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Full text of "Catalogue of the fossil Mammalia in the British museum, (Natural History)"









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CATALOGUE 



OF 



FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 



PART II. 



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CATALOGUE 



OF THE 



FOSSIL MAMMALIA 



BRITISH MUSEUM, 

(NATURAL HISTORY) 

CROMWELL ROAD, S.W. 



PART II. 

CONTAINING 

The Order UNGULATA, Suborder ARTTODACTYLA. 



RICHARD LYDEKKER, B.A., F.G.S., etc. 
<, APR 9 1886 I) 

LONDON: .;^> 
PRINTED BY OKDER QE^THE TRUSTEES. 



1885. 



\ 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RBD LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



PKEFACE. 



The first part of this Catalogue, published in January last, con- 
tained the specimens belonging to the Orders Primates, Chieopteea, 
Insectivoea, Caenivoea, and Rodentia. The present part is devoted 
to the Order Ungulata, Sub-order Aetiodactyla. Of this sub- 
order the Bovidce, Cervidce, and the Anoplotheriidce have especially 
required much careful study, and revision ; nor have the other 
groups been catalogued without a very large expenditure of time 
and labour. In this task the author has been greatly assisted by 
Mr. William Davies, whose intimate knowledge of the history of 
the Collection is coeval with the acquisition of at least a large 
proportion of the specimens composing it. 

The Perissodactyla and allied forms, and the Probosoidea, Sirenia, 
Cetacea, Edentata, and Marsupialia still remain to be catalogued. 

It may be well to state here that these Catalogues do not in any 
way lay claim to be complete lists of all the fossil genera and 
species, but only of such as are represented in the Collection. 



HENRY WOODWARD 



British Museum 
(Natural History), 
Department of Geology, 
Nov. 20, 1885. 



INTRODUCTION. 



As a full Introduction has been given to the First Part, it is only 
necessary on the present occasion to add a few supplemental 
remarks. 

In order to avoid extending the Catalogue to an unreasonable 
length, it has been considered advisable to omit all reference to the 
majority of the specimens contained in the Cavern Collection, at the 
entrance to the Fossil Mammalian Gallery, as, in most instances, 
these are but duplicates of specimens from other localities. For 
the same reason, in cases where the number of specimens of the 
remains of any one species is excessively numerous, only the more 
important of such specimens have been introduced into the Cata- 
logue. Similarly, in cases like the Siwaliks of India and the French 
Phosphorites, where there are great numbers of species of Artio- 
dactyle Ungulates, and it is very often apparently impossible to 
refer individual bones even to their respective genus, such specimens 
have not been catalogued here, as nothing would be gained by so 
doing. 

Mention may be made of a few fossil localities noticed in the 
present part, which are not given in the table on pages x, xi of 
Part I. ; but before doing so, it may be observed that the position of 
the Georgensgmlind 1 beds as given in that table should be transferred 
from the Upper Miocene to section b of the Middle Miocene 2 . The 
Lower Pliocene of Cucuron (Vaucluse) is equivalent to that of Mont 
Leberon. The beds at Elgg (Zurich), Switzerland, correspond to 
those of Kapfnach. From the comparatively unaltered condition of 
many of the specimens in the Museum, and the circumstance that 

1 Misprinted " Georgensmiind." 

2 These beds were classed with those of Eppelsheim and (Eningen, on the 
ground that they were so placed by Schlosser in the ' Palajontographica,' 
vol. xxxi. p. 96 (1884), who has subsequently (Neues Jahrb. 1885, vol. ii. 
pp. 136-144) indicated their true position. 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

they apparently belong to existing species, the beds at La Combette, 
near Champeix (page 97), and those at Tour-de-Boulade, Puy-de- 
Dome (Part I. p. 126), are provisionally referred to the Pleistocene, 
but they may be equivalent to the Upper Pliocene of Peyrolles, with 
which they were associated by P. Gervais. 

Generic terms have been employed in a wider sense than is the 
case with many contemporary writers ; and I am permitted to say 
that my views in this respect are in the main those of Professor 
Flower. Thus a difference of one or more premolar teeth, or in the 
number of the digits, in allied forms has not been considered a bar 
to generic unity ; and accordingly the genus Euryiherium has been 
included in Anoplotherium (p. 188), while analogous instances will 
occur in Part III. in the case of the Bhinocerotidce and Equidce. 
Occasionally a genus (e. g. Eporeodon, p. 208) has been admitted which 
appears to be founded upon somewhat insufficient characters. 

A few words may be advisable in regard to the specific identi- 
fication of specimens from the Tertiaries of Prance and Germany, the 
most noticeable instance being that of the German Palceomeryoc medius 
with the French Amphitragulus boulangeri and A. pomeli (p. 130). 
In the majority of such instances the identification has been guarded 
by a provisional reservation ; but as the specimens in the Museum 
apparently present no distinctive points of difference, the only logical 
course in each instance has been to include all of them under one 
specific heading. Different views are entertained by different 
writers as to the amount of variation in size which should be 
regarded as of individual or of racial value. In the case mentioned 
above Prof. Piitimeyer takes larger limits than Dr. Filhol, the 
distinction between A. boulangeri and A. pomeli having been made 
by the latter writer on small differences in the size and proportions 
of the teeth of the lower jaw, all of which come well within the 
limits allowed by Prof. Riitimeyer to Palceomeryx medius. The 
latter writer has already identified French specimens from the 
Middle Miocene of Isere with the German form ; and as the latter 
occurs in the Lower Miocene of Weissenau, near Mayence, it is 
prima facie highly probable that it should be identical with the 
Lower-Miocene form of Allier. The probable respective identity 
of the German Hyotherium meissneri and H. soemmeringi with the 
French Palwochcerus typus {Hyotherium typum, p. 254) and P. major 1 , 
together with that of the German Microtherium renggeri with the 

1 Vide Wilckens, Biol. Centralblatt, vol. v. p. 236 (1885). 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

French Ccenoiherium commune, are confirmatory of the foregoing 
views, and indicate (as might have been expected) that the Tertiary 
faunas of the German and French areas contain a large number of 
forms in common. 

Considerable difficulty has been experienced in these and other 
instances in regard to the generic and specific names which should 
be adopted, as German writers almost invariably employ terms of 
German origin, while French authors have an equal partiality for 
those given by their own countrymen. In cases where the first 
published notice is clear and distinctive, the rule of priority has been 
followed ; but there are many instances (notably those of H. von 
Meyer) where the original notice is so vague that it is practically 
useless, and in such instances the choice has fallen on the name 
which appears to have obtained most general acceptation, or was the 
first to be distinctly defined. 

As in the First Part, the circumstance that specimens apparently 
indistinguishable from one another were obtained from different 
geological horizons has not of itself been considered a bar to their 
reference to the same species, although a provisional reservation has 
been adopted in some such cases. 

The genus Anoplotherium (as here employed) is one of peculiar 
difficulty in regard to the association of the jaws and limb-bones of 
the various species ; and no very definite conclusion has been arrived 
at. The Quercy astragalus mentioned in the Addenda (page 316) 
has somewhat increased the complexity of the problem ; but if the 
form to which it belonged be really distinct from the so-called 
EurytJierium latipes, yet, in the absence of any distinction in dental 
characters, it would seem inadvisable that it should receive a distinct 
name. The following Collections are additional to those enumerated 
in Part I. pp. xi, xii : — 

Bowerbank Collection. — Purchased in 1865 from the late Dr. J. S. 
Bowerbank, F.P.S., of Highbury. 

Layton Collection. — Consists mainly of specimens dredged off 
Happisburgh, Norfolk, and was purchased from the Eev. John 
Layton, of that place, in 1858. 

Sloane Collection. — Purchased from the executors of Sir Hans 
Sioane, of Chelsea, about 1754. 

Wigham Collection. — Collected by Mr. Wigham, of Norwich, and 
purchased in 1859 from Mr. T. G. Bayfield, of the same town. 

My thanks are again due to Mr. W. Dalies, F.G.S., not only for 



X INTRODUCTION. 

much valuable information in regard to individual specimens, but also 
for verifying each specimen with its description, by which absolute 
accuracy is secured in this respect. Thanks are also due to Prof. 
Boyd-Dawkins, of Owens College, for valuable assistance in the 
determiuation of the remains of Gervus and its allies ; and to Mr. 
H. B. Medlicott, Superintendent of the Geological Survey of India, 
to Prof. L. Riitimeyer, of Basle, and to the Council of the Geological 
Society of London, for the loan of woodcuts illustrating this and the 
preceding Part. 

Owing to the purchase of certain specimens after the sheets of 
this Part were in type, and also to the circumstance that others had 
been displaced during the rearrangement of the Museum, it has been 
necessary to introduce several Addenda, which render the work more 
complete, but less symmetrical than I could have wished. 

KICHAED LYDEKKEB. 

The Lodge, Harpenden, 
Hertfordshire, 
October 31, 1885. 






SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



[Existing species are denoted by an asterisk.] 

Order UNGULATA *? 

Suborder ARTIODACTTLA 1 

Family BOYIDiE 1 

*Bos taurus, yar. primigenius 2 

, var. longifrocs 16 

elatus 19 

namadicus 22 

palaeogaurus 23 

(?) sp 24 

* Bison bonasus, var. priscus . . . . 24, 311 
latifrons 27 

*_Bubalus buffelus, yar. palaeindicus ... 28 

antiquus 29 

platyceros 29 

occipitalis 30 

acuticornis 33 

antilopinus 35 

Leptobos falconeri 36 

fraseri 37 

*Ovibos moscbatus 33 

bombifrons 39 

cavifrons 40 

°™ (?) sp 40 

Bucapra dayiesi 40 

*Capra hircus 40 

* pyrenaica 41 

sivalensis 45 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family BOYID^E (continued). 

Capra, sp. a 45 

, sp. b 45 

(?) rozeti . '. 45 

Tragoceros amaltheus 46 

Palseoreas lindermayeri 47 

Strepsiceros (?) falconeri 47 

Boselaphus namadicus 48 

sp 48 

Hippotragus sivalensis 49 

Gazella porrecticornis 50 

deperdita 51 

anglica 52 

*Antilope cervicapra 52 

Co-bus (?) palaeindicus (n. sp.) .... 53 

(?) patulicornis 54 

Genus non. det . 54 

Alcelaphus palaeindicus 55 

bakeri 56 

Antelopes of uncertain position .... 57 

Species 1 (probably allied to Oreas). . . 57 

2 (of uncertain affinity) .... 57 

3 (Antilope clavata) 58 

Family GIEAFFID^E 58 

Sivatherium giganteum 59 

Bramatherium perimense 69 

Helladotherium duvernoyi 70 

Giraffa sivalensis 71 

Family CERYID^E 73 

*Cariacus rufus 74 

*Capreolus caprea 74 

cusanus 75 

matheroni 77 

*Alces machlis 78 

latifrons 78 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. Xlll 

Family CERYID^E (continued). 

Page 

*Kangifer tarandus 79, 311 

Cervus giganteus 82, 312 

* . dama 89 

browni 89 

falconeri 91 

savini 91 

verticornis 92 

sedgwicki 93 

* elaphus 94, 312 

* aristotelis 103 

* porcinus 104 

sivalensis 104 

perrieri 107 

etueriarium 107 

suttonensis 109 

cylindroceros Ill 

tetraceros 113 

polignacus 115 

curtoceros 115 

(?) lunatus 116 

Cervulus (?) dicranoceros 117 

(?) australis 118 

Palaeomeryx sivalensis 119 

bojani 120 

furcatus 120 

feignouxi 124 

flourensianus 125 

Amphitragnlus elegans 125 

lemanensis 129 

boulangeri ] 30 

(?) nouleti 133 

gracilis 134 

Family CAMELIDJE 139 

Camelus sivalensis 140 

antiqims 145 



XIV SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family CAMELIDiE (continued). 

Page 

Auchenia, sp. 1 148 

, sp. 2 149 

magna 313 

Family POEBKOTHEKTIDJE 149 

Poebrotherium wilsoni 149 

Family TRAGULIME 150 

Podremotherium elongatum . . . 150, 314 

Tragulus sivalensis 152 

Dorcatherium naui ]53 

minus 154 

majns 154 

Bacbitherium curtum 155, 314 

insigne 157 

Family DICHODONTIIXaS 159 

Gelocns communis 159 

Lophiomeryx chalaniati .... 160, 314 

minor (n. sp.) 314 

Dichodon cuspidalus 164 

cervinus 165 

Chceromeryx silistrensis 165 

Genus non det 166 

Family C^NOTHEKLKLE 166 

Csenotherium commune . . . . . . . 167 

sp 169 

laticurvatum 170 

geoffroyi 174 

cadurcense 175 

quinquedentatum 175 

tilholi 176 

Dichobunus leporinus 180, 315 

robertianus 181 

Acotherulum saturninum 182 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XV 



Family AN 0PL0THEBI1TLE 182 

Xiphodon gracilis 183, 315 

gelyensis 186 

secundarius 187 

Dacrytherium ovinum 187 

Anoplotherium commune .... 189, 316 

secundarium 194 

cayluxense (n. sp.) .... 198, 317 

quercyi 201 

modicum 201 

bavaricum 202 

minus 202 

Family OBEODONTLCUE 207 

Oreodon culbertsoni 207 

Eporeodon major 209 

Family MEEYCOPOTAMID^E 209 

Merycopotamus dissimilis 209 

nanus 211 

pusillus 214 

Family AOTHRACOTBEKETDJE 215 

Diplopus aymardi 216 

Hyopotamus velaunus 218 

bovinus 221 

americanus 228 

porcinus . . 228 

picteti 233 

giganteus 234 

Anthracotherium hyopotamoides . . . 235 

magnum 236 

alsaticum 239 

valdense 241 

minus 242 

— — sp. a. (cf. laharpei) 242 



XVI SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family ANTHRACOTHEBIIDJE (continued). 

Page 

Anthracotherium silistrense 243 

sp. b 244 

sp. c 244 

gresslyi 244 

sp. d 247 

Family CHCEEOPOTAMID^E 247 

Choeropotamus gypsorum 247 

Elotherium magnum 249, 317 

mortoni 317 

Cebochoerus minor 318 

Family SUIDJE 250 

*Dicotyles labiatus 251 

* tajacu .252 

Hyotherinm typum 254, 318 

waterhousei 256 

soemmeringi 257 

simplex . 258 

Hippohyns sivalensis 259 

*Sus scrofa 260 

falconeri 263 

sp. a 266 

sp. b 266 

antiquus 267 

erymanthius 267 

sp. c 268 

giganteus 268 

titan 270 

hysudricus • . . 271 

(?), sp. d 273 

palseochcerus 273 

choeroides 273 

Family and Genus non det 274' 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XV11 

Page 

Family PHACOCHCERID^E 274 

*Phacochoerus, sp. a 275 

sp. b 275 

Family LISTEIODONTID^E 275 

Listriodon splendens 275 

pentapotamise 276 

i 

Family HIPPOPOTAMIDJE 277 

*Hippopotamus amphibius .... 277, 319 

pentlandi 287 

mirmtus 292 

palseindicus 293 

namadicus 294 

sivalensis 297 

iravaticus 309 

sp 310 



PART II. 



XIX 



LIST OF WOODCUTS. 



Page 

Fig. 1. Bos t auras, var. primigenius. Cranium, 3 

2. elatus. Cranium 20 

3. Bubal us occipitalis. Crania 80 

4. acuticornis. Horn-cores 33 

5. Leptobos falconeri. Cranium ........ 36 

r Capreolus raatheroui. Antler 76 

' { cusanus. Antler ■ . 76 

7. Eaugifer tarandus. Cranium and antlers .... 79 

8. Cervus giganteus. Skeleton 83 

9. elaphus. Antler 95 

10. sivaleusis. Molar 105 

11. ■ cyliudroceros. Antlers 112 

12. tetraceros. Antlers 114 

13. Palaeomeryx sivalensis. Molar 120 

14. Amphitragulus elegans. Mandible 127 

15. Tragulus sivalensis. Molar 152 

16. Bachitherium curtum. Mandible 156 

17. Lophiomcryx cbalaniati. Mandible ...... 161 

18. — . Maxilla ' .... 162 

19. Dichodon cuspidatus. Mandible 163 

20. Caan other ium, sp. Palate 169 

21. — . Mandible 170 

22. filholi. Cranium 176 

23. . Skull 178 

24. ?Xipbodon gelyensis. Mandible 186 

25. Anoplotherium secundarium, Maxilla 195 

26. cayluxeuse. Maxilla 199 

27. Merycopotamus, sp. Molar 210 

28. pusillus. Molar 215 

29. Hyopotamus bovinus. Premolar and two true molars. 224 
30. . Molar 224 

PART IT. C 



XX LIST OF WOODCUTS. 

Page 

Fig. 31. Hyopotamus porcinus. Molars 229 

32. . Mandible 230 

33. giganteus. Molar 234 

34. Anthracotherium, sp. Mandible 237 

35. gresslyi. Palate 245 

36. . Mandible 246 

37. Hippopotamus amphibms. Cranium and mandible . 278 

38. sivalensis. Cranium and mandible .... 298 

39. Lophiomerj-x minor. Maxilla 315 



XXI 



ABBREVIATIONS OF SERIALS QUOTED IN Part II., 

AND NOT GIYEN IN THE LIST ON pp. XXYli-XXX OF PART I. 
[Where not otherwise stated, the works are in 8vo.] 



Ann. Lye. Xat. Hist. N. York. — Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History, 
New York. New York. 

Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist. — Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
London. 

Archil) fur Mineralogie. — Archiy fur Mineralogie, &c, &c. (Karsten). 
Berlin. 

Beitr. Pal. Oest.-Vng. — Beitrage zur Palaontologie Oesterreich-Ungarns 
und des Orients. 4to. Vienna. 

Biol. Centralblatt. — Biologisches Centralblatt. Erlangen. 

Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sci. Xat. — Bulletin de la Societe Yaudoise des Sciences 
Naturelles. Lausanne. 

Denkschr. seine. Ges. Xat. — Neue Deukschriften der allgemeinen Schweize- 
rischen Gesellschaft. Ito. Zurich. (Differently quoted in 
Part I. of this work.) 

Geologist. — The Geologist, a popular illustrated monthly magazine of 
Geology (Mackie). London. 

Jahresh. Ver. Xat. Wiirtt. — Jahreshefte des Yereins fiir yaterlandische 
Naturkunde in VYurtteinberg. Stuttgart. 

Jiourn. Ac. Nat. Sei. Phileid. — Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. 4to. Philadelphia. 

J own. de Physiologie. — Journal de Physiologie experimentale (Magendie). 
Vols, i.-ix. (1821-1831). Paris. 

K. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl. — Kongliga Syenska Yetenskaps-Akade- 
niiens Handlingar. 4to. Stockholm. 

Mem. P. Ae. Sci. Turin. — Meniorie della Eeale Accademia delle Scienze 
di Torino. 4to. Turin. 

Proc. Ac. Xat. Sci. Philad. — Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia. 

Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. — Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society held at Philadelphia, &C. Philadelphia. 

Prcc. B. Soc. — Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. London. 

Smith. Contrib. Kaoir. — Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. 4to. 
Washington. 



XX 11 



CORRIGENDA TO PART I. 



Page 17. Crossopus fodiens and C. remifer are identical. 

„ 20, line 6 from top, Cope includes only four families {Ch?yso- 
chloridce, Centetidce, Potamogalidce, and Talpidce) of the 
Insectivora in the Creoclonta. 

„ 43, No. 28845 x,for Lower Pliocene read Upper Pliocene. 

„ 45, line 23 from bottom, for fig. 4 read fig. 2. 

„ 92, No. 37137, after p. 309 add pi. xxxv a. fig. 4. 

„ 123, wo£e 4, for p. 50 read p. 58. 

„ 131, line 5 from top, for vol. ii. read vol. i. 

„ 154, note 1 read Rec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. xi. p. 104 (1878). 

„. 155. In description o/fig. 22, for premolar read molar. 

,, 191, note 4, after Memoirs add vol. i. 

„ 220, line lGfrotn top, for Kapnach read Kapfnach. 

„ 224, line 8 from bottom, 



, for Ellobius read Eliomys. 
225, ,, 14 ,, i 

260, line ^from bottom, for tumidus read timidus. 



CATALOGUE 



OP 



FOSSIL MAMMALIA, 



PART II. 



Order UNGULATA. 

Suborder ARTIODACTYLA. 

Although in earlier works the writer has subdivided the fossil 
Artiodactyla into sections, a more extended survey has convinced 
him that any such divisions are at present impracticable, as all the 
groups seem to pass more or less completely into one another. 

Family BOVID^] 1 . 

Dentition, usually : — 1. 1, C. j, Pm. |, M. |. This and the next 
two families, which, together with the Antilocapridce, constitute the 
Pecora of recent Zoology, are characterized by the perfectly selenodont 
structure of the true molars, of which each of the upper ones carries 
four columns, by the coalescence of the third and fourth metapodials 
into a ' cannon-bone,' and by the union of the cuboid and navicular 
elements of the tarsus. It is not certain whether some of the fossil 
genera ranged under the Tragididce can be distinguished from this 
group of families. 

1 Flower observes that " the [recent] generic divisions of this family are still 
in an unsatisfactory state, and require careful and critical revision ; " adding 
that many adopted in Part ii, of his ' Catalogue of the Mammalia in the Museum 
of the Eoyal College of Surgeons ' (1884), " are founded on trivial characters 
very difficult of definition." 

PART n. B 



TJNGULATA. 



Genus BOS, Linn. 1 

Bag taunts, Linn. 2 

It has been shown by Boyd-Dawkins 3 that the so-called Bos pri- 
migenius is in all probability the ancestor of the larger existing cattle 
of Western Europe ; " the wild cattle of Chillingham Park, Northum- 
berland, being probably the last surviving representative of the 
gigantic Urus of the Pleistocene period, reduced in size, and modi- 
fied in every respect by their small range and their contact with 
man." The same authority 4 likewise comes to the conclusion that 
Bos longifrons, Owen, is an ancestral form of the small existing 
Scotch and Welsh cattle. 

Hah. " Europe, and, as a domestic animal, the greater part of the 
habitable world " (Flower). 



Var. primigenius (Bojanus 5 ). 

Syn. Bos primigenius, Bojanus 6 . 
Bos urus, Boyd-Dawkins 7 . 
Bos giganteus, Owen 8 , MS. 

The writer has found it totally impossible to distinguish the de- 
tached jaws, teeth, and skeletal bones of this form from those of 
the contemporaneous Bison ; the very large series in the Museum 
showing such an amount of variation in absolute size and relative 
proportion as apparently to forbid any such division. Under these cir- 
cumstances nearly all the specimens are provisionally referred to 
the present form, as being the commoner of the two. 

M. 2245. The cranium ; from the Pleistocene of Athol, Perthshire. 
(Fig.) This fine specimen is described and figured by Owen in the 

' British Eossil Mammals and Birds,' pp. 501-2, figs. 

208, 210 ; the figure of the frontal aspect being repro- 



1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 98 (1766). 

2 Log. cit. 

3 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxii. pp. 391-401 (1866). 
1 Ibid. vol. xxiii. pp. 176-185 (1867). 

6 Nova Acta Ac. Cses. Leop.-Oar. vol. xiii. pt. 2, p. 422 (1827). 6 Log. cit, 

7 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxii. p. 392 (1866). 

H In Davics's ' Catalogue of the Pleistocene Vertebrata in the Collection of Sir 
Antonio Brady,' p. 47 (1874). (Privately printed.) 



BOYID^. 3 

duced on a smaller scale in the accompanying woodcut. 
The length of the cranium is 0,912 ; and the span of the 
horn-cores 1,064. 

Presented by David Inglis, Esq., about 1836. 

Fig. 1. 




Fig. 1. Bos taunts, var. primig&nius. The cranium; from the Pleistocene 
of Athol. About ^ nat. size. 

36405. The cranium and the right ramus of the mandible of a 
smaller specimen, wanting all the cheek-teeth except m. 3 ; 
from the turbary of Kirkcudbrightshire. 

Presented by the Earl of Selkirk, 1859. 

50086. The cranium ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford, Essex. 

Purchased, 1878. 

45424. The cranium ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. This fine 

specimen wants the alveolar portion of the maxillae, the 
palate, and teeth, but is otherwise nearly perfect. The 
horn-cores curve outwards and forwards, with an inward 
and upward inclination at their extremities. The length 
of the face is 0,635, and the span of the horn-cores 0,609. 
Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45425. The calvarium and horn-cores, with another fragment of the 

same skull comprising the maxillse and palate with m. 2 
and m. 3 of either side in place ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. When found, this cranium was nearly entire, but 
was broken in its removal. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 



4 UNGULATA. 

45426. A pair of horn-cores, the frontals wanting; from the 

Pleistocene of Ilf ord. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45427. The calvarium and horn-cores; from the Pleistocene of 

Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45428. The horn-cores, with part of the frontals ; from the Pleis- 

tocene of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45429. The frontals and horn-cores, with the occiput and condyles 

entire ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45430. The frontals and horn-cores, with the occiput, condyles, and 

basioccipital ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45431. The horn-cores and the upper portion of the frontals; from 

the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45432. The frontals and horn-cores, with the occiput, condyles, and 

basioccipital ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

33888. The calvarium and horn-cores ; from the Pleistocene near 
Heme T>ay, Kent. 

Presented by Wickham Flower, Esq., 1859. 

M. 2342. The calvarium and horn-cores ; from the Pleistocene of 
Clacton, Essex. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

33471. Occipital portion of the cranium ; locality unknown. 

Lay ton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

In addition to the preceding specimens, the Museum contains a con- 
siderable number of imperfect crania and horn-cores, from 
Pleistocene deposits, of which the following may be noticed : — 

21304, from Grays {Purchased, 1847).— 27871, from Clacton 
{Presented by J. Brown, Esq., 1852). — 33471, probably from Nor- 
folk {Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858). — 45433, 44535, from 
Ilford {Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878). — 46881, from the bed 
of the Thames below London {Presented by the Commissioners of the 
Metropolitan Board of Works, 1875).— M. 394, from Northwich, 
Cheshire {Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882.) 



\ 



bovid^;. 5 

38511. The middle portion of the cranium, containing the three 
true molars on each side ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1864 

45448. Two specimens of the upper cheek-dentition, one containing 
all the teeth, and the other the three true molars, with the 
detached fourth left upper premolar ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45449-55, 45460-62. Nine detached upper true molars ; from the 
Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

36406. The third left upper true molar, with the grinding-surface 
cut and polished ; from the turbary of Kirkcudbright- 
shire, associated with the cranium No. 36405. 

Presented by the Earl of Selkirk, 1859. 

41531. Upper molars, apparently belonging to this form; from the 
turbary of Walthamstow, Essex. Purchased, 1869. 

33889. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting the cutting- 
teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Heme Bay. Associated 
with the calvarium No. 33888. 

Presented by Wickham Flower, Esq., 1859. 

45463. The nearly entire right ramus of the mandible, wanting the 

coronoid process, and containing all the cheek-teeth except 
pm. 2, in a well-worn condition ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45464. The right ramus of the mandible, with the last four cheek- 

teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45465. The right ramus of the mandible, wanting part of the con- 

dyle, with m. 1 and m . 2 ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 
Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45466. The right ramus of the mandible, with all the cheek-teeth, 

except pm. 2, in a much-worn condition ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45467. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, wanting the sym- 

physis and coronoid process, and containing the four last 
cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 



6 



TJNGTTLATA. 



45468. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing all the 

cheek-teeth except pm. 2 ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 
Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45469. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the three 

true molars ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45470. The nearly perfect left ramus of the mandible, with the 

three true molars ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45471. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, imper- 

fect anteriorly, containing the three true molars; from 
the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45472. The left ramus of the mandible, containing u^~2 and m. 3 ; 

from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45473. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 

taining the three true molars, in a much- worn condition ; 
from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

21306. Hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 

m. 2 and m. 3 ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1847. 

18965. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing m72 and 
m7~3 ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. Purchased, 1845. 

19843. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
three true molars ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. 

Purchased, 1846. 

21307. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 

mm. 3, ra . 4, m. l, and m . 2 ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Purchased, 1847. 

36340. The left ramus of the mandible, containing the three true 
molars ; om the Pleistocene of Crayford, Kent. 

Presented by C. M. Doughty, Esq., 1862. 

36340 a. Tho right ramus of the mandible, containing ^~2 and 

m73 ; from the Pleistocene of Walton-on-thc-Naze, Essex. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 



BOYID^E. 7 

45476. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing all 
the cheek-teeth except pm. 1 ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

23738. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last four cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Slade Green, 
near Erith, Kent. Purchased, 1849. 

45482-88, 45491-95, 45503-05. Fourteen detached specimens of 
first and second lower true molars ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45497-502, 45504. Seven detached specimens of the third lower 
true molar ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

44803. The third right lower true molar of a Bos ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Nice. ('? Bos elatus.) 

Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

45557. The right scapula ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45811. The greater part of the left scapula ; from the Pleistocene of 
~ Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45559. The glenoidal third of the left scapula ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

28021. The greater part of the right scapula; from the Pleistocene 
of Clacton. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

45561. The right humerus ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

48049. The right humerus ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1877. 

20014. The right humerus ; from the Pleistocene near Northampton. 

Purchased, 1816. 

46854. The right humerus ; from the Pleistocene of Greenwich, 
Kent. Purchased, 1875. 

46127. The right humerus ; dredged off the eastern coast of 
England. Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

36411. The right humerus ; from the turbary of Kirkcudbrightshire ; 
associated with the cranium No. 36405. 

Presented by the Earl of Selkirk, 1859. 



8 UNGRJLATA. 

45563. The left humerus of a smaller form ; from the Pleistocene of 

Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45564. The left humerus, similar to the last ; from the Pleistocene 

of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

23120. The distal portion of the right humerus ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Slade Green, near Erith, Kent. Purchased, 1849. 

21290. The left radius and ulna ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1847. 

45579. The left radius and ulna ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

48050. The left radius and ulna ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1877. 

45578. The left radius and ulna, wanting the olecranon ; from the 
Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

21299. The left radius ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1847. 

23750 e. The left radius and ulna of a smaller form ; from the 
Pleistocene of Slade Green. Purchased, 1849. 

20015. The right radius and ulna, wanting the olecranon; from the 
Pleistocene of Ilford. Purchased, 1847. 

23749 e. The right radius and ulna, wanting the olecranon ; from 
the Pleistocene of Slade Green. Purchased, 1849. 

21299 C. The right radius and ulna, wanting the olecranon, of a 
smaller form ; from the Pleistocene of Slade Green. 

Purchased, 1847. 

20801. The right radius and the distal half of the ulna; from the 
Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. Purchased, 1847. 

28003. The left metacarpus, of large size ; from the Pleistocene of 
Clacton. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

45599. The left metacarpus, of large size ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

36412. The left metacarpus, rather smaller than the last; from 
the turbary of Kirkcudbrightshire. Associated with the 
cranium No. 36405. 

Presented by the Earl of Selkirk, 1859. 



bovidjE. 9 

46130. The left metacarpus, considerably shorter than either of the 
preceding; dredged on the Dogger Bank. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

45600. The right metacarpus, like No. 45599 ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

16887. The right metacarpus, somewhat smaller than the last ; 
from Kent's Cavern, Torquay. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

242 (0. C). The right metacarpus, agreeing very closely with the 
last ; from Kirkdale Cave, Yorkshire. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

16889. The right metacarpus, of smaller size ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

23724 e. The right metacarpus, of a more slender type ; from the 
Pleistocene of Slade Green. Purchased, 1849. 

23724 el. The left metacarpus of a still more slender type ; from 
the Pleistocene of Slade Green. Purchased, 1849. 

23729. The left metacarpus and phalangeals ; from the Pleistocene 
of Slade Green. Purchased, 1849. 

M. 497. The right metacarpus ; from the Pleistocene of Boltons, 
Old Brompton, London. 

Presented by J. G. Spicer, Esq., 1883. 

27981. The right metacarpus ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

46129. The right metacarpus, of large size ; dredged on the Dogger 
Bank. Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

28578. The right metacarpus, of small size ; from a cave in Sundwig, 
Westphalia. Purchased, 1853. 

40706. The right scaphoid ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1867. 
23713 e. The left scaphoid ; from the Pleistocene of Slade Green. 

Purchased, 1849. 

21298. The left lunar; from the Pleistocene of Slade Green. 

Purchased, 1849. 
21298 a. The left lunar ; from the Pleistocene of Slade Green. 

Purchased, 1S49. 



10 UMWLATA. 

23713 e 1. The left cuneiform ; from the Pleistocene of Slade Green. 

Purchased, 1849. 

36627. The left cuneiform ; from the Pleistocene ; locality unknown. 

Purchased, 1857. 

23729 a. Two specimens of the left magnum ; from the Pleistocene 
of Slade Green. Purchased, 1849. 

21298. Two specimens of the right unciform; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Slade Green. Purchased, 1847. 

36449. A proximal phalangeal, of very large size ; from the Pleisto- 
cene near Peckham, Surrey. Purchased, 1864. 

28018. A proximal phalangeal ; from the Pleistocene of Walton. 

Presented by John Broivn, Esq., 1852. 

255 (0. C). A proximal phalangeal ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

27948. A proximal phalangeal ; from the Pleistocene of Heding- 
ham, Essex. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

255 a (0. C). A terminal phalangeal ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

45643. The nearly complete pelvis and sacrum ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45645. The left innominate, showing the acetabulum and the cotyloid 
notch and scar entire ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

36410. The right innominate ; from the turbary of Kirkcudbright- 
shire. Associated with the cranium No. 36405. 

Presented by the Earl of Selkirk, 1859. 

36413-4. The right and left femora ; from the turbary of Kirkcud- 
brightshire. Associated with the last. 

Presented by the Earl of Selkirk, 1859. 

45653. The right femur ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45654. The right femur ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45655. Tho left femur ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 



B0VID2E. 11 

45652. The left femur ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

38093. The left femur ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1864. 

33934. The left femur ; from the Pleistocene of East Wiekham, 
Kent. Presented by Henry Edgell, Esq., 1859. 

20799. The distal portion of the left femur ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Purchased, 1847. 

45663. The distal portion of the right femur ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

19848. The distal portion of the right femur ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased, 1846. 

27964. The left tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Walton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

45672. The left tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

23123. The left tibia, of small size ; from the Pleistocene of Maid- 
stone, Kent. Purchased, 1849. 

23123 a. The left tibia ; from the Pleistocene near Chelsea Hospital. 
Presented by Thomas Faulkner, Esq., 1838. 

45671. The right tibia; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45673. The right tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45674. The right tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45680. The right tibia, smaller than the last ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45814. The right tibia of a still smaller form ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

21298. The associated right calcaneum, astragalus, and naviculo- 
cuboid ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

28005. The right calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

23729 b. The right calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of Slade Green. 

Purchased, 1849. 



12 FNGULA.TA. 

237171). The right calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of Slade 
Green. Purchased, 1849. 

20800. The right calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 

23133a. The right calcaneum, of small size; from the Pleistocene 

near Maidstone. Purchased, 1849. 

21298 a. The left calcaneum, of large size ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

23128. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1849. 
21679. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 
23128 a. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1849. 

33471. The right astragalus ; no locality. 

Lay ton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

22036. The left astragalus, of small size ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased, 1849. 

27946. The right naviculo-cuboid ; from the Pleistocene of Walton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

22036 a. The right naviculo-cuboid ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1849. 
20800 a. The left naviculo-cuboid ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 
36415. The left naviculo-cuboid ; from the Pleistocene of Kirkcud- 
brightshire. Associated with the cranium No. 36405. 

Presented by the Earl of Selkirk, 1859. 

21621. The left naviculo-cuboid, of small size ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

21298 a. The left metatarsus, of enormous size ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

23124. The right metatarsus, somewhat smaller than the last; from 
the Pleistocene of Maidstone. Purchased, 1849. 

23723 e-2. The left metatarsus, agreeing nearly with the last ; from 
the Pleistocene of Slade Green. Purchased, 1849. 

40963. The right metatarsus, agreeing with the last ; from the 
Pleistocene of Crayford, Kent. Purchased, 1868. 



BOvmE. 13 

23124a. The left metatarsus; from the Pleistocene of Maidstone. 
This bone is of a more slender type than any of the pre- 
ceding specimens. Purchased, 1849. 

36416. The right metatarsus ; from the turbary of Kirkcud- 
brightshire. This bone is associated with the cranium 
No. 36405 ; it is rather smaller than No. 23723 e-2. 

Presented by the Earl of Selkirk, 1859. 

23723 e-3. The left metatarsus ; from the Pleistocene of Slade 
Green. This bone is considerably smaller than the last. 

Purchased, 1849. 

20016. The left metatarsus ; from the Pleistocene of Northampton- 
shire. The specimen is rather stouter than the last. 

Purchased, 1846. 

27960. The left metatarsus ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. This 

(Fig,) specimen is described and figured by Owen, under the name 

of Bison priscus, in the ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' 

p. 497, fig. 207. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

23723 e-4. The right and left metatarsus ; from the Pleistocene of 
Slade Green. Purchased, 1849. 

37127. The right metatarsus ; from the Pleistocene of Erith. 

Purchased, 1863. 

23124 a. Two specimens of the left metatarsus • from the Pleisto- 
cene of Maidstone. Purchased, 1849. 

38638. The left metatarsus of a small form ; from the Pleistocene 
of Moulsham, near Chelmsford, Essex. 

Presented by William Boper, Esq., 1864. 

18304. The left metatarsus, very similar to the last ; from Ban well 
Cave, Somersetshire. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

33890-33915. The greater portion of the vertebral column ; from the 
Pleistocene near Heme Bay. These specimens are asso- 
ciated with the calvarium No. 33888. They are mentioned 
by Owen in the ' British Eossil Mammals and Birds,' 
pp. 504-5. Presented by Wickham Flower, Esq., 1859. 

28020. The atlas vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

46120. The atlas vertebra ; dredged on the Dogger Bank. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 



14 TTNGTJLATA. 

48046. The atlas vertebra; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1877. 

23736 e. The atlas vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Erith. 

Purchased^ 1849. 

45507. The atlas vertebra, wanting a portion of the left transverse 
process ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45511. The axis vertebra, wanting the left transverse process ; from 

the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45512. The axis vertebra, wanting part of the neural spine and the 

transverse processes ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

48047. The axis vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1877. 

41739. The axis vertebra, apparently belonging to this form ; from 

the turbary of Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

28026. The axis vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

45514. The third cervical vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45515. The third cervical vertebra, wanting the neural spine ; from 

the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45518. The fourth cervical vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45520. The fourth cervical vertebra, with the neural spine and 
transverse processes imperfect; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

41740. The fourth cervical vertebra ; from the turbary of Waltham- 

stow. Purchased, 1869. 

32408. Cast of the fourth cervical vertebra; the original from 
Pilling Moss, Lancashire. 

Presented by William Turner, Esq., about 1857. 

27994c. The fourth cervical vertebra; from the Pleistocene of 
Clacton. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 



boytdm. 15 

45523. The fifth cervical vertebra, imperfect ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

36408. The sixth cervical vertebra ; from the turbary of Kirkcud- 
brightshire. Associated with the cranium No. 36405. 

Presented by the Earl of Selkirk, 1859. 

27994. The sixth cervical vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of 
Clacton. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

38573. The seventh cervical vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Purchased, 1864. 

27994 a. The sixth cervical vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of 
Clacton. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

27994b. The seventh cervical vertebra; from the Pleistocene of 
Clacton. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

27998. An early dorsal vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

28019. An early dorsal vertebra; from the Pleistocene of Walton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

46123. An early dorsal vertebra ; dredged off Lowestoft, Suffolk. 

Oiules Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

46124. An early dorsal vertebra ; dredged off Lowestoft. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

45530. An early dorsal vertebra, nearly perfect ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45535. A dorsal vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45733. An early dorsal vertebra, with the neural spine imperfect ; 
from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45544. A late dorsal vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45545. A late dorsal vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45546. A late dorsal vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878, 



16 



TTNGULATA. 



46125. A late dorsal vertebra ; dredged from the Dogger Bank. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

45743. The last dorsal vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45552. A lumbar vertebra, with the neural spine and transverse 
processes imperfect ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45547. A lumbar vertebra, wanting the transverse processes ; from 

the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45548. A broken lumbar vertebra ; from tho Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45551. The last lumbar vertebra, wanting the transverse processes ; 
from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45556. The last lumbar vertebra and sacrum of the same indi- 
vidual ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. The sacrum has 
five anchylosed vertebras. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

36409. Tho last lumbar vertebra ; from the turbary of Kirkcud- 
brightshire ; associated with the cranium No. 30405. 

Presented by the Earl of Selkirk, 1859. 

48048. The sacrum ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1877. 

Var. longifrons (Owen 1 ). 

Syn. Bos longifrons, Owen 2 . 
Bos frontosus , Nilsson 3 . 
Bison minor, Owen 4 (teste Boyd-Dawkins). 

This small form does not apparently occur in the older Pleisto- 
cene of Ilford, Grays, &c. 

27506. The cranium, wanting the nasals and preinaxillse j from 

( Fig.) Bawdsey Bog, Suffolk. This specimen is figured by Mackie 

in the ' Geologist,' vol. v. pi. xv. (1862), under the name 

of Bos frontosus. Purchased, 1852. 

1 Eep. Bril. Assoc, for 1843, p. 235 (1844). 2 Log. cit. 

8 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 349 (1849). 
4 Brit. Foss. Mamm. and Birds, p. 497 (1840). 



BO VIP. E. j 7 

3S524, Cranium, wanting the nasal and premaxilla\ and otherwise 
imperfect : from Prehistoric deposits at Lambeth, near 
Tauxhall Bridge. Purchased, 1864. 

26925. Cast of the upper portion of the cranium : the original is 
from the Prehistoric deposits of Scandinavia. 

Presented by Professor XiJsson. 

41517. The cranium of a large-sized form, wanting the right 
nasal : from the turbary of Walthamstow, Essex. 

Purchased, 1869. 

255S8. The cranium of a cow, imperfect interiorly : from Swaffham 
Fen. Norfolk. Purchased, 1851. 

33518. The cranium of a cow ; dredged from the bed of the Thames 
at Purfleet. Purchased, 1858. 

36267. The cranium ; from a bog near Loughgur. County Limerick, 
Ireland. Presented by the Count de Salis. 1865. 

41597. The cranium of a cow : from the turbary of Walthamstow. 

Purchased, IS 00. 

25589. Upper portion of the cranium ; from a bog in Duuslaughlin. 
County Iffeath, Ireland. Purchased, 1851. 

36433 a. Upper part of the cranium : from the Pleistocene of 
Walton, Essex. 
Brown Collection. Presented by Sir P. Ou\n,K.C.B., 1859. 

M. 1966. Upper part of the cranium of a cow ; from a superficial 
deposit at Terry Head. Devonshire, No history. 

41600. The left ramus of the mandible : from the turbary of 
Walthamstow. This and the next two specimens are of 

relatively large size, thereby agreeing with the "Waltham- 
stow cranium No, 4lol7. and indicating that the Essex 
race was of large si. e. Purchased. 1869. 

33923. Cranium of a hornless form : from a bog in Ireland. 

Presented by Dr. Wylde. 

The Aluseum possesses a very large series of crania from different 
localities, of which the following may be briefly noticed: — 25590. 
from Eracklesham Bay, Sussex ; 25980, from the bed of the 
Thames at Battersea ; 32736. from Jarrow, Durham {presented by 
Messrs. Harrison and Hodgson, 1857) : 33917 et set}., from Ireland 

PAKE II. e 



18 UNGULATA. 

{presented by Dr. Wylde) ; 38128, from Greenwich, Kent; 38129, 
from Plumstead Marshes, near Woolwich, Kent (presented by the 
Metropolitan Board of Works, 1861) ; 40197, from Moorfields, near 
Finsbury, London. 

41601. The right ramus of the mandible ; from the turbary of 

Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

41602. The right ramus of the mandible; from the turbary of 

Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

7581. The right ramus of the mandible of a smaller form, containing 
the three true molars ; from a superficial deposit at Lewes, 
Sussex. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

7601. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing ^\ and 
m. 2 ; from a superficial deposit at Heme Bay, Kent. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

41598. Part of the right ramus of the mandible of an immature 
individual, showing the third milk-molar ; from the 
turbary of Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

41598 a. Part of the left ramus of a similar mandible ; from 
Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

39282. Two specimens of the greater part of the right scapula ; from 

a superficial deposit at Saffron W r alden, Essex. 

Presented by George Roberts, Esq., 1865. 

39283. Two specimens of the right humerus, wanting the proximal 

third ; from a superficial deposit at Saffron Walden. 

Presented by George Roberts, Esq., 1865. 

33471 a. The left radius ; probably from the turbary of Happisburgh, 
Norfolk. Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

41604. The left radius ; from river-silt at Walthamstow. 

Purchased, 1869. 

39284. The left radius, wanting the distal epiphysis ; from a super- 

ficial deposit at Saffron Walden. 

Presented by George Roberts, Esq., 1865. 

39284 a. The right radius, similarly imperfect ; from Saffron 
Walden. Presented by George Roberts, Esq., 1865. 



BOVID^. 19 

41608. The right radius ; from shell-marl above the peat at Wal- 
thamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

28274. The left metacarpus ; from a superficial deposit in Suffolk. 

Purchased, 1872 

28274 a. The left metacarpus, of a much shorter form ; from Suffolk. 

Purchased, 1872. 

36455. The left metacarpus, very similar to the last ; from the 
turbary of Peckham, Surrey. Purchased, 1862. 

39287. Two specimens of the left tibia ; from a superficial deposit 
at Saffron Walden. 

Presented by George Roberts, Esq., 1865. 

39287 a. The right tibia, imperfect superiorly ; from Saffron 
Walden. Presented by George Roberts, Esq., 1865. 

41605. The right metatarsus ; from river-silt at Walthamstow. 

Purchased, 1869. 

41543. The right metatarsus of a smaller form ; from the turbary 

of Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

41543 a. The right metatarsus, rather smaller than the last ; from 
the turbary of Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

41544. The right metatarsus of a calf, wanting the distal epi- 

physis : from the turbary of Walthamstow. 

Purchased, 1869. 

18164-69. The greater portion of the vertebral column ; from an 
Irish bog. Purchased. 

Bos elatus 9 Pomel 1 (ex Croizet, MS.). 

Syn. Bos elaphus, Pomel 2 . 

Bos etruscus, Falconer 3 . 

Riitimeyer (' Die Hinder der Tertiar-Epoche ' [Abh. schweiz. pal. 
Ges. vol. v.], p. 156) identifies the typical French form with the 
Italian Bos etruscus, of which he figures a fine skull preserved in 
the Museum at Florence, which is reproduced in the accompanying 
woodcut (fig. 2, p. 20). 

1 ' Catalogue Methodique,' p. 114 (1853). 2 Loc. cit. 

3 In Falconer's ' Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. p. 481 (1868). 

c2 



20 FNGULAT4 . 

The species is considered to be closely allied to the existing 
Malayan Bos sondaicus. The horn- cores are set low down on the 




Bos elatus. Skull ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Val d'Arno, Italy. 
Florence Museum. (From the Abh. schweiz. pal, Ges.) 

frontals, far below the plane of the occiput; the limb-bones are 
relatively slender ; and the lower molars have an accessory column 
at the middle of their inner surface. 
Bah. France and Italy. 



BOVIDiE. 21 

46259. Upper molars; from the Upper Pliocene of Arde (Puy- 
de-D6me), Prance. The specific reference is provisional. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27640. The hinder portion of the left ramus of the mandible of a 

large specimen ; from the Upper Pliocene of Perrier, near 
Issoire (Puy-de-Dome). In this and the last specimen the 
small accessory column in the middle of the inner surface 
of the true molars is very distinct. Both specimens are 
noticed by Riitimeyer, op. cit. p. 156. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27641. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, 

showing all the cheek-teeth except p m . 2 ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of Perrier. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27642. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing 

all the cheek-teeth except pm. 2, in a well-worn condition ; 
from the Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27618. The right metacarpus ; from the Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848, 

29665. The right metacarpus ; probably from the same locality. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27618 a. The right metatarsus ; from the Upper Pliocene of 
Perrier. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 



Some of the folloiving specimens may belong to this species. 

46939. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of a small species of 
Bos; from the Upper Pliocene of Arde. There is no 
accessory outer column to the true molars, and Riitimeyer 
(loc. cit.) doubts if the specimen belongs to B. elatus. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852 

27641 a. The proximal portion of the left radius and ulna, wanting 
the olecranon ; from the Upper Pliocene of Arde. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28825. The left metatarsus ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Val 
d'ArnO, Italy. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1856. 



22 



UNGULATA. 



Bos namadicus, Falconer 1 . 

This species is allied to Bos taurus, but there is a difference in 
the curvature of the horn-cores, and the occipital surface is more 
deeply incised by the extremities of the temporal fossae, showing 
indications of affinity with the living Indian B. gaurus and B. fron- 
talis ; the vertex of the occiput is also markedly convex, indicating 
another approach to the former species. 

Sab. India. 

All the specimens are from the Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley, 
and, unless otherwise stated, were presented by 0. Fraser, Esq., 
before 1843. 

39758. The greater portion of the cranium, wanting the horn-cores 
(Fig.) and the extremity of the muzzle. This specimen is 
figured in 'Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. 
pi. xxii. fig. 5, and in (unpublished) plate G. fig. 2 of the 
'Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis.' It agrees precisely with a 
nearly perfect specimen in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 
figured by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,* 
ser. 10, vol. i. pis. xi., xvi. fig. 1. 

39760. The frontlet, with a considerable portion of the right horn- 
(Fig.) core. This specimen is figured in ' Falconer's Palseonto- 
logical Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxii. fig. 4, and in (unpub- 
lished) plate G. fig. 1 of the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis.' 

39365. The hinder portion of the cranium, showing the three true 
molars. 

39758 a. Base of a right horn-core, of enormous size. 

36864. The distal two thirds of the right radius of a smaller form. 

36671. The left metacarpus; from Bihna, near Jabalpur, Narbada 
Valley. This specimen agrees very closely with the meta- 
carpus of Bos taurus, var. primigenius, No. 36412. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

36865. The left metacarpus, of shorter form than the last. 
36865 a. The proximal extremity of the right femur. 
36865 b. The proximal extremity of the left femur. 

1 ' Catalogue of Fossil Vertebra ta of Asiatic Society of Bengal,' p. 232 (1859). 



BOYIDM. 23 

36865 C. The distal extremity of the right femur, of enormous 
size. 

36865 d. The proximal extremity of the right tibia. 
36866. The centrum of the axis vertebra. 

36866 a. The fifth cervical vertebra. 

36872. Bones of the foot. 

The following specimens are merely provisionally referred to this 
form ; some of them may belong to Bubalus buffelus, var. palceindi- 
cus, or to the so-called Bos palceogaurus. 

36844. The right ramus of the mandible of an immature individual. 

This and the two next specimens are larger and deeper 
than the mandible of the Ilford race of B. taurus, var. 
primigenius. 

36845. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the six 

cheek-teeth. 

36848. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
five cheek-teeth ( m . 1 broken) ; from Bihna, Narbada 
Valley. 

36846. The left ramus of the mandible of a smaller form, contain- 

ing the last four cheek-teeth. 

36847. The anterior part of the right ramus of the mandible. 

36874. The right humerus. 

36863. The left radius and ulna, wanting the olecranon. This and 
the last specimen are rather smaller than the average of 
the corresponding bones of the Ilford Ox. 

36863 a. The proximal extremity of the left radius. 

Bos palseogaurus, Riitimeyer 1 (ex Talc. MS.). 

This provisional species is founded on the palate noticed below, 
which, according to Riitimeyer, is indistinguishable from that of the 
existing B. gaurus ; the specimen is perhaps insufficient for specific 
determination. 

Hob. India. 

1 ' Die Kinder der Tertiar-Epoche ' (Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. v.) p. 154 
(1878), 



24 TJNGULATA. 

33672. The hinder part of the palate, containing the three true 
molars on both sides, and pm. 4 on the left side ; from 
the Pleistocene of the Narbada Yalley, India. This speci- 
men is the type, and is noticed by Riitimeyer in the pas- 
sage cited. Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

Bos (?), sp. 

Hab. England. 

45989. A right upper true molar of a bovine animal ; from the Red 
Crag of Eelixstow, Suffolk. Purchased, 1874. 

Genus BISON, Hamilton Smith 1 . 

Btemt bmtaSttS (Linn. 2 ). 

Syn. Bos bonasus, Linn. 3 
Bison europcsus, Auct. 

Hab. Europe and (Pleistocene) Arctic America. 

Yar. prisons (Bojanus 4 ). 

Syn. Urus prisous, Bojanus 5 . 
Bison priseus, Auct. 

In the typical forms of this race the horns are larger and less 
curved than in the living Aurochs ; but the fossil specimens in the 
Museum seem to indicate a complete transition in this respect, and 
some of them cannot be distinguished from the living race. 

45392. The calvarium and horn-cores of a very large bull; from the 
Pleistocene of Ilford, Essex. The width of the frontals 
between the horn-cores is 0,375, the length of the left 
horn-core 0,375, and its greatest diameter 0,140. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45849. Calvarium and horn-cores ; from the Pleistocene of Erith, 
Kent. Purchased, 1878. 

M. 2243. Calvarium and horn-cores • from a Pleistocene deposit, 
locality unknown. This specimen is also No. 1 of the ' Old 
Catalogue.' Shane Collection. 

1 In Griffith's 'Animal Kingdom,' vol. v. p. 373 (1827). 

2 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 99 (1766), Bos. 

3 Loc. cit. 

4 Nova Acta Ac. Cass. Leop.-Car. vol. xiii. pt. 2, p. 427 (1827). Urus. 

5 Loc. cit. 



B0VID2E. 25 

40410. Calvarium and horn-cores ; from the Pleistocene of Peckham, 
Surrey. Purchased. Before 1866. 

35576. Calvarium and horn-cores ; from the Pleistocene (?) of Lin- 
colnshire. In this and the last specimens the horn-cores 
are very smalJ, and seem indistinguishable from those of 
the existing race. 
Presented by Earl Fortescue {then Viscount Ebrington), 1859. 

32841. Occipital portion of the cranium ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford, Essex. No history. 

M. 2244. The left horn-core, of large size ; from the Pleistocene of 
Walton, Essex. Presented by C. B. Greenough, Esq. 

40703. The left horn-core, of small size ; dredged off the coast of 
Essex. Purchased, 1867. 

46445. The left horn-core; from the Pleistocene of Westbury, 
Wiltshire. Purchased, 1875. 

45393. The left horn-core and part of the frontal, probably belong- 
ing to a cow ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

The following specimens ivere obtained from regions almost within 
the present range of Bison americanus, 2t'Ai"c7i noiu extends north- 
ivard as far as the 63rd or 64th parallel. Since, however, the 
fossil crania agree precisely ivith European specimens, and those 
from Kotzebue Sound were obtained in company with remains 
of Elephas primigenius and Ovibos moschatus, there seems every 
reason for referring tJiem to the present species. 

44063. The calvarium and the right horn-core ; from a Pleistocene 
deposit on the Upper Porcupine river, Canada (about lat. 
67°). Presented by the Rev. Robert McDonald, 1873. 

1 a (0. C). The calvarium and horn-cores ; from a frozen Pleistocene 
(Fig.) deposit in Eschscholtz Bay, Kotzebue Sound, Alaska (lat. 

66° 30'). This specimen is figured in F. W. Beechey's 

' Voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Straits in H.M.S. 

' Blossom ' during the years 1825 to 1828,' vol. ii. p. 393 

pi. iii. (Fossils), fig. 1 (1831). 

Presented by Captain F. W. Beechey, R.N. 

24589, 24589a. Calvaria and horn-cores; from the above-men- 
tioned deposit in Eschscholtz Bay. 
Presented by Captain Kellet and Lieut. Wood, R.N., 1850. 



26 TJNGULATA. 

19 (0. C). A horn ; from the Pleistocene of Eschscholtz Bay. This 

(Fig.) specimen is figured in Beechey's ' Voyage,' vol. ii. pi. iii. 

fig. 2. Presented by Captain F. W. Beechey, R.N. 

44064-5. Two fragments of the mandible ; from the Pleistocene of 
the Porcupine River. 

Presented by Rev. Robert McDonald, 1873. 

17 (0. C). The right humerus ; from the Pleistocene of Kotzebue 

{Fig.) Sound. Figured in Beechey's ' Voyage/ vol. ii. pi. iii. fig. 6. 

Presented by Captain F. W. Beechey, R.N. 

44069. The left metacarpus ; from the Pleistocene of the Porcupine 
River. Presented by Rev. Robert McDonald, 1873. 

9 a (0. C). The left metacarpus ; from the Pleistocene of Kotzebue 

(Fig.) Sound. Figured in Beechey's < Voyage,' vol. ii. pi. iii. fig. 7. 

Presented by Captain F. W. Beeehey, R.N. 

24576, The proximal two thirds of the right metacarpus of a young 
individual ; from the Pleistocene of Kotzebue Sound. 
Presented by Capt. Kellet and Lieut. Wood, R.N., 1850. 

24576 c. The right tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Kotzebue Sound. 
Presented by Capt. Kellet and Lieut. Wood, R.N., 1850. 

14 (0. C). The left tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Kotzebue Sound. 
(Fig.) Figured in Beechey's ' Voyage/ vol. ii. pi. iii. fig. 4. 

Presented by Captain F. W. Beechey, R.N. 

14 a (0. C). The right tibia; from the Pleistocene of Kotzebue 
Sound. Figured in Beechey's ' Voyage/ vol. ii. pi. iii. 
fig. 12. Presented by Captain F. W. Beechey, R.N. 

9 b (O.G.). The left metatarsus ; from the Pleistocene of Kotzebue 

(Fig.) Sound. Figured in Beechey's ' Voyage/ vol. ii. pi. iii. 

fig. 5. Presented by Captain F. W. Beechey, R.N. 

24576 a. The right metatarsus ; from the Pleistocene of Kotzebue 
Sound. 

Presented by Capt. Kellet and Lieut. Wood, R.N., 1850. 

24576 b. The atlas vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Kotzebue 
Sound. 

Presented by Capt. Kellet and Lieut. Wood, R.N., 1850. 

44068. An imperfect dorsal vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of the 
Porcupine River. 

Presented by Rev. Robert McDonald, 1873. 



BOVIDJE. 157 

44066-8 a. Three portions of the vertebral column ; from the 
Pleistocene of the Porcupine River. 

Presented by Rev. Robert McDonald, 1873. 

Bison latifrons (Harlan x ). 
Syn. Bos latifrons, Harlan 2 . 

This species appears to be very closely related to Bison americanus, 
but is of larger size, with relatively stouter horn-cores, which are 
less inclined backwards. It is referred to the present genus by 
Leidy in the 'Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad.' vol. vi. p. 117 (1852, volume 
dated 1854). 

Hab. North America. 

20706. The calvarium and horn-cores ; from the Pleistocene of the 
{Fig.) Brazos Eiver, near San Felipe d' Austin, ' Texas. This 
specimen is described and figured by W. M. Carpenter in 
the ' Amer. Journ.' ser. 2, vol. i. p. 245, fig. 1 (1846) ; 
and is noticed in 'Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs,' 
vol. ii. p. 223. Purchased, 1847. 

40847. Fragment of the right ramus of a mandible, probably be- 
longing to the present species ; from the Pleistocene of 
Big-Bone Lick, Kentucky, U. S. A. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

Genus BUBALUS, Hamilton-Smith 3 . 

Including : — Anoa, Hamilton-Smith 4 . 
Probubalus, Rutimeyer 5 . 
Hemibos, Falconer and Oautley 6 . 
Amphibos, Falconer and Cautley 7 . 
Peribos, Lydekker 8 . 

The writer follows Flower in including Anoa in the present 
genus. The genus Probubalus was formed by Rutimeyer for the 
reception of the latter and the two extinct species here named 

1 ' Fauna Americana,' p. 273 (1825), Bos. 2 Loc. cit. 

3 In Griffith's ' Animal Kingdom,' vol. v. p. 371 (1827). As a subgenus. 

4 Loc. cit. p. 293. 

5 Denkschr. schw. Ges. Nat. vol. xxii. art. 3, p. 52 (1867). 

6 In ' Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. p. 546 (1868). 

7 Ibid. p. 547. 

* Palasontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. i. p. 141 (1878). 



28 UNGULATA. 

Bubalus occipitalis and B. acuticornis ; it is manifest, however, that 
the name Anoa should have been employed, and Probubalus has 
therefore no right to stand. LTemibos was assigned by Falconer 
and Cautley to the two species here named B. occipitalis and B. an- 
tilopinusi and if these (together with B. acuticornis) are regarded as 
generically distinct from Anoa, that name snay still be applied to 
them. Flower's view of the generic unity of Anoa and Bubalus 
leads, however, to the conclusion that Hemibos should likewise be 
included in the latter. The upper true molars of B. clepressicornis 
are narrow, and, at least very frequently, lack the inner accessory 
column. Those of the allied fossil forms are squared, and have a 
large accessory column. 

Bubalus buffeluS (Blumenbach 1 ). 

Syn. Bos bubalus, Linn. 2 

Bos buffelus, Blumenbach 3 . 

The Pleistocene Indian form cannot be regarded as more than a 
large variety of this species. 
Hab. India. 

Yar. palceindicus (Falconer 4 ). 

Syn. Bos palceindicus, Falconer 5 . 

39715. The cranium, with the horn-cores nearly complete ; from 
{Fig.) the Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley, India. This spe- 
cimen is figured in ' Falconer's Palceontological Memoirs,' 
vol. i. pi. xxii. fig 1, and in (unpublished) plate G. figs. 6, 
7 of the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis ' (premaxillse and 
horn-core only) ; it is of comparatively small size. 

Presented by C. Eraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

39759. The cranium, imperfect inferiorly, and wanting the whole of 
{Fig.) the left, and half of the right horn-core ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of the Narbada Valley. This specimen is figured 
in ' Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxii. 
fig. 2, and in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis ' (unpublished) 
plate G. fig. 5. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

39716. Calvarium and a portion of the right horn-core ; from the 

Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley. This specimen is 

1 'Handbuch der Naturgesckickte,' ed. 10, p. 121 (1821, teste Fiscker), Bos. 

2 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 99 (1766). 3 Loc. cit. 

4 ' Catalogue of Fossil Vertebrata of Asiatic Society of Bengal,' p. 230 (1859), 
Bos. 5 Loc. cit. 



BOTID-E. 29 

figured in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' op. cit. fig, 3 ; 
it is larger than either of the preceding specimens, but 
smaller than the gigantic skull figured by the present 
writer in the ' Paleeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. i. 
pi. xix. (1878). Presented by C. Eraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

39717. The calvarium ; from the Pleistocene of the Xarbada Yalley. 

{Fig.) This specimen is figured in the ■ Panna Antiqua Sivalensis,' 

op. cit. fig. 4. Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

17142. Hinder portion of the cranium, with half of the left horn- 

cores ; from the Pleistocene of the INarbada Valley. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

17143. The hinder portion of the cranium, with the bases of the 

horn-cores ; from the Pleistocene of the Narbada Yalley. 
Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

Bubalus antiquus, Duvernoy l . 

This species is allied to the living African Buffaloes. 
Hob. Africa. 

M. 2246. Cast of the calvarium and portions of the horn-cores. 
The original of this specimen was obtained from the 
Pleistocene of Setif, Algeria ; it is figured by P. Gervais in 
the ' Zoologie et Paleontologie Generales/ ser. 1, pi. xix. 
fig. 6, JS^o history. 

Bubalus platyceros, Lydekker 2 . 

Syn. Bubalus sivalensis, Riitimeyer 3 . 

This is a very distinct form, in some respects intermediate be- 
tween B. bufftlv.s and B. occipitalis. 
Hah. India. 

16431. The calvarium and horn-cores; from the Pliocene of the 
(Fig.) Siwalik Balls, India. This specimen is described and 
figured by Riitimeyer, op. cit. p. 138, pi. ii. figs. 4, o ; it 
is rather smaller than the type specimen figured by the 
present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. i. pi. xviii. (1878), but is otherwise similar. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

1 Comptes Rendus, vol. xxsiii. p. 595 (1851). 

2 Eec. G-eol. Surv. Ind. vol. x. p. 31 (1877). 

3 ' Die Kinder der Tertiar-Epoche ' (Abh. sclrweiz. pal. Ges. vol. v.), p 138 
(187S). 



30 



UNGTJLATA. 



16431 a. Cast of the calvarium and part of the horn-cores. The 
original of this specimen is from the Siwalik Hills ; but 
it is not known where it is preserved. No history. 

Bubalus occipitalis (Falconer 1 ). 

Syn. Bubalus triquetricornis, Kiitimeyer 2 . 
Probubalus sivalensis, Riitimeyer 3 . 
Bos occipitalis, Falconer 4 . 
Hemibos triquetriceros, Falconer and Cautley 5 . 
Peribos occipitalis, Lydekker 6 . 
Probubalus triquetricornis, Eiitimeyer 7 . 
Hemibos occipitalis, Lydekker 8 . 

The specific name occipitalis has been substituted for triquetri- 
cornis, because the latter is equally applicable to B. acuticornis. 



Fig. 3. 



B. 







Bubalus occipitalis. The hinder part of the cranium of the four varieties : 
A, normal ; B, trochoceros ; 0, hornless ; D, sepoceros race. (From the 
Abh. schweiz. pal. G-es.) 

1 ' Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. p. 280 (1868), Bos. 

2 Denkschr. schw. Ges. Nat. vol. xxii. art. 3, p. 23 (1867). 

3 Ibid. p. 52. 4 Loc. cit. 
5 ' In Falconer's Palgeontological Memoirs.' vol. i. p. 546 (1868). 

e Palseontologica Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv.Ind.), ser. 10, vol. i. p. 141 (1878). 
7 ' Die Einder der Tertiar-Epoche ' (Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. v.), p. 122 
(1878). 8 Loc. cit. p. 174 (1880). 



BovmE. 31 

The species exhibits a great amount of variation in cranial characters, 
even in the same sex. In the normal form (fig. 3, A) the horn- 
cores of the males are triangular, with a sharp ridge anteriorly ; in 
the trochoceros form (fig. 3, B) they have a pear-shaped section, and 
recede very rapidly from the forehead; in the third or eepoceros 
form (fig. 3, D) they are more upright ; whilst in a fourth (fig. 3, C) 
the horns are entirely wanting. A large series of crania are figured 
by Eiitimeyer in the ' Binder der Tertiar-Epoche ' (Abh. schweiz. 
pal. Ges. vols. iv. and v. [1877-1878]), and by the present writer 
in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. i. pis. xx. to xxiv. 
Hab. India. 

All the following specimens are from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills, and, unless otherwise stated, belong to the Cautley Collection, 
Presented, 1842:— 

16411. The greater part of the cranium of a male of the normal 
(Fig.) form, with part of the right horn-core, which has a tri- 
angular cross section. This specimen is noticed by Biiti- 
meyer in the ' Binder der Tertiar-Epoche,' p. 127, and is 
figured by Ealconer and Cautley in the ' Eauna Antiqua 
Sivalensis ' (unpublished) plate H. figs. 2, 2a. 

39565. The cranium of a male of the normal form, with the base 
(Fig.) of the right horn-core. This specimen is described and 

figured by Biitimeyer, op. cit. p. 122, pi. vii. figs. 1, 2 (as 

No, 39563). 

23109. Lower portion of the cranium of a male. This specimen is 

(Fig.) described and figured by Biitimeyer, op. cit. p. 127, pi. iv. 

figs. 1, 2. Presented by Col. Colvin. 

36665. Part of the calvarium of a male of the trochoceros form. 

(Fig.) This specimen is described and figured by Biitimeyer, 
op. cit. p. 129, pi. i. figs. 3, 4. The horn-cores have a 
pyriform section ; and the specimen agrees very closely 
with the more perfect skull, which is the type of Fal- 
coner's Bos occipitalis, figured by the present writer in the 
' Paleeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. i. pi. xx. 

48031. Calvarium and part of the horn-cores of a male of the 
(Fig.) trochoceros form. This specimen is described and figured 
by Biitimeyer, op. cit. p. 131, pi. vi. fig. 11. 

48028. Calvarium and the base of the right horn- core of a male of 
the trochoceros form. Noticed by Biitimeyer, op. cit. 
p. 129. Presented by Dr. H. Falconer. 



32 TJNOULATA. 

48017. The greater portion of the cranium of a male of the aepy- 
ceros form. Noticed by Eiitimeyer, op. cit. p. 128. 

48023. The greater portion of the cranium, with the base of the 

right horn-core, of a male of the sepyceros form. This 
specimen is noticed by Eiitimeyer, op. cit. p. 128. 

48027. The calvarium, with the greater portion of the left horn- 
core, of a male of the sepyceros form. Noticed by Eiiti- 
meyer, op. cit. p. 128. Presented by Dr. H. Falconer. 

40886. The nearly complete cranium of a male of the sepyceros 
form, showing half of the right horn-core, but wanting the 
nasals. Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

39557. The upper portion of the cranium of a male of the sepyceros 
form, with the base of the right horn-core. 

Presented by Dr. H. Falconer. 

39584. The nearly complete cranium of a male, with part of the 
{Fig.) left horn-core. This specimen is figured by Falconer and 

Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis ' (unpublished) 

plate H. figs. 1, la. 

48021. The middle portion of the cranium of a male. 
48025. Calvarium and part of the left horn-core of a male. 

48024. Calvarium of a male. This specimen is noticed by Eiiti- 

meyer, op. cit. p. 127. 

36676. Middle portion of the cranium of a male, showing the cheek- 
dentition. Noticed by Eiitimeyer, op. cit. p. 127. 

39563. The middle portion of a cranium. 

48032. Calvarium, with base of the left horn-core. 

48030. Calvarium, with a part of the left horn-core, of a male of the 
trochoceros form. 

17138. The nearly perfect cranium of a male of the normal form, 

showing half of the left horn-core. 

17139. The cranium of a male, with the horn-cores broken off, 

agreeing in character with No. 23109. 

48033. Calvarium of the hornless form. This specimen is described 
(Fig.) and figured by Eiitimeyer, op. cit. p. 132, pi. ii. figs. 1-3. 

16173. The cranium (imperfect inferiorly) of a female. This spe- 
(Fig.) cimen is described and figured by Eiitimeyer, op. cit. 
p. 122, pi. i. figs. 1, 2. 



BOVIDM. 



33 



39588. Cranium of a young individual. This specimen is described 
by Eiitimeyer, op. cit. p. 126. 

36666. The upper portion of the cranium of a female. Noticed by 
Eiitimeyer, op. cit. p. 129. 

36675. The middle portion of the cranium of a female. Noticed by 
Eiitimeyer, op. cit. p. 126. 

39561. The nearly complete cranium of a female, without the horn- 
cores. Noticed by Eiitimeyer, op. cit. p. 126. 



Bubalus acuticornis, Eiitimeyer 1 (ex Falc. & Cant., MS.). 

Syn. Probubalus acuticornis, Eiitimeyer 2 . 

Amphibos acuticornis, Falconer and Cautley 3 . 
Hemibos acuticornis, Lydekker 4 . 

In this species the cranium is narrower than in B. occipitalis, and 
its greatest width is at the orbits, which are less protuberant, and 

Fig. 4. 





Bubalus acuticornis. — Section of base of horn-cores in three varieties of the male. 
(From the Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges.) 

more approximated to the horn-cores than in the latter ; the frontals 
are concave between the horn-cores. The horn-cores are mere 
slender, more upright, and diverge to a smaller extent ; they are 

J Denkschr. schw. Ges. Nat. vol. xxii. art. 3, p. 29 (1867). 

2 Ibid. p. 52. 

3 In 'Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. p. 547 (1868). 

4 Palseontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol.i.p 176 (1880). 
PAET n. D 



34 UNGULATA. 

usually triangular in section, and their posterior angle, as in all 
Buffaloes, is strongly marked, although the anterior is frequently 
less distinct. In the female and young the horn-cores are sub- 
cylindrical. The accompanying woodcut (fig. 4) shows the variation 
in the form of the section of the horn-cores. 
Hah. India. 

All the following specimens are from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills, and, unless otherwise stated, belong to the Cauiley Collection, 
Presented, 1842 : — 

39560. The calvarium and horn -cores of a male. This specimen is 

{Fig.) described and figured by Rutimeyer in the ' Kinder der 

Tertiar-Epoche ' (Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. v.), p. 147, 

pi. iii. figs. 1, 2, and is also figured in the ' Fauna Antiqua 

Sivalensis ' (unpublished), plate i. figs. 2, 2a. 

39585. The greater portion of the cranium of a male, with part of 
(Fig.) the left horn-core. This specimen is described and figured 
by Rutimeyer, op. cit. p. 151, pi. iii. fig. 7. 

48014. The upper portion of the cranium of a male, with the base 

of the right horn-core. Noticed by Rutimeyer, op. cit. 
p. 151. 

48022. The greater part of the cranium of a male, with the base of 
the horn-cores. Noticed by Rutimeyer, op. cit. p. 151. 

48015. The calvarium and part of the horn-cores. 

48020. Hinder portion of the cranium of a male, with the base 
of the right horn-core. Noticed by Rutimeyer, op. cit. 
p. 151. 

48019. Hinder portion of the cranium, with the horn-cores broken 
off. 

17555. The cranium, with the mandible attached, of a female. 
Noticed by Rutimeyer, op. cit. p. 151. 

48019 a. The hinder portion of a cranium, with a fragment of the 
left horn-core. 

48019 b. The greater portion of a damaged cranium, without the 
horn-cores. 

48019 C. The hinder portion of a cranium, with part of the horn- 
cores, probably belonging to a young individual. 



BOVIB^). 35 

17140. The cranium of a male, with the greater part of the left 
horn-core. This specimen shows very clearly the charac- 
teristic intercormial concavity of the frontals. 

39564. The greater portion of the cranium of a female, showing the 

(Fig.) base of the horn-cores. This specimen is described and 

figured by Eiitimeyer, op. cit. p. 151, pi. iii. figs. 3-5 ; a 

very similar example is figured by the present writer, op. 

cit. pi. xxi. fig. 1, and pi. xxi. b. 

48016. Calvarium, with the bases of the horn-cores, of a young 
(Fig.) individual. Eiitimeyer (op. cit. p. 150, pi. iii. fig. 6) 
describes and figures this specimen. 

48018. Part of the cranium of a young individual. Noticed by 
Eiitimeyer, op. cit. p. 150. 

39562. The anterior portion of the cranium, in a much-crushed 
condition. Noticed by Eiitimeyer, op. cit. p. 151. 

Bubalus antilopinus (Falconer and Cautley 1 ). 

Syn. Amphibos antilopinus, Falconer and Cautley 2 . 
Probubalus antilopinus, Eiitimeyer 3 . 
Hemibos antilopinus, Lydekker 4 . 

This species is probably a less specialized form of the B. occipitalis 
stock ; it is readily recognized by its sub cylindrical horn-cores (re- 
calling those of the female of that species), which are closely approxi- 
mated at their roots, and by the extreme breadth of the lower portion 
of the skull. 

Hab. India. 

39586. The cranium (imperfect inferiorly), with part of the horn- 
(Fig.) cores ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This is 
the type specimen, and is described and figured by Eiiti- 
meyer, op. cit. p. 135, pi. i. figs. 5, 6. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

40886 a. Greater portion of the cranium ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills. Eiitimeyer, op. cit. p. 136, notices this 
specimen. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

1 In ' Falconer's Palasontological Memoirs,' vol. i. p. 547 (1868), Amphibos. 

2 Log. cit. 

3 ' Die Binder der Tertiar-Epoche ' (Abb. sckweiz. pal. Ges. vol. v.), p. 135 
(1878). 

4 Palseontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. i. p. 178(1880). 

d2 



36 



U^GITLATA. 



40886 b. The greater portion of the cranium, showing the base of 
the horn-cores ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 
This specimen agrees precisely with the last. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Genus LEPTOBOS, Riitimeyer 1 {ex Falc., MS.). 

This genus, of which representatives occur in the Siwaliks, Nar- 
badas, and the Yal d'Arno beds, comprises bovine animals presenting 
strong indications of affinity with Boselaplius. The frontal portion 
of the skull is very wide, with widely-separated, subcylindrical horn- 
cores, placed far below the level of the occiput ; the parietal border 
of the occiput is strongly ridged. The horn-cores are sometimes 
absent. 



Leptobos falconeri, Riitimeyer 2 . 



Hab. India. 



40887. The cranium, with the bases of the horn-cores ; from the 

{Fig.) Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen (with 

the next) is the type, and is described and figured by liiiti- 

Pig. 5. 




Leptobos falconeri. — Upper part of cranium. (From the Abh. schweiz. 
pal. Gee.) 

meyer, op. cit. p. 159, pi. i. figs. 7, 8. The accompanying 
woodcut (fig. 5) shows the upper part of this cranium. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 



1 'Die Hinder der Tertiar-Epoche ' (Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. v.), p. 157 
(1878). 2 Loc. cit. 



BOVfDJE. 37 

39567. The cranium (imperfect inferio-rly), showing the base of the 
(Fig.) right horn-core ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

This specimen is described and figured by Riitimeyer, op. 

cit. p. 159, pi. iv. figs. 3, 4. 

Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842 

39566. The greater portion of the cranium, with the base of the 
left horn-core ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

48026. The upper portion of the cranium, showing the base of the 
horn-cores ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This 
specimen is noticed by Riitimeyer, ojo. cit. p. 157. 

Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

17141. The greater portion of the cranium of a male, with the half 

of the right horn-core ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 

Hills. This specimen agrees very closely with No. 40887. 

Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

48037. Cranium of the hornless (? female) form ; from the Pliocene 
(Fig.) of the Siwalik Hills. Described and figured by Riitimeyer, 
op. cit. p. 162, pi. iv. figs. 5, 6, pi. vi. fig. 9. 

Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Leptobos fraseri, Riitimeyer 1 . 

This species approaches much nearer to the living Indian wild 
oxen. 

Hah. India. 

39714. Cranium of the hornless form ; from the Pleistocene of the 
(Fig.) Narbada Yalley, India. This specimen is the type, and is 

described and figured by Riitimeyer, op. cit. p. 165, pi. vii. 

figs. 11, 12. Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

Specimens probably belonging either to Bubalus or Leptobos ; 

from Hie Pliocene of the Siwalik Rills. 

(The specimens belong to the Cauiley Collection, unless otherwise 

stated.) 

48035. Lower portion of a cranium. 
48035 a. Middle portion of a cranium. 
48035 "b. The extremity of the muzzle. 

1 ' Die Kinder der Tertiar-Epoche ' (Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. v.), p. 165 
(1878). Errorim, frazeri. 



38 TJNCTCTATA. 

48035 C. The greater portion of a much broken cranium. 

36667. The greater portion of a much damaged cranium, with the 
hinder part of the mandible attached. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

39706. The greater part of a mandible. 

39589. The right ramus of a mandible, with the six cheek-teeth. 

39589 a. Part of the right ramus of a mandible of an immature 
individual. 

39589 b. The greater part of the right ramus of a mandible, showing 
all the cheek-teeth except pm. 1. 

36678. The hinder part of the left ramus of a mandible, containing 
the four last cheek-teeth. 

36678 a. The hinder part of the right ramus of a mandible, with 
the four last cheek-teeth. 

36678 b. The greater part of the left ramus of a mandible, with the 
six cheek-teeth. 

16625. The anterior part of the left ramus of a mandible, with the 

last two premolars and the first two true molars. 

16626. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the three true 

molars. 

16626 a. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing m. 2 and m. 3 , 
the grinding-surfaces of which have been cut and polished. 

36670. A left humerus. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860 

Genus O VIBOS, Blainville \ 
Syn. Bootherium, Leidy 2 . 

(©btboS moSrijatuS (Zimmermann 3 ). 
Syn. Bos moschatus, Zimmermann 4 . 
Bos pallasi, De Kay 5 . 
Ovibos pallasi, Blainville 6 . 
Bubalus moschatus, Owen 7 . 

Hab. Arctic Regions (Eecent) and Northern Europe (Pleistocene). 

1 Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, 1816, p. 76. 

2 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. vi. p. 71 (1852 ; vol. elated 1854). 

8 Geograph. Geschichte, vol. ii. p. 86 (1780), Bos. 4 Loc. cit. . 

5 Ann. Lye. New York, vol. ii. p. 291 (1828). 6 Teste Owen. 

7 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xii. p. 124 (1856). 



BOVTT)^!. 39 

M. 2247. Hinder portion of the cranium ; from the Pleistocene 
(Fig.) of Maidenhead, Berkshire. This specimen is described 

and figured by Owen in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 

vol. xii. p. 127, figs. 1-3 (1856). 
Presented by Sir John Lubbock, Bt., and Rev. Charles Kingsley, 1857. 

1 b (0. C). The greater portion of the cranium, with the horns still 
remaining; from a frozen Pleistocene deposit in Esch- 
scholtz Bay, Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, U.S.A. This speci- 
men is noticed in the second volume of F. W. Beechey's 
4 Voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Straits in H.M.S. 
' Blossom ' during the years 1825 to 1828 ' (1831). 

Presented by Capt. F. W. Beechey, R.N. 

24591. The hinder part of the cranium, with the horn-cores ; from 
the above-mentioned Pleistocene deposit. 
Presented by Cajot. Kellet, R.N., and Lieut. Wood, B.N., 1850. 

44070. Hinder portion of the cranium of a small individual, with 
part of the horn-cores ; from the Pleistocene of the Upper 
Porcupine River, Canada. 

Presented by Rev. Robert McDonald, 1873. 

50099. The four last associated lower cheek-teeth of the right side ; 
from the Pleistocene of Crayford, Kent. These specimens 
are noticed by W. Davies in the Geol. Mag. dec. 2, vol. vi. 
p. 246. Presented by Robert Cheadle, Esq., 1879. 

33594. Two fragments of the cranium; from the Pleistocene of 
Greenstreet Green, Kent. 

Presented by Sir John Lubbock, Bart. 

Ovibos bombifrons (Harlan x ). 
Syn. Bos bombifrons, Harlan 2 . 

Bootherium bombifrons, Leidy . 

Hab. North America. 

41142. Cast of the hinder portion of the cranium and horn-cores. 
The original is from the Pleistocene of Big-Bone Lick, 
Kentucky, U.S.A., and is preserved in the Museum of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

Purchased, 1867. 

J Fauna Americana, p. 271 (1825), Bos. 

2 Log. cit. 

3 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. vi. p. 71 (1852; vol. dated 1854). 



40 TJNGULATA. 

Ovibos cavifrons, Leidy \ 

Syn. Bootherium cavifrons, Leidy 2 . 
Hah. North America. 

40498. Cast of the hinder portion of the cranium, with the horn- 
cores. The original is from the Pleistocene, near Port 
Gibson, Arkansas Biver, U.S.A., and is preserved in the 
Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

Purchased, 1867. 
Genus OVIS, Linn. 3 

Ovis (?), sp. 
Hah. England. 

16758. The left radius and part of the ulna of a ruminant, indi- 
stinguishable from the corresponding bone of a small 
sheep ; from Kent's Cavern, Torquay, Devon. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 
16758 a. The proximal portion of a metacarpus, probably belonging 
to the same species ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

Genus BUCAPRA, Eiitimeyer 4 . 

This genus is founded on the hornless cranium noticed below, 
which presents affinities both to the Oxen and Goats. 

Bucapra daviesi, Eiitimeyer 5 . 
Hah. India. 

36677. The cranium and mandible; from the Pliocene of the 
{Fig.) Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen is the type, and is 

described and figured by Eiitimeyer, ojo. cit. p. 105, pi. ii. 

figs. 6-9. 

Presented hy the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

Genus CAPRA, Linn. 6 
Capra ijimttf, Linn. 7 
Hah. South-western Asia, but introduced into most parts of the 
habitable world. 

41372. The calvarium and horn-cores ; from a superficial deposit at 
Walthamstow, Essex. Purchased, 1869. 

1 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philacl. vol. vi. p. 71 (1852; vol. dated 1854), Bootherium. 

2 hoc. cit. 3 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 97 (1766). 
4 ' Die Binder der Tertiar-Epoche ' (Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. v.), p. 105 

(1878). 6 Loc. cit. 

6 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 94 (1766). 7 Loc. cit. 



BOVIDJE. 41 

39223. Frontlet and horn-cores ; from a superficial deposit in 
Fenchurch Street, London. Purchased, 1865. 

47581. Three fragments of the tibia of a Goat, probably belonging 
to this species ; from the caverns of Windmill Hill, 
Gibraltar. These specimens are more recent than the 
remains of C. pyrenaica from the same locality. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

Capra ppveuaica, Schinz \ 
Syn. Capra hispanica, Schimper 2 . 

Hab. South-western Europe. 

Busk, in describing the following specimens, from the caverns of 
Gibraltar, had some doubt whether they should be referred to the 
present form or to C. ibex. On distributional grounds it is more 
probable that they belong to the former. 

With one exception, all the folloiving specimens belong to the 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47545. The hinder portion of the cranium of a female ; from a 

{Fig.) cavern in Windmill Hill, Gibraltar. This specimen is 

figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. xxii. 

fig. 1. 

47556. Five fragments of the hinder part of the cranium ; from the 

caverns of Windmill Hill. 

47557. Three horn-cores of females ; from the caverns of Windmill 

Hill, 

47715. The left horn-core of a male ; from the Pleistocene of 
{Fig.) Malaga, Spain. This specimen is figured in transverse 
section by Busk, he. cit. pi. xxii. figs. 5, 5 a. 

47557 a. A horn-core of a female ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 
{Fig.) Figured by Busk, loc. cit. pi. xxii. fig. 4. 

47546-7, 47555. Five fragments of the maxilla ; from the caverns 
of Windmill Hill. 

47546 a. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing all the cheek- 
{Fig.) teeth except pm. 2 , in a middle condition of wear ; from 

a cavern in Windmill Hill. Figured by Busk, loc. cit. 

pi. xxiii. fig. 1 ; when figured pm. 2 was present. 

1 Denkschr. schw. Ges. Nat. vol. ii. p. 9 (1 838). 

2 Comptes Kendus, vol. xxvi. p. 318 (1848). 



42 UNGULATA. 

47546 b. Fragment of the right maxilla, with the last five cheek- 
teeth ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 

47550. The greater part of the left maxilla and palatine, with 

the six cheek-teeth ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 

47551. Part of the right maxilla, showing all the cheek-teeth ; from 

the Genista Cave, Gibraltar. 

47546 c. Fragment of the right maxilla, with the six cheek-teeth, in 
a much-worn condition ; from a cavern in Windmill 
Hill. 

47555 a. Fragment of the right maxilla, showing m. 3 and part of 

m- 2 ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 

47556 a. Fragment of frontals. Figured by Busk, he. cit. pi. xxii. 
(Fig.) fig. 2. 

47548. Two portions of the right ramus of the mandible ; from the 
Genista Cave. 

47549,47552-3. Eight fragments of the mandible; from the 
caverns of Windmill Hill. 

47554. Eleven fragments of the mandible of immature individuals ; 
from the caverns of Windmill Hill. 

47561. Two imperfect right scapulae ; from the caverns of Windmill 

Hill. 

47561 a. The greater part of the left scapula ; from a cavern in 

Windmill Mill. 

47562. Four fragments of the humerus ; from the caverns of Wind- 

mill Hill. 

47562 a. The distal two-thirds of the left humerus ; from a cavern 
(Fig.) in Windmill Hill. Figured by Busk, he. cit. pi. xxiv. 

fig. 3. 

47562 b. The left humerus, wanting the proximal extremity ; from 
a cavern in Windmill Hill. 

47563. The adjacent portions of the associated right humerus, radius, 

and ulna ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 

47564. Three fragments of the proximal half of the radius and 

ulna ; from the caverns of Windmill Hill. 

47564 a. The proximal half of the left radius and ulna ; from a 
(Fig.) cavern in Windmill Hill. Figured by Busk, loc. cit. 
pi. xxiv. fig. 2. 



BOVID^. 43 

47565. Two specimens of the radius, belonging to opposite sides ; 

from the caverns of Windmill Hill. 

47565 a. The left radius-, with the distal portion of the ulna ; from 
{Fig.) a cavern in Windmill Hill. Figured by Busk, loc. cit. 
pi. xxvi. fig. 1. 

47566. A small specimen of the right radius ; from the ' Judges' 

Cave,' Windmill Hill. 

47567. Four specimens of the proximal extremity of the radius ; 

from the caverns of Windmill Hill. 

47568. Two specimens of the proximal half of the left radius, of 

large size ; from the caverns of Windmill Hill. 

47569 a. The left metacarpus ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 
{Fig.) Figured by Busk, loc. cit. pi. xxvi. fig. 3. 

47569 b. The right metacarpus ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 
{Fig.) Figured by Busk, loc. cit. pi. xxvi. fig. 3. 

47570. The proximal half of the right metacarpus ; from a cavern 

in Windmill Hill. 

47571. The left metacarpus ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 

47572. The distal portion of a metacarpus ; from a cavern in Wind- 

mill Hill. 

47573. The greater part of the left metacarpus ; from the Genista 

Cave. 

47573 a. The left metacarpus ; from the Genista Cave. Figured 
{Fig.) by Busk, loc. cit. pi. xxvi. fig. 2. 

47573 b. The left metacarpus ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 
{Fig.) Figured by Busk, loc. cit. pi. xxvi. fig. 4. 

24823. The left metacarpus, either of the present species or Cajpra 
ibex ; from the Pleistocene of the Auvergne, France. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

47574. Three fragments of the innominate; from the caverns of 

Windmill Hill. 

47575. The left femur, imperfect distally ; from a cavern in Wind- 

mill Hill. 

47575 a. The right femur, imperfect distally ; from a cavern in 
{Fig.) Windmill Hill. Figured by Busk, loc. cit. pi. xxvi. fig. 1. 

47575 b. The proximal half of the right femur ; from a cavern in 
{Fig.) Windmill Hill. 



44 TTtfGULATA. 

47576. Seven fragments of the femur ; from the caverns of Wind- 
mill Hill. 

47578. The left tibia ; from the ' Judges' Cave,' Windmill Hill. 
{Fig.) Figured by Busk, loc. cit. pi. xxv. fig. 3. 

47579. The distal two-thirds of the left tibia ; from a cavern in 

Windmill Hill. 

47580. The distal two-thirds of the right tibia ; from a cavern in 

Windmill Hill. 

47581 c. The distal third of the left tibia ; from a cavern in Wind- 
(Fig.) mill Hill. 

47584. The greater portion of the left calcaneum ; from a cavern 

in Windmill Hill. 

47585. Three specimens of the astragalus; from the caverns of 

Windmill Hill. 

47585 a. The left astragalus ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 
(Fig.) Figured by Busk, loc. cit. pi. xxv. fig. 5. 

47582. The right metatarsus ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 

47583. Three imperfect specimens of the metatarsus ; from a cavern 

in Windmill Hill. 

47586. Five phalangeals ; from the caverns of Windmill Hill. 

47586 a. A terminal phalangeal ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 
(Fig.) Figured by Busk, loc. cit. pi. xxv. fig. 6 h. 

47587. A terminal phalangeal ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 
(Fig.) Figured by Busk, loc. cit. pi. xxv. fig. 6 a, c. 

47558. The atlas vertebra; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. 
(Fig.) Figured by Busk, loc. cit. pi. xx. fig. 3 (lettered 2). 

47559. Two imperfect specimens of the axis vertebra ; from the 

caverns of Windmill Hill. 

47559 a. The axis vertebra, with the summit of the neural spine 
(Fig.) broken off ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill. Figured by 
Busk, loc. cit. pi. xx. fig. 4. 

47560. The sacrum ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill, 






bovid^. 45 

Capra sivalensis, Lydekker l . 
This species is allied to the living Indian Capra jemlaica, or 
Thar. 

Hah. India. 
39794. The calvarium and horn-cores ; from the Pliocene of the 
(Fig,) Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen is the type, and is 
described and figured by the present writer, op. cit. p. 169, 
pi. xxviii. figs, 1, 2. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

36674. The calvarium and the lower halves of the horn-cores ; from 
the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

Capra, sp. a, 

Hab. India. 
40625. Fragment of the left half of the calvarium and part of the 
horn- core ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. 
This specimen is much larger than the preceding, but 
apparently indicates an allied form. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Capra, sp. b. 

Apparently allied to the living Indian Capra megaceros. 
Hab. India. 

40625 a. Terminal portion of the left horn-core ; from the Pliocene 
of the Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen agrees with the 
middle portion of a left horn-core, figured by the present 
writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. i. 
pi. xxviii. fig. 3. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Capra (?) rozeti, Pomel 2 . 

This species is founded on the original of the specimen noticed 
below, which indicates an animal larger than any living species of 
the genus, and as suggested by Busk (Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. p. 116) 
may perhaps belong to an Antelope. 

Hab. France. 

1 Palseontologia Indica (Mem. G-eol. Surv. Lid.), ser. 10, vol. i. p. 169 
(1878). 

2 Comptes Rendus, vol. xix. p. 224 (1844). 



46 ' TTNGULATA. 

27626. Cast of the associated last four cheek-teeth of the right side. 
The original, which is the type of the species, is from the 
Upper Pliocene of Malbaltu, near Issoire (Puy-de-D6me), 
France. Oroizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 



Genus TRAGOCEROS, Gaudry \ 

The dentition of this genus is essentially antelopine, but the 
laterally compressed horn-cores are caprine. There is no lachrymal 
depression in the cranium. 

Tragoceros amaltheus (Eoth and Wagner 2 ). 

Syn. Capra amatthea, Roth and Wagner 3 . 

(?) Antilope speciosa, Roth and Wagner 4 . 

Hob. South Europe. 

49706. Part of the left maxilla, showing the six cheek-teeth in a 

well-worn condition ; from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi, 
Attica. This specimen agrees with the one figured by 
Gaudry in the ' Animaux fossiles et Ge'ologie de l'Attique/ 
pi. xlix. fig. 2. Purchased, 1879. 

49707. Fragments of the right maxilla of an immature individual, 

showing pm. 3 , pm. 4 , m. 1 ? and m- 2 ; from the Lower 
Pliocene of Pikermi. Purchased, 1879. 

36597. Fragment of the palate, showing pm. 2 of either side ; from 
the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi. 

Presented by P. J. Gran, Esq., 1853. 

49708. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing all the 

cheek-teeth except pm. 2 ; from the Lower Pliocene of 
Pikermi. This specimen agrees with the one figured by 
Gaudry, op. cit. pi. xlix. fig. 4. Purchased, 1879. 

49709. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of an imma- 

ture individual, showing p m . 3, mm. 4, and m. 1 ; from the 
Lower Pliocene of Pikermi. Purchased, 1879. 

49721. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with mTl and 
m. 2 ; from the Lower Pliocene of Mont Leberon (Yaucluse), 
France. Purchased, 1879. 

1 Comptes Eendus, vol. Hi. p. 298 (1861). 

^ Abh. math.-phys. CI. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vii. pt. 2, p. 453 (1854), Capra. 

3 hoc. cit. 4 Ibid. p. 452. 



Bovma;. 47 

49710, 49711. The right astragalus, the distal extremity of a meta- 
podial, and three phalangeals (1st, 2nd, and 3rd) ; from 
the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi. Purchased, 1879. 



Genus PALiEOREAS, Gaudry K 

This genus is closely allied to the living Oreas, with perhaps 
some relationship to Strepsiceros. 

Palseoreas lindermayeri (Wagner 2 ). 
Syn. Antilope lindermayeri, Wagner 3 . 
Hob. South Europe. 

49712. Part of the calvarium and the left horn-core; from the 

Lower Pliocene of Pikermi, Attica. This specimen agrees 
precisely with the nearly complete cranium figured by 
Gaudry, in the ' Animaux fossiles et Geologie de rAttique,' 
pi. liii. figs. 1, 2. Purchased, 1879. 

49713. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the 

three true molars ; from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi. 
This specimen agrees precisely with the one figured by 
Gaudry, op. tit. pi. liii. fig. 3. Purchased, 1879. 

49714. A proximal phalangeal; from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi. 

Purchased, 1879. 

Genus STREPSICEROS, Gray 4 . 

Strepsiceros (?) falconer!, Lydekker 5 . 

This species is founded on the cranium noticed below, which, if 
not belonging to Strepsiceros, indicates a closely allied form. 
Hab. India. 

37262. The greater part of the cranium of an immature individual, 
showing the base of the right horn-core ; from the Pliocene 
Siwaliks of Perim Island, Gulf of Cambay, India. The 
nasals and anterior part of the jaw are wanting; the 
palate obscured, and the teeth partly broken ; m_3 is in 
cdveolo. This specimen agrees with Oreas and Strepsiceros 

1 Comptes Eendus, vol. Hi. p. 297 (1861). 

2 Abh. math.-phys. 01. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. v. pt. 2, p. 367 (1848), Antilope. 

3 Log. cit. 

4 List of Mauiinalia in British Museum, p. 155 (1813). 

5 Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. ii. p. 170 (1885). 



48 UNGTJLATA. 

by the depressed frontals, with large supraorbital pits, 
but differs from the former by the absence of a protu- 
berance in the lachrymal, and the position of the notch in 
the rim of the orbit. It closely resembles a young male 
of Strepsiceros kudu in the form of the frontals, the supra- 
orbital pits, the wide interval between the horn-cores, the 
characteristic straight profile, and the general structure of 
the cheek-teeth. The horn-cores are, however, much 
smaller, in which respect Strepsiceros imberbis makes a 
nearer approach to the fossil. The molar teeth have a 
distinct inner accessory column. When mature, the fossil 
species was probably nearly as large as the Kudu ; the 
small size of the horn-cores is a character which might be 
expected to occur in a primitive form. 

Presented by Walter Ewer, Esq. 

Genus BOSELAPHUS, Blainville 1 . 

Syn. Portax, Hamilton Smith 2 . 

Boselaphus namadicus (Eutimeyer 3 ). 
Syn. Portax namadicus, Riitimeyer 4 . 
Hab. India. 

36851. The calvarium and horn-cores ; from the Pleistocene of the 
{Fig.) Narbada Valley, India. This specimen is the type, and 

is described and figured by Eutimeyer, op. cit, p. 89, pi. vi. 

figs. 7, 8. Presented by C. Eraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36853. The calvarium and horn-cores ; from the Pleistocene of the 
Narbada Valley. Noticed by Eutimeyer, op. cit. 

Presented by C. Eraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

Boselaphus, sp., Lydekker 5 . 
Hab. India. 

M. 1940. A left upper true molar ; from the Pliocene Siwaliks of the 
Punjab, India. 

Presented by the Superintendent of the Geological 
Survey of India, 1884. 

1 Bull. Soc. Pbilom. Paris, 1816, p. 75. 

2 In Griffith's ' Animal Kingdom,' vol. v. p. 366 (1827). 

3 ' Die Binder der Tertiar-Epoche ' (Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. v.), p. 
(1878), Portax. 4 Loc. cit 

5 Palseontologia Indica, ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 114 (1884). 






bovtd^;. 49 

M. 1940 a. Fragment of the right maxilla of an immature indivi- 
dual, containing mm. 3 , mm. 4 , and the anterior lobe of m^j. ; 
from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 



Genus HIPPOTRAGUS, Sundevall \ 
Syn. Egocerus, Desmarest 2 . 

JEgoceruSj H. Smith 3 (amended, Gray). 

Hippo tragus sivalensis, Lydekker 4 . 
Syn. Antilope sivalensis, Lydekker 5 . 

This species apparently nearly equals in size the living H. niger. 
It was provisionally referred to this genus by the present writer 
in the ' Geol. Mag.' dec. 3, vol. ii. p. 170 (1885). 

Hah. India. 

39558. The cranium of an immature male, showing the bases of the 
horn-cores, but wanting the muzzle and part of the occi- 
put ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. This 
specimen agrees precisely in form with the type cranium 
figured by the present writer in the ' Palasontologia Indica,' 
ser. 10, vol. i. pi. xxv. figs. 1, 2, but evidently indicated a 
considerably larger animal ; the type specimen probably, 
therefore, belonged to a female. The penultimate and 
last milk-molars are still in situ, while m- 3 is not pro- 
truded. The general contour of the skull is the same as 
in Hippotragus niger : it shows the absence of a distinct 
lachrymal depression, the existence of a small elongate 
lachrymal fissure, and similar supraorbital foramina 
without pits at their exit ; the extremity of the maxilla 
is similarly expanded in both ; the orbit large, with a 
notch situated below the level of the supraorbital foramen ; 
and the horn-cores are similarly situated above the orbits, 
with a considerable interval between them, and directed 
at their bases upwards and backwards ; there is also the 
same strongly-marked ridge descending from the orbit to 

1 K Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl. for 1844, p. 196. 

2 ' Mammalogie,' p. 475 (1822). 

3 In Griffith's ■ Animal Kingdom,' vol. v. p. 324 (1827). 

4 Palasontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. i. p. 154 (1878). 
Antilope. 5 Loc. cit. 

PAET II. E 



50 TJNGTTLATA. 

the first true molar in both skulls. The palate is gene- 
rally similar in the two, but the anterior pair of basiocci- 
pital tubercles are more approximated in the fossil ; both 
present the same deep concavity in the middle line in 
advance of the premolars. The molar teeth of the existing 
form have very square crowns, of a remarkably bovine 
appearance, and provided with a large internal accessory 
column, expanded at its inner termination. In the fossil 
mm. 4 is alone in a condition to exhibit the characteristic 
features, and this tooth agrees very closely with the molars 
of the existing species. In the type specimen the crowns 
of the molars are broken off ; but their bases exhibit the 
characteristic square form. The united length of m. 1 and 
m. 2 in the present specimen is nearly the same as in LJ. 
niger, thus indicating that adult specimens of the fossil 
were about the size of this species. 

The resemblance between the living and fossil species is 
so close as to leave little doubt of their generic identity. 
Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

Genus GAZELLA, Blainville 1 . 

Gazella porrecticornis, Lydekker 2 . 
Syn. Antilope porrecticornis, Lydekker 3 . 
Hab. India. 

M. 2254. Fragment of the palate, showing m. 1 and m. 2 on the left 
and part of pm. 4 on the right side ; from the Pliocene of 
the Siwalik Hills, India. This is slightly larger than the 
palate of the living Gazella bennetti, but is in other respects 
precisely similar; it is highly probable that it belongs 
to the present species. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2255, 16536. Two fragments of the left ramus of the mandible ; 
from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

1 Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, 1816, p. 75. 

2 Palaeontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. i. p. 158 
(1878), Antilope. 

3 Loo. cit. 



BOVID.B. 51 

Gazella deperdita (P. Gervais 1 ). 
Syn. Antilope deperdita, P. Gervais 2 . 
Antilope capricornis, Wagner 3 . 
Antilope brevicornis, Wagner 4 . 
Gazella brevicornis, Gaudry 5 . 

Gaudry (' Animaux fossiles du Mont Leberon,' p. 57 [1873]) has 
expressed his opinion that the so-called G. brevicornis of Pikermi is 
indistinguishable from the Vaucluse form ; and this is borne out by 
the specimens in the Museum. A cranium is figured by Gaudry, 
loc. cit. pi. xi. 

Hob. South Europe. 

38145. Frontlet and horn -cores ; from the Lower Pliocene of 
Pikermi, Attica. Purchased, 1864. 

49716. Two horn-cores ; from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi. 

Purchased, 1879. 

34756. The detached left horn-core ; from the Lower Pliocene of 
Cucuron (Yaucluse), Prance. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34757-9. Three specimens of the frontlet and horn-cores ; from the 
Lower Pliocene of Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26645. Three horn-cores ; from the Lower Pliocene of Cucuron. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

49720. Part of the frontlet and horn-cores ; from the Lower Pliocene 
of Mont Leberon (Yaucluse). Purchased, 1879. 

34780. The right upper cheek-dentition, in a well-worn condition ; 
from the Lower Pliocene of Cucuron. These teeth are 
relatively wider than in G. bennetti. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34792. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the four 
last cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Pliocene of Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34794. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible ; from 
the Lower Pliocene of Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

1 Comptes Eendus, vol. xxiv. p. 801 (note) (1847), Antilope. 2 Loc. cit. 

3 Abh. niath.-phys. CI. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. v. pt. 2, p. 368 (1848). 

4 Ibid. vol. vii. pt. 2, p. 452 (1854). 

5 Comptes Eendus, vol. hi. p. 297 (1861). 

E 2 



52 UNGTJLATA. 

26647. Two fragments of the mandible ; from the Lower Pliocene 
of Cucuron. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

49715. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with four cheek- 
teeth ; from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi. 

Purchased, 1879. 



49716 a. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with p m . 3, pm74, 
m. l, and m. 2 ; from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi. 

Purchased, 1879. 

34824-28. The calcaneum, astragalus, naviculo-cuboid, and meta- 
tarsus ; from the Lower Pliocene of Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Gazella anglica, Newton 1 . 
Hab. England. 

33516. The horn-core and part of the left frontal ; from the Norwich 
Crag (Upper Pliocene) of Norfolk. This specimen is 
noticed by E. T. Newton, Joe. cit. p. 282. 

Wigham Collection. Purchased, 1859* 

33516 a. The distal half of the left tibia of a small ruminant pro- 
visionally referred by Newton (loc. cit.) to the present 
species ; from the Norwich Crag of Norwich. 

Wigham Collection. Purchased, 1859. 

Genus ANTILOPE, Pallas 2 . 

flittttope ar&tcapra (Linn. 3 ). 
Syn. Capra cervicapra, Linn. 4 

Hab. India. 

37264. The lower half of a right horn-core, indistinguishable from 
that of the existing Indian Antelope ; probably from the 
Pleistocene of the Narbada or Jumna Valley, India. 

(?) Presented by Walter Ewer, Esq. 

37268. The lower half of a rather larger left horn-core, similar in 
form to the last ; from the Pleistocene of Pfparea, Narbada 
Valley. Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xl. p. 280 (1884). 

2 Spicilegia Zoologica, vol. i. p. 3 (1767). 

3 Syst- Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 96 (1766), Capra. 

4 Loc. cit. 



BOVIDJE. 53 

Genus COBUS, A. Smith 1 . 
Including Adenota and Onotragus, Gray. 

Cobus (?) palseindicus, Lydekker, n. sp. 

This species is founded on the first of the specimens noticed below, 
which the writer hopes to figure on a subsequent occasion in the 
' Palaeontoiogia Indica.' 

Hab. India. 

M. 2402. The cranium, in a somewhat damaged condition, and 
wanting the greater part of the horn- cores ; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is the type, 
and indicates an animal about one third smaller than the 
existing African C. sing-sing. It agrees with the cranium 
of the latter in the large frontal depression and foramina, 
in the general outline of the cranium, position of the 
orbits, setting-on of the horn-cores, the form of the basi- 
occipital tubercles, of the bullae, and the hinder part of 
the palate ; the molars also agree in their relative small 
size and the general absence of internal accessory columns. 
, The specimen is readily distinguished from C. sing -sing 
by its narrower proportions and inferior size, and does not 
appear to come closer to any other species ; its resemblance 
to the former is so strong as to justify at least its pro- 
visional reference to the same genus. 

Transferred from the Old India Museum, 1880. 

39559. The hinder portion of a cranium 2 , apparently belonging to 
the present species ; from the Siwalik Hills. This spe- 
cimen shows the basal halves of the horn-cores : in the 
depressed frontals, large supraorbital pits, facial vacuity, 
and basioecipital, it agrees with the type and with Cobus 
sing -sing. The horn-cores are widely separated, rounded, 
and are directed upwards, backwards, and somewhat 
outwards. Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

48456 d. Fragment of a right frontal and horn-core, apparently 
belonging to the same species ; from, the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

1 Illustr. Zool. of S. Africa, No. 12 (1840), Kobus. 

2 This and the two following specimens are noticed in the Geol. Mag. dec. 3, 
vol. ii. p. 171 (1885), but were not then generically determined. 



54 TJNGTTLATA. 

Cobus(?) patulicornis, Lydekker 1 . 

Syn. Antilope patulicornis, Lydekker 2 . 

This form is provisionally referred to the same genus as the last. 
Hob. India. 

39559 a. The hinder part of the cranium, with the basal halves 
of the horn-cores ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik, Hills, 
India. This specimen appears to indicate a species allied 
to the last, hut with more divergent horn-cores ; it agrees 
with the type frontlet figured by the present writer in the 
i Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. i. pi. xxv. fig. 3. 

Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

17237. The hinder part of the cranium, showing the bases of the 
horn-cores ; from the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented. 1842. 

48456. Part of the left horn-core and frontal, apparently belonging 
to this species ; from the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

48456 a. Part of the left horn-core and frontal ; from the Siwalik 

Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

48457 b. Fragments of a left horn-core and frontal, somewhat 

similar to the last ; from the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 



Bab. India. 



Genus non det. 
{Resembling Cobus.) 



M. 2402 a. Part of the frontlet and left horn-core of a very large 
Antelope; from the Pliocene Siwaliks of Perim Island, 
Gulf of Cambay, India. This specimen (which is noticed 
by the writer in the Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. ii. p. 170, 
as No. 18785) shows the depressed frontals of Cobus, with 
which it also agrees in the wide interval between the 
horn-cores, and. the general direction of the latter, which, 
in the portion still remaining, is outwards and backwards. 
The horn- cores are compressed, with a well-marked 
internal angle. 

Transferred from the Old Indian Museum in 1880, 
having been presented to that Institution by 
A. Bettington, Esq., in 1847. 

1 Palaeontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. i. p. 157 (1878)', 
Antilope. 2 hoc. cit. 



BOVID^!. 55 

18785. Part of the left frontal and horn-core of a smaller spe- 
cimen, apparently belonging to the same species ; from 
the Siwaliks of Perim Island. Purchased, 1845. 

Genus ALCELAPHUS, Blainville 1 . 

Including Damalis, Gray. 

Alcelaphus palseindicus (Falconer 2 ). 

Syn. Antilope palceindica , Falconer 3 . 

In its general contour and proportions the cranium is very similar 
to that of Alcelaphus tora, but there is a concavity in the frontal 
profile, and a great difference in the direction of the horn-cores, 
which agrees more nearly with that obtaining in A. albifrons and 
A. pygargus. 

Sab. India. 

39594. The cranium and horn-cores, with a second specimen of the 
(Fig.) palate ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. 
This specimen is described and figured by W. E. Baker in 
the Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. xii. pt. 2, p. 770, pi. xxiii. 
figs. 1-3 (1843); and is figured in ' Falconer's Palaeonto- 
logical Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxiii. It is noticed by Birti- 
meyer in the ' Binder der Tertiar-Epoche ' (Abh. schweiz. 
pal. Ges. vol. v.), p. 88. The molars are of a narrow 
elongated form, and have no distinct inner accessory 
column. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39594 a. The palate, with the whole of the cheek-dentition ; from 
the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39596. The palate, with the whole of the cheek-dentition ; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39594 b. The palate, showing the greater portion of the cheek- 
dentition ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39594 C. Hinder part of the palate, showing the cheek-dentition, in 
an early stage of wear ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

1 Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, 1816, p. 75. 

2 Catalogue of Fossil Vertebrata of Asiatic Society of Bengal, p. 154 (1859), 
Antilope. 3 Loc. cit. 



56 UNGTTLATA. 

39594 d. The anterior portion of the cranium, showing the cheek- 
dentition, in a well-worn condition ; from the Pliocene of 
the Siwalik Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39571. The palate and the associated middle portion of the man- 
dible ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Gautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

36668. The distal half of a radius, and a palate, not improbably 
belonging to an immature individual of the present 
species ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

Alcelaphus bakeri, Lydekker 1 . 

This species is founded on the cranium noticed below, which 
apparently indicates an animal closely allied to the existing A. 
pygargus, or Bonte-bok. The horn-cores are more approximated 
than in A. paloeindicus, and the face shorter, with a shallower 
lachrymal depression. 

Hab. India. 

39598. The greater portion of the cranium of an immature indi- 
vidual, showing the bases of the horn- cores, but wanting 
a considerable portion of the face ; from the Pliocene 
of the Siwalik Hills, India. The last true molar is not 
protruded, and the sutures are mostly invisible ; the distal 
portion of a horn-core has been crushed into the face. 
The specimen agrees very closely in general contour with 
the cranium of A. pygargus, especially in the form of the 
flattened frontals; the closely approximated horn-cores, 
placed on a high-pitched ridge ; the form of the lachrymal 
depression, and apparently of the nasals ; as well as in 
the absence of supraorbital pits and of a lachrymal 
vacuity ; a process of the maxilla runs up between the 
frontal and lachrymal in both. The fossil is somewhat 
smaller than the recent skull ; but this is no doubt partly 
due to immaturity, as the cheek-teeth of the former are 
larger than those of the latter. The occipital and basi- 
occipital regions, as well as the hinder part of the palate, 
are almost precisely the same in the two forms. The palatal 
vacuities appear to be placed less anteriorly in the fossil ; 
but this also maybe partly due to immaturity. The horn- 
cores had the same relative position in the fossil as in the 

1 G-eol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. ii. p. 170 (1885). 



■BOYIDJE. 57 

recent species, and when complete may very probably 
have had the same general direction. The molars are of 
a narrow elongated type (as in the recent species) and have 
no distinct internal accessory column. The structure of 
these teeth, the high-pitched ridge between the horn-cores, 
the close approximation of the latter, and the absence of 
any lachrymal fissure, at once distinguishes this specimen 
from the cranium of Hippotragus sivalensis. Its close 
resemblance to that of Alcelaphus pygargus indicates very 
strongly its generic identity. 

It may be observed that the present specimen presents 
some resemblance to the cranium of Palceoryoc pallasi l ; 
but the horn-cores of the latter are placed more posteriorly, 
and there is no lachrymal depression. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

ANTELOPES OE UnCEETAIN GeNEEIC POSITION". 

Species 1. (Probably allied to Oreas.) 
Hab. India. 

16657. Fragment of the right maxilla of a very large Antelope, 
probably allied to the Eland, showing the last five cheek- 
teeth ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. This 
specimen is noticed by the present writer in the ' Palseon- 
tologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 114, note 4. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Species 2. (Of uncertain affinity.') 
Eab. India. 

39559 b. The hinder portion of the cranium, with the base of the 
right horn ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. 
This specimen is noticed by the present writer in the 
Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. ii. p. 171 (1885); and is distin- 
guished from the two preceding species by the nearly 
vertical direction of the base of the horn-core, the absence 
of distinct supraorbital pits, and the much more obtuse 
angle formed by the junction of the facial and frontal 
planes. It strikingly resembles an imperfect cranium 
from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi, figured by Gaudry in 
the ' Animaux fossiles et Geologie de l'Attique,' pi. Iii. 
fig. 1. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

1 Vide Gaudry, 'Animaux fossiles et Geologie de l'Attique,' pi. xlrii. fig. 1. 



58 UNGTJLATA. 

* Female Crania. 

36673. The cranium of a hornless and probably female form ; from 
the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This and the following 
specimen may be specifically identical with one or other of 
the foregoing species of Siwalik Antelopes. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

39569. The cranium of another, and apparently different, hornless 
form ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

Species 3. (Antilope clavata, P. Gervais 1 ). 
Syn. Antilope sansaniensis, Lartet 2 . 

The affinities of this undescribed form are unknown ; the horn- 
cores are of extremely small size. 
Hab. France. 

21860. Two horn-cores, attached to fragments of the frontals ; from 
the Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers), France. 

Oroizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 



Family GIRAFFID^E. 

Syn. CamelopardalidcB. 

In this family, which is taken to include the Sivatheriida?, the 
cranial appendages, when present, appear intermediate in character 
between those of the Bovidai and Cervidce. The teeth are always 
invested with a rugose enamel. 

Dentition :— I. \, C. \, Pm. | M. |. 

Genus SIVATHERIUM, Falconer and Cautley 3 . 

By some writers this genus is considered to be more closely allied 
to the Antelopes than to the Giraffes ; but the kindred Indian 
genera, Hydasjpitherium and Vishnutherium, appear to have decided 
giraffoid characters, which also occur in the limb-bones of the 
present genus. There are two pairs of cranial appendages, the 
bases of each being separate. The anterior pair are conical, like 
those of the Giraffe ; while the posterior are palmate and resemble 
the antlers of the Elk. There is no lachrymal vacuity in the 

1 Zool. et Pal. Fran9aises, 1st ed. p. 78 (1848-52). 

2 Notice sur la Colline de Sansan, p. 36 (1851). 

3 Asiatic Eesearches, vol. xix. p. 1 (1830). 



GIRAFFIDJE. 59 

cranium ; and the nasals are short and arched. The neck and limbs 
are short. 

Sivatherium giganteum, Falconer and Cautley 1 . 
This is the only known species ; and its characters are therefore 
those of the genus. 
Hob. India. 

All the specimens noticed below are from the Siwalik Hills, and, unless 
otherwise stated, belong to the Cautley Collection (Presented, 
1842). Some of the smaller limb-bones may belong to Hel- 
ladotherium, which occurs in the Siwalik Hills ; Rydaspitherium 
apparently not ranging east of the Punjab. 

15283. The cranium, wanting the posterior antlers and the extremity 
(Fig.) of the muzzle. This specimen is the type, and is figured 
by Falconer and Cautley in the 'Asiatic Kesearches,' 
vol. xix. pi. i., and in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' 
pis. xci. & xcii. fig. 1 ; it is also figured in ' Falconer's 
Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. pis. xix. & xx. 

M. 1336. Cast of the preceding cranium, with the antlers restored. 
The position of the antlers is different from that in the 
restored figure in 'Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' 
vol. i. pi. xxi. fig. 4. Constructed in the Museum. 

17088. Fragment of the middle portion of the cranium, showing 
(Fig.) the root of the nasals and the bases of the anterior pair of 
antlers. This specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley 
in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. xcii. fig. 2, and (un- 
published) pi. A. fig. 3. 

15280. Anterior part of the cranium, showing the complete cheek- 
dentition. 

15283 a. Cast of the hinder portion of the cranium, showing the 
bases of both the posterior antlers ; and part of the base of 
the right antler. The original is from near Nahan, in the 
Siwalik Hills, and is preserved in the Museum of the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. It is figured by Colvin in the Journ. 
As. Soc. Beng. vol. vi. pi. viii. ; by Royle in his ' Botany 
of the Himalaya Mountains,' vol. ii. pi. vi. fig. lc ; by 
Falconer and Cautley in the 'Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis' 
(unpublished), pi. A. fig. 2 ; and by Murchison in ' Fal- 
coner's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxi. fig. 2. 

No history. 
1 Asiatic Kesearches, vol. xix. p. 1 (1836). 



60 TTlSrGTJLATA. 

39525. The greater portion of the left antler. This specimen is 
(Fig.) the model from which the antlers in the cast No. 15983 a 

are restored; it is figured by Cantley and Falconer, 

in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis ' (unpublished), pi. A. 

fig. 4 ; and in ' Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. 

pi. xxi. fig. 3. Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

39524. Fragment of a posterior antler. This specimen is figured 
(Fig.) by Falconer and Cautley, loc. cit. pi. A. fig. 5. 

39524 a. Fragment of a very large antler, showing very distinctly 
the arterial and venous grooves. 

Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

KL 1513. Fragment of a large antler. 

Transferred from the Old India Museum, 1880. 

16263. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing m7~2 and m7~3 in 
an early stage of wear. These specimens are considerably 
larger than the molars of the type cranium. 

16244. Three imperfect left upper true molars. 

16244 a. The third left upper premolar, in an early stage of wear. 

16397. Two right upper true molars, one broken. 

48928. Fragment of the right maxilla of a young individual con- 
taining the three milk-molars, in a very early stage of wear. 

48928 a. Fragment of the right maxilla of a smaller, and perhaps 
distinct, Sivatheroid, containing mm. 3 and mm. 4 . 

40677. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
(Fig.) taining the three true molars and the last premolar in an 
early stage of wear ; from the neighbourhood of Dadupur, 
in the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured by Colvin 
in the Journ. As. Soc. Beng., vol. vi. pi, ix. ; by Eoyle in 
the ' Botany of the Himalaya Mountains,' pi. vi. fig. 1 d 
(1839) ; and by Murchison in ' Falconer's Pakeontological 
Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxi. fig. 1. Its measurements are 
given by the present writer in the ' Palgeontologia Indica,' 
ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 121. Presented by Colonel Colvin. 

36741. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
three true molars and a part of pm74. The teeth are in 
a more worn condition, but the specimen agrees very, 
closely in size with the last. 



GIRAFFID^l. 61 

28106. The greater portion of the right ramus of a somewhat 
smaller but otherwise indistinguishable mandible, con- 
taining all the cheek-teeth except pm. 2, in a well-worn 
condition. Presented by Colonel Colvin. 

16387. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
four last cheek-teeth, in an early condition of wear. 

16260. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a very 
large individual. This specimen shows the second and 
third lobes of m . 3, and is remarkable for the extraordinarily 
large size of the external accessory columns. 

16309. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a large 
specimen, containing m . 1 and m . 2, in a slightly worn 
condition. 

16258. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible containing pm. 4 

and m. l. 
16385. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing pm. 4 

and m. 1, in a very much worn condition. 

16168. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible with pm. 3. 

16306. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with the three true 
molars (3rd imperfect), in a much worn condition. 

16243. The much worn second right lower true molar. 

16398. The third right lower true molar. Neither this nor either 
of the three following specimens shows any trace of an 
external accessory column. 

16262. The third right lower true molar, in an unworn condition. 

16249. The third left lower true molar, in an early stage of wear. 

16245. The third right lower molar, in a similar condition of wear. 

15288. The nearly complete mandible of a young individual, showing 
the three milk-molars of both sides and the right canine. 
The teeth of this specimen agree very closely with those 
of the somewhat older jaw figured by the present writer 
in the ' Palasontologia Indica/ ser. 10, vol. ii. pi. xxi. fig. 3 : 
there are large outer accessory columns in mm. 3. There 
is a very similar specimen in the Dublin Museum of 
Science and Art {vide Journ. E. Dublin Soc. ser. 2, vol. iii. 
p. 79 1 ). 

1 The writer was unaware of the existence of this specimen when noticing 
the Dublin jaw. 



62 UNGTJLATA. 

15288 a. The extremity of the symphysis of the mandible of a 
young individual, showing the unworn canine and the 
three incisors of either side. The left canine agrees pre- 
cisely with the corresponding tooth of the preceding 
specimen. 

36680. The glenoidal half of the left scapula. Figured by Falconer 

(Fig.) and Cautley, loc. cit. (unpublished), pi. C. fig. 2. The 

large coracoid process is a giraffe-like character. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

39531. The glenoidal extremity of the left scapula. Figured by 
(Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, loc. cit. (unpublished), pi. C. fig. 3. 

39688. The left humerus. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, loc. 
(Fig.) cit. (unpublished), pi. C. fig. 4. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

36679. The right humerus. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

39532. The proximal extremity of the right humerus, exhibiting 
(Fig.) very clearly its characteristic form, which is essentially 

that of the humerus of a giraffe, and quite different from 
that of any Bovine ruminant. Figured by Falconer and 
Cautley, loc. cit. (unpublished), pi. C. fig. 5. 

39590. An imperfect specimen of the proximal extremity of the 
right humerus. 

17109. An imperfect specimen of the proximal extremity of the 
left humerus. 

17109 a. The distal extremity of the left humerus. 

17109 "b. The distal extremity of the right humerus of a small 
specimen. 

39600. The greater portion of the left fore limb of a small specimen, 
comprising the bones from the humerus to the meta- 
carpus. 

Presented by General Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39600 a. Casts of the bones of the right and left fore limbs, made 
from specimens in the Museum. 

Made under Dr. Falconer's superintendence. 

39534. The right radius and ulna. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, . 
(Fig.) loc. cit. (unpublished), pi. C. fig. 6. 



GIRAFFmEi. 63 

16213. The proximal extremity of the left radius and ulna. 

39535. The proximal portion of the left radius and ulna. This 

specimen is of very large size. 

16212. The proximal portion of a smaller left radius. 

16214. The proximal part of the left radius. 
16214 a. The proximal half of the right radius. 
16214 b. The proximal extremity of the right radius. 

39593. The left radius of a small Sivatheroid, differing from typical 
specimens belonging to the present species by the lateral 
compression of the distal extremity. 

15708. The distal extremity of a very large left radius. 

15708 a. The distal portion of a smaller left radius. 

15708 b. The distal extremity of a similar left radius. 

15708 C. The distal two-thirds of a still smaller left radius. 

17092. A fragment, comprising the distal portion of the left radius, 
the carpus, and the proximal extremity of the metacarpus. 

17115. The distal extremity of the left radius, with part of the 
proximal row of the carpus. 

17092 c. The distal extremity of the right radius. 
17092 d. The distal portion of the right radius. 

39536. The left scaphoid. 

39537. The left lunar. 

39538. The right cuneiform. 
17115 a. A smaller right cuneiform. 

39539. The left magnum. It is probable that this specimen and 
(Fig.?) the unciform No. 39540 are figured by Falconer and 

Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished), pi. C. fig. 11. 

15695 a. A smaller left magnum. 
15695. A still smaller left magnum. 

39540. The left unciform. 
(Fig.?) 

17115 b. A smaller left unciform. 



64 TTNGTJLATA. 

39533. The right metacarpus. This specimen is figured by Falconer 

{Fig.) and Cautley, loc. cit. (unpublished), pi. C. fig. 15 ; and is 

described and figured by the present writer in the 

' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 134-5, pi. xvii. 

fig. 1. Its extreme length is 0,393. 

17101. The right metacarpus. 

17089. The right metacarpus, with the magnum of the carpus 
attached. 

39605. The right metacarpus. 

Presented by General Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39604. The left metacarpus. 

Presented by General Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

17102. The left metacarpus. 

17102 a. The left metacarpus, of a slender type. 

39603. The left metacarpus, of a stout and massive type. 

Presented by General Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39541. The proximal phalangeal of the left side of a foot. This 

(Fig.) specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley, loc. cit. 

(unpublished), pi. C. fig. 16. A very similar specimen is 

figured by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica/ 

ser. 10, vol. ii. pi. xvii. fig. 9. 

39530. The proximal phalangeal of the left side of a foot. This 

(Fig.) specimen is considerably larger than the last. It is figured 

by Falconer and Cautley, loc. cit. (unpublished), pi. B. fig. 12. 

15683. The proximal phalangeal of the right side of a foot. This 
specimen is of a rather shorter type than No. 39541. 

15683 C. The proximal phalangeal of the right side of a foot. 

Presented by R. A. G. Godwin-Austen, Esq. 

15683 d. The proximal phalangeal of the right side of a foot. 

15682. The proximal phalangeal of the right side of a foot of a 
Sivatheroid. This bone is of a more slender type than 
either of the preceding. 

15683 e. The proximal phalangeal of the right side of a foot of a 
Sivatheroid, of a still more slender type. 

15683 a. The proximal phalangeal of the left side of a foot of a 
Sivatheroid. This specimen is small and slender, and may 



GIKAFFID^;. 65 

perhaps belong to an immature individual of the present 
species. 

15683 b. A very similar phalangeal, showing evident signs of im- 
maturity. 

15683 f. The proximal phalangeal of the right side of a foot, agreeing 
in general characters with the two preceding specimens. 

39542. The second phalangeal of the right side of a foot. This 
{Fig.) specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. (un- 
published) pi. C. fig. 17. 

15805. The second phalangeal of the left side of a foot. This 
{Fig.) specimen is slightly smaller than the last, and is figured 

by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. B. 
fig. 13; it precisely resembles in structure the corre- 
sponding bone of the Giraffe. 

15806. A similar second right phalangeal. 

16394. Another similar second phalangeal, imperfect proximally. 
15804. A similar phalangeal of the opposite side. 

36681. The terminal phalangeal of the left side of a foot. This 
{Fig.) specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. (un- 
published) pi. C. fig. 18. In its great lateral expansion, 
and in the absence of a sharp ridge dividing the anterior 
from the internal surface, it exactly agrees with the terminal 
phalangeal of the Giraffe, and differs very markedly from 
the corresponding bone of the Bovidce and Oervidce. 

Presented oy the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

39546. The proximal extremity of the left femur. Figured by 
{Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. D. fig. 1. 

39546 a. The distal portion of the right femur. Figured by Fal- 
{Fig.) coner and Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. D. fig. 3. 

39547. The distal extremity of the right femur. This specimen is 
{Fig.) of very large size, and is figured by Falconer and Cautley, 

op. cit. (unpublished) pi. D. fig. 4. 

17072 b. The adjacent extremities of the associated left femur and 
tibia. 

17072. The left tibia. This specimen is figured by Falconer and 
{Fig.) Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. D. fig. 5. 

17072 a. The proximal portion of the left tibia. 

PART II. P 



Db TJNGTJLATA. 

16611. The proximal portion of the right tibia. Figured by Fal- 
(Fig.) coner and Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. D. fig. 7. 

18452. The proximal extremity of the right tibia. Figured by 
(Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. D. fig. 6. 

39549. The distal portion of the left tibia. Figured by Falconer 
(Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. D. fig. 9. 

39548. The distal portion of the left tibia. Figured by Falconer 
(Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. D. fig. 8. 

39578. The distal portion of the right tibia, with part of the fibula 
and the astragalus attached. This is a small specimen. 

17119. The distal portion of the left tibia and the tarsus of a young 
individual. 

39529. The distal half of the right tibia and the tarsus of a young 
(Fig.) individual. This specimen is figured by Falconer and 
Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. B. fig. 11. 

39543. The distal portion of the right calcaneum. This specimen 
(Fig.) is figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) 

pi. D. fig. 12. 

39543 a. The greater part of the left calcaneum, with the outer 
lamina of the bone partly destroyed. 

39543 b. The distal portion of the right calcaneum, agreeing very 
closely with No. 39543. 

16998. The left astragalus. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. 
(Fig.) cit. (unpublished) pi. D. fig. 11. 

17830. The left astragalus, of a more elongated shape. 

16998. The left astragalus, of smaller size. 

16998 a. The right astragalus, of large size. 

16998 b. The right astragalus. 

17794. The right naviculo-cuboid. 

18421. The left naviculo-cuboid. 

39544. The right naviculo-cuboid. This specimen is figured by 
(Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. D. fig. 13. 



GIEAITID.E. 67 

39752. The left metatarsal, referred to this species by Falconer and 
{Fig.) Cautley, by whom it is figured, op. tit. (unpublished) pi. E. 

fig. 12. The present writer (Pal. Ind. ser, 10, vol .ii. p. 135) 
has suggested that this bone, owing to its great length in 
comparison to the metacarpus, may not belong to this 
species. In nearly all Ruminants (and notably in the 
allied Giraffa and HeJladotJierium) the length of the fore 
and hind cannon-bones is nearly the same ; but in. Ran- 
gifer the metatarsus is considerably the longer. The 
absence of another type of bone in the Siwalik Hills which 
could be considered as the metatarsus of Sivatherium 
countenances Falconers view. 

17089. The proximal two-thirds of a similar metatarsus ; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

39753. The proximal third of a somewhat larger metatarsus. 
(Fig.) Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. tit. (unpublished) 

pL E. fig. 13. 

39526. The inferior arch of the atlas vertebra. Figured by Fal- 
(Fig.) coner and Cautley, op. tit. (unpublished) pi. B. fig. 1. 

Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

39527. The nearly complete atlas vertebra. Figured by Falconer 
(Fig.) and Cautley, op. tit. ( unpublished) pi. B. fig. 2. 

15289 a. The atlas, and centrum of the associated axis vertebra, in 
a somewhat damaged condition. 

39624. The associated axis and the following cervical vertebrae. 
(Fig.) Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. tit. (unpublished) 
pi. B. fig. 4. 

39528. The axis vertebra, nearly complete. Figured by Falconer 
(Fig.) and Cautley, op. tit. (unpublished) pi. B. fig. 3. 

16161. The axis vertebra, wanting the greater part of the neural 
spine, and otherwise damaged. 

15289 b. The axis vertebra of a small individual, wanting the 
neural spine. 

15297. The sixth cervical vertebra, wanting the extremities of most 
of the processes. This specimen has a very indistinct 
haemapophysial keel, and agrees very closely with the one 
figured by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica/ 
ser. 10, vol. ii. pi. xxii. 

f2 



68 UNGULATA. 

18173. The sixth cervical vertebra, nearly complete. This speci- 
(Fig.) men agrees with the last, and is figured by Falconer and 
Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. B. fig. 6. 

18451. The sixth cervical vertebra, wanting some of the processes. 
Tlris and most of the succeeding specimens differ from the 
two preceding ones in possessing a well-marked hsemapo- 
physial ridge. 

16164. The sixth cervical vertebra, somewhat damaged. 

16225. The sixth cervical vertebra. Figured by Cautley and 
(Fig.) Falconer, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. B. fig. 5. 

16225 a. The sixth cervical vertebra of a small individual. 

15289 C, 15289 d, 15289 e. Three imperfect specimens of the sixth 
cervical vertebra. 

15707. The nearly complete seventh cervical vertebra. Figured by 
(Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. B. fig. 7. 

15289 f. The seventh cervical vertebra. This specimen is in a 
somewhat damaged condition ; the preaxial articulating 
condyle is considerably narrower than in the last speci- 
men ; analogous Variations occur in the sixth cervical. 
An upper premolar tooth is wedged in beneath the left 
postzy gapophy sis . 

17080. An imperfect seventh cervical vertebra, agreeing in form 
with No. 15707. 

15289 g. An imperfect seventh cervical vertebra. 

15297. The first dorsal vertebra, wanting part of the neural spine. 

(Fig.) Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) 

pi. B. fig. 8 1 . Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

39591. Four associated dorsal vertebrae. Figured by Falconer and 
(Fig.) Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. B. fig. 10. 

15289 h. An imperfect dorsal vertebra. 

15289 i. Part of the first and second sacral vertebrae. 



1 In the description of this plate (' Falconer's Palasontological Memoirs,' 
vol. i. p. 540) the number of this specimen is applied to the specimen repre- 
sented in fig. 9, which does not appear to be in the Museum. 



GIEAFFID^. 69 

39754. The sternum. This specimen (which is figured by Falconer 
{Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. C. fig. 1) in its great 
lateral compression agrees with the sternum of the Giraffe, 
and differs from that of all the Bovidce and Cervidce. This 
specimen is also figured in ' Falconer's Palaeontological 
Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxi. fig. 5 (from the lateral aspect). 

Genus BRAMATHERIUM, Falconer \ 

There are two pairs of antlers, the anterior pair arising from a 
common base aud being of large size. The molars are very similar 
in structure to those of SivatJierium. 

Bramatherium perimense, Falconer 2 . 

This is the only known species.. 
Hah. India. 

20009. Cast of the cranium. The original is from the Pliocene 
Siwaliks of Perim Island, Gulf of Cambay, India, and is 
preserved in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons 
(No. 1436). It is described and figured by A. Bettington 
in the Journ, Roy. As. Soc. vol. viii. p. 340 (1845), and 
is noticed by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 130. 

Presented by A. Bettington, Esq. 

48933. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm. 4 and the three 
(Fig.) true molars ; from the Siwaliks of Perim Island. This 
specimen is the tj-pe, and is described and figured by 
Falconer in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. i. p. 363, 
pi. xiv. fig. 4, and is also figured in ' Falconer's Palaeonto- 
logical Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xxxiii. figs. 3, 4. The premolar 
is much obscured by the matrix, and the outer half of m. 3 
is broken away. Presented by Major Jervis. 

37259. Part of the left maxilla, showing the last five cheek-teeth, 

all more or less waterworn and battered ; from the 
Siwaliks of Perim Island. 

Presented by Walter Ewer, Esq. 

37260. The hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 

taining m. 2 and m. 3, in a waterworn condition ; from 
the Siwaliks of Perim Island. 

Presented by Walter Ever, Esq. 

Quart, Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. i. p. 363 (1845). 2 Ibid. p. 365. 



70 TJNGTTLATA. 

37261. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing m7~l and 
mT2, and pmTi half protruded : from the Siwaliks of Perim 
Island. This specimen agrees very closely with the one 
figured by the present writer in the < Palseontologia In- 
dica,' ser. 10, vol. i. pi. vii. fig. 13. 

Presented by Walter Ewer, Esq. 

48453. Distal portion of the left radius of a large ruminant, in a 

waterworn condition ; from the Siwaliks of Perim Island. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40685. Proximal half of the left metacarpus of a large ruminant : 

from the Siwaliks of Perim Island. This specimen appa- 
rently indicates a bone of an elongated type ; and it is 
possible that both it and the last specimen may belong to 
Giraffa. Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40892. Distal extremity of the right femur ; from the Siwaliks of 
Perim Island. Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40892 a. The proximal extremity of the right tibia ; from the 
Siwaliks of Perim Island. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40686. A broken astragalus ; from the Siwaliks of Perim Island. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

23150. A broken fifth cervical vertebra, probably belonging to the 
present species ; from the Siwaliks of Perim Island. This 
bone has very large articulating surfaces, and a short 
centrum, indicating a very short- necked animal. 

Presented by Dr. Beust, 1849. 

18788. The centrum of a seventh cervical vertebra, agreeing in 
size with the last specimen ; from the Siwaliks of Perim 
Island. Collected by Captain G. Fulljames. 

Genus HELLADOTHERIUM, Gaudry 1 . 
There are no cranial appendages. 

Helladotherium duvernoyi (Gaudry and Lartet 2 ). 
Syn. Cameloparddlis duvernoyi, Gaudry and Lartet 3 . 

This is the only known species. 
Hab. S. Europe and India. 

1 Comptes Eendus, vol. li. p. 804 (1860). 

2 Comptes Eendus, vol. xliii. p. 274 (1856), Camelopardalis. 

3 Loc. cit. 



GIKAFFID^:. 71 

39523. Cranium, provisionally referred to the present species ; from 
{Fig.) the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen 
is figured hy Falconer and Cautley in (unpublished) plate 
A. fig. 1 of the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis ' as a female 
Sivatherium giganteum. It is also figured by Eiitimeyer 
in the ' Natiirliche Geschichte der Hirsche ' pt. i. (Abh. 
schweiz. pal. Ges. 1880-3) pi. iii., under the provisional 
specific designation of H. cluvernoyi. Its affinities are 
noticed by the writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 
10, vol. ii. pp. 116-7. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

49717. The right calcaneum; from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi, 
Attica. Purchased, 1879. 



Genus GIRAFFA, Zimmermann 1 . 
Syn. Camelopardalis, Gmeliu 2 . 

Giraffa sivalensis (Falconer and Cautley 3 ). 

Syn. Camelopardalis sivalensis, Falconer and Cautley 4 . 
Camelopardalis affinis, Falconer and Cautley 5 . 

Hah. India. 

The reasons for referring all the remains of Siwalik Giraffes to the 
present species, and also for the serial position assigned to the 
vertebras noticed below, are given by the present writer in the 
' Palasontologia Indica/ ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 103-4. 

39756. The third right upper true molar ; from the Pliocene of the 
{Fig.) Siwalik Hills, India. This and the following specimens 
are the type of C. affinis ; the present specimen is figured 
in the Proc. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. pi. ii. fig. 4, and in ' Falconer's 
Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xvi. fig. 6. More 
complete specimens of the dentition are figured by the 
present writer in the ' Palasontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. pi. xvi. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39756 a. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing m. 2 and m. 3 ; 
(Fig.) from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. Figured in the 

1 Geograph. Geschichte, vol. ii. p. 125 (1780). 

2 Syst. Nat. vol. i. p. 181 (1788). 

3 Proc. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. p. 244 (1843), Camelopardalis. 
* hoc. cit. 5 Ibid. p. 246. 



72 UNGTTLATA. 

Proc. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. pi. ii. fig. 3, and in ' Falconer's 
Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xvi. fig. 5. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39755. The third left lower true molar, in an early condition of 
{Fig.) wear ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. Figured 
in the Proc. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. pi. ii. fig. 5, and in < Falconer's 
Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xvi. fig. 7. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39757. The fourth right lower premolar, in an almost unworn con- 
(Fig.) dition ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. Figured 
in the Proc. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. pi. ii. fig. 6, and in ' Falconer's 
Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xvi, fig. 8. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39749. The right humerus, wanting the proximal extremity, of a 
(Fig.) small individual ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Figured by Falconer and Cautley in (unpublished) plate 
E. fig. 3 of the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis.' 

Cautley Collection. Presented, .1842. 

17136. The proximal third of the left humerus ; from the Pliocene 
of the Siwalik Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

17130. Fragment of shaft of the left radius and ulna ; from the 
(Fig.) Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer and 

Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. E. fig. 4. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39750. The proximal half of the left metacarpus ; from the Plio- 
(Fig.) cene of the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer and 

Cautley, op. cit. (unpublished) pi. E. fig. 6. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39751. Fragment of shaft of a metacarpus ; from the Pliocene of 
(Fig.) the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 

op. cit. (unpublished) pi. E. fig. 7. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 
17129. Fragment of shaft of a metacarpus ; from the Pliocene of 
(Fig.) the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
ojp. cit. (unpublished) pi. E. fig. 8. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

17131. Fragment of shaft of a metacarpus ; from the Pliocene of 
(Fig.) the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 

op. cit. (unpublished) pi. E. fig. 9. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 



GIEAPFID^. CERVID^. 73 

17131 a. Two proximal phalangeals of the hind foot ; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. These bones are almost 
indistinguishable from the corresponding bone of Giraffa 
camelopardalis. Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

17131 b. A proximal phalangeal, closely resembling the preceding 
specimens ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39746. The posterior moiety of the third cervical vertebra of a 
{Fig.) full-sized individual ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 

Hills. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit, (un- 
published) pi. E. fig. 11 (as first cervical). 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39747. The (probably) fifth cervical vertebra of a very small indi- 
(Fig.) vidual; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This 

specimen, which is the type, is figured in the Proc. Geol. 
Soc. vol. iv. pi. iii. ; in ' Falconer's Palaeontological 
Memoirs/ vol. i. pi. xvi. figs. 1-4 ; and in plate E. fig. 1 of 
the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis ' (as third cervical). 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39748. The posterior part of a much-battered fourth (?) cervical 
( Fig.) vertebra, intermediate in size between the two preceding 

specimens ; from the Siwaliks of Perim Island, Gulf of 
Cambay. This specimen is figured by Falconer in the 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. i. pi. xiv. fig. 5, and by Fal- 
coner and Cautley in (unpublished) plate E. fig. 2 of the 
' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis/ 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Family CERVHLE. 

Dentition. In living species of existing genera : — 1. 1, C. ^r-^ 5 
Pm. |, M. |. In the extinct genus Amjphitragulus, pm. 1 is present. 

There is very considerable difficulty in referring all the fossil 
species of this family to their proper genera. In the case of the 
living genera, those species whose affinities cannot be precisely deter- 
mined are provisionally referred to the genus Cervus, which is taken 
to include the majority of the existing Deer of the Old World. The 
fossil Deer allied to the existing Muntjac (Gervulus) apparently indi- 
cate a complete transition to the genus Palaiomeryoc, in which, from 
the simple structure of its molars, is included the species termed by 
Hensel Prooc furcatus, which may probably be regarded as an ances- 



74 TJNGULATA. 

tral form of Cervulus. The members of the present family making 
the nearest approach to the Giraffidce seem to he the larger species 
of Palceomeryx like P. sivalensis, whose molars resemble those of 
Giraffa, and Alces, in which the upper molars are very like those of 
Vishnutherium. 

Genus CARIACUS, Gray 1 . 
(£ariacu£ rufug (P. Cuvier 2 ). 
Syn. Cervusrufus, F. Cuvier 3 . 

Coassus rufus, Gray 4 . 
Rah. Brazil. 

18701. The hinder portion of the cranium of a female ; from a 
cavern in Minas Geraes, Brazil. This species is doubtfully 
recorded by H. Gervais and Ameghino in * Les Mammi- 
feres fossiles de l'Amerique meridionale,' p. 125 (1880) 
from the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres on the evidence of 
limb-bones and fragments of the jaws. 

Glaussen Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

Genus CAPREOLUS, Hamilton-Smith 5 . 

Cajpreolug caprea, Gray 6 . 

Syn. Cervus capreolus, Linn. 7 

Capreolus fossilis, H. v. Meyer 8 . 

Hab. Europe and Western Asia. 

39369. The frontals and antlers ; from a Prehistoric (?) deposit in 
Clements Lane, Lombard Street, London. 

Purchased, 1865. 

41479. The calvarium of a young specimen ; from the turbary of 
Walthamstow, Essex. Purchased, 1869. 

40200. Two frontals and antlers ; from a superficial deposit at 
Moorfields, London. Purchased, 1867. 

1 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 237. 

2 Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. vii. p. 485 (1817), Cervus. The writer follows Sclater 
('List of Animals in Gardens of Zool. Soc' 1883, p. 174) in placing this species 
in Cariacus. 

3 Loc. cit. 

4 List of Mammalia in British Museum, p. 174 (1843). 

6 In Griffith's ' Animal Kingdom,' vol. v. p. 313 (1827). 

6 List of Mammalia in British Museum, p. 176 (1843), C. capraa. 

7 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 94 (1766). 
s Palaeologica, p. 94 (1832). 



ceevid^;. 75 

39902. A shed antler; from Beach Fen, Cambridgeshire. 

Purchased, 1866. 

27510. The left frontal and antler; dredged off Bawdsey. 

Purchased, 1852. 

27513. Two frontals and antlers ; from a bog at Sutton, Essex. 

Purchased, 1852. 

27888, 27889, 27890. Three frontals and antlers ; from a Prehis- 
toric (?) deposit in London. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq. 1852. 

41371. The right frontal and antler; from the turbary of Wal- 

thamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

18304. Fragment of a frontal and antler ; from a Pleistocene 
deposit, locality unknown. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16121. An imperfect shed antler; from the Forest-bed of Ostend, 
Norfolk. Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

22034, 28079. Three upper true molars, provisionally referred to 
this species ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. 

23034, purchased, 1848; 28079, Brown 
Collection, presented, 1852. 

20257, 21298, 21639, 24960, 28079 a. Various limb-bones pro- 
visionally referred to this species ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. 28079 a, Brown Collection. The others purchased. 

41749, 41742. The left radius and the right metatarsus ; from the 
turbary of Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

17743. The right metatarsus (imperfect distally) ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Bacton, Norfolk. 

Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

Capreolus cusanus (Croizet and Jobert 1 ). 
Syn. Cervus cusanus, Croizet and Jobert 2 . 

Boyd-Dawkins (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiv. p. 406 
[1878]) regards this form as being almost certainly the ancestor of 
the living C. caprea. 

Hab. France. 

1 Oss. Foss. d. Puy-de-D6me, Cervida, pi. viii. (1828), Cervus. The names 
of the species figured in this part of the work were only given on the covers of 
the different fasciculi, which have in many instances been destrojed in binding. 

2 Loc. cit. 



76 



TTNGTTLATA. 



34610. The left antler and part of the frontal ; from the Upper 
{Fig.) Pliocene of Arde (Puy-de-D6me), France. This specimen 
is figured by Boyd-Dawkins in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xxxiv. p. 405, fig. 2 ; the figure being repro- 
duced in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 6, B). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



Fig. 6. 




A Antler of Capreolus matheroni; from the Lower Pliocene of Cucuron. 
B. Antler of C. cusanus ; from the Upper Pliocene of Arde. £. (From 
the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.) 



ceryid^:. 77 

Capreolus matheroni (P. Gervais 1 ). 

Syn. Cervus matheroni, P. Gervais 2 . 

Cervus bravardi, Pomel and Bravard, MS. 

Boyd-Dawkins regards this form as less specialized than the pre- 
ceding species, of which it may be the ancestor. It has been con- 
sidered by some writers as belonging to the axine group of Cervus. 

Hob. Prance. 

34623. An adult antler and pedicle ; from the Lower Pliocene of 
{Fig.) Cucuron (Yaucluse), Prance. This specimen is figured by 

Boyd-Dawkins in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc/ vol. xxxiv. 
p. 405, fig. 1 (1878) ; the figure being reproduced in the 
woodcut on page 76 (fig. 6, A). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34624. A very similar antler and pedicle ; from the Lower Plioceue 

of Cucuron. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

From the small size of the above-noticed antlers, it is not improbable 
that the folloiving specimens of teeth should be referred to the 
present species. 

34625-54631. A fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with 
m. 2 and m. 3, and five detached lower molars ; from the 
Lower Pliocene of Cucuron, 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

The folloiving specimens from the same deposit indicate a larger 
animal, and were named in MS. by Bravard, C. cucuronis : they 
belong to the Bravard Collection, purchased, 1852. 

34611-34614. A fragment of the left maxilla, with pm. 4 , m. 1, and 

m. 2 } and three detached upper cheek-teeth. 

34615. Part of the mandible, with the milk-dentition. 

34616. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the six cheek- 

teeth (m. 2 imperfect). 

34617. Fragment of the mandible, with one molar. 

34622, 34623. Two specimens of the distal extremity of the 
humerus. 

1 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. p. 148 (1859), Cervus. A reference is here 
given to Bull. Ac. Sci. Montpell. 1852, p. 10, which the writer cannot verify. 

2 Loc. cit. 



78 UNGTJLATA. 

Genus ALCES, Hamilton-Smith 1 . 
^IceS marf)ltS, Ogilby 2 . 

Syn. Cervus alces, Linn. 3 

Hab. Northern Europe, Asia, and America. 

15599. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, with 
the last five cheek-teeth ; from a Pleistocene (?) deposit in 
North America. Purchased, 1843. 

41414, 41478. The associated right humerus, radius, and ulna, and 
the left metacarpal ; from the turbary of Walthamstow. 
These bones are referred to the present species on the 
authority of Owen, by whom they are noticed in the Geol. 
Mag. dec. 1, vol. vi. p. 389 (1869). Purchased, 1869. 

7912. A left calcaneum, provisionally referred to this species ; from 
the Pleistocene of Big-Bone Lick, Kentucky, U.S.A. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

Alces latifrons (Johnson 4 ). 

Syn. Cervus latifrons, Johnson 5 . 
Cervus bovoides, Gunn, MS. 

Hab. England. 

The antlers, according to Boyd-Dawkins, are less palmated than 
in the Elk. 

46111. The base of an antler ; dredged on the Dogger Bank. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

33471. The base of a smaller antler; dredged off Happisburgh, 
Norfolk. Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

46108. The calvarium of a young individual, provisionally referred 
to this species ; dredged on the Dogger Bank. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 



1 In Griffith's ' Animal Kingdom,' vol. v. p. 303 (1827). 

2 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 135. 

3 Syst. Nat. Ed. 12, vol. i. p. 92 (1766). 

4 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xiii. p. 2 (1874), Cervus. 
6 Loc. cit. 



CERYIDJE. 



79 



Genus RANGIFER, Hamilton-Smith 
tftancrtfcr taranttusi (Linn. 2 ) 

Syn. Cerviis tarandus, Linn. 3 

Cervus guettardi, Desmarest 4 . 

Hab. Northern Europe, Asia, and America. 




Cervus tarandus. Cranium and antlers ; from the Pleistocene of Bilney Moor, 
East Dereham. (Prom Owen's ' Palaeontology.') 

46102. The broken calvarium ; dredged on the Dogger Bank. 

Oivles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

36746. The broken calvarium; from a cavern at Berry Head, 

(Fig.) Devonshire. Figured by Owen in the ' British Fossil 

Mammals and Birds,' p. 481, fig. 198. Purchased, 1858. 

37306. The broken calvarium ; from Berry Head, Devonshire. 

Presented by Rev. H. F. Lyte, about 1860. 

1 In Griffith's ' Animal Kingdom,' vol. v. p. 304 (1827). 

2 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 93 (1766), Cervus. 3 Loc. cit. 
* Mammalogie, p. 447 (1822). 



80 



UXGULATA. 



M. 1626. The greater part of the right antler ; from the Pleistocene 
of West Brompton, London. Purchased, 1884. 

46104. The nearly complete right antler ; dredged on the Dogger 
Bank. ivies Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

24362. Three specimens of portions of antlers ; from the Pleistocene 
of Kew, near London. 

Presented by W. Lay ton, Esq., 1849. 

27666. Three portions of antlers ; from the Pleistocene of jSTeschers, 
France. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

16824, 16827. Several fragments of antlers ; from Kent's Cavern, 
Torquay, Devonshire. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

1 a (0. C). Portion of an antler ; from a frozen Pleistocene deposit 
(Fig.) in Eschscholtz Bay, Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, U.S.A. 
Noticed and figured in P. "W. Beechey's ' Voyage to the 
Pacific and Behring's Straits in H.1LS. ' Blossom/' during 
the years 1825 to 1828,' vol. ii. p. 593, pi. iii. (Fossils-) 
fig. 11 (1831). 

Presented by Captain F. W. Beechey, R.N. 

M. 497. Numerous portions of antlers and limb-bones ; from the 
Pleistocene of " The Boltons," Old Brompton, London. 

Presented by J. G. Sjpicer, Esq., 1883. 

44674. Base of the antler of a young individual ; from Banw ell 
Cave, Somersetshire. Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

16736. Fragment of the left maxilla with the three true molars ; 
from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16741, 17990. Fragments of the mandible ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

18982. Two fragments of the mandible ; from Kent's Cavern. 

Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

16724, 16684. Two portions of the mandible, in both of which mm . 4 
is retained; said to be from "Anstie's Cave," 1 near 
Torquay. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

1 The writer is unacquainted with any cave of this name, although there is a 
small bay called "Anstie's Cove " not far from Kent's-Hole Cavern. 



CERYID.E. 81 

16808. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a young in- 
(Fig.) dividual, with mm. 4, and m. 1 in alveolo, from Kent's 

Cavern ; figured in McEnery's ' Cavern Eesearches,' pi. M. 

fig. 6. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16818. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a young 
{Fig.) individual, with the last two milk-molars and the first 

lobe of mTl ; from Kent's Cavern. Figured by McEnery, 

op. cit. pi. M. fig. 2. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16893. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with all the cheek- 
{Fig.) teeth except p m . 2; from Kent's Cavern. Figured by 
McEnery, op. cit. pi. M. fig. 3. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1812. 

46103. The greater part of the left ramus of a mandible provisionally 
referred to this species ; dredged off the Dogger Bank. 
This specimen is remarkable in that the third lobe of m . 3 
is almost entirely absent ; other specimens (e. g. No. 18982) 
show that this lobe is frequently very small. 

Oivles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

24376. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with the 
three true molars ; from the Pleistocene of Kew. 

Presented by TV. Layton, Esq., 1849. 

44675. The right humerus \ from Banwell Cave. 

Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

18304. The distal half of the right humerus : from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16784. The left radius of a young individual ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16886. The right metacarpus, of very large size; from Kent's 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

44676, 44680. Two specimens of the left metacarpus ; from Banwell 

Cave. Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

M. 2315. The left metacarpus ; from the Pleistocene fissures of 
Oreston, near Plymouth, Devonshire. No history. 

44377. The right calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of Kew. 

Presented by W. Layton, Esq., 1849. 
past n. g 



82 



"UKGULATA. 



44678. The left metatarsus ; from Banwell Cave. 

Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

Genus CERVUS, Linn. 1 

Including Megaceros, Owen 2 . 

Strongyloceros, Owen 3 . 
JEucladoceros, Falconer 4 . 

A. Megaeerotine Group. 

Cervus giganteus (Blumenbach 5 ). 

Syn. Alces gigantea, Blumenbach 6 . 
Cervus hibernus, Desmarest 7 . 
Cervus megaceros, Hart 8 . 
Megaceros hibernicus, Owen 9 . 

In this species, which is the one representative of the group, the 
antlers diverge at right angles to the frontal plane, are widely pal- 
mated, and have both a brow- and bez-tyne ; in the adult the brow- 
tyne is expanded and bifurcate, and the same feature is occasionally 
met with in the bez-tyne. Antlers of three different ages are 
figured by Owen in the ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 456. 

Hab. Western Europe. 

M. 2322. Skeleton, with the cranium of a male, made up from the 
remains of several individuals ; from the Bog of Axe, near 
Enniseorthy, County Wexford, Ireland. 

Ennishillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

15602 a (15282). The skeleton of a male, made up from several 
individuals ; from the Pleistocene of Ireland. The greater 
part of the skeleton was presented by Archdeacon Maunsell 
in 1843, but some bones were supplied from specimens 
presented by the Earl of Derby (then Lord Stanley) 
about 1840. The cranium (No. 15282) was received in 
exchange from the Bev. Mr. Mockler, and was substituted 
for the one belonging to the skeleton presented by Arch- 
deacon Maunsell. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 92 (1766). 

2 Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1843, p. 237 (1844). 

3 British Fossil Mammals and Birds, p. 469 (1846). 

4 Pakeontological Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 472 (1868). 

5 Beitriig. z. Naturgeschichte, 1st French ed. vol. ii. p. 407 (1803), Alee. 

6 Loc. cit. 

7 Mammalogie, p. 446 (1822). 

8 Description of the Fossil Deer of Ireland (1826). 

9 Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1843, p. 237 (1844). 




Cervus giganteus. — Skeleton, from shell-marl beneath the peat, Ireland. 

15602 b. The cranium and antlers ; from a bog in Ireland. This is 

the specimen properly belonging to the preceding skeleton. 

Presented by Archdeacon Maunsell, 1843. 

M. 1126. The cranium, with the lower halves of the antlers, together 
with the right ramus of the mandible and several limb- 
bones ; from the Pleistocene of Orlowschen, Goot, Mal- 
varbraugelsk district, Eussia. Pur-chased, 1883. 

41850. The skeleton of a female ; from a bog in Ireland. 

Purchased, 1870. 

M. 2323. The cranium and antlers of a male ; from a bog in Ireland. 

No history. 
g2 



84 TTN-GTTLATA, 

M. 2325. The cranium and antlers of a male ; from the Keg Bog, 
Dunshaughlin, Ireland. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

M. 2324. The cranium and antlers of a male ; from a bog in 
Ireland. No history. 

8085. The cranium and antlers of a male ; from a bog in Ireland. 
Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. (Labelled "formerly 

in Mr. Brooke's Museum") 

14102. The cranium of a male, with portions of the antlers; from 
a bog in Ireland. 
Presented by the Earl of Derby (then Lord Stanley), about 1840. 

14102. The cranium of a male, with portions of the antlers; from 
a bog in Ireland. 
Presented by the Earl of Derby (then Lord Stanley), about 1840. 

32495. The cranium of a male, with portions of the antlers ; from 
a bog in Ireland. 

Presented by the Earl of EnnisJcillen, 1857. 

20601 . The frontlet and antlers of a male ; from a bog in Ireland. 

Purchased, 1846. 

28968. The cranium of a male, with the antlers shed ; from a bog 
in Ireland. Purchased, 1854. 

46105. The calvarium of a male ; dredged on the Dogger Bank. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

32497. The calvarium of a male ; dredged off Harwich, Essex. 

Purchased, 1857. 

46107. The frontlet of a male, with the bases of the antlers ; 
dredged off the Dogger Bank. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

M. 2340. The right frontal, with the base of the antler ; from an 
English Pleistocene deposit. No history. 

M. 2326, M. 2328. The cranium and mandible of a female; from a 

bog at Naul, County Dublin. No history. 

M. 2327- The cranium of a female, imperfect anteriorly j from a 
bog at Naul. No history. 



CEKvma:. 85 

46106. The upper portion of the cranium ; dredged on the Dogger 
Bank. Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

17471. The palate; showing all the cheek-teeth of both sides 

(Fig.) except pm. 2 ; from Kent's Cavern, Torquay, Devonshire. 

Noticed in Owen's ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' 

p. 467, and figured in McEnery's ' Cavern Researches,' 

pi. I. fig. 1. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

M. 814. The palate, showing all the cheek-teeth except the right 
pm. 4 and the left m. 3 ; from Kent's Cavern (3rd layer 
of cave-earth). Presented by Lord, Haldon, 1883. 

M. 443. Part of the right maxilla, containing all the cheek-teeth 
except pm. 2 • from Kent's Cavern. 

EnnisTcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

16802, 16799, 18292, 18982. Four fragments of right maxillae, 
with cheek-teeth ; from Kent's Cavern. 

16802, 16799, McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 
18292, 18982, Presented by Rev. U. Richards, 1845. 

17949, 17950. Two left upper true molars ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

23134. A right upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, 
Essex. Purchased, 1849 . 

18781. Fragment of the right maxilla, showing the six cheek-teeth 
in an early stage of wear ; from a bog in Ireland. 

Purchased, 1845. 

237(0. C). Fragment of the right maxilla, containing two true 
molars in a much-worn condition ; from Kirkdale Cave, 
Yorkshire. Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

16742, 18982. Three upper premolars ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

M. 2332. The basal half of the left antler of a very large individual ; 
from the Pleistocene of Walton-on-the-Naze, Essex. 
Noticed in Owen's ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' 
p. 466. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

27977. Two specimens of the base of the antler of opposite sides ; 
from the Pleistocene of Walton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 



86 TJNGULATA. 

16827. Three specimens of the base of the antler ; from Kent's 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

M. 388. The base of the right antler ; from a bog in Ireland. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

26124. Two rami of the mandible ; from a bog in Ireland. 

Purchased, 1851. 

M. 2329. The left ramus of the mandible ; from a bog in Ireland. 

No history. 

M. 365. The left ramus of the mandible ; from a bog in Ireland. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2330. The right ramus of the mandible ; from a bog in Ireland. 

No history. 

M. 2331. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing four 
cheek-teeth ; from a bog in Ireland. No history. 

45324. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing ^72 and 

^73 ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford, Essex. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45325. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the last four 

cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

M. 623. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the last four 
cheek-teeth ; from Kent's Cavern (first layer of cave- 
earth). Presented by Lord Haldon, 1883. 

16820 b. The dental series of the left ramus of the mandible ; 
{Fig.) from Kent's Cavern. Figured in McEnery's « Cavern 
Researches,' pi. K. fig. 4. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16800. Part of the left ramus of the mandible ; from Kent's 
{Fig.) Cavern. Figured by McEnery, op. cit. pi. K. fig. 5. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

M, 690. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, with 
the cheek-teeth in a much-worn condition ; from Kent's 
Cavern (2nd layer of cave-earth). 

Presented by Lord Haldon, 1883. 

M. 691. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with the three 



CEKVIDJE. 87 

true molars ; from Kent's Cavern (2nd layei of cave- 
earth). Presented by Lord Haldon, 1883. 

M. 692. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with the last four 
cheek-teeth; from Kent's Cavern (2nd layer of cave- 
earth). Presented by Lord Haldon, 1883. 

M. 689. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a young 
individual, showing mm. 4 and mTT ; from Kent's Cavern 
(2nd layer of cave-earth). 

Presented by Lord Hcddon, 1883. 

16818, 18982. Two fragments of the mandible ; from Kent's Cavern. 

16818, McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

18982, Presented by the Rev. U. Richards, 1845. 

232 (0. C). Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible containing 
m. 3 ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

18808, 21297. Two portions of opposite rami of the mandible, each 
with the three true molars ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1845 & 1847. 

28990, 39508. Two fragments of mandibles provisionally referred 
to this species ; dredged on the Dogger Bank. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

M. 2323. The left scapula ; from a bog in Ireland. No history. 

39269. The right humerus ; from a bog near Loughgur, County 
Limerick, Ireland. Presented by the Count de Salts, 1865. 

M. 2334. The left humerus ; from a bog in Ireland. No history. 

21682. The proximal half of the left humerus ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Purchased, 1848. 

45328. The distal half of the right humerus ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

14151. The right radius and ulna ; from a bog in Ireland. 

Presented by the Earl of Derby (then Lord Stanley). 

About 1840. 

M. 2335. The left radius and ulna ; from a bog in Ireland. 

No history, 

45330. The left scaphoid ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 



OO TJNGULATA. 

18086. Two specimens of the right metacarpus ; from a hog in 
Ireland. Purchased, 1842. 

241 (0. C). A right metacarpus, provisionally assigned to the present 
species ; from Kirkdale Cave, Yorkshire. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

M. 982. The left metacarpus ; from Kent's Cavern (4th layer of 
cavern- earth). Presented by Lord Haldon, 1883. 

M. 2337. The pelvis ; from a bog in Ireland. No history, 

14157. The right femur ; from a bog in Ireland. 

Presented by the Earl of Derby (then Lord Stanley). 

About 1840. 

M. 2336. The left femur ; from a bog in Ireland. No history. 

14153. The left tibia ; from a bog in Ireland. 

Presented by the Earl of Derby (then Lord Stanley). 

About.1840. 
39270. The left tibia ; from a bog near Loughgur. 

Presented by the Count de Sails, 1865. 

16883. The right tibia, imperfect proximally ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

18085. The left metatarsus ; from a bog in Ireland. 

Purchased, 1842. 

49438. The left metatarsus ; from the Pleistocene of the Eastern 
Counties. Purchased, 1878. 

28576. The left metatarsus ; from a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. 

Purchased, 1853. 

M. 2338, M. 2339. Two specimens of the astragalus ; from a bog in 
Ireland. No history. 

20244. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of (? Ilford) 
Essex. Purchased, 1846. 

27947. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Walton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

20242. The right calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of (? Ilford) 
Essex. Purchased, 1846. 

16839 a. The left calcaneum ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 



cekvid.2e. yy 

18151. The left calcaneum; from a bog in Ireland. 

Purchased, 1842. 

20241, 23149. Two first phalangeals; the former from the Pleisto- 
cene of Grays, the latter from that of Ilford. Purchased. 

18304. An imperfect atlas vertebra ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

14160. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 7th cervical vertebras; from 
a bog in Ireland. 
Presented by the Earl of Derby (then Lord Stanley). About 1840. 

M. 2341. The sixth cervical vertebra; from a bog in Ireland. 

Presented by John Broivn, Esq., 1852. 

14162, 14163. Two early dorsal vertebras ; from a bog in Ireland. 
Presented by the Earl of Derby (then Lord Stanley). About 1840. 

B. Damine Group. 

Both the brow- and bez-tyne are present, and the upper half of 
the antlers is broadly palmate : there may be a third tyne between 
the bez and the palmation. 

£tvbu$ fcama, Linn. 1 

Syn. Dama vulgaris, Gray 2 . 

Hab. South-eastern Europe and South-western Asia. 

M. 47646. Mass of ossiferous breccia containing part of the right 
(Fig.) ramus of the mandible and several limb-bones, provi; 
sionally referred to this species ; from a cavern at Poco 
K-oco, Gibraltar. This specimen is described and figured 
by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pp. 114, 115, 
pi. xix. ; its right to distinction from the next species 
cannot be determined. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

Cervus browni, Boyd-Dawkins 3 . 

Syn. Cervus clactonianus, Falconer 4 . 

This species, or variety, is closely allied to C. dama, from which 
it is distinguished merely by the presence of a third tyne above the 
bez ; according to Victor Brooke a similarly placed tyne occasionally 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 93 (1766). 

2 List of Mammalia in British Museum, p. 181 (1843). 

3 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxiv. p. 511 (1868). 

* Falconer's Paloeontological Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 479 (1868). 



90 TJNGULATA. 

occurs in C. dama, which may perhaps be regarded as an instance 
of reversion. 
Hab. England. 

27926. Lower part of the right antler of a young specimen ; from 
{Fig.) the Pleistocene of Clacton, Essex. This and the follow- 
ing figured specimens are the types ; the present one is 
figured by Boyd-Dawkins in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
vol. xxiv. pi. xvii. fig. 1. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

37778 a. Lower part of a larger right antler, with the brow-tyne 
(Fig.) broken off; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. Pigured, 
loc. cit. fig. 2. 
Brown Collection. Presented by Sir JR. Owen, K.G.B., 1858. 

37778 b. Lower part of a similar right antler ; from the Pleistocene 
(Fig.) of Clacton. Pigured, loc. cit. fig. 3. 

Brown Collection. Presented by Sir R. Owen, K.C.B., 1858. 

37778 C. Lower half of a larger right antler, showing the brow- and 
(Fig.) part of the bez-tyne ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. 
Pigured, loc. cit. fig. 5. 
Brown Collection. Presented by Sir B. Oiven, K.C.B., 1858. 

37778 d. Base of a still larger right antler ; from the Pleistocene 
(Fig.) of Clacton. Pigured, loc. cit. fig. 6. 

Brown Collection. Presented by Sir P. Owen, K.C.B., 1858. 

27876. The nearly complete right antler of a full-grown animal ; 
(Fig.) from the Pleistocene of Clacton. Pigured, loc. cit. fig. 4. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

27883. The lower half of a right antler ; from the Pleistocene of 
(Fig.) Clacton. Pigured, loc. cit. pi. xviii. fig. 1. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

27966. The base of a right antler ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. 
(Fig.) Pigured, loc. cit. pi. xviii. fig. 2. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

33778 e. Fragment of the crown of an antler ; from the Pleistocene 
(Fig.) of Clacton. 

Brown Collection. Presented by Sir B. Owen, K.C.B., 1858. 

49443, 49444. Two imperfect antlers, with fragments of the frontals; 
from the Pleistocene of the Eastern coast. 

Purchased; 1878. 






CEKVIDJI. 91 

The Museum possesses a large series of antlers from Clacton which 
have not been catalogued. The reference of the following speci- 
mens is provisional. 

28012 a. The right radius ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

28037- The atlas vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. 

Presented by John Broiun, Esq., 1852. 

Cervus falconer!, Boyd-Dawkins 1 . 

This species is allied to the preceding, but the antlers are much 
less palmated. 
Bab. England. 

33507. The greater part of the left antler, with the tynes broken 
(Fig.) off; from the Norwich Crag. This specimen is the type, 

and is figured by Boyd-Dawkins in the Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc. vol. xxiv. pi. xviii. figs. 9-11. Purchased, 1858. 

35857. Base of an antler; from the Eed Crag of Suffolk. This 
(Fig.) specimen is figured by Boyd-Dawkins, loc. cit. fig. 12. 

Presented by J. Berners, Esq., 1861. 

33512. The broken pedicle and base of an antler provisionally 
referred to this species ; from the Norwich Crag. 

Purchased, 1858. 

48963. Base of an antler ; from the Bed Crag of Suffolk. 

Purchased, 1878. 

M. 1898. Base of an antler, provisionally referred to this species ; 
from the Bed Crag of Suffolk. 

Presented by Sir B. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 

41243. The distal extremity of a tibia, which may perhaps belong 
to this species ; from the Norwich Crag of Thorpe, Norwich. 

Purchased, 1869. 

Cervus savini. Boyd-Dawkins 2 . 

This species is regarded by its founder as an ancestral form of 
C. broivni. 
Bab. England. 



Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxiv. p. 517 (1868). 
Proc. R. Soc. vol. xxxviii. p. 345 (1885). 



yz UNGTJLATA. 

33471 b. Fragment of the right frontal and the base of the antler ; 
probably dredged off Happisburgh, Norfolk. 

Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

Cervus verticornis, Boyd-Dawkins \ 

This species is regarded as an aberrant form of the present group. 
The antlers are very short and thick, and set obliquely on the 
frontals; the brow-tyne is cylindrical, and downwardly curved, 
and above it there are two oval tynes ; the beam is at first cylin- 
drical, then becomes flattened, and above the third tyne is expanded 
into a crown with two points. The second tyne is in a different 
plane from the brow-tyne. 

Hob. England. 

49429. The calvarium with the bases of the antlers ; (?) from the 

Forest-bed of Norfolk. Purchased, 1878. 

49430. The frontals and the bases of the antlers ; from the Forest- 

bed of the Eastern coast. Purchased, 1878. 

33471 C. Portion of the frontals, provisionally referred to this species ; 
dredged off Happisburgh, Norfolk. 

Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

49431. The basal half of the left antler; from the Forest-bed of 

the Eastern coast. Purchased, 1878. 

49432. Part of the right frontal and the basal half of the antler ; 

from the Forest-bed of the Eastern coast. 

Purchased, 1878. 

49433. Part of the left frontal, with the base of the antler • from 

the Forest-bed of the Eastern coast. Purchased, 1878. 

49434. The basal half of the left antler ; from the Forest-bed of 

the Eastern coast. Purchased, 1878. 

49435. The middle portion of the right antler ; from tne Forest-bed 

of the Eastern coast. Purchased, 1878. 

49436. The basal portion of the left antler ; from the Forest-bed 

of the Eastern coast. Purchased, 1878. 

49437. Part of the left frontal, with the base of the antler; from 

the Forest-bed of the Eastern coast. Purchased, 1878. . 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxviii. p. 406 (1872). 






CEKYID^E. 



93 



45929. The greater part of the beam of the left antler ; from the 
Red Crag of Trimley, near Felixstowe, Suffolk. 

Purchased, 1874. 

40835. Cast of the basal half of the left antler. The original was 
in the collection of the Rev. J. Gunn of Irstead, and 
was obtained from the Forest-bed ; it is now in the Nor- 
wich Museum. It is noticed in ' Falconer's Palseonto- 
logical Memoirs,' vol. ii. p. 479 (no. b); and figured by 
Boyd-Dawkins, op. cit. p. 407, fig. 2. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

33471 d. Three fragments of antlers ; dredged off Happisburgh, Nor- 
folk. Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

The following specimens came from the same deposit, but appear 
to indicate a smaller form. 

43481. Cast of part of a left maxilla, showing all the cheek-teeth 
except pm. 2 . The original was obtained from the Forest- 
bed of Cromer, Norfolk. 

Presented by Professor Boyd-Daivkins, 1872. 

49440. Part of the right ramus of a mandible with in72 and 
m. 3; from the Pleistocene of the Eastern coast. The 
ramus is stouter and the molars thicker than in C. elaphus. 

Purchased, 1878. 

49439. The right metatarsus ; from the Pleistocene of the Eastern 
coast. This bone is considerably larger than the meta- 
tarsus of C. elaphus. Purchased, 1878. 

33195. The left metatarsus ; from the Pleistocene of Easton Cliff, 
Suffolk. Purchased. 

33471 e. The left metatarsus ; dredged off Happisburgh, Norfolk. 

Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

C. Eucladocerotine Croup. 
Cervus sedgwicki, Falconer x {ex Gunn, MS.). 

Syn. Cervus dicranios, Nesti, MS. 

The antlers of this species are more complex than those of any 
other Deer, living or extinct. Falconer describes them as having 

1 'Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. p. 472 



94 UNGULATA. 

a prominent burr, without obliquity ; beam cylindrical, and straight 
at the base, compressed upwards, giving from its anterior margin 
three subequidistant tynes, which from the summit downwards are 
successively bi-, tri-, and quadrifurcate. Tynes long, straight, and 
conical, diverging in the same vertical plane. An antler is figured 
in ' Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. pi. xxxvii. fig. 1. 
Hah, Europe. » 

33471 f. Middle porjtion of an antler ; from the Forest-bed of Nor- 
folk. Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

33471 g. Base of an antler ; from the Forest-bed of Norfolk. 

Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

33471 h. Portion of an antler, provisionally regarded as belonging to 
a young individual of the present species ; from the Forest- 
bed of Norfolk. Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

D. Elaphine Group. 
Antlers rounded, bez-tyne present. 

CerbusJ elapfjutf, Linn. 1 

Syn. Strongyloceros spelceus, Owen 2 . 

Cervus barbarus, Gray 3 {ex Bennett, MS.). 

Hah. Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa. 

M. 393. The skull and antlers (with nine tynes) ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Ireland. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 392. The antlers of a very old individual ; from the bed of the 
Lake of Toberscanovan, County Sligo, Ireland 4 . The 
specimen is noticed and the right antler figured in Owen's 
' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' pp. 472, 478, fig. 
196 ; the figure being reproduced in the accompanying 
woodcut (fig. 9). The length of each antler is 30 inches; 
and each gives off fifteen tynes. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 93 (1766). 

2 ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 469 (1846). 

3 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 227. 

4 This is the locality given in Egerton's MS. Catalogue of his Collection. 
Owen gives the bed of the Kiver Boyne, Drogbeda. 




95 



Cervus elaphus.— The right antler ; from the Lake of Toberscanovan, 
(From Owen's ' Palaeontology.') 

M. 31. The antlers (with five tynes) together with part of the 
cranium, and a considerable portion of the skeleton; from 
the turbary of Edmundsea, near Waltham Abbey, Essex. 
Presented by Major Tovey, R.E., 1880. 

41185. An imperfect cranium, with the lower halves of the antlers ; 
from the turbary of Walthamstow, Essex. 

Purchased, 1869. 

32744. The left antler attached to a fragment of the frontal; from 
the Pleistocene of Jarrow, Durham. 

Presented by Messrs. Harrison and Hodgson, 1857. 

45335. The right antler, of enormous size, and bearing 9 or 10 

tynes ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford, Essex. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45336. The right antler of an immature individual, with 6 tynes 

(the bez broken off) ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45338. The basal half of the right antler ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 



96 TTNTGULATA. 

45339. The basal half of the left antler ; from the Pleistocene of 

Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45340. The basal portion of the left antler; from the Pleistocene of 

Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

23728a. The base of the left antler, with a part of the frontal; 
from the Pleistocene of Slade Green, Erith, Kent. 

Purchased, 1849. 

23122. The basal half of the left antler of an adult; from the 
Pleistocene of Maidstone, Kent. Purchased, 1849. 

28533. Basal half of the right antler of a small individual ; from 

(Fig.) the Pleistocene of Selsey, Sussex. Figured in Dixon's 

< Geology of Sussex,' p. 16, fig. 4 (1852). Purchased. 

16820 a. The base of the right antler, with the brow- and bez- 
(Fig.) tynes broken off, of very large size ; from Kent's Cavern, 
Torquay, Devonshire. This specimen is described and 
figured in Owen's ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' 
p. 469, fig. 193, under the name of Strongyloceros spelceus , 
of which it is the type ; and also in McEnery's ' Cavern 
Researches,' pi. H. fig. 3. It measures 15 inches in cir- 
cumference, and is equal in size to the largest antlers of 
C. canadensis, with which it is compared by Owen. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16820-23. Several specimens of the base of antlers, of very large 
size ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

232 (0. C). Base of the right antler ; from Kirkdale Cave, York- 
shire. Presented by W. ^almond, Esq. Before 1836. 

46851. Base of a malformed right antler ; from the Pleistocene of 
Greenwich, Kent. Purchased, 1875. 

27967. Lower part of a small left antler; from the Pleistocene of 
Walton, Essex. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

47405. The lower half of a small right antler ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Ilford. Presented by Mr. BawHns, 1876. 

45379. Fragment of the frontal and antler of a very young indi- 
vidual ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878; 



CERVIB^E. 97 

27624. The lower part of a very small right antler ; from the 
Pleistocene (?) of La Combette, near Champeix (Puy-de- 
Dome), France. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 390. The greater part of the left antler; from a superficial 
deposit at Saltersford, Nottinghamshire. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

28254. The greater part of the right antler ; from the Pleistocene (?) 
of Woodbridge, Suffolk. The specimen is labelled " from 
the Red Crag," but this is not borne out by its condition. 
Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

M. 389. The basal half of a right antler, j)rovisionally referred to 
this species ; from a Pleistocene deposit near Norwich. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

47590. Portions of antlers ; from the caverns of Gibraltar. Several 
of the specimens (which are noticed in the sequel) from 
the same locality have been described and figured by 
Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. under the name of 
Cervus barbarus. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47491, 47492. Portions of the cranium ; from the caverns of Gib- 
raltar. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

41980. The calvarium ; dredged from the bed of the Thames off 
Erith, Kent. Purchased, 1870. 

27884. The calvarium, with the bases of the antlers; from the 
Pleistocene of Colchester, Essex. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

23148. Fragment of the frontals, provisionally referred to this 
species ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. 

Purchased, 1849. 

In addition to the preceding specimens, the Museum also contains a 
large series of detached antlers from turbary and Pleistocene 
deposits, of ivhich the following may be noticed : — 

7396, from Lewes, Sussex (Mantell Collection. Purchased, 
1836). — 16081, from Wellingborough, Northampton (Purchased, 
1842). — 27624 a, from La Combette, near Champeix, Puy-de-D6me, 
France (Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848). — 33471, probably 
from Norfolk (Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858). — 36560, 
from Grundisburgh, Suffolk (Purchased, 1853). — 36752, from 

PART II. H 



98 UNGTJLATA. 

Hammersmith {Purchased, 1862) : this specimen is a very fine 
antler just out of the ' velvet.'— 41415, 41492, 41494, from Walt- 
hamstow, Essex (Purchased, 1869). 



The specific reference of some of the following specimens must be 
considered as provisional. (See also Addenda.) 

20277. The associated upper cheek-teeth (wanting the right pm. 3 
and m. 3 of both sides) ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1846. 

18809, 21296, 21643, 22034, 28079. Numerous specimens of upper 
true molars ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased. 

47593-94. Several portions of the maxillae, with the cheek-teeth ; 
from the caverns of Gibraltar. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

19843. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, with 
the six cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1846. 

21675. Two specimens of portions of the left ramus of the mandible, 
with the cheek-teeth ; from Grays. Purchased, 1848. 

21678. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with all the cheek- 
teeth except pm. 2 ; from Grays. Purchased, 1848. 

23731. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing mm. 3 , 
mm. 4 , and m. 1 ; from Grays. Purchased, 1849. 

38582. The left ramus of the mandible, with the teeth in a much- 
worn condition ; from ' No-Man's-land shoal,' off the Isle 
of Wight. Presented by J. Harris, Esq., 1862. 

39901. The right ramus of the mandible of a young individual, 
showing the three milk-molars ; from Eeach Pen, Cam- 
bridgeshire. Purchased, 1866. 

16820 b. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of a very large 
(Fig.) individual, containing all the cheek-teeth except p m . 2 ; 

from Kent's Cavern. Figured in McEnery's ' Cavern 

Researches,' pi. K. fig. 5. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842/ 



cervid^;. 99 

47596. Several imperfect rami of the mandible ; from the caverns 
{Fig.) of Gibraltar. Two are figured by Busk in the Trans. 

Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. xxi. figs. 1, 2. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47597, 47598. Numerous detached molars ; from the caverns of 

Gibraltar. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

45334. The third right lower true molar ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

47604. Portions of the scapula; from the caverns of Gibraltar. 
{Fig.) One is figured by Busk, op. cit. pi. xxi. fig. 5. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47605-07. Several imperfect specimens of the humerus ; from the 
caverns of Gibraltar. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

45386. The right humerus, wanting the head; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

20253. The right humerus ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1846. 

16859. The distal portion of the right humerus ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Ilford. Presented by W. Thompson, Esq., 1842. 

24379. The right humerus (imperfect proximally) ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Kew. This specimen is smaller than the 
preceding. Presented by T. Layton, Esq., 1849. 

39760. The distal portion of the left humerus ; from a superficial 
deposit at Bodelwyddan, near St. Asaph. 

Presented by W. M. Crowther, Esq., 1857. 

45354. The right radius and part of the ulna, of large size ; from 
the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

23741 e. The right radius and part of the ulna ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased, 1848. 

24381. The left radius and ulna, of rather smaller size ; from the 
Pleistocene of Kew. 

Presented by T. Layton, Esq., 1849. 

20262. The right radius and part of the ulna ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased, 1846. 

h2 



100 UNGTTLATA. 

23763 q. The left radius ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1848. 

20264. The left radius ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1846. 

39761. The proximal portion of the left radius : from a superficial 
deposit at Bodelwyddan. 

Presented by W. M. Croivther, Esq., 1857. 

18840. The proximal half of the left radius ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased, 1845. 

45355, 45356. Two specimens of the distal extremity of the left 
radius, of large size ; from the Pleistocene of Tlford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

47607-47611. Several specimens of the radius and ulna ; one radius 

(Fig.) (No. 47608) figured by Busk, op. cit. pi. xxi. fig. 3 ; from the 

caverns of Gibraltar. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

45357. The right metacarpus, of large size ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

7575. A smaller right metacarpus ; from the Pleistocene of Lewes, 
Sussex. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

23125. The right metacarpus ; from the Pleistocene of Maidstone, 
Kent. Purchased, 1849. 

45387, 45388. The right and left metacarpus, of small size ; from the 
Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

21674. The left metacarpus ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1846. 

47612-15. Several imperfect specimens of ithe -metacarpus; from 
the caverns of Gibraltar. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47617, 47618. Two portions of the innominates; from the caverns 
of Gibraltar. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

7580. Part of the left innominate ; from the Pleistocene of Lewes. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

24963. The proximal portion of the left femur ; from ,the Pleis- 
tocene of Grays. Presented by D. Sharpe, Esq., 1850. 



ceevid^:. 101 

45361. The distal epiphysis of the right femur; from the Pleis- 
tocene of llford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

21635. The distal extremity of the left femur ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased, 1846. 

47619-22- Several portions of the femur; from the caverns of 
Gibraltar. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

32742-3. Two specimens of the femur and tibia, one imperfect 
proximally ; from the Pleistocene of Jarrow, Durham. 

Presented by Messrs. Harrison and Hodgson, 1857. 

24382. The left femur, wanting the head ; from the Pleistocene of 
Kew. Presented by T. Laytan, Esq., 1849. 

45362. The right tibia, imperfect proximally ; from the Pleistocene 
of llford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

20263. The left tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1846. 

18097. Two specimens of the left tibia; from the Pleistocene of 
Ireland. Purchased, 1842. 

47623. Fragments of the tibia ; from the caverus of Gibraltar. 
(Fig.) One specimen is figured by Busk, op. cit. pi. xxi. fig. 4. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47624. Fragments of the tibia ; from the caverns of Gibraltar. 

Brome Collection* Presented, 1876. 

21632, 23133. Three specimens of the calcaneum ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Grays. Purchased, 1846. 

45368-70. Three specimens of the calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene 
of llford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

47627, 47628. Two specimens of the calcaneum and an astragalus, 
provisionally referred to this species; from the caverns 
of Gibraltar. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47626. Several astragali; from a cavern at Gibraltar. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

18834, 21298, 22036. Several specimens of the astragalus ; from 
the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased. 

45366, 45367. Two specimens of the left astragalus ; from the 
Pleistocene of llford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 



102 TTNGULATA. 

16840, 18364. Two large specimens of the astragalus ; from Kent's 

Cavern. 16840, McEnery Collection. Presented, 1842. 

18364, Presented by Rev. U. Richards, 1845. 

45371-73. Three specimens of the metatarsus ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

19843. The right metatarsus ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1846. 

18098. Two specimens of the metatarsus ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ireland. Purchased, 1842. 

47630-32. Four specimens of the metatarsus (two imperfect) ; from 
the caverns of Gibraltar. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

23126, 23127. A small metacarpus and metatarsus, which may 
perhaps belong to a small form of the present species ; 
from the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1849. 

45375-78. Four phalangeals ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

21318 a. The atlas and axis vertebrae ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 

39260, 39261. The atlas and axis vertebrae ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Presented by C. Charlesworih, Esq. 

47601. The imperfect axis vertebra; from a cavern in Gibraltar. 
(Fig.) Figured by Busk, op. cit. pi. xx. fig. 3. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

18824. The axis vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1845. 

39288. The associated third, fourth, and fifth cervical vertebrae ; 
from the Pleistocene of Saffron Walden, Essex. 

Presented by G. E. Roberts, Esq., 1856. 

45346, 45347. The third and sixth cervical vertebrae ; from the 
Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45348. An early dorsal vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45383. The associated last three dorsal and five lumbar vertebrae ; 
from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 






CEKVTD^]. 103 

32744 a. Four associated lumbar vertebrae, together with ribs, and 
parts of the scapula and pelvis ; from the Pleistocene of 
Jarrow. 

Presented by Messrs. Harrison and Hodgson, 1857. 

47603. The sacrum ; from a cavern in Gibraltar. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 
32741. The sacrum ; from the Pleistocene of Jarrow. 

Presented by Messrs. Harrison and Hodgson, 1857. 

E. Busine Group. 
The antlers are rounded, and often strongly grooved ; there is no 
bez-tyne, and the beam is simply forked, upright, and but little 
curved, the angle formed by the brow-tyne, which rises close to 
the burr, being an acute one. The molars are less hypsodont than 
in the Axine group. 

Ctt'fcuS artetotelte, Cuvier \ 

Hab. India, Burma, and Siam. 

The following specimens indicate a species closely resembling the 
Sambur, and in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, are 
provisionally referred to that species. 

36849, 36850. Two specimens of the hinder portion of the cranium, 
with the pedicles of the antlers ; from the Pleistocene of 
the Narbada Yalley, India. 

Presented by G. Fraser. Before 1843. 

M. 2301. Base of an antler ; from the Pleistocene of the Narbada 
Valley. This specimen cannot be distinguished from the 
antler of the Sambur. 

Presented by G. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

M. 2302. Base of an antler ; either from the Pleistocene of the INar- 
bada Yalley, or from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 
If from the latter, it is perhaps specifically distinct from 
G. aristotelis. 

? Presented by G. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

The following specimens from the Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley 
may belong to the present form ; they were all presented by 
G. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

M. 2303. The right metacarpus. 

1 Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. iv. p, 503 (1823). 



104 TTNGULATA. 

M. 2304. The distal extremity of the right femur. 
M. 2305. The proximal portion of the right tibia. 

Cerbug pomnug, Zimmermann \ 
Hab. India. 

M. 2306. The pedicle and base of an antler provisionally referred to 
this species ; from the Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley, 
India. Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

The following specimens from the same deposit may belong to the 
same species as the prece 



39579. The right metacarpus. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36741. The right tibia. 

Presented by 0. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36742-4. The associated left calcaneum, astragalus, and naviculo- 
cuboid. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 



F. Rucervine Group. 

In this group there is no bez-tyne, and the antlers are more or 
less flattened, and more curved than in the last group ; the beam is 
much bent, and the brow-tyne is given off at an obtuse angle. The 
dentition of the existing members is of a more brachydont character 
than in the latter. 

Cervus sivalensis, Lydekker 2 . 

This species was founded solely on molar teeth, which present 
a considerable resemblance to those of C. duvaucelli. The cranium 
provisionally referred to this species likewise resembles that of 
G. duvaucelli, while the antlers which probably belong to it are 
apparently intermediate between those of the latter species and 
C.eldi. 

Hab. India. 

1 Specimen. Zool. Geogr. Quad. p. 532 (1777). 

2 Palaeontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. i. p. xvii (1880). 



cervid^;. 105 

All the following specimens are from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills; and, unless otherwise stated, belong to the Cautley Col- 
lection. Presented, 1842. 

48440. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the second and 
{Fig.) third true molars. This specimen is described and the 
last molar figured by the present writer in the ' Palse- 
ontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. pp. 121, 122 ; the 
figure being reproduced in the accompanying woodcut 
(fig. 10). Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

Fig. 10. 




iV- V 



Cervus sivalensis. — The third left upper true molar ; from the Siwalik Hills. 
!• (From the ' Palgeontologia Indica.') 

39570. The greater portion of the cranium, broken off a short dis- 
tance above the orbits. This specimen shows the whole 
of the cheek-dentition, the true molars of which appear to 
agree exactly with those of the last. The cranium agrees 
very closely with that of C. duvaucelli, especially in the 
marked frontal concavity at the orbits, and the forward 
swell at the pedicles of the antlers ; it differs, how- 
ever, in the smaller lachrymal vacuities, which resemble 
those of C. axis. 

41834. Part of the left frontal, with the pedicle and base of the 
antler, provisionally referred to this species. The antler 
shows a brow-tyne arising at some distance above the 
burr, and forming an obtuse angle with the beam, which 
is curved backwards. The form of this antler is inter- 
mediate between that of C. duvaucelli and C. eldi. 

41834 a. Base of a very similar right antler, in which the brow-tyne 
rises at a greater distance from the burr. 



106 



UNGULATA. 



41834 b. Base of a larger left antler, in which the brow-tyne rises 
very close to the burr. This specimen shows the great 
curvature of the beam. 

41834 c. Base of a very similar left antler. The beam shows 
small points on its anterior border, as in C. eldi. 

M. 2307. Base of an antler with numerous small points on the 
anterior border of the beam, which may belong to the 
same species as the preceding. 

41834 d. Terminal portion of the beam of an antler. The beam is 
much curved, and terminates in a simple fork, as in 
C. eldi. 

M. 2308. Terminal portion of the beam of a very similar antler, 
but with less curvature. 

M. 2309. Base of an antler belonging to a type allied to the pre- 
ceding, but with a less open angle between the beam and 
the brow-tyne. 

Some of the following specimens may belong to the present species. 
M, 2310. Hinder portion of the cranium of a female. 

27680. The occiput of a small form. 

17468. The anterior portion of the palate, showing the premolars 
and first true molar. 

M. 2311. The distal extremity of a radius. . 

M. 2312. The proximal two thirds of a left metatarsus. 

M. 2412 a. An astragalus. 

39576. Five associated thoracic vertebrae. 

M. 2313. Three associated dorsal vertebrae, with the heads of the 
ribs attached. 

M. 2314. Three associated lumbar vertebrae. 

G. Aooine Group. 

Antlers rounded, with no bez-tyne, the beam usually curved, and 
the brow-tyne generally given off at an acute or a right angle j the 
usual number of tynes is three or four ; the molars are hypsodont ' 
in the existing forms. 



CERTIDJE. 



107 



Cervus perrieri, Croizet and Jobert \ 
Syn. Cervus issiodorensis, Pomel 2 (ex Croiz. & Job.). 

The antler is round, grooved, and has four tynes ; the pedicle is 
short ; the burr stout, and set nearly at right angles to the beam ; 
brow-tyne rising close to the burr ; beam nearly straight between 
brow and second tyne. The species is of large size, and is con- 
sidered to be allied to C. taevanus of Formosa. 

Hob. France and (?) England. 

34589. Lower part of a right antler provisionally referred to this 
species ; from the Upper Pliocene of Arde (Puy-de- 
Dome), France. This specimen agrees with the one 
figured by Boyd-Dawkins in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
vol. xxxiv. p. 408, fig. 3 (1878). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



Cervus etueriarium, Croizet and Jobert 3 . 

Syn. Cervus rusoides, Pomel 4 . 

Cervus stylodus, Bravard, MS. 
Cervus peyrollensis, Bravard, MS. 

This small form is closely allied to C. axis, and Boyd-Dawkins 
(Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiv. p. 410) mentions that it 
is only provisionally distinguished from C. pardinensis ; the 
distinction of the latter from C. perrieri being also doubtful. The 
antlers have a double curve, and three tynes ; the burr is at right 
angles to the pedicle, the latter being short ; the brow-tyne is com- 
pressed, and joins the beam at an acute angle ; the second tyne 
rounded ; fork of crown webbed. 

Hab. France and Italy. 

28833, 28834. Two imperfect antlers ; from the Upper Pliocene of 
the Yal d'Arno, Italy. Noticed by Boyd-Dawkins, op. 
cit. p. 410. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

34458. The pedicle and brow-tyne of an antler; from the Upper 

Pliocene of Peyrolles, near Issoire (Puy-de-D6me), France. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

1 Oss. Foss. d. Puy-de-D6me, Cervidce, pi. iv. (1828). 

2 Catalogue M6thodique, p. 105 (1853). 

3 Oss. Foss. d. Puy-de-D6me, Cervidce, pi. vi. (1828). 

4 Catalogue Methodique, p. 106 (1853). 



108 TJNGULATA. 

34518. Base of an antler, with the brow-tyne ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of Peyrolles. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34523-29. Numerous imperfect antlers ; from the Upper Pliocene 
of Peyrolles. Noticed by Boyd-Dawkins, he. cit. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



The following specimens from the Upper Pliocene of Peyrolles are 
provisionally referred to the present species. They belong to the 
Bravard Collection {Purchased, 1852), and indicate a much 
smaller form than bones from the same locality provisionally 
referred to C. tetraceros. 

34459-61. Five specimens of the maxilla (some imperfect) with the 
cheek-teeth. 

34484-88 and 34570-77. Numerous imperfect specimens of mandi- 
bular rami and detached lower molars. 

34549. The glenoidal extremity of the left scapula. 

34550-52, 34580. Four specimens of the humerus, imperfect proxi- 
mally. 

34557-59. Three specimens of the radius, two of which are imper- 
fect. 

34561, 34562. Two imperfect specimens of the metacarpus. 
34570. A first phalangeal. 

34581-2, 34584, 34563-64. Five specimens of the tibia, three of 
which are imperfect. 

34565-6. Two specimens of the astragalus. 

34567. The left calcaneum. 

34568-9. Two imperfect specimens of the metatarsus. 

34533-5. Three imperfect cervical vertebrae. 

Some of the following specimens, from the Upper Pliocene of the 
Val cVArno, may perhaps belong to the present species ; they were 
all presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28839. A left metacarpus of very small size. 



cervid^:. 109 

28827. The left tarsus and the proximal extremity of the metatarsus. 

28828. The proximal extremity of the left tibia, with the associated 

astragalus and naviculo-cuboid, of rather smaller size than 
the preceding. 

Cervus suttonensis, Boyd-Dawkins 1 . 

The base of the antler is cylindrical, and the burr very strongly 
marked, and situated obliquely to the axis of the beam, which is 
deeply grooved. The beam is straight and cylindrical, except at the 
origin of the brow-tyne, which rises immediately above the burr. 
The only other tynes are those formed by the forking of the beam 
at its extremity. The species is considered closely allied to C. 
pardinensis, of which its founder says it may be merely a variety. 

Hah. England and France. 

27515. The basal half of a large antler ; from the Eed Crag of 
(Fig.) Sutton, Suffolk. This specimen (which, with the other 

antlers figured by the same writer, is the type) is figured 

by Boyd-Dawkins in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. 

" xxxiv. p. 412, fig. 8. Purchased, 1852. 

27858. Basal portion of a smaller antler; from the Red Crag of 

(Fig.) Felixstowe, Suffolk. Figured by Boyd-Dawkins, op. cit. 

fig. 7. Presented by John Brown, Esq. 1852. 

27516. The basal two thirds of a younger antler ; from the Eed 
(Fig.) Crag of Sutton. Figured by Boyd-Dawkins, op. cit. 

fig. 9. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2320. Basal portion of an antler ; from the Eed Crag near 

(Fig.) Ipswich, Suffolk. Figured by Owen in the Quart. Journ. 

Geol. Soc. vol. xii. p. 234, fig. 16, under the name of 

C. dicroceros. Presented by G. Ransome, Esq. 

39505. Base of an antler ; from the Eed Crag of Felixstowe. 

Brown Collection. Presented by Sir R. Owen, K.C.B., 1859. 

28982. Basal half of an antler ; from the Eed Crag of Woodbridge, 
Suffolk. Purchased, 1854. 

43176-7. Two specimens of the base of the antler ; from the Eed 
Crag of Sutton. Wether-ell Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

1 Quart, Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiv. p. 411 (1878). 



110 



TTSTGULATA. 



M. 1979. Basal portion of an antler ; from the Red Crag of Suffolk. 
Presented by Sir E. Oiven, K.C.B., 1884. 

M. 1899. Basal portion of an antler ; from the Red Crag of Suffolk. 

No history. 

50013. Part of the beam of an antler at its bifurcation ; from the 
Bed Crag of Suffolk. 

Bequeathed by Sir Walter C. Trevelyan, Bart., 1879. 

The specific reference of the following specimens is provisional : — 

37434. Pedicle and base of an antler; from the Red Crag of 
Suffolk. Purchased, 1852. 

44034. Pedicle and base of a smaller antler ; from the Red Crag of 
Woodbridge. Purchased, 1873. 

27860. Base of an antler; from the Red Crag of Felixstowe. 

Purchased, 1852. 

39506. Base of an antler ; from the Red Crag of Tallingstone. 

Brown Collection. Presented by Sir B. Owen, K. C.B., 1859. 

It is possible that some of the following specimens from the Bed 
Crag belong either to this species or to C. falconeri : the true 
molars are of a hypsodont structure : — 

28248, 44631, 46707-10. Six upper true molars of a small species ; 
from Woodbridge. Purchased. 

46705-6. Two slightly larger upper true molars ; from Woodbridge. 

Purchased, 1875. 

46708. A still larger upper true molar ; from Woodbridge. 

Purchased, 1875. 

46704. A still larger upper true molar ; from Woodbridge. 

Purchased, 1875. 

28992. A first or second lower true molar, of small size; from 
Suffolk. Purchased, 1853. 

49456. A third right lower true molar, agreeing in size with the 
last ; from Suffolk. Purchased, 1875. 



CEB.YLDM. 



Ill 






35859. A third left lower true molar, very similar to the preceding ; 
from Suffolk. Presented by J. Berners, Esq., 1861. 

46699. A third right lower true molar, of rather larger size ; from 
Woodbridge. Purchased, 1875. 

28991. A first or second lower true molar, of considerably larger 
size ; from Woodbridge. Purchased, 1853. 

28979, 41245-6, 43517, 45990. Six specimens of small-sized astra- 
gali ; from various localities in Suffolk. Purchased. 

28993, 43516. Two larger astragali ; from Woodbridge. Purchased. 

43178. A right naviculo-cuboid, agreeing in size with the smaller 
astragali ; from Suffolk. 

Wetherell Collection. Purchased, 1871. 



Cervus cylindroceros, Boyd-Dawkins 1 (ex Bravard MS.). 
Syn. (?) Cervus ambiguus, Pornel 2 . 

Cervus gracilis, Bravard, MS. (in parte). 

The antlers of this species present a strong resemblance to those 
of the preceding, but are distinguished by the brow-tyne arising at 
a considerable distance above the burr. 

Rah. Prance. 

34590. An adult right antler; from the Upper Pliocene of Arde 
(Fig.) (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. This specimen (which with the 
next is the type of the species) is figured by Boyd-Dawkins 
in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiv. p. 415, fig. 11 ; 
the figure being reproduced in the accompanying woodcut, 
fig. 11. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34607. A younger right antler ; from the Upper Pliocene of Arde. 
(Fig.) Pigured by Boyd-Dawkins, op. cit. fig. 12; and in the 

accompanying woodcut (fig. 11). This specimen is the type 

of Bravard' s C. gracilis. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34588-9. Two specimens of the pedicle and base of the antler ; from 
the Upper Pliocene of Arde. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

1 Quart, Jouvn. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiv. p. 414 (1878). 

2 Catalogue Metbodique, p. 107 (1853). 



112 




Cervus cylindroceros. — Antlers : A, No. 34097 ; B, 34590 ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of Arde. (From the ' Geological Society's Journal.') 

The following specimens from the Upper Pliocene of Arde may be 
provisionally referred either to the present species or to C. perrieri; 
they indicate a comparatively large form, and all belong to the 
Bravard Collection {Purchased, 1852), unless otherwise stated. 

34591. Fragment of the right maxilla, with mm. 4 , m. 1 , and m. 2 . 
34592-4. Three portions of mandibular rami, one showing mm . 4. 
34595. The glenoidal half of the right scapula. 
34596-7. Two specimens of the distal portion of the humerus. 

27618 a. The distal portion of the right humerus, rather larger than 
the preceding specimens. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34599-600. Three specimens of the radius, two of which are imperfect. 

34586, 34602-3, Three specimens of the metacarpus, one imperfect. 



CERVID^. 113 

34604. The right astragalus. 

34605. Two specimens of the right calcaneum. 

34587. The right metatarsus. This and No. 34586 perhaps belong 
to C. perrieri. 

The following specimens from the same locality, which were referred 
by Bravard to his C. gracilis, indicate a much smaller, and 
apparently distinct, form. 

34608. The left ramus of the mandible, with the six cheek-teeth. 

34609. The left radius. 

H. Tetracerotine Group. 
Cervus tetraceros, Boyd-Dawkins 1 {ex Bravard, MS.). 

The only living Deer having antlers approaching the form of those 
of this species is Cariacus virginianus ; but the resemblance is not 
sufficiently close to indicate that the fossil belongs to the same genus. 
The antlers are laterally compressed ; and in the adult the beam 
gives off four long, curved tynes. 

Hab. Prance and (?) England. 

34405. An antler of the fourth year ; from the Upper Pliocene of 
{Fig.) Peyrolles (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. This and the two other 

figured specimens are the types of the species ; the present 
specimen is figured by Boyd-Dawkins in the Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiv. p. 417, fig. 15 (1878). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34406. An antler of the fifth year; from the Upper Pliocene of 
{Fig.) Peyrolles. Pigured by Boyd-Dawkins, loc. cit. fig. 16 ; 

and reproduced in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 12). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34407, 34407 a. Two specimens of antlers of the fifth year ; from 

the Upper Pliocene of Peyrolles. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34408, 34408 a. Two specimens of antlers of the sixth year ; from 

the Upper Pliocene of Peyrolles. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiv. p. 416 (1878). 
PAKT II. I 



114 



TJNGULATA. 



34409. An antler of the sixth year ; from the Upper Pliocene of 
(Fig.) Peyrolles. Figured by Boyd-Dawkins, loc. cit. fig. 17, 
and reproduced in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 12). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Fig. 12. 




Cervus tetraceros. — Antlers of the fifth (No. 34406) and sixth (No. 34409) years ; 
from the Upper Pliocene of Peyrolles. (From the Geological Society's 
Journal.) 

33506. Terminal portion of an antler perhaps belonging to the 
present species ; from the Norwich Crag of Norfolk. 

Purchased, 1858. 



The following specimens from the Upper Pliocene of Peyrolles are 
provisionally referred to the present species ; they all belong to 
the Bravard Collection (Purchased, 1852); and indicate a large- 
sized animal. 

34410-16. Numerous specimens of upper molars. 



CEKvnLE. 115 

34424-7. Four portions of mandibular rami. 

34436. Part of the left scapula. 

34437-8. Two specimens of the distal extremity of the left humerus. 

34443. The left tibia, imperfect proximally. 

34445. The proximal extremity of the right tibia. 

34452-3. Two specimens of the right calcaneum. 

34448-51. Four specimens of the astragalus. 

34443 a. The left metatarsus, imperfect proximally. 

I. Of uncertain position. 
Cervus polignacus, F. Robert 1 . 

Syn. (?) Cervus arvernensis, Croizet and Jobert ' 2 . 
Cervus roberti, Pomel 3 . 

The reference of the following specimens is provisional ; they 
show a brow and bez tyne (the latter much curved), and the ex- 
tremity of the antler is flattened and palmated. The species was 
considered by its describer as allied to C. dama. 

Hab. Europe. 

M. 2321. The left frontal, and the beam of the antler ; (?) from the 
Forest-bed of Norfolk. No history, 

33471 i. The frontals, with the base of the right antler ; dredged 
off the Norfolk coast. 

Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

33471 j. Three fragments of antlers; from the Forest-bed of 

Norfolk. Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

48937. The base of a young antler ; from the Forest-bed of Norfolk. 

Purchased, 1878. 

Cervus curtoceros, Kaup 4 . 
The antlers of this form have a much-curved beam, with a bez 
and brow tyne ; its right to distinction is perhaps doubtful. 
Hab. Europe. 

L Ann. Soc. Agric. Sci. le Puy, 1829, pi. iii. fig. 1, teste P. G-ervais. 
Gervais identifies this species with C. somonensis, Desmarest ; but the writer is 
informed that the latter is founded on an antler incorrectly restored. 

2 Oss. Foss. d. Puy-de-D6ine, Cervida, pi. xii. (1828). 

3 Catalogue Methodique, p. 103 (1853). 

4 Archiv fur Mineralogie, vol. vi. p. 222 (1833). 

i2 



116 TNGULATA.. 

M. 2316. Cast of part of the right frontal, with the base of the 
antler ; the original, which is the type, is from the Pleis- 
tocene of Eppelsheim, Hesse Darmstadt, and is preserved 
in the Darmstadt Museum ; it is figured by Kaup in 
the ' Archiv fiir Mineralogie,' vol. vi. pi. iv. figs. 1, 2, and 
in the Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pi. xxiv. fig. 1. No history. 

The following specimens from the Upper Pliocene of the Vol 
d? Arno are not specifically determined ; they indicate a species 
almost the size of C. tetraceros, and were presented by J. B. 
Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28836. The proximal two thirds of the left metacarpus. 

23826. The distal half of the right tibia, with the associated 
astragalus and naviculo-cuboid. 

28829. The left naviculo-cuboid. 

The following English specimens are not specifically determined. 
33508, 33511. Two portions of antlers ; frotn the Norwich Crag. 

Wigham Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

45844. Fragment of an antler ; from the Red Crag. 

Purchased, 1874. 

49445. Base of an antler ; dredged off the Eastern coast. 

Purchased, 1878. 

48936. Fragment of an antler; from the Norwich Crag, near 
Norwich. Wigham Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

46947. Base of an antler ; from the Forest-bed of Norfolk. 

Purchased, 1876. 

Cervus (?) hmatus, H. v. Meyer 1 . 

This species was considered by its founder as generically distinct 
from Palaiomeryx ; but its geological horizon indicates that it 
probably belongs to that or an allied genus. 

Hob. Switzerland. 

36997. Fragment of a maxilla with one premolar, and of the left 
ramus of a mandible with two molars, said to belong to 
this species; from the Middle Miocene of Kapfnach 
(Zurich), Switzerland. Purchased, 1861. 

1 Neues Jabrb. 1838, p. 413. 



CEKVID.33. 117 

The generic position of the following form is not determined. 
Hab. S. America. 

37676. The greater part of a shed antler ; from the Pleistocene of 
Buenos Ayres. This specimen is of extremely small size, 
greatly palmated at the base, and giving off four tynes, of 
which one is broken. It is unlike any existing form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

Genus CERVULUS, Blainville 1 . 

Syn. Styloceros, Hamilton Smith 2 . 
Prox, Ogilby 3 . 

In this genus the antlers are simply forked, the division rising 
immediately or at some distance above the burr, which is placed on 
a long pedicle ; the dentition is hypsodont. The antlered form of 
the brachydont genus Palceomeryoc (P. furcatus) possesses antlers of a 
similar type ; and it is probable that there is a complete transition 
between the two genera. The reference of the two species noticed 
below to the present genus is provisional. 

Cervulus (?) dicranoceros (Kaup 4 ). 
Syn. Cervus dicranoceros, Kaup 5 . 
Cervus anoceros, Kaup 6 . 
Cervus trigonoceros, Kaup 7 . 
The writer follows Boyd-Dawkins (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. 
xxxvi. p. 403) in uniting the above-mentioned three forms. Eiiti- 
meyer, in the ' Natiirliche Geschichte der Hirsche ' (Abh. schweiz. 
pal. Ges. 1883), part 2, p. 102, observes that they may belong to 
Palazomeryce ; but the evidence of the dentition is required before 
the point can be determined. The species is distinguished from 
P. furcatus by the longer interval between the burr and the forking 
of the antler. 
Hab. Germany. 

K. 2318. Cast of the lower part of an antler. The original, which 
is the type, is from the Upper Miocene of Eonelsheim, 
Hesse Darmstadt, and is figured by Kaup in tho * Arcniv 
fur Mineralogie,' vol. vi. pi. iv. fig. 9, and in the ; Oss, Toss, 
d. Darmstadt,' pi. xxiv. fig. 3 c. No history. 

1 Bull. Soc. Philoin. Paris, 1816, p. 74. 

2 In Griffith's ' Animal Kingdom,' vol. v. p. 319 (1827). 

3 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 135. 

4 Archiv fur Mineralogie, vol. vi. p. 219 (1833), Cervus. 

5 Log. cit. 6 Ibid. p. 217. ' Ibid. p. 221. 



118 UNGTJLATA. 

M. 2317. Cast of the base of an antler ; the original is from the 
Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup in 
the i Archiv fiir Mineralogie,' loc. cit. figs. 6, 7, and in the 
' Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt/ loc. cit. fig. 3 a. No history. 

19450. Base of an antler ; from the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1845. 

21484. Base of an antler; from the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Br. Kawp, 1847. 

21484 a. A very young antler, without bifurcation ; from the Upper 
Miocene of Eppelsheim. Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

M. 2319. Cast of the pedicle and base of an antler. The original 
is from the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, and is figured 
by Kaup in the ' Archiv fiir Mineralogie,' loc cit. figs. 4, 
5, and in the Oss. Eoss. d. Darmstadt, loc. cit. fig. 2, under 
the name of C. anoceros, of which it is the type. 

No history. 

M. 1617. Two specimens of the basal portions of antlers and one 
detached tyne, provisionally referred to the present species ; 
from the B,ed Crag of Eelixstowe, Suffolk. These speci- 
mens differ from the antlers of Oervus suttonensis in the 
long interval between the burr and the bifurcation. 

Presented by C. Westendarp, Esq., 1884. 

Cervulus (?) australis (M. d. Serres 1 ). 
Syn. Cervus australis, M. d. Serres 2 . 

Boyd-Dawkins (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiv. p. 404) 
regards this form as closely allied to the preceding, with which it 
may perhaps be identical. 

Hah. France. 

21906. Base of an antler; from the Lower Pliocene of Puy-en- 
Yelay (Haute Loire), France. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

The following specimen appears to indicate a form, allied to the 
present species. 

21862 x. Basal part of an antler ; from the Middle Miocene of 
Sansan (Gers), France. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

1 Rech. s. les Oss. d. Cavemes d. Lunel-Viel, p. 230 (1832), Cervus. 

2 Loc. cit. 



CEKVID^. 119 

Genus PAL2EOMERYX, H. v. Meyer 1 . 
Syn. Dremotherium, E. Geoffroy 2 . 
Dicroceros, Lartet 3 . 
Micromeryx, Lartet 4 . 
Propalceomeryx, Lydekker 5 . 

The name Dremotherium has the priority over Palceomeryce, but as 
the latter was more fully denned at the time of publication it has 
been adopted : German writers adopt the latter, and French the 
former. Piitimeyer remarks 6 that the dentition of Amphitragulus 
is almost indistinguishable from that of Palceomeryx ; and the 
present writer would have been fain to unite the two, were it 
not that the same writer indicates certain cranial differences which 
he regards as of importance. Certain specimens in the Museum, 
which have been received with labels affixed to them bearing the 
name Palceomeryx, cannot apparently be distinguished from Amphi- 
tragulus. The molars of this and the next genus are less specialized 
than those of the existing Cervidce ; but the two genera probably 
pass gradually in one direction through the species unprovided with 
antlers into Gelocus and its allies, and in the other direction through 
the antlered forms into the more generalized species of antlered Deer 
like Oervulus (?) dicranoceros, which is probably scarcely distinguish- 
able from Palceomeryce. When antlers are present they are pedicled, 
and of the simple type of the existing Cervidus. 

Dentition:— I. |, C. ( ^=^, Pm. f, M. §. 

Palseomeryx sivalensis, Lydekker 7 . 

Syn. Propalceomeryx sivalensis, Lydekker 8 . 

This is a large species, which, in the sense in which Palceomeryx 
is hero employed, may probably be referred to that genus. 
Hab. India. 

M. 1974. Cast of a left upper true molar, in a well-worn condition. 
The original, which is the type, is from the Pliocene 
Siwaliks near Uurki, N.W. India ; and is preserved in the 

1 Die fossile Knochen und Zakne von Georgensgmiind, p. 92 (1834). 

2 Eevue Encyclopedique, vol. lix. p. 82 (1833), teste Flower. 

3 Notice sur la Colline de Sansan, p. 34 (1851). 

4 Notice sur la Colline de Sansan, p. 36 (1851). 

5 Pal£eontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 173 (1883), 

6 Natiirliche Geschichte der Hirsche (Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges., 1883), pt. 2, 
pp. 92-96. 

7 Palseontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol.ii. p. 173 (1883), 
</x. 8 Loc. cit. 



120 UN&ULATA. 

Indian Museum, Calcutta (No. B. 337). It is described 
and figured by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 173, 174 ; the figure being 
reproduced in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 13). 

Presented by M. LydekTcer, Esq., 1884. 

Fig. 13. 




Paleeomeryx sivalensis. — Left upper true molar ; from the Siwaliks. \. 
(From the ' Palaeontologia Indica.') 

Paleeomeryx bojani, H. v. Meyer \ 

Syn. Dicroceros (?) magnus, Lartet 2 . 

This is the second largest European species ; the length of m. 3 
being usually 0,030. There appear to have been no antlers. 
Hab. Europe. 

21868. The dental portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 

containing the last five cheek-teeth ; from the Middle 
Miocene of Sansan (Gers), France. The length of m7~3 is 
0,032. Oroizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

21869. The second right lower true molar ; from the Middle Miocene 

of Sansan. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848,. 

21869 a. Cast of an upper (broken) and lower true molar. The 
originals are probably from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Purchased. 
Paleeomeryx furcatus (Hensel 3 ). 

Syn. Prox furcatus, Hensel 4 . 

Dicroceros elegans, Lartet 5 . 

Paleeomeryx scheuchzeri, H. v. Meyer 6 (in parte). 
Fraas and Rutimeyer identify Paleeomeryx scheuchzeri, Meyer, 
with Hensel's Prox furcatus, and the latter writer 7 inclines to the 

1 Die fossile Zahne unci Knochen von Georgensgmiind, p. 92 (1834). 

2 Notice sur la Colline de Sansan, p. 35 (1851). 

3 Zeicschr. deutsch. geol. Ges. vol. xi. p. 278 (1859), Proa;. * hoc. cit. 
' 5 Notice sur la Oolline de Sansan, p. 34 (1851). 

8 Neues Jahrb. 1838, p. 413. 

7 Naturliche Geschichteder Hireche (Abh. sehweiz.pal. Ges.), pt. 2, pp. 90-91 



CEKVID^E. 121 

opinion that both these forms cannot be distinguished from Lartet's 
Dicroceros elegans — an opinion fully confirmed by the specimens iu 
the Museum. Both writers adopt the specific name furcatus for the 
species, as P. scheuchzeri was never properly defined ; the specific 
name elegans is liable to lead to confusion with Arnphitragulus 
elegans. The length of m . 8 varies from 0,018 to 0,023. The males 
of the typical form from Sansan and Steinheim were provided with 
antlers of the simple type of those of the living Indian Muntjac. 
The cranium of the so-called P. scheuchzeri appears to be unknown. 
Hab. Europe. 

21864. Portion of the palate, in a much crushed condition ; from 

the Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers), Prance. This 
specimen shows the six cheek-teeth of the left side, and 
m. 1 and m. 2 on the right. The teeth agree precisely in 
form with those figured by Fraas in the ' Fauna von 
Steinheim,' pi. viii. fig. 9. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

33580. The right and left maxilla? of two individuals, with the three 
true molars ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Purchased, 1858. 

21865. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last four 

cheek-teeth ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 2164. Part of the right maxilla, containing the six cheek-teeth 
in a well-worn condition; from the Middle Miocene of 
Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2165. Part of the right maxilla of an immature individual, 
showing three milk-molars and the three true molars; 
from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 

40746-7. Two left upper true molars; from the Middle Miocene of 
Sausan. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

42719. Two left upper true molars ; from the Middle Miocene of 
Sansan. 

Presented by the Trustees of the Christie Museum, 1871. 

M. 2166. The hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible, 
showing the three true molars ; from the Middle Miocene 
of Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 



122 



UtfGULATA. 



M. 2167. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
m. 2 and r^TB ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2168. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with pm. 3, 
pm. 4, and m . 1 ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Purchased, 1885. 

21863. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
six cheek-teeth ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. 
The length of 5oT3 is 0,020. The lower teeth figured by 
Fraas in the ' Fauna von Steinheim,' pi. ix. fig. 8, are 
rather smaller. Groizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

33583. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
four cheek-teeth ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Purchased, 1858. 

33583 a. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
three premolars, m. 1 and m . 2, in a much worn condition; 
from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. Purchased, 1854. 

21868. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing the whole of the cheek-dentition ; from the 
Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

21854. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
three true molars, in a half-worn condition ; from the 
Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

21866. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing m~2 
and m7~3 ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

42719. Two fragments of the mandible ; from the Middle Miocene 
of Sansan. 

Presented by the Trustees of the Christie Museum, 1871. 

37358. Cast of a portion of the left frontal and the antler. The 
original is from the Middle Miocene of Steinheim, Bavaria., 
The specimen is very similar to one figured by Fraas in 
the ' Fauna von Steinheim,' pi. viii. fig. 6. 

Purchased, 1863 



CERVID2E. 123 

3584-5. Two tynes of the antlers ; from the Middle Miocene of 
Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

40752-3. Two specimens of a fragment of the frontal, with the 
pedicle and the base of the antler; from the Middle 
Miocene of Sansan. One specimen (No. 40753) is much 
larger than the other. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

42719 a. The extremity of an antler ; from the Middle Miocene of 
Sansan. 

Presented by the Trustees of the Christie Museum, 1871 . 

21861. The greater portion of the antler and the pedicle ; from the 

Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

21862. Three broken antlers ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

The following specimens from Sansan are provisionally referred 
to this species. 

21858. Three astragali. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

21871. The navicnlo-cuboid. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 
40750. The naviculo-cuboid. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

The reference of the following specimen is cdso provisional. 

33996. Part of the right maxilla ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier, France. This specimen agrees very closely in size 
with the maxilla of P. furcatus figured by Fraas in the 
1 Fauna von Steinheim,' pi. viii. fig. 9 : and its teeth, 
although slightly smaller, cannot be distinguished in form 
from those of the Sansan specimen, No. 21864. The true 
molars agree very closely with those of P. feignoucci from 
Allier; but pm. 3 in that species is a narrow tooth, its 
greatest width in the specimen No. 26849 being 0,008, 
while it is 0,010 in the present specimen. The length 
of the space occupied by the three true molars is 0,036. 

P. furcatus has not hitherto been recorded from the Lower 
Miocene of France ; but the so-called P. scheuchzeri occurs 
in the Lower Miocene of Weissenau, near Mayence. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



124 UNGULATA. 

Palseomeryx feignouxi, Geoffroy 1 . 

Syn. Dremotherium feignouxi, Geoffroy 2 . 
Dremotherium traguloides, Pomel 3 . 
Dremotherium nanum, Geoffroy 4 . 

This species is of medium size, and apparently unprovided with 
antlers. Riitimeyer remarks that its dentition cannot be distin- 
guished from that of the antlered forms. The lower diastema is 
of unusual length ; the penultimate upper premolar is very narrow ; 
the males were furnished with large upper canines ; and the length 
of mT~3 varies from 0,015 to 0,018. 

Hab. Prance. 

26849. The dental portion of the left maxilla, showing the six 
cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier, France. 
This specimen agrees precisely with the one figured by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi. pi. xi. fig. 2 ; and 
exhibits well the elongated form of pm. 3 , by which cha- 
racter the species is distinguished from Amjohitragulus 
elegans and Prodremotherium elongatum. The length of 
the space occupied by the three true molars is 0,032, and 
that by the six cheek-teeth 0,063. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

33997. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm. 2 , pm. 4 , and 
m. 1 ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33995. Fragment of the right maxilla containing the three true 
molars (the last broken) ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26874. Part of the right maxilla with the three true molars, partly 
broken ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

33993. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the three milk- 
molars and the first and second true molars ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26848. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
showing the alveoli of the cutting-teeth, and the six 
check-teeth in a much-worn condition ; from the Lower 

1 Kevue Encyclopedique, vol. lix. p. 82 (1833), Dremotherium, teste Flower. 

2 Loo. cit. 3 Catalogue Methodique, p. 99 (1853). 
4 fitudes Progressives d'un Naturaliste (1835). 



CERVID^i. 



125 



Miocene of Allier. This specimen agrees precisely with 
the complete mandible figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. xi. pi. xii. fig. 5. The length of the diastema 
is 0,040, and that of the space occupied by the six cheek- 
teeth 0,070. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

34004. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the last 
four cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Palseomeryx flourensianus (Lartet 1 ). 
Syn. Micromeryx flourensianus, Lartet 2 . 

This is the smallest species of the genus, being about the size of 
the larger existing species of Tragulus, The teeth are rather more 
hypsodont than those of the preceding species ; the length of the 
space occupied by the three upper true molars is 0,022, the length 
of m. 3 being 0,008-9. There are four lower premolars. Elitimeyer 
records the species from Sansan, Steinheim, and Wurtemberg. The 
molars are readily distinguished from those of Tragulus by their 
brachydont structure. 

Hah. Europe. 

30497 a. Numerous detached cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Mio- 
cene of Weissenau near Mayence, Hesse Darmstadt. These 
specimens agree precisely with those figured by Praas 
in the ' Pauna von Steinheim,' pi. viii. figs. 18, 19. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Genus AMPHITRAGULUS, Pomel 3 . 

Syn. Traguhtherium, Croizet, MS. 
Elaphotherium, Croizet, MS. 

The close resemblance of the dentition of this genus to that of 
Palceomeryoc has been alluded to under the head of that genus. All 
the species are unprovided with antlers ; and the dental formula is 
the same as in Palwomeryx, with the exception that there are four 
lower premolars. 

Amphitragvilus elegans, Pomel 1 . 

This species is smaller than Palceomerycc furcatus, the length of 
rn. 3 being 0,015 to 0,016 ; the diastema in the mandible is com- 
paratively short, the penultimate upper premolar relatively wide, 

1 Notice sur la Oolline de Sansan, p. 36 (1851), Micromeryx. 

a Loc. cit. 3 Catalogue Methodique, p. 100 (1853). 

4 Catalogue Methodique, p. 101 (1853). 



126 



UNGTJLATA. 



while pm. l has but a single root. Casts of fragments of mandibles 
from Switzerland in the Museum labelled Paloeomeryx scheuchzeri 
agree precisely with the French specimens, and have accordingly 
been referred to the present species. The upper true molars are 
almost indistinguishable from those of A. lemanensis. 
Hah. Europe. 

M. 2170. The right half of the palate, with the six cheek-teeth ; 
from the Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), 
France. The length of the space occupied by the six 
teeth is 0,0563 ; the length of the corresponding space in 
the specimen described and figured by Filhol, in the Ann. 
Sci. Geol. vol. xi. art. 1, p. 57, pi. xvi. fig. 4, being 0,054. 

Purchased, 1885. 

21928. Part of the right maxilla containing the last five cheek-teeth, 
in a well-worn condition; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. This specimen agrees precisely with the one 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi.. pi. xvi. 
fig. 4 ; the length of the three true molars being 0,0295, as 
against 0,029 in Filhol's specimen. The large develop- 
ment of the inner tubercle of pm- 3 distinguishes the 
specimen from A. lemanensis. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34196. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the three true 
molars in an unworn condition ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Allier. The teeth agree precisely with those of the 
last specimen. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34196 a. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the three true 
molars, in an unworn condition ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Allier. The teeth are slightly smaller than in the last 
specimen. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27598. Fragment of a right maxilla provisionally referred to this 
species, showing three milk-molars and m. 1 ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Eonzon, near Puy-en-Velay (Haute 
Loire), France. The first molar is larger than in Gelocus 
communis, and agrees with the corresponding tooth of the 
present species ; there is no sign of mm. 1 . 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 2171. Part of the left ramus of a mandible, showing the four 
premolars, mTl and m72, probably belonging to a small 
specimen of the present species ; from the Lower Miocene 
of St. Gerand-le-Puy. Purchased, 1885. 



CERVIDJB. 



127 



34003. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 

(Fig.) taining the seven cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of 

Allier. This specimen, which is figured in the accompany- 



ing woodcut (fig. 14), agrees pre- 
cisely with the specimen figured 
by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. xi. pi. xiii. figs. 4-6, but 
exhibits p m . l and pm. 2, which 
are wanting in that specimen. 
The first premolar is very small, 
and is separated by an interval 
from pm. 2; the length of the 
space occupied by the last six 
teeth is 0,067, and that by the 
three true molars 0,0391. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26864. The greater portion of the right 
ramus of the mandible, contain- 
ing the last six cheek-teeth ; 
from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. The teeth are slightly 
smaller than those of the last 
specimen; there is no trace of 
pmTi. Poind Collection. Pur- 
chased, 1851. 

21904. The hinder part of the left ramus of 
the mandible, containing m72 and 
m73 ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. Croizet Collection. Pur- 
chased, 1848. 

29051. The anterior portion of the left 
ramus of the mandible, contain- 
ing pm. 2, pm. 3, pm. 4, and m. 1 ; 
from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. Bravard Collection. 

Purchased, 1852. 

26884. Hinder part of the left ramus of 
the mandible with m . 2 and m73 : 



Fig. 14. 




Amphitragulus elegans. — 
The greater portion of 
the left ramus of the 
mandible ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Al- 
lier. I. 



from Allier. 



Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 



128 TTNGULATA. 

28060. Cast of part of the left ramus of a mandible provisionally 
referred to this species, containing the last four cheek-teeth. 
The original is from the Miocene of Pay erne (Vaud), Swit- 
zerland. The specimen was labelled Palceomeryoc scheuch- 
zeri. The teeth are almost exactly like those of No. 
34003 ; the length of the space occupied by the three true 
molars is 0,039, and the length of m . 3 0,017. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

28071. Cast of part of a third right lower true molar provision- 
ally referred to this species. The original is from the 
Miocene of La Moliere, Switzerland. The tooth agrees 
exactly with m . 3 of the last specimen. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

The following young specimens from the Lower Miocene of Allier 
are provisionally referred to the present species ; many of them do not 
exhibit mm. 1 (pm. l), which tooth is present in a jaw figured by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi. pi. xiii. figs. 1-3. It is not 
improbable, however, that this tooth may frequently be very late in 
making its appearance. 

24947. The hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining mm. 4 and the three true molars, and pm. 3 and 
p m . 4 in alveolo. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

21910. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible^ containing 
mm. 4 ? in 1, and m. 2. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34099. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last three milk-molars and m. 1. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26885. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
three milk-molars and m. 1. 

Pomd Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

34093. The right ramus of the mandible, containing the last three 
milk-molars and the alveolus of mm. 1. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

21908. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
three milk-molars. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

21915. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 

mm. 2 and mm. 3. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34085. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing mm, 4 



cervid^;. 129 

and mTT ; from the Lower Miocene of Weissenau, near 
Mayence. The specimen agrees almost precisely with No. 
24947. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 2172. Two portions of mandibles of immature individuals with 
the milk- dentition. Purchased, 1885. 

Amphitragulus lemanensis, Pomel 1 . 

This species is slightly smaller than the last ; from which it is 
distinguished by the narrower pm. 3 , the shorter pm. 2, and the 
double roots of pm. i. 

Hah. Prance. 

34210. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing the last four cheek-teeth and the alveoli of 
the first three premolars; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier, Prance. This specimen agrees with the one de- 
scribed by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi. art. 1, 
p. 59. The length of the space occupied by the three true 
molars is 0,034, the length of pm. 4 0,082, and that of 
m. 3 0,148. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26877. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last five cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 
Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

34209. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last five cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26833. The hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the three true molars in a well-worn condition ; 
from the Lower Miocene of Allier. . 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

21919. The anterior portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing the last three premolars and m . i ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

30487. Hinder part of the left ramus of a mandible provisionally 
referred to this species, containing the three true molars, 
in an early stage of wear; from the Lower Miocene of 
Weissenau, near Mayence. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 101 (1853). 
PART II. K 



130 UNGTTLATA. 

34211. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last five cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27599. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the three true 
molars in a well-worn condition, not improbably belonging 
to the present species ; from the Lower Miocene of Puy- 
de-D6me, France. The teeth in this specimen are slightly 
smaller than those of A. elegans, and agree with the 
dimensions given by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi. 
art. 1, p. 59. Groizel Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27597. Fragment of a right maxilla, containing pm. 4 , m. 1 , and m- 2 ; 
not improbably belonging to the present species ; from 
the Lower Miocene of Eonzon, near Puy-en-Yelay (Haute 
Loire), France. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

Amphitragulus boulangeri, Pomel l . 

Syn. Amphitragulus pomeli, Filhol 2 . Palceomeryx minor, H. v. M. 4 

Palceomeryx medius, H. v. Meyer 3 . Palceomeryx pygmceus, H. v. M. 5 



Biitimeyer, in the ' Natiirliche Geschichte der Hirsche ' (Abh. 
schweiz. pal. Ges. 1883), part 2, p. 91, identifies P. minor and P. 
pygmceus with P. medius, and records the species from several Ger- 
man localities, from Switzerland, and from La Grive St. Alban 
(Isere), France. He gives the length of the three lower true molars 
as 0,023-0,030, and that of ^73 as 0,011-0,012. The present 
writer has been totally unable to distinguish German specimens of 
P. medius from French specimens of Amphitragulus boulangeri, 
which apparently passes into the so-called A. pomeli ; and he has 
therefore provisionally included all the above-mentioned forms under 
one species. As all Meyer's species were published without any 
satisfactory description, he has adopted Pomel's name. In the 
absence of complete crania it appears impossible to say whether the 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 102 (1853). 

2 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi. art. 1, p. 61 (1880). The volume is dated 1881 on 
the titlepage. 

3 Neues Jahrb. 1843, p. 387. i Ibid. 1838, p. 413. 5 Ibid. loc. cit. 
6 The dimensions of the lower teeth of the French forms (all of which come 

within Riitimeyer's limits) as given by Filhol are as follows, viz. : — 

A. boulangeri. A. pomeli. 

Length of ET3 0,012 0,0105 

„ „ 3 true molars 0,027 0,0255 

„ „ 7 cheek-teeth 0,049 0,045 



CERVIDJ0. 131 

species should be referred to Paloeomeryx or Amphitragulus ; but 
Pomel's generic reference has provisionally been adopted. The 
species is of small size. 
Hab. Europe. 

30490. Hinder portion of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the three true molars in an unworn condition ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Weissenau, near Mayence, Hesse Darm- 
stadt. This specimen was labelled Palceomeryx medius. 
The length of the space occupied by the three true molars 
is 0,028, and the dimensions of m . 3 are 0,012x0,0058; 
the latter agreeing with those of the specimen of Amphi- 
tragulus boulangeri described by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. xi. art. 1, p. 64; it is also very difficult to 
distinguish from the one figured by the same writer in 
plate xix. fig. 9 of the same volume under the name of A. 
pomeli. The length of m . 2 is 0,008 in all three specimens. 
Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

34306. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
five cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier, Prance. 
The length of the space occupied by the five teeth is 0,040, 
as against 0,042 in the specimen described by Pilhol as 
A. boulangeri. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34300. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing all the cheek-teeth except pm. 1 ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Allier. The length of the space occu- 
pied by the six teeth is 0,045 ; the corresponding dimen- 
sion in Pilhol's specimen of A. boulangeri being 0,0441. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34302. Hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 

the last four teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34303. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, contain- 

ing the last five cheek-teeth ( m . 1 broken) ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2173. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, 
showing the last five cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Mio- 
cene of St. Gerand-le-Puy. Purchased, 1885. 

21932. Hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 
k2 



132 TTNGTJLATA. 

24942. Hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last four cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of St. Ge- 
rand-le-Puy, Allier. Presented by — Talbot, Esq., 1849. 

34304. Hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last four cheek-teeth in an almost unworn condition ; 
from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26897. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a form 
allied to the present, but with a deeper jaw; from the 
Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

30491. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 5i7I 

and m. 2 ; from the Lower Miocene of Weissenau, near 
Mayence. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

.25450. Hinder portion of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the three true molars in an unworn condition ; 
from the Lower Miocene of Weissenau, near Mayence. 
The length of m . 3 is 0,011, and that of the space occupied 
by the three molars 0,026. This specimen is probably 
a typical example of Yon Meyer's P. medius ; but it pre- 
sents no characters by which it can be specifically distin- 
guished from the French specimens already noticed. 

Purchased, 1850. 

34293. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing m. 1 and 
m. 2, and pm. 4 in dlveolo ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

21933. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
three milk-molars and m. 1 ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. This and the following French specimens agree 
with the one figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi. 
pi. xix. fig. 7, under the name of A. pomeli. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

30492. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the homo- 

logous teeth to the last specimen ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Weissenau, near Mayence. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

34289. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing mm ; 3, 
mm. 4, and mTT ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



CEKVID^. 133 

26897. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
three milk-molars, m. 1, and m. 2 ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Allier. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26896. The hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining mm. 4, m. 1, and m. 2 ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

34287. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last four cheek- 
teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. This specimen 
agrees very closely with the palate specimen figured by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Greol. vol. xi. pi. xvi. fig. 3, under 
the name of A. pomeli 1 . The length of the space occupied 
by the three true molars measures 0,024. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



Amphitragulus (?) nouleti (Filhol 2 ). 
Syn. Rutitherium nouleti, Filhol 3 . 
Doreatherium nouleti, Filhol 4 . 

This is a small species, described on the evidence of a mandible 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. Biitimeyer 5 considers the specimen 
insufficient for generic determination. The true molars are indistin- 
guishable from those of the smaller species of Amphitragulus (e. g. 
A. gracilis) ; and the later premolars have the same form as in that 
genus, and have not the narrow form of those of Doreatherium naui. 
The first premolar corresponds in position with that oi Amphitragulus 
gracilis ; from which resemblance the species is here provisionally 
referred to Amphitragidus. 

Hob. France. 

34299. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing all the cheek-teeth except p m . 1, of which the 
alveolus remains ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier, 
France. This specimen agrees precisely with the type 
mandible figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. 
pi. xiii. figs. 281-2. There is a diastema between pm. 1 
and pm. 2, and the inferior border of the ramus is highly 

1 The plate is lettered Amphitragulus elegans. 

2 Oomptes Eendus. vol. lxxxii. p. 289 (1876), 'Rutitherium. 

3 Loc. cit. 

4 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 245 (1877). 

5 Natiirliche Geschichte der Hirsclie (Abb. schweiz. pal. Ges. 1883), pt. 2, 
p. 70, note. 



134 TJNGULATA. 

arcuated. The length of the space occupied by the last 
six teeth is 0,045. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1.852. 

34301. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last five cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 
This specimen is precisely similar to the last. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Amphitragulus gracilis, Pomel 1 . 

This species is described only on the evidence of the mandible, 
and is the smallest form from Allier, the length of m . 3 in the type 
being 0,0087. 

Hab. Prance. 

34367. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last five cheek-teeth and a part of pm. 2 ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier, France. This specimen agrees very 
closely with the type mandible figured by Filhol in the 
Ann. Sci. Greol. vol. xi. pi. xix. fig. 11 ; but m73 is slightly 
longer, its length being 0,0105. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34290. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
mm. 3, mm. 4, and m . 1 ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 
This specimen agrees precisely with the one figured by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi. pi. xix. fig. 10. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Bones of Palseomeryx and Amphitragulus from the Lower Miocene 
of Allier, France. 

From the abundance of the various species of Palceomerycc and 
Amphitragulus in the Lower Miocene of Allier, it is probable that 
the greater number of the larger bones of a ruminant-like structure 
belong to these genera. It seems, however, to be impossible to 
distinguish between the vertebrae and proximal limb-bones 2 of the 
smallest species and those of Coenotherium ; and some of the medium- 
sized specimens may belong to Lophiomeryco. Owing to the large 
number of species of Paloeomeryx and Amphitragidus, it appears 
hopeless to attempt to refer limb-bones or vertebras to their proper 
species, especially when there is also a doubt as to their generic 
determination ; but the largest specimens in all probability belong 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 102 (1853). 

2 There is, of course, no difficulty in distinguishing the metapodials. 






CERVID^. 



135 



to P. feignouxi. The Museum possesses a large collection of these 
bones ; but only a few of the more perfect specimens have been 
entered here. 

21944. The right scapula of a large species, imperfect superiorly 
(? P. feignouxi). Oroizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

21944 a. The left scapula, slightly smaller than the last, and imperfect 
superiorly. This specimen appears to be specifically distinct 
from the last (? A. elegans). 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34110. The left humerus of a large species. This specimen agrees 
precisely with one figured by Eilhol in the Ann. Sci. Greol. 
vol. xi. pi. xviii. figs. 4, 6, and referred to P. feignouxi. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34961. The right humerus of a much smaller species. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34114. The right humerus, imperfect proximally, of a slightly 
smaller form. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34219. The left humerus, imperfect proximally, of a slightly smaller 
form. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34318. The left humerus of a considerably smaller form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34373. The right humerus, imperfect proximally, of a still smaller 
form. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852, 

21947. The right radius of a large form. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34231. The right radius, wanting the distal epiphysis, agreeing in 
size with the last specimen. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

40906. The proximal half of a right ulna, agreeing in size with the 
last specimen. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

34227. The proximal half of the left ulna of a smaller form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26855. The right metacarpus of a large form. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 



136 TTNGTJLATA. 

34131. The left metacarpus, slightly smaller than the last. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34239. The left metacarpus of a considerably smaller form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

21954. The left metacarpus, slightly smaller than the last. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

26879. The right metacarpus, slightly smaller than the last spe- 
cimen. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26879 a. The left metacarpus, slightly smaller than the last. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

34328. The left metacarpus of a much smaller form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

21946. The left metacarpus, similar to the last. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34327. The right metacarpus, similar to the last. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26887. The right metacarpus, similar to the last. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

34329. The right metacarpus (imperfect distally), similar to the 

last. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34385. The right metacarpus of a rather smaller form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34038. Part of the right innominate of a large form (? P. feignoucci). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34136. Part of the right innominate of a rather smaller form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34134. Part of a left innominate, agreeing in size with the last 
specimen. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34044. The proximal half of the left femur of a large form (? P. 
feignouoci). Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34015. The distal portion of a similar left femur. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34248. The proximal half of the right femur of a smaller form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



CERYID^E. 137 

26866. The right tibia of a large form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

40906. The proximal two thirds of a similar tibia. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

34147. The proximal two thirds of a similar tibia. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34250. The right tibia (imperfect superiorly), of slightly smaller 
size. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34249. The left tibia of a smaller form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852, 

26888. The right tibia of a much smaller form. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

34337. The proximal half of a similar left tibia. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34338-9, 34388. The distal halves of three similar tibia?. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34063. The calcaneum of a large form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34062. A slightly smaller calcaneum. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34343. The calcaneum of a small form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34051. The astragalus of a large form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34052. A similar astragalus. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34058. A similar astragalus. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33056. A similar astragalus. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26861. A similar astragalus. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

43629. The astragalus of a smaller form ; from the Miocene of 
Pfallendorf, near Baden. Purchased. 

34256. A similar astragalus. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



138 



TJNGrULATA. 



34345. The astragalus of a still smaller form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34346. A similar astragalus. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27527. The naviculo-euboid of a large form (? P. feignoucci). 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34059. A slightly smaller naviculo-euboid, corresponding in size 

with the astragalus ~No. 34051. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34060. A similar naviculo-euboid. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34254. A smaller naviculo-euboid, corresponding in size with the 
astragalus No. 34256. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

40906. The metatarsus (imperfect at both extremities) of a large 
form. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

21952. The metatarsus of a smaller form, correspondiDg in size to 
the naviculo-euboid No. 34254. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26867. A similar metatarsus. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

34237. A slightly larger metatarsus. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26886. The metatarsus of a much smaller form. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

21945. A slightly smaller metatarsus. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34348. A slightly smaller metatarsus. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34400. A slightly smaller metatarsus. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34275-9. Several proximal phalangeals of a large form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34402. Two proximal phalangeals of a small form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



CAMELID^). 139 

34085-8. Several second phalangeals of a large form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34005. The atlas vertebra of a large form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34214. A smaller atlas vertebra. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34307. A still smaller atlas vertebra. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34006. An early cervical vertebra of a large form. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

24942. An early cervical vertebra of a small form. 

Presented by — Talbot, Esq., 1849. 

34215-6. Two dorsal vertebrse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



Family CAMELIM1. 

The nearest living allies of this family are the Tragulidai, and it 
is therefore placed here and followed by the ancestral Poebr other iidw, 
as it is inadvisable to separate the Tragulidai from the allied Dicho- 
dontidce. The teeth are selenodont and quadricolumnar, but of 
somewhat simpler structure than those of the Pecora. The navicular 
and cuboid are separate, but the metapodials unite into a " cannon- 
bone." 

Genus CAMELUS, Linn. 1 

Dentition. — In normal adult specimens of the two existing species 
the dental formula is I. \, C. \, Pm. |, M. |, that of the milk-teeth 
being I. |, C. \, Mm. |. The penultimate lower milk-molar is 
usually shed at a very early age. In one adult skull in the Museum 
(No. 41. 1. 12. 1) there are four upper premolars on the right side, 
the last three of which are molariform, the small abnormal tooth 
being probably a persistent milk-molar. In another recent skull 
in the Museum there are two lanariform upper premolars on 
either side, the second pair being probably an instance of redupli- 
cation. In the two Siwalik species the permanent dentition is the 
same as in the recent forms ; but in at least one of the fossils the 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 90 (1760). 



140 TTN-GULATA. 

formula of the milk-dentition is I. |, C. \, Mm. | ; there being one 
lanariform and three molariform milk-molars. This shows that the 
missing npper premolar in the existing Camels is pm. 2 , the two 
missing lower teeth being respectively pm. 2 and pm. 3. In the 
lower true molars of both Siwalik species there is a vertical ridge at 
the antero-external angle found in the genus Auchenia, but not in 
modern Camels. The cervical, vertebrae of the fossil species are 
intermediate between those of Auchenia and the modern Camels. 

Camelus sivalensis, Falconer & Cautley 1 . 

This species is as large as the existing Camel. The enamel of 
the teeth is rugose, and the inner surface of the lower true molars 
nearly flat in the middle line, without any vertical ridge in an early 
condition of wear. The mandible is long and slender. 

Hah. India. 

All the following specimens are from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills, and, unless otherwise stated, belong to the Cautley Collection 
(Presented, 1842). 

39597. The hinder part of the cranium, in a crushed condition, 
(Fig.) showing m. 2 and m. 3 in an early stage of wear. This 
specimen (which, with those mentioned below, is the type 
of the species) is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the 
1 Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxxxvi. fig. 1. The molars 
exhibit the characteristic rugosity of the enamel. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baher, K.C.B., 1848. 

36664. The middle portion of the cranium, showing the four last 
(Fig.) cheek-teeth in a middle stage of wear. Figured by 

Falconer and Cautley, he. cit. pi. lxxxvi. fig. 2. The 

enamel of the molars is rugose. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

40566. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing m. 2 and m. 3 , in 
(Fig.) a well-worn condition. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
loo. cit. pi. lxxxvii. fig. 3. The enamel is rugose ; and 
the length of the base of the crown of m. 3 0,047. 

40563. The left half of the middle portion of the cranium, showing 
(Fig.) the three true molars in a well-worn condition. Figured 
by Falconer and Cautley, loc. cit. pi. lxxxvii. fig. 2. 

1 Asiatic Researches, vol. xix. p. 120 (1836). 



CAMELLD^. 141 

16405. Fragment of a right maxilla, containing the last four 
cheek-teeth in a half-worn condition, probably belonging 
to the present species. 

15357. The hinder part of the palate, with the left ramus of the 
(Fig), mandible in apposition. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
loc. cit. pi. lxxxyi. fig. 3. 

40561. The palate of a young individual, showing the last three 
(Fig.) milk-molars and the germ of the first true molar. Figured 
by Falconer and Cautley, loc. cit, pi. lxxxvii. fig. 1. The 
three milk-molars are in contact ; mm. 3 agrees precisely 
in form with the abnormal tooth of the existing Camel 
(B.M. No. 41. 1. 12. 1) mentioned above. The rugose 
structure of the enamel is visible in the true molar, but 
not in the milk-molars. The length of the base of the 
crown of mm. 4 is 0,031. The true molar-tooth corre- 
sponds in size with No. 36664. 

40567. Fragment of the right maxilla of a young individual, showing 
(Fig.) mm. 3 and mm. 4 . Figured by Falconer and Cautley in 

the ' Asiatic Eesearches,' vol. xix. pi. xxi. figs. 12, 13. 

The teeth are like those of the last specimen, but are in a 

less worn condition. 

17558. The nearly complete mandible of an old male, with a portion 
(Fig.) of the palate and upper molars in apposition. Figured by 
Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' 
pi. lxxxvi. fig. 5. The whole of the lower dentition is 
shown, which agrees numerically with that of the existing 
species. 

17558 a. Hinder portion of the left ramus of the mandible, showing 
the hinder half of m. 1 and the complete m72 and mT3 in 
a well-worn condition. The enamel is strongly rugose, 
and the middle portion of the inner surface of each tooth 
nearly flat, without a vertical ridge. The length of the 
base of the crown of m . 2 is 0,039. 

17558 "b. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
m. 3 and a portion of m . 2 in a very much worn condition. 

15348. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, showing 

(Fig.) mm. 4, mTl, and m72. As the true molars are well worn, 

the retention of the milk-molar is remarkable. The teeth 

agree in character with those of No. 17558 a, the length 



142 UNGTJIATA. 

of the base of the crown of mTT being 0,033. Figured by 
Falconer and Cautley in the 'Asiatic Researches,' vol. xix. 
pi. xxi. figs. 8, 11. 

15357. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a young 
individual, showing mm. 3, mm. 4 (much broken), mTl, and 
m72. 

40598. Fragment of the left ramus of a mandible, provisionally 
assigned to this species, showing m72 and m . 3 in a much 
worn condition. This specimen agrees in size with the 
present species, but has a greater concavity on the inner 
side of m. 3, which is, however, probably due to its 
extremely worn condition. 

17557. The hinder portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
(Fig.) showing m . 3 in a very much worn condition. This spe- 
cimen agrees very closely with the last. Figured by 
Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' 
pi. lxxxvii. fig. 6. 

16576. The hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing 
m. 3 and a part of m. 2 in a half- worn condition. 

16587. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a young 
individual, showing mm. 3 and mm. 4 in a partially worn 
condition. The last tooth shows the flatness of the inner 
surface characteristic of the present species. 

Some of the following specimens may belong to the next Species : — 

40569. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a very young 
(Fig.) individual. This specimen is figured by Falconer and 
Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxvii. fig. 8 : it shows three milk- 
molars in contact with one another, the first of which 
(pm. 2) is very minute and not fully protruded ; m. 3 is in 
alveolo. 

40564. The extremity of the symphysis of the mandible of a very 
(Fitj.) young individual, showing the unworn milk-incisors and 

canine. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. 
lxxxvii. fig. 11. 

40565. The symphysis of the mandible of an equally young indi- 
(Fig.) vidual, showing the broken bases of the milk-incisors 

and canine. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 
pi. lxxxvii. fig. 10. 



CAMELID,^. 



143 



40565 a. Part of the right premaxilla and maxilla of an individual 
of similar age, showing the base of the milk-canine and 
mm. 1. 

40595. The extremity of the symphysis of the mandible, showing 

{Fig.) the incisors and the bases of the canines. Figured by 

Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiii. fig. 2. 

40570. Fragment of the left maxilla, with pm. 3 and pm. 4 . 

40576. The nearly complete left scapula. Figured by Falconer and 
(Fig.) Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxix. fig. 1. 

40577. Proximal extremity of the right humerus. Figured by 
(Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxix. fig. 4. 

40578. Distal extremity of the right humerus. Figured by Falconer 
(Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxix. fig. 5. 

17111. The adjacent extremities of the associated right humerus 
(Fig.) and radius and ulna. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
op. cit. pi. lxxxix. fig. 6. 

40580. Distal extremity of the right radius. Figured by Falconer 
(Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxix. fig. 7. 

17125. Distal extremity of a larger right radius. 

40605. Distal extremity of the right radius, with the carpus (appa- 
rently made up of bones of different individuals) attached. 

40603. Distal extremity of the right radius, with the carpus 
attached. 

40586. Distal extremity of the left radius, with the carpus 

(Fig.) attached. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 

pi. lxxxix. fig. 9 : the pisiform is now wanting. 

40581. The distal extremity of the left radius and the associated 
(Fig.) carpus and greater part of the metacarpus. Figured by 

Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxix. fig. 8. 

40582. The proximal two thirds of the left metacarpus. Figured 
(Fig.) by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxix. fig. 11. 

40583. The distal extremity of a metacarpus. Figured by Falconer 
(Fig.) arid Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxix. fig. 12. 



144 TTNGTJLATA. 

40584. A proximal phalangeal (with sesamoid attached) of a fore 
(Fig.) foot. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxix. 

fig. 13. 

40585. A rather larger proximal phalangeal of a fore foot. Figured 
(Fig.) by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxix. fig. 14. 

40588. The proximal extremity of the left femur, wanting the head. 
(Fig.) Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. xc. fig. 1. 

40587. The head of a femur. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. xc. fig. 2. 

40589. The distal extremity of the left femur. Figured by Fal- 
(Fig.) coner and Cautley, op. cit. pi. xc. fig. 3. 

40590. The distal extremity of a smaller right femur. Figured by 
(Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. xc. fig. 4. 

15906. A patella. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. xc. 
(Fig.) fig. 6. 

40591. The left tibia. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. xc. fig. 3. 

40592. The right calcaneum and cuboid. Figured by Falconer and 
(Fig.) Cautley, op. cit. pi. xc. fig. 8. 

40593. The left astragalus of a small form. Figured by Falconer 
(Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. pi. xc. fig. 11. 

40597. The right astragalus of. a larger form. Figured by Falconer 
(Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. pi. xc. fig. 10. 

Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

17097. The left tarsus, wanting the free extremity of the calcaneum. 
(Fig.) Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. xc. fig. 9. 

18172. The right metatarsus. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. xc. fig. 13. 

17091. The proximal third of the left metatarsus. Figured by Fal- 
(Fig.) coner and Cautley, op. cit. pi. xc. fig. 12. 

14616. The distal two thirds of the left metatarsus. 

40610. The distal extremity of a metapodial. 

40611. Tho distal extremity of a larger cannon-bone. 



CAMELTD^. 145 

40612. The distal extremity of a cannon-bone, agreeing in size with 

No. 40610. 

40596. A proximal phalangeal of a hind foot. Figured by Falconer 
{Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. pi. xc. fig. 14. 

40596 a. The proximal half of a similar phalangeal. 

40613. A complete proximal phalangeal. 

40623. A smaller proximal phalangeal. 

40594. A second phalangeal. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. xc. fig. 15. 

40571. The atlas and the anterior half of the axis vertebra. Figured 
(Fig.) by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxviii. fig. 1. 

40572. The broken third cervical vertebra. Figured by Falconer 
(Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxviii. fig. 2. 

18454. The nearly perfect fourth cervical vertebra. Figured by 
(Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxviii. fig 

40824. The nearly complete fourth cervical vertebra. In the form 
of the transverse process this specimen shows a marked 
resemblance to Auchenia. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40573. The broken fifth cervical vertebra. Figured by Falconer 
(Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxviii. fig. 4. 

40574. Posterior half of a late cervical vertebra. Figured by Fal- 
(Fig.) coner and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxviii. fig. 5. 

40891. An imperfect sixth cervical vertebra. In the large develop- 
ment of the transverse process this vertebra is more like 
Auchenia than living species of Camelus, but agrees with 
the latter in the form of the descending plates. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40575. The nearly complete seventh cervical vertebra. Figured by 
(Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxviii. fig. 6. 

Camelus antiquus, Lydekker 1 (ex Falc. & Cautl. MS.). 

The chief characters by which this species is distinguished from 
the last are its inferior size, the smooth enamel of the teeth, the 
concavity and vertical ridge in the middle of the inner surface of 

1 Rec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. xviii. p. 78 (1885). 

PART II. L 



146 TJNGULATA. 

the lower true molars (the ridge being only observable in little- 
worn teeth), and the short deep mandible. 
Rah. India. 

All the specimens are from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, and, 
unless otherwise stated, belong to the Cautley Collection (Presented, 
1842). 

15347. Part of the left maxilla, showing all the cheek-teeth except 
pm. 1 in a much-worn condition. This specimen indicates 
a very small animal, the length of the space occupied by 
the three true molars being 0,104, and the length of the 
crown of m. 3 0,042. The enamel is smooth. In G. si- 
valensis, No. 48563, which has the teeth in nearly the 
same condition of wear, the length of the space occupied 
by the three true molars is 0,124. 

40562. The imperfect cranium of a young individual, in two pieces. 

(Fig.) Figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua 
Sivalensis,' pi. lxxxvi. fig. 2. On the left side the specimen 
shows mm. 3 (broken) and mm. 4 in a well-worn condition, 
m. 1 in an early stage of wear, and m. 3 in alveolo. It 
is not shown whether mm. 2 was present. The teeth 
have a smooth enamel, and are very much smaller than 
those of the young cranium of G. sivalensis, the length of 
the base of the crown of mm. 4 being only 0,025. The 
first true molar corresponds in size with that of No. 15347. 

16165. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing 
(Fig.) the last four cheek-teeth in a well-worn condition. This 
specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 
pi. lxxxvii. fig. 5. The teeth are nearly in the same con- 
dition of wear as those of G. sivalensis (No. 17558), and 
therefore show the characteristic difference in the form of 
the inner surface. The specimen indicates an animal con- 
siderably smaller than G. sivalensis (No. 17558), but with a 
much deeper jaw and a shorter interval between pm. 1 and 
pm. 4, and with a perfectly smooth enamel to the molars. 
The following dimensions show the difference between the 

two specimens : — _, . „ . , 

6. autiquus. 6. sivalensis. 

(No. 161G5.) (No. 17558.) 

Length of m~3 0,058 0,065 

Depth of jaw at nrS 0,076 0,066 

Jm74 0,053 0,044 

Interval between pmTl and pm. 4 0,058 0,084 



camelid^;. 147 

40568. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the last 
four cheek-teeth ( m . 3 imperfect) in an early stage of 
wear. The teeth correspond in size with those of the last 
specimen, the length of the base of the crown of m. 2 being 
0,033. This tooth shows the characteristic median hollow 
at the base and the ridge at the summit of the inner sur- 
face. The enamel is perfectly smooth. The mandible is 
relatively slender ; but this is probably due to immaturity. 

16577. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of an immature indi- 
vidual, showing m. 1 and m. 2 in an early stage of wear, 
and parts of p m . 4 and m . 3 in alveolo. 

39599. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the outer 
halves of the three true molars. This specimen agrees 
with the present species in its small size and the great 
depth of the horizontal ramus. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

Genus AUCHENIA, Illiger 1 . 

Including Lama, Cuvier 2 . 

Palauchenia, Owen 3 . 

Palceolama, P. Gervais 4 . 

(?) Hemiauchenia, H. Grervais and Ameghino 5 . 

Dentition : — In the adult living species the normal formula is 
I. ^, C. j, Pm. |, M. I ; but pin. 3 is often absent ; the lanariform 
pm. 1 of Camelus is the upper tooth which has disappeared. In the 
so-called Palauchenia ( = Palceolama, teste H. Gervais) pm. 3 is always 
present, and p~m7l exists in a specimen figured by Owen 6 . In 
Hemiauchenia there are Pm. |. In the opinion of the present writer, 
the mere presence of one or more additional premolars is not a 
character of generic value, and he is therefore indisposed to accept 
Palauchenia ; but it is hinted that there are differences in the 
structure of the teeth of Hemiauchenia which may indicate generic 
distinction. Further descriptions are required to determine the 

1 Prodromus, p. 103 (1811). 

2 Tableau Generale, appended to ' Lefjons d'Anatomie Comparee, 1st ed. 
(1800). Subsequently abandoned for Auchenia. 

3 Phil. Trans. 1870, p. 65. 

4 Not found. Quoted by H. Gervais and Ameghino. 

5 Mammiferes Fossiles de l'Amerique Meridionale, p. 121 (1880). 

6 Gervais and Ameghino give the number of lower premolars in Auchenia 
as 1, and in Palauchenia (Palceolama) 2. 

L 2 



148 TTNGRJLATA. 

affinity of the North-American Fliauchenia (Pm. |) and Procamelus 
(Pm. ~). For Auchenia magna, see Addenda. 

Auchenia, sp. 1. 

In the absence of figures, it appears impossible to say whether the 
present form is identical with any of the numerous fossil species 
recorded by H. Gervais and Ameghino (op. tit. pp. 115-123). The 
present form is considerably larger than the Guanaco. 

Hah. S. America. 

18921. Fragment of the right maxilla, showing the five cheek-teeth ; 

from a cavern in Minas Geraes, Brazil. It is possible that 
a minute pm. 2 may have been present ; pm. 3 is relatively 
much larger than in the Guanaco. The following mea- 
surements indicate the difference in size of the fossil and 
recent forms : — 

Fossil. Eecent. 
Length of space occupied by three true molars . . 0,072 0,061 

Ditto by two premolars 0,034 0,021 

Length of pm. 3 0,016 0,0085 

Glaussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 
18920. The anterior part of the palate, showing the canine and in- 
cisor ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18922. Two lower true molars; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

37665. Part of the left ramus and symphysis of the mandible of a 
young individual, agreeing in size with the preceding, and 
showing mm. 3, mm. 4, and m . 1 in alveolo ; from the 
Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

The following limb-bones agree in sizf tviili this species. 
37656. The right radius and ulna, imperfect distally; from the 
Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

18934. The right carpus ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18926. The left metacarpus ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

37661. The left metatarsus ; from the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 



CAMEUD^. POEBKOTHERirD^. 149 

18923. Three proximal phalangeals ; from the caverns of Minas 
Geraes. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

37457. A proximal phalangeal ; from the Pleistocene of Buenos 
Ayres. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

18923 a. A second phalangeal ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Auchenia, sp. 2. 

This species agrees in size with the Guanaco. 
Bab. S. America. 

43244. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the three true molars, not fully protruded ; from the 
Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. 

Presented by Senor J. L. Fontana, 1871. 

The following limb-bones agree in size with this species. 

37666. The distal portion of a cannon-bone ; from the Pleistocene 
of Buenos Ayres. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

37670. The distal extremity of a cannon-bone ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Buenos Ayres. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

37674. A proximal phalangeal; from the Pleistocene of Buenos 
Ayres. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

Family POEB ROT HERITOR. 

This family is related to the Camelidce in the structure of its 
cervical vertebrae : but in other respects is said to be allied to the 
Tragididce. The teeth are selenodont; the metapodials are not 
fused into a cannon-bone ; and the navicular and cuboid are 
separate ; there is a trapezium. 

Genus POEBROTHERIUM, Leidy 1 . 
Dentition:— I. f, C. \, Pm. \, M. |. 

Poebrotherium wilsoni, Leidy 2 . 
Hob. North America. 
40958. Cast of the type cranium and mandible. The original is 

1 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. iii. p. 322 (1847, vol. dated 1848). 

2 Loc. cit. 



150 TJNGULATA. 

from the Miocene of Nebraska, and is preserved in the 
Museum of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia ; it is figured 
in the Smith. Contrib. Know. vol. vi. pi. 1 (1854). 

Purchased, 1868. 



Family TKAGULID^. 

The fossil forms apparently indicate a transition from the typical 
genus to the Cervidce (through Prodremotherium) on the one hand, 
and on the other to the Dichodontidce, so that no exact definition of 
the family can be given. In the typical form, the cheek-teeth in 
front of pm- 4 are simply secant, and thereby differ from those of 
the Cervidce ; Prodremotherium, however, is somewhat intermediate 
in this respect. All the genera are unprovided with antlers. In 
the recent forms the navicular and cuboid are united ; but the 
median metapodials either unite very late, or remain separate 
throughout life (Hyomoschus). The teeth are selenodont in struc- 
ture, the upper true molars having four columns. 

Genus PRODREMOTHERIUM, Filhol 1 . 
Eiitimeyer places this genus in the present family ; the penulti- 
mate upper premolar is not, however, of the simply secant form 
which is characteristic of the existing Tragulidas, but has an inner 
expansion, foreshadowing the inner crescent of the Cervidce. The 
bones referred to this genus by Filhol show that the metapodials are 
fused into a cannon-bone. The dental formula is I. |, C. j, Pm. | 

m. !• 

Prodremotherium elongatum, Filhol 2 . 
Hob. France. 

M. 1415. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last five 
cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), France. This specimen agrees precisely with 
the one figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. 
pi. xi. fig. 268. The length of the space occupied by the 
three true molars is 0,027, and the length of m. 3 0,010 
and its width 0,011. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1425. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last five 



1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 228 (1877). 

2 Loc. cit. 



TRAGRTLmaj. 151 

cheek-teeth, in an almost unworn condition ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1426. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last five 
cheek-teeth, in a well-worn condition ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1423. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last four 
cheek-teeth, in a partially worn condition ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. There is a distinct cingulum to the 
true molars in this specimen. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1501. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the three pre- 
molars, in a well-worn condition ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1429. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing pm. 4 and m. 1 ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1414. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last four cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 
-This specimen agrees precisely with the nearly complete 
left ramus figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. 
pi. xi. fig. 265, and exhibits the characteristic slender 
form. The length of the space occupied by the three true 
molars is 0,033, the length of ET3 0,014, the depth of the 
jaw in front of pm. 4 0,0135, and behind m . 3 0,017. 

Purchased, 1884. 

The following limb-bones from the Upper Eocene of Caylux probably 
belong to Prodremotherium, or some of the allied genera. Pur- 
chased, 1885. There are other specimens in the Collection. 

M. 2236. The right humerus, wanting the head. 

M. 2234. The left radius and ulna. 

M. 2235. The right radius. 

M. 2240. The left femur. 

M. 2239. The left tibia, perhaps associated with the last. 

M. 2241. Two imperfect specimens of the metacarpus. 



152 TTNGULATA. 

Genus TRAGULUS, Pallas 1 (ex Brisson). 
Dentition:— I. |, C. \, Pm. |, M. |. 

Tragulus sivalensis, Lydekker 2 . 
Hah. India. 

M. 2249. The crown of the first left upper true molar, in a some- 
what weathered condition ; from the Siwaliks of the 
Bramaputra Yalley, India. This specimen agrees precisely 
with the corresponding tooth of Tragulus meminna, and is 
slightly smaller than the type third upper molar of the 
Siwalik form, figured by the present writer in the ' Palse- 
ontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 118, and reproduced 
in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 15). 

Presented by General Hardwicke. 

Fig. 15. 




Tragulus sivalensis— -The third left upper true molar; from the Siwaliks of the 
Punjab, f. (From the ' Paheontologia Indica.') 

M. 2250. The first two lobes of the third right lower true molar, 
in an early condition of wear ; from the same locality as 
the last. This tooth agrees almost exactly with that of 
T. meminna. Presented by General Hardwicke. 

M. 2250 a. Fragments of other lower molars; from the same locality. 

Presented by General Hardwicke. 

M. 2251. Distal extremity of the radius ; from the same locality. 

Presented by General Hardwicke. 

I 1 Spieilegia Zoologica, vol. xiii. p. 27 (1779). 
3 Eec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. xv. p. 30 (1882). 



TRAGULID^. 



153 



M. 2252. Shaft of a metapodial ; from the same locality. 

Presented by General HardivicJce. 

M. 2253. Greater portion of a rib; from the same locality. 

Presented by General HardwicJce. 

Genus DORCATHERIUM, Kaup 1 . 

Syn. Hyomoschus, Gray 2 (teste Riitiineyer). 

Dentition • — I. g, C. \, Pm. ( -^j- ) , M. |. The true molars of Dor- 
catherium are more complex than those of Palceomeryce ; but the 
narrow, secant premolars of the former and of Tragulus indicate 
affinity with generalized forms like Dichodon and Xiphodon. 

Dorcatherium naui 9 Kaup 3 . 

Syn. Dorcatherium vindohonense, H. v. Meyer 4 . 
Dicroceros crassus, Lartet 5 . 
Hyomoschus larteti, Pomel 6 . 
Hyomoschus crassus, Fraas 7 . 

Hob. Europe. 

40632. The nearly complete cranium and mandible, in a partially 
(Fie/.) crushed condition ; from the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, 
Hesse-Darmstadt. This beautiful specimen is figured by 
Kaup in the Oss. Eoss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 5, pi. xxiii. a ; 
it shows the whole of the dentition, and has four lower 
premolars, in which respect it differs from the living 
Tragulidce. The specimen is noticed by Riitimeyer in 
the ( Naturliche Geschichte der Hirsche ' (Abh. schw. pal. 
Ges. 1883), pt. 2, pp. 72, 73, on whose authority the 
synonymy is given. Purchased, 1867. 

21853. Tart of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
third and fourth premolars and the first and second true 
molars ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers), 
France. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1818. 

40769. The penultimate left lower premolar ; from the Middle 
Miocene of Sansan. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

1 Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 5, p. 92 (1836). 

2 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xyi. p. 350 (1845). 

3 Loc. cit. 

* Neues Jahrb. 1846, p. 471. 
5 Notice sur la Colline de Sansan, p. 35 (1853). 
G Comptes Kendus, vol. xxiii. p. 17 (1851). 
7 Fauna von Steinhehn, p. 29 (1870). 



154 UNGULATA. 

21856 a. The right naviculo-cuboid ; from the Middle Miocene of 
Sansan. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1348. 

21858. The astragalus ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

21856. The right metatarsus; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

21852. The proximal extremity of the left metatarsus; from the 
Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

21855. Two portions of metapodial bones ; from the Middle Mio- 
cene of Sansan. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

Dorcatherium minus, Lydekker 1 . 

This is a small species, the upper molars of which agree very 
closely with those of D. naui ; but in the absence of the premolars 
the generic determination may be doubtful ; although ifc is highly 
probable that this species at least is generically identical with the 
African Hyomoschus. 

Hah. India. 

19043. Two fragments of the maxilla, one containing mm. 3 , mm. 4 , 
and m. 1 , and the other mm. 3 and mm. 4 ; from the Plio- 
cene of the Siwalik Hills, India. The teeth of these spe- 
cimens agree precisely with the type specimens figured by 
the present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10 , 
vol. i. pi. viii. figs. 3 and 7. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Dorcatherium majus, Lydekker 2 . 

This species is larger than D. naui, but its upper molars (by 
which it is solely known) are very similar ; they have a very pro- 
minent cingulum. 

Hab. India. 

40860. A right upper true molar ; from the Siwaliks of Kushalghar, 

Punjab, India. This specimen resembles precisely the 

type molars figured by the present writer in the ' Palaeon- 

tologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. . pi. vii. figs. 4, 6, 9, 10, 11. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

1 Palseontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Tnd.), ser. 10, vol. i. p. 61 (1876). 

2 Ibid. p. 62. 



TRAGULIME. 155 

Genus BACHITHERIUM, Filhoi 4 . 
This genus is only known by some portions of the mandible and 
maxilla ; it is said to be closely allied to Geloeus, but differs by 
wanting the first lower premolar ; the dental formula being 
1. |, C. j, Pm. g, M. g. The upper cheek-teeth so closely resemble 
those of Prodremotherium, that it is very difficult to distinguish 
them. The position of the genus in the present family is provisional. 

Bachitheriuxn curtum, Filhol 2 . 

Syn. Geloeus curtus, Filhol 3 . 

Bachitherium medium, Filhol 4 . 

There is some confusion in the nomenclature of this form. Two 
imperfect mandibles were figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Gcol. 
vol. viii. pi. xi. fig. 257, pi. xx. fig. 340, under the name of Geloeus 
curtus. In the Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, p. 124, 
the first of these is named Bachitherium medium. In the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. xii. art. 3, p. 241, note 1, it is, however, stated that the 
specimen was described in the passage last cited as B. curtum. As 
both specimens appear to belong to the same species, and the name 
curtum has the priority, this name is adopted here. 

Hob. France. 

M. 2153. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last four 
cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn- 
et-Garonne), France. The teeth of this specimen agree 
precisely with those described by Filhol in the Ann. Soc. 
Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, pp. 126-7 ; the length of 
the space occupied by the three true molars is 0,0204. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2154. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing mm. 3 , mm. 4 , 
and m. 1 ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2157. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last five cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 
The length of the space occupied by the three true molars 
is 0,027. Purchased, 1885. 

1 Comptes Rendus, vol. xciv. p. 138 (1882). 

2 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 236 (1877), Geloeus. 

3 Loc. cit. 

4 Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, p. 124. 



156 



UNGTJLATA. 



M. 2158. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last four cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 
The length of the space occupied by the three true molars 
is 0,025, and the length of m73 0,012. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2150. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
all the cheek-teeth except ra . 3 ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. The length of the space occupied by the three 
premolars is 0,0195 ; it is highly probable that this spe- 
cimen belongs to the same individual as the maxilla 
No. M. 2153. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 1429. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing p m . 4, 
m. 1, m7~2, and the first lobe of nT73 ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. This jaw agrees precisely with the 
one figured by Eilhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. 
pi. iii. fig. 257. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1429 a. Two fragments of the hinder portion of the mandible ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1427. The nearly complete left ramus of the mandible of a young 

{Fig.) individual, containing all the cheek-teeth except mm. 2, of 

which the alveolus remains ; from the Upper Eocene of 

Caylux. This specimen, which is represented in the 

woodcut (fig. 16), agrees with the type mandibles in the 



Eig. 16. 




Bachitherium curtum. — The left ramus of the mandible of a young individual 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. y- 

form and size of the true molars, in the long diastema, 
the slenderness of the ramus, and its straight inferior 
border, and the presence of two mental foramina, one of 
which is situated immediately behind the alveolus of the 
canine, and the other l below mm. 2. The length of tho 

1 Not shown in the woodcut. 



TRAGTTLIDJB. 157 

space occupied by the three true molars is 0,025, and 
that of the diastema 0,0225. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 2155. Hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
m. 2 and m . 3 ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. The 
length of m73 is 0,011. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 1428. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible of a 
young individual, containing the milk-molars, mTl, and 
m. 2 ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. This specimen 
is similar to No. M. 1427 ; the length of the space occu- 
pied by the three milk-molars is 0,023. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 2156. Part of the right ramus of the mandible of an immature 
individual, containing mm . 4, m. 1, and m . 2 ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. The length of mm. 4 is 0,009. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 1491. Anterior portion of the right ramus of the mandible of a 
young individual, showing the three milk-molars ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Caylux. The length of the space 
occupied by the three teeth is 0,025, and the length of 
m^TI 0,0085. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1429 b. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a species 
of the present genus, showing mm . 3 and mm. 4 in an un- 
worn condition ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. The 
length of ^mT4 is 0,0096. Purchased, 1884. 

Bachitherium insigne, Filhol 1 . 
Syn. Gelocus insignis, Filhol 2 . 

This species is referred to the present genus in the Ann. Soc. Sci. 
Phys. Xat. Toulouse, 1882, p. 122, where the type specimens are 
described, although not figured. The species is of larger size than 
the last. In the absence of figures the following determinations 
are provisional. 

Hab. France. 

M. 1424. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last four 
cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), France. The length of the space occupied by 

1 Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, ser. 6, vol. xii. p. 16 (1876, vol. dated 1877), 
Gelocus. 

2 Loe. cit. 



158 TTNGULATA. 

the three true molars is 0,0302, which is practically the 
same as in the specimen described by Filhol. There is a 
distinct cingulum to the molars, which are larger than 
those of Prodremotherium elongatum. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 2152. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the three true 
molars, and a fragment of mm. 4 ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Cay lux. The length of the space occupied by the three 
molars is 0,0295. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 1416. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last five 
cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. These 
teeth agree in size with those of the last specimen, but 
have a less distinct cingulum ; the two specimens may be 
specifically distinct. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1417. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last four 
cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. The 
teeth agree with those of the last specimen. 

Purchased, 1884. 



M. 1471. Fragment of a left maxilla, with m. 1 and m.2 , 

belonging to the present species ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

In the attenuated character of their premolars, and the distinct 
pit at the posterior border of pm. 4, the following specimens agree 
with the present genus, although neither of them accords exactly 
with the description of the type mandible of the present species. 

M. 1420. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
six cheek-teeth (pm. 4 broken), in a well-worn condition ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. The length of the 
space occupied by the three true molars is 0,036, and the 
depth of the ramus in front of mTi 0,0166, and behind 
mT3 0,0215. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1422. Fragment of the left ramus of a mandible, containing 
mm. 4 , m. 1 , and m. 2 , and probably belonging to the same 
species as the last ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1421. Part of the left ramus of a mandible, containing the last 
four cheek-teeth, in an unworn condition, and probably 
belonging to a different species from the two last j from 
the Upper Eocene of Caylux. The length of the space 



DICHODONTID^J. 159 

occupied by the three true molars is 0,033, and the depth 
of the ramus in front of m . 1 0,0156, and behind m. 3 
0,027. Purchased, 1884. 

Family DICHODONTID^E. 

In the type genus the full complement of the typical Eutherian 
dentition is developed ; but it is not yet known whether the upper 
incisors were present in some of the other genera. The cheek- 
dentition is selenodont, the upper true molars being quadricolumnar ; 
but in Lophiomerycc some of the columns are imperfectly developed. 
The family appears so closely connected with the Tragulidce, that it 
is dim cult to draw any distinctive division, unless it be eventually 
found that upper incisors are always present. The foot-structure 
in those forms in which it is known presents considerable specializa- 
tion. Choeromeryx, which is provisionally included in the family, 
appears to indicate affinity with Merycopotamus pusillus. 

Genus GELOCUS, Aymard \ 

The upper molars of this genus have extremely low columns with 
wide open valleys ; the external surface of the hinder lobe of each 
of the outer columns is markedly concave, indicating affinity to 
Dichodon. The navicular and cuboid bones of the tarsus are united ; 
and the hinder metapodials fused into a cannon-bone. The dental 
formula is I. |, C. \, Pm. | M. |. 

Gelocus communis, Aymard 2 . 

Syn. Anthracotlierium minutum, Blainville 3 . 

Amphitraguhis communis, Aymard *. 
Hah. France. 

27596. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containiug the 
last two premolars and the three true molars ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Eonzon, near Puy-en-Yelay (Haute 
Loire), France. The space occupied by the three true 
molars measures 0,024 ; which agrees with typical speci- 
mens. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

1 Ann. Soc. Agric. Sci. Le Puy, 1855 (teste P. Gervais). 
- Ibid. vol. xii. p. 247 (1848), Amphitragtdus {teste Filhol). 

3 ' Osteographie,' Genus Anoplotherium, p. 132 (1846). This specific name 
has the priority, but as it is not applicable when transferred to Gelocus it has 
been dropped. 

4 Loc. cit. 



160 TJNGULATA. 

27798. Two fragments of associated rami of the mandible; from 

the Lower Miocene of Eonzon. This specimen shows the 
last three premolars and the first two true molars. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27799. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the last 

milk-molar, m . 1, and m . 2 ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Eonzon. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 1396. Three cheek-teeth, and the metacarpus, wanting the distal 
epiphysis ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), Prance. The metacarpus agrees in general 
characters with the one figured by Filhol in the Ann. 
Sci. Geol. vol. xii. pi. xxxi. fig. 190, but is of rather 
larger size. Purchased, 1884. 

Genus LOPHIOMERYX, Pomel 1 . 
Dentition : — I. |, C. \, Pm. \, M. |. 

This genus, of which only the mandible has been hitherto known 
with certainty, is placed by Eiitimeyer, in the ' Natiirliche Geschichte 
der Hirsche ' (Abh. schw. Pal. Ges. 1883, pt. 2, p. 60), between 
Gelocus and Dichodon. In the type species the first lobe of the 
lower molars is somewhat like those of Anoplotherium, while the 
second is ruminant-like. A lower jaw from the French Upper 
Eocene, figured by Eilhol in the Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 
1882, pi. x., under the name of Metriotherium mirabile, evidently 
indicates an allied form with a less specialized hinder lobe to the 
molars, and might perhaps be referred to the present genus. The 
family position of the genus is provisional, and its dentition 
seems to retain traces of affinity with the Perissodactyla. A second 
species is described in the Addenda. 

Lophiomeryx chalaniati, Pomel 2 . 

This species occurs both in the Upper Eocene and the Lower 
Miocene. 

Hab. France. 

34960. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible of an 

{Fig.) adolescent individual, containing mm. 3, mmT4, and the 

three true molars ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier, 

France. In this specimen, which is represented in the 

accompanying woodcut (fig. 17), the last true molar has a 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 97 (1853). 

2 Ibid. p. 98. 



DICHODOXTIBiE. 



161 



Fisr. 1' 




Lophiomeryx chalaniati. — The left ramus of the mandible 
Lower Miocene of oilier. \. 



from the 



length of 0,019, and the space occupied by the three true 
molars measures 0,0435. The teeth precisely resemble 
the unworn molar figured by Gaudry in ' Les Enchaine- 
ments du Monde Animal — Mammiferes Tertiaires,' fig. 114, 
p. 95 (1878). Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2133. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible of an 
adolescent individual, containing the last three milk- 
molars, and the first and second true molars ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), Erance. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2134. The hinder portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 
showing the three true molars ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 



M. 2135. Anterior portion of the left ramus of the mandible of an 
adolescent individual, containing the last three milk- 
molars ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1885. 

27802. Eragment of the left ramus of the mandible with m . 2 ; from 
the Lower Miocene of Sauvetat (Puy-de-D6me), Erance. 
Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

PART II. M 



] 62 UNGITLATA. 

27797. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with m72 and 
m. 3 ; from the Lower Miocene of Sauvetat. This is the 
specimen noticed by Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. .Fran- 
chises, 2nd ed. p. 156. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased. 1848 

M. 2136. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing pm. 4 and the 

(Fig.) three true molars ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

This specimen, which is figured in the accompanying 

woodcut (fig. 18), agrees so exactly in size with the 

Fig. 18. 




Lopkio?neri/x chalaniati. — Part of the right maxilla ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. \. 

mandibles that there is every probability that it belongs 
to the present species ; a maxilla, which is provisionally 
referred to the same, is noticed, although not figured, by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 227. The 
true molars of the present specimen are like those of a 
primitive ruminant, but the second inner crescent is 
incompletely developed in m- 2 , and in m. 3 is rudimentary. 
The length of the space occupied by the three true molars 
is 0,041. Purchased, 1885. 



Genus DICHODON, Owen 1 . 

Dentition : — I. |, C. \, Pm. J, M. |. The upper true molars are 
perfectly selenodont, with concave outer surfaces somewhat like 
Hyopotamus ; the earlier premolars are elongated, and thereby ap- 
proach Xiphodon. The limb-bones are unknown. The general 
form of the dentition is illustrated in the accompanying woodcut 
(fig. 19). 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. p. 36 (1848). 



DICHODONTID.E. 



163 




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164 UNGTTLATA. 

Dichodon cuspidatus, Owen 1 . 
Hub. Europe 2 . 

29716 b. Two upper true molars ; from the Headon beds (Upper 
Eocene) of Hordwell, Hampshire. These specimens agree 
with those figured by Owen in the Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc. vol. iv. pi. iv. fig. 3. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 2185. A left upper true molar, in a well-worn condition ; from 
the Headon beds of Hordwell. Purchased, 1885. 

29716 C. A left upper true molar ; from the Headon beds of Hord- 
well. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30201. The anterior portion of the cranium, showing the incisors, 

{Fig.) canine, and premolars, all in a worn condition ; from the 

Headon beds of Hordwell. This specimen is described 

and figured by Owen in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 

vol. xiii. p. 192, pi. iii. fig. 4. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29717. The hinder portion of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 

(Pig.) taining the third true molar, in an early condition of wear ; 

from the Headon beds of Hordwell. This specimen is 

described and figured by Owen, op. cit. p. 193, fig. 5. 

(The figure is reversed.) 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29716, 29716 a. The left ramus of the mandible, in two fragments ; 
from the Headon beds of Hordwell. This specimen shows 
pin- 4 and m. 3 , in a much-worn condition, and the alveoli 
of the anterior teeth. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29716 C. A detached lower premolar ; from the Headon beds of 
Hordwell. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29806. A detached premolar; from the Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29728. Fragment of the right premaxilla and maxilla, containing 
four teeth ; from the Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. p. 42 (1848). 

2 Rutimeyer, Naturliche Geschichte der Hirsche (Abh. schw. pal. Ges. 1883, 
pt. 2, pi. vii. fig. 1), figures some upper teeth from Oaylux, which he provisionally 
refers to the present species. 



DICH0D0NTIDJ3. 165 



Dichodon cervinus (Owen 1 ). 
Syn. Dichobunus cervinus, Owen 2 . 
Hab. England. 



L o J 



11955. Cast of the hinder portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 
containing the three true molars. The original, which is 
the type, is from the Upper Eocene of Binsted, Isle of 
Wight ; and is described and figured, under the name of 
Dichobunus, by Owen in the ' British Eossil Mammals and 
Birds,' p. 44, fig. 181 ; and, under the name of Dichodon, 
by P. Gervais in the ' Zoologie et Paleontologie Franchises/ 
2nd ed. p. 159, pi. xxxv. fig. 5. This specimen is pre- 
served in the collection of the Geological Society. 

Purchased. 

29820. An upper molar of a small species, perhaps identical with 
the present; from the Headon beds (Upper Eocene) of 
the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 



Genus CHCEROMERYX, Pomel 3 . 

Syn. Sivameryx, Lydekker 4 . 

The identity of Sivameryx and Choeromeryx has been shown by 
the present writer in the Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. ii. pp. 72-73(1885). 
The reference of the genus to the present family is provisional. 

Chceromeryx silistrensis (Pentland 5 ). 

Syn. Anthracotherium silistrense, Pentland 6 (in parte). 
Sivameryx sindiensis, Lydekker 7 . 

Hab. India. 

19040. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing mm. 3 and rum. 4 ; 

(Fig.) from the Siwaliks of Karibari, Garo Hills, N.E. Bengal, 
India. This is the type specimen, and is figured, under 
the name of Anthracotherium, by Pentland in the Trans. 
Geol. Soc. ser. 2, vol. ii. pi. xlv. figs. 2, 3, and by Falconer 

1 Trans. Geol. Soc. ser. 2, vol. vi. p. 45 (1841), Dichobunus. 2 Loc. cit, 

3 Coraptes Kendus, vol. xxvi. p. 687 (1848). 

4 Eec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. xi. p. 80 (1878). 

5 Trans. Geol. Soc. ser. 2, vol. ii. p. 394 (1828), Anthrccothcrium, 

6 Loc. cit. 7 Loc . cit 



166 XJNGULATA. 

and Cautley in the ; Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxviii. 
figs. 22, 22 a. The fourth milk-molar, although of smaller 
size, very closely resembles the true molar from Sind 
figured, under the name of Sivamery.v sindiensis, in the 
' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pi. xxiii. fig. 11, 
and the two are probably specifically identical. 

Collected by Sir T. ColebrooJce. Before 1828. 

M. 2397. Cast of the (?) third right upper true molar, provisionally 
referred to this species. The original is preserved in the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta, and was obtained from the 
Lower Siwaliks of Sind ; it is figured by the present 
writer in the ' Palaaontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. 
pi. xxiii. fig. 11, as Bivameryoc sindiensis. 

Presented by R. LydeTcJcer, Esq., 1885. 



Genus non det. 

27795. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
pm. 4, and the impression of the lateral surfaces of the 
three true molars ; from the Lower Miocene of Sauvetat 
(Puy-de-D6me), France. This specimen appears to indi- 
cate a form very close to Dichodon. Together with the 
next specimen, it is entered in the Museum Register as 
Merycomenus. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27800. Fragment of the mandible, -containing pm. 4 ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Sauvetat. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 



Family CiENOTHERIID^E. 

Dentition:—!. |, C. ~, Pm. -, M. |. There are usually five 
columns, or cusps, on the crowns of the upper true molars (which 
may be of a selenodont or a bunodont structure), two of which are 
placed on the anterior, and three on the posterior lobe; but in 
Mouillactherium the middle cusp on the posterior lobe of m. 3 is 
absent, and in the bunodont Acothemdum it is wanting in all the 
three teeth of this series It is probable that in all the genera the 
metapodials, and the navicular and cuboid were distinct. Riiti- 
meyer places the family between Dichodon and Xiphodon. 



CJENOTHERIID^. 167 

Genus OffiNOTHERIUM, Bravard 1 . 

Syn. Oplotherium, Laizer and Parieu 2 . 
Microtherium, H. v. Meyer 3 . 
Zooligus, Aymard 4 . 
Plesiomeryx, P. Gervais 5 . 

In the typical forms there is no diastema in the dental series, 
although a distinct one exists in certain forms to which the name 
Plesiomeryx was applied. Pilhol has, however, shown, in the Ann. 
Sci. Geol. vol. xii. art. 3, pp. 77-84, that there is such a gradual 
transition in this respect from one type to the other that no generic 
distinction can be drawn between Ccenotherium and Plesiomeryx ; 
the diastema being present in one race of Camotherium gracile and 
absent in another. There are four distinct metapodials, and the 
navicular and cuboid elements of the tarsus are doubtless separate. 

Caenotherium commune, Bravard 6 . 

Syn. Oplotherium leptognathtim, Laizer and Parieu "'. 
Ccenotherium leptognathum, Pomel 8 . 
Ccenotherium elegans, Pomel 9 . 
Microtherium renggeri, H. v. Meyer 10 . 

This species is of medium size, and has no diastema in the type 
form. It is recorded by Eilhol from Cournon and the Quercy phos- 
phorites ; the specimen described by him from the latter deposits 
being named var. jprocommune. 

Hab. Europe. 

34964. Slab containing a number of skulls, jaws, and limb-bones ; 

{Fig.) from the Lower Miocene of Cournon (Puy-de-D6me), 
France. This specimen is figured by De Blainville in his 
' Osteographie,' Genus Anoplotherium, pi. vii. The length 
of the series of upper cheek-teeth is 0,0285 in one, and 
0,029 in another specimen. The length of the space 
occupied by the seven lower cheek-teeth is 0,029 ; the 
length of the femur 0,059 ; and that of the tibia 0,070. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

1 Monogr. d. Genre Cainotkerium (1835), Cainotkerium. 

2 Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, vol. x. p. 335 (1838). - 

3 Neues Jahrb. 1837, p. 557. 

4 In Pictet's ■ Paleontologie,' 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 310 (1853). 

5 Journ. Zool. vol. ii. p. 369 (1873). 

6 Loc. cit. 7 Loc.cit. 

8 Catalogue Methodique, p. 96 (1853). 9 Ibid. p. 95. 

10 Neues Jahrb. 1837, p. 557. 



168 UNGTJLATA. 

34965. A slab containing several skulls, jaws, and limb-bones ; from 
the Lower Miocene of Cournon. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27763 The cranium, in a somewhat crushed condition, together 
with the atlas, and some of the limb-bones; from the 
Lower Miocene of Cournon. 

Oroizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27763 a. The cranium, in a much-crushed condition ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Cournon. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27763 b. Part of the cranium, in a much-crushed condition ; from 
the Lower Miocene of Cournon. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27763 C. The palatal portion of the cranium ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Cournon. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27763 d. The palate ; from the Lower Miocene of Cournon. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27763 e. The cranium, left ramus of the mandible, distal extremity 
of the humerus, and the ulna ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Cournon. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27695. The nearly complete mandible, and a portion of the pre- 
maxillse ; from the Lower Miocene of Cournon. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

35818. The right maxilla of an immature individual, showing the 

milk- and permanent cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Haslach, near IJlm, Wiirtemberg. This and the next 
specimen belong to Meyer's M. renggeri. Purchased, 1860. 

35819. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of an immature 

individual ; from the Lower Miocene of Haslach. 

Purchased, 1860. 

M. 1410. Tour specimens of the hinder portion of mandibular rami ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), 
Erance. These specimens agree precisely with the man- 
dibles in Nos. 34964-5. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1402. Four imperfect rami of the mandible; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 



CJSNOTHEEIID^E. 169 

M. 1402 a. Two specimens of the hinder portion of the right ramus 
of the mandible ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 
These specimens agree very closely with the jaw figured 
by Eilhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. pi. xii. figs. 
269-70, under the name of var. procommune. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1410 a. The hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, re- 
sembling the last ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1884. 
Caenotherium, sp. 

This form is not unlike 0. commune, with the exception that 
there is a diastema between the canine and pm- 1 , and another 
between p m . 1 and pm. 2. The instance of the two varieties of 
C. gracile noticed above indicates, however, the need of caution in 
founding new species merely on the presence or absence of a dia- 
stema. Under these circumstances it appears desirable to await 
additional specimens before deciding whether the present ones 
should be regarded as a new species, or merely as a well-marked 
variety. The name bravardi, either as a specific or a varietal one, 
may eventually be appropriately applied to this form. 

Hob. France. 

M. 1401. The anterior portion of the cranium; from the Upper 

(Fig.) Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), Erance. This 

specimen, which is represented in the accompan} T ing 

woodcut (fig. 20), has been described and figured by the 

Eig. 20. 




Ccenotherium, sp. — The palatal portion of the cranium ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. \. 

present writer in the Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. ii. pp. 67-68 
(1885) ; its dimensions are as follows, viz. : — 



170 



TTNGUXATA. 

Length of series of cheek-teeth .... 

„ „ true molars . . 

Greatest width of nasals (anteriorly) 

Vertical diameter of orbit 

Length of diastema 


0-028 

0-013 

0-0052 

0-0125 

0-002 




Purchased, 1884. 



M. 1401 a. The left ramus of the mandible ; from the Upper Eocene 
{Fig.) of Caylux. This specimen is figured in the woodcut 

Fig. 21. 




Ccenotherium, sp. — The left ramus of the mandible, imperfect 
posteriorly ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. \. 

(fig. 21), and has been described and figured by the 
writer in the passage cited ; its dimensions are as follows : — 

Extreme length 0-044 

height 0-027 

Length of dental series 0-033 

„ last six teeth 0-0248 

Height at pm. 2 , 0-0065 

m. 3 0-083 

Length of diastema 0*0021 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1401 "b. A lumbar vertebra, associated with the cranium 
No. M. 1401. Purchased, 1884. 

Csenotherium laticurvatum (Geoffroy l ). 

Syn. Anoplotherium laticurvatum, Geoffroy 2 . 
Ccenotherium laticurvatum, Pomel 3 . 
Ccenotherium metopias, Pomel 4 . 



1 Eevue Encyclopedique, 1852 {teste P. Gervais), Anoplotherium. 

2 Loc. cit. 3 Catalogue Methodique, p. 94 (J 853). 4 Loc. cit. 



C^NOTELERIID^. 171 

This species is the largest of the genus ; there is no diastema ; 
the nasals are long and terminate in a notch ; and there is a de- 
pression at their junction with the frontals. 

Hob. Europe. 

29243. The cranium, wanting the hinder part of the brain- case ; 

from the Lower Miocene of Allier, France. This specimen 
agrees very closely with the one figured by Filhol in the 
Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. x. pi. xxix. fig. 3. The length of the 
space occupied by the seven cheek-teeth is 0,035. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29244. The cranium, nearly perfect ; from the Lower Miocene of 

Allier. This specimen is rather smaller than the last, 
and probably belongs to a female. The length of the 
space occupied by the seven cheek-teeth is 0,0345. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29245. The cranium, imperfect on the right side posteriorly ; from 

the Lower Miocene of Allier. This specimen agrees very 
closely with No. 29243. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2163. Anterior portion of the cranium, showing the greater 
part of the cheek-dentition ; from the Lower Miocene of 
St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier). Purchased, 1885. 

29247. The palate, wanting the incisors and canines; from the 
Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29238. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last four cheek- 

teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29242. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm. 4, m. 1, and 
m. 2 • from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29239. The right half of the palate, containing the seven cheek- 

teeth, in a well-worn condition ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29154. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the milk-molars 
and m. 1 j from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



172 T/NGULATA. 

29246. Cast of the brain-cavity and middle portion of the cranium; 
from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29248. The broken hinder portion of the cranium ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26667. The occipital portion of the cranium ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

27595. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the seven cheek- 
teeth, and the associated right ramus of the inaudible 
(imperfect posteriorly) ; from the Lower Miocene of Chapt- 
zurat (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. The teeth are in a well- 
worn condition ; the two series were originally in contact, 
but have been separated for better examination. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

26691. The nearly complete left ramus of the mandible, wanting 
the teeth in front of pm. 4 ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. This specimen agrees precisely with the one 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi. pi. i. 
fig. 7. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

29223. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
wanting the teeth in front of pm. '2 ', from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29139. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the last five cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29218. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the last five teeth, in a well-worn condition ; from 
the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29146. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
five cheek-teeth, in a much-worn condition; from the 
Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29139. The hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, contain- 
ing the last five teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



CMNOTKU'RIIBM. 



173 



29171. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, contain- 
ing the last five teeth, in a much-worn condition ; from 
the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852 



26690. The nearly complete right ramus of the mandible, wanting 
the teeth in front of pm. 2 ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 



29220. The nearly complete left ramus of the mandible, wanting 
the incisors, canine, pm. 1, and pm. 3 ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier. The true molars occupy a rather 
smaller space than in No. 26691. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29150. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing the last six teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29145. The right ramus of the mandible, containing the three 
true molars, and pm. 4 in alveolo ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29052. The left ramus of the mandible, containing the three true 
molars ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29107. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last six teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29111. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the last four cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Mio- 
cene of Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29072. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 

last four cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29147. The right ramus of the mandible of a young individual, 
containing mm. 4, m. 1, and m. 2 ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Allier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29084. The right ramus of the mandible, containing the last five 
teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. The length of 
the space occupied by the three true molars is 0,016. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, ]852. 

29108. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the last 



174 UNGTJLATA. 

five teeth, the space occupied by which measures 0,0275 ; 
from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30493. Hinder portion of the right ramus of a mandible apparently 
belonging to this species ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Weissenau, near Mayence, Hesse-Darmstadt. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Csenotherium geoffroyi, Pomel 1 . 

This species is smaller than C. commune, but, like that species, has 
no diastema. It is recorded by Pomel from Cournon, and by Pilhol 
from St. Gerand-le-Puy ; and it appears probable that the specimens 
noticed below from Caylux belong to the same species. 

Hob. Prance. 
29084 a. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last six teeth.; from the Lower Miocene of Allier, Prance. 
This specimen agrees precisely with the one figured by 
Pilhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi. pi. i. fig. 12. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29084 b. Pragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last four teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29084 C. Pragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last four teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29084 d. Several limb-bones ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1402. Greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the three true molars, and the alveoli of the 
anterior teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn- 
et-Garonne), Prance. There is no diastema; and the 
specimen agrees precisely with the one figured by Pilhol 
in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi, pi. i. fig. 12. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1402 a. Pour imperfect rami of the mandible, agreeing with the 
last specimen ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1404. Two imperfect rami of the mandible ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 96 (1853). 



CMNOTUEBIIDM. 175 

M. 1410 C. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last five 
cheek-teeth, not improbably belonging to the present 
species ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. The length 
of the space occupied by the five teeth is 0,019. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Csenotherium cadur cense (P. Gervais'). 
Syn. Plesiomeryx cadurcensis, P. Gervais 2 . 

This species is smaller than G. commune; and has a distinct 
diastema in both jaws, occurring between the first and second 
premolars. 

Hob. Prance. 

M. 1988 d. The nearly complete cranium, showing all the dentition ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), 
Prance. The length of the space occupied by the last 
six cheek-teeth in this specimen measures 0,0175, which 
agrees very closely with the dimensions of the specimen 
figured by Pilhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. pi. xii. 
fig. 271. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1404 a, M. 1789, M. 1791. Four rami of the mandible; from 
the Upper Eocene of Caylux. The length of the space 
occupied by the last six teeth is 0,020 ; which is somewhat 
less than in a specimen described by Pilhol in the Ann. 
Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 207 (0,0215). This may 
indicate that C. gracile, Pomel, from St. Gerand-le-Puy, 
which is only distinguished from O. cadurcense by its 
inferior size, may really be only a small race of this 
species. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1402 "b. The left ramus of the mandible ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

Caenotherium quin que dent atum (Pilhol 3 ). 
Syn. Plesiomeryx quinquedentata, Filhol 4 . 

This is a very small species, known only by the mandible. There 
is a diastema between pm. 2 and p m . 3. 
Hob. Prance. 

1 Journ. Zool. vol. ii. p. 369 (1873), Plesiomeryx. 2 Loc. cit. 

3 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 210 (1877), Plesiomeryx. 

4 Loc. cit. 



176 



TJNGTTLATA. 



M. 1404 b. Six rami of the mandible ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. These specimens 
agree with the type mandible figured by Filhol in the 
Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. pi. xix. figs. 314-316. The 
length of the space occupied by the last five teeth is 0,019. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Csenotherium filholi, Lydekker 1 . 

This species is about the size of 0. laticurvatum, but has a shorter 
series of cheek-teeth. It is distinguished by the presence of a dia- 
stema occurring between the canine and the first premolar in the 
upper, and between the first and second premolars in the lower jaw; 
by the absence of frontal sulci ; and above all by the peculiar form 
of the nasals, which are short, oval, and sharply pointed anteriorly. 
These differ from those of any other described species, in all of which 

Pier. 22. 





Canotherium filholi. — Upper and lower views of the cranium ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Caylux. \. 



Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. ii. p. 64 (1885). 



OENOTHERIID^. 177 

these bones are long, narrow, and terminate anteriorly in a deep 
notch. There is no depression on the frontals at the root of the 
nasals. 

Hah. France. 

M. 1399. The cranium of a male, wanting only a portion of the 
{Fig.) right zygomatic arch, part of the posterior border of the 
left orbit, the right outer incisor and canine, and the left 
inner incisor and the first premolar; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This speci- 
men, which is figured in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 22), 
is the type of the species, and is described and figured by 
the present writer in the Geol. Mag. loc. cit. In the 
following table the dimensions of this and the next speci- 
men are compared with those of a typical skull of 0. 
laticurvatum. 

C. filholi. C. laticur- 

M. 1399. M. 1400. vatum. 

Cranium : — 

Extreme length superiorly 0-081 0-073 0-0815 

interiorly 0-067 0*064 0-070 

Length of series of cheek-teeth . . 0*032 0-031 0-037 
true molars . . 0-0144 0-0143 0-0175 

Width of palate at m. 3 0-014 .... 0-015 

Length of nasals 0-019 0-0175 0-024 

Greatest width of do 0-008 0-0075 0-006 

Height of occiput 0-015 0-016 

Extreme height of cranium 0-033 0-033 

Vertical diameter of orbit 0-014 0-013 0*015 

Length of diastema 0-0037 0-003 

Mandible : — 

Extreme length 0-056 0-067 

height 0-037 0-043 

Length of dental series 0-039 0-042 

last six teeth 0-030 0-034 

Height at pm. 2 0-007 0-005 

m. 3 0-013 0-017 

Length of diastema 0*0026 

PurcJiased, 1884. 

M. 1400. The cranium and mandible of a smaller, and probably 

(Fig.) female, individual; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

This specimen, which is figured in the accompanying wood- 

PAET II. n 



178 TJNGULA.TA. 

cut (fig. 23), is described and figured by the present writer in 
the Geol. Mag. loc. cit. The cranium is somewhat crushed : 
but exhibits the complete dentition of both sides. Its 
dimensions are given under the head of the last specimen. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Eig. 23. 




Ccenotherium filholi. — The right lateral aspect of the cranium and man- 
dible ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. \. 

M. 1401 b. The hinder portion of the cranium; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1410. Palatal portion of the cranium, agreeing in size with 
No. M. 1399 ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1790 Three fragments of the mandible, agreeing iu size with 
No. M. 1400 ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1403. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last three milk-molars, and m . l and m . 2 ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1403 a. Anterior portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing the alveoli of the incisors, canine, and p m . i, 
and the other cheek-teeth, except m . 3, in a perfect con- 
dition ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. This specimen 
is larger than the mandible of No. M. 1400, and agrees 
exactly in size with the cranium No. 1399. The length 
of the space occupied by the last three premolars and the 
first two molars is 0,0349. Purchased, 1884. 



aaiffOTHERIIDJi;. 179 

Limb-bones of Csenotherium. 

Owing to the number of species it is generally impossible to refer 
limb-bones to their respective owners. It is, however, probable 
that the larger specimens from Allier belong to 0. laticurvatum, and 
from Caylux to G.jWioli 1 . The following specimens from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier belong to the Pomel and Bravard Collections (Pur- 
chased, 1851 and 1852) ; those from the Upper Eocene of Caylux 
were purchased in 1884. 

29419. The glenoidal end of a scapula ; from Allier. 

29267-9, 29271, 29279, 29284, 29290, 29341-2-4, 35084-6. 

Numerous humeri; from Allier. 

M. 1407-1412. Four humeri; from Allier. 

26676, 35358-9. Five ulnse ; from Allier. 

29360-1. Two radii; from Allier. 

M. 1408. Four radii ; from Caylux. 

26678, 29293, 35062-4. Six innominates ; from Allier. 

M. 1405. Four femora ; from Caylux. 

M. 1412. Nine femora ; from Caylux. 

29253-4, 29258. Three tibise; from Allier. 

M. 1406, 1412 a. Sixteen tibiae ; from Caylux. 

M. 1497. Two calcanea; from Caylux. 

M. 1409. An astragalus ; from Caylux. 

M. 1411. Numerous metapodial bones; from Caylux. 

Genus DICHOBUNUS, Cuvier*. 

Syn. Didymodon, Blake 3 . 

Biitimeyer regards this genus as a bunodont form closely allied 
to Ccenoiherium, and this view is followed here. Filhol 4 has de- 
scribed two allied genera under the name of Deilotherium and Spa- 
niotherium. 

1 In the case of some of the larger specimens, the generic determination must 
be considered as provisional. 

2 Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 2, vol. iii. p. 70 (1822), Dichobune. 

3 Geologist, vol. vi. p. 8 (1863). 

* Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Toulouse, 1882, pp. 112, 113. 

N 2 



180 cxngttlatA. 

Dichobunus leporinus 9 Cuvier 1 . 

Syn. Anoplotherium minus, Cuvier 2 . 
Didymodon vauclusianus, Blake 3 . 

Hah. France. 

M. 1418. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the three true 
molars, in an early condition of wear ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. The length 
of the space occupied by the three teeth is 0,020. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1418 a. Cast of a portion of the left maxilla, containing the last 
three premolars and the first two true molars. The 
original is probably from the Upper Eocene of Mont- 
martre, near Paris. This specimen is precisely similar to 
the corresponding part of the larger cranium figured by 
De Blainville in his i Osteographie,' genus Anoplotherium, 
pi. vi. No history. 

M. 2160. Cast of the left maxilla, showing mm. 3 , mm. 4 , and m. 1 . 
The locality of the original is unknown. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 1499. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the second and third true molars ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux. This specimen agrees precisely with the one 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. pi. xix. 
fig. 327. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1500. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
pm. 2, the alveolus of p m> 3, pm. 4, m. 1, and ^~2, in a 
partially worn condition; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. Allowing for the difference in wear of the two 
specimens, this jaw agrees very closely with the one 
figured by Filhol, loc. cit. Purchased, 1884. 

30673. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 

(Fig-) mm. 4 (broken), mTI, and m72 ; from the Upper Eocene of 

Debruge near Apt (Yaucluse), France. This specimen is 

described and figured by Blake in the ' Geologist,' vol. vi. 

p. 8, pi. ii. figs. 1, 2 (1863), under the name of Didy- 

1 Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 2, vol. iii. p. 70 (1822). 
* Ann. d. Museum, vol. iii. p. 381 (1804). 
3 Geologist, vol. vi. p. 8 (1863). 



C^ENOTHERlIDib: 181 

modon vauclusianus, of which it is the type ; he considered 
the three teeth as the three true molars. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2160. Three fragments of the mandible, two of which show the 
last milk-molar ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2162. Cast of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the third 
incisor, canine, and all the cheek-teeth. The locality of 
the original is not known. Purchased, 1885. 

29513. The scapula; from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29491. The anconeal joint ; from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 
This specimen agrees with the specimens figured by De 
Blainville, loc. cit. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29473. Two specimens of the calcaneum ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Montmartre. These specimens are rather larger than 
those figured by De Blainville. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Dichobunus robertianus, P. Gervais 1 . 

This is a smaller species than the last. 

Hah. France. 
44880 e. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the 
three true molars ; from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 
This specimen agrees very closely with the mandible of 
D. robertianus from the same locality figured by Gervais 
in the Zool. et Pal. Erancaises, 2nd ed. pi. xxxv. fig. 13 ; 
and may, at least provisionally, be referred to the same 
species. The length of the space occupied by the three 
true molars is 0,0205, as against 0,0245 in B. leporinus 
(No. M. 2165). Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Genus ACOTHERULUM, P. Gervais 2 . 

The general form of the skull and teeth of the one known species 
of this genus seems to indicate affinity with Bichobunus, but the 
absence of the intermediate cusp on the hinder lobe of the upper true 
molars, and the more completely bunodont structure of these teeth 
apparently indicates affinity with Cebochoerus and its allies. 

1 Zool. et Pal. Frai^aises, 1st ed. vol. ii. Exp. no. 35, p. 6 (1848-52). 

2 Comptes Eendus, vol. xxx. p. 604 (1850). > 



182 



TTNWLATA. 



Acotherulum satuminum, P. Gervais 1 . 
Hab. Europe. 
36942, 36964. Numerous upper and lower teeth ; from the Bern- 
bridge (?) beds (Upper Eocene) of the Isle of Wight. These 
teeth appear to agree precisely with those of typical con- 
tinental specimens. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

37333. An upper and part of a lower true molar ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Bembridge, Isle of Wight. 

Presented by F. E. Edwards, Esq., 1863. 

36964 a. Cast of part of the maxilla of an immature individual, 
showing mm. 3 , mm. 4 , m. 1 , and m. 2 , The original is from 
the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse, Erance. 

Presented by Dr. Kowalevshy. 

36964 b. Fragment of the right maxilla of an immature individual, 
containing mm, 3 and mm. 4 ; from the Headon beds (Upper 
Eocene) of Hordwell, Hampshire. 



Hastings Collection. 



Purchased, 1855. 



Family ANOPLOTHERIID^. 

Dentition : — (Usually) I. |, C. ~, Pm. J, M. |. In Anoplotherium 
minus (Filhol) pm. 1 is absent. 

The dentition is imperfectly selenodont, and there are five columns 
on the crowns of the upper true molars ; three placed on the anterior 
and two on the posterior lobe. In this and all the subsequent 
families, the metapodials and the navicular and cuboid of the tarsus 
are distinct. 



Genus XIPHODON, Cuvier 2 . 
Including Xiphodontherium, Filhol 3 . 
Ln the typical forms there is no diastema, but in certain small 
species about the size of Cainotherium referred by Filhol to a distinct 
genus under the name of Xiphodontherium, but which the writer 
thinks may better be included in the type genus, there is a well- 
marked interval in the dental series. Tho true molars are formed 
after tho type of those of Anoplotherium, but present a more com- 

1 Comptes Kendus, vol. xxx. p. 604 (1850). 

2 Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. iii. p. 62 (1822). 

3 Ann. Sci. G6ol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 200 (1877). 



ANOPLOTHERnD^). 183 

pletely selenodont structure. According to P. Gervais, the feet are 
didactylate. Flower arranges this genus and Ccenotherium in one 
family — the Xiphodontidoe. 

Xiphodon gracilis, Cuvier 1 . 
Syn. Anoplotherium {Xiphodon) graeile, Cuvier 2 . 
Hab. Europe. 

30641. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last four 

cheek-teeth; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge, near 
Apt (Yaucluse), France. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852, 

30640. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing pm_4, m. 1 , and 
m. 2 ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2145. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the four last 
cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2146-7. Fragments of the right and left maxillae of young in- 
dividuals, showing mm. 3 mm. 4 , and m. 1 ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Debruge. Purchased, 1885. 

30639. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm. 3 , pm. 4 , and 
m. 1 ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30642. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing m. 1 and m. 2 • 

from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30643. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing m. 1 and m. 2 ; from 

the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30644. The penultimate left upper true premolar ; from the Upper 

Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30645. Detached upper true molars; from the Upper Eocene of 

Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30634. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing the last five cheek-teeth ; from the Upper 

1 Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 2, vol. iii. p. 70 (1822). 2 Loc. cit. 



184 



TTNGTJLATA. 



Eocene of Debruge. This specimen agrees precisely with 
the one figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. 
pi. x. figs. 251-3. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30663. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the last four cheek-teeth, in an early stage of 
wear ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30646. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last four cheek-teeth, in a well-worn condition ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2148. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, with 
the last five cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2149. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 
showing all the cheek-teeth except pmTT; from the Upper 
Eocene of Debruge. Purchased, 1885. 

30635. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 

three true molars ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30638. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the three true molars, in a much-worn condition; from 
the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30653. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 

the three true molars ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26797. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the four last cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

30636. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 

three true molars, the third broken ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30637. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 

the three true molars ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



ANOPLOTHERIID-aS. 185 

30649. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 

p ~ m 71 and m77 ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30654. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
mTT and m7"2 ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30650. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 

5TT and m7~2, in a much-worn condition ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30662. The symphysial portion of the right ramus of the mandible ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30647. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
p m . 3 ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26798. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 

pm. 3 ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

36948. The third lower premolar ; from the Upper Eocene of Bern- 
bridge, Isle of Wight. This is the only English example 
with which the writer is acquainted. Purchased, 1861. 

26799. The distal half of the right humerus ; from the Upper Eocene 

of Yaucluse. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26799 a. The distal portion of the left humerus ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Montmartre, near Paris. No history. 

a 62 (0. C). Cast of the heads of the bones forming the left an- 
coneal joint. The original is from the Upper Eocene of 
Montmartre. No history. 

26801. The distal half of the right tibia ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Yaucluse. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26805. The right calcaneum ; from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

29472. The right calcaneum ; from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

a 60 (0. C). Cast of the right astragalus. The original is from the 
Upper Eocene of Montmartre. No history. 



1! 



TTNG PLATA. 



26802. The astragalus ; from the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse. 

Pomel Collection, Purchased, 1851. 

26803. The navicular ; from the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26804. The cuboid : from the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 
(See also Addenda.) 



Xiphodon gelyensis, P. Gervais 1 . 

This species has been hitherto known only by the imperfect ramus 
of the mandible figured by P. Gervais, loc. cit. 2nd ed. pi. xv. fig. 4, 
which was obtained from the Upper Eocene of St. Gely-du-Eesc, near 
Montpellier (Herault), Erance. The specimen noticed below agrees 
so closely with the type, that it may be at least provisionally referred 
to the same species. 

Hah. Erance. 



M. 1419. 



The left ramus of the mandible, containing all the cheek- 
teeth (the last milk-molar being still in position) ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), Erance. 
This specimen, which is represented in the accompanying 
woodcut (fig. 24), from the very elongated form of the 

Fig. 24. 




Xiphodon gelyensis ? — The left ramus of the mandible; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. \. 

premolars and the apparent absence of a diastema, seems 
to belong to a true Xiphodon, and is of much smaller size 
than X. gracilis. The three true molars agree almost 
exactly with those of the type of X. gelyensis ; but the 
last milk-molar is rather longer than pm . 4- The length 
of the space occupied by the seven cheek-teeth is 0,061, 
and that by the three true molars 0,025 ; the latter dimen- 
sion in the type specimen being 0,0265. The teeth are 
very like those of X. gracilis. Purchased, 1884. 

1 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 90 (1848-52). 



ANOPLOTHERIIDiE. 187 

Xiphodon secundarius (Filhol 1 ). 
Syn. Xiphodontherium secundarium, Filhol 2 . 
Hob. France. 

M. 2137. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last five cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux 
(Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This specimen agrees pre- 
cisely with the one figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. viii. pi. xix. figs. 321-3. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2138. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the last four cheek-teeth and the alveoli of the 
earlier teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1885. 

Genus DACRYTHERIUM, Filhol 3 . 

The molars of this genus are nearest to those of Xiphodon, but 
the premolars are less elongated; there is no diastema. 

Dacrytherium ovinum (Owen 4 ). 

Syn. Dichobunus ovinus, Owen 5 . 

There seems no reasonable doubt but that the so-called Dichobunus 
ovinus, which P. Gervais 6 considered closely allied to Xiphodon 
gracilis, belongs to Dacrytherium. It is a rather larger form than 
D. cayluxense, Filhol 7 ; and it is not improbable that it may be spe- 
cifically the same as Xiphodon platyceps, Flower 8 , the cranium of 
which is very like that of D. cayluxense, but of somewhat larger size. 

29174 a. The nearly complete mandible, showing all the teeth with 
(Fig.) the exception of the two inner pairs of incisors ; from the 
Headon beds (Upper Eocene) of the Isle of Wight. This 
specimen is the type of the species, and is described and 
figured by Owen in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xiii. 
p. 254, pi. viii. The length of the space occupied by the 
last six teeth is 0,066, as against 0,062 in D. cayluxense. 



1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 203 (1877), Xiphodontherium. 

1 Loc. cit. 

3 Comptes Eendus, vol. lxxxii. p. 288 (1876). 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xiii. p. 254 (1857), Dichobunus, 

5 Loc. cit. 

3 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. p. 159. 

7 Ann. Sci. G6ol. vol. viii. pi. xviii. pi. x. figs. 254-0. Amended. 

' Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 3, pi. i. 



188 UNGULA.TA. 

The canine is less developed in the present specimen, and 
the third incisor less obliquely placed than in the latter. 
In both the third lobe of m . 3 has two cusps. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29174. Fragment of the right ramus of a mandible, containing m . 3, 
and the hinder part of m. 2, which may belong to the 
present genus or species ; from the Headon beds ( Upper 
Eocene) of Hordwell, Hampshire. The length of m. 3 is 
0,021. Hastings Collection, Purchased, 1855. 

Genus ANOPLOTHERIUM, Cuvier \ 

Including JEurytherium, P. Gervais 2 . 

Diplobune, Riitimeyer 3 {in parte). 

Great confusion exists in regard to the larger species here in- 
cluded in this genus, owing to the imperfect definition of one of 
Cuvier's species, and the circumstance that Gervais' Euniiherium 
latipes 4 was founded on bones of the feet. 

The specimens of the dentition and bones of the feet of the larger 
forms in the Museum may be arranged in two series, as follows : — 






Dentition. 

A. Largest form. 

Paris, Vaucluse, and Quercy. 

B. Smaller form. 
Paris and Vaucluse. 



C. Still smaller form. 

Paris, Yaucluse, and Quercy. 



Foot-bones. 
A'. Largest tridactyle form. 

Paris, Yaucluse, and Quercy. 
B'. Smaller tridactyle form. 

Paris and Yaucluse. 
B' ' . Equal-sized didactyle form . 

Paris and Yaucluse. 
C". Still smaller tridactyle form. 

Paris, Yaucluse, and Quercy. 

The specimens ranged under A comprehend the typical A. magnum, 
and others from Yaucluse and Quercy which cannot be specifically 
distinguished, although there is a slight variation in the size of 
individual specimens from all three localities. The specimens in A' 
correspond to Eurytlierium latipes, and as these are the largest 
limb-bones, the a priori presumption is that they belong to the 
same species as the largest teeth, viz. A. commune. This has been 
practically recognized by Filhol % who provisionally refers the 

1 Ann. d. Museum, vol. iii. p. 370 (1804). 

2 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. ii. Exp. no. 36, p. 3 (1848-52). 

3 Denkschr. schw. Ges. Nat. vol. xix. art. 3, p. 74 (1862). 

4 Vide Zool. et Pal. Francises, 2nd ed. pi. xxxvi. 

5 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 142 (1877). 



ANOPLOTHETtUD M. 189 

Quercy specimens A to Eurytherium latipes on the grounds that they 
are associated with the foot-bones of that form (A 1 ), although at the 
same time remarking that they are practically indistinguishable 
from the Paris specimens of the dentition of A. commune. 

The specimens ranged under B indicate a smaller form, which the 
writer is disposed to identify with Cuvier's Anoplotherium secun- 
darium. Both the didactyle and tridactyle foot-bones from the 
same two localities, arranged under B' and B'\ would agree in 
relative size very fairly with this form ; and this marked difference 
in the foot may indicate that B really comprehends two species in- 
distinguishable by dental characters alone. The foot-bones ranged 
under B" are those referred by Cuvier to Anoplotherium commune. 
The reasons against this view are the same as those for identifying 
E. latipes with that species. 

The smaller teeth classed as agree well in size with the limb- 
bones ranged under (7, and correspond with specimens referred by 
Filhol to Anoplotherium secundarium. Assuming, however, the 
correctness of the reference of the form B to that species, the form 
G will be distinct, and is therefore referred to another species under 
the name of A. cayluocense. 

The foregoing correlation requires careful verification with the 
specimens in the Paris Museum, and the writer has therefore merely 
referred specimens of the dentition to the various species mentioned 
below, arranging the specimens of the foot-bones in proximity to 
those species with which they appear to agree best, and not ad- 
mitting any species founded merely on that portion of the skeleton. 

The slight differences in the lower dentition of the so-called 
Diplobune do not appear to the writer to be worthy of generic 
distinction. 

Anoplotherium commune, Cuvier '. 

Syn. (?) Eurytherium latipes, P. Gervais 2 . 
(?) Anoplotherium platypus, Pomel 3 . 

The teeth of this form indicate the largest species of the genus. 
The true molars are of a hypsodont type. 
Hah. Prance and England. 

11813. Cast of the left upper cheek-dentition, in a partially-worn 
condition. The original is from the Upper Eocene of 
Montmartre near Paris, and is preserved in the Paris 

1 Ann. d. Museum, vol. iii. p. 469 (1804). 

2 Zool. et Pal. Fran9aises, 1st ed. vol. ii. Exp. no. 36, p. 3 (1848-52). 

3 Comptes Eendus, vol. xxxiii. p. 16 (1851). 



190 UNGULATA. 

Museum. It is figured by Cuvier in the ' Ossemens 
Fossiles/ 2nd ed. vol. iii. pi. xlvi. fig. 2. The length of 
the space occupied by the seven cheek-teeth is 0,155, and 
that by the three true molars 0,080. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

26776, 30582. The right aud left maxillae with the whole of the 
dentition, apparently belonging to the same individual; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge, near Apt (Yaucluse), 
France. The length of the space occupied by the seven 
cheek-teeth is 0,154, and that by the three true molars 
0,081. 

Pomel and Bravard Collections. Purchased, 1851-2. 

29440 a. The third right upper true molar, in an early condition 
{Fig.) of wear ; from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. This 

specimen is figured by Owen in the Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc. vol. xxvi. pi. xxix. fig. 11 (1870). 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29440. The second left upper true molar, very slightly worn ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29538. The first right upper true molar, very slightly worn; from 
the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 1390. The first right upper true molar, in an early condition of 
wear ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), Erance. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1391. The second left upper true molar, in an early condition 
of wear ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1884. 

29548. A broken second left upper true molar, in an early condition 
of wear; from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

168 (0. C). Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing all 

the cheek-teeth except pm. l ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Montmartre. Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

169 (0. C). Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing all 

the cheek-teeth except pm . 1 ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Montmartre. Presented by Baron Cuvier. 



ANOPLOTHERIIDJE. 



191 



29582. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing m . 1 

and ^72 in alveolo ; from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Eastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

46018. The hinder portion of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the three true molars, in a well-worn condition ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Purchased, 1874. 

29447. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
m . 2 and m73 ; from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30582. The left ramus of the mandible, containing all the teeth 
except the first incisor and the canine; from the Upper 
Eocene of Debruge. The length of the space occupied by 
the seven cheek-teeth is 0,169, that by the last five teeth 
0,137, and that by the three true molars 0,093. The 
latter space in No. 46018 is 0,088. A specimen figured 
by Filhol in the Ami. Sci. Greol. vol. viii. pi. xv. figs. 296-7, 
from the Quercy phosphorites, under the name of Eury- 
therium latipes l , precisely resembles the present specimen, 
the length of the space occupied by the last five cheek- 
teeth being 0,132. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26787. The right ramus of the mandible, containing all the teeth, 
and perhaps belonging to the same individual as the last 
specimen ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

M. 1386. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
three premolars, m . 1, and m. 2 ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. This specimen agrees precisely with No. 30582, 
and also with the one figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. viii. pi. xv. figs. 296-7. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1387. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
m/3 in an almost unworn condition; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. This specimen agrees exactly with the 
corresponding part of No. 30582. Purchased, 1884. 

30793. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible of a 
young individual, containing the last three milk-molars, 
in. 1, and m . 2 ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. This 

1 The plate is lettered Eurytherium commune. 



192 TTNGKJLA.TA. 

specimen agrees in size with No. 30582 ; the length of the 
space occupied by the three milk-molars is 0,0565, and 
the length of mm. 4, 0,023. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29550. The second left lower premolar ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Montmartre. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Tridactyle foot-bones belonging to the largest species of Anoplo- 
thekitjm (Eurytherium latipes, Cervais, (?)=Anoplotherium 
commune, Cuvier). 

29572. The left unciform, and an imperfect associated metacarpal; 
from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. These bones are 
considerably larger than those of No. 11814 (page 196). 
Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30599, 30603. The right lunar and the left scaphoid ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2189, 2190. The left third and fourth metacarpals of two indi- 
viduals ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 1466. The right fourth metacarpal ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. The extreme length of this specimen is 0,117. 

Purchased, 1884. 

188 (0. C). The right third metacarpal ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Montmartre. Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

30595. The right third and fourth metacarpals and two proximal 

phalangeals, agreeing nearly in size with the preceding 
specimens ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30596. A similar left third metacarpal ; from the Upper Eocene of 

Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30764. The left second metacarpal ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge. This specimen is much larger than the corre- 
sponding bone in the tridactyle foot No. 30600 a (page 
196), and agrees very closely with the specimen figured by 
P. Gervaisin the Zool. ot Pal. Franchises, pi. xxxvi. fig. 1. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2188. The left second metacarpal ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 



ANOPLOTHERTIB^E. 193 

186 (0. C). The left astragalus ; from the Upper Eocene of Mont- 

martre. This specimen agrees precisely with the type 
astragalus of Eurytherium latijpes, figured by P. Gervais in 
the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, pi. xxxvi. fig. 5. Its extreme 
length is 0,071, and its greatest width distally 0,053. 

Presented by Baron Cuvier. 

187 (0. C). A similar left astragalus ; from the Upper Eocene of 

Montmartre. JSommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

29506. A slightly smaller right astragalus ; from the Upper 

Eocene of Montmartre. 

Heatings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 1465. The right calcaneum ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 
This specimen agrees with the one figured by P. Gervais 
in the Zool. et Pal. Erangaises, pi. xxxvi. fig. 4. 

Purchased, 1884. 

29507. A large imperfect left calcaneum, differing slightly from the 

preceding specimen ; from the Upper Eocene of Mont- 
martre. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 



29467. The left cuboid ; from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30601, 30602. Two specimens of the cuboid; from the Upper 
Eocene of Debruge. These bones, together with No. 29467, 
are considerably larger than the cuboids in the complete 
feet from Debruge and Montmartre (pages 196, 197). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1467, The left fourth metatarsal; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. This specimen is larger than the corresponding 
bone in the foot from Debruge, Wo. 30600 b (page 196). 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 2187. The right third metatarsal; from the Upper Eoceue of 
Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2191, M. 2192. Two third phalangeals ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 



pabi n. 



194 UNGULATA. 

Anoplotherium secundarium, Cuvier \ 
Syn. ? Anoplotherium laurillardi, Poinel 2 . 

Cuvier originally described this species on the evidence of part of 
the upper milk-molar dentition 3 , showing that it was " de grandeur 
un peu inferieure " to A. commune ; but in a subsequent notice 
denned the latter as being of the size of an ass, and the former as 
that of a boar. The comparatively large size of the type milk-molars 
indicates the probability of the present form corresponding to A. 
secundarium rather than the next. The true molars are of a hypsodont 
type, and can only be distinguished from those of A. commune by 
their inferior size. In the case of detached lower teeth the distinc- 
tion is very difficult. 

Hab. Prance and (?) England. 

20605. The left maxilla, containing all the teeth except the canine ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge, near Apt (Yauciuse), 
France. The length of the space occupied by the seven 
cheek-teeth is 0,133, that by the three true molars 0,072, 
and that by nhl and ^2 0,044. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26762. The left maxilla, wanting pin. 2 , m. l f and m- 2 ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Debruge. This specimen agrees precisely 
with the preceding. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

30773. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the second and 
third true molars, in a well-worn condition ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Debruge. The teeth agree in size with 
those of No. 20605. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

26777. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing two teeth similar 
to those of the last specimen ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30583. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing m. 2 and m. 3, in an 
unworn condition ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30624. Fragment of the right maxilla of an immature individual, 

{Fig.) containing the last three milk-molars, and m. 1 and m. 2 

(broken) ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. This 

1 Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. iii. p. 69 (1822). 

2 Coinptes Kendus, vol. xxxiii. p. 16 (1851). 

3 Loo. cit. 



ANOPLOTHERIID^. 195 

specimen is figured in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 25). 
The length of m. 1 is 0,0204, which is the same as in No. 





Anoplotherium secundarium. — Part of the right maxilla of an immature 
specimen; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. \. 



20605 ; the length of the space occupied by the three milk- 
molars is 0,049. The unworn condition of the molars 
clearly exhibits their characteristic hypsodont structure. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30607. Fragment of the left maxilla of the same individual, 
containing mm. 4 , m. 1 , and m. 2 j from the Upper Eocene 
of Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30622. The complete left ramus of the mandible, containing all the 
teeth except the innermost incisor and the canine ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Debruge. This specimen agrees in 
relative size with the maxilla No. 20G05 : the length of 
the space occupied by the seven cheek-teeth is 0,139, that 
by the last five teeth 0,110, and that by the three true 
molars 0,075. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30974. Eragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last four cheek-teeth; from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge. This specimen agrees in size with the last. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26763. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining all the cheek-teeth except pm. l ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Debruge. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

30792. The left ramus of the mandible of a young individual, con- 
taining mm. 4, m. l, and m . 2; from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge. This specimen agrees in relative size with the 

o2 



196 



TTNGTTLATA. 



adult mandible No. 30622, and is smaller than the young 
mandible of A. commune, No. 30793. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30797. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a young 
individual, containing mm. 3 and mm. 4, and agreeing in 
size with the last specimen ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2144. Greater part of the right ramus of the mandible of a 
young individual, showing the last three milk-molars ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. This specimen re- 
sembles the last two, the length of mm. 4 being 0,0215. 

Purchased, 1885. 

Foot-bones of the second largest tridactyle form. 

30600 a. The greater part of the skeleton of the right fore foot, 
made up from the bones of different individuals ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Debruge. The extreme length of the 
fourth metacarpal is 0,102. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30600 b. The greater part of the skeleton of the left hind foot, made 
up from the bones of different individuals ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Debruge. It is apparently from a cast of this 
specimen that the figure given on page 157 (fig. 209) of 
Gaudry's ' Les Enchainements — Mammiferes Tertiaires ' 
is taken, the astragalus being represented on a-larger scale 
on page 149 (fig. 194) of the same work. The figures are 
referred to Eurytherium latipes, but the astragalus is 
smaller and relatively shorter than the type of that form 
(supra, p. 193). The extreme length of the astragalus is 
0,052, and its greatest width inferiorly 0,042 ; the corre- 
sponding dimensions of the astragalus of the so-called 
E. latipes being 0,071 and 0,053. The calcaneum differs 
widely from No. M. 1465 (p. 193). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30600 C. A very similar left hind foot, without the astragalus ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Boot-hones of the equal-sized didactyle form. 

11814. Cast of the bones of the right fore foot. The original is 
from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre, and is figured in 



AN0PL0THEKIIDJ3. 197 

De Blaiuville's ' Osteographie,' genus Anoplotherium, 
pi. iii., under the name of A. commune. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

29469-70. The right unciform and magnum, agreeing very closely 
with the corresponding hones of the preceding ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 2213. The left cuneiform ; from the Upper Eocene of Mont- 
martre. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2212. The proximal extremities of the two associated right 
metacarpals and three carpal bones ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Montmartre. Purchased, 1885 

M. 2209. The third left metacarpal; from the Upper Eocene of 
Montmartre. Purchased, 1885. 

11816. Cast of the hones of the left hind foot. The original is 
from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre, and is figured in 
De Blamville's ' Osteographie/ genus Anoplotherium, pi. iv., 
under the name of A. commune. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

M. 2221. The right metatarsals and several of the associated tarsal 
bones; from Montmartre. The metatarsals are rather 
larger than those of No. 11816. ■ Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2220. A first and second phalangeal ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Montmartre. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2214. A third phalangeal ; from the Upper Eocene of Mont- 
martre. Purchased, 1885. 

The following agree in size with the tw: preceding forms. 
26767, 30851, 30854, 30856, 30861. Eive astragali, agreeing very 
closely with the astragalus of the tridactyle form ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Pomel and Bravard Collections. Purchased, 1851-2. 

30740-1. Two specimens of the astragalus and calcansum of oppo- 
site sides, agreeing very closely with the preceding ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

172 (0. C). A left calcaneum, left astragalus, and right cuboid ; 



198 TTNGULATA. 

from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. The astragalus 
agrees very closely with that of the didactyle form. 

Presented by Baron Cuvier. 

46729. A left calcaneum ; from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Purchased, 1874. 

30751-54. Eive specimens of the cuboid ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30726, 30730. Two specimens of the cuboid ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26772, 30758-60. Four specimens of the navicular; from the 
Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



Anoplotherium cayhixense, Lydekker, n. sp. 
Syu. Eurytherium secundarium, Filhol 1 . 

This species is polydactyle, and of somewhat smaller size than the 
Last, from which it is readily distinguished by the brachydont struc- 
ture of the upper molars, and the approximation and distinctness of 
the inner terminations of the anterior crescents of the lower true 
molars. There is a certain amount of variation in the upper true 
molars ; the outer surfaces of the external cusps in one variety 
being more inwardly inclined than in another, which is thus less 
widely removed from A. secundarium. The teeth of the most 
brachydont variety present a striking resemblance to those of Hyo- 
potamus, especially the brachydont H. porcinus. 
Hab. Erance. 

30708. Fragment of the right maxilla of the less brachydont 
variety, containing the last four cheek-teeth in an almost 
unworn condition ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge, 
near Apt (Yaucluse), France. The length of the space 
occupied by the tbree true molars is 0,051. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M, 2514. Cast of the greater part of the left maxilla of the same 
variety, showing the canine (broken) and the seven 
^beek-teeth. The original is from the Upper Eocene of 

Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 143 (1877). 



ANOPLOTHEEIID^. 199 

Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France, and is in the posses- 
sion of Dr. Filhol. The length of the space occupied by 
the seven cheek-teeth is 0,110, and that by the three 
true molars 0,057. Made in the Museum, 1885. 

M. 2142. Fragment of the left maxilla of an immature individual of 
the same variety as the last ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. The length of the space occupied by the last 
three milk-molars is 0,054, or less than in the correspond- 
ing specimen of A. secundarium, No. 30607. The first 
true molar is rather larger than in No. 30708, its length 
being 0,017, as against 0,015, the latter dimension agree- 
ing with that of the specimen described by Filhol 
(op. cit.). Purchased, 1885. 

30608. Fragment of the right maxilla of the intermediate variety ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. This specimen shows 
m. 2 and m. 3 , in a partially worn condition, which are 
slightly larger than in No. 30708, and make a nearer 
approach to the brachydont form. The length of the space 
occupied by the three true molars in a very similar speci- 
men from Caylux, in the collection of M. Eilhol, measures 
0,056. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2141. Fragment of the right maxilla of the more brachydont 

{Fig.) variety, containing the last five cheek-teeth, in a partially 

worn condition; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. In 

this specimen, which is figured in the accompanying 

woodcut (fig. 26), the outer surfaces of the external cusps 

Pis:. 26. 




Anojplotherium cayluxense. — Part of the right maxilla of the brachydont 
variety; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. \. 

are inclined inwardly to an extreme extent, and the valleys 
are very shallow. The length of the space occupied by 
the three true molars is 0,0545. In a very similar speci- 



200 UNGULATA. 

men in the possession of Dr. Eilhol, the length of the 
corresponding space is 0,057 ; the inclination of the outer 
surface of the external cusps is slightly less in that speci- 
men. The striking resemblance of the molars of the 
present specimen to those of Hyopotamus is apparent from 
ohe figure, and leads to the inference that Anopl 'other iwm 
and Hyopotamus are closely connected. Purchased, 1885. 

30632. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing all the 
cheek-teeth except pm. 1 and m . l ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Debruge. This specimen agrees with the one figured 
by Eilhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. pi. xv. figs. 298 
-9, under the name of Eurytherium secundarium, with 
the exception of the slightly larger size of m . 3. The 
length of the space occupied by the three true molars is 
0,0615. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1388. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
mT2 and m. 3 ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. This 
specimen agrees precisely with the last. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 2143. The right ramus of the mandible of a young individual, 
containing the last milk-molar and the three true molars ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. The length of the 
space occupied by the three true molars is 0,061, the 
length of ]^~3 0,027, and that of mm. 4 0,019; these 
dimensions being almost identical with those of the speci- 
men figured by Eilhol {op. tit.). Purchased, 1885. 

30363. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible of a 
young individual, agreeing very closely with the last, and 
showing the incisors, canine, p m . 1, mm. 2, mm. 3, mm. 4, 
and m7T ; from the Upper Eocene of Vaucluse. The 
length of the space occupied by the three milk-molars is 
0,055, and the length of m^Ti 0,018. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Foot-bones of the third largest tridactyle form. 

30600 d. Several of the bones of the right fore foot, comprising the 
unciform, the three metacarpals, one proximal, and two 
second phalangeals ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 
This specimen agrees well in size with A. cayluxense, the 
extreme length of the third metacarpal being 0,086. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



ANOPLOTHEEIID^. 201 

30719. The proximal portion of the right metacarpus, agreeing very 
closely with the preceding specimen; from the Upper 
Eocene of Vauchise. The second metacarpal in this speci- 
men is a cast. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30725, 30737- Two specimens of the cuboid ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30727, 30728, 30756. Three specimens of the navicular ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2218. Three specimens of the second metacarpal ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 1478-9. The left fourth metatarsal and metacarpal : from Caylux. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Anoplotherium quercyi (Eilhol 1 ). 

Syn. Eurytherium quercyi, Filhol 2 . 
Diplobune quercyi, Gaudry 3 . 

This species is smaller than the preceding ; it has a brachydont 
dentition, but the inward inclination of the outer surfaces of the 
external columns of the upper true molars is not so great as in some 
specimens of that species ; pm. 3 is relatively shorter and narrower. 

Hah. France. 

M. 2515. Cast of the right maxilla, showing the canine and the seven 
cheek-teeth. The original, which is the type, is from the 
Upper Eocene of AEouillac (Tarn-et-Garonne), France, and 
is in the possession of Dr. H. Filhol, by whom it is de- 
scribed and figured in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, 
pp. 148-149, pi. xvi. fig. 302. The length of the space 
occupied by the seven cheek-teeth is 0,092, and that by 
the three true molars 0,046. 

Made in the Museum, 1885. 

Anoplotherium modicum (Filhol 4 ) 
Syn. Eurytherium modicum, Filhol 5 . 

This is a brachydont species, about two thirds the size of the 
last. 

Hah. France. 

1 A.nn. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 148 (1877), Eurytherium. - Loc. cit. 

3 Les Enchainenients — Mainniiferes Tertiaires, p. 165 (187S). 

4 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 146 (1877), Eurytherium. 5 Loc. cit. 



202 TJXGULATA. 

M. 2140. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the three true 
molars ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), Prance. This specimen agrees with the type 
mandible figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. 
pi. xvi. figs. 304, 305, and is too large to have belonged to 
A. minus. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2405. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a small 
individual of the present species, showing m. 2 and m . 3 ; 
from Caylux. The length of nT~3 is 0,017. 

Purchased, 1885. 

Anoplotherium bavaricum (Fraas 1 ). 
Syn. Diplobune bavaricum, Fraas 2 . 

This species agrees very closely in size with A. modicum, and 
the distinctive characters of the two are not very clear ; there is a 
considerable difference in the length of the space occupied by the 
four premolars in the two specimens figured by Fraas (he. cit.). 
The upper jaw is unknown. 

Hob. Europe. 

M. 2139. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
m. 2 and m. 3 ; from the Upper Eocene Bohnerz of Wur- 
fenel, Bavaria. This specimen agrees very closely with 
the corresponding portions of the two mandibles figured by 
Fraas, op. cit. pi. xxxviii. figs. 1, 2. The true molars are 
larger than those of Anoplotherium minus, figured by Filhol 
in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. pi. xvi. fig. 307. 

Purchased, 1885. 

Anoplotherium minus (Filhol 3 ). 
Syn. Eurytherium minus, Filhol 4 . 

This species is distinguished by the absence of p m . i ; in the type 
form the space occupied by the premolars is the same as that occu- 
pied by the corresponding teeth in the type of A. bavaricum (Palse- 
ontographica, vol. xvii. pi. xxxviii. fig. 1), but the true molars are 
considerably smaller ; the upper dentition is apparently unknown. 

Hob. Europe. 

1 Palseontographica, vol. xvii. p. 177 (1870), Diplobune. 2 Loc. cit. 

3 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 151 (1877), Eurytherium. 

4 Loc. cit. 



ANOPLOTHERILD^. 203 

M. 2407. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the last two premolars and the first two true molars ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), 
Prance. This specimen agrees very closely with the type 
mandible figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. 
pi. xvi. figs. 306, 307, but the depth of the ramus is some- 
what greater. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2406. Fragment of the right ramus of a mandible, provisionally 
referred to this species, containing the last three premolars 
and ^~l ; from the Upper Eocene of Wurtemberg. The 
length of the space occupied by the three premolars is 
nearly the same as in the last specimen, and also as in the 
mandible of A. havaricum figured by Fraas in the ' Palse- 
ontographica,' vol. xvii. pi. xxxviii. fig. 1, but the length 
of ^17i is considerably less than in the latter. 

Purchased, 1885. 

Specifically undetermined limb-bones of Anoplotherium. 

178 (O.C.). Cast of the glenoidal extremity of the scapula of a large 
species. Tho original is from the Upper Eocene of Mont- 
martre, and is figured (reversed) in De Blainville's ' Os- 
teographie,' genus Anoplotherium, pi. iii., under the name 
of A. commune. Presented by Baron Cuvier. 

30588. The crushed right humerus of a large form (? A. commune) ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30825. A smaller crushed right humerus (? A. secundarium) ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

145 (0. C). The distal extremity of a large left humerus ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Sbmmering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

26778. The distal half of a right humerus, agreeing in size with 
No. 30588 ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

30824. The distal half of a right humerus, agreeing in size with 
No. 30823 ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

2207. The left humerus (wanting the proximal extremity), agreeing 
nearly in size with the last ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 



204 



UJSTGTJXATA. 



11066. Cast of the proximal extremity of the right ulna. The 
original is from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre, and is 
figured by Cuvier in the ' Ossemens Eossiles,' 2nd ed. vol. iii. 
pi. lxi. figs. 12, 13, as A. commune. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

29585. The greater part of an eroded right ulna, somewhat smaller 
than the last specimen ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Montmartre. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30590. The right ulna, agreeing precisely in size with No. 11066 ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30833. The distal half of a smaller right ulna, differing from No. 
1106 in the form of the extremity of the olecranon ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26780. The distal half of a rather smaller right ulna ; from Debruge. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

11815. Cast of the left radius of a large form. The original is from 
the Upper Eocene of Montmartre, and is figured in De 
Blainville's ' Osteographie,' genus Anojil other ium, pi. iii., 
as A. commune. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

176 (0. C). A broken right radius, agreeing with No. 11815 ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Presented by Baron Cuvier. 

30592. A smaller right radius ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30828. A still smaller right radius ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28779. The proximal half of a right radius, slightly larger than the 
preceding ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

30714. The greater part of a left radius, agreeing nearly in size 
with the last, but with a much greater antero-posterior 
extent of the proximal surface ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30714 a. The greater part of a smaller left radius, agreeing in 



ANOPLOTHEKirD^. 205 

form with No. 11815 ; from the Upper Eocene of De- 
bruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30713. The greater part of a still smaller left radius ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30029. The associated distal extremities of the right radius and 
ulna of a very large anoplotheroid ; from the Upper 
Eocene of the Isle of Wight. The long diameter of the 
distal extremity of the radius is 0,084, as compared with 
0,062 in No. 11815. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 2211. The proximal half of a right radius ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Montmartre. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2215. The proximal half of a left radius ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 

30842. A third left metacarpal, of a massive type; from the 
Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

184 (0. C). A damaged metacarpal, of an elongate type ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Sbmmering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

26782. Part of the left innominate of a large form (? A. commune) ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. The long diameter 
of the acetabulum is 0,062. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

191 (0. C). The left ilium of a much smaller form ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Montmartre. 

Sbmmering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

30589. The greater part of the left femur of a large species (?^i. 
commune) ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26781. A smaller right femur, in a much-crushed condition; from 
the Upper Eocene of Debruge (? A. secundcuium). 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

174 (0. C). Head of a femur ; from the Upper Eocene of Mont- 
martre. Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 



206 UNGULATA. 

29478. A patella-; from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30594. The much-crushed right tibia of a large form (? A. com- 
mune) ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge, 

Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30593. The distal part of a very similar right tibia; from the 
Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30835. A crushed left tibia of smaller size (? A. secundarium) ; from 

the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2220. The left tibia, of medium size ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 

26785. The distal half of a large tibia ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26756 a. The distal half of a smaller tibia; from the Upper Eocene 
of Debruge. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

30836. The distal half of a similar tibia ; from the Upper Eocene of 

Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29511. The tibia of a very young individual; from the Upper 
Eocene of Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

182 (0. C). The left third and fourth metatarsals of a young indi- 
vidual of a didactyle form ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Montmartre. Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

30766, 30769. The proxiraal halves of the left third and fourth 
metatarsals, apparently belonging to a didactyle form ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30767-8. The proximal extremities of the left third and fourth 
metatarsals of a somewhat larger form ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30597, 30765, 30770. Three specimens of the fourth metatarsal; 
from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



ANOPLOTHEKIID^. OREODONTID^E. 207 

29477. The distal half of a metapodial ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Montmartre. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 1571. The distal half of a metapodial ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Montmartre. Presented by A. Nesbitt, Esq., 1883. 

181 (0. C). The distal extremity of a metapodial, with the three 
associated phalangeals of one side ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Montmartre. Presented by Baron Cuvier. 



Family OKEODONTID^E. 

Cope 1 considers this family as related to the AnojplotheriidoB, but 
with more completely selenodont teeth, and less specialized feet, 
which are more like those of the Hippopotamus than of the Kumi- 
nants. The upper true molars have four columns on their crowns ; 
the ulna, radius, tibia, fibula, metapodials, navicular, and cuboid are 
distinct. The family is probably allied both to the Merycopotarnidce 
and the Anoplotheriidce. 

Genus OREODON, Leidy 2 . 
Syn. Merycoidodoji, Leidy 3 . 

Dentition :— I. |, C. \, Pm. t M. |. 

The orbits are complete, the premaxillse separate, the auditory 
bullae not inflated, and there are no facial vacuities. 

Oreodon culbertsoni, Leidy 4 . 

Syn. Merycoidodon culbertsoni, Leidy 5 . 

This species is divided into a larger and a smaller variety : in 
the former the length of the space occupied by the three upper true 
molars varies from 0,050 to 0,046, and in the latter from 0,042 to 
0,040. 

Hab. N. America. 

42828. Cast of the cranium and mandible. The original is from the 
Miocene of the White River, Dakota, U.S.A. ; and is figured 
by Leidy in the Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. vii. 
pi. vi. fig. 1. Van Breda Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

1 Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xxi. p. 503 (1884). 

2 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. v. p. 238 (1851, vol. dated 1852). 

3 Ibid. vol. iv. p. 47 (1848, vol. dated 1850). 



4 Loc. cit., Merycoidodon. 5 Loc. cit. 



208 



UNGTTLATA. 



29681. The nearly complete cranium, showing all the cheek-teeth, 

which are in a well-worn condition ; from the Miocene of 
the White Eiver. The length of the space occupied by 
the three true molars is 0,0395, which agrees with that of 
the small form named by Cope in the Proc. Amer. Phil. 
Soc. vol. xxi. p. 513 (1884), var ? periculorum ; he records 
that form only from Colorado and Wyoming. 

Purchased, 1855. 

29682. The middle portion of the cranium of an immature indi- 

vidual, showing the third and fourth milk-molars, and 
the three true molars, in an almost unworn condition ; 
from the Miocene of the White Eiver. The length of the 
space occupied by the three true molars is 0,048. 

Purchased, 1855. 

35910. The middle portion of the cranium, showing the hinder 
cheek-teeth, in a much- worn condition ; from the Miocene 
of the White Eiver. The length of the space occupied by 
the three true molars is 0,047. Purchased, 1860. 

29678. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the three true 
molars, in an early stage of wear ; from the Miocene of 
the White Eiver. The length of the space occupied by 
the three teeth is 0,0425. Purchased, 1855. 

44083. Fragment of the right maxilla of an immature individual, 
containing the third and fourth milk-, and the first and 
second true molars, and four fragments of the mandible ; 
from the Miocene of the White Eiver. Purchased, 1873. 

44000. Fragment of the hinder portion of a cranium, perhaps be- 
longing to a young individual of the present species ; from 
the Miocene of the White Eiver. Purchased, 1873. 



Genus EPOREODON, Marsh 1 . 
8yn. Eucrotaphus, Cope 2 (ex Leidy 3 ). 

This genus agrees with Oreodon, with the exception that the 
auditory bullse are inflated ; and the present writer has strong doubts 



as to its right to distinction. 



1 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. ix. p. 249 (1875). 

2 Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xxi. p. 513 (1884). 

3 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. v. p. 92 (1851). This genus was discarded 
by Leidy, and as it is a synonym of one species of Agriockoerus, its adoption for 
the present group seems undesirable. 



OREODOimDJE. MERYCOPOTAMIDJi:. 209 

Eporeodon major (Leidy 1 ). 

Syn. Oreodon major, Leidy 2 . 
Euerotaplius major, Cope 3 . 

Hah. N". America. 

40342. Cast of the cranium, wanting the crowns of the anterior 
teeth. The original is from the Miocene of the White 
River, Dakota, U.S.A. ; and is figured by Leidy in the 
Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. vii. pi. viii. 

Purchased, 1867. 

29680. The middle portion of the cranium and mandible, showing 
nearly all the cheek-teeth, in an early stage of wear ; from 
the Miocene of the White River. Purchased, 1855. 

Family M^ERYCOPOTAMID^E. 

Dentition : — I. |, C. \, Pm. |, M. |. The upper true molars are 
selenodont, and have four columns on the masticating surface ; in 
other respects those of the type genus are very like the molars of 
the hypsodont species of Hyopotamus. Both genera are referred by 
Flower to the Anthracother 



Genus MERYCOPOTAMUS, Falconer and Cautley 4 . 

The mandible has a deep descending process at the angle, as in 
Hippopotamus', the canines are very large and pig-like, but the 
extremity of the upper one is not recurved upwards. 

Merycopotamus dissimilis, Falconer and Cautley 5 . 
Syn. Hippopotamus dissimilis, Falconer and Cautley 6 . 

This species is considerably larger than the next, and is also 
distinguished by the wider mandibular symphysis, the much longer 
jaws, the straighter cranial profile, the presence of a deep fossa on 
the outer side of the mandible behind the canine, and the nearly flat 
inner surface of the third lobe of the last lower true molar. A right 



i » j 



1 Smith. Contrib. to Knowl. vol. vi. art. 7, p. 55 (1854). 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xxi. p. 519 (1884). 

4 In Owen's ' Odontography,' p. 566 (1840-45). 

5 ' Asiatic Researches,' vol. xix. p. 51 (1836), Hippopotamus. 

6 Loc. cit. 

PART II. P 



210 



FNGULATA. 



upper true molar belonging to this or the next species is figured in 
the accompanying woodcut (fig. 27). 
Hab. India. 




Merycopotamvs, sp. — A right upper true molar ; from the Siwaliks of the 
Punjab. }. Indian Museum. (From the ' Palaeontologia Indica ' 1 .) 



18441. The cranium, wanting the muzzle, in a much-battered con- 
(Fig.) dition; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. 
This specimen, which may be taken as the type of the 
species, is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxvii. fig. 1. The four last cheek- 
teeth are shown ; the first two true molars are partially 
worn, but m- 3 is untouched : the cusps of the molars are 
relatively tall. The profile of the hinder portion of the 
cranium is nearly straight, the sagittal crest being well 
developed. Oauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 



17000. Fragment 
molars ; 



true 



of the left maxilla, containing the three 
from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

48439. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the second and 
third true molars, in an unworn but broken condition ; 
from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

18445. Portion of the right upper jaw, showing the inferior border 
of the orbit, and the second and third true molars, in a 
worn and broken condition ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

18442. The complete right ramus of the mandible of a male, show- 
(Fw/.) ing the whole of the dentition, but with the crowns of 

1 By the courtesy of the Superintendent of the Geological Survey of India, this 
figure has been permitted to appear before its publication in the ' Pala?ontologia 
Indica.' 



MEETCOPOTAMID^:. 211 

most of the teeth hammered off ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured by Falconer and 
Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxvii. fig. 4. The interval between the 
canine and the hinder border of m. 3 is 0,198 ; and the 
antero-posterior diameter of the base of the canine 0,029. 
Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

18444. The left half of the symphysis of the mandible of a female, 
{Fig.) showing the alveoli of the incisors and the broken base of 
the canine ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This 
specimen agrees with 18442 in its wide symphysis and 
the deep fossa on the outer side, behind the canine. The 
antero-posterior diameter of the latter is 0,018. The 
specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 
pi. lxviii. fig. 18. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

18443. The greater portion of the mandible of a young male, with 
(Fig.) the milk-teeth, of which the crowns are wanting ; from 

the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured 

by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. fig. 17. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

17002. The anterior portion of the right ramus of the mandible of 
a young animal, probably belonging to the present species, 
with the crowns of the teeth hammered off; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Merycopotamus nanus, Lydekker 1 (ex Falc. MS.). 
Syn. Merycopotamus dissimilis, Falconer and Cautley (in parte). 
The distinctive characters of this smaller species are noted under 
the head of M. dissimilis. 
Hah. India. 

16551. The cranium of a male ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
(Fig.) Hills, India. This specimen is figured by Falconer and 
Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxvii. fig. 3, 
under the name of M. dissimilis, var. major. The whole 
of the dentition is shown, although the crowns of the earlier 
premolars are broken off; all the true molars are well 
worn. The cusps of these teeth are lower than those of 
M. dissimilis ; the length of the space occupied by the 
three true molars is 0,0655, as against 0,082 in M. dis- 
similis (No. 18441) ; the interval between the canine and 

1 Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. i. p. 545 (1884). 

p2 



212 



UNGTJLATA. 






the hinder border of m. 3 measures 0,141 ; the canine, of 
which the terminal portion is broken away, is relatively 
large, its antero-posterior diameter measuring 0,023. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16552. The cranium of a female ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
{Fig.) Hills. This specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
op. cit. fig. 5, under the name of M. dissimilis, var. minor. 
It is in a somewhat battered condition, but shows the 
whole of the dentition except the incisors, although the 
crowns of the earlier premolars are hammered off; the 
first and second true molars are in a well-worn condition. 
The whole skull is considerably smaller than the last 
specimen ; the canine is relatively smaller, its antero-pos- 
terior diameter at the base being 0,018. The length of 
the space occupied by the three true molars is 0,066 ; and 
the interval between the canine and the hinder border of 
m. 3 0,134. The profile of the hinder portion of the 
cranium being strongly arcuated, is in striking contrast to 
the same part in M. dissimilis. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

18407. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible of a 
{Fig.) male, containing the canine, pm. 3, pm. 4, m. 2, m. 3, and 
the alveoli of the remaining cheek-teeth ; from the Pliocene 
of the Siwalik Hills. The specimen is figured by Falconer 
and Cautley, op. cit. fig. 8. It agrees precisely in size 
with the male cranium ; the interval between the canine* 
and the hinder border of m . 3 is 0,163, and the antero- 
posterior diameter of the canine 0,0295 ; the molars are 
well worn. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15349. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible of a 
{Fig.) female ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This 
specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. fig. 7; 
it shows the last true molar in a well-worn condition, the 
bases of the preceding cheek-teeth, and a section of the 
canine. The interval between the canine and the hinder 
border of m . 3 seems to have been nearly the same as in 
the last specimen ; but the antero-posterior diameter of 
the base of the canine is only 0,020. The third lobe of 
m. 3 is distinguished from that of M. dissimilis by the 
distinct concavity of its outer surface. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 



MERYCOPOTAMID^. 213 

16678. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the second and third true molars, in a partially worn con- 
dition ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Specimens belonging to one or other of the above species. 

16999. Fragment of the left maxilla, with the three true molars, in 
a much-worn and broken condition ; from the Pliocene of 
the Siwalik Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15361. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing m. 1 and m- 2 , in 
a much-worn condition ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16616. Fragment of the mandible ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills. Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 22. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with m . 3 ; from 
(Fig.) the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is 

figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua 

Sivalensis,' pi. lxvii. fig. 4. 

Transferred from the Old Indian Museum, 1880. 

16615. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with the teeth, 
in a much-worn condition; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16674. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with the crowns 
of the teeth hammered off ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16677. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, showing m . 3, 
with its cusps broken off ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills. Cauiley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

17972. The upper portion of the occiput ; from the Pliocene of the 

(Fig.) Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured by Falconer and 

Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxviii. fig. 15. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

The following specimens are referred to the present genus on the 
authority of Falconer ; and were all obtained from the Pliocene 
of the Siwalik Hills. They belong to the Cautley Collection, 
unless otherwise stated : — 

17974. The proximal extremity of the left humerus. This specimen 
(Fig.) is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua 
Sivalensis,' pi. lxviii. fig. 12. 



214 UNGTLLATA. 

17973. The proximal extremity of the left humerus. This specimen 
{Fig.) is figured, op. cit. fig. 11. 

17975. The distal extremity of the right humerus. This specimen 
(Fig.) is figured, op. cit. fig. 13. 

17977. The right ulna, wanting the olecranon. This specimen is 
(Fig.) figured, op. cit. fig. 14. 

17976. The right acetabulum. This specimen is figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) fig. 1. 

17978. The proximal portion of the left femur. This specimen is 
(Fig.) figured, op. cit. fig. 3. 

17979. The distal extremity of the left femur. This specimen is 
(Fig.) figured, op. cit. fig. 4. 

17980. The proximal extremity of the left tibia. This specimen 
(Fig.) is figured, op. cit. fig. 5. 

17981. The proximal portion of the left calcaneum. This speci- 
(Fig.) men is figured, op. cit. fig. 6. 

17982. The distal portion of the left calcaneum. This specimen 
(Fig.) is figured, op. cit. fig. 7. 

17983. The distal portion of the right calcaneum. This specimen is 
(Fig.) figured, op. cit. fig. 8. 

39690. The left astragalus. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baler, K.C.B., 1848. 

Merycopotamus pusillus, Lydekker 1 . 

This species is considerably smaller than the last ; the one known 
upper true molar has a very distinct cingulum, and a smoother 
enamel, and a lesser degree of inclination of the external surfaces of 
the outer columns than in the two preceding species, and in this 
respect approaches Choer ornery x 2 . 

Hab. India. 

40765. Cast of a fragment of the right maxilla, with the third true 
molar. This specimen (fig. 28) is the type, and is preserved 
in the Indian Museum, Calcutta ; it was obtained from the 
Siwaliks of Khushalghar, below Attock, Punjab. It is 

1 Eec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. xviii. p. 146 (1885). 

2 Supra, p. 165. 



MERYCOPOTAMID^. AjSTTHEACOTHEEIIDJE. 215 

noticed in 'Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs/ vol. i. 
p. 416, under the name of M. nanus ; its length is 0,195 
and its width 0,020. The writer proposes to figure the 
specimen in the Introduction to the third volume of 
series 10 of the ' Paheontologia Indica.' 

Made in the Museum, 1885. 



Fig. 28. 




Merycopotamus pusittus. — The third right upper true molar ; from the Siwaliks 
of Khushalghar. {. Indian Museum, Calcutta. (From the ' Palaeontologia 
Indica' 1 .) 



Family ANTHRACOTHEBIID^]. 

Dentition (usually) : — I. |, C. \, Pm. |, M. | : in Anthracoiherium 
gresslyi the premolars are g. The upper true molars are imperfectly 
selenodont, and have four columns on their crowns, three of which 
are situated on the anterior, and two on the posterior lobe. Except 
in Diplojnis, where they are reduced to two, the digits are four in 
number on each foot ; the metapodials and the navicular and cuboid 
are always separate. 

Genus DIPLOPUS, Kowalevsky \ 

This genus is known solely by limb-bones and vertebrae, which 
present a strong general resemblance to those of Hyopotamus. Ko- 
walevsky conjectured that the teeth were like those of the latter ; 
but no such teeth are known from the Headon beds. The teeth of 
Dichodon from the same beds indicate a smaller animal. Till the 
dentition is known, the position of Dijplopus must remain uncertain. 

1 By the courtesy of the Superintendent of the Geological Survey of India, this 
figure has been permitted to appear before its publication in the ' Palreontologia 
Indica.' 

2 Phil. Trans, for 1873, p. 30 (1874). 



216 TJNGULATA. 

Diplopus aymards, Kowalevsky 1 . 

Hah. Europe. 

29739. The right scapula ; from the Headon beds (Upper Eocene) 

{Fig.) of Hordwell, Hampshire. This specimen (which, together 

with the other figured specimens noticed below, is the type 

of the genus and species) is described and figured by Ko- 

walevsky in the Phil. Trans. 1873, p. 30, pi. xxxv. fig. 1. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30060. The glenoidal half of the left scapula ; from the Headon 
beds of Hordwell. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30160. The right humerus, wanting the head ; from the Headon 
{Fig.) beds of Hordwell. This specimen is described and figured 
by Kowalevsky, op. cit. p. 32, pi. xxxv. fig. 4. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30117. The distal half of the right humerus ; from the Headon beds 
of Hordwell. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29723. The left humerus, wanting the head ; from the Headon beds 
of Hordwell. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29745. The right ulna ; from the Headon beds of Hordwell. De- 

{Fig.) scribed and figured by Kowalevsky, op. cit. p. 34, pi. xxxvi. 

fig. 1. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29745 a. The proximal half of the left ulna ; from the Headon beds 
of Hordwell. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30119. The proximal half of the left third metacarpal ; from the 
{Fig.) Headon beds of Hordwell. Described and figured by 
Kowalevsky, op. cit. p. 83, pi. xxxviii. fig. 6. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

36788. The left fourth metacarpal ; from the Headon beds of 
(Fig.) Brockenhurst, Hampshire. Described and figured by 
Kowalevsky, op. cit. p. 83, pi. xxxviii. fig. 6. 

Presented by S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 

30186. The greater portion of a left innominate, provisionally referred 
to this species ; from the Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30128. The left femur, wanting the distal extremity ; from the 
Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

1 Phil. Trans, for 1873, p. 30 (1874). 



ANTHRACOTHERIID.E. 



217 



29747. The right tibia, imperfect proximally; from the Headcm 
(Fig.) beds of Hordwell. Described and figured by Kowalevsky, 
op. cit. pi. xxxvi. fig. 7. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

36787. The right tibia, imperfect proximally ; from the Headon beds 
of Brockenhurst. Presented by S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 

30162. The right tibia, imperfect proximally ; from the Headon 
beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30187. A smaller left tibia, imperfect proximally ; from the 
Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30179. The distal portion of the right fibula ; from the Headon 
(Fig.) beds of Hordwell. Described and figured by Kowalevsky, 

op. cit. p. 87, pi. xxxviii. figs. 3 and 4. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30180. The distal extremity of the left fibula ; from the Headon beds 

of Hordwell. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30107. An astragalus, provisionally referred to the present species ; 
from the Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30177. The right calcaneum ; from the Headon beds of Hordwell. 

(Fig.) Described and figured by Kowalevsky, op. cit. pi. xxxv. 

fig. 4. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30182. The proximal half of the right calcaneum ; from the Headon 
beds of Hordwell. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29721. The distal elements of the right tarsus, together with the 
(Fig.) associated third and fourth metatarsals (imperfect) ; from 
the Headon beds of Hordwell. Described and figured by 
Kowalevsky, op. cit. p. 87, pi. xxxviii. figs. 3 and 4. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30069. The proximal half of a larger right third metatarsal, with 
the associated distal elements of the tarsus ; from the 
Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30118. The right fourth metatarsal, agreeing in size with the last 
(Fig.) specimen; from the Headon beds of Hordwell. Described 



218 TDSTGULATA. 

and figured by Kowalevsky, op. cit. pi. xxxv. fig. 5 (to- 
gether with the third metatarsal and the phalangeals). 
In the description of the plate the specimen is erroneously 
said to be from Brockenhurst, and is referred to the left 
side. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30131. The proximal portion of the right third metatarsal; from 
the Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

36789. The left third metatarsal ; from the Headon beds of Brock- 
enhurst. Presented by S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 

30173. An atlas vertebra, provisionally referred to the present 
species ; from the Headon beds of Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Genus HYOPOTAMUS, Owen 1 . 

Syn. Ancodus, Pomel 2 . 

Bothriodon, Aymard 3 . 

Cyclognatlms, Croizet 4 (teste Kowalevsky). 

It has been shown by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 162, that there is such a complete transition 
in the characters of the upper molars from the brachydont type of 
Anthracotherium to the typical hypsodont type of Hyopotamus that 
no distinction can really be drawn between the two genera, although 
the retention of the latter for the more hypsodont forms may, perhaps, 
be convenient ; the teeth of H. porcinus noticed below fully confirm 
this conclusion. The elongated pm. 3 of H. picteti indicates affinity 
with Xiphodon. The metapodials are less stout than in Anthraco- 
therium, and the third and fourth relatively smaller. 

Hyopotamus velaunus (Cuvier 5 ). 

Syn. Anthracotherium velaunum, Cuvier 6 . 
Ancodus velaunus, Pomel 7 . 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. p. 103 (1848), read 1847. 

2 Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. ser. 4, vol. viii. p. 324 (1848). 

3 Ann. Soc. Agric. Sci. le Puy, vol. xii. (1848) {teste P. Gervais). 

4 Not found. 

6 In Meyer's ' Palaeologica,' p. 82 (1832). The name does not occur in the 
' Ossemens Fossiles,' 2nd ed. vol. v. pt. 2, p. 506 (1824). The synonymy is 
taken from Filhol, in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xii. art. 3, p. 189. A confusion 
in this respect is noticed in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 156. 

6 Loc. cit. 7 ' Catalogue Methodique,' p. 92 (1853). 



ANTHKACOTHEEIIDiE. 219 

Ancodus incertuSj Pornel \ 
Bothriodon platyrhynchus, Ayniard 2 . 
Hyopotamus borbonicus, P. Gervais 3 . 
Hyopotamus vectianus, Owen 4 (in parte). 

The mandibles of the smaller hypsodont Hyopotamus from the 
Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight are indistinguishable from those 
of the typical Eonzon H. velaunus, and are accordingly referred to 
the same species 5 . It has not, however, been found possible to 
separate the upper teeth of the smaller Isle-of-Wight species from 
those of H. bovinus (q. v.), as an associated series has not been found. 
The present species is a hypsodont form, distinguished from H. bo- 
vinus by its smaller teeth and well-marked cranial differences. 

Hab. Europe. 

M. 1946. Cast of the cranium. The original is from the Lower 
Miocene of Eonzon, near Puy-en-Yelay (Haute-Loire), 
France ; it is figured by Kowalevsky in the Phil. Trans, 
for 1873, pi. xl. figs. 1, 2, and is apparently the same as 
the one figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xii. 
pis. xvii., xviii. Presented by Dr. Kowalevsky. 

M. 1947. Cast of the left ramus of the mandible of a young individual, 
showing the milk-dentition. The original is from the 
Lower Miocene of Eonzon; and is figured by Kowalevsky, 
op. cit. figs. 3, 4 (the latter enlarged), and also by Pilhol, 
op. cit. pi. xxii. fig. 102. The teeth are considerably 
smaller than those of the immature mandible of H. bovinus, 
No. 29802, on which account the specimen is referred 
to the present smaller species. 

Presented by Dr. Kowalevsky. 

M. 1948. The left ramus of the mandible of a young individual, with 
the milk-dentition ; from the Lower Miocene of Eonzon. 

Presented by Dr. Kowalevsky . 

M. 2181. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of an imma- 
ture individual, showing mm . 3, mm. 4, and a part of m. 1 ; 
from the Lower Miocene of Eonzon. This specimen agrees 
with the two preceding ones, the length of mm. 'I being 
0,0205. Purchased, 1885. 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 92 (1853). 

2 Ann. Soc. Agric. Sci. le Puy, vol. xii. 1848 (teste Filhol). 

3 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, ed. 1, vol. ii. Exp. JS T o. 23, p. 1 (1818-52). 

4 Quart, Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. p. 103 (1848). 

5 Vide Lydekker, Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. i. p. 547 (1884). 



220 UNGULATA. 

29689. Fragment of the right maxilla containing two true molars 
(the first broken) ; from the Lower Miocene of Ronzon. 
The teeth agree with those of the cranium figured by Pilhol, 
op. cit. pi. xvi. Presented by the Earl of Enniskillen. 

29621. Cast of a third lower true molar and an upper molar, 
provisionally referred to the present species ; from the 
Lower Miocene of Ronzon. 

Presented by the Earl of Enniskillen. 

27774. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
four cheek-teeth, in a much-worn condition; from the 
Lower Miocene of Ronzon. The length of the space 
occupied by the three true molars is 0,072. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27787. A last right lower true molar, belonging either to this or 
the next species ; from the Lower Miocene of Ronzou. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27771. The third left lower milk-molar ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Ronzon. This specimen is precisely like the corre- 
sponding tooth in No. M. 1948. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

29784. The symphysis and the greater portion of the left ramus 
(Fig.) of the mandible; from the Hempstead beds (Lower 
Miocene) of the Isle of Wight. This specimen is figured 
by Owen, loc. cit. pi. viii. figs. 1-4, under the name of H. 
vectianus ; it shows the alveoli of the incisors and the 
canine, the third and fourth premolars (the latter not 
fully protruded), and the three true molars. The length 
of the space occupied by the three true molars is 0,071 ; 
that of the corresponding space in a mandible of the con- 
tinental form described by Pilhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. xii. art. 3, p. 125, being 0,074. The length of the 
third molar is 0,033, or the same as that of the Ronzon 
specimens (Filhol, op. cit. p. 128) ; that of m . 3 in H. 
bovinus (No. 29754) being 0,044. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29782. Portion of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
pm. 4, mTI, and ^72 ; from the Hempstead beds of the 
Isle of Wight. The length of p m . 4 is 0,017, as against 
0,019 in H. bovinus (No. 29753). 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 



ANTHRACOTHERIID^. 221 

29779. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing pm. 4 
and the three true molars ; from the Hempstead beds of 
the Isle of Wight. The length of the space occupied by 
the three true molars is 0,072. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29783. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
second and third true molars ; from the Hempstead beds 
of the Isle of Wight. The length of m^3 is 0,031. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29769. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with the third 
true molar; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of 
Wight. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

28971. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
prn 4 and m~T ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of 
Wight. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

36974. The fourth right lower milk-molar; from the Hempstead 
beds of the Isle of Wight. The length of this tooth is 
0,023, or the same as that of the Eonzon specimen 
No. M. 1947; and considerably larger than that of 
H. hovinus, No. 29802. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

Hyopotamus bovinus, Owen 1 . 

Syn. Bothriodon leptorhynchus, Aymard 2 . 
Ancodus leptorhynchus, Pomel 3 . 
Ancodus aymardi, Pomel 4 . 
Ancodus insignis, Filhol 
Ancodus macrorhinus, Pomel 6 . 
Bothriodon velaunus, Aymard 7 . 
Ancodus hovinus, Filhol 8 . 

The synonymy of the continental forms is given on the authority 
of Filhol, who considers that the form known as H. (A.) aymardi 
is probably the female of the so-called H. (A.) leptorhynchus. With 

1 Quart. Jburn. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. p. 103 (1848). 

2 Ann. Soc. Agric. Sci. le Puy, vol. xii., 1848 {teste Filhol). 

3 Catalogue Methodique, p. 92 (1853). 

4 Ibid. p. 92. 

6 Not found : quoted in Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xii. art. 3, with a wrong reference. 

6 Loc. cit. p. 92. 

7 Lcc. cit. {teste Filhol). Regarding this name, see ' Palseontologia Indica, 
ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 155. 

8 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xii. art. 3, p. 189 (1881 ; vol. dated 1882). 



222 UNOTTLATA. 

regard to the Hempstead hypsodont form of the genus, the asso- 
ciated series of upper cheek-teeth and mandibles in the Museum 
collection agree precisely with the corresponding parts of the so- 
called H. leptorhynchus from Ronzon, and the two have therefore 
been identified l . The specific names bovinus and leptorhynchus 
were apparently published in the same year ; but as the memoir in 
which the former name occurs was read in November 1847, and 
was published in a better-known serial than the latter, the name 
H. bovinus is adopted for the species. With regard to the upper 
teeth figured by Owen {op. cit. pi. viii. figs. 6, 7) as an associated 
series under the name of H. vectianus, it appears from the specimens 
in the Museum collection that they really belong to different indi- 
viduals, as is indeed shown by the circumstance that at the time 
of the protrusion of m. 3 , mm. 4 (which is reckoned by Owen as 
pm. 4 ) would have been replaced by pm. 4 ; the tooth figured as 
m. 3 is, moreover, too small in proportion to the preceding teeth. 
That some of these smaller upper teeth really belong to H. velaunus 
( = H. vectianus) is most probable; but it has been found impossible 
to distinguish them from those of H. bovinus, as a series of detached 
upper molars might respectively be equally well regarded as m. 1 ^ 
m. 2 , and m. 3 of H. velaunus, or as mm. 4 , m. 1 , and m. 2 of H. bo- 
vinus. Under these circumstances, and since no associated series 
of the upper molars of the smaller form are known from the Isle 
of Wight, all the upper teeth are referred to H. bovinus ; but it 
must be borne in mind that in the cases of isolated small teeth, or 
two associated small teeth, it is quite probable they may belong to 
H. velaunus, when they will occupy one place earlier in the series 
than is here assigned them. 

H. bovinus is a typical hypsodont form. 

Hab. Europe. 

M. 1941. Cast of the greater portion of the cranium, showing all 
the dentition except the incisors, of which the alveoli 
remain. The original of this specimen is the type of H. 
leptorhynchus, and is from the Lower Miocene of Eonzon, 
near Puy-en-Yelay (Haute-Loire), France ; it is figured 
by Kowalcvsky in the Phil. Trans, for 1873, pi. xxxix. 
fig. 1 , under the name of Hyopotamus sp., and by Eilhol 
in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xii. pi. xv., under the name 
of Ancodas leptorhynchus. Presented by Dr. Kowalevslcy . 

30055. The occiput, in a crushed condition ; from the Hempstead 
beds (Lower Miocene) of the Isle of Wight. This speci- 

1 Vide Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. i. p. 547 (1884). 



anthracotheejidjE. 223 

men agrees precisely with the occiput of the last ; and 
differs from that of H. velaunus figured by Filhol, op. cit. 
pi. xx. fig. 96. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 1944. Cast of the palate of a young individual, with the milk- 
dentition. The original is from the Lower Miocene of 
Eonzon; and is apparently the one figured by Filhol, op. 
cit. pi. xxvi. fig. 131, under the name of Ancodus lepto- 
rhynchus. Presented by Dr. Kowalevsky. 

M. 2180. Part of the palate of a young specimen, showing the 
last three milk-molars and m. 1 ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Eonzon. This specimen is precisely similar to No. 
M. 1944. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 1942. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the three true 
molars ; from the Lower Miocene of Eonzon. The length 
of the space occupied by the three cheek-teeth is precisely 
the same as in the Hempstead specimen No. 29758. 

Presented by Br. Kowalevsky . 

29761. The third left upper true molar ; from the Hempstead beds 

{Fig.) of the Isle of Wight. This specimen is the type of the 

species, and is figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. vii. figs. 1 & 5. 

Eastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29758. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the four last cheek- 
teeth ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of "Wight. 
The length of the space occupied by the three true molars 
is 0,0715 ; the corresponding length in the Eonzon cranium 
No. M. 1941 being 0,071 \ The length of m^ is 0,035 
and 0,030 in the two specimens ; and that of pm. 4 0,014 
in both. It is to a great extent on the evidence of this 
specimen that the so-called H. leptorhynchus is identified 
with the present species. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 2183. The third right upper true molar ; from the Hempstead 
beds of the Isle of Wight. Purchased, 1885. 

29650. A broken right upper true molar ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Eonzon. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 1902. Fragment of the left maxilla containing the last pre- 
(Fig.) molar, the first and second true molars, and the alveolus 

1 Filhol, in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xii. art. 3, p. 152, gives this dimension as 
0,075. 



224 



UNGULATA. 



of m. 3 ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 
This specimen is figured in the accompanying woodcut 
(fig. 29). Judging from the size of its alveolus, the last 



Fig. 29. 




Hyopot 



bovinus. — Last left upper premolar and first and second true 
molars. From the Hempstead beds. a. 



true molar of this jaw must have agreed precisely with 
the corresponding tooth of No. 29758. 

Presented by Sir R. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 

M. 1902 a. The third right upper true molar ; from the Hempstead 

(Fig.) beds of the Isle of Wight. This very perfect and unworn 

specimen, which is represented in the accompanying 

woodcut (fig. 30), is slightly larger than the type tooth 

Pig. 30. 




Hyopotamus bovinus. — The third right upper true molar ; from the 
Hempstead beds. j. 



ANTHRACOTHERIID^. 225 

(No. 29761); and agrees in size with the alveolus of the 
corresponding tooth in the last specimen. 

Presented by Sir B. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 

29772. A right upper true molar ; from the Hempstead beds of the 
(Fig.) Isle of Wight. This specimen is figured by Owen, op. cit. 

pi. vii. fig. 6, as m- 1 of H. vectianus ; it agrees in size 

with m^ of No. M. 1902. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

40207. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the second and 

third true molars in a somewhat battered condition ; from 
the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Presented by F. E. Edwards, Esq., 1867. 

29762. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the first and 
second true molars ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle 
of Wight. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

37327. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the first and second 
true molars ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of 
Wight. Presented by F. E. Edivards, Esq., 1863. 

37327 a. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing two true molars 
in a much-worn condition ; from the Hempstead beds of the 
Isle of Wight. Presented by F. E. Edwards, Esq., 1863. 

40208. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing a portion of m. 2 , 

and the complete m. 3 in an unworn condition; from the 
Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Presented by F. E. Edwards,- Esq., 1867. 

29761, 29762*, 29759, 29836, 29837. Six specimens of detached 
upper true molars ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle 
of Wight. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29760, 29766, 29770, 29805, 29895. Six detached upper true 
molars ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 
Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1S55. 

36812 a. A first right upper true molar; from the Hempstead 
beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Presented by S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 

29898. The right upper true molar, with the cusps broken ; from 
the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

PART II. Q, 



226 



TJJSTGULATA. 



29844. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last milk- 
molar and m. 1 ; the latter is slightly smaller than m. 1 of 
No. M. 1902 ; from the Hempstead heds of the Isle of 
Wight. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29769. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing mm. 3 and mm. 4 , 

in a battered condition ; from the Hempstead heds of the 

Isle of Wight. This specimen agrees precisely with No. 

M. 1944, and is therefore referred to the present species. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29769 a. Two specimens (one broken) of the last right upper milk- 
molar ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29778. The penultimate right upper milk-molar, in a partially worn 
{Fig.) condition ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

This specimen is figured by Owen {op. cit. pi. vii. figs. 6, 7) 

as pm. 3 under the name of H. vectianus. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29771. The penultimate left upper milk-molar, in a partially worn 

condition ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29774. The penultimate right upper milk-molar, in an unworn 

condition ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27777. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the third and 
fourth milk- molars and a portion of the first true molar ; 
from the Lower Miocene of Ronzon. This specimen agrees 
precisely with Nos. M. 1944 and 29769 ; on which grounds 
the latter is referred to the present species. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

29780, 29923. Two specimens of the last left upper premolar; from 
the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29765, 29923. Two specimens of the last right upper premolar ; 
from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29753. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible ; from 
the Hempstead beds of tho Isle of Wight. This specimen 



ANTHEACOTHEEIID^. 227 

shows pm. 4, part of m. 2, and m . 3 ; and agrees very closely 
with the immature mandible figured by Filhol, op. cit. 
pi. xxii. fig. 103, under the name of Ancodus leptorhyn- 
clius. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29781. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the last 
two premolars and the three true molars ; from the 
Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29802. The mandible of a young individual, showing the last three 
milk -molars and the first true molar of both sides; from 
the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. This specimen 
is considerably larger than the lower jaw of H. velaunus 
of the same age (No. 29784) ; the united lengths of mm. 3 
and mm. 4 being 0,042 as against 0,034. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 1945. Cast of the mandible of an immature female individual. 
The original is from the Lower Miocene of Ronzon ; and 
is figured (reversed) by Filhol, op. cit. pi. xxi., under the 
name of Ancodus aymardi. Presented by Dr. Kowalevshy. 

M. 1943. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last premolar and the three true molars ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Honzon. The length of the space occupied by 
the three true molars is 0,080, and the length of m . 3 0,041; 
the corresponding dimensions of specimens described by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xii. art. 3, pp. 156, 158, 
being 0,048 and 0,039. Presented by Dr. Kowalevshy. 

29754. The third left lower true molar ; from the Hempstead beds 
of the Isle of Wight. The length of this tooth is 0,044. 
Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29839. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the seeond 
true molar ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of 
Wight. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29846. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing pm . 4 

and m. l ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29763. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
in. 1 and m. 2 ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of 
Wight. The specific reference of this specimen is pro- 
visional. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 



228 



TJNGULATA. 



29776. The fourth left lower premolar ; from the Hempstead beds 
of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29906. Numerous incisors belonging to this or the preceding spe- 
(Fig.) cies ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of "Wight. 

Some of these specimens are figured by Owen, op. cit. 

pi. vii. figs. 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 23. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Hyopotamus americanus, Leidy 1 . 

This is a hypsodont form, with upper molars very like those of 
the last species. 
Hab. N. America. 

47502. Cast of a fragment of the right maxilla, containing m- 2 and 
m. 3 , the latter unworn. The original is from the " Mau- 
vaises Terres " of Dakota ; and is figured in Journ. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. vii. pi. xxi. fig. 1. 

Presented by Prof. J. Leidy, 1876. 



Hyopotamus porcinus, P. Gervais 2 . 

This species is somewhat smaller than Anthracotherium minus, 
and its upper molar teeth are of a brachydont type, and, as observed 
by Gervais, intermediate in structure between those of the typical 
A. magnum and the typical hypsodont Hyopotamus velaunus. 
The lower molars provisionally referred to this species present no 
distinctive differences from those of Anthracotherium ; and this 
species therefore affords additional evidence of the real unity of 
Hyopotamus and Anthracotherium. 

Hab. Europe. 

29842. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the first and second 
(Fig:.) upper true molars ; from the Hempstead beds (Lower 
Miocene) of the Isle of Wight. The teeth of this specimen 
(which are figured in the accompanying woodcut, fig. 31) 
agree so exactly with the two type teeth figured by P. 
Gervais (loc. cit. 2nd ed. pi. xxxi. fig. 8) that there is 
every probability of the specific identity of the two ; and, 
in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, they may 
be associated. The dimensions of m. 1 are 0,014 x 0,015, 

1 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. viii. p. 59 (1856 ; vol. dated 1857). ' 

2 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. ii. Exp. No. 31, p. 1 (1848-52). 









ANTHKACOTHEKIID^:. 229 

Fisr. 31. 




Hyopotamus porcinus. — First and second left upper true molars ; from the 
Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. \ . 

and those of m. 2 0,0185 x 0,020. These dimensions are 
slightly larger than those of the two teeth figured by 
Gervais and regarded as m. 1 and m. 2 ; but it is quite 
probable that they are really mm. 4 and m. 1 . The present 
teeth are readily distinguished from those of H. hovinus by 
their inferior size, and their lower cusps, shallower hollows, 
and the slighter concavity of the outer surface of the outer 
columns. They are really intermediate between the molars 
of H. hovinus and A. alsaticum (Ho. M. 1389); but are, 
on the whole, nearest to the former. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29793. The second right upper true molar; from the Hempstead 
beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29897. The third right upper true molar ; from the Hempstead beds 

of the Isle of Wight. The dimensions are 0,020 x 0,024. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29773. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing mm. 4 , m. 1 , and 
m. 2 , in an unworn but somewhat broken condition ; from 
the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. The dimensions 
of mm. 4 are 0,0118 x 0,012. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

40209. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 

(Fig.) m. 1 and m. 2 ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of 

Wight. This specimen (woodcut, fig. 32) is referred to 

the present species on account of the agreement in the 

size and structure of the teeth. The teeth are readily 



230 TTKGFLATA, 

Fig. 32. 




Hyopotamus porcinus. — The first and second left lower true molars; from the 
Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. \. 

distinguished from those of H. bovinus by their smaller 
size and much lower cusps ; they are considerably smaller 
than the teeth, from the same locality provisionally re- 
ferred to Anthracotherium minus (infra, p. 242), but agree 
very closely in general characters, though, the cusps are 
perhaps slightly higher ; they present no characters by 
which they can be generically distinguished from Anthra- 
cotherium. The dimensions of m. 1 are 0,0136 x 0,0095 ; 
and those of ^2 0,0163 x 0,0114. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

36812 b. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
m. 3 in an early condition of wear ; from the Hempstead 
beds of the Isle of Wight. The length of this tooth is 
0,0255. Presented by S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 

36812 C. The third right lower true molar, in an unworn condition 
and wanting the third lobe ; from the Hempstead beds of 
the Isle of Wight. Presented by S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 

40209 a. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
m.2 and m. 3, in a much-worn condition ; from the Hemp- 
stead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Limb-bones of Anthracotheriidee from the Hempstead beds of 
the Isle of Wight. 

It is probable that the majority of these bones belong to Hyopo* 
tamus, and the larger specimens to //. bovinus. In the presence, 
however, of two genera and several species of Anthracotheriidw in 
the Hempstead beds, it appears unadvisable in many cases to make 
any definite specific references. 



ANTHKACOTHEEIIILE. 



231 






30176. The glenoidal extremity of the scapula of a large form 
(?_£T. bovinus). Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29977. The distal extremity of the left humerus of a large form 
(? H. bovinus). Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30116. The distal extremity of the left humerus of a rather smaller 
form. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29974. The distal extremity of the left humerus, very similar to 

the last. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29975. The lower half of the left humerus of a still smaller form 

(? H. j)orcinus). Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30161. The distal extremity of the left humerus. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30023. The proximal extremity of the ulna of a large form. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29984, 30096. The proximal and distal extremities of the radius. 

{Fig.) Figured by Kowalevsky in the Phil. Trans, for 1873, 

pi. xxxvi. fig. 3. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29991. The lunar of a large form. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30063. Portion of the right innominate of a large form. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30046. The acetabulum of a large form. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30012. The proximal extremity of the femur of a large form. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30127. The proximal portion of the right femur. Figured by 

Kowalevsky in the Phil. Trans, for 1873, pi. xxxvi. fig. 6. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30044. The distal extremity of the left femur of a large form 
(? H. bovinus). This specimen is very similar to one 
figured by Kowalevsky in the Phil. Trans, for 1873, 
pi. xxxv. fig. 2. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29969. The distal half of the left femur, slightly smaller than the 
last and somewhat crushed. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 



232 



TTNGTTLATA. 



30048. The proximal extremity of the right tibia of a small form. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30140. The proximal epiphysis of the right tibia of a very large 
form, corresponding in size to the femur No. 30044. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29816. The distal two thirds of the right tibia, corresponding in size 
to No. 30048. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

36812 a. The distal half of the right tibia, corresponding in size with 
the last. Presented by S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 

29968. The extremity of the left tibia, rather larger than the 
last. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29937. The distal extremity of the left tibia, agreeing with the 
last. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 






M. 2186. A metapodial. 



Purchased, 1855. 



29821, 29823, 29830, 29832, 29938. Numerous specimens of the 
astragalus of a large form. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29825, 29826, 29829, 29939. Pour specimens of the astragalus of 
a smaller form. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29940. Two specimens of the astragalus of a still smaller form. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29932. The cuboid of a large form (? H. bovinus). 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29926, 29928. Three specimens of the navicular of a large form 
(? H. bovinus). Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29929, 30120. Pour specimens of the navicular of a smaller form. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30112 &c. &c. Numerous specimens of phalangeals belonging to the 
proximal row. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29954 &c &c. Numerous specimens of phalangeals belonging to the 
second row. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29920. A terminal phalangeal of the third or fourth digit. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 



A^THRACOTHERIID.^. 



233 



30341, 30344. Three terminal phalangeals provisionally referred 
to the present genus. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 185v5. 

30051. The broken atlas vertebra of a large form. The form of 
the cavity for the reception of the odontoid process of the 
axis shows that this must have been peg-shaped, as in the 
present family. The facets for articulation with the 
centrum of the axis seem, however, to be placed in a plane 
too nearly transverse to the long axis of the bone for the 
specimen to have belonged to the same species as the axis 
vertebra noticed below. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29960. The centrum of the axis vertebra of a large form (? H. bo- 
vinus). Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29960 a. The centrum of the axis vertebra of a smaller form. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30074. A dorsal vertebra of a large form. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30169. The first sacral vertebra of a large form. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Hyopotamus picteti, Lydekker \ 
Syn. Hyopotamus gresslyi, Pictet 2 . 

The upper true molar of this small species precisely resembles those 
of the much larger H. porcinus ; the penultimate upper premolar is 
of a narrow elongated type, approaching that of Xiphodon. The 
type maxilla is figured by Pictet (loc. cit.) under the name of 
Hyopotamus gresslyi (Meyer) ; but its distinction from that species 
has been indicated by the present writer (loc. cit.). 

Hob. Switzerland. 

M. 2184. Three detached upper true molars ; from the Upper Eocene 
(Bohnerz) of Switzerland. These teeth agree precisely 
with those of the type specimen figured by Pictet. The 
deep concavity of the outer surface of the external 
columns, and the marked loop connecting those columns, 

1 Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. ii. p. 131 (1885). 

2 Materiaux pour la Paleontologie Suisse, vol. i. Vertebres de la Faune 
Eocene, Supplement, pi. xxiv. fig. 5 (18C>9). 



234 



UNGULATA. 



at once distinguishes the specimens from Antliracotherium 
gresslyi 1 (No. 29851). The length of the outer border of 
the largest tooth is 0,010. Purchased, 1885. 

Hyopotamus giganteus, Lydekker 2 . 

This is a brachydont form, and the largest described species ; it 
closely approaches Antliracotherium hyopotamoides in the structure 
of its molars. 

Rah. North-west frontier of India. 

M. 1542. Cast of the third left upper true molar. The original is 
from the Lower Siwaliks of the Bugti Hills, on the north- 
west frontier of India ; and is described and figured by 
the present writer in the ' PalEeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 160, pi. xxiv. fig. 3. A similar specimen from 
the same locality is figured in the accompanying woodcut 

Fig. 33. 




Hyopotamus giganteus. — The third left upper true molar ; from the Bugti 
Hills. \. Indian Museum, Calcutta. (From the ' Paheontologia Indica.') 



(fig. 33), and is likewise preserved in the Indian Museum, 

Calcutta. Presented by the Superintendent of the 

Geological Survey of India, 1883. 

M. 1541. Cast of a portion of the right ramus of a mandible pro- 
visionally referred to the present species. The original is 

1 Infra, p. 244. 

2 Palaeontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol.ii. p. 160 (1883). 



AXTITRAC0TIIERIID2E. 235 

from Dera Biigti, and is preserved in the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta. It is described and figured by the present 
writer in the ' Pakeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. 
p. 163, pi. xxv. fig. 2. 

Presented by the Superintendent of the 
Geological Survey of India, 1883. 



Genus ANTHRACOTHERIUM, Cuvier 1 . 
Syn. Tapinodon, H. v. Meyer 2 . 

Anthracotherium hyopotamoid.es, Lydekker 3 . 

This species is intermediate in size between A. magnum and 
A. alsaticum. The outer cusps of the upper molars are connected 
by a more distinct loop than in other species, thus showing a 
great resemblance to the brachydont forms of Hyopotamus. 

Hah. North-west frontier of India. 

M. 1544. Cast of the hinder portion of the right maxilla, showing 
m- 3 , and the base of m. 2 . The original is from the Lower 
Siwaliks of the Bugti Hills, on the north-west frontier of 
India, and is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta ; it 
is described and figured by the present writer in the 
' Palaeontologia Indica/ ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 153, pi. xxiv. 
fig. 2. Presented by the Superintendent of the 

Geological Survey of India, 1883. 

M. 1545. Cast of a fragment of the right ramus of a mandible, pro- 
visionally assigned to the present species. The history of 
the original of this specimen is the same as the last. It 
is figured in pi. xxv. fig. 1 of the memoir cited. 

Presented by the Superintendent of the 
Geological Survey of India, 1883. 

M. 1546. Cast of a fragment of the right ramus of a mandible 
similar to the last. The history of the original of this 

1 Osseniens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. iii. p. 396 (1822). A synopsis of the 
species is given by Teller in the Beitr. Pal. Ost.-Ung. vol. iv. part 1 (1884). 
Meyer's A. dalmatinum is there referred to the new genus, Prominathcriiun. 

2 Neues Jahrb. 1840, p. 471. 

3 Paheontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 152 
(1883). 



236 UA T GTJLATA. 

specimen is the same as the last. It is figured in pi. xxv. 
fig. 3 of the memoir cited. 

Presented by the Superintendent of the 
Geological Survey of India, 1883. 

Anthracotherium magnum, Cuvier 1 . 

Three very large species of Anthracotheres have been described, 
viz. : — A. magnum, typically, from the Lower Miocene of Cadibona, 
Italy ; A. valdense, Kowalevsky 2 , from the Lower Miocene lignites 
of Rochette, near Lausaune, Switzerland ; and A. illyricum, Teller 3 , 
from the Miocene lignites of South Styria. The second species is 
considerably larger than most individuals of the typical Cadibona 
form of A. magnum ; and is also distinguished by the presence of a 
small talon behind the third lobe of m . 3, by a difference in the 
inclination of the incisors, and in the proportion of the skeleton, as 
well as by the apparent absence of a projection on the inferior border 
of the outer side of the mandible. The third species is also some- 
what larger than the typical form of A. magnum, from which it differs 
by the excessive shortness of the antero-posterior diameter of m. 1, 
as well as by differences in cranial characters, the form of the 
cranium being strikingly like that of Hippopotamus. It does not 
appear that the later npper molars of these three species present any 
very well-marked distinctive characters beyond differences in size, 
although differences are noticed in A. illyricum. A large Anthraco- 
there occurs in the Quercy phosphorites, which Kowalevsky was 
inclined to consider as distinct, both from A. magnum and A. val- 
dense ; and its first upper true molar is quite different from that of 
A. illyricum. Pilhol 4 , however, refers the Quercy form to A. 
magnum ; and this view is provisionally adopted here, although the 
question cannot be considered settled until a complete cranium be 
obtained. Some of the molars of the Quercy form agree very nearly 
in size with those of the largest specimens of the typical A. magnum ; 
and since there is such a variation in the size of the teeth from Cadi- 
bona referred to that species, no distinction on this ground can appa- 
rently be drawn between the Cadibona and Quercy forms ; and it 

1 Osseraens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. iii. p. 398 (1822). Grande Espece 
a" Anthracotherium. 

2 Palaontographica, vol. xxii. p. 338 (1874 ; vol. dated 1876). Plate xii. 
is lettered A. magnum. The plates are reproduced by Eenevier in the Bull. 
Soc. Vaud. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, vol. xvi. p. 140 (1879). 

3 Beitr. Pal. Ost.-L T ng. vol. iv. pt. 1, p. 03 (1884). 

4 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 174 (1877). 



ANTHRACOTHEEIID^. 237 

seems, moreover, thai A. magnum passes imperceptibly in the other 
direction into the smaller A. cdsaticum\ The fragment of the 
mandible of a large Anthracothere figured in the accompanying 
woodcut (fig. 34) was obtained from the Lower Siwaliks of Dera 

Fiff. 34. 







Anthracotherium, sp-— Part of the left ramus of the mandible ; from Dera 
Bugti. Indian Museum. ^. (From the ' Palasontologia Indica.') 

Bugti, on the north-west frontier of India, and is very similar to 
A. magnum, although insufficient for specific determination. It is 
described in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 176. 
Hah. Europe. 

28770. The palate, with the complete dentition, except the inner 
pair of incisors ; from the Lower Miocene of Ufhofen, near 
Flonheim, Hesse Darmstadt. This magnificent specimen 
is noticed by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Prancaises, 
2nd ed. p. 190. It agrees precisely with the typical Cadi- 
bona form, of which a palate is figured by Gastaldi in the 
Mem. P. Ac. Sci. Turin, ser. 2, vol. xix. pi. ix. (1858). 

Purchased, 1853. 

M. 1433. The crown of the last upper true molar, in an unworn 
condition ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), Prance. This specimen, like others from the 
phosphorites, is of very large size, its length being 0,059, 
and its greatest width 0,063. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1433 a. The last right upper true molar, in a partially worn 
condition ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1434. Two last left upper true molars, in a middle condition 
of wear ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1884. 

1 Ann. Sci. Geol. toI. viii. art. 1. p. 175. 



238 



TJjS t GTJLATA. 



3VL 1435. The first or second left upper true molar, in a well- 
worn condition ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1436. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last pre- 
molar and the greater part of the first true molar ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1437. The right premaxilla, containing the second and third 
incisors and the alveolus of the first tooth of the same 
series ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. The teeth of 
this specimen agree in general characters with those of the 
Ufhofen cranium, No. 28770. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1132. Cast of the complete mandible. The original is from the 
Lower Miocene of Puy-de-D6me, Prance, and is figured by 
Blainville in the ' Osteographie,' genus Anthracotherium, 
pi. i. (d'Auvergne), and noticed by Geryais, op. cit. p. 189. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

197 (0. C). Cast of a fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, 
with the penultimate and last true molars. The original 
is from the Lower Miocene lignites of Cadibona (Piedmont), 
Italy; and is described and figured by Cuvier in the 
* Ossemens Eossiles,' 2nd ed. vol. iii. p. 398, pi. lxxx. 



fig. 2 (1822). 



No history. 



M. 75 b. Two fragments of the mandible, one containing portions of 
the penultimate and last true molars ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Cadibona. Purchased, 1880. 

M. 1447. Portion of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last premolar and the first and second true molars, in a 
well-worn condition ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 
The teeth are considerably larger than those of the 
foregoing specimens of the Cadibona race. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1451. A right lower true molar, in a slightly worn condition ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1443, M. 1446, M. 1453. Detached incisor, canine, and premolar 
teeth, probably belonging to the present species ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 



AjS t THEAC0THEKIID2E. 239 



Anthracotherium alsaticum, Cuvier l . 

This smaller species was founded on the lower jaw of a young 
individual from the Lower Miocene of Alsace, which P. Gervais 2 and 
De Blainville thought might be included in A. magnum. Subse- 
quently the palate of an Anthracotherium from the Upper-Eocene 
phosphorites of France was described and figured by P. Gervais 3 , 
who thought that it might be referred either to A. alsaticum or 
A. cuvieri (=A. onoideum), both of which he speaks of as races of 
A. magnum. Another palate has been described and figured by 
Filhol 4 from the same formation, which, from its association with a 
mandible having an external projection (wanting in A. cuvieri), he 
thought might be referred to the present species. He shows, how- 
ever, that there is a transition in respect of size between the smaller 
form and A. magnum ; so that it seems rather a question of races 
than species. Teller 5 is somewhat doubtful of this identification ; 
but one of the specimens noticed below (No. M. 2177) indicates its 
correctness. There seems, indeed, no possible means of distinguish- 
ing between the upper dentition of A. alsaticum and A. cuvieri ; the 
latter species being distinguished merely by the form of the mandible. 
Under these circumstances the course here followed has been to pro- 
visionally refer all the European specimens of Anthracotherium, not 
showing the characteristic part of the mandible, which are decidedly 
smaller than the typical A, magnum, and yet larger than A. minus, 
to the present species or race. In the palate figured by Eilhol the 
upper premolars are in contact, but are separate in the one figured 
by Gervais. 

Hob. Europe. 

M. 1389. The first left upper true molar ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This specimen agrees 
in size with the corresponding tooth in the palates figured 
by Filhol and Gervais. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 2176. Fragment of the right maxilla, contaiuiug the last three 
premolars ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. This spe- 
cimen agrees precisely with the corresponding portion of 
the palate figured by Filhol. Purchased, 1885. 

1 Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. iv. p. 500 (1822). 

2 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. p. 189. 

3 Zool. et Pal. Generates, ser. 2, p. 47, pi. x. fig. 1 (1876). 

4 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, pp. 175-178, pi. viii. fig. 211 (1877). 

5 Beitr. Pal. Ost.-Ung. vol. iv. pt. 1, p. 57 (1881). 



240 



UNGTJLATA. 



M. 1432. The second left upper true molar ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 75. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing portions of m- 1 
and m. 2 • from the Lower Miocene of Cadibona (Piedmont), 
Italy. The teeth of this specimen agree precisely with 
those of the palate figured by P. Gervais (op. cit.). 

Purchased, 1880. 

M. 75 a. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the first true 
molar, which agrees precisely with the corresponding tooth 
of the last specimen ; from the Lower Miocene of Cadibona. 

Purchased, 1880. 

29593. Small fragment of the right maxilla 1 , containing m. 3 
and the outer half of m. 2 ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Cadibona. The teeth of this specimen agree in relative 
size with those of M. 75 ; and it is probable that both 
belong to the same species, whatever that species may really 
be. The length of m. 3 is 0,043, which agrees with the 
smallest form referred by Gastaldi to A. magnum. 

Presented by the Earl of Enniskillen, 1855. 

11963. Cast of the symphysis and part of the right ramus of the 
mandible, containing mm. 2, mm. 3, mm. 4, and mrnTl. The 
original is the type specimen, and was obtained from the 
Lower Miocene 2 of Lobsann, in Alsace. It is figured by 
Cuvier in the ' Ossemens Fossiles,' 2nd ed. vol. iv. pi. xxxix. 
fig. 5, and by De Blainville in the ' Osteographie,' Genus 
Anthracotherium, pi. iii. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

M. 2177. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a young 
individual, showing mm. 4 and m . 1 ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux. The teeth of this specimen agree precisely 
with those of the last. The length of m. 1 is 0,028. 

Purchased, 1885. 

29907. The third right upper incisor of an Anthracotherium ; from 
the Hempstead beds (Lower Miocene) of the Isle of "Wight. 

1 This specimen has been hitherto referred to A. cuvieri (but without -any- 
sufficient reason), and is so noticed by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 151, 153. The form of the loop connecting the two 
columns, noticed on the latter page, appears to be due merely to wear. 

2 Teller {pp. cit. p. 57) correlates these beds with the Hempstead beds. 



AjS 7 THRAC0THERIID./E. 



241 






This specimen is noticed by the present writer in the Geol. 
Mag. dec. iii. vol. i. p. 548 (1884). It is slightly smaller 
than the corresponding tooth in the Ufhofen palate of 
A. magnum (No. 28770), and would therefore agree well 
in size with the present species, the type of which was 
obtained from beds referred to the horizon of the Hemp- 
stead beds. The present specimen is apparently too large 
to have belonged to A. minus. The height of the crown (of 
which the summit is abraded) is 0,025, the antero-posterior 
diameter of the base of the crown 0,020, and the transverse 
0,017. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29907 a. Cast of the second left upper incisor ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Buchsweiller (Bas-Khin), Alsace. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2224. A right fourth metatarsal, provisionally referred to this 
species ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. This spe- 
cimen agrees very closely with the one figured by Kowa- 
levsky in the ' Palseontographica,' vol. xxii. pi. xi. fig. 55. 
The corresponding bone of Elotherium (vide Pilhol, Ann. 
Sci. Geol. vol. xii. pi. xxviii. fig. 147) differs by the absence 
of the median ridge on the anterior aspect of the distal 
trochlea. Purchased, 1885. 



Anthracotherium valdense, Kowalevsky l . 

Hab. Switzerland. 

M. 1949. The associated second and third right upper true molars 
of a large Anthracotherium ; probably from the Lower-Mio- 
cene lignites of Rochette, near Lausanne, Switzerland. If 
the locality be correct, these specimens probably belong to 
A. valdense. The summits of the teeth are but very slightly 
touched by wear ; and m. 3 is remarkable for its great 
width. The length of the latter tooth is 0,055, and its 
greatest width 0*075. Presented by Dr. Kowalevsky. 

M. 1950. Fragment of a ramus of the mandible, with the broken 
premolar and canine ; probably obtained from the same 
locality as the preceding, and belonging to the same species. 

Presented by Dr. Kowalevsky. 

1 Palseontographica, vol. xxii. p. 338 (1S74; vol. dated 187(>). 

PART II. R 



242 UNGULATA. 

Anthrac other ium minus, Cuvier ' . 

The lower molar teeth of this form are said to be rather less tha 
half the size of those of the typical Cadibona form of A. magnum, 
and have more distinct cusps. Specimens from Eochette figured by 
Kowalevsky (' Palseontographica/ vol. xxii. pi. xii. figs. 72 & 73) 
are referred to this species by Kenevier in the Bull. Soc. Yaud. Sci. 
Nat. ser. 2, vol. xvi. (1879). The reference of the following speci- 
mens is provisional. 

Hob. Europe. 

29803. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a small 

Anthracotherium ; from the Hempstead beds (Lower Mio- 
cene) of the Isle of Wight. This specimen contains m. 2 
and the greater part of m . 3 ; the length of the former being 
0,018, which is somewhat greater than that of the corre- 
sponding tooth of the specimen figured by Kowalevsky. 
It is not improbable that this specimen (which is noticed 
by the present writer in the Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. i. 
p. 548 [1884]) may belong to the present species. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29804. The greater part of a third right lower true molar, similar 

to the last ; from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 
Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29900. The first left lower true molar ; from the Hempstead beds 
of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29900 a. The third right lower true molar, wanting the third lobe ; 
from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

36812 d. The second left lower true molar ; from the Hempstead 
beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Presented by S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 

Anthracotherium, sp. a. 

(Cf. A. laharpei, Renevier 2 .) 
Hob. Europe. 

26809. Two associated upper molars (one imperfect) ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Puy-de-D6me, France. The smallest tooth 

1 Osseraens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. iii. p. 403 (1822). 

2 Ball. Soc. Vaud. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, vol. xvi. p. 146 (1879). 






ANTHKACOTHERIID^. 243 

has a length 0,0215, and a width of 0,023. The teeth are 
larger than those of the last species ; and apparently 
closely resemble teeth from Eochette, near Lausanne, 
Switzerland, figured by Kowalevsky in the ' Pakeonto- 
graphica,' vol. xxii. pi. xxii. fig. 76, and subsequently 
named by E. Renevier (loc. cit.) A. laharpei. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 



Anthracothermm silistrense, Pentland l . 

Syn. A. punjabiense, Lydekker 2 . 

This is a small species, nearly of the size of A. breviceps 
(Troschel). 
Rob. India. 

19041. The right upper true molar, in a partially worn condition ; 

(Fig.) from the Siwaliks of Karibari, Garo Hills, N.E. Bengal, 
India. This is the type specimen, and is figured by J. B. 
Pentland in the Trans. Geol. Soc. ser. 2, vol. ii. pi. xlv. 
figs. 4, 5, and by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxviii. figs. 23, 23a. It precisely 
resembles a specimen from Sind figured by the present 
writer in the ' Pakeontologia Indica' 3 , ser. 10, vol. ii. 
pi. xxiii. fig. 10. 

Collected by Sir J. Colebrooke. Before 1828. 

39881. A penultimate upper milk-molar, very probably belonging to 

(Fig.) the present species ; from the Pliocene of the Kalawala 

Pass in the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured in 

Royle's • Botany &c. of the Himalaya Mountains/ pi. iii. 

figs. 12-15 (1839). Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842, 

M. 1543. Cast of the hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible. 
The original is from the Siwaliks of the Punjab, India, and 
is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. It is 
described and figured by the present writer in the ' Palason- 
tologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 151, pi. xxiv. figs. 1, la. 
Presented by the Superintendent of the 
Geological Survey of India, 1883, 

1 Trans. Geol. Soc. ser. 2, vol. ii. p. 394 (1828), in parte. 

2 Eec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. x. p. 78 (1877). 

3 When describing the latter the type specimen could not be found. 

k2 



244 T7NGTTLATA. 

Anthracotherium, sp. b. 

Hob. India. 

15712. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing m . l, 
m. 2, and the alveolus of p m . 4 ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills, India. The length of ^71 is 0,016, and that 
of m. 2, 0,019. The specimen is much smaller than the 
mandible referred to A. hyojpotamoides, and considerably 
larger than that referred to A. silistrense. The teeth agree 
very nearly in size with those of the mandible from the 
Isle of Wight (No. 29803) provisionally referred to A. 
minus, but the form of the columns is different. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Anthracotherium, sp. c. 

Hob. India. 

19042. The third left lower true molar ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen is relatively smaller 
than the teeth of the preceding specimen ; and is larger 
than m. 3 of A. silistrense (No. M. 1543), its length being 
0,027 instead of 0,023. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Anthracotherium gresslyi (H. von Meyer l ). 

Syn. Tapinodon gresslyi, Meyer 2 . 

Hyopotamus gresslyi, Riitimeyer 3 . 

This species has been referred to the present genus by the writer 
in the ' Geological Magazine,' dec. 3, vol. ii. p. 69 (1885). It is the 
smallest described form ; and differs from the other species of which 
the complete dentition is known by the long diastema between the 
first and second upper premolars, and by the absence of the first 
lower premolar. It must be regarded as a highly specialized form 
of the genus, presenting the same relation to the typical forms as is 
borne by Ccenotherium cadurcense and its allies to Ccenotherium com- 
mune, and by Xiphodon secundarius to Xiphodon gracilis. The 
type specimens are from the siderolithes (Upper Eocene) of Eger- 
kingen, Switzerland. 

Hab. Europe. 

1 Neues Jahrb. 1846, p. 471, Tapinodon. 2 Loc. cit. 






3 Denkschr. schw. Ges. Nat. vol. xix. art. 3, p. 70 (1862). 



ANTHEACOTHERIID^. 



245 






29851. The cranium, in a much- crushed condition ; from the Headon 
{Fig.) beds (Upper Eocene) of Hordwell, Hampshire. This spe- 
cimen has been described and figured by the present writer 
in the ' Geological Magazine,' he. cit. It shows the cheek- 
dentition of both sides, although pm- 1 is wanting on the 
right side. The dentition of the left side is represented in 
the accompa^-ing woodcut (fig. 35). The detached first 




Anthracotherium gresslyi (Meyer). — The left half of the palate and the upper 
cheek-dentition 



premolar is inserted by two distinct fangs, and was pro- 
bably approximated to the canine. The last six cheek- 
teeth agree with those of typical species of the genus ; the 
three true molars are in a well-worn condition. The an- 
terior border of the posterior nares is situated a considerable 
distance behind the last molar. The height from the lower 
border of the foramen magnum to the summit of the 
occiput is 0,034. The length from the lower border of the 
foramen magnum to pm. 1 is 0,117 ; the length of the space 
occupied by the last six cheek-teeth 0,047 ; that by the 
three true molars 0,0265 ; the length of the diastema 
between pm. 1 and pm. 2 0,0205 ; the length of m. 3 
0,0095, andlts width 0,012. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29713. The mandible, probably belonging to the same individual as 

(Fig.) the last specimen; from the Headon beds of Hordwell. 

This specimen, of which the right ramus and the dentition 

are represented in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 36), is 



246 



UNGTTLATA. 



described and figured by the present writer in the ' Geolo- 
gical Magazine/ loc. cit. The figured ramus is complete, 

Fig. 36. 




Anthracotherium gresslyi (Meyer). — The right ramus of the mandible, and the 
lower cheek-dentition ; from the Headon beds of Hordwell. \. 



with the exception of the symphysis, and shows six cheek- 
teeth in apposition, in advance of which there is a long 
diastema, followed by the broken base of the canine. The 
other ramus shows the six cheek-teeth. The molars 
resemble those of Anthracotherium ; each premolar is 
inserted by two fangs ; and the fourth has a large inner 
cusp. There is no trace of pmTT. The extreme length is 
0,114 ; the extreme height at the coronoid process 0,052 ; 
the depth at m. 3 0,017, at pm. 2 0,015 ; the length of the 
space occupied by the six cheek-teeth 0,052, that by the 
three true molars 0,030 ; that of mTT 0,0085, of m72 
0,0087, of m. 3 0,013 ; and the width of mTB 0,008. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

37333. A left upper and a lower true molar belonging to the same 
or a closely allied species ; from the Bembridge beds (Upper 
Eocene) of the Isle of Wight. The upper molar is slightly 
smaller than m. 1 of No. 29851. 

Presented by F. E. Edwards, Esq., 1863. 






AXTHKACOTHEEIIILE. CHCEROPOTAMID^]. 247 

Anthracotheriiim, sp. d. 
Hab. England. 

29856. The right ramus of a mandible, containing m . 2 and m. 3, 
apparently belonging to the present genus ; from the 
Headon beds (Upper Eocene) of Hordwell, Hampshire. 
The molars are larger, and the jaw is deeper than in 
A. gressli/i, but the structure of the teeth is very similar. 
The length of m . 3 is 0,014, and the depth of the jaw 
behind that tooth 0,026. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1885. 



Family CHCEROPOTAMID^E. 

The true molars are intermediate in structure between those of 
Anthracotherium and the more generalized Suidce like Hyotherium. 
Those of the upper jaw have five columns, arranged as in the 
Anthracotheriidce. Cliceropotamus steinheimensis, Eraas (vide Jahresh. 
Yer. Xat. "Wiirtt. 1SS5, pi. v.), seems to belong to Hyotherium. 
Ceboclicerus is noticed in the Addenda. 

Genus CHCEROPOTAMUS, Cuvier ' . 
Dentition :— I. | C. \, Pm. |. M. |. There is a third lobe to nT3. 

Cheer op otamus gyp so rum, Desmarest 2 . 

Syn. Ch&ropotamus euvieri, Owen 3 . 

Cho?i'opotamits jjarisiensis, Blainville 4 . 
Chcerqpotamus affinis, P. Gervais 5 . 

The upper true molars resemble those of Anthracotherium silis- 
trense, but have shorter crowns, with a less approach to a selenodont 
structure. 

Hub. Europe. 

30667. Part of the right maxilla, showing the last four cheek- 
teeth in a worn and somewhat broken condition; from 

1 Ossemens Fossiles. 2nd ed. vol. iii. p. 260 (1S22), Chceropotame. 

2 Mammalogie, p. 545 (1822\ 

3 Trans. Geol. Soc. ser. 2, vol. vi. p. 41 (1841 [read 1S38]). 

4 ' Osteofrranhie.' Genus Chceropotamus, pi. i. (1846). 

:i Zool. et Pal. Franqaises. 1st ed. vol. i. p. 95 (1848-52). 



248 



UNOTTLATA. 



the Upper Eocene of Debruge, near Apt (Vaucluse), 
France. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26807. Fragment of the left maxilla, showing the three true molars 

in a broken condition ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 
Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26808. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing m- 3 in an unworn 

but broken condition ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 
Pomel Collection. Purchased* 1851. 



30664. Fragment of the left maxilla, with the unworn m. 1 or 
m^ • from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 33. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible of a 
{Fig.) male, showing all the cheek-teeth except pm. 3, which has 
fallen from its alveolus ; from the Upper Eocene of Sea- 
field, Isle of Wight. This specimen is figured by Owen in 
the Trans. Geol. Soc. ser 2, vol. vi. pi. iv. figs. 1, 2. The 
sex is inferred from the great thickness of the premolars. 
Bequeathed by Rev. W. D. Fox, 1880. 

30625. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible of a 
(Fig.) female (with the hinder part restored), showing the alveoli 

of the incisors, the broken canine, and the perfect series of 
six cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge. The 
cheek-teeth of this specimen are figured (reversed) by P. 
Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 2nd ed. pi. xxxi. 
fig. 5. The extremely small size of the canine and the 
narrow premolars indicate the female sex of this specimen. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2195. Hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible of a male, 
showing the last four cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Yaucluse. Purchased, 1885. 

30626. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing m72 and 

m. 3 in a half-worn condition ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30627. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing pm . 3, 

pm. 4, and a part of m7I, all well worn ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Vaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



CH(EEOPOTAMID^E. 249 

M. 2196. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a young 
individual, showing mm. 4, m. 1, and m . % in a slightly 
worn condition ; from the Upper Eocene of Yaucluse. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2197. The fourth left lower milk-molar ; from the Upper Eocene 

of Yaucluse. PurcJiased, 1885. 



Genus ELOTHERIUM, Pom el l . 

Syn. Entelodon, Aymard 2 . 

Arcliceotlierium, Leidy 3 . 
Oltinotherium, Delfortrie 4 . 



Dentition :— I. |, C. \, Pm. \, M. |. There is no third lobe to m. 3 5 , 
and the premolars are of moderate size, by which characters the 
genus is distinguished from Tetraconodon 6 . For E. mortoni see 
Addenda. 

Elotherium magnum, Pomel 7 . 

Syn. Entelodon magnum, Aymard 8 . 
Entelodon ronzoni, Aymard 9 . 
Elotherium aymardi, Pomel 10 . 
Elotherium ronzoni, Pomel n . 
Oltinotherium verdeaui, Delfortrie 12 . 

Hah. Europe 13 . The Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge, possesses 
specimens from the Hempstead beds of the Isle of Wight. 

29630. Cast of a portion of the right maxilla, showing the seven 
cheek-teeth. The original is in the Paris Museum, and 
was obtained from the Lower Miocene of Eonzon, near 

1 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 1083 (1847). The usual reference 
to the Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. of the same year is not the original one. In the 
' Palteontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. hi. p. 99, the writer adopted the name 
Entelodon, but he now agrees with Flower in taking Elotherium. 

2 Ann. Soc. Agric. Sci. le Puy, vol. xii. p. 240 (1848), teste Filhol. 

3 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. v. p. 92 (1850 ; vol. dated 1852). 

4 Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. xxix. p. 261 (1873). 

5 The only known Artiodactyle with this feature is the existing Neotragus 
saltianus. 

6 Vide ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. i. pi. x. 

7 Loc. cit. 8 Ibid. ° Ibid. 

10 Catalogue Methodique, p. 89 (1853). 

11 Loc. cit. l2 Loc. cit. 

13 Filhol (Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xii. art. 3, p. 190) identifies four of Leidy's 
North-American species with E. magnum, but this is doubtful. 



250 TJN&TJLATA. 

Puy-en-Yelay (Haute-Loire), Prance. It is figured by 
P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. 
pi. xxxii. fig. 12 (|), by Kowalevsky in the ' Palaeonto- 
graphica,' vol. xxii. pi. xxv. fig. 7, and by Filhol in the 
Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xii. pi. xxvii. fig. 138. 

Presented by the Paris Museum of Natural History. 

40956. Cast of the mandible, showing portions of two premolars, and 
the three true molars, with the alveoli of the other teeth. 
The original was obtained from the Lower Miocene of 
Agen (Garonne), Prance. Purchased, 1868. 

M. 2194. Cast of the last six left lower cheek-teeth. The original 
from which this cast is taken is more complete, and was 
obtained from the Lower Miocene of Ronzon ; it is figured 
by Kowalevsky, op. cit. fig. 9, and by Filhol, op. cit. 
figs. 139, 140. Presented by Dr. KowalevsJcy . 

M. 2392. A lower incisor, provisionally referred to this species ; 
from the Lower Miocene of Eonzon. No history. 

M. 2393. Cast of the left lower canine and pm. 1 , associated with 
the last, and represented in the two figures quoted. 

Presented by Dr. KowalevsJcy . 

M. 2394. Cast of the greater part of the right tibia, with the patella 
in situ. The original, which is considerably damaged, is 
from the Lower Miocene of Ronzon, and is described and 
figured by Kowalevsky, op. cit. p. 435, pi. xxvii. fig. 33. 

Presented by Dr. Kowalevsky. 

Family SUIDjE. 
There seems no possibility of drawing any distinction of more 
than generic value between Dicotyles, Hyotherium and its allies, and 
Sus, and they all are accordingly included in this family. The molars 
are bunodont, the upper ones having four main columns, which may 
be simple (Hyotherium), or of extreme complexity (Hippohyus) ; a 
secondary column corresponds to the fifth column of the Anthra- 
cotheriidoB and Chosropotamidce. 

Genus DICOTYLES, Cuvier 1 . 
Dentition : — 1. 1, C. ~, Pm. |, M. |. The upper premolars have 
the same structure as the true molars. 

1 Eegne Animal, vol. i. p. 237 (1817). 



sumE. 251 

• $Biaity>Xt$ labtatuS, Cuvier l . 
Syn. Dicotyles affinis labiatus, Lund 2 . 

The fossil specimens noticed below are somewhat larger than 
the corresponding parts of the skeleton of the existing race ; but as 
they present no structural differences, they are provisionally referred 
to the same species. 

Hab. Central and South America. 

18619. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
four last cheek-teeth; from a cavern in Minas Geraes, 
Brazil. The length of the space occupied by the three 
true molars is 0,057 against 0,052 in the living form. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18619 a. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
four last cheek-teeth ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18957 C. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with m . 3 
and part of m . 2; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. The 
teeth are of very large size. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18957. Pnrt of the left ramus of the mandible containing p m . 4, 
m. l, and m. 2 ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. The 
length of the space occupied by the three teeth is 0,047, 
as against 0,042 in the living form. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18957 b. Three canines ; from the caverns of Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18957 e. Three molars; from the caverns of Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18619. The left radius and ulna, of large size ; from a cavern in 
Minas Geraes. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845 

18619 b. Bones of a foot ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

The following specimens may belong to small individuals of this or 

large individuals of the next species. 
18707. Two humeri ; from the caverns of Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

1 Kegne Animal, vol. i. p. 238 (1817). 

2 Vide H. Gervais and Ameghino, ' Mamruiferes fossiles de l'Amerique du 
Sud/ p. 113 (1880). 



252 UNGTTLATA. 

18957 d. The right radius and ulna ; from a cavern in Minas 
Geraes. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845 

18709. The right femur ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

JBtcotgleS tajacu (Linn. 1 ). 

Syn. Sus tajacu, Linn. 2 

Dicotyles torquatus, Cuvier 3 . 

Hah. Southern part of North America and the regions to the 
south. 

18953. The cranium of an immature individual ; from a cavern in 
Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18952. The anterior half of the cranium ; from a cavern in Minas 
Geraes. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18958 a. Part of the right maxilla, showing the six cheek-teeth in 
a much-worn condition ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 
Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18958 b. Part of the right maxilla of an immature individual, 
showing the last two premolars (half protruded) and the 
first two true molars ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18958 c. Four detached molars ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18958 d. The anterior part of the palate, showing the incisors, left 
canine, and pm. 2 • from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18958 e. The anterior part of the palate, showing the incisors ; from 
a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18955. The mandible of an immature individual, wanting some of 
the teeth ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 103 (1766), Sus. 2 Loc. cit 

3 Kegne Animal, vol. i. p. 237 (1817). 



STJID^E. 



253 



18956. The symphysis and right ramus of the mandible of a male, 
showing all the teeth except the incisors and pm. 2 ; from 
a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18956 a. The nearly complete mandible of a female ; from a 
cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18958 f. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the unworn m . 3 ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18958 h. Three specimens of the humerus ; from the caverns of 
Minas Geraes. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18958 i. Three specimens of the radius and ulna; from the caverns 
of Minas Geraes. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18958 j. Three specimens of the two median metacarpals; from 
the caverns of Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 



Genus HYOTHERIUM, H. v. Meyer \ 

Syn. Palceocliozmis, Pomel 2 . 

Cheer omor us, P. Gervais 3 (ex Lartet, MS.). 
Chair other ium, Lartet 4 . 
Amphichcerus, Bravard, MS. 

Dentition : — I. g, C. \, Pm. |, M. |. The genus is represented in 
the Tertiaries of Europe, Asia, and America. It is not regarded by 
Filhol as the ancestral form either of JSus or Dicotyles ; but it is most 
probable, from the structure of its molars, that it was intimately 
related with such ancestral stock. Allied extinct American forms, 
in one of which the number of premolars is |, have been described 5 . 
The upper premolars are simpler in structure than the true molars. 



1 ' Die fossilen Zakne und Knochen von Georgensgrnund,' p. 43 (1831). 

2 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 381 (1847 [read 1846]). 

3 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 198, note 1 (1848-52). 

4 Notice sur la Colline de Sansan, p. 32 (1851). 

5 Vide ' Palasontologia Iudica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 94. 



254 



UNGTULATA. 



Hyotherium typum (Pomel ). 

■Iji 

Syn. Chozropotamus meissneri, H. v. Meyer 2 . 
Hyotherium meissneri, JEL. v. Meyer 3 . 
Palceochosrus typus, Pomel 4 . 
Palceochcerus suillus, Pomel 5 . 
Hyotherium suillum, Filhol 6 . 
Amphichcerus typus, Bravard, MS. 

Peters, in the Denkschr. k. Ak. Wiss. vol. xxix. p. 214 (1869), 
identifies PL. typum with H. meissneri, and the specimens in the 
Mnseum indicate that this is probably correct ; the latter species 
was, however, never properly defined, and it therefore seems best to 
adopt the former name, which is in very general use. Peters also 
identifies with this form the so-called Ghoeromorus simplex from 
the Middle Miocene of Sansan ; but this view is not borne out by 
the specimens in the Museum. If H. typus and H. meissneri be 
really the same, the range of the species extends from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux to the Middle Miocene of Elgg, and Georgens- 
gmiind 7 . 

Hah. Europe. 

M. 2198. Part of the palate ; from the Middle Miocene of Elgg 
(Zurich), Switzerland 8 . This specimen shows the three true 
molars of either side, in an early stage of wear ; from the 
locality whence it was obtained it may probably be regarded 
as belonging to the typical H. meissneri. The length of 
the space occupied by the three true molars is 0,0365, 
and the interval between m- 3 of opposite sides 0,022. 
The former dimensions agree very closely with that of 
the specimen figured by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. 
Erangaises, 2nd ed. pi. xxxiii. fig. 1, under the name of 
Palceochoerus typus. Purchased, 1885. 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 87 (1853), Palaochoerus. 

2 ' Die fossilen Zahne und Knochen von Georgensgmund,' p. 51 (1834). From 
the context there is evidently some earlier occurrence of the name, which the 
writer has not found. 

3 Neues Jahrb. 1841, p. 104. 4 Catalogue Methodique, p. 87 (1853). 
6 Loc. cit. 

6 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi. art. 1, p. 14 (1880; vol. dated 1881). 

7 In the table on page x of Part I. of this work, the writer followed Max 
Schlosser in placing the Georgensgmiind beds in the Upper Miocene ; its Mam- 
malian fauna appears, however, to indicate that it should rather be placed in 
the Middle Miocene. See Introduction. 

8 The Elgg beds are not mentioned in the table on page x of Part I. of this 
work. They are placed by Max Schlosser in the same horizon as those of 
Kapfnach. 



suidje. 255 

34961 a. The cranium, in a much-damaged condition ; from the 
Lower Miocene of St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), France. 
This specimen, which is the type of Pomel's Palceochoerus 
suillus, shows the three true molars of both sides, pm. 4 
on the right, and pm. 3 and pm. 4 on the left side ; it also 
shows the alveoli of the earlier teeth and the worn right 
canine 1 . It is described by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. xi. art. 1, pp. 15-16. The length of the space occu- 
pied by the three true molars is 0,034, and the interval 
between m. 3 of opposite sides 0,022. The true molars are 
indistinguishable in form from those of the last specimen, 
but are slightly smaller ; all the cheek-teeth agree very 
closely with those of the specimen figured by Gervais 
(loc. cit.),. with the exception that pm. 4 has one instead of 
two external tubercles ; this, according to Filhol, being a 
variable character. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27593. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing mm. 8 , mm. 4 , and 
m. 1 , together with the detached m. 2 ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Sauvetat (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. This speci- 
men is noticed by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Fran- 
chises, 2nd ed. p. 184, and referred to E. ivaterhousei, on 
the ground that the columns of the true molars are more 
pyramidal than in the present species ; this is, however, 
entirely due to their unworn condition, and as they agree 
in size with the corresponding teeth of No. M. 2198, the 
specimen is referred to the present species. The length of 
m. 1 is 0,0115, and that of m^2 0,0125. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

3VL 2199. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing m. 2 and m. 3, 
together with several detached upper true molars ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne). As 
these specimens are indistinguishable from the correspond- 
ing teeth of the preceding specimen, they may at least 
provisionally be referred to the same species. 

Purchased, 1885. 

34961 b. The greater part of the mandible in a somewhat broken 
condition, showing the last four cheek-teeth; from the 
Lower Miocene of Bomagnat (Allier). This specimen 

1 The canine of a Paleeomeryx or Ainphitragiihis has been inserted in the 
left side. 



256 TJNGULATA. 

agrees so exactly with the cranium No. 34961 a, that there 
is every probability of its belonging to the same species ; 
this being rendered well-nigh certain by its agreement 
with No. 28059. The length of the space occupied by 
the three true molars is 0,042. In the specimen figured 
by Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. 
pi. xxxiii. fig. 2 a, under the name of P. typus, the corre- 
sponding length is only 0,035, indicating the probability 
of its specific distinctness. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28059. Cast of a fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the much-worn m . 2 and m . 3. The original is 
from La Moliere (? Tarn-et-G-aronne). The length of the 
space occupied by the two teeth is 0,034 ; the correspond- 
ing space in No. 34961 b being 0,032. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

JVC. 2200. A second and third lower true molar, agreeing almost 
precisely with those of 34961 b, and provisionally referred 
to the same species ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux 
(Tarn-et-Garonne). These teeth are apparently identical 
with those of the mandible from the same deposits figured 
by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. pi. xiv. fig. 292, 
under the name of Choeromorus simplex. 

Purchased, 1885. 

27805. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with the 
unworn m . 2 and m. 3, perhaps belonging to a small indi- 
vidual of the present species ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Antoign (Puy-de-D6me). 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 2202. Fragment of the left ramus of a mandible of a young 
animal, provisionally referred to this species ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. This specimen shows mm. 4 
(length 0,0165), the broken base of m . 1, and the germ of 
m. 2 detached from its alveolus. Purchased, 1885. 

Hyotherium waterhousei (Pomel 1 ). 

Syn. Palceochatrus waterhousei, Pomel 2 . 

This species is considerably larger than the last, but the structure 
of the molars is very similar. 
Hab. France. 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 86 (1853), Palaochcerus. 2 Loc. cit. 



StttD^. 257 

M. 2203. Fragment of the right maxilla, showing m. 1 and m. 2 in 
an almost unworn condition ; from the Lower Miocene of 
St. Gerand-le-Puy (Allier), France. The teeth are appa- 
rently identical with those of the cranium figured by 
Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi. pi. vi. ; their united 
length measuring 0,029. Purchased, 1885. 

40894. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible containing the 
three true molars, the last being not fully protruded; 
from the Lower Miocene of Allier. This specimen agrees 
precisely with the mandible figured by Filhol, op. cit. 
pi. vii. ; the united length of roTT and m. 2 measuring 0,0305. 
Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

27789. Part of the left ramus of the mandible in a much-decayed 
condition, probably belonging to a small individual of the 
present species, showing the last five cheek-teeth ; from 
the Lower Miocene of Sauvetat (Puy-de-D6me). 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

Hyotherium scemmeringi, H. v. Meyer \ 

Syn. Chosropotamus sozmmeringi, H. v. Meyer 2 . 
(?) Palceochcerus major, Pomel 3 . 

This is the largest species, but the specimens figured by Peters 
indicate a considerable variation in size. 
Rah. Europe. 

26698. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the three true 
molars ; from the Lower Miocene of Allier. This speci- 
men is noticed by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 
2nd ed. p. 183, and referred to Pomel's P. major 4 ; it 
differs from H. ivaterhousei by its superior size (the length 
of the space occupied by the three molars is 0,055), by 
its wider teeth, and the more complex crown of m . 3. In 
all these characters it agrees with the description of 
Palceochcerus major, and also with the teeth of H. scemme- 
ringi, figured by Peters in the Denkschr. k. Ak. Wiss. 

1 ' Die fossilen Zahne und Knochen von Georgensgmimd,' p. 55 (1834). (The 
text indicates that the name occurs in an earlier passage.) Choeropotamits. 

2 Ibid. p. 62. 3 Catalogue Methodique, p. 86 (1853). 

4 Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi. art. 1, p. 19, is unable to identify this 
species, and suggests that it may be the same as H. ivaterhousei. Vide 
Wilckens, Biol. Oentralblatt, 1885, p. 236. 

PART II. S 



258 TOTGULATA. 

vol. xxix. pi. i., being intermediate in point of size 
between the specimens represented in figs. 6 and 7. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 



Hyotherium simplex (P. Gervais 1 ). 
Syn. Chceromorus simplex, P. Gervais 2 . 

As already mentioned, Peters identified this form with H. typum, 
but the specimen noticed below indicates a much smaller animal. 
Hab. France. 

M. 2204. Part of the right ramus of the mandible containing the 
last four cheek-teeth ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan 
(Gers), Prance. This specimen agrees precisely with the 
dimensions of the type mandible described by Gervais, 
and figured by him, op. cit. 2nd ed. pi. xxxiii. fig. 5 3 , as 
is shown by the following measurements : — 

Type. B. M. 

Length of space occupied by the three 

true molars 0,0385 

Length of nTl 0,011 0,0113 

^2 0,013 0,013 

nT3 0,016 0,0165 

Purchased, 1855. 

M. 2398. Portion of the humerus, radius, and three metapodials, 
probably belonging to this species; from the Middle 
Miocene of Sansan. No history. 

Limb-bones of Hyotherium. 

40895. Two metapodials of a large species ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier. Presented by O. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

21968. A metapodial of a very small species; from the Lower 
Miocene of Allier. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

40768. The proximal extremity of a metapodial of a small species 
([?] H. simplex) ; from the Middle Miocene of Sansan. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

1 Zool. et Pal. Fran9aiseB, 1st ed. vol. ii. Exp. no. 33, p. 7 (1848-52), Chcero- 
morus. 2 Loc. cit. 

• In the figure m . 1 is too long. 



suid^. 259 

Genus HIPPOHYUS, Falconer and Cautley \ 
This genus appears to be allied to Hyotherium, but has an ex- 
tremely complex structure in its molar dentition (vide ' Paheonto- 



gia Indica/ 


ser. 


10, 


vol 


. iii. 


P- 


90). 


Dentition : 


—I. 


^ 


1 


Pm. 


4 
4' 


M-! 



Hippohyus sivalensis, Falconer and Cautley 2 . 
Hah. India. 
M. 2053. Cranium of an adolescent individual ; from the Pliocene 
(Fig.) of the Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen is the type of 
the genus and species, and is figured by Falconer and 
Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxx. fig. 1, 
the dentition of the right side (reversed) being represented 
of the full size in pi. lxxi. fig. 1 of the same work ; it is 
described by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. pp. 86, 87. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2054. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, showing 
(Fig.) m. 2 and m . 3, in an imperfect condition; from the Pliocene 

of the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 

ojo. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 2. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2055. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, showing 
(Fig.) part of pm. 4, roTT? and m. 2 ; from the Pliocene of the 

Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 

ojo. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 3. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16582. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
(Fig.) pmTi, mTl, and wT2, mostly perfect ; from the Pliocene 

of the Siwalik Hills. Figured hy Falconer and Cautley, 

op. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 4. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Genus SUS, Linn. 3 
Including Porcula, Hodgson, and Potamoclmrus i , Gray. 

Dentition : — 1. 1, C. \, Pm. |, M. |. In some fossil species the 
first premolar is absent. 

1 In Owen's 'Odontography,' p. 562 (1840-45). 2 Ibid. 

3 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 102 (1766). 

4 The reasons for including these two genera are given in the ' Paleeontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 49. 



260 UNGULATA. 

«%U£j 3crofa, Linn. 1 

The talon of the third true molar is of moderate length, and the 
united length of m. 1 and m. 2 usually exceeds that of m. 3 . 
Hah. Europe and North Africa. 

M.. 1343. Casts of the last four right upper true molars, of very 
large size. The originals were obtained from the Forest- 
Bed of Sidestrand, Cromer, Norfolk, and are figured by 
E. T. Newton in the Vertebrata of the Eorest-Bed Series 
(Mem. Geol. Surv. Eng.) pi. vi. fig. 4. 

Presented by E. T. Newton, Esq., 1884. 

28079. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last two pre- 
molars and the first two true molars ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays, Essex. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

18758, 21659, 21669, 22034, 22037, 22038. Numerous detached 
teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased. 

43708. Two specimens of the last upper, and one of the last lower 
true molar ; from the Pleistocene fissures of Oreston, near 
Plymouth, Devonshire. Purchased, about 1860. 

18815. The right upper canine of a male, of very large size ; from 
the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1845. 

39909. Palatal portion of the cranium of a female, showing all the 
cheek-teeth and the alveoli of the incisors ; from Burwell 
Pen, Cambridgeshire. Purchased, 1866. 

41454. Cranium of a female ; from river-silt at Walthamstow, 

Essex. Purchased, 1869. 

41455. Cranium of a young individual; from river-silt at "Wal- 

thamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

M. 1344. The cranium (imperfect) of a subadult female ; from the 
bed of the Ouse at Newport Pagnell, Buckinghamshire. 

Presented by Major LocJcner, 1884. 

28052. The right ramus of the mandible of a male; from the 
Pleistocene of North Bridge, Colchester, Essex. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

40055. The mandible of a smaller male ; from a river-deposit at 
Lambeth, Surrey. Purchased, 1866. 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 102 (1766). 



SUID/E. 261 

198 a (0. C.) The mandible of a male, agreeing in size with the last, 
and wanting many of the teeth ; locality unknown. 

No history. 

39910. The mandible of a female, wanting some of the cutting- 
teeth ; from Bur well .Fen. Purchased, 1866. 

33096. The anterior extremity of the mandible of a male, showing 
the canines and some of the incisors and premolars ; from 
the turbary of Lough Gur, Grange, County Limerick, 
Ireland. Presented by the Count de Salis, 1864. 

38097. The anterior extremity of the mandible of a male, showing 

the canines and some of the incisors and premolars ; from 
the turbary of Lough Gur. 

Presented by the Count de Salis, 1864. 

38098. The left lower canine of a male, of large size ; from the 

turbary of Lough Gur. 

Presented by the Count de Sails, 1864. 

43677. Part of one ramus of the mandible of a young individual, 
showing mm. 3, mm 4, m. 1, and p m . 3, and pm. 4 in alveolo ; 
from the Pleistocene fissures of Oreston. 

Purchased, about 1860. 

21295. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the last 
four cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased. 

21295 a. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible with the third 
true molar, in an unworn condition ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased. 

20276, 21295, 22037. Several lower canines ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased. 

21634. The distal extremity of the right humerus ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Grays. Purchased. 

M. 1916. The proximal portion of the left ulna ; from a fen in 
Norfolk. Presented by Sir E. Owen, K.C.B., 1884. 

19843, 21265, 21637. Several metapodials ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased. 

19837. A second phalangeal; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 



262 TTNOTJLATA. 

19884. The atlas vertebra of a large male ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased. 

23142. The atlas vertebra of a male; from the Pleistocene of 
Maidstone, Kent. Purchased, 1849. 

27904. The atlas vertebra; from the Pleistocene of Clacton, Essex. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

M. 1915. The atlas vertebra of a small female ; from a fen in Nor- 
folk. Presented by Sir B. Owen, K.G.B., 1884. 

In the extreme complexity of the talon of m- 3 the following specimen 
agrees with the Indian S. cristatus ; the large size of the alveoli 
of the canines renders it somewhat improbable that it belongs to a 
domestic breed crossed with an Asiatic stock. 

41170. The palate of a male, showing the alveoli of the canines, 
and all the cheek-teeth except pm. 1 • from the bed of the 
Thames at Hammersmith. Purchased, 1868. 

The following specimens are provisionally referred to the present 
species; they belong to the Brome Collection {Presented, 1876), 
and were obtained from the Caverns of Gibraltar ; they are 
noticed by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pp. 126-128. 

47665. Three fragments of a maxilla, showing the three true molars 

and the later premolars. 

47666. Several detached molars. 

47667. Two portions of the mandible, one showing the three true 

molars and the other m . 1 and m . 2. 

47668. Several detached molars. 

47669. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of an immature 

individual, showing ^71 and rnT2. 

47671. Four detached canines. 

47672. The glenoidal half of the left scapula. 

47673. The distal halves of the associated third and fourth meta- 

tarsals. 

47674. Two associated first phalangeals, one imperfect. 



suid^. 263 

Sus f ale oner i, Lydekker \ 
Syn. Sus sivalensis, Blainville 2 . 

This species is characterized by the extreme complexity of the 
structure of the true molars, especially the third. In this com- 
plexity the species makes an approach towards Phacochoerv.s. The 
cranium resembles S. barbatus. 

Hab. India. 

15386. Cranium of a male ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, 
(Fig.) India. This specimen shows the whole of the cheek-den- 
tition of the right side, and the alveolus of the canine. 
It is figured (under the name of S. giganteus) by Falconer 
and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxix. 
fig. 3 ; and is described by the present writer in the ' Palse- 
ontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. pp. 66-68 3 . 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2044. Middle portion of the cranium of a subadult individual, 

(Fig.) showing the last five cheek-teeth of both sides; from the 

Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Baker and 

Durand in the Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. v. pi. xliv. fig. 2, 

and noticed by the present writer, op. cit. p. 70. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2042. Part of the cranium of an immature female, showing the 
(Fig.) base of the canine, and the first six cheek-teeth with a 

portion of m. 3 in alveolo ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 

Hills. Figured by Baker and Durand, op. cit. pi. xliv. 

fig. 1, and by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxi. 

fig. 14 (as S. giganteus) ; it is noticed by the present 

writer, op. cit. p. 70. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2013. Cranium of a young (? female) individual, showing the 

(Fig.) broken bases of the greater part of the milk-dentition, m. 1 

in a partially worn condition, and several other permanent 

teeth in alveolo ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxx. fig. 4 

1 Palseontologia Indica (Mem. Greol. Surv. Lid.), ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 66 
(1884). 

2 Osteographie, Genus Stts, pi. ix. (1847). 

3 Owing to a confusion in the Museum Eegister, the specimen is referred to 
as No. 16386. 



I 



264 UNGTTLATA. 

(as S. giganteus), and noticed by the present writer, 
op. cit. p. 70. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

M. 2043. Fragment of the palate of an adult, showing m. 2 and m. 3 
(Fig.) of either side, and the hinder half of the left m. 1 ; from 
the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer 
and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 13 (under the name of 
S. giganteus), and described and figured by the present 
writer, op. cit. p. 71, pi. vii. fig. 5. In this specimen the 
molars are narrow, and of extremely complex structure ; 
m- 3 being much larger than the corresponding tooth of 
No. 15386. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2012. The greater part of the mandible of a male, showing parts 
(Fig.) of the incisors and canines, and the cheek-dentition of 
either side, in a well-worn condition ; from the Pliocene 
of the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
op. cit. pi. lxx. fig. 5 (as S. giganteus), and described by 
the present writer, op. cit. p. 72. 

Presented by General Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

16614. The anterior portion of the mandible of a male, showing the 
(Fig.) alveoli of the canines, and most of the cheek-teeth in a 
very much worn and broken condition ; from the Pliocene 
of the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
op. cit. pi. lxx. fig. 6 (as S. giganteus), and noticed by the 
present writer, op. cit. p. 75. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15387. The greater part of the mandible of a subadult female ; from 
(Fig.) the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, This specimen shows 
the whole of the dentition in a somewhat broken condition, 
and is figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxx. 
fig. 7 (as S. giganteus), and is noticed as No. 16559, by 
the present writer, op. cit. p. 75 ; its dentition agrees with 
that of a specimen in the Dublin Museum of Science and 
Art, figured by him in pi. vii. fig. 1 of the volume cited. 
Presented by General Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

16612. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the three 

(Fig.) true molars (m. 1 broken), in a well-worn condition ; from 

the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer 

and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 15 (as S. giganteus), and 



SUID^. 



265 



noticed by the present writer, op. cit. p. 74 ; its molars, 
which are of an elongate type, closely resemble those of 
a specimen in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, figured by 
the writer in pi. vii. fig. 2 of the volume cited. 

Gautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16609. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the last five 
cheek-teeth, in an early condition of wear; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16595. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the 
greater part of m . 3, in an early stage of wear ; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15893. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, showing a 
portion of m . 2, and the complete m . 3 in an almost unworn 
- condition ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16611. Fragment of the right ramus of a mandible, probably 
belonging to the present species, showing the hinder part 
of mT3; from the Pleistocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16598. Fragment of the right ramus of a young Sus, perhaps 
belonging to the present species ; from the Pliocene of 
the Siwalik Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Tlie following specimens probably belong either to the present species 
or to S. giganteus. 

18174. The symphysial extremity of the mandible of a female ; from 
{Fig.) the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer 
and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 18. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

18174 a. The symphysial extremity of the mandible of a male, with 
the crowns of the teeth broken off ; from the Pliocene of 
the Siwalik Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2047, M. 2048. Two specimens of the proximal half of the right 
humerus ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842, 



266 



TTNGTTLATA. 



M. 2049. The distal third of the left femur ; from the Pliocene of 
the Siwalik Hills. Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

40992. The bones of a foot, comprising the phalangeals and the 
distal third of the metapodials ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Sus, sp. a. 

The cranium noticed below appears to indicate a species allied to 
S. falconeri in the structure of its molars, but of considerably 
smaller size. It is probable that a fragment of a mandible in 
the Indian Museum, Calcutta (No. B. 438), may belong to the same 
species. 

Hob. India. 
% 

M. 2403. The greater part of the damaged cranium of an imma- 
ture individual ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, 
India. The last four cheek-teeth are shown, m . 3 being 
in alveolo. 

Transferred from the Old Indian Museum, 1880. 

Sus, sp. b \ 

In the structure of its lower molars, this form is allied to the 
last ; except in its somewhat larger size, it closely resembles the 
existing 8. cristatus. 

Hab. India. 

36843. The greater part of the mandible of a subadult (female ?) 
(Fig.) individual, with the crowns of the anterior teeth broken 
off; from the Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley, India. 
This specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the 
' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,'pl. lxx. fig. 8 (under the name 
of S. giganteus), and is noticed by the present writer in 
the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 85. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36725. Anterior portion of the mandible of an immature individual ; 
from the Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 
(Collected by C. Fraser, Esq.) 

1 Palasontologia Indica (Mem, Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 85 

(1884). 






STJTD^. 267 

Sus antiquus, Kaup 1 . 

A large species, with simple talons to the last true molars and 
comparatively large lower canines. 
Hab. Europe. 

M. 395. Cast of the symphysis and right ramus of the mandible, 
showing the alveoli of the incisors, the base of the canine 
and p m . l, and the last six cheek-teeth, m . l being broken. 
The original is from the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, 
Hesse-Darmstadt, and is the type of the species ; it is 
preserved in the Museum at Darmstadt, and is figured by 
Kaup in the Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. ii. pi. viii. fig. 1, 
and in the * Beitrage,' pt. iv. pi. iv. fig. 1. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

Sus erymanthius, Eoth and Wagner 2 . 

Syn. (?) Sus major, P. Gervais 3 . 

Allied to the last, but with smaller canines and narrower cheek- 
teeth ; the first premolar is absent in both jaws in the adult. 
Hab. Europe. 

37352. Cast of the palate, showing the six cheek-teeth of either 
side, in an early condition of wear. The original is in the 
Museum at Munich, and is from the Lower Pliocene of 
Pikermi, Attica. The length of the space occupied by 
the six cheek-teeth is 0,142 ; these teeth agree precisely 
with those of the specimen figured by Gaudry in the 
' Animaux Fossiles et Geologie de FAttique,' pi. xxxviii. 
fig. 5. Purchased, 1863. 

M. 69. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm- 3 , pm. 4 , and 
m. 1 , in a much- worn condition ; from the Lower Pliocene 
of Pikermi. Purchased, 1881. 

M. 2206. Fragment of the left maxilla of an immature individual, 
containing m. 1 and m. 2 , and the broken bases of the two 
preceding premolars ; from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 70. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with the 
three true molars, in an imperfect condition ; from the 



Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. ii. p. 8 (1833). 

Abh. math-pbys. CI. k.-bay. Ak. Wiss. vol. vii.'pt. ii. p. 418 (1854). 

Zool. et Pal. Frar^aises, 1st ed. vol. ii. Exp. no. 12 (184S-52). 



268 • TJNGTTLATA. 

Lower Pliocene of Pikermi. The dimensions of m73 are 
0,046 x 0,021, as against 0,050 x 0,0255 in the correspond- 
ing tooth of 8. antiquus. Purchased, 1881. 

M. 71. The proximal extremity of the right radius and ulna; from 
the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi. Purchased, 1881. 

Sus, sp. c. 

The two teeth noticed below indicate a form apparently closely 
allied to, but smaller than, S. erymanihius. 
Hah. England. 

28998. The third left lower true molar, in an almost unworn con- 
dition ; from the Red Crag of Suffolk. This tooth seems 
indistinguishable in form from m . 3 of S. erymanthius, but 
its length is only 0,041, while that of the former is 0,044 
in the specimen figured by Gaudry. Purchased. 

28998 a. Cast of the hinder half of the unworn third left lower 
true molar, agreeing precisely with the last specimen. 
The original is from the Red Crag of Sutton, Suffolk. 

Presented by J. S. Offord, Esq. 

28949. Fragment of a lower molar, probably belonging to the 
present form ; from the Red Crag of Suffolk. Purchased. 

Sus giganteus, Falconer and Cautley \ 

The true molars of this species are of the simple type of those of 
S. erymanthius, but are relatively wider ; the upper premolars are 
also wider, and this is still more markedly the case with the pre- 
molars in the mandible provisionally referred to this species by the 
present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica/ ser. 10, vol. iii. pi. xi. 
ng. 1. 

Hab. India, and (?) China. 

15385. The cranium, imperfect anteriorly, and showing the last 

{Fig.) four cheek-teeth in a well-worn condition; from the 

Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen is the 

type, and is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna 

1 Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis, pt. 8, pi. lxix. figs. 1 & 2 (1847). Most of the 
other specimens on the same plate are specifically distinct. Forsyth-Major 
(Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xli. p. 3 [1885]) is inclined to identify the 
Val d'Arno 8. strozzii, Meneghini, with 8. giganteus of Falconer and Cautley ; 
but the writer is not aware whether that identification refers to that species as 
now restricted, or to 8. falconeri, Lyd. 



suma:. 269 

Antiqua Sivalensis/ pi. lxix. fig. 1 ; and is described by 
the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. iii. p. 53. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

16166. The middle portion of the cranium, showing the last five 
(Fig.) cheek-teeth of either side in a medium stage of wear ; 
from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is 
figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. fig. 2 ; and is 
described, and the dentition of the right side figured, by 
the present writer, op. cit. pp. 53, 54, pi. xi. fig. 2. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16166 a. The palate, showing m. 2 and m. 3 of either side in a very 
much-worn condition ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16592. Fragment of the right maxilla, probably belonging to a 
(Fig.) female individual, and containing the three true molars 
( m- 1 imperfect) in an early stage of wear; from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured 
by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 12, and 
noticed by the present writer, op. cit. p. 55. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16590. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm. 4 and m. 1 , 

(Fig.) agreeing in size with the corresponding teeth of No. 16166 ; 

from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. Figured by 

Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 16, and noticed 

by the present writer, op. cit. p. 55. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2274. An unworn third right upper true molar, agreeing in size 

with 5^3 of No. 16592 ; from the Siwaliks of the Punjab. 

By exchange with the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 1885. 

16592 a. Part of the upper canine of a male, perhaps belonging to 
(Fig.) the present species ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 

Hills. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxi. 

fig. 19. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2045. Fragment of a right maxilla, containing pm. 2 and pm. 3 , 
provisionally referred to this species ; from the Pliocene 
of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 



270 TTtfGULATA. 

M. 2462. A left maxilla, containing pm. 4 , m. 1 (broken), and the 
broken base of m. 2 , provisionally referred to this species ; 
from a cave in Sechuen, N.W. China. This specimen 
is indistinguishable from the corresponding part of No. 
16166. Presented by T. M. Kingsmill, Esq., 1878. 

Sus titan, Lydekker 1 . 

This is the largest known species ; the true molars are of a more 
elongated type than those of the last species, and the lower premolars 
narrower. 

Hah. India. 

M. 2273. The fourth left upper premolar, and the first true molar, 
in a slightly worn condition ; from the Siwaliks of the 
Punjab, India. The length of pm. 4 is 0,023, as against 
0,0168 in S. gigantens (No. 16166), and the two teeth 
differ in form. 

By exchange with the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 1885. 

M. 2271. Pragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the three true molars ( m . 3 wanting the hind talon) ; from 
the Siwaliks of the Punjab. This specimen agrees pre- 
cisely with the one figured by the present writer in the 
' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. pi. viii. fig. 4. 

By exchange with the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 1885. 

■ - 

M. 2270. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing pm. 4, 

m. 1, and m7~2 ; from the Siwaliks of the Punjab. 

By exchange with the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 1885. 

M. 2275. Pragment of the left ramus of the mandible, showing 
pm. 4, m. 1, and the anterior lobe of m . 2 ; from the Siwaliks 
of the Punjab. 

By exchange with the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 1885. 

16313. Pragment of the right ramus of the mandible, showing in. l 
and m72 ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2272. Pragment of a third true molar ; from the Siwaliks of the 
Punjab. This tooth exhibits the numerous cusps charac- 
teristic of the species. 

By exchange with the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 1885. 

1 Palseontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 59 
(1884). 






BTJIDM. 271 

Sus hysudricus, Falconer and Cautley K 

In this small species the true molars have a simple structure, 
with a small talon to the last tooth. It is apparently allied to S. 
palceochcerus and other European forms, but the mandible is less 
deep than the type mandible of the last-named species figured by 
Kaup in the Oss. Eoss. d. Darmstadt, pt. ii. pi. ix. fig. 1. There is a 
considerable amount of variation in the size of the specimens referred 
to the present species. 

Hah. India. 

M. 2050. Part of the right maxilla, showing the last five cheek- 
(Fig.) teeth, iu an early stage of wear ; from the Siwaliks of 
Perim Island, Gulf of Cambay, India. Eigured by Eal- 
coner and Cautley, in the ' Eauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' 
pi. lxxi. fig. 5 ; and noticed by the present writer in the 
' Paleeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 78 2 . The teeth 
closely resemble those of the specimens represented in 
pi. viii. figs. 10, 11, of the volume last cited. No 



M. 2051. Fragment of the left maxilla of a smaller individual, 

{Fig.) showing the three true molars, in a well-worn condition ; 

from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. Eigured by 

Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 7, and noticed 

by the present writer in the passage cited. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37267. The cranium in a much-damaged condition, and with the 
crowns of the molars hammered off; from the Siwaliks 
of Perim Island. Noticed by the present writer, op. cit. 
p. 78. No history. 

15362. The middle portion of the cranium of an immature female, 
(Fig.) showing the canine and all the cheek-teeth except m. 3 ; 
from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. Eigured by Fal- 
coner and Cautley, ojp. cit. pi. lxx. fig. 2 (the dentition of 
the full size being given in pi. lxxi. fig. 9) ; and noticed 
by the present writer, oj>. cit. p, 77. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

1 Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis, pt. 8, pi. lxx. (1847). 

2 Owing to the reversing of the figures in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' this 
and the next specimen are referred to as belonging to the wrong side of the 
jaw. 



272 UNGTTLATA. 

M. 2276. Two fragments of the maxilla, one showing mjl (broken) 
and m. 2 , and the other m. 2 (broken) and m- 3 ; from the 
Siwaliks of the Punjab, India. 

By exchange with the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 1885. 

M. 2052. The nearly complete mandible of a subadult individual, 
{Fig.) of very large size ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 
This specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 
pi. lxx. fig. 3, and is noticed by the present writer, op. cit. 
p. 79 (as No. 17090). It shows the whole of the cheek- 
dentition ; the length of the space occupied by the three 
true molars being 0,077. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16603. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a somewhat 

(Fig.) smaller individual, showing ^72 and mTB ; from the 

Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer and 

Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxx. fig. 8 ; m73 has an additional 

lobe to the hind talon. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2277. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, agreeing in 
size with the last specimen, and showing p m . 4, m. 1, and 
^72 ; from the Siwaliks of the Punjab. 

By exchange with the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 1885. 

16605. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a slightly 
(Fig.) smaller individual, showing p m . 4, m. 1, mT2, and part of 
^73 ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. Figured 
by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 6. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

15373. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of a very small 

(Fig.) individual, showing the four last cheek-teeth ; from the 

Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. The length of the space 

occupied by the three true molars is 0,057. Figured by 

Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 10. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37130. The anterior portion of the mandible, showing the last three 

(Fig.) premolars; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. 

Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxi. fig. 11. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2278. Four fragments of the mandible j from the Siwaliks of 
the Punjab. 

By exchange with the Indian Museum^ Calcutta, 1885. 



Hab. India. 



sttid^:. 273 

Sus, sp. d. 



M. 2046. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing pm. 4 , m. 1 , and 
m. 2 , in a much-worn condition ; from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills, India. The true molars are larger and 
relatively wider than those of S. hysudricus, the dimen- 
sions of ^2 being 0,019 x 0,020. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Sus palseochcerus, Kaup 1 . 

This species is closely allied to S. hysudricus ; but the mandible 
is deeper, the lower premolars larger, and the cusps of the true 
molars apparently somewhat higher. 

Hab. Europe. 

46573. A worn third left upper true molar, provisionally referred to 
this species ; from the Red Crag of Suffolk. This tooth is 
slightly smaller than the one from the same deposits 
figured by Owen in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xii. 
p. 233, fig. 10, but is otherwise similar; the specimen 
figured by Kaup in the Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. ii. 
pi. ix. fig. 3, agrees with the one figured by Owen. 

Purchased, 1875. 

39039. An unworn third right upper true molar, provisionally 
referred to this species; from the Red Crag of Suffolk. 
This tooth is rather larger than the last. 

Boiverbank Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

44049, 44605, 46007, 46574, 46691-5, 48981. Numerous upper 
and lower molars, provisionally referred to this species ; 
from the Red Crag of Suffolk. Purchased. 

Sus chceroid.es, Pomel 2 . 

This species is allied to the last, and it has been suggested that 
the two may be really identical, but the specimens in the Museum 
do not admit of deciding the question. 

Hab. Europe. 

37346. Cast of the symphysis and part of the right ramus of the 
mandible. The original is from the Middle Miocene of 

1 Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. ii. p. 11 (1833). 

2 Arch. Sci. Pbys. Nat. ser. 4, toI. viii. p. 1(>0 (1848). 
PAKT II. I 



274 TJNGTTLATA. 

Monte Bamboli (Tuscany), Italy. The specimen shows all 
the cheek-teeth except pm. 1 ; the length of the space 
occupied by the three premolars is 0,042, and that by the 
true molars 0,065. The jaw is apparently more slender 
than the mandible of 8. palceochoerus figured by Kaup in 
the Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. ii. pi. ix. fig. 1, and the 
premolars are relatively smaller. Purchased, 1863. 

37345. Cast of part of the right ramus of the mandible of a young 
individual, showing the last three milk-molars and m . 1. 
The original is from the Middle Miocene of Monte Bamboli. 
The length of ^4 is 0,021 . Purchased, 1863. 

Family and Genus non det. 
Hah. India. 

M. 2095. The left half of a cranium, with the crowns of the teeth 
(Fie/.) hammered off; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, 
India. This specimen is figured by Falconer and Cantley 
in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxvii. fig. 2, under 
the name of Merycopotamus dissimilis, but the base of 
the molars indicates teeth of a much simpler type. 
The general contour of the cranium is suilline, but 
the narrow premaxilla and the form of the maxilla in 
advance of the orbit apparently differentiates it from Sus, 
to which the present writer at first referred it 1 . In the 
absence of the crowns of the teeth it appears impossible to 
determine the present affinities of the specimen. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2096. Symphysial extremity of the mandible of an apparently 
snilline animal, perhaps specifically identical with the last 
specimen ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This 
specimen shows the alveoli of the incisors and canines, 
and is remarkable for the extremely narrow interalveolar 
channel, which forms a deep spout-like groove. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Family PHACOCHOERID^E. 

Dentition : — I. ( -g^r, C. \, Pm. |, M. |. All the teeth except the 
canines and last molars have a tendency to disappear in old animals. 
The last true molar consists of a great number of agglomerated 

1 Geol. Mag. dec. 3, vol. i. p. 547 (1884). 



PHACOCHCERHLE. LISTRIODONTIDJi:. 275 

columns or denticules. There are indications of a transition between 
this family and the preceding one. 

Genus PHACOCHCERUS, Cuvier l . 

^fyacotyazmg, sp. a. 

It appears impossible to distinguish the detached molars of 
P. africanus from those of P. cethiopicus ; the specimens noticed 
below belong to one or other of these species. 

Eab. Africa. 

48063. A last true molar ; apparently recent, S. Africa. 

Presented by J. P. Squier, Esq., 1877. 

M. 67. A last true molar ; from a Pleistocene deposit, S. Africa. 

Purchased, 1880. 
Phacochcerus, sp. b. 
Hab. S. Africa. 

41389. A last true molar ; from a superficial deposit near Colesberg, 
S. Africa. This tooth appears of a narrower type than the 
teeth of either of the two existing species, the tubercles. of 
the middle row being longer, more compressed laterally, 
and fewer in number. Purchased, 1869. 

Family LISTRIODONTID^E. 

Dentition : — I. g, C. j, Pm. j, M. ^. The true molars carry simple 
transverse ridges ; the upper premolars are simpler than the true 
molars. 

Genus LISTRIODON, H. v. Meyer \ 

Syn. Tapirotherium, Blainville 3 {ex Lartet, MS.). 
Lophiochcerus, Bayle 4 (ex Lartet, MS.). 

Iiistriodon splendens, H. v. Meyer 5 . 

Syn. Tapir -otherium larteti, P. Gervais 6 . 
Listriodon larteti, P. Gervais 7 . 



1 Regne Animal, vol. i. p. 236 (1817). 
P- 



2 Neues Jahrb. 1846, p. 466 



3 Osteographie, Genus Tapirus, p. 52 (1846). 

4 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. xiii. p. 29 (1856). 

5 Loc. cit. 

6 Comptes Rendus, vol. xxviii. p. 547 (1849). 

7 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 50 (1848-52). 

t2 



276 TTiraTTLATA. 

Tapir otherium blainvilleanum, Lartet 1 . 
Lophiochcerus blainvillei, Bayle 2 (ex Lartet, MS.). 

Hab. Europe. 

33577. Two portions of the cranium ; from the Middle Miocene of 
L'Isle-en-Dodon (Garonne), France. The cranium is much 
damaged, but appears to have been very Pig-like in form, 
and resembles Dicotyles. On the right side the three true 
molars are shown, and on the left all the cheek-teeth 
except pm. 1 ; they are but little worn. Purchased, 1858. 

33577 a. Two fragments of the right and left rami of the mandible, 
and several detached teeth, probably belonging to the same 
individual as the last ; from L'Isle-en-Dodon. The larger 
fragment of the mandible shows the last five cheek-teeth. 

Purchased, 1858. 

40959. Casts of portions of the right maxilla and the right ramus of 
the mandible, showing all the cheek-teeth except the first 
premolar in an early stage of wear. The originals were 
obtained from the Middle Miocene of Grive-St.-Alban 
(Isere), France. Purchased, 1868. 

40959 a. Casts of detached true molars. The locality whence the 
originals were obtained is not known. Purchased. 

M. 2205. Several detached upper premolars and molars ; from the 
Middle Miocene of Simorre (Gers), France. 

Purchased, 1855. 

21848. A left upper true molar, in an early stage, of wear ; from 
the Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers). 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

Listriodon pentapotamise (Falconer 3 ). 
Syn. Tapirus pentapotamia, Falconer 4 ., 

This species is very closely allied to the last, and additional spe- 
cimens are required to fully determine its affinity. 
Hab. India. 

40766. Cast of the fourth right upper premolar. The original, 

1 Notice sur la Colline de Sansan, p. 31 (1851). 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Palaeontological Memoirs, vol. i. p. 415 (1868), Tapirus. 

4 Loc. cit. 



HIPPOPOTAMIDJE. 277 

together with the corresponding tooth of the opposite 
side, was obtained from the Siwaliks of Khushalghar, below 
Attock, Punjab, and is preserved in the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta. They both belong to the same individual as the 
type true molars figured by. f the present writer in the 
1 Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. pi. viii. figs. 15 a, 
17 ; and are noticed in ' Falconer's Palaeontological Me- 
moirs,' vol. i. p. 415, where they are compared to the 
anterior premolar of Tapirus. 

Made in the Museum. 1885. 



Family HIPPOPOTAMUS. 

In the form of the mandible, which has a descending plate at the 
angle, this family closely resembles Merycopotamus. The molars 
are bunodont in structure, with four columns, which present trefoil- 
shaped disks on their worn surfaces. 

Genus HIPPOPOTAMUS, Linn. 1 

Including : — Hexaprotodon, Falconer and Cautley 2 . 
Tetraprotodon, Falconer and Cautley 3 . 
Chceropsis, Leidy 4 . 

Dentition : — I. [x=l)» C- \, Pm. |, M. |. The reasons for including 
all the forms in the type genus are given by the present writer in 
the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 47. 

hippopotamus ampfjtutus, Linn. 5 

Syn. Hippopotamus antiquns, Desmarest 6 . 
Hippopotamus capensis, Desmoulins 7 . 
Hippopotamus senegalensis, Desmoulins 8 . 
Hippopotamus major, Owen 9 . 
Hippopotamus annectans, Falconer 10 . 
Tetraprotodon amphibius, Falconer n . 
Tetraprotodon major, Falconer 12 . 

There are two incisors in each jaw ; the inner lower incisor is 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 101 (1766). 

2 Asiatic Researches, vol. xix. p. 51 (1836). 3 Loc. cit. 
4 Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. ii. p. 213 (1853). 5 Loc. cit. 

6 Mainmalogie, p. 388 (1822). 

7 Journ. de Physiol, vol. v. (1825) {teste Morton). 8 Loc. cit. 

9 Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1843, p. 223. (From Cuvier's Grande Hippopotame 
Fossile, Ann. d. Museum, vol. v. p. 106 [1801]). 

10 Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. i. p. 237 (1849). 

11 Ibid. p. 236. ,2 Ibid. p. 237. 



278 



TTNGTTLATA. 



much larger than the outer. One instance is known of the occur- 
rence of three lower incisors 1 . 

The writer agrees with Boyd-Dawkins 2 in regarding the large 
fossil European Hippopotamus (of which the proper designation is 
H. antiquus) merely as a race of H. ampliibius^ from which it 
presents no structural differences. The large fossil teeth from Nubia 
noticed below (No. 40855) were referred by Falconer to the existing 
species, but are equal in size to the largest European fossil specimens 
of the so-called H. antiquus. 

Hah. Europe (Upper Pliocene and Pleistocene) and Africa 
(Pleistocene and Recent). 

Fig. 37. 




Hippopotamus amphibius. — Cranium and mandible. Recent, Africa. 
Much reduced. 



1 Vide ' Palaontologia Indica,' ser Jo, vol. iii. p. [37. 

2 Quart. Journ. Geo]. Soc. vol. yj[i. p. 8 (1885). 



HIPPOPOTAMID^E. 279 

28779. The occipital portion of the cranium ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno (Tuscany), Italy. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28779 a. Palatal portion of the cranium, showing the three true 
molars ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Val d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28785. Part of the palate, showing the three true molars of either 
side and the right pm- 3 and pm. 4 ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of the Val d'Arno. Noticed by Falconer in the 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxi. p. 373 (1865) (reprinted 
in ' Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. p. 633) ; 
the length of the space occupied by m. 2 and m. 3 is 
0,119. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28788. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing pm. 2 , pm. 4 , m. 1 , 

and m. 2 ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28789. Fragment of the left maxilla, with m72 and m. 3 . from the 

Upper Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. Noticed by Falconer, 
loc. cit. ; the length of the space occupied by the two teeth 
is 0,110. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28790. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the three true 

molars in a well-worn condition ; from the Upper Pliocene 
of the Yal d'Arno. Noticed by Falconer, loc. cit. The 
length of the space occupied by m. 2 and m. 3 is 0,103. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28790 a. The second or third right upper true molar ; from the 
Upper Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

40855. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing m. 2 and m. 3 in an 
early condition of wear ; from a fluviatile deposit near 
Kalabshi, Nubia. Described by Falconer, op. cit. The 
length of the space occupied by m. 2 and m. 3 is 0,110. 

Presented by Prof. Leith-Adams, 1867. 

47332. Five upper and lower molars, four fragments of tusks, a 
cervical vertebra, and a tympanic ; from tho Pleistocene 
of Lavenham, Suffolk. These specimens indicate a small 
individual. Purchased, 1876. 



280 TTNGULATA. 

27892. An upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene of Walton 
Essex. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 185 v 2. 

27891. Part of an upper canine ; from the Pleistocene of Walton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

38625. The extremity of an unworn upper canine ; from the 
Pleistocene of Chelmsford, Essex. 

Presented by W. Roper, Esq., 1864. 

28794. Two specimens of the extra-alveolar portion of the upper 
canine ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Val d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28797. Two upper incisors ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Val 
d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

18815, 21318. Two specimens of portions of upper incisors ; from 
the Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. Purchased. 

36769. Part of an upper incisor ; from the Pleistocene of Peckham, 
Surrey. Purchased, 1862. 

27735 a The complete mandible of a subadult female ; from the 
Upper Pliocene of Mont Perrier, near Issoire (Puy-de- 
Dome), Erance. With the exception of the right canine 
(which has been restored in plaster), the dentition is 
complete. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28786. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the last 
four cheek-teeth in a well-worn condition ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28787- Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with the last four 
cheek-teeth in a well-worn condition ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28791. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with ^~2 and 

^73 in a middle stage of wear ; from the Upper Pliocene 
of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28792. Several lower molars ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal 

d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 






HIPPOPOTAMID^. 281 

28793. The third left lower true molar ; from the Upper Pliocene 
of the Val d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Peniland, Esq., 1853. 

27735 b. The left half of the symphysis of the mandible of a young 
individual, showing the incisors and canine in alveolo ; 
from the Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27735 C. The symphysis and part of the right ramus of the mandible 
of an immature individual ; from the Upper Pliocene of 
Perrier. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 1967. The germ of the second left lower true molar ; from a 
cavern in Pietermanns-fontein, Caledon, S. Africa. 

Presented by T. G. Bayfield, Esq., 1884. 

18304. The third left lower true molar, in an unworn condition 
probably from the Upper Pliocene of the Val d'Arno. 

IPEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

107 (0. C). A slightly worn first or second lower true molar ; from 
Kirkdale Cave, Yorkshire. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

38624. The third left lower true molar, in a partially worn con- 
dition ; from the Pleistocene of Chelmsford. 

Presented by W. Roper, Esq., 1864. 

33467. The third left lower true molar ; dredged off Happisburgh, 
Norfolk. Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

32782. The greater part of the right lower canine, of very large 
size ; from an English (?) Pleistocene deposit. 

Buckland Collection. Purchased. 

28795. Three specimens of the lower canine, one being of enormous 
size ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Peniland, Esq., 1853. 

32782 a. The right lower canine ; from the Pleistocene of Hunting- 
donshire. No history. 

15941. Part of a smaller right lower canine ; from the Forest-bed 
of Bacton, Norfolk. Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 



282 TJNGTJLATA. 

36768. One half of a longitudinally split lower canine of enormous 
size ; from the Pleistocene of Peckham. Purchased, 1862. 

38626. Part of a lower canine ; from the Pleistocene of Chelmsford. 

Presented by W. Roper, Esq., 1864. 

46942. Fragment of a canine ; from the Forest-bed of the Norfolk 
coast. Purchased, 1876. 

46941. Terminal portion of the left lower canine ; from the Forest- 
bed of the Norfolk coast. Purchased, 1876. 

27891 a. Terminal portion of the left lower canine ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Walton. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

33469. Fragment of a canine in its alveolus ; from the Forest-bed of 
Happisburgh, Norfolk. 

Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

36776 a. Portion of a first lower incisor, of enormous size ; from the 
Pleistocene of Peckham. The transverse diameter is 0,072. 

Purchased, 1862. 

46845. Terminal portion of a lower incisor ; from ihe Pleistocene 
of Greenwich, Kent. Purchased, 1875. 

28796. A first lower incisor, of very large size ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

43202. Fragment of a first lower incisor; from the Pleistocene of 
Camden Town, London. 

Wethcrell Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

40856. Part of an outer lower incisor ; from the Pleistocene of Bed- 
ford. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

21653. Part of an outer lower incisor ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased, 1848. 

46847. The glenoidal extremity of the right scapula ; from the 
Pleistocene of Greenwich. Purchased, 1875. 

27735 d. Part of the left scapula; from the Upper Pliocene of 
Perrier. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28878. The right scapula (restored) ; from the Upper Pliocene of the 
Val d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

36417. The right humerus, wanting the head ; from the Pleistocene 
of Walton. 
Brown Collection. Presented by Sir R. Owen, K.C.B., 1859. 



HIPPOPOTAMIDiE. 283 

28823. The head of the right humerus ; from the Upper Pliocene 
of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

27735 e. The right humerus, wanting the head ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28777. The right humerus, wanting the head ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28780. The distal half of the left humerus ; from the Upper Plio- 
cene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28773. The left humerus of a young individual, wanting the epi- 
physes ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28776. The right radius and ulna ; from the Upper Pliocene of the 
Yal d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

27735 f. Two specimens of the right radius and ulna ; from the 
Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28807. The left radius of an immature individual, wanting the 
proximal epiphysis ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal 
d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28784. The right carpus and metacarpus ; from the Upper Plio- 
cene of the Val d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

46849. The third left metacarpal ; from the Pleistocene of Green- 
wich. Purchased, 1875. 

38627. The acetabular portion of the right innominate ; from the 
Pleistocene of Chelmsford. 

Presented by W. Boper, Esq., 1864. 

36419. Fragment of an innominate ; from the Pleistocene of Walton. 
Brown Collection. Presented by Sir B. Owen, K.C.B., 1859. 

28775. The greater part of the right innominate ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

27735. The left ilium ; from the Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 



284 UNGTJLATA. 

27735 g. The acetabular portion of the left innominate ; from the 
Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

38628, 38629. Two specimens of the right femur ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Chelmsford. 

Presented by W. Roper, Esq., 1864 

28774. The right femur ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Val 
d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

37735 h. The right femur ; from the Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Oroizet Collection. Purchased, 1848, 

27735 i. The left femur, wanting the head ; from the Upper Plio- 
cene of Perrier. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27735 j. The proximal two thirds of the left femur; from the 
Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27735 k. Two specimens of the distal epiphysis of the left femur ; 
from the Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28798. Two specimens of the patella ; from the Upper Pliocene 
of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

27735 1. The right patella ; from the Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

36450. The right patella ; from the Pleistocene of Peckham. 

Purchased, 1862. 

38632. The left patella ; from the Pleistocene of Chelmsford. 

Presented by W. Uoper, Esq., 1864. 

27735 m. Two specimons of the right tibia ; from the Upper Plio- 
cene of Perrier. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28781. The right tibia ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 
Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

36418. The left tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Walton. This bone 
is chipped by an axe or chisel throughout the greater 
part of its length. 
Brown Collection. Presented by Sir R. Owen, K.C.B., 1859. 






HIPPOPOTA.MIDJE. 285 

27975. The right tibia, wanting the proximal epiphysis ; from the 
Pleistocene of Walton. 

Presented by John Broivn, Esq., 1852. 

7584. The proximal extremity of the right tibia ; from the Pleisto- 
cene (?) of Rome. Mantell Collection, Purchased, 1836. 

27735 q. The right metacarpals and phalangeals ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27735 n. The bones of the left hind foot ; from the Upper Pliocene 
of Perrier. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28783. The left calcaneum, navicular, and cuboid ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28845. The left calcaneum and cuboid; from the Upper Pliocene 
of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28782. The greater number of the bones of the right hind foot; 
from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

27735 o. The left calcaneum, of enormous size ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of Perrier. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

16096. The left calcaneum, of much smaller size ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Cold Higham (*?), Essex. Purchased. 

36447. The imperfect left calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of 
Peckham. Purchased, 1862. 

27735 p. The right calcaneum ; from the Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28845 a. The right astragalus ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal 
d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

16034. The imperfect right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Cold 
Higham. Purchased. 

38631. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Chelmsford. 

Presented by W. Roper, Esq., 1864. 

38494. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1864. 



286 



TTNGFLATA. 



27735 r. Two specimens of the left astragalus; from the Upper 
Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

38630. The left astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Chelmsford. 

Presented by W. Boper, Esq., 1864. 

46848. The left astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Greenwich. 

Purchased, 1875. 

28797. The atlas vertebra ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal 
d'Arno. [Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

27735 s. The atlas vertebra ; from the Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27735 t. The axis vertebra ; from the Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27735 u. The third cervical vertebra ; from the Upper Pliocene of 
Perrier. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28800. The sixth (?) cervical vertebra ; from the Upper Pliocene of 

the Yal d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

27735 v. The seventh cervical vertebra ; from the Upper Pliocene 
of Perrier. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

40857. An early dorsal vertebra ; from an English Pleistocene 
deposit. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

27735 w. The centrum of a later dorsal vertebra ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

28801. Two specimens of later dorsal vertebrae ; from the Upper 

Pliocene (?) of the Val d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1848. 

27735 x. The centrum of a late dorsal vertebra ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27735 y. A lumbar vertebra ; from the Upper Pliocene of Perrier. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

46846. The last lumbar vertebra, wanting most of the neural arch 
and the left transverse process ; from the Pleistocene of 
Greenwich. Purchased, 1875. 

32783. Proximal half of a rib ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Val 
d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 



hippopotamus. 287 

37735 z. The greater portion of a late rib ; from the Upper Pliocene 
of Perrier. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 



Hippopotamus pentlandi, H. v. Meyer L . 

Syn. Hippopotamus medius, Owen 2 . 

As far as is known, this species appears to be closely allied to, but 
smaller than, the existing H. amphibius ; there are, however, dif- 
ferences in the form of some of the limb-bones, e. g. the tibia. 

Hob. South Europe. 

40996. The palate, with the three true molars in a half-worn con- 
dition ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone, Cazine, Sicily 3 . 
The length of the space occupied by the three teeth is 
0,112, and the interval between m- 3 of either side 0,054. 
Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40995. The palate of a rather larger individual, with the three true 
molars ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40910. Fragment of the cranium, showing m. 2 and m. 3 in an early 
condition of wear, together with some of the bones of the 
foot ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40998. Fragment of the left maxilla, with the three true molars ; 
from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41001. Fragment of the right maxilla, with m. 1 and m. 2 . 

Presented by O. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41002. Fragment of the left maxilla, with m. 3 ; from the Grotta di 

Maccagnone. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41006. Numerous detached upper molars ; from the Grotta di Mac- 
cagnone. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

36977-8. Several premolars and true molars ; from a cavern in 
Palermo. Purchased, about 1860. 

41000. Fragment of the left maxilla, with m. 2 and m. 3 • from the 
Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 
x Palaeologica, p. 533 (1832). 

2 Cat. Foss. Mamm. & Birds in Mus. E. Coll. Surgeons, p. 240 (1845). 

3 Vide Quart, Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xvi. p. 99 (1800). 



288 T7NGULATA. 

40910. An upper true molar ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40303. A much-worn upper true molar ; from the Grotto del 
Gigante, Palermo. Purchased, 1867. 

40911. A little-worn upper true molar ; from the Grotto di San Ciro, 

Palermo. Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

27499. Extremity of a small upper canine, provisionally referred to 
this species ; from the Pleistocene of Malta. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

36979. Part of an upper canine ; from a cavern in Palermo. 

Purchased, about 1860. 

43533. Fragment of the maxilla, with the canine ; from the Grotta 
di Maccagnone. Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41003. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with the last 

four cheek-teeth ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. The 
length of the space occupied by the three true molars is 
0,137, and the length of ^~3 0,0585. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40997- Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, in a much- 
crushed condition, showing the three true molars ; from 
the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

36975. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a large indi- 
vidual, showing m. 3 and part of m . 2 (the length of m- 3 is 
0,063) ; from a cavern in Palermo. 

Purchased, about 1860. 

41005. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the slightly 

worn m. 3 ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41004. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with ^72 and 

m. 3 ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40910. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with m . 2 ; from 
the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41006. Several detached lower true molars; from the Grotta di 

Maccagnone. Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 



HIPPOPOTAMID^. 289 

41008. Two specimens of the fourth lower milk-molar ; from the 

Grotta di Maccagnone. The length of this tooth is 0,043. 
Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

36976. The third right lower true molar ; from a cavern in Palermo. 
The length of this tooth is 0,059. 

Purchased, about 1860. 

43491. The third left lower true molar, in an early condition of 
wear ; from the Pleistocene of Crete. The length of this 
tooth is 0,058. 
Presented, by His Grace the Duke of St. Albans, about 1871. 

49325 a. Two specimens of the third lower true molar ; from the 
Pleistocene of Malleha, Malta. The length of one tooth is 
0,056. Spratt Collection. Presented, 1874. 

49325 d. Fragment showing an incisor and a deciduous and a true 
molar ; from the Pleistocene of Malleha. 

Spratt Collection. Presented, 1874. 

37949. A first lower true molar, provisionally referred to this 

species ; from the Pleistocene of Malta. 

Presented by Prof. Leith- Adams. 

37950. Fragment of a canine and an incisor ; from the Pleistocene 

of Malta. Presented by Prof. Leith-Adams. 

41009, 41010. Several specimens of the lower canine ; from the 

Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by O. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

27499. Two specimens of the lower canine of this species, or H. 
minutus ; from the Pleistocene of Malta. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

41060. An inner lower incisor ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

43536. An inner lower incisor ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

43534. Two specimens of one half of the symphysis of the mandible 
of young individuals ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 
These specimens show the two incisors in alveolo, which 
agree in proportionate size with those of H. amphibius. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

PART n. T7 



290 



UNGULATA. 



41023-6. Pour imperfect specimens of the scapula; from the Grotta 
di Maccagnone. Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

43527. Two specimens of the proximal extremity of the humerus ; 

from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

43528. Five specimens of the distal half of the humerus ; from the 

Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

37951. The distal extremity of a humerus probably belonging to a 

small variety of this species ; from the Pleistocene of Malta. 

Presented by Prof. Leith- Adams. 

41027, 41028, 41035. Five specimens (some imperfect) of the radius 
and ulna ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41036-41039. Four bones of the carpus, viz. lunar and unciforme ; 
from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41054. Numerous metacarpals ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41021,43529. Two imperfect specimens of the innominate; from 
the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41029-30. Two specimens of the proximal half of the femur; from 
the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

43530. Three specimens of the distal portion of the femur ; from 
the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41045. Four specimens of the patella ; from the Grotta di Macca- 
gnone. Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41033, 41034. Two specimens of the tibia ; from the Grotta di 
Maccagnone. Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

43539. The proximal portion of the shaft of the right tibia of a young 
individual ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 



HIPPOPOTAMUS. 291 

27489. The proximal extremity of a tibia provisionally referred to 
this species ; from the Pleistocene of Malta. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

41044. Two specimens of the calcaneum ; from the Grotta di Mac- 
cagnone. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41047. Pour specimeDS of the astragalus; from the Grotta di Mac- 
cagnone. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41041, 41042. Pour specimens of the cuboid; from the Grotta di 
Maccagnone. Presented by O. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41051. Two specimens of the navicular ; from the Grotta di Mac- 
cagnone. Presented by O. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41056. Two metatarsals ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41012. Two portions of the atlas, and the centrum of the axis 
vertebra ; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by O. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41014. Three specimens of the third cervical vertebra; from the 

Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41014 a. Two specimens of the fourth (?) cervical vertebra ; from 
the Grotta di. Maccagnone. 

Presented by O. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41014 b. Two specimens of the fifth (?) cervical vertebra ; from the 
Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41015. Two specimens of early dorsal vertebrae ; from the 

Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41018. An imperfect middle dorsal vertebra ; from the Grotta di 

Maccagnone. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41019. An incomplete lumbar vertebra ; from the Grotta di Mac- 

cagnone. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41020. The sacrum; from the Grotta di Maccagnone. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 
r;2 



292 UtfGULATA. 

Hippopotamus minutus, Blainville \ 

Syn. Hippopotamus minor, Falconer 2 . 

As far as is known, this species is closely allied to the last. The 
specimens noticed below are referred to it on the authority of Fal- 
coner, but they indicate an animal considerably larger than that to 
which the specimens figured by De Blainville belonged, being inter- 
mediate between the latter and H. pentlandi ; and it appears in 
reality that there is an almost complete gradation in size from the 
largest fossil individuals of H amphibius, through H. pentlandi, to 
the smallest specimens of H. minutus. 

Hob. S. Europe. 

27490. Two upper true molars and the third left lower true molar ; 
from the Pleistocene of Malta. The length of m . 3 is 
0,047 ; the length of the specimen figured by De Blain- 
ville being 0,039. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27492. Three anterior teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Malta. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1885. 

27493. Two specimens of the distal portion of the humerus ; from 

the Pleistocene of Malta. The greatest transverse diameter 
is 0,080, against 0,105 in H. pentlandi (No. 43528). 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27489. Two specimens of part of the radius and ulna ; from the 
Pleistocene of Malta. The smaller ulna belongs to a young 
specimen. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27489 b. Part of the left innominate ; from the Pleistocene of Malta. 
The longer diameter of the acetabulum measures 0,063. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27494. The distal half of the left femur ; from the Pleistocene of 

Malta. The greatest transverse diameter across the con- 
dyles is 0,106, against 0,134 in H. pentlandi (No. 43530). 
Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27495. 27489 a. Two specimens of the tibia ; from the Pleistocene 

of Malta. The length of the perfect specimen is 0,213 ; 
the length of the tibia of H. pentlandi (No. 41033) being 
0,285. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

1 Osteographie, Genus Hippopotamus, pi. vi. (1847). (From Curler's Petit 
Hippopotame Fossile, ' Ossemens Fossiles/ 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 322 [1821].) 

2 Journ. Ac Nat. Soi. Philad. sct. 2, vol. i. p. 237 (1849). 



HippoPOTAMmE. 293 

27496. Two specimens of the right calcaneum, one much larger than 

the other ; from the Pleistocene of Malta. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27497. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Malta. The 

length of the articular surface for the navicular and cuboid 
is 0,060, against 0,079 in the corresponding bone 
(No. 41047) of H. pentlandi. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27498. The right third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of Malta. 

The length of this bone is 0,085, against 0,108 in the cor- 
responding metatarsal (No. 41056) of H. pentlandi. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855 

The following specimens have been provisionally referred to 
Hippopotamus : — 

44575. The distal epiphysis of a radius ; from the Pleistocene oi 
(Fig.) Ganelia fissure, Malta. Figured by Leith-Adams in the 

Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. ix. pi. xi. fig. 21. The articulating 

surface is totally different from that of the radius of 
H. pentlandi. 

Leith-Adams Collection. Purchased, 1873. 

44576. Portion of a trapezoid ; from the Pleistocene of Mnaidra 
(Fig.) Gap, Malta. Figured by Leith-Adams, op. cit. fig. 22. 

Leith-Adams Collection. Purchased, 1873. 

49325, 49326. Two specimens of the shaft of the tibia of young indi- 
(Fig.) viduals ; from the Zebbug Cave, Malta. Figured by Busk 
in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. pi. li. figs. 38, 39. 

Spratt Collection. Presented, 1874. 



Hippopotamus palseindicus, Falconer and Cautley \ 
Syn. Tetraprotodon palceindicus, Falconer 2 . 

This species is fully equal in size to the existing H. amphibius. 
The number of upper incisors is unknown ; but there are three in 
the mandible, the middle one being very small, and perhaps disap- 
pearing in the adult ; the other two arc large, and equal in size. 
The mandibular symphysis is extremely short. 

Hab. India. 

1 Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis, pt. 7, pl.'lvii. (1847). 

- Journ. Ac. Nat, Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. i. p. 237 (1840). 



294 TTNGTTLATA. 

40893. The nearly complete mandible, showing the alveoli of the 
canines and incisors, the bases of most of the cheek-teeth, 
and m. 3 on the left side ; from the Pleistocene of the Nar- 
bada Valley, India. This specimen precisely resembles a 
mandible figured by the present writer in the ' Palaeonto- 
logia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. pi. vi. fig. 2 ; and is itself 
noticed on page 45 of the same volume. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

41663. The greater part of the mandible, showing the alveoli of the 
canines and incisors and the bases of the cheek-teeth ; 
from the Pleistocene of the ISTarbada Valley. Noticed by 
the present writer, loc. cit. 

Toulmin-Smith Collection. Purchased, 1869. 

36830. The terminal half of the left lower canine ; from the Pleis- 
(Fig.) tocene of the Narbada Valley. This specimen is figured 

by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' 
pi. lvii. fig. 8, and is referred to the present species on 
account of its large size. 

Presented by 0. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36831. Fragment of a lower canine agreeing in size with the last 
(Fig.) specimen; from the Pleistocene of Srinagar, ISTarbada 

Valley. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lvii. 
fig. 4. Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36831 a. Fragment of a lower canine ; from the Pleistocene of the 
Narbada Valley. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

Hippopotamus namadicus, Falconer and Cautley \ 
Syn. Hexaprotodon namadicus, Falconer 2 . 

This species is somewhat smaller than the last, and distinguished 
by having three small and subequal-sized mandibular incisors. The 
mandibular symphysis is slightly longer than in the last species. 

Hob. India. 

36838. Anterior portion of the mandible of a medium-sized indi- 
(Fig.) vidual ; from the Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley, India. 

1 Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis, pt. 7, pi. lvii. (1847). 

2 Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. i. p. 237 (1849). 



HIPPOPOTAMID.E. 295 

Figured by Falconer and' Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua 

Sivalensis,' pi. lviii. fig. 3 ; and noticed by the present 

writer in the ' Palgeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 44. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36839. Anterior portion of the mandible of a large individual ; from 
{Fig.) the Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley. Figured by Fal- 
coner and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lviii. fig. 2 ; and noticed by 
the present writer, he. cit. 

Presented by G. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36840. Anterior portion of the mandible of a small individual ; from 

the Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley. Figured by Fal- 
coner and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lviii. fig. 2, and noticed by 
the present writer, loc. cit. 

Presented by C. Eraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

The following specimens belong either to H. pedceindicus or 
H. namadicus : — 

36824. The cranium, imperfect anteriorly, showing the last four 
{Fig.) cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley. 

Figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua 
Sivalensis,' pi. lvii. fig. 1 ; and noticed by the present 
writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. 
p. 46. Presented By C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36825. The hinder portion of the cranium, showing the last four 
{Fig.) cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley. 

Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lviii. fig. 4 ; 
and noticed by the present writer, loc. cit. 

Presented by G. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

37826. Fragment of the left maxilla and jugal, with the three true 
molars ; from the Pleistocene of Bati-Kurrar, K"arbada 
Valley. Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36841. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the 
last four cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of the Xar- 
bada Valley. Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36827. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the last 
(Fig.) five cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of the Narbada 



296 UKGTJLATA. 

Valley. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op cit. pi. lvii. 
fig. 6. Presented by G. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36828. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, showing m. 1 
{Fig.) m. 2, and m. 3 (in alveolo). Figured by Falconer and 

Cautley, op. cit. pi. lvii. fig. 7. 

Presented by 0. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36829. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, showing ^72 
(Fig.) and m . 3 ; from the Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley. 

Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lvii. fig. 3. 

Presented by G. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36829 a. Fragment of a lower canine j from the Pleistocene of the 
Narbada Valley. 

Presented by G. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36834. The left radius of a small individual ; from the Pleistocene 
(Fig.) of the left bank of the Narbada, 27 miles from Jabalpur, 

Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lviii. fig. 10. 
Presented by G. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36835. The proximal extremity of the left femur ; from the Pleis- 
(Fig.) tocene of the Narbada Valley. Figured by Falconer and 

Cautley, op. cit. pi. lviii. fig. 6. 

Presented by G. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36724. The distal half of the right femur; from the Pleistocene of 
(Fig.) the Narbada Valley. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
op. cit. pi. lviii. fig. 7. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

36836. The right tibia ; from the Pleistocene of the Narbada 
(Fig.) Valley. In the form of the cnemial crest this bone diifers 

considerably from the tibia of H. amphibius. Figured by 
Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lviii. fig. 9. 

Presented by G. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36837. The proximal half of the right tibia ; from the Pleistocene 
(Fig.) of the Narbada Valley, near Birman Ghat. Figured by 

Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lviii. fig. 8. 

1 resented by G. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36842. The proximal extremity of the left tibia ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of the Narbada Valley, near Piparea. 

Presented by G. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 



HIPPOPOTAMUS. 297 

36832. The first dorsal vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of the Nar- 
(Fig.) bada Valley. Figured by Falconer and Cantley, op. cit. 

pi. lviii. fig. 5. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

36833. The last lumbar vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of the 
{Pig.) J^arbada Yalley. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. 

cit. pi. lvii. fig. 9. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

Hippopotamus sivalensis, Falconer and Cautley 1 . 

Syn. Hexaprotodon sivalensis, Falconer and Cautley 2 . 

This species is somewhat smaller than the existing H. ampJiibius, 
and has three incisors in both jaws, those of the mandible being of 
subequal size ; the groove in the upper canine is much deeper 
than in H. ampliibius, and the mandibular symphysis relatively 
longer. The species has been split up by McClelland 3 , but apparently 
on insufficient grounds. 

Hab. India. 

All the following specimens, unless otherwise stated, are from the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, and belong to the Cautley Col- 
lection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2269. The cranium, showing the alveoli of the incisors, the 
(Fig.) canines, and the whole of the cheek-teeth, in a well-worn 
condition. This specimen is figured by Falconer and 
Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lix. fig. 1 : 
and is also figured in ' Falconer's Palseontological Me- 
moirs,' vol. i. pi. xi., as well as in the accompanying 
woodcut (fig. 38, a, p. 298). It is noticed by the present 
writer in the ' Palasontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. 
pp. 38, 39, as var. latidens. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

16175. The cranium, showing all the dentition except the incisors. 

(Fig.) This specimen is figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 
pi. lix. fig. 2, and is noticed by the present writer, loc. 
cit. It agrees precisely with the last specimen, the den- 
tition being in a well-worn condition. 

Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

1 Asiatic Researches, vol. xix. p. 40 (1836). 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. vii. p. 1038 (1838). 



298 



UNGULATA. 



Fig. 38. 




Hippopotamus sivalensis. — a, Palatal view of cranium (No. M. 2269), §■ ; b, third 
right upper true molar, ^ ; c, upper view of anterior part of mandibular 
symphysis (No. 16312), ^. All the specimens are from the Siwalik Hills. 



16377. The cranium, showing most of the dentition in a damaged 

condition. 

16378. The hinder portion of the cranium, showing the last five 

cheek-teeth in an early condition of wear. Noticed by the 
present writer, loo. cit. 

16379. The greater portion of the cranium of an immature indi- 

vidual. This specimen, together with No. 16382, is 
intermediate in dental characters between Nos. M. 2269 and 
16175, and No. 17469 ; it is noticed by the present 
writer, loo. cit. 

16380. An imperfect cranium, showing the cheek-dentition in an 

early stage of wear. 

16381. Middle portion of the cranium of an immature individual, 

showing the greater part of the permanent dentition and 
mm. 4 . Noticed by the present writer, loo. cit. 



HIPPOPOTAMID^. 299 

16382. The hinder half of the cranium, with the crowns of the 
molars hammered off. 

40889. The cranium, imperfect posteriorly, showing the cheek- 
dentition in a much- worn condition. 

M. 489. Hinder part of the cranium of an immature individual, 
showing pm. 3 , pm. 4 = } mm. 3 , mm. 4 , and the three true 
molars. Noticed by the present writer, loc. cit. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

M. 491. The hinder half of the cranium, showing the three true 
molars in a middle stage of wear. 

17068. The cranium of a small immature individual. This speci- 
(Fig.) men shows the canines and the whole of the cheek-denti- 
tion in an early condition of wear ; it is figured by Falconer 
and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lix. fig. 3, and noticed by the 
present writer, loc. cit., as var. angustidens. It is also 
figured in Royle's ' Illustrations of the Botany, &c. of the 
Himalaya Mountains/ pi. vi. fig. 4 (1839). 

17469. The cranium of an immature individual, showing the canines 
and the whole of the cheek-dentition. This specimen 
agrees with the last, and is noticed by the present writer, 
loc. cit. ; the last milk-molar is still in position, and m. 3 
in alveolo. 

15928. The anterior part of the cranium and mandible, showing 

the greater portion of the dentition. 

17084. The hinder half of the cranium, showing part of m. 3 . 
{Fig.) Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lx. fig. 1. 

17081. The hinder part of the cranium and mandible of a very old 
(Fig.) individual. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 

pi. lx. fig. 2, and noticed by the present writer, op. cit. 

p. 40. 

15929. The hinder half of the cranium, showing m. 2 and m- 3 . 
(Fig.) Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lx. fig. 3. 

15930. The greater portion of the cranium, with the teeth much 

worn. 

15931. The greater portion of the cranium, with the teeth well 

worn. 



300 TTNGTTLATA. 

15932. The hinder portion of the cranium of an immature indi- 

vidual, showing the last two milk-, and the first two true 
molars. 

15933. Anterior portion of the cranium, showing the incisors, 
{Fig.) canines, and premolars. Figured by Falconer and Cautley 

op. cit. pi. lxi. fig. 10. 

17827. The anterior portion of the cranium, showing the earlier 

{Fig.) premolars, canines, and the alveoli of the incisors. Figured 

by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxi. fig. 11. 

15934. The anterior half of the cranium, showing the alveoli of the 
{Fig.) incisors, the canines, and the cheek-teeth as far back as 

m. 2 , the latter being much worn. The dentition of the 
left side (reversed) is figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. 
cit. pi. lxii. fig. 3 l ; there is a portion of a much-worn 
tooth wedged in between pm. 4 and m. 1, which is regarded 
by Falconer as mm. 4 . 

15935. Middle portion of the cranium, showing m. 2 and m. 3 . 

15936. Upper portion of the cranium of an immature individual. 

15937. The cranium of a young individual, showing the earlier 
{Fig.) premolars, mm. 3 , mm. 4 ? and m. 1 , Figured by Falconer 

and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxi. fig. 2. 

17866. The anterior half of the cranium of a still younger individual, 

{Fig.) showing the canine in alveolo, mm. 3 , and mm. 4 , Figured 

by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxi. fig. 1. 

15938. Fragment of the left maxilla, showing the three true molars 

and part of mm. 4 . 

16310. Fragment of the left maxilla, showing the much-worn m. 2 
and m. 3 . 

16329. Fragment of the left maxilla of a young individual, showing 
mm. 3 and mm. 4. 

15746, 15747, 15895, 18423, 18426. Numerous detached upper true 
molars. 

16366. Two detached lower premolars. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxii. 
{Fig.) figs. 5, 6. 

1 In the description of the plate the specimen is erroneously referred to the 
lower jaw. 



HIPPOPOTAMIDJE. 301 

15736, 15739, 15899, 16349, 16532. Detached premolars. 

18424. Fragment of the left maxilla, with m. 1 . 

16367. Part of the upper canine. Figured, op. tit. pi. lxii. fig. 7. 

(Fig.) 

16367 a. Part of the upper canine. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxii. fig. 8. 

(Fig-) 

16367 "b. Part of the upper canine. Figured, op. cit. pi. xii. fig. 9. 

17085. The mandible, showing all the teeth except the incisors, of 
(Fig.) which the alveoli remain. Figured by Falconer and 
Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxi. fig. 5. 

36722. The anterior portion of the mandible, showing the last three 
premolars, m . 1 and m . 2, and the alveoli of the incisors 
and canines. 

16174. The right ramus and symphysis of the mandible, showing 
(Fig.) the right canine and cheek-teeth and the alveoli of the 
incisors of both sides. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxi. fig. 4. 

16312. The symphysis of the mandible, showing the earlier pre- 
(Fig.) molars, the canines, and incisors, in an almost perfect 
condition. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxi. fig. 7 ; also in ' Fal- 
coner's Palseontological Memoirs/ vol. i. pi. xii. figs. 2, 3, 
and in woodciit p. 38 (p. 298). 

16354. Symphysis of the mandible, cut transversely in two planes 
(Fig.) to show the sections of the canines and incisors. Figured, 

op. cit. pi. lxii. fig. 4. 

16316. The nearly complete mandible, showing the cheek-teeth, 
canines, and the alveoli of the incisors. 

16353. The mandible of a subadult individual, showing the cheek- 
teeth, and the broken bases of the canines and incisors. 

16355. The symphysis and part of the left ramus of the mandible, 

showing the incisors and canines, and most of the left 
> cheek-teeth. 

16356. The symphysis and right ramus of the mandible of an 

immature individual, with ^~3 in alveolo. 

7452. The symphysis of the mandible, with the crowns of the teeth 
hammered off. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 



302 TTtfGTTLATA. 

16357. Part of the symphysis of the mandible, cut transversely. 
The lower part of the alveolus of 172 is placed much 
above the line of the other two teeth of the same 
series. 

16383. Part of the mandible, cut transversely across the middle of 
the symphysis. 

16145. The mandible of a young individual, showing the milk-den- 
(Fig.) tition and mTi. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxi. fig. 6. The 
length of i^mTi is 0,049. 

16360. Fragment of the right ramus of a similar mandible, contain- 
ing mm. 4 and m. 1. 

M. 2404. The symphysis and the greater part of the right ramus of the 
mandible of a young individual. This specimen shows the 
broken mm. 3, the complete mm. 4, and m. 1 in alveolo. 

Transferred from the Old Indian Museum, 1880. 

16365. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a young 
individual, containing mm. 4. 

17560, 16361, 16363, 16364. Pour specimens of the symphysis 
and part of the left ramus of the mandible of young 
Hippopotami belonging either to this species or H. ira- 
vaticus. In the one specimen in which mm. 4 is shown 
this tooth has a length of 0,042. 

48454. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible with m73 ; 
said to be from Perim Island, but, judging from the matrix, 
more probably from the Siwalik Hills. 

Presented by O. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

16359. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with m72 
and m . 3. 

32541. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
unworn m . 3. 

Some of the smaller of the folloiving specimens may perhaps 
to H. iravaticus. 



15745, 18428, 18429, 18423. Detached specimens of first and second- 
lower true molars. 

15742, 15743. Detached specimens of the third lower true molar. 

15749. Fragment of the mandible with one premolar. 



HIPPOPOTAMID-E. 303 

17958. The left lower canine. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxii. fig. 10. 
48442. The extremity of the left lower milk (?) canine. 

16462. The greater part of the right scapula. Figured by .Falconer 
(Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 1. 

16463. The greater part of the right scapula. Figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxv. fig. 2. 

16464. The greater part of the left scapula. Figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxv. fig. 3. 

16465. The glenoidal extremity of the left scapula. Figured, op. 
(Fig.) cit. pi. lxv. fig. 4. Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

16466. The glenoidal extremity of the left scapula. Figured, op. 
(Fig.) cit. pi. lxv. fig. 5. 

16467. The proximal extremity of the right humerus. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 6. 

16670. The proximal extremity of the right humerus. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 7. 

16468. The proximal extremity of the right humerus. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 8. 

39693. The distal extremity of the right humerus. Figured, 
(Fig.) together with No. 39693 a, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 9. 

16469. The distal extremity of the right humerus. Figured, op. 
(Fig.) cit. pi. lxv, fig. 10. 

16470. The distal half of the right humerus. Figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxv. fig. 13. 

16471. The distal extremity of the left humerus. Figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxv. fig. 11. 

16472. The distal extremity of the left humerus. Figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxv. fig. 12. 

16473. The distal extremity of the left humerus. 

39693 a. The proximal extremity of the right radius and ulna. 
(Fig.) Figured, together with No. 39693, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 9. 

16474. The proximal extremity of the right radius and ulna. 
(Fig.) Figured, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 14. 



304 UffOTJLATA. 

16475. The proximal extremity of the right radius and ulna. 
{Fig.) Figured, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 15. 

16476. The proximal extremity of the right radius, of small size. 
(Fig.) Figured, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 17. 

16477. The right radius, of very small size. Figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxv. fig. 16. 

16479. The distal extremity of the right radius and ulna. 

16478. The distal extremity of the right radius and ulna from Burma. 
(Fig.) Figured, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 33. 

16480. The distal extremity of the right radius. Figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxv. fig. 18. 

16481. The distal extremity of the right radius. 

40829. The distal extremity of the left radius and ulna. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

16482. The distal extremity of the left radius and ulna. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 20. 

16483. The distal extremity of the left radius. 

16484. The distal extremity of the left radius. 

40828. The distal extremity of the left radius. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

16867. The right scaphoid. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 22. 
{Fig.) 

16888. The right cuneiform. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 24. 

^ig.) 

16869. The left cuneiform. 

16870. The right magnum. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 2d. 

(-%•) 

16871. The right unciform. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 26. 

(-%•) 

40628. A pisiform. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

15910. The right second metacarpal. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxv. 
(Fig.) fig. 27. 






HIPPOPOTAMnLE. 305 

15911. A metacarpal. 

16872. A metacarpal. 

16873. The distal extremity of a metacarpal. Figured , op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxv. fig. 28. 

16874. A first phalangeal. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 30. 

(Fig.) 

18023. A first phalangeal. Figured, ojo. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 31. 

(-%•) 

18024. A first phalangeal. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 32. 

16875. A first lateral phalangeal. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxv. fig. 29. 
{Fig.) This bone closely resembles a specimen figured by the 

present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. iii. pi. xiv. fig. 2, and originally referred to a stru- 
thioid bird. Together with the metacarpals already 
noticed, it indicates that the foot of the Siwalik "Hippo- 
potamus was of a much more slender type than that of the 
existing species. 

15693. A first phalangeal. 

18022. A first phalangeal. 

40627. A second lateral phalangeal. This specimen closely re- 
sembles the two bones figured by the present writer, 
op. cit. figs. 4, 5, and wrongly referred to a struthioid. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

16876. The middle portion of the left innominate. Figured, o_p. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxiv. fig. 17. 

16878. The acetabular portion of a smaller left innominate. 

16877. The acetabular portion of the right innominate. Figured, 
{Fig.) ojo. cit. pi. lxiv. fig. 18. 

16879. The left femur. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 1. 

{Fig.) Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

16880. The proximal extremity of the left femur. Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxvi. fig. 2. 

16881. The distal portion of the left femur. Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxvi. fig. 5. 

PAKT II. X 



306 TJNGULATA. 

16882. The proximal extremity of the right femur. Figured, op. 
{Fig.) cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 3. 

17013. The distal extremity of the right femur. Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxvi. fig. 4. 

17014. The distal third of the right femur. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. 
{Fig.) fig. 6. 

17015. The right patella. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 8. 

(-%•) 

17016. The right patella. 

17017. The left patella. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 7. 

{Fig-) 

17018. The left patella. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 9. 
(Fig.) 

17018 a. The right tibia. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 13. 
(Fig.) 

17018 b. The proximal half of the right tibia. Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxvi. fig. 11. 

17018 C. The proximal half of the left tibia. Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxvi. fig. 10. 

17018 d. The proximal extremity of the left tibia. Figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxvi. fig. 12. 

17018 e. The distal half of the right tibia. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. 
{Fig.) fig. 14. 

17018 f. The distal half of the right tibia. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. 
(Fig.) fig. 16. 

18008. The distal extremity of the left tibia and fibula. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 15. 

18009. The distal extremity of the left tibia. Figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxvi. fig. 17. 

18010. The right astragalus. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 23. 



18010 a. The right astragalus. 



hippopotamid^;. 307 

18010 b. The left astragalus. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 20. 

(Fig-) 

18010 C. The left astragalus. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 21. 

0%-) 

18010 d. The left astragalus. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 22. 

C%.) 

18010 e. The left astragalus. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 24. 

(Fig-) 

18010 f. The left astragalus. 

40830, 40831. Two specimeus of the left astragalus. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq, 

18011. The left calcaneum. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 19. 
(Fig.) 

18012. The imperfect right calcaneum. 

15768. The left cuboid. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 25. 

(Fig-) 

18013. The fourth left metatarsal. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. 
(Fig.) fig. 26. 

18014. The fourth and fifth left metatarsals, a first phalangeal, and 
(Fig.) a sesamoid. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxvi. fig. 27. 

18015. The atlas vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. pi. lxiii. 
(Fig.) fig. 2. 

18016. The atlas vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. pi. lxiii. 
(Fig.) fig. 3. 

18017. The atlas vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. pi. lxiii. 
(Fig), fig. 4. 

48460. The atlas vertebra (nearly perfect). 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

18018. The axis vertebra. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxiii. fig. 5. 
(Fig.) 

18019. The axis vertebra. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxiii. fig. 6. 

x2 



308 UNGTJLATA. 

18020. The axis vertebra. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxiii. fig. 7. 

18021. The axis vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. pi. lxiii. 
{Fig.) fig. 10. 

18021 a, 18021 b. Two imperfect specimens of the axis vertebra. 

18021 C. The centrum of the axis vertebra. Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxiii. fig. 8. 

18021 d. The centrum of the axis vertebra. Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxiii. fig. 9. 

18038. The third cervical vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxiii. fig. 12. 

18039. The third cervical vertebra (imperfect). 

18310. The fifth cervical vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxiv. fig. 2. 

18311. The fifth cervical vertebra (imperfect). 

18312. The sixth cervical and the centra of two associated dorsal 
{Fig.) vertebrae. The former is figured, op. cit. pi. lxiv. fig. 1. 

18313. The sixth cervical vertebra, wanting the descending plate 
{Fig.) of the right transverse processes. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxiii. 

%. 11. 

18314. The sixth cervical vertebra (imperfect). 

18315. The seventh cervical vertebra (imperfect). 

18316. Tbe first (?) dorsal vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxiv. fig. 3. 

18317. The second dorsal vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxiv. fig. 6. 

18318. The second dorsal vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxiv. fig. 4. 

18320. The fourth dorsal vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxiv. fig. 5. 

18319. The fifth dorsal vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) pi. lxiv. fig. 7. 

18321. The associated fourth and fifth dorsal vertebrae (imper- 
{Fig.) feet). Figured, op. cit: pi. lxiv. fig. 9. 



HIPPOPOTAiriDJE, 



309 



18323. The seventh dorsal vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. 

(Fig.) pi. Ixiv. fig. 8. 

18324. The eighth dorsal vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. 
{Fig.) p]. Ixiv. fig. 10. 

18325. The last dorsal vertebra (imperfect). 

18326. A lumbar vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. pi. Ixiv. 
[Fig.) fig. 11. 

18327. A lumbar vertebra (imperfect). Figured, op. cit. pi. Ixiv. 
(Fig.) fig. 12. 

18328. The last lumbar vertebra. Figured, op. cit. pi. Ixiv. fig. 13. 
{Fig.) 

18328 a. The sacrum. Figured, op. cit. pi. Ixiv. fig. 14. 
(Fig.) 

18329. The sacrum. Figured, op. cit. pi. Ixiv. fig. 15. 

18330. The sacrum. 
17470. A left rib. 

Hippopotamus iravaticus, Falconer and Cautley 1 . 
Syn. Hexaprotodon iraraticus, Falconer 2 . 

This species is slightly larger than the existing H. liberiensis, and 
has three mandibular incisors ; the cranium being unknown. The 
outer lower incisor is laterally compressed, and the mandibular 
symphysis apparently relatively longer than in any of the foregoing 
species. Other specimens are required to indicate its full affinities. 

Hab. Burma. 

14771. Symphysis of the mandible of a subadult individual ; from 
(Fig.) the Siwaliks of Burma. This f-pecimen is the type, and is 
figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua 
Sivalensis,' pi. lvii. fig. 10; and noticed by the present 
writer in the ' Palaeoutologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 42. 
It shows the broken bases of the incisors and canines, and 
one of the premolars partially protruded. 

Presented by Col. Burney, about 1841. 

1 Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis, pt. 7, pi. lvii. (1847). 

2 Journ. Ac, Nat Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. i. p. 237 (1840). 



310 



TJNGTTLATA. 



16362. The right half of the symphysis of the mandible of a Hippo- 
potamus, perhaps belonging to this species; from the 
Siwaliks of Burma or India. No history. 

Hippopotamus, sp. 

Hab. Burma. 

14772. Fragment of a lower incisor, of very large size ; from the 
Siwaliks of Burma. This specimen is too large for H. si- 
vdlensis or H. iravaticus; and agrees with the Pleistocene 
H. palceindicus. Presented by Col. Bur ney, about 1841. 

16456. Tip of a lower incisor, agreeing in size with the last speci- 
men ; probably from the Siwaliks of Burma. No history. 



311 



ADDENDA. 



Family BOVIDiE (page 1). 

Genus BISON (page 24). 

23teon fcona^ttS (page 24). 

Yar. jpriscus. 

The following specimens were obtained from the Pleistocene of 
Barrington, Cambridgeshire. (Purchased, 1885.) 

M. 2531. The right horn-core. 

The reference of the following is provisional. 
M. 2532. Two imperfect mandibular rami. 
M. 2533. Numerous detached cheek-teeth. 
M. 2534. The right and left metacarpus. 
M. 2535. Two astragali. 
M. 2536. The right naviculo-cuboid. 
M. 2537. The right metatarsus. 
M. 2538. A proximal phalangeal. 
M. 2539. Several imperfect vertebrae. 

Family CERVID^E (page 73). 

Genus RANGIFER (page 79). 

Iftaucrtfer taranthtS (page 79). 

M. 2501-6. A series of specimens from the caves of Gower, Gla- 
morganshire; comprising numerous fragments of antlers 
of various ages, the hinder portion of a cranium, two left 
mandibular rami, and a right metatarsus. 

Presented by General E. B. Wood, 1865. 



312 ADDENDA. 

Genus CERVUS (page 82). 
Cervus giganteus (page 82). 

M. 2517. Two basal halves of antlers ; from the Pleistocene of 
Barrington, Cambridgeshire. Purchased, 1885. 

Cerbus tlapfjuS (page 94). 

{The specific reference of some of the following specimens 
is provisional.) 

45357. The left metacarpus, of large size ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

41741. The right tibia, of large size ; from the turbary of Waltham- 
stow. Purchased, 1869. 

7572-3. The right and left tibise; from the Pleistocene of Lewes. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

19843. The left tibia, of small size ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1846. 

18154. The right calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of Ireland. 

Purchased. About 1842. 

40392. The right calcaneum; from the Pleistocene of Oundle, 
Northamptonshire. 

Presented by G. N. Edmonds, Esq., 1867. 

32515. The right calcaneum ; from a Continental Pleistocene deposit. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

19843,21631. Three calcanea of small size ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased. 

21631 a. Two specimens of the proximal elements of the tarsus, of 
small size ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 

23730 e. The left astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Slade Green. 

Purchased, 1849. 

40964. A left astragalus, of small size ; from the Pleistocene of 
Crayford, Kent. Purchased. 

23129-31. Two specimens of smaller astragali ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Ilford. Purchased. 



ADDENDA. 313 

21625, 21626, 28131. Several specimens of small astragali ; from 
the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased. 

21298 a. The left naviculo-cuboid ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 

21298 b, 21312, 21318. Three specimens of the right naviculo- 
cuboid of a small form ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 

43207- The left 1 metatarsus ; from the turbary of Walthamstovr. 

Wetherell Collection. Purchased, 1871. 

18817, 20277, 23149, 28079. Four proximal phalangeals; from 
the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased. 

21630. Numerous proximal phalangeals, of smaller size ; from the 
Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1849. 

21630 a. A second phalaugeal, agreeing in size with No. 18817; 
from the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1849. 

21630 b. Numerous second phalangeals, agreeing in size with 
No. 21630. Purchased, 1849. 



Family CAMELIDiE (page 139). 

Genus AUCHENIA (page 147). 
Auchenia magna (Owen l ). 
Syn. Palauchenia magna, Owen 2 . 

This species is nearly as large as the existing camels ; a minute 
lanariform pm. 1 is present a short distance behind the canine, and 
there is a small styliform pm. 3 immediately in front of p m . 4 in the 
type specimen. 

Hah. South America. 

40155. Casts of the last six cervical vertebras of the same individual. 

The originals were obtained from the Pleistoceue of 

Mexico. The casts are described and figured by Owen in 

the Phil. Trans, for 1870, pp. 69-73, pis. iv., v., vi., vii. 

Presented by Bon Antonio del Castillo, 1866. 

1 Phil. Trans. 1870, p. 65, Palauchenia. 2 Loc. cit. 



314 



ADDENDA. 



Family TRAGULID.E (page 150). 

Genus PRODREMOTHERIUM (page 150). 

Prodremotherium elongatum (page 150). 

M. 1809. Several imperfect maxillse, with teeth ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), France. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1818. The right maxilla, containing all the cheek-teeth ; from 
Bach. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1807. Several imperfect mandibular rami ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Mouillac (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Genus BACHITHERIUM (page 155). 

Bachitherium curtum (page 155). 

M. 1809 a. Part of the left maxilla, with the last four cheek-teeth ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), 
France. Purchased, 1884. 

Family DIC HOD OOTIDS (page 159). 
Genus LOPHIOMERYX (page 160). 

Lophiomeryx chalaniati (page 160). 

M. 1808. Several imperfect mandibular rami; from the Upper 
Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), France. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Lophiomeryx minor, Lydekker, n. sp. 

This species is founded on the specimen noticed below. 
Hah. France. 

M. 1809. Fragment of the right maxilla containing the last five 
(Fig.) cheek-teeth : from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), France. This specimen (woodcut, fig. 39) indi- 
cates a species intermediate in size between L. chalaniati 



ADDENDA. 



315 



and L. yaudryi. The length of the space occupied by the 
three true molars is 0,027, the corresponding space in 
L. chalaniati being 0,041 (vide supra, p. 162). The man- 
dible of L. gaudryi (vide Filhol, Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. 
pi. xiii. fig. 280) indicates a considerably smaller species, 




Lo'phiomeryx minor. Part of the right maxilla ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Oaylux. \. 

the length of the space occupied by the three lower pre- 
molars being only 0,017. The present specimen agrees 
with L. chalaniati in the abortion of the second inner 
crescent of m. 3 , and in the incomplete development of the 
same part in m. 2. The third premolar has a well-marked 
inner cusp, and therefore differs from Tragulus and agrees 
with Dichodon. Purchased, 1884. 

Family C^NOTHERIID^E (page 166). 

Genus DICHOBUNUS (page 179). 

Dichobunus leporinus (page 180). 

M. 1836. Part of the left maxilla, with the three true molars ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1840. Several imperfect mandibular rami; from the Upper 
Eocene of Mouillac (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Family ANOPLOTHERIID^E (page 182) . 

• Genus XIPHODON (page 182). 

Xiphodon gracilis (page 183). 

M. 1832. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, with 
the last five cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach, 
near Lalbenque (Lot), France. Purchased, 1S84. 



316 ADDENDA. 

The following specimens were obtained from the Upper Eocene of 
Debruge, near Apt ( Vaucluse) ; and belong to the Bravard 
Collection {Purchased, 1852). 

30682, 30703. Two specimens of the distal portion of the humerus. 

30690. The greater part of the left ulna. 

30693-5. Three imperfect specimens of the radius. Each of these 
bones exhibits three large knobs near the middle, and a 
fourth close to the distal extremity of the inner (preaxial) 
border ; which probably indicate the existence of warts, 
or callosities, on this side of the limb. The distal knob is 
exhibited in a specimen figured in De Blainville's ' Osteo- 
graphie,' Genus Anoplotherium, pi. v. 

30686-7. Two specimens of the calcaneum. 

30676-7-8, 30680-1. Several specimens of the astragalus. 

Genus ANOPLOTHERIUM (page 188). 
Anoplotherium commune (page 189). 

M. 1751. Part of the left ramus of the mandible containing the 
last five cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux 
(Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This specimen agrees pre- 
cisely with the Vaucluse jaw, No. 26787 (p. 191). 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1779. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing mm. 4 ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1814 a. The fourth left lower milk-molar, in a much-worn con- 
dition ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque 
(Lot), France. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1844. The left astragalus of a large Anoplotherium ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. This specimen is wider and 
shorter than the astragalus of the so-called Eurytherium 
latipes (page 193) ; its distal width being 0,056, and its 
length about 0,069. In the absence of any decided differ- 
ence in the dentition of the Caylux, Vaucluse, and Paris 
specimens, it seems very doubtful if this variation can be 
regarded as of specific value. Purchased, 1884. 



ADDENDA. 



317 



Anoplotherium cayluxense (page 198). 



M. 1842. Part of the left maxilla of a young individual ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), France. 
This specimen shows mm. 3 and mm. 4 in a much- worn 
condition. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1775. Part of the right ramus of the mandible of a young indi- 
vidual, showing mm. ft and mm. 4 ; from Bach. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Family CHCEROPOTAMID.E (page 247). 

Genus ELOTHERIUM (page 249). 

Elotherium magnum (page 249). 

M. 1727. The second left upper true molar; from the Upper Eocene 
of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1439, 1440. Two canines (one imperfect) ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1454. The first left lower premolar ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

Elotherium mortoni, Leidy \ 

Syn. Archceotherium mortoni, Leidy 2 . 

This species is considerably smaller than E. magnum. 
Hah. North America. 

29686. A left lower true molar ; from the Miocene of the White 
Eiver, Dakota, U. S. A. Purchased, 1855. 

Genus CEBOCHCERUS, Gervais 3 . 
The writer provisionally follows Flower in referring this genus to 
the present family. It is referred by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. viii. art. 1, p. 107, to the group " Pachysimiens," and is con- 
sidered to present characters connecting Choerojpotamus with the 
lemuroid Primates. The third lower molar has a well-developed 
talon. 

1 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. for 1857, p. 89 (1858), Archceotherium. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. ii. Exp. no. 35 (1S48-52). 



318 ADDENDA. 

Cebochcerus minor, Gervais 1 . 

This is the smallest species of the genus, and is characterized by 
the presence of only three roots to the upper true molars. 
Hah. Prance. 

M. 1837. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing m. 1 (broken) 
and m. 2 ; from the Upper Eocene of Lamandine-Basse, 
near Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This specimen 
agrees precisely with the one figured by Filhol in the 
Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. pi. xiv. fig. 287. 

Purchased, 1884. 



Family SUECME (page 250). 

Genus HYOTHERIUM (page 253). 
Hyotherium typum (page 254). 

M. 1838. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the three true 
molars ; from the Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque 
(Lot), France. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1835. Part of the symphysis and right ramus of the mandible ; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne). 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1840. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with ^73 ; from 
Bach. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1395. Part of the left ramus of the mandible with ^72 and m . 3; 
from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. The length of m . 3 is 
0,017, and that of ^72 0,013. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1395 a. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with 
pm. 3, pm. 4, and m. 1 ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 
The length of mTl is 0,012. Purchased, 1884. 

1 Zool. et Pal. Generates, s&\ 2, p. 48 (1876). 



ADDENDA. 



319 



Family HIPPOPOTAMUS (page 277). 

Genus HIPPOPOTAMUS (page 277). 

f£|tppopotamuS ampIjtfriuS (page 277). 

The following specimens were obtained from the Pleistocene of 
Barrington, Cambridgeshire. {Purchased, 1885.) 

M. 2521. The greater portion of the mandible of a male, showing 
the incisors and canines. 

M. 2522. Sixty specimens of upper and lower cheek-teeth. 

M. 2523. Numerous incisors and upper canines. 

M. 2524. Pour lower canines of males. 

M. 2525. Several imperfect lower incisors. 

M. 2526. Two imperfect humeri. 

M. 2527. An imperfect left femur. 

M. 2528. Two imperfect right calcanea. 

M. 2529. Two astragali. 

M. 2530. Wine imperfect vertebrae. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



OF 



GENERA AND SPECIES, INCLUDING SYNONYMS. 



Acotherulum, 181. 

saturninum, 182. 
^Egocerus, 49. 
Alcelaphus, 55. 

bakeri, 56. 

palseindicus, 55. 
Alces, 78. 

giganteus, 82. 

latifrons, 78. 

macblis, 78. 
Amphibos, 27. 

acuticornis, 33. 

antilopinus, 35. 
Amphichoerus, 253. 

typus, 254. 
Amphitragulus, 125. 

boulangeri, 130. 

communis, 159. 

elegans, 125. 

gracilis, 134. 

lemanensis, 129. 

nouleti, 133. 

pomeli, 130. 
Ancodus, 218. 

aymardi, 221. 

bovinus, 221. 

incertus, 219. 

insignis, 221. 

leptorbyncbus, 221. 

macrorbinus, 221. 
Anoplotherium, 188. 

bavaricum, 202. 

cayluxense, 198, 317. 

commune, 189, 316. 
PAUT II. 



Anoplother ium(cont. ) 

gracile, 183. 

laticurvatum, 170. 

laurillardi, 194. 

minus, 202. 

modicum., 201. 

platypus, 189. 

quercyi, 201. 

secundarium, 194. 
Anthracotherium, 
235. 

alsaticum, 239. 

gresslyi, 244. 

hyopotamoides, 235. 

labarpei, 242. 

magnum, 236. 

minus, 242. 

minutum, 159. 

silistrense, 165, 243. 

sp. a, 242. 

sp. b, 244. 

sp. c, 244. 

sp. d, 247- 

valdense, 241. 

velaunum, 218. 
Antilope, 52. 

brevicornis, 51. 

capricornis, 51. 

cervicapra, 52. 

clarata, 58. 

deperdita, 51. 

palasindica, 55. 

patulicornis, 54. 

porrecticornis, 50. 



Archaeotherium, 249. 

mortoni, 317. 
Auchenia, 147. 

magna, 313. 

sp. 1, 148. 

sp. 2, 149. 

Bachitherium, 155. 

curtum, 155, 314. 

insigne, 157. 

medium, 155. 
Bison, 24. 

bonasus, 24, 311. 

europseus, 24. 

latifrons, 27. 

minor, 16. 

priscus, 24, 311. 
Bootherium, 38. 

bombifrons, 39. 

cavifrons, 40. 
Bos, 2. 

bombifrons, 39. 

bonasus, 24. 

bubalus, 28. 

buffelus, 28. 

elapbus, 19. 

elatus, 19. 

etruscus, 19. 

frontosus, 16. 

giganteus, 2. 

latifrons, 27. 

longifrons, 16. 

moscbatus, 38. 
namadicus. 22, 



322 



INDEX. 



Bos (cont.). 
occipitalis, 30. 
palagogaurus, 23. 
pallasi, 38. 
primigenius, 2. 
sp., 24. 
taurus, 2. 
urus, 2. 
Boselaphus, 48. 
namadicus, 48. 
sp., 48. 
Bothriodon, 218. 
leptorbyncbus, 221. 
platyrbynchus, 219. 
velaunus, 221. 
Bramatherium, 69. 

perimense, 69. 
Bubalus, 27. 
acuticornis, 33. 
antilopinus, 35. 
antiquus, 29. 
buffelus, 28. 
mosobatus, 38. 
occipitalis, 30. 
platyceros, 29. 
sivalensis, 29. 
triquetricornis, 30. 
Bucapra, 40. 
daviesi, 40. 

Caenothermm, 167. 

caclurcense, 175. 

commune, 167. 

elegans, 167. 

fllholi, 176. 

geoffroyi, 174. 

laticurvatum, 170. 

leptognathurn, 167. 

metopias, 170. 

quiuquedentatum, 175. 

sp., 169. 
Camelopardalis, 71. 

affinis, 71. 

duvernoyi, 70. 

sivalensis, 71. 
Camelus, 139. 

antiquus, 145. 

sivalensis, 140. 
Capra, 40. 

cervicapra, 52. 

bircus, 40. 

hispanica, 41. 

pyrenaica, 41. 

rozeti, 45. 

sp. a, 45. 

sp. b, 45. 
Capreolus, 74. 

caprea, 74. 

cusanus, 75. 

fossilis, 74. 

matberoni, 77. 



Cariacus, 74. 

rufus, 74. 
Cebochoerus, 317. 

minor, 318. 
Cervulus, 117. 

australis, 118. 
dicranoceros, 117. 
Cervus, 82. 

alces, 78. 

ambiguus, 111. 

anoceros, 117. 

aristotelis, 103. 

arvernensis, 115. 

australis, 118. 

barbarus, 94. 

bovoides, 78. 

bravardi, 77. 

browni, 89. 

capreolus, 74. 

clactonianus, 89. 

cucuronis, 77. 
♦ curtoceros, 115. 

cusanus, 75. 

cylindroceros, 111. 

dama, 89. 

dicranios, 93. 

dicranoceros, 117. 

elaphus, 94, 312. 

etueriarium, 107. 

falcon eri, 91. 

giganteus, 82, 312. 

gracilis, 111. 

guettardi, 79. 

bibernicus, 82. 

issiodorensis, 107. 

latifrons, 78. 

lunatus, 116. 

matberoni, 77. 

megaceros, 82. 

perrieri, 107. 

peyroliensis, 107. 

polignacus, 115. 

porcinus, 104. 

roberti, 115. 

rufus, 74. 

rusoides, 107. 

savini, 91. 

sedgwicki, 93. 

sivalensis, 104. 

stylodus, 107. 

suttonensis, 109. 

tarandus, 79. 

tetraceros, 113. 

trigonoceros, 117- 

verticornis, 92. 
Chceromeryx, 165. 

silistrensis, 165. 
Choeromorus, 253. 

simplex, 258. 
Chceropotamus, 247. 

affinis, 247. 



Choeropotamus(cow^.) 

cuvieri, 247. 

gypsorum, 247. 

meissneri, 254. 

parisiensis, 247. 

soemmeringi, 257. 
Chceropsis, 277. 
Choerotherium, 253. 
Cobus, 53. 

palseindicus, 53. 

patulicornis, 54. 
Coassus, 74. 

rufus, 74. 
Cyclognathus, 218. 

Dacrytherium, 187. 

cayluxense, 187. 

ovinum, 187. 
Dama, 89. 

vulgaris, 89. 
Dichobunus, 179. 

cervinus, 165. 

leporinus, 180, 315. 

ovinus, 187. 

robertianus, 181. 
Dichodon, 162. 

cervinus, 165. 

cuspidatus, 164. 
Dicotyles, 251. 

affinis labiatus, 251. 

labiatus, 251. 

tajacu, 252. 

torquatus, 252. 
Dicroceros, 119. 

crassus, 153. 

elegans, 120. 

magnus, 120. 
Didymodon, 179. 

vauclusianus, 180. 
Diplobune, 188. 

bavaricum, 202. 

quercyi, 201. 
Diplopus, 215. 

aymardi, 216. 
Dorcatherium, 153. 

majus, 154. 

minus, 154. 

naui, 153. 

nouleti, 133. 

vindobonense, 153. 
Dremotherium, 119. 

feignouxi, 124. 

nanum, 124. 

traguloides, 124. 

Egocerus, 49. 
Elaphotherium, 125. 
Elotherium, 249. 

aymardi, 249. 

magnum, 249, 317. 

mortoni, 317. 



INDEX. 



323 



Elotherium (conk). 

ronzoni, 249. 
Entelodon, 249. 

magnuin, 249. 
Eporeodon, 208. 

major. 209. 
Eucladoceros, 82. 
Eucrotapims, 203. 

major, 209. 
Eurytherium, 188. 

latipes, 189. 

minus, 202. 

modicum, 201. 

quercyi, 201. 

secundarium, 198. 

Gazella, 50. 

auglica, 52. 

brevicornis, 51. 

deperdita, 51. 

porrecticornis. 50. 
Gelocus, 159. 

communis, 159. 

curtus, 155. 

insignis, 157. 
Giraffa, 71. 

sivalensis, 71. 

Helladctherium, 70. 

duvernoyi, 70. 
Hemiauchenia, 147. 
Hemibos, 27. 

acuticornis, 33. 

antilopinus, 35. 

occipitalis, 30. 

triquetriceros, 30. 
Hexaprotodon, 277. 

iravaticus, 309. 

namadicus, 294. 

sivalensis, 297. 
Hippohyus, 259. 

sivalensis, 259. 
Hippopotamus, 277. 

amphibius, 277, 318. 

annectans, 277. 

antiquus, 277. 

dissimilis, 209. 

iravaticus, 309. 

major, 277. 

medius, 287. 

minor, 292. 

minutus, 292. 

namadicus, 294. 

paleeindicus, 293. 

pentlandi. 2S7. 

senegalensis, 277. 

sivalensis, 297. 
Hippotragus, 49. 

sivalensis, 49. 
Hyomoschus, 153. 

crassus, 153. 



Hyomoschus (cont.). 

larteti, 153. 
Hyopotamus, 218. 

americanus, 228. 
borbonicus, 219. 
bovinus, 221. 
giganteus, 234. 
gresslyi, 233, 244. 
picteti, 233. 
porcinus, 228. 
vectianus, 219. 
velaunus, 218. 
Hyotherium, 253. 
meissneri, 254. 
simplex, 258. 
soemmeringi, 257. 
suillum, 254. 
typum, 254, 318. 
waterhousei, 256. 

Leptobos, 36. 

falconeri, 36. 

fraseri, 37. 
Listriodon, 275. 

larteti, 275. 

pentapotamiie, 276. 

splendens, 275. 
Lophiochcerus, 275. 

blainvillei, 276. 
Lophiomeryx, 160. 

chalamati, 160, 314. 

minor, 314. 

Megaceros, 82. 

hibernicus_. 82. 
Merycoidcdon, 207. 

culbertsoni, 207. 
Merycopotamus, 
209. 

dissimilis, 209. 

nanus. 211. 

pusillus, 214. 
Micromeryx, 119. 

flourensianus, 125. 
Microtherium, 167. 



Oltinotherium, 249. 

verdeaui, 249. 
Oplotherium, 167. 
Oreodon, 207. 

culbertsoni, 207. 

major, 2( 9. 
Ovibos, 38. 

bombifrons, 39. 

cavifrons, 40. 

moschatus, 38. 

pallasi, 38. 
Ovis, 40. 

sp., 40. 



Palaeochoerus, 253, 

major, 257. 

suillua, 254. 

typus, 254. 

waterhousei, 256. 
Palaeolama, 147. 
Palaeomeryx, 119. 

bojani, 120. 

feignouxi, 124. 

flourensianus, 125. 

furcatus, 120. 

medius, 130. 

pygmajus, 130. 

sclieucbzeri, 120. 

sivalensis, 119. 
Palaeoreas, 47. 

lindermayeri, 47- 
Palauchenia, 147. 

magna, 313. 
Peribos, 27. 

occipitalis, 30. 
Phacochcerus, 275. 

sp. a, 275. 

sp. b, 275. 
Plesiomeryx, 167. 

cadurcensis, 175. 

quinquedentatus, 175. 
Poebrotherium, 149. 

wilsoni, 149. 
Porcula, 259. 
Portax, 48. 

namadicus, 48. 
Potamochcerus, 259. 
Prcbubalus, 27. 

acuticornis, 33. 

antilopinus, 35. 

sivalensis, 30. 

triquetricornis, 30. 
Prodremotherium, 
150. 

elongatum, 150, 314. 
Propalaeomeryx, 119. 

sivalensis, 119. 
Prox, 117. 

furcatus, 120. 



Rangifer, 79. 

tarandus, 79, 311. 
Rutitherium, 133. 

nouleti, 133. 

Sivameryx, 165. 

sindiensis, 165. 
Sivatherium, 58. 

giganteum, 59. 
Strepsiceros, 47. 

falconeri, 47. 
Strongyloceros, 82. 

spelreus, 94. 
Styloceros, 117. 



324 



TNDEX. 



Sus, 259. 

antiquus, 267. 
chceroides, 273. 
erymanthius, 267. 
falconeri, 263. 
giganteus, 268. 
hysudricus, 271. 
major. 267. 
paLseochoerus, 273. 
scrofa, 260. 
sivalensis, 263. 
sp. a, 266. 
sp. b, 266. 
sp. c, 268. 
tajacu, 269. 



Sus (cont). 
titan, 269. 

Tapinodon, 235. 

gresslyi, 244. 
Tapirotherium, 275. 

blainvilleanum, 276. 

larteti, 275. 
Tapirus 

pentapotamiee, 276. 
Tetraprotodon, 277. 

amphibius, 277. 

major, 277. 

palanndicus, 293. 



Tragoceros, 46. 

amaltheus, 46. 
Tragulotherium, 125. 
Tragulus, 152. 

sivalensis, 152. 

Xiphodon, 182. 

gelyensis, 186. 

gracilis, 183, 315. 

secundarius, 187. 
Xiphodontherium, 
182. 

secundarium, 187. 

Zooligus, 167. 



END OF PAET II. 



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