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Full text of "Catalogue of the fossil Mammalia in the British museum, (Natural History)"

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3 







CATALOGUE 



OF 



FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 



PART III. 



CATALOGUE 

OP THE 

FOSSIL MAMMALIA 



IN THE 



BRITISH MUSEUM, 

(NATURAL HISTORY) 

CROMWELL ROAD, S.W. 



PART III. 

CONTAINING 

The Order UNGULATA, Suborders PERISSODACTYLA, 
TOXODONTIA, CONDYLARTHRA, and AMBLYPODA. 



BY 

RICHARD LYDEKKER, B.A., F.G.8., etc. 



V 



LHH6 ' 

LONDON: 
PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 

1886. 



r>j 



PRINTED BY TATLOE AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLRET STREET. 



PKEFACE. 



The present Part of Mr. Lydekker's Catalogue completes the Order 
UffGULATA, with the exception of a single gronp, the Peoboscidea. 
This comprises so large a series of specimens that it has been con- 
sidered desirable to reserve it for the next Part. 

Only four species in Part III., namely Tapirus americanus, Equus 
caballus, Rhinoceros sondiacus, Rh. unicornis, are at present existing ; 
the remaining 78 species being all extinct. Amongst these will be 
found many of the most ancient members of the Order, such as 
Lophioclon, Hyracoiherium, Pachynolophus, Palceotherium, Anchi- 
hjphus, Coryphodon, Tinoceras, Dinoceras, Ryracodon, Cadurco- 
therium, all of which appear in the Eocene formation. 

Rhinoceros is the only genus recorded in the Catalogue which 
has persisted on from the Eocene to the present time. 

Many ancestral forms of the Horse, Tapir, and Rhinoceros will 
be found recorded in this Part of the Catalogue. 



HENRY WOODWARD. 



British Museum 

(Natural History), 

Department of Geology, 

April 5, 1886. 



INTRODUCTION. 



As the present Part does not call for any addition to the intro- 
ductory observations published in the two preceding Parts, I have 
only to again express my thanks to the Director of the Geological 
Survey of India for the loan of woodcuts ; and to offer the same 
to Professors A. Gaudry, 0. C. Marsh, and E. D. Cope, for per- 
mission to reproduce some of the beautiful woodcuts illustrating 
their respective works. My obligations to Mr. "W. Davies are as 
great in this as in the preceding Parts. 

The Gualteris Collection, consisting of specimens from the Pleis- 
tocene of Italy, and originally belonging to Cardinal Gualteris, was 
purchased previous to 1836. 

The Sharp Collection was purchased in 1876 from Mr. S. Sharp, 
of Dallington, Northampton. 

RICHARD LYDEKKER. 

Harpenden, 
5th 'April, 1886. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



[Existing species are denoted by an asterisk.] 

Page 

Order UNGULATA 1 

Suborder PERISSODACTYLA 1 

Family TAPIKTO^E 2 

Tapirus arvernensis 2 

elegans 3 

priscus 3 

* americanus 5 

sinensis 5 

Family LOPHIODOXTID-E 6 

Lophiodon tapiroides 6 

isselensis 7 

parisiensis 8 

sp. 9 

minimus 10 

Hyracotherium leporinum 10 

cuniculus 12 

angustidens 12 

Pachynolophus isselanus 13 

prevosti 14 

siderolithicus 14 

cervulus 15 

Family PALjEOTHERIID^E 15 

Palaeotherium magnum 16 

medium 20 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family PAL^EOTHERIID^E {continued). 

Page 
Palseotherium crassum 25 

latum 31 

curtum 32 

javali 33 

annectans 34 

minus 38 

Anchilophus radegundensis 43 

desmaresti 43 

Anchitherium aurelianense 45 

bairdi 49 

Family EQUID^E 49 

Hipparion gracile 51 

antilopinum 59 

richthofeni 64 

theobaldi 64 

Equus principalis 6Q 

sivalensis 66 

stenonis 69 

namadicus 71 

* caballus . . 73 

curvidens 88 

sp. a 89 

Undetermined specimens . . • . 89 

Family RHINOCEROTIDiE 90 

Rhinoceros antiquitatis 92 

platyrbinus 99 

leptorhinus 101 

megarhinus 114 

etruscus 119 

pachygnathus 123 

karnuliensis 183 

schleiermacheri . 124 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX, XI 

Family RHINOCEROTID^E (continued). 

Page 

*Rbinoceros sondaicus 129 

sivalensis 130 

palaeindicus 132 

* unicornis 138 

minutus 139 

croizeti 142 

occidentalis 143 

cimogorrhensis 144 

incisivus 145 

goldfussi 150 

lemanensis 152 

blanfordi 154 

perimensis 155 

sp. a 157 

sp. b 158 

sp. c 183 

Hyracodon nebrascensis 159 

Cadurcothermm cayluxense 159 

Homalodontotherium cunninghami . . . 160 

Elasmotherium sibiricum 161 

Family CHALICOTHEKI1M] 161 

Chalicotherium goldfussi 162 

sivalense 164 

sinense 165 

Family MACEATTCHENinLE 166 

Macrauchenia patacbonica 166 

Suborder TOXODONTIA 167 

Family TOXODONTID^E 167 

Nesodon ovinus 168 

Toxodon platensis 168 



Xll SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Page 

Family TYPOTHEPIIMl 170 

Typotherium cristatum 171 

Suborder CONDYLARTHRA 172 

Family PERIPTYCHIME . . 172 

Periptychus rhabdodon 174 

Haploconus lineatus 175 

Suborder AMBLYPODA 175 

Section Cokyphodontia 176 

Family CORYPHODONTID^l 176 

Coryphodon eocsenus 178 

Section Doocekata 179 

Family TJINTATHEEIID^E 179 

Tinoceras ingens 181 

longiceps 181 

Dinoceras laticeps 182 

mirabile 182 



xm 



LIST OF WOODCUTS, 



Page 
Fig. 1. Tapirus priscus. Maxilla 4 

2. Lophiodon isselensis. Maxilla 8 

3. Hyracotherium angustidens. Upper cheek-teeth . . 12 

4. Pachynolophus isselanus. Upper molar 13 

5. Palaeotherium crassum. Maxilla 25 

6. annectans. Maxilla 34 

7. — — minus. Maxilla 38 

8. Anchilophus radegundensis. Upper molar .... 42 

9. desmaresti. Mandible 44 

10. Anchitherium bairdi. Upper molars 49 

11. Hipparion, sp. Upper cheek-teeth ....... 50 

12. Rhinoceros antiquitatis. Upper molar 93 

13. leptorhinus. Skull . 102 

14. megarhinus. Upper molar 118 

15. palaeindicus. Upper molar 133 

16. megalodus. Skull 141 

17. croizeti. Upper molar 142 

18. blanfordi. Mandible 154 

19. perimensis. Upper molar 156 

20. Cadurcotherium cayluxense. Upper molar . . . .160 

21. Chalicotherinm sinense. Upper molar 165 

22. Typotherium cristatum. Skull 170 

23. Phenacodus primaevus. Skeleton .... . . 173 

24. 
25. 

26. Coryphodon hamatus. Dentition 176 

27. elephantopus. Cranium 177 

28. Tinoceras stenops. Dentition 179 

29. cornutum. Skull * . . 180 

30. ingens. Skeleton 181 



f Periptychus rhabdodon. Dentition 174 



XV 



ABBREVIATIONS OF SERIALS QUOTED IN 
Part III., and not given in the lists in Parts I. and II. 

[Where not otherwise stated, the works are in 8vo.] 



An. Mas. Buenos Ayres. — Anales del Museo National de Buenos Ayres. 
4to. Buenos Ayres. 

Ann. Sci. Indust. Mid. France. — Annales des Sciences et de l'Industrie 
du Midi de la France (Societe de la Statistique). Marseilles. 

Ann. Sci. Lit. Auvergne. — Annales scientifiques, litteraires et industrielles 
de 1' Auvergne. Clermont-Ferrand. 

Landwirt. Jahrb.— Landwirthschaftlicken Jahrbuch. Berlin. 

Mem. Soc. Geol. France. — Memoires de la Societe Geologique de la 
France. 4to. Paris. 

Mem. Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. — Memorie della Societa Italiana di Scienze 
Naturali. 4to. Milan. 

Nat. Hist. Rev. — The Natural History Review. London. 

Pal. Abhand. — Palaeontologische Abhandlungen (Dames and Keyser). 
4to. Berlin. 

Zeitschr. fur Min. — Zeitschrif t fur Mineralogie (Leonhard). Frankfort. 

Zool. Anzeig. — Zoologischer Anzeiger (Carus). Leipsic. 



XVI 



COERIGENDA TO PAET II. 

Page 48, note 3, after p. add 89. 

„ 82, note 5, for Beitrag. read Handbuch. 

„ 159. In dentition of Gelocus, for I. § read I. -. 

3 3 



Additional Coretgendtjm to Part I. 
Page 259. In dentition of Leporidce,for Pm. | read Pm. -. 



CATALOGUE 



OF 



FOSSIL MAMMALIA, 



PART III. 

Order UNGULATA. 

Suborder PERISSODACTYLA. 

The present suborder and the Artiodactyla 1 , which are sometimes 
grouped together under one name (Ungulata Vera 2 , Diplarthra 3 , or 
Clinodactyla 4 ), are differentiated from the other suborders of the 
Ungulata by the structure of the carpus and tarsus. In the carpus 
the scaphoid is supported by the magnum, and the latter (together 
with the unciform) supports the lunar ; while in the tarsus the 
cuboid extends inwardly to articulate with the astragalus, which is 
deeply grooved. All the bones of both the carpus and tarsus strongly 
interlock, and the structure of these joints is more complex than in 
any of the other suborders. No known form has more than four 
functional digits to either foot ; and the feet are always digitigrade. 
The jugal forms the anterior part of the zygomatic arch, and the 

1 Supra, Part II. 

2 Flower, 'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 9th edit. vol. xv. p. 427 (1883). The 
term Ungulata Vera is not equivalent to the other terms, since, while Flower 
(Joe. cit.) divides the Ungulata into two primary groups only, Cope (inf. cit.) 
and Marsh (inf. cit.) recognize four such primary groups. In the Cat. Vert. 
Anim. Mus. Koy. Coll. Surg, part ii. Mammalia (1884), Flower discards all 
divisions above those of subordinal value ; this arrangement being adopted in 
the present Catalogue. 

8 Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xx. p. 444 (1882). 

4 Marsh, 'Monograph of the Dinocerata' (Kep. U.S. Geol. Surv. vol. x.), 
p. 177 (1884). 

PAKT III. B 



2 T7NGTTLATA. 

brain is well developed 1 . The suborder Perissodactyla, as far as it 
is at present known, is distinguished from the Artiodactyla by the 
distal surface of the astragalus being truncate, instead of gin- 
glymoid ; by the third digit being symmetrical in itself and larger 
than either of the others, instead of the third and fourth being equal 
in size and arranged symmetrically on either side of a line drawn 
between them ; by the presence of a third trochanter to the femur ; 
and by the non-articulation of the fibula with the calcaneum. As, 
however, the limb-bones of some members of the Order are still 
unknown, it is possible that future discoveries may engender some 
modifications of these distinctive characters 2 . 



Family TAPIEID^E. 

The last three upper premolars are as complex as the true molars ; 
the lower molars are simply bilophodont, and there is no third lobe 
to m . 3. 

Genus TAPIRUS, Cuvier 3 . 

The writer follows Mower (Cat. Vert. Anim. Mus. Roy. Coll. Surg, 
part ii. Mammalia, p. 385 [1884]) in including Elasmognaihus, Gill, 
in this genus. 

Dentition-. — 1. 1, C. j, Pm. |, M\ |. In the existing species there 
are four digits in the manus and three in the pes. The first upper 
premolar is preceded by a milk-tooth 4 . 

Tapirus arvernensis, Deveze and Bouillet 5 . 

This species is allied to T. indicus. 
Hob. Prance and Italy 6 (? England). 

41141. Cast of the mandible, showing the complete cheek-dentition 
of either side. The original is from the Upper Pliocene of 
Perrier, near Issoire (Puy-de-D6me), France. 

Purchased, 1865. 

1 For other characters, see Marsh, op. cit. p. 175. 

2 For other characters of the two suborders, see Flower, ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica,' 9th edit. vol. xv. pp. 427, 429 (1883). 

3 Tab. Element, d. l'Hist. Nat. p. 152 (1798). The genus also has the pre- 
Linnean authority of Brisson. 

4 Vide Proc. Zool. Soc. 1882, pp. 774-775. 

5 ' Essai sur la Mont de Boulade' (1827), teste G-ervais. 

e See Forsyth-Major, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xli. p. 2 (1885). 



JTAPIRID^. 3 

Tapirus elegans, Pomel \ 

Syn. Tapirus vialetti, Aymard 2 . 

This species is described as being one seventh smaller than the 
preceding ; but its right to distinction is perhaps doubtful. 
Hob. France. 

21895, 21903. Two right upper molars ; from the Upper Pliocene 
of Yialette (Haute-Loire), Prance. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

21902. The right astragalus ; from the Upper Pliocene of Yialette. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

The following specimens from the Red Crag of Suffolk indicate a 
form considerably smaller than T. priscus (with which one of 
them has been identified), and may be identical ivith one or other 
of the two preceding forms : — 

28999. An imperfect right upper true molar ; from Woodbridge. 

(Fig.) Described and figured by Owen in the Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc. vol. xii. p. 233, fig. 9, as T. priscus. Purchased, 1854. 

29592. A right upper true molar. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

44167, 46571. Four upper true molars. Purcliased, 1873-75. 

36563. The third left upper premolar ; from Sutton. 

Purchased, 1853. 

46572. Three lower cheek-teeth. Purchased, 1875. 

Tapirus priscus, Kaup 3 . 
Syn. (?) Tapirus antiquus, Kaup 4 . 

This species appears closely allied to T. indicus, and it has been 
suggested (' Palaeontographica,' vol. xv. pp. 170-171) that it is spe- 
cifically identical with T. arvernensis, but it is generally of con- 
siderably larger size ; if the two be identical, the latter name has 
the priority. The upper dentition is figured in the accompanying 
woodcut (fig. 1). 

Hah. Europe. 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 84 (1853). 

2 Quoted in Gervais's ' Zool. et Pal. Francaises,' 2nd edit. p. 103 (1859). 
In Meyer'8 ' Palseologica,' p. 89 (1832). 

4 Oss. Fobs. d. Darmstadt, part ii. p. 4 (1833). 

b2 



UNGULATA. 

Fur. 1. 



ike 




Tapirus prisons. — The left maxilla, showing all the cheek-teeth ; from the Upper 
Miocene of Eppelsheim, Hessen Darmstadt. |. 1 p, 2p, 3p,4p, pre- 
molars ; 1 a, 2 a, 3 a, true molars ; E, e, outer, I, i, inner, M, m, middle 
columns 1 . (From Gaudry's ' Enchainements.') 



40633. The palatal portion of the cranium, showing the whole of 
(Fig.) the cheek- dentition of both sides, together with the left 

canine and the third incisor of both sides ; from the 
Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, Hessen Darmstadt. This 
specimen is described and figured by H. v. Meyer in the 
' Palseontographica,' vol. xv. p. 174, pi. xxv., and is also 
figured in De Blainville's ' Osteographie,' genus Tapirus, 
pi. vi. Purchased, 1867. 

198 (0. C). Cast of a fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm. 1 
and pm. 2 . The original is from Eppelsheim, and is 
figured by Kaup in the Oss. Eoss. d. Darmstadt, pt. ii. 
pi. vi. fig. 2 ; pm. 1 appears to be a dent de r emplacement. 

Purchased. 

198 a (0. C). Cast of a fragment of the left maxilla of a } T oung 
individual, containing mm. 1 and mm. 2 . The original is 
from Darmstadt, and is figured by Kaup, op. cit. pi. vi. 
fig. 3. Purchased. 

40634. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible of an 
(Fig.) immature individual ; from the Upper Miocene of Ej^pels- 

heim. This specimen is described and figured by Von 

1 In this and the other figures with the same lettering the component parts of 
the teeth are named in accordance with the structure of a typical bnnodont 
tooth. In the lophiodont type the two outer columns have united to form 
the longitudinal ridge, while the middle and inner columns have united in 
pairs to constitute the two transverse ridges. 



TAPIRIDJS. O 

Meyer, op. cit. p. 173, pi. xxvii. fig. 1, and De Blainville, 
loc. cit. It shows pm. 3, mm. 4, pin. 4 in alveolo, m. 1 and 
mT2. Purchased, 1867. 

M. 247. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, 
showing all the cheek-teeth except pm. 4; from the 
Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim. 

Ennishillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2627. Cast of the greater portion of the left ramus of the 
mandible, showing the six cheek-teeth. The original is 
from the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, and is preserved 
in the Museum at Darmstadt ; it is figured by Kaup in 
the Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, part ii. pi. yi. fig. 1. 

No history. 

1247. Fragment of the mandible, containing three cheek-teeth; 
from the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup. 

M. 2628. Cast of the left radius and the distal extremity of the 
ulna. The original is from the Upper Miocene of Eppels- 
heim. No history. 

CaptrttS anuruanuS, Cuvier 1 . 
Hob. South America. 

18909. Several upper and lower molars, and bones of the feet ; from 
the caverns of Minas Geraes, Brazil. These specimens 
doubtless belong to Lund's Tapirns affinis americanus. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Tapirus sinensis, Owen 2 . 

This species is somewhat larger than T. indicus, with which its 
teeth agree in general characters, although presenting characteristic 
points of difference 3 . 

Huh. China. All the following specimens, which are the types, 
were obtained from a cave near Chung-king-foo, Sechuen (Sze-chuen), 
China, and were purchased from It. Swinhoe, Esq.. in 1870. 

41928. The second left upper true molar. Described by Owen in 
the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 427. 

1 Kegne Animal, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 242 (1817). 

2 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 426 (1870). 

3 See Koken, Pal. Abhand. vol. iii. pt. ii. pp. 34-39 (1885). 



6 UNGUIATA. 

41929. The third right upper true molar. Described and figured 
{Fig.) by Owen, op. cit. p. 427, pi. xxviii. fig. 9. 

41930. The third (?) left upper premolar. Described and figured 
(Fig.) by Owen, op. cit. pp. 426-427, pi. xxviii. fig. 8. 

41931. The first right lower true molar. Described and figured by 
(Fig.) Owen, op. cit. p. 428, pi. xxix. fig. 5. 

41932. The second left lower true molar. Figured by Owen, 
?ig.) op. cit. pi. xxix. fig. 4. 



41933. The third left lower premolar. Described and figured by 
(Fig.) Owen, op. cit. p. 427, pi. xxix. fig. 6. 

41940. Fragments of molars. 



Family LOPHIODONTIDiE. 

The upper true molars are more complex than the premolars ; the 
lower molars are bilophodont or subcrescentoid ; m . 3 generally has 
a third lobe, but it is absent in Hyrachyus. There are usually four 
digits in the manus and three in the pes ; but in Triplopus (which 
Cope refers to a distinct family) there are but three in the manus. 

Genus LOPHIODON, Cuvier 1 . 

Dentition : — I. |, C. y, Pm. |, M. |. In all specimens that the 
writer has seen the first premolar is absent ; the lower molars are 
simply bilophodont. 

Lophiodon tapiroides, Cuvier 2 . 

Syn. Palceotherium tapir oides, Cuvier 3 . 

This is the second largest species of the genus. 
Hah. Europe. 

11820. Cast of a fragment of the right maxilla, showing m. 2 and 
m- 3 . The original is from the Middle (?) Eocene of 
Bftchsweiler (Bas-Rhine), Alsace, and is described and 
figured by Cuvier in the ' Ossemens Fossiles,' 2nd edit, 
vol. ii. pt. i. p. 206, pi. vii. fig. 3. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

1 Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd edit. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 176 (1822). 

2 Ann. d. Museum, vol. vi. p. 56 (1805). PalceotJierium ; but subsequently 
transferred to Lophiodon. 

3 Loc. cit. 



LOPHIODONTID^. / 

29546. The germ of the third right upper true molar ; from the 
Eocene of Buchsweiler. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

11838. Cast of the germ of the second right upper true molar. The 
original is probably from Buchsweiler. The length of the 
outer surface is 0,041. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

11843. Cast of the germ of the third right upper true molar. The 
original is probably from Buchsweiler. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

M. 2425. The third right upper true molar ; from the Eocene of 
Egerkingen, Switzerland. Purchased, 1885. 

43419. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the three pre- 
molars; from the Upper Eocene of the Aveyron Valley 
(Tarn-et-Garonne), Eranee. The teeth appear to agree 
very closely with those figured by Riitimeyer iu the 
Denkschr. schw. Ges. Nat. vol. xix. art. 3, pl.ii. figs. 16-20; 
in the distinct Y formed by the union of the anterior and 
posterior ridges they differ from the premolars of L. lautri- 
ciensis, Xoulet (L. rhinoceroides, Rut.), described by Eilhol 
in the Ann. Sci. Ge'ol. vol. viii. art. 1, pp. 129, 130. The 
length of the space occupied by the three teeth is 0,090. 
Presented by E. Packard, Esq., 1872. 

11820 a. Cast of the anterior portion of the right ramus of the 
mandible, showing the canine, three premolars, and EaTT. 
The original is from the Eocene of Buchsweiler, and is 
figured by Cuvier, op. cit. tig. 1. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

11863. Cast of the distal extremity of a left humerus, perhaps 
belonging to this species. The locality from which the 
original was obtained is not known. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

Lophiodon isselensis, Fischer 1 . 

This species is somewhat smaller than the preceding, and about 
one third larger than Tapirus indicus. The upper dentition is 
figured in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 2). 

Uab. Europe. 

1 Synopsis Mammalium, p. 413 (1820). 



UNGHJLATA. 



Fig. 2. 




LopHolcii isselensis. — The left maxilla, showing all the cheek-teeth ; from the 
Middle Eocene of Issel (Aude), France. §. Letters as in fig. 1 (p. 4). 
(From Gaudry's ' Enchainements.') 



26824. The crown of the second right upper true molar ; from the 
Middle Eocene of Argenton (Indre), France. The length 
of the outer surface is 0,038. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 



26826. A lower cheek-tooth 



from the Middle Eocene of Argenton. 
Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 



Lophiodon parisiensis, P. Gervais \ 

Gaudry(' Les Enchainements, &c. — Mammiferes Tertiaires,' p. 69) 
includes in this species the smaller specimens from Cuyse. It 
appears doubtful if L. medius, Fischer (' Synopsis Mammalium,' 
p. 413 [1829]) is really distinct 2 . The species is somewhat smaller 
than L. isselensis. 

Hah. Europe. 

M. 2629. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing m. 2 and m. 3 ; 
from the Lower Eocene of Cuyse-la-Motte, near Epernay 
(Marne), France. The teeth agree very closely with those 

1 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st edit. vol. i. p. 54 (1848-52). 

2 The type of this species is the upper molar from Argenton, figured in the 
' Ossemens Fossiles,' 2nd ed. vol. ii. pt. i. pi. x. fig. 9. Biitimeyer (Denkschr. 
schw. Ges. Nat. vol. xix. art. 3, pi. iii. fig. 36) figures under this name a molar 
agreeing very closely in size with the types of L. parisiensis ; while under the 
latter name (fig. 27) a much larger tooth is figured. 



LOPHIODONTID^. d 

figured by Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Frangaises, 2nd ed. 
pi. xvii. figs. 3-5, but are rather smaller. No history. 

M. 2427. The first or second right upper true molar ; from the 
Calcaire Grossier (Middle Eocene) of the Paris Basin. 
This tooth is larger than the second molar of the last 
specimen. Purchased, 1885. 

26827. The first or second right upper true molar ; from the Middle 
Eocene of Paris. The length of the outer border is 
0,028. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

M. 2428. Two upper premolars ; from the Middle Eocene of Paris. 

Purchased, 1885. 

29629. Cast of the mandible of a subadult individual, showing the 
nearly complete dentition. The original is from the 
Middle Eocene of Nanterre, near Paris, and is figured in 
De Blainville's ' Osteographie,' Genus Lophiodon, pi. ii., 
under the name of " Lophiodon de Nanterre " ; it is 
preserved in the Paris Museum of Natural History. 
There are six cheek-teeth. 

Presented by the Paris Museum of Natural History. 

26825. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with m. 2 and 
i^3; from the Lower Eocene of Cuyse-la-Motte. The 
last tooth agrees very closely with the one figured by 
Gervais, op. cit. fig. 6. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

Lophiodon, sp. a. 

Gervais (Zool. et Pal. Erangaises, 2nd ed. p. 124, pi. xxxv. fig. 17) 
indicates a second form from the Middle Eocene of the Paris Basin, 
smaller than L. parisiensis. The length of the external border of 
the type m. 2 is 0,020. The species may perhaps be identical with 
one of those already named. 

Hub. France. 

M. 2429. The first right upper true molar, probably belonging to 
this form ; from the Calcaire Grossier (Middle Eocene) of 
the Paris Basin. The length of the external border is 
0,0185. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2426. Two upper premolars, probably belonging to the same 
form ; from the Middle Eocene of Paris. Purchased, 1885. 



10 TJNGULATA. 

Lophiodon minimus, Fischer \ 

Syn. Pachynolophus minimus, Gervais 2 . 

This small species is about the size of Pachynolophus isselanus. 
Hah. Europe. 

36836, 39837-8. The second lower true molar, the second lower 

{Fig.) premolar, and a much-worn upper premolar ; from the 

Middle Eocene of Bracklesham, Sussex. The lower teeth 

are figured by Owen in the ' British Eossil Mammals and 

Birds/ p. 311, fig. 108. 

Bowerhank Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

26828. A lower premolar ; from the Middle Eocene of Argenton 
(Indre), Erance. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

Genus HYRACOTHERIUM, Owen 3 . 

Syn. Pliolophus, Owen 4 . 
Orohippus, Marsh 5 . 

Dentition : — I. |, C. j, Pm. ~, M. |. The upper molars have low 
crowns, with transverse ridges connecting the inner and outer 
cusps, the anterior ridge being interrupted ; the ridges of the lower 
molars are interrupted, and have a tendency to a crescentoid form ; 
the first lower premolar is separated by an interval from the second. 
The generic unity of Pliolophus with Hyracotherium is indicated by 
Elower (Cat. Yert. Anim. Mus. Roy. Coll. Surg. pt. ii. Mammalia, 
p. 380 [1884]), and that of the North- American Orohippus by Cope. 
(Rep. U.S. Geogr. Surv. W. of 100th Meridian, Palaeontology, vol. iv. 
pt. ii. p. 259 [1877]), both determinations being fully confirmed by 
an examination of the specimens in the Museum. 

Hyracotherium leporinum, Owen 6 . 
Syn. Pliolophus vulpiceps, Owen 7 . 

This is the type species. 
Hah. Europe. 

1 Synopsis Mammalium, p. 413 (1829). 

2 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. p. 126 (1859). 

3 Trans. Geol. Soc. ser. 2, vol. vi. pt. 1, p. 203 (1841, read 1839). 

4 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xiv. p. 54 (1857). 

5 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. iv. p. 207 (1872). 

6 Trans. Geol. Soc. he. cit. 

7 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. loc. cit. 



LOPHIODONTID^. 11 

44058. Cast of the imperfect cranium. The original, which is the 
type, was obtained from the London Clay near Heme 
Bay, Kent, and is described and figured by Owen in the 
Trans. Geol. Soc. op. cit., and also in the ' British Fossil 
Mammals and Birds,' pp. 419, 422 ; it is preserved in the 
Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons (No. 1954). 

Presented by the Royal College of Surgeons, 1873. 

38801. The imperfect cranium, showing the last five cheek-teeth ; 
(Fig.) from debris of the London Clay in the Red Crag of 

Suffolk. Figured by Owen in the Geol. Mag. dec. 1, 

vol. ii. pi. x. fig. 2 (1865). 

Presented by Rev. Prof. Henslow, 1861. 

44115. Fragment of the left maxilla with the last five cheek-teeth, 
(Fig.) another of the left ramus of the mandible with the cor- 
responding teeth, and the cast of the complete cranium 
and mandible; from a septarian nodule in the London 
Clay near Harwich, Essex. These specimens are figured 
by Owen, under the name of Pliolophus vulpiceps (of 
which they are the type), in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
vol. xiv. pis. ii., iii. The skull appears to have been 
originally extracted entire from the matrix, and the cast 
made, after which it was cut up, and the two fragments 
are now alone forthcoming l . 

Presented by Rev. W. Bull, 1872. 

44115 a. The right femur, imperfect distally. This specimen was 
(Fig.) associated with the last, and is figured (reversed) by Owen, 
op. cit. figs. 5-9 ; it was then complete. 

Presented by Rev. W. Bull, 1872. 

47986. The two rami of a mandible, with the crowns of the teeth 
hammered off, probably belonging to the present species ; 
from the London Clay of Sheppey. 

Presented by Hon. R. Marsham, 1877. 

38939. Fragment of the left ramus of a mandible, showing the 
alveoli of most of the cheek-teeth, provisionally referred to 
the present species ; from the London Clay of Sheppey. 

Bowerbanlc Collection. Purchased, 1865. 

1 In the enlarged figure of the upper molars, pi. iii. fig. 2, the posterior 
transverse ridge is not sufficiently developed. 



12 



UNGULATA. 



Hyracotherium cuniculus, Owen 1 . 

Syn. Macacus eoccenus, Owen 2 . 

This species appears to be distinguished from the last mainly by 
its inferior size, the alleged difference mentioned by Owen in the 
structure of the upper molars being apparently due to different 
stages of wear. 

Hab. England. 



x & j 



36569. Two detached upper true molars of opposite sides, and two 
specimens of the third right lower true molar ; from the 
Lower Eocene of Kyson, Suffolk, The unworn upper 
true molar shows very clearly the interrupted anterior 
transverse ridge and the pronounced cingulum, considered 
by Marsh as characteristic of the so-called Orohippus. 

Purchased, 1853. 

36572. Several detached upper and lower premolars ; from the 
Lower Eocene of Kyson. Purchased, 1853. 

Hyracotherium angustidens, Cope 3 . 
Syn. Orohippus angustidens, Cope 4 . 

This species is distinguished from the other American forms by 
the great length of the premolars ; it is of small size. The lower 
molars have a cingulum. 



Hab. North America. 



Fig. 3. 




Hyracotherium angustidens. — The last four left upper cheek-teeth ; from the 
Wasatch Eocene of North America. \. 

M. 2561. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last four 
{Fig.) cheek-teeth (see fig. 3); from the Wasatch Eocene of 

1 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 1, vol. viii. p. 1 (1841 ; the titlepage of the 
volume is dated 1842). 

2 British Fossil Mammals and Birds, p. 5 (1846). 

3 Syst. Oat. Vert. Eocene N. Mexico: U.S. Geogr. Surv. W. of 100th 
Meridian, 1875, p. 22 ; Orohippus. 

4 Loc. cit. 



XOrHIODO^TID-E. 13 

Big-Horn River, Wyoming, U.S.A. This and the next 
specimens agree with those figured by Cope in the Rep. 
U.S. Geogr. Surv. W. of 100th Meridian, vol. iv. pt. ii., 
Palaeontology, pi. lxvi. figs. 1-6 (1877). 

Presented by R. LydekTcer, Esq., 1885. 

M. 2561 a. Three fragments of the mandible, associated with the 
preceding. Presented by R. Lydeklcer, Esq., 1885. 

Genus PACHYNOLOPHUS, Pomel \ 

Syn. Lophiotherium, P. Gervais 2 . 

Propalceotherium, P. Gervais 3 . 

Dentition : — I. |, C. J, Pm. ^, M. |. The upper true molars have 
higher ridges than in Hyracotherium, and are intermediate in 
structure between those of the latter and those of Anchilophus ; the 
lower true molars are subcrescentoid. The genus occurs both in 
Europe and Xorth America. 

Pachynolophus isselanus (Blainville) *. 
Syn. Palcsotherium isselanam, Blainville 5 . 

PropaUcotherium isselanum, P. Gervais 6 . 

This species is of comparatively large size. 
Hob. Europe. 

Fig. 4. 




Pachynolophus isselanus. — The third left upper true molar ; from the Middle 
Eocene of Issel. \. Letters as in fig. 1. (From Gaudry's ' Enchaine- 

ments'). 

1 Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. vol. iv. p. 327 (1847). 

2 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 56 (1848-52). The writer follows 
Gaudry (' Les Enchainements &c. — Mammiferes Tertiaires,' p. 68) in uniting 
Lophiotherium and Propalceotherium with Pachynolophus. 

3 Comptes Rendus, vol. xxix. p. 383 (1849). 

* Osteographie, Genus Palaotherium, pi. viii. (1846) ; Palceothcrium. 

6 Loc. cit. 

6 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 2nd ed. p. 115 (1859). 



14 TJNGTJLATA. 

M. 2431. Fragment of aright maxilla, with m. 3 ; from the Middle 
Eocene of Issel (Aude), Prance. This tooth is rather 
larger than the specimen figured hy Gaudry in 'Les 
Enchainements, &c. — Mammiferes Tertiaires/ p. 69, fig. 79 
(reproduced in fig. 4), and provisionally referred to this 
species, but smaller than that of P. argentonicus figured on 
p. 161 of the same work. Purchased, 1885. 

Pachynolophus prevosti, P. Gervais \ 
Syn. Lophiodon prevosti, Riitimeyer 2 . 

This species is somewhat smaller than the last, with which it 
agrees in the general characters of the upper molars. 
Bab. Europe. 

M. 2430. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the three true 
molars ( m. 1 broken) ; from the Middle Eocene of Gentilly, 
near Paris. The first tooth agrees exactly with the one 
figured by Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Frangaises, 2nd ed. 
pi. xxxv. fig. 16. The length of the space occupied by 
the three true molars is about 0,029. Purchased. 1885. 



Pachynolophus siderolithicus (Pictet 3 ). 

Syn. Hyracotherium siderolithicum, Pictet 4 . 

This species is still smaller than the last ; it is referred by Gaudry 
to the present genus. 
Hab. Switzerland. 

M. 2432. Several fragments of maxillse, showing the true molars ; 
from the Eocene of Mauremont, Switzerland. The length 
of the space occupied by the three true molars is 0,021 in 
one specimen. The teeth agree precisely with the one 
molar figured by Gaudry in ' Les Enchainements, &c. — 
Mammiferes Tertiaires,' p. 161, fig. 214. It appears very 
difficult to distinguish Anchitherium siderolithicum, Riiti- 
meyer 5 , from the present form. Purchased, 1885. 

1 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 1st ed. vol. ii. Exp. No. 35 (1848-52). 

2 Denkschr. schw. Ges. Nat. vol. xix. art. 3, p. 54 (1862). 

3 Paleontologie Suisse — ser. i. Vertebres de la Eaune Eocene,' p. 175 (1869); 
Hyracotherium. 

4 Loc. cit. 

5 Denkschr. schw. Ges. Nat. vol. xix. art. 3, p. 28, pi. iv. fig. 59 (1862). 



PAL^OTHEEIID^;. 15 

M. 2433. Several fragments of the mandible and detached lower 
molars ; from the Eocene of Mauremont. These teeth 
agree with the one figured by Gaudry, op. cit. p. 127, 
fig. 158. Purchased, 1885. 

Pachynolophus cervulus (P. Gervais 1 ). 

Syn. Lophiotherium cervidum, P. Gervais 2 . 

This species is apparently known only, by the mandible, which 
indicates a rather larger species than the last. 
Hob. Europe. 

43553. Casts of three fragments of the mandible, with the teeth. 
The originals are from the Upper Eocene of Alais (Gard), 
Erance. Presented by Dr. Kowalevshy, 1872. 

M. 2434. Several specimens of lower molars ; from the Eocene of 
Mauremont, Switzerland. The specimens of m . 3 agree 
precisely with the one figured by Biitimeyer in the 
Denkschr. schw. Ges. Nat. vol. xix. art. 3, pi. iv. fig. 50. 

Purchased, 1885. 

Family PAL^OTHERIID.^. 

The upper premolars are either simpler, or quite as complex as the 
true molars ; the lower molars are crescentoid, and the third lobe of 
in. 3 may be either well developed or almost wanting ; all the cheek- 
teeth are brachydont, and when cement is present it does not fill 
the valleys. There are three digits in each foot. 

Genus PALiEOTHERIUM, Cuvier 3 . 

Including : — Plagiolophus, Pomel 4 . 

Paloplotherium, Owen 5 . 

Dentition :— I. '\, C.\, Pm. ( J=^, M. |. In the typical species the 
four premolars are present in both jaws, pm. 4 is as complex as m. 1 , 
and Pji^S as pm. 4 ; but in those species forming the so-called genus 
Plagiolophus (Paloplotherium) the hinder lobeofpm.4js more or less 
aborted, and pm. 3 is much simpler than pm J 4. There is, however, 

1 Zool. et Pal. Fran9aises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 56 (1848-52), Lophiotherium. 

2 Loo. cit. 

3 Ann. d. Museum, vol. iii. p. 289 (1804). 

4 Bull. Soc. G6ol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 586 (1847). 

• , Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. p. 17 (1848; read 1847). 



16 



TJNGULATA. 



such a complete transition between the two types in respect of the 
former character, that the writer follows Flower (Cat. Vert. Anim. 
Mus. K. Coll. Surg, part ii., Mammalia, p. 390 [1884] ) in classing 
all the species in the type genus. There is a large third lobe to m . 3, 
but none to mm. 4. The first upper premolar appears normally to 
have no predecessor ; but there is evidence (infra, p. 39) that it is 
occasionally a true dent de r emplacement. 

The genus has not been recorded from North America ; it has been 
stated by Bravard to occur in the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres, but 
his specimens have been referred by Burmeister 1 to Macrauchenia. 

Group A. The third lower premolar as complex as the fourth, and 
the hinder lobe of the fourth upper premolar complete ; four 
premolars in both jaws. 

Palseothermm magnum, Cuvier 2 . 

This is the type species, and is larger than any of the others. 
Hab. Europe. 

29625. Cast of the right maxilla, showing the canine and the entire 
cheek- dentition. The original is from the Upper Eocene 
of Montmartre, near Paris, and is preserved in the Paris 
Museum of Natural History ; it is figured in De Blainville's 
' Osteographie,' Genus Palozotherium, pi. v. 

Presented by the Paris Museum of Natural History. 

29432. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing m. 2 and a portion 
of m. 1 • from Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29446. Fragment of the left maxilla, with portions of two molars ; 
from Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

28234. The right upper cheek-dentition, wanting pm. 1 ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Debruge, near Apt (Vaucluse), France. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28234 a. Fragment of the right maxilla, with m- 3 ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

1 An. Mus. Buenos Ayres, vol. iii. art. 4, p. 133 (1885). 

2 Ann. d. Museum, vol. iii. p. 367 (1804). 



rAL^OTHERITDS. 17 

28234 b. Two fragments of the left maxilla, each with two pre- 
molars ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28234 C, 29652. Three detached upper true molars ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26013, 26812. Two detached upper true molars ; from Debruge. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

26811. Fragment of the left maxilla, with the last three premolars 
and m. 1 ; from Debruge. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

28234 d. Fragment of the right maxilla, with three molars, in a 
damaged condition ; from Yaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28234 e. Two specimens of the first upper premolar ; from Yaucluse. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

36928. The third left upper true molar ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Bembridge, Isle of Wight. Purchased, 1861. 

36921. Two associated right upper true molars ; from Bembridge. 

Purchased, 1861. 

36925, 36926, 36970. Three specimens of the first upper premolar ; 
from Bembridge. Purchased, 1861. 

28234 e. Three specimens showing the upper milk-molars : from 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

36922. Two specimens of portions of the palate, showing the milk- 

molars : from Bembridge. Purchased, 1861. 

33986. Fragment of the extremity of the cranium, showing the 
incisors, canines, and premolars ; from Montmartre. 

Presented by Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 1860. 

36936. Two canines; from Bembridge. Purchased, 1861. 

36946. Five incisors ; from Bembridge. Purchased, 1861. 

M. 2482. An incisor ; from Alontmartrc. Purchased^ 1885. 

M. 2480. An incisor ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-ct- 
Garonne), France. Purchased, 1885. 

part in. c 



18 UNGTTLATA. 

28240. The nearly-complete mandible, showing the canines and all 
the cheek-teeth except pm. 1 ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28234 f. The alveolar border of the left ramns of the mandible, 
showing all the cheek-teeth except pm. 1 ; from Debruge. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

32518. Hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
the three true molars ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28234 g. Two fragments of the right ramus of the mandible, one 

showing m. 3 and the other m. 2 and m . 3 ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28234 h. Numerous lower molars ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

36929-36934. Numerous lower molars ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Bembridge. Purchased, 1861. 

36935. The first right lower true molar, together with the associated 
milk-molars ; from Bembridge. Purchased, 1861. 

29852. A left lower true molar ; from the Upper Eocene of Mont- 
martre. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 2436. A left lower true molar ; from the Upper Eocene of Cay- 
lux. Purchased, 1885. 

28234 i. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible of a 
{Fig.) young individual, showing the last three milk-molars and 
the minute alveolus of mm. 1 ; from Debruge. This spe- 
cimen is described and figured by Huxley in the Geol. Mag. 
dec. i. vol. viii. p. 153, pi. 6. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28234 j. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of an imma- 
ture individual, showing mm. 3, mm. 4, and mTl ; from 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26816. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of a young individual, 
showing the last three milk-molars ; from Debruge. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

28234 k. The glenoidal extremity of the left scapula ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852 



PAL^OTHERUD^. 19 

28234 1. The right humerus, imperfect proximally ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28234 m. Two specimens of the distal half of the right humerus ; 
from Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30030. The proximal extremity of the right ulna ; from the Upper 
Eocene of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30591. The greater part of the left ulna ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28234 n. Two specimens of the associated radius and ulna, one im- 
perfect distally and the other proximally ; from Debruge. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26818. The proximal extremity of a radius; from Debruge. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

27553-27558. Part of the left carpus and the metacarpus ; from 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28234 0. The right third metacarpal ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29743. The second phalangeal of the third digit of the right fore 
{Fig.) foot, provisionally referred to this species ; from the Upper 
Eocene of the Isle of Wight. This specimen is described 
and figured by Owen in the ' British Eossil Mammals and 
Birds,' pp. 309, 310, fig. 106, where it is suggested that it 
may belong to Lo£>hiodon or Coryphodon ; as these genera 
are mainly of Middle and Lower Eocene age, it is, how- 
ever, more probable that the specimen belongs to Palceo- 
therium. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

26820. Part of the shaft of a femur : from Debruge. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

28234 p. Middle part of the shaft of a femur ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27547-8. The right calcaneum, astragalus, and cuboid ; from De'- 
bruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

140(0. C). Cast of the left calcaneum, astragalus, and navicular. 
The original is from Montmartre. Ao history. 

c2 



20 TTNGULATA. 

30073. A right astragalus, perhaps belonging to an immature indi- 
vidual of this species ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

28234 q. The left astragalus ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2481. The left navicular ; from Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 

28241. The right metatarsus ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28234 r. The right third metatarsal ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2439. The left third metatarsal ; from Caylux. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2435. Numerous bones of the manus and pes ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Eonzon, near Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire), 
Prance. These bones agree precisely in size with those from 
Debruge, but are in a less crushed condition ; the Eonzon 
form was distinguished by Gervais as P. aniciense, but it 
was suggested that it might be only a variety. 

Purchased, 1885. 

28234 S. Part of the axis vertebra ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30034, 46020. Two imperfect specimens of the atlas vertebra, pro- 
visionally referred to this species ; from the Lower Miocene 
of Hempstead, Isle of Wight. These bones are too large 
for Hyopotamus or Diplopus. The species does not appear 
to have been hitherto recorded from the Hempstead beds ; 
but from its occurrence at Eonzon it might be expected 
there. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Palseotherium medium, Cuvier \ 

The skull and teeth of this species were described by Cuvier 2 as 
being rather larger than those of P. crassum 3 : the limb bones, pro- 
visionally referred by the same writer to P. medium, are long an<J 
slender, while those referred to P. crassum are short and stout, and 

1 Ann. d. Museum, vol. iii. p. 289 (1804). 

2 See Blainville's ' Osteograpkie,' Palceotherium, pis. ii., v. 

3 In pi. xxx. fig. 7 of Gervais's ' Zool. et Pal. Fran9aises,' 2nd ed., some large 
teeth are figured as P. crassum ; on page 108 they are, however, termed (the 
plate is wrongly referred to as xiii.)P. indeterminatum ; and it is not improbable 
that they really belong to a large individual of P. medium. 



PALiEOTHERIID^. 21 

indicate a larger animal than the others. The relative size of the 
teeth of the two forms indicates, however, that this reference is pro- 
bably erroneous ; and the writer has therefore followed Bravard' s 
ITS. Catalogue and provisionally reversed the Cuvierian association. 
It is sometimes very difficult to distinguish the teeth of the two 
species, as they are liable to some variation in size. The nasals are 
shorter than in P. eras sum. 
Hob. Europe. 

11811. Cast of the skull. The original was obtained from the 
Upper Eocene of Montmartre, near Paris, and is in the 
Paris Museum of Natural History ; it is figured in De 
Blainville's ' Osteographie,' Genus Palceotherium, pi. i. 
The length of the space occupied by the first six upper 
cheek-teeth is 0,110. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

29509. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last five cheek- 
teeth ; from Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purcliased, 1855. 

44879 a. Three associated left upper cheek-teeth, provisionally 
assigned to this species ; from Montmartre. 

Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

29874. The third left upper true molar ; from Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

28235. Part of the right maxilla, containing the last five cheek- 
teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge, near Apt ( Vau- 
cluse), France. The dimensions of the teeth figured by 
Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Frangaises, 2nd ed. pi. xxix. 
fig. 6 (total length 0,131), agree precisely with those of the 
present specimen. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28235 a. Fragment of the left maxilla, with the three true molars ; 
from Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28235 b. Several fragments of maxillae, with some of the cheek- 
teeth ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29812. The inner half of the third left upper true molar; from the 
Upper Eocene of the Isle of Wight. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 2630. Part of the palate ; from the Isle of Wight. The last 
three premolars are shown ; the fourth being of unusually 
large transverse diameter. No history. 



22 UNGULATA. 

27505. A palate, showing the four premolars and m. 1 , which belongs 
either to this or the next species ; from Montmartre. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29423. Fragment of the left side of the palate, with the last three 
premolars, probably belonging to this species ; from Mont- 
martre. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 2631. Fragment of the cranium and mandible, showing the 
upper and lower true molars of the right side ; from Mont- 
martre. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

43422. Several specimens of upper and lower true molars ; from the 
Eocene of Neuhausen, near Tuttlingen, Wurtemberg. 

Presented by Professor Quenstedt, 1872. 

40360. The third left upper true molar ; from the Upper Eocene 
Bohnerz of Frohnstetten, "Wurtemberg. Purchased, 1867. 

36966. Two specimens of upper true molars : from Neuhausen. 

Purchased, 1861. 

M. 1736. Fragment of the left maxilla, with m. 2 and m. 3 ; from 
the Upper Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), France. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 2633. Two upper true molars ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Frohnstetten. Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

M. 2634. Portion of an upper and a lower molar, probably belonging 
to this species ; from the Upper Eocene of Binstead, Isle 
of Wight. Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

29732. Fragment of the left ramus of a mandible, with two cheek- 
teeth, provisionally referred to this species ; from Hordwell. 
Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

28235 C. The hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible, with 
the last four cheek-teeth ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

36933. Fragment of the mandible, with one molar ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Bembridge, Isle of Wight. Purchased, 1861. 

36938. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of an immature 
individual, showing mm. 4, pm. 4 {in alveolo), mTT, and 
m7~2; from Bembridge. Purchased, 1861. 



PAL^OTHEKIIDJE. 23 

28235 d. The symphysis and part of the right ramus of the man- 
dible of an immature individual ; from Debruge. The 
first and second true molars are protruded, but the hiuder 
premolars are in alveolo. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28235 e. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with m . 2 and 
m. 3 ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1734. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the 
last five cheek-teeth ; from Bach. Purchased, 1884 

The reference of some of the following specimens is provisioned. 

25221, 36781. Two specimens of the scapula, which may have 
belonged to large individuals of the present species ; from 
the Upper Eocene Headon beds of Hordwell, Hampshire. 
These specimens are larger than the scapulas figured in De 
Blainville's ' Osteographie,' Genus Palceotherium, under the 
names of P. crassum and P. medium, but agree in general 
contour ; they are considerably smaller than the scapula 
of P. magnum. Presented respectively by S. V. Wood, 

Esq., 1850, and S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 

30061. The glenoidal extremity of the left scapula ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1S55. 

29744. The associated bones of the right fore limb, wanting the 
scapula and phalangeals ; from Hordwell. This specimen 
agrees well in relative size with No. 36781 ; the radius 
and the third metacarpal are slightly larger than INos. 147 
and 11896, but agree in their general contour and pro- 
portions ; the specimen might have belonged to an indivi- 
dual equal in size to that to which the upper dentition 
figured in plate xxx. fig. 7 of Gervais's ' Zool. et Pal. Fran- 
chises,' 2nd ed.. pertained (vide supra, p. 20, note 2). 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

25247 a. The left humerus, imperfect proximally ; from Hordwell. 
This specimen agrees very closely with the corresponding 
bone in No. 29744. 

Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

147 (0. C). Cast of the left radius. The original is from Montmartre, 
and is figured in De Bainville's ' Osteographie,' Genus 
Palaotherium, pi. iii. (as P. crassum). 

MfinteU Collection. Purchased, 1836. 



24 TTNGULATA. 

29628. Cast of the right radius and the associated bones of the 
manus. The original is from Montmartre, and is preserved 
in the Paris Museum of Natural History ; it is figured by 
Cuvier in the ' Ossemens Fossiles,' 2nd ed. vol. iii. pi. lviii. 
fig. 1 (as P. crassum). The bones are of considerably 
smaller size than those of No. 29744, but this difference 
may be merely individual or racial. 

Presented by the Paris Museum of Natural History. 

11896. Cast of the right third metacarpal. The original is from 
Montmartre, and is figured by Cuvier in the ' Ossemens 
Fossiles,' 2nd ed. vol. iii. pi. xxii. fig. 6, and in De Blain- 
ville's ' Osteographie,' Genus Palceotherium, pi. iii. (as P. 
crassum). Mantell Collection. Purchased. 

29742. The left third metacarpal ; from Hordwell. This specimen 
agrees very closely with the corresponding bone of No. 
29744. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30068. The proximal half of the right second metacarpal; from 
Hordwell. This specimen is somewhat larger than the 
corresponding bone in No. 29744. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27561. The right metacarpus of a small individual ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29720. The right metacarpus of a small individual ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

M. 2632. The distal two thirds of the right femur ; probably from 
the Upper Eocene of the Isle of Wight. This speci- 
men agrees very closely with the one figured in De Blain- 
ville's ' Osteographie,' Genus Palceotherium, pi. iv. (as P. 
crassum). j\r history. 

29746. The right tibia and fibula ; from Hordwell. These speci- 
mens agree well in relative size with No. 29744. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

36782. The proximal extremity of the left tibia ; from Hordwell. 

Presented by S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 
11817. Cast of the bones of the left hind foot. The original is from 
Montmartre, and is figured (reversed) by He Blainville 
(op. cit.) as P. crassum. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 



PAL^OTHERIID^:. 



25 



28235 f. A ealcaneum and three astragali ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

30073. A right astragalus, provisionally referred to a large indi- 
vidual of the present species ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30143, 30110. A second and third lateral phalangeal ; from Hord- 
well. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

Palseothermm crassum. Cuvier 1 . 
Syn. Palceotherium velaunum, Blainville ' 2 . 
PalcBotherium gervaisi, Aymard 3 . 

The synonymy is given on the authority of Eilhol (Ann. Sci. Geol. 
vol. xii. art. 3, pp. 68, 69). The teeth (woodcut, fig. 5) are smaller 

Fig. 5. 




PalcBotherium crassum. — The left maxilla and cheek-dentition ; from the Upper 
Eocene gypsum of Montmartre. £. Letters as in fig. 1, p. 4. (From 
Gaudry's ' Enchainements.') 

than those of P. medium, and the limb -bones provisionally asso- 
ciated more slender {vide supra, p. 20). 
Hah. Europe. 

11810. Cast of the cranium. The original is from the Upper 
Eocene of Montmartre, near Paris, and is preserved in the 
Paris Museum of Natural History. It is described and 

1 Ann. d. Musuum, vol. vi. p. 348 (1805). 

2 Osteographie, Genus Palceotherium, pi. ii. (J846). 

3 In Pictet's 'Paleontologie,' 2nd ed. vol. i. p.311 (185ci). 



26 UNGULATA. 

figured by Cuvier in the ' Ossemens Fossiles,' 2nd ed. 
vol. iii. p. 33, pis. liii. & liv. The length of the space 
occupied by the first six cheek-teeth is 0,100. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

29421. The cranium aud the right ramus of the mandible, in a 
much damaged condition ; from Montmartre. A consi- 
derable number of the lower teeth are shown. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

148 (0. C). The anterior portion of the palate, showing the outer 
incisors and portions of the premolars ; from Montmartre. 

Presented by Baron Cuvier. 

28236. The palate and part of the occiput ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Debruge, near Apt (Yaucluse). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27351. Part of the right maxilla, with all the cheek-teeth except 

pm. 1 ; from Debruge. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

28236 a. Part of the right maxilla, showing all the cheek-teeth ; 
from Debruge. The length of the space occupied by the 
seven teeth is 0,121. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28236 b. Part of the right maxilla, with the last five cheek-teeth ; 
from Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27352. Part of the right maxilla, with all the cheek-teeth ; from 

Debruge. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

28236 C. Part of the right maxilla, with the last five cheek-teeth ; 
from Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28236 d. Three fragments of maxillae, with the hinder cheek-teeth ; 
from Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28237. Three fragments of maxillae, with teeth; from Debruge. 
These and the next specimen were referred by Bravard to 
P. curtum ; but the writer fails to see how the}^ can be 
distinguished from the preceding specimens. They are 
larger than the specimen of P. curtum figured by Filhol in 
the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. pi. xx. fig. 345. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

29653. Fragment of the left maxilla, with the last three premolars ; 
from Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



PAL^OTH.ERIID.E. 27 

25227. Fragment of the left maxilla with the three true molars ; 
from the Upper Eocene Headon beds of Hordwell, Hamp- 
shire. The dimensions of the teeth agree very closely 
with those of No. 27352. 

Presented by S. V. Wood, Esq., 1850. 

M. 2636. The second right upper true molar ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Headon Hill, Isle of Wight. 

Presented by B. U Urban, Esq. 

28905. Several upper molars : from the Upper Eocene of the 
Isle of Wight. Presented by F. E. Edwards, Esq., 1863. 

36937. Three associated left upper molars ; from the Upper Eocene 
of Bembridge, Isle of Wight. Purchased, 1861. 

40359. Eour upper molars and five canines ; from the Eocene of 
Frohnstetten, Wiirtemberg. Purchased, 1867. 

27357. Fragment of the right maxilla of a young individual, with 
the four milk-molars ; from Debruge. As the first pre- 
molar is precisely similar to the first tooth in No. 28236, 
it may be inferred that this tooth had no predecessor. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

28237 a. Fragment of the left maxilla of a young individual, with 
the four milk-molars in a well-worn condition ; from 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1733. Fragment of the middle portion of the right half of 
the cranium, showing the last four cheek-teeth in a 
much-worn condition ; from the Upper Eocene phospho- 
rites of Each near Lalbenque (Lot), France. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1735. Fragment of the left maxilla, showing m. 2 and m. 3 ; from 
the Upper Eocene phosphorites of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne). Purchased, 1881. 

M. 1739. Fragment of the left maxilla, with the three true molars ; 
from Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

11812. Cast of the symphysis and left ramus of the mandible, 
together with the associated m^3. The original is from 
Montmartre, and is preserved in the Paris Museum of 
Natural History ; it is figured by Cuvier in the ' Ossemens 
Fossilee, 5 2nd ed. vol. iii. pL liii. fig. 1, The length of 



28 



TJNGULATA. 



the space occupied by the seven cheek-teeth is 0,132, and 
that by the last six teeth 0,122. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

12 (0. C). The nearly complete mandible, probably belonging to a 
female of this species ; from Montmartre . The length of 
the space occupied by the last six cheek-teeth is 0,115. 

Presented by Baron Cuvier. 

29422. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing all the 
cheek-teeth except pm. 1 (m. 2 and m . 3 imperfect) ; from 
Montmartre. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29584. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing all the teeth 
except pm. 1 ; from. Montmartre. The impression of the 
teeth of the upper jaw is shown in the same block. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 2639. The greater part of the mandible of a young individual 
provisionally referred to this species ; from Montmartre. 
The specimen shows the last three milk-molars and m . i. 
Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

28236 e. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, with 
all the cheek-teeth except pm. l ; from Debruge. This 
specimen agrees exactly with No. 11812. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28236 f. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with all the cheek- 
teeth except pm. 1 ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27364, 27365. Two portions of mandibular rami, with the hinder 
cheek-teeth ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28236 g. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the last 
four cheek-teeth ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28236 h. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of an immature 

individual; from Debruge. The third and fourth pre- 
molars are only partially protruded. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28237 b. Two portions of mandibles provisionally referred to females 

of the present species ; from Debruge. In the larger spe- 



PAL^OTHERinxa:. 29 

cimen the space occupied by the last four cheek-teeth is 
very nearly the same as in No. 1 1812 ; but the interval 
between the canine and the hinder border of m . 3 is only 
0,137, as against 0,141. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27371, 28236 i. Three specimens of mandibular rami of young in- 
dividuals, showing the last three milk-molars and m. 1 ; 
from Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

The reference of some of the following specimens is provisioned. 

30008. The glenoidal extremity of the right scapula ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

30167. The distal two thirds of the right humerus ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

152 (0. C). Cast of the left radius. The original is from Mont- 
martre, and is preserved in the Paris Museum of Natural 
History ; it is figured by De Blainville in his ' Osteo- 
graphie,' Genus Palceotherium, pi. iii. (as P. medium). 

Presented hy Baron Cuvier. 

29577. The proximal halves of the associated right radius and ulna ; 
from Montmartre. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

36790. The right radius, imperfect distally ; from Hordwell. 

Presented by S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 

28236 j. The right radius and ulna, imperfect distally ; from 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28236, 27377. A left radius and ulna, provisionally referred to this 
species ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28236 k. The right radius ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

III. 2443. A right radius (imperfect proximally), provisionally re- 
ferred to this species ; from the Upper Eocene of Cay lux 
(Tarn-et-Garonne), France. Purchased, 1885. 

11894, Cast of the right third metacarpal. The original is from 
Montmartre, and is preserved in the Paris Museum of 
Natural History ; it is figured in Cuvier's ' Gssemens Fos- 
siles,' 2nd ed. vol. iii. pi. xx. fig. 3, and in De Elainville's 



30 T7NGTJLATA. 

1 Osteographie,' Genus Palceotherium, pi. iii. (as P. me- 
dium). The length of this specimen is 0,133. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

M. 2444. The right third metacarpal ; from Caylux. The specimen 
agrees precisely with the last. Purchased, 1885. 

27569-27571. The right metacarpus of a small individual; from 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2485. The right magnum ; from Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2484. The right magnum ; from Debruge. Purchased, 1885. 

28236 m. Two specimens of the distal extremity of the femur ; from 
Debruge. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

153 (0. C). Cast of the right tibia. The original is from Mont- 
martre, and is preserved in the Paris Museum of Natural 
History ; it is figured in De Blainville's ' Osteographie,' 
Genus Palwotherium, pi. iv. (as P. medium). 

Presented by Baron Cuvier. 

28236 1. A rather smaller right tibia, provisionally referred to this 
species ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2445. Distal extremity of a right tibia and fibula, provisionally 
referred to this species ; from Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2637. Cast of the right calcaneum, astragalus, and navicular. 
The originals are from Montmartre, and are preserved in 
the Paris Museum of Natural History. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

28236 n. Three specimens of the calcaneum and three of the astra- 
galus ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

36783. A left astragalus, provisionally referred to this species ; from 
Hordwell. Presented by S. Laing, Esq., 1862. 

27562-27568. The bones of the right hind foot, wanting the fourth 
metatarsal ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

18 (0. C). The proximal extremities of the associated left second 
and third metatarsals ; from Montmartre. 

Presented by Baron Cuvier. 



PALJEOTHEKIID^:. 31 

Palaeotherium latum, Cuvier 1 . 

This species is founded upon the evidence of metapodial bones, 
which are of the stout type of those here referred to P. medium, 
but relatively shorter. The upper molars referred to it by De 
Blainville (' Osteographie,' Genus Palceotherium, pi. v.) are some- 
what smaller than those of P. crassum. 

Hah. Europe. 

11956. Cast of the distal half of the left humerus. The original 
is from the Upper Eocene of Montmartre, near Paris, and 
is preserved in the Paris Museum of Natural History ; it 
is figured in De Blainville's ' Osteographie,' Genus Palceo- 
therium, pi. iii., and in Cuvier's ' Ossemens Eossiles,' 2nd 
ed. vol. iii. pi. xxx. figs. 5, 6. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

11960. Cast of the left ulna. The original is from Montmartre, 
and is figured by De Blainville, loc. cit. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

11895. Cast of the third left metacarpal. The history of this speci- 
men is the same as that of the last ; its length is 0,089. 
It is figured by Cuvier, op. cit. pi. lix. fig. 2. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

M. 2447. The third left metacarpal, imperfect distally; from the 
Upper Eocene phosphorites of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), 
France. Purchased, 1885. 

The following specimen may perhaps belong to this species. 

M. 1769. Part of the right ramus of the mandible of a small Palceo- 
therium belonging to the present group ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), Erance. This spe- 
cimen contains the four premolars (so determined by the 
fourth tooth being less worn than the third), the length 
of the space occupied by which is 0,045. It is somewhat 
smaller than the corresponding portion of the jaw of 
P. crassum, and somewhat larger than the one figured by 
Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Erangaises, 2nd ed. pi. xvi. 
figs. 2, 3, as that of P. curtum (the plate is lettered 
P. minus). Purchased, 1884. 

1 Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. iii. p. 08 (1822). 



32 TJNGTTLATA. 

Palseotherium curtum, Cuvier 1 . 
Syn. PalcBotherium duvali, Pomel 2 . 

This species was originally described as being rather more than 
one third smaller than P. medium. In the skull figured in De 
Blainville's ' Osteographie,' genus Palceotherium, pi. i., and in the 
mandible figured by Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 2nd ed. 
pi. xvi. figs. 3, 3 a under this name (the plate is lettered P. minus), 
pm. 4 and pm. 3 are as complex as the succeeding teeth. The former 
feature is shown in a right maxilla figured by Filhol in the Ann. 
Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, pi. xx. fig. 345 as belonging to the present 
species ; in this specimen the length of the space occupied by the 
seven teeth is 0,096. In a mandibular ramus figured under this 
name by the same writer {op. cit. pi. xv. figs. 300, 301) pm. 3 is 
less complex than p m . 4, and p m . 1 is absent ; and the specimen 
seems more like the mandible of P. annectans. The diastema is 
short. 

Hah. Europe. 

M. 1392. Fragment of a right maxilla, containing the last three 
premolars, provisionally referred to this species ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. This 
specimen agrees precisely with the one figured by Filhol 
in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, pi. xx. fig. 345. 

Purchased, 1884. 

11848. Cast of the right third metatarsal. The original is from 
the Upper Eocene of Montmartre, and is figured in Cuvier's 
' Ossemens Fossiles,' 2nd ed. vol. iii. pi. xlii. fig. 6, and in 
De Blainville's ' Osteographie,' genus Palceotherium, pi. iv. 
Its length is 0,0655. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

28237. The proximal extremity of an ulna and a lateral metapodial, 
provisionally referred to this species; from the Upper 
Eocene of Debruge, near Apt (Yaucluse), France. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



1 Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. iii. p. 68 (1822). 

2 Catalogue Methodique, p. 81 (1853). 



pal^otherhd^;. 33 



Group B. In this group pm. 3 is less complex than pm. 4, and the 
hinder lobe of pm. 4 is more or less aborted ; the first lower 
premolar is absent, and pm. 1 may be also wanting. 

Palse other ium javali (Filhol 1 ). 
Syn. Paloplotherium javali t Filliol 2 . 

This species is of slightly smaller size than P. crassum ; its di- 
stinctive characters being the elongated crowns and tall cusps of the 
upper true molars, the presence of a large quantity of cement in the 
hollows of all the cheek-teeth, the approximation of the upper canine 
to the premolars and its apparent separation from the incisors. In 
these respects the species approaches Anchitherium. 

Hob. Europe. 

M. 2440. Two fragments of the maxillae of opposite sides ; from the 
Upper-Eocene phosphorites of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), 
France. One specimen shows m. 2 and m. 3 in a slightly 
worn condition, and agrees precisely with the maxilla 
figured by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, 
pi. xx. fig. 344 ; the other shows m. 2 and a part of m. 1 
in a more worn condition. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 1738. Part of the left maxilla, containing pm. 4 , m. 1 , and m. 2 ; 
from the Upper-Eocene phosphorites of Bach, near Lal- 
benque (Lot), France. The diminished size of the hinder 
lobe of pm. 4 i 8 W ell exhibited. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1738 a. Part of the right maxilla, showing the three premolars 
and m. 1 ; from Bach. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 2441. The left third metacarpal; from Caylux. The length of 
this bone is 0,115. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2446. The left third metatarsal; from Caylux. The length of 
this specimen is 0,124, and it agrees very closely with the 
one described by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii, 
art. 1, p. 167. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 442. A left astragalus, provisionally referred to this species ; 
from Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 

1 Bull. Soc. Pbilom. Paris, ser. 0, vol. xi. p. 17 (1874), Paloplotherium. 

2 Loc. cit. 

PAET m. D 



34 



UNGULATA. 



Palseotherium annectans (Owen) 1 . 
Syn. Paloplotherium annectans, Owen 2 . 
Plagiolophus annectans, Pomel 3 . 

In this species the upper true molars (woodcut, fig. 6) are nearly 
equal in size to those of P. curtum ; the fourth upper premolar has 
its hinder lobe aborted, and the first premolars are absent, in the 
adult at least. Cement is present in the true molars, and the upper 
diastema is of moderate length. 

Hah. Europe. 

29729. The greater part of the cranium, showing the six cheek- 

(Flg.) teeth and the alveoli of the incisors and canines of both 

sides ; from the Upper-Eocene Headon beds of Hordwell, 

Hampshire. This specimen (woodcut, fig. 6) is the type, 



Pig. 6. 




MIrari M I m i> 



Palceotherium annectans. — The left maxilla and cheek-dentition ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Hordwell, Hampshire. Letters as in fig. 1, p. 4. j. (From 
Gaudry's 'Enchainements.') 

and is described and figured by Owen in the Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc. vol. iv. p. 28, pi. iii. figs. 1, 2. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29710, 29735, 30204. Several fragments of maxillae with cheek- 
teeth ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 2640. Three upper cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of the 
Isle of Wight. Presented by F. E. Edwards, Esq., 1863. 



1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. p. 28 (1848), Paloplotherium. 
7 hoc. cit. 
Catalogue Methodique, p. 83 (1853). 



PAL^OTHERIID.T. 35 

28229. Seven fragments of maxillae, with cheek-teeth; from the 
Upper Eocene of Debruge, near Apt (Yaucluse), France. 
B reward Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1745. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last two 
premolars and the first two true molars ; from the Upper 
Eocene phosphorites of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), France. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1740 b. Fragment of the left maxilla, showing pm. 4 , m. 1 , and 
m. 2 j from Bach. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1773. Fragment of the left maxilla, showing m. 1 and m. 2 in a 
half- worn condition ; from Bach. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 2641. Three upper cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Frohnstetten, Wiirtemberg. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

M. 2642. An upper premolar and true molar (imperfect) ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Binstead, Isle of Wight. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

29705-08. Four mandibular rami ; from Hordwell. One speci- 
men (29705) shows the symphysis, the canines, and the 
six cheek-teeth, the length of the space occupied by the 
latter being 0,082. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29730. The nearly complete mandible of a subadult individual, 
showing the canines and the six cheek-teeth of either 
side ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29709. The hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible of a 
young individual, showing the three milk-molars and m . 1 
in alveolo ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27339. The greater part of the mandible, showing the last five 
cheek-teeth on the left side ; from Debruge. 

Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

28229 a. Two portions of the left ramus of the mandible, the more 
complete one showing the six cheek-teeth ; from Debruge. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 
d2 



36 UNGULATA. 

28229 b. Two specimens, showing the symphysis and parts of the 

mandibular rami of opposite sides ; from Debruge. The 
more perfect specimen shows the last five cheek-teeth. 

Br avard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1510. The symphysis and left ramus of the mandible, showiDg 
the last five cheek-teeth ; from Debruge. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 2478. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the 
four middle cheek-teeth ; from Debruge. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2642. A lower cheek-tooth ; from the Upper Eocene of Binstead. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

M. 2644. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with pmT2 
and pm. 3 : from Binstead. 

Presented by J. E. Lee, Esq., 1885. 

The reference of the following specimens is provisional, and they may 
belong to more than one species ; the foot-bones are of a rather 
stouter type than those referred to P. minus. 

30009. Glenoidal extremity of the right scapula ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

29988. Distal half of the right radius ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection., Purchased, 1855. 

29725. The left metacarpus of a small individual; from Hordwell. 
The length of the third metacarpal is 0,091 and its proxi- 
mal width 0,012. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28230 a. The right metacarpus of a rather larger individual ; from 

Debruge. The distal extremity of the third metacarpal 
has been restored. 

Br avard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28243 a. The left third metacarpal ; from Debruge. The length of 
this specimen is 0,089, and its proximal width 0,014. 

Purchased, 1885. 

28243. The left carpus and metacarpus of a still larger individual ; 
from Debruge. The length of the third metacarpal ig 
0,095, and its proximal width 0,017. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



PAL^OTHEKTmE. 37 

M. 1482. The right third metacarpal ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

29719. The left innominate ; from Hordwell. 

Eastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 1472. The left innominate ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. 
This specimen differs slightly from No. 29719, and may 
belong to the same form as jSo. M. 1750. 

Purchased, 1884. 

30103. The right femur, imperfect distally ; from Hordwell. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

25257, 30134. Two specimens of the shaft of the left femur ; from 
Hordwell. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

28242. Two specimens of the hind foot ; from Debruge. In the 
larger of the two the length of the third metatarsal is 
0,080, and its proximal width 0,016. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1481. The left third metatarsal ; from the Upper Eocene of 
Caylux. This specimen is of large size, and may 
belong to the same form as No. M. 1750. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 2488. Various carpals, tarsals, and phalangeals, some of which 
may belong to the present species ; from Caylux. 

Purchased, 1885. 

The following specimen agrees in size with the larger specimens of the 
corresponding bones noticed above, but is of a different structure ; 
it may belong to one of the allied genera. 

M. 2486. A left third metacarpal, wanting the distal epiphysis; 
from Caylux. Purchased, 1885. 

The following are larger than typical specimens of P. annectans, 
but indicate closely allied forms which may be specifically 
distinct. 

M. 1750. Two fragments of the same mandible, one showing the 
canine and the six cheek-teeth, and the other m . 2 and 
m7~3; from the Upper-Eocene phosphorites of Mouillac 
(Tarn-et-Oaronne), "France. The length of the space 



38 UNGTTLATA. 

occupied by the series of cheek-teeth is 0,096, and that of 
the diastema 0,028. The specimens are considerably 
smaller than the mandible of P. javali figured by Filhol 
in the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, pi. xvii. figs. 308- 
310. Purchased, 1«84. 

M. 1749. Two associated mandibular rami, agreeing very closely 
with the preceding ; from the Upper-Eocene phosphorites 
of Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), France. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1748. Fragment of a right maxilla, containing m. 1 and m. 2 , 
which agree in relative size with the preceding specimens ; 
from Bach. Purchased, 1884. 

Palseotherium minus, Cuvier \ 
Syn. Paloplotherium minus, P. Gervais 2 . 
Plagiolophus minor, Pomel 3 . 
Palceotherium ovinum, Aymard 4 . 
Plagiolophus ovinus, Pomel 5 . 

In this species the teeth are rather smaller than in P. annectans ; 
but the hinder lobe of P m » 4 is more developed (woodcut, fig. 7). 

Ffe. 7. 




Palceotherium minus. — The left maxilla and cheek-dentition ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Debruge (Vaucluse), France. }. Letters as in fig. 1, p. 4. 
(From Gaudry's ' Enchancements.') 

The first upper premolar is present in some instances ; p~m7T appears 
to be always absent, and p m . 2 is frequently wanting ; the upper 

1 Ann. du Museum, vol. iii. p. 471 (1804). 

2 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 63 (1848-52). 

3 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 586 (1847). 

4 Ann. Soc. Agric. Sci. le Puy, vol. xii. p. 246 (1846), teste Filhol. 

5 Catalogue Methodique, p. 82 (1853). 



PAI^EOTHEKIID^E. 39 

diastema is long. The identity of P. ovinum with this species has 
been determined by Eilhol. 
Bab. Europe. 

28232. Part of the palate, showing the canines and the first three 
premolars of either side, and the remaining cheek-teeth of 
the right side ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge, near 
Apt (Vaucluse), Prance. This specimen is noteworthy as 
being one of the few with which the writer is acquainted, 
showing the first tooth of the cheek-series. This tooth is 
untouched, while pm. 4 is considerably worn, thus indica- 
ting that the former was protruded at a later date than is 
the case in other forms, and did not come into use with 
the milk- dentition. 

Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28232 a. Part of the left maxilla and premaxilla, showing the 
canine, the last five cheek-teeth, and the broken base of 
pm. 2 ; from Debruge. There is no trace of pm. 1 . 

Bravarcl Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28232 b. Numerous fragments of maxilla? ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2465. Part of the right maxilla, showing the six cheek-teeth ; 
from Debruge. There is no trace of pm 1 . 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2464. The palate of a young individual, showing the four milk- 
molars and the first true molar of either side ; from De'- 
bruge. In this specimen, mm. 1 is as much worn as the 
two succeeding teeth, and as it differs slightly in form 
from pm. 1 in No. 28232, it would seem to indicate that 
the latter tooth is a true " dent de r •emplacement '•'' 

Purchased, 1885. 

36941. The crowns of two molars, probably belonging to this 
species; from the Upper Eocene of Bembridge, Isle of 
Wight. One specimen is in germ, and the others but 
slightly worn. Purchased, 1861. 

M. 1511. The anterior extremity of the cranium, showing the in- 
cisors, canines, and the first three cheek-teeth of the left 
side ; from Debruge. Pm. I is present. 

Purchased, 1884. 



40 XTNGULATA. 

M. 1744 a. Part of the right maxilla, with the last four cheek- 
teeth ; from the Upper-Eocene phosphorites of Bach, near 
Lalbenque (Lot), France. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1746. Part of the left maxilla of an immature individual, 
showing the three true molars, m. 3 being in alveolo ; from 
Bach. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1743. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing m. 2 and m-JJ ; 
from Bach. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1741. Fragment of the left maxilla of a young individual, 
showing mm. 3 , mm. 4 , and m.l ; from Bach. 

Purchased, 1884. 

28231. The nearly complete mandible, showing two incisors, the 
canines, and the last four cheek-teeth ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28233. Numerous imperfect specimens of the mandible ; from De- 
bruge. In all these specimens there are but five cheek- 
teeth. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28232 C. The symphysis and the right ramus of the mandible, 
showing six cheek-teeth ; from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1511. Two portions of the left ramus of the mandible ; from 
Debruge. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 2466, M. 2467. Two specimens of part of the right ramus of 
the mandible, each having six cheek-teeth ; from Debruge. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 1511 a. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the last 
four cheek-teeth ; from Debruge. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1832 a. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the last 
four cheek-teeth ; from Bach. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1770. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the last 
four cheek-teeth ; from Bach. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1771. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the last 
two premolars and the first two true molars ; from Bach. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1772. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, showing 
the three premolars and the first true molar; from Bach. 

Purchased. 1884, 



PAL^OTHERIID^. 41 

M. 2468. Three specimens of the symphysis of the mandible ; from 
Debruge. Purchased, 1885. 

28232 d. A slab of lignite, containing two fragments of the cranium, 
the mandible, astragalus, and the proximal half of the 
third metatarsal ; from Debnige. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28232 e. Four fragments of mandibular rami of immature indi- 

viduals : from Debruge. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

II. 1393. A fragment of the left ramus of a mandible, containing 
the three true molars, and belonging either to a large 
individual of the present, or a small one of the preceding 
species : from the Upper Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), France. Purchased, 1884. 

36961-6. Detached lower cheek-teeth, provisionally referred to the 
present species ; from the Upper Eocene of Bembridge, 
Isle of "Wight. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

The following specimens are provisionally referred to this species, 
but some of them may belong to Anchilophus. 

M. 2467. The left radius, imperfect distally : from Debruge. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2473. The left radius, imperfect proximally ; from Caylux. 

Purchased, 1885. 

28233 a. Bones of the left fore foot ; from Debruge. The length of 

the third metacarpal is 0,091, and its proximal width 
0,011. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2470. Four metacarpals; from Debruge. The length of the 
third metacarpal is 0,088, and its proximal width 0,011. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2474. The right third metacarpal; from Caylux. The length 
of this specimen is 0,080, and its proximal width 0,010 ; 
the corresponding dimensions of an homologous bone from 
the same deposits, described by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. 
Geol. vol. viii. art. i. p. 171, being 0,079 and 0,010. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2475. The left femur; from Caylux. The length of this speci- 
men from the head to the condylo is 0,125. 

Purchased. 1885. 



42 TJNGULATA. 

M 2476. The right tibia, in two portions; from Caylux. 

Purchased, 1885. 

28233 b. The greater number of the bones of the right hind foot ; 
from Debruge. The length of the third metatarsal is 
0,078, and its proximal width 0,013. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2471-2. The right astragalus, and the left third metatarsal ; 
from Debruge. The length of the latter is 0,070, and its 
proximal width 0,012. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2477. Two specimens of the left third metatarsal; from Caylux. 
The length of the larger specimen is 0,082, and of the 
smaller 0,076. Purchased, 1885. 

The following specimen is not specifically determined. 

21902. The imperfect right calcaneum ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Ronzon, near Puy-en-Yelay (Haute-Loire), France. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

Genus ANCHILOPHUS, P. Gervais 1 . 

Dentition :— I. |, C. \, Pm. ^ 4 , M. J. 

This genus appears intermediate between Pachynolophus and 
Anchitherium. The last upper premolar is as complex as the true 

Fig. 8. 




Anchilophns radegundensis. — The third left upper true molar ; from the Eocene 
of Lautrec (Tarn). \. Letters as in fig. 1, p. 4. (From Gaudry's ' En- 
chainements.') 

molars ; there are well-marked median ridges on the outer columns 
of the upper molars (fig. 8), and the third lower true molar has a 
large third lobe. The structure of the lower molars presents some 
resemblance to that of Pachynolophus. 

1 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 1st ed. vol. ii. Expl. no. 35, p. 8 (1848-1852). 



PAL^OTHERIIDiE. 43 

Anchilophus radegundensis (P. Gervais 1 ). 

Syn. Anckitherium radegundense, P. Gervais 2 . 

The upper cheek-teeth (fig. 8) of this small species are characterized 
by their relatively small antero-posterior diameter. 
Hah. Europe. 

28238. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last four 

{Fig.) cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Eocene of Debruge, near Apt 

(Yaucluse), Erance. This specimen is described and 

figured by P. Gervais in the Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 

2nd ed. pp. 85, 86, pi. xxx. fig. 2. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 2424. Fragment of the right maxilla, showing the last five 
cheek-teeth ; from Debruge. The teeth of this specimen 
are rather larger than those of the last ; the third molar 
agreeing precisely with the one figured by Gaudry in ' Les 
Enchainements, &c. — Mammiteres Tertiaires/ p. 69, fig. 80 
(reproduced in fig. 8), under the present generic name ; 
the length of the space occupied by the three true molars 
is 0,0274. Purchased, 1885. 

Anchilophus desmaresti, P. Gervais 3 . 

This species agrees very closely with the preceding ; but the upper 
true molars are more elongated, and have more prominent ridges on 
the external surfaces. 

Hah. Europe. 

M. 2421. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the three true 
molars (the third imperfectly protruded) ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), Erance. This speci- 
men agrees precisely with the one described by Eilhol in 
the Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 118 ; the length of 
m- 2 being 0,0115. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 1470. The symphysis and part of the left ramus of the mandible ; 

(Fig.) from Caylux. This specimen (woodcut, fig. 9) shows the 
first two true molars, the last two premolars, and the 
alveolus of p^n. 2, there being no trace of pmTT. The 
diastema is very long, although its full length cannot be 
determined. Purchased, 1884. 

1 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. ii. Expl. no. 30, Anchith"erium (1848- 
1852). a Loc. cit. 

:) Ibid. Expl. no. 36, p. 8, 



44 



TTtfGULATA. 



Fig. 9. 




Anchilophus desmaresti-The symphysis and part of the left ramus of the 
mandible ; from the Upper Eocene of Caylux. i. 

M. 1470 a. Two fragments of the mandible, showing the last five 
cheek-teeth ; from Caylux. These specimens agree very 
closely with one described by Filhol in the Ann. Sci. Geol 
vol. viii. art. 1, p. H8 1 • the length of the space occupied by 
the last four cheek-teeth being 0,044. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 2422-3. Two fragments of the mandible ; from Caylux. 

Purchased, 1885. 

36963. Several detached lower true molars; from the Upper Eocene 
of Bembridge, Isle of Wight. Purchased, 1861. 

1 In the ninth line from the top, the word superieure should be read in- 



PAL^OTHERITD^;. 45 

Genus ANCHITHERIUM, H. v. Meyer \ 

Including MesoMppus, Marsh -. 

Dentition: — I. |, C. ^, Pm. J, M. |. The upper premolars are as 
complex as the true molars, the external surface of each lobe being 
without a median ridge ; pm. 1 is comparatively small, and the third 
lobe of m. 3 reduced to a small talon, while there is no infold to the 
incisors. At least in A. bairdi there is a large lachrymal depression. 

Anchitherium aurelianense (Blainville 3 ). 

Syn. Palceotherium aurelianense, Blainville 4 . 
Palceotherium hippoides, Blainville 5 . 

This is the largest species of the genus, and is elaborately de- 
scribed by Kowalevsky in the Mem. Ac. Nat. Imp. St. Petersbourg, 
ser. 7, vol. xx. (1873). There is no trace of the fifth metacarpal; 
and the meso- and ectocuneiform are separate. 

Hob. Europe. 

33553. Fragment of the right maxilla, with all the cheek-teeth 
except pm. 2 • from the Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers) , 
France. Purchased, 1858. 

21836. Fragment of the right maxilla, with the last three premolars; 
from Sansan. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

29626. Oast of a portion of the left maxilla, showing the last four 
cheek-teeth. The original is from Sansan, and is figured 
in De Blainville's ' Osteographie,' Genus Palceotherium, 
pi. vii. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

33554-33556. Three fragments of maxillae, showing cheek-teeth in 
a much-worn condition ; from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

40758. The second right upper premolar ; from Sansan. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

21840. Two upper molars ; from Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 2281. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing pm. 2 and 
pm. 3 ; from Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 

1 Neues Jahrb. 1844, p. 208. 

2 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. ix. p. 248 (1875). 

3 Osteographie, Genus Palceotherium, p. 43 (1846), Palaothcrium. 
1 Loc. cit. 5 Ibid. 



46 TJNGULATA. 

M. 2413. Fragment of the left maxilla, with pm. 1 and pm. 2 ; from 
Sansan. The first tooth is very much more worn than the 
second. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2413a. A right upper molar; from Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 

43625. The second left upper premolar ; from the Middle Miocene 
of Georgensgmiind, "Wiirtemberg. 

Presented by K. Murchison, Esq., 1872. 

33557. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing all the 

cheek-teeth except pm. 1 ■ from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

33558. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the last five 

cheek-teeth; from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

33558 a. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining all the cheek-teeth (the crown of pm. ] broken off); 
from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

33558 b. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with p m . 2 and 
pm. 3 ; from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

33558 C. Fragment of the right ramus and symphysis of the man- 
dible ; from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

M. 2411. The greater part of the right ramus of the mandible, 
showing all the cheek-teeth (the crown of pm. 1 wanting) ; 
from Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2412. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
two cheek-teeth in an unworn condition ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1885. 

29627. Cast of part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the 
last four cheek-teeth. The original is from Sansan. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

48446. Two fragments of the left ramus of the mandible, showing 
pm. 2, pm. 3, and m. 2 ; from Georgensgmiind. 

Presented by C. Fcdconer, Esq., 1867. 

40757. Three unworn incisors; from Sansan. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

M. 2284. The glenoidal extremity of the right scapula ; from 
Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2282. The proximal third of the right humerus ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1885. 



PAL^OTHERIID^. 47 

21843. The distal third of the left humerus ; from Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

Id. 2283. The distal portion of the left humerus ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2285. The proximal half of the left radius ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2286. The distal portion of the right radius ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1885. 

21841. The distal portion of the left radius ; from Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

33564, M. 2416-7. Several carpals ; from Sansan. 

33564, purchased, 1852; M. 2416-7, purchased, 1885. 

M. 2288. Part of the right innominate ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1885. 

33559. The left femur : from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

33560. The left tibia; from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

M. 2289. The proximal half of the right tibia ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2290. The distal half of the right tibia ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1885. 

21838. The distal portion of the right tibia ; from Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

33561. The right calcaneum; from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

33572. The right calcaneum (imperfect) ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1858. 

21839. The right calcaneum ; from Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 2292. The left calcaneum; from Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 

33562. The right astragalus ; from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

21837. The left astragalus ; from Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

33573. The left astragalus ; from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 
M. 2291. The left astragalus; from Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 

33563. The right navicular ; from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 



48 TWGTTLA.TA. 

33574. The left navicular ; from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

M. 2294. The proximal half of the third right metatarsal ; from 
Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 

21846. The proximal extremity of the third right metatarsal ; from 
Sansan. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

33575. The proximal portion of the third right metatarsal ; from 

Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

33565. The third left metatarsal ; from Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

M. 2287. The proximal half of the third left metatarsal ; from 
Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2296. The proximal extremity of the fourth right metatarsal ; 
from Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2294. The proximal extremity of the fourth left metatarsal ; 
from Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 

21845. The distal extremity of a metapodial; from Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

33576. The distal extremity of a metapodial ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1858. 

33569. A lateral metapodial, imperfect distally ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1858. 

M. 2293. The three phalangeals of a third digit ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1885. 

21844. The first phalangeal of a third digit ; from Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

33566. The first phalangeal of a third digit; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1858. 

33567. The second phalangeal of a third digit ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1858. 

33568. The terminal phalangeal of a third digit ; from Sansan. 

Purchased, 1858. 

33570. The first and second phalangeals of a lateral digit ; from 

Sansan. Purchased, 1858. 

M. 2296. Several lateral phalangeals and imperfect metapodials ; 
from Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 

M. 2295. The atlas vertebra ; from Sansan. Purchased, 1885. 



PAL^OTHERHD^E. EQUID2E. 49 

Anchitherium bairdi (Leidy x ). 

Syn. Palceotherium bairdi, Leidy 2 . 
Mesohippus bairdi, Marsh 3 . 

This is a small species, referred to Anchitherium by Leidy in the 
1 Ancient Fauna of Nebraska,' p. 67 (Smithsonian Contributions, 
vol. vi. [1853]) ; and made by Marsh the type of the genus Meso- 
hippus. The lateral digits are relatively larger than in the last 
species ; the fifth metacarpal is represented by a splint, and the 
meso- and ectocuneiform are separate. 

Hob. X. America. 

40957. Cast of the skull. The original is from the Miocene of 
Dakota, U.S.A., and is described and figured by Leidy in 
the Journ. Ac. Xat. Ska. Philad. ser. 2, vol. vii. p. 303, 
pi. xx. (1869). Purchased, 1868. 

29685. Fragment of a right maxilla, with the three true molars ; 
from Dakota. This specimen is figured in the accompany- 
ing woodcut (fig. 10). Purchased, 1855. 

Fig. 10. 




Anchitherium bairdi. — The right upper true molars ; from the 
Miocene of Dakota. }• 

29684. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with two 
cheek-teeth : from Dakota. Purchased, 1855. 



Family EQUIMl. 

The division between this and the preceding family is but an arbi- 
trary one, and Hipparion, owing to the usual presence of three 
digits, is classed by Cope and Flower in the latter. The apparently 

1 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. v. p. 122 (1851 ; vol. dated 1852); Palao- 
therin.hi. 

2 hoc. cit. 

3 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. i\. p. 248 (1875). 

PART III. l 



50 TTNGULATA. 

monodactyle character of one species, and the structure of the cranium 
and dentition is, however, so essentially equine, that it is here placed 
in the present family. The upper premolars are as complex as the 
true molars, and all the cheek-teeth are of an extremely hypsodont 
type, the cement completely filling the valleys ; the lower molars 
are crescentoid, and there is scarcely any distinct third lobe to m . 3. 
The digits are either one or three in number. 

Genus HIPPARION, Christol \ 
Syn. Hippoiherium, Kaup 2 . 

Dentition : — I. |, C. j, Pm. 3, M. |. The first upper cheek-tooth, 
which appears with the milk-series, and apparently has no prede- 
cessor, is usually shed before the animal is adult. The anterior 
" pillar " 3 in the upper cheek-teeth is disconnected from the anterior 
inner " crescent " for at least three quarters of its length ; and there 

Kg. 11. 




/• d. 



Hipparion, sp. 4 — Polished section of three right upper cheek-teeth, in a frag- 
ment of the maxilla ; from the Siwaliks of Perim Island, Gulf of Cam- 
bay, India. Indian Museum, Calcutta (no. C. 273). a. Posterior, and 
b, anterior outer crescent ; c, anterior, and d, posterior inner crescent ; 
e, anterior, and /, posterior pillar. (From the ' Palseontologia In- 
dica.') y. 



1 Ann. Sci. Indust. Mid. France, vol. i. p. 180 (1832), teste Christol. 

2 Neues Jahrb. 1833, p. 327. As a subgenus. 

3 For the definition of the terms employed in the description of the cheek- 
teeth of the Equities, see ' Palseontologia Indica ' (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), 
ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 73, 74, and the accompanying woodcut (fig. 11). 

4 If this form be specifically distinct, it has been proposed that it should be 
known as H. feddeni, Lydekker, ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 16 
(1885). 



equid^:. 51 

are three digits in each foot, with the apparent exception of H. an- 
tilopinum, in which they appear reduced to one. 

There are two cavities on the surface of the maxilla, the second of 
which corresponds to the " larmier " of the ruminant Artiodactyla. 
The accompanying woodcut (fig. 11) shows the structure of the 
upper cheek-teeth in an undetermined Indian species. The number 
of digits apparently varies from one to three. 



Hipparion gracile (Kaup 1 ). 

Syn. Eqims {Hippotheriwri) gracilis, Kaup 2 . 
Equus {Hippotlierium) nanus, Kaup 3 . 
Equus primigenius, Meyer i . 
Equus angustidens, Meyer 5 . 
Hipparion cliplostylum, Gervais G . 
Hipparion prostylum, Gervais 7 . 
Hipparion mesostylum, Gervais 8 . 
Hipparion mediterraneum, Hensel 9 . 
Hipparon br achy pus, Hensel 10 . 

According to Gaudry, ' Animaux Eossiles du Mont Leberon,' pp. 32- 
33, the above-mentioned forms are in all probability specifically 
the same ; although individual specimens of the bones and teeth 
present a great variation in size. This difference, coupled with 
the extreme difficulty of distinguishing many of the recent Equiclce 
by their teeth and bones alone (see page 73), suggests, however, 
the possibility of there being more than one European species of the 
present genus. H. von Meyer's names have the priority over Kaup's, 
but the latter is too generally accepted to admit of supersession. 
This is the type species, and has three digits to each foot. 

Hah. Europe, North- western Persia 11 , and Algeria 12 . 



1 Neues Jahrb. 1833, p. 327 ; Equus (Hippotherium). 

2 Loc. cit. a Loc. cit. 
4 Zeitschr. fur Min. 1829, vol. i. p. 152. 

» Ibid. p. 280. 

I; Comptes Kendus, vol. xxix. p. 285 (1849). 

7 Loc. cit. * Loc. cit. 

9 Monatsh. k. preuss. Ak. Wiss. 1860, p. 356 (1861). 

10 Ibid. 1862, p. 660 (1863). 

11 See a paper by the present writer on Persian Mammals in the Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xlii. (188(5). 

13 Thomas. Mem, Soe. Geol. France, ser. 3, vol. iii. art. 2, pi. viii. (ii.) 
(1884). 

e2 



52 UNGTJLATA. 

3VL 1883. Cast of the cranium and mandible. The original is 
from the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi, Attica, and is pre- 
served in the Paris Museum of Natural History ; it is 
figured by Gaudry in the ' Animaux Fossiles et Geologie 
de 1'Attique,' pi. xxxv. fig. 1. 

Presented by B. LydelcTcer, Esq., 1884. 

33603. The greater part of the cranium, in a somewhat crushed 
condition ; from the Lower Pliocene of Cucuron (Yau- 
cluse), France. The length of the series of cheek-teeth 
is somewhat less than in the specimen figured by Gaudry, 
op. cit. pi. xxxiv. fig. 7. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26617. The greater part of the cranium of an immature individual ; 
from Cucuron. This specimen shows the incisors ; the 
length of the series of cheek-teeth is considerably less 
than in No. 33603. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

49685. The middle portion of the cranium, showing the last five 
cheek-teeth of the right side ; from Pikermi. The teeth 
agree very closely in size with those of No. 26617. 

Purchased, 1879. 

49692. Fragment of the right maxilla of an immature individual, 

provisionally referred to the present species ; from Pikermi. 
This specimen shows the five middle cheek-teeth, whose 
united length exceeds that of the corresponding teeth in 
the specimen figured by Gaudry (op. cit.). 

Purchased, 1879. 

49693. Fragment of the left maxilla of a large individual, showing 

two cheek-teeth ; from Pikermi. Purchased, 1879. 

49694. Part of the left maxilla of a young individual, showing the 

last three milk-molars ; from Pikermi. The plication 
of the enamel is less complex than in the milk-molars 
figured by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pi. xi. fig. 2, under the name of 
H. antilopinum 1 , and the hinder "pillar " of mm. 2 differs 
by being earlier connected with the adjacent " crescent." 

Purchased, 1879. 



Vide infra, p. 60. 



EQFID^ 6 53 

27590. The imperfect right maxillae of a small individual, showing- 
all the cheek-teeth except pm- 1 on both sides and the 
left m. 3 j from Cucuron. The length of the dental series 
is nearly the same as in No. 26617. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27585. Part of the left maxilla of an immature individual of large 
size, showing mm. 3 , mm. 4 , m. 1 ^ a nd m. 2 ; from Cucuron. 
The milk-molars are elongated. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33691. Part of the left maxilla, showing the five middle cheek- 

teeth ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33692. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing four cheek-teeth ; 

from Cucuron. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852 

33599. Fragment of the right maxilla, with mm. 2 and mm. 3 ; from 
Cucuron. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33694. The three associated right upper true molars ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27592. The associated upper cheek-teeth of both sides, wanting 
the right m. 3 and pm. 1 of both sides ; the premolars and 
the left m. 3 are in germ ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

19439. Part of the left maxilla of a large individual; from the 
Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, Hessen Darmstadt. 

Purchased, 1845. 

49696. Six detached upper cheek-teeth ; from Pikermi. 

Purchased, 1879. 

21018. Numerous detached upper cheek-teeth ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaujj, 1847. 

27477. Several detached upper cheek-teeth ; from Eppelsheim. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27479. An incisor ; from Eppelsheim. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 421. Several detached cheek-teeth from Eppelsheim. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 



54 UNGTTLATA. 

M. 420. An upper and a lower cheek-tooth ; from the Upper 
Miocene of Alzey, Hessen Darmstadt. 

Ennishillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

38726. Four upper cheek-teeth, provisionally referred to the present 
species ; from the Lower Pliocene of Concud, near Teruel, 
Spain. Purchased, 1864. 

43614. A right upper cheek-tooth, provisionally referred to the 
present sp ecies ; from Concud. 

Presented by Professor Vilanova y Piera, 1870. 

37409,46696,48962. Three upper cheek-teeth ; from the Red Crag 
of Suffolk. Purchased. 

35858. The outer half of an upper cheek-tooth ; from the Red Crag 
of Suffolk. Presented by J. Berners, Esq., 1861. 

28247, 37410/ 48971. Three lower cheek-teeth; from the Red 
Crag of Suffolk. Purchased. 

49695. The extremity of the premaxillae of an immature individual, 
showing the three incisors of the right side ; from Pikcrmi. 

Purchased, 1879. 

3602. The extremity of the premaxillae of an immature individual, 
showing the three incisors of either side ; from Cucuron. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33699. The extremity of the premaxillaa of a very old individual, 
showing all the incisors, except the third of the right 
side ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

49697. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the six cheek- 

teeth; from Pikermi. Purchased, 1879. 

49698. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with ^2 and 

pm. 3 ; from Pikermi. Purchased, 1879. 

49699. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of a youno- 

individual, showing the three milk-molars ; from Pikermi. 

Purchased, 1879. 

49686. Portions of two associated mandibular rami ; from the 
Lower Pliocene of Mont Leberon (Vaucluse), France. 

Purchased, 1879. 



EQunLE. 55 

33711. The right ramus of the mandible of an immature individual, 
showing the three milk-molars and m . 1 ; from Cucuron. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26618. The right ramus of the mandible of a younger individual ; 

from Cucuron. This specimen shows the canine and the 
three milk-molars. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

33610. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of a young indi- 

vidual, showing the three milk-molars ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33611. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of a young individual, 

showing the three milk-molars ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27587. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with the first four 
cheek-teeth ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33614. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the six 
cheek-teeth ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard, Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33713. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the last 

four cheek-teeth ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33714. The alveolar portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 

showing the six cheek-teeth ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33608. Fragment of the right ramus of a mandible, with the 
first two cheek-teeth ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33612. The anterior portion of the mandible of a young individual, 

showing portions of the three milk-molars ; from Cucuron. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26619. Fragment of a mandible, showing four cheek-teeth in a very 

much worn condition ; from Cucuron. 

Pomel Collection. PurcJiased, 1851. 

M. 248. The greater portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 
showing the six cheek-teeth ; from Eppelsheim. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 



56 TJNGULATA. 

27476. The greater portion of the right ramus of the mandible, 
showing the six cheek-teeth ; from Eppelsheim. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

21012. The symphysis and part of the right ramus of the mandible* 

showing the second and third incisors, and all the cheek- 
teeth except m. 3 ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

21013. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of a young individual, 

showing the three milk-molars ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

M. 249. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with m . 2 
and m. 3 ; from Eppelsheim. 

Ennislcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

21018, 27478. Numerous detached lower cheek-teeth ; from Eppels- 
heim. Purchased. 

21024. Cast of the extremity of the mandibular symphysis of 
an immature individual, showing the three incisors of 
either side. The original is from Eppelsheim, and is 
figured by Kaup in the ' Beitrage,' pt. 5, pi. iii. fig. 6. 

Purchased. 

M. 355. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of a young indi- 
vidual, showing the three milk-molars, and m . l in alveolo ; 
from Eppelsheim. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 354. Numerous detached cheek-teeth ; from Eppelsheim. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

49703. The distal portion of the left humerus ; from Pikermi. 

Purchased, 1879. 

49704. The distal portion of the right radius, together with the 

associated scaphoid, lunar, magnum, and part of the third 
metacarpal ; from Pikermi. Purchased, 1879. 

44801. The distal half of a left radius, provisionally referred to this 
species ; from Toledo, Spain (the age is unknown). 

Presented by Benjamin Bright, Esq., 1873. 

33721. The right radius, wanting the distal epiphysis ; from 

Cucuron. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33722. The left radius ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



eqtjid^;. 57 

M. 1976. Cast of the distal portion of the right fore limb, from the 
middle of the carpus downwards. The original is from 
Pikermi, and is preserved in the Paris Museum of Natural 
History ; it is precisely similar to the specimen figured by 
Gaudry in the ' Animaux Fossiles et Geologie de FAttique,' 
pi. xxxv. fig. 14. 

Presented by the Paris Museum of Natural History, 1885. 

27591. The right metacarpus and phalanges of a smaller form ; 
from Cucuron. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33731. The right third metacarpal, rather smaller than the cor- 

responding bone of the preceding specimen ; from Cucuron. 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33732. The right third metacarpal, agreeing with the last ; from 

Cucuron. - Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33732 a. The right third metacarpal (imperfect distally), of a more 
slender type ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1975. Cast of the distal half of the left carpus, together with 
the complete third, and the proximal portions of the 
second and fourth metacarpals. The original is from 
Pikermi, and is preserved in the Paris Museum of Natural 
History. 
Presented by the Paris Museum of Natural History, 1885. 

33729. The left third metacarpal ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33637. The left third metacarpal ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27480. The left third metacarpal; from Eppelsheim. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

49687. Block of matrix containing a considerable portion of the 
two innominates ; from Mont Leberon. Purchased, 1879. 

49701, 49702. Two portions of the right innominate ; from Pikermi. 

Purchased, 1879. 

M. 2645. Cast of the right femur of a very large individual. The 
original is from Eppelsheim. Purchasi d. 



58 



UNGULATA. 



33641. The left femur of a small individual; from Cucuron. This 

specimen is only two thirds the length of the preceding. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33640. The distal portion of the left femur of a large individual ; 
from Cucuron. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

26644. The distal half of the right femur of a smaller individual ; 
from Cucuron. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

33642. The left tibia ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33745. The left tibia ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1977. Cast of the distal portion of the right hind limb, from the 
tarsus downwards. The original is from Pikermi, and is 
preserved in the Paris Museum of Natural History. 

Presented by the Paris Museum of Natural History, 1885. 

26625. The left tarsus and metatarsus of a smaller individual ; from 
Cucuron. The fourth metacarpal is considerably larger 
than the second. Pomel Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

27589. The right metatarsus ; from Cucuron. The fourth meta- 
carpal is much larger than the second. The specimen is 
noticed by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' 
ser. 10, vol. ii. p. xi. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

49705. The greater portion of the distal elements of the left hind 
limb, comprising the distal half of the tibia, astragalus, 
calcaneum, cuboid, navicular, ento cuneiform, third meta- 
tarsal, and first and second phalangeals of the same digit ; 
from Pikermi. Purchased, 1879. 

33640. The distal half of the left tarsus, together with the greater 

portion of the metatarsus and phalangeals ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33680. The left third and fourth metatarsals ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33679. A third metapodial, imperfect proximally ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased. 1852. 



EQTJID^E. 



59 



49690. The distal extremity of a third metapodial ; from Mont 
Leberon. Purchased, 1879. 

33650-52. Three specimens of the right calcaneum ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33649. The left calcaneum and astragalus ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33666, 33666 a, 33746. Three specimens of the right astragalus ; 
from Cucuron. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

49689. The right astragalus ; from Mont Leberon. 

Purchased, 1879. 

21491. The right astragalus, of very large size : from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

36597. The left astragalus, and a portion of the calcaneum ; from 
Pikermi. This specimen agrees in size with the last. 

Presented by P. J. Gran, Esq., 1853. 

33657. The left astragalus ; from Cucuron. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 421 a. A second phalangeal of the third digit ; from Eppelsheim. 
EnnisJcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

49700. Part of the centrum of the axis vertebra ; from Pikermi. 

Purchased, 1879. 



Hipparion antllopinum (Falconer and Cautley *). 

Syn. Ilvppotherium antelopinum, Falconer and Cautley 2 . 

The dentition of this species appears almost indistinguishable 
from that of H. gracile, but the limb-bones provisionally referred 
to it indicate a monodactyle form :: . A cranium which had been 

1 ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pt. 9, pi. lxxxii. (1849), Hippotherium. 

2 Loc. cit. 

:t These specimens were referred by Falconer and Cautley to this species in 
the 'Fauna Antiqua Siyaleneds ;' and Prof. Gaudry, in the ' Anhnaux Fossiles 
du Mont Leberon,' p. 40 (1873), noticed that they indicated a monodactyle 
form. In the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 79, the present writer 
(nut having then seen the specimens) doubted the correctness of their specific 
reference, but an examination of the specimens themselves induces him to 
think that Falconer and Oautley'fl view is probably correct. 



60 TJNGULATA. 

provisionally referred to it (' Palseontologia Indica/ ser. 10, vol. iii. 
pp. 11, 14) presents well-marked distinctions from H. gracile, but 
it is not certain that this specimen may not belong to the same 
form as certain jaws from the Punjab figured by the present writer 
in the ' Palseontoiogia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pi. xi., under the 
present name. A specimen (No. M. 2646), noticed below, indicates 
that these specimens may be specifically distinct, this being con- 
firmed by the Punjab teeth being found in association with the 
distal articular surfaces of small-sized lateral metapodials, and with 
first phalangeals of a stouter type than those referred to the present 
form. If this inference should be correct, the Punjab form may be 
named H. punjabiense. 
Hah. India. 

M. 2647. Part of the right maxilla, showing all the cheek-teeth 
{Fig.) except pm. 1 ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, 
India. This specimen is the type, and is figured (reversed) 
by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Siva- 
lensis,' pi. lxxxii. figs. 13, 13 a; m. 3 is only just touched 
by wear. Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

16170. Middle portion of the cranium, showing pm. 4 and the three 
{Fig.) true molars ; from the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer 
and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxii. fig. 16. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2646. Part of the maxilla of a young individual, showing the 
three milk-molars and m^J. ; f ro m the Siwalik Hills . 
The first true molar is well worn ; the milk-molars agree 
nearly in length with those of the younger specimen from 
the Punjab figured under the name of H. antilopinum in 
the ' Palseontoiogia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pi. xi. fig. 2, 
but are relatively narrower, as is shown by the following 
measurements : — 

No. M. 2646. Punjab jaw. 

Length of mm. 3 0,024 0,025 

Width „ „ 0,020 0,024 

Length of mm. 4 0,025 0,026 

Width „ „ 0,020 0,0242 

This difference, as already observed, not improbably in- 
dicates specific distinction. 

Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer 



40825. Part of the left maxilla of an immature individual, pro- 
visionally referred to the present species ; from the Si- 
waliks of Perim Island, Gulf of Cambay. This specimen 
shows two premolars in alveolo, m- 1 (with the crown cut 
and polished), m- 2 just protruded, and m. 3 in alveolo. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867- 

M. 2648. Fragment of an upper cheek-tooth; from the Siwalik 

{Fig.) Hills. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. 

lxxxii. fig. 17. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

16580. Two upper cheek-teeth, provisionally referred to this species; 
from the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

40871. A left upper cheek-tooth, provisionally referred to this 
species ; from the Siwalik Hills. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

M. 2497. Two right upper cheek-teeth, provisionally referred to 
this species : from Perim Island. 
Presented by Azam Wajeshankar Gowreeshanhar, Esq., 1885. 

37390. The second left upper premolar, in a much-rolled condition ; 
from Perim Island. Presented by A. Eogers, Esq., 1863. 

M. 2652. The greater portion of the mandible, showing the three 
{Fig.) premolars and m. 1 ; from the Siwalik Hills. Figured by 
Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxii. figs. 14, 14 a. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

37258. Fragment of the left ramus of a mandible, with three cheek- 
teeth, provisionally referred to this species ; from Perim 
Island. Presented by Walter Eiuer, Esq. 

M. 2652 a. Fragment of the right ramus of a mandible, with ^72 
and m. 3, provisionally referred to this species ; from the 
Siwalik Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2653. The extremity of the mandible. Figured by Falconer 
{Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxii. figs. 15, 15 a. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 



62 UNGTJLATA. 

The specific reference of the following specimens is provisional ; they 
are too small to have belonged to the SiwaliJc species of Equus. 
Unless otherwise stated, they are from the ShvaliJc Hills, and 
belong to the Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2657. The proximal third of the left radius. Figured by Fal- 
(Fig.) coner and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiv. fig. 5. 

M. 2658. The distal portion of the right radius. Figured by Fal- 
(Fig.) coner and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiv. fig. 6. 

M. 2659. The distal extremity of the left radius, with the associated 
(Fig.) carpus. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. 
lxxxiv. fig. 7. 

M. 2649. The left carpus and the proximal extremity of the meta- 
(Flg.) carpus. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. 

lxxxiv. fig. 8 (in conjunction with the distal portion of 

the radius). 

M. 2650. The left third metacarpal. Figured by Falconer and 
(Fig.) Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxiv. fig. 9. There are no facettes 
for lateral metacarpals at the distal extremity. 

18006. The right metacarpus, imperfect distally. Figured by 
(Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiv. fig. 10. The 

second and fourth metacarpals do not extend below the 

middle of the third metacarpal. 

M. 2458. The distal portion of the left carpus and the proximal 
portion of the metacarpus. 

M. 2651. The distal extremity of the right femur. Figured by 

(Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiii. fig. 10 (as Equus). 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.G.B., 1848. 

40690. The distal extremity of a left femur, perhaps belonging to 
this species ; from Perim Island. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

23150. The distal extremity of a smaller left femur ; from Perim 
Island. Presented by Dr. Beust. 

16160 a, 16160 b. Two patellae, the larger of which may belong to 
H. iheobaldi. 



EQUITY. 63 

40691. The distal extremity of a tibia, perhaps belonging to this 
species ; from Perim Island. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

M. 2654. The distal portion of the right tibia. Figured by Falconer 
(Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxv. fig. 9. 

M. 2655. The distal portion of the left tibia, together with the 
associated tarsus and proximal extremity of the meta- 
tarsus. 

M. 2656. The left astragalus. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxxv. fig. 10. 

M. 2660. The left calcaneum. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxxv. fig. 18. 

16680. The left tarsus, metatarsus, and proximal portion of the 
(Fig.) first phalangeal. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 

pi. lxxxv. fig. 11. The second and fourth metatarsals 
did not extend below the middle of the third metatarsal. 
The latter is longer and more slender than the corre- 
sponding bone of H. gracile, and thereby approaches 
Equus. 

M. 2459. The distal portion of the left tarsus, and the associated 
proximal extremity of the third metatarsal. 

16681. The left third metatarsal. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxxv. fig. 12. 

17865. The left second and third metatarsals. Figured by Falconer 
(Fig.) and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiv. fig. 21. 

18007. The associated distal extremity of a third metapodial, and 
(Fig.) first and second phalangeals. The first phalangeal is of 
a much more slender type than that of II. gracile, or than 
the corresponding bone provisionally referred to the small 
Punjab form (see the writer's ' Catalogue of Siwalik Ver- 
tebrata in the Indian Museum, Calcutta,' Part 1, p. 58, 
No. C. 171 [1885], where this specimen is referred to 
the present species). The present specimen is figured 
by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxv. fig. 13. 

M. 2661. The first phalangeal. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxxv. fig. 14. 



64 TTN&TJLATA. 

17430. The first phalangeal. 

M. 2662. The first phalangeal. 

M. 2663. The second phalangeal. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
{Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxxv. fig. 15. 

M. 2700. The second phalangeal. 

40626. The second phalangeal. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

17956. The terminal phalangeal. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxxv. fig. 16. 

M. 2664. Portion of an innominate, perhaps belonging to the 
(Fig.) present species. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 
pi. lxxxiii. fig. 8 (as Equus). 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39583. The sacrum and last lumbar vertebra, perhaps belonging to 
this species. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

Hipparion richthofeni, Koken \ 

This species has been founded on detached teeth which present 
a great resemblance to those of H. antilopinum (including the Punjab 
specimens figured by the present writer under that name), but yet 
show differences which are considered of specific value. The first 
and second upper true molars are relatively wide. The foot is 
unknown. 

Hab. China. 

28584. Several upper and lower cheek-teeth ; from the Pliocene (?) 
of the south of China. 

Presented by D. Hanbury, Esq., 1853. 

Hipparion theobaldi, Lydekker 2 . 

Syn. Sivalhippus theobaldi, Lydekker 3 . 
Hippotherium theobaldi, Lydekker 4 . 

This species is considerably larger than the two preceding ones, 

1 Pal. Abhand. vol. iii. pt. 2, p. 39 (1885). 

2 Rec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. x. p. 31 (1877) ; Sivalhippus. 

3 Loc. cit. 

4 Palseontologia Indica, ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 81 (1882). 



eqtjtd^:. 65 

and it presents distinctive characters in the upper premolars ; the 
plication of the enamel is comparatively slight, and the cement very 
thick externally. The foot x is stout and has three digits. 
Hab. India and (?) China. 

M. 2665. The second left lower premolar ; from the Pliocene 
Siwaliks near Peshawar, Punjab, India. 

Presented by Sir R. I. Hurchison, Bart. 

28585. A left upper cheek-tooth, provisionally referred to this 
species ; from the Pliocene (?) of the south of China. 
This specimen agrees in size with the true molars of the 
specimen figured by the present writer in the ' Palaeon- 
tologia Indica ' (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. 
pi. xi. fig. 3. Presented by B. Hanbury, Esq., 1853. 

37391. A left astragalus, perhaps belonging to this species; from 
the Siwaliks of Perim Island, Gulf of Cambay. 

Presented by A. Rogers, Esq., 1863. 

Genus EQUUS, Linn. 2 
Including Hippidion, Owen 3 . 

Bentition : — I. |, C. \, Pm. ||^, M. |. In existing species the 
first upper cheek-tooth is usually absent in the adult, but is re- 
tained in some extinct species ; rarely the first tooth of the typical 
series is present in the lower jaw of young animals, as in one young 
example of E. sivalensis (No. 22108), and in another of E. hemi- 
onus*. The anterior "pillar" in the upper cheek-teeth is con- 
nected with the anterior inner "crescent" throughout its length, 
and there is but one digit to each foot. The so-called Hippidion 
is distinguished by the upper cheek-teeth having short and much- 
curved crowns, in which the anterior and posterior pillars are of 
equal size, and by the existence of a rudiment of the fifth meta- 
carpal. These characters the writer is not disposed to consider of 
generic value ; the great curvature of the crowns of the upper 
cheek-teeth is a character recalling Toxodon and Nesodon, andis 
unlike Hipparion. A maxillary fossa may be present (E. andium 
and E. sivalensis). 

1 ' Pakeontologia Indica ' (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. pi. xii. 

2 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 100 (1766). 

3 Phil. Trans, for 1869, p. 572 (1870). As a subgenus. 

4 See Flower, Cat. Vert. Anim. Mus. R. Coll. Surg., pt. ii. Mammalia, p. 413, 
no. 2108 (1884). 

PABT III. F 



66 TJNGT7LATA. 

Equus principalis, Lund \ 

Syn. Equus macrognathus, Weddell 2 . 

Equus neogceus, P. Gervais 3 (non Lund). 
Hippidion principalis, Owen 4 . 
Equus arcidens, Owen 5 . 
Hippidion arcidens, Owen 6 . 

The writer follows Burmeister (' Die fossilen Pferde der Pampas- 
formation,' p. 61 [1875]) in identifying E. arcidens with the present 
form. The species is of larger size than E. neogceus, Lund, and has 
the crowns of the upper cheek-teeth very short, much curved, and 
with a small anterior "pillar," which is not larger than the posterior. 
The first upper premolar is present. 

Hab. S. America. 

40492. Five upper cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Arroyo, 
(Fig.) Gutierrez, near Paysandu, Uruguay, These specimens 
are the types of E. arcidens, and are described and figured 
by Owen in the Phil. Trans, for 1869, p. 566, pi. lxii. 
figs. 1-8 ; they agree precisely with the corresponding 
teeth in the complete dental series figured by Burmeister, 
op. cit. pi. iii. fig. 3. 

Presented by W. G. Lettsom, Esq., 1867. 

18095. A left upper cheek-tooth ; from a cavern in Minas Geraes, 
Brazil. Olaussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

Equus sivalensis, Falconer and Cautley \ 

This species, with which Forsyth-Major 8 identifies Equus stenonis, 
Cocchi 9 , occurs in the Pliocene Siwaliks of India. The first upper 
cheek-tooth is frequently retained, and mm . 1 is present in one 
instance, the anterior pillars of the upper true molars are very short 
antero-posteriorly (thereby indicating affinity with Hipparion) ; the 
diastema is shorter than in E. caballus, and there is a trace of a 
'•' larmial " depression on the maxilla. The cranium comes nearer 

1 K Danske. Vid. Selsk. Skr. vol. xii. p. 89 (1846). 

2 Voyage dans le Sud de la Bolivie, p. 204 (1851, forming vol vi. of Castelnau's 
Expedition, ' Hist. d. Voyage '). 

3 Eech. s. Mam. Foss. de l'Ameriqne Meridionale, p. 33 (1855). 

4 Phil. Trans, for 1869, p. 573 (1870). 5 Loc. cit. p. 559. 

6 Loc. cit. p. 572. 

7 « Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pt. 9, pi. lxxxi. (1849). 

8 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xli. p. 2 (1885). 

9 Mem. Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. vol. ii. art. 7, p. 14 (1867). 



eqttid^;. • 67 

to that of E. hemionus than to that of E. caballus, the preinaxilla? 
being relatively short. The " splint-bones " did not unite with the 
third metapodial. 
Hob. India. 

16160. The cranium, broken off in front of pm. 3 ; from the Pliocene 
{Fig.) of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is the type of the 
species, and is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the 
' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxxxi. fig. 1 ; it is noticed 
by the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 
10, vol. ii. pp. 87, 89. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842 

16227. Hinder portion of a cranium provisionally referred to this 
{Fig.) species ; from the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer and 
Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxi. fig. 2. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2666. Part of the left maxilla, containing the last five cheek- 
{Fig.) teeth ; from the Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer and 
Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxii. fig. 3. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2698. The premaxillae and mandibular symphysis, provisionally 
{Fig.) referred to this species ; from the Siwalik Hills. Figured 
by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxii. fig. 5. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

22107. The middle portion of the right ramus of a mandible pro- 
{Fig.) bably belonging to the present species ; from the Siwalik 

Hills. This specimen, which shows all the cheek-teeth, is 
figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pis. lxxxi. fig. 4, 
and lxxxii. fig. 2. Presented by Col. Colvin. Before 1846. 

22108. The anterior portion of the mandible of a young individual 
{Fig.) probably belonging to the present species ; from the Siwalik 

Hills. This specimen shows the three milk-molars of 
either side, and in advance of p^72 a small cylindrical 
alveolus for m "u^. The specimen is figured by Falconer 
and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxii. fig. 4. 

Presented by Col. Colvin. Before 1846. 

M. 2667. The extremity of the maxillary symphysis of a female, 
{Fig.) showing the six incisors and small canines; from the 

Siwalik Hills. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 

pi. lxxxii. fig. 6. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

p2 



bb UNGTJLATA. 

The following specimens, which indicate an animal somewhat 
smaller than the fossil race o/E. caballus, were all obtained from 
the Siivalik Hills ; and, unless otherwise stated, belong to the 
Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2668. The proximal portion of the left radius and ulna. Figured 
{Fig.) by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiv. fig. 1. 

M. 2669. The proximal half of the right radius. Figured by 
(Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiv. fig. 2. 

40826. The distal portion of the right radius. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

M. 2670. Fragment showing the adjacent portions of the humerus, 

(Fig.) radius, and ulna, together with the left calcaneum. 

Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiii. fig. 9. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

M. 2671. The right third metacarpal. Figured by Falconer and 
(Fig.) Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiv. fig. 4. 

M. 2672. The left femur. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxxxv. fig. 1. 

36733. The proximal portion of the right femur. Figured by 
(Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxv. fig. 2. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

M. 2673. The distal extremity of the right femur. Figured by 
(Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiii. fig. 11. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. BaJcer, K.G.B., 1848. 

17835. The left tibia. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxxxv. fig. 3. 

M. 2674. The left calcaneum. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxxv. fig. 5. 

M. 2675. The left astragalus. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxxv. fig. 6. 

16681. The right third metatarsal. Figured by Falconer and 
(Fig.) Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxv. fig. 7. 

17828. The right third metatarsal. Figured by Falconer and 
(Fig.) Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiv. fig. 20. 

M. 2676. A proximal phalangeal. Figured by Falconer and Caut- 
(Fig.) ley, op. cit. pi. lxxxv. fig. 8. 



EQUITY. 69 

M. 2677. Portion of an innominate, with the distal extremity of a 
{Fig.) small metapodial attached ; the former perhaps belonging 

to this species. Figured by Falconer and Cantley, op. cit. 

pi. lxxxiii. fig. 7. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

M. 2678. The atlas vertebra. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fie/.) op. cit. pi. lxxxiii. fig. 1. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

M. 2679. A cervical vertebra. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxxiii. fig. 2. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

M. 2680. A cervical vertebra. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxxiii. fig. 3. 

Presented bp Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

M. 2681. A cervical vertebra. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxxiii. fig. 5. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

M. 2682. An early dorsal vertebra. Figured by Falconer and 
(Fig.) Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiii. fig. 7. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.O.B., 1848. 

Equus stenonis, Cocchi \ 

S}Ti. Equus maynus, Bravard, MS. 

As already mentioned (supra, p. 6Q) this species has been 
identified by Forsyth-Major with E. sivalensis, but the evidence for 
this appears to the writer to be at present insufficient. The anterior 
pillars of the upper cheek-teeth are short antero-posteriorly, and the 
enamel is plicated in the central islets ; the " splint-bones " did not 
unite with the third metapodials, those of the fore foot being less 
reduced in size than those of the hind foot. 

J fab. Europe and Algeria 2 . 

28812. Two upper cheek-teeth ; from the Upper Pliocene of the 
Yal d'Arno, Italy. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

33470 a. A left upper cheek-tooth provisionally referred to this 
species ; dredged off Happisburgh, Norfolk, and probably 
derived from the Forest-bed. 

Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

1 Mem. Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. vol. ii. art. 7, p. 14 (1867). 

- Thomas, Mem. Soe. Geo!. Franco, s<t. :\, vol. iii. art. 2, pi. ix. (iii.) (1884). 



70 TTJTGTTLATA. 

34636. The left lower cheek-dentition ; from the Upper Pliocene of 
Mont Perrier, near Issoire (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. This 
specimen agrees precisely with the one figured by Forsyth- 
Major in the "Geschichte der foss. Pferde, &c." (Abh. schw. 
pal. Ges. vol. vii.) pt. 2, pi. vii. fig. 22 ; it was named in 
MS. E. magnus by Bravard. This specimen presents a 
great resemblance to the mandible of E. sivcdensis, No. 23107, 
but the molars are relatively wider. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28813. Part of the left ramus of a mandible, containing the four 

middle cheek-teeth, provisionally referred to this species ; 
from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

The reference of some of the following specimens is provisional-, those 
from Perrier were referred by Bravard to Ms E. magnus. 

28844. The distal half of the left humerus and the associated radius 
and ulna ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

34644. The distal half of the left humerus ; from the Upper Plio- 
cene of Mont Perrier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28815. The left third metacarpal ; from the Upper Pliocene of the 
Yal d'Arno. This bone agrees precisely in length with 
the corresponding bone of E. sivalensis, but is somewhat 
stouter. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28815 a. A third metacarpal of a smaller individual, wanting the 
proximal extremity ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal 
d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

34646. The right femur, wanting the distal extremity; from the 
Upper Pliocene of Mont Perrier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28814. The right astragalus ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal 

d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

34650. The right astragalus; from the Upper Pliocene ot Mont 
Perrier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

33470 b. The articular half of a very large right calcaneum; 
dredged off Happisburgh, Norfolk, and probably derived 
from the Forest-bed. 

Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 



EQxrms. 71 

28816. The left third metatarsal ; from the Upper Pliocene of the 

Yal d'Arno. This bone is shorter and stouter than either 
of the corresponding bones of E. sivalensis. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

34651. The left third metatarsal ; from the Upper Pliocene of Mont 

Perrier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34652. The right third metatarsal; from the Upper Pliocene of 

Mont Perrier. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34653. The right third metatarsal; from the Upper Pliocene of 

Mont Perrier. Bravard Collection. Purcliased, 1852. 

28817. A first phalangeal; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal 

d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28818. The terminal phalangeal of a hind foot ; from the Upper 

Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28843. An imperfect cervical vertebra ; from the Upper Pliocene of 
the Yal d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28843 a. The hinder half of a cervical vertebra ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B, Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

34643. The dorsal half of a cervical vertebra : from the Upper 
Pliocene of Mont Perrier. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

Equus namadicus, Falconer and Cantley l . 
Syn. (?) Equus palceonus, Falconer and Cautley 2 . 

This species was originally determined from the Pleistocene 
Narbadas, but has been recorded by the present writer in the 
1 Paheontologia Indica ' (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. ii. 
pi. xiv., from the Pliocene Siwaliks. It differs from E. sivalensis by 
the greater antero-posterior length of the anterior pillars of the 
cheek-teeth, by the square crowns of the upper milk-molars, and 
the relatively longer premaxillse ; all these being more specialized 
characters. The first upper premolar is often present, although not 
so frequently as in E. sivalensis. E. palceonus was founded on im- 
mature specimens provisionally referred to the present species. 

Hab. India. 

1 • Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis.' pt. 9, pi. lxxxi. (1849). 
- Lor. cit. 



72 TTNGT7LATA. 

M. 2683. The cranium, imperfect anteriorly ; from the Pleistocene of 
{Fig.) the Narbada Valley, India. This specimen is the type, 

and is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna 

Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxxxi. fig. 5. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

M. 2684. Part of the left maxilla, containing all the cheek-teeth 
{Fig.) except pm. 1 (of which there is no trace) ; from the Nar- 

bada Valley. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 

pi. lxxxii. fig. 7. 

Presented by 0. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

16171. A left maxilla provisionally referred to the present species ; 

{Fig.) from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. This specimen 
(which is of very large size) has been figured (reversed) 
by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxii. fig. 1, under 
the name of E. sivalensis ; but (on account of the large 
antero-posterior diameter of the anterior pillars) has been 
provisionally referred by the present writer, in the ' Palse- 
ontologia Indica/ ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 94, 95, to the present 
species. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2685. The extremity of the premaxilla? of a young female ; 
{Fig.) from the Narbada Valley. Figured by Falconer and 

Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxii. fig. 10, under the name of E. 

palceonus, of which it is the type. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

M. 2686. The extremity of the premaxillae of an old individual. 
{Fig.) Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxii. fig. 9, 
as E. palceonus. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

M. 2687. The middle portion of the left ramus of the mandible, 
{Fig.) showing the six cheek-teeth ; from Narsingpur, Narbada 

Valley. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 

pi. lxxxii. fig. 8. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

M. 2688 Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the three 
premolars ; from near Jhansi, Narbada Valley. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

M. 2689. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of a young indi- 
{Fig.) vidual, showing the three milk-molars ; from the Narbada 



EQTTTDiE. 73 

Yalley. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. 
lxxxii. fig. 11, as E. palazonus. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

M. 2690. Part of the right ramus of an old individual of a small- 
sized species of Equus, showing the last four cheek-teeth ; 
from the Xarbada Yalley. It is not improbable that this 
specimen is specifically distinct from E. namadicus. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

M. 2691 . The right radius ; from near Xarsingpur. Figured by 
(Fiy.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiv. fig. 13. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

M. 2692. A smaller left radius ; from the Xarbada Yalley. Figured 
(Fiy.) by Falconer aud Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxxiv. fig. 14. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

M. 2693. A cervical vertebra ; from the ISarbada Yalley. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

CquuS cab alius, Linn. 1 

Including : — Equus adamiticus, Schlotheini 2 . 
Equus brevirostris, Kaup 3 . 
Equus fossilis, Meyer 4 . 
Equus plicidens, Owen 5 . 
Equus spelceus, Owen 6 . 

As the writer has been unable to specifically distinguish the 
specimens referred to the foregoing forms from E. cabdllus, they are 
all provisionally referred to that species ; but it is quite probable 
that they may really belong to more than one species, as it has been 
shown by Leidy, Riitimeyer, and others that it is impossible to di- 
stinguish the teeth and bones of many of the existing Equidoe from 
one another. In a memoir on the Pleistocene horses of Europe, 
Nehring 7 refers the great majority of the specimens examined by 
him to E. caballus, but says that there is also good evidence of the 
existence of E. Jiemionus. In the Pleistocene race of the present 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 100 (1766). 

2 Die Petrefactenkunde, p. 11 (1820). 

3 Neues Jahrb. 1833, p. 518. 
1 Palaeologica, p. 72 (1832). 

■ Kep. Brit. Assoc, for 1843, p. 231 (1844). 

6 Phil. Trans, for 1809, p. 544 (1870). 

7 " Fossile Pferde aus deutscben Diluvial-Ablagerungen, &c." Landwirt. 
Jahrb. 1884, pp. 81-160. 



74 TJNGTJLATA. 

species the " splint-bones" did not unite with the third metapodial. 
The specimens in the Museum indicate a great variation in size ; • 
those from the Pleistocene of Essex and Kent belonging to a very 
large race, while those from the Brighton " elephant-bed" are equally 
small, and some of the latter may perhaps belong to E. hemionus. 
Variations in the form of the proximal articular surface of the third 
metatarsal are noticeable in some instances. 

In the typical form the long diameter of the anterior " pillar " of 
the upper cheek-teeth is equal to more than one third the length of 
the crown ; the crowns are nearly straight and square ; the enamel- 
plications are usually not very complex, there is no maxillary fossa, 
and the maxilla is produced much behind m. 3 . 

Hah. As a domestic animal, the greater part of the world ; in the 
Pleistocene, Europe and Arctic America. 

45290. The parieto-frontal half of the cranium ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Ilford, Essex. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

41546. The cranium of a male about five years old; from the 

turbary of Walthamstow, Essex. A very minute pm. 1 is 
present on the left side. Purchased, 1869. 

41545. The cranium of a female about six and a half years old ; 
from the turbary of Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

41547. The cranium of a female of about the same age as the last ; 

from the turbary of Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

41548. The cranium of a young individual; from the turbary of 

Walthamstow. The alveolus of a very minute mm. 1 is 
present on both sides ; the normal three milk-molars and 
m. 1 are in use, while m. 2 is just protruding from its 
alveolus. Purchased, 1869. 

46094-5. Two specimens of the occipital portion of the cranium ; 
dredged off the Eastern coast. (? E. stenonis.) 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

47633. The middle portion of the cranium of a young individual : 
{Fig.) from a cavern in Windmill Hill, Gibraltar. This specimen 
is figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. vii. 
fig. 2 ; it shows the alveolus of mm. 1 , and the three suc- 
ceeding milk-molars of the left side, and on the right side 
mm. 2 and mm. 3 . Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

23742 e. The palate of a young individual, showing on the right 
side the normal three milk-molars and m. 1 in alveolo, and 



■EQjnnm. 75 

on the left mm. 3 , mm. 4 , and m. 1 ; from the Pleistocene of 
Slade Green, near Erith, Kent. Purchased, 1849. 

34657- The six associated cheek-teeth of the left side ; from the 
Pleistocene (?) Alluvium of Tour-de-Boulade (Puy-de- 
Dome), Prance. This and the other specimens from the 
same locality are the types of Bravard's (MS.) Equus 
juvillacus, but the writer has been unable to distinguish 
them from the existing species. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34658. Pragment of the left maxilla, showing the last five cheek- 
teeth ; from the Alluvium of Tour-de-Boulade. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

38168. Part of the left maxilla, showing the normal six cheek-teeth ; 
{Fig.) from the cavern of Bruniquel (Tarn-et-Garonne), Prance. 

This specimen is described and figured by Owen in the 
Phil. Trans, for 1869, p. 544, pi. lx. fig. 2, under the name 
of Equus spelaius, of which (together with the other speci- 
mens from the same locality) it is the type. 

Purchased, 1864. 

38169. Part of the right maxilla, showing the normal six cheek- 
(Fig.) teeth ; from the cavern of Bruniquel. Described and 

figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. lx. fig. 3, as E. spelaus. 

Purchased, 1864. 

38175. Fragment of the left maxilla of an immature individual ; 

(Fig.) from the cavern of Bruniquel. This specimen shows pm. 2 
and pm. 3 in alveolo, and the much worn mm. 3 and mm. 4 . 
It is described and figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. lx. figs. 5, 
6, under the name of E. spelceus. Purchased, 1864. 

38175 a. Pragment of the left maxilla of a young individual, show- 
ing mm. 2 , mm. 3 , and the alveolus of mm. 1 ; from the 
cavern of Bruniquel. Purchased, 1864. 

38171. Part of the right maxilla of an immature individual, show- 
( Fig.) ing the last four cheek-teeth (pm. 4 and m. 3 not fully pro- 
truded) ; from the cavern of Bruniquel. Described and 
figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. lx. fig. 4, as E. spelams. 

Purchased, 1864. 

M. 2701. Part of the right maxilla, showing the last five check- 
teeth ; from an English Pleistocene deposit. No history. 



76 UTsTGULATA. 

16812. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing two cheek-teeth ; 
from Kent's Cavern, Torqnay, Devonshire. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

18757, 21291, 21646, 22032. Numerous detached cheek-teeth of 

very large size ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. 

Purchased* 

45291-45296. Six detached upper cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

18982. Three upper cheek-teeth ; from Kent's Cavern. In the 
complex plication of the enamel these specimens agree with 
the so-called E. plicidens of Owen. 

Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

18982 a. Numerous upper cheek-teeth ; from Kent's Cavern. 

Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

7262, 7263, 7266, 7272, 7274, 8443. Numerous cheek-teeth ; from 
the Pleistocene (" elephant-bed ") of Brighton, Sussex. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

27624. Two upper cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene (?) Alluvium 
of La Comhette, near Champeix (Puy-de-D6me), France. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 2702. Two upper cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Essen, 
Westphalia. EnnisTcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

36920. Three detached teeth of a small form ; from the Pleistocene 
fissures of Oreston, near Plymouth, Devonshire. These 
agree in size with the specimens from the same locality 
figured in Owen's ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' 
p. 396, figs. 157, 158, under the name of Asinus fossilis. 

Purchased, 1862. 

47635-6. Fragments of the maxilla and detached cheek-teeth ; from 
the caverns of Gibraltar. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

23713. Numerous detached cheek-teeth; from the Pleistocene of 
Slade Green. Purchased, 1849. 

33470. Numerous detached cheek-teeth ; dredged off Happisburgh, 
Norfolk (some of these may belong to E. stenonis). 

Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

27864. Three upper cheek-teeth; from the Pleistocene of Felixstowe, 
Suffolk. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 



EQTJID^. 77 

16002-3. Two upper cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Sutton, 
near Peterborough, Northampton. Purchased, 1842. 

27951. A right upper cheek-tooth; from the Pleistocene of Clacton, 
Essex. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

44024. A left upper cheek-tooth ; from the Pleistocene of Godman- 
chester, Huntingdonshire. Purchased, 1859. 

41552. Part of the mandible, showing the six cheek-teeth of the 

right, and the first four of the left side ; from the turbary 
of Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

41553. The hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible, show- 

ing the six cheek-teeth ; from the turbary of Walthamstow. 

Purchased, 1869. 

27511. Part of the right ramus and symphysis of the mandible of 
an old individual ; from a bog at Kyson, near Woodbridge, 
Suffolk. Purchased, 1852. 

45297. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 

the six cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45298. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 

three premolars ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

23743 e. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the 
three premolars ; from the Pleistocene of Slade Green. 

Purchased, 1849. 

20819. The hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, contain- 
ing the three true molars ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, 
Essex. Purchased, 1847. 

16810. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the first 
five cheek-teeth ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

15637. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the last five 
(Fig.) cheek-teeth ; from Kent's Cavern. Figured in McEnery 's 
1 Cavern Researches/ pi. K. fig. 6. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

38182. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the six 
(Fig.) cheek-teeth ; from the cavern of Bruniquel. Figured by 

Owen in the Phil. Trans, for 1869, pi. lvii. fig. o, as E. 

sjjeloeus. Purchased, 1864. 



78 UNGTTLATA. 

38184. Part of the right ramus of the mandible with the six cheek- 
teeth ; from the cavern of Bruniquel. Purchased, 1864. 

38187. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the canine 
{Fig.) and the first four cheek-teeth ; from the cavern of Bruni- 
quel. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. lvii. fig. 8, as E. 
spelceus. Purchased, 1864. 

27744. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
four cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene (?) Alluvium of 
Tour-de-Boulade (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34659. The hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible ; from 

Tour-de-Boulade. This and the following specimens from 
the same locality belong to Bravard's E. juvillacus. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34660. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the six cheek- 

teeth ; from Tour-de-Boulade. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34661. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with the six cheek- 

teeth ; from Tour-de-Boulade. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34662. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, with m^ 

and m . 3 ; from Tour-de-Boulade. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34663. The symphysis and part of the left ramus of the mandible ; 

from Tour-de-Boulade. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34664. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the six 

cheek-teeth ; from Tour-de-Boulade. 

Bravard Collection. P rchased, 1852. 

34665. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the six cheek- 

teeth ; from Tour-de-Boulade. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34666. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the last four 

cheek-teeth ; from Tour-de-Boulade. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

v 44071. Part of the right ramus of the mandible of a young indi- 
vidual, containing mm. 3, mm. 4, and the alveolus of 



EQTTID^. 79 

m. 1; from the Pleistocene of the Porcupine River, 
Dominion of Canada. 

Presented by Rev. B. McDonald, 1873. 

38175 b. The symphysis and portion of the left ramus of the man- 
(Fig.) dible of a young individual ; from the cavern of Bruniquel. 

Figured by Owen in the Phil. Trans, for 1869, pi. lvii. 

fig. 7, under the name of E. sj)elceus. Purchased, 1864. 

18982. Symphysis of the dandible of an immature individual; 
from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

28053. Part of the symphysis of the mandible, showing four incisors ; 
from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

45299-45301. Three detached lower cheek-teeth; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

20819. The left half of the symphysis and part of the ramus of the 
mandible of a young individual ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. The three incisors and the first premolar are exhi- 
bited in alveolo. Purchased, 1847. 

29654. The second right lower premolar, of large size ; from the 
Pleistocene of Eppelsheim, Hessen-Darmstadt {E. adami- 
ticus). Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27896. The second right lower premolar, of small size ; from the 
Pleistocene of Clacton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

43626. Two lower cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Schwein- 
furt, Bavaria. Purchased, 1859. 

M. 64. Three lower cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Apple- 
cake Hill, Bickly, Knighton -on-Teme, Worcestershire. 

Purchased, 1880. 

43608. Numerous detached teeth ; from a raised beach at AVeston- 
super-Mare, Somersetshire. 

Presented by E. C. H. Day, Esq., 1866. 

40388. Three detached cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Oundle, 
Northampton. Presented by G. M. Edmonds, Esq., 1867. 

45304. The left scapula, imperfect distally ; from the Pleistocene of 
lltord. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 



80 TTNGULATA. 

47639. The greater part of the right scapula; from the Genista 
{Fig.) Cave, Gibraltar. Figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. 

vol. x. pi. viii. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

45305. The right humerus ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

18103. The right humerus ; from a bog in Ireland. 

Purchased, 1842. 

47640. The proximal extremity of the right humerus ; from the 
(Fig.) Genista Cave, Gibraltar. Figured by Busk in the Trans. 

Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. ix. fig. 1. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

23121. The distal two thirds of the right humerus; from the 
Pleistocene in the neighbourhood of Maidstone, Kent. 

Purchased, 1849. 

23765. The distal third of the right humerus ; from the Pleistocene 
of Slade Green. Purchased, 1849. 

28575. The left radius and ulna ; from a cavern in Sundwig, West- 
phalia. Purchased, 1853. 

45306. The left radius ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

7302. The left radius; from the Pleistocene of Brighton. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

27885. The left radius ; from the Pleistocene of Walton-on-the- 
Naze, Essex. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

16 (0. C). The left radius; from the Pleistocene of Eschscholtz 
(Fig.) Bay, Kotzebue Sound, Alaska. Figured in F. W. Beechey's 

' Voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Straits in H.M.S. 

' Blossom ' during the years 1825 to 1828,' vol. ii. pi. iii. 

(Fossils), fig. 13. 

Presented by Capt. F. W. Beechey, R.N. 

28580. The right radius; from a cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. 

Purchased, 1853. 

23752 e. The distal half of the left radius ; from the Pleistocene of 
Slade Green. Purchased, 1849. 

36605. The right scaphoid ;• from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1855. 



eqtjid^:. 81 

23149. The right unciform ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1849. 

36604. The right unciform ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1855. 

45307. The right third metacarpal, from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

37121. The right third metacarpal; from the Pleistocene of Erith, 
Kent. Purchased, 1863. 

37121 a. The right third metacarpal ; from Erith. 

Purchased, 1863. 

27993. The right third metacarpal ; from the Pleistocene of Walton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

215 k (0. C). The right third metacarpal ; from the Pleistocene 
fissures of Oreston. 

Presented by William Clift, Esq. Before 1836. 

27624. The right metacarpus ; from the Pleistocene (?) Alluvium of 
La Combette, near Champeix. This and other specimens 
from the same locality are of a very wide type. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

18982 b. The right third metacarpal ; from Kent's Cavern. 

Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

28581. The right third metacarpal; from a cavern in Sundwig, 
Westphalia. Purchased, 1853. 

28581 a. The right third metacarpal ; from a cavern in Sundwig. 

Purchased, 1853. 

45308. The left third metacarpal ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45309. The left third metacarpal ; from Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45310. The left third metacarpal ; from Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

23726 e. The left third metacarpal ; from the Pleistocene of Slade 
Green. Purchased, 1849. 

37121. The left third metacarpal ; from the Pleistocene of Erith. 

Purchased, 1863. 

PART III. G 



82 UNGTJLATA. 

27932. The left third metacarpal ; from the Pleistocene of "Walton. 

Presented by John Broivn, Esq., 1852. 

27624 a. Two specimens of the left third metacarpal (one having 
the second metacarpal attached) ; from the Alluvium of 
La Combette. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

16885. The left third metacarpal ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

28581 b. The left second and third metacarpals ; from a cavern in 
Sundwig. Purchased, 1853. 

218 b (0. C). The left third metacarpal, of small size ; from the 
Pleistocene of Eschscholtz Bay. 

Presented by Cajpt. F. W. Beechey, B.N. 

41565. The terminal phalangeal of a fore foot ; from the turbary 

of Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

41566. The terminal phalangeal of a fore foot; from the turbary 

of Walthamstow. Purchased, 1869. 

34688. The terminal phalangeal of a fore foot ; from the Pleisto- 
cene (?) of Tour-de-Boulade (E. juvillacus, Brav.). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

45314. The pelvis ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45315. Part of the right innominate; from the Pleistocene of 

Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

27634. Part of the left innominate ; from the Pleistocene (?) of La 
Combette. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

47641. Part of the left innominate; from the Genista Cave, Gib- 

(Fig.) raltar. Figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. 

pi. xviii. fig. 3. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

46101. The right femur ; dredged off the Dogger Bank. 

Oivles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

21293. The proximal half of the left femur; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

45316. The distal half of the right femur ; from the Pleistocene of 

Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 



27629. The distal third of a smaller right femur ; from the Pleisto- 
cene (?) of La Combette. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

18968. The distal third of the left femur; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased, 1845. 

27969. The distal third of the left femur ; from the Pleistocene of 
Walton. Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

39286. The distal third of the left femur ; from a superficial de- 
posit at Saffron Walden, Essex. 

Presented by G. E. Roberts, Esq., 1865. 

43710. The left patella ; from the Pleistocene fissures of Oreston. 

P srchased, 1872. 

37129. The right tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Erith. 

Purchased, 1863. 

24576. The right tibia, imperfect proximally ; from the Pleistocene 
of Kotzebue Sound, Alaska. 
Presented by Cajot. Kellett and Lieut. Wood, R.N., 1850. 

24576. The distal two thirds of the right tibia ; from the Pleistocene 
of Kotzebue Sound. 

Presented by Capt. Kellett and Lieut. Wood, 1850. 

45317. The shaft of the tibia of a young individual ; from the 
Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

40965. The left tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Crayford, Kent. 

Purchased, 1868. 

34689. The left tibia, imperfect proximally ; from the Pleistocene (?) 
of Issoire (Puy-de-D6me), Erance. This specimen is 
referred by Bravard to his E. juvillacus. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28033. The left calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton, Essex. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

21292. The right calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 

215 h (0. C). The right calcaneum, of smaller size ; from the Pleis- 
tocene fissures of Oreston. 

Presented by William Clift, Esq. Before 1836. 

q2 



84 UNGULATA. 

22027. The left calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of Erith. 

Purchased, 1848. 

36602. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1855. 

36920. The right astragalus, of very large size ; from the Pleistocene 
fissures of Oreston. Purchased, 1862. 

21292a. The right astragalus, slightly smaller than the last; from 
the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

21292 b. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 

45327. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

18982 c. The right astragalus ; from Kent's Cavern. 

Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

34690. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene (?) of Tour-de- 
Boulade. This specimen is referred by Bravard to his 
E.juvillacus. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

7333. Two specimens of the right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene 
of Brighton. These are of small size. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

36920 a. The left astragalus ; from the Pleistocene fissures of Oreston. 

Purchased, 1862. 

18280. The left astragalus ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

216 a (0. C). The left astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Esch- 
scholtz Bay. Presented by Captain F. W. Beechey, R.N. 

7339. Two specimens of the left astragalus ; from the Pleistocene 
of Brighton. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

23725 e. The right third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of Slade 
Green. Purchased, 1849. 

45319. The right third metatarsal; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45320. The right third metatarsal, wanting the distal extremity ; 

from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 



eqttid^:. 85 

45322. The right third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

27932. The right third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of Walton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

27932 a. The right third metatarsal; from the Pleistocene of Walton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

18982 d. The right third metatarsal ; from Kent's Cavern. 

Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

28581. The right third metatarsal; from a cavern in Sundwig, 
Westphalia. Purchased, 1853. 

7259. The right third metatarsal ; from a depth of 45 feet below the 
surface in the Western Road, Brighton. This specimen is 
of small size. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

34699. Two specimens of the right third metatarsal; from the 
Pleistocene (?) of Tour-de-Boulade (E. juvillacus, Brav.). 
Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

218 a (0. C). The right third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of 
Eschscholtz Bay. 

Presented by Cajot. F. W. Beechey, R.N. 

40966. The left third metatarsal; from the Pleistocene of Crayford. 

Purchased, 1866. 

37122. The left third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of Erith. 

Purchased, 1863. 

23725 e. The left third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of Slade 
Green. Purchased, 1849. 

45321. The left third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

7295. Four specimens of the left third metatarsal ; from the 
Pleistocene of Brighton. All are of small dimensions. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

28820. The left third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of the 
Valley of the Thames. Purchased. 

18982 e. The left third metatarsal ; from Kent's Cavern. 

Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

16884. Two specimens of the left third metatarsal; from Kent's 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 



8b mTGTTLATA. 

40389. The left third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of Oundle, 
Northampton. Presented by G. M. Edmonds, Esq., 1867. 

18094. The left third metatarsal ; from a bog in Ireland. The 
proximal extremity is diseased. Purchased, 1842. 

28581. The left third metatarsal ; from a cavern in Sundwig, West- 
phalia. Purchased, 1853. 

27624. The left third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene (?) of La 
Combette. Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

34700. The left third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene (?) of Tour- 
de-Boulade (E. juvillacus). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34697. The left third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of Tour-de- 
Boulade (E. juvillacus). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

44073. The proximal two thirds of the left third metatarsal ; from 
the Pleistocene of the Porcupine River, Canada. 

Presented by Rev. R. McDonald, 1873, 

45311-2. Two first phalangeals ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

47643. A first phalangeal ; from a cavern in Gibraltar. Figured by 
(Fig.) Busk, op. cit. pi. vii. fig. 3. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

45323. A first phalangeal (imperfect) ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

23727 e. A first phalangeal (imperfect) ; from the Pleistocene of 
Erith. Purchased, 1849. 

37123. A first phalangeal; from the Pleistocene of Eritb. 

Purchased, 1863. 

36434. A first phalangeal ; from the Pleistocene of Ipswich, Suffolk. 
Brown Collection. Presented by Sir R. Owen,K.CB., 1859. 

40967. A first phalangeal ; from the Pleistocene of Crayford. 

Purchased, 1868. 

40391. A first phalangeal; from the Pleistocene of Oundle. 

Presented by G. M. Edmonds, Esq., 1867. 

215 i (0. C). A first phalangeal ; from the Pleistocene fissures of 
Oreston. 

Presented by William Clift, Esq. Before 1836. 



EQTJID.E. 87 

34680-1. Two first phalangeals ; from the Pleistocene (?) of Tour- 
de-Boulade (E. juvillacus). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

\ 44074. A first phalangeal ; from the Pleistocene of the Porcupine 
River. Presented by Rev. R. McDonald, 1873. 

7341. A first phalangeal ; from the Pleistocene of Brighton. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

M. 422. The proximal two thirds of a first phalangeal ; from the 
Pleistocene of Hessle. 

EnnisJcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

34656. The first phalangeal of an Equus ; from the Upper Pliocene 
or Pleistocene of Puy- de-Dome, France. This specimen 
was named by Bravard in MS. E. elatus. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

45313. A second phalangeal ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

37123 a. A second phalangeal ; from the Pleistocene of Erith. 

Purchased, 1863. 

34685. A second phalangeal ; from the Pleistocene (?) of Tour-de- 
Boulade (E. juvillacus, Brav.). 

Bravard, Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

36603. The terminal phalangeal of a hind foot ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased, 1855. 

7223. The terminal phalangeal of a hind foot ; from the Pleistocene 
of Brighton. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

34716. The terminal phalangeal of a hind foot; from the Pleisto- 
cene (?) of Tour-de-Bonlade (E. juvillacus, Brav.). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

47644. Two terminal phalangeals belonging to very young animals ; 
from the Genista Cave, Gibraltar. 

Brome Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

M. 1619. The atlas vertebra of a very large form ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Weimar. 

Presented by C. Westendarp, Esc/., 1884. 

41774. The atlas vertebra; from the turbary of "VValthamstow. 

Purchased, 1869. 



OO TTNGTJLATA. 

34669. The atlas vertebra ; from the Pleistocene (?) of Tour-de- 
Boulade (E. juvillacus, Brav.). 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

27625. The atlas vertebra, wanting the alae ; from the Pleistocene 
of Vic-la-Conte, near Issoire (Puy-de-D6me). 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

46097. The axis vertebra ; dredged off the Eastern coast (? E. ste- 
nonis). Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

39288. A cervical vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Saffron Walden. 

Purchased. 

44072. A cervical vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of the Porcupine 
River. Presented by Rev. B. McDonald. 1873. 

18821. Anterior portion of the sacrum ; from the Pleistocene of the 
Thames Valley. Purchased, 1845. 

45303. Anterior portion of the sacrum; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

46100. The greater part of the sacrum ; dredged off the Eastern 
coast (? E. stenonis). 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

Equus eurvidens, Owen 1 . 
Syn. Equus affinis-caballo, Lund 2 . 

In this species the relative length of the anterior pillar of the upper 
cheek-teeth is nearly the same as in E. caballus, but the crowns are 
more or less curved ; they are usually as wide as or rather wider 
than long, and the plication of the enamel is comparatively slight 3 . 

Hah. South America 4 . 

18917.. Eive upper cheek-teeth ; from the caverns of Minas Geraes, 
Brazil. Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

18918. Five lower cheek-teeth ; from the caverns of Minas Geraes. 

Claussen Collection. Purchased, 1845. 

1 Cat. Fobs. Mamm. Mus. E. Coll. Surg. p. 236 (1845). 

2 K. Danske Yid. Selsk. Skr. vol. xii. p. 86 (1846). 

3 See Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xxii. p. 10 (1884). 

4 Leidy (Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. for 1847, p. 263) recorded this species 
from N. America, but it is probable that the specimens so named belong to one 
of the species peculiar to that country. 



V 



equid^:. 89 

Equus, sp. a. 

The following specimens probably belong either to E. major, De 
Kay 1 , or E. occidentalism Leidy 2 . Both these species have large upper 
teeth, with the crowns slightly curved, and long anterior " pillars " ; 
the latter species being distinguished by the smaller degree of the 
plications of the enamel-folds 3 . Leidy states 4 that it is frequently 
almost or quite impossible to specifically determine isolated teeth. 

Hah. North America. 

40846. A left upper cheek-tooth ; from the (marine) Pleistocene of 
Newbern, North Carolina, U.S.A. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

10538-9. Two lower cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of North 
Carolina. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

7914. A proximal phalangeal ; from the Pleistocene of " Big-Bone- 
Lick," Kentucky, U.S.A. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

The following specimens are not specifically determined : — 
A. From the English Upper Tertiary or Post-tertiary. These speci- 
mens indicate an animal considerably larger than any of those 
to which the bones referred to E. caballus or E. stenonis be- 
longed. 

46099. The left radius, wanting a portion of the proximal articula- 
tion ; dredged off the Eastern coast. 

Oivles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

33502. The left third metatarsal ; from the Norwich Crag (Upper 

Pliocene) of Norfolk. 

Wigham Collection. Purchased, 1859. 

33503. The distal extremity of a third metapodial ; from the Nor- 

wich Crag. Wigham Collection. Purchased, 1859. 

M. 2703. The distal two thirds of a third metapodial ; from the 
Norwich Crag. Presented by Dr. H. Woodward, 1857. 

1 Nat. Hist. New York— Zool. p. 108 (1842). 

2 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. for 1865, p. 94. 

3 See Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xxii. p. 11 (1884). 

4 Extinct Vert. Fauna Western Territories (Rep. U.S. Geol. Geogr. Surv.), 
p. 242 (1873). 



90 



TJNGULA.TA. 



M. 2704. A right upper cheek-tooth, with the upper end cut and 
{Fig.) polished ; from the Red Crag of Bawdsey, Suffolk. De- 
scribed and figured by Owen in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
vol. xii. p. 233, fig. 12, where it is provisionally referred 
to E. plicidens. The form of the anterior ■" pillar " is like 
that of E. caballus and unlike that of E. stenonis ; it is not 
impossible that the specimen belongs to the former species. 
Presented by Sir 0. Lyell, Bart. 

B. From the SkualiJcs of the Irawadi Valley l , Burma : this and the 
next specimens may belong to Hipparion. 

7523. The symphysis of the mandible, with the crowns of the teeth 
(Fig.) broken off. Figured by Falconer and Cautley in the 
' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis/ pi. lxxxii. fig 12. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

C. From the Upper Pliocene (?) of Hundes in Western Tibet 2 , and 
brought by traders over the Niti Pass. 

M. 2695. The proximal extremity of the left radius. Figured by 
(Fig.} Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis/ 
pi. lxxxiv. fig. 16. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2696. The left magnum. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. 
(Fig.) cit. pi. lxxxiv. fig 18. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2697. The left astragalus. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxxiv. fig. 17. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 



Family RHINOCEROTIDiE. 

Including Hyracodontidce. 

The upper premolars are nearly or quite as complex as the true 
molars ; the lower cheek-teeth are more or less completely crescentoid ; 
the height of the cheek-teeth varies considerably, the crowns being 

1 In Mantell's Catalogue (MS.) this specimen is said to be from the Himalaya, 
but it is figured by Falconer and Cautley as from Burma. 

2 See Lydekker, Kec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. xiv. pp. 178-184 (1881). These 
beds are here provisionally classed as Pleistocene, but the writer now thinks they 
are more probably of Upper Pliocene age. 



RHINOCEEOTID^. 



91 



tallest in Elasmotherium. One or more dermal horns may be attached 
to the fronto-nasal region. The digits on the pes are apparently 
always three, but they may be either three or four in the manus. 

Genus RHINOCEROS, Linn. 1 

Including 2 : — Aceratherium, Kaup 3 . 
Atelodus, Pomel 4 . 
Ceratorhmus, Gray 5 . 
Diceratherium, Marsh 6 . 
Zalabis, Cope 7 . 
Aphelops, Cope s . 
Peraceras, Cope 9 . 
C&nopus, Cope 10 . 

Following Flower's n arrangement of the living Ehinoceroses in a 
single genus, there seems no good reason for excluding the hornless 
forms 12 , in some of which the number of digits in the manus is four, 
and in others three ; canines and incisors, as in the horned forms, 
vary in number 13 . 

Dentition :— I. g=g, C. ~^ y Pm. \, M. |. In the adult the first 

premolar may be absent in both jaws ; pm. 1 is sometimes a true 
dent de remjjlacement u . The upper cheek-teeth ia have two transverse 

1 Syst. Nat, ed. 12, vol. i. p. 104 (1766). 

2 For the numerous genera adopted by Cope, see Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 
vol. xix. p. 393 (1881). 

3 Isis, 1832, p. 904. 

4 Ann. Soc. Lit. Auvergne, vol. xxvi. p. 114 (1853). 

5 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 1006. 

6 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. ix. p. 242 (1875). 

7 Amer. Nat. vol, xiii. p. 771b (1879). (Founded on an error.) 

8 Ann. Eep. Chief of Engineers, vol. ii. p. 991 (1875). Also occurs in pri- 
vately published Paheont. Bull. No. 14, p. 1 (1873). 

9 Amer. Nat. vol. xiv. p. 540 (1880). 

10 Amer. Nat. vol. xiv. p. 611 (1880). 

11 Cat, Vert, Anim. Mus. E. Coll. Surgeons, part ii., Mammalia, pp. 415-432 
(1884). 

12 The female of R. sondaicus (the so-called B. inermis of Lesson) appears to 
be hornless in some instances. The genus Aceratherium was retained for the 
fossil forms by the writer in the ' Palasontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii., and in 
his ' Catalogue of Siwalik Vertebrata in Indian Museum,' part i. (1885), Cal- 
cutta. 

13 The outermost lower cutting-tooth is here reckoned as a canine. 

14 See a paper by the present writer in the Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. xlix. 
pt, 2, p. 135, pi. vii. (1880). 

15 For the explanation of the terms employed in describing the upper cheek- 
teeth of this family, see woodcut on page 116, and ' Pakeontologia Indica,' ser. 
10, vol. ii. p. 8. 



92 TJNGULA.TA. 

crests, and an outer wall with open valleys ; they may or may not 
have a " combing-plate " and a buttress at the antero-external angle ; 
their crowns vary in height, but are never very tall. The hinder 
premolars are as complex as the true molars ; the lower cheek-teeth 
are distinctly crescentoid, and there is no third lobe to m. 3. 



A. Atelodine group. 

Two fronto-nasal horns are present ; all the cutting-teeth, with 
the occasional exception of the lower incisor, are absent in the 
adult, and the upper true molars not unfrequently lack a buttress. 
The man us has three digits. The group is more specialized than 
any of the others. 

Rhinoceros antiquitatis, Blumenbach \ 

Syn. Rhinoceros tichorhinus, Fischer 2 . 
Rhinoceros pallasi, Desmarest 3 . 
Rhinoceros jourdani, Lortet and Chantre 4 . 

The nasal septum is fully ossified and of great stoutness; the 
upper true molars have no buttress, but all the upper cheek-teeth 
have a large " combing-plate " and three fossettes on the worn 
crowns, of which the plane of wear is nearly horizontal ; there is 
usually no distinct cingulum on their anterior surfaces, and the 
enamel is very rugose. The crowns of the lower cheek-teeth are 
worn nearly horizontally. 

Hab. Europe and Northern Asia (Pleistocene). 

49661. Cast of the skull of an immature individual. The original 
is from Kronberg, Bavaria. Purchased, 1878. 

M. 2763. Cranium, wanting the palate ; from the Pleistocene of 
Siberia. No history. 

M. 2764. Cranium, wanting the palate; from the Pleistocene of 
{Fig.) Siberia. This specimen is figured in Owen's i British 
Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 325, fig. 120. 

No history. 

1 Handbuch der Naturgeschichte, 1st French ed. vol. ii. p. 408 (1803). 

2 Zoog. Syst. 1813, teste Flower. 

3 Mammalogie, p. 402 (1822). 

4 Arch. Mus. Lyon. toI. i. p. 80 (1872). 



KEIXOCEKOTID^. 93 

M. 2765. The cranium, wanting all the teeth except the left m. 2 , 
which is much worn ; from the Pleistocene of Siberia. 

So history. 

46085. The cranium of an immature individual, showing the last 
five cheek-teeth of the right side ; dredged off the Dogger 
Bank. This specimen has sustained a fracture during the 
lifetime of its owner across the frontal region, by which its 
anterior region is bent considerably to one side. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

28561. The much damaged hinder portion of the cranium; from a 
cavern in Sundwig, Westphalia. Purchased, 1853. 

120-123 (0. C). Part of the left fronto-nasal region of the cranium 
(Fig.) together with three associated upper true molars ; from 
the Pleistocene of Chartham, near Canterbury, Kent. 
These specimens were obtained by Mr. J. Somner in 1668, 
and were described as the remains of a sea-monster in a 
pamphlet entitled ' Xews from Chartham in Kent, &c.,' 

Kg. 12. 




Rhinoceros antiquitatis. — The second right upper true molar ; from the 
Pleistocene of Chartham, Kent. }. 



94 TJNGULATA. 

London, 1669 \ The portion of the cranium (No. 120) is 
described and figured in Owen's ' British Fossil Mammals 
and Birds,' p. 325, fig. 121 ; and one of the molars (No. 
122) on p. 329, fig. 122 of the same work ; the latter 
figure is reproduced in woodcut (fig. 12). No history. 

M. 2766. The greater part of the nasals ; from the Pleistocene of 
Siberia. This specimen has evidently been cut away from 
the cranium. No history. 

14600. The middle portion of the nasals ; from Kent's Cavern, 
(Fig.) Torquay, Devonshire. This specimen, which has been 

gnawed by Hysenas, is figured in McEnery's * Cavern 

Eesearches,' pi. L. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

38721-4. Five associated upper cheek-teeth, comprising m. 2 and 
m. 3 of both sides and the right pm. 3 ; from the Pleistocene 
of Peckham, Surrey. Noticed by Boyd-Dawkins in the 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 226 (1867). 

Purchased, 1864. 

47111. The last five upper cheek-teeth of both sides, in a half-worn 
condition ; from the Pleistocene near Peterborough, North- 
ampton. Sharp Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

33188. The third left upper true molar; from the Pleistocene of 
Wellingborough, Northampton. 

Presented by Sir B. Owen, K.C.B., 1857. 

M. 2767. Portions of two upper cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene 
of Chatham, Kent. No history. 

45289. Portion of an upper cheek-tooth ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford, Essex. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

M. 61. Portion of a left upper cheek-tooth ; from the Pleistocene of 
Applecake Hill, Bickly, Knighton-on-Teme, Worcester- 
shire. Purchased, 1880. 

M. 246. The third right upper true molar (imperfect) ; from the 
Pleistocene of Maidstone, Kent. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

1 There is a copy in the King's Library, British Museum ; and it is reprinted 
in the Phil. Trans, for 1701, pp. 882-893, with two figures of molars. 



EHIXOCEKOTID^;. 95 

16 (0. C). The fourth right upper premolar ; from Kirkdale Cave, 
(Fig.) Yorkshire. Figured iu Owen's ' British Fossil Mammals 
and Birds,' p. 335, fig. 125. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

16147, 16802, 16803. A large series of upper cheek-teeth; from 
Kent's Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

18289,18982. A large series of upper cheek-teeth ; from Kent's 
Cavern. Presented by Rev. Tipton Richards, 1845. 

16147 a, 16803 a. A series of upper milk-molars ; from Kent's 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

18982 a. A number of upper milk-molars ; from Kent's Cavern. 
Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

28566. The third left upper premolar ; from a cavern in Sundwig. 

Purchased, 1853. 

32360. The fourth left upper premolar ; from a cavern in Sundwig. 

Purchased, 1853. 

21019. The fourth right upper premolar ; from a cavern in Sundwig. 

Purchased, 1853. 

10 (0. C). The second right upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene 
of Sandhofen on the Rhine. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

115 (0. C). The second right upper true molar ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Eichstadt. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

7, 8 (0. C). Two specimens of the second right upper true molar; 

from the Pleistocene of Cannstadt, near Stuttgart, 

Wiirtemberg. One of these specimens shows a strong 

anterior cingulum, and thereby approaches R. platyrhinus. 

Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

9 (0. C). The third left upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene 
of Cannstadt. Sommering Collection. Purchased, 1827. 

44756. The third left upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene of 
Rugby, Warwickshire. 

Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 



\)b UNGT7LATA. 

28562. The nearly complete mandible, showing all the teeth except 
pm. l ; from a cavern in Sundwig. Purchased, 1853. 

M. 2772. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible of an 
immature individual, showing all the teeth except pm. 1, 
of which there is no alveolus ; from the Pleistocene of 
Westeregeln, near Magdeburg, Saxony. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

33935. Part of the symphysis and left ramus of the mandible of a 
young individual, showing one milk-molar in situ and a 
true molar in alveolo ; from the Pleistocene of East 
"Wickham, Kent. Presented by H. Edgell, Esq., 1859. 

6 (0. C). The second right lower true molar ; found during the 

(Fig.) digging of the Regent's Canal, in the Pleistocene gravel of 

London. Described and figured in Owen's ' British Possil 

Mammals and Birds,' p. 337, fig. 127. No history. 

43653. A right lower true molar ; from the Pleistocene fissures of 
Oreston, near Plymouth, Devonshire. Purchased, 1872. 

28988. A left lower true molar ; from the bed of the Thames at 
Battersea. Purchased, 1853. 

16006. A slightly worn third left lower true molar ; from the 
Pleistocene of Sutton, near Peterborough, Northampton- 
shire. Purchased, 1842. 

46087. Three lower true molars provisionally referred to this species ; 
dredged off the Dogger Bank. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

126 (0. C). A left lower true molar ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

16151, 16737, 16745, 16749, 16804. A large series of lower cheek- 
teeth ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

18288, 18788, 18982 b. A large series of lower cheek-teeth ; from 
Kent's Cavern. Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

28566. Three lower cheek-teeth ; from a cavern in Sundwig. 

Purchased, 1853. 

44076. The nearly complete right scapula ; from the Pleistocene of 
Clapton, Middlesex. 

Presented by W. M. Cooke, Esq., M.D., 1873. 



RHINOCEEOTID^). 97 

M. 2768. The posterior part of the glenoidal half of the right 
scapula ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

28565. The imperfect glenoidal halves of the right and left scapulae ; 
from a cavern in Sundwig. Purchased, 1853. 

46089. The left humerus, imperfect proximally ; dredged off the 
Dogger Bank. Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

16850. The distal two thirds of the left humerus ; from Kent's 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

18982. The imperfect distal two thirds of the left humerus ; from 
Kent's Cavern. Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

16850 b. The middle portion of the left humerus ; from Kent's 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

16850 c. The middle portion of the left humerus ; from Kent's 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

18304. The shaft of the left humerus of a very young individual; 
from Kent's Cavern. 

Presented by Rev. Upton Richards, 1845. 

M. 402. The shaft of the left humerus of an immature individual, 
provisionally referred to this species ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Maidstone, Kent. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

42044-5. Two specimens of the imperfect distal half of the right 
humerus ; from the Pleistocene of Doward Wood, Here- 
fordshire. Presented by Hon. K. Howard, 1870. 

28563. The right radius and ulna ; from a cavern in Sundwig. 

Purchased, 1853. 

18982. The proximal half of the right radius; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

36772. Part of the proximal half of a right ulna, provisionally 
referred to this species ; from the Pleistocene of Peckliam. 

Purchased, 1862. 

44742. The proximal two thirds of the left radius; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Bath-Easton, Somersetshire. 

Presented by B. Bright, Esq., 1873. 

TART III. n 



98 UNGTJLATA. 

46090. A left radius, provisionally referred to this species ; dredged 

off the Dogger Bank. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

46091. A right radius, provisionally referred to this species ; dredged 

off the Dogger Bank. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

16835. The left third metacarpal ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

28567. The right third metacarpal ; from a cavern in Sundwig. 

Purchased, 1853. 

46093. The greater part of the left innominate ; dredged off the 
Dogger Bank. Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

44077. The left femur ; from the Pleistocene of Clapton. Associated 

with No. 44076. 

Presented by W. M. CooJce, Esq., M.D., 1873. 

46092. The shaft of the left femur ; dredged off the Eastern coast 

of England. Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

36773. The middle portion of a left femur, associated with No. 
36772, and provisionally referred to this species; from 
the Pleistocene of Peckham. Purchased, 1862. 

44080. The right patella ; from the Pleistocene of Clapton. 

Presented by W. M. Cooke, Esq., M.D., 1873. 

16849. The left patella ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

44079. A fibula ; from the Pleistocene of Clapton. 

Presented by W. M. Cooke, Esq., M.D., 1873. 

44078. The left tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Clapton. 

Presented by W. M. Cooke, Esq., M.D., 1873. 

28564. Two imperfect specimens of the left tibia ; from the caverns 
of Sundwig. Purchased, 1853. 

16103. The distal half of the left tibia ; from the Pleistocene of 
Cold Higham. Purchased. 

M. 2769. The distal two thirds of the left tibia ; from Kent's 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842, 

M. 2770. The distal two thirds of the right tibia ; from Kent's 
Cavern. McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 



RHTXOCEROTID^:. 99 

32249. The right tibia, wanting the proximal extremity ; from the 
Pleistocene of Erith, Kent. Purchased, 1856. 

27987. The proximal extremity of a right tibia, provisionally referred 
to this species ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton, Essex. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

16850. The left calcaneum ; from Kent's Cavern. 

MeEn&ry Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

18982 a. The right astragalus ; from Kent's Cavern. 

McEnery Collection. Purchased, 1842. 

28 (0. C). The left astragalus ; from Kirkdale Cave. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

43654. The left cuboid ; from the Pleistocene fissures of Oreston. 

Purchased, 1872. 

46088. - An imperfect axis vertebra ; dredged off the Dogger Bank. 
This specimen differs from the axis (No. 22025) referred 
to B. leptorhinus. Owlcs Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

46122. Part of a cervical vertebra, provisionally referred to this 
species ; dredged off the Dogger Bank. 

Owles Collection. Purchased, 1874. 

33194. A sacrum, provisionally referred to this species ; from Easton 
Cliff, Suffolk. Purchased. 

M. 283. Several imperfect associated bones ; from the Pleistocene of 
Lawford, near Rugby, Warwickshire. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 445. Xumerous associated bones, mostly imperfect ; from the 
Pleistocene of Lawford. 

EnnisTcillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

Rhinoceros platyrhinus, Falconer and Cautley 1 . 

The narial septum is unossified : the upper cheek-teeth present a 
great resemblance to those of B. antiquitatis, having a " combing- 
plate," a third fossette on their worn crowns, no buttress at their 
antero-external angle, and the plane of wear horizontal, with a 
moderately rugose enamel. They differ, however, from typical 
specimens by the presence of a strong anterior cingulum tp the true 

1 Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis, pt. 7, pi. lxxii. (1847). 

i2 



100 



UNGULATA. 



molars. The mandible provisionally assigned to the species was 
probably without cutting-teeth, although the occurrence of such 
teeth might be expected in this Pliocene form. The species is not 
improbably an ancestral form both of B. antiquitatis (with which it 
was apparently connected by an unnamed species from Maragha in 
North-western Persia 1 ), and of the African B. simus. An upper 
molar from Algeria figured by Thomas 2 probably indicates another 
member of the same group. 

Hab. India. All the specimens are from the Pliocene of the 
Siwalik Hills. 

36661. The nearly complete cranium, showing the six cheek-teeth, 

{Fig.) in a comparatively early stage of wear. This specimen is 

described and figured (from a cast) by the present writer 

in the ' Paleeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. p. 49, pis. viii., 

and ix. fig. 2 ; it was collected by Sir W. E. Baker. 

Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

33662. The anterior portion of the cranium, in a much-rolled con- 
(Fig.) dition, and with the crowns of the teeth hammered off. 
Figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua 
Sivalensis,' pi. lxxii. fig. 1. This and the following speci- 
mens are the types. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2731. Hinder part of the cranium, with a fragment of the right 
(Fig.) ramus of the mandible attached. Figured by Falconer 
and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxii. fig. 2. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39641. The second right upper true molar, in a broken condition. 

(Fig.) Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pis. lxxii. fig. 6, 

and lxxv. fig. 11. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39640. The third right upper true molar. Figured by Falconer and 
(Fig.) Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxii. fig. 7, and lxxv. fig. 12. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

17996. Anterior portion of a mandible, provisionally referred to this 
(Fig.) species, showing the last three premolars and the first two 
true molars. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 
pi. lxxiv. fig. 6, under the name of B. sivalensis. The 
reasons for provisionally assigning this specimen to the 
present species are given by the present writer in the 

1 See a paper by the writer on the Fossil Mammalia of Maragha in the Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xlii. (1886). 

2 Mem. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 3, vol. iii. art. 2, pi. x. (iv.) fig. 3 (1884). 



KBXKTOCEROTID^. 101 

' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pp. 37-39 ; if this 
reference be correct, the specimen indicates a much smaller 
individual than those noticed above. The mandible agrees 
with the cranium in the narrowness of the interval between 
the two lines of teeth. The symphysis is broken, but 
there are no traces of the alveoli of canines ; the form 
of the symphysis and its relation to the premolars are 
more like those obtaining in R. simus and R. bicornis than 
in any other existing species. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Rhinoceros leptorhinus (Owen 1 ). 

Syn. (?) Atelodus aijmardi, Pomel 2 (teste Boyd-Dawkins). 
Rhinoceros hemitcechus, Falconer 3 . 

Rhinoceros mesotropus, Aymard 4 (in parte) (teste Falconer). 
(?) Rhinoceros lunelensis, Gervais 5 . 

Cuvier's name of R. leptorhinus being inadmissible for the next 
species, and R. (A.) aymardi and R. mesotropus being uncertain, 
while R. hemitcechus is of later date, Owen's name is adopted for 
the present species 6 . 

The occiput is narrowest superiorly, and extends but little back- 
wards : the narial septum, at least in some instances, is fully ossified. 
In the upper true molars there is a buttress but generally no " comb- 
ing plate," so that there are usually but two fossettes on the worn 
crowns ; sometimes, however, a " combing-plate " is present, and there 
are then three fossettes ; in the upper premolars a " combing-plate " 
is less unfrequent ; there is a concavity at the base of the outer surface 

1 British Fossil Mammals and Birds, p. 356 (1846). 

2 Catalogue Methodique, p. 80 (1853). 

3 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xvi. p. 488 (1860). 

4 In Pictet's ' Paleontologie,' 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 298 (1853). The B. velaunus, 
Aymard, identified by Gervais (Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 2nd ed. p. 90) with 
this form, is of Lower Miocene age, vide Filhol, Ann. Sci. G6ol. vol. xii. art. 3, 
p. 75. 

5 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 48 (1848-52). In the second 
edition Gervais identified this form with R. tichorhinus. 

6 Owen (British Fossil Mammals and Birds, p. 356) identified Jager's R. 
kirchbergensis and R. mercki with his R. leptorhinus ; and Falconer in one part 
of his memoir on R. hemitcechus (Palaeoniological Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 321) had 
some doubts whether this might not be partially correct : in other passages, 
however (loc. cit. pp. 309, 398), he identifies the German form with R. mega- 
rhinus ; the latter view is adopted by Boyd-Dawkins in the Quart. Journ. Geol, 
Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 214 (1867). In the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. n. p. 6 
the present writer followed Owen's identification, which is also followed by 
Brandt. 



102 



UNGULATA. 



of the upper true molars. The enamel is moderately rugose, and the 
crowns of the upper cheek-teeth are worn into hollows ; there are 
usually three costse on the outer surfaces of the upper hinder pre- 
molars. The lower cheek-teeth are characterized by the obliquity of 
their plane of wear, the moderate rugosity of the enamel, and the 
flattening of the outer surface of the first crescent. The limb-bones 
are of a more slender type than those of R. antiquitatis. 

Hob. Europe. Pleistocene ; according to Boyd-Dawkins 1 it does 
not occur in the Eorest-bed of the Eastern coast of England. 



27836. The cranium 
{Fig.) 



wanting the whole of the palato-maxillary 
region ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton, Essex. This 
specimen is Owen's type, and is described and figured by 
him in the ' British Eossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 356, 
fig. 131, p. 367, fig. 138, p. 368, fig. 139, and p. 369, 
fig. 140 ; it is also figured in ' Ealconer's Palaeontological 
Memoirs,' vol. ii. pi. xv., under the name of B. hemitcechus. 
Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 



45205. The cranium ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford, Essex. This 
(Fig.) specimen (fig. 13) is figured in the Geol. Mag. dec. 2, 



Eig. 13. 




Bhinoceros lepcorhinus. — Skull ; from the Pleistocene Brick-earth of the 
Thames Valley at Ilford, Essex. About \. 



Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 396 (1880). 



KHrXOCEBOTID-E. 103 

vol. i. pi. xv. When found the narial septum was com- 
plete : the whole of the cheek-dentition, with the excep- 
tion of pm. 1 , is exhibited on both sides, and is in a half- 
worn condition. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45206. The cranium, wanting the premaxillae and the whole of the 
palatal region ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. The 
anterior and posterior moieties of the narial septum are 
preserved. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

20013. The hinder half of the cranium ; from the Pleistocene of 

{Fig.) Northampton. This specimen is described and figured 

in 'Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. p. 351, 

pis. xxiii. fig. 1, and xxiv. fig. 1, under the name of 

R. hemitcechus. Purclmsed, 1846. 

48953. The hinder half of the cranium ; from kinchin Cave, Gower, 

(Fig.) Glamorganshire. This specimen is described and figured 

in ' Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs/ vol. ii. p. 351, 

pis. xxiii. fig. 2, and xxiv. figs. 2, 3, under the name of 

R. hemitcechus. Presented by Gen. E. R. Wood, 1868. 

40946. Part of the right maxilla, showing the last five cheek-teeth 
{Fig.) ( m. 1 imperfect) ; from Minchin Cave. Described and 

figured in ' Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. 

p. 323, pi. xvi. fig. 1, as R. hemitcechus. The third costa 

in pm. 4 is well exhibited. 

Presented by Gen. E. R. Wood, 1868. 

40938. The last four upper cheek-teeth of the right side, in a much- 
{Fig.) worn condition ; from Minchin Cave. Figured in ' Fal- 
coner's Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. pi. xvi. fig. 2, as 
R. hemitcechus. Presented by Gen. E. R. Wood, 1868. 

40930. The last six upper cheek-teeth, in a well-worn condition ; 
from Minchin Cave. 

Presented by Gen. E. R. Wood, 1868. 

37404. The associated upper cheek-teeth of both sides, wanting 
m. 1 on the right and pm. 1 on both sides; from the 
Pleistocene of Lexden, near Colchester, Essex. The third 
costa is shown in pm. 3 and pm. 4, and there is a large 

tubercle at the entrance of the median valley of m , as in 

No. 40930. Noticed by Boyd-Dawkins in the Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 219. 
Brown Collection. Presented by Sir R Owen, K.C.B., 1859. 



104 TTtfGTTIATA. 

40940. The second left upper true molar; from Minchin Cave. 
{Fig.) Figured in ' Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. 

pi. xvi. fig. 3, as R. hemitcecJius. 

Presented by Gen. E. R. Wood, 1868. 

40941. The third left upper true molar; from Minchin Cave. 
(Fig,) Figured in ' Falconer's Palseontologieal Memoirs,' vol. ii. 

pi. xvii. figs. 3, 4, 5, as R. hemitcechus. 

Presented by Gen. E. R. Wood, 1868. 

124 (0. C). A much-worn first right upper true molar; from Kirk- 
dale Cave, Yorkshire. 

Presented by W. Salmond, Esq. Before 1836. 

27838. The second right upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene of 
(Fig.) Clacton. Described and figured in Owen's ' British Fossil 

Mammals and Birds,' p. 373, fig. 143. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

27839. The second left upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene of 

Clacton. Presented by Jolin Brown, Esq., 1852. 

27840. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the imperfect m. 3 ; 

from the Pleistocene of Clacton. Noticed in Owen's 
' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 372. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

45207. The third right upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45209. The second left upper true molar, in a half-worn condition ; 
from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45212. The second right upper true molar, in an almost unworn 
condition ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. There is a 
" combing-plate " low down in the median valley. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

40482. The third left upper true molar, in a half-worn condition ; 
from the Pleistocene of Ilford. Purchased, 1876. 

18792, 18793, 18795. Three well-worn first or second upper true 
molars ; from the Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. Two of 
these specimens possess a " combing-plate," and (conse- 
quently) a third fossette. Purchased, 1845. 



RHIJSOCEROTID-E. 105 

18796. The well-worn fourth left upper premolar ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Grays. Purchased, 1845. 

20810. The well-worn fourth right upper premolar; from the 
Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

18755c. The fourth left upper premolar; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased, 1845. 

18795 a. The second right upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene 
of the Thames Valley. Purchased, 1845. 

36770. The little-worn first or second right upper true molar ; from 
{Fig.) the Pleistocene of Peckham, Surrey. Figured by Boyd- 

Dawkins in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxiii. pi. x. 
fig. 5 (1867). Purchased, 1862. 

36771. The fourth right upper premolar, in an unworn condition ; 

from the Pleistocene of Peckham. Purchased, 1862. 

47647. The fourth right upper premolar ; from a cavern in Windmill 
{Fig.) Hill, Gibraltar. Figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. 

vol. x. pi. x. figs. 1-3, under the name of R. hemitcechus. 

The third costa is very strongly developed. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47647 a. The second or third right upper true molar, in a middle 

{Fig.) stage of wear. Figured by Busk, op. cit. pi. x. figs. 4, 5, 7, 

as R. hemitcechus. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47647 b. An imperfect first or second left upper true molar ; from 
{Fig.) a cavern in Windmill Hill. Figured by Busk, op. cit. 
pi. x. fig. 6, as R. hemitcechus. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

45211. The inner half of a right upper premolar ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

18755 p. The first right upper milk-molar ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. This specimen agrees with the one figured in 
' Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs/ vol. ii. pi. xxv. 
fig. 3, under the name of R. hemitcechus. 

Purchased, 1845. 

40806. Cast of part of a left maxilla, showing the first three milk- 
molars, provisionally referred to this species. The original 
is from the cavern of Lunel-Viel (Herault), France, and is 
the type of Gervais's R. lunelensis. The teeth very closely 
resemble those of a specimen of the present Bp< cies figured 



106 TJNGULATA. 

in ' Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. pi. xxi. 
fig. 3, under the name of R. hemitcechus. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

M. 2518. Numerous upper cheek-teeth; from the Pleistocene of 
Barrington, Cambridgeshire. Purchased, 1885. 

45214. The nearly complete mandible, showing the normal six 
(Fig.) cheek-teeth of either side, except the left pm. 2 ; from the 

Pleistocene of Ilford. There are two mentary foramina. 
This specimen is figured in the woodcut on page 102. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45215. Considerable portion of the mandible, showing the sym- 

physis, the normal three premolars, and the left m . 3 ; 
from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45216. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible with m . 3 ; 

from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45288. The symphysis and the greater part of the right ramus of a 
mandible, provisionally referred to the present species; 
from the Pleistocene of Ilford. The teeth are all wanting ; 
and the specimen was referred by Falconer in MS. to 
R. antiquitatis, hut it is more probable that it belongs 
to the present species. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

40942. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
(Fig.) five cheek-teeth ; from Minchin Cave. Figured in 4 Fal- 
coner's Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. pi. xx., under 
the name of R. hemitcechus. 

Presented by Gen. E. R. Wood, 1868. 

40943. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing p^T3, 

pm.4, m. I, and m. 2 ; from Minchin Cave. 

Presented by Gen. E. R. Wood, 1868. 

40944. The hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing 

the three true molars ; from a cave at Gower. 

Presented by Gen. E. R. Wood, 1868. 

40945. Part of the symphysis and the right ramus of the mandible, 

with the normal three premolars ; from a cave at Gower. 
Presented by Gen. E. R. Wood, 1868. 



KHXN-OCEKOTIDJE. 107 

37405. The last five lower cheek-teeth of the right side ; from the 

Pleistocene of Lexden. 
Brown Collection. Presented by Sir P. Owen, K.C.B., 1859. 

37406. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing p m . 3, 

pm. 4, m. 2, and m . 3 ; from the Pleistocene of Lexden. 
Brown Collection. Presented by Sir P. Owen, K.C.B., 1859. 

M. 2771. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the 
three true molars ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased. 

27849. The symphysial half of a mandible of a young individual, 
without the teeth; from the Pleistocene of Grays, Essex. 
Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

27841. Part of the symphysis and the left ramus of the mandible, 
{Fig.) showing the three premolars ; from the Pleistocene of 

Clacton. Described and figured in Owen's ' British Fossil 
Mammals and Birds,' p. 363, fig. 135. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

27843. Part of the symphysis and left ramus of the mandible, 
showing pm. 4 ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

27837- Part of the symphysis and the right ramus of a mandible, 
(Fig.) provisionally referred to this species; from the Pleistocene 
of Clacton. This specimen, which shows m . 2 and m . 3 and 
the alveoli of the anterior teeth, is figured in Owen's 
' British Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 361, fig. 133 ; it 
is of large size, but agrees with the present species in the 
extension of the symphysis as far back as p m . 3. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

27842. Part of the left ramus of a mandible, provisionally referred 
{Fig.) to this species, containing pm . 4, mTl, and ^"2 ; from the 

Pleistocene of Walton. Figured in Owen's 'British Fossil 
Mammals and Birds,' p. 362, fig. 134. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

45221, 45224. Two lower check-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

M. 2519. Numerous lower cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of 
Barrington, Cambridgeshire. Purchased, 1885. 



108 



UNGTJLATA. 



The following specimens belong either to this or the next 

those from Gibraltar certainly belong to E. leptorhinus, while 
those from Ilford probably belong to the same, as H. megarhinus 
is rare in those deposits. 

20817. Part of the glenoidal half of the right scapula ; from the 
Pleistocene of Ilford. Purchased, 1847. 

47657. The proximal epiphysis of the left humerus ; from a cavern 

{Fig.) in Windmill Hill, Gibraltar. Figured by Busk in the 

Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. xi. fig. 1, under the name of 

R. hemitcechus. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

23111. The left humerus ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1848. 

27847. The left humerus, wanting the distal extremity ; from the 
Pleistocene of Clacton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

20276. The left humerus, wanting the proximal extremity; from 
the Pleistocene of Ilford. Purchased, 1847. 

45247. The shaft of the left humerus of an adolescent animal ; from 

the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

21673. The distal extremity of the left humerus ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

16853. The right humerus, wanting the proximal, and a part of the 
distal extremity ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Presented by W. Thompson, Esq. 

21275. The shaft of the right humerus; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Purchased, 1847. 

45248. The distal half of the right humerus ; from the Pleistocene 

of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

24968. The distal two thirds of the right humerus ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Ilford. Purchased, 1847. 

21277. The distal third of the right humerus ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Purchased, 1847. 

40954. The right radius and ulna ; from Minchin Cave. 

Presented by Gen. E. B. Wood, 1868. 



EHINOCEROTID^. 109 

20811. The right radius, imperfect distally ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

45254. The right radius ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45253. The left radius ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45255. The left radius ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

47657. The left radius ; from the Genista Cave, Gibraltar. Figured 
{Fig.) by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. xiv. figs. 1, 2, 
under the name of B. hemitcechus. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

21300. The left radius, wanting the distal epiphysis; from the 
Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

21679. The left radius ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. This spe- 
cimen is of large size, and may very probably belong to 
B. megarhinus. Purchased, 1847. 

23755 e, 23756. The left radius and ulna (imperfect) ; from the 
Pleistocene of Slade Green, near Erith, Kent. 

Purchased, 1848. 

23755 e-1. The proximal two thirds of the left ulna; from the 
Pleistocene of Slade Green. Purchased, 1848. 

49453. The proximal two thirds of the left ulna; from the 
Pleistocene of the Eastern coast of England. 

Purchased, 1878. 

23755 e-2. The right ulna, wanting the proximal extremity ; from 
Slade Green. Purchased, 1848. 

27869. The greater part of the right ulna of a small individual ; 
from the Pleistocene of Walton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

47659. The right lunar ; from the Genista Cave, Gibraltar. Figured 

(Fig.) by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. xv. figs. 4-8, 

as B. hemitachus. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

22038 b. The right lunar ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1848. 

45259. The left lunar ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 



110 UNGFLATA. 

45260-1. Two specimens of the left magnum ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

21318 C. The left cuneiform; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 

23149. The left cuneiform, of smaller size ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased, 1848. 

22024 a. The right third metacarpal, of large size ; from the 
Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1848. 

22024. The left third metacarpal, of equal size ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. It is probable that this and the last specimen 
belong to R. megarhinus. Purchased, 1848. 

45265. The left third metacarpal ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

27846. The left third metacarpal ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

18803 a. The first phalangeal of a third digit ; from the Pleistocene 
of the Thames Valley. Purchased, 1845. 

21318. The second phalangeal of a third digit ; from the Pleistocene 
of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

19842. The first phalangeal of a lateral digit ; from the Pleistocene 
of Essex. Purchased, 1845. 

47663. The second phalangeal of a lateral digit ; from a cave in 

(Fig.) Windmill Hill, Gibraltar. Figured by Busk in the Trans. 

Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. xv. fig. 9, under the name of P. hemi- 

tcechus. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

28028. The terminal phalangeal of a third digit ; from the Pleisto- 
(Fig.) cene of Grays. Described and figured in Owen's ' British 
Fossil Mammals and Birds,' p. 348, fig. 129. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

45280. The terminal phalangeal of a lateral digit ; from the 
Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

18819. The terminal phalangeal of a lateral digit ; from the 
Pleistocene of the Thames Valley. Purchased, 1845. 

45266. The left femur ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878, 



RHIXOCEROTID^. Ill 

47642. The distal epiphyses of the left femur ; from the Genista 
{Fig.) Cave, Gibraltar. Figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. 
Soc. vol. x. pi. ix. fig. 2, and referred to Equus caballus. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47654. The proximal portion of the right femur ; from a cavern in 

{Fig.) Windmill Hill, Gibraltar. Figured by Busk in the Trans. 

Zool. Soc. vol. x. pis. xii., xiii., under the name of R. hemi- 

tcechus. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

21285. The distal half of the right femur ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Purchased, 1847. 

45276. The distal portion of the right femur ; from the Pleistocene 
of Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45268. The right tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

21284 a. The right tibia and distal end of fibula ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Ilford. Purchased, 1847. 

21284 b. The imperfect right tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1847. 

21284 c. The right tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1847. 

38570. The right tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1864. 

47656. The right tibia ; from a cavern in Windmill Hill, Gibraltar. 
{Fig.) Figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. xiv. 
fig. 4, under the name of R. hemitaichus. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

45269. The left tibia; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

27976. The left tibia ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

45270. The distal end of the left tibia : from the Pleistocene of 

Ilford. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

18801. The right calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of the Thames 
Valley. Purchased, 1845. 

21279. TJie right calcaneum , from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 



112 TTtfGULATA. 

M. 1590. The right calcaneum; from the Pleistocene of Weimar. 
This specimen almost certainly belongs to R. megarhiuus, 
as it was associated with the upper molar of that species, 
No. M. 1585. Presented by C. Westendarp, Esq., 1884. 

45272. The left calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

22019. The left calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1848. 

20814. The left calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 
21617. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 

21278 C. The right astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1847. 

47661. The right astragalus; from the Genista Cave, Gibraltar. 
(Fig.) Figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. xv. 
figs. 1-3, under the name of JR. hemitcechus. 

Brome Collection. Purchased, 1876. 

21278 d. The left astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1847. 

21278 a. The left astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1847. 

20815. The left astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1847. 

22019 a. The left astragalus ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1848. 

21294. The left navicular, of small size ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

23713 e. The left navicular, of large size ; from the Pleistocene of 
Slade Green. Purchased, 1849.. 

21318 a, "b. The right and left cuboid ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

18802 a. The right ectocuneiform ; from the Pleistocene of the 
Thames Yalley. Purchased, 1845. 

20277. The left entocuneiform ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1847. 

23761 g-1. The right second metatarsal, of large size ; from the 
Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1849. 



RHIXOCEEOTIDJS. 113 

20816 b. The left second metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

23761 g. The right third metatarsal; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. This and the next specimen are of very large 
size. Purchased, 1849. 

19842. The right third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of Clacton. 

Presented by John Broivn, Esq., 1852. 

20245. The right third metatarsal; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Purchased, 1847. 

21294 x. The right third metatarsal ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased, 1847- 

45276. The left third metatarsal; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

47662. The third and the proximal portion of the fonrth metatarsal 
(Pig.) of the right side; from the Genista Cave, Gibraltar. 
Figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. xvi. 
Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

47766 a. The proximal half of the third and the complete fourth 

(Fig.) metatarsal of the right side ; from a cavern in Windmill 

Hill, Gibraltar. The former is figured by Busk in the 

Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x. pi. xvii. figs. 1-4, as R. hemitcechus. 

Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

23761 g-2. The fourth right metatarsal, of large size ; from the 
Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1849. 

19834 a. The fourth right metatarsal, of smaller size ; from the 
Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1845. 

47650. Two portions of the atlas vertebra ; from the Genista Cave, 

(Fig.) Gibraltar. Figured by Busk in the Trans. Zool. Soc. 

vol. x. pi. xviii. figs. 1, 2, under the name ?f U. hemitce- 

chus. Brome Collection. Presented, 1876. 

42076. The imperfect atlas vertebra; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Purchased, 1864. 

M. 2520. Two specimens of the atlas vertebra ; from the Pleistocene 
of Barrington. Purchase^, 1885. 

22025. The axis vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of the Thames 
Valley (? Grays). Purchased, 1847. 

PART III, I 



114 UNGTJLATA. 

21662. The axis vertebra (imperfect) ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Purchased, 1847. 

39259. The centrum of the axis vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Presented by E. Charlesworth, Esq., 1865. 

27972. The centrum and part of the arch of the axis vertebra ; 
from the Pleistocene of Clacton. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

21275 e. A middle cervical vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Purchased, 1847. 

23143 b. A middle cervical vertebra : from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Purchased, 1849. 

45239. A middle cervical vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

23143 a. The sixth cervical vertebra ; from the Pleistocene of 
Ilford. Purchased, 1849. 

21664. The seventh cervical vertebra (imperfect) ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

45240. The centrum of the seventh cervical vertebra; from the 

Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45241. The centrum of the first dorsal vertebra, associated with the 

preceding specimen ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

20272 a. A dorsal vertebra, with the neural spine imperfect ; from 
the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

Rhinoceros megarhinus, Christol '. 

Syn. (?) Rhinoceros leptorhinus y Cuvier 2 (in parte). 
Rhinoceros monspessulanus, Blainville 3 . 
Rhinoceros mercki, Jager 4 . '• ■ 

Rhinoceros kirchbergensis, Jager 5 . 

As it has been conclusively shown by Boyd-Dawkins in the 

1 Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 76 (1835). 

2 Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. ii. p. 93 (1822). 

3 'Osteographie,' genus Rhinoceros, p. 143 (1846). 

4 In Kaup's ' Akten der Urwelt,' p. 6 (1841), to replace R. kirchbergensis, but 
withdrawn in the ' Beitrage,' 1st ed. pt. i. p. vii (1854), as being identical with 
R. leptorhinus, Cuvier. 

6 Foss. Saugeth. Wiirt. p. 179 (1835-39). 



K,HI2y T 0CER0TlD.E. 115 

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 216, that there is no possibi- 
lity of determining to what species the type specimens of Cuvier's 
R. leptorJiinus really belong, Christol's name is adopted for the 
present species. 

There is no ossification in the narial septum. The upper cheek- 
teeth very closely resemble those of R. leptorJiinus, but are generally 
of larger size, and have a smoother enamel, with rather taller 
crowns. The upper true molars (fig. 9) have a rather more decided 
buttress, with a longer anterior cingulum ; and there are only two 
" costse " on the premolars. The lower cheek-teeth have the outer 
surface of the first crescent more rounded. Lower incisors are 
frequently present. 

Hah. Europe (Pleistocene and Pliocene). 

40834. Cast of a somewhat crushed cranium, showing the normal 
six cheek-teeth of either side, in a half-worn condition. 
The original was obtained from the Upper Pliocene of 
Lane-Lestang, near Moras (Drome), Prance ; and is pre- 
served in the Natural History Museum at Lyons. The 
left dentition is figured in ' Falconer's Pakeontological 
Memoirs,' vol. ii. pi. xxxi. fig. 2 ; a smaller view of the 
palatal aspect of the cranium being given in fig. 3 of the 
same plate ; it is figured on a larger scale by Lortet and 
Chantre, in the Arch. Mus. Lyon. vol. ii. pi. xvii. (1878). 
Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

22020. The six right upper cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of 

(Fig.) Grays, Essex. These specimens are described and figured 

by Boyd-Dawkins in the Nat. Hist. Rev. for 1865, p. 409, 

fig. 9, and noticed in ' Falconer's Pakeontological Memoirs/ 

vol. ii. p. 336. Purchased, 1847. 



22021. The associated left pm- 4 , m. 2 , and n^JJ, probably belonging 
to the same individual as the preceding ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

18794, 19841, 19841 a, 22022. Four specimens of the second upper 
true molar, three belonging to the left and one to the 
right side ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1845^47. 

18755, 18797, 19841 b, 20249. Four specimens of the fourth upper 
premolar, three belonging to the right and one to the left 
side; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1845-47. 
i2 



116 



UNGUIATA. 



18755 g, 18796, 20810. Three specimens of the third upper pre- 
molar, two belonging to the right and one to the left side. 

Purchased, 1845-47. 

18797 a. The unworn third left upper premolar ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Grays. Purchased, 1845. 

18755 e, f. A right and left second upper premolar ; from the 
Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1845. 

19834. The second right upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene of 

(Pig.) Grays. This specimen is described and figured by Boyd- 

Dawkins in the Nat. Hist. Rev. for 1865, pp. 409, 410, 

fig. 10, the figure being reproduced in the accompanying 

woodcut (fig. 14). Purchased, 1845. 

Pig. 14. 




Rhinoceros megarhinus. — Second right upper true molar, slightly worn. A. 
median valley ; D, anterior, and E, posterior collis ; F, posterior valley ; 
#", crotchet ; K\ K 2 , first and second costte. \. (From the Nat. Hist 
Eeview.) 

45281,45283. A right and a left upper true molar; from the 
Pleistocene of Ilford, Essex. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

45282, 45284. A right and a left fourth upper premolar ; from the 
Pleistocene of Ilford. 

Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 



EHIXOCEROTID.E. 117 

36992. Cast of the third right upper true molar. The originals of 

this and the next specimen were obtained from the Pleisto- 
cene of Kirchberg,Wiirtemberg, and are the types of Jager's 
R. Jcirchbergensis (=R. mercki) ; they are figured in ' Fal- 
coner's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. pi. xxxii. figs. 1 
and 2, where they are referred to the present species. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

36993. Cast of the second left upper true molar ; of which the ori- 

ginal is from the Pleistocene of Kirchberg. The history 
of this specimen is given with the last. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40811. A much- worn third right upper true molar, provisionally 
referred to the present species ; from the Pleistocene (?) 
of Ponte Molle, Eome. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

M. 1585. The second right upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene 
of Weimar. Presented by C. Westendarp, Esq., 1884. 

M. 1585 a. The second left upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene 
of Weimar. Presented by C. Westendarp, Esq., ] 884. 

18791. The associated last three upper milk-molars of the left side ; 

(Fig.) from the Pleistocene of Grays. Figured and described by 
Boyd-Dawkins in the Nat. Hist. Eev. for 1865, p. 405, 
figs. 3, 5. Purchased, 1845. 

18755 a, b, h, 18793, 18798. Five upper milk-molars, provision- 
ally referred to this species ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased, 1845. 

18755 k. The fourth right upper milk-molar ; from the Pleistocene 

{Fig.) of Grays. Figured by Boyd-Dawkins in the Nat. Hist. 

Rev. for 1865, fig. 1. Purchased, 1845. 

18755 n. The first left upper milk-molar, in an almost unworn 
(Fig.) condition ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. Figured by 
Boyd-Dawkins in the Nat. Hist. Rev. for 1865, fig. 2. 

Purchased, 1845. 

27866. The third left upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene of 
Walton-on-the-Naze, Essex. 

J 'resented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

40805. Cast of the symphysis and the horizontal portion of the left 
ramus of the mandible. The original is from the Lower 



118 TOGTJXATA. 

Pliocene of Montpelier (Herault), France, and is preserved 
in the Museum at that town. It is noticed and figured 
in ' Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs/ vol. ii. p. 368, 
pi. xxx. ; the symphysis being also figured by Gaudry in 
' Les Enchainements, &c. — Mammiferes Tertiaires/ p. 32, 
fig. 4 8. The normal six cheek-teeth are present, while 
there is a small incisor on either side in alveolo. The 
symphysis does not extend so far back as in R. lepto- 
rhinus (No. 45215). 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

45285. The right and left rami of the mandible ; from the Pleisto- 
cene of Ilford. The right ramus shows p m . 3, pm. 4, and 
the three true molars, the left has pm. 4 and the three 
true molars. This specimen agrees precisely with the 
last. Brady Collection. Purchased, 1878. 

19840. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, containing the last 

{Fig.) five cheek-teeth; from the Pleistocene of Grays. Described 

and figured by Boyd-Dawkins in the Nat. Hist. Rev. for 

1865, p. 412, figs. 14, 15. Purchased, 1845. 

19840 a. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with the last four 
cheek-teeth ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1845. 

40812. The associated last five lower cheek-teeth of the left side ; 
from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

15937. Part of the right ramus of the mandible of a young Rhino- 
ceros, perhaps belonging to the present species ; from the 
Pleistocene (? Forest-bed) of Norfolk. This specimen 
shows mm. 2, mm. 3, and the alveoli of mm. 1 and mm. 4. 

Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

18790. Part of the symphysis and the left ramus of the mandible of 

(Fig.) a young individual, showing the last three milk-molars, 

and the alveoli of mm. 1 and mTl ; from the Pleistocene of 

Grays. Described and figured by Boyd-Dawkins in the 

Nat. Hist. Rev. for 1865, p. 407, figs. 7, 8. 

Purchased, 1845. 

21280. A very similar specimen to the last, showing mm . 2 and 
mm. 3, and the alveoli of mm. 1 and mm. 4; from the 
Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 



KHTPTOCEKOTma:. 119 

23133. Another very similar specimen, belonging to the right side, 
and showing the last three milk-molars, and the alveoli 
of mm. 1 and mm. 4 ; from the Pleistocene of Grays. 

Purchased, 1849. 

23112. Part of the right ramus of the mandible of a young indi- 
vidual provisionally referred to this species; from the 
Pleistocene of Grays. The last two milk-molars are in 
situ, and beneath and behind them are seen the alveoli of 
pm. 3, pm. 4, and mTT. Purchased, 1849. 

21281. Part of the right ramus of the mandible of a very young 
individual, showing mm. 2 and the alveoli of mm . 1 and 
mm. 3; from the Pleistocene of Grays. Purchased, 1847. 

18799. The second right lower true molar ; from the Pleistocene of 
Grays. Purchased, 1845. 

M. 1586. Two left lower molars ; from the Pleistocene of "Weimar. 

Presented by C. Westenclarp, Esq., 1884. 

36994. Cast of the fourth right lower premolar. The original is 
from the Pleistocene of Ejrchberg, and belongs to Jager's 
R. Tcirchbergensis. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

18755 C. The second left lower premolar ; from the Pleistocene of 

(Fir/.) Grays. Figured by Boyd-Dawkins in the Nat. Hist. Rev. 

for 1865, fig. 4. Purchased, 1845. 

27902. The first left lower milk-molar ; from the Pleistocene of 
(Fig.) Grays. Figured by Boyd-Dawkins, op. cit. fig. 6. 

Purcliased, 1849. 

A number of detached, lower cheek-teeth from the Pleistocene of the 
Thames Valley, marked Nos. 18755, 18799, 19834, 19841, 
20249, 21283, 22023, belong either to this or the preceding 



Rhinoceros etruscus, Falconer l . 

Syn. Rhinoceros elatus, Croizet (? MS.). 

The ossification of the narial septum is incomplete. The upper 
cheek-teeth have shorter crowns than those of either of the three pre- 
ceding European species, and a very stout cingulum on their anterior 
surfaces ; their grinding surfaces are deeply excavated, and when worn 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xv. p. 602 (1859). 



120 TJNGULATA. 

present but two fossettes ; the true molars have a well- developed 
buttress, and the premolars have a strong cingulum on the inner 
surface. As in the three preceding species, the first premolar in 
both jaws disappeared at a very early age. The lower cheek-teeth 
are likewise low-crowned, and the plane of dentition is oblique. 
Eab. Europe (Pleistocene and Pliocene). 

37340. Cast of the anterior two thirds of the cranium, showing the 
last three premolars and the first two true molars. The 
original is from the Upper Pliocene of the Val d'Arno, 
Italy, and is preserved in the Florentine Museum at 
Pisa. It is noticed and figured in ' Falconer's Palseontolo- 
gical Memoirs,' vol. ii. p. 359, pi. xxviii. fig. 1 ; and from 
this note it appears to have been much damaged since the 
cast was taken. Purchased, 1863. 

112 (0. C). Hinder portion of a cranium provisionally referred to 
this species ; from the Pleistocene (?) of the Yia Appia, 
Rome. Gualteris Collection. Purchased. Before 1836. 

40955. Two fragments of the right maxilla, one showing pm. 2 and 
pm. 3 , and the other the three true molars ; from the 
Upper Pliocene of Malaga, Spain. This specimen is de- 
scribed by Falconer in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xv. 
p. 602 (1859), and in his ' Palaeontological Memoirs,' 
vol. ii. p. 361. Presented by Prof. Ansted, 1868. 

37342. Cast of the anterior portion of the palate, showing the last 
two premolars and m-J-. The original is from the Upper 
Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. Purchased, 1863. 

40803. Cast of the upper cheek-dentition of the right side. The 
cast is taken from a palate specimen (figured in ' Falconer's 
Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. pi. xxix.) preserved in 
the University Museum at Bologna, and apparently ob- 
tained om the Upper Pliocene of the Val d'Arno. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40815. Cast of the second left upper true molar. The original is 

from the Pleistocene near Rome. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40816. Cast of a fragment of the left maxilla containing m. 1 and 

m - 2 . The original is probably from the Upper Pliocene 
of the Yal d'Arno. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 



RHIXOCEROTIDJE. 121 

34733. The third left upper true molar ; from the Upper Pliocene 
{Fig.) of Peyrolles (Puy-de-D6me), Prance. Figured by Boyd- 
Dawkins in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxiv. pi. viii. 
fig. 5 (1868). Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34734. The third left upper premolar ; from the Upper Pliocene of 
{Fig.) Peyrolles. Figured by Boyd-Dawkins, op. cit. pi. viii. 

fig. 2. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

28804. The first left upper true molar ; from the Upper Pliocene of 

(Fig.) the Yald'Arno. Figured by Boyd-Dawkins, op. cit. pi. viii. 

fig. 3. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

40810. Casts of the right pm. 4 and ^2 and the left mJ5. The 
originals are from the Upper Pliocene of the Val d'Arno, 
and are believed to be in the Florentine Museum at Pisa. 
The casts are figured in ' Falconer's Palssontological 
Memoirs,' vol. ii. pi. xxv. figs. 5-7. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

33323—4. A left and a right second upper true molar ; from the 
Forest-bed of the Norfolk coast. 

Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

43480. Casts of the right pm. 2 , pm. 3 , m. 1 , and m-2. The originals 
are from the Forest-bed of Pakefield, Suffolk ; and 
(together with pm. 4 ) are figured (reversed) by Boyd- 
Dawkins, op. cit. pi. vii. fig. 1. 

Presented by Prof. Boyd-Dawkins, 1872. 

43480 a. Cast of the third right upper true molar. The original 
is from the Forest-bed of Pakefield, and is figured by 
Boyd-Dawkins, op. cit. pi. viii. fig. 4. 

Presented by Prof. Boyd-Dawkins, 1872. 

43482. Cast of the third right upper true molar. The original is 
from the Forest-bed of Cromer, Norfolk. 

Presented by Prof. Boyd-Dawkins, 1872. 

37341. Cast of the complete mandible. The original is from the 
Upper Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno, and is preserved in the 
Museum at Florence ; it is figured in ' Falconer's Palseon- 
tological Memoirs,' vol. ii. pi. xxvii. figs. 2, 3. The 
extremely small size of the spatulate extremity of the 
symphysis is noticeable. Purchased, 1863. 



122 



TJNGTTLATA. 



37343. Cast of part of the symphysis and the two rami of the 
mandible, showing the last five cheek-teeth on the left 
side. The original is from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal 
d'Arno, and is preserved in the museum at Pisa. 

Purchased, 1863. 

40809. Cast of the symphysis of the mandible. The original is from 

the Upper Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno, and is in the Museum 

at Florence ; it is described and figured in ' Falconer's 

Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. p. 360, pi. xxviii. figs. 2-4. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

28802. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing the last 
(Fig.) four cheek-teeth; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal 

d'Arno. Figured in ' Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' 
vol. ii. pi. xxii. fig. 4. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28803. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible with two true 

molars ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

33326. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
{Fig.) pm. 4, m. 1, and m . 2 ; dredged off Happisburgh, Norfolk. 

Figured in ' Falconer's Palseontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. 

pi. xxii. fig. 3. Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

43480. Cast of the left lower cheek-dentition. The original of this 
specimen is from the Forest-bed of Pakefield, and is 
figured by Boyd-Dawkins in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
vol. xxiv. pi. vii. fig. 3. 

Presented by Prof. Boyd-Dawkins, 1872. 

40862. A left lower cheek-tooth ; from the Forest-bed of Norfolk. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

33325. A right lower cheek-tooth, perhaps belonging to this species ; 
dredged off Happisburgh. 

Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

34732. The greater part of the right scapula ; from the Upper 
Pliocene of Etueaires, Puy-de-D6me. 

Brauard Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

33470. The distal third of a right humerus, provisionally referred to 
that species ; dredged off Happisburgh. 

Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 



KHINOCEROTID^. 123 

28803 a. The right femur ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Val 
d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28810. The right magnum ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal 
d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

33470 a. The distal extremity of a right tibia, provisionally re- 
ferred to this species ; dredged off Happisburgh. 

Layton Collection. Purchased, 1858. 

28805. The right tibia : from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal d'Arno. 

Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28806. The right astragalus ; from the Upper Pliocene of the Yal 

d'Arno. Presented by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

28808. The left third metatarsal ; from the Upper Pliocene of the 
Yal d'Arno. Presented, by J. B. Pentland, Esq., 1853. 

17696. A first phalangeal of a third digit ; from the Forest-bed of 
Bacton, Xorfolk. Green Collection. Purchased, 1843. 

7407. The first sacral vertebra ; from the Upper Pliocene of the 
Yal d'Arno. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

40936. A middle cervical vertebra, provisionally referred to this 
species ; from the Forest-bed of Norfolk. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 



Rhinoceros pachygnathus, Wagner l . 

The narial septum is not ossified, and the nasals are very short 
and broad ; the upper true molars have a buttress, and but two 
fossettes on their worn crowns. This species has been regarded as 
the ancestor of the African R. simus, but its molars are of a different 
type, and the cranium is shorter. 

Ilab. S. Europe. 

4.9681. Proximal part of the left ulna ; from the Lower Pliocene of 
Pikermi, Attica. Purchased, 1879. 

49682. The left scaphoid; from Pikermi. Purchased, 1879. 

49683. The left lunar ; from Pikermi. Purchased, 1879. 

49684. The right unciform ; from Pikermi. PurcJuised, 1879. 

i Abb. math.-phys. CI. k.-bay. Ai, Wiaa vol. v. pt. 2, p. 349 (1848). 



124 TJNGTJLATA. 

49680. The greater portion of the bones of the lower half of the left 
hind limb, comprising the tibia, calcaneum, astragalus, 
navicular, entocuneiform, cuboid, and the metatarsus ; from 
Pikermi. Purchased, 1879. 

B. Ceratorhine Group. 
There are two horns ; cutting- teeth are developed in both jaws, 
and the upper true molars have a buttress. There are three digits 
in the manus. 

Rhinoceros schleiermacheri, Kaup \ 
Syn. Rhinoceros sansaniensis, Lartet 2 . 
Dihoplus schleiermacheri, Brandt 3 . 

Dentition : — I. j, C. j, Pm. -^ M. g. The upper cheek-teeth are 
exceedingly like those of R. incisivus, but are usually larger ; the 
third true molar is distinguished by the presence of a tubercle, 
instead of a minute talon, on the posterior surface, while the pre- 
molars are distinguished by the absence of an inner cingulum. In 
the Eppelsheim cranium pm. 4 has three costae. The colles of the 
premolar are usually united for at least half their height, so that 
there is a deep descent into the median valley. The lower canines 
are smaller than in R. incisivus, and the mandibular symphysis 
relatively wider and flatter. It is very difficult to distinguish 
isolated first and second upper true molars of the two species, 
although those of the present species have no external cingulum. 
The present form is rather larger than R. sumatrensis, from which 
it is readily distinguished by the structure of the teeth, and the 
form of the nasals and premaxillse. It apparently ranges from the 
Middle Miocene of Sansan to the Lower Pliocene of Pikermi. The 
Sansan race is of smaller size than that of Eppelsheim. 

Hob. Europe. 

M. 2781. Cast of the cranium and mandible. The original is from 
the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, Hessen Darmstadt, and 
is preserved in the Museum at Darmstadt ; it is figured 
by Kaup in the Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 3, pi. x. fig. 1, 
and in the ' Beitrage,' pt. 1, pi. x. fig. 1. The dentition 
is figured in pi. xi. fig. 5 of the former work. Purchased. 

49660. Cast of a laterally crushed cranium. The original is from 
the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim. Purchased, 1878. 

1 Isis, 1832, p. 902. 

2 In Laurillard's Diet. Univ. d'Hist. Nat. vol. xi. p. 101 (1849). 

3 Mem. Ac. Imp. St. Petersbourg, ser. 7, vol. xxvi. art. 5, p. 49 (1878). 



RHIXOCEROXIDJE. 



125 



27460. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing m. 2 and m. 3 ; from 
the Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers), Prance. This spe- 
cimen is rather smaller than the corresponding part of the 
preceding crania, but m. 3 has the characteristic posterior 
tubercle. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

110 b (0. C). Cast of the right maxilla of a young individual, 
showing the last three milk-molars. The original is from 
Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup in the Oss. Foss. d. 
Darmstadt, pt. 3, pi. xi. fig. 7. Purchased. 

M. 238. The first right upper premolar ; from Eppelsheim. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2773. Cast of the first right upper premolar. The original is 
from Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup, op. cit. pi. xii. 
fig. 1. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 470. The well-worn fourth right upper premolar ; from Eppels- 
heim. This specimen agrees with the corresponding tooth 
of the cranium in the presence of three costae and the 
absence of an inner cingulum. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

21484. The slightly worn fourth right upper premolar ; from 
Eppelsheim. This specimen exhibits the three costae. 

Purchased from Br. Kaup), 1847. 

21017 The first right upper true molar ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

M. 2774. Cast of the first left upper true molar. The original is 
from Eppelsheim, and is figured (reversed) by Kaup, op. 
cit. pi. xii. fig. 5. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

1249. The second right upper true molar; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup. 

27463. The second left upper true molar ; from Eppelsheim. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 2775. Cast of the second right upper true molar. The original 
is from Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup, op. cit. pi. xii. 
fig. 6. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

42718. The well-worn second right upper true molar; from Sansan. 
Presented by the Trustees of the Christie Museum, 1871. 



126 UffGULATA. 

M. 237, 470 a. Two specimens of the third upper true molar ; from 
Eppelsheim. Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

27465. The third right upper true molar ; from Eppelsheim. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

21017 a. The third right upper true molar ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

M. 2776. Cast of the third left upper true molar. The original is 
from Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup, op. cit. pi. xi. 
fig. 6. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2777. Cast of the third left upper true molar. The original is 
from Eppelsheim. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2778. Cast of the fourth left upper milk-molar. The original is 
from Eppelsheim, and is figured (reversed) by Kaup, 
op. cit. pi. xii. fig. 3. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2779. Casts of three upper incisors. The originals are from 
Eppelsheim, and are figured by Kaup, op. cit. pi. xi. 
figs. 1-3. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2782. Cast of the symphysis and left ramus of the mandible. 
The original is from Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup, 
op. cit. pi. xi. fig. 8. Purchased. 

39922. Part of the left ramus of a small mandible, with the last five 
cheek-teeth, provisionally referred to this species ; from 
the Middle Miocene of Steinheim, Bavaria. 

Purchased, 1866. 

The following specimens of the mandible belong either to this species or 
R. incisivus, since when the symphysis is wanting it appears 
impossible to distinguish between the mandibles of the two species. 

19433. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing the last 
six cheek-teeth ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1845. 

21021. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing p m . 2, pm. 3, 

m. 1, and ^72 ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

21022. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with the last six 

cheek-teeth ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 



RHXNOCEROTmffl. 127 

21490. The nearly complete right ramus of the mandible of an im- 
mature individual ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

27462. The mandible, wanting the greater part of the symphysis ; 
from Eppelsheim. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

27462 a. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with three ' 
cheek-teeth ; from Eppelsheim. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 234. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the last 
three premolars and m . l ; from Eppelsheim. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

21020. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of an immature indi- 
vidual, showing the alveolus of p m . l and all the other 
cheek-teeth, m. 3 being in alveolo ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

113 (0. C). Part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing pmTi" 
and the three true molars ; from Eppelsheim. Purchased,. 

19434. Part of the left ramus of the mandible, with the three true 
molars ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1845. 

1254. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing p m . 3, praTl, 
m. 1 ; from Eppelsheim. Purchased from Dr. Kaup. 

21262. Part of the left ramus of the mandible of a young individual, 
with mm. 4 ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

110 e (0. C). Cast of part of the symphysis and the left ramus of 
the mandible of a young individual, showing mm. 1, mm. 2, 
and part of mm. 3. The original is from Eppelsheim, and 
is figured by Kaup in the Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 3, 
pi. xi. fig. 10. Purchased. 

1253. A lower canine; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup. 

21490, 24016. Two lower canines ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup. 

M. 2780. Cast of a lower canine. The original is from Eppelsheim, 
and is figured (reversed) by Kaup, op. cit. pi. xi. fig. U. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 



128 , TJNGULATA. 

The following specimens, of which the originals are from Hessen- 
Darmstadt, are referred by Kaup to the present species. They 
were all obtained by purchase. 

M. 2783. Cast of the right humerus. Figured by Kaup, op. cit. 
pi. xiii. fig. 4. 

1281. Cast of the left scaphoid. Figured, op. cit. pi. xiii. fig. 9. 
M. 2787. Cast of the unciform. Figured, op. cit. pi. xiii. fig. 8. 

1282. Cast of the left third metacarpal. Figured, op. cit. pi. xiii. 

fig. 13. 

19446. A similar left third metacarpal, wanting the distal epiphysis. 

1283. Cast of the left femur, wanting the head. Figured, op. cit. 

pi. xiii. fig. 5. 

M. 2784. Cast of the left tibia. Figured, op. cit. pi. xiii. fig. 6. 

M. 2785. Cast of the left calcaneum. Figured, op. cit. pi. xiii. 
fig. 10. 

110 (0. C). Cast of the left calcaneum. 

M. 2786. Cast of the right astragalus. Figured, op. cit. pi. xiii. 
fig. 11. 

110 a (0. C). Cast of the right navicular. Figured, op. cit. pi. xiii. 
fig. 7. 

1284. Cast of the atlas vertebra. Figured, op. cit. pi. xiii. fig. 1. 

1285. Cast of the axis vertebra. Figured, op. cit. pi. xiii. fig. 2. 

The following specimens from Sansan may belong either to this species 
or K. incisivus ; they are too small for E. goldfussi, and the 
astragalus is different in shape. Purchased. 

27455*. The glenoidal extremity of the right scapula. 

27455. The left humerus. 

27456. A rather longer left humerus. 
27459. The left radius. 

29641. The right third metacarpal. 

29642. The proximal half of the right third metacarpal. 



RHINOCEROTID^. 129 

27457. The distal extremity of the left femur. 

29644. The left pateUa. 

27458. The left tibia. 
21875. The left calcaneum. 

29645. The right astragalus. 

21874. A smaller left astragalus, probably associated with Xo. 21875. 

29646. The right third metatarsal. 

C. Rhinocerotine Group. 

There is but one nasal horn, and cutting-teeth are present in 
both jaws ; a buttress may or may not be present in the upper true 
molars. There are three digits in the manus. 

3iif)tnocero£ Sotv&auuS, Cuvier \ 

Syn. Rhinoceros javanicus,F. Cuvier 2 . 

Dentition : — I. j, C. p Pm. |, M. ^. The upper true molars very 
closely resemble those of R. sumatrensis ; but the " posterior valley " 
is relatively shallower, and the length of the anterior usually 
exceeds that of the external surface. The buttress is strongly 
developed, and there is no " combing-plate." 

Hob. bengal, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, and 
Borneo. It has been recorded from Pleistocene or Prehistoric 
deposits in the latter island by Busk in the Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, 
p. 409 3 . 

M. 1968. Two first or second upper true molars of opposite sides 
and three lower cheek-teeth, provisionally referred to this 
species ; from a depth of sixty feet in a cavern deposit at 
Sarawak, Borneo. The upper teeth present all the cha- 
racters of those of R. sondaicus. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., 1884. 

M. 1969-70. Several bones (comprising part of a scapula, radius, 
the complete left third metatarsal, a broken lateral mcta- 
podial, and two fragments of a cervical vertebra) associated 
with the preceding specimens. 

Presented by P. L. Mater, Esq., 1884. 

1 In Desmarest's ' Mammalogie,' p. 399 (1822). 

2 Hist. Nat. des Mammiferes, vol. iii. liv. 45, p. 2 (1824). 

3 See Flower, Cat. Vert. Anira. Mus. Roy. Coll. Surg. pt. ii. Mammalia, 
p. 420, no. 2140 (1884). 

PART ni. K 



130 TTtfGTJLATA. 

Rhinoceros sivalensis, Falconer and Cautley '. 

Syn. Rhinoceros sinensis, Owen 2 . 
Zalabis sivalensis, Cope 3 . 

Dentition : — I. r^y C. °, Pm. J, M. |. This species is apparently- 
allied to R. sondaicus (of which it is probably the ancestor), but is 
usually of larger size. There are two fossettes on the worn crowns 
of the true molars ; there is no distinct " antecrochet," but a well- 
developed " buttress." Koken 4 unites one of the type specimens 
of R. sinensis with this species, but provisionally retains the other 
as distinct. The writer is inclined to think that both may be 
included. 

Hob. India and China. 

39626. The middle portion of the cranium, showing the last five 
(Fig.) cheek-teeth, in a well-worn and somewhat imperfect con- 
dition ; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills. The right 
dentition is figured by Falconer and Cautley in the * Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis/ pi. lxxv. fig. 5, and in ' Falconer's 
Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. i. pi. xiv. fig. 2. This and 
the following specimens are the types. 

Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

39647. The anterior portion of the cranium, showing the whole 
(Fig.) or portions of each of the seven cheek-teeth ; from the 
Siwalik Hills. Figured in Boyle's ' Botany &c. of the 
Himalaya Mountains,' pi. vi. fig. 5, and in the ' Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxxiii. fig. 3, and pi. lxxiv. fig. 5. 
The first and second true molars are in good preserva- 
tion, and agree with the less worn specimen figured by the 
present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. i. 
pi. v. fig. 5, and vol. hi. pi. i. fig. 7 : the right m. 3 has 
been found and put in position since the specimen was 
figured. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39625. The cranium, wanting the left zygomatic arch and the ex- 
(Fig.) tremities of the premaxillae and nasals, but exhibiting the 
last six cheek-teeth, in a half -worn and much-broken con- 
dition ; from the Siwalik Hills. Figured in the ' Fauna 

1 Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis, pt. 7, pi. lxxiii. (1847). 

2 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 424 (1870). 

3 Amer. Nat. vol. xiii. p. 771 b (1879). 

4 Pal. Abhand. vol. iii. pt. 2, pp. 24, 30 (1885). 



RHIXOCEEOTID^. 131 

Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxxiii. fig. 2, and in ' Falconer's 
Palseontological Ifemoirs,' vol. i. pi. xiv. fig. 1. 

Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

39674. The first left upper true molar, in an early condition of 
wear ; from the Siwalik Hills. The buttress is broken 
away. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

41935. The third left upper true molar, wanting the outer half; 

{Fig.) from a cave near Chung-king-foo, Sechuan, China. This 
specimen is described and figured by Owen in the Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 424, pi. xxix. figs. 1, 2 (1870), 
under the name of R. sinensis (of which it is the type); 
it is also figured by Koken (as R. sivalensis) in the Pal. 
Abhand. vol. iii. pt. 2, pi. vi. fig. 4, together with a per- 
fect specimen. Except in being somewhat smaller, it 
presents no characters by wbich it can be distinguished 
from m- 3 of No. 39647. This smaller size renders it very 
difficult to distinguish this tooth from m. 3 of R. sondaicus ; 
but the form of pm- 4 , and the other mammals with which 
the Chinese specimens are associated, indicate that their 
affinity is with the Siwalik form. A specimen figured by 
the present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. ii. pi. v. fig. 4, agrees more nearly in size with the 
present example. 

Purchased from R. Swinhoe, Esq., 1870. 

41936. The hinder half of the much-worn m. 1 ; from the same 
locality. Noticed by Owen, op. cit. p. 425. This specimen 
agrees precisely in form with m. 1 of No. 39626. 

Purchased from R. Sivinhoe, Esq., 1870. 

41936 a. The outer lamina of a fourth left upper premolar ; from 
(Fig.) the same locality. Figured by Owen, op. cit. pi. xxix. 
fig. 3, as R. sinensis. A similar tooth is figured by Koken, 
op. cit. pi. vi. fig. 1, under the same name ; but apparently 
presents no characters by which it can be distinguished 
from an upper premolar of R. sivalensis figured by the 
present writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol ii. 
pi. v. fig. 6. The hinder costa is much more developed than 
in R. sondaicus. Purchased from R. Sivinhoe, Esq., 1870. 

41941-4. Five lower cheek-teeth ; from the same locality." Noticed 
by Owen, op. cit. 

Purchased from R. Swinhoe, Esq., 1870. 
k2 



132 UNGULATA. 

39646. The symphysis of the mandible, showing the left canine, 
{Fig.) the alveolus of the right, and the broken bases of the 
incisors ; from the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is figured 
by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxiv. fig. 4, under 
the name of B. palceindicus, but is referred to this species 
by the present writer in the ' Paleeontologia Indica/ ser. 10, 
vol. ii. p. 38 }. A very similar specimen, which does not 
show incisive alveoli, is figured in pi. vi. fig. 3 of that 
volume. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

Rhinoceros palseindieus, Falconer and Cautley 2 . 

Dentition :— I. \, C. °, Pm. \, M. |. 

This species is readily distinguished from the last by the absence 
of a "buttress" to the upper true molars, and their horizontal wear, 
as well as by the usual presence of three fossettes on the worn 
crowns of the latter. The upper true molars are somewhat simpler 
than those of B. unicornis, of which the present species may be the 
ancestor. 

Hab. India. 

16444. The cranium, wanting the extremities of the premaxillse 
{Fig.) and nasals, and showing the last six cheek-teeth, in a much- 
worn and somewhat battered condition ; from the Pliocene 
of the Siwalik Hills, India. Figured by Falconer and 
Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxxiii. fig. 1. 
This and the following specimens are the types ; the three 
fossettes are shown in several of the teeth. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2727. The cranium, incomplete anteriorly, but showing the 
{Fig,) last four cheek-teeth ; from the Siwalik Hills. Figured 

in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxxiv, fig. 2. Three 

fossettes occur in m. 1 . 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

M. 2728, Middle portion of a cranium apparently belonging to a 
smaller individual of this species ; from the Siwalik Hills. 
On the right side the three true molars are shown, and 
in the absence of a " buttress " agree with those of the 
present species. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

1 The cast, from which the description was taken, did not show the existence 
of the incisors. 

2 Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis, pt. 7, pi. lxxiii. (1847). 



RHIXOCEROTIDiE. 133 

M. 2729. The cranium, "wanting the nasals, premaxillEe, and most 
of the teeth ; from the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39643. Fragment of a right maxillary region, with portions of the 
{Fig.) seven cheek-teeth, in a much-worn and battered condition, 
apparently belonging to this species ; from the Siwalik 
Hills. Figured in the 'Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' 
pis. lxxii. fig. 3, and lxxv. fig. 9, under the name of 
JB. platyrhinus. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

36740. The cranium of a young individual, wanting the nasals and 
(Fig.) the extremity of the preinaxillge, and showing the four 
milk-molars and m. 1 in alveolo ; from the Siwalik Hills. 
Figured in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxxiv. fig. 1 : 
the dentition being figured (from a cast) by the present 
writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. pi. vii. 
Presented by the Secretary of State for India, 1860. 

39648. The second right upper true molar ; from the Siwalik Hills. 

(Fig.) This specimen (woodcut, fig. 15) is figured in the 'Fauna 

Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxxv. fig. 4 (as a premolar), and 

Fig. 15. 




Rhinoceros palaindicus. — The second rigbl upper true molar (reversed) ; from 
the Siwalik Hills. }. (From the * Pabeontologia Indica.*) 



134 TJNG1JLATA. 

by the present writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, 
vol. iii. p. 4. It exhibits very clearly the absence of a 
buttress. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2730. A much-worn first left upper true molar; from the 
Siwalik Hills. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39669. The third right upper true molar ; from the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39670. Fragment of the right maxilla of a young individual, showing 

the first three milk-molars, which agree precisely with 
those of No. 36740 ; from the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2815! Cast of the right maxilla of a young individual, showing 
the first three milk-molars. The original is from the 
Siwalik Hills, and is preserved in the Dublin Museum 
of Science and Art ; it is figured by Baker and Durand in 
the Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. v. pi. xix. fig. 2, and by the 
present writer in the Trans. E,. Dublin Soc. ser. 2, vol. iii. 
pi. iii. fig. 1 (1884). Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

39673. The third right upper milk-molar; from the Siwalik Hills. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39671. 39672, M- 2461. Three fragments of the maxillae of young 
(Fig.) individuals, provisionally referred to this species, each show- 
ing mm. 2 and mm. 3 ; from the Siwalik Hills. No. 39671 is 
figured (from a cast) by the present writer in the Palae- 
ontologia Indica/ ser. 10, vol. ii. pi. vii. fig. 4, under the 
name of R. platyrhinus ; but it does not appear that it can 
be distinguished from the preceding specimens. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39620. The anterior portion of a mandible, provisionally referred to 
(Fig.) this species ; from the Siwalik Hills. This specimen is 
figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxii. fig. 4, 
under the name of R.platyrhinus. It shows several of the 
cheek-teeth and the broken bases of the canines and 
incisors. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39642. The sympnysis and part of the right ramus of a similar 
(Fig.) mandible of an immature individual ; from the Siwalik 



BHIXOCEROTIDJE. 135 

Hills. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxv. 
fig. 10, and in 'Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs/ vol. i. 
pi. xiv. fig. 4, as R. platyrhinus : it shows the incisors, 
canines, pm. 1, pm. 2, pin. '6, ram. 4, and m. 1. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39344. Hinder part of the left ramus of a mandible perhaps belong- 
(Fig.) ing to this species : from the Sivralik Hills. Figured by 
Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxiv. fig. 3. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

The following specimens are not specifically determined ; they were 
cdl obtained from the Siwalik Hills, and, unless otherwise stated, 
belong to the Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39621. Fragment of a mandibular ramus, with one much- worn 
molar. 

M. 2732. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the last four 
teeth. 

M. 2733. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, with the three 
true molars (broken). 

39645. Part of the right ramus of the mandible of a young indi- 
(Fig.) vidual, with the four milk-molars. Figured by Falconer 
and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxv. fig. 3, as R. palaeindicus. 

39689. The left ramus of a rather younger, but very similar 

mandible, with the corresponding teeth. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39690. Part of the left ramus of a very similar mandible, with the 

last three milk-molars (imperfect). 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

M. 2460. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible of a young 
individual, with mm. 2 and mm. 3. 

39683. Two fragments of young mandibles, each with two teeth. 

40832. The glenoidal half of the left scapula of a large form. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

39606. The associated right humerus, radius, and ulna. Figured 
(Fig.) by Baker and Durand in the Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. v. 

pi. xvii. figs. 1, 2, and by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. 

pi. lxxvii. fig. 1. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K C.B., 1848. 



136 



TJNGULATA. 



17108. The proximal portion of the left humerus. Figured by 
{Fig.) Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxvii. fig. 3. 

39607. The proximal portion of the right humerus. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxvii. fig. 2 (together with No. 39608). 

Presented hy Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39608. The distal extremity of the right humerus. Figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxxvii. fig. 2 (together with No. 39607). 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.O.B., 1848. 

39629. The distal half of the right humerus. Figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxxvii. fig. 4. 

14748. The distal half of the right humerus. Figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxxvii. fig. 5. 

39657. The proximal extremity of the right radius and ulna. 
(Fig.) Figured, ojp. cit. pi. lxxvii. fig. 6. 

39658. The left radius and proximal extremity of the ulna. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxvii. fig. 7. 

39627. The right ulna, wanting the proximal extremity. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxvii. fig. 9. Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

39630. The distal half of the right radius. Figured, op. cit. 
(Fig.) pi. lxxvii. fig. 8. 

15765-6. Two specimens of the scaphoid. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxix. 
(Fig.) figs. 1, 2. 

15767, 39660, 39661, 39662. Four specimens of the cuneiform. 
(Fig.) The three first specimens are figured, op. cit. pi. lxxix. 
figs. 4-5. 

17569, 39633, 39634. Three specimens of the second metacarpal. 
(Fig.) Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxix. figs. 7-9. 

39655. The right third metacarpal, imperfect distally. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxix. fig. 12. 

39612, 39613. The right and left third metacarpals. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. pi. lxxix. figs. 10, 11. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39632. The left fourth metacarpal. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxix. 
(Fig.) fig. 13. 



ehinocerotidj:. 



V3\ 



39614. The left fourth metacarpal. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

17122. Middle portion of the left femur. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxviii. 
(Fig.) fig. 2. 

39663-4. Two specimens of the patella. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxviii. 
(Fig.) figs. 6,7. 

15365 a. A patella, of very large size. 

39609. The left tibia and fibula. Figured by Baker and Durandin 
(Fig.) the Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. v. pi. xviii., and by Falconer 

and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxviii. fig. 3. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39659. The left tibia of a smaller species. Figured by Falconer and 
(Fig.) Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxviii. fig. 4. 

39610. The right tibia, wanting the proximal extremity, of equal 
{Fig.) size. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxviii. fig. 5. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39637. The right calcaneum. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxviii. fig. 9. 

39637 a. The right calcaneum. 

39638. The left calcaneum. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxviii. fig. 11. 

(Fig-) 

39639. The left calcaneum. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxviii. fig. 10. 
(FiH-) 

39611. The left calcaneum, of very large size. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B.. 1848. 

39665. The right astragalus. 

39666. The right astragalus. 

39640. The right astragalus. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxviii. fig. 12. 
(^/•) 

39667. The left astragalus. 

39668. The left astragalus. 

40908. The right cuboid. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq , 1867. 



138 UNGTTLATA. 

39684. The right cuboid. 

39662. The left cuboid. Figured, op. cit. pi. Ixxix. fig. 22. 

39631. The associated right astragalus, navicular, cuboid, three 
(Fig.) cuneiforms, and the portion of the second and third meta- 
tarsals. Figured, op. cit. pi. lxxviii. fig. 8. 

39615. The left third and fourth metatarsals, of very large size. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

18418. The right third metatarsal. Figured, op. cit. pi. Ixxix. 
(Fig.) fig. 17. 

39622. The left third metatarsal. Figured, op. cit. pi. Ixxix. fig. 19. 
(Fig.) Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

39636. The right second metatarsal. Figured, op. cit. pi. Ixxix. 
(Fig.) fig. 16. 

39623. The left fourth metatarsal. Figured, op. cit. pi. Ixxix. 
(Fig.) fig. 18. 

39681-2. Two specimens of the centrum of the axis vertebra, one 
much larger than the other. 

3VE. 2734. An early cervical vertebra. 

M. 2735. The seventh cervical vertebra. 

M. 2736. The third dorsal vertebra (imperfect). 

M. 2737. The third or fourth dorsal vertebra (imperfect). 

M. 2738. An early dorsal vertebra (imperfect). 

fftjimottrcig untcornte, Lixm. 1 

Syn. Rhinoceros indicus, Cuvier 2 . 

The upper true molars have very tall crowns, a " combing-plate," 
three fossettes on the well-worn crowns, and no " buttress." Teeth 
of this species have been described from the Pleistocene of the 
JNarbada Valley, India, by the present writer in the ' Paheontologia 
Indica ' (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. i. pp. viii-ix 3 . 

1 Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 104 (1766). 

2 Menag. d. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. (1801). 

3 A scapula is noticed on the same page under the name of B. namadicus, 
but its right to specific distinction is perhaps doubtful. 



RHIXOCEHOTIDJi. 139 

Hah. (Recent) Nipal, Bhutan, and Assam ; (Prehistoric (?)) 
Madras 1 ; and (Pleistocene) Xarbada Valley. 

39836. A left astragalus, provisionally referred to the species ; from 
(Fig.) the Pleistocene of the Narbada Valley, India. Figured by 

Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' 

pi. lxxvi. fig. 18. 

Presented by C. Fraser, Esq. Before 1843. 

D. DiceratJierine Group 2 . 

The nasals, although small, are strongly curved, and each carries 
a small process, which probably formed the point of attachment of 
a small lateral horn. Upper and lower incisors and lower canines 
are present. There are apparently three digits in the manus. 

Dentition 3 :—!. \, C. \, Pm. \, M. ? 

Rhinoceros minutus, Cuvier \ 

Syn. (?) Rhinoceros steinheimensis, Jager 5 . 

Rhinoceros tapirinus, Pomel 6 (? in parte) . 
Rhinoceros paradoxus, Pomel 7 (? in parte). 
Rhinoceros pleuroceros, Duvernoy 8 . 
Aceratherium minutum, Kaup 9 . 
Diceratherium pleuroceros, Cope 10 . 

This species is of small size ; the upper true molars have a well- 
developed " crochet " and " antecrochet," but no internal cingulum ; 
the lower cheek-teeth have a distinct external cingulum. 

Hob. Europe. 

28845. Cast of the left half of the cranium, showing one incisor and 
six cheek-teeth. The original is from the Lower Miocene 
of Gannat (Allier), France, and is preserved in the Paris 
Museum of Natural History. It is described and figured 

1 See Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. xlix. pt. 2, p. 28 (1880). 

2 G-enus Diceratherium, Marsh. 

3 Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xix. p. 393 (1881) ; in the Amer. Nat. 

vol. xiii. p. 7716 (1879), it was given as I. ~ C. \. 

4 Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 93 (1822). 

5 Foss. Saugeth. Wurtt, p. 69 (1835-39). Identified with this species in 
Kaup's 'Beitrage,' pt. 1, p. 1. 

6 Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. i. p. 591 (1844). 

7 Catalogue Methodique, p. 78 (1853). 

8 Arch. d. Museum, vol. vii. p. 4'2 (1854). 

9 Beitrage, 1st ed. pt. 1, p. 1 (1854). 

10 Amer. Nat. vol. xiii. p. 771 A (1879). 



140 



TTNGTJLATA. 



by Duvernoy in the Arch. d. Museum, vol. vii. p. 42, pi. i. 
fig. 2, and by Kaup in the ' Beitrage,' pt. 1, pi. viii. 
Presented by the Paris Museum of Natural History, 1854. 

M. 2739. Cast of the fourth right upper premolar. The original is 
from the Lower Miocene of the Mayence Basin, near 
Eppelsheim, Hessen-Darmstadt \ and is figured (reversed) 
by Kaup in the Oss. Eoss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 3, pi. xii. 
fig. 10. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2740. Cast of the first left upper true molar. The original is 
from the Lower Miocene near Eppelsheim, and is figured 
by Kaup, op. cit. pi. xii. fig. 9. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2742. Cast of the second left upper true molar. The original is 
from the Lower Miocene near Eppelsheim, and is figured 
by Kaup, op. cit. pi. xii. fig. 8. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

29656. A much-worn second left upper true molar ; from a Lower 
Miocene deposit. Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

1257. A well-worn third left upper true molar ; from the Lower 
Miocene near Eppelsheim.. Purchased from Dr. Kaup. 

28846. Cast of the greater portion of the mandible, showing six 

cheek-teeth on the left side, and the alveoli of the incisor 
and canine of both sides. The original is from the Lower 
Miocene of Gannat, and is preserved in the Paris Museum 
of Natural History. 
Presented by the Paris Museum of Natural History, 1854. 

28847. Cast of the hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, 

with the three true molars. The original is from the 
Lower Miocene of Gannat, and is preserved in the Paris 
Museum of Natural History. It is figured by Duvernoy in 
the Arch. d. Museum, vol. vii. pi. i. fig. 2, and by Kaup 
in the ' Beitrage,' pt. 1, pi. viii. 
Presented by the Paris Museum of Natural History, 1854. 

1 "A satisfactory geological limitation of the Eppelsheim deposit and its 
organic contents is attended with some difficulty. The loose incoherent sand 
of which it is composed is spread out horizontally like the Loss, and the margin 
thins out to spread over a portion of the Lower-Miocene Mayence Basin ; so 
that where the beds are in contact the fossil remains of the two are liable to be 
confounded." (' Falconer's Palreontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. pp. 46, 47 [1868].) 



EHINOCEROTID^. 



141 



M. 2742. Cast of the fourth right lower premolar. The original is 
from the Lower Miocene of Weinsheim, Hessen-Darm- 
stadt ; and is figured by Kaup in the Oss. Foss. d. Darm- 
stadt, pt. 3, pi. xii. fig. 11. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 18S2. 

E. Aceratherine Group. 

In this group there is no nasal horn, and the nasals are straight 
and flat. In the typical R. incisivus and some other European species 
there are four digits to the manus, but in others, as well as in the 
Xorth-American forms (which have been generically separated), they 
are reduced to three. The number of cutting-teeth 1 is various, and 
may, according to Cope, be represented by the formula I. ^-y-*, C. ~ v 

Fig. 16. 




Rhinoceros megalodus (Cope 2 ). — Skull ; from the Miocene (Loup Fork Beds) of 
Colorado. $-. (From the ' American Naturalist.') 



1 For the dentition of the American forms see Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 
vol. xix. p. 393 (1881). In this memoir the formula of the so-called Peraceras 

is given as I. p C. ^ ; it was given in the Amer. Nat. vol. xiv. p. 540 (1880) as 

J. y C. , and is thus quoted in the ' Palacontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. 

p. ix. (In note 1 the volume and sheet [xiv. 1880] are omitted.) 

2 Syn. Aphelops megalodus, Cope. 



142 



UNGTJLATA. 



The skull of tie American B. megalodus (Cope) is figured in the 
accompanying woodcut (fig. 16). 

Rhinoceros croizeti (Filhol l ). 
Syn. (?) Aceratherium croizeti, Pomel 2 . 

Pomel's A. croizeti was described as being larger than It. minutus, 
whereas the specimens described by Filhol (op. cit.) indicate a form 
rather smaller 3 than Duvernoy's and Kaup's specimens of the latter. 
As Pomel's description is too vague to be of any value it is better to 
take the mandible figured by Filhol as the type ; the latter is from 
St. Gerand-le-Puy, but it is stated that specimens from Qnercy 
cannnot be specifically distinguished. The specimens in the Museum 
show that there was no " crochet " or inner cingulum in the upper 
true molars (fig. 17), nor any cingulum in the lower molars ; pmTT 
is persistent in the mandible figured by Filhol. 

Hob. Prance. 

Fig. 17. 




Rhinoceros croizeti. — Upper true molars ; from the Upper Eocene of Each. \. 

M. 1732. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing m. 1 and £^2 

{Fig.) (woodcut, fig. 17) ; from the Upper-Eocene phosphorites of 

Bach, near Lalbenque (Lot), Prance. The length of m. 1 

is 0,034 and its width anteriorly 0,031, the corresponding 

dimensions of m^2 being 0,037 and 0,034. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1729. Part of the mandible, showing mT~2 and m73 on the left 
side; from the Upper Eocene of Eschamps, near Lalbenque. 



1 Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. xi. art. l,p. 1 (1880; vol. dated 3881) ; Aceratherium. 

2 Catalogue Methodique, p. 77 (1853). 

3 Pilhol says larger, but this is not borne out by his figures. 



RHI^ T OCEEOTID^. 143 

This specimen is slightly smaller than the one figured by 
Pilhol, op. cit. pi. i., but is otherwise very similar ; the 
length of ^73 is 0,030. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1785. Two lower cheek-teeth; from Bach. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1461. A third right lower true molar, provisionally referred to 
this species ; from the Upper-Eocene phosphorites of 
Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), Prance. Purchased, 1884. 

27766. Part of the right ramus of a mandible, provisionally referred 
to this species ; from the Lower Miocene of Perrier (Puy- 
de-D6me), Prance. This specimen shows the three true 
molars, the anterior crescent of m. 1 being wanting. It is 
somewhat smaller than jSTo.M. 1729, but agrees much more 
nearly with, this than with R. minutus. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

27667. An associated left astragalus and calcaneum, belonging 
either to this species or to It. minutus ; from the Lower 
Miocene of Chaptuzat (Puy-de-D6me). 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 1846. An imperfect middle cervical vertebra, provisionally re- 
ferred to this species ; from Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 



Rhinoceros occidentalis, Leidy \ 
Syn. Aceratherium oceidentale, Cope 2 . 

This is a comparatively small species, in which the upper true 
molars have a strong " antecrochet," but no " crochet," while 
the premolars have a well-developed cingulum, of which there 
is a trace in the true molars. A cranium is figured by Leidy 
in the Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. vii. pi. xxii. 
(1869). 

Hab. North America. 

29677. Part of the right maxilla, containing the last four cheek- 
teeth, in a broken condition ; from the Miocene of Nebraska, 
U.S.A. The teeth are somewhat smaller than those of 
the cranium figured by Leidy, but otherwise agree. 

Purchased, 1855. 

1 Proc. Ac. Nat Sci. Philad. vol. v. p. 119 (1850; vol. dated 1852). 

2 Amer. Nat. vol. xiii. p. 771r (1879). 



144 TJNeULATA. 

Rhinoceros cimogorrhensis, Lartet K 
Rhinoceros simorrensis, Lartet 2 . 

This species is of rather small size, with canines of moderate 
development, there is an inner cingnlum to pm. 2 and pm. 3 , a 
crochet and antecrochet are developed in the upper true molars, and 
pm. 1 is present. It is stated that a minute horn is present in some 
instances ; the manus has but three digits. 

Hah. France. 

33525. The nearly complete cranium ; from the Middle Miocene of 

Yillefranche d'Astarac (Grers), Prance. The whole of the 
dentition is shown, and there is no trace of any protube- 
rance for a horn. Noticed in ' Falconer's Palseontological 
Memoirs,' vol. ii. p. 361. The length of the space occupied 
by the seven teeth is 0,193. Purchased, 1858. 

33525 a. The extremity of the nasals ; from Yillefranche d'Astarac. 
There is no trace of the attachment of any horn. 

Purchased, 1858. 

33526. The greater portion of the two mandibular rami, showing 

all the cheek-teeth except pm. 1 ; from Yillefranche 
d'Astarac. Purchased, 1858. 

29647. A left lower cheek-tooth; from the Middle Miocene of 
Simorre (Gers). Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

The following specimens from Simorre are provisionally referred to 
this species. Purchased, 1858. 

33542. An upper incisor. 

33543. A pisiform. 

33531. The right femur, imperfect proximally. 

33532. A patella. 

33544. The right calcaneum. 

33545. The right astragalus. 
33549. The left navicular. 
33533-5. Three metapodials. 

1 In Laurillard's < Diet. Univ. d'Hist. Nat.' vol. xi. p. 101 (1849). 

2 Notice sur la Oolline de Sansan, p. 29 (1853). 



RHIXOCEROTID.E. 145 

Rhinoceros incisivus (Kaup 1 ). 

Syn. Aceratherium incisivum, Kaup 2 . 
Rhinoceros tetradactylus, Lartet 3 . 

As it seems doubtful what the Rhinoceros incisivus of Cuvier 4 
(which according to Kaup 5 was founded on specimens from the Lower 
Pliocene of Weissenau, near Mayence) really is, it appears advisable 
to take Kaup's Eppelsheim specimens as the type of the species. 
Gervais 6 identifies with this form the Middle Miocene R. tetra- 
dactylus of Lartet, but Gaudry ' considers it distinct, and says the 
nasals are rather larger ; this, however, may be merely a racial 
character, and in the absence of any other distinctive differences 
Gervais's view is provisionally adopted. Gaudry 8 provisionally 
refers to the Eppelsheim species some specimens from Pikermi, in 
which the canines are very large and closely approximated and the 
lower incisors absent. If this reference be correct the species ranged 
from the Middle Miocene to the Lower Pliocene 9 . 

Dentition : — Usually I. \, C. ^, Pm. J, M. | ; in the Pikermi form 
provisionally referred to this species the lower incisors are wanting. 
The upper cheek-teeth closely resemble those of R. schleier?nacheri, 
but there is a slight external cingulum to the true molars, while the 
premolars have a strongly marked inner cingulum, and there is a 
small talon on the posterior surface of m. 3 ; pm. 4 has but two costae. 
The lower canines are larger and curve more sharply upwards. The 
manus has four digits. 

Hah. Europe. 

M. 2788. Cast of the cranium and mandible. The original is from 

the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, Hessen-Darmstadt, and 

is figured by Kaup in the Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 3, 

pi. x. fig. 2. Purchased. 

1 Isis, 1832, p. 898 ; Aceratherium. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Notice sur la Colline de Sansan, p. 28 (1853). The name does not occur in 
' Comptes Kendus,' vol. iv. p. 88 (1837). 

4 Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 93 (1822). 

5 Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 3, p. 49 (1834) ; and ' Beitrage,' 1st ed. pt. i. 
p. 1 (1854). 

6 Zool. et Pal. Francaises, 2nd ed. p. 101 (1848-52). 

7 Les Enchainements, &c.— Mamm. Tert. p. 47 (1878). 

8 Ibid. p. 51, fig. 46. 

9 Filhol (Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. art. 1, p. 126) provisionally referred to 
R. tetradactylus certain specimens from the Quercy phosphorites ; but it is 
more probable that they belong to R. lemanensis {vide infra, p. 152). 

PART III. L 



146 TJNGULATA. 

M. 2744. Cast of the palate, showing the cheek-dentition of both 
sides. The original is from Eppelsheim and is figured by 
Kaup in the ' Beitrage,' pt. i. pi. iv., and the dentition of 
the left side in the Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 3, 
pi. xiv. fig. 5. Purchased. 

M. 233. The left maxilla, showing the last six cheek-teeth ; from 
Eppelsheim. The teeth show all the characteristic features 
of the species, but the cingulum of the premolars is not so 
strongly developed as in some specimens. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 236. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing pm- 4 , m. 1 ? a nd 
mc2 ; from Eppelsheim. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

1258. The second and third left upper premolars; from Eppelsheim. 
The cingulum is very distinct. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup. 

27464. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing the last three pre- 
molars ; from Eppelsheim. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

M. 2745. Cast of part of the right maxilla, containing the first 
three premolars. The original is from Eppelsheim, and is 
figured by Kaup in the Oss. Foss, d. Darmstadt, pt. 3, 
pi. xiv. fig. 6. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

21017 e. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm. 2 and part of 
pm. 3 ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

M. 251. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing mm. 4 , m. 1, and 

m. 2; from Eppelsheim. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 
M. 240 a. Two specimens of the second upper premolar ; from 

Eppelsheim. Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

21017. Several specimens of the second upper premolar; from 
Eppelsheim. Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

1256. The second left upper premolar ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup. 

M. 2746. Cast of the second left upper premolar. The original is 
from Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup, op. cit. pi. xiv. 
fig- 7. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 



RMN0CER0TID.E. 147 

21017 a. Several specimens of the third upper premolar; from 
Eppelsheim. All these teeth show a strong cingulum and 
two " costse." Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

M. 2747. Cast of the third right upper premolar. The original is 
from Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup, op. cit. pi. xii. 
fig. 2, as R. schleiermacheri. In the presence of two 
" costae " and a slight cingulum it agrees, however, with the 
present species. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

11837. Cast of the well-worn third right upper premolar. The 
original is from the Middle Miocene of Chevilly, near 
Orleans (Loiret), France. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

21017 b. Several specimens of the fourth upper premolar ; from 
Eppelsheim. Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

M. 2748. Cast of the fourth left upper premolar. The original is 
from Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup, op. cit. pi. xii. 
fig. 4, under the name of R. schleiermacheri ; it agrees, 
however, in character with the preceding specimens, and 
differs from pm. 4 of the latter (No. 21484, page 125). 

Purchased. 

36991. The inner half of the fourth right upper premolar; from 
Eppelsheim. Purchased, 1861. 

19441, 21017 C. Two upper true molars ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1845-47. 

M. 237. The first or second left upper true molar ; from Eppels- 
heim. Ennislillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2749. Cast of the third left upper true molar. The original is 

from Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup, op>. cit. pi. xiv. 

g. 8. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2370. The third right upper true molar ; from Eppelsheim. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

27466. The third left upper true molar ; from Eppelsheim. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

21017 d. Two third left upper true molars ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1847. 

M. 470. The third left upper true molar ; from Eppelsheim. This 
and the two following specimens are of small size. 

Ennislcillen Collection. Purchased, 1S82. 

l2 



148 UNGULATA. 

19440. The third left upper true molar ; from Eppelsheim. 

Purchased from Dr. Kaup, 1845. 

11841. Cast of a third left upper true molar, provisionally referred 
to this species. The original is from Chevilly. 

Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

M. 2750. Casts of three upper incisors. The originals are from 
Eppelsheim and Oppenheim, and are figured by Kaup in 
the Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 3, pi. xiv. figs. 1-3. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

11840. Cast of an upper incisor. The original is from Eppels- 
heim. Mantell Collection. Purchased, 1836. 

M. 2751. Cast of the symphysis and the left ramus of the mandible. 
The original is from Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup, 
op. cit. pi. xiv. fig. 9. Purchased. 

M. 2752. The symphysis, left and portion of the right ramus of the 
mandible ; from Eppelsheim. On the right side pm . 1 is 
in situ. Purchased. 

M. 375. The symphysis and the left ramus of a mandible, provision- 
ally referred to this species ; from Eppelsheim. The form 
of the symphysis agrees with that of the cast No. M. 2751, 
but the alveoli for the canines are much smaller. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

Ill f. (0. C). Cast of a lower canine. The original is from Eppels- 
heim. Purchased. 

M. 239. A lower canine ; from Eppelsheim. 

Enniskillen Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 253. A lower canine ; from Eppelsheim. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

32517. Fragment of the right ramus of a mandible with two 
molars, provisionally assigned to this species; from the 
Middle Miocene of Sansan (Gers), Erance. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

The following specimens, of which the originals came from Eessen- 
Darmstadt, are referred by Kaup to this species. Purchased. 

M. 2753. Cast of the right magnum. Figured by Kaup in the 
Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 3, pi. xv. fig. 6. 



RHIXOCEROTID.E. 149 

1286. Cast of the left second metacarpal. Figured, op. tit. pi. xv. 

fig. 5. 

M. 2754. Cast of the left fifth metacarpal. Figured, op. tit. pi. xv. 
fig. 4. 

1287. Cast of the distal extremity of the right femur. Figured, 

op. tit. pi. xv. fig. 1. 

1288. Cast of the right calcaneum. Figured, op. tit. pi. xv. 

fig. 11. 

1289. Cast of the left calcaneum. 

M. 2755. Cast of the right astragalus. Figured, op. tit. pi. xv. 
fig. 10. 

1290. Cast of a smaller right astragalus. Figured, op. tit. pi. xv. 

fig. 2. 

1291. Cast of the navicular, cuboid, and second and third metatarsals 

of the left side. Figured, op. tit. pi. xv. fig. 9. 

M. 2756. Cast of the first phalangeal of a lateral digit. Figured, 
op. tit. pi. xv. fig. 8. 

M. 2757. Cast of the second phalangeal of a lateral digit. Figured, 
op. tit. pi. xv. fig. 9, e. 

M. 2758. Cast of the terminal phalangeal of a median digit. Figured, 
op. tit. pi. xv. fig. 7. 



Several of the following specimens from the Red Crag have been 
described under the name of E. schleiermacheri, but the strongly 
developed tingulum and the presence of only two costos in the 
upper premolars renders it more probable that at least several 
of them belong to the present species. 

36561. The fourth right upper premolar; from Suffolk. Figured 

{Fig.) by Owen in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xii. p. 231, 

fig. 1 (1856). Purchased, 1853. 

M. 2759. The inner half of a right upper premolar; from Felix- 
(Fig.) stowe, Suffolk. Figured by Owen, op. tit. p. 231, fig. 2. 
Presented by George Ransome, Esq. Before 1856. 

48934. The fourth upper premolar ; from Suffolk. Purchased, 187 S 



150 FNGULATA. 

28251, 42023. The inner halves of two right upper premolars ; from 

Suffolk. Purchased, 1852 and 1870. 

28252, 48958. Two specimens of the outer lamina of right upper 

true molars ; from Suffolk. Purchased, 1852 and 1878. 

M. 2760. Three lower true molars ; from Suffolk. Figured by 
(Fig.) Owen, op. cit. p. 232, figs. 4-6. 

Purchased. Before 1856. 

48959, 48960. Two right lower true molars ; from Suffolk. 

Purchased, 1878. 

27856, 28245. Two right lower cheek-teeth ; from Felixstowe. 

Purchased, 1852. 

35856. The second right lower true molar ; from Suffolk. 

Presented by J. Berners, Esq., 1861. 

46570. Four lower cheek-teeth ; from Woodbridge, Suffolk. 

Purchased, 1878. 

46494. The second left lower premolar ; from Felixstowe. 

Purchased, 1878. 

Rhinoceros goldfussi, Kaup 1 . 

Syn. Rhinoceros brachypus, Lartet 2 . 
Aceraiherium goldfussi, Kaup 3 . 
Aceratherium br achy pus, Falconer 4 . 

This is a large species, with well- developed canines. The upper 
true molars have a well-developed crenulated cingulum on the inner 
surface, and a less distinct one externally; the " antecrochet " is 
strongly marked. There are three digits to the manus. The lower 
cheek-teeth have an incomplete external cingulum. 

Hob. Europe. 

33522. The upper cheek-teeth of the left side (wanting 1), be- 
longing to different individuals ; from the Middle Miocene 
of Villefranche d'Astarac (Gers), France. Noticed in 
' Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs,' vol. ii. p. 361. 

Purchased, 1858. 

1 Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt, 3, p. 62 (1834). 

2 In Laurillard's ' Diet. Univ. d'Hist. Nat.' vol. xi. p. 10J (1849). 

3 Eeitrage, 1st ed. pt.- i. p. 1 (1854). 

4 Pak«ontolo£ical Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 361 (1868). 



RHIXOCEROTID.^. 151 

40743. The second right upper true molar; from the Middle 

Miocene of Sansan (Gers), France. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40744. The second left upper premolar ; from Sansan. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

27461. The third left upper true molar; probably from Sansan. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

39921. A first and a second upper true molar, of opposite sides ; 
from the Middle Miocene of Steinheim, Bavaria. 

Purchased, 1866. 

39921 a. The third right upper true molar ; from Steinheim. This 
specimen agrees very closely with the one figured by Fraas 
in the ' Fauna von Steinheim,' pi. iii. fig. 8 (1870). 

Purchased, 1866. 

32526. The fourth right upper premolar ; from the Middle Miocene 
of Touraine, France. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

33524. An upper incisor ; from Yillefranche d'Astarac. 

Purchased, 1858. 

33523. The last five lower cheek-teeth of the right side ; from 
Yillefranche d'Astarac. These specimens belong to dif- 
ferent individuals. Purchased, 1858. 

27454. A nearly complete mandible, in a crushed condition, pro- 
visionally referred to this species; from Sansan. The 
teeth agree very closely with those of No. 33523. 

Hastings Collection. Purchased, 1855. 

40745. A right lower true molar ; from Sansan. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

32528. The third left lower true molar ; from Touraine. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

M. 2761. Cast of a left lower true molar. The original is from the 
Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, Hessen-Darmstadt, and is 
figured by Kaup in the Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 3, 
pi. xi. fig. 13. Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2762. Cast of a right lower true molar. The original is from 

Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup, op. cit. pi. xi. fig. 14. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882 



152 UNGTJLA.TA. 

The following specimens are provisionally referred to this species. 
32525. Fragment of the shaft of a humerus ; from Touraine. 

Tesson Collection. Purchased, 1857. 

33527. The distal extremity of the left radius ; from Yillefranche 

d'Astarac. Purchased, 1858. 

33537. The right cuneiform ; from Gers. Purchased, 1858. 

33528. A patella ; from Yillefranche d'Astarac. Purchased, 1858. 

33530. The imperfect right calcaneum ; from Villefranche d'Astarac. 

Purchased, 1858. 

33529. The right astragalus ; from Yillefranche d'Astarac. In its 

transversely elongated form this specimen agrees with the 
one figured by Kaup in the ' Beitrage,' pt. i. pi. ix. 

Purchased, 1858. 

33538. A navicular ; from Gers. Purchased, 1858. 
33536. A metatarsal ; from Gers. Purchased, 1858. 

Rhinoceros lemanensis (Fomel ' ). 
Syn. Aceratherium lemanense, Pomel 2 . 

This species is usually of rather larger size than R. incisivus ; 
and is distinguished by the slight development of the " crochet," 
which is entirely wanting in half-worn teeth; there is a large 
" antecrochet." The upper premolars and the lower cheek-teeth 
have a strong cingulum; and there is an incomplete one in the 
upper true molars. A large Rhinoceros from the Quercy phosphorites 
has been provisionally identified by Filhol (Ann. Sci. Geol. vol. viii. 
art. 1, p. 126) with R . incisivus (tetradactylus) ; but the specimens 
in the Museum from the same deposits cannot be distinguished from 
the present species — a circumstance much more in harmony with 
the respective geological age of the two species. 

Hah. France. 

29624. Cast of the left upper cheek-dentition, in a half- worn con- 
dition. The original is from the Lower Miocene of the 
Auvergne, France ; and is figured in De Blainville's 
' Osteographie,' genus Rhinoceros, pi. xii., as R. incisivus 
d' Auvergne. The length of the series of seven cheek-teeth 
is 0,260. 
Presented by the Paris Museum of Natural History, 1854 

1 Catalogue Methodique, p. 77 (1853), Aceratherium 2 Loc. cit. 



RHIXOCEROTID^. 153 

47447 o Fragment of the left maxilla of a young individual, showing 
mm. 3 , mm. 4 , and m. 1 (all imperfect) ; from the Lower 
Miocene of the Auvergne. There is small "crochet" in 
the unworn m. 1 . Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

M. 1455. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing m. 1 and m. 2 ; 
from the Upper Eocene phosphorites of Caylux (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), France. With the exception of heing somewhat 
larger, these teeth agree precisely with those of jSo. 29624. 

Purchased, 1884. 

34730. The hinder upper cheek-teeth of both sides of a small indi- 
vidual ; from the Lower Miocene of Chaptuzat (Puy-de- 
Dome), France. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

M. 1456. The unworn third left upper true molar ; from Caylux. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1459. The first left upper premolar ; from Caylux. This speci- 
men agrees very closely with the corresponding tooth of 
No. 29624. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1458. Three lower true molars ; from Caylux. 

Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1457. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
pm. 4; from Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1460. The ri#ht lower canine ; from Caylux. Purchased, 1884. 

M. 1730. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
mTx and the first crescent of m . 3 ; from Caylux. The 
cingulum is very strongly developed. Purchased, 1884. 

34721. Part of the right ramus of the mandible, showing the last four 
cheek-teeth ; from the Lower Miocene of Antoin (Puy-de- 
Dome). The development of the cingulum is much less 
strong than in No. M. 1730. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34721 a. A right lower true molar ; from the Lower Miocene of 
Puy-de-D6me. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 

34741. A patella ; from the Lower Miocene of Perignat (Puy-de- 
Dome). Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1852. 



154 



TJNGULATA. 



Rhinoceros blanfordi, Lydekker 1 . 

Syn. Aceratherium blanfordi, Lydekker 2 . 

In this species the upper true molars have a " crochet," a very 
large " antecrochet," a slight " buttress/' a tubercle at the entrance 
to the median valley, and an incomplete cingulum ; in the premolars 
the cingulum is complete. An imperfect mandibular ramus is 
represented in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 18). 



Fig. 18. 




Rhinoceros blanfordi, Lyd. — The right ramus of the mandible of an immatur 
individual ; from the Lower Siwaliks of the Biigti Hills, N.W. frontier of 
India. Indian Museum, Calcutta. (From the ' Palseontologia Indica.') 

Hah. Persia 3 , rJ.W. India, Baluchistan, and China. It was first 
recorded from the latter country by Koken 4 , who designates the 
Chinese form as var. hipparionum. 

28583. The first left upper true molar, in a well-worn condition 
from the Pliocene (?) of the south of China. This 
specimen agrees almost exactly with the slightly less worn 
m. 1 in the jaw figured by the present writer in the 
4 Palseontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iii. pi. i. fig. 1 ; 
there are, however, three fossettes. 

Presented by D. Banbury, Esq., 1853. 

28583 a. The inner half of the second right upper true molar ; from 
China. This specimen agrees precisely with m- 2 in the 
figure quoted above. 

Presented by D. Hanbury, Esq., 1853. 

1 Palasontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 2 
(1884), Aceratherium. 2 Loc. cit. 

3 See a paper by the present writer on Persian Mammals (Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc. vol. xlii. 1886). 

4 Pal. Abhand. vol. iii. pt. 2, p. 18 (1885). 



EHINOCEEOTID^. 155 

28583 b. The inner half of a smaller first right upper true molar ; 
from China. This specimen agrees with m. 1 of a jaw- 
figured by the present writer, op. cit. pi. ii. fig. 4. 

Presented by D. Hanburg, Esq., 1853. 

28583 C. A left lower cheek-tooth ; from China. 

Presented by D. Hanbury, Esq., 1853. 



Rhinoceros perimensis, Falconer and Cautley l . 

Syn. Aceratherium perimense, Lydekker 2 . 
Rhinoceros iravadicus, Lydekker 3 . 
Rhinoceros planidens, Lydekker 4 . 

This species is of large size ; the cranium is taller and shorter 
than in R. incisivus, with short pointed nasals. In the upper cheek- 
teeth the true molars (fig. 19) have a strong " buttress," a large 
" crochet," small " antecrochet," and an incomplete inner cingulum ; 
in the premolars this cingulum is complete, and (as in the true molars) 
is frequently crenulated. 

Hab. India (Perim Island, Punjab, and Siwalik Hills) and Burma. 

M. 2725. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing pm. 2 and 
pm- 3 , in a broken condition ; from the Pliocene Siwaliks 
of Perim Island, Gulf of Cambay, India. The teeth agree 
precisely with those of the specimen figured by the pre- 
sent writer in the ' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. ii. 
pi. ii. Transferred from the Old Indian Museum, 1880. 

18788. Anterior half of the first left upper true molar ; from Perim 
Island. This tooth also agrees exactly with m. 1 f the 
figure cited. Presented by Mrs. Leach. 1845. 

M. 2958. Cast of the second left upper true molar. The original 
(fig. 19) is from the Pliocene Siwaliks of Burma, and is 
preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta (No. C. 74 5 ) ; 
it is figured by the present writer in the ' Paheontologia 
Indica,' ser. 10, vol. i. pi. v. fig. 1 (under the name of 
R. irav adieus), and vol. iii. pi. i. fig. 5. 

Made in the Museum, 1886. 

1 Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis, pt. 7, pi. lxxv. (1847). 

2 Palaeontologia Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. i. p. 51 (1876). 

3 Ibid. p. 36. 4 Ibid. p. 41. 

5 See Lydekker, Cat. Siwalik Vert. Indian Museum, Calcutta, pt. i. p. 66 
(1885). 



156 



UNGULATA. 



Fig. 19. 




Bhinoceros perimensis.- — The second left upper true molar, in a half- worn 

rom the Pliocene Siwaliks c 

Indian Museum, Calcutta. 



M. 258. A much-damaged first or second right upper true molar; 
from Perim Island. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2726. The third right upper true molar; from Perim Island. 
Agrees very closely with m. 3 , figured by the writer, op. ciU 
vol. ii. pi. iii. fig. 5. 

Presented to the Old Indian Museum in 1847 by 
A. Bettington, Esq., and transferred in 1880. 

M. 258 a. Fragment of the right maxilla of a young individual, 
containing mm. 3 and mm. 4 ; from Perim Island. The 
penultimate tooth agrees precisely with the one figured by 
the writer, op. cit. vol. ii. pi. iii. fig. 2. Purchased, 1882. 

37256. A fourth left upper milk-molar, provisionally referred to this 
species; from Perim Island. See ' Palaeontologia Indiea,' 
ser. 10, vol. ii. pi. iii. fig. 2. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 



RHINOCEROTID^. 157 

37257. Part of the symphysis and the right ramus of the mandible, 
containing pm.3, pni.4, mTl, and m72, all much water worn. 
This specimen agrees with the one figured by the writer, 
op. cit. vol. ii. pi. iv. Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

M. 2724. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
mm. 4, m/L, and mT2, all broken ; from Perim Island. 

Transferred from the Old Indian Museum, 1880. 

23150. The hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 
taining the three worn and broken true molars ; from 
Perim Island. Presented by Walter Ewer, Esq. 

M. 2722. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 
the base of mT3 ; from Perim Island. No history. 

M. 2721. Hinder part of the left ramus of the mandible, containing 

(Fig.) the true molars, in a broken condition ; from Perim Island. 

Figured by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua 

Sivalensis,' pi. lxxvi. fig. 15. No history. 

40693. Fragment of a mandible, with one broken premolar ; from 

Perim Island. Purchased, 1867. 

M. 258 b. An imperfect right lower true molar ; from Perim Island. 

Purchased, 1882. 

M. 258 c. The glenoidal extremity of the lei't scapula ; from Perim 
Island. Purchased, 1882. 

40833. The distal extremity of the left humerus ; from Perim Island. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

40694. The proximal half of a radius ; from Perim Island. 

Purchased, 1867. 

M. 2723. The acetabular portion of an innominate ; from Perim 
Island. No history. 

14755. The proximal extremity of the right femur ; from Perim 

(Fig.) Island. Figured by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit. pi. lxxvi. 

fig. 16. Presented by Miss Pepper. Before 1846. 

F. Incertcp. sedis. 

Rhinoceros, sp, a* 

Bab. India. 

48932. An imperfect cranium, showing some of the milk- and some 
of the permanent cheek-teeth (all broken); from the 



158 XJNGULA.TA. 

Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills, India. This specimen is 
noticed by the writer in the ' Palseontologia Indica ' (Mem. 
Geol. Surv. Ind.), ser. 10, vol. iii. p. 4 ; it apparently 
belongs to the aceratherine section, and is certainly distinct 
from R. perimensis, and apparently from B. blanfordi. 

Presented by G. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

Rhinoceros, sp. b. 

Hab. Tibet. The following specimens were obtained from the 
Upper Pliocene (?) of Hundes, in Western Tibet 1 , and were brought 
by traders over the Mti pass : they are not specifically determin- 
able 2 , and belong to the Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

39653 a. Fragment of the right zygoma. 

39653. The glenoidal portion of the right scapula. Figured by 
{Fig.) Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' 
pi. lxxvi. fig. 6. 

39649. Fragment of the left humerus. Figured, op. cit. fig. 1. 

39650. The proximal half of the left radius. Figured, op. cit. fig. 3. 

(%•) 

39652. The left scaphoid. Figured, op. cit. fig. 2. 
(-%•) 

39656-7. The imperfect distal extremity of the left femur, and the 
(Fig.) proximal end of the tibia. Figured, op. cit. figs. 10, 4. 

39654-5. A first and second phalangeal of a middle digit. Figured, 
(Fig.) op. cit. figs. 7, 8. 

Genus HYRACODON, Leidy 3 . 

Dentition:— I. |, C. \, Pm. |, M. |. 

On account of the presence of the full typical number of incisors, 
this genus is referred by Cope 4 to a separate family — Hyracodontidce. 

1 See Lydekker, Eec. Geol. Surv. Ind. vol. xiv. pp. 178-184 (1881). These 
beds are provisionally classed in this notice as Pleistocene, but the writer now 
thinks they are more probably of Upper Pliocene age. 

2 It has been suggested in a paper by the present writer on Persian Mammals 
(Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xlii. [1886]) that this form may be B. blanfordi. 

3 Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. viii. p. 91 (1856 ; vol. dated 1857). 
* See Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xix. pp. 379, 393 (1881). 



RHINOCEROTID.E. 159 

There are apparently three digits to each foot, and there is no horn ; 
the teeth are like those of Rhinoceros. 

Hyracodon nebrascensis, Leidy \ 

Syn. Rhinoceros nebrascensis, Leidy 2 . 
Aceratherium nebrascense, Leidy 3 . 

This is the type species, and is about the size of Tapirus indicus. 
Rah. North America. 

29683. Fragment of the left maxilla, containing pm.3 , pm. 4 . a nd 
portions of mJL and m. 2 ; from the Lower Miocene of the 
White Eiver, Nebraska, U.S.A. Purchased, 1855. 

44084. Fragment of the mandible with one imperfect cheek-tooth ; 
from Nebraska. Purchased, 1873. 

29679. The distal extremity of a humerus, perhaps belonging to this 
species ; from Nebraska. Purchased, 1855. 

The reference of the three following genera to the present family 
is provisional. 

Genus CADURCOTHERIUM, P. Gervais 4 . 

The complete dental formula is unknown ; the molars are rhino- 
cerotic, but are extremely narrow in a transverse direction ; the 
lower molars are imperfectly crescentoid. 

Cadurcotherium cayhixense, P. Gervais*. 
Hah. France. 

M. 2419. Two specimens of left upper true molars, and two lower 
(Fig.) molars of opposite sides ; from the Upper Eocene phospho- 
M. 2420. rites of Caylux (Tarn-et-Garonne), France. These speci- 
mens (one of which is figured in the accompanying wood- 
cut) agree with those figured by Gervais in the Zool. et 
Pal. Generales, ser. 2, pi. ix. (1876). Purchased, 1885 

1 Proc. Ac. Xat. Sci. Philad. vol. v. p. 121 (1850; vol. dated 1852); Rhi- 
noceros. 

2 Loc. cit. 3 Ibid. vol. v. p. 331 (1$52). 
* Comptes Rendus, vol. lxxvii. p. 106 (1873) 

6 Loc. cit. Amended from cayluxi 



160 TJNGULATA. 

Pig. 20. 




Cadurcotherium cayluxense. — A left upper true molar ; from the 
Upper Eocene of Caylux. \. 

M. 1731. Two upper and two lower true molars ; from the Upper 
Eocene of Bach, near Lalhenque (Lot), France. 

Purchased, 1884. 

Genus HOMALODONTOTHERIUM, Huxley 1 . 

Dentition : — I. |, C. \, Pm. |, M. |. There is no diastema, and 
the dentition is of a generalized rhinocerotic character ; the struc- 
ture of the cheek-teeth being so like that obtaining in Cadurco- 
therium (although of a rather more complex type), that there can 
be little hesitation in placing the two genera in the same family, 
although the present genus is sometimes classed with Nesodon. No 
other portion of the skeleton is known. 

Homalodontotherium cunninghami, Flower 2 . 

This is the only known species. 
Hob. South America. 

46295. The palate, showing all the dentition except the right m^ 
{Fig.) and m^ ; from Tertiary strata on the river Gallegas, south- 
east Patagonia. This and the next specimens are the types 
of the genus and species, and are described and figured by 
Plower in the Phil. Trans, for 1874, p. 173, pi. xvi. 

Presented hy R. 0. Cunningham, Esq., M.D., 1874. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. lvii (1870). 

2 Phil. Trans, vol. clxiv. p. 173 (1874). 



CHALICOTHEEIID^;. 161 

46296. The greater portion of the mandible, showing all the teeth ; 
{Fig.) associated with the preceding specimen. 

Presented by R. 0. Cunningham, Esq., M.D., 1874. 

Genus ELASMOTHERIUM, Fischer 1 . 
Dentition : — I. £, C. J, Pm. |, M. |. The skull is essentially rhi- 
nocerotic, but the cheek-teeth are taller than those of Rhinoceros, 
and thus approach those of the Equidce and the Toccodontia (see 
J. P. Brandt, Mem. Ac. Imp. St. Petersbourg, ser. 7, vol. viii. art. 4, 
1864). The narial septum is ossified, and the frontals carry a large 
bony protuberance for the support of an immense horn. 

Elasmotherium sibiricum, Fischer 2 . 

Syn. Elasmotherium jisclieri, Desmarest 3 . 

Hob. Northern Europe. 

M. 1890. Cast of the cranium, wanting several of the cheek-teeth. 
The original is from the Pleistocene of Nouvonsensk, 
Samara, Bussia. Purchased. 

M. 1891. Cast of an upper cheek-tooth. The original is from the 
Pleistocene of Nouvonsensk. Purchased, 



Family CHALICOTHEMID^]. 

The upper premolars are simpler than the true molars ; the latter 
(fig. 21, p. 165) usually have four columns, of which the two 
hindmost are frequently connected by an oblique transverse ridge, 
and there may be a less complete anterior transverse ridge. The 
crowns of all the cheek-teeth are very low, and the upper ones 
when worn present Y-shaped dentine surfaces ; those of the lower 
jaw are crescentoid, and inTB has no third lobe. In the American 
forms there are four digits to the pes and three to the manus. The 
number of the cutting-teeth presents variations analogous to those 
obtaining in Rhinoceros. On these grounds, coupled with slight 
differences in the form of the cheek-teeth, a large number of genera 
have been founded 1 ; at least all the Old-World forms are, however, 
included in the present work in the typo genus. 

1 Program. Moscou, 1808 ; see also Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, vol. ii. 
p. 255 (1809). 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 Mammalogio, Supplement, p. 546 (1822). 

4 See Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xis. p. 300 (1881). 
PART III. M 



162 TJNGTJLATA. 

Genus CHALICOTHERIUM, Kaup 1 . 

Including : — Anisodon, Lartet 2 . 

Nestoritherium, Kaup 3 . 

Dentition:-— I. g=J>, c. ( ^, Pm. |, M. §. The two hinder cusps 
of the upper true molars are connected by a transverse ridge in the 
Old- World forms, although this may be very faint (e. g. C. sivalense 4 ). 
In the closely allied North- American forms named Palceosyops, 
Leidy 5 , and Limnohyus, Marsh, there are four premolars and the 
cross-ridges are absent ; but as variations of at least equal import- 
ance occur in the upper molars of the different species of Mhinoceros, 
the writer is by no means assured of the advisability of their generic 
separation. 

Chalicotherium goldfussi, Kaup 6 . 

Syn. Chalicotherium antiquum, Kaup 7 . 
Chalicotherium yrande, Gervais 8 . 
Anisodon maynus, Lartet 9 . 

This is the type species, and is of large size ; incisors and canines 
were present in both jaws. As it is difficult to draw any distinction 
between the type form and the smaller so-called 0. antiquum, all 
the specimens are provisionally referred to one species. 

Hub. Europe. 

M. 2713. Cast of the third left upper true molar. The original is 
from the Upper Miocene of Eppelsheim, Hessen-Darmstadt, 
and is preserved in the Darmstadt Museum ; it is the 
type, and is figured (reversed) by Kaup in the Oss. Foss. 
d. Darmstadt, pt. 2, pi. vii. fig. 3. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2714. Cast of the second right upper true molar. The original 
is from Eppelsheim, 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

1 Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 2, p. 4 (1833). 

2 Notice sur la Oolline de Sansan, p. 30 (1851). 

3 Beitrage, pt. 4, p. 3 (1859). 

4 Cope, op. cit., says that there is no transverse ridge in this species, for 
which he retains the name Nestoritheritum. 

5 See ' Extinct Vert. Fauna, Western Territories' (Eep. U.S. Geol. Surv.), 
pi. iv. 

6 Oss. Foss. d. Darmstadt, pt. 2, p. 4 (1833). 

7 Ibid. p. 6. 

8 Zool. et Pal. Franchises, 1st ed. vol. i. p. 91 (1849-52). 

9 Notice sur la Colline de Sansan, p. 30 (1851). 



CHALICOTHERIIDJE. 163 

M. 2715. Cast of the imperfect third left upper true molar. The 
original is from Eppelsheim. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2716. Cast of a smaller third right upper true molar. The 

original is from Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup, 

op. cit. pi. vii. fig. 6, under the name of C. antiquum, of 
which it is the type. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2717. Cast of the much-worn first left upper true molar. The 
original is from Eppelsheim. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

40821. Cast of a fragment of the left maxilla, showing the last four 
cheek-teeth. The original is from the Middle Miocene of 
Sansan (Gers), France. The teeth correspond in size to 
Kaup's C. antiquum. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

M. 2720. Cast of the third right upper premolar. The original is 
from Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup, op. cit. pi. vii. 
figs. 8, 9 (as a lower incisor x ). 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

40821 a. Cast of a fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, 
showing pm. 4, m. 1, and m72. The original is from Sansan, 
and belongs to Lartet's so-called Anisodon magnus. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

M. 2719. Cast of a fragment of the left ramus of the mandible of 
an immature individual, showing three milk-molars. The 
original is from Eppelsheim. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

M. 2718. Cast of the third left lower true molar. The original is 
from Eppelsheim, and is figured by Kaup, op. cit. pi. vii. 
fig. 5 (as n7~2) 2 ; it is of very large size. 

Egerton Collection. Purchased, 1882. 

21878. A first or second left lower true molar ; from Sansan. 

Croizet Collection. Purchased, 1848. 

40764. A first or second left lower true molar ; from Sansan. 

Presented by C. Falconer, Esq., 1867. 

1 See ' Falconer's Palacontological Memoirs,' vol. i. p. 218 (18(18). 
-' Ibid. p. 220. 

m2 



164 UNGULATA. 

Chalicotherium sivalense, Falconer and Cautley \ 

Syn. Anoplotherium sivalense, Falconer and Cautley 2 . 
Nestoritherium sivalense, Kaup 3 . 

Dentition :— I. g, C. \, Pm. |, M. |. 

This species is equal in size to the smaller individuals of the pre- 
ceding ; the antero-internal column of the upper true molars is re- 
latively larger, and the ridge connecting the two hinder columns 
shorter and lower. The species is the type of Nestoritherium. 

Hab. India. 

15366-7. The two halves of the palatal portion of the cranium, 
{Fig.) showing on the left side the last six, and on the right the 
last four cheek-teeth; from the Pliocene of the Siwalik 
Hills. This specimen is described and figured by Falconer 
and Cautley in the Proc. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. p. 235, pi. ii. 
figs. 1, 2 (1843) ; and is also figured in the ' Fauna An- 
tiqua Sivalensis/ pi. lxxx. figs. 2, 3, and in ' Falconer's 
Palseontological Memoirs/ vol. i. pi. xvii. figs. 1, 2. 

Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2710. Cast of the anterior portion of the cranium, with the 
mandible attached. The original is from the Siwalik 
Hills, and is preserved in the Museum of Mareschal College, 
Aberdeen ; it is described by Falconer and Cautley, op. cit., 
and is figured in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. lxxx. 
fig. 1, and in ' Falconers Palaeontological Memoirs/ vol. i. 
pi. xvii. figs. 3-5. No history. 

36734. Part of the symphysis and the left ramus of the mandible 
(Fig.) of an immature individual, showing the last four cheek- 
teeth ; from the Siwalik Hills. Described by Falconer 
and Cautley, op. cit., and figured op. cit. pi. lxxx. fig. 4, 
and xvii. figs. 6, 7. Cautley Collection. Presented, 1842. 

M. 2711. An axis vertebra, provisionally referred to this species; 

(Fig.) from the Siwalik Hills. Figured (without determination) 
by Falconer and Cautley in the ' Fauna Antiqua Siva- 
lensis/ pi. lxxxiii. fig. 13. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 

1 Trans. Geol. Soc. ser, 2, vol. v. p. 502 (1837) ; Anoplotherium. 

2 Log. cit. 

3 Beitrage, pt. 4, p. 3 (1859). 



CHALICOTHEEIID^:. 



165 



M. 2712. The distal extremity of a right femur, provisionally re- 
(Fig.) ferred to this species ; from the Siwalik Hills. Figured 

(without determination) by Falconer and Cautiey, op. cit. 

pi. lxxxiii. fig. 4. 

Presented by Gen. Sir W. E. Baker, K.C.B., 1848. 



Chalic other ium sinense, Owen \ 

This species is known only by two upper molars, which are rather 
larger than those of G. sivalense, and present certain differences 
which are regarded as of specific value (see Koken, Pal. Abhand. 
vol. iii. pt. 2, p. 17 [1885]). Till the anterior dentition is known 
its full affinity cannot be determined. 

Hub. China. 

41934. The third right upper true molar, in an early condition of 

{Fig.) wear; from a cavern near Chung-king-foo, Sechuen, N.W. 

China. This specimen (woodcut, fig. 21) is the type, and 

Fi<?. 21. 




Chalicotherium sinense.— The third right upper true molar; from the 
Pliocene (?) of China. }. 

is described and figured by Owen in the Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 429, pi. xxix. figs. 7-10. 

Purchased from R. Sivinhoe, Esq., 1870. 



1 Quart. Journ. Ceol. Soc. toI. xxri. p. 429 (1870). 



166 UNGTJLATA. 

Family MACRAUCHENIIDiE. 

Of this family only the type genus is at present known, and the 
characters of the latter may therefore be taken as those of the former 1 . 
Dentition :— I. % C. \, Pm. \, M. J. 

6 1 1' 4? 6 

The cheek-teeth are rhinocerotine, the npper true molars pre- 
senting two external V's and two transverse crests ; there is only a 
very short diastema in the upper jaw. The cervical vertebras re- 
semble those of the Camelidce in the position of the vertebrarterial 
canal, but the extremities of their centra are flat. The fibula articu- 
lates with the calcaneum (a character not known in any other 
Perissodactyle) ; and there are three digits to each foot, the lateral 
digits being of large size. Schlosser 2 regards the structure of the 
limbs as extremely primitive, and the dentition as more specialized. 

Genus MACRAUCHENIA, Owen 3 . 
Macrauchenia patachonica, Owen 4 . 

This is the type species. 
Hab. South America. 

19950. The greater part of the left ramus of the mandible, showing 

(Fig.) all the cheek-teeth except pm. ] ; from the Pleistocene of 

Buenos Ayres. Described and figured by Owen in his 

' Odontography,' p. 35, pi. cxxxv. fig. 7, and in the Phil. 

Trans, for 1870, p. 79, pi. viii. figs. 1-3. 

Purchased, 1846. 

43247. The distal half of the right humerus ; from the Pleistocene 
of Buenos Ayres. 

Presented by Senor L. J. Fontanel, 1871. 

M. 2706. Cast of the right metacarpals and many of the phalan- 
geals. The original of these and the other casts are the 
type specimens, and are preserved in the Museum of the 
Royal College of Surgeons ; they were obtained from the 
Pleistocene of Port St. Julian, Patagonia, and are de- 
scribed and figured in the ' Voyage of the Beagle/ 

Presented by the Royal College of Surgeons. 

1 See Burmeister, ' Descripcion de la Macrauchenia 'patachonica ' (Buenos 
Ayres, 1864). 

2 Zool. Auzeig. no. 210, 1885. 

3 Zoology of H.M.S. 'Beagle,' pt. i. p. 35 (1840). 

4 Log. cit. 



toxodoxtid.e. 167 

M. 2707. Cast of the right femur. 

Presented by the Royal College of Surgeons. 

43233. The distal half of the left femur ; from the Pleistocene of 
Buenos Ayres. Presented by Senor L. J. Fontanel, 1871. 

40085. The right calcaneum ; from the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. 

Purchased, 1860. 

M. 2708. Cast of the right astragalus. 

Presented by the Royal College of Surgeons. 

M. 2709. Cast of a middle cervical vertebra. 

Presented by the Royal College of Surgeons. 

The serial position and the right to distinction of the three following 
Suborders is provisional, and subject to future revision. 

Suborder TOXODONTIA. 

The members of this group, which is provisionally regarded as of 
subordinal value, present extremely generalized characters. Thus 
Nesodon shows indications of affinity with the Perissodactyla by its 
dentition ; Toxodon is related to the Artiodact} T la by its cranium, 
and with the Proboscidea, and perhaps Amblypoda, by its foot- 
structure ; while Typotherium has considerable resemblance to a 
rodent. The femur of Toxodon has no third trochanter, and the 
fibula articulates with the calcaneum. Cope l suggests affinity with 
the Condylarthra and Hyracoidea, the structure of the carpus being 
apparently similar (vide infra, p. 172). 



Family TOXODONTID^E. 

Genus NESODON, Owen 2 . 

Dentition : — 1. 1, C. J, Pm. ~, M. |. The dentition of this genus 
connects Toxodon with Homalodontotherium and Macrauchenia. 
The incisors have short crowns, and the true molars a complex, 
rhinoceroid structure. The limb-bones are unknown. Four species 
are recognized by H. Gervais and Ameghiuo 3 . 

1 Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xx. p. 444 (1882). 

2 Eep. Brit. Assoc, for 1846, p. 06 (1847). 

3 Mammiferes Fossiles del'Amerique Meridionale, pp. 105-107 (1880). 



168 UNGULATA. 

Nesodon ovmus, Owen 1 . 

This is the smallest species of the genus. 
Hab. S. America. 

35683. The cranium, imperfect posteriorly ; from the Tertiary of 
(Fig.) the south-east of Patagonia. This and the next speci- 
men are the types of the species, and are described and 
figured by Owen in the Phil. Trans, for 1853, p. 291, 
pis. xv., xvi. 

Presented by Admiral Sir B. J. Sulivan, K.C.B., 1853. 

35684. The right ramus of the mandible, associated with the pre- 
(Fig.) ceding. Described and figured by Owen, op>. cit. 

Presented by Admiral Sir B. J. Sulivan, K.C.B., 1853. 

Genus TOXODON, Owen 2 . 

Dentition : — I. g, C. -, Pm. g, M. -^ All the teeth grow from per- 
sistent pulps ; the lower canines are minute, the incisors large, and 
the crowns of the latter and of the cheek-teeth strongly curved. The 
structure of the cheek-teeth is a simplification of the plan obtaining 
in Nesodon. The characters of the base and hinder part of the 
cranium agree very closely with those of the Suidce. Five species 
are recognized by H. Gervais and Ameghino 3 . 

Toxodon platensis, Owen 4 . 

Syn. Toxodon angustidens, Owen °. 

This is the type species, and is nearly equal in size to Hippopo- 
tamus amphibius. 

Hab. South America. 

49197. The cranium, wanting many of the teeth ; from the Pleis- 
tocene of Buenos Ayres. Purchased, 1878. 

19948. The anterior extremity of the cranium, wanting all the teeth 

except the outer left incisor ; from the Pleistocene of 
Buenos Ayres. Purchased, 1846. 

19949. The mandible, wanting many of the cheek-teeth ; from the 

Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. Purchased, 1846. 

1 Phil, Trans, vol. cxliii. p. 291 (1853). 

2 Zool. of Voyage of H.M.S. 'Beagle/ pt. 1, p. 16 (1840). 

3 Les Mammiferes Fossiles de l'Arnerique Meridionale, pp. 81-85 (1880). 

4 Loc. cit. 

5 Bep, Brit. Assoc, for 1846, p. 65 (1847). 



toxodoxtidjE. 169 

39378. The hinder part of the right ramus of the mandible, con- 

taining the three true molars ; from the Pleistocene of 
the Eio Xegro, Uruguay. 

Presented by D. A. Stoddart, Esq., 1865. 

43238. The right upper inner incisor; from the Pleistocene of 
Buenos Ayres. Presented by Senor L. J. Fontanel, 1871. 

49197 a. The right upper inner incisor : from the Pleistocene of 
Buenos Ayres. Purchased, 1878. 

49197 C. The base of an incisor, associated with the cranium Xo. 
49197. Purchased, 1878. 

39380. Fragment of an incisor ; from the Pleistocene of the Eio 
Xegro. Presented by D. A. Stoddart, Esq., 1865. 

39379. The imperfect extremity of the left inner upper incisor ; 

from the Pleistocene of the Rio Xegro. 

Presented by B. A. Stoddart. Esq., 1865. 

40494. Portion of an upper incisor ; from the Pleistocene of Uru- 
guay. Presented by TV. G. Lettsom, Esq., 1868. 

43238. The enamel of an inpisor ; from the Pleistocene of Buenos 

Ayres. Presented by Senor L. J. Fontana, 1871. 

19956. The first and second left upper true molars ; from the 
Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. Purchased, 1846. 

49197 b. The third right upper true molar ; from the Pleistocene of 
Buenos Ayres. Purchased, 1878. 

43239. The left femur ; from the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. 

Presented by Senor L. J. Fontana, 1871. 

43240. Part of the proximal extremity of the left femur ; from the 

Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. 

Presented by Senor L. J. Fontana, 1871. 

49198. The distal half of the left femur ; from the Pleistocene of 
Buenos Ayres. Purchased, 1846. 



170 



UNGULATA. 



Family TYPOTHERIID^E. 

Genus TYPOTHERIUM, Bravard l . 

Syn. Mesotherium, Serres 2 . 

Dentition : — I. ^ C. g, Pm. 2 -, M. ^. The incisors grow from per- 
sistent pulps ; and the structure of the cheek-teeth recalls that of 

Pig. 22. 




Typotherium cristatum. — Cranium and mandible ; from the Pleistocene 
of South America. ■§•, 

Toccodon. The skull is ungulate; there is a third trochanter to 
the femur, and clavicles are present ; the astragalus has a distal 
ball-like articular condyle. A figure of the skull is given in the 
accompanying woodcut. 



1 Comptes Rendus, vol. xliv. p. 961 (1857). Quoted by Serres. 

2 Ibid. vol. xliv. p. 961 (1857). 



TrPOTHEJRIID-E. 171 

Typotherium cristatum (Serres *). 
Syn. Mesotherium cristatum, Serres 2 . 
Hob. South America. 

33797. The middle portion of the cranium, showing two of the 

true molars ; from the Pleistocene of Buenos Ayres. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1851. 

33798. The occipital portion of the cranium ; from Buenos Ayres. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

49199. Two portions of the cranium ; from the Pleistocene of 

S. America. Presented by Sir JR. Owen, K.C.B., 1878. 

33801. Fragment of the palate ; from Buenos Ayres. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

49200. The greater part of the mandible, showing the dental alveoli ; 

from South America. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

33802. The anterior part of the mandible of a young individual, 

with one uninjured cheek-tooth ; from Buenos Ayres. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

33799. The inferior portion of the right ramus of the mandible ; from 

Buenos Ayres. Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

33800. The third right lower true molar ; from Buenos Ayres. 

Bravard Collection. Purchased, 1854. 

All the following specimens are from the Pleistocene of Buenos 
Ayres, and belong to the Bravard Collection. 
33842. Portions of the pelvis. 

33843-4-6-7. The left femur, patella, tibia, and fibula. 
33845, 33874-5. The left patella, and portions of the tibia and 

fibula. 
33854-8, 33872-3, 6. Eight bones of the left pes. 
33848, 33850-1-2-5. Five bones of the right pes. 
33861-70. Numerous phalangeals. 
33803-10. Eight associated dorsal vertebras. 
33813. The imperfect sacrum. 
33814-9. Five caudal vertebra). 
33828-39. Several ribs. 

1 Comptes Rendus, vol. lxv. p. 142 (18G7), Mesotherium. 2 Loc. cit. 



172 T7XGTJLATA. 



Suborder CONDYLARTHRA. 

The primitive mammals forming this Suborder are grouped 
by Cope * with the Hyracoidea and perhaps the Toxodontia in a 
division termed Taxeopoda, which is characterized by the scaphoid 
of the carpus being supported by the trapezoid and not by the 
magnum, the latter supporting the lunar ; in the tarsus the cuboid 
articulates proximally with the calcaneum only. The component 
bones of both the carpus and tarsus mutually interlock only to a very 
slight extent ; and the whole structure of these parts is the simplest 
type obtaining in the Ungulata. The present Suborder is charac- 
terized by a bunodont or (in the higher forms) a lophodont type of 
cheek-dentition, the characters of which foreshadow those of both the 
Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla : there are usually five digits to both 
the pes and manus, the terminal phalangeals being acuminate ; the 
humerus has an ectepicondylar foramen, the astragalus a uniformly 
convex distal articular surface, the femur a third trochanter, and there 
are no fibular facettes on either the astragalus or the calcaneum. The 
skeleton of the type genus of the family Plienacodontidce is figured 
in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 23) ; and apparently indicates a 
primitive form allied to Hyracotherium. 



Family PEKIPTYCHID^E. 

The dentition is bunodont ; the digits five on each foot ; the 
astragalus has no trochlea ; and the premolars are simple. 

Genus PERIPTYCHUS, Cope 2 . 
Syn. Catathlceus, Cope 3 . 

Dentition : — I. ^y^, C. \, Pm. |, M. |. The upper true molars 
have external accessory cusps, but these are not present in the lower 
true molars. The lower canines are of small size and the incisors 
small 4 . 



1 Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xx. p. 444 (1882), and Amer. Nat. toI. xviii. 
pp. 791-805 (1884). See also Sehlosser, Zool. Anzeig., No. 210 (1885). 

2 Amer. Nat, vol. xv. p. 337 (1881). 

3 Ibid. vol. xv. p. 829 (1881). 

4 The genus was at first referred by its founder to the Creodonta—Carnivora 
Primigenia {supra, Part I.). 



Fig. 23. 




Phenacodus primavus, dope. — Skeleton ; from the Wasatch Eocene of 

Wyoming, U.S.A. }. (From the Amer. Nat.) 



174 



TTXGTTLATA. 



Periptychus rhabdodon, Cope 1 . 

Syn. CatathlcBUs rhahdodon^ Cope 2 . 

This species is of considerable size, and is characterized by the 
grooved and ridged sculpture of the teeth. The dentition is repre- 
sented in the accompanying woodcnts (figs. 24, 25). 

Hab. North America. 

Fig. 24. 




Periptychus rhabdodon. — Upper (a) and lower (b) cheek-dentition, grinding 
surface ; from the Puerco Eocene of New Mexico, f . (From the Amer. Nat.) 

Fig. 25. 




Periptychus rhabdodon. — Lateral view of the upper (a) and lower (b) cheek - 



dentition of the specimen represented in fig. 24. 



(From the Amer. Nat.) 



1 Amer. Nat. vol. xv. p. 830 (1881), Catathlcsus. 



Loc. cit. 



PE1LIPTYCHIDJE. 175 

2569. Fragment of the right maxilla, containing the last five 
cheek-teeth; from the Puerco Eocene of Xew Mexico. 
The premolars are well worn. 

Presented by R. Lydekher, Esq., 1885. 



M. 2569 a. Two fragments of mandibular rami, one showing pm. 3, 
pmT4, m. 1, and m . 3, and the other the premolars and the 
broken bases of the cutting-teeth ; from Xew Mexico. 

Presented by R. LydeTclcer, Esq., 1885. 

Genus HAPLOCONUS, Cope \ 

Dentition : — I. ^, C. j, Pm. J, M. ^. The upper true molars have 
three main cusps arranged in a V-shape, and an accessory postero- 
internal cusp. The fourth upper premolar has an inner lobe, the 
others being simple. 

Haploconus lineatus, Cope 2 . 

This is the type species ; the premolars are larger than the true 
molars. 

Hab. Xorth America. 

M. 2570. Fragment of the right maxilla, showing all the cheek- 
teeth except pm. 1 ; from the Puerco Eocene of Xew 
Mexico. The specimen agrees precisely with the one 
figured by Cope in the Amer. Xat. vol. xviii. p. 804. 
fig. 13 (1884). Presented by R. Lydeklcer, Esq., 1885. 

M. 2570 a. Fragment of the left ramus of the mandible, with m . 2 
and m7~3 ; from New Mexico. 

Presented by R. LydekTcer, Esq., 1885. 

Suborder AMBLYPODA 3 . 

In this Suborder the carpus is characterized by the scaphoid being 
supported by the trapezoid and not by the magnum, while the 
latter and the unciform support the lunar : in the tarsus the cuboid 
articulates proximally with both the calcancum and the astragalus. 

1 Amer. Nat. vol. xvi. p. 417 (1882). 

2 Loc. cti. 

3 See Cope, Proe. Amor. Phil. Soc. vol. xx. p. 444 (1882); see also Amer. 
Nat. vol. xviii. pp. 111D-112I, 1192-1202 (1884), and rix. pp. 40-65 (1885). 
The name Amblydactyla was substituted by Marsh (' Monograph of the Dino- 
cerata,' pp. 173, 193, U. S. Qeol. Surv. vol. x. [1884]), but Oope (Amer. Nat. 
vol. xix. ]). 704 [1885]) regards this. a> unnecessary. 



176 



UNGT7LATA. 



The carpus is therefore of a more primitive structure than the 
tarsus. Both the carpal and tarsal bones interlock to a slight 
extent ; the astragalus is flat ; the feet plantigrade, short, and 
provided with five digits; the fibula articulates with the calcaneum. 
The brain is very small. The cheek- dentition is of a primitive 
lophodont type, the crowns of all these teeth being very short, and 
the upper true molars and the hinder premolars bearing two main 
oblique transverse ridges, which usually form one or two Vs. 
Upper and lower canines are always present. 

Section CORYPHODONTIA. 

This section (Pantodonta of Cope x ) is distinguished by the 
presence of upper incisors, and a third trochanter to the femur; 
and the absence of a head to the astragalus. There are no 
protuberances on the cranium ; and the development of the upper 
canines is not excessive. 

Family CORYPHODONTID^]. 

The upper premolars are simpler than the true molars, and there 
are frequently two Y's in the latter ; in the lower molars there are 
two transverse ridges, of which the anterior gives off a process, so as 
to form a distinct Y, with the angle pointing outwards (see 
woodcut, fig. 26). Numerous genera have been established 2 . 

Pig. 26. 




Coryphodon hamatus, Marsh. — The left upper and lower cheek-dentition ; from 
the Eocene of North America. ^. (From Marsh's ' Monograph of the 
Dinocerata.') 



1 See Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xx. p. 445 (1882). The adopted name was 
applied by Marsh. 

2 See Amer. Nat. vol. xviii. p. 1194 (1884). 



COE YPHODONTID &. 



177 



Genus CORYPHODON, Owen 1 . 

This is the type genus, and is represented by numerous species in 
the Lower Tertiaries of Europe and North America. As defined by 
Cope, it is characterized by the presence of a posterior Y on the cro w 
of the upper true molars, and by the astragalus being transversely 
extended with an inner hook but no facet. The cranium of one of 
the American species is figured in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 27). 

Fig. 27. 




Coryphodon elepkanfopus, Cope. — Cranium viewed from the palatal aspect ; 
from the Wasatch Eocene of New Mexico, U.SA. §. (From. the Amer. Nat.) 



1 British Fossil Mammals and Birds, p. 2 ( J ( J (181(5). 
TART III. N 



178 UNGTJLATA. 

Coryphodon eocaenus, Owen l . 

Syn. Lophiodon anthracoideum, Blainville 2 . 
Coryphodon anthracoideum, Gervais 3 . 
This is the type species, and is of large size. 
Hah. Europe. 

32368, 69, 70, 75, 77, 78, 80. Casts of eight upper cheek-teeth. 
The originals are from the Lower Eocene of Soissons 
(Aisne), France, and with the other specimens from the 
same locality are described and figured by the donor in the 
Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 4, vol. vi. p. 87, pis. iii., iv. (1856). 

Presented by M. Hebert, 1857. 

32371. Cast of the crown of the right upper canine. The original 
is from Soissons. Presented by M. Hebert, 1857. 

32371 a, 72. Casts of two upper incisors. The originals are from 
Soissons. Presented by M. Hebert, 1857. 

27848. Fragment of the right ramus of the mandible, containing 
(Fig.) and part of m. 2 ; dredged on the Essex coast between 
St. Osyth and Harwich, and probably derived from the 
London Clay. This specimen is the type of the genus, 
and is described and figured in Owen's ' British Fossil 
Mammals and Birds,' p. 299, figs. 103, 107. 

Presented by John Brown, Esq., 1852. 

32364, 65, 74, 76. Casts of several lower cheek-teeth. The originals 
are from Soissons. Presented by M. Hebert, 1857. 

32381. Cast of a lower canine ; the original is from Soissons. 

Presented by M. Hebert, 1857. 

32383. Cast of the left femur ; the original is from Meudon, near 
Paris, and is figured by the donor, op. cit. pi. iv. fig. 13. 

Presented by M. Hebert, 1857. 

44143. The imperfect distal half of the right femur ; from the 
Lower Eoceue near Dulwich, Surrey. Purchased, 1872. 

32382. Cast of the proximal part of a radius ; the original is from 

Soissons, and is figured by the donor, op. cit. pi. iv. fig 14. 

Presented by M. Hebert, 1857. 

M. 22. The centrum of a dorsal vertebra; from the London Clay of 
the Isle of Sheppey. Purchased, 1879. 



British Fossil Mammals and Birds, p. 299 (1846). 
' Osteographie,' Genus Lophiodon, p. 117 (1846). 
Zool. et Pal. Frances, 2nd ed. p. 128 (1849-52). 



UINTATHERIID.E. 



179 



Section DINOCEEATA. 
The superior incisors are absent, and there is no third trochanter 
to the femur. The cranium carries several pairs of large protu- 
berances ; the upper canines of the males are of large size, and are 
frequently protected by a descending mandibular flange \ 

Family UINTATHEKIID.E. 

This is the only family at present known. The hinder upper 
premolars are as complex as the true molars (woodcut, fig. 28), and 

Fig. 28. 




Tinoceras stenops, Marsh. — The left upper and lower cheek-dentition ; from 
the Eocene of North America, f . (From Marsh's ' Monograph of the 
Dinocerata.') 

there is no distinct third lobe to m. 3 ; in the last five upper cheek- 
teeth the two transverse ridges unite on the inner border of the 
crown to form a single V; a very similar Y, with the angle directed 
inwards, occurring in the corresponding lower teeth. According to 
Marsh 2 there are always three lower incisors, but Cope states 3 that in 
some members of the type genus Uintatherium (in which Cope in- 
cludes Dinoceras) they are reduced to two or even one. In the 
present Catalogue the generic divisions adopted by Marsh are pro- 
visionally accepted, although it seems very doubtful whether their 
differences are more important than those between the different 
groups of the genus Rhinoceros. 

1 For other characters see Marsh. ' Monograph of the Dinocerata* (U.S. 
Geol. Surv. vol. x. [1884]). 2 Op. tit. pp. 41, 191. 

3 Amer. Nat. vol. six. pp. t4, 53 (1885). 



180 



tnSTGULATA. 



Genus TINOCERAS, Marsh \ 
Including : — Eobasileus, Cope 2 . 

Loxolophodon, Cope 3 . 

Dentition : — I. g, C. j, Pm. g-, M. 3. The base of the upper canine 



Fig. 29. 




Tinoceras comutum (Cope) 4 . — The skull; from the Bridger Eocene of 
Wyoming, U.S.A. f. (From the ' American Naturalist.') 

1 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. iv. p. 322 (for Oct., but published in advance 
on Aug. 19, 1872). Marsh's generic nomenclature is followed in this work, 
although Cope (Amer. Nat. vol. xix. p. 704 [1885]) states that some of the 
names should be changed. 

2 Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. xii. p. 485 (for Oct., but published in advance 
Aug. 20, 1872 ; vol. dated 1873). 

3 Ibid. p. 487 (same date). 4 Syn. Loxolophodon cornutus, Cope. 



rZNTATHERIID^. 



181 



is horizontal, the cervical vertebrae short, and the lunar does not 
articulate with the trapezoid ; the mandibular flange in some forms 
(woodcut, fig. 29) is almost absent ; the fronto-parietal protuberances 
are frequently of large size (woodcut, fig. 29). 

Tinoceras ingens, Marsh 1 . 

Hah. Xorth America. 

Fig. 30. 




Tinoceras ingens. — The restored skeleton ; from the Bridger Eocene of 
Wyoming, U.S.A. Vo- (From the 'American Journal.') 

M. 2061. Cast of the cranium. The original is from the Bridger 
Eocene of Wyoming, U.S.A. ; and is figured by Marsh in 
his ' Monograph of the Dinocerata/ pis. xv.-xviii. 

Presented by Professor 0. 0. Marsh, 1885. 



Tinoceras longiceps, Marsh 2 . 

Ilab. North America. 

M. 2094. Cast of the mandible and the upper canine. The original 
is from the Bridger Eocene of Wyoming, U.S.A. ; and is 
figured by Marsh in the 'Monograph of the Dinocerata,' 
p. 37, fig. 38. Presented by Professor 0. C. Marsh, 1885. 

1 Fifth Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. p. 2G1 (1884). 
- Fifth Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. p. 275 (1884). 



182 UNeULATA. 

Genus DINOCERAS, Marsh \ 

Including Octotomus, Cope 2 . 

Dentition :— (usually) I. g, C. \, Pm. |, M. |. 

The base of the upper canine is nearly vertical, the cervical 
vertebrae are longer than in Tinoceras> and the lunar articulates, 
with the trapezoid. 

Dinoceras laticeps, Marsh*. 

Syn. Octotomus latieeps, Cope 4 . 
Hab. North America. 

M. 2060. Cast of the mandible. The original! is from the Bridger 
Eocene of Wyoming ; and is figured by Marsh in the 
* Monograph of the Dinocerata,' pi. xiii. 

Presented by Professor 0. C. Marsh, 1885-. 

Dinoceras mirabile, Marsh 5 . 

Syn. UintatTierium mirabile, Cope 6 . 

The mandible is unknown. 

Hah. North America. The originals of all the following speci- 
mens were obtained from the Bridger Eocene of Wyoming, and 
are figured in Marsh's ' Monograph of the Dinocerata/ All the- 
casts were presented by Professor 0. C. Marsh, 1885. 

M. 2058. Cast of the cranium. 

M. 2059. Cast of the brain- cavity. 

M. 2072-76. Casts of the bones of the fore limb. 

M. 2081-83-89. Casts of the bones of the hind limb. 

M. 2087-88. Cast of the left astragalus and calcaneum. 

M. 2062-71. Casts of the anterior vertebrae. 

M. 2082. Cast of the sacrum. 

M. 2090-91. Casts of two caudal vertebrae. 

It. 2077-81. Casts of four ribs. 

1 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. iv. p. 344 (for Oct., published in advance Sept 
27, 1872). 

2 Amer. Nat. vol. xix. p. 44 (1885). 

3 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. vi. p 301 (Oct. 1873). 

4 Amer. Nat. vol. xix. p. 52 (1885). 

5 Amer. Journ. ser. 3, vol. iv. p. 344 (Oct. 1872). 

6 Eep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, p. 581 (1873), 



183 



ADDENDA. 



Family RHINOCEROTID^E (page 90). 

Genus RHINOCEROS (page 91). 

Atelodine group (page 92). 

Rhinoceros karnuliensis, Lydekker 1 . 

This is a small brachydont species, apparently allied to R. etruscus 
but presenting some approximation in the form of the mandibular 
symphysis to R. bicomis. 

Hah. India (Madras). 

HL 2955. Casts of the second and third left upper true molars, and 
part of the symphysis and right ramus of the mandible. 
The originals (which are the types) were obtained from 
the caves of Bill a Surgam, Karnul district, Madras, and 
will be described and figured by the present writer in the 
' Palaeontologia Indica,' ser. 10, vol. iv. pt. 2, pi. x. 

Made in the Museum, 1886. 

Incertce sedis. 

Rhinoceros, sp. c. 
Hah. Formosa. 

M. 2956. Fragment of a mandibular ramus and one half of the 
atlas vertebra ; from Tertiary (?) beds in Formosa. 

By exchange, 1885. 

1 Kec. Geol. Surr. Ind. vol. xix. part 2 (1886). 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



OF 



GENERA AND SPECIES, INCLUDING SYNONYMS. 



Aceratherium, 91. 

blanfordi, 154. 

brachypus, 150. 

croizeti, 142. 

incisiyum, 145. 

lemanense, 152. 

minutum., 139. 

nebrascense, 159. 

occidentale, 143. 

perimense, 155. 
Anchilophus, 42. 

desmaresti, 43. 

radegundensis, 43. 
Anchitherium, 45. 

aurelianense, 45. 

bairdi, 49. 

radegundense, 43. 
Anisodon, 162. 

magnus. 162. 
Anoplotherium, 164. 

sivalense, 164. 
Aphelops, 91. 

megalodus, 141. 
Atelodus, 91. 

aymardi, 101. 



Cadurcotherium, 

159. 

cayluxense, 159. 
Csenopus,91. 
Catathlaeus, 172. 

rbabdodon, 174. 
Ceratorhinus, 91 
Chalicotherium, 162. 

antiquum, 162. 

goldf'ussi, 162. 

grande, 162. 

sinense, 165. 

sivalense, 164. 
PART in. 



Coryphodon, 177. 
antbracoideum, 178. 
elephantopus, 177. 
eocasnus, 178. 
bainatus, 176. 

Diceratherium, 91. 

pleuroceros, 139. 
Dihoplus, 124. 

scbleierniacberi, 121. 
Dinoceras, 182. 

laticeps, 182. 

mirabile, 182. 

Elasmotherium, 161. 

fiscbei-i, 161. 

sibiricum, 161. 
Eobasileus, 180. 
Equus, 65. 

affinis-caballo, 88. 

angustidens, 51. 

arcidens, 66. 

brevirostris, 73. 

caballus, 73. 

curvidens, 88. 

fossilia, 73. 

gracilis, 51. 

bemionus, 73. 

macrognatbus, 66. 

magnus, 69. 

major, 89. 

namadicus, 71. 

nanus, 51. 

neogaeus, 66. 

occidentalis, 89. 

palaDonus, 71. 

plicidens, 73. 

primigenius, 51. 

principalis, 66. 

sivalensis, 66. 



Equus (cont.). 
sp., 89. 
spelaeus, 73. 
stenonis, 69. 

Haploconus, 175. 

lineatus. 175. 
Hipparion, 50. 

antilopinum, 59. 

brachypus, 51. 

diplostylum, 51. 

feddeni, 50. 

gracile, 51. 

mediterraneum, 51. 

mesostylum, 51 

punjabiense, 60. 

prostylum, 51. 

ricbtbofeni, 64. 

tbeobaldi, 64. 
Hippidion, 65. 

arcidens, 66. 

principalis, 66. 
Hippotherium, 50. 

antelopinum, 59. 

gracile, 51. 

nanum, 51. 

tbeobaldi, 64. 
Homalodontothe- 
rium, 160. 

cunningbami, 160. 
Hyracodon, 158. 

nebrascensis, 159. 
Hyracotherium, 10. 

angustidens, 12. 

cuniculus, 12. 

leporinuin, 10. 

siderolitbicum, 14. 

Lophiodon, 6. 

antbracoideum, 178. 



186 



INDEX. 



Lophiodon (cont.). 

isselensis, 7- 

medius, 8. 

minimus, 10. 

parisiensis, 8. 

prevosti, 14. 

sp., 9. 

tapiroides, 6. 
Lophiotherium, 13. 

cervulum, 15. 
Loxolophodon, 180. 

cornutus, 180. 

Macacus, 12. 

eocaenus, 12. 
Macrauchenia, 166. 

patachonica, 166. 
Mesohippus, 45. 

bairdi, 49. 
Mesotherium, 170. 

cristatum, 171. 

Nesodon, 167. 

ovinus, 168. 
Nestoritherium, 162. 
sivalense, 164. 

Octotomus, 182. 

laticeps, 182. 
Orohippus, 10. 

angustidens, 12. 

Pachynolophus, 13. 

cervulus, 15. 
isselanus, 13. 
prevosti, 14. ' 
siderolithicus, 14. 
Palseotherium, 15. 
aniciense, 20. 
annectans, 34. 
aurelianense, 45. 
bairdi, 49. 
crassum, 25. 
curtum, 32. 
duvali, 32. 
gervaisi, 25. 
bippoides, 45, 
indeterminatum, 20. 
isselanum, 13. 
javali, 33. 
latum, 31. 
magnum, 16. 
medium, 20. 



Palaeotherium (cont.). 

minus, 38. 

ovinum, 38. 

tapiroides, 6. 

velaunurn, 25. 
Paloplotherium, 15. 

annectans, 34. 

javali, 33. 

minus, 38. 
Peraceras, 91. 
Periptychus, 172. 

rhabdodon, 174. 
Phenacodus, 173. 

primaevus, 173. 
Plagiolophus, 15. 

annectans, 34. 

minimus, 10. 

minor, 38. 

ovinus, 38. 
Pliolophus, 10. 

vulpiceps, 10. 
Propalaeotherium, 
13. 

isselanum, 13. 

Rhinoceros, 91. 

antiquitatis, 92. 
aymardi, 101. 
blanfordi, 154. 
bracbypus, 150. 
cimogorrbensis, 144. 
croizeti, 142. 
elatus, 119. 
etruscus, 118. 
goldfussi, 150. 
hemitasebus, 101. 
incisivus, 145. 
indicus, 138. 
inermis, 91. 
iravadicus, 155. 
javanicus, 129. 
jourdani, 92. 
karnuliensis, 183. 
kircbburgensis, 114. 
lemanensis, 152. 
leptorbinus, 101, 114. 
lunelensis, 101. 
megalodus, 141. 
megarbinus, 114. 
mercki, 114. 
mesotropus, 101. 
minutus, 139. 
monspessulaniis, 114. 



Rhinoceros (cont.). 
namadicus, 138. 
nebrascensis, 159. 
occidentalis, 143. 
pacbygnatbus, 123. 
palasindicus, 132. 
pallasi, 92. 
paradoxus, 139. 
perimensis, 155. 
planidens, 155. 
platyrhinus, 99. 
pleuroceros, 139. 
sansaniensis, 124. 
scbleiermacberi, 124. 
simorrensis, 144. 
sinensis, 130. 
sivalensis, 130. 
sondaicus, 129. 
sp. a, 157. 
sp. b, 158. 
sp. c, 183. 
tapirinus, 139. 
tetradactylus, 145. 
ticborbinus, 92. 
unicornis, 138. 

Sivalhippus, 64. 

tbeobaldi, 64. 

Tapirus, 2. 

americanus, 5. 

antiquus, 3. 

arvernensis, 2. 

elegans, 3. 

priscus, 3. 

sinensis, 5. 

vialetti, 3. 
Tinoceras, 180. 

cornutum, 180. 

ingens, 181. 

longiceps, 181. 

stenops, 179. 
Toxodon, 168. 

angustidens, 168. 

platensis, 168. 
Typotherium, 170. 

cristatum, 171. 

Uintatherium, 179. 

mirabile, 182. 

Zalabis, 91. 

sivalensis, 130. 



* 



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END OF PART III. 



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