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Full text of "Catalogue of the marine mollusks of Japan, with descriptions of new species and notes on others collected by Frederick Stearns"






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CATALOGUE 



OF THE 



Marine Mollusks of Japan 



WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES IfcSS^ °^ ^-Sbsi^ 
AND NOTES ON OTHERS ^ ^tOty 



COLLECTED BY 

FREDERICK STEARNS 



BY 

HENRY A. PILSBRY 

Conservator Conchological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 



DETROIT 

PUBLISHED BY FREDERICK STEARNS 
1895 



^^A^THsoJvi3;^ 

MAY 3 1988 



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PREFACE. 



nrmS catalogue grew from the research incidental to the identifi- 
* cation of the mollusca procured by Mr. Frederick Stearns dur- 
ing two visits to Japan. A portion of the collection made in 1889- 
'90 having been submitted to the writer for identification, it was 
found to contain a number of new and interesting species, some of 
which were described and figured in the Proceedings of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 189 J, and in the The Nauti- 
lus. A catalogue ot this collection (pp. 20, 1 plate) was prepared 
by Mr. Stearns, and widely circulated among naturalists. 

A much more extensive collection was secured by Mr. Stearns 
upon bis second visit to Japan, and it was found necessary to review 
so considerable an amount of conchological literature in its identifi- 
cation, that it seemed desirable to collate the references to Japanese 
mollusks subsequent to the date of Dunker's excellent work, Index 
Molluscomm maris Japonici, as well as those not contained in that 
catalogue, and, together with descriptions and figures of the new 
forms discovered by Mr. Stearns, to publish a new catalogue of 
Japanese marine mollusca. The present volume contains about 500 
species more than Dunker's Index, although a considerable number 
of forms enumerated by him are herein considered synonyms or are 
rejected from the Japanese list. 40 species and 8 varieties believed 
to be new are described, including some of which diagnoses have 
already appeared in the Nautilus, and the species of certain families, 
such as Patellidce, Fissureltidce, etc., are somewhat critically revised. 
In the families Rissoidce, Eulimidce and Pyramidellidic a con- 
siderable number of forms collected by Mr. Stearns remain un- 
identified. Although some of them are doubtless new, the literature 
of these groups has been so overloaded with Arthur Adams' des- 
criptions which do not describe, that intelligent work upon the 
Japanese forms is impossible. The literature of descriptive zoology 
furnishes but few instances of work more superficial and worthless 
than that of this industrious dilettante. 

(iii) 



.y.^)U\'\.. .M'.a. 



IV PREFACE. 

The work consists of three portions : a list of marine mollusks 
which have been stated to inhabit Japan from Yezzo to Kiushiu, 
with references to description or figures of most species, and enumer- 
ation of the special localities at which each species has been found 
by previous naturalists or by Mr. Stearns. This is followed by a 
catalogue of the Inland mollusks taken by Mr. Stearns in Japan ; 
and finally a list of mollusks of the Loo Choo group procured by 
Mr. Stearns is given. 

I have identified the specimens collected in Japan ; those from 
the Loo Choo Islands were identified partly by Mr. Stearns, partly 
by myself (see p. 160). 

Recent investigations have added no very important facts to 
the general conclusions of Lischke regarding the status of the 
Japanese mollusk fauna in comparison with the Indo-Pacific faunas. 
The percentage of species peculiar to Japan has been considerably 
increased, however, and probably will be further augmented ; 
although no doubt recent political events have added a considerable 
number of tropical species to what must hereafter be considered 
Japanese seas. 

The classification used in the following pages while not entirely 
that of any one of the manuals, it is hoped will be found convenient 
for reference. The current generic nomenclature has been revised 
in certain cases; and for perhaps the first time in the century, cer- 
tain Linnrean names, such as Lijua lima and Delphinula delphiimla 
have been restored to their rightful places. 

It may be noticed that some new specific names employed here- 
in resemble the names of certain localities or islands of the Japanese 
Empire; but we must here explicitly declare that between such 
specific and geographic names no necessary connection exists ; and 
the former, except where the contrary is stated, should be taken as 
mere arbitrary or meaningless words. They will, therefore, not be 
subject to change on account of modifications in the current mode 
of transliteration from Japanese to the Roman character, nor from 
other causes. 

Philadelphia, August, 1895. H. A. P. 



INTRODUCTION. 



DURING 1889-'90, the publisher of this Catalogue spent nearly 
a year in Japan, and some weeks in China. The journey was 
in quest of health and the pleasure of travel. Much time was de- 
voted to making a typical collection of Japanese art work of many 
kinds. I had been, for some years before visiting Japan, much 
interested in its history, political evolution, and in the marvellous 
delicacy of many of its art products, and had studied and collected 
the latter with interest. 

The result was a collection of over fifteen thousand objects in 
metal, lacquer, pottery, bronzes, fabrics, etc. This collection has 
been catalogued, mounted and presented to the Detroit Museum of 
Art. 

Being also interested in natural history, I attempted to make a 
collection of the mollusks of the country, commencing first with 
such species as I found in the markets of Tokyo and Yokohama, 
and finally employing an intelligent Japanese fisherman — Morita 
geto— who traversed the entire east coast from Tokyo, along Sagama 
and Saruga and the coasts of the Provinces Kii, Awa and Toza, 
along the north shore of the Inland Sea as far as Bingo, and, by aid 
of the fisherfolk, obtained nearly a thousand forms of marine life. 

An account by ]\Ir. J. E. Ives of the Echinoderms, Crustacea 
and Pycnogonida collected, will be found in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia for 1891, p. 210, plates YII-XII ; and some of the 
Mollusks are described and illustrated by Mr. Pilsbry in the same 
volume, pp. 165, 471, plates IV, XVII, XVIII, XIX. 

The Japanese fishermen, by the use of drag and dredge-nets, 
gather not only fish, but largely mollusks, working in water some- 
times as deep as thirty fathoms. 

The region visited lies between 83° and 36° north latitude, 
and 132° and 141° east longitude, on the east coast of the Japanese 
Islands. Here the Kuro-Shiwo or "Pacific Gulf Stream" flows 
north-easterly, and the presence of this warm current accounts, possi- 
bly, for the occasional finding of strictly tropical species. 

(V) 



VI INTRODUCTION. . 

In December, 1891, I set out upon a winding journey around 
the world, first spending the winter on the Hawaiian Islands, where 
I made some collections of shells, thence proceeded to Japan, where 
the following summer was passed. Here I traveled more exten- 
sively than during my former visit, the itinerary covering almost 
the entire length of the Empire, from the Province of Satsuma in 
the south, to Sapporo, the capital of the Island of Yezzo, in the 
north. 

Profiting by the experience of my first visit, I availed myself of 
the assistance of coast-fishermen in collecting the rarer forms of 
mollusks, and, while the territory covered does not greatly exceed 
that of the earlier visit, much new material was obtained. 

My Japanese collector, Morita Seto, spent a year — 1891-2 — in 
the Loo Choo Islands, collecting shells. But, as the fauna of that 
Archipelago is more closely allied to that of the Indo-Pacific region 
than the fauna of the Japanese waters, the results of the expedition 
were not so valuable as anticipated. 

In conclusion it should be stated that I have spent an active 
business life as a manufacturing pharmacist, until circumstances 
permitted me within recent years to retire from active work in that 
profession, and devote ray advanced years to travel, and to at least 
a superficial study of natural history ; and hence I beg to be con- 
sidered only as an amateur in conchology, and the public will 
understand that whatever of scientific merit this volume possesses, 
is due to ray friend and editor Prof H. A. Pilsbry. 

Note: — Very many of the species enumerated in this Cata- 
logue, to which my name is attached as collector, may be had in 
exchange by conchologists and collectors. Upon application, 
printed lists of such duplicates will be forwarded. Many species of 
which but few specimens were obtained upon my first visit, were 
found more abundantly on the second. 

Frederick Stearns, 

Detroit, Michigan, 
U. S. A. 



List of Abbreviations Used for the Prin- 
cipal Authorities Cited. 



I. AVORKS ON THE FaUNA OF JaPAN AND NoRTH-EAST AsiA. 

Mai Ross. Beitrage zu einer Malacozoologia Rossica, von Dr. 
A. Th. von Middendorff. St. Petersburg, 1847. 

Sib. Eeise. Dr. A. Th. von MiddendorfF's Reise in den Ausser- 
sten Norden und Osten Siberiens. II, Zoologie, Mollusken, bearbei- 
tet von A. Th. von Middendorff. St. Petersburg, 1851. 

Amurl. Moll. Reisen und Forschungen im Amur-Lande, in den 
Jahren 1854-1856, etc., von Dr. Leopold v. Schrenck. II, Mol- 
lusken des Amur-Landes und des Nordjapanischen Meeres. St. 
Petersburg, 1867. 

Moll. Jaj). Mollusca Japonica, a Guilielmo Dunker, Stuttgart, 
1861. 

J. M. C. Japanische Meeres-Conchylien, von Dr. C. E. Lischke, 
I, II, III, Cassel, 1869-1874. 

Faun. Jap. Fauna Molluscorum extramarinorum Japonite, etc., 
von Dr. W. Kobelt. Frankfurt a. M., 1880. 

Index. Index Molluscorum maris Japonici, a Guilielmo Dunker, 
1882. 

II. Monographic and Iconographic Works. 

Man. Conch. Manual of Conchology, by George "W. Tryon, Jr., 
Philadelphia, 1878-1895. First series, Marine Univalves, Vols. I- 
X by Tryon ; X-XVI, by H. A. Pilsbry. Second series, Terrestrial 
Mollusks, Vol. I-IV by Tryon ; V-X by Pilsbry. 

Conch. Cab. Systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet von Martini und 
Chemnitz, Zweite Ausgabe. Later and more useful volumes by 
Philippi, Pfeiffer, Dunker, Roemer, Clessin, von Martens, Kobelt, 
Brot, Weinkauff. 

Abbild. Abbildungen und Beschreibungeu neuer oder wenig 
gekannter Conchylien, von Dr. R. A. Philippi, I, II, III, 1845- 
1851. 

(vii) 



Vlll LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 

Conch. Icon., or C. Icon. Conchologia Iconica, or Illustrations 
of the Shells of Molluscous Animals, by Lovell Reeve, Vols. I- 
XX, 1843-1878 ; later volumes by G. B. Sowerby. 

Thes. Thesaurus Conchyliorum, by G. B. Sowerby, London^ 
1847-1887. 
Nov. Condi., or Novit. Conch. Novitates Conch ologicse. Cassel. 

III. Journals and Proceedings of Societies. 

Am. Journ. Conch. American Journal of Conchology, edited by 
Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., Philadelphia, 1865-1872. 

Aim. Mag. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Lon- 
don. 

Bull. Soc. Zool. Ft. Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France^ 
Paris. 

Jap. Ceph. Japanska Cephalopoder, af A. Appelloff ; in Kongliga 
Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar (new series) XXI, 
No. 13. Stockholm, 1886. 

Journ. de Conch. Journal de Conchyliogie, publie sous la direct- 
ion de H. Crosse et P. Fischer, Paris. 

Nautilus. The Nautilus, a monthly journal devoted to the inter- 
ests of conchologists. Edited by H. A. Pilsbry and C. W. Johnson, 
Philadelphia. 

P. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1830- 
1895. 

IV. Voyages and Miscellaneous. 

Astral. Voyage de D^couvertes de I'Astrolabe, execute par ordre 
du Roi pendant les annees 1826-1829, etc. Zoologie, par MM. 
Quoy et Gaimard, Paris, 1832. 

Chall. Rep. Challenger Reports, Cephalopoda, Vol. XVI, by ^y. 
E. Hoyle ; Gastropoda and Scaphopoda, Vol. XV, by R. Boog 
Watson ; Pelecypoda, Vol. XII, by E. A. Smith. 

U. S. Expl. Exped., or Expl. Exped. United States Exploring 
Expedition, etc. Vol. XII, Mollusca and Shells, by Augustus A. 
Gould. Boston, 1852. 

Otia. Otia Conchologica ; Descriptions of Shells and Mollusks, 
from 1839 to 1862, by Augustus A. Gould, M. D, Boston, 1862. 

Zool. Samarang or Voy. Samarang. The Zoology of the Voyage 
of H. M. S. Samarang, etc. Mollusca by Arthur Adams and Lovell 
Reeve. London, 1848. 



CEPHALOPODA. 

AEGONAUTID^. 

Argonauta argo Linne. 

Several specimens collected by Stearns, Tokyo, etc. 

Argonauta hians Solander (+gondola and owenii Ads. & Rve., Zool. Samarang) 

Both the earless and eared forms collected by Mr. Stearns, Kishu 
coast and Inland Sea. 

Argonauta boettgeri Malzan. J. de Conch., 1881, p. 163, pi. 6, f. 7. 

A single specimen collected by Mr. Stearns agrees well with the 
description and figures of this species, but is slightly less compressed. 
Its habitat has not been known hitherto. 

OCTOPODID.ffi. 

Octopus vulgaris Lam. 

Nagasaki (App.). 
Octopus membranaceus Q. & G. AstroL, pi. 6, f. 5. 

Japan. 

Octopus globosus Appellor. Jap. Ceph,, p. 7, pi. I, f. 4, 5. 

Nagasaki (App.). 

Octopus macropus Risso. Chall. Rep., Vol. Ifi, p. 95. 

Yokohama (Chall.). 

Octopus ouvieri d'Orb. Appellof, JapanskaCeph., pi. 1, f. 6 : Orb., Hiet. Nat. Cejih., 
p. 18, pi. 1, 27. 

Nagasaki (App.) ; compare 0. macropus. 

Octopus ocellatus Gray. Jap. Ceph., p. 8, pi. 1, f. 1-.3. 

Nagasaki (App.). 

Octopus fang-siao d'Orbignj'. Ceph. Acet., p. 70. 

Japan. 

SEPioLiD.a:. 

Inioteuthis morsel Verrill. Jap. Ceph., p. 16, pi. 2, f. 15, 16 : pi. 3, f. 16, 19, 20, 
23. Chall. Rep., p. 112. Pi. XIV, figs. 1-9. 

Kobe and Tokyo Bay, 8-14 fms., mud (Chall.) ; Bay of Yedo 
(Verrill) ; Nagasaki (App.). 
2 



2 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CEPHALOPODA. 

Inioteuthis japonioa Fer. A Orb. Man. Conch., I, p. 157. 

Promaohoteuthis megaptera Hoyle. Chall. Rep., Vol. 16, p, 120, pi. 14, figa. 10- 
14. Wood cut 3. 

S. Enoshiraa, 1875 fath,,blue mud (Challenger). 

SEPIID^. 
Sepia hercules Pilsbry. PI. 1. figs. 1, 2. The Nautilus, YII, p. 144, April 2, 1894.^ 

Shell having the general form of that of S. esculenta Hoyle but 
more convex ventrally ; chitinous margin narrow ; dorsal surface 
tuberculate-rugose as in eseulenia, but more coarsely so, the posterior 
part having the tubercles very deeply separated, flat-topped, and 
leaning backward ; dorsal surface evenly rounded, with no trace of 
a median longitudinal rib. Ventral surface as in esculenta, but the 
striation is much closer although the shell is triple the size. Last loc- 
ulus has an index of 22. Inner cone well developed, its limbs aris- 
ing about one-third the length of the shell from the posterior end, 
gradually rising along the sides, po.steriorly reflexed and appressed 
on the outer cone, leaving below a narrow small cavity. The ante- 
rior edge of the inner cone does not form a shelf across the posterior 
end of the outer cone as is the case in esculenta, and the cavity is 
much smaller, shallower and narrower than in a specimen of esculenta 
155 mill, in length. Spine very stout, conical, its root excavated 
ventrally. Color, white in the middle, faint pink at the sides ; whit- 
ish beneath. 

Length 425 mill. ; greatest breadth 160 mill.; length of spine 19 
mill. 

This species is the giant of the genus,the shell being about 16i inches 
long. It is allied to S. esculenta Hoyle, but differs as above indicated. 
The dorsal slope does not descend abruptly to the spine as in that 
species. Of /S. esculenta a good many specimens are before me col- 
lected by Mr. Stearns. They agree well with the " Challenger " 
specimens. The size of esculenta is moderately constant, shells seen 
by Hoyle, Appelloff and myself being from 155 to 163 mill, long 
(about 6J inches). 

A second specimen from the Luchu Is. exhibits the same char- 
acters throughout. 

Sepia esculenta Hoyle. Hoyle, Challenger Rep., xvi, p. 129, pi. 17, f. 1-5 ; pi. 18, 
f. 1-61. 

Yokohama (Challenger ; Stearns). 

The specimens of the shell agree well with Hoyle's figures. 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CEPHALOPODA. 3 

Sepia andreanoides Hoyle. Hoyle, 1. c, p. 139, pi. 21, f. 11-19. 

Purchased in the market, Yokohama (Challenger) ; Ika Coast 
(Stearns). 

Sepia andreana Steenstrup. Steenstrup, Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., X, No. 7, pi. 1, f. 11- 

19, 1875. 

Japan (Stp.). 
Sepia Q. sp. 

A species of Rochebrune's section Doratosepion, allied to S. an- 
dreana Stp., S. andreanoides Hoyle and S. kohimsis Hoyle, but 
crimson above. Yeda coast (Stearns). 
Sepia peterseni Appellof. Jap. Ceph., p. 23. pi. 2. f. 1-6 ; pi. 3, f. 21. 
Sepia kobiensis Hoyle. Chall. Rep., Vol, 16, p. 142; pi. 18, figs. 7-14. Wood cut 7. 

Kobe Bay, 8 fath., mud. 
Sepia (Metasepia) tullbergi Appellof. Jap. Ceph., p. 26, pi. 2, f. 7-14. 
Nagasaki. 

Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune. Chall. Rep., Vol. 16, p. 149, pi. 22, figs. 1-10. 
Inland Sea, Japan. 

LOLIGINID.ffi:. 

Sepioteuthis lessoniana Fer. Jap. Ceph., p. 31. 

Nagasaki. 
Sepioteuthis sinensis Orbigny. Japan. 
Loligo edulis Hoyle. Chall. Rep., Vol. 16, p. 152, pi. 23. 

Yokohama Market (Challenger). 

Loligo kobiensis Hoyle. Chall. Rep., Vol. 16, p. 154, pi. 25, figs. 1-10. 

Kobe Bay, 8 fath., mud (Challenger). 

Loligo japonica Steenstrup. Chall. Rep., Vol. 16, p. 157 ; pi. 24, fio-s. 7-15. 

Yokohama Market, (Challenger). 

Loligo bleekeri Keferstein. Jap. Ceph., p. 31. jil. 1, f. 7-10. 

Nagasaki. 

Loligo? sumatrensis d'Orbigny. Jap. Ceph., p. 32, pi. 1, f. 11 ; pi. 3, f. 11-15. 

Japan (App.). 
Loligo ? sp. 

Numerous very large "pens" measuring 31 cm. in length, and 
resembling those o^ Loligo were brought by Mr. Stearns from Yoko- 



4 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PTEROPODA. 

OMMASTREPHID^. 
Ommastrephes pacifious Steenstrup. Jaj). Ce])h., p. ."io, pi. 3, f. 8-10. 

Japan (App.). 
Ommastrephes bartramii Lesueur. 

Japan (teste Mitsukuri & Ikeda). Seems a very doubtful identi- 
fication. 

Architeuthis n. ep. ? Mitsukuri & Ikeda. The Zool. Mag., Tokyo, vii, p. 39, pi. 10. 

Bay of Tateyaraa, Prov. Awa, E. side Bay of Tokyo. 

Megateuthus martensii Hilgendorf. Sit/.ungsber. Ges. naturforsch. Fr. Berl., 1880, 
p. (15. 

Yedo (Hilg.). 

Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup. Chall. Rep., Vol. Ifi, p. 163, pi. 28, figs. 1-5. 
Inland Sea. 

TODARID^. 
Gonatus fabricii (Lichtenstein) Steenstrup. Chall. Rep., Vol. 16, p. 174, pi. . 

Japan. 

CRANCHIID.ffi;. 

Loligopsis (?) chrysophalmus Tilesius. Man. Conch., p. 164. 

Japan. 

NAUTILID.ffi:. 

Nautilus pompilius has been rei)orted from Japan by Dunker, 
but its occurrence there is doubtful. 

PTEROPODA. 

As these mollusks are wholly pelagic in habits, the number occur- 
ing in Japanese waters will probably be larger than given below. 
For literature see Pelseneer, Report on Pteropoda coll. by Challen- 
ger. 

PTEROPODA GYMNOSOMATA. 

Several species of Pteropoda gymnosomata have been collected in 
the N. Pacific east of Japan, but we are still ignorant of the species 
which actually occur in Japanese waters. See Challenger Report, 
Vol. XIX, part Iviii, p. 65. 

PTEROPODA THECOSOMATA. 
LIMACINID.a:. 
Limacina inflata d'Orbigny. 
Corea Strait, (St. John). 



JAPAKESL MOLLUSKS, PULMOSATA. O 

Limacina lesueuri d'Orbigny. 

Pacific E. of Japan, 
Limacina bulimoides d'Orb. Same locality. 

••Agadina" stimpsoni A. Ad. (=larval Gastropoda). Chall. Rep. Pter. Thee, p. 
38, pi. 1. f. 11-14. 

Kino Osiraa (Ad.). 

•' Agadina" gouldii A. Ad. 

Kino-Osiraa (Ad.). 

CAVOLIirilD^:. 
Creseis virgula Rang. Bay of Teilo. 
Creseis acicula Rang. China Sea. E. of Japan. 
Hyalocylix striata Rang. China Sea. off E. Japan. 
Styliola subnla Q. A G. Off E. Japan. 
Clio pyramidata Linne. Off E. Japan. 
Clio cuspidata Bosc. Off E. Japan. 
CuTierina columnella Rang. <I)ff E. Japan. 
CaTolinia trispinosa Lesueur. Off Japan. 
Cavolinia quadridentata Lesueur. China Sea, off S.-E. Japan. 
Cavoliuia globulosa Rang. China Sea. 
Cavolinia gibbosa Rang. Same locality. 
Cavolinia tridentata Forskal. Same locality. 
Cavolinia uncinata Rang. Tedo. 
Cavolinia inflexa Lesueur. Corea Strait. Yokohama. 

PULMONATA. 
SIPHONAEIID.E. 
Siphonaria atra Quot i Gaimard. Q. <t G.. Toy de I'Astrol.. pi. 2.3, figs. 41. 42. 
.v. contuta Gld.. T. S. Espl. Exped.. pi. 357. fig. 467. S- coremm Ads. A Rve., 
Zool. Samarang. pi. 13. f. la, \b- 

Tokyo (Dkr.); Nagasaki (Lischke). 

I have seen no Japanese specimens referable to this species. Per- 
haps the forms described by Gould and Adams and Keeve will 
prove distinct from the true S. atra. 
Siphonaria sirins PiL^bry. PL VI. figs. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 2S. 

.Shell oblong, polygonal, low conical with subcentral, erect apex ; 
primary ribs all single, generally 7, strongly elevated and white ; inter- 
spaces wide, dark brown, radially finely ribbed. Interior brown- 



b JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TULMONATA. 

black, the larger ribs indicated by white rays ; siphon occupying a sin- 
gle rib, never a double one. Cavity with a white callus (rarely 
chestnut colored), the region of the muscle impression bordered 
with chestnut stains. Length 22, breadth 1 7-1 9, alt. 5 mm. 

Sagami, and Kashiwazaki, Boshiu, Japan (Frederick Stearns!). 

This species differs from S. atra Q. & G., eoreensis A. & R., and 
their allies in having the siphonal rib single and simple. It is prob- 
ably the species identified as S. atra by Dunker and other writers 
on Japanese shells. Several hundred specimens collected by Mr, 
Stearns agree in the characters above given. Not one shows any 
tendency to double the siphonal rib. 

Siphonaria cochleariformis Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 6, figs. 28 a, b. 

Koshinozaki, Boshiu (Stearns) ; Deshima (Dkr.); Nagasaki 
(Lischke). The specimens agree well with Reeve's figures, except 
that the entire interior is black-brown except for a narrow white 
border closely marked with dark at each rib interval. 

Siphonaria acmaeoides Pilsbry. PI. VI, figs. 19. 20, 21, 22. 

Shell oblong, nearly equilateral, but with excentric apex like S. 
radiata A. & R. (Zool. Samarang, pi. 13, fig. 2). The even surface 
hardly modified by the 9-16 low, wide ribs, between which it is very 
finely radially striated. Siphonal rib wide but low and inconspicu- 
ous. Apex spiral, bent down and appressed. Interior blackish or 
chestnut within the muscle impression, outside of which it is radially 
striped black and white, the siphonal channel extremely shallow 
and inconspicuous. Color outside whitish-buff, speckled and mac- 
ulated with brown, or whitish on the principal ribs, the intervals 
black-brown. Length 121, breadth 9^, alt. 3j mm. 

Prov. Boshiu, Japan (Frederick Stearns). 

This little species very closely resembles Anncea Heroldi in the 
general form and the coloration of the interior. 

OPISTHOBRANCHIATA. 

ACT.ffi;ONID.S;, 

Solidula strigosa Gld. J. M. C, II, pi. .-.. f. 12, 1.^. 

Loo Choo and Kagoshima (Stimp.) ; Nagasaki (Birileff) ; Tokyo 
Harbor (Stearns) ; Gozo Harbor, 6 fms. (St. John). 
Solidula fratercula Dkr. Index, p. Kll, pi. 13. f. 21-28. 

Japan (Dkr.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, OPISTHOBRANCHIATA. 7 

Actffion siebaldi Rve. Man. Conch., XV, p. US, ,,1. 10, f. IS, 19. 

Japan (Siebold). 
Leucotina dianae Ad. Man. Conch., XV, p. 167, pi. IS, f. 68, 6ii. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Leucotina gigantea Dkr. Index, p. 160, pi. 2, f. 8, 9. 

Japan. 

Leucotina sulcata A. Ad. Man. Conch., XV, p. 168. 

Corea Strait, 46 fms. (Ad.). 
Leucotina niphonensis A. Ad. 

16 miles of Mino-Shiraa, off Nippon, Strait of Corea, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Leucotina exarata A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 168. 

Tabu-Shima, 25 fms. (Ad.). 

Leucotina inculpta A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 169. 

St. of Corea, 46 fms. (Ad.). 
Leucotina punctata A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 169. 

Tabu-Shima, 25 fms. (Ad.). 
Leucotina japonica A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 169. 

Strait of Corea, off Nippon (Ad.). 
Leucotina scitula A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 170. 

Off MinoShima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Bullina scabra Gmel. Man. Conch., xv, p, 176, pi. 45, f. 18-22. 
Nemoto, Boshiu (Stearns). 

TORNATINID^. 
Tornatina exilis Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 2.3, pi. 2, f. 14. 

Deshima (Dkr.); Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Tornatina delicatula A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 190. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Tornatina simplex A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 193, pi. 26, f. 51. 

Japan (Ad.). 
Tornatina gracilis A. Ad. Man. Conch,, xv, p. 194, pi. 25, f. 49. 

Japan (A. Ad.). 
Tornatina fusiformis A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 194, pi, 22, f. 27. 

Japan (A. Ad.). 
Retusa succincta A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 222. 

Tsu-Shima, 16 fms. ; Awa-Shima, low water (Ad.). 



8 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, OPISTHOBRANCHIATA, 

Retusa (Pyrunculus) foUiculus A, Ad. Man. Conch., xv. p. 270. 

Tal)u-Sl)itna, 25 fm>». (Ad.). 
Retusa (Pyrunculus) phiala A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 2M). 

Mino-Shiraa, 63 fnis. (Ad.). 
Retusa (Pyrunculus) elliptica Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 2.'il. 

Tsu-Sliinia, 16 fms. (A. Ad.). 
Volvula opalina, cylindrella, ovulina, A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 2;i!t, 240. 

Mino-Shinia, G3 fms. (Ad.). 
Volvula spectabilis and radiola A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 240. 

Tabu-Shinia, 25 fms. (A. Ad.). 
Volvula attenuata A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 240. 

Tsu-Shima, 26 fms. (A. Ad.). 
Volvula angustata A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 240. 

Eiidermo Harbor, 4-7 fms. (St. John). 

8CAPHANDRID.ffi:. 

Scaphander japonicus, cumingii, elongatus, A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 254. 
Mino-Sliima, 63 fms. (A. Ad.). 

Scaphander sulcatinus A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 254. 
Corea Strait, 46 fms. (Ad.). 

Scaphander sieboldi, dilatatus A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 255. 

Tsu-Shima, Japan, 26 fms. (Ad.). 

The unfigured Scaphanders described from Japan by Adams may, 
some of them, prove to be Philines. 

Smaragdinella sieboldi A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 260. 
Takano-Shima, between tide marks (Ad.). 

Atys naucum Linne. Man. Conch., xv, p. 20:5, pi. 28, f. 11-13, 16. 

Deshima (Dkr.). 

Atys scrobiculata A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, ]>. 205. 

Tabu-Shima, 25 fms. (Ad.). 

Atys (Alicula) porcellana Gld. Man. Conch., xv, p. 20S, pi. 2S. f. 2.'!; Ann. Mag., 
1S75, xvi, J). 114. 

Kagoshima Bay (Stimp.), Matoza Harbor (St. John). 

Atys (Alicula) secalina and volvulina A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 209, 270. 
Tsu-Shima, Japan, 25 fms. (Ad.). 



JAPANESE MOLLU8KS, OPI8THOBRANCHI ATA. y 

Atys (Roxania) punctulata A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 279. 

Mino-Shlma 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Cylichna semisulcata Dunker. Index, p. Ifi-"., ])I. l.'i, f. 7-9. 

Japan. 
Cyliclina japonica and rimata A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 304, ?A)j. 

Corea Strait, 46 fms. (Ad.). 

Cylichna proxima, lepidula, parallela, pumila, candidula A. Ad. Man. Conch., 
XV. pp. -.wi-Mn. 

Tsu-Shima, 26 fins. (Ad.). 

Cylichna venustula, oonsobrina. assimilis. inedita A. Ad. M.in. Conch., xv, pp. 
3()4-M()7. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Cylichna latiuscula A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 305. 

Tabu-Shi ma, 25 fms. (Ad.). 
Cylichna pertenuis Smith. Man. Conch., xv, p. 307. 

N. lat. 42° 52', E. long. 144° 40', 48 fms. (St. John). 
Cylichna laeta Gld. Man. Conch., xv, p. 308. 

Kagoshima (Stimp.). 
Cylichna consobrina Gld. Man. Conch., xv, p. 308. 

W. coast of Yesso. 
Cylichna concinna A. Ad. Thes., p. 593. jil. 125, f. 142. 

Matoza Harbor, 6 fms. (St. John). 

PHILINID.ffi;. 

Philina scalpta A. Adams. Lischke. J. M. C, III, p. 76, pi. 5, f. 15, Ifi. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; T.su Shiraa (Ad.). 

Philine japonica Lischke. J. M. C, III, p. 77, pi. 5, f. 13, 14 (P. striatella Tap.- 
Can., Viag. Magenta, pi. 2, f. 9). 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) Yokohama (Tap.-Can.). Specimens col- 
lected by Stearns show japonica and striatella to be identical. 
Philine crenata and striolata A. Ad. .\nn. Mag., 1862, ix, p. 160, 161. 

Tsushima (Ad.). 
Philine argentata Gld. Otia Conch., p. 111. 

Hakodate Bay (Stimpson), 2-6 fath., sandy mud. 
Philine (Laona) zonata A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1865, p. 324. 

OShima; Yobuko (Ad.). 



10 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, OPISTHOBRANCHIATA, 

BULLID^. 
Bulla (vernicosa var. ?) ovulum (Gkl.) Sowb. Man. Conch., xv. p. .U!). 
Boshiii ; Luchu Is. (Stearns). 

AKEHIDJE. 

Haminea angusta GId. ^[aii. Conch., xv, p. .361. 

Simoda (Stiiup.). 
Haminea strigosa A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 362. 

Tiibu-Shima, 25 fms. (Ad.). 
Haminea grisea Smith. Man. Conch., xv, p. 362. 

Off Japan. Lat. 42° 52' N. ; Long. 144° 40' E. ; 4S Mh. ; sand 
and mud (St. John). 

Haminea cymbalum Q. & G. Lischke, J. M. C, p. 105. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Haminea constricta A. Ad. Man. Conch., xv, p. 370. 

Japan (Schrenck). 

HYDATINID.ffi:. 
Hydatina physis Linne. Man. Conch., xv, p. 387, pi. 45, f. 14-17. 

Yedo (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 
Hydatina albocincta Iloeven. Man. Conch., xv, p. 388, pi. 45, f. 29. 30. 

Nagasaki (Birileff). 
Hydatina inflata Bunker. Index, p. 162, pi. 2, f. 14-16. 

Inland Sea at Wakayama. 

RINGICULID.!:. 
Ringicula doliaris Gld. Man. Conch., xv, p. 403. 

Hakodate Bay (Stinip.). ; Kamakura (Stearns). 

Ringicula arctata Gld. Man. Conch., xv, p. 403, pi. 47, f. 74, 75, 79. 

Nagasaki (Birileff); Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 
Ringicula oelertiana Morlet. Journ. de Conchyl., 1880, p. 156, pi. 5, f. 4. 
Japan (St. John). 

APLYSIID.ffi. 

Aplysia marginata and marmorea A. Ad. Ann. Mag., isfil. ]). I4(i. 

Port Hamilton (Ad.). Will probably occur in Japan. 
Dolabella scapula Mart. Dkr., Index, p. 168. 

Wakayatna (Dkr.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TEREBEID^. 11 

Phyllaplysia panctulata Taj)j)erone-Canefri. Viag. ^Magenta, ji. 112. pi. 2, f. ^. 

Yokohama. 

UMBRELLID.E. 

Umbrella indica Linne. Dkr., Index, ji. 169. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Bertinia bertinia Jouss. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., 1883, p. Iii4. pi. 10, figs. 6, 8. 
Japau. 

[NUDIBRANCHIATA omitted]. 

PROSOBRANCHIATA. 

( Toxoglossa). 

TEREBBID^. 
Terebra albozonata Smith. Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 185, pi. 19, f. .5. 

Matoza Harbor (Smith) ; N. of Kiushiu (St. John). 
Terebra adamsii Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 415. 

Matoza Harbor, 6 fathoms. 
Terebra (Myurella) bathyrhaphe Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 416: Challenger 

Gastrop., 187.V6, XV, p. 377, pi. XIV, fig. 9. 

Gulf of Yedo 6 to 25 fathoms, soft mud and sand. 

Terebra bifrons Hinds. Thes. Conch. I. p. 174, pi. 43, f. 57 (a small or young speci- 
men. 

S.-E. coast Prov. Kii (Stearns). 
Terebra bipartita Gld. Otia Conch., p. 126. 

Hakodate Bay (Stimpson). 
Terebra duplicata Linne. Conch. Icon., f. 3. 

Inland Sea (Stearns). 

Terebra cingulifera Lam. Southeast coast Kii (Stearns). 
Terebra dussumieri Kiener. Rve., C. Icon., f. 7. 

Kamakura (Stearns, young) ; Nagasaki (Lisehke). 

Terebra evoluta Deshayes. Rve., Conch. Icon., XII, f. 55. Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, 
p. 183. 

Ukushima, Goto Is., Matoza Harbor, (St. John); E. coai«t (Stearns). 
Terebra flammea Lam. Rve., C. Icon., f. 13. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Terebra fulgurata Phil. C. Icon., f. 151. 

Tartary Strait (Schrenck). 



12 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TEREBRID.E. 

Terebra gotoensis E. A. Smith. Smith, P. Z. S., is?'.), |.. is.!, pi. 19, f. 1. 
Goto Is. (St, John), 

Terebra jefFreyii E. A. Smith. Smith, 1. c, p. isi, pi. lit, f. 2. 

East of Kii, and between S.-W. Nippon and Sbikoku (St. John) 

Terebra japonica Smith. Ann. Mag., ]S75, p. 415. 

Matoza Harbor 6 fathoms, sand. 

Terebra lischkeana Dkr. Dkr., Index, ]>. 71, pi. 5, f. 13-16. 
Kamakura ; Idzu (Stearns). 

Terebra loebbeckiana Dkr. Index, p. 72, pi. 5, f. 17, is. 
Inland Sea (Stearns). 

Terebra maculata Linne. Tryon, Man., Vol. VII, p. !). pi. I, figs. 9-10. 
Japan? (Dunker). One specimen found by Stearns. 

Terebra muscaria Lamarek. Man. Vol. VII, p. 9, pi. 1, fig. 12. 

Japan (Dunker, Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke, Tryon), 

Terebra melanacme Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 415. 

CapeShima 18 fathoms, sand. 
Terebra pretiosa Rve. C. Icon., f. 30a. 

Japan (Dkr.)- 

Terebra pustulosa Smith. Smith, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 186. T. granulosa Smith, Ann. 
Mag., 1873, XI, p. 268. 

Japan (A. Ad.). 

Terebra (Myurella) polygyrata Deshayes. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 415. Conch. 
Icon., XII, sp. 146. 

Goza Harbor (St. John); Kamukura; Idzu; Kishiu ; Tokyo 
Harbor (Stearns). 

Terebra serotina Ads. A Rve. Ads. & Rve., Zool. Samarang, p. 3.0, pi. 10, f. 20. 

Nagasaki (Ad.) ; Kishiu, Idzu (Stearns). In my opinion the T. 
mariesi Smith, P. Z. S., 1880, pi. 48, f. 5, is a synonym. 

Terebra stearnsii Pilsbry. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1891, p. 472, j)!. 19, f. 5. 

Japan (Stearns). 

Terebra strigillata Linn. Sowb., Thes. I, pi. 45, f. 122. 

Neraoto, Boshiu, and Kamakura (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Terebra subtextilis E. A. Smith. Sm., P. Z. S., 1879. p. 1S5, jd. 19, f. 3. 
Idzu and Kishiu (Stearns) ; Sbikoku (St. John). 



JAPANESE M0LLUSK8, CONID.E. 13 

Terebra subulata Linn. Nagasaki (Lischke) : Japan (Stearns). 

Terebra tantilla E. A. Smith. Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 185, pi. 19, f. 4. (-|-T. pum- 
ilio Sm., Ann. Mag. 1873. xi, p. 269). 

Between Nippon and Shikoku (St. John). 

Terebra textilis Hinds. Hinds, Voy. Sulphur, p. 84; Rve., Conch. Icon., f. 130. 

E. coast of Kii (St. John) ; Southern Japan. 

Terebra torquata Adams & Reeve. Voy. Samarang, p. 30, pi. 10, f. 13. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; E. of Goto Is. (St. John) ; Japan (Stearns). 
Terebra triseriata Gray. Dkr., Index, p. 72, pi. 5, f. 19, 20. 

Inland Sea (Stearns), Specimen a third larger than that figured 
by Dunker. 

Several other Terebras have been reported from Japan, but not 
confirmed by recent collections. T. blanda Dh.(C. Icon., sp. 117) ; 
T. dillwyni Dh. (1. c, sp. 74) ; T. tristis Dh. (1. c, sp. 102) ; T. solida 
Dh. (1. c, sp. 123). 

CONIDiE. 

Conus acutangulus Chemnitz. Conchyl. Cab., p. 105, Taf. 14. figs. 9. 10. 

Japan (Kiener). 
Conus aureus Hwass. Japan (Stearns). 

Conus carinatus Swains. Japan (Stearns). ' 

Conus catus Brug. Japan (Stearns). 
Conus fulgetrum Sowerby. Conchyl. Cab., p. 199, Taf. 31, figs. 6-7. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Conus fulmen Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 215. 

Nagasaki (Lischke ; Rein) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 

Conus hebraeus Linn. Japan (A. Ad. ; Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Conus intermedius Reeve. C. Icon., I, f. 129. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Conus lentiginosus Reeve. 

Two Japanese specimens collected by Stearns seem in every way 
typical. Reeve's figure is from a small example. 

Conus lischkeanus AVeinkauff. Conchyl. Cab., p. 311. Taf. 56. figs. 2, 3. 

Kiushiu (Lischke). 



14 JAPANESE MOLLUSK8, CONID^. 

Conus marmoreus Linn. Nagasaki (Lischke) : Japan (Stearns). 

Conus miles Linn. Tsushima (Stearns). 

Conus miliaris Hwass. Japan (Stearns). 

Conus orbignyi Audouin. Rve., C. Icon.. I, sp. 17 (C. planicostatus Sowb.). 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Conus pauperculus Sowb. Dkr.. Index, p. '.M, jil. 2, figs. 4, 5. 

Ja])an (Dkr., Stearns). 
Conus pulioarius Hwass. 

Yokohama (Dkr.) ; Japan (Stearns) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Conns quercinus Hwass. Japan (Stearns). 
Conus sieboldi Reeve. C. Icon., I, f. 269. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Conus tessellatus Born. C. Icon., f. 163. 
Japan (Dkr.). 

Conus textile Linnc'. Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Conus tulipa Linn. Japan (Stearns). 
Conus vexillum Gmel. Japan (Stearns). 

l^Conus nebulosus Sol. One specimen of the form with spire flat 
except for a conical elevated mucro, was obtained by Mr. Stearns in 
Japan ; but is probably to be regarded as an adventitious shell not 
belonging to that fauna]. 

PLEUROTOMIDJE. 

Pleurotoma crispa Lamarck. Ooshima Harbor 8 fathoms (St. John). 
Pleurotoma grandis Gray. Conch. Icon., fig. 13. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Pleurotoma yedoensis Jouss. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., 1883, p. 196, pi. 10, fig. 7. 

Japan. Is it a synonym of P. grandis f 

Pleurotoma marmorata Lam. C. Icon., f. 139 (P. hastula Rve.). Kiener, Coq. 
Viv., pi. 6, f. 11. Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, \>. 186. 

Japan (Dkr.) ; betw. Nippon and Shikoku, 30 fms. (St. John). 

Pleurotoma variegata Kiener. Coq. Yiv., pi. 9, f. 1. Man. Conch., p. 164, pi. 2, 
f. 13. 



Nagasaki (Lischke). 

eurotoma picturata ^ 

Rve. not Kiener). 

Japan (Lischke). 



Pleurotoma picturata Weinkauff. Conchyl. Cab., p. 66, pi. 14, f. 13. (P. variegata 
Rve. not Kiener). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PLEUROTOMID.E. 15 

Pleurotoma unedo Valenciennes. Conchyl. Cab., p. 19, pi. 4, fig. 1. 

Nagasaki, Yedo Bay (Lischke) ; Miura, Sagami (Stearns). 

Pleurotoma cingulifera Lam. Inland Sea (Stearns). 

Pleurotoma indica Desh. E. Coast, S. of Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

Pleurotoma tuberoulata Gray. Conchyl. Cab., ]>. 40, pi. fig. 1, ?,. Man. Conch., 
vi, p. 2.'17, pi. 5, f. (■)(), (i7, C. Icon., f. 72. 

Bay of Yedo (Dkr.). 

Pleurotoma leucotropis Adams and Reeve. A. &, R., Zool. Samarang, pi. ](), f. 7. 

Sagami, Tokyo (Stearns) ; Matoza and Ooshima Harbors, 6 to 8 
fathoms, sandy mud (St. John). 

I suppose this is what Dunker (Index, p. 21) calls P.cdbicariaata 
Sowb. (see P. Z. S., 1870). 

Pleurotoma declivis Martens. Conehol. Mittheil., p. .39, pi. 9, f. 2. 

Japan, Hakodate (Hilgendorf). 

Pleurotoma patruelis Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 188, pi. 19, f. 10, 10a. Ann. .Mag. 
1S75, p. 419. 

Gulf of Yedo, 10^ fms. (St. John) ; Japan Sea, lat 34° 6' N., long. 
136° 15' E., 11 fms. (St. John). 
Pleurotoma sancti-ioannis Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), xv, p. 416. 

One hundred miles southeast of Yesso, 48 fms. (St. John). 
Pleurotoma triporcata Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 188, pi. 19, f. 9. 

Goto Is. (St. John). 
Pleurotoma difficilis Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 187, pi. 19, f. 8. 

Between S.-W. extremity Nippon and I. Shikoku, north of Kiu- 
shiu (St. John). 

Pleurotoma vertebrata Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 416, P. Z. S.. 1879, p. 186, pi. 
19, f. 6a. 

Matoza Harbor, 6 fathoms, sand (St. John), and same localities as 
last species. 
Pleurotoma tuberosa Smith. Ann. Mag., N. H., (4), xv, p. 418. 

Ooshima Harbor, 8 fms. ; Matoza Harbor, 6 fms. ; Goza Harbor, 
6 fms. (St. John). 
Pleurotoma niponica Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 187, pi. 19, f. 7. 

Between S.-W. extremity Nippon and I. Shikoku (St. John). 

Pleurotoma (Gemmula) fusca Homb. & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, Zool., v, p. Ill, 
pi. 2.), f. 19, 20 : Man. Conch., p. 17;^. 

Goto Is., between S.-W. extremity Nippon and I. Shikoku, 30 fms. 
(St. John). Tryon believes the Japanese specimens referable to 
gemmata Hinds. 



16 JAPANESE MOLLUSK8, PLEUROTOMID^. 

Pleurotoma? kamakurana n. sp. PI. 2, fig. 15, 16. 

Shell fusiform, much elongated, the canal nearly as long as the 
spire ; dull brown, with an ill-defined light band around the middle ; 
spire attenuated, the whorls very convex, almost angular, concave 
above and nearly smooth, appressed at the suture. Sculptured with 
numerous short vertical folds which do not extend on the body 
whorl below the level of the upper angle of mouth, and become 
obsolete on its latter half; and numerous subequal, crowded spiral 
cords throughout. Aperture nearly half the length of shell, long- 
elliptical above, passing into a long, open, straight canal below. 
Anal sinus wide and rather shallow ; outer lip gently arched for- 
ward. Alt. 53, diam. 15 mill. 

Kamakura (Stearns, 2 specimens). 
Genotia Luhdorfi Lischke. J. M. C, III, pi. 1, i\ 2-4. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Nemoto, Boshiu (Stearns). 

Genotia engonia Watson. Challenger, Gastroji., 1873-(i, XV, p. liflO, pi. xx, fig. 7. 

Enoshiiua, 345 fathoms, green mud. 

Columbarium pagoda Lesson. Man. Conch., vi, p. 175. Dkr., Index, pi. 1, f. 8, 

9, 10. 

Japan. 
Drillia candens Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 192, pi. 19, f. 17. 

Goto Is. (St. John). 
Drillia chocolata Smith. Ann. Mag. N. 11. (4), xv, p. 417. 

Goza Harbor, 6 fms. (St. John). 
Drillia consimilis Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 188, pi. 19, f. 11. 
South of Korea, 24 fms. (St. John). 

Drillia erosa Sehrenck. Amurl. Moll., p. 405, pi. 17, f. 5-7. 

Bay of Castries (Sehrenck) ; Nemoro, E. Yesso ; off Cape Blunt; 
Yaraada Harbor ; E. of Yesso ; 3-35 fms. (St. John). 

Drillia flavidula Lamarck. Conchyl.-Cab., p. 45, pi. 10, fig. 1 to 5. Ann. Mag., 

1875, p. 417. 

North of Nippon in 43 fathoms, sand and mud ; W. of Nippon, 
3 fathoms soft mud ; Goza Harbor, 6 fath. (St. John) ; Nagasaki 
(Lischke). 
Drillia flavonodulosa Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 194, i)l. 19, f. 21. 

Inland Sea, between Shikoku and Nippon (St. John). 
Drillia fortilirata Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 194, pi. 19, f. 22. 

E. of Goto Is., and Nippon and Shikoku (St. John). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PLEUROTOMID^. 17 

Drillia gracilenta Reeve. Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 195, pi. 19, f. 24 ; Reeve, C. Icon., 
f. 114 (plus P. contracta Rve., f. 116, and P. fusoides Rve. f. .349). 

E. coast of Kii, S. of Nippon (St. John) ; Karaakura and Tokyo 
Harbor (Stearns). 
Drillia humilis Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 19.S. pi. 19, f. 20. 

Ojika Bay, Goto Is., 10 fms. (St. John). 
Drillia principalis n. sp. PI. 2, f. 17. 

Shell resembling D. jej^reysii Smith, but decidedly more attenua- 
ted. Whorls about 13, angular convex, concave above, buff, finely 
mottled all over with reddish-brown, purplish on the spire, especially 
between the folds. Sculptured with oblique longitudinal folds (11 
on penult, whorl) which stop abruptly at the shoulder and grad- 
ually decrease below ; spirals rather spaced, coarse and unequal, 
alternating in size, absent on the concave upper surface of the 
whorls; the surface between lirae and over the concave anal fasciole 
finely spirally striate. Aperture sub-rhombic, narrowed below, 
slightly over one-third the shell's length ; canal a little recurved. 
Anal sinus very deep, straight ; outer lip arched forward, with a 
distinct sub-basal sinus. Columella moderately calloused and nearly 
straight below, bearing a callous tubercle above. 

Alt. 53, diam. 18 mm. 

Alt. 36, diam. 11 mm. 

Djeffreysii, while allied to this, is far broader if specimens of the 
same size be compared. D. latismuata Smith has a wider, squarer 
anal sinus, with flaring posterior lobe of the outer lip. The shape 
of the sinus itself is different in D. lanceolata (Rve.) Martens. In 
some specimens the spiral lirse are much wider, flattened, and the 
folds more numerous. Inland Sea (Stearns). 

Drillia inconstans Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H.. 1S75, (4), xv, p. 417. 

Ooshima Harbor, 8 fms. ; Tsushima Strait, 9 fms. ; Matoza Har- 
bor, 6 fms. (St. John). 

Drillia intermaculata Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, pi. 19, f. 19. 

South of Corea. 
Drillia interrupta Lam. C. Icon., f. 51. 

Deshima (Dkr.). 
Drillia japonica Lischke. Smith, P. Z. S.. 1879, p. 191, pi. 19, f. 15. 

Boshiu, Kamakura, Tokyo Harbor, coast of Prov. Kii (Stearns) ; 
Nagasaki (Lischke) ; north of Kiushiu, 33° 56' N. lat, 130° 27' E. 
long. (Smith). 2 



18 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PLEUROTOMID^. 

Drillia jeifreysii Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), xv, p. 417, 1875. 

Goza Harbor, 3-43 fms. (St. John). 
Drillia lanceolata Rve. Conch. Mittheil., I, p. 38, pi. 8, f. 4. 

Hakodate (Hilgendorf.). 
Drillia longispira Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 190, pi. 19, f. 14. 

East of Goto Is. (St. John). 
Drillia 1 tokyoensis n. sp. pi. 2, f. 5. 

Shell fusiform, elongated, slender, dark chestnut-brown through- 
out. Whorls 6, slightly convex, separated by narrowly impressed 
sutures, the earlier 2 whorls smooth, the remainder strongly latticed.. 
Spirals 15 on body-whorl, strong, equal and continuous ; longitudi- 
nal ribs 22 on last whorl, about as high as the spiral cords, but 
wider and more rounded, disappearing on the very short canal. 
Penultimate whorl with 6 spiral cords. Aperture three-sevenths the 
total alt. of shell. Outer lip thickened by a rounded varix, within 
crenulated by short lirre ; the anal notch deep, narrow and rounded, 
separated from suture by a heavy callus. Canal short and straight. 

Alt. 7, diam.2i mm. 

Kamakura; Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

Drillia nagasakiensis Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 190, pi. 19, f. 13. 
West of Nagasaki, 40-58 fms. (St. John). 

Drillia obliquata Rve. C. Icon., f. 262. 

Between Nippon and Shikoku (St. John). 
Drillia peradmirabilis Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 189, pi. 19, f. 12. 

Goto Is. and South of Corea (St. John). 
Drillia raricostata Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 192, pi. 10. f. 18. 

W. of Nagasaki (St. John). 
Drillia reoiproca Gld. Otia Conch., p. 133. 

Ooshima (Stimpson). 
Drillia sinensis Hinds. C. Icon., f. 153. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Drillia subauriformis Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 195, pi. 19, f. 23 ; Dkr., Inde.v, p. 
24,pl. 4, f. 5-7. 

Tokyo Harbor and Kamakura (Stearns) ; between Nippon and 
Shikoku (St. John). 

Drillia subobliquata Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 191, pi. 19, f. 16. 

East of Goto Is. (St. John). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PLEUROTOMIDiE. 19 

Drillia texta Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 2, pi. 1, f. 19. 

Desliima (Dkr.) ; Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 
Drillia vidua Reeve. C. Icon., f. 192. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Drillia (Crassispira) striata Kiener. C. Icon., f. 144. 

Bay of Castries (Nordmann). 
Oligotoma makimonos Jouss. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., 1883, p. 198, pi. 10, fig. 4. 

Japan (Jouss.); neighborhood of Gulf of Yedo (Stearns). 
Bela iessoensis Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 419. 

S.-E. of Yedo, lat. 42° 58' N., long. 104° 24' E., 43 fath., sand 
and mud. (St. John). 

Bela (Typhlomangilia) pyrrha AVatson. Challenger Gastrop. 187.3-6, XV, p. 316, 
(pi. XXV, f. 6). 

Kobe and Yokohama, 50 fathoms, sand (Challenger). 
Laohesis japonica A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 198, pi. 20, f. 29. 

Off Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.) ; E. of Goto Is., 58 fms. (St. John). 
Clavatula virginea Val. C. Icon., i, f. 32 (Pleurotoma). 

Hakodate (Lindholm). 

Surcula javana Linne. Man. Conch., vi, p. 237 (syn. P. nodifera Lam., lurida Ads. 
& Rve., Zool. Samarang, pi. 10, f. 5). 

Surcula coreanica Ads. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, pi. 10, f. 8. 

Corea (Adams). 
Surcula kaderleyi Lischke. J. M. C, III, pi. 1, f. 1. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Enoshima (Stearns). 
Mangilia costulata Dkr. Moll. Jap., pi. 1, f. 20. 

Deshima (Dkr.) ; Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 
Mangilia deshayesii Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 3, pi. 1, f. 3. 

Deshima. 
Mangilia filicincta E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1882, X, p. 216. 

Japan (A. Adams). 
Mangilia lisohkei E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1888 (6), II, p. 312. 

Japan (Brit. Mus.). 

Mangilia modica E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1882, X, p. 213. 

Japan (?). 
Mangilia pygmaea Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 2, pi. 1, f. 8. 

Deshima. 



20 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PLEUROTOMID^. 

Mangilia robusticostata Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 198, pi. 19, f. 28. 

Japan. 
Mangilia splendida A. Ad. P. Z. S., 18(;r, p. ■M9, pi. 19, f. 24. 

Goto Is. (Ad.). 
Citharopsis oanoellata A. Ad. Ann. Mag. 1805, p. .323. 

Mino-Shiiua (Ad.) 
Glyphostoma obtusicostata E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1882, X, p. 304. 

(?) Japan, probably. 
Clathurella crassilabrum Rve. C. Icon., f. 118. 

Hakodate (Albrecht). 
Clathurella filosa Gld. Otia Conoh., p. 134. 

Ooshima (Stimpson). 

Clathurella gracilispira Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 196, pi. 19, f. 25 (Defrancia), 

North of Kiushiu (St. John). 
Clathurella leuckarti Dkr. Moll. Jap.; p. 2, pi. 1, f. 1. 

Deshima (Dkr.) ; Tokyo Harbor and Kaniakura (Stearns). 
Clathurella perinsignis E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1884, XIV, p. 322. 

Japan (?). 
Clathurella octangulata Dkr. Moll. Jap., j). 1, pi. 1, f. 8. 

Deshima (Dkr.) ; north shore of Tango (Gaines, in Stearns coll.). 
Dunker's figures are not nearly so angular at the shoulder as these 
specimens. 
Clathurella asperulata E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1882, X, p. 296-7. 

Japan (A. Adams). 
Clathurella piperata E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1882, X, p. 298. 

Straits of Corea (A. Adams). 
Clathurella rubro-apicata E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1882, X, p. 296. 

Japan (?). 

Clathurella japonica Melvill. Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., I, p. 227, pi. 14, 
f. 11. 
Japan (Melv.). 

Clathurella 1 gainesii n. sji. PI. 2, f. 4. 

Shell elongated, turrited, corneous-brown, the interstices of the 
latticed sculpture dark brown. Whorls 7, very convex, separated 
by deep sutures ; the earlier portion of spire attenuated. Sculpture 
consisting of strong, broadly rounded longitudinal folds (12 on last 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CANCELLARIIDyE. 21 

whorl, becoming obsolete on the base) crossed by narrow but strong 
spiral cords separated by intervals greater than their width, contin- 
uous over the longitudinal folds but stronger between them, in num- 
ber 14 on last whorl, 4 on penultimate whorl. Aperture contained 
2i times in length of shell ; outer lip thick, narrowly varixed out- 
side, having several rather strong teeth within ; anal notch deeper 
than wide, oblique, separated from suture by a thin callus only. 
Anterior canal very short. Alt. 61, diam. 2| mm. 

Kamakura (Stearns) ; north shore of Tango (Gaines). 

This species is named in honor of Mr. W. R. Gaines, formerly of 
Kyoto, who received numerous marine shells from the north shore 
of Tango, collected by his students. It has a slight resemblance to 
D. subauriformis Smith and D. texta Dkr. 
Clathurella reticulosa E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. 1882, X, p. 297. 

Japan (A. Adams). 

Daphnella 1 arota E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1884, XIV, p. .325. 

Japan and Persian Gulf (Smith). 

Daphnella fragilis Reeve. C. Icon., f. 179. 

Japan (Smith). 

Daphnella fuscobalteata Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 196, pi. 19, f. 26 ("fuscolineata" 
Dkr.. Index, p. 25). 

Betw. Nippon and Shikoku (St. John). 
Daphnella saturata Reeve. C. Icon., I, f. 213 ; P. Z. S., 1879, p. 197. 

North of Kiushiu (St. John). 
Daphnella subzonata Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 197, pi. 19, f. 27. 

North of Kiushiu (St. John). 
Daphnella supercostata E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1882, X, p. 201. 

Japan (A. Adams). 
Taranis? turritispira E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1882, X, p. .306. 

Japan (Smith), 
Mitromorpha lirata A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H. 1865, p. 322. 

Simonosaki ; Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 
Zafra mitraeformis A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. II., Nov., 1860, p. 3,32. 

Mino-Shiraa (A. Ad.). 

CANCELLAKIID.aE. 

Cancellaria spengleriana Deshayes. Challenger Gastrop., 187.3-6, XV, p. 273 ; 
Ann. Mag., 1875, 425 ; Tryon, Man., Vol. VII, p. 67, pi. 1, f. 2, 3. 

Shimidzu, Akasi, Mososeki (A. Ad., Ann. Mag., 1868, p. 368) ; 
Kobe, 8 fathoms, mud (Chall.) ; Lat. 35° 7' N., long. 136° 55' E., 



22 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CANCELLARIID^. 

3 fath., soft mud (St. John) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Inland Sea, etc. 
(Stearns). 

Canoellaria asperella Lam. var. reeveana Crosse (=elegans Sowb. not Desh.). Rv., 
C. Icon., X, jil. 3, f. 12. 

Yokohama (Stearns) ; Inland Sea (Dkr.) ; Kiusiu and Tokyo 
(Lischke) ; Seto-Uchi ; Tonio (Ad.). 

Canoellaria bocageana Crosse & Debeau.x. Lischke, J. M. C, III, p. 41, pi. 2, f. 12, 
1?,, 14. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 

Canoellaria nodulifera Sowb. Dkr., Index, pi. 6, f. 24, 25. Conchyl. Cab., pi. 8, 
f. 1, 2. 

Yokohama Bay (Stearns) ; Kino-o-Sima ; Shimidzu (A. Ad.). 
Canoellaria semipellucida Ad. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 42, pi. 10, f. 3, 3a. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (A. Ad.). 
Canoellaria macrospira Ads. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 41, pi. 10, f. 2. 

Mino-Shima (Ad.). 
Canoellaria fischeri A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. II., 1868, p. 308. 

Miuo-Shima (Ad.). 
Admete viridula Fabric. Man. Conch., VII, p. 84. 

Aniwa Bay, 17 fms. (Ad.) ; Castle Point, Manchuria. 

Admete arctioa Midd. Mai. Rossica, pi. 9, f. 12. A. borealis Ad., Ann. Mag., Nov., 
1868, p. 369. 

Aniwa Bay (Ad.). 
Admete japonica Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 216, pi. 20, f. 54. 

Corea Strait (St. John). 
Admete ovata E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 426. 

Lat. 42° 52' K, Long. 144° 40' E., 48 fathoms (St. John). 
Admete globularis E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 426. 

Lat. 42° 52' N., Long. 144° 40' E., 48 fath., sandy bottom (St. 
John). 
Admete cancellata Kobelt. Conchyl. Cab., p. 105, pi. 24, fig. 14. 

Japan. 

(Rhachiglossa). 
OLiviD.a:. 

Oliva sanguinolenta Lamarck. Man. Conch.. V, p. 79. 
Japan (Rein). 



JAPAKESE MOLLUSKS, OLIVID^. 23 

Oliva ispidula Linne. Thes. Conch., IV, f. 240-254. 

Japan. 

Oliva mustelina Lamk. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 426; C. Icon., f. 23. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 

Oliva rufopicta Weinkauff. Conchyl. Cab., p. 88, pi. 23, f. 11, 12. 

Japan (Loebbecke). 

Oliva paxillus Reeve. Japan. 

Oliva elegans Lam. Thes. Conch., f. 158-100. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Oliva irisans Lam. Thes. Conch., f. 123. 

Japan (Dkr.); Inland Sea (Stearns ; with var. erythrostoma). 
Oliva carneola Lam. Thes., f. 233-235. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Oliva tessellata Lam. Thes., f. 222-224. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Oliva picta Rve. C. Icon., f. 79. 

Japan. 
Olivella jaspidea GmeL Japan (Dkr.). 
Olivella anazora Duclos. Thes., f. 419. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Castries Bay (Nordmaun). 

Olivella tergina Duclos. Duel., Oliva, pi. 2, f. 13-16. 

Northern Japan (Schrenck). 
Olivella zanoeta Duclos. Thes., f. 404. 
Japan (Dkr.). 

Several of the Olivellas named above are probably admitted to 
the Japanese fauna on insufficient evidence or incorrect identifica- 
tion. Schrenck gives 0. gracilis B. & S. and 0. dama, from the Bay 
of Castries, both probably incorrect. The following are unquestiona- 
bly Japanese. 

Olivella fulgurata Ads. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 31, pi. 10, f. 12; Smith, Ann. 
Mag., 1875, p. 426; +0. consobrina Lischke, J. M. C, II, p. 62, pi. 5, f. 10, 11. 

Yamada Harb., 7 fath., sand (St. John) ; Tokyo Harbor ; Kama- 
kura (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; N. coast of Tango (Gaines). 
Olivella fortunei (Ad.) Marratt. PI. II, fig. 11. 

Thes. Conch., IV, pi. 350, f. 422, 423. 

Marratt's figures but poorly represent the magnificent specimens 
procured by Mr. Stearns. The large dark form shown in the figure 
may be called var. japonica Stearns. 



24 JAPANESE M0LLU8KS, VOLUTID^. 

Olivella signata Lischke. J. M. C, p. 44, pi. 2, f. 26, 27. 

Yedo (Lischke). 
Olivella spreta Gld. Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 216, pi. 20, f. 55. 

E. of Goto Is. (St. John). 

Olivella fabula Marratt. Thes. Conch., IV, pi. 350, f. 420, 421. 

The specimens collected by Mr. Stearns while agreeing })erfectly 
with typical fahxda in the peculiar parietal callus, are somewhat 
stouter, less attenuated above and fuller in the body than a speci- 
men oi fabula before me from Mr. Marratt. The basal callus is white, 
or in one shell slightly brownish. Alt. 11'5, diam. 5 mm. 

I believe this quite distinct from 0. fulgurata. 

Ancilla albo-callosa Lischke. J. M. C, III, p. 44, pi. 2, f. 24, 25. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Deshima (Nuhn) ; East coast Japan above 
Inland Sea (Stearns). 
Ancilla inornata Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 217, pi. 20, f. 56. 

Japan, Dunker identifies also A. montrouzieri Souv. a New Cal- 
edonian species. 

HARPID.E. 

Harpa conoidalis Lam. C. Icon., sp. 7. 

Japan (Dunker). 

Harpa minor Lam. Japan (Stearns.) 

MARGINELLID.ffi;. 

Marginella sexplicata Dkr. M. obtusa Sowb., P. Z. S., 1870, p. 254, not in Thes., 
p. 374. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

VOLUTID.ffi:. 

Voluta megaspira Sowb. Thes., p. 298, f. 31, 32. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Bay of Hakodate (Ad.) ; Inland Sea 
(Stearns). 

Voluta rupestris Gmel. Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Mino-Shima (A. Ad.). 
Voluta hamillei Crosse. Journ. de Couch.., XVIII, p. 97, pi. 1, f. 5 ; pi. 2, f. 1. 
Voluta vespertilio Linn. Japan (Dkr.). 
Voluta conoinna Brod. C. Icon., f. 53. 

Japan Sea (Dkr.). 
Xyria cassidula Reeve. Dkr., Index, pi. 2, f. 10-13. 

Nemoto, Boshiu (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Kino-o-Shima, 
Tsu-Saki and Satanomosaki (A. Ad.) ; N. coast of Prov. Tango 
{Gaines, in Stearns coll.). 



^ JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, MITRIDTl^:. 25 

Lyria nucleus Lam. C. Icon., f. 41. 

Tatiyania and Okiuo-Shima (Ad.). 

Volutomitra pusilla Schrenck. Moll. Ainurl., p. 445, pi. 17, f. 1.3-15. 

Hakodate (Schrenck). 

MITRID.aE. 

Mitra hanleyana Dkr. Index, ]>. 51, pi. 2, f. fi, 7. (M. wrighti Cr., J. C„ 1878, pi. 
1. f. 1). 

Sea of Japan (Dkr.) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 

Mitra rosacea Rve. C. Icon , f. .321. Japan. 
Mitra flammigera lieeve. C. Icon., f. 17.3. 
Japan (Dkr.). 

Mitra ferruginea Lam. Nagasaki (Lischke; Stearns). 
Mitra amphorella Lam. Dkr., Moll. Jap., p. 8. Japan. 
Mitra scutulata Chemn. C. Icon., f. 12r). 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Mitra cruentata Chemn. C. Icon., f. 126. Japan (Dkr.). 

Mitra bronni Dkr. Index, pi. 5, f. 5, 6. (M. fuscoapicata Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, 
pi. 20, f. 49). 

E. of Kii, 48 fms. ; Ooshima Harbor (St. John). 
Mitra subtruncata Sowb. Thes., pi. 3(i0. f. 405 ; P. Z. S., 1879, p. 214. 

Ooshima Harbor, 8 fms. (St. John). 
Mitra secalina Gld. Otia Conch., p. 129. 

Ooshima (Rtimpson). 

Mitra (Costellaria) suluensis Ads. & Rve. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 425; Xoj. Sama- 
rang, p. 2t), ]A. 10. f. 27. 

Ooshima Harb., 8 fath., sandy mud (St. John). 

Mitra (Costellaria) araneosa Lam. Japan (Stearns). 

Mitra coUinsoni A. Adams. Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 218, ]>]. 20, f. 50. 

E. of Goto Is.; Ooshima; Matoza Harbor (St. John); Kino-o- 
Shima (Ad.). 
Mitra gotoensis Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 215, pi. 20, f. 51. 

Goto Is. (St. John). 
Mitra pyramidella A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., Apr., 1862, p. 297. 

Satauomosaki (Ad.). 
Mitra kraussii Dkr. Index, p. 53, pi. 5, f. 1 1, 12. 

Prov. Kii ; Suruga (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Deshima 
(Nuhn) ; Hakodate (Schrenck). 



26 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, FASCIOLARIID^. 

Mitra aemula Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 215, pi. 20, f. 52. 
Goto Is. (St. John). 

Mitra inermis Reeve. Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, j). 21 fi, pi. 20, f. 5.3, 53a, 

Ojica Bay, Goto Is., 5 fms. (St. John). 
Mitra porphyretioa Reeve. C. Icon., sp. 195. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Cylindromitra crenulata Chemn. C. Icon., f. 190a. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 

[One specimen of Mitra po7itiJicalis wsis obtained by Mr. Stearns, 
but it was probably imported]. 

FASCIOLARIID.ffi:. 

Fusus nodosoplioatus Dunker. Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., IT, p. 27. pi. 3, f. 0. 
Novit Conch., p. 99, pi. 33, f. 3, 4. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Ukushiraa, Goto Is. (St. John). 

Fusus nicobaricus Lam. Rve., C. Icon., IV, f. 37. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Japan (Stearns). 

Fusus perplexus A. Adams. Ad.. Journ. Linn. Soc, 1864, VII, p. 106. {F. incon- 
Staus Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., I, pi. 2, f. 1-6 ; II, pi. 3, f. 1-6). 

Yedo and Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Sagami Bay (Stearns) ; near 
Goto Is., (St. John). 

Fusus longicauda Bory. C. Icon., IV, f. 13. 
Japan (Dkr.). 

Fusus tuberosus Reeve. Reeve, Conch. Icon., IV, f. 7. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Japan and Loo Choo Is. (Stearns). 
Fusus nigrirostratus E. A. Smith. Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 202, pi. 20, f. 34. 
South of Corea (St. John). 

Fusus japonicus Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., p. 115. 

Japan Sea. 

Fusus spectrum Ads. & Reeve. Zool. Samarang, p. 41, pi. 7, f. 2. 

Nagasaki, Hakodate (Schrenck). 

Fusus lacteus Dkr. Index, p. 12, pi. 3, f. II, 12. 

Japan Sea (Loebbeckecoll.). 

Fusus niponicus E. A. Smith. Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 203, pi. 20. f. 12. 

South of Nippon, 52 fms. (St. John). 

Fusus simplex E. A. Smith. Smith, P. Z. S.. 1879, p. 204, jil. 20, f. 35. 

South of Corea, 24 fms. (St. John). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, FASCIOLARIID^. 27 

Fusus coreanicus Smith. L. c, p. 204, pi. 20, f. .36. 
South of Corea (St. John). 

Fusus sieboldi Schepman. Notes Leyd. Mus., XIII, p. 62, y)1.9, fig. .3. 

Japan (Siebold). 
Fusus graoiliformis Sowerby. Thes., IV, pi. Ill, fig. 62. 
Japan (Sowb.). 

Fusus forceps Perry (turricula Kien). Thes., IV, pi. 408, fig. 24. 

Japan (Sowb.). 

Fusus modestus Gld. Otia Conch., p. 121. 

Hakodate, 10 fathoms, shelly sand (Stimpson). 
Fasciolaria trapezium Linn. 

Inland Sea. The elongated form, var. audoiihii Jonas, also col- 
lected by Stearns. Lischke reports it from Nagasaki. 
Fasciolaria filamentosa Chemnitz. Conehyl.'Cab., p. 136, pi. 24. fig. 1. 

Hakodate and Takano Shima (Ad.). 
Fasciolaria glabra Dkr. Index, p. 48, pi. 12, f. 15, 16. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Latirus polygonus Gmel. Rve., Concb., Icon. Turbinella, f. 1. 

Tatiyama (Ad.). 
Latirus rhodostoma Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 4, t. 1, f. 21. 
Deshima (Nuhn) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Latirus belcheri Reeve. Reeve, C. Icon. Turbinella, f. 22. 

Japan (Stearns). 
Latirus nagasakiensis .'^mith. P. Z. S., 1880, p. 482, pi. 48, f. 7. 

Japan (Maries). 
Latirus recurvirostris Scbub. & Wag. 

A single large fresh specimen collected by Stearus, East Coast. 

Lagena smaragdula Linn. Yokohama (Stearns). 

Peristernia pulchra Reeve. Kominah, Boshiu (Stearns). 

BUCCINID.aE. 
Hemifusus ternatanus (imel. 

Yokohama ; Tokyo to Kii coast (Stearns). Several fresh speci- 
mens with operciila. 

Hemifusus tuba Gmelin. Conchyl. Cab., p. 41, pi. 7, f. 1, 2. 

Nagasaki (Schrenck, A. Ad., Lischke) ; Deshima (Nuhn) ; Hako- 
date, Tatiyama, Tsu-Shima (A. Ad.). 



28 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, BUCCINIDiE. 

Thatcheria mirabilis Angus. P. Z. S., 1877, pi. oi, f. 1. 
Japan (Thatcher). 

Chrysodomus arthriticus (Val.) Bernardi. Bern., Journ. de Conchyl., 1857, p. 386 
].l. 12, f. ;!, :!ii. 

Hakodate (Bernardi ; Stearns), 

The specimens are smaller than Bernardi's figure, but undoubtedly 
the same. AVhen not corroded the color is dark brown. 

Neptunea cumingi Crosse. J. de C, 1862, p. 51, pi. 5, f. 12. 

Bay of Talieuwhan (Cuming). 

Very closely allied to C arthriticus, of which it is probably a 
variety. 

Chrysodomus bulbaceus (Val.) Bernard!. Journ. deConch., 1858, p. 183, pi. 7. f. 1. 

Gulf of Tartary (Bern.). 

The next species is very closely allied to this. 
Chrysodomus iuridus A. Ad. Dkr., Index, p. 14, pi. 3, f. 3, 4. 

Aniwa Bay ; Cape Tofuts (Ad). 
Chrysodomus antiquus var. despectus Linne. Conchyl. Cab., p. 56, pi. 27, f. 1-5. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 

Both antiquus a.nd despectus have been credited to northern Japan. 
We have not seen Japanese specimens. 

Chrysodomus plicatus A. Ad. Dkr., Inde.x, p. 14, pi. 3, f. 1, 2; Kob., Conch. Cab., 
pi. 12, f. 4, 5. 

Auiwa Bay (Ad.). 
Chrysodomus (?) manohuricus E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 422. 

Lat. 42° 58' K, long. 145° 24' E., 48 fath., sand and mud (St. 
John). 

Chrysodomus pericochlion Schrenck. Conchyl. Cab., p. 131, pi. 4.3, f. 4, 5. 
Hakodate (Albrecht). 

Siphonalia signum Reeve. C. Icon., Ill, f. 6 ; Dkr., Index, p. 15, pi. 3, f. 9, 10. 

South Jajmn (Rein) ; Ooshima, Hakodate (A. Ad.). 

Siphonalia hinnulus Ad. & Rve. A. & R., Zool. Samarang, p. 32, pi. 7, f. 10; Dkr., 
Index, p. 16. 

Tsu-Saki, 35 fms. ; Tatiyama (A. Ad.). 

Siphonalia cassidariaeformis Reeve. Rve., C. Icon. Buccinum, f. 11 ; Lischke) 
J. M. C, I, pi. 4, f. 1, 2, 6-10. 

Enoshima (Stearns); Nagasaki (Lischke) ; W. coast Japan, and 
Hakodate (Stimp.) ; 0-Shima and Simoda (A. Ad.) ; Goto Is. (St. 
John). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, BUCCINID^. 29 

Lischke's figures represent the principal variations of this species, 
of which Mr. Stearns procured a large number of specimens. 

Siphonalia cassidariseformis var. ornata A. Ad. Dkr., Index, p. 16; Lischke, J. 
M. C, I, pi. 4, f. 3, 4, 5. 

S.-E. coast Kii, Inland Sea (Stearns). 

Siphonalia cassidariaeformis var. concinna A. Ad. Ad., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), XI, 
p. 204, 1863; Lischke, J. M. C, I, p. . 

Kuro-Shima (A. Ad.). 
Siphonalia cassidariaeformis var. fanerea Pils. PI. II, f. 7, 8. 

Satsuma (Stearns). 

Shell like the type except that the nodules are reduced to short 
oblique waves somewhat as in Buccinum undatum, and the color 
outside is uniform chocolate-brown. Interior strongly lirate, dark 
brown with a pearly lustre. 

This seems distinct from any of A. Adams' species. 

Siphonalia fusoides Reeve. Conch. Icon., Buccinum, pi. 2, f. 9 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 
88, pi. 23, f. 6-7. 

Tokyo Bay (Lischke) ; Satanomosaki and Tsu-Shima (A. Ad.); 
S.-E. coast Kii (Stearns). 

A species resembling S. cassidariceformis but slenderer, with less 
prominent nodules. 

Siphonalia spadicea Reeve. Buccinum fusoides Rve., C. Icon., pi. 9, f. 64, not pi. 2, 
f. 9; B. spadicea Rve.. errata; Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 205, pi. 20, f. 38. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.) ; Port Hamilton, 10 fms. ; S. of Nip- 
pon, 34° 12' N. lat., 136° 28' E. long. ; S. of Corea, 34° 19' N. lat, 
124° 57' E. long., 12 fms. (Smith). 

Siphonalia fusoolineata Pease. P. Z. S.. 1860, p. 189, pi. 51, f. 3; Pilsbry, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1891, p. 473, pi. 19, f. 4. 

Mino-Shima (A. Ad.) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 

The specimens vary much in color, some being decorated with 
brown spiral lines, others streaked and maculated with chestnut. It 
is allied to S. fusoides Rv., but the spire is much longer. The 
canal is more recurved than in S. spadicea Rve., which is otherwise 
quite similar. 

Siphonalia aestuosa Gould. Gld., Otia, p. 123 (Neptunea). 

Kagoshima (N. P. E. E.). 
Siphonalia Stearnsii Pilsbry. PI. II, f. 1, 2. 

Shell fusiform, solid, brownish ; spire conical, shorter than the 
aperture, consisting of 8 convex whorls, which are finely spirally 



30 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, BUCCINID^. 

lirate, and closely and strongly plicate ; plicse becoming partly or 
wholly obsolete on the body-whorl, which is very indistinctly or not 
at all shouldered, and runs upward somewhat toward the aperture, 
causing a narrow, small posterior channel. Aperture shaped as in 
S. fmcolineata Pse. but wider, the inner lip smooth, its edge raised 
and free ; outer lip with a wide yellow internal border, inside of 
which it is thick, lirate and white. Anterior canal strongly re- 
curved, short. Alt. 46, diam. 25 mm. Oblique alt. of aperture 
29 mm. 

Allied to S. longirostris Dkr., but less elongated, with more 
strongly plicate spire and different aperture. I cannot see that any 
of A. Adams' un figured species agree with the specimens before me. 
The spire is longer and more plicated than in S.fusoides Reeve, and 
the canal more recurved. 
Siphonalia longirostris Dkr. Index, p. 16, pi. 1, f. 1.3, 14. 

Sea of Japan (Dkr.). 

Siphonalia trochulus Reeve. C. Icon., (Bucclnum), f. 7. 

0-Shima (Ad.). 
Siphonalia modificata Reeve. C. Icon., f. 67. 

Kuru-Shima, 56 fms. ; Fatsijeu, 29 fms. (Ad). 
Siphonalia oommoda A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), xi, 1863, p. 20.'?. 

Tsaulian (Ad.). 
Siphonalia oorrugata A. Ad. I c, p. 204. Kino-o-Shima (Ad.). 
Siphonalia conspersa A. Ad. 1. o.. p. 204. Japan (Cuming coll.). 
Siphonalia filosa A. Ad. 1. c, p. 205. China Sea (Ad.). 
Siphonalia ligata A. Ad. 1. c, p. 205. Japan (Cuming coll.). 
Siphonalia grisea A. Ad. Simidzu (Ad. ; 1. c, p. 205). 
Siphonalia coins A. Ad. Mino-Shima, 63 fathoms (Adams, 1. c, p. 205). 
Siphonalia acuminata A. Ad. Goto, 4-8 fathoms, (Adams, 1. c, p. 206). 
Siphonalia pyramis A. Ad. Siitanomosaki, 55 fathoms (Adams, 1. c, p. 206). 
Siphonalia muoida A. Ad. Kuro-Shima, 35 fathoms (Adams, 1. c, p. 206). 
Siphonalia nodnlosa A. Ad. Mino-Shima, 63 fathoms (Adams, 1. c, p. 206). 
Siphonalia (Kellettia) kelleti Forbes. Lischke, J. M.-C. pi. 3, f. 3, 4. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; South-east coast Ise. (Stearns). 
Siphonalia hyperodon n. sp. PI. II, f. 6. 

General contour of the shell as usual, the spire elongated, base much 
contracted, canal strongly recurved. Color dirty buff, with some 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, BUCCINID^. 31 

scattered maculseof brown, especially below sutures, and sometimes 
ill-defined girdles. Whorls 9, the earlier two smooth, glossy, con- 
vex ; the following five very convex, separated by deep sutures, 
sculptured with strong rounded longitudinal folds as wide as their 
intervals, about 11 to a whorl, these crossed by strong spiral cords 
separated by flat interspaces, about 6 on each whorl, becoming lower 
and more numerous below, wholly obsolete or nearly so on the latter 
two whorls of the 8hell. The lower 3 whorls are strongly angular at 
the shoulder, and on the last whorl the longitudinal folds are repre- 
sented by strong, pointed tubercles on the angle, which number 10- 
12 on last whorl, the latter fifth of which is free from them. Aper- 
ture nearly half the length of shell, livid within, the upper angle 
narrowly sinused as in Gantharus, basal canal strongly recurved. 
Outer lip thickened outside by a low, wide varix, submargined by 
short, close plicre within ; inner lip moderately calloused, bearing 
near its posterior termination a very strong, rounded nodule. Um- 
bilicus open ; siphonal fasciole defined above by a free laminar 
edge. 

Alt. 51, diam. 26 mm. 

Alt. 43, diam. 21 mm. 

Japan (Stearns, 3 specimens). 

Distinguished from other species by the strong nodule on the 
inner lip near the posterior angle of aperture, defining a channel 
there. Although I have an impression that somewhere I have seen 
a specimen or figure of this species, I cannot now find that anything 
much like it has been described. A quite young specimen would 
probably resemble somewhat Euthria fuscolabiata E. A. Smith. 
Buccinum lischkeanum Loebbecke. Conchyl. Cab., p. 35, pi. 80, f. 6, 6. 

North Japan. 

Buccinum schantaricum Midd. Sib. Reise, p. 233, pi. 10, f. 4-6. 
Buccinum middendorffi Verkruzen. Kob., Conchyl. Cab., p. 76, pi. 89, f. 2. 
Sachalin Is. 

Buccinum simplex Midd. Kob., C. Cab., p. 77, pi. 89, f, 4, 5. 
Buccinum verkruzeni Kobelt. Conchyl. Cab., p. 80, pi. 90, f. 1, 2. 

Sachalin Is. 
Buccinum sohrenkii Verkruzen. Conchyl. Cab., p. 81, pi. 90, f. 3. 

Sachalin ; N. of Gulf of Geduld. 

Buccinum mirandum Smith. Conchyl. Cab., p, 92, pi. 92, f. 4. 

E. of Yedo, 11 fathoms. 



32 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, BUCCINID^. 

Bucoinum japonicum A. Adams. Conchyl. Cab., p. 91, jil. 92, f. 2. 

Japan ; Okosiri (Adams). 
Buccinum jeffreysii Smith. Conchyl. Cab., p. 91, j)l. 92, f. 10. 

Japan, lat. 42° 58' N., long. 145° 24' E., 48 fath., sand and stone. 
Buccinum leuoostoma Lischke. Lischke, J. M. C, III, p. 38, pi. 1, f. 7, 8. 

Yokohama (Stearns); Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Buccinum morohianum Fischer. {Volutharpn) Kob., C. Cab., p. 90, pi. 92, f. 8, 9. 

Northern Japan. 

Volutharpa perryi Jay. Conchyl. Cab., p. 95, pi. 9.3, f. 5, 6; pi. 92, f. .5. ( Volu- 
tltarpa pauhicciana Tap. -Can, Joum. de Conch., 1882, p. 24, pi. 2, f. .3, 4). 

Bay of Yedo (Perry, Stearns). 

Volutharpa ampullacea Midd. Midd., Reise, Ost. Siber., II, p. 237, pi. 8, f. 3, 4 ; 
pi. 17, f. 1-3. 

Bays of Aniwa and Hakodate, and northward (Midd., Ad., Al- 
brecht, et al.); Lat. 41° 12' N., Long. 140° 45' E., 43 fath., sand 
and mud (St. John). 

Volutharpa fisoheriana A. Adams. Ad., Ann. Mag. N. H., 1870, V, p. 442. 

Strait of Corea (Ad.), 
Volutharpa limnaeana A. Ad. Ad., Ann. Mag. N. 11., 1860, VI, p. 109. 

Japan. 
Volutharpa salmiana Rolle. Nachrbl., 1892, p. 52. 

Japan. 
Cominella fucata A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc. Ill, 1862. p. 107. 

Japan (Cuming Coll.). 

Cominella lineolata Dkr. {^=dunkeri KUster). Conchyl. Cab., 2d edit., p. 86, pi. 
16, f. 9-11. 

Hakodate (Schreuck, Dkr.). Described from the Cape of Good 
Hope, but Dunker believes the Japanese shells to be the same. 
Cyllene pulchella Ads. &, Rve. Zool. Samarang. pi. 10, f. 11. 

Satanomosaki (Ad.). 
Cyllene orientalis A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1850, p. 205. 

Goto Is. (Ad.). 
Cyllene glabrata A. Ad. Satano-Mosaki (Ad., I. c, p. 206). 
Cyllene fuscata A. Ad. Kuro-Shima (A. Ad., I. c-, p. 205; Thes., f. 16-18). 
Cyllene gibba A. Ad. Oki-no-Shima (A. Ad., Ann. Mag. N. II., 1870, p. 427). 
Tritonidea undosa Linne. Yokohama (Stearns). 



JAPANESE M0LLUSK8, BUCCINID^. 33 

Tritonidea undulata Schepman. Notes Leyd. Mus., XIII, p. 155, pi. 9, f. l. 

Japan (Siebold) ; N. shore of Tango (Gaines); Konimah, Bosliiu 
(Stearns). 

Some clear yellow specimens without brown lines were collected 
by Stearns. 
Tritonidea protea Reeve. C. Icon., Bucdnum, f. 51. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Tsu-Shima (A. Ad.). 
Tritonidea lignea Rve. C. Icon., Buccinum, f. 57. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Setouchi (A. Ad.). 

Tritonidea (Cantharus) cumingiana Dkr. Index, p. 18 (Syn. : Buccinum lia- 
neiun Rve., C. Icon., f. 57). 

Seto-uchi (Ad.) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Tritonidea (Cantharus) balteatus Reeve. (C. Icon., B-ucc, f. 59) 
is a variety of this according to Dunker. Tryon makes both 
synomyms of Cantharus cecillei VhW. Tateyama (Ad.), 

Tritonidea (Cantharus) contracta Reeve. C. Icon., f. 53; Lischke, J. M. C II 
p. 50. '••■>» 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Tritonidea (Cantharus) menkeana Dkr. Dkr., Moll. Jap., p. 7, pi. i, f. 7. 

Deshima (Nuhn) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Tritonidea (Cantharus) suhrubiginosa E. A. Smith. Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, p 206 
pi. 20, f. 40. ' ' • ' 

Ukushiraa, Goto Is., among rocks at low water (St. John). 

Tritonidea (Cantharus) marmorata Reeve. C. Icon., Ill, Buccinum, f. 95 ; Schr., 
Amurl. Moll., p. 427. 

Hakodate (Lindholm). 
Tritonidea (Cantharus) erythrostoma Reeve. Rve., C. Icon., f. 14. 

Ooshima (Ad.). 
Tritonidea (Cantharus) capensis Dkr. Japan (Dkr.). 
Pisania cingulata Reeve. Reeve, Conch. Icon., Buccinum, f. 75. 

Luchu Is. 
Pisania mollis Gould. Gkl., Otia, p. 124. 

Simoda (Stimpson). 

Euthria ferrea Reeve. {virUhda Dkr., Inde.x, p. 19, pi. 3, f. 5-8 ; J. M. C, I, p 

39, pi. 5, f. 5, 6.) 

Japan, Lat. 41° 12' N., Long. 140° 45' E., 43 fms. ; Satsuma Bay. 
S. Kiu-Shiu and Goto Is .(St. John) ; many specimens collected by 
Stearns, at Enoshima ; Tsu-Shima, 0-Shima and Nagasaki (Ad.)^ 
3 



34 JAPANESE M0LLUSK8, NASSID^. 

Euthria fuscolabiata E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 187.5, p. 422. 

Off Cape Blunt, Lat. 41° 41' N, Long. 141° E., 35 fms., (St. 
John). 

Euthria lirata A. Adams. Conchyl. Cab., p. 2.3.3. 

Tsusaki (Adams). 
Euthria badia A. Adams. Conchyl. Cab., p. 233. 
Tsu-Shima (Adams). 

Phos senticosus Linne. Japan (Dkr.). 

Phos varicosus Gld. Expl. Exped., f. 360. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Phos angulatus Sowb. Thes., iii, p. 89, pi. 221, f. 7; Challenger Gastrop.. XV, p. 
222. 

Japan (Siebold). 

Nassaria (=Hindsia) magnifica Lischke. Jap. Meeres-Conchyl., II, p. 38, pi. 4, f. 
11, 12 ; III, pi. 1, f. 5, 6. Dkr., Index, p. 38. 

Sagama (Stearns) ; Kiusiu (Lischke). 

Eburna japonioa Sowb. Deshima (Nuhn) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) : Sado. Tokyo Har- 
bor, Kamakura (Stearns) ; Tsu-Saki, Tatiyana, Simoda (Ad.) ; Hakodate (Schrenck), 

Eburna formosae Sowb. Thes., Ill, pi. 291, f. 17, 18. 

Formosa. 

NASSID.S. 

Nassa balteata Lischke. N. halleata Lischke not Pse., see J. M. C, II, p. 51 ; 
N. japonica Lischke not A. Ad., Jap. M. C, 1, p. 61, pi. 5, f. 10, 11 ; {N. ynuta- 
bilis A. Ad. ? Ann. Mag., 1870, p. 425). 

Yokohama (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Nassa sufflata Old. Otia Conch., p. 127. 

Kagoshima (Stimpson). 
Nassa coronata Lam. C. Icon., f. 20. 

Japan (Stearns). 
Nassa (Alectrion) glans Linne. C. Icon., f . 5 ; P. Z. S., 1879, p. 210. 

W. of Goto Is. (St. John). 

Nassa (Alectrion) suturalis Lam. Yokohama (Stearns, purchased). 

Nassa (Alectrion) papillosa L. Yokohoma (Stearns, purchased). 

Nassa (Aroularia) thersites Brug. Japan (Dkr.). 

Nassa (Aroularia) gracilis Pease. Am. Journ. Conch.. Ill, p. 273, pi. 2.3, f. 4. 
Lischke, J. M. C, II, p. 52, pi. 4, f. 4-6. 

Deshima (Nuhn); Nagasaki (Birileff). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, NASSID^. 35 

Ifassa (Arcularia) leptospira A. Ad. 
Nassa (Niotha) gemmulata Lam. C. Icon., f. 29 ; Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 422. 

Kii Coast (Stearns) ; Goza Harb., 6 fath. (St. John) ; Bay of 
Yedo (Lischke) ; Kagoshima (Stimp.). 

Specimens of extraordinary size collected by Mr. Stearns. 

Nassa (Niotha) gemmulifera A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1870, p. 425 ; C. Icon., f. 
132. 

Seto-Uchi ; Akasi ; Kino-Oshima (Ad.). Near N. albescens Dkr. 

Nassa (Niotha) stigmaria A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 423, C. Icon. f. 42; Syn. 
iV. densigranata Rve., C. Icon., f. 181. 

Ooshima Harbor, 8, fms. ; E. of Goto Is. (St. John). 
Nassa (Niotha) cumingii A. Ad. C. Icon., f. 30. 

Takano-Shiraa, Tatiyama (Ad.). 
Nassa (Niotha) marginulata Lamk. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 422, C. Icon., f. 43. 

Ooshima Harb., 8 fath., and a variety from Yamada Harb. (St. 
John) ; Satanomosaki (Ad.). 

Nassa (Niotha) caelata A. Ad. C. Icon., sp. 133. 

Moso-Seki ; Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 
Nassa (Niotha) livescens Phil. Lischke, J. M. C, II, p. 52, pi. 4, f. 1-3. 

Tokyo Harbor; Kiushiu (Stearns); Nagasaki and Deshima 
(Lischke). 

Is not the N. keineri Dh. (Tryon, Man. Conch., IV, p. 53) syno- 
nymous with this? The large number of specimens obtained by 
Mr. Stearns fully connect the forms. 

Nassa (Niotha) albescens Dkr. Phil., Abbild., p. 68, pi. 2, f. 15 (Buccinum). 

Deshima (Dkr.). 
Nassa (Hebra) muricata Q. & G. Astrol., pi. 32, f. 32, 33. 

Okino-Shima, Tsaulian (Ad.) ; Japan (Stearns). 

Nassa (Hima) festiva Powis. Dkr., Moll. Jap., pi. 1, f. 22, N. hrata, vide 
Lischke, J. M. C, II. p. 53. 

Kiushiu, Inland Sea (Stearns) ; Nagasaki'and Deshima (Lischke) ; 
Hakodate (Ad.) ; Ukushima, Goto Is. (St. John). 

Nassa (Hima) dealbata A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1851, p. 112 ; C. Icon., f. 105. 
Japan (Stearns). Probably a form of N. festiva. 

Nassa fuscolineata E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 423. 

Cape Shima, 18 fath., sand and broken shell (St. John) ; Tokyo 
Harbor (Stearns) ; N. shore of Prov. Tango (Gaines). 



36 JAPANESE M0LLUSK8, NASSID^E. 

Nassa (Hima) japonica (A. Ad.) Lischke. P. Z. S., 1851, p. 110; Lischke, J. M. 
C, III, i>. H7, pi. 2, f. 20-23. y. tenuis Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 42.3; P. Z. S. 
1879, p. 211. 

Cape Shima, 18 fms. ; Goza and Ooshima Harbors ; between 
Nippon and Shikoku (St. John); Bay of Yedo (Lischke); Seto-Uchi^ 
Uraga, Kino-o-Shiraa, Sado (A. Ad.). 

Nassa (Hima) dominula Tap.-Can. Viag. Magenta, p. 19, pi. 1, f. 17. (Syn. : N^ 

acutideniata Smith, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 212, pi. 20, f. 46). 

Yokohama (Magenta) ; Goto Is. (St. John). 
Nassa (Hima) luteola Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 212, pi. 20, f. 47. 

Goto Is. (St. John). 

Nassa (Hima) fraterculus Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 17, pi. 1, f. 15. J. M. C, II, pi. iv, 
f. 7, 8. 

Isi, Kamakura, Tokyo Harbor (Stearns) ; Goto Is. (St. John) ;. 
Tatiyama, Hakodadi, Simoda, Nagasaki (Ad.) ; Deshima (Nuhn). 
Nassa (Hima) plebecula Gld. Otia Couch., p. 128. 

Ooshima (Stimpsom); considered by Lischke a synonym of N. 
fraterculus.. 

Nassa mustelina Gld. Otia Conch., p. 127. 

Ooshima Coast, 2 fathoms ; (Stimp.), 
Nassa spurca Gould. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 423 ; Otia, p. 129. 

Ooshima and Yamada Harb., 7-8 fath., (St. John). 

Is the Japanese shell really Gould's species? 
Nassa dermestina Gld. Proc. Best. Soc. vii, p. 331 ; Otia, p. 128. 

Hakodate (Lischke, J. M. C, 1, p. 60) ; Kikaia (Stimp.). 

Nassa (Zeuxis) siquijorensis A. Adams. C. Icon., f. 53 ; P. Z. S., 1879, p. 210, pi. 
20, f. 45, 45a. 

Off Kobe, 8 to 14 fath., mud (Chall.) ; Seto-Uchi, Tsaulian, Tomo 
(Ad.) ; E. of Kii (St. John). 

Nassa (Zeuxis) crenulata Brugiere. Challenger Gastrop, 1873-fi. XV, p. 183 ; 
Reeve. Conch. Icon., VIII, pi. 1, f. 2. 

Off Kobe, 8 fms. (Challenger). 
Nassa (Zeuxis) varioifera A. Ad. C. Icon., f. 118. 

Isi, Kamakura (Stearns) ;^Tsaulian^(Ad.) ; South of Corea (St. 
John). 

Stearns' shells are a small form which may be called var. frater- 
minor, characterized by the shell having only one varix which is 
near the end of the penultimate whorl, and otherwise resembling iV. 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, NASSID^. 37 

Jraterculus. They may indeed have no especial relationship to 

varicifera, as I have not been able to compare typical specimens of 

that species. 

Nassa (Zeuxis) succincta A. Ad. C. Icon., f. 80. 

Seto-Uchi, Mososeki (Ad.). 

Nassa (Zeuxis) mioans A. Ad. P. Z. S., 18Jl, p, 106 ; C. Icon., f. 140 ; Ann. Mag., 
1870, V, p. 426. 

Uraga (A. Ad.). 

Nassa (Zeuxis) clandestina A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), V, p. 426. 
Seto-Uchi, Idzuma-Nada, Yobuko (A, Ad.). 

Nassa luctuosa A. Ad. C. Icon., f. 109. 
Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Nassa hypolia Pilsbry. PI. II, figs. 13. 14. 

Shell elongated, solid and thick, purplish-black with a peripheral 
brown or whitish girdle, not glossy ; becoming ashy on the spire and 
with age all over. Surface dull ; sculptured with numerous rounded 
longitudinal ribs, slightly curved, a trifle more prominent at the 
shoulder and not extending below the periphery, sometimes subob- 
solete on the body-whorl. No spiral sculpture, or a few faint cords 
at the base. Aperture less than half the shell's length. Outer lip 
with a low varix, thick, with five teeth within ; throat purple- 
black, showing the narrow light band, which on the lip spreads up- 
ward ; below it another light blotch on the lip. Columella with a 
■white or yellow callus below, roughened by a few weak folds, and 
with the usual posterior fold. Alt. 12'5, diam. 7 mm. Operculum 
oval with entire edge. 

Yesso (Stearns). 

The folds are coarser and extend further down than in luctuosa 
and succincta ; seviiplicata is more strongly varixed with different 
denticulation of the aperture ; teretiuscula differs in texture and 
•color. This species would have been included by Tryon in N. 
^aw(itosa judging from what he has considered synonyms of that spe- 
cies ; but I am by no means prepared to endorse such wholesale 
lumping of species as that in his monograph of Nassa. 

Nassa (Demoulia) binominata Pilsbry (n. n.). 

Desmoulea japonica A. Ad. (not Nassa japonica A. Ad.). Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., Nassa, fig, 192. 

Japan (A. Ad.). 



SiJ JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, COLUMBELLID^. 

On the subgenus Demoidia see E. A. Smith, Anu. Mag. N. H. (6) 
VIII, p. 320. No other species is known from Japan. 

COLUMBELLID^. 
Columbella haemastoma Sowb. Thes., I, p. Ill, pi. 36, f. 5. 

Gulf of Tartary (Schrenck). 
Columbella fuscata Sowb. Ibid, p. 114, pi. Hfi, f. 21, 25. 

Same locality. These are doubtful members of the Japan fauna. 

Columbella solidula Reeve. C. Icon., sp. 149. Same locality. 

Columbella scripta Lam. '.versicolor Sowb.). Rve., Conch. Icon., f. 51 ; Thes., f. 
41-46. 

Oshima (Challenger) ; Tokyo Harbor (Stearns) ; Deshima, Naga- 
saki (Dkr.) ; Ukushima, Goto Is. (St. John). 

Columbella pardalina Lam. var. sagena Reeve. Rve., Conch. Icon., pi. 26, f. 162; 
Lischke, .J. M. C, III, pi. 2, f. 5-7. 

N. shore of Tango (Gaines) ; Inland Sea (Stearns) ; Ukushima, 
Goto Is., E. coast Kii (St. John) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Tryon considers Col. japonica Rve. (C. Icon., f. 45) a form of 
pardalina. 

Columbella araneosa Gld. Otia Conch., p. 132. 

Kagoshima Bay (Stimpsou), 
Columbella tenuis Gaskoin. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 422. 

Enderrao Harbor, 4-7 fath., sandy mud (St. John). 
Columbella misera Sowb. J. M. C, I, p. 59 ; II, p. 48 ; III, p. 45, pi. 2, f. 10, 11. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Goto Is. (Si. John) ; Kamakura, Isi and 
Tokyo Harbor (Stearns) ; N. shore of Tango (Gaines). 

Columbella pumila Dkr. Moll. Jap., pi. 1, f. 4. 

Tokyo Harbor and Kamakura (Stearns) ; Deshima (Dkr.) ;. 
Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Columbella martensi Lischke. J. M. C, II, pi. v, f. 1-9. 
Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

Columbella compta Lischke. J. M. C, II, p. 35, pi. 2, f. 8, 9. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Tokyo Harbor and Kamakura (Stearns). 
Columbella (Atilia) niveomarginata Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 208, pi. 20, f. 42. 

Ukushima, Goto Is. (St. John). 
Columbella (Atilia) lischkei Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 207, pi. 20, f. 41. 

North of Kiushiu, 30 fms. (St. John). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, COLUMBELLID^. 39 

Columbella (Atilia 1) pleurotomoides n. sp. PI. I, f. 6. 

Shell fusiform, slender, smooth except for slight growth-lines, and 
on base and anterior canal numerous spiral ]ir?e. Spire straight- 
sided, the sutures linear ; whorls 9, flat, the body whorl swollen in 
the middle, rapidly contracted below into a short anterior canal. 
Surface not shining ; light clear buff, showing under a lens close, 
faint, darker longitudinal lines, becoming flesh-colored on spire, the 
earliest whorls crimson ; body whorl encircled by two girdles of 
small, close, lunate or squarish brown spots, one on base, the other 
above the periphery and ascending the spire about midway between 
sutures. Aperture, small, narrow, contained nearly 22 times in 
length of shell, smooth and showing the dot-series within ; outer lip 
thin, sharp and simple, distinctly retracted above and arched for- 
ward in the middle. Columella sinuous, being prominent in the 
middle, concave above and below, without folds or teeth. Alt. 11, 
diam. Si mm. 

Banda, Boshiu (Stearns). 

The generic reference of this beautiful species is by no means cer- 
tain, as the outer lip lacks the teeth within characteristic of Atilia, 
and is distinctly retracted above. Numerous specimens were col- 
lected. 

Columbella (Anaohis) californica Reeve. Conchyl. Cab., p. 59, pi. 8, f. :?, 4. 

Japan (Dr. Guttsche). 
Columbella (Zafra) zonata Gld. Otia Conch., p. 130. 

Kagoshima (Stimpson). 
Columbella (Anachis) minuscula GUI. Otia Conch., p. LSI. 

Ooshima (Stimpson) 2 vars. 
Columbella impolita Sowb. Thes. Conch., p. 132, f. 127. 

Suruga, Kii coast (Stearns). 
Columbella (Zafra) subvitrea Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 209, pi. 20, f. 43. 

South of Nippon (St. John). 
Columbella (Zafra) mitriformis A. Ad. Ann. Mag., Yl. 1860, p. 332. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fras. (Ad.). 

Columbella discors Gmel. Conchyl. Cab., p. 18, pi. 2, figs. 17-18. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Columbella (Conidea) flava Brug. Lischke, J. M. C, III. pi. 2, f. 1-4. 

Kii, Kamakura (Stearns) ; Deshima (Dkr.) ; Goto Is. (St. John). 
Nagasaki (Lischke). 



40 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, MURICID^. 

Mr. Steams' shells are the form figured by Lischke, which he 
finally referred to C. undataDuc\os as a variety. Beach-worn spec- 
imens are fleshy-pink, with a row of narrow brown spots below the 
suture. 

Amycla varians Dkr. Mai. Bl. VI, p. 231 ; Moll. Jap., p. 6, pi. 1, f. 17 ; P. Z. S., 

IST'.i. 11. 21(1, pi. 20, f. 44. 

Tokyo Harbor, Kamakura, Yokohama (Stearns) ; Nagasaki 
(Lischke) ; Deshima (Nuhn) ; Tatiyama, Hakodate, Rifunsiri (A. 
Ad.) ; N. shore of Tango (Gaines). 
Amycla burchardi Dkr. Index, p. 55, pi. 4, f. 3, 4. 

Amycla gausapata Gld. and ^4. achatina Sowb. are reported from 
Japati by A. Adams, Ann. Mag. N. H., 1870, p. 426. 

Engina acuminata Reeve. C. Icon., sp. 52 {Ricinula). 

Tsu-Shima (Ad.). 
Engina mendicaria Linne. Japan (Dkr. ; Stearns). 
Engina trifasciata Reeve. C. Icon., sp. 41. Pimiostovia trifasciatum Ad. 

Okino-Shinia (A, Ad.), 

Aesopus japonicus Gld. Otia Conch., p. 128. 

Kagoshima Bay, 5 fathoms, sand (Stimpson). 
MURICIDJE. 
Trophon lamellosum (Jray. Ann. Mag., 1875. p. 421. 

Japan, Lat. 42° 58' N., Long., 145° 24' E., 48 fms. (St. John). 
Troplion incomptum Gld. Otia Conch., p. 125. 

Hakodate (Stimpson). 
Trophon inermis Sowerby. Conchyl. Cab., j). 287, pi. 71, f. 12. 

Japan Coast (Siebold). 
Trophon candelabrum Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 79 (Fusus). 

Tsusaki, 55 fathoms (Adams). 
Trophon concinnum A. Adams. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 375. 

Rifunsiri (Adams). 

Trophon tantillum A. Adams. Ibid. Satanomosaki (Adams). 

Trophon clathratus Linne. Sachalin Island (Schrenck) : E. coast of Prov. Kii 
(Stearns). 

Trophon luculentus Rve. C. Icon., {Murex), sp. 127: Index, p. 9, pi. 1, f. 3, 4. 
{T.fimhriatus Hinds, voy. Sulphur, pi. 1, f. 18, 19). 

Trophon pachyraphe Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 205, pi. 20, f. 37, 37a. (Fusus). 

Ukushima, Goto Is., and N. of Kiushiu (St. John). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, MURICID^. 41 

Trophon crassum Ad. P. Z. S., 1851, p. 269. {Murex). 

Hakodate. 
Trophon orispum Gld. U. S. Expl. Exped., p. 229, f. 279. {Fusus). 
Trophon orpheum Gld. Ibid, p. 234, f. 285. {Fusus). 

Okosiri (Ad.), 

Typhis arcuatus Hinds (T. japonicus A. Ad.). Zool. Sulphur, p. 10, pi. 3, f. 1, 2 ; 
Conch. Icon., XIX, pi. 3, f. 10, a, b, c. 

Japan (Adams). 

Typhis montforti A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. iii. f. 15. 

Okino-Shima (Adams). 

Murex tenuispina L. Kii Coast (Stearns) ; Oshima, Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Murex tribulus Linne. Simidzu (Ad.). 

Hurex aduncospinosus (Beck) Reeve. Yokohama (Dkr.). 

Murex martinianus Rve. .Japan (Dkr.). 

Murex troschelii Lischke. Lischke, J. M. C, I, pi. 1. 

Kii coast (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

The primary spines are mostly longer than shown in Lischke's 
figures. 

Murex sobrinus A. Adams. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 199, pi. 20, f. 30. 

Satanomosaki, 55 fms. ; Goto, 48 fms. ; Kuru-Shima, 29 fms. 
(Ad.) ; W. of Goto Is. and S. of Corea(St. John, 51-54 fms.). 

Murex pliciferus Sowb. Dkr., Index, p. 4, pi. 4, f. 1, 2. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 

Murex haustellum Linn. .Japan (Dkr.). 

Murex (Chicoreus) sinensis Rve. Tokyo, Yedo, Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Tatiyama, 
Mososeki (A. Ad.). 

Murex (Chicoreus) penchinati Crosse. J. de C, IX, p. 351, pi. 16, f. 6. 
Nagasaki. 

Murex ramosus Linn. Kamakura (Stearns). 
Murex (Chicoreus) adustus Lamk. Ann., Mag., 1875, p. 419. 
Ooshima; Tatiyama; Tsu-shima (Ad.). 

Murex (Homalocantha) rota Sowb. Dkr., Index, p. 5, pi. 2, f. 3. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Murex (Phyllonotus?) acanthophorus A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 420. 

Hakodate, 5 fath. (St. John) ; Tsu-Saki (Ad.). 



42 JAPANESE M0LLUSK8, MURICID^. 

Marez (Phyllonotus) coronatus A. Ad. Thes. Conch., IV, pi. 400, f. 199. 

Cape St. John, Tsu-Saki (Ad.). 
Murex (Phyllonotus) unifasciatus A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 372 ; Index, p. 7. 

Uraga (Ad.). 
Murex (Pteronotus) pinnatus Wood. Japan (Dkr.) ; China. 
Murex (Pteronotus) brachypteron A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 371. 

Uraga (Ad.). 
Murex (Pteronotus) gouldii A. Ad. Ibid, p. 371. 

Tsu-Shima (Ad.). 
Murex (Pteronotus) stimpsoni A. Ad. Thes., Vol. 4, pi. 400, f. 196. 

Uraga (Ad.). 

Murex (Murioidea) cirrosa Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, p. 9, pi. 3, f. 17, 18; C. Icon.,, 
f. 138; P. Z. S., 1879, p. 200. 

E. of Goto Is., 58 fms. (St- John). 

Murex (Muricidea) diadema A. Adams. Satanomosaki (Ad.). 

Murex (Muricidea) puteolus A. Adams. Tsusaki (Ad.). 

Murex (Phyllonotus) ouspidatus Sby. Thes., IV. pi. 400, f. 203. 

Japan (Sowb.). 
Murex (Pteronotus) speciosus A. Ad. Thes., Vol. 4, pi. 392, f. 125. 

Yokohama (Sowb.). 

Ocinebra inermis Sby. Thes., Vol. 4, pi. 402, f. 235. Japan. 

Ocinebra contracta Reeve. C. Icon., f. 53 {Buccinum)-\-B. fimiculatum "Rve., 
I. c, f. 61. 

Japan (Stearns). Are 0. calcarea and innotahilis really distinct 
from the half grown of this species? AVhen adult it resembles 0. 
poulsoni somewhat. 

Ocinebra calcarea Dkr. Moll. Jap., pi. 1, f. 2. (Syn. Urosalpinx innotabilis Smith, 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 201, pi. 20, f. 32). 

N. of Kiushiu, 30 fms. (St. John). 

Ocinebra fimbriatula A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 201, pi. 20, f. 31. ( Trophon fim- 
}>riatulum Ad.). 

E. of Goto Is., 40 fms. (St. John). 

Ocinebra japonica Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 4, pi. 1, f. 14 ; Index, p. 8. (Syn. : M, 
taUtiufliaiu'iisis Urosse, J. de C, X, p. 56, pi. 1, f. 9). 

Deshiraa (Nuhn) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Ocinebra falcata Sby. Thes., Vol. 4, pi. 394, f. 149. 

Off Goto Is. (St. John) ; Kiushiu (Lischke). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, MURICID^. 43 

Ocinebra falcata var. adunca Powb. Rve., Conch. Icon., f. 61a. 

East coast, between Tokyo and Ooshima (Stearns). 

Some specimens are cream white with a subperipheral purple- 
brown zone; some are uniform dark purple-brown. The largest 
measures 6Q ram. alt. Operculum purpuroid, the apex somewhat 
below the middle of the outer margin. 
Ocinebra (Cerostoma) eurypteron Reeve. Voy. Samarang, pi. 8, f. 1. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Ocinebra (Cerostoma) emarginata i^owb. C. Icon., Ill, f. 1. 

Off Goto Is. (St. John) ; Boshiu (Stearns). 

Ocinebra (Cerostoma) foliata Martyn. Univ. Conch., pi. 66. Dkr., Index, p. 7, 
pi. 4, f. 10, 11. 

Northern Japan (Dkr.). 
Ocinebra (Cerostoma) plorator Adams & Reeve. Zool. Samarang, p. 38, pi. 8, f. 3. 

East coast, between Tokyo and Ooshima (Stearns). 

A single specimen larger than the type, but apparently this spe- 
cies. 

Operculum similar to that of Ocinebra adunca. 

Ocinebra (Cerostoma) roriflua Adams & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. ^S, pi. 8, f. 2 ; P. 
Z. S., 1879, p. 200. (Syn. : Murex monachus Crosse, J. de C, 1862, p. 55, pi. 1, f. 
8). 
Tsaulian (A. Ad.) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Goto Is, (St. John). 

Ocinebra (Cerostoma) fournieri Crosse. J. de Conch., IX, p. 352, pi. 16, f. 7. 
Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Ocinebra (Cerostoma) burnettii Ad. et Rve. Ann. Mag. 1875, p. 420 ; Voy. Sam- 
arang. p. 38, pi. VIII, f. 4, a, b. 

Endermo Harb., 4-7 fath., sandy mud. 

Ocinebra (Cerostoma) endermonis E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 420, Thes., 
IV, pi. 401, f. 213. 

Endermo Harb., 47 fath., sandy mud (St. John). 
Ocinebra (Cerostoma) burnetti Ad. & Rve. Thes., IV, pi. 392, f. 128. 

Japan. 
XJrosalpinx (T) birilefB Lischke. J. M. C, II, p. 32. 

Island of Oki, Boshiu (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Eapana bezoar Linne. Kiener, Coq. Viv., f. 42. (Purpura). 

Yokohama Bay, Tokyo Harbor (Stearns) ; Yedo, Nagasaki 
(Lischke) ; Deshima (Nuhn) ; Hakodate, Simoda (A. Ad.). 



44 JAPANESE MOLLUSK8, MURICID^. 

Rapana bezoar var. thomasiana Crosse. Crosse, Journ. de Conchyl., 1861, p. 268, 
pi. 9, 1(1. (iv. fhoitiasiana). 

Markets of Yokohama and Tokyo, a food mollusk (Stearns), 

Rapana bulbosa Solander. Tryon, Man. Vol. II, p. 20."?, pi. l.viii, f. 336. 

Japan (Dkr.) ; Yokohama Bay (Stearns), 
Rapana (Latiaxis) mawae Gray. Japan (Dkr.). 
Rapana (Latiaxis) deburghise Reeve. Dkr., Index, pi. 1, f. 5-7. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Rapana (Latiaxis) lischkeana Dkr. Index, p. 43, pi. ], f. 1, 2; pi. 13, f. 26, 27, 

Japan (Dkr.), 
Rapana (Latiaxis) japonica Dkr. Index, p. 43, pi. 13, f. 24, 25. 

Inland Sea of Japan (Dkr.). 
Rapana (Latiaxis) sallei Jouss. Bull. Soc. Zool. Franoe, 18S3, p. 187, pi. 10, f. 3. 

Japan Coast. 
Purpura rudolpbi Chemn. C. Icon., f. 10. 

Japan (Dkr,), 

Purpura persica Linn. Japan (Stearns). 

Purpura luteostoma (Chemn.) Dillw. Chemn., Conchyl. Cab., XI, p. 83, pi. 187, f. 
1800, 1801 ((Jood). 

Seta coast and Saruga coast (Stearns); Hakodate, Yedo (Lischke); 
Deshima (Dkr,), 

Purpura hronni Dkr. (Moll, Jap,, pi. 1, f, 23) is a rather short 
specimen, not completely mature. See also Lischke, J, M, C, I, pi. 
5, f. 17, and II, pi. 4, f. 20. (Nagasaki, Tatiyama, Deshima), 

Purpura echinata Blainv. C. Icon., sp. 33. 

Deshima (Nuhn) ; Nagasaki (Lischke), 

Purpura heyseana Dkr. Index, p. 40, pi. 13, f. 10, 11. 
Sea of Japan (Dkr.). 

Purpura alveolata Reeve. (+P, davigera Kiist,, tumulosa Lischke). Lischke, 
J. M. C, I, p. .'•,4, pi. 5, f. 12-16 ; Vol. JI, p. 39. 

Kamakura, I. of Oki, Boshiu, Seta coast (Stearns) ; Ooshima 
(Challenger; St, John) ; Nagasaki (Lischke); Deshima (Dkr.). 

Another synonym is P. prohlematica Baker (Proc, Rochester 
Acad. Sciences I, 1891, p, 135, pi. 11, f, 2, 3), So involved and dif- 
ficult is the literature of this group of Purjmra that we do not ven- 
ture to say what the ultimate specific designation of the Japanese 
forms will be. There can be little doubt that all of Lischke's figures 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CORALLIOPHILID^. 45 

cited above belong to one species. The numerous specimens col- 
lected by Mr. Stearns show both of Lischkes' forms and many inter- 
mediate between them, as well as other mutations. When com- 
pletely adult there are a few widely spaced denticles within the lip, 
as in P. luteostoma, from which this form differs mainly in the black- 
ish substance of the shell, which is conspicuously shown upon the 
eroded tubercles and within the aperture. Connecting specimens 
between this form and luteostoma probably occur. 

Purpura lapillus Lin. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 424. 

Hakodate (Stearns). 

Jopas sertum Brug. Japan (Dkr. ; Stearns). 

Rioinula ricinus Linne. Hachijoshima (Dkr.),- Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Eicinula morus Lam. Japan (Stearns). 

Sistrum undatum Chemn. {R.Jiscellum Reeve). Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Deshima 
(Nuhn). 

Sistrum tuberculatum Blainr. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 424. 

Shores of Toba and Oshima (St. John). 
Sistrum musiva Kiener. Icon. Coq. Viv. Purpura, pL 9, f. 22. 
Japan (Dkr.). 

Sistrum asperum Lam. C. Icon., sp. 13 {Ridnula). 
Japan (Dkr.). 

Sistrum sidereum Reeve. C. Icon., sp. 14 {Ricinula). 
Takano-Shima (Ad.). 

CORALLIOPHILID^. 

Coralliophila monodonta Q. &, G. Astrol., pi. .37, f. 9-11. 

Hakodate Bay (Schrenck). 
Coralliophila costularis Blainv. C. Icon., f. 6.3 (Purpura). 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Coralliophila jeffreysi Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 213, pi. 20, f. 48. 

Inland Sea, between Shikoku and Nippon, 22 fms. (St. John). 

Coralliophila stearnsii n. sp. PI. II, fig. 12. 

Shell pure white, resembling in form C. inflata Dkr. Whorls 6, 
convex, sculptured with longitudinal folds, 11 on penult, whorl, and 
strong spiral cords passing over but lower on the folds, alternating 
in size, densely scaly, deeply separated, 7 or 8 on penult, whorl. 



46 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TRITONTD-S:. 

Aperture ovate, smooth within; umbilicus small. Alt. 18, diam. 
12 mm. 

Japan (Stearns). 

Leptoconchus peronii Lam. {Striatum Riipp.). Kino-o-Shiiua (Ad.). 
Leptoconchus sohrenckii Lisohke. J. M. C, II, p. 45, pi. 4, f. 9, 10. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Leptoconolius rostratus A. Ad. Dkr., Index, p. 45, pi. 6, f. 20, 21. 

Kino-0-Shinia, on Madrepores (Ad.) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Balbus rapa Linne. {Rapa papyracea Lam., of authors). Japan (Dkr.). 

(Toenioglossa). 
TKITONID.E. 
Tritonium tritonis L. Ohosaka (Lischke). 
Tritonium nodiferum Lamarck. 

See next species, with which this is united by Tryon, Dunker and 
others. 
Tritonium sauliae Reeve. Lischke, J. M. C, I, p. 45; II, p. 3.3, pi. 1, 2. 

Inland Sea, Sagami (Stearns) ; Yedo, Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Tati- 
yama, Tsu-Saki, Takano-Shima, Bay of Yedo (A. Ad.). 

Tritonium (Simpulum) costatus (Born). Challenger Gastrop, 1873-6, XV, p. 390 
(Sidney). Syn. 2". {Simpulum) olearhim Auet. Tryon, Man. Vol. Ill, p. 11, pi. 
Ill, f. 19. 

Yedo, Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Tatiyama (A. Ad.) ; all along the 
coast from Tokyo to Ojima (Stearns). 
Tritonium pileare L. C. Icon., f. 23. 

Japan (Stearns; Dkr.). 
Tritonium aquatile Reeve. C. Icon., f. 24. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Tritonium clandestinum (Chemn.) Lam. C. Icon., f. 13. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Tritonium labiosum Wood. C. Icon., f. 52. 

Uraga (A. Ad.). 
Tritonium dorsuosum A. Adams. Ibid, 420. 

Tatiyama (Adams). 
Tritonium lotorium Linne. .Japan (Dkr.). 
Tritonium dunkeri Lischke. Lischke, J. M. C, I, p. 49, pi. 3, f. 1, 2. 

Japan (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 



JAPANESE MOLLU8K8, TRITONIDiE. 47 

Tritonium moritinctum Reeve. C. Icon., f. 49. 

Tatiyama (A. Ad.). 
Tritonium vespaoeus Lam. Japan (Stearns). 
Tritonium tenuiliratum Lischke. J. M. C, III, p. 30, pi. 2, f. 18, 19. 

South coast of Japan (Lisqhke). 
Tritonium excavatum Reeve. Lischke, J. M. C, III, pL 2, f. 15-17. 

Japan, Tokyo (Stearns) ; Yedo and Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Tritonium lobbeokei Lischke. J. M. C, II, p. 36, pL 4, f. 13, 14. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Tritonium reticosum A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1870, p. 420. 

Japan (Cuming; Adams). 
Tritonium lirostoma A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), v, p. 419. 

Simidzu (Adams). 
Tritonium papillosum A. Adams. Ibid, p. 419. 

Takano-Shima (Adams). 
Tritonium nodiliratum A. Adams. Ibid, p. 419. 

Japan (Cuming coll.). 
Tritonium tringa A. Adams. Ibid, p. 420. 

Uraga (Adams). 
Distortrix reticulata Link. C. Icon., f. 41, 45, 46, 102. 

Japan (Dkr., as Tritonium dedpiens Rve. and reticulare Linn.). 

Priene oregonensis Redfield. Ann. Lye. N. H., Nevr York, 1846, IV, p. 165, pi. 
VI, f. 2. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Hakodate (Stimji.) ; Okosiriand Aniwa 
Bay (A. Ad.). 

Gyrineum rana (Linne). {R. albivaricosa Kve.). Tryon, Man. Vol. Ill, p. 38, 
pi. 18, f. 5, 6. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Kii coast (Stearns). 
Gyrineum subgranosum Beck. Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 
Gyrineum bufo Chemn. Ind. Moll. Mor. Jap., p. 31, pi, 5, f. 3, 4 (var.). 

Kiusiu (Dkr.). 
Gyrineum lampas Linne. C. Icon., II, pi. 10, f. 30b. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Kii coast (Stearns). 
Gyrineum graniferum Lam. Japan (Dkr.). 
Gyrineum affine Brod. Rve., Conch. Icon., Ranella, f. 19. 

Japan (Stearns). 



48 JAPANESE MOLLUSK8, CA8SIDID.E. 

Gyrineum cruentatum Sowb. Japan (Stearns). 
Gyrineum ranelloides Rve. C. Icon., f. 10. 

Kiusiu (Lischke). Tryon considers this a synonym of cruentaia, 

Gyrineum tuberculatum Brod. Japan (Dkr.). 
Gyrineum lamellosum Dkr. Japan (Dkr.). 
Gyrineum (Biplex) perca Perry {pulchra Gray). 

Inland Sea (Stearns ; 33 specimens) ; Kiusiu (Lischke). 

CASSIDIDiE. 

Cassis cornuta Linne. Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Cassis rufa Linne. C. Icon., pi. 8, f. 20a. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Cassis pila Reeve. Rv., Conch. Icon., V, f. 21. 
Japan (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Cassis japonica Reeve. Rv., Conch. Icon., f. 23 a, h. 

Japan (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Tatiyama, Tsusaki (A. 
Ad.). 

This form differs from C. pila in having the upper surface and 
spire densely granulated. It is typically without varices. Some 
specimens lack the rows of brown blotches. 

Cassis coronulata Sowb. C. Icon., f. .31. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Ooshima, Kii (Stearns). 

Cassis strigata Gmel. Rve., Conch. Icon., V, f. 26. 

Sagami Coast (Stearns, 25 specimens) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; 
Mososeki, Seto-Uchi (A. Ad.). 

The specimens agree exactly with Reeves' beautiful figure, except 
that the inner lip exhibits some short callous wrinkles above. 

Cassis strigata Gmel. var. Japan (Stearns). 

Several shells before me differ from the type in being smaller, and 
having spiral grooves over the entire body-whorl. One of them 
lacks varices ; two others have each a single varix near the begin- 
ning of the body-whorl. 

Cassis vibex Linne. Japan (Dkr.) ; east coast (Stearns). 
Cassis pirum Lam. C. Icon., f. 29 [zeylanlca Lam.). 
Japan (Dkr.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, DOLIID.E. 49 

Cassis achatina var. inornata Pils. PI. II, fig. 17. 

Japan (Stearns). 

Shell oblong with conical spire, the body-whorl smooth, shouldered 
above, the shoulder weakly nodulous ; suture broadly margined. 
Whorls of spire angulated and nodulous, spirally striated above the 
angle, the upper ones decussated by fine radial folds. Nucleus 
nacoid, consisting of 3i smooth, white, rounded whorls. Outer lip 
reflexed and spotted, having obscure traces of teeth below ; colum- 
ella smooth ; base of body-whorl smooth. Alt. 65, diam. 40 mm. ; 
alt. of aperture 46 mm. 

Oniscia macandrewi G. B. Sowerby, Jr. PI. II, fig. .3. 
P. Z. S., 188S, 11. 567, pi. 28, f. 1, 2. 

Japan (Hungerford, Stearns). 

Shell similar to 0. cancellata, but broader above, ponderous, the 
spiral cords not in the least prickly where they cross the longitudi- 
nal ribs ; the latter being stout and rounded, nearly as wide as the 
interspaces. Buff-white, maculated and obscurely two-banded with 
brown, speckled with the same, especially on the ribs and lip-varix. 
Aperture and columella as in cancellata, but sometimes lacking 
rugosities between the lip-teeth. 

Alt. 45, diam. 29 mm.; alt. of aperture 36 mm. 

Alt. 36, diam. 24 mm.; alt. of aperture 30 mm. 

DOLIID.ffi:. 

Dolium fasciatum Martini. C. Icon., sp. 11. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Dolium zonatum Green. Tr. Alb. Inst., I, p. 131 (D. crerndatvm Phil.). 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; S. of Tokyo Bay (Stearns). 

Dolium lischkeanum KUster. C. Cab. p. 71, pi. 62, f. 1. 
Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Dolium tessellatum Lam. Japan Sea (Dkr., Index, p. 57.) 
Dolium chinense Dillw. Japan (Dkr.). 

Dolium luteostoma KUst. Dkr., Nov. Conch., p. 104, pi. 35, 36 ( " D. jnponicnm " ); 
Index, p. 58. 

East coast south of Tokyo (Stearns, young shells only) ; Yedo, 
Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Hakodate (Schrenck). 

Dolium perdix Linn. Japan (Stearns). 
Dolium pomum Linne. Japan (Dkr,), 

Pyrula reticulata Lam. Tokyo (Dkr.) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Kuro-Shima (A, Ad.) ; 
Matsu-yeno-hama Coast (Stearns), 

4 



50 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CYPRiEID^. 

CYPR^ID^. 

The claims of some of the foUowiug species to a place in the 
Japanese fauna are of doubtful validity. 

Cyprsea sourra Linn. Roberts, Man. Conch., VII, pi. 2, f. 19-21. 

Japan (Stearns, No. 1087). 
Cypraea testudinaria Linne. Man. Conch., VII, pi. 1, f. 9, 10. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Cypraea Isabella Linno. Man. Conch., VII, p. 1G.5, pi. 1, f, 6, 7. 

Nagasaki (Lischke, Stearns). 
Cypraea oarneola Linne. Japan (Dkr.). 
Cypraea fimbriata Gmelin. Man. Conch. VII, p. 166, pi. 5, f. 76-78. 

Japan (Reeve) ; Deshima (Nuhn) ; Kino-o-Shiraa (Ad.) ; Naga- 
saki (Lischke). 

Cypraea macula Ad. Roberts in Tryon, Man. Conch., VII, p. 169, pi. -1, f. 71, 72. 

Japan (A. Ad. ; Stearns) ; N. coast of Tango (Gaines, in Stearns 
coll.). 
Cypraea felina Gmelin. Man. Conch., VII, p. 169, pi. 4, f. 62-55, 59, 60. 

Nagasaki ; Kino-o-Shima (Lischke). 
Cypraea negleota Sowerby. Man. Conch., VII, p. 170, pi. 4, f. 61, 62, 63. 

Japan (Sowerby). 
Cypraea cylindrica Born. Conch. Cab. p. 12, 32, pi. III. f. 6, 7 ; pi. IX, f. 5-7. 

Japan (Weinkauff). 
Cypraea hungerfordi Sowerby. P. Z. S., 1888, p. 208, pi. 11, f. 1-3. 

Japan ? (Sovvb.). 

Cypraea caurica Linne. Man. Conch., Ill, p. 171, pi. 5, f. 88-90. 
Japan (Lischke) ; Satanomosaki (Ad.). 

Cypraea maaritiana Linn. Man. Conch., VII, p. 173, pi. 7, f. 8-11. 
Bay of Yedo (Lischke, Stearns) ; Hakodate (Scbrenck). 

Cypraea caputserpentis Linne. Man. Conch., VII, p. 173, pi. 6, f. 98-100. 

Japan (McAndrew ; Stearns, " very rare ") ; Nagasaki (Lischke); 
Tanabe, Kino-o-Shima, Tago and Tsu-Shima (A. Ad.). 

Cypraea arabica Linne. Man. Conch., VII, p. 174, pi. 8, f. 18, 19. 
Yedo (Lischke, Stearns) ; Tago (Ad.). 

Cypraea reticulata Martyn. Man. Conch., VII, p. 174, pi. 8, f. 21. 22. 

Japan (Lischke, Stearns) ; Kino-o-Shima (Ad.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CYPR^IDiE. 51 

Cypraea moneta L. Roberts in Tryon, Man. Conch., VII, pi. 2.3, f. GO, 01. 

Japan, not common (Stearns). 

Part of the specimens are white beneath, part yellow. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) Tatiyama and Tanabe (Ad.) ; Hakodate 
(Schrenck). 
Cypraea annulus L. Roberts, Man. Conch., VII, p. 178, pi. 11, f. 57-61. 

Nagasaki, Japan (Lischke, Stearns). 
Cypraea tigris Linnt'. Man. Conch., VII, p. 180, pi. 11, f. 49. 
Yedo (Lischke) ; Satsuma (Stearns), rare. 

Cypraea vitellus Linne. Japan (Dunker, Lischke, Stearns) ; Kino-o-Shima (A. Ad.). 
Cypraea onyx Linne. Man. Conch., VII, p. 183, pi. 1.3, f. 77-81. 

Japan (Stearns) ; Tsu-Saki, Tatiyama, Tanabe (A. Ad.) ; Naga- 
saki (Lischke). 

Cypraea lynx Linne. Man. Conch., VII, p. 183, pi. 14, f. 86, 87. 

Japan, quite rare (Stearns) ; Yedo (Lischke). 
Cypraea errones Linne. Roberts, Man. Conch., VII, p. 183, pi. 14, f. 88, 89. 

Southern Japan (Lischke). 
Cypraea pallida Gray. Conchyl. Cab., p. 60, pi. 18, f. 5, 8, 11. 

Japan (Lischke, Stearns). 

Cypraea asellus Linn. Man. Conch., VII, p. 187, pi. 16, f. 34,. 

Japan (Stearns). 

Cypraea clandestina Linne. Man. Conch., VII, p. 187, pi. 16, f. 37, 38. 

Tsu-Sima ; Tatiyama ; Kino-o-Shima (Ad.). 
Cypraea cribraria Linne. .Japan (Dkr.). 
Cypraea punctata Linne. Conchyl. Cab., p. 98, pi. 30, f. 6, 9. 

Japan (Lischke). 

Cypraea lamarcki Gray. Man. Conch., VII, p. 192, pi. 18, f. 96, 97. 

Japan (Sowerby). 
Cypraea miliaris Gmelin. Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Cypraea erosa Linne. Man. Conch., VII, p. 192, pi. 18, f. 90, 100, 1. 

Yokohama (Stearns) ; Tanabe and Takano-Shima (A. Ad.) 

Cypraea poraria Linne. Man. Conch., VII, p. 193, pi. 18, f. 2, 3. 
Japan (Stearns). 

Cypraea helvola Linne. Man. Conch., VII, p. 194, pi. 19, f. 8, 9. 
Japan (Lischke, Stearns). 



52 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, OVULID^. 

Cypraea (Pustularia) staphylaea Linne. Man. Conch., VII, p. 19fi, pi. 20, f. 39-41. 

Japan (Stearns) ; Satanomosaki, Tatiyama, Takano-Shima (A. 
Ad.). 
Cypraea (Pustularia) nucleus Linn. Man. Conch., VII, p. 197, pi. 20, f. 48, 49. 

Japan (Stearns). 

Cypraea (Epona) globulus Linn. Yokohama (Sttarns) ; Satanomosaki (Ad.) ; Bun- 
ker reports C. cicercula, also. 

Trivia oryza Lamarck. Man. Conch., VII, p. 200, pi. 21, f. 82, 83. 

Japan (Lischke). 
Trivia grando Gaskoin. Roberts, Man. Conch., VII, p. 200, pi. 21, f. 86, 87. 
Goto ; Simoda (A. Ad.). 

Erato callosa Adams & lleeve. Zool. Samarang, p. 25, pi. 10, f. 32. 

Tokyo Bay, Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Deshiina (Nuhn). 
Erato lachryma Gray. Thes., Ill, p. 82, pi. 219, f. 4-6. 
Kamakura, Tokyo Harbor, etc. (Stearns). 

ovuLiD.a:. 

Ovula ovum Linnc. Man. Conch., VII, p. 246, pi. 1, f. 11, 12." 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Ovula rhodia Ad. Conchyl. Cab., p. 180, pi. 46, f. 14, 15. 

Nemoto, Boshiu (Stearns) ; Tokyo Bay (Lischke). 

Ovula triticea Lam. Thes. Conch., II, p. 474, pi. 101, f. 99, 100. 

Japan (Dkr.). A doubtful species. 

Ovula lactea Lamarck. Man. Conch., VII, p. 247, pi. 2, f. 23-25. 

Kino-o-Shima (Adams). 
Ovula pyriformis Sowerby. Man. Conch., VII, p.. 247, pi. 2, f. 43-45. 
Satanomosaki (A. Adams). 

Ovula bulla Ad. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 21, pi. 6, f. 5. 

Satanomosaki, 55 fms. (A. Adams). 

Tryon unites this and the next to 0. margarita Sowb. 

Ovula umbilicata Sowerby. Conchyl. Cab., p. 178, pi. 46; f. 9-12. 

Goto Is., 71 fms. (Adams). 

Ovula concinna Adams k Reeve. Zool. Samarang, p. 22, pi. 6, f. 8. 

Mino-Shima (Adams). 
Ovula punctata Duclos. Conchyl. Cab. p. 182, pi. 47, f. 6, 7. 

Goto Is., 48 fms. (Adams). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, OVULID^. 53 

Ovula buUata Ad. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 28, pi. 6, f. 12. 

Japan, Goto Is. (Adams). 

Ovula scitula A. Adams. Conohyl. Cab., p. 185, pi. 47, f. 14, 15. 

Tsu-Shima (A. Ad.). Tryon unites this to 0. bullata. 

Ovula Striatula Sowerby. Conchyl. Cab., p. 186, pi. 48, f. 2, 3. 

Tsu-Saki, 55 fnis. (A. Ad.). 

Ovula dentata Ad. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 21, pi. 6, f. 4, 

Goto Is., 4 fins. (Adams), 

^vula dorsuosa Hinds. Conch. Cab., p. 187, pi. 48, f. 6, 7. 

Goto Is., 48 fms. (Adams). 

Ovula obtusa Sowerby. Man. Conch., VII, p. 251, pi. -3, f. 87, 88. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fras. ; Kuro-Shima, 39 fms. (A. Ad.). 

Ovula formosa Ad. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, pi. 6, f. 6 a, h. 

Kino-0-Shima (A. Adams). 
Cyphoma elongata A. Ad. Joura. Linn. Soc, VII, p. 96. 
Goto, 48 fms. (A. Ad.). 

Volvula volva Linn. Man. Conch., VII. p. 252. pi. 4, f. 94, 95. 

Ojima (Stearns) ; Kiusiu (Lischke) ; Satanoraosaki, 55 fms. (Ad.). 

Volvula recurva Ads. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 21, pi. 6, f. 3. 

Satanomosaki, 55 fms. (Ad.). 

Volvula philippinarum Sowerby. Thes. Conch., II, p. 481, pi. 100, f. 57, 53. 

Japan (Dkr.). Tryon makes suhreflexa Sovvb., reported by Adams 
from Tsu-Shima, a synonym, and also carpenteri Dkr. 

Volvula carpenter! Dunker. Index, p. 102, pi. 13, f. 1, 2. 

Volvula adamsii Dunker. Index, p. 102, pi. 13, f. 3, 4. 

Volvula birostris Lamarck. Man. Conch., VII, p. 253, pi. 4, f. 10, 11. 

Japan (Sowerby). 
Volvula (Neosimnia) acuminata Ads. <fc Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 21, pi. 6, f. 1. 
Kuro-Shima, 35 fras. (Ad.). 

STROMBID^. 

Strombus latissimus Linne. Ohosaka (Lischke). 
Strombus lentiginosus Linn. Japan (Stearns). 
Strombus aurisdianae var. laevis Perry. 

S. aurisdiance (part) Linne, Dillwyn and of Sowerby, Thes., I. 

S. laevis Perry, Conchology, pi. 13, f. 4 (1811). 



54 JAPANKSE MOLLUSK8, STROMBIDiE. 

S. " guttatus Martini," of authors (=Pugil flavescens, albo, gut- 
tatus, IcEvis Martini, Conch. Cab., II, p. 87, f. 840). 

Japan (Dkr.). 

As Linnaeus included both the rough and snaooth forms in his 
citations and cabinet under the name cmris-dianae, it is evident that 
the present form must bear the name given by Perry, who first of 
binomial authors distinguished it. The well-known rough form 
with smooth mouth retaining Linnreus' term, of which S. striatogran- 
osiis Morch is a synonym. If the striation of the posterior sinus of 
the aperture proves racially constant, this form (C. Icon., f. 36 b; 
Thes., f. 98, 99) may be called var. lamarckii Gray. The other 
variety, melanostomus Swains., is generally recognized (C. Icon., f. 
37). 

Strombus aratrum Martyn. 

Alata aratrum Martyn, Univ. Conch., pi. 1 (1789). 

Strombus auris Dianae Zelandiae Novae, etc., Chemn., C. Cab., X^ 
p. 210, pi, 150, f. 1485, 1486. 

S. auris dianae var. Gmel., Dillw. 

S. chemnitzii Pfr. Krit. Reg. zu Mart. u. Chem., pp. viii, 96 (1840). 

Strombus acutus Perry, Conchol., pi. 12, f. 2 (1811). 

Strombus pacificus Swains, Exot. Conch., pi. 17. 

Strombus " novwzelandicB Chemn.," Rve., C. Icon., f. 35. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 

The above names are absolute synonyms of S. aratrum. S. aus- 
tralis has been considered a variety of the above species by Tryon,. 
but in the absence of intermediate forms may well be retained dis- 
tinct, being distinguished by the characters recited below. It has 
not been reported from Japan. 

S. australis Sowb., Thes., I, p. 36, pi. 9, f. 96, 97 (1847). 

Coronal tubercles on body-whorl small and numerous, several 
strong median cords on body-whorl, and spiral sculpture much 
stronger throughout ; columellar callus more colored ; basal and 
upper wing processes bhick-tipped, and lip black-edged when fully 
adult; posterior sinus of aperture with two stronger cords. 

Strombus succinctus L. var. robustus Sowb. Sowb., P. Z. S., 1874, p. 599. pi. 72, 
f. 5, .5a. 

Hong-Kong (Cuthill ; Sowb.) ; Japan (Stearns) ; Tatiyama, Oki- 
noShima (Ad.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CERITHIIDiE. 55 

Strombus japonicus Reeve. Rt., Conch., con., f. 42 ; Lischke, J, M. C, I, pi. 5, f. 

7. 

Kishiu (Stearns, 70 specimens) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Deshima 
(Nuhn) ; Takano-Shima and Torao (A. Ad.). 

The specimens are larger and darker colored than Reeve's figure, 
but agree well with Lischke's. 

Strombus urceus Linne {floridus Lam. ; mutabilis Swains). Japan (Dkr., as 

flosculoms Martini; Stearns); Kiusiu (Lischke). 
Strombus ustnlatus Schum. {urceus Auct. not Linn.) Japan (Dkr. ; Stearns) ; 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Strombus dentatus L. var.corrugatus Ads. & Rve. A. &. R., Voy. Samarang, Moll. 

pi. 10, f. 19. 

Japan (Stearns). 

Strombus gibberulus Linn. Japan (Stearns). 

Strombus samar (Chemn.). Dillw. Tryon, Man. Conch., VII, p. 121, pi. 8, f. 88. 

Japan (Stearns). 

Strombus luhuanus Linne. Tokyo (Dkr.) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Takano-Shima 

and Tago (A. Ad.). 
Strombus Isabella Lam. Southern Japan (Lischke). 
Pterocera cbiragra Linne. Man. Conch. VII, p. 126. Japan (Dkr.). 
Pterocera millepeda Linne. Japan (Dkr.). 
Pterocera lambis Linne. Japan (Dkr.). 

Pterocera bryonia Gmel. Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Hakodate (Schrenck). 
Rostellaria powisii Petit. Man. Conch. VII, p. 128. Japan (Dkr.). 
Seraphs terebellum Linne. {Terehdlum punctatum and subulatum of authors). 
Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Nagasaki and Yobuko (A. Ad.). 

CERITHIID.ffi:. 

Cerithium echinatum Lam. Tryon, Man. Conch., IX, pi. 20, f. 25 ; Dkr., Index, 
p. 106. 

Japan (Stearns ; Dkr.). 
Cerithium guinaicum Phil. Abbild. Ill, pi. 1, f. 13. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Cerithium columna Sowb. Thes., pi. 178, f. 55-58. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Cerithium dialeucum Phil. Abbild., Ill, pi. 1, f. 5. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 



56 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CERITHIID^. 

Cerithium kobelti Dunker. Index, p. IDC), pi. 4, f. 8, 9. 

Ja{)tin (Dunker); Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

Cerithium humile Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 9, pi. 2, f. 17; J. M. C, in, p. 50, pi. 3, f. 
IS, 19, 20. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Deshima (Nuhn), 

Cerithium granosum Kiener. Coq. Viv., pi. 4, f. 3. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Cerithium carbonarium Philippi. Challenger Gustrop, 1873-6, XV, p. 531 ; (Syn.: 
C. bornii Rve., Coneh. Icon., XY, pi. V, f. 26). 

Ooshima (Challenger). 

Cerithium rugosum Wood var. E. A. Smith, Ann. Mag., 1875, Vol. XVI, p. 106. 

Ooshima (St. John). 
Cerithium (Colina) macrostoma Hinds. Hds., Voy. Sulphur, pi. 16, f. 12. 

Banda, Boshiu (Stearns) ; Sts. of Macassar (Hds.) ; Dumaguete 
and other Philippine localities (Cuming, et al.). 

A peculiar little species, showing great variation in the hundred 
or more specimens collected by Mr. Stearns. The extensive synonymy 
is given I believe correctly by Tryon, Man. Conch., IX, p. 142. 

Clava sinensis Gmel. (obcliscus Brug.) Japan (Dkr., as Vertagus chinensis 
Chenin.). 

Clava aluco Linm'. Man. Conch. IX, p. 145. pi. 27, f. 38. Japan (Dkr.). 

Clava fasciata Brug. Sowb., Thes., II, pi. 176, f. 6. 

Japan (Stearns ; 53 collected). 
Clava attenuata Phil. Abbild., I, pi. 1, f. 2; Man. Conch. IX, p. 148. 

Corea Straits (Ad.). 

Clava kochi Philij)pi. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1875, XVI, p. 105; Abbild., Ill, pi. 1, f. 

3. 

Banda, Boshiu (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Tango Coast 
(Gaines) ; Matoza Harb., 6 fath. (St. John). 

Clava turrita Sby. Ann. Mag., 1875, Vol. XVI, p. 106 ; Man. Conch. IX, p. 147. 

Ooshima, 8 fath. (St. John). 

Clava pfefferi Dunker. Index, p. 108, pi. 4, f. 12-14. 

Japan (Dkr.). Tryon considers this a synonym of C. iurritum. 

Clava asper Linn. Japan (Stearns). 

Clava vertagus Linn. Japan (Steams). 

Bittium pusillum Dkr. Moll. Jap., j). 1 1, j)!. 2, f. 6. 

Deshima (Dkr.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CERITHIOPSID^. 57 

3ittium soalatum Dkr. Index, p. 108. 
Japan (Dkr.). 

Bittium oosimense Watson. Challenger Gastrop. XV, p. 548, pi. XXXIX, f. 1. 

Ooshitna (Cliall.). Must be somewhat like the preceding. 

Totamides (Telescopium) telesoopium Linne. Japan (Stearns, one poor specimen). 
Potamides (Tympanotonos) fluviatilis P. & M. Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Japan 

(Stearns). 

Potamides (Batillaria) zonalis Brug. Lischke., J. M. C, I, pi. 6, f. 15, 16. 

Tokyo Harbor (Stearns); Ooshima (St. John); Nagasaki (Lischke); 
Yokohama (Martens). 

The following forms are closely allied. 

Potamides (Batillaria) cumingi Crosse. Lampania cumingi Crosse, J. de C, 
1802, p. 54, pi. 1, f. 10, 11 : J. M. C, I, pi. 6, f. 11-14. 

Tokyo Harbor; Baiida, Boshiu (Stearns) ; Hakodate (Schreuck) 
Potamides (Batillaria) multiformis Lischke. J. M. C, I, pi. 6, f. 1-10. 

Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

The specimens correspond best with Lischke's figs. 7, 8, but are 
white-handed at suture. 
Potamides (Batillaria) aterrima Dkr. Index, p. 109, pi. 5, f. 7, 8. 

Japan (Dkr.). Hardly distinct from the preceding. In fact all 
the above forms of the P. zonalis group should probably be consid- 
ered varieties of that species. Mr. R. B. Newton has shown that 
Batillaria Bens, should replace Lavipania Gray as a subgeneric 
name for these forms. 

CERITHIOPSID.a:. 
Cerithiopsis subreticulata Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 9, pi. 2, f. 10. 

Deshima (Dkr.). 

Cerithiopsis rosea A. Ad. Ann. Mag. X. H. (3), VII, 1861, p. 130. 

Tsu-Shima, 16 fms. (Ad.). 
Cerithiopsis cerina, baculum, olavula A. Ad. Ibid. 

MinoShima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
-Cerithiopsis paxillus, pagodula A. Ad. t. c, p. 131. 

Corea Strait, 46 fms. (Ad.). 
Sella dextroversa Ad. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 45, pi. 11, f. 31. 

Tsu-Shima, 16 fms.; Corea Strait, 46 fms. (Ad.). 
Sella cingulata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., VII, 1861, p. 131. 

Tsu-Shima, 16 fms. (Ad.). 



58 JAPANESE M0LLUSK8, TRIFORID^. 

TRIFORID^. 

Triforis fusca Dkr. Moll. Jap., pi. 2, f. 22. 

Kamakura, Tatagama. Boshiu, Tokyo Harbor (Stearns) ; Naga- 
saki (Lischke) ; Deshiina (Nuhn); N. coast of Tango (Gaines). 

Triforis violacea Q. & G. Astrol., pi. 55, f. 22, 2.3 ; Man. Conch. IX, p. 182. 

Deshima (Dkr.). 
Triforis granulata A. & R. Zool. Samarang, pi. 11, f. .JSa, b. 
Triforis exilis Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 10, pi. 2, f. 9. 

Deshima (Dkr.). 
Triforis conspersus (A. Ad.) E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag.. 1875, Vol. XVI, p. 106. 

Cape Shima, 18 fath., sand (St. John). 
Triforis purpuratus n. sp. 

Shell purple; eylindric-fusiform, the lower three whorls of nearly 
equal diameter, those above tapering to form a long cone somewhat 
over one-third the shell's length. Whorls 10, those of the spire 
bearing three equal spiral series of rounded beads and a small 
smooth thread immediately above the suture; last whorl with four 
bead-series, the lower one nearly smooth, and on the base two smooth 
ribs with clathrate intervals. Aperture as in T. granulata A. & R.^ 
but tube very short, not closed. Alt. 5*4, diam. 1*8 mm. 

Kamakura (F. Stearns). 

Triforis (Viriola) corrugatus Hinds. Ann. Mag., 1875, Vol. XVI, p. 106. 

Cape Shima, 18 fathoms, sand (St. John). 

Not so stout a shell as the next species, judging by Singapore 
specimens before me. 

Triforis (Viriola) tricincta Dkr. {cingulata Dkr. not Ad.; dunkeri Jouss.) Moll. 
Jap., pi. 2, f. 1. 

Kamakura, Tatagama, Boshiu, Tokyo Harbor (Stearns); N. 
shore of Tango (Gaines). 

Dunker's figures of a young shell give but a poor idea of the adult 
of this fine species. The three names given above are all founded 
on the one original description of Dunker. 

PLANAXID^. 
Planaxis pyramidalis Gmel. Nagasaki (Lischke, J. M.C., II, p. 70). 

Planaxis sulcatus Bom. Ann. Mag., 1875, Vol. XVI, p. 104; Man. Conch. IX, p^ 
276. 

Shore at Ooshima (St. John). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, VERMETID.E. 59 

Planaxis cingulatus (Jld. Otia Conch., p. 140. 

Ousiina, under stones below water-mark (Stimpson). 

TKICHOTROPID.a;. 

Trichotropis cedo-nulli A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 2, f. 7 a, b. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fme. ; Goto Is., 48 fms. (Adams). 

Trichotropis bicarinata Broderip & Sby. Conch. Icon., XIX, p!. 1. f. 2. 

Aniwa Bay, 17 fms. (Ad.). 
Trichotropis borealis Brod. & Sowb. Thes., Ill, p. 321, pi. 285, f. 1-3. 

Castle Point, Manchuria, 37 fms. (A. Ad.). 
Trichotropis inermis Hinds. Thes., Ill, p. 321, pi. 285, f. 14. 

Okosiri Island, 35 fms. (A. Ad.). 

Trichotropis insignis Middendorff. Mai. Rossica, II, p. 107, pi. 10, f. 7-9; Ann. 
Mag. N, H., 1876, XVI, p. 103. 

Akishi, 3 to 4 fath. (St. John) ; Aniwa Bay (Ad.). 
Trichotropsis unicarinata Bred. & Sowb. Conch. Icon.. XIX, pi. 2, f. 8. 

Yamada Harbor, 7 fms. (St. John). 
Trichotropis quadricarinata A. Ad. Conch. Icon., pi. 2, f. 9 a, b. 

Mino-Shima (A. Adams). 

Separatista separatista Dillwyn (S. chemnitzii A. Ad.). Dkr., Index, pi. 2, f. 1, 
2. 

Nemoto, Bishiu (Stearns). 

VERMETID.ffi:. 
Thylacodes imbricatus Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 17, pi. 2, f. 18; J. M. C, I, p. 83. 

Yedo, Nagasaki (Lischke) : Deshima (Nuhn) ; Manchiirian and 
and Japanese coasts (A. Ad.). Lives on stones. 

Thylacodes nodosorugosus Lischke. J. M. C, I, p. 84, pi. 5, f. 1-4. 

Ohosaka, on Tridacna squamosa (Lischke). 

Thylacodes medusae Pilsbry. Plates IV, and V. 
Pro.". A. N. S., Phila., 1891, p. 471, pi. 17, 18. 

Saruga coast, on shells (Stearns). 

A large species, nearly always living in clusters, attached gener- 
ally to shells. The young form an irregular spiral, the whorls of 
which rest prone upon the base of attachment. As the tube increases 
in diameter it becomes carinated on the lower outer portion, or the 
part corresponding to the " shoulder " of the whorl in a regularly 
spiral gasteropod. At this stage the whorls become more laxly 
coiled, and when not too closely clustered, present the appearance of 



60 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, VERMETID^, 

such planorboid forms as T. masier Dh., T. atra Rouss, etc. This 
stage is shown in the cluster pictured on pi. IV. The subsequent 
growth is erect and but slightly spiral, the tube generally contracting 
slightly in diameter, and cylindrical in form. The sculpture consists 
of narrow longitudinal cords at rather wide intervals, the spaces 
being occupied by a variable number of threads, (usually three) of 
which the middle one is larger. Irregular growth-lines crenulate 
the longitudinals. This sculpture is normally developed upon all 
sides of the tube. Upon the latter part of the free portion it is often 
subobsolete. The aperture is circular in adult shells, at right angles 
to the tube, and white within. The external surface is of a pale 
brown tint. No internal septa were found in numerous broken spec- 
imens; and although the shells were apparently alive when collected, 
no opercula were preserved in them, the absence of this organ being 
one of the characteristics of Thylacodes. 

The dimensions may be seen in the figures, which are of natural 
size. The diameter of the tubes at the aperture averages 13 mm. 

The embryonic shell, at the time it becomes attached, is bulimiform, 
glossy and smooth ; lying upon its side. The first whorl formed 
after attachment takes place is perfectly planorboid, showing the 
nuclear shell in the center. 

This species differs from Vermetus imhricatm Dkr. in lacking the 
imbricating growth-strije of that form. As figured by Dunker V. 
imbricatus is a planorboid form, like V. masier Dh., atra Rouss, etc., 
but it may possibly be an immature shell. 

T. medusce is apparently allied to V. polyphragmus Sassi, V. denti- 
jerus Lam. and V. novce-hollandioe Rouss, but it differs from them 
in having the sculpture developed over the whole circumference of 
the tube, not confined to its upper surface, or the part corresponding 
to the base of the shell in ordinary gasteropods, as it is in those spe- 
cies. 

Spiroglyphus planorbis Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. IS, pi. 2, f. Ifi 
Deshima, on T. imhricatus. (Dkr.). 

Siliquaria (Pyxipoma) lactea Linne. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 191, pi. 58, f. 2G. 
Japan (Dkr.). 

Siliquaria (Agathirses) cumingii Morch. Man. Conch., VIII, p. H)0, pi. 57, f. lit; 
pi. 58, f. 21. 

Nemoto, Boshiu (Stearns) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, LITTORINID.^E. 61 

Siliquaria (Agathirses) australis Quoy. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 189. 

Nenioto, Boshiii ; Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). Many small speci- 
mens. 

Vermetus tokyoensis n. sp. PI. I, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

Shell small, solitary, composed of numerous very slowly enlarging 
whorls, oval or round in section, entirely prone, forming an irregu- 
lar recumbent spiral, or an amorphous combination of spirals, all in 
contact, or the last free at the aperture ; nearly smooth, but showing 
in some places irregular concentric costulje or wrinkles; diameter 
of whorl at aperture U mm. Earlier whorls showing two strong, 
rather sharp parietal laminje, and a very slight columellar cord ; 
the section being rather dumb-bell shaped (fig. 10). 

Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

TURRITELLID.ffi:. 

Turritella erosa Couthouy. Bost. Journ. N. II., II, 1839, p. 103, pi. .3, f. ], 

Northern Japan (Schrenck). 
Turritella fascialis Mke. Ann. Mag., 1875, XVI, p. 107. 

Goza Harb., 6 fath., sandy mud (St. John). 
Turritella gracillima Gld. Otia Conch., p. 140. 

Kagoshima Bay (Stimpson). 

Turritella bacillum Kiener. Japan (Stearns, one dead shell). 
Turritella cerea Reeve. C. Icon., pi. 6, f. 25. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 

LITTORINID.a:. 
Littorina grandis Middendorff. Midd., Reise, p. 198, pi. 11. f. 4-10. 

Bay of Castries. 
Littorina brevicula Philippi. Conchyl. Cab., p. 100, pi. 14, f. 10, 11. 

Nagasaki and Hakodate (Lischke) ; Endermo (St. John). 

Littorina mandscburica Schrenck. Reisen im Aiuurl., II, p. 333, pi. 14-20; L. 
souverblana Crosse, J. de C, X, p. 53, pi. 1, f. 6, 7, and L. balteata Reeve, Icon., 
X, f. 71, a, b, are identical. 

Northern Japan. 
Littorina malaccana Phil. Abbild., Ill, p. 51, pi. 6, f. 17. 
Tokyo (Dkr.). 

Littorina exigua Dunker. Moll. Jap., p. 13, pi. 2, f. 13 : Conchyl. Cab., p. 95. pi 
13, f. 13-16. 

Hachijo-Shima (Satow) ; Nagasaki (Rein) ; Deshima (Nuhn) ; 
and Hakodate. 



62 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, LITTORINID^.. 

Littorina sitchana Phil. Abbild., Ill, pi. 6, f. 13, 18. 

Coast of Trov. Kii (Stearns) ; Hakodate (Schrenck). 
Littorina subtenebrosa Midd. Reise, II, p. 202, pi. 11, f. 11, 12. 

Peninsula Segneka, Ochotch Sea. (Midd.). 
Littorina sinensis Phil. Abbild., Ill, pi. 6, f. 2;{. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Littorina strigata Lischke. J. M. C, II, p. 73, pi. 5, f. 22. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Littorina sieboldi Philippi. Abbild., Ill, pi. 6, f. 3. 

Japan Sea (Siebold). 
Littorina vidua. Otia Conch., p. 110. 

Oushinia (Stimp.). 
Littorina (Hamus) granularis Gray. Challenger Gastrop., 1873-6, XV, p. J7fi. 

Ooshima. 
Fossarina piota A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1867, p. 312, pi. 19, f. 26. 

Tanabe, Oki-no-Shima (Ad.). 

Echinella C?) tectiformis Watson. Challenger Gastrop., 1873-6, XV, p. 578 ; pi. 
XLIII, f. 1. 

Japan, 565 fathoms, green mud ; Lat. 34° 7' N., Long. 128° E. 
Echinella cecillei Philippi. {Littorina). Philippi, Zeitschr., 1851, p. 78. 
Liu-Kiu Is, (Largilliert). 

Echinella cumingii Phil. Japan (Stearns, 300 specimens). 
Lacuna latifasciata Ad. Ann. Mag., 1863, p. 350. 
Kinoo-Shima (Ad.). 

Lacuna (Medoria) crassior Montg. Midd., Sib. Reise, pi. 10, f. 10. 11. {L. gla- 

cialis Moll.)- 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Lacuna (Medoria) turrita A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1861, p. 305 ; 1863, p. 350- 

Rifunsiri (Ad.). 
Lacuna (Epheria) divaricata Fabr. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 266. 

Hakodate (Schrenck, as L. vincta). 
Lacuna (Epheria) decorata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1861, 304. 

Rifunsiri (Ad.). 
Lacuna (Epheria) inflata A. Ad. Rifunsiri (Ad., I. c). 
Lacuna (Epheria) carinifera Ad. P. Z. S., 1851, p. 225. 

Takano-Shima (Ad.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, LITTORINID^. 63 

Lacuna (Epheria) lepidula Ad. Ann. Mag., 1S63, XI, p. 350. 
Seto-Uchi, Akasi, 15 fms. (Ad.). 

Lacuna unicarinata E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, Vol. XVI, p. 104. 
North Japan, on a littoral species of Sargassum (St. John). 

Lacuna (Cithna) globosa A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1863, p. 113. 
Seto-Uchi, Harima Nado (Ad.). 

Lacuna (Cithna) spirata A. Ad. L- C, same localities. 
Lacuna oxytropis Pilsbry. PI. VIII, fig. 1. 

Shell acutely turbinate, rather thin, widely umbilicated, yellow- 
ish-brown, becoming olive on the spire ; surface covered with a thin 
epidermis, sculptured by slight fine growth-lines only. Spire elevated, 
acute; whorls 42, convex, separated by deep sutures, the last whorl 
with an acute pinched peripheral keel, which becomes obsolete at 
aperture, but extends up the spire immediately above the sutures. 
Aperture half round, outer lip well curved, inner lip about straight, 
retracted in the middle, thin ; umbilicus rather large and deep, ex- 
cavated, brown, and rather roughly longitudinally striate within, 
bounded by a very acute keel. Alt. 62, diam. 5 ram. ; apert. ob- 
lique alt. 4, width 3"7 mm. 

Tokyo Harbor (F. Stearns). 

Lacuna smitMi Pilsbry. PI. VIII, fig. 2. 

Shell ovate, smooth, yellow, with white or white-edged apical 
whorls, and usually a white peripheral band ; surface marked by 
growth-lines and some irregular wrinkles. Spire elevated but ex- 
tremely obtuse; whorls 4, the latter li demarked from the preced- 
ing by a dark line, the earlier whorls forming a depressed-globose, 
low-spired embryonic shell. Last whorl keeled at periphery, the 
keel becoming obsolete toward the lip, not visible on the whorls of 
the spire. Aperture oblique-ovate, inner lip arcuate and retracted 
in the middle ; umbilicus moderate, pure white, deeply penetrating, 
surrounded by a very acute brown keel, excavated within, Alt. 5"6, 
diam. 4*2 mm. ; aperture, oblique alt. 36, width 2*5 mm. 

Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

A very obtuse shell, less transversely inflated than L. stenotornor- 
pha and with narrower umbilicus. This species is named in honor 
of Mr. E. A. Smith, whose contributions to our knowledge of Japan- 
ese shells have been of great extent and value. 



64 JAPANESE MOLLU8K8, FOSSARID^. 

Lacuna stenotomorpha Pilsbry. PI. YIII, fig. .'5. 

Shell small, smooth, yellow, with a white band at periphery and' 
another below the suture ; depressed, oblique, with large, open, ex- 
cavated white umbilicus. Spire low, last whorl very rapidly enlarg- 
ing, descending in front, rounded at periphery. Aperture ovate, 
oblique, small ; outer lip well curved, inner lip nearly straight. 
Umbilicus deep, encircled by an acute keel, excavated on its inner 
surface. Alt. 4, diam. 4 mm. ; aperture, oblique alt. 3, width 2 mm. 

Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

In this species the form approaches Stenotis laxata. The last 
whorl is marked off from those preceding by a dark line, probably 
indicating the end of the larval stage. This is visible in the two- 
other species herein described, but I do not notice it in the North 
Atlantic or Californian Lacunas. This feature may indicate a sect- 
ion or subgenus, which may be called Sublacuna. 

Lacuna (Stenotis) laxata A. Ad. Journ. de Conehyl., 1868, p. 54, pi. 4, f. 7. 

Idzuma-Nada, Inland Sea, 17 fms. ; Yobuko, W. coast of Kiushiu,^ 
14 fms. (Ad.). 

FOSSARID^. 

Fossarus costatus Brocchi. Conch. Foss.Subap., p. 300, pi. 11, f. 11 ; Fossar japon- 
Icus A. Ad., Ann. Mag., 1861, p. 139. 

Kuro-Shima, Tsu-Shima (Ad.). 
Fossarus trochlearis A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1853, p. 187. 

0-Shima (Ad.). 
Fossarus fenestratus A. Ad. 0-Shima (Ad.). 
Couthouya decussata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., I860, p. 410. 

Mino-Shima (Ad.). 
Couthouya reticulata A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1853, p. 186 {Fossar). 

Seto-Uchi, Uraga (Ad.). 
Couthouya striatula and C. plicifera A. Ad. Yobuko (Ad., I. c.) 
Isapis lirata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860, p. 120. 

Mino-Shima, Uraga (A. Ad.). 

Isapis conoidea A. Ad. Takano-Shima (Ad.). 
Conradia cingulifera A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860, p. 410. 

Mino-Shima, Uraga (Ad.). 
Conradia cariniferaA. Ad. Mino-Shima, Goto (Ad., I, c.). 
Conradia clathrata A. Ad. Tsu-Shima, Goto (Ad.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, SOLARIID^, ETC. 65 

Conradia pulchella Ad. Ann. Mag., 1861, p. 307. 

Tsu-Shima, Goto (Ad.). 
Conradia doliaris AJ. Seto-Uchi (Ad., I. c). 
Conradia tornata A. Ad. Goto Is. (Ad., l. c). 
Gotoina sulcifera and pyrgula A. Ad. Goto Is. 

soLAaiiD.a:. 

Solarium perspectivum Linne. Man. Conch IX, p. 8. Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Solarium maximum Phil. Japan (Stearns). 

Solarium quadriceps Hinds. Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Solarium cingulum Kiener. Hazaburo, Boshiu coast (Stearns). 

Solarium conulum var. japcnicum P. & S. Hazaburo, Boshiu coast (Stearns). 

Shell similar in form to .S'. cojmluvi Weink. ; dark purple-brown 
above and below, the peripheral (supra sutural) and subperipheral 
cords white, closely articulated with orange-brown ; umbilical cord 
white. Alt. 8i, diam. 10 mm. ; sometimes larger. 
Torinia dorsuosa Hinds. Japan (Dkr.). 

RISSOELLID.ffi:. 

Eissoella omphalotropis, vesicalis. spiralis A. Ad. Ann. Mag VI i860 d SS-* 
3.33. ' ' f • -T 

Sado, 30 fms. (Ad.). 
Eissoella vitrina, hydrophana A. Ad. {Ibid). Tabu-Shima, 25 fms. 
Rissoella minima, mundula A. Ad. {Ibid}. Tsu-Shima, 26 fms. 
Eissoella turgidula A. Ad. (Ibid). Corea Strait, 46 fms. 
Eissoella fulgida A. Ad. Dkr., Index, p. 117. 

LITIOPID.S;. 
(See Ann. Mag. N. H., 18(31, p. 143 ; 1862, p. 296). 

Alaba picta, felina, lucida A. Ad. Takano-Shinia. 
Alaba leucosticta A. Ad. Tabu-Shima. 
Alaba cornea A. Ad. Awa-Shima, Takano-Shima. 
Alaba zebina, subangulata A. Ad. Tsu-Shima. 
Alaba imbricata, inflata A. Ad. 0-Shima. 
Diala varia A. Ad. Awa-Shima, Takano-Shima. 
Diala sulcifera Ad. 0-Shima, Tanabe. 



66 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, RISSOID^. 

Diala tenuis E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, Vol. XVI, p. 105. 

N. Japan, on a littoral species of Sargassum. ]\Iany specimens 
collected by Stearns have egg-capsules (?) on the shell, probably 
such as Smith mentions. The shells are larger than Smith's, length 
6 ram. 
Diala simplex E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1S75, Vol. XVI, p. 105. 

Lat. 41° 12' N., Long. 140° 45' E., 43 fath. (St. John). 

RISSOID^. 
Rissoa (Goniostoma) pupaeformis A. Ad. Ann. Mag., V, 1800. p. 411. 

Mino Shima, 63 fms. (A. Ad.). 
Rissoa (Onoba) mundula A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1801, VIII, p. 136. 

Corea Strait, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Rissoa (Onoba) elegantula A. Ad. [Ibid). Gulf of Pechili, 7 fms. 
Rissoa (Onoba) elegans A. Ad. Ann. Mag., XI, 1863, p. 348. 

Seto-Uehi, 17 fms. ; Yara, 9 fms. (Ad.). 

Rissoa (Onoba) procera A. Ad. {Ihid). Yara, 9 fms.: Mososeki, 7 fms. (Ad.). 

Rissoa (Onoba) mirifica A. Ad. {Ibid). Kino-o-Shima, Tanabe. 

Rissoa (Onoba) bella A. Ad. (Ibid). Yara, 9 fms. 

Rissoa (Onoba) spirata A. Ad. (Ibid). Mososeki, 7 fms. 

Rissoa (Onoba) patula A. Ad. {Ibid). Yobuko, W. coast of Kiusiu, 14 fms. 

Rissoa (Onoba) egregia A. Ad. (Ibid). Seto-Uchi, 17 fms.; Yobuko, 10 fms. 

Rissoa (Onoba) lucida A. Ad. {Ibid). O-Shima. 

Rissoa (Onoba) annulata Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 12, pi. 2, f. 12. 

Deshima. 
Rissoa (Onoba) ferruginea A. Ad. Dkr., Index, p. 120. 
Rissoa (Hyala) pumila A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1870. VI, p. 123. 

Japan (Ad.). 
Rissoa (Hyala) glabrata (Phil.) Ad. Japan (Ad.). 
Rissoa (Setia) Candida A. Ad. Ann. Mag. (3), VIII, 1861, p. 136. 

Sado Island, 30 fms. (Ad.). 
Rissoa (Setia) tricincta, bifasciata Ad. Ibid. Awa-Shima, in shell-sand (A. Ad). 
Rissoa (Alvania) circinata A. Adams. Ann. Mag. (3), VIII, 1861, p. 137. 

Is. of Sado, 30 fms. (Ad.). 
Rissoa (Alvania) semicostata A. Ad. t. c, p. 137. 
Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, RISSOID^. 67 

Rissoa (Alvania) tiarula A. Ad. t. c, p. 137. 

Tabu-Shima, 25 fms. (Ad.). 
Eissoa (Alvania) ferruginea A. Ad. t. c, p. 138. 

Hakodate Bay, 7 fms. (Ad.). 
Rissoa concinna A. Ad. Conch. Ic-on., XX, pi. I, f. 9. 

Tsu-Shiraa, 26 fms, (Adams). 

Rissoa (Alvania) caelata, clathratula. mariella A. Adams. Ann. Mag. (3), VIII, 
p. 137, 138. 

Tsu-Shima, 16-25 fms. (Ad.). 
Rissoa (Alvania) pura Gld. Otia Conch., p. 146. 

8imoda (Stimpson). 
Rissoina costulata Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 12. 

Deshima (Dkr.) ; Kamakura (Stearns). 
Rissoina plicatula Gould. Conchyl. Cab., p. 72, pi. 15b, f. 5. 

Boiiin Is. (Stimpson). 
Rissoina (Rissolina) lyrata Gld. Otia Conch., p. 145. 

Oushima (Stimpson). 
Rissoina (Rissolina) monilifera Xevill. Moll. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, p. 79. 

Japan (A. Adams). 

Rissoina (Rissolina) canaliculata Schwartz v. Mohrenst. Fam. der Riss., p. 55, 

f. 18. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Rissoina (Rissolina) subfuniculata Nev. Wcink., C. Cab., pi. 15b, f. 8. 

Kachiyama (Dunker). 
Rissoina (Microstelma) daedala A. Ad. (3), XI, 1863, p. 348. 

Goto Is., 48 fms. (A. Ad.). 
Rissoina (Phosinella) cancellata Phil. Man. Conch., IX, p. 381, 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Rissoina (Phosinella) sagraiana d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, II, p. 25, pi. 12, f. 4, 5. 

Deshima (Dkr.). 
Rissoina (Phosinella) nitida A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1851, p. 226. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Rissoina (Zebinella) concinna A. Ad. Dkr., Index, p. 118. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Rissoina (Zebinella) adamsiana WkfF. Conchyl. Cab., p. 67, pi. 15a, f. 4. 

Kachiyama, 25 fath., sand (Dkr.). 



68 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, RISSOIDiE. 

Rissoina (MoercMella) spirata ?owb. Man. Conch., p. 388. 
Eissoina (MoercMella) striolata A. Ad. P. Z. S.. 1851, i>. 26(5. 

Ja])an (Dkr.). A synonym of B. spirata Sowb. according to 
Tryon. 
Eissoina (MoercMella) japonica Wkff. Conchy]. Cab., p. 65, pi. 15a, f. 1. 

Japan (Weinkauff; Nevill). 
Eissoina (Zebina) subulina Wkff. Conchy). Cab., j). 06, pi. 15a, f. 3. 

Japan (A. Adams). 
Eissoina (Pyramidelloides) miranda A. Ad. Conchy]. Cab., ji, 69, pi. 15a, f. 8. 

Mino-Shima (A. Ad.). 

Eissoina (Stossichia) pseudoconcinna Nevi]]. Hand-List Mo]l. Ind. Mus., p. 98; 
Conchy]. Cab., p. 85, j)!. 15a, f. 8. 

Japan (A. Ad.). Syn.: B. concinna Sowb. not Ad. 
Hydrobia plicosa E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, Vo]. XVT, p. 104. 
Auomori, 7 fathoms (St. John). 

Iravadia trocMearis Gould. Conchy]. Cab., p. 72, p]. 15b, f. 2. 

Deshima, Nagasaki (Nuhn). 
Fenella pupoides A. Ad. Journ. de Conch., XYI, p. 47, pi. 4, f. 5. 

Takano-Shima, Tsu-Shima (Ad.). 
Fenella fusca A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860, p. 119. {Dtmkeria) . 

Tabu-Shima, Sea of Japan, 25 fathoms (Ad.). 

Fenella scabra A. Ad. Ann. Mag., VI, 1860, p. 421. (Dimkei'ia). 
Tsu-Shima, 16 fms. (Ad.). 

Fenella ferruginea A. Ad. Ibid. {Dunl-ena). 
Sado, 30 fms. 

Feflella asperulata, pulchella A. Ad. Ann. Mag., YI, 18 60, p. 120 {Dunlrrki). 
Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

Fenella rufocincta A. Ad. Ann. Mag., VIII, 1861, p. 300. {Dunkeria). 
Moso-Seki, Takano-Shima (Ad.). 

Fenella reticulata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., VI, 1860, p. 422. ( Dnnlrria). 
Awa-Shima, low water (Ad.). 

Fenella craticulata A. Ad. Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

Putilla lucida A. Ad. Man. Conch., IX, p. 396, pi. 60, f. 85. 

Goto Is. (Ad.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CAPULID^, ETC. 69 

Scaliola bella Ad. Journ. de Conch., XVI, p. 5.3, pi. 4, f. 6. 

OfFTabu-Shima, 25 fnis. ; Takauo-Shima, at Tatiyama (Ad.). 
Scaliola arenosa A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1862, p. 421. 

0-Shima, Tanabe, Simoda (Ad.). 
Scaliola glareosa A. Ad. t. c., p. 421. 

Tsu-Shima, Takano-Shima (Ad.). 
Scaliola gracilis A. Ad. Ibid. Goto Is. (Ad.). 

SKENEID.S:. 
Skenea cornuella A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860, V, p. 412. 
Off Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

ASSIMINEID.ffi. 
Assiminea japonica v. Marts. Jahrb. D. M. G., 1887, p. 182. 

Yokohama, brackish water. 
Assiminea castanea West. Vega-E.xp. Vetenskap. lattag., IV, p. 210, pi. 5, f. 26. 

Yokohama (Vega Exp.). 
Assiminea atomaria Phil. Abbild., II, p. 136, pi. 2, f. 6 (Paludina). 

Japan (Nevill) ; Tokyo Harbor, Kamakura (Stearns). 
Assiminea cincta A. Ad. Jahrb. D. M. G., 1887, p. 169. 

Japan (Paetel). 
Assiminea subcornea Nev. Jahrb. D. M. G., 1887, p. 205. 

Japan ? (Nevill). 
Assiminea savatieri Mabille (Anculotus). 

Kamakura (Stearns). The radula resembles that of .4. francesi, 
but the admedian teeth are not divided as Troschel's figure shows. 

CAPULIDJE. 
Capulus badius Dkr. Inde.x, p. 124, pi. 13, f. 15-17. 

Inland Sea (Dkr.). 
Capulus japonicus A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1861, p. 168. 
MinoShima (Ad.). 

Capulus (Capulaomsea) dilatatus A. Ad. Index, p. 124, pi. 12, f. 12-14- Ann 
Mag., 1860, p. 422. ' ' 

Mino-Shiraa. 

Capulus (Capulacmaea) radiatus Sars. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 132, pi. 40, f. 86 87 

{Pilld. comnK/duiu Midd.) 

Capulus (Amathina) tricostata Gmel. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 133. 
Kobe, S fathoms, mud (Chall.). 



70 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CAPULTD.'E, ETC. 

Capulus (Amathina) angustata Souv. Japan (Dkr., Index, p. 125). 
Capulus (Amathina) nobilis A. Ad. P. Z. S., ISOT, p. 312, pi. 19, f. 27. 
Saghalien I. 

Crepidula grandis Midd. Dkr., Index, p. 123, pi. 6, f. 1, 2. 

Akishi, 3 fath. (St. John) ; Kishiu (Stearns). 

Crepidula aculeata Gmel. Inland Sea. Kishiu and Enoshima (Stearns) ; Kobe, 8 to 
f>0 fathoms (Challenger) ; Nagasaki (Lisehke), 

Crepidula walchi Ilerrm. Calyptnea plana Ads. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, pi. 11, 
f. 3. 

Japan (Stearns). 
Crepidula lamellosa A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1862, p. 297. 

Goto Is. (A. Ad.). 

HIPPONICID.S:. 
Hipponyx pilosus Desh. Moll. Jap., p. l.i; J. M. C, II, p. 78. 

Nagasaki (Lisehke) ; Deshima (Nuhn) ; Yokohama (Martens), 
Hipponyx foliaceus Q. & G. Zool. Astrol., Ill, p. 439, pi. 72, f. 41-45. 

Near Enoshima (Stearns). 
Hipponyx australis Q. & G. Man. Coneh., VIII, p. 136. 

Deshima (Dkr.) ; Nagasaki (Lisehke) ; near Enoshima, Awa 
coast (Stearns, abundant on Haliotis gigantea); Hakodate (Schrenck) 

XENOPHORID^. 

Xenophora exuta Reeve. C. Syst., II, pi. 225, f. 9, 10. 

Nagasaki (Lisehke) ; E. Coast Nippon (Stearns). 
Xenophora pallidula Reeve. Jap. M. C, III, pi. 3, f. 1-3. 

Bay of Yedo (Lisehke) ; E. Coast Nippon (Stearns). 

Xenophora solarioides Reeve. Zool. Samarang, p. 50, pi. 17, f. 6. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

VANIKORID.!;. 

Vanikoro cancellata Lam. Narica cancellata Dkr., Index, p. 126. 

Jai)an Sea (Dkr.). 
Vanikoro japonica n. sp. Pi. I, figs. 5, 5. 

Shell globose^ about as high as wide, solid, white ; spire convex, 
low ; whorls 3, rapidly increasing, the last sculptured with many 
subequal spiral cords as wide as their microscopically spirally 
striated intervals, decussated by growth-wrinkles ; but at its origin 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, NATICID^. 71 

showing three prominent keels. Young shells having three strong 
keels with latticed intervals, the pits oblong and very deep, base 
with two low spirals; when a diam. of 5 or 6 mm. is reached the 
lattice becomes more superficial, the primary keels decrease and in- 
termediate lirte appear. Aperture large, outer lip forming a half- 
circle, columella less arched, moderately calloused ; umbilicus pene- 
trating to apex, but a mere perforation at all stages of growth ; nar- 
rowly but distinctly grooved behind the columellar lip. Alt. 16, 
diam. 16 mm. 

Chikewa, Boshiu (Stearns). 

The narrow vertical pits of the earlier whorls are peculiar, and 
very unlike the square pits of the young V. cancellata. The latter, 
moreover, is not tricarinate in the young state. 

Vanikoro scalarina Gkl. Otia, p. 110. 
Loo Choo (Stimpson). 

NATICIDJE. 

Natica taeniata Menke. Tryon, Man. Conch., VIII, pi. 4, f. 62, 64. 

Chikiwa, Boshiu (Stearns). 

Natica pellistigrina Chemn. Man. Conch,, VIII, p. 16, pi. 2, f. 33. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Deshima (Dkr.). 

Natica colliei Reel. Ann. Mag., 187.5, p. 427. 

Matoza Harb., 6 fath., sand (St. John). 

Natica concinna Dunker. Dkr.. Moll. Jap., p. 14, pi. 2, f. 21 ; N. 6idnrta, Schrenck, 
Amurl. Moll., p. 377, pi. 17, f. 1-3. 

Deshima and Yedo (Dkr.) ; Hakodate (Schrenck) ; Japan 
(Stearns). 

Tryon considers concinna Dkr. and bicinda Sch. as synonyms of 
colliei Reel. There cannot be much doubt that the former two are 
specifically identical. 

Natica lurida Phil. Chikiwa, Boshiu (Stearns, typical specimens). 

Natica adamsiana Dkr. Dkr., Index, p. 61, pi. 13, f. 5, 6; Moll. Jap., p. 14. p'. 2, 
f. 20. 

Banda, Boshiu (Stearns) ; Deshima (Dkr.). 
Natica janthostoma Desh. Rve., C. Icon., pi. 18, f. 79. 

Banda, Boshiu (Stearns) ; Nemero, E. Yedo (St. John) ; Yedo, 
Hakodate (Lischke). 



72 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, NATICIDiE. 

Natica clausa Brod. & Sowb. {? afinis Gmel.). Shantar I. (Sehrenek). Compare 
preceding and following forms. 

Natica operculata Jeffreys. P. Z. S.. 1885, p. 34, pi. 4, f. 7, 7a. 

North Japan (St. John). 

Polinices' melanostoma Gmel. Man. Conch. VIII, p. .'JO. 

Jiipan (Stearns). 

Polinices simiae Desh. Rve., Conch. Icon., pi. 17, f. 76 ; pi. 22, f. 98a, b (Good !) 
Polinices powisianus Recluz. Tryon, Man. Conch., VIII, p. 42 ; Dkr., Index, p. 62. 

Yokohama (Dkr.) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Polinices powisianus v. draparnaudii Reel. Japan (Stearns). 

The single specimen secured by Mr. Stearns differs from N. powi- 
siana var. drapar7iaudiiKec\. in having the spiral umbilical funicle 
very heavy and strong, much more filling the umbilicus, and the 
edge of the umbilicus is produced in a very strong spiral bounding 
rib. 
Polinices mamilla Linn. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 49. 

Nemoto, Boshiu (Stearns). Lischke reports the synonym or 
variety pyriformis Reel, from Bay of Yedo. 
Polinices (Lunatia) reiniana Dkr. Index, p. 62, pi. 4, f. 15, 16. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Polinices (Lunatia) severa Gld. Otia Conch., p. 109. 

Hakodate Bay (Stimpson). 
Compare Neverita reiniana Dkr. 

Polinices pallidus B. & S. Shantar I. (Sehrenck). 

Polinices (Neverita) ampla Phil. Ph., Conch. Cab. ed. 2, pi. 6, f. 2; Tryon, Man- 
ual Conch., VIII, p. 32. 

Tokyo to Enoshima, Henda, Shibo, Boshiu (Stearns). 

The extensive synonymy of this magnificent Neverita has been 
ably discussed by Tryon. 

Amaura (Acrybia] flava Gld. {aperfa Loven). Midd., Reise I, p. 206, pi. 9, f. 1-3. 
Sigaretus insculptus Ads. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 55, pi. 13. f. 10. 

Wakayama, Inland Sea (Dkr.). 

^Montfort, Conch. Syst., II, p. 222. This genus contains Naticas with cor- 
neous operculum, the term Natica being restricted to species with the opercu- 
lum shelly. The type of Polinices is Natica mamiUaris Lam.; not N. mam- 
milla Linn, as Dall states ; Montfort's Polinices albus being identical with 
the former species. 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, ADEORBIID^E. 73 

Sigaretus undulatus Lischke. Lischke, J. M. C, III, p. 54, pi. 3, f. 11-14. 

Yokohama (Stearns) ; Yedo (Lischke). 
Sigaretus japonicus Lischke. Jap. M. C, III, p. 55, pi. 3, f. 15-17. 
Yedo (Lischke). 

Sigaretus (Eunatieina) papilla Gmelin. Conchyl. Cab., p. 38, pi. 9, f. 4-6 ; pi, 

10, f. 8. 

Yokohama (Stearns) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Deshima (Nuhn). 
Velutina cryptospira Midd. Man. Conch. VIII, p. 67. 
Inland Sea (Stearns). 

ADEOR£IID.£. 

(For descriptions and figures see also Man. Conch. X, p. 83-87.) 
Adeorbis planus A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 1, f. 4. 

Japan. 
Adeorbis depressus A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 1, f. 6, a, b. 

MinoShima (Adams). 
Adeorbis orbellus A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 1, f. 9. 

Mino-Shima (Adams). 

Adeorbis clausus A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 2, f. 14 a, b. 

Mino-Shima (Adams). 
Adeorbis japonicus A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 2, f. 11. 

Goto Is. (Adams). 
Adeorbis prominulus A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 2, f. 13. 

Mino-Shima (Adams). 

Adeorbis uanulus A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 2, f. 18. 

Mino-Shima (Adams). 
Adeorbis trochulus A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 1, f. 8. 
Goto Is. (Adams). 

Adeorbis patruelis A. Ad, Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 2, f. 21 a, b. 

Mino-Shima (Adams). 
Adeorbis subangulatus A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19. pi. 2, f. 19. 

Goto Is. (Adams). 
Adeorbis carinatus A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 1, f. 10 a, b. 

Seto-Uchi (Adams). 
Arcbytaea suturale A. Ad. Conch. Icon.. Vol. 19. (Adeorbis) pi. 2. f. 15 a. b. 

Tsu-Shima (Adams). 



74 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, lANTHINID^'E. 

Archyteea corniculum A. Ad. Concli. Tcon., Vol. ID, {Adcorhis) pi. 2, f. 16 a. b. 
IMino-Sliinui (Aclanis). 

Arohytsea diaphanum A. Ad. t'onoh. loon., Vol. li), {Adcurbin) pi. 2, f. 20 », b. 
Goto Is. (Adams). 

IANTHINID.a:. 

lanthina fragilis Lam. Bay of Yedo (Lisohke). 

lanthina fragilis Lain. var. planispirata A. A K. Voy. Samarang Zool., pi. 11, f. 
10. 

Japan (Stearns). 
lanthina balteata Uocve. Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
lanthina exigua Lam. Tryon, Man. Conoh., IX, pi. 10, f. 17. 

Japan (Stearns). 

lanthina globosa Swain?. Tryon, Man. Conch., IX, pi. 10, f. 11-14. 

Japan (Stearns) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Some specimens are pure white. 

SCALlD.ffi. 
Soala pallasii Kiencr. Thes., p. 8;f, pi. .•!2, f. 10; 

Coroa Strait, 46 fms. (Ad.) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Scala aouleata Sowb. The?., p. 80, f. ;55-;?7. 

Tsu-Shima, 16 fms. (Ad.) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Scala replioata Sowb. Thei?., ]>. SI, f. 2;v, 24. 

Miiio-Shinia, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Soala obliqua Sowb. Thes., p. 8S), f. 69. 

^lino-Shima, 68 fms. (Ad.). 
Soala murioata Kiencr. The?., p. 8((, f. 2!t, .il, 32. 

i\[i no-Shi ma, 68 fms. (Ad.). 
Scala pulcherrima Sowb. Thes., p. 'J7, f. 92. 

]\Iino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

Scala lineolata Sowb. The*!., p. 91. f. 4;">, 46, 48. 
Scala trifasciata ile Haan. Thes., f. 44. 

Tokyo Harbor, Yokohama (Stearns). 
Soala latefasoiata Sowb. C. Icon., f. 117a. 

Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 
Scala japonioa Dkv. ."Moll. Jap., p. 13. pi. 1, f. 13. 

Deshima (Nuhn). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, SCALID.1-:. 75 

Scala angusta Dkr. Moll. .laii., i.. 1.'.. iil. I, f. 1 1. 

Deshinia (Nuhii). 
Scala lyra Sowb. Thes., p. 80, f. 38, ;i9, 81, 82. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 

Scala aurita Rowb. Kamakura, Yokohama, Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 
Scala immaculata Mowb. Japan (Dkr.). 
Scala acuminata Sowb. The?., ]>. 10(1, 1'. IliO. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Scala rubrolineata Sowb. Thes.. ].. 01, f. 83, 84 ; Ad., Ann. Mag., 1801, p. 479. 

Miiio-iShinia, G3 fms. (Ad.). 

Scala turrioula Sowb. (?). Corea Strait, ■\r, fms. (Ad.) ; Kamakura (Stearns). 

The specimens are probably not this West Indian species, but 
seem nearer it than anything else. 
Scala irregularis Sowb. Thes., p. OO, f. 40, 00. 

Mino-Shima,63 fms. (Ad.). 

Scala trabeculata, fimbriata, optabilis, elegantula, spiralis, liliputana A. Ad. 
Ann. Mag., ISlil, p. 4S(I, 481. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. 
Scala praeclara A. Ad. Corea Strait, 4(1 fms. (Ad., l <:)■ 
Scala eximia Ads. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, pl. 11, f. 16. 

Mino-Shiraa, 63 fms- (A. Ad.). 

Scala soluta A. Ad, Ann. Mag., 1862, p. 296. 
Port Lindsay (A. Ad.). 

Scala hexagona Sowb. Thes., p. lOS. f. (17. 

Awa-Shiraa, in shell-sand (Ad.). 
Scala elenensis Sowb. Thes., p. 08, f. 102. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

Scala casta A. Ad. Man. Conch. IX, p. (17. 

Yokohama, Tokyo Harbor, Kamakura (Stearns). 

Scala pumila A. Ad. Conch. Icon., XIX, pl. 11, f. 79. 

Japan (Adams). 

Scala tenuilirata Sby. Conch. Icon., XIX, \>\. 1;'), f. IIS. 

Japan (Sby.). 
Scala (Amaea) magnifica Sowb. Thes. p. 102, f. 10.3. 
Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 



76 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, SCALID^]. 

Scala (Amsea) kieneri Canefri. {decussata Sowb., not Lam.; so^rerhyi Dkr.) 
Thes.. p. I(i3, f. 141). 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Scala (Amaea) immaculata Sowb. Thes., p. 9.'i, f. 58. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 
Scala (Cirsotrema) sulcata Sowb. Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 

Scala (Cirsotrema) bicarinata Sowb., crassilabrum Sowb., turbonilla A. Ad. 

iMino-Shiiiia. C<?, fins. (Ad.. Ann. Mag.. ISOl, VIII, p. 482, 483). 

Scala (Cirsotrema) suturalis Hinds., undulata Sowb. Corea Strait, 46 fms. (Ad.). 

Scala (Cirsotrema) cribraria A. Ad. Tsu-Shima, 26 fms. (A. Ad., Ann. Mag., 1861, 
p. 483). 

Scala (Constantia) elegans A. Ad. {S.jucunda Canefri) Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

Scala (Constantia) tantilla A. Ad. Tabu-Shima (A. Ad.). 

Scala (Opalia) exquisita A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1864, p. 310. 

Goto Is. 

Scala (Opalia) lamellosa Lam. Tryon, Man., IX, p. 74. 

Yokohama ; Kamakura (Stearns). 

I cannot distinguish these from Atlantic specimens. 

Scala (Opalia) ochtensis Midd. Sib. Reese, p!. 12, f. 12-14. 
Nichta Bay, Ochotch Sea. 

Crossea miranda A. Ad. J. de Conch., XVI, 1868, p. 55, pi. 4, f. 9. 

Goto Is. (Ad.). 

Crossea bellula A. Ad. L. c. p. 56, pL 4, f. 10. Same locality. 

Eglisia cumingii A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1850, p. 204. 
Japan (Ad.). 

Aclis (lolsea) scitula A. Ad. Journ. de Conch., 1868, pi. 4, f. 3. 

Mino-Shima ; Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 

Aclis (lolaea) amabilis A. Ad. 0-Sima; Tanabe; Goto (Ad.). 

Aclis (lolaea) sculptilis A. Ad. Mino-Shima; Yobuko (Ad.). 

Aclis labiata, cingulata, lirata, sulcata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860, p. 118. 
Off Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

Aclis (Ebala) virginea, vestalis A. Ad. Off Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad., Z. c. p. 119). 

Aclis (Ebala) scintillans A. Ad. Sado (Ad., Ann. Mag., 1861, p. 43). 

Aclis crystallina, fulgida A. Ad. Tsu-Shima (Ad., Ann. Mag., 1861, p. 43). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, EULIMID^. 77 

EULIMID^. 
Eulima robusta A. Ad. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 271, pi. OS, f. 25. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.) ; Karaakura (Stearns). 

Eulima mundula A. Ad. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 272, pi. 68, f. 2fi. 

Tsu-Shinia, 16-26 fius. (Ad.). 

Eulima clavula, curvata. stylata, pinguicula, acicularis, flexa, valida, odon- 
toidea, chrysallida, debilis, indeflexa A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. H., VII, 1861, 
p. 125-128. 

Mino-Sliima, 63 fins. (Ad.). All unfigured and wretchedly de- 
scribed. 
Eulima pandata, dentaliopsis A. Ad. I. c. Corea Strait, 46 fms. (Ad.). 

Eulima reclinata, stenostoma, semitorta, eburnea A. Ad., I. c. Tabu-Shima, 25 
fms. (Ad.). 

Eulima angulata, scitula A. Ad. /. c. Tabu-Shima, 25 fms. (Ad.). 

Eulima carneola GId. Otia Conch., p. 148. 

Oushima (Stimpson). 
Eulima cumingii Sowb. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 267. 

Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

Eulima (Leiostraca) vincta A. Ad. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 280, pi. 20, f. 77. 
Bingo-Nada ; Harima-Nada (Ad.). 

Eulima (Leiostraca) nivea A. Ad. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 281, pi. 20, f. 84. 

Tsu-Shiraa, 26 fms. ; Goto ; Mino-Shiraa (Ad.). 
Eulima (Leiostraca) pura A. Ad. Man. Conch., XIII, p. 281, pi. 20, f. 85. 

Tsu-Shima, 26 fms. ; Mino-Shima, 63 fms. ; Asaki and Mososeki, 
Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 

Eulima (Leiostraca) paxillus A. Ad. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 281, pi. 20, f. 86. 
Mino-Shima ; Goto, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Sowerby makes Leiostraca clara A. Ad. a synonym. 

Eulima (Leiostraca) mariae A. Ad. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 281, pi. 70, f. 87. 

Eulima (Leiostraca) turgidula A. Ad. Ann. Mag. (o), VII, p. 128, 1861. 

Tsu Shima, 16 fms. ; Goto (Ad.). 
Eulima (Leiostraca) lanceata A. Ad. I. c. Seto-Uchi ; Mino-Shima; Goto (Ad.). 

Eulima (Leiostraca) mixa, leachii, spiculum, labiata A. Ad., Z. c. Mino-Shima, 

63 fms. (Ad.). 
Eulima (Leiostraca) clavella A. Ad., I. c. p. 129. 

Sado, 30 fms., on nullipore (Ad.). 



78 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, EULIMID.E. 

Eulima (Leiostraca) nitida A. Ail., /. c. Okosiri, 25 fins. ; Yobuko. 

Eulima (Leiostraca) mindorensis Ads. A- Rve. Zool. Sainarang. pi. 11, f. 25. 

Seto-Uchi (A. Ad.). 

Eulima (Leiostraca) hastata, subulina, picturata, bizona A. Ad. Journ. Linn. 
Soc, VII. p. 85, Sr, 8.S. 

Goto, 48 fms. (A. Ad.). 

Eulima (Leiostraca) lepida A. Ad. Ibid, p. 85. 

Seto-Uchi ; Yobuko (A. Ad.). 

Eulima (Leiostraca) miranda, oberon, crystallina, pusio, nana, cigenda, inqui- 
nata, spreta A. Ad. Und. pp. 85, .sf., 8'.), mi. 

Yobuko (A. Ad.). 

Eulima (Leiostraca) metulina, exigua, circinata, taeniata. tantilla A. Ad. 

Ihld, p. 86, 87. ss. 

Akasi, Seto-Uchi (A. Ad.). 
Eulima (Leiostraca) pistillum A. Ad. Ibid, p. 86. 
Hail ma-Nad a, Seto-Uchi (A, Ad.) 

Eulima (Leiostraca) pusilla, pygmaea, cinctella, scitula A. Ad. Ibid, p. 86. 
Mososeki, Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 

Eulima (Leiostraca) ariel A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1861. 
Bingo-Nada, Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 

Eulima (Leiostraca) pumila, balteata, gracilenta A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc, VII, 
p. ST. 

Uraga. 

Eulima (Leiostraca) bilineata Ads. & Rve. Samarang, pi. 11, f. 24. 

Uraga ; Seto-Uchi (Ad.) ; Tokyo Harbor (Stearns) ; L. hivittata 
Ads., Genera. 
Eulima (Leiostraca) lentiginosa A. Ad. Dkr., Index, j). 90. 

0-Shima, Mososeki, Seto-Uchi. 

Eulima (Leiostraca) conspurcata A. Ad. Ibid, Takano-Shima (Ad.). 

Eulima (Leiostraca) bifascialis A. Ad. Ibid, p. 88. 
Bingo-Nada; Suwo-Nada (Ad.). 

Eulima (Leiostraca) interrupta A. Ad. Ibid, p. 89. 

0-Shima (Ad.). 
Eulima (Leiostraca) crassula A. Ad. Ibid, p. 90. 

O Shinia. 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PYRAMIDELLID.E. 79 

Eulima (Apicalia) gibba A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1862, p. 295. 

Goto Is. 
Eulima (Muoronalia) bicincta A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860, p. 301. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fras. (Ad.). 
Eulima (Mucronalia) exilis A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1862, p. 295. 

Mososeki, Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 
Eulima (Mucronalia) laotea A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., VII, p. 91, 1864. 

Tanabe (A. Ad.). 
Eulima (Mucronalia) subula A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., VII, 1864, p. 91. 

Simoda (Ad.). 
Eulima (Selma) succiniola A. Ad. I, c. 0-Shima (Ad.). 
Eulima (Styliferina) orthochila A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H. (3). VI, p. 335. 

Tsu-Shima, on Asterias (A. Ad.). 

Eulima (Styliferina) gonochila A. Ad. Ibid. Mino-Shima, on Oj)hiura (A. Ad.). 
Eulima (Styliferina) lepida A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1862, p. 299. 

Yobuko (Ad.). 

Amaurella japonica A. Ad, Man. Conch., VIII, p. 286, pi. 70, f. i6. 

Corea Strait. Originally described as Macrocheilus. 
Amaurella glabrata A. Ad. l c, t. 12 ; P. Z. S., 1867, p. 311. 

Takano-Shima, (Ad.). 
Amaurella semistriata A. Ad. /. c., p. 287, pi. 70, f. 17. 

Oki-no-Sliiraa (Ad.). 
Niso interrupta Sowb. Thes., II, p. 801, pi. 170, f. 9. 

Mino-Shima, Simonoseki (Ad.). 
Niso brunnea Sowb. Thes., II, p. 801, pi. 170, f. 13. 

Mino-Shima (Dkr.). 

PYRAMIDELLID.a:. 

The systematic values of the groups of this family are here given 
according to Tryon and Fischer, but there are undoubtedly more 
genera. Most of the species enumerated below are not recognizably 
described. See for the figured ones, Tryon, Man. Conch, vol. VIII. 

Pyramidella pulchella A. Ad. Obeliscus. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 232 ; Thes., II. p. 807, = ^J'•'<i«'•■' ' 
20/ pl.171, f.^, >^; Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 427. 

^ Goza Harbor, 6 fath. (St. John) ; Mososeki (A. Ad.) ; Bay of 
Yedo (Lischke). 



80 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PYRAMIDELLID^. 

Pyramidella teres A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1802, p. 232; Thes., II, p. 807, pi. 171, f. 31,. 
32. A 

Mino Shima (Ad.). 
Pyramidella balteata A. Ail. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 232 ; Thes., pi. 171, f. 25. 

Yobiiko, Uraga (Ad.). 
Pyramidella pusilla A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 232; Thes. II, pi. 171, f. 7. 

O Shima, Takanoshima (Ad.). 
Pyramidella eburnea A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 232, 

0-Shiiuu (Ad.). 
Pyramidella trifasciata A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 232. 

Uraga, Mososaki (Ad.). 
Pyramidella vitrea A. Ad. (Syrnola, Obelmits). P. Z. S., 1862, p. 232. 

Uraga, Tsu-Shima (A. Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Tiberia) nitidula Ad. P. Z. 8., 1862, p. 232 ; Thes., pi. 171, f. 7. 

Mino-Shinia, 63 fath., Oshima, 25 fath. (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Otopleura) mitralis A. Ad. Tryon, Man. Conch., VII, p. 305. pi. 
73, f. 94. 

Japan (Stearns). 

Pyramidella (Lonchaeus) sulcata A. Ad. Tryon, Man. Conch., VIII, p. 301, p'. 
72, f. 79. 

Japan (Stearns). 
Pyramidella (Syrnola) solidula Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 15, pi. 1, f. 5. 
Deshima (Dkr.) ; Karaakura (Stearns). ■ 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) byalina Dkr. f. c, pi. 1, f. 9. 
Deshima, (Dkr.) ; Kamakura (Stearns). 

Pyramidella tSyrnola; tenuisculpta Lischke. Jap. Metres-Conch., Ill, p. 58, pi. 

3, f. 7, 8. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 

Pyramidella (-Syraela^ aciculata A. Ad. P. Z. S., p. 2^:',, 1862; Man. Conch., 3 
VIII, |i.30C., pi. 73, f. 10. 

Tanabe (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) bizonalis A. Ad. P. Z. S.-, 1862, p. 233. 

Mino-Shima (Adams). 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) elegans A. [Ad. P. Z. 8., 1862, p. 233; Man. Conch. 
VIII, p. 306, p. 73, f. 7. 

0-Shima, Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PYRAMIDELLID^. 81 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) lactea A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 234. 

0-Shima. 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) cinctella Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 232: Man. Coneh. VIII, 
pi. 307, p. 73, f. 14; Ann. M.ag., 1875, p. 427. 

O Shima, Seto-Uchi (Ad.) ; Matoza Harbor, 6 fras; sand, (St. 
John) ; Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) brunea A. Ad P. Z. S., 1862, p. 233; Man. Conch., VIII, 
p. 306, pi. 73, f. 8. 9. 

Shima (Ad.) ; Bishiu (Stearns). P.fulva Sowb. is a synonym. 
Pyramidella (Syrnola) buxea Gld. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 234. 

Takano-Shiraa (Stimp.). 
Pyramidella (Syrnola) columnella A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 235. 

Seto-Uchi, Mososeki. 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) cylindrella A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 234; Man. Concb., 
VIII, p. 307, pi. 73, f. 17. 

Takano-Shima (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) daedala A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 235. 

Uraga. 

Pyramidella (Sjrnola) gracillima A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 233; Man. Conch., 
VIII, p. 307, pK 737f. 13. 

Mino-Shiraa, Uraga (Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Syrnola) mera A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 23l ^ / 

Mino-Shima, 0-Shima. 
Pyramidella (Syrnola) pistillum A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 234. 

Yobuko (Ad.). 
> Pyramidella (Syrnola) pupina A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 233. 

Mososaki, Mino-Shima (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) serotina A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 234 ; Man. Conch., VIII, 
p. 308, pi. 73, f. 21. 

Takano-Shima (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) striatula A. Ad. Thes., p. 812, pi. 171, f. 29. 

Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) subulina A, Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 234 ; Man. Conch., VIII, 
p. 308. pi. 73, f. 23. 

Takano-Shima (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) teretiuscula A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 233. 

Tsu-Shima, 15 fath. (Ad.), 
6 



82 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PYRAMIDELLID/E. 

Pyramidella (AmatMs) virgo A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1861, VIII, p. 304. 
Corea Strait, 46 fnis. (Ad.). Described as Myonia. 

Pyramidella (Amathis) producta A. Ad. {Odostomia). Ann. Mag. N. II., VI, 

1860, p. 416. 

Sado, 30 fms., Tabu-Shiraa, 25 fras. (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Amathis) pellucida, eburnea, concinna A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1861, 
VIII, p. 304. 

Pyramidella (Oscilla) cingulata A. Ad. Ann. Mag. (3), VII, p. 296. 

Takauo-vShima (Ad.). Described as Mono2)tygma. 
Pyramidella (Oscilla) annulata A. Ad. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 309, pi. 74, f. 28. 

Mososeki, Yobuko (Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Oscilla) sulcata Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1860. p. 41/. /^ 

Tsu-Shima, Nososeki (A. Ad.). Described as Evalea. 
Pyramidella (Oscilla) lirata Ad. I. c. Sato, 0-Shima Ad. Described as Evalea. 
Pyramidella (Oscilla) circinata A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1867, p. 311. 

0-Shima, Takano-Sbima (Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Orina) pyramidalis Ad. (Syrnola). P. Z. S., 1862, p. 233. 

Tsu-Shima (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Elusa) subulata A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 23"; Man. Conch., VIII, 
p. 310, pi. 74, f. 30. 

0-Shima, 26 fms, (Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Elusa) castanea A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 237, 

0-Shima (Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Elusa) cinnamomea A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 237. 

0-Shima (Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Elusa) badia A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 237. 

Takano-Shima (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Elusa) gracilis A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 237; Man. Conch., VIII, 
p. 310, pi. 74, f. 31. 

Yobuko (Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Elusa) strigulata A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 237. 

Yobuko (Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Elusa) teres A. Ad. 

Pyramidella (Chrysallida) plicata A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., V, 1860, p. 478, 479; 

1861, p. 44. 

Mino-Shiraa, 63 fms., Goto, 0-Shima (A. Ad.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PYRAMIDELLID^. 83 

Pyramidella (Chrysallida) pupula, nana, terebra A. Ad. Ann. Ma-. N. H. (.3^ 
VII, p. 44, 4j. ° • V /> 

Tsu-Shima 16-26 fms. (A. Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Chrysallida) consobrina A. Ad. Ann. Mag. (3), VII, p. 44, 46. 

Awa 8hiiua, in shell sand, Goto (A. Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Chrysallida) munda A. Ad. t. c, p. 45. Corea Strait, 46 fms. (Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Chrysallida) filocincta A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc, 1864 VII p 2 

0-8hiraa (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Chrysallida) rufolineata, galbula A. Ad. Ibid, p. 3 Goto 48 
fius. (Ad.). ' 

Pyramidella (Chrysallida) erucella A. Ad. Ibid, p. 3. Seto-Uchi, 0-Shima Taka 
no-Shima (Ad.). ' 

Pyramidella (Chrysallida) consimilis A. Ad. Ann. Mag. 1861, p. 44. 

0-Shima, Takano-Shima (A. Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Chrysallida) alveata A. Ad. Ann. Mag. 1861, p. 45. 

Tsu-Shima, 16-26 fms., Takano-Shima (Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Chrysallida) mumia A. Ad. Ann. Mag. 1861, p. 45. 

Goto, 48 fms. (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Chrysallida) mundula A. Ad. Ann. Mag. (3), VII, p. 42. 

Sado Island, 30 fms., 0-Shima (Ad.). Descr. as Parthelia. 
Pyramidella (Mormula) rissoina A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc, VII, p. 1, 1863. 

0-Shima, Takono-Shima (Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Styloptygma) cerea A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 236. 

Takano-Shima (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Styloptygma) gibba A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 236. 
0-Shima, Tanabe (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Styloptygma^ larvula A. Ad. P. Z. 8., 1862, p. 236 
0-Shima (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Styloptygma) lendix A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 236. 
Yobuko (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Styloptygma) pupiformis A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 235. 
Mino-Shima (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Styloptygma) subuliformis A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 236. 
Tsu-Shima (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Styloptygma) taeniata A. Ad. P. Z. 8., 1862, p. 235. 
Takano-Shima (Ad.). 



84 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PYRAMIDELLID^. 

Pyramidella (Acteopyramis) eximia Lischke. Jap. M. C, III, p. 59, pi. 3, f. 
4-C. 

Yedo (Lischke) ; Kamakura (Stearns). 
Pyramidella (Acteopyramis) coelatum A. Ad. Ann. Mag., VII, 1861, p. 303. 
Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (" Monoptygma ") acuminata Gld. Otia Conch., p. 150. 
Oushima (Stimpson). 

Pyramidella (Mumiola) reticosa A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soci, VII, p. 5. 
Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 

Pyramidella (Mumiola) tessellata A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc, 1863, VII, p. 6. 

Tanabe, 0-Shiraa (Ad.). 
Pyramidella (Mumiola) spirata A. Ad. Thes. Conch., pi. 172, f. 26, 27. 

0-Shima (Ad.). Described as Monoptyama. 

Odontostomia elata, japonica, nana, pygmsea, oblonga, secalina, tenera, hya- 
lina A. Ad. Ann. Mag. (3), VII, p. 42. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (A. Ad.). 

Odontostomia nivea, obesula, pupa, cana, ventricosa, goniostoma, vitrea A. Ad. 
Ann. Mag. (3), VI, p. 20, 21, 417. 

Corea Strait and Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Odontostomia subdiaphana, pruinosa A. Ad. t. c, p. 417. 

Okosiri, 35 fms. (Ad.). 
Odontostomia subangulata, achatinella A. Ad. t..c., p. 416, 417. 

Tsu-Shima, 26 fms. (Ad.). 
Odontostomia ovoidea A. Ad. t. c, p. 416. Awa-Shima, at low water (Ad.). 
Odontostomia lacteia Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 17, pi. 2, f. 4. 

Deshima (Dkr.) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Kamakura (Stearns). 

Odontostomia fasciata Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 17, pi. 2, f. 2. 
Deshima (Dkr.) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Odontostomia neglecta Ad. Ann. Mag. (3), VI, p. 417. 
Tabu-Shiraa, 25 fms. (Ad.). 

Odontostomia (Evalea) elegans, pyramis, arcuata A. Ad. Ann. Mag. (3), VI, p. 
22. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Odontostomia (Evalea) sulcata A. Ad. Ann. Mag. (3), VI, p. 417. 
Tsu-shima, 16 fms. (Ad.). 



JAPANESE MOLLU8KS, PYRAMIDELLIDJE. 85 

Odontostomia (Evalea) lirata Ad. Ibid. Tabu-Shima, Sado (Ad.). 
Odontostomia (Auriculina) grayi, ovalis Ad. Ann. Mag. (.3), VII, p. 42, 43. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. 
Odontostomia (Parthenia) spirata A. Ad. Mino-Shima (Ad.). 
Odontostomia (Parthenia) costulata Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 16, pi. 2, f. 15. 

Deshima, 
Odontostomia (Parthenia) foveolata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860, V, p. 479. 

Miuo-Shima (Ad.). 
Odontostomia (Parthenia) monocycla A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860, V, p. 479. 

Mino-Shima, (i3 fms., Goto, 0-Shima, Tanabe (Ad.). 

Odontostomia (Parthenia) costellata, littoralis A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1861, 
(;5), VII, p. 42. 

Tsu-Shima, 26 fms. (Ad.). 

Odontostomia (Parthenia) punctigera A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1861, VII, p. 42. 

Goto, Sado (A. Ad.). 

Odontostomia (Parthenia) semiplicata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860, V, p. 478. 
(ChrysaUida). 

Goto, 0-Shima, Takano-Shiraa, Mino-Shima (A. Ad.). 

Odontostomia (Parthenia) pusio. Ibid, (3), VII, p. 45. {ChrysaUida). 

Tsu-Shima, 16-26 fms., 0-Shima (Ad.). 

Odontostomia (Parthenia) pagodula A. Ad. Journ. Linn. See, VII, p. 4 [Tur- 
honilla monocycla Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860. p. 418). 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms., Taku-Shima, OShima (Ad). 

Odontostomia (Parthenia) cselata A. Ad. Joum. Linn. Soc, VII, p. 4. 
Seto-Uchi, Akasi, Tsu-Shima (Ad.). 

Odontostomia (Pyrgulina) casta A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1861. 
Takano-Shima (Ad.). Described as ChrysaUida. 

Odontostomia (Pyrgulina) minna A. Ad. Ann. Mag., V, 1860, p. 478. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. Goto (A. Ad.). Described as ChrysaUida. 

Odontostomia (Pyrgulina) brenda A. Ad. Ibid. Takano-Shima, 0-Shima (Ad.). 
Described aa <liry>iallida. 

Odontostomia (Pyrgulina) elegantula A. Ad. Ibid. Mino-Shima, 63 fma., Seto- 
Uchi (Ad.). Described as ChrysaUida. 

Odontostomia (Pyrgulina) pygmaea A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1861. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms.. Goto (Ad.). Described as ChrysaUida. 



86 JAPANESE MOLLU8KS, PYRAMIDELLID^:, 

Odontostomia (Pyrgulina) pulchella A. Ad. Ann. Mag., ISGO. 

Goto, Mino-Shima, Heto-Uchi, Akasi (Ad.). Described as Chrysal- 
lida. 
Odontostomia (Pyrgulina) concinna A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1S6(), p. 479. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Odontostomia (Pyrgulina) mirandaA. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1861. 

Yobuko (Ad.). Described as Chrysallida. 
Odontostomia (Pyrgulina) bellula A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1861, p. 42. 

Tabu-Shiina, 24 fms. (Ad.). Described as Parthenia. 
Odontostomia (Pyrgulina) fenestrata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860, V. p. 479. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). Described as Parthenia. 
Odontostomia (Pyrgulina) pura A. Ad. Ann. Mag., (?>), VII, p. 46. 

Awa-Shiraa, in shell sand, Takano Shima (Ad.). Described as 
Chrysallida. 
Odontostomia (Pyrgulina) tantilla A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc, VII, p. 5. 

0-Shima, Tanabe, Takauo-Shima (A. Ad.). 

Odontostomia (Pyrgulina) decussata A. Ad. Ibid. Goto, 48 fms. (Ad.). 
Odontostomia (Miralda) diadema A. Ad. Ann. Mag., I860, V, p. 479. 
Mino-Shima, Seto-Uchi, Uraga (Ad.). 

Odontostomia (Miralda) mariella A. Ad. Ibid. Mino-Shima, Goto, Tsu-Shima, 
Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 

Odontostomia (Miralda) gemma A. Ad. Tsu-Shima, Seto-Uchi, Akasi (Ad.). 

Eulimella philippiana Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 17, p.. 2, f. 8, 

Deshima (Dkr.) ; Kamakura (Stearns). 
Eulimella opaca, pellucens A. Ad. Ann. Mag. (3), VII, 1861, p. 46, 47. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Eulimella opalina, vitrea A. Ad. Ibid. Tsu-Shima, 26 fms. (Ad.). 
Eulimella hyalina A. Ad. Ibid, p. 47. 

Sado, 30fms. (A. Ad.). 
Eulimella (Stylopsis) typica A. Ad. Ann. Mag., V, 1860, p. 406. 

Corea. 
Eulimella (Stylopsis) sulcata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., VIII, 1S61, p. 241. 

Ochotsh Sea, 17 fms. (A. Ad.). 

Eulimella (Stylopsis) rufofasciata E. A.Smith. Ann. Mag., 1875, p. 10.3, Vol. 
XVI. 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, NERITID.F.. 87 

E. of Yedo, 48 fath., sand and mud ; a var. in Endermo Harb., 4 
to 7 fath. (St. John). 
Menestho exarata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., VIII, 1861, p. 30.3. 

Hakodate Bay, 16 fms. (A. Ad.). 

Menestho sculptilis A. Ad. Ibid. Mino-Shima, fiS fms. (Ad.). 

Kleinella cancellaris A. Ad. Man. Conch., XV, p. 180; XVI, frontispiece, f. 6; 
Grossman, Essais de Paleoeonch. Comparee, i, p. 44, f, 34. 

Strait of Corea, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Kleinella sulcata A. Ad. Man. Conch., XV, p. ISO. 

Suwonado Sea, 7 fms. (Ad.). 
Turbonilla fusca A. Ad. Man. Conch., VIII, p. 334, pi. 76, f. 46. Japan. 
Turbonilla varicosa Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 15, pi. 2, f. 5. 

Deshiraa. 
Turbonilla philippiana Dkr. Ibid, p. 16, pi. 1, f. 12. 

Deshima. 
Turbonilla multigyrata Dkr. Index, p. 79, pi. 13, f. 18-20. 

Deshima. 

Turbonilla perfecta, nitida, cincta, munda, speciosa, debilis, modica, metulina 

A. Ad. Ann. Mag., VI, I860, p. 418-420. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

Turbonilla commoda, sculptilis, fragilis, bicincta A. Ad. Ibid. Tsu-Shima, 16 

fms. (A. Ad.). 

Turbonilla scaliola A. Ad. Ibid. Corea .Strait, 46 fms. 
Turbonilla (Cingulina) cingulata Dkr. Moll. .Jap., p. 16, pi. 1, f. 10. 

Deshima (Dkr.) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Kamakura (Stearns). 
Turbonilla (Cingulina) circinata A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1860, p. 414. 

Awa-Shima (Ad.). 
Turbonilla (Dunkeria) craticulata A. Ad. Ann. Mag. (3), VII, p. 46. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (A. Ad.). 

(Rhipidoglossa. ) 
NERITIDJE. 

Nerita polita Linne. Man. Conch., X, p. 30. 

Tartary Strait (Schrenck). 

Nerita albicilla L. Conchyl. Cab., p. 25, pi. 8, f. 1, 2, Man. Conch. X, p. 19. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Deshiraa (Nuhn) ; Inland Sea (Stearns.) 



88 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TURBINID^. 

Nerita planospira Anton. Conchyl. Cab., ]>. 23, pi. 4, f. 4-7, Man. Conch., X, p. 21. 

Japan (Martens). 

Herita pica Old. Otia Conch., p. 108; Mart., Conchyl. Cab., p. 106, pi. 12, f. 15-18; 
Smith, Ann. Mag., 1875, Vol. XVI, p. 107; N.japouica Dkr., Moll. Jap., p. 18, 
pi. 2, f. 2;?. 

Enderino ''St. John) ; Siraoda (Gld) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Ki- 
shiu (Stearns). 
Neritina sowerbiana Keel. Conchyl. Cab., p. 171, pi. 18, f. 1-4 and 10. 

Hakodate. 

ITeritina retropicta Martens. Conchyl. Cab. p. 170, pi. 17, f. 18-20. 

Japan (Siebold). 
Neritina adspersa Reeluz. Journ. de Conchyl., 1853, p. ,519, pi. 7, f. 6. 

Tokyo (Dkr.). 
Neritina ualanensis Less. Conchyl. Cab., p. 193, pi. 20, f. 1-24. 

Nagasaki. 

Neritina crepidularia Lam. Man. Conch., X, p. 77. 
Yokohama (Martens) ; Tokyo Bay (Stearns), 

TUEBINID.ffi:. 
Turbo marmoratus Linne. Man. Conch., X, p. 191, pi. 41, f. 23. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Sagarai Bay (Stearns). 

The animal of this Turbo is considered by the Japanese a great 
delicacy. It is first removed from the shell, cut into little squares 
like dice, replaced in the shell with a little soy, and cooked therein 
over a charcoal fire. (F. S,). 

Turbo petholatus, Linne. Man. Conch., X, p. 193. 

Inland Sea (Stearns). 

Turbo petholatus var. reevei Phil. Man. Conch., X, p. 194, pi. 40, f. 15, 16. 

Japan (Dkr., as T. variabilis Rve.). 

Turbo (Senectus) argyrostomus var. margaritaceus Linne. Man. Conch., X, p. 
198, pi. 45, f. 100. 

Japan (Stearns). 
Turbo (Senectus) parvulus Phil. Man. Conch., X, p. 206, pi. 44, f. 73, 74. 
Japan (Stearns) ; Liu Kiu Is. (Phil. ; Stearns). 

Turbo (Batillus) cornutus Gmel. Man. Conch., X, p. 210, pi. 43, f. 50, 52. 

Tokyo Harbor (young specimens lacking spines, Stearns) ; Yedo, 
Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Hakodate, etc., (Schrenck). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TURBINIDi^. 89 

Turbo (Modelia) guttatus A. Adams. Man. Conch., X, p. 2i:i, pi. 63, f. .39. 

Tatiyama (Ad.). 
Turbo (Marmorostoma) coronatus Gmtl. Ann. Mag., 1875, Vol. XVI, p. 108. 
Ooshima, on the shore (St. John) ; E. Coast Nippon (Stearns). 

Turbo (Marmorostoma) granulatus Gmel. Man. Conch., X, p. 217, pi. 46, f. 18. 
Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Turbo (Marmorostoma) coreensis Recluz. Man. Conch., X, p. 217, pi. 47, f. 19. 

Enoshiraa (Stearns). Usually regarded as an imperforate variety 
of the preceding. 

Astralium (Cyolocantha) haematragus Mke. Man. Conch., X, p. 236, pi. 54, f. 57, 

Tokyo, Nagasaki, etc. (Dkr.). 

A. rhododoma Lara. (^:=petrosum INIartyn) has been recorded by 
Danker, but without exact locality. Its occurrence in Japanese 
waters is very doubtful. 

Astralium (Cyolocantha) heimburgi Dkr. Index, p. 130, pi. 6, f. 6, 7. 
Inland Sea of Japan (Dkr.). 

Astralium (Guildfordia) triumphans Phil. Man. Conch., X, p. 228, pi. 58, f. 67, 

t)8. 

S.-E. coast Kii (Stearns). 

Astralium (Bolma) modestum Rve. Man. Conch., X, p. 229, pi. 55, f. 63, 64. 
Kii coast (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Astralium (Pachypoma) japonicum Dkr. See Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 
1891. p. 473, pi. 19, f. 6-8 (operculum). 

S.-E. coast Prov. Kii (Stearns) ; Kiushiu (Lischke). 

Upon seeing the unique type specimen of ^. wardii Baker (Proc. 
Rochester Acad. Sci., I, p. 136, pi. 11, f 1) I considered it a depressed 
individual of this species. A. japoniQum is not a Poviaulax as has 
been supposed, but a true Pachypoma, which is quite a different 
thing. Mr. Stearns' largest specimen measures 160 mm. diameter. 

Leptothyra' sangarensis Pchrenck. Amurl. Moll., II, p. 363, pi. 16, f. 6-11. 
( Turbo); Man. Conch., X, p. 250, pi. 64, f. 59. 

Sangar Strait (Maximowicz) ; Bay of Hakodate (Albrecht and 
Lindholm). 

^Synonyms of this generic name are as follows : — 
Turbo Auct. 



90 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PHASIANELLID^. 

CoUonia Auct non Gray. 

Lcplony.c and Homalopoma Cpr. {pneoc). 

Cantraineia Jeffr. 

Anadema Ads. 

Petropoma Gabb. J. A. N. S., Pliila., VIIT, p. 281. See Nautilus, VII, p. 
84. 

L. sanguinea Linn, has erroneously been recorded from Japan and West 
America. It is Mediterranean. 

Leptothyra amussitata GId. Man. Conch., X, p. 250, pi. 55, f. 71, 72; Ann. Mag., 
1875, Vol. XVI, p. 109. 

Endermo, 4-7 fathoms ; a variety from Yamado, 7 fathoms, sand 
(St. John). 

Leptothyra purpurascens Dkr. Index, p. 129, pi. 12, f. 1-3. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Leptothyra rubra Dkr. Ind. Moll. Mar. .lap., p. 128, pi. 12, f. 7-9. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Leptothyra transenna Watson. Challenger Gastrop. XV, p. 125, pi. VI, t. 12. 

Japan 565 fathoms. 

Leptothyra pilula Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 19, pi. ^^, f. 7. (Liotia). Cynisca japon- 
ica Ad. is a synonym. 

Corea Strait (Ad.). 
Leptothyra nocturna Gld. Otia Conch., p. 160 ; Ann. Mag., 1875, XVI, p. 109. 

Simoda (Stirapson) ; Lat. 41° 12' N., Long. 140° 45' E., 43 fath., 
sand and mud ; variety from Yamada Harbor (St. John). 

PHASIANELLIDiE. 

Phasianella megastoma n. sp. PI. VIII, fig. 9. 

Shell imperforate, in shape like Ph. {Chromotis) neritina but the 
s[)ire longer and more pointed. Surface smooth, hardly shining; 
either dotted closely and evenly all over with red on a pale huffish 
ground, or having several spiral girdles of white spots, and a sub- 
sutural series of white flames ; the apex yellow or whitish. Whorls 
3^, very rapidly increasing, the last expanding toward the aperture. 
Aperture round-oval, very large, oblique; columella and parietal 
wall regularly arcuate, with a moderate deposit of callus. Opercu- 
lum white outside. Alt. 3*2, diam. 2'9 mill. 

Nemoto, Boshiu (Fr. Stearns). 

The extremely large aperture sufficiently characterizes this spe- 
cies. 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, DELPHINULID.^. 91 

Phasianella oligomphala n. sp. PI. VIII, fig. 8. 

Shell ovate-turrited, smooth, hardly shining, perforated. Dotted 
in spiral order with red on a pale ground, often having in addition 
some girdles of white spots, and very oblique snow-white stripes 
descending from the suture. Whorls 4i, well rounded, the sutures 
deep, the apex subacute. Aperture round-ovate, about half the 
shell's length ; inner lip separated from the body by a long, narrow 
umbilical fissure, which is much reduced in some shells. Operculum 
white outside. Alt. 4-35, diam. 2*8 ram. 

Nemoto and Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

The color patterns of this little Tricolta are similar to those of the 
preceding species, but it is far slenderer than that, and perforated. 

Phasianella (Orthomesus) modesta Gld. PI. VI, figs. 29, 30. 
Pils., Man. Conch., X, p. 183. 

Loo Choo (Stimp.) ; Nemoto (Stearns) ; IST. shore Prov. Tango 
(Gaines). 

It is not without some doubt that I identify these shells with 
Gould's unfigured species, but they agree with his short description 
as far as that goes. 

P. modesta gouldii n. var. PI. VI, fig. 31. 

Shell the shape of P. kochii Phil., clear red, showing under the 
lens dense microscopic redder spiral lines and toward the base some 
spaced red spirals with remote, white specks. Marked above the 
periphery with a few bold oblique stripes of snow-white ; a subsutural 
band mottled with blackish. 

This form occurs with the preceding, of which I consider it a 
variety. It is probably what Dunker lists as P. capensis. 

Dunker (Index, p. 127) reports Phasianella variegata, P.elongata 
and P. capensis from Japan, the last on Schrenck's authority. The 
first of these was perhaps Phasianella ( Orthomesus) modesta. The 
other two were incorrect identifications. The S. African species 
named are of the group of P. pulla, while the above Japanese forms 
belong to Orthomesus, as is shown by their spaced capillary lines. 

DELPaiNULiD.a:. 

Delphinula delphinula Linn. D. laciniata Lam., Man. Coneh., X, p. 266. 
Japan (Stearns, No. 1,127); Nagasaki (Lischke, D. atrata). 
Several specimens of the typical form, and var. atrata Rve. 



92 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TROCHID^. 

Delphinula distorta Linne. Inland Sea (Stearns). 

Liotia semiclathratula Schrenck. Ainurl. Moll., II, p. 370, pi. 16, f. 16-2.'); Ann. 
Mag., IS-o, XVI, p. 110. 

Toba Harbor, 9 fms., sand (var. St. John) ; Sangar Strait 
(Schrenck) ; N. shore of Tango (Gaines). 
Liotia daedala A. Ad. P. Z. S., ISe.*?, p. 72. Goto; Oshima (Ad.). 
Liotia tantilla A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1863, p. 72. Goto Is., 71 fms. (Ad.) 
Liotia armata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., Sept., 1861, p. 243. 

Corea Strait (Ad.). 

TROCHID.a:. 

Trochus niloticus Linm'. Man. Conch., XI, p. 17. Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Troohus turris Philippi. T. alius Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 217, pi. 32, f. 7, not T. 
alius Perry, 1811. T. turris Phil., Zeitsch. f. Mai., 1846, p. 102. 

Inland Sea (Dkr.). 

Dunker reports T. (Cardinalia) virgatus Gmel. also from Japan, 
without more accurate locality. Its occurrence there is doubtful. 
Troohus (Teotus) obeliscus Gmel. Man. Conch., XI, p. 19, pi. 2, f. 13, 14. 

Deshima (Nuhn) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Trochus (Lamprostoma) rubricatus Philippi. Phil., Conch., p. 213, pi. 31, f. 13; 
Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, 32. 

Japanese Seas (Fischer) ; Japan (Stearns). 
This and the next two species are closely allied. 

Trochus (Lamprostoma) sacellum Philippi. { T. speiigleri Gme:\.). Phil., ("onch. 
Cab., p. 309, pi. 44, f. 13; Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, 34; T. spenglcri Gmel.; 
Lischke, .1. M. C, p. 93. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Trochus (Lamprostoma) rota Dunker. Dkr., Moll. Jap,, p. 21, pi. 3, f. 4; Lischke, 
Jap. Meeres-Couch., p. 94, pi. 6, f. 20, 21 ; Pils., Man. Conch., XI, p. 35 
Polydonta gloriosum Gid., Otia, p. 158. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Deshima (Nuhn, Dkr.) ; Ooshima (St. 
John). 

Without exact locality, Dunker reports T. maculatui from Japan. 
This reference needs confirmation. Three specimens of T. incicas- 
satus were brought by Stearns, but it too was perhaps not native. 

Trochus (Infundibulum) chloromphalus A. Adams. Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., 
p. 92, pi. 6, f. 17, 18. Pils., Man. Conch., XI, p. 38. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Trochus (Lamprostoma) squarrosa Lam. Man. Conch., XI, p. 32, pi. 6, f. 60, 61, 
Nagasaki (Lischke, J. M. C, I, p. 92). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TROCHID^. 93 

Clanculus margaritarius Phil. Phil., Conch. Cab., p. 74, pi. 14, f. 4 ; Dkr., Index, 
p. 139. 

Japan (Van Nostrand). The Clanculus smithii Gray (=? C. 
undatus Lm,), reported from Japan by A. Adams (before he had been 
there), may hardly be admitted without several grains of salt. 
Clanculus microdon A. Ad. Man. Conch., XI, p. 78. 

North shore of Tango (Gaines). 

Monodonta labio Linne. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, p. 86, pi, 19, f. 95, 96; Lischke, 
J. M. C, I, p. 95. 

Nagasaki (Lischke); Deshlma (Nuhn. Dkr.); Hakodate (Schrenck); 
Ooshima (Chall.) ; Seta coast (Stearns). 

Dunker reports M. australis also, but without exact locality. 

Monodonta neritoides Philippi. Phil., Conch. Cab., p. 303, pi. 44, f. 4 ; Pilsbry, 
Manual XI, p. 106; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. 

Southeast Kii coast (Stearns) ; Yokohama (Martens). 

Monodonta neritoides var. perplexa Pils. Pils., Man. Conch., XI, p. 107, pi. 35, 
f. 6-8. 

Japan. 

Monodonta (Oxystele) suavis Philippi. Pils., Man. Conch., XI, p. 117, pi. 23, f. 
71-75; 0. kwneni Dkr., Index, p. 142, pi. 12, f. 4-6. 

Japan (Dkr., Stearns). 
Chrysostoma paradozum Born. Man. Conch., XI, p. 466. 

Mr. Stearns' specimen of this (No. 1186) may not be really Japan- 
ese, although it was procured in Japan. 

Chlorostoma argyrostoma Gmel. Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., I, p. 96, pi. 7, f. 
4; PiUbry, Manual, p. 165. 

It is very doubtful whether this species occurs in Japanese waters. 
The large example figured by Lischke, as well as the extensive suite 
in the collection of the Academy, are from China. Lischke calls 
the typical form of argyrostovium " var. major,^' but this term is 
superfluous. 
Chlorostoma umbilicatum Lischke. PI. VI, figs. 11, 12. 

Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., I, pi. 7, f. 5 ; II, p. 87 (" C. ar(iyroslomum v. umbili- 
catum")- 

Nagasaki (Lischke). More strongly spirally lirate beneath than 
C. argyrostomum, and umbilicate. The specimen figured is in the 
collection of Mr. Shelly G. Crump, of Rochester, N, Y. 

Chlorostoma distinguendum Dkr. Dkr., Moll. Jap., p. 22, pi. 3, f. 1. 
Deshima (Dkr.); Japan (Stearns). 



94 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TROCHID^, 

Chlorostoma turbinatum A. Adams. PI. VI, figs. 9, 10. 

Pils., Man. Conch., XI. \>. 193, 194. Ch. rugatum Gld., Otia, p. n9<,fide^. A. 
Smith. 

Toba, S. Niphon (Smith) ; Hakodate Bay and Simoda (Stimp). ; 
Hakodate (Stearns). 

Shell having the contour of argyrostomum but much smaller, the 
oblique folds of the upper surface coarser, not splitting below the 
sutures, often crossed by some indistinct spirals ; base slightly con- 
vex, with five or six spiral cords, often subobsolete ; columella as in 
argyrostomum, the umbilical region closed in both old and young, 
but with a deep pit, encircled on the side toward the mouth by a 
green callus; the outer margins of the umbilical tract more or less 
stained with golden. Color above and below, black, in both young 
and old examples. Alt. 21, diam. 25 mm. The species has not 
hitherto been figured. 

Chlorostoma nigerrimum Gmelin. Lischke, J. M. C, p. 79, pi. 7, f. 6, 7 ; Pilsbry, 
Manual XT, p. 1()5. Ch. corrugatum A. Ad. ; Ch. undatellaGld. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Deshima (Nuhn, Dkr.) ; Oushima, Kago- 
shima and Taneogoshima (Stimpson ; C. undatella Gld., Otia, p. 

158). 

Chlorostoma xanthostigma A.Adams. (mg^ncoZor Dkr.). Dkr., Moll. Jap., j)- 
22, pi. ?,, f. 2 ; Lischke, J. M. C, p. 100, pi. 7, f. 1, 2. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Deshima (Nuhn, Dkr.) ; Ooshima (St. 
John). 
Chlorostoma lischkei Pilsbry. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, j). 167, pi. 20, f. 16. 

Japan (A. Garrett). 

Chlorostoma rusticum Gmelin. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, p. 166, pi. 25, f. 1-4; 
Lischke. J. M. C. p. 97. 

Nagasaki (Lischke); Deshima (Nuhn, Dkr.); Hakodate (Schrenck 
and Stearns). 

The upper surface is very strongly rudely ribbed throughout, the 
ribs extending slightly over the periphery upon the base. Color, 
black above, black and white strigate beneath, the young black 
beneath. In the typical rusticum the ribs are less strong. 

Chlorostoma brunneum Phil. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, p. 170, pi. 27, f. 36-.'i8. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 

A single large si)eciraen (alt. 39, diam. 33 mm.) collected by 
Stearns, which is undoubtedly this species. 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TROCHIDiE. 95 

Chlorostoma carpenter! Dunker. Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., „ 98 pi 7 f s 9 
10 : Pils., Man. Conch.. XI. p. 168. > P'- ', t- N 9, 

Nagasaki and Desbima (Lischke) ; Southeast coast, Prov. Kii 

(Stearns). 

Chlorostoma pfeifferi Philippi. Piisbry. Man. Conch., XI, p. 167, pi. 26 f 1.3-15 

T. nordmanni Schrenck, Ch. achates G\d. 

Yedo (Lischke); Hakodate (Schrenck); Simoda (N. P. E. E )• 
S.-E. coast Kii (Stearns). * ' 

Chlorostoma sordidum Philippi. Phil., Conch. Cab., p. 301, pi. 44, f. 1 T sub 
jHscescens Schrenck, vidf Piisbry, Man. Conch., XI, p. 188, 189. 

Bay of Hakodate (Schrenck); Tokyo Harbor (Stearns) ; Ooshima 
and Endermo (St. John). 

CantharMus (Thalotia) japonicus A. Adams. Piisbry, Man. Conch., XI, p. 355, pi. 

Nagasaki, Yokohama, Tokyo Harbor, Inland Sea, Nemoto, Boshiu 
(Stearns) ; N. shore of Tango (Gaines). 

A series of many hundred examples was collected, exhibiting a 
very wide range of variation in color. We consider Cantharidns 
liilaru Lischke (Jap. Meeres-Conch., H, p. 85, pi. 5, f 14 15 and 
Fischer, Coq. Tiv. Trochus, p. 353, pi. 110, f. 2) from Nagasaki a 
synonym. ' 

Cantharidus (Thalotia) yokohamensis Book. Bock. P. Z. S 1878 n 797 ,, .« 
f. 3 ; Piisbry, Manual XI, p. 147, pi. 40, f. 40. ' P- -'• P'- «, 

Yokohama (Bock). 
Alcyna ocellata A. Ad. Man. Conch.. X, p. 182, pi. 40, fio-. 12. 

Tatagama; Nemoto, Boshiu (Stearns); off Talen-Shima, 25 fms 
(Ad.) 

Alcyna lepida A. Ad. Man. Conch., X, p. 182. 
Off Talen-Shima, 25 fms. (A. Ad.). 

Gibbula globularia Schrenck. Schrenck, Amurl. Moll., p. 357, pi. 16 f 1-4- Pils 
bry, xAIan. XI, p. 220, pi. 57. f. 10. . P • lo, i. 1 4 , Pils- 

Bay of Hakodate (Schrenck). 

^ Xl!"!! 22^"''' '"*'• ""''"' ^"- '''^•' ''''' '''^^' I'- 111 ' l'^^^'--^-' ^I— 1 
"" X^p' IIT^^"''' ''"''• '"'''' ^"" '''-• '''"' ""'''' P- 1" = P"^^bry. Manual 

Yamada Harbor (St. John). 

Gibbula japonica Smith. Smith, Ann. Mag. N. H., 1875, XVI, p. no ■ Piisbrv 
Man. Conch., XI, p. 224. ' ' "^""^^j 

Gulf Of Yedo, lat. 35° 35', long. 139° 48', in 6-25 fms. (St. John). 



96 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TROCHID^. 

Gibbula redimita GId. Pilsbry, Man. Concb., XI, p. 227 ; Smith, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., 1875, XVI, p. HI. 

Bay of Hakodate (Stimpson); lat. 41° 12' N., long. 140° 45' E., 
43 fath. (St. John). 
Gibbula ochotensis (Midd.) Phil. Man. Conch., XI, p. 2.37, pi. 60, f. 3, 4. 

Okhotsk Sea. 
Gibbula eucosmia n. sp. PI. VIII, fig. 4, 

Shell urabilicate, conic and elevated, with flattish base. Coral-red 
with a series of white flamraules below the sutures and white spots 
at periphery, hut sometimes the flames extend to periphery ; base 
red with an umbilical white patch. Surface sculptured with raised 
smooth, spiral cords, of which there are 6 above the periphery rather 
widely spaced, and on the base 10 much closer ; between the cords 
very delicate growth lines are visible. Whorls about 6J, convex, 
the last one subangular at periphery. Aperture rounded, columella 
concave above, straightened below, bluntly angled at base. Umbil- 
icus narrow, rather funnel-shaped at the opening. Alt. 7, diam. 6 
mm. 

Hizen (Stearns) ; N. shore of Prov. Tango (Gaines). 

Gibbula 1 fulgens Gld. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, p. 225 ; pi. 40, f. 38 ; Smith, Ann. 
Mag., 1875, XVI, p. 110; Syn. : T. iridescens Schrenck. 

Off Cape Blunt, 35 fms. (St. John). 

Gibbula (Cantharidella) callichroa Philippi. Phil., Conch. Cab., p. 298, pi. 43, L 
15. Troclnis jcssoensis Schrenck, Moll. Amur-landes, etc., p. 353, pi. 15, f. 11-18; 
Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, p. 222. 

Hakodate (Schrenck) ; Hizen (Stearns) ; N. shore of Prov. Tango 

(Gaines). 

Enida japonica A. AdamP. Dkr., Index, p. 144, pi. 12, f. 17, 18. Pils., Man. Concb.. 
XI, p. 245, pi. fi7, figs. 44, 45. 

Oft'Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

Enida speciosa A. Adams. Pils., Man. Conch., XI, p. 245. 

Off Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Enida gemmulosa A. Adams. Pils., Man. Conch., XI, p. 246. 

Off Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Basilissa lampra Watson. Challenger (iastrop., p. 97, pi. 7, f. 5. 

Mid-Pacific, E. of Japan, 2050 fathoms (Chall.). 

Monilea inepta (ild. Otia Conch., p. 155 ; Pils., Man. Conch., XI, p. 254. 
Kagoshima Bay (Stimpson). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TROCHIDiE. 97 

Monilea vernicosa Gld. Pilsbry, Man. of Conch., XI, p. 254 ; Otia, p. 15.5. 

Ooshiraa (Stimpson). 

Monilea glareosa Gould. Pils., Man. Conch., XI, p. 255 ; Otia, p. 155. 

Loo Choo, Oushima and Kikaia (Stimp.). This may be a Solari- 
ella or Minolia. 

Monilea smithi Dunker. Pilsbry, Man. of Conch., XI, p. 438, pi. 38, f. 5-7 ; Dkr., 
Index, pi. 6, f. 16-19 (Euchelus). 

Wakayama (Dkr.). 

Monilea (Kossiteria) nuclea Philippi. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, p. 257, pi. CI, f. 
31, .32. 

Japan (Fischer) ; Viti Is. (Garrett ! in coll. Phila. Acad.). 

Bathybembix argenteonitens Lischke. Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., Ill, p. 66, 
pi. 4, f. 1 ; Pilsbry, Manual XI, p. 347. 

Yedo (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 

This species varies but little. A larger individual measures, alt. 
48, diam. 35 mm. In Japan it is called Ginkai, silver shell. 

Bathybembix crumpii Pilsbry. PI. XI, fig. 4. 
Pilsbry, Nautilus, VI, p. 105, 133, pi. 2, f. 3. 

Japan (Shelly G. Crump). 

Bathybembix aeola Watson. Wats., Chall. Gast., p. 95, pi. 7, f. 13 ; Pilsbry, Man- 
ual, p. 163. pi. 40, f. 10, 11. 

OfFEnoshima, Japan, in 565 fms. (Challenger Exped.). 
Bathybembix abyssorum E. A. Smith. P. Z. S., 1891, p. 438, pi. XXXIV, f. 5. 
North Pacific, E. of Japan in 2300 fathoms (Challenger). 

Minolia^ punctata A. Adams. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, p. 259, pi. 44, f. 33. 

Mino-Shima (A. Ad.). 

* Minosia Dkr., Index, p. 142. 
Minolia puloherrima (A. Ad.) Sowb. Sowerby, Conch. Icon., XX, Margarita, f. 11. 

Japan (Sowb.). 

Seems to be a synonym of M. punctata A. Ad., and the name is 
preoccupied. 

Minolia mustelina Gould. Gld., Otia, p. 154. [Margarita). 

Hakodate Bay, low water (N. P. E. E.). 
Minolia vitiliginea Mke. (T). Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., II, p. 86. 

The type of this species as figured by Philipj)i (Conch. Cab. 
Trochus, p. 176, pi. 28, fig. 2) is unlike any Japanese specimens I 
have seen. 
7 



98 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TEOCHID^. 

Minolia Stearnsii n. sp. 

Shell more depressed than 3f. vitiliginea Mke., thin, shining, 
widely umbilicate ; densely and finely radially vermiculate with 
olivaceous on a pale ground above, usually with few or many radial 
dark clouds below the suture, and several narrow articulated, spaced 
spiral lines, the periphery lighter, often spotted ; base with paler 
vermiculate and articulated pattern. Surface closely and evenly 
sculptured with spiral strise throughout, with inconspicuous rather 
spaced oblique impressed lines, and between them very faint, close 
growth-strise which slightly crenulate the spirals. Whorls 5, very 
convex, rather flattened below the sutures, producing a blunt median 
angle on the whorls of the spire. Last whorl subangular at periph- 
ery and around umbilicus; the latter funnel-shaped, one-fourth the 
total diameter of the shell, white within and with distinct growth- 
lines. Aperture roundly subquadrate, oblique; columella slightly 
dilated above, straight in the middle, bluntly angular at base. Alt. 
6'2, diam. 10 mm.; var.: olivaceous replaced by brilliant rose color. 

Nemoto, Boshiu (Stearns). I separate this from the vitiliginea of 
Menke (see Philippi) on account of its more depressed form and 
wider umbilicus. 

Margarita helicina Fabr. Man. Conch., XI, p. 285 ; M. arctica Leach, Dkr., Index, 
p. 145. 

Has been reported from northern Japan. 

Turcica imperialis A. Adams. Lischke, Jap. Mceies-Conch., Ill, p. 67, pi. 4, f. 4- 
6 ; Pilsbry, Man., p. 415. T. adamsiamis Schrenck. 

Tsusaki, \y. coast of Japan, 37 fms. (Ad.) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke); 
Hakodate (Schrenck) ; Japan (Stearns). 

The largest specimen measures, alt. 38, diam. 31 ram. The color 
varies from uniform cream-white, to brownish, maculated and light- 
ning-streaked with reddish-brown. One specimen has the beaded 
cords of the upper surface reduced to fine, subobsolete, almost smooth 
threads, the periphery with a double series of compressed beads, and 
another similar cingulus below the suture. This specimen contrasts 
strongly with the typical form, but we can only regard it as a 
variety. 

Turcica concinna A. Adams. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, p. 415. 

Uraga, Japan (Ad.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TR0CHID7E. 99 

T. coreensis Pease. 

Corea Sea. This is hardly Japanese. The " T. instricta" re- 
ported from Satanomosaki by A. Ad. (Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), XIII, 
p. 143) can hardly be the real Euchelm instridus Gld., of which 
specimens are before me from New Caledonia and Viti Is. (see Man. 
Conch., XI, p. 440). 

Calliostoma unicum Dunker. Pilsbry, Man. of Conch., XI, p. 341, pi. 16, f. 9, 10 ; 
Lischke, J. M, C, III, p. 64. C affinis Ball. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Deshima (Nuhn ! Dkr.) ; Simoda (Dall) ; 
Inland Sea and Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

About 200 hundred si^ecimens found by Mr. Stearns. They agree 
in sculpture, but vary from reddish to yellow in ground color, and 
on some the broad cloud-like dark maculae of the upper surface are 
wanting. 

Calliostoma consors Lischke. Lischke. Jap. Meeres-Conch., I. p. 65. pi. 4, f. 2, 3 ; 
Pilsbry, Man., XI, p. 347. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 
This seems to be merely a variety of C. imicum. 

Calliostoma sowerbyi Pilsbry. Pilsbry, Man. of Conch., XI, p. 34, pi. 18, f. 17; 
Ziziphinus jucundus Sowb. not Gld. 

Japan (Sowb., Stearns). 

Calliostoma hungerfordi Sowerby. P. Z. S., 1SS8, p. 568, pi. 28, f. 14; Pilsbry, 
Man. of Conch., XI, p. 343, pi. 34, f. 11. 

Japan (Hungerford). 

Calliostoma urbanum Gould. Otia, p. 157; Pils., Man. Conch., XI, p. 401. 

Kagoshima Bay (Stimp,). 

Calliostoma infuscatum Gould. Gld„ Otia, p. 157 ; Pilsbry, Man. Conch.. XI, p. 
401. 

Kagoshima Bay (N. P. E. E.). 

One of the original lot is in the collection of the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences of Philadelphia, showing it to be a well marked spe- 
cies. It will probably occur larger in size. 

Calliostoma (Lischkeia) moniliferum Lam. Encycl. Meth.. pi. 445, f. 2; Pils., Man. 
Conch., p. 347; Tr. cdivinx Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., II, p. 84, pi. 6, f. 17-19. 

Kiusiu I. (Lischke) ; Japan (Stearns), 

Euchelus bronni Dunker. Dkr., Moll. Jap., p. 22, pi. 3, f. 8 ; Pils., Man. Conch., 
XI, p. 438. 

Japan (Dkr.). 



100 JAPANESE MOLLUSK8, TROCHID^. 

Euchelus pauperculus Lischke. Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., Ill, p. 69, pi. 4, f. 
9-11 : Pilsbry, Man. Coneh., XI, p. 439, pi. 63, f. 20, 21. 

Yedo (Lischke) ; Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

Euchelus exiguus A. Adams. Pils., Man. Conch., XI, p. 118 ; Monodonta exigua 
A. Ad., P. Z. S., ISoti, p. 176. 

Japan (Siebold). 

Euchelus ruber A. Adams. Man. Conch., XI, p. 440, pi. 67, f. 79. 

Karaakura (Stearns). Specimens of clear, pale brown tint, with 
light brown scattered dots, but agreeing quite perfectly with typical 
rubra in sculpture. Also, N. shore of Tango (Gaines), a red speci- 
men. 
Ethalia rufula Gould. Gld., Otia, p. 154. 

Ooshima (N. P. E. E.). 

This genus is here understood in the sense explained in Man. Conch., XI,. 
p. 457, not as used by authors generally. The Umbonium anguliferum ^hi\. ,. 
reported from Yokohama by Dunker, must be a mistake, as that is a New- 
Zealand species of Ethaha. 

Umbonella murrea Reeve. Rve., Conch. Icon., Turbo, f. 54 ; Ad., Ann. Mag. N.. 
H. (3), XI, p. 265, 1863, Isander maculosus A. Ad. 

Goto Is., 71 fms. (Ad.). 
Camitia sp. 

See Man. Conch., XI, p. 465. No good authority for the Japan- 
ese reference seems to exist. 
Umbonium giganteum Lesson. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., p. 454, pi. 58, f. 17-19. 

Kii coast (Stearns) ; Yedo, Nagasaki (Lischke). 

The following principal color patterns occur : 

(1). Entire surface uniform blue-blacks 

(2). Olivaceous, with short black and cream blotches below the 
suture, a continuous red band at periphery, bordered below by a 
white band. 

(3). Olivaceous-yellow, yellow, or pinkish-yellow, unicolored or 
marked like the preceding. 

(4). Very light drab, almost white, uniform or marked like num- 
ber 2. 

(5) Plumbeous, with a series of black and cream blotches below 
the suture, and a series of cream and dark plumbeous maculse at the 
periphery. 

Many specimens, especially immature ones, show a group of sev- 
eral spiral strise immediately above the periphery. 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TROCHID^. 101 

TJmboniuni costatum Lesson. I'ils., Man. Conch., XI, p. 54, pi. 59, f. 34, 35. 

Kii coast (Stearns) ; Simoda, Hakodate, Tsu-Shiraa, etc. (Ad.) ; 
Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Very large specimens, measuring alt. 22, diam. 30 mm. The col- 
oration is very uniform, consisting of narrow radial stripes of buff 
and olive-bluish broken into a fine tessellation by the spiral 
grooves of the upper surface, the base with coarser radial stripes, 
sometimes interrupted ; umbilical callus purplish-pink. 

TJmbonium costatum var. superbum Gould. Lischke, J. M. C, II, p. 83, pi. 5, f. 
18-21. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Kagoshima (N. P. E. E.); Inland Sea, Hizen, 
near Enoshima (Stearns). 

Very extensive suites of this form were collected by Mr. Stearns ; 
and a critical examination shows that there is really no character 
whatever separating them from U. costatum except size. The sub- 
sutural fasciole is sometimes smooth, but more often more or less 
tuberculate ; and specimens occur which are very diflferent to distin- 
guish from U. moniliferum. Mr. Stearns has assorted the forms into 
numerous color varieties which he designates by letters. The more 
notable of these are as follows : 

(1). Coloration as described above for U. costatum, the stripes 
above continuous or tessellated, periphery often with a white and a 
red girdle, (Nagasaki, Kii). (See Lischke, II, pi. V, f 20, 21). 

(2). Same pattern as above, but ground color orange, stripes faint 
olive; base without stripes, red or yellow. 

(3). Same as No. 1, but with wide blotch-like stripes at and below 
the periphery. (See Lischke, f. 18, 19). 

(4). Entire surface blue-black or purple-black, callus fleshy. 
(Hizen). 

(5). Ground color and subperipheral fasciole red, stripes close and 
dusky ; interstices between spiral cords pure white. This is the most 
remarkable and lovely pattern. The base is articulated, broadly 
striped or uniform. 

(6). Groundcolor almost white; stripes or tesellation very pale 
bluish or brown ; callus white or fleshy. (Inland Sea). 

(7). Stripes broad and red, on a yellow ground. 

(8). Upper surface with broad white zone. One specimen of this 
variety lacks spiral sulci, and has very convex whorls. 



102 JAPANESE MOLLU8KS, CYCLOSTREMATID^. 

Umbonium japonicum SuUiotti. Pilsbry, Man. Com,-!)., XI, p. 456. 

Sea of Japan (Sul.). 

Will prove a synonym of U. monilifenim or siiperbum. Sowerby 
(Thes., V, p. 472) reports U. suturalis Lam. from Japan ; and A, 
Adams reports vestiarium Linn. 

Umboniam moniliferum Lamarck. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, p. 450, pi. 58, f. 22- 
31. 

Kishiu, Kamakura (Stearns) ; Nagasaki, Simoda, 0-Shima (Dkr.). 

Three color varieties collected : 

(1). White, with some faint or obsolete tessellation; callus white 
or light. (Kishiu). 

(2). Yellow, with light olive tessellation ; callus pink or dusky. 

(3). Ground color buff or white, with wide red stripes, sometimes 
reducing the light ground to mere spots; base with broad oblique 
stripes, or a subperipheral red girdle. (Kamakura). 

Umbonium thomasi Crosse. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, p. 453, pi. 57, f. 31, 32. 
Rotella infmplanata Sowerby. 

Hakodate. 

Umbonium adamsi Dunker. Dkr., Index, p. 135, pi. 6, f. 3-5. 

Japan (Dkr.). Is this more than a variety of U. thomasi f 

CYCLOSTREMATID.ffi:. 
Cyclostrema anaglyptum A. Ad. Man. Conch., Vol. X, p. 88, pi. 31, f. 15, 16. 

Seto-Uchi (Adams). 
Cyclostrema pulchella Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 20, pi. 3, f. 5. 

Tokyo (Stearns) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (A. Ad.). 
Tryon unites this with C. micans A. Ad. 
Cyclostrema ammonooeras A. Ad. Man. Conch., Vol. X, p. SO, pi. 31, f. 34, 35. 

Japan (Adams). 

Cyclostrema dunkeri Tryon. Man. Conch., X, p. 91, pi. 32, f. 48, 49. C cingulatum 
Dkr. not Phil.; Moll. Jap., p. 20, pi. 3, f. 11. 

Deshima (Dkr.) ; Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 
Cyclostrema biporcatum A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 1, f. 7 a, b. 

Seto-Uchi (Adams). 
Cyclostrema laevis Keiner. Sp. et Icon. Coq. Viv., Ddph'mula, pi. 4. f. 6. 

Japan. 

C. duplioata Lischke. Jap. Meeres-Conch., Ill, p. 61, pi. 3, f. 9. 

Yedo (Lischke). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CYCLOSTREMATIDiE. 103 

Cyclostrema cinguliferum A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 1, f. 1 a, b. 
Japan (Adams). 

Cyclostrema tornatum A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 2 f. 15. 
Japan (Adams). 

Cyclostrema sulcatum A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 2, f. 3. 

Japan (Adams). 
Cyclostrema (Tubiola) cornuellum A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 3, f. 21 a. b, 

Japan (Adams). 

Cyclostrema (Tubiola) nivea A. Ad. Man. Conch., Vol. X, p. 96, pi. 33, f. 89, 90. 
Japan (Chem.). 

Cyclostrema (Daronia) cyclotina A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 3, f. 20 a, b. 

Japan (Ad.). 
Cyclostrema (Morchia) obvolutum A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 3, f. 19 a, b. 

Japan (A. Ad.). 

Teinostoma concentricum A. Ad. Conoh. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 1, f. 2 a, b. 

Takano-Shima (Adams). 
Teinostoma radiatum A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 1, f. (i a, b. 

Kino-0-Shima (Adams). 
Teinostoma lucidum A. Ad. Conch. Icon., pi. 1, f. 7 a, b, Vol. 19. 

Japan (Adams). 

Teinostoma (Calceolina) pusillum (C. B. Ad.). A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 1, 
. f. 8 a, b. 

Japan (Adams). 

Teinostoma candidum A. Adams. Ad., Ann. Mag. N. H., 18C2, p. 296 (Ethalia) ; 
, Sowerby, Conch. Icon., XX, pi. 4, f. 14 {Rotella). 

Goto Is., 71 fms. (Ad.). 

Teinostoma polita A. Adams. Ad., 1. c. ; Sowb,. 1. c, f. 17 {Rotella). 

Goto Is., 71 fms. (Ad.). 

Teinostoma omphalotropis A. Adams. Ad., Ann. Mag. N. H., 1863, XI, p. 266 
(Ethalia). 

Yobuko, 17 fms. (Ad.). 

Teinostoma nitida A. Adams. Ad., Ann. Mag. N. H., p. 266 (Ethalia). 

Yobuko, 14 fms. (Ad.). 

Teinostoma sobrina A. Adams. Ad., Ann. Mag. N. H., 1861, VIII, p. 306 ; XI, p. 
266 (Ethalia) ; Sowerby, Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 2, f. 19. 



104 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, STOMATELLID^. 

Kino-o Shima, Takano-Shiraa, 25 fms. (Ad.). 

Teinostoma perspicua A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1863. p. 266. 
Oki-no-Sliiraa, Takano-Shima (Ad.). 

Microtheoa crenellifera A. Ail. Concli. Icon., Vol. U», pi. 3, f. 23. 
Japan (Ad.). 

Lippistes rollei v. Martens. Nachrbl. d. m. Ges., 1894, p. 135. 

Iki, in fine sand. 

STOMATELLID.ffi:. 
Stomatella lyrata Pilsbry. Man. Conch., XII, p. 12, pi. 2, f. 3-5. 

Kisbiu (Stearns). 

This abundant species attains a diameter of 15 mm. It may be 
the same as the alleged Japanese S. articulata. 

Stomatella articulata A. Adams. Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 13, pi. 52, f. 43 ; Dkr., 
Index, p. 145. 

Japan (Dkr.). Originally described from Australia and Lord 
Hood's Island. Does it really occur in Japanese Seas? 

Stomatella orbiculata A. Adams. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XI, p. 16, pi. 52, f. 44, 45; 
Dkr., Index, p. 145. 

Japan (Dkr.). Also reported from Mozambique (Cuming) and 
Darnley I., Torres Sts. (Brazer). 

Stomatella japonica A. Adams. Pilsbry, Manual XII. p. 20, pi. 53, f. 97. 

Japan (Cuming) ; Deshima (Dkr.) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Niphonia pulchella A. Adams. Ad., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), 1860, p. 336 ; Pils., Man. 
Conch., .\II, p. 29. 

Off Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

Stomatia phymotis Ilebling. Pilsbry, Manual of Conch., XII, p. 30 ; Dkr., Index, 
p. 146. 

Said to occur in Japan. Mr. Stearns obtained many specimens 
at Ohonme I., Liukiu group. 

Stomatia rubra Lamarck. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XII, p. 33: Dkr., Index, p. 146; 
pi. 6, f. 11-13. 

Strait of Corea (Ad.) ; Inland Sea of Japan (Stearns) ; Bay of 
Yedo (Lischke). 

The color varies from a deep crimson to orange. 

Stomatia splendidula A. Adams. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XII, p. 34 ; Dkr., Index, 
p. 145. 

Japanese Sea (Ad.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSK8, HALIOTID^. 105 

Oena dilecta Gould. Otia Conoh., p. 109; Pilsbrv, Man. Conch., XII, p. 40, pi. 55, 
f. 33. 

Hakodate Bay, on shells (Stimpson). 

Gena lutea (Linnu) Adams. Pi's., Man. Conch., XII, p. 44, pi. 2, f. 29-31. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Gena varia A. Adams. Pils., Man. Conch., XII. p. 45, pi. 55, f. 19-21. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

HALIOTID.ffi:. 
Haliotis (PadoUus) ovina (imelin. Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 124, pi. 19, f. 7. 

Three specimens of the reddish typical form collected by Mr. 
Stearns. 

Haliotis gigantea Ginelin. Pilsbiy, Man. Conch., XII, p. 84. H. sieboldii aiud H. 
discus Reeve. 

Kii coast (Stearns, with numerous pearls of same) ; Nagasaki, 
Yedo, Hakodate (Lischke). 

Haliotis gigantea discus Rve. Yesso (Stearns). 

From this locality forms referable to both dlscns and kamtschat- 
Jcana. Simoda and Hakodate (Stimp.) ; Goto Is. (Ad.). 

Haliotis planata Sowerbj-. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XII, p. 99, pi. 49, f. 20, 21, 22. 

Philippines (Sowb.) ; Viti Is. (Garrett!) ; Japan (Stearns). 

Haliotis japonica Reeve. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XII, pi. 14, f. 7r^H. OiptatiUs 
and //. incisa Rve. 

Japan (Rve.). 

Haliotis diversicolor Reeve. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XII, p. 104, 105. 

Sagami, Avva, Idzu and Kii coast (Stearns). 

This specific name covers the following forms, the distincti \re feat- 
ures of which are well bridged by specimens in the large quantity 
collected by Mr. Stearns. 

//. supertexta Lischke. Jap. Meeres-Conch., II, p. 92, pi. 6, f. 13-15. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 

H. exigim Dunker. Index, p. 148, pi. 6, f. 8-10. 

This is merely a young shell, easily matched in any series of young 
supertexta. 

H. gnuierl Philippi. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XII, p. 105, pi. 47. f. 1, 2. 

Nagasaki, Yedo (Lischke). 
Haliotis speciosa Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 47. 

Japan (Mus. Loebbecke, teste Weinkauff). 



106 JATANESE MOLLUSKP, FISSURELLID^. 

Haliotis (Teinotis) asinina Linn. I'ils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 120, pi. 1 J, f. 76. 
Japan (WeinkaufF; Stearns). 

SCISSURELLIDJE. 
Scissurella japonica A. Adams. Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 59. 

Mino-Sliima, 68 fms., Seto-Uchi, 0-Shima (Ad.). 
Scissurella lamellata A. A(5ams. Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 59. 

Mino-Shima, 63 ihis., Goto, 71 fms., 0-Sliima, 26 fms. (Ad.). 

Scissurella turbinata A. Adams. Pils., Man. Comh., XII, \>. 59. 

Mino-8hinia, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

Scissurella concinna A. Adams. Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 59. 

Rifunsiri, 35 fms. (Ad.). 
Scissurella staminea A. Adams. Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 00. 

Tsii-Shiraa, 25 fms. (Ad.). 
Schismope carinata A. Adams. Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 67. 

Okosiri, 35 fms., Seto-Uchi, 16 fms., Goto, 71 fms. (Ad.). 

Schismope modesta A. Adams. Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 07. 

TabuShima, 25 fms. (Ad.). 
Schismope miranda A. Adams. Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 07. 
Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

PLEUROTOMARIID.ff;. 

Pleurotomaria beyrichi Ililgendorf. v. ^lartens. Conch. Mittheil., i, p. 33, pi. 7 ; 
Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XII. p. 71, pi. 56, f. 7-9. 

Japan. 

FISSURELLID.S:. 

Fissurellidince. 
Macroschisma macrosohisma (Chemn.) Dillwyn. 

Patella macroschisma Chemnitz, Conehyl. Cab., XI, p. 184, pi. 
197, f. 1923, 1924 (1795). 

Patella macroschisma Wood, Index Testae, pi. 38, fig. 102a 
(1828). 

Patella macroschisma Dillw., Descript. Cat. Rec. Shells, II, p. 
1062, (1817) ; reference to Humphreys excluded. 

Fissnrella macroschima Desh., in Lam. An. s. Vert. Edit. 2, VII, 
p. 603 (exclusive of all but fir^it reference) 1836. 

Macrochisma maxima A. Adams, P. Z. S., 1850, p. 202 ; H. & A. 
Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll., Ill, pi. 51, fii^. 5, (1858). 

Macroschisma maxima Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 192 (copy of 
Adams' description and figure). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, FISSURELLID^.. 107 

Not Humphreys and DaCosta, Conch., p], 7, f. 3. 

Not Fissurella macrosehisma Sowerby, Genera of Shells, Fiss., f. 
5, =J/. hiidula Swains. 

Not Fissurella macrosehisma Sowb., Conch. Illustr., f. 39. 

Not Macrocldsma maxima Sowb., Thes. Conch., Ill, pi. 244, f. 
216, 217. 

The prominent specific characters of this form are its very large 
perforation which is siidde'nly dilated postenorly to double the width 
of its middle portion. The anterior part of the shell has several 
carinpe. In M. hiatula Sw., the hole is not thus dilated posteriorly, 
nor is it so in the various figures of Humphreys and Sowerby 
referred to above. Chemnitz reports the species from Japan. 

Macrosehisma sinensis A. Adams. PI. VI, figs. 6, 7, 8. 
Pilsbry, Manual of Coneh., XII, p. 190, pi. 59, f. 56-59. 

Tabu-Shima (Ad.) ; Neraoto, Boshiu (Stearns, twelve specimens). 

Shell oblong, the length slightly exceeding twice the breadth ; 
lateral margins slightly convex, subparallel, anterior margin well 
rounded, posterior margin more or less truncate, often emarginate. 
Anterior slope straight or slightly convex, more than half the length 
of the shell ; side slopes straight. 

Surface sculptured with close, fine radial stride, latticed by con- 
centric raised strife, which are much less obvious on old than on 
young shells; the anterior portion having about four very inconspic- 
uous low radial ridges. Color either (1) dotted, speckled and ob- 
scurely banded with black on a pale huffish ground, or (2) blackish 
at the sides, crimson in front and behind, or (3) crimson throughout, 
with some faint blackish rays. Posterior slope very short, about 
equalling the length of the eroded portion behind the hole ; gen- 
erally concave, or broadly guttered behind the hole. Perfora- 
tion wedge-shaped, with nearly straight sides, gradually diverging 
backward; very narrow in front, the back margin rounded, with 
an eroded tract behind it. Length of hole slightly less than one-third 
the entire length of the shell. Interior white with a bluish stain ; 
hole-callus well marked, its edge stained with olive-black at the 
sides. Peristome strongly curved upward behind, much less so in 
front, the lateral margins nearly level. 

Length 23 i, breadth lOs, alt. 6 mm. 

Length 23^, breadth 10s, alt. 6t mm. 

Length 21, breadth 9s, alt. 6 mm. 

This species differs from M. macrosehisma in the form of the per- 
foration, which is wider posteriorly but not abruptly dilated there. 



108 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, FISSURELLIDii:. 

Macroschisma dilatata A. Adams. Sowerbv, Thes., Ill, ]>, 206, f. 220 ; Man. Conch, 
xii, ji. Ill;;, pi. ,')it, f. n.j. 

Nemoto, Boshiu (Stearns). 

The specimen referred to this species diff'ers from M. sinensis in 
being shorter and broader, with shorter foramen and concave front 
slope. Color red, with a white ray on each side. 
Macroschisma Lischkei Pilsbry. PI. YT, figs. 1, 2, .3, 4, 5. 

Nemoto, Boshiu (Stearns). 

Shell oblong, the length less than twice the breadth ; lateral mar- 
gins convex, anterior margin well rounded, posterior margin bluntly 
rounded, subtruncate. Anterior slope straight, decidedly less than 
half the length of the shell ; side slopes straight. 

Surface sculptured with fine radial strife, alternately larger and 
smaller, finer on the forward half of the side slopes ; slightly decus- 
sated by growth lines. Color either (1) uniform black, or (2) 
■closely speckled with black on a buff ground, or (3) crimson with 
or without dusky rays. Posterior slope long for the genus, about 
one-fifth the length of the entire shell ; flattened or subconcave be- 
hind the hole, but not guttered. Perforation large, oblong, slightly 
narrower in front, and wider behind, with a very narrow eroded tract 
behind it. Length of hole contained two and one- half times in length 
of shell. Interior bluish-white, the hole-callus darker at the sides. 
When resting upon a plane surface, the peristome of the shell is 
seen to be very much elevated behind, and but little less so in front; 
the latero-basal margins strongly curved throughout. 

Length 17t, breadth 9, alt. 5 mm. 

Length 16, breadth 9], alt. 5 mm. 

Twenty-two specimens collected. This seems a very distinct spe- 
cies ; the position and proportions of hole, the long posterior and 
short anterior slope, and the strongly curved basal margins being 
especially characteristic, and unlike other described forms. 

EmarginulincB. 

rissuridea ticaonica Reeve. Sowb.. Thes., Conch., Ill, p. 197, f. 110. 

Described from Ticao, Philippines ; reported from Japan by 
Dunker. One specimen collected by ^Ir. Stearns is referable to this 
species, although the foramen is rather shorter. 

Fissuridea was proposed for a highly arched species from the Philippine 
Is. It has hitherto been regarded as a subgenus of Fissvrella. Its synonymy 
is as follows : 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, FISSURELLID^. 109 

Fissuridea Swains., Malacol., p. 356, 1840, type F. galeata Ilelbl. 
Glyphu Carpenter, P. Z. S , 1856, p. 223, type G. aspera Esch. 
Not Glyphis Agassiz, 1842, nor of Gibbes, 1848, a genus of fishes. 
Fissuridea Pilsbry, Nautilus, Jan., 1892, p. 104. 

Fissuridea sieboldii Reeve. Pilsbry, Man. Coneb., XXL p. 204; Dkr Index pi 6 
f. 14, 15. " ■ ' 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). Lucapina pfeifferi Dkr., Malak., Bl., 
xxiv, p. 70, is said by Dunker to be identical. 

Puncturella noachina Linne. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XII, p, 229, pi. 27, f. 69 70. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Puncturella nobilis A. Adams. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XIT, p. 231, pi. 63, f. 34-37. 

Okosiri (Ad.). 

Puncturella (Cranopsis) pelex A. Adams. Pilsbry. Manual XII p 241 pi 28 f 

8. 1 ' r • ) - 

Off Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

Puncturella (Cranopsis^ pileolus A. Adams. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XII p 241 pi 
28, f. 9. ' i- , v • 

Off Mino-Shima (Ad.). 

Zeidora reticulata A. Adams. Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 247, pi. 63, fig. between 
16 and 20. i ' s 

Mino-Shima (Ad.). 

Zeidora caloeolina A. Adams. Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 247. pi. 64, f. 27. 
Strait of Corea, off Mino-Shima (Ad.). 

Bimula cumingii A. Adams. Thes. Conch., Ill, p. 210, pi. 245, f. 1. 
Japan (Dkr.), 

Emarginula adamsiana Sowerby. Sowb., Thes. Conch., p. 214, f. 27 28. 

Japan (Sowb.). E. solidula Costa, a Mediterranean species is 
said to occur in Japan, but it requires confirmation. 

Emarginula scabriuscula A. Ad. Conch. Icon., Vol. 19, pi. 5, f. 30. 
Japan. 

Emarginula maculata A. Adams. Ad., in Sowb., Thes. Ill, p. 215 f 31 32 • Pils 
Man. Conch., XII, p. 263. ' ■ > > •> 

Goto Is. (A. Ad.). 

Emarginula japonica Sowerby. Thes. Conch., Ill, p. 216, f. 43, 44. 
Emarginula altilis GId. Gid., Otia, p. 116. 
Kagoshima Bay, 10 fms. 



110 JAPANESE M0LLU8KS, ACMJEID^. 

Emarginula textilis Gould. Gld., Otia, p. 116. 

Ooshima (N. P. E. E.). 
Subemarginula picta Dkr. Dkr., Moll. Jaj)., p. 24, pi. 12, f. 15. 

Deshima (Dkr.) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Subemarginula (Tugalia) gigas v. Martens. {Saru-awabi). Mart.. Conch. Mit- 
tbeil. II, p. 1(13. pi. 19 ; Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 286. 

Northern Japan (Mts.). 

Scutus unguis Linne. Pils., Man. Conch., XII, p. 289, pi. 40, f. 4-8. {Parmo- 
pltoriis japonicus Tapparone-Canefri.) 

Nagasaki (Stearns). 

Besides the synonyms given in the Manual of Conchology, Pa<e//a 
scapha Gnielin, Syst. Nat. 13, p. 3727, belongs to this species. 

PHENACOLEPADID.ffi;. 

Fhenacolepas pulchellus Lisehke. Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., 11, p. 100, pi. C, 
f. 20-23. (Scutellina). 

Nagasaki (Lischke). The generic names Scutella and Seutellina 
being preoccu|)ied, have been changed as follows : 
Scutella Brod., P. Z. S., 1834, p. 47, not of Lam., 1816. 
Seutellina Gray, P. Z. S., 1847, p. 168, not of Agassiz, 18il. 
PJtcnacolepas Pilsbry, Nautilus, v, 89, Dec, 1891. 

Phenacolepas unguiformis Gould. Gld., Otia, p. 115; Man. Conch., XII, p. 129. 

{Seutellina). 

Kagoshiraa (N. P. E. E.). 

Phenacolepas scobinatus Gould. Gld., Otia, p. 115: Man. Conch., XII, p. 129. 
{Seutellina). 
Ooshima (N. P. E. E.). 

{Docoglossa). 
ACHLJEIDJE. 

Acmaea sobrenckii Lischke. Lisehke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., I, p. 107, pi. 8, f 1-4. 

(plus A. eoncinna Lischke). 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Ojima, Yokohama and Hakodate (Stearns). 

A wonderfully variable limpet. In the large series collected at 
Ojima the typical schrenkii is represented by several varieties. Some 
have the color pattern shown in Lischke's figures, others a coarsely 
tessellated design ; the radial riblets being either smooth or finely 
beaded. Another variety is the condnna of Lischke (Jap. Meeres- 
Conch., II, pi. 6, f. 16) rounder in outline, more elevated, and all 
over finely beaded, and mostly unicolored blackish ; but many in- 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, ACM^.ID^. Ill 

terniediate specimens between this and typical schrenckii occur. 
Still another form is smaller, more erect and elevated, with dull, tes- 
sellated or rayed exterior, and subobsolete radial strite. The speci- 
mens from Hakodate are rather small. All of the forms of A. 
schrenckii have the interior stained with green or blue. 
Acmaea heroldi Dkr. PI. YI, figs. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. 

Nagasaki and Deshima (Lischke) ; Kashi-azaki, Boshiu, Euo- 
shima, Sagami (Stearns). 

Great numbers of this species were obtained by Mr. Stearns. It 
is readily distinguishable from all forms of A. schrenckii by the 
brown-black and white (not blue or green) interior. Bunker's P. 
pygmcea is probably a synonym. 

A white variety, ray-variegated with reddish-brown, occurs at 
Tokyo Harbor and Kamakura (Stearns). 
Acmaea conulus Dkr. Man. Conch., XIII, p]. 9, f. 17, IS. 

Yokohama, Enoshima, Tokyo Harbor (Stearns); Deshima 
(Nuhn) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Typical specimens agreeing with the figures cited were collected 
by Mr. Stearns. 

Acmaea dorsuosa Gould. Man. Conch., XIII, p. 45, pi. 33, f. 88; pi. 9, f. 15, 16. 

Hakodate (Gould) ; Ooshima (Challenger) ; Enoshima (Stearns). 
Acmaea saccharina Linne. Man. Conch., XIII, pi. 36, f. 60-04. 

Coast of Kii (Stearns) ; Ooshima (Challenger) ; Nagasaki 
(Lischke) ; Deshima (Nuhn). 

Many specimens were collected, agreeing in the main with Keeve's 
Patella lanx. The inside has a wide black margin, interrupted at 
the positions of the principal ribs with white. Spatula is either 
stained irregularly with brown, or has a large black patch and 
numerous dots, somewhat as in the var. sfellaris Q. & G. 
Acmaea grata Gould. Otia Conoh., p. 115. 

North shores of Nippon (N. P. Exped.), 

Acmcea patina Esch., digitalis Esch. and testudinalis Miill., have 
been reported from Japan, see Jap. Meeres-Conch., II, p. 93, etc. 

LEPETID.a:. 
Lepeta caeca MUller. Pils., Man. Conch., XIII, p. 68, pi. 40, f. 29-32. 

Northern Japan (Dkr.). 

Lepeta (Cryptobranchia) concentrica Middendorff. Pils., Man Conch XIII p 
69, pi. 40, f. 33-37. ' 

Northern Japan, Aleutian Is, 



112 JAPANESE M0LLU8KS, TATELLID.E, 

PATELLIDJE. 

Patella (Scutellastra) stellaeformis Reeve. Pilsbry, Man, of Coneh., XIII, p. 98. 

Yedo (Lischke) ; Tsu-Shima (A. Ad.) ; Japan (Stearns). 

The specimens are like pi. 17, figs. 25, 27 of Man, Conch,, rude 
and irregular. 

HeloioQiscus nigrisquamatas Reeve. PI. VII, figs. 1, 2. 
Pilsbry, Man. of Conch., XIII, p. 125, pi. 48, f. 13-15. 

Coast of Prov. Ise (Stearns) ; Coast of Kii (Stearns) ; Ogasawara, 
Bonin Is, (Stearns). 

The specimens from the Province of Kii are small. One is re- 
presented in figs. 1, 2, of pi. VII, Those from Ise are larger, agreeing 
well with Reeve's figures, and his type may very likely be from this 
region. As they grow older, the interior loses its black-brown spots. 
The localities " Australia " and " Chili " previously given for this 
species are false. 

Helcioniscus nigrisquamatus boninensis Pils. PI. VII, fig. 3. 
Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XIII, p. 131, pi. 66, f. 1, 2 ; pi. 67, f. 3. 

This is the large form from Bonin Is. (Stearns). It probably in- 
tergrades completely with nigrisquaviatus, but all the specimens I 
have seen have a larger central spatula. A very elevated individ- 
ual is figured. 

Helcioniscus Stearnsii Pilsbry. Pi. VII, figs. 4, 5, 6. 
Man. Conch., XIII, p. 132, pi. 48, f. 16-18. 

Coast of Prov. of Kii (Stearns, 1890). This species is readily dis- 
tinguished from H. nigrisquamatus by the more anteriorly curved 
blunter apex, more convex posterior slope, etc. The central spatula 
varies from chestnut clouded in its depth with creamy to cream 
color clouded with brown. It is more solid than specimens oi nigri- 
squamatus of the same size. 

Helcioniscus pallidus Old. Man. of Conch., XIII, p. 133, pi. 67, f. 9, 10. F. 
lamanonii Schrenck, Amurl., pi. 14, f. 6-9. 

Hakodate (Stearns, Stimpson, Schrenck, Dkr.) ; Yamada Har- 
bor (Ann. Mag., 1875, XVI, p. 114). 

Helcioniscus eucosmius Pilsbry. PI. VII, figs. 7, 8, 9, 10. 
Man. Conch., XIII, j). 148, pi. 71, f. 61-64. 

Enoshima (Stearns) ; Hakodate (Stearns). 

This is a solider, more erectly conical species than H. amussitata 
or tor euma, and the apex is less directed forward. The coloration, 
while characteristic, varies greatly. The species is not known from 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, POLYPLACOPHORA. 113 

any locality outside of Japan. It is a very abundant form at Eno- 
shiraa. The central spatula is generally deep brown with a lighter 
spot in the cavity of the apex, but sometimes it is orange (fig. 8) or 
even in rare cases creamy. 

Helcioniscus toreuma Reeve. Lischke, Jaii. Meeres-Conch., I, pi. 8, f. 12-15; II 
pi. 6, f. 12. ' 

Nagasaki (Stearns, Lischke) ; Enoshima (Stearns) ; Hakodate 
(Stearns) ; Banda, Boshiu (Stearns). 

Even Lischke's splendid series of figiires do not exhaust the color 
variations of this Protean limpet. After examining several hundred 
examples I am unable to retain P. canussllata Rv. as a distinct spe- 
cies. The form I at one time called " nigrolineata var. divergens" 
is also merely a heavy, large toreuma. 

Helcioniscus nigrolineatus Reeve. Lischke, 1. c, I, pi. 8, f. 5-11 ; II, pi. 7, f. 1- 

6. 

Enoshima (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Tsu-Shima (A. Ad.) ; 
Toba, S.-E. of Nippon (St. John). 

The curious variety with vermiculate blackish concentric lines 
(Lischke, pi. 8, fig. 10) was also collected by Mr. Stearns. 

[Note. Helcioniscus exaratus and Patella elypeaster have been 
reported from Japan, but on insufficient evidence ; a specimen of H. 
testudinarius L. was brought from Japan by Mr. Stearns, but it 
probably was not native there]. 

AMPHINEURA. 
LEPID0PLEURID.1;. 

Lepidopleurus fuliginatus Aikmis &, Reeve. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XIY, p. 10. 

Corea (Ad.). 

Lepidopleurus concinnus Gould. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XIV, p. 11. 

Hakodate, on stones and shells (N. P. E. E.). 

Lepidopleurus (Deshayesiella) curvatus Carpenter. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XIY, 
p. 16. 

Okosiri (A. Ad.). 

ISCHN0CHIT0NID.5:. 
Chaetopleura asperior Carpenter. Man. Conch, xv, p. 74, pi. 15, f. .'S8-41. 
Tonicella marmorea Fabr. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XIV, p. 41. 

Northern Japan. 

Tonicella submarmorea Midd. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XIV, p. 42. Catlmrina. 
siihrnarntorca Dkr., Index, p. 159. Ch. insignis Rve. 



114 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, POLYPLACOPHORA. 

Tonioella lineata Wood. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XIV, p. 42. 
Northern Japan. 

Trachydermon (Spongioradsia) multidentatus Cpr. Pilsbry, Man. Conch., XIV, 
p. 85 ; XV, p. 

Bonin Is. (N. P. E. E.). 

Ischnochiton (Stenoradsia) lindholmi Schrenck. Schr., Reisen im Amurlande, II, 
p. 288, pi. 12, f. 9-16; Pils., Man., XIV, p. 85. 

Bay of Hakodate (Schr.). 
I have not seen this species. 

Isclmocliitoii comptus Gould. Pils., Man. Conch., XIV, p. 117. 
Ooshima, Bonin and Liukiu Is. (Stirap.). 

Ischnochiton (Lepidozona) mertensi Midd. Pils., Man. XIV, p. 125. 
Reported from Hakodate by Dkr., Index, p. 158. 

Ischnochiton (Lepidozona) coreanicus Adams & Reeve. A. k R., Voy. Samarang, 
pi. 15, f. 9; Pils., Man. Conch., XIV, p. 129. 

Corean Archipelago, nnder stones (Ad.) ; Bay of Hakodate 
(Schrenck). 

Ischnochiton (Lepidozona) craticulatus Gould. Pils., Man. Conch., XV, p. 84 
pi. 17, f. 62, 63. 

China Seas or Japan, (N, P. E. E.). 
Type is in U. S. Nat. Museum. 

Ischnochiton cultratus Carpenter. Pils., Man. Conch., XV, p. 82, pi. 17, f. 57-59. 

Hakodate (N. P. E. E.). 
Type is in U. S. Nat, Museum. 

Ischnochiton (Ischnoradsia) hakodadensis Carpenter. Pils., Man. Conch., XIV, 
p. 117, pi. 19, f. 64-66. 

Hakodate (N. P. E. E.). 
Type is in Mus. Phila. Acad. 

Ischnochiton (Ischnoradsia) albrechti Schrenck. Pils., Man. Conch., XIV, p. 147, 
pi. 19, f. 70-74. Lepidoradia granofilosa Cpr. 

Hakodate (Schrenck) ; Endermo Harbor (St. John, Smith). 

Callistochiton jacobaeus (Jould. Pils., Man. Conch., XIV, p. 267. 
Simoda (N. P, E, E.), 

Nuttallina alternata Sowerby. Pils., Man. Conch., XIV, p. 281. 
Japan (Cuming). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, DENTALIID^. 115 

MOPALIIDJE. 

Mopalia middendorffii Schrenck. Pils., Man. Conch., XIV, p. 301. 
Bay of Castries (Schr.). 

Placiphorella stimpsonii Gould. Pils., Man. of Conch., XIV, p. ,307, pi. 62, f. 84- 

87. 

Hakodate Bay, in 25 fras. (N. P. E. E.). 

ACANTHOCHITID.ff;. 

Acanthochites rubrolineatus Lischke. Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., Ill, p. 73, 
pi. 5, f. 12 : Pils., Man., XV, p. 18. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; E. coast of Japan (Stearns). 

Acanthochites achates Gould. Gld., Otia, p. 118. 

Kikaia and Hakodate Bay (N. P. E. E.). 

Acanthochites defilippii Tapparone-Canefri. Pils., Man. Conch., XV, p. 19. 
Stectoplax porrecta Cpr. mss. 

Yokohama ("' Magenta "). 
Acanthochites circellatus Adams & Pteeve. Rve., Conch. Icon., f. 180. 

I. of Quelpart, Corean Archipelago (Ad.). 

Acanthochites scutiger Adams A Reeve. Rve., Conch. Icon., f. 178. 

Cryptochiton stelleri MiddendorfiF. Pils., Man. Conch., XV, p. 48, pi. 7, f. 9-13 ,• 
Smith, Ann. Mag., XVI, 1875, p. 115. 

Endermo Harbor (St. John, Smith), and northward. 

Two varieties have been described from the western Pacific, 
violaceus Nordm. and apicalis Pils. 

CHITONID.a:. 
Chiton aquatilis Reeve. Rve.. Conch. Icon., f. 73 ; Pilsbry, Man., XIV, p. 169. 

Tsu-Shima. 

Probably Ch. densiliraius Cpr. (Pils., Manual, p. 169) is a syno- 
nym. 

Liolophura japonica Lischke. Pils., Manual, XIV, p. 242, pi. 52, f. 41-44. Ch. 
defilippii Tap. -Can. 

Enoshima (Stearns) ; Ooshima (Challenger) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Liolophura japonica var. tessellata Pils. Enoshima (Stearns). 
Liolophura loochooana Brod. & Sowb. Pils., Man., XIV, p. 244. 

Loo Choo Is. (Belcher). 

SCAPHOPODA. 

DENTALIID.a;. 
Sentalium vernedei Hanley. Sowb., Thes. Conch., Ill, p. 101, f. 3. 
Japan (Dkr.). 



116 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PELECYPODA. 

Dentalium ootogonum Lam. Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., Ill, pi. 5, f. 1-H. D. 
lii.nKjdinun Gld., Lischke, L c, pL 5, f. 4-7; D. japonicum Dkr., Ind. Moll. Mar. 
Jap., p. 153, pi. a, f. 2. 

Kii coast (Stearns) ; Matozaand Ooshima Harbors, 6-8 fms. (St. 
John). 

From a study of several hundred specimens collected by Mr. 
Stearns I am disposed to consider octogonuvi, hexagonum Rud japon- 
icum merely forms of one species. The development of interstitial 
longitudinal riblets is very variable. 
Dentalium sexcostatum Sby. Ann. Mag., 1875, Vol. XVI, p. ll.'J. 

Cape Shima, 18 fath.,GozaHarb., 6 fath., sandy mud (St. John). 
Dentalium weinkauffi Dunker. Dkr., Index, p. 15;!, pi. 5, f. 1. 

Japan (Dkr.) ; Bishiu coast (Stearns). 

In the specimens before me the longitudinal riblets do not extend 
so far toward the aperture as Bunker's figure shows. 
Dentalium buccinulum Gld. Otia Conch., p. 119. 

Kagoshima (Stimpson). 
Dentalium yokohamense Watson. Challenger Gastrop, 1875-6, XV, p. 11, pi. 2, f. 

Yokohama, 8 fathoms (Chall.). 
Dentalium semipolitum Sby. Ann. Mag., 1875, XVI, p. 113. 

Cape Shima and Matoza Harb., 6-18 fath. (St. John). 

PELECYPODA. 
TELEODESMA CEA. 

{Adesmacea.) 
TEREDINIDJE. 
Teredo japonica Clessin. Concbyl. Cab., p. 78, pi. 20, f. 9, 10. 
Japan. 

PHOLADID.a:. 
Pholas (Barnea) fragilis Sowerby. Thes., 11, p. 488, f. 92, 93. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Pholas (Barnea) manilensis Phil. Abbild., Ill, p. 51, pi. 1, f. 2. 

Numerous fresh specimens collected by Stearns, but exact locality 
unknown. The margins of the gape are less acutely denticulate 
than in typical examples, and more concave. These difterences prob- 
ably indicate a distinct race, which may be called var. inornata. 
Zirphaea crispata Linnc, Japan (Dkr., Stearns). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, MYACEA. 117 

Jouannetia cumingii Sowb. P. Z. S., 1849, p. 161, pi. 5, f. 3 
Japan (Dkr.). 

Parapholas penita Conrad. Tokyo (Dkr.). 
Parapholas piriformis Bunker. Index, p. 171, pi. 14, f. 7. 
Japan (Danker). 

Martesia striata Linne. Japan (Dunker). 

{Myacea). 

GASTKOCH.S;NIDiE. 
Gastrochaena grandis Desh. Dkr., Inde.\, p. 171, pi. 14, f. 10, 11. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Gastrochaena mumia Spengl. Japan (Dkr.). 

SAXICAVID.ffi:. 
Glycimeris generosa Gld. Japan (Stearns). 
Glycimeris japonica A. Adams. Ad., P. Z. S., 1849. p. 170, pi. 6, f. 5. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Bay of Hakodate (Gld., for P. fragilis 
Gld., Otia Conch., p. 163). 

Glycimeris plicata Mont. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., Ill, p. 75, pi. 3, f. 2. 

Corea Strait (Jeffreys). 

Saxicava arctica Linn. Ohosaka (Lischke) ; Hakodate (Schrenck) ; Neinoto, Boshia 
(Stearns). 

C0RBULID.1:. 

Corhula erythrodon Lam. 

Prov. Kii (Stearns) ; Yokohama, Yedo, Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Corbula pallida Hinds. C. Icon., f. 4. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Corbula bifrons A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1860, V, p. 412. 

Strait of Corea, 63 fras., off Mino-Shima ; Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 

Corbula venusta Gld. Otia Conch., p. 164 ; Reisen im Amurl., pi. 25, f. 1-4. 

Hakodate Bay, 5-8 fathoms, shelly sand (Stimpson). 

Corbula cuneata Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sulphur, pi. 20, f. 6. 

Mososeki, Kuro-Shima (Ad.). 

Erodona amurensis Schrenck. Reis. im Amurl., p. 584, pi. 25, f. 5-8, 

Northern Japan. 

Erodona labiata Maton. C. Icon., Corhula, sp. 28. 
Japan (Dkr.). 



118 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, MACTRACEA. 

Basterotia gouldii A. Ad. Dkr., Index, p. 178, pi. 9, f. 7-11. 

Seto-Uchi, Yobuko, Mososeki (Ad.). 
Basterotia stimpsonii A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1864, p. 310 ; 1868, p. .366. 

Mososeki ; Akasi (Ad.) 

Basterotia reoluzi A. Ad. Ibid. Yobuko (Ad.). 

MYACIDa:. 
Mya arenaria var. japonica Jay. Jay in Perry's U. S. Japan Exped., II. pi. 1, f, 
7, 10. (-}-" Mya acuta Say," Sowb., C. Icon., XX, pi. .3, f. 12). 

East coast Nippon (Stearns). The specimens are small, thin, 
and attenuated posteriorly. Yedo, Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Hakodate 
(Perry). 

Mya truncata Linne. Midd., Sib. Reis. II, pi. 25, f. 11-14. Ochotch Sea (Midd.). 
Cryptomya elliptica A. Ad. Dkr., Index, pi. 7, f. 17-19. 

Mososeki (Ad.). 
Cryptomya mindoroensis Ads. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 82, pi. 23, f, 13. 

Akasi (Ad.). 
Cryptomya decurtata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1868, p. 366. 

Kuro-Shima (Ad.). 

{Mactracea). 
MESODESMATIDJE. 
Paphia striata Chemn. Japan (Dkr., Index, p. 195). 
Ervillia japonica A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1862, p. 224. 

Tsu-Shima (Ad.). 

Ervillia bisculpta Gould. Otia Conch., p. 166 ; (syn. ; E. australis Angas, P. Z. S.,. 
1877, p. 175, pi. 26, f. 21). 

Kagoshima, 5 fath., sand (Stimpson). 
Ervillia livida Gld. Otia Conch., p. 166. 

Kagoshima Bay, 5 fath., sand (Stirap.). 
Csecella chinensis Desh. Lischke, J. M. C, I, p. 133, pi. 10, f. 5, 6. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Bonacilla piota Dkr. Index, p. 195, i)l. 7. f. 7-10. 

CARDILIID.aE. 
Cardilia semisulcata Desh. Dkr., Index, p. 213, pi. 8, f. 1-3. 
Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 

MACTRID.ffi:. 
Mactra sulcataria Deshayes. C, Icon., f. 5. 

Nagasaki and Tokyo Harbor (Lischke) ; Yokosko Harbor and 
Sagami Bay (Stearns) ; Hakodate (Schrenck). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, MACTRACEA. 119 

Mactra ornata Gray. C. Icon., f. 58. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Mactra spectabilis Lischke. J. M. C, II, p. 120, pi. 11, f. 1, 2. 

Kiushiu (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 
Mactra veneriformis Deshayes. C. Icon., f. 2 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 6.3, pi. 22, f. 3, 8a. 

Kiushiu, Tokyo Harbor (Lischke). Numerous young specimens 
taken by Stearns. 
Mactra veneriformis var. zonata Lischke. J. M. C, II, p. 121, pi. 9, f. 7, 8. 

Bay of Yedo. 
Mactra lurida Phil. Abbild. II, p. 136, pi. 3, f. 3. 

Luchu Is. 
Mactra crossei Dkr. Index, p. 183, pi. 7, f. 1-4. 

Tokyo (Rein). 

Mactra bonneaui Bernard!. Journ. de Conch., 1858, p. 92, pi. 2, f. 2. 

Strait of Tartary (Bern.) ; Coast of Prov. Kii (Stearns). It is 
very like M. veneroides. 
Mactra straminea Dkr. Index, p. 183, pi. 7, f. 5, 6. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Mactra sachalinensis Scbrenck. Amurlandes Moll., p. 575, t. 23, f. 3-7 : (Syn. : 

M. luhdorfil Dkr., Novit. Conch., p. 60, pi. 20, f. a, c. 

Hakodate, used very commonly for food (Stearns, et al). 
Spisula grayana Schrenck. Phil., Abbild., I, p. 165, pi. 1, f. 1, as M. ponderosa, 
Ochotch Sea (Midd.). 

Raeta pulchella Adams & Rve. Zool. Samarang, pi. 2 3, f . 1 ; (Syn. M. rostrcdis 
Desh.. C. Icon., VIII, Mactra, f. 119). 

Off Yokohama in 8 to 14 fathoms (Chall.) ; Yokohama (Stearns). 

Baeta pellicula Desh. C. Icon., f. 124. Japan (Cuming). 

Baeta yokohamensis n. sp. PI. Ill, figs. 4. 5. 

Shell small, thin, fragile, white, inflated, ovate-triangular ; beaks 
somewhat posterior. Anterior end broad, rounded, posterior end 
very narrow, triangular ; beaks and dorsal slopes of valves coarsely 
concentrically corrugated ; median and lower portion of valves 
smooth. Lunule large ; chondrophore small, but little projecting. 
Adductor and pallial impressions not distinguishable. Length 17, 
alt. 12, diam. 83 mm. 

Yokohama (Stearns). 



120 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, SOLENACEA. 

lastonia (Merope) aegyptiacaChemn. Japan (Dkr.). 

Tresus nuttalli Conrad. Midd., Mai. Ross., Ill, j)l. 19, f. 1-4 {maxima Midd.). 

Yedo (Lischke) ; Hakodate (Stimp.) ; Yokohama Bay (Stearns). 
Lutraria maxima Jonas. C. Icon., Lidraria, f. 11. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Lutraria arcuata Desh. C. Icon., f. 6. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
lutraria sieboldi Desh. C. Icon., YIII, f. 15. 

Japan (Cuming). 
Lutraria lucida Gld. Otia Conch., p. 108. 

Kagoshima (Stimpson). 

(Solenacea). 

Solen grandis Dunker. Novit. Conch., p. 71, pi. 24, f. 5. 
Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Japan (Stearns). 

Solen linearis Chemnitz. Conchyl. Cab., p. 23, pi. 9, f. 4. 

Japan (Dunker). 

Solen corneus Lamarck. Conchyl. Cab., p. 9, pi. 3, f. 8, 9. 

Japan (Dunker). 

Solen gouldii Conrad. Dkr., Index, p. 173, pi. 16, f. 11. 

Nagasaki, Hakokate (Stearns) ; Enoshima, 
Solen sicarius Gould. Conchyl. Cab., p. 24, pi. 9, f. 1. 

Japan Sea (Dunker). 
Solen gracilis Gld. Otia Conch., p. 165 ; C. Icon., XIX, pi. 4, f. 17. 

Hakodate, sandy beaches TStimpson). 

Solen strictus Gld. Otia Conch., p. 165. 

Hakodate Bay (Stimpson). 
Solen incertus Clessin. Conchyl. Cab., p. 31, pi. 12, f. 8. 
Hakodate (?). 

Solen krusensternii Schrenck. Reisen im Amur!., II, p. 594, pi. 25, f. 9-12. 

Hakodate (Schrenck) ; Akashi Bay (Stearns). 
€ultellu8 attenuatus Dkr. Novit. Conch., p. 72, pi. 24, f. 4. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Cultellus marmoratus Dunker. Index, p. 174, pi. 7, f. 24. 

Japan (Dkr.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TELLINACEA. 121 

Cultellus philippianus Dunker. Index, p. 174, pi. 7, f. 23. 

Japan (Danker). 

Cultellus cultellus Linne. Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 

Siliqua pulchella Dunker. Novit. Conch., p. 20, pi. 6, f. 4, 5. 

Kiushiu and Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; between Tokyo and 
Ooshima (Stearns). 

Siliqua japonica Dunker. Conchyl. Cab., p. 6.3, pi. 18, f. 5. 

Japan (Dkr.). Is it identical with the preceding? 
Siliqua sodalis Gld. Otia Conch., p. 165. 
Hakodate Bay (Stimpson). 

Siliqua minima Gmelin. Conchyl. Cab., p. 68, pi. 5, f. 1, 2. (Syn. ; S. albidus 
A. & R., Zool. Samarang, pi. 23, f. 13). 

Japan Sea (Dunker), 

Solecurtus constrictus Lamarck. Dkr., Index, pi. 7, f. 25. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Solecurtus (Macha) divaricata Lischke. Dkr., Index, p. 175, pi. 7, f. 26; Lischke, 
J. M. C, I, p. 142, pi. 10, f. 1,2. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Inland Sea ; Enoshima (Stearns). 
(Tellinacea). 
DONACID.S:. 
Donax australis Lam. Roemer, Monogr. Donacidse, pi. 17, f. 4-6. 

Boshiu (Stearns). Most of the specimens are deep purple within, 
like Romer's figure of D. deshayesii Dkr. 

Donax bicolor Gmelin. Conchyl. Cab., pi. 16, f. 12-16. 

Nagasaki (Lischke); Yokohama (Martens). These localities 
probably pertain to specimens which agree with Reeve's figures, and 
are, according to Bertin, fj. australis. 

Donax dysoni Deshayes. C. Icon., VIII, f. 54. 

Nagasaki, Tokyo Harbor (Lischke) ; Yokohama Harbor (Mar- 
tens). 

Donax introradiatus Reeve. C. Icon., f. 65 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 75, pi. 13, f. 5-8. 

Japan (Romer). 
Donax semigranosus Dkr. Index, p. 193, pi. 7, f. 14, 15, 16 (1882). 

Japan (Dkr., Stearns). Some specimens are yellow outside ; but 
the prevailing form is yellow-stained white, with blue markings 
toward the beaks, and more or less purple inside. I am disposed to 
believe this species a color variety of D. proximus Bertin. 



122 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TELLINACEA. 

Donax proximus Berlin. Nouv. Arch. Ju Mus., 1881, p. 100, pi. .3, f. 2 a, c. 
Japan (Allart, Stearns). 

PSAMMOBIIDJE. 
Asaphis deilorata Linno. 

It is doubtful whether the oriental species is really Linnaeus' form^ 
which may be the same as the West Indian species A. coccinea Mar- 
tyn. If this be the case, the East Asian Asaphis may be more prop- 
erly called A. rugosa Lam. 

Stearns procured specimens in Japan (exact locality unknown)^ 
and in the Loo Choo group. 

Psammobia bipartita Phil. Conch. Cab., VI, p. 100, j)!. 10, f. 92. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke, F. ccerulescens). 

Psammobia occidens Chemn. C. Icon., f. 11. Japan (Dkr.). 

Psammobia oriens Desh. C. Icon., f. 1. Japan (Dkr.). 

Psammobia ornata Desh. C. Icon., f. 26. Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 

Psammobia corrugata Desh. C. Icon., f. 9. Japan (Dkr.). 

Psammobia radiata Dkr. Abbild., I, p. 94, pi. 2, f. 5 (P. amethystus Rve., C. 
Icon., f. 19). 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Soletellina chinensis Chemn. C. Icon., f. 9, as .S*. truncata. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Soletellina boeddinghausi Lischke. J. M. C, II, p. 118, pi. 9, f. 9. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 
Soletellina violacea Lam. C. Icon., f. 4. Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Soletellina dephos Linne. Conchyl. Cab., VI, p. 68, pi. 7, f. 53, 54. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Soletellina moesta Lischke. J. M. C, III, p. 99, ].l. 8, f. 4-6. 

Yedo (Lischke). One specimen collected by Stearns measures 
38 mm. long. 

Soletellina atrata Desh. C. Icon., f. 14. Tokyo (Dkr.). 

Soletellina olivacea Jay. J. M. C, I, p. 131 ; III, p. 98, pi. 8, f. 7-12. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Bay of Yedo (Perry) ; near Sakai, Inland 
Sea (Stearns). 
Soletellina japonica Desh. C. Icon., f. 16. Jajian (Siebold). 

Soletellina nuttalli Conr. Journ. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1837, pi. 17, f. 6; Psam, 
decora Hinds, Voy. Suli)hur, pi. 9, f. 6, 7. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Hakodate (Schrenck, Stimpson). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TELLINACEA. 123 

SEMELID^. 
Semele zebuensis Hanley. C. Icon., VIII, Amphidesma, f. 25. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Semele sinensis A. Ad. Ibid, f- 28. Japan (Dkr.). 
Semele californica A. Ad. Ibid, f. 19; Schrenck, Amurl. Moll., pi. 22, f. 10. 

Strait of Tartary. 
Semele hanleyi Angas. P. Z. S., 1878, p. 859, pi. 54, f. 1. 

Japan (Belcher), 
Semele duplicata Gld. Otia Conch., p. 166. 

Kagoshima Bay, 6 fath., sand (Stimp.). 
Theora lubrica Gld. Dkr., Index, p. 181, pi. 7, f. 20-22. 

Hakodate Bay, in 6 fath., mud (Stimpson). 
Theora iridescens Hinds. Chall. Lamell, XIII, p. 89, pi. V, f. 6, 6f. 

Yobuko (A. Adams). 
Theora fragilis A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1855, p. 226. Japan. 
Endopleura nitida Gld. Otia, p. 162. Japan (A. Ad.). 
lacra japonica A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1864, p. 308. 

Oki-no-Shima (Ad,). 

Leptomya spectabilis Hanley. P. Z. S., 1882, p. 576; Jour. Lin. Soc, XVI, 1883, 
pi. 12, f. 7. 

Japan? (Mus. Hanley). 

Leptomya cochlearis Hinds, Goto, Seto-Uchi (A. Ad.). 

Leptomya adunca Gld. (Scrobieularia). Otia, p. 167. Tsu-Shima (Ad.). 

TELLINID.I:. 
Tellina perna Spengl. Japan (Dkr., Stearns). 
Tellina vulsella Chemn. C. Icon., f. 56. 

Kiushiu and Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Japan (Stearns). 
Tellina pulcherrima Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., pi. 1, f. 1. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Tellina staurella Lam. Japan (Stearns). 

Kiisters' Conchyl. Cab., Tellinidte, p. 19, pi. 2,f, 11-13 ; pi. 7, f. 
6-8. " T. cruciata Spengl". 

Tellina galatea Lam. Abbild., I, p. 71, pi. 1, f. 1 ( T. sericina). 
Tellina diaphana Desh. Conchyl. Cab., p. 47, pi. 13, f. 7, 8, 9, 
Nagasaki (Birileff), 



124 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, TELLINACEA. 

Tellina ovalis Sowb. C. Icon., f. 105. Bayof Yedo (Lisehke). 
Tellina jedoensis Lisehke. J. M. C, III, p. 92, pi. 9, f. 1-.?. 
Bay of Yedo (Lisehke) ; Karaakura (Stearns). 

Tellina rosea Spengler. Conchyl. Cab., p. 57, pi. Ifi, f. 1, 2, 3. 

Hakodate (Schrenck). 

Tellina compressissima Reeve. C. Icon., f. 328. Japan. 

Tellina venulosa Schrenck. ilutea Gray). Conchyl. Cab., p. 121, pi. 28, f. 8-10; 
Midd. Sib. Reise, pi. 21, f. 2, 3. 

Hakodate and northward (Schrenck). 
Tellina nux Hanley. Tbes., I, p. 251, pi. 56, f. 33. 

Deshima (Dkr.). 
Tellina lubrica GId. Otia Conch., p. 167. 

Hakodate Bay, 6 fath., mud (Stimp.). 
Gastrana yantaiensis Crosse &, Debeaux. J. C, 1863, pi. 9, f. 2. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Gastrana japonica v. Martens. Conchyl. Cab., p. 275, pi. 51, f. 5-8, 9. 

Yokokania Harbor. 
Arcopagia siamensis Martens. P. Z. S., 1860, jv. 18. 

Inland Sea (Stearns). A §hort form. 
Macoma nasuta Conrad. Conchyl. Cab., p. 229, j)!. 44, f. 5-8. 

Hakodate. 
Macoma inquinata Desh., T. incongrua v. Martens. J. M. C, II, pi. 10, f. 12, 13 
Yokohama Bay, Yedo, Nagasaki (Lisehke); Prov. Kii (Stearns). 

Tellina (Angulus) nitidula Dunker. Moll. Jap., p. 27, pi. 3, f. 14; J. M. C, II, 
pi. 10, f. 10, 11. 

Nagasaki (Lisehke) ; Deshima (Dkr.) ; Yokohama (Martens) ; 
Kamakura (Stearns). 

Tellina rhomboides Q. k G. Astrol., Ill, p. 502, pi. 81. f. 4-7. 

Bay of Yedo. 
Tellina (Angulus) pallidula Lisehke. J. M. C, II, p. 114, pi. 10, f. 6, 7. 

Nagasaki (Rein). 
Tellina rutila Dkr. Moll. Jap., p. 27, pi. 3, f. 6. 

Deshima (Dkr.); Yokohama (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Birileff). 
Tellina iridella v. Martens. J. M. C, II, p. 114, pi. 10, f. 8, 9. 

Nagasaki and Tokyo Bays (Lisehke) ; Kamakura (Stearns). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSK8, VENERACEA. 125 

Tellina iridescens Bens. Thes., I, p. 286, pi. 58, f. 88. 

South Japan (Lischke). 
Tellina minuta Lischke. J. M. C, III, p. 94, pi. 9, f. 4-6. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 

Tellina praetexta v. Martens. Conchyl. Cab., p. 239, pi. 45, f. 8-10. 

Yokohama Bay (Martens) ; Nagasaki, Yedo (Lischke) ; E. coast 
below Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

Macoma ala Hanley. Conehyl. Cab., p. 236, pi. 45, f. 5-7. 

Japan (Hanley). 
Macoma dissimilis v. Martens. J. M. C, II, p. 115, pi. 10, f. 15-17. 

Tokyo Bay (Martens). 
Macoma edentula Brod. et Sowerby. Conchj'l. Cab., p. 224, pi. 43, f. 7-10. 

North Japan. 

Macoma truncata Jonas. Conchyl. Cab., p. 248, pi. 47, f. 4-6. 

Tokyo Bay (Lischke). 
Macoma praemitis Romer. Conchyl. Cab., p. 257, pi. 48, f. 7-9. 
Japan (Roeiner, Stearns). 

Macoma inconspicua Broderip et Sowerby. Conchyl. Cab., p. 220, pi. 42, f. 7-10. 

Hakodate. 

Macoma lenticularis Sowb. C. Icon., f. .342. Japan. 

Macoma secta Conr. ( J", japonica Desh). Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Sakai, Inland 
Sea (Stearns). 

( Veneracea). 
GLAUCOMYID^. 

Glaucomya angulata Reeve. Odawara (Stearns). 

PETRICOLIDJE. 
Petricola japonica Dkr. Index, p. 209, pi. 9, f. 4-6. 

Kisenuraa (Dkr.). 
Petricola aequistriata Sowb. C. Icon., XIX, f. 19. 

Hamagoi, Boshiu (Stearns). 

VENERID^. 
Dosinia japonica Reeve. C. Icon., f. 17. 

Hakodate (Schrenck) ; Yedo (Lischke). 
Dosinia troscheli Lischke. J. M. C, III, p. 89, pi. 8, f. 1-3. 

Inland Sea (Stearns) ; Southern Japan (Lischke). 



126 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, VENERACEA. 

Dosinia biscocta Reeve. C. Icon., f. y.'). 

Seto-Uchi, Mososeki (A. Ad.). 
Dosinia gruneri Phil. Abbikl., Ill, p. 23, pi. 8, f. 2. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Dosinia bilunulata Gray. Roemer, Mon. Dosinia, in Novit. Conch., pi. 16, f. 1. 

Yokohama ; Sagama coast (Stearns) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 

Dosinia laminata Reeve. C. Icon., f. 14. Japan (Dkr.). 

Dosinia sieboldi Reeve. C. Icon., f. 39. Japan (Siebold). 

Dosinia sericea Reeve. C. Icon., f. 36. Seto-Uchi (A. Ad.). 

Dosinia angulosa Phil. Abbild., II, p. 229, pi. 6, f. 1 {Artemis peniciUata Rve., C. 
Icon., f. 33). 

Tsu-Shima (Ad.). 
Dosinia traillii A. Adams. P. Z. S., 1855, p. 223. 

Yokohama (Ad.). 
Dosinia Mstrio Gmel. Goto (Ad.). 
Dosinia gibba A. Ad. Dkr., Index, p. 204, pi. 8, f. 4-6. 

Tatiyama (A. Ad.). 
Dosinia orbiculata Dkr. Inde.\, p. 204, pi. 8, f. 12-14. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Cyclina orientalis Sowerby. Conchyl. Cab., p. 113, pi. 28, f. 7-9. 

Yokohama (Stearns). 
Cyclina splendida Roemer. P. Z. S., 1860, p. 124. 

Japan (Cuming). 
Cyclina bombycina Roemer. P. Z. S., 1 860, p. 124. 

Japan (Cuming). 
Cyclina flavida Desh. Tsu-Shima (A. Ad.). 
Cyclina chinensis Chemn. C. Icon., f. 6. 

Yokohama (Dkr.) ; Nagasaki, Yedo (Lischke) ; Tsu-Shima (Ad.). 

Lucinopsis divaricata Lischke. J. M. C, III, p. 90. pi. 7, f. 12-14. 
Yedo, (Lischke). 

Lucinopsis decussata Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., I, p. 22, pi. 3, f. 5. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Meretriz meretrix Linne. Conchyl. Cab., p. 15. i)l. 3, f. 4, 5, 6, 8. 9. 

Yedo, Hakodate, Yokohama (Lischke). 

Meretrix morphina Lam. Nagasaki, Simoda, Yokohama (A. Ad.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSK8, VENERACEA. 127 

Meretrix lusoria Chemn. Nagasaki (Lischke) ; East coast, from Tokyo to Idzumi 
(Stearns). 

Meretrix (Callista) limatula Sowb. Japan (Dkr.). 

"Meretrix (Callista) festiva Sowb. Japan (Dkr.). 

Meretrix (Callista) chinensis Chemn. S. coast of Kii (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Meretrix (Callista) squalida Sowb. Northern Japan (Schrenck). 

Meretrix (Callista) pannosa Sowb. Northern Japan (Schrenck). 

Meretrix (Callista) inflata Sowb. Japan (Dkr.). 

Meretrix (Callista) indecora Phil. Roemer, Monogr., I, p. 81, pi. 24, f. 1. 

Nagasaki (BirilefF). 
Lioooncha fulminea Bolt. Japan (Dkr.). 
Xioconcha ornata Dillw. Japan (Dkr.). 
Tivela damaoides Gray. Dkr., Index, p. 200. 

Oki-no-Shiraa (Ad.). 

Tivela radiata Sowerby. Tartary Strait (Schrenck). 
Sunetta excavata Hanley. 

Bay of Yedo and coast of Kiushiu (Lischke) ; Satanomosaki and 
Kuro-Shima (A. Ad.) ; Hakodate (Schrenck) ; Yokohama, Kama- 
yania, Seta coast (Stearns). 

Sunetta menstrualis Menke. Conchyl. Cab , p. 85, pi. 29, f. 10-12. 

Japan (Reeve). 
Clementia papyracea Gray. Sowerby, Thes. Conch., p. 700, pi. 151, f. 155. 

Japan (A. Adams and Dkr.). 

Clementia similis Sowb. Thes., II, p. 700, pi. 151, f. 154. Tatiyania (Ad.). 
Venus (Mercenaria) stimpsoni Gld. Otia Conch., p. 169. 
Hakodate, 6 fath. (Stimpson). 

Venus toreuma Gld. Expl. Exped., f. 537. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Goto Is. and Satanomosaki (Ad.). 
Venus jedoensis Lischke. Jap. Meeres-Conch., Ill, pi. 7, f. 1-9. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Yokohama (Stearns). 

Venus lamellaris Schumacher. Conchyl. Cab., p. 142, pi. 8, f. 10, 11. 
Japan (Dkr.). 

Venus resticulata Sowb. Thes., II, p. 706, pi. 153, f. 23. 

Jai)an (Dkr.). 
Venus reticulata Linne. Japan (Dkr.). 



128 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, VENERACEA. 

Venus puellula <!1(1. Otia Conch.. )>. 101). 

Ousliima (Stimp.), 
Cryptogramma squamosa Linno. Thcs., II, pi. 156, f. 83, 84. 

Cape Nonio, Kiushiu (Ad.). 
Cryptogramma roemeri Dkr. Moll. .Tap., p. 20, pi. .3, f. 10. 

Deshima (Nulm) ; Nagasaki (Lischke), 
Chione marica LiniK'. C. Icon., TVnw.5, f. 104. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Tsu-Shiraa, Mososeki (Ad.). 
Chione crenifera Sowb. Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 
Chione intersecta Sowb. Seto-Uchi (Ad.). 
Chione striata Chemnitz. Conchyl. Cab., p. 127, pi. 5, f. 12-14. 

Japan Sea. 

Chione astartoides Beck. Northern .lapan (Shrenck). 
Chione foliacea Chemn. Abbild., II, pi. 5, f. 1. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Chione isabellina Phil. Japan (Dkr.). 
Chione calophylla Phil. Japan (Dkr.). 
Chione cardioides Lam. Oki-no-Shima (Ad.). 
Chione histrionica Bred. & Sby. Hakodate (Ad.). 
Chione scabra llanley. 

Between Is. of Sikoku and Nippon, 50 fathoms, and Kobe, 8-50 
fathoms (Challenger). 
Chione roscida Gkl. Otia Conch., p. 169. 

Oushima, 15 fath., sand (Stimp.). 
Chione undulata Born. 

Between Is. of Sikoku and Nippon, 50 fathoms, sand bottom (Chal- 
lenger). 
Circe scripta Linm'-. Dunker, Index, p. 201. 

Kishiu (Stearns). 
Circe divaricata Chemn. Inland Sea (Stearns). 
Circe sequivoca Chemn. Simidsu (A. Ad.). 
Circe dispar Chemn. Roemer, Venus, p. 184, pi. 50, f. 1. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Tago, Kino-o-Shima (Ad.). 
Circe gibbia Lam. Japan (A. Ad.). 
Gouldia dilecta Gld. Otia Conch., p. 170. 

Kagoshiraa (Stimp.). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, VENERACEA. 129 

Venerupis monstrosa Chemn. 

Japan (Dkr., Stearns) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Tsu-Shima, 
Kino-o-Shinia (Ad.). 

Venerupis irus Linne. Japan (Dkr., Stearns). 
Venerupis seraipurpurea Dkr, Index, p. 208. 

Nemoto, Boshiu (Stearns). Hardly distinct from Japanese speci- 
mens referred to the preceding species. 

Venerupis insignis Desh. .Japan (Dkr.). 

Venerupis exotica Lam. Delessert, Recueil, pi. !), f. .3. 
Japan (Dkr,). 

Venerupis macrophylla Desh. Japan (Dkr.). 
Tapes exaratus Phil. Abbild., II, p. 109, pi. 5, f. 6. 
Kuro-Shima (Ad.), 

Tapes liratus Phil. Abbild., Ill, p. 76. pi. 7, f. 5. 
Japan (Dkr.). 

Tapes sulcarius Lam. Japan (Dkr.). 

Tapes undulatus Born. Abbild., Ill, pi. 7, f. 7 ( T". rimosa). 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Tatiyama (A. Ad.). 

Tapes euglyptus Phil, .\bbild., Ill, p. 76, pi. 7, f. :i; J. M. C, III, p. 80, pi. 6, f. 
8-11. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 

Tapes sohnellianus Dkr. Lischke, J. M. C, III, p. 80, pi. 6, f. 1-4; Dkr., Novit. 
Conch., p. 75, pi. 25, f. 7-9. 

Nagasaki, Yedo (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 
Tapes amabilis Philippi. J. M. C, III, p. 82, pi. 6, f. 5-7. 

Tago (Adams) ; Shidaka coast (Stearns). Some specimens are 
marked with from two to four radial series of purple-brown blotches. 

Tapes vernicosa Gld. Otia Conch., p. 168. 

Kagoshima Bay and off Hakodate Cape, 20 fath,, coarse sand 
(Stinip.) ; Tatiyama (A. Ad,). 

Tapes greeffei Dkr. Inde.x, p. 207, pi. 8, f. l.j-17. 
Kagoshima (Dkr.). 

Tapes semirugata Phil. Abbild., Ill, p. 76, pi. 7, f. 4. 
Near Sakai, Inland Sea (Stearns), 



130 JAPANESE M0LLUSK8, VENERACEA. 

Tapes punctata Chemnitz. 

Japan (Stearns). Several specimens agreeing well with Reeve's 
fig. 16a (" radiata "). 

Tapes philippinarum Adams & Reeve. Ad. & Rv., Voy. Sainarang, pi. 22, f. 10 ; 
Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., Ill, pi. 5. f. 17-20 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; coast from Tokyo to Ojima (Stearns); 
Seta coast (Stearns) ; Nagasaki, Hakodate (Lischke). 

Some specimens agree well in color with the figure in the Sama- 
rang Zoology ; others show lines and zigzags. The typical form is 
deep purple in the pallial sinus and its vicinity. The var. ducalis 
Roemer, is entirely white within. Lischke does not recognize 
Roemer's form as distinct. 

Tapes variegatus Hanley. Thes., II, p. fi'J6, pi. 151, f. 133-138. 
Yedo, Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Tapes bruguieri Hanley. Kino-o-Shima (Ad.). 

Saxidomus purpuratus Desh. 

Yedo (Lischke) ; Hakodate (Schrenck) ; Seto-Uchi, Mososeki (A. 
Ad.) ; Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). 

Gomphina donacina Chemnitz. Conchyl. Cab., p. 185, pi. 23, f. 1, 2. 
Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Gomphina melanaegis Roemer. Novit. Conch., p. 40, pi. 12, f. 12, 13; Jap. Meeres- 
Conch. . Ill, pi. 7, f. 10, 11. 

Inland Sea (Stearns) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Gemma gemma Totten. Aniwa Bay (A. Ad.). 

{Isocardiacea). 
ISOCARDIID.ffi;. 

Isocardia tetragona Ads. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 76, pi. 22, f. 1. 

Japan Sea. 
Isocardia moltkiana Cheran. Ibid, pi. 22, f. 3. 

Corea Strait. 

(^Tridacnacea). 

TRIDACNID^. 
Hippopus maculatus Linn. S. Japan (Stearns). 
Tridacna squamosa Lam. Ohosaka, Hiogo (Lischke). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CARDIACEA. 131 

( Cardiacea). 

CARDIIDJE. , 

Cardium burchardi Dkr. Index, p. 210, pi. 18, f. 4-6. 

Sagami (Dkr.). 
Cardium californiense Desh. Mai. Ross., p. 40, pi. 15, f. 23-25. 

E. coast, Tokyo to Ojima (Stearns) ; Hakodate (Lischke). 
Cardium arenicola Reeve. C. Icon., f. 78. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Cardium exasperatum Sowb. C. Icon., f. 107. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Cardium modestum Ads. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 77, pi. 22, f. 6. 

Cardium muticum Reeve. Reeve, Conch. Icon., II, f. .32; Dkr., Moll. Jap., pi. 3, f. 
16 (japonicum). 

Tokyo Harbor (Stearns) ; Nagasaki, Yedo (Lischke) ; Deshinaa 
(Dkr.) ; Hakodate (Schrenck). 

Cardium papyraceum Chemn. Conchyl. Cab., p. 78, pi. 3, f. 4, and pi. 12, f. 19, 20. 

Nagasaki, Tokyo, Hakodate. 
Cardium apertum Chemn. J. M. C, II, p. 173 ; III, p. 106. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 

Cardium liratum Sowb. Dkr., Index, p. 212. Japan (Dkr.). 
Cardium retusum Linne. C. Icon., II, f. 103. Japan (Dkr.). 
Cardium groenlandicum Chem. Tartary Strait (Lindholm). 
Cardium beechei Ads. & Rve. Index, p. 212, pi. 15 f. 1-3. 
Japan (Dkr.). 

(^Leptonacea). 
6ALE0MMID.1:. 
Scintilla thoracica Gld. Otia Conch., p. 174. 

Oushima (Stimpson). 
Galeomma japonicum A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1862, p. 228. 
Mino-Shima, 63 fras. (Ad.). 

LEPTONIDJE. 
Kellia pumila S. Wood. Journ. Linn. See, XIV, p. 421. 

Corea Strait (St. John). 
Kellia subsinuata Lischke. J. M. C, II, p. 136, pi. X, f. 1-3. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 



132 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, LUCINACEA. 

Kellia undulata C,\d. Otia Conch., p. 173. 

Kagoshinia (Stimpson). 
Kellia japonica n. sp. PI. Ill, figs. 18, 10. 

Shell quadrate-rounded, subequilateral, inflated, olive-straw col- 
ored around the basal and end margins, becoming corneous on the 
convexity and beaks, this portion dark bluish-brown when the soft 
parts are dried in. Surface shining, witli delicate growth-striae. 
Beaks rather prominent, contiguous, slightly anterior; hinge and 
basal margins slightly curved. Interior white, bluish in the cavity. 
Teeth as in K. laperoiisii but rather stronger, the cardinals squarer, 
the posterior lamella strong, short, high and triangular. Length 
12, alt. 10 5, diam. 6'5 ram. 

Japan (F. Stearns). 

It is less elongated than the nearly allied K. laperousii with less 
oblique cardinal teeth. 
Montaouta divaricata GUI. Otia Conch., p. 173. 

Hakodate, on the spines of a Spatangus (Stimpson). 

Lasea rubra Mont. Journ. Linn. Soc, XIV, p. 420. 

Corea Strait (St. John) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Lepton subrotundum Dkr, Index, p. 219, ]>!. 14, f. 12, 13. 

Tokyo (Dkr.). 
Lepton japonicum A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1862, p. 228. 

Tabu Shima (Ad.). 

Lepton sulcatulum Jeffreys. Journ. Linn. Soc. Zoo]., XIV, p. 420. 

Corea Strait (St. John). 
Thecodonta sieboldi A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1864, p. 309. 

Goto Is. (A. Ad.). 

(^Lucinacea). 
DIPLODONTID.ffi. 
Diplodonta semiaspera Phil. Archiv, f. Naturg., I, 1836, p. 225, pi. 7, f. 2. 

Nagasaki (Dkr.). Lucina orhella Gld. which Dkr. quotes as a 
synonym is a totally distinct Diplodonta. Probably Dunker's shells 
are the same as the following species. Lischke quotes D. orbella 
from Nagasaki, Bay of Yedo and Yokohama. 

Diplodonta (? semiaspera var.) japonica. PI. Ill, figs. 6, 7. 

Anterior end more produced and more narrowly rounded than in 
semiaspera; binge straighter, narrower; anterior half (or less) of 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, LUCINACEA. 133 

valves and a small posterior segment concentrically costulate, the 
rest having the costulje interrupted into long granules ; no lunule. 
Length 17;J, breadth Ldj, diani. ISi mm., sometimes larger. 

9 specimens collected by Mr. Stearns in Japan, exact locality un- 
known. 

Diplodonta (Mysia) figlina Gkl. Otia Coneh., p. 171. 

E. coast Japan, Lat. 37°, in coarse black sand, 20 fath. (Stimp.). 
Diplodonta (Felania) usta Gld. Otia Couch., p. 170. 

Hakodate Bay, 8 fath., sandy mud (Stimpson). 
Axinus japonicus A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1862, p. 227 [Cryplodon). 

Okosiri (Ad.). 
Axinus oblongas, plicatus A. Ad. Ihid. Mino-Shima(Ad.). 
Axinus flexuosus Mont. Corea Strait (St. John). 
Axinus suborbicularis A. Ad. 

LUCINID.ffi. 
Lucina contraria Dkr. Index, p. 215, pi. 13, f. 12-14. 
Tokyo (Dkr.). 

Lucina divergens Phil. Abbild., Ill, p. 103, pi. 2, f. 4. [L. fibula A. & R., Zool. 
Samarang, pi. 24, f. 5, teste Dkr.). 

Deshima (Dkr.) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Lucina parvula Gkl. Otia Conch., p. 174. 

Hakodate, 6-20 fath., sand (Stimp.). 
Lucina pisidium Dkr. Moll. .Jap., p, 28, pi. 3, f. 9. 

Deshima (Dkr.) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). Stearns collected larger 
specimens, SJxSi mm. at Tokyo Harbor. It does not seem to differ 
from L.parvuln Gld. of which one of the original siDCcimens is be- 
fore me. 

Lucina quadrisulcata d'Orbigny (?). Tartary Strait (Dkr.). 
Lucina corrugata Dkr. Index, p. 216, pi. 8, f. 9-11. 
Inland Sea (Dkr.). 

Loripes philippiana Reeve. C. Icon., Lucina, f. 23 ( Venus edentula L., of Phil, 
and Dkr.). 

Loripes bialata n. sp. PI. Ill, figs. 13, 14. 

Shell resembling the West Indian L. edentula, but thinner, more 
ventricose, beaks larger above the hinge-line, hinge straighter, the 
ligament-plate much shorter and narrower. Dorsallv the valves 



134 JAPANESE MOl.LL'SKS, CHAMACEA. 

are more produced at each end, and the posterior dorsal angle espe- 
cially is more produced and squarerthan in edentula. Outside with 
irregular growth- stride and traces of low radii, covered around the 
edges with a thin, caducious light brown cuticle. Interior dead 
white, sparsely asperulate in the cavity ; muscle impressions as in 
edentula, but pallial line further removed from ventral edge of 
valves. Length 565, alt. 51, diam. 34j mm. 

Inland Sea (F. Stearns, two specimens). 

These shells are far more equilateral than L. philippiana Reeve, 
with legs sinuous hinge line, slighter ligament plate, etc. The same 
characters distinguish it from L. schrammi Crosse, Journ. de Conch., 
1878, p. 328. 
Myrtsea gibba, lamellata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1862, p. 225. 

Tsu-Shima (A. Ad.). 

Myrtaea fimbriatula, obesula, decussata A. Ad. Ibid. Tabu-Shima (Ad.). 

Myrtaea plicatula, circinata, delicatula A. Ad. Ibid. Mino-Shima, Strait of 
Corea (Ad.). 

( Chamaced). 

CHAMIDJE. 

Chama imbricata Broderip. Lischke, J. M. C, II, pi. 9, f. 4. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Chama ambigua Lischke. Ibid, p. 128, pi. 8, f. 2. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Chama semipurpurata Lischke. J. M. C, II, pi. 8, f. 1. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). One specimen collected by Stearns. 
Chama dunkeri Lischke. .J. M, C, II, p. 128, pi. 8, f. 3, 4. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). One specimen collected by Stearns. 
Chama retroversa Lischke. J. M. C, II, pi. 9, f. 1-3. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). Numerous specimens of this well marked 
species were collected by Mr. Stearns. 

Chama aspersa Reeve. C. Icon., f. 24. Japan (Rein). 

(^Carditaceci). 

CARDITID.a:. 

Cardita cumingiana Dkr. Dkr., Moll. Jap., p. 29, pi. 3, f. 18. 

Yokohama and Loochoo Is. (Stearns) ; Deshima, Nagasaki and 
Tokyo (Dkr. and Lischke). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, ASTARTACEA. 135 

Cardita leana Dkr. (Moll. Jap., pi. 3, f. 17) seems to be only 
a variation of the same species. Specimens attain a length of 34 
mm, 

Cardita variegata Brug. 

Yokohama (Stearns). A single typical specimen. 

Cardita pica Reeve. Conchyl. Cab., p. 39, pi. 8, f. 13-14. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Cardita vestita Deshayes. Conchyl. Cab., p. 32, pi. 12, f. 8-9. 

Japan. 
Cardita ferruginea Adams. Conchyl. Cab., p. 17, pi. 6, f. 11. 

Japan. 

(Astartacea). 

CRASS ATELLITID.ffi. 

{CrassatellUes Con.=Cmssaiella Lam. 1801, not 1799). 
Crassatellites japonica Dunker. Index, p. 220. 

Japan. 
Crassatellites oompressa Ads. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, pi. 23, f. 10. 

Corean Archipelago. 
Crassatellites corrugata Adams & Reeve. Conchyl. Cab., p. 27, pi. 8, f. 5. 

Japan (Paetel coll.). 
Crassatellites heteroglypta n. n. 

Crassatella japonica Shy. (not Dkr.), Jour. Linn. Soc, XX, p. 
399, pi. 25, f. 19. 

Japan (Sowb.). 
Crassatellites sublamellata Weinkauff. Conchyl. Cab., p. 25, pi. 7, f. 11. 
Japan. 

( Cypricardiacea). 
PLEUEOPHORID.E. 

Trapezium vellicatum Reeve. C. Icon. I, f. 7. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Trapezium rostratum Lam. Ibid, f. 3. 

Tsu-Shima, in oyster shells (Ad.). 
Trapezium angulatum Lam. Jbid, f. 2. 

Okino-Shiraa (Ad.), in Madrepore. 



136 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, POROMYACEA. 

Trapezium liratum Reeve. C. Icon., I, pi. 1, f. 1 (Cypricardia) . 

Awa, Bisliiu (Stearns), numerous specimens ; Bay of Yedo 
(Lischke). 

Coralliophaga coralliophaga Chemn. Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Order ANOMAL ODESMA CEA . 

(Poroviyacea). 

CUSPIDAKIID.a:. 

Cuspidaria elegans Hinds. Zool. Samanmg, p. 84, pi. 23, f. 4 [Nxera moluccano). 

Mino-Shima (A. Ad.). 
Cuspidaria nobilis A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1868, p. .366. 

Mino-Shima (A. Ad.). 
Cuspidaria hiudsiaua A. Ad. Ibid. Goto Is. (Ad.). 
Cuspidaria nasuta A. Ad. Ibid. Satanomosaki (Ad.). 
Cuspidaria (Rhinomya) philippineusis Hinds. Ann. Mag., 1868, p. 367. 

Uraga ; Kinoo-Shiraa (A. Ad.). 
Cuspidaria (Rhinomya) rugata A. Ad. Ibid. Tabu-Shima (Ad.). 
Cuspidaria (Cardiomya) gouldiana Hinds. Ibid. Uraga, Goto, Tsu-Shima (Ad.). 
Cuspidaria nitida A. Ad. &, Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 83, pi. 23, f. 3. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Cuspidaria (Myonera) lischkei E. A. Smith. P. Z. S., 1891, p. 438, pi. 34, f. 6. 

South of Japan, 1875 fathoms (Challenger). 
Leiomya adunca Gld. Otia Conch., p. 162. 

Kagoshima Bay (Stimpson) ; Seto-Uchi, Hakodate (A. Ad.). 

VERTICORDIID.a:. 
Verticordia japonica A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1862, p. 224. 

Goto Is. (A. Ad.). 

Verticordia multicostata A. Ad. Ibid. 

(Ensijjhonacea) . 

CLAVAGELLID^. 

Clavagella ramosa Dkr. Inde.x, p. 172, pi. 16, fig. 1. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Aspergillum giganteum Sowerby. PI. Ill, fig. 1. 

Valves large, irregularly oblong-trapezoidal, dilated toward the 
posterior end, very coarsely and irregularly concentrically corruga- 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, ANATINACEA. 137 

ted, and showing under the lens a very fine, irregular wrinkling ; 
standing at an angle to each other of about 100°. Tube rough and 
sparsely covered with coarse sand and shells, swollen anteriorly, con- 
tracted behind the valves. Anterior end forming a mass of irregu- 
larly placed short tubes, among which pebbles, etc., are imbedded, 
and lacking any trace of a marginal fringe or rosette. Posterior 
€nd slightly larger than median part of tube, bearing two flounces. 
Total length 285 mm., diameter of median part of tube 27, diameter 
of tube at valves 50, diameter of tubule mass 55. Valves, antero- 
posterior length 27 mm., dorso-ventral 16 mm. 

Found at village of Goshoura, district of Amakusa, coast of Prov. 
Higo, (Kumamoto Keu) Japan. The original locality was simply 
Japan. Native name, Teppo-Kai (Gun shell). 

This specimen was procured by Mr. Frederick Stearns at the 
Third National Exhibition, Tokyo, 1890. It is evidently nearest 
allied to A. incertmn Chenu (111. Conch., I, pi. 4, f. 5, 6) but differs 
in the totally diverse shape of the valves, which are triangular and 
broader than long in that species, oblong and far longer than wide 
in this. Mr. Sowerby's specimen (see P. Z. S., 1888, p. 290) was 
larger, length 325 mm., and had 6-7 flounces. The species has not 
before been figured. 

What Dunker reports as fragments of a gigantic specimen of A. 
vaginiferum, is probably this species. 

{Anatinaced). 
LYONSIID.ffi:. 

Lyonsia ventricosa Gld. Otia, p. 162. Lyonsia rostrata Lischke. Jap. M. C, 
III, p. 102, pi. 9, f. 13. 

Hakodate (Stimp.) ; southern coast of Japan (Lischke). An 
original specimen of Gould's species before me seems practically 
identical with that of Lischke. The examples collected by Mr. 
Stearns are larger than Lischke indicates (length 23 mm.) and 
more abruptly truncated posteriorly, 

Lyonsia praetenuis Dkr. Index, p. 180, pi. 7, f. 13. 

Wakayama, Inland Sea (Dkr.). 
Entodesma navicula Ads. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 83, pi. 23, f. 11. 

Kiushiu Is. (Lischke). 
Entodesma truncatissima n. sp. PI. Ill, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell truncate-oval, very ventricose, thin, light buff, whitish 
toward the beaks, fragile. Surface with some irregular concentric 



138 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, ANATINACEA. 

wrinkles, the cuticle wriukled on posterior slope, and showing spaced^ 
inconspicuous radiating cuticular threads toward each end. Ante- 
rior extremity abruptly truncat9d ; posterior extremity rounded, 
slightly gaping. Interior white ; lithodesma large. 

Length 24, alt. 14, diam. 11 mm. 

Length 19, alt. Hi, diam. 11 mm. 

Nemoto and Amatsu, Boshiu, Hakodate (Stearns). 

These shells are more abruptly truncated anteriorly than speci- 
mens of Lyonsianavicula before me, and they differ in the same way 
from Entodesma saxicoki of the same size. The lithodesma is as in 
JE. saxicola. 

PANDORID.ffi:. 

Pandora delicatula A. Ad. Conch. Icon., XIX, jil. ?,, f. 17. 
Japan (Adams). 

MYOCHAMID.ff:. 
Myodora triangularis A. Ad. Dkr., Index, p. ISl. pi. 7, f. 11, 12. 
Myodora fluctuosa Old. Otia, p. 161 ; Smith., P. Z. 8., 1880, p. 583. 

Kagoshima Bay (Stirap.). 

THRACIIDiE. 
Thracia pusilla Gld. Otia Conch., p. 161. 

Simoda (Stimpson). 
Thracia concinna Gld. Otia Conch., p. 161. 

Kagoshima Bay (Stimpson). 

ANATINIDJE. 
Anatina japonica Lisehke. Jap. Meeres-Conch., Ill, p. lOl, pi. 9, f. 7-10. 
Bay of Yedo (Lisehke) ; Yokohama (Stearns). 

Anatina fiexuosa Reeve. Rve., Conch. Icon., XIY, pi. 1, f. 5. 

Japan (Reeve). 

Anatina limicola Reeve. Rve., Conch. Icon., XIV, pi. 4, f. 27. 

Japan (Reeve). 
Anatina kamakurana n. sp. PI. Ill, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell elongated, rather ventricose, gaping at both ends, irregularly 
wrinkle-striate and minutely granulated as usual, fragile; posterior 
end longer than the anterior and narrower, rounded, moderately 
gaping; anterior end broadly rounded, but slightly gaping; dorsal 
margin nearly parallel with the basal, but rising in front of the 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, MYTILACEA. 139 

beaks, straight behind them ; beaks split ; chondrophore small, its 
posterior butress curved, very oblique. Length 42*, alt. 19, diam. 
14 mm. 

Kamakura (Stearns). 

Order PRIONODESMACEA. 

(Mytilacea). 

MYTILID.ff:, 

Mytilus crassitesta Lischke. J. M. C, I, p. 151, pi. 11. f. 1, 2. 

Akashi coast (Stearns). 

Mytilus giganteus Ilolmberg. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 1862, p. 422, pi. 11, 
12. 

Inland Sea (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Mytilus grayanus Dkr. Dkr., Index, p. 221 ; ef. Lischke, J. M. C, I, p. 153, pi. 

10. f. 7, 8. 

Hakodate (Phila. Acad. coll. and Stearns). This may be Gould's 
M. coruscus. 

Mytilus hirsutus Lamarck. Conchy). Cab., p. 40, pi. 7, f. 6. 

Inland Sea (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Mytilus sinuatus Dunker. Conchyl. Cab., p. 76, pi. 17, f. 7. 

Japan (Dunker) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 

Mytilus curvatus Dunker. Conchyl. Cab., p. 34, pi. 14, f. 7, 8. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Mytilus atratus Lischke. Jap. Meeres-Conch., II, p. 146, pi. 10, f. 45; Modiola 
aterrima Dall, A. J. C, VII, p. 154. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Bay of Yedo (Dall) ; 8. coast Prov. Ise 
(Stearns). 

Mytilus coruscus Gld. Otia Conch., p. 177. 

Hakodate Bay, rocks between tide marks, common (Stimpson). 
Mytilus mutabilis Gld. Otia Conch., p. 177. 
Kagoshima Bay (Stimpson). 

Modiola modiolus Linne. Yedo, Hakodate (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 
Modiola philippinarum Hanley. Rve., Conch. Icon., f. 1. 

Nemoto, Boshiu (Stearns). 

Several small specimens which seem to agree with this species. 
Modiola traillii Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 4, f. 13. 

Idzu coast (Stearns). 



140 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, MYTILACEA. 

Modiola metcalfi Hanley. Conchyl. Cab., p. 110, pi. 32, f. ,3, 4. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Modiola nitida Ilanley. Conchyl. Cab., p. Ill, pi. 31. f. 3. 

Tokyo Bay (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (Stearns), 
Modiola hanleyi Dunker. Index, p. 22.3, pi. 16, f. 3, 4. 

Japan (Diinker). 

Modiola rhomboidea Ilanley. C. Icon., f. 28. 
Japan (Dunker). 

Modiola flavida Dkr. C. Icon., f. 77. 
Japan Sea (Dkr.). 

Modiola japonioa Dunker. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 2(5. 

Hakodate (R. E. C. Stearns) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Modiola fortunei Dunker. C. Icon., f. 75. 

Japan (Dunker). 
Modiola senhausii Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 22. 

Near Enoshima (Stearns) ; Nagasaki, Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Modiola arcuatula Hanley. Conchyl. Cab., p. 101, pi. 30, f. 8, 9. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 

Modiola barbata Linm'. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll., VII, p. 190, pi. 44, f. 4. 

Japan, off Kobe, in 50 fathoms, sand (Challenger). 
Adula californiensis Eschscholtz. Conchyl. Cab., p. 22, pi. 5, f. 19. 
Sachalin Is., Japan Sea (Dunker). 

Lithophaga curta Lischke. J. M. C, III, p. Ill, pi. 9, f. 14-17. 

Bay of Yedo, in Madrepores (Lischke) ; Joga-Shima (Stearns). 

Lithophaga aristata Sol. Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Lithophaga nasuta Phil. Abbild., II, p. 149, Modiola, pi. 1, f. 2. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Lithophaga zitteliana Dkr. Index, p. 226, pi. 14, f. 1, 2,8, 9. 

Inland Sea (Dkr.). 

Modiolaria cumingiana Dunker. Reeve, Conch. Icon., X, Modiola, pi. 9, f. 63. 

Inland Sea (Stearns). 

There seems to be no doubt of the specific identity of S. Austra- 
lian and Japanese specimens ; I have compared examples from Vic- 
toria. The M. imjjacta Herm. {=M. cor Marty n) is a wider spe- 
cies. 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, ANOMIACEA. 141 

Modiolaria nigra Gmy. Bay of Castries (Schrenck). 
Modiolaria vernicosa Midd. Bay of Castries (Midd.). 
Modiolaria pusio A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1862, p. 229. 

Mino-Shima (Ad.), on Haliotis gigantea. 
Modiolaria divaricata Phil. Abbild., Ill, p. 21, pi. 2, f. 8. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Modiolaria semigranata Reeve. Lischke, J. M. C, III, p. 110, pi. 9, f. 18, 19. 

Tokyo Harbor (Lischke, Stearns). 
Modiolaria quadrula Gld. Otia Conch., p. 177. 

Kagoshima (Stimpson). 
Modiolaria arcuata Gkl. Otia Conch., p. 176. 

Kagoshima (Stimpson). 
Modiolaria cuprea Gld. Otia Conch., p. 175. 

Kagoshima (Stimpson), 

Crenella decussata Mont. Jeffreys, Linn. Soc. Journ., XIV, p. 419. 

Corea Strait (St. John). 
Crenella spectabilis, casta A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 18G2, p. 228. 

Mino-Shima (A. Ad.). 
Crenella cornea A. Ad. Ibid. Corea Strait (Ad.). 
Crenella crocea A. Ad. Ibid, Tsu-Shima (Ad.). 

DREISSENSIID.S:. 
Septifer crassus Dunker. Rve., Conch. Icon., X, pi. 7, f. 25. {Mytilus). 

Japan (Stearns) ; Hakodate (Schrenck). 

Looks externally like Mytilus hamatus Say. Dunker and Lischke 
refer it to S. virgatus Wiegmann. 
Septifer bilocularis Linne. Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Septifer bifurcatus Conr. Japan. (Dkr., Index, p. 228). 

{Anomiacea). 
ANOMIIDJE. 
Anomia epbippium Linne var. (?). Dkr., Index, p. 247. 
Anomia radulina A. Ad. Ann. Mag. (3), VIII, p. 142. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 
Anomia pustulosa A. Ad. Ibid. Tabu-Shima, 25 fms. (Ad.). 
Anomia laqueata Reeve var. (?). Challenger Lamell, XIII, p. 318. 

Japan, oft'Kobe, in 50 fathoms (Challenger); Hakodate (Schrenck;; 
Joga-Shima coast (Stearns) ; Yedo (Lischke). 



142 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PECTENACEA. 

Anomia oytaeum Gray. C. Icon., f. 10. 

Hakodate (Scbrenck) ; Joga-Shirua coast (Stearns). Large, 
roughly sculptured specimens. Also a single silvery form (var. 
argentea,) thinner, both valves entirely smooth except for slight 
growth wrinkles. 

Anomia elyros Gray. C. Icon., f. 3, 9. 

Kii coast (Stearns). Two forms collected; one rather thin with 
the upper shell orange or yellow, lower shell green, the other 
heavier, opaque, both valves green. 

Placunanomia macroschisma Desh. Abbild., Ill, p. 132, pi. 1, f. 4. 

Yedo, Hakodate. 
Placunanomia umbonata GId. Otia Conch., p. 178. 

Kagoshima Bay (Stimpsou). 
Placenta placenta Linne. (Anomia). Japan (Dkr.). 

(^Pectenacea). 

LIMID.S;. 

limasmithi Sowerby. Sowb., P. Z. S.. 18S8, p. 207, pi. 11, f. 12. 

Shell having the general outline and convexity of L. lima Linn,, 
thin but strong, slightly gaping anteriorly, entirely closed posteriorly ; 
beaks situated near the posterior' end of the king e- line ; cartilage pit 
very oblique; hinge area narrow. Anterior auricles extremely 
small, posterior auricles moderate, about as in L. lima. Surface of 
valves sculptured with strong rounded radial ribs separated by in- 
tervals of about their own width, and ivholly absent on convexity of 
the valves from the beaks nearly half the distance to basal margin. 
Toward the beaks the surface on each side of the smooth area is 
densely and finely radially striate, these strim subsequeritly uniting by 
twos or threes to form the coarse ribbing of the later growth. Ribs at 
the periphery 39 in number; lacking on auricles and on the con- 
cave face of the anterior slope. Dimensions : Height, from beaks to 
ventral margin 60 mm., length, anteroposteriorly, 46 mm., diameter 
25 mm. Collected in Japan by Air. Frederick Stearns in 1889-90. 
Originally described from Japan. Sowerby did not describe the 
peculiar sculpture in detail, hence the above description. 

Lima dunkeri Smith. [L. japonica Dkr. not Ad.). Dkr., Index, p. 245, pi. 11, 
f. 8, 9. 

Sea of Japan (Dkr.) ; Boshiu (Stearns). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PECTENACEA, 143 

Specimens collected at the last named locality much exceed 
Duuker's type in size, measuring 35 mm. from beaks to lower mar- 
gin. The species is unusually equilateral for Lima. 

Xima japonica (A. Ad.) Sowerby, Concb. Icon., XVIII, pi. 5, f. 21 (1872). 

Japan (Sowerby). 
Lima lima Linne. {L. squamosa Lam.). 

Yokohama (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

I can see no difference whatever between the Japanese and Med- 
iterranean specimens of this species, except that the former are 
larger, measuring as much as 75 mm. from beaks to ventral margin. 
This species extends eastward in the Pacific to the Viti Islands. 

lima goliath Sowerby. P. Z. S., 188.3, p. 30, pi. 7, f. 3. 

Japan (Sowerby) ; S.-E. Nippon, 775 fathoms (Challenger). 
SPONDYLID.ffi. 
Spondylus regius Linne. Inland Sea (Stearns). 
Spondylus sinensis Sowb. Tbes., I, p. 427, pi. 87, f. 32-34. 

Inland Sea (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Spondylus nudus Chemn. Ibid, pi. 88, f. 39, 40. 

Wakayama, Inland Sea (Dkr.). 
Spondylus cruentus Lischke. J. M. C, I, p. 172, pi. 12, f. 1-5. 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Sagami (Stearns). 
Plicatula cuneata Dkr. Index, p. 246, pi. 11, f. 3. 

Japan (Dkr.), 
Plicatula muricata A. Ad. Ibid, pi. 11, f. 4. Japan (Dkr.). 
Plicatula horrida Dkr. Ibid, p. 247, pi. 11, f. 6, 7. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Plicatula irregularis Dkr. (rugosa Dkr. not Lam.). Ibid, p. 247, pi. 11, f. 5. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Plicatula simplex Gld. Otia Conch., p. 178. 

Kagoshima Bay and Simoda, 5-20 fath. (Stimpson). 

PECTENID.a:. 

Pecten crassicostatus Sowerby. Dkr., Index, pi. 13, f. 28-|-P. nobilis Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., VIII, f. 3, 

Ise (Stearns) ; Yedo, Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Pecten squamatus Gmelin. Dkr., Index, p. 240, pi. 11, f. 14. 

Sagama Bay (Stearns) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 



144 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PECTENACEA. 

Pecten irregularis Sowerby. Dkr., Index, p. 240, pi. 11, f. 2, la. 

Banda and Nenioto, Boshiii, Tsu-Shima (Stearns) ; Nagasaki 
(Lischke). 

Pecten quadriliratus Lischke. J. M. C, 11, p. 15S, pi. 9, f. 5, 6. 
Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Pecten similis Ijaskey. Journ. Linn. Soc, XIV. Corea Strait (St. John). 
Pecten jickelii Dunker. Index, p. 241. 

Japan Sea (coll. Lobbecke). 

Pecten vesiculosus Dkr. Dkr., Index, p. 241, pi. 11, f. I. 

Japan (Dkr., Stearns). 

Pecten tissoti Bernardi. Journ. de Conch., 185S, pi 91, pi. 1, f. 2. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Pecten spectabilis Reeve. Dkr., Index, pi. 11, f. 12, 13. 
Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Pecten Isetus Gould. Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., pi. 12, f. 6, 7. 

Ikai coast, Joga-Shinia, and Sagama Bay (Stearns) ; Hakodate 
(Stimp.) ; Tokyo and Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Yokohama (Dkr.). 

Three main color varieties are included in Mr. Stearns' collection : 
A. Crimson varying to orange ; B. Royal purple varying to brown ; 
and C. Pure white. 

Pecten yessoensis Jay. Dkr., Novit. Conch., p. 61, pi. 21; Lischke, Jap. Meeres- 
Conch., I, pi. 10, f. 34 ; II, pi. 13. 

Hakodate (Stearns, et al) ; Yedo (Lischke). 

Pecten plica Linne. C. Icon., VIII, sp. 16. 
Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Pecten subplicatus Sowb. C. Icon., sp. 17. 
Japan (Dkr.). 

Pecten vitreus Chemnitz. Conchyl. Cab., VII, f. 637. 

Yokohama Harbor, 345 fathoms (Challenger). 

Pecten swiftii Bernardi. Journ. de Conch., 1858, p. 90, pi. 1, 2. 

Northern Japan (Schrenck). 

Pecten asperulatas Adams & Reeve, Zool. Samarang, p. 74, pi. 21, f. 13. 
Corea Strait. 

Pecten psarus Melvill, Journ. of Conch., V, p. 280, pi. 2, f. 9. 

Japan. 



JAPANESE MOLLUSK8, OSTRACEA. 145- 

Pecten hastingsii Melvill. Journ. of Conch., Y, p. 279, pi. 2, f. 7. 
Japan (Hastings, Deut). 

Pecten mollitus Reeve. C. Icon., sp. 100. Japan. 
Amusium japonicum Gmel. 

East coast and Inland Sea (Stearns) ; Yedo and Nagasaki 
(Lischke). 

Amusium obliteratum Linne. Japan (Dkr.). 

Amusium pleuronectes Linne. Japan (Dkr.). 

Vola laqueata Sowerby. Lischke, J. M. C, II, pi. 12, f. 1, 2 ; Phil., Abbild., I, pi. 
1, f. 1 (P. antomi). 

Nagasaki Harbor and Yokohama (Stearns); Hakodate (Schrenck); 
Yedo (Lischke) ; off Kobe in 50 fathoms ; between Is. of Sikoku and 
Nippon, 50 fathoms (Challenger). 

Vola excavata Anton. Phil., Abbild., I, p. 201, pi. 2, f. 1 ; I'ecten sinensis Sowb. 
Japan (Dkr,). 

Vola puncticulata Dkr. Dkr., Index, p. 244, pi. 11, f. 10, 11 (young) ; Pilsbry, 
Prof. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1891, p. 473, pi. XIX, f. 1, 2, 3 (adult). 

A single large specimen collected by Mr. Stearns. 

Vola inaequivalvis Sowerby. Conchyl. Cab., p. 236, pi. 62, f. 5-8. 

South Japan (Dunker). 

(Ostracea). 

OST-RMIBIE. 

Ostraea gigas Thunberg. Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conch., I, p. 174 (-(-0. laperousii 
Schr. and 0. talienwhnnensis Crosse). 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Enoshima (Stearns) ; Yokohama (Mts.) ; 
Hakodate (Schrenck) ; also found on Asiatic mainland. 

Only young and moderate sized specimens show the purple color 
markings outside. One specimen collected is the largest on record, 
surpassing the measurements given by Thunberg. The length of 
the ligament area is proportionately greater than in smaller speci- 
mens. Measurements of four examples are as follows : 



Total length 443 mm. 
Total length 248 mm. 
Total length 246 mm. 
Total length 242 mm. 



greatest breadth 95 mm. 
greatest breadth 52 mm. 
greatest breadth 44 mm. 
greatest breadth 44 mm. 



All of these are narrow and parallel-sided. 
10 



146 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PTERIACEA. 

Ostrsea denselamellosa Lisihke. Liscbke, .rap. Meeres-Conch., I, pi. 1.3, 14. 

Hakodate, Tokyo Bay, Yokohama (Stearns); Nagasaki (Liscbke). 
The 0. auriculata and 0. vuilticoitata of Sowerby (Conch. Icon., pi. 
25) seem to be the same. 

Ostrsea folium (imelin. Wakayama (Dkr.). 

Ostrsea plicata Chemn. Kishiu coast (Stearns). 

Ostraea cucullata Born. Mus. Test. Ctes. Vind., \A. 6, f. 11, 12. 

Yokohama, E. coast Sagama (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Liscbke). 

I refer to this species a number of small specimens agreeing well 
with Born's figures, 

Ostrsea imbricata Lam. Dunker, Index, p. 250 ; Sowerby, Conch. Icon., XVIII, 

pi. 17, f. o6 b. 

Japan (Stearns, 1890). 
Ostrsea hyotis Linn. 

(Stearns). A single valve of gigantic size, length 235, breadth 
190 mm. 
Ostrsea rivularis Gld. Liscbke, J. M. C, III, pi. 1 4, f. 2, :i. 

Nagasaki (Liscbke). 

{Pte7'iacea). 

VULSELLIDiE. 

Vulsella lingulata Linne. Japan (Dkr.). 
Vulsella minor Chemn. Japan (Dkr.). 

PTERIID.ff;. 
(P^Ti"« Scop. 1777 = Avicvla Lam. 1799). 
Pteria coturnix Dunker. Index, p. 228, pi. 10, f. 1, 2. 

Inland Sea (Dkr.). 
Pteria brevialata Dkr. Index, p. 229, pi. 10, f. 3-5. 

Inland Sea (Dkr., Stearns). 
Pteria loveni Dunker. Index, p. 229, pi. 10, f. 6. 

Inland Sea (Dkr.). 

Pteria macroptera Lam. Keeve, Conch. Icon., X, pi. 2 and 3. 

Keu, Satsuma (Stearns) ; Prov. of Hizen (Stearns) ; Kagoshima. 

Two very large specimens, one from Satsuma being of the typical 
macroptera form, the other having the short wing and less obliquely 
extended pearl layer of " loiorium." The two measure : maa'optera, 
length of hinge-line 225 mm. ; oblique length from beak to lower 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, PTERIACEA. , HJ 

€nd 251 mm. Var. " lotorhm," length of hinge-line 152 mm. ; ob- 
hque length from beak to lower end 265 mm. 

Pteria japonica Dunker. Conchyl. Cab., p. .33, pi. 10. f. 5. 

Japan Sea (Dkr.). 
Meleagrina martensii Dkr. Index, p. 229, pi. lo, f. 7 8. 
Meleagrina japonica Dunker. Conchyl. Cab., p. 66. pi. 23, f. 2 3\ 

Nagasaki (Lischke) ; S. coast of Kii (Stearn.s).' Girls dive 
for these shells, which produce numerous pearls. 
Meleagrina fucata Gould. Conchyl. Cab., p. 4<), pi. 17, f. 2. 

Nagasaki. 

Malleus albus Chemn. C. Icon., pi. 1. f. l. 

Inland 8ea (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Malleus regula Forskal. Inland Sea (Dkr.). 

Malleus (Malvufundus) irregularis Jousseaume. Le xVaturaliste, XVI, lS9i, p. 

Japan. 

PERNID.ffi;. 
Perna perna Linne. Nagasaki (Lischke, J. M. C, II, p. 153). 
Perna costellata Conrad. Hakodate (Schrenck). 

PINNIDJE. 
Pinna chemnitzii Hanley. Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 1. 

Yedo, Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Kishiu coast (Stearns). 

The specimens are narrower than Reeve's figure 1 b, and lack the 
projecting scales along the hinge-margin. Dunker reports ehem- 
nitzn from Yokohama and Tokvo. 
Pinna bicolor Chemn. Conchyl. Cab., VIII, pi. 90, f. 780. 

Japan (Dkr.). 

Pinna fimbriatula Rve. C. Icon., sp". 63. Japan (Cuming). 

Pinna saccata Linnc. Japan (Dkr.). 

Pinna japonica Hanley. Conchyl. Cab., p. 72, pi. 24, f. 3; pi. 29, f. 1 

Yokohama Bay, Yedo, Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Pinna nigrina Lamarck. Rve., Conch. Icon., f. 4. (P. nigra). 

Tokyo Harbor (Stearns). The largest shell measures, length 365 
breadth 24U mm. It is smooth outside except for low radii near the 
beaks. Ihe smaller specimens are strongly scaled as in Reeve's ficr. 
lire. *= 



148 JAPANESE M0LLUSK8, ARCACEA. 

Pinna lisohkeana Clessin. Conchyl. Cab., p. T.*?, pi. 28, f. J. 

Yokohama (Rolle coll.) ; Inland Sea (Stearns) ; Tokyo Harbor 
(Stearns). 

The smaller specimens collected on the western coast of the Inland 
Sea agree with Clessin's figure (Conchylien Cabinet, pi. 28, f. 1) ex- 
cept that the hinge-margin is less curved. The specimen figured by 
Clessin as the adult P. japonica (Conchyl. Cab., pi. 29, fig. 1) is in 
my opinion an adult lischkeana. Whether the true japonica of 
Hanley is the same as P. chevmitzii, or is the young of lischkeana, I 
am unable to decide. Specimens collected by Stearns in Tokyo 
Harbor agree with Clessin's figure (pi. 29, fig. 1). They measure, 
length 375, breadth 204 ram. On the latter half of the shell the 
prickly rays are wholly absent. 

Pinna epica Jouss. Le Naturaliste, XVI, 1894, p. 229. 

Japan (Jouss.). 

{Arcacea). 

ARCID.S:. 

Area navicularis Brug. Dkr., Index, pi. 14, f. 16, 17. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Area aeuminata Krauss. 

The Japanese shells collected by Stearns seem to constitute a 
variety, characterized by the less attenuated anterior end, posterior 
lower angle less produced, the basal margin ascending to it, keel not 
acute. This may be called var. subnormalis. 

Area ocellata Reeve. Conchyl. Cab., p. 87, pi. 24, f. 1-4. 

Japan (Smith). 

Area kraussii Phil. SUdafrik. Moll., pi. 1, f. 11 ; Conch. Cab., pi. 35, f. 7, 8 ; Abbild., 
Ill, p. 88, pi. 5, f. 8-10. 

E. coast of Japan, Tokyo to Awaji (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 

Area (Barbatia) obtusa Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 77 and SO (^oblUjuataRv- not Gray); 
A. dccurvata Lischke, J. M. C, I. p. 148. 

Nagasaki, Yedo (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 
Area (Barbatia) tenebrica Reeve. Conchyl. Cab., p. 156, pi. 39, f. 7, 8. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Area stearnsii n. sp. PI. Ill, figs. 8, 9, 10. 

Shell small, subtrapezoidal, moderately inflated, solid ; anterior 
half white, clouded with flesh color, posterior half fleshy-brown. 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, ARCACEA. 149 

Dorsal margin straight and long, angled at each end, basal margin 
curved, not gaping, posterior end sloping, straight, anterior end 
rounded ; posterior lower angle produced. Surface closely and finely 
decussated throughout, the radii coarser on posterior slope. Teeth 
about as in A. decussafa; area narrow, deep. Interior fleshy with 
linear brown and whitish radii, and clouded with white, the muscle- 
scars brown. 

Length 16, alt. 9*2, diam. 7 mm. 

Length 18, alt. 11, diam. 10 mm. 

Nemoto, Boshiu and Yokohama (Stearns). 

Hinge much straighter than in A. teuebrica Rve., and angled at 
the ends, the baso-posterior extremity more angular. Sculpture 
finer than in young A. demssata, and less rounded posteriorly. 
Area (Barbatia) decussata Sowerby. Concbyl. Cab., p. 144, pi. 37, f. 2-5. 

Nagasaki (Lisckke). Several specimens collected by Stearns. 
Area (Barbatia) domingensis Lam. Conchy]. Cab., p. 195, pi. 47, f. 12. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Area (Anomaloeardia) granosa Linne. Concbyl. Cab., p. 38, pi. 3, f. 7. 

Kodzuka (Stearns) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). 
Area (Anomaloeardia) pulehella Dkr. Novit. Conch., p. 113, pi. 38, f. 6-9. 

Japan (Dkr.) ; East coast of Nippon (Stearns). 

Area (Anomaloeardia) inflata Reeve. C. Icon., f. 30 ; Concbyl. Cab., p 30 pi 10 
f. 1, 2. I f > 

Tokyo Bay (Stearns) ; Yedo, Nagasaki, Hakodate (Lischke). 

Area (Scapharca) satowi Dkr. Index, p. 233, pi. 9, f. 1-3. 

Tokyo. 

Area (Seapharca) suberenata Lischke. Jap. Meeres-Conch., I, p. 146, pi. 9, f. 1-3 
{"A. nodoso-crenata" on plate). 

Yedo and Nagasaki (Lischke) ; Inland Sea (Stearns) ; Itoma 
Jima I., Loo Choo group (Stearns). 
Area (Scapharca^ ambigua Reeve. C. Icon., sp. 65. 

Yokohama (Dunker) ; Nagasaki (Lischke). Mr. Stearns' speci- 
mens are all smaller than Reeve's figure of this species. 

Area (Scapharca) japoniea Reeve. C. Icon., f. 32: Conchyl. Cab., p. 114 pi 30 f 
3, 4. r I » 

Japan (Siebold). 

Area (Scapharca) troscheli Dkr. Index, p. 234, pi. 14, f. 14, 15. 

Japan (Dunker). 



150 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, ARCACEA. 

Area ( Scapharca) philippiana Dkr. Conchyl. Cab., p. 90, pi. 25, f. 1, 2 ; [A. radiata 
Rve., C. Icon., f. 40, preoc). 

Japan. 
Pectunoulus albolineatus Lischke. J. M. C, III, p. ](i8, pi. 9, f. 11, 12. 

Kii coast (Stearns) ; Yedo (Lischke). 
Pectunoulus fulguratus Dkr. Index, p. 236, pi. 14, f. IS, 19. 

Japan (Dkr.). 
Pectunoulus rotundus Dkr. Index, p. 236, pi. 16, f. 9, 10. 

Bay of Yedo (Dkr.). 

Pectunoulus vestitus Dkr. Index, p. 236, pi, 16, f. 7, 8. 
Pectunoulus yessoensis Sowb. P. Z. S., 1888, pi 570, jil. 28, f. 19. 
Yesso (Hungerford). 

Glomus japonicus E. A. Smith. Challenger Lamell. XIII, p. 325, wood-cut. 

Japan, S.-E. of Nippon, in 1875 fathoms. 
Nuoulina ovata Jeffreys. Journ. Linn. Soc, XIV, p. 418. 
Corea Strait (St. John). 

Cyrilla sulcata A. Ad. [Hiuieya']. Journ. de Conchyl., 1868, pi. 4, f. 2. 

Near Mino-Shima, 63 fras. (A. Ad.). 
Cyrilla decussata A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1862, p. 295. 

LIMOPSID.ff:. 

Limopsis woodwardii A. Ad. Dkr., Index, p. 237, pi. 16, f. 5, 6. 

Specimens collected by Stearns agree with Dunker's figures in 
form, but have concentric brown streaks outside and brown pallial 
line. 

Limopsis japonioa A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 229. 

Kuroshima and Kiusu, 26 to 57 fath. (A. Ad.). 

Limopsis obliqua A. Ad. P, Z. S., 1862, p. 229. 
Uraga, 21 fath. (Ad.) 

Limopsis oumingi A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 229. 

Goto and Santanomosaki, 48 to 55 fathoms. 
Limopsis orenata A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 230. 

Uraga and Satanomosaki, 21 to 55 fathoms. 

Limopsis forskalii A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1862, p. 230. 
Oshima, Takano-Shiraa, on the sands, dead. 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, NUCULACEA. 151 

Limopsis oblonga A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860, Y, p. 412. 

Off Miuo-Shima, 63 fras. (Ad.). 

Limopsis pelagica E. A. Smith. Challenger Lainell., XIII, p. 22, 254, pi. 18, f. 3, 

Yokohama Harbor, Enoshima, 345 fms. (Chall.). 

MACRODONTID.ffi:. 
Macrodon dalli Smith. Challenger Lamell. p. 2C9, pi. 17, f. 10. 

Off Kobe, 50 fms. (Challenger). 

Cucullaea concamerata Martini. Conchyl. Cab., p. 5, pi. 5, f. 1, 2. 

Nagasaki (Lischke). 

(Naculncea). 
LEDID.S:. 
Leda confusa Hanley. The?., Ill, p. 119, f. 85. 

Japan (Dkr., Stearns) ; Bay of Yedo (Lischke). 
Leda pernuloides A. Ad. Dkr., Index, p. 2.38. 
Yoldia japonica Ads. & Rve. Zool. Samarang, p. 75, pi. 21, f. 9. 

Nagasaki. 

Yoldia lischkei E. A. Smith. Challenger Lamell., p. 242, pi. 20, f. 4, 4b. 

Yokohama Harbor, Enoshima, 345 fathoms (Challenger). 

Malletia dunkeri E. A. Smith. Challenger Lamell., XIII, p. 32.3, wood-cut. 

S.-E. Nippon in 1875 fathoms (Challenger). 
Sarepta speciosa A. Ad. Journ.de Conch., 1868, pi. 4, f. 1. 
Mino-Shima, 63 fms. (Ad.). 

NUCULID^. 

Nuoula paulula A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1856, p. 52. 
Japan (Cuming). 

Nucula niponica E. A. Smith. Challenger Lamell., XIII, p. 226. 

S. of Nippon in 345 fathoms (Challenger). 
Nucula (Acila) mirabilis Adams & Reeve. Zool. Samarang, p. 75, pi. 21, f. 8. 

Japan, Kiushiu, Nagasaki Bay (Ad. and Rve.) ; off Kobe in 8 to 
50 fathoms (Challenger). 

Nucula (Acila) insignis GUI. Otia Conch., p. 175. 

E. coast, Lat. 37°, and at Hakodate (Stimpson). 



152 JAPANESE M0LLU8KS, BRACHIOPODA. 

(Solemyacea). 
SOLEMYID^. 
Solemya pusilla GId. Otia Conch., p. Kio. 

Hakodate Bay, 5 fath., mud (Stimp.). 
Solemya japonica Dkr. Index, p. 220, 261, pi. 14, f. 3. 
Japan (Dkr.). 

BRACHIOPODA. 

TEREBRATULID^. 

Terebratula davidsoni A. Ad. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 9, pi. I, f. 14-16. 
Japan, Satanomosaki, 55 fatlioms (A. Ad.). 

Terebratula (Liothyrina) stearnsii Dall & Pilsbry. PI. IX, figs. 1, 2, 3. 
Proc. Aead. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1891, p. 165, pi. 4, f. 1-3. 

Province Kii, east coast (Stearns). 

Terebratula dalli Dav. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 17, pl. 2, fig. 23. 

Off Japan, near Yedo, 1875 fath. (Challenger). 

Terebratulina kiiensis Dall & Pilsbry. PI. IX, figs. 9, 10. 
Nautilus, V, p. 18, pl. 1, f. 4, 5. 

Coast of Prov. Kii (Stearns). 

Terebratulina caput-serpentis Linne. Pl. XI, figs. 5, 6. 
Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 17, p. 3, fig. 12. 

Sagami Bay (Doderlein). The figures are from a West American 
specimen. 

Terebratulina crossii Davidson. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 33, pl. 3, figs. 4-6. 

Sagami Bay (Doderlein) ; Inland Sea, S. coast of Kii (Stearns). 
Terebratulina japonica Shy. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 34, pl. 3, figs. 7-11. 

Sagami Bay (Doderlein) ; Goto in 48, Tsusalei in 55 fathoms (A. 
Ad.). 
Eudesia raphaelis Dall. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 58, pl. 11, figs. 11-15. 

Near Yedo (Pumpelly) ; Sagami Bay, 100-200 fathoms (Doder- 
lein). 

Eudesia grayi Davidson. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 54, pl. 10, figs. 1-4. 

Hakodate and Mososeki, 7 fath. (Adams). 

Terebratella coreanica Ad. & live. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 81, pl. 13, figs. 
3-9. 

Japan, Hakodate, 7 fath, (A. Ad.) ; Inland Sea (Stearns). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, BRACHIOPODA. 153 

■Terebratella gouldii Ball. PI. XI, figs. 7, 8. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1891, p. 167, pi. 4, f. 4, 5 (adult); Trans. L. Soc. (2), 
IV, p. 96, pi. 17, figs. 20-22 [Megasella stage). 

Hakodate, 60 fath. (Stimpson) ; E. coast of Japan, between Yedo 
and Ooshima (Stearns). 

Terebratella frontalis Midd. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 86, pi. 15, figs. l-8a. 

Japan Seas, from low water to 45 fath. (Capt. St. John). 
Terebratella mariae A. Ad. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 89, pi. 15, figs. 13, 14, 

Uraga, 21 fath., Goto, 48 fath., Satanomosaki, 55 fath. (A. Ad.). 
Terebratella spitzbergensis Dav. Tr. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 83, pi. 16, f. 1-5. 

Northern Japan (A. Ad.). 

Laqueus blanfordi Dkr. Index, pi. 14, f. 4, 5, 6; Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 
83, pi. 15, figs. 9-12. 

Wakayama (Dkr.) ; East coast above Inland Sea (Stearns). 
Laqueus rubellns Sby. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 113, pi. 19, figs. 1-5. 

Kuro-Shima, 35 fath. (Adams) ; Yokohama (Pumpelly) ; near 
Jogashima (Stearns). 

Laqueus pictus Chem. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 114, pi. 18, figs. 14-18. 

Satanomosaki, 55 fath. (A. Ad.). 
Magasella adamsi Dav. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 96, pi. 17, figs. 18-19. 

Inland Sea, Is. of Kuro-puna, 26 fath. (A. Ad.). The adult of 
this is Eudesia veuosa according to Dall. 

Ismenia sanguinea Chem. Chall. Rep., Vol. I, p. 20 ; Conch. Tab., Vol. 8, p. 96, 
pi. LXXVIII, figs. 1-8. 

Mino-Shima, 63 fms., Goto, 48 fras. (Ad.). Davidson {I. c, p. 
179) considers 31. pulchella Sowb. and 31. reevei Davidson forms of 
this species. 

RHYNCHONELLID.aE. 

Rhynchonella psittacea Chem. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 163, pi. 24 figs. 1-11. 
Hakodate. 

Rhynchonella psittacea var. woodwardi A. Ad. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), p. 168, pi. 
24, figs. 12, 13. 

Goto, 48 fath., Rifunsiri Is., 35 fath. 

Rhynchonella lucida Old. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 168, pi. 24, figs. 15, 15b. 

Lat. 30° 35' N., Long. 180° 40' E., 100 fath., sand (Capt. Stevens 
of the " Hancock ") ; Satanomosaki, 55 fath., Goto, 48 fath. (A. 
Ad.). 



154 JAPANESE M0LLUSK8, BRACHIOPODA. 

Bhynchonella doderleini Dav. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 172, pi. 25, figs. 14, 
15. 

Sagami Bay, 160 fath. (Doderlein). 

CRANIID.ffi. 
Crania japonica Ad. Trans. Linn. Soi-. (2), IV, p. 191, ].l. 27, figs. 10, 11.. 

Goto, 71 fath. (Adams). 

DISCINID.ffi. 
Discinisca stellaGId. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 204, pi. 26, figs. 2r-.30, 

Seto-Ucbi, 17 fath., Isu-Shima, 17-25 fath.. Tabu-Shima, 26 fath. 
(Adams). 

LINGULID.E. 
Lingula anatina Bruguiere. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 206, pi. 29, figs. 1-8.. 

Yedo (Adams) ; Enoshima (Stearns). 
Lingula jaspidea Ad. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 218, pi. 28, figs. 23-24a.. 

Mososeki, 7 fath., mud (Adams). 
Lingula adamsi Ball. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 218, pi. 28, f. 19. 

Tsaulian Harbor, Corean Archipelago, 7 fms, (A. Ad.). 
Lingula smaragdina A. Ad. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 220, pi. 28, fig. 25.. 

Yobuko, 10 fath., mud. 
Lingula lepidula A. Ad. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2), IV, p. 220, pi. 28, fig. 16. 

Seto-Uchi, 10 fath., mud (Adams). 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, APPENDIX I. 155 

APPENDIX I. 

List of Land and Freshwater MoUusks collected in Japan by 
Frederick Stearns. 

ENDODONTID^. 
Pyramidula (Gonyodiscus) pauper Gld. Tokyo (Stearns). 

HELICID.S:. 

Two genera only of Helicidce occur in Japan : Eulota, repre- 
sented by the sections Eulotella, Acusta, Euhadra, Pledotropis and 
jEgista, and Ganesella represented by G. (Satsuma) japonica and 
its allies. 

From alcoholic specimens collected by Mr. Stearns, the writer 
has been enabled to figure the anatomy of Euhadra qucesita, peliom- 
phala, brandti, etc., Pledotropis vulgivaga and Ganesella japonica 
(Man. Conch. [2], IX), and to demonstrate the true relationships of 
these forms hitherto unknown. By shell characters alone it is at 
present impossible to classify many of the small Helices of Japan 
and China. Their anatomy only can decide which species belong 
to Ganesella, which to Eulota. Some large forms, such as Helix 
largillierti, papilliformis and Stearnsii are of equally dubious affini- 
ties. Altogether the Helix fauna is very closely allied to that of 
middle and northern China, but is poorer in variety of types. The 
Euhadra group is its most characteristic element. Cathaica, Pseud- 
iherus and other Chinese Eulota sections are absent, as are Camcena 
and Plectopylis; and 3Ioellendorffia, a group allied to Helicodonta 
in shell features, but possibly belonging near Chloritis, is another 
characteristic type of southern China wanting in Japan. 

Eulota similaris var. stimpsoni Pfr. Xemoto and Mera, Boshiu, Tokyo, Katsura, 
Osaka (Stearns). 

Eulota sieboldiana Pfr. Kyoto (Gaines) : Mera, Boshiu, Yokohama, Tokyo (Stearns). 

Eulota laeta Gld. Hokkaido (Gaines). 

Eulota (Euhadra) luhuana Sowb. var. nimbosa Crosse. 

Arima (Gaines) ; Yokohama (Stearns). Bands, indifferently two 
or three ; sometimes the dark bands cover the ground, except for 
the light flames ; and this is the form I have called var. subatra. 
Others occur at Yokohama without dark bands, but with the papery 
streaks. 



156 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, HELICID.T:. 

Ealota (Euhadra) luhuana var. eoa Crosse. Yokohama (Stearns). 
Eulota (Euhadra) luhuana var. brandti Kob. Nikko (Stearns). 
Eulota Euhadra) luhuana var. nipponensis Kob. 

Kyoto ; both the plain and a two-banded form collected by Mr. 
Stearns. Lip indifferently purplish-fleshy or white. 

Eulota (Euhadra) luhuana var. amaliae Kob. 
Japan (Stearns). 

Eulota (Euhadra) luhuana var. senckenbergiana Kob. Mt. Hie, Hiezan (Gaines) 

Eulota (Euhadra) quaesita Desh. Near Yokohama. 

Eulota (Euhadra) quaesita var. perryi Jay. Nikko (Stearns). 

Eulota (Euhadra) blakeana Neweomb. PI. I, figs. 3, 7, 8, S. 

Helix blakeana Newc, Proc. Cal. Acad., Ill, p. 179, (1865) ; not 
JET. blakeana Tate, 1870, =Thysanophora tatei Pils., 1895. 

Helix (Aegista) blakei Kobelt, Faun. Jap., p. 28, pi. 7, f. 10, 11. 

Helix (Eulota f) blakei Kobelt, Conchyl. Cab., p. 673, pi. 192, 
f. 9, 10. 

The type lot of this species is preserved in the museum of Cor- 
nell University, and consist of three specimens: the type drawn on 
pi. I, figs. 7, 8, 8 ; a smaller specimen broken above, pi. I, fig. 3 ; 
and a young shell. 

The larger shell is slightly abnormal in having the last whorl 
deeply descending on its last half, owing to a slight fracture. There 
are 6 whorls, the earlier two forming the nepionic nucleus, apex ob- 
tuse ; those following are convex, with moderately deep sutures, 
showing slight growth wrinkles and close minute spiral, wavy im- 
pressed lines, which are well developed over the whole surface, and 
not different from those of E. j^eliomphala in fineness and spacing. 
Umbilicus moderate, about one-eleventh the diameter of the shell, 
rather more open inside than in peliomphala, half covered by the 
expanded columellar lip. Alt. 19, diam. 28 mm. 

The smaller specimen figured differs in the less descending last 
whorl, less oblique aperture, less covered and larger umbilicus, 
which is between one-eighth and one-ninth the diam. ; alt. — , diam. 
26 mm. Both show a very slight, hardly noticeable angulation of 
the periphery at the origin of the body whorl. The color is a uni- 
form pale corneous-buff', lip white. 

The species is very nearly allied to Eulota peliomphala, but seems 
to be specifically distinct. Kobelt misquotes the reference to Cal. 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, HELICID^. 157 

Acad. Proc, as well as the name of this species. We are indebted 
to Prof. Gilbert H. Harris, of Cornell University Palseontological 
Department, for the opportunity of figuring these specimens. 

Eulota (AegistaT) macrocycloides Kob. Kyoto (Gaines). 

Eulota (Aegista) kobensis S. <fc B. Hiesan (Gaines). 

Eulota (Plectotropis) vulgivaga S. & B. Yase, near Kyoto (Gaines). 

Ganesella stearnsii n. sp. PI. I, fig. 4. 

Shell imperforate, globose-turbinate, higher than wide, thin, straw 
colored, with a peripheral brown line visible above suture on penul- 
timate whorl; surface smooth to the eye, but under a lens showing 
very minute crowded spiral lines as in Eulota nipponensis, but rather 
less distinct. Spire high, with convex outlines; whorls 7t, very 
convex, flattened and arcuate-striatulate below the sutures ; the last 
rounded at periphery, somewhat descending in front ; base convex, 
impressed in the center. Aperture somewhat oblique, semilunar, 
white within ; outer lip arched, slightly expanded, a trifle thickened 
within ; columella straight, vertical, narrow, deeply inserted, hardly 
expanded at the insertion, its edge expanded below, reflexed and 
closely appressed above in a very thin glaze over the axial region. 
Alt. 29,diam. 24 i mm. 

Mt. Hie, Hiesan, near Kyoto (Gaines). 

This is an extraordinary species, recalling H. sphceroconus of 
Formosa and H. jxipilliformis of Nippon. The former is most nearly 
allied, but differs in the flatter whorls, etc. Kobelt's species has 
flatter whorls (" convexiusculi ") and a more slanting columella, etc 
Whether these species belong with japonica Pfr. in Ganesella, or 
are Euhadras allied to myoviphala, remains to be decided by ana- 
tomical research. 

The name need not be confused with Helix sfearnsiana Gabb, a 
species of Epiphragmophora. 
Ganesella goodwini Smith. Hiesan (Gaines). 
Ganesella japonica Pfr. Kyoto, Kobe (Gaines). 

Specimens collected alive by Stearns supplied the anatomical 
description of this genus in Man. Conch., IX. 

PTTPID.ffi:. 

The species of Clausilia collected have not yet been all identified, 
and will be treated of elsewhere. 



158 JAPANESE MOLLUSKS. 

SUCCINEID^. 
Succinea lauta Gld. Ilakoilute, IlokiiiJo (Stearns). 

AURICULID^. 
Melampus luteus Q. & G. 

Numerous specimens brought from Japan by Mr. Stearns, but 
probably imported, 

LiMN.ffi;iD.ffi:. 

Limnaea japonica Jay. Hakodate (Stearns). 

Limnsea goodwinii Smith, Tokyo, Hakodate, Shimnosiki (Stearns). 

This probably is identical with L. 2jervia Mts. 
Flanorbis spirillus Gld. Kishiu (Stearns). 

OPERCULATA. 

Coelopoma japonicum A. Ad. Kobe, (Gaines). 
Cyclotus campanulatus Mart. Kobe (Gaines). 
Cyclophorus herklotsi Mart. Hiezan (Gaines). 
Pupinella rufa Sowb. Kobe. 
Helicina japonica A. Ad. Large var. Iliezen (Gaines). 

viviPARiD.a:. 

Vivipara stelmaphora Bgt. var. malleata Reeve. Ileda coast and Mera, Prov. 
Boshiu, washed up on the beach (Stearns). 

Vivipara sclateri Ffld. With the preceding. 

Vivipara oxytropis Bens. Tokyo (Stearns). 

MELANIID^. 

For literature of Japanese Melaniidie see Boettger, Nachr. D, M. 
Ges., 1886, p. 1, and Brot, Recueil Zool, Suisse, IV, p. 105. 

Melania japonica Reeve. Shimosa, Yokohama (small form), Kishiu (young only), 
Nikko. (Stearns). 

Melania multigranosa Bttg. Shimosa. (Stearns). 
Melania reiniana Brot. Shimosa. (Steams). 
'^ Melania libertina Gld. Nemoto, Boshiu. (Stearns). 
Melania lobbeckei Brot. 

Isi. (Stearns). Specimens from this locality are very large, alt. 
55-58 mm. 



yi,^,J,,^.^J^ ^^^^.^-^^ ^. M»^- }-^ 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS, CYREXID.T'.. 159 

UNIONID^. 

Unio oxyrhynchus Martens. Osaka River (coll. by Gulich) ; Uji River below Lake 
Biwa (Gaines). 

Unio schlegelii Martens. (Gaines). 

CYRENID.S:. 
Corbicula orientalis Desh. 

Is^umerous specimens, collected by Stearns, which I cannot distin- 
guish from the continental form. 

Corbicula japonica Prime, {-\-bifonms Reinh.). 

Yokohama, on tide-flats (Stearns). 
Corbicula straminea Reinh. Mud flats, Kishiu coast (Stearns). 
Corbicula martensii Clessin. {^yokohamensk Sowb.). 

Tokyo (Stearns, in the fish market). 
Sphaerium heterodon n. sp. PI. Ill, figs. 15, 16, 17. 

Shell rhombic-oval, anterior end subtruncate-rounded, posterior 
end truncated, nearly equilateral, moderately convex ; light gray, 
with yellowish ill-defined concentric zones, and usually a darker 
zone or two. Beaks calyculate ; interior bluish-white. Eight valve 
with a single transverse, elongated cardinal in front of the beak ; a 
double short anterior lateral lamella, a single posterior lamella. 
Left valve with a single minute cardinal, a single short high ante- 
rior lamella, posterior lamella double, short. Length 9^," alt. 7^ 
diam. 5J mm. ' ' ' 

Kishiu, Hizen (Stearns). 

The cardinals are extremely minute, almost obsolete. Two speci- 
mens have the beak caps conspicuous, a third having them ill-de- 
fined. 



160 LOO CHOO MOLLU8K8. 

APPENDIX 11. 

List of Mollusca in the Collection of Frederick Stearns 
FROM the Middle Loo Choo Islands, with Descriptions of 
New Species. 

The species listed below were collected for Mr. Stearns by Morizo 
Seta during 1891, 1892. Part of them were determined by Mr. 
Stearns, part by Mr. Pilsbry, the latter being indicated by an 
asterisk (*) following the species names. 

In this list the name Yaeyama Jima (" many-peaked island") is 
used for the largest of the middle Loo Choo group, often known as 
Okinawa. We believe the same term has also been applied to 
another island of the group. 

A list of raollusks from the middle Loo Choo Is. has been pub- 
lished by Dr. 0. Bottger (Nachrichtsblatt des Deutschen Malako- 
zoologischen Gesellschaft, 1892, p. 153). A recent general account 
of the physical and political features of the group may be found in 
The Geographical Journal, V, April, May, June (London, 1895) by 
Professor Basil Hall Chamberlain, of the Imperial University of 
Japan. 

The most remarkable diversity exists in the etymology of the 
name of these islands, but the form " Loo Choo " or its phonetic 
equivalent " Luchu " seems preferable for English speaking peoples. 

The malacological fauna of this chain of islands seems to be mod- 
erately homogeneous as far as known. 

AIIGONAUTID.5;. 

Argonauta gondola Dillw. Yaeyama. 

ACT^ONID.ffi;. 
Solidula glabra Rve.* Yaeyama. 
Bullina scabra Gmel.* Yaeyama. 



BnLLiD.a:. 



Bulla vernicosa Gld. Yaeyama. 
17 live shells, col. varieties. 



SCAPHANDRID.1:. 



Atys cylindrica Helbling. Yaeyama. 

Nat. name Shira-Kai {white shell). 200 shells, mostly living. 



LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 161 

HYDATINID^. 

Hydatina physis Lin. 3 shells. Yaeyama. 

SIPHONARIID.ffi:. 

Siphonaria coreensis Ads. & Rve.* Yaeyama. 

AURICULID.ffi:. 

Pythia scarabeus Linn. (?). 1 Shell. Yaeyama. 

Melampus cafFer Krauss. Yaeyama. Very abundant. Dr. 0. Boettger has kindly 
determined the specimens. 

LiMN.ffi:iD.s:. 

Limnaea pervia Marts. Yaeyama. 

100 live shells (brought home in alcohol with a lot of Melampus). 

ZONITID.ffi:. 

Trocliomorpha fritzei Boettger.* PL X, figs. 9, 10, IL 
Bttg., Nachrbl. D. M. G., 1892, p. 160. 

Dr. Boettger's excellent description of this species leaves nothing 
to be desired. It is remarkable for the acute keel encircling the 
umbilicus. The specimen figured is from the same island where the 
types were originally found, Okinawa or Yaeyama ; it measures : 
alt. 6, diam. min. 20, diam. maj. 22 mm., being slightly larger than 
Boettger's types. 

HELICID.ffi;. 

Ganesella largillierti Philippi.* PI. X, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

Reported by Largilliert from the Loo Choo Is., and also included 
in Boettger's list. There are three color varieties: 

Var. immaeulata Ad. & Rv. (PI. X, fig. 12). Pale, almost white 
above, with a yellowish-green sutural margin and base ; apex white. 
(C. Icon., f. 420). 

Var. eucosmia Pils. (PI. X, fig. 14). Body whorl begirt with dark 
chestnut zones ; apex white or pinkish. Conf. Smith, P. Z. S. 1887, 
p. 317. 

Var. zacosmia Pils. (PL X, fig. 13). Body whorl having a black 
band immediately above the periphery, fading into rich reddish- 
chestnut toward the suture ; a white or yellow band below' periphery, 
bordered by a black zone below, the middle of the base yellowish- 
chestnut or reddish-chestnut, apex purple. The coloring of this 
variety is wonderfully rich for a Satsuma. 

All of the above varieties collected on Yaeyama Island. 
Eulota (Euhadra) yaeyamensis Pilsbry. PI. IX, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell sinistral, perspectively umbilicated, depressed, thin but 
rather solid, light brown, with a supra-peripheral brown line. Sur- 
11 



162 LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 

face irregularly wrinkle-striate, and in places showing an excessively 
fine, superficial spiral striation. Spire low conoidal, composed of 6 
convex, slowly widening whorls, the last nearly twice as wide as the 
preceding, a trifle descending in front, rounded at the periphery and 
beneath. Aperture oblique, wide lunate ; peristome flesh-tinted, 
narrowly expanded and subreflexed, and slightly thickened within, 
dilated at the columellar insertion. Alt. 17, greater diam. 27j, 
lesser 23 mm. 

Yaeyama (Okinawa) Island, Loo Choo group (Frederick Stearns). 

This species is apparently most nearly allied to the Chinese H. lati- 
labris Mlldflf., but the umbilicus is more open, the lip narrower, 
aperture more oblique, etc. The umbilicus is wider and more open 
than in H. quoesita. 

Another specimen is smaller (alt. 15, greater diam. 24, lesser 
diam. 20} mm.), and straw-colored, with the usual dark girdle. 

Eulota (Euhadra) quaesita Desh. Yaeyama. 

Eulota (Euhadra) mercatoria Gray. PI. X, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Yaeyama I. (Stearns, 29 specimens). 

Of this species I believe H. caliginosa Adams & Reeve (Voy. 
Samarang, Moll., p. 62, pi. xvi, fig. 6) to be a synonym. The local- 
ity " Mindanao " is, if I am right, probably incorrect. The species 
shows the same great range of variability that is characteristic of 
the Japanese Euhadras. 

Figure 4 represents a large specimen uniform blackish in color 
except for slightly marked light bands above and below the periph- 
ery. 

Figure 6 is the lightest specimen seen, being of a clear yellow tint 
with a dark line at periphery. It is light below the sutures, like 
the type of caliginosa. Figures 1, 2, 3 represent an average speci- 
men. 

Figure 5 is the smallest shell, measuring 17j mm. diam. It is dis- 
tinctly carinated in front, as are some other stunted specimens of the 
lot. 

All gradations of form, size and coloring between these selected 
specimens are represented in the series secured by Mr. Stearns. 

Eulota (Euhadra) connivens Pfr. 

Yaeyama Island (Stearns). 

This species varies from 17^ to 27 ram. in greatest diameter, and 
shows much mutability in the degree of depression of the spire. 



LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 163 

Euiota (Acusta) despeota Gray.* PI. X, figs 7, S. 

Yaeyama. 

The shell varies in color from yellow or straw-colored with nearly 
white aperture, to purplish-red with fleshy-purple aperture. 
Euiota (Aegista) oculus Pfr.* (typinmna A. & R.). Yaeyama. 

Adult specimens vary from 19 to 27 mm, diameter. They agree 
well with the figures of H. typinsana Adams & Reeve, Zool. ' Sam- 
arang,' pi. xv, fig. 3. 

Euiota (Aegista) vermis Reeve.* PI. IX, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Yaeyama (Stearns). 

Many examples of this splendid species were obtained. It is 
notable for the depression of the inner whorls, which are frequently 
concave. 
Euiota (Pleototropis) mackensii Adam« & Rve.* Yaeyama. 

About 75 specimens of this magnificent species were secured by 
Mr, Stearns. They are very large, from 34 to 39 mm, diameter, 
varying in color from light straw-colored or greenish-yellow to dark 
reddish-chestnut. One of these is figured in Man. Conch, (2), IX 
pi. 64, fig, 16-17. 
Euiota (Pleototropis) elegantissima Pfr.* 

Yaeyama, (Stearns, 17 specimens). 

Perfectly fresh shells show a fringe of long, delicate hairs at the 
periphery, and along the suture of the last whorl, 

PUPID.ffi. 

Clausilia (Stereophaedusa) valida Pfr.® 

Clausilia (Stereophaedusa) Stearnsii Pilsbry. PI. I, fig. 12. 

Shell elongated, regularly tapering, the next to the last and the 
last whorl widest, the latter hardly contracted below ; moderately 
solid, closely, lightly striated, the striae wanting on the earlier 
whorls, more distinct and spaced on the latter part of the last whorl. 
Color opaque purplish-brown. Whorls 12-13. but slightly convex, 
separated by a shallow, simple suture. Aperture contained 4? to 
4i times in length of shell ; peristome reflexed, whitish, slightly 
thickened, not adnate ; superior lamella strong, extending to the 
lip-edge ; inferior lamella deep-seated, parallel to the superior, in- 
visible from the front ; subcolumellar lamella extending to lip-edge, 
bounded by grooves : palatal plicae two, the upper one long, second 
rather short, with a thin white subvertical lunella below it, which is 
strengthened below into a low bar. 



164 LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 

Alt. 31, greatest diameter of last whorl above aperture 5 mill. 

Alt. 26, greatest diameter of last whorl above aperture 5 mill. 

Yaeyama (Okinawa), Loo Choo Is. (Fr. Stearns). 

Believing this species to be new, I sent examples to Prof Dr. O. 
Boettger, the great authority on these shells, and received the fol- 
lowing emphatic confirmation of my opinion : " Die Clausilia von 
Okinawa ist ohne jeden Zweifel n. sp. Es ist eine Stereophcedusa 
und steht in der Mitte zwischen jiV/poHica Crosse and hrevior v. Mts."^ 

No similar form has hitherto been reported from the Loo Choo 
group, the nearest allies of the species being Japanese. It is named 
in honor of Mr. Frederick Stearns of Detroit, who has contributed 
so largely to our knowledge of the Japanese fauna. The specimen* 
vai'y considerable in length, but not in other characters. 

TEREBRID-S:. 
Terebra (Subula) maculata Linn. Yaeyama. 

Native name, Take-noko-kai (bamboo sprout shell). 1 full 
■grown live shell 7", with operculum and one each without, hi" and 
3". 

Terebra (Subula) muscaria Lain. (var.). Yaeyama. 1 live shell. 
Terebra (Subula) muscaria Lain. (Typical). 

Native name, Ushi-no-Tsuno, bora (bull's horn shell), 28 live 
shells. Hirame Jima. 
Terebra (Subula) crenulata Linn. Kudaka Is. 

Native name, Uno-Tsuna, bora (big rope shell). 
Terebra (Subvjla) dimidiata Lam. Kudaka Is. 

Native name, same as previous species; 11 live shells. 

CONIDiE. 
Conus marmoreus Linn. Ohon-me Is. 

Native name, Bote-furi, bora. 27 live shells, medium and small,, 
the largest 6 cm. long. 
Conus imperialis Linn. Yaeyama. 

Native name, Nagashi-nani. 4 live shells, 7 cm. long. 
Conus vexillura Gml. Itoma Jima. 

5 fine live shells, with epidermis, the largest 51" long. 

Conus miles Linn. Kobasbima. 

9 live shells with epidermis, the largest 7 cm. long. 
Native name, Imo-Gai (sweet-potato shell). 



LOO CHOO M0LLU8KS. 165 

Conus capitaneus Linn. Kudata. 

Native name, Hibi-bora. 1 live shell, 53 mm. long. 
Conus geographus Linne.* 

Native name, Naga-bai (long shell). 

13 mature, fine live shells. Koba-shima Is. Length from 8 cm. 
to 11 cm. 

Conus striatus Linn. Yaeyama Is. 

Native name, Nagashi-nani. 15 mature live shells. 

Conus tulipa (var. near C. obscurus Rve.). 1 live shell. Kudaka Is. 

Native name, Hibi-bora. 

Conus quercinus Ilwass (var.). 

Native name, Hibi-bora. 14 live shells, 8 cm. and less. Kudaka 
Is. 

Conus figulinus Linn. Kudaka Is. 

1 fine live shell 6 cm., but very much darker in color than the 
type. Native name, Hibi-bora. 
Conus vitulinus Hwass. Nago Is. 

1 live shell 39 mm. long. 
Conus puncturatus Hwass. Kudaka. 

1 live shell 16 mm. long. 

Conus lividus Hwass. Oshima Is. 

18 live shells with epidermis, the largest 54 mm. long. 

Conus hebraeus Linn. Hirame Jima. 

3 live shells, the largest 30 mm. long. 

Conus pulicarius Hwass.* Ohon-me Is. 

1 live shell 6 cm. 

Conus literatus Linn. Kobashima. Tryon, Man. Vol. 6, p. 10, pi. 2, fig. 17. 

10 shells with epidermis, the largest 13 cm. long. 

Conus literatus Linn. var. millepunctatus Lam. Kobashima. Try., Man. Vol. 6, 
p. 10, pi. 2, fig. 19. 

14 shells, mostly mature, the largest 82 m. long, with epidermis. 

Conus eburneus Hwass. Kudaka Is. Try., Man. Vol. 6, p. 11, pi. 2, fig. 24. 

In this specimen the square spots are fewer and more distant. 
1 live shell 5 cm. long, without epidermis. 

Conus textile Linn. Kaboshima. 

9 live shells, the largest 10 cm. long. 



166 LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS 

Conus aulicus Linn. Kudaka Is. 

1 live shell, 9 cm. long. 
Conus miliaris Ilwass.* Loo Choc Is. 
Conus omaria Ilwass.* Yaeyama. 

OLIVIDJE. 
Oliva irisans Lam. var. erythrostoma Lam. 

Native name, Naga-Bai (long shell). 26 live shells. Hirarae 
Jima Is, 

Oliva irisans Lam. var. olympiadina Duel. {= 0. pica Lam.). 

1 shell. Yaeyama. 
Oliva mustelina Lam. Yaeyama. T., M. Vol. 5, p. 78, pi. 22, figs. 6-14. 

3 live shells, slightly varying. 
Oliva guttata Lam.* Yaeyama. 

HARFID.a:. 

Harpa conoidalis Lam. 

Native name, Sho-ko-no-Nishiki (meaning gold brocade shell). 

5 live shells, various sizes. Yaeyama. 
Harpa minor Rumph. (var.). 2 live shells. Kudaka Is. 
Harpa nobilis Lam. 1 live shell. Yaeyama. 

MITRID.S:. 

Mitra episcopalis Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. Ill, pi. 32, fig. 1. 

Yaeyama. Native name, Takenoko-Kai (bamboo sprout shell). 
30 shells. 

Mitra pontificalis Lam. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. Ill, pl..S2, fig. 3. 

Yaeyanaa. Native name, Takenoko-Kai (bamboo sprout shell). 
10 live shells. 
Mitra (Costellaria) exasperata Gm. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 180. 

Yaeyama. None of the figures given in Tryon are good. 11 live 
shells. 
Mitra (Turricula) corrugata Lam. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. IfiS, pi. 50, fig. 429. 

Yaeyama. 2 live shells. 
Mitra (Chrysama) digitalis Chem. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 149, pi. 44, fig. 278. 

Yaeyama. 1 live shell. 

Mitra (Soabricola) sphaerulata Mart. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 122, pi. 39, fig. 149- 
158. 

Yaeyama. 1 live shell. 



LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 167 

Mitra (Turricula) taeniata var. vittata Swains. {= M, iayloriana^hy.) Tryon, 
Vol. 4, p. 164, pi. 48, figs. 385-388. 

Yaeyama. 2 live shells. 
Mitra (Turricula) berthae Sby. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 168, pi. 49, fig. 417. 

Yaeyama. 1 good dead shell. 
Mitra (Turricula) plicata Lam. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 167, pi. 50, fig. 420. 

Yaeyama. 1 live shell. 
Mitra cardinalis Gmel. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. Ill, pi. 32, fig. 4. 

Yaeyama. 4 live shells. 

Mitra punoticulata Lam. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 115, pi. 33, fig. 25. 

Yaeyama. 5 live shells. 
Mitra (Mitroidea) telum Sby. (var.). Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 163, pi. . ,, fig.^TG. 

Yaeyama. 2 live shells. ^■ 

Mitra (Strigatella) literata Lam. var.* Yaeyama. 
Mitra (Strigatella) virgata Rve. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 156, pi. 46, fig. 34. 

Yaeyama. 4 live shells. 
Mitra (Cylindra) dactylus Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 197, pi. 57, fig. 658. 

Kudaka Is. Native name, Hibi-Bora. 11 live shells. 
Mitra (Cylindra) crenulata Gml. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 197, pi. 57, fig. 666. 

Kudaka Is. 1 live shell. 

FASCIOLARIID.ffi. 

Fusus tuberosus Reeve.* Kudaka Is, 

Fusus inconstans Lisch. Tryon, Man. Vol. 3, p. 54, pi. 33, figs. 102-17. 

Yaeyama. Native name, Youaki-momO (night-crying shell). 
10 live shells. 
Fusus multicarinatus Lam. 

Yaeyama. Native name, same as above. 1 live shell. 

Fusus distans Lam. Tryon, Man. Vol. 3, pi. 36, fig. 131. 

Yaeyama. Native name, as above. 5 live shells. 

Fusus COlus Linn. (var.). Tryon, Man. Vol. 3, p. 52, figs. 90-95. 

Yaeyama. 1 live shell. 

Fusus nicobaricus Lam. (var. near F. laticostatus Desh.). 

Hirame Jima Is. 12 live shells. 
Fasciolaria filamentosa Lam. Tryon, Man. Vol. 3, p. 75, pi. 59, fig. 9. 

Itoma Jima Is. Native name, Yauaki-Gai (night-crying shell). 
3 live shells with operculum and 5 without. 



168 LOO CIIOO M0LLU8KS. 

Fasciolaria trapezium Lam. 

Nago Island. 1 young shell, also 8 full-grown, 3 with opercula 
and 5 without. 

Latirus polygonus (!inl. Tryon, Man. Vol. S, p. 88, pi. 66-67, figs. lOG-lU. 

Hirame Jima Is, 2 live shells. 
Lagena smaragdula Linn.* Loo Cboo Is. 

TURBINELLA. 
Turbinella (Vasum) turbinellum Linn. Tiyon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 72. figs. 20-22. 

Hirame Jima Is. 45 live shells. 
Turbinella (Vasum) ceramicum Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 72, pi. 21, fig. 18. 

Hirame Jima Is. Native name, Naga-Bai (long shell). 9 live 
shells, 1 very large. 

Hemifusus ternatanus Gml. [=^Pyrulafuba Lam.). Tryon, Man. Vol. 3, p. 112, 
pi. 44, fig. 233. 

Kudaka Is. Native name, Uni. 4 live shells. 

BUCCINID.a:. 
Siphonalia cassidariformis Rve. = S. ornata and S. conspersa A. Ad. 
Yaeyama. 14 live shells. 

Siphonalia kelletti Forbes. Tryon. Man. Vol. 3, p. 134, pi. 54, fig. 352. 

17 live shells. 
Eburna japonica 8by. 

Yaeyama. 7 living, but half-grown shells. 
Tritonidea undulata Schepm.* Middle Loo Choo Is. 
Tritonidea undosa Linn. Yaeyama. 
Tritonidea (Cantharus) rubiginosa Reeve.* Loo Choo Is. 

NASsiD.a:. 

Nassa muricata Quoy & Gaimard (= N. gruneri Rve.). Tryon, Man. Vol. 5, p. 44, 
pi. 14, fig. 217. 

Yaeyama. 2 live shells. 

Nassa coronata Brug. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 23, pi. 7, fig. 8. 

Yaeyama. 2 live shells. 

Nassa hirta Kiener var.* Yaeyama. 

Nassa stigmaria A. Ad. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 54, pi. 16, fig. 308. 
Yaeyama. 4 live shells. 

Nassa picta Dkr. var. Tryon, Man. Vol. 4, p. 35, pi. 11, fig. 139. 

Yaeyama. 1 live shell. 



LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 169 

COLUMBELLID^. 
Columbella flava Brug.* Loo Choo Is. 
Columbella scripta Lam.* Loo Choo Is. 
Columbella (Conidea) discors (Jmel.* Yaeyama. 
Columbella (Pusiostoma) mendicaria Linn, 
Yaeyama. 1 live shell. 

MTiRiciD.a:. 

lilurex (Chicoreus) ramosus Linn. 

Yae3'ama. 12 large shells, full-grown, 1 half-grown. 
Murex (Chicoreus) brevifrons Lam. 

Yaeyama. Found also in many parts of the islands. 21 shells 
in various stages of growth. 

Jllurex adustus Lam.* 

Called Yako-Gai in all parts of the islands. 
Murex (Chicoreus) maurus Brod. Tryon, Man. Vol, 2, p. 89, pi. 38, fig. 139. 

Yaeyama. 1 shell. 
Rapanabezoar Linn. 

Kudaka Is, Native name, Ushi-no-tsurao, bora (bull's mouth 
shell). 1 shell, mature ; 1 half-grown. 

Purpura persica Linn, var.* Kobashima. 

Purpura mancinella liinn.* Loo Choo Is. 

Purpura (Thalessa) armigera Chem. 

Called in Loo Choo Konpeto-Gai (konpeto meaning sweet-meats). 
10 shells. 

Purpura (Thalessa) hippocastaneum L., var. sulcata Desh. 
From Hirame Jima Is. 17 shells. 

lopas sertum Brug. Tryon, Man. Vol. II, p. ISO, pi. 55, fig. 189. 

Yaeyama. 1 live shell. 

Ricinula histrix Lam. 

Loo-Choo Is. 8 shells with rather light pink aperture, 10 with 
darker. 

Ricinula horrida Lam. 

Yaeyama. Called Ushi no-guchi, momo, meaning bull's mouth 
shell. 6 with apertures dark purple, 9 with apertures somewhat 
lighter. 



170 LOO CHOO MOLLUSK8. 

Bioinala araohnoides Lam. = K. ricinus Linn. 

Yaeyama. Called Ushi-no-guchi, momo, meaning bull's mouth 
shell. 5 shells. 

Sistrum ooncatenatum Lam.* Loo Choo Is. 

TBITONIDJE. 

Triton tritonis Linn. (= T. variegatus Linn.) Tryon, Man. Vol. 3, p. 9, pi. 3-5, fige. 
16-25. 

Yaeyama. 10 shells, full-grown ; 25 smaller (very fine live 
shells). 

Triton nodiferus Lam. Tryon, Man. Vol. 3, p. 10, pi. 1, fig. 3; pi. 3, fig. 417. 

Yaeyama. 2 live shells. 

Triton (Simpulum) pilearis Linn, (var.) Tryon, Man. Vol. 3, p. 12, pi. 6, figs. 31- 
36. 

Yaeyama. 11 live shells. 
Triton (Gutternium) tuberosus Lam.* 

Yaeyama. Native name, Ushi-no-hana, bora (bull's nostril shell). 
4 live shells. 

Triton (Lotorium) clavator Chemn. = T. esilis Rve. Tryon, Man. Vol. 3, p. 21, fig. 
86. 

Yaeyama. 1 young shell. 

Triton (Cymatium) pyrum Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 3, p. 19, pi. 11, fig. 79; pi. 10, 
fig. 76. 

Yaeyama. 1 living adult shell. 
Ranella (Lampas) bufonia Gmel. (var.). Tryon, Man. Vol. 3, p. 39, pi. 21, fig. 68. 

Yaeyama. 7 live shells. 
Ranella albivaricosa Rve. Tryon, Man. Vol. 3, p. 38, pi. 18, fig. 6. 

Yaeyama. 1 live shell. 
Ranella (Lampas) lampas Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. I, p. 38, pi. 19, fig. 12. 

Yaeyama. 5 shells typical. 5 shells with lighter colored aper- 
ture, perhaps only older shells. 
Ranella (Lampas) granifera Lam. Tryon, Man. Vol, 3, p. 41, pi. 22, fig. 35. 

Yaeyama. 1 live shell. 

CASSIDID.ff:. 
Cassis rufa Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 2. p. 273, pi. 3. fig. 57. 

Yaeyama. 2 fine live shells. 



LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 171 

Cassis glauoa Lam. Nago Is, 

Var. near C. coronulata Sby., except that it is continuously banded 

longitudinally. 9 live shells. 

Cassis vibex Linn. (= C. torquata Rve.) Tryon, Man. Vol. 2, p. 277, pi. 7, fig. 89, 
90, 92, 93. 

Yaeyama. Native name, Yauaki-M5m6 (night-crying shell). 12 
live shells. 
Cassis coronulata. 

Nago Is. 1 live mature shell. 

Oniscia exquisita Ad. Rve. (= 0. ponderosa Hanley) Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 282,. 
pi. 8, fig. 100. 

Yaeyama. 1 shell. 

Dolium perdix Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 264, pi. 3, fig. 15. 

Hirame Jima. Native name, Udsura-gai (quail shell). Also 1 
full-grown shell from Yaeyama. 26 shells, 3^' to 2f'. 

Dolium costatum Mke. (var.) Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 263, pi. 4, fig. 19. 

Itoma Jima Is. 1 young shell. 

Dolium costatum Mke, var. maculatum Lam. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 264, pi. 4, 
fig. 21. 

Itoma Jima Is. Native name, Ki gai (interest shell). 2 live shells, 
not adult. 

Dolium pomum Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 265, pi. 5, fig. 26. 

Yaeyama. Native name, Ki-gai (interest shell). 10 young shells, 
1 to 11 inch long. 
Dolium melanostoma Jay. 

Yaeyama. 1 very young shell. 

CYPR.a:iD.a:. 

Cypraea (Luponia) tigris Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 180, pi. 11, figs. 49-50. 

Itoma Jima Is. 

Over 100 very fine live shells, which I have separated into no less 
than 15 well-marked color varieties. They vary from very light 
cream-color, body sparsely blotched with brownish-black spots, to 
others which are deeply mottled like tortoise shell. 

There are also a number of immature shells of various sizes. 
These specimens are incomparably finer in polish and lustre than 
specimens of tliis species usually imported in bulk, and which are 
much scratched and without lustre. 

Native name, Hibi-bora ; Japanese name, Neko-gai (or cat shell). 



172 LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 

Cypraea talpa Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 167, pi. :5, figs. ."il-S-S. 

Kudaka Is. 10 fine live shell.*, 72 mm. and smaller and 3 beach- 
worn. 

Cypraea argus Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 161, pi. 1, figs. 1-2. 
Kudaka Is. 1 very fine live shell, 6 era. 

Cypraea Isabella Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, ]>. 165. jil. 1, figs. 6-7. 

Kudaka Is. 5 fine large shells, 4 poor and bleached. 

Cypraea carneola Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 166, pi. 8, figs. 26-.30, 

Kudaka Is. 12 fine live shells. 

Cypraea (Aricia) caput-serpentis Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 173, pi. 6, figs. 28, 
51 i), 100. 

Kudaka Is. 131 fine live shells. Several varieties of marking. 
Cypraea (Aricia) caput-anguis Phil. Tryon. Man. Vol. 7, p. 173, pi. 23, fig. h9. 

Kudaka Is. 10 fine live shells. 
Cypraea (Aricia) mauritiana Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 173, pi. 7, figs. 8-11. 

Kudaka Is. 31 mature fine live shells, with three styles of varietal 
marking. 
Cypraea (Aricia) arabica Linn. Tryon. Man. Vol. 7, p. 177, pi. 8, fig. 24. 

139 fine live shells (typical). 

Cypraea (Aricia) annulus Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 178, pi. 11, figs. 60-61. 

Kudaka Is. 33 fine live shells. 
Cypraea (Aricia) moneta Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 177, pi. 10. fig. 40. 

Kudaka Is. Light yellow variety. 3 dark bands across the back ; 
50 fine live shells. 

Cypraea (Aricia) moneta Linn.* Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 177, pi. 11, figs. 51-52. 

Kudaka Is. Fine deep-yellow variety ; 50 fine live shells. 
Cypraea (Luponia) vitellus Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 182, pi. 1.3, figs. 72-73. 

Kudaka Is. 52 fine live shells, with considerable variety in 
marking. 
Cypraea (Luponia) lynx Linn.* Tryon^ Man. Vol. 7, p. 183, pi. 14, figs. 86-87. 

Kudaka Is. 24 fine live shells. 
Cypraea onyx Linnt".* Loo Choc Is. 
Cypraea (Luponia) errones Linn.*' Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 183, pi. 14, fig. 7. 

Kudaka Is. 30 live shells. 
Cypraea (Luponia) erosa Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 192, pi. 18, figs. 100-101. 

Kudaka Is. 4 live shells. 



LOO CHOO M0LLUSK8. 173 

Cypraea (Luponia) helvola Linn. 

Kudaka Is. 2 live shells, 
Cypraea (Luponia) asellus Linn. 

Kudaka Is. 1 full-grown shell and 3 smaller. 

Cypraea cylindrica Born.* Kudaka Is. , 

Cyprae (Pustularia) staphylea Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 197, pi. 20, fig. 44. 

Kudaka Is. 1 live shell. 
Cypraea (Epona) cioercula Linn. 

Kudaka Is. Native name, Koyasiu-Kai (little shell). 2 live 
shells. 

OVULID^. 
Ovula ovum Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 246, p. 1, figs. 11-12. 

Hirame Jima. 8 fine live shells. 

STROMBID.ffi;. 

Strombus lentiginosus Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 110, pi. 3, figs. 2.3-24. 

Yaeyama. Native name, Ushi-no-m5mo (bull's nose shell). 31 
live shells. 

Strombus latissimus Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. Ill, pi. .3, fig. 27. 

Katsuren Jima. 3 fine live shells. 

Strombus costatus Gmel. var. inerrais Swains. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 108, pi. 1, 
fig. 8. 

Ohon-me Is. Native name, Yonaki-momu (night crying shell). 1 
live mature shell, 14 cm. x 8 cm. 

Strombus canarium Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 110, pi. 2, figs. 18-20. 

Kobashima. 33 live shells, several varietal markings. 

Strombus urceus Linn. var. sanatellus Duel. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 118, pi. 6, figs. 
65, 66, 67. 

Kudaka Is. Native name, Hibi-Bora. 30 live shells. 

Strombus luhuanus Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 122, pi. 8, fig. 91. 

Kudaka Is. 2 live shells. 
Strombus aratrum Martyn* [pacificus Swains). 

Itoma-Jima Is. Native name, Asagi-Kai. 9 fine live shells. 
Strombus aurisdianae Linn.* Itoma-Jima Is. 
Strombus aurisdianae var. laevis Perry.* Itoma-Jima Is. 



174 LOO CHOO M0LLU8KS. 

Pterocera bryonia (Jiuel. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 124, pi. 8, fig. 14; pi. 9, fig. 8. 

Katsuren Jima Is. 5 shells, 3, 12" long aud 2 younger. Native 
name, Nanatsu-Maimai (seven horned shell). The Japanese name 
is Kumo-Gai (or spider-web shell). 

Pterocera lambis Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 124, pi. 8, figs. 1-3. 

Katsuren Jima Is. 41 adult shells. Native name, Nanatsu- 
Maimai (seven-horned shell). Japanese name, Kumo-Gai (or spider- 
web shell). Also 41 full-grown but not large. Also 17 small or a 
smaller variety with brilliant dark chocolate cloudings on the back, 
and 10 young shells, half-grown, with spines just started. Also 50 
young shells, without the last spread-whorl or horns. 

Pterocera rugosa Shy. Tryon, Man. Vol. 7, p. 126, pi. 10, fig. 12. 

Katsuren Jima Is. 35 shells. Alladultexcept 5 young; 2 of the 
adult shells have very much darker pinkish apertures than the 
others. 
Seraphs terebellum Linne.* Loo Choo Is. 

CEBITHIID.S:. 
Cerithium nodulosum Brug. Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 122, pi. 20, fig. 15. 

Kaboshima Is. 34 live shells, the largest species of the family. 
Cerithium echinatum Lam. Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 123, pi. 20, fig. 274. 

Kudaka Is. Native name, Chiu-Bora. 7 live mature shells. 
Cerithium tuberculatum Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 133, pi. 24, fig. 25. 

Yaeyama. 13 live shells. 
Cerithium columna Sby. Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 123, pi. 20, fig. 19. 

Yaeyama. 3 live shells. 

Cerithium morus var. moniliferum Dufresne. Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 133, pi. 24, 
fig. 35. 

Yaeyama. 1 live shell. 

Cerithium rubus Mart. Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 131, p. 23, fig. 4. 

Yaeyama. 1 shell. 

Clava (Vertagus) vertagus Linn. White var. Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 149, pi. 29, 
fig. 69. 

Katsuren Jima. Native name, Shiro-ji-tsu-tan, bora. 14 live 

shells. 

Clava (Vertagus) vertagus Linn. Chestnut-colored var. Fig. 70 of pi. 29. 

Katsuren Jima. 7 live shells. 



LOO CHOO MOLLUSK8. 175 

Potamides telesoopium Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 161, pi. 33, fig. 56. 

Yaeyama. 2 small shells, 4 era. 

Potamides (Aphanistylus) sinensis Phil. Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 164, pi. 34, fig. 
97. Yaeyama Is. 

Cerithium morns Lam. var. rugosum Wood. Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 134, pi. 24, fig. 
47. 



Yaeyama. 1 shell. 

rithium (Liooerithum) 
32. 

Yaeyama. 3 shells. 



€erithium (Liooerithum) piperitum Sby, Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 144, pi. 27, fig. 
32. 



VERMETID.S:. 
Thylacodes dentiferus Lam. (?).* Yaeyama. 
Petaloconchus sp. undet.* Loo Chools. 
Siphonium maximum Sowb.* Yaeyama. 

LITTORINID.ffi:. 

Littorina (Melaraphe) ziczac Chem. (var.). Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 251, pi. 45, 

figs. 5-7. 

Yaeyama. 48 living shells, found with a lot of Melarapus. 
Littorina littoralis Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 242, pi. 41, figs. 5-8. 

Yaeyama. 10 live shells. 

Littorina scabra Linn. var. filosa Sby. Tryon, Man. Vol. 9, p. 244, pi. 42, fig. 28. 

Yaeyama. 
Hchinella cumingi Phil.* Yaeyama. 

SOLARIID.£. 
Solarium cingulum Kien.* Nago Is. 
Solarium hybridum Linn.* Nago Is. 

CYCLOPHORID.ffi;. 

Cyclophorus turgidus Pfr.* 

Miya-Kojima ; Yaeyama. The shells from the locality first men- 
tioned above are typical, agreeing well with the figures in the Conch- 
ylien Cabinet. The specimens from Yaeyama diflfer in having the 
peripheral keel almost, or in some specimens wholly, obsolete. 

Leptopoma vitreum Less.* Yaeyama. 
Cyclotus taivanus H. Adams.* 

Miya Kojima Is. A single specimen, apparently not difiering 
from this Formosan species. 



176 LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 

TRUNCATELLID^. 
Truncatella valida Pfr. Yaeyama* 

HIPPONYCID^. 
Hipponyx australis Quoy.* 

NATICID^. 

Natica sagraiana Linn. (var.). Tryon, Man. Vol. 8, p. 11), pi. 3, fig. near fig. 45. 

Yaeyama. 19 shells, mostly small. 
Natica vitellus Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 8, p. 29, pi. 8, fig. 60. 

Yaeyama. The figure does not fairly represent this species. 5 
live shells, 30 mm. long x 27 mm. 
Natica oMnensis Lam. Tryon, Man. Vol. 8, p. 20, pi. 3, fig. 53. 

Yaeyama. 40 shells, mostly young. 
Natica adamsiana Dkr. (var.). Tryon, Man. Vol. 8, p. 27. 

Yaeyama. Larger and unlike in coloring the typical figure 46, 
pi. 8. Light olivaceous brown ; 6 banded in different shades. 
Length 37 ram. by 29 ram. width, 8 shells, live and with opercula, 
28 dead, without. 

Polynices (Mamma) dubia Reel. (var.). Tryon, Man. Vol. 8, p. 47, pi. 16, very 
near fig. 60. 

Kobashiraa. 10 fine live shells, various stages of growth, without 
opercula. 

Polynices (Mamma) mamilla Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 8, p. 49, pi. 16, fig. 46. 

Yaeyaraa. 4 shells. 
Polynices (Mamma) aurantia Lam. 

Yaeyama. Sraall, light yellow variety. The callus and umbili- 
cus like fig. 40, pi. 15, Tryon, Man. Vol. 8, p. 42. 110 fine live 
shells 29 mra.x22mra., with opercula; a beautiful and distinct 
variety. 
Polynices (Mamilla) melanostoma Gml. Tryon, Man. Vol. 8, p. 50, pi. 21, fig. 14. 

Yona-Guni Is. 17 live shells, the largest 45 ram. x 33 rara. 
Polynices fiemingianus Reel.* 
Sigaretus planulatus Reel. Tryon, Man. Vol. 8, p. 58, pi, 25, figs. 75-77. 

Yaeyama. 1 live shell. 

lANTHINIDJE, 
lanthina communis Lam.''- 



LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 177 

PYRAMIDELLID^. 
Pyramidella sulcata A. Ad. 
Yaeyama. 6 live shells. 

Pyramidella (Otopleura) mitralis A. Ad.«- 
Yaeyama, 2 live shells. 

NERITID.S;. 
Nerita 'Odontostoma) polita Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p. 30, pi. 6-7. 

Yaeyama. Many varieties and coloring. Native name, Tsume- 
Gai (nail shell). 2000 fine live shells. 

Nerita (Odontostoma) picea Reel. Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p. 3.3, pi. 9, fig. 52. 
Yaeyama. 100 live shells. 

Nerita (Odontostoma) ascensionis Chem. (?). Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p. 31, pi. 7, 
fig. 27. 

The only difference between this shell and the type as figured is 
that the area is slightly wrinkled. 

Nerita albicilla Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p. 19, pi. 2, figs. 21-26. 

Yaeyama. Several color varieties with opercula. 69 live shells. 

Nerita chameleon Linn. var. squamulata LeGuillon. Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p. 20, 
pi. 2, figs. 34-36. 

Yaeyama. 3 shells. 
Nerita albicilla Linn. (var.). 

Yaeyama. 4 live shells. 
Nerita turrita Chem. Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p. 37, pi. 11, fig. 2. 

Yaeyama. 2 live shells. 

Nerita (Pila) undata Linn. var. funiculata Rve. Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p. 29, pi. 7, 
fig. 30. 

Yaeyama. 2 shells. 
Nerita helicinoides Rve. var. laevilabris n. var.* PI. IV, fig. 32. 

Shell obliquely globose-turbinate, mu 1 til irate, lirse 18-20 on body- 
whorl, the lower 3 or 4 nearly obsolete ; buff" or whitish, encircled 
by three bands of black variegation alternating with similar rose- 
dotted zones ; on some specimens the black replaced by rose. Spire 
elevated ; last whorl descending, appressed at suture, concave below 
it. Aperture oblique, outer lip prolonged above, bevelled to an 
edge inside, margin yellow with dark dots, within this strongly 
thickened by a white smooth callus which is generally subtruncate 
12 



178 LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 

or most weakly unidentate above. Area flat, smooth, yellow, the 
columellar edge with two slight submedian notches. Alt. 13, diam. 
13 ram. 

Operculum flat, having a closely granulose band around the outer 
edge, smooth or with very sparse granules in the middle and at 
])roxiraal end ; smoky or blackish-gray except at basal end which is 
Avhite, a paler streak extending up outer margin. Inside light yel- 
lowish proximally, olivaceous distally ; flat, rather thin, becoming 
slightly thicker toward straight margin, but the linear adhesion- 
scar impressed ; spiral process long ; basal process rugose or striated. 

Yaeyama. 300 specimens. 

Differs from helicinoides and its synonym pellis-serpentis in the 
completely smooth outer lip ; from affinis in the coloration, etc. 

Nerita hindsii Reel.* Yaeyama. 

Nerita undata var. leguillouana Reel. Yaeyama. 

Neritina ualanensis Less.* Yaeyama. 

Neritina (Clithon) sowerbyana Reel. Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, ]>. 07, pi. 24, fig. 45; 
pi. 2d, figs. 46-51. 

Yaeyama. 48 live shells with opercula. 

TURBINID.ffi:. 
Turbo marmoratus Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p. 191, pi. 4, fig. 2.3. 

Yaeyama. 12 fine large mature shells with opercula. Native 
name, Yako-Gai. 

Turbo (Batillus) cornutus Gmel. (Typical). Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p 210, pi. 43, 
fig. 60. 

Kudaka Is. 22 live shells, some with opercula. 
Turbo (Batillus) cornutus Gmel. (var.). 

Kudaka Is. 25 shells with opercula with but one row of tuber- 
cles instead of two as in the type and of smaller size. 

Turbo parvulus Phil.* Yaeyama. 

Turbo (Senectus) argyrostomus Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p. 197, pi. 40, fig. IS. 

Katsuren Jima. A var. with no elevated vaulted scales on lirse. 
19 live shells with opercula, 9 no opercula; also Kudaka Is. 47 
live shells, small size, without vaulted scales on the lirse; with and 
•without opercula ; also a var., Kudaka. 2 live shells, full-grown 
and with opercula, without vaulted scales on the lirse. 
Turbo imperialis Gml. Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p. 192, pi. 43, fig. 53. 

Yaeyama. 2 fine mature shells with opercula, more highly nod- 
ulated on the body whorl than in the figure. 



LOO CIIOO MOLLUSKS. 179 

Turbo petholatus Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p. 193, pi. 40, fig. 114. 

Yona-Guni Is. Color varieties, 5 shells with opercula and 3 with- 
out. 

Turbo (Marmorostoma) coronatus Gml. var. granulatus Gml. Tryon, Man. Vol. 
10, p. 27, pi. 45, fig. 18. 

Yaeyaraa. 150 shells with opercula, some similar to the figure, 
but moiit of them nodulated. 2 varieties. 

Turbo (Marmorostoma) porphyrites Mart. Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p. 215, pi. 50, 
fig. 58; pi. 42, fig. 39. 

Yaeyama. 2 live shells without opercula. 

Astralium (Bolma) modestum Hve. Tryon, Man. Vol. 19, p. 229, pi. 55, figs. 63- 
64. 

Yaeyama. 19 shells. Native name, Ishi-ni-tsiu (stone adhering 
shell). 

TROCHID.S;. 

Trochus niloticus Linn. Tryon, Man. Vol. 11, p. 17, pi. 1, figs. 5-8. 

Kobashima Is. 9 live shells with opercula. 
Trochus (Cardinalia) nodiferus Lam. Tryon, Man. Vol. 11, p. 22, pi. 3, fig. 18. 

Yaeyama. Smaller than the figure. 2 live shells, small var. 
Native name, Taka-jiri. 

Trochus (Cardinalia) triserialis Lam. Tryon, Man. Vol. 11, p. 21, pi. 4, figs. 30- 
31. 

Nago Is. 1 live shell. 

Trochus (Infundibulum) radiatus Gml. var. Tryon, Man. Vol. 11, p. 37, pi. 8, 
figs. 91, 92. 

Yona-guni Is. 1 live small shell. 

Trochus (Lamprostoma) maculatus Linn. (var.). Tryon, Man. Vol, 11, p. 24, pi. 

9, fig. 1. 

Ohon-me Is. Native name, Taka-jiri. 10 live shells without 
opercula. 

Trochus (Lamprostoma) tubiferus Kiener. Tryon, Man. Vol. 11, p. 31, pi. 6, figs. 
62, 63. 

Yona-guni Is. Native name, Yona-guni. 6 live shells, no oper- 
cula. 

Trochus (Lamprostoma) maculatus var. gibberula A. Ad. Tryon, Man. Vol. 11, 
p. 26, pi. 6, figs. 51-60. 

Kobashima Is. 1 live shell. 



180 LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 

Umbonium giganteum Less. 

Yaeyaraa. 122 shells, color variety C ; of color variety D 27 ; of 
color variety E (ater Pilsbry) 38 ; of color variety F 4 ; of color 
variety H 4 ; of color variety K (new or not before obtained, sur- 
face pinkish with brown blotches and clouds) 40 shells. 
Umbonium superbum Gld. 

Yaeyama. Color varieties. 15 shells. 
Ethalia guamense Quoy* 
Chrysostoma paradoxum Born.* 
Delphinula delphinula Linne* Tryon, Man. Vol. 10, p. 266, pi. 67, figs. 1, 2. 

Nago Is, 42 mature shells, no opercula. Native name, Fusa-kabe, 
bora. 

STOMATIID.ff:. 

Stomatia phymotis Helbling.* Ohon-me Is. 

HALIOTID^. 

Haliotis gigantea Chemn. 

Hirarae Jiraa Is. 4 large and 1 small shell. 
Haliotis (Padollus) ovina Chemn.* 

Kobashima Is. 16 large shells, and var., 1 shell. 
Haliotis (Teinotis) asinina Linn. 

Hirarae Jima Is. Native name, Awabi, 110 shells. 

ACM.EIDJE. 
Acmsea saccharina Linn.* Yaeyama. 

PATELLID^. 

Heloioniscus nigrosquamatus Rve.* 

Yaeyama. 58 live shells. Native name, Seuen-gai (may you 
live a thousand years shell). 

Heloioniscus testudinarius Linn.* Yaeyama. 

PELECYPODA. 

MACTBID^. 

Kactra maoulata Gmel.* Yaeyama. 
Treius nuttalli Conr. 

Yaeyama. 2 large, live shells. 



LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 181 

PSAMMOBIID^. 
Fsammobia elongata Lam.* Yaejama , Oshima. 
Asaphis violacea Forskal.* Kudaka Is. 
Asaphis deflorata Linni''.''' Yaej'aina; Kudaka Is. 

TELLINID.ffi;. 
Tellina staurella Lam.* 

Yaeyama. Native name, Luna-gai, beach sand-shell. 
Tellina staurella Lam. var. scalaris Lam.* Kobashima Is. 
Tellina virgata L. var. jubar Hanley.® Yaeyama. 
Tellina scobinata Linn.* Kudaka Is. 
Tellina perna Spengler.* Yaeyama. 
Tellina rugosa Born.* Yaeyama. 
Tellina chloroleuca Lam.* 

Yaeyama ; Kobashima Is. Native name, Luna-gai, beach sand- 
shell. 

Tellina sp.* Ohon-me Is. 

VENERID.S:. 
Venus reticulata Linn.* Yaeyama. 

Venus puerpera Linn.* Kobashima Is. ; Katsume-Jima. 
Venus listeri Gray.* Yaeyama. 
Cytherea castrensis Lino.* Yaeyama. 
Cytherea (Crista) gibba Linn.* Yona-Guni. 
Cytherea (Crista) pectinata Linn.* Kobashima Is. 
Cyclina sinensis Gmel.* Yaeyama. 
Tapes literata Linn.* Kudaka Is. 
Tapes literata var. punctata Chemn.* Kudaka Is. 
Tapes striata Chemn.* Yaeyama. 

TRIDACNID.a:. 
Tridacna squamosa Lam. 

Itoma Jima Is. 1 large shell, 13" long, 8" broad, 9" thick. Upon 
this are are growing 2 Chamn (sp. uudet). Native name, Aji-gai. 
Such shells are used in the Loo Choos for making domestic utensils. 
Tridacna gigas Lam. 

Itomo Jima Is. 1 large shell, 13" long, 9" broad, 8]" thick. Na- 
tive name, Aji-gai. 



182 LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 

Tridaona squamosa Lam. 

Itoma Jima Is. 13 young shells, 4" to Sh" long. 
Tridaona crocea Lam. (^ T. seapha Meusch.). 

Itoma Jima Is. 15 shells, from 5" in length down to 3>" 
Tridaona elongata Lam. 

Itoma Jima Is. 26 shells, 1-9" long, the rest from 6" down to 3" 
in length. Native name, Aji-gai, 

Tridaona elongata Lam. 

Yar. smaller than the type ; more elongated and carved at the 
basal opening. 13 specimens, from 6" to 3" long. 

Hippopus maculatus Lam. 

Itoma Jima. 9 shells, from 62" to 4" long. 

CARDIIDJE. 
Cardium flavum Linn.* 
Cardium rugosum Lam.® Yaeyama. 
Cardium (Serripes) muticum Rve. 

Yaeyama. 6 large shells. 
Hemicardium oardissa Linn. 

Hirame Jima Is. 47 fine live shells, from 7 cm. down to 4 cm. 
Native name, Avi-gai, so named after the leaf of the Avi plant, 
which is the crest of the Tycoon. 
Hemicardium unedo Linn.* Ohon-me Is. 

C0RBiD.a;. 

Corbis 

LTJCINIDiE. 
Lucina exasperata Reeve.-* 

Yaeyama Is., Loo Choo group. 

Shell externally like L. exasperata, hut less compressed, the diam- 
eter half the length, with wider lunule. Interior having the surface 
within the pallial impression most minutely roughened, outside of 
the pallial impression polished and shining. 

Length 80, width 74, diara. 40 mm. 

Length 50, width 40^, diam. 241 mm. 

Of this form, two specimens are before us, the smaller one from 
Okinawa Island (Yaeyama), the larger procured in Japan, locality 
unknown. The smaller shell is yellow within, with a white border. 



LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 183 

the hinge-margin red except the cartilage pit and the plate below it. 
The larger specimen is a very faint buff within the pallial line, with 
a faint pink tint on the hinge. 

Lucina interrupta Lam.* Kudaka Is. 
Lucina punctata Linn.* Yaeyama. 

CHAMID.3:. 
Chama semipurpurata Lisehke(?).« Oshima Is. 
Chama lazaras Lam.* Kudaka Is., Oshima Is. 
Chama divaricata Rve.* Kudaka Is. ; Oshima Is. 

CYRENID.S:. . 
Corbicula sp. undet.* Yaeyama. 
Cyrena fissidens n. sp. PI. VIII, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell resembling C. sinuosa as figured by Clessin (Conch. Cab., 
pi, 45, f. 1), but the posterior lateral tooth and corresponding pit 
much slender and somewhat longer, the posterior cardinal tooth in 
right valve split by a sulcus much broader than the space between 
the posterior and the next adjacent cardinal teeth. Valves orbi- 
cular, very convex, lightly wrinkle striate, and covered with a black 
cuticle. Posterior slope depressed, with a radiating wide and shal- 
low furrow, rendering the margin slightly emarginate. Dorsal, 
anterior and basal margins well rounded ; posterior margin obliquely 
subtruncate. Length 86, breadth 77, diam. 49 mm. 

Yaeyama Is., Loo Choo group. A single specimen collected. 

Cyrena luchuana n. sp. PI. IX, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell large, inequilateral, oblong, the anterior end short, broadly 
rounded, posterior end long, produced, and squarely truncated ; 
basal margin gently arcuate, dorsal margin narrowly rounded at the 
beaks, the anterior slope short and nearly straight, posterior slope 
long, rectilinear. Valves strong, convex, the posterior dorsal area 
flat or concave, bounded by a blunt angle, another obtuse angle 
extending from beaks to lower-posterior extremity. Interior white, 
stained with buff-olive on the hinge. Cardinal teeth bifid ; ante- 
rior lateral very short and strong ; posterior lateral long, remote 
from cardinals. Cuticle dull brown, with a yellow under color, ir- 
regularly wrinkle-striate, laraellose behind, and less so over the 
whole disk. Length 94, breadth 72, diam, 47 mm. 

Yaeyama Is., Loo Choo group (Frederick Stearns). 



184 LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 

Cyrena yaeyamensis n. sp* PI. VIII, fig. 7: pi. IX, fig. 6. 

Shell shorter than the preceding, being less produced posteriorly, 
the posterior surface not so distinctly angular, posterior truncation 
less marked ; anterior lateral tooth not so sliort. Anterior dorsal 
slope of hinge line straight, posterior dorsal slope slightly convex. 
Color and sculpture as in luchuana, except that there is usually 
some oblique corrugation of the posterior slope. Length 75, breadth 
63, diam. 36 mm. 

Yaeyama Is., Loo Choo group (Frederick Stearns). 

This may prove to be a form of Cyrena papua, or of C. buschii 
Phil., of China, but it is more triangular, with the posterior margin 
more produced. 

MYTILID.ff:. 

Mylilus crassitesta Lischke.* Yaeyama. 
Modiola philippinarum Hanley.* 

LIMID.a:. 

Lima lima Linn.* Yaeyama. 

SPONDYLID.E. 
Spondylus ducalis Chemn.* Ilirama Jima Is. 
Spondylis sinensis Sowb. ■■ Ilirama .Jima Is. 

osTR.ffi:iD.a:. 

Ostraea rivularis lild. (?)■■ Yaeyama. 
Ostrsea cucuUata Born.* Yaeyama. 
Ostraea hyotis Linn. Yaeyama. 
Ostraea denselamellosa Lischke.* Yaeyama. 
Ostraea cristagalli Linn.* Yaeyama. 

PTERIID.ffi;. 
Pteria macroptera Lam.* 

Throughout the Loo Choo group (Stearns). 

Some of the specimens collected attain great size, rivalling M. 
margaritlfera. 

Pteria cochenhauseni Dkr.* (=A. flammata Reeve ? ) Itoma .Jima Is. 
Pteria meleagridis (Spengl.) Chemn.* Itoma Jima Is. 
Perna (Meleagrina) margaritifera Linn.* Yaeyama. 
Malleus regula I'orsk.* Yaeyama. 



LOO CHOO MOLLUSKS. 



185 



Malleus vulgaris Lam. 

In this species the valves are serpentine in their length. 

Malleus albus Lam. 

Yaeyama. In this species the valves are straighter than in the 
other. Altogether 21 fine specimens. 

PERNID.ffi:. 
Perna acutirostris Dkr. •■ Yaeyama. 
Perna isognomum Linn.® Yaeyama. 
Perna costellata Conr.* Yaeyama. 

PINNID-E. 
Pinna nigrina Lam.* 

ARCID.^:. 
Area scapha Chemn.* Yaeyama. 
Area (Scapharca) subcrenata Lisehke.* Itoma Jimals. 



ERRATA. 



P. 10. Add the following : 
Haminea binotata n. sp. 

Shell cylindric-oval, hardly wider below, truncated above, rounded 
beneath, thin, but rather solid, ruddy-corneous, with a small opaque- 
white spot at each end, that at apex bounded below, that at colu- 
mella, above, by an opaque orange or reddish tract, appearing only 
on the latter part of the whorl. Surface polished, with excessively 
fine and close spiral stria, and rather coarse growth wrinkles. 
Aperture rather narrow, moderately enlarged below. Outer lips 
rising slightly above the vertex, but by no means high-arched. Col- 
umella concave, short, with a lunate, reflexed, but free, not adherent, 
flange, but not fold. Apex closed or subperforate. Alt. 11, diam. 
7 mm. 

Yaeyama, Loo Choo Is. (Stearns). 
Haminea binotatavar. Japonica n. v. 

Shell like the above in coloration and sculpture, but smaller, thin 
and fragile, more swollen, the reflexed coluniellar callus thinner and 
adnate to body. Alt. 9, diam. 62 mm. 



186 LOO CHOO M0LLUSK8. 

Nemoto, Boshiu (Stearns). 

P. 13. Add the following: 
Conus flavidus Lamarck. Tryon Man. Conch. VI, p. 44. 

Japan, exact locality unknown (Stearns). The specimens are 
more square-shouldered than typical flavidus, in form and coloring 
more like Reeve's suryiUatus, but I do not doubt their specific iden- 
tity. It has not before been reported from Japan. 

P. 16. Columbarium pagoda was collected by Stearns in the la- 
land Sea near Awaji. 

P. 25. Add : 

Mitra (Scabricola.) pundolirata A. Ad. Goto. Is. (Adams). 

Mitra (Scabricola) Isabella Swains. (+ morchii Ad. and herklot- 
siana Dohrn), Tryon, Manual, IV, p. 137. 

P. 49. Oniscia. The name of this genus should stand Lambi- 
DiuM, as Smith has shown, Journal of Malacology, iv, p. 14. 

P. 53. For " Volvala " read Volva. 

P. 73. Add above Adeurbiidce the following : 

Lamellariidoe. 

Lamellaria punctata Stirapson. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 
1855, p. 378. Oushima (Stimp.). Described as Coriocella, 
P. 98. Add : 

Fhotinula (?) qucesita A. Adams. Man. Conch, XI, p. 281. 
Aniwa Bay. Tatiyama, Kiuo-o-sima, 17 fms. (Ad). 
P. 159. Add the following Unionidce: 
Unio Japanensis Lea. Paddy fields near Tokyo. 
Unio nipponensis Martens. Paddy fields near Kamakura. 
Dipsas plicatus Sol. Rice paddy fields, near Yokohama. 
Dipsas Reinianus Mart. Paddy fields near Yokohama. 
Anodonta cellensis Schrot. Odelawara. 
Anodonta Japoniea Martens. Paddy fields near Sagama. 
Anodonta Woodiana Lea. Rice paddy fields near Yokohama. 



INDEX TO GENERA AND SUBGENERA. 



A 




Astraliura, 




89, 179 




Atilia, 




. 


39 


Acanthochites, . 


. 115 


Atys, 




^ 


\, 160 


Acila, 


. 151 


Auriculina, 




. 


85 


Aclis, 


. 76 


Avicula, . 






146 


Acmsea, . 


110, 180 


Axiuus, . 






133 


Action, . 


7 










Actseopyramis, , 


. 84 


R 






Acusta, . 


. 163 


. 


u 






Adeorbis, . 


. 73 


Barnea, 






116 


Admete, . 


. 22 


Basilissa, . 






96 


Adula, 


. 140 


Basterotia, 






118 


Aegista, . 

Aesopus, . 


157, 163 
. 40 


Bathybembyx, 
Batillus, . 




*. 97 
88. 178 


Agadina, . 


5 


Bela, 






19 


Alaba, 
Alcyna, . 

4 1 * 1 


. 65 
. 95 

8 


i>e}u%.T=:^Bathybembex. 




Bertinia, . 






11 


Alicula, , 


Bittium, . 




56, 57 


Alvania, . 


66 


Bolraa, 




89. 179 


Aruatliis, . 


82 


Buccinum, 
Bulbus, . 
Bulla, 






1 


Amaura, . 
Amaurella, 


. 72 
. 79 




OL 

. 46 
10. 160 


Amusium, 


. 145 


Bullina, . 






7, 160 


Amycla, . 


40 










Anatina, . 


. 138 










Ancilla, . 


. 24 


c 






Ancillaria=^ AnciWa. 












Angulus, . 


. 124 


Csecella, . 






118 


Anodonta, 


. 186 


Calliostoma, 






99 


Anoraia, . 


. 141 


Callista, . 






127 


Apicalia, . 


. 79 


Callistochiton, 






114 


Aplysia, . 


. 10 


Caniitia, . 






100 


Area, 


147, 185 


Cancellaria, 






. 21 


Architeuthis, . 


4 


Cantharidus, 






95 


Archytsea, 


. 73 


Cantharus, 






33 


Arcopagia, 


. 124 


Capulus, . 






. 69 


Argonauta, 


1, 160 


Cardilia, . 






118 


Asaph is, . 


. 122, 181 


Cardiomya, 






136 


Aspergillum, . 


. 136 


Cardita, . 






. 134 


Assiminea, 


. 69 


Cardium, . 




'. 13 


1, 182 



(187) 



188 



INDEX. 



Cassis, 

Cavolinia, 

Cerithiopsis, 

Cerithiuni, 

Cerostoma, 

Chietopleura, 

Chama, . 

Chione, 

Chiton, 

Chlorostoma, 

Clirysallida, 

Chrysodomus, 

Chrysostoma, 

Cingulina, 

Circe, 

Citharopsis, 

Collonia, . 

Conradia, 

Corhula, . 

Clanculus, 

Clathurella, 

Clausilia, . 

Clava, . 

Clavagella, 

Clavatula, 

Cleraentia, 

Clio, 

Clithou, . 

Coelopoma, 

Columbarium, 

Columbella, 

Cominella, 

Couus, 

Coralliophaga, 

Coralliophila, 

Corbicula, 

Coutbouya, 

Crania, 

Cranopsis, 

Crassatella, 

Crassatellites, 

Crenella, . 

Crepidula, 

Creseis, 

Crossea, . 

Cryptochiton, 

Cryptogramma, 

Cryptomya, 



48, 



55, 



134, 



9 



3, 



157, 
56, 



170 
5 

57 
174 

43 
113 
183 
128 
115 

93 

82 

28 
180 

87 
128 

20 

90 

64 
117 

93 

20 
163 
174 
136 

19 
127 
5 
178 
158 
185 
169 

32 

13, 164, 186 
136 

45 
183 

64 
154 
109 
135 
135 
141 

70 
5 

76 
115 
128 
118 



16, 



159, 



Cucullffia, 




151 


Cultellus, 




120 


Cuspidaria, 




136 


Cuvierina, 


, 


5 


Cyclina, . 


126, 


181 


Cyclophorus, . 


158, 


175 


Cyclostrema, 


. 


102 


Cylotus, . 


158, 


175 


Cylichna, 




9 


Cyliudromitra, 




26 


Cyllene, . 




32 


Cyphoma, 




53 


Cyprsea, . 


50, 


171 


Cyrena, . 


. 


183 


Cyrilla, . 




150 


Cytherea, 




181 


D 






Daphnella, 




21 


Delpbiuula, 


91, 


180 


Deutalium, 




115 


Desmoulea, 




37 


Diala, 




65 


Diplodonta, 




132 


Dipsas, 




186 


Discinisca, 




154 


Distorsio, . 




47 


Distortrix, 




47 


Dolabella, 




10 


Dolium, . 


; 49 


171 


Donacilla, 




118 


Donax, 




121 


Dosinia, . 




125 


Drillia, . 




16 


Dunkeria, 




87 



Eastonia, . 
Ebala, . 
Eburna, . 
Ecliinella, 
Eglisia, . 
Elusa, 

Emarginula, 
Endopleura, 
Engina, . 



. 120 

. 76 
34, 168 
62, 175 
76 
82 
109 
123 
40 



INDEX. 



189 



Enida, 
Entodesma, 
Erato, 
Erodona, . 
Ervillia, . 
Ethalia, . 
Euchelus, 
Eudesia, . 
Euhadra, 
Euliiua, . 
Eulimella, 
Eulota, 
Euthria, . 
Evalea, . 



. 96 
. 137 
. 52 
. 117 
. 118 

100, 180 
. 99 
. 152 

155, 161 
. 77 
. 86 

155, 161 
. 33 
. 85 



H 



Haliotis, . 

Harainea, . 

Harpa, 

Helcioniscus, 

Helicina, . 

Helix, 

Hemicardium, 

Hemifusus, 

Hipponyx, 

Hippopus, 

Hnxleya, . 

Hyalocylix, 

Hydatina, 



105, 180 

10, 185 

24, 166 

112, 180 

. 15S 

155, 161 

. 182 

27, 168 

70, 176 

130, 182 

. 150 

5 

10, 161 



Fasciolaria, 
Felania, . 
Fenella, . 
Fissuridea, 
Fossariua, 
Fossarus, . 
Fusus, 



G 



Galeomma, 
Ganesella, 
Gastrana, . 
Gastrochsena, . 
Gena, 
Genotia, , 
Gemma, . 
Gibbula, . 
Glaucomya, 
Glomus, . 
Glyciraeris, 
G'/t//?/ii's=Fissuridea. 
Glyph ostoma, . 
Gomphina, 
Gonatus, . 
Gotoina, . 
Gouldia, . 
Guildfordia, 
Gyrineum, 



27, 166 
133 
68 
109 

62 
64 
26, 166 



. 131 
157, 161 
124 
117 
105 

16 
130 

95 
125 
150 
117 

20 

130 

4 

65 
128 

89 

47 



lacra, 

lanthina, . 

Infundibulum, 

Inioteuthis, 

loJpea, 

lopas, 

Iravadia, . 

Isapis, 

Ischnochiton, 

Ischnoradsia, 

Ismenia, . 

Isocardia, 



Jouannetia, 



Kellia, . 
Kleinella, 



K 



. 123 

74, 176 

92, 179 

1 

. 76 

45, 169 

. 68 

. 64 

. 114 

. 114 

. 153 

. 130 



117 



Lachesis, 

Lacuna, 

Lagena, 



131 

87 



. 19 
62, 63 

27, 168 



190 



INDEX. 



Laraellaria, 

Laniprostoma, 

Laqueus, . 

Lasea, 

Latirus, . 

Leda, 

Leiostraca, 

Lepeta, 

Lepidopleurus, 

Leptoconchus, 

Lepton, . 

Leptoraya, 

Leptopoma, 

Leptothyra, 

Leucotiua, 

Lima, 

Limacina, 

Liransea, . 

Limopsis, . 

Lingula, . 

Li conch a, 

Liolophura, 

Liothyrina, 

Liotia, 

Lippistes, 

Lischkeia, 

Lithophaga, 

Littorina, 

Loligo, 

Loligopsis, 

Loripes, . 

Lucina, 

Lucinopsis, 

Lutraria, . 

Lyonsia, . 

Lyria, 



M 



Macoma, . 
Macrodon, 
ISIacroschisraa, 
Mactra, . 
Malletia, . 
Malleus, . 
Malvufundus, 
Mangilia, 



. 186 
92, 179 
153 
132 
27, 168 
151 
77 
111 
113 
46 
132 
123 
175 
89 
7 

142, 184 
4 

158, 161 

150 

154 

127 

115 

152 

92 

104 

99 

140 

61, 175 

3 

4 

133 

133, 182 

126 

120 

137 

24 



. 124 
. 151 

. 106 
118, 180 

. 151 
147, 184 

. 147 

. 19 



JNIargarita, 


. 98 


Margiuella, 
Marniorostoma, 


. 24 

89, 179 


Martesia, . 


. 117 


Megateutliis, . 

Megasella, 

Melanipus, 


4 
. 153 

158, 161 


IMelania, . 


. 158 


INIeleagrina, 
Menestho, 


147, 184 

. 87 


Meretrix, . 


. 126 


Merope, . 
Minolia, . 


. 120 

. 97 


Miralda, . 


. 86 


Mitra, . . 2 


5, 166, 186 


INIodelia, . 


. 89 


Modiola, . 


139, 184 


Modiolaria, 


. 140 


Monilea, . 


96, 97 


Monodonta, 


. 93 


Montacuta, 


. 132 


Mopalia, . 
Mormula, 


. 115 

. 83 


Mucronalia, 


. 79 


Mumiola, 


. 84 


Murex, 


. 41, 169 


Mya, 
Myodora, 
M yon era. 


. 118 
. 138 
. 136 


Myrtsea, . 
Mysia, 
Mytilus, . 


. 134 

. 133 

. 139, 184 



N 



Nassa, 

Nassaria, . 

Natica, 

Nautilus, . 

Nerita, 

Neritina, . 

Niphonia, 

Niso, 

Nucula, . 

Kuculina, 

Nuttallina, 



34, 168 

. 34 

71, 176 

4 

87, 177 

88, 178 
104 

79 
151 
150 
114 



INDEX. 



191 



o 



Ocinebra, . 




42 


Octopus, . 




1 


Odontostomia, . 




84 


Oligotoma, 




19 


Oliva, 


'• 22, 


166 


Olivella, . 




23 


Ommastreplies, 




4 


Oiiiscia, . 


49, 171, 


186 


Onoba, 




66 


Oriua, 




82 


Orthomesus, 




91 


Oscilla, . 




82 


Ostrpea, . 


'. '. 145, 


184 


Ovula, . 


. 52, 


173 



Pacliypoma, 

Pandora, . 

PapLia, . 

Parapholas, 

Parmophorus — 

Parthenia, 

Patella, . 

Pecten, 

Pectunculus, 

Peristernia, 

Perna, 

Petaloconclius, 

Petricola, . 

Petrojjonia, 

Phasianella, 

Phenacolepas, 

Philine, . 

Pholas, 

Phos, 

Phyllaplysia, 

Pinna, 

Pisania, , 

Placenta, , 

Placiphorella, 

Placunanomia, 

Planaxis, 

Planorbis, 

Plectotropis, 



Scut 



us. 



14 



14 



15 



89 
138 
118 
117 

85 
112 
143 
150 

27 
7, 185 
175 
125 

90 

90 

110 

9 

116 

34 

11 
7, 185 

33 
142 
115 
142 

58 

158 

7, 163 



Pleurotoma, 

Pleurotomaria, 

Plicatula, 

Poliuices, 

Potamides, 

Priene, 

Promachoteuthis, 

Psammobia, 

Pteria, 

Pterocera, 

Puncturella, 

Pupinella, 

Purpura, . 

Putilla, . 

Pyramidella, 

Pyramidula, 

Pyrguliua, 

Pyrula, 

Pythia, . 



. 14 
. 106 
. 143 

72, 176 

57, 175 

. 47 

2 

122, 181 

146, 184 

55, 174 
. 109 
. 158 

44, 169 
. 68 

79, 177 
. 155 
. 85 
. 49 
. 161 



R 



Raeta, 


, 


119 


Ranella = Gyrineum 
Rapa = Bulbus, 
Rapana, . 
Retusa, 


43, 


170 

46 

169 

7 


Rhiuomya, 
Rhynchonella, 
Ricinula, . 


. 45, 


136 
153 
169 


Ringicula, 
Rimula, . 




10 
109 


Rissoa, 




66 


Rissoella, . 




6o 


Rissoina, . 


, 


67 


Rossiteria, 


. 


97 


Rostellaria, 




55 


Roxania, . 


. 


9 



Sarepta, . 

Saxicava, 

Saxidomus, 

Scala, 

Scaliola, . 

Scaphander, 



151 

117 

130 

74 

69 



192 



INDEX. 



Schismope, . . .106 
Scintilla, . . . .131 
Scissurella, . . . 106 
Scutellina, . . .110 

Scutus 110 

Sella, .... 57 
Selma, .... 79 
Semele, . . . .123 
Senectu?, . . . 88, 178 
Separatista, ... 59 
Sepia, .... 2 
Sepiella, .... 3 
Sepioteuthis, ... 3 
Septifer, . . . .141 
Seraphs, . . . 55, 174 
Setia, . . . . ^Q 
Sigaretus, . . 72, 176 

Siliqua, .... 121 
Siliquaria, ... 60 
Siphonalia, . . 28, 168 
Siphonaria, . . 5, 161 
Siphonium, . • .175 
Sistrum, . . . 45, 170 
Skenea, .... 69 
Sraaragdinella, . . 8 

Solanderia = Rossiteria. 
Solarium, . . 65, 175 

Solecurtus, . . .121 
Solemya, . . . .152 
Solen, . . . .120 
Soletellina, . . .122 
Solidula, ... 6, 160 
Sphaerium, . . . 159 
Spiroglyphus, ... 60 
Spisula, . . . .119 
Spondylus, . . 143, 184 
Stenotis, .... 64 
Stomatella, . . .104 
Stomatia,. . . 104, 1.80 
Strombus, . . 173, 53 

Stvliferina, ... 79 

Styliola 5 

Stylopsis, .... 86 
Styloptygma, . . .83 
Subemarginula, . .110 
Succinea, . . • 158 

Surcula, . . . .19 



Syrnola, 



T 



Tapes, 

Taranis, . 

Tectus, 

Teinostoma, 

Tellina, . 

Terebellum = Seraphs. 

Terebra, . 

Terebratella, 

Terebratula, 

Terebratulina, 

Teredo, 

Thalotia, . 

Thatcheria, 

Thecodonta, 

Theora, . 

Thracia, . 

Thylacodes, 

Tivela, 

Todarodes, 

Tonicella, 

Torinia, . 

Tornatina, 

Trachyderraon, 

Trapezium, 

Tresus, 

Triehotropis, 

Tridacna, 

Triforis, . 

Trivia, 

Triton, 

Tritonidea, 

Tritonium, 

Trochomorpha, 

Trochus, . 

Trophon, . 

Truncatella, 

Tugalia, . 

Turbinella, 

Turbo, 

Turbonilla, 

Turcica, . 

Turritella, 

Typhis, 

Typhlomangilia, 



80 



129, 181 
. 21 
. 92 
. 102 

123, 181 

11, 164 

152 

152 

152 

116 

95 

28 

132 

123 

138 

59, 175 

127 

4 

113 

65 

7 

114 

135 

120, 180 

59 

130, 181 
5S 
52 

46, 170 

32, 168 
. 46 
. 161 

92, 179 
. 40 
. 176 
. 110 
. 168 

88, 178 
. 87 
. 98 
. 61 
. 41 
. 19 









INDEX. 




193 




u 






Volutharpa, 
Volutomitra 




. 32 
. 25 


Umbonella, 
Umbonium, 
Umbrella, 




.* 100, 


100 

180 
11 


Volva, . 
Volvula, . 
Vulsella, . 




53, 186 

8 

. 140 


Unio, 
Urosalpinx, 


V 


159, 
. 43, 


186 
42 


Xenophora, 


X 


. 70 


Vanikoro, 






70 




Y 




Velutina, . 
Venerupis, 
Venus, 
Vernietus, 




127, 


73 
129 

181 
61 


Yoldia, . 


Z 


. 151 


Verticordia, 






136 






Vivipara, 
Vola, 
Voluta, . 






158 

145 

24 


Zafra, 
Zeidora, . 
Zirphsea, . 




. 21 
. 109 
. 116 



13 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



[The figures of Ealota Blakeana Newc. were drawn from speci- 
mens belonging to the museum of Cornell University ; those of 
Chlorostomanmh'dicatxim and Bathybemhjx CrumpH from specimens 
in the collection of Mr. Shelly G. Crump; and the figure of Tere- 
hratulina caput-serpentis represents a specimen in coll. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. All other figures are from specimens collected by Mr. 
Stearns], 

Plate 1. 



1,2. Sepia Hercules n. sp. . 2 

3, 7, 8, 8. Eulota (Euhadra) Blakeana Newc. . . .156 

4. Ganesella Stearnsii n. sp. . . . . . .157 

5, 5. Vanikoro japonica n. sp. ...... 70 

6. Columbella (?) pleurotomoides n. sp. .... 39 
9. Vermetus tokyoensis n. sp. . . . . . .61 

10. Vermetus tokyoensis, section of an early whorl . . .61 

11. Vermetus tokyoensis (large specimen from Pinna valve in 

coll. A.N. S.) 61 

12. Clausilia Stearnsii n. sp. . - 163 



Plate 2. 

1, 2. Siphonalia Stearnsii n. sp. 

3. Oniscia Macandrewi Sowb. 

4. Clathurella (?) Gainesii n. sp. . 

5. Drillia tokyoensis n. sp. . 

6. Siphonalia hyperodon n. sp. 

7. 8. Siphonalia cassidariiformis var. funerea 
9, 10. Drillia principalis n. sp. 

11. Olivella fortunei v. japonica n. v. 

12. Coralliophila Stearnsii n. sp. 

13. 14. Nassa hypolia n. sp. . 

(194) 



1. V. 



29 
49 
20 
18 
30 
29 
17 
23 
45 
37 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



195 



FIGURE. PAGE. 

15,16. Pleurotoma kamakurana n. sp 16 

17. Cassis achatina var. inornata n. v. . . . . .49 

Plate 3. 

1. Aspergillum giganteum Sowb 136 

2, 3. Anatina kamakurana n. sp. . . . . . . 138 

4, 5. Raeta yokohamensis n. sp. . . . . . .119 

6,7. Diplodonta japonica n. sp. ...... 132 

8, 9, 10. Area Stearnsii n. sp 148 

11,12. Entodesraa truncatissima n. sp. . . . . . 137 

13, 14. Loripes bialata n. sp 133 

15, 16, 17. Sphierium heterodon n. sp 159 

18,19. Kellia japonica n.sp. ....... 132 

Plate 4. 
1 , 2. Thylacodes Medusae Pilsbry, 59 

Plate 5. 
1. Thylacodes Medusae Pilsbry, 59 

Plate 6. 

1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Macroschisraa Lischkei n. sp 108 

6, 7, 8. Macroschisma sinensis A. Adams, . . . .107 

9, 10. Chlorostoma turbinatum A. Adams {rugatiim Gld). . 94 

11,12. Chlorostoma umbilicatum Lischke, . . . .93 

13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. Acmaea Heroldi Dkr. varieties, . . Ill 

19,20,21,22. Siphonariaacmaeoides n. sp. .... 6 

23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. Siphonaria sirius n. sp 5 

29, 30. Phasianella (Orthomesus) modesta Gld. . . .91 

31. Phasianella modesta var. Gouldii n. v 91 

32. Nerita belicinoides var. laevilabris n. V 177 

Plate 7. 

1,2. Helcioniscus nigrisquamatus Rve. (young) . . .112 

3. Helcioniscus nigrisquamatus v. boninensis Pils. . . 112 

4, 5, 6. Helcioniscus Stearnsii Pilsbry, 112 

7,8,9,10. Helcioniscus eucosmius Pilsbry, .... 112 



196 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



Plate 8. 

"IGURE. 

1. Lacuna oxytropis n. sp. 

2. Lacuna Smithii n. sp. 

3. Lacuna stenotomorpha n. sp. 

4. Gibbula eucosmia n. sp. 

5. 0. Cyreua fissidens Pilsbry, 

7. Cyrena yaeyamensis Pilsbry, 

8. Phasianella (Tricolia) oligomphala n 



sp. 



9. Phasianella (Tricolia) megastoma n. sp. 

Plate 9. 



1, 2, 3. Eulota (Euhadra) yaeyamensis Pilsbry, . 

4, 5. Cyrena luchuana Pilsbry, 

6. Cyrena yaeyamensis Pilsbry, ..... 

7, 8, 9. Eulota (Aegista) vermis Ads. & Rve 

Plate 10. 

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Eulota (Euhadra) mercatoria Gray, 
7, 8. Eulota (Acusta) despecta Gra.y, .... 
9, 10, 11. Trochomorpha Fritzei Boettger, . 
12, 13, 14. Ganesella Largillierti Phil., varieties, . 

Plate 11. 
1-3. Terebratula Stearnsii Dall & Pilsbry, . 

4. Bathybembyx Crumpii Pilsbry, .... 

5, 6. Terebratulina caput-serpentis Linn, (unguicula Cpr.). 
7, 8. Terebratella Gouldii Dall, 

9, 10. Terebratulina kiiensis Dall & Pilsbry, 



page. 
. 63 
. 63 
. 64 
. 96 
. 183 
. 184 
. 91 
. 90 



161 

183 
184 
163 



162 
163 
161 
161 



152 

97 

152 

153 

152 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS 



PLATE I. 




WH Shieppard.del.et I,uh 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS 



PLATE II. 





>v 




X 








v 

V. 



^' 



-% 



\ h 




WHO Sheppard.delet Ii 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS 



PLATE III. 




WH Sl-ieppaT-d.del »t I. it 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS 



PLATE IV. 









> 

> 
z 

m 
if) 
m 

^ 

O 

r- 
r- 
C 

CO 

7^ 

C/) 



■lAPANESE MOLLUSKS 



PLATE VI. 




WHO Sheppard.del.et Lii>. 



JAPANESE MQLLUSKS 



PLATE VII. 




WHO Shepparidel-et Litl, 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS 



PLATE VIJI. 




epparrd.d'r 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS 



PLATE IX. 



/ 





WHO STheppard, del .et I.iA 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS 



PLATE X. 




fl<«W~- 








/-^ 







•i II 





WHO Sheppard.del.et liA 



JAPANESE MOLLUSKS 



PLATE XI. 













10 






1; ■■■ e'A.I ■ 









•>^-: 



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