemblance to the ilium of Scelidosaurus, and also ap- 
proximates to that of Vectisaurus x ; the latter resemblance 
indicating that that genus may belong to the present 
family. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2132. The middle portion of a similar but smaller ilium; from 
Cuckfield. Same history. 

2615. The right tibia; from Bolney. Associated with the scapula 

(Fig.) No. 2584 ; figured by Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1841, 

pi. x. fig. 11 (as a humerus), by Owen, op. cit. pi. vii., and 

the distal extremity by Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc' vol. xxxv. pi. xii. fig. 7. Same history. 

R. 1107. Cast of the left tibia. The original was associated with 
that of the humerus No. R. 1106, and is figured by Hulke, 
op. cit. figs. 1, 2; it presents slight differences from 
No. 2615, which may be either of sexual or specific 
value. Made in the Museum. 

2188. A bone which is apparently an imperfect tibia ; from Cuck- 
field. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

28681. A dermal spine ; from Cuckfield. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. ix. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

36490-94. Several dermal scutes ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

3782. Fragment of a small subcyliudrical dermal spine, perhaps 
belonging to this form ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2417. Fragment of a dermal spine of similar type; from Cuckfield. 

Same history. 

R. 695. A small compressed dermal spine, not improbably belonging 
to this form ; from Sussex. Dawson Collection. 

2193. A bone which appears to be a small dermal spine of this or' 
(Fig.) an allied form ; from Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in 
his ' Fossils of Tilgate Forest/ pi. xx. fig. 7, as an undeter- 
mined bone. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

1 Hulke, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxv. pi. xxi. 



scELiDOSATTEma;. 189 

2583, 2587. Two undetermined bones, perhaps referable to this 
genus j from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 



Genus POL ACANTHUS, Hulke l {ex Owen, MS.). 

The characteristic feature of this genus is the enormous dermal 
buckler in the lumbar region, consisting of firmly united bony 
scutes, some of which are tuberculated and others keeled ; large 
detached spines were probably placed in the anterior region of the 
trunk. The lumbar as well as the sacral vertebrae were united 
together, and, with the ilia, were anchylosed to the lumbar buckler. 

Polacanthus foxi, Hulke {ex Owen, MS.). 

The type species. Agreeing approximately in size with the 
skeleton of Scelidosaurus harrisoni, No. E. 1111. 
Eab. Europe (England). 

The following specimens, which include the types, belong to a single 
individual, and were obtained from the Wealden near Bame's 
Chine, Brixton, Isle of Wight. They belong to the Fox Col- 
lection. Purchased, 1882. 

R. 175. An imperfect cervical vertebra. 

R. 175 a. An anterior dorsal vertebra. Figured by Hulke in the 
{Fig.) < Phil. Trans.' 1881, pi. lxx. figs. 1, 2. 

R. 175 b. Four imperfect trunk vertebrae. 

R. 175 c. An anterior caudal vertebra. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxii. 
{Fig.) figs. 1, 2. 

R. 175 d. Seven anterior caudal vertebrae. 

R. 175 e. A posterior caudal vertebra. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxv. 
figs. 3, 4. 

R. 175 f. Three separate and two united posterior caudal vertebrae. 

R. 175 g. The extremity of the tail, showing dermal scutes and 
{Fig.) ossified tendons. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxiii. figs. 1-3. 

R. 175 h. A chevron, with another attached bone. 
1 Phil. Trans. 1881. p. 053. 



190 DlNOSAtJRlA. 

R. 175 i. Proximal portion of a rib. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxvi. 
(Fig.) fig. 2. 

R. 175 j. Four specimens of the proximal portions of ribs. 

R. 175 k. The sacrum and lumbar dermal buckler, together with a 
(Fig.) cast of the upper surface of the latter. The sacrum 

is figured, op. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 1, and the entire specimen 

in the ' Phil. Trans/ 1887, pis. viii., ix. 

R. 1751. The right femur. Figured in the 'Phil. Trans.' 1881, 
(Fig.) pi. lxxiv. 

R. 175 m. The left femur. 

R. 175 n. The left tibia. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxv. figs. 1, 2. 
{Fig.) 

R. 175 o. Two metatarsals. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxii. fig. 3. 

(%•) 

R. 175 p. A series of flat, irregular dermal scutes; 

R. 175 (J. A pair of angulated symmetrical scutes. 

R. 175 r. A larger pair of similar scutes. 

R. 175 s. A dermal scute bearing a short spine. 

R. 175 1. Three short dermal spines. 

R. 175 u. A somewhat similar spine. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxi. 
(Fig.) fig. 7. 

R. 175 V. A tall dermal spine. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxi. figs. 4, 5. 
(Fig.) The summit has been attached since it was figured. 

R. 175 w. A tall spine. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 6, and 
(Fig.) pi. lxxvi. fig. 1 ; the summit having been subsequently 
attached. 

R. 175 x. Four similar spines. 



The following specimen apparently belonged to a different 
individual. 

R. 175 y. An imperfect posterior caudal and another vertebra ; from 
the Isle of Wight. Fox Collection. 

R 203. A tall spine. Same history. 



IGTTANODONTmE. 191 

Genekically Undeteemined Specimens. 

The following are from the Wealden of the Isle of Wight. 

39533. A dermal spine. This specimen has not the compressed 
form characteristic of Polacanthus and Hylceosaurus. 

Presented by E. Backhouse, Esq., 1866. 

R. 202. A shorter dermal spine. Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

R. 202 a. A somewhat shorter dermal spine. Same history, 

36515-17. Three still shorter dermal spines ; from Sandown. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 133. Two dermal spines of somewhat similar type. 

Fox Collection. 

R. 133 a. Two smaller dermal spines. Same history. 

R. 202. Two dermal scutes. Same history. 

37713-14. Two dermal scutes. Said Collection. Purchased, 1863. 

R. 643. A dermal scute ; from Brook. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

The following is from the Lower Wealden ( Wadhurst Clay), 
near Hastings. 

R. 604 a. A tall dermal spine. Dawson Collection. Purchased, 1885. 

The following is from the Neocomian Bone-bed of Potion, Bedfordshire, 
but is probably derived. 

40458. A water-worn dermal scute. Purchased, 1867. 

Family IGUANODONTID^. 

Cranium (fig. 41) typically somewhat short,, elevated, and broad 
anteriorly, with small and somewhat prominent orbits, tall infra- 
temporal fossae, and large terminal nares ; mandibular rami deep, 
and uniting in a broad and channelled symphysis, terminated by a 
predentary bone. Teeth (fig. 37) in a single row, with obtuse 
subtriangular crowns, having (at least usually) serrations on the 
borders and vertical ridges on the outer surface, and being worn 
more or less horizontally by use. Cervical vertebrao usually opistho- 
and dorsals amphiccelous ; anterior and middle dorsals with either 
tall or low arches, wide neural canal, and deep pits in front of post- 
zygapophyses ; their centra more or less compressed laterally, and 



192 DINOSATJEIA. 

generally with a haemal carina in the anterior part of the series ; 
posterior dorsals and lumbars with rounded centra, low arches, and 
less distinct post-zygapophysial pits ; each sacral arch supported 
by two centra; anterior caudals short, with vertical diameter. of 
centrum slightly exceeding transverse, posterior ones with longer 
and compressed centra; rib-facets in anterior and middle dorsals 
placed on the arch at foot of transverse process. Sternal (?) bones 

Kg. 36. 




1 dispar, Marsh. — The left side of the pelvis. Upper Jurassic, 
North America, -i-. (From the ' Amer. Journ.') 

12 v ' 

typically hatchet- shaped, with obliquely directed processes. Limb- 
bones hollow ; scapula (fig. 44) with small glenoidal expansion ; 
coracoid (fig. 45) with descending process ; humerus long and 
slender, with small terminal expansions, distinct head, angulated 
shaft, and prominent condyles. Ilium with postacetabular portion 
moderately long, and preacetabular portion usually long, slender, and 
laterally compressed (fig. 39), but occasionally very short (fig. 36), 
without inner horizontal plate; pubis slender, sometimes shorter 
than ischium ; ischium long, more or less slender, with a distal 
expansion ; femur with large inner trochanter, and either slightly 
longer or shorter than tibia, which is considerably longer than, 
humerus ; metatarsals more or less elongated and mutually inter- 
locking ; three or four digits in pes, wbich is digitigrade. Dermal 
armour generally absent, and never with spines. 

1 Originally Camptonotus, but altered by its founder (Marsh) in ' Amer. 
Journ.' ser. 3, vol. xxix. p. 169. 



IG [JANODONTIDiB. 193 

Genus HYPSILOPHODON, Huxley 1 . 

Premaxilla with teeth; orbits regular, with bony plates in 
sclerotic. Cervical vertebrae opisthocoelous ; dorsals amphicoelous 
and moderately compressed ; sacrals somewhat compressed, rounded 
inferiorly. Scapula distally expanded ; manus with first digit 
normal. Ilium with long preacetabular process, and postacetabular 
portion deep, with squared termination ; shaft of pubis com- 
paratively broad, and as long as ischium ; ischium with hammer- 
shaped head, and moderately long and broad shaft, which is not 
twisted. Eemur shorter than tibia ; metatarsals long and slender ; 
pes with four functional digits, of which the terminal digits are 
curved and laterally compressed. Dollo (< Comptes Eendus,' vol. cvi. 
p. 775, 1888) describes the sternum as rhomboidal, and makes this 
genus the type of a family. 

Hypsilophodon fox!, Huxley 2 . 

Syn. Iguanodon foxi, Owen 3 . 

The type species. Usually of small size, the length of a skeleton 
of average dimensions being about four feet. Five sacral vertebrae ; 
inner trochanter of femur in upper third of the shaft. 

Hah. Europe (England). 

All the following specimens are from the Wealden ; and, unless it is 
stated to the contrary, were obtained from the Isle of Wight, and 
belong to the Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

R. 196 a. The nearly entire skeleton, in a block of sandstone ; from 
{Fig.) Cowleaze Chine, near Brixton. Eigured by Hulke in the 

' Phil. Trans/ 1882, pi. lxxii. fig. 2 (mandible), pi. lxxv. 

(vertebrse and pelvis), and pi. lxxix. figs. 2, 3 (pectoral 

limb). 

R. 196. Slab showing portions of vertebral column and of pelvic 
girdle and limbs ; from Cowleaze Chine. 

R. 193. Hinder half of thoracic region of the vertebral column and 
anterior half of caudal ditto, with the pelvis and right 
hind limb. 

39460-1. Slab with the greater part of the vertebral column and 

(Fig.) some of the limb-bones ; from Cowleaze Chine. Figured 

by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck lleptilia ' (Mon. 

Pal. Soc), pt. ii. pi. i. (1855), as Iguanodon; described by 

Hulke, op. cit. p. 1044, three cervical vertebrae being 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 3 (1870). 2 Loc. cit 

3 Ibid. vol. xxix. p. 531 (1873). 



194 DINOSAUKIA. 

figured by him in pi. lxxiv. figs. 1, 2. The latter are also 
figured by Mantell in the 'Phil. Trans.' 1849, pi. xxix. 
fig. 9. Mantell and Bowerbank Collections l . 

R. 192. Portion of skeleton, showing vertebrae, the right pectoral 
{Fig.) girdle, and imperfect humerus; from Cowleaze Chine. 
Figured by Hulke, op. cit. pi. lxxiii. 

R. 197. The imperfect skull and mandible ; from Cowleaze Chine. 
(Fig.) The type ; figured by Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xxvi. pi. i. figs. 1-5. 

R. 189. Part of the right ramus of the mandible ; from Cowleaze 
(Fig.) Chine. Figured by Owen, op. cit. suppl. ii. pi. ii. figs. 8-11 
(1874). 

R. 191. A tooth ; from Cowleaze Chine. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. ii. figs. 12-15. 

R. 190. An imperfect mandibular ramus, with two associated 

(Fig.) posterior caudal vertebrae and several ribs. Figured 

by Owen, op. cit. pp. 12, 13, woodcuts, figs. 1, 2. 

R. 202 a. An imperfect dorsal vertebra; from Cowleaze Chine. 

R. 183. An ulna. 

R. 194. The imperfect pelvis and bones of the hind limb ; from 
Cowleaze Chine. 

R. 195. The lumbar and sacral regions of the vertebral column, 

(Fig.) with the associated ischia ; from Cowleaze Chine. Fi- 
gured by Hulke, op. cit. pi. lxxviii. figs. 1-5. 

R. 192 a. The left femur ; from Cowleaze Chine. Figured by 
(Fig.) Hulke, op. cit. pi. lxxviii. figs. 1-5. 

R. 184-5. The associated right and left femora of a smaller in- 
dividual. 

36509. The distal half of a right femur ; from Cuckfield, Sussex. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 199. The right tibia. Figured by Hulke, vp. cit. pi. lxxx. fig. 2, 

(Fig.) and pi. lxxxi. fig. 1. 

R. 752. A smaller left tibia. 

R. 170. The proximal half of a very similar right tibia. 

R. 186. A still smaller left tibia ; apparently associated with the 
femora Nos. R. 184-5. 

R. 200. The left pes ; from Cowleaze Chine. Figured by Hulke, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxxi. fig. 3. 

1 One half of the slab belonged to each. 



IGUANODONTIDiE. 



195 



From its superior size the following specimen may indicate a 
distinct species. 

R. 167. A left femur, imperfect at the extremities. 

Genus IGUANODON, Mantell \ 

Including Cumnoria, Seeley 2 . 

Premaxilla edentulous ; maxillary and mandibular teeth (fig. 37) 
with marginal and sometimes lateral serrations; orbits (fig. 41) 
irregular, and apparently no sclerotic ossifications. Cervical, and 
apparently the first dorsal, vertebras opisthoccelous ; the others 

Fi- 37. 





Iguanodon, sp. — Lateral (A) and profile (B) views of a lower tooth ; from 
the English Wealden. \. 

amphiccelous ; sacrals either compressed or inferiorly flattened, four 
to five in number. Manus with first digit modified into a conical 
spine. Ilium (figs. 39 & 46) with long preacetabular process, and 
postacetabular portion either rounded or pointed posteriorly ; ischium 
in some instances longer than slender pubis. Femur longer than 
tibia ; three digits in pes, with short and stout metatarsals and 
phalangeals, the terminal joints being very broad and depressed. 

a. Proiguanodont Group. 

Anterior dorsal vertebras with arches moderately or very tall, and 
centra of these and middle dorsals less compressed and more wedge- 



1 Phil. Trans. 1825, p. 184. 

2 Kep. Brit. Assoc, for 1887, p. 698 (1888). 



o2 



196 DINOSAUEIA. 

shaped in section than in the Euiguanodont group ; sacrals with 
flattened haemal surfaces. 

In the one species in which the pelvis (fig. 39) is known, the 
ilium has its postacetabular portion long, deep, and rounded 
terminally, without inflexion of the superior border; the ischium 
has a hammer-shaped head, of which the pubic process is separated 
by a long notch from the obturator process ; the shaft is without 
twist, stout, and moderate in length. 

This group connects Hypsilophodon and Camjptosaurus with the 
Euiguanodont group. 

Iguanodon prestwichi, Hulke 1 . 
Syn. Cumnoria prestwichi, Seeley 2 . 

Typically of very small size. The arches of the anterior dorsal 
vertebrae tall, with the rib-facet not extending to the summit of the 
platform ; four sacral vertebrae. Teeth simpler than in the Euigua- 
nodont group. Pelvis and limbs imperfectly known. 

Hah. Europe (England). 

R. 716-8. Casts of the calcaneum and astragalus. The originals, 
which belong to the type skeleton, were obtained from the 
Kimeridge Clay of Cumnor-Hurst, Oxfordshire, and are 
preserved in the Museum at Oxford ; they are figured by 
Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvi. pi. xx. 
figs. 3-5. Made in the Museum, 1880. 

\ Iguanodon dawsoni, Lydekker 3 . 

Typically intermediate in size between /. mantelli and I. bernis- 
sartensis. Arches of anterior and middle dorsal vertebrae lower than 
in /. prestiuichi, and the rib-facet rising to summit of platform; 
probably five vertebrae in sacrum; spines of caudals very long. 
Preacetabular process of pubis narrow. The scapula provisionally 
referred is relatively wide. 

Hah. Europe (England). 

All the following specimens are from the Wadhurst Clay, or Lower 
Wealden, and belong to the Daivson Collection. Purchased, 

1884-87. 

R. 798. A (probably) middle dorsal vertebra ; from near Hastings, 
{Fig.) Sussex. One of the types ; described and figured by the 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 433 (1880). 

2 Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1887, p. 698 (1888). 

3 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xliv. p. 51 (1888). 



IGUANODONTID^. 



197 



writer in the * Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.' vol. xliv. p. 47, 
fig. 1 ; the figure being reproduced in the accompanying 
woodcut. The length of the centrum is 0,120, the vertical 
diameter of its anterior face 0,110, the transverse 0,118, 
and the total height of the specimen 0,447. The position 
of the rib-facet is like that in the vertebra of Spheno- 
spondylus (fig. 47). 

Fig. 38. 




Iguanodon dawsoni. — Left lateral aspect of middle dorsa vertebra ; from the 
Wadhurst Clay of Hastings. About \. b, rib-facet ; tp, transverse process ; 
pr.z, and pt.z, pre- and postzygapopbyses. 



R. 798 a. A posterior dorsal or lumbar vertebra, associated with the 
preceding. The posterior surface of the centrum is much 
larger than the anterior, and is distinctly concave, while 
there is a well-marked hrenial carina which is wanting in 



198 DINOSAUEIA. 

No. R. 798. This specimen closely resembles the lumbar 
vertebra of I. prestwichi, figured by Hulke in the ' Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc' vol xxxvi. pi. xix. figs. 6-8. 

R. 803, 804, 805. Three trunk vertebrae, associated with the pre- 
ceding. 

R. 806. The proximal portion of a chevron-bone of the same 
individual. 

R. 798 b. A numerous series of trunk and caudal vertebrae, associated 
with the preceding. In one of the larger caudals the 
length of the centrum is 0,138, and the vertical diameter 
of its anterior face 0,143. 

R. 604. A series of more or less imperfect trunk and caudal ver- 
tebrae, apparently belonging to the same individual as the 
ischia No. R. 811, and, if so, referable to this species. 
One of the anterior dorsals (No. 1) has the arch as high as 
in the corresponding vertebra of I. mantelli, No. 2137, but 
the centrum is relatively longer and more decidedly wedge- 
shaped in section. In a middle dorsal (No. 2) the rib- 
facet rises to near the summit of the platform. In an 
anterior caudal (No. 3), which may be the second or third 
in the series, the length of the centrum is 0,087, the 
vertical diameter of its anterior face 0,135, and the trans- 
verse 0,160 ; there is a small chevron-facet on the posterior 
face. In a more posterior, but still early, caudal vertebra 
(No. 4) the length of the neural spine is rather more than 
three times the vertical diameter of the centrum, in which 
the chevron-facets are large and encroach to a great extent 
upon the haemal surface. 

R. 604 a. A series of imperfect ribs, apparently associated with 
No. R. 604. 

R. 802. The left ilium, wanting the extremity of the preacetabular 
(Fig.) process, and the associated acetabular portion of the pubis 
of the same side ; associated with the vertebra No. R. 798. 
These specimens are two of the types, and are figured by 
the writer, op. cit. p. 49, fig. 2, in conjunction with the 
ischium No. R. 811, the pubis being restored from that 
of Camptosaurvs ; this figure is reproduced in fig. 39. The 
length of the ilium to the point of fracture is 0,830, and 
its greatest depth posteriorly 0,260 ; the pubis differs 



IGUANODONTID^]. 



199 



from that of /. bemissartensis by the greater vertical 
depth of the preacetabular portion. 

Pig. 39. 



,'-" 




Iguanodon dawsoni. — The left side of the pelvis ; from the Wadhurst Clay of 
Hastings. About T ] T . H, ilium ; Is, ischium ; P, pubis ; a, obturator 
process. The descending part of the pubis is conjectural. 

R. 811. The imperfect centra of the sacrum and the associated 
(Fig.) ischia ; from Hastings, and apparently associated with the 
vertebrae "No. E. 640. There are five sacral vertebrae 
anchylosed together, which have flattened haemal surfaces. 
The left ischium, which has been described by the writer, 
op. cit. p. 50, is represented in fig. 39 ; its total length is 
0,870 (36-5 inches). Apart from the evidence of the 
vertebrae, the fact that the ischium agrees in relative size 
with the type ilium, and comes from the same horizon, 
leaves little doubt as to its specific identity. The resem- 
blance of these bones to the ischia of Camptosaurus and 
Hypsilopliodon renders it probable that the pubis was of 
the elongated type of these genera. 

It. 811 a. The imperfect right pubis, apparently associated with the 



200 DLNOSATJR1A. 

ischium No. R. 811. This specimen appears to accord 
very closely with the pubis of No. R. 802 ; and is deeper 
in advance of the acetabulum than in I. bernissartensis. 

R. 802 a. The proximal portion of the right tibia, associated with 
he ilium No. R. 802. The transverse diameter of the 
head is 0,380 (13 inches). 

R. 799. A second left metatarsal, apparently associated with the 
type ilium; noticed by the writer, op. cit. p. 50 (as 
No. R. 999). 

R. 800. The proximal extremity of the second right metatarsal of 
the same individual. 

R. 801. A larger crushed metatarsal, probably belonging to the 
third digit of the same individual. 

R. 966. A left scapula, provisionally referred to this form; from 
near Hastings. This specimen is noticed by the writer, 
op. cit. p. 51 ; it differs from the scapula of /. bernissar- 
tensis, figured by Dollo in the ' Bull. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. 
Belg.' vol. i. pi. ix., by the straighter anterior border, and the 
greater expansion of the distal extremity. It is remark- 
able for having a puncture on its outer surface, which 
appears to have been formed by the carpal spine of a 
male, and would thus indicate that the specimen belongs to 
a female ; it shows a facet on the anterior extremity of 
the proximal extension, which may have borne a carti- 
laginous process. 

The following specimen is from the Upper Wealden, and may 
perhaps belong to this form. 

R. 136. The centrum and part of the arch of a posterior dorsal or 
lumbar vertebra ; from the Isle of Wight. Noticed by 
the writer, op. cit. p. 51 ; although slightly larger this 
specimen agrees very closely with the dorsal vertebra 
No. R. 798 a. Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

b. Euiguanodont Group. 

The anterior dorsal vertebra) with very tall arches, their rib- 
facets vertically elongated and not reaching the platform, and 
their centra greatly compressed, short, and tall ; sacrals laterally 
compressed. Teeth with complex lateral serrations, and one of the 



IGUANODONTIDiE. 201 

lateral ridges also serrated. Ilium (fig. 46) with postacetabular 
portion tapering to a point ; ischium very long and slender, with 
short head, small notch between latter and obturator process, and 
shaft twisted, with small distal expansion ; pubis shorter thau 
ischium. 

Iguanodon bernissartensis, Boulcnger 1 . 

Syn. Iguanodon seelyi, Hulke 2 . 

(?) Streptospondylus major, Owen 3 . 

Larger and stouter than type species ; typically total length from 
8,000 to 10,000 (33 feet) 4 . Cranium (fig. 40) 0,650 in length, 
relatively broad ; nares shorter and wider than in I. mantelli, their 

Fig-. 40. 




Iguanodon bernissartensis. — The skeleton ; from the Wealden of Belgium. 
About T V- The scale indicates metres. 

(Reduced from the figure published by M. L. Dollo, Bull. Mus. Boy. 
Hist. Nat. Belg. 1883, t. ii. pi. v.) 

length being one third that of the mandible ; orbit with vertical 
diameter longer than transverse; supratemporal fossa broad and 
angulated. Anterior dorsal vertebrae with very tall arches, in which 

1 Bull. Ac. R. Bclg. ser. 3, vol. i. p. (50(5 (1881). 

2 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxviii. p. 135 (1882). 

3 Eep. Brit. Assoc, for 1841, p. 91 (1842). 

4 Some of the following dimensions arc exceeded by specimens in the 
Museum. 



202 



DINOSAUEIA. 



the vertically elongated rib-facet does not reach the platform. 
Six vertebse in sacrum. Scapula stout and short, its length (0,900) 
=six times its width ; coracoid typically long and narrow, with 
fontanelle forming a notch, but apparently in some instances wider, 
with complete foramen ; humerus long (0,800) ; metacarpals short 
and squared. Ilium with preacetabular process = one third entire 
length (1,150), and postacctabular portion long ; pubis with preace- 
tabular process long, thick, and nearly straight (width at extremity 
0,170) ; femur with inner trochanter in lower third of shaft (length 
1,080) ; tibia relatively short (length 0,840). 
Bab. Europe (England and Belgium). 

All the following specimens are from the Wealden. 
R. 99. Fragment from the posterior and basal part of a cranium, 
probably belonging to this species ; from the Isle of Wight. 
Fox Collection. Purchased. ]882. 




bermssartensis 



-Lateral view of skull : 
Belgium, f. 



from the Wealden of 



R. 100. Another basicranial fragment, of similar dimensions ; from 
the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

28670. Fragment of the hinder portion of a right maxilla, probably 

(Fig.) belonging to this species ; from Brook, Isle of Wight. 

Figured by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck Rcptilia' 

(Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ii. pi. xiii. figs. 3, 4 (185,5). This 

specimen has been transversely bisected. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 



IGUANODONTID^. 203 

R. 101. Fragment of the left maxilla, showing some imperfect teeth 
in their alveoli ; from the Isle of Wight. Fox Collection. 

R. 102 x. The predentary bone ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Same history. 

28660. The nearly entire dentary bone of the right ramus of the 
{Fig.) mandible, with one tooth remaining in dlveolo ; from 
Cuckfield, Sussex. Discovered by Major Lambart Brick- 
enden about 1848 ; figured by Mantell in the ' Phil. 
Trans.' 1848, pi. xvi., and his ' Petrifactions and their 
Teachings,' p. 243, fig. 3, and also by Owen in his ' Weal- 
den and Purbeck Reptilia' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ii. pi. xiii. 
fig. 1 (1855), In size this specimen agrees precisely with 
the mandible of the skull figured by Dollo in the ' Bull. 
Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg.' vol. ii. pi. ix., of which a reduced 
reproduction is given in fig. 41. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

28662. Fragment of the dentary of a similar right mandibular 
ramus ; from the Isle of Wight. Portions of two teeth 
remain in alveolo. Same history. 

R. 105. An imperfect right articular, probably belonging to this 
{Fig.) species ; from the Isle of Wight. Figured by Hulke in 
the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxiv. pp. 745-6, 
woodcuts figs. 1-4. It agrees very closely with the arti- 
cular of the mandible figured by Dollo, op. cit. pi. ix. fig. 4. 

Fox Collection. 

R. 105 a. Two specimens of the imperfect right articular of rather 
smaller individuals, belonging either to this or the fol- 
lowing species ; from the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

Of the following cervical vertebrce some of the smaller may belong 
to I. dawsoni. 
28637. A slightly imperfect cervical vertebra ; from the Isle of 
Wight. This specimen appears to have been associated 
with the Mantellian dorsals. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

37688. An imperfect cervical vertebra; from Sandown Bay, Isle of 
Wight. Said Collection. Purchased, 1863. 

R. 91. A considerably larger imperfect cervical vertebra, much 
obscured by matrix ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Fox Collection. 



204 DINOSATJKIA. 

R. 92. A still larger imperfect cervical vertebra ; from the Isle of 
"Wight. The transverse diameter of the posterior cup of 
the centrum is 0,203. Fox Collection. 

R. 1011. The centrum and part of the arch of a cervical vertebra, 
agreeing approximately in size with No. 28637 ; locality 
unknown. No history. 

28961. The rolled centrum of a smaller cervical vertebra, which 

has been longitudinally bisected ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

47400. The centrum and part of the arch of a smaller cervical ver- 
tebra, not improbably belonging to a young or female 
individual of this species ; from the Isle of Wight. This 
specimen is considerably larger than the cervicals of 
No. R. 33. Purchased, 1876. 

47400 a. The crushed centrum of a similar cervical vertebra ; from 
the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

R. 702. The centrum of a similar vertebra ; from Brixton Bay. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

2116. A crushed cervical vertebra, agreeing approximately in size 
{Fig.) with the preceding ; from Cuckfield. One of the types of 

Streptospondylus major. Described by Owen in the * Rep. 

Brit. Assoc.' for 1841, p. 92, and figured in his ' Wealden 

and Purbeck Reptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), Suppl. ii. pi. vi. 

fig. 1 (1859), under that name. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

28639. A similar cervical vertebra ; from the Isle of Wight. Figured 
(Fig.) by Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1849, pi. xxviii. fig. 4 
(as Iguanodon), and by Owen, op. cit. pi. v. fig. 1, and 
pi. vi. figs. 1-3 (as Streptospondylus major). 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 706. An imperfect vertebra, which may perhaps be a late cervical 
of this form ; from the Isle of Wight. The zygapophyses 
are broken away, there is a tall neural spine, and the cen- 
trum is cylindrical and strongly opisthoccelous. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

28508. An imperfect vertebra of similar type ; from Sussex. 

Dixon Collection. Purchased, 1851. 



IGTTANODONTID-E. 



205 



28674. An imperfect vertebra which may be the first dorsal of the 
{Fig.) present form ; from the Isle of Wight. Figured by Owen, 
op. cit. pi. vi. fig. 5, as Streptosjiondylus major. This 
large vertebra is strongly opisthoccelous ; but in the general 
contour of the centrum it accords so closely with the fol- 
lowing specimens that there is every probability of its 
belonging to the same species. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

28629. An anterior dorsal vertebra ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Same history. 



Fig. 42. 





dorsal vertebra 
Geol. Soc.') 



-Posterior and left lateral views of an anterior 
from the Isle of Wight. ^. (From the ' Quart. Journ. 



28630. An apparently associated dorsal vertebra; from the Isle of 
(Fig.) Wight. Figured by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck 
Keptilia' (Hon. Pal. Soc), suppl. ii. pi. vii. fig. 46, and 
by Seeley in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix. 
p. 61 (as /. mantelli), the latter figure being reproduced 
in fig. 42. The height of the posterior face of the centrum 
is 0,200. Same history. 



206 DINOSATJKIA. 

R. 704. An anterior dorsal vertebra ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

28931. An anterior dorsal vertebra; from the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

28932. A similar vertebra; from the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

R. 106. An anterior or middle dorsal vertebra ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Fox Collection. 

R. 106 a. A similar and apparently associated dorsal vertebra ; from 
the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

R. 106 "b. An apparently associated dorsal vertebra ; from the Isle 
of Wight. Same history. 

R. 106 C. An imperfect dorsal vertebra, apparently associated with 
the preceding. Same history. 

28630 a. An imperfect middle dorsal vertebra ; from the Isle of 

(Fig.) Wight. Figured by Manteil in the 'Phil. Trans/ 1849, 

pi. xxix. fig. 8. Manteil Collection. 

R. 106 d. The centrum and part of the arch of an anterior dorsal 
vertebra ; from the Isle of Wight. Fox Collection. 

46292. The centrum of an anterior dorsal vertebra ; dredged off the 
Eastern Coast. Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

28665. A posterior dorsal vertebra, wanting the zygapophyses and 

(Fig.) the extremities of the transverse processes ; from the Isle 

of Wight. The rib-facets form " steps " on the transverse 

processes. Figured by Manteil in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1849, 

pi. xxix. fig. 9. Manteil Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

2115. The imperfect centrum of a posterior dorsal or lumbar ver- 
tebra ; from Cuckfield, Sussex. Noticed by Owen in the 
' Rep. Brit. Assoc' for 1841, p. 97, as Cetiosaurus brevis, 
but referred to the present genus by Melville in the 
' Phil. Trans.' for 1849, p. 293. 

Manteil Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2133. The centrum and part of the arch of a posterior dorsal or 
lumbar vertebra ; from Cuckfield. Noticed by Owen, 
op. cit. p. 96, as Cetiosaurus, but referred to Iguanodon 
by Melville, op. cit. p. 293. Same history. 

R. 1010. A posterior dorsal or lumbar vertebra which has been 
(Fig.) longitudinally bisected ; from the Isle of Wight. This 






IGTJANODONTID^;. 207 

specimen is distinctly proccelous, like some of the lumbars 
of /. prestwichi ; it is figured by Owen in his i Wealden 
and Purbeck Eeptilia,' snppl. ii. pi. ix., as Cetiosaurus 
brevis, and erroneously stated to be the specimen from 
Culver Cliff noticed by him in the ' Eep. Brit. Assoc' for 
1841, p. 94, under that name. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

28508. A posterior dorsal or lumbar vertebra, wanting the greater 
portion of the neural spine ; probably from the Isle of 
Wight. Dixon Collection. 

28635. A somewhat larger posterior dorsal or lumbar vertebra, 
{Fig.) wanting the summit of the neural spine ; from Brook. 
This and other vertebrae from the same locality appear to 
have been associated with the coracoid No. 28643 ; they 
were referred in MS. by Mantell to Pelorosaurus, an iden- 
tification which, although apparently subsequently aban- 
doned by him, was followed to a certain extent by Owen. 
The present specimen is figured by the latter writer in his 
' Weald en and Purbeck Eeptilia,' suppl. ii. pi. viii., as 
Cetiosaurus, while on p. 37 of the same work it is referred 
to Pelorosaurus, without any reference to its being the 
specimen figured under the former name. In general 
contour this specimen presents a striking resemblance to 
the lumbar vertebra of /. prestwichi figured by Hulke in 
the ' Quart. Journ. Geo!. Soc' vol. xxxvi. pi. xix. figs. 6-8. 
Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

28634. A similar vertebra; from Brook. Noticed by Owen, op. cit. 
p. 37, as Pelorosaurus. Same history. 

28654. A similar vertebra ; from Brook. Noticed by Owen, op. cit. 
p. 37, as Pelorosaurus. Same histoi-y. 

28657. A similar vertebra ; from Brook. Noticed by Owen, op>. cit. 
p. 37, as Pelorosaurus. Same history. 

R. 137. Two vertebrae of similar type ; from the Isle of Wight. 
The neural spines are imperfect. Fox Collection. 

R. 107. An imperfect posterior dorsal or lumbar vertebra : from the 
Isle of Wight. Same history. 

28683. The neural arch of a trunk vertebra ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Mantell Collection. 



208 DINOSATJEIA. 

28659. The proximal portion of a rib ; from Brook. Apparently 
(Fig.) the, one figured by Owen in his * Wealden and Purbeck 
Eeptilia/ pt. ii. pi. ii. fig. 9. Appears to have been asso- 
ciated with the vertebrae of the same collection. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

28659 a. Portion of a somewhat larger rib, apparently associated 
with the preceding. Same 



28659 b. A similar and apparently associated specimen. 

Same history. 

39555. The proximal extremity of a very large rib : from the Isle 
of Wight. Presented by E. Backhouse, Esq., 1866. 

28628. Anterior portion of the sacrum ; from the Isle of Wight. 
This specimen appears to have been associated with the 
above-mentioned posterior dorsal or lumbar vertebrae of 
the Mantell Collection. Three anchylosed vertebrae remain, 
of which the first is somewhat flattened inferiorly, while 
the others are laterally compressed, although to a some- 
what less extent than in J. mantelli. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

28631. Part of the sacrum ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Same history. 

28689. The centrum of a sacral vertebra, not improbably belonging 
to this genus and species ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Same history. 

R. 148. The centrum and base of the arch of a sacral vertebra, 
perhaps belonging to this form ; from the Isle of Wight. 
This specimen belongs to a different part of the sacrum 
from the preceding. Fox Collection. 

28633. An anterior caudal vertebra, wanting the extremity of the 
(Fig.) neural spine ; from Brook. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
pi. xi., as Pelorosaurus, and erroneously stated to be 
from Sussex. The length of the centrum superiorly is 
0,102, its vertical diameter 0,225, and the transverse 
0,198. These dimensions are slightly larger than those of 
the caudal vertebra (fig. 43) described and figured by 



IGTTAKODONTID-E. 209 

Hulke, op. cit. pp. 141-143, who pointed out the resem- 
blance. The present specimen exhibits very clearly the 
reduction of the haemal surface by the encroachment of 
the chevron-facets, of which the posterior is much the 
larger. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

Fig. 43. 



Iguanodon bemissartensis. — Oblique anterior view of an imperfect anterior 
caudal vertebra ; from the Wealclen of Brook. About J. 



28627. An anterior caudal vertebra, wanting the extremities of the 
transverse processes ; from Brook. The length of the 
neural spine is twice the vertical diameter of the centrum. 

Same history. 

28656. A similar vertebra, wanting the extremities of the transverse 
processes ; from Brook. Same history. 

28655. The centrum of a similar vertebra ; from Brook. 

Same history. 

28667. The chevron of an anterior caudal vertebra ; from Brook. 
This specimen agrees closely with the type specimen de- 
scribed by Hulke, op. cit. p. 142 ; the length of the forked 
portion being 0,125, and that of the entire bone about 
0,400. Same history. 

v 



210 DINOSATJBIA. 

28668. An imperfect chevron of an anterior caudal vertebra ; from 
Brook. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

Of the following caudals some may belong to I. dawsoni. 

46014. The centrum of a later caudal vertebra; from Sandown, 
Isle of Wight. Purchased, 1874. 

R. 145. The centrum of two middle caudal vertebrae ; from the Isle 
of Wight. Fox Collection. 

R. 145 a. The centrum and base of the arch of a middle caudal 
vertebra ; from the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

R. 145 b. The centrum and base of the arch of a middle caudal 
vertebra ; from the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

R. 145 C. The centrum and base of the arch of a smaller middle 
caudal vertebra ; from the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

R. 145 d. A very similar specimen ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Same history. 

R. 145 e. An imperfect middle caudal vertebra ; from the Isle of 
Wight. This specimen closely resembles the caudals of 
I. dawsoni. Same history. 

37691. The rolled centrum and arch of a middle caudal vertebra; 
from the Isle of Wight. Saul Collection. Purchased, 1863. 

28638. A smaller entire middle caudal vertebra ; from Brook Point. 

Mantell Collection. 

R. 712 b. An imperfect middle caudal vertebra; from Brixton Bay. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

R. 1018 a. An imperfect posterior caudal vertebra probably refer- 
able to this species ; from Hastings. Probably belongs 
to the same individual as the phalangeal No. R. 1018. 

No history, 

R. 712 c. An imperfect middle caudal vertebra of a very large indi- 
vidual ; from Sandown Bay. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

R. 145 f. An imperfect middle caudal vertebra ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Fox Collection. 



IGFANODONTIDjE. 



211 



43502. An imperfect middle caudal vertebra ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Purchased, 1872. 

R. 145 g. Two associated middle caudal vertebrae ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Fox Collection. 

28643. The somewhat imperfect left coracoid ; from the Isle of Wight. 
This specimen, which was associated with the ilium 
No. 28685, agrees with the corresponding bone of the 
Belgian example figured by Dollo in the ' Bull. Mus. E. 
Hist. Nat. Belg.' vol. i. pi. ix., showing the same narrow 
contour and the presence of a notch instead of a foramen. 
Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 1012. A left scapula wanting the distal extremity, provisionally 
{Fig.) referred to this species ; from the Isle of Wight. This 
specimen (fig. 44) is noticed by the writer, op. cit. p. 52 ; 
it differs from the scapula of the Belgian skeleton figured 
by Dollo in the ' Bull. Mus. B. Hist. Nat, Belg.' vol. i. 
pi. ix., by its greater curvature. The transverse diameter 
at the glenoid expansion is 0,364 (14*5 inches), and 



Fig. 44. 




? Iguanodon bernissartensis.— The left scapula ; from the Isle of Wight. About 
A- g, glenoid cavity. 

immediately above 0,228 (9 inches). The left coracoid 
(fig. 45) from Brook, figured by Seeley in the ' Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii. pp. 367-371, figs. 1-3, and 
provisionally referred to Orniihopsis, is certainly an Igua- 
nodont, and from its great size probably belongs to the 
same form as the scapula ; it is wider than the coracoid of 
the Belgian skeleton figured by Dollo, op. cit., and has a 

p2 



212 



DINOSATJKIA. 



complete foramen. The scapula appears from its condition 
to be from the same beds as some of the above-mentioned 



Fig. 45. 




-The left coracoid ; from the Wealden of Brook. 
\. a, glenoid cavity ; b, scapular articulation ; c, anterior border ; d, fora- 
men ; e, descending process. (From the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.') 



vertebrae, which would suggest that these variations are 
of not more than individual or sexual value. 

Mantell Collection. 

32913. The proximal half of a rather larger left scapula, wanting 
part of the anterior border of the glenoid expansion ; from 
the Isle of "Wight. Noticed by the writer, op. cit. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

28642. The proximal half of a much smaller left scapula of similar 
type ; from the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

R. 117. The proximal extremity of the left humerus of a very large 
individual ; from the Isle of Wight. The greatest trans- 
verse diameter is 0,320. Fox Collection, 






IGTTANODONTID^. 213 

R. 159. The crushed proximal extremity of a rather smaller right 
humerus ; from the Isle of Wight. Fox Collection. 

R. 844. Cast of a considerably smaller right humerus. The original 
was obtained from the Isle of Wight, and was formerly in 
the collection of Mr. Fowlstone, of Ryde ; it is figured by 
Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1849, pi. xxxi. fig. 19 ; it is 
slightly smaller than the humerus figured by Dollo, op. cit. 
pi. i. fig. 3. The shaft has been fractured in several places 
and naturally re-cemented. Made in the Museum. 

31815. The distal extremity of the left humerus ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 140. The left ulna ; from the Isle of Wight. Agrees with the 
corresponding bone of Dollo's figure (op. cit.). 

Fox Collection. 

R. 132-3. The proximal phalangeals of the second and third digits 
and the fourth metacarpal of the left manus, provisionally 
referred to a small individual of this species ; from the Isle 
of Wight. The metacarpal is much shorter than that of 
/. mantelli, and thereby agrees with the corresponding 
bone of the present species figured by Dollo, op. cit. 

Fox Collection. 

28685. The anterior half of the right ilium, wanting the extremity 

of the preacetabular process ; from Brook. Associated 
with the coracoid No. 28643 ; agrees precisely with the 
corresponding part of the ilium figured by Hulke in the 
< Quart. lourn. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii. pi. iv. fig. 1, of 
which a reproduction is given in woodcut fig. 46 (the 
pubis and ischium being incorrect). Mantell Collection. 

28686. The hinder part of the same ilium. This specimen shows 

a well-marked longitudinal ridge in the middle of the outer 
surface which is not represented in the specimen figured 
by Hulke. Same history. 

28658. The left ischium, imperfect superiorly and wanting the 
distal extremity ; from Brook. This specimen appears to 
have belonged to the same individual as the preceding • 
the twisting of the shaft characteristic of the group is well 
shown. Same history. 

46016. The distal extremity of the left ischium ; from Sandown. 
One anglo of the extremity is broken off ; when entire the 
greatest distal width was about 0,190. Purchased, 1874. 



214 



DINOSAUKTA. 



Fig. 46. 




Iguanodon bemissartensis. — Eestoration of the left ilium and hind limb ; from 
the Wealden of the Isle of Wight. About fo. (From the ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc.') 



R. 169. An imperfect left ischium perhaps belonging to an imma- 
ture individual of this species ; from the Isle of Wight. 
Although considerably smaller than JSTo. 28658, this spe- 
cimen appears too large for 1. mantelli. Fox Collection. 

46727. Cast of the imperfect left pubis. The original was obtained 
from the Isle of Wight, and was formerly in the collection 
of the late Dr. Wilkins, of Newport ; the extremity of 
the preacetabular process and the greater portion of the 
shaft are wanting, while the acetabular margin is imper- 
fect it is figured by Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 



IGUANODONTmE. 215 

Soc' vol. xxx. pi. xxxii. figs. 3, 4, as a Dinosaurian ilium, 
but was identified by the same writer in vol. xxxii. p. 364 
as a pubis of the present genus. It accords closely with 
Dollo's figure of the Belgian form. Made in the Museum. 

2675. The middle of the right femur of a very large individual ; 
from the Isle of Wight. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2649. The somewhat imperfect left femur of a smaller individual ; 
from the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

2152. The imperfect right femur of a still smaller individual; from 
Cuckfield. Same history. 

10443. The middle portion of a left femur, agreeing in size with 
No. 2649 ; from Cuckfield. Noticed in MantelTs 4 Petri- 
factions/ p. 294 (as No. 4). 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 701. The distal extremity of the left tibia, with the imperfect 
astragalus attached ; from Brixton Bay, Isle of Wight. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

R. 168. An imperfect fibula, wanting both extremities, not impro- 
bably belonging to this species ; from the Isle of Wight. 
A fracture in the shaft has been polished in order to show 
the medullary cavity. Fox Collection. 

R. 1109. Cast of the left hind foot. The original, which is one of 
the types of I. seelyi, was obtained from Brook, and is in 
the collection of Mr. J. W. Hulke, by whom it is figured in 
pi. iv. fig. 5 of the memoir already cited; a more reduced 
figure is given in woodcut fig. 46 of this volume. 

Made in the Museum. 

2537. The second right metatarsal of a slightly smaller individual ; 

{Fig.) from Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in his ' Fossils of 
Tilgate Forest,' pi. xv. fig. 8, and in the ' Phil. Trans.' 
1841, pi. ix. fig. 2. This and the next bone agree very 
closely with the corresponding bone of /. dawsoni (No. 
R. 799), but show slight differences in contour, on which 
account they are provisionally referred to the present 
species. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 



216 DINOSAURIA. 

R. 132 a. A similar metatarsal of the opposite side ; from the Isle 

of Wight. Fox Collection, 

28652. The distal extremity of the third right metatarsal ; from the 
Isle of Wight. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

28644. The third left metatarsal ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Same history. 

28645. The fourth right metatarsal : from the Isle of Wight. This 

and the two preceding specimens may very probably have 
belonged to a single individual. Same history. 

2553. Cast of the proximal phalangeal of the second digit of the 
left pes. The original was obtained from Sandown, Isle 
of Wight, and is probably preserved in the Museum at 
Oxford ; it is figured by Buckland in the ' Trans. Geol. 
Soc' pi. xli. ser. 2, vol. iii. figs. 1, 2, as a metacarpal. In 
size this specimen slightly exceeds the corresponding bone 
of the entire foot, No. E. 1109 ; the contour of the distal 
extremity has been somewhat altered by crushing. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 1014. Cast of a smaller specimen of the same bone. The original 
was probably obtained from Cuckfield. No history. 

R. 1015. Cast of an imperfect specimen of the same bone. The 
original probably came from Cuckfield, and appears to 
have received an injury during the life of its owner. 

No history. 

R. 1016. The proximal phalangeal of the second digit of the right 
pes ; from Hastings. No history. 

R. 1017. The proximal phalangeal of the third digit of the left pes, 
apparently belonging to this species ; from Hastings. This 
bone is remarkable for its unusual shortness, which is 
enhanced by the effects of rolling. No history. 

40412. An imperfect specimen of the proximal phalangeal of the 
third digit of the pes ; from the Neocomian bone-bed of 
Potton, Bedfordshire. Purchased, ]867. 

40434. The second phalangeal of the third digit of the pes of a 
very large individual : from the JNeocomian of Potton. 

Same history. 






IGTTANODONTID-E. 217 

40422. The terminal phalangeal of the third digit of the pes of a 

very large individual ; from the Neocomian of Potton. 

Purchased, 1867. 

28679. Cast of a corresponding hone. The original was probably 
obtained from the Isle of Wight. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

40423. The homologous bone of a smaller individual probably be- 

longing to this species ; from the Neocomian of Potton. 
When perfect this bone must have been larger than the 
corresponding one in the foot of the Bernissart specimen 
of I. mantelli. Purchased, 1867. , 

40411. The proximal phalangeal of the fourth digit of the left pes 
of a very large individual ; from the Neocomian of 
Potton. Same history. 

R. 1018. A smaller specimen of the homologous bone ; from Hastings. 
Probably associated with No. E, 1016. No history. 

R. 1019. A slightly smaller specimen of the homologous bone of 
the opposite side ; from Brook. No history. 

28704. Cast of the terminal phalangeal of one of the lateral digits 
of the pes. The original was probably obtained from the 
Isle of Wight. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 1020. A terminal phalangeal of one of the lateral digits of the 
pes ; probably from Brook. No history. 

37702. An imperfect terminal phalangeal of one of the lateral digits 
of the pes : from the Isle of Wight. 

Saul Collection. Purchased, 1863. 

46870-2. The distal portions of a right and left hind foot, provi- 
sionally referred to a small individual of this species ; from 
Knellstone, Ei verm ore, Sussex. The terminal phalangeal 
of the third digit agrees in size with No. 40423. « 

Presented by Sir R. Owen, K.C.B., 1875. 

R. 1148. An associated right femur, proximal portion of right tibia, 
the third right metatarsal, and two imperfect vertebra? 
provisionally referred to an immature individual of this 
species ; from the Wadhurst Clay of Hollington, Sussex. 
The femur has the inner trochanter descending low down 
as in typical examples of this species, but these specimens 
may belong to /. daivsoni. 

Dawson Collection. Purchased, 1SS7. 



L 



218 DINOSATJKIA. 

Iguanodom mantelli, Meyer \ 

The type species. Proportions slender; length from 5,000 to 
6,000 (nearly 20 feet). Cranium 0,500 in length, narrow and 
elongated ; nares forming long narrow slits, half the length of the 
mandible ; orbit with horizontal diameter longer than vertical ; 
supratemporal fossa narrow. Five vertebrae in sacrum. Scapula 
long and narrow, its length (0,620 to 0,720) equal eight times its 
width ; coracoid small, short, and broad, with complete foramen ; 
humerus short (0,430 to 0,470) ; metacarpals elongated and later- 
ally compressed. Ilium with preacetabular process equal nearly one 
half its entire length (0,710 to 0,750) ; postacetabular portion 
short ; pubis with preacetabular process short, thin, and much ex- 
panded (width at extremity 0,200) ; femur with inner trochanter 
in middle of shaft (length 0,710 to 0,810) ; tibia relatively long 
(length 0,670 to 0,750). 

Hob. Europe (England and Belgium). 

Unless stated to the contrary ', the following specimens are from 
the Wealden. 

40100. Numerous associated fragments of jaws and teeth ; from 
the Lower Greensand of Black-Gang Chine, Isle of Wight. 
These specimens are referred to the present species on 
account of their apparent association with the scapula 
No. 40102. Purchased, 1859. 

R. 754. A nearly entire left maxilla with teeth, probably belonging 
(Fig.) to this species ; from Cuckfield, Sussex. Figured by 
Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xlii. pi. xiv. 
Presented by H. Willett, Esq., 1886. 

2211. An imperfect left maxilla, showing dental alveoli, probably 
(Fig.) belonging to this species; from Cuckfield. Figured by 
Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1848, pi. ix. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 102-3. Portions of the right and left dentary bones of a man- 
diblo, probably belonging to this species ; from the Isle of. 
Wight. Fooc Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

28663. Fragment of a mandibular ramus, agreeing in size with the 
preceding ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

1 Palaeologica, p. 110 (1832). 



IGTJANODONTID^. 219 

* Slab of sandstone ; from the Kentish Eag (Hythe beds of 
{Fig.) Lower Greensand) of Maidstone, Kent. This specimen 
may be taken as the type of the species, and was dis- 
covered by W. H. Bensted in 1834 ; it shows the impression 
of a tooth, a number of trunk and caudal vertebrae, ribs, 
a sternal (?) bone, and most of the bones of the scapular 
and pelvic girdles and fore and hind limbs. Noticed in 
the ' London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine/ 
July 1834, figured by Mantell in his ' Wonders of Geo- 
logy,' 1st ed. pi. iii. (1844), and by Owen in his ' Creta- 
ceous Eeptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc.) pt. i. pis. xxxiii., xxxiv. 
(1851). The right humerus is figured by Mantell in the 
4 Phil. Trans.' 1849, pi. xxxi. fig. 20 ; and two dorsal 
vertebrae are figured by Owen, op. cit. pis. xxv., xxvi. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2160. An imperfect anterior dorsal vertebra ; from Cuckfield. 

(Fig.) Noticed by Owen in the ' Eep. Brit. Assoc' 1841, p. 128, 
and figured by Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1849, pi. 
xxviii. figs. 7 a, 7 b. The arch is very tall, and the rib- 
facet long. Since this specimen seems to be adult, it is 
referred to the present species rather than to a young 
individual of /. bemissartensis . Same history. 

2137. An imperfect later dorsal vertebra; from Cuckfield. The 
arch is lower, and the rib-facet must have been shorter. 
This specimen apparently agrees precisely with the first 
of the four dorsals in apposition on the right side of the 
top of the type slab. Same history. 

143 C. An imperfect anterior or middle dorsal vertebra, not impro- 
bably belonging to this species ; from the Isle of Wight. 
The arch has been crushed down. Fox Collection. 

2124. The centrum and base of the arch of an anterior or middle 
dorsal vertebra provisionally referred to this species ; from 
Cuckfield. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

37711. Avery similar centrum ; locality unknown. 

Saul Collection. Purchased, 1863. 

28940. A rather larger centrum of similar type : from the Isle of 
"Wight. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

28939. The centrum and base of the arch of a very similar specimen ; 
from the Islo of Wight. Same history. 



220 DrBTOSAUBIA. 

10451 a. A rib provisionally referred to this species ; from Cuck- 
(Fig.) field. Figured by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck 
Reptilia,' pt. ii. pi. ii. fig. 8. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

10451. A longer rib of similar type; from Cuckfield. 

Same history. 

2556. Slab of sandstone, containing the centrum and base of the 
arch, together with the detached neural spine of a middle 
dorsal vertebra, probably belonging to this species ; from 
Cuckfield. Noticed by Owen in the ' Rep. Brit. Assoc/ 
for 1841, p. 129. The rib-facet is nearly on the level of 
the platform. • Same history. 

R. 721. A nearly entire anterior lumbar vertebra, probably belong- 
ing to this species; from near Horsham, Sussex. The 
neural spine is of great height, and there are rudimental 
ribs attached to the transverse processes. The centrum 
accords closely with that of one of the posterior dorsals 
or lumbars in the type slab. Purchased, 1886. 

37685. A nearly entire sacrum and last lumbar vertebra, with a 
{Fig.) portion of the right ilium attached, referred by Owen to 
this species ; from Brook Point, Isle of Wight. Described 
by Owen in the ' Rep. Brit. Assoc' for 1841, p. 131 ; 
figured by Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1849, pi. xxvi., 
and by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia ' 
(Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ii. pis. iii.-vi. (1854), and noticed by 
Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvi. p. 447 
(where doubt of the determination is suggested). 

Saul Collection. Purchased, 1863. 

28690. Fragment of a sacrum, apparently identical with the pre- 
ceding ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

40101. The centra of three associated imperfect anterior and middle 
and one posterior caudal vertebra ; from the Lower Green- 
sand of Black-Gang Chine. Associated with the scapula 
No. 40102. Purchased, 1859. 

3790. Six associated premedial caudal vertebrae, with two chevrons, 
{Fig.) referred by Owen to this species : from Cuckfield. Noticed 

by Owen in the 'Rep. Brit. Assoc' for 1841, p. 132; 

figured by Mantell in his ' Medals of Creation,' 2nd ed. 



IGTJANODONTIDiE. 



221 



p. 699, and by Owen in his 'Wealden and Purbeck Rep- 
tilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ii. pi. viii. 

Mantell Collection, Purchased, 1838. 

2400. A chevron-bone, provisionally referred to this species ; from 

{Fig.) Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in his ' Fossils of Tilgate 

Forest,' pi. xii. fig. 4. Same history. 

36514. A later chevron-bone of similar dimensions; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853, 



The following girdle- and limb-bones accord in type with those of the 
present species, but some of them may belong to the next form, 
and others of smaller size to Sphenospondylus gracilis. 

40102. The left scapula and left * associated sternal (?) bone ; from 
the Lower Greensand of Black-Gang Chine, Isle of "Wight. 
The scapula is somewhat longer than in the type-speci- 
men, the sternal bone is of the same contour as that of 
I. bernissartensis, figured by Dollo in the ' Bull. Mus. R. 
Hist. Nat. Belg.' vol. i. pi. xii. Purchased, 1859. 

2196. A smaller right scapula; from Cuckfield. This specimen 
agrees very closely with the one figured by Dollo in the 
4 Bull. Mus. E. Hist. Nat. Belg.' vol. i. pi. ix. fig. 2, 
although of smaller size. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2196 a. The proximal half of a left scapula of apparently similar 
type, from Cuckfield. Same history. 

R. 115. The proximal half of a right scapula; from the Isle of 
"Wight. Fox Collection. 

R. 118. A left coracoid; from the Isle of Wight. Agrees very 
closely with th e specimen figured by Dollo, op. cit. Longest 
diameter 0,190. Same history. 

2543. Cast of an imperfect left coracoid, agreeing very closely 
with the preceding, but having a notch instead of a 
foramen. The original was obtained from Cuckfield, and 

1 This scapula and the undermentioned associated humerus belonging to the 
left side, the presumption is that the sternal bone is also of the same side. If 
this be so, it would indicate that Cope's view of the position of the sterna Is 
mentioned on p. 233 must be correct. 



222 , DINOSAURIA. 

is not improbably the one figured (reversed and restored) 
by Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1849, pi. xxx. fig. 11. 

Mantell Collection. 

40432. A smaller right coracoid, agreeing in contour with No. 
R. 118 ; from the Neocomian bone-bed of Potton, Bed- 
fordshire. Longer diameter 0,105. Purchased, 1867. 

R. 116. A left humerus, imperfect proximally; from the Isle of 
Wight. Agrees approximately with the humerus of the 
type specimen. Fox Collection. 

40102 a. The distal extremity of a slightly larger left humerus, 
associated with the scapula No. 40102. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 407. The proximal half of a small right humerus, probably 
belonging to this form ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Presented by C. Westendarp, Esq., 1884. 

36519. The proximal extremity of a very small left humerus, not 
(Fig.) improbably belonging to this species ; from Cuckfield. 

Figured by Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1849, pi. xxxi. 

fig. 21. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

36540. The distal extremity of a right humerus, not improbably 
(Fig.) belonging to the same individual as the preceding ; from 
Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell, op. cit. pi. xxxi. fig. 18. 

Same history. 

28516. The distal extremity of a left humerus, perhaps referable to 
this species ; probably from Sussex. 

Dixon Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

R. 1112. Cast of the left manus. The original was obtained from 
Bernissart, in Belgium, and is preserved in the Museum at 
Brussels ; it is figured by Dollo in the l Bull. Mus. R. Hist. 
Nat. Belg.' vol. i. pi. ix. fig. 2. 

Presented by the Director of the Royal Museum 
of Natural History, Brussels, 1886. 

R. 113. The left ilium, wanting the extremity of the postacetabular 
process ; from the Isle of Wight. Closely resembles the 
ilium of the type specimen. Fox Collection. 

R. 114. The left ilium, wanting the preacetabular process; from 
the Isle of Wight. Same history. 



I&T7AN0D0NTID.E. 223 

2158. The right ischium; from Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in 
{Fig.) his ' Geology of the South-east of England,' pi. iii. figs. 1, 
2, and also in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1841, pi. viii. fig. 18, as 
an undetermined bone provisionally regarded as the cla- 
vicle of Iguanodon. It is rather smaller than the ischium 
of the type skeleton. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 110. A smaller right and left ischium, agreeing in characters 
with the preceding ; from the Isle of "Wight. 

Fox Collection. 

2194. The left pubis, wanting the greater part of the shaft ; from 
{Fig.) Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in the < Phil. Trans.' 1841, 
pi. ix. fig. 10, and noticed by Owen in the ' Rep. Brit. 
Assoc' 1841, p. 133. The length of the horizontal por- 
tion is 0,375 (15| inches). 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 109. The imperfect right pubis ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Fox Collection. 

R. 111. The imperfect right pubis ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Same history. 

28507. Fragment from the acetabular region of the right pubis ; 
probably from Sussex. ' 

Dixon Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

R. 720. The descending portion of a pubis, associated with the 
vertebra No. R. 721 ; from Horsham. In size this speci- 
men accords with the corresponding portion of the pubis 
in the hind limb figured by Dollo in the ' Bull. Mus. R. 
Hist. Nat. Belg.' vol. i. pi. ix. fig. 1. Purchased, 1868. 

2650. The right femur ; from Cuckfield. Agrees very closely with 
the corresponding bone of the type specimen. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 120. The right femur ; from the Isle of Wight. Fox Collection. 

R. 120 a. A crushed right femur, apparently agreeing in form with 
the preceding ; from the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

R. 120 b. A smaller right femur ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Same history. 



224 DINOSATJKIA. 

R. 119. The left femur of a half-grown individual ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Same history. 

2674. The distal extremity of a right femur, said by Mantell to 
{Fig.) have been found in association with the next specimen ; 
from Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in his < Geology of 
the South-east of England/ pi. iii. figs. 3, 4. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2678. The right tibia ; from Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell, op. 

(Fig.) cit. pi. ii. fig. 8, and by Owen in his ' Wealden and Pur- 
beck Reptilia,' pt. ii. pi. xv. fig. 2. Apparently associated 
with the preceding specimen. Same history. 

2734. The right tibia ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

28704. The right tibia ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 125. The right tibia; from the Isle of Wight. Fox Collection. 

28669. A smaller right tibia, imperfect distally, probably belonging 
to this form ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

36403. A still smaller left tibia of the same type ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Purchased, 1860. 

2677. The right fibula ; from Cuckfield. Associated with the tibia 
(Fig.) No. 2678. Figured by Mantell in his ' Geology of the 

South-east of England/ pL ii. fig. 7, and also in the ' Phil. 

Trans/ 1841, pi. viii. fig. 2. Closely resembles the fibula 

of the specimen figured by Dollo in the ' Bull. Mus. R. 

Hist. Nat. Belg.' vol. i. pi. ix. fig. 1. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 128. An imperfect fibula ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Fox Collection, 

R. 1110. Cast of the left astragalus. The original is from Brixton, 
Isle of Wight, and was in the possession of Dr. Wilkins, 
of Newport ; it is figured by Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xxx. p. 25, woodcut figs. 1-4. 

Made in the Museum. 

R. 129. The imperfect right astragalus ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Fox Collection. 



IGUANODONTID^. 225 

R. 130. Fragment of the right astragalus ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Fox Collection. 

R. 130 a. Fragment of a smaller left astragalus ; from the Isle of 
"Wight. Same history. 

R. 131 . An imperfect calcaneum, provisionally referred to this form ; 
from the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

28671. An entire calcaneum, of similar type, of the opposite limb ; 
from Brook. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 1114. Cast of the left pes. The original was obtained from 
Sussex, and is in the collection of Mr. S. H. Beckles ; it 
is figured (in an imperfect condition, and with some erro- 
neous restorations) by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck 
Reptilia,' suppl. iv. pi. iii. (1872). 

Presented by S. H. BecJcles, Esq., 1885. 

R. 1113. Cast of the left pes. The original, which was obtained 
from Bernissart, Belgium, is preserved in the Museum at 
Brussels, and is figured by Dollo in the ' Bull. Mus. R. 
Hist. Nat. Belg.' vol. i. pi. ix. 6g. 1. 

Presented by the Director of the Eoyal Museum 
of Natural History, Brussels, 1886. 

2557. A second left metatarsal, of slightly larger size than the cor- 
responding bone of the preceding specimen ; from Cuck- 
field. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2534. A third left metatarsal, apparently associated with the pre- 
ceding. Same history. 

2536. A fourth left metatarsal, probably belonging to the same 

(Pig.) individual. Figured by Mantell in his * Fossils of Tilgate 

Forest/ pi. xv. fig. 1. Same history. 

2531 . A third left metatarsal, agreeing very closely in size with 

(Fig.) that of the cast ; from Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell, 

op. cit. pi. xiv. figs. 3-6. Same history. 

28650. The distal extremity of a rather larger third left metatarsal ; 
from the Isle of Wight. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 132. The right metatarsus, of rather smaller size than that of 
the cast; from the Isle of Wight. Fox Collection. 

Q 



226 DINOSAURIA. 

2521. The proximal phalangeal of the third digit of the pes, provi- 
sionally referred to this species : from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2627. The second phalangeal of the second digit of the pes, provi- 
sionally referred to this species ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Same history. 

R. 55. A very similar specimen ; from Sussex. Purchased, 1881. 

36510. The terminal phalangeal of one of the lateral digits of the 
pes, not improbably belonging to this species ; from Cuck- 
field. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 



c. Of Uncertain Position. 
Iguanodon, sp. 

Slightly larger than /. mantelli. Anterior and middle dorsal 
vertebrae with moderately tall arches, in which the rib-facet does 
not reach the level of the platform, and their centra moderately 
short and somewhat wedge-shaped. The sternal (?) bones are like 
those of the Euiguanodont group ; the scapula approximates to that 
of /. mantelli, but is larger in proportion to the other bones, 
and compared with that species the arches of the anterior dorsal 
vertebrae appear lower, the centra of the posterior dorsals shorter, 
the inner trochanter of the femur extending further up and down 
the shaft, the head of the femur placed more obliquely to the shaft, 
and the astragalus and apparently the ilium of different contour. 

This form probably indicates a new species. 

Hah. Europe (England). 

R. 33. A considerable portion of the skeleton ; from the Wadhurst 
Clay (Lower Wealden) of Hollington, near Hastings, 
Sussex ; found in 1880. These specimens comprise frag- 
ments of the teeth and mandible, a large series of imper- 
fect cervical, dorsal, and caudal vertebrae ; the sternal (?) 
bones (one imperfect), the proximal half of the right scapula, 
radius, and ulna, a metacarpal fragment of an ilium, the 
right femur, part of right astragalus, the entire second 
and third and the distal extremity of the fourth right meta- 
tarsal, and numerous phalangeals. The fragment of the 
ilium appears to differ very considerably from that of 
/. mantdli ; the astragalus also diverges from the corre- 
sponding fragment (No. II. 130) of that of the latter to a 



IGTJANODONTmE. 221 



very marked extent. The metarsals agree in size with 
those of the cast INo. E. 1114 of the specimen in Mr. 
Beckles's collection. Purchased, 1880. 



Specifically undetermined Specimens. 

Unless it is stated to the contrary, the following specimens are from 
the Wealden. Some of the smaller ones may belong to Spheno- 
spondylus gracilis. 

R. 180. The nearly entire dentary bone of the left ramus of the 

(Fig.) mandible of a young individual ; from Brixton, Isle of 

Wight. Figured by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck 

Eeptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. iii. pi. x. (1864). Three 

teeth are shown in their alveoli. 

Fox Collection. Fur chased, 1882. 

3388. A very small tooth ; from Cuckfield, Sussex. Figured by 

(Fig.) Mantell in his ' Geology of the South-east of England,' 

p. 270, fig. 1. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2390. The crown of a lower tooth; from Cuckfield. Figured by 
(Fig.) Mantell in his ' Fossils of Tilgate Forest/ pi. iv. fig. 7. 

Same history. 

2394. A much-worn upper tooth; from Cuckfield. Figured by 

(Fig.) Mantell, op. cit. pi. iv. fig. 5 and pi. xvii. fig. 2, and also 

in his i Geology of the South-east of England,' p. 270, 

figs. 4, 5. Same, 



2393. A worn upper tooth ; from Cuckfield. Figured in ' Fossils 
(Fig.) of Tilgate Forest,' pi. iv. fig. 12. Same history. 

2392. A partially worn lower tooth ; from Cuckfield. Figured by 

(Fig.) Mantell, op. cit. pi. iv. fig. 4, and in his ' Geology of the 

South-east of England,' p. 272, figs. 4, 5. Same history. 

2382. A worn upper tooth ; from Cuckfield. Figured by Owen in 

(Fig.) his ' Wealden and Purbeck Eeptilia,' pt. ii. pi. xviii. fig. 1 

(1855). Same history. 

36497. The crown of an unworn lower tooth of large size (? I. ber- 
(Fig.) nissartensis) ; from Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in his 

' Petrifactions,' p. 235, fig. 50, and by Owen, op. cit. 

pi. xviii. fig. 3. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

Q2 



228 DINOSATJKIA. 

36499. An imperfect lower tooth; from Cuckfield. Figured by 
{Fig.) Owen, op. cit. pi. xviii. fig. 4. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

36500. worn upper tooth ; from Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell, 
(Fig.) op. cit. p. 238, fig. 52, and by Owen, op. cit. pi. xviii. 

fig. 2. Same history. 

10840. A lower tooth ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

2357. A worn tooth ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2381. A worn tooth; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

2387. A worn tooth ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

2388. A small worn upper tooth ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

2391. A very similar specimen ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

3419. A somewhat smaller worn upper tooth ; from Cuckfield. 

Same 



3423. A partially worn upper tooth ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

3426. A very similar specimen ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

2402. A worn tooth ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

2403. A worn tooth ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

2405. A worn tooth ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

2387. A slightly worn lower tooth, of large size ; from Cuckfield. 

Same history. 

3386. A partially worn small tooth ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

3399. The crown of a partially worn tooth • from Cuckfield. 

Same history. 

2407, 3355, 3373, 3387, 3391, 3395, 3410, 3418, 26001, 40306. A 

series of worn teeth, of small size ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. 

R. 645. Seven imperfect teeth, of small size; from Battle, near 
Hastings, Sussex. Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

R. 604. Three imperfect upper teeth ; from Hastings. 

Daivson Collection. Purchased, 1885. 

R. 645 a. The crown of an unworn lower tooth ; from the Hastings 
Sand (Lower Wealden) of Sandown, Isle of Wight. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 



IGTJAXODOffTID^. 229 

R. 134. A worn lower tooth, of large size (?/. bernissartensis); from 
the Isle of Wight. Fox Collection, Purchased, 1882, 

R. 134 a. A worn tooth ; from the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

R. 134 b. A similar specimen ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Same history. 

R. 134 c. The crown of an nnworn upper tooth ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Same history . 

R. 134 d. An unworn lower tooth, of small size ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Same history. 

R. 967. The crown of a worn tooth ; from the Wadhurst Clay 
(Lower Wealden) of the neighbourhood of Hastings. This 
specimen may not improbably be referable to I. daiusoni. 
Dawson Collection. Purchased, 1885. 

R. 1140. The imperfect centrum of a small cervical vertebra ; 
obtained in 1825 from near Loxwood, Sussex. No history. 

R. 409. The crushed centrum of a very similar cervical vertebra ; 
from Brook, Isle of Wight. 

Presented by C. Westendarp, Esq., 1884. 

36550. The centrum of a smaller cervical vertebra ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 894. An imperfect (? middle) dorsal vertebra, of small size ; from 
the Isle of Wight. The arch is low, and the rib-facet 
rises to the summit of the platform. The distinct rib - 
facet on the centrum indicates that this specimen is not 
Crocodilian. Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

43503. A smaller imperfect dorsal vertebra of similar type ; from 
the Isle of Wight. Purchased, 1872. 

R. 1141. The centrum of a middle dorsal vertebra, apparently asso- 

(Fig.) ciated with No. E. 1140 ; from Loxwood. Figured by 

Murchison in the 'Geol. Trans.' ser. 2, vol. ii. pi. xv. fig. 2. 

No history 

R. 2127. An imperfect posterior dorsal vertebra ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. 

2560. An imperfect rib, provisionally referred to this group ; 

{Fig.) from Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in his * Fossils of 

Tilgate Forest,' pi. xi. fig. 1. Same history. 



230 DINOSAUKIA. 

2138. The centrum of an anterior or middle dorsal vertebra, appa- 
(Fig.) rently belonging to this family : from Cuckfield. Described 
by Owen in the 'Rep. Brit. Assoc.' for 1841, p. 68, and 
figured in his 'Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia' (Mon. 
Pal. Soc), suppl. viii. pi. iv. figs. 7, 8, where it is provi- 
sionally referred to Suchosaurus ; it closely resembles No. 
It. 894, and also the vertebra of Sphenospondylus gracilis, 
No. E. 142 a, and may belong to the latter form. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

46772. The centrum of a dorsal vertebra of a shorter type than the 

preceding ; from the Isle of Wight. Purchased, 1875. 

28941. The centrum of a dorsal vertebra, of the same type as the 
preceding ; probably from the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

28947. The centrum of a dorsal vertebra, not improbably belonging 
to this group ; from the Isle of Wight. Same history. 

28952. A roiled dorsal vertebra of similar type; from Brook. 

Same history. 

46785. The centrum of a larger dorsal vertebra, agreeing in general 
characters with No. 2138 ; from the Purbeck of Swanage, 
Dorsetshire. Referred by Owen (MS,) to Suchosaurus. 

Beckles Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

46768. Two anchylosed vertebral centra, apparently of the last 
lumbar and first sacral, probably belonging to Iguanodon ; 
from the Isle of Wight. Closely resemble the correspond- 
ing vertebrae of the sacrum referred to I. mantelli, 
No. 37685 (p. 220). Purchased, 1875. 

28696. The centrum of a vertebra, agreeing with the first centrum 
of the preceding specimen ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

46773. An imperfect sacral vertebra, referred by Owen to Igua- 

nodon ; from the Isle of Wight. Purchased, 1875. 

2127. An imperfect sacral vertebra, reforrcd by Owen to Igua- 
(Fig.) nodony from Cuckfield. Noticed by Owen in the 'Rep. 
Brit. Assoc' for 1841, p. 130, and figured by him in his 
1 Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia,' pt. ii. pi. vii. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. „ 



IiiUAXODOXTIILE. 231 

2159. An imperfect vertebral centrum of large size, which is pro- 
bably the last lumbar of a member of the present family ; 
from Cuckfield. In contour it closely resembles the last- 
lumbar of I. prestwichi, figured by Hulke in the ' Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvi. pi. xx. fig. 1. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2156. An imperfect anterior caudal vertebra ; from Cuckfield. 

Same history. 

2157. An imperfect anterior caudal vertebra, rather later in the 

series than the preceding ; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

R. 108. Five associated anterior caudal vertebrae; from the Isle of 
Wight. Fox Collection. 

R. 107 a. Three associated anterior caudal vertebrae ; from the Isle 
of Wight. Same history. 

R. 367. One imperfect extremity of an anterior caudal vertebra, of 
which the inner surface has been polished. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

37692. An imperfect anterior caudal vertebra, of small size ; from 
the Isle of "Wight. Saul Collection. Purchased, 1863. 

R. 367 a. A smaller imperfect anterior caudal vertebra ; from the 
Isle of Wight. Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

36541. A very small imperfect anterior caudal vertebra ; from the 
Isle of Wight. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

2164. The centrum of one of the early middle caudal vertebrae; 
from Cuckfield. As in one vertebra of No. 40101 (p. 220), 
the interval between the chevron-facets of the two extre- 
mities is very small. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 1142. Four imperfect associated caudal vertebrae, of small size ; 

{Fig.) from Loxwood. Three of these specimens, which belong- 
to the same individual as No. 11. 1140, are figured by 
Hurchison, op. cit. pi. xv. figs. 1, 3, 8. JS r o history. 

2142. A slightly imperfect middle caudal vertebra ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 145 d. The centrum of a middle caudal vertebra ; from the Isle 
of Wiffht, Fox Collection. 



232 DINOSATTKIA. 

R. 145 h. Two associated imperfect middle caudal vertebrae, of 
smaller size ; from the Isle of Wight. Fox Collection. 

46015. A small imperfect middle caudal vertebra ; from Sandown, 
Isle of Wight. Purchased, 1874. 

R. 107 a. Seven associated imperfect middle and posterior caudal 
vertebrae, of small size ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Fox Collection. 

36532. An imperfect vertebra, from the hinder part of the middle 
caudal region ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

43622. An imperfect posterior caudal vertebra, of large size ; from 
Brook, Isle of Wight (? I. bernissartensis). 

Purchased, 1872. 

R. 604. Two imperfect posterior caudal vertebrae ; from Hollington, 
Sussex. Daivson Collection. Purchased, 1884. 

R. 141. An imperfect posterior caudal vertebra; from the Isle of 
Wight. Fox Collection. 

R. 604 a. An imperfect vertebra from near the extremity of the 
tail ; from Silverhill, near Hastings. Daivson Collection. 

36544. A very similar specimen, but less imperfect ; from Cuckfield. 
{Fig.) Figured by Mantell in his ' Fossils of Tilgate Forest/ 

pi. ix. fig. 8, and in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1849, pi. xxx. 

fig. 13. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

36547. An imperfect vertebra from the same region : from the Isle 
of Wight. Same history. 

36544. An imperfect vertebra, which appears to have been one of 
the last two or three of the caudal series ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. 

44914. Two transverse sections of vertebral centra ; from the Isle 
of Wight. , Purchased, 1874. 

2146. The proximal portion of a chevron-bone ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 172. An imperfect chevron-bone ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Fox Collection. 



IGTJANOD OOTIDS. 233 

R. 1144. Cast of the two ossifications of the sternal (?) region. The 
original was obtained from Hastings, and is in the collec- 
tion of Mr. S. H. Beckles ; it is figured by Hulke in the 
' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc/ vol. xli. pi. xiv. fig. 1, and 
regarded as the clavicle and interclavicle. This identifi- 
cation is disputed by Dollo in the ' Rev. Quest. Scient/ 
1885, p. 666, who regards these bones as parts of the 
sternum, but not of either /. bernissartensis or I. mantelli. 
The same conclusion is arrived at by Baur in the ' Zool. 
Anzeig.' vol. viii. p. 561 (1885) • while Cope, in the ' Amer. 
Nat/ 1886, p. 153, compares these and the homologous 
bones of I", bernissartensis to those of Diclonius, and con- 
siders that Hulke has figured them in a reversed position. 
The specimen is again noticed by Seeley in the ' Geol. 
Mag.' 1887, pp. 84-86, who agrees with Cope in regard 
to the reversion of Hulke's figure, but identifies it with 
the xiphisternum, and suggests that its process extended 
backwards to articulate with the ' prepubis.' Finally, 
these bones are again described and figured by the same 
writer in the 'Proc. R. Soc/ vol. xliii. p. 240 (1887), 
where they are termed prepubis, and are identified with 
the bones commonly termed pubes in the Eusuchian Croco- 
dilia. The suggestion that this specimen may belong to 
the I. dawsoni form was made by the writer in the ' Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc/ vol. xliv. p. 52. Made in the Museum. 

2218. A single sternal ossification of similar type ; from Cuckfield. 

(Fig.) Figured by Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans/ 1841, pi. viii. 
fig. 20, as an undetermined bone. Although the differ- 
ence from the corresponding bone of 1. mantelli (No. B. 33) 
and of the unnamed form mentioned on p. 226 is difficult 
to describe, yet it is very marked. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

40709. The proximal half of a right scapula ; from Bulverhythe, 

near Hastings. This specimen apparently closely accords 

with the scapula provisionally referred to I", bernissartensis. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 115 a. The proximal half of a smaller left scapula, not impro- 
bably belonging to the same species as the preceding ; from 
the Isle of Wight. Fox Collection. 



234 DINOSAUEIA. 

36505. The entire right scapula of a small individual ; from 
{Fig.) Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1849, 
pi. xxx. fig. 10. Total length 0,385 ; in contour this 
specimen comes nearest to the scapula No. R. 966, pro- 
visionally referred to I. dawsoni. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

2524. A large right coracoid ; from Cuckfield. Although smaller, 
agrees very closely with the specimen represented in 
fig. 45, and not improbably belongs to the same species. 
Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2200. A considerably smaller imperfect right coracoid ; from Cuck- 

(Fig.) field. Figured by Mantell in his 'Fossils of Tilgate 

Forest,' pi. vii. fig. 9. Same history. 

R. 1145. The distal portion of a medium-sized right humerus ; from 

Hastings. No history. 

R. 604. An imperfect left humerus, of small size ; from the Wad- 
hurst Clay of Ridge Quarry, near Hastings. 

Dawson Collection. 

R. 170. Three specimens of the distal extremity of the humerus of 
very young individuals : from the Isle of Wight. 

Fox Collection. 

2186. A radius, not improbably belonging to i". mantelli; from 
Cuckfield. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 1143. A bone, which is apparently a metacarpal ; from Loxwood. 

(Fig.) Associated with the vertebra No. R. 1140 figured by Mur- 

chison, op. cit. pi. xv. fig. 7. Nohistory. 

2384. The terminal phalangeal of the pollex ; from Cuckfield. 

(Fig.) Figured by Mantell in his ' Fossils of Tilgate Forest,' 
pi. xx. fig. 8, in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1841, pi. ix. fig. 2, 
and in his ' Wonders of Geology/ 6th ed. p. 431, fig. 106, 
as the horn of Iguanodon ; also by Owen in his ' Wealden 
and Purbeck Reptilia,' pt. ii. pi. xvii. figs. 1, 2, where it 
is provisionally referred to the pes. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 457. A larger specimen of the corresponding bone ; probably 
from the Isle of Wight. 

Presented by Sir B. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 



IGTTAFODOISTID^. 



235 



40431. A much smaller specimen of the corresponding bone ; from 
the Lower Greensand of Potton, Bedfordshire. 

Purchased, 1867. 

46782. A very small specimen of the corresponding bone; from 
Brook. Purchased, 1875. 

46728. Cast of the acetabular region of the left pubis. The original 
was obtained from Brixton Bay, Isle of Wight, and was 
formerly in the collection of Dr. Wilkins, of Newport ; it 
is figured by Hulke in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xxx. pi. xxxii. figs. 1, 2, as an ilium, and correctly 
named in vol. xxxii. p. 364. Made in the Museum. 

36538. The acetabular region of the right pubis of a young indi- 
(Fig.) vidual ; from Cuckfield. Figured by Mantell in his 
' Fossils of Tilgate Forest,' pi. xvi. fig. 3, as part of the 
scapula, and so labelled in the handwriting of Cuvier. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 169. Fragment of the acetabular region of the right pubis of a 
young individual ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Fox Collection. 

2183. The proximal portion of a small left ischium, in a block of 
grit; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

2167. The proximal portion of a much larger left ischium ; from 
Cuckfield. Same history. 

28677. The distal extremity of a left ischium, agreeing approxi- 
mately in size with the preceding ; from Brook. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

28700. A very similar specimen of the opposite side ; .from 
Brook. Not improbably belonging to the same individual 
as the preceding. These specimens are considerably 
larger than the corresponding portion of the ischium 
(No. 2158) of 1". mantelli, and not improbably belong to 
small individuals of I. bernissartensis. Same history. 

36507. The left femur of a small individual, wanting a portion of 
the upper half of the shaft ; from the Isle of Wight. 
This specimen probably belongs to /. mantelli. 

Same history . 



236 DINOSATJRIA. 

2152. The crushed left femur of a smaller animal ; from the Isle of 

Wight. This specimen appears to be incorrectly restored. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

36539. The distal extremity of the left femur of a very young indi- 
vidual ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

2662-2667. The two extremities of a femur, together with the 
associated imperfect tibia, fibula, and two left metatarsals 
of a small animal ; from Cuckfield. Noticed in MantelTs 
' Petrifactions,' p. 294. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R, 170. Two specimens of the proximal and two of the distal ex- 
tremity of the femora of very young individuals ; from 
the Isle of Wight. Fox Collection. 

2737. A small femur, of slender type; from Cuckfield. The shaft 
appears to be more slender, and the inner trochanter lower 
down than in I. mantelli. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

R. 1116. A large left tibia,in a crushed condition; from theWadhurst 
Clay of Hastings. This specimen is rather longer than 
the next. Dawson Collection. Purchased, 1886. 

R. 1115. A right tibia ; from Shornden Quarry, near Hastings. This 
specimen is more slender than typical specimens of 
/. mantelli, and has the two extremities placed less 
obliquely to one another; it may, perhaps, belong to 
I. daivsoni, Dawson Collection. Purchased, 1887. 

R. 125. A slightly smaller left tibia, agreeing in general contour 
with the preceding ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Fox Collection. 

R. 1147. A small right tibia in a crushed condition ; locality un- 
known. No history. 

R. 604. An imperfect right tibia, of medium size ; from near 
Hastings. Dawson Collection, 

R. 659. The distal extremity of a much smaller left tibia; from the 
Hastings Sand of Brixton Bay, Isle of Wight. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 



IGUANODONTID^. 237 

36518. The distal extremity of the right tibia of a still smaller 
individual; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

36506. A right tibia, agreeing approximately in size with the pre- 
ceding ; from Cuckfield. Length 0,031 : diameter of 
distal extremity 0,065. Same history. 

It. 124. A smaller right tibia ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Fooo Collection. 

36508. A considerably smaller left tibia ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

It. 604. The second left metatarsal of an individual agreeing in size 
with the Belgian example of 1". mantelli, No. E. 1113 ; from 
the Wadhurst Clay near Hastings. Dawson Collection. 

It. 604 a. A first phalangeal, apparently belonging to the second 
digit of the right pes of a larger individual ; from the 
Wadhurst Clay near Hastings. Same history. 

2521. The first phalangeal of the third digit of the pes of an animal 
agreeing in size with I. mantelli ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

46512. The corresponding bone of a much smaller individual ; from 
Cuckfield. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

It. 604 C. The second phalangeal of the third digit of the pes ; from 
the Wadhurst Clay of Hastings. Dawson Collection. 

2627. The second phalangeal of the second digit of the left pes ; 
from the Isle of Wight. Agrees in size with /. mantelli. 
Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

It. 55. The imperfect corresponding bone of the opposite foot of a 
smaller animal ; from Sussex. Purchased, 1881. 

36513. A very small specimen of the corresponding bone of the 
left pes ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

It. 604 b. A terminal phalangeal, apparently belonging to the 
second digit of the right pes ; from the Wadhurst Clay, 
near Hastings. Probably associated with No. E. 604 a. 

Dawson Collection. 



238 DINOSAUKIA. 

36510. A terminal phalangeal, apparently of the fourth digit of the 

left pes ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 
R. 133. An imperfect terminal phalangeal ; from the Isle of Wight. 

Fox Collection. 

36511. The extremity of a terminal phalangeal of a young indi- 

vidual ; from Cuckfield. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

19979. Cast of the impression and counterpart of a hind foot. The 
original was obtained from Hastings. 

Presented by Bennett Smith, Esq., 1846. 

R. 1146. Cast of the impression and counterpart of a hind foot. The 
original was obtained from Hastings, and is figured (with- 
out determination) by Tylor in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xviii. p. 248. Purchased. About 1863. 



Genus SPHENOSPONDYLUS, Seeley 1 . 

Several of the anterior dorsal vertebrae markedly opisthoccelous, 
and the later ones with posterior cups to the centra, but no anterior 
balls ; arches of dorsals very low, with the centrum long, moderately 
compressed, wedge-shaped, and often with a hsemal spine or carina. 
The rib-facet rises to the level of the neural platform in the dor- 
sals. Teeth probably like those of Iguanodon. 

This genus, which is provisionally accepted, is regarded as pro- 
bably connecting Iguanodon with Trachodon, the anterior dorsals 
resembling those of the latter, while the later ones approximate to 
those of the undetermined species of Iguanodon mentioned on p. 226. 

Sphenospondylus gracilis, Lydekker 2 . 

The type species. Typically smaller than Iguanodon mantelli. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

Tlie following specimens were obtained from the Wealden of the Isle 
of Wight, and, unless the contrary is stated, belong to the Fox 
Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

R. 143. An imperfect vertebra, from near the extreme anterior 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxix. p. 55 (1883). 

2 Ibid. vol. xliv. p. 47 (1888). 



IGTJANODONTID^. 239 

extremity of the dorsal series. This specimen was probably 
associated with No. E. 142 ; it shows a distinct ball on 
the anterior face of the centrum, below which is a well- 
marked haemal spine. 

R. 166. The centrum of a very similar vertebra, with a less distinct 
haemal spine. 

R. 142 a. An imperfect anterior dorsal vertebra. The anterior face 
of the centrum is flat, but the posterior cupped. All the 
specimens entered as R. 142 were associated with the 
present one. 

R. 142 b. An imperfect anterior dorsal vertebra. There is still a 
trace of the posterior cup to the centrum. 

R. 142 C. A slightly imperfect anterior or middle dorsal vertebra. 
This specimen was evidently somewhat later in the series 
than the preceding one, the two faces of the centrum 
being alike. 

R. 142 d. A slightly imperfect anterior or middle dorsal vertebra. 

R. 142 e. A more imperfect anterior or middle dorsal vertebra. 

R. 142. A slightly imperfect anterior or middle dorsal vertebra. One 
{Fig.) of the type specimens. Figured by Seeley in the ' Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix. pp. 58, 59, figs. 2, 3 ; the 
former figure being reproduced in the woodcut on the next 
page. There is a slight cupping of the posterior face of 
the centrum. 

R. 143 b. An imperfect anterior or middle dorsal vertebra. Asso- 
ciated with No. R. 143. 

R. 135 a. An imperfect anterior or middle dorsal vertebra, probably 
belonging to this form. 

28935 . A series of four united posterior dorsal or lumbar vertebrae 

probably belonging either to this species or to I. mantetti. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

R, 165. A posterior dorsal or lumbar vertebra, with the arch im- 
perfect, not improbably belonging to this form. The 
centrum has subcircular terminal faces. 



240 



DINOSAUKIA. 



Fig. 47. 




us gracilis.— -Left lateral aspect of an anterior or middle dorsal 
vertebra ; from the Wealden of the Isle of Wight. ^. b, rib-facet ; to, 
transverse process ; z, postzygapophysis. (From the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc.') 



TKACHODONTmE. 241 



Family TRACHODONTIM] 1 . 

Closely allied to the preceding family, but with the teeth arranged 
in vertical rows, and articulating with one another so as to form a 
more or less complete pavement. In the one genus (Diclonius 2 ) in 
which it is known the skull is elongated and much depressed, and 
the premaxillae are extended a considerable distance in advance of 
the large nares, thus producing a very long edentulous portion. 



Genus ORTHOMERUS, Seeley 3 . 

Provisionally referred to this family. Known only by limb-bones 
and caudal vertebrae, which appear to indicate a form closely allied 
to Trachodon, but presenting some approximation to Iguanodon. 
The caudal vertebrae (fig. 48) have their spines much inclined 
backwards, and the anterior ones are more elongated* than in 
Trachodon ; the chevron-facets are double, from which Dollo con- 
cludes that the chevrons were open 5 . 



Orthomerus dolloi, Seeley 6 . 

The type species ; about the size of Trachodon foulki. 
Hob. Europe (Belgium). 

The following specimens are from the Upper Cretaceous of Maastricht, 
Netherlands, and belong to the Van Breda Collection. Pur- 
chased, 1871. 

42955. The right femur, with imperfect extremities. Type (fig. 49, 
(Fig.) A, B, C) ; figured by Seeley in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc' vol. xxxix. p. 249, fig. 2, A, B, C. Length 0,495 

(19-5 inches). 

1 =Hadrosaurid(B. 

2 See Cope, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1883, p. 97, pis. iv.-vii. 

3 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxix. p. 248 (1883). 

4 See Dollo, Bull. Mus. K, Hist. Nat. Belg. toI. ii. p. 211 (1883). 

5 Double facets are sometimes found in Iguanodon (Owen, ' British Fossil 
Keptilia,' Dinosauria, pi. v.). 

6 Loc. tit. 



242 



DINOSATTRIA. 
Pig. 48. 




Orthomenis dolloi. — Eight lateral view of anterior caudal vertebra ; from the 
Maastricht Beds. -|. a, spine ; b, centrum ; c, d, post- and prezj'gapo- 
physis ; e, k, neuro-central suture ; /, transverse process ; g, k, chevron- 
facets ; m, n, anterior and posterior faces of centrum. (From the ' Bull. 
Mus. E. Hist. Nat. Belg.') 



42956. Distal extremity of the right femur (fig. 49, D). Figured 
(Fig.) by Seeley, op. cit. fig. 2, D. 

42954. The left tibia, wanting the cnemial crest and the two ex- 
(Fig.) tremities. Figured by Seeley, op. cit. p. 252, fig. 3 ; it is 
more slender than the corresponding bone of Iguanodon, 
and thereby approximates to that of Trachodon. 

42957. An imperfect metatarsal. Noticed by Seeley, op. cit. p. 253. 



TEACHODONTID^. 



243 



Pig. 49. 




Orthomerus dolloi. — The right femur ; from the Maastricht beds. £. A, 
posterior ; B, inner aspect ; C, proximal extremity (restored) ; B, distal 
extremity of another specimen. It, inner, pt, proximal trochanter ; a, 
anterior, p, posterior condyles. (From the ' Quart. Journ. Greol. Soc.') 



Genus TRACHODON, Leidy 1 . 

Syn. Hadrosaurns, Leidy 2 . 

The type genus. All the dorsal vertebrae opisthoccelous, with low 
arches, on which the rib-facet rises to the summit of the neural 
platform ; centra moderately compressed, wedge-shaped, with haemal 



1 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. viii. p. 72 (1850, vol. dated 1S57). 

2 Ibid, for 1858, p. 215 (1859). 

b2 



244 



DINOSATJKIA. 



carina. Teeth (fig. 50) simpler than in Iguanodon, 
with lozenge-shaped crowns, and the inferior 
surface of the root of each tooth bearing a 
groove for the reception of the summit of the 
tooth below. 

Hadrosaurus is identified with Trachodon by 
Leidy in the < Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad.' for 1868, 
p. 199 ; the type tooth of the latter being figured 
by him in the * Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc' vol. xi. 
pt. 2, pi. x. figs. 1-6 (1859). 

Trachodon foulki, Leidy \ 

Syn. Hadrosaurus foulki, Leidy 2 . 

The distinction from T. mirabilis of the Judith- 
River beds is not very apparent. Estimated 
length 28 feet. 

Hah. North America. 



Fig. 50. 




Trachodon foulki. — 
Tooth; from the 
Upper Cretaceous 
of New Jersey, 



R. 1007. Transverse section of a tooth; from the 

Upper Cretaceous of Huddersfield, New Jersey, U.S.A. 
The dentition is figured by Leidy in his ( Cretaceous Eep- 
tiliaof the United States' (Smiths. Contrib. Knowl. 1864), 
pi. xiii., from which fig. 50 is copied. 

Presented by Sir B. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 



Trachodon cantabrigiensis, Lydekker 3 . 

Nearly of the dimensions of T.foulJci, Fig. 51. 

but with the crowns of the teeth rela- 
tively broader. 

Hab. Europe (England). 

R. 496. A tooth, wanting the base of 

(Fig.) the root; from the Cam- 
bridge Greensand. The type 
specimen (woodcut, fig. 51); 
figured by Owen in his ' Cre- 
taceous lleptilia' (Mon. Pal. 
Soc), suppl. ii. pi. vii. figs. 
16, 17, as Iguanodon man- 

Pbilad. for 1858, p. 218 (185' 




Irachodon cant 
Lateral and profile views of 
a tooth ; from the Cambridge 
Greensand. \. 



1 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Quart. Journ. Gcol. Soc. vol. xliv. p. 47 (1888). 



-Hadrosaurus. 



TKACHODOSTTIDJi}. 245 

telli; noticed by Leidy in the 'Cretaceous Eeptiles of 
the United States' (Smiths. Contrib. Knowl. 1864), p. 86, 
and also by Seeley in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. 
xxxv. p. 591, as resembling Trachodon {Hadrosaurus), 
and referred to that genus by the writer in vol. xliv. 
p. 47 of the latter journal. 

Presented by Sir B. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 



The following specimens from the Cambridge Greensand are 
provisionally referred to this species. 

33884. An imperfect proximal phalangeal (? of the pes). 

Purchased, 1859. 

33885. A second or third phalangeal. Same history. 

33886. A terminal phalangeal of the third digit of the pes. Closely 

resembles the corresponding bone of Iguanodon. 

Same history. 

33887. A smaller terminal phalangeal of similar type. 

Same 



EEMAINS OF WeALDEN DlNOSATTES OE WHICH THE AFFINITIES 
AEE UnCEETALN". 

28649. The centrum and base of the arch of a cervical vertebra 
belonging to a form agreeing approximately in size with 
Iguanodon mantelli ; from the Isle of Wight. The cen- 
trum is longer than in typical cervicals of Iguanodon. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

28519. A centrum of similar type; from Cuckfield. Same history. 

R. 604 e. Pour associated imperfect dorsal vertebras of a much 
smaller form ; from the "Wadhurst Clay of Hastings. 
The centrum has subcircular faces ; there is a rib-facet 
on the arch, and the neural canal is somewhat narrow. 
These specimens may perhaps belong to the Scelidosauridce. 
Dawson Collection. Purchased, 1884. 

R. 148. The centra of two anchyloscd sacral vertebras of a very 
large form ; from the Isle of Wight. These vertebras are 



246 DIKOSAITRIA. 

more flattened inferiorly than in the sacrum referred to 
Iguanodon bcrnissartensis. It is difficult to think to what 
form they can belong, as they appear totally unlike the 
sacrals of the Atlantosauridce. 

Fox Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

R. 148 a. The centrum of a similar sacral vertebra; from the Isle 
of Wight. Same history. 

R. 148 b. The centrum of a similar vertebra ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Same history. 

R. 148 c, d. Two smaller sacral vertebrae, of similar type ; from the 
Isle of Wight. Same history. 

R. 144. A sacrum with five imperfect vertebrae, agreeing approxi- 
mately in size with Iguanodon mantelli ; from the Isle of 
Wight. Fox Collection. 

41975. A metapodial of a small form ; from the Kimeridge Clay 
of Weymouth. Purchased, 1870. 

46784. A calcaneum belonging to a large form ; from the Isle of 
Wight. This bone is much shorter than the calcaneum of 
Iguanodon mantelli, and may be referable to the Sauro- 
poda. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

R. 722. Cast of the impression of a portion of the integument of a 
large Dinosaur. The original was obtained near Hastings, 
and is in the collection of Mr. S. H. Beckles ; it is said 
to be associated with the humerus No. 28701, mentioned 
on p. 142. Made in the Museum, 1885. 

2390. A small scale-like bone in a slab of sandstone ; from Cuck- 
(Fig.) field. Figured by Mantell in his ' Geology of the South- 
east of England,' pi. iii. fig. 4, and provisionally regarded 
as the sternum of a young Iguanodon. There is no proof 
that it is really Dinosaurian. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 



nuthetes. echin0d0n. 247 

Ordinal Position Uncertain 

The affinities of the two following genera must, for the present, 
remain undecided. They were regarded by their founder as present- 
ing Lacertilian affinities, but their teeth are more like those of 
Dinosaurians. 

Genus NUTHETES, Owen 1 . 
Teeth like those of Megalosaurus, but, according to Owen, not 
implanted in distinct alveoli, and partly anchylosed to the sides of 
the jaw. The serrations disappear by wearing. 

Nuthetes destructor, Owen 2 . 
The type species. Equal in size to the larger existing species of 
Varanus. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

The following specimens were obtained from the Middle Purbeck 
(Upper Jurassic) of Durdlestone Bay, Sivanage, Dorsetshire, and 
belong to the Beckles Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

48207. Split fragment of rock, showing part of denta^ with teeth. 
(Fig.) Figured by Owen in his ' Wealden and Purbeck Eeptilia ' 

(Mon. Pal. Soc), suppl. ix. pi. ii. figs. 13-14 (1879). 

48208. Twelve teeth in matrix. Five are figured by Owen, op. cit. 
(Fig.) fig. 15. 

48247. Fragments of rock containing conical pustulate bodies, re- 
(Fig.) garded by Owen as dermal bones of this genus. Two are 
figured by Owen, op. cit. figs. 18-21. 

Genus ECHINODON, Owen K 
Teeth implanted in imperfect alveoli ; lateral ones with flattened 
diamond-shaped crowns, having serrations on the fore-and-aft edges 
of the upper half, and presenting a great resemblance to those of 
Scelidosaurus ; anterior ones in upper jaw elongated. 

Echinodon becklesi, Owen 4 . 
The type species. About the size of many existing species of the 
Lacertilian genus Eumeces. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

i Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 120 (1854). 2 Loc. cit. 

3 Wealden and Purbeck Reptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. v. p. 35 (1861) 
* Loc. cit. 



248 STEEPTOSTYLIC BRANCH. 

The following specimens were obtained from the Middle Purbeck 
of Durdlestone Bay, JSwanage, Dorsetshire, and belong to the 
BecMes Collection. Purchased, 1876. They include the types. 

48209-12. Four fragments of the maxilla. Figured by Owen in his 
{Fig.) ' "Wealden and Purbeck Eeptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. v. 
pi. viii. figs. 1-4 (1861). 

48213. Portion of the dentary bone. Figured, op. cit. fig. 5. 

(■%•) 

48214. The imperfect right dentary, with the crowns of the teeth 
(Fig.) broken off. Figured, op. cit. figs. 6-8. 

48215. The two imperfect dentary bones. The right is figured 
(Fig.) (reversed), op. cit. fig. 9. 

STEEPTOSTYLIC BEANCH. 

The four orders included (after Baur l ) in this branch may be 
collectively characterized as follows : — 

Dentition usually acrodont or pleurodont, and in the adult the 
teeth anchylosed to the bone, but the teeth may be implanted in a 
groove without anchylosis ; teeth not unfrequently present on the 
palatine and pterygoid, and more rarely on the vomer 2 . Fre- 
quently a parietal foramen ; superior temporal arcade generally 
present, inferior present or absent ; quadrate movably or immov- 
ably articulated by its proximal extremity ; a columella (epiptery- 
goid) generally present. Limbs absent in some cases. Precoracoid, 
when present, anchylosed to coracoid (fig. 52). A T-shaped inter- 
clavicle and clavicles present in those terrestrial forms which have 
limbs, except the Ehiptoglossa. Generally all, or nearly all, the 
dorsal ribs articulating by single heads ; dorsal vertebrae either with 
short or rudimental transverse processes, which (with the possible 
exception of the Proterosauria) are never placed entirely on the 
arch, or (Ichthyopterygia) with a pair of facets on the centrum ; 
with one exception 3 , not more than two vertebras in sacrum. 
Abdominal ribs present or absent. Humerus generally with entepi- 
condylar foramen. In terrestrial pentedactylate forms the number - 
of the phalangeals is 2, 3, 4, 5, 3 in the man us, and 2, 3, 4, 5, 4 
in the pes. There is never a lateral vacuity in the mandible. 

1 Biol. Centralblatt, vol. vii. p. 486 (1887). The Ichthyopterygia will come 
in Part II. of the present work. 

2 Among recent forms in some Anguidce and the young of 
8 Proterosaurus linlti, Seeley, Phil. Trans, 1887, p. 201. • 



OPBTDU. 



249 



Order SQUAMATA. 

Body lacertiform or anguiform, generally covered with scales, 
which may be underlain by bony scutes. Limbs, when present, 
adapted for walking or swimming. Proximal end of quadrate more 
or less movably articulated to cranium ; lower temporal arcade 
wanting ; postorbital usually united to postfrontal ; palate more or 
less open ; and premaxillas frequently united. Vertebrae generally 

Eig. 52. 



Iguana tuberculata. — Left lateral aspect of the cartilage-bones of the pectoral 
girdle. \. s, scapula ; m.sc, mesoscapula ; gl, glenoid cavity ; cor, cora- 
coid ; p.cor, precoracoid ; m.cor, mesocoracoid ; for, foramen. 

proccelous ; with neurocentral suture obliterated ; with or without 
zygosphenes ; and no intercentra. Ribs without uncinate processes : 
and no true abdominal ribs 1 . But one centrale in the carpus ; and 
the precoracoid (fig. 52) often well marked. Includes the orders 
Ophidia, Pythonomorpha, and Lacertilia of most writers. 



Suborder OPHIDIA. 

Body greatly elongated. Alisphenoidal region fully ossified ; no 
temporal arcade, parietal foramen, or columella; quadrate and 
palato-maxillary region loosely articulated to skull ; premaxillae 
more or less aborted ; mandibular rami united by ligament. Ver- 
tebras with zygosphenes, divisible only into trunk and caudal series ; 
no sacrum ; no chevrons. No sternum, pectoral girdle or pectoral 
limb, and only occasionally traces of pelvic girdle and limb. No 
dermal scutes. 

1 Ossifications in the abdominal parietes occur among the Lacertilia in the 
Anelytropidce and also in the Rhiptoglossa. 



i 



250 SQT7A3UTA. 

Section COLUBRIFOPMES 1 , 

Family COLUBRIDiE. 

Genus PTYAS, Fifczinger 2 . 
Syn. Coryphodon, Dumeril & Bibron 3 . 

IJtgag mucoausl (Linn. 4 ). 

Syn. Coluber mucosus, Linn. 5 

Coryphodon blumenbachi, Dumeril & Bibron e . 

Hab. India. 

R. 737. A trunk vertebra, provisionally referred to this form ; from 
the Pleistocene of the Billa-Surgam caves, Karnul dis- 
trict, Madras. A similar specimen (fig. 53) is described 
and figured by the writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica ' 
(Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iv. p. 56, fig. 13. 

Presented by the Director of the 
Geological Survey of India, 1886. 

Fig. 53. 





B 



Ptyas mucosus (?). — Posterior (A) and haemal (B) aspects of a trunk vertebra ; 
from the Pleistocene of Madras. \. (From the ' Palgaontologia Indica.') 



Genus PILEMOPHIS, Pochebrune \ 

Allied to Tropidonotus, but distinguished by the more elongated 
costal processes and the axe-shaped neural spine. There is a small 
bourelet behind the zygosphene. The right to generic distinction 
may be doubtful. 

1 The palseontological characters of the Ophidia being not yet worked out, in 
many instances no diagnosis of the groups is given. 

2 Syst. Eeptilium, p. 26 (1843). 

3 Erp<±tologie G-enerale, vol. vii. pt. 1, p. 180 (1854). — Preoccupied. 

4 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 388 (1766).— Coluber. 

5 Loc. cit. a Op. cit. p. 184. 

7 Nouv. Archiv. d. Museum, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 282 (1880).— Amended from 
Pylmophis. 



COLUBEID.E. 251 

Pilemophis sansaniensis (Lartet 1 ). 
Syn. Cohibet sansaniensis, Lartet 3 . 

The type species. 
Eab. Europe (France). 

33275. Several vertebrae and portions of ribs, of which at least some 
belong to this species ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan 
(Gers), France. Presented by M. E. Lartet, 1857. 

Genus ELAPHIS, Dumeril & Bibron 3 . 

The vertebrae have broad laminae to the arches, with large zygo- 
sphenes, oblique costal articulations, and the neural spines tall and 
obliquely truncated posteriorly. 

Elaphis atavus (Meyer 4 ). 

Syn. Tropidonotus atavus, Meyer 5 . 
Coluber papyraeeus, Troschel 6 . 

"Referred to this genus by Eochebrune in the * Nouv. Archiv. d. 
Museum,' ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 291. The upper part of the costal 
articulation is not acute, and the height of the neural spine is 
moderate. 

Hab. Europe (Germany). 

The following specimens are from the Lower Miocene ( Upper Oligo- 
cene) of Roth, near Bonn ; same may, perhaps, be referable to 
E. elongatus (Troschel 7 ). 

36377. Slab of lignite, showing a considerable portion of the skeleton. 
(Fig.) Figured by von Meyer in the ' Palaeontographica,' vol. vii. 

pi. xxv. fig. 1. Purchased, 1862. 

36378. Counterpart of the hinder portion of the preceding specimen. 

Same history. 

33065. Slab of lignite, with portion of the skeleton. 

Purchased, 1858. 

1 ' Notice sur la Colline du Sansan,' p. 40 (1851). — Coluber. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Erpetologie Generate, vol. vii. pt. 1, p. 241 (1§54). 

4 Palaeontographica, vol. vii. p. 232 (1860). — Tropidonotus. 

5 Loc. cit. G In Fischer's Diss. Zool. p. 26, teste Rochebruue, 
7 See Eochebrune, op. cit. 



252 SQUAMATA. 

41088. A slab and counterpart of lignite, showing a considerable 
portion of the skeleton of what may be a small individual 
of this species. Purchased, 1868. 

Elaphis oweni (Meyer 1 ). 

Syn. Coluber oweni, Meyer 2 . 

According to Kochebrune, distinguished from the preceding by 
the acuteness of the upper part of the costal articulations of the ver- 
tebrae, and their taller neural spines. 

Hab. Europe (Switzerland). 

42734. Slab of stone containing a small part of the vertebral 
column and the impression of a larger portion ; from the 
Upper Miocene of (Eningen, Switzerland. Closely re- 
sembles the type specimen figured by von Meyer. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

Genus PERIOPS, Wagler 3 . 
Periops gervaisi (Pomel 4 ). 

Syn. Coluber gervaisi, Pomel 5 . 

Eeferred to this genus by Eochebrune in the ' Nouv. Archiv. d. 
Museum,' ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 283, by whom it is stated to be closely 
allied to the existing P. parallelus of Egypt. 

Hab. Europe (Erance). 

26660. Numerous vertebrae ; from the Pleistocene breccia of Coudes, 
near Issoire (Puy-de-D6me), Erance. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased. 1851. 



Family PYTHONID.E. 

Large land-snakes, with teeth in the premaxillae. Vertebrae with 
neural spines of moderate height, and a backwardly projecting pro- 
cess at the summit. Costal articulations placed high up on the 
centrum, and the zygapophyses widely expanded and reaching far 

1 Fauna der Vorwelt— Saugeth. etc. aus d. Mol. von (Eningen, p. 48 (1845). 
— Coluber. 2 £oc. c fo % 

3 Syst. Amphib. p. 189 (1830). 

4 Catalogue Methodique, p. 128 (1853).— Coluber. 5 hoc. cit. 



PTTHONID^!. 253 

beyond the lateral borders of the costal articulations. Hgemal 
carina on centrum never terminating in anterior and posterior 
processes. 

Genus PYTHON, Daudin 1 . 

The type genus. Centra of vertebras short and wide, with 
broad posterior ball, and haemal carina in posterior trunk-region not 
very prominent. 

;Pj)ti)0tt nwturuS (Linn. 2 ). 
Syn. Coluber molurus, Linn. 3 

The type species. Attains a length of about 30 feet. 
Hob. India and China. 

Pig. 54. 





Python molar us. — Posterior (A) and haemal (B) aspects of a trunk vertebra ; from 
the Pleistocene of Madras. \. (From the ' Palasontologia Indica.') 

R. 738. A trunk vertebra; from the Pleistocene cave-deposits of 
the Karnul district, Madras. A similar specimen (fig. 54) 
is described and figured by the writer in the ' Palaeonto- 
logia Indica' (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iv. 
p. 55, fig. 12. Both indicate small individuals. 

Presented by the Director of the 
Geological Survey of India, 1886. 

R. 614. Four imperfect vertebrae, provisionally referred to this 
species ; from the Pliocene Siwaliks of the Punjab, India. 
Similar specimens are described by the writer, op. cit. 
vol. iii. p. 237, pi. xxxv. Same history. 

Genus PALERYX, Owen 4 . 

Syn. Palceopython, Rochebrune 5 . 

The centra of the middle and posterior trunk vertebrae differ from 
those of Python by the more strongly marked hasmal carina ; but in 

1 Hist. Nat. Kept. vol. v. p. 226 (about 1802). 

2 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 225 (1766).— Coluber. 3 Loc. cit. 

4 ' Keptilia of London Clay ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. iii. p. G7 (1S50). 

5 Nouv. Archiv. d. Museum, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 270 (1SS0). 



254 8QTJAMATA. 

all other respects the resemblance between the vertebrae of the two 
genera is extremely close. 

The so-called Palceopython is founded upon specimens which 
cannot be distinguished from the vertebrae of the type species of 
Paleryx ; see ' Geol. Mag.' dec. 3, vol. v, p. 112 (1888). 

Paleryx rhombifer, Owen 1 . 

Syn. (?) Python oadurcensis, Filhol 2 . 

Paleeopython cadurcensis, Rochebrune 3 . 

The type species. Typically four or five feet in length, but, if 
Python cadurcensis be identical, reaching to a considerably larger 
size. The vertebra figured by Eochebrune as Palceopython cadur- 
censis cannot be distinguished from the type vertebra of the present 
species, and is probably identical with Python cadurcensis ; but if 
not, must be taken as the type of Palceojpython. 

Hob. Europe (England and France). 

25259. An anterior trunk vertebra ; from the Upper Eocene (Lower 

{Fig.) Oligocene) of Hordwell, Hampshire. The type specimen ; 

figured by Owen in his 'Reptilia of the London Clay,' 

pt. 3, pi. xiii. figs. 29-32. Noticed in the < Geol. Mag.' 

loc. cit. Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

32837. A series of vertebrae, of which at least a considerable number 
belong to the present species ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

32837 a. Nine associated trunk vertebrae belonging to a small indi- 
vidual of the present or to a closely allied form ; from 
Hordwell. Same history, 

32839. A trunk vertebra in matrix ; from Hordwell. Same history. 

R. 428. An anterior trunk vertebra ; from the Phosphorites (Upper 
Eocene=Lower Oligocene) of Caylux (Tarn- et- Garonne), 
France. Purchased, 1885. 

R. 428 a. Three trunk vertebrae ; from the Phosphorites of Caylux. 

(Fig.) These vertebrae (fig. 55) cannot be specifically distinguished 
from the type (No. 25259), and also agree exactly with 
the one figured by Eochebrune in the ' Nouv. Archiv. d. 
Museum/ ser. 2, vol. iii. pi. xix. figs. 4, a, b, c, under the 
name of Palceojpython cadurcensis. Noticed in the ' Geol. 
Mag.' loc. cit. Same history. 

1 ' Eeptilia of London Clay ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. iii. p. 67 (1850). 

2 Ann. Sci. G6ol. vol. viii. p. 270 (1877). 

3 Nouv. Archiv. d. Museum, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 276 (1880). 



pythonid^. 255 

E. 428 b. Numerous vertebrae, of which at least the majority belong 
to the present form ; from Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 

26665. A trunk vertebra not improbably belonging to this species ; 
from the Lower Miocene (Upper Oligocene) of St. Gerand- 
le-Puy (Allier), France. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

Eig. 55. 




Pakryx rhombifer. — Haemal, anterior, and left lateral view of a trunk vertebra 
from the Phosphorites of Caylux. f. c, costal articulation ; z s, zygosphene. 

** Paleryx filholi (Eochebrune 2 ). 
Syn. PalcBopythonJilholi, Eochebrune 2 . 

Probably merely a large form of the next species, with which 
the vertebras agree precisely in structure. 
Hah. Europe (France). 

R. 428 C. Three trunk vertebrae ; from the Phosphorites (Upper 
Eocene = Lower Oligocene) of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), 
France. Precisely resemble the type specimen figured by 
Eochebrune in the ' Nouv. Archiv. d. Museum, ser. 2, 
vol. iii. pi. xii. fig. 5, a,b, c. Noticed by the writer in the 
' Geol. Mag.' dec. 3, vol. v. p. 112. Purchased, 1885. 

Paleryx depressus, Owen 3 . 

Typically of small size. The vertebrae distinguished from those 
of the type species by the depressed arch, and the great width and 
stoutness of the haemal carina, which expands anteriorly. 

Hal. Europe (England and France). 

25261. Three trunk vertebrae ; from the Upper Eocene (Lower 

{Fig.) Oligocene) of Hordw ell, Hampshire. The type specimens ; 

one is figured by Owen in his ' London Clay Eeptilia,' 

pt. iii. pi. xiii. figs. 37, 38. Noticed by the writer in the 

' Geol. Mag.' dec. 3, vol. v. p. 112. 

Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

1 Nouv. Archiv. d. Museum, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 277 (l8SO).—PaI(Bopython, 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Eeptilia of the London Clay, pt. iii. p. 07 (1850). 



256 SQTTAMATA. 

32838. A number of vertebrae of which at least a large proportion 
belong to this species ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

32838 a. Two trunk vertebras in connection : from Hordwell. 

Same history. 

32838 b. Several vertebra? provisionally referred to this form ; from 
Hordwell. Same history. 

R. 428 d. Several trunk vertebrae ; from the Phosphorites (Upper 
Eocene= Lower Oligocene) of Caylux (Tarn-et- Garonne), 
France. These specimens cannot be distinguished from 
the types of the present form, and also present all the 
characters of the larger vertebrae of the so-called P.fiTholi. 
Noticed by the writer, op. cit. Purchased, 1885. 

26665 a. Four trunk vertebras probably belonging either to the 
present or a closely allied species ; from the Lower 
Miocene (Upper Oligocene) of St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), 
France. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

Genus non det. 

The following specimens, although of larger size, agree closely 
with the vertebras of Narboa schlegeli, and probably belong either 
to that genus or Liasis ; but there is no skeleton of the latter in the 
Museum for comparison. The vertebras of Morelia are different. 
The vertebral centra are much elongated and have a prominent 
hasmal carina : in many respects these vertebras are very like the 
one referred to Ptyas. 

Hah. Australia. 

42682. Six vertebras of a large snake ; from the Pleistocene of the 
caves of the Wellington Yalley, New South Wales. 
Presented by the Trustees of the Australian Museum, 1876. 



Family PAL^EOPHIDiE. 

Large snakes of probably marine habits. Yertebras with very 
tall neural spines, which have no backwardly directed process at the 
summit ; costal articulations placed low down on the centrum, and 
the zygapophyses not expanded and scarcely reaching beyond the 
lateral borders of the costal articulations. Hasmal carina on centrum 
not unfrequently terminating in anterior and posterior processes. 



PALJ30PHID^3. 257 

The type genus was referred by Owen to the Hydrophidaz, but is 
regarded by Eochebrune l (after Cope and Marsh) as more nearly 
allied to the Pythons, and is included by him in the Pyilionida?. 
The great difference in the structure of the vextebrae, together with 
the probably marine habits (as deduced from the strata in which the 
remains occur), and the occurrence of an allied or identical genus 
(Titanophis, Marsh 2 ) in the Eocene of N. America (in which country 
Pythons are unknown), renders it, however, tolerably certain that 
we have to do with a distinct family, which is only provisionally 
placed here. The question is more fully discussed by the writer in 
the ' Geol. Mag.' dec. 3, vol. v. p. 112 (1888). 



Genus PAUEOPHIS, Owen 3 . 

The type genus. Centrum of vertebrae elongated and compressed, 
with a distinct haemal carina in the posterior trunk-region. 

False op his toliapicus, Owen 4 . 

The type species. Typically from ten to twelve feet in length. 
Vertebrae long and narrow, with sessile costal tubercles (transverse 
processes), and the haemal carina without well-marked terminal 
processes. The latter character does not appear constant in all 
specimens. 

Hob. Europe (England). 

The following specimens are from the London Clay 
{Lower Eocene) of Sheppey. 

39453. Fragment of a nodule containing the hinder part of the 
(Fig.) vertebral column. Figured by Owen in his ' London 
Clay Reptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc.), pt. iii. pi. xvi. figs. 1-3. 
Bowerhank Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

39447. A nodule with a considerable part of the vertebral column. 

(Fig.) One of the types ; figured by Owen in the ' Trans. Geol. 

Soc' ser. 2, vol. vi. pi. xxii. figs. 1-2. Same history. 

38998. Nodule showing six vertebra?. One of the types ; figured 
(Fig.) by Owen, op. cit. pi. xxii. fig. 3. Same history. 

1 Nouv. Archiv. d. Museum, ser. 2, vol. iii. pp. 274-276 (1880). 

2 Proc. Ainer. Assoc, for 1877, p. 223 (1878) ; to replace Dinqphis. Cope, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1868, p. 234, and Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xiv. 
p. 227 (1870), identifies these forms with Palceoph/s. 

3 Trans. Geol. Soc. ser. 2, vol. vi. pt. 1, p. 209 (1841). 

4 Loc. cit. 



258 



SQUAMATA. 



R. 40. A nodule with a large part of the vertebral column. 

Shrubsole Collection. Purchased, 1880. 

35690. Nodule with vertebras and fragment of ribs. 

Purchased, 1859. 

39772. Nodule with vertebras and ribs. Bowerbank Collection. 

32836. Nodule with vertebras. 

Dixon Collection. Purchased, 1851 

24874. Nodule with vertebras. Purchased, 1850. 

30535. Nodule with vertebras. Purchased. About 1854. 

30536. An imperfect vertebra. Same history. 
30536 a. Several imperfect vertebras. Same history. 
38859. An imperfect vertebra. Bowerbank Collection. 



Palaeophis typhseus, Owen \ 
Including Palceophis porcatus, Owen 2 . 

Larger than the preceding ; attaining a length estimated at twenty 
feet. Vertebras generally broader, with the costal tubercles peduncu- 
late, and the hasmal carina in the posterior region terminating in 
antero-posterior processes. 

Fig. 56. 




Palceophis typhesus. — Hajmal, anterior, and left lateral views of a trunk ver- 
tebra, wanting the greater part of the neural spine ; (?) from the Lower 
Eocene of Sheppey. \. zs, zygosphene ; c, costal articulation. 

The characters on which P. porcatus was founded do not appear 
of specific value. 

llab. Europe (England and Belgium ). 

1 London Clay Eeptilia (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. iii. p. 5b* (1850). 

2 Ibid. p. 61 



PAL^OPBTD^. 259 

The following specimens, unless tlie contrary is stated, are 
from the Middle Eocene of BracMesham, Sussex, 

33207. An imperfect vertebra. One of the types ; figured by Owen 
{Fig.) in his 'Eeptilia of the London Clay,' pt. iii. pi. xiv. fig. 1. 

Dixon Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

25600. A slightly imperfect vertebra. One of the types ; figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. xiv. fig. 7. Same history. 

33210. A small vertebra. One of the types ; figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. xiv. fig. 16. Same history. 

33209. A small anterior vertebra. One of the types ; figured, op. 
(Fig.) cit. pi. xiv. fig. 26. Same history. 

25603. Several vertebrae. Same history. 

28431. Several vertebrae. Purchased, 1853. 

39247. A vertebra. Purchased, 1865. 

40221-3. Several vertebrae. Purchased, 1867. 

28093. Eight vertebrae. Presented by F. E. Edwards, Esq., 1856. 

33206. A small vertebra. Dixon Collection. 

38999. Several vertebrae. 

Bowerbank Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

37316. Fragment of rock containing four imperfect vertebrae. 

Purchased, 1863. 

25603. Three imperfect vertebrae cemented together by matrix. 

Dixon Collection. 

R. 42. Three vertebrae apparently belonging to this species ; said to 
be from the London Clay of Sheppey. One of these 
specimens is represented in fig. 56. 

Shrubsole Collection. Purchased, 1880. 

R. 1023. An associated series of 44 imperfect vertebrae. 

Presented by P. E. Coombe, Esq., 1888. 

R. 873. An imperfect trunk vertebra ; from the Middle (?) Eocene 
of Brussels, Belgium. 

Presented by Sir P. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 

s2 



260 SQTTAMATA. 

The following specimens are the types of P. porcatus. 

33203. A. vertebra; figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. xiv. figs. 18, 19. 

{Fig.) The alleged specific characters are the ridge connecting 
the two zygapophyses of each side, and the wider neural 
arch, but very similar features occur in one of No. 25603. 

Dixon Collection. 

33203 a. A similar vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. xiv. 
{Fig.) figs. 20, 21. Same history. 

25602. A much smaller vertebra. Figured by Owen, op. cit. 
{Fig.). pi. xiv. fig. 13. Same history. 

Palaeophis, sp. 

The following specimens may indicate a form distinct from the , 
preceding. 

All are from the Middle Eocene of BracMesham, Sussex. 

25601. A vertebra ; figured by Oweri in his ' London Clay Eeptilia,' 
{Fig.) pi. xiv. figs. 10-12. Dixon Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

25603 a. A vertebra. Same history. 

25604. A vertebra. Figured, op. cit. pi. xiv. figs. 5-6. 

{Fig.) Same history. 

25605. A vertebra. Figured, op. cit. pi. xiv. fig. 32. 

{Fig.) Same history. 

25607. Numerous imperfect vertebrae and ribs in matrix. Figured, 
{Fig.) op. cit. pi. xvi. fig. 4. Same history. 

33199. Fragment of rock containing numerous imperfect vertebrae. 

Same history. 

40224. A vertebra. Purchased, 1867. 

Incertcs sedis. 

42733. A slab of limestone containing the nearly entire skeleton 
of a small Snake ; from the Upper Miocene of (Eningen, 
Switzerland. This specimen may belong to the same 
species as the Snake figured by Meyer in his ' Fauna der 
Yorwelt — Rept. aus. d. Molasse,' pi. vi. fig. 2, under the 
name of Coluber kargi, but referred by Eochebrune, in the 
' Nouv. Archiv. d. Museum,' ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 292, to the 
Viperine genus Bitis {Echidna). 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 



MOSASATJEID^]. 261 

Suborder PYTHONOMORPHA. 

Body much elongated. Skull of a Yaranoid type, with united 
nasals and premaxillse, loosely articulated quadrates, teeth on the 
pterygoids, and frequently sclerotic ossifications 1 . Teeth large, 
sharp, and anchylosed by expanded bases to the summits of the 
jaws. Vertebrae with or without zygosphenes, and those of the 
cervical region in some cases exceeding nine. There is no sternum 
or clavicle, and usually no interclavicle 2 or sacrum. Limbs in the 
form of paddles, with the terminal phalangeals devoid of claws, and 
no foramen to the humerus ; pelvis imperfectly developed. No 
dermal scutes, at least in most forms 3 . 

Family MOSASAUEIDaE. 

With the exception of Plioplatecarpus, Dollo 4 , all the forms may 
be included in this family. 

Genus MOSASAURUS, Conybeare 5 . 

Premaxillse not produced into an edentulous rostrum ; teeth smooth, 
curved, more or less faceted and slightly compressed ; pterygoids 
not uniting in the middle line e . Vertebrae without zygosphenes ; 
centra short ; chevrons in the middle and posterior caudal region 
anchylosed to vertebrae. 

Mosasaurus camperi, Meyer 7 . 

Syn. Mosasaurus belgicus, Holl 8 . 

Mosasaurus hofmanni, auctorum 9 . 
Mosasaurus giganteus, Cope 10 . 

1 Dollo suggests that these are absentia Hainosaurus ; see Bull. Mus. R. 
Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. iv. p. 31 (1885). 

2 Present in Plioplatecarpus. 

3 Marsh has referred scutes to some of the American forms ; but the 
association is doubted by Cope. 

4 See Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, 1885, pp. 334, 335. 

5 In Cuvier's 'Ossemens Fossiles,' 2nd ed. vol. v. pt. 2, p. 338 (1824). 

G United in Pterycollasaurics, Dollo, Bull. Mus. E. Hist. Nat. Belg. vol. i. 
p. 61 (1882). 

7 ' Palseologica,' p. 113 (1832). 

8 ' Handbuch der Petrefactenkunde,' pt. i. p. S4 (182'.)). Inappropriate, as 
Maastricht is now in Holland. 

9 This name is quoted by Mantell in Trans. Q-eol. Soc. ser. 2, vol. Iii. p. 207 
(1829), where it is applied to Mosasauroid remains from, the English Chalk. 

10 Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xiv. p. 189 (1870) ; ex Monitor giganteus in 
Holl's ' Petrefactenkunde,' op. cit. 



262 SQTTAMATA. 

The type species. Total length of skull 1,200; estimated entire 
length 7,625 (25 feet) ; 14 or 15 lower teeth. 
Hob. Europe (Holland 1 ). 

The following specimens or their originals were obtained from the 
Upper Cretaceous of St. Peter's Mount, near Maastricht, Hol- 
land ; and, unless it is stated to the contrary, belong to the Van 
Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

11589. Cast of the imperfect skull with several of the component 
bones separated, and two cervical vertebrae in the same 
block. The original was discovered previously to 1785, 
and may be regarded as the type. It is preserved in the 
Museum at Paris, and is figured by Cuvier in the ' Osse- 
mens Fossiles,' 2nd ed. vol. v. pt. 2, pi. xviii., and by 
Buckland in his ' Geology and Mineralogy ' (Bridgewater 
Treatise), pi. xx. Mantell Collection, Purchased 1838. 

42939. A bone which is apparently the anterior extremity of the 

united premaxillaa of a small individual. Corresponds 
with the larger specimen figured by Dollo in the ' Bull. 
Mus. E. Hist. Nat. Belg. ' vol. i. pi. iv. 

42928. Part of the roof of the cranium, embedded in matrix and 
seen from below. 

42930. Slab of matrix, showing the under surface of part of the 
superior process of the premaxillas, and of the anterior 
extremities of the prefrontals. The bones are in their 
natural position, and are separated by the nares. 

42935. The conjoint basioccipital and basisphenoid. 

42949. The imperfect left quadrate. Figured by Owen in the 
{Fig.) 'Quart. Journ. GeoL Soc' vol. xxxiii. pp. 691-2, figs. 
9-12. 

42975. A much smaller specimen of an imperfect left quadrate. 

R. 1223. A considerable portion of the left maxilla, showing three 
fully protruded teeth. No history. 

42940. Fragment of maxilla, with the alveolus of a young tooth and 

the broken bases of two others. 

42936. Part of the left maxilla, with the bases of two teeth, and 

two germ-teeth in alveolo. 

42932. Slab showing part of a pterygoid with two teeth. 

1 Schroder, Jahrb. k. preuss. geol. Landesanst, for 1884, p. 324, records this 
species from Sweden ; but the evidence appears insufficient. 



MOSASATTEID^. 263 

R. 1224. The dentary portion of the right ramus of the mandible. 
There are fifteen teeth. Presented by Dr. Peter Camper, 1784. 

42931. The anterior portion of the right ramus of the mandible of 
a young individual, showing three fully protruded teeth, 
and others in their alveoli. 

42938. Part of a small dentary bone with imperfect teeth, provi- 

sionally referred to a small individual of this species. 

42950-1. Undetermined bones of the skull. 

42997 a. The right splenial. No history, 

42939. A fragment of a jaw perhaps referable to this species. 

Of the following some may be referable to Liodon. 

42941. A number of crowns of small teeth, of which some may be 
either the pterygoidal teeth of this form or may belong to 
Liodon. 

42941. The crown of a very large tooth, probably from the hinder 
part of the mandible. 

42929. Slab with six associated cervical vertebrae and an imperfect 
bone of the skull. 

R. 1225. Slab containing a tooth, imperfect humerus, the centrum 
of a vertebra, portions of ribs, and metapodial bones. 

No history. 

42933. Slab showing several trunk vertebrae, a small imperfect 
quadrate, and the root of a tooth. 

42946. A slightly imperfect cervical vertebra. 

42946 a. A more imperfect cervical vertebra. 

42946 b. The imperfect centrum of a small cervical vertebra. 

42946 c. An imperfect cervical vertebra of still smaller size. 

42953. The imperfect neural arch of a cervical or dorsal vertebra. 

42946 d. An imperfect anterior dorsal vertebra. 

R. 1226. An imperfect posterior trunk vertebra. Figured by Owen 

(Fig.) in his ' Cretaceous Eeptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. pi. viii. 

figs. 4, 5. No history. 

42946 e. The imperfect centrum of a posterior trunk vertebra of a 
very large individual. 

42946 f . The centrum of a posterior trunk vertebra. 



264 SQTJAMATA. 

42948 g. The imperfect centrum of a posterior trunk vertebra. 

42946 h. The centrum of a posterior trunk vertebra. 

42946 i. The imperfect centrum of a smaller trunk vertebra. 

42946 j, k. Two similar but smaller centra. 

42946 1. Three imperfect posterior trunk vertebra?. 

42934. An anterior or middle caudal vertebra with the entire 
chevron attached. 

42946 m. The centrum of a similar vertebra. 

42946 n. The centra of two posterior caudal vertebrae. 

42946 0. Six imperfect posterior caudal vertebrae. 

42944. An imperfect posterior caudal vertebra. 

11589 a. Cast of a bone which is probably an ulna. 

Mantell Collection. 

42961. A bone probably belonging to the carpus. 

42943, 42945. Two imperfect undetermined bones. 

Mosasaurus dekayi, Bronn \ 
The following specimen is provisionally referred to this species, but 
may belong to M. maooimus, Cope 2 . The teeth are fully as large 
as those of M. camperi. The synonymy is given by Cope 3 . 
Hah. North America. 

11590. Cast of a tooth. The original was obtained from the Upper 
Cretaceous of New Jersey, U. S. A., and is figured by Leidy 
in his ' Cretaceous Reptiles of the United States ' (Smith. 
Contrib. Knowl.), pi. x. fig. 3. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

Genus LIODON, Owen 4 . 
Including :— Nectoportheus, Cope 5 ; Rhinosaurus, Marsh . 
Rhamphosaurus, Cope 7 ; Tylosaurus, Marsh 8 . 

Assuming that the American forms are rightly referred to this 

1 ' Letheea Geognostica,' 2nd ed. p. 760 (1837). 

2 Proc. Post. Soc. Nat. Hist. vol. xii. p. 262 (1869). 

3 Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xiv. p. 193 (1870). 

4 ' Odontography;' p. 261 (1840).— Amended. 

5 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1868, p. 181. 

6 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. iii. p. 461 (1872). — Preoccupied. 

7 I 'roc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1872, p. 141.— Preoccupied. 

8 Op. cit. vol. iv. p. 147 (1872). 



M0SASATJKID2B. 265 

genus, it will be characterized as follows : — Premaxillae produced 
into an edentulous rostrum ; teeth (fig. 57) nearly smooth, curved, 
and more or less compressed, and in the posterior part of the jaws 
with well-defined fore-and-aft carinse, of which the posterior one 
may disappear towards the muzzle. Vertebrae short, without zygo- 
sphenes, and with weak zygapophyses ; chevrons, at least in many 
cases, free. Humerus long and narrow. 

It should be observed that all the Mosasauroid vertebras from the 
English Chalk have the chevrons anchylosed to the centra ; but it 
does not certainly follow that they are referable to L. anzeps. 

Liodoia anceps, Owen \ 

Syn. Mosasaurus stenodon, Charlesworth 2 . 
(?) Liodon lundgreni, Schroder 3 . 

The type species. Only known by fragments of jaws and de- 
tached teeth. The latter are much compressed, and indicate an 
animal much smaller than Mosasaurus camperi. 

Bab. Europe (England, Germany, France, and (?) Sweden). 

The following specimens are from the Upper Chalk. 

48939. The crown of a tooth ; from Norwich. Purchased, 1878. 

48940. A similar specimen ; from Norwich. Same history. 

R. 1227. Cast of the crown of a tooth. The original is from 
Norwich, and is preserved in the Woodwardian Museum, 
Cambridge; it is somewhat smaller than No. 48939. 

Made in the Museum, 1888. 

R. 1228. Cast of the crown of a larger tooth. The original is 
from Norwich, and is in the Woodwardian Museum. 

Same history. 

41639. Fragment of the mandible, with the broken bases of 
{Fig.) two teeth; from Essex. One of the types. Figured by 

Owen in his i Odontography,' pi. lxxii. fig. 12, and his 
'Cretaceous Reptilia' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. pi. ix a. 
figs. 3, 4, and also by Charlesworth in the ' London Geolo- 
gical Journal,' no. i. pis. iv., v., when it was less imperfect. 
This specimen is the type of M. stenodon. 

Toulmin-Smith Collection. Purchased, 18G9. 

41640. One imperfect half of the siliceous cast of the pulp-cavity 
(Fig.) of a tooth, probably belonging to the same individual as 

1 'Odontography,' p. 261 (1840). 

2 Oharlesworth's 'London Geological Journal,' no. i. p. 23^(1846). 

3 Jahrb. k. preuss. geol. Landesanst. for 1884, p. 32d (18sh). 



266 



SQJEJAMATA. 



the preceding specimen ; from Essex. Figured by Owen, 
op. cit. pi. ix. fig. 2', and by Charlesworth, op. cit. In both 
cases a section of the tooth itself is also figured. 

Same history. 

48943. A tooth; from Norwich. Somewhat smaller than No. 48939. 

Purchased, 1878. 

36598. The crown of a tooth ; from Norwich. 

Presented by J. Mills, Esq., 1862. 

48940 b. The crown of a tooth ; from Norwich. Purchased, 1878. 

36556. The crown of a tooth ; from Norwich. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

48941 a. A series of small teeth provisionally referred to this 

species ; from Norwich, Purchased, 1878. 



Liodon, sp. 

Perhaps identical with the preceding species. 
Hal. Europe (Belgium). 

Fig. 57. 




Liodon, sp. — Lateral and profile views of a lower tooth ; from the Upper 
Cretaceous of Maastricht. \. 

42937. Part of the alveolar portion of the right ramus of the man- 
{Fig.) diblo ; from the Upper Cretaceous of Maastricht, Nether- 
lands. These teeth (fig. 57) arc perfectly preserved, and 



M0SASATJEIDJ3. 



2Q\ 



the hindmost resembles No. 48939 of L. anceps, while 
the first is less compressed, and has only an imperfect 
posterior carina, in which respect it agrees with Cope's 
description of the American forms. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871, 



Liodon haumuriensis, Hector \ 

Imperfectly known. There are fifteen teeth in the upper jaw, 
occupying a total length of 26 inches ; they are markedly compressed. 
Rah. New Zealand. 

The following specimens are from the Cretaceous of Amuri Bluff, 
South Island ; and were obtained by exchange ivith the Trustees 
of the Colonial Museum, Wellington, 1880. 

R. 812. Fragments of skull. 

R. 813. Portions of mandible with teeth. 

R. 814. Imperfect vertebrae. 

R. 815. Two teeth (one imperfect) in matrix. These teeth agree 
with those figured by Hector in the ' Trans. N. Zealand 
Inst.' vol. vi. pi. xxx. ; the entire one has no posterior 
carina, and belongs to the anterior part of the series. 

R. 815 a. Fragments of jaws. 

R. 816. Impression of vertebra. 

R. 817. Eight caudal vertebras. 

R. 818. A vertebral centrum. 

R. 819. Part of skull. 

Liodon perlatus, Cope 2 . 

Of large size, with the anterior trunk vertebras much depressed, 
and the teeth but slightly compressed. 

Apparently closely allied to L. dyspelor, Cope 3 , of New Mexico. 
Cope separates the present form from the imperfectly known Liodon 
brumbyi (Gibbes 4 ) of Alabama ; but as the trunk vertebras of that 

1 Trans. N. Zealand Inst. vol. vi. p. 351 (1874). 

2 Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xi. p. 497 (1870). 

3 See Eep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terrs, vol. ii. pp. 167-177 (1872). 

4 Smiths. Contrib. Knowl. vol. ii. art. 5, p. 11 (1851). — Amphirosteus. 



268 SQT7AMATA. 

species are also of the same depressed type \ it does not appear 
certain that this is correct, in which case the latter specific name 
should he adopted. 

The specimens here included uuder this head may perhaps be 
referable to more than a single species; the present- species was 
founded upon caudal vertebras. 

Hob. North America (Alabama). 

The following specimens are from the Cretaceous of Alabama, and, 
unless the contrary is stated, were presented in 1859 by Prof J. 
W. Malet. 

35615. Part of the left dentary, showing eight teeth, of which only 

one is entire. Agrees in relative proportions with the 
maxilla of L. dyspelor figured by Cope in the Eep. U. S. 
Geol. Surv. Terrs, vol. ii. pi. xxviii. fig. 1. 

35616. Part of the right dentary, showing one entire and three 

broken teeth, belonging to the same individual. 

35617. The nearly entire right pterygoid of the same individual. 

The teeth are wanting. 

35618. The left surangular and portion of the angular of the same 

individual. 

35619. A small imperfect tooth. 

35620. The extremity of the conjoint premaxillse and fragments of 

the anterior portion of the maxillse of a small individual. 
The edentulous premaxillary rostrum is well shown. 

35621-3. Fragments of jaws with teeth. 

35624. An imperfect cervical vertebra, 

40984. The centrum of a dorsal vertebra. In its depressed cha- 
racter this specimen agrees with the dorsals of L. dyspelor 
figured by Cope, op. cit. pi. xxx. 

Presented by Sir 0. Lyell, Bart., 1868. 

40984 a. An imperfect anterior dorsal vertebra. Same history. 

40984 b. The centrum of a small anterior dorsal vertebra. 

Same history. 

35634. The centrum of a trunk vertebra of similar type. Accords 
with the specimen belonging to L. dyspelor, figured by 
Cope, op. cit. pi. xxx. fig. 8. 

1 See Cope, Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terrs, vol. ii. p. 176. 



MOSASAUEID^!. 



269 



35627. A posterior trunk vertebra. The matrix resembles that of 
No. 35635. 

40982. The centrum of a larger posterior trunk vertebra. 

Presented by Sir C. Lyell, Bart, 1868. 




Liodon, sp.— Anterior and left lateral aspect of an imperfect anterior caudal 
vertebra ; from the Cretaceous of Alabama, f . 

The centrum of a large anterior caudal vertebra. The 



35625. 

{Fig.) 



chevron-facets are well shown, and the specimen agrees 
closely with the anterior caudal of L. jproriger, figured by 
Cope, op. cit. pi. xxx. fig. 11 . This specimen is represented 
in the accompanying woodcut. 

35626. The centrum of a somewhat later caudal vertebra. 

35635. The centrum of a much smaller caudal vertebra. The matrix 

of this and the following specimen differs from that of the 
jaws, and it may belong to a distinct species. 

35636. An imperfect centrum of similar type. 

40983. The centrum of an anterior caudal vertebra of similar t size 
but of a larger type. The matrix agrees with that of the 
jaws. Presented by Sir C. by ell, Bart., 1868. 



Genus PLATECARPUS, Cope l . 



Byn. Lestosaurus Marsh 2 . 
Taniivhasauriis, Hector 



1 Proc. Bost. Nat Hist. Soc. vol. xii. p. 2l>4 (1869). 

2 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. iii. p. 45-1 (187-). 

3 Trans. N. Zealand Inst. vol. vi. p. 353 (1874). 



270 SQXJAMATA, 

Body much elongated. Premaxillse not produced into a rostrum* 
Teeth slightly compressed, acute, curved, often carinated and grooved. 
Vertebrae without, or with rudimental zygosphenal articulations, and 
strong zygapophyses ; chevrons free. Humerus short and broad. 
The skull is represented in fig. 59. The so-called Taniwhasaurus 
presents no characters by which it can be distinguished from the 

Fig. 59. 




Platecarpus curtirostris, Cope. — Frontal aspect of the cranium ; from the Upper 
Cretaceous of N. America. Greatly reduced, pmx, premaxilla ; mx, 
maxilla ; fr, frontal ; prf, prefrontal. (After Cope.) 

present genus. The limb-bone from the Cambridge Greensand 
described by Seeley r as Cetarthrosaurus may indicate a closely 
allied form 2 . All the species are of medium or small size. 

Platecarpus oweni (Hector 3 ). 
Syn. Taniwhasaurus oiveni, Hector 4 . 

The type of Taniwhasaurus ; imperfectly known. The crowns of 
the teeth measure 0,025 in height and have a basal diameter of 
0,013; they are grooved, but not distinctly faceted, and with 
obscure carinse. 

Hah. New Zealand. 

The following specimens, unless it is stated to the contrary, are 
from the Cretaceous of Amuri Bluff, South Island, and were 
obtained in 1880 by exchange with the Trustees of the Colonial 
Museum, Wellington. 

R. 876. A tooth in matrix which agrees with the description of 
those of the type specimen; from the Cretaceous of 
Waipara, Canterbury, New Zealand. 

Presented by Sir E. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol.xxix. p. 505 (1873). 

2 See Hulke, Proc. Geol. Soc. 1883, p. 50. 

3 Trans. N. Zealand Inst. vol. vi. p. 353 (1874).— Taniwhasaurus. 

4 Loc. cit. 



M0SAS1UEIDJ3. 271 

R. 822. Mould of part of the skull K 
R. 823. Block of matrix with vertebra. 
R. 824. Matrix with ribs. 
R. 825. Two pterygoid teeth. 
R. 826. A vertebra. 

Platecarpus (?), sp. 

The undermentioned specimen is provisionally referred to this 
genus. 

Bab. Europe (England). 

39424. The crown of a tooth; from the Chalk of Sussex. The 
enamel is strongly grooved, and the specimen apparently 
closely resembles the teeth of P. mudgei, figured by Cope 
in the ' Eep. U.S. Geol. Surv. Terrs.' vol. ii. pi. xxvi. 

Bowerbanlc Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

Genus GEOSAURUS, Cuvier 2 . 

Syn. Halilimnosaurus, Ritgen 3 . 

Imperfectly known, but apparently very closely allied to Clidastes, 
which may prove to be the same. 

Geosaixrus giganteus (Sommerring 4 ). 

Syn. Lacerta gigantea, Sommerring 5 . 
Geosaurus soemmerringi, Cuvier 6 . 
Halilimnosaurus crocodiloides, Ritgen 7 . 
Mosasaurus bavaricus, Holl 8 . 

The type species. 

Hob. Europe (Germany). 

R. 1229. The middle portion of the skull, in a crushed condition 

(Fig.) from the Kimeridgian (Upper Jurassic) lithographic stone 

of Monheim, Pranconia. The type specimen. Figured 

by Sommerring in the ' Denkschr. k. Ak. Miinchen,' vol. vi. 

pi. accompanying memoir, figs. 1-7 ; and also by Cuvier 

1 This and the following specimens were determined by Dr. Hector, on whose 
authority they are referred to this form. 

2 ' Ossemens Fossiles,' 2nd ed. vol. v. pt. 2, p. 338 (1824). 

3 Nova Acta Ac. Cres. Leop.-Car. vol. xiii. p. 331 (1826). 

4 Denkschr. k. Ak. Miinchen, vol. vi. p. 37 (1816 ; vol. dated 1820).— Lacerta. 

5 Loc. cit. 6 Loc. cit. 7 Loc. cit. 
8 ' Handbuch der Petrefactenkunde,' pt. i. p. 85 (1829). 



272 SQTTAMATA. 

in the f Ossemens Fossiles/ 2nd ed. vol. v. pt. 2, pi. xxi. 
figs. 2-6, and 4th ed. vol. x. pi. ccxlix. figs. 2-6. 

Sommerring Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

R. 1230. A considerable portion of the vertebral column, ribs, and 
(Fig.) the left pelvis and hind limb of the same individual. 
Figured by Sommerring, op. cit. figs. 8-10, and by Cuvier, 
op. cit. pi. xxi. figs. 7-8, and pi. ccxlix. figs. 7-8. As 
far as their crushed condition admits of comparison, the 
vertebras appear to agree in all respects with those of 
Clidastes (No. R. 473). The pelvis and hind limb also 
accord very closely with the restoration of the same in 
Clidastes, as given by Cope in the Rep. U.S. Geol. Surv. 
Terrs, vol. ii. pi. lv., but the bone which is probably the 
ischium is relatively larger and differently placed. 

Same history. 

37020. An imperfect skull provisionally referred to a large indivi- 
dual of this species ; from the Kimeridgian of Solenhofen, 
Bavaria. This specimen seems to accord with the skull 
of Clidastes, figured by Cope, op. cit. pi. xiv. fig 1. 

Purchased, 1862. 

37016-7. The crowns of two teeth agreeing with those of the last 
specimen ; from Solenhofen. Same history. 

21530. The crown of a similar tooth ; from Solenhofen. 

Purchased, 1847. 

Genus CLIDASTES, Cope l . 

Syn. Edestosaurus, Marsh 2 (teste Cope). 

Body greatly elongated. Premaxillas not produced into a rostrum. 
Vertebras much elongated, with zygosphenes, which are placed but 
slightly above the plane of the zygapophyses ; 8 in the cervical 
region ; chevrons anchylosed to centra. Humerus short and broad. 
The possibility of this genus proving identical with the preceding is 
noticed under that head. All the species are of moderate or small size. 

Clidastes, sp. 

Ha b. North America. 

R. 473. Portions of two associated mandibular rami and five dorsal 
vertebras of a small form ; from the Cretaceous of Kansas, 
U. S. A. Presented by Sir li. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 

1 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Pbilad. 1868, p. 233. 

2 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. i. p. 447 (1871). 



mosa.saurhxe. 273 

Genekically Undetermined Specimens. 
A. From the Cretaceous of Maastricht. 

R. 291 a. The crown of a large tooth. This specimen is nearly 
symmetrical, and has very prominent carinae, which form 
distinct ridges on the fore-and-aft borders. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

R. 291 b. A tooth of smaller size, with the crown somewhat 
compressed, curved, and carinated. This tooth might 
apparently belong either to Liodon or to the hinder part 
of the mandible of Mosasaurus. Same history. 

R. 1231. A smaller tooth of similar type. No history. 

R. 1232. The crown of a small tooth, with one surface faceted. 

No history. 

44822. A small imperfect cervical vertebra. In its depressed cen- 
trum this specimen agrees with the trunk vertebra of 
Liodon perlatus. Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

B. From the Upper Chalk of England \ 

43193. The crown of a tooth of medium size ; from Gravesend, 
(Fig.) Kent. Figured by Mantel! in his ' Medals of Creation,' 
vol. ii. fig. 229, as Mosasaurus hofmanni. This tooth 
resembles the Maastricht specimen No. E. 291 b. 

Wetherell Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

48940 d. The crown of a very large tooth ; from Norwich. This 
specimen approximates to the Maastricht specimen 
No. E. 291 a. Purchased, 1878. 

39423. The crown of a small tooth, with one surface flattened as in 
Mosasaurus ; from Sussex. 

BoiverbanJc Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

39425. The crown of a tooth resembling No. 39423. Same history. 

41383. The crown of a very similar tooth; locality unknown. 

Purchased, 1869. 

47954. The crown of a tooth of the same type ; from Maidstone, 
Kent. Presented by the Hon. E. Marsham, 1^77. 

1 It should be observed that Mosasaurus gracilis, Owen, ' Cretaceous Reptilia' 
(Mon. Pal. Soc.), pt. i. p. 31, is founded on the jaw of a fish. 

T 



274 SQTJAMATA. 

36557. The crowns of two small teeth, of which one is very short 
and thick ; from Sussex. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1853. 

43194. The crown of a very small tooth ; from Gravesend. Figured 
(Fig.) by Mantell, op. cit. fig. 230. 

Wetherell Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

R. 1233. A small imperfect caudal vertebra ; locality unknown. 

No history. 

5642. A small imperfect trunk vertebra; from Sussex. Figured 
(Fig.) by Mantell in his ' Geology of the South-east of England/ 
p. 146, fig. 2, and in the ' Geology of the South Downs/ 
pi. xxxiii. fig. 13 ; and also by Owen in his ' Cretaceous 
Eeptilia ' (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. i. pi. viii. figs. 1-2, as Mosa- 
saurus gracilis. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1838. 

5641. Two associated caudal vertebra?, agreeing in size with the 
(Fig.) preceding; from Sussex. Eigured by Mantell, op. cit. 

p. 146, fig. 1, and pi. xli. fig. 3 ; and also by Owen, op. cit. 

pi. viii. fig. 3, as M. gracilis. Same history. 

37000 a. A series of imperfect caudal vertebra? ; from Norwich. 
In all the chevrons are anchylosed to the centra. 

Purchased, 1860. 

37000 b. The united atlas and axis vertebra?, apparently associated 
with the preceding ; from Norwich. Same history. 

48942. An imperfect posterior caudal vertebra ; from Norwich. 
This specimen, in which the chevron is anchylosed to the 
centrum, is said to have been found in association with 
the tooth No. 48943, referred to Liodon anceps. 

Purchased, 1878. 

C. From the Cretaceous of Alabama. 

35632. Tho centrum and left transverse process of a dorsal vertebra. 
In tho cylindrical centrum this specimen resembles the 
vertebra? of Mosasaurus camperi, and differs from those of 
Liodon perlatus. Presented by Prof. J. W. Malet, 1859. 

Suborder DOLICHOSAURIA. 

Body anguiform. Vertebra? with zygosphenes, and more than 
nine in cervical region. Limbs imperfectly known, but apparently 
of a Lacertilian type. Sacrum and pectoral and pelvic girdles well 
developed. 



DOLICHOSAURICSE. 275 

Family DOLICHOSAURIDiE. 

The only family ; also represented by Acteosaurus, Meyer \ in the 
Cretaceous of Austria. 

Genus DOLXCHOSAURUS, Owen 2 . 
Vertebrae much elongated ; seventeen in the cervical region. 

Dolichosaurus longicollis, Owen 3 . 
The type species. Not larger than the common English snake. 
Hab. Europe (England). 

49002. The anterior half of the skeleton ; from the Lower Chalk of 

(Fig.) Burham, Kent. The type specimen. Figured in Dixon's 

' Geology of Sussex,' 1st ed. pi. xxxviii. figs. 1,2; in the 

4 Geologist,' vol. vi. pi. xiv. ; and in Owen's ' Cretaceous 

Keptilia' (lion. Pal. Soc), pt. i. pi. x. figs. 1-3. 

Purchased, 1878. 

32268. Portion of the vertebral column; from Burham. Figured 
(Fir/.) by Owen in the ' Trans. Geol. Soc' ser. 2, vol. vi. pi. xxxix. 
fig. 4 (1840), and noticed in the Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 
1841, p. 145, as Bhaphiosaurus ; also figured in Dixon's 
' Geology of Sussex,' pi. xxxix. fig. 4, and in Owen's 
' Cretaceous Keptilia/ pt. i. pi. x. fig. 4. 

Presented by Sir P. de M. G. Egerton, Bart, 1856. 

44141. Fragments of the skull and some of the anterior vertebrae; 
from the Chalk of Lidden Spout, near Folkestone, Kent. 

Purchased, 1873. 

49907-8. Fragments of the trunk, tail, and anterior limb; from 
the Chalk of Southeram Pit, near Lewes, Sussex. 

Purchased. 1879. 



Suborder LACERTILIA. 

Body usually lacertiform, but occasionally anguiform. Ali- and 
orbitosphenoidal region imperfectly ossified ; superior temporal 
arcade usually present ; quadrate articulating with pterygoid ; 
nasals entering nares ; mandibular rami uniting bj r suture. Vertebral 
occasionally amphiccelous ; usually without zygosphenes ; and never 
more than nine in the cervical region. When limbs are present 

1 PaliBontograpbica, vol. vii. art. 4. p. 223 (1860). 

3 In Dixon's 'Geology of Sussex/ 1st ed. p. 388 (1850). 3 Lor. at. 

t2 



276 




Left side of pelvis of Iguanoid Lacertilian. — II, ilium ; Is, ischium ; P, pubis ; 
A, acetabulum ; pra, psa, pre- and postacetabular processes ; p, symphysis 
pubis ; pf, ischio-pubic notch. (From the ' Quart. Journ. Greol. Soc.') 

there is a sternum, clavicle, interclaviele, and sacrum ; and the 
pelvis (fig. 60) is well developed. The limbs are adapted for walk- 
ing, with clawed terminal phalangeals, and a foramen to the 
humerus. Dermal scutes may be present. 

Equivalent to the Lacertilia Yera of Boulenger l ; the Ehiptoglossa 
being reckoned as a group of equal rank. Pig. 52 shows the lateral 
aspect of the Lacertilian pectoral girdle, exclusive of the clavicle 
and interclaviele. 

Family AGAMIM]. 

Temporal arcade and postorbital bar complete; supratemporal 
fossa not roofed over by bone; premaxillas separate. Dentition 
acrodont. Vertebrae without zygosphenes. 

Genus CHLAMYDOSAURUS, Gray 2 . 
The tympanum distinct. 

CfylamgttogauruS fcmgf, Gray 8 . 

The only species. 
Hob. Australia. 

E. 495. Portions of a skull, provisionally referred to this species; 
from the Pleistocene of Gowrie, Queensland. This spe- 
cimen has been named 0. bennetti by Owen in MS., but it 
docs not appear to show any characters by which it can 
be distinguished from the living form. 

Presented by Dr. George Bennett. 

1 Catalogue of Lizards (1885-87). 

2 In King's ' Voyage to Australia,' vol. ii. p. 424 (1826). 3 Op. cit. p. 425. 



IGFAtflD^E. 277 

Family IGUANID.E. 

Temporal arcade and postorbital bar complete; supratemporal 
fossa not roofed over by bone; premaxillae united. Dentition 
pleurodont. Yertebra3 with zygospbenes. 

Genus IGUANA, Laurenti 1 . 

The type genus. In the case of the undermentioned fossils, the 
term must be employed in a much wider sense than is the case in 
recent zoology, where it is restricted to i". tuberculata and /. delica- 
tissima. 

Iguana europsea, Filhol 2 . 
Syn. Proiguana europeana, Filhol 3 . 

Imperfectly known ; if it prove to indicate a distinct genus, the 
name Proiguana might be adopted were it not that this is a hybrid 
term. The type specimens consist of portions of the jaws from the 
Quercy Phosphorites ; and since the other Squamata from these 
deposits appear to be identical with those from Hordwell, the pre- 
sumption is that the undermentioned specimens belong to this species. 

Hab. Europe (France and ? England). 

32840 a. Three imperfect vertebrae ; from the Upper Eocene 

(Fig.) (Lower Oligocene) of Hordwell, Hampshire. The best 

preserved specimen (fig. 61), although of smaller size, 

agrees precisely with the dorsal vertebrae of existing 

Fig. 61. 




Iguana europcea. — Hsemal, anterior, and lateral views of a dorsal vertebra ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Hordwell. \. zs, zygosphene ; c, costal articulation. 

Iguanas, and could scarcely be specifically distinguished 
from the corresponding recent vertebra figured by Owen 
in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1851, pi. li. figs. 40-43. Noticed 
by the writer in the * Geol. Alag.' dec. 3, vol. v. p. 110 
(1888). Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1S55. 

1 Syn. Kept. p. 47 (1768). 

2 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. p. 267 (1877). -Amended. ■ Ibid. p. 338. 



278 SQTJAMATA. 

Family ANGUID^E. 

Postorbital bar and temporal arcade complete; supratemporal 
fossa roofed over by bony scutes ; premaxillae and nasals separate. 
Dentition usually pleurodont ; teeth may be present on the ptery- 
goids, palatines, and vomers, and are generally obtuse. Dermal 
scutes present and marked by tubercular sculpture. The vertebral 
centra much flattened inferiorly, and very like those of the 
Varanidve. 

Genus OPHISAURUS, Daudin 1 . 

Syn. Pseudopus, Merrem 2 . 

Limbs absent externally, or with only a rudiment of the pelvic 
pair ; teeth on pterygoids, and in some cases on palatines. 

Ophisaurus mogunthms (Boettger 3 ). 
Syn. Pseudopus moguntinus, Boettger 4 . 

The distinctive characters are not clearly known, and this species 
may belong to Propseudopus, Hilgendorf *. 
Hab. Europe (Germany). 

42756. A split slab of lignite containing the impression of a con- 
siderable portion of the skeleton and scales ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Bott, near Bonn. The end of the tail 
has been renewed during life ; the squamation of the 
renewed part being like that of Anguis. The slab also 
contains the impression of part of the vertebral column of 
a Lacerta. Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 



The following genus may be included in the present family, although 
it has been made the type of a distinct family — the Placosau- 
rida3. The American Eocene genera Saniva, Leidy G , Glypto- 
saurus, Marsh 7 , and Peltosaurus, Cope 8 , are probably allied. 

Hist. Eep. toI. vii. p. 346 (1803). 

2 Tent. Syst. Amphib. p. 78 (1820). 

3 Ber. Senckonb. nat. Ges. for 1873-74, p. 79 (1874).— Pseudopus. 4 Loc. cit. 
5 Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Ges. vol. xxxvii. p. 358 (1885). 

8 See Eep. U.S. Geol. Surv. Terrs, vol. i. pp. 181-183 (1873). 

7 See Leidy, loc. cit. 

8 Rep. U.S. Geol. Surv. Terrs, vol. iii. Vertebrata of the Tertiary Formation! 
of the West. Book i. pp. 1.02. 722 (188 



ANGFIDiE. 279 

Genus PLACOSAURUS, Gervais 1 . 

Syn. Palceovaranus, Filhol 2 . 

Teeth conical and pointed. The vertebrae appear intermediate 
between those of Ophisaurus and Diploglossus, having the tall and 
broad neural spines of the latter and the extremely flattened centra 
of the former. The limbs were fully developed. 

Placosaurus margariticeps (Gervais 3 ). 

Syn. Varanus (?) margariticeps, Gervais 4 . 
Palceovaranus cayluxi, Filhol 5 . 

About once and a half the size of Diploglossus shaivi. A com- 
parison of the type cranial scutes of Varanus margariticeps 
with those of the typical Placosaurus rugosus 7 , from the Eocene of 
Vaucluse, will leave little doubt as to the generic identity of the two 
forms, while the right of the present form even to specific distinc- 
tion has yet to be proved. The undermentioned specimens being 
evidently the remains of Anguidce, may be pretty safely referred to 
this species ; the provisional identification by Filhol of his Palaio- 
varanus cayluxi with Varanus (?) margariticeps being in all proba- 
bility correct 8 . 

Ilab. Europe (France and ? England). 

Fig. 62. 




Placosaurus margariticeps. — Eternal, anterior, and left lateral views of a dorsal 
vertebra; from the Phosphorites of Caylux. j. c, costal articulation. 

R. 427. Two imperfect specimens of the dentary bone of the man- 
dible ; from the Upper Eocene Phosphorites of Lalbenque 
(Lot), France. The larger specimen agrees very closely 

1 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. p. 260 (1848-52). 

a Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. p. 268 (1877). 

3 Zool. et Pal. Generates, ser. 2, p. 60 (1876). — Varanus. 4 Luc. cit. 

5 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. p. 268 (1877). 

6 Gervais, loc. cit., woodcut. 

7 Gervais, Zool. ct Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. pi. lxiv. fig:. 2. 

8 See a note by the writer in the ' Geol. Mag.' dec. .'>. vol. v. p 111 (] 
ce, however, the jaws were still regarded as Varanoid. 



280 8QTTAMATA. 

with the fragment figured by Filhol in the 'Ann. Sci. 
Geol.' vol. viii. pi. xxvi. fig. 434, as the type of Palceova- 
ranus. The teeth are certainly Anguoid. 

Purchased, 1884. 

R. 428. Numerous vertebrae, of which at least the majority probably 
(Fig.) belong to this form, although some may be referable to the 
next ; from Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne). These specimens 
comprise dorsals, sacrals, and caudals. The dorsals (fig. 62), 
although presenting a strong resemblance to those of 
Varanus, differ by the still more marked flatness of the 
haemal aspect of the centrum and the lower position of 
the costal tubercle, in both of which respects they agree 
with the dorsals of Ophisaurus. In their more developed 
neural spines they differ from Ophisaurus, and resemble 
Diploglossus. They are noticed by the writer in the 
4 Geol. Mag.' dec. 3, vol. v. p. 111. Purchased, 1884. 

R. 387. A left femur, agreeing in relative size with the preceding 
specimens ; from Caylux. Agrees with the specimen of 
the opposite side figured by Filhol in the ' Ann. Sci. Ge'ol.' 
vol. viii. pi. xxvi. figs. 445 & 446, as Palceovaranus cayluoci. 
This bone differs from the femur of Varanus by the rela- 
tively longer shaft, the approximation of the great tro- 
chanter to the head, and the contour of the latter ; in all 
of which respects it comes much nearer to the femur of 
Diploglossus. Noticed by the writer, op. cit. 

Same history. 

R. 431. A left femur of similar type, together with a right tibia, 
apparently belonging to the same individual; from the 
Phosphorites of Lalbenque (Lot), France. Same history, 

32840. Numerous vertebrae, apparently belonging to small indivi- 
duals of this genus, and perhaps referable to the present 
species; from the Upper Eocene (Lower Oligocene) of 
Hordwell, Hampshire. Noticed by the writer, op. cit., 
where it is mentioned that they may be equally well re-, 
ferable to P. rugosus, if there be two species of the genus. 
Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30968-9. A dorsal and a caudal vertebra of similar type to the 
preceding ; from the Lower Miocene (Upper Oligocene) of 
St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), France. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



VAEANID^l. 281 

Genus non det. 
This form, which appears identical with Plestiodon cadurcensis of 
Filhol l , has the teeth tall, cylindrical, and blunt. 
Hah. Europe (France). 

R. 377. The greater part of the left dentary bone ; from the Upper 
{Fig.) Eocene (Lower Oligocene) Phosphorites of Caylux (Tarn- 
et-Garonne), Prance. This specimen (fig. 63) apparently 
agrees with the fragmentary dentary figured by Filhol in 
the ' Ann. Sci. GeoL' vol. viii. pi. xxvi. fig. 425, under the 
name of Plestiodon cadurcensis. That it cannot, however, 
belong to that genus is shown by the absence of the ridge 
on the outer side descending from the coronoid ; it agrees 
very closely with the dentary of Dijploglossus and OjoJii- 
saurus. Noticed by the writer in the ' Geol. Mag.' dec. 3, 
vol. v. p. Ill, as Placosaurus. Purchased, 1884. 

Fig. 63. 




External and inner views of the left dentary bone of an Anguoid Lizard ; 
from the Phosphorites of Caylux. \. 

Family VAEANID^E. 

Postorbital bar incomplete ; temporal arcade complete ; supra- 
temporal fossa not roofed over by dermal bones; both the pre- 
maxillee and nasals united together. Dentition pleurodont ; teeth 
large ; palate toothless. Haemal surface of the centra of the dorsal 
vertebrae broad, flat, and devoid of carina. No dermal scutes. 

Genus VARANUS, Merrem \ 

Including : — Monitor, Gray 3 . 

Hydrosaurus, Wagler 4 . 
Megalania, Owen 5 . 

The only genus, the so-called Palwovaranus being an Anguoid. 

1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. p. 266 (1877). 

2 Tent. Syst. Ainphib. p. 58 (1820). 

8 Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 392 (1838). 

* Syst. Amphib. p. 1«4 (1830). B Phil. Trans. 1859, p. 43. 



282 SQTJAMATA. 

Group A. — The dorsal vertebrae elongated, with broad neural spines. 
All the species of moderate size. 

Varanus bengalengfe (Daudin 1 ). 

Syn. Tupinambis bengalensis, Daudin 2 . 
Monitor draccena, Gray 3 . 
Varanus draccsna, Giinther 4 . 

Of small size, the total length being 1,710. 
Hab. India. 

Fig. 64. 




Varanus bengalensis. — Eight maxilla (A), and a dorsal vertebra from the anterior 
(B) and posterior (0) aspects; from the Pleistocene of Madras. \. 
(From the ' Palseontologia Indica.') 

R. 719. Fragments of jaws, vertebrae, and imperfect limb-bones, 
probably belonging to this species ; from the Pleistocene 
of the Billa Surgam Caves, Karnul, Madras. . Similar 
specimens (fig. G4) are described by the writer in the 
' Pahcontologia Indica ' (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), jser. x. 
vol. iv. p. 55. Presented by the Director of the 

Geological Survey of India, 188G. 

Varanus, sp. 

The following specimens probably belong to one of the existing 
Australian species, porhaps V. giganteus. 
Hab. Australia. 

1 Hist. Eept. vol. iii. p. 67 (1802). — Tupinambis. 2 hoc. cit. 

A Cat. of Lizards in Brit. Mus. p. 11 (1845). 
4 Reptiles of British India, p. 65 (1864). 



VARANID^. 283 

42681. Five vertebrae, of which three are dorsal, one sacral, and one 
caudal; from the Pleistocene cave-deposits of the Wellington 
Valley, New South Wales. 
Presented by the Trustees of the Australian Museum, 1870. 



Group B. — The dorsal vertebra? short and wide, with narrow neural 
spines. Both species of large size. (Megalania, Owen.) 

Varanus sivalensis, Falconer l . 

Of large size ; the estimated length being about 3,660 (12 feet). 
Hab. India. 

R. 739 a. An imperfect anterior dorsal vertebra ; from the Lower 

(Fig.) Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. Figured by the 

writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica ' (Mem. Geol. Surv. 

Ind.), ser. x. vol. iv. p. 55, fig. 11 ; one of the figures 

being reproduced in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 65). 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1840. 

Fig. 65. 




Varanus sivalensis. — Hainial aspect of an anterior dorsal vertebra; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. \. (From the ' Palaontologia Indica.') 

R. 740. A larger posterior dorsal vertebra, wanting the neural 
spine ; from the Siwalik Hills 2 . Same history. 

40819. The distal portion of the right humerus ; from the Siwalik 

(Fig.) Hills. The type specimen. Figured in ' Falconors 

Palacontological Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxxii. figs. 4-7 ; and 

also by the writer, op. cit. vol. iii. pi. xxxv. figs. 1, la, lb. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1807. 

1 Palseontological Memoirs, vol. i. pi. xxxii. (1868). 

3 The specimen noticed under this number by the writer, 1. r , as a cervical 
vertebra of this species proves to bo Chelonian 



284 SQT7AMATA. 

R. 1009. The distal extremity of the right femur of a smaller 
individual than the preceding ; from the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. 

Varamis prisons (Owen ] ). 
Syn. Megalania prisca, Owen 2 . 

The vertebrae agree in general character with those of V. sivalensis, 
but attain three times the dimensions, which would give an approxi- 
mate length of at least 9,150 (30 feet) for the entire animal. The 
shortening of the centrum of the dorsal vertebrae (fig. 66) is pro- 
portionately greater than in V. sivdlensis. 

This species is the type of Megalania', the skull and caudal 
sheath referred to it by Owen will be catalogued in the Chelonia. 

Hah. Australia. 

39965. The occipital segment of the cranium ; from the Pleis- 
{Fig.) tocene of Queensland. Figured by Owen in the ' Phil. 
Trans/ 1880, pi. xxxvi. figs. 1, 2. This specimen agrees 
in all essential characters with the corresponding part 
of the cranium of Varanus salvator ; although a well- 
marked specific character is shown in the relatively 
shorter supra-occipital. It is about three times the size 
of the corresponding part of the cranium of an individual 
of V salvator measuring six feet in total length. 

Presented by Sir D. Cooper, Bart., 1866. 

32908 a. The right half of an anterior dorsal vertebra ; from the 

(Fig.) Pleistocene of the Condamine River, Queensland. One of 

the types. Figured by Owen in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1859, 

pi. viii. figs. 1, 2 (as a cervical). Purchased, 1857. 

32908 b. The imperfect centrum of a dorsal vertebra ; from the 

{Fig.) Condamine River. The second of the types. Figured, 

op. cit. pi. viii. figs. 3, 4. Same history. 

32908 c A nearly entire middle dorsal vertebra ; from the Condamine 

{Fig.) Eiver. The third of the types. Figured, op. cit. pi. vii. 

figs. 1-4. Same history. 

36273. A somewhat imperfect middle dorsal vertebra ; from the 
{Fig.) Pleistocene near Melbourne, Victoria. Figured by Owen, 
op. cit. 1880, pi. xxxv. figs. 1, 2. 

Presented by F. M. Raynal, Esq., 1862. 

1 Phil. Trans. 1859, p. A3.— Megalania. 

2 Loc. cit. 



VARANIDJE. 



285 



35911. A slightly imperfect middle cervical vertebra ; from the 
Pleistocene of Gowrie, Queensland. 

Presented by Sir D. Cooper, Bart., 1861. 

Fig. 66. 




Varanus prisms. — Haemal and left lateral aspect of a posterior dorsal vertebra ; 
from the Pleistocene of Queensland. | . c, costal articulation. 

39966. A middle dorsal vertebra, wanting the neural spine ; from 
Queensland. Presented by Sir D. Cooper, Bart., 1866. 

47835. An entire posterior dorsal vertebra ; from Queensland. 

{Fig.) Figured by Owen, op. cit. 1880, pi. xxxiv. figs. 1, 2. 
This specimen (woodcut fig. 66) closely accords in contour 
with No. R. 740 of V. sivalensis, but the relative shortness 
of the centrum and arch is still more marked ; the neural 
canal being, as is always the case with larger animals, 
relatively smaller. Presented by Dr. George Bennett. 

47839. A slightly imperfect middle dorsal vertebra ; from Queens- 
land. Same history. 

47839 a. A smaller vertebra from the middle or posterior dorsal 
region ; from Queensland. Accords very closely with 
V. sivalensis, No. R. 740, but is about double the size. 

Same history. 

R. 724. An imperfect posterior dorsal vertebra ; from Queensland. 
Presented by Sir R. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 

R. 749. A rolled dorsal vertebra, wanting tho neural spine ; from 
Queensland. Same history. 



286 8QT7AMATA. 

R. 391. An imperfect middle dorsal vertebra ; from King's Creek, 
Gowrie, Queensland. 

Presented by G. H. Hartmann, Esq., 1884. 

R. 292. An imperfect middle dorsal vertebra ; from Queensland. 

Presented by Dr. George Bennett, 1882. 

47836. A very imperfect dorsal vertebra ; from Queensland. 

Presented by Br. George Bennett. 

R. 391 a. The centrum of a dorsal vertebra ; from Queensland. 

Presented by G. II. Hartmann, Esq., 1884. 

39967. The right half of the centrum of a dorsal vertebra ; from 
Queensland. Presented by Sir B. Goojoer, Bart., 1866. 

49655. A crushed and very imperfect dorsal vertebra ; from the 
Pleistocene of the Castleregh River, New South Wales. , 
Presented by the Bev. W. B. Glarke, 1878. 

39967 a. An imperfect caudal vertebra ; from Queensland. Figured 
(Fig.) by Owen in the < Phil. Trans.' 1880, pi. xxxv. figs. 3, 4. 
Presented by Sir D. Gooper, Bart., 1866. 



Family TEIID^E. 

Postorbital bar and temporal arcade complete ; supratemporal 
fossa not roofed over. Dentition pleurodont or subacrodont ; teeth 
variable, but always solid at the base ; if any are present on the 
pterygoids they are small. No dermal scutes. 

Genus TUPINAMBIS, Daudin \ 

Cheek-teeth laterally compressed in the young, but with obtuse 
crowns in the adult. 

Cttptnambts! Ugtttrtn (Linn. 8 ). 
Syn. Lacerta teguixin, Linn. s 

The type species. 

Ilab. South America (Guianas to Uruguay) and West Indies. 

18903. The greater part of the right dcntary and splenial bones 

1 Syst. Kept. vol. iii. p. 6 (1802). 

a Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 308 (17G6).— Lacerta. 

3 Loc. cit. 



LACEKTID.E. 287 

of a mandible belonging either to this species or to the 
nearly allied T. nigropunctatus ; from the Pleistocene cave- 
deposits of Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18903 a. Part of the left dentary of a similar mandible ; from Minas 
Geraes. Same history. 



Family LACERTIM]. 

Postorbital bar and temporal arcade complete ; supratemporal 
fossa roofed over by bone ; premaxilhe united. Dentition pleuro- 
dont ; teeth hollow at the base, and the lateral ones bi- or tri- 
cuspid ; frequently present on the pterygoids. Mandibular symphysis 
narrow. No dermal scutes. 



Genus LACERTA, Linn. 1 

For palseontological purposes this genus must be used in a much 
wider sense than in recent Zoology, since many of the allied genera 
are mainly distinguished by characters not available in the case of 
fossils. 

Lacerta lamandini, Filhol a . 
Apparently allied to the existing L. ocellata, but with the lower 
posterior teeth relatively larger. 
Hob. Europe (France). 

R. 378. A left dentary bono apparently belonging to this species ; 
from the Upper Eocene (Lower Oligocene) Phosphorites 
of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. Purchased, 1 884. 

Lacerta (?) bifidentata, Lartet 8 . 
Very small, with the crowns of the teeth bifid. 
Hah. Europe (France). 

33276. Two dentary bones and three vertebra), probably belonging 
to this species ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers), 
France. Presented by M. E. Lartet, 1854. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 359 (1766). 

2 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. p. 269 (1877). 

3 Notice sur la Collino du Sansan, p. 39 (1851). 



288 SOJTAMATA. 

Family SCINCID^. 

Postorbital bar and temporal arcade complete; supratemporal 
fossa roofed over by bone ; premaxillse imperfectly united or sepa- 
rated. Dentition pleurodont ; teeth conical and bicuspid, or with 
sphgeroidal or compressed crowns ; in some cases present on the 
pterygoids. Mandibular symphysis wide. Dermal scutes present. 

Genus DRAQ2ENOSAURT7S, Gervais 1 . 
Syn. Dracosaurus, Bravard 2 . 

The dentary bone of the mandible with seven or eight small 
obtuse teeth increasing in size posteriorly and followed by one much 
larger molariform tooth. Probably allied to Scincus or Chalcides. 

Dracsenosaurus croizeti. Gervais 3 . 

Syn. Scincus croizeti, Gervais 4 . 

The type and only known species. About the size of the existing 
Eumeces algeriensis. 
Bab. Europe (France). 

27594. The nearly entire left ramus of the mandible ; from the 
(Fig.) Lower Miocene (Upper Oligocene) of Limagne (Puy-de- 
Dome), France. The type specimen. Figured by Gervais 
in the ' Zool. et Pal. Franchises,' pi. lxiv. fig. 5. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27752. Four imperfect mandibular rami ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Cournon (Puy-de-D6me). Same history. 

Genekically Undetermined Specimens. 
The following specimens may belong either to the Lacertidce or 
Scincidoe. 

R. 379. The right dentary and splenial of a small form ; from the 
Phosphorites of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

30966-7. Two dentaries agreeing in size with the preceding ; from 
the Lower Miocene (Upper Oligocene) of Allier, France. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Family non det. 
The following forms indicate small Lizards with pleurodont denti- 
tion and procoelous vertebra), which probably indicate one or more 
distinct families of the present Suborder : — 

1 Zool. et Pal. Fran9aises, 1st ed. p. 259 (1848-52). 

2 Quoted by Gervais, loc. cit— Preoccupied. 

/ 3 Diet, Univ. d'Hist. Nat. vol. xi. p. 56 (1849).— Scincus. 4 Loc. cit 



SCINCIDiE. 289 

Genus MACELLODUS, Owen 1 . 

Including Saurittus, Owen 2 . 

The unworn teeth of the type specimen 3 have compressed crowns, 
with a serrated superior border ; but it seems impossible to distin- 
guish Saurittus from this form. Dermal scutes were present. 

Macellodus brodiei, Owen 4 . 

Including Saurillus obtusus, Owen 5 . 
The type species. Of very small size. 
Hah. Europe (England). 

48.230-2. A number of imperfect maxillae and dentary bones ; from 
the Middle Purbeck (Upper Jurassic) of Durdlestone Bay, 
Swanage, Dorsetshire. A description is given by Owen 
in his ' Wealden and Purbeck Peptilia' (Mon. Pal. Soc), 
pt. v. p. 33. BecTcles Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

48233. A number of similar specimens, apparently belonging to the 
same form ; from Durdlestone Bay. These specimens in- 
clude the types of /Saurittus obtusus. Same history. 

48385. Slab showing fragment of mandible, a limb-bone, and dermal 
scutes ; from Durdlestone Bay. Same history. 

48370. Slab with dermal scutes ; from Durdlestone Bay. 

Same history. 

48368. Slab with proccelous vertebrae and scutes ; from Durdlestone 
Bay. Same history. 

Genus CONIASAURUS, Owen 6 . 
Yery imperfectly known. Anterior five or six lower teeth slender 
and curved ; the others increasing in thickness towards the proximal 
end of the jaw, with the crowns expanded, slightly compressed, 
most convex inwardly, and the anterior border more curved than the 
posterior. Enamel finely wrinkled. No dermal scutes have been 
described. 

Coniasaurus crassidens, Owen 7 . 
The type specimen. Of the size of one of the smaller species of 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 422 (1854) 

2 Ibid. vol. xi. p. 123 (1855); 

3 See Owen's ' Palaeontology,' p. 308, fig. 106 (1861). 

4 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 422 (1854). 
s Ibid. vol. xi. p. 123 (1855). 

6 In Dixon's ' Geology of Sussex,' p. 386 (1850). 7 Loc. cit. 

u 



290 RHYNCHOCEPHAUA. 

Varanus. Mandibular ramus very deep. The best preserved speci- 
mens are figured by Owen in his ' Cretaceous Reptilia ' (lion. Pal. 
Soc), pt. i. pi. ix. figs. 13-15. 
Hob. Europe (England). 

25790. Fragment of the dentary bone of the mandible, with teeth ; 

from the Chalk of Washington, near Worthing, Sussex 

Mentioned by Owen in Dixon's * Geology of Sussex,' p. 388. 

Dixon Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

R. 62. Fragment of a dentary bone, showing four teeth ; from the 
Chalk of Hart Hill, Charing, Kent. Purchased^ 1881. 



Order RHYNCHOCEPHALIA. 

Body and limbs usually more or less lacertiform. Proximal end 
of quadrate immovably fixed ; inferior temporal arcade present ; 
postorbital, at least in existing genus, distinct from postfrontal ; 
palate closed ; and premaxillae separate. Vertebrae usually amphi- 
coelous, but occasionally opisthoccelous, and sometimes with persistent 
neurocentral suture ; no zygosphenes ; intercentra in some cases 
present. Uncinate processes to ribs in some forms ; abdominal ribs 
present. In the existing genus at least two centralia in carpus ; and 
no distinct precoracoid. 

This order includes Reptiles with more or less generalized affini- 
ties, in regard to the serial position of which very different views 
obtain. By Cope l the group is placed between the Sauropterygia 
and Chelonia, while by Huxley 2 it is included in the Squamata 
(Lacertilia). The middle course proposed by Baur 3 , of regarding 
these forms as constituting a distinct order, which is placed next the 
latter, is here provisionally followed. 

Suborder HOMCEOSAURIA. 

Prcmaxilla3 apparently not forming a beak. Ribs without unci- 
nate processes. Palatal dentition unknown. Tho group is referred 
to this order by Baur 4 , who quotes the authority of Ammon 5 as to 
the existence of an inferior temporal arcade, and suggests that inter- 
centra were present. 

1 See Baur, Journ. Morphol. vol. i. pp. 93-99 (1887). 

2 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xliii. p. 692 (1887). 

3 Op. cit. pp. 99-100. 4 hoc. cit. 

5 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. xv. pp. 500-528, pis. i., ii. (1885). 



HOMCEOSAUEID-T]. 291 

Family HOMCEOSAURIDiE. 

The type family. Body of a normal lacertiform type ; with not 
more than twenty-six presacral vertebras. Skull comparatively short 
and wide, with broad facial portion, oval nares, and a distinct post- 
orbital bar. No tusk-like teeth in premaxilla or mandible. Pha- 
langeals of fifth digit of pes of the normal Squamate number. 

Genus HOMCEOSAURUS, Meyer \ 

The type genus. Skull short, rounded, and broad, with large 
orbits. Twenty-three presacral vertebras ; tail long, with 40 
vertebras. 

Homceosaurus maximiliani, Meyer 2 . 

The type species. Skull very broad ; 17 dorso-lumbar vertebrae ; 
tail slender ; manus not longer than forearm ; pes short, with slender 
claws. 

Hab. Europe (Germany). 

39355. Cast of a slab of lithographic limestone containing the nearly 
entire skeleton. The original was obtained from the 
Kimeridgian of Kelheim, Bavaria, and is described and 
figured by Meyer in his ' Fauna der Tor welt — Kept. Lith. 
Schiefer/ pp. 102, 103, pi. xi. figs. 1-3. Purchased, 1865. 

37012. Slab of lithographic limestone showing the impression or 
actual bones of the nearly entire skeleton ; from the Kime- 
ridgian of Soleuhofen, Bavaria. Only an obscure impres- 
sion of the skull is preserved. Purchased, 1862. 

Genus ARDEOSAURUS, Meyer 3 . 

Distinguished from Homceosaurus by the limbs being shorter in 
proportion to the length of the body, and apparently by the arrange- 
ment of the first row of tarsals. 

Ardeosaurus brevipes, Meyer 4 , 
Syn. Homceosaurus brevipes, Meyer 5 . 

The type species ; of small size. 
Hab. Europe (Germany). 

1 Neues Jahrb. 1847, p. 182. — Homosatmts. " Loc. cit. 

3 Fauna der Yonvelt— Kept. Iith. Sohief. p. 100 (1600). 

* Neues Jahrb. 1S55, p. ooo. — HomaoMicru-: s Loc. cit. 



292 EHYNCHOCEPHALIA. 

38006. Cast of a slab of limestone, showing the nearly entire 
skeleton. The original is the type, and was obtained in 
1854 from the Kimeridgian of Workerstzell, near Eichstatt, 
Bavaria. It is described and figured by Meyer in the 
< Fauna der Yorwelt— Eept. Lith. Schiefer,' pp. 106-108, 
pi. xii. figs. 4, 5. Purchased, 1864. 



Genus SAPHEOSAURUS, Meyer \ 

Syn. Piocormus, Wagner 2 . 

Skull longer and narrower than in Homoeosaurus, with pro- 
portionately smaller orbits. Twenty-two to twenty-six presacral 
vertebrae, and usually 42 caudals. Meyer suggests that the anterior 
caudals had no transverse processes. The species attain a much 
larger size than those of Homoeosaurus. 

Sapheosaurus laticeps (Wagner 3 ). 
Syn. Piocormus laticeps, Wagner 4 . 

Differs from the typical S. tMollierei, Meyer 5 , by its greatly in- 
ferior size, the presence of 26 instead of 22 presacral vertebrae, 
and in the relative length of the limbs. 

Hob. Europe (Erance and Germany). 

39354. Cast of a slab of lithographic limestone, showing the nearly 
entire skeleton. The original is the type, and was 
obtained from the Kimeridgian of Cirin (Rhone), Erance. 
It is figured by Wagner in the ' Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss.' 
vol. vi. pt. 3, pi. xvii. ; and also by Meyer in his ' Eauna 
der Yorwelt — Eept. Lith. Schiefer', pi. xiii. figs. 2, 3. 

Purchased, 1865. 

Genus APHELOSAURUS, Gervais 6 . 
Skull unknown. Provisionally referred by its founder to the 
present group ; from which, however, it may prove distinct. The 
phalangeals are of the normal number. 



1 Neues Jahrb. 1850, p. 19(5. 

2 Abh. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vi. pt. 3, p. 664 (1852). 

3 Loc. cit. — Piocormus. * Log. cit. 

5 See ' Fauna der Vorwelt — Eept. Lith. Schiefer,' p. 108. 

6 Comptes Eendus, vol. xlviii. p. 193 (1859). 



PLEUKOSAURID-E. 293 

Aphelosaurus lutevensis, Gervais \ 

The type and only species. About equal in size to Sapheosaurus 
ihiollierei. 

Hob. Europe (France). 

49658. Cast of a slab of shale, showing the trunk and limbs of the 
left side. The original is the type, and was obtained from 
the Upper Permian of Lodeve (Herault), France. It is 
figured by Gervais in his ' Zoologie et Paleontologie 
Franchises/ 2nd ed. pi. lxxxiv. fig. 1. 

Presented by the Paris Museum of Natural History. 

Family PLEUROSAURID^E. 

Body greatly elongated, with not less than some fifty presacral 
vertebrae in the type genus. Skull long and narrow, with the facial 
portion beak-like, and the nares forming long narrow slits. The 
skull has a distinct postorbital bar; and the digits of the pes are 
reduced to four, the number of phalangeals in the fifth being three, 
in place of the normal four. 

This family in addition to the type genus includes Acrosaurus and 
Anguisaurus, Meyer ', but it does not appear certain that these are 
really distinct. The skull of Acrosaurus closely resembles that of the 
following specimen, although belonging to a much smaller animal. 
Both Acrosaurus and Anguisaurus have the tail greatly elongated. 

Although there is nearly as much difference in the number of 
presacral vertebras in the different genera of the Anguidce (Lacer- 
tilia) as there is between Homceosaurus and Plewrosaurus, yet the 
great difference in the cranial structure of the two latter appears to 
be of more than merely generic value. 

Genus PLEUROSAURUS, Meyer 3 . 
The type genus. 

Pleurosaiirus goldfussi, Meyer 4 . 

The type species. Length of skull 0,010; about 50 presacral 
vertebras ; length of tail unknown. 
Hob. Europe (Germany). 

1 Loc. cit. 

2 See Meyer, Fauna der Vorwelt — Kept, Lith. Schiefer, pi. xii. figs. 6-10, and 
pi. xiv. fig. 2 ; and Palaeontographica, vol. vii. p. 231. 

3 Nova Acta Ac. Cses. Leop.-Car. vol. xy. pt. 2, p. 194 (1831). 
* Loc. cit. 



294 KHTtfCHOCEPHALIA. 

37008. Slab of lithographic limestone, showing the skeleton with 
the exception of the greater portion of the tail ; from the 
Kimeridgian of Solenhofen, Bavaria. The dorsal surface 
is shown. The skull is much crushed ; and the right ramus 
of the mandible is thrust up so as to exhibit its dentition. 
The pectoral limbs are well preserved; but the pelvic 
girdle and limbs have been broken up by a fracture through 
the sacral region. This specimen agrees so well with the 
type example (including the hinder portion of the trunk, 
the left hind limb, and the anterior moiety of the tail) 
figured by Meyer in his ' Fauna der Vorwelt — Rept. Lith. 
Schiefer/ pi. xiv. fig. 1, that there can be but little hesita- 
tion in referring it to that form ; the short phalangeals of 
the pes being, although heaped in a confused mass, clearly 
apparent in the present specimen. It is, however, very 
difficult to see how the specimen differs from the imper- 
fect skeleton of Anguisaurns represented in fig. 2 of the 
same plate. Meyer, indeed, states that the anterior caudal 
vertebrae of the latter are more slender than those of 
Pleurosaurus ; but the different position in which these 
vertebrae are placed in the type specimens and their 
damaged condition in that of the last-named genus, renders 
any deductions drawn from this part of the skeleton very 
unreliable. The skull resembles very closely that of the 
type specimen of the small Acrosaurus fischmanni figured 
by Meyer, op. cit. pi. xii. fig. 6 ; but has a length of 0,010. 
The lower teeth are acrodont ; and have low, compressed, 
lancet-shaped crowns, which are widely separated from 
one another, and may have had longitudinally expanded 
bases like those of Acrosaurus {op. cit. figs. 7-8). 

Haberlein Collection. Purchased, 1862. 



Family TELERPETID^E. 

In the type genus, according to Huxley, no postorbital bar in 
the skull ; tusk-like teeth in the premaxilla and mandible ; and 
only two phalangeals in the fifth digit of the pes. Huxley restores 
the skull with only one temporal arcade; and abdominal ribs have 
not been observed. The serial position is provisional. 



TELEEPETID^. 295 

Genus TELERPETON, Mantell \ 

The type genus. 

Telerpeton elginense, Mantell 2 . 
The type species. Length of skull about 0,043. 
Hah. Europe (Englaud). 

28244. Cast of a slab of sandstone, showing the greater part of the 
skeleton, with the exception of the skull. The original 
was obtained from the Keuper (Upper Trias) of Moray- 
shire. It is preserved in the Museum at Elgin, and is 
figured by Mantell in the 'Quart. Journ.Geol. Soc' vol. viii. 
pi. iv. Another specimen, in which the impression of 
the skull is preserved, is described and figured by Huxley 
in vol. xxiii. pp. 77-84 of the same serial. 

Presented by Dr. G. A. Mantell, 1852. 

Genus SAUROSTERNUM, Huxley *. 
Syn. BatracTiosaurus, Owen 4 (ex Bain, MS.). 

Very imperfectly known ; but regarded by its founder as being 
probably allied to Telerpeton, and therefore provisionally placed in 
the same family. It has been referred by Owen 4 to the Labyrintho- 
dontia. 

Saurosternum baini, Huxley 5 . 

The type species. 
Hab. South Africa. 

R. 1234. A split slab of rock showing the impression of the skeleton, 

(Fig.) without the skull ; from the Karoo system of the Sniew- 

berg Range, South Africa. The type. Described and 

figured by Huxley in the ' Geol. Mag.' scr. 1, vol. v. p. 201, 

pi. xi. Presented by A. 0. Bain, Esq. 

R. 1235. Fragment of rock showing the imperfect skull, the cervical 
(Fi</.) vertebra?, and the interclavicle ; from the Sniewberg. 

1 Quart, Joura. Geol. Soc. vol. viii. p. 100 (1852). 

2 Lor. Git. 

3 Geol. Mag. scr. 1, vol. v. p. 201 (1868).— Amended. 
1 Cat Fobs. Kept. S. Africa, p. 69 (1876). 

5 Loc. cit. 



296 EHYNCHOCEPHALIA. 

Described and figured by Owen in bis ' Cat. Foss. Eept. 
S. Africa,' p. 69 (No. S. A. 121), pi. lxx. fig. 3. 

Presented by A. G. Bain, Esq. 

47093. Slab of rock containing part of a larger skeleton, referred by 
Owen to the present form ; from the Sniewberg. 

Same history. 

Suborder SPHENODONTINA. 

Premaxillse forming a more or less deflected beak ; the longi- 
tudinal series of palatine teeth separated by a groove (into which 
the hinder mandibular teeth are received) from those of the maxilla 
(figs. 68, 69). Eibs with uncinate processes. 



Family EHYNCHOSAUEIDtE. 

Wares undivided ; no teeth in the premaxillary beak or opposing 
portion of the mandible, which were probably sheathed in horn ; 
extremities of the premaxillaB received between diverging extremities 
of mandible; frequently more than a single row of palatine teeth. 
Intercentra at least frequently absent. 

Genus RHYNCHOSAURUS, Owen 1 . 

Skull of moderate width, with relatively large orbit and infratem- 
poral fossa ; dentary border of palato-maxilla but slightly convex, and 
external border only slightly concave and inner slightly convex. Not 
more than a single row of maxillary, or than two rows of palatine 
teeth. Mandibular symphysis relatively short, with short and obtuse 
rostral processes ; and rami with but slight posterior divergence. 
Mandibular teeth either wanting or very minute. All the vertebra) 
amphiccelous. Manus of moderate length. 

Rhynchosaurus articeps, Owen 2 . 

The type species. Estimated length from snout to sacrum 0,280 • 
length of skull 0,080. 
Hah. Europe (England). 

1 Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. vol. vii. p. 355 (1842). 2 hoc. cit. 



RHYSrCHOSATTRIDiE. 297 

The following specimens ivere obtained from the Keuper (Upper Trias) 
of Grinsill, Warwickshire, and, unless it is stated to the con- 
trary, were presented by Robert Gardner (jun.), Esq., 1886. 

R. 1236. The cranium, imperfect posteriorly, with the symphysis 
(Fig.) and greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible. 
Described and figured by Huxley in the ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc. ' vol. xliii. p. 689, pi. xxvii. fig. 1, and wood- 
cuts figs. 2 & 5. Presented by Rev. J. Be La Touche, 1886. 

R. 1237. Fragment of rock, exhibiting the palatal aspect of the skull. 

R. 1238. A slab, showing a considerable portion of the skeleton of 
(Fig.) the same individual as No. R. 1236. The right pes is 
figured by Huxley, op. cit. pi. xxvii. fig. 5. 

R. 1239. The two sides of a split slab of stone, showing a consider- 
able portion of the skeleton. Described by Huxley, op. cit. 
p. 690, pi. xxvii. figs. 2-4. This specimen probably 
belongs to the same individual as the skull No. R. 1237. 

R. 1240. Two fragments of rock, showing part of the caudal region. 

R. 1241. Fragment of rock with an imperfect limb. 

Genus HYPERODAPEDON, Huxley 1 . 

Skull very short and wide, with relatively small orbit and supra- 
temporal fossae, of which the former is directed upwardly ; dentary 
border of palato -maxilla highly convex, and external border concave 
and iuner convex. Posterior maxillary and palatine teeth arranged 




Hyperodapedon gordoni — Diagrammatic view of the left lateral aspect of the 
skull ; reduced. Or, orbit ; t, infratemporal fossa. {After Hiuvhy.) 

in more than two longitudinal rows. Mandibular symphysis long, 
with elongated rostral processes ; and the rami widely divergent 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xv. p. 435 (1S59). 



298 



MI YNCHOCEPHALIA , 



posteriorly. Mandibular teeth anteriorly forming a closed palisade, 
but posteriorly distinct and conical. Cervical vertebras more or less 
opisthoccelous in type species. Manus very sbort. 

Hyperodapedon gordoni, Huxley \ 

The type species. The number of rows of palatine teeth exceed- 
ing those of the maxilla (fig. 68) ; upper teeth with subcylindrical 
crowns. Cervical vertebra) opisthoccelous. Length estimated to 
exceed 2,000 ; length of skull 0,160, width of do. 0,210. 

Hob. Europe (England). 
R. 699. A split slab of sandstone, containing the nearly entire 
{Fig.) skeleton ; from the Keuper of Lossiemouth near Elgin. 
Described and figured by Huxley in the ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xliii. pp. 675 et seq. pi. xxvi., woodcuts 1 
and 4. The former woodcut is reproduced in fig. 67, and 
a view of the right palato-maxilla given in fig. 68. 

Presented by Rev. Dr. G. Gordon, 1886. 
Eig. 68. 




Byperodapedon gordoni. — Oral surface of the right palato-maxilla 
from the Trias of Elgin. \. 



RHTNCHOSAUEIDiE. 299 

R. 330. A specimen which is apparently the rostral extremity of the 
(Fig.) left premaxilla of Hyperodapedon ; from the Upper Trias 
of High Peake, near Sidmouth, Devonshire. This specimen 
is figured by Metcalfe in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xl. p. 260, woodcut 2, without determination ; and is 
noticed by A. Smith "Woodward in vol. xliv. p. 163, of the 
same serial, where it is suggested that it may belong to 
the present form. It agrees closely in general characters 
with the corresponding part of the skull of the preceding 
specimen, but is relatively narrower. 

Presented by II. J. Carter, Esq., 1884. 

Hyperodapedon huxleyi, Lydekker 1 . 

Known only by detached fragments. About double the size of 
H. gordoni. The number of rows of maxillary teeth exceeding those 
of the palatine (fig. 69) : crowns of upper teeth forming triangular 




Hyperodapedon huxleyi — Oral surface of the right palato-maxilla ; 
from the Maleri stage of Central India. \-> 

pyramids. If any of the vertebra) figured by the writer in pi. v. of 
the under-mentioned work and provisionally referred to this form 
really belong to it (and there is a very strong presumption that they 

1 Eec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. siv. p. 177 (1881). 



300 KHYNCHOCEPHAMA. 

do), they indicate its wide difference from the type species. The 
bones of the pectoral and pelvic girdles and pectoral limb represented 
in pi. iv. of the same memoir are probably Crocodilian (vide supra, 
p. 130). 

Hab. India. 
The following specimens were obtained either from the typical Maleri 
stage of the Gondwanas, or from the probably equivalent 
beds of Tiki in South Reivah. Maleri is situated near Sironcha 
in the Central Provinces ; while South JRewah is in Central 
India. Similar specimens are figured by the writer in the 
' Palceontologia Indica ' (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 4, vol. i. 
pt. 5, pis. i. & ii. (1885). All ivere presented by the Director of 
the Geological Survey of India, 1886. 

R. 579. The imperfect right palato- maxilla, with the crowns of the 
teeth broken off, belonging to a very large individual ; 
from Tiki. Somewhat smaller than the specimen figured 
by the writer, op. cit. pi. i. figs. 1 & 2. 

R. 579 a. Hinder part of the right palato-maxilla, with the oral 
lamina of the maxilla split off ; from Maleri. This speci- 
men is nearly as large as the preceding. 

R. 579 b. Fragment of the hinder part of a large right palato-max- 
illa ; from Maleri. The groove is well shown, and the 
maxillary teeth are very large. 

R. 579 c. Hinder part of the right palato-maxilla, with the teeth 
broken but unworn ; from Tiki. 

R. 579 d. Fragment of the right maxilla of a large individual ; from 
Maleri. 

R. 579 e. Hinder portion of the left palatine, with the teeth some- 
what worn ; from Maleri. 

R. 579 f. Part of a palato-maxilla ; from Maleri. 

R. 579 h. Hinder part of the right maxilla of a large individual ; 
from Maleri. 

R. 579 i. The imperfect left palato-maxilla of a small individual ; 
from Tiki. 

R. 579 j. Part of a small right palato-maxilla, with the groove very 
deeply worn ; from Maleri. 

R. 579 k. The imperfect anterior extremity of the right palato- 
maxilla ; from Maleri. 



PEOTEKOSAtTKIA. 301 

R. 579 1. Fragment of the right palato-m axilla of a young individual, 
with the teeth in an unworn condition ; from Maleri. 
The triangular crowns of the teeth are well shown. 

R. 579 m. The anterior extremity of the left palato-maxilla ; from 
Maleri. 

R. 579 n. Fragment of a damaged right palato-maxilla ; from 
Maleri, 

R. 579 0. Fragment of the dentary bone of the right ramus of the 
mandible ; from Maleri. Three lateral teeth on the inner 
surface are shown. 

R. 579 p. Fragment of a dentary bone ; from Maleri. 



Order PROTEE0SAUEIA. 

In the one genus constituting this group the skull is very imper- 
fectly known, but appears to have been of an elongated triangular form 
with a closed palate, and teeth on the palatine, pterygoid, and vomer. 
It is suggested that the nares were approximated to the orbit ; and 
the teeth of the jaws appear to be anchylosed to the bone, but have 
cavities beneath them. Cervical vertebrae much elongated and 
apparently opisthoccelous ; postcervicals amphiccelous ; posterior 
caudals with divided neural spines. Abdominal ribs present ; but 
apparently no intercentra or uncinate processes. Pectoral arch and 
both limbs approximating more or less closely to the Rhyncho- 
cephalian type ; pectoral limb considerably shorter than pelvic ; 
according to Baur two centralia in carpus, and one centrale in the 
tarsus ; feet pentedactylate. 

This group is regarded by Seeley (< Phil. Trans.' 1887, pp. 187- 
213) as of ordinal value ; but is included by Baur in the Rhyncho- 
cephalia. The former proposal is merely provisionally followed in 
this work. 

Family PROTEROSAURIDiE. 

The family characters are not yet distinguished from the ordinal. 

Genus PROTEROSAURUS, Meyer 1 . 
The only named genus 2 . 

1 Isis, 1830, p. 518. — Amended from Protorosaurus. 

2 Seeley, Phil. Trans. 1887, p. 204, suggests that Proterosaurus mcycri may 
indicate a distinct genus. 



302 PROTEROSATJRIA. 

Proterosaurus speneri, Meyer \ 

The type species. Estimated to have attained a length of from 
five to seven feet. Two vertebrae in sacrum. 
Hah. Europe (Germany). 

R. 1242. Cast of a slab of shale, showing the middle region of the 
skeleton and an eDtire pectoral limb. The original was 
obtained from the Kupferschiefer (Upper Permian) of 
Heidelberg near Schweina in Thuringia, and is preserved 
in the Museum of the Academy of Ereiberg. It is 
described and figured by Geinitz in ' Die Yersteinerungen 
des deutschen Zechsteingebirges,' p. 3, pi. i. (1848), and 
by von Meyer in his ' Eauna der Yorwelt — Saurier aus dem 
Kupferschiefer,' p. 11, pi. ii. ; and is also noticed by Seeley 
in the ' Phil. Trans.' 1887, p. 203, where it is provisionally 
referred to the present species, although the suggestion 
is made that it may prove distinct. PurcJiased, 1887. 

42760. A split slab of shale, showing part of the vertebral column of 
the trunk ; from the Upper Permian of Thuringia. The 
vertebrae agree very closely in size with those of the 
skeleton figured by von Meyer, op. cit. pi. ix. 

Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 



Ordinal Position Uncertain. 



Genus ATOPOSAURUS, Meyer \ 

Body and limbs lacertiform. Vertebra? amphicoelous. Manus of 
Ehynchocephalian type ; but only four digits in the pes, of which 
the phalangeals number 2, 3, 4, 4. Tibia and fibula, and radius 
and ulna respectively in close apposition ; proximal carpals elongated 
like those of the Crocodilia. Mandibular symphysis long ; dentition 
said to resemble that of the Geckonidw. No trace of scutes or scales. 



Atoposaurus oberndorferi, Meyer 3 . 

Of small size. Distinguished from the typical A. jourdani, Meyer, 
by the shorter vertebral centra, the longer and more slender ischium 

1 < Palseologica,' p. 109 (1832). 

2 Neues Jahrb. 1850, p. 198. 8 Loc. cit 



PROTEEOSATTEIDJE. 303 

and limbs, and the relative proportions of the first and second 
segments of the latter. 
Rah. Europe (Germany). 

39356. Cast of a slab of lithographic limestone, showing the greater 
part of the skeleton. The original was obtained from the 
Kimeridgian (Upper Jurassic) of Kelheim, Bavaria, and 
is the type. It is described and figured by Meyer in his 
'Fauna der Yorwelt — Rept. Lith. Schiefer,' p. 114, pi. xii. 
fig. 2. Purchased, 18G8. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



OP 



GENERA AND SPECIES, INCLUDING SYNONYMS. 



Acanthopholis, 183. 

horridus, 183. 

platypus, 153. 
Acrosaurus, 293. 
.ffiolodon, 101. 

priscus, 101. 
Aetos auras, 275. 
Alligator, 44. 

darwini, 46. 

hantoniensis, 45. 

latirosfcris, 45. 

multiscutatus, 45. 

punctatus, 45. 

sp., 45. 
Amphisaurus, 174. 
Anchisaurus, 174. 
Anguisaurus, 293. 
Apatosaurus, 145. 
Aphelosaurus, 293. 

lutevensis, 293. 
Ardeosaurus, 291. 

brevipes, 291. 
Aristosuchus, 157. 

pusillus, 158. 
Atlantosaurus, 144. 

imrnanis, 145. 

montanus, 145. 
Atoposaurus, 302. 

oberndorferi, 302. 

Batrachosaurus, 295. 
Belodon, 124. 

kapffi, 124. 

plieningeri, 128. 
Bothriospondylus, 
170. 

elongatus, 142. 

magnus, 142. 

robustus, 171. 

suffosus, 170. 



Brachydectes, 84. 

major, 85. 

minor, 85. 
Brachy tracheitis, 27. 

crassirostris, 28. 
Brontosaurus, 144. 

excelsus, 144. 

Caiman, 44. 
Camptonotus = 

Camptos auras. 
Camptosaurus, 192. 

dispar, 192. 
Ceratosaurus, 157. 

nasicornis, 157. 
Cetiosaurus, 136. 

brevis, 139. 

glymptonensis, 138. 

humerocristatus, 151. 

longus, 137. 

medius, 137. 

oxoniensis, 137. 
Chlamydosaurus, 
276. 

bennetti, 276. 

kingi, 276. 
Chondrosteosaurus, 
146. 

gigas, 142, 146. 

magnus, 146. 
Cimoliornis, 10. 

diomedius, 13. 
Clidastes, 272. 

sp., 272. 
Ccelurus, 156. 

daviesi, 156. 

fragilis, 156. 
Coloborhynchus, 10. 

cuvieri, 12. 

sedgwicki, 15. 



Coluber, 250. 

gervaisi, 252. 

molurus, 253. 

mucosus, 250. 

oweni, 252. 

papyraceus, 251. 

sansaniensis, 251. 

scalaris, 252. 
Compsognathus, 156. 

longipes, 156. 
Coniasaurus, 289. 

crassidens, 289. 
Coryphodon, 250. 

blumenbacbi, 250. 
Cretornis, 10. 

hlavatscki, 14. 
Cricosaurus, 95. 

elegans, 98. 
Criorhynchus, 10. 

simus, 16. 
Crocodilaemus, 95, 98. 
Crocodilus, 53. 

arduini, 60. 

basifissus, 70. 

biporcatas, 59. 

bollensis, 109. 

bombifrons, 54. 

brauniorum, 46. 

bruchi, 46. 

cadotuensis. 118. 

cantabrigiensis, 75 

cbampsoides, 60. 

clavirostris, 70. 

crassidens, 71. 

cultridens, 90. 

ebertsi, 50. 

elaverensis, 46. 

gangeticus, 65. 

hastingsire, 45. 

isorhynchus, 64. 
X 



306 



INDEX. 



Crocodilus (cont.). 

leptodus, 68. 

longirostris, 65. 

macrorhynchus, 64. 

medius, 46. 

palseindicus, 58. 

palustris, 54. 

plenidens, 53. 

porosus, 59. 

priscus, 101. 

rateli, 46. 

rathi, 46. 

rollinati, 74. 

sauli, 77. 

sivalensis, 55. 

spenceri, 60. 

superciliosus, 96. 

temporalis, 106. 

tenuirostris, 65. 

toliapicus, 60. 
Cumnoria, 195. 

prestwichi, 196. 
Cycnorhamphus, 9. 

suevicus, 9. 

Dacosaurus, 92. 

lissocephalus, 92. 
manseii, 92. 
inaximus, 92. 
primjEvus, 92. 
Dakosaurus (sceDaco- 

saurus). 

Dimorphodon, 37. 

banthensis, 37. 

rnacronyx, 37. 

Dinodocus, 136. 

mackesoni, 136. 

Dinosaurus, 171. 

gresslyi, 172. 
Diopecephalus, 4. 
kochi, 6. 
longicollum, 9. 
rhamphastinus, 8. 
Diplocynodon, 45. 
darwini, 46. 
gracilis, 50. 
hantoniensis, 45. 
plenidens, 50. 
rateli, 46. 
sp., 50. 
Diplodocus, 132. 

longus, 132. 
Dolichosaurus, 275. 

longicollis, 275. 
Doratorhynchus, 10. 

validus, 26. 
Dorygnathus, 37. 

banthensis, 37. - 
Darcaenosaurus, 288. 
croizeti, 288. 



Dry ptos auras, 169. 
aquilunguis, 170. 

Echinodon, 247. 

becklesi, 247. 
Edestosaurus, 272. 
Engyommasaurus, 
105. 

brongniarti, 107. 
Epicampodon, 174. 

indicus, 174. 
Eucamerotus, 146. 

Garialis, 65. 

crassidens, 71. 

dixoni, 69. 

gangeticus, 65. 

hysudricus, 67. - 

leptodus, 68. 

macrorhynchus, 64. 

neocesariensis, 70. 

pachyrhynchus, 69. 

priscus, 101. 
Gavialis(seeGarialis). 
Gavialosuchus, 62. 

eggenburgensis, 63. 
Geosaurus, 271. 

giganteus, 271. 

maximus, 92. 

soemmerringi, 271. 
Gigantosaurus, 146. 

megalonyx, 151. 
Glyptosaurus, 278. 
Gnathosaurus, 95. 
Goniopholis, 79. 

crassidens, 79. 

minor, 80. 

pugnax, 80. 

simus, 83. 

tenuidens, 83. 

undidens, 80. 
Gresslysaurus, 171. 

ingens, 172. 

Hadrosaurus, 243. 

cantabrigiensis, 244. 

foulki, 244. 
Halilimnosaurus,27 1 . 

crocodiloides, 271. 
Heterosuchus, 74. 

valdensis, 74. 
Homceosaurus, 291. 

brevipes, 291. 

maximiliani, 291. 
Hydrosaurus, 281. 
Hylaeochampsa, 76. 

vectiana, 77. 
Hylseosaurus, 185. 

owcni, 185. 



Hyperodapedon, 297. 

gordoni, 298. 

huxleyi, 299. 
Hyposaurus, 90. 

derbianus, 91. 
Hypsilophodon, 193. 

foxi, 193. 

Iguana, 277. 

europaea, 277. 
Iguanodon, 195. 

bernissartensis, 201. 

dawsoni, 196. 

foxi, 193. 

mantelli, 218. 

prestwichi, 196. 

seelyi, 201. 

sp., 226. 
Ischyrosauras, 146. 

manseii, 152. 

Jacare, 44. 

Lacerta, 287. 

bifidentata, 287. 

gangetica, 65. 

gigantea, 271. 

lamandini, 287. 
Laelaps, 169. 

aquilunguis, 170. 
Leptorhynchus, 65. 

clifti, 65. 

crassidens, 71. 

gangeticus, 65. 
Lestosaurus, 269. 
Liodon, 264. 

anceps, 265. 

brumbyi, 267. 

dyspelor, 267. 

haumuriensis, 267. 

lundgreni, 265. 

perlatus, 267. 

sp., 266. 

Macellodus, 289. 

brodiei, 289. 
Machimosaurus, 103. 

hughi, 103. 

mosas, 104. 
Macrorhynchus, 87. 

meyeri, 88. 

schaumburgensis, 87. 
Macrospondylus, 
108. 

bolleusis, 109. 
Macrotrachelus, 4. 

longirostris, 5. 
Macrurosaurus, 153. 

seinnus, 153. 



INDEX. 



307 



Megalania, 281. 

prisca, 284. 
Megalosaurus, 159. 

bredai, 168. 

bucklandi, 159. 

dunkeri, 163. 

insignis, 163. 

sp. a, 163. 
Melitosaurus, 62. 

champsoides, 64. 
Metriorhynchus, 95. 

elegans, 98. 

moreli, 97. 

sp., 98. 

superciliosus, 96. 
Monitor, 281. 

dracaena, 282. 
Morosaurus, 134. 

grandis, 133. 
Mosasaurus, 261. 

ba various, 271. 

belgicus, 261. 

camperi, 261. 

dekayi, 264. 

giganteus, 261. 

gracilis, 273. 

hofmanni, 261. 

maximus, 264. 

stenodon, 265. 
Mosellosaurus, 105. 

rostro-minor, 106. 
Mystriosaurus, 108. 

bollensis, 109. 

brevior, 111. 

brongniarti, 107. 

chapinani, 110. 

egertoni, 109. 

laurillardi, 110. 

longipes, 109. 

macrolepidotus, 110. 

mandelslohi, 109. 

minimus, 112. 

muensteri, 109. 

schmidti, 109. 

speciosus, 110. 

stukelyi, 109, 110. 

tenuirostris, 107. 

tiedmanni, 109. 

Nannosuchus, 84. 

gracilidens, 84. 
Nectoportheus, 264. 
Nuthetes, 247. 

destructor, 247. 

Omosaurus, 177. 
armatus, 177. 
hastiger, 179. 
sp., 180. 



Oolithes, 122. 

bathonicse, 122. 
Ophisaurus, 278. 

moguntinus, 278. 
Ornithocephalus, 4. 

antiquus, 5. 

bantbensis, 37. 

brevirostris, 4. 

crassirostris, 28. 

gemmingi, 31. 

grandis, 32. 

longicaudatus, 29. 

longirostris, 5. 

meyeri, 4. 

muensteri, 30. 

rhamphastinus, 8. 
Ornithochirus, 10. 

clifti, 25. 

compressirostris, 11. 

curtus, 26. 

cuvieri, 12. 

daviesi, 23. 

diomedius, 13. 

fittoni, 15. 

giganteus, 12. 

klavatscbi, 14. 

nobilis, 24. 

sedgwicki, 15. 

simus, 16. 

sp., 25. 

validus, 26. 
Ornithodesmus, 42. 

cluniculus, 42. 
Ornithopsis, 146. 

eucamerotus, 146. 

hulkei, 146. 

bumerocristatus, 151. 

leedsi, 151. 

manseli, 152. 
Orthomerus, 241. 

dolloi, 241. 
Oweniasuchus, 84. 

major, 85. 

minor, 85. 

Pachyrhamphus, 

• 27. 

crassirostris, 28. 
Palaeophis, 257. 

porcatus, 258. 

sp., 260. 

toliapicus, 257. 

typbasus, 258. 
Palaeopython, 253. 

cadurcensis, 254. 

filholi, 255. 
Palseornis, 10. 

clifti, 25. 
Palaeovaranus, 279. 

cayluxi, 279. 



Paleryx, 253. 

depressus, 255. 

filboli, 255. 

rbombifer, 254. 
Parasuchus, 130. 

hislopi, 130. 
Pelagosaurus, 105. 

brongniarti, 107. 

typus, 106. 
Pelorosaurus, 145. 

conybeari, 145. 
Peltosaurus, 278. 
Periops, 252. 

gervaisi, 252. 
Petrosuchus, 89. 

lasvidens, 89. 
Pholidosaurus, 87. 

meyeri, 88. 

scbaumburgensis, 87. 
Phytosaurus, 124. 

cubicodon, 124. 

cylindricodon, 124. 

piieningeri, 128. 
Pilemophis, 250. 

sausaniensis, 251. 
Piocormus, 292. 

laticeps, 292. 
Placosaurus, 279. 

margariticeps, 279. 
Platecarpus, 269. 

curtirostris, 270. 

mudgei, 271. 

oweni, 270. 

sp., 271. 
Plesiosuchus, 92. 

manseli, 92. 
Plestiodon, 281. 

cadurcensis, 281. 
Pleurocoalus, 134. 
Pleurodon 

crocodiloides, 53. 
Pleurosaurus, 293. 

goldfussi, 293. 
Plioplatecarpus, 

261. 
Poekilopleuron, 159. 

bucklandi, 159. 

pusillus, 158. 
Poikilopleuron = 
Poekilopleuron. 
Polacanthus, 189. 

foxi, 189. 
Pristichampsa, 74. 

rollinati, 74. 
Proiguana, 277. 

europeana, 277. 
Propseudopus, 278. 
Prcterosaurus, 301. 

meyeri, 301. 

speneri, 302. 



308 



INDEX. 



Pseudopus, 278. 
moguntinus, 278. 
Pterodactylus, 4. 

aclandi, 36. 

antiquus, 5. 

bucklandi, 34. 

clifti, 25. 

compressirostris, 11. 

conirostris, 12. 

crassirostris, 28. 

curtus, 26. 

cuvieri, 12. 

daviesi, 23. 

duncani, 34. 

elegans, 7. 

eurycbirus, 10. 

fittoni, 15. 

geminingi, 31. 

giganteus, 12. 

grandis, 32. 

kiddi, 34. 

kocbi, 6. 

longicaudus, 29. 

longicollum, 9. 

longirostris, 5. 

macronyx, 37. 

macrurus, 26. 

rnanseli, 40. 

marderi, 37. 

meyeri, 4. 

muensteri, 30. 

nobilis, 24. 

pleydelli, 41. 

pulcbellus, 7. 

rbampbastinus, 8. 

scolopaciceps, 6. 

simus, 16. 

spectabilis, 7. 

sue^icus, 9. 

yalidus, 26. 

woodwardi, 16. 

wurternbergicus, 10. 
Ptyas, 250. 

mucosus, 250. 
Pylmophis = Pile- 

mophis. 
Python, 253. 

cadurcensis, 254. 

molurus, 253. 

Regnosaurus, 184. 

northainptoni, 184. 
Rhacheosaurus, 95. 
Rhamphocephalus, 
33. 

bucklandi, 34. 

depressirostris, 36. 
Rhamphorhynchus, 
29. 

bucklandi, 34. 



Rhamphorhynchus 

(cont.). 

crassirostris, 28. 

depressirostris, 36. 

gemmingi, 31. 

grandis, 32. 

longicauda, 29. 

longicaudatus, 29. 

longimanus, 31. 

meyeri, 31. 

muensteri, 30. 

phyllurus, 30. 
Rhamphosaurus, 

264. 
Rhamphosuchus, 
71. 

crassidens, 71. 
Rhinosaurus, 264. 
Rhynchosaurus, 296. 

articeps, 296. 
Rhynchosuchus, 62. 



Saniva, 278. 
Sapheosaurus, 292. 

laticeps, 292. 

thiollierei, 292. 
Saurillus, 289. 

obtusus, 289. 
Saurosternum, 295. 

baini, 295. 
Scaphognathus, 27. 

crassirostris, 28. 
Scelidosaurus, 181. 

barrisoni, 181. 
Scincus, 288. 

croizeti, 288. 
Sphenospondylus, 
238. 

gracilis, 238. 
Stagonolepis, 128. 

robertsoni, 129. 
Stegosaurus, 177. 

armatus, 179. 

stenops, 176. 
Steneosaurus, 108. 

bollensis, 109. 

brevidens, 115. 

brevior, 111. 

bronni, 106. 

chapmani, 110. 

edwardsi, 117. 

elegans, 98. 

heberti, 109. 

larteti, 114. 

latifrons, 113. 

longirostris, 116. 

rnanseli, 92. 

megarhinus, 117. 

megistorbynchus, 116. 



Steneosaurus (cont). 

minimus, 112. 

rostro-major, 116. 

sp., 117. 

stepbani, 114. 
Streptospondylus, 
201. 

major, 201. 
Suchosaurus, 89. 

cultridens, 90. \ 

lsevidens, 90. 



Taniwhasaurus, 

269. 
oweni, 270. 
Tanystrophceus, 

155. 
Teleidosaurus, 102. 

calvadosi, 103. 

joberti, 103. 
Teleosaurus, 118. 

bollensis, 109. 

brevidens, 115. 

brevior, 111. 

cadomensis, 118. 

cbapmani, 110. 

edwardsi, 117. 

geoffroyi, 120. 

gracilis, 101. 

larteti, 114. 

latifrons, 113. 

megarbinus, 117. 

megistorbyncbus, 116. 

minimus, 112. 

mosae, 104. 

mosellana, 106. 

oplites, 107. 

prisons, 101. 

subulidens, 121. 

superciliosus, 96. 

temporalis, 106. 
Telerpeton, 295. 

elginense, 295. 
Teratosaurus, 17K 

suevicus, 172. 
Thecodontosaurus, 
174. 

antiquus, 175. 

platyodon, 174. 
Thecospondylus, 
152. 

daviesi, 156. 

horneri, 152. 
Theriosuchus, 77. 

pusillus, 78. 
Thoracosaurus, 70. 

grandis, 70. 

maerorbyncbus, 64. 

neocesariensis, 70. 



INDEX. 



309 



Titanosaurus, 134, 
144. 

indicus, 134. 

sp. a, 135. 

sp. b, 136. 
Tomistoma, 62. 

charupsoides, 64. 

eggenburgense, 63. 

macrorhynchus, 64. 
Trachodbn, 243. 

cantabrigiensis, 244. 

foulki, 244. 

niirabilis. 244. 



Tropidonotus, 251. 

atavus, 251. 
Tupinambis, 286. 

bengalensis, 282. 

nigropunctatus, 287. 

teguixin, 286. 
Tylosaurus, 264. 

Varanus, 281. 
bengalensis, 282. 
dracaena, 282. 
giganteus, 282. 



Varanus (cont.). 
margariticeps, 279. 
priscus, 284. 
sivalensis, 283. 
sp., 282. 

Zanclodon, 171. 
lsevis, 172. 
sp. a, 172. 
sp. b, 173. 
suevicus, 172. 



END OF PART I. 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED HON COURT, FLEET STREET. 



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