(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Catalogue of the organic remains, which, with other geological and some mineral articles, were presented to the New-York Lyceum of Natural History, in August, 1826"

#06. 



?££ 



SJ-. 



MlTck&/( 



*< 'look*/ 




CATALOGUE 

OP THE /\>£ *f>*****A*-\ 

ORGANIC REMAINS, 

WHICH, WITH OTHER 

GEOLOGICAL AND SOME MINERAL ARTICLES, 

WERE PRESENTED TO THE 

NEW-YORK 
LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, 

IN AUGUST 1826, 
BY THEIR ASSOCIATE, 

SAMUEL L. MITCHILL, 

Honorary President of the Parisian Branch of its Linnaean Society at New- York ; 
Lecturer on Botany and Vegetable Physiology to the Horticultural Society ; Mem- 
ber of the American Geological Society at New-Haven ; of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences at Philadelphia ; of the Western Museum Society at 
Cincinnati ; of the Linnaean Society of New-England ; Honorary 
Fellow of the Lyceums at Hudson, Delaware, Catskill, and Pitts- 
field ; of the Agricultural Society in the Bahama Islands ; of 
the Literary and Philosophical Society at Montreal ; and 
of the Philo-Phusian Society in Brown University; 
Correspondent of the Society for Promoting Natu- 
ral aud Physical Sciences at Buenos Ayres, 
kc. &c. &c. &c. &c. Uc. 



NEW- YORK : 
PRINTED AT THE REQUEST OF THE SOCIETY, 

BY J. SEYMOUR, JOHN-STREET. 

1826. 



CATALOGUE. 



N° I. 

Lowermost Shelf, beginning on the right. 

1. Petrified occiput, and clints of horns, from New 
Madrid, on the Mississippi ; cast up by one of the earth- 
quakes in J 81 1-12; supposed to belong to the North 
American bison, or buffalo. — Captain Hill. 

2. Left side of the lower jaw, with the symphysis of the 
chin, and two grinders, belonging to a fossil mammoth, 
found at Southhold, on the north side of Long-Island, be- 
tween high and low water mark, though they have been 
satisfactorily traced to Kentucky. — My own purchase. 

3. Joint of a whale's back-bone, with fragments of ribs, 
covered in part by a ferruginous incrustation, containing 
scallops, oysters, and other organic remains of the salt 
water : from the bank of York River, Virginia, where it is 
reported there are many other relics of a similar kind. — 
Captain Mix and E. J. Townsend. 

(a) Impression of a huge scallop, and other shells, in 
clay. Nottaway River, Virginia. 

4. Considerable portion of the tibia of a mastodon, from 
Louisiana, below New-Orleans. — Jaspar Lynch. 

5. Vertebral joint of some cetaceous animal from the 
bank of James' River, Virginia. — Captain Prior. 

6. A collection of silicious fossils, from the Honourable 
Captain Redwood of Antigua ; consisting of 

(a) Consummate red jaspers, varied with pale agate. 

(b) Wood and bark of the tamarind and other trees, 
completely agatized and converted to flint : one of the 
specimens more than a foot in diameter. 



(c) Madrepores of numerous species transformed to 
agate, or semipel lucid silex, of remarkable beauty and 
variety. The view of them in their exquisite forms and 
fractures, excites a suspicion that they are not conversions 
from lime; but on the contrary, origin 1 formations from 
radiary animals secreting silicious matter for their habita- 
tions. 

(cc) An elegant agatized terebratula, from the coast of 
Coromandel ; from the Baron Lescallier, late Consul Ge- 
neral of France ; accompanied by a note in the handwriting 
of that erudite, modest, and accomplished man. 

7. Various samples of agatized, or silicified wood, from 
other sources. 

8. A piece of the buhr-quartz of Georgia, recommended 
for mill-stones, and imported for the preparation of flour 
from wheat to New-York. It is filled with the shells of 
marine molluscas, which wear away fast by attrition, and 
render the bread gritty. 

9. A portion of red sand-stone, from the secondary for- 
mation of Belleville, near the Passaic river, ten miles from 
New-Y rk city ; containing an elegant impression of a 
fern, ten inches long. 

10. A mass of sand-stone from Chenango county, New- 
York, exhibiting in its fracture, a figure that has been call- 
ed the screw-auger by the discoverers, but which, on exa- 
mination, appears to be an extinct species of the terebrum, 
or screw-shell. — U. Tracy. 

11. An instructive assemblage of madreporites in fetid 
lime-stone, from Caledonia, New-York. — Drake. 

12. Terebratulites, and other rare articles, from West- 
chester county, New- York, at Mount Pleasant ; discovered 
ten feet under ground. Large articl , full of the impres- 
sions of pectinites, and other relics. 

13. Other pectinites and terebratulites. 

14. Yet other impressions of the same kind. 

15. A box, containing specimens illustrative of the geo- 
logy of Nantucket ; consisting of two species of univalve 



and five species of bivalve shells, dug from a depth of sixty 
feet and more ; with fragments of the crumbling and de- 
composing gneiss-rock, lying in boulders sixty feet below 
the surface : with N. Comstoek's letter on the appearances, 
on digging Obed Mitchell's well. 

16. Venuses, buccinums, and other molluscous remains, 
from the maritime border of Virginia. 



N° II. 

Second Shelf from the bottom. 

An extensive and characteristic collection of the fossils 
belonging to the region south of the Raritan river, and 
extending from the base of the Neversink Hills to Borden- 
town, near the Delaware, in a direction from N. E. to S. W. 
From this singular tract have been derived the following 
articles, to wit: 

1. Enormous gryphites, thick and ponderous beyond 
example, weighing from six to seven pounds, and of great 
variety, filled with marl formed from the ruins of other 
testaceous creatures. 

2. Belemnites, four or five inches long ; or, more pro- 
perly speaking, their crystallized nuclei, or cores. 

3. Joints of the vertebrae, appertaining to cetaceous 
animals. 

4. A cervical joint belonging to a horse. 

5. Part of the leg (tibia) of a mastodon. 

6. Broad elliptical substance, evidently the interverte- 
bral material, or epiphysis of a whale. 

7. Several choice and instructive specimens of the jaw- 
bone, and its excrescences, in the form of teeth ; derived 
from a reptile of the same kind with that wonder of Europe, 
called the Animal of Maestricht, or Anediluvial Crocodile. 

8. The sandy and marly mass that once filled up the 
cavity in a shell formerly inhabited by a huge nautilus. 



8 

Since the occupation of the shell by the earthy materials, 
after the death of the animal, the shell has crumbled down 
and disappeared, while its packing or filling remains. 

9. Teeth of the horse, in sound condition. 

10. Moulds in marl of turbos, buccinums, and other 
univalve shells. 

It ought to be remarked that this region, reported to be 
from two to five miles wide, is one of the most memorable 
on the globe. If, in addition to the preceding enumeration, 
it is added, that singular baculites (here) — vertebrae of 
sharks, and their teeth (here) — pipes of clay, which men 
have used for smoking (here also) — metallic buckles and 
tongs, and numerous other natural and factitious things, 
have been found by the proprietors or agronomes, while 
exploring the strata of their farms for manure, — it would 
seem that a belt or zone of earth so memorable as this, 
is worthy of further exploration. The Reynolds's, the 
Vanderveers, the Crawfords, the Teneycks, the Scotts, and 
the Bennetts, among others, deserve worthy notice on this 
occasion. 

11. Lignite, or black mineralized wood; from a depth 
of fifty feet below the surfaee : right bank of the Raritan, 
New-Jersey, Essex county. 

12. Sharks' teeth, some black, some white : Cranbury, 
near Princeton. — Professor Green : with a singular semi- 
globular substance containing shells. 

13. Amber, with shells adhering, and an accompanying 
belemnite. — Crosswick's Marl Pit, New-Jersey. 

14. A collection of detached shells, such as various 
kinds of clams, oysters, gryphaeas, volutes, turbos, bucci- 
nums, &c, from the neighbourhood of Fort Claiborne, 
along the river Alabama, where they form thick and exten- 
sive layers, not yet hardened into rock. 

15. A piece of petrified wood, from the same region. 

16. A large and interesting block of live oak, appa- 
rently changed to silicious stone. 



17. Two other oceanic relics, in lime-stone; one of them 
apparently containing large entrochites, and the other a 
water-worn madrepore, shaped almost like a human thigh- 
bone. 



N° III. 

Third Shelf from below. 

1. An extensive and instructive specimen of silicified 
wood, from Alabama ; remarkable, among other circum- 
stances, for bearing on its surface barnacles and flustras, 
proving it to have lain in the salt water. 

2. A mass of incipient chalk, from the same region. 
The shells can be seen in their progress toward disintegra- 
tion, and of changing to the calcareous carbonate. A thin- 
shelled oyster seems to be the principal material. 

3. A lump of chalk, from the same stratum, where the 
shells have lost more of their original form, by conversion 
to friable earth. 

4. A group of echinuses, or sea-urchins, from the chalk 
formation of Tombigbee. 

5. A group of gryphaea shells, not consolidated, from 
the Chickasaw country, where they are said to be very 
numerous. 

(a) Sharks' teeth, and impressions of shells. Tombig- 
bee, vicinity of Fort Stevens. 

(b) An irregular mass, whimsically figured, showing the 
manner in which chalk runs into the nodular form of flint. 

(c) Pieces of shells, concreted with shelly sand ; show- 
ing the constitution of the Bahama islands and shoals ; dug 
out of a well forty feet deep, at Nassau, in New-Provi- 
dence island. — M. Hall. 

(d) Pieces of shells, from the shell banks at Rockaway, 
south side of Long-Island, where the clams were brought; 
Tip by the native Indians for food : large heaps yet remain, 

B 



10 

6. A box, containing samples of the pond marl in Ulster 
county, New- York, where the skeletons and bones of the 
mastodons are sometimes found. Marl of the shells of 
fresh water molluscas. 

7. Calcareous marl, from a like origin at Dover, Dutch- 
ess county, New-York. 

8. The like, though of a browner hue, from Sharon, 
Connecticut. 

The shells of which these specimens consist, decaying 
and decayed, are two species of planorbis, two of spiror- 
bis, one of succineum, and some others. 

9. A bottle of testaceous sand, showing how shells worn 
down by the waves are, in the process of preparation, to 
form earthy strata. From the oceanic shore of Long- 
Island. 

(a) Salt water mud and shells. Long-Island. 

10. Cast in plaster, from Dr. Hayden of Baltimore, of 
an elephant's tooth, found on the eastern shore of Maryland. 

11. Singular boat-shaped tooth of an elephant, found 
on Bennett's farm, Middletown, New- Jersey ; from the re- 
gion where the relics on the second shelf were found. — 
Scudder. 

12. Two teeth of the great mastodon, one large and one 
small ; found in alluvial soil near Natchez. — Dr. Freiot. 

13. Grinder of an elephant, said to be American; but 
locality not known, though the specimen is in excellent 
condition. 

14. Huge tooth of an elephant, brought by A. Vache 
from a voyage beyond Cape Horn, and reported by him to 
have been found on some (to him unknown) island in the 
Pacific ocean. Good condition, with the exception of a 
fracture at one extremity. 

15. Sound tooth of an elephant from Tuscany, in Italy; 
received as an offering of peculiar value, from the late 
learned and incomparable Dr. Albers of Bremen, and be- 
lieved by him to have belonged to one of the African quad- 
rupeds of war which crossed the Rhone, the Alps, and the 
Po, with Hannibal of Carthage. 



I J 

i6. A set of mastodon teeth, sound, though somewhat 
fractured ; found by ditching on E. SuiTern's farm, 32 
miles north of New-York citv, and J 1 miles west of the 
Hudson River, in New Antrim, Hempstead town, Rockland 
county, New-York. 

17. A tooth of the enormous mastodon which, with Pe- 
ter S. Townsend, Silvanus Miller, and other friends, I as- 
sisted in disinterring at Chester, in Orange county, 53 miles 
north of New-York city, during the year 1S17. 

18 and 19. Decayed ivory of the tusks, which I received 
as Townsend handed them up from their muddy deposit : 
the longer of which measured nine feet as it was raised, 
while the other was shorter. I refer to the chief portions 
of the skeleton, presented by the company on that memo- 
rable occasion to the Lyceum, for the fact that the right 
tusk was less elongated than the left, and more blunt or 
truncated than this. The dexter prong has plain proof of 
having been more worn, by the creature's exercise, toward- 
a stump, and as manifest indication that the owner had a 
preference to what the drivers of animals call the off-side 
limbs. 

20. Tusk of a young mastodon, from Kentucky, five 
inches long, and compact ; found at Neville, in a tumulus 
with human bones, as the donor, Dr. Meigs, certified. 

21. Fragments of bones, apparently belonging to ceta- 
ceous animals, from Old Point Comfort, Chesapeake Bay. 

22. Entrochites in white flint. Green Brier county, 
Virginia. 

23. Bones of land animals, bark of trees, vertebree of 
sharks, and teeth of the same. Richmond, Virginia. Che- 
vallie's well, from the depths of seventy-five to one hun- 
dred feet. 

24. A dozen of the curious fossils, by some compared to 
a nut, and by others to a flower, and yet by others to an 
echinus. Agatized, and perfect. Kentucky. About the 
-ize of hazelnuts. 



12 

25. An agatized echinus, about the size of a pigeon's 
egg. From Kentucky. 

26. Several trays, containing moulds of screw-sheUs. 
entrochites, and terebratulas, from various localities. 

27. A white orthocerite, in dark lime-stone. York, Up- 
per Canada. 

28. The two valves of an oyster, complete, from a stra- 
tum of marine shells. Digges's Point, river Potomac. — 
General Brown. 

29. A mass of clay, or argillaceous marl, containing 
charcoal ; or the specimen may be termed fossil charcoal, 
bedded in clay. From Digges's Point, Potomac. Same 
locality with the preceding article, though lying twenty 
feet below the stratum of marine shells, and fifty-seven 
beneath the surface. — General Brown. 

30. Two specimens of the univalve and bivalve marine 
shells, compacted into rock, with littoral sand. From 
Upper Marlborough, Maryland, near the Patuxent River. 
Washington city, and Annapolis. 

31. Large pectinite, with other oceanic relics, in wacke, 
with lac lunse. From the Peruvian Andes, fifteen thousand 
feet about the present level of the sea, where it was found 
by Don Pedro Abbadia, and forwarded. 

83. A series of specimens, affording an instructive view 
of the orthocerites, chain madreporites, and various mol- 
luscous relics. From Lake Huron. — Major Delafield. 

34. A long piece of petrified wood, covered with sili- 
eious crystals. From Weymouth, England. 

35. A polished specimen of marble, abounding in encri- 
nites. England. 

35. Petrified wood, by calcareous carbonate. From 
Sullivan town, Madison county, New- York ; part of a tree 
that had undergone such conversion. — General Pierre Van 
Cortland. 

36. A madreporite, curved like a ram's horn, of unusual 
figure and magnitude. Coeyman's, Albany county, New- 
York. 



13 

37. Other specimens of petrified wood, from different 
localities : one called hickory stone, from Calvert county, 
Maryland ; another from Mexico, being a piece of petrified 
oak, called there sughero, or the cork tree. — Professor Del 
Rio. 

38. A tray of petrified madrepores, called petrified buf- 
falo horns ; believed to have been found at the falls of 
Ohio. 

39. Two pieces of bone, apparently of some cetaceous 
animal ; from a stratum abounding in marine shells^ 60 
miles from Charleston, S. C. — Dr. Thomas. 

40. A curious piece of petrified wood, from the Chock- 
taw country, 100 miles east of Natchez; one end of which 
is black, and the other white. — P. C. Goercy. 



N°IV. 

The fourth Shelf . 

1. Half a dozen specimens of the clay slate, or blaes, 
abounding with impressions of ferns and palms, in the coal 
districts of Pennsylvania. 

(a) Part of a large frond, overlaying the anthracite of 
Berks county, near the sources of the Schuylkill. — Mrs. 
Bailey. 

(b) Saginaria and filices, from the superincumbent rocks 
in the coal tract near Wilkesbarre. 

(c) Cryptogamic impressions in the coal slate of Pitts- 
burgh. 

2. A nodule of argillaceous iron, about the size of a 
small loaf of bread ; disclosing, by being split into two 
parts, the stems and leaves of ferns, very distinctly, on its 
fractured surfaces. Derbyshire, England. 

3. A piece of calcareous rock, raised from the bottom of 
the sea, on weighing anchor, near one of the Bahama 
keys. It abounds with shells, such as bullas, scallops, and 



14 

others, and illustrates the formation of modern strata Iron/ 
shells. — Wetmore. 

4. Another fragment of the like. 

5. A third of the like. 

6. Rock, composed of comminuted shells, worn small by 
the waves, and concreting. 

7. An extensive and selected series of specimens, from 
Huntsville, Alabama, and its vicinity ; by Dr. Samuel 
Brown ; consisting, among others, of 

(a) Entrochites, plain and characteristic. 
(5) Terebratulites, of more than ordinary size, though 
very distinct. 

(c) Encrinites, of very peculiar forms. 

(d) Cardites, fine and plain. 

(e) Fossils of several sorts, too peculiar to be classified 
by the writer of this list. 

(/) Madreporites ; some of which are of very singular 
shapes. 

These specimens are chiefly bedded in agate, or flint ; 
and they are so curious and diversified, as to afford rare 
matter for investigation. 

8. A fossil oyster. Ontario county, New-York. 

9. Another and a larger oyster, with pectinites adhering. 
Locality not remembered. 

10. Two pieces of petrified wood ; from Loch Neagh, 
Ireland. — S. Owens. 

1 1 . Petrified wood ; part of the black walnut tree in the 
Illinois river. — Governor Cass. 

12. A polished slab of lumachella marble, from Italy. 

13. Singular concretion of quartzy gravel, &c. Coast 
of Peru. — Rodgers. 

14. Huge clam-shell, with a little oyster adhering. 
England. 

15. Nodule of flint; exhibiting the singular spectacle of 
an agatized echinus, moveable round and round on its axis, 
within a cavity; and another one of the same kind, fast in 
its hole. Exceedingly uncommon. England. 



15 

16. Vertebral joint and two teeth of a fossil animal, 
conjectured to have been a sea serpent, or an astonishing 
shark; discovered by digging for a plantation-improve- 
ment in the ground adjoining Meherrin River, at Murfrees- 
borough, North Carolina. They were brought by Captain 
Neville, who, with Dr. Forster, measured the joints of the 
vertebral column, as they adjusted them from their dispers- 
ed situation where the laborers had thrown them about. 
By putting the joints of the back-bone in a row, they mea- 
sured thirty-four feet ; and by adding a reasonable allow- 
ance for the head and tail, the creature must have been at 
least forty feet long. The bones and teeth lay in a stratum 
of water-worn pebbles and sand, situated about twenty feet 
above tide-water, and mingled with an abundance of large 
oyster and cockle-shells. The distance from the ocean at 
Currituck, the nearest point, is about 70 miles. The bone 
of the back weighs twelve pounds and a half. The teeth, 
which are three-sided, with a base of four inches and a half, 
connected with sides of six inches, weigh sixteen ounces 
each. It has been supposed by some zoologists and geolo- 
gists, that these uncommon relics indicate a connexion 
really with the hydrophis, plature, enhydros, laticauda, or 
some other snake of the ocean, rather than with the squalus, 
or any other cartilaginous fish. 

(a) Fossil jaw and teeth ; the teeth growing out of the 
jaw, as in the fossil crocodile of New-Jersey. From Salis- 
bury, N. C. : with a recent specimen of the like, found on 
the shore of Lake Huron. (See Shelf II., No. 7.) 

17. Four enormous oyster-shells, from the rock of Lis- 
bon. — Captain Riddell. 

18. Two molded terebratulites, from Kentucky. — M. 
Beattie. 

19. Very singular fossil echinus; figured and described 
in Med. Repos. vol. ii. p. 416. Georgia. — D. Meriwether. 

20. Elegant favosite, with some of the cells empty, and 
the others filled. Near the mouth of the river Illinois*— 
Major Long. 



1G 

21. Remarkable nodule, or loose-rounded lump, four- 
teen inches long and eight inches broad ; dug from one of 
the hills near Corlaer's Hook, in the seventh ward of New- 
York city ; and disclosing, by its longitudinal fractures, 
cardites and pectinites, of remarkable size and distinctness. 
—J. M'Comb. 

22. A mass of marine concretions, found near St. Regis, 
River St. Lawrence, near the line of Lower Canada. — Pro- 
fessor Ellicott. 

23. Several specimens of petrified wood ; from Samuel 
H. Smith's land, two miles north of the capitol, at Wash- 
ington city. 

24. Petrified stump of a pine tree standing in water. 
South Carolina. 

25. Large fragment of a fossil terebrum, or screw-shell. 
Mexico, Del Rio. (See Art. 10, Shelf No. I.) 

26. Organic remains, eight in number, from Becraft's 
mountain, one mile and a quarter S. E. of the Court-house 
in Hudson city, and five hundred feet above the level of 
the river ; consisting of madreporites, flustrites, pectinites, 
terebratulites, and some other species, as they have been 
broken from the solid stratum of rock, in detached pieces. 
— Colonel Darling. 

27. A splendid slab of the marble from the stratum of 
Becraft's mountain, abounding in the aforesaid and other 
relics ; nearly two feet long, and more than one foot broad ; 
forming an elegant and uncommon lumachella marble, 
named the Darling marble. 

28. Polished lumachella marble, from the quarry at 
Sodus, New-York, south side of Lake Ontario.' 

29. Encrinites, in polished marble ; from Cherry Valley, 
New-York. — Governor Clinton. 

30. Polished lumachella, with shells, encrinites, and 
entrochites. Hurley, Ulster county, New-York. — I. C. 
Hart. 

31. Polished marble, filled with remains of molluscas 
and radiaries ; from a quarry near the Juniata, Penn., six 



IT 



miles below Huntingdon. The stratum is underlaid by 
indurated quartzy sand ; has an inclination of about 85° 
from the horizon, and the dip is towards the S. E.— G. 
Loss. 



N° V. 

The fifth Shelf 



1. Chalk from Brighton, in England, penetrated by the 
pholas dactylus, that loves to inhabit the solid rocks, which 
it excavates ; with shells of the pholas itself. — Goodsett. 

2. Calcareous rock of Minorca, inhabited by the myte- 
lus lithophagus. — Surgeon Jackson, U. S. Navy. 

3. A bottle, containing preserved individuals of the my- 
telus just mentioned, in a condition fit for dissection. Sam<; 
locality. — Lieut. Cocke, U. S. Navy. 

4. An elegant pair of cockle-shells, from Thanet island, 
Kent county, England ; filled with chalk, and found in a 
cretaceous stratum, three miles from the sea, and one hun- 
dred and twenty-seven feet below the surface. — Ramage. 

5. Superb specimen of encrinites and entrochites, in 
calcareous carbonate. England. — Major James Mitchell. 

6. A notable fossil, containing entrochites, madreporites, 
terebratulites, pectinites, and other articles ; said to have 
been found in Wales. — Mrs. Jayne, wife of Capt. Jayne. 

7. Seven specimens from Havre-de-Grace, in FVance, 
or brought by a ship from that port ; being carbonates of 
lime, containing madreporites, buccinites, terebrites, car- 
dites, &c. in high preservation. 

8. Sixteen pieces, from the rock of Gibraltar. 

(a) Two of the original, or primitive rock, constituting 
that promontory of Europe ; and one of them carrying the 
lichen, or cryptogamous vegetable natural to it. 



18 

(b) Parcels of the watery deposition in the hollow called 
Saint Michael's Cave ; some of them in the rough, and 
others neatly polished. 

(c) Select articles from the cavern just mentioned; con- 
taining organic remains of 

A. The snails and other testaceous relics of the locality. 

B. Of the monkeys and other land remnants of the 
spot. 

C. Of, among other memorable remains, a tooth, in 
admirable preservation, of the Barbary ape, or baboon. — 
C. A. Davis and Miss Crawford. 

9. The extraordinary fossil, termed by the finders the 
petrified ram?s horn; from the Helleberg, 12 miles N. W. 
of Albany; bedded in a silico-calcareous rock, a portion 
of which adheres to the relic. It has been decided that it 
is an enormous, probably an extinct spirula. The longest 
diameter is about nine inches, and the smaller six, or there- 
abouts. (See the particulars, with a figure, in Medical 
Repository, vol. x. p. 350.) — De Witt. 

10. Samples of petrified fish. 

(a) An admirable specimen from the mountains of Rio 
Janeiro, in Brazil, six inches long, by more than two inches 
broad. In calcareous rock. — Vache. 

(b) A complete form of a disinterred fish, from the fa- 
mous ichthyoparous mountain in the neighbourhood of 
Verona, Italy; six inches long, three inches broad. — Miss 
Nicholson. 

(c) Two specimens of the fossil impressions of fishes, 
from the vicinity of Connecticut River. — Bruen. 

(d) The semblance of a petrified fish, belonging to a 
species of tetrodon, or bellows fish ; found on the shore of 
Sandy-hook, near the base of the Neversink Hills ; but 
which appears to be (curiously enough) wood turned to 
stone, after having been perforated by the pipe-worm, or 
teredo navalis, and the cavities afterwards filled up by the 
yellowish-green material of the soil. — Captain White. 

(e) A rough specimen to illustrate the preceding. 



19 

11. Bones of land animals, in calcareous rock. 

(a) The tibia of some brute animal, encrusted in fine 
stone marl. 

(b) Some broader bone, with its cells, of an unknown 
quadruped, in a similar calcareous cement. 

Localities of both, though good specimens, somewhat 
uncertain. 

12. Ammonites, of various sorts and derivations, to wit: 

(a) Neat little spirula, from Seneca town, Ontario 
county, New-York, seven miles S. W. of Geneva village. — 
Post. 

(b) This, which the critics will call a spirula, is in fine 
style ; from the calcareous rocks near Plattsburgh, N.York. 
Governor Tompkins. — (See preceding article, No. 8.) 

(c) A less distinct specimen, though more of an am- 
monite ; from Glenn's Falls, Hudson River, above Fort 
Edward, &c. &c. : diameter more than three inches. — 
Milbert. 

(d) An ammonite, measuring five inches one way, by 
three inches the other ; disinterred at Cahawba, in Ala- 
bama county ; with sinuated surfaces and jagged edges. — 
Heustis. 

(e) Traces of the spire belonging heretofore to an 
ammonia-shell. Sacket's Harbour. — A. Sackett. 

(f) Another like it, though in another sort of rock. 
Locality not noted. 

(g) Fine spire, almost three inches in diameter, bed- 
ded in wacke. Place uncertain. 

(h) Pretty little ammonites ; from some place in 
Scotland.— J. Mitchell. 

13. A lot of twenty-two articles, of the ammonite 
family ; chiefly from Whitby, in Yorkshire, England ; bed- 
ded mostly in aluminous slate and argillaceous rock : fifty 
miles north of old York city : — of the following denomi- 
nations, namely: 

(a) Ammonites, as broken out of the matrix. 



20 

(b) The matrix of rock from which the ammonite was 
separated. 

(c) Ammonites ground away and polished, so as to show 
the internal structure, and the chambers filled with spar, 
&c. 

(d) Ammonites, consisting of pyrites, or the sulphuret 
of iron; in beautiful condition. Some of them were taken 
from a depth of iwo hundred feet under ground. — Thomp- 
son and Lester. 

14. Fossil spirorbis, or snail ; from a bog near Dublin, 
in Ireland. — J. K. Rodgers. 

15. Fossil bivalve mollusca ; from the black marble of 
Galway, in Ireland ; apparently a mytilus. — J. Dick. 

16. Another Galway specimen ; being pyrites, or splen- 
did sulphuret of iron, in crystals, distributed over the sur- 
face of a cardite. — J. Barnes. 

17. Enormous scallop-shells, in wacke, four inches and 
a half in diameter. North-west Coast of America. — Rey- 
nolds. 

18. Curious concretion of small mussel-shells, in wacke. 
Columbia River, North-west Coast. — The same. 

19. Part of a belemnite, nearly five inches long, and 
more than an inch in diameter. Weymouth, England. 

20. Polished marble, displaying fine forms of madre- 
pores. England. 

21. Fossil clam, two inches and a half broad; from a 
depth of two hundred feet beneath the surface. Point 
Petre, Guadaloupe. 

22. Beautiful impressions of leaves in clay. Locality 
not noted. 

23. Petrifactions of the cypraea pediculus, and other 
molluscas, in compact lime-stone. France. 

24. Celleporite, in calcareous spar. Curious. Island 
of Jamaica. 

25. Fresh water and oceanic shells ; from Upper Geor- 
gia, where they form, in a loose and detached state, exten- 
sive strata. — D. Meriwether. 



21 

26. Huge cone of a terebratulite, resembling the heart 
of a calf. Chalky. Locality not known. 

27. Shell, in argillaceous iron-stone; bivalve; four 
inches wide. Dumbarton, Scotland. 

28. Bivalve shell, apparently a cardium in agate. 

29. Cardite, from Matanzas, in Cuba ; two hundred 
feet below the surface. — Captain Noyes. 

30. Silico-calcareous incrustations. W. Coast of Peru. 
— Rodgers. 

31. A suite of fossil specimens, amounting to more than 
thirty ; illustrating the geology of Crefeld, near Dussel- 
dorff; consisting of pectinites, ostraeites, belemnites, and 
echinites ; among them a very peculiar calymene, and 
figures of the skull-shell. — From F. W. Hcenighaus. 

32. A collection of molds, from different quarters, of 
clams, cockles, myas, &c. ; in good preservation. 

33. Two petrified madrepores, called buffalo horns. In- 
diana. 

34. A double fossil oyster, and various other small 
petrifactions, from various places. 



N° VI. 

The sixth Shelf. 

1. A collection of orthocerites, madreporites, &c, in 
lime-stone ; illustrating the geology of the Black River 
country, near Sacket's Harbour. — Judge Sackett. 

2. A superb slab, filled with pectinites. Brownville. — 
Major General Brown. 

3. A set of specimens from the cliffs of Selma, up the 
river Missouri ; consisting of 

(a) Fossils — such as madreporites, and other oceanic 
remains, in abundance ; favosites, he. 

(b) Minerals — such as galena, or sulphuret of lead ; 
terra ponderosa, or sulphate of barytes ; crystrals of quartz, 
in clusters. — Colonel J. Smith. 



22 

4. Eight trilobites, from different localities. 

(a) One from Canandaigua, on the highest ground, 
eleven feet below the surface ; in lime-stone ; in fine pre- 
servation. — F. Granger. 

(b) Trilobite of a circular figure, nearly three inches in 
diameter. Anticosti island, gulf of St. Lawrence. — F. 
Blanchet of Quebec. — Pieces of the white marble com- 
posing the rocks there, filled with encrinites, and excavated 
by pholases. — The same. 

(c) Two trilobites, from Munsey, Pennsylvania, in sin- 
gular attitudes ; especially one, that adheres to a ball of 
pyrites, about as large as a musket shot. — Dr. Reynolds. 

(d) Trilobite, rolled up; from a lime-stone cavern in 
Pike county, Pennsylvania. — King. 

(e) Anterior part of a trilobite. Jefferson county, New- 
York. 

(/) Neat little specimen. St. Louis, Missouri. — De 
Camp,. 

(g) Black trilobite, with the tail doubled under. Lo- 
cality not known. 

5. Two pencil drawings of the Kingston, otherwise call- 
ed the Bleecker trilobite ; length three inches and a quarter* 
breadth one inch and three quarters. — S. Akerly. 

6. Very peculiar crustaceous creature, in lime-stone. 
Indiana. 

7. Three specimens of petrified wood, the mineralizer 
being carbonate of lime. 

(a) One of pine ; from Chitteningo Creek, New-York. 
— McLean. 

(b) The other, hemlock ; from Osquake, New- York. — 
J. Macauley. 

(c) A third, white cedar ; from Marcellus, Onondago 
county. — Humphreys. 

8. Moss, incrusted by carbonate of lime. Very neat. 

9. A more ample specimen of incrusted moss ; from the 
river Evan. — W. Carll. 

10. The sand tree, or arenated fungus of Michigan. — 
Schoolcraft. With a drawing. 



23 

11. A suite of specimens, from the falls of Ohio; con- 
sisting of madreporites, favosites, terebratulites, cardites, 
&c, in lime-stone ; with a marine turbo-shell, derived from 
a mass of secondary sand-stone, weighing perhaps 1000 
pounds. — Haynes. 

12. A series of the rare and splendid specimens from 
Lockport, New-York ; consisting of — 

A. Fossils. 

(a) Encrinites, in calcareous rock. 

(b) Four of the very peculiar productions known to the 
people by the name of petrified black walnuts; supposed, 
from the regular tetragonal and pentagonal lines on their 
surfaces, and the small indentions here and there, to have 
been echrinuses, or sea urchins, of an extinct race. Other 
conjectures are entertained about them ; such as, that they 
are specimens of the crinoidea, or lily-shaped animals, 
found in the rocky ridge of Lockport, New- York. They 
belong to the new genus called (in the Journal of the Aca- 
demy of Natural Sciences, vol. iv. p. 289) caryocrinites. 

B. Minerals. 

(a) Translucent gypsum. 

(6) Transcendant dog's-tooth spar. 

(c) Combinations of the two, in superior style. 

(d) Anhydrous sulphate of strontian. 

(e) Sulphate of strontian. 

(/) Beautiful fluate of lime, in pale pellucid cubes, &c. 
— Johnson. 



N° VII. 

The seventh Shelf, 



1. A silico-argillaceous stone, from the shore of Plan- 
dome, Long-Island ; containing impressions of cardites, 



J4 

pectinites, and other oceanic relics : 25 miles east of this 
city.— W. Mitchill. 

(a) Another specimen from the same place, chiefly pec- 
tinites and terebratulites, in a silico-argillaceous ground. 

2. Anomites, pectinites, madreporites, and spirulites, in 
wacke. Castleton, Staten-Island. 

3. Three samples of the remarkable rock from Corlaers 
Hook, lime and wacke, charged with large and distinct 
cardites, &x.; one side discolored, as if partly decomposed. 
— De Camp. 

4. A parcel of pectinites, anomites, &tc, in a brittle fer- 
rugino-silicous earth ; from the same curious district. 

5. A large and sound oyster-shell, found at Greenwich 
Village, New-York, twenty-one feet below the surface. — 
D. Gelston. 

6. Fragments of two deer's horns, found a small distance 
below the surface, in digging down Stuyvesant-street. 

7. The mold, or core of a species of mya; from Cor- 
laers Hook, seventh ward. 

8. Molds, with shell adhering, of two pholases, found 
near Ridge-street, tenth ward, fifty feet below the original 
surface, bedded in white clay. — J. F. Delaplaine. 

9. Oyster-shells, from the same stratum and depth. — 
Myself. 

10. Fragments of clam and oyster-shells, from fifty feet 
under the surface. Brooklyn Heights, Long-Island. 

11. An oyster-shell, with a madrepore adhering; thirty 
feet below the surface, on digging out the Navy Yard, 
Brooklyn ; the cavity filled with clay resembling the 
animal. 

12. Favosite, or madrepore ; from Newburgh. 

13. Distinct mark of a terebratulite. Newburgh, side- 
hill. 

14. Singular impressions, apparently the head and snout 
of an unknown animal ; in clay. Shawangunk, Ulster 
county, New- York. 



25 

15. Productus, or Anomia productus. Orange, New- 
Jersey, near the Springs. — Goble. 

16. Terebratulites, myas, &c, thickly distributed 
through wacke. Freehold village, Greene county, New- 
York.— J. L. Piatt. 

17. Pectinites. Shelborne, New-York. 

13. Fossil madrepore, strongly marked. Oxford, Che- 
nango county. Probably of an extinct species. — Uri 
Tracy. 

19. Fragments of argillaceous slate, taken from an ex- 
cavation very near the river Hudson, not far north of 
Poughkeepsie village ; containing peculiar characters of 
whitish upon a blackish base, with pyrites, strongly signi- 
ficant of organic remains. — Green. — Of what kind ? 

20. The memorable breccia, constituting the banks of 
the Mohawk River, some miles above Schenectady : wa- 
ter-worn pebbles, seeming to be of the sorts that are found 
on the sea-coast, but cemented in a way that excites full 
admiration from chemists and geologists ; showing that 
inland waters, pro rata, operate very much like the floods 
of the ocean. 

21. Mold of a spiral univalve shell, more than two 
inches long ; from Adams' village, Jefferson county, New- 
York, where they are said to be frequent in lime-rock. 

22. Rock from Coeymans town, Albany county, filled 
with shells, cardites, pectinites, entrochites, &c. (See the 
great slab, of which the present is a fragment, at the en- 
trance door, more than three feet long and eighteen inches 
broad.) — R. Strong. 

23. Brown oxyd of iron, containing entrochites and 
shells. Oneida county, New- York. — Gov. Clinton. 

24. Black marble, sawed out and smoothed on three 
sides, and on the fourth displaying different sorts of shells. 
Kingston, Ulster county, New-York. — P. Wynkoop. 

25. Lumachella marble, with one smoothed side to ex- 
hibit the shells. Esopus ; same locality ; very like that 
from Coeymans, though finer, and more nearly resembling 



20 

the half dozen specimens on Shelf No. IV., Articles 27, 2b ; 
29, 30, 31, 32. 

26. Organ-pipe madrepore, interspersed with pyrites; 
very characteristic and instructive. Head of Delaware 
River. 

27. Various organic remains ; consisting of entrochites, 
terebratulites, &c. Seneca town, Ontario county, 7 miles 
S. W. of Geneva village. — H. Post. — (For a spirulite of 
this collection, see Shelf V., No. 11, and seq.) 

28. Madreporites, &c. in calcareous carbonate, with 
pyrites. Shore of the Cayuga Lake. — Heermans. 

29. A very peculiar mytilite, more than two inches long, 
and nearly one inch and a half broad. Two miles south 
of Cayuga Lake. — Searing. 

30. Terebratulas, &c. in argillite ; fine specimen. Ver- 
non, Sussex, New-Jersey, near the sources of the WallkilL 

31. Pectinites, of distinct character, in wacke. Twenty 
miles from the sea-shore, New-Jersey. 

32. Cardites, in clay-slate ; very entire. Fredonia, 
Chatauque county, New- York. — Patton. 

33. Very distinct terebratulites, in hardened clay, or 
argillite. Madison county, New- York. 

34. Cardiums, in white sand-stone. Cayuga county, 
New- York. 

35. Various specimens of terebratulites, cardites, &c, 
from different places, to the amount of a dozen or more. 
Origin not distinctly marked, but believed to be properly 
arranged here. 

36. Skull and horns of the North American rein-deer, 
or caribou ; dug from the bank of the Racket River, near 
the 45th degree of latitude ; leading to a belief that this 
inhabitant of the colder regions sometimes has penetrated 
to the southward of the river St. Lawrence. — Colonel S. 
Hawkins. 

37. Mass of petrified shells, and impressions in carbo- 
nate of lime ; from Kaatskill : characteristic of an elevated 



range, parallel to the Hudson River, all the route from 
Esopus to Albany. — J. Pierce. 

38. Lime-stone, abounding with shells. Crown Point, 
Lake Champlain, New- York. 

39. Lime charged with shells ; from the bank of Onion 
River, Burlington, Vermont. — Dr. J. E. Bliss. 

40. A series of specimens, showing the geognostic for- 
mation between Hudson River at Glenns Falls, and the 
Northern Lakes. — Milbert and Garin. 

41. A series of twenty specimens, primitive and secon- 
dary, showing the constitution and nature of the rocks at 
St. Johns, on the river Sorel ; at Montreal and its vicinity ; 
at St. Regis, up the river St. Lawrence, and some other 
localities. — Professor Andrew Ellicot. 

42. An extensive and complete collection, amounting to 
more than fifty pieces of the specimens selected to dis- 
play the geognostic and mineral formation from Buffalo 
to Lewistown ; or in other words, to show the composition 
of the rocks between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, along 
Niagara River ; consisting, among other articles, of the 
following : — 

(a) Pieces of the brittle shistic rock, underlaying the 
thick strata of fetid lime-stone at the cataract. 

(6) Fragments of the superincumbent rock over which 
the water descends, and finally precipitates. 

(c) Fetid lime-stone, associated with blende, or sulphu- 
ret of zinc. 

(d) The blende reduced, by cleavage, to its primitive 
form. — Torrey. 

(e) Six specimens of rhomboidal spar, mostly adhering 
to the aforesaid rock. 

(/) Two specimens of dog's-tooth spar. 

(o) Two specimens of calcareous carbonate, in cubes. 

(A) Four of the whitish silicious nodules, found embed- 
ded in the lime-stone at the Falls; with crystals of quartz 
and calcareous carbonate. 

(/) Three other similar articles. 



28 . 

(j) Black flint, broken out of the black lime- stone at 
Black Rock. 

(k) Plastic clay, from Goat Island. 

{I) Moss, with a portion of soil. Falls. 

(m) Half a dozen specimens, giving indications of sul- 
phur. 

(n) Carbonate of lime changed to sulphate of lime ; or 
in other words, lime-stone turning to gypsum. 

(0) About twenty pieces of the gypsum found at the 
Falls ; some amorphous and opaque white, and others la- 
mellar and transparent ; the former, when picked below the 
cataract, in small masses, called by the people, " petrified 
foam" of the water. 

(p) Upwards of twenty specimens, chiefly ceratites (or 
cornuted madreporites), cardites, and some very singular 
forms ; among which are an organ-pipe corallite, associ- 
ated with pyrites, and penetrated by petroleum ; the pro- 
duction called petrified buffalo's dung, he. he. 

(q) Shells of unios, or fresh water mussels, from the 
bottom of the cataract ; with a jaw-bone. 

(r) Shells in rock. Falls of Genesee River. 

($) The singular whitish lime-stone ; from Fort Holmes, 
the highest ground on the island of Michillimackinac ; con- 
taining traces of shells. — J. B. Stevenson. 

(i) Three specimens of dog's-tooth spar; from Put-in 
Bay, Lake Erie. — Douglas. 

43. Half a dozen samples, from the falls of West Canada 
Creek, near Trenton, Oneida county. Curious articles, 
from a most romantic region. 



N° VIII. 

The eighth Shelf. 



1. Six meteoric stones, or aerolites : 

(a) One which fell near Aigle of Normandy, in France^ 

■J. C. Cabell. 



29 

(b) One which descended at Stannern, near Iglau, in 
Moravia. — Schreibers, 1808. 

(c) Four of those which were precipitated in Weston 
town, Connecticut, in 1813. Middlebrook, Blakeman. 
— Brunson. 

2. Obsidian, or Iceland agate ; a volcanic production, 
from Hecla. 

3. Obsidian from Sardinia. — Reynolds. 

4. Pitch-stone porphyry ; from Arran Island, Scotland. 

5. The like ; black variety ; same locality. 

6. Other obsidians. 

7. Volcanic ashes, that fell on the deck of a vessel 60 
miles from St. Vincent, during an eruption of the moun- 
tain on that island. 

8. Volcanic ashes, gathered on the cliffs of Mollidor, 70 
miles from the burning mountain of Arequipa, Peru. — H. 
Smith. 

9. Polished pieces of lava, from Vesuvius.— V. Seaman. 

10. A snuff-box of Ischian lava. — Destroimens. 

1 J . Specimens of the volcanic stones which overwhelm- 
ed the city of Pompeii, in the sixty-fourth year of the 
Christian era. 

12. A display of dross, cinders, pumice, stones, sul- 
phures, sulphurets, sulphates, slags, and other igneous 
productions of Vesuvius ; some of the lavas containing 
pieces of metal, forced into them while soft and flowing. 

13. Pumice-stones, from several localities. 

(a) From Rhene, or the smaller Delos, one of the Cy- 
clades. Very light. — C. Rhind. 

(b) From the extinguished volcano in the island of M ar- 
tinico. — A. Anderson. 

(c) From the Indian ocean, west of Sumatra. 

14. Lava and slag from the Sandwich Islands, in the 
Pacific Ocean, in six specimens : 

(a) One of which is said to be a fragment of the rock 
where Captain Cook was killed. 

(b) Another, where his body was cut to pieces ; and, 



30 

(3) A third, where the roasting was performed for the 
cannibal feast. 

15. Six specimens of lava and volcanic scoria?; from 
the plain of Mexico, and the neighbouring mountains. — 
General Wilkinson. 

16. Pumice-stone, alleged to have been found in the 
Highlands of New- York ; the original piece, of which the 
present is a fragment, was as large as a man's head, and 
floated in water. — T. B. Cooke. 

17. Vitreous lava, from Hecla, Iceland. — S. Owens, 

18. Sample of the volcanic rock forming the Island of 
St. Helena. 

19. Lava from the banks of the river Rhine ; of which 
the millstones from Cologne, heretofore used in New- York 
for grinding corn, and called by the Dutch settlers Holland 
millstones, were prepared. From the mills at Plandome. 

20. A piece of the rock of which the Island of Madeira 
chiefly consists ; rough volcanic substance, between slag 
and cinder; perhaps illustrating the cause wherefore the 
grape of the vine in that spot elaborates a juice on such an 
igneous base, as is unknown in every other place. 

21. Samples from the Azores, or Western Islands in the 
Atlantic ocean. 

(a) Lava from Fayal ; and 

(6) Sulphuret and sulphate of lime, from St. Michaels. 

22. Lava, tufas, and other igneous productions, from the 
Peak of Teneriffe. — Perry, and Dey. 

23. Volcanic sulphurs, or primitive brimstones ; from 
Mount Vesuvius. 

24. Articles of the like kind, amorphous and crystal- 
ized ; some of them with an incipient association with 
lime. From the Salfatarra, near Naples. Diversified and 
instructive. 

25. Sulphurets, with small admixtures ; from Solfatarra. 
— R. Bayley. 

26. Igneous sulphur, with calcareous sulphuret; from a 
spot in Java Island, 60 miles from Batavia. The crater is 



31 

nearly extinct, though a little vapour continues to be visi- 
ble. The brimstone is still very abundant at the base of 
the mountain. — P. Lauman. 

27. Sulphur, with accompanying gypsum, of Guade- 
loupe. Volcanic. — Maddiana. 

28. Igneous sulphur, from the volcano of Guadaloupe. 
Neat production. — Maddiana. 

29. Admirable mass of sulphur, from Etna, supposed to 
be pure. — Rafinesque. 

30. An almost unexampled specimen of the sulphate of 
lime, a transparent gypsum ; from the base of Mount 
Etna, at Palermo, in Sicily ; more than two feet long, about 
ten inches wide, and one quarter of an inch thick. — Salter. 



N°IX. 

The ninth Shelf. 



1. The preceding specimens of sulphur, being such as 
were formed in the dry way, or by means of fire or subter- 
raneous heat. Here follow some which have been produced 
in the moist way, or by means of water. 

(a) Native sulphur, from West Point, Orange county, 
New-York, not far from the Military Academy. The ad- 
mixtures of foreign ingredients render it blackish, like an 
Ethiop's mineral. 

(b) Sulphureous sediment, from the trough of a spring, 
three miles west of Athens village, New-York. — Seeley. 

(c) Sulphureous depositions, in proper form, on moss 
and leaves ; from the spring at Clifton, Phelpstown, On- 
tario county, New- York. — Adriance and Miller. 

(d) Another sample of the deposit, after artificial evapo- 
ration ; brimstone, leaves, &x., as they had consolidated in 
a cup. — The same. 

(dd) A phial of the sediment, or solid matter, obtained 
by evaporating the water of the Salt Sulphur Sping, 
Monroe county, Virginia. — Dodge, 



32 

(e) A bottle containing sulphur, from the Clifton Spring 
wherein there is a portion of unassociated or disengaged 
sulphuric acid. — Godon. 

(/) A comuted madrepore, bedded in the fetid lime- 
stone of the region, and overspread with the sulphur pre- 
cipitated after the escape of the hydrogenous gas in which 
it had been dissolved while under ground. A specimen of 
thousands 3 overspread in like manner. 

(g) The wooden case of a butternut, overspread with 
sulphur, of Clifton Springs. Interesting. 

(h) Various favosites, madreporites, &c, from the same 
spot, though lying rather above the aqueo-sulphureous 
stream ; or else the sulphur has been rubbed off during the 
transportation. 

2. Sulphureo-calcareous sediment of the Canandaigua 
Spring, near the source of the lake so denominated ; very 
much resembling that of Clifton, near Geneva. The water 
and its product, now inland, is in the town of Richfield, 
and county of Otsego, New- York. 

3. Residue, after evaporating the water of the before- 
mentioned spring by boiling. Probably a carbonate of 
lime, with a sulphate of magnesia ? — Dr. H. Manley. 

4. A bottle of the sulphureous water from Fredonia, 
Chatauque county, New-York. 

5. A bottle of the ferrigino-sulphureous water, from a 
spring on the southern shore of Lake Erie, at the village 
of Dunkirk. 

6. A horn, a solitary one, of the Wapiti deer, or North 
American elk 5 dug out of the sulphureous bog of Canan- 
derago, by Dr. H. Manley ; showing the probability that 
this noble creature formerly inhabited the region east of 
the Mississippi, as the caribou perhaps, in ancient days, 
ventured southward of the St. Lawrence River. 

7. North American fluates of lime, from five several 
places — to wit: 

(a) From Patterson, Huron county, Ohio, in a ridge 
among the prairies, below the level of Sandusky Bay, 
Almost black. — F. Graneer- 



33 

(b) From Cave-iu Rock, Gallatin county, Illinois. Am- 
ber-coloured. 

(c) With primitive rock, at Black-heath Coal-pit, Vir- 
ginia. — Green. 

(d) From some place in Missouri. Beautiful sample. 
— Morrell. 

(e) From Huntington, Fairfield county, Connecticut; 
with quartz and gneiss. Pale purple. 

For another locality, to wit, Lockport, New-York, see 
the five specimens on Shelf the Sixth, among the Minerals 
of the twelfth compartment. Glassy. 

8. European fluates of lime; from Derbyshire and 
Cornwall, in England ; to the number of about twenty 
specimens, of different hues, from hyaline to green ; some 
elegantly crystalized, and some amorphous, and associated 
with blende, galena, barytes, &c. 

9. A fossil bone, from the neighbourhood of Wilming- 
ton, Cape Fear, North Carolina ; supposed to be the 
radius of some cetaceous animal, probably the balaena 
boops : length twenty-two inches, and very compact. 

10. Three choice specimens of the sulphate of barytes, 
(or terra ponderosa,) with the sulphuret of lead, (or 
galena.) Derbyshire. 

11. A tray, containing a dozen fine crystals of quartz. 



N° X. 

The tenth Shelf. 



1. Three specimens of the coal slate, found in Provi- 
dence Hill ; abounding with impressions of ferns ; two of 
them large. — D. Mauran. 

2. Samples of coal found six miles north-west of Provi- 
dence. — Barnes. 

3. Large piece of the coal slate, abounding in ferns, 
overlaying the coal formation of Rhode-Island. 

E 



34 

4. Fragments of the coal itself; (a) pure, and resem- 
bling Kilkenny coal, for brewers' use. 

(b) Associated with quartz. 

(c) Connected with asbestos. 

5. Solid bitumen from Trinidad ; various masses. 

6. A set of specimens from the shore of New Spain, 
south of Vera Cruz, of the glassy bituminous kind. Masses 
are cast on shore by the waves. They contain sponges, 
and other productions of the sea ; break with a shining and 
vitreous fracture, and emit a very strong bituminous odour ; 
leading to a belief that this singular substance had been 
prepared by the sub-marine fire of some volcano at the 
bottom of the Mexican Gulf. 

7. A fine specimen of mineral coal, exhibiting the 
fibrous and other appearances of charcoal from wood. 

8. Solid bitumen, from Cape St. Antonio, west end of 
Cuba. 

9. Solid bitumen, in a tin box, taken from the back of 
an ancient Babylonian brick, (an article of my antiquarian 
collection,) brought from Bussorah, by Captain Henry 
Austen. 

10. Modern bitumen, from some spot between the Tigris 
and Euphrates, where the earth continues to this day to 
afford it. — Austen. 

11. Compact bitumen, from Fort Stevens, Alabama. 

12. A compartment of mineral coal specimens, from 
Lancashire, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland ; but more espe- 
cially from the Glance formation in Pennsylvania of the 
Lehigh and Schuylkill varieties : some of them beautifully 
iridescent. (For the overlying and incumbent slate, see 
Shelf IV., No. 1, a, b, c, &c.) 

13. A large West Indian bean, or seed, found in a stra- 
tum of Lancashire coal. England. 

14. A suite of specimens, showing the constitution of 
peat and turf; from various localities around New-York. 

15. A series of lignites, or samples of wood blackened 
\)y brimstone, pyrites, or sulphuric acid; from several 



00 



localities around, and from the depth, in some instances, of 
lifty feet, and even more. 

16. A row of plumbago and graphite specimens. 

17. A range of pyritical productions, frequently asso- 
ciated with the lignite, or mineralized wood. Many of the 
original pieces have crumbled down by decomposition, and 
■ome of these give indications of changing to copperas 
and alum. 

18. Several specimens of adipocire, or fossil fat: 

(a) Mineral tallow, white aud compact ; found at Cata- 
raugus, Chatauque county, New- York, four miles and one 
half south of Lake Erie, at the depth of about four feet, 
by a person digging a well on the declivity of a small hill, 
in somewhat marshy ground. The piece from which the 
two present samples were taken, was about two feet and a 
half long ; and near it was discovered another, six feet 
long! 1S17. — J. Hull. 

(b) The lean of beef changed to fat, by long lying in 
the water of a well near Warren-street, New-York. 1819. 

(c) The fatty matter into which a woman was converted, 
after lying in the grave thirty-three years. The discovery 
was made by the disinterment necessary for the improve- 
ment of the city at the North Park, east end of the Insti- 
tution. 

(d) Factitious adipocire. 

19. American copal, as dug out of the ground in Costa 
Rica and Guatimala ; some of the pieces containing verv 
neat and perfect forms of insects. 

20. Spunk of the pine and other trees. 

21. A singular kind of mineral resin, variegated with 
brown and yellow ; found near Guayaquil, and conjectured 
to be a new kind of fossil bitumen ; probably like the 
copal, the production of some tree. — Ridgeley— Foote. 

22. Petroleum, from Medina county, Rocky River, 
Ohio, 40 miles from the nearest coal-mine, from a spring 
furnishing eight gallons a day. — J. W. Clark. 

23. Half a dozen ferrwgtnous articles : 



3G 

(«) From the Queen's mine in Mexico. 

(b) From St. Bias, in Brazil. 

(c) From the Highlands, New-York. 

(d) Ramapo, New-York. 

(e) Resembling a mastodon's tooth ; from Plandome. 
(/) Pyrites, beautifully crystalized on slate. 

24. A suite of the scapulite specimens, with pyroxyne of 
a green colour ; both crystalized. Orange county, New- 
York. 

25. Granular pyroxyne, of a green hue, in flesh-colour- 
ed carbonate of lime. Orange county, New-York. 

26. Mispickel, or arsenical pyrites ; large lump. War- 
wick, Orange county, New- York. 

27. White pyrites, or arseniated iron ore, very much 
like the preceding. Larger specimen. Kent, Putnam 
county, New- York. 

28. Glittering galena, or sulphuret of lead with quartz. 
Large piece. Northampton, Mass. 

29. Fantastic nodule of flint, from a chalk-pit in the 
south of England ; mistakenly supposed by some to be a 
petrified human os innominatum. 

30. Surface of four inches by seven, covered with quartz 
crystals. Stafford Springs, Connecticut. 

31. Fine large sample of cyanite. Massachusetts. 

32. Curious geode, found near the Wachita River ; 
supposed by the finder erroneously to be the petrified skull 
of a buffalo ; belongs really to the argillaceous septarias. 
As the specimen had been broken, a part of it was lost in 
moving. 

33. Large concave specimen of crystalized haematite, 
or iridescent iron ore. 

34. Three different samples of American serpentine. 
New-Haven. 

35. Five polished specimens of steatitic serpentine; 
two of them beautiful, diversified with arborescent stains, 
or figures resembling trees in leaf at a distance. Near 
Corlaers Hook, in the city of New-York. — Akerly. 



37 



JV° XI. 

The eleventh Shelf. 

1. Fine stalactite, or aqueous carbonate of lime ; from 
a cave in Bermuda. 

2. Nullipore, or polypier without orifices. Neighbour- 
ing sea. 

3. Lenticular gypsum. France. 

4. Lamellar gypsum. Nova-Scotia. 

5. Milk-white gypseous alabaster. Bay of Fundy. 

6. Three specimens of tripoli, or scouring stone ; two 
from Louisville, Kentucky. 

7. Two small specimens of basaltes ; the larger six 
inches in length, and nearly three in breadth ; one a hex- 
agon, and the other a pentagon. St. Croix. 

7. Made. Northampton, Mass. 

8. Hexagonal mica. Highlands. 

9. Coccolite in spar. Ticonderoga. 

10. Seven specimens of polished serpentine ; white, 
black, dark green, pale green, yellow, red, &c. ; from 
several localities ; one elegant one from Dagget's quarry, 
New-Haven. 

11. Polished specimen of the native magnesia, from 
Hoboken. 

12. Half a dozen specimens of the rocks from Arendal, 
in the southern region of Norway; showing their primitive 
constitution of quartz, horn-blende, feld-spar, &c. ; and 
allowing comparisons to be made with the primordial rocks 
in our own country. 

13. The stony production from the S. W. Coast of New 
Holland, called the petrific region ; which has been, with- 
out full evidence, denominated a petrified serpent. 

14. Two specimens of smoothed marble, with cardites 
and entrochites. 



38 

15. A mass of steatitical clay. 

16. A large and complete crystal of factitious alum. 

17. Menilite ; very fine. France. — Ha ; jy. 

18. Elegant zeolite. Ferro. — Owens. 

19. Curious geode. Mexico. — Del Rio. 

20. Flexible amianthus. Peru. — Tafur. 

21. Quicksilver, with silver (mercure argental), on litho- 
marge, or stone marl. Idria. — Hauy, with his own label. 

22. Cobalt, in crystals. Tunaberg, Sweden. — Hauy, 
in his proper handwriting. 

23. Circone of Ceylon, in crystals. — From the same. 

24. Staurotide. — The same. 

25. An oblong mass of sea salt, or muriate of soda, 
crystalized upon the branch of a tree ; weighing ten 
pounds. Turks-Island. 

26. A superb flabellaria, one of the coraline family, 
bearing on its surface various other productions, such as 
the polype, lepas, sponge, several species of asterias, &c. 
Bottom of the sea, near Curaqoa. — J. Mitchell. 

27. An imitation of the human skull, upon the model of 
the celebrated Gall ; in gypsum ; showing, by the com- 
partments of the brain, the different seats of passion and 
intellect, and indicating the principles of craniology, now 
termed phrenology.— F. Cooper. 

28. Beside it, by way of comparison or contrast, the 
real skull of an American indigene, from the plain of Mon- 
tevideo., in South America, well bleached, and exhibiting 
some peculiarities worthy to be examined by the anatomist. 
— R. B. Storer. 

29. A tin box, containing fragments of the bones belong- 
ing heretofore to mammiferous animals, disinterred at Ny- 
ack, Rockland county, New-York, from a stratum of loam 
underlaying a mass of red sand-stone, eight feet thick, 
upon which was superimposed a cover of arable soil, four 
feet deep. Many more pieces have been dug out by the 
workers of the quarry.— —J. Smith— — G. Delavan— — S 
Youngs. 



3D 

30. Serpentine running into asbestoid. New-Haven. 

31. Carbonate of lime, crystalized in parallel fibres, 
very much like some of the Gibraltar specimens. From 
Curaqoa. The interest of a mass as large as an infant's 
head, is increased by the perforation it shows of the borers 
and piercers of rocks. 

32. Specimen of a water-worn stone, three inches long, 
two inches wide, and about half an inch thick ; containing 
molluscous relics in abundance, chiefly bivalves, with their 
edges to the exterior surface, some broad-sides. North- 
west Coast. 

33. Samples of the white crystalized primitive marble of 
Eastchester, 20 miles from this city, of which the huge co- 
lumns of the Exchange consist. The quarry affords masses 
one hundred feet long, compact and entire. 

34. Two teeth of the fossil animal at Skiddaway Island, 
Georgia ; on which a judgment was formed that they be- 
longed to the unknown and extinct megatherium, as an- 
nounced in the Annals of the Lyceum, vol. i. p. 58 and 
61, with figures; and continued by Mr. Cooper, ibid. p. 
114 and 124, with plates. — A. Taylor. 



N° XII. 

The twelfth Shelf. 



1. Crystalized stalactite, from a cave distant two 
leagues from Marseilles, in France. The present specimen 
was taken from a natural pillar, about three miles from the 
entrance ; the whole extent being nine miles. — A. Imbert. 

2. Sulphuret of zinc (blende), of iron (pyrites), and of 
lead (galena), associated with crystals of quartz. Shaw- 
angunk. 

3. Syenite of quartz, shoerl, and feldspar. Plandome. 

4. Iron ores of Elba : 



40 

(a) Oligistic oxyd, in beautiful plates, and with iridescent 
hues. 

(b) Yellowish sulphuret, in cellular squares, with quartzy 
crystals. 

5. Black and yellow marble, from Upper Egypt. 

6. Cloudy agate, resembling petrified wood. 

7. Various specimens of variegated wacke, bituminous 
shale, &c. 

8. Stalactite, from Madison's Cave, Vir. — Van Ness. 

9. French chalk, or craye de Brianc,on. 

10. Factitious substance, resembling pumice; from Al- 
laire's Iron-works, Egg Harbour. 

11. Steatite, from Orford, high up Connecticut River: 
of which stoves and fireplaces have been made. — Quincy. 

12. Kelp, from Falkland Islands, from the burning of 
sea-weeds. — McKay. 

13. Several other things. 



ADDENDUM. 

(Ef 8 * Paragraph omitted from the Third Shelf. Strike 
out No. 24, and insert the following : — 

24. Thirteen specimens, some compressed, others per- 
fectly shaped; a few fractured, the greater part entire; 
certain of them naked, the rest with their matrix adhering. 
From Kentucky. They had been received by the donor 
before the year 1810; and had been particularly noticed, 
as exceedingly singular relics, in Mitchill and Miller's 
Medical Repository, vol. xi. p. 415. Is the pentremite 
which is latterly considered as having given rise to the 
family blastoidea. Of the several species belonging to the 
genus pentremite, the Kentucky fossil, is the pentremites 
florealis. — Brown. — (Acad. Nat. Sciences, vol. iv. p. 295.) 

iiiiiiiiiiiiBiiSS MAYR library 
3 2044 118 679 III