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THE ZOOLOGICAL MUSEUM of the East-India Company consists of 
specimens in all departments of the science, from the Company's 
oriental possessions, contributed by public servants who have been 
attached as Naturalists to Missions and Deputations on behalf of the 
Indian Government, or by gentlemen of the civil and military services, 
as presents to the Honourable Court of Directors. 

Collections and Contributions have been received in the Museum 
in the following order : 

1801. John Corse Scott, Esq. Skulls of the Indian Elephant. 

1802. Eudelin de Jonville. Zoological specimens from Ceylon, chiefly Insects and 

Shells ; with drawings and descriptions, in three volumes folio. 
1804. William Roxburgh, M.D., F.R.S. Skull of Babirwa alfurus. 

Claud Russell, Esq. Indian Serpents. 
1808. Francis (Buchanan) Hamilton, M.D. Drawings of Mammalia, Birds, and 

John Fleming, Esq. Drawings of Birds and Tortoises. 

1810. Captain J. Stevens. Head of Bdbirusa alfurus. 

1811. John Griffith, Esq. Specimen of Furcella gigantea (Coast of Sumatra). 

1812. Richard Parry, Esq. Drawings of Mammalia and Birds from Sumatra. 

J. Torin, Esq. The King of Tanjore's Drawings of Mammalia and Birds 
from Southern India. 

1813. Hon. Thomas S. Raffles, Lieut. -Gov. of Java. Specimens of Mammalia, 

Birds, and Insects from Java. Horsfield's Collection. 

Benjamin Heyne, M.D. Drawings of Indian Birds. 

1817. Hon. T. S. Raffles. Mammalia and Birds from Java. Horsfield's Col- 

Francis (Buchanan) Hamilton, M.D. Drawings of Mammalia and Birds. 



1819. Francis (Buchanan) Hamilton, M.D. Drawings of Mammalia, Birds, and 


Thomas Horsfield, M.D. Collections of Mammalia, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, 
and Insects from Java. 

1820. Sir Thomas S. Raffles, Lieut. -Gov. of Fort Marlborough. Collections of 

Mammalia, Birds, and Reptiles from Sumatra. 

1821. Sir Thomas S. Raffles, Drawings of Mammalia and Birds from Sumatra. 

1823. George Finlayson, Esq., Surgeon and Naturalist to the Mission of John 

Crawfurd, Esq., to Siani and Hue, the Capital of Cochinchina. A Collec- 
tion of Mammalia, Birds, Fishes, Reptiles, and Osteological Specimens, 
made during the Mission. 

1824. John Pattison, Esq. Several Mammalia. 

Lieut.-Gen. Thomas Hardwicke. A Collection of Mammalia, Birds, and 

miscellaneous Zoological Specimens. 
1827. William Moorcroft, Esq. Several Insects. 

Capt. J. D. Herbert. Specimens of Himalayan Birds, collected during his 

Geological Survey of the Himalayan Mountains. 

1829. Madras Government. Collections made by the Company's Naturalist at 
Fort St. George, consisting of specimens of Mammalia, Birds, and 
1881. A. T. Christie, M.D. Skull of the Bibos cavifrons, from the forests of 


Colonel W. H. Sykes. The Collections of Natural History made during 
the Statistical Survey of the Dukhun, consisting of specimens and 
descriptions of Mammalia, Birds, Fishes, Reptiles, and Insects. 

1832. John George Children, Esq. Specimens of Insects. 

Nathaniel Wallich, Esq. Skins of Mammalia and Birds from Nepal. 

1833. John Reeves, Esq. A specimen of Ornithorhynchus paradoxus ; a collection 

of Skins of Birds from China ; two specimens of Edible Birds'-nests from 

Madras Government. The Zoological Collections made by the late 
A. T. Christie, M.D., consisting of specimens in all classes of Zoology. 

1837. John McClelland, Esq., Member of the Deputation to Assam for the 

purpose of investigating the culture of the Tea Plant : Specimens of 
Mammalia, Birds, and other subjects of Natural History, with drawings 
and descriptions. 

1838. Mrs. Impey. Indian Reptiles in spirit. 

1840. John William Heifer, M.D. A collection of Mammalia and Birds from 

the coast of Tenasserim. 

Major R. Boileau Pemberton. Specimens of Mammalia, Birds, and Insects, 
collected during his Mission to Bootan, in 1837-38. 

1841. J. T. Pearson, Esq. A Collection of Insects from Darjeeling. 
C. W. Smith, Esq. A Collection of Insects from Chittagong. 

The Asiatic Society of Bengal. A Collection of Mammalia, Birds, and 

John McClelland, Esq. Specimens of Mammalia, Birds, and Insects, 


1842. J. T. Pearson, Esq. Specimens of Mammalia and Birds. 

The Bengal Government. The Entomological Collections made in Chusan 

by Theodor Cantor, M.D., acting as Naturalist, during the Chinese 

The Bengal Government. A Collection of Birds, Fishes, Reptiles, and Shells, 

made by William Griffith, Esq., during the Expedition to Afghanistan. 
The Bengal Government. The continuation of the Collections made by 

Theodor Cantor, M.D., in Chusan, Canton, &c., consisting of Mollusca, 

and other subjects of Natural History. 

J. T. Pearson, Esq. A Collection of Insects from Darjeeling. 
The Bengal Government. The continuation of the Collections of Theodor 

Cantor, M.D., chiefly Crustacea, from Singapore and the China Sea. 

1843. John McClelland, Esq. A Collection of Mammalia, Birds, and Fishes. 
The Bengal Government. Mammalia and Birds collected by William 

Griffith, Esq., during the Expedition to Afghanistan. 
Hugh Falconer, M.D. A Collection of Birds from Northern India. 
The Asiatic Society of Bengal. A Collection of Mammalia and Birds. 
William Griffith, Esq. Specimens of Mammalia, Birds, Fishes, and Reptiles. 
The Bombay Government. The Zoological Collections made during the 

Mission of Sir W. C. Harris to Abyssinia, consisting of Mammalia, Birds, 

Insects, and other Zoological specimens. 

1844. The Asiatic Society of Bengal. Large Collections of Mammalia and Birds, 

with smaller Collections of Fishes, Reptiles, and Insects, received by 
several separate despatches during this year. 

1845. B. H. Hodgson, Esq. A large Collection of Mammalia and Birds from 

Matthew Lovell, Esq., Bengal Medical Service. Several Mammalia and 

J. Bax, Esq., through Colonel Barnwell. A Collection of Birds. 

1846. Colonel W. H. Sykes. Specimens of the Black and other Corals, from the 

Persian Gulf. 

The Asiatic Society of Bengal. Large Collections of Mammalia, Birds, 
Fishes, and Reptiles, received by several despatches during this year. 

1847. The Asiatic Society of Bengal. Mammalia, Birds, and Crustacea. 
The Rev. F. W. Hope. Several Birds. 

1848. B. H. Hodgson, Esq. A Collection of Mammalia from Sikim and 

Darjeeling. (Containing several undescribed species.) 

1849. EzraT. Downes, Esq., Deputy Assay Master, Bombay Mint. Large Col- 

lections of Coleopterous and Hymenopterous Insects, by several separate 

Lieut. James W. J. Taylor. A Collection of Shells from Singapore and 

the Indian Archipelago. 

F. Moore. A Collection of Coleopterous Insects. 
Colonel F. Buckley. A large Collection of Insects in all orders, from the 


Colonel J. B. Hearsey. A small series of Lepidoptera, received through 
' J. 0. West wood, Esq. 


1850. Capt. R. Strachey. A large Collection of Mammalia and Birds, with 

skeletons of several of the subjects, from Ladakh and Kumaon. 
Henry J. Carter, Esq., B.M.S. A Collection of fresh- water Sponges. 
Colonel W. H. Sykes. A Collection of Reptiles, Insects, Mollusca, and 

miscellaneous Zoological specimens from the Dukhun, preserved in 


1851. The Bombay Government. Specimens of the Zoology of Mesopotamia, 

received from Commander Jones, of the Indian Navy, consisting of Birds, 
Reptiles in spirit, and a few Mammalia and Fishes. 


August 18th, 1851. 





Fam. SIMIAD^. 

Genus SIAMANGA, Gray, Synopsis of the Br. Mus. 
SIMILE Species, Linn, et al. HYLOBATES, Illiger et al. 


Simla syndactyl^Raffles.Trans.Linn.Soc.Xin.p.Wl. 1822. 
Simia syndactyla, Horsfield, Zool. Research., with a figure. 
Hylobates syndactyla, Appendix to Life of Sir T. 'S. 

Raffles, p. 640. 1830. 

Siamanga syndactyla, Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. 
SIAMANG of the natives of Sumatra. 

HAB. Sumatra. According to Dr. Heifer, also Tenasserim. 
Specimens A. B. C. presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 

The first authentic description of the Siamang was given by Sir 
T. S. Raffles, in the thirteenth volume of the Transactions of the Lin- 
nean Society, who briefly states as to its habits, that " a living specimen 
which he procured, was tame and tractable ; in fact he was never happy 
but when allowed to be in company with some one." Mr. George 
Bennett (Wanderings, vol. II. p. 151, &c.) gives a copious account of 
his observations during a voyage from New South Wales to England, 
on a Siamang who was his fellow passenger ; he describes the animal 
as intelligent, lively, very active, and capable of forming a strong 
attachment to certain individuals. 


Genus HYLOBATES, Illiger, Prodromus Syst. Mamm. 1811. 
SIMI.E Species, Linn, et al. 


Simla Hoolock, Harlan, Trans, of the Amer. Phil. Soc. IV. 
New Series, p. 52. 1830. 

Hylobates Scyritus, Ogilby, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1837, and 
in Monkeys, #<?. p. I. p. 170. 1838. 

Hylobates Hoolock, Martin, Quadrumana, 438. McClel- 
land, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 148. 

HOOLOOK, of the natives of Eastern India. 

GOLOCK, DE VISMES, and other French Naturalists. 

HAB. The Garrow and Kassiah hills, and the valley of Assam ; 
also Aracan. 

A. B. C. presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Dr. Burrough, of Philadelphia, who supplied the specimens from 
which Dr. Harlan's description was made (which he obtained during a 
residence in Assam, near the Garrow Hills, from Captain Alexander 
Davidson, of the Hon. E. I. Company's service, who was stationed at 
Goolpara, on the Burhampooter river), gives the most copious account 
of the habits of this Monkey hitherto made public ; among other par- 
ticulars, he states, " An adult male, with long canine teeth, became so 
tame and manageable, in less than a month, that he would take hold 
of my hand and walk with me. He would come at my call, and seat 
himself in a chair by my side at the breakfast-table, and help himself 
to an egg or wing of a chicken from my plate, without endangering 
any of my table furniture. In temper he was remarkably pacific, and 
seemed, as I thought, often glad to have an opportunity of testifying 
his affection and attachment for me. When I visited him in the 
morning, he would commence a loud and shrill whoo-whoo, whoo- 
whoo, which he would often keep up from five to ten minutes, with an 
occasional intermission for the purpose of taking a full respiration ; 
until finally, apparently quite exhausted, he would lie down, and allow 
me to comb his head and brush the long hair on his arms. When I 
attempted to go away, he would catch hold of my arm or coat-tail, 
and pull me back again, to renew my little attentions to him." 

This Monkey is also described and figured by Dr. Francis (Bucha- 
nan) Hamilton, in his MS. Catalogue of the Mammalia he observed in 
India. He states, " This animal is common in the forests on the left of 
the Brahmaputra." The native name is Hulluk or Ullu. On the habits 


of the Hoolock in its wild state, Edward Blyth, Esq., gives many in- 
teresting details in the thirteenth volume of the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, pp. 464, 465. 

3. HYLOBATES VARIEGATUS, Mutter, over de Zoog- 
dieren von den Indischen ArchipeL, p. 47. 1840. 

Hylobates agilis, Fred. Cuv., Mamm. lith. liv. 32, c. fig. 
Hylobates Rafflesii, Geoff., Coursd'Hist. Nat.Lect.T, 1828. 
Pithecus agilis, Desmar., Mamm. Suppl. p. 532. 1822. 
UNGKA-PUTI and UNGKA-ETAM, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Sot. 
XIII. p. 242. 1822. Zool. Journ. IV. p. 106. 

HAB. Sumatra. 

A. B. presented by Matthew Lovell, Esq., Bengal Retired 
Medical Establishment. 

Mr. Martin's remarks on the synonymy of the Agile Gibbon (Nat. 
Hist, of Monkeys, p. 425, &c.) tend to clear up much of the confusion 
in which it is enveloped ; but while he considers the Hylobates variegatus 
of Kuhl (Beitr. p. 6, 2) as a variety of the Simia lar of Linnaeus, 
Dr. Miiller expresses a decided opinion 'that the Hylobates agilis of 
Fred. Cuvier, and the Hylobates Rafflesii of Geoffroy, may be united as 
synonyms of the Hylobates variegatus of Kuhl ; in confirmation of 
which he states that the more recent descriptions of Hylobates lar refer 
to the black variety of Hylobates variegatus, the Ungka-etam. And he 
further points out the numerous and striking varieties of colour which 
are met with in this species, and which are so multifarious, that two 
individuals are rarely found which have the same covering. 

The Ungkas, both the puti and the etam, possess in a high degree 
as well the favourable as the mischievous propensities of the Gibbons. 
Sir T. S. Raffles states, " that it is a general belief among the people 
of the country where it resides, that it will die of grief, if, when in 
captivity, the preference is given to another ; in confirmation of which 
I may add, that one in my possession sickened under these circum- 
stances, and did not recover until relieved from the cause of the vexa- 
tion, by his rival, the Siamang, being removed into another apartment." 
M. Duvaucel informs us that the Ungka-puti usually lives hi pairs, and 
possesses extraordinary activity ; at the same time it is gentle and 
timid. The velocity of its movements is wonderful ; it escapes like a 
bird on the wing. Scarcely does it perceive danger, but it is already 
far away. Ascending rapidly to the top of a tree, it then seizes a 
flexible branch, swings itself two or three times to gain the requisite 


impetus, and then launches itself forward, repeatedly clearing in suc- 
cession, without effort and without fatigue, spaces of forty feet. Mr. 
Martin (Quadrumana, p. 429) gives many interesting details of the 
history and habits of an individual of this species which lived some time 
in the menagerie of the Zoological Society of London. 

Genus SEMNOPITHECUS, Fred. Cuv. et al 

SIMI.E Species, Linn, et al. PRESBYTES, Eschscholtz. 

Simia entellus, Dufresne, Bull. Soc. Philom. 1797. 
Semnopithecus entellus, Fred. Cuv. et Geoffr., Mamm. 

lithog.fasc. 47. 

Simia entellus, Fischer, Syn. Mamm. 14. 
HANUMAN of the Hindus. MAKUR of the Mahrattas. 
HAB. The entire of India, from the Himalayas to Cape Co- 

A. adult. Griffith's Collection. 

B. nearly adult, and C. young. Presented by the Asiatic 

Society of Bengal. 

The adult specimens in the Company's Museum have the usual colour 
of the animal, being ash-gray on the upper parts, darker on the shoulders 
and rump, grayish-brown on the tail, the hands slightly shaded with 
black. In the younger specimens the colour is stramineous or dingy - 
isabella, with a deeper tint of black on the hands. The intensity of the 
black colour of the hands varies considerably in different subjects at all 
ages. Above the eyebrows is a superciliary ridge of stiff black bristles 
projecting forwards, which, however, is a character observed in all species 
of Semnopithecus. 

The external character of the Semnopitheci generally is concisely and 
appropriately given by Mr. E. T. Bennett, in " The Gardens and Me- 
nagerie of the Zoological Society/' p. 83, in the following words : 
" Their bodies are slightly made ; their limbs long and slender ; their 
tails of great length, considerably exceeding that of the body ; their 
callosities of small size, and their cheek-pouches, in those species which 
appear to possess them, so inconsiderable, as scarcely to deserve the 
name." From Cercopithecus they are strikingly distinguished by the 
form of the last molar tooth in the lower jaw, which, instead of four, 
has five tubercles. The peculiar structure of the stomach in this genus 
has been described and illustrated by M. Otto and by Prof. Owen. 

The Hanuman is found throughout the whole of India, from the 
Himalayas to Cape Comorin, and in some parts in great abundance. 


While young, it is mild and gentle ; as it advances in age it becomes 
sullen, distrustful, bold, and mischievous, committing extensive devas- 
tations in the gardens and plantations of the natives. French natu- 
ralists give the name erroneously as Houlman. By English naturalists 
it is generally written Hoonuman, but it should be pronounced Hanu- 
maun, with the accent on the last syllable ; the literal meaning being 
" Long-jaw." The Mahratta name in the Western Ghauts, according 
to Colonel Sykes, is Makur. 

The Lungoor of the hill tribes is a distinct species, which will be 
described in the next article. Mr. Edward Blyth has contributed much 
information on the external habit and variations of colour of the En- 
tellus, in different ages and localities. See vols. X. XII. XIII. and 
XVI. of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Professor Wilson has kindly supplied the following valuable remarks 
on the ancient history of Hanuman, whose name is applied to the 
Semnopithecus entellus, and on the estimation in which this Monkey is 
now held by the Hindus. 

Hanuman is called the son of Pavana, or the wind. He was one of 
the Monkeys of the Monkey kingdom in the southern forests, the king 
of which, Bcili, was killed by Rama, who placed his (Bali's) brother, 
Sugriva, on the throne ; thereon a numerous host of monkeys aided 
Rama in his invasion of Lanka or Ceylon. By their superhuman 
strength, ponderous rocks were cast into the sea opposite to Manar, 
and a bridge of rocks was formed. The rocks in the straits are still 
called Setabund-Rameswara, from the island Ramisseram, in which is 
a large temple dedicated to Rama. Hanuman particularly distin- 
guished himself in the conflicts that ensued with Ravana's giants. 

Hanuman is usually represented with the face of a black-faced 
monkey, but the figure of a man, except in the appendage of a very 
long tail, smooth, but terminating in a tuft of hair. He is reverenced 
as more than human, but there is no separate worship addressed to 
him. His figure, however, is usually found in the temples dedicated 
to Ramachandra, along with those of Rama and Sita, and partakes of 
the veneration shown to them. The large black-faced Monkey, with 
a long tail, is called after Hanuman, by the same name, and is con- 
sidered to be the type, not only of him, but of all Rama's monkey 
allies. They are allowed unmolested access to the houses of the 
villagers, by whom they are petted and fed ; and at some temples, in 
the west of India especially, large numbers of them come daily for food 
given them by the priests and the people. There is no other worship 
of them. 



As. Soc. Beng. IX. p. 1212. 

Semnopithecus nipalensis, Hodgs., Catal. of Mammalia, $c. 
LANGOOR or LUNGOOR of the natives at the foot of the 


MUSSOORIE LUNGOOR, Captain Thomas Hutton, Jour. As. 
Soc. Bengal, XIII. p. 47 1. 

HAB. The Himalayas. 

A. adult, B. young. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 
This species, although nearly allied to the Semnopithecus entellus, is 
as fully entitled to a specific rank as several others of this genus, which 
have a place in all systematic catalogues. Mr. Hodgson gives the first 
authentic account of it in the ninth volume of the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, where it is characterized : " dark slaty 
above ; below and entire head, pale yellow ; hands, concolorous with 
the body, or very slightly darkened ; tail, longer than the body, and 
very slightly tufted ; hair, on the crown of the head short and radiated, 
on the cheeks long, directed back, and covering the ears." In a very 
old specimen, presented to the Company's Museum by Mr. Hodgson, 
the general colour is gray, inclining to hoary ; in a younger individual 
it inclines to rufous ; in both the head is nearly white, with a yellowish 
shade, exhibiting the distinguishing feature of this species in its cover- 
ing. On the crown the hairs form a radiating cap : on the sides they 
are longer than in Semnopithecus entellus, entirely concealing the ears ; 
on the sides and chin they are arranged circularly, like a beard. 

This species was observed by Captain Thomas Hutton, who writes 
from the Himalayas to Mr. Blyth: " I fell in this morning with a whole 
lot of Monkeys, Mussoorie Lungoors, and took a leisurely survey of 
them ; they were dark grayish, with pale hands and feet, white head, 

dark face, white throat and breast, and white tip to the tail I 

have long thought that the Lungoor of our parts must be distinct 
from the Semnopithecus entellus of Bengal, on account of the different 

locality in which they are found On the Simla side I observed 

them also, leaping and playing about, while the fir-trees, among which 
they sported, were loaded with snow-wreaths, at an elevation of 11,000 
feet/' Jour. As. Soc. Beng. XIII. p. 471. 


Semnopithecus priamus, Elliot. Blyth, Jour. Asiat. Soc. 

Beng. XIII. 470, XVI. 732, with a figure. 
The HANUMAN of the Indian Peninsula in the south. 


HAB. The Coromandel Coast and Ceylon. 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

For the locality and peculiarities of this species I refer to Mr. Blyth's 
remarks in the volumes of the Journal of the Asiatic Society above cited. 
The colour is more uniformly gray than in the true Semnopithecus en- 
tellus, and the hands are concolorous with the body. 

Note. The three species of Semnopithecus last enumerated, re- 
semble each other closely in many particulars, and further observa- 
tions and comparisons are required to determine, with accuracy, their 
respective specific rank. 


Soc. Bengal, XII. p. 174, 5, XIII. 467, XVI. 735. 

HAB. Chittagong, Tipperah, &c., eastward of the Ganges. 

A. a nearly adult male. Presented by the Asiatic Society 

of Bengal. 

The first indication of this species is given by Mr. E. Blyth, in June, 
1843, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, XII. p. 174, 5, 
where a female specimen, not quite adult, is described. Mr. B. subse- 
quently obtained other specimens, confirming the distinctness of the 
species ; notices of these are given in vol. XIII. 467, and XVI. 735, of 
the same Journal. 

On the specimen in the Company's Museum, which appears to be 
nearly an adult subject, the fur is long, soft, and silky. The colour 
above, on the thighs, and on the root of the tail, is gray, with a fulvous 
tint ; darker near the head and on the shoulders ; underneath, and on 
the inside of the extremities, it is lighter ; on the breast it is of a deeper 
shade. The crown of the head, which is spacious, is densely covered 
with bristly hairs, regularly disposed, and somewhat elongated on the 
occiput, so as to resemble a cap, whence the appropriate name pileatus. 
Along the forehead is the superciliary crest of black bristles, directed 
forwards, resembling this character, as found in several allied species. 
Behind the ears is a small tuft of white hairs. The tail is long, darker 
near the end, and tufted. This species is, on the continent of India, 
the representative of the Presbytes mitrata of Eschscholtz, the Semno- 
pithecus mitratus of Miiller, or the Semnopithecus comatus of Desmarest. 
It has the same habit, and the cap-like or mitred covering of the head. 


HAB. Not known. 

A. young. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


The only representative of this Semnopithec in the Company's Mu- 
seum, is a specimen received from Calcutta with a large despatch from 
the Asiatic Society. In the list of the curator, it is enumerated with 
this name, and the specimen was ticketed with the same. It appears 
to be about half-grown. Its history and character are as yet doubtful, 
since it does not appear to be mentioned by Mr. Blyth in his various 
contributions to the Journal of the Asiatic Society, and it remains to 
be determined whether it be a distinct species, or a variety of some 
other. The fur is soft and lengthened. The general colour above is 
grayish-brown, darker on the shoulders, arms, and hands. The middle 
of the back and the thighs are of a lighter tint, with a silvery reflection 
in a certain light ; hence the name argentatus. Underneath it is yel- 
lowish-white, and a large spot of the same colour extends from the 
orbit of the eyes towards the ears. On the top of the head is a vertical 
crest, and the superciliary ridge of black bristly hairs is also present. 
On the tail, the grayish colour of the back becomes lighter, with a 
stronger silvery gloss. The length of the head and body is one foot 
three and a half inches ; that of the tail is the same. 

9. SEMNOPITHECUS JOHN 77, Fischer Sp. 

Simia Johnii, Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium, p. 25. 
Semnopithecus cucullatus, Isidore Geoffroy, in Voyage de 
Belanger, Suppl. 

HAB. The southern parts of the Peninsula of India. 

A. Presented by the late Dr. A. T. Christie, of Madras. 

B. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

M. John, formerly of the Danish factory, Tranquebar, gave the first 
description of this species in " Neue Schriften der Gesellsch, naturf. 
Freunde," I. p. 215, from a specimen discovered at Tellicherry. It 
has since been found on the Coromandel Coast, near Madras, and also 
in the interior of the Peninsula. It appears to be common in various 
localities, but little is known of its manners. Mr. E. Blyth, in his 
remarks on the Indian Semnotes (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XII. p. 169), 
gives the following information on the authority of Mr. Jerdon. " The 
Semnopithecus Johnii is abundant in the dense woods of the Neilgher- 
ries, and in the forests on the sides of the hills. I have also seen it in 
the elevated district of the Wynaad, but only near the base of the 
Neilgherries. It associates as usual in small herds, leaps with amazing 
agility, and has a loud call like that of the entellus. The young are 
perfectly black, with hardly an indication of the light-coloured hair of 



the hood of the adult. It is more suspicious and wary than the entellus, 
and never leaves the woods." 


Simia maura, Sckreber, Saength. I. p. 107, t. xxn. B. 

Simia maura, GmeL, Syst. Linn. I. p. 35. 

Semnopithecus maurus, Midler, Monographisch overzicht 
van het Gesl. Semnopithecus, p. 76. 

Cercopithecus maurus, Geoffroy, Ann. du Mus. XIX. 1812. 

Semnopithecus maurus, Horsfield, Zool. Res. with a figure. 

BUDENG, in the eastern districts of Java. 

LUTUNG, in the western districts. 

LOTONG, of the natives of Sumatra. 

HAB. Java exclusively, according to Dr. S. Miiller. Its exist- 
ence in Tenasserim is doubtfully indicated by Dr. Heifer. 
A. and B. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

The Semnopithecus maurus has long been known to naturalists. It 
was figured at an early period by Edwards, with the name of " Middle- 
sized black Monkey" (Gleanings, pi. 311). Pennant describes it as 
the Negro-Monkey (Quadr. third edit. p. 206). In systems, it appears 
to be first mentioned by Gmelin in 1788, who refers to the Simia 
maura of Schreber's Saength. I. p. 107, t. xxii. B. Of species dis- 
covered in later years, the Simia cristata of Raffles, the Semnopithecus 
pruinosus of Desmarest, the Chingkau of the Malays, is most nearly 
related to the maurus. The characters by which the Chingkau is dis- 
tinguished from the Budeng will be indicated in its description. " The 
Budeng is grave, sullen, and morose ; it is found in abundance in the 
extensive forests of Java, where it forms its dwellings on trees, and 
associates in numerous societies. Troops, consisting of more than 
fifty individuals, are often found together. In meeting these monkeys, 
it is prudent to observe them at a distance. They set up loud screams 
at the approach of man, and, by the violent bustle and commotion 
excited by their movements, branches of decaying trees are not unfre- 
quently detached and precipitated on the spectators. They are often 
chased by the natives for their fur, and great numbers are wantonly 
destroyed with cudgels and stones. The fur is simply dressed, in the 
European manner ; it is jet black, silky, and usefully employed in 
riding equipages and military decorations. They are neglected and 
despised by the natives, as much time and patience are required to 
improve the natural sullenness of their temper. For many months 
they are grave and morose ; and as they contribute nothing to amuse- 



merit, they are seldom seen domesticated in villages and dwellings. 
When young, they feed on the tender leaves of plants or trees ; and 
when adult, on wild fruits of every description." (Horsfield's Re- 
searches in Java.) 

11. SEMNOPITHECUS PYRRHUS, Horsfield, Zoological 

Researches in Java, with a figure. 

Semnopithecus maurus, varietas flavescens, Muller, Mono- 
graphisch overzicht van het Gesl. Semnopithecus, p. 58. 
LUTUNG, of the Javanese. 
HAB. Java. 

A. and B. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

The Semnopithecus pyrrhus is classed by systematic writers of the 
present day, either as a variety of the Semnopithecus maurus of 
Schreber, or of the Semnopithecus auratus of GeofFroy ; the former is 
the determination of Dr. S. Muller in the synonym above cited. As 
to the Semnopithecus auratus of GeofFroy, it appears from recent obser- 
vations that it has been established on very imperfect materials, and 
Dr. Miiller attempts to show (Monographisch overzicht, pp. 58 and 74) 
that the specimen described as Semnopithecus auratus is merely a variety, 
either of his Semnopithecus chrysomelas or Semnopithecus sumatranus. 
In my account of the Semnopithecus pyrrhus, published in 1824, I have 
stated that in my opinion the Semnopithecus pyrrhus could not be iden- 
tical with Semnopithecus auratus ; whether it be entitled to the rank of 
a distinct species, depends on further observations. 

pendix to Life of Sir T. S. Raffles, 1830, p. 643. 

Simia maura, Linn. ? Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. 

p. 247, 1822, omitting the locality given. 
The white-thighed Monkey, Martin, Quadrumana, 480. 
LOTONG of the natives of Sumatra. 
HAB. Sumatra. 

A. Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 

The first specimens of this Semnopithec which were brought to 
England, formed part of the zoological collection made by Sir T. S. 
Raffles in Sumatra, during the years 1819 and 1820. In the catalogue 
of that collection, printed in the "Transactions of the Linnean So- 
ciety," it is indicated as Simia maura? Linn., although the locality 
assigned to it appears to be erroneous, since it belongs, so far as has 
yet been ascertained, exclusively to Sumatra. Sir T. S. Raffles' de- 


scrip tion closely applies to this species. In the " Appendix to the 
Memoir of the Life of Sir T. S. Raffles," p. 462, this species is first 
authoritatively made known as Semnopithecus femoralis ; and, with 
this name, the specimens presented to the Museum at the India House, 
and to the Zoological Society, are distinguished. The most prominent 
characters are those detailed by Mr. Martin (Quadrumana, p. 480). 
" The general colour is black, fading on the top of the head, on the occi- 
pital tuft, on the back and shoulders into dusky brown ; the hairs on the 
forehead project forward and are long ; short white hairs are scattered 
over the chin ; and the fore-arms are grizzled with white hairs, inter- 
mingled with black. The inside of the thighs are white, with an abrupt 
margin ; and a white line runs down the chest and abdomen to its lower 
part. The sides of the face are not tufted, but a line of short black hairs 
occupies the malar bones. The skin of the face, ears, and palms is black." 
Among the Semnopithecs collected in later years by the Dutch na- 
turalists in Sumatra, there is a species very nearly allied to the Semno- 
pithecus femoralis, which is described by Dr. S. Miiller with the name 
of sumatranus. A comparison of the specimens contained in the Mu- 
seum of the India Company, and that of the Zoological Society of 
London, with the figure given in the " History of the Mammalia of the 
Indian Archipelago," and " Monographisch overzicht van het Geslacht 
Semnopithecus," plate x. bis, as well as with Dr. Muller's description, 
shows the following peculiarities of the Semnopithecus sumatranus : the 
white colour of the inside of the thighs and legs is continued, uninter- 
rupted and distinct, to the hands and feet ; the underside of the tail, 
along two- thirds of its length, is purely white, while there is no indica- 
tion of any white spots on the feet, neither do the hairs of the forehead 
project forward, as stated by Martin to be the case in the S. femoralis. 
The throat and abdomen have also a bright white colour. Dr. Miiller 
states that he was long in doubt whether he should describe his species 
with the name of femoralis; and he would have adopted that name had 
Martin's description agreed more closely with the specimens of sumatra- 
nus in his collection. From our present knowledge, it appears that 
the S. femoralis is entitled to the same specific rank as S. sumatranus, 
but further information is required to determine whether they be really 
distinct, or mere local or accidental varieties. 

froy, in Voyage de Belanger, SuppL 

Simia melalophos, Raffles, inTrans. Linn. Soc.XIII.p.245. 


Semnopithecus melalophos, Raffles. Appendix to the Life 

of Sir T. S. Raffles, p. 642. 
Semnopithecus flavimanus, Muller, Monographisch over- 

zicht over het GeslacJit Semnopithecus, p. 61. 
SIMPAI, of the natives of Sumatra. 

HAB. Sumatra. 

A. Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 

Sir T. S. Raffles discovered this species in Sumatra about the year 
1819, and applied to it the appropriate name of melalophos, or "black- 
crested ; " but this name is Jiow given by systematic writers to another 
species which greatly resembles it, while the S. melalophos of Raffles is 
distinguished by the name of flavimanus. Mr. Martin (Quadrumana, 
p. 472) briefly explains the cause of the confusion in the synonymy of 
these two species, stating that " the naturalists of the Paris Museum 
conferred the title of melalophos upon another species, also from Su- 
matra, and regarded by them as identical with the species described by 
Raffles, which latter, when it came into their hands, M. Isidore Geoffrey 
perceived to be distinct from the former, the S. melalophos of French 
naturalists ; and accordingly described it in the ' Supplement to Be- 
langer's Voyage,' under the name of flavimanus, which decision has 
been adopted by mammalogists generally." 

Both species, the melalophos and flavimanus, agree entirely in external 
habit, physiognomy, and relative proportion of extremities and tail ; the 
only difference consists in the colour of the hairy covering ; the S. flavi- 
manus is more diversified, the contrast between the upper and lower parts 
is greater, the former has a yellowish rufous tint, washed with blackish, 
the lower parts are nearly white. In the melalophos, the colour is more 
fulvous-red above, while the underside is nearly yellow. In both, the 
frontal crest is vertical, and streaked with black. 

Sir T. S. Raffles states that the Simpai is frequent in the neighbour- 
hood of Bencoolen, on the west coast of Sumatra, while the Dutch na- 
turalists found the same species exclusively at Indrapura, a few hundred 
miles further north on the same coast. They never met the melalophos 
and flavimanus in the same localities, but they live respectively in sepa- 
rate companies. By the natives, the name of Simpai is given to both 

Regarding the melalophos, Dr. Muller remarks : " We observed the 
Simpai as well in the thick forests covering the mountains, as in the 
plains along the seashore, but never at an elevation exceeding 3,000 
feet above the level of the ocean. He is cautious and cunning, and at 


the same time extremely swift in his motions. He is rarely seen alone, 
but mostly in small companies of six, eight, or twelve individuals. His 
cry resembles that of the S. mitratus, but is more continuous, so that 
it nearly sounds as hoe-ikikikikikik. His cheerful chattering is chiefly 
heard at the earliest dawn of the day or at twilight, and during our 
solitary excursions through the forests, the silence of midnight, when 
the moon shone bright, was occasionally enlivened by the cry of the 
Simpai sounding through the forest ; and as he selects for his favourite 
resting-place the borders of brooks rushing through deep ravines, this 
contributes to increase the reverberating echo. During the day, the 
Simpai rambles through the forests, frequenting the tops of those trees 
that produce his favourite food." (Monogr. overzicht van het Gesl. 
Semnopithecus, p. 66.) 


Simia cristata, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 244. 1 822. 
Semnopithecus cristatus, Appendix to Life of Sir T. S. 

Raffles, p. 642. 1830. 
Semnopithecus cristatus, M'uller, Monographisch overzicht 

over het Gesl. Semnopithecus, p.J7. 

Semnopithecus pruinosus, Desmarest, Mamm. Supp.p. 533. 
CHINGKAU, of the natives of Sumatra. 

HAB. Sumatra and Borneo. 

A. Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 

The first authentic description of the Chingkau is given by Sir 
Stamford Raffles, in the thirteenth volume of the " Transactions of the 
Linnean Society." It is found in Sumatra, Borneo, and probably in 
other islands of the Eastern Archipelago, in which it represents the 
Lutung of the Javanese. Although nearly allied to that species, it 
differs in the colour of its hairy covering, in external form, and in the 
localities which it inhabits. The general colour is not intensely black, 
but silvery or hoary ; hence the name given by Desmarest, pruinosus. 
Mr. Martin enumerates the peculiarities of its external form. " It 
is," he states, " in comparison with the Lutung, a more slender 
animal, having the ears large and exposed, and a long peaked ver- 
tical crest." In describing the Chingkau, Dr. Miiller observes : " Al- 
though nearly allied to the S. maurus, he differs in several particulars ; 
he selects for his abode low situations, especially such as are marshy, 
and abounding with water. Here he is mostly found near the banks 
of rivers, and in situations producing the Nibong-palm (Oncosperma 


filamentosd) in abundance, the fruit of which is his most favourite 
food. We never met with the Chingkau in the more elevated ridges. 
The small companies which we encountered in Borneo, were in loca- 
lities not exceeding a few hundred feet above the ocean ; and in Suma- 
tra, we found him alone on the alluvial plains at the foot of the ridge 
extending along the sea- shore." 

" The Chingkau is cautious, cunning, and possesses a remarkable 
dexterity to conceal himself from his pursuers. His cry resembles that 
of the S. maurus, but is not so full. His motions in the tops of the 
trees resemble those of the common Marten." (Monogr. Overzicht, 
&c. pp. 77, 78.) 


General List of Species enumerated by Zoological writers in 1848. 
I. From Continental India. 

1 . Semnopithecus entellus, Dufresne Sp. 

2. Semnopithecus schistaceus, Hodgson, Jour. As. Soc. Beng. IX. 
p. 1212, X.p. 907. 

3. Semnopithecus pileatus, Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng. XII. p. 174, 5, 
XIII. p. 476, XVI. 735. 

4. Semnopithecus hypoleucos, Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng. X.p. 839, 
XII. p. 170, XIII. p. 469, XVI. p. 733. 

5. Semnopithecus argentatus, Blyth, MS. 

6. Semnopithecus Johnii, Fischer Sp. 

7. Semnopithecus priamus, Elliot, Jour. As. Soc. Beng. XIII. p. 470, 
XVI. p. 732. Figured on pi. LIV. fig. 2. 

8. Semnopithecus anchises, Elliot, Jour. As. Soc. Beng. XIII. pp. 
470,476, XVI. p. 733. 

9. Semnopithecus Phayrei, Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng. XVI. p. 733. 

10. Semnopithecus Barbei (?), Blyth, N. S. ? Jour. As. Soc. Beng. 
XVI. p. 734. 

11. Semnopithecus thersites, Elliot, Jour. As. Soc. Beng. XVI. p. 1271. 
Figured in pi. Liv.Jig. 3. 

12. Semnopithecus nemseus, Linn. Sp. Douc, Buffon. 

13. Semnopithecus jubatus, Wagner in Schreber Suppl. S. aterrimus, 
capite pilis longis, brunnescentibus, jubam formantibus ad humeros 
usque dependentibus vestito ; vitta frontali nigro. Hab. in India 
orientali ; hospitatur in Museo Vindobonensi. Schinz, Syst. Mam- 
mal. p. 41. 

14. Semnopithecus siamensis, Muller, Monogr. overzicht, p. 60. 


II. From the Indian Archipelago. 

15. Semnopithecus maurus, Schreb. Sp. 

16. Semnopithecus pyrrhus, Horsfield. 

17. Semnopithecus cristatus, Raffles Sp. 

18. Semnopithecus flavimanus, Isidore Geoffroy. 

19. Semnopithecus melalophus, Fred. Cuv. 

20. Semnopithecus femoralis, Horsfield. 

21. Semnopithecus obscurus, Reid. S. halonifer, Cantor. S. leuco- 
mystax, Muller et Temminck. 

22. Semnopithecus mitratus, Eschscholtz Sp. S. comatus, Desm. 

23. Semnopithecus rubicundus, Muller, Monographisch overzicht, fyc. 
p. 61. Kalassi of Borneo. 

24. Semnopithecus chrysomelas, Muller, Monographisch overzicht, #e. 
p. 61. 

25. Semnopithecus sumatranus, Muller, Monographisch overzicht, &c. 
p. 61. 

26. Semnopithecus frouiatus, Muller, Monographisch overzicht, %c.p. 62. 

27. Semnopithecus larvatus, Wurmb. Sp. The Kahau or proboscis 

III. From Ceylon. 

28. Semnopithecus cephalopterus, Zimmerman Sp. 

Semn.? albogularis, Sykes (Proceed. Zool. Soc., 1831, p. 106), 
supposed to be a native of Madagascar, is enumerated by Mr. Ogilby 
(Monkeys, p. 331) and Martin (Quadrumana, p. 512) as a species of 
Cercopithecus. S. auratus, Geoffroy (Ann. de Mus. XIX.), according 
to the view of Dr. S. Muller, as above stated, is merely a variety, 
either of S. sumatranus or S. chrysomelas. S. albocinereus, of Desma- 
rest, is enumerated by several writers as a distinct species, but its 
rank and character are as yet doubtful. Dr. S. Muller, in his general 
remarks on the genus Semnopithecus (Monographisch overzicht, &c. 
p. 59), states that several species of his list, may perhaps be found to 
be mere local varieties klimaats versheidenheden of other species. 

Genus COLUBUS, Illiger, Prodromus Syst. Hamm. 

15. COLUBVS GUEREZA, Ruppell, New Wirbelthiere <con 
Abyssinien, Saengthiere, p. 1, with a figure. 

GUEREZA, of the Abyssinians. 

HAB. Godjam, Kulla, and Darnot, South and West Abyssinia. 
A. and B. adult, C. young. From Sir W. C. Harris's Zoo- 
logical Collection during his mission to Abyssinia. 


Dr. Edward Ruppell, in the work above cited, gives a copious de- 
scription of the form and covering of the Guereza, accompanied by an 
excellent figure. As to its habits, he briefly states that it lives in 
small families, on lofty trees, chiefly in the vicinity of running waters. 
It is active, lively without being noisy, and is inoffensive in its nature, 
not committing depredations in plantations, as is the case with most 
other monkeys. Its food consists of fruits, grains, and insects. In 
former times the Guereza was hunted for the sake of its fur, which was 
used as a mark of distinction in the army. 

Genus CERCOPITHECUS, Brisson. Erzleben, Syst. Regn. Anim. 
1777, partim. 

SIMILE Species, Linn, et al. 

Simia engythithia, Herm. Obs. Zool. I. 1804. 
Cercopithecus griseo-viridis, Desmarest, Mamm. p. 61. 1 820. 
Cercopithecus griseo-viridis, Ruppell, Neue Wirbelthiere 

von Abyssinien, p. 8. 
LE GRIVET, Fred. Cuv. 

HAB. Nubia and Abyssinia. 

A. From Sir W. C. Harris's Zoological Collection during 
Ms mission to Abyssinia. 

Dr. E. Riippell states that this Monkey is common in the lower 
regions of Abyssinia, in Sennar, and Kordofan, from the seashore to 
an elevation of 4,000 feet. Its name is Tota in Abyssinia, Abellen in 
Sennar, and also in Egypt, where it is extremely common in a tamed 
or domestic state. (Ruppell, Neue Wirbelthiere, &c. p. 8.) 

The third sub-family of Simiada, according to Mr. Martin's division 
(Quadrumana, 361), consists of the genera Cercopithecus, Macacus, and 
Cynocephalus, as generally admitted by modern systematic zoologists. 
Mr. Ogilby, in the Natural History of Monkeys, &c. (the Menageries, 
chapter IX. p. 292), has proposed a modification of this subdivision, 
and has arranged the Monkeys of this family under the genera Cercopi- 
thecus, Papio, and Cynocephalus, suppressing the genus Macacus, and 
uniting the long-tailed Macacs from Africa and from the Indian Archi- 
pelago, in the same genus, Cercopithecus. Although there are some 
advantages in tttis modification, it has not been adopted by Mr. Martin 
or by Mr. Blyth. I refer, on this subject, to the remarks with which 


Mr. Martin introduces the third sub-family of the Simiadee, in which 
he\explains his views as to the limits and situation of the genera which 
compose this section. 

Genus MACACUS, Lacepede, 1803. 
Sect. I. Long-tailed Macacs. 

Genus CERCOPITHECUS in part, Ogilby, Mutter, Cantor, and, 


Simia cynomolgus, Linn., the male. 

Simia aygula, Linn., the female. 

Macacus cynomolgus, Desmar., Mamm. 65. 

Cercopithecus cynomolgus, Mutter, Ogilby, Cantor, #c. 

Hare- lipped Monkey, Pennant and Shaw, the male. 

Egret Monkey, Pennant and Shaw. 

The common MACAC. 

KRA, of the Malays in Sumatra, mentioned by Sir T. S. 
Raffles, with the doubtful synonym of Simia fascicu- 
laris, Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 246. 

JAKKO, the vulgar name of Europeans. 

HAB. Java, Sumatra, Banka, Borneo, Celebes, Timor, .Tenas- 
serim, Nicobar Islands. 

A. and B. Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 
C. From Finlayson's Collection. 

Of all the Monkeys inhabiting the Indian Archipelago, the common 
Macac is the most widely distributed. It is frequently brought to 
Europe, and it is one of the few of the Monkey tribe which has bred 
in menageries. In early life it is intelligent, good-natured, and docile, 
being easily trained to the performance of amusing tricks and exhibi- 
tions. It is frequently found on board of ships, where the name of Jakko 
is vulgarly applied to it. In the island of Java it is a great favourite 
with the natives, by whom it is domesticated, and placed in fctables as 
a companion to their horses. As it advances in age, the character 
gradually changes, and it becomes sullen, morose, and mischievous. 
Dr. S. Miiller, in his description of the Mammalia of the Indian Archi- 
pelago, gives copious details of the varieties of this Monkey, as they 
occur in Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and Timor, with the names by which 
they are respectively distinguished in different islands, and he considers 
the Macacus auratus of Belanger, in " Voyage aux Indes Orientales," 



and the Macacus carbonarius of Fred. Cuv., as mere varieties of the 
Macacus cynomolgus. (Over de Zoogd. van den Ind. Archip. p. 48 
and 49.) 

18. MACACUS RADIATUS, Geoffroy Sp. Ann. du Mus. 
XIX. p. 98, 3. 

Cercocebus radiatus, Geoffr., I. cit. 

Macacus radiatus, Desmar., Mamm. p. 64. 

Simia sinica, Linn. Mant., pL 2, p. 521. GmeL, Syst. 

Nat. Linn. I. p. 34. 
Cercocebe toque, Geoffr. St. Hil., Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. 

Nat. XIX. p. 98, sp. 3. 

Bonnet chinois, Buff on, Hist. Nat. XIV. p. 224, pi. 30. 
WAANUR, of the Mahrattas, Sykes, Catal. of Mammalia. 
Bonneted Monkey, Pennant. Bennett, Tower Menagerie, 

p. 147. 

HAB. Bengal, and the Peninsula of India. 
A. From India. 

The Macacus radiatus or Toque, a native of the peninsula of India 
and the southern parts of Bengal, is nearly allied to another species, the 
Macacus pileatus of Shaw and Desmarest, which appears to be peculiar 
to Ceylon. These species, although similar in form and habit, are 
readily distinguished by their colour, the Macacus radiatus being of a 
greenish- dun hue, and the latter rusty brown. They have frequently 
been confounded by systematic zoologists, and we are indebted to 
Mr. Ogilby for having unravelled the confusion of their synonymy. 
From his researches, it appears that the Macacus radiatus of Geoffroy 
is the Bonnet chinois of Buffon, described in the fourteenth volume of 
his " Histoire Naturelle," and the Macacus pileatus of Shaw and Des- 
marest the Guenon couronn4e ; Suppl. vol. VII. pi. 10, of the same 
author. The specific name of Simia sinica, which has been applied to 
both species indiscriminately, is therefore superseded by the more 
correct nomenclature above proposed. (See " Natural History of 
Monkeys," &c. p. 306-308.) 

This Monkey is frequently found in menageries, and on account of 
its comparative mildness and inoffensive habits while young, may even 
be kept in houses and apartments without annoyance ; but when adult, 
it becomes sullen and morose. Its powers of mimicry surpass those 
of any other member of the family. It may be taught to turn a wheel 
regularly ; it smokes tobacco without inconvenience ; its feats of activity 


afford much amusement when confined in dwellings, or when exhibited 
in public. 

19. MAC AC US NEMESTRINUS, Linn. Sp. Syst. Nat. 

ed. XII., I. p. 35. 

Simia nemestrina, Linn. S. N. ed. Gmel., I. p. 28. 

Simia platypygos, Schreb., Saength. t. 5, B. 

Macacus nemestrinus, Desmar., Mamm. p. 66, 36. 

Simia carpolegus, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 243. 

Inuus nemestrinus, Kuhl, Miiller, #c. 

Papio nemestrinus, Erxleb, Ogilby, Cantor. 

Pig-tailed Monkey, Edw., Glean. I. p. 8, t . 24. 

BRUH, of the inhabitants of Sumatra. Three varieties, 

Bruh-sepotong, Bruh-selapi, and Bruh-puti. In Pe- 

nang, Broh. 

HAB. Sumatra, Borneo, Penang, and the Malayan Peninsula, 
according to Raffles, Miiller, and Cantor. 

A. Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 

In the descriptive catalogue of a zoological collection made in Suma- 
tra, Sir T. S. Raffles states that the Bruhis very common in the vicinity 
of Bencoolen, where the inhabitants train it to a useful domestic pur- 
pose. Of the three varieties above enumerated, the Bruh-sepotong is 
the most docile. A brief summary of what is known of the habits of 
this species is given in the following extract from Mr. Ogilby's " Na- 
tural History of Monkeys," &c. p. 377. " The Bruh," Mr. Ogilby 
states, " is both good-natured and intelligent. These qualities have 
procured it a high degree of respect among the natives of Sumatra, 
who are fond of domesticating the Bruh, and have even contrived to 
turn its intelligence and docility to a better account than we find 
authentically recorded of any other monkey. Sir T. S. Raffles informs 
us that they teach it to climb the cocoa palms for the purpose of pro- 
curing the fruit, and that it selects the ripe from the unripe nuts 
with admirable discrimination, and plucks no more than its master 

20. MACACUS RHESUS, Audtb. Sp. 

Macacus rhesus, Desmar. , Mamm. p. 66, 35. 
Cynocephalus rhesus, Latr., in Buff. Hist. Nat. ed. Sonn. 

XXXV. p. 101, 2. 

Papio rhesus, Ogilby, Nat. Hist, of Monkeys, $c.p. 372. 
D 2 


Rhesus, Audeb., Hist. Nat. des Singes, f am. 2, sect. I, Jig. 3. 
Maimon, Buff, et Daubent, torn. XIV. pi. 19. 
BUNDER, according to Williamson and Ogilby, which is the 
common name of a Monkey in India. 

HAB. Bengal, Assam, Nepal, Simla. 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

The rhesus is not unfrequently brought to Europe, and is one of the 
few species which has been known to breed in confinement. M. Fred. 
Cuvier gives a very interesting history of an accouchemenj; which oc- 
curred in Paris in 1824. In its habits the rhesus resembles the nemes- 
trinus, but is on the whole less tractable and docile. It is, however, 
susceptible of considerable training, as appears from the following 
details given by Captain Williamson in his " Wild Sports of India," 
p. 100. In his remarks on Indian Monkeys generally, he states the 
common kind of Monkey which is found almost everywhere, is the 
Bunder, or Woodman. " These when erect may measure about two 
feet in height ; they are docile and affectionate. Under the tuition of 
the jugglers, who, among many other curious matters, exhibit a variety 
of tricks done most naturally by the Bunders, it is very diverting to 
see these little mimics counterfeiting the gait and motions of various 
professions, and especially corroborating, by their actions, the deluge of 
flattery which the jugglers pour forth in praise of everything relating to 
the English character. Their antics are so excellently just on these 
occasions, that many human professors of the mimic art, might, with- 
out the smallest disparagement, take a lesson from these diminutive 

Professor Oken, in his " Allgemeine Naturgeschichte," gives an ex- 
tract from the " Neue Berlinische Schriften," I. 1795, 4, p. 211, illus- 
trative of the habits of the rhesus. He states : " The well-known mis- 
sionary, M. John, had an opportunity of observing an entire family of this 
species, which was exhibited in Tranquebar. It consisted of a male, 
female, and two young ones, which performed various feats of activity 
in the streets. The male was extremely ferocious, biting every one 
who approached it, so that it became necessary to extract the canine 
teeth. On one occasion, when the keeper attempted to measure it 
with a staff, it attacked him, seized his head, snapping in every direc- 
tion, and he had much difficulty to disengage himself." A similar 
account of the malicious character of a female confined in Paris, is 
given by M. Audebert. 


21. MAC AC US ASSAMEN8IS, McClelland, Descriptive 

Catalogue of a Zoological Collection made while employed on a 
Deputation to Assam. Proceed. Zool. Soc. October, 1839, 
p. 146. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XIII. p. 476. 

Macacus pelops, Hodgs., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. IX. 1213, 

X. 908. 
HAB. Assam. 

A. From the Deputation to Assam. 

Nearly allied to the rhesus, but sufficiently distinct to entitle it to 
the rank of a species. " Bluish-gray, with dark brownish on the 
shoulders ; beneath, light gray ; face, flesh-coloured, but interspersed 
with a few black hairs; length, two feet and a half; proportions, 
strong; canine teeth, long, and deeply grooved in front; the last 
of the cheek-teeth in the upper jaw blunt." (McClelland's MS.) 

Genus GEL AD A, Lesson, Gray. 
MACACUS, Ruppell et al. 

22. GEL AD A RUPPELLII, Gray, Catalogue of the Mam- 
malia in the British Museum, p. 9. 

Macacus gelada, Ruppell, Neue Wirbelthiere, SfC. p. 8, 

t. 2. 
HAB. Abyssinia. 

A. From Sir W. Harris's Zoological Collection during 

his Mission to Abyssinia. 

" The gelada" Dr. Riippell states, " inhabit rocky districts covered 
with low brushwood, and are found exclusively on the ground. Their 
food consists of seeds, roots, and bulbous plants, in seeking which they 
associate in large companies, and frequently commit great devastations 
in cultivated grounds. I observed the gelada in the mountainous dis- 
tricts of Haremat, Simen, and by Axum, which are all from seven to 
eight thousand feet above the level of the ocean. At night they retire 
into caverns and fissures of the rocks. If attacked, they utter loud 
cries, resembling a rough kind of barking, but they never defend them- 
selves against man, as is the custom of the Cynocephalus hamadryas." 
(Ruppell, Neue Wirbelthiere, p. 7.) 

Genus SILENUS, Lesson, Gray. 

SIMILE species, Linn. MACACUS, Desmar. et al. PAPIO, 


23. SILENUS VETER, Linn. Sp. 

Simla veter, Linn., Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. Gmel. I. p. 30. 

Simla silenus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. XII., I. p. 36. 

Macacus silenus, Desmar., Mammal, p. 63. 

Papio silenus, Ogilby, Monkeys, fyc.p. 386. 

The WANDEROO of Buffon and French naturalists. 

HAS. Ceylon and neighbouring districts of the Continent of 
A. Presented by General T. Hardwicke. 

Genus LEMUR, Linn. 

Lemur ruber, Pe'ron et Lesueur. Geoffr., Ann. du Mus. 

XIX. p. 159. 
Lemur ruber, The red Lemur, Bennett, Card, and Menag. 

Zool. Soc.p. 145. 

HAB. Madagascar. 

A. Presented by General T. Hardwicke. 

Genus STENOPS, Illiger, Prodromus Mammaliam. 1811. 
LEMUR, Linn, et al. NYCTICEBUS, Geoffr. et al. 

24. STENOPS JAVANICUS, Geoffr. Sp. Ann, du Mus. 
XIX. p. 164. 

Nycticebus javanicus, Geoff., loc. cit. 

Lemur tardigradus, Raffl., Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 247. 

Stenops javanicus, Van der Hoeven, Tydschrift voor Nat. 

Gesh. vol. VI II. p. 345. 
TUKANG, of the Javanese. 
KUKANG of the Malays ; the large variety, Bruh-samundi, 

The slow-paced Lemur, Bennett, Gard. and Menag. Zool. 

Soc. p. 139. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Penang, Malayan Peninsula. 
A. B. and C. From Java. 
D. From Sumatra. Presented by Sir T. S. Baffles. 



Lemur tardigradus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. XII., I. p. 44. 
Nycticebus Bengalensis, Geoff., Ann. du Mus. XIX. p. 164. 
Stenops tardigradus, Van der Hoeven, Tydschrift voor Nat. 

Ges. VIII. p. 346. Blyth, J. A. S. Bang. XIII. 

p. 478. 
The slow-paced Lemur or LAJJA BANAR, Sir William 

Jones, Asiatic Researches, IV. p. 135. 
SHURMUNDI BILLI, Modest cat, Hindustani. 

HAB. Bengal, Assam, the Garrow Hills, Silhet and Arracan. 
One imperfect ; precise locality not known. 

The two species of Stenops above enumerated resemble each other so 
closely, that they are considered identical by several authors. They 
are generally distinguished by zoologists by the number of incisors in 
the upper jaw, which is four in Stenops tardigradus, and two in the 
Stenops javanicus ; besides these there are other marks of difference, 
such as the form of the head, which is more elongated in the Stenops 
javanicus, the colouring, and the fur, which in the continental species 
is woolly and somewhat crisp or curled. Dr. Van der Hoeven, in his 
remarks on the genus Stenops (Tydschrift voor Nat. Ges. VIII. p. 345), 
characterizes the Stenops javanicus : cauda brevissima, cinereo-flavus, 
stria dorsali fusca, macula alba frontali, dentibus incisivis superioribus 
duobus tantum, rostro subacuto elongato. Stenops tardigradus : cauda 
brevissima, cinereo-flavus ; stria dorsali fusca, fronte fusca, stria alba 
inter oculos angusta, supra oculos evanescente, dentibus incisivis supe- 
rioribus quatuor, rostro obtusiusculo. (See also Tyds. p. 285.) 

Mr. Blyth, in the sixteenth volume of the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, enumerates the peculiarities of specimens which he 
examined from Java, Malacca, and Bengal. In the fourth volume of the 
Asiatic Researches, Sir William Jones gives an interesting account of 
an individual which lived with him for some time, of which the follow- 
ing is an extract : 

" In his manners, he was for the most part gentle, except in the cold 
season, when his temper seemed wholly changed ; and his Creator, who 
made him so sensible of cold, to which he must often have been exposed 
even in his native forests, gave him, probably for that reason, his thick 
fur, which we rarely see on animals in these tropical climates. To me, 
who not only constantly fed him, but bathed him twice a week in water 
accommodated to the seasons, and whom he clearly distinguished from 


others, he was at all times grateful, but when I disturbed him in winter 
he was usually indignant, and seemed to reproach me with the uneasi- 
ness which he felt, though no possible precautions had been omitted to 
keep him in a proper degree of warmth. At all times he was pleased 
with being stroked on the head and throat, and frequently suffered me 
to touch his extremely sharp teeth ; but at all times his temper was 
quick, and when he was unseasonably disturbed, he expressed a little 
resentment by an obscure murmur, like that of a squirrel, or a greater 
degree of displeasure by a peevish cry, especially in winter, when he 
was often as fierce, on being much importuned, as any beast of the 
woods. From half an hour after sunrise to half an hour before sunset, 
he slept without intermission rolled up like a hedgehog, and as soon as 
he awoke he began to prepare himself for the labours of his approach- 
ing day, licking and dressing himself like a cat ; an operation which the 
flexibility of his neck and limbs enabled him to perform very completely ; 
he was then ready for a slight breakfast, after which he commonly took 
a short nap, but when the sun was quite set, he recovered all his viva- 
city. His ordinary food was the sweet fruit of this country ; plantains 
always, and mangos during the season, but he refused peaches, and was 
not fond of mulberries, or even of guaiavas ; milk he lapped eagerly, 
but was contented with plain water. In general he was not voracious, 
but never appeared satiated with grasshoppers, and passed the whole 
night, while the hot season lasted, in prowling for them. When a 
grasshopper, or any insect, alighted within his reach, his eyes, which 
he fixed on his prey, glowed with uncommon fire, and, having drawn 
himself back to spring on it with greater force, he seized the victim 
with both his fore-paws, but held it in one of them, while he devoured 
it. For other purposes, and sometimes even for that of holding his 
food, he used all his paws indifferently as hands, and frequently 
grasped with one of them the higher part of his ample cage, while 
his three others were severally engaged at the bottom of it ; but the 
posture of which he seemed fondest, was to cling with all four of them 
to the upper wires, his body being inverted ; and in the evening he 
usually stood erect for many minutes, playing on the wires with his 
fingers and rapidly moving his body from side to side, as if he had 
found the utility of exercise in his unnatural state of confinement. A 
little before daybreak, when my early hours gave me frequent opportu- 
nities of observing him, he seemed to solicit my attention ; and if I 
presented my finger- to him, he licked or nibbled it with great gentle- 
ness, but eagerly took fruit when I offered it, though he seldom ate 
much at his morning repast. When the day brought back his night, 


his eyes lost their lustre and strength, and he composed himself for a 
slumber of ten or eleven hours. 

" As to his country, the first of the species that I saw in India was 
in the district of Tipra, properly Tripura, whither it had been brought, 
like mine, from the Garrow Mountains ; and Dr. Anderson informs me, 
that it is found in the woods on the coast of Coromandel. Another 
had been sent to a member of our society from one of the eastern isles, 
and though the Loris may be also a native of Silan, yet I cannot agree 
with M. de Buffon that it is the minute, sociable, and docile animal 
mentioned by Thevenot, which it resembles neither in size nor in dis- 

" My little friend was, on the whole, very engaging, and when he 
was found lifeless, in the same posture in which he would naturally 
have slept, I consoled myself with believing that he died without pain, 
and lived with as much pleasure as he could have enjoyed in a state of 

The habits of both species of Stenops are strictly nocturnal. Dr. 
Miiller states that they are found in large forests, chiefly in moun- 
tainous districts, where they sleep during the day in holes and fissures 
of large trees. On the approach of evening they awake ; and during 
the night they ramble among the branches of trees, slowly and quietly, 
in quest of their food, which consists chiefly of tender leaves and fruits. 
They also devour small birds, insects, and mice. Sir T. S. Raffles 
informs us that the inhabitants of Sumatra have a superstitious aver- 
sion to these animals, which is confirmed by Dr. Miiller. 

Genus TARSIUS, Stoll et al 


26. TARSI US SPECTRUM, Geoff. Ann. du. Mus. XIX. 
p. 168. 

Tarsius bancanus, Horsfield, Zool.Res. in Java, junior fide 


Lemur spectrum, Pallas. 
Didelphis macrotarsus, Schreb., Saength. III. p. 554, t. 

155. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. GmeL I. 109. 
Lemur tarsier, Raffl., Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. 337. 
Tarsier, Buffon. 

HAB. Sumatra, Banka, Borneo, Macassar, Salayer. 
A. From Banka. 


The Tarsier in its habits is nocturnal. It is mild, gentle, easily do- 
mesticated, and capable of attachment ; in confinement it allows itself 
to be handled and caressed. According to Dr. S. Muller, it lives in 
large damp forests on the tops of trees. Its food it differently indicated 
by writers. It appears to eat indiscriminately fruits and small animals. 
Although quite inoffensive, it is an object of detestation to the natives. 
Raffles states that the inhabitants of Sumatra have a superstitious 
dread of these animals, insomuch that if they happen to see one upon 
any tree near their ladangs, or forest rice-fields, they will immediately 
abandon them, and seek another spot ; otherwise they believe some 
misfortune will certainly befall them or their family. 

Genus LORIS, Geoffr., in Ann. du Mm. XIX. p. 163, 1. 

LEMUR, Schreb. et al. STENOPS, 77%. et al. 

27. LORIS GRACILIS, Geoff., loc. cit. Desm., Mamm. 181. 
Lemur tardigradus, Schreb., Saength. I. p. 134. 
Stenops gracilis, Van der Hoeven, Tydschrift, VIII. p. 344. 
LORIS, Buffon. 
HAB. Ceylon. 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


LEMUR, Linn, et al. 
28. GALEOPITHECUS VOLANS, Shaw, Zool. I. p. 116, 

fig. 38. 

Galeopithecus rufus, variegatus, undatus, marmoratus, and 
philippensis, appear to be mere varieties of the Galeo- 
pithecus volans of Shaw. 

Lemur volans, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. XII. , I. p. 45. Gmel. 
I. p. 45. 

Vespertilio admirablis,5ow^., Hist. Nat. Ind. Or. p. 68, c.fig. 

Cato-simius volans, Camelli. 

Flying Maucaco, Pennant. 

Colugo, Griff., Anim. Kingd. V. p. 286. 

GENDOO, of the natives of Java. 

KUBUNG, of the natives of Sumatra, Raffles, Linn. Trans. 
XIII. p. 248. 

KUBUNG or KURBONG, Cantor, Cat. of Malayan. Mamm.p.l . 


HAB. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Penang, Siam, Malayan Penin- 

In Java, the Galeopithecus is confined to particular districts, where 
it is met with chiefly on slightly-elevated hills, covered with a fertile 
soil, and abounding with young luxuriant trees, the branches of which 
afford it a safe concealment during the day. As the evening approaches, 
it leaves its retreat, and is seen in considerable numbers making ob- 
lique leaps from one tree to another ; it also discovers itself by a croak- 
ing, hoarse, disagreeable noise. The membrane or expansile skin, by 
which it is enabled to make oblique leaps, resembling that of the 
Flying Squirrel, is continued on each side from the neck to the fore- 
feet, thence to the hind-feet, again to the tip of the tail, and to the 
roots of the claws. If, unfortunately, an individual is forced from its 
usual abode, it advances by slight awkward leaps, until it meets with 
an object on which it can ascend by its claws. If surprised during the 
day in its concealment, it may easily be taken, as its habits are strictly 

The Galeopithecus lives entirely on young fruits and leaves ; those 
of the cocoa-nut tree and of the Bombax pentandrum are its favourite 
food ; and it commits great injury to the plantations of these, which 
surround the villages of the natives. 


PTEROPINA, Gray, Catal Mamm. Br. Mus. Sijst. 

List. XIX. 
Genus PTEROPUS, Brisson et al 

VESPERTILIONIS Species, Linn, et al. 

29. PTEROPUS EDULIS, Perm et Lesueur. Temm., Mo- 
nogr< I. p. 172. Cantor ', Cat. of Mamm. p. 14. 

Pteropus javanicus, Desmar., Mamm. p. 109. Horsfield, 

Zool. Research, in Java, with a figure. 
KALONG, of the natives of Java. 

KLUANG or KALTJWANG, of the Malays of Sumatra, and of 
the peninsula of Malacca. 

HAB. Java and other Islands of the Indian Archipelago. 
A. and B. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 
C. Finlayson, from Siam. 
Several skins. 


The Pteropus eduttsis extremely abundant in the lower parts of Java, 
and uniformly lives in society ; the more elevated districts are not visited 
by it. Numerous individuals select a large tree for their resort, and, 
suspending themselves with the claws of their posterior extremities to 
the naked branches, often in companies of several hundreds, afford to 
a stranger a very singular spectacle. They pass the greater portion of 
the day in sleep, hanging motionless. Ranged in succession with the 
head downwards, the membrane contracted about the body, and often 
in close contact, they have little resemblance to living beings, and by a 
person not accustomed to their economy, are readily mistaken for a 
part of the tree, or for a fruit of uncommon size suspended from its 
branches. Soon after sunset, they gradually quit their hold, and 
pursue their nocturnal flights in quest of food. They direct their 
course by an unerring instinct, to the forests, villages, and plantations, 
occasioning incalculable mischief, attacking and devouring indiscrimi- 
nately every kind of fruit, from the abundant and useful cocoa-nut 
which surrounds every dwelling of the meanest peasantry, to the rare 
and most delicate productions, which are cultivated with care by princes 
and chiefs of distinction. 

Mr. Marsden, in his History of Sumatra, p. 118, informs us " that 
he has observed very large flights of the Kaluwang, passing at a great 
height in the air, as if migrating from one country to another, and 
Captain Forrest notices their crossing the Straits of Sunda from Java 
Head to Mount Pugong ; they are also seen hanging by hundreds upon 

30. PTEROPUS EDWARD8II, Geoff. Ann. du Mm. XV. 
p. 92. 

Pteropus medius, Temm., Monog. I. p. 176. 

Pteropus Edwardsii, Temm. 1. c. II. p. 61. 

Pteropus medius, Sykes, Catal. of Mammalia observed in 

Dukhun, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1831. 

Pteropus Assamensis, McClelland, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1839. 
WURBAGOOL, of the Mahrattas, Sykes. 
HAB. Continental India. 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 
Several skins. 

Two Drawings in Dr. F. Buchanan (Hamilton's) Collection. 

Colonel Sykes informs us that " the only persons in Western India 

who eat these Bats are the native Portuguese , but I can personally tes- 


tify that their flesh is delicate and without disagreeable flavour. I have 
measured individuals with a greater length of body (fourteen inches and 
a half) than is given of the Pteropus javanicus by Dr. Horsfield." 

p. 179. 

HAB. New Holland. 

A. From Finlayson's Collection. 


PTEROPUS, Geoffroy, Temminck, et al. 


Pteropus aegyptiacus, Geoffr., Ann. du Mus. XV. p. 96. 
Pteropus Geoffroyi, Temm., Monogr. I. p. 197. 
HAB. Northern Africa. 

A. From Abyssinia, Sir W. Harris's Mission. 

Genus MACROGLOSSUS, Fred. Cuv., Mammif. 1822. 
PTEROPUS, Geoffr., Temm., Horsf., et al. 


Pteropus minimus, Geoffr., Ann. du Mus. XV. p. 97. 
Pteropus minimus, Temm., Monogr. I. p. 191, with a figure. 
Pteropus rostratus, Horsf., Zool. Research, with a figure. 
Macroglossus minimus, Gray, Mag. Zool. Bot. N. 12. 
LOWO-ASSU, or Dog-bat, of the Javanese. 
The French name, KIODOTE, appears to be a perversion of 
the name CHODOT, applied by the Javanese to several 
small Chiroptera. 

HAB. The whole of the Indian Archipelago, from Sumatra to 
the Moluccas ; not abundant. 
A. B. and C. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 
D. Finlayson, from Siam, with a lengthened nose, perhaps 

a distinct species. 

The Macroglossus minimus is far less abundant than the Pteropus 
edulis, but it still exists in sufficient numbers to commit serious injury 
among the plantations and fruit-trees. Like other Pteropi it feeds on 
fruits of every prescription, but particularly infests the various species of 
Eugenia, or jamboo, which are cultivated in gardens. During the day 
it remains suspended under branches of trees, or it retires under roofs 
of old houses and sheds. At night it sallies forth like other Pteropi. 


Genus CYNOPTERUS, Fred. Cuv., Dents du Mamm. 1825. 

PTEROPUS, Temm. et al. PACHYSOMA, Isid. Geoff., 1 829, et al. 


Pachysoma titthaecheilum, Muller, Over de Zoogd. van den 

Ind. Archip. p. 21. 

Pachysome mammilevre, Isid. Geoff. ,Dict. Class. XIV. p. 704. 
Pteropus titthsecheilus, Temm., Monogr. I. p. 198. 
CHODOT, of the natives of Java. 

HAS. Java, Sumatra, and other islands of the Indian Archi- 
pelago ; also Malacca. 

A. B. and C. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 
Several Specimens, not prepared, from Malacca. Pre- 
sented by William Griffith, Esq. 

35. CYNOPTERUS MARGINATUS, Hamilton (Bucha- 
nan) Sp. 

Vespertilio marginatus, Hamilton (Buchanan), fide Gray, 

Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 38. 

Pteropus marginatus, Geoffr., Ann. du Mus. XV. p. 97. 
Cynopterus marginatus, Less., Mamm. p. 115. 
HAB. Common throughout Continental India, Btyth, Journ. 
A. S. B. Has not been noticed in the Archipelago. 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

B. and C. Dried, from Continental India. 


Br. Mus. p. 38. 

Nearly allied to C. titthtscheilus. Neck and sides very bright 

rufous, Gray, I. cit. 

The two first species of Cynopterus above enumerated, although re- 
sembling each other in many particulars, are clearly distinguished by 
the following points. In the C. titth&cheilus, the nose, or rostrum, is 
comparatively short, thick, and abruptly terminated ; the nares are very 
tumid ; on the medial portion of the upper lip, opposite the incisors, 
are two very prominent warts divided by a groove, whence the name 
mammilevre ; and the general colour inclines to reddish brown. In the 
C. marginatus, the rostrum is more lengthened, the nostrils are less 
prominent, and the medial warts scarcely perceptible ; the eyes are 
farther removed from the nares. The general colour is more dusky, 
inclining to blackish brown. In both species the ears are surrounded 
with a white margin. Their geographical distribution is also different. 



PHYLLOSTOMINA, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. 8yst. 

List, XVIII. 
Genus MEGADERMA, Geoffr. et al. 


/%., Prod. 

37. MEGADERMA LYRA, Geoffr., Ann. du Mus. XV. 
p. 190. Desmar., Mamm. p. 124 

HAB. The Continent of India. Common throughout India, 
BlytTi, Journ. A. 8. Beng. XI. p. 255, XIII. p. 480. 

A. William Griffith's Collection from Afghanistan. 

B. and C. Dried, not set up. 

We are indebted to Mr. Edward Blyth, Curator of the Museum of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, for the following interesting and novel details 
of this species contained in a notice of the predatory and sanguivorous 
habits of the bats of the genus Megaderma, &c. (J. A. S.B.XI.p.255.) 

" Chancing, one evening, to observe a rather large bat enter an out- 
house, from which there was no other egress than by the doorway, I 
was fortunate in being able to procure a light, and thus proceed to the 
capture of the animal. Upon finding itself pursued, it took three or 
four turns round the apartment, when down dropped what at the 
moment I supposed to be its young, and which I deposited in my 
handkerchief. After a somewhat tedious chase, I then secured the 
object of my pursuit, which proved to be a fine pregnant female of 
Megaderma lyra. I then looked at the other bat which I had picked 
up, and to my considerable surprise, found it to be a small Vespertilio, 
nearly allied to the European V. pipistrellus, which is exceedingly 
abundant, not only here but apparently throughout India, being the 
same also, to all appearance, as a small species which my friend Dr. 
Cantor procured in Chusan. The individual now referred to was feeble 
from loss of blood, which it was evident the Megaderma had been suck- 
ing from a large and still bleeding wound under and behind the ear ; 
and the very obviously suctorial form of the mouth of the vampyre was 
of itself sufficient to hint the strong probability of such being the case. 
During the very short time that elapsed before I entered the outhouse, 
it did not appear that the depredator had once alighted ; but I am satis- 
fied that it sucked the vital current from its victim as it flew, having 
probably seized it on the wing, and that it was seeking a quiet nook 
where it might devour the body at leisure. I kept both animals 
wrapped separately in my handkerchief till the next morning, when, 


procuring a convenient cage, I first put in the Megaderma, and after 
observing it some time, I placed the other bat with it. No sooner was 
the latter perceived, than the other fastened on it with the ferocity of 
a tiger, again seizing it behind the ear, and made several efforts to fly 
off with it, but finding it must needs stay within the precincts of the 
cage, it soon hung by the hind-legs to one side of its prison, and after 
sucking its victim till no more blood was left, commenced devouring it, 
and soon left nothing but the head and some portions of the limbs. 
The voidings observed very shortly afterwards in its cage resembled 
clotted blood, which will explain the statement of Stedman and others, 
concerning masses of congealed blood being always observed near a 
patient who has been attacked by a South American vampyre. 

" Such then is the mode of subsistence of the Megaderma. The san- 
guivorous propensities of certain Bats inhabiting South America, have 
long been notorious, but the fact has not heretofore been observed in 
the Old World ; and the circumstance of one kind of Bat preying upon 
another is altogether new, though I think it not improbable that the 
same will be found to obtain (to a greater or less extent) among the 
larger species, if not throughout the whole extensive allied genus of Rhi- 
nolophus (or Horse-shoe Bats), which, like Megaderma, are peculiar to 
the eastern world." (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XI. pp. 255-6.) 


Vespertilio spasma, Linn., Syst. Nat. XII. , /. p. 47 ; ed. 

Gmel. I. p. 46. 
Megaderma spasma, Geoff., Ann. du Mus. XV. p. 195. 

Muller, over de Zoogd. v. d. Ind. Archip. p. 24. 

HAB. The Indian Archipelago. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

B. Dried. 

In M. lyra, the lobes of the ears are united to a considerable extent ; 
in M. spasma, the lobes are nearly distinct. 


A species, probably new, from Continental India, contributed by 
E. Blyth, Esq., on behalf of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. The lobes of 
the ears are partially united as in M. lyra. Fur above and below 
bluish-gray, uniform on both surfaces, very long and soft. The mem- 
brane along the sides of the abdomen without transverse lines. The 
lobes of the ears externally near the base, marked with regularly parallel 


RHINOLOPHINA, Gray, Cat Mamm. Br. Mus. 
Syst. List, XVIII. 

Genus RHINOLOPHUS, Geoffr. et al 

VESPERTILIONIS, Species, Linn, et al. 
Sub-Genus I. RHINOLOPHUS, Pr. s. d. 
t Prosthematis membrana superiore erecta lanceolata. 
Facial crest terminating above in a lance-shaped point. 

40. RHINOLOPHUS AFFINIS, Horsfield, Zool Ees. in 

Java, Illustrations, pi viii. A. B. figure of the head. 

Rhinolophus affinis, Temm., Monogr. II. p. 31. Mutter, 

over de Zoogd. van den Ind. Archip. p. 23. 
HAB. Java and Sumatra. 

A. HorsfielcTs Collection from Java. 

41. RHINOLOPHUS MINOR, Horsfield, Zool Research, in 

Java, Illustrations, pi. viii. C. D. figure of the head. 

Rhinolophus minor, Temm., Monogr. II. p. 35. Mutter, 
over de Zoogd. van den Ind. Archip. p. 23. 

HAB. Java, Sumatra, and Timor. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

42. RHINOLOPHUS ROUXII, Temm., Monogr. II. p.^Q. 

HAB. According to M. Temminck, this species is very gene- 
rally distributed through Continental India, being common 
in collections from Pondicherry and Calcutta. 
A. Presented by John Thomas Pearson, Esq. 
Allied to R. macrotis and subbadius of Hodgson* 


Colour above, dark brown with a slight shade of chestnut ; under- 
neath, brown with a sooty cast ; fur, very long, dense, and soft ; ears, 
distinct, with an additional rounded lobe below, measuring anteriorly 
nearly three-fourths of an inch ; point of the facial crest, moderately 
developed ; length from the tip of the nose to the root of the tail, three 
inches; tail, half an inch ; length of the forearm, two inches; expanse 
of the wings, eleven inches. Although allied to Mr. Hodgson's R. tra- 
gratus, possesses distinct characters. 
HAB. Darjiling. 

A. Presented by John Thomas Pearson, Esq. 



Sub-Genus HIPPOSIDEROS, Gray. 

ft Prosthematis membrana superiore transversa porrecta. 
Facial crest surmounted by a transverse membrane. 


Hipposideros diadema, Gray ? Cantor, Catalogue of Mam- 
malia inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 
Rhinolophus diadema, Geoff roy? Ann. du Mus. XX. p. 263. 

A very perfect specimen of a large Rinolophe, from the Malayan 
Peninsula has been presented to the Museum by Dr. Cantor, of which 
he gives the following details in the catalogue above mentioned, p. 11. 

" The Malayan individuals are, according to age and sex, of a more 
or less intense reddish or greyish brown above, under certain lights 
assuming a golden lustre, owing to the whitish points of the hairs ; 
beneath, they are of a lighter greyish-brown. In the adult male, the 
livid flesh-coloured nasal appendage is larger, more complicated, and 
somewhat different from the figure given by Geoffrey St. Hilaire 
(Ann. du Museum, XX. pi. 5 and 6), which resembles the female in 
the simpler appendage in the absence of the frontal pore. The latter 
organ in the adult male is large, secreting a yellowish-brown oily 

fluid The size of the Malayan individuals appears to exceed 

those from Timor." The specimen sent by Dr. Cantor agrees gene- 
rally with the R. diadema, described by M. Geoffroy, in colour, outline 
of membrane, and form of the ears, but it is one-third larger, the body 
and tail together measuring seven inches, and the flying membrane 
twenty- two inches. The comparison of fresh specimens will probably 
show that Dr. Cantor's species is entitled to a distinct rank ; this con- 
jecture is confirmed by distance of its locality from R. diadema, which 
hitherto has only been found in Timor. 


Horsf. Sp. 

Rhinolophus nobilis, Horsfield, Zool. Research., with a 
Figure and an Illustration, pi. viii. Fig. L. the head. 

Rhinolophus nobilis (Rhinolophe fameux) Temm., Monogr. 
II. p. 10. Figure of the animal, pi. xxviii. ; head, 
pi. xxix.; skull, pi. xxxii. fig. 1, 2, 3. Milller, over 
de Zoogd. von den Ind. Archip. p. 23. 

Hipposideros nobilis, Gray. Cantor, Catal. of Malayan 
Mammalia, p. 12. 


HAB. Java, Timor, and the Moluccas. 

A. and B. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 


TUS, Horsf. Sp. 

Rhinolophus larvatus, Horsjield, Zool. Research., with a 

figure of the entire animal, and of the head. 
Rhinolophus larvatus, Temm., Monogr. II. p. 22. Mutter, 

over de Zoogd. v. d. Ind. Archip. p. 23. 
Hipposideros larvatus, Gray, Cat. of Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 23. 
Journal of the As. Soc. of Beng. vol. XIII. p. 488. 
Mr. Blyth considers a specimen from Arracan as belong- 
ing to this species. 

HAB. Java and the Coast of Tenasserim, according to Mr. 
Blyth (J. A. S. B. XIII. p. 488). 
A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

RIS, Horsf. Sp. 

Rhinolophus vulgaris, Horsjield, Zool. Research., with a 

figure of the head. Illustrations, pi. viii. E. F. 
Hipposideros vulgaris, Gray, Mag. of Zool. andBot.II. 11. 

Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 23. Cantor, Cat. of Mamm. 

SfC. p. 13, exclus. syn. Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 

XIII. 488. 

Hab. Java. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

B. Dried. 


Elliot Sp. 

Rhinolophus murinus, Elliot, Catal. of Mammalia, #c. 

Madr. Jour, of Lit. and Science, vol. X. p. 99. 
Hipposideros murinus, Gray, Mag. of Zool. and Bot. II. 10. 

Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 23. Cantor, Cat. of Mamm. 

SfC.p. 13. 

Hab. Southern Mahratta country, Elliot. Penang and Nico- 
bar Islands, Cantor. 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


tft Sinu frontal! supra prosthematis membranam transversam. 
A glandular sinus above the frontal crest. 


Horsf. Sp. 

Rhinolophus insignis, Horsfield, ZooL Research., with a 

figure of the head. Illust. pi. viii.fig. I. K. 
Rhinolophus insignis, Temrn., Monogr. II. p. 14, with a 
figure of the head, pi. xxix. fig. 2. M'dller, over de 
Zoogd. v. d. Ind. Archip. p. 23. 
Rhinolophus deformis, Horsf., ZooL Research., with a figure 

of the head. Illust. pi. viii. G. H. 
Lowo AWOO, of the Javanese. 
HAB. Java and the neighbouring islets. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

B. Dried. 

I cannot agree with the opinion expressed by M. Temminck (Mo- 
nogr. II. p. 15), that the R. vulgaris above described is the female of 
this species. M. Fischer, in the " Synops. Mammal.," enumerates the 
R. insignis as a synonym of R. speoris, Geoffr., which determination is 
not ki accordance with the authors on Vespertilionidse above cited. See 
Blyth, J. A. S. B. XIII. p. 489. 

VESPERTILIONINA, Gray, Cat. Mamm, Br. Mus. 
Syst. List, XIX. 

Genus NYCTERIS, Geoff. 

50. NYCTERIS JA VANICA, Geoffr., Ann. du Mus. p. 20, 

t.\. Desmar.,Mamm.p.'I29. Midler, Verhandl. over Nat. 
Gesch. Tafel der Zoogdieren. 

Petalia javanica, Gray, Mag. Zool. and Bot. II. 12. 
HAB. Java. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

B. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. This 

latter, Mr. Blyth states, may possibly be a distinct 

Genus LASIURUS, Rafin,, Gray. 


HAB. Darjiling. 


A very perfect specimen of an Indian species of Lasiurus, from Dar- 
jiling has been presented to the Company's Museum by Dr. J. T. 
Pearson. As to its generic identity with the American species of this 
genus, I have the opinion of Mr. J. E. Gray, of the British Museum, 
who has examined the specimen. 

The entire length of Lasiurus Pearsonii is four inches and an half, of 
which the tail constitutes one inch and an half; the anti-brachium mea- 
sures two inches and a quarter, and the expanded membrane nearly 
fourteen inches. Fur on the body above, very soft, silky, and rather 
long. Colour on the head, neck, and shoulders, brownish-gray with a 
ferruginous cast, variegated with whitish hairs ; the rest of the body 
above, with the base of the membrane, the thighs, and the inter- 
femoral membrane, have a deep bay or reddish-brown hue, and delicate 
hairs of the same colour are scattered over the membrane, and project 
from its border. The body underneath is thickly covered with a grey 
fur, which is paler on the breast and throat. The interfemoral mem- 
brane is marked with regularly parallel transverse lines. The ears are 
more rounded than in the American species. The tragus is lanceolate, 
and extends to the middle of the lobe. The flying membrane is brown. 

Genus NYCTICEJUS, Rafinesque, Temminck, et al 

VESPERTILIO, Horsf. et al. 
SCOTOPHILUS, Gray, Cantor. 

Monogr. II. p. 149, pi. xlmi.fig. 3 ; entire animal^ figs. 4, 5, 
6 ; the head in different views. Mutter, Verhandl. over Nat 
Gesch. Tafel der Zoogdieren. 

Vespertilio Temminckii, Horsf., Zool. Researches. 
HAB. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Banda, and Timor. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

B. Dried specimen. 

C. and D. Presented by J. McClelland, Esq. ; locality not 


This species is very abundant, collecting, by companies of hundreds, 
in trunks and hollows of trees, and feeding chiefly on white ants. 


Scolophilus Temminckii, Gray, Mag. Zool. and Bot.II. 15. 


A. and B. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal ; 
the former bright rufous beneath, the latter yellow- 

C. Presented by Dr. H. Falconer ; pale. 

D. E. F. dried specimens. From the same donor. 

This species represents the former on the continent of India, being 
fully one-third larger. The colour varies considerably in different in- 
dividuals, being dark brown above, in different shades, and rufous or 
yellowish underneath. It is very abundant in many parts of Conti- 
nental India. 

HAB. Central India. 

A. dried specimen. Presented by the Asiatic Society of 


A new species, indicated by Mr. Blyth. Of the size of N. Tem- 
minckii, clearly characterized by an uniform isabellina tint both above 
and underneath. 


Scotophilus Temminckii, Cantor, CataL of Mammalia of 

the Malayan Peninsula, &c. p. 15. 
KLAWAH, of the Malays. 

HAB. Singapore, Penang, Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 

A. Presented by Dr. Cantor. 

B. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

The characteristic feature of this species is an uniform deep chestnut 
colour of the body, above and beneath ; the membrane also is dark- 
coloured, inclining to black, and the head is blackish. Size of N. Tem- 
minckii. There is a considerable family resemblance between the four 
species of Nycticejus here enumerated, but the peculiarities respectively 
are sufficiently strong to entitle each to a specific rank. 

Genus VESPERTILIO, Linn, et al 

56. VESPERTILIO ADVERSUS, Horsfield, Zool Re- 

Vespertilio adversus, Horsf. Temm., Monogr. II. p. 221. 
Miiller, Verhandl over Nat. Gesch. Tafel der Zoog- 


HAB. Java. 

A. HorsfielcTs Collection from Java. 


Vespertilio Hardwickii, Temm., Monograph. II. p. 222. 
Mutter, Verhandl. over Nat. Gesch. Tafel der Zoog- 

HAB. Java. Also Sumatra, Temminck. 
A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

58. VESPERTILIO TRALATITIUS, Horsfield, Zool. Re- 

Vespertilio tralatitius, Horsf. Temm., Monogr. II. p. 228. 
Mailer, Verhandl. over Nat. Gesch. Tafel der Zoog- 
dieren. Cantor, Catal. of Malayan Mammalia, p. 15. 
LOWO-MANIR, of the Javanese. 
HAB. Java and Sumatra. 

A. Horsfield's Collection. 

This species has much of the habit of European Vespertiliones. 
Hence the specific name, not trilatitus. 

59. VESPERTILIO IMBRICATUS, Horsfield, Zool. Re- 

Vespertilio imbricatus, Horsf. Temm., Monogr. II. p. 216. 
Muller, Verhandl. over Nat. Gesch. Tafel der Zoog- 

LOWO-LESSER, of the Javanese. 
HAB. Java. 

A. Horsfield's Collection. 


HAB. Continental India. 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


HAB. Continental India. 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


HAB. Continental India. 

A. Calcutta. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

63. VESPERTILIO - - ? 
HAB. Continental India. 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


HAB. Continental India. 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

HAB. Darjiling. 

A. Presented by John Thomas Pearson, Esq. 
Several of the species above enumerated appear to be indicated but 
not described in Hodgson's classified " Catalogue of Mammals of 
Nepal." (Calc. Journ. N. H. vol. IV. p. 284, &c.) 

Sub-Genus KIRIVOULA, Gray, Ann. N. H. X. p. 258. 

Spicil 3, p. 7. 

Vespertilio kirivoula, Bodd., Elench. Anim.p. 70. 1785. 
Kirivoula picta, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus, 27. Cantor, 

Catal.p. 15. 

Vespertilio pictus, Horsf., Zool. Research. 
LOWO-KEMBANG, of the natives of Java. 
KIRIVOULA, of the natives of Ceylon : this name has been 
appropriated to the species by Boddaert, probably 
after the date of Pallas's description, 7. cit. 
HAB. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Penang. 

A. B. C. Horsfield's Collection from Java ; besides many 
dried specimens. 

son, Catal. of Mammalia from Nepal. 

Kirivoula formosa, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. 27. Cat. 

of Hodgs. Coll. p. 4. 
Vespertilio formosa, Hodgs. 1. cit. 
HAB. Northern India. 

A. Dried. Presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 


This species represents the V. pictus in continental India. It is 
somewhat larger in size, and generally of a lighter colour ; underneath, 
pale yellow. 

NOCTILIONINA, Gray, Catal Mamm. Br. Mus. 

Syst. List, XI X^ 
Genus TAPHOZOUS, Geoff. 



Taphozous longimanus, Hardw., Titans. Linn. Soc. XIV. 
p. 525, t. 17. Temm., Monogr. II. 289. Gray, Cat. 
Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 33. Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. XIII. 
p. 490. 

HAB. Continental India ; abundant in many localities. 
A. B. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
Several dried specimens from different localities. 

General Hardwicke states that this Bat is common in Calcutta in 
dark store-rooms ; at night it frequents habitations, attracted by the 
light of candles and numerous insects. In his notices of various Mam- 
malia (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XIII. p. 490), Mr. H. Blyth informs us, 
" That he recently obtained thirteen individuals alive (of which two 
only were males) from the interval between a pillar and the wall against 
which it was placed. These Bats clung with perfect facility to the 
smooth mahogany back of a cage into which they were put, hitching 
their claws in the minute pores of the wood, and creeping upon it in a 
manner that was surprising." 

II. p. 287, pi. LX.yy. 8, 9, head and cranium. 

HAB. Western coast of Peninsular India. Caves of Canara. 
It bas also been noticed rarely in the district of Bantam, 
in Java, in tbe caverns inhabited by the esculent swallow. 

A. From the Caves of Canara. Presented by Dr. Wight, 
of the Madras Medical Service. 

Genus CHEIROMELES, Horsfield, Zool Research. 
DYSOPES, Temminck. 
MOLOSSUS, Fischer et al. 



70. CHEIROMELES TORQUATUS, Horsfield, Zool Re- 
search., with figures of the upper and loiver side, and details 
of dentition. 

Molossus torquatus, Fischer, Synops. Mamm. p. 90. 
Dysopes cheiropus, Temm., Monogr. I. p. 218, fyc. 
Cheiropus torquatus (?), Miiller , Verhandl. over Nat. Gesch. 

Tafel der Zoogdieren. 

A. Discovered by Mr. George Finlayson, while attached 

to the mission of John Crawfurd, Esq., to Siam and 

Cochin China. The precise locality is not known. 

According to Dr. S. Miiller, this species, or one nearly allied to it, has 

been found in Java, Sumatra, and Borneo. He adds to his account, that 

it is distinguished from the rest of the family not only by its disgusting 

exterior, and the nakedness of its body, but chiefly by a most offensive 

and nauseous odour which emanates from it. This odour is caused by 

a soft greasy substance, secreted in a small sinus, situate in a transverse 

fold of the skin, above the thorax. It is so pungent and offensive, that 

M. Van Oort, while employed in making a drawing of an individual, 

was afflicted with headach and nausea so severe, that he could only 

with difficulty complete his task. 

Genus NYCTINOMUS, Geoffr. et al. 

DYSOPES et MOLOSSUS, Temm. et al. 
VESPERTILIONIS Spec., Linn, et al. 

71. NYCTINOMUS TENUIS, Horsf., Zool Research, 

Dysopes tenuis, Temm., Monogr. I. p. 228, with a figure 
pi. xix. bis. Miiller, Verhandl. over Nat. Gesch. Ta- 
fel der Zoogdieren. 
Molussus tenuis, Lesson, Mamm. Fischer, Synops. Mamm. 

p. 92. 

LOWO-CHURUT, of the Javanese. 
HAB. Java. Also Sumatra and Borneo, Miiller. 
A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 
Several dried specimens. 

Allied toN.plicatns, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 23, the Vesper- 
tilio plicatus of Buchanan (Linn. Trans. V. t. 13). Nyctinomus dila- 
tatus, Horsf. (Zool. Research.), appears to be a variety of this species. 

The Nyctinomi live during the day in hollow trees and rocky 
caverns. I found them very abundant in the hills of Prowoto, and 


their pursuit afforded me occasional amusement. Soon after sunset 
they directed their flight in quick succession along the hedge which 
surrounded a village in which I had my abode, and I readily caught 
them with a large net. 

Dr. S. Miiller relates the following incident to show the vast 
numbers in which the species of Nyctinomus (Dysopes) occasionally 
congregate. " During my researches near the mountain Gede, in 
Java, some natives who were at work in a neighbouring rice plan- 
tation called my attention to a hissing noise, near a tall Rasamala 
tree, Liquidambar altingiana, Blum. The fissure from which it pro- 
ceeded, being at a considerable distance from the ground, and the tree 
of a gigantic size, it was almost impossible to reach it by climbing ; 
the tree was therefore cut down, when, to my astonishment, the interior 
of the fissure, although of considerable extent, was so completely covered 
by individuals of the Nyctinomus (Dysopes) dilatatus, that not the 
smallest spot remained unoccupied." 

Order II. FERjE. 
Fam. FELID.E. 

A. SANGUINABIA, Gray, Cat. Mamm. 

Br. Mus. Syst. List, XIX. 
a. Felina. 

Genus FELIS, Linn, et al. 
72. FELIS TIGRIS, Linn. 

Tigris regalis, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 40. 
The Royal Tiger, Bennett, Tower Menag. with a Jig. 25. 
BAGH, Sanskrit (pronounced Baugh). 
PUTTITE WAGH, or Striped Tiger, of the Mahrattas, 

Colonel Sykes. 

WAHAG, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Madras Journ. X. 104. 
RIMAU or HARIMAU, of the natives of Sumatra. 
MACHAN, of the natives of Java. 

HAB. Southern India, from the Indus to the south-east 
boundary of China. It is also found in Java and Su- 
matra, and probably in Borneo ; but according to M. 
Temminck, Hindustan is its true birth-place. (Monogr. 
I. p. 89.) 
A. From Dukhun. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 


In the catalogue of Mammalia observed in Dukhun, Colonel Sykes 
states (p. 8), " Royal Tigers are so numerous in the province of Khan- 
deish, that 1,032 were killed from the .years 1825 to 1829 inclusive, as 
appears by official returns handed to me." They are equally nume- 
rous and destructive on the West coast of Sumatra, and in many parts 
of Java. In the " Tower Menagerie," p. 25 to 34, Mr. J. E. Bennett 
gives many interesting details of the history and habits of the Royal 
Tiger. The peculiarities of the Tiger, as observed in Java, are de^ 
tailed by Dr. S, Miiller (Over de Zoogdieren van den Ind. Archip. 
p. 52, &c.) f 

Walter Elliot, Esq., in the catalogue of Mammalia in the Southern 
Mahratta country, gives the following particulars relative to the habits 
of the Tiger (Madras Journ. of Literature and Science, vol. X. p. 105). 
" The female has from two to four young, and does not breed at any 
particular season. Their chief prey is cattle, but they also catch the, 
wild hog, the sambar* and more rarely the spotted deer.-\ It is natu- 
rally a cowardly animal, and always retreats from opposition until 
wounded or provoked. Several instances came to notice of its being 
compelled to relinquish its prey, by the cattle in a body driving it off. 
In one case, an official report was made of a herd of buffaloes rushing 
on a tiger that had seized the herd-boy, and forcing it to drop him. 
Its retiring from the wild dog has already been adverted to. Though 
the wild hog often becomes its prey, it sometimes falls a victim to the 
successful resistance of the wild boar. I once found a full-grown tiger 
newly killed, evidently by the rip of a boar's tusk ; and two similar 
instances were related to me by gentlemen who had witnessed them, 
one of a tiger, the other of a panther. It is generally believed that a 
tiger always kills his own food, and will not eat carrion. I met with 
one instance of a tigress and two full-grown cubs devouring a bullock 
that had died of disease. I saw the carcass in the evening, and next 
day, on the report of tigers having been heard in the night, I followed 
their track, and found they had dragged the dead animal into the centre 
of a corn-field, and picked the bones quite clean ; after which, they 
found a buffalo, killed it, and eat only a small portion of it. Another 
instance was related in a letter from a celebrated sportsman in Kan- 
deish, who having killed a tigress, on his return to his tents, sent a pad 
elephant to bring it home. The messenger returned, reporting that on 
his arrival he found her alive. They went out next morning to the 

Rasa Hippelaphus. f Axis maculata. 


spot, and discovered that she had been dragged into a ravine by another 
tiger, and half the carcass devoured. They found him close by, and 
killed him also. 

" The Bheels in Kandeish say, that in the monsoon, when food is 
scarce, the tiger feeds on frogs ; and an instance occurred some years 
ago in that province of one being killed in a state of extreme emacia- 
tion, from a porcupine's quill that had passed through his gullet, and 
prevented his swallowing, and which had probably been planted there 
in his attempts to make one of these animals his prey. Many super- 
stitious ideas prevail among the natives regarding the tiger. They 
imagine that an additional lobe is added to his liver every year ; that 
his flesh possesses many medicinal qualities ; that his claws, arranged 
together so as to form a circle, and hung round a child's neck, pre- 
serve it from the effect of the evil eye ; that the whiskers constitute a 
deadly poison, which for this reason are carefully burnt off, the instant 
the animal is killed. Several of the lower castes eat his flesh." 

73. FELIS LEOPARDUS, Schreb., Saength. p. 387. 

Felis leopardus, Temm., Monogr. J. p. 92. Linn., Syst. 
Nat. ed. Gmel. I. p. 77. Sykes, Cat. of Mamm. from 
Dukhun, p. 8. Fischer, Syn. Mamm. p. 199. 

CHEETA, literally the painted animal, of the Mahrattaa, who 
apply the same name to the Hunting Leopard. 

HARIMAU BINTANG, of the Malays of the peninsula of Ma- 
lacca, Cantor. 

HAD. Many parts of Africa, according to M. Temminck. 
India generally, Malayan peninsula ; but according to 
Dr. S. Muller has not been found in the Indian Archi- 

A. Specimen from Dukhun. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

M. Temminck, in his Monograph of the genus Felis, I. p. 92, states 
in detail the characters by which the Leopard is distinguished from the 
Panther. Colonel Sykes, who had opportunities of observing both 
species in their native localities, gives the peculiarities of the Leopard 
as follows : " It is a taller, longer, and slighter built animal than the 
next species, which I consider the Panther. It differs also in more of 
the ground colour being seen, and in the rose spots being much more 
broken. The natives of Dukhun consider the Leopard and the Panther 
next enumerated as distinct species. The Leopard is rare ; the Panther 


very abundant. The only specimen of the Leopard which I was enabled 
to obtain, has been presented to the Company's Museum." 

A black variety of this, as well as of the next species, is occa- 
sionally met with. Pennant, in his History of Quadrupeds, describes 
and figures an individual which was brought to England by Warren 

Panthere noire, De la Mtiheric, in Journ. de Phys. XXXII I. 
p. 45, t. 2. 

74. PEL IS PARDUS, Linn., Sijst. Nat. 12, p. 61. 

Felis pardus, Temm., Monogr. I. p. 99. Sykes, Catal. of 

Mamm. from Dukhun, p. 8. Fischer, Syn. Mamm. 

p. 200. Muller, over de Zoogdieren van den Indischen 

Archip.p. 29 and p. 52. 
The Panther. 

BEEBEEA BAUGH, of the Mahrattas, Col. Sykes. 
GOBBACHA, Dukhani, Walter Elliot, Esq., Cat. Mamm. 

Madras Journ. X. p. 106. 

natives of Java. 

HAB. Continental India. Dukhani, Colonel Sykes. The 
Southern Mahratta Country, W. Elliot, Esq. Java and 
Sumatra, Dr. S. Muller. 

A. From Dukhun. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

B. Horsfield/s Collection from Java. 

C. From Continental India. 

" This species," Colonel Sykes observes, "is so abundant that 472 
were killed from 1825 to 1829 inclusive, in the four collectorates of 
Dukhun. It differs from the Leopard in its smaller size, stouter make, 
darker ground colour, and in its crowded rose rings." 

Dr. S. Muller, in mentioning the habits which distinguish the Panther 
from the Leopard and the Tiger, states that the former is occasionally 
found, in solitary deserts, during the day, sleeping stretched across the 
fork of a large bough. Sir T. S. Raffles relates the same as the 
habit of the Rimau Dahan, or Felis macroscelis. 

Walter Elliot, Esq., in his Catalogue of the Mammalia in the 
Southern Mahratta country, indicates two varieties of Felis pardus, 
Linn., namely, the Honega of the Canarese, and Kerkal, Canarese, 


which is the Gorbacha, Dukhani, above mentioned. He states, " The 
strongest marked difference of character that I observed was in the 
skulls, that of the Honiga being longer and more pointed, with a 
ridge running along the occiput, and much developed, for the at- 
tachment of the muscles of the neck, while those of the Kerkal 
were rounder, and the bony ridge was wanting. If this charac- 
ter is universal and permanent, it will afford a good ground of 

75. (Var. ]3.) FELIS MEL AS, Peron et Lesueur. (Dark 

Felis melas, Desmar., Mamm. p. 223. 
MACHAN KOOMBANG, of the Javanese. 
HARIMAU KUMBANG, of the natives of Sumatra, and of the 
Malays of the Peninsula, Dr. Cantor. 

A. HorsfieLTs Collection from Java. 

This is now uniformly admitted to be a black variety of the Felis 
pardus. M. Temminck states (Monogr. I. p. 97), on the authority of 
Professor Reinwardt and M. Kuhl, that both the common and black 
Panther are in Java occasionally found in the same den. 

Sub-genus LEOPARDTJS, Gray. 


Felis pardochrous, Hodgs., Catal. of Mamm. of Nepal. Cal- 
cutta Journ. Nat. Hist. IV. p. 286. 

Felis nipalensis, Hodgs., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. I. p. 341, 
X. p. 908, nee non bengalensis. Not Vig. and Horsf. 

Leopardus Ellioti, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. X. p. 260. Cat. 

Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 44. Cat. Hodgs. Coll. p. 6. 
HAB. Nepal and Tibet. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

B. A skin. From the same. 


Ami. Nat. Hist. X.p. 260. 

HAB. Darjiling. 

A. Presented by J. T. Pearson, Esq. 

B. Presented by J. McClelland, Esq. 



Diet. d'Hist. Nat. VI. p. 115. Mamm. p. 229. 

Felis javanensis, Horsf. t ZooL Res., with a figure. App. to 

Life of Sir T. S. Raffles, p. 636. 

Leopardus javanensis, Gray, Cat. of Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 43. 
Felis undata, Desm. (Var. a.) Fischer, Syn. Mam. p. 205. 
Felis minuta, Temm., Monogr. I. p. 132. Miiller, over de 

Zoogdieren, $c. p. 54. 
Felis diardi, Griffith. Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 43. 

(Var. a.) Felis , WAGATI, of the Mahratta Ghats, 

Elliot, Mamm. of Southern Mahratta country. 
KUWUK, of the natives of Java. 

HAB. Java. According to Dr. S. Miiller, also Sumatra and 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

The Felis javanensis, or Kuwuk, is found in large forests in every 
part of Java. It forms a retreat in hollow trees, where it remains con- 
cealed during the day ; at night it ranges about in quest of food, and 
often visits the villages at the skirts of the forests, committing depreda- 
tions among the hen-roosts. The natives ascribe to it an uncommon 
sagacity, asserting, that in order to approach the fowls unsuspected, 
and to surprise them, it imitates their voice. It feeds chiefly on fowls, 
birds, and small quadrupeds, but in case of necessity, it also devours 

This animal is perfectly untameable ; its natural fierceness is never 
subdued by confinement. (Horsfield, Zool. Research.) 



Felis sumatrana, Horsf., Zool. Research., with a figure. 

App. to Life of Sir T. S. Raffles, p. 636. 
Leopardus sumatranus, Gray, Cat.ofMamm.Br.Mus.pA3. 
Felis minuta, Temm., Monogr. I. p. 133. Miiller, over de 

Zoogdieren, 8fC. p. 54. 

Felis undata, Desm. (Var. /3.) Fischer, Syn. Mam. p. 205. 
RIMAU BULU, of the Malays. 

HAB. Sumatra. 

A. Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 



Felis bengalensis, Desm., Mamm. Suppl.p. 541. Fischer, 

Syn. Mamm. p. 205. 

Leopardus inconspicuus, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br.Mus.pA4. 
Bengal cat, Penn., Quadr. I. p. 272. 
BAN-BIRAL and KHUPYA-BAGH, of the Bengalese. 
HAB. Bengal. 

A. Presented by General T. Hardwicke. 

B. A drawing from the Collection of Dr. F. (Buchanan) 



et Geoffr. Sylces, Gated, of Mamm. from Dukhun, p. 9. 

Felis bengalensis, Desm. Fischer, Syn. Mamm. p. 205. 
Leopardus inconspiauus, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. 1837. 
Felis nipalensis, Vig. and H., Zool. Journ. IV. p. 388. 

Tab. Suppl. xxxix ? 

LHAN RAHN MANJUR, or lesser wild cat, of the Mahrattas, 

HAB. Dukhun ; and other parts of India. 
A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

On the habits of this species, Colonel Sykes states : " This animal is a 
pest, from the damage it does in poultry-yards in Dukhun. It inhabits 
the grass roofs of houses, and thick hedges, and obscure places of our 
cantonments, shunning the face of man and the light, but is constantly 
on the alert at night. The sexes resemble each other in colour, marks, 
and size." 


Felis murmensis, Hodgs., Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 10; 

1834, p. 97. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. X. p. 908. Calc. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. IV. 286. Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br.Mus. 

p. 41. Cat. Hodgs. Coll. p. 5. 
The MURMI, Cat. Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. B. I. p. 341. 

HAB. Nepal ; central hilly regions. 
A. ^Presented by Dr. N. Wallich. 


Felis viverrinus, Bennett, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1833, p. 68. 


Leopardus viverrinus, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 43. 
Hodgs., Pr. Z. S. 1834, p. 93. 

Felis viverriceps, Hodgs., Journ. A. Soc. B. V. p. 232. 
Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. IV. p. 286. A figure in Gray 
and Hardwicke's Illustr. of Ind. Zool. vol. II. fig. 4. 

Felis celidogaster, Temm., Monogr. I. p. 140. Gray, Cat. 
Hodgson's Coll. p. 6. (The locality of the specimen 
described, which was purchased at the sale of Bullock's 
Museum in London, is very doubtful.) 
HAB. Open lower regions of Nepal and Tarai. 
A. PreRented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Sub- Genus (LYNX) Auctor. 

LYNCUS, Gray and Hodgson. 
CHAUS, Gray. 

84. FELIS (L YNX) CHA US, Guldenst. Sp. 

Felis chaus, Guldenst., Nov. Comm. Petr. XX. p. 483, T. 14. 

Temm., Monogr. I. 121. Fischer, Syn. Mamm. p. 209. 

Linn. Syn. Nat. ed. GmeL, I. 82. Desmar., Mamm. 

p. 226. Rupp., Zool. Atl.p. 13, t. 4, o. Sykes, Cat. 

Dukh. Mamm. p. 9. 
Chaus lybicus, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 45. Cat. 

Hodgs. Coll. p. 7. 
Felis kutas, Pearson. 

(Var. a.) Lynchus erythrotus, Hodgs., Cat. Mamm. 
Journ. A. Soc. B. X. p. 908. 

(Var. /3.) Felis affinis, Gray and Hardw. Illust. Ind. 

Zool. I. pi. 3. 

Chaus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. I. 373. 
MOTA RAHN MANJUR, or lesser wild cat, of the Mahrattas, 

Col. Sykes. -Jfin^, OLA^- G^ctsKs 

HAB. Egypt, the Caspian, Persia, India. 

A. From Duklmn. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

B. From Madras. 

C. and D. (Var. a.) From Griffiths' and Hodgson's Col- 


E. Drawing from Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton. 

F. Drawing of var. a. with spotted abdomen. From the 



" This species," Colonel Sykes remarks, " has a very extended geo- 
graphical range, being found in Egypt, on the Caspian, in Persia, at 
Bangalore, and in Dukhun. It frequents bushy moist situations. The 
only addition I can give to the published descriptions of it is, that the 
irides are of a bright reddish light yellow." 

Several of the smaller species of Felis above enumerated, have a very 
close family resemblance, and zoological writers are not agreed as to 
their specific distinctions. This remark applies, in the first instance, to 
the Felis javanensis of Cuvier and Desmarest, and the Felis sumatrana 
of Horsfield, which M. Temminck (Monogr. I. p. 133) unites (with 
indications of several other small species) under his Felis minuta, a name 
which doubtless may combine several species of the genus, without 
clearly indicating their respective distinctions, and in the second place, 
to Felis bengalensis, Desmarest, Felis torquata, Fred. Cuv., and Felis 
(Leopardus} inconspicuus, Gray, the characters of which are by no 
means satisfactorily defined ; further comparisons of individuals from 
different localities are therefore required to determine the respective 
rank of the species here enumerated. 

Genus PRIONODON, Horsfield, Hodgson, et al. 
FELIS, Sect. II. 

PJRIONODONTID.E, Horsfield, Zoological Researches in Java, 

LINSANG, Mutter, Gray. 

85. PRIONODON GRACILIS, Vigors and Horsfield. Ap- 
pendix to Life of Sir T. S. Raffles, 1830. Cantor, Catalogue 
of Mammalia inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula. 

Viverra ? linsang, Hardwicke, Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. 

p. 235, tab. 24. 

Viverra gracilis, Desmar., Mamm. Suppl. p. 539. 
Linsang gracilis, Midler, Over de Zoogdieren van den In- 
dischen Archipel. p. 28. Gray, Mamm. in Br. Mus. 
p. 48. 
DELUNDUNG, of the inhabitants of the eastern extremity of 

MACHAN TJONGKOK, of the Sunda or Western Javanese. 

HAS. Java, Sumatra, Siam, and the Peninsula of Malacca. 
A rare animal. 

I discovered the Delundung during the early period of my researches 


in the district of Blambatigan, situated at the eastern extremity of the 
island of Java. It inhabits the extensive forests, which, with the ex- 
ception of the capital of Banyuwangi, and a few small villages, cover 
this district, but it is very seldom captured. Of its habits, the natives 
could give me but little information. This deficiency is in part supplied 
by Dr. Cantor, who obtained an individual during his researches in the 
Malayan Peninsula, respecting which he states : 

Mr. Rappa, for many years a dealer in objects of natural history at 
Malacca, who previously had been supplied with a figure and description 
of Prionodon gracilis, reported in a memorandum accompanying the 
specimen that it had been captured in the jungle at some distance from 
Malacca. It was unknown to himself and to the natives. At first the 
animal was fierce and impatient of confinement, but by degrees it 
became very gentle and playful, and when subsequently suffered to 
leave the cage, it went in search of sparrows and other small birds, 
displaying great dexterity and unerring aim in stealthily leaping upon 
them. Fruit of every description it refused. 

Dr. S. Miiller, in the work above cited, informs us, in confirmation of 
the preceding remarks, that " the Prionodon is one of the rarest mam- 
malia of India, he having, during the period of his researches in the Ar- 
chipelago, obtained only two individuals, one of which was captured at 
an elevation of about 4,000 feet above the ocean, on the mountain Pan- 
gorango, situated south of Batavia. The other was from the district 
Indrapura, in Sumatra. In its habits this small but very bold and rapa- 
cious quadruped resembles the Herpestes and Viverrse, while its form, 
short and close fur, and its colour, shows an affinity to the Gats : it 
may therefore be considered intermediate, between Felis and Viverra." 

86. PRIONODON PARDICOLOR, Hodgson, Calcutta 
Journal of Nat. Hist. II. p. 57. Journ. A. 8. Beng. 
X. p. 909. 

Linsang pardicolor, Gray, Mamm. in Br. Mus. p. 49. 

Catal. of Hodgson s Coll. p. S. 
HAB. Sikim and Nepal, near the Himalayas. 
A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

In the second volume of the " Calcutta Journal of Natural History," 
1842, p. 57, &c., Mr. Hodgson gives the following copious details of 
this new species of Prionodon. " The teeth answer exactly to Dr. Hors- 
field's formula of Prionodon, whilst the feet are most completely feline, 
with the requisite exception of the fifth posterior digit, which is here 


present, though wanting in Felis. These are the essential marks of 
the genus Prionodon, and are found in our animal, as in the generic 
type, united with a vermiform structure and inferior size, such as are 
seen in the lesser civet cats of India, or that form, between which and 
the true cats, the Prionodons take their place. 

" Our little animal further approaches the cats and the type of Prio- 
nodon by its soft glossy fur, which is closer and finer than in any species 
of civet. Head, elongate-conic, compressed, viverrine, with the eyes 
placed at equal distance between the nose and the anteal base of the 
ear ; muzzle, or nude extremity of the nose, small, rounded, distinct, 
slightly grooved above and in front, and having the nares opened anteally 
and laterally ; lips, adpressed, and furnished with very long but rather 
soft mustachios ; smaller tufts above the eye and on the cheek, none on 
the chin ; ears, fully developed, placed high up, ovoid, rounded at the 
tips ; the helix considerably attached to the scull anteriorly, and fur- 
nished posteriorly with a simple fissure ; softly furred behind and on 
the margin interiorly ; the rest of the interior nude, and hid by 
the longer hair springing from the fore part of the helix ; head and 
body, both considerably elongated and slender ; limbs, short, fine, 
feline, but the thumbs rather nearer to the other digits than in 
Felis, and a corresponding digit to the hinder extremities ; talons, 
very acute, and entirely sheathed and concealed; tail, equal to the 
body and neck, perfectly cylindric, and furred like the rest of the 
animal's skin. 

" ' Anal pouch/ very apparently present, but the exact character of 
it not determinable ; tongue, aculeated backwards. The colours of the 
animal are very rich and beautiful, resembling closely, and no way 
yielding in beauty to those of the leopard, the ground being an uniform 
rich pardine fulvous, and the marks jet black. The marks too are 
almost wholly rounded as in the leopard ; but they are full or entire, 
that is, have not open centres ; and upon the neck (superior) they take 
that linear character which is nowhere seen in the leopard. Lips, chin, 
inferior surface of head, neck, and body, together with the toes, imma- 
culate ; bridge of nose and superior surface of head, mixed with dusky 
but no distinct marks ; a vague spot or two on the cheeks ; ears, out- 
side black, inside pale ; immediately behind them arise two unbroken 
lines proceeding to a little beyond the shoulders, and two more below 
these, proceeding brokenly to them only ; rest of the upper and lateral 
surfaces of the body covered with large round entire black marks, of 
which six or seven may be counted longitudinally from the shoulders 
to the base of the tail, and eight transversely, those nearest the dorsal 


ridge being the largest, and the others gradually lessening as you 
descend the flanks and limbs, the latter of which, outside, are spotted 
to the base of the digits ; tail, banded with sixteen or seventeen nearly 
equal and perfect rings of alternate black and fulvous, the last ring 
being vague with mixed hues, and dusky tip to the tail, and the dark 
caudal rings upon the whole the larger ; mustachios, dark ; nude skin 
of nose and pads of the feet of a fine fleshy pink hue. So far as can 
be judged by the skins, the dimensions agree most closely with those 
of Horsfield's type, or P. gracilis, being about sixteen inches long, and 
thirteen to fourteen more for the tail, with a mean height of about six 
inches. The animals are said to have the manners of cats, to spring 
and climb with great power, to prey on small mammals and birds, and 
to frequent trees much in search of the former, as well as for shelter. 
The following specific character may serve to mark our animal : Prio- 
nodon, with rich pardine hues, or rich orange buff spotted with black ; 
the neck above, with irregular lines ; the body above and laterally, with 
large entire round marks, eight in transverse and seven in longitudinal 
series, diminishing in size from the dorsal ridge, and extending outside 
the limbs to the digits ; below, entirely immaculate ; tail, with eight or 
nine nearly equal and perfect rings of each of the hues of the body, or 
black or ruddy yellow. Habitat, the Sub-Himalayan mountains ; not 
known in the plains." 

B. NECROPH.EGA, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. 
Mus. Syst. List, XX. 

c. Viverrina. 
Genus VIVERRA, Pr. S. D. 

VIVERILE Species, Linn. 

87. VIVERRA ZIBETHA, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. XII., I. 
p. 65 , ed. Gmel.j I. p. 89. Gray and Hardw., Illust. Ind. 
Zool. II. t. 5. 

Viverra undulata, Gray, Spic. Zool. t. 8. 

Viverra melanura, orientalis, and civettoides, Hodgs., Mam- 
malia of Nepal, J. A. S. Beng. X. p. 909, are cited by 
Gray in the Catalogue of Hodgson's Collection in Br. 
Mus. as varieties of V. zibetha. 

Zibet, Shaw, Gen. Zool. I. p. 398. 

KHATTAS, Sansk, Wilson's Dictionary. 

TANGGALONG, of the Malays, Marsden. 


HAB. Bengal, Nepal, the Malayan Peninsula, and Southern 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

B. Presented by John McClelland, Esq., B.M.S. 

This animal, as well as several other species of this and of the fol- 
lowing sub-genus (Viverricula), produces the well-known odoriferous 
perfume or drug called Civet by Europeans, Zabat by the continental 
Indians (Shakespear), and Jebat and Dedes by the Malays (Marsderi). 
It is a secretion formed in a large double glandular receptacle situated 
beneath the root of the tail. In many countries of the east, the Civet- 
cat is kept in cages for the supply of this drug, which is collected 
periodically at short intervals. Its habits in a wild state are predatory, 
sanguinary and ferocious in the highest degree, and they are but little 
changed in a state of confinement. 

A detailed account of the Civet-cat, or Kuttauss as it is termed in 
Bengal, is given by Williamson in the " Wild Sports of the East," from 
which the following is an extract. " This animal is, perhaps, the most 
obnoxious of all the wild tribes known in India. It is seldom, if ever, 
seen on a plain, except at night, when it leaves its haunts in quest of 
prey. The kuttauss is remarkably bold, sparing nothing which it can 
overcome, and frequently killing, as it were, merely for sport. Its 
principal devastations are among sheep and swine, from which it pur- 
loins the young, and commits dreadful havoc among poultry. To the 
rapacity of the wolf, it joins the agility of the cat and the cunning of 
the fox. Its figure is a strange compound of the fox and polecat, its 
head being long and sharp with pricked ears, its body low and long, 
and its tail rather long but not very bushy. Its claws are concealed at 
pleasure. The colour of its body is a dirty ash-colour, somewhat striped 
with a darker shade, and its tail has many rather indistinct circles of 
the same tint. 

" This obnoxious animal is generally found in short underwood 
covers, mixed more or less with long grass, and especially wliere Pal- 
myra or Cocoa trees are to be seen. Although it is sometimes met 
with in various detached jungles, yet, for the most part, its residence 
is confined to such as border old tanks or jeels. These banks being 
formed by the excavation, are often very high and broad ; with time, 
they settle and become natter, and are generally overrun with very 
strong brambles, through which even an elephant could not make his 
way without extreme difficulty. Of such covers the kuttauss is a 
regular inhabitant, seldom stirring in the day, during which time he 


appears to hide himself in the most opaque recesses. Such is the 
caution with which the kuttauss acts by night, that his depredations 
are ordinarily attributed to jackals, &c. Being, from his size, which is 
equal to that of a full-grown English fox, able to bear away a sub- 
stantial booty, he is also capable of making a powerful resistance, and, 
being familiar to trees, into which he can ascend with facility, it is not 
a very easy thing to overcome him. His bite is very sharp ; and such 
is the strength of his jaws, that sometimes he is found to snap the legs 
of such dogs as incautiously subject their limbs to his powers. Like 
the camel, he has a very uncouth trick of keeping a fast hold, though 
worried by a dozen of sturdy dogs, all tugging at various points. This 
we may presume operates much in his favour when seizing a prey. 
Jackals and foxes, and even wolves when close pursued, especially if 
hit with a stick or a stone, frequently drop what they have seized, and 
content themselves with an escape. The kuttauss is so very secret in 
his operations, that, were not the bones of his victims found in his 
haunts, one might almost doubt whether he were carnivorous. Hounds 
are wondrously incited by the scent of a kuttauss ; it seems to derange 
them ; they defy all control, and, often disregarding the voice of the 
hunter, as well as the sickness occasioned by the nauseous stench of 
the animal, remain in the cover, barking and baying, until a sharp bite 
sends them off howling, after which they show great aversion from a 
fresh attack. If a jackal or other hunted animal cross near the haunt 
of a kuttauss, he rarely fails to make his escape. The dogs all quit the 
chase, and surround the stinking animal. Whether they be successful 
in killing, or not, it matters little, for their scent is completely over- 
come for that day ; and the hunter may assure himself that unless a 
jackal may take to a plain, and be run in open view, no chance exists 
of killing him. Indeed, after having worried a kuttauss, dogs treat all 
other game with perfect indifference. It is a curious fact that jackals, 
foxes, and kuttausses are most numerous near to the villages inhabited 
by the Mussulmans. This, probably, is to be attributed to their rear- 
ing poultry, which the Hindoos never do. Although fowls are very 
cheap throughout India, being generally from two-pence to four-pence 
each, yet one may travel a whole day through a populous country 
without being able to obtain either an egg or a chicken. The Hindoo 
religion proscribes them as being unclean ; whence a native of that per- 
suasion will not even touch one ! It is from the Mussulmans alone 
that poultry can be obtained, though they are occasionally reared 
by the lower castes or sects, who are considered as perfect outcasts, 
and are only tolerated on account of the convenience they afford 


by occupying the most menial offices, or by following the lowest occu- 

In the first volume of the " Calcutta Journal of Natural History," 
there is an account of a species of Civet-cat, nearly resembling the 
Viverra zibetha, by John McClelland, Esq., the title of which to the 
rank of a distinct species, remains for a comparison of further speci- 
mens. Mr. McClelland concludes his description with the following 
remarks : " The different animals of the Civet kind are in India called 
Khatas. There is one in Bengal, probably V. indica, Geoff., which is 
very common, and has been known even to enter houses in Calcutta at 
night in search of poultry. A few months ago, an instance of the kind 
occurred in a house surrounded by a high wall, and in which there were 
several dogs. The Khatas, on finding itself pursued, entered a large 
pond, and appeared to rely with much confidence on its dexterity in the 
water for its safety." 

88. VIVERRA TANGALUNGA, Gray, Proceed. Zool 
Soc. 1832, p. 63. 

Viverra zibetha, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 251. 
Appendix to Life of Sir T. S. Raffles, 635. Fred. Cuv., 
Mamm. lithoyr. ? Miiller, Over de Zoogdieren van 
den Indischen Archipel. 

Viverra tangalunga, Cantor, Mamm. of t fie Malayan Penin- 
sula, S(C. 

TAP?GGALUNG, of the Malays in Sumatra, Rafflesznd Marsden. 

MUSANG JEBAT, of the Malays of the Peninsula, Cantor. 
HAB. Sumatra, Raffles. Borneo, Celebes, Amboyna, Midler. 
Penang and the Malayan Peninsula, Cantor. 

A. Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 

The character by which this species is chiefly distinguished from the 
Viverra zibetha of Linnaeus, is stated by Mr. Gray in the Proceedings 
above cited, to be a continuous longitudinal band occupying the upper 
surface of the tail, the numerous irregular rings being separated only on its 
inferior half. It is also more slender in form, and the black bands of the 
throat are different from those of the continental Civet-cat. Placed side 
by side, Dr. Cantor states, the living animals present a marked dissimila- 
rity of countenance, which, although obvious to the eye, would be most 
difficult, if possible at all, to convey in words. Sir T. S. Raffles informs 
us that the animal is kept by the natives of Sumatra for the purpose of 
obtaining the perfume which they call jibet or dedes. The Tanggalung 


is, in the Indian Archipelago, the representative of the Khatas of 
the continent of India ; in its habits it is equally predatious, sangui- 
nary, and untameable. 

Sub-genus VIVERRICULA, Hodgson. 

Essential character : Size, small, scansorial ; habit, vermi- 
form; nails, more or less raptorial, and thumb remote; 

pouches, as in Viverra. (Hodgson, J. A. S. B., X. 

p. 909.) 

Viverra indica, Geoffr., Collect, du Mus. Desmar., Mamm. 

p. 210. Sykes, Catal. of Mammalia observed in Duk- 

hun, p. 7. Elliot, Catal. of Mamm. of S. Mahratta 

country, p. 102. Madras Journ. Lit. and Sc. 
Viverra malaccensis and V. Rasse, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. 

Mus. p. 48, and Cat. Hodgs. Coll. p. 8. 
Viverricula indica, Hodgson, J. A. S. B., X. p. 909. Calc. 

Viverricula Malaccensis, Cantor, Cat. Mamm. of Malayan 

Peninsula, p. 29. 
Viverra gunda, Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton's MS. and 

Drawing, Mus. Ind. Comp. 

(Var. a.) Viverra pallida, Gray and Hardw. Illust. 

Ind. Zool. II. pi. 6. 

JUWADEE MARJAR, or Civet-cat, of the Mahrattas, Sykes. 
SAYER and BUGMYUL, in Tarai, Hodgson. 
KASTURI, Southern Mahratta country, Elliot. (Kasturi 

is the name of Musk, and is applied to the animal 

from the similarity of the smell.) 

HAS. The whole of Continental India, from Cape Comorin to 
the foot of the Himalayas. 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

B. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

C. The pale variety. Presented by the Asiatic Society 

of Bengal. 

D. A Drawing from Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton's Col- 


The first distinct indication of this species is given by M. Geoffrey, 
in the Collect, du Mus. d'Hist. Naturelle ; it has since been noticed by 
many zoologists; specimens are common in museums, and several va- 


rieties have been described. Colonel Sykes informs us that there are 
two varieties in Dukhun, one inhabiting the woods along the Ghauts, 
the other the country eastward of the Ghauts. The Viverra malac- 
censis of Gmelin, which is considered by some zoologists as identical 
with the V. indica, rests on a drawing and description of M. Sonnerat, 
and requires the examination and comparison of authentic specimens 
from Malacca. In its habits, the Viverra indica resembles the V. 
tanggalunga, although it admits of partial domestication. 

Mr. Hodgson informs us that these animals dwell in forests or de- 
tached woods and copses, whence they wander freely into the open 
country, by day (occasionally at least) as well as by night. They are 
solitary and single wanderers, even the pair being seldom together, 
and they feed promiscuously upon small mammals, birds, eggs, snakes, 
frogs, insects, besides some fruits and roots. In the Tarai, the larger 
Viverrse are found in uncultivated copses, and they are said further to 
protect themselves by burrowing, at least they are frequently taken in 
holes, whether made by themselves, or obtained by ejection of other 
animals. The Mushars, a low caste of woodmen, eat their flesh. The 
Tarai name of the larger animals is Bhraun, the hill name, Nit Biraloo. 
(Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. II. p. 55.) 

90. VIVERRICULA RASSE, Horsfield Sp. 

Viverra rasse, Horsf., Zool. Research., with a figure. Pro- 
ceed. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 23. Appendix to Life of Sir 
T. S. Raffles, p. 635. Bennett, Tower Menagerie, 
p. 103. Schinz, Synops. Mamm. p. 362. Muller, 
Over de Zoogd. van den Ind. Archip. p. 30. 
Viverricula rasse, Hodgs., J. A. S. B. X. p. 909. Clas- 
sified Cat. of Mamm. 
Viverra malaccensis, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 48. 

Cat. Hodgs. Coll. p. 8. 
Viverra indica, Fischer, Syn. Mamm. p. 171. 
Viverricula malaccensis, Cantor, Cat. Mamm. of Malayan 

Peninsula, p. 29. 

RASSE, of the Javanese, from the Sanskrit Rasa. 
HAB. According to Dr. Muller, the island of Java exclusively. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

The Rasse is considered by many zoologists as a variety of the 
Viverricula indica. In the " Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 
1832," pp. 22 and 23, I have endeavoured to demonstrate the essential 
peculiarities which belong to the Rasse, and by which it is clearly dis- 


tinguished from the Viverricula indica. So far as has been ascertained, 
the Rasse belongs exclusively to Java. The first description of this 
animal is given in Horsfield's " Zoological Researches in Java," which 
also contains a figure. The Rasse is not unfrequently found in Java, 
in forests of moderate elevation above the level of the ocean. Here it 
preys on small birds and animals of every description. It possesses 
the sanguinary appetite of animals of this family in a high degree, 
and the structure of its teeth corresponds strictly with their habits and 
modes of life. In confinement, it will devour a mixed diet, and is fed 
on eggs, fish, flesh, and rice. Salt is reported by the natives to be a 
poison to it. The odoriferous substance, the dedes of the Javanese or 
jibet of the Malays, is collected periodically. The animal is placed in 
a narrow cage, in which the head and anterior extremities are confined ; 
the posterior parts are thus easily secured, while the civet is removed 
with a simple spatula. It is perfectly untameable, and has not been 
known to propagate in a state of confinement. 

The substance obtained from the Rasse agrees with the civet afforded 
by the Viverra civetta and zibetha, in colour, consistence, and odour. 
It is a very favourite perfume among the Javanese, and applied both 
to their dresses, and by means of various unguents and mixtures of 
flowers to their persons. Even the apartments and the furniture of the 
natives of rank are generally scented with it to such a degree, as to be 
offensive to Europeans ; and at their feasts and public processions the 
air is widely filled with this odour. 

Genus PARADOXURUS, Fr. Cm.* 

VIVERIUE Species, Desmar., Horsf. et al. 

91. PARADOXURUS TYPUS, Fr. Cuv. et Geoffr., Mam- 
mif. litliogr. 

Paradoxurus typus, Temm., Monogr. II. p. 315. Desmar., 
Mamm. suppl. p. 539. Fischer, Syn. Mamm. p. 158. 
Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 56. Proceed. Zool. 
Soc. 1832, p. 65. Schinz, Syn. Mamm. p. 381. Sykes, 
Catal. of Dukhun Mammalia, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1831, 
p. 102. Ogilby, Zool. Jour. IV. p. 303. Bennett, 
Tower Menagerie, p. 107, with a figure. 

* In establishing this genus, M. Frederic Cuvier was led into an error by the 
distorted and monstrous condition of the specimen which served for his definition, in 
which the tail was unnaturally incurvated. The Dutch naturalists, who had unli- 
mited opportunities of observing this animal in many localities, assert, uniformly, 


Viverra hermaphrodita, Pallas. Schreb. Saength. IV. p. 426. 

Viverra nigra, Desmar., Mamm. p. 208. 

? Genette de France, Buf., Hist. Nat. Suppl. III. p. 236, 

t. 47. 
OOD, of the Mahrattas. 

HAS. Continental India. 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

While the Paradoxurus typus appears to be confined exclusively to 
Continental India, the Paradoxurus musanga is largely distributed 
through the Indian Archipelago, and as there exists a great family 
resemblance between the two species, they have frequently been con- 
sidered identical. The colour of the P. typus is more uniform, and ge- 
nerally blackish, and the longitudinal bands along the back are obscure, 
while in the P. musanga they are more prominent and apparent. The 
former is very carefully described by M. Temminck (Monogr. Mamm. 
II. pp. 316, 7). A specimen in the Company's Museum, from the Col- 
lection of Mammalia made by Colonel Sykes in Dukhun, is banded lon- 
gitudinally on the back, but the character of the hairy covering agrees 
with the descriptions of specimens contained in the Leyden and British 

Colonel Sykes gives the following account of the habits and pecu- 
liarities of this species. " This animal, which is by no means rare in 
Dukhun, is always lively, and a specimen in my possession was re- 
markable for the energy with which during the night-time, it chased 
round the cage. Its carnivorous propensities were so strong that it 
snapped off and devoured the heads of all fowls that incautiously ap- 
proached its cage ; but on board ship it was fed entirely on rice and 
clarified butter. In the stomachs of some individuals examined at 
Poona, I found fruit, vegetables, and Blattae or black beetles." 

that the tail is straight, and without any permanent inflection, and my ovrn observa- 
tions confirm this remark. M. Temminck (Monogr. Mamm. II. p. 312), has the 
following note on this point. " Gen. Paradoxurus: nom generique, donne a 
tout hasard par F. Cuvier, dont il faut se garder de rendre 1'application strictement 
applicable a aucune des especes de ce groupe. Nous conservons ce nom, tout 
vicieux qu'il est, vu qu'il se trouve adopte dans le plus grand nombre des catalogues 
methodiques ; toutefois nous prions d'observer que la queue, chez toutes les especes 
du genre, est droite, lache et en aucune maniere prehensible ou capable de s'enrouler 
autour des branches, comme le fait Varcticte Binturong ; leur queue ne differede celle 
des autres viverrins, qu'en ce qu'elle est plus longue." 


92. PARADOXURUS MUSANGA, Raffles 8p., Catal 
Sumatran Mamm. 

Viverra musanga, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 252. 

Horsfield, Zool. Research, with a figure. Desmar., 

Mamm. Suppl.p. 539. Appendix to Life of Sir T. S. 

Raffles, p. 635. 
Paradoxurus musanga, Gray, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1832, 

p. 66. Temm., Monogr. II. p. 317, %c. Muller, 

Over de Zoogdieren van den Ind. Archip. pp. 54, 5. 

Cantor, Catal. of Malayan Mammalia, p. 31. 
Musang, a species of Viverra, Marsden, Hist, of Sumatra, 

p. 118, #.12, n. 2. 

MUSANG, of the inhabitants of Sumatra, Marsden. 
MUSANG BULAN, of the Malays, Raffles. 
LUWAK, of the Eastern Javanese, Horsfield. 
TJARO-KO-OS and TJARO-BULAN, of the Western Javanese, 


HAB. The Indian Archipelago. 

A. Adult, B. Young. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

B. Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 

The Paradoxurus musanga has been observed by the Dutch naturalists 
in Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and Timor, and by Dr. Cantor in Penang, 
Singapore, and the Malayan Peninsula. Its great resemblance to the 
last species in external habit, proportions of extremities and tail, has 
already been mentioned, but in its markings and hairy covering it 
exhibits greater varieties. M. Temminck enumerates and describes 
nine varieties. In the adult individuals of the musanga, the body 
above, and the anterior parts of the neck and breast are variegated 
gray and black, inclining to tawny or isabella. The back is marked 
with longitudinal black bands, varying from five to seven, which are 
more distinct in young subjects ; the sides are obscurely spotted, and 
the abdomen is paler ; legs and tail, black or deep brown ; ears, short 
and rounded ; tail, somewhat longer than the body, gradually tapering 
to the end, covered with coarse hair ; fur, composed of hair, somewhat 
stiff and bristly, not closely applied to the skin ; head, blackish, with a 
transverse gray mark on the forehead, and a white spot between the 

In its manners, the Musang is less ferocious and sanguinary than 
the Civets and Viverriculse. It generally sleeps during the day. 


If taken while young, it becomes patient and gentle during confine- 
ment, and receives readily animal and vegetable food. It requires little 
attention, and even contents itself with the scanty remains of the meals 
of the natives, with fish, eggs, rice, potatoes, &c., the structure of its 
teeth being particularly adapted to a vegetable diet. It prefers, how- 
ever, delicate and pulpy fruits, but, when pressed by hunger, also 
attacks fowls and birds. It is most abundant near the villages situated 
at the confines of large forests. It constructs a simple nest in the 
manner of squirrels, of dry leaves, grass, or small twigs, in the forks 
of large branches, or in the hollow of trees. From these it sallies 
forth at night to visit the sheds and hen-roosts of the natives, in search 
of eggs, chickens, &c. Its rambles are also particularly directed to the 
gardens and plantations, where fruits of every description within its 
reach, and particularly pine- apples, suffer extensively from its depreda- 

The coffee plantations in Java are greatly infested by the Viverra 
musanga ; in some parts of the island it has on this account obtained 
the name of the coffee-rat. It devours the berries in large quantities, 
and its visits are soon discovered by parcels of seeds which it discharges 
unchanged. It selects only the ripest and most perfect fruits, and the 
seeds are eagerly collected by the natives, as the coffee is thus obtained 
without the tedious process of removing its membranaceous arillus. 

The injurious effects occasioned by the ravages of the Luwak in the 
coffee plantations, are, however, fully counterbalanced by its propagating 
the plant in various parts of the forests, and particularly on the declivi- 
ties of the fertile hills. These spontaneous groves of a valuable fruit 
in various parts of the western districts of Java, afford to the natives 
no inconsiderable harvest, while the accidental discovery of them, 
surprises and delights the traveller in the most sequestered parts of 
the island. 


Ichneumon prehensilis, Dr. Francis (Buchanan) Ha- 
milton, MS. 

Viverra prehensilis, Blainv. Desmar., Mamm. p. 208. 

Paradoxurus prehensilis, Gray, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1832, 
p. 66. Temm., Monogr. II. p. 340, notice compilee, 
SfC. Bennett, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1834,;?. 33. Gray 
and Hardw., Illust. Ind. Zool. II. plate 9. Catal. of 
Mamm. in Museum of Zool. Soc. 1838, p. 22. 

HAB. Continental India. 


A. A drawing. Presented by Dr. Francis (Buchanan) 

This species was described and introduced in M. Desmarest's Mam- 
malogie, by M. de Blainville, from a drawing deposited in the Museum 
of the East-India Company. In the year 1834, a skin of an Indian 
mammal was presented to the Zoological Society by Lord Fitzroy 
Somerset, which was considered by J. E. Bennett, Esq., to belong to 
this species. (Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 33.) 

Mr. Bennett thus describes it : " The general colour of the animal is 
a pale grayish brown, in which longer black hairs are sparingly inter- 
mixed on the sides. On the back of the head and neck, and along the 
middle line of the back, these black hairs are almost the only ones that 
are visible. On the loins they form three indistinct black bands, of 
which the lateral are in some measure interrupted. The head is 
brownish, with the usual gray mark both above and below the eyes, 
and there are some short gray hairs between the eyes and across the 
forehead. The limbs are brownish black, rather darker towards their 
upper part. The tail, at its base, is of the same colour as the back, 
and rapidly becomes black ; the terminal fifth is yellowish white. The 
ears are rather large, and sparingly covered with short brownish hairs." 
This description agrees generally with Dr. B. Hamilton's drawing. 

Viverra trivirgata, Reinw., Mus. Leid. 
Paradoxurus trivirgatus, Temm., Monogr. II. p. 333. Mill- 

ler, Over de Zoogdieren van den Indisch. Archip. p. 55. 

Catal, of Mamm. in Museum of Zool. Soc. 1838, p. 22. 
Paguma trivirgata, Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 55. 

Cantor, Catal. of Malayan Mamm. p. 31. 

HAB. Java and Sumatra, Temminck. Tenasseriin, Blytli. 

A. A flat skin, without the skull. Presented by the Asiatic 

Society of Bengal. 

B. A young specimen, from Finlayson's Collection. Lo- 

cality not known. 

M. Temminck indicates three varieties of this species, the first of 
which agrees generally with the specimen presented by the Asiatic 
Society. The following is an abstract of its external character : 
" Above, sides, and anterior and posterior aspects (faces) of the limbs, 
ash-gray, with a silvery reflection ; three parallel deep black longitu- 


dinal bands extend along the back ; head, cheeks, and basal half of the 
tail, blackish-gray ; muzzle, circumference of the eyes, lower part of the 
limbs, and terminal half of the tail, pure black ; chin, throat, and ab- 
domen, whitish-gray." (Monogr. II. p. 334.) M. Miiller also indi- 
cates three distinct varieties. (Over de Zoogd. van den Ind. Archip. 
p. 55.) 

In the young specimen from Finlayson's Collection, the contrast of 
the gray and black colours is less distinctly marked ; in other respects, 
it agrees with the adult specimen from Tenasseriin. 

95. PARADOXURUS PALASSII, Gray, Proceed. ZooL 
Soc. 1832, p. 67. 

Paradoxurus albifrons, Bennett, MS. fide Gray, Catal. 

Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 55. 
HAB. Continental India and Malacca. 

A. Presented by J. McCleUand, Esq. 

This species can only be doubtfully enumerated in the Catalogue, as 
the characters in the half- grown specimen are not fully developed. In 
the " Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1832," p. 67, Mr. J. 
E. Gray gives the first distinct description of this species from a speci- 
men brought from India and presented to the menagerie by William 
Buchanan, Esq. A figure of this individual is contained in Gray and 
Hardw. " Illust. of Indian Zoology," vol. II. pi. 8. " The general 
colour is blackish-gray, paler on the abdomen. Along the back passes 
a broad black band, below which, on each side, are several ranges of 
black spots. The limbs and the tail, excepting a white tip, are black. 
The muzzle is blackish. A broad band across the forehead, a spot 
under each eye, and the cheeks are white. The throat is grayish- 

ZooL Soc. 1832, p. 68. 

HAB. Not known. 

A. Drawing from Finlayson's Collection, while employed 
as Naturalist to the Mission of John Crawford, Esq., 
to Siam and Cochin China. 

Mr. J. E. Gray concisely indicates this species, from the drawing 
above mentioned, as " pale brown, with a band across the middle of 
the muzzle, and another across the orbits, including the eyes, and 
expanding on the back of the cheek ; the ears, and three continuous 



narrow lines along the middle of the back, blackish-brown ; the feet, 
blackish, and the tail, cylindrical." (Pr. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 68.) 

97. PARADOXURUS LEUCOTIS, Blyth, Mus. As. Soc. 


HAB. Tenasserim and Arracan. 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

The specimen above mentioned, which is marked with a label of the 
Curator of the Asiatic Society, is the only evidence contained in the 
Company's Museum of this species. It does not appear to be described 
in the Asiatic Society's Journal, although an obscure notice is probably 
given in the Proceedings for April, 1848. (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
XVII. p. 560.) 

In expectation of a more detailed description by Mr. Blyth, the 
following brief notice of the external character is here introduced. 
Fur, rather long, soft, and silky, somewhat resembling that of the 
individuals of Paguma, to which genus our animal approaches in 
several points. The general colour of the upper parts of the body, 
neck, head, and two- thirds of the tail, is tawny ; somewhat deeper, 
and inclining to reddish-brown on the back and sides; throat and 
abdomen lighter, and inclining to Isabella. The thighs and legs 
agree with the upper parts ; the feet are brownish. Extremity of 
the tail, which is very long, deep chestnut-brown. Whiskers, long, 
blackish-brown. From the tip of the nose, a medial white line 
extends along the head towards the forehead. The ears in our spe- 
cimen are rather naked, of a pale yellowish tint, and scantily covered 
externally with thinly -scattered yellowish hairs. 

Genus PAGUMA, Gray, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 95. 
PARADOXURUS, Hodgson, Temminck, Bennett, et al. 

98. PAGUMA GRAYI, Bennett Sp. 

Paradoxurus Grayi, Bennett, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1835, 

p. 118. 
Paradoxurus nipalensis, Hodgson, Asiatic Researches, XIX. 

p. 76. 1836. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XI. p. 279. 

Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. IV. p. 287. 
Paradoxurus bondar, Temm., Monogr. II. p. 332, fide Gray 

(Exclus. Syn.}. 
Paguma Grayii, Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 54. 

Catal. Hodgson's Collection, p. 9. 


HAB. Central region of Nepal, where it is very common, 
A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

The genus Paguma was established and defined by Mr. J. E. Gray, 
in the year 1831. (See Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 95.) Although 
nearly allied to Paradoxurus, it is fully entitled to the generic rank 
assigned to it by Mr. Gray, who states, after giving the essential 
character,* " that in the number and disposition of its teeth, this genus 
agrees with Viverra, from which, however, it differs in their confor- 
mation. It is much like Ictides in colouring, but has about the face 
the pale marking of Paradoxurus. The skin has the odour of civet. 
From the genus Viverra, it is distinguished by the shape of its skull, 
the cerebral cavity being in it much larger, the space between the eyes 
broader, and the nose much broader and shorter." To this may be 
added that its hairy covering, or fur, is dense, woolly, and somewhat 
lengthened, being suited to the high regions of which it is native, while 
in the true Paradoxuri, which are found in Bengal and the Indian Archi- 
pelago, the fur is shorter and bristly. Another peculiarity of the Pa- 
guma is its uniform exterior, which is only slightly undulated or varie- 
gated with darker and lighter shades, without the prominent dark 
longitudinal bands and spots, which distinguish the Paradoxuri. 

This species was first described by Mr. E. T. Bennett, from a living 
specimen in the gardens of the Zoological Society. " The fur of the 
animal, unlike that of Par. typus, F. Cuv., and some other closely- 
related species, is nearly of equal length, and is dense, and in some 
degree woolly. Its colour above, is light fulvous brown, showing in 
certain lights a strong cinereous tinge, owing to the black tips of many 
of the hairs. Beneath, it is lighter, and has a more cinereous tinge. 
The limbs are ash- coloured, and deeper in intensity towards the feet, 
which are black. The tail is, throughout, of the same colour with the 
body. The ears are rounded, covered with hairs, and nearly black. 
The face is black, with the exception of the forehead, of a longitudinal 
dash down the middle of the nose, and of a blotch-like short oblique 
band under each eye, these markings being gray. There are no traces 
of longitudinal bands or spots on the body. The separate hairs are 

* Dentes primores f sequales ; laniarii ^ * ; molares f f ; quorum utrinque in 
maxilla superiori, 3 falsi parvi compressi, 1 camivorus brevis obtuse 3 lobus cum 
processu interno centrali, 2 tuberculares subquadrati interne sub-angustati antice 
non product! ; in maxilla inferiore 4 falsi, 1 carnivorus, 1 tubercularis. Pedes 
postici plantigradi, ad calc&neum usque nudi callosi. Caudalonga attenuata. 


dusky at the base, and pale yellowish in the middle ; they are tipped 
with black." 

In the nineteenth volume of the Asiatic Researches above cited, 
Mr. Hodgson informs us (pp. 76, 77), that " the more peculiar habi- 
tat of this species is the central region of Nepal, where it is very 
common ; but it is also found in the northern, and occasionally in the 
confines of the southern region. It never quits the untamed forest, and 

very seldom the mountainous country I kept an individual of 

this species for four years, and though I took no pains to tame it, 
it exhibited many more signs of docility than I ever witnessed in the 
P. hirsutus (the Bondar). The stomach, too, of one which I shot in the 
forests of the central region, contained only seeds, leaves, grass, and 
unhusked rice. The caged animal was fed on boiled rice and fruits, 
which it preferred to animal food not of its own killing. When set at 
liberty, it would lie waiting in the grass for sparrows and mynas, 
springing upon them from the cover like a cat ; and when sparrows, as 
frequently happened, ventured into its cage to steal the boiled rice, it 
would feign sleep, retire into a corner, and dart on them with unerring 
aim. Birds, thus taken by itself, it preferred to all other food. 

" This animal was very cleanly, nor did its body usually emit any 
offensive odour, though, when it was irritated, it exhaled a most fetid 
stench, caused by the discharge of a thin yellow fluid from four pores, 
two of which are placed on either side the intestinal aperture." 

Mr. Hodgson then describes the apparatus in detail by which this 
fetid fluid is produced. His details of the character of the fur, the 
external covering, and the general colour of this species, agree gene- 
rally with those given by Mr. Bennett in the Proceedings of the Zoolo- 
gical Society above cited. 

The length of this species, according to Mr. Hodgson, from the 
snout to the tip of the tail, is from forty- eight to fifty inches. The 
dimensions of the specimen in the Company's Museum, are of the 
body and head thirty inches, of the tail twenty inches. 

99. PA GUM A BONDAR, Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton Sp. 

Ichneumon bondar, Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton. Drawing, 
Mus. Ind. Comp. 

Viverra bondar, De Blainville. Desmar., Mamm. p. 210. 
Paradoxurus bondar, Gray, Proceed. ZooL Soc. 1832, p. 66. 
Paradoxurus Pennantii, Gray, Proceed. Zool. 1832, p. 66. 
Gray and Hardw., Illust. Ind. Zool. II. pi. 13. 


Paradoxurus hirsutus, Hodgson, Asiatic Researches, XIX. 

p. 72. 

MACHABBA and MALWA, Hodgson. 
HAB. North Bihar and Nipalese Tara'i. 

A. A Drawing. Presented by Dr. F. B. Hamilton. 

Science is indebted to B. H. Hodgson, Esq., for the first authentic, 
and, hitherto, the only account of this species of Paguma, published in 
the nineteenth volume of the Asiatic Researches, Calcutta, 1836. 

" This animal," Mr. Hodgson states, " is known by the names of 
Machabba and of Malwa in the north Bihar, as well as in Nipalese 
Tarai ; it is forty-five inches in length from the tip of the snout to the 
end of the tail, and about six pounds hi weight. The length of the 
tail, inclusive of the hair projecting beyond its tip, is equal to that of 
the animal, exclusive, about an inch less. The female is somewhat 
smaller than the male, and rather paler coloured, but the difference 
is trivial, neither sex nor nonage causing any noticeable diversity in 
this species. The colour of the animal is a full clear yellow, largely 
tipped with black, and entirely void of marks or lines upon the body. 
The entire bridge of the nose, with the upper lip, the whiskers, and 
broad band thence proceeding over the cheeks, the ears, the chin and 
lower jaw, the fore-legs wholly, and the hind from the heel downwards, 
together with the terminal third of the tail, are black or black-brown. 
The region of the genitals, and a zone encircling the eyes posteriorly, 
are pure pale yellow. The soles of the feet and the snout are brownish 
fleshy gray. The nude part of the lips, the palate, tongue, and bare 
portions of the ears and of the genital regions, pure fleshy white. 

" The fur is of two kinds, viz. hair and wool. The former is 
straight, elastic, not rigid, of great length, and free set, not even 
ordinarily applied to the body, and considerably erigible under ex- 
citement. It is two inches and a quarter long, and, for the most 
part equally so over the whole body and tail, the face only and the 
limbs being dressed in short adpressed fur. The colour of the hair is, 
generally for two- thirds from the root, yellow, and for the terminal 
third, black ; but here and there a hair wholly black intervenes, and 
sometimes the hair has a third dusky ring towards the base. The wool 
is soft, wavily curved in its length somewhat more than half as long as 
the hair, and almost entirely of a yellow hue, though, close to the skin, 
it has a dusky colour. 

" The females have four ventral teats, and produce, I understand, but 
one brood per annum. The habits of the species render them more 


active by night than by day, a circumstance clearly provided for by 
the largeness of their eye, with its extremely convex cornea. They 
sleep rolled up like a ball; when angered, spit like cats, and, like 
cats and dogs, drink by lapping with the tongue. They are extremely 
ferocious and unruly when taken mature, but are apparently very ca- 
pable of being tamed if caught when young, though the natives of the 
plains or hills never attempt to subject to discipline their various and 
high natural endowments. Their cerebral development is much greater 
than that of the Mangooses, and they have a finer sense of smell but 
less acute hearing and diurnal vision. When fighting, they grapple 
with each other like wrestlers, scratching and biting at the same time, 
but never quitting their hold on the body of the adversary. They are 
matchless climbers, and derive the extraordinary energy of their double 
grasp with both hands and feet, whether in scansion or in contests with 
each other and with their prey, from the high articulation and free la- 
teral motion of their limbs, the great strength and firm insertion in the 
large humeri of their pectoral muscles, and from the sharpness and 
curvature of their very mobile sheathed nails, all points in which they 
differ remarkably from the Mangooses, and approximate through the 
Ailuri to the Bears and Cats. Their rapid action is by digital bounds 
of the feet, palmary of the hands ; their walk, slow, wholly planti- 
grade, and deliberate, with the head and tail lowered, and the back 

" It is no more shy of inhabited and cultivated tracts than the 
common Mangoose, or Herpestes griseus, and its favourite resorts are 
old and abandoned mango groves. In holes of the decayed trunks of 
the trees, it seeks a place of refuge, making such its ordinary dormi- 
tory, as well as invariable breeding-place, and even procuring its food 
almost as much amongst the branches as in the grass which is suffered 
to grow up in these groves after their cultivation has been laid aside. 
However rapacious its ordinary habits and those of few of the carni- 
vora are more so, it feeds freely upon the ripe mango in season, as 
well as upon other ripe fruits, but its more usual food consists of live 
birds and of the lesser mammals, the former of which it seizes upon 
the trees as well as upon the ground, with a more than feline dexterity. 
It readily kills and devours snakes as well as hares and their young, 
with mice and rats, but will not touch frogs or blattae. One that I 
had alive, escaped from confinement, and as soon as the gray of twi- 
light set in, it made its way into the poultry-yard, climbing a high 
wall, and killing one goose, two ducks, and seven fowls, in less than 
an hour! " 


b. and d. HY^ININA and CANINA, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. 
List. XIX. 

Genus HYAENA, Brisson et al. 

CANIS Spec., Linn, et al. 

100. HYAENA STRIATA, Zimmerm., Geogr. Gesch. II. 
p. 256. 

Hyaena vulgaris, Desmar., Mamm. p. 215. Sykes, Cat. 

Dukh. Mamm. p. 8. Bennett, Tower Menagerie, p. 71, 

with a figure. Elliot, Cat. Mamm. of Southern Mah- 

ratta Country, p. 103. 

Canis hyaena, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. XII., I. p. 58, et Gmel. 


The Striped Hyaena. 
TURRUS, of the Mahrattas, Sykes. 

TARAS, Dukhani, KIRBA and KUTT KIRBA, Canarese, Elliot. 

HAB. Turkey, Persia, India, and the neighbouring countries 

in Asia. Barbary, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia, in Africa. 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

The specimen presented to the Company's Museum was a native of 
Dukhun, where, Colonel Sykes informs us, " Hyaenas are numerous. 
They are susceptible of the same domestication as a dog. A specimen 
given by me to the Zoological Society was allowed to run about my 
house at Poona. On board ship it was in the habit of gambolling like 
a dog. It allowed persons to put their hands into its mouth without 
attempting to bite ill-naturedly. It was fed on rice and clarified butter." 
(Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1831, July 12.) 

In the year 1833, Colonel Sykes contributed the following additional 
information on the habits of the Hyaena to the Zoological- Society : 
" After a lapse of two years, the specimen above mentioned had at- 
tained its full growth, and I am happy to be enabled to confirm the 

opinions I formerly advanced My visits to the Gardens have (of 

late) been rare, and at long intervals, nor have I ever carried it food. 
I anticipated, therefore, that it would outgrow its early associations, and 
that I should be to it as any other stranger, but it has always greeted 
me not only as an acquaintance, but as an old friend ; and if I am to 
judge from its agitation and peculiar cries, the animal's recognition is 
that of affection. 

" On Sunday last it was asleep in its cage when I approached. On 


calling to it by its name, it looked up, distinguished me in the crowd, 
started on its legs, and on my applying my hand to its mouth to smell to, 
it threw itself down against the bars, rubbed its head, neck, and back 
against my hand, and then started on its legs and bounded about its 
cage, uttering short cries. On ceasing to speak to it and moving 
away, it stopped and looked wistfully after me, nor resumed its mo- 
tions until I addressed it again. Its manifestations of joy were so 
unequivocal as to excite the surprise of a great number of bystanders. 
As these pleasing traits in the disposition of a calumniated animal 
appeared so new to those who surrounded me on that occasion, they 
may possibly be deemed of sufficient interest to be worthy of extended 
promulgation by record in our Proceedings. 

" I take occasion to repeat my conviction, that association with man, 
constant kindness, and abundance of food, will suffice not only to mo- 
dify, and indeed eradicate, the worst traits in the disposition of any 
animal of the higher classes, but give birth to others of which their 
natures were not deemed susceptible." 

Colonel Sykes's observations are confirmed both by Mr. E. T. Ben- 
nett and by Bishop Heber. " Notwithstanding the brutal voracity of 
the habits of the Hyaena, and the savage fierceness of his disposition, 
there is scarcely any animal that submits with greater facility to the 
control of man. In captivity, especially when taken young, a circum- 
stance on which much depends in the domestication of all wild animals, 
he is capable of being rendered exceedingly tame, and even serviceable. 
In some parts of Southern Africa, the spotted species, which is by 
nature quite as ferocious in his temper as the striped inhabitant of 
the north, has been domiciliated in the houses of the peasantry, among 
whom he is preferred to the dog himself for attachment to his master, 
for general sagacity, and even, it is said, for his qualifications for the 
chase." (Bennett, Tower Menagerie, pp. 75, 76.) Bishop Heber 
(Travels, I. p. 500) remarks : " Another instance fell under my 
knowledge of how much the poor Hyaena is wronged, when he is 
described as untameable. Mr. Traill (at Almorah) had one several 
years, which followed him about like a dog, and fawned on those with 
whom he was acquainted in almost the same manner." 

Captain Hutton informs us that the Hyaena is common in Afghanis- 
tan. (Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar, c., Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. XIV. p. 345.) 


Genus CUON, Hodgson, Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. II. p. 205.* 

CANIS, Hodgson, Sykes, Gray, et al. 
CHRYS^US, Ham. Smith. 

101. CUON DUKHUNENSIS, Sykes, Sp. 

Canis dukhunensis, Sykes, Catal. of Dukhun Mammalia, 
Proceed. ZooL Soc. 1831, p. 100 ; 1832, p. 15. 

Canis familiaris (wild variety), Canis dukhunensis, Sykes. 
Elliot, Catal. of Mamm. of S. Mahratta Country, 
Madras Journ. Lit. and Sc. X. p. 100. 

Wild Dog of the Western Ghats, Sykes, Trans, of the 
Roy. As. Soc. HI. pp. 405-10. 

JUNGLI KUTTA, Dukhani, Elliot. 

KOLSUN, of the Mahrattas, Sykes. 

intosh, Account of the Mhadeo Kolies, Madras Journ. 
Lit. and Sc. V. p. 81. 

HAB. Dukhun, Colonel Sykes. Southern Mahratta Country, 
Elliot. Mysore, Dr. F. (B.) Hamilton. 


101*. CUON PRIM^EVUS, Hodgson, Calc. Journ. Nat. 
Hist. II. pp. 205, 412 ; Journ. As. Soc. Beng. X. p. 909 ; 
XI. I. p. 278. 

Canis primsevus, Hodgson. 

Canis primsevus, Hodgson, Asiatic Researches, XVIII. ii. 

pp. 221-236. Proceed. ZooL Soc. 1833, p. III. A. 

Delessert, Sow. d'un Voy. ftc. II. p. 16, with a figure. 

* Genus CUON. General structure and dentition of Canis, but the molars only 
, the second tubercular behind the carnassier being deficient. Teats, as many as 
fourteen, or more than in any of the proper dogs ; skull, by its uniform arcuation 
along the culmenal line, and by its shorter, stronger jaws, declining from the canine 
models, towards the feline. Parietes amply swollen, with moderate cristae. 

Odour and aspect of Sacalius (Smith) Canis (Linn.), but ears and tail usually 
larger, the brow and eye bolder, and the muzzle blunter. Shoulders and croup level. 
Specific character Wild dog with double coat of wool and hair ; large hairy-soled 
feet ; large erect ears, and very bushy straight tail, reaching half way from the hough 
to the sole ; deep rusty above, yellowish below and on insides of ears and of limbs 
and on lips. Hodgson. (Calc. Journ. N. H. II. p. 209.) 



Cuon primaevus, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 57. Cat. 

Hodgson's Coll. p. 10. Zool. of the Voy. ofH.M. 

Ship Samarang, p. 16. Cantor, Catal. of Malayan 

Mamm. p. 26. 

Chrysseus primsevus, Ham. Smith. 
Wild Dog, or Dhole, Williamson, Oriental Field Sports, 

pp. 30-35. 

BUANSU, in Nepal, Hodgson. 
ANJING UTAN, of the Malays of the Peninsula of Malacca, 

? Quihoe, Johnson's Indian Field Sports. Cited, by different 

writers, Qyo, Quihoe, Quo, and Khoa. 

HAB. The sub -Himalayan ranges, from the Sutlej in the west, 
to the Brahmaputr in the east, Hodgson. Bengal, 
Williamson. Malayan peninsula, Cantor. 

A. Presented by N. Wallich, Esq., late Superintendent 
of the Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 

Specimens of the two Wild Dogs from India here enumerated are as 
yet very rare in collections, and their title to a specific rank respectively 
requires further comparisons ; they are nearly related to each other. 
Williamson briefly refers to the Dhole in the following remarks : " On 
the subject of the extreme shyness of this animal, and of its cunning in 
evading the eye of man, I should, perhaps, after more than twenty 
years' residence in Bengal, in which time I had traversed the country 
in almost every direction, have quitted India, and been inclined to 
dispute the existence of the Dhole, had I not been stationed two years 
in Ramghur, in the heart of the western frontier, and had ocular 
demonstration of its identity." 

The following narrative combines the observations made on both 
species in different localities. 

The Cuon dukhunensis appears to be indicated by Dr. F. (Buchanan) 
Hamilton in his " Travels in Mysore, Canara, and Malabar." In 
vol. I. p. 191, he states : " It is said that in the great forests round 
Savana-durga, there is a small animal called the Shin-nai, or Red Dog, 
which fastens itself by surprise on the neck of the tiger, and kills him. 
I have seen native drawings of the Shin-nai, which appear to represent 
an animal not yet described." 1807. 

In Dukhun, Colonel Sykes found a wild dog, named Kolson by the 
Mahrattas, the Canis dukhunensis of Colonel Sykes's ".Catalogue of 


Mammalia observed in Dukhun " (Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 100). 
" The Wild dog of Dukhun," Colonel Sykes remarks, " is essentially 

distinct from this Canis sumatrensis of Hardwicke These animals 

hunt in packs, and the specimen brought home was found to have the 
stomach distended with the remains of a Nylghau." 

Captain A. Mackintosh, in his accounts of the tribe of Mahdeo Kolies, 
inhabiting the valleys on each side of the Syhadry range of mountains 
in Northern Dukhun, gives an interesting description of a wild dog 
belonging to this species, which is contained in the accompanying 
note.* (Madras Journal of Lit. and Sc. V. p. 81.) 

* The animal, termed by us the wild dog, is known to the natives by the name of 
kollussnah, kollusra, and kollussa.(a) It is common in the .Kotool district, and all 
along the range of Western Ghauts. It is about the size of a panther, with very 
powerful fore -quarters, narrow tapering loins, black and pointed muzzle, and small 
erect ears. The tail is long, and at the extremity there is a bunch of hair several 
inches in length. The kollussnah is of a darkish red colour, possesses great speed 
and hunts in packs of five, eight, and fifteen, and even to the number of twenty-five, 
is extremely active, artful, and cunning in mastering its prey. It is during the 
night-time they move about in search of food, but should an animal approach near 
them an hour or two after sunrise, or a short time before sunset, they will attack it ; 
all animals seem instinctively to dread them. During the daytime they remain 
quiet in their hiding-places. When the kollussnah discovers an animal worthy of 
being captured, the circumstance is announced to the pack by a barking whistling 
noise ; the others are on the alert, advance rapidly and post themselves slyly round 
the spot, and gradually close in on the animal. Upon seeing one or two of the 
kollussnahs, he gets frightened, but much more so when, running away at speed, he 
encounters one of his enemies in whichever direction he attempts to escape. The 
consequence is, that he stands quite amazed, some of the kollussnahs run in close 
to him, and shed water on their bushy tails, which they swing about and jerk into 
his eyes ; he is successively saluted in the same manner, when he approaches them or 
they run in upon him. The unlucky beast is soon blinded by the peculiar escha- 
rotic quality of the application, for he begins to stagger, and run round and round, 
and is now beset by all the kollussnahs, who make a loud barking and snapping 
noise, while they pull the animal down and tear him to pieces. When few in 
number, they have been known to gratify their hunger before the poor animal fell 
down or expired, each of them tearing away a mouthful while the animal remained 
standing. There are very few instances of their ever attacking the villagers' cattle, 
but they will kill stray calves if they fall in with them. The Kolies never molest 
the kollussnah, in fact they are glad to see them in their neighbourhood, being aware 
of the enmity that exists between them and the tiger, for they kill that animal occa- 
sionally, and in consequence they are considered by the people as the protectors of 

(a) Note ly Professor Wilson. These terms cannot be quite correct, as the es- 
sential part of the word is Stvun, the Sanskrit and Mahratta word for ' dog ; ' Jcol 
or kola, possibly means ' wild.' 


Walter Elliot, Esq., in his " Catalogue of Mammalia in the Southern 
Mahratta Country," informs us that " the wild dog was not known in 
the Southern Mahratta country until of late years. It has now become 
very common. The circumstance of their attacking in a body, and 
killing the tiger, is universally believed by the natives. Instances of their 
killing the wild boar, and of tigers leaving a jungle in which a pack of wild 
dogs had taken up their quarters, have come to my own knowledge ; 
and on one occasion, a party of the officers of the 18th regiment M.N.I, 
saw a pack run into and kill a large sambur stag near Dharwar." 

In the Malayan Peninsula the Cuon prim&vus was observed by Dr. 
Cantor, who obtained a pair from the interior of Malacca. In their 
habits and peculiarities they resembled those found in other parts of the 
continent of India. 

On the history and peculiarities of the wild dog as it is found at the 
foot of the Himalayas, B. H. Hodgson, Esq., has given authentic and 
comprehensive details in a paper printed in the eighteenth volume of 
the " Asiatic Researches," pp. 221 to 237, which contains the result of 
his observations on the form, peculiarities, and habits of this animal. 

Mr. Hodgson introduces his description by some general remarks on 
the primitive type of the Caninae, in which he refers to M. Fred. Cuvier's 
arrangement of this group in the following terms : " By M. F. Cuv., 
whose arrangement of the Caninae has been ratified by all the first 
Zoologists in Europe, the Dogs are disposed according to their approxi- 
mation to the primitive type, so far as that type was discoverable in the 
wildest race known then to exist, and of which there were specimens 
accessible to him. The race in question is the Dingo of Australia. 
But as the Dingo is unquestionably at least half reclaimed, I presume 
that a careful account of an entirely wild species of Dog will be very 
acceptable to all who take an interest in the subject. And which of 
us but must regard with interest the portrait of the primitive Dog, 
either from affection for that devoted friend and follower of human 
kind, or from the light which the inquiry is calculated to throw upon 
the nature and limits of the distinction of species ? " 

" The Buansii, or Wild Dog of the Nepalese, inhabits that part of 
these mountains which is equidistant from the snows and the plains, 
or, in other words, the middle region of Nepal. But he frequently 

their cattle and their fields, for neither sambur, deer, or hog seems disposed to approach 
places much frequented by the kollussnah. They hunt and kill the sambur, neelgaie, 
hysena, deer, jackals, hares, hogs, bears, porcupines, and quails. They killed a tiger 
in June last year, in the Teloongun jungles. 


wanders into the southern division, and sometimes into the northern. 
His limits, east and west, are, as I know, the Kali and Tista ; and, as 
I am informed upon good authority, the Satlej and the Brahmapiitr. 
Wild dogs, probably not materially differing from those of Nepal, are 
found, likewise, in the Vindhya, the Ghats, the Nilgiris, the Kasya 
Hills, and finally in the chain extending brokenly from Mirzapur through 
South Behar and Orissa to the Coromandel Coast. The Buansu is, in 
size, midway between the wolf and the jackal, being two and a half 
feet long from the tip of the nose to the insertion of the tail, and 
twenty-one inches in average height. It is a slouching, uncompact, 
long, lank animal, with all the marks of uncultivation about it, best 
assimilated in its general aspect to the jackal, but with a something 
inexpressibly, but genuinely, canine in its physiognomy. It has a 
broad flat head and sharp visage, large erect ears, a chest not broad 
nor deep, a shallow compressed barrel somewhat strained at the loins, 
long heavy limbs, broad spreading feet, and a very bushy tail of 
moderate length, straight and carried low. Its coiour is deep rusty 
red above, yellowish below. It stands rather lower before than behind, 
with the neck in the line of the body, the head unelevated, and the 
nose pointed almost directly forwards, the fore limbs straightened, the 
hind stooping, the back inclined to arch, especially over the croup, and 
the tail pendulous. In action the tail is slightly raised, but never so 
high as the horizontal line. Though the Buansu be not deficient in 
speed or power of leaping, yet his motions all seem to be heavy, owing 
to their measured uniformity. He runs in a lobbing long canter, is 
unapt at the double, and, upon the whole, is somewhat less agile and 
speedy than the jackal, very much so than the fox. In general aspect, 
there can be no comparison instituted between the Buansu and the 
fox, but one may illustrate him by such a comparison with the jackal. 
To a rather more full-opened eye, better placed in the head, and pro- 
vided with something like a brow, the Buansu chiefly owes his less 
sinister and more dog-like expression of countenance, the effect being 
aided by a rather better forehead, and less elongated and sharpened 
face. The wild dog's ears are twice as large as the jackal's, his limbs 
considerably longer, and his feet larger and more spread out, not to 
mention the great tufts of floccy hair, with which their soles are pro- 
vided, and of which we find hardly a trace in the jackal's feet. The 
fur, or external covering of the Buansii, consists of wavy wool, and 
straight harsh hair, in summer, in nearly equal proportions, in winter, 
two parts of wool to one of hair. On the body in general, it is longish, 
smoothly directed backwards, and rather loosely applied to the skin, by 


reason of the wool insinuating itself between the interstices of the 
hair, and ascending with it for two- thirds of its length. The hair 
generally has a four-fold annulation of colour, from the base thus, 
whitish, black, deep rusty, black ; the first ring being very small, the 
second and third, large and equal, the fourth, small. The visible effect 
of this distribution and proportion of the colours, aided by the reddish 
blue of the wool, is, that the animal appears to be of a full ferruginous 
red, the two basal rings being invisible, and the terminal one scarcely 
noticeable from its smallness, not to mention that exists only on the 
dorsal surface, and not on the sides, nor of course below, where the 
colour of the animal is yellowish, and no rings are found. The tail 
towards its base is ringed with pale rusty and blackish ; towards its tip 
the hairs are almost or wholly blackish. 

" Of all the wild animals that I know of similar size and habits, the 
Buansu, which is large, gregarious, and noisy in his huntings, is the 
most difficult to be met with. He tenants solely the deepest and most 
solitary forests of this woody and little-peopled region. The woods 
which cover the mountains environing the valley of Nepal Proper, 
afford shelter to numbers of jackals as of other wild animals, but the 
Buansu never was known to enter them, or to approach so near to a 
populous district. This prototype of the most familiar of all quadrupeds 
with man is, in the perfectly wild state, the most shy of his society. I 
never beheld the Buansu myself in the state of freedom, and therefore 
what I am about to say of his manners in that state must rest upon the 
authority of others highly respectable natives, who spoke to what they 
personally knew. 

" The wild dog preys by night and by day, but chiefly by day. Six, 
eight, or ten unite to hunt down their victim, maintaining the chase by 
their powers of smell rather than by the eye. They usually overcome 
their quarry by dint of force and perseverance, though they sometimes 
effect their object by mixing stratagem with direct violence. Their 
urine is peculiarly acrid ; and they are said to sprinkle it over the low 
bushes amongst which their destined victim will probably move, and 
then in secret to watch the result. If the stratagem succeed, they 
rush out upon the devoted animal, whilst half- blinded by the urine, and 
destroy it before it has recovered that clearness of vision which could 
best have enabled it to flee or defend itself. This trick the Buansu 
usually play off upon the animals whose speed or strength might other- 
wise fail them, such as the buffalo, wild and tame, and certain large 
deer and antelopes. Other animals they fairly hunt down, or furiously 
assail and kill by mere violence. In hunting they bark like hounds, 


but their barking is in such a voice as no language can express. It is 
utterly unlike the fine voice of our cultivated breeds, and almost as 
unlike to the peculiar strains of the jackal and of the fox. The Biiansu 
does not burrow like the wolf and fox, but reposes and breeds in the 
recesses and natural cavities of rocks, in the manner of the jackal of 
Nepal. These peculiarities of domicile are probably in a great degree 
the consequences of the respective habitats of the animals in open plains 
or mountain fastnesses; and they doubtless change them when con- 
strained to change their location. There is scarcely a wild animal, 
however large or formidable, which the wild dogs will not sometimes 
attack and destroy ; and tame buffaloes and cows, when grazing in very 
solitary districts, sometimes fall a sacrifice to their ravenous appetite. 
Human beings they are never known to attack, and indeed they seem 
to be actuated by a very peculiar degree of dread of man. Those 
which I kept in confinement, when their den was approached, rushed 
into the remotest corner of it, huddled one upon another, with their 
heads concealed as much as possible. I never dared to lay hands on 
them, but if poked with a stick they would retreat from it as long as 
they could, and then crush themselves into a corner, growling low, and 
sometimes, but rarely, seizing the stick and biting it with vehemence. 
After ten months' confinement, they were as wild and shy as the first 
hour I got them. Their eyes emitted a strong light in the dark, and 
their bodies had the peculiar foetid odour of the fox and jackal in all 
its rankness. They were very silent, never uttering an audible sound 
save when fed, at which time they would snarl in a subdued tone at 
each other, but never fight ; nor did they on any occasion show any 
signs of quarrelsomeness or pugnacity/* 

For many valuable additional details respecting the form aud pecu- 
liarities of this animal, the account of Mr. Hodgson, in the eighteenth 
volume of the Asiatic Researches, may be consulted with advantage. 

The history of the different species and varieties of the genus Canis, 
as dispersed through Continental Asia generally, has been illustrated by 
Colonel Ham. Smith in the Naturalist's Library, with admirable critical 
research and labour. 

102. CUON SUMATRENSIS, Hardwire Sp. 

Canis familiaris, var. sumatrensis, Hardwicke, Trans. Linn. 

Soc. XIII. p. 235, with a figure, Raffles, Trans. 

Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 249. 
Cuon sumatrensis, Gray, Zoology of the Voyage of H. M. 

Ship Samarang, p 16. 


Canis rutilans, Muller, Over de Zoogdieren van den Ind. 

Archip.p. 27 and 51. 
Canis javanicus, Desmar., Mamm. p. 193. 
Wild Dog of Sumatra, Hardw., Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. 

p. 235. Raffles, p. 249. 
WILDE HOND. In Java and Borneo, Muller. 
Assoo (dog) ADJAKH, first variety. 
Assoo KIKKEE, of the Javanese, OESOENG-ESANG, of the 

Sundaese, second variety. 
HAB. Java and Sumatra ; also Borneo, Muller. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

The Wild Dog of the Indian Archipelago is so nearly allied to the 
Wild Dog of Continental India, the Cuon primtevus, that it remains for 
further comparisons of specimens or individuals to determine whether it 
be a distinct species or merely a variety. Its form resembles that of the 
continental dog. 

" The general colour is a foxy ferruginous red, varying to lighter 
shades on the belly and inside of the thighs ; the tail is pendulous, 
bushy, reaching to the leg-joint, and covered with black hair." 
(Hardw., Trans. Linn. Soc.) 

In Java two varieties of the wild dog are found, the Assoo adjak and 
the Assoo-kikkee, or Oesoeng-esang of the natives. The former, Dr. 
Muller informs us, lives chiefly in pairs, and although a savage and un- 
tameable beast, is occasionally seen and captured. The latter is some- 
what smaller in size and of a more cunning and evasive disposition. 
It congregates in packs of about fifteen, pursuing with excessive 
ferocity the Cervus muntjak and wild hogs, which are its principal 
food. During his long residence in the Archipelago, Dr. Miiller could 
never obtain a single specimen, or even a fragment of its hide. Both 
varieties conceal themselves in the most inaccessible parts of large 
forests. My collections from Java contain a single individual scarcely 
adult, which was procured with difficulty in the extensive wilds of the 
eastern parts of Java. 

Genus CANIS, Linn et al. 

103. CANIS AUREUS, Linn. Syst. Nat. XII., I. p. 59 ; 
ed. Gmel. I. p. 72. Desmar., Mamm. p. 200. Fischer, 
Synops. Mamm. p. 184. Syhes, Catal. of Dukliun Mam- 
malia, Pr. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 101. Elliot, Catal of Mamm. 
of S. Mahratta Country, Madr. J. Lit. and Sc. p. 101. 
Bennett, Tower Menagerie, p. 97, with a figure. 


Canis aureus indicus, Hodgson, Asiatic Researches, XVIII. 

p. 232, with a figure. 
Lupus aureus, Kcempfer. 
SRIGALA, Sanskrit. 

Sjechaal persis, inde Anglis the Jackal, et Belgis der Jak- 

hals, K&mpfer, Amoen. exotica, 1712, fas. II. p. 412. 

Schakall, S. C. Gmelins Riese, HI. p. 80. Penn., Quadr. 

I. p. 261. 

Jackal, Shaw, Gen. Zool. I. p. 304. 
JACKHALS, of the Dutch, Kolbe. 
KHOLAH, of the Mahrattas, Sykes. 
KOLAH and SHIGHAL, Dukhani, Elliot. 
NARI, Canarese, Elliot. 

HAB. Southern Russia and Greece, in Europe. In Asia, 
Syria, Persia, and the entire of India westward of the 
A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

" The Jackal of Dukhun," Colonel Sykes informs us, " appears to 
be identical with the Levantine and Persian Jackal. They are nume- 
rous in Dukhun, and are terrible depredators in the Vineyards. They 
are easily domesticated when taken young. I had a very large wild 
male and a domesticated female in my possession at the same time. 
The odour of the wild animal was almost unbearable ; that of the 
domesticated jackal was scarcely perceptible." 

Walter Elliot, Esq., states : " The native sportsmen universally be- 
lieve that an old Jackal, which they call bhalu, is in constant attendance 
on the tiger, and whenever his cry is heard, which is peculiar and dif- 
ferent from that of the Jackal generally, the vicinity of the tiger is con- 
fidently pronounced. I have heard the cry attributed to the bhalu fre- 
quently." (Madras Journ. of Lit. and Sc. X. p. 102.) 

The Jackal surpasses all animals of the canine family in the boldness 
and impudence of its depredations. It prowls at night in packs some- 
times exceeding one hundred in number ; it approaches persons during 
their sleep, and carries off boots, shoes, harness, and all articles made 
of leather. Kotzebue says, " its howl shakes the very soul ; it is, 
besides, very bold, and sneaks during the night into the camp to steal 
the soldiers' boots. When very hungry, it enters churchyards, and 
digs up bodies recently buried." (Travels in Persia, p. 62.) Captain 
Beechey compares the howl of the Jackal to a gigantic musical concert. 
" It must be confessed that it has something in it rather appalling 



when heard for the first time at night ; and as they usually come in 
packs, the first shriek which is uttered is always the signal for a 
general chorus. We hardly know a sound which partakes less of 
harmony than that which is at present in question ; and indeed the 
sudden burst of the answering long protracted scream, succeeding 
immediately the opening note, is scarcely less impressive than the roll 
of a thunder-clap immediately after a flash of lightning." (Travels on 
the Northern Coast of Africa, p. 492.) 

The claim to the authority of the specific name aureus, probably 
belongs to the venerable Ksempfer, whose account of the Lupus aureus 
was published in 1712. His early remarks on the habits of the Jackal 
are fully confirmed by the later writers here quoted. " Astuta, audax, 
et furacissima est, quam ex corporis figura non minus quam ex genio 
non incongrue lupi vulpem vocaveris : interdiu circa montes latet, 
noctu pervigil et vagus est, et catervatim prsedatum excurrit in rura 

et pagos Ululatum noctu edunt execrabilem, ejaculatui humano 

non dissimilem, quern interdum vox latrantium quasi canum interstre- 
pit ; unique inclamanti omnes acclamant, quotquot vocem e longinquo 
audiunt." (Amcen. exoticae, 1712, fasc. II. p. 413.) 

104. CANIS LUPUS, Linn. 

Canis lupus, Elliot, Madras Journ. Lit. and Sc. X. p. 101. 

Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Eeng. XI. p. 596. 
Canis pallipes, Sykes, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 101. 
Landgah, or Indian Wolf, Gray, Catal, Mamm. Br. Mus. 

p. 58. 

LANDGAH, Dukhani, Elliot. Sykes. 
BHERIJA, Hindustani, Shakespear. 
TOLA, Canarese, Elliot. 
HAB. Central and Southern regions of India. 

A. A skin, not quite perfect. Presented by Colonel 


Walter Elliot, Esq., communicates the following information respect- 
ing the Indian Wolf. (Madras Journ. Lit. and Sc. X. p. 101.) 

"' This species does not appear to differ from the common wolf. 
Three young ones which I had alive for some time agreed very much 
with the description of the Canis pallipes of Colonel Sykes, but several 
adults that I shot differed in their colours and general character. The 
head was large, the muzzle thicker, the colours in some cases more in- 
clining to rufous, particularly on the fore legs, which in some cases were 
deep red, and the same colour was found on the muzzle from the eyes 


to the nose. Others have more rufous on the hind legs, together with 
some black on the thighs, rump, and tip of the tail. 

" The wolves of the Southern Mahratta country generally hunt in 
packs, and I have seen them in full chase after the goat antelope (Ga- 
zella arabica) . They likewise steal round the herd of Antilope cervica- 
pra, and conceal themselves on different sides till an opportunity offers 
of seizing one of them unawares, as they approach, whilst grazing, to 
one or other of their hidden assailants. On one occasion, three wolves 
were seen to chase a herd of gazelle across a ravine, in which two 
others were lying in wait. They succeeded in seizing a female gazelle, 
which was taken from them. They have frequently been seen to course 
and run down hares and foxes ; and it is a common belief of the ryots 
that in the open plains, where there is no cover or concealment, they 
scrape a hole in the earth, in which one of the pack lies down and 
remains hid, while the others drive the herd of antelopes over him. 
Their chief prey, however, is sheep, and the shepherds say that part of 
the pack attack and keep the dogs in play, while others carry off their 
prey ; and that, if pursued, they follow the same plan, part turning and 
checking the dogs, while the rest drag away the carcass, till they evade 
pursuit. Instances are not uncommon of their attacking man. In 
1824, upwards of thirty children were devoured by wolves in the 
purgannah of Rone. Sometimes a large wolf is seen to seek his prey 
singly: these are called won-tola, and are reckoned particularly fierce. 

" Length from muzzle to insertion of the tail, 36 to 37 inches ; do. 
of the tail, 16 to 17J inches." 

Colonel Sykes informs us " that the wolves of Dukhun are numerous 
in the open stony plains, but are not met with in the woods of the 

Mr. Hodgson states that " the common wolf is numerous in the 
plains, but he has never seen or heard of them in the Himalayas." 
(J. A. S. B. XI. p. 596.) 

105. CANIS ANTHUS, Fr. Cuv., Mamm. lithogr. fasc. 17. 

Canis anthus, Ruppell, Zool. Atl. p. 44, t. 17. Desmar., 
Mamm. p. 201. Fischer, Synops. Mamm. p. 181. 
Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 59. 
DIEB, Arab. 

HAS. Nubia ; Ruppell. Abyssinia, Harris. Senegal, Fred. 

A. From Sir W. C. Harris's Zoological Collection during 
his Mission to Abyssinia. 


The Canis anthus represents the Canis aureus in certain parts of 
Northern Africa, but according to Ruppell it is rare. It is also found 
in Senegal. It is lighter in colour than the Jackal, inclining to gray, 
and with less of a reddish cast. The abdomen is whitish. The black 
spots on the back are more distinct than in the Jackal ; the neck, near 
its union with the breast, is surrounded by a marked black collar. The 
ears are erect. The limbs are proportionally slender. Of the peculiar 
habits of this species, little is known. Riippell states that the cir- 
cumstances under which he obtained his specimens did not enable him 
to procure any satisfactory information on this head. His figure agrees 
with the specimens procured in Abyssinia by Sir W. C. Harris. 


Canis familiaris, varietas indica. 

Pariah Dog of Dukhun, Sykes, Catal. Dukhun Mamm.p. 6. 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

Colonel Sykes states that " none of the domesticated dogs of Dukhun 
are common to Europe. The Brinjaree Dog somewhat resembles the 
Persian Greyhound in possession of the Zoological Society, but is much 
more powerful. Pariah Dogs are very numerous ; they are not indi- 
vidual property, and breed in towns and villages unmolested." Several 
varieties are enumerated by Colonel Sykes, of which one variety has 
been presented to the Company's Museum. Mr. Hodgson informs us, 
that " tame dogs abound in Tibet, and are much prized by the men for 
guarding the flocks and herds and houses, and by women for petting. 
For the former the Tibetan Mastiff is used ; it is good-tempered, but 
dull and heavy, except in the night watch. The ladies' dogs are Poodles 
and Terriers, many of which are pretty, and have long soft hair. The 
Chinese at Lassa and Digurcha fatten the Poodles for the table." 
(J. A. S. B. XI. p. 278.) 

Genus VULPES, Ray, Brisson, Gray, Hodgson, et al. 
CANIS Species, Linn, et al. 


Vulpes bengalensis, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 61. 
Cat. Hodgs. Coll, p. 11. Button, Rough Notes on the 
Zoology ofCandahar,Journ.As.Soc. Beng. XIV. p. 345. 

Canis bengalensis, Shaw, Gen. Zool. I. p. 330. Fischer, 
Synops. Mamm. p. 192. Elliot, Catal. of Mamm. of 
S. Mahratta Country, Madras Journ. Lit. and Sc. 
p. 102. Gray and Hardw., lllust. Ind. Zool. II. pi. 2. 


Canis kokree, Sykes, Catal. of Dukhun Mamm., Proceed. 

ZooL Soc. 1831,;?. 101. 
Canis rufescens, Gray and Hardw., Illust. Ind. ZooL II. 

pi. 3. Variety, The Doab Fox. 
Vulpes corsac, v. bengalensis, indicus, et kokree, Blyth, 

Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XI. p. 597. Ogilby, Zool. 

App. to Royle's Botany of the Himalayas. 
Vulpes indicus, Hodgson, Classified Catal. of the Mammals 

of Nepal. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XI. p. 908. Calcutta 

Journ. N. H. IV. p. 286. 
KOKREE, of the Mahrattas, Sykes. Elliot. 
KONK, KEMP-NARI, and CHANDAK-NARI, Canarese, Elliot. 
LOMRI and NOMRI, Dukhani, Elliot. 
LOOMREE, Hutton. 

Bengal Dog, Pennant, Quadr. I. p. 260. 
Bengal Fox, Shaw, Gen. ZooL I. p. 330. 

HAB. The entire of India and the adjacent countries, Blyth, 
Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XI. p. 597. 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

B. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

C. A skin in perfect state of preservation. From Grif- 

fiths's Collection. 

D. A skin. From Colonel Sykes's Collection. 

The Bengal Fox varies considerably both in size and colour in dif- 
ferent localities. The general colour is grayish-brown with a fulvous 
cast, passing, in some cases, to Isabella ; it is always variegated above 
by the intermixture of whitish hairs. Colonel Sykes gives the follow- 
ing account of its peculiarities, as observed in Dukhun. "It is a very 
pretty animal, but much smaller than the European Fox. Head, short ; 
muzzle, very sharp. Eyes, oblique ; irides, nut-brown. Legs, very- 
slender. Tail, trailing on the ground, very bushy. Along the back,, 
and on the forehead, fawn-colour, with hair having a white ring near to 
its tip. Back, neck, between the eyes, along the sides, and half-way 
down the tail, reddish-gray, each hair banded black and reddish-white. 
All the legs, reddish outside, reddish-white inside. Chin and throat, 
dirty white. Along the belly, reddish-white. Ears, externally, dark 
brown, and with the fur so short as to be scarcely discoverable. Edges 
of eyelids, black. Muzzle red-brown. Length, twenty-two and twenty- 
two and a half inches ; of the tail, eleven and a half to twelve inches." 

Walter Elliot, Esq., communicates the following particulars : " Its 


principal food is rats, land crabs, grasshoppers, beetles, &c. On one 
occasion a half- devoured mango was found in the stomach. It always 
burrows in open plains, runs with great speed, doubling like a hare ; 
but, instead of stretching out at first like that animal, and trusting to 
its turns as a last resource, the fox turns more at first, and if it can 
fatigue the dogs, it then goes straight away." (Madras Journ. of Lit. 
and Sc. X. p. 102.) 

Capt. Hutton states, it " is common in Cutchee, where, previous to 
the advance of our army from Shikarpore, I have coursed them, with my 
friend Major Leech, late Political Agent at Candahar." (J. A. S. B. 
XIV. p. 345.) 

Mr. J. E. Gray (Catal. of Hodgson's Collection) enumerates the 
Canis corsac of Linnaeus and the Vulpes ferrilatus of Hodgson as syno- 
nyms of the Vulpes bengalensis. 

108. VULPES FLA VESCENS, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. XI. 
p. 118. 

Vulpes flavescens, Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 60. 

Catal. Hodgs. Collect, p. 11. Capt. Thomas Hutton, 

Rough Notes of the Zoology of Candahar, $c., Journ. 

As. Soc. Beng. XIV. p. 344. 

Vulpes montanus, Hodgson (not Pearson), Journ. As. Soc. 

Beng. XI. p. 278. 
ROBUR, in Candahar, Hutton. 

HAB. Afghanistan and Candahar, Hutton. Persia, Gray. 
Tibet and Lassa, Hodgson (J. A. S. B. XL p. 278), 
where it is common. 

A. Griffiths's Collection from Afghanistan. 

Mr. J. E. Gray has given the first description of this species in the 
" Journal and Magazine of Nat. Hist." XI. p. 118. " Tail, yellowish; 
back, rather darker (inclining to brown) ; face, and outer side of fore 
legs, and base of the tail, pale fulvous ; spot on the side of the face, 
just before the eyes, the chin (breast), the front of the fore legs, a 
round spot on the upper part of the hind foot, and the tips of the hairs 
of the tail, blackish ; the ears, externally, black ; end of tail, white." 

Captain Thomas Hutton informs us, that " the species is numerous 
in the valleys around Candahar, hiding in burrows and holes in the 
rocks. The skins are soft, and made into reemchahs and poshteens. 
One specimen measured from nose to insertion of the tail, two feet ; 
tail, seventeen inches; height at the shoulder, fourteen inches. Another 


specimen : length to insertion of tail, two feet ; tail, seventeen inches 
and a half ; height, nearly fifteen inches at the shoulder. 

109. VULPES MONTANUS, Pearson Sp. 

Canis vulpes montana, or Hill Fox, Pearson, Bengal Sport- 
ing Magazine, IV. p. 126, 1836. Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. V. p. 313. (From the Beng. Sport. Mag.) VI. 
;?. 934. Capt. Button's Trip to Burinda Pass in 1836. 

Vulpes montanus, Gray, CataL Hodgs. Collect, p. 12. 
Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XI. p. 589. 

Canis himalaicus, Ogilby, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 103. 
Zool. App. to Royle's Botany of the Himalayas. 

Vulpes nipalensis, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. I. p. 578, New 

Hill Fox, Royle, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. I. p. 99. 

HAS. Nepal, in the central and northern hilly regions ; also 
Tibet, Hodgson. 
A. A skin. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

This species has been carefully described by Dr. Pearson, Mr. Ogilby, 
and Mr. Blyth, in the works here referred to. Its exterior varies 
slightly in different localities. Mr. Blyth's description of one of the 
varieties agrees generally with the specimen contained in the Company's 
Museum, some parts of which are imperfect. " Fur, exceedingly rich, 
dense, and fine, the longer sort measuring fully two inches upon the 
back, and the inner everywhere of considerable length and woolly cha- 
racter. General colour, pale fulvous ; scarcely more than fulvous-white 
over the shoulder-blades, and but little deeper on the sides, the haunches, 
and tail appearing grayish, while the middle of the back is much deeper 
and more rufous- fulvous than the rest, widening on the croup, and 
passing into the grayish appearance of the haunches ; outside of the 

ears, deep (velvety) black to near the base Head, light fulvous, 

mixed with white, and marked as in other foxes ; the darkish streak 
from the eye to the mustachial bristles faint, the latter black, and 
cheeks and jowl white as usual. Limbs, about the same pale fulvous 
as the head, the ordinary mark on the front of the fore-limbs incon- 
spicuous, though indicated by grizzled black and white-tipped hairs ; 
tail, bushy and white-tipped." (J. A. S. B. XI. 589.) 

Captain Hutton informs us, that " during the winter, especially when 
the snow is on the ground, these animals are very numerous about 
Simla, and come close to the houses in search of offal and other prey, 


They breed in the end of March or early in April, and have three or 
four cubs at a birth ; they are not confined to the lower hills, but 
range up to the verge of the snow." (J. A. S. B. VI. p. 934.) 

Dr. Pearson, in his description of the Hill Fox, regrets that nothing 
is known of the habits and manners of this animal. 

B. NECROPHAGA, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. 

Mus. Syst. List, XX. 
c. Viverrina. 

(Continued from p. 54.) 
Genus HERPESTES, IlUger et al 
MANGUSTA, Olivier et al. 
ICHNEUMON, Geoffroy et al. 
VIVERILE et MUSTEL^E, Spec., Linn, et al. 


Ichneumon javanicus, Geoff., in Hist. nat. d'Egypte, II. 

p. 137. 
Herpestes javanicus, Desmar., Mamm. p. 212. Mutter, 

Over de Zoogd. van den Ind. Archip. p. 28. Gray, 

Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 51. Zoology of H. M. S. 

Samarang,p. 14. Cantor, Catal. of Malayan Mamm. 

Mangusta javanica, Horsfield, Zool. Research., with a figure. 

Fischer, Synops. Mamm. p. 164. 
Serpenticida seu Moncus, Rumphii Herbar. Amboin. auct. 

p. 69, t. 28,/. 2, 3. 

Mangouste de Java, Fred. Cuv., Mam. lithogr. 25 me livraison. 
GA RANG AN, of the Javanese. 

HAB. Java and Sumatra, Horsfield, Mutter. Penang and the 
Malayan Peninsula, Cantor. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

The Javanese Herpestes is chiefly distinguished from the other Indian 
species by its darker colour. A ground of saturated chestnut, passing 
with obscure undulations into a deeper tint, is variegated uniformly 
with very numerous short longitudinal lines of a yellowish tawny 
colour. This appearance, which is characteristic of all Herpestes, is 
produced by alternate bands of tawny and brown, of different shades 
on the separate hairs. This tint is uniform on the whole surface, ex- 


cepting the upper parts of the head, the forehead, the muzzle, and 
the feet, which are dark chestnut-brown, with obscure tawny varie- 

In general structure and proportion of limbs and tail, it agrees 
with the other species of this genus ; it is also provided with an 
extensive pouch near the root of the tail, formed by the common 
integuments being greatly distended, and disposed in folds near the 
anal aperture. 

In its habits and manners, the Herpestes javamcus resembles gene- 
rally the other species of this genus. In the " Zoological Researches 
in Java/' the following details are given : " The Garangan is very 
expert in burrowing in the ground, which process it employs ingeniously 
in pursuit of rats. It possesses great natural sagacity, and from the 
peculiarities of its character, it willingly seeks the protection of man. 
It is readily tamed, and in a domestic state it is docile, and attached to 
its master, whom it follows like a dog. It is fond of caresses, and fre- 
quently places itself erect on its hind legs, regarding everything that 
passes with great attention. It is of a very restless disposition, and 
always carries its food to the most retired place in which it is kept to 
consume it. It is very cleanly in its habits. It is exclusively carni- 
vorous and very destructive to poultry, employing great artifice in the 
surprising of chickens. For this reason it is rarely found in a domestic 
state among the natives, as one of their principal articles of food is the 
common fowl, and great quantities are reared in all the villages. The 
Javanese also, like Mohammedans in general, have a great partiality for 
cats, and they are unwilling, in most cases, to be deprived of their 
society, for the purpose of introducing the Garangan." 

This animal, in Java, is chiefly found in large teak forests, at no 
great elevation above the sea. Its agility is greatly admired by the 
natives. It attacks and kills serpents with excessive boldness. Dr. 
S. Miiller, in his remarks on the Mammalia of the Indian Archipelago, 
confirms these statements, and especially notices the courage with which* 
notwithstanding the smallness of its size, it defends itself against every 
enemy, and the blind ardour with which it pursues its prey or attacks 
fowls and ducks during the day, notwithstanding the approach of dogs, 
or the presence of man. (Over de Zoogdieren van den Indischen Ar- 
chipel. p. 28.) 

The venerable Rumphius, in the appendix to his " Herbarium Am- 
boinense," gives a full account of this animal, under the name of Ser- 
penticida. He especially describes its antipathy to serpents, and states 
that, from this propensity, the nobles of Java occasionally amuse them- 



selves with exhibitions of the combats of the two enemies.* He asserts, 
confidently, that the animal, if wounded by a serpent, instinctively 
seeks an antidote in the Ophioxylon serpentinum, which grows plentifully 
in the teak forests of Java. It is observable that the same notion prevails 
on the continent of India with regard to the next species, the Herpestes 

111. HERPESTES GRISEUS, Geo/ry, Sp. 

Ichneumon griseus, Geofr., Nat. Hist. d'Egypte, p. 137. 
Bennett, Tower Menagerie, p. 105. 

Herpestes griseus, Desmar., Mamm. p. 212. Gray, Cat. 
Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 52. Zoology of H. M. S. Sama- 
rang, Mamm. p. 15. Sykes, Catal. Dukhun Mamm. 
Pr. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 102. Cantor, Catal. of Ma- 
layan Mamm. p. 34. Ogilby, Zool. App. to Royle's 
Bot. Illust. p. Ixv. 

Mangusta mungos (et caffra?), Elliot, Cat. Mamm. S. 
Mahratta Country, Madr. Journ. Lit. and Sc. X.p. 102. 

Mangusta grisea, Fischer, Synops. Mamm. p. 164. 

Herpestes pallidus, Schinz, Synops. Mamm. p. 373. 

Viverra mungo, Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. Gmel. I. p. 84. 

Mangutia v. Viverra mungo, Ktempfer, Amcen. exoticce, 
p. 574 ; with a figure, p. 567. 


Mangouste nems, Buff., Hist. Nat. Suppl.III. p. 174. 

The Moongus or Gray Ichneumon. 
HAB. Continental India, and adjacent countries. 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. From Dukhun. 

B. Griffiths's Collection from Afghanistan. 

C. Continental India. 

This species is chiefly distinguished from the former by its larger 
size, grayish colour, and proportionally greater length of tail. In its 
natural state, it is equally bold and sanguinary, and Mr. Bennett 

* " Maxima virtus et officium quod hominibus prsestat, est, quod serpentes occi- 
dat, quern in finem Magnates Javani eum maxime educant, et pro quivis octo vel 
decem nummos imperiales solvunt, ut aliquando ludibrium hujus pugnse videant, 
quse sequent! fit modo. Bini hostes sibi mutuo quum obvii sint, primo tentat anguis 
more suo Mustelam circumvolvere et enecare. Moncus hoc sibi permittit, sed sese 
adeo inflat, ut turgeat, quumque serpens eum complectitur, suoque capite ad eum 
accedit, ut morsum ipsi adferat, turn Moncus corpus suum contrahit, ita ut elabatur, 
at serpentis collum arrodit, ejusque fauces jugulat." 


informs us, that " even in captivity, they retain much of their native 
spirit, and so great is their activity and determination, that the indivi- 
dual now in the Tower actually on one occasion killed no fewer than 
a dozen full-grown rats, which were loosed to it in a room sixteen feet 
square, in less than a minute and a half. They are very easily tamed, 
become attached to those with whom they are familiar, and to the house 
in which they live, and will follow their master about almost like a 
dog." (Tower Menagerie, p. 106.) 

The peculiar antipathy of this animal to serpents, and the means 
it is said to employ to secure itself from the effects of the poison, if 
bitten, is noticed by various authors. Colonel Sykes states ; " It is 
believed by the Mahratta people to have a natural antipathy to serpents, 
and in its contests with them to be able to neutralize the poison from 
the bite of the serpent, by eating the root of a plant called Moongus- 
wail, but no one has ever seen the plant. Probably they allude to the 
Ophiorrhiza mungos." 

Kaempfer observed this species in his travels through Asia, and gives 
the following account of its habits, and of the use it makes of the Radix 
mungo as an antidote : " Est mustelae huic is generis, ut serpentem 
naturali odio prosequatur et velut glirem catus evadat. Tradunt 
igitur si contingat morderi muncum, serpentis astutia roboreque victum, 
relicto hoste, pro alexipharmaco hanc radicem quaerere, et esu ejus 
illico restitutum, certamen reintegrare. . . . Domi alita facile mansuescit : 
habui, quae mecum dormivit et instar caniculi domestici, per urbem et 
campos me secuta est." (Amcen. exotic, p. 574.) 

The plant figured by Rumphius as Radix mustelte appears to repre- 
sent the Ophioxylon serpentinum, but it remains to be determined 
whether the Radix mungo of Kaempfer be the same plant. 


Herpestes nipalensis, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. New Series, I. 
p. 578. Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 52. Catal. Hodg- 
son's Collection, p. 9. Zoology of H. M. S. Sama- 
rang, p. 15. 

Herpestes (Mangusta) auropunctatus, Hodgson, Journ. As. 
Soc. Beng. V. p. 235. Classified Catal. of Nepal 
Mamm., Journ. As. Soc, Beng. X. p. 909. Cantor, 
Catal. of Malayan Mamm. p. 34. McClelland, Pro- 
ceed. Zool. Soc. 1839,;?. 150. 

Herpestes griseus, Hutton, Rough Notes on the Zoology of 
Candahar, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XIV. p. 346. 


(?) Herpestes pallipes, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Eeng. XIV. 
p. 346, note. 

Herpestes Edwardsii, Geoffr., Hist. Nat. d'Egypte, II. 
p. 138. Fischer, Synops. Mamm. p. 165. Blyth, 
Journ. As. Soc. Seng. XIV. p. 346, note (?) Ogilby, 
Zool. App. to Royle's Botany of the Himalayas. 

The Highland Nyula, Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 52. 

MOOSH-KHOORMA, of the Afghans, Hutton. 

The name Neeool, from the Sans. Nakula, is applied indis- 
criminately in different localities to this and the next 

HAB. The hilly regions of Nepal, Hodgson. Assam, McClel- 
land. Malayan Peninsula, Cantor. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

B. McClelland's Collection from Assam. 

C. and D. Two skins. Griffiths's Collection from Afghan- 


" This species is of a uniform olive-brown colour, more or less 
saturate in different individuals, freckled with golden yellow, an aspect 
resulting from the five-fold annulation of each hair, with black and 
aureous ; cheeks more or less rusty ; fur of the body short, soft, and 
adpressed. Tail shorter than the body. Length from snout to rump, 
ten or twelve inches ; tail nine to ten inches and a half." (Hodgson, 
J. A. S. B. VI. p. 236.) It agrees with the Herpestes javanicus in 
having no distinct anal pouch, but the folds of the skin near the root 
of the tail are subdilated, and furnished with some scattered glandular 
points below the surface. 

113. HERPESTES NYULA, Hodgson, 

Herpestes nyula, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. V. p. 236. 
Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 52. Cat. Hodgs. 
Collect, p. 8. 
Herpestes nigula, Hodgs., Classified Catal. of Nepal Mamm. 

Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. IV. p. 287. 
NYUL, or NEEOOL, of the plains, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. 

Beng. V. p. 236. 
HAB. The open Tara'i, Hodgson. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

This species exceeds that last mentioned in size, measuring from 
snout to rump fifteen inches, tail, the same, or eighteen inches with the 


terminal hair. It is clearly distinguished from the other Indian species 
by the character of the hair of the body and tail, which is long, harsh, 
bristly, not closely applied, but diffuse, and marked with numerous 
rings of alternate brown and yellow. The general colour of the body 
is varied with rich red brown and hoary yellow : the ears, face, and 
limbs, redder; the neck and body below, pure pale yellow. Both 
this and the last species affect the cultivated fields when the crops 
are standing, and the grass, after the crops are down. They live in 
burrows of their own making, and the structure of their extremities is 
fossorial, but not typically so ; the nails being suited also to climbing 
trees, at which the animals are sufficiently expert." (Hodgson, Journ. 
As. Soc. Beng. V. p. 236.) 

Genus URVA, Hodgso?i, Gray, et al. 

GULO, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. V. p. 238. 
MESOBEMA, Hodgson, Classified Catal. of Nepal Mamm., 

Journ. As. Soc. Beng. X. p. 910. Calc. J. N. H. 

IV. p. 287. 

114. URVA CANCRIVORA, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. VI. p. 561. Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 50. 
Catal? Hodgs. Collect, p. 8. 

Mesobema (olim Urva) cancrivora, Hodgs. Classif. Catal. 

of Nepal Mamm., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. X. p. 910. 

Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. II. p. 214; IV. p. 287. 
Gulo urva, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. V. p. 238. 

Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. II. p. 458, with a figure. 
? Viverra ? fusca, Gray and Hardw., Illust. Ind. Zoo/. /. 

pi. 5. 
URVA, of the Nepalese, Hodgson. 

HAB. Central Northern regions, Hodgson. Afghanistan, 
Griffith. Arakan, Blyth. 

A. Presented by General T. Hardwicke. 

B. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

C. W. Griffiths's Collection from Afghanistan. 

D. A skin, not perfect. Presented by B. H. Hodg- 

son, Esq. 

E. An imperfect skin, with a reddish aspect. Locality 

The first authentic account of this animal is communicated by B. H. 


Hodgson, Esq., in the fifth volume of the Journal of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal for the year 1836, although specimens were brought to 
England by General Thomas Hardwicke about the year 1824. In the 
sixth volume of the J. A. S. B. Mr. Hodgson gives, in 1837, the 
following brief generic character. " Teeth, as in the genus Herpestes. 
Structure and aspect mediate between Herpestes and Gulo, subvermi- 
form and digitoplantigrade. Snout, elongated, sharpened, and mobile. 
Hands and feet, largish ; with digits connected by large crescented 

membranes. Sole and palm, nude On either side of the root of 

the tail a round, hollow, smooth-lined gland, secreting an aqueous, 
foetid humour, which the animal squirts out posteally with force." 
Vol. VI. p. 561. 

The specimens in the Company's Museum vary considerably in the 
character of the hairy covering. The general colour is jackal, or fulvous 
iron gray : the fur is of two sorts, the interior, next the skin, woolly ; 
the exterior long, straggling, and laxly set on; in some individuals 
triannulated, fulvous, black, and white, constituting a variegated coat, 
spotted white, black, and fulvous ; in others, a tawny tint predominates, 
and the coat is more uniform ; again, others are dark rusty brown, with 
a mixture of gray hairs. The limbs are in all individuals blackish 
brown, with different shades of intensity. The abdomen brown. A 
white stripe extends on either side of the neck, from the ear to the 
shoulder, varying in brightness of tint in different individuals. Termi- 
nal half of the tail rufous or rufous yellow. 

In a fifth imperfect specimen, a rufous tint predominates, and the 
entire tail is reddish. 

In a natural arrangement, this genus follows Herpestes. 

The habits Mr. Hodgson describes as carnivorous and ranivorous : 
dwelling in burrows in the valleys of the lower and central hilly regions 
of Nepal. 

Genus ARCTICTIS, Temminck, Monogr. I. Table Methodique, 
XXI. 1820. 

ICTIDES, Valanciennes. 1825. 
PARADOXURL, Spec., Fr. Cuv. et al. 
VIVERR^E, Spec., Raffles, 

115. ARCTICTIS BINTURONG, Fischer, Synops. Mamm. 
p. 157. 

Arctictis binturong, Temm., Monogr. II. p. 308, with a 
figure of the skeleton and skull. Cantor, Catal. of 
Malayan Mamm. p. 22. Gray, Catal. of Mamm. Br. 


Mus. p. 54. Zoology of H. M. S. Samarang, p. 15. 

Schinz, Synops. Mamm. p. 313. 
Arctictis penicillatus, Temm., Tydschrift. Mtiller, Over 

de Zoogd. van den Ind. Archip. p. 32. 
Ictides, Fr. Cuv., Dents des Mammif. p. 104, pi. 34, bis. 
Ictides ater, Fr. Cuv., Mammif. III., the male. 
Ictides albifrons, Valanciennes, Ann. des Scien. Nat. IV. 

p. 57, pi. 1, the female. 
Paradoxurus albifrons, Fr. Cuv., Mamm. du Mus. IX. 

p. 41, with a figure. Desmar., Mamm. Suppl. p. 540, 

the female. 
Viverra ? binturong, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. 

p. 253. 

BINTURONG, in Sumatra and Java. 
UNTURUNG, of the Malays of the Peninsula, Cantor. 
MYOUK, or Monkey Tiger, Burma, Capt. McLeod. 

HAB. Malacca, Farquhar. Sumatra, Raffles. Java and 
Sumatra, Temminck. Malacca, Tenasseriin, and Ara- 
can, Cantor and Capt. McLeod. Assam, M. Delanau- 
gerede. Nepal, Btyth, Report, tyc., Journ. As. S. B. 
X.p. 918. 

A. An adult male, from Finlayson's Collection during 
the Mission of J. Crawfurd, Esq., to Siam. 

The Binturong constitutes a distinct genus in the system of Mam- 
malia. In the general form of the skull it resembles the genus Meles, 
although the relative position and union of the separate bones are formed 
on the type of Paradoxurus. The skeleton is comparatively slender, and 
the number of caudal vertebrae is greater than in Paradoxurus. Several 
other particulars of the osseous structure are enumerated by M. Tern- 
minck (Monogr. II. p. 307). 

The head is proportionately bulky ; the muzzle short, attenuated, and 
somewhat turned up at the nose ; the lips are armed with long stout 
bristles, whitish at the base, which, as they diverge, form a peculiar 
radiated circle round the face, giving the countenance a striking and 
remarkable aspect. The eyes are large, black, and prominent ; the 
ears short, rounded, edged with white, terminated by tufts of black 
hair. The body, long and heavy, low on the legs, and the general 
appearance and habit slow and crouching. The tail is nearly as long 
as the body, and partially prehensile. The hairy covering is long, 


rough, straggling, diverging, and very copious. The feet, strictly 
plantigrade; the toes, five on each foot, provided with short, half 
retractile, compressed, and strongly curved claws. 

Teeth : incisive, -J ; canine, ^- - 1 ; grinders, J- - |. 

The canines, in both jaws, are stout : those in the upper jaw, very 
long, compressed at the base, with a longitudinal groove in the exterior 

The genus Arctictis is arranged by Mr. Gray, in his " Systematic 
List of the Genera of Mammalia, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. XX.," among 
the Necrophaga viverrina, near Paradoxurus, \vhich genus it resembles 
in its osseous structure ; it deviates, however, from the type of viverrina 
in the more strictly plantigrade character of the feet, in the partially 
prehensile tail, and in other points of structure in which it approaches 
Ailurus and Cercoleptes of the Ursina. Its final situation, in a natural 
arrangement, depends on further comparisons and discoveries. One 
species only is at present clearly defined ; the Arctictes binturong of 
Fischer, or the Ictides ater of Fred. Cuv. : the Arctictis (Ictides) 
albifrons of Valanc., according to M. Temminck, is the female 
binturong, and the Ictides aureus of Fred. Cuv. is, according to 
Mr. Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. X. 919, "a veritable Paradoxurus." 

The specimen in the Company's Museum, which is an adult, measures 
from the nose to the root of the tail, two feet nine inches ; the tail is 
two feet three inches long. The general colour throughout is of the 
deepest black, with the exception of a whitish border to the ears and a 
few brown hairs scattered on the head above, and the anterior face of 
the fore legs. The hairy covering generally is long, rigid, and diverging, 
giving the animal a rough appearance ; the tail is monstrously thick at 
the base, tapering to a point, with bristly, straggling hairs, exceeding 
those of the body in length. 

The Binturong is a nocturnal animal, living solitary and concealed in 
the most secluded forests and mountains. It is by no means common. 
M. Temminck states, " That the Dutch naturalists found it only about 
ten or twelve times in Java, and only once in Sumatra. The indi- 
viduals were observed during the day on trees, slowly creeping along 
large branches, and aiding themselves in their progress by the prehensile 
tail. Their gait is very slow and lingering, with measured steps. If 
not in search of food during the day, they lie in a torpid state, between 
the forks of branches, the body rolled up as a ball, surrounded by the 
tail and covered with thick foliage. If suddenly surprised, Dr. Miiller 
informs us, they were restless and anxious, more inclined to creep away 
than to save themselves with courage and energy." Their howl, 


according to Dr. Cantor, is loud, resembling that of some of the 
Malayan Paradoxuri. 

The Binturong is omnivorous : plants, fruit, raw meat, small quadru- 
peds, birds, and insects, constitute its principal food : sugar-cane is a 
most favourite article ; and Dr. Miiller states that in the forests of 
Java and Sumatra, which it seeks for its abode, the wild vegetable 
productions supply its principal nourishment. In its habits it appears 
to be more mild and retiring than the viverrine animals generally, 
showing less of a sanguinary disposition. Dr. Cantor states, that when 
taken young it is easily tamed ; and the third volume of the Calcutta 
Journal of Natural History contains the following account of an indi- 
vidual brought to Calcutta from Goalpara : " The specimen is a young 
male. It is perfectly docile and tame, passing in and out of its cage 
and climbing up the arm when extended to it. Its movements are 
peculiarly gentle and graceful, often standing erect on the hind feet, 
and generally using the tail as a support, twining it round some adjoin- 
ing object. Its manners are playful, like those of a bear, affecting to 
bite and use its claws. Its food consists of plantains, bread and milk, 
and raw meat. It has vertical pupils, and appears to sleep much during 
the day, becoming more lively at night." (C. I. N. H. III. p. 410.) 

The discovery of the Binturong is due to Major Farquhar, who 
obtained an individual at Malacca, and communicated an account of it, 
with a specimen and drawing, to the Asiatic Society. This account 
not having been made public, it became the privilege of SirT. S. Raffles 
to give the first authentic description of the animal in his Catalogue of 
Sumatran and Malayan Mammalia, printed in the thirteenth volume of 
the Trans, of the Linn. Society, where he states (p. 253), " It may be 
interesting to give the following particulars as furnished to me by that 
gentleman (Major Farquhar), in whose possession I saw a living 
specimen in 1819." From the account here given the substance has 
been extracted above. 

About this time M. Duvaucel noticed a living specimen in the mena- 
gerie of the Governor- General at Barackpore, near Calcutta, probably 
the individual presented by Major F. ; of which he made a drawing and 
description for M. Cuvier, which was published in the forty-fourth fasc. 
of the Mammif. of F. Cuv. and Geoffr. M. Temminck gives a copious 
description of the Binturong in the second volume of his Monographs ; 
it is also mentioned by Dr. Sal. Miiller, in his work Over de Zoogd. van 
den Ind. Archip. p. 32. Brief notices are also given in the Journ. As. 
Soc. Calc. X. p. 917-8, by Mr. Blyth, and in the second and third 
volumes of the Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. pp. 458 and 410 respectively. 


Genus MARTES, Cw. 9 TaU. elem. 1797. 

MUSTELJS, Spec., Boddart, Shaw, Fischer, et al. 

116. MARTES FLAVIGULA, Boddcert, 8p. 

Martes flavigula, Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 64. 

Catal. Hodgs. Collect, p. 12. Zoology of H. M. S. 

Samarang, p. 17. Hodgson, Journ. As. Sue. Beng. 

X.p. 909 ; XI. p. 281. 
Mustela flavigula, Bodd., Elench. p. 88. Fischer, Synops. 

Mamm. p. 218. Bennett, Card, and Menag. Zool. 

Soc. p. 225, with a figure. Mailer, Over de Zoogd. 

van den Ind. Archip.p. 30. Schinz, Synops. Mamm. 

p. 335. Shore, Zool. Journ. V. p. 271. Cantor, 

Catal. Malayan Mamm. p. 24. 

Mustela Hardwickii, Horsfield, Zool. Journ. IV. p. 238. 
Mustela leucotis, Ham. Smith, in Griffith's A. K. 
Mustela quadricolor, Shaw, gen. Zool. I. 2, p. 429. 
White-cheeked Weasel, Penn., Quadr. IT. p. 52. 
Marte a gorge doree, Desmar., Mamm. p. 185, No. 4. 
MULL-SAMPRAH, in the Nepal or Newar language, Hard- 


TOOTORALJE, in Kumaun and Gurhwall. 
KOSEAH and KOOSIAR, in Sirraoor, Shore. 
ANGA PRAO, of the Malays, Cantor. 
Der Kusiar, Schinz. 

HAB. Nepal, Hardwicke. Nepal and Tibet, Hodgson. Ku- 
maon, Gurhwall, and Sirmoor, Shore. Malayan Penin- 
sula, Cantor. Java and Sumatra, Muller. 

A. Presented by Major-General T. Hardwicke. 

B. Presented by J. T. Pearson, Esq. 

C. D. Two dried specimens, from Captain E. Strachey's 

Collection from Tibet and Kumaon. 

Several skins from various localities. 

The earliest account of this animal is given by Pennant in the first 
edition of his History of Quadrupeds, published in 1781. Pennant 
observed one in Brooke's Menagerie in the year 1774, and named it 
White- cheeked Weasel : the place whence the animal was obtained was 
not ascertained. In 1785 Boddaert introduced it into his " Elenchus 


Animalium" with the name of Mustela flavigula, probably adapted from 
Pennant's description : for this name Shaw substituted that of Mustela 
quadricolor, General Zoology, I. p. 2, p. 429. From this period the 
animal was passed over or considered as doubtful by zoologists until the 
year 1824, when Maj.-Gen. T. Hardwicke brought to England a 
skin which he presented to the Museum of the East-India Company. 
This was described in the fourth volume of the Zoological Journal by 
Horsfield, who, overlooking Pennant's original description, named it 
Mustela Hardwickii. Within late years the animal has been frequently 
brought to Europe, both living and dried. 

A living specimen, presented by the Hon. Captain Shore to the Zoo- 
logical Society, is described by E. J. Bennett, Esq., in the " Gardens 
and Menagerie" of the Society. Mr. B. gives a satisfactory account 
of the general history and external colouring, with the following remarks 
on its habits. " Our specimen," he states, " is extremely tame, good- 
tempered, playful, and familiar. It partakes in a slight degree of the 
unpleasant odour remarkable in some other animals of the family, and 
of which the Polecat affords the most notorious example." (Gard. and 
Menag. p. 228.) 

The Hon. Capt. Shore informs us that this animal is found in 
Kumaon, Gurhwall, and part of Sirmoor. " It chiefly frequents the 
warm valleys, but is also found on the higher ridges, where the climate 
is perhaps as warm as the middle of France. It lives in holes, or in 
trees, in climbing which it is excessively active. Its food is chiefly 
birds, rats, mice, hares, and even young fawns of the Kakur or Barking- 
deer. The specimen sent to the Zoological Society was brought to me 
in September, 1828, when it was about four months old. It had been 
caught when not many days old, and was so tame, that it was always 
kept loose about a well, sporting about the windlasses, posts, &c., and 
playing tricks with the people who came to draw water." General 
Hardwicke obtained his specimen from Nepal, and Capt. R. Strachey 
observed it in Kumaon at an elevation of 7,000 feet. 

Dr. S. Miiller notices as a remarkable fact, that in Sumatra, this 
animal inhabits low, marshy wilds, while in Java it is only very rarely 
met with on the tops of the highest mountains. 

117. MARTES GWATKINSII, Jardine, Sp., Nat. Libr. 
I. p. 167. 

Galidictis chrysogaster, Jard., Nat. Libr. 

Gvvatkins' galidictis, Jardine, Naturalist's Library, I. p. 167 . 


HAB. Peninsula of India, Elliot. Mussoorie, in the Hima- 
layas, Reynolds GwatMns, Esq. 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

This is as yet a rare species, and two specimens only appear to be 
recorded in collections ; one of these has been sent from Madras by 
Walter Elliot, Esq., to Colonel Sykes, who presented it to the Museum 
of the East-India Company ; the other is described by the editor of the 
Naturalist's Library (Mammalia, vol. I.), from a specimen obtained at 
Mussorie, in the Himalayas, by Reynolds Gwatkins, Esq. In this work it 
is classed in the genus Galidictis of J. Geoffr., the type of which is 
Viverra fasciata (Gmelin, Linn. Syst. Nat. I. 92), the Chat sauvage a 
bandes noires, Sonnerat, II. 2, p. 193. I have not adopted this determin- 
ation, from the following reasons : Our specimen agrees in all points so 
closely with the Martes Flavigula, described in the last article, that at 
first sight it appears to the observer to be a mere variety of that 
species ; the general contour of the body, the distribution of colours, 
the form of the head, and proportion of the tail, are the same ; the 
dimension also agrees with that species, and the markings of the throat 
and breast are similar. 

In both species the body is long and slender, being more robust and 
elevated at the rump, gradually tapering towards the shoulders ; the 
neck slender ; head conical, of moderate length, somewhat compressed 
above, abruptly terminated. The external markings, respectively, are 
the following : 

In the Martes flavigula the head, nose, and upper lip, the sides of 
the face, including the ears, the back of the neck, the hair and adjacent 
parts of the body and limbs, both within and without, are of a deep 
shining black ; the chin and lower jaw are white ; the throat and breast 
yellow ; the depth of the tints varying in different individuals ; the 
body is brownish, or of a sandy testaceous colour, varying in certain 
dispositions to the light. 

In the Martes Gwatkinsii the general colour throughout is black ; 
the depth of the colour, however, varies in different parts, being more 
intense on the head and extremities. On the body and abdomen a shade 
of deep chestnut-brown is perceptible, and some of the hairs being of a 
greyish tint, these parts are slightly variegated in a certain aspect. 
The chin and lower jaw are pure white ; the throat, breast, and anterior 
part of the abdomen are yellow, inclining to orange. On each side of 
the chin, between the gape and the ears, is a round black spot, nearly 
half an inch in diameter. In the figure contained in the Naturalist's 


Library, the colour of the abdomen is yellowish orange ; this colour, in 
the specimen of the Company's Museum, although apparent at the 
union of the breast and abdomen, does not extend over the whole of 
the under parts : further comparisons are therefore required to illus- 
trate the character of this rare species. 

118. MARTES ABIETUM, Ray, Syn. Qttadr. p. 200. 

Mustek martes, Linn. Syst. Nat. 12, I. p. 67, ed. Gmel. 

I. p. 95. Desmar., Mammal, p. 181. Fischer, 

Synops. Mamm. p. 124. Schinz, Syn. Mamm. I. 

p. 335. 

Viverra martes, Shaw, Gen. Zoo/. /. 2, p. 410. 
Pine martin (marten), Pennant, Quadr. II. p. 41. Shaw, 

Gen. Zool. I. 2, p. 410. Bell, History of British 

Quadrupeds, p. 174, with a figure. Bennett, Gard. 

and Menag. Zool. Soc. p. 229. Gray, Cat. Mamm. 

Br. Mus. p. 63. 

La Marte, Buffon, Hist. Nat. VII. p. 190. 
HAB. Ladak and Upper Himalaya, Captain R. Strachey. 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

B. C. D. Three skins from Captain R. Strachey's Collec- 

tion in Tibet and Ladakh. 

The specimens of this species contained in the Company's Museum 
resemble in form and external colouring the Pine Marten of northern 
Europe and Asia, while the animal in its habits and mode of life agrees 
with the Beech Marten. The colour of the body and head above is 
light yellowish gray, rather deeper in a line along the back ; the hair 
brown ; the extremities blackish ; the chin, throat, and breast are pure 
white. The size, form of the head, and the relative proportions of the 
tail and extremities, are also those of the Pine Marten, which has been 
ascertained by a careful comparison at the British Museum. The 
inner fur is soft, woolly, and copious ; the outer, longer, yellowish, and 
darker towards the point. Our specimens combine the peculiarities of 
the Pine and Beech Martens respectively, and lead to the conclusion 
that both are mere varieties of one species. 

The question of their individuality is ably discussed by Mr. Bell in 
his History of British Quadrupeds, and by Mr. Bennett in the Gardens 
and Menagerie of the Zoological Society of London. Systematic 
writers generally separate them ; but both the authors mentioned allow 
the difficulty of pointing out a clear specific distinction between the 
Pine and Beech Marten. 


Capt. R. Strachey found this species both in Ladakh and on the 
Himalayas, at an elevation of 11,500 feet above the ocean, where it 
lives chiefly in the villages of the inhabitants. 

Genus MUSTELA, Linn., Fischer, Gray, et al 
VIVKRR.E, Species, Shaw et al. 
PUTOBII, Spec., G. Cuv. et al. 

Journ. As. Soc. Beng. IV. p. 702. 

Mustek kathiah (v. auriventer), Hodgs., Classif. Cat. of 
Nepal. Mamm., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. X. p. 909. 
Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. IV. p. 287. Gray, Cat. 
Hodgs. Coll. p. 13. Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 66. 
Schinz, Synops. Mamm. p. 341. Ogilby, Zool. App. 
to Royle's Bot. Illust. p. 65. 
KATHIAH, Nyul, Nepal, Hodgson. 

HAB. Kachar of the northern region, Hodgson. Bootan, 
Major Pemberton. 

A. Pemberton's Collection from Bootan. 

B. A skin. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

B. H. Hodgson, Esq., who discovered this beautiful weasel during his 
residence at the court of Katmandu, gives a full account of it in 
the fourth volume of the J. A. S. B. p. 71. Its specific character is 
" deep rich brown above, golden yellow below, chin whitish. Tail, 
limbs, and ears concolorous with the body above. Tail cylindrico- 
tapered, and half the length of the animal. Snout to rump, 10 inches ; 
tail (less hair) 5 inches." 

" This beautiful little creature," Mr. H. continues, " is exceedingly 
prized by the Nepalese for its service in ridding houses of rats. It is 
easily tamed, and such is the dread of it common to all murine animals, 
that not one will approach a house wherein it is domiciled. Rats and 
mice seem to have an instinctive sense of its hostility to them, so much 
so, that, as soon as it is introduced into a house, they are observed to 
hurry away in all directions, being apprised, no doubt, of its presence 
by the peculiar odour it emits. Its ferocity and courage are made 
subservient to the amusement of the rich, who train it to attack large 
fowls, geese, and even goats and sheep. The latter, equally with the 
former, fall certain sacrifices to its agility and daringness. So soon 
as it is loosed, it rushes up the fowl's tail, or goat's leg, and seizes the 
great artery of the neck, nor ever quits its hold till the victim sinks 
under exhaustion from loss of blood. 


" The Kathiah has the true vermiform structure of the typical muste- 
line animals ; its head, neck, and body fonning a continuous equable 
cylinder. Its action is purely digitigrade, and even the palms and soles 
of its extremities are clad in hair beyond the limits of the lines defining 

the digits, and the balls supporting them and the wrists." " The 

fur is short, shining, and adpressed ; that of the tail being a little 
longer. The tail itself is just half the length of the animal, and is 

slender, round, and tapering." " A horribly offensive, yellowish 

gray fluid exudes from two openings placed at the root of the tail." 


Mustela Hodgsoni, Gray, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. XI. 

1843, p. 118. Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 66. 
HAB. Himalaya, Gray. Afghanistan, Griffith. 
A. Griffith's Collection from Afghanistan. 

" Fur yellowish brown, rather paler beneath ; upper part and side of 
the head much darker; face, lips, chin, and throat varied with white; 
tail elongate ; rather more than half as long as the body and head, and 
bushy towards the extremity." (Gray, Annals and Magazine of Nat. 
Hist. Vol. XI. p. 118.) 


Mustela Horsfieldii, Gray, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. XI. 
1843,;?. 118. Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 67. 

HAB. Bootan, Major Pemberton. 

A. Pemberton's Collection from Bootan. 

" Uniform dark blackish brown, very little paler beneath ; middle of 
the front of the chin, and the lower lips white ; whiskers black ; tail 
slender, blackish at the tip, half as long as the body and head." (Gray, 
Annals and Magazine of Nat. Hist. Vol. XI. p. 118.) 

LANA, Hodgs. Jour. As. Soc. Beng. VI. 2, p. 563. 

Mustela subhemachalana, Hodgs. Classif. Cat. of Nepal. 
Mamm., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. X. 2, p. 909 ; XI. 
p. 280. Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. IV. p. 287. Gray, 
Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 67. Cat. Hodgs. Coll. p. 13. 
Schinz, Syn. Mamm. p. 342. 

HAB. Tibet and the Himalayas, Hodgson. 

A. A skin, from B. H. Hodgson's Collection. 


B. H. Hodgson, who discovered this animal in Nepal, gives the 
following description of it in the sixth volume of the Journal of the As. 
Soc. Beng. Part II. p. 563-4 : " Eleven and half to twelve inches long 
from snout to base of tail ; tail five and half inches or six and half, with 
the terminal hair ; uniform bright brown, darker along the dorsal line ; 
nose, upper lip, and forehead, with two inches of the end of the tail, 
black-brown ; mere edge of upper lip, and whole lower jaw, hoary. A 
short longitudinal white stripe, occasionally, on the front of the neck, 
and some vague spots of the same laterally, the signs, I suspect, of 
immaturity. Feet frequently darker than the body, or dusky brown ; 
whiskers dark. Fur close, glossy, and soft ; of two sorts, or fine hair 
and soft wool : the latter, and the hair basally, of dusky hue, but the 
hair externally bright brown. Head, ears, and limbs more closely clad 
than the body ; tail more laxly, and tapering to the point." 

123. MUST EL A ALP IN A, Gebler, Sp. 

Putorius alpinus, Gebler, Mem. de la Soc. Imp. de Moscow, 

VI. p. 215. 

Mustek alpina, Fischer, Syn. Mamm. p. 220. Gray, Cat. 
Mamm. B. Mus. p. 67. Schiuz, Syn. Mamm. p. 341. 
Mustela altaica, Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. I. 98. 
Putorius alpinus, Griff. Anim. Kingd. V. 340-2. 
HAB. The Altai Mountains, Gebler, Pallas, Tibet, Capt. 
A. From Capt. Strachey's Collection. 

General colour sulphureous ; brownish above, yellowish underneath ; 
chin white. Length of the head and body, nine, and of the tail, five 

124. MUSTELA ERMINE A, Linn. 8yst. Nat. 12, 1. p. 68, 
ed. Gmel I. p. 98. 

Mustela erminea, Fischer, Syn. Mamm. p. 222. Desmar. 
Mamm. /?. 180. Bell, British Quadrupeds, p. 148. 
Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 65. Cat. Hodgs. 
Collec.p. 13. Hodgson, Classif. Cat. of Nepal Mam- 
malia, J. A. S. B. X. 909. Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. 
IV. p. 287. Notice of Tibet, Mamm. J. A. S. B. XI. 
p. 280; VI. p. 9,564. 

Viverra erminea, Shaw, Gen. Zool. I. Part II. p. 426. 

Stoat and Ermine, Pennant, Quadr.II.p. 35. Shaw, Gen. 
Zool. I. Part II. p. 426. Bell, Br. Quadr. p. 148. 


Hermine et Roselet, Buff., N. Hist. VII. p. 240. 

HAB. Nepal, Himalaya, and Tibet, Hodgson. Afghanistan, 

A, Griffith's Collection in Afghanistan. 

Although the Ermine appears to be extensively distributed through 
the districts mentioned above, a single specimen only, contributed by 
Griffith's researches in Afghanistan, is contained in the Company's 
Museum. In exterior it greatly resembles the animal as it occurs in 
Northern Europe and Asia, although the colour of the fur is less clear 
and brilliant, the specimen not being quite adult. The skull of our 
specimen agrees in all particulars closely with the skulls from various 
localities contained in the British Museum. 

Besides the species of Mustela here described, several others are 
found in Northern India ; namely, Mustela canigula, Hodgson, described 
in Vol. XI. p. 279, Journ. As. Soc. Beng., and Mustela sarmatica, 
Pallas, SpiciL Zool. XIV. t. 4, f. 1, observed and collected in Candahar 
by Capt. Thos. Hutton, who gives various interesting details of its 
external appearance and habits in the fourteenth volume of the Journ. 
As. Soc. Beng. pp. 346 to 352. 

Genus PUTORIUS, G. Cuv., Gray, Hodgson, et al. 
MUSTEL^E Species, Linn, et al. 

125. PUTORIUS TIBETANUS, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. XV II I. p. I. p. 446. 

? Mustela Eversmanni, Lesson, Man. p. 144. Schinz, Syn. 

Mamm. I. p. 339. 

Mustela Putorius, Linn. Fischer, Syn. Mamm. p. 219. 
Black-faced Polecat of Tibet, Hodgs. I. c. 

HAB. Ladakh, Captain Strachey. Utsang, near the northern 
boundary of Nepal, Hodgson. 

A. Capt. Strachey's Collection in Ladakh. 

The specimen of this animal, described by Mr. Hodgson in the 
eighteenth volume of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, was 
obtained with other Tibetan quadrupeds at Utsang beyond the northern 
boundary of Nepal : a second specimen was procured by Captain R. 
Strachey in Ladakh, north of Kumaon. These both agree in external 
character. Mr. Hodgson points out the near resemblance to the 
European Polecat, of which he considers it to be the Tibetan analogue. 




From the description and figure of Mr. Hodgson, it appears that the 
character of the Tibetan animal consists in the marked separation of 
the light and dark parts of the external covering. He gives the follow- 
ing specific character. " Fur long ; above and laterally sordid fulvous, 
deeply shaded on the back with black. Below, from throat backwards, 
with whole limbs and tail, black. Head pale, with a dark mark over 
the face. Snout to vent fourteen inches : head less three ; tail six, 
with terminal hair seven. Palma one and three-quarters : planta two 
and three-eighths." (J. A. S. B. XVIII. p. 448.) Mr. H. further gives 
a detailed account of the structural peculiarities of his specimen from 
Central Tibet, which apply strictly to our specimen ; and the skulls of 
both agree in all points. Of the habits nothing is communicated. 
Further comparisons are required to confirm the distinctness of the 
animal, and its specific rank. 

Genus HELICTIS, Gray, Proceed. Zool Soc. 1831, p. 94. Schinz 
et al 

GULONIS species, Horsfield, Hodgson, Desmar., et al. 
MYDAI Spec., Fischer, Temminck, Muller, et al. 
126. HELICTIS ORIENTALIS, Horsfield, Spec. 

Gulo Orientalis, Horsfield, Zool. Research. Desmar., 

Mamm. Suppl. p. 537. 
Mydaus orientalis, Muller, Over de Zoog. v. d. Ind. ArcJiip. 

p. 27. 
Helictis orientalis, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. Additional 

species, p. 195. 

Mydaus macrourus (Kuhl), Fischer, Synops. Mamm. p. 155. 
Temminck, Tabl. me'th. des Mammif. in Monogr. 
p. XX. gen. XV. (Genus Mydaus, F. Cuv., deux 
especes, M. Meliceps, qui a servi de type, et Gulo 
orientalis de M. Horsfield, que je propose de nommer 
Mydaus macrourus, Kuhl.) 
NYENTEK, of the Javanese, Horsfield. 
BIEOEL, of the Sundanese, Muller. 

HAB. Java, Horsfield, Muller, Tafel der Zoogd. v. d. Ind. 
Archip. en hunner verspreidung. 
A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

Mr. J. E. Gray, who established this genus (Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1831, 
p. 94),* observes, " This genus, which inhabits Eastern Asia, has the 

* Dentes pri mores g : laniarii T T : molar es f - ; carnivori T - T , in maxilla 
superior! 3-lobati, cum processu interno sub central! lato 2 -acuminate : tuberculares 


general appearance and colouring of Mydaus, combined with a dentition 
resembling that of Gulo or Mustela, but differing from both the latter 
genera in the large internal central lobe of the upper carnivorous tooth." 
This character was drawn from the Hel. moschata, Gray. An ana- 
logous structure of the upper carnivorous tooth, somewhat modified, 
exists in the Javanese species of Helictis, which is described in the 
article Gulo orientalis, Horsfield's Zool. Research, in Java, &c. 

" The Helictis orientalis is somewhat smaller than the English Pole- 
cat. The form of its body, in comparison with the Gluttons, is rather 
slender : it is chiefly covered with fur consisting of long hairs closely 
arranged, silky at the base, of a brown colour, and somewhat glossy, 
with a slight tint of reddish brown ; in certain lights it appears diversi- 
fied, grayish and tawny. This fur covers greatest part of the body and 
head, and the whole of the tail and extremities ; the colour of these 
parts is consequently brown, or reddish brown, with occasional shades 
of rufous and tawny : the sides of the head, the neck, the throat, breast, 
and a broad spot on the top of the head, which passes, gradually 
decreasing in breadth, to the middle of the back, are white, with an 
obscure tint of Isabella yellow, of different degrees of intensity : this 
colour also exists, less distinct, in a longitudinal band along the lowest 
part of the abdomen. From the posterior angle of the eye, a narrow 
dark brown band passes in a curve towards the throat, and returns 
again to the posterior part of the ear, where it unites to the lobe. On 
the forehead, between the eyes, is a transverse band, of a grayish hue, 
united to an obscure longitudinal streak, which extends along the 
summit of the head, from the region of the eyes to the crown. The 
borders of the upper jaw and of the ear are whitish. The head is rather 
small and compressed, and the face gradually tapers to an obtuse nose. 

" The limbs, both anterior and posterior, are slender, and the feet 
agree in structure with those of the other animals belonging to the 
first tribe of the family of Carnivores ; the soles are naked, and formed 
for the plantigrade mode of walking. Each foot is provided with five 
claws, which are horny, transparent, compressed, curved, and larger on 
the fore than on the hind feet. They are regular in their dimensions ; 
those of the middle toe are longest ; they are somewhat shorter on the 
index and on the fourth toe, but equal one to the other ; on the thumb 
and small toe they are smallest. The thumb is placed somewhat behind 
the other toes. Although the claws have considerable resemblance to 

\ \ superiores mediocres transversi, inferiores exigui. Caput elongatum. Pedes 
breves ; plantse ad calcaiieum fere nudse : digit! 5 5 ; ungues validee, anteriores 
longae compressae. (fossoriae H.). Cauda cylindrica mediocris. 


those of Mydaus, and are formed for perforating the ground, they differ 
in being shorter, more compressed laterally, and more suddenly curved. 
The tail is nearly half the length of the body ; it is somewhat bushy, 
and terminated by long bristly hairs/' 

In the Dutch Catalogues of Zoology this animal is arranged in the 
genus Mydaus : it is however more nearly allied to the genus Helictis, 
which Mr. Gray has more recently defined in the characters above 
detailed. Dr. S. Miiller also confirms the propriety of separating the 
two genera by stating the peculiarities of the habits of the Helictis 
orientalis as differing from Mydaus in a more strictly carnivorous 
character, in which it resembles Canis, Lutra, and Herpestes, living 
more exclusivley on small mammalia and birds. It does not diffuse 
that intolerably fetid exhalation which so remarkably characterizes the 
Mydaus ; nor is it confined to an elevation of six to seven thousand 
feet above the level of the ocean, but also descends to the valleys and 
declivities of mountains. 

" This animal is more solitary and circumscribed in its range than 
any other of the quadrupeds that have come under my observation in 
Java; I obtained but one specimen in the southern declivities of 
Mountain Prahu. It appears to be confined to the western part of the 
island." (Horsf. Zool. Res. in Java.) 

127. HELICTIS NIPALENSIS, Hodgs. spec. 

Gulo nipalensis, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. V. 237. 

VI. p. 560. 
Helictis nipalensis, Hodgs., Classif. Cat. of Nepal. Mamm. 

Journ. As. Soc. Beng. X. p. 909. Calc. Journ. Nat. 

Hist. IV. p. 287. Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. 

p. 69. Cat. Hodgs. Coll. p. 14. Schinz, Syn. 

Mamm. I. p. 328. 

Gulo orientalis, Hodgs., Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1834,^. 96. 
Das Nepaulische Spitzfrett, Schinz. 

HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. 

A. A skin, presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

B. H. Hodgson, Esq., who discovered this animal in Nepal, gives the 
following description of it in the fifth volume of the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, pp. 237-8 : " Above, earthy brown : below, 
with the edge of the upper lip, the insides of the limbs, and terminal 
half of the tail, yellow ; a white mesial stroke from the nape to the hips, 
and a white band across the forehead, spreading on the cheeks and 


confluent with the pale colour of the animal's lower surface : head and 
body vermiformed ; digits and nails of the anterior extremities stronger ; 
half-way from the os calcis to the fingers, hairy ; fur of two sorts, and 
abundant, but not lengthened nor harsh, nor annulated : tail, cylindrico- 
tapered, pointed, half the length of the animal ; snout to rump, sixteen 
inches ; tail seven and a half, or nine with the terminal hair. 

" The form of this species is decidedly Musteline from the snout to 
the tail ; and not merely the head, with its several external organs, but 
the skull also bears a close resemblance to those of Martes and Putorius. 
The anterior limbs, however, are decidedly fossorial, and the hinder 
suited for walking in a subplantigrade manner : both wholly unfitted 
for raptatory or scansorial purposes." 

In the sixth volume of the Journal of the Asiatic Society, pp. 560-1, 
some further details of the external colouring of this species, from another 
specimen, are given by Mr. Hodgson. 

Genus MYDAUS, Fred. Cuv. et Geqffr., Mamm. fasc. 27. 
Fischer, Horsfeld, et al. 

MEPHITIDIS Species, Desmarest, Raffles, et al. 

128. MYDAUS MELICEPS, Fr. Cuv. et Geoffr. I c. 
Rorsf., Zool. Research, in Java, with a figure. Desmar., 
Mamm. Suppl p. 537. Schinz, Syn. Hamm. I. p. 316. 
Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 69. Zoology of H.M.S. 
Samarang, p. 17. Mutter, Over de Zoogd. fan den Ind. 
Archipel. p. 26. Vig. and Horsf., App. to Life of Sir T. S. 
Raffles, p. 634. 

Mephitis Javanensis, Desmar. , Mamm. p. 187. Raffl., Trans. 

Linn. Soc.XIII.p. 251. 
Mouffette de Java, De Leschenault. G. Cuv., Ossem. foss. 

ed. 4 me , VIII. pp. 30 and 408. 
TELEDOO, of the Eastern Javanese. 
SENG-GUNG, or SIEGUNG, of the Sundanese. 
TELAGO, of the Malays. 
TELEGGO, or STINKARD, of the inhabitants of the interior 

of Sumatra. 

HAD. Java and Sumatra, Horsfield, Raffles, Mutter. 
A. B. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

Mr. Marsden's mention of this animal in his History of Sumatra, 
p. 117, is perhaps the earliest notice of its existence, and the Sumatran 


name of Teleggo affords a proof of its identity with the Javanese Teledoo. 
The first authentic scientific account is given by Mons. G. Cuvier, 
about the year 1812, in the fourth volume of the first edition of the 
Ossemens fossiles, from specimens brought to France by Mons. Lesche- 
nault de la Tour from Java, about the year 1803, and deposited in 
the Paris Museum. In the first edition of the Regne Animal, I. p. 151, 
published in 1817, the same author arranges it under the genus 
Mephitis, with the following remark : " Toutes celles qui viennent 
d'Amerique ont une queue longue et touffue ; mais Mons. Leschenault 
en a dernierement rapporte une de Java, qui n'a point de queue de tout." 
The genus Mydaus was established some years later by Mons. Fr. 
Cuvier, and has been adopted, with a few exceptions, by zoologists : the 
details of the teeth are given in the author's Dents des Mammiferes. In 
the year 1820, this animal was described in Horsfield's Zoological 
Researches in Java, from specimens contained in the Company's 
Museum, from which description the following is an extract : " The 
Teledu has a peculiar external character and physiognomy. Although 
it generally agrees in size with the Polecats of Europe and America, the 
circumstances which influence its appearance are entirely different. 
The heavy form of the body, as well as the head gradually narrowed to 
an obtuse point, call to mind the figure of a hog. The shortness and 
strength of the neck, and the manner of walking, by placing the entire 
sole of the foot on the ground, contribute further to give to the animal 
a sluggish appearance. The eyes are placed high in the head, and in 
their size and disposition have considerable resemblance to those of a 
hog : the eyelids are rigid, and well provided with eyebrows consisting 
of minute bristles : the irides are of a dark colour, and the pupil is 
circular. The ears are nearly concealed by the hairy covering of the 
body ; but these organs are provided externally with an oblong concha, 
which surrounds the posterior part, and passing the lower extremity of 
the meatus auditorius, forms a small curve inward. No whiskers are 
perceptible, but a few long straggling hairs arise from the upper lip. 
The covering of the Teledu is adapted to the elevated and cold regions 
which it inhabits. The fur is composed of long delicate hairs, silky at 
the base, which are closely arranged, and afford a very warm coat to 
the body. On the sides of the neck the hairs are lengthened, and have 
a curved direction upward and backward ; on the top of the head, 
meeting from before and behind, they form a small transverse crest, and 
on the abdomen they are thinly disposed, and afford in some parts a 
view of the naked skin. The colour of the hairs is blackish-brown, 
more or less intense on every part of the body, except the crown of the 


head, a streak along the back, and the extremity of the tail. These 
parts are white, with a slight tint of yellow. The mark on the head 
has a rhomboidal form, obtuse and rounded anteriorly, but gradually 
attenuated as it passes to the shoulders, where it unites with the streak 
on the back : in some individuals this streak is interrupted. On the 
abdomen the brown is of a lighter hue, inclining to grayish or rufous. 
The covering is subject to several variations : some of the individuals 
deposited in the Company's Museum are grayish-brown, others are 
deep brown with a sooty tint ; the last colour, as far as my observation 
extends, is the most common, and has formed the base of the specific 
character placed at the head of this article. The tail is scarcely half 
an inch long, but the hairs covering and surrounding it project above 
an inch from the body. The limbs are short and stout, and the feet 
agree in structure with those of the allied genera, being formed for the 
plantigrade manner of walking. The claws are united at the base by a 
thick membrane, which envelopes this part as a sheath. Those of the 
fore feet are nearly double the size of those of the hind feet. In place 
of the pouches and reservoirs of fetid fluids with which several genera 
of this family are provided, the Mydaus has two glands of an oblong 
form, about one inch long and half an inch wide, near the extremity of 
the rectum : they are placed opposite to each other, and are individually 
furnished with an excretory duct nearly half an inch long, which com- 
municates with this intestine. In the middle of each duct is a very 
minute aperture, surrounded by a muscular ring, somewhat swelled, 
which enables the animal at pleasure to discharge or to retain the fetid 
fluid secreted by the glands. The ducts enter the rectum about half an 
inch within the external aperture. The internal surface of these glands 
is covered with numerous wrinkles disposed transversely. The fluid 
secreted by them is perfectly analogous, in its odour, to that secreted 
by several species of Mephitis in America, particularly to that of the 
Mephitis striata of Fischer. Having experienced that of the latter, 
which is known in most parts of North America by the name of Skunk, 
I readily recognised it in Java." 

Here follow some remarks on the generic peculiarities of the Mydaus, 
on its affinity to other genera of this family, and on its situation in a 
natural arrangement of Mammalia ; when the account proceeds : " The 
Mydaus meliceps presents a singular fact in its geographical distribution. 
It is confined exclusively to those mountains which have an elevation of 
more than 7,000 feet above the level of the ocean ; on these it occurs 
with the same regularity as many plants. The long-extended surface 
of Java, abounding with conical points which exceed this elevation, 


affords many places favourable for its resort. On ascending these 
mountains, the traveller seldom fails to meet with our animal, which, 
from its peculiarities, is universally known to the inhabitants of these 
elevated tracts ; while to those of the plains, it is as strange as an 
animal from a foreign country. A traveller would inquire in vain for 
the Teledu at Batavia, Samarang, or Surabaya. In my visits to the 
mountainous districts I uniformly met with it, and as far as the informa- 
tion of the natives can be relied on, it is found on all the mountains. 
It is, however, more abundant on those which, after reaching a certain 
elevation, consist of numerous connected horizontal ridges, than on 
those which terminate in a defined conical peak. Of the former 
description are the Mountain Prahu and the Tengger Hills, which are 
both distinctly indicated in Sir Stamford Raffles' map of Java ; here I 
observed it in great abundance. It was less common on the Mountain 
Gede, south of Batavia ; on the Mountain Ungarang, south of Samarang, 
and on the Mountain Ijen, at the farthest extremity 5 but I traced its 
range through the whole island. 

Most of these mountains and ridges furnish tracts of considerable ex- 
tent, fitted for the cultivation of wheat and other European grains. Cer- 
tain extra- tropical fruits are likewise raised with success : peaches and 
strawberries grow in considerable abundance, and the common culinary 
vegetables of Europe are cultivated to great extent. To most Euro- 
peans and Chinese, a residence in these elevated regions is extremely 
desirable ; and even the natives, who in general dislike its cold atmo- 
sphere, are attracted by the fertility of the soil, and find it an advan- 
tage to establish villages and to clear ground for culture. Potatoes, 
cabbages, and many other culinary vegetables are extensviely raised, as 
the entire supply of the plains in these articles depends on these elevated 
districts. Extensive plantations of wheat and other European grains, 
as well as tobacco, are here found, where rice, the universal product of 
the plains, refuses to grow. These grounds and plantations are laid 
out in the deep vegetable mould, where the Teledu holds its range as 
the most ancient inhabitant of the soil. In its rambles in search of food, 
this animal frequently enters the plantations, and destroys the roots of 
young plants; in this manner it causes extensive injury, and on the 
Tengger Hills particularly, where these plantations are more extensive 
than in other elevated tracts, its visits are much dreaded by the inhabi- 
tants : it burrows in the earth with its nose in the same manner as 
hogs, and in traversing the hills, its nocturnal toils are observed in the 
morning in small ridges of mould recently turned up. 

The Mydaus forms its dwelling at a slight depth beneath the surface, 


in the black mould, with considerable ingenuity. Having selected a 
spot, defended above by the roots of a large tree, it constructs a cell 
or chamber, of a globular form, having a diameter of several feet, the 
sides of which it makes perfectly smooth and regular ; this it provides 
with a subterraneous conduit or avenue, about six feet in length, the 
external entrance to which it conceals with twigs and dry leaves. 
During the day it remains concealed, like a badger in its hole ; at 
night it proceeds in search of its food, which consists of insects and 
their larvae, and of worms of every kind : it is particularly fond of the 
common lumbrici, or earth-worms, which abound in the fertile mould. 
These animals, agreeably to the information of the natives, live in pairs, 
and the female produces two or three young at a birth. 

The motions of the Mydaus are slow, and it is easily taken by the 
natives, who by no means fear it. During my abode on the Mountain 
Prahu, I engaged them to procure me individuals for preparation ; and 
as they received a desirable reward, they brought them to me daily in 
greater numbers than I could employ. Whenever the natives surprise 
them suddenly, they prepare them for food, the flesh is then scarcely 
impregnated with the offensive odour, and is described as very delicious. 
The animals are generally in excellent condition, as their food abounds 
in the fertile mould. 

The Mydaus is not ferocious in its manners, and taken young, like 
the badger, it might easily be tamed. An individual which I kept some 
time in confinement, afforded me an opportunity of observing its dis- 
position ; it soon became gentle, and reconciled to its situation, and did 
not at any time emit the offensive fluid. I carried it with me from the 
Mountain Prahu to Blederan, a village on the declivity of that mountain, 
where the temperature was more moderate. While a drawing was 
made, the animal was tied to a small stake ; it moved about quietly, 
burrowing in the ground with its snout and feet, as if in search of food, 
without taking notice of the bystanders, or making violent efforts to 
disengage itself ; on earth-worms (lumbrici) being brought, it ate them 
voraciously ; holding one extremity of a worm with its claws, its teeth 
were employed in tearing the other : having consumed about ten or 
twelve, it became drowsy, and making a small groove in the earth in 
which it placed its snout, it composed itself deliberately, and was soon 
sound asleep. 

" Notwithstanding the intolerably offensive stench and exhalation of 
this animal, its flesh is considered savoury by the Sundaneese of Western 
Java, and Dr. S. Miiller informs us that it is eaten by the natives after 
the removal of the glands which secrete the offensive fluid." 



Genus ARCTONYX, Fred. Cm., Mamm. Urn. 51, 1825, et al. 
MYDAI Spec., Schinz. 

129. ARC TON YX COLLARIS, Fred. Guv. I c. 

Arctonyx collaris, Fischer, Syn. Mamm. p. 152. Gray, 

Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. 70. Evans, Journ. As. Soc. 

Beng. VII. p. 732, with a figure. 
Mydaus collaris, Gray and Hardw., Illust. Ind. Zool. I. 

Tab. VI. Schinz, Syn. Mamm. I. p. 317. 
Ursi Spec. Duvaucel, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. VII. p. 734. 
BALOO-SOOR, Sand-pig, Hindustani. 
Sand-bear, Bewick, Quadr. 

HAB. Bengal, Hardwicke. Aracan, Evans. 
A. Presented by Maj.-Gen. T. Hardwicke. 

In its dental system the genus Arctonyx resembles the allied genera 
of this family, Gulo and Meles : on the seventh plate Vol. I. of Gray 
and Hardwicke's Illustrations of Indian Zoology, the skull and the 
peculiarities of the teeth are given. In the Company's specimen the 
incisors above and below, disposed reciprocally in a regular curve, 
are of moderate size, with somewhat blunt edges ; in the upper jaw 
vertical, in the lower jaw with an oblique inclination outwards. The 
canines are large, strong, and stout at the base. The grinders are 
compressed, four above and five beneath. 

The first authentic account of this animal, since the description and 
figure of Bewick, from a specimen exhibited in the Tower of London, is 
given by M. Duvaucel in the seventh volume of the Journal of the Bengal 
Asiatic Society, p. 734. It was subsequently described and figured 
by MM. Fr. Cuvier and Geoffr., in the 51 Livr. of the Mammiferes. 

The specimen in the Company's Museum presents the following 
exterior : General habit that of the European Badger, but more robust. 
The hairy covering of the body rough, bristly, and straggling ; that of 
the head shorter and more closely adpressed. The separate hairs are 
long, yellowish- gray at the base and blackish-brown at the tip, giving 
an irregularly undulated black and grayish surface. The head, generally 
with the throat and breast, is yellowish- white ; on the upper part this 
colour forms a broad, regularly defined band from the snout to the 
occiput ; ears of the same colour : the nape of the neck, a narrow band 
across the breast, the anterior portion of the abdomen, the extremities, 
a band arising from the middle of the upper lip, gradually wider 


posteriorly, including the eyes and ears, another somewhat narrower 
arising from the lower lip, passing the cheek, uniting with the former 
on the neck, are deep blackish-brown. Tail short, attenuated towards 
the end, covered with rough hairs. Feet plantigrade ; claws five on 
each of the extremities, strong, compressed, fossorial ; that of the index 
of the fore foot greatly exceeding the others in size. 

From the observations which M. Duvaucel made on an individual 
contained in the Menagerie at Barrackpore, he informs us that in its 
general habits it resembles the bears : it passes the greatest part of the 
day in profound somnolence, but becomes active at the approach of 
night : its gait is heavy, slow, and painful ; it readily supports itself 
erect on its hind feet, and prefers vegetables to flesh. The specimen 
in the Company's Museum measures from snout to root of the tail two 
feet one inch : the tail seven inches ; at the rump it is one foot high. 

Genus LUTRA, Ray Linn. Syst. Nat. 1735. 
MUSTELJE Species, Linn., GmeL, et al. 

130. LUTRA NAIR, Fred. Guv. in Diet, des Sc. Nat. 
XX VI I. p. 247. 

Lutra Nair, Fr. Cuv. 1. cit. Sykes, Cat. ofDukhun Marnm. 
Pr. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 100. Schinz, Syst. Mamm. I. 
p. 354. Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. VIII. p. 319 ; 
X. 903. Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. IV. p. 287. Blytk, 
Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XI. I. p. 609. Lesson, Manuel 
de Mammalog. p. 156. Cantor, Catal. Malay. Mamm. 
p. 25. 

JUL MARJAR, or Water-cat, of the Mahrattas, Sykes. 

NIRNAI, Canarese (literally " Water-dog"), Elliot. 

DATWAI BEKH, Canarese of the Wuddar tribe, Elliot. 

PANIKUTTA, Dukhani (literally " Water-dog "), Elliot. 

HUD, or HAD A, Mahratta of the Ghats, Elliot. 

ANJING-AYER, of the Malays of the Peninsula, Cantor. 

HAB. Dukhun, SyJces. Pondichery, Lesson. Nepal, Hodgson. 
Malayan peninsula, Cantor. 

A. From Dukhun. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

In the Catalogue of Mammalia observed in Dukhun, Colonel Sykes 
points out some differences between the specimens from Western India 


and those which were brought to Paris by M. Leschenault de la Tour 
from Pondicherry ; though these discrepancies do not justify its being 
separated as a species. In the Museum specimens the colour is pure 
brown, without the chestnut tint peculiar to the other Indian species ; 
the throat, upper lip, and sides of the head are nearly white, and the 
line of separation between the upper and lower parts is not distinctly 

131. LUTE A CHINENSIS, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. 1836. 

Lutra chinensis, Gray,loc. cit. Cat. Miamm. Br.Mus.p. 71. 

Cat. Hodgs. Coll. p. 14. 
Lutra indica, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. 1836. 
Lutra chinensis et indica, Gray. Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. 

Beng. XVII. I. p. 559. 
Lutra tarayensis, Hodgs. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. VIII. 

p. 309 ; X. 909. Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. IV. p. 287. 

Schinz, Syn. Mamm. I. p. 354. 
Lutra vulgaris, var. Hodgs. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. I. 

p. 341. 

HAB. China, Beeves. Madras, W. Elliot, Esq. Nepal, 

A. Adult. B. Young. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, 

In the Museum specimens the colour above is pale chestnut-brown 
with a yellowish Isabella shade ; beneath it is yellowish white, lighter 
on the throat and neck, where the line of separation between the upper 
and lower parts is more distinct than on the abdomen. In the adult 
specimen the fur is rather long and slightly diverging ; in the young 
specimen it is very soft, closely adpressed, and slightly grizzled by the 
darker colour of the ends of the hairs. 

In the eleventh volume, p. 99, of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, Mr. Blyth gives some valuable remarks on the size, colour, and 
peculiarities of this species, showing its near resemblance to the Euro- 
pean Otter. 

132. LUTRA SIM UNO, Raffles. 

Lutra Simung, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. ^.234. 
Muller y Over de Zoogd. van den Ind. Ar chip. pp. 27 
and 51. Lesson, Manuel de Mammalog. p. 156. 


Schinz, Synops. Mamm. I. p. 350 (exclus. Syn. H. 

ZooL Res.). 

Lutra Barang, Fischer, Synops. Mamm. p. 227. 
Mustek Lutra, Marsden, Hist. Sumat. Ed. tertia, p. 115, 

pi. XI. fig. No. 1. 

ANJING-AYER, Marsden, Hist, of Sumatra. 
SIM UNO, of the Malays in Sumatra, Raffles ; and of the 

inhabitants of Sumatra and Borneo, Mutter. 

HAB. Sumatra, Raffles. Sumatra and Borneo, Mutter. 
A. Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 

Mr. Marsden has given the earliest indication of this species in the 
first edition of his History of Sumatra, published in 1785, and the 
figure contained in the third edition conveys a correct idea of the habit 
of the animal. It has latterly been observed by most oriental zoologists, 
although it is rare in collections. 

The body of the Sinning is covered with a very soft fur, closely 
applied, the interior of which is woolly and of a yellowish-white colour ; 
the exterior coat is of a darker tint, inclining to yellowish brown, 
deeper on the tail: the chin, throat, breast, and abdomen are of a 
lighter colour. The body of the animal is slender, and the tail propor- 
tionally long. 

Dr. S. Muller pertinently directs the attention of zoologists to the 
confusion which exists in Fischer's Synopsis Mammalium, in the 
synonymy of this and the following species, caused by erroneously 
exchanging the native names of the respective species. Thus, No. 8 of 
genus Lutra, L. Barang of Fischer, is the L. Simung of Raffles, while 
No. 9, L. Leptonyx, named Simung by Fischer, is the Barang-Barang 
of Raffles and all other zoologists. 

Genus AONYX, Lesson, 1827. Manuel, p. 157. 
LUTILE Species, Fischer, Horsfield, et al. 

133. AONYX LEPTONYX, Horsfield, Sp. 

Lutra leptonyx, Horsfield, ZooL Research, with a figure. 
Mutter, Over de Zoogd. van den Ind. Archip. pp. 27 
and 51. Fischer, Synops. Mamm. p. 227 (exclus. nom. 
Indigen. Sumatr.). Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. 

P .n. 

Lutra Barang, Schinz, Synops. Mamm. p. 35. Lesson, 
Manuel, p. 156. 


Aonyx Horsfieldii, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. 1836. 

Lutra Barang et Aonyx leptonyx, Cantor, Catal. Malay. 

Mamm. p. 25. 
BARANG BARANG, or AMBRANG, of the natives of Sumatra, 

Raffles and Midler. 

ANJING AYER, Marsden Hist, of Sumatra. 
WARGUL and WELINGSANG, of the Javanese, Horsfield. 
SERO, of the Sundanese, Muller. 
DENGEN, of the Bedadju-Dayaks of Borneo, Muller. 

HAB. Java, Horsfield. Sumatra, Marsden, Raffles, Java, 
Sumatra, Borneo, Muller. 

A. Adult. B. C. Young. Horsfield's Collection from 

The genus Aonyx was established by Mons. R. P. Lesson in 1827, 
on the Lutra inunguis, G. Cuv. (or Delalandi), found at the Cape of 
Good Hope. (See Manuel de Mammalogie, p. 157.) 

In the form of the body and general exterior it agrees with the 
genus Lutra, but the structure of the feet and toes affords an essential 
character, separating it from the latter genus. In Aonyx the feet are 
palmated ; the toes are united by a membrane, the third and fourth 
exceed the others in length, and are more closely united ; they are 
cylindrical, with a slight horizontal compression, somewhat incrassated, 
blunt and rounded at the end ; the claws are very minute, not pro- 
jecting, but imbedded in the last phalanx. This description applies to 
the species from the continent of Asia and from the Indian Archipelago. 
Mr. E. Blyth, in comparing the cleaned skulls of the Lutra Nair and 
L. leptonyx, observed a difference indicating a peculiarity in the osteo- 
logical structure respectively, which he details in the eleventh volume 
of the Journ. As. Soc. Beng. p. 603, and which deserves attention in 
determining the generic character of these two genera. 

The hairy covering of the head and body of the Adnyx leptonyx is 
chestnut-brown, somewhat glossy, with a slight orange cast. The lips, 
sides of the head, chin, throat, and anterior portion of the breast, are 
yellowish white, the shade being deeper on the breast. 

In its habits the Javanese Otter resembles the European species. In 
its adult state it is extremely ferocious ; but, taken young, it may easily 
be domesticated. In general, the otters from the continent and islands 
of Asia agree in their manners and peculiarities. They live on fish, and 
are found near rivers and lakes. Dr. S. Muller informs us, that in the 


western parts of Java he observed them, not only near the smooth- 
flowing rivers of the plains, but also in rapid mountain-streams, at an 
elevation of nearly 3,000 feet above the ocean. Dr. Cantor states that 
the various species of Lutra and Aonyx, which numerously inhabit 
the banks of the Malayan rivers, are at all times used by the Malays 
in river fishing. Mr. Marsden, on plate XI. No. 2, gives an excellent 
figure of the Aonyx leptonyx, with the simple name of Anjing ayer, in 
which the character of the toes, by which the genus is distinguished, 
is distinctly exhibited. 

134. AONYX INDIGITATUS, Hodgson, Spec. 

Lutra indigitata, Hodgs., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. VIII. 

p. 320; X.p. 909. 
Aonyx indigitatus, Hodgs. Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. IV. 

p. 287. Gray, Cat. Hodgs. Coll. p. 14. Schinz, 

Synops. Mamm. I. p. 355. 

HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. Bootan, Pemberton. Afghanistan, 

A. From Major Pemberton's Collection in Bootan. 

B. From Griffith's Collection in Afghanistan. Adult. 

C. D. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Young. 

Size, somewhat larger than A. leptonyx ; general proportions the 
same ; tail, half the length of the body. Colour, pure chestnut-brown, 
without any orange shade. Fur smooth and close. Lips, sides of the 
head, chin, throat, and anterior breast, white, with a shade of yellowish- 

In the structure of the toes and claws, this species closely agrees 
with A. leptonyx, and strongly confirms the generic character. 

Besides the species of Lutra and Aonyx above described, Mr. Hodg- 
son enumerates^ two others from Nepal: L. aurobrunnea, Hodgs., and 
L. monticola, Hodgs. (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. VIII. p. 320. Gray, 
Cat. Hodgs. Coll. p. 14. Hutton on the Zool. of Nepal, J. A. S. B. 
XIV. p. 351, note by Mr. Blyth.) 

The late G. Finlayson, Esq., who accompanied the mission of 
J. Crawfurd, Esq. to Siam and Hue, mentions in his zoological 
remarks, a species of Otter, the range of which extends from Zeylon to 
Siam, which resembles the European species : ? Lutra Nair, auctor. 

Although the species of Lutra and Aonyx here enumerated, resemble 


each other in the colour of their pelage, they have each a peculiar 
characteristic tint, which enables a careful observer to identify the 
individual species. 

Genus MELLIVORA, Storr, Prodr. Meth. An. 1780. Fred. 
Cuv., Gray, et al. 

URSI Species, Blumenb., Hardw., et al. 

VIVERRJS Species, Linn, et al. 

GULONIS Species, Desmar. 

RATELUS, Bennett, Gard. and Menag. Zool. Soc. 

URSITAXUS, Hodgson, As. Res. XIX. p. 60. 

RATEL, Sparrm. in Kongl, Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 1777. 


Mellivora ratel, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 68. Cat. 

Hodgs. Coll. p. 13. 
Mellivora capensis, Fred. Cuv. Lesson, Manuel de Mam- 

malog. p. 143. 
Ratelus mellivorus, Bennett, Gard. and Menag. Zool. Soc. 

with a figure. 

Ratelus indicus, Schinz, Synops. Mamm. I. p. 329. 
Viverra mellivora, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. Gmel. p. 91. 
Gulo capensis, Desmar., Mamm. p. 176. Fischer, Synops. 

Mamm. p. 156. 
Ursus indicus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. I. 2, p. 470. Hardwicke, 

Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. p. l\.5,with a figure. 
Ursitaxus inauritus, Hodgson, Asiat. Research. XIX. 

p. 60, with details of the generic character. 
Ratel, Sparrman, in Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 1777, 

p. 49. 
The Ratel. 

Indian Badger, Shaw, Pennant, $c. 
BEEJOO, Hindi. 

The Ratel, as found indigenous at the Cape of Good Hope and on 
the continent of India, has hitherto been considered by most zoologists 
as specifically identical. In both countries the upper surface of the 
body and of the head and tail are dull ash-grey, while the lower parts, 
separated by a regular boundary-line, are black. In the animal as 


found at the Cape, there is a stripe of a lighter grey colour between the 
upper and lower parts, on which, combined with peculiarity of habits, 
and some difference in the colour of the upper surface, several zoologists 
have founded a specific distinction. Schinz (Synops. Mamm. p. 329) 
enumerates it as Ratelus capensis, der Honig-Ratel, and Mr. Burton 
(Proceed. Zool. Soc. Aug. 11, 1835, p. 113) gives a very minute 
account of a specimen of the Indian badger, from the Upper Provinces 
of Bengal, which he exhibited to the scientific meeting. He describes 
the anatomical structure and exterior covering, and illustrates the 
points in which it differs from the Cape Ratel. 

In an account of a living specimen of the Ratel from Madras, con- 
tained in the Menagerie of the Zool. Soc. of London, Mr. E. T. Ben- 
nett enters fully into the history of this animal, from its first discovery 
at the Cape to a late period. He details the account which Sparrman 
received from the Cape Colonists, of its mellivorous habits in South 
Africa, with that which Gen. Hardwicke obtained on the continent of 
India, and in conclusion of a very valuable essay states the following : 
" As far as its manners have yet been developed, it appears to be, with 
regard to man at least, one of the most playful and good-tempered 
beasts, soliciting the attention of almost every visitor by throwing its 
clumsy body into a variety of antic postures, and, when noticed, tumbling 
head over heels with every symptom of delight. But towards animals it 
exhibits no such mildness of temper : and it is curious to observe the 
cat-like eagerness with which it watches the motions of any of the 

smaller among them that happen to pass before its den Its food 

is of a mixed nature, consisting, like that of the bears and other less 
carnivorous beasts, of bread and milk in the morning and flesh in the 
latter part of the day." (Gardens and Menagerie of the Zool. Soc. &c., 
Quadrupeds, pp. 13 to 20.) 

On the continent of India, General Hardwicke informs us, it is found 
on the high banks of the Ganges and Jumna, in the upper provinces. 
" It is rarely seen by day ; but at night visits neighbouring towns and 
villages inhabited by Mahommedans, and scratches up the recently 
buried bodies of the dead, unless they are thickly covered by thorny 

" When taken young, the Indian Badger is very manageable, docile, 
and playful. It is a bold animal ; its hide remarkably thick, and its 
strength too much for most dogs of common size. Its general food is 
flesh in any state ; but it is remarkably eager after birds ; and crows, 
which were sometimes given to an individual which I had domesticated, 
were devoured with impatient avidity. Living rats seemed almost 



equally acceptable ; and it seldom lost the opportunity of springing 
upon common fowls, when they happened incautiously to be feeding 

within the length of its chain This species burrows with great 

facility It sleeps much by day ; is watchful during the night ; 

discovering inquietude by a hoarse call or bark, proceeding from the 
throat." (Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. pp. 115-6.) 

The genus Mellivora forms a natural transition to the second family 
of this order : the 

UKSID^E, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mm. Syst. List. 


Genus HELARCTOS, Horsfield, Zool Journ. II. p. 221. 
URSI Species, Horsfield, Fischer, et al. 

136. HELARCTOS MALAYANUS, Horsf., Sp. Zool 
Journ. II. p. 234. 

Helarctos malayanus, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Er. Mus. p. 73. 

Zoology of H.M.S. Samarang.p. 18. Cantor, Catal. 

of Malayan Mamm. p. 21. 
Ursus Malayanus, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 254. 

Horsfield, Zool. Research, in Java, with a figure. 

Fischer, Synops. Mamm. p. 144. Muller, Over de 

Zoogd. van den Ind. Archip. p. 32. Cuvier, Ossem. 

foss. td. 4 me , VII. p. 197 and 218. Fred. Cuv. et 

Geoffr. Mamm. fasc. 47. Lesson, Manuel Mamm. 

p. 134. Vigors and Horsfield, App. to Life of Sir T. 

S. Raffles, p. 633. 
BRUANG, of the Malays on Sumatra, Marsden and Raffles. 

HAB. Sumatra, Marsden and Raffles. Sumatra, Borneo, and 
Malacca, Muller. Malayan Peninsula, Cantor. 

A. Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 

Mr. Marsden deserves the credit of having indicated the existence of 
the Malayan Bear with the name of BRUANG, in Sumatra, and of 
mentioning its habit of ascending the cocoa-nut trees to devour the 
tender part or cabbage. (Hist, of Sumatra, second edition, 1784.) 

The first systematic account, so far as I have been able to ascertain, 


is given by Sir T. S. Raffles in the thirteenth volume of the Trans. 
Linn. Soc. p. 254. Here, after a few remarks on the exterior, the 
manners are thus described : " When taken young, they become very 
tame. One lived two years in my possession. He was brought up in 
the nursery with the children ; and when admitted to my table, as was 
frequently the case, gave a proof of his taste by refusing to eat any 
fruit but mangosteens, or to drink any wine but champagne. The 
only time I ever knew him out of humour was on an occasion when no 
champagne was forthcoming. He was naturally of a playful and affec- 
tionate disposition, and it was never found necessary to chain or chastise 
him. It was usual for this bear, the cat, the dog, and a small blue 
mountain-bird or Lory, of New Holland, to mess together, and to eat 
out of the same dish. His favourite playfellow was the dog, whose 
teazing and worrying was always borne and returned with the utmost 
good- humour and playfulness. As he grew up, he became a very power- 
ful animal ; and in his rambles in the garden, he would lay hold of the 
largest plantains, the stems of which he could scarcely embrace, and 
tear them up by the roots." 

The range of the Malayan Bear appears to be limited to within 
a few degrees of the equator. He is attracted, in Sumatra, to the 
villages of the natives by his fondness for the young protruding summits 
of the cocoa-nut trees. He is well known to be fond of delicacies. In 
his native forests his lengthened tongue fits him peculiarly for feeding 
on honey, which is abundantly supplied by various indigenous species 
of bees. (Zool. Journ. ii. p. 232.) 

This account is confirmed by Dr. Sal. Miiller, who states : " In his 
native forests the Bear displays much zeal and ingenuity in discovering 
the nests of bees, and in extracting their contents, by means of his teeth, 
from the narrow orifices of the branches of the trees in which they are 
concealed ; for nothing appears to be so attractive to his taste as honey." 
Dr. Miiller also informs us that the Malayan Bear inhabits exclusively 
the large forests which cover as well the plains as the mountain 
declivities of Sumatra and Borneo : here he lives in hollow trees or 
caverns, avoiding the neighbourhood of villages or human dwellings. 
He remains concealed during the day : at night he visits the plantations, 
ascends the fruit-trees, and, being very eager after sweets, he steals 
into the sugar-plantations, in which he commits as much injury by 
devouring as by treading down the cane. In his pursuit of small birds 
and animals, he prefers those that live on a vegetable diet. It is only 
in cases of the greatest want that this Bear has been known to attack 
and devour man. 


137. HELARCTOS TIBETANUS, Cuv. et Geo/r., 8p. 

Ursus tibetanus, Fr. Cuv. et Geo/r., Mamm. fasc. 41. 

Hodgs., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. I. p. 340 ; X. p. 910. 

Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. IV. p. 288. Proceed. ZooL 

Soc. 1834, p. 96. Fischer, Synops. Mamm. p. 145. 

Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XI. p. 444. 
Helarctos tibetanus, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 73. 

Cat. Hodgs. Collect, p. 15. 
Ursus torquatus, Schinz, Syn. Mamm. p. 302. 
Ursus ferox, Robinson, Account of Assam. Vide Gray, Cat. 

Hodgson's Collection. 
The Black Bear of the Himalaya, Blyth. 
Der Kragen-Baer, Schinz. 

HAB. Nepal, the northern hilly region, Hodgson. 
A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

" This species was first noticed by M. Duvaucel in the mountains of 
Sylhet, and about the same time by Dr. Wallich in the Nepal range. 
The neck of the Thibet Bear is thick, and the head flattened, the fore- 
head and muzzle forming almost a straight line ; the ears are large, 
the body compact, and the limbs thick and clumsy ; but the claws are 
comparatively weak. The general colour is black, but the lower lip is 
white, and a large Y-shaped mark of the same colour on the breast 
sends up its branch on each side in front of the shoulder. It is not of 
large stature. Fruits and other vegetable productions appear to con- 
stitute its principal food." (History of Mammalia, Vol. I. p. 113, 
edited by Knight.) 

Robinson informs us that " these Bears are numerous in Assam, and 
that in some places accidents caused by them are not unfrequent." 
(Descriptive Account of Assam, &c. p. 96.) 

Genus MELURSUS, Meyer, Zool. Ann. 1794. 

URSUS, De Blainv., Tiedeman, et al. 
PROCHILUS, Illiger, Prodr. Syst. M. et Av. 1811. 
BRADYPUS, Shaw and Pennant. 

138. MELURSUS LYBICUS, Meyer, Zoologische Annalen. 
Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 72. 


Ursus labiatus, De Blainv., Bullet, de la Soc. Philom. 

Desmar., Mamm. p. 166. G.Cuv., Ossem. foss. ed. 

4 me , p. 189, SfC. Sykes, Catal. of Dukhun Mamm. 

Proceed. Zool. Soc. July, 1831. Schinz, Syn. Mamm. 

p. 303. 

Ursus longinostres, Tiedeman. 
Prochilus ursinus, Illiger. 

Bradypus ursinus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. I. p. I, p. 139. 
Bradypus ursiformis, Shaw, Zool. Mid. I. t. 58. 
Ursiform Sloth, Pennant, Quadr. II. p. 243. Shaw, Gen. 

Zool. I. p. 1, p. 159. 
BHALLU or RIKSHA, Sans., Wilson. 
REECHH, Hind., Hamilton. 
ELOOGOO, Telugu. 

ASWAIL, of the Mahrattas, Sykes, Elliott. 
KADDI, KABADI, Canarese, Elliot. 
RINCH, Dukhani, Elliot. 

HAB. Hindustan, Nepal, Hodgson. Dukhun, Sykes. Southern 
Mahratta Country, Elliot. 

A. A drawing from Dr. Francis (Buchanan) Hamilton's 

Pennant examined an individual of this species which was brought 
from Benares, in Upper India, in company with Shaw, in 1 790 : the 
specimen having lost its front teeth, they mistook its character, and 
according to the rigid rules of the artificial system then used, they 
arranged it in the genus Bradypus, while its general character indicated 
its affinity to the genus Ursus ; it was accordingly named the Ursiform 
Sloth. By this name it has been known for many years. 

Its habits and exterior are familiar to all who visit Museums and 
Menageries. It is very docile, and in India is trained by the jugglers 
to the performance of various feats for the amusement of spectators. 
In captivity it appears to be mild, but melancholy. A pair of them 
were kept for some time in the Gardens of the Zoological Society. 

Colonel Sykes informs us that " an Aswail brought to him from the 
woods when quite young, which lived some time in his possession, fed 
by choice almost exclusively upon roast mutton and fowl." Mr. Elliot 
states " that their food, when at large, seems to be black ants, termites, 
beetles, fruit, particularly the seed of the Cassia fistula, of the date-tree, 


&c., and honey. When pursued, they carry their cubs on their back. 
In 1833 a bear was chased and killed, having carried her cubs in this 
manner nearly three miles. It appears to be a long-lived animal. 
Instances are known of their living in a state of captivity for forty 
years." (Madras Journ. X. p. 100.) In the seventh volume of the 
fourth edition of Cuvier's Ossem. Foss., that author gives full details of 
the osteological peculiarities of this species. 

e. AILUBJNA, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. Syst. 
List. XXI. 

Genus AILURUS, Fr. Cuv., HardwicJce, et al. 

139. AILURUS FULGENS, Fr. Cuv. et Geoffr., Mamm. 
lithogr. fasc. 50. 

Ailurus fulgens, Hardw., Trans. Linn. Soc. XV. p. 161, 

with illustrations of the teeth and extremities (Note by 

Secretary). Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 75. Cat. 

Hodgs. Coll. p. 15. Fischer, Syn. Mamm. p. 157. 

Hodgson, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1834, 96. Journ. As. 

Soc. Beng. I. 340 ; X. 909. Calc. Journ. N. H. IV. 

287. Schinz, Syn. Mamm. I. 314. 
Ailurus ochraceus, Hodgs., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XVI. 

p. 1118. 
PANDA, Fr. Cuv. 

of the Tibetans, Nepalese, and Sikimites, Hodgson. 
Wah and Chitwa, Hardwicke. 

HAB. The declivities of the Sub-Himalayas, North and South, 
between 7,000 or 8,000, and 12,000 or 18,000 feet of 
elevation, Hodgson. 

A. Presented by Maj.-Gen. T. Hardwicke. 

B. Presented by I. T. Pearson, Esq. 

The discovery of this animal is due to Major-General Thomas 
Hardwicke, who communicated a description of it to the Linnean 
Society of London, which was read on the 6th November, 1821. The 
cause of the delay of publication, for several years, in the Transactions 
of the Society, is explained in a note by the Secretary appended to 
General Hardwicke's paper. Meanwhile, a specimen forwarded to 
Paris by M. Duvaucel enabled M. Fred. Cuvier to name and define the 


new genus, and to publish a figure and description in the 50th fascicule 
of the Mammif. Lithogr. 

More recently B. H. Hodgson, Esq., the zealous zoologist of Northern 
India, has had an opportunity of examining in its native country, all 
the peculiarities of the anatomy, external form, and habits of this 
interesting animal. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. XVI. 
p. 1113, from which we extract the following: " Nepalese Ailurus. 
Above, deep ochreous red ; below and the ears, entire limbs and tip of 

tail, jet black. Head and tail paler than the body, and fulvous* 

Face, chin, and lining of the ears, white. From eyes to gape, a bread 
vertical line of ochreous red, blending with the dark inferior surface. 

Hairy pads albescent. Moustaches white. Eyes deep brown. 

Nude muzzle black. Snout to vent twenty- two inches. Head five and 
a half. Tail sixteen. Height, nine to nine and a half. Weight seven 
to eight pounds. Pelage very thick, loosely applied to the. skin, of two 
sorts ; the outer hair, rather harsh than fine, straight, of moderate equal 
length (one and a half inch), and covering every part of the animal save 
the extremity of its nose ; the inner vest shorter, sparer, and woolly. 
Internally the pelage is dusky ; externally, deep ochreous : and on the 
back the hairs are more or less tipt with fulvous, especially in old age. 
In their general appearance the Wahs are quite unique. They have a 
short sharp conic face, ending in a neat round muffle, in which the dog- 
like nostrils are pierced anterio-laterally ; a small unprominent eye, 
situated nearer to the nose than to the ear, and having a round, nearly 
unchangeable pupil ; rather small moustaches and minor tufts over the 
eyes, behind the gape, on the cheeks and on the chin ; a broad rounded 
head ; moderate sized, highly but remotely placed ; ears of a narrow 
concoid form tending to a point, and almost hid by their ample confluent 
lining and tufts ; a longish yet thick neck and body ; short, strong, 
plantigrade limbs, ending in large very mobile pentadactylous feet, 
armed with feline talons and enveloped in woolly socks with leporine 
completeness ; and, lastly, a long, thick, cylindrico-tapering tail, which 
is trailed like a fox's brush and neither convolved with the Pciradoxuri, 
nor prehensile with the Arctictes and Potos, close as undoubtedly is the 
relationship of these genera, and especially the last named, to Ailurus. 

" These quiet inoffensive animals, in their manner and diet, much 
resemble the Badgers of our land, the Lemurs of Madagascar, and the 
Racoons, Coatis, and Potos of America, the last most nearly ; but as 
few persons are familiar with these animals, I shall, to avoid the 

* This paler hue displayed in frequent rings on the tail. 


illustration of ignotum per ignotius, proceed to mark the differences 
from the first-named animals, to wit, that the Badgers are sub-omni- 
vorous diggers, dwelling in cavities of their own formation, whereas 
the Wahs are vegetalivorous climbers, frequenting trees much, but 
breeding and feeding chiefly on the ground, and having their retreat in 
the natural resiliencies of rocks. They are monogamous, and live in 
pairs or small families, consisting of the parents and offspring, who all 
remain together till the next brood is about to appear, when the mother 
drives the grown young off. How long the female gestates I cannot 
learn, but she brings forth amid the recesses of the rocks in spring or 
early summer, almost always two at a birth, one of which is frequently 
much larger than the other, though the sexes at maturity hardly differ 
in size and not at all in aspect, nor the young from the parents in the 
latter respect. The Ailuri feed on fruits, tuberous roots, thick sprouts 
such as those of the Chinese bamboo, acorns, beech mast, and eggs. 
The last they are very fond of, and eating them is the nearest approach 
they make to animal food, unless we must also add to the list of their eat- 
ables the young of birds and of small mammals which I doubt, though 
I am assured of the fact. In general, the Wahs eschew flesh, fish, insects, 
reptiles, absolutely. But they love milk and ghee, and constantly make 
their way furtively into remote dairies and cowherds' cottages to possess 
themselves of those luxuries. Their ordinary feeding times are early 
morn and eve. They sleep a deal in the day and dislike strong lights, 
though not nocturnal in their habits of seeking food. Their manners 
are staid and tranquil : their movements slow and deliberate : their 
tempers placid and docile, so that they are easily tamed and may be 
suffered to go abroad soon after they are taken, even though mature, 
and still more if young. They are delicate animals, and cannot endure 
heat at all, nor cold well, amply and entirely as they are clad in fur. 
They are not pugnacious nor noisy, but remarkably the contrary of both. 
As climbers, no quadrupeds can surpass, and very few equal them, but 
on the ground they move awkwardly as well as slowly, yet without any 
special embarrassment. The Wahs, as I have observed above, sleep 
much by day, though not strictly noctivagrant, and they repose fre- 
quently in an upright attitude, resting on the large broad palma and 
planta with the head tucked between the fore legs and under the chest, 
like Racoons and Lemurs, but more generally like dogs and cats, that 
is, laid on the side and rolled into a ball, the head being concealed by 
the bushy tail, which is carefully drawn round so as to cover the eyes 
and exclude the light. The Wahs have little of that eminent develop- 
ment of the senses which distinguishes most animals as opposed to 


man : their touch, sight, and hearing are dull : their smell not very 
acute, though the quickest sense they have ; and hence they are easily 
taken, having, moreover, little speed, cunning, or ferocity to protect 
them. I have had many brought to me, and have kept several for a 
year or two in Nepal, feeding them on rice and milk, or milk only, all 
of which they like, but wholly refuse rats, fish, insects, snakes, and 
rarely and reluctantly taking flesh of any kind. I have often put a 
small live fowl into their cage, but seldom knew them kill, and never 
eat it, though if it approached them too nearly, they would rush at it 
and give it a severe and possibly fatal blow with the fore paws. The 
amenity of their ordinary disposition is finely portrayed in their gentle 
countenances, and, as they are free from all offensive odour, they would 
make nice pets for ladies, particularly when young. They drink by 
lapping with the tongue, and moderately. They hiss and spit like cats 
when angered, and, if extremely so, utter a short deep grunt, like that 
of a young bear, but ordinarily they are quite silent. The flesh is never 
eaten ; but from the prepared pelage caps are made, and that is the 
limit of their economic value." 

Fam. TALPID^), Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. 
Mus. Syst. List. XXL 

Genus TALPA, Linn, et al. 
140. TALPA MICRURA, Hodgson. 

Talpa micrura, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. X.p. 910. 

Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. IV. p. 288. Gray, Cat. 

Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 75. Cat. Hodgs. Coll. p. 16. 

Schinz, Syn. Mamm. p. 289. 
? Talpa cryptura, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XII. 2, 

p. 928. 

Talpa europsea (var. Siberica), Pallas, Z. R. A. I. 126 ? 
Talpa europaea, Robinson, Assam, p. 96. 
Mole, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. I. p. 340. 

HAS. Northern and central region of Nepal, Hodgson. 
Kashmir, Elphinstone. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

B. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


" Specific character : uniform velvet-black with silvery-gray gloss, 
iridescent when moist ; nude snout ; feet and tail fleshy- white ; the last 
very minute; structure otherwise typical. Snout to rump four and 
three-quarter inches. Head one and three-quarters. Tail three-six- 
teenths. Palma and nails seven-eighths. Planta and nails thirteen- 
sixteenths." (Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. X. p. 910.) 

In the eleventh volume of the Journ. As. Soc. Beng. p. 95, 
Mr. Blyth gives various details on the distribution of various species of 
Talpa in India. 

xx. AMBULATORES. c. TUPAINA. Gray, Cat. 
Mamm. Br. Mus. Syst. List. XXI. 

Genus TUPAIA, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 256. 
Fischer et al. 

CLADOBATES, Fr. Cuv., Lesson, et al. 

HYLOGALE, Temminck. 

HYLOGALEA, Schlegel and Muller, VerhandL over de Nat. 

Gesch. SfC.p. 160. 
SOREX, Diard and Duvaucel, Asiatic Researches, XIV. 

p. 471. 
GLISOREX,* Desmarest, Mamm. Suppl. 535. 

141. TUPAIA JAVANICA, Horsfield, Zool Researches in 

Tupaia javanica, Fischer, Syn. Mamm. p. 260. Gray, 
Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 76. Zool. H. M. Ship 
Samarang, p. 18. Vig. and Horsf., Append, to Life 
of Sir T. S. Raffles, p. 637. Desmar., Mamm. Suppl. 
p. 536. 

Hylogale javanica, Temminck. Muller, over de Zoogd. v. d. 
Ind. Archip. pp. 25, 26. 

Hylogalea javanica, Schlegel and Muller, VerhandL over de 
Natuurl. Gesch. %c. p. 160, $c. 

* Mons. Desmarest, and several other zoologists, probably not consulting the 
original description of MM. Diard and Duvaucel, supposed that these naturalists 
have proposed the name of Sorexglis as a generic designation ; while their descrip- 
tion of this animal in the Asiatic Researches is entitled : " Sur une nouvelle espece 
de Sorex, Sorex Glis " (D. D.), which shows clearly that they considered it as a 
species of Sorex, and not as a new genus. (Asiatic Researches, XIV. p. 472.) 


Cladobates javanicus, Less. Man. p. 122. Schinz, Syn. 

Mamm.p. 261. 
BANGSRING, or SINSRING, of the Javanese of the province 

of Blambangan, Eastern Java. 
EMES of the Sundanere. 

HAB. Java, Horsfield. Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Muller. 
Aracan, Blyth. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 
B A skin, not perfect, from Aracan. Presented by the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

142. TUPAIA FERRUGINEA, Rajfes, Trans. Linn. Soc. 
XIII. p. 256. 

Tupaia ferruginea, Horsf. ZooL Research, in Java; Plate 
of Illustrations No. 3, Dental System. Gray, Cat. 
Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 77. Zoology of H. M. Ship 
Samarang, p. 18. Vig. and Horsfield, Appendix to 
Life of Sir T. S. Raffles, p. 637. Desmar., Mamm. 
Suppl. p. 536. Cantor, Catal. of Mamm. p. 18. 

Hylogale ferruginea, Temminck. Muller, Tafel der Zoogd. 
v. d. Ind. Archip. #c. 

Hylogalea ferruginea, Schlegel and Muller, Verhand. over 
de Natuurl. Gesch. $c. p. 166. 

Cladobates ferruginea, Less., Man. p. 122. Schinz , Syn. 
Mamm.p. 260. 

Sorex Glis, MM. Diard and Duvaucel, Asiat. Research. 
XIV. p. 470, with a figure. 

TUPAI PRESS, of the Malays on Sumatra, Raffles. 

KEKKES, of the Sundanese on Java. 

HAB. Sumatra, Penang, and Singapore, Raffles. Java, 
Sumatra, and Borneo, Muller. 

A. Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 

Besides the spedies of Tupaia above mentioned, several other species 
occur in the Indian Archipelago, namely, Tupaia tana, Raffles 
(Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 257), found on Sumatra according to 
Raffles ; on Sumatra and Borneo, Muller. Tupaia (Hylogalea) murina, 
Schlegel and Muller (Verhand. over de Nat. Gesch. &c. p. 160), disco- 
vered on Borneo by M. Diard. 


On the continent of Asia one species has been discovered during 
Belanger's Voyage, &c., the Tupaia du Pegou of M. Is. Geoffroy ; the 
T. peguana, Lesson ; T. Belangeri, Wagner. The T. (Cladobates) 
speciosa of Wagner, is, according to the statements of MM. Miiller 
and Schlegel, a mere variety of Tupaia tana. 

This interesting genus of Sorecine mammalia has been discovered 
since the commencement of the present century. The first public 
notice of it is due to the zeal of Sir T. S. Raffles, who, soon after 
assuming the government of Fort Maryborough, in Sumatra, commenced 
a general research into the natural history of the Indian Archipelago, 
embracing all departments. In the class of mammalia he engaged the 
assistance of MM. Diard and Duvaucel, who accompanied him, during 
part of the years 1819 and 1820, in his official voyages, during one of 
which the Tupaia ferruginea was discovered, respecting which SirT. S. 
Raffles states : " This singular little animal was first observed tame in 
the house of a gentleman at Penang, and afterwards found wild at 
Singapore and in the woods near Bencoolen, where it lives on the fruit 
of the Kayo gadis, &c." (Descriptive Catalogue of a Zoological Col- 
lection made on account of the Hon. East- India Company, in the 
island of Sumatra and its vicinity, under the direction of Sir Thomas 
Stamford Raffles, Lieut. -Gov. of Fort Marlborough. Trans. Linn. 
Soc. XIII. p. 239, &c. Read December 5th, 1820.) 

By desire of Sir T. S. Raffles, a description of this animal was 
prepared, early in the year 1820, by MM. Diard and Duvaucel, which 
he presented to his friend Major- General Thomas Hardwicke, to be 
disposed of at the pleasure of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and which 
was published in the fourteenth volume of the Asiatic Researches, 
p. 471, &c. Fort William, February, 1820.* 

The Tupaia javanica was discovered some years before the T. ferru- 
ginea, but no public notice was given of it until the publication 
of the Zoological Researches in Java, in 1821, where it is stated : 
" The Bangsring (Tupaia javanica) fell under my observation during 
an early period of my researches in Java. In traversing the province 
of Blambangan, in the year 1806, 1 discovered it in the extensive forests 
which cover almost entirely the eastern extremity of the island. 

* This description is entitled, " Notice. Sur une nouvelle espece de Sorex 
Sorex Glis (D.D.). (Asiatic Researches, XIV. p. 473.) " Pendant la duree de 
nos sejours a Pulo Penang et Sincapore, nous avons plusieurs fois tue dans les bois 
un petit quadrujiede, que nous primes d'abord pour un ecureuil, mais que nous 
reconnumes bientot, en 1'examwant, appartenir a la famille des Insectivores," &c. 


During the period above mentioned I obtained but two individuals. 
One of these was forwarded to the Museum of the Honourable East- 
India Company in 1812, with a few remarks on its locality, food, and 
manners ; and the other formed part of the collection which was 
brought to England by me in 1819." 

Dr. Sal. Muller, and the other Dutch naturalists, who examined 
minutely the western parts of Java, inform us that the Tupaia javanica 
is not unfrequent in the dense forests of these districts, where its 
range extends from the coast to an elevation of about 4,000 feet above 
the sea. 

The form and the exterior of the different species of Tupaia are 
minutely described by the Dutch naturalists in the Verhand. over 
Natuurl. Gesch. p. 160, &c., and in Horsfield's Zool. Research. &c. 

As to the habits of the various species of this genus, all zoologists 
who have had an opportunity of observing them in their native 
countries agree in ascribing to them a character easily suiting itself to 
the society of man, and capable of some training. 

In the thirteenth volume of the Trans. Linn. Soc. p. 257, Sir T. S. 
Raffles states : " These animals are as tame and sprightly as squirrels. 
The tame one mentioned in the description was suffered to go about at 
perfect liberty, ranged in freedom over the whole house, and never 
failed to present himself on the breakfast and dinner table, where he 
partook of fruit and milk/' Tupaia ferruginea. 

Dr. Sal. Muller describes the T. javanica as a confiding, simple, and 
lively little animal, always in motion, seeking its food at one time on 
the ground, among moss and dry leaves, at another along the stems of 
trees, dipping its nose rapidly into the fissures and hollows. It forms 
a nest of moss, at some distance above the ground, supporting it on 
clusters of orchideous plants, which attach themselves to the forest 

Dr. Cantor communicates the following observations : " The young 
of this very numerous species in hilly jungle is easily tamed, and 
becomes familiar with its feeder, though towards strangers it ietains its 
original mistrust, which, in mature age, is scarcely reclaimable. In a 
state of nature, it lives singly or in pairs, fiercely attacking intruders of 
its own species. When several are confined together, they fight each 
other, or jointly attack and destroy the weakest. The natural food is 
mixed insectivorous and frugivorous. In confinement, individuals 
may be fed exclusively on either, though preference is evinced for 
insects ; and eggs, fish, and earth-worms are equally relished. A 
short, peculiar, tremulous whistling sound, often heard by calls and 


answers, in the Malayan jungle, marks their pleasurable emotions ; as, 
for instance, on the appearance of food, while the contrary is expressed 
by shrill protracted cries. Their disposition is very restless, and their 
great agility enables them to perform the most extraordinary bounds in 
all directions, in which exercise they spend the day, till night sends 
them to sleep in their rudely- constructed lairs in the highest branches 
of trees. At times they will sit on their haunches, holding their food 
between the fore-legs, and after feeding, they smooth the head and face 
with both fore-paws, and lick the lips and palms. They are also fond 
of water, both to drink and to bathe in. The female usually produces 
one young." (Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting the Malayan Penin- 
sula and Islands. By Theodore Cantor, M.D., &c.) 

d. ERINACINA, Gray, Cat. Br. Mus. Syst. 

List, XXL 
Genus SOREX, Linn. 

143. SOREX MURINUS, Linn. Syst. Nat. 12, /. p. 74, ed. 
Gmel I. p. 114. 

Sorex myosurus, Pallas, Act. Petrop. 1781. Muller, Over 

de Zoogd. v. d. Ind. ArcMp. p. 26. 
SEEKA, of the Assamese, Walker, Calc. J. N. H. III. 265. 

HAB. Upper India, Nepal, Hodgson. Assam, Walker. Java, 
Sumatra, Borneo, and Amboina, Muller. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

144. SOREX GRIFFITHII, Horsfield. 

Colour, deep blackish brown throughout, with a slight rufous 
reflection in a certain light. Fur short, close, soft, and adpressed. 
Tail thick at the base, with a few long, very slender, straggling hairs 
along its entire length. Ears small and rounded. Snout elongated. 
Length from the tip of the snout to the root of the tail, 5J inches. 
Tail, 2 inches. 

Allied to S. murinus, but differing essentially by the uniform deep 
blackish-brown tint, and by shortness, delicacy, and softness of the fur. 

HAB. Afghanistan. 

A. Griffith's Collection from Afghanistan. 


Ho. SO REX CGERULESCENS, Shaw, Gen. Zool I. 
part 2, p. 533. 

Sorex giganteus, Is. Geoffr. 
Sorex pilorides, Shaw, Mus. Lever. 

HAB. India generally, and the Eastern Islands. Bootan, 

A. Major Pemberton's Collection from Bootan. 

146. SOREX INDICUS, Geoffr., Ann, Mus. XVII. p. 185. 

Sorex Sonneratii, Is. Geoffr. 

HAB. Continent and Islands of India. Dukhun, Colonel 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

147. SOREX NIGER, Elliot, MS. 

Blackish brown, with a rufescent shade on the upper parts. Abdo- 
men grayish. Tail equal in length to the entire animal, exclusive of the 
head, gradually tapering to a point. Snout greatly attenuated. Length 
of the head and body 3j inches ; of the tail, 2 inches. 

HAB. Madras, Elliot. 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

148. SOREX CAUDATUS, Hodgson, Ann. and Mag. of 
Nat. Hist. New Series, III. p. 203. 

General habit of the extremities and tail, comparatively slender. 
Colour saturate blackish brown, very slightly rufescent in certain 
aspects. Snout moderately elongated, furnished at the sides with long 
delicate hairs. Tail slender, nearly naked, very slightly attenuated, 
equal in length to the body and head. Length of the body and head 
2J inches ; of the tail the same. 

HAB. Sikim and Darjeling, Upper India, Hodgson. 
A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 


149. SO REX SIKIMENSIS, Hodgson, Ann. and Mag. of 
Nat. Hist. New Series, III. p. 203. 

Colour above and of the head, saturated blackish brown, slightly 
rufescent, with a silvery cast in certain lights ; grayish underneath. 
Fur short, smooth, delicately soft, and closely adpressed. Snout 
long, regularly attenuated, with few lateral hairs. Body abruptly ter- 
minated behind. Tail slender, rigidly straight, naked, half as long as 
the body. Ears concealed. Discovered, with the preceding species, by 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

HAB. Sikim and Darjeling, Upper India. 
A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus CORSIRA, Gray, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 123. 

150. GOES IB A NIGRESCENS, Gray, Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist. X.p. 261. 

HAB. Bootan, Pemberton. 

A. Major Pemberton's Collection from Bootan. 

Genus ERINACEUS, Linn. 

151. ERINACEUS COLLARIS, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. 
Mus. p. 81. Illust. Ind. Zool. I. tab. 8. 

HAB. India generally. Madras, Walter Elliot, Esq. Af- 
ghanistan, Griffith. Candahar, Captain Hutton. 

A. Griffith's Collection from Afghanistan. 


? Erinaceus micropus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. XV. p. 170. 
HAB. Madras, Elliot. 

A. Presented by Walter Elliot, Esq. 

Size, about one-half of that of E. collaris. Form elongated. Tail 
short, concealed. Spines, yellowish white at the base and tip, with a 
blackish ring in the middle. Ears moderately large. Head and ears 


naked, of a sooty-black colour throughout. Throat, neck to the region 
of the ears, breast and abdomen, covered with a naked skin of a dirty 
chestnut-brown colour, passing into blackish on the abdomen, and into 
dirty yellowish at the sides. 

The uniform sooty colour of the head and ears, with the absence of 
any hairy covering, and the nakedness of the lower neck, breast, and 
abdomen, constitute the chief distinguishing character of the specimen 
described. Its form is also more elongate than that of E. collaris , and 
the rings of the spines are of a darker colour. 

The description, however, is from a single specimen, and the com- 
parison of other subjects is required, to determine its title to a specific 

In the fifteenth volume of the Journ. As. Soc. Beng. p. 170, Mr. E. 
Blyth enumerates the Indian species of Erinaceus hitherto indicated by 
authors ; namely, E. collaris, Gray ; E. spatangus, Bennett ; E. Grayi, 
Bennett ; and E. mentalis, Gray ; with reference also to the species which 
Captain Hutton observed in Candahar. (J. A. S. B. XIV. p. 351, &c.) 
For one of these, No. 18 of Captain Button's list, which is still doubt- 
ful, Mr. Blyth proposes provisionally the name of E. micropus. 

In the Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar (Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. Vol. XIV. p. 352), Captain Hutton communicates the following 
remarks on the habits of the species of Erinaceus which he found in 
that district : " The habits of all three species are the same. They 
are nocturnal, and during the day conceal themselves in holes, or in 
the tufts of high jungle grass. Their food consists of insects, chiefly of 
a small beetle which is abundant on the sandy tracts of Bhawulpore, 
and belongs to the genus Blaps. They also feed on lizards and snails. 
When touched, they have the habit of suddenly jerking up the back 
with some force, so as to prick the fingers or mouth of the assailant, 
and at the same time emitting a blowing sound, not unlike the noise 
produced when blowing upon a flame with a pair of bellows. When 
alarmed, they have the power of rolling themselves up into a complete 
ball, concealing the head and limbs, as does the European hedgehog." 
Respecting E. collaris, he observes, " On hearing any noise, it jerks the 
skin and quills of the neck completely over its head, leaving only the tip 
of the nose free, which is turned quickly in every direction, to ascertain 
the nature of the approaching danger. If a foe in reality come nigh it, 
the head is doubled under the belly towards the tail, and the legs being 
withdrawn at the same time, it presents nothing but a prickly ball to its 
assailant, and which is in most cases a sufficient protection. In this 
state it remains for some time perfectly motionless, until all being 



quiet, the danger past, it ventures first slowly, and almost imperceptibly, 
to exsert the nose, the nostrils working quickly, as if to ascertain that 
all is safe again. It then gradually uncoils until the eyes are left free, 
and if satisfied that its foe has passed on, it opens up, and walks off 
with a quick but unsteady gait ; or if again startled by the slightest 
noise near it, it is instantly intrenched within its thorny armour. All 
the species use the snout much in the same manner as the hog does, 
turning up the leaves and grasses in search of food, and shoving each 
other out of the way with it when angry. They make a grunting sort 
of noise when irritated. They are remarkably tenacious of life, bearing 
long abstinence with apparent ease a provision of nature highly useful 
and essential in the desert tracts they inhabit. It is probable, too, 
that they remain during the cold season in a semitorpid state, as the 
species which occurs in Afghanistan, hybernates." 

153. EEINACEUB AURITUS, Pallas, Nov. Comment. 
Acad. Petrop. XIV. p. 575. 

HAB. Southern Russia, Pallas. Mesopotamia, Commander 
Jones, of the Indian Navy. 

A. Forwarded by the Government of Bombay, being part 
of an interesting Zoological Collection made by 
Commander Jones, of the Indian Navy, and pre- 
sented to the Honourable Court of Directors. 

A very delicate fur, consisting of long silky hairs of a white colour, 
covers the head, breast, and abdomen of this species, forming also along 
the sides and the rump a beautiful ornamental border. 


Order III. CETE. 

Fam. 2. DELPHINID^E, Gray, Cat. Mamm. 
Br. Mus. Syst. List, XXIII. 

Genus PLATANISTA, Gray, Illust. Ind. Zool II. pi. 24. 

DELPHINUS, Roxburgh, Lebeck, Shaw, et al. 
PLATANISTJS, Plin., Hist. Nat. IX. c. 15. Fischer, Synops. 
Mamm. 506. 

154. PLATANISTA GANGETICA, Gray, 8p. Illust. Ind. 
Zool. II. pi 24. 

Delphinus gangeticus, Roxburgh, Asiat. Research. VII. 
p. 170. 

HAS. India, the Ganges. 

A. The Skull, complete. 

B. Upper and Lower Jaws of an imperfect Skull. 

Genus MONODON, Linn, et al. 


Unicom Narwhal, Shaw, Gen. Zool. II. 2, p. 473. 
HAB. Northern Ocean of Europe, Greenland, Iceland. 
A. The Tooth. 

Fam. 4. HALICORID^E, Gray, Cat. Mamm. 
Br. Mus. 8yst. List, XXIII. 

Genus HALICOEE, Illig. et al. 

156. HALICOEE DUGUNG, Fr. Cm. et Geoffr., Mamm. 
fasc. 37. 

DUYONG, of the Malays, erroneously changed to Dugung. 

HAB. Indian Ocean, West Coast of Sumatra, Raffles, Tr. 
Linn. Soc. XIII. p. VIZ. 

A. Skull, from Finlayson's Collection, Siam. 


Order IV. GLIRES. 

Fam. 1. MURID^E, Gray, Cat. Mamm. 
Br. Mus. Syst. List, XXIII. 

Genus Mus, Linn. 

157. MUS DECUMANUS, Pallas. 

CHOOHA and GHURKA CHOOHA, Dekhani, Elliot. 
CHOOA, of the Mahrattas, Col. Sykes. 

HAB. Persia and India generally. Dukhun, Col. Sykes. 
Indian Archipelago, Dr. Sal Mutter. Introduced into 
Europe about the year 1730, Fischer. 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

158. MUS DECUMANOIDES, TemmincJc (not Hodgson). 
HAB. Bengal, General Thomas Hardwicke. 

A. B. Presented by General T. Hardwicke. 

159. MUS BANDICOTA, Bechstein, Penn. Nat. Gesch. 
ubers. v. Bechstein. Fischer, Syn. Mamm. 314. 

Mus giganteus, Hardw., Trans. Linn. Soc. VIII. t. 18. 

Mus malabaricus, Shaw, Zool. 

Mus Icria, Fr. (Buchanan) Ham. MSS. Mus. Soc. Ind. 

Bandicote rat, Penn., Hist, of Quadr. 

IKARA, Bengali. INDUR, Sanskr. A sort of rat. 

PANDI KOKU, Telugu, a large rat, commonly called Bandy- 
coot, from Pandi, a Hog, and Kokka, a Rat. The 
Hog-Rat, Wilson, Elliot, Campbell. 

GHONS, Dekhani, Elliot. 

TIKUS BESAR, Malayan peninsula, Cantor. 

HAB. Bengal and peninsula of India, Hamilton, Elliot. 
Malayan peninsula, Cantor. 

A. B. Two prepared skins, not in good condition. Pre- 
sented by Gen. T. Hardwicke. 

C. A Drawing from the Collection of Dr. F. (Buchanan) 


Journ. As. Soc. Beng. V. p. 234. 

" Throughout dusky brown ; the centre of the belly only being paler 
and hoary blue." Length, snout to rump 12 inches; tail 9J inches. 

This species represents the M . Bandicota of Bengal, in the higher 
regions of Nepal : it is about one- third smaller. 

HAB. Northern Hilly Regions of Nepal, Hodgson.. 

A. A prepared Skin, not in good condition. Presented 
by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

161. MUS ARBOREUS, Buchanan, MS. 

GACHHUA INDUE, Beng. The TREE-RAT, a species of rat 
which inhabits trees, and feeds on their fruit, Carey. 

HAB. Bengal, Dr. Fr. (Buchanan) Hamilton. 

A. A Drawing from the Collection of Dr. F. (Buchanan) 


B. A prepared Skin, from the Collection of B. H. 
Hodgson, Esq. greatly resembles Dr. Hamilton's 

" This animal lives on cocoa-nut-trees, and where these do not 
grow, on bamboos, from whence its name, Tree-rat, is derived. Each 
pair builds a nest within the cavity of the branches, and there bring 
forth four, five, or six young. This is in Bhadur month, which corre- 
sponds with part of August and September. 

" They eat grain, which they collect in their nest, and they destroy 
the cocoa-nuts when young, and these are their most favourite food. 
They never live in houses, but at night come there to steal. In shape 
this has a very strong resemblance to the Jenkoo Indoor, being more 
elegantly formed than the common rat, and having a much narrower face 
and much larger eyes. Its tail, however, exactly resembles that of the 
common rat, and consists of a great number of very narrow scaly rings, 
that have between them short bristles, which are generally approximated 
to each other three by three. 

" Like the Jenkoo (Gerbillus indicus), it frequently sits erect on the 
hinder legs, but this also I observe in the common rat. The hides are 
dark, the whiskers black, the ears naked. The upper teeth are not 
divided by a furrow, like those of the Jenkoo ; the incisors are yellow, 


and those of the lower jaw are parallel. The upper parts of the body 
are a dark iron-gray, consisting of black and tawny hairs, of which the 
former are the longest and most numerous. The lower parts and legs 
are white ; the naked parts of the nose and toes are a pale flesh-colour. 
The hinder feet extend to the hock joint. 

" A full-grown male measured, from the nose to the tail, seven inches ; 
tail, seven inches and a half. A female measured eight inches and a 
half, with nine inches of tail." Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton's MS. 

162. MUS SET I FEE, Horsfield, Zool Research, with a figure. 
Muller, Over de Zoogd. v. d. Ind. Archip. p. 36. Cantor, 
Catal. of Malayan Mamm. p. 46. Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. 
Mus. 108. 

HAB. Java, Horsfield. Java and Sumatra, Dr. Sal Midler. 
Penang, Cantor. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 
Allied to Mus bandicota, but clearly distinct as a species. 

163. M US FLA VESCENS, Elliot, Madras Journ. Lit. Sci. 
p. 214. 

HAB. Madras, Elliot. 

A. Presented by Walter Elliot, Esq. 

B. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

164. MUS BRUNNEUS, Hodgson? Ann. and Mag. of Nat. 
Hist. XV. p. 266. 

" Above, rusty brown ; below, rusty, more or less albescent ; extre- 
mities pale, nearly fleshy white. Tail, barely longer than the head and 
body ; snout to vent, 9J inches ; tail, 2J ; head, 2J ; ear, 1." (Ann. 
Nat. Hist, as above cited.) 

The dimensions here given, as well as the description, agree with 
our specimen; excepting the length of the tail, which is somewhat 
shorter than the body. This species is nearly allied to M. decumanus. 

Common house-rat of Nepal. 
HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 


165. MUS BRUNNEUSCULUS, Hodgson, Ann. and Mag. 
of Nat. Hist. XV. p. 267. 

" Closely resembling the last, but considerably smaller. Above, rusty 
brown ; below, rusty ; extremities pale/' 

The specimen in the Company's Museum measures, from snout to 
vent, 6J inches ; the tail, 3 inches, having lost, apparently, nearly one 
half of its length ; head, 1| inch. 

HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

166. MUS NIVIVENTER, Hodgson? Ann. and Mag. of 
Nat. Hist. XV. p. 267. 

" Above, blackish brown, shaded with rufous ; below, entirely pure 

The specimen in the Museum measures, snout to vent, 5 inches ; 
tail, 4J inches. 

A House-rat, Hodgson. 
HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. Madras ? 

167. MUS DUBIUS, Hodgson, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. 
XV. p. 268. 

" Above, dusky brown, touched with fawn ; below, sordid fawn." 
The specimen in the Museum measures, snout to vent, 3 inches ; 
tail (not quite perfect), 1| inches. 

A House-mouse, Hodgson. 
HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

168. MUS DARJILINGENSIS, Hodgson, Ann. and Mag, 
of Nat. Hist. New Series, I II. p. 203. 

Above, dusky brown, with a slight chestnut reflection ; underneath, 
pale yellowish white. Snout to vent, 3 inches ; ears, long ; tail, 2^ 
inches. Allied to the last species. Proportions of body, tail, and 
extremities, comparatively slender. 

HAB. Sikim, Hodgson. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 


169. MUS ^SQUICAUDALIS, Hodgson, Ann. and Mag. of 
Nat Hist. New Series, III. p. 203. 

Pure dark-brown above, with a very slight cast of rufescent in a 
certain aspect ; underneath, from the chin to the vent with interior of 
the thighs, yellowish white. Ears nearly an inch long ; head propor- 
tionally long. 

Dimensions : from the snout to the root of the tail, 8J inches ; tail, 
in the living animal, equal in length to the body (Hodgson, I. tit.} ; 
head, 2J inches. 

170. HUB CAUDATIOR, Hodgson, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. 
Hist. New Series, III. p. 203. 

Above, chestnut-brown, with a rufous shade, more clear and passing 
into reddish on the rump ; underneath from the chin to the vent and 
the interior of the thighs white, with a very slight yellowish shade. 
Muzzle rather sharp ; ears proportionally long ; tail exceeding the body 
in length. (Hodgson, I. cit.) Body and head, 5| inches long ; tail, 
in the prepared specimen, 6 inches. 

171. MUS LEUCOSTERNUM, Ruppell, Mus. Senckb. 
HAB. Abyssinia. 

A. From Sir W. C. Harris's Collection in Abyssinia. 

Genus GOUJNDA, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. N. S. p. 577. 
Mums Species, Elliot. 

172. GOLUNDA MELTADA, Gray, Mag. N. Hist I cit 

Mus lanuginosus, Elliot, Mddr. Journ. Lit. and Sc. X. 

p. 212. 

MELTADA, of the Wuddurs, Elliot. 
KERA-ILEI, of the Canarese, Elliot. 

HAB. Southern Mahratta Country, Elliot 

A. B. Presented by W. Elliot, Esq. 
C. A variety or distinct species from Griffith's Collection 
in Afghanistan. 

The specimens contained in the Museum agree with the description 
of W. Elliot, Esq., excepting the tail, which does not exceed an inch in 


Genus NESOKIA. Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. X. 1842, 
p. 264. 

MURIS Species, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. N. S. I. p. 577. 

173. NESOKIA GRIFFITHII, Horsfield. 
HAB. Afghanistan, Pushut, Griffith. 

A. Griffith's Collection from Afghanistan. 

Fur, very soft and silky. Colour, above, dusky chestnut-brown, with 
streaks of a plumbeous tint, the separate hairs being of a leaden colour 
at the base, and chestnut-brown towards the extremity ; chin, chest, 
and under parts of a lighter tint, passing into a grayish leaden colour 
on the abdomen. Ears moderately large : thumb of the fore feet very 
minute. Cutting-teeth flat anteriorly, comparatively large, broad, and 
nearly white. Tail nearly naked, and shorter than the body. Length, 
from snout to root of the tail, 6^ inches ; of the tail, 3 inches. 

In the definition of this genus (Ann. Nat. Hist. X. 265), Mr. Gray 
states that it is " easily known from Mus by the large size of the 
cutting-teeth, and the shortness of the tail; it appears to be inter- 
mediate between Mus and Rhizomys." 

In the Nesokia Grijfithii this character is particularly developed, and 
forms one of the points which distinguish it from Nesokia Kok and 
Nesokia Hardwickii, described by Mr. Gray in the Mag. Nat. Hist. 
N. Ser. I. p. 577, &c. 

Genus CRICETUS, G. Cuv. et al. 

MURIS Species, Linn, et al. 

174. CRICETUS SONG AH US, Pallas, Sp. 

Mus songarus, Pallas, Glir. 
Cricetus songarus, Desmar. 

HAB. Kumaon, Copt. JR. Strachey. Siberia, Pallas et al. 
A. From Capt. R. Strachey's Collection in Ladakh. 


Genus NEOBON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. Second Series, 
Vol. 1 1 1. p. 203. 

The animal on which this genus is founded, Mr. Hodgson considers 
as a new type, though in many respects allied to Arvicola. The 



incisors are the same ; the grinders, above and below, are disposed in a 
regular compact series, so close as to be distinguished or separated 
from each other with difficulty, having individually slightly- elevated 
ridges or folds. In the upper jaw the anterior grinders respectively 
are somewhat larger than the rest in the series, and according to 
Mr. Gray's comparison with Arvicola, they are provided with an 
additional ridge or fold. In the lower jaw the series is nearly uniform, 
with a slight decrease posteriorly. 

A more detailed account will be given by Mr. Hodgson, who dis- 
covered this genus in Upper India. 

175. NEODON SIKIMENSIS, Hodgson, Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist. Sec. Ser. Vol. 1 1 I. p. 203. 

Fur, very soft and silky, constituting an uniform external pelage ; 
above, deep brownish black, with a slight rusty shade, minutely and 
copiously grizzled with hairs of a deep ferruginous tint ; this colour 
extends over the top and sides of the head, body, tail, and the upper 
portion of the extremities; the chin, breast, and abdomen are deep 
bluish gray, with a slight ferruginous shade. The ears are of moderate 
size, and hairy externally. The habit and proportions resemble 
Arvicola, but the tail is comparatively short. Length from the snout 
to the root of the tail, 5 inches ; of the tail, 1 J inch. 

HAS. Sikim, Hodgson. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Fam. 2. HYSTRICID^B, Gray, Cat. Mamm. 
Br. Mus. Syst. List, XXIV. 

Genus HYSTRIX, Linn, et al. 

176. HYSTRIX LEUCURUS, Sykes, Proceed. Zool Soc. 
1831, p. 103. 

SAYAL, of the Mahrattas, Col. Sykes. 
HAB. Dukhun, Colonel Sykes. Nepal, Hodgson. 
A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 


Genus ATHERURA, Cuv. Kegn. An. Ed. II. I. p. 215. 


HAB. Sumatra, Raffles. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Mutter. 
Malayan Peninsula, Cantor. Continent of India, Dr. 
F. (Buchanan) Hamilton. 

A. A Drawing from the Collection of Dr. Francis 
(Buchanan) Hamilton. 

Fam. 3. LEPORID^E, Gray, Cat. Br. Mus. 
Syst. List, XXV. 

Genus LEPUS, Linn, et al. 

178. LEPUS NIGEICOLLIS, Fr. Cm. Sykes, Cat. 
DukUun Mamm. Pr. Z. S. 1831, p. 103. 

? Lepus hurgosa, Buchanan, MSS. Mysore, I. p. 169. 
Lepus kurgosa, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 128. 
SUSSUH and SASSA, of the Mahrattas, Col. Sykes and 

Walter Elliot, Esq. 
MALLA, Canarese, Elliot. 
KHARGOSH, Dekhani, Elliot. 

HAB. Peninsula of India, SyJces and Elliot. 
A. B. Presented by Col. Sykes. 

179. LEPUS MAC ROT US, Hodgson, Journ. As. Sec. Beng. 
IX. p. 1183. 

Lepus ruficaudatus, Is. Geoffr., Mag. Zool. II. t. 9. 
HAB. Gangetic Provinces and Sub-Himalaya, Hodgson, I. cit. 
A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Described by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., in the volume of the Asiatic 
Society above referred to. 


180. LEPUS OIOSTOLUS, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. IX. p. 1186. 

Lepus CEmodius, Hodgs. MS. communicated to the Linn. 

Lepus tibetanus, Waterh. P. Z. S. 1841,;?. 7. 

HAB. Snowy region of the Himalayas, Hodgson. Tibet 
(Ladakh), Capt. R. Strachey. 

A. From Capt. R. Strachey 's Collection. 

B. C. D. Several imperfect Skins. 

Described by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., in the ninth volume of the 
Journ. As. Soc. /. cit. In a note, Mr. H. states that this and the 
former species were named respectively Indicus and CEmodius. 

181. LEPUS ^GYPTIUS, Geoffr., Mamm. Egypt. 
HAB. Abyssinia. 

A. From Sir W. C. Harris's Collection during his 
Mission to Abyssinia. 

Genus CAPROLAGUS, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XIV. 
p. 248. 

LEPORIS Species, Pearson. 

182. CAPROLAGUS HISPID US, Pearson, Sp. 

Lepus hispidus, Pearson, Bengal Sporting Magazine, Aug. 
1843, p. 131. 

HAB. Assam, Pearson, McClelland. Sikim, Hodgson. 

A. From McClelland's Collection in Assam. 

B. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus LAGOMYS, G. Cuv. Kegne An. Ed. II. I. p. 218. 
LEPORIS Species, Pallas et al. 

183. LAGOMYS NIPALENSIS, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. X. p. 854, with a figure. 

HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. Kumaon, Capt. R. Strachey. 
A. B. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 
Several preserved Skins from Capt. R. Strachey's Collec- 
tion in Kumaon. 


184. LAGOMYS RUFESCEN8, Gray, Ann. and Mag. 
' N. H. 1842, JP. 266. 

HAB. Afghanistan, Griffith. 

A. From Griffith's Collection in Afghanistan. 

Fain. 4. JERBOID^), Gray, Cat. Mamm. 
Br. Mus. Syst. List, XXV. 


Genus ALACTAGA, Fr. Cuv., Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 141. 
DIPUS, Schreber, Pallas, et al. 

185. ALACTAGA IN DIG A, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist. X. p. 262. 

Dipus acontion, Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso, As. 

Alactaga acontium, Pallas. Hutton, Notes on the Zool. of 

Cand.J.A. S.B.XV.p. 137. 
KHANEE, of the Afghans, Hutton. 

HAB. Afghanistan, Griffith. andahar, Hutton. 

A. B. C. Adult. 

D. E. F. Young. From Griffith's Collection in Afghan- 

In defining this species (Ann. N. H. above cited), Mr. Gray points 
out its resemblance to Dipus acontion of Pallas, and the peculiarities in 
which it differs. 

In the fifteenth volume of the J. A. S. B. p. 137, Capt. Hutton 
gives some interesting details of the species of Alactaga which he 
observed in Candahar : " This beautiful little animal is abundant over 
all the stony plains throughout the country, burrowing deeply, and 
when unearthed, bounding away with most surprising agility, after the 
manner of the kangaroo-rat. It is easily tamed, and lives happily 
enough in confinement, if furnished with plenty of room to leap about. 
It sleeps all day, and so soundly, that it may be taken from its cage 
and examined without awaking it ; or, at most, it will half open one 
eye, in a drowsy manner for an instant, and immediately close it again 


in sleep. It retires to its burrows about the end of October, and 
remains dormant till the following April, when it throws off its lethargy, 
and again comes forth. It is doubtless the ' desert rat* mentioned by 
the late Captain Arthur Conolly, in his Overland Journey to India 
(p. 54, Vol. I.)." (Hutton, Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar, 
J. A. S. B. XV. p. 137.) 

Genus GERBILLUS, Desmar. et al 

DIPODIS Species, Hardw., Schinz, et al. 

186. GERBILLUS INDICUS, Hardw., Spec. 

Dipus indicus, Hardw., Trans. Linn. Soc. VIII. p. 279, 

with a figure. 
Gerbillus indicus, Desmar., Mamm. p. 321. Gray, Cat. 

Mamm. Br. Mus.p. 132. 
Mus Jencus, Fr. (Buchanan) Hamilton, MS. 
HEREENA-MOOS, Antelope-rat, Bengalese. 
JHENKOO INDUR, a species of Field-mouse, Mus Jencus, 

Carey, Beng. Diet. 

HAB. Plains of Hindustan, Hardwicke. 

A. A dried specimen, not in good condition. 

B. A Drawing in Dr. F. Buchanan Hamilton's Collec- 


" These animals live in holes, which they dig in the abrupt banks of 
rivers and ponds." (Hamilton's MS.) 

" These animals are very numerous about cultivated lands, and 
particularly destructive to wheat and barley crops, of which they lay 
up considerable hoards, in spacious burrows. A tribe of low Hindoos, 
called Kunjers, go in quest of them at proper seasons, to plunder their 
hoards, and often, within the space of twenty yards square, find as 
much corn in the ear, as could be crammed in a bushel." (Hardwicke.) 

Hag. of Nat. Hist. X. p. 266. 

HAB. Afghanistan, Griffith. 

A. Specimen agreeing with Mr. Gray's original descrip- 
tion as above cited. 


B. Adult. C. Young. Colour, Isabella, slightly varie- 
gated, with plumbeous hairs. 

D. E. Variety, perhaps a distinct species. Fur, fulves- 
cent, undulated with black. 

From Griffith's Collection. 


Genus SCIUEUS, Linn, et al. 

188. SCIURUS PLANTANI, Ljung. K. Vetonsk, Acad. 
H. 1801. 

Sciurus Plantani, Horsf., Zool. Research, with a figure. 
Plantane Squirrel, Pennant, 1781. 
BAJING, of the Javanese and Malays. 

HAB. Java, Horsfield. Java and Sumatra, Mutter. 
A. B. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

189. SCIURUS INSIGNIS, Fred. Cm., Mamm.fasc. 34. 

Sciurus ihsignis, Horsf. Zool. Res. with a fig. 
BOKKOL, of the Javanese. 
LARY, of the natives of Sumatra. 

HAB. Java, Horsfield. Java and Sumatra, Mutter. 
A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

190. SCIURUS SUBLINEATUS, Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. 1838. 

Sciurus Delessertii, Gervais, Mag. Zool. 1842. 
HAB. Madras, Nielgherry Hills. 

A. Presented by Dr. A. T. Christie. 

191. SCIURUS McCLELLANDII, Horsfield, Proc. Zool 
Soc. 1839. 

Sciurus trilineatus, Gray, 1828, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. 142. 
HAB. Bengal and Assam, McClelland. 

A. B. From McClelland's Collection in Assam. 


192. SCIURUS PALMARUM, Linn. Syst. Nat 12, /. p. 87. 

Sciurus palmarum, Horsf., Zool. Res. 
Rat palmiste, Brisson. 
KHURREE, of the Mahrattas, Sykes. 
GILHERI, Dekhani, Elliot. 

HAB. Dukhun, Col Sykes. Madras, Walter Elliot, Esq. 
Intratropical parts of Asia and Africa, Fischer. 

A. B. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

193. SCIURUS PENICILLATUS, Leach, Zool Miscel 

Sciurus palmarum, var. Fischer, Syn. Mamm. p. 358. 
HAB. Peninsula of India, W. Elliot, Esq. 

A. B. From the Madras presidency. Presented by 
E. Wight, Esq. 

194. SCIURUS NIGROVITTATUS, Horsfield, Zool 

HAB. Java, Horsfield. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Muller. 
A. B. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

195. SCIURUS VITTATUS, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. 
XIII. p. 259. 

Sciurus bivittatus, Horsf. Zool. Res. Desm., Mamm. 
Suppl. 543. 

HAB. Sumatra, Raffles, Muller. 

A. B. C. Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 

MS. Catal of the Zool of Assam. 

Sciurus subflaviventris, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus.p. 144. 
Sciurus Lokriah, List of Mammalia, Pr.Z. Soc. 1839, p. 151 . 

HAB. Assam, McClelland. Nepal, Hodgson. 

A. B. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

C, From McClelland's Collection. Not perfect. 

D. From G. Finlayson's Collection during Crawford's 

Embassy to Siam and Hue. 


197. SCIURUS ASSAMENSIS, McClelland, MS. Catal 
of the Zoology of Assam. 

Sciurus assamensis, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 143. 
Sciurus lokhroides, List of Mammalia, #c. Pr. Z. Soc. 

1839,^. 152. 
Sciurus griseiventer, Is. Geoffr. 

HAB. Assam, McClelland. Bootan, Pemberton. Nepal, 

A. McClellan(Ts Collection, Assam. 

B. C. Pemberton's Collection, Bootan. 
D. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

198. SCIURUS LOKRIAH, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
V. p. 232. 

The Lokriah, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 143. 
HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. 

A. B. C. Several Skins, not in good condition, presented 
by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

199. SCIURUS LOKROIDES, Hodgson, Journ, As. Soc. 
Beng. V. p. 232. 

The grey-thighed Squirrel, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. 

HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. 

A. A Skin, presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Of the four species of Sciurus last enumerated, the Sc. subflaviventris 
(McClelland, MS. Cat. of Zool. of Assam), and the Sc. lokriah (Hodg- 
son, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. V. 232), and the Sc. assamensis (McClel. 
/. cit.'), and the Sc. lokroides (Hodgson, I. cit.), respectively, so nearly 
resemble each other, that no satisfactory diagnosis can be pointed out. 
Their geographical distribution appears in some cases slightly to affect 
their exterior colouring, which, however, does not amount to a specific 

200. SCIURUS TENUIS, Horsfield, Zool. Research. Can- 
tor, Malayan Mamm. p. 42. 

The slender Squirrel, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 144. 


HAB. Singapore, Finlayson. 

A. From G. Finlayson's Collection during Crawford's 
Embassy to Siam and Hue. 

201. SCIURUS ATRODORSALIS, Gray, Ann. and Mag. 
p. 263. 

The blackish-backed Squirrel, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. 

HAB. Tenasserim Coast, Dr. Heifer. 

A. Dr. Heifer's Collection in Tenasserim. 

202. SCIURUS HIPPURUS, Isid. Geoffr., Giierin Mag. de 
Zool. 1832, p. 6. 

Sciurus hippurus, List of Mammalia, SfC., collected in Assam 
by J. McClelland, Esq. Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1839, 
p. 146. Schinz, Syn. Mamm. If. p. 36. Miiller and 
Schlegel, Verhandl. over Nat. Gesch. p. 86. 

Sciurus caudatus, McClelland, MS. 

Sciurus exythrseus, Pallas. Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. 
p. 142. 

HAB. Assam, McClelland. Malacca, Griffith. Sumatra, 
Assam, and China, Miiller and Schlegel. 

A. B. From the Collections of J. McClelland in Assam. 
C. Presented by Wm. Griffith, Esq. 

This species is nearly allied to the Sc. erythraus of Pallas, but it 
varies in the depth of the colours both above and underneath. Several 
varieties are indicated by Mr. Gray in the Catalogue of the British 

203. SCIURUS FIN LA YSONII, Horsfield, Zool. Research. 

Ecureuil blanc de Siam, Buff., H. N. VII. p. 256. 

HAB. Siam. 

A. From G. Finlayson's Collection during Crawford's 
Embassy to Siam and Hue. 


204. SCIURUS B ICO LOR, Sparrman, Gotheborgska Wet~ 
Samh. Handl 1 st. p. 70, 1778. 

Sciurus bicolor, Sparrman, I. cit. 

" A. Varietas indica. Sc. supra niger, infra fulvus ; auriculis acutis 
imberbibus ; palmarum ungui pollicari magno rotundato." (Fischer.) 

" B. Varietas sondaica. Sc. fuscus, varians a fusco-nigricante ad 
sordide fulvum, pilis velleris fulvis et canescentibus intermixtis, subtus 
fulvus vel pallide flavescens." (Horsfield, Zool. Research.) 

The two varieties of this species are enumerated by various synonyms, 
of which the following deserve attention : 

Sciurus bicolor, Sparrm., /. cit. Horsf., Zool. Res. 

Mutter and Schlegel, Verhandl. over Nat. Gesch. 8fC. 

p. 86. Cantor, Cat. Malayan Mamm. 
Sciurus javensis, Schreber, Sangth. Gray, Cat. Mamm. 

Br. Mus.p. 136. 

Sciurus madagascariensis, Shaw, Gen. Zool. I. p. 128. 
Sciurus macruroides, Hodgs. 
Sciurus giganteus, McClelland^ MS. Proceed. Zool. Soc. 

1839,^. 150. 

Javan Squirrel, Pennant and Shaw. 
JELARANG, of the Javanese. 
CHINGKEAWHAH ETAM, of the Malays, Cantor. 

HAB. First Variety. Assam, McClelland. Nepal, Hodgson. 

Malayan Peninsula, Cantor and Midler. 
Second Variety. Java, Horsfield. Java and Sumatra, Mutter 

and Schlegel. 

A. Varietas indica. Siam, Finlayson. 

B. Varietas indica. Assam, McClelland. 

C. D. Varietas sondaica. Java, Horsfield. 
E. F. G. H. Several prepared Skins. 

205. SCIURUS CANICEPS, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist. 1842 ; Catal Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 143. 

HAB. Bootan, Pemberton. 

A. B. From Maj. Pemberton's Collection in Bootan. 
C. A skin, imperfect. 


206. SCIURUS AFFINIS, Raffles, Des. Catal of a Zool 
Collect, from Sumatra, Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 259. 
Horsf.j Zool. Res. 

Sciurus modestus, Muller. 

Hab. Sumatra, Raffles. S. modestus, Sumatra and Borneo, 

207. SCIUR US KERA UDRENII, Lesson, Cent. Zool pi. 1. 

Sciurus Keraudrenii, Less., loc. cit. Schinz, Syn. Mamm. 

II. p. 37. Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. XVI. p. 872. 
Sciurus ferrugineus, Cuv. Schinz, loc. cit. 
Sciurus ruberrimus, Blyth, MS. Mus. Soc. Ind. Or. 

Of this species, which is as yet rare in collections, Mr. Blyth giveti 
the following description : " Entirely of a deep rufo -ferruginous colour, 
rather darker above than below, the fur of the upper parts somewhat 
glistening; toes of all the feet blackish, as in the three preceding, and 
the extreme tip of the tail yellowish- white." 

HAB. Arakan and Pegu, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. XVI. pt. II. 
p. 872. 

A. A single specimen, presented by the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, the extremity of the tail of which is not 
perfect. In other respects it agrees entirely with 
Mr. Blyth's description above cited. 

208. SCIURUS HYPOLEUCUS, Horsfield, Zool Res. 

Sciurus Leschenaultii, Desmar. Horsf., Zool. Res. Art. 

S. bicolor. 
Sciurus hypoleucus, Midler and Schlegel, Over de Eekhorens 

(Sciurus) van den Indischen Archipel. 

HAB. Sumatra, Raffles, Muller. 

A. Presented by Sir T. S. Raines. 

209. SCIURUS MAXIMUS, Schreb., Scength. 

Sciurus purpureus, Zimm., Zool. Geogr. Quad. p. 518. 

Gray, Cat. Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 136. 
Bombay Squirrel, Pennant, Hist. Quad. II. p. 409. 


RASOO and RATUFAR, of the inhabitants of the Monghyr 

Hills, Dr. F.B. Hamilton. 
SHEKRA, of the Mahrattas, Elliot. 

HAB. Peninsula of India, Monghyr Hills, Hamilton. 

A. From the Collections of Dr. R Wight of Madras. 

B. A Drawing in the Collection of Dr. Francis (Bu- 

chanan) Hamilton. 

210. SCIUEUS ELPHINSTONII, Sykes, Proceed. Zool. 
Soc. 1831, p. 103. 

" This very beautiful animal/' Colonel Sykes states in his Catalogue 
of Dukhun Mammalia, " is found only in the lofty and dense woods 
of the Western Ghauts, and has rarely been seen by Europeans in 
Dukhun. It is of the size of the S. maximus, and the general arrange- 
ment of its colours is the same ; and as the S. maximus passes through 
some gradations of colour, the S. ElpMnstonii might be supposed by 
casual observers to be a variety of that species. I am enabled to state, 
however, from personal observation, that the latter does not change its 
colour at any period of its life, specimens being in my possession of the 
most tender and mature ages. 

" Ears, and whole upper surface of the body, half-way down the 
tail, outside of the hind legs, and half-way down the fore legs outside, 
of a uniform rich reddish chestnut. The whole under surface of the 
body, from the chin to the vent, inside of limbs, and lower part of fore 
legs, crown of the head, cheeks, and lower half of the tail, of a fine reddish 
white, the two colours being separated by a defined line, and not merging 
into each other. Feet of a light red. Forehead, and down to the nose, 
reddish brown, with white hairs intermixed. Irides, nut-brown. Ears 
tufted. Length of the male in my possession, from the tip of the nose 
to the insertion of the tail, 20 inches. Length of the tail, 15J inches. 

" The cry of this animal is ' Chook, chook, chook,' at first uttered 
slowly, and then rapidly ; and it is so loud as to have a startling effect. 

" I have dedicated this Squirrel to a very distinguished person, and a 
zealous promoter of scientific research, the Hon. Mountstuart Elphin- 

SHEKROO, of the Mahrattas, Col. Sykes. 

HAB. Dukhun. 

A. B. C. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 



Sciurus macrourus, Forster. Pennant's Indian Zoology, 

Second edition, 1790, p. 31, with a figure, pi. 1. Linn. 

Syst. Nat., ed. Gmelin, I. p. 148. Blyth, Journ. As. 

Soc. Beng. XVI. pt. II. p. 869. Gray and Hardw., 

Illustr. Ind. Zool II. pi. XIX. 
The Long-tailed Squirrel, Pennant's Indian Zoology, second 

edition, p. 81. 

HAB. Ceyion and Malabar, Pennant. Travancore, Elliot. 
A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

212. SCIURUS VULGARIS, Linn., Fn. Suec. 2, p. 15. 
Syst. Nat., ed. Gmel I. p. 145 ? 

? Common Squirrel, Penn., Brit. Zool. I. p. 107. 

Sciurus europseus, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 139. 

Cat. Hodgs. Collect, p. 23. 
Mustek ? calotus, Hodgson, Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. II. 

p. 221, $c. 
CHUAKHAL, of the inhabitants of Tibet. 

HAB. Himalaya and Tibet, Hodgson. 

A. A furrier's skin, not perfect. Presented by B. H. 
Hodgson, Esq. 

B. H. Hodgson, Esq., who observed this animal in that state only in 
which it is brought from Tibet as an article of commerce, gives an 
account of it in the second volume of the Calcutta Journal of Natural 
History, p. 221, &c. The specimens being all imperfect, he was not 
able to determine its generic character, and therefore indicates it 
doubtfully as a species of Mustela (?), M. calotus, Hodgs. Mr. H. states : 
" Cloaks lined with furs of various kinds are largely imported from the 
north by the Nipalese merchants, and amongst the less expensive sorts 
of these furs so employed that called Chudkhdl is perhaps the best 
and handsomest. I have frequently endeavoured to procure all or any 
of the animals whose skins are thus employed in commerce and in dress, 
and lately, through the kindness of the minister of this place, have 
obtained a very beautifully- cured specimen of the animal called Chudkhdl, 
which, however, alas ! is stripped of every vestige of bone, and of talons 
or nails." 

" Mustela ? calotus of a clear slaty blue, freckled vaguely with hoary ; 
the amply-tufted ears, the spreading limbs, and the tail, blackish ; the 


belly and neck below, pure white. Twelve to fourteen inches long, 
and four to five high ; tail, with the hair, ten to eleven without it, 
eight inches." 

This animal appears to represent the common Squirrel of northern 
Europe and Asia in its winter dress. 


Sciurus chrysonotus, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Eeng. XVI. 
p. 873-, X.p. 920. 

HAB. Tenasserim Provinces, Blyth. 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

" Size of Sc. Rafflesii, Vig. and Horsf., or measuring about 20 inches, 
of which the tail is half, its hah 1 reaching 2 in. or 2J in. further. General 
colour, grizzled fulvous above ; the limbs and tail grizzled ashy (from each 
hair being annulated with black and pale fulvescent), with an abruptly- 
defined black tip to the latter ; under-parts and inside of limbs pale 
grizzled ashy. In bright specimens, the nape, shoulders, and upper 
part of the back, are vivid light ferruginous, or golden fulvous, some- 
times continued to the tail, more generally shading off, gradually 
toward the rump, and in some but slightly developed even upon the 
nape and shoulders ; whiskers long and black, and slight albescent 
pencils to the ears, more or less developed. Common in the Tenas- 
serim provinces." (Blyth, /. ciV.) 

214 SCIURUS CHINENSIS, Gray, Cat. M amm. Br. M us. 
p. 144. 

HAB. China. 

A. Presented by John Reeves, Esq. 

Genus PTEROMYS, Cuv., Lee. d'Anat. I. 1800. Fischer, Schinz, 
et al 

SCIURI spec., Linn., Pallas, et al. 
f Flying Squirrels with cylindrical tails. 
Sciurus petaurista, Pallas, Miscell. p. 54. 
Pteromys petaurista, Blyth, Journ. As. Beng. XVI. p. 865. 
Pteromys oral, TicMl, Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. 11. p. 401. 
Taguan, ou grand ecureuil volant, Buff., Hist. Nat. Suppl. 

III. p. 150. 
ORAL, of the Coles, Lieut. Tickell. 


HAB. The Peninsula of India and Ceylon. 

A. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

B. Presented by John McClelland, Esq. 


Sciuropterus nobilis, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. X. 

1842, p. 263. 
Sciuropterus chrysotrix, Hodgson, Journ. As. Beng. XIII. 

p. 67. 
Sciuropterus aurostrigatus, Hodgson, Zool. Nep. fide Gray, 

Cat. Mamm. Br. Mm. p. 134. 
Pteromys nobilis, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XVI. 

p. 866. 
The Golden -streaked Taguan, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus, 

p. 134. 

HAB. Nepal. Hills generally, but chiefly the central and 
northern regions, Hodgson. Darjeeling, Pearson, Blyth. 

A. Presented by J. T. Pearson, Esq. 

" Above, intense ochreous chestnut, mixed with black, and divided 
down the spine by a golden yellow line, and margined externally by the 
same hue, which also spreads over the shoulders and thighs. Below, 
and the flying membrane, with the lower limbs and tail, intense orange- 
red deepening into ochreous on the margin of the membrane, and on 
the limbs, ophthalmic and mystacial regions, defined by black ; chin 
dark, cheeks mixed, a pale golden spot on the nasal bridge. Two 
inches of end of tail, black. Ears, outside, concolorous with lower 
surface. Tail longer than the animal, and cylindric. Pelage thick 
and soft, and glossy, woolly and hairy piles ; average length of latter 
an inch and one-third. Snout to rump, fifteen inches. Head to 
occiput (straight), three inches and three-eighths. Tail, seventeen 
inches and a half ; less terminal hair, fifteen inches and a half. Ears, 
one inch and one-third. Palma, less nails, one inch and seven-eighths. 
Planta, less nails, two inches and seven-eighths. Sexes alike. 

" Remark. In colour much like Magnificus, but invariably distin- 
guished by the pale golden line down the spine." (Hodgson, /. c.) 

217. PTEROMYS CANICEPS, Gray, 8p. 

Sciuropterus caniceps, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. X. 1842, 
p. 262 ; Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 135. 


Sciuropterus senex, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XIII. 

I. p. 68. 

Pteromys caniceps, Gray, Cat. Hodgs. Coll. p. 21. 
The Grey-headed Taguan, Gray, loc. clt. 

HAB. Darjeeling, Pearson. Blyth, J. A. S. B. XVI. p. 266. 
A. Presented by J. T. Pearson, Esq. 

" Entire head, pepper and salt mixture, or iron-grey ; orbits and 
base of ears, intense burnt sienna. Entire body above, and the tail 
and flying membrane, a full clear mixture of golden and black hues. 
Shoulders not paled. Limbs intense aurantine ochreous. Margin of 
the parachute albescent, and neck below, the same. Body, below, 
with parachute there, orange-red. Tip of tail black, as usual. Ears, 
nearly or quite nude, and tail subdistichous or flatter. Pelage longer, 
and scarcely so fine as in Magnificus and in Chrysotrix. Longest piles 
an inch and three-quarters, and less glossy. Snout to rump, fourteen 
inches. Head, two inches and seven-eighths. Ears one inch and a 
quarter. Tail only fifteen inches ; with hair, sixteen inches and a half. 
Palma, one inch and eleven- sixteenths. Planta, two inches and a 
half." (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XIII. pt. I. p. 68.) 

The descriptions of this and the preceding species, accompanied by 
coloured drawings, were communicated to the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal in July, 1842, but as some delay occurred in the publica- 
tion, both the names and first indications of Mr. Hodgson were anti- 
cipated in the " Annals and Magazine of Nat. Hist." X. p. 263. 


Sciuropterus magnificus, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 

V.p, 231. 
Pteromys magnificus, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 134 ; 

Cat. Hodgs. Collect, p. 22. Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. 

XVI. p. 866. 
The Koiral, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 134. 

HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. Assam, Blyth. 
A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

ft Above, intense chestnut, below and the shoulders golden red ; tail, 
paler than the body above, and tipped black ; a black zone round the 
eyes, and another embracing the mustachios ; chin, pale, with a black 
triangular spot. Nude parts of skin, fleshy-white. Tail, cylindrico- 



depressed, and considerably longer than the animal. Parachute, large. 
Length of the animal, 16 inches ; of the tail, 22. Weight, 3^ Ibs. 

219. PTEROMYS MELANOTIS, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. 

New Series, I. p. 584. 

Pteromys melanotis, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XVI. 

p. 866, note. 
Black-eared Taguan, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus.p. 134. 

HAB. Siam, Finlayson. 

A. B. From Surgeon G. Finlayson's Collection during 
the Mission of J. Crawfurd, Esq., to Siam. 


Pteromys nitidus, Geoffr. Schlegel en Mutter, Over de 
Vliegende Eekhorens. Verhandl. Nat. Gesch.p. 104. 

The bright bay Taguan, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. 
p. 134. 

BIELOCK and BOLOCK, of the Sundanese, Mutter and 

HAB. Java, Horsfield. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Mutter. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 
Several prepared skins. 

221. PTEROMYS ALBIVENTER, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. 
I. New Series, p. 584. 

The Grey-cheeked Taguan, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. 
p. 134. Gray and Hardw., Illust. Ind. Zool. II. 
figured on pi. 18. 

HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. Afghanistan, Griffith. 

A. From Griffith's Collection in Afghanistan. A pre- 
pared skin. 

222. PTEROMYS PEARSONII, Gray, Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist X. 1842, p. 262. 

HAB. Darjeeling, Pearson. 

A. Presented by J. T. Pearson, Esq. 
Briefly described by Mr. Gray in the volume of I. N. Hist, above 


cited. It resembles the Pt. Horsfieldii of Waterhouse, described in 
Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 87, but is much smaller. 

Genus SCIUROPTERUS, Fr. Cuv., Dents d. Mamm. 1825. Gray, 
Blyth, et al 

SCIUEI Species, Linn, et al. 
ft Flying Squirrels, with flat or distichous tails. 

As. Soc. Beng. V. 231. 


Sciuropterus TurnbulHi, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. New Series, 
I. p. 584 ; Proceed.Zool.Soc.l837,p. 68 ; Cat. Mamm. 
Br. Mus.p. 135 ; Cat. Hodgson's Collect, p. 22. 

HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. Bootan, Sikim ; common at Darjee- 
ling, Blyth, J. A. S. B. XV I. p. 866. 

A. Presented by J. T. Pearson, Esq. 

B. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Cantor, Catal. Mai. Mamm. p. 45. 

Pteromys genibarbis, Horsfield, Zool. Research. 
Sciuropterus (Pteromys) sagitta, Schlegel and Mutter, 
Vliegende Eekhorens. Verhandl. over Nat. Gesch. 
p. 109. 
KECHUBU, of the Javanese. 

HAB. Java, Horsfield. Malayan Peninsula, Cantor. 
A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

225. SCIUROPTERUS LEPIDUS, Horsfield, Sp. 
HAB. Java. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

Nat. Hist. New Series, I. p. 584 ; Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1837, 
p. 67 ; Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 135. Blyih, Journ. As* 
Soc. Beng. XV I. p. 584. 

? Pteromys Leachii, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. }V. S. /, 
p. 584. 


HAB. North-west Himalaya, Blyth. 
A. Griffith's Collection, Young. 

Mr. Gray thus describes this species : " Fur long 1 , soft, grey, 
varied with black ; hairs lead-coloured above, flattened, pale brown, 
with a black tip. Face whitish ; orbits black ; whiskers very long, 
black ; chin and beneath, white. Tail broad, rather tapering, fulvous, 
with black tips to the hairs at the base, black at the end. The feet 
broad ; front thumb rudimentary. The outer edge of the hind feet 
with a broad tuft of hair ; the soles of the hind feet with a small oblong 
tubercle on the middle of the outer side, a tubercle in front, and with 
two unequal ones on the hinder part of the inner side," 

In the sixteenth volume of the Journ. As. Soc. Beng. p. 866, in his 
remarks on the Indian Sciuri, Mr. E. Blyth states that two specimens, 
one from Simla, are contained in the Museum of that Society. 

Genus ARCTOMYS, Schreb. et al. 

MURI Species, Linn, et al. 

227. ARCTOMYS BOB AC, Schreb., Scmgth. p. 738. 

Arctomys himalayanus, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. X. 
p. 777, with a figure. XII. p. 409 (potius Tibetanus 

Arctomys caudatus, Jacquemont, Voy. dans VInde, tome 
4 me , Zool. p. 66. 

HAB. Tibet, Copt. R. Strac/iey. Tibet and the Himalayan 
Slopes, Hodgson. 

A. B. Adult. From Capt. R. Strachey's Collection. 

C. Young. 

D. and E. Two flat Skins, not in good condition. Pre- 

sented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

F. A Skin, imperfect. Presented by the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal. 

In the twelfth volume of the Journ. As. Soc. Beng., B. H. Hodgson, 
Esq., gives a notice of two Marmots inhabiting, respectively, the plains 
of Tibet and the Himalayan slopes near the snows: 1. A. tibetanus ; 
2. A. himalayanus ; with copious. details of their structure and habits. 


Fam. 5. ASPALACID^, Gray, Cat. Mamm. 
Br. Mus. Syst. List, XXV. 

Genus RHIZOMYS, Gray, Proceed. Zool Soc. 1831, p. 95. 

228. RHIZOMYS MINOR, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
X.p. 266. 

? Rhizomys badius, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 150 ; 

Cat. Hodgs. Coll. p. 24. 
THUR, of the Siamese, Finlayson. 

HAB. Siam, Finlayson. 

A. From Surgeon G. Finlayson's Collection during the 

mission of J. Crawford, Esq., to Siam. 

B. A Drawing from the same Collection. 

Mr. G. Finlayson' s Zoological Journal gives the following details : 
" Our specimen is about 6 inches in length, and appears to be a young 
one. It readily submits to confinement, and is easily tamed. Like most 
animals of the genus, it is destructive to furniture, to grain, &c., and 
when suddenly surprised he throws himself upon the offensive, instead 
of making a precipitate retreat. His principal food is unhusked rice 
or other grain, and he is fond of yams, pumpkins, &c., found in forests 
and woods near to Bamvasor." 

229. RHIZOMYS BADIUS, Hodgson, Calcutta Journ. Nat. 
Hist. I I. p. 60. 

Rhizomys badius, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 150 ; 
Cat. Hodgs. Coll. p. 24. 

HAB. Nepal and Sikim, Hodgson. 

A. A specimen from Sikim. Presented by B. H. Hodg- 
son, Esq. 

Further observations and comparisons of specimens from different 
localities are required to determine whether Rh. minor and Rh. badius 
are specifically distinct. As here enumerated, they differ in -colour, 
relative size, and geographical distribution. The Rh. minor was 
collected in Siam, is uniformly brown, with a slight deep chestnut 
reflection, and is six and a half inches long ; the Rh. badius inhabits 
Nepal and Sikim, measures nine inches in length, and the bay or chest- 
nut colour predominates in the upper parts, while the abdomen is gray. 



Fam. 1. BOVID^E, Gray, Cat. Mamm. 
Br. Mus. Syst. List, XXVI. 

ANTELOPES, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 1 . 

Genus KEMAS, Ham. Smith. 


230. KEMAS HODGSONI, Abel, Sp. 

Kemas Hodgsoni, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 157. 
Pantholops Hodgsoni, Hodgs., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XI. 

p. 282. 
CHIRU, Tibetan, Hodgson. Isos, Tibetan, Strachey. 

HAB. Open plains of Central and Eastern Tibet, Hodgson and 
Strachey. Found by Capt. R. Strachey at an elevation 
of 15,000 feet. 

A. A specimen set up from Capt. R. Strachey ' Col- 


B. Horns. Presented by Dr. N. Wallich. 

Genus GAZELLA, De Blainv., Bull Soc. Phil 1816. 
ANTILOPE, Sykes et al. 


Antilope Bennettii, Sykes, Catal. Dukhun Mamm. p. 12; 

Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 104. 
KALSEEPEE, or Black Tail, of the Mahrattas, Sykes. 
Goat-Antelope, of Europeans, Sykes. 

HAB. Dukhun, Sykes. Madras, Elliot. Nepal, Hodgson. 
A. B. Male and female. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

232. GAZELLA CORA, Ham. Smith, Sp. 

Antilope cora, Ham. Smith. Griffith, A. K. V. 338. 

HAB. Abyssinia, Sir W. Harris. Eastern Africa and the 
shores of the Red Sea, Ham. Smith. 

A. B. Skull and horns. From Sir W. Harris's Collec- 
tion in Abyssinia. 


Genus CERVICAPRA, De Blainv., Bull. Soc. Phil. 1816. 
CAPRA, Linn. 
ANTILOPE, Pallas. 


Antilope cervicapra, Pallas, Misc. Zool. p. 9. Elliot, 

Mamm. South Mahratta, #e. 
CHIGRI, Canarese, Elliot. 
MRIGA, Sansk., Elliot. 
HUEU, Mahratta and Dekhani, Elliot. 
BAHMUNNEE HURU, of the Mahrattas, Sykes. 
Common Antelope, Pennant. 

HAB. Dukhun, Sylces. Madras, Elliot. Nepal, Hodgson. 
Northern Africa, Pennant. 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

B. Presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

C. Horns. Presented by Gen. T. Hardwicke. 

D. Horns. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus TETRACERUS, Ham. Smith, An. Kingd. 1827. 
ANTILOPE, De Blainv., Hardw., et al. 


Antilope quadricornis, De Blainv., Journ. Phys. 1818. 

Antilope Chickara, Hardw., Trans. Linn. Soc. XIV. p. 520. 

CHOUKA, or CHOUSINGA, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
V. p. 242. (The name Chikara, used by Hardwicke, 
belongs, according to Hodgson, to another species, 
A. subulata, Hodgs. ?) 

HAB. Western Provinces of Bengal, Hardwicke. Nepal and 
Himalaya, Hodgson. 
A. From Capt. R. Strachey's Collection, Ladakh. 

Genus MADOQUA, Ogilby, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 137. 
NEOTRAGUS, Ham. Smith. 

235. MADOQUA SALTIANA, De Blainv., Sp. 

Antilope saltiana, De Blainv., Bull. Sc. 1816. 
The Madoqua. 

HAB. Abyssinia. 

A. B. Male and Female, Sir W. C. Harris's Collection 


Genus ORYX, Ham. Smith. 

ANTILOPE, Pallas et al. 

236. ORYX LEUCORYX, Pallas, Sp. 

Antilope leucoryx, Pallas. 
The Oryx. 

HAB. North and Western Africa, Abyssinia, Harris. 

A. Skull and Horns from Sir W. C. Harris's Collection. 

Genus CAPRICORNIS, Ogilby, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 139. 
ANTILOPE, Hodgson. 
NEMORHEDUS (part. H. Smith). 


Antilope bubalina, Hodgs., Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1832, 

p. 12. 
Nemorhedus proclivus, Hodgs., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. X. 

p. 913; Classif. Cat. 
The THAR, of the Nepalese. 

HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

B. Horns, idem. 

Genus NEMORHEDUS, Ham. Smith, part. 

KEMAS, Hodgson, Ogilby. 
ANTILOPE, Hardwicke. 

238. NEMORHEDUS GORAL, Hardwire, Sp. 

Antilope goral, Hardw., Trans. Linn. Soc. XIV. p. 518, 

tab. 14. 
Kemas goral, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. X. p. 913; 

Classif. Catal. 
The GORAL, of the Nepalese. 

HAB. Nepal and Himalaya, Hardwicke. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

B. C. Horns, idem. 


Genus BOSEPHALUS, Ham. Smith. 
ACRONOTUS, Ham. Smith. 

239. BOSEPHALUS CAAMA, Cm. Sp. t Regne Animal, 
2nd ed. p. 269. 

Antilope caama, Cuv. I. cit. 

Acronota caama, Ham. Smith, G. A. K. 

Le Caama, Cuvier. 

HAB. Southern Africa. 

A. Horns, presented by General T. Hardwicke. 

Genus PROCAPRA, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XV. p. 334. 


RAGOA and GOA, of the Tibetans, Hodgson. 
HAB. Tibet. Observed in Ladak by Capt. R. Strachey. 
A. From Capt. R. Strachey's Collection. 

In the Journal of the Asiatic Society above cited, Mr. Hodgson gives 
the following specific character of this new species of Antelope : " Goat 
antelope, with medial elliptic black horns, inserted between the orbits, 
and directed upwards and backwards with a bold curve and slight 
divergency ; the tips being again recurved forwards, but not inwards, 
annulated nearly to the tips : the rings being complete, separate, and 
25 to 27 in number; short, deep head, finely attenuated ; large eyes ; 
long, pointed and striated ears : very short, depressed, triangular tail ; 
and long delicate limbs. Pelage consisting of hair only, of medial 
uniform length and fineness, varying with the seasons like the colour. 
Above sordid brown (' in summer ;' 'in winter, canescent slaty, 
smeared on the pale surface with fawn. Internally, the hairs slaty- 
blue '), tipt with pale rufous; below, with the lining of the ears, the 
entire limbs almost, and a small caudal disc, rufescent-white : no 
marks whatever ; no tufts to knees ; tail, black. Length, from nose 
to anus, about three and a half feet. Height about two feet. Horns, 
along the curve, thirteen inches ; straight, eleven inches. Habitat, the 
plains of Tibet, amid ravines and low bare hills : not gregarious." 
(Hodgson, J. A. S. B. loc. cit.) 



The STREPSICERES, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 26. 

Genus STBEPSICEBOS, Ham. Smith. Griffith, An. King. 1827. 
ANTILOPE, Pallas el al. 

241. STREPSICEROS KUDU, Ham. Smith. 

Antilope strepsiceros, Pallas, JMtsc. p. 9. 
The KUDU. 
HAB. Abyssinia, Harris. Southern Africa. 

A. From Sir W. C. Harris's Collection in Abyssinia. 

B. Horns from the Cape of Good Hope. Presented by 

General T. Hardwicke. 

Genus POBTAX, Ham. Smith. Griffith, An. King. 1827. 
ANTILOPE, Pallas et al. 
DAMALIS (PORT AX), Ham. Smith, I. cit. 

242. POET AX PICT A, Pallas, tip., Spic. Zool. XII. p. 14. 

Antilope picta, Pallas, 1. cit. Sykes, Catal. Dukhun 

Mamm. p. 13. 

Damalis (portax) Risia, Ham. Smith. 
NYLGHAU, of the Persians, Sykes. 
ROOEE and RUHI, of the Mahrattas, Sykes and Elliot. 
HAB. Peninsula of India, Dukhun, Sykes. Southern Mah- 
ratta Country, Elliot. 
A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

The GOATS, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 31. 
Genus CAPBA, Linn., Ham. Smith, et al 
HEMITRAGUS, Hodgson et al. 

243. CAPE A JEMLAICA, Ham. Smith. Griffith, An. Kingd. 
IV. t. 194 ; V. 358. Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mu,s. p. 168 ; 
Cat. Hodgs. Coll p. 28. 

Hemitragus quadrimammis, Hodgs. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 

V. p. 254. 

The JHARAL, THER, or TEHR, of the Nepalese, Hodgson. 
The THER, of Simla, KRAS, of Kashmir, Vigne, Travels. 
HAB. Nepal, Hodgson. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

B. A prepared Skin, from Capt. R. Strachey's Collection. 

C. D. Horns, presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 


244. CAPRA-IBEX-HIMALAYANA, Blyth, Proceed. 
Zool Soc. 1840, p. 81. 

Himalayan Ibex, or Skeen, Hutton, Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. 
II. p. 542. 

SKEEN, of the Himalayan range : written variously, SKYN, 
SAKEEN, or SIKEEN, in different parts of the range. 

KYL, in Kashmir, Vigne. 

SKIN, the male, L' DAMUO, the female, in Ladakh, Moor- 

HAB. Ladakh, Strachey and Moorcroft. Kashmir, Vigne. 
A. B. From Captain E. Strachey's Collection in Ladakh. 

245. CAPE A MEGACEROS, Hutton, Calc. Journ. Nat. 
Hist. II. 535, pi. XX. 

Capra Falconeri, Hugel. Dr. A. Wagner, Beitriige zur 
S&ngthier-fauna von Kashmir. Hugel's Kaschmir, 
IV. p. 549. Schinz, Synops. Mamm. II. p. 463. 

MARKHORE, or MARKHUR, the Snake-eater, of the Afghans, 
Hutton and Hugel. 

HAB. The mountain districts of Afghanistan, Hutton. The 
highest parts of the Tibetan Himalayas, Hugel. 
A. Horns, presented by Dr. H. Falconer. 

Both MM. Hutton and Wagner, in the works above referred to, 
give detailed remarks on the peculiarities of the Markhore, or Snake- 

Mr. J. E. Gray (Knowsley Menagerie, p. 34) enumerates it as a 
variety of Capra Hircus of authors. 

CAPRA HIRCUS, Linn. Syst. Nat. XII. I. p. 94. 

246. (Var. A.) CAPE A ^EGAGRUS CO SSI A, Dr. F. 
{Buck.) Hamilton, Icon. Mus. Soc. Ind. Or. 

Gapra ./Eg. Cossus, De Blainv. 

Capra Hircus, var. the Cossia, Gray, Knowsley Menag. p. 34. 

HAB. The Cossia or Kassia Mountains, to the east of Silhet> 

A. A Drawing in Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton's Col- 
" These Goats are found in the highest Cossea mountains ; where 


they are bred by the middling and lower classes of people. The milk 
is given to the kids, and those which are not required for keeping up 
the breed, are fattened for eating. 

" The colour of the males is white, with the nose, and space about 
the eyes, flesh-coloured. A few are said to be blackish, and some have 
been seen of a tan- colour. The horns and hoofs are whitish. From 
the nose to the rump they measure about four feet, and at the shoulders 
are about one foot eleven inches high. The hair is coarse, straight ; 
and everywhere, but on part of the face, on the ears, and legs, is long 
and pendulous, and has no wool mixed with it, by which this species is 
easily distinguished from the Shawl-goat. The hair on the under part 
of the neck is very long. The horns, at their base, occupy the whole 
space between the ears, and their two inner edges are contiguous ; they 
are flattened and two-edged, but the inner edge is sharper, while the 
outer is rounded. The flat side, that is turned forwards, is bounded 
inwards by an elevated ridge, and marked by transverse wrinkles. An 
elevated ridge runs obliquely over it from the outer angle at the base 
to the inner edge near the tip. The horns are about the length of the 
head, and are either placed nearly in the plane of the face, or bend 
back somewhat from that direction : they diverge considerably out- 
wards, and end in sharp points. The ears spread, are about half the 
length of the horns, and are covered with short hair, which is the case 
with the legs below the hock joints. The hoofs are short and blunt. 
The tail is small and short." (Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton's MS.) 

247. (Var. B.) CAPRA ^EGAGRUS CHANGRA, Dr. F. 
{Buchanan) Hamilton, Icon. Mus. Soc. Ind. Or. 

Capra JEg. lanigera, Bouc de Cachemire, C. Hircus, var. D, 

Desm. Mamm. p. 483. 

Shawl-Goat, or Changra, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 34. 
SHAWL- GOAT, of the English, Hamilton, I. cit. 
CAMJOO, of Tibet, Hamilton. 
CHANGRA, of the Parbutties, Hamilton. 
CHOLAY, of the Nawars, Hamilton. 

HAB. Tibet, Dr. F. (B.) H. 

A. A Drawing in Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton's Col- 

" This animal is domesticated in Tibet, and the wool is exported to 
Cashmire, where it is manufactured into various cloths and felts, of 
which the finest are in Europe known by the name of Shawl. For 


eating, a great many castrated goats of this kind are annually brought 
to Nepaul. In their manners, these entirely resemble the common 
goat, and thrive best in a very cold climate. 

The Changras are about the size of the goat that is common in the 
north of Europe, and to this kind they have a strong resemblance. 
The greater number are black, with various admixtures of white and 
brown. The hair on the body, neck, and upper part of the head, is 
remarkably long, especially that which proceeds from above the whole 
length of the spine. It is pendulous, straight, and rather harsh. 
Intermixed with this, is a short wool, that is remarkably fine and soft, 
and this is the only part used in manufactures. The hair on the legs 
and face is rather short, and is not mixed with wool. The ears are 
very short. The nose is straight. The horns are longer than the 
head, much compressed, with the inner edge the sharpest. At the 
base they approach, and towards the summit they diverge ; but, on the 
whole, they have a twist round, are nearly straight, and stand in the 
plane of the forehead. The irides are yellow, with an oblong pupil. 
The tail is short." (Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton's MS.) 


(Buchanan) Hamilton s Icon. MILS. Soc. Ind. Or. 

The Berbura, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 35. 
HAB. Upper India, westward of the Jumna. 

A. A Drawing in Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton's Col- 

" This variety of goat differs considerably from all others that I have 
seen. By the natives, the male is called Berbura, the female Berburi. 
Hie Bengalese call this goat Ram Sagul, 

" The horns of the male approach at the base, but do not reach near 
the ears. They incline a little back from the plane of the face, and 
spread out laterally towards the point. They are much compressed at 
the root, convex before, and concave behind ; but, having a spiral turn, 
the situation of the sides in different parts varies ; they have no very 
remarkable wrinkles. The ears are short. The forehead is prominent, 
and covered with longish hair. There is no beard, but the male has a 
very deep dewlap, especially under the throat. The body is formed 
very much like that of the May cay, or long-legged goat of Mysore. 
The hair is harsh ; but in general forms a smooth coat. An erect 
mane, however, extends almost the whole length of the spine, and the 


hair on the fore- part of the hind thighs is long. The male is very 
remarkable by having the scrotum externally separated into two 
distinct bags. The length from the nose to the horns is nine inches, 
and from the horns to the tail three feet four inches. The height at 
the shoulder is two feet nine inches. The circumference of the chest 
is three feet one inch. 

" The female wants the long hair on the spine and thighs, and the 
dewlap. She is distinguished from the common Indian she-goat by the 
length of her legs, and the want of a beard ; and from the Maycay of 
Mysore by the shortness of her ears. From the nose to the root of the 
horns is seven and a half inches ; from the horns to the rump is three 
feet three inches. The height at the shoulder is two feet. The cir- 
cumference of the chest is two feet four inches. Both sexes are of a 
fine white colour, variegated with black and reddish-brown. Their 
manners entirely resemble those of the long-legged goat of the south of 
India." (Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton's MS.) 

249. (Var. D.) TIBETAN GOAT. 

HAB. Ladakh, Capt. R. Strachey ; at an elevation from 
11,000 to 15,000 feet. 

A. From Capt. K. Strachey's Collection. 

Pure white, with a few leaden-coloured patches along the back, and 
at the sides of the head. Horns about ten inches long, black, ap- 
proximated at the base, then rising obliquely with an inclination back- 
wards, diverging towards the tips ; they are longitudinally marked 
with an irregular depression, and have a slight spiral twist in the 
middle ; the edges are slightly rounded, equal on both sides, and they 
are transversely grooved along the entire length. Tail short, with a 
terminal tuft. Beard moderate. Ears very short, scarcely two inches 
long, and concealed. Hair very long, straight, soft to the touch, but 
without wool at the base, more lengthened and pendulous near the 
exterior of both extremities. 

Length, from the tip of the nose to the root of the tail, three feet 
four inches. Height twenty-two inches. 

250. (Var. E.) TIBETAN GOAT. 

HAB. Ladakh, Capt. R. Strachey ; inhabits the same locality 
as the preceding. 

A. From Capt. R. Strachey's Collection. 
Anterior parts, including the head, neck, shoulders, and sides of the 


breast, black, mottled with grey, separated from the body and extre- 
mities, which are pure white, by a regularly-defined limit ; head rather 
darker, with a lateral white streak from the region of the eyes to the 
nose. Horns reflected back to the shoulders in an arch, slightly 
diverging about the middle, and inclining inwards at the tips ; the 
lower edge semi- cylindrical and rounded, the upper compressed, 
divided by a longitudinal line, and transversely grooved, each branch 
having a notch near the end, from which it is attenuated to the point. 
Hair along the body and rump long, straight, and pendulous, soft to 
the touch, but without wool ; near the shoulders the hair is short. 
Ears long, erect, sharp. Beard moderate. Length, four feet five inches. 
Height, two feet six inches. 

The SHEEP, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 36. 
Genus Ovis, Linn. 

CAPRA, Linn, et al. 
^EGOCEROS, Pallas. 

251. OVIS ARIES, Linn. 

a. Variety of the Domestic Sheep of Nepal. 

A. A Skull. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

b. Variety of the Domestic Sheep of Tibet. 

A. A specimen from Capt. R. Strachey's Collection in 

c. Variety of the Domestic Sheep of Tibet. 

A. A specimen from Capt. R. Strachey 's Collection in 

252. OVIS VIGNEI, Blyth, Proceed. Zool Soc. 1840, p. 70 ; 
Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. VII. p. 251, with figure of the 
Horns, pi. V. 

Ovis cycloceros, Hutton, Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. II. p. 514, 
with an outline sketch, pi. XIX. Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. XV. p. 152. 

The SHA, of Tibet and Ladak, Strachey, Blyth. 

KoH-i-DooMBA, of the Afghans, Hutton. 

HAB. Tibet, Ladakh, Strachey. Afghanistan, Griffith, Hutton. 

A. A specimen, adult, from Capt. Strachey's Collection. 

B. Young, from Griffith's Collection. 

C. Horns on Skull, from Griffith's Collection in Afghan- 



253. OVIS A MM ON, Linn, Sp. 

Capra Ammon, Linn., Syst. Nat. XII. I. p. 97. 

Ovis Ammon, Exxl., Syst. p. 250. Blyth, Proceed. Zool. 

Soc. 1840, 77. 

^Egoceros Argali, Pall., Zoogr. Rosso-As. I. p. 224. 
Ovis Argali, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 37. 
Wild Siberian Sheep, Pennant, Quadr. I. 38. 
" G NYAN," of the Tibetans, Strachey. 

HAB. Tibet, Strachey, Hodgson. Siberia and Northern Asia, 

A. B. Males, adult, from Capt. E. Strachey's Collection 

in Ladakh. 
C. Female, from the same. 

254. OVIS POL II, Blyth, Proceed. Zool Soc. 1840,^. 62. 

Ovis Polii (olim O. sculptorum), Blyth, Ann. and Mag. of 
Nat. Hist. VII. p. 195, with a figure of the horns, 
pL V. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Rass or Roosh, Blyth. 

RASS, of the Kirgizzes, and KOOSHGAR, of the natives of 
the low countries, Burnes's Bokhara, fyc. II. p. 208. 

HAB. Plains of Pamir, eastward of Bokhara, 16,000 feet above 
the sea level, Marsdens Marco Polo, Burnes. 

A. Horns, presented by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Genus PSEUDOIS, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XVI. p. 702. 
Ovis, Hodgson, Blyth, et al. 

255. PSEUDOIS NAHOOR, Hodgson, Sp. Gray, Knows- 
ley Men. p. 40. 

Ovis Nahoor, Hodgs., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. IV. p. 492. 

Blyth, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1840,;?. 66. 
? Ovis Burrhel, Blyth, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1840, p. 67 ; 

Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. VII. p. 248, with figures of 

O. Nahoor and Ovis Burrhel, as distinguished by 

Mr. Blyth, pi. V.fig. 6, 7. 

NAHOOR, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. IV. p. 492. 
" SN'A," Tibet, Capt. R. Strachey. 


BURRHAL, of Kumaon and Upper Himalaya, 12,000 to 
18,000 feet above the sea-level, Capt. R. Strachey. 

The NAHOOR, or NERVATI, and SNA (not Sha), of Tibet, 
Blyth, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1840, p. 66. 

HAB. Kumaon, Upper Himalayas, and Tibet, Strachey. 

A. A male. B. Female. From Capt. R. Strachey 's 

Collection in Ladakh and Kumaon. 
C. Skull and Horns. D. Horns. E. Horns. Presented 

by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

There are two varieties of this species, the horns of which are figured 
in the Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. Vol. VII. pi. V., to one of which 
Mr. E. Blyth applies the name of Ovis Nahoor, to the other that of 
Ovis Burrhel (see Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1840, pp. 66 and 67) ; and it 
remains to be determined whether these varieties are respectively 
entitled to a specific rank. In his remarks on some mammals of Tibet 
(Journ. As. Soc. XI. p. 283), Mr. Hodgson states : " Mr. Blyth's Ovis 
Burrhel is no other than my Nahoor." 

The MUSKS, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 41. 
Genus MOSCHUS, Linn., Pallas, et al. 

256. MOSCHUS MOSCHIFERUS, Linn., Syst. Nat. XII. 
I. p. 91. 

Moschus saturatus, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. X, 
914. Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus.p. 172. 

GAN POHOO, Assamese, H. Walker, Esq., Cat. Mamm. of 
Assam, Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. III. p. 267. 

The Musk. 

HAB. Northern India and Tibet, Hodgson. Bootan, P ember- 
ton. Assam, Walker. 

A. From Major Pemberton's Collection in Bootan. 

257. MOSCHUS LEUCOGASTER, Hodgson, Journ. As. 
Soc. Beng. VIII. p. 202. 

HAB. Tibetan Slopes of the Himalayas, Hodgson. Ladakh, 

A. Capt. R. Strachey 'a Collection in Ladakh. 

2 A 


Genus MEMINNA, Gray, Ann. of Phil. 1825. 
MOSCHUS, Erxl., Fischer, et al. 

258. MEM INN A IN DIG A, Gray. 

Moschus Merairma, Erxl., Syst. 322. Sykes, Proceed. 

Zool. Soc. 1831,;?. 104. 
Indian Musk, Pennant, Quad. I. 127. 
PEESOREH and Pi sum, of the Mahrattas, SyJces and Elliot. 

HAB. Dukhun, Sykes. Forests of India in all parts, Hodgson. 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

B. Presented by General T. Hardwicke. 

Genus TRAGULUS, Brisson, Gray, et al. 

MOSCHUS, Linn., Pallas, Fischer, et al. 


Moschus javanicus, Pall., Spic. Zool. XII. 18. Linn. 

Syst. Nat. ed. Gmel. I. p. 174. Muller, Over de 

Zoogd. v. d. Ind. Archip. Tafel. 

Moschus Kanchil, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 262. 
KANCHIL, of the Javanese. 

HAB. Java, Horsfield, Muller. 

A. Horsfield's Collection from Java. 

THE OXEN, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 44. 

Genus BUBALUS, Ham. Smith, Griff., An. Kinc/d. 1827. 
Hodgson et al. 

Bovis Species, Linn, et al. 

260. BUBALUS BUFFELUS, Blumenb., Sp. Gray, Cat. 
Mamm. Br. Mm. 152. 

Bos Bubalus, Brisson, Schlegel, and Midler, var. Sondaica. 

Bos Buffelus, Blumenb., Handb. 10, p. 121. 

BHAINSA, Continental India, Hodgson. 

The KARBO, or KARBOU, of the Malays. 

MOONDING, of the Sundanese. 

The Buffalo. 


HAB. Tibet. Domesticated in India, Indian Archipelago, 
and Southern Europe. 

A. Horns of the Bengal Buffalo. Presented by General 

T. Hardwicke. 

B. C. Horns of the Malayan Buffalo. Presented by 

General T. Hardwicke. 

261. BUBALUS ARNA, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
XVI. pt. II. p. 709. 

Bos Arnee, Shaw, Zool. II. pi. 11, p. 400. 

The ARNA, and ARNEE, or URNEE, of the Bengalese. 

A. Skull and horns, presented by William Stanley 
Clarke, Esq. 

B. C. Skull and horns, presented by B. H. Hodgson, 

D. Skull and horns, presented by General T. Hardwicke. 

The Arnee, although nearly allied to the Bhainsa, or Buffalo, is 
enumerated by Mr. Hodgson as a distinct species. 

Genus GAVAETJS, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XVI. pt. II. 
p. 705. 

Bovis Species, Pennant, Lambert, Colebrooke, et al. 

262. GAVAEUS FRONTALIS, Lambert, Sp. 

Bos frontalis, Lambert, Trans. Linn. Soc. VII. p. 57, tab. 4. 
Bos Gavaeus, Colebrooke, Asiat. Research. VIII. p. 487, 

with a figure. 
Bos Gavseus or Gyal of Sylhet, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. 

Beng. X. 455, with a good figure of the Skull and 

Gaveus Gavi, or Gabi, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Seng. 

XVI. pt. II. p. 705. 
Bos Bubalus Guavera, Pumont, Quadr. I. p. 31. Dr. F. 

(Buchanan') Hamilton, MS. 

GAYAL, 'or GIYAL, of the Bengalese of Chittagong, Hamil- 
ton and Colebrooke. 
GABAY BICHAL, the male, and GABAY GYE, the female, of 

the Bengalese of Silhet, Hamilton, MS. 
GAVI or GABI, Hodgson. 


BUNNOOREA GHOOROO, of the Assamese, Walker. 
Several other native synonyms are enumerated by Mr. 

HAB. The range of mountains forming the eastern boundary 
of Aracan, Chittagong, Tipura, and Silhet, Colebrooke. 
Assam, Walker. 

A. A Drawing from Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton's Col- 
lection. Referred to by J. E. Gray, Esq., Knows- 
ley Menagerie, p. 48. 

In the eighth volume of the Asiatic Researches (Art. X. p. 487), 
H. T. Colebrooke, Esq. gives a very detailed account of the Gayal, 
compiled chiefly from the observations contributed by Dr. Roxburgh 
and Mr. Macrae, of Chittagong. It contains much original and 
interesting information respecting the habits, form, peculiarities, and 
distribution of this animal, with a full enumeration of its native names 
in the different provinces eastward of Bengal. 

Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton, in the MS. notes which accompany his 
series of drawings of Indian Mammalia, likewise describes the Gayal, 
with many additional details, of which the following is an extract : 

" In the hills which form the eastern boundary of Bengal, this 
animal is common, and it is also found in Ceylon and in the mountains 
of Malabar, especially in those north from Paligaut. The rude 
inhabitants of the hills on the frontiers of Bengal consider the Gyal 
as their most valuable property. Its milk is remarkably rich, and its 
flesh affords them their most luxurious feast. These people have tame 
Gyals, which occasionally breed ; but the greater part of their stock is 
bred in the woods, and caught ; after which, being a mild animal, it is 
easily domesticated. The usual manner employed to catch the full- 
grown Gyal is to surround a field of corn with a strong fence ; one 
narrow entrance is left, in which is placed a rope with a running noose, 
which secures the Gyal by the neck as he enters to eat the corn ; of 
ten so caught, perhaps three are hanged by the noose running too 
tight, and by the violence of their struggling. Young Gyals are caught 
by leaving in the fence holes of a size sufficient to admit a calf, but 
which excludes the full-grown Gyal ; the calves enter by these holes, 
which are then shut by natives who are watching, and who secure the 
calves. The Gyal usually goes in herds of from twenty to forty, and 
frequents dry valleys, and the sides of hills covered with forests." 
(Hamilton's MS.) 


Genus BIBOS, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. VI. p. 499 ; X. p. 469, p. 911 ; XVI. p. 706. 

Bovis Species, Elliot, Smith, Gray, Trail, et al. 

2(>3. BIBOS CA VIFRONS, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
VI. 749 ; X. 469, 911 ; XVI. pt. II. 706. 

Bibos subhemachalanus, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. VI. p. 499. 
Bibos Gaurus, Hodgson, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, 48. 
Bos (Bibos) cavifrons, Elliot, Madr. Journ. Lit. Sc. X. 

p. 227, with a figure, and ample description. 
Bos Gour, Trail, Edinb. Phil. Journ. 1824, 334. Hardw., 

Zool. Journ. HI. p. 232, pi. VII. fig. 2. 
Bos Gaurus, Ham. Smith. Griffith, An. Kingd. V. 373. 
GAURI GAU, or GAUR, Nepal, Hodgson. 
JUNGLI KHOOLGA, Dekhani. GAVIYA, Mahratta, Elliot. 

HAB. Nepal Forest, Hodgson. Cape Comorin to the Hima- 
layas, Elliot. 

A. Skull and horns from Nepal, presented by B. H. 

Hodgson, Esq. 

B. Skull and horns from Madras, presented by Dr. S. T. 


Specific character. " Large \vild Indian Bibos, with fine short limbs ; 
short tail, not reaching to the houghs ; broad fan- shaped horizontal 
ears ; smooth glossy hair, of a brown, red, or black colour, paled upon 
the forehead and limbs ; tufted knees and brows, and spreading green 
horns, with round incurved black tips, and with soft rugous bases, fur- 
nished posteally with a fragrant secretion." (Hodgson, J. A. S. B. 
VI. p. 748.) 

264. BIBOS ASSEEL, Horsfield. 

Bos Gayseus, Hardwicke, Zool. Journ. III. p. 233, with 

figure of the Skull, pi. VII. 1. 
Bos frontalis, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 152. 
Bos Gaurus, Blyth (?) female, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XI. 

p. 445. 
ASSEEL GAYAL, Hardwicke, Zool. Journ. III. p. 233, 

pi. VII. fig. 1. - 
AS'L GAYAL, of the Hindus in Chittagong, Macrae, As. 

Res. VIII. p. 495. 


SELOI, of the Cucis, or Kookies, Macrae. 

P'HANJ, of the Mugs and Burmas, Macrae. 

? FHAIN, Heifer. 

? PAUNG, Judsons Burmese Dictionary. 

? SENBOR, vel PHAIN, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. XVI. p. 706. 

HAB. South-eastern Frontier of Bengal and Silhet, Hard- 
wicJce, Macrae. Tenasserim, Heifer (?). 

A. A Skull, with horns, presented by General T. 

The name of Asseel, by which this animal is distinguished by the 
natives of eastern India, indicates their notions of its character. The 
meaning of the term is original, noble, or untamed. General Hardwicke 
states that " the natives make a great distinction between the wild and 
domesticated Gayal." The only authentic account of the wild species 
hitherto communicated to the public, is contained in General Hard- 
wicke's paper " On the Bos Gour of India," in the third volume of the 
Zoological Journal, where he informs us that " the provinces of Chitta- 
gong and Sylhet produce the wild, or, as the natives term it, the Asseel- 
Gaydl, and the domesticated one. The former is considered an un tame- 
able animal, extremely fierce, and not to be taken alive. It rarely 
quits the mountainous tract of the south-east frontier, and never mixes 
with the GOBBAH (GABAY), or village Gayal of the plains. I suc- 
ceeded in obtaining the skin, with the head of the Asseel Gayal, which 
is deposited in the Museum of the East-India Company, and from this 
the drawing was taken which accompanies that of the horns of the 
Gour." This account of the habits of the Asseel Gayal is confirmed 
by Mr. Macrae, who informs us, in the Asiatic Researches (vol. VIII. 
p. 495), that the natives of the south-east provinces " consider him, 
next to the tiger, the most dangerous and the fiercest animal of their 

The specimen of the Bibos Asseel, when presented to the Company's 
Museum, was covered with its natural hide, and was generally con- 
sidered as the head of the Gavaeus frontalis ; but by the removal of the 
covering the true character is developed, and it is apparent that the 
animal to which it belonged is more nearly related to the Bibos cavi- 
frons than to the G. frontalis. 

In placing the skulls of the Gour and Asseel together for comparison, 
the following more prominent differences were observed : In the Gour 
the skull is very massive, broad above, and gradually attenuated 


towards the nose. The intercornual crest is elevated, bold, arched, 
and overhanging the forehead, which is deeply concave. The orbits 
are massive, salient, and give to the eyes a somewhat lateral direction. 
The nasal bones are comparatively large, lengthened, depressed at their 
junction with the frontal bones, convex in the middle, with a lateral 
concavity on each side ; the medial suture is only indicated by an in- 
dented line ; the suture which, in the ox, divides the frontal bone through 
its entire length, extends only about two inches above the nasal bone. 

In the Asseel the skull above has nothing of the massiveness 
belonging to the Gour. Its general form is more oblong, narrow, 
regular, and resembling that of the common ox. The intercornual 
crest is slightly arched, but not massive or overhanging, and passes 
into a very slight frontal concavity. The orbits are not salient, and 
give the eye a more anterior direction. The nasal bones are narrow, 
slightly convex, not depressed at their junction with the frontal bone, 
and divided by a distinct medial suture, which is continued through 
more than half of the frontal bone. The direction of the sutures by 
which the separate bones composing the skulls respectively are divided, 
varies considerably in the Gour and Asseel. 

The horns in the Gour are of extraordinary dimensions, and very 
roughly grooved transversely. In the Asseel they are comparatively 
slender ; they are inserted at the sides of the ridge which separates the 
front from the occiput. At the base they are irregularly triangular and 
cylindrico-compressed ; they rise with a curve, having an outward or 
lateral direction to about half-way of their length ; they then bend 
inward, with a slight flexure backward, giving the points an oblique 
posteal direction ; the basal part is wrinkled on all sides. The medial 
and terminal surfaces are smooth ; they measure, along the exterior 
flexure, twenty inches. 

265. BIBOS BANTENG, Gray, Knowsley M magerie, p. 48. 
Bos Sondaicus, Schlegel en Mutter, over de Ossen von den 

Indischen Archipel. Verhandl. over de Natuurl. 

Gesch. SfC.p. 195. 
BANTENG, of the Javanese, to which the Dutch add the 

terminal er (BANTENGER), to suit the idiom of their 

HAB. Java and Borneo. 

A. Horns on frontal bone, presented by the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal. 


Genus POEPHAGUS, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. Syst. List, 

Bovis Species, Linn., Erxl., Zimmerm., Pallas, Cuv., et al. 
BISONUS, Hodgson. 


Bos grunniens, Linn., Syst. Nat. 12, /. p. 99. Erxl., 

Syst. p. 237. Zimmerm., G. G. II. p. 38. Blu- 

menb., Abbeld. t. 25. Cuv., Ossem. fossil. 4 me ed. VI. 

p. 261. 
Bos poephagus, Ham. Smith, Griffith, An. Kingd. V. 896. 

Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. 249. 
Bisonus poephagus, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XVI. 

pt. II. p. 708. 
Poephagus, Aelian, Anim. XV. et XVI. Fischer, Synops. 

Mamm. p. 496. 

Grunting Ox, Pennant and Shaw. 
YAK, of Tartary, Turner, Asiat. Research. IV. p. 351. 
BUBUL, Bell's Travels, I. p. 212. 
SOORA-GOY, or bushy-tailed Bull, of Tibet, Turner, Asiat. 

Research. IV. p. 351. 
YAK, or CHOURI-GAU, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 

XVI. pt. II. p. 708. 
DONG, Tibetan, Strachey. 

HAB. Tibet, Turner. Ladakh, Strachey. High Asia, 
between the Altai and the Himalaya, the Belut Tag, and 
the Peling Mountains, Hodgson. 

A. Specimen of the Yak from the plains of Ladakh, 

from Capt. R. Strachey 's Collection. 

B. Specimen of the Hybrid Yak, presented by the 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

C. and D. Horns of the Hybrid Yak, presented by the 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

E. A Chamar, or state fly-whisk, formed of the hair of a 
Yak's tail, presented by C. Russell, Esq. 

The specimen of the Tibetan Yak from Captain R. Strachey's Col- 
lection, exhibited in the Company's Museum, was prepared from a dry 
skin, in good preservation. In size it is somewhat less than the 
common or domestic ox. The head is large, and the neck proper- 


tionally broad, without any mane or dewlap, having a downward 
tendency. The horns are far apart, placed in front of the occipital 
ridge, cylindrical at the base, from which they rise obliquely outward 
and forward two-thirds of their length, when they bend inward with a 
semicircular curve, the points being directed to each other from the 
opposite sides. The muffle is small, the border of the nostrils callous, 
the ears short and hairy. At the withers there is a slight elevation, 
but no protuberance or hump, as in the Indian Ox. The dorsal ridge 
not prominent ; body of full dimensions ; rump and hinder parts 
proportionally large ; limbs rather small and slender ; hoofs smooth, 
square, and well defined, not expanded, as in the Musk Ox ; anterior 
false hoofs small ; posterior large ; tail short, not reaching beyond 
the houghs, naked for some inches at the root, very bushy, lax, and 
expanded in the middle. Colour, black throughout, but varying in 
tint according to the character of the hairy covering; this, on the 
anterior parts, the neck, shoulders, back, and sides, is short, soft, 
and of a jet black colour, but long, shaggy, pendulous, and shining on 
the sides of the anterior extremities, and from the medial part of the 
abdomen over the thighs to the hinder parts. 

The general aspect of the specimen is bovine ; as to its affinity, in a 
natural arrangement it is more nearly related to the Bos taurus, the 
common domestic Ox, than to the Gayal (Bos frontalis) or the Gour 
(Bibos cavifrons). 

The specimen here described was obtained in the high regions of 
Ladak by chase, and exhibits the Yak in its natural or wild state. The 
descriptions and figures of Turner and Pennant represent the animal as 
modified by domestication, or mixture with other bovine species, when 
the lump on the shoulders is produced, the hair on the upper parts 
becomes white, and that of the tail long, silky, and pendulous : in 
which state it is manufactured into chouries, or switches, which are in 
common use by the natives as brushes or fans against flies. Several 
individuals of the hybrid race have been brought to England ; one of 
these, presented by Captain Samuel Turner to Warren Hastings, Esq., 
arrived safe, and lived some time in his Menagerie. This is figured in 
Turner's Embassy to Tibet ; the other is figured in the Proceedings of 
the Zool. Soc. for 1849, pi. XX., with the following brief explanatory 
notice : " It was imported from India some four years ago, and appears 
to be the produce of a Zebu mother and a Yak sire." Mr. Gray 
refers to this in Knowsley Menagerie, p. 50. 

The Yak inhabits the high regions of Tibet and the neighbouring 
countries. Mr. Hodgson informs us that it cannot live on this side 



the Himalayas, beyond the immediate vicinity of the snows (Journ. As. 
Soc. Beng. XVI. p. 709). Lieut. Wood, as referred to by Mr. Blyth, 
states, " Wherever the mercury does not rise above zero is a climate 
for the Yak." (J. A. S. B. XV. p. 144.) 

The Yak is mentioned by writers and travellers from yElian down- 
wards to the present time, and the details of his sagacity and ferocity 
when wild, and of its mode of life, use, and capacity of training in a 
domestic state, are innumerable. 

Dimensions. Ft. In. 

Length, from the nose to the insertion of the tail 9 3 

Do. of the tail 2 8 

Height at the withers 4 6 

Do. at the croup 4 

Girth, at the posterior part of abdomen 7 

THE DEER, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 55. 

Genus CERVUS, Linn, et al. 

CERVUS et PSEUDO-CERVUS, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
X.p. 914. 

267. CERVUS WALLICHII, Cm., Ossem.foss. 4 ed. VI. 
p. 88. Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XVI. p. 689. 

Gray, Gat. Hodgs. Col. p. 32 ; Knowsley Menag. p. 60. 

GIANA, Tibetan, Hodgson. 
HAB. Nepal, Saul forests, Hodgson. 

A. B. Horns, presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

Genus RUCERVUS, Hodgson. 

CERVI Species, Cuvier et al. 


Cervus Duvaucellii, Cuv., Ossem.foss. 4 me 6d. VI. p. 89. 
Rucervus Duvaucellii (vel elaphoides), Hodgs. Journ. As. 

Soc. Beng. XVI. p. 689. Gray, Cat. Hodgs. Coll. 

p. 33 ; Knowsl. Menag. p. 61. 

HAB. Eastern and northern skirts of Bengal and Hindostan, 

A. Horns, presented by General T. Hardwicke. 

B. Horns, presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 


Genus PANOLIA, Gray. 

CERVI Species, McClelland et al. 

269. PANOLIA ACUTICORNIS, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. 
Mus.p. 180. 

Panolia Eldii, Gray (Eadii, err. typ. corrigend.), Cat. Hodgs. 

Coll. Br. Mus.p. 34. Knowsl. Menag. p. 61. 
Cervus (Rusa) frontalis, McClelland, Calc. Journ. Nat. 
Hist. HI. p. 401, pi. XIII. and XIV. with figures of 
the animal and of the horns separately. 
Indication of a nondescript species of deer, by John McClel- 
land, Calc. J. N. H. I. p. 501. 
Further notice of a nondescript deer, by Lieut. Eld, Calc, 

Jour. N. H. II. p. 415, with figures of the horns. 
Cervus Eldii, Ed., C. J. N. H. II. p. 417, proposed in 

honour of Lieut. Eld, who discovered this species. 
SUNGBAEE, and SUNGNAI, Eld and McClelland. 
HAB. Valley of Munipore, McClelland, Lieut. Eld. Ma- 
layan peninsula, Cantor. 

A. A prepared specimen, presented by John McClelland, 

Genus RUSA, Ham. Smith, Hodgson, et al. 

CERVI Species, Linn., Cuv., Muller, et al. 

270. RUSA EQUINA, Cm., Sp. 

Cervus equinus, Cuv., Ossem. foss. 4 me 3d. VI. p. 92. 
Schlegel and Muller, Over de Herten, v. d. Ind. 
Archip. ; Verhandl. over Nat. Gesch. p. 213. Sykes, 
Catal. Dukhun Mamm. p. 12. Bennett, Tower Mena- 
gerie, p. 185. 

Rusa equina, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. 179 ; Knowsley 
Menag. p. 62. 

Cervus (Rusa) Hippelaphus, Elliot, Catal. Mamm. S. 
Mahratta, #c. 

RUSA ETAM, or RUSA KUMBANG, of the inhabitants of 
Sumatra, Raffles. 

SAMBUR, of the Mahrattas, Sykes and Elliot. 


Samboo Deer, Bennett. 

HAB. Dukhun, Sykes. Southern Mahratta Country, Elliot, 
Sumatra, Raffles. Sumatra, Borneo, Banka, Muller. 


A. A prepared skin, not perfect. Presented by Colonel 


B. A specimen, not perfect. Presented by Sir T. S. 


C. Horns, presented by Colonel Sykes. 


Cervus Hippelaphus, Cuv. Ossem.foss. 4 me <*d. VI. p. 77. 
Rusa Hippelaphus, Gray, Cat. Br. Mus. p. 179 ; Cat. 

Hodgs. Coll. p. 33. Knowsl. Menag. 62. 
Samber, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XVI. p. 690. 

HAB. Forests of India, Hodgson. 

A. Horns, presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 


Cervus Aristotelis, Cuv. Ossem.fos. 4 me ed. VI. p. 84. 
Rusa Aristotelis, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 179. 

Knowsl. Menag. 62. 
JARAI (vulgo JERROW), Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 

XVI. p. 690. 

HAB. Great Forests of India, Hodgson. Ceylon. 

A. B. C. Horns, presented by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

Genus Axis, Ham. Sm., Gr. A. K. 1827. 

CERVI Species, Linn., Erxl., Cuv. et al. 

273. AXIS MACULATA, Gray, Catal Mamm. Br. Mus. 

Cervus axis, Erxl., Elliot. 
CHITTAL, Hodgson, Elliot. 
CHITRA, Sans. 
The spotted Deer. 

HAB. Continental India, Hodgson. Southern Mahratta 
country, Elliot. Malayan peninsula, Cantor. 

A. A prepared specimen, presented by the Asiatic Society 

of Bengal. 

B. Horns, presented by W. S. Clarke, Esq. 

C. A Drawing, Dr. F. (Buchanan) Hamilton's Collec- 



Genus HYELAPHUS, Sundev. Gray, Knowsley Menagerie. 

Axis, Hodgson, et aL 

CERVI Species, Linn., Zimmerm., et aL 

274. HYELAPHUS PORCINUS, Sundev. Pecora, 58. 
Gray, Knowsley Menag. p. 64. 

Cervus porcinus, Zimmerm., Geogr. Gesch. II. p. 151. 
Axis (Cervus) niger, Dr. F. (.) Ham. (Black Variety}. 
PARA, or KHAR, LAGHTJNA, or SUGORIA, Hodgson, Journ. 

As. Soc. Beng. XVI. p. 691. 
The Hog Deer. 

HAB. Continental India, Assam, McClelland. 

A. From Surgeon McClelland's Collection in Assam. 

B. Horns, presented by General T. Hardwicke. 

C. A Drawing, from Dr. F. Buchanan's Collection. 

D. A Drawing of the Black Variety, from Dr. F. (B.) 

Ham.'s Collection. 

Genus CERVULUS, De Blainv., 1816. 

CERVI Species, Linn., Schreb., Zimmerm., et al. 
STYLOCERUS, Ham. Smith. 
PROX, Ogilby, Sundev. 

275. CERVULUS VAGINALIS, Bodd. Sp. Eknch. Anim. 
I. 136. 

Cervus Muntjac, Zimmerm., Geogr. Gesch. II. p. 131. 

Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. Gmel. Horsf., Zool. Research. 

Schlegel and Midler, Verhandl. over N. G. 225. 
Cervulus vaginalis, Gray, Knowsley Menag. p. 65. 
KIDANG, of the Javanese. 
MUNTJAK, of the Sundanese. 
KIJANG, of the Malays of Sumatra, Marsden's Hist, of 


HAB. Java, Horsfald. Java, Sumatra, Banka, and Borneo, 

A. From Horsfield's Collection in Java. 


276. CERVULUS MOSCHATUS, De Blainv., Bull Soc. 
Phil. 1816, 77. Gray, Knowsley Menag. 65. 

Cervus Muntjak, Sykes, Catal. Dukhun Mamm. Elliot, 

Cat. Mamm. Southern Mahratta Country. 
Stylocerus Ratwa, Hodgson, Journ.As.Soc. Beng. X. 914. 

XVI. 692. 

RATWA, and KAKER, of the Indian continent, Hodgson. 
BAIKER, of the Mahrattas, Sykes. 
BEKRA, Mahratta, Elliot. 
BARKING DEER, of Europeans, Hodgson. 
Rib-faced Deer, Pennant, Quad. I. p. 119. 

HAB. The plains of Continental India. 

A. From Capt. R. Strachey's Collection in Kumaon. 


B. Horns, presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

C. Horns, presented by J. McClelland, Esq. 

D. E. Two dried Skins from Colonel Sykes' Collection. 


F. Drawing of the Head, from Dr. F. (Buchanan) 
Hamilton's Collection. 

The specific distinction between Cervulus vaginalis and Cervulus 
moschatus is by no means strongly marked. Messrs. Schlegel and 
Miiller (Verhandl. over Natuurl. Gesch. p. 225) consider them speci- 
fically the same. Mr. Hodgson, in his Classified Catal. of Mamm. of 
Nepal, enumerating Stylocerus Ratwa, states, " Probably identical with 
the insular type, or Cervus Munjac." (J. A. S. B., X. p. 914.) 

Fam. 2. EQUID^, Gray, Cat. Mamm. 
Br. Mus. Syst. List, XXVII. 

THE HORSES, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 70. 

Genus ASINUS, Gray. 

EQUI Species, Moorcroft et al. 

277. ASINUS KIANG, Moorcroft, Sp. Gray, Knowsley 
Menagerie, p. 72. 

Equus Kiang, Moorcroft, Travels, fyc. I. p. 312. 
Asinus polyodon, Hodgson, Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. VII. 
p. 472. 


? Var. E. Hemioni, Pallas, in Nov. Comm. Petrop. XIX. 
p. 394. 

The KIANG, Walker, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XVII. pt. II. 
p. 1, with a figure. 

KIANG, or KYANG, of the inhabitants of Ladakh, Moor- 
croft, Strachey. 

HAB. Tibet, Ladakh, Moorcroft, Strachey. 

A. Capt. R. Strachey "s Collection in Ladakh. 

Several varieties, or species (?), of the Wild Ass are enumerated by 
Indian travellers and zoologists, whose history and character remain for 
future determination : namely, the Dziggetai, or Equus hemionus, of 
Pallas ; the Gurkhor, or Ghorkhur (Quere from " Ghora," a horse, and 
" Khur," an ass, literally " Equus asinus," Hutton, J. A. S. B., XV. 
p. 146) ; the Wild Ass, of Kutch and the Indus ; and the Kiang, or 
Kyang, of the plains of Tibet. 

By Mr. Gray (Knowsley Menagerie, p. 71), Colonel Sykes (Proceed. 
Zool. 1837, p. 91), and several other Zoologists, the Ghorkhur is con- 
sidered identical with the Equus hemionus of Pallas. In his account of 
the Kiang (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XVII. p. 2), Dr. H. Walker asserts 
that the Kiang is the same animal as the Dziggetai of Pallas. In some 
remarks in Capt. Button's " Notes on the Zoology of Candahar," Mr. 
Blyth informs us that his doubts on the identity of the " Kyang " of 
Tibet with the Ghorkhur, were completely settled in the affirmative by a 
specimen of the Kyang which the Society received from G. T. Lushing- 
ton of Almorah (J. A. S. B. XV. p. 146) ; whereas Moorcroft (Travels, 
I. p. 312) states, " in the eastern parts of Ladakh is a nondescript 
wild variety of horse, which I may call Equus Hang. It is perhaps 
more of an ass than a horse, but its ears are shorter, and it is certainly 
not the Gur-khor or Wild Ass of Sindh." 

In the same volume, p. 442, Moorcroft communicates some further 
remarks. " We saw many large herds of the Kiang, and I made 
numerous attempts to bring one down, but with invariably bad success. 
Some were wounded, but not sufficiently to check their speed, and they 
quickly bounded up the rocks, where it was impossible to follow. They 
would afford excellent sport to four or five men well mounted, but a 
single individual has no chance. The Kiang allows his pursuer to 
approach no nearer than five or six hundred yards ; he then trots off, 
turns, looks, and waits until you are almost within distance, when he is 
off again. If fired at he is frightened, and scampers off altogether. 


The Chan-than people sometimes catch them by snares, sometimes 
shoot them. From all I have seen of the animal, I should pronounce 
him to be neither a horse nor an ass. His shape is as much like that 
of the one as the other, but his cry is more like braying than neighing. 
The prevailing colour is a light reddish, chesnut, but the nose, the 
under part of the lower jaw and neck, the belly, and legs, are white ; 
the mane is dun and erect ; the ears are moderately long ; the tail bare, 
and reaching a little below the hock ; the height is about fourteen hands. 
The form, from the fore to the hind leg and feet, to a level with the 
back, is more square than that of an ass ; his back is less straight, and 
there is a dip behind the withers, and rounding of the crupper, which 
is more like the shape of the horse ; his neck is also more erect and 
arched than that of the ass. He is, perhaps, more allied to the 
Quagha, but without stripes, except a reported one along each side of 
the back to the tail. These were distinctly seen in a foal, but were 
not distinguished in the adults." 

Fam. 3. ELEPHANTID^, Gray, Cat. 
Mamm. Br. Mus. Syst. List, XXVII. 

Genus ELEPHAS, Linn, et al 



HASTI, Sanscrit, Bengali, &c. 

HATHI, Hindustani, from the Sans. Hasti. 

GAJ and GUJ, Bengali, &c., from Sans. Gaja. 

GADJAH, Malayan. 

A. Skull of a male Elephant. 

B. Skull of a female Elephant. 

C. Skull of a young Elephant. 

D. Skull of a foetus. 

E. and F. Sections of grinders. 

Presented by John (Corse) Scott, Esq. Described by John 
Corse, Esq. (Phil. Trans. 1799, II. 205.) 

Two sets of the grinders of the Asiatic Elephant, presented 
by John McClelland, Esq. 


Genus T API BUS, Briss. et al. 

279. TAPIRUS MALA YANUS, Raffles, Horsfidd. 

Tapirus iridicus, Fred. Cuv., Muller. 
The Malayan Tapir. 
KUDA-AYER, of the Malays. 
SALADANG, of the Limun's in Sumatra. 
GINDOL, of the Manna's in Sumatra. 
BABI-ALU, interior of Bencoolen. 
TENNU, at Malacca. 

HAB. Malayan peninsula and Sumatra, Raffles. Sumatra, 
Borneo, Muller. 
A. Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles. 


Genus Sus, Linn, et al. 

280. SUS SCR OF A, Linn. Var. Indica, Elliot, Mammalia 
of South Mahr. Country, Madras Journ. X. 219. SyJces, 
Cat. Dukhun Mamm, p. 11. 

Sus aper, Hodgs., Classif. Cat. Nep. Mamm. J. A. S.Beng. 

X. p. 911, two varieties. 
The Indian Wild Boar. 
B ARAB A, Sans., Beng. 
JANGLI SLR, Hindust. 
SUR, Dekhani, Elliot. 
DOOKUR, Mahratta, Sykes, Elliot. 

HAB. India generally. 

A. Skull of the Indian Wild Boar. 

" Wild Hogs abound in Dukhun, and the males attain to a very 
great size. I am not satisfied that there is any specific difference 
between the European and Asiatic Wild Hog." (Sykes, Cat. Dukhun 
Mamm. p. 11.) 

Genus BABIRUSSA, Fr. CUT., Dents d. Mammif. 1825. 
Sus, Linn, et al. 

281. BABIRUSSA ALFURUS, Lesson, Man. 338. 

Sus babyrussa, Linn., Syst. Nat. 12, 1. p. 104. 
BABI-RUSA, of the Malays ; literally, Babi, Hog ; Rusa, 



HAB. The island of Bum (Bourou Fr.), one of the Moluccas, 
Bontius, Midler. Celebes, Bum, and Ternate, M tiller. 

A. The skull, presented by Dr. Eoxburgh. 

B. The skull, presented by G. Stevens, Esq. 

Genus PORCULA, Hodgson. 

SUID.E, genus Porcula, mihi, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. XVI. p. 423. 

Generic Char. Teeth . }-:}- . :f = 40. Canines small, straight, 
severely cutting, but not ordinarily exserted from the lips. Fourth toe 
on all the feet small and unequal. Tail very short, but distinct. 

Specific Char. Pigmy Hog, of a black-brown colour, slightly and 
irregularly shaded with sordid amber. Iris hazel ; nude skin, dirty 
flesh-colour. Hoofs, glossy brown. Length, from snout to vent, 18 
to 20 inches. Height, 8 to 10 inches. Weight, 7 to 10, rarely 12 Ibs. 

282. PORCULA SAL VAN I A, Hodgson, J. A. 8. B. loc. cit.; 
Ann, and Mag. Nat. Hist. N. 8. 1 1 1. p. 202. 

Pigmy Hog of the Saul Forest. 

SANO BANEL, and CHOTA SUVAR, of the natives, Hodgson. 

HAB. Saul Forest. 

A. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

In the sixteenth volume of the Journ. As. Soc. of Bengal, as above 
cited, Mr. Hodgson gives a detailed description of the form, habits, and 
peculiarities of this animal, with a figure ; and in the seventeenth volume, 
p. 476, of the same Journal, some additional remarks on its anatomy. 
The following is a short extract from Mr. Hodgson's interesting 
account : " The Pigmy Hog is exclusively confined to the deep recesses 
of primeval forest, and hence (I believe) has entirely escaped all notice 
of Europeans up to the present hour ; and whereas, again, the grown 
males of the common Hog invariably dwell apart, those of the Pigmy 
Hog abide constantly with the herd, and are its habitual and resolute 
defenders against harm. I obtained my single specimen recently in the 
Tarai of Sikim ; but I know that the species dwells also in the Tarai 
of Nepaul ; nor have I any doubt it inhabits as far north-west and 
south-east as the Saul Forest extends ; though, such are its rarity and 
secludedness, that, knowing of its existence and anxious to procure it 
as I have been for fifteen years past, I have only just succeeded. Even 


the aborigines, whose home is the forest, seldom see, and still seldomer 
obtain it, much as they covet it for its delicious flesh, and eagerly as 
they search for it on that account ; and an old Mech, who brought me 
mine, informs me that in fifty years' abode in the Sal-ban, or Saul 
Forest, though a hunter every season, he never got but three or four of 
these much-desiderated animals to eat, partly owing to their scarcity, 
and partly to the speed with which the female and young disperse, and 
to the extraordinary vigour and activity with which the males defend 
themselves whilst their families are retreating." 

Genus RHINOCEKOS, Linn, et al 

283. RHINOCEROS SONDAICUS, Cuv. Horsf., Zool. Res., 
with a figure. Mutter. 

Rhinoceros javanicus, Cuv. et Geoffr., Mamm.fasc. 46. 
WARAK, Javanese. 
BADAK, Malayan. 

HAB. Java exclusively, Horsfield, Mutter. 

A. A Drawing, Horsfield's Collection from Java, 


Single-horned Rhinoceros, Shaw, Gen. Zool. 1, I. p. 198. 
GOR, of the Assamese, Walker. 

HAB. Continental India, Malayan Peninsula, Cantwr. 
A. Horn, presented by Edw. Smith, Esq.* 

* The wild Rhinoceros from which this horn was taken was about the size of a small 
Elephant ; he was shot by Mr. Thomas Craigie, at a small distance from Gwalpara, 
on the borders of Assam, in the year 1777. The animal had been discovered asleep 
near to the place where Mr. Craigie was on a visit, and though dissuaded from the 
rash attempt, he would go out to attack the beast, being armed with a gun, and 
having a pistol in his belt : three gentlemen were present on horseback he went on 
foot. He approached to within about thirty feet of the animal, whom he aroused 
by firing at him his pistol ; the beast instantly got up to see from whence he was 
attacked, but just as he was prepared to make his charge, Mr. Craigie (having knelt 
down on one knee) levelled his piece, and the ball entered the head just between the 
eyes ; the beast rushed forward, but Mr. Craigie avoided him by springing on one 
side, and the animal fell dead near the spot where he had knelt. 


285. RHINOCEROS AFRICANUS, Desmar., Mamm. 

Rhinoceros bicornis, Linn. 
African Rhinoceros. 
A. Anterior horn, presented by Colonel Taylor. 

Genus HYRAX, Herm. Tab. Aff. Illustr. 

286. HYEAX ABYSSINICUS, Hemp, et Ehrenb., Sym. 

ASHKOKO, Abyssinian, Bruce. 

A. From Sir W. C. Harris's Collection in Abyssinia. 

Fam. 4. DASYPID^E, Gray, Cat. Mamm. 
Br. Mus. Syst. List, XXVII. 
Genus MANIS, Linn, et al. 

287. MANIS PENTADACTYLA, Linn., Syst. Nat. 12, 
I. p. 52. 

Manis crassicaudata, Griff., A. K. III. p. 507. Sykes, 
, Cat. Dukh. Mamm. p. II. Elliot, Mamm. S. Mahr. 

Madr. Journ. X. 218. 
Manis macroura, Desm., Mamm. p. 376. Lesson, Man. 

p. 316. 
Manis brachyura, Erxl., Gray, and Hardw., Illust. Ind. 

Zool. II. tab. 22. 

Broad-tailed Manis, Penn., Quadr. II. 
KUSOLEE MANJUR, or Tibet Cat, of the Mahrattas, Sykes. 
BUJJERKEET, Sansc., Hind., Tickell. 
KOWLI MAH, Mahratta, of the Ghats, Elliot. 
Pangolin a queue courte, Cuv. 

HAB. India generally, Sykes, Elliot, Hodgson. 

A. Presented by Colonel Sykes. 

B. Presented by Matthew Lovell, Esq. 

C. Young. 

A detailed account of the structure, habits, peculiarities, and local 
names in different parts of Hindustan, is given in the eleventh volume 
of the Journ. As. Soc. Beng. pt. I. p. 221, &c., by Lieut. R. Tickell, 
Pol. Ass. S. W. Frontier. 


288. MANIS JA VANICA, Desmar., Mamm. p. 377. Mid- 
ler, Verh. over N. G. p. 37. 

Manis pentadactyla, Raffl., Trans. Linn. Soc.XIII.p.249. 

HAB. Java, Sumatra, Borneo. 

A. B. Adult. HorsfieLTs Collection from Java. 

C. Young. From the same. 

The habits of the Javanese Manis are thus described by Dr. Sal. 
Miiller : " It lives chiefly in forests, and prefers mountainous districts. 
A peculiar feature in its habits is, that it ascends trees, and conceals 
itself in fissures, selecting especially several species of the wild fig-tree. 
It is less frequently found in cavities of rocks. In naked tracts it 
burrows in the earth, often to a considerable extent, in search of white 
and other ants, which are its chief food, although it also pursues insects 
and worms. Its flesh is freely eaten by the natives, and of the scales they 
form rings and amulets." (Verhandl. over Nat. Gesch. &c. p. 37.) 


Genus ORNITHORHYNCHUS, Blumenbach, Voigts. Mag. II. 

PLATYPUS, Shaw. Nat. Misc. 118, 1799. 

Handb. 10, p. 135. 

Platypus anatinus, Shaw. 
HAB. Australia and Van Diemen's Land. 
A. Presented by John Reeves, Esq. 











S. syndactyla, Raffles, Sp. ... p. 1 

HYLOBATES, Illiger. 

H. Hoolock, Harlam, Sp. ... 2 

variegatus, Mtiller 3 


S. Entellus, Dufresne, Sp. ... 4 

schistaceus, Hodgson 6 

Priamus, FMiot 6 

pileatus, Blyth 7 

argentatus, Blyth 7 

Johnii, Fischer, Sp 8 

maurus, Schreber, Sp 9 

Pyrrhus, Horsfield 10 

femoralis, Horsfield 10 

flavimanus, /. Geoffroy ... 11 

cristatus, Raffles, Sp 13 

COLOBUS, Illiger. 
C. Guereza, Rtippell 15 



C. engythithia, Herm., Sp....p. 16 

MACACUS, Lacepede. 

M. cynomolgus, Linn., Sp. . 

radiatus, Geoffr., Sp 

nemestrinus, Linn., Sp. . 

rhesus, Audeb., Sp 

assamensis, McClelland . 

GELADA, Lesson, Gray. 
G. Ruppellii, Gray ............ 21 

SILENUS, Lesson, Gray. 
S. veter, Linn , Sp ............. 22 

Fam. LEMURID^:. 

LEMUR, Linn. 
L. ruber, Peron et Lesueur 

STENOPS, Illiger. 

S. javanicus, Geoffr., Sp. .. 

tardigradus, Linn., Sp. 

TARSIUS, Stott. 
T. spectrum, Geoffr ............. 25 





Louis, Geoffr. 
L. gracilis, Geoffr p. 26 



G. volans, Shaw 26 

PTEEOPUS, Brisson. 

P. edulis, Per on et Lesueur ... 27 

Edwardsii, Geoffr 28 

poliocephalus, Temm 29 

X. segyptiaca, Geoffr. , Sp. ... 29 

M. minimus, Geoffr., Sp 29 


C. titthsecheilus, Temm., Sp.... 30 

marginatus, Hamilton, Sp. 30 

Horsfieldii, Gray 30 


M. lyra, Geoffr 31 

spasma, Linn., Sp 32 

spec, nov 32 


R. affinis, Horsf. 33 

minor, Horsf. 33 

Rouxii, Temm 33 

Pearsonii, Horsf. 33 

(Hipposideros) diadema ? 
Gray 34 

(Hipp.) nobilis, Horsf., Sp. 34 

(Hipp.) larvatus, Horsf., Sp.35 

(Hipp.) vulgaris, Horsf., Sp. 35 

(Hipp.) murinus, Elliot, Sp. 3*5 

(Hipp.) insignis, Horsf., Sp. 36 

NYCTEEIS, Geoffr. 
N. javanica, Geoffr 36 

LASIUEUS, Rafin, Gray. 
L. Pearsonii, Horsf. 36 


N. Temminckii, Horsf., Sp. p. 37 

flaveolus, Blyth 37 

isabellinus, Blyth 38 

castaneus, Gray 38 


V. adversus, Horsf. 38 

Hardwickii, Horsf. 39 

tralatitius, Horsf. 39 

imbricatus, Horsf. 39 








(Kirivoula) pictus, Pallas 

(Kir.) formosa, Hodgson.. 


T. longimanus, Hardw 41 

melanopogon, Temm . ...... 41 

C. torquatus, Horsf. 42 

N. tenuis, Horsf. 42 

Order II. FER^E. 
Fam. FELID^E. 

FELIS, Linn. 

F. tigris, Linn 43 

leopardus, Schreb 45 

pardus, Linn 46 

melas, Peron 47 

(Leopardus) pardochrous 
Hodgs 47 

(Leop.) Horsfieldii, Gray... 47 

(Leop.) javanensis, Desm. 48 

(Leop.) sumatranus, Horsf., 
Sp 48 

(Leop.) bengalensis, Desm., 
Sp 49 

- (Leop.) torquatus, F. Cuv. 49 



F. (Leop.) murmensis, Hodgs., 

Sp p. 

- (Leop.) viverrinus, Bennett, 

(Lynx) Chans, Guldenst, Sp. 


P. gracilis, Vigors and Horsf. 

pardicolor, Hodgs 


V. Zibetha, Linn 

Tangalunga, Gray 


V. indica, Geoffr., Sp 

Rasse, Horsfield, Sp 


P. typus, Cuv 

Musanga, Raffles, Sp 

prehensilis, Hamilton, Sp. 

trivirgatus, Reinwardt, Sp. 

Palassii, Gray 

Finlaysonii, Gray 

leucotis, Blyth 

PAGUMA, Gray. 

P. Grayi, Bennett, Sp 

Bondar, Dr. F. (Buchanan) 
Hamilton, Sp 

HY^JNA, Briss. 

H. striata, Zimm 

CUON, Hodgs. 

C. dukhunensis, Sykes, Sp. ... 

primsevus, Hodgs 

sumatrensis, Hardw., Sp. 

CANIS, Linn. 

C. aureus, Linn 

lupus, Linn 

anthus, Cuv 

familiaris, Linn 


V. bengalensis, Shaw, Sp. ... 

flavescens, Gray 

montanus, Pearson, Sp. ... 













HERPESTES, Illiger. 

H. javanicus, Geoffr., Sp.... p. 88 

griseus, Geoffr., Sp 90 

nipalensis, Gray 91 

Nyula, Hodgs 92 

URVA, Hodgs. 

U. cancrivora, Hodgs 93 


A. Binturong, Fisch 94 


M. flavigula, Bodd, Sp 98 

Gwatkinsii, Jardine, Sp 99 

abietum, Ray 101 


M. (Putorius)Kathia,#o<fysow 102 

Hodgsonii, Gray 103 

Horsfieldii, Gray 103 

(Putorius) subhemachalana, 
Hodgs 103 

alpina, Gebler, Sp 104 

erminea, Linn 104 

P. tibetanus, Hodgs 105 


H. orientalis, Horsf., Sp. ... 106 

nipalensis, Hodgs., Sp. ... 108 

M. raeliceps, Cuv 109 


A. collaris, Cuv 114 

LUTRA, Bay. 
L. Nair, Cuv. 115 

chinensis, Gray 116 

Simung, Raffles 116 

AONYX, Lesson. 

A. leptonyx, Horsf. , Sp. ... 117 

indigitatus, Hodgs., Sp. 119 

M. Ratel, Storr 120 




H. malayanus, Horsf., Sp. p. 122 
tibetanus, Cuv 124 

M. lybicus, Meyer 124 

A. fulgens, Cuv 126 

TALPA, Linn. 
T. micrura, Hodgs 129 

TUPAIA, Raffles. 

T. javanica, Horsf. 130 

ferruginea, Raffles 131 

SOREX, Linn. 

S. murinus, Linn 134 

Griffith!!, Horsf. 134 

ccerulescens, Shaw 135 

indicus, Geoffr 135 

niger, Elliot 135 

caudatus, Hodgs 135 

sikimensis, Hodgs 136 

C. nigrescens, Gray 136 


E. collaris, Gray 136 

nudiventris, Horsf. 136 

auritus, Pallas 138 

Order III. CETE. 
Fam. 2. DELPHINID^E, Gray. 

P. gangetica, Gray, Sp: 139 

M. monoceros, Linn 139 

Fam. 4. HALICORID^E, Gray. 

HALICORE, Illiger. 
H. Dugung, Fr. Cuv 139 


Order IV. GLIRES. 

Fam. 1. MURID^E, Gray. 

Mus, Linn. 

M. decumanus, Pallas p. 140 

decumanoides, Temm. ... 140 

Bandicota, Bechstein 140 

(Rattus) nemori vagus, 
Hodgs 141 

arboreus, Buchanan 141 

setifer, Horsf. 142 

flavescens, Elliot 142 

brunneus, Hodgs. ? 142 

brunneusculus, Hodgs. ... 143 

nivi venter, Hodgs. ? 143 

dubius, Hodgs 143 

darjilingensis, Hodgs 143 

sequicaudalis, Hodgs 144 

caudatior, Hodgs 144 

leucosternum, R'dpp 144 


G. Meltada, Gray 144 


N. Griffith!!, Horsf. 145 


C. Songarus, Pallas, Sp. ... 145 

NEODON, Hodgs. 

N. sikimensis, Hodgs 146 

Fam. 2. HYSTRICID^, Gray. 


H. leucurus, Sykes 146 


A. fasciculata, Shaw, Sp. ... 147 

Fam. 3. LEPORID^E, Gray. 

LEPUS, Linn. 

L. nigricollis, Fr. Cuv 147 

macrotus, Hodgs 147 

oiostolus, Hodgs 148 

zegyptius, Geoffr 148 




C. hispidus, Pearson, Sp....p. 148 


L. nipalensis, Hodgs 148 

rufescens, Gray 149 

Fam. 4. JERBOID^E, Gray. 

ALACTAGA, Fr. Cut). 

A. indica, Gray 149 


G. indicus, Hardw., Sp 150 

erythrourus, Gray 150 


S. Plantani, Ljung 151 

insignis, F. Cuv 151 

sublineatus, Waterhouse 151 

McClellandii, Horsf. 151 

Palmarum, Linn 152 

penicillatus, Leach 152 

nigrovittatus, Horsf. 152 

vittatus, Raffles 152 

subflaviventris, McClell. 152 

assamensis, McClell 153 

Lokriah, Hodgs 153 

Lokroides, Hodgs 153 

tenuis, Horsf. 153 

atr odor sails, Gray 154 

hippurus, Isid. Geoffr. ... 154 

Finlay sonii, Horsf. 154 

bicolor, Sparm 155 

caniceps, Gray 155 

affinis, Raffles 156 

Keraudrenii, Lesson 156 

hypoleucus, Horsf. 156 

maximus, Schreb 156 

Elphinstonii, Sykes 157 

macrourus, Forster 158 

vulgaris, Linn 158 

chrysonotus, Blyth 159 

chinensis, Gray 159 


P. Petaurista, Pallas, Sp. ... 159 

P. nobilis, Gray, Sp p. 160 

caniceps, Gray, Sp 160 

magnificus, Hodgs., Sp. 161 

melanotis, Gray 162 

nitidus, Geoffr 162 

albiventer, Gray 1 62 

Pearsonii, Gray 162 


S. alboniger, Hodgs 163 

genibarbis, Horsf., Sp.... 163 

- lepidus, Horsf., Sp 163 

fimbricatus, Gray 163 

ARCTOMYS, Schreb. 
A. Bobac, Schreb 164 


K. minor, Gray 165 

badius, Hodgs 165 

Fam. 1. BOVID^, Gray. 

KEMAS, Ham. Smith. 
K. Hodgsoni, Abel, Sp 166 

GAZELLA, De Blainv. 

G. Bennettii, Sykes, Sp 166 

- Cora, Ham. Smith, Sp.... 166 

C. bezoartica, Aldras, Sp. ... 167 

TETRACERUS, Ham. Smith. 
T. quadricornis, De Blainv., 
Sp 167 

MADOGUA, Ogilby. 
M. Saltiana, De Blainv., Sp. 167 

ORYX, Ham. Smith. 
0. leucoryx, Pallas, Sp 168 

C. bubalina, Hodgs., Sp. ... 168 



NEMORHEDUS, Ham. Smith. 
N. Goral, Hardw., Sp. ... p. 168 

BOSEPHALUS, Ham. Smith. 

B. Caama, Cuv., Sp 169 

P. picticauda, Hodgs 169 

S. Kudu, Ham. Smith ...... 170 

PORTAX, Ham. Smith. 
P. picta, Pallas, Sp 170 

CAPRA, Linn. 

C. Jemlaica, Ham. Smith ... 170 

(Ibex) himalayana, Blyth 171 

megaceros, Hutton 171 

{hircus, Linn ^ 
(^Egagrus) Cossia, Dr. \ 171 
F.(Buch.) Hamilt.... J 

(./Egagrus) Changra, Dr. 

F. (Buck.) Hamilt 172 

- imberbis Berbura, Dr. 

F. (Buch.) Hamilt 173 

- Tibetan Goat 174 

-Tibetan Goat 174 

Ovis, Linn. 

0. Aries, Linn 175 

- Vigiiei, Blyth 175 

Ammon, Linn., Sp 176 

- Polii, Blyth 176 

P. Nahoor, Hodgs., Sp 176 


M. moschiferus, Linn 177 

leucogaster , Hodgs 177 

M. indica, Gray 178 

T. javanicus, Pallas, Sp. 


BUBALUS, Ham. Smith. 

B. Buffelus, Blumenb., Sp. p. 178 
Arna, Hodgs ................ 179 

, Hodgs. 
G. frontalis, Lambert, Sp. ... 179 

BIBOS, Hodgs. 

B. cavifrons, Hodgs .......... 181 

Asseel, Horsf. ............ 181 

Banteng, Gray ............ 183 

P. grunniens, Linn., Sp ....... 184 

CERVUS, Linn. 

C. Wallichii, Cuv. . .186 

R. Duvaucellii, Cuv., Sp. . 


P. acuticornis, Gray 187 

B-USA, Ham. Smith. 

R. equina, Cuv., Sp 187 

Hippelaphus, Cuv., Sp.... 188 
- Aristotelis, Cuv., Sp 188 

Axis, Ham. Smith. 
A. maculata, Gray 188 

H. porcinus, Sundev 189 

CERVULUS, De Blainv. 

C. vaginalis, Bodd., Sp 189 

moschatus, De Blainv. ... 190 

Fam. 2. EQUIDJS, Gray. 

ASINUS, Gray. 
A. Kiang, Moor croft, Sp. ... 190 



Fam. 3. ELEPHANTID.E, Gray. 

E. indicus, Linn p. 192 

TAPIRUS, Briss. 
T. mayalanus, Raffles, Horsf. 193 

Sus, Linn. 
S. Scrofa, Linn 193 

B. alfurus, Lesson 193 

PORCULA, Hodgs. 
P. salvania, Hodgs 194 


R-. sondaicus, Cuv p. 195 

unicornis, Linn 195 

africanus, Desm 196 

HYRAX, Herm. 
H. abyssinicus, Hemp 196 

Fam. 4. DASYPID^E, Gray. 

MANIS, Linn. 

M. pentadactyla, Linn 196 

javanica, Desm 197 

0. paradoxus, Blum 197 



AMBRANG, or Barang Barang, 

Sumatran p. 118 

ANGA PRAO, Malayan 98 

ANJING-AYER, Mai 115, 117 

UTAN, Mai 74 

ANTELOPE, Common, Pennant 167 

Goat 166 

Rat 160 

ARNA, or Arnee, Bengali ... 179 

ASHKOKO, Abyssinian 196 

AS'L GAYAL, Hindustani ... 181 

ASSEEL GAYAL, Hardwicke 181 


KIKKEE, Javanese 80 

ASWAIL, Mahratta 125 

BABI-ALU, Sundanese 193 

RUSA, Mai 193 

BADAK, Mai 195 

BADGER, Indian, Shaw 120 

BAGH, Sanscrit 43 


BAJING, Javan., Mai 151 

BAIKER, Mahr 190 

BALOO-SOOR (Sand-pig), Hin- 
dustani 114 

BAN-BIRAL, Beng 49 

BANDICOTE RAT, Pennant ... 140 


BANTENG, Jav 183 

BARAHA, Sans 193 

BARANG BARANG, or Ambrang, 

Sumat. . 118 

BARA SINHA, Beng p. 186 

BARKING DEER, Hodgson ... 190 
BEAR, the Black, of the Hi- 
malayas 124 

BEEBEEA BAUGH, Mahr. ... 46 

BEEJOO HURDI, Hindi 120 


Hindust 120 

BEEYU KHAWAR, Telugu ... 120 

BEKRA, Mahr 190 

BENGAL CAT, Pennant 49 

DOG, Pennant 85 

Fox, Shaw 85 

BERBURA, Gray 173 

BHAINSA, Contin. India 178 

BHALLU, or Riksha, Sans. ... 125 

BHALUK, Beng 125 

BHERIJA, Hindust 82 

BIELOCK, Sund 162 

BIEOEL, Sund 106 

BINTURONG, Sumat., Jav. ... 95 
BLACK BEAR, the, of the Himal. 124 

EARED TAGUAN, Gray . 162 

FACED POLECAT of Tibet. 105 

BOAR, the Indian Wild 193 

BOKKOL, Jav 151 

BOLOCK, Sund 162 

BOMBAY SQUIRREL, Pennant . 156 
BONNET-CHINOIS, Buffon ... 18 
nant 18 




BRUANG, MaL, Sumat. ... p. 122 

BRUH, Sumat 19 

BUANSU, Nepalese 73 

BUBUL, Bell 184 

BUDENG, Jav 9 

BUFFALO, the 178 

BUGMYUL, Hodgson 58 



Turner 184 

BUNDER, Williamson 20 

BURAIYA, Beng 186 

BURRHAL, Ladakh, Kumaon . 177 

CAMJOO, Tibetan 172 


CHAUDAK-NARI, Canarese ... 85 

CHANGRA, Parbuttie 172 

CHAUS, Shaw 50 

CHEETA, Mahr 45 

CHIGRI, Canar 167 

CHINGKAU, Sumat 13 


CHIRU, Tibet 166 


CHITWA, Hardwicke 126 

CHODOT, Jav 29, 30 

CHOLAY, Narwar 172 

CHOOA, Mahr 140 

CHOOHA, Dekhani 140 

CHOTA SUVAR, Saul Forest . 194 

CHOUKA, Hodgson 167 


Hodgson 184 

CHOUSINGA, Hodgson 167 

CHUAKHAL, Tibet 158 

COLUGO, Griffith 26 

COSSIA GOAT, the, Gray 171 

DAS, Nep 108 

DATWAI-BEKH, Canar 115 

DEER 186 

BARKING, the 190 

HOG, the 189 

RIB-FACED, the 190 

SAMBUR, Mahr 187 

SPOTTED, the 188 


DENGENG, Borneo 118 

DER KRAGEN-B^ER, Schinz 124 
KUSIAR, Schinz 98 

DHOLE, or Wild Dog, Wil- 
liamson p. 73 

DIEB, Arabic 83 

DONG, Tibet 184 

DOOKUR, Mahr 193 

DUYONG, Mai 139 

EGRET MONKEY, Pennant ... 17 

ELEPHANT, the 192 

ELOOGOO, Telug 125 

EMES, Sund 131 

ERMINE, and STOAT, Pennant 104 

FHAIN, Heifer 182 

FLYING MAUCACO, Pennant . 26 


GYE, Seng 179 

GABI, Hodgson 179 


GADJAH, Mai 192 

GAJ, Seng 192 

GAN POHOO, Assamese 177 


GAUR, Nep 181 

GAURI GAU, Nep 181 

GAVI, Hodgson 179 

GAVIGA, Mahr 181 

GAYAL, Seng 179 

GENDOO, Jav 26 


GHONS, Dekh 140 

GHUR CHOOHA, Dekh 140 

GIANA, Tibet "... 186 

GILHERI, Dekh 152 

GINDOL, Sumat 193 

GIYAL, Seng 179 

G'NYAN, Tibet 176 

G6A, Tibet 169 

GOAT ANTELOPE, Europ. ... 166 

COSSIA, the, Gray 171 

SHAWL, the 172 


the 160 

GOLOCK, De Vismes 2 

GOR, Assam 195 

GORAL, Nep 168 

GORBACHA, Dekh 46 







GRUNTING Ox, Pennant... p. 184 

GUEREZA, Abyss 15 

GUJ, Beng 192 

HADA, Mahr 115 

H AHUM AN , Hind 4 

nant 17 


KLMBANG, Sumat 47 

HARIMAU, Sumat 43 

HASTI, Sans 192 

HATHI, Hind 192 

HEREENA-MOOS (Antelope- 
Rat) 150 

HIGHLAND NYULA, Gray ... 92 

HILL Fox, Royle 86 

HOG, the Pigmy 194 

HOOLOOCK, Eastern Ind. ... 2 

HUD, Mahr 115 

HURU, Mahr., Dekh 167 

HYJSNA, the Striped 71 

ICHNEUMON, Grey, the 90 

IKARA, Seng 4 140 


MUSK, Pennant 178 

WOLF, Gray 82 

INDUR, Sans 140 

Isos, Tibet 166 

JACKAL, Shaw 81 

JACKHALS, Dutch 81 

JAKKO, Europ. vulg ,. 17 

JANGLI SIR, Hind 193 

JARAI (vulgo Jerrow), Hodg- 
son 188 

JAVAN SQUIRREL, Pennant 155 

JELARANG, Jav 155 

JHARAL, Nep 170 

JHENKOO INDUR (Field Mouse) 150 
JUL MARJAR (or Water-Cat), 

Mahr 115 

JUNGLI KHOOLGA, Dekh. ... 181 

KUTTA, Dekh 73 


Cat) 58 

KADDI, KARADI, Canar 125 

KAKER, Ind. Contin 190 

KALONG, Jav 27 

KALSEEPEE (or Black-tail), 
Mahr. . .166 

KASTURI, Mahr p. 58 

KATHIAH, Nep 102 

KECHUBU, Jav 163 

KEKKES, Sund 131 

KEMP-NARI, Canar 85 

KERA-!LEI, Canar 144 

KHANEE, Afghan 149 

KHAR, Hodgson 188 

KARBO, or KARBOU, Mai. ... 178 

KHARGOSH, Dekh 147 

KHATTAS, Sans 54 

KHOLAH, Mahr 31 


KHURREE, Mahr 152 

KIANG, Tibet 191 

KIDANG, Jav. 189 

KIJANG, Mai. 189 

KIODOTE, French 29 

KIRBA, Canar 71 

KIRIVOULA, Ceylonese 40 

KLAWAH, Mai 38 

KLUANG, or Kaluwang, Su- 
mat 27 

Kon-i-DooMBA, Afghan. ... 175 

KOKREE, Mahr 85 

KOLAH, Dekh 81 

KOLLUSRA, Dekh 73 

KOLLUSSA, Dekh 73 


KOLSUN, Mahr. 73 

KONK, Canar 85 

KOSEAH, Sirmoor 98 

KOOSHGAR, North. Ind 176 

KOSSIAH, Sirm 98 

KOWLI MAH, Mahr 196 

KRA, Mai 17 

KRAS, Kashmir 170 

KUBUNG, Sumat 26 

KUDA-AYER, Mai 193 

KUDU, the 170 

KUKANG, Mai 22 

KUSOLEE MANJUR, Mahr.... 196 

KUTT-KIRBA, Canar 71 

KUWUK, Jav 48 

KYANG, Tibet 191 

LE CAAMA, Cuvier 169 

LAGHUNA, Hodgson 189 

LA MARTE, Buffon 101 

LANDGAH, Dekh 82 



LANGOOR, or Lungoor, HimaL p. 6 

LARY, Sumat 151 

I/DAMUO, Tibet 171 

LE GRIVET, Cuvier 16 

LEMUR, Red, Pennant 22 

Slow-paced, Bennett... 22 



LOKRIAH, the, Gray 153 

LOMRI, Dekh. ... 85 

LOOMREE, Hutton , 85 

LORIS, Buffon 26 

LOTONG, Sumatr 9 

LOWO-ASSU (or Dog-Bat), Jav. 29 

AWOO, Jav 36 

CHTJRUT, Jav 42 

KEMBANG, Jav 40 

LESSER, Jav 39 

MANIR, Jav 39 

LTJTUNG, Jav 9, 10 

LUWAK, Jav 62 

MACAC, Common, the 17 

MACHABBA, Hodgson 69 




MADOGUA, the 167 

MAIMON, Buffon 20 

MAKUR, Mahr 4 

MALLA, Canar 147 

MALWA, Hodgson 69 


NEMS, Buffon 90 

MANIS, Broad- tailed 196 

MARKHORE (the Snake-eater), 

Afghan 171 

MARKHUR, id. id. .... 171 


Desmar 98 

MARTEN, Pine, Pennant 101 

MAUCACO, Flying, Pennant . 26 

MELTADA, Wuddur 144 

MOLE, Hodgson 129 

MONKEY, Tiger, McLeod ... 95 

MOONDING, Sund 178 

MOONGUS, the 90 

MOOSH-KHOORMA, Afghan... 92 
MOUSE, Field ( Jhenkoo Indur) 150 

MOUSE, House, Hodgson... p. 143 

MRIGA, Sans 167 



MUNTJAK, Sund 189 

MURMI, the, Hodgson 49 

MUSANG, Sumat 62 

BULAN, Mai 62 

JEBAT, Mai 57 

MUSK, Indian 178 

MUSKS, the 177 


MYOUK, Burmese 95 

NAHOOR, Hodgson 176 

NAKULA, Sans 92 

NARI, Canar 81 

NARWHAL, Unicorn, Shaw... 139 

NEEOOL, Sans 92 

NIRNAI (or Water-Dog), 

Canar. 115 

NOMRI, Dekh 85 

NYENTEK, Jav 106 

N YLGHAU, Persian 170 

NYUL, Nep 102 

NYULA, the Highland, Gray. 92 

OA, Tibet 126 


OOD, Mahr 61 

ORAL, Tickell 159 

ORYX, the 168 

PANDA, Cuvier 126 

PANDI KOKU, Tel 140 

PANGOLIN-SISIK, Sumat . ... 197 
PANIKUTTA (or Water-Dog), 

Dekh 115 

PANTHER, the 46 

PARA, Hodgson 189 

PARIAH DOG, Dekh. 84 

PAUNG, Burm 182 

PEESOREH, Mahr 178 

P'HANJ, Burm 182 


PINE MARTEN, Pennant 101 

PISURI, Mahr 178 

POLECAT, Black-faced, Hodg- 
son 105 

PUTTITE WAGH (or Striped 

Tiger), Mahr 43 



QUAO, Ramghur Hills p. 74 

QUIHOE. Johnson 74 

QYO, id 74 

Quo, id 74 

RAGOA, Tibet 169 

RASS, Kirgizz 176 

RASSE, Jav 59 

RASS or ROOSH, Blyth 176 

RASSOO, Mongh 157 

RAT, Antelope 150 

Bandicote, Pennant ... 140 

House 142, 143 

Palmiste, Brisson 152 

Tree, Carey 141 

RATEL, the 120 

RATUFAR, Mongh 157 

RATWA, Ind. Contin 190 

RED LEMUR, Bennett 22 

REECHH, Hind 125 

RHESUS, Audeb 20 

RHINOCEROS, African 196 

Single-horned 195 

RIB-FACED DEER, Pennant... 190 
RIKSHA, or BHALLU, Sans.... 125 


or HARIMAU, Sumat.... 43 

RINCH, Dekh 125 

ROBUR, Candahar 86 

ROOEE, Mahr 170 


RUHI, Mahr 170 

RUSA ETAM, Sumat 187 

RUSA KUMBANG, Sumat. ... 187 

SAKEEX, Himal 171 

SAKNAM, Tibet 126 

SALADANG, Sumat 193 

SAMBARA, Sans 187 

SAMBOO DEER, Bennett 187 

SAMBUR, Mahr 187 

SAND BEAR, Bewick 114 

PIG 114 

SANO BANEL, Hodgson 194 

SAYAL, Mahr 146 

SAYER, Hodgson 58 

SCHAKALL, Gmelins Reise ... 81 

SEEK A, Assamese 134 

SENBOR, vel Phain, Hodgson 182 
SENG-GUNG, or Siegung, 
Sund. . .109 

SERO, Sund p. 118 

SHA, the, Tibet 175 

SHAWL GOAT, English 172 

SHEEP, Domestic, of Nep. ... 175 

of Tibet 175 

Wild Siberian, the ... 176 

SHEKRA, Mahr 157 

SHEKROO, Mahr 157 


SHIGHAL, Dekh 81 

SHDRMUNDI BILLI, Hind. ... 23 

SIAMANG, Sumat 1 

SIKEEN, Himal 171 

SIMPAI, Sumat 12 

SIMDNG, Sumat 117 


Shaw 195 

SINSRING, Jav 131 

SJECHAAL, Pers., Kaempfer... 81 

SKEEN, Himal 171 

SKIN, Tibet 171 

SKYN, Himal 171 


22, 23 

SNA, Tibet 176, 177 

SOORA-GOY, Tibet 184 

SQUIRREL, Bombay, Pennant 156 

Black, Pennant 154 

Grey-thighed, the, Gray 153 

Javan, the, Pennant ... 155 

Long- tailed, Pennant 158 

Plantain, Pennant 151 

Slender, the, Gray 153 

SRIGALA, Sans 81 

STOAT, and Ermine, Pennant 104 

STRIPED HY^NA, the 71 

SUGORIA, Hodgson 189 

SUNGNAI, McClelland 187 

SUNGRAEE, McClelland 187 

SUR, Dekh 193 

SUSSUH, and SASSA, Mahr.... 147 

TAGUAN, Buffon 159 

Black-eared, Gray 162 

Bright bay, id 162 

Grey- cheeked, id 162 

headed, id 161 

Golden-streaked, id. ... 160 





TANGILING, Jav p. 197 

TAPIR, Malayan, the 193 

TARAS, Dekh 71 

TARSIER, Buffon 25 

TEHR, Nep 170 

TELAGO, Mai 109 

TELEGGO (or Stinkard), Sumat. 109 

TELEDOO, Jav 109 

TENNU, Malacca 193 

THAR, Nep 168 

THER, Nep 170 

THONGWAH, Tibet 126 

TH6-KYE, Tibet. .... 126 

THUR, Siamese 165 




KO-OS, Sund 62 

TOLA, Canar 82 

TOOTORAL.E, Kumaon 98 

TREE RAT, the, Carey ...... 141 

TUKANG, Jav 22 

TUPAI-PRESS, Sumat 131 

TURRUS, Mahr 71 

UNGKA ETAM, Sumat 3 

PUTI, Sumat 3 


UNTURUNG, Mai p. 95 

URNEE, Seng 179 

URSI-SPEC, Duvaucel 114 

URTONKA, Tibet 126 

URVA, Nep 93 

WAANUR, Mahr 18 

WAH, Tibet 126 

WA HAG, Elliot 43 

WANDEROO, Buffon 22 

WARAK, Jav 195 

WARGUL, Jav 118 

WEASEL, White-cheeked, 

Pennant 98 



Pennant 98 


Martin 10 

WILD BOAR, the Indian 193 

DOG of Sumatra 80 

DOG, or Dhole, Wil- 
liamson 73 

WILDE HOND, Belg 80 


YAK, or Chouri-Gau, Hodg- 
son 184 

ZIBET, Shaw 54 


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