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Full text of "Catalogue of the Persian manuscripts in the British museum"

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TE>hH^Vn ^useovr^. >^.d(^ OH^^t■^,\ HiY^VtM Loo^i i /tsi 



CATALOGUE 



OF 



THE PERSIAN MANUSCRIPTS 



IN 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



BY 

CHARLES RIEU, Ph. D. 

KEEPER OF THE ORIENTAL MSS. 



VOLUME I. 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 



SOLD AT THE BRITISH MUSEUM; 

AND BY 

LONGMANS & CO., 38 to 41, PATEENOSTEE EOW; B. M. PICKEEING, 196, PICCADILLY; 

B. QUAEITCH, 15, PICCADILLY; 

AND ASHEE & CO., 13, BEDFOED STEEET, COVENT GAEDEN, 

AND 11, UNTEE DEN LINDEN, BEELIN. 

1879. 



LONDON : 
tHLBBHT AND BIVINGTON, 

52, 8T. John's squabe, clebkenwell, e.c. 






This Volume, the printing of which was commenced in 1876, contains the description of 947 
Persian manuscripts, classed under the heads of Theology. History. Geography, and some 
subordmate divisions. 

Out of a large number of rare and valuable works which are here noticed, it may not 
be superfluous to point out the foUowing. as possessing, from their extreme scarcity and the 
importance of their contents, exceptional claims to the attention of the reader :_ 

^""j' f ■"^' *^^ ^™-l ^^-nicle of Rashid ud-Din, nearly complete in a huge 
foho (p. 74). Although bearing the seal of Shahrukh, it is not so correct a copy as mi^^ht 
be expected from that royal ownership. " 

A general history by Khwurshah, commonly called Elchi e Nizamshah. who accom- 
panied Shah Tahmasp in some of his campaigns, and who gives a detailed account of that 
kmg s reign and of some contemporary dynasties in Tabaristan (p. 107). 

The Tarikhi Rashldi of Mirza Haidar Dughlat, a history of the Khans of Kashghar and 
Moghuhstan, including the author's personal memoirs, which scarcely yield in interest to 
the autobiography of his contemporary and near relative, the emperor Babar (p. 164). 

The Zafar-Namah of Nizam Shami, the earliest authentic history of Timilr, written 
by his order A.D. 1404 (p. 170). 

The Safar-Namah of Nasir Ben Khusrau. a narrative of the author's journey from 
Merv to Mecca A.D. 1046—1050 (p. 379). 

^ The geography of al-Istakhri, translated into Persian, under the title of Ashkal i 'Alam, 
for 'All Khwajah, Amir of Jand, about A.D. 1220 (p. 415). 

A voluminous geographical work composed for Shahrukh by ^afiz i Abrfi, A.D. 
1417—1420, and including a very foU history of Khorasan (p. 421). 

A second volume of the Persian Catalogue, comprising the remaining classes, is 
complete in manuscript, and will shortly be published. 

The manuscripts of the late Sir Henry Miers Elliot, purchased in 1878. and 
some other recent acquisitions. wUl form the subject of a third volume, which will 
also contain a preface and indices extending to the entire work. 

J -7 00 -.o^n CHARLES RIEU. 

Apnl 23, 1879. 



CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME. 



PAGE 

Cheistian Tueology 1 

The Cokan and its Commentaries . . 6 

Traditions of Muhammad .... 14 

Traditions of the Imams 18 

Law 22 

Theology and Controversy .... 27 

Shi 'ah Theology 30 

Asceticism and Sufism 35 

Parsism 46 

Hinduism 54 

General History 68 

History of Creeds and Sects . . . 139 
History of the Prophets, Muhammad, 

THE KhALIFS, and THE ImAMS . . . 143 

History of the Ghaznavis . . . . 157 

History of the Moghuls 160 

History of the Muzaffaris .... 16H 



PAGE 

History of Timur 170 

History of the Safavis 184 

History of Nadir Shah 192 

History of the Zands and Kajars . 196 

Local Histories of Iran 202 

History of Turkey 216 

General History of India .... 220 

Sultans of Dehli 239 

History of the Timurides .... 244 

Local Histories of India 287 

Biography 833 

Lives of Saints and Sufis .... 342 

Lives of Poets 364 

Memoirs and Travels 379 

Letters and Official Papers . . . 388 

Geography AND Topography .... 415 



CHRISTIAI THEOLOGY. 



Add. 19,431. 

Foil. 270 ; 8f in. by 61 ; 13 lines, 3 in. 
long; written in plain Nestalik, A.D. 1694. 
From the library of the Duke of Sussex. 

The four Gospels in Persian; viz. Matthew, 
foL 1 b; Mark, fol. 74 6; Luke, fol. 123 a; 
John, fol. 201 b. 

Beg. J^ j^JU &Li»y ^ji^y* (_^j>fl/« Ojlli 

This version agrees very closely with that 
of the Vienna MS. described by Hammer in 
the Mines de 1' Orient, VI. pp. 280—2, and 
by Fliigel in the Vienna Catalogue, III., 
p. 11. The latter version was written, as stated 
in the preface, for Louis XIV. [read Louis 
XIII.] by a French missionary on his return 
from Georgia, in the year 1616. 

The following beginning of the third chap- 
ter of Matthew may be compared with the 
text given by Hammer, 1. c. : 

^fXtite) ldbl>\ Cmm\ i^ Bjjii iX)] Cm*) fjA r 



s\j vJ-iT euLi-L. jjjULjjcS » JJj/ tilib j\j\ C^ &io I 



\jj) }4^ ^ ^\ 



J \jSi^^ 



The Gospels of Mark, Luke, and John have 
short arguments. There are headings in red 
ink indicating the contents of every chapter ; 
the verses are divided and marked with 
Arabic figures. 

A table of chapters for the four Gospels is 
subjoined, fol. 260 a, and is followed, fol. 
265 6, by a collection of " such passages as 
make it evident that Jesus Christ is the Son 

of God" «/ ^^ \j^\ i^\ J J Ji^j^ 5\io.W 

It is stated in the subscription that the MS. 
was written in HUgli during the governor- 
ship of Nawwab Ibrahim Khan, A.D. 1694, 
and that its owner's name was o«»;j»- . The 
same name, with the addition of " Baronet " 
cJiji i^jfr J is found on the fly-leaf. 

Or. 1419. 

FoU. 163 ; 14i in. by 8^ ; 16 lines, 6 in, 
long; written in fair Nestalik on English 
paper, apparently in India, towards the 
close of the 18th century. 



2 



CHRISTIAIJ THEOLOGY. 



Anotlior version of the four Gospels ; 
viz., Matthew, fol. 2 6; Mark, fol. 49 6; 
John, fol. 78 b ; Luke, fol. 114 b. 

Bfg- ^Jf- U^J^ Lci>-^ J\^ J^ ^ <J* ^^ 

This version agrees closely with the Persian 
translation printed hy Walton in his Biblia 
Polyglotta. It is not divided into chapters 
but short paragraphs. The first thirty-one 
of these, corresponding to Matthew i. — vi. 
27, alone have headings as in the printed text. 

The forms of some words and proper 
names show that this version is derived 
from the Syriac. We read for instance in 

Luke i. 5, liUi* (aic) ^i ^^\ J^}j j<i Jy 

Many similar instances are given by Graves 
in Walton's Polyglott, vol. VI., p. 57. 
Chapter III. of Matthew begins as follows : 

There is a lacune extending from Luke 
xxiii. 4 to xxiv. 10 inclusive, for the filling 
up of which three pages have been left 
blank. 

The volume is endorsed in the hand of 
the transcriber — J j\^. ^J^>J^J'i J^'l »*»-y 

The first page bears the stamp " Claud 
Martin." 

Claude Martin, a native of Lyons, settled, 
after an adventurous youth, in Oude, where 
he became a great favourite with Shuja'ud- 
Daulah and his successor Asaf ud-Daulah. 
lie rose to the rank of Major-General, 
amassed immense wealth, and died at Lucknow 
in 1800. See Biogr. Univ. XXVII., p. 213. 



Add. 19,532. 

Foil. 213; 11 J in. by 8; 19 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in plain cursive Nestalik, 
slightly Shikastah-amiz, with a rich TJnwan, 
some illuminated headings and gold-ruled 
margins, in the early part of the 19th century ; 
bound in painted covers. From the library 
of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. 

The New Testament in Persian ; viz. Mat- 
thew, fol. 1 b; Mark, fol. 29 a; Luke, fol. 
46 a; John, fol. 73 a; Acts, fol. 94 a; 
Epistles, fol. 120 a ; Revelation, fol. 198 b. 

Beg. Ki j^ii>\j>\j\ ^i— • «*l) i.^^ j<i Jjl Lyb 

UjUtfO (^jMtlJ CLJj^ j fr>..y* {^i^*^ {^i^-^^ J l_flM»^ 
,_;• O I, ^.,M./« V ,A./<'l..ii . ^JO t>^i^j> ^oJ^Uo J&U9 J 

This is the version of the Rev. Henry 
Martyn. It was printed, with a Latin title, 
in S. Petersburg, 1815, then in Calcutta, 1816, 
and often since. Martyn prepared a first 
Persian translation of the four Gospels, with 
the assistance of an Arab convert named 
Sabat, at Dinapore, in the years 1807 — 9. 
This having been rejected at Calcutta, as too 
full of Arabic idioms, he set to work again 
in Shiraz, with the help of Mirza Sayyid 'Ali 
Elhan, and completed in the space of eleven 
months, from June 1811 to May 1812, a new 
translation of the entire New Testament, as 
well as one of the Psalms. Martyn died, on 
his return journey to England, in Tocat on the 
16th of October, 1812. See "Memoir of 
the Rev. H. Martyn " [by John Sargent], 
London, 1819, and " Journals and Letters of 
the Rev. H. Martyn, edited by S. Wilber- 
forcc," London, 1837. 

In the present copy the chapters have 
headings in red ink, indicating their con- 
tents ; but these have not been entered from 
fol. 171 to 210. The verses are not divided. 

Harl. 5455. 

FoU. 216; 9i in. by 5; 15 lines, 3 in. 



CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 



8 



long ; written in plain Nestalik, apparently 
in India; dated Eamazan A.H. 1027 (A.D. 
1618). 

"The Mirror of Holiness," a Life of Christ. 
Author : Padre Geronimo Xavier t^j-il-^ 

Beg. job ^ (Jii)]/ i^y «^ (j-j^l oy 

The author, a native of Navarre, and a 
relative of the celebrated " Apostle of India," 
S. Erancis Xavier, joined the Jesuit Mission 
at Goa in 1571, and died there in 1617. See 
Zedler's Lexicon, under Xaverius (Hier.), 
Biogr. Univ., under Xavier (J(^r6me) and 
Dorn, S. Petersburg Catalogue, pp. 243 — 6. 
He stayed for a long time at the Moghul 
Court, and his " Historica Relatio de Missione 
ad regnum Magni Mogor," Moguntise, 1601, 
throws much light on his intimate relations 
both with Akbar, whom he accompanied on 
a journey to Kashmir, and with his son 
Jahangir. 

The present work has been edited, with a 
Latin translation and remarks, conceived in 
no friendly spirit, by Louis de Dieu under 
the title of " Historia Christi Persice " etc. 
Lugduni Batv. 1639. The copy which he 
used belonged to Jacob Golius ; it appears 
to have been an exact counterpart of the 
present MS., and has the same subscription. 
Another copy, containing autograph notes by 
the author, is in the Gotha Library ; see 
Pertsch's Catalogue, p. 57, and D. Porbes' 
Catalogue, p. 40. 

Other works by the same Xavier are a 
History of S. Peter, also edited by L. de Dieu, 



Lugd. Bat. 1839; Lives of the Apostles, 
written in 1609, a copy of which is described 
by Uri, p. 270, xmder the title (_^jJiJ\ »y ; 
a Persian translation of the Psalms ; and the 
" Guide of Kings," addressed to Jahangir in 
1609; see Bibliotheca Marsdeniana, p. 305. 

In the preface of the present work, dated 
Agrah, A.D. 1602, the author states that he 
wrote it by desire of the Emperor Akbar, 
after having been engaged for seven or eight 
years in the study of the Persian language. 
He says, at the end, that he was assisted in 
the Persian translation by Maulana 'Abd us- 
Sattar B. Kasim Lahauri, and that it was 
completed in Agrah in the same year, the 
47th of Akbar's reign. It is divided into four 
chapters (Bab) treating, 1. of Christ's infancy ; 
2. of His miracles and teaching ; 3. of His 
death ; 4. of His resurrection. 

It may be further noticed, that at the end 
of the preface, the reader is referred for a 
fuller exposition of the subject to the author's 
other work " A'lnah i Hakk Numa " (see 
p. 4), then, it is said, nearly completed. 

The name ^* ^JVL«b, by which the pre- 
sent work is commonly known, is written as 
a . running title at the top of every other 
page. 

Prom a letter prefixed to this volume it 
appears that it was brought from Aleppo by 
Sam. Marshall, Esq., of Shalford HaU, who 
presented it, in 1686, to the Eev. Dr. Colvil, 
of Christ College, Cambridge. 

A short Latin description, in the hand- 
writing of Jean Gagnier (see Arabic Catal. 
Addenda ad, p. 8 a), is pasted on the fly-leaf. 

Add. 16,878. 

PoU. 74 ; 7| in. by 4>l ; 17 lines, 2^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in 
India, in the 18th century. [Wai. Yule.] 

An imperfect copy of the same work, con- 
b2 



CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 



taining Chapter I., without any preface, fol. 
1 b ; Chapter III., fol. 37 a ; and Chapter IV., 
fol. 59 a. 

It is endorsed in Persian " History of 
Jesus and of the birth of Mary, translated 
from an English book." Tliis MS., as well 
as several others of the Yule collection, 
bears on the first page the stamp " Claud 
Martin." 

Harl. 5478. 

Foil. 525; 9| in. by 5|; 15 Hues, 3| in. 
long; written partly in Nestalik, partly in 
Shikastah-Amiz ; dated Jumada I., the 
sixth year of the reign (probably that of 
Jahfingir = A.H. 1019, A.D. 1610). 

" The Truth-reflecting Mirror," in which 
the doctrines and mysteries of Christianity 
are fully expounded, and its superiority to 
Islamism demonstrated, by the same author. 

Beg. «ja\ jjb ^ ui,^J^(i)y «/U> j* wuJl 

It is stated in the heading that the author. 
Padre Geronimo Xavier, a member of the 
Society of Jesus, came from Goa to Lahore, 
where he was presented at Court, A.D. 1596. 

In the preface which follows, the author 
states that he had enjoyed, twelve years 
previously, the privilege of kissing the im- 
perial threshold, and that he now dedicated 
this work to Jahangir as a slight return for 
past favours, and a humble ofiering on the 
occasion of his accession. 

The work is written in the form of a dialogue 
between the Padre and a philosopher or free 
thinker (Hakim), whom he purports to have 
met at Court, while in some parts a Mullfi 
intervenes as a third interlocutor. 

It is divided into five books (Bilb) sub- 



divided into chapters (Fasl), a full table of 
which is given at the end of the preface, 
foil. 14 b — 18 a. The five books are as fol- 
lows : 1. Necessity of a divine law; fol. 18 o. 
2. What Christianity teaches regarding God, 
and proofs of its being conformable to reason ; 
fol. 73 b. 3. Divinity of Jesus Christ our 
Lord ; fol. 208 a. (The end of this book 
and the beginning of the next are missing). 
4. Commandments of the Gospel and their 
contrast with those of Muhammad ; fol. 322 a. 
The strength imparted by the Christian 
faith and its superiority to other religions ; 
fol. 437 b. 

The work was finished, as stated at the 
end, A.D. 1609. It has been noticed above, 
p. 3 b, that the author described it in 1602 
as nearly completed. 

Copyist : Tirlmal J-^y 

On the fly-leaf is found the following note, 
in the handwriting of Humphrey Wanley : 
" Donum Alexandri Pope Armigeri, mense 
Aprilis, A.D. 1723," and lower down, by the 
same hand, a short Latin description of the 
MS. in which, by a curious mistake, the 
author is called San Hieronymo Shad. 

Add. 23,584. 

Poll. 55 ; 7 in. by 4| ; 13 lines, 3^ in. long ; 
written in Nestalik; dated Sa'idabfid, district 
of Murshidabad, Bengal, Zulhijjah, A.H. 1152 
(A.D. 1740). [Rob. Taylor.] 

An abridgment of the preceding work, by 
the same. 

Beg. \j ^cWjl^jLar^^ ^ J^ J J^a. ^ J.^ 

In a long preface, addressed to Jahangir, 

the author, whose name is here written ^jj^-S. 

j>)y^, fol. 4 h, mentions his previous work 



CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 



entitled A'inah i Hakk Numa, to which he 
had devoted so many years, and says that, 
finding the Emperor's time taken up by the 
cares of government, he extracted its sub- 
stance for his use, and condensed it in the 
present " selection," i_<j5^'* 

This work, which is not, like the former, 
written in the form of dialogue, contains the 
following four chapters (Easl) : 1. Knowledge 
of the nature of God ; fol. 7 b. 2. On Jesus, 
our Lord; fol. 19 a. 3. Commandments of 
the Gospel ; fol. 32 b. 4. Divine assistance ; 
fol. 43 a. 

This is the work which found its way to 
Persia and there called forth the reply en- , 
titled Miskal i Safil, which will be described 
under Mohammedan Theology, Add. 25,867. 

The present copy was written by Ram- 
g'hosan of Sa'idabad for Khwajah 'Abd ul- 
Masih of Hamadiin. The last leaf contains 
the Lord's Prayer and the Creed in Persian. 

Add. 23,583. 

Foil. 140 ; 9| in. by 7^ ; 13 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in large and fair Naskhi on 
EngUsh paper, and on one side of the leaves 
only; dated Sha'ban, A.H. 1229 (A.D. 1814.) 

[Rob. Tatlok.] 

A work on Christian evidences. 

Author : Avanus Khalifah, »ijdi- (_)«yljl 

Beg. jj<^^ Ji^\ ijy.U* u^Si\ uJ;^\^\ ^^^ 
»_^Js/« fdJiA^ O^y^j^ ijy^^ >>»jjj ^>\ w C-Jb 

fl l.... > j«» Si (t^Y« i>— 'V icfy y^ '^^ '^^ ^'^ 'V.^ 

^Umj \j/oj>i> 5iiJ0)iip ^j 

Nothing is said of the name or country of 
the royal personage by whose order, as here 
stated, the work was written. But it is said 
at the end that it was completed A.D. 1690 : 



^ 



^'i,\ 



4ijO JJ 



ft^ i_i)^ ftjjf- -.>.<.»)) C^jA>- i)Jy 



It consists of a short introduction (Muk- 
addimah) and three Parts (Juz), subdivided 
into chapters (Fasl), and treating severally : 

1. of metaphysical notions regarding human 
perception, matter, existence, etc., fol. 6 ; 

2. of God and his attributes, fol. 24 ; 3. of 
the divinity of Christ as demonstrated by 
His miracles and the fulfilment of prophecy, 
fol. 80. 

These are the headings of the three Parts 
as given in the Introduction, fol. 4 : Jj^ >> 

J (_-Ala* Cj^ (_-o--» &i^cli!jjjs& J tlJuJjl J Ui.) 

Although containing no direct reference 
to Islamism, this work borrows largely the 
method and terminology of Muslim scholastic 
theology, and is so Arabic in its vocabiilary 
and construction as to have all the appear- 
ance of a Hteral translation from that lan- 
guage. The texts, copiously quoted from the 
Psalms and Prophets in Part III., are given 
in Arabic, and mostly accompanied with an 
interlinear Persian version in Nestalik. The 
Author was apparently a Catholic, and his 
frequent use of the second person plural in 
biblical passages, where God or a single in- 
dividual is addressed, as \J^ jo., fol. 64, jlj^ 
Ui, fol. 94, U^ ci*->Jo, fol. 134, would seem 
to betray a French origin. 

This copy was transcribed by a Moham- 
medan called Hasan B. Jamfd B. Ahmad B. 
Hasan for a Christian personage of rank, 

designated as ^U--S' »?.^ji. a-^st*^^ 'W^^ J-Vj 

t/^ LT^'j^ *»-'y- ^3 

It is eadorsed (js**"* aajli. (j-y^j) <-r'^; 
but in the text the work is termed «)L^ 
without specific title. 



MOHAMMEDAN THEOLOGY. 



THE CORAN AND ITS COMMENTARIES. 



Add. 23,252. 

Foil. 472 ; 10^ in. by 6| ; 12 lines, 3§ in. 
long ; written in fine Naskhi, with two double- 
page 'Unwans, highly finished in shaded gold, 
at the beginning, as well as illuminated head- 
ings and gold-ruled margins throughout, 
apparently in the 16th century. 

[Rob. Tatlob.] 

The Coran in Arabic, with a Persian para- 
phrase written in small Nestalik and red ink 
between the lines, and copious marginal an- 
notations. See Arab. Catal. p. 537. 

For the sake of comparison with the fol- 
lowing, or other versions, we give here the 
rendering of the 100th Surah, ij^jU^WI y,y^ 

UJJ^ u^^ <:jV-^ U-^v t^ *^® margin J^ 
jJ^Ty u^j'i u^^j^ yJj^ "^J ul)'^ jxiH^J' 

J ^^ &S jj^j-^ JJ.J bl 0««»\ C^j^ i^}^ J^ 
**i\ 0^ tiij li/j o^^j\:u«^ji^jj V^\ ijjyi. iCac^' 



The notes are extracts from various, mostly 
Shi'ah, commentaries, in which the traditional 
comments of the Imams are frequently ad- 
duced. 

Foil. 466 a — 468 a contain a prayer to 
be recited after a complete reading of the 
Coran and a Fal-Namah in Persian verse, 
both written in alternating blue and gold 
lines. 

On fol. 468 6 is a Persian note stating that 
this copy was written by Mulla Abd ITUah 
Tabbakh, the master (in calligraphy) of Aka 
Ibrahim, who was himself the master of 
Mirza Ahmad Nairizi, and that it was worth 
500 Rupees. 

MuUa 'Abd Ullah Tabbakh, of Herat, is 
mentioned among the great penmen who 
lived in the reign of Sultan Husain (A.H. 
873—911). See Mir'at ul-'Alam, Add. 7657, 
fol. 459 b. 

Some leaves containing other prayers or 
additional notes in modern handwriting are 
added at beginning and end, and occasionally 
in the body of the volume. 



THE GORAN AND ITS COMMENTARIES. 



Add. 5548-5551. 

Four volumes, perfectly uniform, and offer- 
ing a continuous text, separated only by the 
binding. They contain respectively foil. 192, 
187, 184, and 190 ; 11 in. by 7|, with 13 
lines, 5 in. long; written in a large and 
angular Naskhi, with illuminated borders 
enclosing the first two pages, and the two last, 
marginal ornaments and gold headings, ap- 
parently in the 14th century. 

[Charles Hamilton.] 

The Goran in Arabic, with a Persian version 
added in small writing and red ink under the 
text ; see Arab. Catal., p. 57. The Persian 
version presents many antiquated forms, such 
as jj and lDoT for saiT and aGT, c^i^ for 

ssf^ etc., but it is singularly incorrect, and 
often exhibits a complete perversion of the 
persons and tenses of the Arabic. 

As a specimen, the Persian of the 100th 
Surah is here transcribed with all its faults : 

\)iJ^ o^^ iS} u^ ^ "^J u^*^ "^W J ^^^ 

J\ Ci^ iCsJ lj-_J J C**«l»,j^ji5 J\ liy^ iCssrf->^ 

The first eight leaves have been defaced 
by an English translation written over the 
Persian. 

Or. 1340. 

Poll. 539 ; lO.f in. by 6| ; 10 Hues, 3f in. 
long ; written in good Naskhi with two 
double-page 'TJnwans, illuminated headings, 
marginal ornaments, and gold-ruled margins, 
apparently in the 16th century. Bound in 
stamped chagreen covers. 

[Sir Charles A. Murray.] 



The Goran in Arabic, with a Persian 
version written in small Naskhi, and red 
ink between the lines, and a few marginal 
notes. 

Surah 100 : ,jJij:i^j\jT sS jjjjj y;^-*V <^y^ 

^J^ U-e j^j3^ ij)ji:> LT^"^ u^'H'^ U3jt> lH 



"■^y uV^^ u ' 



j^ lH ^-^ "-^y u 



l^JJJ^ 



D^ dj!^ sjjJ'j^oU. J ij:,,M\iij^ jd «^T 0^ laj 

The last page contains the '&*\j c^^pU. 
Si^ ^!iJ/designating on the authority of Imam 
Ja'far Sadik the days and hours in which the 
reading of the Goran is especially blessed. 



Add. 7218. 

Foil. 262 ; 9^ in. by ^ ; 15 Hues, 2| in. 
long ; written in small and neat Naskhi, on 
extremely thin paper, with gilt headings 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
16th century. Bound in painted and glazed 
covers. [CI. J, Eich,] 

The Goran in Arabic, with an interlinear 
Persian version and marginal notes ; see 
Arab. Catal., p. 57. 

The Persian version, written in red ink 
and minute Nestalik, is separated from the 
text by gold-lines, and the notes in the 
margins, written in a still smaller character, 
are similarly enclosed. 

Surah 100 : (j«flij^j\ ^^i>j (_rA>j\jV iJ^'^jj^ 

j^j Lr>^ f^^j (-PV ^"^^j^j^ LT^T tj-J jij 

ji (j-^ ^^ jli JOJ.j^ C^lS- ftljUMj ft> \^^ (J»J 



8 



MOHAM^IEDAN THEOLOGY. 



Two leaves and a half at the beginning 
and two at the end have been added by a 
later hand, and present an imperfect imitation 
of the old writing. 

Or. 1341. 

FoU. 280; 9f in. by 6i; 14 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in fair Naskhi, with a rich 
double-page 'Unwan, gilt headings and gold- 
ruled margins, apparently about the close of 
the 17th century. Bound in stamped and 
gilt leatlier. [Sir Charles A. Mueeat.] 

The Goran in Arabic, with a Persian 
version written in a small neat Nestalik and 
in red ink between the lines of the text, from 
which it is divided by gold lines. Ex- 
planatory notes, also in Persian, and in the 
same handwriting, cover a considerable part 
of the margins. 

This version agrees substantially with that 
of Add. 7218, as the foUowing beginning of 
Siirah 100 wiU show: ^^^j ^ j\^\ ^UjJ^^ 

J u-i ^ j^ -Wj^ Ojlfr »L«.j »^ V^l o-i 



i^h 



Or. 1342. 



Foil. 334; 10^ in. by 6| ; 12 lines, 3| in. 
long, m a page, written in a handwriting 
similar to that of the preceding copy, and 
ornamented in the same style ; dated 



Ispahan, Zulhijjah, A.H. 1113 (A.D. 1702). 
Bound in painted and glazed covers. 

[Sir Chaeles A. Murray.] 

The Goran in Arabic, with the same 
Persian version as in the preceding copy, 
and copious marginal notes. 

The copyist,'Abd ul-'Azim ur-Rizawi, states 
in the subscription that this was the eighth 
or ninth Goran he had transcribed. 

Add. 7601. 

Foil. 358; 10 in. by 6^; 29 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in small Naskhi ; dated 
Jaunpur, A.H. 883 (A.D. 1478). 

[Gl. J. Rich.] 

iSj^\ ji).^ f^&^J> 

The Persian translation of the Gom- 
mentary of Abu Ja'far Muhammad B. Jarir 
ut-Tabari upon the Goran ; see Arab. Catal. 
p. 370. The first two pages contain the 
author's Arabic Preface, beginning : j^l 

JPI i^;^ <Uji S^j u^ J^b r^l ^3J, ^ 

Then follows a Persian preface of one 
page giving an account of the translation. 
It is here stated that the Arabic original, in 
forty volumes, having been brought fi^m 
Baghdad to the Amir Malik Muzafi^ar Abu 
Srdih Mansur B. Nuh, (the same Samani 
prmce for whom Tabari's history was trans- 
lated), he convened the 'Ulama of Mawera 
un-Nahr, and, after obtaining from them a 
decision to the effect-that it was lawful to 
translate that work, ordered them to elect 
out of their number the ablest men to carry 
out the task. It is added that the original 
was considerably abridged by leaving out the 
Isnads, and that, on the other hand, some of 
the historical notices included were brought 
down to A.H. 345. See the text of this 



I 



THE CORAN AND ITS COMMENTARIES. 



9 



preface in the Arab. Catal., loc. cit. The 
Persian translation is mentioned by Haj. 
Khal. vol. ii., p. 346. 

Tabari's Commentary deals chiefly with 
the persons and events, legendary or his- 
torical, referred to in the Coran, and with 
the circumstances under which the several 
Surahs have been revealed. 

It is divided by numerous headings in 
large character. The following are those 
which relate to Surah II., foU. 28 — 56 : 

lib .•. jjjLi»y ib.y .i> jj\iij^ *> sJu-* Cl*il.» j 

Jyj ioy .•• |.^LJ1 jJiP ^ |,iil j^lioLly ^^J is^ 
••' ^%J\ ajJ* j,^i\ C>oy J^' .'. j,5LJ\ «j1& ^ii\ ^^^ 



^^LJ^ AJkifi' j,il\ 2iukl 



.'. ^^).^\ d:jl& jnii\ «ui3 






UJ 



aj 



,M-» 



j_yjJJl JiS3l ji »-aa .•• yU; ^^<l^i J^iUa a-aS ••• *lai^^ 
J Oy\J' auaS J (»iLJ\ ajJkfr Jj^^v^l &-^' ••• ^.^LJ^ s-i* 

In the first part of the volume some 
chapters of the Coran are inserted at full 
length and in a larger character, viz. : — 
Surah I., fol. 4>, Surah II., foil. 6—28, 



Surah III., foil. 57—96, Surah IV., foil. 81—94, 
Surah V., in detached portions, foil. 105, 107, 
111, 115, 118. They are partly accompanied 
with an interlinear Persian translation. But 
further on the text is very incomplete, most 
of the spaces reserved for its insertion having 
been left blank. 

Transcriber's name : j_jJl-S j-»^ jj-> i>jb 

Add. 7602. 

FoU. 589; 11 in. by 7^; 25 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in small and neat Nestalik, 
with 'Unwan and gold-ruled margins, appa- 
rently in the 16th century. 

A Persian Commentary upon the Coran, 
with the Arabic text ; see Arab. Catal., p. 
376. 

Author : Husain Va'iz Kashif I )ia^)j i^jh'-^ 
Beg. (j»-*>t> y ^j^\ i>*W lifr^y Sk^ j\ jjo 

^Uo CLii\jMj CJ>j^a:>- j_plji-Uj ^_^^ 

Kamal ud-Dm Husain B. 'All, surnamed 
al-Vii'iz ul-Kashifi, born at Baihak, Sabzawar, 
lived at Herat in the reign of Abul-Ghazl 
Sultan-Husain, where he soon acquired a 
great fame as an eloquent preacher and an 
elegant prose- writer, and enjoyed the special 
favour of Mir 'All Shir. He died there A.H. 
910. See Habib us-Siyar, Add. 6561, fol. 538, 
S. de Sacy, Calila et Dimna, preface, p. 42, 
Jourdain, Biogr. Univ., vol. xx. p. 435, Ham- 
mer, Schone Redekiinste Persiens, p. 275. 

The author had undertaken, as stated in 
the preface, by desire of Mir 'AH Shir, to 
write an extensive Commentary, in four 
volumes, entitled ^«^( 'isi^ jJ^"^^ _^^yr > but 
after the first volume had been completed 
the progress of the work was delayed. In 

c 



10 



THE CORAN AND ITS COMMENTAEIES. 



the meanwhile he began, in A.n. 897, to write 
the present work in plainer language and on 
a smaller scale, and gave it the above title, 
derived from his patron's name. It was com- 
pleted in A.H. 899 ; see below, Add. 16,668. 

The substance of the above preface is given 
by Fleischer, Leipzig Catal., p. 390, and 
Mehren, Copenhagen Catal., p. 3. See also 
Dorn, S. Petersburg Catal. p. 247, and 
Aumer, Miinchen Catal., p. 127. In both 
places a Commentary with the same begin- 
ning as ours is described under the title of 
Jawilhir ut-Tafsir, which belongs to the 
fuller Commentary mentioned in the preface. 

The work is frequently called, from its 
author's name, Tafsir i Husaini,as for instance 
at the end of the next following copy. 

Add. 16,667. 

Foil. 590 ; 10| in. by 6| ; 19 lines, 4 J in. 
long; written in clear Nestalik, with an 
'Unwan and ruled margins; dated A.H. 
1097 (A.D. 1686). [Wm. Yule.] 

The first half of the above work, comprising 
Chapters i. — xviii. See Arab. Catal., p. 376. 

It is slightly imperfect, wanting the latter 
part of Chapter xviii. from the middle of 
verse 81 to the end. 

Transcriber : c?^^ Jj^lr*^ u^ ^j^ '^^ 

Add. 16,668. 

Foil. 645; uniform with the preceding, 
and written by the same hand; dated Kul 
Jalali, Subah of Akbarabad, Ramazan, A.H. 
1095, the 31st of the reign of Aurangzlb. 

[Wm. Yule.] 

The latter half of the work, extending 
from the beginning of Chapter xix. to the end 
of the Coran. The present copy and one of 
the following, Egerton 999, contain a con- 
clusion not found in the first MS. There 



the author, after an eulogy on his patron 
Mir 'All Shir, quotes the following Rubai 
composed by his own son, and in which the 
day of the month on which the Commentary 
was completed is ingeniously used as a 
chronogram to fix the date of the work. 

oi.y JIAJI ^^\^ ^ ^\4\ J 

C*iy Jl^^;^^ ^ji3 Jli* (j 

The words Jl^^ j^ J w'^ (^^^ (*?J'^ ^ ^ 
clerical error) express A.H. 899. 

There is a mistake in the date of tran- 
scription of the present volume ; for the 31st 
year of Aurangzlb corresponds to A.H. 1098, 
not to 1095, as written in words in the 
subscription. 

Egerton 998. 

Foil. 443; lOf in. by 6f ; 25 lines, 4| in. 
long; written partly in Naskhi, partly in 
Nestalik, apparently in India, about the close 
of the 17th century. 

The first half of the above Commentary, 
closing with the end of Chap, xviii. ; see Arab. 
Catal., p. 377. 

V 

Egerton 999. 

Foil. 485 ; llf in. by 6| ; 21 Hnes, 4i in. 
long; written in Nestalik, in India; dated 
Jumada II., A.H. 1094 (A.D. 1683). 

The second volume, from the beginning of 
Chap. xix. to the end ; gee Arab. Catal., p. 377. 

On the first page is a Persian note relating 
to the purchase of the MS. in Ahmadabad, 
A.H. 1130, in which it is incorrectly de- 
signated as the second volume of^,*— aiJI^I^ . 

Add. 5565. 

Foil. 366; 10| in. by 6; 12 Hnes, 4 in. 



THE CORAN AND ITS COMMENTARIES. 



11 



long; written in fair Indian Nestalik, with 
an TJnwan and ruled margins; dated Ju- 
mada I., A.H. 1097 (A.D. 1686). 

[Charles Hamilton.] 

The latter half of the same Commentary, 
from the beginning of Chap. xix. to the end ; 
see Arab. Catal., p. 377. 

Transcriber : ji^»». .i.^ 

The fly-leaf contains a table of chapters ; 
the first page bears the name of a former 
owner, Robert Watherston. 

Add. 23,577. 

Foil. 242; 10 in. by 5|; 20 lines, 3^ in. 
long; written in small and neat Nestalik;* 
dated Jumada II., A.H. 1021 (A.D. 1612). 

[Rob. Taylor.] 

A volume of a very extensive Commentary 
on the Coran, without title or author's name. 

The writer lived at the time of the author 
of Shawahid un-Nubuwwah (Jam!) whom he 
quotes as stfll living, fol. 5 b. This and, still 
more, the great similarity in style and 
arrangement of the present volume with the 
following. Add. 7603, render it very pro- 
bable that it contains the first portion of the 
same work, namely jjk*^l 'ii^ j^;.J>j!i\ ^\y>- . 

The MS. is imperfect at the beginning ; it 
commences in the middle of the second of 
six introductory chapters called ^,^ys-, treating 
of the necessity and pre-eminence of the 
science of Exegesis^;---fii\ J* . The remaining 
four are as follows : 

Fol. 5 b. III. On the miracle jUPl, or 
supernatural power, displayed in the Coran. 

Fol. 9 b. IV. On the pre-eminence of some 
Surahs and verses, and the virtues of some 
letters and words in the Coran. 

Fol. 12 a. V. On the attention and respect 
due to the Coran. 

Fol. 18 a. VI. On spiritual interpretation, 
Jjj\j . This is followed by a long discussion 
on the preliminary formula «JJ'j iys-l, fol. 21 «. 



The comments on the Basmalah and the 
Fatihah itself begin at fol. 33 a, and occupy 
the rest of tlie volume. 

Add. 7603. 

Foil. 346; llj in. by 7; 21 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in a neat Naskhi with 'Unwan 
and gold-ruled margins; dated Mashhad, 
Jumuda I., A.H. 1076 (A.D. 1665). 

[CI. J. Rich.] 

A part of the larger Commentary of Husain 
Va'iz ul-Kashif! ; see Arab. Catal., p. 377. 
Beg. jJai (ObT lij* »^ ij^jj^ \) l)^ i:}^^ 

This volume contains the comments upon 
the Surat ul-Bakarah or Chapt. II. It pro- 
bably is only the latter half of what the 
author in the preface to the Mawahib (see 
Add. 7602 p. 9) calls his first volume, the 
only one then written, the first half consisting 
of the prolegomena and the comments on the 
Fatihah, which, according to Haj Khal., vol. 
ii., p. 641, formed part of the same volume. 

Neither author's name nor title is to be 
found in the text, but the style is that of 
Husain Va'iz, and there appears to be no 
reason to doubt the correctness of the title 
written on the first page : jy..v;\\ j:>\y>- Jj\ Ju». 
j^\ j>\, iiytiso ^_a_io (jjj-»»- iJu«» CJvftija* Ji 



Copyist : ^Jil\i\JLM':^ \ (_^\;...?fcl ^^ c^^m 

Add. 18,538. 

Foil. 392 ; 11 1 in. by 8 ; 25 lines, 5 in. 
long ; written in clear Nestalik ; dated A.H. 
1071 (A.D. 1660). [J. H. Sternschuss.] 

A Shi'ah Commentary upon the Coran. 
c 2 



12 



THE CORAN AND ITS COMMENTARIES. 



Author : Ibn Shukr Ullah Fath Ullah ush- 
Beg. C*>Uo jb; oUlT ^^y>■ J^ c^.x^ 

lJl-rf^ l_j.V>^ »JL^.U> 

The author had written, as he states in 
the preface, a full commentary in five 
volumes, containing altogether one hundred 
and eighty thousand lines, and entitled 
^^\il^^ J^\ ^j ^J^^>\^\ ^ ; hut perceiving 

that its bulk put it out of the reach of most 
readers, he determined to write the present 
abridgement, chiefly intended for persons 
ignorant of Arabic. It evinces a marked 
Shi'ah tendency and relies exclusively on the 
tradition of the Imams and their sectaries. 

The same author wrote also a Commen- 
tary on the Nahj ul-Balaghah, Add. 16850, 
which is said to have been completed A.H. 
955, and in which he calls himself Fath 
Ullah B. Shukr Ullah lU-Kashani ; see below, 
p. 18, and Arab. Catal., p. 512. He is called 
Fath Ullah Kashani in Stewart's Catal., 
p. 171. 

This MS. contains the first half of the 
work, closing with the end of Chap, xviii. ; 
see Arab. Catal., p. 378. 

At the end is found a transcript of the 
author's own subscription, in which the 
work is called ^JJ.i\-aJ\ ^^ /»-a^ ; but the 

leaf is torn and the date which followed is 
lost. 

This volume and the next are wrongly 
endorsed c-*fc^^\ j--*5. a- title belonging to 
the Commentary of Husain Va iz. 

Add. 18,539. 

Foil. 536 ; uniform with the preceding, and 
written by the same hand. 

[J. H. Sternschuss.] 

The latter half of the work; see Arab. 
Catal., p. 378. 

It wants two or three pages at the end, 



breaking off in the last verse of the last 
chapter but one, jjliJl *jy^' 

Or. 244. 

Foil. 540; 13^ in. by 10 ; 24 lines, 5| in. 
long, in a page ; written in fair Naskhi with 
'Unwan and ruled margins ; dated Rabi' I., 
A.H. 1082 (A.D. 1671.) 

[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

Another copy of the second volume. 

It was transcribed by Muhammad Kasim 
KausI for Aka Muhammad Shaf i'. 

'Abdullah B. Muhammad Shafi' ul-Yazdi, 
apparently the son of the latter, states in a 
note at the end, that he collated this volume 
for the third time in Kashmir, in A.H. 1044 
(read 1144). 

It is endorsed : ^^-U j*-i3 ^ J.l»- 

Foll. 2 — 7 contain a table of contents in 
the handwriting of the copyist. 

On the fly-leaf is a modem title in which 
the author is called [JjIjm aJJl -oj iU 

Or. 243. 

FoU. 442 ; 13| in. by 10 ; 21 lines, 6^ in. 
long, in a page ; written in fair Nestalik, 
apparently in the 17th century. 

[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

A Shi'ah Commentary on the Coran, with- 
out preface, title, or author's name. 
Beg. ^^ J*^** "i.^***? cj^^ *^ ^^ '^f"^ 

This volume contains apparently the first 
half of the work ; it begins with the formula 
My i^^ which is immediately followed by 
the Fatihah, and it concludes with the end 
of Chapter xvii., fjjMit\ s,^ 



THE CORAN AND ITS COMMENTARIES. 



18 



It has been endorsed by the same hand as 
the preceding MS., Or. 244, Jfc\ ^ j.^.oS 
Jj^ i\U iiiaiJl, with the evident intention to 
make it appear the first volume of the same 
work. 

But the present Commentary is altogether 
different from the ^^\ &<e^li-, and displays 

a much stronger Shi'ah bias. The author 
does not scruple to say, for instance, that, 
according to Imam Sadik, the word (_.>\::i3\ at 
the beginning of Surat ul-Bakarah applies to 
All B. Abi TaHb, who said of himself, " I am 
the speaking book of God." He further in- 
terprets ^;ialji5 ^Ji» as " guiding the pious 
Shi'Is," and includes under ^j>_^^ all those 
who do not believe in the twelve Imiims. 
He follows everywhere the traditional inter- 
pretations of the Imams, and quotes, on 
every page, the great Shi'ah Commentary 
Majma' ul-Bayan (Arab. Catal., p. 671). 

Add. 7600. 

FoU. 192 ; 8 in. by 6 ; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Naskhi with the vowels ; 
dated from Rajab, A.H. 1090, to Muharram, 
A.H. 1091 (A.D. 1679—80). [CI. J. Rich.] 

An alphabetical index of the verses of the 
Coran ; see Arab. Catal., p. 380. 



Author : Muhammad 'All Karbala i, a^ 

Beg. |»^>i _\jujl j,> tS i^jM i.sjjjAa' lijjti J J.,*. 

•^ 

The author states in the preface that 
while studying Hexegesis and Traditions 
with other pupils under Muhammad Ibn 
Khatun ul-'AmUi, the want of a Coranic 
index being often felt, he was directed by 
his master to compile the present work and 
dedicate it to Sultan 'Abd TJUah Kutubshah 
(who reigned A.H. 1035—1083). He then 
proceeds, fol. 3 a, to explain its arrange- 
ment, and to give tables of the abbreviations 
by which the Surahs are designated, and of 
all the beginnings of the sections called 
(Juz'), and their subdivisions (Hizb). 

The index itself is divided into two parts 
(Kism). In the first, fol. 8 6, the verses are 
arranged according to their initial, in the 
second, fol. 101 b, according to their final 
letters. In both parts references are given 
to the Juz' and Hizb, as well as to the 
Surah. 

The proper reading of the title may be 
^LlJaJJ i0.j*, but the first word is written as 
above «j,iiU>, in the heading of Kism II., 
while in the first heading, fol. 1, it has been 
all but cut away with a portion of the leaf. 

The first part was transcribed by .y^ ^ 
fJisJ} ^y, and the second by ^^t_tt-»y. 2)c« 



( 14 ) 



TRADITIONS OF MUHAMMAD. 



Or. 1107. 

FoU. 232 ; 15 in. by 10^ ; 35 lines, 7^ in. 
long ; written in a cursive Indian hand and 
dated Zulka'dah, A.H. 1092 (A.D. 1681) 

[Warren Hastings.] 



SUCjlJI 



C-^^ 



kJljlltJ jUt>^l 



A Persian Commentary on the Arabic 
work " Mishkat ul-Masabih," a well known 
collection of the traditional sayings of Mu- 
hammad. See Arabic Catalogue, p. 721 a, 
and Mishcdt ul-Masabih, translated by Capt. 
A. N. Matthews, Calcutta, 1809, Preface, p. 
ii., notes. 

Commentator : 'Abd ul-Hakk B. Saif ud- 

Din ud-Dihlavi, ^J^^\ j^.J^ »—»*«» ^^ j*\ jj^ 
'Abd ul-Hakk is a most prolific writer, 
whose name will often recur in these pages. 
He gives a full account of his forefathers and 
his early life in his Akhbar ul-Akhyar. He 
there traces his descent, through five inter- 
vening generations, to Muhammad Turk, 
who went from Bukhara to India and rose 
to the rank of Amir in the reign of 'Ala ud- 
Din Klialji. 'Abd ul-Hakk's grandfather, 
Shaikh Sa'd UUah, who died A.H. 928, had 
embraced a religious life, and his example 
was followed by his son. Shaikh Saif ud-Din, 
the author's father, who died A.H. 990. The 
author, who was born in A.H. 958, and had 
from his infancy devoted his time with un- 
remitting ardour to study and devout prac- 
tices, entered the Kadiri order A.H. 985, and 
set out in A.H. 996 for the Hijaz, where he 
spent some years in the pursuit of Hadi§ 
under 'Abd ul-Wahhab Muttaki and other 



'<^j 



r 



celebrated doctors. He died in his native 
place, Dehli, in great renown of sanctity, A.H. 
1052, See Akhbar ul-Akhyar, Or. 221, foil. 
214 — 233, and a notice on his life in Elliot's 
Hist, of India, vol. vi. p. 175. 

This MS. begins with the following heading 
in the handwriting of the transcriber : Ji». 

It contains the fourth and last volume of 
the work, beginning with the chapter on 
soothsaying, 'ii\^\ i_jb . See Matthews' trans- 
lation, vol. ii., from p. 384 to the end. 

The author states at the end, in a note ap- 
pended in A.H. 1045 to a copy which had 
been transcribed in A.H. 1044, and collated 
by himseK in the same year, that he com- 
menced the present Commentary at Dehli in 
the middle of A.H. 1019, and completed it in 
the same place in Rabi' ul-akhir, A.H. 1025. 
He adds that during the same period he also 
wrote an Arabic Commentary on the same 
work, entitled iilsCi* -jL ^^ >^^ C^Ui 
^Ufl4^ which was much inferior to the 
Persian in extent, the former containing 
about 80,000 and the latter 130,000 lines. 

The author there calls himself : j^' i^ap 

esojio jj5jii\ji)l \>j^ ijy^'^ Ukj»« ^_^^ ^J«-J 

Copyist : ^j-^yjo- 

The last page contains a table of chapters 
in the hand of the transcriber. 

On the first page is impressed the seal of 
Muhammad Khan, servant of Muhammad 
Shah, with the date A.H. 1136. 



TRADITIONS OF MUHAMMAD. 



16 



Add. 7606. 

Poll. 566; 101 in. by 6|; 21 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
ITth century. [CI. J. Rich.] 

A Commentary upon " Sufar us-Sa adat," 
a collection of authentic traditions relating 
to the life, character, practices, and moral 
teachings of Muhammad, compiled by Mu- 
hammad B. Ya'kub, known as Majd ud-Din 
ul-Firuzabadi. 

Commentator : 'Abd ul-Hakk B. Saif ud- 
Din B. Sa'd Ullah ut-Turk ud-Dihlavi ul- 
Bukhari, «JJ\ jju« ^^' ^^_,oi\ ^-a^m ^j> j_:i' ju& 

Beg. c:^\ t^l UUp U ^\ li) Jc- ^ cdLilsrt- 

The commentator states in his preface that 
al-Firuzabadi (better known as author of the 
Kamus ; see Arab. Catal., p. 229), was born 
in Kazarun, A.H. 727, and died in Zabid 
A.H. 817. He extols the excellence of 
the work, which, he adds, is also known as 
^*b'::~.U ^]j^ , but complains at the same time 
of the excessive severity of the author in 
rejecting some traditions of questionable 
authenticity. He then proceeds to enume- 
rate a vast number of works referred to in 
his Commentary. An introduction follows, 
divided into two parts (Kism). The first, 
fol. 5 b, treats of the science of Hadig and 
of the authentic collections ; the second, fol. 
19 b, of the Imams or chiefs of the four schools 
of law. 

The original work, the title of which is re- 
peatedly written xiS'j»-J\ ^o-. (with zammah) 
in the Gotha copy, dated A.H. 884, is divided 
into a Mukaddimah, five books (Bab), and 
a Khatimah. The contents are specified by 
Pertsch, Gotha Catalogue, p. 55 ; see also Haj. 
KhaL, vol. iii., p. 599, and the Vienna Cata- 



logue, vol. iii., p. 449, where the work is de- 
signated by its second title, Sirati Mustakim. 
The Khatimah, fol. 507 a, which treats of the 
unsound traditions, ends in the present copy 
with the words jii j ^\:Jtjb j c^\ j\jjj\ u«>b ^ 

^\ 4)31 J ».xli ijio^ <.f}4»- *^j in the comments 
upon which the MS. breaks oS. 

Add. 7617. 

Foil. 198 ; 10 in. by 7 ; 21 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in small and neat Nestalik, 
with two 'Unwans and gold-ruled margins, 
apparently in the 16th century. 

[CI. J. Rich.] 

A work treating of the noble qualities and 
praiseworthy customs and observances of 
Muhammad and the Imams, set up as an 
example to all Muslims; translated from 
the Arabic. 

Translator: Nasir ud-Din Muhammad B. 
'Abd ul-Karim ul-Ansari id-Astarabadi. ^^ 

A preface is prefixed, occupying two pages, 
and beginning thus : o- V' J '^■*^ j^^jJ j* W 

This preface is due to the translator, who 
states that the Arabic original, entitled ^JsU 
J!iii-^1, is the work of Shaikh ul-Islam Razi 
ud-Din Abu 'Ali ul-Hasan B. Abu Nasr ul- 
Fazl B. ul-Hasan ut-TabarsI. He further 
says that he wrote the present translation 
in the reign of Shah Tahmasp B. Shah 
Ismail (A.H. 930—984), and by order of 
Muhammad Khan, Governor of Khorasan. 
(Muhammad Khan Sharaf Ughli Taklu was 
appointed governor of Herat in A.H. 941 ; 
see 'Alam-ara, Add. 16,684, fol. 23). 

He finally assigns to his translation the 
above title : i_jb!il\ ^^'-i?. It must be no- 
ticed, however, that the title of the original 



16 



TRADITIONS OF MUHAMMAD. 



J^^l ».}C appears in the headings of the 
preface and of the work itself. 

The latter begins, fol. 5G, as follows :— 

It is divided into twelve books (Bab), 
subdivided into numerous chapters (Fasl), 
a full table of which occupies three pages 
at the end of the preface. 

The twelve books treat of the following 
subjects : — 

1. Bodily and mental qualities of Muham- 
mad ; fol. 8 b. 2. Rules observed in cleans- 
ing the body, apparel, etc. ; fol. 21 a. 3. Rules 
observed in bathing ; fol. 24 h. 4. On nail- 
paring, clipping the hair of the upper lip, 
combing, etc ; fol. 28 b. 5. On dyeing, or- 
naments, rings, etc. ; fol. 32 b. 6. On dress 
and dwelUngs ; fol. 38 h. 7. On eating and 
drinking; fol. 51 a. 8. On matrimony, fol. 
61 a. 9. On travelling; fol. 79 b. 10. On 
prayers ; fol. 90 a. 11. On sickness and 
healing ; fol. 129 b. 12. On some curious 
precepts and traditions ; fol. 160 a. 

The original does not appear to be much 
earlier than the translation, for the author 
is described in the preface as the " noblest 
of the modems " j>.f^^^ ^/l • Moreover, a 
work of recent date is frequently quoted in 

the text, viz. ^^^y^ *^JL; (^^^ ^°^- ^^ *' 
21 a, etc.), written, according to Haj-Khal., 
by Mu'in Farahi, who lived at Herat under 
Abul-GhazI Sultan Husain, and died A.H. 
907 ; see Habib us-Siyar. 

This copy is slightly imperfect at the end. 

Haj. Khal. mentions four works bearing 
the same title ^'^il\ j,J^, vol. vi. p. 98, 
none of which can be identified with the 
present, a decidedly Shl'ah book. 

Or. 245. 

FoU. 190 ; Hi in. by 7^ ; 21 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, probably in the 



18th century. 



[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 



A Persian Commentary on the Arabic 
work of Jalal ud-Din 'Abd ur-Rahman us- 
Suyuti, commonly called Kitab ul-Barzakh, 
and consisting of a. collection of the Hadi§, 
or traditional sayings of Muhammad, which 
relate to the fate of souls in the period in- 
tervening between death and the day of 
resurrection. 

Author : Siraj Ahmad B. Muhammad Mur- 
shid Sihrindi Nakshabandi, *.♦*;• ^^ .x^l ^j^ 

Beg. j^Lil «/ c*-o^j& i-^ ^"^ d'-J^s^ 
The whole of the Arabic text is given in 

the Commentary, and is distinguished by a 

red line drawn above it. 

It begins thus : f\Z> ^J^> law.\ t/i!\ <»Jl J-*^' 

The real title of the work is : jj.i-a3\ -^ 
jyJi\ j J.^\ JW ^^. See Haj. Khal., 

vol. iv., p. 39. 

Suyuti states in his preface that the pre- 
sent work is based on the Tazkirat ul-Kur- 
tubi, the contents of which he had revised, 
arranged, and supplemented with numerous 
additions. 

The full title of Kurtubi's work is : ijsi\ 

The author is Shams ud-Din Abu 'Abd 
Allah Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Abi Bakr 
Ibn Farj ul-Ansarl ul-Kurtubi, who died 
A.H. 671 (not Mahmud Ibn Ahmad Ibn 
Farah, as Haj. Khal. has it under »/jj 
Ja^^, vol. ii., p. 266^. See Arab. Catal., 
pp. 108 and 701. 

This copy is slightly imperfect ; it ends 
abruptly after the beginning of the fifth 
of the observations jJoli included in the 
Khiitimah. 

A portion of fol. 2, which contains the 
preface, is torn off. 



TRADITIONS OF MUHAMMAD. 



17 



I 



Add. 5567. 

Foil. 53 ; 10 in. hj 6^. Foil. 1—10 ; 13 
lines, 3^ in. long ; written in the Naskhi 
and Nestalik characters, apparently in India, 
in the 17th century. [Chakles Hamilton.] 

I. Forty sayings of Muhammad, in Arabic, 
with a paraphrase in Persian verses. 

Author : Jami ^U- 

Beg. i_Aatf U A^^ L-Jkag j_^ f/<i^\ ij-'y!. ^ 

The author, who designates himself in the 
concluding quatrain by the above Takhallus, 
is the celebrated poet and Sufi Nur ud-Din 
Abd ur-Rahman Jami. According to his 
friend and disciple, Abd ul-GhafRir Ltiri, who 
wrote his Ufe, Or. 218, foU. 151—175, Jami 
was born in Kharjird, province of Jilm, on 
the 23rd of Shaban, A.H. 817, and died in 
Herat, where most of his life had been spent, 
on the 18th of Muharram, A.H. 898. Notices 
of him are found in many contemporary 
works, as Lata'if Namah, Add. 7669, fol. 31 ; 
MajaUs ul-'Ushshak, Or. 208, fol. 133 ; Rash- 
ahat 'Ain ul-Hayat, Or. 212, fol. 77 ; Habib 
us-Siyar, Add.* 6561, fol. 81; Tuhfah i SamI, 
Add. 7670, fol. 81, as well as in many Euro- 
pean works. See V. van Eosenzweig, Biblio- 
graphische Notizen ; Hammer, Schone Eede- 
kiinste Persiens, p. 312; Jourdain, Biogr. 
Univ. vol. xi., p. 431; S. de Sacy, Not. et 
Extr., vol. xii., p. 287 ; Ouseley, Biographical 
Notices, p. 131 ; Dorn, St. Petersburgh Cata- 
logue, p. 369 ; Sprenger, Oude Catal., p. 447 ; 
N. Sees, Biographical sketch of Jami, Cal- 
cutta, 1859; Fliigel, Vienna Catal., vol. i., 
p. 570, etc. 

The present work is mentioned by Lari, in 
his list of Jami's work, under the title of 



t^.j^ ^j^J^ *iit^J> . In another copy of the 
same collection. Add. 16,825, I., there is a 
short prose preface, and a conclusion in 
which Jami states that it was completed 
A.H. 886. The paraphrase of each saying 
is a Kit'ah of two Baits in the metre Rami. 
II. Another series of forty Hadig, with a 
metrical version of exactly the same form as 
the preceding, and apparently by the same 
writer ; fol. 56. 

Beg. oLDb JU»5)i Ul 

For the rest of the contents see Arab. 
Catal., p. 397. 

The first page bears the name of Robert 
Watherston. 

Or. 1231. 

Foil. 67 ; 8 in. by 5| ; 15 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in NestaHk ; dated Shawwal, 
A.H. 925 (A.D. 1519). [Alex. Jaba.] 

A work purporting to give the questions 
put by the Jews to Muhammad, and the 
latter's answers, on the creation of the 
heavens and the earths, of paradise and 
hell, on the end of the world, and on the 
history of the prophets. 

Beg. «5 jJ^ Jj>- \j ^i^ JO iji^.^ J (j-Va«» 

The work is ascribed in a short preamble 
to the Imam Abu Mansur Sa'id B. Muham- 
mad ul-Kattan ul-Ghaznavi. A similar work, 
with the same title, but with a different be- 
ginning, is attributed to Shaikh Abu Bakr 
B. 'Abdullah B. Muhammad B. Shamur ul- 
Asadi ur-Razi ; v. Fluegel, Vienna Cata- 

D 




18 



TRADITIONS OF THE IMAMS. 



logue, vol. iii., p. 453, and Haj. Klial., vol. 
ill., p. 588. 

Add. 23,581. 

Foil. 105 ; 8i in. by 6^ ; 14 Hnes, 4 in. 
long ; written in a very rude Naskhi, about 
the beginning of the present century. 

[EoB. Taylor.] 

The same work. 



The text is very incorrect, and apparently 
much altered, but it agrees in the main with 
the preceding copy. The work is ascribed 
here to the Imam Abu Nasr B. Sa'd B. Mu- 
hammad, and is stated to contain twenty- 
seven descriptions, izJi-e, a division which, 
however, is not observed in the text. 

The fly-leal' bears the name of Col. Taylor, 
with the date, " Shiraz, 18th June, 1811." 



TRADITIONS OF THE IMAMS. 



Add. 18,401. 

Foil. 367 ; 9| in. by 6| ; 20 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written on gold- sprinkled paper, in 
fair Naskhi with all vowels, and in smaU and 
neat Nestalik, with a rich double-page *Un- 
wan, gold-ruled margins, and illuminated 
headings ; dated Eabi' II., A.H. 1093 (A.D. 
1682). [Wm. Yule.] 

Discourses, letters, and sayings ascribed to 
'All B. Abu Talib, collected by Sayyid Razi 
ud-Din ^Jl^i\ ^j j--. (fol 366 fi), i. e. Abul- 
Hasan Muhammad B. id-Husain B. Musa, 
commonly called ash-Sharif ur-RazI, with a 
literal Persian version written in red ink 
under the lines of the Arabic text. 



Beg. of the Persian version : j-^ j\ c^ Ul 

This work, whose authenticity is repudiated, 
and whose editorship is considered doubtful 
by Sunni writers, enjoys the highest authority 



with the Shi'ah, who ascribe its compilation 
to the above named Sharif. See Majalis ul- 
Muminin, A.H. 16,716, fol. 248, Arabic 
Catalogue, p. 511, and Haj. Khal., vol. vi., 
p. 406. 

Copyist: ^;Jt:^^ iX^ JLa ^>^ ji!^ (rj»j* i;;^^ 

^^^1 L-i»/. ■nil 

The Nahj ul-Balaghat has been printed in 
Tabriz, A.H. 1267. 

Add. 16,850. 

FoU. 438; 11 in. by 7.f ; 22 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in good Naskhi, apparently 
in the 17th century. [Wm. Yule.] 

A Persian paraphrase of the preceding 
work, «i-iL)l ^ -**.v>-y, with a preface by the 
translator. 

Translator: Path UUah B. Shukr UUah 
ul-Kashani, ^^U.l<5\ <jM\^ ^^ dJl\ xi 

Beg. t?jl^ Ui' Uj ^j^J U \j* ^^^^\ ^ c^ 



TRADITIONS OF THE IMAMS. 



19 



F 



The Arabic text is written in red; each 
passage, and often each single word, is fol- 
lowed by its Persian interpretation. See 
Arab. Catal., p. 512. 

In the translator's preface, the name of the 
compiler of the Arabic work is given as 
foUows : t_xflil ^^j ^yJ ,i^ ^^.^^)l ^ t-w^^ 

It is stated in the subscription that the 
version was completed A.H. 955 : s3.s> o^-J 
i,^^ u* '*"' ***** (•i**^^ c:j^J^ j^ '"' (j 8-^J^\ 
iO.jjJU This is followed by another date 
relating to the transcription of the present 
copy, of which the last two figures only, 
namely 34, are preserved; it probably was 
1034. 

Copyist : JiJ,] M ^ ^^ ^JiJ\,\ ^^,..^ 

Add. 7536. 

FoU. 318 ; 11 in. by 7^ ; 16 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in fair Naskhi, with 'Unwan 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
16th century. [CI. J. Rich.] 

A Persian Commentary upon the Arabic 
Dlwan of 'Ali B. Abu Talib; see Arabic 
Catalogue, p. 276. 

Commentator : Husain B. Mu'in ud-Din 

ul-Maibudi, fjd^\ ^Ji.^\ i^i^i^ ^^ (jf^ 

Beg. ;_>mUS Cj^\xS' SJmjj (_>wU*»1 OjUm* (_j«U«» 

\J^JiyMt 

The commentator's native place, Maibud, 
or, rather, Maibuz, was, according to Yakut, 
a town and fort in the province of Ispahan, 
but belonged, according to others, to that of 
Yazd or of Fars. He was a Husaini Sayyid, and 
is known as the author of some philosophical 
works, and a treatise on astronomy. See 
Haj. Khal., vol. ii., p. 499, vi., p. 474, and 
TJri's Catal., p. 120. 



Sam Mirza, who calls him KazI Mir Hu- 
sain Yazdi, says that he was born in Maibud, 
studied philosophy in Shiraz, under Dawani, 
and wrote many works, but does not men- 
tion by name any but the present Com- 
mentary. He used in poetry the Takhallus 
Mantiki. See Tuhfah i Sami, Add. 7670, 
fol. 46; and Haft Iklim, Add. 16,734, 
fol. 74. 

A collection of his letters is described by 
KraflPfc, Catalogue of the Orient. Acad., 
p. 27. 

Maibudi found in the religious poems 
ascribed to 'All a convenient text for Sufi 
comments. So little was he convinced of 
their genuineness that he says in his preface 
that he would be glad to think that the 
Dlwan contained a single line proceeding 
from its reputed author. 

The preface is followed by extensive prole- 
gomena, foil. 4 — 89, dealing chiefly with 
the doctrines of Sufis and philosophers. They 
are often found as a separate work, under 
the name of cf^fi* 2ly, from their being 
divided into seven sections called «^\s, as 
follows : — 

1. On the true path followed by the elect, 
fol. 4 a. 

2. On the essence of God, fol. 14 a. 

3. On His name and attributes, fol. 
21 «. 

4. On the " greater man," or the universe 
considered as a living entity, fol. 28 b. 

6. On the lesser man, or microcosm, fol. 
43 6. 

6. On prophecy »^, and saintship So^j, 
fol. 55 a. 

7. On the prerogatives of *Ali, and the 
history of his life, fol. 70 b. 

The author states in conclusion that he 
completed the present Commentary in the 
month of Safar, A.H. 890, corresponding to 
the year 406 of the Jalali sera. 
d2 



20 



TRADITIONS OF THE IMAMS. 



Or. 125. 

FoU. 265 ; 9| in. by 6 ; 16 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with gold- 
ruled margins, apparently in the 16th cen- 
tury. [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

The same work. 

Add. 25,846. 

Foil. 410 ; 10| in. by 6J ; 17 lines, 3J in. 
long ; written in fair Naskhi, with 'Unwan 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently about 
the close of the 17th century. 

[Wm. Cureton.] 

A Shi'ah treatise containing directions as 
to the practises and observances of daily life, 
founded upon the precepts and example of 
the Imams. 

Author: Muhammad Bakir B. Muham- 
mad Taki, ^JJ j-»^ t>?yV J>^ 

w 

Beg. ^;;-«»-b ij^Ji'^ «^.^^ (J*- ^J^^ ^ '^ 

Shaikh ul-Islam MuUa Muhammad Bakir 
MajUsi, the great apostle of the Shi'ah faith, 
was bom at Ispahan, A.H. 1038, and died 
there A.H. 1110. His father, Muhammad 
TakI, who filled before him the office of 
Shaikh ul-Islam, had taken the surname of 
Majlisi from his own father, Mulla Maksud 
'All, who had adopted it for his Takhallus. 
A full account of this family is to be found 
in Mir'at ul- Ahwal, Add. 24,0*52, foil. 17, seqq. , 
in which nine Arabic and forty-nine Persian 
works of Muhammad B;ikir are enumerated. 
See also Add. 7656, fol. 158 a; Add. 7719, 
fol. 198 ; and the life of Shaikh Hazin, trans- 
lated by T. C. Belfour, p. 32. 

The author mentions in the preface a 
treatise on ethics, previously written by 
himself, and entitled j^jii ^J^, which is the 
first in the list of his Persian Avorks, Add. 
24,052, fol. 28 a, whUe the ^ii^l JLU is the 



third. Both have been lithographed in 
Tehran, A.H. 1240 and 1248. 

The present work is divided into fourteen 
books (Bab), and an Appendix (Khati- 
mah), enumerated in the preface, and each 
book is subdivided into twelve chapters 
(Fasl). 

The fourteen books treat of the rules to 
be observed in regard to the following sub- 
jects : — 1. Dress, 2. Ornaments, dyes, etc. 
3. Eating and drinking. 4. Married life and 
bringing up of children. 5. Using the tooth- 
pick, clipping the nails and the hair of the 
upper lip, shaving, etc. 6. Scents. 7. Bath- 
ing. 8. Sleeping. 9, Blood-letting. 10. In- 
tercourse with believers. 11. Assemblies and 
greetings. 12. Entering and leaving the 
house. 13. Riding, walking, marketing, etc. 
14. Travelling. 

The author states at the end that he com- 
pleted the work in Rajab, A.H. 1079. 

A full table of contents in the hand- 
writing of the transcriber occupies fourteen 
pages at the beginning. 

Add. 25,847. 

FoU. 342; 8| in. by 5^^; 15 lines, 3f in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, apparently 
in the 17th century. [Wm. Cubeton.] 

The same work. 

The date of composition does not appear 
in this copy. The first page has been sup- 
plied by a later hand. 

Add. 25,855. 

Foil. 270 ; 7 in. by 4^ ; 12 lines, 2| in. 
long; written in neat Naskhi, with gold 
headings, probably in the latter part of the 
17th century. [Wm. Cuketon.] 

A collection of prayers, ascribed to the 
Imams, with directions for their recitation 
at various times of day and night. 



TRADITIONS OF THE IMAMS. 



21 



The MS. is defective at the beginning; 
the latter part of the preface, which is pre- 
served, contains a dedication to Shah Sulai- 
man (A.H. 1077-1105). The above title is 
taken from an English note prefixed by- 
Sir Wm. Chambers, Calcutta, 1779. The 
work is there ascribed to the famous Shi'ah 
doctor, Mulla Muhammad Bakir Majlisi, 
who extracted it from his Arabic work 
_,ly^\ jUs! . That statement is confirmed by 
the life of Bakir Majlisi already quoted, in 
which the Mikbas ul-Masabih is mentioned 
as the seventh of the author's Persian works ; 
see Add. 24,052, fol. 28, 

The work is divided into ten chapters 
(Fasl). The Arabic text of the prayers is 
written with all vowels. 

Add. 26,304. 

Foil. 19 ; 8 in. by 5 ; 15 lines, 2f in. long ; 
written in neat Naskhi, with a double-page 
'Unwan, gilt headings and gold-ruled mar- 
gins, apparently about the close of the 17th 
century. [Wm. Eeskine.] 

Prayers and pious observances on ordi- 
nary and special days through the year, 
according to the practice of the Imams. 

Author: Muhammad Bakir B. Muham- 
mad Taki, ^Ju s^ uij^- '^^ 

Beg. JJJ *L-»j iiiilj^Jl J«9- t/JJ\ rfll jji 

This work has been lithographed in Teh- 
ran, A.H. 1244. 

The author states, in a short preface, that 
he extracted this short manual, for the use 
of persons engaged in worldly pursuits, from 
his larger work entitled ^^y^^jl*;, and he con- 
cludes with a dedication to Shah Sultan 
Husain (A.H. 1105—1135). 

The latter work is, according to the notice 



previously quoted, Add. 24,052, fol. 26 b, a 
vast compilation of Shi'ah traditions in Ara- 
bic. It consisted of 25 volumes, only 16 of 
which have been completed. (Voll. 8, 10 
and 14 have been printed in Persia, A.H. 1270 
— 5.) The present work is the ninth in the 
list of the author's Persian works, ib. f. 28 b, 
and is said there to consist of 15,000 lines. 
The text of the prayers is given in Arabic, 
with all the vowels, and accompanied with 
an interlinear Persian version. 

The present copy is imperfect; it has 
a lacuna after fol. 8, and breaks off at 
fol. 16. 

Appended is an Arabic tract in support 
of the supernatural powers of the saints, and 
in refutation of the Mu'tazilah sect, which 
denies their existence. It is dedicated to 
Sulaiman Pasha, Governor of Baghdad, and 
dated A.H. 1205. It is written by another 
hand in small Naskhi, and fills five pages, 
foil. 17 — 19, with 27 lines in each. 

Add. 7605. 

Foil. 178; 10 in. by 6; 17 lines, 3 J in. 
long ; written in neat Nestalik, with 'Unwan 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
17th century. [CI. J. High.] 

A treatise on supererogatory night and 
morning prayers, and some other occasional 
prayers, according to the traditions of the 
Imams. 

Beg.jj-iS jjs^jlp^ cfjj/v^ ^% »^.^ ^j^ 
The author gave his own and his father's 
name in the preface, fol. 2 b ; both have been 
purposely erased, but the title of Khan that 
followed the latter is still legible. He calls 
this work a tribute of gratitude to the Safawi 
house, which his forefathers and himself had 
served, and dedicates it to the reigning sove- 
reign, Shah Sulaiman (A.H. 1077—1105). 



22 



LAW. 



It is divided into an introduction, six 
chapters called Manhaj, and a conclusion. 
The numerous and extensive Arabic texts of 
the prayers are written in clear Naskhi, with 
all vowels. 

Egerton 1015. 

Foil. 309 ; 10 in. by 6^ ; 16 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in 
India, in the 18th century. 

" The road of true faith," a Commentary 
upon the C*-ej or " Testament," containing 
the moral and religious precepts of the 
Imam Ja'far Sadik. 

Author : 'Ala ud-Din Muhammad B. Abu 
Turab Gulistanah ul-Husaini, j*^ fj>.di\ »^ 

Beg. »iU 4^U-»4W -li-o «55.j..»» i^\jJ>\ _.jj ^jj 

\^\ 

The author, considering the teachings of 
the Imams the only safe guide to truth and 



salvation, wished, he says, to render that 
most important text accessible to readers 
ignorant of Arabic, and added to its utility 
by elucidating and supplementing it with 
the traditional sayings of other Imams. The 
Arabic text, which is given in Naskhi, with 
all the vowels, is said to be taken from the 
'iJ>jJ\ ^^, a portion, as it appears, of the 
j^, the great collection of Imamitic tradi- 
tions compiled by Muhammad B, Ya'kub 
ul-Kalini ur-Razi; see Arabic Catalogue, 
p. 452, vi. 

Kalini, a great Shi'ah doctor, so called 
from Kalln, a village near Rai, died in Bagh- 
dad A.H. 328. See Majalis ul-Muminln, Add. 
16,716, fol. 223. The pronunciation Kalin 
is fixed by the Kamus, and by Yakut in his 
Mu'ajjam. 

The author states at the end that he com- 
pleted this work in Shawwal, A.H. 1081. 

Mirza 'Ala ud-Din Muhammad Gulistanah 
is mentioned in Mir'at ul-Ahwal, Add. 24,052, 
fol. 25 b, as one of the most eminent dis- 
ciples of the Shaikh ul-Islam Muhammad 
Bakir Majlisi above-mentioned, and the 
author of a Commentary upon the Nahj ul- 
Balaghah. 



LAW. 



Add. 25,854. 

FoU. 95; 6 in. by 4; 13 lines, 2Hn.long; 
written in Nestalik, apparently in the 17th 
century. [Wm. Cueeton.] 

A short and popular manual of the law on 
religious obligations according to the Hanafi 
school. 



This copy is imperfect at beginning and 
end. An exposition of the principal articles 
of faith occupies the first 23 leaves. It is 
called at the end o-s-j^^ ^> and is followed by 
a second introduction treating of prayer 
»jU ^\x) jH pj^ &*jA« , f oU. 24 a — 25 b. The 
rest of the volume contains the usual books 
on purification 0,^iaJl <-r»^> fol- 25 b. 



LAW. 



28 



prayer, fol. 43 h, fasting, fol. 72 b, legal alms, 
fol. 77 a, victims 5Lif^\ v^. fol- 81 i, and 
pilgrimage, fol. 83 a. 

The text is compiled from the most 
approved works of the Hanaf i school, such 
as Kanz, Kiifi, Muhit, Hidayah, etc., chiefly 
of the 6th and 7th centuries. 

Add. 4947. 

Foil. 150 ; 1\ in. by 4| ; 7 lines, 3 in. long ; 
written in large Nestalik, apparently in 
India, early in the 18th century. 

[Claud Russel.] 

I. Foil. 1 o— 80 b. 

A Commentary on XjLo wji*, a treatise in 
verse, on legal prayer, by MuUa Sharaf ud- 
Din Bukhari ; see the Vienna Catalogue, 
vol. i. p. 512. 

Commentator: Abu-l-'Ismat Muhammad 
Ma'sum M^^ojuc s^ cu^^\ ^\ 

In a preface, the beginning of which is 
wanting, the commentator claims indulgence 
for this, his first work. The versified treatise 
begins, fol. 8 a, thus : 

Its author states, in the concluding lines, 
fol. 75 a, that it consists of 170 distichs and 
ten sections (Bab). He adds that he was 
called Sharaf, was born in Bukhara, and 
taught in Khorasan. 

Mulla Ya'kub Charkhi, and Maulana Ikhti- 
yar, are frequently quoted as earlier commen- 
tators of the same treatise. 

II. FoU. 80 6—150 b. 

A Commentary on a versified treatise on 
purification yo^ . 

The Commentary begins with an exposition 
on the different kinds of water used for 



ablutions. The first verse of the text is the 
following, fol. 91 a. 

No author is named for either text or 
commentary ; but the same earUer commen- 
tator, Ikhtiyar, is quoted. This copy is im- 
perfect at the end. 

Add. 5543. 

FoU. 295; llf in. by 7f ; 16 lines, 4 J in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with 'TJnwan 
and gold-ruled margins, in the latter part of 
the 18th century. [Charles Hamilton.] 

A complete treatise of Muhammedan Law 
according to the Hanafi school, translated 
from the Arabic Hidayah of Burhan ud-Din 
'Ali B. Abi Bakr ul-Marghinani (d. A.H. 593). 

Translator : Ghulam Yahya, ^_^ ^is- . 

Beg. j^j]f*» ]j L?'*^f** (ji»^t:%^ 0"^*** J >^^ 

The translator says in his preface that the 
Governor-General, Warren Hastings, ever 
anxious for the better government of the 
people, and especially for the improvement 
of the administration of justice, had commis- 
sioned him to compile the present translation 
from the Hidayah and other Arabic treatises, 
with the assistance of Mulla Taj ud-Din, Mir 
Muhammad Husain and Mulla Shari'at UUah. 
He then conveys the date on which the 
work was completed, viz. A.H. 1190, in the 
following chronogram : 



ib ^\d\ io}ji^^ tj^j^ *i'3'J* 

An EngHsh translation of this Persian 
version was published by Charles Hamilton, 
London, 1791, who, in his Preliminary Dis- 
course, gives an account of the original at 



24, 



LAW. 



p. xxxii., and of the present version at p.xliii. 
The text has been printed in Calcutta, 1807. 
The present volume contains the first five 
books, treating of purification, prayer, legal 
alms, fasting, and pilgrimage, the third of 
which only has been translated by Hamilton, 
vol. i., pp. 1 — 70. A full table of books and 
sections occupies three pages at the begin- 



ning. 



Add. 5544. 

Foil. 518; uniform with the preceding, 
and written by the same hand. 

[Charles Hamilton.] 

The second volume of the above work, be- 
ginning with the book on marriage, and 
ending with the book on Wakf, or pious 
foundations. (Hamilton's translation, vol. i. 
p. 71 — vol. ii. p. 359). 

Foil. 1 — 3 contain a table of contents. 



Add. 5545. 

Foil. 552 ; uniform with the two pre- 
ceding volumes. [Charles Hamilton.] 

The third volume, beginning with the 
book on sales, and ending with the book on 
" ghasb," or appropriation by force. (Hamil- 
ton's translation, vol. ii. p. 360 — vol. iii. p. 
560). 

Table of contents, foil. 2 — 4. 



Add. 5552. 

Foil. 380 ; 10 in. by 6 ; 17 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, in the latter 
part of the 18th century. 

[Charles Hamilton.] 

The fourth and last volume, from the book 
on " Shufah," or the right of pre-emption, 
to the end of the work. (Hamilton, vol. iii. 
p. 561 — vol. iv. p. 574). 



Add. 22,714. 

Foil. 192 ; 111 in. by 7i ; 15 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, in two gold- 
ruled columns, with 'Unwan and illuminated 
headings ; dated March, A. D. 1803, A. H. 
1217. 



Wk>\ 



J 

A treatise on penal law, jjo^-osj :»jJ^ a^\ 
according to the Hanaf i school. 

Author: Salamat 'Ali Khan, known as 

Hazakat Khan y\^''^ ,_ij^ ^J^ cl*-^ 
Beg. \j oU-lii ^15 ^^'\ j.*^ o»l^ J J^ 

The author, while acting as legal assistant 
to Mr. John Knife in the Court of Second 
Instance at Muhammad- Abiid, compiled the 
present work, in order to facilitate the de- 
cision of criminal cases. He states his 
sources as follows : ^J^^3»^ j »j.^j* j t^j*^ (_j\Jo 
*?.iiU»- (j'jl^ J i^^ (_^'^ k/j^ J ioS>j ^j^ J J^ 

He adds that he commenced the work in 
A.H. 1212, a date expressed by its title, and 
presented it to Mr. John Dean. 

The work is divided into an introduction 
ft^jLfl/o , and two books ; it consists entirely of 
extracts from the original Arabic works, 
with a Persian translation " en regard." 

It has been printed in Calcutta, A.H. 
1244. See Biblioth. Sprenger., no. 663. 

Add. 24,040. 

FoU. 210 ; 114 in. by 6| ; 15 lines, 41 in. 
long ; written in Indian Nestalik, in two 
gold-ruled columns, about the beginning of 
the 19th century. [H. H. Wilson.] 

The same work. 



LAW. 



25 



Add. 19,433. 

Foil. 63 ; 9 in. by 5| ; 17 lines, 4 in. long ; 
written in cursive Indian Nestalik, in the 
early part of the 19th century. 

[Turner Macan.] 



Z^jt}\ ^j^ 



A treatise on penal law, according to the 
Hanafi school. 

Author : Amir ud-Din Ahmad, known as 
Amr TJUah Khan i^\ jc\^^ j^J:.X\ ,^^ iji^\j^\ 

Beg. %^]jt^\ ^-Lo \JJuai t_sJJ\ dJll Jl ijj^ ^ji>^\ 

The author, who claims descent from Arab 
ancestors settled in India since the time of Ba- 
bar, states, in the preface, that he had accepted 
office under the English, and acted for eight 
years as judge of the court of Ghazipur. In 
consequence of the appointment of English 
judges, in A.D. 1795, he lost his place, but 
found a kind patron in Henry Colebrook. 
It was owing to his advice and kind en- 
couragement that he wrote the present work, 
which he completed and dedicated to him in 
A.H. 1223. 

It is written in the form of questions and 
answers, and divided into chapters (Bab) and 
sections (Easl), a table of which occupies 
three pages at the beginning. 

The authorities referred to under every 
head are quoted in the original Arabic. 

• Add. 23,579. 

Foil. 237 ; 7\ in. by 5 ; 17 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik, apparently 
in the 16th century. [Robert Taylor.] 

A treatise of law, according to the Shi'ah 
school. 

It is divided into a number of books (Kitab) 
bearing the headings usual in legal treatises, 



and subdivided into chapters (Bab). The 
first book, O,^ '-r'^j is imperfect at the 
beginning. 
The second begins, fol. 14 a, as follows : 

l« Jjl ii^^ji *^LJ\ ft-lp Jill'* ^r^*^ i*^^ Cyi.* 

The last book, which is imperfect at the 
end, begins, fol. 227 b, as follows : ^\3S 



C*-»\ tji a^j Jii. There are also some la- 
cunes in the body of the volume. 

The MS., although endorsed j_^Uff- *«V> 
is a different work from the compilation so 
called. Add. 23,678, and apparently earlier. 

Add. 23,578. 

FoU. 207 ; 8 in. by 5| ; 26 Hues, 3| in. 
long ; written in clear Naskhi, in the 17th 
century. [Robert Taylor.] 

A popular exposition of the law, according 
to the Shi'ah school. 

Author : Baha ud-Din Muhammad 'Amill, 

J^'* c)>^ ^^.J1 ^\i 

Beg. ^j^\ J* i^LaJlj (^Wl L^j 4J3 ^ 

Shaikh Baha ud-Din Muhammad, born in 
A.H. 963, accompanied, as a boy, his father. 
Mar Sayyid Husain, of Jabal 'Amil, near 
Damascus, to Persia. The latter, an eminent 
Shiah divine, became Shaikh ul-Islam in 
Ardabll, and afterwards Mujtahid in Ispahan. 
Baha ud-Din became, under his father, a com- 
plete master of tradition and law ; he learnt 
also physics, mathematics, and astronomy, 
from the great masters of the day. After 
discharging for a time the office of Shaikh ul- 



26 



LAW. 



Islam at Ispahan, he gave it up to perform 
the pilgrimage, and led for many years the 
wanderina: life of a Darvlsh. He is the author 
of numerous works on theology, law, and the 
sciences ; he left also some poetry and a large 
collection of Analecta in seven volumes, called 
Kashkul. See Alam Arai, Add. 16,684, foil. 
38, 40 and 377, where Iskandar Mirza, the au- 
thor's contemporary, says that he died at Ispa- 
han on the 12th of Shavviil, A.H. 1030, and 
had been working to the last at the Jami' 
'Abhasi. The above date is confirmed by 
two versified chronograms due to contem- 
porary poets. Notices of his life are also 
found in the Khulasat ul-Agar, Add. 23,370, 
fol. 179; 'Ikd ul-Jawahir, Add. 16,647, fol, 
279 ; Eiyaz ush-Shu'ara, Add. 16,729, fol. 79 ; 
Atashkadah, Or. 1268, fol. 95 ; and the Maj- 
, mu ah. Add, 7719, fol. 197. See also Spren- 
ger, Oude Catal., p. 368 ; Malcolm, History 
of Persia, vol. i. p. 558 ; and Dorn, S. Peters- 
burgh Catalogue, p. 238. 

The author states, in a short preface, that 
he wrote this work by command of Shah 
'Abbas (A.H. 996—1037), for the benefit of 
his subjects. It is divided into twenty chap- 
ters (Bab), which follow the usual arrange- 
ment of legal books, and a table of which is 
given at the end of the preface. The first 
treats of purification Cj>j\^, the last of blood- 
money \^ ^^f'. 

At the beginning of Bab vi., fol. 72 &, is 
foimd a second preface. Here it is stated 
that, the author having died on the 12th of 
Shavviil, A.H. 1031 (not 1030 as in the 
'Alam Arai), after finishing the first five 
Babs, the writer, Nizam B. Husain Savaji, 
received, and carried out, the royal commands 
to complete the remaining fifteen Babs. 

Foil. 2—13, and 200—207, have been sup- 
plied in A.H. 1202 by a copyist named 
<^ ^ [j> (J**^» who states that the date of 
the older writing was A.H. 1063. The sub- 



scription ascribes the work to ^ji\ ^ ^^ 
^Ji\ ^j\j^ (irt~5i. the above-named con- 
tinuator. 

The Jami' i Abbas! has been lithographed 
in Lucknow, A.H. 1264, and in Persia, A.H. 
1277, d. 1285 ; see Zenker, vol. ii., p. 93, 
and Dorn's Catalogue des ouvrages arabes, 
etc., no. 27. Por other MS. copies see Fleis- 
cher, Dresden Catal., no. 338 ; Leyden Catal., 
vol. iv., p. 178; De Jong, Catal. Bibl. Acad., 
p. 237 ; Aumer, Munich Catal., p. 130 ; Co- 
penhagen Catal., p. 5 ; and Bibl. Sprenger., 
No. 654. 

Add. 18,871. 

FoU. 158; 8^ in. by 5^; 17 lines, 5| in. 
long; written in small and neat Naskhi, 
with TJnvan and gold ruled margins ; dated 
A.H. 1233 (A.D. 1818). 

A very full exposition of the ordinances 
of Islamism ^^y^ ^^.^> Ji»-\ a Shi'ah work. 

Author : Ibn Muhammad Hasan ul-Khu- 
rasani Muhammad Ibrahim, j^^— »- s^ ^ji\ 

Beg. Si.^ ^jfjj>- iijo lol . . . ;^W\ L_^ <jJ3 s^ 

The author says, in a short preface, that 
this work was written at the request of a 
vast number of believing brethren, and that 
it consists of an introduction, four parts 
(Maksad), and a conclusion. Maksad I. 
treats of the acts of worship L->bLff, and is 
divided into a number of books called Man- 
haj. 

The only portion contained in the present 
volume is the introduction, wuJj jiS «<j£« 
(^.Ji'^p, on the necessity of a duly qualified 
Mujtahid, foil. 2 b — 6 b, and secondly, the 
first Manhaj of Maksad I. The latter treats 
very fully of the legal prayer, and is itself 
divided into four sections (Mabha§), beginning 



THEOLOGY (KALAM) AND CONTROVERSY. 



27 



at foil. 6 J, 35 a, 93 «, and 122 «, and a 
Khatimah. treating of fvineral rites, J^\ 
jiUo., fol. 136 b. 

Add. 16,835. 

Foil. 32 ; 4| in. by 3| ; 10 lines, 2 in. 
long ; written in Naskhi, apparently early 
in the ISth century. [Wm. Yule.] 

A popular treatise on the defects and 



doubts which invalidate the legal prayer, 
according to Shi'ah practice. 

Author : Muhammad Bakir B. Sayyid 
Hasan B. Khalifah Sultan ul-Husaini. ^^ 

Beg. (_^UHjO tW>-j ijt^.^ (_>a)\i- (^.liSi i^}^ 

The work is dedicated to Shah Sultan 
Husain (A.H. 1105—1135). It is divided 
into five chapters (Easl). 



THEOLOGY (KALAM) AND CONTROVERSY. 



Egerton 702. 

Foil. 100; 9 in. by 5^; 17 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik, apparently 
in India, in the 17th century. 

[Adam Clarke.] 

A treatise on scholastic theology (Kalam), 
without title or author's name. 



Beg. 



J '**i-? r''^ J 



The author says, in his preface, that, on 
approaching the throne of the reigning sove- 
reign, Mu'izz ud-Dunya wad-Din, Ghiyag 
ul-Islam wal-Muslimin, Abul-Fath Muham- 
mad B. Malakshah, Kasim i Amir ul-Muminin, 
he decided to oflFer to him, as the most 
valuable gift he could command, these subtle 
thoughts and ingenious observations on mat- 
ters of faith, j^.i i\jjCi \^ J ^t^iiaJj the fruit 
of forty years study. The work consists of 
the following three sections (Makalah) : — 

I. On the excellence of knowledge; in 
seven chapters (Fasl), fol. 6 6. 

II. On the proofs of the existence of 
a Creator, which are drawn from the existence 



and order of the universe, in eleven chapters, 
fol. 28 b. 

III. On other proofs derived from the 
condition and nature of man, in five chapters 
(Bab), fol. 59 a. 

A full table of the contents is found on the 
fly-leaf, fol. 1 b, with the heading i_flj\la3 l-^Ij/ 
«JU& ; the same title is. written at the end 
in the handwriting of the transcriber, and 
lastly at the back of the first page, as follows : 

The celebrated theologian, Fakhr ud-Din 
Razi (Muhammad B. 'Umar), to whom the 
work is here attributed, was born in A.H. 544, 
and died A.H. 606. See Ibn Khallikan, de 
Slane's transL, vol. ii. p. 655. He could not, 
therefore, have been the author of a work 
dedicated to Sultan Muhammad B. Malak- 
shah, who reigned A.H. 498 — 511. 

As to the title j^jUs- (_flj\ia), although it 
does not appear in the work itself, it may 
well have been given to it, for it would seem 
to be derived partly from the word ^i-U, by 
which the contents are designated in the 
preface, and partly from Ghiyag ud-Din, the 
Sultan's surname. 

E 2 



28 



THEOLOGY (KALAM) AND CONTROVERSY. 



This treatise was not known to Haj. Khal., 
who gives the same title to a very different 
work ; see vol. v., p. 317. 

On fol. 5 o is a Persian note stating that 
the MS. was bought in Jaunpur, A.H. 1144, 
by a certain Lutf Ullah. 

Or. 222. 

Foil. 199; 10 in. by 5^; 17 lines 3| in. 
long; written in Nestalik, dated Pili Bhit, 
Parganah of Bareli, Sha'ban, A.H. 1181 
(A.D. 1767). [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

A controversial work, in which the author 
gives an account of the true and false doctors 
of his own time. 

Author: Shaikh Darvizah Nankarhari, 

Beg. Cj>jja>' jjbU. \^\ 5b /UjIj Iduol 5b (.>»U-» 

The author is the well-known apostle of 
Afghanistan, commonly called Akhund Dar- 
vizab (see fol. 103 b), who so successfully 
exerted himself to crush the Eaushaniyyah 
sect. See Dr. Leyden, Asiatic Researches, vol. 
X., p. 416, and Elphinstone, "Account of Cau- 
bul," i., p. 276. He says, in his preface, that 
before reading a book people should ascertain 
that the author was a true believer and safe 
guide ; if not, the book should be destroyed. 
He then proceeds to give numerous instances 
of unsound passages in current religious 
works. He wrote the present Tazkirah, he 
further says, to enable the people of Hindo- 
stan and Afghanistan to distinguish between 
the true and the false doctors. He states, at 
the end (fol. 199 a), that the work was writ- 
ten A.H. 1021. 

The title is found in the colophon, and at 
the back of the first page. In the preface 
the work is designated only as Tazkirah. 



It is stated in the subscription that this 
copy was transcribed, during the rule of 
Hafiz Rahmat Khan Bahadur Hilfiz ul-Mulk, 
for Mulla Dindar Khan, by Khalifah Ghulam 
Muhyi ud-Din. 

This MS., like many others in the Hamil- 
ton collection, once belonged to the Royal 
library of Lucknow, and bears the vermillion 
stamps of two kings of Oude, Sulaiman Jah 
and Amjad 'Ali, containing the following 
inscriptions in verse. 



f\^J\s. 



Uj sU. Jft ^\ Jli- 



Add. 25,857. 

Poll. 181 ; 5| in. by 4 ; 12 lines, 2| in. 
long ; written in Naskhi, apparently in the 
17th century. [William Cureton.] 

"The clean polisher for the brightening 
of the ' Truth-reflecting Mirror,' " a Musul- 
man refutation of Geronimo Xavier's " De- 
fence of Christianity " (see p. 3). 

Author: Sayyid Ahmad B. Zain ul-'Abidin 
ul-Alawi ul-'Amili, j^.jjU3I ^j ^^ j^l .^^ 

Beg. j\ J^^j yll-T */ ^^ s^ j\ s>o 

The author dedicates his work to the 
reigning Shah (here called Shah Safi, instead 
of Shah 'Abbas, by a mistake of the tran- 
scriber). He then states that, in obedience 
to a message conveyed to him in A.H. 1030, 
by the Imam Mahdi, in a vision, he had pre- 
viously written a work entitled ^i Jiij *<U3 
J>\j^ Cj\^ ij against the Christians, and 



THEOLOGY (KALAM) AND CONTEOVERSY. 



29 



another called j^b^. u-JoJ^ iJ, iii (^^^ J*^^j^ 
against the Jews. 

In A.H. 1032, having been shown by two 
Christian priests, viz. Padre Juan J'y>- and 
Padre Brio (?) y^ , the work entitled ^&xoT 
UJ J9- , written in defence of the Trinity by 
the great Christian divine known as Padre 
.J^L^, he felt called upon to write the present 
treatise in refutation of it. It was com- 
pleted, as stated at the end, in the month of 
Muharram of the same year, viz. A.H. 1032. 

Erom numerous and extensive quotations 
it is clear that the author had before him, 
not the larger work of Jerom Xavier (Harl. 
5478), but its abridgment by the same 
author (see above, p. 4, Add. 23,584). 

The present work has itself called forth a 
very full and extensive refutation in the 
book entitled : Apologia pro Christiana 
Religione, qua a R. P. PhUippo Guadagnolo 
respondetur ad objectiones Ahmed fiHi Zin 
Alabadin, Persae Asphahensis, contentas in 
libro inscripto Politer Speculi. Romae, 1631. 

A former reply had been written by P. 
Bonav. Malvalia in 1628. See Schnurr, iv., p. 
241, and the S. Petersburgh Catal., p. 244. 

A full account of the author's first work, 
^b *<\^ , written, also in reply to J. Xavier, 
A.H. 1031, is given by S. Lee in his preface 
to Henry Martyn's " Controversial tracts on 
Christianity and Mohammedanism," Cam- 
bridge, 1824, pp. xii — ci. 

Add. 5602. 

EoU. 114 ; 11 in. by 7^ ; 15 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in Nestalik, apparently in 
India ; dated Jumada I., A.H. 1037 (A.D. 
1627). ' [N. B. Halhed.] 

A treatise'of Mussulman controversy, in 
which the falsehood of Hindu mythology is 
exposed, and the excellence of Islam de- 
monstrated. 



Author : Ibn 'XJmar Mihrabi, ^\j£j^ ^^\ 
Beg. «13l .x**. lijo U\ . . . ,y*JU)\ t_jj «JJ j^' 

Jfc^ ^j^ IPii ^..^^ aJJ^ Jy«j CoOj J*-_j Jft 

It is written in the form of a dialogue 
between a parrot and a sharak (a species of 
talking-bird), and is preceded by a fabulous 
account of the origin of the work. It was 
composed, it is stated, for Damyati, the 
daughter of Nal Rae, king of Naldrug, in 
the Mahrattah country. A young and 
accomplished Mussulman, who had become 
enamoured of the princess, after training 
two talking birds to repeat alternately the 
questions and answers, found means to have 
them purchased by her, and thus eflFected 
her conversion. The work, which was by 
her order written down in letters of gold, 
subsequently passed into the treasury of 
Gujrat, where it long lay forgotten, until 
Rae Karan discovered it, and, after some 
fruitless attempts by his own Pandits, had 
it at last interpreted to him by a strange 
Brahmin, secretly converted to Islamism, 
when the king's own conversion followed as 
a matter of course. The reason which the 
author gives for translating it from the 
Indian tongue into Persian is, that in his 
time the children of Mohammedans dwelling 
in villages, and associating with idolaters, 
were fast becoming imbued with their super- 
stitious creeds, and heathenish practices. 

A work entitled iiU«)\ jL»^ , and written 
A.H. 620 (see p. 38, Or. 258), is frequently 
quoted. See for other copies Stewart's 
Catalogue, p. 84, and Biblioth. Sprenger., 
No. 715. Stewart calls the author Omar 
Mehramy, and gives A.D. 1645 (A.H. 1055), 
as the date of the work. 

Some extracts in English have been 
written in the margins by Nathaniel Brassey 
Halhed, whose name appears on the first 
page, and whose Persian seal is afiixed at 
the back. These have been transcribed from 



30 



SHI'AH THEOLOGY. 



the present copy, so as to form a continuous 
text, by the Kev. J. Haddon Hindley, in 
Add. 7044. 

Add. 26,315. 

FoU. 145 ; 9 in. by 5| ; 12 lines, 3f in. 
long ; written in cursive Indian Nestalik, 
and dated Eamazan, A.II. 1063 (A.D. 1653). 

[Wm. Eeskine.] 

The same work. 

This copy, although in appearance com- 
plete, wants about a quarter of the work at 
the end, viz., the portion corresponding to 
Add. 5602, foU. 86—114. The first two 
leaves have been supplied by a later hand. 

Tanscriber : ^JMJi j^jJl J^ j-»^ >-2» 

Add. 5633. 

Foil. 24; 7| in. by 5; 13 Hues, 3f in. 



long; written in cursive Indian Nestalik; 
dated Muharram A.H. 1191 (A.D. 1777). 

[N. B. Halhed.] 

An abridgment of the Hujjat ul-Hind. 

Author: Muhammad Jan B. Muhammad 
Sadik, son of Hafiz Sultan Mahmud Tash- 
kandi, ^J^aL^ kiU- .jJj j>.s>o ,u^ ^ J^ c^s^ 

(jJ>i Vm>\j liy^ 

Beg. jjU. fjl-aX^ tJ'iW »^\j ^\i>-j>oJ\y^ s^ 

The abbreviator adds at the end, foil. 
20 b — 24 b, a few observations of his own on 
the heathenish practices of some Mussulmans 
of his time. 

The subscription shows that this copy was 
written for Mr. Halhed by Faiz UUah ul-Hu- 
saini, of Mangalkoth. 



SHIAH THEOLOGY. 



Egerton 1020. 

Foil. 173; 8^ in. by 5; 13 lines, 3 in. 
long; written in large Indian Nestalik, 
apparently in the 17th century. 



euju 



&)L* 



J 



A controversial work in defence of the 
Shi'ah tenets, especially with regard to the 
prerogatives of *Ali and his descendants. 

Author: Ibrahim B. Wali Ullah Astara- 
badi, t/ob)pL*i\ ^^ ^ yJ (^]ji^ 

Beg. \juJ^\ t^l*y^ UjJ* ^y* ^ji\ 411 ^^ 

The author professes to have translated 
this work from an Arabic original, which he 
found in the possession of a pious Sayyid at 
Damascus, on his return from a pilgrimage 
to Mecca and Medina, in A.H. 958. He 



adds that his translation was read with 
delight by Shah Tahmasp, who sent for him 
and desired him to adorn the book with his 
exalted name. 

The frame-work is obviously fictitious. A 
fair and accomplished slave-girl, Hasaniyyah 
(or, as pointed by a later hand, Husaniyyah) 
by name, undertakes, before Harun ur-Rashid, 
to support, in debate, the Shi'ah faith against 
all the doctors of the age. 

Ibrahim B. Khalid *Aufi is sent for from 
Basrah, as the most learned man of the 
time, and a long discussion ensues, in which 
the latter is naturally discomfited. 

The Arabic texts, frequently quoted, are 
written in large Naskhi, with all vowels. 

This work has been printed in Persia, A.H. 
1248 ; see Dorn's Catalogue des ouvrages 
arabes, etc.. No. 27. 



SHI'AH THEOLOGY. 



81 



Add. 7609. 

PoU. 272 ; 11 in. by 7^ ; 22 lines 4^ in. 
long ; written in clear Naskhi ; dated Rajab, 
A.H. 1080 (A.D. 1669). [CI. J. Rich.] 

A complete and popular exposition of the 
creed and religious obligations, according to 
the Shi'ah faith. 

Author: Ibn Muhammad Haidar ul- 
Khwansari ^^l— i^yt jiJwj* o^ ^^\ 

Beg. &jM ^j^.'^yt^ "iiJ* j^ Lr?.^ ^ '^^ ,^ ^^ 

The work is dedicated to Shah 'Abbas 
(probably 'Abbas I., A.H. 996—1037), and 
is divided into a Mukaddimah, and twelve 
books (Bab), each consisting of twelve chap- 
ters (Fasl). It is to be noticed, however, 
that, although only twelve books are men- 
tioned in the preface, thirteen are enumerated 
in the full table of contents which follows it, 
foil. 3 6—6 a. 

The present volume contains only the 
Mukaddimah treating of Kalam, i. e. the 
rational demonstration of religious truth, and 
the first eight books. The latter treat : 1. Of 
the fundamental points of faith, ^J^'\ J^J' ', 
2 and 3. Of prayer ; 4. Of fasting ; 5, Of legal 
alms, 'i/j ; 6. Of pUgrunage ; 7. Of the pre- 
eminence of Muhammad and the Imams ; 
8. Of the history of the prophets. 

The remaining books, not contained in 
this volume, treat, according to the table, of 
the following subjects : 9. Qualities and ob- 
servances enjoined on the true believer; 
10. Things from which believers ought to 
abstain ; 11. Science and 'Ulama ; 12. Crea- 
tion and resurrection ; 13. Divers traditions 
and narratives. 

The author frequently inserts verses either 
due to other poets, or of his own composition. 

Copyist : iX-*-* .^^ ^^, ^^ <^^ 



Add. 7612. 

FoU. 110; 8 in. by 4^; 22 lines, 2\ in. 
long; written in minute Nestalik; dated 
Shawal, A.H. 1056 (A.D. 1646.) 

[CI. J. Rich.] 

Foil. 1—42. 

A popular compendium of Shi'ah theology, 
treating of the proofs of the existence and 
attributes of God, of the authority of the 
Prophet and Imams, and of future life. 

Author: Haidar, called Rafi'ud-Din ul- 
Husainl ut-Tabataba'i, ^^.jJl ^^ jCvA^ jiX-*- 

Beg. s^ ii}-» \jt^ii^jnw> jj«-j t/U5 J li^ iX?" 

The author speaks, in the preface, of the 
reigning sovereign. Shah Safi (A.H. 1037 — 
52), and states at the end that he completed 
this work in RabI' II., A.H. 1047. 

In the Kisas ul-Khakani, Add. 7656, fol. 
156, the author is mentioned under the 
name of Mirza Muhammad Rafi'a Tabataba'i, 
of Na'in, near Ispahan. He was Mujtahid, 
we are told, in the reign of 'Abbas II., at 
the close of which, A.H. 1077, he was past 
seventy years of age. The present tract is 
there enumerated among his works as *3L»^ 

The work is divided into a Mukaddimah 
and eight chapters (Matlab), the headings of 
which are mostly omitted. 

Copyist : ^^ ^y^ •i-*^ ui t:Hi*^ "^-^ 
For the rest of the contents of this 
volume, see Arabic Catalogue, p. 392. 

Add. 26,289. 

FoU. 279; 11 in. by 6; 17 lines, 4 in. long; 
written in Nestalik, apparently in India, and 
dated Muharram, A.H. 1177 (A.D. 1763). 

[Wm. Erskine.] 



S2 



SHI'AH THEOLOGY. 



A treatise on scholastic divinity (Kalam), 
according to the Shi'ah doctrine. 

Author: 'Abd ur-Razzfik B. 'All B. ul- 
Husain ul-Lahiji, ^;;JbJi (^ J^ y? J^^ "^ 

Beg. O;*"' (/^.j'ij^ ]) '^J^ U*!?^ sS^o\jcj^<f 

Maulana 'Abd ur-Razzak, born in Lahijan, 
lived in Kum, in the time of 'Abbas II. 
(A.H. 1052—1077) ; he was a pupil of Sadr 
ShirSzi, and a friend of Muhsin Kashi, and 
left, besides the present work, a large Divan, 
in which he takes the Takhallus of Fayyaz. 
See Kisas i Khakanl, Add. 7656, fol. 157; 
Riyaz ush-Shu'ara, Add. 16,729, fol. 345; 
Atashkadah, Or. 1268, fol. 91. His Com- 
mentary on the Taj rid ul-Kalam has been 
printed in Tehran, A.H. 1280. 

The author complains, in the preface, that 
a rational and independent knowledge of 
divine things, though necessary to salvation, 
was, in his time, too much neglected even by 
the learned. He wrote this work in order to 
afford to all an easy means of supplying that 
deficiency ; he dedicates it to Shah 'Abbas II. 

The work is divided into a Mukaddimah, 
four books (Makalah), and a Khatimah, as 
follows : 

Mukaddimah, treating of the dignity of 
man, his prerogative of divine knowledge, 
and of the science of Kalam generally; 
fol. 9 b. 

Makalah I. On self-knowledge ,_^ \J^ iy>- , 
in two chapters, treating severally of body 
and soul, or physics and metaphysics ; fol 20 a. 

Makalah II. Knowledge of God ^jJlL l.ii- , 
in three chapters — 1. Existence and unity of 
God, fol. 76 6; 2. His attributes, fol. 96 b; 
3. His acts, fol. 113 b. 

Makalah III. On divine law, in four chap- 
ters — 1. Religious obligations i-ijJio; fol. 
136 a ; 2. Prophetic mission c^^ ; fol. 140 b ; 



3. Imamat c*«U, showing, at great length, 
the proofs of the exclusive claims of 'Ali and 
the twelve Imams, fol. 182 a; 4. Euture 
state jl*. ; fol. 239 a. 

Khatimah, treating of the two paths of 
spiritual life, that of the philosophers, and 
that of the Sufis, fol 268 a. 

A modem table of contents has been pre- 
fixed, foil. 1 — 4. See Stewart's Catalogue, 
p. 40. 

Or. 1294. 

Eoll. 238 ; 13 in. by 8^^ ; 27 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in Naskhi and Nestalik, ap- 
parently in the 19th century. 

A Shi'ah work in proof of 'All's right to 
the Imamat. 

Beg. \jis- 'i/ ^/y^i (J*^ *5U (^lj-«U «r,_fj^ 

This work does not bear any specific title ; 
it is described in the preface as 'SJ^\ ji> &)L», 
j^. ^ c*«U^ . The author, whose name does 
not appear, states that he had been living for 
a long time at Haidarabad, in the service of 
'Abdullah Kutub Shah (A.H. 1035—1083), 
and that he wrote the present work as a 
humble offering to His Majesty. In the 
concluding lines, also addressed to the king, 
we are told that the work was completed, 
after a year and half of unremitting labour, 
in A.H. 1058. 

It contains the following divisions : 1. A 
Mukaddimah treating of the significance of 
the Imam, and the necessity for his existence, 
fol. 3 a. 2. A book (Bab) on the claims 
of 'All, fol. 7 b, subdivided into twelve 
chapters (Fasl), the last of which treats at 
great length^ foil.* 142 6—232 b, of 'All's 
eleven successors. 3. A Khatimah, con- 
taining miscellaneous observations, fol. 232 b. 

Or. 1295. 

Eoll. 206; 111 in. by 7f ; 18 lines, 4i in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik; dated Rama- 
zan, A.H. 1266 (A.D. 1850). 



SHI'AH THEOLOGY. 



33 



A diatribe against the competitors and 
adversaries of 'Ali. 

Author : *Ali Da'ud Khadim ul-Astarabadi. 

Beg. Jo- ^ ^^ w^ J <^ o-V^ J j^ 

The author, a most virulent Shi'i, here 
rakes up all the most malignant slanders 
and calumnies against those that resisted or 
denied 'All's exclusive claims to the Khilafat, 
chiefly against Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'U§man, and 
Muaviyah. The work is divided into fifty 
chapters (Bab), subdivided into sections, sig- 
nificantly called Ta'n or Eevilings. The last 
four chapters are directed against the four 
heads of the Sunni schools, Abu Hanifah, 
Shafi'i, Malik and Ibn Hanbal. 

Towards the end, A.H. 1076 is mentioned 
as the current year, and Shah 'Abbas II. as 
the reigning sovereign. 

Copyist : ij!J\;^\ S^y-- t^ j-^ 

Or. 1296. 

Foil. 356 ; 9^ in. by 6^ ; 21 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in neat Nestalik ; dated Ju- 
mada II., A.H. IIM (A.D. 1702). 

A fuU exposition of Shi'ah theology. 
Author : Muhammad Bakir B, Muhammad 
Taki ^_J3 s^ u^j^V •^^■^^ 

Beg. ^jJuJ^ j-^\ ,ijJil\ jo^^ j^\^\ all ^^ 

In spite of the considerable size of this 
work, the author terms it a compendious 
exposition of the essential points of doctrine, 
designed for those persons who lacked leisure 
to master his extensive works in Persian and 
Arabic. He dedicates it to the reigning 
Shah, Sultan-Husain, and states, at the end, 



that it was completed on the last of Sha'bim, 
A.H. 1109. 

This is the last, and not the least volu- 
minous, of the forty-nine Persian works of 
Muhammad Bakir Majlisi, as enumerated 
in the notice of his life, Add, 24052, foil. 
28 — 30. It contains the following six books 
(Bab), of very unequal extent: — 1. God's 
existence and attributes, fol. 2 6. 2. Attri- 
butes which are not to be ascribed to God, 
fol. 6 a. 3. Attributes relating to God's 
acts, fol. 8 b. 4. On Prophecy (Nubuvvat), 
fol. 10 a. 5. On Imamat, fol. 20 a. 6. On 
resurrection (Ma'ad), its antecedents and 
sequels from death to the end of the world, 
'fol. 205 b. 

In the fifth book, which contains nine 
chapters (Maksad), and makes more than 
half the bulk of the work, the exclusive 
claims of 'All and his descendants to the 
Imamat are demonstrated, and his opponents 
disparaged, at considerable length. 

Copyist: i^^ibT^^yU^ JiJ j,^* ^^^^^.^ j^s* ^A 

This work has been printed in Tehran, 
A.H. 1241. 

Add. M,411. 

Poll. 262 ; 8i in. by 6i ; 22 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in close Naskhi, about the 
beginning of the 19th century. 

[Sir John Malcolm.] 

" B/isalah i Khairatiyyah," a fierce denun- 
ciation of Suflsm. 

Author : Aka Muhammad 'Ali B. Mu- 
hammad Bakir Isfahani Bahbahani, s^ ^\ 

Beg, »JTj jj-^\ J* ULa/« «3!y ^Js- ix^) 

Aka Muhammad 'All, born in Karbala, 
A.H. 1144, was the eldest son of the great 



u 



SHI'AH THEOLOGY. 



Mujtahid, Aka Muhammad Bakir Babbahani, 
who died A.H. 1205, and under whose tuition 
he rose to the same rank. After living some 
years with his father in Bahbahan, he re- 
paired to Mecca, where he spent two years 
in law studies. After his return a fearful 
plague drove him from Karbalii to Kirman- 
shahan, where he spent most of his remaining 
years in the enjoyment of undisputed 
spiritual sway, and died in A.H. 1216. A 
full account of his life is given by his son 
Ahmad, in his Mir at ul Ahwal, Add. 24,052, 
foil. 45 — 52 ; the same MS. contains, fol. 26, 
a mention of the present work, and of the 
numerous conversions effected by it. See 
also Tuhfat ul-'Alam, Add. 23,533, fol. 72, 
and Malcolm, History of Persia, vol. ii., 
pp. 422, 443. 

This lengthy and most virulent refu- 
tation of the Sufi doctrines is especially 
directed against the great Sufi teacher of 
the time, Sayyid Ma'sum 'Ali Shah, surnamed 
by his sectaries Ma'bud (or "the Lord") Ol-« 
jU. >i}^iL^ i,^^^ ^Jjt^tyox* , and against his prin- 
cipal followers, Nur 'Ali Shah, Eaunak 
'All, Aka Mahdi Kirmani, and Mirza Taki 
Kirmani. 

It begins with a letter addressed to an 
eminent Sayyid, whose name is not given. 
Here the author says that, a letter written 
by the AsaQah, or Prime Minister (Mirza 
Muhammad Shafi', see Brydge's History 
of the Kajars, p. 28), to the Beglerbegi, 
or Governor of the Province, and relat- 
ing to the said Ma'sum 'Ali, having been 
shown to him, he was shocked to find a man 
of great piety supporting the arch enemy 
of the faith, no doubt in ignorance of his 
real character, and felt himself called upon 
to unmask and refute the foul heresy. Ac- 
cording to our author, the first appearance 
of Ma'sum 'Ali as a public teacher took place 
in Isfahan, under 'Ali-Murad Khan (A.H. 
1196 — 1199), by whose order, and in conse- 



quence of the denunciation of the 'Ulamas, he 
and his disciple, Nur 'Ali Shah, had their ears 
cropped, and were expelled from the city. 
"When, after staying a short time in Kirman, 
and, subsequently, some years iu Baghdad 
and Karbala, he ventured to return to Persia, 
the author had him arrested in Kirmiinsha- 
han, and conveyed to Tehran for punish- 
ment. 

From the latter part of the work we learn 
that in the month of Safar, A.H. 1213, the 
author betook himself to Tehran with the 
double object of congratulating Path 'Ali 
Shah on his accession, and of urging him to 
extirpate the growing heresy. With this 
view the first half of the Khairatiyyah, the 
only part then finished, was submitted to 
His Majesty. The result was a general and 
fierce persecution of the Sufis. Two of the 
leaders, Aka Mahdi and Mirza Taki, both 
natives of Kirman, were arrested in Hama- 
dan, and delivered over to the author to 
deal with them as he deemed fit. The first 
was tortured to death. The latter was 
thrown into prison. Niir 'Ali, frightened, 
fled to Mossul, where he died of the plague. 
Mirza Taki, as the author exultingly states 
in a post-scriptum, was also overtaken by 
the divine wrath, in other words, put to 
death, three months after the completion of 
of this work. A short account of these dis- 
turbances is given by Malcolm in his History 
of Persia, vol ii., pp. 417 — 423. 

The time of composition, A.H. 1211, is 
indicated by the word C^]^ , from which 
the title is derived ; but the work was not 
finished before the* 1st of Jumada-1-akhir, 
A.H. 1214 ; for that is the date rather enig- 
matically conveyed by the author in the 
concluding lines. 

It may be noticed that a considerable 
portion of Jaml's Notices of the Sufis, 
" Nafahat-ul-uns," is here inserted in fuU 
for the sake of refutation. 




ASCETICISM AND SUFISM. 



35 



Add. 16,831. 

Poll. 110; 7i in. by 4^; 11 lines, 2^ in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with 'Unviln 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
17th century. [Wm. Yule.] 



A short exposition of the creed and reli- 
gious duties, according to the Shi'ah doctrine, 
without author's name. 

This treatise is divided, according to the 



preface, into an Introduction, two chapters 
(Bfib), and a Conclusion (Khatimah). The 
Introduction, fol. 3 a, defines, in a few lines, 
the meaning of Iman and Islam. Bab I., 
fol. 4 a, contains five sections (Rukn), 
treating of the principal points of the Shi'ah 
creed. Bab II., fol. 52 a, expounds, in five 
sections (Fasl), the ordinances relating to 
prayers, fasting, alms, pilgrimage, and Jihad. 
The Khatimah is wanting. 

This is quite distinct from the work de- 
scribed p. 30, Egerton 1020, which bears a 
similar title. 



ASCETICISM AND SUFISM. 



2i 



Add. 16,833. 

Foil. 19 ; 7 in. by 4 ; from 8 to 10 lines, 
in. long; written in Nestalik; dated 
Zulka'dah, the 21st year (probably of Shah 
'Alam, i.e. A.H. 1193, A.D. 1780). 

[Wm. Yules.] 

A religious tract, inscribed &!>-\y>- OU-U* 



Beg 



8A«T ^J^jJ ^fjJ \j J^S^ 






-J^j ci^ 



Abu Ismail 'Abd Ullah B. Abil-Mansur 
Muhammad ul-Ansari ul-HaravI, surnamed 
Shaikh ul-Islfim, a celebrated devotee, and 
the author of Manazil us-Sa'irin, was born 
in Kuhandiz, A.H. 396, and died in Herat, 
A.H. 481. Notices of his life are to be 
found in the Nafahat ul-Uns, Add. 16,718, 
fol. 158 ; Majalis ul-'Ushshak, Or. 208, fol. 46 ; 
Haft Ikllm, Add. 16,734, fol. 267; andRiyaz 
ush-Shu'ara, Add. 16,729, fol. 4. See also 
S. de Sacy, Not. et Extr., vol. xii., p. 352. 



This tract, which is commonly known, as 
ij^^\ i^\ jjkC- 4»-\}i- »!l«»,, consists of invoca- 
tions to God, followed by pious exhortations 
addressed to devotees. 

It is written in prose, mixed with verses 
in the form of Rubaas and Ghazals. In the 
latter the author designates himself, in some 
places, by the name of 'Abd Ullah, in others, 
by that of Piri Ansar, which, according to 
Walih, Add. 16,729, fol. 4, was the Takhallus 
of *Abd Ullah Ansari. 

Other copies are found in Add. 16,825, 
26,292, 26,303. See also the Vienna Cata- 
logue, vol. iii., p. 497, and the S. Petersburgh 
Catalogue, p. 254. 

Or. 257. 

Poll. 141 ; 8| in. by 6| ; 17 hnes, 3| in. 
long ; written in fair NestaUk, apparently in 
the 16th century. [Geo. W. Hamilton.} 

A work, without title or author's name, 
r 2 



36 



ASCETICISM AND SUFISM. 



containing the religious teachings, moral 
precepts, and pious observances, of Muham- 
mad and his followers. 

Beg. »_jU^ ^^.I j^ U . . . ujJUl L^j ^ ijji 
j\^\ j\ is^ ij)^ i)b ^J>\ ji \j j-«T a/ i- i ..:^ ' ) 

The work begins with a short introduction 
on the duty of the devotee of attaching no 
value to his pious works. It contains fifty- 
five chapters (Bab), a table of which occu- 
pies the first two pages. They treat of true 
devotion, the terrors of death, the ordeal of 
the grave, resurrection, heaven and hell, 
moral duties, vices and virtues, religious 
observances, the pre-eminence of certain days 
and months, the virtue of the recitation of the 
Coran and prayers, finally, of the miracles of 
Muhammad. 

Their headings are as follows : ^jatiU-^ ^.i i 



ii> 



\jS 












ir 






L5V^J 



J IV 



cX 



yj'* J^ l^ J 



li II 



u'l;^ 



M 



•'■ w-^/ ti*?' ^ '} (^' j'i •* ••• u*^ *^^*JH*J 

••• J*^J^ U*^/ (^J-i ••• ••• <^-«-j' u'^/i^j'J 



Oi>l 



JJJ 



^bjb 5b jji>bMiX^ »JlJlj(i r« .'. j^;lb sJ^jO J.aai 



jjtjiCl J 



i l«l 



J^ 



J\M^ )\ 



^Sj^j> J 



a »«. 









'*V 



.>M 



SJ«fl)l 



er 






01 






•■• Jr^ 0;-i»- <:J\j^ jd 6 ••• jjjj 

This copy breaks off before the end of the 
last chapter. The language is archaic, and 
such as is found in early translations from 
the Arabic. The text is a mere compilation 
of sayings of Muhammad, the companions, 
and some holy men of the 2nd and 3rd cen- 
turies, as Shakik Zahid (d. A.H. 174), Yahya 
Ma'az Razi (d. A.H. 258), etc., with anec- 
dotes relating to the same. 

An author frequently quoted is Eakih Za- 
hid Abu-l-Laig Samarkand!. He wrote a 
similar work in Arabic, entitled ^^Ul l;^.)^ 
from which the present seems to be in great 
part derived. Abu 1-Lai§ died A.H. 375. 
See Al-Wiifi bil-Wafayat, Add. 23,359, fol. 
124; Haj. Khal., vol. ii., p. 51; Tornberg, 
Upsala Catal., p. 289; and Biblioth. Sprenger., 
No. 914. 

The title, u^Jlla!\ C-o.ljjb Jj^Jljii, written 
by a later hand,in the margin of the table of 
contents, and the endorsement, jj^flUl wlo>fc, 
on fol. 2 a, are of doubtful authority. 

Add. 25,026. 

Poll. 313; 18i in. by 9^; 23 lines, 6^ 
in. long ; written with the vowels, in fine 



ASCETICISM AND SUFISM. 



87 



Persian Naskhi, with 'Unvrm and ruled mar- 
gins ; dated Zul-hijjah, A.H. 672 (A.D. 1274). 

"The Alchemy of Bliss," an extensive 
work, treating of the religious ohligations 
and moral duties of the true Muslim. 

Author: Muhammad B. Muhammad ul- 
Ghazzali ut-Tusi, ^j^^\ J\yi\ s^ ^ ^^ 

Beg. ^^lv-»T jjllli (Siijo jj^lj^ u"^ J J^ 

Hujjat ul-Islam Ahu Hamid Muhammad 
ul-Ghazzali, the greatest divine and Shafi'i 
lawyer of his time, is chiefly known by his 
Arabic works. He was born in Tus, A.H. 
450, and studied under Imam ul-Haramain 
Abul-Ma'iili Juvaini. After staying for 
many years in Naishapur, in the Nizamiyyah 
College, Baghdad, in Damascus and Jeru- 
salem, engaged in teaching and writing, he 
returned to his native place, where he devoted 
himself to a religious life, and died A.H. 505 ; 
see Ibn Khallikan, English translation, vol. ii., 
p. 621, and Nafahat ul-Uns, Add. 16,718, 
fol. 177. 

The present work may be considered as 
a popular abridgment of the author's volu- 
minous Arabic work Ihya 'Ulum id-Din 
(Arab. Catal., p. 386), the arrangement of 
which it follows. 

Al-Ghazzali himself, in his preface, refers 
readers desirous of fuller information to the 
last-named work, as well as to his Jawahir 
ul-Kur'an (Haj. Khal., vol. ii., p. 646). 

The preface is followed by four introductory 
chapters, called 'Unwan, fol 3 b, treating of 
the soul, of God, the present world, and the 
life to come. The body of the work consists 
of four books (Rukn), the first two of which 
relate to external, and the last two to spiri- 
tual life, as follows : — 1. Man's duty to God, 
or the acts of worship and religious obser- 
vances, obU& , fol. 31 b. 2. Man's duty to 
man, or rules to be observed in the inter- 



course with fellow creatures, OiU\»«, fol. 
68 b. 3. Pernicious passions, or impulses, 
from which the soul should be freed, oUltx, 
fol. 140 b. 4. Qualities conducive to salva- 
tion, with which the soul should be adorned, 
iSj\^, fol. 282 b. 

At the beginning of each Rukn is written 
in gold, red, and blue, a table of the ten 
chapters (Asl), into which it is divided. 

This copy exhibits the archaic spelling of 
li for <i, eiJ or ^ for &i^, and also the pecu- 
liarity that the two dots of final ^j are 
frequently placed above it. 

The first page contains the following title, 
written in gold, and richly illuminated : i^^sJ' 

j^j^^ **Jj O"*^ 

Transcriber: ^LJJ\ gii] ^^ ^^ s^ (^ (J* 

The Kimiya i Sa adat has been printed in 
Calcutta, without date (Biblioth. Sprenger., 
No. 756), and lithographed in Lucknow, A.H. 
1282. MS. copies occur in Stewart's Catal., 
p. 49 ; Fleischer's Dresden Catal., No. 255 ; 
St. Petersburgh Catal., p. 256 ; Copenhagen 
Catal., p. 5 ; and Aumer's Miinich Catal., 
p. 61. See also an account of the work by 
Gosche, Abhandlungen der Berliner Aka- 
demie, 1858, p. 262. 

Add. 16,809. 

EoU. 479 ; llf in. by 7^; 19 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with TJnvan and 
ruled margins ; dated Muharram, A.H. 1023 
(A.D. 1614). [William Yule.] 

The same work. 

Transcriber: ^\jJj}^L^\ ^jy^Jl &m J-fr 

Add. 7604. 

Poll. 227 ; H in. by 6^; 23 Unes, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Naskhi by various hands. 

[CI. J. Rich.] 



38 



ASCETICISM AND SUFISM. 



A portion of the same work, extending 
from the beginning of Rukn I. to the end 
of Rukn III. 

The older part of the MS., foil. 1—50, 
196—225, appears to be of the 13th century. 
Most of the remaining portion is probably of 
the 15th, but a few leaves have been sup- 
plied here and there by still later hands. 



Add. 25.841. 

Foil. 248; 9 in. by 5f ; 17 Hues, 4> in. 
long ; written in Naskhi, with gold head- 
ings and mled margins, apparently in the 
15th century. [Wm. Cubeton.] 

The first half of the same work, containing 
the preface, the introduction, and the first 
two Rukns. 

Add. 25,842. 

FoU. 159; 94 in. by 7; 21 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik, apparently 
in India, in the 18th century. 

[Wm. Cueeton.] 

The first half of the same work, as in 
the preceding copy. 
Transcriber : t\si ^..^ Sij «131 ju& 

The first page bears the name of T. 
Macan. 

Add. 16,810. 

Foil. 165; 8^ in. by 4|; 16 lines, 3 in. 
long; written in neat Indian Shikastah- 
Amlz, dated Shahabad, Zulka'dah, the 11th 
year of Muhammad Shah (A.H. 1142, A.D. 
17^^)- [Wm. Yule.] 

Two fragments of the same work, viz. :— 

Foil. 1—72. Eukn III., from the be- 
ginning to the second page of Asl 6. 

Foil. 73-165. Eukn II., from" the fourth 



section (Bab) of Asl 3 to the end of the 
Rukn. 
Copyist : ijj^uj^ ^xs-ljJl jj* 

Or. 258. 

FoU. 333 ; 8f in. by 5|; 12 lines, 2| in. 
long; written in neat Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margin, apparently in the 
15th century. [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

A Sufi work treating of the spiritual 
progress (ti! 4-») of the soul through its three 
stages, viz., the original state, ^Ijujl, the 
present Hfe, ^jiUJt , and the world to come. 

Author: Abu Bakr 'Abd 'UUah B. Mu- 
hammad B. Muhammad B. Shahavar ul- 
Asadi ur-Razi ^^i .i.^ ^^ ^^ ^^ M ^ j3 ^\ 

Beg. J^j ^sn^. j^ . . . ^^JUJI ^j «i) aJ^ 

The author says in the introduction, that, 
while several works had been written on 
the above subject in Arabic, none existed in 
the Persian language, and that, although 
repeatedly urged by his disciples to supply 
that deficiency, he had been prevented from 
doing so by the disturbed state of Khorasan 
and Irak, which culminated in the Tatar 
invasion, A.H. 617. Finding his dwelling- 
place, Hamadan, threatened, he fled, with 
some disciples, A.H. 618, to Ardabil, from 
whence, seeking for a country in which the 
true faith, safety and regard for merit, still 
prevailed, he was a'dvised to go to Rum 
(Asia Minor). Having reached Kaisariyyah, 
he found there sufficient leisure to write 
the present work, which, as we learn from 
the conclusion, he completed in Sivas, A.H. 
620, under the auspices of Sultan Kaikubad 
(A.H. 610-636; see Price's Retrospect 
vol. ii., p. 387). 



ASCETICISM AND SUFISM. 



89 



The work is divided into the following five 
books (Biib), variously subdivided into chap- 
ters (Fasl), a full table of which is given 
in S. 5 a — 6 b. 1. Introduction, in 3 chapters, 
f. 6 6 ; 2. Origin of beings, in 5 chapters, 
f. 18 6 ; 3. Present life, in 20 chapters, 
f. 58 a ; 4. Euture life, in 4 chapters, f. 210 a ; 
5. Spiritual progress of various classes of 
men, in 8 chapters, f. 253 b. 

Najm ud-Din Dayah, as the author is 
generally called, was a disciple of the famous 
Sufi, Najm ud-Din Kubra. His two prin- 
cipal works, the present and Bahr ul-Haka'ik 
(Haj. Khal., vol. ii., p. 17), are held in high 
estimation by the Sufis. The Moghul in- 
vasion drove him to Asia Minor, where he 
associated with the celebrated mystics, Sadr 
ud-Din Kuniyavl and Jalal ud-Din Rumi. 
He died in A.H. 654, and was buried, accord- 
ing to Jami, in Baghdad. See Nafahat ul- 
Dns, Add. 16,718, fol. 206; Majalis ul- 
'Ushshiik, Or. 208, fol. 35 ; Haft Iklim, 
Add. 16,734, fol. 43. His name is written 
as above in the present MS., fol. 330. 
Haj. Khal., vol. v., p. 495, calls him ^>^\ ^ 

iii}^_ ^j/^^ 5 while in Javahir ul-Asrar, 
Add. 7607, fol. 49, his name is written 
_jjl»U. ^Ji s^ ^_ ^\ (^.jJ^ ff. See Stewart's 
Catalogue, p. 43, and Fliigel, Vienna Cata- 
logue, vol. iii., pp. 417 and 453, where a 
fourth reading of the author's patronymic 
occurs, namely, jyiU» ^^U 

Foil. 329, 320, and 333 have been sup- 
plied by a modern hand. 

This MS. bears the stamps of the kings 
of Oude, Sulaiman Jah and Amjad *Ali. 

Or. 251. 

Foil. 164 ; 8^ in. by 5^ ; 21 lines, 3J in. 
long; written in Nestalik ; dated Rabi' I., 
A.H. 1166 (AD. 1753). 

[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 



A Sufi work in prose and verse. 
Author : Ahmad Rumi, ^^^j .i-^\ 
Beg. fi^-j^"^ fj^*-j c^ ^ ^'^^ 

The work begins with a versified preamble, 
in which the author says that he has here put 
into verse some words of religious admoni- 
tion which issued from the lips of that 
treasurer of divine mysteries, Maulana Jalal 
ud-Din, in order to render easily intelligible, 
to high and low, all the profound truths 
which he could call to mind from the 
Coran, the Tradition, and the discourses of 
his Shaikh : 

^yJ.^ J jj^ J^U \i'^y, sli. 



JL.«J^ 



-r'jjir'^ tti) 



J^ J U'/j" '^'^ '^'^- *?■ ^ 

It consists of eighty chapters (Fasl). 
Each of these begins with a Coranic verse 
or Hadis in Arabic, as a text ; this is followed 
by a Persian paraphrase, and some appro- 
priate quotations from the Magnavi of Jalal 
ud-Din Eiimi. The spiritual meaning is 
afterwards developed in prose, and further 
illustrated by some apologue or anecdote, in 
the same metre as the Magnavi. 

The title is found in the following sub- 
scription, in which the author is described 
as a disciple of Jalal ud-Din (d. A.H. 672), 
^y*.j ^J^yoJ3J>:i'j\ ^}ji jiVfla. ,_j»--* i^[::^\ \j* 

t^y*Jl ^^y<, J^SiyC J ijl^\-i.j\ ^J>JJ .x^^ \J^j- 

sJs. ji)\ 'i^j ^<jj (^.jJl J^ U^)J*Jl^^J\.^i- CLJ^ 
Haj. Khal. gives the same title, vol. iii., 
p. 78, but without any further notice. 



40 



ASCETICISM AND SUFISM. 



This MS. bears the same stamps as the 
preceding. 

Or. 1229. 

Foil. 84 ; 8 in. by 6 ; 15 lines, 4 in. long ; 
written in Nestalik, A.H. 925 (A.D. 1519). 

[Alex. Jaba.] 

A Sufi -work in mixed prose and verse, in 
which the nature and rules of spiritual 
life dJjL- are explained, and illustrated by 
anecdotes and sayings of holy men. 

Author : Husain B. 'Alim B. Abil-Hasan 
ul-Husaini ^J■^r^' t:r-* cf^^ nrf r^^ t>^ ii^^^""^ 

Amir Husainl, or Fakhr us-Sadiit, as he is 
frequently called, is celebrated both as Sufi 
and as poet. lie was born in Guziv, in the 
country of Ghur, but lived chiefly in Herat, 
where he died A.H. 718. See Nafahat ul- 
Uns, Add. 16718, fol. 281, Majrdis ul-'Ush- 
shak, Or. 208, fol. 96, and Eiyaz ush- 
Shu'ara, Add. 16,729, fol. 116. Daulatshah, 
however, places his death in A.H. 719, and 
the Haft Iklim, Add. 16,734, fol. 262, in 
A.H. 717. Compare Hammer, SchoneEede- 
kiinste Persiens, p. 228 ; Sprenger, Oude 
Catalogue, p. 430 ; and Haj. KhaL, vol. vi., 
p. 321. 

The author's name, as written above, 
occurs, as well as the title and the date of 
composition, A.H. 711, in the concluding 
lines, fol. 83. The work is divided into 
twenty-eight chapters (Pasl.), the headings 
of which are given by Krafft, p. 190, and by 
Fliigel, Vienna Catalague, vol. iii., p. 418. 
Copies are also mentioned in Stewart's 
Catalogue, p. 29, No. XC. ; the Copenhagen 
Catalogue, p. 7; the St. Petersburgh Cata- 
logue, p. 437 ; and Bibl. Sprenger., No. 1604. 

Transcriber: iJ^^ (y> j^.jJl ^^jH 



Add. 7817. 

Foil. 103 ; 7i in. by 4i ; 15 lines, 2| in. 
long; written in cursive Indian Shikastah- 
Amiz, apparently in the 18th century. 

[CI. J. Rich.] 

The same work. 

The real title is found, as in the preceding 
copy, in the concluding section ; the follow- 
ing, however, has been written, apparently 
by the copyist, on the first page : ^JU^jIm i_.>li> 



Egerton, 691. 

FoU. 344 ; lOf in. by 6f ; 17 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in Naskhi on tinted paper, 
with 'Unvan and gold-ruled margins ; dated 
Eabi' I., A.H. 1084 (A.D. 1673). 

[Adam Claeke.] 

" The Key of Paradise," or Guide to a 
Godly life, containing directions relating to 
prayers, religious observances, and moral 
conduct, based upon the precepts of Mu- 
hammad and other holy men. 

Beg. jj^ J 4j*.\ j5li. jK jiAjij j_^U3 J j)^ s.^1- 

The author gives his name in the pre- 
face, fol. 2 a, where it is written ^^ Jc^ 
>^d\ &-9.J, probably for Muhammad Mujir 
B. Wajih-ud-Din, while by Haj. KhaL, vol. 
vi., p. 11, he is called simply Wajih-ud- 
Din. He further describes himself as the 
least and humblest 'servant of the Sultan 
of Shaikhs and Walis, etc., etc., Nasir ul- 
Hakk vash-Shar' vad-Din, and states that he 
compiled the present work from the most 
approved treatises on law and tradition, and 
the best commentaries on the Coran, for the 
use of persons ignorant of Arabic, and in- 
cluded in it some forms of prayer j\jj\ 



I 



ASCETICISM AND SUFISM. 



41 



wliicli he had learnt from his father and 
from his paternal uncle, Maulana Ziya ud- 
Din, the author of a Tafsir entitled ^_^. 

The work is divided into twenty- five books 
(Bab), variously subdivided into chapters 
(Fasl), a complete table of which concludes 
the preface ; foil. 3 a — 5 h. They treat of 
the following subjects: 1. Tahlll, or the 
formula " La Ilah ilia 'llah," fol. 5 b ; 
2. Ablutions, fol. 31 6 ; 3. Legal prayer, fol. 
42 «; 4. Fasting, fol. 102 6; 5. Alms, fol. 
110 a; 6. Reward promised to the secret 
motives of the believer's heart, fol. 137 a; 
7. Good manners, fol. 138 b ; 8. Indulgence 
and anger, forgiveness, pride and humility, 
covetousness and envy, fol. 144 a ; 9. Mo- 
desty, fol. 154 a ; 10. Truth and lying, 
slander, continence of tongue, sin, usury, 
fol. 156 a ; 11. Claims of kindred, fol. 179 a; 
12. Gratitude, fol. 196 a ; 13. Patience and 
resignation, fol. 200 a ; 14. Prayers, and the 
best times for their being granted, fol. 205 a ; 

15. Prayers for special objects, fol. 212 b ; 

16. Prayers for safety, fol. 221 b ; 17. Prayers 
against pain and sickness, fol. 235 a ; 18. 
Increase of memory, fol. 250 b ; 19. Efficacy 
of various prayers, fol. 254 b ; 20. Protection 
in the trial of the grave, fol. 258 a ; 21. The 
causes of wealth and poverty, fol. 270 J; 

22. The virtues of certain aliments, fol. 279 a; 

23. Anecdotes of Khalifs and kings, fol. 
282 b ; 24. Signs of the " resurrection, fol. 
294 a ; 25. Prayers for special days and 
months, fol. 302 a. 

The occurrence of such local terms as 
sJIj , Jjoa- , etc., points to India as the 
author's country. With regard to his time, 
the work itself affords the following indica- 
tions. The oral teachings of Shaikh ul-Islam 
Parid ud-Din are frequently adduced. This 
Farid ud-Din was himself, as it appears from 
some passages, fol. 15 a, 226 b, 259 a, etc., a 
friend and disciple of Baha ud-Din Zaka- 
riyya (who died A.H. 661; see Akhbar ul- 
Akhyar, Or. 221, fol. 26), and of Kutb ud- 



Din Bakhtiyar (d. A.H. 633 : see Saf inat ul- 
Auliya, Or. 224, fol. 89) ; he can be no other 
than the celebrated Indian saint, Farid ud- 
Din, surnamed Ganj i Shakar, who was, as 
stated in the Safinat ul-Auliya, fol. 90, a 
disciple and Khalifah of Kutb ud-Din Bakh- 
tiyar, settled in Ajwadhan,' near Debalpur, 
province of Multan, and died there A.H. 664, 
at 95 years of age. On the other hand, the 
author records incidentally (fol. 292 6) his 
visit to the tomb of Sultan 'Ala ud-Din, who 
died A.H. 716, and refers to Nizam ud-Din 
(Auliya), who died A.H. 725, as belonging 
to an already somewhat remote past. 
Lastly, there can be little doubt that the 
holy personage, Nasir ud-Din, whose servant 
he calls himself in the preface, is the well- 
known saint, Nasir ud-Din Mahmiid, sur- 
named Chiragh i Dihli, who was the most 
eminent disciple and the successor of Nizam 
ud-Din Auliya, and died A.H. 757 (see 
Akhbar ul-Akhyar, Or. 221, fol. 69). As his 
name, however, is followed by the formula, 

it is to be inferred that the present work 
was written after his death. 

The works most frequently quoted are 
Tafsir i Mughni, Tafsir i Munir, Tafsir i 
Zahidi, Tanbih ul-Ghafilin, by Abul-lais Sa- 
markandi, Salat i Mas'iidi, Wasilat ul-Kulub, 
Khahsat ul-Haka'ik (Haj. Khal, vol. iii. 
p. 128), and Silk i Suliik. The last is, accord- 
ing to 'Abd ul-Hakk, Or. 221, fol. 90, a 
work of Ziya ud-Din Nakhshabi, who died 
A.H. 751.' 

Add. 23,983. 

FoU. 169; 7 in. by 3|; 17 lines 2 in. long; 
written in elegant Naskhi, with five 'Unvans 
and gold-ruled margins; dated Muharram, 
A.H. 858 (A.D. 1454). 

» Now Piikpatan ; see the account of Farid Shakar- 
ganj by Mohan Lai, Journal of the As. Soc. of Bengal, 
vol. v., p. 635, and Thornton's India Gazetteer, under 
Pauk Putten. 

O 



42 



ASCETICISM AND SUFISM. 



Five treatises by the Sufi Sa'in ud-Din 'All 
Tarikah Isfahan!, ^^^V^i^^ ijy J* fj>_^\ t^^' 

Khwajah Sa'in ud-Din is known as the 
author of commentaries upon the Fusus 
ul-Hikam, the Kasidah of Ibn Fariz, and 
other standard works on Sufism. He held 
the office of Kazi in Yazd, but, being ac- 
cused of infidelity, on the strength of some 
unguarded expressions in his writings, he 
was conveyed, by order of Shahrukh, to 
Herat, where he had much to endure from 
the fierce persecution of the 'Ulama, and died 
in A.H. 835. See Habib us-Siyar, Add. 6561, 
fol. 363 ; Majiilis ul-Muminln, Add. 23,541, 
fol. 296 (where his death is placed in A.H. 
830) ; Taki Kashl, in the Oude Catal., p. 27 ; 
and Haj. Khal., vol. vi., p. 8. «iy, which 
Sprenger reads Turkah, was, according to the 
'Alam-Ara, Add. 16,684, fol. 40, the name of 
a famUy of Kazis in Ispahan. 

I. Fol. 2. 

A treatise on the letters of the Arabic 
alphabet and their mystic meanings. 

Beg. <-J>jJb t^ \ i/j^'^Jji u^.^ i o-^-» 

In the introduction three kinds of letters 
are distingvushed, viz. the written ^^J, 
spoken ,_^ifl3, and mental letters t^^j**, the 
last term applying to letters used as numerical 
signs. These are separately discussed in three 
chapters (Asl); in an Appendix (Taznib), 
an instance of the application of the system is 
given by the interpretation of the words 
^SC^ 5-f-». In the concluding lines, the 
author refers, for further developments, to 
the work entitled ^U^ \jo>\,o^ . 

II. Fol. 21. 

A treatise on the splitting of the moon, 
mentioned in the Goran, and the meaning 
attached to it by various classes of inter- 



preters ; also on the value of the word ul*&l-» , 
which occurs in the same verse. 

Beg. */ Ifcjjj J^ csjjj • • • »j^^j w5j 433 ^ 

III. Fol. 35. 

A treatise on three classes of Sufis, de- 
signated by the names of jU-1 j )j>\ j ij^lafls? 

Beg. *)U=»- Jj:i>-=- J »JU^ J^'^''i i> *" '^ 

It is divided into a Mukaddimah and three 
chapters (Asl). 

IV. Fol. 53. 

Five contests or debates between allegori- 
cal personages, namely, Beason and Love, 

fol. 56 ; Fancy and Reason, Jac- b jb^ 'j^li« 
jSjU^^ j, fol. 95; Fancy and Imagination, 
JUi- J jb^ s^li* , fol. 99 ; Hearing and Sight, 
j^ J *■♦«» Sjiil:* , fol. 105 ; Lover and Beloved, 
j^i*« J J^lfr *»bla* J jjkU*, fol. 113. 
Beg. |,i>T w!ilis! Jl*!\ &iji ^Ua5 (_jk')j (^iJ\ si3 J-»U 

V. Fol. 131. 

The author's profession of faith. 

Beg. \j^ ^^y^ o-W' (3 u-^^ J ^ j«»». 

It appears from the beginning of this tract 
that the author addressed it to Shahrukh, in 
answer to the attacks of some 'Ulama, who 
had impugned his orthodoxy. He ends by 
begging to be reliev'ed of a professorship in 
Naishiipur to which, after twelve years of 
seclusion, he had been called, much against 
his will, by the Vazir Fakhr ul-Mulk. He 
adds, in conclusion, that Shahrukh returned 
a flattering answer, and declined to accept 
his resignation. 

The author's name does not appear in this 
MS. ; but the first four treatises are found 



ASCETICISM AND SUFISM. 



43 



ascribed to Sa'in ud-Din in anotlier volume, 
Add. 16,839, and there is no reason to doubt 
that the fifth is from the same hand. 

Add. 7607. 

Foil. 226 ; 9^ in. by 5| ; 19 lines, 3^ in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, with gold- 
ruled margins ; dated Zulhijjah, A.H. 1034 
(A.D. 1614). [CI. J. EiCH.] 

" The Pearls of Mysteries," a work treat- 
ing of the esoteric meaning of various say- 
ings of Muhammad and other holy men. 

Author : Shaikh Azari, t/j^^ *--» 

Beg. (--'^ 3 j_s-J5 (-.>b xi^ (_->l_j^!i)^ -SLt b 

The author gives his own name in the pre- 
face, fol. 6 «, as foUows : ^^ ^Js■ ^Ji ij^ ^^ Js- 

But this is probably a clerical error for 
tiiU Js. (^ 8^ J^ ^\ for most biographers 
agree in calling our author Hamzah B. 
'All Malik, and in the subscription of the 
present MS. he appears as Jalal ud-Din 
Hamzah. 

Azari was bom at Marv and brought up 
in Asfara'in, which his father, a Sarbadar of 
Baihak, governed under the rulers of his 
race. He cultivated poetry from his youth, 
taking his Takhallus from the month of 
Azar, in which he was born, and attracted 
the notice of Shahrukh, who promised him 
the title of Malik ush-Shu ara. But he soon 
gave up worldly pursuits, to devote himself 
to a religious life under the guidance of 
Shaikh Muhyi ud-Din Tusi, and subsequently 
that of the famous saint Ni'mat Ullah Vall. 
After performing the pilgrimage he repaired 
to India, and stayed some time at the court 



of Ahmad Shah Bahmani, for whom he wrote 
an historical poem entitled Bahman Namah. 
After his return to his native land he spent 
the last thirty years of his life in retirement, 
and died in A.H. 866, at 82 years of age, in 
Asfara'in, or, according to others, Asfizar. 
See Daulatshah, Add. 18,410, fol. 204, 
where the present work is mentioned ; Habib 
us-Siyar, Add. 6561, fol. 392 ; Majalis ul- 
Muminin, Add. 23,541, fol. 335 ; Haft Iklim, 
fol. 325 ; Eiyaz ush-Shu'anl, fol. 42; Khizanah 
i 'Amirah, Or. 232, fol. 12; Oude Catalogue, 
pp. 19,70, 315; Hammer, Schone Redekiinste, 
p. 300. Firishtah, Add. 6572, fol. 299, gives 
a full account of Shaikh Azari's life and his 
stay at the Bahmani court, a passage which 
his translator. Col. Briggs, has omitted with- 
out any notice. 

The author had written, as he states in 
the preface, on his return from Syria in 
A.H. 830, a work on the same subject en- 
titled ^y.^^) ^ -.Uflxi. While staying in India, 
at the capital of Ahmad Shah GhazI (i.e. 
Ahmad Shah Bahmani, A.H. 825—838), and 
preparing to set out on a second pilgrimage, 
he was appealed to by many friends anxious 
to obtain that book, and, on his return home, 
he yielded to their entreaties by writing it 
over again in a more condensed form, adding 
to it at the same time some new biographical 
notices, relating to holy men, which he had 
gathered on his travels. The preface is 
dated A.H. 840. 

The Jawahir al-Asrar is divided, like its 
prototype, into four books (Bab), viz., 
1. Mysteries of the detached letters in the 
Coran, fol. 9 & ; 2. Mysteries of some Hadi§, 
or sayings of Muhammad, fol. 15 6 ; 3. Mys- 
teries of the sayings of the Shaikhs, in prose 
and in verse, fol. 54 a ; 4. Mysteries of the 
sayings of the poets, fol. 173 h. 

Copyist : ij,)j^'^ (i^--»- "^^ 
This work is mentioned in Stewart's 
Catalogue, p. 38 ; the author's Divan and his 
G 2 



44 



ASCETICISM AND SUFISM. 



Ghara'ib ud-Dunya in the S. Petersburgh 
Catalogue, p. 399, and the Copenhagen 
Catalogue, p. 4iO. 

Add. 16,820. 

Foil. 52; 9i in. by 5^ ; 9 lines, 2 in. 
long ; written in fine Nestalik, with TJnvan 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
16th century. [Wm. Yulk.] 

" Lawa'ih," a collection of Sufi apoph- 
thegms, with paraphrases in Rubii'is. 

Author : Nur ud-Din 'Abd ur-Rahmiin 
Jami, ^U ijifi'}\ iiJ* (y?.J^\jy (d. A.H. 898; 
see p. 17 a). 

Beg. liLJl jyo »M J^j t_i/tlA)* *\i (./a*^ ^ 

The work is so called from the small 
sections headed Lii'ihah, or " flash of light," 
of which it consists. See Haj. Khal. vol. v., 
p. 344; Dom, S. Petersburgh Catalogue, 
p. 252 ; Aumer,Munich Catalogue, p. 21; and 
Biblioth. Sprenger., No. 812. 

The margins of this copy are covered with 
annotations, written in a minute and neat 
Nestalik, apparently by the same hand as 
the text, and enclosed in gold lines. Most 
of them are ascribed to a commentator named 
•>>.»& , and some to another called c^. 

Copyist : ,^^ o*»ji 

Add. 22,705. 

Poll. 166; 9i in. by 5|; 17 Unes, 3 in. 
long; written in neat Nestalik, apparently 
in the 16th century. [Sir John Campbell.] 



jUaL) s^\) 



CJy3 



A treatise on the character, rules, and ob- 
servances, of the religious order called Ahl i 
Futuvvat. 

Author: Husain Kashifi ^li^ 
(d. A.H. 910 ; see above, p. 9 b.) 



Beg. Ul^ iySii^ J>J^ J*?- [t?^'] «A5 J-»* 

This order, which is here represented as a 
branch of that of the Sufis, traces its origin 
to All, the ^ "par excellence," and aims at 
moral perfection and practical excellence, 
"Futuvvat." 

The treatise is divided into an introduction, 
twelve chapters (Bab), and a conclusion. 

This copy is imperfect at the end ; it also 
wants the rubrics from fol. 86 to the last. 

Egerton 1026. 

FoU. 121; 8i in. by 5; 17 lines, SJ in. 
long, in a page; written in neat Nestalik, 
with gold-ruled margins, in the reign of 
Muhammad Shah (A.D. 1719—49). 

A collection of edifying discourses, relating 
to the Patriarchs and Prophets, to Muham- 
mad, 'All, and divers saints, as well as to 
some other religious subjects. 

Author: Saif uz-Zafar Naubahari, ^Jju* 

The author, apparently a Sunni Fakir, 
states, that he had gathered the contents 
from the lips of the servants of the faith, in 
whose company he had spent his life. The 
work is divided into thirty-three chapters 
(Bab), a table of which is given at the end of 
the preface ; the first is headed cJuk-ii ^^ 
C^^^V* Lr^^T, the last j/c-cl^. Ja\ oljuijjvj 

The headings of the chapters have been 
given in full in the Munich Catalogue, p. 58, 
by Aumer, who calls the author Saif uz-Zafar 
B. ul-Burhan ; also by Fliigel, Vienna Cata- 
logue, vol. iii., p. 444, where, however, the 
author is not named. In the Leyden copy. 
Catalogue, vol. i., p. 359, the work is called 
(jJl^jj^, and the author Saif ud-Din Zafar 



ASCETICISM AND SUFISM. 



46 



Naubahari. The latter's name is given as 
above in Stewart's Catalogue, p. 26. 

The first page of the original MS. is lost, 
and has been replaced by a spurious be- 
ginning. 

Add. 5563. 

Foil. 176 ; 7| in. by 5^ ; 12 lines, 4 in. 
long, in a page ; written in a cursive Indian 
character, apparently in the 18th century. 

[Chaeles Hamilton.] 

The same work. 

^6g. J^^ J^j^ colic j\ sJ j^j^ 

The first page bears the name of a former 
owner, Robert Watherston. 

Add. 16,836. 

Foil. 126; 7i in. by 3f ; 16 lines, 2f in. 
long ; written in a cursive Indian character, 
probably in the 18th century. [Wm. Yule.] 

The same work, imperfect. This copy 
breaks off in the middle of Bab 22 ; see Eg. 



1026, fol. 77 S. The first page bears the 
stamp of " Claud Martin." 

Add. 16,834. 

Foil. 30 ; 4i in. by 2^ ; 11 lines, If in. 
long ; written in neat Nestalik ; dated Shav- 
val, A.H. 1114 (A.D. 1703). [Wm. Yule.] 

A Treatise on the nature of the soul and 
its condition after death. 

Beg. Jj\ o-Jj s-oV J^ J^ J «J^^^ i_}>^ w^ 

This tract consists of eight chapters 
(Fasl). It is followed, fol. 19 a, without 
any apparent break, by a section (Bab) 
treating, in six chapters, of prophecy, mi- 
racles, and inspiration, under the following 
heading : oU.]/j Ol;*** j o^ jj^Ii-Liji i_.>b 
ij^ ,_^'ij' ^jJo ^JLJ^i J , etc. 

The copyist, Hidayat UUah Zarrin Rakam, 
states, in the subscription, that he wrote this 
MS. in the camp of 'Alamglr, then besieging 
Kundanah. 



PAESISM. 



Author 
Beg. 



Roy. 16 B. viii. 

FoU. 71 ; 10| in. by 6^ ; 15 lines, 3f in. 
long; written in flowing NestaHk, apparently 
in the 17th century. [Thomas Hyde.] 

hi 

Zaratusht-Namah, also called Zartusht- 
Namah, a translation in Persian verse of 
the life of Zoroaster, originally written in 
Pehlevi. 

Zartusht i Bahram, X^ »^-^jJ 

A notice of this work, with a table of its 
headings, has been given by Hyde ia his 
" Historia religionis veterum Persarum, " 
pp. 328-9. A review of its contents will 
be found in J. Wilson's Par si Religion, 
Bombay, 1843, pp. 417 — 427, together with 
an English translation of the whole work 
by E. B. Eastwick, pp. 477 — 622. Its sub- 
stance is found in Anquetil's Vie de Zo- 
roastre, Zend-Avesta, part ii., pp. 1 — 70, and 
in the " Miracles of Zartusht," or Mu'jizat 
i Zartushti, published in Gujrati by Edalji 
Darabji, Bombay, 1840. 

The author gives his name, towards the 



end of the poem, fol. 70 a, in the following 
verse : 

from which we learn that his father was 
Bahram, son of Pazhdu (not Pazdawdm, as 
in Eastwick's translation, p. 522). On his 
own showing, however, his claim to author- 
ship is but slight, for, as he tells us a few 
lines before, fol. 69 h, he merely followed 
the words, i.e. the version, of a learned and 
pious man, Ka us Kai (probably for Kaika us, 
which the metre did not allow), son of 
Kaikhusrau, of the city of Kai : 

It might be supposed that this earlier 
version was in prose, but it is distinctly 
stated in another passage that it was in 
verse, so that we are left in ignorance as to 
the process by which Zartusht made it his 
own. In the introduction of the poem, 
fol. 3 a, the same Kaika'us, who there speaks 
in the first person, relates how he had been 



.^ 



I • i^Mtj^i 



PARSISM. 



47 



urged to turn this history into verse, first by 
the learned Mobad, with whose assistance 
he had read the Pehlevi original, then by a 
divine messenger who appeared to him in 
his sleep, lastly by the pressing advice of 
his own father. The latter is designated in 
the following lines as Kaikhusrau, the son 
of Diira, of an ancient and noble house of 
Eai: 

^ JW / ur^ J^ O-^v *? 

This last passage has been curiously ren- 
dered by Eastwick, who translates, p. 479: 
" 'Twas Kujdpur the city of my sire." 
*'The house of Kuja is an ancient name," etc. 
thus transferring the poet's birthplace from 
Eai to some undefined place in India. 

Zartusht states in the concluding lines, 
fol. 70 a, that he wrote the poem in the 
course of two days, working at it day and 
night, in the month of Aban and the year 
647 of Yazdagard (A.D. 1277-8) : 

i^ji ijc (_^i t N <a, ^ .««> u ' ".ofri . ^y~». 

iji^- M t j.^.'Jy ^r*?" ji yf o^.V 

l»^^ ^JU^!^ ^T^ JjJj J *-r*^ 

The same date is recorded, in a somewhat 
different wording, in another copy. Add. 
27,268, fol. 75 a : 

It is found also in Anquetil's MSS. Zend- 
Avesta, part ii., p. 6, and in Eastwick's 
translation, p. 521. 



In an epilogue found in the present copy, 
fol. 70 b, but wanting in the other, as also 
in Eastwick's translation, Zartusht adds that, 
after completing the present work, he was 
called upon by a heavenly voice to write, as 
a companion to it, a poetical version of the 
book of Ardaviraf ; see Roy. 16 B. ii. 

The last five lines, containing a much 
later date, the year 853 of Yazdagard, have 
been added by some transcriber, who calls 
himself Mavandad B. Khusrau. 

Roy. 16 B. ii. 

FoU. 152 ; 11 in. by 6J ; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, on European 
paper, by the same hand as the preceding 
MS.; dated in the month of Bahman, the 
year 1047 of Yazdagard (A.D. 1678). 

[Tho. Hyde.] 

Foil. 106—152. 

^Ir^J ^^^J ^^ 
A poetical version of the Book of Ardiii- 
Viraf, by the same Zartusht B. Bahram, 



Beg. jbb J j\ j-i>.i,l »llial2> 

The Pehlevi original, Arda-Viraf Namak, 
has been published, with an English trans- 
lation and introduction, by Dr. M. Haug, 
Bombay, 1872. Another English trans- 
lation, principally based upon the poetical 
version of Zartusht, was printed in London, 
1816, under the following title, "Ardai Viraf 
Nameh, or the revelation of Ardai Viraf, 
translated by J. A. Pope," but is not to be 
found in the Museum Library. Abstracts of 
the work, derived from Pope's translation, 
will be found in J. Wilson's Parsi Eeligion, 
pp. 435 — 444, and in Spiegel's Traditionelle 
Literatur der Parsen, pp. 120 — 128. The 
present version is mentioned by Anquetil, 
Zend-Avesta, vol. ii. p. xxxii.; and another 



48 



PAESISM. 



poetical translation, by Ka'us, Herbad of 
Nausari, is noticed in the same volume, 
p. XXX. See also Ouseley Collection, No. 560. 
The author's name appears in the follow- 
ing line, at the beginning of the epilogue, 
fol. 150 a, where he calls himself Zartusht, 
son of Bahram, son of Pazhdu, exactly as in 
the preceding work : 

The time of composition is not stated, but, 
both works having one and the same author, 
their dates cannot be far apart; moreover, 
as we have seen in the preceding MS., the 
author proposed to write the story of Ardai 
Viraf immediately after completing the 
Zartusht Namah, i.e., in the year 647 of 
Yazdagard. The date of A.Y. 900 (A.D. 
1530 — 1531), which Dr. Haug assigns to 
the present version in his Introductory 
Essays, p. xix., is therefore inadmissible. 

Transcriber : Ju-j j^ jbxa«.\ ^j> (i^jy*- <i^jii> 

The first part of the volume contains the 
same text, written in the Zend character, 
foU. 2 — 94, and some short notices and ex- 
tracts in the same writing, foil. 95 — 105, 
the detail of which will be found in 
Prof. Sachau's Contributions to the know- 
ledge of Parsee Literature, Journal of the 
Eoyal Asiatic Society, 1870, p. 279. 

A fly-leaf at the end contains some Latin 
notes, in the handwriting of Tho. Hyde. 

Add. 6940. 

Poll. 64 ; 13 in. by 8 ; about 25 lines a page; 
written by the Eev. John Haddon Hindley 
on paper bearing in its water-mark the date 
1814. 

The same work. 

This copy has at the beginning nineteen 
additional verses relating to the conquest 
of Alexander and the ruin in which it in- 



volved the Persian empire and the Zoroas- 
trian faith. 

The subscription of the MS., from which 
the present copy was taken, is transcribed at 
the end. It is here stated to have been 
completed in Shavval, A.H. 1203 (A.D. 1789), 
by Pishutan Jiv, son of Hir Ji B. Homji, of 
Nausari. This town, twenty miles to the 
south of Surat, is one of the oldest Parsi 
settlements in India. 

The first two leaves contain two notices 
on the Viraf Namah in English, the fijst by 
Hindley, the second transcribed from the 
original MS. 

Roy. 16 B. XV. 

PoD. 65; 84 in. by 4| ; 15 lines, 2| in. 
long; written in Nestalik, and dated Mu- 
harram A.H. 1050 (A.D. 1640). 

[Tho. Hyde.] 

A poetical version of the Sad Dar, or 
Hundred Gates, a popular exposition of the 
Zoroastrian law, so called from the hundred 
sections which it contains. 

Author : Iranshah B. Malakshah, sU, J^j] 

sliilo ^^ 
Beg. olio J ol J iWj^iSi- Jl> 

Hyde has given an account, and a con- 
densed Latin translation, of this work, with 
the text of the Prologue, in his " Historia 
religionis veterum Persarum," p. 431 — 488 : 
see also Spiegel, Einleitung in die Literatur 
der Parsen, p. 182; Anquetil, Zend-Avesta, 
Part ii., p. xxxiv..; and Sachau, Contri- 
butions, etc., p. 280. 

The author gives his own and his father's 
name in the following verse of the Prologue, 
fol. 4 b (Hyde, p. 435). 

2yjj^ 'V u>' *^ ul;^-^ 
He states there that having been led by 



PAESISM. 



49 



divine will to Kirman, he met there a pious 
learned and illustrious Dastur, Shahriyar, 
son of Dastur Ardashir B. Bahramshah, with 
other Dasturs of the same family, whom 
he enumerates with great praises, stayed 
in their service, and wrote this version in 
ohedience to their commands. It was com- 
pleted, he adds (fol. 4 h, Hyde, p. 436, and 
Eoy. 16 B, i., f. 185), on the sixth day of the 
month of Isfandiirmuz, in the year 864 of 
Yazdagard (A.D. 1495). 

The corresponding date of the Hijrah, 900, 
is expressed hy the chronogram j;^ in the 
following line at the end, fol. 65 : 

The original work is said, fol. 2 b, to have 
been compiled in prose, hy some great doctors 
not named, from the Avasta, Zend and Pa- 
zend. 

Roy. 16 B. vii. 

Foil. 65 ; 9^ in. by 5 ; 15 lines, 3 in. 
long; written in Nestalik, with ruled margins ; 
dated Surat, in the month of Ardibihisht, and 
the year 1043 of Yazdagard (A.D. 1674). 

[Tho. Hyde.] 

The same work. 

Copyist : ^Jt ^^ jj*\J jj^ ^^j J^j<ji> .iJ^ 

The person for whom this MS. was written 
is named in the following line at the end : 

^ elL^y>^\ ^jdyo ^_yjl^, wlfcli 4^j^ ^J^\'J j^ 
Another MS., Boy. 16 B. vi., written by 
the same scribe, A.Yazd. 1042, has a similar 
colophon ; see Sachau, Contributions, etc., 
p. 268. 



Roy. 16 B. i. 

Toll. 330, 11 in. by 6i ; 16 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in Nestalik, on European 
paper, by the same hand as Roy. 16 B. ii., 
in the 17th century. [Tho. Hyde.] 

I. Foil. 18—174 a. The poetical version of 
the Book of Ardai-virrif (see Roy. 16 B. ii.), 
in the Zend and Persian characters. The 
Persian is written in red ink under each 
line of the Zend writing. 

II. Foil. 174 J— 330. The poetical ver- 
sion of the Sad-dar (see Roy. 16 B. xv.), 
written also in both characters. 

. The last thirty Dars, or sections, are want- 
ing in this copy. 

On the fly-leaf is written: "This booke 
is very hard to be procur'd, for when I had 
prevailed with the Priest to write it for me, 
he durst not let his owne cast or sect know 
of it, but wrote it all in the night, when all 
eyes were shut and asleep." 

Add. 27,268. 

Foil. 98 ; 7 J in. by 4|. [Sir John Malcolm.] 

I. Foil. 1—76; 11 lines, 2| in. long; 
written in Nestalik; dated Surat, in the 
month of Ardibihisht of the year 1046 of 
Yazdagard (A.D. 1677). 



mU 



'l^J 



The poetical version of the History of 
Zoroaster (see Roy. 16 B. viii.), with the 

heading jjiJ.'c;-» j ^ l »Ifl^\ C-^i^^j jjjy. t->Ui^ 

Copyist : ^^ ^ ^y-»^ Jj cs^J^ w^-'V 

II. FoU. 77—98 ; 11 lines, 3.f in. long ; 
written in Nestalik; dated Surat, in the 
month of Bahman of the year 1107 of Yaz- 
dagard (A.D. 1738), Jumada II., A.H. 1151. 



60 



PAESISM. 



U) 



,1^ 



XA» 



History of the settlement of the Parsis in 
India, in Persian verse. 

Author : Bahman, son of Kaikubad, j^;^ 
Beg. ^Ur* J^^ i/Vib ijy} j.Uj 

An English translation of this work by 
E. B. Eastwick, with notes by the Eev. John 
Wilson, has been published in the Journal 
of the Bombay Branch of the Asiatic Society, 
tol. i.,pp. 167 — 191. An abstract of it is given 
in "W. Hamilton's Description of Hindostan, 
vol. i., p. 613 ; see also Dosabhoy Fram- 
jee, "the Parsees," London, 1858, pp. 7 — 
21; Anquetil, Zend-Avesta, Discours Pre- 
liminaire, pp. 318 — 324; Part ii., p. xxxiv., 
and J. Wilson, Religion of the Parsis, pp. 
210—213. 

The author states in the epilogue that his 
name was Bahman, and his dwelling-place 
Nausari ; that his father, Kaikubad, was the 
son of a great Dastur named Hurmuzyar, 
and surnamed, on account of his vast learn- 
ing, Sunjanah. He completed the present 
work in the year 969 of Yazdagard (A.D. 
1600). He adds that he wrote it down from 
the records of his ancestors, and that it was 
corrected by his master. 

Copyist : J'^ u^j/ u^ r^ '^^ u^ ^j 

ij>\^ u-j/. .... t_j^b 

Both the above works are correctly de- 
scribed in a Persian note on the fly-leaf, 
dated A. Yazd. 1180 (A.D. 1810—1811). 

There is also at the end of the volume an 
English note of the same date, in which it is 
stated that these works were got from Dastur 
Kaus of Surat ; here the second is called 
"Kessa Senjan, or Story of St. John's." We 
read, on the same page, " This MS. was given 
to me by Mr. Duncan." [Signed] J. M. (i. e. 
Jolm Malcolm). 



Add. 24,413. 

EoU 94; 8 J in. by 6^; 13 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in Nestalik and Shikastah- 
Amiz, by different hands; dated Bombay, in 
the months Tir and Khordad, and the year 
1179 of Yazdagard, A.D. 1809. 

[Sir John Malcolm.] 

A collection of Parsi tracts, most of which 
were composed for Major (afterwards Sir 
John) Malcolm, by Mobad 'Aidal of Bombay, 
and are written in the author's own hand. 

'Aidal, who calls himself here, fol. 31, ^^ 

was familiarly known by the name of Edal 
Daru, and was the chief priest of the Pasmi 
sect of the Parsis. He is the author of a life 
of Zoroaster in Gujarat!, entitled Mujizat 
i Zartushti, and published in Bombay, A.D. 
1840. He was still alive in 1843. See 
J. Wilson, The Parsi Eeligion, Bombay, 1843, 
p. 9. 

Contents: I. Poll. 1—18. The Kissah 
i Sanjan (see Add. 27,268, II.), with the 
heading : c*^.^)J j\ t^ ^j^ji J^,^ ^^\J^\o jIpT 

II. Poll. 22—25. Fragment of a voca- 
bulary of Zend and Pazend words, explained 
in Persian. This is the initial portion of the 
fourth section of the Appendix to the Far- 
hang i Jahangiri. 

III. Foil. 31—44. «*UfcU. eiJJjy . 

A glossary of the old Persian, Pehlevi and 
Pazend, words occurring in the Shahnamah. 

Beg. o-.l}-> ^j^jj^^ji u-W4i-^ (ji^.^ J o-V* 
The author, Mobad 'Aidal B. Darab, states 
in the preamble that he compiled this glossary 
from various dictionaries in obedience to the 
commands of Major Malcolm, who was very 
fond of reading the Shahnamah. 

IV. FoU. 49—57. ^^jj^;> **5Uj 

The tract so called in the subscription was 



PARSISM. 



61 



also written by Mobad 'Aidal for Major 
Malcolm in the year 1179 of Yazdagard. It 
contains the following headings : Account 
of the fire-temple built by Nushirvan, the 
Just, »(i;i \jj J^lp ^^\JJiJ:,y iS »j£1jT jjll«»b jlcT 
i>y. Story of the Parrukh Namah, given 
by the Hirbud Ramish Aram to Abul-Khair 
Amri. The oath of Nushirvan and his sending 
for the Dastur Yunan. Account of Marghu- 
zan, the palace of Nushirvan, which the 
Khalif Mamun attempted to demolish. See 
for similar accounts Anquetil, Zend Avesta, 
2nd Part, p. xxxvi., and Sachau, Contribu- 
tions etc., p. 263. 

V. Pol. 61— 68. Visit of Harunur-Rashid 
to the tomb of Nushirvan the Just, C^}C^ 

See Anquetil and Sachau, ib. 

VI. Poll. 69—74. "The assembly held 
by Nushirvan, his questions to Yunan, and the 
latter's answers in admonition, a fragment 
in verse, ^i-^j u'jtp^y w^ lt^ j'^^ j^ 

Beg. j\^/ ^^ ^.j ^^ ^^yT 

This fragment agrees in substance, and 
often in words, with the corresponding por- 
tions of a rhymed history of Nushirvan, 
written about the year 980 of Yazdagard, 
by Marzuban Ravari. See Sachau, " Contri- 
butions " etc., pp. 258—263, 282. 

VII. PoU. 77—84. A tract on the old 
Persian names of the days and months, and 
on the festivals of Nauruz, Mihragan, and 
Tirgan, compiled from Pehlevi and Pazend 
books by Mobad 'Aidal B. Darab, for Major 
Malcolm, with the heading : A^ ^'d ji> .^ai 

U * • 1 • 

VIII. Poll. 85—94. A history of Ardashir 



Babagan, in Pehlevi, with the following 
Persian heading : ^l^b ^^} j^b-^ii j\*T. 

This MS. has been described by Professor 
Sachau, " Contributions " etc., p. 280. 

Add. 22,378. 

Poll. 63; 9f in. by 6^ ; about 16 lines, 
4 in. long; written in Nestalik, apparently 
in Gujarat, in the 18th century. 

I. Poll. 2—9. A fragment of the Bun- 
dehesh, namely, chapter xviii. and portions 
of chapters xix. and xx., in Pehlevi, with 
interlinear transcriptions in Persian charac- 
ters, and with Persian paraphrase. 

-^^o* uV?" ^^•^ 'i--»b jwlj ^jjM 

II. Poll. 10—17. The beginning of Shi- 
kand Gumani Guzar,j\j^ ^j^ jo^, in Peh- 
levi and Persian, as above. 

III. Poll. 18—49. A Zend-Sanscrit-Per- 
sian vocabulary, with the heading : jjj oU3 
(J1a-»\ OjSL-*> cjU! ^y\y b . It is written in 
three columns ; the first contains the Zend 
words in the original character, with a Persian 
transcription underneath ; the second the 
Sanscrit words in Devanagari, also accom- 
panied with a transcription, on the first page 
in GujaratI, and on the others in Persian 
characters; the third, the Persian equivalents. 

It must be noticed, however, that the 
second column contains many words which 
are not Sanscrit at all, but only Zend words 
transcribed in Devanagari. 

The words are arranged roughly by sub- 
jects, but without any division into classes. 

IV. Poll. 50 — 53. Some remarks on the 
Zend letters and on the permutations whicli 
they undergo in Zend and in the cognate 
Persian and Sanscrit words. 

h2 



52 



PARSISM. 



Beg. idl* J y jjjU C^jyAi t— »jt»- J^ a^\si 

This MS. has been described by Professor 
Sachau, " Contributions " etc., p. 282, and 
by Dr. Justi in his Introduction to the Bun- 
dehesh, p. 17. 

Add. 22,379. 

Poll. 39; 9i in. by 5^; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Indian Nestalik, by the 
same hand as the preceding, in the 18th 
century. 

A Pehlevi-Persian vocabulary, without 
author's name. 

Beg. \jMj\^ JO ^^^T O... ^ 

A prologue of seven verses, in praise of a 
king, whose name does not appear, is fol- 
lowed by the Pehlevi and Zend alphabets, 
foil. 2 a — 3 a. The vocabulary is written in 
four columns; the first three contain the 
Pehlevi words written respectively in the 
Pehlevi, Zend, and Persian characters ; the 
fourth gives the Persian equivalents. 

It is arranged by order of subjects in 
twenty-four sections (Biib), to which are 
added at the end the names of days and 
months, the numbers and the numerical 
figures. 

This is apparently the vocabulary which 
Anquetil's master, the Dastur Darab of Su- 
rat, arranged in alphabetical order, and which 
has been published in that form by Anquetil, 
Zend Avesta, vol. ii., pp. 476 — 526, and re- 
produced by Justi in his Dictionary of the 
Bundehesh. See Sachau, " Contributions " 
etc., p. 281. 

The first twenty leaves are, more or less, 
torn at the bottom. 

Add. 8994. 

Foil. 139 ; 6 in. by 4 ; 8 lines, 1\ in. long ; 



written in Nestalik, on European papei 
dated A.H. 1226 (A.D. 1811). 

I. Foil. 1 J— 37 a. Ormazd Yasht, v. 1— 
33 ; the text in the Persian character, with 
Persian paraphrase and commentary. 

II. Poll. 37 a — 45 h. Saugand Niimah, 
»*\i jj/^, treating of the cases in which the 
oath should be administered, and of the 
forms to be observed in taking it. 

Beg. SaiUa- jil iSb liJib j_^-So ^_^Jj-« W |_j-^ 

III. Poll, 46 a — 61 a. Rivayat, or ordi- 
nances relating to the legal obligations and 
religious observances of the Parsis. 

Beg. ,_s^. u,j t?V "^yjirK '^'^./ uih u^-'^j'^ 

IV. Poll. 61 b — 73 b. A tract containing 
twenty-three maxims, uttered by as many 
sages, for the guidance of Nushlrvan, with 
the heading : ji^S^ j j.^ j^^rjjyi «^^ ti^s*:^ 

y. Poll. 74 a— 81 b. A Persian para- 
phrase of the Ashem Vohu, with commen- 
tary. 

VI. Poll. 81 5—84 a. The wise sayings 
of the sage Jamasp, in answer to questions 
put to him. 

Beg. «S ^J^tiyo j\ w «_jk.*»l<>U- jl iWiS^ J^j-» 

VII. Poll. 84 5—99 b. Moral teachings 
of Buzurjmihr. They are in the shape of 
questions and answers, the interlocutors 
being Buzurjmihr and his master. It is 
stated in the preamble that the former wrote 
this tract by desire of Anushirvan and gave it 
the name of Zafar-Namah. 

VIII. Poll. 100 a— 104 a. A Persian para- 



PAESISM. 



53 



phrase of the Yata Ahu Vairyo, with com- 
mentarv. 

IX. FoU. 104 ft— 139 a. 

The book of Dadar B. Dddukht,jbb v^ 

Beg. ^\y>- «I«.|j ly.j fti cX-i^Jkij uX. ^^>} 

It is said in the preamble that the work 
was written by the Mobadan Mobad, Dadar 
B. Dadukht, a great sage of the time of Sha- 
pur B. Ardashir Babagan, that it was subse- 
quently translated from Pehlevi into Persian 
by the great master, Jahyad B. Mihraban, 

u^jv* i:;^ "^W^ [^^^] u^ J- V '^^^^^ > ^^^ finally 
put into more modern language by the Mo- 
badan Mobad, Abu Nasr B. Surushyar. 

It consists of answers given by Dadar to 
the questions put to him by some Greek 
physicians who had been sent to Shapur's 
court by the Emperor (j«^^\, and who are 
said to have been utterly discomfited by this 
display of Zoroastrian wisdom. The ques- 
tions relate to the constitution, and various 
functions, of the human body. 

This MS. has been fully described by Pro- 
fessor Sachau; see his " Contributions " etc., 
p. 277. Tlie date 1858, however, there 
assigned to the transcription, is evidently 
wrong ; for the MS. was purchased for the 
Museum in 1832. The sera of the Hijrah, by 



which it is distinctly dated, fol. 104 a, has 
been mistaken for that of Yazdagard. 
Transcriber : j>k-»'> J^j^ jf^'^ '^J c^jjs*^^ 

The same name appears in a seal impressed 
on fol. 73 b, as J^jA> joy> .iJj j:^j 

Add. 26,323. 

Poll. 11; 6i in. by 4 ; 11 lines, 2^ in. 
long; written in cursive Shikastah-Amlz, 
on English paper water-marked 1809. 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

I. Poll. 2 b—7 a. A portion of the 15th 
Fargard of the Jad Div Dad (Vendidad 
Sadeh), containing ordinances against in- 
fanticide, in the Pehlevi text, with Persian 
paraphrase ; see Anquetil, Zend Avesta, 
Part 2, p. 393. 

The heading is as follows : ^^.ii ^C ,iS^^ 

II. Foil. 7 6—11 a. Legal decisions, 
extracted from the Bivayat, enjoining on the 
Zoroastrians the duty of giving Parsi sepul- 
ture to the Hindus whom they have taken as 
children into their service, and brought up 
in their faith. 

Beg. -fc<i}i-' Lr^ji '*' *'^ i^^ •— *^3jj '-r'^J^ 



HINDUISM. 



Add. 5616. 

Eoll. 345 ; 9 in. by 5 ; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Indian Shikastah-amiz ; 
dated Zulhijjah, A.H. 1135 (A.D. 1723). 

[N. B. Halhed.] 

"The Mystery of Mysteries," a trans- 
lation of the TJpanishads of the four Vedas 
by Muhammad Dara-Shikuh, i^ y^ ,i.^ 

Beg. x^ ji <jlll (*-J 4^\j »iaS3 «5 \j Ji\^ 4i.,»- 

Daril-Shikuh, the eldest son of Shahjahan, 
was born A.H. 1022. He was put to death 
by his brother Aurangzib A.H. 1069. 

The translator states in the preface that, 
during his stay in Kashmir, A.H. 1050, he 
had become a disciple of the great Sufi, 
Mulla Shah (who died A.H. 1072; see 
Or. 360) ; that he had read the principal works 
on Suflsm, and written some himself. He pro- 
ceeds to say that, although he had perused 
the Pentateuch, the Gospels, the Psalms, 
and other sacred books, he had nowhere 
found the doctrine of Tauhid, or Pantheism, 
explicitly taught, but in the Beds (Vedas), 
and more especially in the Upnikhats 



(TJpanishads), which contain their essence. 
He wished therefore to render these more 
accessible, and as Benares, the great seat of 
Hindu learning, was then under his rule, he 
called together the most learned Pandits of 
that place, and, with their assistance^ wrote 
"himself" the present translation. The task 
was accomplished, as stated at the end, in 
the space of six months, and was com- 
pleted in Delhi, on the 29th of Ramazan, 
A.H. 1067. 

A Latin translation of this work has been 
published with notes by Anquetil Duperron, 
with the following title : Oupnekhat (i. e. 
Secretum tegendum) opus ipsa in India 
rarissimum, continens antiquam et arcanam 
doctrinam e quatuor sacris Indorum libris 
excerptam, ad verbum e Persico idiomate in 
Latinum conversam, etc. Argentorati, 1801. 

The work is called in this MS. .L-^l y^ 
(a title also found in Stewart's Catalogue, 
p. 53, xxii.), both in the preface and in the 
conclusion; but in the next two copies, as 
also in the Catalogue of Sir Wm. Ouseley's 
Collection, No. 480, in a copy belonging to 
King's College, Cambridge, No. 217, and in 
Anquetil's translation, vol. i., p. 6, it bears 
the title oi j^\ jm. 



HINDUISM. 



65 



It contains fifty TJpanisliads, a table of 
•which is found in the following copies. 
Prefixed is a short glossary of those Sans- 
crit words which are preserved in the Persian 
translation, Jy«^!lJ-. OUJ ^^\x} , foil. 17, 18; see 
Anquetil's Latin translation, vol. i., pp. 7 — 
12. The first sixteen leaves, and the mar- 
gins throughout the volume, contain copious 
pencil-notes in the hand-writing of Halhed. 

See for the names of TJpanishads, Cole- 
brook Essays, pp. 91 — 98, Weber, Indische 
Studien, Heft 2, and Vorlesungen, pp. 148 — 
165. 

Add. 5648. 

Poll. 392; 9 in. by 6^; 15 lines, B^ in. 
long ; written in Indian Nestalik, probably 
in the latter part of the 18th century. 

[N. B. Halhed.] 

The same work. 

Prefixed are the glossary of Sanscrit 
terms, and a table of the fifty TJpanishads, 
foil. 1 b — 3 a] but the translator's preface 
is wanting. 



Or. 1121. 

Poll. 107 ; 9^ in. by 6i ; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in Indian Shikastah-Amiz, 
apparently in the 18th century. 

[Warren Hastings.] 

Thirty- four TJpanishads, extracted from 
the preceding work. 

Beg. «/ 'iJi-'yJ ^W-^. J^ "^.Wv^, i_JLl3 

This volume contains the TJpanishads 
belonging to the Atharva-Veda, to the 
exclusion of the others, beginning with the 
Sarb and ending with the Narsingh. Their 
arrangement, which diifers from that of the 
preceding copies or Anquetil's translation, 
is the following : Upanishad vi., fol. 1 ; 
ix., fol. 4 ; X., fol. 9 ; xxxi. — xxxvi., fol. 12 ; 



iv., fol. 22 ; xliii., fol. 29 ; xxiii. — xxix., 
fol. 31; xiv. — xvL, fol. 46; xviii., fol. 58; 
XX. — xxi., fol. 61 ; vii., fol. 63 ; xvii., fol. 65 , 
xlii., fol. 66; xxxvii., fol. 67; xli., fol. 77; 
xlvi.— 1., foil. 78—107. 

Or. 1248. 

Poll. 314; 12i in. by 7|; 15 Hnes, 4J in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Zulhijjah, 
A.H. 1219, March, A.D. 1805, Samvat 1861. 

The Ramayana of Valmiki, translated into 
l^ersian prose. 
Beg. ujby^j^j s^ jkJUJ (_/i^ S'V^-^ '^^j^j^^ji 
liJilji- f^S^]) ]/^ ii j^ft^ JJJ6 Ja>\ ^J^ j^ (Jl*-»\ 
Contents. — Introduction ; Valmiki's con- 
versation with Narada; invention of the 
Sloka and composition of the poem ; its 
recitation by Kusa and Lava; its division 
into seven Kandas and summary of their 
contents (Gorresio's translation, vol. i., 
pp. 1 — 28) ; fol. 1 : — Bala-Kanda, m^ Jb, 
fol. 12; Ayodhya-Kanda, .wo Uiij»-1, fol. 55; 
Aranya-Kanda, jjl_^ ^^S , fol. 95 ; Klish- 
kindhya-Kanda, jJU* \jS-^JL^, fol. 121 ; 
Sundara-Kanda, jjli^joJuJ, fol. 146 ; Yuddha 
Kanda (without heading), fol. 179 ; TJttara 
Kanda, jji/yj\ , fol. 255. 

The Kandas are subdivided into short 
sections headed ^J\AJl\ (Adhyaya). These 
are not numbered, except in the last Kanda, 
in which they amount to one hundred and 
ten. 

The translation is far from literal. The 
wordy exuberance of the original is much 
reduced, but the substance of the narrative 
is faithfully rendered. Some explanations re- 
specting Indian traditions are added by the 
translator, who speaks of what the Hindus 
assert, (^^jJ-3» *cj jJ, in the tone of one who 
does not belong to them. 



d6 



HINDUISM. 



It is known that Mulla *Abd ul-Kadir 
Badii'uni translated the Kamayana by com- 
mand of Akbar. He states himself in his 
Muntakhab ut-Tavarikh (see Elliot's His- 
tory of India, vol. v., p. 539), that he was 
engaged four years on that M'ork, and com- 
pleted it A.H. 999. It is not impossible 
that the present MS. may contain his 
version. 

An abridged translation of the Ramayana, 
written A.H. 1097, by Chandraman, son of 
Sri Ram, occurs in the Mackenzie Collection, 
vol. ii., p. 144. 

Or. 1249. 

Foil. 267 ; 12^ in. by 8; 15 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in Nestalik ; dated Benares, 
November, 1804. 



L^M 



5JWU1 J 

The Eamayana of Tulsi-Das, translated 
from Hindi into Persian prose by Debidas, 
or Devi-Dasa, Kayath, ayjlS ;_^b ^d 

Beg. \Z^ j\ t^ j^ A ^JJM s\:^iv I* <i^*^ 

The Eamayan of Tulsidas is a free imi- 
tation of the Sanscrit poem. It was com- 
menced at Benares A.D. 1575. The author 
died in 1624. SeeWOson, Asiatic Researches, 
vol. xvi., p. 48, and Garcin de Tassy, Litt(^ra- 
ture Hindoui, vol. i., p. 509. The second 
volume of the latter work contains a trans- 
lation of the Sundara Kanda of Tulsidas, 
pp. 215—272. 

This version is divided, like the original, 
into the following seven Kandas : Bala- 
Kanda, jj\5^ Jb , fol. 1. This Kanda begins 
vvith a long introduction, in which Rama is 
glorified in a dialogue between Sankara and 
Parvati. Ay odhya- Kanda, .ii li^Ufcji^\, fol. 67; 
Aranya- Kanda, ^^ oJ,< , fol. 129 ; Kish- 
.rndhya-K5,nda, jjli'^ jJiS', fol. 147; Sundara- 
'.anda, jJ>i/jAa-», fol. 157; Lanka- Kanda, 



jii; ^ , fol. 174 ; Uttara-Kanda, jjli' yj\ , 
fol. 210. 

Two episodes connected with Rama's his- 
tory have been added by Debidas from other 
sources : — 

1. The history of Lava and Kusha, ^ i^ 
^JS.^J, from the Jaimini-Purana, ij\,Jii,rH!-> (i-6. 
Kusalavopakhyanam ; see Jaimini-Bliarata, 
Weber, Berlin Catal. p. 115) ; fol. 247. 

2. The episode of Sulochana, i^uS-Ho- 
yli>.y^ , wife of Meghavada, who was slain 
by Lakshmana; fol. 258. 

Copyist : t/jV *^^ u^^ 

Four leaves of smaller size added at the 
end, foil. 264 — 267, contain an abridged ver- 
sion of the episode of Duryodhana and the 
Rishi Dvu'vasas, UibjJ, from the Mahabha- 
rata. 

Or. 1251. 

Foil. 242 ; 12^ in. by 7| ; 12 lines, 5 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Benares, 
Jumada I., A.D. 1804. 

An abridged version of the Eamayana, in 
Ma§navi verse. 
Author : Girdhar-Das, (_>«b ^li/ 
Beg. \y\s-- i:>jJLit ^!^ Jl* J U5 

The author belonged, as he states himself, 
fol. 6 b, to the Kayath tribe, and lived in 
Dehli. He devotes a section of his intro- 
duction, fol. 3 5, to the praise of the reigning 
sovereign, Jahangir. His version is not 
divided, like the preceding, into Kandas, 
but into shorter sections with rubrics. 

It consists, as stated in the concluding 
lines, of 5900 distichs, and was completed in 
A.H. 1036, corresponding to the year 1681 
of Bikramajit. 

A poetical version of the Ramayana is 
mentioned, without author's name, in the 



.HINDUISM. 



57 



Catalogue of Sir "Wm. Ouscley's Collection, 
No. 74. 

On the fly-leaf is written the name of 
John Bridge, with the following note : "An 
ancient Indian book, formerly belonging 
to Col. Charles Stuart, afterwards General 
Stuart." 

Add. 5638-5640. 

Three volumes, perfectly uniform, and 
containing respectively foil. 413, 371, and 
440 ; 15^ in. by 9| ; 22 lines, 5| in. long ; 
written by the same hand, in large Nestalik, 
with ruled margins ; dated Muradabad, from 
Rabi' I., A.H. 1175, to Eabi' I., A.H. 1177 
(A.D. 1761—3). [N. B. Halhed.] 

The Persian version of the Mahabharata, 
with a Preface by Abul-Pazl. 



Beg. of Preface ; 



(Jl^wii^ 



* y Jr- j 



y. o. ^s^ J 




After a long encomium on Akbar, Abul- 
Pazl says that, having observed the fanatical 
hatred prevailing between Hindus and Mus- 
sulmans, and convinced that it arose only 
from their mutual ignorance, that enlightened 
monarch wished to dispel the same by ren- 
dering the books of the former accessible to 
the latter. He selected in the first instance 
the Mahabharata as the most comprehensive, 
and that which enjoyed the highest authority, 
and ordered it to be translated by competent 
and impartial men of both nations. By this 
means he wished also to show to the Hindiis 
that some of their grossest errors and super- 
stitions had no foundation in their ancient 
books, and further to convince the Mussul- 
mans of their folly in assigning to the past 
existence of the world so short a span of 
time as seven thousand years. 

Abul-Fazl then gives a general sketch of 
the Hindii system of cosmogony and of the 



contents of the poem. From a mention of 
the current year, fol. 11 a, it appears that 
this preface was written in A.H. 995. 

'Abd ul-Kadir Bada'uni, one of the trans- 
lators, says, in his Muntakhab ul-Tavarikh, 
that the order for the translation was given 
by Akbar in A.H. 990, and that he himself, 
Nakib Khan, Mulla Shah, and Muhammad- 
Sultan Thanesari, wrote a literal version, 
which was then turned into elegant prose by 
Paizi. (See Elliot, History of India, vol. v., 
pp. 537 and 571 ; A'in i Akbari, Blochmann's 
translation, p. 104.) The title of Eazm- 
Namah, which, according to him, was given 
to the version, is not found in this copy. 

In the conclusion of a copy described 
below. Add. 5642, fol. 481 6, Nakib Khan, 
who there calls himself Ibn 'Abd ul-LatIf ul- 
Husaini, says that he had translated the 
whole work from Sanscrit by order of Akbar 
in the space of one year and a half, and that 
he completed it in Sha'ban, A.H. 992. He 
adds that he was assisted by some Brahmans, 
whom he calls ^^dyjt^ j ^bj'cu»» j j^a* ^^i 

UJ V ^ 3 ^ivij^ 3 j^ ' i- e. Devi-Misra, 
Satavadhiina, Madhusiidana-Misra, Chatur- 
bhuja and Bhavan. 

It is curious to find that the principal trans- 
lator of the Hindu epos was a Mohammedan 
Sayyid of Persian birth. Nakib Khan's father, 
Mir 'Abd ul-Latif, son of the well-known his- 
torian, Mir Yahya of Kazvin (see Lubb ut-Ta- 
varikh, Or. 140), repaired from Persia, where 
he was persecuted as a Sunni, to the court of 
Humayiin, which he reached, however, only 
after that monarch's death, in A.H. 963. 
He was well received by Akbar, who took 
him for his tutor. His son, Mir Ghiya§ ud- 
Din 'All, became a great favourite with Ak- 
bar, who conferred on him the title of Nakib 
Khan in A.H. 988. He died at Ajmir in the 
9th year of Jahangir, A.H. 1023. See A'in 
i Akbari, Blochmann's translation, p. 447 ; 
Maasir ul-Umara, Add. 6568, fol. 561 b ; and 



58 



HINDUISM. 



Tazkirat ul-TJmara, Add. 16,703, fol. 161 a. 
In the latter work Nakib Khan is designated 
as the translator of the Mahabharata. 

Add. 5638 contains the Preface and Par- 
vas i.— iv. ; Add. 6639, Parvas v.— xii.; and 
Add. 5640, Parvas xiii. — xviii. 

This copy was written for Eae Bahadur 
Singh, in Muxadabad. 

Copyist : JJ>f\ ^y J^ c^\J' ^j ^^ ^^ 

These three volumes contain respectively 
68, 36, and 30 whole-page miniatures, in 
fair Indian style. They bear the Persian 
stamp of Chief Justice Sir Elijah Impey, 
with the date 1775, and of Thomas Edwards, 
Bahadur, with the date 1777. 

Two diflferent versions of the Mahabharata 
are mentioned in the Mackenzie Collection, 
vol. ii., p. 143, 

Add. 5641, 5642. 

Two volumes, containing respectively foil. 
870 and 481 ; 11^ in. by 64 ; 27 lines, 3^ in. 
long; written by the same hand in fair, 
small Naskhi, with 'Unvan and gold-ruled 
margins; dated Zulhijjah, A.H. 1007 (A.D. 
1599). [N. B. Halhed.] 

The same version, complete in two vo- 
lumes. 

Add. 5641 contains Abul Pazl's preface 
and Parvas i. — xi. Prefixed, foil. 7 — 14, is a 
very full table of the contents of the whole 
work in Persian, with references to the 
folios of the present copy. It is stated, at 
the end, that it was compiled by Basant 
Rae, son of Kasiram, son of Haemal, a Kayath 
in the service of Shayistah Khan, in the 
31st year of Aurangzib, i. e. A.H. 1098. 

Six leaves at the beginning contain a 
descriptive list, by N. B. Halhed, of the 
first 97 miniatures of the preceding copy 
(Add. 5638 — 40), which illustrate the part 
of the work contained in the present volume. 



Add. 5642 contains Parvas xii.— xviii. 
Prefixed is the continuation of the above 
descriptive list of miniatiires, from the 98th 
to the 128th. 

Both volumes bear copious marginal notes 
in the handwriting of Halhed. 

An English abstract of the Mahabharata, 
derived from the present version by Halhed, 
in 1791, is to be found in Add. 5657, foil. 
1—18. 

Add. 16,870. 

EoU. 283 ; 19 in. by 8 ; 29 lines, 7^ in. 
long ; written in very close Indian Shikastah; 
dated from Jumada II., A.H. 1218, to Safar, 
A.H. 1219 (A.D. 1803—4). [Wm. Yule.] 

The same work, complete in one volume. 

Add. 16,873. 

Poll. 80 ; 10 in. by 6^ ; 12 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, about the close 
of the 18th century. [Wm. Yule.] 

A Persian translation of the Viriita-Parva, 
or Parva iv., of the Mahabharata. 

Beg. J»i,y^j>- o-yj^ i^ ^^ ^J^JJi C^,_5^r*-»^ 

This version is different from the pre- 
ceding; it is much fuller, and keeps closer 
to the text. 

On the fly-leaf is written, in the hand of 
Major Yule : " Bought at the sale of Gen. 
Martin's effects, Lucnow, 1802." 

Add. 7036. 

Foil. 206; 12^ in. by 7f; written by 
J. Haddon Hindley, A.D. 1798. 

Notes on the Mahabhjirata in English, with 
some short extracts in Persian. They are 
chiefly transcribed from Halhed's marginal 
notes in Add. 5641-2. Foil. 187—206 
contain an alphabetical index of Sanscrit 
words and proper names. 



HINDUISM. 



59 



Add. 7676. 

Foil. 55; 7| in. by 6|; 15 lines 2| in. 
long ; written in Shikastali ; dated Benares, 
Samat 1822 (A.D. 1765). [CI. J. Rich.] 

The Gita, i. e. Bhagavad-Gita, translated 
from Sanscrit into Persian prose. The 
translation is ascribed in the following head- 
ing to Abul-Eazl : 

^^J-i.f» s^..^ ^J>, ^^. J/1 *^ ^ ^ j^ 4)VV 
Beg. sfrjj* tS <Zj~t<s j^ iS c^ y^\ O;*o 

t^ ^j>\^3i i^^jJJ^. 0&U?- J ^^ |»i>;* C^-JjlS^XJ 

This version of the Gita is no part of the 
translation of the Mahiibharata written for 
Akbar, for in the latter the whole episode is 
condensed into a few pages : see Add. 5639, 
foil. 78 — 80. The present version, on the 
contrary, is full, and follows the text very 
closely. It is not mentioned amongst the 
translations made for Akbar : see A'in i Ak- 
bari, Blochmann's translation, p. 104. 

A Persian version of the same work, in 
18 chapters, is mentioned by Aumer, Munich 
Catalogue, p. 140 ; another ascribed to Abul- 
Pazl is found in the Library of King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, No. 14. 

Copyist: obUl j^U ^jS a^.\i ^Ij jJLJj^ 

Add. 5651. 

Foil. 47 ; 8 in. by 5. [N. B. Halhed.] 

I. Poll. 1—35; 15 lines, 3^ in. long; 
written in Nestalik; dated Shahjahanabad, 
Jumada I,, the 25th year of Muhammad 
Shah, A.H. 1155 (A.D. 1742). 

Another translation of the Bhagavad-Gita. 

This version, which differs from the pre- 
ceding, is also ascribed, in the following 



short preamble, to Abul-Pazl, who is said to 
have written it by permission of Akbar : 

^^,^\ j!iU . . . . j«ir ^^U;; J j5\*^ i^iku ojW 

This statement is more probable in this 
case than in the other, for the present trans- 
lation is far less literal, and written in a 
much more elegant Persian. It begins thus : 

^a: dJJo JLii' xlia* «iU* ^^\ siS j (_>»^y«- ^J>) 

j!/\ ^y- jJjS- j> ^ J^j Ij^ y5;-J t^ ^s>A >j 

Copyist : ^^y ,^1^ ^i^ 

II. Foil. 36—47 ; 19 lines, 4 in. long ; writ- 
ten in Indian Shikastah-Amiz ; dated the 4th 
year of 'Alamgir II. (A.H. 1170, A.D. 1757). 

Two extracts from Sanscrit works, in 
Persian translation. The first, foil. 36 — 39, 

is headed, sS oL*^ ^ ^jii i— >V »J)/-» ej^ 

It treats of the breath of the right and 
left nostrils, and of the hidden virtues of 
each. 

The second, foil. 40 — 47, bears the follow- 
ing title : (— '^^ \\ O,^ ai CL*-» eijfi «-»9-y 

It is a dialogue between a Guru called 
Goraksha and his disciple, on deliverance 
from the bonds of this perishable world. 

See Gorakshasatakam, Aufrecht, Bodleian. 
Catalogue, p. 236. 

Copyist : ^^y «Sou- <^J 

Add. 6607. 

Foil. 139 ; 10 in. by 6| ; 19 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in Nestalik, dated Sironj 
(Malvah), in the reign of Aurangzib, Rajab, 
A.H. 1110 (A.D. 1699). [J. F. Hull.] 

i2 



60 



HINDUISM. 



The tenth Skandha of the Bhagavata 
Purana, or the legend of Krishna, translated 
into Persian prose. It is divided into ninety 
Adhyayas, the first two of which are 
wanting in this copy. The third begins 
thus: 

At the end is a table of chapters, in 
the handwriting of the transcriber, the 
latter portion of which is lost. 

This copy was transcribed, as stated in 
the subscription, from a MS. in the library of 
Rajah Ram, son of Jagajjivan Das, Kayath, 
Kanungo of Chanderi, Subah of Malvah. 

Copyist : ^^is d^ V^ *— "^ i:rt/ f)j 

On fol. 136 b is written the name of a 
former owner, P. Bradshaw, with the date 
1758. 

A condensed English translation of the 
Persian version, written by Halbed in 1791, 
is to be found in Add. 5657, foil. 18—111, 
and a transcript of it by J. H. Hindi ey in 
Add. 7025—7027. The copy upon which it 
was made contained an introduction, want- 
ing in the present MS., and in which the 
translation was ascribed to Faizl. 

An earlier Persian version of the Bhaga- 
vata Purana is mentioned by Aumer, Miinich 
Catalogue, p. 140, No. 351. There is also 
one in two volumes in the library of King's 
College, Cambridge, No. 62. 

The Bhagavata Purana has been edited, 
with a French translation, by Burnouf, 
Paris, 1840. 

Add. 5650. 

Foil. 220; 84 in. by 5; 12 lines, 3^ in. 
long; written in cursive Indian Shikastah- 



Amiz, about the beginning of the 18th 
century. [N. B. Halhed.] 

The same translation. 

Beg. ^_^lil» Jj J ij^y Lf/- C^^ Jj^ cf^'i^ 

^_ffjM> m}j>- »5j\jJ «!»»- j\ ^5 «i lO^Y^^ «»-]j *s 

This copy breaks off in the beginning of 
the 88th Adhyaya. 

It has some pencil notes, written by 
N. B. Halhed, in the margins. 

Or. 1122. 

FoU. 48; 111 in. by 8^; 17 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in In- 
dia, in the latter part of the 18th century. 

[Warren Hastings.] 

Fragment of an account of some legendary 
kings of India, apparently derived from some 
Purana. It begins with the story relating 
to king Sagara, the Eisbi Aurva, and the 
Asvamedha performed by the former. The 
latter part, foil. 14 — 48, is entirely taken up 
with the history of Rama, and breaks off in 
the account of the first day's battle before 
Lanka. 

Beg. JIp ^^ j oiUwi J^j/^i ^^ tc\^ ^li 

*^1) f*"^ u]}^ '^Ay^ «»-^ M^'^ j^ «aki j\ lib 

The story of Sagara and Aurva is told at 
length in the Vishnu Purana : see Wilson's 
Works, vol. viii., pp. 80—198. 

An account of Rama and his ancestors 
forms part of the Padma Purana: see 
Wilson's works, Analysis of the Puranas, 
vol. iii., p. 46. 

Add. 564:4:. 

FoU. 513; 12 J in. by 8^; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik in India, 
apparently in the latter part of the 18th 
century. [n. B. Halhed.] 



HINDUISM. 



61 



"Jog-Bashishth," (Yoga-Vasishtha), an ex- 
position of Hindu gnosticism, in the form 
of a dialogue between the Rishi Yiisishtha 
and Ramachandra, translated from the 
Sanscrit, 

Beg. wl*^ ja- oU o.ia-j jii \jSxi> ij'-Uiy 

This translation, whose author is not 
named, was made, as stated in the preamble, 
from an abridgment, by a Kashmir Pandit, 
called Anandan, ^li ^^^j^\ ijjx*^ i^ JJ^> of the 
original work, Yoga-Vasishtha. It is divided 
into six books, called Prakaranas ^JJiJi , and 
subdivided into Sargas td)^. The six parts 
are the following : 

Vairagya-Prakarana, ^^^^ ^\;r:>, fol. 8 a. 

Mumukshu-Prakarana, ^^/Ji^ &^s^^,foL 53 b. 

TJtpatti-Prakarana, ^^JQ^ i-Z^\, fol. 68 b. 

Sthiti-Prakarana,. ^j^i^ <.l*4l-»^ fol. 186 a. 

Upasama-Prakarana, j^^i^ Ji^\ , fol. 193 b. 

Nirvana- Prakarana, ^^Jy>^ Joy, fol. 326 b. 

The abbreviator, Anandan, states in his 
introduction, fol. 7 b, that the original work, 
as dictated by Valmiki, and written down by 
Bhrigu, consisted of thirty-two thousand 
Slokas, and that he had reduced it to six 
. thousand, and divided it into the six books 
above mentioned. 

See Aufrecht, Catalogue of the Bodl. MSS., 
p. 353, and Weber, Berlin Catalogue, p. 187. 

This copy contains numerous marginal 
notes in pencil, in the handwriting of 
Halhed. 

A version of the same work, mentioned in 
Dr. D. Forbes' Catalogue, p. 61, is said to 
have been written by order of Dara-Shikuh. 
See also Biblioth. Sprenger., No. 1661, and 
the Catalogue of King's CoUege, Cambridge, 
No. 28. 



Add. 5637. 

Foil. 155 ; 9| in. by 6 ; 15 lines, 3^ and 
4| in. long ; written by two hands, in Nes- 
talik and in Shikastah-Amlz ; dated Rabi' I., 
the 26th year (of Shah 'Alam), Fasli 1192 
(A.D. 1784). [N. B. Halhed.] 

Jog-Bashishth, an abridged version of the 
same work. 

Beg. jii ftS Cjj>a>- JjJ> |,W> {J^}^ J (_)«^ 

It is stated in the preamble that former 
tra-nslators, although giving a literal render- 
ing of the Sanscrit text, had failed to pene- 
trate its real meaning. Akbar, having ex- 
pressed in his court, in A.H. 1006, his wish 
to procure a truer version, a desire which 
was increased by a vision in which the holy 
interlocutors Vasishtha and Ramachandra 
themselves had appeared to him, one of the 
persons present undertook the task, and 
carried it out with the assistance of some 
learned Hindus. 

On the iiy-leaf is written, in the hand- 
writing of Halhed : " The gift of Lala Her- 
jis Ray." 

Add. 7030 and 7031. 

Two volumes, containing respectively foil. 
45 and 24; 7 in. by 4J; about 20 lines; 
written, on one side of the paper only, by 
the Rev. J. Haddon Hindley, in 1805. 

A short abstract of the Jog-Bashishth in 
English, being a transcript of Halhed's mar- 
ginal notes in Add. 5644, with some names 
and short notes in Persian. 

Add. 16,868. 

FoU. 246 ; 10^ in. by 6J ; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in plain Nestalik, apparently 
in the 18th century. [Wm. Yule.] 



62 



HINDUISM. 



0J^\ sJj- 

An exposition of some of the elegant arts 
and sciences of the Hindus. 

Author : Mirza Muhammad B. Fakhr ud- 
din Muhammad o^ (^_jJt jSi ^Ji x^ ]j^ 

Beg. ^_/fjil>- jjo U\ (j^^^ i-j, 4JI jji 

The author states in the preface that he 
wrote the present work, in the reign of 
*Alamgir, by desire of Kiikultash Khan, for 
the use of Prince Muhammad Mu'izz ud-Din 
Jahandar Shah. 

Kukultash Khan governed the province 
of Multan in the name of that young prince, 
the eldest son, and aftei-vrards the successor, 
of Shah 'Alam, who was horn A.H. 1071. 
As the title of Khanjahan, which Kukultash 
received in A.H. 1086, is not mentioned 
here, it may be inferred that the work was 
written before that date. See Maa§ir Alam- 
giri, p. 142, and Maagir ul-Umara, Add. 
6567, fol. 194. 

It is divided into an Introduction (Mu- 
kaddimah) and seven Chapters (Bab), as 
follows : — 

Mukaddimah, Hindu system of writing, 
fol. 3 a. Bab 1. Prosody (Pingal), fol. 43 b. 
2. Ehyme (Tuk), fol. 123 a. 3. Figures of 
speech (Alankar), fol. 137 a. 4. The theory 
of love (Singar-ras), fol. 155 a. 5. Music 
(Sangit), fol. 169 a. 6. The theory of sexual 
pleasure (Kok). 7. Physiognomy, or the 
art of interpreting the outward appearances 
of men (Samudrik). The last two chapters 
are wanting in this MS. 

All the technical terms of the above 
sciences are given in their Sanscrit form, 
and spelt at full length. 

The " Present from India," ascribed to 
Mirza Khan by Sir Wm. Jones, Asiatic 
Eesearches, vol. iii., p. 65, is, no doubt, the 
same work. 

Copies of the Tuhfat ul-Hind are men- 
tioned in the Bibl. Sprenger., No. 1655-6, 



and in the Catalogue of King's College, 
Cambridge, No. 217. 

Egerton 1027. 

Foil. 40 ; 9 in. by 6 ; 15 lines, 4 J in. long ; 
written in cursive Nestalik ; dated Ajodhiya 
(Oude), Rajab, A.H. 1180 (A.D. 1766). 

An account of the holy land of Braj, and 
of all the places consecrated by the memories 
of Goprd, or Krishna. 

Author: Rup-Narayan, son of Hariram, 
Khatri of Siyalkut, ^jjx^ Jj>^ Jj ^,i^lj <— ^jj 

Beg. ^ {J^jy^'^h {J>j *^'i ^J\^;J^^ j> 

The author, a devout worshipper of Gopal, 
or, as he is frequently called here, ^^.iiK^, 
had spent four or five years at the holy shrines 
of Braj. He wrote the present work, which 
is also designated by the name of Jl^ -j>, 
or Vraja-Mahatmya, in Lahore, A.H. 1129, 
a date expressed by the title ^J^J>i>^ ^ys^ 

Copyist : a.^ '-r!/** 

Add. 5646. 

Foil. 211 ; lOi in. by 8 ; 9 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in a large and fair Nestalik, 
with two 'Unvans and gold-ruled margins, 
iu the latter part of the 18th century. 

[N. B. Halhed.] 

A code of Hindu laws, compiled from 
Sanscrit sources, with a preface by Zain ud- 
D'm 'All Ea;Sa'i ^'^j ^ ij;J.jJ^ j^j 

Beg. yli\^ ^j*^ J j^ j^jj ulA*^ "^^^ y. 

An English translation of this work has 
been published with the following title : 
" Code of Gentoo Laws, from a Persian 
translation, made from the original written 



.HINDUISM. 



63 



in the Shanscrit language, by N. B. Halhed," 
London, 1776. 

It is stated in the preface that the Gover- 
nor-General, Hastings, in order to improve 
the administration of justice, had directed 
some learned Brahmans, convened for that 
purpose, and whose names are given (see 
Halhed's translation, p. 6), to compile the 
present work from the most approved San- 
scrit texts, and that it was subsequently- 
translated from Sanscrit into Persian. 

The preface is followed by two introduc- 
tory chapters treating of the origin of the 
Hindu castes, fol. 4, and of the duties of the 
ruler, fol. 1 3, after which is found a table of 
contents, fol. 21 — 23, and, at the end of 
the latter, the following list of the Sanscrit 
works used for this compilation : ^^j i>^. 

J\ \^.y\/o ,\.^jl_) J}). , i- e. Vivada-Eatnakara, 
Vivada-Chintamani, Niti-Chintamani, Daya- 
Tattva, Vyavahara-Tattva, Dharma-Ratna, 
Vyavahara-Matrika, etc. The date of com- 
position is indicated by three versified chro- 
nograms at the end of the preface, but they 
are incorrectly written in the present copy. 
According to Halhed's translation, p. 5, the 
work was begun in May, 1773, and finished 
in Pebruary, 1775. 

Add. 5654. 

Poll. 112 ; lOf in. by 7,f ; 17 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in a cursive Indian Nestalik, 
apparently in the latter part of the 18th 
century. [N. B. Halhed.] 

A treatise on the cosmogony, the geo- 
graphical and astronomical systems, the 
mythology and historical legends of the Hin- 
dus, compiled from Sanscrit sources. 

Author: Munshi Karparam, Ab^j_jli« 

Beg. ij'^^^j jjjUjI ^<iS o«^ ^J-> u"^^ 



The author's name, as well as that of the 
patron for whom he wrote this work, are left 
out in the preface. Both are supplied, how- 
ever, by the following note, pencilled by 
Halhed at the back of the first page : 

"This book was compiled by one Kar- 
param, of the Coit or Writer Cast, for Mr. 
Hastings. This man was a Moonshy in the 
Persian Translator's ofl&ce at Calcutta. He 
was well versed in Hindoo learning, and 
his knowledge of the Persian and Arabic, 
added to the Sanscrit and Bengalee, gave 
advantage over most of the Pandeets." The 
work breaks ofi" in the middle of the story 
of Sakuntala. 

'The words (_^U5 t-*!, which occur in the 
preface, have been wrongly taken for the 
title of the book; they are only used to 
describe the " marrow " which the author 
had extracted from the original works. 

Add. m^^. 

Poll. 27 ; 11-i in, by n\ ; 17 lines, 5 in. 
long ; written in ill-shaped Indian Shikastah 
Amiz ; dated Rabi' I., the 26th year (of Shah 
•Alam), Pasb 1192 (A.D. 1784). 

[N. B. Halhed.] 

Puranartha-Prakasa, an exposition of the 
system of chronology and cosmogony of the 
Hindus, of their Shastras, and the genealo- 
gies of their kings ; translated from the 
Sanscrit by Zuravar Singh, BiSjj»jj\jjj 

Beg. ei Jio* Jjj>, S^KiS'S JJ-e j^ ]jiSjy^) fj>. 

The translator, after a long panegyric on 
Governor-General Warren Hastings, states 
that the Sanscrit original was written, in 
obedience to his commands, by the Chief 
Pandit, Radhakanta Tarka, ^^Hj^, OjJo 
tiJjj t::*j/l*<ilj , and that he was himself di- 
rected by the same exalted personage to 



64 



HINDUISM. 



translate it into Persian. The margins con- 
tain notes in the handwriting of Mr. Halhed. 
The Sanscrit original, in the Bengali charac- 
ter, is found in Or. 1124, 

An English translation of the Persian 
version, by Halhed, is preserved in Add. 
5657, foU. 163—194. 

Add. 7022. 

Foil. 275 ; 9 in. by 7 ; about 15 lines in a 
page ; written, on one side of the paper only, 
by the Eev. J. Haddon Hindley. The paper 
is water-marked 1813. 

A transcript of the preceding MS., with 
the English translation of Halhed, copied 
from Add. 5657. 

At the end, foil. 235 — 275, is added, from 
the same source, viz. Add. 5657, foil. 195 — 
201, a Eajavali, or genealogy of Hindu Ra- 
jahs, brought down to A.D. 1666, in English 
only. 

Add. 24,035. 

Poll. 53; 9i in. by 6; 15 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, about A.D. 
1812. [H. H. Wilson.] 

An account of the castes and sects of the 
Hindus. 

Author : Mathuranath, a Malvah Brah- 
man, (/jJU ^^j i^\>\^ 

Beg. ^3^ i^J V^^ij'jlr" »^(^'i^ 

The author, as we learn from the preface, 
had been dwelling some time at Benares, 
engaged in the pursuit of the various Hindu 
sciences, and in the composition of some 
original treatises. He wrote the present 
work, A.D. 1812, A.H. 1228, at the request 
of Mr. John Glyn Ji^ ^J^, with the object 
of obtaining the favourable notice of the 
Governor-General, Lord Moira. (Mr. Robert 
Tho. John Glyn was at that time registrar of 
the city of Benares.) 



The account begins with the primitive 
castes, as instituted by the Vedas ; but it 
deals chiefly with the different sects and 
religious orders, and includes also those 
which are out of the pale of Hindu ortho- 
doxy, as the Jainas and the Sikhs. The 
original Hindu names, in the Devanagari 
character, are added throughout between the 
lines. Many coloured drawings, showing the 
costume and appearance of the different 
classes, are introduced. 

This is one of the main sources of Prof. 
H. H. Wilson's " Sketch of the religious 
sects of the Hindus." The author is there 
described as "late librarian of the Hindu 
College at Benares, a man of great personal 
respectability and eminent acquirements." 
His work, it is added, is the fullest and most 
satisfactory. See Wilson's Works, vol. i., 
p. 8. 

Or. 476. 

PoU. 98; 9^ in. by 6^; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in small and close Shikastah- 
Amiz ; dated Rajab, A.H. 1266 (A.D. 1850). 

[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

A full account of the creeds, traditions, 
and sects of the Hindus, and of the Mussul- 
mans of India. 

Author : Muhammad Hasan, called Katil, 

Beg. >w* J.u-9 ^^^ J^ JU.^^ ^_^j 

Mirza Katil was born of a Khatri family 
settled in Paizabad, and his first name was 
Davali Singh. In his 18th year he was con- 
verted to Islamism by Mirzci Bakir Shalnd 
Isfahan!, who bestowed upon him the name 
of Muhammad Hasan and the Takhallus of 
Katil. His poetical talent ingratiated him 
with the Navvab Sa adat 'Ali of Oude. After 



HINDUISM. 



65 



staying several years in Dehli, he returned 
to Lucknow, where he held the office of 
Head-Munshi, and died A.H. 1233. See the 
Tazkirah of Mushafi, Add. 16,727, fol. 74, 
and Sprenger, Oude Catalogue, pp. 170 and 
535. 

It appears from the preface that the 
present work was written in the time of 
Navvab Sa'adat 'All Khan, and at the request 
of a pious and learned Sayyid, Mirza Mu- 
hammad Husain, who came from Karbala 
to Lucknow in A.H. 1228. 

It is divided into seven chapters, termed 
Tamasha, as follows : — 1. Creeds of the 
Smartik or orthodox Hindiis, fol. 6 a. 
2. Origin of mankind and its divisions, 
fol. 19 a. 3. Creeds of the heterodox Hin- 
dus, fol. 24 h. 4. Festivals of the Hindus, 
fol. 43 a. 5. Manners of the Hindus, 
fol. 53 a. 6. Manners and laws of the 
Mussulmans of India, fol. 69 «. 7. Curious 
facts relating to Indian Fakirs, etc., fol. 92 h. 

Add. 27,255. 

Foil. 462; 12J in. by 8|; 9 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in fair and large Nestalik,with 
a rich double page 'Unvan and gold-ruled 
margins, A.D. 1825. [Sir John Malcolm.] 



^\y'i\ IJ-. 



An account of the origin and occupations 
of the various castes and tribes of Hindustan, 
with native drawings representing their 
appearance and costumes. 

Author : Colonel James Skinner, JJ/ 

Beg. ^.^^^ ^j..f\ uVr ^y^ o-V-J ^-^ ^. 

James Skinner was born in India in 1778. 
He was the son of a Scotch officer in the 
Company's Service and of a Rajput mother. 
He served with distinction in the Marattah 



armies under General de Boigne, and after- 
wards under General Perron, from 1796 to 
1803, when he took service under Lord 
Lake and played a prominent part, as leader 
of irregular horse, in the military events of 
the period. He was rewarded in 1827 with 
the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in Her 
Majesty's army and the title of Companion 
of the Order of the Bath. He died at 
Hansi in 1841. His friend Mr. J. Baillie 
Fraser has published a full and interesting 
account of his adventurous career (London, 
1851), in which, however, we find no mention 
either of the present work or of his Tazkirat 
ul-Umara (Add. 24,051), which wUl be de- 
scribed further on. 

We learn from the preface that the author 
drew his materials chiefly from Sanscrit 
sources, which he caused to be translated 
for him, and that the work was completed 
in the cantonments of Hansi, in August 
1825, when it was dedicated to General 
Sir John Malcolm. 

The work is divided into three books 
(Fasl), as foUows : 

Book I. contains a chronological account 
of the Timuride Emperors, from Timur to 
Akbarshah, who ascended the throne A.H. 
1221 ; fol. 9 a. 

Book II., which forms nearly the entire 
bulk of the work, treats of Hindu castes ; it 
is divided into two parts (Bab), the first of 
which comprises the lay or secular castes, 
(^IjiiUi^ , the second, the orders of religious 
mendicants, ^j^ . 

Part I. is again subdivided into the four 
following sections, called Dafah: 

1. The four original castes, viz., 1. Brah- 
mans, with their offshoot, the Chaube, 
fol. 23 a; 2. The Chhatris, fol. 37 a, with 
their braaches, the Khatrls, fol. 64 a, and the 
Mewatis, fol. 71 « ; 3. The Besh or Vaishyas, 
fol. 76 a; 4. The Shudars or Kayaths, 
fol. 97 a. 



/ 



HINDUISM. 



2. The mixt castes (Barn-Sankar) derived 
from the four first, as follows : 

From the Brahman Caste : Ganak (as- 
trologers), Charaj and Bhojaki (mendicants), 
Kapri (trumpeters), Dakaut (fortune-tellers), 
Pilban (elephant-drivers), Bazigar (con- 
jurers ; see an account of the Bazeegurs, 
by Capt. D. Richardson, Asiat. Researches, 
vol. vii., pp. 457 — 85) ; Bhanmati (female 
conjurers), Khirs-walah (bear-drivers), Mai- 
mun-walah (monkey men), foil. 107 — 128. 

From the Chhatri Caste; Bhat (bards), 
Bandi-jan or Kalawant (singers), Bisiya or 
Kanchan (dancers), Charan or Banjarah 
(corn-chandlers), Dom, Ahir (cowherds), 
Gadaryah (shepherds), Jat, Sikh, Bhil; 
foil. 129—165. 

From the Vaishya Caste: Bidhak (corn- 
vendors), Magad or Jagah (genealogists), 
Mastuli (saUors), foil. 166—174. 

From the Shudar Caste: Bhangi( sweepers), 
Chamar (tanners), Khatik (the leaf which con- 
tained the account of this caste has been torn 
from the MS.), Mochi (shoemakers and sad- 
dlers), Dhanak (guides), Kiinch-band (makers 
of brushes for cleaning thread), Kanjar 
(makers of winnowing fans), Bawari (fowlers), 
K'har (palki-bearers). Mall (wrestlers), Ghu- 
1am (attendants), Hajjam (barbers), Bari (men 
who make plates of leaves), Jarrah (sur- 
geons), foil. 175—220. 

3. The castes derived from Vishvakarma, 
viz. : Baghban (gardeners), Kunjrah (fruit-sel- 
lers), Thitherah (braziers), Ahangar (smiths), 
Sankh-kiir (bell-makers), Julah (weavers), 
Niwarbaz (tape- weavers), Risman-saz (rope- 
makers), Kumhiir (potters), Khisht-paz 
(brick-makers), Bazid (clay-figure-makers), 
Zargar (goldsmiths), Musavvir (painters), 
Chhipi (cloth-printers), Khayyat (tailors), 
Atu-kash (embroiderers), Tanbul-farosh (be- 
tel-leaf sellers, foU. 222—268. 

4. Miscellaneous castes, viz. : Baid (doc- 
tors), Sathiya (oculists), Kan-mail-walah (ear- 
pickers), Kalal (vintners), Minah (thieves). 



Raj (masons), Khati (carpenters), Ganga- 
putar (degraded Brahmans attending on 
pilgrims), Bharupiah or Bhand (comedians), 
Gazar (washermen), Teli (oil-pressers), Nad- 
daf (cotton-dressers), Nat (tumblers), Sakah 
(water-carriers), Kaghazi (paper-makers ; the 
account of this caste, with the exception of 
its concluding portion, is lost), Agari (corn- 
sifters), Niyariyah (Sanscr., suvarnadishodha- 
na, a low caste that search the sweepings 
or ashes for gold or silver), Bil-dar (dig- 
gers), Badhak (butchers), Biyal-grahi (snake- 
charmers), Muniyar (makers of glass brace- 
lets), Gulkhan-afruz (anna-bhrajaka, corn- 
roasters), Buriya-baf (mat-makers), Chik-saz 
(screen-makers), Saikal-gar (polishers), Gan- 
dhi (perfumers), Mudragar (seal-engravers), 
Ribari (camel-drivers), Chunah-paz (lime- 
burners), Paik (runners), Loniya (salt-dig- 
gers), Kamangar (bow-makers), Diyah-gar 
or Kupah-saz (makers of leathern bottles), 
foil. 270—361. 

Part II. treats of the following orders of 
Darvishes : 1. Sannyasi and their branches, 
viz., Paramahans, Dandi, Sarbang, fol. 360. 
2. Bairagi and their offshoot the Nanga, fol. 
377. 3. Sivarah or Jain-dharm, with their 
offshoot Dhundiyah, fol. 388. 4. Jogi, fol. 
400. 5. Jangam, fol. 406. 6. Bhakit or 
Tiliyah-Rajah, fol. 409. 7. Dadu-Panthi, 
fol. 413. 8. Nanak-Panthi (Sikhs) and their 
offshoot Akaliyah, fol. 426. 9. Sathrashahi, 
fol. 432. 10. Krdikanthi, fol. 434. 11. Cha- 
randasi, fol. 438. 12. Nitanandi, fol. 441. 
13. Khaki, fol. 445. 

Book III. treats of the following Mohamme- 
dan families or tribes : 1. the Kinsrs of Oude, 
from Burhan ul-Mulk Sa adat Khan to Ghazi 
ud-din Haidar Khan, fol. 447. 2. The Afghans 
of Kusur (Panjab), fol. 451. 3. The Bhati 
tribe, fol. 453. 4. The Kavvals or Moham- 
medan singers, fol. 458. 5. The order of 
Fakirs, called Benawa or Banawa, fol. 460. 

The sources most commonly quoted are, 
in Sanscrit, the Mahabharata, Amara Kosha, 



HINDUISM. 



67 



the Bhagavata, Brahmavaivarta, and other 
Puranas, Bhujap-Praband (Bhoja-Praban- 
dha?), said to have been written in the 
time of Rajah Bhoja by Kalidas, of Ujjain ; 
in Bhakha, the Prithi Raj Siik'ha, written by 
Kashi-Nath, a Miirwar Brahman, a hundred 
years after Prithi Raj's death, and oral tra- 
dition. 

The miniatures, 104 in number, are very 
carefully executed by native artists. Some 
of them, especially among those which repre- 
sent Darvlshes, are portraits of real persons, 
whose names have been added. Prefixed is 
a tabulated index of contents, occupying 
eight pages, foU. 1 — 4. 

Egerton 1032. 

Foil. 89 ; 8| in. by 5^ ; from 7 to 13 lines, 
3£ in. long; written in large and cursive 
Indian Nestalik, about A.D. 1815. 

A Persian commentary upon a gnostic 
poem in Hindi verse, entitled Amit Charitra, 

Beg. of the poem : 

Beg. of the comm. : ^.-lajo «JiS ^g^-* )aii 

J^)j>- J Jfr iJ-«l;^ S-oV»- lS*M»\ 

The poem is in the form of a dialogue 

between a Guru and his ' disciple. The 

author is Ram-Parshad, of Oude, who, as 

we learn from the commentary, was treasurer 

to the Navvab Nazim, Muhammad Darab 

'All Khan. 

The poem is said to have comprised five 

parts, called o-j^; but the present copy con- 



tains only the first two. It is stated at the 
end that the poem was completed in Zul- 
ka'dah, A.H. 1227, and the commentary in 
Rabi' I., A.H. 1230. 

Add. 25,022. 

PoU. 224 ; 94 in. by 6 ; 11 lines, 3^ in. 
long; written in Nestalik, and dated A.D. 
1796. 

I. Foil. 1—63. 

Karma-Kanda, a Jaina work ascribed to 
Nemichandracharya, -jU^jJi*.^, and con- 
sisting of eighty-one distichs termed Giitha, 
in Jaina Prakrit, with a Persian commentary 
by Dilaram, son of Mansaram, a Brahman of 
Bijnur, Shahjahanabad. 

The text is written in Devanagari. The 
commentator states at the end that he wrote 
this work for General Claud Martin (see 
above, p. 2 a), and completed it in Muharram, 
A.H. 1211, corresponding to July, 1796. 



Ui 



II. Foil. 65—224. 

J^ . 

Panchasat Gal, a Jaina work, consisting 
of 346 distichs, in Jaina Prakrit, with a 
Sanscrit translation ; to which is added a 
Persian commentary by the same Dilaram. 

The name of the author of the poem 
occurs twice in the commentary, fii'st as 
-jU-ljj,/^^: fol. 69, secondly as -jWWjJjjjS, 
fol. 223, probably for Govindacharya. 

The commentary was written, like the 
above, for Gen. Claud Martin, and completed 
in May, 1796. 

Both the above works are found in the 
Bodleian Library. See Aufrecht's Catalogue, 
p. 372, Nos. 261, 262. 



K 2 



HISTORY. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



Add. 7622. 

Poll. 490; 13 in. by 9; 33 lines, 61 in. 
long; written in a clear and bold Persian 
Naskhi, with a double-paged 'Unvan and 
ruled margins ; dated Eajab, A.H. 734 (A.D. 
1334). [CI. J. Rich.] 

A history of the world from the creation 
to the author's time, an abridged translation 
from the Arabic; see Arabic Catalogue, 
p. 142. 

Author : Abu Ja'far Muhammad B. Jarir 
ut-Tabari, ^^^^^^ ^^j ^^ JiM>- jj\ (d. A.H. 
310.) 

Translator : Abu 'Ali Muhammad B. Mu- 
hammad B. 'Abd UUah ul-Bal'ami, J^ y\ 

An excellent French translation of this 
Persian version, by M. Hermann Zotenberg, 
has been published in four volumes for the 
Oriental Translation Fund, Paris, 1867 — 
1874. In his first volume, pp. 1 — 355, M. 
Zotenberg has reprinted a translation pub- 
lished in 1836 by M. Dubeux, and carefully 
revised by himself on the manuscripts. Ac- 
counts of Bal'ami's version wiQ be found ia 
the " avertissements " of Zotenberg and Du- 



beux: see also Haj. Khal., vol. ii., p. 36; 
Kosegarten's Taberistanensis Annales, Gry- 
phisvaldiae, 1831, Praefatio, pp. x. xi. ; Dorn, 
S. Petersburgh Catalogue, pp. 260 — 264 ; 
Morley's Descriptive Catalogue of the His- 
torical MSS. of the Roy. As. Soc, pp. 17 — 
21 ; Pertsch, Gotha Catalogue, p. 46 ; Fliigel, 
Vienna Catalogue, vol. ii., p. 64; Sprenger, 
Journal of the As. Soc. of Bengal, vol. xvii., 
part ii., pp. 437 — 471. 

An edition of Tarikh i Tabarl, in four 
volumes, has lately been issued from the 
press of Navalkishor, Lucknow. Trans- 
lations of the Persian version are found 
both in Osmanli and in Oriental Turkish. 
The former has been printed in Constanti- 
nople, A.H. 1260, and is fully described 
by Dr. G. Rosen in the Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, vol. ii., 
pp. 159—187. The^ latter, written in A.H. 
928, is mentioned by Kosegarten, ib., p. xix., 
and by Dubeux, p. x. 

The present copy contains two short pre- 
ambles, both in Arabic. The first, fol. 1 b, 
is a doxology, apparently transcribed from 
the original work, and begirming thus : J\5 

Jj^^ jy' Jj^' J^l ^-^"^ J«31 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



C9 



The second, fol. 2 a, is the translator's 

preface, and bears the heading : ^^1 (ji^J-Jk-* 

y ^^ jyal* JUa ^\ . It is here stated that, 

in the year 352, the Amir Abu Salih Mansur 

B. Nuh, after a careful examination of the 

history of Tabari, issued his commands 

through his trusted agent, Abu-1-Hasan 

Eaik ul-Khassah,* *i\ &JL.oli-j «ju*\ ^J^ i^ 

'iali?^ jJli ly— ^^, for a translation of that 

work. Accordingly the translator, who 

speaks here in the first person, but does not 

give his name, proceeded to turn it into 

Court- Persian, Wjii5\ 'L^j\si\ 'LHj, introducing 

at the same time new headings, frequently 

altering the arrangement of the original, 

collating the verses of the Goran and the 

traditions, and suppressing, for brevity's 

sake, the long Isniids or enumerations of 

vouchers. 

After this, and at the bottom of the same 
page, comes the first chapter of the transla- 
tion itself ; it treats of the object of creation, 
and begins with the following heading : 
ftU^ j!^^ ^JJ^ jJi- Uji Jyi)\ . See Zotenberg's 
translation, vol. i., p. 9. The Persian preface 
of other copies, ib., pp. 1 — 8, is here wanting. 
It will be seen, from what precedes, that 
our copy agrees very closely with the cor- 
responding portion of the Gotha MS., as 
described by Kosegarten in his preface, pp. 
X. — xii. 

The text is archaic, both in wording and 
spelling. It is divided into short chapters 
by headings, written in large characters, 
alternately in black and red. There are 
notable differences in the division and 
arrangement of these chapters, as compared 
with the French translation. There is here 
no trace of the division into volumes, which 
is found in some copies. 

» This Fa'ik was the Amir's Hiijib or Chamberlain ; 
see Notices et Extraits, vol. iv., p. 336, and Journal 
Asiatique, 5« Serie, vol. iii., p. 356. 



The present MS., as well as the next fol- 
lowing, derives an especial value from the 
additional matter contained at the end. 
Most copies of Bal'ami's version bring the 
full narrative to a close with the death of 
Al-Mu'tasim, A.H. 227 (i. e. nearly a century 
before Tabari's death), and conclude with a 
meagre summary of his successors. In the 
present MS., on the contrary, the reigns of 
the latter, down to Tabari's time, are recorded 
at some length, more particularly those of 
al-Musta'in and al-MuktafI ; they occupy no 
less than twenty-three leaves, as follows: 
al-Va§ik, fol. 467; al-Mutavakkil, fol. 468; 
al-Muntasir, ib. ; al-Musta'in, fol. 469; al- 
Mu'tazz, fol. 471 ; al-Muhtadi, fol. 478 ; al- 
Mu'tamid, fol. 479; al-Muaffak, fol. 480; 
al-Mu'tazid, fol. 481 ; al-Muktafi, fol. 484. 

The account of the last reign is brought 
down to the slaughter of the caravan of 
pilgrims by the Karmatis under Zakruyah, 
in Muharram, A.H. 294, and the dispatch 
by Muktafi of an army to Kufah, under 
command of Muhammad B. Da'ud al-Jamih, 
fol. 489 a (see Weil, Geschichte der Chalrfen, 
vol. ii., p. 529). It is then stated, fol. 489 b, 
that, after proceeding thus far, Tabari was 
overtaken by death, and left this record un- 
finished. Other copies, it is added, do not go 
beyond the reign of al-Mu'tasim. The same 
anonymous writer gives then, from other 
sources, a short account of the subsequent 
doings of Zakruyah, his final defeat by 
Vasif B. Savartikin, and his death (Rabi* I., 
A.H. 294). The record of the death of al- 
Muktafi and accession of al-Muktadir, in 
Zulka'dah, A.H. 295, brings this appendix 
and the volume to a close. 

Transcriber : ,J-^^ c;i~»- ty^ li*' w? ut^ 

Abu 'All Muhammad B. Muhammad ul- 
Barami is mentioned in the Tarikh i Guzidah 
and the Hablb us-Siyar, both as Vazir of the 
Amir Mansur B. Niih and as translator of 



70 



GENERAL HISTOEY. 



Tabari's history. He died A.H. 386; see 
Notices et Extraits, vol. iv., p. 363. His 
father, Abul-Fazl Muhammad B. 'Abdullah 
ut-Tamimi ul-Barami (so called from Bal'am, 
a town in Asia Minor, and who had filled the 
office of Vazir, under the Amir Isma'il, the 
founder of the Samani dynasty), died in A.H. 
329. See Ansab us-Samani, Add. 23,355, 
fol. 90, and Dustur ul- Vuzara, Or. 234, fol. 56. 
The first page of this MS. contains a 
circular ornament in shaded gold, and the 
following title, written within illuminated 

borders : *U^\ i»ijolai> ^J* i^jtio v.j\J i_.*\i/ 

On the same page is an Arabic note, 
stating that it became the property of one 
'Abd ur-Rahman B. *Ali, at Edreneh (Adri- 
anople), A.H. 904. 

Add. 23,497. 

Poll. 404; 9 J in. by 7; 21 lines, 5 in. 
long; written in a small and very neat 
Naskhi ; dated Rajab, A.H. 911 (A.D. 1505). 

[Rob. Tayloe.] 

The latter portion of the Tarikh i Tabari, 
comprising about two-fifths of the entire 
work. 

It begins abruptly, fol. 28 a, in the Khila- 
fat of Abu Bakr, and the first page relates 
to the sending of Khalid B. Valid against 
the Persians in 'Irak (Zotenberg's transla- 
tion, vol. iii., p. 320). 

The first portion of this MS. differs so 
materially from the preceding copy and the 
French translation, as to be evidently de- 
rived from some other source; while the 
account of the Persian war is compressed 
into a few pages, an excessive development is 
given to that of the conquest of Syria, into 
which much new matter is introduced, as 
will be seen from the following headings : 



^^J^, fi ^\ jj,^jJO^ (fol. 28 a) ^ L-^^ 
^ «^:,v-J*L». jJo^ ^laifc t-joj , (fol. 30 b) ^jj 
^j^ (jalSj ^_^\ ^ "^ c;> f-^^ i:Pj (fol- 36 b) 
_]^ jjjift ji\ «J «JiA». jii- (fol. 39 b) j,jj i~^j>- 

b j^UU— j^j/ ^f (fol. 42 a) ^^LJ1 ^ 

JU. «r 4jU ^^ JI« ^^^ (fol. 46 b) ^U. 
(fol. 49 a) iiji »j/&flii- j];«o \jj\ 

Prom the last heading the text agrees 
substantially with the preceding copy, but 
it is fuller and contains much additional 
matter. Towards the end the reigns of al- 
Mu'tasim and his followers occupy con- 
siderable space, as follows : — al-Mu'tasim, 
fol. 339 b; al-Va§ik, fol. 361 a; al-Muta- 
vakkil, fol. 363 b ; al-Muntasir, fol. 372 a ; 
al-Musta'in, fol. 373 b ; al-Mu'tazz, fol. 378 a; 
al-Muhtadi, fol. 387 b; al-Mu'tamid, fol. 
390 a ; al-Mu'tazid, fol. 392 a ; al-Muktaf i, 
fol. 396 b. 

The narrative concludes, as in Add, 7622, 
with the slaughter of the pilgrims by Zak- 
ruyah, and the sending of Muhammad B. 
Da'ud ul-Jarrah to Kufah. 

This is followed, fol. 403 b, by the anony- 
mous appendix already described under the 
preceding number. 

Transcriber : jy^ ^ ^^ >i^ ^^ iJll a^ 

There is a considerable lacune after fol. 
253. It extends from the end of the para- 
graph headed, "Sulaiman B. Ka§ir put to 
death by Abu Muslim " to the beginning of 
the chapter in which the death of al-Mansur 
is recorded : Zotenberg's translation, vol. iv., 
pp. 347—430. 

A table of chapters, written apparently in 
the present century, and occupying six 
and twenty folios, has been prefixed to 
the MS. 



GENERAL HISTOEY. 



71 



Add. 16,814. 

FoU. 392; 131 in. by 10; 27 lines, 7 in. 
long; written in Naskhi, with gold-ruled 
margins, probably in the 16th century. 

[Wm. Yule.] 

The same work, imperfect at the be- 
ginning. 

The first two leaves, which have been 
added by a later hand, supply but imperfectly 
that deficiency of the MS. ; they contain the 
first portion only of the Persian preface, 
beginning : J^\^ ij\^»- j^ ^J^.^i o-'-J-» 
tu4;J ii«^ ''^ylj (see Kosegarten, p. xii., 
and Zotenberg's translation, p. 1). 

This preface breaks oflF near the bottom of 
fol. 2 J, in the passage relating to the 
duration of 7000 years assigned to the world 
(Zotenberg's translation, p. 7) ; in the last 
two lines of the same page an attempt has 
been made to introduce an apparent con- 
nection with the next page. 

The original text begins, fol. 3 a, in the 
midst of the legend of the city of brass, told 
in connection with the fifteenth question put 
to Muhammad by the Jews (Zotenberg's 
translation, p. 49). 

It comes to an abrupt termination, little 
more than one page after the heading tiij-b jji- 

middle of the account of Af shin's scheme to 
draw Babak out of his strongholds near 
Ardabil ; see Zotenberg's translation, vol. iv. 
p. 528. 

The latter part of the MS., foil. 375—380, 
supplied by a more modern hand, completes 
the account of al-Muktafi's reign, and con- 
cludes with a brief and incomplete enumera- 
tion of his successors, namely, from al- Vagik 
to al-Mu'tazz, fol. 379, and from al-Muttaki 
to al-Mustazhir, whose death (A.H. 511) is 
recorded. After this the unknown con- 
tinuator says that he has here registered the 
Khalifs of his own time, adding, " Let those 
who shall come after me do the same." 



The date of transcription is apparently 
921, but the first figure is of doubtful 
reading. 

The division into parts called Mujallad or 
volumes, noticed by Dubeux, p. vi., is ob- 
served in the first half of this MS.; the 
beginnings of the second, fol. 54, third, 
fol. 118, and fourth, fol. 164, are marked by 
illuminated headings. 

A tabulated index of contents, written in 
Persian, apparently in the present century, 
occupies twelve leaves added at the end of 
the volume, foil. 381—392. 

Add. 26,174. 

' Foil. 333 ; 9 J in. by 6| ; 25 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in a small and neat Naskhi, 
with 'Unvan and gold-ruled margins ; dated 
Jumada ii., A.H. 906 (A.D. 1500). 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

A portion of the same work. 

Although inscribed ji-^l i^i-oill, "the latter 
half," this volume comprises nearly the last 
two-thirds of the work (Add. 7622, ff. 156— 
490). 

It begins with the short summary of the 
chronology of the world, which immediately 
precedes the account of Muhammad's gene- 
alogy (Zotenberg's translation, vol. ii., p. 354) ; 
and brings down the detailed narrative to 
the death of al-Mu'tasim, fol. 330 a. 

The last six pages are taken up with a 
short summary of al-Mu'tasim's successors. 
It is brought down, as in Add. 16,814, to the 
death of al-Mustazhir (A.H. 511), and con- 
cludes in the very same words. 

The chapters are marked with consecutive 
numbers, from 175 to 461, written in Arabic 
figures in the margins. 



Add. 26,189. 

FoU. 266 ; 11^ in. by 9 ; 21 Hues, 6 in. 
long ; written in a fine and bold Persian, 



72 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



Naskhi, with an 'TJnvan, gilt headings and 
ruled margins, apparently in the 14th 
century. [Wm. Ekskine.] 

A general history from the earliest times 
to A.H. 658, treating more especially of the 
dynasties which flourished in Ghur, Ghaznah, 
and Hindustan, in the 6th and 7th centuries 
of the Hijrah. 

Author : Minhaj i Siraj JuzajanT, _l^ 

The considerable portion of this work, 
which bears upon the history of India, 
comprising sections xi. and xvii — xxiii., has 
been edited by Capt. W. Nassau Lees, in 
the Bibliotheca Indica, Calcutta, 1864. An 
English translation by Major H. G. Raverty, 
extending to the entire work except the first 
six sections, has been printed for the same 
series, London, 1873 — 1876. The contents 
have been fuUy noticed by W. H. Morley 
in his Descriptive Catalogue, pp. 21 — 25. 
An account of the author's life and copious 
extracts from the Tabakat, in English, wUl 
be found in Sir H. M. EUiot's History of 
India, vol. ii., pp. 259 — 383. See also Ilaj. 
Khal., vol. iv., p. 153; Stewart's Catalogue, 
p. 7 ; and Aumer, Munchen Catalogue,p. 67. 

The author calls himself in various places 
Minhaj i Siraj, which is short for Minhaj 
ud-Din B. Sufij ud-Dln. His name is written 
in full, as follows, in the preface, Calcutta 
edition, p. 1 : ^1^ ^V-^^ ■^ i^^ ^J^ j^ >>^ 
^Wjj* but the Miinchen MS. reads ^\ 

From some passages of his work, in which 
he incidentally refers to himself or his family, 
the following facts may be gathered. His 
grandfather, Maulina Minhiij ud-Din 'U§man 
Jiizajani, a great scholar, who was commonly 
called Imam Auhad of Bukhara, settled in 
Sistan on his return from Mecca,in the reign of 
Shams ud-Din Muhammad, king of Nimruz ; 



fol. 116 h. His father, Maulana Siraj ud- 
Din i Minhaj, whom he calls the most elo- 
quent of Persians, the wonder of the age, was 
appointed by Sultan Mu'izz ud-Din Mu- 
hammad B. Sam, in A.H. 582, KazI of the 
army of Hindustan. He subsequently took 
up his abode in Eiriizkiih. Sultan Baha ud- 
Din Sam called him thence to Bamiyan, and 
made him Kazi and Khatib of his kingdom : 
see foil. 160 5, 157 a. 

The author himself must have been born 
A.H. 589, for he says, Calc. ed. p. 88, that he 
was eighteen years of age when he witnessed 
the slaying of Malik Rukn ud-Din Mahmud 
in Eiruzkuh, A.H. 607. He was brought 
up in the Haram of the princess Mah i 
Mulk, who was a daughter of Sultan Ghiyas 
ud-Din Muhammad B. Sam, and a foster- 
sister of the author's mother, fol. 133 a. He 
was twice sent from Ghur to Nimruz as 
envoy to Sultan Taj ud-Din Niyaltigin, viz., 
in A.H. 622 and 623, fol. 119 h. In the 
latter year he left for India, and arrived, in 
A.H. 624, at the city of Uchh, then the seat 
of Sultan Nasir ud-Din Kabachah, where he 
was appointed, in the same year, master of the 
Madrasah i Eirilzi and Kazi of the army 
(Calc. ed. p. 143). In the following year, 
and after the overthrow of Kabachah by 
Shams ud-Din Iltatmish, he followed the 
conqueror to Dehli, and filled under him 
and his successors the highest ofiices of the 
law. His Indian career is told by Elliot, 
loc. cit., pp. 260 and 261. 'Abd ul-Hakk 
Dihlavi, who calls him Kazi Minhaj Jiizajani, 
says that he was much addicted to the pious 
exercises of darvishes, and that the celebrated 
saint Nizam ud-Din Auliya used to attend his 
weekly prayer-meetings. See Akhbar ul- 
Akhyar, Or. 221, fol. 69. 

The present work is dedicated to the son 
of Iltatmish, Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah 
(A.H. 644—664). It was written in A.H. 657 
and 658 ; the first date is mentioned as the 
current year in the early part of the work, 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



78 



fol. 165 b, and the author says expressly, at 
the end of the 22nd section, that he com- 
pleted it in the month of Shavval, A.H. 658. 
Some portions were written at an earlier 
date ; thus the account of the Abhasides closes 
with a mention of the great victory gained 
by al-Mu'tasim over the Moghuls before 
Baghdad, in Muharram A.H. 656, and with 
a prayer for his welfare, his final defeat and 
death being recorded in a later addition ; 
see fol. 57 a. 

It is divided into twenty-three sections 
called Tabakat, i. e. classes or generations, as 
follows: — I. Patriarchs and Prophets. Life 
of Muhammad, fol. 2 b. II. The first four 
Khalifs, the sons of 'Ali, and the ten favoured 
Companions (Mubashshar), fol. 32 a. III. The 
Banu Umayyah, fol. 39 b. IV. The Abba- 
sides, fol. 43 b. V. The kings of Persia down 
to the rise of Islamism, fol. 57 a. VI. The 
Tubba's and Kings of Yemen, fol. 76 b. 
VII. The Tahiris, fol. 84 a. VIII. The 
Saffaris, fol. 87 a. IX. The Samanis, fol. 89 a. 
X. The Dailamis, fol. 95 a. XI. The Subuk- 
tiginis, fol. 97 a. XII. The Saljukis, fol. 104 a. 
XIII. The Sanjaris, fol. 112 b. XIV. The 
kings of Nimruz and Sijistan, fol. 115 b. 
XV. The Kurdish kings, fol. 120 a. XVI. The 
Khwarazmshahis, fol. 124 b. XVII. The 
Shansabanis and kings of GhQr, fol. 133 a. 
XVIII. The Shansabanis of Tukharistan, 
fol. 155 b. XIX. The Shansabanis of Ghaznah, 
fol. 158 b. XX. The Mu'izzis, fol. 167 a. 

XXI. The Shamsi Sultans of India, fol. 175 b. 

XXII. The Shamsi Maliks, or the vassals of 
the Shamsi Sultans, fol. 197 a. XXIII. Dis- 
asters of Islamism and invasion of the 
infidels, fol. 227. 

This copy is slightly imperfect at the be- 
ginning. The first page is enclosed in a 
tastefully illuminated border, now partly 
torn. The page which must once have 
faced it with the like ornamentation, and 
which contained the first eleven lines of the 
preface, is lost. At the end about ten leaves 



are wanting, and the upper halves of foil. 
265 and 266, now the last, have been torn 
off". Fol. 266 b contains the first three dis- 
tichs of the Kasidah of Imam Yiahya A'kab ; 
see Calc. ed. p. 439. 

The whole volume is more or less damaged 
by damp, and slightly torn at the inner 
edge. The words which, from that reason, 
are sometimes wanting at the beginning or 
end of the lines, have been restored in 
the margin in a handwriting of the 16th 
century. 

Add. 25,785. 

Poll. 317 ; 12 in. by 9 ; 19 lines, 5 in. 
long ; written in a clear Naskhi, with gold- 
ruled margins, apparently in the 16th 
century. [Wm. Cureton.J 

The same work. 

This copy wants about seven leaves at the 
beginning and two at the end. It begins 
seventeen Unes before the heading J'^ 

^%J\ *>>, Add. 26,189, fol. 7, and it ends 

abruptly, fol. 315 b, four and twenty lines 

after the heading ^_jJUL-* ^jid ooiLa iji^\^ 
^^li-liJJ , Calcutta edition, p. 448. 

The last two leaves, fi". 316, 317, contain a 
text which, although perfectly uniform with 
the preceding, and following it without appa- 
rent break, does not belong to the same work. 

Pol. 316 contains a summary account of 
the successive "usurpers" of the Dehli 
throne, from the time of Ghiyas ud-Din 
Balban to the defeat and death of Khusrau 
Khan (A.H. 720). The interesting fact 
about this fragment is that the anonymous 
writer appears to be no less a personage 
than Malik Pakhr uddin Jiina, afterwards 
Sultan Muhammad B. Tughluk Shah (A.H. 
725 — 752) ; for he speaks in the first person 
of his flight from the degrading yoke of the 
" Hindu's child " «^ jJJ> (Khusrau Khjin), 
and of the subsequent defeat of the same by 
his (the writer's) father (Ghazi MaUk, after- 

L 



74 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



wards Ghiyag uddin Tughluk), who is stated 
in the last line to have reigned subsequently 
four years and ten months. These events 
are related by a contemporary historian, 
Ziya i Bami, in his Tarikh i Firuzshahi ; see 
Elliot's History of India, vol. iii., pp. 224— 
229. Sultan Muhammad B. Tughluk, who 
was, according to Firishtah, remarkable for 
his literary and scientific attainments, wrote 
his memoirs under the title of Futuhat i 
Firuzshahi. See Mohl, Journal des Savants, 
1840, p. 221, and Firishtah, Bombay edition, 
vol. i., p. 271. 

In the next leaf, probably another de- 
tached fragment of the same work, the author 
dwells at length on his religious doubts, and 
his long and eager search after the rightful 
Imam. 

This copy of the Tabakat appears, from 
numerous corrections in the margins, to 
have been collated throughout. 

At the end of the reign of Iltatmish, 
fol. 208, a space of a page and a half, which 
was designed to contain a tabulated list of the 
princes and Amirs of the reign (Calcutta 
edition, pp. 177 — 180), has been left blank. 

Add. 7628. 

Poll. 728 ; 18 in. by 11 ; 33 lines, 7i in. 
long; made up of quires, written by different 
hands in every variety of character, from the 
most formal Naskhi to the most cursive and 
ill- shaped handwriting; transcribed for 
Sultan Shtlhrukh, not later than A.H. 837 
(A.D. 1433). [CI. J. Rich.] 



^j1^^ ^v 



A general history of the world from the 
earliest times to A.H. 700, including a 
special account of the Moghuls, brought 
down to A.H. 703. 

Author: Rashid Tabib (p. 413*.), Joii, 



Beg. (fol. 404 S) uiDJJj \^^^^^ i_^ll^tl«-;^ 

A portion of this work, comprising the 
history of Hulagu Khan, has been edited, 
with a French translation and notes, in the 
Collection Orientale, Paris, 1836, by Etienne 
Quatreraere, who gives an exhaustive account 
of the author's life and writings in the 
"M6moire" prefixed to the text, pp. i.— 
clxxv. The same subject is fully treated by 
Morley in his Descriptive Catalogue, pp. 1 — 
11, and by Sir H. M. Elliot, Bibliographical 
Index, pp. 1 — 47, History of India, vol. iii. 
pp. 1 — 23, vol. i. p. 42, vol. ii. p. 550. See 
also Quatremere's observations on Sir H. M. 
Elliot's article in the Journal des Savants 
for 1850, pp. 515—522. Compare Haj. 
Klal., vol. ii. p. 509 ; D'Ohsson, Histoire 
des Mongols, vol. i., pp. xxxiii. — xliv. ; Dorn, 
S. Petersburg Catalogue, p. 279; Fliigel, 
Vienna Catalogue, vol. ii., p. 179; Aumer, 
MUnich Catalogue, p. 69. An account of 
the discovery by Morley and Dr. Forbes of 
some portions of the work, till then sup- 
posed to be lost, will be found in the Journal 
of the Roy. Asiat. Soc, vol. vi., pp. 11—41, 
and vol. vii., pp. 267—272. 

Rashid ud-Din Fazl Ullah B. 'Imad ud- 
Daulah Abul-Khair B. Muafiik ud-Daulah 
'All was born at Hamadan about A.H. 645. 
He commenced his career as a physician, 
and attended in that capacity the Sultan 
Abaka Khan. In A.H. 697 he was called to 
the Vazirate by Ghazan Khan, and he held 
that office also under Ghazan's brother and 
successor, Uljaitii. Accused of having caused 
the latter sovereign's death by poison, he was 
put to death near Tabriz, A.H. 718, by order 
of his son, Sultan Abu Sa'Id. A full account 
of his life is to be found in the Habib us- 
Siyar, under the reign of Abu-Sa'id. The 
Jami' ut-Taviirlkh was commenced by order 
of Ghazan in A.H. 700, and was completed 
under Uljrdtu in A.H. 710. It is divided 
according to the author's preface, Qua- 



GENEEAL HISTORY. 



76 



tremere's edition, p. 50, into three volumes, 
as follows : 

Vol. I., containing two books (Bab), viz., 
Bab 1. Origin and history of the Turkish 
tribes, in an introduction and four chapters. 
Bab 2. History of Chingiz Khan, his an- 
cestors, and his descendants, down to the 
accession of Uljaitu. 

Vol. II., divided also into two Babs, as fol2 
lows : Bab 1. History of Uljaitu from his birth 
to the time of composition. Bab 2, comprising 
two sections (Kism), namely: Kism 1, sub- 
divided into two parts (Fasl) — a. An abridge- 
ment of general history from Adam to A.H. 
700; b. A detailed record of all nations of 
the world. Kism 2. A continuation of the 
history of Uljaitu, to be written afterwards. 
(This section does not appear to have ever 
been written.) 

Vol. III. Description of countries and 
roads. (This volume has not yet been 
found.) 

In a detailed list of all his works, subse- 
quently drawn up by the author, the above 
arrangement is so far modified that the con- 
tents of vol. ii. are distributed into two, thus 
bringing up the total to four volumes: see 
Quatremere's edition, pp. Ixxii. and clix. 

The present MS. contains the first volume 
and a considerable portion of the second, 
namely, Kism 1 of Bab 2 (corresponding to 
vol. iii. of the author's later division) ; but 
they have been transposed in the binding, 
vol. i. being placed last. 

Contents : — Mukaddimah : History of the 
Patriarchs and Prophets, from Adam to Srdih. 
This section is imperfect at the beginning. 
Pol. 3, the first of the original MS., begins 
in the middle of the story of the sacrifices 
offered by Abel and Cain. The preceding 
page, fol. 2 a, written for Mr. Eich, A.D. 
1818, in order to give an appearance of com- 
pleteness to the volume, is far from supply- 
ing the deficiency, and is, moreover, evidently 
borrowed from some other work. 



Kism 1 : History of the kings of Persia, 
with accounts of contemporary prophets and 
kings (the kings of Arabia and the Roman 
emperors), from Kayumar§ to Yazdajird; 
fol. 5 a. 

Genealogy and life of Muhammad; fol. 
58 a. Makalah 2 : Khilafat of the first four 
Khalifs (Rashidin) ; fol. 104 b. Makalah 3 : 
Reign of the Banu Umayyah ; fol. 126 b. 
Makalah 4: Khilafat of the Banii 'Abbas; 
fol. 151 a. 

History of Saltan Yamin ud-Daulah Mah- 
miid B. Subuktigin, his ancestors and de- 
scendants, including as much of the history 
of the Dailamis, Al i Buvaih, and Al i Saman, 
as is connected therewith ; fol. 204 a. This 
account is brought down to Khusrau Shah, 
the last of the dynasty. 

History of Al i Saljuk (from their first 
appearance to the death of Tughril B. 
Arsalan, A.H. 590) ; fol. 237 a. At the end 
of this section is a separate chapter, foil. 
260 b — 261 b, called Zail, or supplement, 
treating at greater length of the close of 
the reign of Tughril, A.H. 581—590. The 
author, who calls himself Abu Hamid Mu- 
hammad B. Ibrahim, states that he wrote it 
in the month of Rabi' II., A.H. 599, or, as 
he adds, eight years and two months after 
the death of Tughril. This supplement is also 
noticed by Morley in his account of the 
East India House MS., Journal of the Roy. 
Asiat. Soc, vol. vii., p. 269. 

History of the Sultans of Khwarazm, from 
the beginning to the end of the dynasty ; 
fol. 263 b. This section is imperfect at the 
end ; it comes abruptly to a close in the 
account of the occupation of Ghiir by 
Muhammad Khwarazm Shah, after the 
death of Shihab ud-Din Muhammad B. Sam 
(A.H. 602). 

History of the Salghuris of Pars, from the 
beginning to the end of the dynasty; 
fol. 268 a. This section also comes to an 
abrupt termination ; the last lines relate to 

l2 



76 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



the march of a Moghul army against 
Saljuk Shah in Shiraz (A.H. 663)/ 

History of the Isma ilis ; fol. 273 h. This 
section has a preface, in which the author 
states that he wrote it after completing his 
history of the nations of the world, and as a 
supplement to it. It comprises the follow- 
ing two parts (Kism) — 1. History of the 
'Alavi Khalifs of Maghrib and Egypt, with 
an introduction treating of their tenets; 
fol. 273 h. 2. History of the Nizari Da'is of 
Kuhistan, with an introduction on the 
career of Hasan Sabilh, called Sayyidna ; 
fol. 290 a. This latter part contains a very 
full account of the Isma'ilis of Alamut, and 
is brought down to their extermination by 
Hulaku in A.H. 654. 

History of Ughuz and the Turks, and of 
the world-wide empire conquered by the 
former, fol. 307 a. This section is found 
similarly placed in the MS. of the East India 
Library : see Morley, ib. p. 269. The narra- 
tive of the conquests of this legendary hero 
of the Turkish race is followed, fol. 315 h, by 
an account of his descendants ; it closes 
with a short summary of the Subuktiginis, 
Saljukis, Salghuris, and the Turkomans of 
Rum, who are all connected with the lineage 
of Ughuz. 

History of the races and kings of Khitai, 
or Chin, and of Machin, fol. 323 a. This 
account is brought down to the final con- 
quest of China by CktaiKa'an, in A.H. 631. 
History of the Jews, fol. 337 a. 
History of the Afranj (Europeans), fol. 
362 a. This section was written, as stated 
at the beginning, in A.H. 705. 

History of India, fol. 375 a. This section 
is found in the copies of the East India 
House, of the Royal Asiatic Society, and of 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal. The contents 
of the last two have been fully noticed by 
Morley in his Descriptive Catalogue,' p. 8, 
and by Sir H. M. Elliot, History of India, 
vol. iii., p. 19. Considerable extracts from 



it in English have been published by the 
latter in the Bibliographical Index, pp. 28 — 
47, and his translation, carefully revised by 
Professor Dowson, has been reprinted in the 
History of India, vol. i., pp. 44 — 73. 

Volume L Preface of the Jami' ut-Tava- 
rikh, fol. 404 h. The text has been printed 
with a Erench translation in Quatremere's 
edition, pp. 4 — 60. 

Preface of volume i., fol. 410 h. 

Beg. t^l^b ^_j_) o-Vj /^3 t)by *U5 J .x** 

This preface is addressed to Sultan Mahmud 
Glijizan, and the work which was written 
by his order, and afterwards became the first 
volume of the Jami' ut-Tavarikh, is here 
called ^j^J^ i^jV ftj^ • The latter and most 
important portion of this preface is printed 
in Quatremere's edition, pp. 60 — 82. 

Bab 1. History of the origin of the Turkish 
races (a term which here includes the Mo- 
ghuls), their ramifications and genealogies ; 
comprising an introduction (Dibajah) and 
four chapters (Easl), fol. 414 a. See the 
detail in Quatremere's edition, p. 50. 

History of the ancestors of Chingiz Khan, 
fol. 456 a. History of Chingiz Khan, fol. 
469 a. This chapter is divided, like all 
the following, into three sections (Kism) ; 
the first is genealogical, and contains an 
enumeration of the wives, children, and 
relatives of the king ; the second gives the 
history of his reign ; the third treats of his 
disposition and character, anecdotes relating 
to him, and various occurrences of his reign 
not previously mentioned. 

History of Uktai Ka'an, fol. 539 a. History 
of Juji Khan, fol. 556 a. In this last chapter, 
and in all the following, with the exception 
of that of Ghazan, the third of the three 
sections above mentioned is omitted, althoush 
its heading is generally written. The same 
deficiency is also noticeable in another copy. 
Add. 16,688. History of Chaghatai Khan, 



GENEEAL HISTORY. 



77 



fol. 564 b. History of Tului Khiin, fol. 570 b. 
History of Kuyuk Khan, fol. 574 a. History 
of Mung Ga Ka'an (also written Manggu 
Ka'an, ^^'\^ .j^^), fol. 578 a. History of 
Kubilai Ka'an, fol. 588 b. History of Timiir 
Ka'an, fol, 603 a. History of Hulagu Khan, 
fol. 610. This last is the chapter edited by 
Quatremere in the Collection Orientale, pp. 
84—423. History of Abaka Khan, fol. 629 b. 
History of Takudar B. Hulagu Khan, fol. 
642 b. History of Arghun Khan, fol. 648 a. 
The history of Kaikhatu, which should follow, 
is wanting. History of Ghazan Khan, fol. 
655 a. This last and extensive portion of 
vol. i. is divided into the following three 
sections : 1. The genealogy of Ghazan, his 
life from his birth to his accession, his wives 
and children, fol. 655 a. 2. History of his 
accession, and of the wars and other events 
of his reign, fol. 657 a. 3. His praiseworthy 
qualities, his edicts and regulations, his wise 
sayings and pious foundations, fol. 691 a. 
The second, or historical section, is brought 
down to Ghazan's death, A.H. 703. The 
third is subdivided into forty chapters, called 
Hikayat, a table of which is given at the 
beginning, and the fortieth of which brings 
the volume to a close. The substance of 
this third section is found, much abridged 
and differently arranged, in the " Institutes 
of Ghazan Khan, by Capt. Wm. Kirkpatrick," 
New Asiatic Miscellany, pp. 171 — 226. 

The account of the accession of Uljaitu, 
which, according to the table of contents, 
fol. 408 b, should conclude the first volume, 
is here wanting. 

In that portion of this volume which 
treats of the great Moghul Emperors, from 
Chinghiz Khan to Kubilai Ka'an, tabulated 
lists of contemporary sovereigns in various 
parts of the East are introduced from time 
to time, viz. for the following periods: — 
A.H. 549—562, fol. 474 a ; A.H. 563—690, 
fol. 479 a ; A.H. 591—599, fol. 487 b ; A.H. 
600—606, fol. 493 b ; A.H. 607—614, fol. 



501 b; A.H. 615—624, fol. 521 5; A.H. 
626—631, fol. 544 a; A.H. 632—638, fol. 
547 a ; A.H. 639—643, fol. 577 a ; A.H. 
648—655, fol. 586 a; A.H. 658—693, fol. 
600 a. 

That the present MS. was written for 
Shahrukh, and during his reign (A.H. 807 — 
850), is distinctly shown by the subscription 
of the second volume, fol. 403 «, in which 
the transcriber prays that " this history, the 
like of which was never written, may be 
blessed to its owner, the Padishah of the 
seven climes, the shadow of God upon earth, 
Shahrukh Bahadur," etc. That prince is said 
to have so highly valued Eashid-ud-Din's 
work, that he ordered it to be continued to the 
end of Abu Sa'id's reign. See D'Ohsson, 
Hist, des Mongols, p. xlii. 

Shahrukh's seal, with this inscription, ^^ 
jC>\^ ~.j »Ui |^^\ (j^AaLJl eJV^ t— Aii", is found 
impressed in no less than four places, viz. 
foil. 157 a, 524 a, 623 a, 728 b. 

By the side of the ail) ^ , written in gold 
at the beginning of the preface of vol. i., 
fol. 410 b, is written in the margin, also in 
gold, jjuu-^b ki- . This makes it probable that 
this Bismillah is a specimen of the penman- 
ship of Baisunghur, the third son of Shahrukh, 
a prince well known for his literary tastes, and 
who died in his father's lifetime, A.H. 837. 

By the side of Shahrukh's seal, foil. 524 a, 
623 a, and, by itself, in many other places, 
as foil. 237 a, 272 6, 307 b, 404 b, 410 b, is 
found another seal identical in shape and 
similar in character to the first, with the 
inscription : sxfi\ U)j (j^— »-^l ,Jj »i3) (.^J^— »■ 
^^UaL- A-^* . This, no doubt, belonged to 
Sultan Muhammad, second son of Baisun- 
ghur, who, at the time of Shahrukh's death, 
made himself master of 'Irak and Ears, and 
who fell in a struggle with his brother Mir^a 
Babar for the empire of Khurasan, A.H. 855. 

In spite of its royal origin, the present 
copy is far from correct ; the proper names 



78 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



especially are badly treated ; they are mostly 
written without diacritical points, and some- 
times omitted altogether, their place being 
left blank. 

At the top of the first page, fol. 3 a, is 
found a short notice of the work written in 
Turkish, by Muhammad Easmi. He states 
at the end that the present copy had been 
brought by a bookseller to the imperial camp 
of Baba Taghi, where he was staying, in Mu- 
ll arram, A.H. 1185, and that, after inspecting 
it, he wrote in it the above notice as a sub- 
stitute for the lost preface. 

Lower down, and in the margin, is another 
Turkish note, dated A.H. 1210, and signed 
*Arif . . . , stating that the present MS., 
having been compared with a copy kept in 
the imperial palace, was found to have lost a 
little over a quire (juz). 

The last owner was Mr. Rich, who pur- 
chased the MS. in Baghdad, 1818, and wrote 
an account of it on the fly-leaf, fol. 1 a. 
From this we learn that the page of modern 
WTiting before noticed, fol. 2 5, was tran- 
scribed in Aug. 1818, from another copy, in 
which the life of Uljaitu was also wanting. 
Mr. Rich supposed that the seal which has 
been attributed to Sultan Muhammad, son of 
Baisunghur, might have belonged to Uljaitu, 
also called Muhammad Khudabandah. Hence 
his erroneous estimate of the antiquity of 
our copy (A.D. 1314), reproduced by Sir 
H. Elliot, Bibliographical Index, p. 18, and 
set aside by Morley, Descriptive Catalogue, 
p. 6. 

Add. 16,688. 

Foil. 293 ; 11 in. by 8^ ; 21 lines, 6^ in. 
long ; written in a bold and distinct Naskhi, 
probably in the 14th century. [Wm. Yule.J 

The latter half of volume i., or Tarikh 



Mubarak GhazanI, corresponding to foU. 561 
— 728 of the preceding copy. 

Contents : The second section (Kism) of 
the history of Jiiji Khan, containing an 
account of his reign, fol. 2 b. 

Of the third Kism, treating of that prince's 
praiseworthy qualities, sayings, etc., nothing 
but the heading is found. The same applies 
to the corresponding section of the following 
notices, with the exception of that of Ghazan 
Khan. 

History of Chaghatai Khan, fol. 8 a. 

Three pages, foil. 12 a — 13 a, are taken 
up by the elaborate sketch of a pedigree, in 
which, however, the names have never been 
entered. The same may be observed further 
on, foil. 21 a b, 33 a, 86 a b. 

History of Tulul Khan, fol. 18 b ; Miinggu 
Ka'an, fol. 32 a ; Kubllai Kaan, fol. 47 b; 
Timur Ka'an, fol. 76 b ; Hulagu Khan, 
fol. 81 b ; Abaka Khan, fol. 116 a ; Arghun 
Khan, fol. 143 b ; Kaikhatu Khan, fol. 156 a ; 
Ghazan Khan, fol. 162 b. 

Reviews of contemporary sovereigns are 
to be found for A.H. 639—643, fol. 30 6, for 
A.H. 648-655, fol. 45 a, and for A.H. 658 
—693, fol. 72 b. 

At the end of the history of Ghazan, 
fol. 291 a, is a curious note, written by a 
person calling himself " the servant of His 
Highness, Muhammad B. Hamzah, known as 
Rashid-reader, the transcriber of this blessed 
book," Ajui^ '~-^jj^ *j-*^ 1^ <^^ cJji jjjo 
cu-ijU* (_jVi5 ^^_} «^U s^ ^\y>. , who speaks 
of the author as still occupying the post of 
Vazlr,^ UuA J^\^ |.jj3f , and of tJljaitu 
as the reigning sovereign, ^^IkU cJ, jU.^b 
&<L« ^ ^\J} j^lkL. JUj i]]\ Jt JJLX-, . After 
enumerating the three volumes composing 
the Jami' ut-Tavarikh, which are thus desig- 
nated, ^\p ^J3 ^jj J\j\s^ i^^u« ^j\3 ^^\ Jj^ 

oliL-«j , he says that, for the sake of those 
persons who, transcribing the first volume 



GENEEAL HISTORY. 



79 



alone, would wish to have in it a record of 
the reign of tjljaitu, he ventures to add it 
here as an appendix to this book, hoping 
that this liberty will be condoned. This 
appendix, which occupies the last three 
pages of the present MS., contains a short 
account of tJljriitu's recall from Khorasan to 
Tabriz and of his elevation to the throne. 

Eashid ud-Din seems to have adopted the 
suggestion of his scribe, for in his summary 
of the contents of the Jfimi' ut-Tavarlkh, 
Quatremere's edition, p. 56, the first volume 
is made to conclude with an account of 
Uljaitu's accession. 

The first two leaves of this MS. and the 
last three, foil. 2, 3, 291—293, are written 
by a later hand, in imitation of the old 
writing. The subscription, in the same hand- 
writing, is dated on the 3rd Zulhijjah, A.H. 
930 (A.D. 1524), and the copyist calls him- 
self jJLi i—J/o. ^J..^ ^^ j*ll» ^\ ^^ ju,s?. 
Foil. 288, 289, are also in a later hand; but 
not the same as the last. 

This text is far more correct than that 
of the preceding copy, but the diacritical 
points are frequently left out, chiefly where 
they are most wanted, namely in the proper 
names. 

A note on the first page, dated apparently 
A.H. 1022, records the purchase of the MS. 
for six rupees, which amount has been con- 
verted by a later hand into thirty-six. 

Add. 18,878. 

Poll. 164 ; 9i in. by 6| ; 11 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in 
India ; dated September, A.D. 1828, Eabi' I., 
A.H. 1244. 

A portion of volume ii. of the Jami' ut- 
Tavarikh,containingthe following sections: — 
History of China, fol. 1 b (Add. 7628, fol. 23 a 
—336 b) ; History of Europe, fol. 47 b (Add. 
7628, foil. 362 a— 374 b) ; History of India, 
fol. 95 b (Add. 7628, foil. 375 6—411 b). 



The text of this fragment is both incorrect 
and defective. The last section breaks off in 
the middle of the chapter treating of the 
prophecies of Shakamuni. 

Add. 7626. 

Poll. 167 ; 10 in. by 7^ ; 21 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in a small and neat Nestalik, 
with an "Unvan and gold-ruled margins ; 
dated Muharram, A.H. 1004 (A.D. 1595). 

[CI. J. EiCH.] 

A general history of the world, from Adam 
to the accession of Sultan Abu Said, A.H. 
717. 

Author: Abu Sulaiman Da'iid B. Abil- 
Fazl Muhammad ul-Banakiti, jijb i^Ui-» y)\ 

Beg. j3- ^^^ j*j U\ . . . ix^ j» ^ jji 

The author, whose name appears as above 
in the preface, calls himself in another place, 
fol. 161 a, Abu SulaimaU Da'ud, sumamed 
Eakhr Banakiti. He was a poet as well as 
an historian, and does not fail to give in the 
present work specimens of his verses in 
praise of Ghazan Khan, tJljaitu, and Abu 
Sa'id. We learn from him, fol. 160, 161, 
that he received from Ghazan Khan, in A.H. 
701, the title of Malik ush-Shu'ara ; and that 
his elder brother, Sayyid Nizam ud-Din 'Ali, 
son of Maulana Taj ud-Din Banakiti, was a 
holy Darvish, who stood high in the regard 
of the Moghul sovereigns, from Abakii to 
Ghazan, and died in Tabriz, A.H. 699. 

Banakit, from which the above Nisbah is 
derived, is a town of Mavara un-nahr, also 
called Shash, and in modern times Tashkand: 
see Haft Iklim, Add. 16,734, fol. 605. Fakhr 
Banakiti is mentioned by Daulatshah, fol. 
114, and by Khwand Amir, Habib us-Siyar, 



80 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



reign of Khudiibandah. Compare Quatre- 
mere, Histoire des Mongols, p. xcix., and 
Hammer, Geschichte der Ilchane, vol. ii., 
p. 267. 

The contents of the present work are given 
in full by Hammer, Wiener Jahrbiicher, vol. 
69 ; Anz. Bl. p. 33 ; by Morley, Descriptive 
Catalogue, pp. 25—28; by Sir H. Elliot, 
History of India, vol. iii., pp. 55 — 59 ; and 
the Persian headings will be found in the 
Vienna Catalogue, vol. ii., p. 61 ; see also 
Dorn, Asiat. Mus., p. 101. The Historia 
Sinensis, published by Andreas Miiller, Ber- 
lin, 1677, and wrongly ascribed to Abdallah 
Beidavi, has been proved by Quatremere, 
Histoire des Mongols, pp. Ixxxv. and 425, to 
be an extract from the present work. 

In a preface dated on the 25th of Shawiil, 
A.H. 717, the author says that this history 
is chiefly derived from the Jami' ut-Tavarikh 
of Rashid ud-Din. A.H. 717 is frequently 
mentioned in the course of the work as the 
current year, as foil. 11 h, 117 a, etc. ; and 
it appears again in the following line, at the 
end, as the date of the completion of the 
work : J^j-^ j -i)-?. J^— — >. 

This history, which is commonly known as 
Tiirikh i Banakiti, is divided into nine sec- 
tions (Kism), as follows : 

I. Prophets and patriarchs, from Adam to 
Abraham, fol. 6 b. II. Kings of Persia, 
from Kayumars to Yazdajird, fol. 12 b. 
III. Muhammad, early Khalifs, Imams, Banu 
Umayyah, and Abbasides, fol. 28 a. IV. 
Kings who reigned in Iran during the time 
of the Abbasides, fol. 86 a. V. Kings and 
Prophets of the Jews, fol. 95 a. VI. History 
of the Christians and Afranj, fol. 101 b. 

VII. History of the Hindus, fol. 108 b. 

VIII. History of Khitai, fol. 117 b. IX. His- 
tory of the Moghiils, fol. 124 b. 

A Persian note at the end relates to the 
purchase of the MS. in Isfahan, A.H. 1160, 



by Haji Mustafa Khan Shamlu, Persian am- 
bassador in Turkey, for three Tumans and 
five thousand Dinars of Tabriz. 

Pol. 166 contains a statement by Mu- 
hammad Amin Zahid, of Balkh, of the number 
of persons whom he had gained over to a 
religious life, consigned to writing by one of 
his disciples in A.H. 1010. 

Add. 7627. 

Foil. 185 ; 10 in. by 6^ ; 21 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in neat Naskhi; dated Hai- 
darabad, Zulka'dah, A.H. 1004 (A.D. 1596). 

[CI. J. Rich.] 

Another copy of the same work. 

The author's name is here written j^U-L* y)\ 

jjiljuJ^ , and the title 'Hjm ^ i-jU!!)! ^^-^ eJ>jj 
Copyist : ^?*'-"^ Jj^^ ^\/ 

Add. 22,693. 

PoU. 249 ; 8i in. by 6 ; 21 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in a small and neat Nestalik, 
with 'Unvan and gold-ruled margins ; dated 
Rajah, A.H. 890 (A.D. 1485). 

[Sir John Campbell.] 

A general history, from the earliest times 
to A.H. 730. 

Author : Hamdulla B. AM Bakr B. Ahmad 
B. Nasr Mustaufi KazvinljiS ^_gj\ ^^ all\ j-»o. 

Beg. ^ jl tiJl« e{\j^\LS\^ ^jijll-. _j (_>«U-» 

Hamd-ullah belonged to an ancient family 
of Kazvin, called the Mustaufls, which 
traced its origin to Hurr B. Yazld Riyahl. 
He states, in the last section of the present 
work, that his great grandfather, Amin ud- 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



81 



Din Nasr, after discharging some time the 
office of Mustauf i of Irak, adopted a religious 
life, and was slain at the time of the Moghul 
invasion ; he adds that his own brother, 
Zain ud-Din Muhammad B. Taj ud-Din Abi 
Bakr B. Zain ud-Din Ahmad B. Amin ud- 
Din Nasr, had been deputy comptroller of 
the Vizfirat, 0,]jj uV-"^ '-r*^^ > under Rashid 
ud-Din. Besides the Guzidah, he wrote in 
A.H. 740 a well known geography entitled 
Nuzhatul-Kulub (Add. 16,736). See Reinaud, 
Geographic d'Aboulfeda, Introduction, p. 155 ; 
Hammer, Geschichte der llchane, vol. ii., 
p. 268 ; and, for the contents of the present 
work, Haj. Khal., vol. v. p. 79, Hammer, 
Jahrbiicher, vol. 69, Anz. BL, pp. 33 — 35, 
Fliigel, Vienna Catalogue, vol. ii. p. 63, 
Aumer, Munich Catalogue, p. 68, and Elliot, 
History of India, vol. iii. pp. 60—66. 

Erom a somewhat diffuse preface it appears 
that the author, having imbibed a taste for 
historical pursuits in the learned society of 
his celebrated patron, the great Vazir Rashid 
ud-Din Eazl-ullah, had undertaken the com- 
position of a full chronicle in verse, extend- 
ing from the Hijrah to his own time. Of 
this he had already written upwards of fifty 
thousand distichs, and intended to complete 
it in seventy-five thousand. But he de- 
termined in the meanwhile to compile the pre- 
sent abridgment in prose, bringing the history 
down to the time of composition, A.H. 730. 

The preface contains a dedication to the 
son and successor of his late patron, Khwrijah 
Ghiyas ud-Din Muhammad B. Khwajah 
Rashid ud-Din Fazl-ullah. Ghiyas ud-Din 
was called to the office of VazIr after the 
death of Dimashk Khwajah, A.H. 728, and 
held it till A.H. 736, when he was put 
to death ; see the present MS. fol. 177 a, 
Lubb ut-tavarikh. Add. 23,512, fol. 105, and 
Quatremere, Histoire des Mongols, pp. xlvi. 
— Iii. It must be noticed, however, that in 
the conclusion of Book iv. another patron, 
Shams ud-Din Muhammad B. Nizam ud- 



Dln ul-Husaini ul-Yazdl, also a VazIr, is 
mentioned with great eulogies. 

Among many works which the author had 
consulted for this compilation, he mentions 
the Jami* ut-tavarIkh of Rashid ud-Din as 
the most important. 

The Guzidah is divided into an Intro- 
duction (Eatihah), six books (Bab), and an 
Appendix (Khatimah), as follows: Fatihah, 
Creation of the world, fol. 5 a. Bab i., 
Prophets and sages, fol. 6 a. Bab ii.. Kings 
anterior to Islamism, fol. 23 a. Bab iii., 
Muhammad, fol. 36 a ; early Khalifs, fol. 476 ; 
Imams, fol. 57 6; Ashab and Tabiln, in al- 
phabetical order, fol. 59 «; Banii TJmayyah, 
fol. 71 b ; Banu 'Abbas, fol. 82 a. 

Bab iv. Kings of the Islamitic period, in 
the following twelve sections (Ea.sl) : 1. Ban! 
Lais SafRlr, fol. 103 b. 2. Samanis, fol. 105 a. 
3. Ghaznavis, fol. 109 a. 4. Ghiiris, fol. 113 a. 
5. Dailaman, fol. 115 b. 6. SaljUkis of Iran, 
Kirman and Riim, fol. 121 a. 7. Khwarazm- 
shahis, fol. 187 a. 8. Atabaks of Diyarbakr 
and Ears, fol. 142 b. 9. Isma His of Maghrib 
and Iran, fol. 144 b. 10. Karakhitfi'ls of 
Kirman, fol. 150 a. 11. Atabaks of Lur 
Buzurg and Lur Kuchak, fol. 152 b. 12. 
Moghuls, in three sections — Genealogy of 
the Turkish tribes, fol. 100 a. Genealogy 
of the house of Chinglzkhan, fol. 162 b. 
History of the MoghUls of Iran, foil. 165 b — 
177*. 

Biib V. Imams and Mujtahids, fol. 217 b ; 
Readers of the Goran, fol. 218 b ; Traditionists, 
fol. 219 a ; Shaikhs, in chronological order, 
ib. ; 'Ulamii, in alphabetical order, fol. 233 a ; 
Poets, similarly arranged, fol. 238 a. 

Bab vi. Account of the city of Kazvln. 
This last section is much abridged in the 
present copy, as compared with the following. 
It has been translated by M. Barbier de 
Meynard in the Journal Asiatique, 5' Serie, 
vol. x., pp. 257—295. 

Khcitimah, a description of an elaborate 
series of genealogical tables, devised by the 



82 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



author to illustrate general history. This last 
section is wanting in this copy. 

The present MS. contains an extensive and 
important addition, inserted hetween the 
fourth and fifth books of the original work, 
foU. 177 i— 217 b. It is a detailed history 
of the dynasty of the Al i Muzaffar in Kir- 
man, from its origin in A.H. 718 to its over- 
throw by Timilr in A.H. 795. The author, 
who calls himself Mahmud ^jj^ (without 
diacritical points), says in a short preamble 
that, finding the history of that dynasty by 
Mum ud-Din Yazdl (see Add. 7632) over- 
loaded with metaphors, far-fetched phrases, 
and wordy eulogies, it seemed to him ad- 
visable, while engaged in transcribing the 
Tarikh i Guzidah in A.H. 823, to insert a 
plain but full record of those princes, whom 
he had served himself, as his forefathers had 
done before him for several generations. 

In the closing narrative Shahrukh, who, 
although then only seventeen years old, 
played a brilliant part in the conquest of 
Kirman, is spoken of by the author in the 
adulatory style due to the reigning sovereign 
of his day. 

Add. 7631. 

Foil. 252; 8^ in. by 6; 25 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in a small Turkish Naskhi; 
dated Muharram, A.H. 924 (A.D. 1518). 

[CI. J. Rich.] 

The same work, Tarikh i Guzidah. 

There are many marginal notes and addi- 
tions in Persian, Arabic, and Turkish. Some 
leaves at the end, foil. 247—252, are filled 
with miscellaneous notices and extracts. 

Add. 7630. 

Foil. 246; 10 in. by 7; 19 lines, 4f in. 
long; written in a fair Nestalik; dated Ju- 
mada I., A.H. 1009 (A.D. 1600). 

[CI. J. Rich.] 
The same work. 

Scribe : ^jj* «.^.^j* 



Add. 11,630. 

Foil. 301; 9 J in. by 5|; 21 Hues 3^ in. 
long; written in small Nestalik, apparently 
about the close of the 16th century. 

The same work. 

The margins contain some corrections, 
notes, and, in some parts, considerable addi- 
tions. Those of foil. 169 — 232 especially are 
covered with extracts, drawn chiefly from 
Tarikh i Bada'uni. Foil. 292—297 contain 
some poetical pieces and miscellaneous ex- 
tracts, and foil. 298—301, a table of the 
contents of the work, with reference to the 
folios of this copy. 

A note on fol. 2 a, records the purchase of 
the present copy in Kashmir, A.H. 1076, by 
Khwajah Muhammad Nazr. 



Add. 23,499. 

Foil. 268 ; QJ in. by 7 ; 21 lines, 4^ in. long ; 
written in fair Naskhi, with ruled margins, 
apparently in the 16th century, with the 
exception of foil. 2—35, and 232—263, sup- 
plied by a later hand, probably in the 18th 
century. [Rob. Taylor.] 

The same work. 



Egerton 690. 

Foil. 198; lOi in. by 7i; 21 lines, 5 in. 
long; written in Indian Nestalik; dated 
Calcutta, Rabi' II., A.H. 1216, July, A.D. 
1803. 

The same work. ' 

The MS., from which this copy was tran- 
scribed, had been written in Aurangabtld, 
A.H. 1093, by Muhammad Hashim B. Mir 
Muhammad Salili ul-Khwaf i (the well known 
historian Khafi Khan). 

On the first page is written "Hen. Geo. 
Keene, 1803." 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



83 



Add. 16,696. 

Poll. 134 ; 9 in. by 5 ; 19 lines, 3 in. long ; 
written in small Nestalik, with ruled margins, 
apparently of the 16th century. 

[Wm. Yule.] 

An abridgement of general history from 
the earliest times to the death of Sultan 
Abu Sa'id, A.H. 736. 

Author : Muhammad B. 'Ali B. Muham- 
mad, 6^^ ^^ ^s- ^j> j^ 

Beg. U-«» J lysiy W\ii« j-^' Jjuj- ^J'^\ aJJ j-^' 

This beginning, as well as the whole of the 
first page, fol. 1 b, has been supplied by a 
later hand. 

In a copy belonging to the Asiatic Mu- 
seum of S. Petersburg, the author is called 
Muhammad B. 'All B. Muhammad B. Husain 
B. Abi Bakr ush-Shabangara'I ; see Dorn, 
Caspia, pp. 108, 166. He was therefore pro- 
bably a native of Shabangarah, a district 
situate between Ears and Kirman, the chief 
town of which is Darabjird; see Ouseley's 
travels, vol. ii., p. 471. He appears, how- 
ever, to have dwelt in Luristan, for he 
professes to have derived his account of 
that country, not from any book, but from 
oral information gathered from a number of 
trustworthy persons ; and he shows himself 
also well acquainted with Hurmuz. He was 
a poet by profession, for in a Kasidah ad- 
dressed to Ghiya§ ud-Din, fol. 86, he says that 
he had been sending year after year laudatory 
poems to that Vazir. He states, however, 
speaking in A.H. 733, fol. 2 b, that although 
more than forty years of his life were spent, 
he had done nothing yet to leave a lasting 
memory behind. 

The work begins with two prefaces, which 
may be called those of the first and second 
editions. Both, owing to the loss of some 
leaves, are imperfect in the present copy. 



The first in point of time, foil. 2, 5 — 9, is 
dated A.H. 733. It contains eulogies, in 
prose and verse, on the reigning sovereign 
Abu Sa'id, and on his Vazir, Ghiyiis ud-Dln 
Muhammad B. llashid ud-Din, to whom the 
work is dedicated. In the second, foil. 3 
and 4, the author describes his grief at re- 
ceiving the intelligence of the premature 
death of the youthful monarch, and deplores 
at the same time the loss of his book in the 
pillage of the late Vazir's house. (Abu Sa'id 
died in A.H. 736, at the age of thirty-six 
years, and the house of Ghiyas ud-Din was 
plundered after his death, a few months 
later ; see Price's Retrospect, vol. ii., p. 672, 
and Quatremere, Histoire des Mongols, 
p. 411.) With reviving hope, however, he 
resolved to write it afresh. He then greets 
the access to sovereign power of the Nuyan 
'Ala ud-Din (a title probably designating 
Shaikh Hasan, grandson of Amir Chupiin, 
who is termed further on, fol. 131 b, the 
present master of the world), and praises his 
Vazir Mahmud. 

This second edition was not completed till 
A.H. 743, for this date appears, fol. 956, as 
that of the current year. 

The division of the work into Kisms, Ta- 
bakahs, Guruhs, and Tai'fahs, is extremely 
complicated ; it is, however, but imperfectly 
carried out, some sections being altogether 
omitted, while others are too short to be of 
any use. Some dynasties are only repre- 
sented by meagre lists of names, and others 
are summarily disposed of in a few lines. 

Contents : — Introduction : Creation of the 
world, the four elements, construction of the 
human body, fol. 9 b. Account of the in- 
habited world, the seven climates, and the 
principal races of mankind, fol. 30 a. 

Kism I. History of Adam, fol. 40 b. 
Kism II., Tabakah 1, Descendants of Shi§ 
(Seth), Kayumars, 'Ad, Earldun, Kayanis, 
Luhraspis, fol. 45 b. 

Tabakah 2, in four Guruhs : — 1. Suc- 

M 2 



S4> 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



cessors of Alexander, Ptolemies, Csesars, 
Arab kings of Irak and Yaman, Aslikiinis, 
fol. 56 a. 2. Sasanis and Akasirah, fol. 64 a. 
3. Dailamis, fol. 78 a. Saljukis, fol. 7Sb. 
Malahidah, fol. 79 a. Khwarazmslialiis, fol. 
84 b. Ghuris, ib. 4. Kings of Shabangarah, 
fol. 86 a. Atabaks of lYirs, fol. 87 a. Kings 
of Kirman, fol. 87 b. Kings of Shiraz, fol, 
88 b. Kings of Hurmuz, fol. 91 a. Moghuls, 
in two sections, called Ta'ifah : — 1. Chingiz 
and his successors in China down to Kubilai 
Kaan, fol. 95 J. 2. Hulagu and his suc- 
cessors in Iran down to the death of Abu 
Sa'id, fol. 117 a. 

The history of Luristan, which has been 
rejected by the author to the end of the 
work, is wanting in the present copy, with 
the exception of a few introductory lines, 
fol. 133 b. It is found in a MS. belonging 
to the Royal Asiatic Society, and described 
by Morley, Catalogue, pp. 28—30. Other 
copies are mentioned in Stewart's Catalogue, 
p. 8, and in the Catalogue of Sir Wm. 
Ouseley's Collection, No. 335. 

Besides the title of i_.^LJ^\ «^, which 
occurs in this copy at fol. 40 a, we find that 
of L-^LJ^l ^U, fol. 86 a; while a third 
^U)i] jsi is written, apparently by the 
transcriber, at the end of the volume. 

Or. 137. 

EoD. 482; 10| in. by 7; 17 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in a large and bold Nestalik 
apparently in the 17th century. 

[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

A general history from the time of Mu- 
hammad to A.H. 842, with special reference 
to India. 

Author : Muhammad Bihamad-khani, j^ 



Beg. b OjxL*- ji jyo^'^ (^^ _j j^y i^-»»- 

The author's surname is derived from the 
name of his father, Bihamad Khan, afterwards 
Malik ush-Shark Malik Bihamad, respecting 
whose life we learn from the work itself the 
following particulars. 

He was brought up in the house of Firiiz 
Khan B. Malik Tfij ud-Din Turk, who w^as 
appointed Vazir by Ghiya§ ud-Din Tughluk 
Shah on his accession, and was slain with 
that prince, A.H, 791 ; see Briggs' Eerishtah, 
vol. I., p. 466. After that event the Vazir's 
son repaired to Kalpi (Muhammad-abad), 
where he made himself independent, assuming 
the name of Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah, and 
conferred the title of Vazir on his brother 
Junaid Khan. Bihamad Khan, who had 
passed into the latter's service, distinguished 
himself as military commander in several 
campaigns, and as a reward received in fief 
the town of Irich in Bundelcund. From 
this he was ejected, some years later, by the 
troops of Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur, after 
a desperate struggle, in which the author's 
mother was slain, and the author himself, 
then a youth, was severely wounded; but he 
was subsequently reinstated in his posses- 
sions by Mubarah Khan, the son and suc- 
cessor of Junaid Khan. He was still alive 
in A.H. 842. 

The author relates various expeditions, in 
which he was sent by his father in command 
of the troops, and achieved brilliant success. 
He became, however, a Murid of Shaikh 
Yusuf Budah, and a yision, in which Muham- 
mad appeared to him, decided him to give 
up the world and embrace a religious life. 
He then devoted his leisure to the composi- 
tion of the present work, which he called 
after the Prophet's name Tarikh i Muham- 
mad!, and completed in A.H. 842. 

This year is mentioned in some places, as 
fol. 90 a, and 108 b, as the date of composi- 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



85 



tion, but A.H. 839 appears more frequently, 
^specially in the second half of the work, as 
the current year; see foil. 308 J, 312 a, 
427 rt. 

The following works are enumerated, fol. 
481 a, as the sources of this compilation : 
Tabakat i Nasiri, Taj ul-Maa§ir, Tazkirat 
ul-Auliyii, Matali' ul-Anvar, Khizanat ul-Ja- 
lali, and Tarikh i Firuzshahi. Erom A.H. 
755, however, where the last-mentioned his- 
tory comes to a close, the work is original, 
and, although it principally deals with a local 
dynasty of little importance, it has the value 
of a contemporary record, throwing some 
light on a very obscure period of Indian 
history. 

The author is sparing of dates, but profuse 
of poetical quotations, although his own 
verses, which he adduces on every possible 
occasion, show plainly that he was no poet. 

The work is divided into four parts (Kism), 
the contents of which are as follows : 

I. History of Muhammad, fol. 10 b. The 
trial and anguish of the grave, abode of the 
soul after death, resurrection and last judg- 
ment, fol. 50 a. 

II. The early Khalifs (Rashidin), fol. 74 b ; 
the ten blessed Companions (Mubashsharin), 
fol. 79 b ; the Amirs of the Banu Umayyah, 
fol. 83 a; the Abbaside Khalifs down to 
al-Musta'sim, fol. 90 a; Lives of Saints, 
fol. 109 a. 

The history of the Abbasides is avowedly 
taken from the Tabakat i Nasiri. The last 
section begins with a notice on Uvais Karnl ; 
in its latter half it relates exclusively to 
Indian saints, the following forming a conse- 
cutive chronological series : Zakariyyil Mul- 
tani, fol. 138 ; Muin ud-Dln Sijzi, fol. 140; 
Kutb ud-Dln Bakhtiyar, fol. 142 ; Farid ud- 
Din (Ganj i Shakar), fol. 144 ; Nizam ud-Din 
(Auliya), fol. 146; Nasir ud-Din Mahmud 
Audhi, fol. 148; Sayyid Jalal ud-Din Bu- 
khari, fol. 152; his brother, Sayyid Sadr 
ud-Din Raju, fol. 159 ; Ikhtiyar ud-Din 



'TJmar, of Irich, fol. 161; Jamal ud-Din 
Shaikh Yusuf Budah jjj , of Irich, fol. 164. 
The last-named saint, who was the author's 
spiritual guide, is here stated to have died in 
A.H. 834. 

III. Tahiris, fol. 175 a. Sdmanis, fol. 
180 a. Dailamis, fol. 189 a. Subuktiginis, 
fol. 192 b. Saljukis, fol. 207 b. Sanjaris, or 
Atjibaks, of Irak, fol. 226 a, of Ears, fol. 
230 a. and of Nishapur, fol. 234 a, Kurdish 
kings of Syria, fol. 240 b. Khwarazmshahis, 
fol. 245 b. Shansabanis of Ghur, fol. 260 a, 
of Tukharistan and Bamiyan, fol. 289 b, of 
Ghaznin, fol. 292 h. 

The last section is brought to a close with 
the death of Taj ud-Dln Yilduz, after which, 
it is added, Khorasan and Ghaznin fell under 
the yoke of the unbelievers, and no further 
record was available. The entire preceding 
portion of the third book is stated, fol. 309 a, 
to have been extracted from the Tabakat 
i Nasiri. 

History of Timur j^ and his successors, 
namely, Khalil Sultan and Amir Shahrukh, 
fol. 304 a. The last-named sovereign, it is 
said, was still sitting on the throne which 
he had occupied for nearly forty years, and 
was recognized by the kings of India as 
their suzerain. 

History of Chingiz, the accursed, and of his 
successors down to Baraka Khan, also from 
the Tabakat i Nasiri, with a short appendix 
on subsequent Moghul invasions in India, 
fol. 313 a. 

IV. Kings of India. The fii*st period, be- 
srinnina: with Kutb ud-Din Aibak ul-Mu izzi 
and ending with Nasir ud-Din Mahmud, 
foil. 330 6— 358 6, is taken from the Tabakat 
i Nasiri (Tabakah xx. and xxi.). In the fol- 
lowing eight reigns the author follows the 
Tarikh i Fu-uzshahi of Ziya ud-Din Barni : — 
Ghiyas ud-Din Balband JJob , fol. 259 a. 
Mu'izz ud-Din Kaikubad, fol. 362 b. Jalal 
ud-Din Khilji, fol. 371 b. 'Ala ud-Din Shah 



86 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



Khilji, fol. 380 a. Kutb ud-Din Mubarak, 
fol. 391 a. Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluk, fol.395 a. 
Muhammad B. Tughluk, fol. 398 a. Kamal 
ud-i)m Flruz Shah, fol. 406 a. 

Here the author states that Ziya ud-Din 
had recorded the first four years only of 
Firuz Shah's reign, ending with A.H. 755. 
For the subsequent period he had to rely 
on information gathered from trustworthy 
persons and on his own recollections. 

Continuation of Firuz Shah's reign, 
fol. 409 b. Tughluk Shah B. Fath Khan B. 
Flruz Shah, A.H. 790, fol. 417 6. Abu Bakr 
B. Zafar Khan B. FlrQz Shrdi, A.H. 791, 
fol. 420 b. Nil sir ud-Din Muhammad Shah 
B. Firuz Shah, who ascended the throne in 
A.H. 794, fol. 423 b. In this reign the 
author gives a rapid sketch of four local 
dynasties founded by Amirs of Muhammad 
Shah, and which were represented at the 
time of composition by Ibrfdiim Shah of 
Jaunpur, Ahmad Shah of Gujarat, Sultan 
Muhammad, grandson of Khizr Khan, of 
Dehli, and 'Ala ud-Din Mahmud Shah of 
Malvah. 

'Ala ud-Din Sikandar Shah B. Muhammad 
Shrdi, fol. 431 a. Ghiya§ ud-DIn MahmQd 
Shall B. Muhammad Shah, the last king of 
the race of Firuz Shah, fol. 432 b. NasTr ud- 
Dm Mahmud Shah B. Flruz Khan B. Malik 
Taj ud-bin Turk, fol. 436 b. This chief, 
who held the fief of Kalpl, founded there, in 
A.H. 792, a Mohammedan city, which he 
called Muliammad-abad, made himself inde- 
pendent after the death of Ghiya§ ud-Din 
MahmQd, and enlarged his dominions by 
successful wars with his Hindu neighbours. 
He died in A.H. 813. 

His son Ikhtiyar ud-Din Abul-Mujahid 
Kadir Shah, fol. 446 b. At his death, A.H. 
835, his three sons fought for the succession, 
their powerful neighbours, Ibrahim Shah of 
Jaunpur and Hiishang of Malvah, joining in 
the struggle ; the second, Jalal Khan, was 
eventually placed on the throne by Hushang. 



Mubarak Khan B. Junaid Khan B. Firuz 
Jang B. Malik Taj ud-Din Turk, fol. 459 a. 
Mubarak Khan had succeeded to his brother 
Daulat Khan and his father Junaid Khan in 
the ofiice of Vazir of the KalpT state. Dis- 
satisfied with the accession of Jalal Khan, he 
repaired to Irich, and made himself inde- 
pendent there in A.H. 839. 

Life of Malik ush-Shark Malik Bihamad, 
the author's father, fol. 467 a. The author's 
exhortation to hisson,Nasir ud-Din Mahmiid, 
fol. 476 a. The author's account of himself 
and conclusion of the work, fol. 478 a. 

Copyist : jyAx^ ^^jL ^^ kjl*. 

A full table of contents, written in the 
present century, occupies seven pages at the 
beginning of the MS. There the author 
is incorrectly called Muhammad Bahadur 
Khan. 

Add. 7629. 

Foil. 482 ; 11 in. by 6^ ; 21 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, dated Jaunpiir, 
Zu'1-ka'dah, A.H. 1012 (A.D. 1604). 

[CI. J. Rich.] 

A general history from the earliest time 
to the ninth century of the Hijrah. 

There is neither preface nor title, and the 
author's name occurs only incidentally, 
fol. 349 b, where, bringing his history of the 
rulers of Egypt to a close with the record of 
a pilgrimage performed by al-Malik un- 
Nasir, A.H. 719, he adds that the works 
procurable in " this country " (India) did 
not contain any further account of that 
dynasty. His name is there written rflll fjoii 

^^Ijs- , Faiz ullah [B.] Zain ul- abidin B. 
Husam Ziya,i, entitled [Kazi] ul-Kuzat Sadri 
Jahan. 

From a mention incidentally made by the 
author, fol. 2 a, of the king of his day, whom 
he calls ^J> sU. j-«»-^ ^^ jU. j-»^ ^y^ t\L d^^ 
jUi^la* ^^> »li» li^ , it must be inferred that 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



87 



he lived under Mahmud Shah Bigara of 
Gujarat, who reigned from A.H. 863 to 917. 
This work is perhaps the history quoted by 
Pirishtah, in his account of the reign of 
Mahmud Shah, under the title of Tabakat 
i Mahmiidshrihi. But no portion of the 
contents of the present volume comes down 
to that period. 

Contents: Makalat I., in two Eirkahs. 

1. Prophets from Adam to Khalid B. Sinan, 
fol. 1 6. II. Kings anterior to Islamism, 
in four Tabakahs : 1. Pishdadis, fol. 37. 

2. Kayanis, fol. 40 b. 3. Ashkanis, fol. 49 b. 
4. Sasanis, fol. 50 6. Tubba's of Yaman, 
fol. 71 a. History of Muhammad, fol. 80 a. 

Biib II. The first four Khalifs (Rashidin), 
fol. 158 a. Tabakah : Reign of the Banu 
Umayyah, fol. 197 b. Tabakah : Khilafat of 
the Banu 'Abbas, fol. 235 b. 

Kism iii., which treats of kings pos- 
terior to Islamism, contains two Makalats. 
The former comprises the following Taba- 
kahs : 1. Safiaris, fol. 278 b. 2. Samanis, 
fol. 281 a. 3. Dayalimah, fol. 288 a. 4. Su- 
buktiginis, fol. 292 b. 5. Saljukis of Iran, 
Kirman and Rum, fol. 299 b. 6. Khwarazm 
Shahis, fol. 318 a. 7. Atabaks of Ears, Irak 
and Azarbaijan, fol. 325 b. 8. Sultans of 
Egypt and Syria (the Ayyubis and their 
successors down to A.H. 719), fol. 335 a. 
9. Isma'ilis of Maghrib and of Iran, fol. 349 b. 

The following section, fol. 355 «, the first 
page of which is alone extant, has no rubric. 
It treats of the origins of the Ghur dynasty, 
and contains a reference to the Tabakat i 
Nasirl. 

The rest of the volume is taken up by 
biographical notices, arranged under the 
following classes: Tabakah 1. Arab poets, 
with some of the early Persian poets, in 
chronological order, beginning with Labid 
B. Rabi'ah, and ending with Ibn 'Unain, who 
died A.H. 630, fol. 356 a. Many of these 
notices are extracted from Ibn Khallikan's 
work. 2. The most eminent Ashab or 



Companions of Muhammad, fol. 382 6. 3. The 
great Tabi'in, or successors of the Com- 
panions, fol. 402 b. 4. The 'Ulama, Lawyers 
and Shaikhs, in chronological order, begin- 
ning with 'Asim B. Abi-'n-najiid, the Coran 
reader, who died A.H. 128, and ending with 
Hakim Ibrahim B. Muhammad B. Tarkhan 
Suvaidi, who died A.H. 690, fol. 418 a. 

Scribe : i^je- ^_pJi\i ^J\M J^ -^ ^jA s^ 

Titles written by various hands on the 
first leaf, such as i^^y^^ ffVj d>^ ^j^ ^^ 
and ^l*Jl jM ^jKi , are of little authority. 

Add. 16,672. 

Poll. 235 ; 15 in. by 9| ; 25 lines, 5| in. 
long ; written in fair NestaUk, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins; dated Rajab, A.H. 
1031 (A.D. 1622). [Wm. Yule. J 

A work on general history, from the crea- 
tion of the world to the author's time. 

Author: Muhammad B. Khavand Shah 
B, Mahmud, J^«^ ^^ »U. jjjli»- j^ j-^ 

Beg. J^ Jls. ^J[x^\y>.\i^ AirJ vi— ^ s-*^j 

The author, so well known under the name 
of Mir Khwand, belonged to a family of Say- 
yids, settled for many generations in Bu- 
khara. His father, Sayyid Burhan ud-Din 
Khavand Shah, a man of great learning and 
piety, left that place for Balkh, where he 
died. Mir Khwand himself spent most of his 
life in Herat, and found there a generous 
patron, Mir *Ali Shir, to whom the present 
work is dedicated. His grandson, Khwand 
Amir, says that he died in Herat, on the 
2nd of Rajab, A.H. 903, at the age of sixty- 
six, and after an illness of thirteen months. 
See Habib us-Siyar, Bombay edition, vol. II., 
pp. 198, 339. 

The Rauzat us-Sa^ has been lithographed 



88 



GENERAL HISTOKY. 



in Bombay, A.H. 1271, and in Tehran, A.H. 
1270 — 74. A Turkish translation has been 
printed at Constantinople, A.H. 1258. Mir 
Khwand and his work have been the subject 
of numerous notices, among which the fol- 
lowing may be specially referred to: S. de 
Sacy, Notice sur Mirkhond, in his Memoire 
sur les Antiquit<Ss de la Perse; Jourdain, 
Notices et Extraits, vol. ix., pp. 117 — 274; 
Hammer, Jahrbiicher, vol. 69, Anz. Blatt, 
pp. 37 — 49; Quatremere, Journal des Sa- 
vants, 1843, pp. 170—176; Morley, Descrip- 
tive Index, pp. 30 — 38; Elliot, History of 
India, vol. iv., pp. 127 — 140. Eor editions 
and translations of various parts of the Rau- 
zat us-Safa, see Morley, pp. 35, 36, Elliot, 
pp. 131 — 133, and Zenker, vol. i., pp. 104 — 
106, vol. ii., p. 59. 

This vast compilation is divided, as stated 
in the preface, into seven books or volumes, 
called Kism (the last of which was left un- 
finished), and an Appendix. The first 
volume, contained in the present MS., com- 
prises, besides the preface and introduction, a 
history of the Patriarchs and Prophets, and of 
the early kings of Persia, down to Yazdajird. 

The last folio, which contains the subscrip- 
tion, appears to have been transcribed by 
a later hand from the corresponding leaf of 
the original MS., which had probably been 
torn or otherwise damaged. 

Add. 26,177. 

Foil. 298; 12 in. by 7 ; 25 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik; dated Rabi' II., 
A.H. 146 (probably for 1046, A.D. 1636). 

[Wm. Ebskine.] 

The first volume of the Rauzat us-Safa. 

Copyist : s^ j^;-.*^^ j>\ ^\j ^j>\ 

The first page has been supplied by a later 
hand. 

Add. 26,175. 

Foil. 357; 11^ in. by 6^; 23 lines, 4 in. 



long; written in Nestalik, on blue-tinted 
paper; dated Zulhijjah, A.H. 1064 (A.D. 
1654). [Wm. Erskine.] 

The first volume of the same work. 

Copyist : t/;Vjj-«» ^_j:--*' J^j J-**? 

Add. 26,176. 

Foil. 396 ; 11 in. by 7| ; 19 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, probably in 
the 17th century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

The first volume of the same w^ork. 

Three leaves at the beginning and three 
at the end have been supplied by a later 
hand. 

Add. 25,775. 

Foil. 436 ; 10^ in. by 6 ; 21 lines, 3 J in. 
long; written in fair Naskhi, with gold- 
ruled margins, probably in the I7th century. 

[Wm. Cureton.] 

The first volume of the same work. 

The first page has been supplied by a later 
hand. A few lines at the end are wanting. 
A modern table of contents, foil. 434 — 36, has 
been appended. 

This MS. once belonged to Turner Maccan, 
whose name is written on the first page. 

Add. 17,929. 

FoU. 348 ; 11| in. by 7 ; 29 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in Naskhi, with 'Unvan and 
ruled margins; dated Jumada I., A.H. 124 
(probably for 1024, 4.D. 1616). 

The first volume of the same work. 



Add. 23,500. 

Foil. 254 ; 11 in. by 6| ; 25 lines, 4f in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, apparently in 
the 17th century. [Rob. Taylor.] 

The fii'st volume of the same work. 



GENERAL HISTOEY. 



89 



Foil. 1, 4—6, 244—254, have been sup- 
plied, apparently in the present century, by 
'Abd ur-EahIm B. Muhammad Ardabili. 



Add. 25,769. 

Poll. 344; 12^ in. by 7|; 25 lines, 4J in. 
long ; written in plain Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins, dated Sha'ban, A.H. 
1051 (A.D. 1641). [Wm. Ctjreton.] 

The second volume of the Rauzat us-Sa^, 
containing the history of Muhammad and 
the first four Khalifs. 

Beg. iS-y^ c.^j^^ cj\ci\jo sSLx^ ^^ 
Copyist : o^ JUj iiJj <«U\ j.jkfr 

Add. 23,501. 

Poll. 541; 11 in. by 6 ; 21 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in Naskhi, with 'Unvan and 
ruled margins ; dated Jumada I., A.H. 1058 
(A.D. 1648). "[EoB. Tatloe.] 

The second volume of the same work. 



Add. 26,179. 

Foil. 446 ; 15 in. by 9^ ; 19 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in a large and elegant Nestalik, 
with 'Unvan and gold-ruled margins; dated 
Safar, A.H. 1081 (A.D. 1670). 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

The second volume of the same work. 



Copyist : ^j]j^ <^ .i^-aiu 



Add. 17,930. 

Foil. 477 ; 11^ in. by 1\ ; 18 lines, 5 in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik; dated 
Ramazan, A.H. 1088 (A.D. 1677). 

The second volume of the same work, 
wanting the first two leaves. 



Add. 26,178. 

Foil. 324 ; 12 in. by 7 ; 25 lines, 4^ in. long ; 
written in plain Nestalik, apparently in the 
17th century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

The second volume of the same work. 

Foil. 38, 39, 124—126, 227 and 320—324, 
have been supplied by a later hand; a few 
lines are wanting at the end. 



Add. 16,673. 

Foil. 407; 15 in. by 9.f ; 23 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
dnd gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
17th century. [Wm. Yule.] 

The second volume of the same work. 

The first 34 leaves, foil. 5 — 37, are in a 
somewhat later hand. 

Prefixed is a tabulated index of contents, 
written in Naskhi, A.H. 1111 (A.D. 1699), 
at Indore, by Sayyid Ahmad. 



Add. 25,776. 

PoU. 568; 104 in. by 6.f; 19 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, probably in 
the 17th century. [Wm. Cureton.J 

The second voliune of the same work. 



Add. 7643. 

PoU. 204; \\\ in. by 7f ; 25 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in fair Naskhi, with ruled 
margins, probably in the 16th century. 

[CI. J. Rich.] 

The third volume of the Rauzat us-Safa, 
containing the history of the twelve Imams 
and of the Umayyade and Abbaside Khalifs. 

Beg. ftv^. j^b\ jl i>\ ,^^ ^Ur-* fti* j_y\j5 J j^ 



JUl>t 



■^u;!j^ 



The last leaf is in a later handwriting. 

N 



90 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



Add. 26,180. 



FoU. 166; 13i in. by 7|; 30 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in plain Naskhi; dated Safar, 
A.H. 1023 (A.D. 1614). [Wm. Erskine.] 

The third volume of the Rauzat us-Sa^. 
Copyist : ^^ J-^^ O^j* ;^' c«--» u^.'^^ ui*^ 

jviii^^ ^>-jW\ i> y^.^\ i^^j ^V j^ r^^ 



Add. 25,777. 

Foil. 186; 12^ in. by 7f ; 21 lines, 5 in. 
long; written in Nestalik, with ruled mar- 
gins ; dated Sha'ban, A.H. 1065 (A.D. 1655). 

[Wm. Cureton.] 

The third volume of the same work. 



Add. 23,502. 

Foil. 271; 11 in. by 7; 17 lines, 4| in. 
written in cursive Nestalik ; dated 
Jumada II., A.H. 1081 (A.D. 1670). 

[Rob. Taylor.] 
The third volume of the same work. 



long ; 



Copyist : ^Jt^ ^\ iJ— ^ ^^ i— >y y\ 

Add. 26,181. 

Foil. 336; 10^ in. by 7; 19 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik, probably 
in the 17th century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

The third volume of the same work, wantins 
about one page at the end. 

Add. 17,931. 

Foil. 228; 12| in. by 7; 22 lines in 
a page. Written in a small and neat Persian 
Naskhi, probably in the 17th century. 



The third volume of the same work, wanting 
a few lines at the end. Foil. 211 — 215 have 
been supplied by a later hand. 

One of the notes, written by former owners 
on the first leaf of this MS., is dated Isfahan. 

Add. 7644. 

Foil. 208 ; 154 in. by 9i ; 25 lines, 5f in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, with ruled 
margins; dated Sha'ban, A.H. 1006 (A.D. 
1598). [CI. J. Rich.] 

The fourth volume of the Rauzat us-Safa, 
containing the history of the dynasties 
contemporary with the Abbasides, brought 
down, in the case of the latest of them, to 
the time of their extinction by Timur, 

Beg. es-^^ *?-^.'^ J L?'^^ obU-> sJ^ »-^^*-^ 

The dynasties included in this volume, 
a full detail of which has been given by 
Morley in his Descriptive Catalogue, pp. 34, 
35, are the following : 

Tahiris, fol. 1 a. SafElris, fol. 3 a. Samii- 
nis, fol. 8 b. Kabus B. Vashmagir and his 
successors, fol. 23 a. Ghaznavis, fol. 25 a. 
Al i Buvaih, fol. 41 b. Ismu'ilis of the Magh- 
rib, fol. 52 b, and of Iran, fol. 57 b. Saljukis 
of Iran, fol. 73 a, Kirman and Rum, fol. 
102 a. Khwarazmshahis, fol. 103 b. Kara- 
khitais of Kirman, fol. 128 b. Al i Muzaffar, 
fol. 131 b. Atabaks of Mausil, fol. 177 b, 
Azarbaijan, fol. 179 a, Filrs, fol. 181 a, and 
Lur, fol. 186 a. Ghuris, fol. 188 b. Slaves 
of the Ghuris who became kings, fol. 192 b. 
Khiljis, fol. 193 6; Shams ud-Din Iltatmish 
and his successors, fol. 194 b. Kings of Nim- 
ruz, fol. 196 a. Kurts, fol. 197 a. 

Copyist: ijji/> *«»lj> jU* (J?-'^ -^-j <^^"*^ »^ 



Add. 17,932. 

Foil. 186; 121 in. by 7; 30 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in a neat Nestalik, with 'Unvan 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



91 



and gold-ruled margins ; dated Eabl' I., A.H. 
1010 (A.D. 1601). 

The fourth volume of the same work. 

Copyist : j^l:J«». ^jwil j>^ ^^ JS sU. 

Add. 23,503. 

Poll. 304 ; 11^ in. by 6i ; 22 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in clear Nestalik, with ruled 
margins, apparently in the 17th century. 

[Rob. Taylor.] 

The fourth volume of the same work, 
wanting about three pages at the beginning, 
and a few lines at the end. 

Or. 1114. 

Foil. 301 ; 12i in. by 8^; 23 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik, with 
'Unvan and ruled margins, apparently in 
the 17th century. [Warren Hastings.] 

The fourth volume of the same work, 
wanting the last page. 

, Add. 25,778. 

Foil. 250 ; 181 in. by 9 ; 23 lines, 5| in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik, apparently 
in India, in the 18th century. 

[Wm. Cureton.] 

The fourth volume of the same work, 
with corrections and additions in the margins. 

The last leaf contains a copy of a letter 
written in Arabic, apparently to some official 
of the Nizam. The writer, whose name does 
not appear, relates his landing in Masulipa- 
tam after a distressing voyage of twenty 
days, and sends greetings to a Major Palmer. 
He further states that the Navvab had joined 
the Mahrattas against Tipu Sahib, whose 
death was rumoured. 

Add. 26,182. 

Fol. 209; 13 in. by 8 ; 23 lines, 4| in. 



long ; written in a small and neat Nestalik, 
on English paper, apparently in the 19th 
century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

The fourth volume of the same work. 

Add. 17,933. 

Fol. 338; 9^ in. by 6^ ; 17 lines, 4.^ in. 
long ; written in a large Nestalik ; dated 
Eabi' II., A.H. 1023 (A.D, 1614), in the 
reign of Shah 'Abbas. 

The fifth volume of the Rauzat us-Safa, 
containing the history of Chingiz Khan and 
his successors, down to the time of Timur ; 
see Morley, Descriptive Catalogue, p. 36. 

Beg. xJ, ^j^%tt jSu J i_.*SU* *»-U;>> (jiJJjT 
Copyist: JjuJ^ ^_g^^ t^*-"- tji^ u'^ 

Or. 1115. 

Foil. 191 ; 13 in. by 9^ ; 25 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with gold- 
ruled margins, probably in the 16th cen- 
tury. [Warren Hastings.] 

The fifth volume of the same work, 
wanting the first eight leaves. 

Add. 23,504. 

Foil. 255 ; 12 in. by 7 ; 23 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in neat Naskhi ; dated Mu- 
harram, A.H. 1017 (A.D. 1608). 

[EoB. Tatlor.] 

The fifth volume of the same work. 
Copyist : j^^ i^ »U» a.^ ^j) iy--.»- .J-^ 

Add. 9995. 

Foil. 222 ; 11 in. by 8i ; 21 lines, 6^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Zul-ka'dah, 
A.H. 1043 (A.D. 1634). 

The fifth volume of the same work. 

N 2 



92 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



Copyist: f_^.iJL*»- ^ ^j^ 

On the fly leaf is impressed the Persian 
seal of Henry George Keene, whose sig- 
nature -w-ith the date, April, 1802, is found 
on the next page. 

Add. 26,183. 

Foil. 299 ; 11^ in. hy 6| ; 19 Hnes, 4J in. 
long; written in Nestalik, probably in the 
17th century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

The fifth volume of the Rauzat us-Safa. 

Add. 27,236. 

Poll. 341 ; 13i in. by 8 ; 23 lines, 4J in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with 'Unvan and 
gold-ruled margins; dated Rajab, A.H. 1017 
(A.D. 1608). [Sir John Malcolm.] 

The sixth volume of the same work, con- 
taining the history of Timur and his succes- 
sors, down to the death of Sultan Abu Sa'id, 
A.H. 873. 

Beg. o"^t?^ x^ <J^ -J o^V" J '^♦*' ^W 
This portion is probably the oldest of the 
work. The author states twice, towards the 
end, fol. 339, that he was writing in A.H. 879. 

Scribe : jb ^ (^ ^\^ p-laJl y>\ ^^ ^^-.s► 

In the latter half of the volume, foil. 
214 — 337, the rubrics have not been entered. 
On the first leaf is impressed the seal of the 
Nawab of the Carnatic, 'Azim ud-daulah, 
with the date A.H. 1216. Beneath is written : 
" Erom His Highness the Nabob of the Car- 
natic, to John Macdonald Kinneir." 

'Azim ud-daulah was appointed Navvab 
by English influence in the year 1801. See 
Mill, History of India, vol. vi., p. 341. 



Add. 23,506. 

EoU. 273; 13 in. by 7|; 27 lines, h\ in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins; dated Shavvrd, A.H. 
1030 (A.D. 1621). [Rob. Taylor.] 

The sixth volume of the same work. 

The MS. contains ten whole-page minia- 
tures on the following foil. : 22 a, 35 h, 52 «, 
70 h, 90 6, 116 h, 152 h, 201 a, 224 h, 254 a. 
They are rather coarsely painted in the Per- 
sian style, and represent mostly battle-scenes. 

A full table of contents, apparently drawn 
up for Col. Taylor, is prefixed to the volume, 
foU. 1—12. 

Add. 23,505. 

Poll. 370; 12f in. by 7i; 23 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in neat Naskhi ; dated Rabi' II., 
A.H. 1075 (A.D. 1664). [Rob. Taylor.] 

The sixth volume of the same work. 

Add. 26,184. 

EoU. 425 ; Hi in. by 7 ; 21 lines, 41 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with 'Unvan and 
gold-ruled margins; dated Rajab, A.H. 1031 
(A.D. 1622). [Wm. Erskine.J 

The sixth volume of the same work. 

The last page, which contains the date of 
the MS., is apparently a modern transcript 
of the original subscription. 

Add. 17,934. 

EoU. 172; 14 in. by 9; 30 lines, 7 in. 
long ; written in cursjve Nestalik, apparently 
in India, in the 18th century. 

The sixth volume of the same work, imper- 
fect at beginning and end, and wanting most 
of the rubrics. 

Two leaves are lost at the be^innins. 
four after fol. 2, one after fol. 3, and one 
after fol. 10. About fourteen leaves are 
wanting at the end. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



93 



Add. 16,676. 

EoU. 125; 15 in. by 9^; 21 lines, 6^ in. 
long ; written in a bold Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in India, 
in the 17th century. [Wm. Yule.] 

The seventh volume of the Rauzat us-Safa, 
containing the history of Abul-Ghazi Sultan 
Husain from his birth to his death, and an 
account of his sous, brought down to A.H. 929. 

Beg. Ci*^J6 djjji^ iJ^a- j^jb o^l««> J^-oa- 

In a short preamble the author, who calls 
himself Muhammad B. Khavand Shah (i. e. 
Mir Khwand), says that after completing the 
previous six parts, he decided, by desire of 
Mir 'All Shir, to devote a seventh volume to 
a record of the life and reign of his benefac- 
tor, Abul-Ghazi Sultan Husain. This pre- 
face, which is also found in an older copy. 
Add. 7645, may have been written by Mir 
Khwand, but the work itself cannot be 
ascribed to him. It begins with a short sum- 
mary of the life of Sultun Husain, which is 
brought down to his death in A.H. 911, i. e. 
to a period by eight years later than the 
death of the supposed author. A still later 
date, A.H. 929, is mentioned in several 
places, foil. 118 a, 124 6, etc., as that at M^hich 
the work was written. Lastly, this so-called 
seventh volume of the Rauzat us-Safa agrees 
word for word, excepting the preamble, with 
that portion of the Habib us-Siyar, which 
treats of Sultan Husain's reign 5 see Bombay 
edition, vol. ii., pp. 201—374. 

Khwand Amir says, in the Khulasat 
ul-Afkar, Or. 1292, fol. 394, that, owing to 
the want of authentic records of the events 
of Sultan Husain's reign, the seventh volume 
of the Rauzat us-Safii had been left un- 
finished, and adds, that he hoped to be 
able to complete it himself at some future 
time, if he could obtain the necessary ma- 
terials. 

It may be noticed that in the Bombay 



edition of the Rauzat us-Safa the name of 
Ghiyas ud-Din Khondah Mir jJw. »jj^ is sub- 
stituted in the preface of this seventh volume 
for that of Mir Khwand. 

Add. 23,507. 

Poll. 80 ; 12 in. by 8 ; 19 lines, 5 in. long; 
written in Nestalik ; dated Baghdad, Rabi' I., 
A.H. 1242 (A.D. 1826). [Rob. Tayi.or.J 

The geographical Appendix, «^U-, to the 
Rauzat us-Saffi.. 

Beg. ,J^. ji^ ^^^ j.r*» yj ^^^^ *^jj j^j'-" *«^^ 

In some copies this heading is left out and 
•the text begins with the next sentence : j) 

jjl»i »JJ^^ ^^ji:^ *-r*^'*lj ^ji^ '-r'^J^ <-§]) 

A statement of the contents has been 
given by Aumer in the Miinich Catalogue, 
p. 66. A portion of the conclusion of the 
work, containing a panegyric on Mir 'Ali 
Shir, has been translated by Jourdain in the 
Notices et Extraits, vol. ix., pp. 125 — 131, 
and the same writer shows further on that 
the Khatimah, although probably the work 
of Mir Khwand, contains some additions of 
later date, apparently due to Khwand Amir. 

It has been noticed by M. Barbier de Mey- 
nard. Journal Asiatique 6" Serie, vol. xvi., 
p. 464, that the account of Herat in the 
Khatimah is an unacknowledged extract from 
the history of that city, entitled Rauzat 
ul-Jannat, by Mu'in ud-Din Asfizari. 

Copyist : <i^ ^^ ^^ 

Add. 26,305. 

Poll. 148; 7 in. by 4i; 15 lines, 2J in. 
long; written in Nestalik; dated Rabi' L, 
A.H. 981 (A.D. 1573). [Wm. Erskine.] 

An imperfect copy of the same Appendix, 
wanting eight leaves in the beginning, three 
after fol. 50, two after fol. 61, and seventeen 
after fol. 144. 

On the fly-leaf is found the following title 



94> 



GENEEAL HISTORY. 



in the handwriting of Wm. Erskine: "Tak- 
vim ul Bildan e TJlugh Beg." 

Add. 25,779. 

Poll. 114; 8i in. by 4|; 19 lines, 2| in. 
long ; written in Naskhi, with ruled margins, 
probably in the 17th century. 

[Wm. Cureton.] 



\Juo}\ 



&*ai 



The same Appendix, also imperfect. It 
wants three pages at the beginning, and two 
leaves after fol. 29. 

Add. 25,796. 

Poll. 130; 10 in. by 5f ; 14 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
17th century. [Wm. Cueeton.] 

The same Appendix, wanting the first 
page. A spurious beginning, supplied by a 
later hand, is endorsed ^^ljJ\ oULia air-* 

This MS. bears the stamp of General Claud 
Martin. 

Add. 17,935. 

Poll. 78; Hi in. by 7 ; 13 lines 4^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with 'Unvan and 
gold-rviled margins ; dated A.H. 1263 (A.D. 

1847). 

The same Appendix, with the heading j^ 

\suci\ Laj. jJiJtA 

Add. 7642. 

FoU. 461 ; 12| in. by 8^ ; 29 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in small and neat Naskhi ; 
with two 'Unvans and gold-ruled margins ; 
dated RabI' I., A.H. 987, and Zul-ka'dah, 
A.H. 988 (A.D. 1579—1581). [CI. J. Rich.] 

Volumes I. and II, of the Rauzat us Safa, 
written by the same hand, and bound in one. 

Vol. II. begins fol. 215 b. 

Copyist : aUl ^%j) ^Ji ti)i\ Jii 



Or. 1113. 

Foil. 517 ; 13J in. by 9|; ; 28 and 29 lines, 
5| in. long ; written in neat Naskhi, with 
two 'Unvans and gold-ruled margins, appa- 
rently in the 16th century. 

[Wareen Hastings.] 

Volumes I. and II. of the Rauzat us- Safa, 
written by the same hand, and bound in one. 
Vol. II. begins fol. 242 b. 

This MS. appears to have belonged to the 
imperial library of India : the first page 
contains several 'Arz-didahs and seals of the 
reigns of Akbar, Jahangir and Shahjahan. 

Add. 16,674. 

Foil. 396 ; 14| in. by 9| ; 24 lines, 5| in. 
long ; written in small and neat Nestalik, 
with 'Unvans and gold-ruled margins, appa- 
rently in the 16th century. [Wm, Yule.] 

Volumes III. and IV. of the same work. 

The first few lines of the text are written 
in white on the first two opposite pages, in 
the centre of a broad and richly illuminated 
border. The beginning of vol. IV., fol. 
173 b, is marked by a plainer 'Unvan. 

Add. 16,675. 

Foil. 339 ; 14| in. by 9f ; 29 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in a small and neat Nestalik, 
with two 'Unvans and gold-ruled margins ; 
dated Shavval, A.H. 1029, and Rabi' I., 
A.H. 1028 (A.D. 1619—1620). [Wm. Yule.] 

Volumes V. and VI. of the same work, the 
latter beginning fol. 109 b. 
Copyist : i^-^^-J^ xtf 

Add. 7645. 

Foil. 508 ; 15| in. by 8f ; 29 lines, 5^ in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, with four 
'Unvans and gold-ruled margins, apparently 
about the beginning of the 17th century. 

[CI. J. Rich.] 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



96 



Volumes V.— VII. of the Eauzat us-Safa 
and the geographical Appendix, beginning 
respectively on foil. 1 b, 151 b, 381 b and 
472 b. Vol. VII. is the same as that pre- 
viously described, Add. 16,676 and begins 
with the same preface, in which the author 
calls himself Muhammad B. Khavand Shah, 

On the first page of this MS. is impressed 
the seal of an Amir of Shahjahan's court, 
Safshikan Khan, with the date A.H. 1039, 
and above it is a note written by him, stating 
that he presented this volume to his brother 
Mirzci Hasan, in A.H. 1043. Mirza Lashkari 
Rizavi, who received at the accession of Shah- 
jahan the title of Safshikan Khan, died in 
A.H. 1055. See Maasir ul-Umara, Add. 
6568, fol. 370. 

On the same page is a note, dated A.H. 
1105, stating that the MS. was in the hand- 
writing of Sharif ud-Din Hamid Muhammad. 

Or. 1112. 

Eoll. 604 ; 15| in. by 9^ ; 29 lines, 5| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with three 'Un- 
vans and gold-ruled margins ; dated Mu- 
harram, A.H. 1056 (A.D. 1646). 

[Wakren Hastings.] 

Volumes I. — III. of the Rauzat us-Safa, 
written by the same hand, and bound in one ; 
they begin respectively on foil, lb, 222b, 466 b. 

Vol. I. must have been written at least a 
year before the others, for we find on its 
first page a note stating that it was pur- 
chased at Dehli, A.H. 1055, by Muhammad 
Salih Tabib Shirazi, for 400 rupees. 

Add. 5546, 5547. 

Two volumes perfectly uniform, contain- 
ing respectively foil. 267 and 365, 12 in. by 
9 ; 25 lines, 6^ in. long ; written in Nes- 
talik by the same hand, apparently in India, 
in the 17th century. [Cha. Hamilton.] 

Volumes II. — IV. of the same work, viz. 
vol, II., wanting the last leaf, Add. 5546; 



vol. III., Add 6547, foil. 1—157, vol. IV., 
ib. foil. 158—365. 

Copyist : j^^x^^ Jtjcr 

On the first leaf of Add. 5546 are written 
the names of two former owners, Cha. 
Hamilton, with the date "Belgram, 1777," 
and Rob. Watherston. 

Add. 25,770-25,774. 

Eive uniform volumes, containing re- 
spectively foil. 113, 135, 133, 189, and 68 ; 
12 in. by 7^ ; 35 lines, 4^ in. long ; written 
by the same hand, in small Nestalik, with 
'IJnvans and gold-ruled margins, apparently 
.in the 17th century. [Wm. Cueeton.J 

Volumes III, — VII. of the same work. 
Volume VII. is simply the liistory of 
Sultan Husain's reign, transcribed from the 
Habib us-Siyar, without any preface. There 
is nothing to connect it with the Rauzat us- 
Safa but the endorsement Jii* liL*. . The 
last three volumes bear evidence of havins: 
once been bound together, for a large hole, 
apparently the work of rats, goes through 
the back of all three, destroying more or 
less of the writing. 

Add. 26,185. 

FoU. 223 ; 10| in. by 6f ; 21 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in Naskhi ; dated Shavval, 
A.H. 1070 (A.D. 1660). [Wm. Erskine.J 

Volume VII. of the same work and the 
geographical Appendix, the latter beginning 
fol. 151 b. 

Volume VII. has the preface already de- 
scribed : see Add. 16,676. 

Copyist : Ji' c>^ 

Add. 18,540. 

Poll. 480 ; 21 in. by llf ; 50 lines, 8 in, 
long ; written in a fair Nestalik, by two dif- 
ferent scribes, with seven 'Unvans and gold- 
ruled margins ; dated A,H. 1256—1261 (A.D. 
1841 — 1845). [J. H. Stekxschuss.] 



. GENERAL HISTOEY. 



The Rauzat iis-Safa, complete in one 
volume. This fine and carefully written 
copy comprises seven parts, namely vols. 
I. — VI. and the geographical Appendix, 
which is here entitled vol. VII., ^xaa jAs- , 
as follows :— Vol. I. fol. 1 h. Vol. II. fol. 91 &. 
Vol. III., fol. 205 h. Vol. IV., fol. 255 h. Vol. 
v., fol. 322 h. Vol. VI., fol. 376 b. Geogra- 
phical Appendix, fol. 466 h. 

The name of the first scribe ^^ yb i,.^ 
w-15 &j (,>»liV' J-s*.**"' ix^ occurs at the end 
of the first and fourth volumes, and the 
dates of the first five volumes range from 
A.H. 1256 to 1258. 

The name of the later transcriber^'li!! ^^ 
^_^bjjiC\ ,*-»'JD\ \jj^ ur?"^ d'^ ^^ found at the end 
of volume VI. with the date A.H. 1260, and 
also in the final colophon, where it is stated 
that the whole work was transcribed by 
order of the noble Sayyid, Haji Mir Husaina, 
and completed in Safar, A.H. 1261. 

This volume is bound in richly painted 
and glazed wooden covers. The paintings 
on the outer sides represent an encounter 
between a Persian and an Indian army, led 
by their respective kings; those on the 
inner sides, horsemen, apparently Kajar 
princes, hunting the lion, the boar and the 
gazelle. 

Add. 16,677. 

Eoll. 166; 12i in. by 7; 23 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with 'Unvan and 
gold-ruled margins; dated Zul-Hijjah, A.H. 
1018 (A.D. 1610). [Wm. Yule.] 

This MS., although written by one hand, 
and having all the appearance of a con- 
tinuous text, is made up of three detached 
portions of the Rauzat us-Safa. 

I. Eoll. 1 — 19. Geographical Appendix, 
from the beginning to the middle of the 
chapter on islands. 

II. Eoll. 20-41. Another fragment of 



h e same Appendix, from the beginnino of 
the second climate to the end of the account 
of Shahrukh's embassy to China. 

III. Foil. 42— 166. A fragment of vol. iii., 
from the rising of Mukhtar at Kufah, A.H. 
64, to the end of the volume. 

Or. 1292. 

Foil. 406; 9J in. by 6^; 21 lines, 4 in. 
long, in a page; written in a small and neat 
Naskhi, with 'Unvan, gold-ruled margins 
and gold headings; dated Ramazan, A.H 
917 (A.D. 1511). 

An abridgment of general history from 
the creation of the world to A.H. 985. 

Author : Ghiya§ ud-Din B. Humam ud- 
Dln, surnamed Khwand Amir, ^^ ^^.Jl ^^U 

Beg. }i^\s^ ^UjJ\ ^bj\^ our *^i)^ 
European writers agree in calling Khwand 
Amir the son of Mir Khwand. This is 
nevertheless an error. He says himself in 
his Habib us-Siyar (Bombay edition, vol. ii., 
p. 198), that the great historian was his 
maternal grandfather, and, if such testimony 
needed confirmation, it would be found in 
the concurrent statements of contemporary 
writers, as Sam Mirza, Tuhfah i SamT 
Add. 7670, fol. 63 a, and Amin Razi, Haft 
Iklim, Add. 16,734, fol. 591 a. He was born 
m Herat, A.H. 879 or 880, and found, like 
his grandfather, a kind patron in Mir 'Ali 
Shir. After many years spent in bterary 
pursuits in his native city, and afterwards in 
Basht, a village of Gharjistr.n, he repaired in 
A.H. 934 to India, where he was favourably 
received by Babar and held in high honour 
by his successor Ilumayun ; he died in 
Gujarat, A.H. 941. His last work, Humayun 
Namah, comes down to the end of A.H. 940. 
His son served under Akbar, who gave 



GENERAL HISTOEY. 



97 



him the title of Sayyid 'Abd Ullah Khan. 
Khwand Amir's life has been very fully 
told by Quatremere, Journal des Savants, 
1843, pp. 386—394, and by Elliot, His- 
tory of India, vol. iv., pp. 141—145, and v., 
p. 116; see also Reinaud, Biogr. Univ., 
under Khondemyr. Eor the contents of the 
present work compare Morley, Descriptive 
Catalogue, pp. 38—42, and the Vienna 
Catalogue, vol. ii. p. 68. A considerable 
portion of the Khulasat ul-Akhbar has been 
translated by Major David Price in his Re- 
trospect of Mohammedan History. 

The author says in the preface that his 
literary pursuits had gained for him the 
notice and kind encouragement of Mir 'AH 
Shir, who in A.H. 904 placed all the his- 
torical works of his library at the disposal 
of the youthful student. He immediately 
set about abstracting their contents, and 
condensing them in the present epitome, 
which he dedicated to his noble patron. He 
states at the end that he had performed that 
task in the space of six months. Although 
the history proper in the Khulasat ul-Akh- 
bar comes to a close with the second accession 
of Sultan Husain in A.H. 875, some notices 
relating to the sons of Abu Sa id, foil. 374—5, 
are brought down to A.H. 905, which is 
stated in several places, foil. 374, 376, 391, to 
be the year in which the work was written. 

It is divided into a Mukaddimah, ten 
Makalahs, and a Khatimah, as follows:— 
Mukaddimah ; creation of the World, fol. 3 a. 
Makalah I. Prophets, fol. 5 o. II. Philoso- 
phers, fol. 61 a. III. Early kings of Persia, 
fol. 54 b. Arab kings, viz., Lakhmis, Ghas- 
sanis, Himyaris, fol. 79 a. IV. Muhammad, 
fol. 90 a. V. The first Khalifs (Rrishidin) 
and the twelve Imams, fol. 122 a. VI. The 
Umayyades, fol. 146 b. VII. The Abbasides, 
fol. 169 6. VIII. Tahiris, fol. 202 a. Safiaris, 
fol. 203 6. Samanis, fol. 204 6. Al i Buvaih, 
fol. 210 a. Kabus B. Vashmagir, fol. 216 a. 
Ghaznavis, fol. 216 o. Ismuilis of Maghrib, 



fol. 222 b, of Iran, fol. 225 b. Saljukis, 
fol. 229 a. Khwarazmshahis, fol. 244 a. 
Atabaks of Mausil, Azarbaijan, Ears, and 
Luristan, fol. 254 b. Karakhitais, fol. 259 b. 
Al i MuzafiFar, fol. 261 b. Sarbadars, fol. 274 b. 
Ghuris, fol. 277 b. Slaves of the Ghuris, 
fol. 279 b. Kings of Sistan, fol. 281 a. 
Kurts, fol. 281 b. IX. Chingizkhan and his 
successors, fol. 286 a. X. Timur and his 
successors, down to A.H. 875. Khatimah ; 
description of Herat, and biographical no- 
tices on eminent contemporaries, fol. 382 b. 
Copyist : i^^\ ^j^ ^^.ii^\ u-*-* 

Add. 19,626. 

Foil. 390 ; 11 in. by 6^ ; 23 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in 
the 17th century. [Sam. Lee.] 

The same work. 

On the first page is found the name of 
Dr. Woodburn, with the date " Surat 1782." 

Add. 25,780. 

Poll. 200 ; 11 in. by 6f ; 19 Hues, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with ruled mar- 
gins, probably in India, in the 17th century. 

[Wm. Cuketon.] 

The latter part of the same work, be- 
ginning in the middle of the account of the 
Khwarizmshahi Dynasty, Makalah VIII. 

The fly-leaf contains the name of Francis 
Gladwin and William Moorcroft, of Hajee- 
poor. 

Add. 25,781. 

FoU. 267; 12^ in. by 7i; 20 lines, 5\ in. 
long ; written on English paper, apparently 
in India, about the close of the 18th century. 

[Wm. Cureton.] 

The latter half of the same work, beginning 

with the heading of Makalah VIII. On the 

fly-leaf is found the name of William Franck- 

lin, with the date A.D. 1813. 

o 



98 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



Add. 23,508. 

EoU. 315; 11| in. by 7^; 22 Hnes, 4^ in. 
long ; written in fair small Nestalik ; dated 
Eabr I., A.H. 1025, and Jumada II., A.H. 
1027 (A.D. 1616—1618). [Eobt. Tayloe.] 

A work on general history, from the 
earliest times to A.H. 930, by the same 
author, viz., Ghiyiis ud-Din B. Humam ud- 
Din, called Khwand Amir, -Ufc ^^ ^J>,iii^ i^Ufr 

Beg. jlji^ls. ^bui\jUi J^Xi^^ J^}^ 

We learn from the preface that this com- 
pilation was undertaken at the request of 
the author's patron, the Sayyid Ghiyas ud-Din 
Muhammad B. Yusuf ul Husaini. It is stated 
, in another part of the work that this Ghiyas 
ud-Din had been selected by Sultan Husain 
for the mastership of one of the Madrasahs 
of Herat, and was treated with great favour 
by that Sultan's successors, Badi' uz-zaman 
and the Uzbak Shaibani. Appointed Kiizi of 
Khorasan and civil administrator of Herat 
by Shah Isma' il Safavi, he was treacherously 
put to death in A.H. 927 by Amir Khan, 
who governed the province in the name of 
Prince Tahmasp. 

Khwand Amir proceeds to say that he was 
engaged on the first volume of his work 
when he thus lost his patron, and such was 
then the disturbed state of Herat, that he 
had given up all hopes of completing it, when 
order was restored by the arrival of the new 
governor, Diirmish Khan, who was sent in 
the same year by the Shah, and who con- 
fided the civil administration to Karim ud- 
Din Khwjijah Habib ullah. The latter, a 
man of great learning and much versed in 
history, and who is referred to in the con- 
clusion of the Habib-us-Siyar under the 
name of his native place, Savah, received 



the author kindly and encouraged him to 
resume his interrupted labours. 

From the conclusion of the fourth chap- 
ter of vol. iu. (Add. 6532, fol. 109 a) it 
appears that the author brought his account 
of the reigning sovereign, Shah Isma il, to a 
close in the month of Eabi' I., A.H. 930 (a 
few months before Shah Ismail's death). 
At the end of the geographical Appendix 
the same date, A.H. 930, is given in two 
different chronograms, for the completion of 
the whole work. Some verses follow in 
praise of the author's patron, in which it is 
said that the work was called Habib us- 
Siyar after his name. 

The Habib us-Siyar has been printed in 
Tehran, A.H. 1271, and in Bombay, A.H. 
1273. The contents have been fully de- 
scribed by Morley, in his Catalogue, pp. 42 
— 50. Compare Quatremere, Journal des 
Savant's, 1843, pp. 386—394; Elliot, His- 
tory of India, vol. iv., pp. 154 — 158 ; Aumer, 
Miinich Catalogue, pp. 75—78 ; Eliigel, 
Vienna Catalogue, vol. ii., p. 393 ; and Haj. 
Khal., vol. iii., p. 14. 

The work is divided into three volumes 
(Mujallad), each subdivided into four chap- 
ters (Juz). 

The present MS. contains the first volume. 

Contents : Preface, fol. 1 b. Introduction 
(Iftitah), creation of the World, fol. 7 a. 
Juz 1. Prophets and Sages, fol. 9 b. Juz 2. 
Kings of Persia and Arabia before Mu- 
hammad, fol. 97 b. Juz 3. Muhammad, fol. 
153 b. Juz 4. The first four Khalifs, fol. 
244 b. 

Copyist: i_jo..i^ V's^ MjJlt sii\ c^\,ijt> ^^\ 

Add. 27,237. 

Foil. 515 ; 9 in. by 5| ; 19 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in neat Nestalik, with four 'Un- 
vans and gold-ruled margins ; dated Rajab, 
A.H. 1005 (A.D. 1597). 

[SiK John Malcolm.] 



GENEEAL HISTORY. 



09 



The second volume of the same work, 
divided into four Juz, as follows : 1. The 
twelve Imams, fol. 1 h. 2. The Banu Umay- 
yah, fol. 91 b. 3. The Abbasides, fol. 169 b. 
4. The following dynasties : Tahiris, SaffTiris, 
and Sfimanis, fol. 277 b. Ghaznavis, fol. 
292 b. Kings of Tabaristan, fol. 315 b. 
Kings of Mazandaran, fol. 329 a. Al i 
Buvaih, fol. 333 a. Aulad i Ziyar, fol. 346 a. 
Ikhshid, fol. 353 b. The Ismri'ilis of Magh- 
rib, fol. 355 a, and of Iran, fol. 363 b. Sal- 
jQkis, fol. 379 b. Saljukis of Kirman and 
Rum, fol. 427 b. Kings of Mausil and Syria, 
fol. 431 a. Atabaks of Mausil, fol. 433 b, 
Azarbrdjan, fol. 438 a, Ears, fol. 440 a. 
Kings of Spain, Ifrikiyyah and Maghrib, 
fol. 447 a. Al i Ayyiib, fol. 457 a. The 
Ghuris, fol. 468 b. Slaves of the Ghuris 
and kings of Dehli, fol. 475 a. Kings 
of Sistan, fol. 482 b. Khwarazmshahis, fol. 
484 a. 

Copyist ; j/obliyU.- lij.^ ^^ jS-'^ i^> e;*~»- 

Add. 17,925. 

Poll. 585; 15i in. by 10; from 25 to 29 
lines, 5|; in. long ; written in small Nestalik, 
■with ruled margins ; dated RabI' I. and Ra- 
mazan, A.H. 1022, (A.D. 1613). 

Volume III. of the same work, containing 
four Juz and an Appendix, as follows : 

I. The Khans of Turkistan. Chingiz Khan 
and his descendants in Iran and Turau, fol. 
1 6—101 a. 

II. Mamluk kings of Egypt, fol. 147 b. 
Karakhita'is of Kirman, fol. 154 b. Al i Mu- 
zaffar, fol. 157 a. Atabaks of Luristan, fol. 
179 b. Kings of Rustamdar and Mazanda- 
ran, fol. 180 b. Sarbadrirs, fol. 191 a. Kurts, 
fol. 195 a. 

III. Timur and his descendants, fol. 202 b. 
This section closes with an account of the 
sons of Sultan Husain, which is brought 
down to the time of writing, i. e. A.H. 929. 



IV. The History of Shah Ismail Safavi, 
brought down to AH. 930; fol. 469 b. 

Conclusion (Ikhtitam) ; description of the 
inhabited quarter of the globe and its curio- 
sities, fol. 555 a. This last section is to 
sdme extent identical with the Khatimah of 
the Rauzat us-Safa, which, as stated above, 
has been partly written by Khwand-Amir. 
In the present copy it wants a few lines at 
the end. 

Poll. 101 — 147 contain a duplicate copy 
of tlie latter portion of Juz II., with an addi- 
tional chapter not found in other copies. 
This chapter, which is inserted between the 
.account of the Atabaks of Luristan and that 
of the kings of Rustamdar, foil. 103 a — 120 a, 
is headed (^IL-jjifc td)jl* j^J, and treats, at 
some length, of the kings of Dehli, from the 
accession of Ghiya§ ud-Din Ball)an to the 
reign of Eiruz Shah B. Rajah. The latest 
date mentioned is A.H. 764, and the last 
event is the dismissal of Jam Junah to his 
government in Sind, which is said to have 
taken place a few years later; see Briggs' 
Eirishtah, vol. i., p. 455, vol. iv., p. 424. 
The author states here that this account ol 
Eiruz Shah's reign, down to his war Avith 
Shams ud-Din Ilyas, is extracted from the 
Tarikh i Eiruzsliahi of Ziya Barni, and the 
remainder from a Risiilah, written by Eiriiz 
Shah himself, adding that he had been 
unable to procure any further information. 

A note written on fol. 202 b, states, that 
in A.H. 1215, this MS. became the property 
of Muhammad Rizii B. Abd ur-Rashid in 
Shlraz. 

Add. 16,678, 16,679. 

Two uniform volumes containing respec- 
tively foil. 496 and 497 ; 15^ in. by 8| ; 28 
lines, 5| in. long ; written in cursive Nesta- 
lik, with 'Unvans and gold-ruled margins, 
apparently in India ; dated A.H. 1104 (A.D. 
1692—3). [Wm, Ytjle.] 

2o 



100 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



jh^^ ^-r*Jf 



The same work complete. 

Add. 16,678 contains volumes i. and ii., the 
second beginning on fol. 241 b. Eight leaves 
at the end are occupied by a full table of 
contents, written in AH. 1217. 

Add. 16,679 contains the four Juz of 
volume iii. and the Conclusion, beginning 
scveraUy on foil. 2 b, 77 b, 127 b, 372 b and 
438 6. 

Both volumes bear the seal of an Amir of 
the Court of Dehli, Muzaffar 'All Khan, ser- 
vant of Shah *Alam Padishah Ghazi, with the 
date A.H. 1123. 

Add. 6559. 

Poll. 290; llf in. by 7i; 25 lines, 4f in. 
long ; written in a neat Nestalik, with 'Un- 
van and gold-ruled margins, probably in the 
16th century. [J. F. Hull.] 

The first volume of the Habib us-Siyar, 
with marginal corrections. The four Juz 
begin respectively on foil. 18 a, 89 a, 137 a, 
222 a. 

On the first page is a note stating that 
this volume was bought, together with two 
others in the same handwriting, by Ya'kub 
Beg Chaghatai out of the estate of the late 
Shari'at Khan, in Shahjahanabad, A.H. 1139. 
On the same page is impressed the ofldcial 
seal of Mr. James Grant, with the date 1193 
of the Bengal sera. 

A very full index of contents, neatly drawn 
up in tabular form, probably in the 18th 
century, is prefixed to the MS., foil. 1 — 10. 

Add. 6560. 

Foil. 483; llf in. by 7i; 26 lines, 4f in. 
long ; written in a straggling Indian Nesta- 
lik ; dated Rajab, A.H. 1195 (A.D. 1781). 

[J. F. Hull.] 

The second volume of the same work. 

The four Juz begin respectively on foil. 
11 a, 78 b, 149 a, 256 b. 



The first nine leaves contain a full table of 
contents. 

This volume bears, like the preceding and 
the two following, the seal of Mr. James 
Grant. 

Add. 6561. 

Foil 569; llf in. by 7^; 25 lines, 5 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in 
India, in the 18th century. [J. F. Hull.] 

The first three Juz of volume iii. of the 
same work, beginning respectively on foil. 
8 b, 143 a, 228 b. 

Scribe: »jb^<i ^^^ *?.l* i^t^ 

A full table of contents, written by the 
same hand as the text, occupies the first 
seven leaves. 

Add. 6562. 

Foil. 162 ; llf in. by 7^ ; 25 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in neat Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
16th century. [J. F, Hull.] 

The fourth and last Juz of the same 
volume iii., and the Conclusion, beginning 
respectively on foil. 5 b, and 118 a. 

At the end is a versified chronogram, in 
the hand of the transcriber. It is headed 
■^ : - .*- » r ]jj-i* *'^]} M'^'^ CjS^j ^j\J , and 
relates to the birth of a child in A.H. 993, 
a date probably posterior to that of the 
transcription. 

Prefixed is a table of contents, foil. 1 — 4, 
uniform with that of Add. 6559, and written 
by the same hand. . 

Add. 22,692. 

Foil. 361 ; 11 in. by 7 ; 23 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
17th century. [Sir John Campbell.] 

The first volume of the same work. The 
four Juz begin respectively at foil. 11 b, 
113 a, 179 b, 277 b. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



101 



The first page, a few lines at the bottom 
of fol. 360, and the last two pages, fol. 361, 
have been supplied by another hand in 
A.H. 1207. 

Add. 17,924. 

FoU. 397 ; 10 in. by 5^ ; 23 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in Nestalik, probably in the 
17th century. 

The first volume of the same work, imper- 
fect. It wants three pages at the beginning, 
and about sixteen at the end (Bombay edition, 
vol. i., pp. 77 — 84). Moreover, about eight 
pages of the preface, containing the praises 
of the author's patron, Hablb-ullah, have 
been left out by the transcriber. The four 
Juz begin severally on foil. 8 a, 121 a, 198 «, 
and 309 b. 

At the top of the first page is impressed 
the seal of Abu Muhammad Nasir ut-TabrIzi, 
with the date A.H. 1118. 

Add. 23,509. 

Foil. 197 ; 11 in. by 6^ ; 25 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in a neat Nestalik, with TJnvan 
and gold-ruled margins, dated Sha'biin, A.H. 
1011 (A.D. 1603). [Rob. Taylor.] 

Juz 2 — 4 of the same first volume, begin- 
ning respectively at foU. 2 b, 51 6, 133 b. 

An Arabic note on the first page states 
that this volume was purchased, A.H. 1213, 
of Haji Husain Gul-khor of Isfahan. 

Add. 7640. 

Foil. 207 ; 15 in. by 9i ; 31 Hnes, 6| in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, with ruled 
margins, apparently in the 17th century. 

[CI. J. Rich.] 

The second volume of the same work, with 
marginal notes and corrections. The four 
Juz begin respectively on foil. 1 b, 36 b, 64 b, 
107 b. 

An old folioing, which begins at 195, shows 



that this second volume was once bound up 
with the first. 

At the end is a note stating that this MS. 
was purchased in Herat, A.H. 1106. 



Add. 26,186. 

Foil. 196; 11| in. by 6^ ; 17 lines, 
4^ in. long ; written in Nestalik ; dated 
Shawal, A.H. 1009 (A.D. 1600). 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

The fourth Juz of volume iii. of the same 
work, and the cosmographical Conclusion. 
The latter begins on fol. 163 b. 

The first page has been supplied by a later 
hand. 

Add. 7641. 

FoU. 151 ; 12 in. by 7 ; 23 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in neat Nestalik, with ruled 
margins, dated A.H. 1026 (A.D. 1617. 

[CI. J. Rich.] 

The fourth Juz of the same volume iii., 
and the cosmographical Conclusion, the latter 
beginning on fol. Ill b. 

Scribe : ^j\^ Jlo j-»a^ ^^\ ^\ ^^] 

On the margins of foil. 125 b, 148 b, and 
149 a, there are some notes in Shikastah, re- 
lating to a plague and other occurrences at 
Baghdad and Karbala, in A.H. 1216—1218. 



Add. 23,510. 

Foil. 328 ; 11^ in. by 7 ; 25 lines, 4J 
in. long ; written in fair Nestalik ; dated 
Jumada II., A.H. 1051 (A.D. 1641). 

[Rob. Taylob.] 

The last two Juz of the same volume iii., 
beginning respectively on foil. 1 b and 230 a. 

Copyist : t^J-ijJ ,JV t:;?' •^--^ -^ 



102 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



Add. 23,511. 

Foil. 241; lOi in. by 7^ ; 17 lines, 4| 
in. long; written in Nestaltk, dated Jahan- 
glrnagar, Rajab, A.H. 1227 (A.D. 1812). 

[Rob. Taylor.] 

The fourth Juz of volume iii., and the 
cosmographical Conclusion, the latter be- 
ginning on fol. 176 6. 

Copyist : y;i-»- <^^ 

Add. 7639. 

Foil. 386 ; 13 in. by 7^ ; 23 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, dated Charpadkan, 
Rabl' II., A.H. 1031, and Sha'ban, A.H. 1032 
(A.D. 1622—1623). [CI. J. Rich]. 

Three detached portions of the Habib us- 
Siyar, as follows : — 

1. The first half of volume i., breaking off, 
fol. 139 a, in the midst of the account of 
the Himyarite king, Zu-Nuvas (Bombay 
edition, vol. ii. p. 56). 

2. The fourth Juz of volume ii., fol. 140 b. 

3. The first Juz of volume iii., fol. 291 b. 

Copyist : j^_>^»-jJI jb jd JUjb^ Jj^j 

A note on the first page states that this 
MS. was bought in Ispahan, A.H. 1160, by 
Haji Mustaft. Khan Shamlu, Persian Am- 
bassador to Turkey. 

Add. 6934. 

Foil. 376 ; 12 in. by 7i ; from 18 to 20 
lines, 4 or B in. long ; written on one side of 
the paper only, by the Rev. J. Haddon 
Hindley. The paper is water-marked 1814. 

The history of Hulagu Khan and his suc- 
cessors down to Abu Sa'id, from the first 
Juz of volume iii. of the Habib us-Siyar 
(Bombay edition, p. 63 — 118). 



Add. 6935. 

Foil. 173 ; 9 in. by 7 ; from 13 to 15 lines, 
about 4 in. long ; written by the same hand 
as the preceding, on paper water-marked 
1813. 

The latter portion of the same Juz, from 
the accession of Arpah Khan to the end. 
(Bombay edition, pp. 126 — 141.) 

Add. 26,188. 

Foil. 353 ; lOf in. by OJ ; 19 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, apparently 
in India, in the 17th century. 

[Wm. Ebskine.] 



J^jJ^j^\ ^Jo 



A work on general history from the crea- 
tion of the world to the 10th century of the 
Hijrah, closing with a detailed account of 
the reign of Abul-Khair, Khan of Kipchak. 

Author: Mas udi [sic, for Mas ud] B. 'U§man 

Kuhistani, ^lL»ft^i' ^J^^ i^ fj^yt,^ 

In a long and wordy preface, the first page 
of which is wanting, the author expatiates on 
the praises of his sovereign, Abul-Ghazi 
Sultan 'Abd ul-Latif Bahadur Khan, who, 
although young in years, was leading a life 
of austere piety and devotion to his people's 
welfare, and by whose commands he had 
written the present work. 

The Uzbek 'Abd ul-Latif Khan, son of 
Kiichkiinji, succeeded to his brother Abd 
nUah on the throne of Mavara an-Nahr in 
A.H. 947, and died A.H. 959. See Jahan- 
ara. Or. 141, fol. 159; Lubb ut-Tavarikh, 
Add. 23,512, fol. 168 ; and Eauzat ut-Tahirin, 
Or. 168, fol. 365. 

The founder of the Uzbek Dynasty, Abul- 
Khair B. Daulat Shaikh Oghlan, from whose 
name the title of the work is derived, was 
a descendant of Juji, son of Chingiz Khan, 
He added Khwarazm to his hereditary estate 



GENEKAL niSTORY. 



103 



of Kipchak in A.H. 839, and died, as stated 
in the present work, in A.H. 874. See 
Senkowski, Suppl6ment k I'histoire des Huns, 
p. 18; Do Guigues, vol. iv. pp. 432 — 35 ; Ham- 
mer, Geschichte der Goldenen Horde, p. 397 ; 
Erskine, History of India under Baber, vol. i., 
p. 29 ; and Abulgasi, Histoire Gen^alogique 
des Tatars, Leyde, pp. 499 — 514. 

The work is written in a florid prose, 
freely interspersed with verses ; it is much 
wanting in historical precision, and contains 
no reference to the author's sources. Its 
latter portion, which relates to the little 
known Uzbek Dynasty, but is imperfect in 
the present copy, alone gives it some value. 

Contents : Preface, fol. 2 a ; creation, 
Prophets and ancestors of Muhammad, 
fol. 11 b ; Life of Muhammad, fol. 28 a. 
Tabakah 1. The early Khalifs and the twelve 
Imams, fol. 34 b. Tabakah 2. Banu Umayyah, 
fol. 56 a. Tabakah 3. The Abbaside Khalifs, 
fol. 57 « ; The early kings of Persia from 
Kayumars to Yazdajird, fol. 77 b. This 
section is made up to a great extent of 
extracts from the Shahnamah. Saffaris, 
fol. 170 b ; Samanis, fol. 172 b ; Ghaznavis, 
fol. 173 b ; Saljukis, fol. 189 b ; Chingiz 
Khan and his successors, down to the accession 
of Timiir Ka'an in A.H. 694 ; Hulagu Khan 
and his successors, fol. 272 a. 

This last section breaks off on fol. 321 5, 
in the account of the defeat of Sultan Ahmad 
Jalair by the Turkoman Karii Yusuf, near 
Tabriz (A.H. 813; see Price's Eetrospect, 
vol. iii. p. 513). 

The last heading is^^.^ :>.^\JS A:i\jiJJsi^ 

The remainder of the volume is taken up 
by the history of Abul-Khair IQian. It 
begins abruptly on fol. 322 a, in the midst of 
the account of a battle, in which Mustafa 
Khan was routed by Abul-Khair Khan, and 
is said to have lost 4500 men. The next 
section relates to Abul-Khair's expedition 



against the fortress of Sighnak jUi- 
where he spends the winter, and receives in 
the following spring intelligence of the death 
of Shrdirukh (A.H. 850). In the next fol- 
lowing pages the author dwells at some 
length on the conflicts that ensued upon the 
death of Ulugh Beg, the arrival of Abu 
Sa'id Mlrza at the Khan's court, and the 
latter's march upon Samarkand, in A.H. 
855, in support of Abu Said's claim (see 
Price's Eetrospect, vol. iii. p. 576), and, after 
going rapidly over the latter part of Abul- 
Khair's reign, he brings the narrative to a 
close, fol, 319, with the record of Abul- 
Khair's death in A.H. 874, at the age of 
fifty-seven. Here follows an enumeration of 
his children, and a short sketch of those of 
his descendants who reigned in Samarkand 
and Khorasan. These last are — 

His grandson Muhammad Shaibani Khan, 
who ascended the throne in Samarkand, 
A.H. 906, and fell in an encounter with 
Shah Ismail, A.H. 916 ; Abul-Khair Khan 

Sivlnj, ^>.yf,-^, son of Abul-Khair Khan, who 
came from Tashkand to seize upon Samar- 
kand after his nephew's decease, but resigned 
it some years later to his elder brother, 
Abul-Mansur KuchkOnji Khan, whose reign 
lasted about twenty years ; the latter's 
eldest son, Sultan Abu Sa'id Bahadur, who 
died young, after a reign of three years ; 
Abul-Ghazi 'Abd ul-Latif Bahadur Khan, 
who was Amir of tJratapa, and by whose 
order the present work was written, succeeds 
to his brother in Samarkand, while another 
brother 'Abd Ullah Sultan is proclaimed in 
Turkistan. As the latter, who died, after a 
reign of six months, in A.H. 947, is here 
spoken of as still reigning, it must be in- 
ferred that the author was writing before 
that date. The above account appears to 
refer exclusively to the principality of Sa- 
markand ; it difiers materially from the 
order of succession recorded in the Lubb ut- 



104 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



Taviirikh, Jalianara, and Rauzat ut-tahirin, 
which is as follows : Kuchkunji, A.H. 916 — 
936. Abu Sa'id B. Kuchkunji, A.H. 936— 
939. IJbaid Khan B. Mahmud Sultan B. 
Abul-Khair, A.H. 939—946. 'Abd UUah B. 
Kuchkunji, A.H. 946—947. 'Abd ul-Latif 
B. Kuchkunji, A.H. 947—959. 

At the end of this volume, fol. 352 a, the 
descent of Abulkhair Khan from Chingiz 
Khan is set forth as follows : — 

(See de Guigues, vol. i. p. 291, and Sen- 
kowski, Supplement, p. 17.) 

The names of some Amirs of his court 
are then given, and finally the author says 
that he will now proceed to record the life 
and deeds of Muhammad Shaibani Khan. 

The history was probably brought down 
to the time of the reigning Khan, 'Abd ul- 
Latif. 

The following subscription shows that this 
copy was written for a Hindu retainer of an 
Amir of the Dehli court, called Allah Virdi 
Khan :— 

^^ ^]j\j ^^ i^\i,^y^_ ^J <^ • ■ . ■ jUi» 

Or. 140. 

Poll. 77 ; 13 in. by 7 ; 27 lines, 4f in. 
long ; written in neat Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
17th century. [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

^M ^ 
An abridgment of general history, from 
the earliest times to A.H. 948. 

The author, whose name does not appear 



in the text, is known to be Amir Yahya 
B. 'Abd ul-Latif ul-Husaini ul-Kazvini, jx*\ 

Beg. j> ^J^ cHi^^ " \}^}"^ o-'^ J '5-^ 

Amir Yahya, who belonged to the Saifi 
branch of the Kazvin Sayyids, is said to have 
been so thoroughly versed in history' as to 
have known by heart the dates of all the im- 
portant events, as well as those of the death of 
celebrated men, from the Hijrah to his own 
time. After enjoying some favour at court 
he was denounced to Shah Tahmasp as chief 
of the obnoxious Sunnis of Kazvin, and died 
in prison at Ispahan, A.H. 962, at the 
age of seventy- seven. See Haft Hdim, 
Add. 16,734, fol. 493, Maa§ir ul-Umara, 
Add. 6568, fol. 561, and Blochmann, Ain i 
Akbari, vol. i., p. 447. His grandson Nakib 
Khan, who lived at the court of Akbar, has 
been mentioned above, p. 57 b. 

The Lubb ut-Tavarikh has been described 
by Sir H. M. Elliot, Bibliographical Index, 
p. 134, and History of India, vol. iv. 
pp. 293 — 297. Some extracts have been 
given by Dr. Dorn, Asiatisches Museum, 
p. 670, and Mdlanges Asiatiques, vol. i. p. 3. 
A Latin translation, " Medulla Historiarum," 
has been published in Biisching's Magasin 
fiir die Neue Historic, Halle, 1783. See also 
Haj. Khal., vol. v. p. 307, the Vienna Cata- 
logue, vol. ii. p. 71, KraflFt's Catalogue, 
p. 87, Ouseley Collection, No. 322, Ouseley's 
Travels, vol. ii., p. 401, and Uri, Bodl. Cata- 
logue, p. 279. 

The work was written, as stated in the 
preface, by the desire of Prince Abu l-Fath 
Bahram Mirza, the fourth son of Shah Isma*!! 
Safavi and uterine brother of Shah Tahmasp 
(see fol. 76 o), and was completed in Zul- 
Hijjah, A.H. 948 (see fol. 77 a). (Bahram 
Mirza is mentioned by his brother, the 
author of Tuhfah i Sami, who states that he 
died A.H. 956.) It is divided into four 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



106 



parts (Icism) of very unequal length, which 
are enumerated, with all their subdivisions, 
as follows : 

Kism I., in two chapters (Fasl). 1. Mu- 
hammad, fo]. 2 b. 2. The twelve Imams, 
fol. 5 a. 

Kism II. Kings anterior to Islamism, in 
four chapters : — 1. Plshdadis. 2. Kayanis. 
3. Muluk ut-Tava'if. 4. Siisanis, fol. 10 a. 

Kism III. Kings posterior to Islamism. 
It contains the following three discourses 
(Makalah) and six sections (Bab) : — Ma- 
kalah 1. Abu Bakr, TJmar, 'Ugman, fol. 18 a. 
Makalah 2. Banu Umayyah, ib. Makalah 3. 
Banu 'Abbas, fol. 20 a. 

Bab 1. Kings of Iran in the time of the 
Abbasides. It contains eleven chapters 
(Fasl), treating of the following dynasties : 

1. Tahiris, fol. 23 b. 2. Saffaris, fol. 24 a. 

3. Samanis, fol. 24 b. 4. Ghaznavis, fol. 25 b. 
5. Ghuris, fol. 26 b. 6. Buvaihis, fol. 27 b. 
7. Saljfikis, fol. 29 a. 8. Khwarazmshahis, 
fol. 32 a. 9. Atabaks, fol. 33 a. 10. Isma'ilis 
of Maghrib and of Iran, fol. 35 a. 11. Kara- 
khitais of Kirman, fol. 37 a- 

Bab 2. Moghuls, from Chingizkhan to 
Abu Sa'id, fol. 38 a. 

Bab 3. Muluk ut-Tava"if, or local dynas- 
ties which succeeded to the Moghuls in 
Iran; Five chapters : — 1. Chupanis, fol. 43 a. 

2. Ilkanis, fol. 44 a. 3. Amir Shaikh Abu 
Ishak Injii and the Muzaffaris, fol. 46 a. 

4. Kurts, fol. 48 b. 5. Sarbadars, fol. 50 b. 
Bab 4. Timur and his successors in Iran, 

fol. 52 b. 

Bab 5. Turkish kings, i. e. Karakuyiinlus 
and Ak-kuyunlus, fol. 61 a. 

Bab 6. Uzbeks of Mavara-unnahr and 
Khorasan, from A.H. 900 to the date of com- 
position, fol. 67 b. 

Kism IV. History of the Safavis, the 
principal object of the work, fol. 68 a. This 
section concludes with a very summary 
account of the reign of Tahmasp, to the full 
record of which the author intended, as he I 



states in his last lines, to devote a separate 
work. 

Add. 16,707. 

Foil. 159; 8 in. by 4^; 21 lines, 2| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with TJnvan 
and gold-ruled margins, probably in the 
17th century. [Wm. Yule.] 

The same work. 

Foil. 67 — 64 have been supplied by a later 
hand; one leaf is wanting after fol. 147. 
The fly-leaf contains a short notice of the 
author, from the Haft Iklim. 

Add. 23,512. 

- Foil. 187; 12 in. by 7| ; 17 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Bombay, 
Rabi' II., A.H. 1242 (A.D. 1826). 

[Rob. Taylor.] 

The same work. 

The text of this copy contains a great 
number of obituary notices of learned men 
and poets, which are not found in the pre- 
ceding MSS., although such notices are 
mentioned by the author in his preface as 
coming within the design of the work. 
Other additions, however, are evidently 
foreign to the original, as, for instance, the 
mention of the death of Humayun in A.H. 
963, fol. 148. 

At the end, and in the same hand as the 
text, is found an extensive notice on the au- 
thor, foil. 185 b — 187 a, in which his amazins 
knowledge of history and his facetious dis- 
position are dwelt upon at some length. 
Amir Nasir ud-Din Yahya ul-Husaini ur- 
Razi, as he is here called, was born in A.H. 
885, and discharged during fifty years the 
office of Kazi-l-kuzat in Kazvin. In A.H. 
960 he was, by order of Tahmasp, transferred 
in custody to Ispahan, where he died on the 
23rd of Rajab A.H. 962. The latter date is 
confirmed by a versified chronogram, written 
by a contemporary poet, Maulana Nazuki. 

Copyist : j<X^ ^^\M Jp J-^ j,^ 



106 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



Add. 26,286. 

Foil. 248; 9^ in. by 7; 19 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in a small and neat Nestalik ; 
dated ShaTian A.H. 970 (A.D. 1563). 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

"Picture-gallery," a collection of interesting 
narratives and curious notices, culled from 
the standard works of Mohammedan history. 

Author : Ihn Muhammad Ahmad, .x^ ^^\ 



Beg. jjUu«,\G sjjjlG ^j\j jjU-jjl^ sjjjy^ ^^\ 

The author, who calls himself in the pre- 
face simply Ibn Muhammad Ahmad, is 
generally known by the name of Kazi Ahmad 
Ghaffari. His surname is derived from the 
name of his ancestor, a Shafi'i lawyer of great 
repute, Imam Najm ud-Din 'Abd ul-GhaflPar 
Kazvini, who died A.H. 665. He wrote, 
besides the present work, an excellent com- 
pendium of history called Jahanara, and died 
in the port of Daibal, Sind, on his return from 
a pilgrimage to Mecca, A.H. 975 ; see Haft 
Iklim, Add. 16,734, fol. 494, and Bada'uni, 
Oude Catalogue, p. 56. Sam Mu'za mentions 
both Kazi Ahmad and his father, Kazl Muham- 
mad Ghaffari,in his Tuhfah i Sami, Add. 7670, 
fol. 70; he states that the father, who was 
Kazi of Rai and wrote poetry under the name 
of Visali,died A.H. 933,and that the son,Kazi 
Ahmad, an elegant writer of prose and verse, 
had been some time staying in his (Sam Mir- 
za's) house. The contents of the Nigaristan 
have been very fully stated by Krafft, Cata- 
logue, pp. 87 — 90. See also Hammer, Schone 
Redekiinste, pp. 307—9 ; Morley, Descriptive 
Catalogue, p. 50 ; Dorn, S. Petersburg Cata- 
logue, p. 276, and Asiatisches Museum, 
p. 676 ; lastly, Elliot, History of India, vol. ii. 
p. 504. The work has been lithographed at 
Bombay, A.H. 1245 and 1275. A Turkish 
translation is preserved in MS., Add. 7852. 



The preface contains, in some copies, a 
dedication in prose and verse to the reign- 
ing Shah (Tahmasp), which is not found in 
the present copy, but occupies three pages in 
the next. Add. 23,767, foU. 3 b—4> b. At the 
end of the preface the author enumerates all 
the works which he has used in the present 
compilation. The following are mentioned 
in this copy and in Or. 240, in addition to 
those given by Krafft, p. 87, and by Dorn, 
Asiat. Mus. p. 677 : No, 15. Eirdaus ut-Tavii- 
rlkh, by Maulana Khusrau Abarkuhi. No. 23. 
Futuhiit i Miranshahi, by Maulana Sa'd UUah 
Kirmanl. No. 24. Masalik i Mamillik, by 
Maulana 'Abd ur-RahIm Mashhadi. No. 25. 
Tarikh i Sayyid Zahir Mazandarani. No. 26. 
Tarikh i Vasit, by Sayyid Ja'far B. Muhammad 
B. Hasan ul-Ja'fari. 

The narratives are arranged under the 
dynasties to which they relate, in a series 
extending from the time of Muhammad to 
the beginning of the 10th century of the 
Hijrah, and short chronological notices of 
the various dynasties are inserted in their 
proper places. The date of composition, 
A.H. 959, is expressed by the words ^^^J^^J^ 
^\j, in a versified chronogram with which 
the work concludes. 



Or. 240. 

FoU. 278 ; 8^ in. by 5| ; 17 lines, 3^ in. 
long; written in a small and neat Nestalik, 
apparently in the 16th century. 

[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

The same work. 

FoU. 9 — 39 have been supplied by a later 
hand, to fill up a lacune of the original MS. 
The same hand has restored foil. 2 — 8, the 
bottom part of which had been torn off. 

The first and last leaves bear the stamps 
of the kings of Oude, Sulaiman Jah and 
Amjad *Ali (see above, p. 28 b). 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



107 



Add. 23,767. 

Foil. 215; 81 in. by 5; 17 lines, 2| in. 
long; written in a neat Nestalik, on tinted 
paper, with TJnvan and gold-ruled margins ; 
dated Sha'ban, A.H. 1014 (A.D. 1605). 
Bound in gilt and stamped leather covers. 

The same work. 

Add. 22,694. 

FoU. 254 ; 11 in. by 6 ; 18 lines, S^ in. 
long; written in Nestalik; dated Rabi' I., 
A.H. 1044 (A.D. 1634). 

[Sir John Campbell.] 

The same work. 

The first two leaves are slightly torn. The 
last two have lost a few lines at the top. 

Copyist: i^a^/ji j^l/j.^ oJj j^J^j** 

Add. 7648. 

Foil. 261 ; 8| in. by 5 ; 17 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written in a fair Nestalik ; dated 
Surat, Eabi' I., A.H. 1080 (A.D. 1669). 

[01. J. Rich.] 

The same work, wanting a few lines at 
the beginning. 

This copy was written, as stated at the 
end, for Mirzii Eiza KuH, at the time that he 
arrived at Surat to fill the post of Divan and 
Vaki'ah-Navis, by a writer in his service. 



Add. 23,513. 

Foil. 489 ; 14| m. by 9^ ; 27 lines, 6^ in. 
long; written in Nestaiik, with 'Unvan and 
ruled margins; dated Zul Hijjah, A.H. 1095 
(A.D. 1684). ■ [Rob. Tayloe.] 

A general history, from the earliest times 
to A.H. 970. 



Author: Khwurshah B. Kubad ul-IJusaini 
Beg. Ll*»«li-j o'<jj9-^ JiMjii «ic-* &»-U>.i 

The first two lines have been written by a 
later hand, to supply a defect of the ori- 
ginal MS. 

The author is called in the next copy, 
Or. 153, the Envoy of Nizamshah of the 
Deccan, ^J^li »ll*liaij_j;^-^ . He tells us 
himself, in his account of the Safavi Dynasty, 
Or, 153, fol. 60 a, that he was sent by 
Nizamshah on an embassy to Shah Tahmiisp, 
and arrived at Rai in the month of Rajab, 
A.H. 952. He sent on his credentials to the 
Shah, who was then encamped at Firuzkuh, 
and by whose order he proceeded to Kazvin. 
There he obtained, a month later, his first 
audience, offered to the Shah the presents he 
had brought, to the value of a thousand 
Tumans, and answered his gracious inquiries 
after his sovereign (Burhan Nizam Shah) 
and the holy Sayyid, Shah Tahir, who had 
brought over the latter to the true faith of 
the Shi'ah. He remained for a year and a 
half in attendance on the Shah, whom he 
followed in his campaign in Gurjistan and 
Shirvan. His stay in Persia was of long 
duration ; for nineteen years later, A.H. 971, 
we still find him at the court of Tahmasp 
(Or. 153, fol. 45 a). The Shah was then 
preparing to send Kaba Beg, a KurchI, on a 
mission to Kutub Shah, king of Tilinganah, 
and among the presents intended for the 
latter was a record, drawn up by the Shah 
himself, of his deeds from the beginning of 
the Turkish war to the latest date. The 
author being at that time engaged on the 
present work, which had been perused by 
His Majesty, this record was graciously 
communicated to him for his own use ; and 
indeed we find his account of that period 
enriched with several extracts from that in- 
teresting autobiography, in which Tahmasp, 

p2 



108 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



like his contemporary Biibar, speaks in the 
first person; see Or. 153, foil. 45, 63, 70. 
The author's long residence at the Persian 
court, and the rare opportunities, which he 
enjoyed, there, give an exceptional import- 
ance to that portion of his history. He 
also visited Gilan and Mazandaran, and his 
detailed account of the later rulers of those 
countries is therefore of no ordinary value. 

Our author is mentioned by Pirishtah at 
the beginning of his account of the Kutub- 
shahs, Bombay edition, vol. ii. p. 328. He 
says that Shah Khwurshah, a native of Irak, 
had written in the time of Ibrahim Kutub- 
shah (A.H. 957 — 988) an extensive historical 
work, comprising a full account of that 
dynasty, but that he had not been able to 
procure a copy. A record of the author's death, 
found at the end of the next copy, Or. 122, 
is entitled to some credit ; for it was written 
at the time, and by the transcriber who 
completed the MS. only five days before that 
event. He died, as there stated, in Golconda, 
on the 25th of Zul-Ka'dah, A.H. 972. 

In his preface the author, after expatiating 
on the usefulness of history, states that, in 
spite of the troubles of exile and the pressure 
of many duties and cares, the thought had 
occurred to him to write, in plain and easy 
language, a compendium of history from the 
beginning of the world to the time of com- 
position, and to grace it with the exalted 
name of a sovereign, whose eulogy follows. 
But, in a long string of pompous titles, the 
name is the very thing that is wanting. It 
is added, however, that the history of that 
monarch will be fully told in the sixth Guf- 
tar of Makalah VII., and as the last section 
is entirely devoted to India, there can be no 
doubt that the author's own sovereign is 
here meant. This was Shah Husain Nizam 
Shah, who succeeded to his father Burhan, 
the convert of Shah Tahir, in A.H. 961, 
and died on the 7th of Zul-Ka'dah, A.H. 
972, consequently a few days before the 



author. See Burhan ul-Maa§ir, Add. 9997, 
fol. 128 b. 

The author then gives the following 
account of his sources : 



^V J 



^1)15:2^ **w 



^^- J ijji^ j£j 



u "iJlk. j\ 



j\ J ^dj ^j^ ^5LJ^ in*'* ^^ ?:-^J f?.W J^ J 
J i3m>\J{ )b\sit\ vl*«^L-^ «5 \Le^\ 'Lojj tl*3\S jJj»- 
Cj\)3\j ^j^jJl t— *5 ji J tiy^ (_s^^ iS^Mt\ a-->)^ 

djj I ^^\JJ jjLs- ji Obl^ ui*> (read ^^j) ji ,xZt 

In addition to the above, we find also fre- 
quent quotations from Tarikh i Guzldah, 
Habib us-Siyar, Zafar-Namah, and its Mu- 
kaddimah. 

The work bears no specific title. It is 
called after its author's ofiicial designation, 
s'^ ^Uai j_y=:V.' ^J3 . It has been stated above 
that the author was engaged upon it in A.H. 
971 ; that year is several times mentioned 
in the body of the work as the current year ; 
namely, foil. 280 b, 431 a, and Or. 153, 
foU. 110 b, 112 b, 113 b; but in another 
place, fol. 267 b, we find A.H. 970. 

It is divided into an Introduction (Mukad- 
dimah)and seven books (Makalah), subdivided 
into discourses (Guftar), as follows : 

Alukaddimah. Object of the creation of the 
world and of Adam; Adam's descendants, 
down to Noah, and the deluge, fol. 5 a. 

Makalah I., in five Guftars : 1. Pishdadis 
and contemporary prophets, fol. 13 b. 2. Ka- 
yanis and contemporary prophets, fol. 45 a. 
3. Alexander, the Aslikanis, and Muluk ut- 
tava'if; prophets and philosophers of the 
same period, fol. 59 a. 4. Sasanis, fol. 69 b. 
5. Kings of Yaman and some of the Roman 
emperors, fol. 82 a. 

Makalah II., in five Guftars: 1. Life of 
Muhammad, fol. 86 6. 2. The first three 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



109 



Khalifs, fol, 110 b. 3. 'Ali and the Imams, 
fol. 114 b. 4. The accursed Banu Umayyah 
and the Shi'is, who as Mukhtar and others 
rose against them to avenge the hlood of 
Husain, fol. 135 b. 5. The downfall of the 
Banu Umayyah, and the rise and rule of the 
Banu 'Abhas, the accursed, fol. 141 b. 

Makfilah III. Dynasties which rose in the 
time of the Abbasides, in thirteen Guftars: 

I. Tahiris, fol. 149 a. 2. Safiaris, fol. 150 a. 

3. Samanis, fol. 153 b. 4. Al i Buvaih, 
foh 160 b. 5. Ghaznavis, fol. 168 b. 6. Kings 
of Ghur and Gharjistan, fol. 180 a. 7. Isma'i- 
lis of Maghrib, fol. 183 b, and of Iran, fol. 
189 b. 8. Saljukis, fol. 198 a. 9. Kings of 
Nimruz, fol. 217 a. 10. Kurts, fol. 217 b. 

II. Atabaks of Mausil, Azarbaijan, Ears, and 
Luristan, fol. 222 a. 12. Khwarazmshahis, 
fol. 226 b. 13. Karakhita'is in Kirman, fol. 
238 a. 

Makalah IV., in four Guftars : 1. Genealogy 
of the Turkish tribes and ancestors of Chin- 
giz Khan, fol. 239 a. 2. Chingiz Khan, fol. 
243 b. tJkta'i Ka'an and his successors, down 
to Kubila Ka'an, fol. 254 a. Karii Hulagu and 
his successors in Mavara-unnahr,. down to the 
time of Timur, fol. 260 b. Descendants of 
JujI in the North and in Mavarii-unnahr, 
down to Pir Muhammad, the reigning Khan 
in Balkh, in the author's time, A.H. 970, fol. 
263 b. 3. Hulagu Khan and his successors 
in Iran, down to the defeat of Sultan Ahmad 
Jalair by Kara Yusuf (A.H. 813), fol. 2i87 b. 

4. The MuzafFaris, fol. 296 a. 

Makalah V., in three Guftars: 1. Amir 
Timur, fol. 312 b. This section is abridged 
from the Zafar Niimah. 2. Shahrukh and 
his successors, down to the submission of 
Mirza Muhammad Zaman to Babar, A.H. 923, 
and his subsequent restoration of the Kha- 
nate of Balkh, fol. 361 a. 3. Babar, fol. 
407 a. Humayun, fol. 418 b. Akbar, fol. 
430 b. The account of the last reign is very 
brief. It is chiefly taken up with the rebel- 
lion and death of Bairam Khan, and closes 



with the defeat of Miran Mubarak Shah by 
•Abdullah Khan (Uzbak, A.H. 970.) 

Makalah VI., in five Guftars: 1. Kara 
Kuyunlus, fol. 431 a. 2. Ak Kuyunlus, fol. 
436 b. 3. Shah Imail Safavi, fol. 445 a. 
Shah Tahmasp, fol. 464 b. 

A comparison of this last section, with the 
corresponding part of the next copy, Or. 153, 
shows that its latter portion, foil. 477 b — 
482 a, extending from A.H. 943 to 972, al- 
though in appearance a continuation of what 
precedes, is no part of Khwurshah's work. 
It is taken from Nusakh i Jahanara (see 
p. Ill, Or. 121, foil. 220 6—237), with some 
intentional alterations in the wording. The 
' same remark applies to the next-following 
Guftar, headed c^^ j O^U j^Lj jit J^LiS 
^JImj^ j^^^U., the contents of which, with 
the corresponding portions of Ghaffari's work, 
are as follows : Sultans of Tabaristan, from 
Husain B. Zaid, A.H. 250, to Gllan Shah, 
A.H. 470, fol. 482 a=Nusakh i Jahanara, 
Or. 141, foil. 57 5—61. Second Sayyid 
Dynasty of Gilan, or the Kar Kiyas, from 
AH. 763 to 972. The Mar'ashi Sayyids of 
Mazandaran and the Ruz-afzunis, fol. 483 b = 
Or. 141, foil. 68 o— 75 b. Kings of Rustam- 
dar or Gaoparah, and kings of KujQr, fol. 
485 6= Or. 141, foil. 144 6—149 b. Bavan- 
dis and Jalavis, fol. 487 a=Or. 141, foil. 
140 a— 144 b. The Musha'sha' Sayyids of 
Khuzistan, fol. 488 6= Or. 141, foil. 75 b— 
77 a. Here the present volume ends. Accord- 
ing to the preface, the remaining sections 
are the following: Guftar 5 of Makalah 

VI. Padishahs of Rum (Turkey). Makalah 

VII. Sultans of India, in five Guftars- 
1. Sultans of Dehli. 2. Afghan Dynasty 
of Dehli. 3. Khiljis of Bengal and Mandu, 
4. Kings of Gujarat. 5. Bahmanis of the 
Deccan. 

Transcriber : ^JJ^.i>^}^ ,_/-J «>-^ ij>. Ji-»»- 
This MS. contains marginal additions of 
some extent, written by the same hand as the 



no 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



text, such as the history of Mukhtar from the 
Tarikh i Tabarl, foil. 149—157, the Hfe of 
Safl ud-Din from the Lubb ut-tavarlkh, 
foil. 464—468, and others. On foil. 269— 
274 is the tale of Bahram and Bihriiz, two 
brothers who lived in Tabaristan, written by 
another hand in A.H. 1182. 

Or. 153. 

Foil. 122 ; lOJ in. by 5^ ; 23 lines, 3f in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with ruled mar- 
gins ; dated the 20th of Zul-Ka'dah, A.H. 972 
(A.D. 1565). [Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

The same work. 

This copy, which was completed five days 
before the author's death, is far more correct 
than the preceding. It contains : — Guftar 3 
ofMakalahVI. Shah Ismail, fol. 2 6. Shah 
Tahmasp, fol. 32 b. The very full account 
of the latter's reign is brought down to the 
confinement of Sam Mirzfi in the fortress of 
Kalikahah, A.H. 969, and closes with a chap- 
ter on the praiseworthy quaUties of Tahmasp. 

Guftar 4. Rulers of Tabaristan and adjoin- 
ing countries, who reigned in the time of 
Shah Isma il and Tahmasp, and acknowledged 
their sovereignty. It comprises the following 
dynasties : 

1. Kings of Shirvan, fol. 79 : Shirvan Shah 
Farrukh-yasar, who defeated Sultan Haidar 
Safavi in A.H. 893, and fell in battle with 
Shah Isma'il, A.H. 906. His son Shaikh 
Shah, who submitted to Shah Isma'il A.H. 
914. Sultan Khalil, who died, after a reign 
of twenty-five years, in A.H. 943. Shah- 
rukh Sultan, brother's son of Khalil, who 
drove the usurper Kalandar Beg from Sha- 
makhi, and finally surrendered to Tahmasp. 

2. Sultans of the Jilanat, in two branches : 
a. Rulers of Bayah Pish, capital Lahijan, 
fol. 82 b ; Kar Kiya Mirza 'All, who resigns 
the throne, A.H. 910, to his brother Kiir 
Kiva Sultan Hasan. The latter is murdered 
A.H. 911. Kar Kiya Sultan Ahmad, his son, 



who dies A.H. 940. The latter's son, Sultan 
Sayyid Kiya 'All. Kar Kiya Sultan Hasan, 
who puts to death the preceding, his elder 
brother, and dies A.H. 944. His son Khan 
Ahmad, who was reigning when the work 
was written. — b. Rulers of Bayah Pas, 
capital Rasht, fol. 86 b. Amirah Husiim ud- 
Din, who submits to Shah Isma'il in A.H. 
911. His son Muzafiar Sultan, whose land is 
conquered by the rulers of Lahijan in A.H. 
943, and who dies in exile. 

3. Rulers of Mazandaran, fol. 87 b. Aka 
Rustam Riiz-afzun, who dies A.H. 916. Mir 
'Abd ul-Karim B. Amir 'Abd Ullah, who 
dies A.H. 932. Amir Shahi, his son, who 
dies A.H. 939. Aka Muhammad Ruz-afzun, 
who submits to Tahmasp, A.H. 952, and 
reigns thirty-six years. Amir 'Abd Ullah 
B. Amir Mahmiid B. 'Abd ul-Karim, who 
reigns twelve years. Amir Sultan Miirad 
B. Amir Shahi, the reigning Amir. 

4. Rulers of Rustamdar, fol. 96 a. Malik 
Ka'us in Kujii ^^ and Malik Bahman in 
Nur, who both voluntarily submit to Shah 
Ismail, but subsequently repel the army 
sent against them by Tahmasp, under com- 
mand of Ilkas Mirza. Their sons Jahangir 
and Kayumar§, the reigning Maliks. 

5. Sayyids of Hazarjarib, fol. 96 b. They 
descend from Sayyid 'Imad, who received 
that district in fief from Timiir, and are 
divided into two branches, called Razi ud- 
Dini and Jabra'ili. Mir Husain, the head of 
the first, submitted to Shah Isma'il at the 
hands of 'Durmish Khan, but subsequently 
rebelled and was put to death in A.H. 929. 
The second branchy is represented by two 
chiefs, Mir Hariin and Mir Riih Ullah. The 
first died A.H. 916, and was succeeded by 
his son Mir Mu'in ud-Din, and tlie latter's 
sons Sultan Hashim and Sultan Hasan. The 
second submitted to Shah Isma'il, A.H. 916, 
and died A.H. 927. His son Amir 'Abd 
Ullah plundered the Persian army, beaten 
by 'Ubaid Khan Uzbak in A.H. 933, and 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



Ill 



■was put to death in the following year hy 
Shiih Tahmasp. 

Guftar 5. Sultans of Turkey, from their 
origin to the surrender of Sultan Bayazld 
by Tahmasp, A.H. 969, fol. 99 h. 

Makalah VII. Muslim dynasties of India. 
It is stated in the heading to comprise six 
Guftars, but this copy contains only the five 
following : — 1. Sultans of Dehli, from Kutb 
ud-Din Aibak to the overthrow of 'Ala ud-Din 
B. Muhammad Shah B. Farid Shah by Sultan 
Bahlul Afghan, in A.H. 855, fol. 103 h. 2. 
Afghans of Dehli, from Bahlul Lodi to the 
defeat of Iskandar by Humayun in A.H. 
962. Sultan Husain Sharki in Jaunpur, fol. 
109 a. 3. Khiljis of Bengal, from Muhammad 
Bakhtiyar to the defeat of Mahmud B. Firuz 
Shah by Shir Khan, A.H. 945, fol. 110 5. 
Khiljis of Mandu, down to Ghiya§ ud-Din B. 
Sultan Mahmud, who was dethroned by 
Sultan Bahadur of Gujarat, fol. 112 a. 4. 
Kings of Gujarat, from Muzaffar Shah, A.H. 
793, to Mahmud B. Latif Shah, murdered in 
A.H. 961. 5. Bahmanis of Deccan, from 
'Alii ud-Din Hasan, A.H. 748, to the death 
of Mahmud Shah (A.H. 928) and the dis- 
memberment of the realm. 

The author mentions, in conclusion, the 
five Amirs who then assumed independent 
power, viz. Nizam ul-Mulk, 'Adil Khan, 
Kutb ul-Mulk, 'Imad ul-Mulk, and Kasim 
Barid. He adds that a record of the dy- 
nasties founded by them will form the subject 
of a separate work, sj.****' ^^S^ 

At the end of the account of the Safavis is 
found a list of the later Shahs, written in 
the margin by Maulavi Muhammad Husain 
Shirazi, A.H. 1216. It concludes with 
Sultan Muhammad Mirzii B. Sultan Sulai- 
man II., who was proclaimed in A.H. 1200 
by Muhammad Khan Kajar, and soon after 
repaired to India. 

A note on the first page states that this 
second volume of the Tarikh of the Elchi i 
Nizam Shah was added to the library of the 



long ; 



prince just mentioned, the last of the Safavis, 
in A.H. 1201. 

The contents of this MS. have been in- 
corporated into the Fava'id i Safaviyyah, 
Or. 139. 

Or. 141. 

Foil. 237; 9^ in. by 6^; 17 lines, 3| in. 
written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
17th century. [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

A general history, from the earliest times 
to A.H. 972. 

Author: Ahmad B. Muhammad ul-Kazi, 

called al-Ghaffari, ^yJx^\ ^^\ o^ ^^, j-»».\ 

The author is the same who wrote the 
Nigaristan (see above, p. 106). The contents 
of the Nusakh i Jahan ara, or, as it is com- 
monly called, Jahan-ara, have been noticed 
by Hammer, Jahrbiicher, vol. 69, Anz. Blatt, 
pp. 35 — 37. A short section has been 
edited by Sir Wm. Ouseley, Epitome of the 
ancient history of Persia, where a brief 
account of the work will be found, p. xxxv. 
Compare also Elliot, History of India, vol. 
iv. pp. 298 — 300 ; Hammer, Geschichte der 
goldenen Horde, p. xxiv., and Schone Re- 
dekiinste Persiens, p. 350, and Flvigel, Vienna 
Catalogue, vol. ii. p. 72. 

The author says in his preface that, having 
spent a lifetime in the pursuit of history, 
he wished to collect in a single volume the 
records of kings ancient and modern, gathered 
both from standard works and from special 
treatises, concluding with the history of the 
Safavi dynasty. He then launches into a 
pompous panegyric on the reigning monarch 
Abid-Muzaffar Shah Tahmasp Bahadur Khan, 
and ends by remarking that, as the work 
consisted of three parts called Nuskhah, it 



112 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



was fitly called " Nusakh i JaLan Ara," a 
title expressing the date of composition, 
namely A.H. 971. 

It must be observed, however, that in the 
body of the work, fol, 71 6, A.H. 972 is ex- 
pressly called the current year, and that in 
several places, as foil. 75 a, 151 «, 237 h, 
events of that year are recorded. It is 
therefore probable that in the above chrono- 
gram the first Alif of \J^ must count for two, 
which would give 972. 

This work is remarkable, both for the con- 
siderable number of local and otherwise 
little known dynasties, which it comprises in 
a condensed summary, and for its peculiar 
and instructive arrangement, according to the 
filiation or natural connection of dynasties. 

It is divided into three books (Nuskhah) 
of very unequal length, and minutely subdi- 
vided into sections and subsections, bearing 
the fanciful names of " leaves," " pages," 
"lines," "sentences," "words," and "let- 
ters," all of which are fully stated in the pre- 
face, foil. 5 h—1 h. 

Contents : 'Unvan, or Introduction, in two 
sections (Harf) : 1. Age of the world. 

2. Meaning of the word " Prophet," fol. 7 h. 
Nuskhah I., containing two "verses," 

(Ayah) : 1. Prophets, fol. 8 a. 2., in two 
"Texts" (Nass): a. Muhammad, fol. 16 h. 

b. The twelve Imams, fol. 19 b. 
Nuskhah II., containing two Sahifahs, as 

follows : Sahlfah I., in two Safhahs : 

Saf hah 1, containing four Satars : 1. Plsh- 
dadis, fol. 26 a. 2. Kayanis, fol. 27 a. 

3. MuMk ut-tava'if, in two Harfs : a. Ashka- 
nis, fol. 27 b. b. tJshkanis, or descendants 
of Fariburz, fol. 28 a. 4. Sasanis, fol. 28 b. 
Saf hah 2, in six Satars : 1. Kings of Baby- 
lon, or Kaldanis (Chaldees), fol. 30 b. 2. Sur- 
yanis or Nabatis, fol. 31 a. 3. Kings of 
Yiinan, or Ptolemies, fol. 31 b. 4. Kings of 
Yaman, in three Harfs : a. The Tubba's, fol. 
32 a. b. The Habash (Abyssinians), fol. 32 b. 

c. The A'ajim (Persians), fol. 33 a. 5. The 



Bani Ghassan or Al i Jafnah, fol. 33 b. 
6. The Khakans of the Turks, from their 
origin to YasQka Bahadur, the father of 
Chingiz Khan, who died A.H. 562, fol. 33 b. 

Sahlfah II., treating of Islamitic kings, 
contains the following twenty Safhahs : 

Safhah 1. Bani 'Abd ush-Shams or Umay- 
yades in two Harfs : a. The wicked race 
which unjustly ruled over the Muslim lands, 
fol. 36 b. b. The Umayyades of Spain and 
Maghrib, fol. 38 b. 

Safhah 2. Al i 'Abbas, in two Satars: 
1. The great Abbasides, from their rise to 
their overthrow, A.H. 656, fol. 40 a. 2. The 
Abbasides of Egypt, fol. 44 b. Offshoots or 
vassals (furu') of the Abbasides, in five Harfs : 
a. Tahiris, fol. 45 a. b. Bani Aghlab in 
Ifrikiyyah, fol. 45 b. c. Tulunis, fol. 46 b. 
d. Ikhshldis, fol. 47 a. e. Al i Hamdan, 
fol. 47 b. 

Safhah 3. The Sayyids who became rulers 
of countries, in six Satars : 1. The Sultans of 
Spain, from Idris B. Abdullah (A.H. 169) to 
the death of Muhammad B. Idris, surnamed 
Mahdi (A.H. 445), fol. 49 b. 2. The Sultans 
of Yaman, from Yahya B. Husain, called 
Hadi (A.H. 280), to Abu Muhammad 'Abdul- 
lah B. Muhammad B. Kasim, fol. 51 a. 
3. The Sharifs of Makkah, from Ja'far B. 
Hasan (A.H. 360) to Rumaithah B. Muham- 
mad B. 'Ajlan, fol. 51 b. 4. The Isma'ilis of 
Maghrib, fol. 54 a. Their offshoots, in two 
Harfs : a. The Sanhiijis, from Amir Yiisuf 
(A.H. 361) to the fall of Hasan B. 'Ali 
(A.H. 554), fol. 56 a—b. The Himyaris or 
Alamutis, from A.H. 483 to 654, fol. 56 b. 
5. Sultans of Gilan -and Mazandaran, in two 
Fikrahs: a. The early kings, from Hasan 
B. Zaid (A.H. 250) to Ismail B. Abu '1-kasim 
Ja'far, in the 4th century, fol. 57 b. Their 
offshoots, in three Harfs: 1. Ali Ziyar, from 
their rise to the death of Gilan Shah (A.H. 
470), fol. 59 b. 2. Al i Buvaih, from their 
rise to the faU of Khusrau Piriiz (A.H. 447), 
fol. 61 b. 3. The Kakuyah, from Abu Ja'far 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



113 



Kakuyah (A.H. 398) to the death of 'Alfi ud- 
Daulah Faramurz (A.H. 536), fol. 66 *. 
Offshoot of the Kakuyah : Atabak Sam and 
his successors in Yazd, from Atabak Sam, 
who died A.H. 690, to Atabak Yusuf, who 
succeeded liis brother, 'Ala ud-Daulah, A.H. 
673, fol. 67 a. b. The later kings, in two 
P^alimahs : 1. the Kar-KivfTs of GUan, from 
Sayyid 'AH Kiya (A.H. 763) to Kar Kiya 
Khan Ahmad, who was reigninginA.il. 972, 
fol. 68 a. 2. The Kivamis, or Marashi Say- 
yids, from Mir Kivam ud-Dln (A.H. 760) to 
Mu- 'Abd ul-Karim who died A.H. 972, fol. 
71 h. Offshoot (Far") : The Ruz-Afzilnis, *. e. 
Aka Eustam (A.H. 916) and his son Aka Mu- 
hammad, who died A.H. 964, fol. 75 a. 6. The 
Musha'sha' Sayyids of Khuzistan,from Sayyid 
Muhammad B. Falah to Maula Sajjad B. 
Badran, who was still ahve, fol. 75 b. Off- 
shoot : The Ea'nashis in Dizful, from Shaikh 
Muhammad B. Kivam ud-Din to 'Ala ud- 
Haulah, who fled to Baghdad, A.H. 949, 
fol. 76 b* 
. Safhah 4. Ban! Lais or Saffaris, fol. 77 a. 

Safhah 5. Al i Saman, fol. 80 a. Their 
offshoots, in four Satars : 1. Alptiginis, 
fol. 82 a. 2. Subuktiginis, fol. 82 b. 3. Al i 
Farighun or Khwiirazmshahs, from Mamun 
Ahmad B. Muhammad Khwarazmshah, who 
died A.H. 387, to Amir Abu'l- Abbas Mamun 
(A.H. 407), fol. 86 a. 4. Bani Ilyas in 
Bukhara and Kirman, from Amir Abu 'All 
Muhammad B. Ilyas (A.H. 327) to Sulaiman 
B. Abu 'All (A.H. 359), fol. 86 b. 

Safhah 6. Al i Saljuk, in four Satars: 
1. Saljuks of Iran, fol. 87 b. 2. Saljuks of 
RQm, fol. 92 a. 3. Saljuks of Syria, from Tiij 
ud-Daulah Tanish B. Arsalan, A.H. 470, to 
Ibrahim B.Rizvan,who died A.H.552,fol. 95 b. 
4. Saljuks of Kirm/in, from Kiivard B. Ja'far 
Beg, A.H. 467, to Muhammad Shah B. 



• A great part of Safhalis 3 and 14 is found inserted 
in a copy of the Tarikh i Elchi i Nijamshah ; see above, 
p. 109 b. 



Bahram Shah, A.H. 668, fol. 96 b. Appendix. 
Some isolated rulers of Kirmfin. 
Offshoots of the Saljuks, in two Harfs: 

1. Freedmen (Mavilli) of the Saljuks, in 
seven Kalimahs : 1. Khwarazmshilhis, fol. 98 b. 
Their offshoot, the Karakhitais of Kirman, 
fol. 100 b. 2. The Tughtiglnis in Syria, 
from Tughtigin to Mujir ud-Din Abak, A.H. 
549, fol. 102 a. 3. The Atabaks of Azar- 
baijan, fol. 103 a. 4. The Atabaks of Filrs, 
or Salghuris, fol. 103 b, and of Shabangarah, 
from Fazl B. . Hasan, called Fazlawaih, to 
Malik Ardashir, A.H. 664, fol. 105 a. 5. The 
Atabaks of Syria, fol. 107 a. 6. The Atabaks 
of Mausil, fol. 107 b. Offshoot : Badr ud- 
Din Lulu and Malik Sahh, fol. 108 a. 7. The 
Muayyidis, from Muayyid ud-Din Ainah, 
who died A.H. 567, to Sanjar Shiih B. 
Tughan Shah, A.H, 595, fol. 108 b. 

11. Amirs of the Saljuks, who founded 
dynasties, in four Kalimahs : 1. Danish- 
mandis, from Amir Danishmand to Ibrahim 
B. Muhammad, who died A.H. 560, fol. 109 b. 

2. Urtukis, from Urtuk to Nasir ud-Din 
Mahmud, who died A.H. 619, fol. 110 a. 

3. The Sallkis, from Amir Sallk, A.H. 556, 
to Malik Shah B. Muhammad, A.H. 597, 
fol. 110 b. 4. Mangujakis, from Mangujak to 
Malik Da'ud B. Bahram Shah, fol. Ill a. 

Safhah 7. The Ayyubis, in two Satars : 

1. Ayyubis of Egypt and Syria, fol. Ill a. 

2. Ayyubis of Yaman, fol. 113 «. Offshoot : 
Mamluk Kings of Egypt down to its con- 
quest by Sultan Salim, fol. 113 b. 

Safhah 8. Ghuris, in two Satars : 1. Kings 
of Ghur and Ghaznin, fol. 116 b. 2. Kings 
of Bamiyan, fol. 118 a. Offshoots in two 
Harfs : 1. The slaves of Sultan Shihab ud- 
Din, who became kings, from Taj ud-Din 
Ilduz to Mu'izz ud-Din Kaikubad, fol. 118 b. 
2. The Amirs of the Ghuris, in two Kali- 
mahs : a. The Khiljis, from Muhammad 
Bakhtiyar to Sultan Mahmud, defeated by 
Timur, A.H. 801, "fol. 120 b. b. The Kurts, 
from Malik Shams ud-Din to Ghiyag ud- 

Q 



lU 



GENERAL HISTOEY. 



Din Pir 'All, conquered by Timur, A.H. 783, 
fol. 122 a. 

Safhah 9. Sultans of Maghrib, in four 
Satars : 1. Bani Lakhm, fol. 123 b. 2. Mu- 
lassamin, fol. 124 a. 3. Muvahhidin, fol. 124 a. 
4. Bani Marin, fol. 125 b. 

Safhah 10. Arab Amirs, in three Satars : 

1. Bani Kilab, or Al i Mirdas, fol. 126 a. 

2. Bani 'TJkail, fol. 126 b. 3. Bani Asad, or 
Mazyadis, fol. 128 a. 

Safhah 11. Greek Emperors, from Heraclius 
to John (Comnene), fol. 129 a. 

Safhah 12. Eulers of Turkistan and Ma- 
vara an-nahr, in two Satars : 1. Khakans of 
the Turks, of the race of Afrasiyab, from 
Bukra Khan, A.H. 380, to Sultan 'U§man B. 
*Ali, who died A.H. 609, fol. 132 a. 2. The 
Karakhitrds, also called Gurkhans, in Ma- 
varil an-nahr, from Giirkhan, A.H. 522, to 
Gurkhan II., captured A.H. 610, fol. 134 b. 

Safhah 13. Eulers of the Kurds and Liirs, 
in two Satars : 1. The Kurds, in two Harfs : 

a. Rulers of Diyar Bakr, from Ahmad B. 
Marvan in the time of the Khalif Kadir 
to Mansur B. Basr, who died A.H. 489, 
fol. 135 a. b. Eulers of Dinavar and Shah- 
razur, from Hasan vaih B. Husain, A.H. 359, 
to Abu Mansur B. Badr, A.H. 500, fol. 135 b. 
2. The Lurs, in two Harfs : a. Lur Buzurg, 
from Fath ud-Din Eazlavaih to Shah Husain 
B. Abu Sa'id, who died A.H. 827, fol. 137 a. 

b. Lur Kiichak, from Shuja' ud-Din Khur- 
shid, A.H. 580, to Shah Rustam, who suc- 
ceeded his father Jahangir Sultan in A.H. 
949, fol. 138 b. 

Safhah 14. Kings of Tabaristan and Rus- 
tamdar, in two Satars : 1. The Bavandis of 
Mazandaran, in three Eirkahs : a. Eourteen 
kings, from Kabus B. Kubad, brother of 
Aniishirvan, to Rustam B. Shahriyar, who 
died A.H. 419, fol. 141 a. b. Eight kings, 
from Husam ud-Daulah Shahriyar B. Karan, 
A.H. 486, to Shams ul-Muluk B. Shah 
Ardashir, who died A.H. 606, fol. 141 b. 
0. Seven kings, from Husam ud-Daulah 



Ardashir, A.H. 635, to Fakhr ud-Daulah 
Hasan, who died A.H. 750, fol. 143 a. Off- 
shoot : The Chalavis, from Afrasiyab, A.H. 
750, to Mir Husain Kiya, who died A.H. 
909, fol. 144 a. 2. Kings of Rustamdar 
or Gaoparah, from Jamasp B. Eiriiz, uncle 
of Aniishirvan, in two Harfs : a. Dabiiyah 
and his descendants, from A.H. 40 to 141, 
fol. 144 b. b. Badiisaban and his successors, 
from A.H. 40 to the author's time, and the 
kings of Kujur, fol. 145 b. 

Safhah 15. Kings of the borders (atraf), 
in four Satars : 1. Sultans of Lar, from 
Kutb uddin Muayyad, called Pakui, A.H. 
594, to Ibrahim Khan B. Muhammad Beg, 
who succeeded A.H. 948, fol. 149 b. 2. Rulers 
of Hurmiiz, from Mal^mud Kalhati, A.H, 
671, to Muhammad B. Eiruzshah, who died 
A.H. 972, fol. 150 a. 3. Sultans of Shirvan, 
from Ka'us B. Kaikubad, A.H. 774, to Shah- 
rukh B. Sultan Farrukh, deposed A.H. 946, 
fol. 151 a. 4. Rulers of Karaman, from 
Karaman, A.H. 654, to Kasim Beg B. Ibra- 
him, who died A.H. 887, fol. 151 b. In this 
section the rubrics are wanting. 

Safhah 16. Moghul Sultans. Chingiz Khan 
and his successors, down to the death of 
Mangii Ka'an, A.H. 655, fol. 152 b. Sepa- 
rate branches, in four Satars : 1. Descendants 
of tJkta'i, down to Sultan Mahmud B. Si- 
yiirghatmish, A.H. 805, fol. 153 b. 

2. Chaghatai and his descendants to Sufi 
Sultan, who succeeded his father Rashid 
Khan, A.H. 971, fol. 154 a. 

3. Descendants of Juji, down to Barakah 
Khan, who died A.H. 664, fol. 156 b, and 
further on, in two. distinct branches (Harfs) : 

a. Sultans of Guk Ordah, from Tukta Khan, 
A.H. 702, to Birdi Beg, who succeeded his 
father Jani Beg, A.H. 758, fol. 157 a. 

b. Khakans of Ak Ordah, from Tudamanga 
B. Nukai to Hak Nazar Khan B. Kasim 
Khan, who succeeded in A.H. 930, fol. 167 b. 
Descendants of Shaiban B. JujI, in two 
Harfs : a. Sultans of Mawara an-nahr, from 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



116 



Abu'l-Khair Khan B. Daulat Shaikh Oghlan, 
A,H. 839, to Iskandar Khan B. Jani Beg, 
who reigned in the author's time, fol. 158 b. 
b. Sultans of Khwarazm, from Ilpars Khan, 
who died A.H. 923, to Jajim Khan, who suc- 
ceeded in A.n. 964, fol. 159 b. 

4. Descendants of Tull, in two Harfs : 
a. The Ka'ans from Kubila Ka'an, A.H. 
658, to Tankfir Khan, who died A.H. 831, 
fol. 160 b. b. The Ilkhanis of Iran, from 
Hulagii Khan to Arpa Khan, who died A.H. 
736, fol. 161 a. Muluk ut-tava'if, or local 
dynasties of the Chinglz-khanis, in six 
Harfs : 1. Ilkanis, from Amir Shaikh Hasan 
B. Amir Husain, who died A.H. 757, to 
Sultan Husain, who was put to death A.H. 
836, fol. 163 b. 2. Chupanis, from Amir 
Timurtash B. Amir ChQpan, A.H. 722, to 
Malik Ashraf, his son, put to death A.H. 
758, fol. 164 b. 3. TughatimQris, from 
Tughatimur Khan, A.H. 737, to Sultan Ali 
B. Pirak Padishah, who died A.H. 812, 
fol. 165 a. 4. The Sarbadars, from Amir 
Abd ur-Eazzak B. Pazl UUah, A.H. 717, to 
Khwajah Ali Muayyad, who died A.H. 788, 
fol. 165 b. 5. The Injii kings, from Amir 
Shams ud-Din Mahmud Shah, who died A.H. 
736, to Amir Shaikh Abu Ishak B. Mahmiid 
Shah, who fell A.H. 758, fol. 167 a. 6. Al i 
Muzaffar, from Amir Muzaffar, who died 
A.H. 713, to Sultan Mu'tasim B. Zain ul- 

abidin, who fell A.H. 812, fol. 167 6. 

Safhah 17. The Gurkauis. Ancestors of 
Tirnur, fol. 169 b, and his history, fol. 170 b. 

Descendants of his four sons, in four Satars : 

1. Descendants of Mirza Jahangir, down to 
Mirza Kaidii B. Pir Muhammad, who was 
imprisoned by Baisunkur, A.H. 821, fol. 174 a. 

2. Mirza Shahrukh and his descendants, 
down to Mirza Yadgar Muhammad, who fell 
A.H. 875, fol. 174 b. 3. Descendants of 
'Umar Shaikh, down to Muhammad Zaman 
Mirza B. Badi' uz-zaman, who died A.H. 923, 
fol. 177 a. 4. Mirza Miranshah and his 
descendants, down to Akbar, in India, and 



to Sulaiman Shah Mirza B. Yadgar Nasir, 
ruler of Badakhshan, both alive at the time 
of composition, fol. 179 a. 

§afliah 18. The race of TJgman, from its 
rise to the reigning Sultan, Sulaiman B. 
Sallm, fol. 183 b. 

Safhah 19. The Kara Kiiyunlus, from 
Kara Yusuf to Hasan 'Ali B. Jahanshah, who 
died A.H. 873, fol. 187 b. 

Safhah 20. The Ak Kiiyunlus, from Abu- 
n-Nasr Hasan Beg to Sultan Mur5d B. 
Ya'kub Beg, who fell A.H. 920, fol. 190 b. 

Nuskhah III. The Safavi Dynasty from 

its origin to the time of composition, 

,fol. 196 a. The events are recorded year 

by year from A.H. 906 to 972. A few 

lines are wanting at the end. 

The original MS. breaks off in the account 
of the last-mentioned year, after the first 
ten lines. That portion is repeated and 
continued by a later hand on foil. 236 and 
237 ; but this continuation also comes to an 
abrupt close with an unfinished entry re- 
lating to the 12th of Sha'ban. 

This copy contains some marginal addi- 
tions, especially from fol. 161 to fol. 215 ; 
they are taken from Tarikh i Guzidah and 
other works. 

On the first page of the MS. are some 
entries relating to births in the owner's 
family, written, as it appears, in India, 
with dates ranging from A.H. 1130 to 
1133. 

Another copy of the Nusakh i Jahan Ara, 
Add. 7649, will be described under the 
class of Miscellaneous MSS. 



Add. 7650. 

Poll. 247 ; 11| in. by 8 ; 27 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in small Nestalik, apparently 
in the 17th century. [CI. J. Rich.] 

Q 2 



116 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



A general history, from the earliest times 
to the reign of Sultan Sulaiman B. Salim. 

Author : Muhammad, called Muslih ud- 
Din-ul-Larl ul-AnsarT, j^.jJI Jux^ ^ j-J\ j..^ 

Beg. \tjj^ <^JJuw\i ^jSj.lJu«j iSjjj^ U c_>>L«. 

The author was born in Lar, or Laristan, 
a district situated to the south of Shiraz, on 
the northern shore of the Gulf of Persia. 
He studied under Mir Ghiya§ B. Sadr ud- 
Dln, of Shiraz, (who died A.H. 949: see 
Haji Khal. vol. ii. p. 365), and Mir Kamal 
ud-Din Husain, a disciple of Jalal ud-Dln 
Davani. He afterwards went to India, where 
Humayun received him with the greatest 
honour. But the disturbed state of the 
country soon drove him away. He per- 
formed the pilgrimage, and repaired from 
Mecca to Constantinople. Einding, however, 
but scant favour with the great Mufti Abu 
s-Su'ud, he betook himself to Amid, in Diyar 
Bakr, where Iskandar Pasha appointed him 
tutor to his children and master of the Ma- 
drasah. He died there A.H. 979, upwards 
of sixty years old, leaving, besides the present 
work, numerous commentaries on the Tahzib 
ul-Mantik, on astronomical tracts, on the 
Hidayat ul-Hikmah, and other treatises of 
divinity and law. See Zail ush-Shaka'ik, 
Add. 18,519, fol. 68, and Haj. Khal. vol. i. 
pp. 241, 257, 478, etc. 

The Mir'at ul-Advar was translated into 
Turkish with additions by Mufti Sa'd ud-Din 
B. Hasan, who expanded the tenth chapter, 
treating of the Osmanli dynasty, into a 
separate work entitled Taj ut-Tavarikh ; see 
Haj. Khal. vol. v. p. 479; Hammer, Schone 
Redekiinste, p. 350, and Eliigel, Vienna 
Catal. vol. ii. p. 80. The contents of the 
Turkish version have been noticed by 
Hammer Jahrbiicher, vol. 70, Anz. Blatt, 
pp. 63—72. A Persian MS., entitled j^t,:^ 
^^ i? j\j , beginning with the same words as 



the present copy, is described in the Vienna 
Catal. vol. ii. p. 74, where it is attributed, 
by a curious confusion, to a supposed abbre- 
viator, Muhammad as-Sa'di al-'Ubadi, called 
MusKh ad-Din, who is no other than the 
author himself; see Haj. Khal. vol. i. p. 
241. Copies of the Mirat ul-Advar exist in 
the Imperial Library and the Asiatic Mu- 
seum of S. Petersburg ; see Melanges Asia- 
tiques, vol. iii. p. 728 ; vol. iv. p. 498. 

In the preface the author says that he was 
indebted for the leisure which enabled him, 
after long delays, to write the present work, 
to the favour of the illustrious prince to whom 
he dedicates it in token of gratitude and devo- 
tion, and that it was completed at the time of 
the prince's elevation to the throne, the date 
of that event being expressed by the words 
J]j> j«« = A.H. 974. (The prince here meant 
is Salim B. Sulaiman, who reigned from A.H. 
974 to 982.) He then proceeds to enumerate 
fifty Arabic and Persian works which he had 
used for this compilation, adding that he 
had also consulted several Turkish works 
in prose and verse. That list of sovirces has 
been printed from the present copy, but 
rather incorrectly, in the "Mines de I'Orient," 
vol. iii. p. 330, where the last two works, the 
Tarikh i Hafiz Abru and the Rauzat us-safa, 
have been omitted. 

The work is divided into a short Introduc- 
tion (Mukaddimah) on the creation of the 
world, fol. 4 J, and the following ten books 
(bab) : 

I. Prophets, from Adam to Noah, fol. 5 h. 

II. Pishdadis and contemporary prophets, 
fol. 10 a. 

III. Kayanis and contemporary prophets 
and sages, fol. 23 a. 

IV. Sasanis and Arab kings, fol. 34 h. 

V. Muhammad, the early Khalifs, the 
Umayyades and the Abbasides, fol. 43 h. 

VI. Dynasties contemporary with the Ab- 
basides, in the following eight Ta'ifahs : 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



117 



1. Saflfaris, fol. 109 b. 2. Samanis, fol. 
Ilia. 3. Dayillimah, fol. 113a. 4. Ghaz- 
navis, fol. 117 a ; Ghuris and slave-kings, 
fol. 121a; Kurts, fol. 124 a. 5. Saljukis of 
Iran, fol. 125 b, of Kirman, fol. 138 a, of Rum, 
fol. 138 b ; Atabaks of Mausil, fol. 140 b, of 
Diyar Bakr, fol. 142 b, of Ears, fol. 143 a, 
and of Luristan, fol. 145 a. 6. Khwarazm- 
shahis, fol. 146 a. 7. Isma'ilis of Maghrib 
and Ayyubis, fol. 150 a. 8. Isma'ilis of Iran, 
fol. 157 b. 

VII. Chingiz Khan and his successors in 
China and in Persia, fol. 158 b ; Chupanis, 
fol. 181 b ; Karakhita'is, fol. 184 a, and Al i 
MuzafFar, fol. 184 b. 

VIII. Timiir and his successors in Iran, 
fol. 189 a. 

IX. Hasan Beg and his successors (Ak- 
kuyunlus), fol. 228 b. The author concludes 
this section with a brief mention of Shah 
Isma'il and Shah Tahmasp, and laments that 
all scholars of eminence, no doubt including 
himself, had been driven out of the realm by 
the blind Shi'ah fanaticism of the latter. 

X. The Osmanlis, from their origin to the 
reign of Siilaimiin B. SalTm, fol. 231 b. 

Our copy breaks off at the beginning of a 
paragraph on the Hungarian war, A.H. 934. 
In the latter part of the work some biographi- 
cal notices of great scholars are inserted after 
the most important reigna. 

The fly-leaf at the end contains a tran- 
script of a letter written by the author, 
Maulana Muslih ud-Din til-Lari, to Amir 
Sultan Husain, Governor of al-'Imadiyyah in 
Kurdistan, recommending to him a Turkish 
personage of note, Maulana Ahmad. Hence 
the curious statement in the Mines de I'Orient, 
vol. iii. p. 330, that the Mir'at ul-Advar had 
been written "in usum cujusdam Principis 
Amadise." 

Add. 16,681. 

Poll. 668; 13| in. by 81; 30 lines, 5^ in. 
long, in a page ; written in a small and 



close Naskhi, with 'Unvan and gold-ruled 
margins, apparently in the 17th century. 

[Wm. Yule.] 

A general chronicle of the East, from the 
death of Muhammad to A.H. 997. 

Beg. jii tsit ^\j S^ ^^Jy^ f^^jii I— >^j^^ 

This vast compilation was commenced by 
Akbar's order in A.H. 993, and received the 
name of Tiirikh i Alf i from the year thousand 
(Alf) of the Hijrah, with which it was to 
close. Abul-Pazl, who wrote for it a preface, 
not found in our copies, gives a short account 
of it in the A'in i Akbari, Blochmann's 
translation, vol. i. p. 106. A more detailed 
statement of its composition, by 'Abd id- 
Kadir Bada'unl, is found in the Muntakhab 
ut-tavarlkh, part 2, p. 318 ; here we are told 
that the first thirty-five years were written 
in the course of a week by Nakib Khan (see 
above, p. 57 b), and some other scholars, 
one of whom was Bada'unl himself, and 
that subsequently the work was entrusted 
to MuUa Ahmad of Tattah, and, after his 
death, to Ja'far Beg Asaf Khan, who brought 
it down to A.H. 997. MuUa Ahmad appears 
to have written again, in his own fashion, the 
tirst thirty-five years, or at least a part of 
the same ; for a remark elicited from Akbar, 
by the undue length of the account of Os- 
man's death, an event of the year 25 of the 
Rihlat, shows that that portion of the work 
was his own composition. The first two 
volumes were revised by Bada'unl in A.H. 
1000, and the third by Asaf Khan himself. 
See Sir H. M. Elliot, Bibliographical Index, 
pp. 143 — 162, and History of India, vol. v. 
pp. 150 — 176. A Persian abridgement of the 
work by Ahmad B. Abul-Eath is described 
in Melanges Asiatiques, vol. vi. p. 121. 

The principal author, MuUa Ahmad TatavT, 
(^^1 ^J^^ii\ ii^\j^ ^^ »v.»»-^ was the son of the 
KazI of Tattah and Ra'is of Sind. The author 



118 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



of the Majalis ul-Muminm, Add. 23,541, 
fol. 277, who had heard from his own lips the 
account of his early conversion to the Shf ah 
faith, says that he left his native place at the 
age of twenty- two to study divinity and medi- 
cine in Mashhad, Yazd and Shiraz, after which 
he stayed some time at Shah Tahmasp's court 
in Kazvin. He left Persia after the latter's 
death, A.H. 984, visited Karbala, Mecca and 
Jerusalem, and on his return to India re- 
sided for some years at the court of Kutub- 
shah, in Golconda. In A.H. 989 he repaired 
to Akbar's court, then held in Fathpur, where 
he met with a favourable reception, and was 
soon afterwards commissioned to write the 
present chronicle. He proceeded with that 
task tUl A.H. 996, when he was treacher- 
ously assailed and wounded to death in 
Lahore by one of the enemies whom his 
Shi'ah fervour had raised against him. See 
Ma'asir ul-Umara, Add. 6568, fol. 453 a, 
and A'in i Akbari, Blochmann's translation, 
vol. i. p. 206. 

The continuator, Asaf Khan, was one of 
the most eminent generals of Akbar, and a 
poet of no mean order. His original name 
was Mirza Kivam ud-Din Ja'far Beg, and his 
father, Mirza Badi' uz-zaman, of Kazvin, was 
VazTr of Kashaninthetime of Shah Tahmasp. 
Ja'far Beg came to India as a youth, was 
presented to Akbar by his uncle, Asaf Khan 
Ghiya§ ud-Din, in A.H. 985, and received in 
A.H. 992 the title of Asaf Khan. He died 
under Jahangir, after a brilliant career, in 
A.H. 1021. See Ma'asir ul-Hmara, Add. 
6567, fol. 25, Tazkirat ul-Umara, Add. 16,703, 
fol. 7, and A'in i Akbari, vol. i. p. 411. 

The arrangement of the work is strictly 
chronological, the events being recorded year 
by year, according to an sera, which was 
adopted for the purpose by Akbar's direction, 
that of the Rihlat or death of Muhammad. 
The first year of the Rihlat, with which the 
chronicle begins, corresponds therefore to 
A.H. 11, in which Muhammad died, and 



ten has to be added to each subsequent date 
to reduce it to the Hijrah reckoning. 

This volume contains nearly the first half 
of the work ; it extends from the beginning 
to the year 581 of the Rihlat (A.H. 591), in 
the course of which it breaks ofi". Three 
extensive lacunes of the original MSS., viz. 
foil. 329—366, 405—433, and 558—610, 
have been supplied by later hands. This 
volume appears to have once belonged to 
the imperial library of Dehli. It bears 
several 'Arz-dldahs and official seals of the 
reigns of Shahjahan and 'Alamgir, the earliest 
of which is dated A.H. 1037. 

Add. 6550 and 6551. 

Two uniform volumes, containing re- 
spectively foil. 524 and 543 ; 16| in. by 7^ ; 
30 lines, 5j in. long; written by different 
hands in Nestalik and Shikastah-Amiz, ap- 
parently in India, in the 18th century. 

[J. E. Hull.] 

The first portion of the same work, ex- 
tending from the first year of the Rihlat to 
the year 503 of the same sera (A.H. 513), 
and corresponding to foil. 1 — 536 b of the 
preceding copy. 

The text is continuous, the two volumes 
being only separated by the binding. It 
breaks off in the first line of the account of 
the taking of Basrah by 'All B. Sukmiin; 
see Ibn el Athiri Chronicon, vol. x. p. 393. 

Or. 142. 

EoU. 673 ; 14i in. by 8f ; 25 lines, 5| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with ruled mar- 
gins, apparently in India, in the 18th cen- 
tury. [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

Another portion of the same work, begin- 
ning with the year of the Rihlat 351, and 
ending with the year 649 of the same sera 
(A.H. 361—659.) 

At the beginning of the year 589 of the 
Rihlat, fol. 498 a, in which Chingizkhan 
appears on the scene, the author says in a 



GENERAL HISTOEY. 



119 



short preamble that he, Ahmad B. Nasr 
TJllah Tatavi, having been appointed by His 
Majesty, Jalal ud-Din Muhammad Akbar 
Padishah Ghazi, to compose this history, 
called Tarikh i Alfi, had to follow some in- 
structions given him, one of which was to 
write it in plain and easy language, and 
another to give, on introducing the founder of 
an empire, an account of his ancestors, and 
of the manner in which he rose to power. 

There is a considerable gap in the body of 
this volume, fol. 372 a. It extends from the 
end of the year 522 to the beginning of the 
year 645 (A.H. 532 — 555), corresponding to 
foU. 563a— 6106 of the first copy, Add.16,681. 
Errors have been moreover committed in 
the headings of the years, owing to the be- 
ginnings of some having been overlooked. 
Thus the year numbered 558, fol. 411 h, is 
in reality the year 559 ; the year numbered 
559, fol. 421 6, is 561 ; and the year numbered 
576, fol 482 6, is 579. This last error is 
carried on through the subsequent years, 
involving a difference for each of three units 
in minus, down to the year headed 579, 
fol. 489 a, which is the year 582. 

On the first page is impressed a stamp 
bearing the name of *Aziz ul-Mulk I'tizad 
ud-Daulah Vilayat Husain Khan Ka'im Jang 
Bahadur. 

Or. ^Q6. 

Foil. 663 ; 15 in. by 9 ; uniform with the 
preceding. [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

The continuation of the preceding volume, 
beginning with the year 650 of the Rihlat, 
and ending with the year 974 of the same 
£era (A.H. 660—984). 

The portion of the work written by Ahmad 
Tatavi comes to an abrupt termination in 
the year 684 of the Rihlat, fol. 97 a, after 
the record of the accession of Ghazan Khan, 
and in the middle of an account of his 
early life. 



The continuator, who is called in the fol- 
lowing heading Nawab Asaf Klian, states in 
his preamble, fol, 97 b, that Hakim Ahmad 
having been ordered to write this history, 
from the death of Muhammad to the present 
time, had brought it down, in the course of 
three years, to the time of Ghazan Khan; 
when he fell, mortally wounded, on the 16th 
of Safar (A.H. 996), by the hand of an Amir- 
ziidah called Pulad Barlas, who atoned for 
his crime with his life ; whereupon he (Asaf 
Khiin) received the royal commands to com- 
plete the work. 

The year with which the present volume 
closes is not completed, for it is confined to 
'a record of Persian affairs, namely, the death 
of Shah Tahmasp, the accession of Shah 
Ismii' il, and the slaughter by the latter of 
his brothers and other male relatives. 

This MS. has been disfigured by several 
large holes ; but most of them have been 
repaired, and the lost writing restored by a 
later hand. 

Or. 168. 

Foil. 700 ; 11^ in. by 8 ; 21 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in NestaUk, with 'Unvan and 
ruled margins ; dated Muharram, A.H. 1046 
(fol. 583 a), and Rabi' I.", A.H. 1046 (fol. 
14 b) (A.D. 1635-6). [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

A general history, from the earliest tunes 
to A.H. 1014. 

Author : Tahir Muhammad B. Tmad ud- 
Din Hasan B. Sultan 'Ali B. Haji Muhammad 
Husain Sabzavari (fol. 242 a), oUfr (^ j^^U* 

The author held some office at the court 
of Akbar : he states incidentally that in 
A.H. 1013 he was sent by the emperor 
from Agrah to Burhanpur, with a message 



120 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



to the EhankhaMn, to inquire into the 
death of Prince Daniyal; that, passing on 
his way through the city of Mandu, he 
visited the decaying cupola which covered 
the tombs of the ancient kings of the land, 
and gave orders for its restoration. He 
mentions his elder brother, Khwajagi Sultan 
Ahmad, as one of the poets of Akbar's court. 
An account of the work will be found in 
Elliot's Bibliographical Index, pp. 298—304, 
and History of India, vol. vi. pp. 195 — 209. 
See also Stewart's Catalogue, p. 6, and 
Notice sur un MS. du Raouzet et-tahirin. 
Melanges Asiatiques, vol. v. p. 119. There 
is a copy of this work in the East India 
Library, No. 1147. 

The preface, which is wanting in this 
MS., but is found in another copy. Add. 
6641, begins 'i\^ ^\^ jJlaT* cj^ '>-t»-jl ^*j 



i>j>»-»^ . The author says in it, that he chose 
the above title, ^^jfcUa5\ sJ>jj, because its first 
word expressed the year in which the work 
was completed, viz. A.H. 1011. It must, 
however, have been subsequently brought 
down to a later date, for we find A.H. 1014 
frequently mentioned in both copies as the 
current year (see foil. 376 6, 396 ^>, 400 6, 
689 b, Add. 6541, fol. 145 b) ; and the death 
of Akbar, which took place in that year, is 
referred to in the second chapter, fol. 16 b. 

The work consists of five parts (kism), 
subdivided into chapters (bab), and again 
into minor sections (fasl). 

A very full table of contents, in which not 
only the dynasties but the individual kings 
are enumerated, with the length of their 
reigns, occupies about fifty pages in the 
other copy, Add. 6541, foil. 129 a— 153 b ; 
but the present MS. contains only its 
latter portion, foil. 1 a — 7 a. 

Contents: Kism I., in three Babs— 1. 
Prophets and sages, fol. 7 a. 2. Early kings 
of Persia, foil. 166. 3. Arab kings, fol 
243 o. 



The second of the above Babs, which is 
headed with a special 'Unvan, is stated to 
have been extracted, at the command of 
Akbar, from Firdausi's Shahnamah, by a 
friend of the author, Maulana TakI ud-Din 
Muhammad Shushtari. The latter, over- 
whelmed with grief at the death of Akbar, 
having left the work unfinished, it was com- 
pleted and condensed to its present shape by 
the author. 

Kism II., containing four Babs. Bab 1, in 
two Easls : 1. The first four Khalifs (Eashi- 
din), fol. 247 «. 2. Hasan and the other 
Imams; from Jami's work, Shavahid un- 
nubuvvat, fol. 249 b. 

Bab 2, in two Pasls : 1. Bani Umayyah 
in the East, fol. 269 b. 2. Umayyades of 
Spain, fol. 272 a. 

Bab 3, in two Easls : 1. The Abbasides, 
fol. 272 b. 2. Their offshoots, in fiveEirkahs: 
Tahiris, BanI Aghlab, Tulunis, Ikhshidis, and 
IJamdanis, fol. 277 a. 

Bab 4, in thirteen Easls : 1. Saffaris, 
fol. 279 b. 2. Samanis, ib. 3. Ghaznavis, 
fol. 280 b. 4. Ghuris, fol. 282 a. 5. Off- 
shoots of the GhQris, from Taj ud-Din IldQz 
to 'Ala ud-Din B. Khizr Khan (from the 
Tarikh i Mubarakshahi), fol. 283 a. 6. Kurts, 
fol. 285 a. 7. Dayalimah, fol. 286 a. 8. Saljukis 
of Iran, Kirman and Eum, fol. 288 a.. 9. Their 
offshoots : The Khwarazmshahis, fol. 290 b. 

10. Governors appointed by the Saljuks, in 
two Tabakahs : a. Manguchak and his suc- 
cessors, fol. 292 b. b. The Muayyadis, ib. 

11. The Atabaks of Syria, and the Ayyubis ; 
the Atabaks of Ears and Azarbaijan, fol. 293 a. 

12. Karakhitais of Kirman, fol. 296 a. 

13. Isma'ilis of Maghrib and Iran, fol. 297 a. 
Kism III., containing seven Babs : Bab 1. 

Kings of the Turks before Chingiz Khan, 
(from the Rauzat us-Safa), fol. 299 b. 
Bab 2. Kings of the Moghuls before Chingiz 
Khan, fol. 303 a. 

Bab 3, in three Easls: 1. Chingiz Khan 
and his successors in Iran, fol. 306 a. 



GENERAL HISTOEY. 



121 



2. Descendants of ChingTz Khan, who reigned 
out of Iran, in four Tabakahs : a. Descendants 
of Uktjli Ka'an, fol. 361 b. b. Descendants 
of Chaghatai Khan, fol. 362 a. c. Descendants 
of JujI Khan, fol. 363 a. d. Descendants 
of Shaiban in Mavara annahr, down to 'Abd 
ul-Mumin, A.H. 1006, fol. 364 b, and .in 
Khwarazm, from Iliyas Khan to Jiljim B. 
Daulat Khan, fol. 366 b ; the descendants 
of Tail, fol. 367 a. 4. Offshoots of the 
Chingizkhanis, in four Tabakahs: 1. Chu- 



2. Ilkanis, fol. 368 a. 
368 b. 4. Sarbadars, 



panis, fol. 367 b. 
3. Muzaffaris, fol 
; fol. 369 a. 

Bab 4. Account of the embassy sent by 
Shahrukh to China, from the Nigaristan of 
Ahmad Ghaffari, fol. 370 a. 

Bab 5. The Sultans of the race of 'Ugman, 
from their origin to A.H. 1014, fol. 374 b. 

Bab 6, in three Easls : 1. Timur and his 
successors, fol. 377 b. 2. Descendants of 
'Umar Shaikh, down to the death of Akbar, 
fol. 396 a. 3. The Kara Kuyunlus and Ak 
Kiiyunlus, fol. 397 b. 

Bab 7. The Safavis, from their origin to 
the time of composition, fol. 400 b. 

Kism IV. Hindu traditions, from the Ma- 
habharat, as translated into Persian by order 
of Akbar, fol. 426 a, in two Babs: 1. Account 
of Vishnu's Avatars. 2. Abstract of the 
Mahabharat, concluding with Harivansa, 
fol. 467 a. Our copy breaks off, fol. 523 b, 
before the end of the above chapter, namely, 
in the midst of the narrative relating to the 
daughters of King Vajranab, and their secret 
union with Kamdev and his brothers. Six 
blank leaves have been inserted there. 

Kism v., in four Babs, avowedly abridged 
from Tfirikh i Nizami. Bab 1. Kings of 
Dehli, from Mu'izz ud-Din Muhammad Sam 
Ghuri to Sultan Muhammad 'Adil, called 
'Adll, foil. 584 a— 632 a. (This first section 
is wrongly placed in the present copy after 
the third.) Bab 2. History of Akbar, from 
his accession to his death, fol. 524 b. 



Bab 3. Select verses of Amirs and poets of 
the court of Akbar, fol. 565 a; notices on 
some 'Ulama of the same court, fol. 579 h. 
Bab 4, in nine Fasls: 1. Kings of Sind, 
fol. 633 a. 2. Kings of Multan, fol. 637 a. 
3. Kings of Kashmir, fol. 640 a. 4. Kings 
of Gujarat, fol. 652 a. 5. Kings of Malvah 
and Mandu, fol. 679 b. 6. Kings of the 
Deccan, viz. : The Bahmanis, fol. 683 b. 
The Nizam ul-Mulkis, fol. 685 a. The 'AdU- 
khanis, fol. 687 b. The Kutb-ul-mulkis, 
fol. 689 a. 7. The Sharki kings of Jaunpur, 
fol. 689 b. 8. Kings of Bengal, fol. 691 b. 
9. The wonders and curiosities of the islands 
qnd harbours in the parts of Bengal, fol. 
698 a. 

This last section, which treats of a number 
of islands and some distant countries acces- 
sible from Bengal by sea, is divided, accord- 
ing to the table of contents, fol. 6 b, into 
fourteen chapters (Dafahs), the last of 
which treats of Portugal. But in the text 
itself that division is not observed, and the 
MS. comes abruptly to an end after five 
pages treating of Ceylon, Pegu, and Achin. 

Or. 138. 

Foil. 501; 11 in. by 6|; 25 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik, apparently 
in India, in the 18th century. 

[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 



,_^ 



,U^\ 



An abridgement of general history, from 
the earliest times to the accession of Shah- 
jahan, A.H. 1037. 

Author: Muhammad Bakir [B.] 'Inayat 
Ullah [B.] Sadr ud-Din Muhammad Tabrizi, 
called Afsah, j^.j31 jC^ »U^ tlo.Uc. j\> o-^ 

^.oib K^^^ '-^Jirf* '^-♦^ 

Beg. 1^-^ i^>j^ J^\ t^\* p^ c^ ^^' 



B 



122 



GENEEAL HISTORY. 



It appears from the preface that the 
author was attached to the service of Sultan 
Muradbakhsh, son of Shahjahan, and that he 
compiled the present compendium from a 
number of standard historical works, which 
he found in Ahmadabad of Gujarat, when 
staying there in attendance on that prince. 
His sources, and the portion borrowed from 
each, are thus enumerated : 

The history of the Ban! Jiln, of the prophets, 
of JIuhammad, the Khalifs, the twelve 
Imams and the early kings, from the Tarikh 
1 Mir Haidar Razi. The account of Imam 
Husain and the martyrs of Karbala, from 
the Eauzat ush-Shuhada. That of the Greek 
philosophers and the Saljiik dynasties, from 
the Zubdat ul-Akhbar of Mir Ghiyas ud- 
Din 'All. The history of Chingiz Khan and 
his successors, from the Eauzat us-Safa. The 
history of Timur and his successors in Iran 
and Turan, from the Zafar Namah of Sharaf 
ud-Din Yazdi. The account of Mahmiid 
Ghaznavi and his successors in India, of 
Mu'izz ud-Din Sam and the slave-kings of 
Dehli, the Khiljis and Afghans, the kings of 
Mrdvah, Gujarat, Deccan, Jaunpur, Bengal, 
and Kashmir, from the Tfirikh of Nizam ud- 
Din Ahmad. The reigns of Babar, Humayun 
and Akbar, from the Akbar Namah of Abu- 
1-Fazl. The reign of Jahangir, from the 
Ikbal-Namah of Muhammad Sharif Mu'tamad 
Khan. The history of the Safavis, from the 
'Alam arai of Iskandar Beg Munshi. 

The work is divided into seven sections 
(Bfib), some of which are subdivided into 
chapters (Fasl), of which there are altogether 
thirty ; the contents are fully stated in the 
preface, foil. 3 — 7. Bab V. treating of Mah- 
mud Ghaznavi, the kings of Dehli, and the 
local dynasties of India, and Bab VI., com- 
prising the reigns of Babar, Humayun, Ak- 
bar, Jahangir and Shirshah, are wanting in the 
present copy, and the seventh section, which 
treats of the Safavis, immediately follows the 
fourth. 



The title jUi-^^ ^\ appears on the first 
page of the MS. In the preface only the 
first word of the title is legible, the second 
having been scratched out. In the subscrip- 
tion it is written jUi-^\ ^\j Ob\5lU **U. 

Contents: — Bab I. The genii (Bani Jiin), 
fol. 8 a. Adam and the Prophets, fol. 9 b. 

Bab II. Muhammad, fol. 30 a. Early Kha- 
lifs, fol. 66 a. Hasan and Husain, fol. 116 a. 
The other Imams, fol. 162 a. Bani IJmay- 
yah, fol. 178 b. The 'Abbasides, fol. 195 a. 
Pishdiidis, fol. 237 a. Kayanis, fol. 245 a. 
Muliik ut-tava'if, fol. 257 6. Sasanis, fol. 
259 a. Ancient sages, fol. 274 6. Saljiikis 
of Iran, fol. 278 b, of Kirman, fol. 288 6, of 
EQm, fol. 289 b. 

Biib III. Chingiz Khan and his successors, 
down to Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan, fol. 290 a. 

Bab IV. Timur and his successors (with 
the exception of Babar and the Indian 
branch), fol. 336 b. 

Bab VII. The Safavis, from their rise to 
A.H. 1026, fol. 401 a. 

Add. 16,695. 

FoU. 269 ; 12| in. by 8 ; 25 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Shahja- 
hanabad (Dehli), Jumada I., A.H. 1139 
(A.D, 1726), the 9th year of Muhammad 
Shah. [Wm. Yule.] 

A general history, from the earliest time 
to the accession of Shahjahan, A.H. 1037. 

Author: Muhammad Yusuf B. Shaikh Eah- 
mat XJllah ul-Ataki ul-Kanani, (»i-»^ j^ 

Beg. {^\fi AsxA j\ ftj ui>^.^ J li-cW* «iv»- 
The compiler, who derives the first of his 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



123 



two Nisbahs from Atak, Panjab, where he 
dwelt, and the second from Kan'fin (?), as 
the place of his birth, dedicates this work to 
Shahjahan, from whose bounty he hoped for 
a reward, that would enable him to spend 
the rest of his days in devotion and prayer. 
He lays no claim to authorship; his only 
boast is to have faithfully transcribed the 
various works which he has laid under con- 
tribution, and which he enumerates in the 
preface, as follows: The translation of Ta- 
bari, Tclrikh i Mu'ajjam, Guzidah, Majma' 
ul-Ansab, Tarikh i Banakiti, Eauzat ul- 
Ahbab, Mllad un-Nabi, Rauzat us-Safa, Ha- 
blb us-Siyar, Nigaristan by Ahmad Ghaffiiri, 
Tarikh i JaLll ud-Din Suyuti, Mir'at ul-Jinan 
by Mulla Muslih ud-Din Larl, Tarikh i Hu- 
mayuni, Tarikh i Sind by Muhammad Ma'sum 
Bakarl, Akbar-Namah, Tarikh i Nizami, 
Tarikh i Bait ul-Ma'bur by Ma'mur Khan, 
Tarikh i Hukama, Tazkirat ul-Auliya by 
'Attar, Nafahat ul-TJns, 'Aja'ib ul-Buldan, 
'Ajaib ud-Dunya by Azari. 

He states, in his conclusion, that he com- 
pleted his task on the 15th of Zul-Hijjah, 
A.H. 1056, and that his friend Mir Mu- 
hammad Beg B. MirzH Beg supplied him on 
that occasion with a new title, embodied in 
a piece of verses, and ingeniously contrived 
so as to convey the date of completion, viz., 
Jjj ^-J i_>A^** " Compendium without peer." 
This implies that 36, the number expressed 
by the last word, has to be deducted from 
1092, the total formed by the first, which 
indeed gives 1056. 

The work is divided into an introduction 
(Mukaddimah), five parts (Kism), and a 
conclusion (Khatimah), with minute sub- 
divisions. A very detailed statement of the 
contents occupies no less than fourteen pages 
in the preface, foil. 5 b — 12 b. 

Mukaddimah. Utility of history ; creation 
of the world; tribes of the Jinns ; constitu- 
tion of the human body, fol. 12 b. 



Kism I. Prophets and apostles, fol. 20 b. 
Ancient sages and philosophers, fol. 121 a. 

Kism II. Early kings of Persia, fol. 130 b. 
Arab kings, fol. 174-6. Amalikah or Pha- 
raohs, fol. 185 a. Kings of the Kaldanis 
(Chaldeans), fol. 185 6. Kings of Mavara 
annahr, of the lineage of Tur, fol. 186 b. 
Kings of Israel, fol. 187 a. Kings of Rum 
and Yunan (Ptolemies), fol. 191 b. Kings of 
the Eirang (Roman Emperors and Popes), 
fol. 192 b. Prophets and Rajas of the Hindus, 
fol. 203 a. Kings of Khitrd (China), to the 
Moghul conquest, fol. 206 b. 

Kism III. Muhammad and the Khalifs. 

Kism IV. Dynasties posterior to Muham- 
mad, in twenty -five Tabakahs, beginningwith 
the Tahiris and ending with the descendants 
of Timur in India. 

Kism V. Notices of Imams, Shaikhs, TJla- 
ma and poets. The above three sections are 
wanting in this copy. 

Khatimah, in three Babs : 1. On various 
seras and the seven climates, fol. 212 6. 
2. Cities, countries, mountains, deserts, seas, 
lakes, rivers, springs, wells, and islands of 
the seven climates, in ten Fasls, fol. 217 b. 
Wonders and curiosities of nature, in nine- 
teen Fasls, fol. 235 a. 

Transcriber (fol. 130 b) : J^ J5 ^> 

Some notes, written in a fine Ta'lik hand 
on the first page, fol. 4 a, by Muhammad 
Ahsan Ullah Khan, show that this volume 
came into his possession in the 19th year of 
Muhammad Shah, A.H. 1149. He there 
congratulates himself on the acquisition of a 
work, often quoted by Eirishtah (an evident 
mistake, for Eirishtah is older), and which 
he had long sought in vain. He further re- 
cords several successive perusals of the book, 
from A.H. 1160 to 1191. 

Prefixed is a table of the contents of the 
present volume, in a later hand, foU. 1 — 3. 

A miscellaneous volume, Add. 17,967, 
contains an abstract of the contents of the 

E 2 



124 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



first volume of the Muntakhab ut-Tavarikh, 
foil. 11—21. It extends to the end of Kism 
III., and was written A.H. 1222, by Gbulam 
Muhammad. 

Add. 25,186*. 

Foil. 597 ; 13 in. by 8^ ; 25 lines, 6 in. 
long ; written in a rude Nestalik, apparently 
in India, in the 18th century. 

[Wm. Cureton.] 

A portion of the same work, namely 
Kisms IV. and V., and the Khatimah. The 
author's name occurs at the end of Kism IV., 
fol. 247 «. The date of composition, A.H. 
1056, is mentioned in several places, foil. 
53 b, 56 a, 58 6, 93 a, etc. But the substance 
and arrangement of Kisms IV. and V. diifer 
in several important points from the state- 
ment of the contents in the preface of the 
preceding copy, so that the work must have 
undergone some recasting since that preface 
was written. 

Contents: — Kism IV., divided into two 
Babs. 

Bab I., containing four Easls : — 1. Kings 
of Ma vara annahr and Khurasan, in five 
Ta'ifahs : Tilhiris, SafEiris, Samanis, Ghaz- 
navis, and Ghuris, fol. 1 b. 2. Kings of Iran, 
'Irak and Eiirs, in two Ta'ifahs: Dailamis, 
and Saljukis, fol. 10 b. 3. Slaves of the 
Saljukis, in two Ta'ifahs: Khwarazmshahis 
and Atabaks, fol. 20 a. 4. Isma'ilis of Magh- 
rib and Iran, fol. 24 a. 

Bab II., containing six Easls: — 1. Turks, 
Moghuls and Tatars : Chingiz Khan and his 
successors, down to Abu Sa'id, fol. 27 b. 2. 
Kings of Iran, in five Ta'ifahs : Al i Muzaffar, 
Ilkhanis, Karakuyunlus, Ak-kuyunlus, Sa- 
favis, down to Shah Abbas II., fol. 34 b. 3. 
Kings of Rum, in two Ta'ifahs : Saljukis 
and Al i 'Ugman, down to Sultan Ibrahim 
fol. 53 b. 4. Kings of Sind, in five Ta'ifahs: 
Rajahs, from about the time of Muhammad 



to the conquest. Governors of Sind under 
theUmayyadesand the Abbasides : Sumarahs, 
from A.H. 445 to 680, Samanahs or Jams, 
from A.H. 680 to 916, Arghunis and Tar- 
khanis, fol. 59 a. 5. Kings of Hindustan, in 
five Ta'ifahs: Slaves of the Ghuris, Khiljis, 
Tughlakis, Sayyids, and Afghans or Lodis, 
fol. 83 a. 6. Timur, fol. 93 a; Shahrukh 
and his successors, fol. 147 a ; 'Umar Shaikh 
and his successors, fol. 150 a; Miranshah 
and his successors, down to the accession of 
Shahjahan, fol. 150 b. 

In the conclusion of the last chapter the 
author observes that the task of fitly record- 
ing the reign of Shahjahan having been 
committed to the court historians, he now 
refrains from entering upon that lofty theme, 
hoping, if life be vouchsafed to him, to add 
some day to the present work an abstract of 
their annals. 

Kism v., the biographical portion of the 
work, also divided iuto two Babs. 

Bab I., in five Easls : 1. The four Imams 
of the Sunnis and their principal Mujtahids, 
fol. 248 b. 2. Ashab i Kiraat, the authors 
of the different recensions of the Goran, fol. 
258 a. 3. The compilers of the Canons of 
Traditions, fol. 258 b. 4. 'Ulama, in alpha- 
betical order, fol. 260 5. 5. Persian poets, 
in alphabetical order, fol. 264 a. 

Bab II., in two Easls : 1. Religious teachers 
and saints, in chronological order, from the 
early ages of Islamism to the close of the 
10th century of the Hijrah, fol. 267 b. 2. Ee- 
male devotees, fol. 515 b. 

The following works are mentioned as the 
principal sources of the lives of the saints : 
Tazkirat ul-Auliya by Shaikh 'Attar, Tarikh 
Guzldah, Nafahat ul-Uns, and Hadikat ul- 
Auliya by Sayyid 'Abd ul-Kadir B. Hashim 
ul-Husaini. 

Khatimah, as in the preceding copy, fol. 
523 b. Prefixed, foil. 522 a, is a map of the 
world, as known to the Orientals. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



125 



Or. 209. 

Eoll. 587 ; 9^ in. by 6^; 17 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Naskhi, apparently in the 
17th century. [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

A work on general history, from the 
earliest times to A.H. 1076. 

la the preface, the first page of which 
is lost, the author says that he wrote 
this work in A.H. 1076, at Muradabad, 
province of Delili, for the Amir Asiilat 
Khan, governor of that place. 

Mirza Muhammad B. Mirza Badi' Mash- 
hadi, who entered the service of Shahjahiln 
in the 19th year of the reign, received the 
title of Asalat Khan from Aurangzib at the 
time of his accession, and in the third year 
of that reign was appointed Eaujdiir of Mu- 
radabad. He died A.H. 1076; see Ma'asir 
ul-Umara, Add. 6567, fol. 55 b, and Tazkirat 
ul-UmarS, Add. 16,703, fol. 14 a. 

The present MS. contains only the first 
volume of the work. The concluding lines 
show that the next began with the history of 
the invasion of Chingiz Khan. The entire 
work is stated to consist of four Kisms, the 
first of which treats of the prophets, from 
Adam to Noah ; the headings of the others 
do not appear in this copy, and most of the 
rubrics have been omitted. 

Contents: Prophets, from Adam to Luk- 
man, fol. 2 a. Ancient sages, from Sab (or 
Harmes) to Buzurjmihr, fol. 114 a. Pish- 
dadis, fol. 119 6. Kayanis, fol. 128 b. Kings 
of Rum and Syria (Ptolemies, etc.), fol. 141 a. 
Muluk Tava'if, Ashkanis and Sasfmis, fol. 
143 b. Kings of the Arabs, fol. 164 a. 
Muhammad, fol. 175 b. Abu Bakr, fol. 237 6. 
•Umar, fol. 240 a. 'Usman^ fol. 248 b. 'Ali, 
fol. 258 a. The rest of the twelve Imams, 
fol. 279 a. Kings of the race of Umayyah, 
fol. 320 a. Abbaside Khalifs, fol. 362 b. 



Dynasties contemporary with the Abba- 
sides : Tahiris, fol. 444 a. Saffaris, fol. 445 b. 
Samanis, fol. 449 a. Al i Subuktigln, fol. 467 b. 
Kings of Tabaristan, fol. 471 a. Kings of 
Jibal, fol. 478 a. Al i Buvaih, fol. 482 *. 
Isma'ilis of Maghrib and of Iran, fol. 498 a. 
Saljukis, fol. 509 b. Banl Mazyad, fol. 540 a. 
Bani Hamdan, fol. 541 a. Atabaks, fol. 543 b. 
Umayyades and later dynasties in Spain, 
fol. 552 b. Ayyubis, fol. 559 b. Sharifs 
of Mecca, fol. 565 a. GhQris and slave 
kings of Dehli, fol. 565 b. Khwiirazm- 
shahis, fol. 578 b. 

It may be noticed that when speaking of 
the future advent of the Mahdi, fol. 320 a, 
the author refers for further details to an- 
other work of his, entitled Gvdshan i Iman. 

Add. 7657. 

EoU. 497 ; 10| in. by 7 ; 21 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik and Shikastah- 
Amiz, with 'Unvan and gold-ruled margins, 
about the close of the 17th century. 

[CI. J. Rich.] 



(JU)i 



;y 



A general history, from the earliest times 
to A.H. 1078. 

Author : Muhammad Bakhtiivar Khan 
(fol. 474 a) ^\i, jjlU<t. j^ 

Beg. tlAS-UaJj^ii^j^yj^-lj ai' ijji'^ ^..}ji 

The author, who passed for a perfect 
master of historical lore, was a eunuch in 
the service of Aurangzib, who on his ac- 
cession conferred upon him the title of 
Khan, and in the 13th year of his reign the 
office of Daroghah i Khavasan. He died in 
the 28th year of the reign. See Tazkirat 
ul-Umara, Add. 16,713, fol. 22. A notice of 
the work has been given by Morley, Descrip- 
tive Catalogue, pp. 52 — 56 ; see also N. Lees, 
Journal of the Roy. Asiat. Soc, New Series, 
vol. iii., p. 465. Erom the account the 



126 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



author gives of himself towards the end of 
the Mirat ul-'Alam, we learn that he had 
written several other works, the dates of 
which range from A.H. 1078 to 1090, namely, 
an account of the four battles by which 
Aurangzib won the throne, entitled Chahar 
a'inah ; abridgements of the Hadikah of Sa- 
na!, the poems of 'Attar, the Masnavi of 
Maulana Eumi, of the Rauzat ul-Ahbab, and 
of the Tririkh i Alf i, a large anthology called 
Savadi A'zam, and a biography of saints, 
entitled Riyaz ul-Auliya. A circumstantial 
account of his death, found at the end of the 
present copy, was written by his adopted 
son and favoured pupil (probably Muham- 
mad Saki, afterwards Musta'idd Khan), who 
says that he had assisted his master in the 
composition of this work, and had after his 
death obtained from Aurangzib the permission 
to publish it. It is here stated that Bakh- 
tavar Khan died after a short illness in 
Ahmadnagar, on the loth of Rabi' I., A.H. 
1096; that Aurangzib mourned for him more 
than he had ever done for any of his servants, 
and ofl&ciated as Imam at his funeral. He 
was buried in a tomb that he had erected 
for himself in Baklitavar-purah, Dehli. 

Bakhtavar Khan says in his preface that 
he had been from his youth a passionate 
student of history, and that, prevented by 
frequent travelling from having many books 
at hand, he had often wished to provide 
himself with a substitute in the shape of a 
complete historical vade-mecum. It was 
not, however, until after the accession of 
his royal master that he found himself in a 
position that enabled him to carry out his 
plan. The result was the present work, 
which was completed in the year expressed 
by the words c^ ««ajT, i. e. A.H. 1078. 

But although that year is mentioned more 
than once in the body of the work as the 
time of composition (see foil. 174 b, 446 a), 
some of the historical accounts and bio- 
graphical notices are brought down to later 



dates, as A.H. 1088, fol. 455 b, 10S9, fol. 
456 a, 1092, fol. 455 b, 1094, fol. 456 b. 

The Mirat ul-'Alam is an extremely useful 
and trustworthy compendium of eastern 
history and biography. The contemporary 
record of the first ten years of Aurangzib's 
reign is of special interest ; the author re- 
marks in its conclusion that his position 
near the person of the sovereign had enabled 
him to make important additions to the 
'Alamglr-Namah, on which his account was 
based. It is mentioned among the sources 
of the Maagir ul-Umara, Add. 6567, fol. 2. 

The work is divided into an Introduction 
(Mukaddimah), seven books, called Arayish, 
subdivided into sections termed Numayish 
and Numud, an Appendix (Afzayish), and a 
Conclusion (Khatimah). 

Contents : Mukaddimah, creation, fol. 5 b. 

Arayish I., in four Numayish — 1. Pro- 
phets, fol. 7 a. 2. Philosophers, fol. 34 a. 
3. Early kings of Persia, fol. 36 b. 4. The 
Tubba's of Yaman, fol. 50 a. 

Arayish II., in twelve Numayish — 1. Life 
of Muhammad, fol. 51 b. 2. His features 
and his miracles, fol. 71 b. 3. His wives and 
children, fol. 72 «. 4. The Rashidin Khalifs, 
fol. 74 a. 5. The Imams, fol. 85 b. 6. The 
Mubashsharin, fol. 88 a. 7. The principal 
Companions, in alphabetical order, fol. 88 b. 
8. The Tabi'in, in chronological order, fol. 
98 a. 9. The four Mujtahids, fol. 101 a. 
10. The seven readers of the Goran, fol. 
102 a. 11. The traditionists, in chronologi- 
cal order, ib. 12. The Shaikhs and Sufis, 
similarly arranged, fol. 104 a. Saints of 
India, fol. Ill b. Muslim philosophers and 
'Ulama, in the same order, fol. 117 a. 

Arayish III., in eight Numayish — 1. Umay- 
yades, fol. 121 a. 2. Abbasides, fol. 126 b. 
3. Dynasties contemporary with the Abba- 
sides, in eleven Numuds — Tahiris, fol. 134 b. 
Safiaris, fol. 135 a. Samanis, fol. 135 b. 
Ghaznavis, fol. 136 b. Ghuris, fol. 138 b. 
Al i Buvaih, fol. 139 b. Saljukis, fol. 141 a. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



127 



Khwiirazmshilhis, fol. 144 a. Atabaks of 
Fiirs, Syria, and Irak, fol, 146 a. Ismailis 
of Maghrib and Iran, fol. 148 a. Karakhi- 
tais of Kir man, fol. 150 a. 4. Kings of 
Rum, in eight Numuds — CjEsars, fol. 150 b. 
Saljukis, fol. 153 b. Danishmandis, Salikis, 
Manguchakis, Karaman, Zulkadr, fol. 154 b. 
Osmanlis, fol. 156 a. 5. Sharlfs of Mecca 
and Medina, fol. 158 a. 6. The Khans of 
the Turks, viz. Turk, Tatar, Moghul, Bix- 
zanjar Ka'an, and their descendants, fol. 
159 a. 7. Chingiz Khan and his descendants, 
in seven Numuds — Timuchin (Chingiz), fol. 
161 a. Ukdai Ka'an and his successors in 
Ulugh Yurt, fol. 162 b. Jfiji Khan and his 
successors in Klpchak, fol. 163 b. Hulagu 
Khftn and his successors in Iran, fol. 164 a. 
Chaghatai Khan and his successors in Turan, 
fol. 167 a. Shaibanis in Turan, from Shalu 
Beg Khan to the accession of *Abd ul-'Aziz 
Khan, A.H. 1055 (with a marginal addition 
recording the latter's expulsion by Subhan 
Kuli Khan, A.H. 1092, and his death in 
Mokha, A.H. 1094). Khans of Kashghar, 
from Tughluktimur Khan, A.H. 761, to 
Yulpars Khiin, who was reigning in A.H. 
1078. 8. Muluk ut-Tava'if, or local dynasties 
that rose at the decline of the Moghul empire, 
in five Numiids — Chupanis, Ilkanis, Shaikh 
Abu Ishak and MuzafFaris, Kurts, and Sar- 
badars, fol. 175 o. 

Arayish IV., in five Numayish — 1. Timur 
and his successors, down to Sultan Abu Sa'id, 
fol. 179 a. 2. Abul-Ghazi Sultan Husain 
and his children, fol. 188 a. 3. Karaku- 
yunlus, fol. 189 b. ^. Ak Kuyunlus, fol. 
190 a. 5. Safavis, down to the accession of 
Shah Sulaiman, A.H. 1077, fol. 190 b. 

Arayish V., containing an Introduction, 
called Naksh, on the creed of the Hindus, 
their Rajahs, and the Muslim conquest, fol. 
196 b; and the following nine Numayish — 
1. Sultans of Dehli, from Shihab ud-Din 
Ghuri to Ibrahim LodT, fol. 202 a. 2. Sultans 
of Deccan, in six Numuds — Bahmanis, fol. 



218 a. Baridis, fol. 230 b. 'Imad-Shahis, 
fol. 231 a. Nizam ul-Mulkis, lb. 'Adil- 
khanis (with a marginal addition, recording 
the accession of Iskandar 'Adil Khan, A.H. 
1084), fol. 232 b. Kutb ul-Mulkis, fol. 233 b. 
3, Kings of Gujarat, fol. 234 a. 4. Rulers 
of Sind, in two Numuds — Tatah, fol. 237 a. 
Multan, fol. 239 a. 5. Bengal, fol. 240 b. 
6. Mrdvah, fol. 242 a. 7. Khandes, fol. 244 a. 
8. Jaunpur, fol. 245 a. 9. Kashmir, fol. 246 a. 

Arayish VI., in five Numayish — I. Babar, 
fol. 249 a. 2. Humayun, fol. 254 b. 3. Ak- 
bar, fol. 271 b. 4. JahangTr, fol. 296 a 
5. Shahjahan, fol. 312 a. 
. Arayish VII., in three Pairayish — 1. His- 
tory of 'Alamgir, from his birth to the end 
of the tenth year of his reign, fol. 348 b 
(it closes with the 21st of Shavval, A.H. 
1078). 2. His eminent qualities, fol. 442 a; 
his children, ib.; extent and divisions of 
his empire, fol. 445 a ; contemporary sove- 
reigns, fol. 446 a. 3. Shaikhs of the time of 
'Alamglr, fol. 447 a. 'Ulama, from the time 
of Akbar to the reign of 'Alamgir, fol, 450 a. 

Afzayish: Celebrated calligraphers, from 
Ibn Muklah to the author's time, fol. 457 a. 
Some strange facts and curious anecdotes, 
from the author's own recollection or the 
report of trustworthy informants, fol. 463 b. 
Account of the author's works and of the 
buildings erected by him, fol, 471 b. 

Khatimah, Notices of Persian poets, in 
alphabetical order, fol, 474 a. 

Add. 23,530. 

Foil, 626; 10| in. by 5^; 20 lines, 4 in, 
long; written in fair Nestalik, apparently in 
the 18th century, [Rob, Taylob.] 

The same work. 

Add. 25,784. 

Foil. 390; 12 in. by 7^; 25 lines, 4| in. 



128 



, GENERAL HISTOEY. 



long ; written in Nestalik, with 'Unvan and 
ruled margins ; about the beginning of the 
18th century. [Wm. Cueeton.] 

The same work. 

Add. 24,027. 

Foil. 602; 12 in. by 8; 15 lines, 5 in. 
long; written in large Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and ruled margins, apparently in India, in 
the 18th century. [H. H. Wilson.] 

j\cj\ Jib lJjS- ^j>U» iX.^ ^Jo 

Tarlkh i Muhammadshahi, commonly 
called Nadir uz-zamani, a work on general 
history, written with special reference to 
India, and concluding with a record of the 
reign of Muhammad Shah (A.H. 1131— 1161). 

Author : Khwushhal Chand B. Jivanram 
B. Anandram Kayath (foil. 67 a, 190 a), 

The author was Munshl in the Divani 
ofiice of Dehli ; see Elliot's History of India, 
vol. vii., No. xcii. He conveys the date of 
composition, A.H. 1154, in the following 
verse at the end of the first book, fol. 189 a. 

Erom a summary of the contents of the 
whole work, given at the beginning of the 
second book, fol. 190, we learn that it is 
divided into two books (Makalah). Maka- 
lah I., caUed^Ui-'ill «^, comprises two sections 
termed Kaifiyyat, subdivided into Haka'ik 
and Daka'ik. The first treats of the prophets, 
from Adam to Muhammad, the kings of Iran, 
Turan, Eum and Syria, ancient sages and the 
descendants of Japhet (the Turks and Mo- 
ghuls), down to the grandson of Timur, 'Umar 
Shaikh. It contains digressions on poetry, 
prosody and various alphabets and characters. 

The second Kaifiyyat treats of the Hindu 
Rajahs, from Judhishtir to Rae Pithaura, 
with an incidental account of Ram and 



Lachman, and of the Muslim kings of India, 
from Subuktigin to Ibrahim Lodi. It com- 
prises also dissertations on the interpreta- 
tion of dreams, astrology, music, Hindu 
philosophy, and an account of the Muslim 
saints of India, the filiation of religious 
orders, and of celebrated Hindu devotees, as 
Ramanand, Kabir, Raidas, Surdas, &c. 

Makalah II., called jLi-^1 iijjj, is divided 
into two sections (Matla') : 1. History of the 
Timurides of India, from Babar to Rafi' ud- 
Daulah. 2. History of Muhammad Shah. 

The present volume contains the latter 
part of the second Kaifiyyat of Makrdah I., 
and the greatest portion of the first Matla' of 
Makalah II., as follows : Account of religious 
orders and of the Muslim saints of India, fol. 
2 a. This account, which is slightly imperfect 
at the beginning, is a digression introduced 
into the history of Ghiya§ ud-Din Balban. 

End of the reign of Ghiya§ ud-Din Balban, 
and history of his successors on the throne 
of Dehli, down to Ibrahim Lodi, fol. 22 b. 
Local dynasties of India, abridged from 
Eirishtah's history, viz. Deccan, fol. 42 a ; 
Gujarat, Sind, Bengal, Malvah, Khandes, 
Jaunpiir and Kashmir, fol. 55 a. Notices of 
numerous Hindu devotees, a favourite theme 
with the author, illustrated by copious anec- 
dotes, sayings, and verses, fol. 66 b. 

Preface of Makrdah II., beginning, fol. 189 a: 

Genealogy of Muhammad Shah, fol. 193 b. 
History of Babar, fol. 195 b. Description of 
the one-and- twenty Subahs of the empire, 
fol. 207 a. Reigns of Humayiin, fol. 241 a, 
Akbar, fol. 280 a, Jahangir, fol. 361 b, Shah- 
jahan, fol. 418 a, and 'Alamgir, fol. 473 a>. 

The record of the last reign is brought 
down to the 49th year ; the last event men- 
mentioned is the death of Jahanzib Banu, 
daughter of Dara Shikuh, intelligence of 
which reached the court from Ahmadabad 
on the 28th of Zul-Ka'dah, A.H. lil6. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



129 



The first page of this MS. imparts to it a 
deceptive appearance of antiquity ; for it is 
covered with seals and 'arz-didahs, several of 
which are of the reign of Shahjahan. But it 
is found on nearer inspection to have origin- 
ally belonged to a copy of Jami's Yusuf and 
Zalikha, and to have been cunningly pasted 
on the first leaf of the present volume. The 
verso of that leaf contains a rich 'Unvan and 
a few lines of a spurious preface, designed to 
disguise the defective state of the MS. 

Add. 6539 and 6540. 

Two uniform volumes, containing re- 
spectively foil. 244 and 121 ; 11| in. by 8^ ; 
20 lines, 4| in. long; written in cursive 
Nestalik; dated Haidarabad, Muharram, A.H. 
1197 (A.D. 1783). [J. F. Hull.] 

An abridgment of general history, from 
the earliest times to A.H. 1179. 

Author : (Mir) Muhammad 'AH B. Mu- 
hammad Sadik, of tlie Kamun family, ul- 
Husaini ul-Burhanpuri, (fol. 7 a), ij> ^Js- j^ 

Beg. p^^J ftj/j!s)U *1J15 «/;yif** ^^ji^ 

The author states in the preface that after 
years of unremitted labour he had completed 
an historical compendium written with 
special attention to dates, and had dedicated 
it, in A.H. 1153, to the late Navriib, Nizam 
ud-Daulah Mir Ahmad Khan Bahadur Nasir 
Jang (the son and successor of Nizam ul- 
Mulk Asafjah, murdered by his officers in 
A.H. 1164). Not being rewarded with the 
slightest token of favour, he had taken the 
work in hand again, and added to it a 
second volume and another preface, inclu- 
ding a dedication to a new patron, Samsam 
ud-Daulah Shahnavaz Khan Bahadur (the 



minister of Nasir Jang and AsaQiih, and 
author of the Ma'asir ul-Umara). This 
improved edition was not completed till A.H. 
1179, for the history is brought down to 
the beginning of that year, and the same 
date is frequently mentioned in various parts 
of the work as the time of composition : see 
foil. 9 b, 10 b, 115 b, 171 b, 172 a, etc. But 
the preface must have been written several 
years earlier, for Shahnavaz Khan, to whom 
the dedication is addressed, M'as put to death 
in the month of Ramazan, A.H. 1171. The 
plot to which he fell a victim, and with 
which M. Bussy is explicitly charged by 
the author, is fully told in the latter part of 
the present work, Add. 6540, foil. 103, 104. 
The same event is recorded in the preface 
of the Maiisir ul-Umara : see also Morley's 
Catalogue, p. 102. 

The Mirat us-Safa is mentioned as one of 
the sources of the Maagir ul-Umara: see Add. 
6565, fol. 8. 

It may be noticed that the author, in 
his chapter on poets, and under the head- 
ing Burhanpur, fol. 232 a, makes mention 
of his son Mir Muhammad Yusuf, who had 
written at the age of eighteen a Mukhtar- 
Namah, consisting of eleven thousand lines, 
in the measure of the Shahnamah. 

The work is divided into two books (Ma- 
kalah) the first of which, contained in Add. 
6539, is again subdivided into an introductory 
chapter (Mukaddimah), treating of history 
and different seras, fol. 9 a, and seventeen 
chapters (Bab), as follows : 

I., in four sections (Fasl) : Creation, 
prophets, philosophers, early kings of Persia, 
fol. 10 b. 

II., in five Fasls : Muhammad, the first 
four Khalifs, the twelve Imams, the rela- 
tives of Muhammad and his Companions, 
fol. 50 b. 

III., in three Fasls: Umayyades, Abba- 
sides and Isma'ili Khalifs, fol. 85 b. 

IV. Shi'ah leaders, who did not attain 

s 



130 



GENERAL HISTOEY. 



sovereign power, and Idrisi Sayyids of Magh- 
rib, fol. 93 a. 

V. Kings of Iran, in nineteen Fasls: 
1. Tahiris, fol. 94 a. 2. Saffilris, ib. 3. Sa- 
manis, fol. 94 b. 4. Subuktiginis, fol. 96 a. 

5. Dailamis, fol. 98 «. 6. Saljukis, fol. 100 i. 
7. Khwarazmshilhis, fol. 105 a. 8. Malahi- 
dahs, or Isma ilis of Iran, fol. 106 b. 9 — 12. 
Atabaks of Mausil, Azarbaijiln, Pars, and 
Luristan, fol. 108 a. 13. Ghuris, fol. 109 b. 
14. Kurts, ib. 15. Kings of Mazandaran, 
down to A.n. 1157, fol. 110 a. 16. Kings of 
Rustamdar, fol. 113 b. 17. Kings of Sistan, 
fol. 114 b. 18. Kings of Lar, down to the 
time of 'Abbas I., fol. 116 a. 19. Kings of 
Shirvan, to the time of Tahmasp, fol. 116 b. 

VI. Kings of Arab countries, in six Fasls : 
1. Musha'sha's of Huwaizah and Khuzistan, 
fol. 117 b. 2. Kings of Taman, from the 
earliest times to A.H. 1042, fol. 118 a. 
3. Kings of Egypt and Syria, to the Turkish 
conquest, fol. 120 b. 4i. Al i Hamdan, 
fol. 122 b. 5. Bani 'Ukail, fol. 123 a. 

6. BanI Asad, fol. 123 b. 

VII. Kings of Moghul origin, in eight 
Fasls: 1. Chinglzkhan and his successors in 
Iran, fol. 125 a. 2. Ilkanis, fol. 136 a. 
3. Chupanis, fol. 137 «. 4. Karilkhitais, 
fol. 137 b. 5. Al i Muzaflfar, fol. 138 b. 
6. Sarbadars, fol. 141 a. 7. Karakuyunlus, 
fol. 141 b. 8. Akkuyunlus, fol. 142 b. 

VIII. Safavis and their successors, down 
to Karim Khan Zand, fol. 143 b. 

IX. Osmanlis, fol. 172 a. 

X. Abul-Khair Khan and his successors in 
Turkistan, down to the submission of Abul- 
Faiz Khan to Nadir Shah, fol. 181 b. 

XI. Kings of India, in sixteen Pasls : 
1. Kings of Dehli, from the Ghuris to the 
Timurides, fol. 184 a. 2. Bahmanis, fol. 187 a. 
3. Nizamshahis, fol. 189 a. 4. 'Adilshahis, 
fol. 190 b. 5. Kutubshahis, fol. 191 b. 
6. 'Imadshahis, fol. 193 b. 7. Baridis, 
fol. 194 a. 8. Kings of Gujarat, fol. 194 b. 



9. Malvah, fol. 195 b. 10. Khandes, fol. 
196 b. 11. Bengal, fol. 198 a. 12. Jaunpur, 
fol. 199 b. 13. Sind, fol. 200 a. 14. Multan, 
fol. 200 b. 15. Kashmir, fol. 201 b. 16. Little 
Tibet, from A.H. 731 to Murtaza Khan, in 
the reign of Aurangzib, fol. 203 b. 

XII. 'XJlama; short biographical notices 
of men of learning, from the first century of 
the Hijrah to the author's time, fol. 204 a. 

XIII. Holy men and Sufis, arranged under 
their native places, fol. 212 b. 

XIV. Arab and Persian poets, the latter 
in the same order, fol. 219 a. 

XV. Dates of some curious and remarkable 
events, from the Hijrah to the author's time, 
fol. 232 a. 

XVI. Arab and Turcoman tribes, fol. 234 a. 

XVII. Chronological tables of dynasties, 
fol. 241 a. 

Scribe : iytsU' j^ ij> i_^i— * ^-f^^ J>J* '>•:—» 

The second volume. Add. 6540, contains 
the following two sections (Bab) : I. Timu- 
rides of Iran and Turan, from their rise to 
Muhammad Zaman, fol. 6 a. II. Timurides 
of India, from their origin to the time of 
composition, A.H. 1179, fol. 17 a. 

In the latter portion of Bab II. the narra- 
tive becomes very full, especially during 
the reigns of Muhammad Shah, fol. 40 d, 
Ahmad Shah, fol. 77 a, 'Alamgir II., fol. 95 i, 
and Vala-Guhar (Shah 'Alam), fol. 113 a, in 
which the affairs of Nizam ul-Mulk and his 
successors in the Deccan much engross the 
author's attention. 

A tabulated index of contents is prefixed 
to each volume. On the first page of each 
is a note, stating that the original of this 
MS. had been transcribed in the library of 
Navvab Samsam ul-Mulk Shahnavaz Khan 
Bahadur, Haidarabad, A.H. 1196. 

Both volumes bear the official Persian 
stamp of Mr. James Grant. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



131 



Add. 6942. 

Foil. 773 ; 11| in. by 7^; about 20 lines, 
3 in. long ; written by the Rev. John 
Haddon Ilindley, early in the 19th century. 

A compendium of general Mohammedan 
and Indian history, from the earliest times 
to A.H. 1184. 

Author: Muhammad Aslam B. Muham- 
mad Hafiz ul-Ansarl ul-Kadiri, ^^ 1m\ ^^ 

Beg. ^^W)^ s^^j J>^^ ^i V. 0^^ ^ 

It appears from the preface, in which 
Shah 'Alam is designated as the reigning 
sovereign, that the author, who had long 
been engaged in historical studies in his 
native city, Lucknow, was encouraged by 
some Amir not named, whom he met at 
Faiziibad in A.H. 1182, to compile the 
present work, which he dedicated in A.H. 
1184 to the reigning Nawab, Shuja' ud- 
Daulah. 

The work is divided into an introduction 
(Mukaddimah), three books (Makiilah), and 
an Appendix (Zhatimah), as follows : — 

Mukaddimah. Creation, genii, etc., fol. 29. 

MakrJah I. Prophets, Muhammad, early 
Khalifs, the twelve Imams and the four 
doctors of the Sunnis, fol. 37. 

Makalah II. Rajahs and Sultans of India, 
from the earliest times to Ibrahim B. Sikan- 
dar Lodi, fol. 268. 

Makalah III. Timur and his successors in 
India, down to Shah 'Alam, fol. 519. 

Khatimah. Geography of India. Learned 
and holy men. Family of the Vazir Shuja' 
ud-Daulah. 

The present transcript breaks off in the 
account of Aurangzib's accession. In the 
first part of the volume the text is accom- 
panied with an English translation. 



A miscellaneous volume, written by the 
same hand, Add. 6946, contains the head- 
ings of the entire work, foil. 60 — 68. 

Add. 6943. 

Foil. 336 ; 12| in. by 8 ; about 36 lines, 
7^ in. long, in a page ; written by the Rev. 
John Haddon Hindley, on paper water- 
marked 1816. 

A portion of the same work, with extracts 
from the Ma'asir i Rahimi (a work written 
A.H. 1025, by 'Abd ul-Biiki Nahavandi ; see 
Elliot, History of India, vol. vi. p. 237), and 
Jabakat i Akbari (see further on, Add. 6643). 

The compilation follows the arrangement 
of the Farhat un-Nazirin ; but in the early 
portion, namely, Makalah I., foil. 1 — 39, 
and the first part of Makalah II., foil. 40 — 
70, little more than the headings and some 
short extracts are given. 

The remaining portion of Makalah II., 
which relates to Indian history from the 
first appearance of Islamism to the fall of 
Ibrahim B. Sikandar Lodi, is given in full, 
foil. 71 — 303, with copious parallel passages 
from the Ma'a§ir i Rahimi and Tabakat i 
Akbari, written on the opposite pages. 

The same mode of compilation is carried 
on from the beginning of Makalah III. to 
the passage relating to the flight of Huma- 
yun to Persia, foU. 304 — 336, where this 
copy breaks off. 



Add. 16,697. 

Foil. 350; 12| in. by 8| ; 17 lines, 5 in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, early in the 
19th century. [Wm. Yule | 



An abridgment of general history, bio- 
graphy, and geography, from the earliest 
8 2 



132 



GENERAL HfSTOEY. 



times to the 45th year of the reign of Shah 
'Alam, A.H. 1217. 

Author : *Abd ur-Eahman, entitled Shah- 
navaz Khan, HashimI Banbanl Dihlavi, jop 

J ^LJJ ^_5^U i^W J^y^U. u-^"j^ (J-*^J^ 

Beg. 1&U)\ J:iU_* ^^ es^^y- «^ J'-S* 

The author, who held an office at the 
Dehli Court under Shah 'Alam, states in 
the preface that he gave the title of Mir'at 
i Afitabnuma to the present compilation for 
two reasons, first as including Afitab, the 
Takhallus of His Majesty, secondly as ex- 
pressing the date of composition, A.H. 1218. 
The same date is conveyed, in a versified 
chronogram at the end, by the words Up 

This work, which has been described by 
Morley in his Catalogue, pp. 56, 57, is di- 
vided into an Introduction (Mukaddimah), 
two books (Jalvah), and an Appendix (Kha- 
timah), as follows: 

Mukaddimah, Value of history, fol. 3 a. 

Jalvah I., subdivided into the following 
six sections (Tajalli) : 1. Creation of the 
world; heavenly bodies and divisions of 
time ; minerals, plants, and animals, in alpha- 
betical order; constitution of the human body; 
ethics, fol. 3 6. 2. Prophets. 3. Muhammad, 
the early Khalifs and Imams. 4. Sufis, in 
chronological order, fol. 94 b. Indian Saints, 
fol. 102 b. Ealse Sufis, fol. 118 a. Hindu 
devotees, fol. 119 b. 'Ulama, fol. 124 a. Phi- 
losophers, fol. 129 a. Persian Poets, in alpha- 
betical order, fol. 134 a. Calligraphers, fol. 
1 57 b. 5. Early kings of Persia, etc., fol. 160 b. 
Umayyades and Abbasides, fol. 167 a. Dy- 
nasties contemporary with the Abbasides, 
fol. 172 a. Moghuls, fol. 178 b. Kings of 
Deccan and Gujarat, fol. 180 b. Safavis, 
fol. 182 b. Lodis, fol. 183 a. Rajahs of 
India, fol. 186 a. 6. Timur and the Ti- 



murides of India, from Babar to Shah 'Alam, 
fol. 188 a. 

In the last reign, foil. 226—253, the 
events are recorded year by year, from Shah 
'Alam's accession to the 30th year of his 
reign. In the concluding lines the author 
says that after that period rebellion and 
anarchy prevailed, but that order had been 
since re-established, and that Shah 'Alam 
was now, in the 45th year of his reign, in 
undisturbed possession of the throne. Cele- 
brated Amirs of Timuride Dynasty, in alpha- 
betical order, fol. 253 a. Various inventions, 
fol. 264 b. Hindi! music and singers, fol. 
266 6. 

Jalvah II. is geographical; it comprises 
eight Tajallis, the first seven of which, fol, 
281 a, treat of the seven climates, and the 
eighth, fol. 350 a, of the seas. The third 
Tajalli includes detailed descriptions of Dehli 
and Agra, foil, 305 — 318, the seventh an 
account of Europe and America, from in- 
formation received from Jonathan Scott, 
foil. 342—350. 

Khatimah. Curious facts and anecdotes, 
fol. 351 b. 

The Haft Gulshan i Muhammad Shahi 
(Elliot, Bibl. Index, no, xxxix.) is occa- 
sionally quoted ; see foil. 183 a, 186 a. 

This volume bears the Persian seal of 
Col, David Ochterlony, with the date A,H. 
1219. It reads as follows : j*« *)jjJ\ jx^ 

On the fly-leaf is the following note, in 
the handwriting qf Major Wm. Yule : " Pre- 
sented by the author, Shah Nawauz Khan, 
to Col. D. Ochterlony, and by him to me 
on taking leave of him at Dehli, Sept. 10th, 
1805." 

Or. 143. 

Poll. 439 ; 12^ in. by 8^ ; 15 lines, 5 in. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



133 



long; written in large Nestalik with TJn- 
van and ruled margins ; dated September, 
1832, Rabi' IT., A.H. 1248. 

[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

The same work. 

Prefixed is a table of contents, occupying 
six pages. 

Add. 26,249. 

Poll. 243 ; 9f in. by 5 ; 13 lines, 3i in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, early in the 19th 
century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

Three extracts from the preceding work, 
relating to the history and geography of 
India, viz. — 

I., foil. 2—174. Account of the Lodi Dy- 
nasty, the Hindu Eajahs, and the Timurides 
(Add. 16,697. foil. 183—253). 

II., foil. 175—243. Description of the 
Indian portions of the second and third 
climates (Add. 16,697, foil. 286—292, 302— 
323). 

Add. 16,698. 

Poll. 156 ; 9 in. by 6 ; 13 lines, 3| in. long ; 
written in Nestalik, in the early part of 
the 19th century. [Wm. Yule.] 

A general history of the East, and espe- 
cially Persia, in modern times, brought 
down to A.H. 1211. 

Author : Abul- Hasan B. Ibrahim Kaz- 
vini, J^.yj3 ^\j\ ^Ji i^r-^ ^\ 

Beg. cLjm]/ ^J^'ii' \*U.i>b ^J^ 

The author says in his preface that it had 
occurred to him to write a compendious 
history of the Safavi Dynasty and the local 
rulers Ud\^\ ci)^ of Iran to the present 
time, a subject not attempted hitherto by 
any writer, and very little known in India, 
to embody in it the results of his own oh- 
servation while he was still living in Persia 
(i. e. till A.H. 1205), and to present it to 



his royal master, Abul-Fath Sultan Muham- 
mad Mlrza Bahadur Khan Safavi. He adds 
that by a curious coincidence the word 
Tarikh exactly expresses the time of com- 
position, viz. A.H. 1211. The same date 
is frequently mentioned in the course of the 
work, as foil. 68 *, 73 a, and 155 b. See 
Morley's Descriptive Catalogue, p. 137. 

Sultan Muhammad Mirza, the last of the 
Safavis, whose career is fully recorded in this 
work, was then in his 26th year, living in exile 
at Lucknow, a pensioner of the East India 
Company. As a youth he had been pro- 
claimed in Ispahan by Aka Muhammad Ka- 
jar, A.H. 1200, but, loth to trust himself into 
the hands of that ambitious chief, he had 
kept at a safe distance, and eventually made 
his escape to Sind, A.H. 1205 ; after some 
years of wandering he had finally settled 
in Lucknow in A.H. 1210. From the minute 
account the author gives of all the prince's 
doings, and of the visitors, especially English- 
men, who came to pay their respects to him, as 
Col. "Wm. Palmer, General Stuart, Col. Scott, 
John Bailey, Sir Gore Ouseley, Dr. Wm. 
Hunter, Dr. Wm. Kennedy, Major Wm. 
Yule, and others, it is evident that he was 
in daily attendance upon the prince's person. 
It may be noticed that, while expressing the 
utmost devotion for the Safavi family and 
great respect for both the Dehli court and 
the English rulers of India, the author ex- 
hibits on every occasion the most marked 
illwill and contempt for the Nawabs of 
Oude, in whose capital he was staying. 

Contents: 1. History of the Safavis, di- 
vided into the following reigns : Shah Isma il, 
fol. 2 b. Shrih Tahmasp, fol. 12 a. Shah 
Isma'il II. , fol. 21 a. Sultan Muhammad 
Shah, fol. 22 a. Shah 'Abbas, fol. 24 b. 
Shah Safi, fol. 29 b. Shah 'Abbas IL, fol. 
37 6. Shah Sulaiman, fol. 46 b. Sultan 
Husain, fol. 48 b. Tahmasp II., proclaimed 
in Kazvln A.H. 1035, fol. 51 c. 'Abbas III., 
his infant son, proclaimed by Nadir, fol. 54 b. 



134 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



Sultan Husain II. B. Tahmasp II., proclaimed 
by 'All Mardiin, fol. 56 a. The latter's son, 
Sultan Muhammad Mirza, fol. 586. This 
last section, which has rather the character 
of private memoirs than of history, is brought 
down to A.H. 1211, the reader being re- 
ferred for more particulars to the autobio- 
graphy, t::j\«jlj, written with rare elegance 
by the prince. It is followed, fol. 73 a, by 
a continuation marked by a new heading, 
and in wliich further occurrences are re- 
corded, from A.H. 1212 to 1216. 

2. Account of the rulers who rose in rebel- 
lion, as the author terms it, against the Safaris, 
in the following six sections : 1. The Afghans, 
viz. Mir Vais Ghilzai, and his son Mahmud, 
fol. 91 a. 2. The Kachalatis, fol. 93 a. This 
name is stated here to designate the mongrel 
race which sprang up from Hindu captives 
carried to Afghanistan. It is applied by the 
author to Muhammad Beg Khan Hamadam,to 
Burhan ul-Mulk, and his successors in Oude, 
all of whom are spoken of in terms of unmiti- 
gated contempt. 3. The Afshars, viz. Nadir, 
his nephews, and his grandson Shiihrukh, fol. 
104 a. 4. The Abdalis or Duranis, namely, 
Ahmad Sultan, who died A.H. 1183, Timur 
Sultan, who died A.H. 1207, and Zaman 
Sultan, who was reigning in A.H. 1211, fol. 
110 a. A subsequent addition, fol. 121 a, 
records the deposition of Zaman and the 
succession of Mahmud Sultan, contested by 
Shuja ul-Mulk, A.H. 1216. 5. The Zands, 
from Karim Khan to the death of Lutf 'All 
Khan, fol. 122 a. 6. The Kajars, from Fath 
'All Khan, the Atiilik of Tahmasp II., to the 
accession of Fath 'All Shah in A.H. 1211, 
foil. 141 6—154 b. 

The works chiefly quoted by the author 
are the Khuld i Barin, the Tazkirat ul- 
Ahval of Hazin, and the histories of Mir 
Kasim Musavi Sabzavari, Munshi of Tah- 
masp II., of Mirza Khalil Ummi Safavi, i. e. 
Safavi on the mother's side, and of Mirza 
Sadik. 



Or. 139. 

FoU. 65 ; 10^ in. by 6f ; 21 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in neat Nestalik, in the early 
part of the 19th century. 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

A new and enlarged recension of the 
same work. 

This copy wants the preface and the first 
part of the history of the Safavis ; the con- 
tents are as follows : 

1. The Safavis, from Shah Isma'il II. to 
Sultan Muhammad Mirza, fol. 3 a. The 
text agrees substantially with the corre- 
sponding portion of the preceding copy. 
Add. 16,698, foil. 21 a— 73 a ; but the date 
of composition in this as well as in the 
following sections is stated to be A.H. 1215, 
and consequently Sultan Muhammad is 
here said to have been thirty years old in- 
stead of twenty-six ; see foil. 26 6, 48 a, 
and 55 a. 

2. The rulers of Tabaristan and the Sul- 
tans of Turkey, fol. 27 a. This portion is 
textually transcribed from the Tarikh Elchi 
i Nizamshah, Makalah VI., Guftars 4 and 5, 
Or. 153, foil. 79 a— 103 b (see above, p. 110), 
with an additional page, fol. 48 a. Here the 
author states that, in A.H. 1200, the Ottoman 
empire was nearly conquered by Russia, a 
wide-spread prophecy assigning the year 
1204 for its final subjugation by the Firingis, 
and adds that it was ultimately saved from 
utter ruin by the sound advice imparted by 
a Persian to the Grand Vazir. 

3. The Indian Dynasties, fol. 48 J, from 
the same work, Makalah VII., Guftars 1 — 5, 
Or. 153, foil. 103 6—122 a. The compiler's 
only contribution to this section is a short 
sketch of the Timurides, from Akbar to Shah 
'Alam, inserted at the end of Guftar 2, foil. 
54 a — 55 a. 

This MS. bears the stamps of the kings of 
Oude, Sulaiman Jah and Amjad 'All. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



185 



Add. 23,514, 23,515 and 23,528. 

Three uniform volumes, containing re- 
spectively foil. 598, 799, and 189 ; 13^ in. by 
7f ; 17 lines, 5 in. long; written in cursive 
Nestalik, on blue-tinted paper of European 
manufacture, for Mr. Wm, Bruce, resident 
at Bushire (see Malcolm, History of Persia, 
page xii., and Ouseley's Travels, vol. i., 
p. 185), about A.D. 1810. The first volume 
and the third have gold-ruled margins. The 
last is much water-stained. [Rob. Taylor.] 

A history of the East, and especially 
of Persia, from the earliest times to A.H. 
1226. 

Authors : Mirza Muhammad Riza Tabrizi, 

Mustaufi of the Divan, and 'Abd ul-Karim B. 

'AH Riza ush-Sharif ush-Shahavari (23,528, 

fol. 1876) Jj^ J (i)W'' iji*"^ <^j^ji^ ^j '^^-*^ ]jj^ 

[read ^jl^!] c?;jV^^ ^j^^ ^j^ i^ ^J^\ 

Beg. Ub dj>\ (>\hjiij Jjl 

It is stated in the preface that this huge 
compilation was begun in A.H. 1218, by 
order of Path 'AH Shah, who assigned to it 
the above title. Prom the conclusion of the 
work (Add. 23,528, fol. 187 i, and Add. 
23,527, fol. 168 6), we learn that the first 
of the above-mentioned authors wrote the 
history of the Prophets and Imams, and of 
the reign of Path 'AH Shah from his acces- 
sion to the year of the Hen (A.D. 1801, 
A.H. 1215—1216) ; while the history of the 
kings, and the continuation of the above 
reign, comprising a further period of five 
years, was the work of the latter, who adds 
that be completed his portion of the task 
in the space of one year. 'Abd ul-Karim 
will be noticed further on, as the continu- 
ator of the Tarikh i GitI Kushai, Add. 
23,524. 
The Zinat ut-Tavarikh is frequently quoted ; 



by Malcolm in his history of Persia. The 
contents of the second volume have been 
described by Aumer in the Munich Cata- 
logue, p. 79. 

The work is divided into an Introduction 
(Aghaz) and two books called Pairayah, 
and subdivided into Vajhs and Gunahs, as 

follows : 

Aghaz: Creation of the world. Add. 
23,514, fol. 8 a. Pairayah I., comprising 
two Vajhs, namely Vajh i., divided into two 
Gunahs :— 1. History of the Bani Jan and 
the Prophets before Muhammad, fol. 10 o. 
2. Notices on ancient philosophers, mostly 
.Greek, fol. 182 6. Vajh ii,, also in two 
Gunahs :—Gunah 1. Muhammad, fol. 212 b; 
'AH and the other Imams, fol. 320 b. Gunah 
2, containing biographical notices, is again 
subdivided into the following four Kisms: — 
1. Relatives and Companions of Muhammad, 
fol. 489 a. 2. Lawyers and traditionists, 
mostly Shi'ah, fol. 526 b. Philosophers and 
divines, fol. 535 b. Sufis, fol. 556 a. 3. 
Physicians and mathematicians, fol. 565 b. 
4. Arab and Persian Poets, fol. 582 a. 

Pairayah II., also divided into two Vajhs. 
The first treats of all the kings anterior to 
the Kajar dynasty, in two Gunahs : — Gunah 
I., early kings of Persia, Add. 23,515, 
fol. 1 b. 

Giinah 2, kings posterior to Muhammad, 
arranged under the following dynasties : 
The first three Khalifs, fol. 76 a. Umay- 
yades, fol. 97 a. Abbasides, fol. 136 b. Ta- 
hiris, fol. 178 a. Safiaris, fol. 181 b. Samanis, 
fol. 189 b. Kabiis B. Vashmagir and his 
successors, fol. 204 a. Al i Buvaih, fol. 
206 a. Ghaznavis, fol. 219 a. Ghuris, slave- 
kings of Dehli, Khiljis, fol. 244 b. Isma'ili 
Khalifs of Maghrib, fol. 252 b, and of Iran, 
fol. 264 a. Saljukis of Iran, fol. 278 b, Irak, 
fol. 307 a, Kirman, fol. 316 a, and Riim, fol. 
317 a. Kings of Nimruz, fol. 318 b. Kurts, 
fol. 319 b. Atabaks of Mausil, fol. 327, 



136 



GENERAL HISTOEY. 



Azarbaijan, fol. 328 b, Ears, fol. 330 a, and 
Luristtin, fol. 336 a. Khwarazmshahis, fol. 
338 6. Karakhitais of Kirman, fol. 3616. 
Chinglzkhan, fol. 363 a. Oktai Ka'an and 
his successors, fol. 381 a. Hulagu Klian 
and his successors, fol. 392 «. Chupanis, 
fol. 442 a. Ilkanis, fol. 445 a. Al i Mu- 
zaflFar, fol. 448 a. Timur, fol. 469 b. Shah- 
rukh and his successors, fol. 525 b. Kara- 
kuyunlus, fol. 572 a. Ak-kuyunlus, fol. 
577 6. Safavis, fol. 586 6, comprising the 
following reigns : Shah Isma il, fol. 589 a ; 
Tahmasp, fol. 605 a ; Isma'il II., fol. 627 6 ; 
Sultan Muhammad, fol. 633 6 ; 'Abbcls, fol. 
646 a; Safi, fol. 681a; 'Abbas II., fol. 
683 6 ; Sulaiman, fol. 687 a ; Sultan-Husain, 
fol. 690 6; Tahmasp II., fol. 695 6; and 
'Abbas III., fol.' 702 6. Nadir Shah, fol. 704 a. 
Karim Khan Zand and his successors, down 
to the death of Lutf 'Ali Khan, fol. 719 a. 
The Sultans of Turkey, fol. 732 a. The 
Timurides of India, fol. 763 6. The Khans 
of the Turks, from Turk son of Japhet, fol. 
776 a ; the successors of Chaghatai, fol. 780 6 ; 
the descendants of Juji and the Khans of 
the Uzbeks, down to Abul-Eaiz Khan, who 
submitted to Niidir Shah, fol. 783 6. 

Vajh II. History of the Kajar dynasty. 
Add. 23,528, with the following headings : 
Eath 'All Khan, fol. 2 a. His son Mu- 
hammad Hasan Khan, fol. 3 6. Husain Kuli 
Khan, fol. 12 a. His late Majesty, i. e. 
Aka Muhammad Shah, fol. 15 a. Begin- 
ning of Eath 'All Shah's reign, fol. 68 6. 
The year of the sheep (A.H. 1213-14), 
fol. 90 6. The year of the ape, fol. 109 a. 
The year of the hen, fol. 116 6. The year of 
the dog, fol. 139 6. The year of the hog, 
148 a. The year of the rat, fol. 151 a. The 
year of the ox, fol. 167 a. The year of the 
tiger (A.H. 1221), fol. 184 6. 

The last event recorded is the advance of 
'All Pasha of Baghdad to the Persian frontier, 
and his subsequent retreat : see Brydge's 
Dynasty of the Kajars, p. 258. 



This last volume is endorsed ^j)^ £jo 

Add. 27,238. 

Eoll. 288; 12 in. by 8; 25 Hues, 5| in. 
long ; written in small Nestalik on European 
paper ; dated Isfahan, Muharram, A.H. 1225 
(A.D. 1810). [Sir John Malcolm.] 

The first portion of Pairayah II. of the 
Zinat ut-tavarikh, beginning with the early 
kings of Persia and ending with the Ak- 
Kuyunlus ; it corresponds to Add. 23,515, 
foil. 1—586. 

It is stated in the subscription that this 
copy was written for Aka Abul-Kasim Kaz- 
vini, a native of Isfahan, by Mirza Nazir. 

Add. 23,527. 

Eoll. 183 ; 111 in. by 7| ; 19 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik; dated Zul- 
Hijjah, A.H. 1227 (A.D. 1812). 

[EoB. Taylor.] 

The following portions of the same work : — 
1. Eoll. 1—170. The history of the Kajar 
Dynasty, as in Add. 23,528. 2. Eoll. 171— 
183. The history of the Zand Dynasty, cor- 
responding to Add. 23,515, foil. 719 a— 
7316. 

It is to be noticed that, in the account of 
the reign of Eath 'Ali Shah, the designations 
of the Turkish years do not agree with those 
found in Add. 23,528, the first being called 
here Jj\ C*i^. instead of Jjo j^y , the second 
Jj.\ (jy instead of. Jjo ,_j^ etc. 

This volume, like Add. 23,528, is endorsed 

Add. 7,663. 

Eoll. 220 ; 11 in. by 1\ ; 17 lines, 3f in. 
long ; written in a peculiar crabbed Shikas- 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



137 



tah, sparely supplied with diacritical points, 
about A.II. 1223 (A.D. 1808). Some of the 
margins and headings are ornamented with 
flowery designs of rather coarse execution. 

A compendium of general history, from the 
earliest times to A.H. 1223. 

Author: Muhammad Husain B. Karam 
'All Isfahuni, jy^\ j_jl& */ ^^ ^^JX.^ j^ 

Beg. Jap t^\i* a/ \j^}p. j^T o-^ J '^-^ 

It appears from the preface that this work 
was written in Mashhad A.H. 1222, when 
the author was past sixty. It has no special 
title, and is only designated in the preface 
hy the name oi j^ij^ "Compendium." 

It consists of a pretty literal transcript of 
the Nusakh i Jahan-ara by Ghafiari (see 
Or. 141, p. Ill), a work not even mentioned 
in the preface, briefly continued to the 
author's own time. 

In the table of contents, which concludes 
the preface, fol. 3 b — 4 b, the fanciful division 
of Ghaffari's work is closely followed, the 
only difference being the addition of the 
following chapters at the end : Saf hah 20, 
Safawis. Safhali 21, Afghan kings of Iran. 
Saf hah 22, the Afshar dynasty. §af]hah 23, 
the Kajar dynasty. 

In the body of the work, however, the 
latter divisions are not observed. The chap- 
ter treating of the Safavis, fol. 137 a, is 
headed, as in the original, Nuskhah i Sali§. 
That portion of Ghallari's text is consider- 
ably abridged, and in the continuation there 
is no other division than that of the several 
reigns. The last of these, that of Tath 'All 
Shah, fol. 169 b, which is dwelt upon at 
greater length, breaks off rather abruptly, 
fol. 186 a, with an account of some events 
of A.H. 1221, the next following eight 
leaves, apparently intended for a continua- 
tion, being left blank. 
Two of the previous chapters, treating of 



the Timurides of India, fol. 124 b, and of 
the Osmanlis, fol. 132 b, are brought down 
to A.H. 1223. 

The rest of the volume is occupied by the 
following miscellaneous notices, partly drawn 
up in tabulated form: Greek philosophers 
and physicians, fol. 193 b. Muslim philoso- 
phers, fol. 197 b. Physicians, fol. 199 h. 
Astronomers, fol. 201 b. Description of the 
earth and the seven climates, fol. 202 b. 
Persian poets, fol. 213 b. Account of some 
seras, fol. 217 b. List of standard historical 
works, fol. 218 b. On various alphabets, 
celebrated penmen, and cabbalistic writing, 
fol. 220 a. 

The margins contain here and there con- 
siderable additions, mostly extracts from 
historical works. 



Add. 23,886. 

Foil. 77 ; 9| in. by 6^ ; about 20 lines, 4| 
in. long ; written in Shikastah-Amlz, ap- 
parently in the 18th century. 



^^5^\ ^^3 



Chronological tables, translated from the 
Turkish original of Mustafa B. "Abd Ullah, 
commonly called Haji Khalifah. 

The work was written, as stated by the 
author, in A.H. 1058. See Haj. Khal. vol. 
ii., p. 395, Krafft's Catalogue, p. 92, Vienna 
Catalogue, vol. ii., p. 97, Upsala Catalogue, 
p. 171, and Eleischer's Leipzig Catalogue, 
p. 618. The Turkish original has been printed 
in Constantinople, A.H. 1146. 

The present version is imperfect at the 
beginning, and the translator's name does 
not appear. The tables are continued to 
A.H. 1085, probably the time at which the 
work was translated. They are followed by 
a summary of dynasties, foil. 63 — 69, corre- 
sponding to pp. 158 — 170 of the printed 
edition. It is arranged in six columns, 

T 



138 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



"whicli show the name of each dynasty, the 
numher of its sovereigns, its seat, the dates 
of its rise and of its extinction, and lastly, its 
duration. 

After this, and hefore the author's Khilti- 
mah, are inserted two chronological tahles of 
the sovereigns of the Safavi and Osmanli 
dynasties. An Arabic elegy on the martyr- 
dom of Husain occupies the last three leaves 
of the MS. 

Add. 19,531. 

Foil. 41 ; 12| in. by 8 ; written in Nestalik, 
on English paper, with the water-mark 1809. 

Genealogical tables of the Patriarchs and 
the principal dynasties of the East, with a 
preface and explanatory notes. 

Beg. yj^jCiy>-.)\ i—^^j j< ii.i*:0 c/USj J^ ii«a- 

This is, as stated in the preface, a faithful 
translation of a Turkish original, written bv 
Yiisuf B. 'Abd ul Latif for Sultan Sulaiman 
B. Sallm (A.H. 926— 974), which was brought 
to Erivan by merchants in A.H. 1078. Safi 
KuH, Governor of that city, translated it 
and dedicated his version to Shah Sulaiman 
(A.H. 1077—1105). 

The tables are continued in the present 
copy to Aka Muhammad Khan Kajar. 

Or. 144. 

Foil. 80; 10 in. by 6^; about 20 lines, 3| 
in. long; written in a cursive Indian Nes- 
talik, probably in the 19th century. 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

Chronological tables of Asiatic history, 
from the rise of Islamism to A.H. 1126. 
Author : Mirza Muhammad, j..^ \jj*, 
Beg. Cj'j.oo' ijji J ^^\ t/US J Xts- j\ jjo U\ 



The author has here collected with laud- 
able industry the names and dates of almost 
all dynasties known to the Eastern historians. 
The sources are, besides a few standard 
Arabic works, the following Persian : — Nizam 
ui-tavarikh, Matla' us-sa'dain, Ttlrikh i Herat 
by Mu'In Asfizari, Rauzat us-safa, Habib u's- 
siyar, Vaki'at i Biibari, Lubb ut-tavarikh, 
Jahanara by Ghaffari, Tabakat i Akbari, Ta- 
rlkh i Alfi, Tarikh i Sind by Mir Ma'sum, Haft 
Iklim by Muhammad Amin Tihrani, Bada'um 
and Firishtah, 'Alamarae, Ikbal-namah, tlie 
Shahjahan-namah of Muhammad Salih Kanbu, 
Tarikh i Karn Hadi- asliar by Sayyid Muham- 
mad ShillT (see Arabic Catalogue, p. 431), 
Ttlrikh i Sayyid Mustafa Rumi (Haji Kha- 
lifah). 

A.H. 1126 is twice given as the date of 
composition ; see foil. 63 a, 66 a. 

The arrangement of the dynasties follows 
a general geographical order from East to 
West, combined with chronological sequence 
in each country. The tables, many of which 
are preceded by explanatory introductions, 
are divided into six columns, which contain 
the name of each king, the date of his birth, 
that of his accession, the length of his reign, 
the age which he reached, and the date of 
his death. 

The present copy ends with the local dy- 
nasties of India, the last table being that of 
the Arghuni kings of Kandahar. That of 
the house of Timur, which probably con- 
cluded the work, is wanting. 

The form of the author's name, which 
appears on the fly-leaf, ^j^^ ii'«s? \jj^ iy»a-^ , 
is the result of an unintelligent reading of 
the following passage of the preface : jajj 

8 JJLii (.jJaJO 'ilLj jJ y>T I— aJJsP (^Jyiaj , iu wllicll 

j-»a-\ is meant for the name of the Prophet, 
while ^j^y> " in a manner 



belongs to the 



next following sentence. 



( 139 ) 



HISTORY OF CREEDS AND SECTS. 



Add. 23,536. 

Foil. 300; 9 in. by 6 ; 19 lines, 3f in. 
loni^; written in Nestalik; dated Zul-Ka'dali, 
A. II. 1023 (A.D. 1614). [Rob. Taylor.] 



JL^\ ^y 



An account of religious and pliilosophical 
sects, translated from the Arabic work of 
Muhammad ush-Shahrastani (who died A.H. 
548), entitled ^^j J1J\ ^^'c/ (see Ai-abic 
Catalogue, p. 111.) 

Translator : Mustafa B. Shaikh Khiilikdad 
ul-Hashimi ul-'Abbasi, jUiiili- ^.JJl ^^ ^ik^oxi 

Beg. j'iiff^ ^jj.) .^1 j^j^\ ^Ax-i»l c^UJ i^ ^^s^a' 

It is stated in the preface, that an earlier 
Persian translation of the same work had 
Ijeen written for Sultan Shahrukh, by Khwu- 
jah Afzal ud-Din B. Sadr Tai'ikah Isfahani. 
But this first translator had left out the 
doctrines of Abu 'AH Ibn Sina on logic, 
physics, and metaphysics, added to the ori- 
ginal work refutations of sceptical opinions, 
adopted an involved and metaphorical style, 
more difficult of comprehension than the 
Arabic text, and lastly had frequently di- 
verged from the true sense of the original, 
of which he possessed only one copy. These 
defects did not escape the sagacity of the 
emperor Jahfingir, who therefore directed the 
present translator to write a more faithful 
version, in plain and easy language. The 
latter adds that he was selected for that task 
on account of some translations from Ilindu 
works previously made by him for Akbar. 
On receiving the royal commands he left the 
residence, Agrah, for his native place, Lahore, 



and commenced the work in the 5th year of 
the reign, A. II. 1020. He finished it there, 
as recorded in his concluding lines, in the 
month of Rajab, A.H. 1021. 

The first translator, whose conclusion is 
given at the end, states there that he com- 
pleted his version in Ispahan, A.H. 843. 

The second translator is not so indepen- 
dent of the first as the preface would lead 
the reader to expect ; he reproduces in many 
places the latter's additional remarks and 
refutations, and omits altogether to supply 
the desideratum above pointed out, the full 
exposition of the system of Ibn Sina, giving 
for his excuse the defective state of the 
only copy of the original which existed in 
Lahore. 

The principal divisions of the work are as 
follows : — A full abstract of the contents, 
fol. 5 a. Four introductory chapters (Mu- 
kaddimah), fol. 13 b. The fifth is here left 
out, as in Haarbriicker's translation, and for 
similar reasons. Muslims, fol. 32 b. Kharijis, 
fol. 77 b. Shi'ah, fol. 93 a. Ahl i furu', fol. 
127 «. Jews, fol. 1326. Christians, fol. 139 a. 
Magians, fol. 145 a. Sanaviyah, or Dualists, 
fol. 154 b. Sabeans, fol. 166 a. Early phi- 
losophers, fol. 198 a. Later philosophers, 
fol. 243 6. Muslim philosophers, fol. 280 a. 
Early Arabs, fol. 281 a. Hindus, fol. 288 a. 

Copyist : ^ ^ ^^_ J:--*-'^ ^"^y* 

A note on the first page states that the 
MS, was bought at Burhiinpur, A.H. 1036, 
by one Sultan Mahmiid. 

A copy of the Persian translation of Afzal 
ud-Din is preserved in the library of the India 
Office, No. 1323. An abstract of Shahras- 
tani's woi'k is given in the Dabistan, English 
version, vol. ii. p. 322. 



140 



HISTOKY OF CREEDS AND SECTS. 



Add. 7614. 

Poll. 238; 7| in. by 3|; about 18 linos, 
2 in. long; written, partly diagonally, in 
fair Shikastah-Amiz, apparently in the 17th 
century. [CI. J. Eich.] 

An account of various creeds, and especially 
of the sects of Islamism. 

Author: Murtazfv, surnamed 'Alam ul- 
Huda, ^^^^\ Juo i_JilJl ^-iJ,* 

Beg. fA^ i^ Ja-j jfi. ]j ^j\^ ^ ^\a-» j 0.^ 

The author is not to be confounded with 
the great Shiah divine generally known by 
the surname of 'Alam ul-Huda, namely Sharif 
ul-Murtaza Abul Kasim 'All B. ul-Husain 
ul-Musavi, who died A.H. 436, and whose 
numerous works are all Arabic. See Tusy's 
list of Shi'ah books, p. 218, and Majalis ul- 
Muminin, Add. 23,541, fol. 239. The present 
writer belongs to a later period, apparently 
the first half of the seventh century of the 
Hiji-ah. He calls Fakhr ud-Din Razi, who 
died A.H. 006, one of the modern theolo- 
gians, fol. 151 a. In another passage, fol. 
158 «, he says that, while the Ismaili Kha- 
lifs of Egypt are extinct, the successors of 
Hasan B. Sabbah are still in existence ; he 
was therefore writing before the extermina- 
tion of the latter by Hulagu, A.H. 654. His 
frequent references to Ispahan make it pro- 
bable that he lived in that city. 

The author of the Dabistan in his conclu- 
sion (Bombay, ed. p. 327) mentions both of 
the preceding works, Milal u Nihal and 
Tabsirat ul-Avam, and assigns the spirit of 
partisanship, of which neither was free, as 
one of the reasons which led him to write 
his own. The above reproach applies in a 
special degree to the present work, the author 
of which shows himself a bigoted Shi'ah of 



the most unbending orthodoxy, venting his 
odium theologicum in equal measure on 
Sunnis, Sufis, and philosophers. 

A copy of the Tabsirah occurs in the 
Bibliotheca Sprengeriana, No. 585, where the 
author, 'Alam ul-Huda, is said, on whose 
authority does not appear, to have flourished 
in A.H. 1070. 

The work is divided into twenty-six chap- 
ters (Bab), a table of which is given in the 
preface. They are as follows : — 1. Doctrines 
of the philosophers, fol. 4 a. 2. Doctrines 
of the Magians, fol. 12 b. 3. Doctrines of 
the Jews, Christians (and Sabeans), fol. 22 a. 
4. The sects of Islamism and their tenets, 
fol. 29 a. 5. The Khavarij and their doc- 
trines, fol. 38 a. 6. The Mu'tazilah, fol. 
48 a. 7. Doctrines of Jahm B. Safvan, fol. 
55 b. 8. Doctrines of the Murjis, fol. 57 b. 
9. Doctrines of Najjar and his followers, fol. 
59 b. 10. Doctrines of the Karriimis, 
fol. 60 a. 11. Doctrines of the Mushabbihs 
and Mujassims, fol. 68 a. 12. Doctrines of 
the believers in transmigration, fol. 78 a. 
13. Doctrines of those who call themselves 
Ahl i Sunnat, fol. 80 b. 14. Doctrines of 
their third and fourth sects, the sectaries of 
Mrdik and Shafi'i, fol. 84 6. 15. Doctrines 
of Ibn Kilub and Abul-Hasan Ash'ari, fol. 
95 a. 16. Doctrines of the Sufis, fol. 106 b. 
17. Doctrines set forth by Kushairl in his 
Eis£llah, fol. 117 a. 18. What the Sunnis 
say touching the prophets, fol. 123 6. 19. 
Doctrines of the second sect of Islamism, 
those who call themselves Shiah, and are 
called by their adversaries Rafizi, fol. 144 a. 
20. How to know truth from error, fol. 
165 a. 21. The creed of the Imamis, fol. 
170 a. 22. The story of Fadak, and how 
Fatimah was kept by the two Shaikhs (Abu 
Bakr and 'Umar) out of the inheritance of 
the Prophet of God, fol. 182 a. 23. Some 
Hadis with which the Sunnis taunt the 
Imiimis, and which the latter repudiate, fol. 
198 a. 24. Some of the turpitudes of the 



HISTORY OF CREEDS AND SECTS. 



141 



Bani Umayyah, and their impiety, fol. 222 6. 
25, On some points debated between the 
advocates of justice and those of predestina- 
tion, fol. 230 a. 26. On some legal questions 
with which the Imamis are taunted, fol. 
235 b. 

This copy wants two leaves after fol. 3. 

Add. 18,880. 

Foil. 150 ; 10 in. by 6 ; 17 lines, 3^ in. 
long; written in Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and ruled margins ; dated the 42nd year 
(probably of Aurangzib = A.II. 1109, A.D. 

1697-8). 

The same work. 

Or. 246. 

Foil. 108 ; 8i in. by 6i ; 21 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in small Naskhi, apparently 
in the 18th century. [Geo. Wm. Hamilion.J 

The same work. 

There is a lacune of about six leaves after 
fol. 18, extending from the beginning of 
Bab 5 to the middle of Bab 8 (Add. 7614, 
foil. 39 6 — 58 a). In a Persian title written 
on the first page the author is called Sayyid 
Murtaza 'Alam ul-Huda. The stamps of the 
kings of Oude, Sulaiman Jah and Amjad 
'All, are affixed at the beginning and end of 
the MS. 

Add. 16,670. 

Foil. 408 ; 8^ in. by 6 ; 11 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in cursive Shikastah-amlz, 
and dated A.H. 1206 (A.D. 1792). 

[Wm. Yule.] 

An account of the religious creeds and 
philosophical systems of the East. 

Beg. ^j^i-.J'i J.fti3^jjJi5j-» y |»\i ij^ 

The Dabistan has been printed in Cal- 



cutta, A.H. 1224, in Teheran, A.H. 1260, 
and in Bombay A.H. 1264 and 1277. An 
English version commenced by D. Shea and 
completed by A. Troyer, was printed for the 
Oriental Translation Fund, Paris, 1843, but 
it cannot be depended on for accuracy. 

The work does not contain the author's 
name ; MuhsinFani, to whom it has generally 
been ascribed, is only named, in some copies, 
as the author of a Ruba'i quoted at the begin- 
ning of the work (Translation, vol. i. p. 3). 
Our knowledge of the author is confined to 
the facts gleaned from some passages in his 
work, in which he incidentally refers to 
himself. From these he appears to have 
'been brought up in the faith of the Sipasis, 
also called Abadis, a branch of the Parsis ; 
and indeed the design and tendency of his 
work will be found to be in perfect harmony 
with the principles of enlightened toleration, 
which, according to his own statement, 
vol. i. p. 64, characterized that remarkable 
community. His glowing account of the 
Sipasis, to whom he gives the first and 
largest place, stands in marked contrast to 
his description of Islamism, which is that of 
a well-informed outsider, not of a born and 
bred Muslim. 

He was born, shortly before A.H. 1028, 
in Patnah, the headquarters of the sect, 
vol. ii. p. 137, and received in his infancy 
the blessing of the four chief disciples 
of Azar Kaivan, its great apostle (who 
had died in the same city A.H. 1027). 
This must have happened before A.H. 1029, 
the year in which three of these four dis- 
ciples passed away, vol. i. pp. 103 — 108. 
The author appears to have been under 
the special charge of a fifth disciple of 
Azar Kaivan, called Mubad Hushiyar, who 
died in Akbarabad, A.H. 1050. He must have 
been still a very young child in A.H. 1033, 
when his relations brought him from Patnah 
to the last-named place, and the said Mubad 
carried him in his arms to a famous Hindu 



142 



HISTORY OF CREEDS AND SECTS. 



devotee for a blessing, vol. ii. p. 145, Bom- 
bay ed., p. 127. 

Later in life, fortune, he says, tore him 
away from his Parsi surroundings (not from 
the shores of Persia, as stated in the trans- 
lation, vol. ii. p. 2), to make him the associate 
of Hindu votaries. He spent many years 
in Kashmir and Lahore, A.H. 1040 — 1052, 
visited Mashhad in A.H. 1053, Gujarat, Surat, 
Haidarubad, A.H. 1055 — 59, and lastly, Sri- 
kakul, the capital of Kalingah, on the Coro- 
mandel Coast, A.H. 1061—1063. At this 
last date, the latest mentioned in the work, 
he revised and recast, with the assistance of 
some Hindu friends, the whole of his account 
of the Hindu system, vol. ii. p. 3. 

The author had been a long time engaged 
in this composition, for in another passage, 
vol. ii. p. 275, Bombay edition, p. 187, A.H. 
1055 is mentioned as the current vear. The 
work was probably completed shortly after 
A.H. 1063, and certainly before A.H. 1068; 
for Dara Shikiih is spoken of in the last 
chapter, vol. iii. p. 285, as being still at the 
height of his power. 

Although the author is nowhere explicitly 
named, it is not improbable that the name 
of Mubad, which appears in connection with 
some verses, vol. i. pp. 112, 124, vol. iii. 
p. 298, was his Takhallus or poetical desig- 
nation. Indeed Mubad Shah is named as 
the author in one of our copies, Add. 25,849, 
and in a MS. mentioned by Sir Wm. Ouseley, 
Travels, vol. iii. p. 564 ; the same name 
appeared, as stated by Wm. Erskine, in a 
marginal note of a copy belonging to Mulla 
Firuz, of Bombay. See the Transactions of 
the Literary Society of Bombay, vol. ii. 
p. 364, and Capt. Vans Kennedy's comments 
on the work in the same volume, p. 242. 

The first section of the Dabistan was pub- 
lished with an English translation by Fr. 
Gladwin, in 1789, in the New Asiatic Mis- 
cellany, pp. 86 — 136, and a German version 
of the same, by F. von Dalberg, Avas printed 



in Wiirzburg, 1809. The account of the 
Raushani sect was translated by Dr. Leyden, 
Asiatic Researches, vol. xi. pp. 406 — 420, 
and the original draught of this version is 
preserved in MS. Add. 26,572. Compare also 
Spiegel, Eran, p. 373 ; S. Lee, Controversial 
Tracts, p. xxxvii. ; Mulla Firuz, Desatir, 
p. vii.; Wilson, Parsi Religion, p. 409; and 
Blochmann, Ain i Akbari, vol. i. p, 167. 

The Dabistcln is divided into twelve main 
sections, called Ta'lim, as follows : 1. Parsis, 
fol. 3 a. 2. Hindus, fol. 139 6. 3. Karfi- 
Tibatis, fol. 245 b. 4. Jews, fol. 247 b. 
5. Christians, fol. 267 a. 6. Muslims, fol. 
265 b. 7. ScTdikis, fol. 310 a. 8. Vahidis, 
fol. 314 a. 9. Raushanis, fol. 319 a. 10. 
IMiis, fol. 328 a. 11. Philosophers, fol.34U a. 
12. Sufis, fol. 378 b. 

In the subscription of this copy Mullil 
Muhammad Amin is named as the author : 

Add. 16,671. 

Foil. 243 ; 14^ in. by 8^; 15 lines, 5f in. 
long; written in a lai'ge Nestalik; dated 
Safar, A.H. 1212 (A.D. 1797). [Ww. Yule.J 

The same work, with the same name at 
the end as that of the author. 

Add. 25,849. 

Foil. 159; 12 in. by 8 ; 21 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in neat Shikastah-Amiz ; 
dated Surat, October, 1812, Shavval, A.H. 
1227. [Wm. CuRETOX.] 

The same work. . This copy was written 
for Lieut. Rigby by Muushi Gliulam Mu- 
hammad of Tattah. The MS. from which 
it was transcribed was dated Isfandarmuz 
Mah 1163-=Muharram, A.H. 1209 ; and in 
its subscription, a copy of Avhich is given, 
the work was ascribed to Mir Zul-Fakar 
'All ul-Husaini, surnamed Mubad Shah, 



HISTORY OF THE PROPHETS. 



148 



The same name appeared, as stated by 
Erskine, Bombay Transactions, vol. ii. p. 243, 
in a copy belonging to MuUa Firuz. 

Add. 7613. 

Foil. 241; 8 in. by 6 ; 16 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in small Nestalik, and dated 
A.H. 1234 (A.D. 1819). [CI. J. Rich.] 

The same work, A full table of contents 
occupies four pages at the beginning. It 



bears a title in which the work is ascribed to 
Shaikh Muhsin Fani Kashmiri. 

Add. 23,537. 

Foil. 112 ; 12 in. by 8 ; 19 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik, appa- 
rently in the 19th century. [Rob. Taylor.] 

A portion of the same work, correspond- 
ing to vol. i. pp. 4 — 334 of the 
version. 



English 



HISTORY OF THE PROPHETS, MUHAMMAD, 
THE KHALIFS AND THE IMAMS. 



Add. 25,783. 

Fon. 271; 8f in. by 5|; 15 lines, 4 in. 

written in Nestalik, apparently in the 

16th century. [Wm. Cureton.] 



long; 



History of the Prophets, from Adam to 
Muhammad. 

Author : Ishak B. Ibrahim B. Mansur B. 
Khalaf \m-Jvisaburi, ^^ ^^ji^ erJ Jj^*"^ 

Beg. J\i^ Js- ^\ J-tfj ^Ij-J^ joiJi 4ll jji 



This history mostly consists of a develop- 
ment of the narrative portions of the Goran, 
founded on the traditions ascribed to Ibn 
'Abbas, and transmitted by Muhammad B. 
Sa'ib ul-Kalbi. 

At the beginning is an Isnad or Catena, 
placing seven traditionists between the author 
and Muhammad B. Sa'ib ul-Kalbi. As the 



latter died A.H. 146, the author could not 
have lived much later than the close of the 
fifth century of the Hijrah. 

The latter part of the work, foil. 216 b — 
271, treats of Muhammad and the early 
Khalifs, down to the death of Muaviyah, 
and concludes with a short account of Hajjaj 
B. Yusuf. 

See Haj. Khal. vol. iv. p. 518, and vol. 
vii. p. 834 ; Leyden Catalogue, vol. iii. 
p. 16 ; Stewart's Catalogue, p. 21, no. Iv., 
and Melanges Asiatiques, vol. vi. p. 124. 

Add. 18,576. 

Foil. 165 ; 14 in. by 9^ ; 15 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in neat Nestalik, with an illu- 
minated page at the beginning, a 'Unvan, 
fourteen whole-page miniatures, and gold- 
ruled margins, apparently in the 16th cen- 
tury. Bound in stamped and gilt leather 
covers. 



144 



HISTORY OF THE PROPHETS. 



The same work. 

The miniatures, which will be found on 
foU. 11 a, 15 5, 19 b, 22 b, 38 b, U a, 87 a, 
91 a, 95 a, 118 a, 128 6, 158 a, 164 b, 165 a, 
represent various scenes from the history of 
the patriarchs, such as the expulsion of 
Adam from Paradise, the slaying of Abel, 
Noah's ark, etc. The last two show the 
author presenting his book to a young prince, 
and the latter reading it. 



Add. 9838. 



finished 'Unvan and gold-ruled 
apparently in the 16th century. 

[CI. J 



margins, 



Rich. J 



Poll. 269 : 10^ in. by 6^ ; 19 lines, 4 in. 
written in a cursive Nestalik ; dated 
Rabi' I., A.H. 870 (A.D. 1465). 



long 



History of the Prophet Solomon. 
Author : Sharaf ud-Din Abu YaHuib Yu- 
suf B. 'Umar B. 'All ut-TabrizI, ^^,^\ ^>i> 

The author states in a wordy preface that, 
having heard of the great piety of the 
Princess, the daughter of the Isfahsalar 'Ala 
ud-Din Ahmad B. Tugha Mirak ul-Aghaji, 
he had written the present work for her 
edification. It is divided into thirteen chap- 
ters (fasl), comprising all the traditions 
concerning Solomon from his birth to his 
death. 

The author's name occurs in the sub- 
scription, where he is styled the great Imam, 
the Mufti of Iran and Azarbaijan. 

Copyist : j^jJlkLJl ^ ^yJ o.^ 



Add. 7634. 

Poll. 393; 13^ in. by H \ 23 lines, 6| in. 
long ; written in fine Nestalik, with a highly 



A detailed history of Muhammad and 
the first five Khalifs, translated from the 
Arabic. 

Translator : Husain B. ul-Hasan ul-Khwa- 
razml ul-KubravT, ,jij^\ ^j}^ (ir-^ tin* t:;f>-* 

Beg. jlyl Jjjly^ Jjl ^ »> y^ ^si- 

Maulana Kamal ud-Din Husain, a disciple 
of the great Sufi and saint, Khwajah Abul- 
Vaf a, who died in Khwarazm A.H. 835 (see 
Nafahiit ul-Uns), wrote, besides the present 
translation, a commentary on the Magnavl, 
and another commentary, in the Turkish 
dialect of Khwarazm, on the Burdah. He 
was killed by the Uzbaks at the time of the 
invasion of Husain Sufi Uzbak, in the year 
eight hundred and thirty . . . (the last figure 
is intentionally left out) ; see Habib us- 
Siyar, Bombay edition, vol. ii., Juz 3, p. 144; 
Latri'if-Namah, Add. 7669, fol. 7 a, and 
Haft IklTm, Add. 16,734, fol. 553 b. 

Haj. Khal., who only knew the title of the 
present work from the HabIb us-Siyar, was 
mistaken as to its subject ; see vol. vi. p. 90, 
and vol. v. p. 375. He gives A.H. 845 in 
the first place, and A.H. 840 in the second, 
as the date of the author's death. 

The translator states in his preface that 
the Arabic original, which he calls ,_j«aLJL»* 
^^^ -Ja jd, was the work of the great tra- 
ditionist Abul-Kal-am 'Abd us-Salam B. 
Muhammad B. ul-Hasan 'All ul-HijjI ul- 
PirdausI id-Andarasf ani, ^j^^ ^jOj ibliii XJiJ 

iJ\i*«jj3^\ j_^jjijfl)^, who had spent a whole 
life in collecting from the best authorities 
all the genuine traditions, and had written 
the Mustaksa at the request of the prince 



HISTORY OF MUHAMMAD. 



145 



of Coran-readers, Abul-Kasim Mahmud B. 
Ahmad, ^^ .ij.^ j^\si\ ^\ *^\ J*\ ^/ .^-^ 
jy^l , The Mustaksa was principally based 
upon the Sahihs of Muslim and al-Bukharl 
and on the Muatta, and comprised a history 
of the conquests made under the first four 
Khalifs and of the short Khilafat of Hasan. 
The Mujtala, a previous work of the same 
author, contained nearly the same matter, in 
a more condensed form. The translator has 
made some additions from historical works, 
and appended an account of the Imams down 
to 'All B. Musa Riza. 

The translation is dedicated to a prince, 
Shahzadah, whose name does not appear in 
the preface, but is found in the conclusion of 
the work, fol. 388 b. There the author pays 
a tribute of praise to the memory of the late 
Amir Ghiyas ud-Din Abul-Fath Shahmalik 
Bahadur, who, he says, as a reward for his 
righteous rule, lay buried in Mashhad by the 
side of the eighth Imam, and over whose 
grave a splendid dome had been erected by 
his son and successor Ibrahim Sultan. He 
then gives the rules of conduct left by 
the former for the guidance of the prince, 
who appears to have been still a youth at 
the time of composition, and concludes with 
two Kasidahs written by himself in praise of 
the Imam of Mashhad. 

Amir Shahmalik had been sent by Shah- 
rukh to subdue Khwarazm, in A.H. 815. 
That province was governed by him, and 
after his death by his son Ibrahim Sultan 
till the end of Shahrukh's reign. It was, 
however, overrun by the Uzbaks in A.H. 833. 
See Habib us-Siyar, Bombay edition, vol. iii., 
Juz 3, p. 110, and Price's Retrospect, vol. iii. 
p. 550. 

The Mustaksa appears to have been written, 
like the Persian version, in Khwarazm, but 
about two centuries and a half earUer, viz. 
in the latter half of the sixth century of the 
Hijrah. In the Isnad with which it begins, 



fol. 8 a, the author's immediate predecessor, 
Zain ul-A'iramah, is reported to have re- 
ceived some tradition from Zain ul-Islam 
Muhammad B. Abi Bakr ul-Vabari, called 
j^ , in Jurjaniyyah of Khwarazm (Gurganj, 
the modern Urganj), A.H. 636. The author's 
Nisbah al-HijjI is, according to Sam'ani, a 
form used in Khwarazm as an equivalent to 
the al-Hajj of other countries. 

The translation is divided, like the origi- 
nal, into the following twenty-five chapters 
(Bab) :— 

1. Birth and genealogy of Muhammad, 
fol. 8 a. 2. His journey to Syria with Abu 
Talib, history of the monk Bahira, and the 
battle of the Pujjar, fol. 23 b. 3. His second 
journey to Syria and his marriage with 
Khadijah, fol. 25 a. 4. His mission, fol. 29 b. 
5. Emigration of the companions of the 
prophet to Abyssinia, fol. 40 a. 6. The 
ascension of the prophet ; the Kuraishites 
demand signs of him; destruction of the 
scoff'ers, fol. 48 b. 7. Death of Abu Trdib 
and of Khadijah, fol. 54 b. 8. The prophet's 
journey to Ta'if and his urging the tribes to 
support the Islam, fol. 57 «. 9. Conversion 
of Sa'd B. Mu'az, the latter 'Akabah, and the 
Nakibs, fol. 60 a. 10. Flight of the prophet, 
and his adventures until he reached Medi- 
nah, fol. 64 b. 11. Events of the first year 
of the Hijrah, fol. 69 b. 12. Events of* the 
second year, fol. 72 a. 13. Events of the 
third year ; expeditions of Uhud and of Kar- 
karat ul-Kudr, fol. 103 a. 14. Events of 
the fourth year, fol. 122 a. 15. Events of 
the fifth year, fol. 130 b. 16. Sixth year, 
fol. 148 a. 17. Seventh year, fol. 166 a. 
18. Eighth year, fol. 173 b. 19. Ninth year, 
fol. 195 b. 20. Tenth year, fol. 210 a, 
21. Eleventh year; death of the prophet, 
fol. 219 a. 22. Khilafat of Abu Bakr, fol. 
233 b. 23. Khilafat of 'Umar, fol. 253 a. 
24. Khilafat of 'Ugman, fol. 279 b. 25. Khi- 
lafat of 'All, fol. 290 a ; Khilafat of Hasan, 
fol. 362 a. 

V 



14.6 



HISTORY OF MUHAMMAD. 



To the last chapter the translator has 
added six sections (Maksad), containing no- 
tices of the following Imams : Husain, fol. 
365 h. 'All Zain ul-'Abidm, fol. 368 o. Mu- 
hammad Bakir, fol. 370 h. Ja'far Sadik, 
fol. 372 h. Musa Kazim, fol. 376 h. 'AH 
Eiza, fol. 379 a. 

The Khatimah, which begins on fol, 387 h, 
has been already mentioned. The transla- 
tion is very free, and copiously interspersed 
with verses of the translator's own compo- 
sition. 

The Maksad ul-Aksa is mentioned in the 
" Critical Essay," p. 25, as one of the leading 
authorities for the history of the early 
Khalifs. 

On the first page of this MS. there are 
some notes written by former owners, the 
earliest of which, dated Haidarabfid, A.H. 
999, states that it was written in the Shafi a 
character by MuUa 'Abd ul-Jabbar. Another 
shows that it passed into the hands of Mu- 
hammad Yusuf, Shaikh ul-Islam, in Erivan, 
AH. 1125. 



Add. 25,850. 

FoU. 265 ; 9| in. by 5^ ; 19 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins ; dated Indri (Sir- 
hind), Eamazan, A.H. 1008 (A.D. 1600). 

[Wm. Cureton.] 

lyj;^ ^ jjjJb &^ii:J ^^^ ^yA 

Evidences of the divine mission of Mu- 
hammad, as displayed in his life and those of 
his disciples. 

Author: Jami, ^^^ (see p. 17 «). 

Beg. ^J>..yi^i {j>.j^ ^j J-»j^ t?"^^ *^ •^-*^ 
The author refers in the preface to a former 
work of his, Nafahat ul-Uns. The date of com- 
position of the Shavahid is A.H. 885 ; it is 



expressed by the word 
chronogram at the end : 



in the following 



lib d**j*j 



»\^\ 



JU> ^^J3 ii^ (read &Jw) *JUJ' a^ 

The work is divided into an Introduction, 
seven Books (Eukn) and a Conclusion, as 
follows : 

Mukaddimah, on the meaning of Nabi and 
Easul, fol. 5 b. 

Eukns I. — v., on the evidences manifested 
in the following periods: 1. Before Muham- 
mad's birth, fol. 8 a. 2. From his birth to 
his mission, fol. 24 a. 3. From his mission 
to his flight, fol. 43 b. 4. From his flight 
to his death, fol. 63 a. 5. After his death, 
fol. 150 a. 

Eukn VI., on the evidences manifested in 
his Companions and the Imams, fol. 163 b. 

Eukn VII., on the evidences manifested 
in the successors (tabi'In) and in their disci- 
ples (tubba' tabi'in), down to the generation 
of the Sufis, fol. 247 a. 

Khatimah, on the punishment of the ad- 
versaries, fol. 261a. 

See Haj. Khal. vol. iv. p. 82 ; Aumer, 
Munich Catalogue, p. 101 ; S. Petersburg 
Catalogue, p. 370 ; Biblioth. Sprenger., No. 
134. The work has been translated into 
Turkish by Lami'i ; see Vienna Catalogue, 
vol. iii. p. 126. 

Scribe : joji.\ iWj^b \j^)^ ^^ ^Jj«!\ S)S- 

On the first page is impressed the Persian 
seal of Archibald Swinton with the date 
A.H. 1174. 

Add. 23,498. 

Foil. 412 ; 10^ in. by 6^ ; 27 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in a small and close Naskhi, 
apparently in the 16th century ; partly dis- 
coloured by damp and slightly torn. 

[EoB. Taylor.] 



n 



HISTORY OF MUIJAMMAD. 



147 



A history of Muhammad, his family, suc- 
cessors and disciples. 

Author : 'Atfi uUah B. Fazl ullah, called 
Jamal ul-Husaini, (__*aU\ »U1 J^ ^^ ii\ ^UaP 



Beg. 



xs 



Amir Jamfil ud-Dln 'Ata-ullah was the bro- 
ther's son of Amir Asil ud-Din 'Abd ullah ul- 
Husaini, a noble and learned Sayyid of Shiraz, 
who was called from his native place to Herat 
by Sultan Abu Sa'id, and died there A.n. 883. 
Khwand Amir calls 'Ata-ullah the greatest 
divine of the time of Sultan Husain, and says 
that he had been engaged for many years in 
teaching in the Madrasahi Sultaniyyah, and 
preaching in the Masjid i Jami' of Herat, 
but was then (A.H. 930) living in pious re- 
tirement. See Habib us-Siyar, vol. iii. ; Juz 3, 
pp. 335, 348, and Haft Iklim, Add. 16,734, 
fol. 100. The work has been described by 
Hammer, Jahrbiicher, vol. 71, Anz. Blatt, 
pp. 25 — 27, and Morley, Catalogue, p. 15. 
Compare Stewart's Catalogue, p. 21 ; Vienna 
Catalogue, vol. ii. p. 3G8 ; S. Petersburg 
Catalogue, p. 298. A Turkish translation 
has been published in Constantinople, A.H. 
1268 ; see Melanges Asiatiques, vol. v. p. 470. 

This work is due, as stated in the preface, 
to the urgent and repeated solicitations of 
the celebrated Mir 'All Shir, whose exem- 
plary piety and charitable foundations are 
dwelt upon at some length. The author 
adds that he did not enter upon that task, 
without having first obtained leave and ad- 
vice from his uncle and revered master, Asil 
ud-Din 'Abd ullah, to whom he was indebted 
for all he knew. 

The work consists of the following three 
books (Maksad) : — Maksad I., containing 
three chapters (Biib), as follows: — 



1. Muhammad's genealogy, including an 
account of the Patriarchs and Prophets, fol. 
3 b. 2. The history of his life, fol. 32 6. 
3. Supplementary notices, in eight sections 
(fasl) : (1) Muhammad's wives, fol. 25G a. 
(2) His children, fol. 269 b. (3) His pre-emi- 
nence and miracles, fol. 274 a. (4) His 
bodily features and moral qualities, fol. 
287 b. (5) His pious observances, fol. 291 b. 
(6) His habits, fol. 298 a. (7) His prero- 
gatives, fol. 310 b. (8) His slaves, freedmen, 
nurses, governors, scribes, messengers, muaz- 
zins, poets and orators, fol. 314 a. 

Maksad II., treating of the associates 
of the Prophet (Sahabah), and divided into 
two chapters, devoted respectively to men 
and women, fol. 321 b. 

Maksad III., divided into three chapters, 
treating severally — 1. of the Tiibi'in, or 
immediate successors of the Companions ; 

2. of the Tubba' or successors of the Tabi'in ; 

3. of the Imams of the subsequent period. 
The part of Maksad II., which is extant 

in this copy, contains an introduction on the 
Companions in general, fol. 321 b, and the 
lives of Abu Bakr, fol. 327 a, and 'Umar, 
fol. 347 a, including a full account of con- 
temporary conquests. It breaks off at the 
second page of the life of 'Ugman, which 
begins on fol. 412 a. Maksad III. is wanting. 



Or. 146. 

Poll. 408 ; 11| in. by 7^ ; 21 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in small Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins ; dated Zul-Ka'dah, 
A.H. 964 (A.D. 1557). 

[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

Maksad I. of the same work. 

The author states at the end that this 
section was completed on the 11th of Zu'l- 

u2 



148 



HISTORY OF MUHAMMAD. 



Hijjali, A.H. 888, in his dwelling outside 
Herat. 

A modern table of contents, occupying 
four pages, is prefixed. 

This volume bears the stamps of the kings 
of Oude. 

Add. 7638. 

Foil. 491 ; 11^ in. by 7| ; 25 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in small and neat Naskhi, 
with 'Unvan and gold-ruled margins, pro- 
bably in the 16th century. [CI. J. EiCH.J 

Maksad I. and part of Maksad II. of the 
same work. 

The latter contains the Introduction, 
fol. 322 b, the lives of Abu Bakr, fol. 327 b, 
IJmar, fol. 349 a, 'U§man, fol. 417 a, and 
'All, fol. 457 b. 

The last life is imperfect; it ends abruptly 
with the Khutbah delivered by 'Ali at Bas- 
rah, on his return from the battle of the 
Camel (A.H. 36). 

A note on the first page records the pur- 
chase of the MS. by a certain Yunus B. 
Hakim Abu Talib, in Surat, A.H. 1047. 



Egerton 692. 

Foil. 476; 11| in. by 7^; 25 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in fair Naskhi, with *Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins, probably in the 
16th century. 

jNIaksad I. and the same part of Maksad II. 
as in the preceding copy. 



Add. 6604. 

Foil. 482 ; 9^ in. by 53 ; 25 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in small Nestalik, with gold- 
ruled margins, apparently in the 16th cen- 
tury. [J. F. Hull.] 

Maksad I. and the same portion of Mak- 
sad II. as in the preceding copies. 



The life of 'Ali, foil. 450—482, is written 
by a later hand ; a brief sketch of the end 
of his career, from VakidI, is appended. 

Add. 25,782. 

Foil. 451 ; lOf in. by 6 ; 25 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in small Naskhi, with 'Unvfin ; 
dated Rabi' I., A.H. 1013 (A.D. 1604.) 

[Wm. Ctireton.] 

Maksad I. of the same work, with marginal 
notes, and the life of 'All, from Maksad II., 
ending as in the preceding copies. 

Or. 147. 

Foil. 215 ; 10| in. by 6^ ; 25 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in small Nestalik ; dated 
Rabi' I., A.H. 1262 (A.D. 1846) 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

A portion of Maksad II. of the same work, 
containing : — 

1. The Life of 'All, fol. 6 a. The portion 
of 'All's life contained in the previously de- 
scribed copies occupies here foil. 13 b — 
43 a ; it is preceded by several sections 
treating of his merits and supernatural gifts, 
his wives and children, his sayings and bodily 
features, and is followed by a very full history 
of the close of his career, concluding with a 
section on the traditions and Coranic verses 
which relate to him. 

2. Lives of Hasan, fol. QQ a, Husain, 
fol. 102 6, 'All Zain ul-'Abidin, fol. 176 b, 
Muhammad Bakir, fol. 179 b, Ja'far Sadik, 
fol. 180 b, Musa, al-Kazim, fol. 183 J, 'All 
Riza, fol. 184 b, Muhammad Naki, fol. 188 b, 
'AH ul-Hadi, fol. 189 b, Hasan ul-'AskarT, 
fol. 191 a, Muhammad Mahdl, fol. 192 a. 

As the later Imams cannot be included 
among the Companions, who form, accord- 
ing to the preface, the exclusive subject of 
Maksad II., it may reasonably be doubted 
that these lines belong to the original work. 



HISTORY OF MUHAMMAD. 



149 



3. Short notices on eminent Companions, 
in alphabetical order, beginning with Ibn 
'Ahd ul-Muttalib al-Hamzah, and ending 
with Yaman b. Jabir, fol. 197 b. 

In the subscription this volume is called 
the third Jild of Eauzat ul-Ahbab. 

Copyist : ^Uj ^_y^i^ fj's^j ^JS' j-^ 

Prefixed is a modern table of contents, 
foil. 1—3. 

Egerton 687. 

Foil. 311; 14 in. by 8^; 26 lines, 4 J in. 
long ; written in Nestalik by two different 
hands, with three TJnvans and ruled margins, 
apparently late in the 17th century. 

[Francis Gladwin.] 

A history of Muhammad. 
Author : Mu'in B. Hajl Muhammad ul- 
Farahi, ^^J>^^ i^ cr^^ d'- e;*** 

Beg. \3yi\ ^J* li) Jyfcj X-^j dJjjJ ^^ UjT Uo, 

The author calls himself in the preface 
^^yM ^;a51-« " the poor Mu'in," but in the 
conclusion more fully j-^ o"^^ d- t?*** 
^^Ul) ; in his verses he uses the Takhallus 

Mu'Ini. His father, Sharaf ud-Din Haji Mu- 
hammad was an eminent jurisconsult, a native 
of Farah, and his brother, Nizam ud-Din Mu- 
hammad, who had held for a long time the 
post of KazT of Herat, died in A.H. 900. 
Mu'in ud-Din resigned the same office after 
a year's tenure ; he was a man of rare 
learning and piety, and became renowned for 
the eloquence and boldness of his weekly 
predications in the Masjid of Herat; he died 
A.H. 907. See Habib us-Siyar, Bombay 
edition, vol. iii., Juz 3, p. 338. For the 
present work, compare Haj. Khal., vol. v. 
p. 608 ; Aumer, Munich Catalogue, p. 100 ; 



Stewart's Catalogue, p. 22 ; SirWm. Ouseley's 
Catalogue, No. 514 — 516; Biblioth. Sprenger., 
No. 133 ; King's College, Cambridge, No. 109. 
A Turkish translation of the same, entitled 
Dala'il i Nubuvvat i Muhammad!, is de- 
scribed by Hammer, Jahrbiicher, vol. 71, 
Anz. Blatt, p. 50, and has been printed at 
Constantinople, A.H. 1257. 

Mu'in says, in the preface, that he had 
applied himself for thirty and some years 
to the study of tradition, besides giving 
religious instruction every Friday in the 
Masjid of Herat, and had composed two 
works which were not yet ready for publi- 
cation, viz., a commentary on the Coran, 
called Bahr ud-Durar, and a collection of 
forty traditions entitled Rauzat ul-Va'izin. 
At the request of some great doctor of the 
law, not named, he began in Babi' I., A.H. 
891, to write some detached discourses 
(Majlis) on the life of Muhammad, and these 
having been favourably received, he was 
encouraged to arrange his materials in a 
more consecutive form, and couch them in 
more polished language. Hence arose the 
j)resent work. 

In the conclusion the author says that he 
had intended to devote a second volume to 
the history of the Rashidin Khalifs and of 
the Imams, but had been induced by friends 
to postpone that labour to the task of draw- 
ing up his commentary Bahr ud-Durar, for 
which he had been collecting materials 
during a period of nearly five and thirty 
years. 

The Ma'arij un-nubuwat is divided into 
a Mukaddimah, four books (Rukn), and a 
Khatimah. The contents of the present 
volume are as follows : — Mukaddimah, in 
five chapters (fasl) : 1. Praises of God. 
2. Invocations. 3. Praises of Muhammad ; 
his merits and qualities. 4. His prerogatives 
and distinctions. 5. Merit and rewards 
attached to the act of praising him and 
praying for him, fol. 7 h. 



150 



HISTORY OP MUHAMMAD. 



E,ukn I., in eight chapters (bab) : — 1. The 
prophetic light which descended on Mu- 
hammad through the prophets, fol. 99 b. 

2. Adam, fol. 108 a. 3. Shis, fol. 139 a. 
4. Idris, fol. 151 a. 5. Niih, fol. 154 a. 
6. Hud, fol. 167 *. 7. Ibrahim, fol. 172 b. 

8. 'Abd ul-Muttalib, fol. 226 6. 

Rukn II., in seven Babs : — 1. Prophecies 
and forebodings of the advent of Muhammad, 
fol. 242 b. 2. His names and surnames, 
fol. 266 a. 3. His birth, suckling, weaning, 
and the splitting of his breast, fol. 269 b. 
4. Events from his 6th to his 13th year, 
fol. 289 «. 5. Events from his 13th to his 
20th year, fol. 294 a. 6. Events of his 25th 
year, fol. 300 b. 7. Events of his 35th year, 
fol. 308 a. 

Egerton 688. 

Foil. 427; 14 in. by 8^; 23 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written by the same hand as the latter 
pai't of the preceding, with three IJnvans 
and ruled margins. [Francis Gladwin.] 

The second volume of the same work, con- 
taining : — 

Rukn III., in five Babs: — 1. Descent of 
the inspiration, fol. 1 b. 2. Events of the 
fifth year of the Mission ; emigration of some 
of the Companions to Abyssinia, fol. 24 b. 

3. Events from the seventh to the tenth year 
of tlie Mission, fol. 40 b. 4. The Mirfij, 
fol. 59 b. 5. The second covenant of the 
'Akabah and flight of some Companions to 
Medinah, fol. 142 a. 

Rukn IV., in fourteen Babs : — 1. The 
Hijrah, fol. 146 b. 2. Events of the first 
year of the Hijrah, fol. 157 b. 3. Events of 
the second year, fol. 166 b. 4. Expedition 
of Badr, fol. 175 a. 5. Third year, fol. 203 a. 
6. Battle of Uhud, fol. 207 b. 7. Fourth 
year, fol. 228 a. 8. Fifth year, fol. 236 b. 

9. Sixth year, fol. 259 a. 10. Seventh year, 
fol. 278 b. 11. Eighth year, fol. 292 a. 
12. Ninth year, fol. 323 b. 13. Tenth year, 



fol. 341 b. 14. Eleventh year, fol. 350 b. 
There is some confusion in the numbering 
of the Babs of Rukn IV., both in this and in 
the other copy. Add. 19,808. 

Khatimah, fol. 378 b, treating of the 
miracles of Muhammad, in two Babs : — 
1. Spiritual miracles, fol. 380 a. 2. Sensible 
miracles, fol. 387 a. 

At the end is a note written by Shaikh 
Zuhur Muhammad, who states that he pur- 
chased this MS. for 150 rupees in Siyalkut, 
where he had been appointed Amin i Fauj- 
dari by Sarbuland Khan, and collated it, 
after his return to Dehli, with three cor- 
rected copies. The collation was completed 
in Safar, A.H. 1136. 



Add. 16,817. 

Foil. 400 ; 104 in. by 5^ ; 17 lines, 3J in. 
long; written in Nestalik, with two 'Unvans 
and ruled margins, probably in the 18th 
century. [Wm. Yule.] 

Rukn I., fol. 6 6, and Rukn II., fol. 271 b, 
of the same work. 

Prefixed is a table of contents, foil. 2 — 5. 

On the first page is written : " Bought at 
the sale of Gen. Claude Martine's effects, 
Lucknow, 1802/3. Wm. Yule." 



Add. 19,808. 

Foil. 482 ; 7| in. by 4^ ; 23 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in a small and compact Nes- 
talik, probably about the close of the 16th 
century. 

The second volume of the same work, 
containing Rukn III., fol. 8 b ; Rukn IV., 
fol. 170 a, and the Khatimah, fol. 394 b. 
Two lacunes in the original MS. have been 
supplied by a later hand, foil. 8 — 44, 229 — 
248. A full table of contents, by the same 
hand, occupies foil. 1 — 7. 



HISTORY OF THE KHALIFS. 



151 



Add. 23,495. 

Foil. 428 ; 9^ in. by 6 ; 17 lines, ^ in. 
long ; wi'itten in a neat Nestalik, with "Un- 
van and ruled margins, apparently in the 
16th century. [Rob. Taylor.] 



.Ls>\ 



^^ ^ 



A history of the early Khalifs and of the 
conquests made by the Muslims in their 
time, translated from the Arabic. 

Translator : Muliammad B. Ahmad ul- 



Mustaufi ul-Harawi, (jyL-J\ 



-^ 



Beg. ^^J\ ^)^\ J6^\ ojiJ\ tiJJuJ\ rfU jji 

This work, which is written in an easy 
and popular style, and may be called the 
romance of history, does not seem to have 
been noticed by Arabic historians, nor has 
the Arabic original hitherto been found. 
But it is well known to Persian writers, to 
whom its Shi'ah tendency was likely to 
recommend it. It is often quoted in the 
Nigaristan and the Rauzat ul-Alibab, where 
the author is called (Abu Muhammad) Ah- 
mad B. A'sam Kiifi, as in our copies, while 
according to Mirkhwand, Bombay edition, 
p. 7, and Haj. Khal. vol. iv. p. 385, his name 
was Muhammad B. 'All B. A'gam. The 
Futuh Ibn A'§am is mentioned in Morley's 
Descriptive Catalogue, p. 16; SirWm, Ouse- 
ley's Travels, vol. ii. pp. 312, 342 ; Oriental 
Collections, vol. i. p. 63 ; Sir Wm. Ouseley's 
Catalogue, No. 348 ; Biblioth. Sprenger., 
No. 32 ; Critical Essay, pp. 24 and 55 ; Cata- 
logue of the King's College, Cambridge, 
No. 105, and Stewart's Catalogue, p. 8. Ac- 
cording to Friihn, Indications Bibliogra- 
phiques, p. 16, Ibn A'sam died about A.H. 
314. 
The translator says in his preface that, after 



consuming his youth and middle life in the 
service of the great, he wished to spend his de- 
clining years in pious seclusion, but, having 
amassed no wealth, was troubled with the cares 
of livelihood, until he found a generous patron 
in a mighty Vazir, only designated by hono- 
rific titles, such as Mu'ayyid ul-Mulk, Kivam 
ud-Daulah vad-Din, the pride of the grandees 

of Khwarazm and Khurasan, etc. ^\^^ Jj^^ 
^^L.y. J A}i^ i to whose munificence he had 
then been some years indebted for a position 
of honour and affluence. 

In A.H. 596 he was sent for by this 
patron, then staying at the Madrasah of 
Tabiyad, ckf-i^ (perhaps for Tayabad, a town 
of the district of BQshanj), where he was 
overwhelmed with new favours, and enjoyed 
for some time the conversation of the learned. 
In one of these meetings, the most eminent 
among the latter, Imam Kamal ud-Dln, 
having read aloud a passage of the Kitab 
ul-Futiih of Khwajah Ahmad B. A'sam ul- 
Kfifi, the Vazir expressed a wish that so 
useful a Avork might be rendered accessible 
to the Persian readers, and designated for 
the task his devoted servant Muhammad 
Mustauf i, who, in spite of his advanced age, 
his cares, his exile, and the disturbed state 
of the times, proceeded at once to comply 
with his protector's desire. 

The work begins, fol. 4 «, with the election 
of Abu Bakr to the Khiliifat, and the expe- 
ditions sent by him against the disaffected 
tribes. It is only divided by rare and in- 
adequate rubrics. Its main contents are as 
follows : Apostasy of the men of Hazraraaut 
and Kindah, fol. 22 a. Expedition against 
Persia, fol. 30 h. Conquests in Syria, fol. 
35 6. Victory gained over the army of 
Persia and Irac, fol. 61 h. Conquest of 
Hims in Syria, fol. 77 h. Rallying of the 
Greek forces ; taking of Damascus, fol. 79 h. 
Further successes in Persia, fol. 95 h. Con- 
quest of Jerusalem, fol. 102 h. History of 



152 



HISTOUY OF THE KHALIFS. 



Jabalah Ghassanl, fol. 108 h. Death of Abu 
'Ubaidah, fol. 113 a. Expedition of 'lyaz 
against Jazirah, fol. 121 a. Capture of 
Ascalon, fol. 133 b. Conquests in Nubia 
and Maghrib, fol. 136 a. AbQ Musa's expe- 
dition to Ahvaz, Sus and Tustar, fol. 137 b. 
New gathering of Persian forces; battle 
of Nahavand, fol. 150 a. Conquest of Eai 
and Rasht, fol. 157 b. Invasion of Persia 
(Pars) by AbQ Musa, fol. 172 a. Khilafat 
of *U§man, fol. 184 a. Embassy sent to 
Abyssinia, fol. 193 b. Conquest of Cyprus 
and Rhodus by Mu'aviyah, fol. 194 a. Mu a- 
viyah's -nar with Constantine, son of Hera- 
clius, fol. 200 a. Taking of Ifrikiyyah by 
'Abd ullah B. Sa'd, fol. 202 h. Defeat of 
Mu'aviyah by the Sicilians, fol. 205 b. Divers 
opinions on the Khilafat of 'U§man, fol. 210 b. 
Accession of 'All, fol. 258 a. Battle of the 
camel, fol. 267 a. History of Uvais KarnI, 
fol. 327 b. Battle fought on the Euphrates 
by the armies of 'Ali and Mu'aviyah, fol. 
344 a. Account of the Khilafat of Hasan, 
fol. 395 b. Death of Husain, fol. 406 i. 

Or. 148. 

Poll. 300 ; 9 in. by 6 ; 19 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in small Naskhi, with 'TJnvan 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
16th century. [Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

The same work. 

After the first page there is a gap amount- 
ing to twelve pages, foil. 3 — 8, of the pre- 
ceding copy ; about sixteen pages, cor- 
responding to Add. 23,495, foil. 415 b — 
428 a, are wanting at the end. 

This volume is impressed with the stamps 
of the kings of Oude. 

Or. 454. 

Poll. 274 ; 11 in. by 7 ; 25 lines, ^ in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik, probably 
in the 17th century. [Sir Wm. Ouseley.] 



The same work, with English notes in the 
margins. 

Egerton 689. 

PoU. 265 ; 12i in. by 6f ; 19 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in large Nestalik, probably in 
the 18th century. [Adam Clarke.] 

"The Garden of Martyrs," containing 
lives of Muhammad, 'All, Patimah, Hasan, 
Husain, and other martyrs. 

Author : Husain ul-Kashif I, ^JlL'^\ ^,---». 

Beg. Ic J;i j_j\jii y j,<i ci^j^ J^ 

The author died A.H. 910 ; see p. 9 b. 
The work has been printed in Lahore, A.H. 
1287. It has been translated, with additions, 
by the Turkish poet Puziili ; see Haj. Khal. 
vol. iii. p. 500 ; Stewart's Catalogue, p. 23, 
etc. 

It appears from the preface that the work 
was written by desire of an illustrious prince 
and Sayyid, Murshid ud-Daulah vad-Din 
'Abd ullah, called Sayyid Mirza. This prince 
was, as stated in the genealogical appendix, 
Lahore edition, p. 382, the son of Sayyid 
Salah ud-Din Musa and of a royal princess, 
whose father, Sultan Biiikara, was uterine 
brother to the reigning sovereign, Abul- 
Ghazi Sultan Husain. As the author, when 
speaking of the death of Husain (A.H. 61), 
at the beginning of the tenth chapter, 
remarks that 847 years had elapsed since 
that event, it may be inferred that he was 
writing in A.H. 908, or two years before his 
death. 

The work is divided into ten chapters (Bab), 
as follows : 1. Trials of some of the prophets, 
fol. 6 b. 2. Persecution of Muhammad by 
the Kuraishites; martyrdom of Hamzah and 
Ja'far B. Abi Talib, fol. 40 b. 3. Death of 



HISTOUY OF THE IMAMS. 



153 



Muhammad, fol. 60 «. 4. Life of Fatimah, 
fol. 75 b. 5. Life of 'All, fol. 94. a. 6. Life 
of Hasan, fol. 106 h. 7. Life of Husain, 
fol. 124 b. 8. Martyrdom of Muslim B. 
'Akil and the slaying of some of his children, 
fol. 137 b. 9. Husain's encounter with the 
foes at Karhala ; martyrdom of his children 
and others, fol. 159 a. 10. Fate of the 
" Family " after the battle, fol. 233 a ; punish- 
ment of the murderers of ^usain, fol. 260 b. 

The Khatimah, which gives a succinct 
genealogical account of the descendants of 
Hasan and Husain, with short notices on the 
Imams, is wanting in this copy. It is found 
in the Lahore edition, pp. 376 — 394, and in 
two of the following copies, namely, Add. 
6605, fol. 485 5, and Add. 25,852, fol. 391 b. 

The fly-leaf and first page of this MS. 
contain renderings in English verse of the 
initial lines of the work, in the hand- 
writing of Dr. Adam Clarke. 

Add. 6605. 

Foil. 515 ; 9i in. by 6 ; 12 lines, 3| in. 

long; written in a cursive Nestalik, dated 

Benares, Sha'ban, A.H. 1150 (A.D. 1737). 

The same work.. [J. F. Hull.] 

The first and last leaves bear the ofB.cial 

seal of Mr. James Grant. 

Add. 16,730. 

Foil. 268; 9^ in. by 6; 19 lines, ^ in. 
long ; written in a cursive Indian Nesta- 
lik, apparently in the 18th century. 

[Wm. Yule.] 

The same work, wanting a portion of 
Bab 10, and the Khatimah. 

Add. 26,187. 

FoU. 251; 11 in. by 6|; 19 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in a cursive Indian Nestahk, 
apparently in the 18th century. 

[Wm. Eeskine.] 



The same work, wanting the latter part of 
Bab 10 and the Khatimah. 
' The last leaf of a copy of vol. vi. of Rau- 
zat us-Safa lias been added at the end of 
this MS. in order to give it an appearance of 
completeness. 

Add. 25,851. 

Foil. 314; 10 in. by 6|; 17 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in Nestalik, apparently in 
India, in the 18th century. [Wm. Cubeton.] 

The same work, slightly imperfect ; the 
genealogical appendix, fol. 311 b, breaks ofi" 
at the sixth page. 

Add. 25,852. 

Foil. 405 ; 9i in. by 5| ; 14 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik, at Bala- 
ganj, near Hajipur in Behar, and dated 
Eajab, FaslI 1210 (A.D. 1802). 

[Wm. Cureton.] 

The same work. The fly leaves contain 
some Shi'ah poems, viz., the story of a pome- 
granate given by 'All to Fatimah, ^Ul »^ , 
in 103 Baits, an elegy (margiyah) on the 
death of Husain, foil. 2, 3, and a poem 
(tarji'-band) in praise of 'All, foU. 404 — 405. 

Copyist : ,_yi«jl.y sU. jJj ^ C-oU 

Add. 23,308. 

Foil. 34; 8^ in. by 6; 23 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in small Naskhi, apparently 
in the I7th century. [Rob. Taylor.] 

I. Foil. 3 — 25 a. Ta'nis ul-Insan, an his- 
torical compendium in Arabic; see Arabic 
Catalogue, p. 571 b. 

II. Foil. 25 a — 34 b. The genealogical 
Appendix of the Rauzat ush-Shuhada, with- 
out title or author's name.. 



Add. 7088. 

FoU. 423 ; 10^ in. by 6^ ; 17 lines, 4£ in. 



154 



mSTOKY OF THE IMAMS. 



long; written in fair Nestalik, apparently 
in the 18th century. [J. H. Hindley.] 



(Syuajojo j^ 



A history of Muhammad, the early Khalif s 
and the Imams, in mixed prose and verse. 

Author : Mir Muhammad Salih, takh. 
Kashfi (Ai-J^ i^^ai^ Jla ^.^ jxc 

Beg. \j ^\ liy cio\5 \^j> 

The author was a descendant of the 
famous Saint, Ni'mat UUah Vali. His father 
Mir 'Ahd Ullah Tirmizi, a celehrated calli- 
grapher, and the author of five Magnavis 
and a Divan, had received from Akbar the 
title of Mushkin Kalam and the takhallus 
of Vasfi ; he died A.H. 1025. Mir Salih, 
the author of the well-known poem Manakib 
i Murtazavi, after leading for a long time the 
life of a Darvish, accepted office from Shah- 
jahan, who raised him to the rank of an 
Amir, and died A.H. 1061 ; see Mir'at ul- 
'Alam, Add. 7657, fol. 461 b, and the Oude 
Catalogue, p. 456. 

After writing his panegyric on *Ali, en- 
titled Manakib i Murtazavi, he designed, we 
are told, fol. 112 b, as a counterpart to it, the 
present work, devoted to the glorification of 
the prophet ; but life was not spared him to 
carry out his plan. It was taken up and 
accomplished a century later by a writer of 
the same family, Mir 'Abd TJllah B. Mir 
Hashim Shah-Ni'mat-Ullahi ul-HusainI, with 
the poetical surname Vasif i (see fol. 112 b), 
who states in the closing lines, fol. 423 b, 
that he spent a year and a half on the work 
and completed it in A.H. 1157. From the 
praises which he bestows, fol. 423 a, on a 
chief not named, who had restored peace 
and prosperity to Khorasan, he appears to 
have then been writing in that country. 

The grandfather of Mir 'Abd Ullah, Mir 
Mumin, takh. 'Arshi (fol. 306 6), a poet and 



calligrapher, was a younger brother of the 
author, Mir Salih. He had been the instructor 
of Prince Sulaiman Shikuh in penmanship, 
and died A.H. 1091 at ninety years of age ; 
see Mirat ul-'Alam, fol. 462 a. 

It is not easy in the present state of the 
work to know what belongs to the earlier, 
and what to the later writer ; nor is it of 
much moment, for it is hardly of any value, 
except as an instance of the luxurious 
growth of Shi'ah legend, and of the boldness 
with which it deals with historical facts. 

Contents : Introduction by Mir 'Abd UUah 
in verse, fol. 16. Creation, prophets, and 
Muhammad's early life, in verse, fol. 4 b. 
Comments in prose on the Sufi doctrine of 
Tauhid, fol. 14 a. History of the expedi- 
tions of Muhammad, from Badr (A.H. 2) to 
Hunain (A.H. 8), in verse, fol. 31a. Mi- 
racles, or manifestations of divine power in 
Muhammad and 'Ali, in prose, fol. 112 a. 
Muhammad's last pilgrimage and death; 
Khilafat of Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Ugman and 
'All, in verse, fol. 201 a. Muhammad's fea- 
tures, his virtues, elegy on his death, fol. 
305 b. Account of Fatimah, fol. 314 b, 'Ali, 
fol. 319 a, Hasan, fol. 375 b, Husain, fol. 
382 a, and the rest of the twelve Imams, in 
prose and verse. 

This volume bears the Persian seal of 
Archibald Swinton. 



Or. 150. 

FoU. 534 ; 11| in. by 6 ; 19 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in Indian Nestalik, in the 
18th century. * [Geo. W. Haivulton.] 

^>;^\ ^%' 

Lives of Muhammad, Fatimah, and the 
twelve Imams. 

Author: Muhammad Bakir B. Muhammad 
Taki, ^_^ ,i^ u^J^ '^^ 



HISTOEY OF THE IMAMS. 



156 



Beg. ^y. .jjjljsi. j\j\y, j\m\j Jl. ^ (JSj.^ 

This great Shl'ah divine, who died A.H. 
1110, has been mentioned above, p. 20 a. 
The present work, the sixth in the list of 
his Persian writings, Add. 24,052, fol. 28 b, 
has been twice printed in Teheran, A.H. 
1240 and 1266 ; see also Sir Wm. Ouseley's 
Catalogue, No. 373, and Biblioth. Sprenger., 
No. 164. 

The Jala ul-*Uyun is divided into a short 
introduction (Mukaddimah) and the follow- 
ing fourteen sections (Bab), most of which 
are subdivided into chapters (Fasl) : 1. 
Muhammad, fol, 10 a. 2. Patimah, fol. 
73 a. 3. 'Ali, fol. 148 a. 4. Hasan, fol. 210 b. 
5. Husain, fol. 265 b. 6. 'Ali Zain ul-'Abi- 
din, fol. 460 6. 7. Muhammad Bakir, fol. 
467 b. 8. Ja'far Sadik, fol. 475 b. 9. Musa 
B. Ja'far, fol. 484 a. 10. 'Ali Riza, fol. 498 b. 
11. Muhammad Taki, fol. 513 a. 12. 'Ali 
Naki, fol. 519 a. 13. Hasan 'Askarl, fol. 
524 a. 14. Muhammad Mahdi, fol. 528 b. 

The author refers in the preface to two 
works previously written by him on the 
same subject, one in several volumes and 
in Arabic, called Bihar ul-Anvar, and 
another shorter, entitled Hayat ul-Kulub. 
(The first has been noticed, p. 21 a ; the 
second is the fourth of Muhammad Bakir's 
Persian works ; it has been translated into 
English by the Eev. James L. Merrick, 
Boston, 1850.) At the end the author states 
that the present work was completed in 
Muharram, A.H. 1089. 

The authorities most frequently quoted 
are Ibn Babavaih and Shaikh Mufid. A 
table of contents, occupying foil. 2 — 6, refers 
only to the latter part of the work, from 
Bab 5 to the end. 

Add. 25,853. 

Foil. 54; 8^ in, by 5; 15 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in neat Nestalik, apparently 
in the 18th century. [Wm. Cueeton.] 



" The ten sittings," a legendary account, in 
prose and verse, of the death of Muhammad, 
Fatimah, 'All, IJasan, and the martyrs of 
Karbala. 

Beg. jJIp Ji- ji e^ C^\ (J*jy^ «* i^}^j^ 



The ten sittings are severally devoted to 
the following persons : 1. Muhammad, fol. 
3 b. 2. Fatimah, fol. 8 b. 3. 'Ali, fol. 13 a. 
4. Hasan, fol. 18 a. 6. Muslim B. 'Akil, 
fol. 23 6. 6. The children of Muslim, fol. 
29 a. 7. Hurr B. Yazid, fol. 34 a. 8. Kasim 
son of Hasan, fol. 40 a. 9.^ 'Abbas son of 
'All, and 'All Akbar son of Husain, fol. 
44 b. 10. 'Ali Asghar and Husain, fol. 49 a. 
Prefixed is an Arabic prayer, including the 
names of the twelve Imams. 

See Mines de I'Orient, vol. II., p. 114; 
Stewart's Catalogue, p. 23 ; Catalogue of 
King's CoUege, Cambridge, No. 185 ; and 
New Asiatic Miscellany, pp. 137 — 148. 

Or. 1293. 

Foil. 256 ; 12 in. by 8 ; 25 lines, 5| in. 
long ; written in Naskhi on European paper, 
in the 19th century. 

"The gardens of Martyrdom," a popular 
history of Muhammad and the Imams. 

Author : Muhammad Hasan B. ul-Haj 
Ma'sum, |»j-a«* _W' ^ji ^^^^ i^«^ 

Beg. jaSs- jisii ^ji' ^^fx;»■ ^-^ . . . «U .x^' 

It is stated at the beginning that this 
work consists of two volumes (Mujallad), 
divided respectively into fo\ir and twenty-six 
sections, called Majlis, or Sittings. The 
present MS. contains the first eighteen 
MajHs of the second volume, relating to 
Imam Husain, as follows: 1. History of 
Husain from the time of Mu'aviyah's death 
X 2 



156 



HISTORY OF THE IMAMS. 



to his departure from Medina for Mecca, 
fol. 2 b. 2. History of IJusain from his 
arrival at Mecca to his setting out for Irak ; 
martyrdom of his cousin Muslim B. 'Akil 
and others, fol. 16 a. 3. Martyrdom of the 
children of Muslim, fol. 28 a. 4. Husain's 
adventures on the journey to Karbalii till 
the 9th of Muharram, fol. 38 a. 5. Events 
of the 10th of Muharram and of the eve of 
the battle, fol. 54 a. 6. Martyrdom of Hurr 
B. Yazid and others, fol. 69 b. 7. Martyr- 
dom of Vahb B. 'Abdullah Kalbi and others, 
fol. 81a. 8. Martyrdom of the other com- 
panions of Husain and of his cousins, fol, 
93«. 9. Martyrdom of Kfisim B.ul-Hasan,fol. 
107 a. 10. Martyrdom of 'Abbas and other 
brothers of Husain, fol. 120 a. 11. Martyr- 
dom of 'All* Akbar, fol. 132 b. 12. Fight 
and martyrdom of Husain, fol. 146 b. 13. 
Additional circumstances of Husain's death, 
plundering of his camp, and capture of his 
wives and children, fol. 165 a. 14. Transfer 
of the captives to Kufah, fol. 178 a. 15. 
Their journey to Damascus, fol. 191 b. 16. 
Their stay in Syria, fol. 202 «. 17. Their 
return through Karbala to Medina, fol. 214 b. 
18. The rising of Mukhtar, and his avenging 
the death of Husain, fol. 231 a. 

The last eight Majlis treat, according to 
the table of contents at the beginning of 
this volume, of the merits and sufferings of 
the later Imams from Zain ul-'Abidin to al- 
Mahdi. The present portion is written in 
an easy and popular language, intermixed 
with verses, and is evidently intended for 
recitation to the faithful on the annual com- 
memoration of the martyrs of Karbala. 

At the end is appended, foU. 249 — 256, a 
fragment of a work treating in prose and 
verse of the martyrdom of Husain, 

Author : Ibn Abul-Hasan ush-Sharif un- 
Na'ini Muhammad Had!, Uoj^\ (j^^ ^\ ^ji\ 

Beg. jj/Jljb u-o.La<c J*9. ^^jjl dJJ <yj} 



The work is dedicated to Haji Mir Mu- 
hammad Husain Isfahani, and divided into 
a Mukaddimah, fol. 252 o, treating of divine 
love, and four Babs. The first of these, which 
alone is extant, fol. 253 b, relates to Coranic 
verses and traditions concerning IJusain. 

Or. 149. 

Foil. 159; 9^ in. by 6^; 21 lines, 4f in. 
long ; written in small Naskhi ; dated Rabi' I., 
A.H. 927 (A,D, 1521). 

[Geo, W. Hamilton.] 



J 



,1::^ 



f&JOJ 



The history of Mukhtar B. Abi 'Ubaid 
Sakaf i, the avenger of Husain. 

Beg. J^ J-J j*j U . . . j^Wl i^j 4ll c^^ 

The unknown author says in a short 
preamble that the history of Mukhtar is the 
true balm for the hearts of the faithful, 
bleeding for the martyrs of Karbala. 

The work is divided into three-and-twenty 
Majlis, or " Sittings," of equal length. The 
authority quoted at the beginning of each of 
these is Abu Mihnaf Liit B. Yahya ul-Yazdl, 
who is said, fol. 22 a, to have received the 
tradition from Muhammad B. Ishak (who 
died A.H. 150). The title written on the 
first page is *«U Jzi^ \^'^ . A leaf is want- 
ing after fol. 23. 

A Mukhtar-Namah by MuUa Muhammad 
Husain Nri'mi, has been printed in Persia, 
A.H, 1281 ; s,ee Dorn, Catalogue des 
ouvrages publics a Constantinople, etc, 
No. 106 ; see also Biblioth. Sprenger,, 
No, 161. 

Egerton 1038*. 

Foil, 11 ; 9 in. by 5^ ; written in Naskhi, 
apparently in the 18th century. 



r 



HISTORY OP THE GHAZNAVIS. 



157 



Pourteen genealogical tables relating to 
Muhammad, Patimah and the twelve Imams, 
Each table occupies one page, and is divided 
into a number of compartments, indicating 



the names and surnames, parents, date 
and place of birth, legend of seal, wives, 
sons and daughters, date and place of 
death, etc. 



HISTORY OF THE aHAZNAVIS. 



Add. 24,950. 

Poll. 276 ; 9f in. by 7 ; 16 lines, 4^ in. 
long, A\Titten in large Naskhi, with vowel- 
points; dated Eajab A.H. 664 (A.D. 1266). 

A history of Amir Subuktigin and Sultan 
Mahmud Ghaznavi, translated from the 
Arabic of 'Utbi. 

Translator : Abu sh-Sharaf Nasih B. Zafar 
B. Sa'd ul-Munshi ul-Jarbazakani, t_J/Jl y^ 

Beg. L-Jyii-o yj^ jj » J>*ly y^ w tJjirr j^^j1/**» 

The Arabic text has been edited by Dr. 
Sprenger, Dehli, 1847. An account of the 
work, including extracts in Arabic and 
German, has been published by Dr. Noldeke 
in the Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen 
Akademie, Vienna, vol. xxiii. pp. 15 — 102, 
and another with copious extracts in English, 
by Sir H. Elliot, History of India, vol. ii. 
pp. 14 — 52. An account of the Persian 
version and a full abstract of it by S. de Sacy 
will be found in Notices et Extraits, vol. iv. 
pp. 325 — 411. An English translation 
founded upon the Persian version, but much 
wanting in correctness, was published for 



the Oriental Translation Pund by the Eev. 
James E,eynolds, London, 1858. See also 
Wiener Jahrbiicher, vol. 70, Anz. Blatt, 
p. 83, and vol. 71, Anz. Blatt, p. 25, Haj. 
Khal., vol. vi. p. 514, Vienna Catalogue, 
vol. ii. p. 170, Munich Catalogue, p. 85, 
and Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1868, 
p. 424. 

The author, Abu Nasr Muhammad B. 
'Abd ul-Jabbar ul-'Utbl, was in the employ 
of Sultan Mahmud who, in the early part of 
his reign, sent him to claim the submission 
of the Shah of Gharjistan ; see Rauzat us- 
Safa, Bombay edition, vol. iv. p. 94. He^ 
states himself, in his appendix, that, when 
writing the present work, he held the 
appointment of Siihib ul-Barid, or official 
intelligencer, in Ganj Rustak. He wrote 
apparently some years after Mah mud's 
Indian campaign of A.H. 409-410, the last 
chronicled in this work ; for he describes as 
completed the famous Masjid which Mahmud 
began to erect at Ghaznah after his return, 
and the history concludes with the record 
of the death of Amir Nasr, the Sultan's 
brother, who was still alive in A.H. 411 ; 
see Raverty, Tabakat i Nasirl, vol. i. p. 86. 
On the other hand a supposed reference to 
an event as late as A.H. 420 (Reynold's 
translation, p. 474) rests upon a clerical 
error ; the true reading of the date, both in 



158 



HISTORY OF THE GHAZNAVIS. 



the present version, fol. 209, and in an old 
copy of the original, Add. 7310, fol. 203, is 
402. 

The Persian version is dedicated to a local 
ruler, here dignified with regal titles, Padi- 
shah Ulugh Barhak Ayabah ajoj tdbjb iJ^ (see 
foil. 4> a, 13 b, 227 b). This was, as we learn 
from the translator's appendix, a slave, pur- 
chased by Atabak Muhammad B. Ilduguz, 
who remained, after his master's death, in 
possession of the fortress of Parrazin (near 
Hamadan). He narrowly escaped being put 
to death by Sultan Tughril, and afterwards 
succeeded, in conjunction with another 
Amir, here styled Padishah Shams ud-Dau- 
lah Aitughmish, who had married one of 
his daughters, to raise the rightful heir, 
Nusrat ud-Din Abu Bakr, son of the late 
Muhammad B. Ilduguz, upon the vacant 
throne of the Atabaks. 

The translator says in the preface, that his 
native place Jarbazakan (a town situated 
between Hamadan and Isfahan), was a 
favourite resort of the king, Ulugh Barbak, 
to whose territory it belonged, and that, 
wishing to present him on one of his visits 
with an instructive and entertaining com- 
position, he had been advised by the Vazir, 
Muhazzib ud-Din Abul-Kasim 'Ali B. ul- 
Husain, his own patron and benefactor, to 
select the Yamlni of 'Utbi for translation. 
A panegyric in prose and verse on the said 
Vazir brings the preface to a close. 

As the translator states, both in the 
preface and in the appendix, that after a 
period of anarchy of nearly twenty years' 
duration, which had intervened since the 
death of the great Atabak, the only stay of 
the Saljuk empire, in A.H. 582, peace had 
been for some time restored, he must have 
written the present work shortly after A.H. 
602, certainly within five years from that date; 
for the then reigning Atabak, Abu Bakr, 
died in A.H. 607, and Aitughmish, whom 
he had called to his assistance in Tabriz, 



A.H. 602, was driven out of Irak by Mangali 
in A.H. 608; see Bauzat us-Safa, vol. iv. 
p. 104, Ibn al-Athir, vol. xii. pp. 156, 194, 
and Defremery, Journal Asiatique, 1847, 
pp. 157—161. 

In the appendix, foil. 221 i— 233 b, the 
translator draws a striking picture of the 
disruption of the Atabak empire at the death 
of Muhammad B. Ilduguz, and of the utter 
desolation that overspread Irak, and es- 
pecially his native place Jarbazakan ; he 
concludes with eulogies upon the prince, the 
Vazir, and the governor appointed by them 
in Jarbazakan, who had but recently re- 
stored to it order and prosperity. 

Transcriber : (_gj.^^ ^^jUlfr j^ J>.v«-> 
The first folio of this MS. has been written 
by a somewhat later hand ; it bears on its 
first page a note by a former owner, dated 
Isfahan, A.H. 770. There is after fol. 208 
a lacune of forty leaves, corresponding to 
pp. 389 — 473 of the English translation. 

This Persian version was translated into 
Turkish for Sultan Murad B. Salim by Dar- 
vish Hasan ; the first volume of this trans- 
lation, not known to Haj. Khal., is preserved 
in Or. 1134. 



Or. 1. 

Poll. 379; 9i in. by 5^; 19 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written in a small and fair NestaUk, 
apparently in the 16th century. 

["Wm. H. Morley.] 

A history of the reign of Mas'iid B. 
Mahmud B. Subuktigin, from A.H. 421 to 
A.H. 432. 

Author : Abul-Pazl Muhammad B. ul- 
Husain ul-Baihakl (see fol. 52 a, Calcutta 

edition, p. 103), ,^2^1 u*-^^ u^ '^>^ J-afl51 ^\ 



HISTORY OF THE GHAZNAVIS. 



159 



This copy was collated by Morley with 
two others belonging to the libraries of 
Paris and to the collection of Sir H. Elliot, 
and the text thus prepared was printed after 
his death in the Bibliotheca Indica, Calcutta, 
1862. An account of the work, enlarged by 
Professor Dowson from the original sketch 
of Sir H. Elliot, and accompanied with copious 
extracts in English, will be found in the 
History of India, vol. ii. pp. 53 — 154. 

This is the only remaining portion of an 
extensive work, which embraced the history 
of the Ghaznavi Dynasty from its beginning 
to the author's time, and which is stated by 
Mirkhwand to have consisted of no less than 
thirty volumes. The work is variously de- 
signated as Titrikh i Abul-Fazl Baihaki, Mu- 
jalladat i Abul-Fazl Baihaki, or Tarikh i Al 
i Subuktigin. Its proper title was, accord- 
ing to Muslih ud Din Larl, Add. 7650, fol. 
B b, ^j^JLm JT ^Jo j|cU , and Haj. Khal. 
gives nearly the same in two different forms : 
^.j'^y^^ j*W- ^nd j^jjiiilAA* ^Jj ^J3 ^ «*U. ; see 
vol. ii., pp. 508, 580. Its several parts bear 
also special names derived from the titles of 
the sovereigns to whom they relate : thus 
the history of Mahmud (Yamin ud-Daulah) 
is referred to by the author under that of 
Tarikh i Yamini, Calcutta edition, p. 26; 
the history of Subuktigin (Nasir ud-Din) is 
quoted by Minhaj in his Tabakat, English 
translation, vol. i. p. 68, as Tarikh i Nasiri, 
and the present section is called Tarikh i 
Masudi ; see Dom, Melanges Asiatiques, 
vol. iii. p. 731, and Bulletin, vol. i. p. 60. 

The extant portion comprises volumes 
7 — 9 of the original work, with part of vo- 
lumes 6 and 10, and contains an account of 
the contest of Sultan Mas'ud with his brother 
Muhammad for the succession, A.H. 421, of 
the former's accession, and of the greater part 
of his reign, down to A.H. 432. It is a minute 
and truthful, if somewhat rambling and gos- 
siping, record of contemporary transactions 



by an intelligent observer, who had frequent 
access to the person of the sovereign, and 
enjoyed his confidence. 

Abul-Fazl Baihaki, so called from Baihak, 
a district near Nishapur, the chief town of 
which is Sabzaviir, was Deputy Secretary of 
State cJ^j j^^y J «_>9.U» (-JU . His chief, 
Abu Nasr B. Mushkan, a celebrated secre- 
tary and one of the most considerable men 
in the reigns of Mahmud and Mas ud (see 
Ibn el-Athir, vol. ix., p. 321, and al-Wafi bil- 
wafayat, Add. 23,359, under Mansur B. 
Mushkan), is constantly brought on the scene 
in this history. The author, when recording 
his master's death in A.H. 431, p. 749, says 
that he had then been working under him 
for nineteen years, and had always been 
cherished by him with more than fatherly 
affection. He adds that there had been a wish 
after the death of Abu Nasr to bestow upon 
himself the vacant post, but that his youth 
(he was then 46) had proved an objection. 
He continued in the same office under Abu 
Sahl Zauzani, his master's successor, but lost 
it after the death of Mas'ud. He must how- 
ever have been re-appointed imder Sultan 
Ibrahim, for we find him in A.H. 451, p. 823, 
complaining that he had been again thrown 
out of employ. He died, according to the 
Mujmil of Fasihl, A.H. 470 ; see Dom, Asia- 
tisches Museum, p. 668. 

The greatest part of the extant volume 
was written in A.H. 450, when the author 
was 65 years of age (see p. 207), and the 
latter portion in A.H. 451. In a passage 
subsequently inserted, and dated A.H. 455, 
Abul-Fazl says that he had commenced his 
history seven years previous, i. e. A.H. 448 ; 
see p. 79. 

The history of Mas'ud is brought down to 
the month of Safar, A.H. 432, when the 
Sultan, having returned to Ghaznah, after 
the terrible losses inflicted upon him by the 
Saljuks, was preparing to repair to India in 
order to collect fresh troops. The remaining 



160 



HISTORY OF THE MOGHULS. 



portion, pp. 837 — 868, is taken up with the 
affairs of Khwarazm, which are introduced 
by an extract from Abu Eihiin ul-Biruni, 
and brought down to Sha'ban, A.H. 432. 

The present copy is imperfect at beginning 
and end ; it begins with these words : ^ »5 
jolJLJ \js i5ji- JU , Calc. ed., p. 2, line 3, and 
ends with JiiJi- «^ jj^ ^yj-i» j^(> J6 , ib. 
p. 866, line 10. 

Prefixed is an extract from Morley's manu- 
script catalogue, in which he says : " My 
copy is fairly and clearly written, and is 
evidently older than the Paris MS. and that 
of Sir H. Elliot which I have collated;" 
also a letter from Prederick Ricardo to 
Morley, dated Paris, 1849, describing the 
Paris MS. and enclosing a transcript of its 
first page. 



Or. 4:55 and 456. 

Two uniform volumes, which originally 
formed one, containing respectively foil. 216 
and 219 ; 11 in. by 6 ; 19 lines, 3f in. long ; 
written in fair Nestalik, with gold-ruled 
margins, apparently in the 16th century. 

[Sir Wm. Ouseley.] 

The same work. The beginning and end 
of this copy coincide with those of the 
printed text ; foil. 199 — 219 at the end have 
been supplied by a later hand; the last 
few pages of this modern transcript show 
small gaps, apparently due to the mutilated 
state of the original. 

On the first page is written in Persian, 
" Tarikh i Baihaki, written at Agrah." On 
the fly-leaf are some notes in the hand of 
Sir Wm. Ouseley. 



HISTOEY OF THE MOGHULS. 



Or. 155. 

Foil. 275 ; 10 in. by 7 ; 18 lines, 8f in. 
long; written in Nestalik; dated Rabi' II. 
A.H. 1277 (A.D. 1860). 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

A history of the Moghul empire, from the 
rise of Chingizkhan to the expedition of 
Hulagu Khan against the Isma'ilis, A.H. 654. 

Author : JuvainI, ^.y>- 

The author, who is only designated by the 
above Nisbah, derived from Juvain, a dis- 
trict of the province of Nishapur, was Khwa- 
jah 'Ala ud-Din 'Ata Malik, the son of Bahti 
ud-Din Muhammad Juvaini, who had been 
appointed by the Moghuls Sahib Divan, or 



civil governor, of Zhorasan and Mazandariln. 
He entered in early life the service of Amir 
Arghun, the Moghul governor of Khorasan, 
and, as he states in the present work, foil. 
9 a, 192 a, followed him in A.H. 649 on his 
journey to Karakorum to attend the court 
held by Mangu Kaan after his accession. 
He subsequently joined Hulagu Khan during 
the siege of Alamut, A.H. 654, and accom- 
panied him in his expedition against Bagh- 
dad, A.H. 655.' In A.H. 661, when his 
brother was raised to the post of Vazir, he 
was appointed to the government of Baghdad, 
and held that office, with the exception of 
a short period of suspension, tUl his death, 
which took place on the 4th of Zulhijjah, 
A.H. 681. See Habib us-Siyar, Bombay 
edition, vol. iii., Juz 1, pp. 59 — 70, and a 



HISTOEY OF THE MOGHULS. 



161 



yery full notice on his life by Quatreraere, 
Mines de I'Orient, vol. i. pp. 220— 234. 

The Jahankushrd was completed, according 
to the subscription of the present copy, in 
Rabi* I., A.H. 058. The same date is inci- 
dentally mentioned as that of the current 
year in the early part of the work, fol. 5 a. 

This copy is a modern and rather incor- 
rect transcript of a MS. which appears to 
have been imperfect at the beginning. It 
begins abruptly, fol. 3 a, with an account 
of the expedition sent by Chingizkhan 
against Sighnak and Jand, in Safar, A.H. 
616 (see D'Ohsson, vol. i. p. 221). The 
contents of the next-following sections are — 
Conquest of Mavara-annahr, Bukhara, Samar- 
kand, fol. 4 b. Fall of Khwarazm, fol. 18 a. 
Pursuit of Sultan Jaliil ud-Din, fol. 23 b. 
Conquest of Khorasan by Tuli and fall of 
NishapUir, fol. 29 a. Accession of llktai 
Ka'an, fol. 41 b. Conquest of China, fol. 
46 a. Stations and stages of the Kaan, 
fol. 66 a. The empress Turakina, and Fati- 
mah Khatun, fol. 67 b. Accession of Kuyiik 
Khan, fol. 71 a. Ughul Ghaimish Khatun 
and her children, fol. 77 a. Prince Tiishi, 
accession of Batu, and subjection of the Bul- 
gars, Russians, etc., fol. 79 a. Account of 
Prince Chaghatai, fol. 81 a. 

With the last section ends the first of 
the three volumes (Mujallad) into which 
the work is divided. 

Volume II., which begins fol. 83 a, con- 
tains — 1. A detailed history of the Khwa- 
razmshahs from their origin in the time of 
the Saljuks to their final extinction, closing 
with a full account of the three sons of 
Muhammad Khwarazmshah, Sultan Jabll ud 
Din Mangburni, fol. 139 a, Sultan Ghiya§ ud- 
Din, fol. 170 a, and Sultan Rukn ud-Din, fol. 
173 a. 2. Notices on the following Moghul 
Amirs : Jintimiir, fol. 176 b ; Niisiil, fol. 
179 b; Kurgiiz, ib. Amir Arghun, fol. 
188 a ; Sharaf ud-Din Khwarazmi, fol. 197 b. 

Volume III. Contents—] . Account of the 



accession of Mangu Ka'fin, and the begin- 
ning of his reign, fol. 206 b. 2. Expedition 
of Hulagu to the western countries, fol. 230 b. 
3. A detailed history of the Isma'ilis of the 
west, and of Hasan Sabbah and his successors, 
down to the taking of Alamut and the death 
of Khwurshah, A.H. 654, fol. 244 b. 

The headings of the first of the above 
three volumes have been given by Hammer, 
Jahrbiicher, vol. 71, Anz. Blatt, p. 24; 
and those of the third by Kuenen, Leyden 
Catalogue, vol. iii. p. 7. See also Elliot, 
History of India, vol. ii. pp. 384 — 402 ; 
D'Ohsson, Histoire des Mongols, vol. i. p. 17 ; 
Vienna Catalogue, vol. ii. p. 178; Gotha 
Catalogue, p. 51 ; Haj. Khal., vol. ii. p. 658; 
Critical Essay, p. 32. Defr(5mery, Journal 
Asiatique, 4* S^rie, vol. xx. pp. 370 — 406. 

It is stated in the subscription that this 
transcript was made by order of Lieut.-Col. 
George William Hamilton, Commissioner 
and Superintendent of the Subah of Lahore. 

Copyist : ^j'<^^ ^J^. j<i\5 *ib 

Add. 23,517. 

Foil. 537 ; 10 in. by 6^ ; 21 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in small Naskhi, with five 
'Unvans and gold-ruled margins, probably 
in the 15th century. [Rob. Taylor.] 

A history of the Moghul empire in Persia, 
and of some contemporary sovereigns, from 
A.H. 656 to 712, with a continuation added 
in A.H. 728. 

Author: 'Abd UUah B. Fazl UUah, 

Beg. j\iT ^Ji-o^l jV' »^ iJ^S*-^ j "i-^ 

The author was a native of Shiraz ; 
Khwandamir calls him Maulana Shihab ud- 
Din 'Abd UUah Shirazi. His father, 'Iscz 



162 



HISTOKY OE THE MOGHULS. 



ud-Din Fazl XJllah, fol. 453 a, whose death 
in A.H. 698 is recorded on fol. 294 6, has 
been sometimes, but wrongly, identified with 
Fazl Ullah Kazvlni, who wrote the Tarikh 
i Mu'ajjam. 'Abd Ullah was employed, as 
he states himself, foil. 519 6, 534 b, in the 
collection of revenue under the Moghul 
government, and enjoyed the patronage of 
the great Vazir and historian, Rashid ud- 
Dln, and, after him, that of his son and 
successor Ghiya§ ud-Din. He gives a gra- 
phic account, fol. 448 a, of the audience he 
obtained from Uljaitu in Sultaniyah, on the 
24th of Muharram, A.H. 712, on which occa- 
sion his book was presented for him by the 
Vazir, and he relates that one or two passages, 
which he was called upon to read aloud, 
proved utterly unintelligible to His Majesty, 
until explained by Rashid ud-Din and other 
courtiers. He was nevertheless rewarded 
with a robe of honour and the title of Vassaf 
ul-Hazrat, " His Majesty's Panegyrist," fol. 
488 b, by which he is generally known. 

The Tarikh i Vassaf, as the work is occa- 
sionally called by the author, contains an 
authentic contemporary record of an impor- 
tant period, but its undoubted value is in 
some degree diminished by the want of 
method in its arrangement, and still more 
by the highly artificial character and tedious 
redundance of its style. It was unfortunately 
set up as a model, and has exercised a bane- 
ful influence on later historical compositions 
in Persia. 

The work is divided into five volumes 
(Mujallad). The first begins with a preface 
dated Sha'ban, A.H. 699, which includes 
a dedication to Ghazan, and in which the 
work is described as a continuation of the 
Jahankushai Juvaini. The fourth, which 
completed the original work, is brought 
down in the present copy to the month of 
Shavval, A.H. 712. The fifth is a much later 
addition ; it does not bear a precise date, 
but some references it contains to the Vazir 



Ghiyiis ud-Din, who was raised to a Vazirate 
towards the end of A.H. 727 (see Tarikh i 
Guzidah), show that it cannot have been 
wi-itten before A.H. 728. 

The Tarikh i Vassaf has been lithographed 
in Bombay, A.H. 1269, and the first volume 
has been published by Hammer with a 
German translation, Vienna, 1856. The 
contents have been noticed by the same 
scholar in the Jahrbucher, vol. 71, Anz. 
Blatt, pp. 27—31. See also Haj. Khal., 
vol. ii. p. 156; Elliot, History of India, 
vol. iii. pp. 24 — 54 ; Quatrem^re, Histoire 
des Mongols, pp. 13, 68 ; D'Ohsson, Histoire 
des Mongols, p. 27 ; Mohl, Journal Asiatique, 
5^ Serie, vol. ^dii. p. 54 ; S. Petersburg Cata- 
logue, p. 283 ; Vienna Catalogue, vol. ii. 
p. 181 ; Leyden Catalogue, vol. iii. p. 2. 

Contents : Vol. I. Preface, fol. 9 b. Death 
of Mangii Ka'iin, A.H. 656, and reigns of 
his successors Kubila and Timur Ka'aii, 
fol. 15 b. The taking of Baghdad and 
further conquests of Hulagu, fol. 27 b. Reign 
of Abaka, fol. 49 a. Account of the Sultans 
of Egypt, fol. 75 b. Accession of Sultan 
Ahmad (Takudar) and his contest with Ar- 
gluin, fol. 93 b. Accession of Arghiin, fol. 
118 6. 

Vol. II. History of the Salghuri Atabaks 
in Pars, from their origin to the deatli of 
Abish Khatun, A.H. 685, and the Moghul 
occupation, fol. 124 b. Eeign of Arghiin, 
fol. 191 b. Account of the Atabaks of 
Lur, Yiisufshah and his son Afrasiyab, fol. 
207 a. 

Vol. III. Reign of KaikhatQ, fol. 212 b. 
Accession of Baidu, fol. 232 a. Account of 
the Sultans of Kir man, from *Imad ud-Din 
Kavard to A.H. 694, fol. 234 a. Description 
of India (see Elliot, pp. 28—35), fol. 246 b. 
Kings of Dehli (Elliot, pp. 36—42), fol. 253 h. 
Campaign of Ghazan, fol. 259 b. Acces- 
sion of Ghazan and history of his reign, 
down to the Syrian campaign, A.H. 700, fol. 
265 b. 



HISTORY OF THE M0GHUL8. 



163 



Vol. IV, Continuation of Ghazan's reign 
from A.H. 701, fol. 318 ft. His death, fol. 
373 b. Accession of Uljuitu, fol. 382 b. 
Death of Timiir Ka'an, and account of his 
successors, down to A.H. 711, fol. 408 6. 
Reign of Uljaitu, till A.H. 711, fol. 415 a. 
Account of Sultan 'Ala ud-Din of Dehli, and 
the Sultans of Egypt, fol. 432 b. The author's 
audience, fol. 448 «. Continuation on the 
affairs of Egypt, and Uljaitu's expedition 
against Rahbah, down to the first of Shavval, 
A.H. 712, fol. 455 b. Appendix, consisting 
of an abstract of the Jahankushai Juvaini, 
from the rise of Chingizkhan to the fall of 
Alamut and the death of Khusrau Shah, 
A.H. 655, fol. 460 a. Dissertation on rhe- 
torical figures, and conclusion, fol. 488 a. 
This copy breaks off in the last chapter, fol. 
489 b ; about four leavCvS, corresponding to 
foil. 391 a — 394 a of the next copy, are 
missing. 

Vol. V. Introduction, fol. 491 b, including 
an enumeration of the successors of Oktai, 
JQji and Chaghatai to the author's time, fol. 
497 a. Return of Uljaitu to Baghdsid in 
Ramazan, A.H. 712, and the rest of his 
reign, fol. 500 a. Accession and reign of 
AbQ Sa'id, fol. 506 b. This last section in- 
cludes a further account of Sultan 'Ala ud- 
Din of Dehli and his successors from A.H. 
715 to 723, foil. 530— 532 ft, several rhe- 
torical digressions, and other extraneous 
matters. 

At the end of vol. IV. is a note stating 
that the MS. had been purchased in Agrah, 
A.H. 983. Vol. V. is a later addition, appa- 
rently of the 18th century. A modern 
table of contents, foil. 2 — 8, has been pre- 
fixed to the MS. 

Add. 7625. 

Foil. 426 ; 9| in. by 6| ; 25 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in small Naskhi; dated, fol. 
254 a, A.H. 1090 (A.D. 1679). [CI. J. Rich.] 



The same work. The five volumes begin 
respectively on foil. 1 b, 83 *, 150 b, 255 b, 
and 394 b. 

Transcriber: J^jl^I aUl^l Jc V^ju ^^\ 

A note at the end states that the MS. 
was collated and annotated in Hamadan by 
Muhammad Yfisuf for the owner, FakhV 
uddin B. Muhammad Sadik ush-Sharif ul- 
Isfahcini, whose seal and signature are found 
on the first page. 

Add. 16,722. 

Foil. 194 ; 11| in. by 1\ ; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in plain Naskhi, with IJnvan 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
16th century. [Wm. Yule.] 

The first volume of the same work. 

A note on the first page, relating to the 
purchase of the MS., is dated A.H. 1047. 
This volume bears the stamp of General 
Claud Martin. 

Add. 16,723. 

FoU. 151 ; 10 in. by 6; 21 and 22 lines, 2^ 
in. long; written in small Nestalik, appa- 
rently in the 16th century. [Wm. Yule.] 

The third volume of the same work. 

A note on the first page states that this 
MS. was added to the library of His High- 
ness Abul-Fath Sultan Muhammad Shah 
Safavi (see p. 133 6), A.H. 1217. Another, 
by the side of the first, records its donation 
by the prince to Captain William Yule, 
A.H. 1218. 

Add. 26,190. 

FoU. 182; 9i in. by 7\; 17 lines, Sf in. 
long ; written in cursive Indian Shikastah- 
Amiz, on English paper, bearing in its water- 
mark the date 1806. [Wm. Ekskine.] 
T 2 



164 



HISTORY OF THE MOGHULS. 



CfjA- «^j^ U^J^^ 



A history of Chingizkhan, his ancestors, 
and his descendants, down to the time of 
Timiir. 

Beg. j>M J!^ ^}^ ly ^j j;^ *IJ -^^ 

This is the work an abridged translation 
of which has been published by Col. Wm. 
Miles, under the title " Shajrat ul Atrak, or 
genealogical tree of the Turks and Tartars," 
London, 1838. 

Although the same title " Shajrat ul- 
Atrak " has been written by Wm. Erskine 
on the fly-leaf of the present copy, it no- 
where appears in the text. In the follow- 
ing lines, with which the MS. concludes, the 
work is called Ulus Arba'ah ChingizT, and is 
said to be based upon the similarly entitled 
history of the late Sultan Ulugh Beg Mirza, 

j.>LJl ^jJ* _y ^^, tl*ib ^j> ^^ tiJy Si^\ tiijlo 

iJImmi aJlwj) {j^..J^ ** IC^j cl^'^J^ litt'j*' l^V* 

The original composition of Ulugh Beg, 
««^\ (_,«p\ , is again referred to in the body 

of the work, fol. 139 a, Miles's translation, 
p. 270, for the meaning of the name Kai- 
khatu in Mongolian. It must also be noticed, 
that the latest date to which the account 
of the branches of the Chingiz line is 
brought down in the present work is A.H. 
851, which is precisely the period of Ulugh 
Beg ; see fol. 129 a, translation, p. 240. 

The text shows a remarkable agreement 
in substance, arrangement, and frequently in 
words, with the account of the Mocrhuls 
found in the ninth Makrdah of the Khulasat 
ul-Akhbar, Or. 1292, foil. 286—316, whicli is 



also stated at the end to be derived from the 
Ulus Arba'ah of Ulugh Beg, and it appears 
to be a more expanded recension of the same 
original. Nearly the same matter is found 
again, but in a still more condensed form, in 
an earlier work, the Mukaddimah of the 
Zafar-Namah of Sharaf ud-Din Yazdi, which 
Ulugh Beg seems to have followed, while 
enlarging it and bringing it down to a some- 
what later period. 

Contents : Genealogy of the Turks, traced 
from Adam, through Japhet, Turk, Aghuz 
Khan, etc., fol. 2 b. Ancestors of Chingiz- 
khan, fol. 27 a. Life of Chingizkhan, 
fol. 38 b. Line of Oktai, fol. 110 b. Line of 
Jiiji, fol. 118 b. Line of Hulagu and the 
Ilkanis, fol. 129 a. Line of Chaghatai, 
fol. 164 b. 

Two copies of the original work of Ulugh 
Beg are supposed to exist in the libraries of 
Constantinople ; see a letter of M. Ch. Schefer, 
Journal Asiatique, 4^ Serie, vol. xviii. p. 591. 
It is frequently mentioned under the title of 
iMji (_,«j3\ in the Tarikh i Rashldi; see 
Or. 157, fol. 104 b, 106 b, etc. 



Or. 157. 

Foil. 352 ; 11 in. by 6^ ; 17 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, with two 
'Unvans and gold-ruled margins, apparently 
in the 17th century. 

[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 



C^J^j ^j^ 



A history of the Khans of Jatah or Mo- 
ghQlistan, and of the Amirs of Kashghar, 
from the time of Tughluktimiir Khan to 
A.H. 952, with the author's memoirs. 

Author: Muhammad Haidar B. Muham- 
mad Husain Kurgan, commonly called Mirza 
Haidar, «— jjy*« y^y ^itt-* <^-*^ tj> j"^ a^ 



HISTORY OF THE MOGHULS. 



165 



Beg. ijjjpt J Jio (^Ijjj^j ujj'^'^\>- ^fi ^^^ 
The author's eventful life belongs to his- 
tory ; it has been fully recorded by himself 
down to the time of writing, in the present 
work, from which the following salient 
points are taken. He was born in Tashkand, 
A.H. 905. His father, Muhammad Husain 
Kurgan, to whom the government of the 
Vilayat of Shash, or Tushkand, had been en- 
trusted, six years before, by the Khan of 
Kashghar, Mahmiid Khan, was the son of 
Muhammad Haidar Kurgan, late Amir of 
Kashghar, and the lineal descendant of Amir 
Bulaji, of the Dughlat tribe, the first Amir of 
Kashghar who embraced Islamism. His 
descent is thus recorded by the author, 

fol. 107 : ii,'^j^jJ-»- J^ ^^ u^X uif^ "^-^ 
fj> i>b\iii-j-«l ^J> 4X»»-\j-«l ^^ ^Js- ,^XM jxS jijt\ ^^ 

The author's mother, Khub Nigar Khanum, 
was a daughter of Yunus Khan, Khan of the 
Moghuls, of the line of Chaghatai, and a 
younger sister of Kutlugh Nigar Khanum, 
the mother of Babar. 

His father having been put to death by 
the Uzbak invader, Shahi Beg Khan, in A.H. 
914, the author was sent for in A.H. 915 by 
Babar, then staying at Kabul, and, though 
yet a mere boy, he stood by the side of his 
cousin during his fierce and victorious en- 
counter with the Uzbaks near Hisar, in A.H. 
917. He then attached himself to the rising 
fortunes of his cousin Sultan Sa'id Khan, the 
grandson of Yunus Khan, who some time 
after established his rule in Kashghar, and 
reigned there from A.H. 920 to his death, 
A.H. 939. 

Mirza Haidar soon won the affection and 
confidence of the Khan, who married his 
sister, and gave him his own in marriage; 
he was sent by him in command of several 
expeditions, in which he performed brilliant 
services. The last was a successful invasion 
of Kashmir, A.H. 938-939, in which he 



utterly routed the native chiefs, and im- 
posed upon them a humiliating treaty. He 
was still engaged in military operations in 
Tibet, when intelligence reached him that 
the Khan had succumbed to the Damgiri, or 
asphyxia produced by the rarified air of the 
mountains, on the 16th of Zulhijjah, A.H. 

939, fol. 331 a, and that his son 'Abd ur- 
Ilashid Khan had inaugurated his reign by 
putting to death, on the firstofMuharram, A.H. 

940, fol. 96 b, the author's uncle, Sayyid Mu- 
hammad Mirza, whom he suspected of plotting 
in favour of his brother Iskandar. Fearing 
for his life, he escaped to Badakhshan, and 
from thence repaired to Lahore; there he 
was joyfully received by Babar's son, Kam- 
ran Mirza, who entrusted to him his own 
government during his absence on an ex- 
pedition against Kandahar, A.H. 943. In 
A.H. 946 he joined Humayun at Agrah, 
fought with him the battle of Kanauj against 
Shirshah, and accompanied him in his retreat 
to Lahore. From thence, at the instigation 
of some Kashmirian chiefs, with whom he 
had established relations during his former 
invasion, and, after vain endeavours to 
induce Humayiin to undertake the expe- 
dition, he set out for Kashmir A.H. 947, 
with a body of 4000 men, and meeting with 
no serious opponent, soon made himself 
master of the country. 

We learn from other sources that he ruled 
it for some years in his own name, afterwards 
in that of Humayun, added Tibet to his do- 
minions, and gave by his firm and wise sway 
a short period of peace and prosperity to his 
subjects. He was slain in a night attack by 
some rebel chiefs in A.H. 958. 

The contents of the first part of the Tarikh 
i Eashidi have been admirably summarized 
by Wm. Erskine in his History of India 
under Baber and Humdyun, vol. i. pp. 38 — 
192, and Appendix B, pp. 537—539; the 
second part is frequently quoted in both 
volumes. The work cannot be better de- 



166 



HISTORY OF THE MOGHULS. 



scribed than in the words of that eminent 
scholar, p. 192 :— " The Tan'kh i Reshidi well 
deserves to be published in the original, or 
translated. It is the production of a learned 
and accomplished man, and in the two latter 
parts, of a contemporary distinctly acquainted 
with the man and events that he describes. 
The minute details which the author gives 
of his own sufferings and of the sufferings 
of his nearest relations during the period 
that followed the ascendancy of Shaib^ni 
Khan in Mawarannaher and Khorasan, of 
their escapes, adventu.res, successes, and 
discomfitures, let us more into the condition 
of the country and feelings of the inhabi- 
tants than perhaps any other monument 
extant, . . . and the whole work is inter- 
spersed with geographical accounts of coun- 
tries, especially to the east of Mawarannaher, 
little known in Europe. It would form a 
most valuable accompaniment to the Com- 
mentaries of Baber, which it illustrates in 
every page. The two royal cousins ai'e 
worthy of each other and do honour to their 
age." 

It is much to be regretted that Mr. Erskine 
did not carry out to the end a task for which 
he was so eminently qualified, and which he 
had himself all but accomplished, years before 
writing the above recommendation. An 
abridged translation of the entire work, 
prepared by him in the years 1840 and 1841, 
is preserved in the original draft in Add. 
26,612, foil. 55—166, and would require 
only a final revision to be ready for publica- 
tion. 

Accounts of the author and extracts from 
his work will be found in Elliot's History of 
India, vol. v. pp. 127 — 135, in Veljami- 
nov Zernov's Researches on the Tzars of 
Kasimof, vol. ii. pp. 130 — 232, and in Bellew's 
Kashmir and Kashghar, passim. An abstract 
of the history of the Moghul Khans from 
Tarikh i Rashidi, with a short notice on the 
author, has been inserted by Amin Ra^i in 



his Haft Iklim, Add. 16,734, foil. 611—618, 
and translated by Quatremere, Notices et 
Extraits, vol. xiv. pp. 474 — 489. An English 
version of the same fragment is found in 
MS. in Dr. Leyden's papers, Add. 26,578, 
foil. 58—64. 

Other notices of the author will be found in 
Baber's Commentaries, Erskine's translation, 
pp 11 — 13 ; the A'in i Akbari, Blochmann's 
translation, vol. i. p. 460 ; Pirishtah, Bom- 
bay edition, vol. ii. pp. 476 — 482 ; Briggs's 
translation, vol. iv. p. 494 — 503 ; Ma'agir ul- 
Umara, under Kara Bahadur Khan, Add. 
6568, fol. 409 ; Tabakat i Akbari, Add. 6543, 
foil. 447—451. The Tarikh i Rashidi is 
mentioned by Haj. Khal., vol. ii. p. 132, and 
in the Critical Essay, pp. 9, 34. A Turkish 
translation by Muhammad Sadik of Kash- 
ghar is preserved in the Asiatic Museum of 
S. Petersburg. 

In a preface written A.H. 951, the author 
says that, since the Moghuls had been driven 
from cultivated lands to the deserts, their 
records had been kept up only by oral 
tradition, which was fast becoming extinct, 
and, if not fixed by him in writing, would be 
utterly lost to memory. He prepared him- 
self for that task by making extracts from the 
Mukaddimah of the Zafarnamah of 'All 
Yazdi, and, finding that it stopped short at 
Tughluktimur, he decided to make that reign 
his starting point. He gave his history 
the name of Tarikh i Rashidi, in allusion, 
first to the holy Shaikh Arshad ud-Din, 
who had brought over Tughluktimur to 
Islamism, secondly, to the right path, 
" Rushd," into which that great Khan had 
led his people, and finally to the reigning 
Khan, Abul-Muzaffar 'Abd ur-Rashld Khan 
B. Abul-Fath Sultan Sa'id. He adds that, 
although now severed from the Moghuls, 
and exceedingly ill-used by the said Khan, 
he could never forget the kindness of the 
latter's father, Sultim Sa'id Khan, who had 
received him as an orphan at the age of 



HISTORY OF THE MOGHULS. 



167 



thirteen, cherished him like a son, kept him 
(luring four-and-twenty years in a position of 
honour and aiBuence, and under whose able 
tuition he had become accomplished in pen- 
manship, poetry, and prose composition, in 
the arts of painting and illuminating, as wcdl 
as in a variety of manual crafts and warlike 
exercises. He wished therefore to weigh 
the good against the evil, and to attach the 
name of his benefactor's son to the book 
which he had written for him, whether it 
proved acceptable to him or not. 

The Tiirlkh i Rashldi is divided into two 
parts called Daftar, the first of which deals 
with the history of the Khiins of the Moglmls 
from Tughluktimur to 'Abd ur-Rashid Khan, 
and the second contains memoirs of the 
author's life, and of the Uzbak, Chaghatai, and 
other princes, with whom he was acquainted. 

The first Daftar, or history proper, foil. 
2 — 105, was written in A.H. 951 and 952. It 
Avas completed, as the author states at the end, 
fol. 105 a, in Kashmir, in the month of Zul- 
Hijjah, A.H. 952, five years after his instal- 
lation on the throne. It includes, however, 
a later addition, fol. 96 b, in which A.H. 
953 is mentioned as the current year. It is 
based, for the earlier period, on the oral tra- 
dition handed down to the author chiefly by 
his older relatives, combined with the state- 
ments of Sharaf ud-Din Yazdi in the Mukad- 
dimah of the Zafar-Namah, and, for the later 
j)eriod, on his personal recollections. It con- 
tains a record of two distinct and parallel 
dynasties, that of the Khans of Jatah 
&i=- , or Moghulistan, beginning with Tugh- 
luktimur, son of Isan Bugha (A.H. 748 — 
7Gi), and that of their vassals, the Amirs of 
Krishghar, the first of whom, Amir Bfdaji, 
tlie author's ancestor, had raised Tughluk- 
timur to the Khanship. In the latter period 
the family of the Khans split up into two 
branches, one of which continued to rule 
over Moghulistan proper, while the other 
superseded the Amirs of Kashghar. The 



author concludes his account of eacli with 
a short sketch of their reigning representa- 
tives at the time of writing, namely Shah 
Khan, who had succeeded to his father 
Mansur Khan in Moghulistan, fol. 89 «, aud 
'Abi ur-Rashld Khan, son of Sul^an-Sa'id 
Khiin, in Kashghar, fol. 96 b. 

The second Daftar, wliich has more than 
twice the extent of the first, and contains 
Mirza Haidar's very minute record of his 
life and times, fol. 106 — 352, was the first in 
point of date. The author wrote it in A.H. 
948 (see fol. 113 a), and, as he states in the 
introduction, with a view to prepare himself 
for the more arduous task of historical com- 
position. It begins with the author's birth, 
and concludes with an account of his second 
invasion of Kashmir, and of a battle fought 
on the 8th of Rabi' II., A.H. 948, which 
made him master of the country (see Add. 
24,090, fol. 340 a). 

This second Daftar includes some rules of 
conduct for kings, foil. 255 b — 260 a, drawn 
up, at the request of the author, by his 
spiritual guide, Maulana Muhammad Kazi, 
whose death in A.H. 921 is recorded in the 
preceding passage, fol. 252 b. The begin- 
ning of this short treatise is marked in 
the present copy by an illuminated 'Un- 
van, fol. 255 b, and produces an apparent 
and only external division of Daftar 11. 
into two separate portions. Another moral 
treatise, by a holy Shaikh, Shihab ud-Din 
Mahmud, called Khwajah Nura, is inserted 
in full, foil. 306 a -319 h. 

The beginning and end of Daftar II., fol. 
106—153, and 343—352 have been supplied 
by a later hand, and the rubrics have been 
omitted throughout those portions, as well as 
in a considerable part of the original MS. 
About four pages, corresponding to foil. 339 b 
— 3416 ofAdd. 24,090, are wanting at the end. 

This MS. was in A.H. 1240 in the pos- 
session of Zoravar Singh, whose seal is im- 
pressed on fol. 255. 



168 



HISTORY OF THE MUZAFFARIS. 



Two copies of the Tiirikh i Rashldi are 
preserved in the library of the India Office, 
Nos. 39 and 814. 

Add. 24,090. 

Foil. 341 ; 8 in. by 5 ; 19 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written in small Naskhi, apparently 
in the 17th century. [Wm. H. Morley.] 



The same work. 

On the first page is a seal dated A.H. 
1120, and a note stating that this copy be- 
came in A.H. 1140 the property of Mirza 
Muhammad B. Mu'tamad Khan. 

A short notice of the work in the hand- 
writing of Wm. H. Morley is prefixed, 
fol. 1 b. 



HISTORY OF THE MUZAFFARIS. 



Add. 7632. 

Foil. 220 ; 10^ in. by 6| ; 21 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in neat Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and ruled margins, probably in the 15th 
century. [CI. J. Rich.] 

A history of the Muzaflar Dynasty from 
its origin to A.H. 767. 

Author : Mu'in ul-Yazdi, isC)j^\ ^j*m 
Beg. yU/Uj CJ3jy>- i%j\i J^^r^ j^i/^j -^-^ 

Maulana Mu'in ud-Din, called Mu'allim 
YazdT, was a native of Yazd, the original 
seat of the Muzaffaris. He is mentioned by 
his townsman, Mufid, in the Jami' i Mufidi, 
Or. 210, fol. 252, as the greatest of the 
'Ulama of his day. Students flocked in 
crowds to his lectures, which were occa- 
sionally attended by Shah Shuja himself. 
His historical work, there designated as 
Tarikh i Mu'ini Muzaffari, is described as a 
model of elegance. He died in A.H. 789, 
and was buried in a mosque of his own 
erection. 

Mu'in evidently wrote, as has been re- 
marked by Haj. Khal., vol. ii. p. 114, vol. 



vi. p. 242, like his predecessor Vassaf with 
a view to rhetorical display. His style of 
composition fully justifies the judgment 
passed upon it, as mentioned above, p. 82 a, 
by a later historian of the Muzaffaris, who 
has left a useful abstract of the present 
work, with a continuation. The Mavahib i 
Ilahi is mentioned by Muslih ud-Din Larl 
among his sources ; see Add. 7650, fol. 4. 

After a long panegyric on Jalal ud- 
Dln Shah Shuja B. Sultan Muburiz ud-Din 
Muhammad B. ul Muzaffar, the author savs 
that, having been, from his youth upwards, 
the object of that prince's favours, he had 
long contemplated paying his debt of grati- 
tude by chronicling the glorious deeds of 
the house of Muzaffar. In A.H. 757, having 
alighted before Isfahan with Shah Shuja' and 
his army, he was admitted to the presence 
of the prince's father. Sultan Muburiz ud- 
Dln, and found an opportunity for reading, 
before father and son, a chapter of the 
projected history, which he had written by 
way of trial. Encouraged by the praise he 
received from both, and especially by the 
urgency of the former, he completed the 
work in the space of one year. It was how- 
ever subsequently continued to a later period, 
for it concludes with an account of the great 
and decisive battle fought by Shah Shuja' 



HISTORY OF THE MUZAFFAEIS. 



169 



near Shiraz, in the month of Zulka'dah, 
A.H. 767, with his brother and competitor, 
Shah Mahmfid, who was routed and compelled 
to give up Sliiraz, and fall back upon Isfahan. 
Contents : Preface, fol. 1. The ancestors 
of Sultan Mubariz ud-Din, fol. 10 a. His 
birth in A.H. 700, fol. 16 a. His appoint- 
ment by Uljaitu as his father's successor, 
fol. 19 a. Extermination of the Nikildaris, 
fol. 25 h. Birth of Sharaf ud-Din Shah Mu- 
zaflPar, in A.H. 725, fol. 29 h. Nuptials of 
Mubariz with the princess of Kirman, and 
account of the Sultans of Kirman, fol. 30 h. 
History of the princess, the mother of the 
Sultans, fol. 34 a. Birth of Shah Shuja', 
A.H. 733, fol. 36 «. Mubariz proceeds to 
Urduyah, the camp of Sultan Abu Sa'id, 
fol. 38 «. Birth of Kutb ud-Din Shah 
Mahmfid, A.H. 737, fol. 39 6. Death of 
Sultan Abu Sa'id, and fate of the empire 
after him, fol. 39 h. Amir Shaikh Abu Ishak 
approaches Yazd, fol. 41 a. First instruction 
of Shah Shuja, fol. 43 a. Conversion and 
repentance of Mubariz ud-Din, fol. 46 h. 
Amir Fir Husain comes to Ears ; Mubariz 
ud-Din takes Shiraz, fol. 47 h. Mubariz ud- 
Din invades Kirman, fol. 52 a. March of 
the Ghiiri army to Kirman, fol. 52 h. Taking 
of the fortress of Bam, fol. 55 h. Defeat of 
the Arabs, fol. 60 J. Birth of Nusrat ud- 
Din Shah Yahya, A.H. 744, fol. 62 h, 
Khwajah Burhan ud-Din Fath Ullah ap- 
pointed Vazir, fol. 63 a. Estrangement 
between Mir Pir Husain and Mubariz ud- 
Din, fol. 65 h. Amir Shaikh Abu Ishak 
proceeds to Kirman, fol. 73 a. Conduct of 
Shaikh Abu Ishak after putting to death 
Maulana Shams ud-Din, fol. 77 a. History 
of the tJghani and Jarma'i Hazarah, fol. 
85 h. The defeat inflicted by them on Mu- 
bariz ud-Din, fol. 83 i. Amir Shaikh breaks 
faith in consequence, fol. 87 a. Mubariz 
proceeds to Garmsir to put down the Ughani 
and Jarma'i rebels, fol. 92 a. Repentance of 
Mubariz, fol. 95 6. Mosque and Dar us- 



Siyiidah erected by him, fol. 96 h. Khwajah 
Kivam ud-Din Muhammad Makki appointed 
Na'ib, fol. 97 a. Amir Shaikh advances to 
besiege Yazd, fol. 100 a. Victory won over 
Amir Baigjakiiz, fol. 102 a. Conquest of 
Shiraz, fol. 107 6. The fortress of Sirband ; 
submission of Majd ud-Din Sirbandi, fol. 
114 a. Taking of Kal'ah i Surkh, fol. 116 h. 
Taking of Shiraz by Shah Shuja', fol. 120 h. 
'Imad ud-Din Mahmud Kirmani and the 
Amirs of Shaikh Abu Ishak defeated in 
Darabjird, fol. 128 a. Siege of Isfahan ; Mu- 
bariz acknowledges the Abbaside Khalif, al- 
Mu'tazid BiUah, fol. 133 a. Conquest of 
Shabankarah by Shah Mahmud, fol. 135 a. 
Rebellion of the Shadi Hazarah, and their 
extermination, fol. 136 h. Shah Shuja' pro- 
ceeds to Kirman to crush the rebels, fol. 
139 h. Marriage of Shah Shuja, fol. 1446. 
Mubariz goes to Isfahan, fol. 154 h. He 
pursues Amir Shaikh Abu Ishak. fol. 156 a. 
Account of Atabak Nusrat ud-Din Nuravard, 
fol. 158 a. Hunt in the plain of Rakhsha- 
bad, fol. 164 a. Taking of Isfahan, and 
capture of Amir Shaikh, fol. 166 6. The 
IJghanis besieged and conquered, fol. 168 6. 
Accession of Shah Shuja", and his conflict 
with Shah MahmQd, fol. 177 a. Shah Sluija' 
marches towards the Garmsir of Kirman ; 
battle of Shiraz, fol. 207 6. 

Mubariz ud-Din, who is spoken of in the 
preface as still alive and reigning, had met 
his fate before the completion of the work ; 
he was seized and blinded by his sons in 
Isfahan, in the month of Ramazan, A.H. 
759, and died a prisoner in the fortress of 
Bam, A.H. 765 ; see Add. 22,693, fol. 197. 

Add. 19,807. 

Foil. 668 ; 8f in. by 5^ ; 15 lines, Z\ in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with ruled mar- 
gins; dated Ramazan A.H. 1042 (A.D. 1633). 

Another copy of the same work, wanting 
the first page and the rubrics throughout. 

z 



( 170 ) 



HISTORY OF TIMUR 



• Add. 23,980. 

Foil. 215; 9f in. by 6^; 19 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik ; dated Eabi' II., 
A.H. 838 (A.D. 1434). 



History of Timur, from the beginning of 
his career to the end of A.H. 806. 



Author : Nizam Shami, j_^U» *Uai 
Beg. Jo}j ^> ^^ ^.H y V/ /^ 



I— a?. 



^, 



This is the earliest known history of TimQr, 
and the only one written in his lifetime. 
All that is known of the author is what may 
be gathered from his work. He states, fol. 
99 b, that he was dwelling in Baghdad when 
it was attacked by Timur (A.H. 795) and 
was the first to come out of the city and pay 
homage to the conqueror, by whom he was 
graciously received. The Tigris was then, 
he says, hidden from view by the victorious 
army swimming across it, so that he could 
not tell the river from the plain, and said to 
himself : what manner of men are these to 
whom water and land are alike ? Some years 
later (A.H. 803) having reached Aleppo on 
his way to the Hijaz, he was detained there 
as a prisoner at the time of the siege; he 
relates ho^v, standing on a roof opposite the 
citadel, which was still holding out, he saw 
five armed men let down from it with ropes, 
who, after cutting down the mining party at 
the bottom of the wall, were palled up again 
riddled with arrows, whether dead or alive 
he could not tell. 

These two incidents are related, nearly in 
the author's words, by 'Abd ur-Razzak in the 
Matla' us-Sa'dain, Add. 17,928, -foil. 222 and 



291, and by Mir Khwand, Rauzat us-Safa, 
Bombay edition, vol. vi. pp. 66, 108, Price's 
Retrospect, vol. iii. pp. 154, 331. The former 
calls the author Maulana Nizam ud-Din 
ShamI, and says that nearly all the facts of 
Timiir's history are derived from his work. 
In another passage, quoted by Dorn, S. Pe- 
tersburg Catalogue, p. 287, the same Abd 
ur-Razzak refers to Nizam ud-Din 'Abd ul- 
Vasi' as his chief authority ; there can be no 
doubt that the present author is there meant. 
Mir Khwand calls him, in the first of the 
above-quoted passages, Maulana Nizam ud- 
Din Shanab Ghazani. The same name is 
given him by Khwand Amir, who had not 
seen the present work, but relates the same 
facts on the authority of the Matla' us- 
Sa'dain ; see Habib us-Siyar, Bombay edition, 
vol. iii. Juz 3, p. 90. It appears again in 
Haj. Khal. vol. ii. p. 122, but erroneously 
coupled with the Nisbah Haravl ^^_,^\ ^Iki 
^j\Ji- L-> : .t; L-Jjj>\\ iSjj^^- Shanab i Ghazan, 
from which this name is derived, is a place or 
fort in or near Tabriz, which is twice men- 
tioned in the Matla' us-Sa'dain in connection 
with the occupation of that city by the troops 
of Mirza Abu Bakr ; see Or. 1219, fol. 14, and 
Quatremere's version. Notices et Extraits, 
vol. xiv. p. 63. It will be seen further on 
that the author refers to Tabriz as his birth- 
place. This Shanab i Ghazan was evidently 
so called from fhe Moghul Khan Ghazan, 
who is known to have endowed Tabriz, his 
favourite residence with ramparts and exten- 
sive structures. The other Nisbah of the 
author ^_j«U* has, possibly, reference to Sham, 
the name of a quarter of Tabriz ; see Nuzhat 
ul-Kuliib, Add. 16,736, fol. 161, and Ouse- 
ley's Travels, vol. iii. p. 415. 



HISTORY OF TIMUR. 



171 



The earliest mention of our author is that 
which is found in the Zafar-Nfimah of Sharaf 
ud-Din Yazdl, French version, vol. iv., p. 248, 
where he is stated to have delivered the 
Khutbah before Timur in his camp, near 
Ardabil, on the 'Id or festival of the first of 
Shavval, A.H. 806. He is there called Mau- 
lilna Nizam ud-DTn ShanabI (in Matla' us- 
Sa'dain, Add. 17,928 fol. 353 b, ^S!>\ pUii 
.ijo.y jjj ^li, a/ ^_yjJbi.), and described as one 
of the elegant writers of the period and the 
chronicler of a portion of the life of Timur. 

The author states in the preface, that, in 
A.H. 804, he was sent for by Timur, who 
directed him to revise and put into proper 
shape and order the records hitherto kept by 
the official writers attached to his person, 
and extending from the beginning of his 
power to the present time. Having been 
particularly cautioned to avoid the ornate 
style of composition, which, Timur remarked, 
was hardly understood by one person in 
a hundred, he answered that, although well 
known for his skill in a variety of styles, 
he deemed that the best which the vidgar 
could understand and the select few approve. 
He immediately applied his undivided atten- 
tion to the work, and had brought it down 
to the close of A.H. 806, when the imperial 
standards were unfurled on the return march 
to Samarkand. He then obtained leave from 
Timur to return to his " native place," was 
recommended by letter to Muzaffar ud-Din 
Amirzadah 'Umar Bahadur, to whom the 
government of Iran had just been committed 
(and whose residence was Tabriz), and was 
enjoined to read aloud the history just com- 
pleted in the presence of the prince and for 
his benefit. It is further stated, fol. 5 b, 
that the title of Zafar Namah had been given 
to the work by Timur himself. In the sub- 
scription it is designated as j_ylj>\i>- ^«^li^^ 

The Mirza 'Umar, whose eulogies take up 
several pages in the above mentioned preface, 
was the second son of Miran Shah, son of 



Timiir, and was bom in A.H, 785. He was 
dispossessed of his government in A.H. 808 by 
his brother Mirza Abu Bakr. He subse- 
quently rebelled against Shahrukh, was 
routed by him near Jiim, in Zulka'dah A.H. 
809, and, having been wounded and captured 
in his flight, died miserably some days later 
in Herat ; see Matla' us-Sa'dain, Quatre- 
mere's translation. Notices et Extraits, vol. iv. 
pp. 104 — 107, Price's Retrospect, vol. iii. 
pp. 495—497. 

Contents : Preface, fol. 1 b. Descendants 
of Chingizkhan, especially in the line of 
Chaghatai, t/b'Jw-, and early life of Ti- 
mur, fol. 10 a. Second invasion of Tugh- 
luk Timiir in Mavara-annahr, fol. 16 a. 
Tughluk Timur returns to his residence, 
leaving Ilyas Khwajah Ughlan in Mavara- 
annahr, fol. 15 b. Amir 'Ali Beg seizes 
upon Amir Husain and Timur, and confiiies 
them in Makhan, fol. 16 6. Amir Husain 
takes Samarkand, fol. 26 a. Timur's conflict 
with Amir Husain, fol. 27 b. Amir Husain 
makes overtures of peace ; renewal of hosti- 
lities, fol. 29 a. Amir Miisa flees to Amir 
Husain, and marches against Timur, fol. 32 b. 
Timur sends Prince Jahangir to the king of 
Herat, fol. 34 b. Kaikhusrau and Bahmm 
take refuge with Tughliik Timur, fol. 36 b. 
Amir Husain marches against Timur, fol. 
37 a. Amir Husain proceeds to Balkh after 
taking Kabul, fol. 40 b. Kaikhusrau and 
Shaikh Muhammad rebel against Amir Hu- 
sain, fol. 42 a. Timiir's campaign against 
Amir Husain, fol. 43 a. His first expedition 
against Khwarazm, fol. 48 a. Second expe- 
dition, fol. 49 b. His march against the 
Moghuls, and war with Kamar ud-Din, fol. 
50 b. Third campaign in Khwarazm, fol. 
62 a. Kamar ud-Din occupies Uzkand, fol. 
52 b. Prince Tuktamish comes to Timur, 
fol. 54 b. New estrangement between Timur 
and Yusuf Sufi, fol. 58 a. The government 
of Khorasan committed to Miranshah, fol. 
69 b. Timur's first campaign against Vali, 
z2 



172 



HISTORY OF TIMUR. 



fol. 65 h. Expedition to Sistan, fol. 67 a. 
Second campaign against Vali, fol. 69 h. 
Timur goes to Lur Kiichak to put down the 
rebels, fol. 72 b. Approach of Ankatura 
with the army of Tuktamish ; battle fought 
by 'Umar Shaikh in Julak, fol. 78 b. Ti- 
mur's fourth expedition to Khwarazm, fol. 
79 b. Revolt of Muhammad Mirka, his 
escape to ^j'kS, and his arrest in Kuhistan, 
fol. 80 a. Installation of Mahmud Sultan 
on the throne, fol. 82 b. Timur's march 
against Tuktamish, fol. 83 a. His expedi- 
tion to Dasht i Kipchak, fol. 87 a. Timur 
sets out from Mavarii-annahr for Irak and 
Ears, fol. 93 a. His march from Mazanda- 
ran to Ears, fol. 94 a ; to Shiraz, fol. 95 b ; 
to Baghdad, fol. 99 a. Capture of Tikrit, 
fol. 101 b. The princes are dispatched to 
Basrah and Vasit, fol. 103 b. Death of 
"Umar Shaikh, fol 105 a. Taking of the 
fortress of Avnik, fol. 110 a. Timlir's second 
expedition to Dasht i Kipchak, fol. 113 b. 
Insurrection of Sultan, son of Abu Sa'id, 
siju^ y^^. c;*^)^. in Yazd, fol. 119 b. Gar- 
den and kiosk made for Yangl-Sultan, fol. 
121 a. Timur sets but for India, fol. 123 a. 
Expedition to Katur, j^, and what befel 
the infidels there, fol. 124 b. Expedition to 
the country of Iryab, u-^b^.^ fol. 127 a. 
The submission of Shihab ud-Din Mubarak 
Tamim, and his subsequent rebellion, fol. 
129 a. Account of the fort of Batnir, fol. 
132 a. Timur's war with Sultan Mahmud 
of Dehli, and the latter's defeat, fol. 136 b. 
Expedition against bands of robbers on the 
Ganges, fol. 142 a. One day's expedition 
against a body of Gabrs, fol. 143 a. Exter- 
mination of the Gabrs of the valley of Ko- 
tilah, S/ s-ijC>, who worshipped a stone in 
the shape of a cow, fol. 144 a. Battle of 
the mount of Savalik, fol. 145 a. Expedition 
from the mount of Savalik to a tract on the 
further side, covered with thick woods, fol. 
146 b. Timiir's stages in the lands of Hamu, 



y^ (Jamil) fol. 148 a. Mosque built by 
Timur in Samarkand, fol. 154 b. Timur sets 
out after his Indian campaign for Irak and 
Azarbaijan, fol. 155 b. Campaign against 
the Georgians, „f, fol. 156 a. Expedition 
to Abkhar (Abkhaz) and Gurgin, fol. 157 a. 
Timur's march to Sivas, foL 159 b. His cam- 
paign in Syria and its causes, fol. 162 b. 
Taking of the fortress of Bahasna and 'Ain- 
tab, fol. 164 a. Capture of Halab, fol. 165 a. 
War with the Sultan of Egypt, and taking 
of Damascus, fol. 169 b. Timur goes to 
Mardin, fol. 176 a. Baghdad taken by assault, 
fol. 177 a. Timur's return from Baghdad to 
Tabriz, fol. 179 b. Wintering in Karabagh, 
fol. 180 b. Second campaign in Rum, fol. 
182 b. Taking of the fortress of Kamakh, 
fol. 185 b. Arrival of the ambassador of 
Bayazid and review of the army, fol. 186 b. 
Intelligence of Bayazid's arrival with the 
Turkish army, fol. 187 b. Victory of Timur 
and capture of Bayazid, fol. 189 a. Despatch 
of troops to various quarters, and festivities, 
fol. 192 b. Prince Muhammad Sulta,n goes 
to Bursah, fol. 193 b. Submission of the 
king of Istambul to Timur, fol. 194 b. Arrival 
of the Sultan of Mardin and his pa^rdon, fol. 
195 b. Capture of the fortress of Izmir 
(Smyrna) and Earjah, fol. 196 b. Three 
fortresses taken in one day, foL 198 b. Death 
of Prince Muhammad Sultan, fol. 200 a. 
Arrival of the Egyptian envoys with tribute, 
fol. 201 a. Dispatch of the Karatatars from 
Syria, fol. 202 a. Timiir's return from Riim, 
fol. 202 b. His expedition to Georgia, fol. 
203 b. Taking of Bartas, ^j, one of the 
great fortresses of Georgia, fol. 205 b. Timur 
goes to Abkhaz to fight the Armenians, 
fol. 208 a. Justice and beneficence of Timur, 
fol. 210 a. Building of Bailakan and digging 
of its moat, fol. 211 a. Victory won by 
Prince Aba Bakr over the enemy, (Kara 
Yiisuf) and restoration of Baghdad, fol. 212 a. 
Arrival of the Amir-Zadah'Umar from Samar- 
kand, fol. 212 b. 



HISTORY OF TIAIUR. 



173 



Add. 25,024. 

Foil. 758; 10 in. by 7; 15 lines, 3| in. 

long ; written in elegant Nestalik, with 'Unvan 

and gold-ruled margins, probably in the 15th 

. century. Bound in stamped and gilt leather. 

A history of Timur from his birth to his 
death, with a sketch of the short reign of 
Ivhalil Sultan. 

Author: Sliaraf, u-j^i 

Beg. .'.io. ^ ^^\\ Jy. J. ^^[^ }j^\s^ 

The author, who designates himself by the 
above Takliallus, is Maulana Sharaf ud-Din 
'All Yazdl, a native of Yazd, who attained 
a position of great eminence, no less by his 
learning and piety than by the rare elegance 
of his style, and was for a long time the 
favourite companion of Shahrukh and of his 
son, Mirza Ibrahim Sultan. It is related in the 
Tarikh i llashldi (v.Erskine's History of India, 
vol. i. pp. 45, 49), that the former entrusted 
to his keeping and able tuition Yunus Khan, 
the young Khan of the Moghuls, who had 
been captured in A.H. 832 by Mirza Ulugh 
Beg, and who stayed with Sharaf ud-Din till 
the latter's death. In A.H. 846 Mirza Sultan 
Muhammad, Avho had been appointed gover- 
nor of Irak and established his residence in 
Kum, invited Sharaf ud-Din, who was then 
teaching crowds of pupils in his native city, 
to his court, and kept him there an honoured 
guest and trusted adviser. When some years 
later, A.H. 850, the prince having raised the 
standard of rebellion, Shahrukh came with 
an army to Ispahan, to enforce his submission, 
and ordered several of his ill-advised coun- 
cillors for execution, Sharaf ud-Din, who was 
also accused of having instigated the prince, 
was rescued from danger by the timely inter- 
ference of Mirza 'Abd ul-Latif, who, on the 
plea that his father, Mirza Ulugh Beg, re- 



quired the Maulana's assistance for his astro- 
nomical observations, dispatched hira to 
Samarkand. After the death of Shahrukh, 
Sultan Muhammad, then master of Khorasan, 
gave him leave to go back to Yazd. Sharaf 
ud-Din returned to his birth-place in A.H. 
853, and settled in a neighbouring village 
called Taft. He died there in A.H. 858, and 
was buried in the precincts of a college built 
by himself, and called after him Sharafiyyah. 
See Jami 'i Mufidi, Or. 210, foil. 234—7, and 
Matla' us-Sa'dain, Or. 1291, fol. 226. Com- 
pare Daulatshah, Add. 18,410, fol. 194, 
Hammer, Schone Redekiinste, p. 284, Latii'if- 
Namah, Add. 7669, fol. 15, Habib us-Siyar, 
vol. iii. Juz 3, p. 148. 

The Zafar Namah is pronounced by Persian 
writers a model of elegance and the very per- 
fection of historical composition. A very fair 
French version of the whole work, by Petis 
de la Croix, was published after his death, 
Paris, 1722, and translated into English by 
J. Darby, London, 1723. See also Haj. Khal. 
vol. iv. p. 175, Morley's Catalogue, p. 94, 
Elliot's History of India, vol. iii. p. 478, 
Stewart's Catalogue, pp. 8, 234, Charmoy, 
Memoires de 1' Academic de S. P^tersbourg, 
6^ Serie, vol. iii. p. 92, Vienna Catalogue, 
p. 189, Copenhagen Catalogue, p. 19, Munich 
Catalogue, p. 80. 

The following account of the origin of the 
work is given in its second chapter, foil. 
13 — 16. Timur was always accompanied by 
a staff of Uighur scribes (Bakhshis) and 
Persian secretaries, who by his order kept 
accurate and unbiassed records of passing 
events. These records were afterwards 
dressed in elegant language by accomplished 
writers, and repeatedly read before Timur in 
order to test their accuracy. In this manner 
two official histories, one in Turkish verse 
and another in Persian prose, were composed, 
besides which independent narratives were 
written by some pei'sons attached to the 
court. 



174 



HISTORY OF TIMUR. 



"Wlicn Ibrahim Sultan undertook the com- 
pilation of the present work, he collected 
from all quarters the above-mentioned mate- 
rials and brought together a number of 
qualified readers and secretaries. For each 
event of Timur's history the Turkish and 
Persian texts were read and compared, eye- 
witnesses were sent for and examined, and 
in doubtful cases messengers were even dis- 
patched to distant places to obtain the 
evidence of trustworthy persons. When an 
accurate version had thus been settled by 
His Highness, it was dictated and revised by 
him, and then handed over to Sharaf ud-Din 
to be turned into fine language. The ornate 
text was again submitted to the prince for 
final revision. 

The French translation of the above pas- 
sage is somewhat confused, and the very con- 
siderable share which Ibrahim Sultan took, 
according to the original, in the composition 
of the work, is erroneously transferred to 
Timur himself; see " Preface de I'auteur." 

Mirza Ibrrdum Sultan, the second son of 
Shahrukh, was born in A.H. 796. Having 
had the government of Fars conferred upon 
him by his father in A.H. 818, he held his 
court in Shlraz to the time of his death, which 
happened on the 4th of Shavval, A.H. 838 ; 
see Matla' us-Sa'dain, Notices et Extraits, 
vol. iv. p. 288, and Or. 1291, fol. 178. 

The date of composition of the Zafar- 
Namah is not stated in the work itself. 
According to the Habib us-Siyar, loc. cit., it 
was completed in A.H. 828, a date expressed 

by the chronogram, j];jLi. ^ t-ilfi, "It was 

composed in Shlraz." Eulogies on Shahrukh 
and Ibrahim Sultan are found in the intro- 
duction, foil. 10—12, and a Ma§navi in praise 
of the latter, foil. 754 — 758, concludes the 
work. 

The present, and only extant, portion of 
the Zafar-Namah is headed " Book the first, 

treating of the history of Timiir," Jj\ sJUU 



i^\^ , and it appears from the author's state- 
ments in his preface and his epilogue, that 
he intended to devote a second and a third 
book (Makalah) respectively to the history of 
Shahrukh and Ibrahim Sultan. 

Add. 6538. 

Foil. 496; 9| in. by 6J ; 23 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in fair Naskhi, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
15th century. [J. F. Hull.] 

The same work. 

This copy and the next-following contain, 
in addition to the Zafar-Namah, and pre- 
fixed to it, an Introduction, treating of the 
genealogy of the Turkish Khans, and of the 
history of Chingizkhan and his descendants, 
down to the time of Timur. It occupies 
foil. 1 — 102 of the present volume, 19 lines 
in a page, and is written in a hand of the 
17th century. 

Beg. (jSj^Jps J Ji^ s^'J J ^JJ^^ ^j^ r-^^ 
This introduction, which was written some 
time before the Zafar-Namah, and is referred 
to in the latter work as Mukaddimah (Add. 
25,024, fol. 6 b), is here twice designated by 
the special title of Tarikh i Jahangir, foil. 
10 a, 18 b. It begins with a wordy preface, 
containing, after long panegyrics on Timur, 
Shahrukh, and Ibrahim Sultan, the follow- 
ing statement regarding the composition of 
the work, fol. 9 a. The family of Timur 
being connected with the race of Chingiz- 
khan, Ibrahim Sultan was desirous of pro- 
curing an authentic account of the latter. 
He therefore issued his commands in the 
beginning of his reign, A.H. 822, that his 
secretaries and chamberlains should place 
before him some detached records penned in 
Turkish by the scribes (Bakhshis) of Turk- 
istan and the Court Munshis of old, in order 
that he might himself examine and com- 



HISTORY OF TIMUR. 



17r 



pare their contents, and compile from them 
a connected narrative. When this had 
been drawn up, Sharaf ud-Din was called 
upon to read it before the Prince, and after- 
wards to grace it with the choicest flowers 
of the Arabic and Persian languages. The 
same year, A.H. 822, is again mentioned 
further on, fol. 11 a, as that in which the 
work was written. It has however received 
subsequent additions; the account of the 
Khans of Kipchak, for instance, fol. 82 b, is 
brought down to A.H. 831. 

Contents : Preface, fol. 1. Introduction, 
treating of various teras, fol. 10 a. Fasl I., 
on Creation, fol. 11 b. Easl II., history of 
the Prophets, from Adam to Noah, fol. 13 b. 
Turk, son of Japhet, and his descendants, 
fol. 19 a. The Tatars, fol. 20 a. The Mo- 
gliuls, fol. 20 b. Reign of Aghuz Khan and 
his descendants, fol. 22 a. Bilzanjar and 
his descendants (the ancestors of Chingiz- 
khan), fol. 26 a. Reign of Timuchin, (Chin- 
gizkhan), fol. 35 b. His successors in the 
Great Horde, fol. 77 b, in Dasht i Kipahak, 
fol. 81 b, in Iran, fol. 82 b, and in Turan, fol. 
92 a. Abstract (khulasah) of the Mukaddimah, 
fol. 101 b. This last section contains a short 
sketch of the descendants of Karajar Nuyan, 
and closes with the death of Amir Turaghai, 
the father of Timur, in A.H. 762. 

It has been noticed above, p. 164, that this 
Mukaddimah bears a great likeness, as re- 
gards matter and arrangement, to the work 
known as Uliis Arba'ah and the Ninth Ma- 
kalah of Khulasat ul-Akhbar. This resem- 
blance often amounts to textual agreement, 
especially in the passages in epic verse, in 
which the narration is frequently carried on. 

Copies of the Mukaddimah are described 
in the Vienna Catalogue, vol. ii. p. 188, and 
the Munich Catalogue, p. 86. 

Add. 18,406. 

Poll. 540; 9| in. by 5|; 25 lines, 3^ in. 



long ; written in Naskhi, with ruled margins ; 
apparently in the 17th century. 

[Wm. Yule.] 
The Zafar-Namah, with the Mukaddimah. 
The latter occupies foil. 1 — 67 ; it is written 
in a smaller character, although apparently 
by the same hand, and is dated Ramazan, 
A.H. 1077 (A.D. 1667). 



Add. 26,192. 

PoU. 344; 13|; in. by 9^ ; 21 lines, 6 in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, with an 
illuminated border enclosing the first two 
pages, and gold-ruled margins, apparently of 
the 15th century. [Wm. Ekskine. j 

The Zafar Namah. 

Scribe : |Jll»LJ\ ^ ^^ j^ 

The first three pages are by another hand. 
The fii-st bears the Persian stamp and the 
signature of Edward Galley. 



Add. 26,193. 

Poll. 352; 13i in. by 8^; 21 lines, 6J in. 
long; written in fair Naskhi, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins, probably in the 15tli 
century. [Wm. Erskine.J 

The same work. 

The last page has been supplied by a later 
hand. 

Add. 27,239. 

Poll. 462 ; 9| in. by 6.f ; 19 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
15th century. [John Macdonald Kinneir.] 

The same work. 

The first ten leaves, foil. 2 — 11, have been 
supplied by a hand of the 16th century. A 
leaf inserted at the end, foil. 462, originally 



176 



HISTOET OF TIMUR. 



belonged to a copy of Dara Shikuli's Safinat 
ul-auliya, and is dated A.H. 1065. 

On fol. 1 is found ttie stamp of Vala Jah 
'Azlm uddaulah, Navvab of the Carnatic, with 
a note stating that he presented this MS. to 
John Macdonald Kinneir. 

Add. 7636. 

Poll. 274; 13^ in. by 9; 23 lines, 6 in. 
long ; written in Naskhi, with ruled margins ; 
dated Herat, Shavval, A.H. 909 (A.D. 1504). 

[CI. J. EiCH.j 

The same work. 

The first leaf is lost ; it has been supplied 
by a spurious beginning in a modern hand- 
writing. 

Add. 7635. 

Foil. 614 ; 12 in. by 6 ; 17 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in an elegant Nestalik, with a 
rich border, enclosing the initial lines on 
two opposite pages, and with gold-ruled 
margins; dated Eajab, A.H. 929 (A.D. 
1523). [CI. J. Rich.] 

The same work. 

This MS. is signed by a penman of note, 
^Jj\JJi^\ J^^ j^-^^^ t_jo'i^^ j-iyi to whom are 
also due two other copies of the Zafar-Namah, 
viz. Or. 1359, dated A.H. 959, and another 
dated A.H. 953, and described in the S. 
Petersburg Catalogue, p. 286. 

It contains fifteen whole-page miniatures 
in the Persian style, on foil. 35 a, 67 b, 
102 a, 119 a, 136 b, 159 a, 199 «, 224 b, 282 6, 
326 a, 359 b, 389 a, 458 a, 498 a, 565 b. 



Or. 1359. 

Foil. 514 ; 13| in. by 8| ; 18 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in neat Nestalik, with a rich 
double-page 'Unvan, gold and blue headings. 



A.H. 959 (A.D. 1552). Bound in stamped 
leather, richly ornamented inside and out. 

[Sir Chas. Al. Mukbat.] 

The same work. 

The copy contains twelve highly finished 
whole-page miniatures in the Persian style. 
They occur on foil. 35, 82, 120, 164, 208, 
240, 289, 334, 389, 413, 452, and 485. 

Although the writing appears uniform 
we are told in the colophon that it is the 
work of two penmen, the first half being by 
Murshid ul-' Attar and the second by yasan 
ush-Sharif ul-Katib. 



Or. 1052. 

Foil. 333; 12^ in. by 8; 21 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins; dated Muharram, 
A.H. 1009 (A.D. 1600). 

The same work. 

This copy contains seven whole-page mi- 
niatures, well executed in the Indian style, 
on foil. 50 b, 67 b, 137 b> 182 b, 191 a, 2Qy b, 
307 a. 



Add. 27,240. 



and 



gold-ruled 



margms 



dated Ilabf I. 



Foil. 484; yf in. by 6^; 17 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, with gold- 
ruled margins, apparently in the 17th century. 

[Sir John Malcolm.] 

The same work. 

On the first page is a note, dated A.H. 
1220, stating that this MS. belonged to Mu- 
hammad Hasan, Khan Knjar, who held the 
rank of Ishik AkasI Bathi, in the service of 
the Governor of Fars. 

Add. 18,806. 

Foil. 518 ; HI in. by 6^ ; 18 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in plain Nestalik, with an 
illuminated border enclosing the first two 



IIISTOEY OF TIMUE. 



177 



pages, and gold-ruled margins, apparently 
in the 17tli century. 

The same work. 

Add. 6537. 

Foil. 442 ; 10^ in. by 5^ ; 21 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in a cursive Indian character, 
with ruled margins, apparently in the 18th 
century. [J. F- Hull.] 

A copy of the same work, wanting a few 
lines at the end. 

On the first page is written the name of 
Charles Hamilton, with the date 1776, and 
underneath a short notice of the work by 
(Sir Wm.) Jones. 



Add. 



23,519. 



Foil. 246 ; 13.| in. by 9 ; 25 lines, ej in. 
long ; written in plain Nestalik, apparently 
in the 18th century. 

The same work. 

On the first page is a note partly oblite- 
rated, dated Arcot, A.H. 1140. On the 
same page is impressed the seal of Ea'is ul- 
Umara Muhammad 'Abd ul-Husain Khan, 
dated A.H. 1215. 

Add. 5628. 

Foil. 175 ; 9i in. by 6 ; 17 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with 'Unvun 
and gold-ruled margins ; dated Rabl' I., A.H. 
851 (A.D. 1447). [N. B. Halhed.] 

The same work. 

This copy comprises little more than the 
last fourth of the Zafar-Namah, extending 
from Tunur's arrival before Damascus (Petis's 
translation, vol. iii. p. 316) to the end. The 
first five leaves, foil. 1 — 5, contain the be- 
ginning of the work. 



Add. 16,685. 

Foil 312 ; lOi in. by 5| ; 21 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with Tlnvan and 
ruled margins, apparently in the 17th cen- 
tury. [Wm. Yule.] 

An abridgment of the Zafar-Namah of 
Sliaraf ud-Din Yazdi. 

Author : 'Abd us-Sattar (B.) Kasira, cjt 
Beg. J t^Uj ^j^^ j\^j'j J>.^) uij'JL- _, ^^ 

The abbreviator, who lived under Jahangir 
and describes himself as having lately entered 
the ranks of His Majesty's servants, states 
that he wrote this condensed version in 
obedience to the Emperor's commands, in 
Ajmir, in the tenth year of the reign, or 
A.H. 1024. He dwells at length on the 
three blemishes which rendered the reading 
of the original laborious and irksome, and 
which he had to remove ; these are the 
frequent quotation of irrelevant passages 
from the Goran and Traditions in Ai'abic, the 
use of far-fetched metaphors, obscure phrases 
and jingling rhymes, and lastly the redun- 
dant and very lame verses of the author. 

A copy of the same abridgment is described 
by Uri, p. 278. 

Or. 158. 

FoU. 413 ; 12i in. by 8| ; 17 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in large and fair Nestalik, 
with "Unvan and gold-ruled margins, about 
the beginning of the 19th century. 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

The Memoirs of Amir Tlmfir, translated, 
as alleged, from a Turk! original. 

Translator: Abu Talib ul-Husaini, w^^'-lay^ 

M 

A A 



178 



HISTORY OE TIMUR. 



Beg. »*^j3 wT ^/LaiiLo io si ^ 1^^*^ jif .' '^♦'' 

Abu Talib ul-Husainl, also called ^./^'^ 
(Add. 16,687, fol. 2 a, Add. 6690, fol. 4 «) was, 
as stated in the amended edition, Add. 
16,686, a native of Khorasan, and presented 
these Memoirs to Shahjahan in A.H. 1047, 
or shortly before. He says, in a short pre- 
amble, that he had found in the Holy Places 
(Mecca and Medina), in the library of Ja'far, 
ruler of Taman, a Turki book, in which Amir 
Timur GurganI had recorded the events of his 
life from his seventh to his seventieth year 
(or, as added above the line, " his seventy- 
fourth year") with sundry rules and ordi- 
nances relating to kingcraft and strategy> 
and that he had made this translation of it, 
to serve as a guide to kings. 

The authenticity of these Memoirs is open to 
serious objections. The suspicious vagueness 
of the account of the alleged discovery, the 
fact that the supposed original has never been 
produced, nor its existence been confirmed by 
any testimony, above all the absolute silence 
of a writer who, like Sharaf ud-Din Yazdi, 
enjoyed the full confidence of Timur's chil- 
dren, and had, through them, access to all the 
genuine records of his reign, as to a document 
of such paramount importance, are so many 
reasons which tend to render that authen- 
ticity extremely doubtful. Shrdijahan appears 
to have been so little satisfied of it that he 
had the Memoirs altered, as will be seen in 
the preface of the next MS., so as to make 
them agree with the Zafar-Namah, a work 
written thirty years after Timur's death. 

A portion of the Memoirs, extending from 
the beginning to A.H. 777, has been trans- 
lated by Major Charles Stewart, and printed 
for the Oriental Translation Committee, 
London, 1830. The "Designs and Enter- 
prises," and the " Institutes," which form 
an appendix to the autobiography, had been 
previously edited by Prof. Joseph White, 
with a translation by Major "William Davy, 



under the title of " Institutes, political and 
military, by the great Timour," Oxford, 
1783. An account of the work, with copious 
extracts in English, will be found in Elliot's 
History of India, vol. iii. pp. 389—477. 
See also Morley's Catalogue, p. 95, and 
Erskine, Memoirs of Baber, pp. 2 and 3. 

The present volume contains the whole of 
the narrative portion of the Memoirs, brought 
down to Timur's death. The fiction is 
kept up to the end; Timur is made to 
describe his last illness through all its stages 
and to conclude with these words : " On the 
eve of the 17th of the month of Sha'ban, while 
calling Allah, Allah, I lost consciousness, 
and gave up this borrowed life to the true 
Giver of life." Poll. 2—107 comprise that 
part of the work which has been translated 
by Stewart. One leaf is wanting after fol. 
22, and another after fol. 60. Poll. 2—16 
are in another and later hand. Their con- 
tents, which correspond to pp. 4 — 23 of 
Stewart's translation, are partly repeated, 
with some variation, in the next-following 
part of the original MSS., foil. 17—22. 

The copy was written, as stated in the 
subscription, by Khwajah Hidayat Ullah, for 
the reigning emperor of Dehli, Muhammad 
Akbar Shah Padishah Ghazi, who ascended 
the throne in A.H. 1221. It contains four 
miniatures, in fair Indian style, on foil. 93, 
28 6, 322, and 371, in the third of which 
some Piringi ambassadors received by Timur 
are depicted in the costume of English gen- 
tlemen of the time of George III. 

The work is designated in the subscription 
by the name of iSjy^ ^jjy 

This volume bears the stamps of the kings 
of Oude, Sulaiman Jah, Amjad 'All, and 
Vajid 'All. 

Add. 16,686. 

Poll. 528 ; 114 in. by 6f ; 15 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik with 'Unvan 



HISTORY OF TIMUR. 



179 



and ruled margins, apparently in the 18th 
century. [Wm. Yule.] 

The amended edition of the Memoirs, with 
the editor's preface. 

Editor : Muhammed Af zal Bukhari, s^ 

Beg. J* j';.i.ii'j jl^b jlii j\Jl> j\ ^^J3i^ .\v»- 

The editor says in the preface that a com- 
plete record of Timur's life, from his seventh 
to his seventy-first year, that of his death, 
had been written in Turki by Timur him- 
self, or by others from his dictation. In the 
vicissitudes of time that precious volume 
passed from the library of his illustrious 
children into that of the emperors of Rum 
and of some Amirs of their realm. A cer- 
tain Mir Abii Talib, of t_-Jj3 (Turbat ?) in 
Khurasan, having arrived, on his travels 
through Riim and Arabia, at the " city of 
Yaman," became tliere acquainted with 
Ja'far Pasha, the ruler of Yaman, and having 
been shown by him that valuable work in 
his library, immediately set about transla- 
ting it. He brought, we are told, this weighty 
task to an end in India. His translation, 
however, was not free from errors; it in- 
cluded some facts not recorded in the Zafar- 
Namah and other trustworthy histories, and 
omitted events chronicled by all historians. 
When it was read before Shahjahan, glaring 
discrepancies in facts and dates were noticed 
by the emperor, who, in consequence, ordered 
in A.H. 1047, the humblest of his servants, 
Muhammad Afzal Bukhari, to collate the 
work with the Zafar-Namah and other stan- 
dard histories, to throw out the additions of 
Mir Abu Talib, supply his omissions, trans- 
late the Arabic and Turkish passages, and 
correct the dates which did not tally with 
those of the Zafar-Namah. 



The portion of the Memoirs corresponding 
to Major Stewart's translation extends from 
fol. 4 a to fol. 123 b of the present copy. 
Notwithstanding the changes announced in 
the preface, the text is found to agree in 
the main very closely with that of the pre- 
ceding MS. 

Add. 16,687. 

Foil. 191 ; 10| in. by 6^; 11 lines, 33 in. 
long ; written in a large and fair Nestalik, 
on gold-sprinkled paper, with two Tlnvans 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently early in 
the 18th century. [Wm. Yule.] 

* A portion of the Memoirs of Timiir, be- 
ginning with Abu Talib's preface and ending 
abruptly in the account of the events of 
A.H. 768. It corresponds to pp. 4 — 177 
of Stewart's translation. Four miniatures, 
taken from other and earlier MSS., have 
been pasted on foil. 4, 57, 122, and 176. 

The heading is .J\A^\ ^j> ^,'.laLJ\ oUlj 

ij^}^ jy^ j^\ and the titles VaViat i Amir 
Timur, Vaki at i Timuri, are found on the first 
page. 

Seals of a former owner, Husain, with the 
date A.H. 1150, and of Maharajah Tikait 
Rae, the Oude Minister, are impressed on 
the same page. 

Add. 26,191. 

Foil. 347 ; 9 in. by 6^ ; 14 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written on European paper, in a cur- 
sive Indian character; dated Sha'ban, A.H. 
1230 (A.D. 1816). [Wm. Ebskine.] 

Another copy of the Malfuzat i Timuri, 
containing : — 

1. The Preface of Abu Talib, and the 
Memoirs from the beginning to the siege of 
the fort of Kalat, A.H. 783 (Or. 158, foil. 
2—125 a). The portion translated by Maj. 
Stewart ends on fol. 206 b. 

2. The Designs and Enterprises, correspond- 

AA 2 



180 



HISTORY OF TlilUR. 



ing to pp. 2—152 of Prof. Joseph White's 
edition, fol. 238 a. 

Heading : j ^^J/ CJi* jy>\ ^J 'i^ eJ^jS 

3. The Institutes or Tuzukat, properly so 
called, the first part of which corresponds to 
pp. 156—406 of White's edition, fol. 278 b. 

After the portion edited by White, which 
ends here, fol. 326 a, there is a continuation 
occupying foil. 326 a — 347 b, and containing 
Timur's prescriptions as to the special treat- 
ment required by each of the conquered 
races, and his decisions upon various liti- 
gious questions referred to him, is^\^ . 



Add. 5560. 

Poll. 131 ; 11 in. by 6f ; 21 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in a cursive Indian character, 
apparently in the 18th century, 

[Charles Hamilton.] 

Another copy of the Malfuzat, wanting 
the preface. It contains : — 

1. The portion of the Memoirs which has 
been translated by Maj. Stewart, pp. 4^154. 

2. The Institutes (White's edition, pp. 156 
—408), fol. 88 a. 

3. The Designs and Enterprises (White's 
edition, pp. 2—152), fol. 110 a. 

4. The latter and inedited portion of 
the Institutes, corresponding to foil. 326 — 
347 of the preceding copy. Add. 26,191, 
fol. 124 a. 



Egerton 1005. 



Foil. 192 ; 10 in. by 5^ ; 17 lines, 3| in. 
long, in a page ; written in a cursive Indian 
character, apparently in the 18th century. 

A copy of the same work, imperfect at 
beginning and end. 

It contains : 1. The Memoirs from the 
middle of the " Presages " (Stewart's transla- 



tion p. 14,) to the siege of the fortress of 
Kalat, A.H. 783 ; fol. 4 a. 2. The Institutes 
(White's edition, pp. 156—408), fol. 134 a. 
3. The Designs, imperfect at the end (White's 
edition, pp. 2—112), fol. 172 b. 

Add. 23,518. 

Foil. 140; Hi in. by 7^ ; 21 lines, 4| in. 
long; written on European paper, in small 
and cursive Nestalik, apparently in the 19th 
century. [EoB. Taylor.] 

Another copy of the same work, con- 
taining : 1. The Preface of Abu Tfdib, fol. 1 b. 
2. The Memoirs, from the beginning to the 
siege of Kalat, A.H. 783, fol. 2 b. 3. The 
Designs, fol. 93 b. 4. The Institutes, fol. 
Ill b, and their continuation (Add. 26,191, 
foil. 326—347), fol. 131 a. 

Add. 7637. 

Foil. 98; 8f in. by 6|; 12 lines, 3f in. 
long; written in a neat Persian Shikastah- 
amlz, about the beginning of the 19th cen- 
tury. [CI. J. Rich.] 

A portion of the same work, the " Designs " 
and the "Institutes," evidently transcribed 
from White's edition, with which it agrees in 
all particulars. 

Or. 159. 

Foil. 119 ; 101 in. by G| ; 15 lines, 3i in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
15th century. [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

A history of tiie empire of TImur during 
the period that immediately followed his 
death, A.H. 807-808. 

Beg. {_^Ij j_^ jiJ:, J-^j u-V* J '^■^ J-^^ 

The most important portion of the preface, 
the account of the origin of the work, u^*-* 
^.^Ixi i_ajJ15 , is nearly entirely wanting, some 
leaves being lost after fol. 8 i, where it begins. 



HISTOEY OF TIMUR. 



181 



The author's name does not appear. He 
evidently lived under Shahrukh, of whom he 
always speaks as the reigning sovereign. 
His circumstantial and flattering narrative 
of the doings of that prince and of his gene- 
ral, Amir Shahmalik, as well as the verbal 
extracts which he gives of some of Shah- 
rukh's lettei's, make it very probable that he 
held some ofiice at his court, and had access 
to the royal chancelry. His style is like 
that of Vassaf, an extremely diffuse and ornate 
prose, freely interspersed with verses and 
maxims in Arabic and Persian. 

Some notion of its prolixity may be formed 
from the fact that no less than sixteen pages, 
foil. 10 — 17, are taken up by a description of 
the gloom and consternation which over- 
spread the whole world at the death of 
Timur. 

The narrative begins, fol. 18, with an 
account of the measures taken, after that 
event, by the two Amirs in command of the 
army, Shaikh Nur ud-Din and Shahmalik, 
the failure of the attempt of Sultan Husain 
on Samarkand, the surrender of that place 
to Mirzii Khalil Sultan, the return of Shah- 
malik with the sons of Shahrukh to Bukh- 
ara and his meeting Avith that prince on the 
bank of the Jlhun,all in substantial agreement 
with the closing chapters of the Zafar-Namah. 
The nesociations and hostilities of Shahrukh 
with his nephew KhalU, and his correspon- 
dence with his brother Miranshah, are then 
related at great length, with some other 
transactions of the same period. The last 
event recorded is the advance of Pir Muham- 
mad, the rightful heir, from Balkh, and his 
defeat by Khalil on the 4ith of Ramazan, 
A.U. 808 (a little more than a year after the 
death of Timur), after Avhich Mirza Ulugh 
, Beg and Amir Shahmahk, who had been 
sent by Shahrukh to the assistance of Pir 
Muhammad, bring back to Herat the news 
of his discomfiture. Here the MS. comes to 
an abrupt termination. 



The battle above-mentioned is stated in 
the Matla' us Sa'dain, Notices et Extraits, 
vol. xiv. p. 84, to have taken place on the 
2nd of Ramazan, A.H. 808. 

A few leaves are wanting here and there 
in the body of the volume, and many blank 
spaces, apparently reserved for the insertion 
of rubrics and Arabic texts in red ink or 
gold, have not been filled. 

Mlrza Muhammad B. Mu'tamad KhJin, who 
became possessor of this MS. in Dehli, A.H. 
1160, deplores, in a note written on fol. 3 o, 
the defective state of the preface, which pre- 
vented him from ascertaining by whom the 
work was written,and whether it was complete 
or not, but adds that the correctness and ele- 
gance of the language leave no doubt as to 
its being by one of the great masters of style. 

In an Arabic note written at the end, pro* 
bably in the 18th century, a person, whose 
name does not appear, states that he bought 
this book called ^^^ ij-*^ in Lucknow, 
but was not able to procure another copy to 
correct and complete it. 

The same title, (^^ y-*^, is written on 
the first page and repeated by later hands 
on the fly-leaves. 

Add. 17,928. 

Poll. 379 ; 9i in. by 6.^ ; 21 lines 4| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik dated Rabl' II., 
A.H. 900 (A.D. 1495). 

A history of Persia and the adjoining 
countries, from A.H. 704 to A.H. 875. 

Author: 'Abd ur Razzak B. Ishak us- 
Samarkandl, (^jjJ»y»-J^ J*^ u^ J^^ '^ 

Beg. j^ t—ala l j JLc -hj;*! ^j^ly^ ^ia* y«.» 

Kamfd ud-Dln 'Abd ur-Razzak, born in 
Herat, A.H. 816, was the son of Maulanii 
Jal.il ud-Dln Ishak Samarkaudi, who had 



182 



HISTOHY OF TTMUR. 



been attached as KazT and Imiim to the 
camp establishment of Shahrukh. He relates 
in vol. ii. of the present work, Or. 1291, fol. 
186 by that he was first introduced to that 
sovereign's notice after his father's death, in 
A.H. 841, at the age of flve-and-twenty, by- 
means of a commentary upon Azud-ud-Din's 
treatise of the noun and particle, which he 
had dedicated to him, and that he was at 
once admitted to his service. In A.H. 845 
he was sent by Shahrukh to the king of 
Bijanagar on a mission which lasted three 
years, a full account of which forms one 
of the most interesting features of his his- 
tory, Or. 1291, foil. 197—216. In A.H. 850 
'Abd ur-Razzak was again sent on an em- 
bassy to Gilan, and, after the death of Shah- 
rukh, happening in the same year, he was 
successively attached to the service of seve- 
ral of his sons and lastly of Sultan Abu 
Sa'id. The latter part of his life was spent 
in pious retirement; he was appointed in 
A.H. 867 Shaikh of the monastery (Khankah) 
of Shahrukh in Herat, where he died A.H. 
887. See Habib us-Siyar, vol. iii. Juz 3, 
p. 335, and a detailed account of his life by 
Quatremere, Notices et Extraits, vol. xiv. 
pp. 3-7. 

The contents of the Matla' i Sa'dain have 
been fully stated by Hammer, Jahrbiicher, 
vol. 71, Anz. Blatt, pp. 32 — 47. An excel- 
lent account of the work, including the 
history of the first part of the reign of Shah- 
rukh in French, and the narratives of the 
Chinese and Indian embassies in Persian and 
French, has been published by Quatremere 
in vol. xiv. of Notices et Extraits, pp. 1 — 514. 
Copious extracts will be found in Dorn's 
Muhammadanische Quellen, Theil iv., pp. 
154—237. 

For various editions of fragments of the 
same work see Morley's Catalogue, p. 98. Com- 
pare Haj. Khal. vol v. p. 603, Charmoy, 
Mdmoires de I'Academie de S. Petersbourg, 
& Serie, vol. iii. p. 94, Elliot's History of 



India, vol. iv. pp. 89 — 126, Ouseley's Travels, 
vol. i. p. 322, Vienna Catalogue, vol. ii. 
p. 190, S. Petersburg Catalogue, p. 286, and 
Munich Catalogue, p. 87. 

In a preface, which is defective in the pre- 
sent copy, one leaf or more being lost after 
fol. 6, the author states that this history 
embraces a period beginning with the birth 
of Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan, A.H. 704, and 
closing with A.H. 874. But it will be seen 
that it was subsequently brought down to 
the month of Safar, A.H. 875. 

In the body of the work two years are 
incidentally mentioned as the dates of com- 
position, A.H, ,872, towards the beginning, 
Add. 17,928, fol. 33 b, and A.H. 875 towards 
the end, Or. 1291, fol. 380 a. The author 
states in a subscription, which has been tran- 
scribed in the next MS., Or. 1291, fol. 402 5, 
that he completed the original copy on the 
27th of Muharram, A.H. 880. 

The work is divided into two volumes 
(Daftar) of nearly equal extent. The first, 
contained in the present MS., begins with 
the birth of Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan in 
A.H. 704, and closes with the death of Timur 
and the accession of Khalil Sultan in Samar- 
kand, A.H. 807. The author remarks, fol. 
33 a, that the birth of Timur, whose his- 
tory is the maia subject of the present 
volume, A.H. 736, coincides, within a few 
days, with the death of Abu Sa'id, the last of 
the house of ChingTz who ruled Iran. He 
was thus induced to begin his work with an 
account of the latter, and of some short-lived 
contemporary dynasties, by way of introduc- 
tion. From the time of Abu Sa'id's accession 
the main events are recorded year by year. A 
general sketch of Timur's character, rule and 
mode of life, follows the record of his birth, 
foil. 33 — 40. Accounts of the origin of the 
Sarbadar and Muzaffar dynasties are inserted 
at the time of their first appearance on the 
scene, foil. 50 a, 55 b. 



Copyist 



J-^ (i;'>iai«» 



HISTOUY OF TIMUR. 



183 



Or. 1291. 

FoU. 403 ; 9| in. by 6^ ; 23 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Naskhi ; dated Malian, in 
Kirman llamazan, A.H. 1056 (A.D. 1646). 

The second volume of the same work, 
beginning with the accession of Shahrukh, 
in Herat, A.H. 807, and closing with the 
second accession of Abul-Ghiizl Sultan ^u- 
sain in Safar, A.H. 875. 

Beg, job ^5)kft LdiLi ^J\JJ J s^ J^ sJM 

The last two pages are occupied by an 
eulogy on the work, written apparently in 
the author's life-time. The anonymous writer, 
dwelling on its exceptional trustworthiness, 
remarks that it was founded, partly on the 
record of Hafiz Abrii, an ocular witness of 
most events chronicled by him (whose work 
Zubdat ut-Tavfirikh is indeed sometimes 
quoted), partly on the personal recollections 
of the author, who, although he had served 
several of the Timuride princes, never allowed 
a spirit of adulation to make him deviate 
from the path of truth. 

Copyist i-:^ja*> «— a-»j^. tji^ 

Or. 467. 

Foil. 129; 10| in. by 7; written in a 
cursive Indian Shikastah-Amlz, apparently 
in the 18th century. 

[Geo. Wm, Hamilton.] 



.IJ>'^\ 



J^ 



Genealogical tables of the families of Chin- 
gizkhan and Timur. 

Beg. ^jl ^ jjo U^ . , . . ^j^'^ ^j <iU aJ^ 
C^ t^ji^j iir^i) '-r'^^^ 

These tables were compiled, as stated in 
a short preface, by order of the reigning 
Sultan, Shahrukh Bahadur Khan, in A.H. 
830. They begin with Burtah Chinah, the 



ancestor of Chingizkhan, and conclude with 
the great-grandchildren of Timur. The 
names of the leading personages are accom- 
panied with miniature portraits in Indian 
style, apparently fanciful, and with notices 
showing the dates of birth and death, the 
length of reign, and the names of their wives, 
Vazirs, and Amirs. In the latter part of the 
work, these notices are supplemented by 
extracts from the Rauzat us-Safa. The pre- 
sent MS. is confused and incorrect ; it wants, 
after fol. 93, six leaves, which contained the 
beginning of the line of Timur. 

A copy of the same work, preserved in the 
Paris Library, has been used by D'Ohsson 
Tor his Histoire des Mongols; see vol. i. 
p. 45. 

Or. 156. 

Foil. 601 ; 11 in. by 7 ; 17 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in a cursive Indian Nestalik, 
in the 19th century. 



^jo|^ J.lo 



History of the Moghuls, of Timiir, and of 
some contemporary dynasties. 

Author : Din Muhammad Khurasan!, ^J>_a 

Beg. Li*-J >»j,jy, J^ ljij\^ 

This is a late compilation of little value. 
The author, who conveys in the following 
enigmatical verse 

the fact that Kabul was his dwelling-place, 
lived in the early part of the present century: 
he relates incidentally, fol. 316 a, that he 
had witnessed in Herat the profuse bounties 
of Fath Khan Dunlni, the Vazir of Shiih 
Mahmud, king of Kabul and Kandahar. 
Fath Khan held that post from A.D. 1800 



184 



HISTORY OF THE SAEAVIS. 



to the deposition of Shiih Mahmud in 1803, 
and fell in an encounter with Shuja' ud-Dau- 
lah in 1808 (see Elphinstone's " Cabul," vol. 
ii. pp. 322 — 349). As the author speaks of 
him as a man of the past, it may be inferred 
that he wrote after the latter date. 

Contents : Ancestors of Chingizkhan, fol. 



15 a. 



Life of Chingiz, 



fol. 



43 a. 



Uktai 

Ka'an and his successors, fol. 101 b. Khans 
of Kipchak, fol. 118 b. The descendants of 
Chingiz in Iran, fol. 125 b. The Ilkanis, 
fol. 253 b. Sarbadars, fol. 304 b. Kurts, 
fol. 323 6. Al i Muzaffar, fol. 341 a. History 
of Timur, from his birth to the events of 



A.H. 806, where the MS. comes to an abrupt 
termination. 

The early part of this compilation agrees 
substantially with the work above described 
under the title of s^J i^^\, Add. 26,190, 
p. 164; the rest appears to be principally 
derived from the Eauzat us-Safa, with in- 
tentional alterations in the wordinsr and 
arrangement. 

The present copy seems to have been re- 
vised by the author; several passages are 
scored out, and others are substituted in the 
margra. 

A full table of contents is prefixed, foil. 1 — 6. 



HISTORY OF THE SAFAVIS. 



Add. 27,241. 

Foil. 359; 121 in. by 7^; 14 lines, 3f in. 
long; written in large and fair Nestalik, 
with 'Unvan and gold-ruled margins, appa- 
rently in the 17th century; disfigured in 
some parts by large holes. 

[John Macdonald Kinneie.] 

History of Persia, from the death of Shrdi 
Tahmasp, A.H. 984, to the end of the 25th 
year of the reign of Shah 'Abbas I., A.H. 1020. 

Author : Jalal ud-Dln Muhammad Munaj- 
jim Yazdi, t^iijj. ^ a,^ ^.>iiJl j!i)^»- 

Beg. p^L-!\ (^jjJi!^ |»^U]\ ciiU^ rfU s^^ 

The work has neither preface nor title. 
It begins with a prayer for the preservation 
of the reigning sovereign, Shah 'Abbas. The 
author's name, which does not appear at the 
beginning, occurs, as given above, inciden- 
tally under A.H. 999, fol. 92 a, where he 
relates that in the course of that year he 
was twice sent by 'Abbas to Khan Ahmad, 
the prince of Gilan (see above, p. 110 b, and 



Geschichte von Gilan, edited by Dorn, p. 99), 
on a mission connected with the marriasre of 
that prince's daughter with the Sh"h's son. 
In other places he refers to himself by the 
shorter names of MuUa Jalal (fol. 94 b) or 
Jalal the Astrologer, ^ j^U (fol. 155 a). 
He appears to have been in constant atten- 
dance upon 'Abbas, whose old and ancient 
servant, ^J^>y> *!i)^ j5>, he calls himself, and 
with whom he was not afraid occasionally 
to remonstrate; see fol. 91 b. 

Mulla Jalal is mentioned by Malcolm, on 
the authority of "Zubd ul-Tuarikh," as 
chief astronomer at the court of 'Abbas ; see 
History of Persia, vol. i. p. 526. It is stated 
by Abul-Hasan Kazvmi, in the Fava'id i Sa- 
faviyyah. Add. 16,698, fol. 256, that in A.H. 
1002 Maulana Jalal ud-Din Muhammad Mu- 
najjim Yazdi represented to Shah 'Abbas, 
that, the aspect of the planets foreboding 
destruction to the sovereign of Iran, it 
behoved him to abdicate for a time and place 
upon the throne, as a substitute, a person 



niSTOEY OF THE SAFAVIS. 



186 



whose life was legally forfeited. In conse- 
quence a certainYusufi, tarkasliduz, or quiver- 
stitcher, a Mulhid or infidel, was selected for 
the unenviable distinction, and, after enjoy- 
ing for three days the pomp and joys of royal- 
ty, exhausted by his death the evil influence 
of the stars. The same author draws an 
amusing picture of the terror of the luckless 
astrologer, when told that the temporary king 
miglit, before his impending doom, wreak his 
vengeance upon him. The same incident is re- 
lated on the faith of " Zubd ut-Tuarikh," but 
without the astrologer's name, by Malcolm, 
vol. i. p. 527. 

The present work is a circumstantial nar- 
rative, in plain and easy language, of the 
early life of 'Abbas and the greatest part of 
his reign by a contemporary writer, who was, in 
most cases, an ocular witness of the events 
recorded. 

Contents : Genealogy of 'Abbas, traced on 
the father's side to the Imam Musa Kazim, 
and on the mother's side to the Sayyids of 
Mazandaran, fol. 4 a. Birth and early life 
of 'Abbas, fol. 5 h. Death of Tahmasp, A.H. 
984, and following events, fol. 8 h. Death of 
Shah Ismfi'il II., A.n. 985, and reign of 
Sultan-Muhammad, fol. 20 h. The events of 
that reign are narrated year by year from 
A.H. 990, fol. 29 a, to A.U. 995, fol. 42 a. 
The same arrangement is followed in the 
reign of 'Abbas (who is stated, fol. 45 a, to 
have ascended the throne in Kazvin at the 
end of Zul-hijjah, A.H. 995) from A.H. 996, 
fol. 53 «, to A.H. 1020, fob 328 «. 

The latter part of the space devoted to 
A.H. 1020, foil. 346 i— 359 «, is taken up by 
a detailed account of the flight of the Uzbak 
Khan, Vali Muhammad Khan, to Persia, of 
the honourable r^^ception which he found at 
the court of 'Abbas, of his return to his do- 
minions, and finally of his defeat and death at 
the hands of his nephew Imamkull Khan on 
the seventh of Kajab, A.H. 1020 (tlie MS. 
has, by mistake, ^ ^ J^ja , A.H. 1030). 



On the first page is impressed the seal of 
the Navvab Valajah 'Azim ud-Daulah, below 
which is written, " From His Highness the 
Nabob of the Carnatic to John Macdonald 
Kinneir." 

Add. 16,684. 

Foil. 427 ; 10| in. by 6| ; 27 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in small and fair Naskhi, with 
three 'Unvuns, apparently in the 17th cen- 
tury. [Wm. Yule.J 

^Up c^y jji$> ^15 

• A history of the life and reign of Shah 
'Abbas I., with an introduction treating of 
his predecessors. 

Author : Iskandar, known as Munshi, 

Beg. ij>\i^\ ^^.j^ *r ^T ^\,J cuU!*^ ^^^ 

Iskandar Beg was born about A.H. 968 ; 
for he writes on completing the present 
work, in A.H. 1038, that he had then reached 
the age of seventy. He states in his preface 
that he had spent his early life in the' 
study of arithmetic and in the service of the 
rich, as an accountant. Having afterwards 
given up that occupation for the nobler art 
of composition, " Insha," he soon became a 
proficient in it, and was enrolled iu the 
number of tlie royal Munshis. He appears 
to have been attached to the Vazir, I'timad- 
ud-Daulah Hatiiu Beg, and was near him at 
the time of his sudden death durinsr the 
siege of Urumi or Urmia, A.H. 1019; see 
fol. 314 a. 

The present work was completed in its 
original shape in A.H. 1025, which is also 
the date of its preface. It comprises a 
Mukaddimah and two Parts termed SahiCah. 

A continuation, called Maksad i Sani, and 
completed in A.H. 1038, was subsequently 

BB 



186 



HISTORY OP THE SAFAVIS. 



added to it. The author says at the end of 
this last section that he intended, should life 
and leisure he spared to him, to complete the 
work by appending to it a Khatimah, con- 
taining various anecdotes and curious notices 
collected during his long life. See Morley's 
Catalogue, p. 133; Erdmann, de Manuscripto 
Iskenderi Menesii, Cazan, 1822 ; Zeitschrift, 
vol. XV. p. 457 ; S. de Sacy, Journal Asia- 
tique, vol. v. p. 86 ; Stewart's Catalogue, 
p. 10 ; Vienna Catalogue, vol. ii. p. 174. 

A continuation of the 'Alarn Arrd 'AhbasT, 
written for Murtaza Kuli Khan, Governor of 
Ganjah, and comprising the reign of Shah 
Safi, is ascribed in the S. Petersburg 
Catalogue, p. 291, to Iskandar Munshi, but 
in the Munich Catalogue, p. 80, to another 
writer, Muhammad Ma'siim B. Khwajagi 
Isfahan! . 

Contents : Preface, fol. 1 b. Mukaddimah. 
Genealogy of 'Abbas, fol. 3 b. Shaikh Safi 
ud-Din and his successors, fol, 5 b. History 
of Shah Isma'Il, fol. 13 b. Reign of Shah 
Tahmasp, fol. 21 b. 

Sahifah I. Birth of Shah 'Abbiis, A.H. 978, 
his early life, death of Shah Tahmasp, and his- 
tory of Isma il Mirza and Sultan Muhammad, 
down to the accession of Shah 'Abbas, fol. 32 b. 

Sahifah II. Accession of Shah 'Abbas and 
history of the first thirty years of his reign, 
down to the end of A.H. 1025, fol. 135 b. 

Maksad II., or continuation of the pre- 
ceding part, containing the history of the 
same reign from the beginning of A.H. 1026 
to the death of 'Abbas on the 24th of Ju- 
mada I., A.H. 1038, and the subsequent 
proclamation of his successor Shah Safi in 
Isfahan, fol. 358 b. This last section is 
written by another hand, and dated Eajab, 
A.H. 1067 (A.D. 1657). 

On fol. 135 is a note stating that this 
volume had been read in A.H. 1213 by the 
Safavi prince Sultan- Muhammad Mirza ; see 
above, p. 133 b. 



Or. 152. 

Poll. 602 ; 13 in. by 7| ; 25 Unes, 4 in. 
long; written in small and fair Nestalik, 
with two 'Unvans and gold-ruled margins, 
early in the 17th century. 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

The same work complete, viz. : Preface 
and Introduction, fol. 10 b. Sahifah I., fol. 
54 b. Sahifah II., fol. 196 a'. Maksad II., 
fol. 4996. 

This volume once belonged to Sultan- 
Muhammad Kutubshah, who has written on 
fol. 10 a a short notice of the work. He 
was the nephew, son-in-law, and successor 
of Sultan Muhammad Kuli Kutubshah, and 
maintained, like his predecessor, friendly re- 
lations with the Safavis. We learn from 
the 'Alam Arae itself, fol. 476 a, that Shah 
'Abbas sent him an ambassador A.H. 1021 to 
congratulate him upon his accession. His 
death is recorded in the continuation of the 
same work, fol. 588 b, under A.H. 1036. 

Another note on the same page states that 
the MS. subsequently passed into the pos- 
session of Khwajah 'Anbar Habashi, minister 
of the Nizamshahis of Daulatabad, whence it 
fell by conquest into the hands of Shahjahan. 
It afterwards became the property of Sardar 
Singh, son of Rajah Shirsingh (who lived at 
the court of Shah 'Alam and Akbarshah), and 
then of his cousin Rao Gangaram, of whom 
it was bought by Col. G. W. Hamilton in 
1864. 

Prefixed are: V. A notice of the MS. 
and its successive owners, in Persian, dated 
Dehli, 21st Sept. 1865, fol. 1 a— 3 a. 

2°. A full tablc'of contents, foil. 4 6—9 b. 

Some portions missing in the original MS., 
and Maksad IL, which was not yet written 
when the book came into Kutubshah's pos- 
session, have been supplied by a later hand. 

Add. 7653. 

Poll. 366 ; 11| in. by 1\ ; 19 lines, 4^ in. 



HISTORY OF THE SAFAVIS. 



187 



long; written in Nestalik, apparently early 
in the 18th century. [CI. J. EiCH.J 

The same work. 

This copy wants one page at the beginning, 
and about twelve at the end. A spurious 
beginning and end have been supplied by a 
later hand, A.H. 1224. 

Add. 16,682. 

Foil. 236; 11 in. by 7 J ; 19 lines, 4| in. 
long ; wi'itten in Nestalik ; dated Agra, 
Ramazan, A.H. 1070 (A.D. 1600). 

[Wm. Yule.] 

The first half of the same work, contain- 
ing the preface, Mukaddimah, and Sahlfah I. 

Add. 17,927. 

Foil. 476; 9| in. by 6i ; 17 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik, probably 
in the 17th century. 

A portion of the same work. The text of 
this copy differs in some particulars from 
the preceding MSS. Although giving, like 
these, A.H. 1025 in the body of the work, 
fol. 195 a, as date of composition, it bears 
some traces of an earlier recension. The 
preface contains, fol. 5 b, an eulogy on the 
author's patron, the Vazir Abu Tfilib Khan, 
son and successor of I'timad ud-Daulah 
Hatim Beg. Abu Talib was raised to the 
Vazirate, as we learn from another part of 
the work, Add. 16,684, foil. 425 6, 314 a, 
after his father's death in A.H. 1019, and 
held it for the space of two years only. This 
fixes the date of the present preface, and 
accounts for the disappearance of this pas- 
sage in the ordinary recension, where the 
preface is dated A.II. 1025. 

The division is also different. The present 
volume contains twelve sections called Ma- 
kalah. The first, which makes up nearly 
the whole of its bulk, foil. 7 b — 461 b, corre- 
sponds to the Mukaddimah and SahUah I. of 



the later recension. It contains the history 
of the ancestors of Shah 'Abbas, of the reigns 
of his predecessors, and of his early life, down 
to the time of his accession. The remaining 
eleven Makalalis are extremely short ; they 
treat of the following subjects : — I. Piety of 
Shah 'Abbas, fol. 465 b. III. His wisdom, 
fol. 466 a. IV. His good fortune, fol. 467 a. 
V. His justice and the security of his realm, 
fol. 469 a. VI. His authority, fol. 470 a. 
VII. His policy, fol. 470 b. VIII. His sim- 
plicity, fol. 471 b. IX. His kindness towards 
his servants, fol. 472 a. X. His happy dis- 
position, fol. 473 a. XI, His constructions, 
fol. 473 b. XII. His victories, fol. 476 a. 

The MS. breaks off" at the second page of 
the last section. 

Add. 26,194. 

Foil. 217 ; 14 in. by 9 ; 29 lines, 6 in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik ; dated Marv 
Shahjahan, in the months of Rajab and 
Ramazan, A.H. 1091 (A.D. 1680). 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

A portion of the same work, containing 
the preface and Sahifah I. ; foil. 1 b — 155 b ; 
the second Maksad foil. 156 b — 219 a. 
The first Sahifah is here stated in the preface, 
fol. 3 a, to be subdivided, as in Add. 17,927, 
into twelve Makalahs ; but of these the first 
alone, which has nearly the same contents 
as in the preceding copy, is found in the 
body of the work. 

Add. 22,696. 

Foil. 271; 13 in. by 8; 21 lines, 5| in. 
long ; written in a cursive Nestalik ; dated 
Zulhijjah, A.H. 1079 (A.D. 1669). 

[Sir JouN Ca.mpbell.] 

The same portion of the work, viz : — 1°. The 
Preface and Sahifah I., foil. 1 6—191 «. 
2°. Mak.sad II.,' foil. 191 6—271 o. 
bb2 



188 



HISTOEY OF THE SAEAVIS. 



The same division of Sahifah I. into twelve 
Makalalis is indicated in the preface, but not 
observed in the body of the work. 

It is stated in the subscription that this 
MS. was written by order of Amir Asian 
Beg, son of Bastam Kull Mir Akhur, by 
Ismail B. Murad Kurd Shaml. 

Add. 23,520. 

Foil. 425 ; 10^ in. by 7^ ; 25 lines, 4§ in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik; dated Zul- 
hiijah, A.H. 1094 (A.D. 1683). 

[Rob. Taylor.] 

The second volume of the 'Alam Arfd 
'Abbasi, containing Sahlfah II. and Maksadll. 
The latter begins on fol. 327 b. 

Add. 23,521. 

Foil. 337 ; 13 in. by 9 ; 26 lines, 6 in. long ; 
written in plain Nestalik ; dated Zulka'dah, 
A.H. 1109 (A.D. 1698) ; much water-stained 
and partly torn. [Rob. Taylor.] 

The same portion of the work, viz : — 1°. 
Sahlfah II., wanting the first page, foil, 
12 a— 252 a. 2". Maksad H., foil. 253 b— 
337 a. 

Prefixed are : V. A full table of contents, 
foil. 1 a — 9 a. 2°. The first four pages of the 
Preface, foil. 10 a— 11 b. 

A note at the end states that this copy 
was written for Aka 'All Beg by Mulla Sal- 
man B. Gada 'All. 

Add. 18,872. 

Foil. 494; 10 in. by 61; 19 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in plain Nestalik, probably in 
the 17th century. 

The same portions of the 'Alam Arai, in 
inverted order, viz : 1. Maksad II., wanting 
about eight pages at the beginning and 
twenty-five at the end, foil. 1 a — 110 b. 
2. Sahlfah II., wanting about sixteen pages 
at the beginning and two or three at the end, 
foil. Ill a— 494 b. 



Add. 26,195. 

Foil. 251; 14 in. by 9 ; 21 lines, 6^ in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik; dated 
Ramazan, A.H. 1073 (A.D. 1663.) 

[Wm. Erjkine.] 

Sahlfah II. of the same work, or the his- 
tory of the first thirty years of the reign of 
Shah 'Abbas. 

Add. 16,683. 

Foil. 140; 121 in. by 7^; 21 lines, 41 in. 
long; written in Nestalik; dated A.H. 1213 
(A.D. 1798). [Wm. Yule.] 

Maksad II. of the same work. 

It is stated in the subscription that this 
MS. was written by order of the Safavi 
Prince, SultSn-Muhammad Mirza (see p. 
133 b), for the use of Col. Scott. 

Add. 7655. 

Foil. 89; 9 in. by 5^; 18 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated A.H. 1104 
(A.D. 1693). [CI. J. Rich.] 

A history of the general Rustam Khan 
and of the contemporary period of Persian 
history, dow^n to the time of his death 
(A.H. 1052.) 

Author: BTjan Tarlkh-Safavl-Khwan, or 
reciter of the Safavi Annals, ^^ ^fi tc^^ 

Beg. ^ ijt^U J^jjiS J ^^- u^J.^jfe^jJ^^^ 

The author states, in his preamble, that 
he wrote this histgry by desire of the grand- 
son of Rustam Khan, whom he designates as 
Sipah-salar and Beglerbegi of Azarbaijan. 
His information was chiefly derived from the 
oral statements of Rustam Khan himself and 
his brothers. 

Rustam Khan, son of Kara-Bijan, one of 
the retainers of Daud Khan of Georgia, 
fleeing with his family from his country, 



HISTORY OF THE SAFAVIS. 



189 



then invaded by the Turks, entered the ser- 
vice of Shah 'Abbas I. in A.H. 1007, at 
eleven years of age. Rising rapidly into 
favour he became Yasaval i Suhbat, or per- 
sonal attendant of the Shiih in 1012, Sardfir in 
1033, and Divan Begl in 1036. He defended 
Tabriz against the Turks in 1033 and 1036, 
relieved Baghdad and took Hillah in 1040, 
and suppressed the rebellion of Daud Khan 
in Georgia in 1042. Appointed in 1044 
Sipahsalar of Iran and Beglerbegi of Azar- 
brdjan, he took Erivan in 1045, and was, at 
the time of the accession of 'Abbiis II., at 
the head of the Persian forces in Khorasan. 
At the instigation of his rival, Vazlr Mirza 
Taki, he was put to death at Mashhad, 
A.il. 1052. 

After a short introduction, treating of the 
descent of Rustam Khan, fol. 4 b, and of the 
troubles of Georgia from A.H. 963 to his 
time, fol. 5 b, the biography proper begins 
on fol. 7 b, and, with the rapid rise of Rus- 
tam Khan, soon merges into history. It is 
in fact a record of the chief military events 
in Persia, during the reign of 'Abbas I., from 
A.H. 1033 to his death, fol. 9 a, of Shfih Safi, 
fol. 11 b, and of 'Abbas II., fol. 81 a, closing 
with an account of the sumptuous reception of 
the Chinsrizkhani Prince Imam Kuli Khan at 
the latter' s court. 

In the Khatimah, fol. 86 b, the author 
only alludes, in covert words, to the death of 
Rustam Khan. He then prays for his grand- 
son, the Beglerbegi of Azarbaijan, who is 
called here by the same name as his grand- 
sire, Rustam Khan, and concludes with 
a rapid summary of the principal events in 
his hero's life. 

ImamkuH Khan, Uzbak Khanof Turkistan, 
afflicted with blindness, abdicated in favour 
of his brother Nazr Muhammad, and repaired 
to the court of 'Abbiis II. in Kazvin, A.H. 
1052; see Kisas ul-Khakfini, Add. 7656, 
fol. 48 b. We learn from Tahir Vahid, Add. 
11,632, fol. 49 a, that Rustam Khan's enemy, 



the Vazlr Mirza Taki, did not long survive 
him ; he was assassinated by some Amirs on 
the 20th of Sha'ban, A.H. 1055. 

Add. 11,632. 

Foil. 156; 8i in. by 4|; 15 lines, 3 in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, with ruled 
margins, apparently in the 17th century. 

A history of the first fifteen years of the 
reign of Shah 'Abbas II. 

Author : Muhammad Tahir Vahid fsee 

• • • \ 

fol. 4 b), jjL»j ^IL :y^ 

Beg. J1X-. oj^ ^JJj «/ti*-»lj«. \j ^^ [J-iSf? 

Mirza Muhammad Tahir, takh. Vahid, son 
of Mirza Husain Khan Kazvini, was born in 
Kazvin. He was employed as Munshi by 
the grand Vazir, Mirza Taki ud-DIn Muham- 
mad, and by his successor Khallfah Sultan. 
He states in the present work, fol. 55 a, 
that in A.H. 1055 he was appointed Majlis- 
Navis, or court-historiographer, by Shah 
'Abbiis. He was raised to the dignity of 
Vazlr, according to Zinat ul-Majalis, Add. 
23,515, fol. 689 b, in A.H. 1101, and remained 
eighteen years in office. The last years of 
his life were spent in retirement and he died 
at the age of ninety. He was reputed the 
first master of style of his day, and has left, 
besides the present work, an Insha including 
several letters written in the name of Shah 
'Abbas (see Add. 7690) and a Divan of con- 
siderable extent. His poems were only 
praised, according to the Atashkadah, on 
account of the author's rank. See Kisas ul- 
Khakanl, Add. 7656, fol. 164 a, Hazln's Taz- 
kirah. Add. 16,728, fol. 21, Atashkadah, 
Add. 107 a, Riyaz ush-Shu'ara, Add. 16,729, 
fol. 496, Oude Catalogue, p. 137. 

The preface contains a wordy panegyric 
on Shah 'Abbas II., and on the author's late 
patron, the Vazir Khallfah Sultan (who was 
in office from A.H. 1055 to his death, A.H. 
1064, Kisas ul-Khakani, Add. 7656, fol. 131). 

The author says that, serving the latter as 



190 



HISTORY OE THE SAEAA^IS. 



secretary, he had been through him intro- 
duced to the Shah's favourable notice, and 
that his official duties brought him constantly 
to His Majesty's presence, by whose com- 
mands he wrote the present history. 

Contents: Preface, fol. 1 b. Birth of 
Shah 'Abbas 11., A.H. 1041, fol. 9 b. His 
genealogy, fol. 11 a. His accession on the 
11th of Safar, A.H. 1052, and events of the 
first year of the reign, fol. 17 a. Erom this 
point the history proceeds year by year to 
the end of A.H. 1066. The last event men- 
tioned is a destructive earthquake in the 
city of Kazvin. It must be noticed, however, 
that the designation of the several years has 
been omitted in this as well as in the following 
copies, so that they can only be determined 
by comparison with other works. 

Letters written by the author in the name 
of the Shah are frequently inserted in full ; 
see foil. 85 6, 88 6, 105 a, 151 a. 

The work bearing no special title, it is 
commonly called from the author's name 
Tilrikh i Tahir Vahid. It is thus endorsed 
in the present copy. In the Kisas ul-Kha- 
kiim, Add. 7656, fol. 130 b, it is designated 
as Tarikh i Jadid. 

In a copy described by Dr. Dorn, S. Peters- 
burg Catalogue, p. 292, the history is said 
to come down to A.H. 1074. Compare 
Asiatisches Museum, p. 382, and Mackenzie 
Collection, vol. II., p. 123. 

Add. 10,594. 

EoU. 141 ; Q\ in. by 5f ; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in cursive Kestalik, apparently 
in the 18th century. 

The same work. 

The rubrics are frequently omitted. On 
the fly-leaf is written "John Carnac, 29th 
April 1766." 

Add. 25,788. 

Eoll. 164; 9| in. by 7; 15 lines, 4^ in. 



long ; written in plain Nestalik on European 
paper, bearing in its water-mark the date 
1806. [Wm. Cuukton.] 

The same work. 

The cover bears the Indian stamp of 
Edward Sheffield Montague, with the date 
1815. 

Add. 7656. 

Eoll. 180; 12 in. by 8^; 27 lines, 5| in. 
long; written in a small and fair Naskhi ; 
dated Etliyabad, Ears Sha'ban, A.H. 1028 
(probably for 1128, A.D. 1716) ; bound in 
painted and glazed covers. [CI. J. Eicu.] 

A full history of the reign of Shah 'Abbas II., 
with an account of his predecessors. 

Author : Vali Kuli ShamlQ Ibn Da'ud Kull, 
Beg ji-b lUjS ^Jy->y Ulo xi\ li^ 



^ U^J J^^ J^ *^ L^'-^ 



u>r^ 



"VVe learn from the preface that the author 
left Herat in his youth for Sijistan, where he 
found favour with the local ruler, Malik 
Nusrat Khan, who appointed him Mustaufi 
of his establishment. After having filled this 
post for several years, he repaired to Kan- 
dahar, where a book came under his notice, 
in which Indian chroniclers had described 
the campaigns of the sovereigns of Hin- 
dustan acjainst Kandahar and the Kizilbash. 
This inspired him with the idea of writing, as 
a counterpart to»it, a record of the warlike 
deeds of the latter. But having been in the 
meanwhile appointed by the governor of 
Kandahar, Zulfakar Khan, superintendent of 
the palace, his official duties deprived him 
of the necessary leisure, until, after the death 
of Zulfakar Khan and the installation of 
his brother Mansur Khan in his government 
(A.H. 1073 ; V. fol. 144), the intrigues of 



HISTORY OF THE SAFAVIS. 



191 



two personal enemies led to his dismissal. 
He then made use of his recovered freedom 
for the composition of the present work, 
which he commenced at the age of thirty- 
eight years, in A.H. 1073, a date which 
by a remarkable coincidence, he says, is 
expressed by the title of this history, 

As might be expected from the above 
preface, the author's attention is much en- 
grossed by the Indian wars, and he gives a 
very circumstantial narrative of the siege 
of Kandahar, of which he was an ocular 
witness. 

The work is divided into five unequal 
parts, as follows : — 

Mukaddimah. Genealogy of 'Abbas II., 
fol. 4 a. 

Bab I. Account of his ancestors from 
Sultan Firuzshah, the first who settled in 
Ardabil, to the rise of Shah Isma'il, fol. 4 b. 

Bab II. Account of the reigns of his pre- 
decessors on the throne, namely: Shah 
Isma'il, fol. 7 a. Tahmiisp, fol. 10 a. Is- 
ma'il II., fol. 18 a. Khudabandah, fol. 
19 a. Shah 'Abbas I., fol. 22 a. Shah Saf i, 
fol. 37 b. 

Bab III. History of the reign of Shah 
'Abbas II., from his accession in A.H. 1052, 
to his death, which happened in Khusrava- 
bad, district of Damghan, on the 25th of 
Rabi' I., A.H. 1077, fol. 47 b. 

Khatimah. Biographical notices of the 
eminent men of the reign of 'Abbas II., 
divided into two Tazkirahs : 1. 'Ulama, 
literati, physicians, and Shaikhs, fol. 156 a. 
2. Poets, fol. 162 b. 

The latter part of the work, and especially 
the biographical notices, have been written 
in A.H. 1076, as appears from numerous 
passages in which that date is mentioned as 
that of the current year; see foil. 156 S, 
160 a, 161 b, 176 b, etc. The account of 
the Shah's death is necessarily a subsequent 
addition, as also are some passages in which 



later dates are introduced, as A.H. 1079, 
fol. 143 b, A.H. 1082, and A.H. 1085, 
fol. 165 a. 

Or. 154. 

Foil. 131; 8 in. by 4^; 14 lines, 2| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Lucknow, 
Ramazan, A.H. 1226 (A.D. 1811.) 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

A history of the family called Al i Da'ud. 

' Author ; Muhammad Hashim, son of 
Sayyid Muhammad Mirza, surnamed Shith 
Sulaiman II., yUjJutf i\JLi »_Jil* \y*« s^ Jom* ^^^ 

^U. j^ ^Jo 

Beg. \Zj^\yj> \j (_^jj-« (j^-^ ^. i^U_S j x^ 

Sayyid Muhammad Mirza, the author's 
father and the main subject of this notice, 
was the son of Sayyid Mirza Muhammad 
Da'ud ul-Husaini and of a Safavi princess, 
daughter of Shiih Sulaiman. During the 
fierce struggles which followed the death of 
Nadirshah, he was proclaimed by some Arab 
Khsins at Mashhad, A.H. 1163, under the 
name of Shah Sulaiman II., caused Shah- 
rukh, the latter's successor, to be cruelly 
blinded, and after forty days' reign met with 
the same fate at the hands of Yusuf 'All 
Khan, when the blind grandson of Nadir- 
shah was restored to the throne. See Sir 
Wm. Jones's Histoire de Nader Chah, vol. 
ii. p. 197, Malcolm, vol. ii. p. Ill, Fava'id 
Safaviyah, Add. 16,698, foil. 57 b, 108 a. 

The author states in the preface, that, 
after the taking of Ispahan by Mahmud, the 
Afghan, and the downfall of the Safavis, a 
period of anarchy followed, during which 
none of the members of that family could 
find leisure to put in writing any record 
of their lives or genealogies, and that he 



192 



HISTORY OF NADIE SHAH. 



was induced by tliat consideration to draw 
up, for the benefit of the survivors, an ab- 
stract of the history of their forefathers and 
some record of their foundations and pos- 
sessions, especially those of Kasim-abad and 
Khan-Saadat, still subsisting at the date of 
composition, that is A.H. 1218. 

The work comprises, according to the 
preface, a Mukaddimah, two Babs and a 
Khatimah. The latter, however, does not 
appear in this copy. 

Contents: Mukaddimah. Account of Amir 
Kivam ud-Din Sadik, and his descendants, 
the ancestors of Mirza Muhammad Da'ud, 
fol. 6 h. 

Bab I. History of Mirzii Muhammad Da'ud 
ul-Husainl and his children, fol. 31 b. (He 



was born in Ispahan, A.H. 1065, and died at 
the same place at the age of sixty-two.) 

Bab II. History of the youngest son of the 
above, Sayyid Muhammad Mirza, afterwards 
Shah Sulaiman II., and his children, fol. 64 b. 
(He was born in Ispahan, A.H. 1126, as- 
cended the throne on the 5th of Safar, A.H. 
1163, and died on the 6th of Zulka'dah, A.H. 
1176). 

This chapter, the last in this copy, con- 
cludes with a short notice of the author, the 
fifth son of the preceding. He was born at 
Mashhad A.H. 1165, and lived with his elder 
brother Kasim Mirza, partly in Sliiraz, Avhere 
they were honourably treated by Karim 
Khan, partly in Ispahan with his relatives. 

A modern table of contents is prefixed. 



HISTORY OE NADIR SHAH. 



Add. 7661. 

Foil. 267; 11 in. by 7^; 15 lines, 4 J in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Rabi' I., 
A.H. 1182 (A.D. 1768.) [CI. J. RicH.j 

History of Nadir Shah, from his rise to 
his death, A.H. 1160. 

Author : Muhammad Malidl Astarabiidi 
B. Muhammad Nasir (see fol. 3 a), ^^ 

Beg. ^l^jL»So. (jl-i'jjj aOiij ^J'^'^jyj u'^.^^'^y 



This work was translated into French by 
Mr., afterwards Sir William, Jones, under the 
title of Histoire de Nader Chah, Paris, 1770. 
An English translation was published by 
the same scholar in London, 1773. Several 
editions of the text have appeared at Tabriz, 



Teheran and Bombay. See also Morley's 
Catalogue, p. 138, S. Petersburg Catalogue, 
p. 293, Munich Catalogue, p. 81, and Copen- 
hagen Catalogue, p. 23. 

Mirza Mahdi Khan's minute and circum- 
stantial account of Nadir's actions would 
suffice to prove that he was attached to his 
service ; but he writes himself, vol. i. p. 191, 
that he was present when Nadir, on his way 
to Ispahan, in A.H. 1146, received the news 
of the birth of^his grandson Shahrukh, and 
in another passage, fol. 255 a, which has not 
been rendered with suflicient clearness in 
the translation, vol. ii. p. 179, he states that, 
in A.H. 1160, the last year of Nadir's life, 
he was sent by His Majesty, along with 
Mustafa Khan Shamlu, on a mission to the 
Sultan of Turkey. According to Sir Harford 
Brydges, History of the Kajars, p. clxxxi. 



HISTORY OF NADIR SHAH. 



193 



note, he was present as Nadir's private 
secretary at his interviews with Muhammad 
Shah, and was known by the latter to be 
writing Nadir's life. 

No title appears in the work itself, which 
is generally known as ^jjii'o ^J3, but in the 
subscription of some copies and in the 
Turikh i Zandiyyah, Add. 26,198, it is called 
^^,^\j ^liijl^ if jIj. The preface contains no 
dedication, and it is not clear to whom the 
author refers when he says that he " is one 
of His Highness's servants and commissioned 
to record events," lax-ij j jy^ ul/V J^ ** 
Cjm\ jyt^ ^S>j , certainly not to Nadir, who 
is spoken of as dead in the next line. Some 
MSS. contain an epilogue, dated A.II. 1171, 
in praise of Muhammad Hasan Khan, the 
chief of the Kajars, which appears also in 
the French translation, pp. 198, 199. 

The present copy, as well as all the follow- 
ing, but two, concludes with the death of 
Ibrahim Shah and 'Ali Shah; see French 
translation, vol. ii. p. 197. It does not 
contain either the account of the ephemeral 
reign of Sayyid Muhammad or the epilogue 
above mentioned, which are found only in 
Add. 25,790 and 21,590. 

Add. 26,196. 

Foil. 154; 12^ in. by 7f ; 21 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in small and elegant Persian 
Shikastah-amlz ; dated A.H. 1184 (A.D. 
1770). [Wm. Eeskine.] 

The same work. 

Add. 6576. 

Foil. 237; 10^ in. by 6^; 14 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in Indian Nestalik, with 'Un- 
van and ruled margins; dated Zulka'dah, 
A.H. 1196 (A.D. 1782). [J. F. Hull.] 

The same work, with a table of contents, 
foil. 1 a — 3 a. On the first page is impressed 
the Persian seal of Mr. James Grant. 



Add. 6154. 

Foil. 293; 9 J in. by BJ; 13 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in Nestalik, with 'Unvan and 
gold-ruled margins ; dated Shawal, A.H. 
1197 (A.D. 1783). 

The same work. 

Add. 26,197. 

Foil. 203 ; 12 in. by 7^ ; 21 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in plain Nestalik ; dated in the 
village of Haj Karah, RabI' L, A.H. 1204 
(A.D. 1789). ' [Wm. Ekskine.] 

The same work. 

Copyist : ^ .w«» ^^i 4)11 sts- j-«» 

Add. 19,530. 

Foil. 188 ; 94 in. by 6| ; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long, in a page ; written in fair Shafi'a, with 
'Unvan and gold-ruled margins; apparently 
early in the 19th century. Bound in hand- 
somely painted and glazed covers. 

The same work. 

On the fly-leaf is written : " From Harford 
Jones to his much esteemed friend Mr James 
Morier, the 15th of Nov., 1808." 

Add. 23,522. 

Foil. 187 ; 11| in. by 7i ; 17 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik on European paper, 
apparently in the 19th century. 

[Rob. Taylok.J 

The same work. 

Four leaves at the beginning and three at 
the end have been supplied, in A.H. 1256, 
by a later hand; also a table of contents, 
foil. 2—5. 



Add. 23,523. 



Foil. 297 ; 10^ in. by 7 ; 15 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with ruled mar- 
gins, apparently about the beginning of the 
19th century. [Rob. Taylor.] 

cc 



194 



HISTORY OP NADIE SHAH. 



The same work, (jji>l3 ^Jo 

Prefixed is a table of contents, foil. 2 b — 
7 a, dated Eajab A.H. 1258. 

Add. 25,790. 

Foil. 170; 11 in. by 7|; 20 lines, 5^ in. 
long; written in Naskhi; dated Isfahan, 
Jumada I., A.H. 1219 (A.D. 1804). 

[Wm. Cureton.] 

The same work. 

This copy has the continuation, which 
appears in the French translation, pp. 197 — 
199, and is wanting in all the preceding. 

Appended is a Dibajah, or preamble in 
ornate prose, to the deed of marriage of 
Rlza Kuli Mirza, the son of Nadir, by the 
author, Mahdi Khan, \jjx^ fi^j' " r^ '^'^.A 
sHii \jj^ J.S Uj C-^a? yli- ^jA^ foil. 167 b — 
170 a. 

Scribe : ^^ji^ s^^ 

A table of chapters, fol. 2, is prefixed. 

Add. 21,590. 

Foil. 336 ; 9i in. by 5J ; 15 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in plain Nestalik, with "Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
18th century. 

The same work, with the same continuation 
as in the preceding copy. 

The latter part of this MS., from fol. 323 
to the end, has numerous small gaps, owing 
apparently to the damaged state of the 
copy from which it was transcribed. 

Add. 25,789. 

Foil. 218 ; 10 in. by 6 ; with an average 
of 20 lines, about 4| in. in length ; written 
in a coarse and cursive Indian character; 
dated A.H. 1247 (A.D. 1831). 

[Wm. Cureton.] 

The same work. This copy concludes 



with an account of the usurpation of Sayyid 
Muhammad and restoration of Shahrukh, 
foil. 216 a — 218 b, different from the pre- 
ceding, and more detailed, but so badly writ- 
ten as to be scarcely legible. 

Copyist : i^l3 j^ j/U J\jS>j ^y> ^^Ijy 
On the first page is written : " Jahdnkushd, 
Mohansdl, 25th Feb. 1839, Kdbul," which an 
appended note states to be in the handwriting 
of Sir Alexander Bumes. 

Add. 10,581. 

Foil. 283 ; 9^ in. by 6^ ; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in Nestalik, with ruled mar- 
gins ; dated Rabr II., A.H. 1220 (A.D. 1805). 

The same work. 

The latter part of this volume, foil. 260 b — 
283 a, contains a fragment, which, although 
written in continuation of the Tfirikh i Na- 
diri and without apparent break, is quite 
distinct from it. It is a circumstantial 
account, imperfect at the beginning, of the 
events which followed the death of Nadir, 
from the execution of the young princes, by 
order of 'AIT Shah, to the 27th of Ramazan, 
A.H. 1161, when Shahrukh declined the ur- 
gent appeal of Ibrahim Khan to leave Mash- 
had and join him. Although agreeing in 
general substance with the corresponding 
portion of the Tarikh i Nadirl, pp. 191 — 196 of 
the French translation, vol. ii., it is much more 
diffuse in style and more abundant in details. 

Add. 27,242. 

Foil. 243 ; 10| in. by 6^ ; 15 lines, 4 in. 
long; written 'in Shikastah-Amiz ; dated 
Shavval, A.H. 1208 (A.D. 1794). 

[John Macdonald Kinneir.] 

The same work. 

This copy contains at the end, fol. 231 a — 
243 «, a portion of the fragment found in 
the preceding copy. It corresponds to foil. 
260 6—272 a of the latter MS., and is 



HISTORY OF NADIR SHAH. 



195 



evidently derived from the same source ; for 
its abrupt beginning tallies exactly -mth 
thai of the same addition in Add. 10,581. 

The subscription contains an eulogy on 
Navvfib 'Umdat ul-Mulk Valajah Amir ul- 
Hind Asaf ud-Daulah Anvar ud-Din Khan, 
to whom the MS. was presented in A.H. 
1208 by Shamir Masihi j<»r*j4-U.. 

Copyist : ^\>.„.J^ Jb j-^^ Jj ^jS^ jM 

The seal of Navvab Valajah *Azim ud-Dau- 
lah with the date 1216 is impressed on the 
first page, and, at the beginning of a prefixed 
index of contents, foil. 2, 3, is written " From 
His Highness the Nabob of the Carnatic to 
John Macdonald Kinneir." 

Add. 11,634. 

Foil. 171 ; 7| in. by 4^ ; 14 lines, 2^ in. 
long ; written in Shikastah-amiz, apparently 
in the 18th century. 

The first half of the same work, corres- 
ponding to pp. 1 — 196 of vol. i. of the French 
version. 

Add. 7659. 

Foil. 221 ; 9i in. by 6^ ; 14 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik ; dated Bagh- 
dad, Zulka'dah, A.H. 1216 (A.D. 1802). 

[CI. J. Rich.] 

A history of Nadir Shiih from his rise to 
his death. 

Author : Muhammad Mahdi B. Muhammad 
Nash' (see fol. 12 a)j^ s^^ ^^ ,j<i^ ij-»s£° 

Beg. ^^jS (j:>o-Uai t-.>US l_jII^ »»-^i?.'i p-Wi*^ 

This work, although written by the same 
author as the preceding, and containing sub- 
stantially the same matter, is yet quite dis- 
tinct from it. Instead, of a plain narrative, 



it is an elaborate and artificial composition, 
written in imitation of tlie history of Vassaf, 
which is set up as a model in the preface? 
fol. 6 b. Its language is so fai*-fetched and 
abstruse as to require a vast number of 
explanatory notes, which fill the margins of 
this copy and the following. 

The preface occupies no less than eight- 
and-twenty folios. The last chapter treats 
of the assumption of the regal title by 
Ibrahim Khan at Tabriz and his subsequent 
capture and execution, A.H. 1161. 

The title, as given in the preface (fol. 28 a. 
Or. 1360, fol. 33 b, and Add. 7660, fol. 26 a) 
is Durrah i Nadirah, not Durrah i Nadiri. 
The work is, however, designated by the latter 
name in the preface of the Tfirikh i Muham- 
mad!, Add. 27,243, fol. 8 a, and in the Fava'id 
i Safaviyyah, Add. 16,698, fol. 107 a, where 
Durrah i Nadiri and Tarikh i Nadiri are men- 
tioned as two distinct works of Mirza Mahdl 
Khan. 

The Durrah i Nadirah has been lithographed 
at Bombay, A.H. 1280. It is described, but 
without the author's name, in the Vienna 
Catalogue, vol. ii. p. 176. 

Or. 1360. 

FoU. 267 ; 12^ in. by SJ ; 10 lines, 5 in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik; dated A.H. 
1182 (A.D. 1768). [SirCuABLES Al. Murray.] 

The same work. 

At the end are some lines of poetry Avritten 
in praise of the work by the transcriber, 
Ibrahim ul-Husaini, the last of which ex- 
presses by a chronogram the date of tran- 
scription. 

Add. 7660. 

Foil. 196; 9 in. by 5^; 15 Hues, 3^ in. 
long; written in Nestalik; dated Baghdad, 
Jumada II., A.H. 1232 (A.D. 1817). 

[CI. J. Rich.] 
The same work. 

cc2 



( 196 ) 



HISTORY OF THE ZAND AND KAJAR DYNASTIES. 



Add. 23,524. 

Foil. 148 ; Hi in. by 7^ ; 20 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in small Nestalik, about the 
close of the 18th century. [Rob. Taylok.] 



iS\lS ^ ^^ 



A history of the Zand Dynasty, from the 
rise of Karim Khan to the death of Lutf 
All Khan, the last of the race, A.H. 1209. 

Authors : Mirza Muhammad Sadik ul- 



Musavi, sumamed Nami, 



s^r^r*" ij' 



,11 -iiiU A.^ 



^Ky> (_>a, 



\it^\ and 'Abd ul-Karim B. 'All 
Riza ush- Sharif ^>j^\ \^j ^Js- ^^ ^>j^\ sxs- 

Beg. j.^-1 jyjj jjj^ ^ ^\^jy. ^!^jl> 

The author of the Atashkadah, writing in 
A.H. 1180, mentions Mirza Muhammad 
Sadik, sumamed Nami, as one of the con- 
temporary poets, and says that he was then 
engaged upon a history of the Zand Dynasty. 
He belonged to a family of Musavi Sayyids, 
which had been transferred from Pars to 
Ispahan, and had for a century and a half 
given court-physicians to the Safavis. Mirza 
Eahim, his uncle, was Hakim Bashi. Mirza 
Sadik had from his youth been devoted to 
literary pursuits, and was then known as the 
author of two Magnavis, Laila u Majnun and 
Khusrau u Shirin ; see Add. 7671, fol. 196 b. 
A fragment of a third, Vtimik u Azra, is 
preserved in Add. 7721 ; compare Ouseley's 
Travels, vol. iii. p. 557. 

It is related in the Fava'id i Safaviyyah, 
Add. 16,698, fol. 135 b, that Mirza Muham- 
mad Sadik, takh. Nami, was severely rebuked 
by 'All Murad Khan (A.H. 1196—1199) for 
the noble origin he had mendaciously as- 



signed in his Tarikh i Zandiyyah to the 
Zand family, and was compelled to drink the 
water in which his own copy of that history 
had been washed off. The rough draught, 
however, had been preserved. It was pro- 
duced at the desire of Ja'far Khan (A.H. 
1199 — 1203), and the author received as a 
reward 500 Tumans, which he gave away to 
the poor. 

The above statements can only refer to the 
earlier portion of Mirzii Sadik's history ; for in 
its present shape the work belongs to a later 
period. 

In the preface Abul-MuzalTar Muhammad 
Ja'far Khan Zand is named as the reigning 
sovereign, and it is stated that it was by his 
order that the present history was written. It 
is also remarked in the body of the work, 
fol. 91 a, that its main object was to record 
the " present reign," by which is meant 
that of Ja'far Khan. The author derived 
much of his information, as we are told, 
fol. 86 i, from the Vazir of Ja'far Khan, 
Mirza Muhammad Husain Famhani. 

The continuator, 'Abd ul-Karim, who has 
been mentioned above, p. 135, as the writer 
of a portion of Zinat ut-Tavarikh, and es- 
pecially of the account of Fath 'All Shah's 
reign, which is brought down to A.H. 1221, 
was a pupil of the author. He says in the 
conclusion. Add. 7662, fol. 152 a, that he 
had enjoyed the tuition of that great master 
of the art of writing, in Shiraz, from the age of 
twelve for three full years, until the time when 
Mirzii Sadik had been called upon to write 
this history. He adds that, after his master's 
death, in A.H. 1204, he was himself com- 
missioned by the above-named Vazir to 
complete the work which had been left un- 
finished at the capture of the citadel of 



HISTORY OF THE ZAND DYNASTY. 



197 



Isfahan, on the 21st of Muharram, A.H. 
1200 (fol. Ill b). He did not, however, bring 
it to a close until after the death of Lutf 
'All Khan in A.H. 1209. Although he shows 
himself in this history a decided partisan of 
Lutf *Ali Khan, he was attached at the 
time of writing, according to his own state- 
ment, Add. 7662, fol. 142 b, to the service of 
his successful competitor for the empire, 
Aka Muhammad Kajar. 

After two introductory chapters treating of 
the origin and history of the Zand tribe, fol. 3 b, 
and of the events which followed the death of 
Nadir Shah, fol. 5 a, the detailed narrative 
begins, fol. 6 b, with A.H. 1164, and is carried 
on year by year to the end. The beginning 
of each year and some of the principal events 
are marked by rubrics. The history of Karim 
Khan occupies more than the first half of the 
volume ; his death in A.H. 1193 is recorded on 
fol. 88 b. 

This copy breaks off in the fourth page of 
the chapter treating of the march of Akii 
Muhammad Kajar upon Shiraz, A.H. 1206. 
It wants ten or eleven leaves at the end. 

The work received from 'Abd ul- Karim 
(Add. 7662, fol. 163) the title of Tarikh 
1 Gitikushae. It is also frequently called 

jjjoj 2ijX>, as on the fly-leaf of this MS., and 

it is often quoted by Sir John Malcolm, 
History of Persia, vol. ii. p. 119, &c., as 
"Tuarikh Zundeah, by Meerza Saaduck." 
The title s>j ^J^ t>.^ ^Jo written as a head- 
ing at the beginning of the present copy, 
and of Add. 25,794, is obviously inadequate. 
The same work is mentioned under the title 
of Tarikh i Zandiyyah in Melanges Asiatiques, 
vol. iii. p. 731. 

Add. 7662. 

Poll. 153 ; 12 in. by 7^ ; 21 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Shikastah-amiz, about the 
close of the 18th century. [CI. J. EiCH.] 



Another copy, complete, with the excep- 
tion of the rubrics, most of which are 
wanting. 

Add. 25,794. 

Foil. 162 ; 12^ in. by 8^ ; 21 lines, 5 in. 
long ; written in small Nestalik in India ; 
dated Jumada I., A.H. 1236 (A.D. 1820). 

[Wm. Cureton.] 

Another copy of the same work, wanting 
most of the rubrics. At the end are a few 
lines, not found in the other copies, in which 
the author states his intention to write a 
eontinuation of this history in a second 
volume, to be called Julus-Namah. 

This copy was written, according to the 
subscription, in the house of Ghulam 'All 
Khan Subadar. 



Copyist : J^ 



im ^V.».-». ^y^ lis* SXf 



Add. 26,199. 

Foil. 262; 8| in. by 6^; 19 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik, apparently 
in India, in the 19th century. 

[Wm. Ebskine.] 

Another copy of the same work, wanting 
all the rubrics. 



Add. 24,904. 

FoU. 145 ; 7| in. by 5 ; 16 lines, 2| in. 
long; written in a small and elegant Shafi'a, 
with a rich 'Unvan, and gold-ruled margins, 
about the close of the 18th century ; bound 
in painted covers, representing on one side 
Karim Khan, and on the other his brother 
Sadik Khan, with their children and oflBcers. 

The first part of the same work (Add. 
23,524, foil. 2 6-89 a), ending with the 
death of Karim Khan, A.H. 1193. Two 



\ 



198 



niSTOEY OE THE ZAND DYNASTY. 



short sections relating to the taking of Basrah, 
by 'AH and to hostilities with the Arabs 
(Add. 23,524, foU. 86 6—88 b) are wanting. 

Add. 24,903. 

Toll. 138 ; 7i in. by 5^ ; 9 lines, ^ in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins; dated Safar A.II.1218 
(A.D. 1803) ; bound in painted covers, re- 
presenting the two rival kings, namely, on 
one side Agha Muhammad Khan attended 
by Haji Ibrahim, and on the other Lutf 'AIT 
Khan with Mirza Husain. 

A history of the Zand Dynasty, from the 
death of Karlm Khan, A.H. 1193, to the 
defeat and capture of Lutf 'AH Khan, A.H. 
1209. ' 

Author: Ibn 'Abd ul-KarIm 'AH Rizae 
Shirazi, i^j^j^ ^J^^jAs- o^\ jj* ^\ 

Beg. ^JtlJ J \i^j ^\^\ J ^Jii)^^ j cif- i-jb,^ j> 

The author says in the preface, that, 
although the history of Nadir Shah had been 
written by Mh'zii Mahdi Khan Astara])adi in 
his Tarikh i Jahankushae Nadiri, and that of 
Karlm Khan by Mirza Sadik Munshi, takh. 
Nam], in his Tarikh i Saltanat i Karim Khan, 
while some others had recorded the rise and 
progress of the Kajars, none bad ever at- 
tempted to narrate the decline and fall of 
the Zand dynasty, until he had been induced 
by the urgent instances of a friend not named 
to supply that deficiency by the present 
work. 

He begins with a rapid review of the last 
years of Karim Khan, fol. 5 a, and then pro- 
ceeds to a detailed narrative of the short and 
stormy reign of his successors, Zaki Khan, 
fol. 8 a, Abu '1-fath Khan, fol. 15 a, Sadik 
Khan, fol. 17 a, 'AH Murad Khan, fol. 26 a, 
Ja'far Khan, fol. 33 a, and Lutf 'AH Khun, 
fol. 66 a. 



Although treating of the same events as 
the latter half of the Tarikh i Giti Kusha, 
the present work is distinct from it. The 
narrative is more condensed, couched in 
plainer language, and, while the former 
breathes devotion to the fallen dynasty, the 
present writer misses no opportunity of court- 
ing the rising sun of the Kajars. Notwith- 
standing that discrepancy, the latter portion 
of the present history agrees in many passages 
word for word with the GitT Kusha. The 
author, however, whose name is distinctly 
written Ibn 'Abd ul-KarIm 'AH Riziie Shirazi 
in the present and the two following copies, 
cannot be confounded with the continuator 
of the latter work, who is invariably called 
in all four MSS. of that work 'Abd ul-Karim 
B. 'AH Riza ush-Sharif. 

" Aly Reza's History of the Zund Family," 
is the principal authority followed by Sir 
John Malcolm for that period ; see vol. ii. 
pp. 147, 153—202. A sketch of the Zand 
dynasty in E. Scott Waring's Tour to Sheeraz, 
pp. 259 — 305, is also principally drawn from 
the present work. Compare Aumer, Munich 
Catalogue, p. 82. 

A note written at the end and signed 
" Muhammad Mahdi, commonly called Imil- 
mi," states that this copy was transcribed by 
desire of Sir John Malcolm. By the side of 
it is impressed a seal bearing the name of 
Muhammad Mahdi ul-HamzavT ul-Miisavi, 
and the date 1210. 

Add. 26,198. 

Eoll. 103; Si in. by 5^ ; 10 lines, 2\ in. 
long ; written on European paper in cursive 
Nestalik; dated Muharram, A.H. 1217 (A.D. 
1802). " [Wm. Erskine.J 

The same work. 

Add. 23,525. 

Eoll. 94 ; 7| in. by 7 ; 11 lines, 3| in. long ; 



HISTORY OP THE KAJAB DYNASTY. 



199 



written on European paper in cursive Nesta- 
lik, about the beginning of the 19th century. 

[Rob. Taylor.] 

The same work. 

The title s>j Ji- Jc i_fiU ^J3 is written at 
the top of the first page. 

Add. 27,243. 

Foil. 249; 9 in. by 51; 14 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins; dated A.H. 1222 
(A.D. 1807) ; bound in painted covers. 

[Sir John Malcolm.] 

A history of the rise of the Kajars and of 
the reign of Aka Muhammad. 

Author : Ibn Muhammad Taki us-Saru'i 

Muhammad, j^ t^jjLJ\ ^ o^ ^^\ 

Beg. y^ ]^..'^i*»< ^ J Vjj ^ji'^y*^ Cjs^ 

The work was written in the lifetime of 
Aka Muhammad, who is eulogized in the 
preface as the reigning sovereign, but it was 
not completed until after his death. The 
author, who calls himself one of the royal 
servants, states that he wrote it by order of 
a Kajar prince, whose name is left out in the 
present copy, but appears in the next, fol. 
6 a, viz. Path 'All (afterwards Fath 'Ali 
Shah), who gave it the title of Tarikh i Mu- 
hammad! in allusion to the names of both hero 
and writer. It closes with a Kasidah, composed 
in praise of it by Mirza Fath 'AH Kashi, 
takh. Saba, appointed by the said prince 
Malik ush-Shu ara, in which the date of its 
completion, A.H. 1211, is fixed by the chro- 
nogram, Oj^ ]S>yi^ ^ ^3 iyi . 

The introduction contains an account of 
the career of Fath 'All Khan, the first Kajar 
who rose to power, fol. 9 b, of his son Mu- 
hammad Hasan Khan, fol. 13 a, and of the 



latter's son Husain Kuli Khan, fol. 21 a. 
The history of Aka Muhammad, the latter'g 
brother, begins with his captivity in Shiraz, 
fol. 29 a, and from his escape, at the time of 
Karim Khan's death, A.H. 1193, it is carried 
on year by year until his death, which hap- 
pened on the 21st of Zulhijjah, A.H. 1211; 
see fol. 235 a. The last chapters treat of the 
march of the prince (Fath 'Ali Shah) from 
Shiraz to Teheran, his victory over Sadik 
Khan Shakakl, and the transfer of the Shah's 
remains to Najaf in Eamazan, A.H. 1212. 
The concluding portion must be a later addi- 
tion; for the poem above-mentioned which 
speaks of the history as completed, was evi- 
dently written before Aka Muhammad's 
death. 

This work is quoted by Malcolm under the 
name of History of the Kujur family, vol. ii. 
pp. 282, 283 etc. It is described in Morley's 
catalogue, p. 139, under the title ^j'^y^^ ^r-*"^ • 
This supposed title is taken from a passage of 
the preface, in which the author says that he 
might with some reason call his work " the 
fairest of histories," if that would not amount 
to culpable conceit ; but, he adds, the prince 
has given it the title of Tarikh i Muhammad! . 
Morley calls the author " Samad Ben Muham- 
mad Taki Sarawi." The name Samad is due 
to a mistaken reading of this passage, fol. 8 a, 

s^ ijjj\^\ ^JJ ,i^ ^^\ iVe ^j ^Xt-^ i^>^ , 
in which Samad is not a name at all, but an 
epithet of the preceding t«^ " the Lord," in- 
troduced on account of its rhyming witli the 

author's real name, Muhammad. Saru'i i/j j'— , 
not Sarav!, means a native of Sar!, a town of 
Mazandaran, also called Saru; see Ouseley's 
Travels, vol. iii. p. 267. 



Add. 23,526. 

Foil. 183; 12 in. by 7i ; 19 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in fair Shikastah-am!z, on 



200 



HISTORY OF THE KAJAR DYNASTY. 



European paper, by the same hand as Add. 
23,527 (see p. 136 b), about A.D. 1812. 

[Rob. Tatlob.] 

I. Poll. 2—138 a. The same work, with 
the heading jWl5 sLi. ^s!" ^j^ and this title 

written on the first page ^^\i>■ ^y^ ^^ ^J^ 

II. EoU. 138 6—183 a. A history of Eath 
'All Shah, entitled jW^ »^- J«^ ^?>^^ ^^® 
same author, Muhammad B. Muhammad 
TaVi us-Saru'i, ^j}^^ Ji-^ ^^ w^ ^-^ 

Beg. w^T ci.*.^ 'i- J cy u?^ '^"^^v V^ 

The author begins with a short summary 
of the predecessors of Path 'All Shah, for a 
more detailed account of whom he refers the 
reader to his work entitled Tarikh i Muham- 
madi. 

Contents : Early life of Path 'Ali Shah, 
fol. 139 b. His proceedings after the death 
of the late Shah, fol. 143 a. Events of 
the year of the hare {sic), corresponding 
to A.H. 1212—1213, fol. 148 b. Erom this 
point the history of the reign is carried on 
without any distinction of the years. The 
last chapter contains a prolix description of 
the nuptials of Prince 'Abbas Mirza, which 
were solemnized in A.H. 1217 (see Brydges, 
Dynasty of the Kajars, p. 161), and concludes 
AA'ith the marriage deed, drawn up by the 
author. 

This abrupt termination and some evident 
gaps in the body of the work, where entire 
years are passed over, render it probable 
that it was left in an unfinished state. 

Add. 7665. 

Foil. 71 ; 12 in. by 7,f ; 15 lines, 5| in. 
long ; written in a fine large Nestalik, with 
'Unvan and gold-ruled margins, early in the 
19th century. [CI. J. Rich.] 

The same history of Fath 'Ali Shah. 



Add. 22,697. 

Foil. 230; llf in. by 8; 15 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in a cursive Naskhi; dated 
Zulka'dah, A.H. 1236 (A.D. 1821). 

[Sir John Campbell.] 

A history of the first ten years of the reign 
of Fath 'All Shah. 

Author : Muhammad Sadik Marvazl ,i.^ 
(read ^^jj*) }^.jjo J^U 

Beg. <D^\ LiDjj^-ill t^ ^^ b J.4UI ^s^ 

It is stated, in a long and wordy preface, 
foil. 1 b — 7 b, that the work was written by 
order of Fath 'Ali Shah, who gave it the 
above title. It is mentioned in Morley's 
Catalogue, p. 141, and in Melanges Asia- 
tiques, vol. iii. p. 731. 

Contents : Origin of the Turks, fol. 7 b. 
Genealogy and rise of the Kajars, fol. 
10 b. Birth and early life of Path 'All 
Shah, fol. 16 6. Decline and fall of the Zand 
Dynasty, and reign of Agha Muhammad, 
fol. 19 b. Departure of Path 'Ali Shah from 
Shirilz for Tehran on the receipt of the intel- 
ligence of Affha Muhammad's death, fol. 31 a. 
Campaign against Sadik Khan, fol. 35 a. 

Accession of Path 'Ali Shah and first year 
of his reign, fol. 41 b. Year of the sheep, 
A.H. 1213—4, fol. 58 a. Year of the ape, 
fol. 74 a. Year of the hen, fol. 82 b. Year 
of the dog, fol. 100 a. Year of the swine, 
fol. 114 a. Year of the rat, fol. 124 a. 
Year of the ox, fol. 149 a. Year of the tiger, 
A.H. 1220—1, fol. 1716. Virtues of Path 
'All Shah, fol. 183 a. His treasures and 
jewels, fol. 188 a. His children, fol. 194 6. 
His Yazirs, Amirs, confidants and poets, fol. 
195 a. (Here the author refers for more 
ample information on poets to his work en- 
titled Zinat ul-Mada'ih). His army, fol. 
198 6. His works and constructions, fol. 
200 6. 



HISTORY OF THE KAJAR DYNASTY. 



201 



The last chapter of the history proper, 
foil. 177 6—183 a, treats of the expedition 
sent under command of Prince Muhammad 
'All Mirza against 'All Pasha, governor of 
Baghdad, the defeat and capture of the lat- 
ter's Kyahya, Sulaimun Beg, and his subse- 
quent liberation. Here the author states 
that he was sent with the latter to Baghdad 
in order to negociate and draw up a treaty. 
The last date mentioned is that of the return 
of the Shah to Tehran on the 22nd of 
Jumada II., A.H. 1221. 

In conclusion, the author says that he will 
now proceed to record in another volume 
the second decade of the reign. This second 
volume was written ; a copy of it is preserved 
in the Library of the Boyal Asiatic Society ; 
see Morley, No. civ. 

Or. 1361. 

Foil. 151 ; 8| in. by 5i ; 13 lines, 2| in. 
long; written in Nestalik with gold-ruled 
margins, about A.D. 1855. 

[Sir Chas. Al. Murray.] 

An appendix to the History of Fath 'All 
Shah's reign. 

Author: Fazl UUah ul-Husaini ush-Shi- 
razl, takh. Khavari, cfj^/i-^^ ij^r^'^ ^^ J-^ 

Beg. «/ Ow *«^ till* Xto- ^^)^ ji «-»jU. 

The author states in the preface that he 
had been ordered by Fath 'Ali Shah to add to 
his record of that sovereign's reign, here desig- 
nated by the name of ^^S^ &?^^Jjj. an ap- 
pendix containing notices of the Shah's chil- 
dren, grandchildren, and other relatives, of 



his Amirs and Vazirs, and of the ordinances 
of his realm. After Fath 'Ali Shah's death, and 
when the rule of his successor had been firmly 
established, he received the latter's commands 
to compose a new chronicle si,s»- ^j^> a^^itl 
proceeded, in the first instance, to complete 
the present appendix. It is divided into 
Babs and Fasls, as follows : 

Bub I. Beauty and virtues of Fath 'Ali 
Shah, fol. 2 a. 

Bab II. His children and wives, in three 
Fasls. (It is here stated that Fath 'All Shah 
had 260 children, 159 of whom died before 
him). 1. Notices of 57 of his sons, fol. 
.12 a. 2. Notices on 46 of his daughters, 
fol. 36 b. 3. Notices on 30 of his wives, 
fol. 57 b. 

Bab III. in three Fasls: 1. Children of 
his sons, fol. 79 b. 2. Children of his 
daughters, fol. 132 b. 3. His brothers, un- 
cles, cousins, and other relatives, fol. 140 b. 

The last chapter is not completed ; it ends 
with the enumeration of the twelve sons of 
Mustafa. Kull Khan, an uncle of Fath 'Ali 
Shah. 

The work must have been written after 
A.H. 1254, for that year is incidentally men- 
tioned as past; see fol. 31 a. The author 
frequently quotes his own verses and refers 
to his poetical compositions as highly appre- 
ciated by the Shah. He appears to have 
acted as tutor to some of the princes. 

It is stated in a Persian note, on the first 
page, that he was Munshl to Mirza Muham- 
mad Shafi', the Sadr i A'zam, and had writ- 
ten a detailed history of the late Shah. 

On the same page is written in English, 
but by an Eastern hand : " To his Excellency 
the Hon. C. A. Murray from his friend Nayeb 
ul-ayalah Farhad Meerza, 2ith November 
1855, 13 Rabee I., 1272." 



DD 



( 202 ) 



LOCAL HISTORIES OF IRAK 



Add. 7633. 

Foil. 216; 10^ in. by 6; 18 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik ; dated Mu- 
harram, A.H. 1067 (A.D. 1656). 

[CI. J. Rich.] 

A History of Tabaristiin from the earliest 
records to the author's time. 

Author: Muhammad B. ul-Hasan B. Is- 

fandiyar, jb jji-jl ^^ tr~* u^ '^"^^ 

Beg. \j ijiJ^Ji^jil y^ ^_sJ -^ J ^ J '^♦^ 

The author states in the preface, that on 
his return from Baghdad to Irak, in A.H. 
606, he received the mournful intelligence 
that Shams ul-Muluk Rustam B. Ardashir 
(who reigned in Mazandaran from A.H. 602 
to 606; see Dorn, Geschichte Tabaristan's, 
p. 95) had been treacherously murdered on 
the 4ith of Shavval of the same year. Seeking 
some comfort in reading, during a stay of 
two months at Rai, he discovered in a 
library attached to the Madrasah of King 
Rustam B. Shahriyar a few quires treating 
of Gaobarah, and recollected that the late 
king, Husam ud-Daulah Ardashir (A.H. 
567 — 602, ib.) had often asked him whether 
he had ever found in Arabic or Persian 
books any mention of a king of Tabaristan 
nicknamed Gaobarah (ib. p. 70), whereupon 
he had confessed that he had never heard of 
that name before, and knew of no history of 
Tabaristan but the Bavand Namah, written 
in verse in the time of Husam ud-Daulah 
Shahriyar B. Karan (A.H. 466^503, ib. 
p. 92), and founded upon popular legends. 
Having therefore carefully examined these 
quires he found them to contain an elegant 



Arabic composition, written by the Imam 
Abul-Hasan (*Ali) B. Muhammad ul-YazdadI, 
one of the celebrated scholars of Tabaristan," 
and determined to translate that work, and 
to add to it a record of the great qualities 
and glorious deeds of his late benefactor, 
Husam ud-Daulah Ardashir, and of his 
ancestors and descendants, as a slight return 
for his bounties. 

He had completed the translation in a few 
days and nights, when he was suddenly re- 
called home by his aged father, and set out 
for Amul, which he reached after a thousand 
hardships. He was obliged however, after a 
short rest, to take leave of him again, and 
repair to Khwarazm, which was then the 
gathering-place of the learned. Five years 
later he found there in a bookseller's shop a 
volume containing some treatises translated 
from the Hindu tongue (^jjJa into Arabic, 
in A.H. 197, by Da'ud Yazdi, for a native of 
Sind called 'Ala B. Sa'id, and another tract 
or epistle, translated by Ibn ul-Mukaffa' from 
Peblevi into Arabic. This last had been 
written by Tannasar j— i> , a Persian sage and 
the head priest »^y> jo^ of Ardashir i Babak, 
in answer to a letter of Jasnafshah, prince of 
Tabaristan ^Ix-yla JiSljsU. A-Uu^:^ (see 
Dorn, Geschichte Tabaristan's, p. 68, and 
Sehir-eddin, p. 31). Finding it full of wise 
thoughts, the author translated it, and made 
it the opening chapter of the present history. 

The exact date of composition is not 



» "We learn from another part of the work, fol. 81 a, 
that he lived at the court of Kabus B. Vashmagir, and 
collected that prince's compositions in prose and verse 
under the title of iciUI JUS^ ijW ,,„,*■ ^Kj 



HISTORY OF TABAEISTAN. 



203 



stated in the preface ; but A.H. 613 is in- 
cidentally mentioned in the body of the 
work, fol. 47 a, as the current year. 

The work is divided into four parts (Kism), 
the contents of which are thus stated in the 
preface : jj^ j iJ^^J^ 'J^ >^>J^^ J^ Jj^ *~j' 

C-'Sjii ^Iji^^l ,i> Ajii ^-<j' lj««» _j l*\»- J j,yti ^^\ J 

y^J^ji J^) ^LL-\ O4J-0 J &>y JT j^jaC^u JT 

The contents of the MS. agree only in part 
with the above statement of the preface; 
they are as follows : — 

Kism I. Bab 1. Notice of Ibn ul-Mukaffa', 
fol. 5 h. Translation of his tract, fol. 6 h. 
Appendix by the author, fol. 23 a. 

To the letter of Tannasar is prefixed a short 
introduction by Ibn al-Mukaffa', foil. 6 J — 8 a, 
in which are set forth, after a rapid sketch of 
the fate of the Persian empire from the con- 
quest of Alexander to the rise of Ardashir 
B. Babak, the circumstances under which 
the letter was written. Jasnafshah, prince 
of Tabaristan and Tarshuvadgar, reluctant 
to submit to ArdasliTr, who had hitherto 
spared his independence, had written for 
advice to the great Hirbad, Tannasar (so 
called, we are told, because his entire body 
was covered with long hair like a horse's 
head with its mane), who had been his 
father's trusted councillor. Tannasar's letter, 
foil. 8 6—23 a, is a detailed answer to the 
complaints and criticisms of the prince on 
the rule and policy of Ardashir. The 
author's appendix, beginning with a state- 
ment of the prince's submission to Ardashir, 



and a short account of Anushirvan, ends 
with moral anecdotes. 

Bub 2. First settlements in Tabaristan and 
construction of its cities, fol. 30 h. Bab 3. 
Peculiarities and wonders of Tabaristan, 
fol. 42 h. Bab 4. Notices of kings, fol. 51 a, 
wealthy men, fol. 70 J, 'Ulama, fol. 71 «, 
secretaries, fol. 73 i, ascetics, fol. 74 a, 
philosophers, fol. 77 a, physicians, astrono- 
mers, and poets, fol. 78 a. 

A notice of the dynasties of Vashmagir 
and Buvaih, fol. 79 h. Although headed 
*^.y J^ ^i>jc<*>^ O j^ J ji^-J^j jT cJj»> i/^x:j\ jtS 
Jc^jxis tl^^.^j ji , this section contains only 
* short notices of 'Azud ud-Daulah, fol. 79 b, 
and Kilbus B. Vashmagir, foL 81 a, dealing 
chiefly with their eminent qualities and the 
literary glories of their reigns. The author 
refers here to a second volimie .^ ^ji for a de- 
tailed account of the invasion of Tabaristan 
by the Buvaihis and the expulsion of Kabils. 

History of the early kings of Tabaristan 
from the time of Kayus, son of Kubad, and 
of the dynasties by which they were super- 
seded, fol. 85 a. This section, which has no 
heading, begins with Kayus and Gaobarah, 
fol. 89 6, Dabtiyah and his successors, fol. 91 b, 
"Umar B. ul-'Ala and the governors sent by 
the Khalifs, fol. 105 a, in general agreement 
with the first chapter of Khwandamir, Ge- 
schichte Tabaristan's, pp. 68 — 73 a. It then 
passes on to the history of the descendants 
of Sukhra B. un-Nada, fol. 108 b, (the Kiiran- 
vandan of Sehir Eddin, p. 154), and of the 
rule of the TalibI Sayyids, fol. 128 b, Hasan 
B. Zaid, fol. 130 b, Da'i ul-Kabir, fol. 145 *, 
Nasir Kabir and his descendants, fol. 151 a, 
of Vashmagir, fol. 167 b, of the Buvaihis, 
fol. 169 b, and of Kiibiis and his successors, 
fol. 172 b. The account of the latter, with 
which the section concludes, is brought 
down to Glhinshah B. Kaikaiis, who suc- 
ceeded his father in A.H. 462, and was driven 
out by the Saljuki Sultan Tughril. Of his 
dd2 



204 



LOCAL HISTORIES OF IRAN. 



successor, AnusliirvanB. Minuchihr B. Kabiis, 
it is only said that he ascended the throne at 
the time of Tughril's death, A.H. 471. 

Kism IV. History of the Bavands from 
first to last, ^j>■~\ ^ »5j! ^^^. J^j^-^J^ ^jW r^ 
fol. 184 h. 

This section comprises the three lines of 
the Bavands, also called Isfahbads or Hill- 
Kings JUU ui)jl*, (an abstract of whose his- 
tory is given by Khwandamir, Geschichte 
Tabaristan's pp. 90—96, 104—106), as fol- 
lows: First line, from Bao B. Shapur, A.H. 
45, to Shahriyar B. Dara, A.H. 387, fol. 184 h. 
Second line, from Husam ud-Daulah Shahri- 
yar B. Kfiran, A.H. 466, to Shams ul-Muluk 
Rustam B. Ardashir, slain A.H. 606, fol. 
188 h. Third line, from Husam ud-Daulah 
Ardashir B. Kinakliwaz, who died A.H. 647, 
to Fakhr ud-Daulah Hasan, murdered in A.H. 
750, fol. 205 a. 

This last section is evidently a later addi- 
tion to the original work. The murder of 
Fakhr ud-Daulah, which took place in A.H. 
750, is referred to in the opening lines, and 
in the conclusion the children of that prince, 
who were not ten years old when their father 
fell, are spoken of as grown up men. This 
could hardly have been written before A.H. 
760, or about a century and a half after the 
time of Ibn Isfandiyar. The whole chapter 
must therefore be the work of some anony- 
mous continuator, who used, no doubt, for the 
earlier period, the history of his predecessor, 
and brought it down to his own time. The 
continuator speaks in his own person when he 
describes, fol. 205 a, an " old " inscription, 
which he saw in the palace built near Amul by 
Husam ud-Daulah Ardashir (A.H. 635—647). 
But an earlier passage, fol, 193 h, in which 
the writer relates, on the authority of his 
father, an incident of the latter years of 
Shahriyar B. Kfiran (about A.H. 500) may 
eafely be ascribed to Ibn Isfandiyar. 

The work teems with poetical quotations 



in Arabic, Persian, and in the dialect of 
Tabaristan ; see foil. 78 a, 79 a, 207 «, etc. 
Copyist: ^Ja\ ^\ s^ \j^)^ ^^ i_Jll9 s.^ 
Copies of this history are found in the 
Bodleian, the East India Library, and the 
Library of the S. Petersburg University. A 
transcript of the latter, collated by Dr. Dorn 
with the London MSS., belongs to the Asia- 
tic Museum, S. Petersburg. See Dorn's 
preface to Sehir Eddin's Geschichte Tabaris- 
tan's, p. 5, Caspia, p. 2, Ouseley's Travels, 
vol. ii. p. 214, vol. iii. p. 304, 554 etc. 
Ouseley's Collection, No. 283, Frahn, Indi- 
cations bibliographiques, p. 8, and Spiegel, 
Zeitschrift, vol. iv. pp. 62 — 71. 

Add. 18,185. 

Foil. 183; 6| in. by 3|; 13 lines, from 
If to 2 in. long ; written in Naskhi ; dated 
Zulhijjah, A.H. 1068 (A.D. 1658). 

A History of Shiraz from its origin to 

A.H. 744. 

Author: Abu-1-' Abbas Ahmad B. Abu-1- 
Khair, surnamed Mu'In, whose grandfather 
was commonly called Shaikh Zarkub ush- 
ShirazT, ^Ji*^ >_-»iLl4l j4^ ^^ ^Ji <y*-0'\ t^jJ^\ y>\ 

Beg. j_^s^ \j J>.J>\ dyj jjsiy> J>x**^ c>\^\ 
The author, who is called in the heading 
i^}]jt^ '-r'/jj >i-*»-l liji*^' j^ itA') gi'^^s in the 
preface the following account of the circum- 
stances which led to its composition. On 
his return from a pilgrimage to Mecca, in 
A.H. 734, he betook himself to Baghdad, 
where he stayed two years. Finding himself 
some day in a select assembly there, he 
recited some verses of his own in praise of 
Shiraz and of the sweet water of Euknabad, 
while one of his interlocutors extolled the 
superior merits of Baghdad. Having after- 



HISTORY OP SHIRAZ. 



205 



wards been shown a book written by one of 
the learned men of Hamadan in praise of the 
latter city, its illustrious men and its holy 
shrines, he resolved, after his return home, 
and at the request of a friend, to compose a 
similar work in honour of his native town. 

• A.H. 744 is mentioned in the body of the 
work, fol. 174 «, as the current year. 

The work is divided into an introduction 
(Mukaddimah), two parts (Fasl), and an ap- 
pendix (Khatimah), as follows : 

Mukaddimah, in three chapters : 1. On the 
pre-eminence of the province of Pars, fol. 
11 b. 2. On the beauties of Shiraz and the 
excellence of the water of Ruknabad, fol. 19 b. 
3. On the foundation of Shiraz, fol. 24 b. 

Part I. History of the successive rulers of 
Pars, in six sections, namely: 1. The Buvaihis, 
fol. 31 b. 2. The Saljukis, fol. 43 o. 3. The 
Salghuris, fol. 54 a. 4. The Moghuls, fol. 
80 b. 5. Mahmiid Shah, fol. 89 b. 6. The 
sons of Mahmud Shah, viz. Mas'Qd Shah and 
Amir Shaikh Abu Isliak, fol. 96 a. 

In the last section the history is brought 
down to the reign of Jamal ud-Din Amir 
Shaikh Abu Ishak, son of Mahmud Shah, 
who established his rule in Shiraz in A.H. 
743, and it closes with the events of A.H. 744. 

Part II. Notices of the eminent Shaikhs 
and Imams of Shiraz, in the following six 
Tabakahs, or generations: 1. Abu 'Abd Al- 
lah Muhammad B. Khafif, who died A.H. 
331, and his contemporaries, fol. 112 a. 
2. Abu Ishak Ibrahim B. Shahriyar al-Kaza- 
runl, who died A.H. 426, and his contem- 
poraries, fol. 124 a. 3. Abu Shuja' Muham- 
mad B. Sa'dan ul-Makarlzi ^j<i>j3\\, who 
died A.H. 509, and his contemporaries, fol. 
132 a. 4. Abu Muhammad Euzbahan B. 
Abi Nasr, who died A.H. 606, 'Izz ud-Din 
Maudud B. Muhammad, commonly called 
Zarkub, the author's grandfather, who died 
A.H. 663, and their contemporaries, fol. 
136 a. 5. Nakhib ud-Din 'All B. Barghash 



ij^cji ul-'Alavi, who died A.H. 098, and his 
contemporaries, fol. 153 a. 6. The Shaikhs 
who flourished in the author's lifetime and 
were his teachers, fol. 167 b. The dates of 
their deaths range from A.H. 708 to 733. 

Khatimah, in two chapters: 1. On the 
descendants of the prophet, who entered 
Shiraz, fol. 172 a. 2. On some holy men, 
whose shrines are held in reverence by the 
inhabitants, fol. 181 b. 

At the beginning of his account of Shaikh 
Abu Ishak, fol. 96, the author states that he 
had written a history of that prince in two 
volumes. 

. See the S.' Petersburg Catalogue, p. 293, 
Sir Wm. Ouseley's travels, vol. ii. pp. 28, 33, 
473, Kiimpfer, Amoenitates exotica), p. 301, 
Biblioth. Sprenger, No. 209. 

Sloane 2744. 

Poll. 71; 8i in. by 6^; 15 lines, 3^ in. 
long; written in Nestalik, with 'Unvan and 
gold-ruled margins ; dated A.H. 1099, (A.D. 
1688). 

The same work. 

The author's name is written in the preface 

ijj\jf^\ ^^jj>, and in the subscription -aJ:^ 
Copyist : ^y^\ tiUUj i— »^~4^ ^^ Ly^'j> a^ 

Add. 27,244. 

Poll. 59 ; 8 in. by 4| ; 15 lines, 3 in. long; 
written in small Nestalik, with gold-ruled 
margins, early in the 19th century. 

[JoH.N Macdonald Kinneib.] 

The same work. 

The copyist, j^ li1 Vj^ (•.5*:/* •^3 ^; ^^ 
jolyj ^^jSo\ j\^ ,J^, states in the subscrip- 
tion that he wrote this copy by order of 
Macdonald Sahib, envoy of the English court. 



206 



LOCAL HISTORIES OF IRAN. 



Add. 22,380. 

FoU. 273 ; 8 in. by 4 ; 19 lines, 2| in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins ; dated Slia'ban, 
A.H. 1002 (A.D. 1594) ; bound in painted 
covers. [Sir Gore Ouseley.] 

yZJ^j^S &JoJk« iwiU»j\ ^9 CjliU CL>l>^j5; 

A history of the city of Herat from its ori- 
gin to A.H. 876. 
Author : Mu'in uz-Zamaji ul-Asfizari, ^^^ 

Beg ft> CMt^yut \j ^J-i^\ ulJJU (jiJ.^X-> J o"U-» 

Maulilna Mu'in ud-Din Muhammad Asfl- 
ziiri was, according to the Habib us-Siyar, 
Bombay edition, vol. iii. Juz 3, p. 342, the 
first letter- writer of his day, and also a poet 
and calligrapher of repute. He left, besides 
his history of Herat, a treatise on epistolary 
composition ^J^Ji^ He gives in the present 
work, fol. 35 b, a detailed description of the 
canton of Asflzar, the garden of Herat, in 
which he was born and grown up, and of its 
principal place, the fortress of Muzaffar Kuh, 
He also relates incidentally. Add. 16,704, fol. 
344 b, that he was called upon to draw up a 
royal Nishan, or edict, at the beginning of 
Sultan Husain's reign. This Mu'in is not to 
be confounded with his namesake and con- 
temporary Mu'in ud-Din Farahi, who has 
been mentioned p. 149 a. 

An account of the present work, with 
copious extracts in French, by Barbier de 
Meynard will be found in the Journal Asia- 
tique, 5^ Sdrie, vol. xvi. pp. 461 — 520. 
Compare Ouseley's Travels, vol. ii. p. 442, 
D'Ohsson, Histoire des Mongols, vol.i. p.xlv., 
Haj. Khal., vol. ii. p. 157, vol. iii. p. 493, 
and Stewart's Catalogue, p. 9. 

The work begins with a long panegyric on 



the reigning sovereign, Abu-1-Ghazi Sultan 
Husain, under whose rule Herat is said to 
have attained the highest degree of pros- 
perity. After dwelling on that city's distinc- 
tion as the residence of Maulana Jami, and 
describing at length its celebrated Mosque 
and its fortress, Ikhtiyar ud-Din, the author 
refers to the following earlier historians of 
Herat : Imam Abu Ishak Ahmad B. Yasin, 
Sikat ud-Din Shaikh 'Abd ur-Rahman Fiimi, 
Rabi'i FQshanji, who wrote the Kurt-Namah 
in verse, and Saif i Haravi, who left a record 
of some of the Kurt kings. He concludes 
with a eulogy on his patron, the Vazir Kivam 
ud-Din Nizam ul-Mulk, by whose commands 
he wrote this history. 

This Nizam ul-Mulk, after having been 
about twenty years in office, incurred the 
Sultan's displeasure and was imprisoned and 
afterwards put to death in A.H. 903. See 
HabIb us-Siyar, Add. 6561, fol. 467 b. 

The date of composition is, according to 
Haj. Khal., Ouseley, and Barbier, loc. cit., 
A.H. 897; but it does not appear in this 
copy. 

The work is divided into six and twenty 
Gardens (Rauzah),some of which are subdi- 
vided into Lawns (Chaman), as follows : 

1. Foundation of Herat, fol. 17 b. 2. Its 
topography, fol. 26 b. 3. Pre-eminence of 
Khurasan generally, and of Herat in particu- 
lar, fol. 31 a. 4. Suburbs of Herat and the 
adjoining places, Asflzar, Fushanj, Badghis, 
fol. 34 a. 5. Account of more distant places, 
such as Balkh, Andakhud, Marvi Shahjahan, 
Ablvard, Fasa, Mashhad, Jam, Khwaf, Bu- 
khara, Tarshiz, Jtuvain, Asfarain, Tabaristan, 
Kandahar etc., fol. 50 a. 6. Rulers of Herat 
from the introduction of Islamism to the 
time of Sultan Sanjar, fol. 93 a. 7- The 
GhOris and Kurts, fol. 100 b. 8. MaHk 
Mu'izz ud-Din Husain Kurt, and his son, 
Pir 'Ali, fob 130 b. 9. Conquest of Khura- 
san by Timur, fol. 142 b. 10. Timur gives 
the government of Khurasan to Shrihrukh, 



HISTORIES OP HERAT AND YAZD. 



207 



fol. 148 a. 11. Some events which took 
place in Herat in ancient and modern times, 
fol. 150 a. 12. Attack of Bujrii B. DSnish- 
mand, sent by Uljaitu Sultan against Herat, 
fol. 162 a. 13. Events of the reign of Shah- 
rukh, fol. 168 h. 14. Restoration of Herat 
and Khurasan, after the devastation effected 
by TQli Khan B. Chingizkhan and Moghul 
governors, fol. 176 h. 15. Events which 
happened in Herat after the death of Shah- 
rukh, fol. 187 a. 16. Installation of Abu'l- 
kasim Bilbur Khan on the throne of Khura- 
san, fol. 203 a. 17. Second accession of 
Babur Mirza and his reign, fol. 211 h. 
18. Sultan Sa'id (Abu Sa'id) marches into 
Khurasan, and seizes upon the throne, fol. 
226 h. 19. Reign of the Turkaman Jahan- 
shah Mirza, son of Kara Yusuf, in Khurasan, 
fol. 230 a. 20. Second accession of Sultan 
Said, fol. 233 a. 21. Expedition of Sultan 
Sa id to Irak, fol. 246 h. 22. His capture by 
the Turcomans and his death, fol. 250 h. 
23. Accession of Abu'l-ghazi Sultan Husain, 
fol. 256 h. 24. Some events of the beginning 
of his reign, fol. 260 h. 25. Accession of 
Yadgar Muhammad Mirza, fol. 265 a». 26. Re- 
storation of Abu'l-ghazI Sultan Husain, (A.H. 
876), fol. 270 a. 



Add. 16,704. 

Poll. 349 ; 7 in. by 4 ; 17 lines, 2| in. 
long ; written in a small and neat Nestalik, 
with gold-ruled margins; dated Zulka'dah, 
A.H. 1002 (A.D. 1594). [Wm. Yule.] 

The same work. In this copy the work 
is stated in the preface, fol. 24 h, to consist 
of twenty-seven Rauzahs. The additional 
chapter, Rauzah 27th, fol. 344 a, treats of 
the generosity and benevolence of Sultan 
Husain, as evinced in the reform of oppressive 
abuses and other acts of his reign. In con- 
clusion the author states that he intended, 
should life be vouchsafed to Ixim, to record in 



another volume the buildings erected by 
the Sultan and princes, and the festivities and 
other occurrences of the reign, beginning 
with A.H. 900. 

Prefixed is a table of contents in the same 
hand as the text, foil. 1 h — 5 a. 

This MS. appears to have belonged to the 
imperial li])rary of Dehli ; the fir^ page is 
covered with 'Arz-Didahs and seals, the 
earliest of which bears the name of Amanat 
Khan Shahjahani, with the date 1042. 

Or. 210 and 211. 

. Two uniform volumes, containing re- 
spectively foil. 376 and 302 ; 9^ in. by 5i ; 
15 lines, 2| in. long ; written in Nestalik by 
the same hand, and having a continuous 
pagination ; dated A.H. 1089 and 1090 (A.D. 
1678-9). [Geo. W, Hamilton.] 

A history of Yazd and its celebrated men. 

Author: Muhammad Mufid Mustaufi B. 
Najm ud-Din Mahmud Bafaki Yazdl (Or. 
211, foil. 164^ 301), ^ (^ JjL-» M^ y^ 

\^i>j>. ^V ^y*^ {J>A^ 

Beg, j^^jL» jyi^ iy>- t^'jj do («^j U 

Respecting the author, the following may 
be gathered from the memoirs of his life and 
from his conclusion. Or. 211, foil. 163—214, 
301-2. He was born in Yazd, and was ap- 
pointed in A.H. 1077, shortly after the 
accession of Shah Sulaiman, Mustaufi of 
the Vakfs of that city, and two years later 
Nazir of the same Vakfs. He soon after 
resigned that office, and set out in Rajah, A.H. 
1081, for Isfahan, proceeded thence to the 
holy shrines of Najaf and KarbaUl, and 
settled for a time in Basrah, where he com- 
menced the present work in A.H. 1082, but 
was soon interrupted by a severe illness, 
which lasted four months. On his recovery 



208 



LOCAL HISTORIES OF IRAN. 



in Eajab of the same year, he took ship 
to India, and landing at Surat, went on to 
Dchli and, after a short stay there, to Hai- 
darubad. After some years' wandering, in 
the course of which he visited Burhanpiir in 
A.H. 1081, and Dehli again in 1086, he 
reached in Safar, A.H. 1088, the city of 
Ujjain, then the residence of Prince Mu- 
hammad Akbar, who took him into his 
service as Khrmsanian. In the next year he 
followed the prince to Multan, and there, in 
Jumada I., A.H. 1090, he completed the 
present work, upon which he had been en- 
gaged during eight years of almost incessant 
travelling. 

These two MSS., written evidently by the 
author himself, with many corrections and 
additions in his own hand, form together the 
third volume (Mujallad) of that extensive 
work. While the first two volumes con- 
tained, as appears from the conclusion, the 
political history of Yazd, the third comprises 
the biographical and topographical portions 
of the work. It is divided into two books 
(Jild), containing together five discourses 
(Makiilah) and a Khatimah, as follows : — 

Jild I. Makrdah I. Biographical notices, 
arranged in seven Majlis: 1. Sayyids, Or. 
210, fol. 2 a. 2. Vazirs, fol. 96 a. 3. Ka- 
lantars, fol. 193 a. 4. Mustaufis, fol. 197 a. 

5. Minbashis and Yuzbashis, fol. 215 a. The 
last two Majlis, which were to treat of the 
administrators of the Vakfs and of the Divan 
officials, were left unwritten, the author 
pleading for his excuse the duties of his 
new office in the prince's household. 

Makalah II. Biographical notices in ten 
Fasls : 1. 'Ulama and litterati (fuzala), fol. 
233 b. 2. Kazis, fol. 269 a. 3. Muhtasibs, 
fol. 287 a. 4. Preachers (Va'iz), fol. 288 a. 

6. Khatlbs, fol. 292 a. 6. Astrologers, fol. 
293 a. 7. Calligraphers, fol. 295 a. 8. Phy- 
sicians, fol. 302 a. 9. Poets, fol. 310 a. 
10. Men of rank and wealth, fol. 332 b. 
Ascetics, geometers, and artists, fol. 370 a. 



Jild II. Makalah III. Biographical no- 
tices of the holy Imamzadahs and Shaikhs 
of Yazd and their disciples. Or. 211, fol. 2 ft. 

Makalah IV., in five Guftars : 1. Mosques, 
fol. 94 ft. 2. Colleges, fol. 100 ft. Monas- 
teries, fol. 104 ft. Cisterns (Masna'ah), fol. 
109 a. 3. Villages, gardens, suburbs, canals, 
etc., fol. 113 a. 4i. Origin of the ancient 
buildings, foundation of the citadel, fol. 152 ft. 
The fifth Guftar is wanting. 

Makalah V. The author's life and travels, 
fol. 163 ft. 

Khatimah. Abstract of geography, won- 
ders of the world, curiosities of nature, 
various anecdotes, etc., fol. 214 ft. 

Add. 23,531. 

Foil. 369 ; 11| in. by 7^ ; 19 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in Naskhi by different hands ; 
dated Zulhijjah, A.H. 1079 (A.D. 1669). 

[Rob. Taylor.] 

History of the Kurds. 

Author : Sharaf B. Shams ud-Din, cJ;^ 

Beg. jj.b \j (J6U»:)1>. ^Uj j >.w> i^ ^^^ 

Sharaf Khan, son of Amir Shams ud-Dln, 
prince of Bidlis, was born A.H. 949 in Karah- 
rud, a dependency of Kum, where his father, 
■dispossessed of his estate, had fixed his resi- 
dence. He was brought up in the palace of 
Shah Tahmasp, and appointed at the age of 
twelve years Amir of the Kurdish tribe of 
RuzakT. He distinguished himself some 
years later (A.H. 975), in the conquest and 
settlement of Gilan, and was rewarded with 
a government in Shirvan, and subsequently 
with the office of Amir vd-Umara of all 
the Kui-ds. Having incurred, however, the 
suspicion of Shah Isma'il II., he was re- 
legated to Nakhchivan, passed over to the 



HISTORY OF THE KURDS. 



209 



Turks, and was reinstated by Sultan Murud 
in his hereditary estate of Bidli8 in A.H. 
986, There he wrote the present work, 
which he completed in A.H. 1005. 

Accounts of the contents of the Sharaf- 
Namah and of the author's life liave been 
published by Wolkov, Journal Asiatique, 
vol. viii. pp. 291 — 298 ; byMorley, Descriptive 
Catalogue, pp. 143 — 151 ; by Dr. Barb, 
Sitzung's Berichte der philol. histor. Classe 
der "Wiener Akademie, vol. x. p. 258, vol. 
xxii. p. 3, vol. xxviii. p. 3 ; and by Veliaminof- 
Zernof, in the preface to his edition of the text, 
*' Scheref-Nameh ou Histoire des Kourdes," 
S. Petersburg, 1860. Compare Haj. Khal., 
vol. ii. p. 134, Rich's Narrative, vol. i. p. 247, 
Malcolm, History of Persia, vol. ii. p. 207, 
etc., Asiatisches Museum, pp. 283, 661, 
Melanges Asiatiques, vol. ii. p. 497, vol. v. 
p. 249, S. Petersburg Catalogue, p. 295. 

The MS. numbered 468 in the Rich col- 
lection, now Add. 7860, contains a Turkish 
version of the original. An abridged Turkish 
translation by Shem'i is preserved in Add. 
18,547 ; see Morley's Catalogue, p. 145, 
note. 

The work is divided into a Mukaddimah, 
four Sahifahs and a Khatimah, as follows : — 

Mukaddimah. Origin of the Kurdish tribes, 
and their manners and customs, fol. 7 a. 

Sahlfah I. History of the Kurd chiefs who 
ruled as Sultans, in five Fasls : 1. Rulers of 
Jazirah and Diyarbakr, fol. 11 a. 2. Rulers 
of Dinavar and Shahrazul, fol. 11 b. 3. The 
Fazlavaih or Lur Buzurg, fol. 13 a. 4. The 
Lur Kuchak, fol. 17 a. 5. The Sultans of 
Egypt and Syria, or Al i Ayyiib, fol. 28 b. 

Sahlfah II. History of the Kurd chiefs, 
who, although not styled Sultans, exercised 
at times sovereign power, in five Fasls : 
Rulers of Ardalan, fol. 42 a, Hakuri, fol. 45 b, 
'Imadiyyah, fol. 54 a, Jazirah, fol. 59 a, 
Hisnkifa, fol. 75 b. 

Sahlfah III. History of the other Kurd 
chiefs, in three Firkahs, beginning respec- 



tively on foU. 82 a, 134 a, 159 a. The second 
of these Firkahs is stated in the heading to 
comprise eleven Fasls ; but the seventh, 
eighth, and ninth are wanting in tliis MS. 
as well as in the other known copies. 

Sahlfah IV. History of the rulers of Bidlis, 
ancestors of the author, in a Fiitihah, four 
Satars, and an appendix (Zail), fol. 164 b. 
The appendix, foil. 218 a — 223 a, contains 
the author's life. 

Khatimah. History of the Sultans of the 
race of Osman, and of the contemporary 
kings of Iran and Turan, fol. 223 b. 

Copyist : J^j^^ j^ ^^ ^^ ^^^-^ 

Add. 27,246. 

Foil. 328 ; 10 in. by 6 ; 18 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Naskhi ; dated Isfahan, 
Rabl'II., A.H. 1055 (A.D. 1645). 

[Sir John Malcolm.] 

The same work. 

Some leaves are missing at the beginning 
and in various places in the body of the 
volume. The lacunes thus occasioned cor- 
respond to the following pages of the printed 
text : vol. i. pp. 2—5, 214—220, 228—233, 
265—267, 278—287, 302—314, 348—353, 
vol. ii. pp. 6 — 8. 

At the end is found a transcript of the 
author's subscription, in which he calls him- 
self ^jjJii)\ ^J^»■i}^ ji-!jJ^ (j-.^ ij> uJ,-, and 
states that he completed the composition and 
revision of the work at the end of Muharram, 
A.H. 1055 ( a clerical error for A.H. 1005). 

Copyist : ^yj>, alJl i_fliaJ ^^ jJj <^s-> 



Add. 22,698. 

Foil. 279 ; 13 in. by 8 ; 18 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in Nestalik ; dated Rabi' II., 
A.H. 1231 (A.D. 1816). 

[Sir John Campbell.] 



210 



LOCAL HISTORIES OF IRAN. 



The same work. There is in the middle 
of fol. 116 h a considerable gap, without any 
apparent break in the writing, extending 
from p. 302 to p. 321 of the first volume of 
printed text. 

Copyist : JijM J^si^ ^'^ <y*^ i^^^ 'i^ (^^ 

On the first page is a Persian note stating 
that this volume was presented by 'Abbas 
Mirza (the eldest son of Path 'Ali Shah) to 
Amanat Ullah Khfm B. Khalil of Ardalan, 
governor of Kurdistan, A.H. 1231. 

Add. 23,532. 

Foil. 250; 11^ in. by 7i; 21 lines, 4| 
in. long; Avritten in cursive Nestalik, on 
European paper, bearing the date 1827 in its 
water-mark. [Rob. Taylor.] 

The same work. The transcriber has left 
out the first two or three pages of the preface, 
pp. 2 — 6 of the printed edition. The last 
four lines have been added by another hand, 
with the date Safar A.H. 1216 (A.D. 1830). 

Egerton 696. 

Foil. 297; 9^ in. by 5^ ; 15 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
17th century. [Adam Clarke.] 

History of the Afghilns. 
Author : Khwajah Ni'mat Ullah B. Habib 
Ullah ul-HaravT, <»JJ1 •-:>*■*■ ij-> i^^ C*»«i n^^y- 

Beg. J^j^^-^ J j^ ^.\Sj ^^Jyc i^ ^J^ 

We learn from the author, in the intro- 
duction to his history of Jahanglr, fol. 209 a, 
that his father had spent the last thirty-five 
years of his life in Akbar's service, in the 
department of the Khrdisah, and that he had 



himself discharged under Jahanglr the office 
of Vuki'ah-navis and other functions during 
eleven years ending in A.H. 1017, when he 
lost his post and entered the service of 
Khanjahan. 

He states, in the preface, that he accom- 
panied the latter in his Deccan campaign, in 
A.H. 1018. On that occasion he became in- 
timate with Miyan Haibat Khan B. Sallm 
Khan Kakar, of Samanah, who also served 
under Khanjahan, and by whom he was in- 
duced to write the present work. He adds that 
he commenced it in Zulhijjah, A.H. 1020, 
while staying in MalkapCir, Berar, dedicated 
it to Khanjahan, and gave it the above title, 
derived from his patron's name. 

Pir Muhammad, son of Daulatkhan Lodi, 
received the title of Khanjahan from Jahan- 
glr in the second year of his reign, and rose 
rapidly to the highest military commands. 
He died A.H. 1040. His life is fully told 
in the MaS§ir ul-Umara, Add. 6567, fol. 175, 
and in Blochmann's A'in i Akbari, vol. i. 
pp. 503—506. 

In some verses at the end. Add. 26,283, 
fol. 339 5, the author states that he com- 
pleted this work on the tenth of Zulhijjah, 
A.H. 1021. 

The above preface agrees substantially 
with that of another recension of the same 
work, entitled ^j\ii\ lojas*, an English version 
of which was published by Dr. Dorn under the 
title of " History of the Afghans, from the 
Persian of Neamet Ullah," London, 1829. In 
the preface of the latter, however, there occurs 
a statement, not found in the former, that 
Haibat Khan "had collected and arranged 
the scattered and confused genealogy of the 
Afghans," while the dedication to Khanjahan 
is there left out. See Dorn's translation, 
vol. i. pp. 1 — 4. Other differences between 
the two recensions are fully pointed out by 
Sir H. Elliot and Prof. Dowson in the His- 
tory of India, where copious extracts are 
given, vol. v. pp. 67 — 115. Compare Dorn's 



HISTORY OF THE AFGHANS. 



211 



translation, vol. i. p. ix., and vol. ii. p. ii., 
Morley's Catalogue, p. 74, and Stewart's 
Catalogue, p. 18. 

The work is divided into a Mukaddimah, 
seven Babs, and a Khatimah. Their contents 
are stated in the preface, as follows : 

Mukaddimah. History of Mihtar Ya'kub 
Isra'il Ullah (Jacob), his children, and his 
genealogy, fol. 6 h. 

Bab I. History of king Tfdut (Saul) and 
the Ark, of Talut's appointment as king over 
the sons of Israel, of the slaying of Jrdut 
by Da'ud, of Sulaiman, the death of Taliit, 
his descendants, the conquest of Jerusalem 
by Bukht Nassar, the expulsion of the Is- 
raelites, the migration of this (the Af- 
ghan) tribe to the mountains of Ghur and 
to Kuh i Sulaiman and the country of Rob, 
fol. 15 a. 

Bab II. History of Khalid B. Valid, his 
conversion to Islamism, his campaigns in 
Basrah, Kufah, Syria, Asia Minor and Irak, 
and conflicting traditions respecting his 
descent, fol. 38 b ; see Dorn's translation, 
vol. i. p. 5. 

Bab III. History of Sultan BahKil Lodi, 
who first raised the standard of sovereignty 
in Hindustan, and his successors, down to 
the end of the reign of Sultan Ibrahim B. 
Sikandar B. Bahlul and his death, in three 
Fasls, fol. 60 a. (Translation, p. 43.) 

Bab IV. History of the reigns of Shir 
Shah Sur and his successors, down to the 
end of the reign of 'Adli, in four Fasls, 
fol. 160 a. (Translation, p. 80.) 

Bab V. History of Navvab Khiinjahan LodI, 
the principal subject of this composition, 
with an account of his ancestors, fol. 176 a. 

Bab VI. Genealogy of the Afghans, in 
three Fasls : 1. The Sarbanis. 2. The 
Batnis. 3. The Ghurghushtis. (Translation, 
vol. ii. p. 40). 

Bab VII. History of the reign of Jahangir. 

Khatimah. Lives of Afghan Shaikhs 
(Translation, vol. ii. p. 1.) 



The fifth and seventh Biibs do not appear 
in the shorter recension. 

In the body of the present copy the latter 
three sections are transposed and appear in 
the following order: History of Jahangir, 
fol. 208 b. Lives of Afghan Shaikhs, fol. 
238 b (imperfect at the end). Genealogy of 
the Afghans, fol. 261 a. The last wants 
about two leaves at the end ; it breaks off 
in the account of Bakhtiyar; see Dorn's 
translation, vol. ii. p. 55. 

Add. 26,283. 

Foil. 243; 2^ in. by 6; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Rabi* II., 
A.H. 1205 (AD. 1790). [Wm. Erskine.] 

The same work. 

The preface is wanting, and the table of 
chapters, which agrees with that of the pre- 
ceding copy, follows immediately the doxo- 
logy. Bab V., the histoiy of Khanjahan, is 
also omitted. 

Contents: Mukaddimah, fol. 3 a. Bilb I., 
fol. 10 a. Bab II., fol. 29 a. Bab III., 
fol. 46 a. Bab IV., fol. 81 a. Bab VI., ge- 
nealogy of the Afghans, fol. 130 a. Bab VII., 
history of Jahangir, fol. 158 a. Khatimah, 
lives of Afghan Shaikhs, fol. 184 a. Appen- 
dix by Haibat Khan, B. Salim Khan on his 
own genealogy, fol. 240 a. This last piece 
will be found in Dorn's translation, vol. ii. 
pp. iv. — viii. 

The transcriber ^^__i!^ jM ^ states that 

he made this copy for 'Abd Ullah Khan 
and Sa'd Ullah Khan in the space of twenty 
days and nights. 

Egerton 1014. 

Foil. 279; 9| in. by 6|; ; 15 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written by different hands in cursive 
chai'acters, apparently in the 18th century. 

The same work. 

In the concluding lines the work is desig- 
nated as y^y^^Vi- ^\i>3\ jjyie? ^jU . 
EE 2 






212 



LOCAL HISTORIES OF IRAN. 



This copy wants the preface, like the pre- 
ceding. The contents are arranged in the 
normal order, as in the table of chapters 
given under Egerton 696, viz. Mukaddimah, 
fol. 5 a. Bab I., fol. 12 a. Bab II., fol. 
36 a. Bab III., fol. 55 a. Bab IV., life of 
Khiinjahan, fol. 93 a. Bab V., genealogy of 
the Afghans, foL 153 a. Bab VI., history 
of Jahangir, fol. 201 a. Khatimah, lives of 
Afghan Shaikhs, fol. 222 a. 

Add. 21,911, 

Foil. 219; 9^ in. by 5i; 3f in. long; 
written partly in Nestalik, partly in Shi- 
kastah-amiz ; dated (fol. 172 b) Zulka'dah, 
A.H. 1080 (A.D. 1670). 

A shorter recension of the same work, 
wanting the life of Khanjahan and the his- 
tory of Jahangir. This is the recension 
represented by Dr. Dorn's translation ; but 
the text of the present copy is in many 
places more condensed than the latter. 

This recension is divided into three Babs 
and three Daftars, enumerated in the pre- 
face, as follows : — 

Bab I., history of Mihtar YaTvub, etc., 
fol. 3 b. Bab II., history of king TalQt and 
of the migration of this tribe to the moun- 
tains of Ghur, etc., fol. 9 a. Bab III., his- 
tory of Khalid B. Valid, etc., fol. 23 a. 
Daftar I., history of Sultun Balilul, Sultan 
Sikandar Lodi, and Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, 
fol. 39 b. Daftar II., history of Shir Shah, 
Islam Shah, and some Afghan chiefs, fol. 83 b. 
Daftar III., account of the Darvishes of this 
nation and their miracles, fol. 173 a. Kha- 
timah (not mentioned in the preface), gene- 
alogy of the Afghans, fol. 205 b. 

At the end of Daftar II., fol. 172 6, are 
found some lines in which a certain Ibrahim 
Batni states that he had supplemented the 



Tarikh i Shlrshahl of 'Abbfis SarvanI with 
some extracts from the Tarikh i Nizami and 
from the Makhzan i Afghani. This passage, 
the presence of which in a copy of the 
latter work can only be the result of a strange 
inadvertence, appears also in Dorn's transla- 
lation, vol. i. p. 184, but is not found in any 
of the three copies of the Tarikh i Khan- 
jahani. 

Egerton 1104. 

Foil. 129 ; 8i in. by 4| ; 11 lines, 2f in. 
long, in a page. Written in a neat Nestalik ; 
dated Lucnow, Jumada II., A.H. 1211 (A.H. 
1796). [Adam Clarke.] 

^f)^\J\ :>. Ac. &i.»JL.:^ l_;LJi'^\ eLo^ 

An account of the genealogy of the Afghan 
tribes. 

Author (fol. 13 a) : Hafiz Eahmat B. Shah 
'Alam Kutah Khail, ^!lfr jli» ^^ C*^ kiU 

Beg. jc ^ 6^ . . . jjO'jJ^ ^->j i^ jJA 

Hafiz ul-Mulk Hafiz Rahmat Khan, the 
celebrated Rohilah chief, born in Afghan- 
istan about A.H. 1120, settled in the dis- 
trict of Kuthair in the time of Muhammad 
Shah, became its ruler in A.H. 1161, and 
played a conspicuous part in the Mahratta 
wars. He fell in battle against Shuja' 
ud-Daulah, A.H. 1188. His life has been 
written by his son, Mustajab Khan, and 
translated by Charles Elliott, London, 1831. 
The present work is mentioned there in the 
text, Or. 198, fol. 7 a; but in the English 
version, p. 6, it is ascribed, by an error of the 
translator, to the author's great-grandfather, 
KutT Baba. The Khulasat ul-Ansab has been 
noticed by Sam. Lee, Travels of Ibn Batuta, 
pp. XV. and 98, and by Dr. Dorn, History of 



HISTORY OF THE AFGHANS. 



213 



I 



the Afghans, p. xii. ; see also Sir Wm. Ouse- 
ley's Catalogue, No. 352. 

The author remarks in his preface that 
the whole of his tribe, the Kiitah Khail, 
having emigrated to Hindustan, his own 
children, as well as other India-born Afghfins, 
were growing up in sad ignorance of their 
pedigree and relationships. An acquaintance 
with one's genealogy being a duty imposed 
by religion and carefully observed by his 
nation, he felt called upon to write the 
prtisent work for their benefit, relying partly 
on his own knowledge (acquired during his 
youth in Afghanistan), partly on such trust- 
worthy works as Tarikhi Khanjahfini, Tarikh 
i Shlrshalu, and the Tazkirah of Akhiind 
DarvTzah. It is stated in some verses at the 
end that the work was completed in Rajab, 
A.H. 1184. 

Contents : Preface, fol. 1 b. Account of 
Shaikh Kutah, the ancestor of the Kutah 
Khail family, fol. 19 b. (His name was Shihab 
ud-Din, but he liked to call himself the dog 
[Kutah] of the Prophet.) His three sons, viz. 
Pae, Mahmud, surnamed Mfitl (the author's 
grandfather), and Adam, and their descen- 
dants, fol. 24 a. Kais 'Abd ur-Rashid, the 
ancestor of the Afghan race, his three sons, 
Sarahban, Baitan, and Ghurghusht. and his 
descent from Trdut, fol. 29 a. Conversion of 
the Afghans to Islamism, and their wars with 
the infidels down to the time of Ahmad Shah 
Durrani, fol. 46 a. Genealogy of the tribes 
issued from Sarahban, fol. 54 ft, Baitan, fol. 
72 6, Ghurghusht, fol. 79 i, Karlanl, fol. 80 b, 
Savati JV*, fol. 85 a, and Farmuli, fol. 87 a. 
Sayyids of Afghanistan, fol. 87 b. Limits 
of Afghanistan, fol. 90 b. On the true Sunni 
doctrine and the heretical, especially the 
Shi'ah, sects, fol. 91 b. 

Afghan verses are often quoted, and in 
these, as well as in proper names, the looped 
letters peculiar to tlie Pashtu language are 
of frequent occurrence. 



On the first page is written " Wm. Franck- 
lin, 1796." 

Or. 196. 

Foil. 132 ; Hi by 6^ ; 19 lines, 35 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, in the latter part 
of the 18th century. [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

A history of Ahmad Shah Durrani, from 
his rise to power to his occupation of Dehli 
(A.H. 1171). 

Author: Mahmud nl-Muganna (i.e. Mah- 
mud B. Mahmiid) B. Ibrahim ul-IJusainl, 

• Beg. c*it>^\ut V iliiib (_y.lJLj (jSj^I::-* j (.^^^ 



bi-^ 



^ 



The author says in the preface that, ever 
since he had had the good fortune to become 
one of the state-secretaries UJ^\ jb j^^i~^ of 
Sultan Ahmad Shall Durr i Durran, he had 
entertained the project of recording His 
Majesty's glorious deeds, and that he had in 
the end received the royal commands to 
carry it out by writing the present work. 

Contents : Origin and rise of Ahmad Shah, 
fol. 8 b. Events of A.H. 1160, fol. 15 b. 
Taking of Tun, fol. 18 b. March to Mash- 
had, fol. 22 a. Capture of Mir 'Alam Khan, 
fol. 28 a. Arrival of Shahrukh Shah at 
court, fol. 30 b. Enthronement of Shah- 
rukh and march of Ahmad Shah to Nisha- 
pur, fol. 38 a. Kevolt of Ismail Khan, 
fol. 43 a. March to Sabzavar and Herat, 
fol. 45 a. Arrival at Farah and Kandahar, 
fol. 50 a. Arrival of Prince Timur Mirza 
at court, fol. 54 a. Building of the fortress 
of Ahmad-Shahi, fol. 55 b. Departure for 
Hindustan, fol. 62 b. Arrival of an envoy 
from Hindustan, fol. 63 a. Jan Khan dis- 
patched against the Katghaniyyah, fol. 64 a. 
The Indian envoy Irich Khan dismissed, 
fol. 66 a. Missive of Ghazi ud-Din Khan, 
fol. 69 b. Solemnities on the circumcision 
of Prince Sulaiman, fol. 75 b. March to 



214. 



LOCAL mSTOEIES OP IRAN. 



Kabul, fol. 78 h. March to Peshawur, 
fol. 83 a. Arrival of the Dehli envoy, Riza 
Kuli Khan, fol. 87 a. Battle of Sonipat, 
and capture of Dehli, fol. 90 a. Arrival of 
'Alamgir Shah at court, fol. 96 h. 

The narrative closes at fol. 104, the last 
event recorded being the marriage of Prince 
Timiir with a daughter of 'Alamgir (A.H. 
1171). The rest of the volume treats of 
remarkable traits of Ahmad Shah, of his 
spiritual gifts and of some extraordinary 
incidents of his life. There are gaps after 
fol. 87 and after fol. 102 ; two blank leaves 
have been left in each place. 

The title ^li» s^ f„Jo is written on the 
first page. A table of contents has been 
prefixed by a later hand. 

Or. 201. 

Foil. 27 ; 11 in. by 6^ ; 17 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik, in the 
19th century. [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

An account of the Afghan rising at Kabul, 
the massacre of the British force, and the 
fall of Shuja' ul-Mulk, in the years 1841 and 
1842. 

Beg, c^\^ ^Jiisfj}}^ ^\jj\j\^ j) 

The author, whose name does not appear, 
but who was evidently attached to the court 
of Shuja' ul-Mulk, states in his preamble 
that, although some Akhbar-navis of Hin- 
dustan had written, from hearsay, various 
accounts of the Kabul rising, he thought it 
nevertheless advisable to record, for the 
benefit of the English and of his absent 
friends, what he had himself seen and heard 
on the spot. After dwelling at some length 
on the causes of the disaffection of the 
Afghans and of the extreme unpopularity of 
the rule of Shuja' ul-Mulk, he proceeds to a 
detailed narrative of the complot of the 
Ghiljai chiefs, fol. 6 6, of their first attack 
on Sir Eobcit Sale's force at Khurd Kabul 



(12th Oct. 1841 ; see Kaye's War in Afghan- 
istan, vol. ii. p. 156), the outbreak of the 
insurrection in Kabul, the storming of Sir 
Alex. Burne's house on the 16th of Ramazan, 
A.H. 1257 (2nd Nov. 1841 ; see Kaye, vol. ii. 
p. 168), and the subsequent proceedings of 
the Afghans. The history closes with the 
re-occupation and sacking of Kabul by 
General George Pollock, and his march back 
to India (Sept. and Oct. 1842; see Kaye, 
vol. iii. p. 341). 

In the last lines the author refers briefly to 
the children of Shuja ul-Mulk, and their 
settling in Lodhianah, with allowances from 
the East India Company. 

The following title is written on the fly- 
leaf, Jjli^tdJo* J^j\ *-tf^ 

Add. 23,534. 

Eoll. 138 ; 8i in. by 6 ; 14 lines, 3J in. 
long ; written in Naskhi, about the close of 



the 18th century. 



[Rob. Taylok.] 



A history of Shushtar, from the earliest 
times to A.H. 1169, with notices of its cele- 
brated men, and memoirs of the author's life. 

Author : Eakir, j^ 

Beg. «/jJ\ i:ijj\ j-aj .)\ ^^\Ji\ ^j sU d^^ 

The author, who designates himself by the 
Takhallus of Fakir, was called Sayyid 'Abd 
UUah B. Nur ud-Din B. Nimat Ullah ul- 
Husaini ush-Shushtari. He belonged to the 
noble family of the Nurl Sayyids, the founder 
of which was his grandsire, Sayyid Ni'mat 
Ullah. Having acquired a great reputation 
for scholarship and elegant writing, he filled 
the hio-hest offices of the law in his native 
city, where he died in A.H. 1173. Notices of 
his life are found in Tuhfat ul-'Alam, written 



HISTORY OF SHUSHTAR. 



215 



by his nephew, Add. 23,533, foil. 35—40, 
and in Biza'at i Muzjat, Add. 23,533, 
foil. 16—18. 

A.H. 116i is given, foil. 76 a, as the date 
of composition of the present work ; but 
additions were made to it during the subse- 
quent years, down to A.n. 1169. It is 
divided into forty-seven chapters (Fasl), 
bearing numbers but no headings, as follows : 

1. Poundation of Shushtar, fol. 2 b. 2. Ca- 
nals made by the Kayanis and Sassanides, 
fol. 4 b. 3. The celebrated dam Shadurvan,* 
fol. 6 b. 4. Climate, fol. 8 b. 5. Mosques, 
fol. 10 6. 6. Tombs of saints, fol. 13 a. 
7. Holy places in the city, fol. 15 a. 8. Dis- 
tricts and aqueducts, fol. 18 a. 9. Holy 
places in the environs, fol. 21 a. 10. The 
viUage of 'Akili J^, fol. 23 a. 11. The 
Marashi Sayyids axLs-yt obL., fol. 25 a. 

12. Descendants of Mh* Nur-ullah, fol. 27 b. 

13. Sayyids of Talghar jUi ObL., fol. 29 b. 

14. Rule of Mahdi Kuli Khan and his suc- 
cessors, from A.H. 932 to 1042, fol. 32 a. 
15.Wakhashtu SultaUj^lU-jiii-lj , A.H. 1042, 
fol. 35 a. 16. Haji Muhammad Sharif, Vazir 
to the preceding, fol. 38 a. 17. Akhund 
Mulla Hasan 'Ali, fol. 40 a. 18. Path 'Ali 
Khan, son of Wakhashtu, fol. 42 a. 19. Public 
works executed under the latter, fol. 46 a. 
20. Reign of Shfih Husain, A.H. 1106, fol. 
49 a. 21. Government of Mihr 'All Khan, 
A.H. 1129, fol. 51 b. 22. Foundation of the 
Mosque and College of Mir Shikar, fol. 54 a. 
23. Isfandiyrir Beg, fol. 64 6. 24. Tahmasp 
Kuli Khan, fol. 67 a. 25. The same pro- 
claimed king (Nadir Shah), A.H. 1148, fol. 
70 a. 26. 'Abbas Kuli Khan, from A.H. 
1160 to 1164, fol. 73 b. 27. Dearth under 
Nadir Shah, fol. 76 a. 28. Old documents 
that came to light at that time, fol. 82 b. 



* For a detailed account of this celebrated dam see 
Eawlinson, Notes on a March in Khuzistan, Journal of 
the Geographical Society of London, vol. is., part i., p. 73. 



29. Siege of Dizful, A.H. 1164, fol. 84 b. 

30. Fall of the Safaris, fol. 80 b. 31. The 
Poet Mahmud Hilml Shushtar!, fol. 88 h. 
32. Disciples of Ni'mat-ullah, the founder of 
the NOri family, fol. 91 a. 33. Disciples of 
Nur ud-Din, his son, fol. 94 b. 34. Disciples 
of the author, fol. 98 a. 35. The Poet Khwii- 
jah 'Abd Muhammad Za'ini \j>}j (who died 
A.H. 1126), fol. 101 b. 36. Poetical pieces 
by the author, fol. 104 a. 37. Events of 
AH. 1165, fol. 107 b. 38. Shaikh NSsir's 
stay at Shushtar, fol. 110 a. 39. Khwajah 
Abu Turab Nakkash and Mulla Hadi Kawils, 
two literary friends of the author, fol. 112 b. 
40. Events of A.H. 1167, fol. 114 b. 41. 
Poetical contests of the author with Mulla 
Hadi, fol. 116 6. 42. Events of A.H. 1169, 
fol. 118 a. 43. Zul-fakar Beg, fol. 120 a. 

44. Mulla 'Abd ul-Karim Zajjaji, fol. 121 b. 

45, 46. Poetical pieces by the author, fol. 
124 a. 47. Anecdote of the Darvish Saif 
'All, fol. 128 a. 

Add. 23,535. 

Foil. 114; 84 in. by 5 ; 17 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written in neat Naskhi ; dated A.H. 
1246 (A.D. 1830). [Rob. Taylor.] 

An account of Shiishtar and its water- 
works. 

Author : Sayyid 'Abd ul-Husain B. 'Aziz- 
uUah ul-Miisavi, id51 j>j& ^^, t:;i~^ "iJ* >>s-^' 

Beg. wUJj'^ \^.^r* ^pt\ ^ ^Jii^ ^ ^ 
The author belonged, like the preceding, 
to the family of the Nurl Sayyids, being the 
iifth lineal descendant of its founder, Ni mat 
ITllah. His father, 'Aziz-ullah, was son of 
Sayyid Isma'il, son of Sayyid Murtaza, son 
of Sayyid Nur ud-Din, son of Ni'mat-ullah 
(see fol. 13 a). He states in the preface 



216 



LOCAL HISTORIES OF IRAN, 



that, when Muhammad Husain Mirza* en- 
camped in Khuzistan, in the month of Rajab, 
A.H. 1246, he went from his native town of 
Shushtar to wait upon the prince in Dizful, 
and was directed by him to write an account 
of Shushtar, of its monuments, and of the 
Band i KhrikSni, the celebrated dam restored 
by the prince's father. The author objected 
that the same subject had been already treated 
by two eminent writers, namely the Kazi 
Nur-ullah ut-Tustarl in his Majalis ul-Mu- 
rainin, and his own relative, Sayyid 'Abd- 
ullah B, Nur-ud-Din, in his Tazkirah ush- 
Shiishtariyyah ; but, the prince insisting, he 
had to comply with his wish, and wrote 
the present work as an oflfering to His 
Hirfmess. 

It is divided into an Introduction (Mukad- 
dimah), three Chapters (Fasl) and a Conclu- 
sion (Khfltimah), as follows : 

Mukaddimah. General account of Khuzis- 



tan, Shushtar, Dizful, and Iluwaizah (in- 
cluding a sketch of the family of the Nuri 
Sayyids), fol. 7 b. 

Fasl I. History of Shushtar, and of the 
monuments of holy men in and around it, 
fol. 20 b. 

Fasl 11. Account of Dizful and its sacred 
places (containing several poems in praise 
of the Imams), fol. 47 a. 

Fasl III. Account of the celebrated dam 
Shcldurvan, and of the new dam called Band 
i Khakani, which was finished in A.H. 1232, 
fol. 70 a. 

Khatimah. History of Muhammad Husain 
Mirza, from his appointment as governor to 
the time of composition, fol. 103 a. 

A great portion of this work is verbally 
transcribed from the preceding. Add. 23,534, 
and from Tuhfat ul-'Alam, Add. 23,583. 

This copy contains many marginal ad- 
ditions. 



HISTORY OP TURKEY. 



Add. 7646 and 7647. 

Two uniform volumes, containing respec- 
tively foil. 293 and 245 ; 15 in. by 8| ; 
31 lines, 6 in. long; written in plain Nes- 
talik, with frequent omission of diacritical 
points; dated A.H. 988 (A.D. 1580). 

[CI. J. Rich.] 

A history of the first eight Sultans of the 
house of Osman. 



' This prince, entitled Hishmat ud-Daulah, the eldest 
son of Muhammad 'Ali Mirzil, surnamed Daulatshah, 
second son of Fath 'Ali Shall, succeeded his father as 



Author : Idris B. IJusam ud-Din ul-BidlisI, 

Beg. j/ li* js>j cJJji jj-^ ^JS^\ ciJjU:; 

Maulana Hakim ud-Din Idris, son of Mau- 
lana Husam ud-Din 'All, of Bidlis in Kur- 
distan, who had dedicated a Tafsir to Sultan 
Bayazid (see Add. 24,960, fol. 183), was for 
a time state-secretary to the Ak-kuyunlu 
prince, Ya'kub Beg (A.H. 883—895)* and 
wrote in his name, A.H. 890, a cougratula- 



governor of Kirmanshahiin, at the age of 21 years, in 
A.H. 1239. 



HISTORY OF TURKEY. 



217 



tory letter to Sultan Bayazld, which was 
admired for the elegance of its style. "When 
the advance of Shah Ismail drove him to 
take refuge in Turkey, he met with the 
most honourable reception at the Sultan's 
court. He was no less a favourite with his 
successor, Sultan Salim, whom he accom- 
panied in his Persian and Egyptian cam- 
paigns, and by whom the settlement of his 
native country, Kurdistan, was entrusted to 
him in A.H. 921. See Hammer, Geschichte 
des Osmanischen Reiches, vol. ii. pp. 290, 
433, 460. He did not survive his royal 
patron more than a few months ; for he died, 
according to his son's statement, Add. 24,900, 
fol. 32, in Constantinople, in the month of 
Zulhijjah, A.H. 926. He left, besides the 
present work, a large number of Persian and 
Arabic Kasldahs and of treatises on religious 
subjects. See Shaka'ik, Add. 9583, fol. Ill, 
and Sharaf-Namah, vol. ii. p. 155. 

The Hasht Bihisht is the foundation on 
which all later Turkish historians have built, 
and the first of these, Sa'd ud-Din, passes 
upon it a glowing eulogy ; see Hammer, 
Geschichte, vol. i. p. 34, vol. ix. p. 188; 
Journal Asiatique, vol. iv. p. 35. Compare 
Haj. Khal., vol. ii. p. 110, vol. vi. p. 500; 
Morley's Catalogue, p. 142, Stewart's Cata- 
logue, p. 10, Krafft's Catalogue, p. 91, Vienna 
Catalogue, vol. ii. p. 216, Upsala Catalogue, 
p. 191, and Wm. Ouseley's Collection, No. 666. 

In the preface the author says that the 
disturbed state of his country compelled him 
to repair for safety to the court of Sultan 
Bayazid in A.H. 907. In the ensuing year 
the Sultan desired him to write a complete 
record of the house of Osman from its first 
rise in A.H. 710 to the then current year, A.H. 
908, and proposed to him as models of com- 
position the standard histories of Vazir 'Ata 
Malik Juvaini, Maulanii 'Abd Ullah Vassaf, 
Mu'In ud-Din Yazdi (the author of the his- 
tory of the Muzaff'aris, see p. 168), and 
Shaiaf ud Din Yazdi. 



The work was completed in the space of 
two years and six months, and received, be- 
sides the above Persian title, the following 
in Arabic: j\^\ ^J »J>\^\ o\i-a5\ u^li/ 

^ It is divided into eight books, called Kati- 
bah or Daftar, each of which treats of a 
separate reign. Every book begins with a 
prologue in verse, and is marked, in the 
present copy, by an illuminated heading. 

Contents : Preface, fol. 1 b. Introduction 
(Tali'ah), treating in two sections of the 
science of history, fol. 9 a, and of the pre- 
eminence of the house of Osman, fol. 11 b. 

Katlbah I., beginning, fol. 15 b, like all 
the following, with a prologue in verse, and 
subdivided as follows : Tali'ah. Origin and 
genealogy of the Osmanlis, fol. 16 a. Mu- 
kaddimah I. Their early wars and connection 
with the Saljukis, fol. 21 b. Mukaddimah II. 
Account of Osman Beg's installation on the 
throne, and of contemporary sovereigns, fol. 
29 .a. Thirteen Dastilns, the first six of which 
relate to Osman Beg's wars and conquests 
before his accession, fol. 33 a, the latter 
seven to those which followed that event, 
fol. 41 b. Khatimah. His death, fol. 55 a. 

Katlbah II., fol. 57 b. Taliah, on the 
reason of the transfer of sovereignty, fol. 58a. 
Mukaddimah I.; qualities and virtues of 
Urkhan, fol. 59 a. Mukaddimah II.; account 
of his accession and of contemporary kings, 
fol. 60 a. Eighteen Dastans, treating of his 
wars and conquests, fol. 63 b. 

Katlbah III., similarly subdivided, and 
treating of the reign of Murad L, fol. 96 b. 

Katlbah IV. Reign of Bayazld Yildirim, 
in two Mukaddimahs and sixteen Dastans, 
fol. 144 6. (The fourteenth Dastan, which 
related to the wars of A.H. 798—800, is 
wanting). 

Katlbah V. Reign of Muhammad I., in 
a Mukaddimah and twenty-eight Dastans, 
fol. 184 b. 

F F 






218 



LOCAL HISTORIES OF IRAN. 



Katibah VI. Reign of Murad II., in two 
Mukaddimahs and twenty-four Dastans, fol. 
234 6. 

Katibali VII., Add. 7647, fol. 1 b, treating 
of Muhammad II., and divided as follows : 
Tall'ah L ; the accession of Muhammad II., 
fol. 1 b. Tairah II.; account of contem- 
porary kings and men of learning, fol. 8 a. 
Kalb, fol. 13 b, treating, in numerous sub- 
divisions, of Muhammad II.'s qualities, of 
his power and armies, of his conquests and 
territories, of his constructions, lastly, in two 
appendices (Juniih), of his children, fol. 39 6, 
and of his vazirs and generals, fol. 41 a. 
The history proper, beginning fol. 45 a, con- 
sists of 29 Dastans, seven of which, relating 
to wars with Muslims, are said to belong to 
the right wing (Maimanah), and twenty-two, 
treating of wars with infidels, form the left 
wing (Maisarah). 

Katibah VIII., fol. 124 b, treating of Baya- 
zid II.'s reign, and containing : Mukaddi- 
mah; pre-eminence of Bayazid II.'s reign, 
and account of contemporary kings, fol. 125 a. 
Tali'ah, qualities and virtues of Bayazid II.; 
his pious foundations, fol. 129 b. Kalb; 
his accession, fol. 146 b. Ba's I. ; wars, con- 
tjuests, and other events of his reign, in 
eight Dastans of the right wing, and ten of 
the left, fol. 151 a. The last Dastan of the 
left wing, fol. 204 b, treats of the repulse of 
the Erench and Venetian attack on Mitylene, 
A.H. 907. The last of the right wing, fol. 
206 a, describes the festivities of the circum- 
cision of Prince Mahmud's children, A.H. 
911. Ba'§ II., in two sections (Junah) : 
1. Children of Bayazid II., fol. 210 a. ' 2. 
His Vazirs, Pashas, Generals, Kazis and 
'Ulama, fol. 217 a. 

The last section closes with a notice of 
"Firiiz Beg, which is brought down to the 
time of his appointment as Governor of 
Bosnia, A.H. 912. 

The Khatimah, or epilogue, foU. 234 b — 
245 a, is a later addition. It is written 



entirely in verse, and contains an account 
of the intestine war which resulted in the 
deposition of Bayazid and the accession of 
Salim. The author speaks also of the in- 
trigues by which he was deprived of Baya- 
zid's promised bounties and driven away 
from Court, of his pilgrimage to Mecca, 
where he received intelligence of the new 
reign, and of his subsequent recall to Court. 

Add. 23,579*. 

Foil. 280 ; Hi in. by 6^ ; 22 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in small and neat Naskhi ; 
dated Ramazan, A.H. 1069 (A.D. 1659); 
much discoloured by damp and partly torn. 

[Rob. Taylor.] 

A portion of the same work, containing 
the reigns of Miirad I., BayazTd Yildirim, 
and Muhammad I., viz., Katibah III., fol. 1 b ; 
Katibah IV., fol. 100 b, and Katibah V., 
fol. 183 a. 

The 14th Dastan of Katibah IV., fol. 164 b, 
is wanting, as in the preceding copy, with 
the exception of the first two lines. Kati- 
bah V. is imperfect at the beginning, wanting 
the first three leaves and the fifth (see Add. 
7646, foil. 184 6—186 b). 

Add. 24,960. 

Foil. 183; 111 in. by 7^; 25 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in Naskhi, apparently in the 
17th century. [Lord Aberdeen.] 

Salim Namah, a history of Sultan Salim I., 
in prose and verse. 

Author (foil. 17 &, 41 c) : Hakim ud-DTn 
Idris B. Husam ud-Din 'Ali ul-Bidlisi, ^^t^ 

Beg. ijop^ ^jj^j ''^j Uij-^ ^jji\ aJJ j-»J^ 
In a long and wordy preface the author 



HISTOEY OF SHIRAZ. 



21*) 



refers to the composition of his previous 
work, Hasht Bihisht, and of its poetical 
appendix, which, he says, consisted of sixteen 
hundred dystichs, and had been written in 
Mecca. He tlien states that, during the 
reign of Salim, while following the Sultan 
in his campaigns, he had collected materials 
for its history, and, although interrupted in 
his labours by long and dangerous voyages, 
he had written the present work, undeterred 
by the fact that three authors of note were 
then engaged on a similar task, namely 'Abd 
ur-Rahim 'Abbasi, who wrote in mixed 
Arabic prose and verse, Kazl 'Abd ul-Kabir 
Latifl, who wrote in Persian prose, and 
Maulana Muhammad Adii'i Shirazi, who 
wrote in Persian verse and in the style of 
Pirdausi's Shahnamah. (See Haj. Khal. 
vol. iii. p. 615.) The present work consists 
of alternating passages in prose and verse ; 
the latter, which contain only a versified 
summary of the former, may be read sepa- 
rately as a continuous work, to which the 
title Salim Namah more properly applies. 
It is stated in the preface, fol. 20, to consist 
of two Mukaddimahs and two Books (Kism), 
viz. Kism I., divided into four discourses 
(Guftar), treating of Salim's early life, 
his moral qualities, his literary accomplish- 
ments and his religious zeal, and Kism II., 
containing the history of his reign. The 
two Mukaddimahs are indeed found in the 
body of the work, foil. 21—31. But, in- 
stead of the remaining sections, we find the 
following : 

1. A preface by the author's son, Abul- 
Pazl Muhammad B. Idris ud-Daftari, written 
in the beginning of Salim II.'s reign, A.H. 
974, fol. 32 b. It is there stated that the 
author, Idris, had died in Constantinople, in 
the month of Zul-Hijjah, A.H. 926, a few 



months after Salim I., and while his son 
was detained by his ofl&cial duties in the Aral) 
country, and that the manuscript of Salim's 
History, which had been left unfinished by 
the author, falling into strange hands, had 
been scattered and partly lost. In the reign 
of Sulaiman, the present writer, Abul-Fazl, 
who then held the office of Daftardar in the 
Vazlr's Diviin, was ordered by the Sultan to 
collect aU the fragments of that work that 
he could discover. He accordingly began 
that search, but did not conclude it until 
after the accession of Sulaimiin's successor, 
Salim II., when he put together all such 
portions as he had found, and eked them 
out, when required, with pieces of his own 
composition. 

2. The history itself, consisting of a short 
introduction on the life of Salim up to his 
accession, and of a full account of the events 
of his reign narrated year by year, conclud- 
ing with his death, and the accession of 
Sulaiman, fol. 48. b. In a versified epilogue, 
Abul-Fazl, who there assumes the poetical 
name of Fazll, addresses his praises and 
advice to the reigning Sultan, Salim H., and 
to his son Prince Murad. 

In the course of this history, foil. 167 a — 
170 a, Abul-Fazl states that he was dis- 
charging the ofB.ce of Kazl of the province 
of Yanglshahr, when he was ordered, in 
A.H. 924, to proceed to Syria and assume 
the financial administration of the districts 
of Tarabulus, Ilims and 5amah. He sub- 
sequently held the office of Daftardar, and 
died, according to Haj. Khal., vol. iii. p. 110, 
A.H. 987. Compare Hammer, Geschichto 
des Osm. Eeiches, vol. ii. p. 525, and, for 
the present work, the Vienna Catalogue, 
vol. ii. p. 219, and Pertsch, Gotha Cata- 
logue, p. 54. 



Ff 2 






( 220 ) 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



Add. 6543. 

Foil. 473; 10 in. by 6^; 21 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in small and fair Nestalik, 
with 'Unvan and gold-ruled margins, appa- 
rently in the 17th century. [James Grant.] 

A general history of India from the Mo- 
hammedan conquest to the author's time. 

Author : Nizam ud-Din Ahmad B. Mu- 
hammad Mukim ul-HaravI, s^ ^^_Si\ ^^ 

Beg. liyM \j ^HjkHs- ■ slii^b (jdjLo) o>i»J. (^jJ^km 

The author, who in his preface claims 
descent from the celebrated saint of Herat, 
Khwajah 'Abd TJllah Ansari, was the son of 
Khwajah Mukim Haravi, who had been suc- 
cessively Divan of the household of Babar, 
and Vazir of Mirza 'Askari, governor of 
Gujrat. He held high military commands 
under Akbar, having been first appointed 
Bakhshi of Gujrat in the 29th year of the 
reign, and afterwards Bakhshi of the empire 
in the 37th year. He died, according to 
'Abd ul-Kadir Bada'uni, vol. ii. p. 397, in 
the 23rd of Safar, A.H. 1003, at the age of 
45 years. A full notice of his life is to be 
found in the Maagir ul-Umara, Add. 6567, 
fol. 162, and, translated into English, in 
Sir H. Elliot's History of India, vol. v. 
pp. 178 — 180. See also Blochmann's trans- 
lation of the A'in i Akbari, vol. 1. pp. 420, 
514. 

The Tabakat i Akbarshahl, also called 
Tabakat i Akbari and Tarikh i Nizami, is 
the earliest of the general histories of India 
and the foundation of all the later works on 
the same subject. A detailed account of its 



contents will be found in Morley's Catalogue, 
p. 158, and in Elliot's History of India, 
vol. V. pp. 177 — 476, where a considerable part 
of the work is given in English translation. 
It is also mentioned in Stewart's Catalogue, 
p. 11 ; Uri, p. 277 ; Critical Essay, p. 38 ; 
Aumer's Munich Catalogue, p. 83 ; Nassau 
Lees, Journal of the Eoyal Asiatic Society, 
New Series, vol. iii. p. 451, and Copenhagen 
Catalogue, p. 21. 

The author says in his preface that from his 
boyhood upwards he had applied himself, by 
his father's advice, to the pursuit of history. 



Finding that. 



although 



there were many 



works treating of special dynasties or periods, 
there existed no general record of Indian 
history, he determined to supply that de- 
ficiency by the present work, comprising 
the annals of the various dynasties of 
India, from the first appearance of Islamism 
in the time of Amir Subuktagin, A.H. 367, 
to A.H. 1001, the 37th year of Akbar. For a 
more detailed account of the latter reign the 
reader is referred to the Akbar Naraah. 
The author then proceeds to give the follow- 
ing list of his sources, some of which are 
works not otherwise known : Tarikh i YaminT, 
Zain ul-Akhbar, Rauzat us-Safii, Taj ul- 
Ma'a§ir, Tabakat iNasiri, Khaza'in ul-Futuh, 
Tughlak-Niimah, Tarikh i Firiizshahi by Ziyfi i 
Barani, FutOhat i Firiizshahi, Tarikh i Muba- 
rakshahi, Futiih us-Salatin, Tarikh i Mahmiid- 
shahi Hindu! (read Mandui), Tarikh i Mah- 
miidshahi Khurd Hindu! (read Mandui), 
Tabakat i Mahmiidshahi Gujrati, Maasir i 
Mahmiidshahi Gujrati, Tarikh i Muhammadi, 
Tarikh i Bahadurshahi, Tarikh i Bahmani, 
Tarikh i Nasiri u MuzaA'arshahi, Tarikh i 
Mirza Haidar, Tarikh i Kashmiri, Tarikh i 
Sind, Tarikh i Babari, Vakiat i Babari, 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



221 



Tarikli i Ibriihlmshahl, Vaki'at i Mushtakl, 
Vaki'at i Humayun Padishah. Compare the 
list of Eirishtah's authorities given by Mohl, 
Journal des Savants, 1840, pp. 220—224. 
Einally the author, while assigning to his 
work the above title, Tabakat i Akbarshahi, 
adds that, by a remarkable coincidence, the 
word Nizami, derived from his own name, 
Nizam ud-Din, forms a chronogram express- 
ing the date of its composition, A.H. 1001, 
In the body of the work, however, the 
account of Akbar's reign is brought down 
to the end of the 38th year, corresponding 
to A.H. 1002. 

The work is divided into a Mukaddimah, 
nine Tabakahs and a Khatimah, as follows : 

Mukaddimah. History of the Ghaznavis, 
fol. 7 a. 

Tabakah I. History of the Sultans of 
Dehli, from Mu'izz ud-DTn Ghurl to Akbar, 
A.H. 574—1002, fol. 19 b. This section 
concludes with biographical notices of the 
celebrated men who flourished in Akbar's 
reign, namely Amirs, fol. 275 a, 'TJlama and 
litterati, fol. 281 a. Shaikhs, fol. 283 a, and 
poets, fol. 285 a. 

Tabakah II. History of the kings of Dec- 
can, from A.H. 748 to A.H. 1002, fol. 292 a. 
This section, beginning with the Bahmanis, 
includes the Nizam ul-Mulkis, fol. 315 a; 
the 'Adilkhanis, fol. 318 b ; and the Kutb 
ul-Mulkis, fol. 319 b. 

Tabakah III. Kings of Gujrat, from A.H. 
793 to 980, fol. 319 b. Tabakah IV. Kings 
of Malvah, from A.H. 809 to 977, fol. 379 h. 
Tabakah V. Kings of Bengal, from A.H. 741 
to 984, fol. 427 a. Tabakah VI. Sharki 
kings of Jaunpiir, from A.H. 784 to 881, 
fol. 430 b. Tabakah VII. Kings of Kash- 
mir, from A.'h. 747 to 995, fol. 435 a. 
Tabakah VIII. History of Sind from the 
Arab' conquest, A.H. 86, to A.H. 1001, fol. 
460 b. Tabakah IX. History of Multan, 
from A.H. 847 to 932, fol. 465 b. 

The Khatimah, which, according to the 



preface, was to contain a topographical 
account of India, does not appear to have 
been written in full. It is confined in all 
extant copies to a few lines on the area of 
the Indian empire and the number of its 
cities and villages. The present copy breaks 
off after the third line of the Khatimah. 

A table of contents, in the same hand- 
writing as the text, occupies two pages, 
foil. 3 and 4, at the beginning. 

On fol. 5 a are several 'Arzdidahs of the 
reign of Aurangzib, with the seals of Sa'd 
ud-Dln Khan and others. 

Add. 26,208 and 26,209. 

Two uniform volumes, containing severally 
foil. 321 and 310 ; 15 in. by 9^ ; 18 lines, 
6J in. long ; written in large Nestalik ; dated 
Zu'1-hijjah, A.H. 1049 (A.D. 1640). 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

The same work. 

Contents : Ghaznavis, Add. 26,208, fol. 4 a. 
Dehli, fol. 16 b. Deccan, Add. 26,209, fol. 
70 b. Gujrat, fol. 107 b. Mfilvah, fol. 190 b. 
Bengal, fol. 260 a. Jaunpur, fol. 265 a. 
Kashmir, fol. 270 J. Sind, fol. 297 b. Multan, 
fol. 302 a. 
Copyist : ^/u^ ftSjjb ^J\ Js- ^j ^j^^ ,^^ 

The following note in Wm. Erskine's 
manuscript list of his collection refers to the 
present volume : " This copy was presented 
by Mons. Gentil to Col. Camac at Chupi-ah, 
8 June, 1766. It is unfortunately very in- 
correct and seems never to have been col- 
lated, passages being omitted and names and 
words mistaken." 

Add. 5615. 

Foil. 782; 9J in. by 6.^; 15 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in plain Nestalik, probably in 
the 18th century. [N. B. Halued.] 

Another copy of the Tabakat i Akbarshahi, 



222 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



wanting the history of Multan and the 
Khatimah. 

Contents : Ghaznavis, fol. 5 a. Dehli, fol. 
25 b. Deccan, fol. 502 b. Gujrat (wrongly- 
headed Millvah), fol. 553 a. Bengal, fol. 
656 a. Jaunpur, fol. 661 b. Malvah (wrongly 
headed Hind), fol. 669 a. Kashmir, fol. 
737 b. Sind (wrongly headed Multan), fol. 
775 a. 

Scribe : *«i« Cy^ >xi. ijJj ^J>_^\J^ 

On the first page is a short notice of the 
work, here called Toareekh Akber Nameh, 
in the handwriting of Halhed. 

Or. 161. 

EoU. 83 ; 13 in. by 7 ; 27 lines, 4l in. 
long; written in neat Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins, probably in the latter 
part of the 17th century. 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

A volume entitled ^Ja^ ^^%^ iTj^y 

It contains a portion of the Tabakat i Ak- 
barshahi, viz. the history of the Kings of 
Dehli from the accession of Ghiyiis ud-Din 
Balban, A.H. 664, to the defeat of Ibrahim 
B. Sikandar Lodi by Babar, A.H. 932, (cor- 
responding to Add. 6543, foil. 36 a— 136 b). 
Prefixed is a modern table of contents, fol. 1. 

It appears from an endorsement in Persian, 
fol. 2 a, that this fragment was formerly 
bound with two other works, viz. Shajarat 
ul-Atrak and Lubb ut-tawarikh ; and in fact 
Col. Hamilton's copy of the latter, now Or. 
140 (see p. 104 a), is quite uniform with the 
present MS. 

Add. 26,302. 

Poll. 38 ; 91 in. by 1^ ; 17 lines, 5| in. 
long ; written in Indian Shikastah-Amiz, on 
Enghsh paper, bearing in its water-mark the 
date 1802. [Wm. Erskinb.] 

An extract from the Tabakat i Akbarshrdii, 



containing the history of Babar and Huma- 
yun, and corresponding to Add. 6543, foil. 
132—176. 

Add. 6581. 

Poll. 304; Hi in. by 8^; 23 lines, 5 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
18th century. [James Grant.] 

A general history of India from the Mo- 
hammedan conquest to the 40th year of 
Akbar's reign, A.H. 1004. 

Author : Abd ul-Kadir B. MulQkshah 

Bada'ani, ^j\ij sU/^ i^. j^^\ <^ 

Beg. ^jj y j.\Jj \^\j j-jb ^J\ 

'Abd ul-Kiidir Bada'Qni, with the poetical 
surname of Kiidiri, was born at Bada'un 
about A.H. 948. He lost his father, Shaikh 
Mulukshah, in A.H. 969, and became a 
pupil of Shaikh Mubarak Naguri, with 
whose two celebrated sons, Paizi and Abul- 
Pazl, he entertained the most intimate 
intercourse, although he was impelled by 
his Muslim bigotry to denounce both after 
their death as arrant infidels. In A.H. 981 
he was presented to Akbar and enrolled in 
the number of the learned men who attended 
his court. He has been mentioned above 
as translator of the Mahiibharata and Rama- 
yana, pp. 56 a, 57 b, and as one of those to 
whom the compilation of the Tarlkh i Alf i 
had first been entrusted, p. 117 b. An 
abridgment of the history of Kashmir, 
which he wrote by order of Akbar, and 
completed in A.H. 999, is mentioned by him 
at the beginning of the Muntakhab. 

He commenced the present work, as stated 
in the preface, shortly after the death of his 
friend Nizam ud-Din Ahmad, the author of 
the preceding history, which took place in 
Safar, A.H. 1003, and finished it, as re- 
corded in tlie concluding lines, on the 23rd 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



228 



r 



of Jumadii II., A.H. 1004. Although pro- 
fessedly based upon the Tarikh i Mubarak- 
shahi and the Nizam ut-Tavarikh i Nizami 
(another name for the Tabakat i Akbar- 
shahi), it contains much original matter, 
and is interesting on account of the out- 
spoken and often virulent tone in which the 
author inveighs against Akbar himself, and 
all those who departed from his own rigid 
standard of orthodoxy. It appears from the 
conclusion that it was only intended for 
posterity, and was to be kept strictly private 
during the author's time. 

The Muntakhab ut-Tavarikh has been 
edited in the Bibliotheca Indica by Maulavi 
Ahmad 'Ali, 3 voU., Calcutta, 1868-9. A 
notice of the author's life, consisting of all 
the passages relating to himself which occur 
in the text, and of an extract from the 
Mirat ul-'Alam (see Add. 7657, fol. 452 a), 
has been prefixed to the first volume. An 
account of Bada'uni will also be found in 
Blochmann's translation of the Ain i Akbari, 
vol. I., p. 104, notes. The work has been 
fully described, and copious extracts from it 
given, by Sir H, Elliot, Bibliographical Index, 
pp. 219—258, and History of India, vol. V., 
pp. 477 — 549. See also Lees, Journal of 
the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, vol. 
III., p. 455. Some interesting extracts 
relating to Akbar's religious innovations 
have been given by H. H. Wilson, Works, 
vol. II., pp. 379 — 400. A condensed trans- 
lation of the whole work by Wm. Erskine is 
preserved in MS., Add. 26,609, and some 
portions relating to Akbar's reign and trans- 
lated by Dr. John Leyden, will be found in 
Add. 26,601. 

The text is only divided by the rubrics of 
the various reigns, a table of which is pre- 
fixed. The contents are fully stated in the 
tables of the printed edition. 

Or. 160. 

FoU. 339; ll^ in. by 7f ; 39 lines, 4^ in. 



long; written in Nestalik and Shikastah- 
amiz, apparently in the 18th century. 

[Geo. Wm. Hamiltox.] 

The same work, with a full table of con- 
tents, foil. 1 — 5. 

Add. 26,210. 

Foil. 112; 9 in. by 5; 16 lines, 3J in. 
long; written in Shikastah-amiz ; dated 
Jhalahdar, province of Gujrat, Sha'ban, 
A.H. 1136 (A.D. 1724). [Wm. Ebskine.J 

A general history of India from the time 
of Mu'izz ud-Din Muhammad B. Sam to the 
■reign of Akbar. 



Author : 'Abd ul-Hakk Hakki 



J^ 



J^' 



JjlP 



Beg. ^113 ^^ ^\^\ Jy i>)U^ ^U ^\ 

The author, who designates himself in the 
preface by his Takhallus Hakki, is the cele- 
brated saint, 'Abd ul-Hakk B. Saif ud-Din 
Dihlavi, who has been mentioned above, 
p. 14 a, and whose life is recorded by his 
contemporary and friend 'Abd ul-Kadir 
Bada'Qni, vol. III., p. 113, and by the author 
of the Mirat ul-*Alam, Add. 7657, fol. 454 b. 
He gave no title to the present work, which 
is commonly called, from the author's sur- 
name, Tarikh i Hakki. 

It is founded, as stated in the preface, 
upon the Tabakat i Nasiri, the Tarikh i 
Firuzshahl (of Ziyai Barani), and the Tarikh 
i Bahjidurshahi, a history dedicated to Sultan 
Bahadur of Gujrat. But, for the latter 
period, extending from the reign of Shah 
Bahlul Lodi to that of Akbar, the author 
depended on oral tradition and his own 
observation. 

In a conclusion found in another copy, 
Add. 16,701, I., the author states that, from 
a want of sufficient sources of information, 
he had not brought down the history of 
Deccan further than A.H. 937, and had 
given but a scanty account of the rulers of 



224 



GENERAL HISTORY OP INDIA. 



Sind and Kashmir. He adds the date of 
composition, A.H. 1005, fixed by the follow- 
ing chronogram : 

i. e. >J}^< /i 1016 — 11 = 1005. 

Compared with the last-mentioned MS. the 
present copy exhibits a later and enlarged re- 
cension, in which the deficiencies above stated 
have been supplied. As it contains a men- 
tion of the taking of Ahmadnagar by Khfin- 
khanan, fol. 76 a, and of the death of Mirza 
JanI Beg, fol. 100 6, both events of A.H. 
.1008, it could not have been completed before 
that date. ' 

It differs also from the earlier edition in 
the arrangement of the contents, which is 
as follows : Sultans of Dehli, from the time 
of Mu izz ud-Din Muhammad B. Sam to the 
accession of Akbar, fol. 3 6. Sultans of 
Bengal, fol. 48 b, of Jaunpur, fol. 59 a, of 
Deccan (Bahmanis), fol. 60 a; Nizam ul- 
Mulkis, fol. 71a; 'Adilkhanis, fol. 76 a; 
Kutb ul-Mulkis, fol. 77 6. Sultans of 
Mandu, fol. 77 b, Gujrat, fol. 84 a, Tattah, 
fol. 96 b, Kashmir, fol. 100 6, and Multan, 
fol. Ill b. 

The earlier recension. Add. 16,701, does 
not contain any account of the local dynas- 
ties of Deccan, and follows this order: 
Dehli, fol. 3 b. Bengal, fol. 57 a. Jaun- 
pur, fol. 70 a. Mandu, fol. 70 b. Gujrat, 
fol. 79 b. Deccan, fol. 84 a. Multan, 
fol. 88 b. Kashmir, fol. 89 b. Sind, fol. 90 a. 
Another copy. Add. 25,792, is similarly 
arranged, with the exception of the last two 
chapters, which are transposed. 

In the present copy the work is called 
^c^l lOlajij L-'U^, both in the subscription 
and in the endorsement. 

Compare Morley's Catalogue, p. 62, and 
Elliot, Bibliographical Index, pp. 273—280, 
History of India, vol. vi. pp. 175 — 181. 

Transcriber : *\jsj>-\j di^ c]j^ 



Add. 10,580. 

Foil. 376 ; 9^ in. by 5^ ; 15 lines, 3 in. 
long; written partly in Nestalik, partly in 
Shikastah-amiz, apparently in the 17th 
century. [Robert Watherston.] 

A general history of India from the time 
of Mu'izz ud-Din Muhammad B. Sam to the 
accession of Jaliangir. 

Author: Nur ul-Hakk ul-MashrikI ud- 
Dihlavi ul-Bukhari, ^j^^\ Jj^^ J*^ ji> 

Beg. 4S)-» jjbllifcli. JCi J^j '^j^ ^iulai- 

The author, a son of the preceding writer, 
'Abd ul-Qakk Dililavi, succeeded him as a 
religious teacher in Dehli, where he died 
in A.H. 1073 at the age of ninety. See 
Miriit ul-'Alam, Add. 7657, fol. 455 a, and 
'Amal i Salih, Add. 26,221, fol. 692 b. 

The Zubdat ut-Tavarikh is a much en- 
larged edition and continuation of the Tarikh 
i Hakki. The author says in the preface that 
his father had been asked by Shaikh Earid 
B. Sayyid Ahmad ul-Husaini ul-Bukhari (one 
of Akbar's generals, who received, after the 
accession of Jahanglr, the title of Murtaza 
Khan, and died A.H. 1025 ; see Maagir ul- 
Umara, Add. 6568, fol. 347, and Bloch- 
mann's translation of the Ain i Akbari, vol. i. 
p. 413) to prepare an extended edition of his 
history, and that the former, whose mind was 
engrossed by loftier thoughts, had called 
upon his son to comply with the Amir's 
request. In carrying out that task Nu.r ul- 
Hakk added some reigns that had been 
omitted, expanded the too concise portions 
of the original, supplied a record of Akbar's 
reio"n, extracted from the Akbar-namah and 
other works, and in which the services of 
Shaikh Earid are fully set forth, and generally 
supplemented the narrative with many 
notable facts from his own knowledge. 

The above preface was evidently written 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



225 



in the time of Akbar, who is there spoken of 
as the reigning sovereign ; but in the body 
of the Avork the histoiy has been brought 
down to the accession of Jahiinglr, A.H. 1014. 

Contents : Introduction on the meaning 
of Padishah and the utility of history, fol. 5 a. 
Kings of Dehli, fol. 6 b. Bubar, fol. 80 b. 
Humayun, fol. 90 a. Shirslmh and his suc- 
cessors, fol. 108 b. Akbar, fol. 128 a. Kings 
of Mfilvab, fol. 251 a, Gujrat, fol. 287 b, 
Tattali and Sind, fol. 317 «, Deccan (in- 
cluding the Nizam ul-Mulkis, 'Adilkhanis, 
and Kutb ul-Mulkis) fol. 322 b, Kashmir, 
fol. 842 a, Bengal, fol. 357 b, Jaunpur, 
fol. 372 a, and Multan, fol. 375 b. 

Compare Elliot, Bibliographical Index, 
pp. 281 — 297, and History of India, vol. vi. 
pp. 182—194. 

Add. 6569-6571. 

Three uniform volumes, containing re- 
spectively foil. 304, 292, and 260 ; 23 lines, 
4f in. long ; written in Nestalik, apparently 
in the 18th century. [James Gbaxt.] 

A general history of India from the earliest 
times to A.H. 1015, with some later additions. 

Author: Muhammad Kasim Hindushfdi 
Astarabadi, commonly called Firishtah, j^ 

Beg. «-»* t/Vi) (jt-o. ^J^^>} «-^ iiy>-} (JLj 

...lijjob 
ty •• V 

Firishtah, bom in Astarabad about A.H. 

960. was taken at an early age to India by 

his father, Maulana Ghuliim 'All Hindushah, 

who finally settled in Ahmadnagar, the 

residence of Murtaza Niziim Shah (A.H. 972 — 

996), and was appointed tutor to that king's 

son, Miran Husain. Firishtah grew up at 

the court of Murtazil, and held the post 

of captain of the royal guard, when the 

latter was deposed and put to death. He 

states in his preface that in A.H. 998 he left 



Ahmadnagar to repair to the court of Bijfipur, 
and that he was subsequently called upon by 
Ibrahim 'Adil Shfdi (A.H. 988—1037) to 
write the present history, which he presented 
to his Majesty in A.H. 1015. In the same 
year he was sent by 'Adil Shah on an em- 
bassy to Jahangir, then holding his court in 
Lahore. He attained an advanced age, and 
added to his work several notices, the latest 
of which relates to the death of Bahfidur 
Khan Farfiki in A.H. 1033. See Bombay 
edition, vol. ii. p. 568, Add. 6572, fol. 598 b, 
Add. 5598, fol. 681 a. The date of Firish- 
tah's death is not known. He left, besides 
his history of India, a medical work entitled 
\j\o':i\ jy-»^ ; see Mehren, Copenhagen Cata- 
logue, p. 11. 

The present work, which is generally 
called after the author Tarikh i Firishtah, 
deservedly holds the first rank among the 
general histories of India, and is the main 
source of all the later woi'ks of that class. 
It has been lithographed at Bombay and 
Poona in 1832, under the supervision of Mir 
Khairat 'All Khan Mushtak of Agra, from a 
text prepared by Major-General John Briggs. 
A second edition, lithographed in the press 
of Munshi Naval Kishor, Lucknow, A.H. 
1281, is a reprint of the first. Former 
translations of separate portions, viz. the 
history of Hindustan, by Alexander Dow, 
London, 1768, the history of Deccan, by 
Jonathan Scott, Shrewsbury, 1794, and the 
account of Malabar, by Anderson, Asiatic 
Miscellany, 1786, have Ijcen entirely super- 
seded by a version of the entire work, with 
the exception of the account of Indian 
saints, which General J. Briggs published 
under the title of "Histoiy of tiie rise of 
the Mahomedan power in India," 4 vols., 
London, 1829. It is much to be regretted 
that the incontestable usefulness of General 
Briggs' valuable work should have been iu 
some measure impaired by a general loose- 
ness of translation, occasional inaccuracy ia 

G G 



226 



GENERAL HISTORY OP INDIA. 



the writing of proper names, and, above all , 
by frequent and arbitraiy omissions. The 
Mukaddimah, or Introduction, which treats 
of Hindu tenets and early history, has been 
ably translated by Prof. Dowson, in Elliot's 
History of India, vol. vi. pp. 532 — 569. 

An excellent account of the work and of 
Firishtah's life, by J. Mohl, will be found in 
the Journal des Savants, 1840, pp. 212 — 226, 
354-372, and 392—103. Compare the 
preface and the life of the author in vol. i. 
of Briggs' version, Morley's Catalogue, pp. 
63—68, Sir H. Elliot, Bibliographical Index, 
pp. 310 — 339, History of India, vol. vi. pp. 
207—230, Stewart's Catalogue, p. 12, etc. 

The author gave successively two different 
titles to this history, first that of Gulshan i 
Ibrahimi, which is found in those copies in 
which the dedication to Ibrahim *Adil Shah 
is dated A.H. 1015 (Add. 6569, 18,875, and 
Egerton 1000), and afterwards that of Tarikh 
i Nauras-Namah ; the latter occurs in the 
later recension, the preface of which is dated 
A.H. 1018 (Add. 4940, 5598, 6572.) It may 
be noticed that the latest additions are only 
to be found in copies of the latter class. 
The preface of A.H. 1015 contains at the 
end a table of chapters which does not 
appear in the later preface. 

Another distinction between the two re- 
censions is this, that the first is divided into 
two volumes (jild), the second of which, 
commencing with the 'Adilshahis, has a short 
preamble of its own, beginning : UJ j j.^*- 
klfl5^ ^jij\ i/^jJli* . (See Add. 6570, fol. 121, 
18,877, fol. 1, Egerton 1000, fol. 299), while 
in the later recension this division is not 
observed, and the preamble is suppressed. 
There are also some discrepancies in the 
headings of the chapters. 

The work is divided into a Mukaddimah, 
twelve Makrdahs and a Khatimah, as follows : 

Mukaddimah. Tenets of the Hindus, their 
early Rajahs, and the first appearance of 
Islamism in India, Add. 6569, fol. 4 a. 



Makalah I. Sultans of Lahore, styled 
Ghaznavis, fol. 18 b. 

Makalah II. Sultans of Dehli, fol. 58 a. 

Makrdah III. Sultans of Deccan, in six 
Rauzahs: 1. Kings of Gulbargah, or Bah- 
manis. Add. 6570, fol. 1 a. 2. Kings of 
Bijapur, or 'Adilshahis, fol. 121 a. 3. Kings 
of Ahmadnagar, or Nizamshahis, fol. 198 a. 

4. Kings of Tiling, or Kutubshahis, fol. 278 h. 

5. Kings of Berar, or 'Imadshahis, fol. 287 h. 

6. Kings of Bedar, or Baridis, fol. 290 a. 
Makalah IV. Sultans of Gujrat, Add. 

6571, fol. 1 a. 

Makalah V. Rulers of Malvah and Mandu, 
fol. 69 a. 

Makalah VI. The Earuki Sultans of Bur- 
hanpur, fol. 116 a. 

Makalah VII. Sultans of Bengal (includ- 
ing the Sharkis of Jaunpur), fol. 131 b. 

Makrdah VIII. Rulers of "Sind, Tattah, 
and Multan (Briggs' translation, vol. iv. 
pp. 401—421), fol. 145 a. 

Makalah IX. The Samagan, or Zamindars 
of Sind, fol. 151 b. This section includes 
the Jam and Arghun dynasties (Briggs' 
translation, vol. iv. pp. 422 — 443), and the 
Sultans of Multan {ib. pp. 379—400). 

Makrdah X. Kings of Kashmir, fol. 166 a. 

Makalah XI. Account of Malabar, fol. 
201 b. 

Makrdah XII. Saints of India, fol. 207 b. 

Kliatimah. Description of India and enu- 
meration of the local Rajahs, fol. 258 a. 

A full table of contents in Persian is 
prefixed to each volume. The MS. appears 
to have been carefully perused by an English 
reader, probably. Mr. James Grant, who 
wrote short abstracts in the margins, and 
the following date at the end of the last 
volume: "Einis. July 3rd, 1781." 

Add. 18,875. 

Foil. 465 ; 11^ in. by 6| ; 20 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with 'Unvan 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



227 



and gold-ruled margins; dated Zulhijjali, 
A.H. 1048 (A.D. 1639). [Adam Clarke.] 

The first half of the same work, Gulshan 
i Ibrahiml, ending with the first Rauzah of 
Makalah III. It agrees with the correspond- 
ing portion of the preceding copy, but is 
much more correctly written. 

Add. 18,877. 

Foil. 357; perfectly uniform with the 
preceding, and written by the same hand ; 
with TJnvan and gold-ruled margins. 

[Adam Clarke.] 

The second half of the Gulslian i Ibrfdilmi. 
It begins with the preamble above noticed, 
followed by the Second Rauzah of Maka- 
lah II. It is imperfect at the end, breaking 
off" in the beginning of the account of Mala- 
bar, fol. 355. The last two leaves contain 
detached portions of the Khatimah. 

Egerton 1000. 

Foil. 524 ; 12| in. by 8^ ; 21 lines, 5^ in. 
Ions ; written in Nestalik, with 'Unvan and 
gold-ruled margins ; dated Ramazan, the 
37th year of Shah 'Alam (A.H. 1209, A.D. 
1795). 

The same work. This MS. bears the same 
title and date of dedication, A.H. 1015, as 
the preceding copies, with which it agrees 
also in the headings of the chapters. 

Add. 6572. 

Foil. 691 ; 12 in. by 8^ ; 21 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and ruled margins, probably about the close 
of the 17th century. [James Grant.] 

The same work, with the later preface. 
Contents : Mukaddimah, fol. 10 a. Ma- 
kalah I. Sultans of Lahore or Ghaznavis, 



fol. 16 a. II. Sultans of Dchli, fol. 53 h. 
III. Sultans of Deccan, in six Rauzahs, fol. 
263 a. IV. Sultans of Gujriit, fol. 501 a. 

V. Rulers of Malvah and Mandu, fol. 551 b. 

VI. Rulers of Khandes, Asir, and Burhanpur, 
called FarQkis, fol. 587 a. VII. Sultans of 
Bengal, fol. 598 b. VIII. Rulers of Sind, 
Tattah and Multan, fol. 608 a. IX. The 
Samagan, or Zamindars of Sind, fol. 612 b. 
(The words -^ ei\sj» in the heading have been 
obliterated.) IX. {bis) Sultans of Multan, 
fol. 616 b. (The number ^, which is here 
repeated, has been altered by a later liand 
to ^ii). X. Kings of Kashmir, fol. 621 b. 
XI. Rulers of Malabar, fol. 646 b. XII. 
Saints of India (without heading), fol. 650 b. 
Khatimah, fol. 690 a. 

A full table of contents in a later hand is 
prefixed, foil. 1 — 6. 

Add. 5598. 

Foil. 811; 13 in. by 8^; 21 lines, | in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Hoogli, 
August, 1779. [Nath. Brassey Halhbd.] 

The same work, with the title of Tiirikh i 
Nauras-Namah and the date of A.H. 1018 
in the preface. 

It is stated in the subscription that this 
copy was made for Mr. Halhed by order of 
Mr. Wilkins, and that it was WTitten by three 
transcribers in the space of seven months. 

A full table of contents occupies foil. 1 — 7. 

Add. 4940 - 4942. 

Three uniform volumes, which originally 
formed one, and contain respectively foil. 193, . 
195 and 170 ; 23 lines, 5| in. long ; written 
in fair Nestalik, apparently in the 17th cen- 
tury. [Claud Russell.] 

The same work, Tarikh i Nauras-Namah. 
Three considerable lacunes occur in the third 
volume, after foil. 73, 96 and 137. The first 
extends from the reign of Murtazil Nizam- 

aG2 



228 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



shah to that of Mahmud Shah I. of Gujrat 
(Translation, vol. iii. p. 265 — vol. iv. p. G3), 
the second from the reign of Mahmud 
Shah III. to that of Muzaffar Shah III.' (vol. 
iv, pp. 148 — 157), and the third from the 
reign of NasIrKhan Faruld to that of Ghazl 
Shrih of Kashmir (vol. iv. pp. 292—514). 
There are also a few leaves wanting at the 
beginning of the account of Indian Saints. 

The first three folios of vol. i. and the 
last folio of vol. iii. have been supplied by a 
later hand. 

This MS. bears the Persian seals of David 
Anderson and Claud Russell, with this note 
on the fly-leaf : " Presented by Claud Russell, 
Esq., October 5, 1781." 

Add. 18,876. 

Poll. 350; 15 in. by 9; 22 lines, of in. 
long; written in Nestalik, with silver-ruled 
margins, apparently in the 18tb century. 

[Adam Clarke.] 

A portion of the same work, beginning 
with the reign of Akbar, and ending abruptly 
after the first lines of the sixth Rauzali of 
Makalah III. (Bombay edition, vol. i. p. 461 
— vol. ii. p. 347, Briggs' translation, vol. ii. 
p. 182— vol. iii. p. 496). 

Add. 23,529. 

Poll. 155 ; llf in. by 8; 32 lines; 51 in. 
long ; written in small Naskhi, on European 
paper, apparently in the 19th century. 

[Rob. Taylor.] 

A portion of tbe same work, viz. the six 
Rauzahs of Makalah III., or the history of 
the Deccan dynasties. 

Add. 26,251. 

Poll. 210 ; lOi in. by 6^ ; 15 lines ; 4 in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, apparently 
about the close of the 17th century. 

[Wm. Erskine.] 



A general history of India from the time 
of Sultan Shihab ud-Din GhQri to A.H. 1101. 

Author : Rae Bindraban, son of Rae Bha- 
ramal, J^^jl^ J^j cy>j (^j^ajo i_^\j 

Beg. «3iU J»- c^^\j ^lj^_/o J^jji-? J'^'^^i 

The author's father, who had received the 
title of Rae in the 20th year of Shahjahan 
and had been appointed Divan to Dara-Shi- 
kuh, died in the 26th year of the same reign 
(Tazkirat ul-Umara, Add. 16,703, fol. 134). 
Bindraban states that he received the same 
title from Aurangzib. We are informed by 
Khalil Ullah, former owner of one of the 
copies of the present work. Add. 25,786, 
in a note dated A.H. 1149, that the author 
had been Divan to Bahadur Shah Alam, 
before the latter' s accession. 

lOiafi Khan, who calls him Bindraban 
Das Bahadurshahl, makes the same state- 
ment, vol. ii. p. 211, and adds that, after a 
diligent search for his work, he was dis- 
appointed to find that it did not contain half 
the facts recorded by himself. 

Bindraban says in the preface that in A.H. 
1101, large territories having been added to 
the empire by the arms of Aurangzib, he con- 
ceived the project of writing a concise history 
of India, with the main object of recording 
the accession and conquests of that sove- 
reign, and finding that Abul-Kasim {sic), 
surnamed Pirishtah, had made an excellent 
compilation of earlier works for the period 
extending from A-H. 572 to 1000, he abridged 
the same, made to it some additions from 
other sources, brought it down to a cen- 
tury later, and gave to his work the 
title of Lubb ut-Tavarikh (Add. 26,251, 5618 
and 6596), or, according to other copies (Add. 
25,786, 26,252) Lubb ut-Tavarikh i Hind. 
In the concluding lines the date of composi- 
tion is approximatively conveyed by the 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



229 



clirono^ram ,.,li-»JJJ6 i^JjJ^ O^la- = A.H.llOO, 
which however in two other copies (Add. 
5618, 6596) is written ^iL-j^ uliU O^JU 
i. e. A.H. 1106. 

See Elliot, History of India, vol. vii., 
p. 168—173, Mackenzie Collection, vol. ii. 
p. 120, and Copenhagen Catalogue, p. 18. 
J. Scott has made use of the Lubb ut- 
Tavarlkh in his history of Dekkan ; see vol. 
i. pp. vii. and 338. 

The Lubb ut-Tavarikh is divided into ten 
iPash, as follows : I. Kings of Dehli, fol. 1 b. 
This chapter, nearly two-thirds of the whole 
work, comprises, in continuation of Eirish- 
tah, the reigns of Jahangir, fol. 76 a ; Shah- 
jahan, fol. 78 « ; and Aurangzlb, fol. 96 a. 
The account of the last is brought down to 
the 12th of Jumada I., A.H. 1101. 

II. Kings of Deccan, in six Shu'bahs : 
1. The Bahmanis, fol. 131 b. 2. The Sultans 
of Bijapur, styled 'Adilshahis, to A.H. 1097, 
fol. 142 a. 3. The Sultans of Ahmadnagar 
and Daulatabad, called Nizamshahis, to A.H. 
1045, fol. 150 a. 4. The rulers of Tiling, 
known as Kutubshilhis, to A.H. 1098, fol. 
162 b. 5. The 'Imadshahis of Berar, fol. 

166 a. 6. The Barldis of Bedar, fol. 

167 «. 

III. Sultans of Gujrat, fol. 169 a. IV. 
Rulers of Miilvah and Mandu, fol. 180 «. 
Y. The Earukis of Burhanpur and Aslr, fol. 
190 6. VI. Sultans of Bengal, fol. 196 6. 

VII. The Sharkis of JaunpQr, fol. 203 a. 

VIII. Rulers of Sind, fol. 205 b. IX. Rulers 
of Multan, fol. 208 a. X. Kings of Kashmir, 
fol. 208 b. 

The first page bears the stamp of 'All Naki 
Khan "Alamgiri (an Amir, who, according to 
the Tazkirat ul-Umara, was Divan of Auran- 
gabad at the close of Aurangzlb's reign) with 
the date 38, i. e. the 38th year of Aurangzlb, 
or A.H. 1005. On the fly-leaf is written : 
" To Wm. Erskine, Esq., from Hetiry Russell, 
Esq., Oct. 1811." 



Add. 6596. 

Foil. 268; 10 in. by 6^; 15 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Haidarfibad, 
Jumada I., in the first year of Shah 'Alara, 
or A.H. 1119 (A.D. 1707). [James Grant.] 

The same work. 

Add. 25,786. 

Foil. 172 ; 9J in. by 6^ ; 20 lines, S-i in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated A.H. 
1149 (A.D. 1737). [Wm. Cuueton.] 

The same work. 

The original owner of this MS., Khalil 
TJllaii Ghulam Shaikhau Ahmad, states on 
the first page that it was written at the 
close of A.H. 1149, in Slkakul, Subah of 
Haidarabad, where he held the office of 
Vaka'i'-Navis, by 'All Beg, and he adds at 
the end that its collation was completed in 
Rabl' II., A.H. 1150, 

Add. 5618. 

Foil. 231; 10 in. by 6^; 15 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
latter half of the 18th century. 

[N. B. Halhed.] 

The same work. 

Add. 26,252. 

Foil. 231 ; 8 in. by 4 ; 14 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, about the begin- 
ning of the 19th century. 

[Wm. Erskixe.] 

The same work. 

Mr. Erskine has written on the fly-leaf: 
"From Brigadier-Gen. Malcolm, Nov., 1811, 
Bombay." 

Add. 5559. 

Foil. 422; 11 in. by 6|; 16 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; m-itten in Nestalik, with a rude 'Un- 
vtin and gold-ruled margins ; dated Rajab, 
A.H. 1188 (A.D. 1774). 

[Robert Wathrrstox.] 



230 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



A general history of India from the earliest 
times to the accession of 'Alamgir. 

Beg. sljTJl^ jyo^ J c^Uo.^/ &iU.j\5^J ^JiXsi^i 

The author, who does not give his name, 
either in the present copy, or in any of the 
following, was evidently a Hindu, and had 
been, as he states in the preface, from his 
youth upwards acting as Munshi in the 
employ of some high officials. He is desig- 
nated in the subscription as follows : ^^^ 

tl^.i»b jliL*»;> 0;C»fiMj ij^j^ J c?j'^> from 
which he would appear to have lived in 
Patialah. His name has been variously 
read; Sanjan by Morley and Sprenger, Subhan 
by Lees and Elliot, and Sujan by Garcin de 
Tassy. The last reading is probably correct, 
for Sujan is a HindQ name of frequent 
occurrence; no less than three Sujan Singlis 
are mentioned in the Tazkirat ul-Umara. 

After discoursing on the plurality of re- 
ligions, to all of which he assigns a divine 
origin, and on the usefulness of history, he 
enumerates the following works as the 
sources of the present compilation : — 

The Persian translations of the Maha- 
bharata, Ramayana, and Harivansa, made by 
order of Akbar. The Bhagavata and Yoga- 
vasishta, translated by Shaikh Ahmad and 
others for Dara-Shikuh. Gulafshan, a trans- 
lation of the Singhasan-battlsl. Padmavat, 
a history of Ratansen of Chitaur. Rajavali, 
by Bidhadhar, translated into Persian by 
Nibahuram. Rajatarangini, by Pandit Ra- 
ghunath, translated from the Sanscrit by 
Maulana 'Imad ud-Din. Tarikh i Mahmud 
Ghaznavi by Maulana 'Unsuri. Tarikh i 
Sultan Shihab ud-Din Ghiiri. Tarikh i Sultan 
*Ala ud-Din KhiljI. Tarikh i EirOzshahi by 
Maulana A'azz ud-Din Khalidkhani. Tarikh i 
Afaghinah by Ilusain Khfm Afghan. Zafar- 



Namah by Sharaf ud-Din Yazdi. Timur 
Namah by Hatifi. Tavfirikh i Babari, trans- 
lated from the Turki by Mirza 'Abd ur- 
Raliim. Akbar-Namah by Abul-Fazl. Tarikh 
i Akbarshahi by 'Ata Beg Kazvini. Akbar- 
Namah by Shaikh Ilahdad Munshi Murtaza- 
khani. Tabakat i Akbari by Nizam ud-Din 
Ahmad Bakhshi. Ikbrd-Namah. Jahangir- 
Namah. Tarikh i Shabjahan by Varig Khan, 
corrected by Sa'd Ullah Khan. Tarikh i 
'Alamglri by Mir Muhammad Kazim. History 
of Kashmir, translated from the Kashmirian 
language by Maulana Shah Muhammad 
Shahabadl. Tarikh i Bahadur- Shahl of Guj- 
rat and other local histories not specified. 

The author states that he compiled the 
work in the space of two years, and com- 
pleted it in the 40th year of the reign of 
'Alamglr, corresponding to A.H. 1107. The 
history, however, closes with the accession 
of 'Alamglr and the issue of his contest with 
Drira-Shikuh. A brief notice of the former's 
death, which is found at the end of most 
copies, must be a subsequent addition. 

Contents : Account of the Hindu tra- 
ditions, creeds and castes, fol. 10 a. Descrip- 
tion of the Subahs of Hindustan, fol. 22 b. 
History of the Rajahs from Judhishtir to the 
Muhammedan conquest, fol. 73 a. Muham- 
medan Sultans from Subuktigin to Bahlul 
Lodi, fol. 128 b. The Timurides from Babar 
to the death of Dara-Shikiih, fol. 217 5. 
Accounts of some local dynasties are given 
in the course of the last section, on the 
occasion of their annexation to the Moghul 
empire. 

The contents of the Khulasat-ut-Tavarikh 
have been more fully stated by Morley, 
Descriptive Catalogue, p. 69, and by Sir H. 
Elliot, History of India, vol. viii. pp. 5 — 12. 
Compare N. Lees, Journal of the Roy. As. 
Soc., New Series, vol. iii. p. 423, Garcin de 
Tassy, Journal Asiatique, 5® Serie, vol. iii. 
p. 366, and Hist, de la Litt. Hind., vol. i. 
p. 31, Munich Catalogue, p. 84, Mackenzie 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



231 



Collection, vol. ii. p. 121, and Biblioth. 
Sprenger., No. 221. 

It has been shown by Capt. N. Lees that 
the first volume of the Siyar ul-Mutaakh- 
khirln consisted of little more than a verbal 
transcript of the Khulasat ut-Tavarikh. On 
the other hand, the author of the latter has 
been charged by Sir Ilenry Elliot with ap- 
propriating, without any acknowledgment, 
the contents of an earlier work designated 
as Mukhtasar. It appears, however, that the 
last-mentioned work, which is represented by 
a single imperfect copy, contains neither 
author's name nor date of composition, and 
the most natural explanation of its verbal 
coincidences with the Khulasat would seem* 
to be that both have proceeded from one 
and the same pen. 

The Khulasat ut-Tavarikh has been trans- 
lated into Urdu by Mir Shir 'Ali AfsQs, under 
the title of Ara'ish i Mahfil. 

Copyist: ^^U^U. sjo.l^^jj jj>»^ Jj J«Jy* 

Add. 16,680. 

EoU. 484; 8J in. by 4|; 13 lines, 2f in. 
long ; written in a cursive Indian hand ; 
dated Shahjahanabad, Sha'ban, the 4th year 
of Ahmad Shah (A.H. 1164, A.D. 1751). 

[Wm. Yule.] 

The same work. 

Copyist: J-./^), Jlai^ 

Add. 18,407. 

Foil. 421; 9| in. by 5^; 18 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written in Kestalik ; dated the 8th 
year of Shah 'Alam, Samvat, 1824 (A.D. 
1767). [Wm. Yule.] 

The same work. 

Copyist : ^\j^ Jic J^oJJ c^^ JiJ^ 

On the first page is a note, written appa- 
rently by the transcriber, in which the work 
is ascribed to Muashi Dhirdhar^^j 



Add. 6567. 

Foil. 490 ; Hi in. by 7^ ; 17 lines (5| in. 
long) in a page, written in Nestalik, about 
the close of tlie 18th century. [J. F. Hdll.J 

The same work. 

The latter part of the volume, foil. 339 a — 
490 b, is occupied by a continuation of the 
Khulasat, without either a distinct title or 
author's name. It begins with the death of 
Aurangzib and the ensuing contest for the 
empire, and concludes with the reign of 
Shah 'Alam, the account of which is brought 
down to A.H. 1198. The last events re- 
corded are the flight of prince Jahandarsliah 
to Laknau, the arrest of Majd ud-daulah, 
and the arrival at Court of Major Brown, 
sent by the Governor-General. 

The work ends with a short account of the 
progress of the English rule, and a sketch of 
the Sikhs, the latter being left unfinished. 

Prefixed is a table of the contents of the 
whole volume, foil. 1 — 8. 

Add. 26,253. 

Foil. 100 ; 9^ in. by 5 ; 12 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Zulhijjah, 
A.H. 1257 (A.D. 1842). 

A compendium of Indian history. 
Author : Jagajjivan-das, son of Maaohar- 

das, Gujriiti, ji\jJ ,^d jty>* Jj ,jjb ^^ji^r^ 

The author states in his preface that he 
wrote this work in A.H. 1120, in the reign of 
Muhammad Mu'azzam Shah Bahadur Padi- 
shah. The want of a short history, embracing 
all the dynasties of India, induced him to 
compile it from trustworthy sources. Re- 
garding the author's life we learn from other 
passages, fol. 36 6, 41 a, that he had entered 
the imperial service, as Harkarah, in A.H. 
1105, and had, from that time, kept a record 



232 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



of passing events ; further, that in A.H. 
1119 he was admitted to the presence of Ba- 
hadur Shah in Lahore, where he had been for 
two years engaged in the intelligence depart- 
ment, and received from him a robe of honour. 

Contents : — Sultans of Hindustan, from 
Mu'izz ud-Din Ghuri to Aurangzib, fol. 4 a. 
History of Muhammad Mu'azzam, afterwards 
Bahadur Shah, from his release from cap- 
tiA'ity, A.H. 1105, to his victory over Kam- 
bakhsh, and subsequent return from Haidara- 
bad to Hindustan, in Zulka'dah, the 2nd 
year of his reign, fol. 34 h. Tables of the 
revenue of the Subahs, as drawn up by order 
of Bahadur Shah, fol. 51 h. Local dynasties 
from Deccau to Kashmir, as in Firishtah, 
fol. 58 a. 

With the exception of the chapter relating 
to Bahadur Shah, the Muntakhab ut-Tava- 
rikh appears to have been transcribed, with 
slight alterations, from the Lubb ut-Tavarikh 
of Rae Bindraban. 

Add. 7658. 

Foil. 63; 8i in. by 4^ ; about 17 lines, 3^ 
in. long ; written partly in Nestalik, partly 
in Shikastah-amiz ; dated Safar, the 14th 
year of Muhammad Shah (A.H. 1144, A.D. 
1731). ' [CI. J. Rich.] 

The same work. 

This copy does not give either the title of 
the work or the author's name; it wants 
also the tables of the Subahs. 

Copyist : ^/ ^.y J'^ o-^-^j4^ 
The fly-leaf bears the Persian seal of 
General Carnac, with the titles of Mansur ul- 
Mulk llukn ud-daulah Bahadur Jang, and 
the date 1178 (A.H.). 

Add. 6573-6575. 

Three volumes, the first and the third 
uniform, foil. 271 and IGl ; 20 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Haidara- 



bad, Ramazan, A.H. 1196 (A.D. 1782) : the 
second, foil. 220, same size, 23 lines, 4| in. 
long; written by another hand, about the 
same time. [James Grant.] 



A general history of India from the Mu- 
hammedan conquest to the reign of Muham- 
mad Shfih. 

Author : Muhammad Hashim, entitled 
Hashim 'Ali Khan, afterwards Khafi Khan 
Nizamulmulki. 

Beg. o-^'j^ uJ?' O-V j/^ ^cr ^ 

Muhammad Hashim, son of Khwajah Mir 
Khwafi, was brought up in the service of 
Aurangzib, who employed him in some 
political and military situations. In the 
reign of Farrukh-Siyar he was appointed 
Divan by Nizam ul-Mulk, and he subse- 
quently received from Muhammad Shah the 
title of Khafi Khan ; see Elliot's History of 
India, vol. vii. p. 207. The Arabic meaning 
of this title being "hidden," it has been 
supposed by Morley and others to contain 
an allusion to the presumed fact that the 
author had kept his history secret during 
the reign of Aurangzib ; but the truth is that 
he did not enter upon its composition until 
after that sovereign's death. The title is ob- 
viously taken from the author's Nisbah 
Khafi, derived from Khaf or Khwaf, a canton 
in Khorasan ; see Blochmann, Ain i Akbari, 
vol. i. p. 445. In the Maagir ul-Umara, 
Add. 6567, fol. 2, the work is called ^UJ ^ 

and the author (^li*:'^j»- . 

It will be seen below that Khafi Khan 
brought down his history to A.H. 1143 or 
1144, It is stated, in a Persian note at the 
end of Add. 26,224, that the author had 
written four or five leaves further when he 
was overtaken by death. See Morley's Cata- 
logue, p. 100 ; G. Duff, history of the Mah- 
rattas, vol. i. p. 97 ; N. Lees, Journal of the 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



Roy. As. Soc, new Series, vol. iii. p 465 • 
Stewart's Catal., p. 13; Mackenzie Collection' 
vol. u. p. 121 ; Bibl. Sprenger., No. 227, etc. 
The first volume, J,l ^U, of the Lubab, 
which appears to be very scarce, contains a 
history of the Sultans of Hindustan from the 
Muhammadan conquest to the extinction of 
the Lodi dynasty. A portion of it is extant 
m Add. 26,227. It is referred to in the 
printed edition, vol. ii. p. 550, and in the 
preamble of Or. 176 (see p. 234 b). 

The second volume, Ji ^, comprises 
a full account of the Timurides of India, from, 
the conquest of Babar, A.H. 932, to the'reio-n 
of Muhammad Shah. It is the best known 
part of the work, and undoubtedly the most 
valuable; for it includes in its latter portion 
a minute record of events witnessed by the 
author, and the only complete and connected 
account extant of the reign of Aurangzib 
It has been printed in the Bibliotheca Indica 
Calcutta, 1868-1874. Copious extracts,' 
translated by Professor Dowson, are to be 
found in Elliot's History of India, vol. vii. 
pp. 211—533. An English extract by Wm 
Erskine, dated 1811, Dec. 19, Bykula, and 
extending from the accession of Shahjahan 
to A.H. 1067, is preserved in the Add. MSS 
26,613-14. A transcript of the same, witli 
another extract comprising A.H. 1070— 
1130, will be found in Add. 26,615-16 A 
■ translation by Capt. A. Gordon of the earlier 
part of the 2nd volume, extending from its 
begmning to the capture of Jahangir bv 
Mahabat Eihan, and dated Nagpour, 1821, is 
extant in two copies. Add. 26,617 and 
26,618-19. 

Of the third volume, treating of the local 
dynasties of India, only a portion has come 

235 T "'''' ''°*'''^' '""^ ^^^- ^^'^^^' P- 

The present set of MSS. contains the 
second volume of the work. The author 
states m the beginning that he had brought 



233 

it down to the time of composition, viz. to 
A.H. 1133 (not 1130, as in the printed text). 
-But it IS found to have been continued to a 
later period. Tlie full and connected narra- 
tive closes with the defeat of Mubariz Khan 
by Nizam ul-Mulk, which took place on the 
23rd of Muharram, A.H. 1137 (the date 1135 
IS an error of the Calcutta edition), and the 
subsequent occupation of Haidanlbad by 
he latter. The last chapter contains a 
brief account of some events which happened 
from the eighth to the thirteenth (four- 
teenth in the Calc. ed.) year of the reign of 
Muhammad SluUi (A.H. 1138-1143), espe- 
cially m Persia ; it concludes with the two 
crushing defeats of Ashraf and the restora- 
tion of Tahmasp in Ispahan (A.H. 1142) 

Contents: Origin of the Turks, ^Add 
fl Vff; ^^'^'^^r' f«l- 9«- Humayun,' 
5«7 t. ,^^^^^'^«1- 58- Jahangir, fol. 
98 6. Shahjahan, fol. 150 i. Contest of 
Aurangzib with his brothers, and his rei-n 
Add 6574, foil. 4^219. Saints of the time' 
of Aurangzib, Add. 6575, fol. 4 «. A'zam 
^bah, fol. 9«. Bahadur Shah, fol. 22 6 
I Jahandar Shah, fol. 57 a. Farrukh-Siyar," 
lol. 64 a. Muhammad Shah, fol. 112 b. 

A Persian note written on the fly-leaf of 
Add. 6573 states that the MS. was tran 
scribed for Mr. James Grant, from a copy in 
tlie library of Samsam ul-Mulk Shahnavaz 
Khan, the late minister of Nizam ul-Mulk 
m Haidarabad. A similar note, dated A h' 
1196, is found on the fly-leaf of Add. 6575* 
Full tables of chapters are prefixed to Add 
6573 and 6574, and appended to Add. 6575. 
Transcriber's name at the end of Add. 6573: 



Add. 26,223 and 2Q^224:. 

Two uniform volumes, forming a con- 
tinuous text; foil. 654 and 849; 11 in. 
by 7 ; 12 lines, 4| in. long ; written in 

HH 



234 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



Nestalik ; dated August, 1821, A.H. 
1236. [Wm. Erskine.] 

The second volume of the same work. 

It is stated in the subscription that the 
MS. was written by order of Mr. Grant, 
Resident at Sattarah, by Munshi Hulas Rai 
and Haj! Mirza Fazl-'Ali. The first page of 
each volume bears the signature of James 
Grant, 

Add. 26,226. 

Foil. 377 •; IQi in. by 6 ; 21 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik apparently in the 
18th century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

The first half of the same volume (Calcutta 
edition, vol. i. p. 1 — vol. ii. p. 177). 

Add. 26,225. 

Foil. 519 ; 10^ in. by 7| ; 15 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik apparently in the 
18th century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

The first portion of the same volume, want- 
ing a page at the beginning (Calcutta edi- 
tion, vol. i. p. 2 — vol. ii. p. 127). 

Add. 26,228. 

Foil. 128; 18 in. by 10; 25 lines, 7 in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik ; dated 
Muharram, A.H. 1224 (A.D. 1809). 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

The latter part of the same volume, cor- 
responding to vol. ii. pp. 492 — 978 of the 
printed edition. 

It Avas written, as stated in the subscrip- 
tion, for Mac Murdo Sahib. 

Copyist : 'i^^, f^ -y «4l«V,L* 

Or. 176. 

Foil. 362 ; 12^ in. by 8| ; from 16 to 18 



lines, 6 in. long ; written in cursive Nes- 
talik; dated Fasli 1232, January, A.D. 1823. 

[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

The latter part of the same volume, con- 
taining the history of Aurangzib and his 
successors, and corresponding to vol. ii. of 
the printed edition. 

It begins with a preamble, not found in 
the printed text, in which the author states 
that he had spent from sixteen to seventeen 
years of his life on the composition of this 
work, especially on the last forty years of 
Aurangzlb's reign. Of this period, on account 
of that sovereign's prohibition, he had found 
no previous record, with the exception of 
the account of the Deccan conquests by 
Musta'idd Khan. He had therefore en- 
deavoured to compile a truthful and impartial 
history, derived from the court chronicle 
^yi;>- J^ jj.\Sj Jiii , from the reports of trust- 
worthy persons, and lastly from his personal 
experiences, inasmuch as he had been suc- 
cessively attached to the train of three or 
four sovereigns. He adds that a first volume, 
containing the history of the early rulers of 
India, from the Muslim conquest to the 
Lodi dynasty, had been completed in the 
rough, but that he had not yet found time 
to prepare a fair copy of it. 

This preamble is followed by a very full 
table of the contents of the volume, foil. 2 b 
—9 6. 

It is stated in the subscription that the 
MS. was written for Mr. Thomas Wilkins, 
Superintendent of the district of Ven Ganga, 
province of Nagpur. 

Add. 26,227. 

Foil. 374; 8i in. by 5; 17 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in a cursive and ill-shaped 
Shikastah-amiz, probably in the 18th century. 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

The same work. 



GENERAL HISTOllY OF INDIA. 



235 




This MS. is remarkable as containing a 
portion of the very scarce first volume before 
mentioned. It is the concluding part, 
consisting of an account of the Lodi 
dynasty, prefaced by some remarks on the 
origin of the Afghans. It is immediately 
followed by the history of Babar and his 
successors, which belongs to the second 
volume. But the preface and preliminary 
chapters on the Turks and Timiir, usually 
prefixed to that part of the work (Calc. ed., 
vol. i. pp. 1 — 20), are here wanting, nor is 
there any trace of a division of the work 
into volumes. 

The MS. is defective. The original folio- 
ing shows that it has lost 364 leaves at the 
beginning, so that it may be presumed to 
have once contained the whole of the first 
volume. 

The text is shorter than that of the 
printed edition, owing chiefly to the absence 
of redundant phrases and rhetorical flourishes, 
an omission however which is frequently 
supplied by marginal additions. 

Beg. iZ^\^ff- i_)^\jj^ ja. »U.jb i:i*ilaL* ^i 

Contents : Bahliil Lodi, fol. 1 a. Sikandar 
B. Sultan Bahliil, fol. 9 a. Ibrahim B. Si- 
kandar, fol. 12 a. 

Babar, fol. 15 a. Humayiin, fol. 34 b. 
Akbar, fol. 56 b — 82 b. These three sec- 
tions correspond to vol. i. pp. 21 — 232 of 
the Calcutta edition. The latter portion of 
the account of Akbar, and the whole of 
JahangTr's reign (ib. pp. 232 — 394), are want- 
ing. The first omission is intentional, for 
the death of Akbar is briefly recorded on 
fol. 82 b. The latter is due to the loss of 
41 leaves. Shahjahan (Calc. ed. vol. i. pp. 
395—756), fol. 83. Aurangzib ; the first ten 
years of the reign (Calcutta edit. vol. ii. 
pp. 1—211), fol. 266 a— 374 b. 



Add. 26,265. 

Poll. 442 ; Hi in. by 6| ; 12 lines, 4J in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik ; dated Sha'- 
ban ; A.H. 1237 (A.D. 1822). 

[Wm. Erskine.] 
The third volume, ^1*315 ji* , of the same 
work. 

Beg. ci*M\j\j\yM ^^j6U..i\j sj3 "i t/'^ j s^- ^^>. 
The author, who calls himself here Mu- 
hammad Hashim Khwafi, entitled Khafi- 
Khan Nizam-ul-mulkl, states that this third 
volume is devoted to the kinsrs of the various 
Subahs of India, with the exception of those 
of Dehli and Akbarabad, the rulers of which 
had been recorded in the first volume. His 
account is abridged from the work of Mu- 
hammad Kasim Firishtah, with some addi- 
tions from those of Shaikh Nur ul-Hakk 
Dihlavi and other writers. He prides him- 
self on eschewing the adulatory strain of 
court chroniclers, and on striving after truth- 
fulness to the utmost of his power. 

The present MS. contains only the first 
portion of the third volume, namely the 
account of the Deccan dynasties, as follows : 
Sketch of the early Arab settlements in 
Deccan, and of the invasions of 'Alii ud-Din 
in A.H. 691 and Tughluk in A.H. 719, fol. 
3 b. The Bahmanis, from their origin to 
A.H. 934, fol. 7 b. The Nizamshahis, down 
to the capture of Daulatabad by Shahjahan, 
fol. 116 b. The 'Adilshakis, down to the 
conquest of Bijapur by Aurangzib, fol. 234 a. 
The Farukis of Khandes, down to their ab- 
sorption in A.H. 1008, fol. 333 a. The 
Kutubshahis, down to their extinction in 
A.H. 1097, fol. 376 b. The 'Iraad ul-Mulkis, 
fol. 431 b. The Barldis, fol. 435 b. 

The last five leaves, foil. 438 — 442, are 
no part of Khiif I Khan's work ; they con- 
tain a short chronological account of the 
rulers of Jinjera ^jj^\j \s>^ s^j from the 
building of the fort, in A.H. 906, to Sayyidi 

HH 2 



236 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



Ibrahim Khan, who held it when the ac- 
count was written, i. e. about the beginning 
of the present century. 

Jinjera is a corruption of the Arabic 
Jazirah, " island ;" see Duflf, History of the 
Mahrattas, vol. i. p. 139, vol. ii. p. 97, and 
Thornton, East India Gazetteer. 

It appears from a note on the fly-leaf that 
this MS. was sent to Mr. Erskine by Mr. 
James Grant. 

Add. 6583 and 6584. 

Two uniform volumes, foil. 394 and 420 ; 
10^ in. by 5f ; 15 lines, 3^ in. long ; written 
in fair Nestalik, with ruled margins, in the 
18th century. [James Grant.] 

A general history of India from the earliest 
times to the reign of Earrukh-Siyar, in- 
cluding an account of the early kings of 
Persia. 

Author : Lfd-Ram, son of Rai Dulah-Ram 
B. Rai Kunjaman Khuldmakani, j.ij A J^) 

Beg. (JJJ'.* s.^ ijj-*^ er*^ "^^^ 'rfji*^ 



The author states in the preface that he 
wrote this work in the 18th year of Muham- 
mad Shah, A.H. 1148. He designates him- 
self as a born slave of the emperor, and the 
title of Khuldmakani which he gives to his 
grandfather shows that the latter had been 
in the service of Aurangzlb. He further in- 
cidentally mentions, fol. 22 a, tliat he once 
held Mungi Patan, in the Deccan, as a Jagir. 

The sources of the present compilation are 
enumerated as follows : Akbar-Namah, Taba- 
kat i Akbari, Eutuhat i Akbari by Eaizi, 
Tarikh i Eirishtah, Shahnamah, Tarikh i 
Shamshii'khani, Khulasat ul-Akhbar, Aja'ib 
ul-Makhlukat, Jahanglr-Namah, Shrdijahan- 



Namah, 'Alamglr-Namah, and Lubb ut-Tava- 
rikh i Hind by Rai Bindraban. 

The work is divided into four books (Easl) 
of very unequal extent, as follows : — 

Easl I. Account of Adam and of the 
Hindu system of cosmogony, fol. 56. 

Easl II. Geographical and historical ac- 
count of the Subahs of India, in nineteen 
sections (Kism) : 1. Bengal, fol. 24 a. 2. Be- 
har,fol. 37 6. 3. Ilahabad,fol.39a. 4. Awadh, 
fol. 42 6. 5. Agrah, fol. 44 b. 6. Mal- 
vah, fol. 46 a. 7. Subahs of Deccan, in 
seven Tabakahs : Khandes, fol. 99 b. Berar, 
fol. 107 a. Bahmanis of Gulbargah, fol. 
110 a. 'Adilshahis of Bijapur, fol. 122 b. 
Nizamshahis, fol. 132 a. Kutbulmulkis, fol. 

145 b. Baridis, fol. 149 b. 8. Gujrat ; fol. 
150 b. 9. Ajmir; fol. 216 a. 10. Dehli, 
fol. 219 a. This section is brought down in 
the first volume to the death of Adli, and 
continued in the second from the accession 
of Akbar to the third year of Earrukhsiyar, 
A.H. 1126, where it breaks off, fol. 88 a, the 
rest of the folio being left blank. 11. Lahore, 
Add. 6584, fol. 88 b. 12. Multan, fol. 90 b. 
13. Tatah, fol. 92 b. 14. Kashmir, fol. 98 b. 
15. Kabul, fol. 127 b. 16. Ghaznin, with a 
short history of the Ghaznavis and Ghuris, 
fol. 128 a. 17. Muslim Saints of India, fol. 

146 a. 18. Kings and famous personages 
who visited India, fol. 150 b. 19. Settlement 
of the children of Ham in India, and its 
kings before the Muslim conquest, fol. 158 b. 

Easl III., in two chapters (Bab) : 1. Early 
kings of Iran from Kayumars to Yazdagird, 
fol. 174 a. 2. Ancient sages, or Greek philo- 
sophers, fol. 392 b. 

Easl IV., in two chapters (Zikr) : 1. Mis- 
cellaneous historical notices and anecdotes, 
fol. 396 b. 2. Conclusion (Khatimah), want- 
ing in this copy. 

To each volume is prefixed a table of con- 
tents, Add. 6583, foil. 1—3, Add. 6584, foil. 
1 — 4. The first volume bears the stamp of 
Rao Kishan Singh, with the date 1175. 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



237 



Add. 27,250. 

Foil. 132; 13i in. by 8 ; 19 lines, 5^ in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, about the 
close of the 18th century. 

[J. Macdonald Kinneir.] 

A general history of India from the most 
ancient times to A.H. 1196. 

Author: Ghulam Basit, k»il> ^Ji^ 

Beg. ]j*!l* t^ ^^^n^ S^ u' o^V" i ^"^^ 

The author states in the preface that, 
having lost the patrimonial estate he pos-' 
sessed in Oude, he had tried to enter the 
service of the imperial house of Timur, which 
his ancestors had served before him for nearly 
three centuries. This desire, however, having 
been frustrated, he had no resource but to 
take office under the English, whose gene- 
rosity and high-mindednesswere known to the 
whole world, and he attached himself in the 
capacity of Munshi to General Giles Stibbert,'' 
who brought him to Calcutta, and by whose 
desire he wrote the present history. He 
derived his account partly from books, and 
partly from information conveyed to him by 
his late father, Shaikh SaifuUah Bijnurl .^ 

(jj^. aUlu-flJuu, who had spent his life in the 
service of the Emperors of Hindostan, and 
had died at the age of 105 years. 

An examination of the work, however, 
shows that, with the exception of a very 
meagre continuation of the series of the 
Moghul Emperors from Akbar to Shah'Alam, 
foil. 125 — 132, it is entirelv founded on 
Eirishtah, whom the author follows almost 
textually, but with a considerable degree of 
condensation. 

It is stated at the end to have been written 
A.H. 1196. 

• Brigadier-General Giles Stibbert was commander-in- 
chief of the Bengal army in the years 1777 — 1779 and 
1783 — 1785. See Dodwell and Miles, Indian-Army List. 



The work is described, under the title of 
Tarikh i Mamalik i Hind, in Sir II. Elliot's 
History of India, vol. viii. p. 200. 

Contents : Hindu cosmogony and the war 
of the Kauravas and Pandavas, from the 
Mahabharat, fol. 9 a. The sons of Ham, 
Hind and Bind, and the early Hindu kings 
from Kishan, son of Purab, to Miildeo, fol. 
14 b. Early Muhammadan invasions, by 
Arabs and Afghans, fol. 21 a. Ghaznavis, 
fol. 23*. Ghuris, fol. 27 6. Khiljis, fol. 35 i. 
Lodis, fol. 42 a. Kings of Sind, Tatah and 
Multan, fol. 43 b. Kings of Kashmir, fol, 
51 b. The kings of Bengal, fol. 65 a. The 
Sharki kings of Jaunpur, fol. 69 b. The 
Bahmanis, fol. 72 a. The 'Adilshahis of Bi- 
japiir, fol. 82 a. The Nizamshahis of Ahmad- 
nagar, fol. 85 b. The Kutubshahis, fol. 90 b. 
The Imadul-Mulkis, fol. 92 b. The Barldis, 
fol. 94 a. The kings of Gujrat, fol. 94 b. 
The kings of Malvah, fol. 102 a. The Fil- 
rukis of Khandes, fol. 109 a. Account of 
Malabar, fol. 114 a. The Timurides from 
Babar to Shah 'Alam, fol. 119 b. 

No title appears in the text; but in the 
heading of a full table of contents, foil. 2 — 7, 

the work is called iJs^jS'xsk ciDU- -/tj^ . On 
the first page the author is designated as 

It is stated in the subscription that the 
MS. was written by order of Navvab Valfijah, 
Navvab of the Carnatic, whose seal is found 
at the beginning, with the name &Jj J\ ^kc- 

On the first page is written : " From the 
Ameer ool Omrah to John Macdonald Kin- 
neir." 

Or. 205. 

Foil. 261 ; 10^ in. by 6|; 15 lines, 4J in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, dated A.H. 1283 
(A.D. 1866). [Geo. W. Hamiltox.J 



238 



GENERAL HISTORY OF INDIA. 



(ijljL-ijOJh iS\i> 



CUfiAA> 



An historical and topographical account 
of the various Subalis of Hindostan and 
Deccan. 

Author : Lachhml Narayan, takh. Shaf ik, 
Aurangabadi, ^ib\ili,j\ Ji^ u«l^**c;?.^y l*-^ 

The author gives the following account of 
the origin of the work. His father, Rae 
Mansiiram, Divan of Navvab Asafjah, had 
sent to him, in A.H. 1204, from Aurangabfid, 
the author's native place, to Haidarfibad, 
some old and worm-eaten revenue returns, 
which had been drawn up by his grandfather, 
and inspected and signed by Nizam ul-Mulk. 
They were brought down from various dates 
to the Pasli year 1139. Finding them of 
great importance, he was induced to tran- 
scribe them in a more generally intelligible 
form and to supplement them with much 
additional information, for the benefit of his 
munificent patron, Captain William Patrick. 
The above title expresses numerically the 
date of composition, A.H. 1204. See Mac- 
kenzie Collection, vol. ii. p. 127. 

The work is divided into four Makalahs, 
as foUows : 

I. The revenue returns above-mentioned, 
fol. 4 b. 

II. Account of the SQbahs of Hindustan, 
in the following order : Dehli, Agrah, Ilaha- 
bad, Awadh, Behar, Bengal, Orissah, Malvah, 
Ajmir, Gujrat, Tatah, Multan, Lahore, Kash- 
mir, Kabul, fol. 37 b. 

III. Account of the Subahs of Deccan, 
viz. Khandes, Berar, Aurangabfid, Bedar, 
Bijapur, and Haidarabad, fol. 79 b. 

IV. Sketch of the history of the Muslim 
Sultans of Hindustan from Mu'izz ud-Din 
i Sam to 'All Gauhar (Shah 'Alam), fol. 194 b. 

The author states at the end that he com- 
pleted the work on the first of Zulhijjah, 
A.H. 1204, while Nizam 'Ali, then on his 



march against Tipu Sultan, was encamped 
before Pangul. 

Lachhmi Nariiyan had written in A.H. 1200 
a history of Deccan, entitled Tanmik i Shi- 
garf, which is referred to in the present 
work, fol. 79 b. He wrote in A.H. 1214 a , 
history of the Mahrattahs, entitled Bisat 
ul-Ghana'im (Add. 26,274), and an account of 
Haidarabad (Add. 26,263). 

Add. 26,266. 

Foil. 269; 8^ in. by 5|; 11 lines, 3.f in. 
long; written in Nestalik; dated EabI* II., 
A.H. 1224 (A.D. 1809). [Wm. Erskine.] 

The same work. 

The name of Captain William Patrick is 
omitted in this copy. 

Add. 16,712. 

Foil. 63 ; 9 in. by 5 ; 15 lines, 3| in. long ; 
written in fair Nestalik, at the beginning of 
the 19th century. [Wm. Yule.] 

An abridged history of the Sultans of 
Dehli and the Timurides from their origin 
to Shah 'Alam. 

Author : A'azz ud-din Muhammad, ^^^^\js-\ 

Beg. idiun Jy uHUl ^U ^] j; 

Thiswork was written, in A.H. 1218, for Col. 
(afterwards Major) Wm. Yule. It purports 
to be founded on' a history found in the 
library of the Safavi Prince, Abu-1-fath Sul- 
tan Muhammad Mirza, the title and author 
of which are not named. 

It is simply a transcript of the well known 
Tarikh i Hakki (see p. 223 b) with the addi- 
tion of a few lines in the preface, fol. 3 b, 
and a very meagre continuation from Akbar 
to Shah 'Alam, foil. 59 6—62 b. 



( 239 ) 



PARTICULAR HISTORIES OF INDIA. 



SULTANS OF DEHLI. 



Add. 7623. 

Foil. 143; Hi in. by 6f ; 19 lines, 5 in. 
long ; written in fair Naskhi ; dated Sha'ban, 
A.H. 711 (A.D. 1312). [CI. J. Eich.] 

A history of the empire of Dehli from ' 
A.H. 587 to 614. 

Author : Hasan NizamT, ^joUai 

Beg. ^fl& J^y^J^ j»ii5 *S (_jMLi>j i^j^^xui J 4>^!». 

This work, to which no title is given in 
the text, has always been known under the 
name of J'\.^\ -U, or " Crown of Memorable 

.Deeds," which is found on the first page of 
this and the three following copies. It is 
written in mixed prose and verse, and has 
long been held up in the East as a model of 
elegant composition. It contains a mini- 
mum of historical matter diluted in a flood 
of rhetorical verbiage. 

In a preface remarkable, even among Per- 
sian prefaces, for irksome prolixity, foil. 2 — 
38, the author, after dilating on the praises 
of his hero, Kutb ud-Din Abul-Hari§ Aibak, 
who had been raised to power in the reign 
of Sultan Mu'izz ud-Din Muhammad B. Siim, 
for the triumph of Islamism in the land of 
idolaters, proceeds to give a diffuse account 
of his own circumstances. 

Compelled by the disturbed state of Khu- 
rasan to leave in the prime of life his native 
city, Nishapur, and to seek his fortune abroad, 
he repaired by the advice of his Shaikh, Mu- 
hammad Kufi, to Ghaznah, where he was 
kindly received by a learned divine, Shaikh 
Muhammad Sharzi, iSjA, and the Sadr Majd 
ul-Mulk. After recovering from a long and 



dangerous illness he set out on his travels, 
and, after a thousand dangers and hardships, 
he reached Dehli, where he again fell ill. 
He was, however, soon restored to health 
and hope through the kindness of the Sadr 
Sharaf ul-Mulk and other friends. En- 
couraged by them to make his talent known 
to the world by some literary production, 
he hastened to obey the royal commands 
then issued, by writing a record of His 
Majesty's glorious deeds, Avhich he com- 
menced in A.H. 602. 

The preface must have been written at 
the same time, for Sultan Mu'izz ud-Din, who 
was assassinated at Ghaznah, in the month 
of Shaban, A.H. 602 (Tabakat i Nasiri), is 
there spoken of as still living. 

The Taj ut-Tavarikh relates the Indian 
wars of Sultan Mu'izz ud-Din, of Kutb ud- 
Din Aibak, and of the latter's successor, 
Shams ud-Din Iltatmish. It begins with 
the conquest of Ajmir by Mu'izz ud-Din in 
A.H. 587. The last event recorded in this 
and the following copies is the appointment 
of Nclsir ud-Din Mahmud, son of Iltatmish, 
to the government of Lahore, in A.H. 614. 
An account of the work, and abstract of its 
contents by Sir H. Elliot, will be found in 
the " History of India," vol. ii. pp. 204— 
243. Compare Hammer, Gemaldesaal, vol. 
iv. pp. 172 — 182, N. Lees, Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society for 1868, p. 433, 
Vienna Catalogue, vol. ii. p. 173, St. Peters- 
burg Catalogue, p . 296, Gotha Catalogue, p. 53. 

In the Rauzat ut-Safa, Bombay edi- 
tion, vol. i. p. 7, where the Taj ul-Ma'a§ir is 
mentioned among the sources, as also in 
Haj. Khal., vol. ii. p. 92, the author is 
called Sadr ud-Din Muhammad B. Hasan 



240 



SULTANS OF DEHLI. 



un-Nizami. On the title-page of one of the 
following copies. Add. 24,951, written in 
A.H. 818, his name is written ^^^..-s- (^jj.1\ J^ 

In a MS. belonging to Navvab Ziya ud- 
Din of Dehli, and described by Sir H. Elliot, 
I.e., p. 210, there is a continuation bringing 
down the history to A.H. 626. 

In the colophon of the present copy the 
date of transcription was originally written 
*>V»*j-ij 'i^ ijss>'\ sIm, A.H. 711, but the 
last word having been altered to «j.U::-», it 
now reads A.H. 611, a date anterior to the 
composition of the work. 

Copyist : ^^ ^^/> ^\ ^ ^,^ ^ J.^\ ^A 

The margins contain notes and headings 
in a handwriting of the 18th century. 

Add. 24,951. 

Foil. 171; 6i in. by 4| ; 15 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written in small Naskhi, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins; dated Zulhijjah, 
A.H. 818 (A.D. 1416). [Lord Abebdeen.] 

The same work. 

The first page contains the following 
title, written in gold within an illuminated 
border : tj^oLS- ^ jji:-j ^.Jui^ yUl -.13 ^-j'c/ 

lU^Jl\ U^ j_^'iaj ^ji y-o. j^.oJl \3 

The margins contain rubrics in the hand- 
writing of the transcriber. 

Copyist : o^\ ^j j.^ ^ ,y^\ 



Add. 7624. 

Foil. 326 ; 9f in. by 6^ ; 15 lines, 3f in. 
long; written in a neat Nestalik, with gold- 
ruled margins, probably in the 16th century. 

[CI. J. EiCH.] 

The same work. 

Some lost folios of the original MS. have 



been replaced by leaves of European paper, 
foil. 1—7, 11, 15, 24—30, 39, 46, 48, 53, 
326, written by a scribe who dates at the end 
llabl 1, A.H. 1215 (A.D. 1800); but a 
lacune of about six leaves, occurring after 
fol. 23, has not been filled. 

Or. 163. 

Foil. 258; 9i in. by 5 ; 19 lines, 2| in. 
long ; written in neat Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and gold-ruled margins ; dated Ramazan, 
A.H. 1034 (A.D. 1625). 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

The same work. 



Add. 16,838. 

Foil. 85 ; 8 in. by 4^ ; 15 lines, 2| in. long, 
written in small and neat Nestalik, with 
'Unvan and ruled margins, probably early in 
the 18th century. [Wm. Yule.] 



-iJ^ [^^f' 



A history of the reign of 'Ala ud-Din Mu- 
hammad Shah Khilji, from his accession 
to A.H. 711. 

Author : Khusrau, j^^-i- 

Beg. ^yiiJ\ j>}y>- > ^^jJl UiU ^^ 

Over the above is written, as a heading, 
the following couplet containing the title of 
the work : 

Amir Khusrau, the greatest of the Persian 
poets of India, has given some account of 
his life in his prefaces to the Tuhfat us- 
Sighar and Ghurrat ul-Kamiil, Add. 21,104, 
foU. 139 — 190, from which we extract the 
following particulars. His father, a Khita'i 
Turk, Lajin by name, afterwards Amir Saif 
ud-Din Shamsi, was originally a slave of 



J 



SULTANS OF DEHLI. 



241 



Shams ud-Dln Tltatmisli, and his warlike 
achievements secured, according to Khusrau, 
the empire for his master, by whom he was 
raised to the rank of Amir. Saif ud-Din 
settled in Patiyali, where Khusrau was born 
in A.II. 651. Khusrau was seven years of 
age when, having lost his father, who fell in 
battle, he was transferred to the care of his 
maternal grandfather 'Imad ul-Mulk, who 
held the office of 'Ariz i Sipah, and he grew up 
under the latter's care to the age of tAventy. 
He stayed then two years with Kishlu Khiin 
Jumhur, the brother of Sultan Ghiyag ud- 
Din Balban, and subsequently passed into 
the service of Bughra Khan, a younger son 
of the latter, whom he accompanied to 
Lakhnauti. He afterwards attached him- 
self to the Khan i Buzurg (Muhammad 
Sultan), the eldest son of Balban, and stayed 
five years at that prince's court in Multan. 
When the latter fell in an encounter with 
the Moghuls, A.H. 683, Khusrau, who had 
been made prisoner, contrived to escape, and 
repaired to his mother in Patiyali. He after- 
wards settled in Dehli, where he remained 
in great favour with five successive sove- 
reigns, viz, Mu'izz ud-Din Kaikubad (A.H. 
686—689), Jalal ud-Din Plruz (A.H. 689— 
695), who conferred upon him the rank of 
Amir, Muhammad Shah (A.H. 695—715), 
Ghiyas ud Din Tughluk, A.D.721— 725, and 
Muhammad B. Tughluk, who ascended the 
throne in the month of Eabi' I., A.H. 725. 
He died at Dehli on the 29th of Zulka'dah, 
A.H. 726, shortly after the accession of the 
last. Khusrau was, like his friend and fellow- 
poet Khwajah Hasan Dihlavl, one of the 
favourite disciples of the celebrated Shaikh 
Nizam ud-Din Auliya, whose death preceded 
his own by seven months. 

Firishtah devotes to him a detailed notice 
in his lives of Indian saints, and mentions 
him frequently in the course of his history, 
mostly repeating the statements of Khus- 
rau's friend, Ziya ud-DlnBarani; see Briggs' 



translation, vol. i. pp. 252, 259, 269, 292 etc., 
and Ziya, Tarikh i Firuzshahi, pp. 67, 110, 127. 
See also Nafahat ul-Uns, Add. 16,718, fol. 222, 
Daulatshah, Add. 18,410, fol. 120, Haft 
Ikllm, Add. 16,731, fol. 150, Akhbar ul- 
Akhyiir, Or. 221, fol. 86, Sprenger, Oude 
Catalogue, p. 465, and Ouseloy's Notices, 
p. 146. A full account of the life and the his- 
torical poems of Khusrau will be found in 
Elliot's History of India, vol. iii. pp. 523 
— 567; compare S. Petersburg Catalogue, 
p. 350. 

The Preface contains a eulogy on 'Alii ud- 
Din Muhammad Shah, for whom the work 
was written. The narrative begins with that 
sovereign's accession on the 19th of RabI 'II., 
A.H. 695, and concludes with the Darbar 
held in Dehli, on the Sultan's return from 
Ma'bar, on the fourth of Jumada II., A.H. 711. 

The Khazain ul-FutCih, or Tarikh i 'Ala'i, 
as it is frequently called, is written in a 
highly laboured and artificial style, in evident 
imitation of the Tiij ul-Ma'a§ir, In each 
paragraph a particular set of similes and 
metaphors is used, and versified rubrics in- 
dicate the subjects from which they are in 
each case borrowed. 

The substance of this history wiU be found, 
in a condensed English translation, in Elliot's 
History of India, vol. iii. pp. 67 — 92. There is 
a copy marked No. 158 in the library of 
King's College, Cambridge. 

Or. 162. 

Foil. 210 ; 11 in. by 7 ; 15 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; Avritten in Nestalik, in the 19th cen- 
tury. [Geo. "W. Hamilton.] 

A history of the life and reign of Flriiz 
Shah, A.H. 752-790. 

Author : Shams i Siraj 'Af if, _y« ^j^ 
I I 



242 



SULTANS OF DEHLI. 



Beg. iii\ ^\ *bj\3 ^, Uj J\j3 4lJl Ji; 

The author states incidentally, fol. 147 a, 
that at the time of Firuz Shah's return from 
Tattah, i. e. A.H. 763, he was twelve years 
of age. He must therefore have been born 
in A.H. 751. He grew up at the court 
of that sovereign, where he lived, as he tells 
us, fol. 60 a, about forty years in the society 
of the highest officials. His spiritual guide 
was Shaikh Kutb ud-Dm Munavvar, a holy 
man, who resided in Hansl, and was one of 
the chief Khallfahs of Nizam ud-Din Auliya 
(see Akhbar ul-Akhyar, Or. 221, fol. 76). 

The present work must have been written 
shortly after A.H. 801, for the invasion of 
Timur, which took place in that year is re- 
ferred to, fol. 149 a, as an event of very 
recent occurrence. Another work, previously 
written by the author in praise of Tughluk, 

»Li> jli> i_-J'U«, is mentioned, fol. 14 a. 'Afif 
was an hereditary surname in his family; 
the author appends it to the names of his 
grandfather Shams i Shihab and of his great- 
grandfather Malik Sa'd ul-Mulk Shihab, who 
was "Amaldar of Abiihar, near Dipfilpiir. 
After an introduction treating of the virtues 
of kings in general and those of Firiiz Shah 
in particular, the author says that Maulana 
Ziya ud-Din Barani had written a history 
entitled Tavarlkh i Firuzshahi, and extend- 
ing from the accession of Ghivas ud-Din 
Balban to the sixth year of the reign of 
Firuz Shah. His account of the latter had 
been intended to comprise 101 sections called 
Mukaddimah, but he did not live to complete 
more than the first eleven, thus leaving 
ninety unwritten. 

Although taking up the history of Firiiz 
Shah from the beginning, the author chose 
to adopt, in remembrance of his predecessor, 
a division into ninety Mukaddimahs, group- 
ing them in five books (Kism), each of 
which comprises eighteen Mukaddimahs. 

The Kisms are as follows : I, History of 



Firiiz ShJih from his birth to his accession, 
fol. 18 a. II. Wars of Bengal and Orissa; 
foundation of Hisar and Firiizabad; capture 
of Nagarkot, fol. 53 a. III. Campaign of 
Tattah, fol. 90 a. IV. Firuz Shah desists 
from war and attends to the government of 
his empire, fol. 123 a. V. Tonsure of Firuz 
Shiih ; prince Fath Khan ; the great Khans 
and Maliks ; close of the reign, fol. 176 a. 

The MS. is imperfect at the end. It breaks 
off a few lines before the end of the ninth 
Mukaddimah of Kism V. (Elliot, p. 373). 
There is also a lacuna at the end of Kism I. 
and beginning of Kism II., foil. 51, 52, where 
three pages have been left blank. 

A considerable part of the work has been 
translated by Prof. Dowson; see Elliot's 
History of India, vol. iii. pp. 267 — 373. 
Compare N. Lees, Journal of the Boy. Asiat. 
Soc, new Series, vol. iii. p. 445. Two 
copies of the work exist in the library of 
the India Office, and one in the collection of 
Sir H. Elliot. 

Or. 164. 

Foil. 179 ; 9 in. by 6 ; 13 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Shikastah, apparently in 
the 18th century. [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

^^\^ ji^\ '&a^ 

A history of the life and reign of Shir Shah. 
Author: Abbas Khan B. Shaikh 'Ali 
Sarvani, ^ljj«> J* ^xL ^^ J^ (^^\^ 
Beg. ^J. [U5] U^j ^^/^ J u^ j^li* J J^ 

An account of the author and a some- 
what abridged version of the work will be 
found in Elliot's History of India, vol. iv. 
pp. 301—433. 

The author's name and the above title do 
not appear in the preface, but they are 
found in several passages in the body of the 
work, foil. 22 5, 29 b, 39 a ; Elliot, pp. 333, 



SULTANS 0¥ DEHLT. 



243 



343, 361. The author says at the beginning 
that he wrote this work by the order of 
Akbai*, and that he received his information 
fx'om the month of some trustworthy and 
accomplished Afghans who had followed Shir 
Shah from his first rise to power to the end 
of his reign. He was himself, as he states 
further on, fol. 22 b, descended from 'Abbas 
Khan, a noble Afghan, whose son, Hasnu 
Khan, ranked first among the Amirs of 
Shir Shah, and had married his sister. 

The work appears to have been written 
shortly after A.H. 987 ; see Elliot, p. 301. 
It is more generally known under the name 
of Tarikh i Shir Shiihi. See Dorn, History 
of the Afghans, p. 3, Stewart's Catalogue, 
p. 14, N. Lees, Journal of the Roy. As. Soc, 
New Series, vol. iii. p. 449, Library of King's 
College, Cambridge, No. 80. 

Or. 197. 

FoU. 129; Si in. by4i; 17 lines, 2f in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Shahabad, 
Jumada I., A.H. 1192 (A.D. 1778). 

[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

A history of the Lodi and Siir dynasties. 

Beg. i>^ i^.J'^ u^v?" '--^■^^ "^y J^ (^li-J 
An account of this work, with copious 
extracts, will be found in Elliot's History of 
India, vol. iv. pp. 434 — 513. We learn 
from it that the author, whose name does not 
appear in the present copy, was called *Abd 
TJllah, and that he wrote in the reign of Ja- 
hangir. See also N. Lees, Journal of the Eoy. 
As. Soc, New Series, vol. iii. p. 447. 

The author states in the preface that he 
had collected in this volume such notices 
relating to the Afghan Sultans as he found 
scattered in standard histories. The Ak- 
barshahi, i.e. Tabakat i Akbarshahi, is 
frequently quoted in the body of the work. 



The Tarikh i Da'udl comprises the following 
reigns : BahlQl Lodi, fol. 3 b. Sikandar, fol, 
18 a. Ibrahim, fol. 50 b. Shir Shah, fol. 65 a. 
Islam Shah, fol. 102 b. Muhammad 'Adil, 
fol. 118 b. Da'ud Slmh, fol. 126 b. 

Add. 24,409. 

Foil. 237 ; 81 in. by 4| ; 15 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written in plain Nestalik, apparently 
in the 18th century. [Sir John Malcolm.] 

. An account of the Afghan kings. 

Author : Muhammad Kabir B. Shaikh Is- 
ma'il Haziya, daughter's son of Shaikh Kha- 



lil Ullah Hakkani, J-«-»">^ 



e^ 



^ jJLfi' J-»3? 



Beg. Oj^aa- J c^ ^Jl^ s>^\^ vS-^ iX-o 

The author gives, foil. 197 — 205, some 
account of his maternal grandfather, an Af- 
ghan saint, who lived in Rajgir, Bengal, 
and died in Panjab in the time of Akbar. 
He wrote the present work, as stated in the 
preface, in order to divert his mind in his 
bereavement, his son Mahmud having died 
at the age of sixteen from a snake bite. 

This is less a history than a series of de- 
tached narratives and anecdotes, cj^}^, 140 
in number, written in popular style and 
without any attempt at elegance of com- 
position or historical sequence. They are 
roughly arranged in chronological order, and 
relate to the lives and times of the fol- 
lowing Afghan chiefs : Kala Lodi, the father 
of Bahm, fol. 6 h, Bahlill, fol. 15 «, Sikandar, 
fol. 23 b, Ibrahim, fol. 44 b. Shir Shah, fol. 
49 b, Islam Shah, fol. 137 6, 'Adli, fol. 159 *, 
Ibrahim and Sikandar Sur, fol. 170 a, Kalii 
Pahar, fol. 205 a, Da'Qd Lodi, fol. 224 a. 

The first and last pages have been sup- 
plied by a later hand; the last is dated 
A.H. 1189. 

Ii2 



244 



PARTICULAR HISTORIES OE INDIA. 



HISTORY OF THE TIMURIDES. 



Add. 24,416. 

Foil. 358 ; 8i in. by 5^ ; 19 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; apparently about 
tbc close of the 16th century. 

[Sir John Malcolm.] 

The autobiography of Babar, translated 
from the Turki original by Mirza 'Abd ur- 
Eahlm B. Bairam Khan. 

Beg. jii «j J ^yj tX<a.*a b.'xm ^^^^ »'•■« jii 



This remarkable work, which is also called 
^jA> tdJjy, has been rendered accessible to 
English readers by means of an excellent 
translation, commenced by Dr. John Leyden, 
revised, completed, and enriched with a 
learned introduction and notes, by Mr. Wm. 
Erskine, London, 1826. The Turki original, 
a copy of Avhich is preserved in the Museum, 
Add. 26,324, has been edited by N. Ilminski, 
Kasan, 1857, and translated into French by 
M. Pavet de Courteille, Paris, 1871. 

The Persian version was made by the 
order of Akbar, and completed A.H. 998. 
Mirza *Abd ur-Rahim, one of the great 
generals of Akbar, better known under his 
title Khankhanan, was no less celebrated for 
his literary tastes and accomplishments than 
for his achievements in war. He was born 
A.H. 964 and died under Jahangir, A.H. 1036. 
See, for a notice of his life, Mr. Erskine's 
preface and Blochmann's Ain i Akbari, pp. 
334—39. 

An account of the work, with extracts, 
will be found in Sir H. Elliot's History of 
India, vol. iv. pp. 218 — 287. See also Mac- 
kenzie Collection, vol. ii. p. 124, King's 
College Library, Cambridge, No. 96, Ouseley 
Collection, No. 343-4, Copenhagen Cata- 



logue, p. 19, and Melanges Asiatiques, vol. 
iii. pp. 484 — 86. 

The memoirs are divided, by some gaps 
which never were filled up by the author, into 
the following four detached sections : I. A.H. 
899—908 (Erskine, pp. 1—222), fol. 1 *. 
II. A.H. 910—914 (Erskine, pp. 127—234), 
fol. 101 a. III. A.H. 925-6 (Erskine, p. 
246—284), fol. 191 h. IV. A.H. 932—936 
(Erskine, pp. 290—425), ful. 226 b. 

The first page of the MS. contains some 
notes written in the reign of Jahangir, one 
of which is dated Agrah, A.H. 1022 (A.D. 
1613). One of its former owners, Musavi 
Khan 'All Akbar, who held the office of Sadr 
under Jahangh', and died A.H. 1054, has 
entered on the margin of fol. 145 b a genea- 
logical notice relating to Sultan Nizad 
Begam. 

Add. 26,200. 

Foil. 380; ^ in. by 5; 16 lines, 2| in. 
long, written in small and neat Nestalik, on 
gold-sprinkled paper, with 'Unvan and gold- 
ruled margins, probably in the 16th century. 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

The same work. 

The four parts begin respectively on foil. 
1 b, 106 b, 201 b, and 236 b. 

This is the copy which Mr. Erskine used 
for his translation ; see preface, p. xi. The 
original MS. breaks off at the paragraph 
dated Monday, 22 Ramazan, A.H. 935 (Er- 
skine, p . 420) . Ten leaves, written on English 
paper, water-mafked 1810, contain the re- 
mainder of the memoirs and also Persian 
translations of the passages left by the trans- 
lator in the original language. The same 
hand has supplied two leaves lost after fol. 
27, and two single leaves missing after foil. 
61 and 135. 

Four whole-page miniatures, in highly 
finished Indian style, occur on foil. 26, 27, 
30 and 34. Several pages, apparently re- 



BABAR. 



215 



served for miniatures, have been left blank. 
Two dates, 7 April, 1807, and 9 March, 1812, 
have been written in pencil by Mr. Erskine 
on the margin of the first page. 

Add. 16,623. 

Foil. 295 ; 8^ in. by 5 ; 17 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in neat Nestalik, on gold- 
sprinkled paper, with 'Unvan and gold-ruled 
margins ; dated Lahore, Eajab, A.H. 1048 
(A.D. 1638). Bound in stamped and gilt 
leather. 

The same work. 

The four parts begin respectively on foil! 
1 b, 85 h, 162 a, 191 b. Six and twenty 
miniatures, finely executed in Indian style, 
and occupying mostly a small portion of the 
page, illustrate the scenes described in the 
text. 

Transcriber : »_-3li o^ b 



Add. 16,691. 

Foil. 194 ; 12 in. by 8 ; 23 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Shahjahan- 
abad, Rajab, A.H. 1148 (A.D. 1735). 

[Wm. Yule.] 

The same work. 

The four parts begin on foil. 1 b, 56 a, 
105 b, and 123 a. 

Copyist : ^'^J^ tibU ^^^ju-^joI 

Add. 16,690. 

FoU. 274; 111 in. by 6^; 17 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with 'Unvan and 
ruled margins, apparently in the 18th cen- 
tury. [Wm. Yule.] 

The same work. 

The four parts begin on foil. 2 b, 82 b, 
151 b, and 176 a. 

On the last page is written : "Wm. Yule, 
Lucknow, 1800." 



Add. 26,201. 

Foil. 169 ; 15^ in. by 9^; 21 lines, 5| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, in the early part 
of the 19th century. Bound in gilt and 
stamped leather. [Wm. Erskijs'e.J 

The same work. 

The four parts begin on foil. 2 J, 55 b, 95 a, 
and 111 a. There is a whole-page miniature 
on fol. 3 a. 

This copy is mentioned by Mr. Erskine in 
his preface, p. x., as procured for him from 
Dehli, through Mr. Metcalfe, the British 
Resident at that Court. He adds, that it 
was much less accurate than the other (Add. 
26,200). In the manuscript list of his col- 
lection Mr. Erskine states that it was tran- 
scribed for him from a copy in the Imperial 
Library at Dehli. 

Or. 167. 

Foil. 475 ; 12 in. by 8^; 12 lines, ^ in. 
long; written in Nestalik, in the 19th cen- 
tury. [Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

The same work. 

The four parts begin on foil. 3 a, 132 b, 
249 5, and 297 b. 

A table of contents, occupying one page, 
is prefixed. 

Add. 26,317. 

Foil. 88; 9 in. by 7^; 17 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, on English paper 
bearing the date 1808 in its water-mark. 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

A portion of the same work corresponding 
to pp. 14 — 179 of the English translation. 

This volume is endorsed by Mr. Erskine 
as " copied for Dr. Leyden." It is no doubt 
the transcript which he caused to be made 
for the latter from a copy found at Bombay, 
as stated in the Preface to the Memoirs, 
p. ix. 



246 



HUMAYUN. 



Add. 26,202. 

FoU. 83 ; 10| in. by GJ ; 20 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
17th century. [Wm. Erskfne.] 

A fragment of the same work. 

It contains the first half of the fourth 
part of the Memoirs, in a peculiar recen- 
sion, in which the author's first person is 
changed to the third, and the unadorned 
language of the original to the pompous 
style of court annals. It is thus described 
by Mr. Erskine on the fly leaf: 

" This is a translation, and in some places 
a rhetorical expansion, of the text of the 
Wakiat e Baberi, beginning 1st of Sefer, 
A.H. 932 (17 Nov., 1625) and ending about 
the end of Moharrem, A.H. 933 (Oct. 1526), 
nearly a year (Printed Memoirs from p. 290 
to p. 345), with several omissions." 

On the last page are three seals, one of 
which bears the date 1050. 

Add. 16,711. 

ToU. 146; lOf in. by 7 ; 15 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik ; dated 
Jumada II., A.H. 1019 (A.D. 1610). 

[Wm. Yule.] 

Memoirs of the reign of Humayun. 
Author : Jauhar Afitabjl, ^jtfVjjJ^^ 
Beg. J \^ j«^ .ijo . . . j^Ul\ L_^ &)J j-^J^ 

Jauhar was, as Afitabji or ewer-bearer, in 
constant attendance upon his royal master, 
during the most eventful period of his life. 
He informs us towards the end of the 
Memoirs, fol. 132, that Humayun appointed 
him in A.H. 962 collector of Haibatpur, and 
subsequently of the villages of Tatar Khan, 
and he calls himself further on, fol. 135 5, 
treasurer (KhizanajT) of the government of 
Panjab and Multan. He states in his pre- 



face that he commenced this work in A.H. 
995, i. e. 32 years after the death of Huma- 
yun. See Elliot's History of India, vol. v., 
pp. 136—149. 

Transcriber : (_jiju-* c-*Sll> ^^ Ja^ 

On the first page is a note, dated A.D. 
1 801, stating that the Safavi prince, Abul- 
Eath Sultan Muhammad Mirza, had received 
the MS., as a loan, from Captain William 
Yule. 

This is the MS. on which Major Charles 
Stewart made his translation, printed for 
the Oriental Translation Eund, London, 1832, 
and which is described in the translator's 
preface as being about a century old. The 
mistake arose from his reading the date in 
the subscription 19, instead of 1019, and 
referring it to the reign of Muhammad 
Shrdi. 

The Museum possesses an interleaved 
copy of the English version. Add. 26,608, 
with extensive corrections in manuscript, 
amounting almost to a re-translation of the 
work, by Mr. Wm. Erskine, to whom Major 
Yule had lent the present MS. The rough 
draught of the same corrections is preserved 
in Add. 26,620. 

In a short notice prefixed to the former 
volume, Mr. Erskine passes on Major Stewart's 
version the following judgment, which, coming 
from so eminent an authority, carries great 
weight : " The translation of Major Stewart 
is no translation at all. It is full of errors. 
It adds, takes away, alters. It is not trust- 
worthy, and one does him no injustice in 
pronouncing him ignorant of the history and 
manners of the tim'es, ignorant of the geo- 
graphy of the country, ignorant of the 
language, ignorant of the duty of a trans- 
lator." 

Or. 166. 

EoU. 83 ; 9 in. by 5^; 15 lines, 3 in. long; 
written in Nestalik, apparently in the 17th 
century. 



HUMAYUN AND AKBAR. 



247 



/ 



aUib vj^Uih J^_^^ 

Memoirs of Babar and Humayun. 
Author: Gulbadan Begam, daughter of 
Babar Padishah, »U^b ^jb C^ ^ t,>^^ 
Beg. ^Ji* i^3^J &*jljj^ **fT »i JjJ iy^ ^* 

The author begins by stating that she had 
received the royal commands (Akbar's) to 
write down what she knew of the lives of 
Babar and Humayun, and that, as she was 
eight years old at the death of the former, 
she had been obliged to eke out her imperfect 
recollections with information received from 
other quarters. The earlier period, she adds, 
although chronicled in the Memoirs, &«jllj 
sjj, is here reproduced as an auspicious 
beginning. The life of Babar does not occupy 
much space, his death being recorded on 
fol. 19 b. The memoirs of Humayun, which 
fill up the rest of the volume, break off at 
fol. 83. The last event of importance men- 
tioned is the blinding of prince Kamran 
( A.H. 962 ; see Memoirs of Humayun, p. 106). 
The work is written in a simple and un- 
pretending style, and dwells chiefly on family 
events and domestic occurrences. 

As Gulbadan Begam was eight years old 
at the death of Babar, she must have been 
born A.H. 929, and must have reached the 
ao-e of thirty-four at the accession of Akbar 
(A.H. 963). She was married, A.H. 952, to 
Khizr Khwajah, Khan of Moghulistan, after- 
wards Amir ul-TJmara under Humayun ; and 
we learn from the Tabakati Akbari that she 
undertook the pilgrimage to Mecca in A.H. 
982. She was still alive in A.H. 997 ; see 
Akbar-Namah, vol. iii. p. 594, Memoirs of Ba- 
bar, p. 429, Erskine, India under Babar, vol. i. 
p. 525, and Elliot's History of India, vol. v. 
p. 391,Blochmann,Aini Akbari, vol. i. p. 365. 
The above title is taken from the following 
contemporary endorsement : sLi»iib ^^}^}^*^ J^^^ 



Beg. J^U.j 



The writer's name occurs incidentally in 
the narrative, when she is spoken of by other 
persons ; she designates herself as jjo*. ^j>\ 

Add. 27,247. 

Poll. 461 ; 12 in. by 8 J ; from 30 to 34 

lines, 6J in. long ; written in Nestalik ; dated 

(fol. 245 a) Zulka'dah, A.H. 1080 (A.H. 1670). 

[J. Macdonald Kinneir.] 

. A history of the reign of Akbar, including 
an account of his predecessors. 

Author : Abiil-Eazl B. Mubarak, J-iaJl y>\ 

Shaikh Abul Eazl, surnamed 'AllamT, son 
of Shaikh Mubarak of Nagor, was born at 
Agrah, A.H. 958. He was introduced to 
Akbar in A.H. 981 by his elder brother, the 
celebrated poet Faizi, and soon became the 
friend and trusted adviser of the sovereign. 
He rose by degrees to a command of four 
thousand men, and was engaged in military 
operations in the Deccan, when he was re- 
called to Court, and murdered on his way 
thither, on the 4th of Rabi' L, A,H. 1011, by 
the Bundela chieftain, Barsing Deo, insti- 
gated by Prince SaHm, afterwards Jahangir. 

The author has given a sketch of his own 
life at the end of the A'in i Akbari. 

An extremely full and interesting bio- 
graphy of Abul-Pazl has been prefixed by 
H. Blochmann to his translation of that 
work, Calcutta, 1873. 

The Akbar-Namah is the detailed and 
authentic history of the reign of Akbar. 
The author states in the preface that he wrote 
it by the emperor's order. His materials con- 
sisted, he says, of the private memoirs which 
numerous persons were ordered to send in. 



248 



AKBAR. 



of the official record, which had been kept 
from the 19th year of the reign, the royal 
proclamations, and the letters and returns 
of the officers of state. The work was sub- 
mitted during its progress to Akbar, who 
corrected and supplemented it from his per- 
sonal recollections. 

The epilogue, Khatimah, of the first 
volume shows that it was completed on the 
27th of Sha'ban, A.H. 1004, the 41st year 
of the reign. The work was continued down to 
A.H. 1010, within a year of the author's death. 

It is divided into three volumes, the first 
of which is sub-divided into two parts, as 
follows : Vol. I. Part 1. Birth and horoscope 
of Akbar. Genealogy of the Turks and of 
the house of Timur. History of Babar and 
Humayun. Part 2. History of Akbar from 
his accession to the end of the 17th year of 
his reign. 

Vol. II. Continuation of Akbar's reign, 
from the beginning of the .18th to the end 
of the 46th year. 

The third volume, which bears a distinct 
title, A'in i Akbari, or the Institutes of 
Akbar, contains a detailed account of the 
royal establishments, the administration and 
statistics of the empire, the creeds and insti- 
tutions of the Hindus. A considerable por- 
tion of the A'in i Akbari was translated by 
Francis Gladwin, Calcutta, 1783. The text 
is now being edited in the Bibliotheca In- 
dica, by Mr. Blochmann, and the same emi- 
nent scholar has already published the first 
volume of his excellent translation of the 
entire work, Calcutta, 1873. 

The first two volumes of the Akbar Namah 
have been lithographed at Lucknow, A.H. 
1284,by order of Maharajah Mahindar, the 
Rajah of Patialah. A very copious abstract 
of the first Part of vol. i. has been included 
by Major D. Price in the third volume of 
his Retrospect. 

An account of the work, with numerous 
extracts by Prof. Dowson, is given in Elliot's 



History of India, vol. v. pp. 1 — 102. An 
abridged translation by Wm. Erskine, com- 
prising the reign of Humayun, and of that 
of Akbar down to the 29th year, is preserved 
in manuscript in Add. 26,607, 26,620 and 
26,621. See also Morley's Catalogue, p. 108, 
De Sacy, Notices et Extraits, vol. x. p. 199, 
Aumer, Munich Catalogue, pp. 89 — 91, and 
Copenhagen Catalogue, p. 20. 

The contents of this copy are as follows : 
Vol. I. Part 1, fol. 2 6. Part 2, with the epi- 
logue, Khatimah, fol. 112 a. 

A portion of the account of the 17th year, 
relating to the siege of Siirat, foil. 239 — 244, 
has been transposed after the Kliatimah. 

Vol. II., from the beginning to the latter 
part of the 28th year (Lucknow edition, vol. 
iii. pp. 2 — 426), fol. 245 a. A portion of the 
A'in i Akbari, from the beginning to the 
first paragraph of the chapter on the arsenal 
(Blochmann's translation, vol. i. pp. 1 — 110), 
fol. 345 a. The latter portion of vol. ii., 
from the beginning of the month of Shah- 
rlvar, year 34th, to the end of the volume 
(Lucknow edition, vol. iii. pp. 588 — 868), 
fol. 380 b. 

The text differs at times considerably from 
the printed edition. The Khatimah of vol. 
ii., which hardly exceeds one page in the 
latter, occupies five pages in the MS. 

On the first page is a note stating that 
the MS. had been purchased in Shahjahan- 
abad. In the same place is the seal of Azim 
ud-Daulah Valajah with the date (A.H.) 1216, 
and below : " From His Highness the Nabob 
of the Carnatic toJohn Macdonald Kinneir." 

Add. 17,926. 

Poll. 366; 9^ in. by 5^ ; 19 lines, 3 in. 
long; M^ritten in small and neat Shikastah- 
iimiz, with gold-ruled margins ; dated Zul- 
ka'dah, A.H. 1097 (AD. 1686). 

[Henry A. Stern.] 

The first volume of the Akbar-Namah. 



AKBAR. 



249 



The second part, which begins on fol. 
183 b, comprises a full account of the events 
of the seventeenth year, foil. 335 a — 356 a, 
followed by the Khatimah (Lucknow edition, 
vol. ii. pp. 468—488), foil. 356 «— 366 a. 

The account of the seventeenth year is 
very defective in the Lucknow edition, pp. 
457 — 467, where it breaks off, as in several 
of the MS. copies, after the record of the 
birth of Prince Daniel, leaving out the most 
important part, that which relates to Akbar's 
campaign in Gujrat. 

Copyist : ,_^^1 c5>i^^ ^i;i^'\ >i*^ di^ /^ ^'^ 

Add. 18,541. 

Foil. 387 ; 12 in. by 1\ ; 21 lines, 4| in. 
long. Written in Nestalik, apparently in 
the 17th century. [T. H. Steenschuss.] 

The first volume of the Akbar-Namah. 
The second part begins on fol. 177 a, and 
contains the full account of the seventeenth 
year, foil. 362 a— 378 b. 

About six leaves (Lucknow edition, pp. 2 
— 17) are wanting at the beginning. 

Add. 26,204. 

Foil. 221 ; 15^ in. by 9 ; 29 and 31 lines, 
5. J in. long; written in small and neat Nes- 
talik, probably in the 17th century. 

[Wm. Ebskine.] 

The first volume of the Akbar-Namah. 
The second part begins on fol. 101 b with a 
*Unvan. It concludes, like the Lucknow 
edition, with the birth of Prince Daniel and 
the Khatimah. 

On the fly-leaf is a Persian note, in which 
the anonymous writer states that he borrowed 
tliis MS. on the 15th of Ramazan, in the 
20th year of Shah 'Alam (A.H. 1182), from 
Navvab Ashraf ud-Daulah, who had received 
it from the library of the Vakil i Mutlak, 



Rajah Daya ram, and that he read it through 
in the course of a fortnight. 

Add. 16,692. 

Foil. 409 ; 10| in. by 6^ ; from 21 to 23 
lines, 4i\ in. long ; written in Shikastah- 
amiz, with two 'Unvans and ruled margins ; 
dated Akbarabad, Safar, A.H. 1114 (A.D. 

1702). * [Wm. Yule.] 

The first volume of the Akbar-Namah. 
The second part begins on fol. 178 b, with a 
separate 'Unvan. It concludes, like the 
printed edition, with a defective account of 
the 17th year, foil. 396 a— 400 b, and the 
Khatimah, foil. 400 6—409 b. 

Copyist : t^^bl ^x^l^U (^^ ^Ij jJj iC;iljj 

Add. 4944. 

Foil. 302 ; 10 in. by 7^ ; 15 lines, 4^ in. 
long, with thirty oblique lines in the margin, 
written in Nestalik; dated Shavvfil, A.H. 
1118, and Rabi' I., A.H. 1119 (A.D. 1707). 

[Claud Russell.] 

The first volume of the Akbar-Namah. 
The second part, which begins on fol. 147 a, 
concludes with the full account of the 17th 
year, fol. 283 b, and the Khatimah, fol. 296 b. 

Copyist: ^j^J^ 

On the fly-leaf is written : " A present to 
Mr. Russell from Mr. Dalrymple, brought 
from Bussorah by the ship Ganges in May, 
1771," and on the same page : " Presented 
by Claud Russell, Esq., October 5, 1781." 

Add. 5610. 

Foil. 555; 12^ in. by 7|; 17 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
18th century. [N. B. Halhed.] 

The first volume of the Akbar Namah. 
Part ii. begins on fol. 251 b. The account 

KK 



260 



AKBAR. 



of the seventeenth year, foil. 534 — 541, is 
defective. 

Add. 6544. 

Foil. 441 ; 10^ in. hy GJ ; 17 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in a cursive hand, probably 
in the 17th century. [James Grant.] 

Part i. of the first volume of the Akbar Na- 
mah. The beginning and end, foil. 3 — 10, and 
419 — 441, have been supplied by a later hand. 
A table of contents, foU. 1 — 2, is prefixed. 

Add. 26,205. 

Foil. 225; 12J in. by 7; 22 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in Nestalik, probably in the 
18th century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

Part i. of the first volume of the Akbar- 
Namah. Some leaves at the beginning and 
end of the MS. are stained by damp and 
torn at the bottom. A leaf is wanting at 
the end. 

Add. 26,206. 

FoU. 246; 10| in. by 7; 19 Hues, 4^ in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik, apparently 
in the 18th century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

Part i. of the first volume of the Akbar- 
Namah. 

Add. 7651. 

Foil. 347 ; 11 in. by 6^ ; 21 Unes, 4| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, in the first half of 
the 17th century. [Cl. J. Eich.] 

The second part of vol. i. of the Akbar- 
Niimah, concluding with the full account of 
the seventeenth year, fol. 326 a, and the 
Khatimah, fol. 337 b. 

On the last page is written a note dated 
Jumada I., A.H. 1062, " when the imperial 
armies had arrived in order to take Kan- 
dahar." 

Add. 5553. 

FoU. 283; 10| in. by 6|; 15 lines, 4^ in. 



long; written in Nestalik and dated Ju- 
mada II., the 21st year of Muhammad Shah 
(A.H. 1151, A.D. 1738). 

[Charles Hamilton.] 

The second part of vol. i. of the Akbar- 
Namah, wanting the latter portion of the 
seventeenth year and the Khatimah. The 
preface of the Akbar-Namah is prefixed, 
foU. 2—11. 

Add. 16,693. 

Foil. 250 ; 12 J in. by 8 ; 23 lines, 5^^ in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, apparently 
in the 18th century. [Wm. Yule.] 

The second part of vol. i. of the Akbar- 
Namah, ending with the defective account 
of the seventeenth year and the Khatimah. 

It bears the stamp of General Claud 
Martin. 

Add. 6545. 

Foil. 641; lOjin. by 6^; 18 and 21 lines, 
4|; in. long; written in cursive Nestalik; 
dated Thanesar, Jumada I., A.H. 1113 (A.D. 
1701). [James Grant.] 

The second part of the first volume, and 
the second volume of the Akbar-Namah. 
The account of the seventeenth year is 
defective. The second volume, which begins 
on fol. 268 b, closes with the full Khatimah, 
foil. 636 6—641. 

Or. 1116. 

Foil. 300; 17| in. by 10; 31 lines, 6^ in. 
long ; written in a fair Nestalik, with ruled 
margins, probably in the 18th century. 

[Waeren Hastings.] 

The second part of vol. i. and vol. ii. of 
the Akbar-Namah. Part ii. ends, fol. 93 a, 
with the birth of Prince Daniel. The re- 
maining portion of the seventeenth year, 
the Khatimah of vol. i., and the preamble of 
vol. ii., are omitted. 

The MS. wants also a page at the begin- 
ning, and breaks off some lines before the 



AKBAR. 



251 



end of the forty-sixth year, Lucknow edition, 
vol. iii. p. 865. 

Add. 27,248. 

Poll. 264; 12 in. by 8; 25 lines, 5| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, dated (fol. 200 a) 
Ilahabad, Rabi' I., A.H. 1166 (A.D. 1753). 
[J. Macdonald Kinneir.] 

I. The second part of vol. ii. of the Akbar- 
Namah, concluding with the full account of 
the seventeenth year, fol. 173 h, and the 
Khatimah, fol. 191 6. 

II. The first portion of the A'in i Akbari, 
ending with the chapter on the Mansabdars 
(Blochmann's translation, vol. i. pp. 1 — 237), 
fol. 201 b. 

The first page has the seal and note men- 
tioned under Add. 27,247, p. 248 6. 

Add. 26,207. 

FoU. 338 ; 10^ in. by 6| ; 26 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in small and neat Nestalik, 
apparently early in the I7th century. 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

The second volume of the Akbar-Namah. 
This copy concludes with the full Khatimah, 
foil. 334 6—338 a. At the end of the his- 
torical portion and before the Khatimah, fol. 
333 b, is a note written by Muhammad 'Arif, 
takh. Shaida. He states that he had com- 
pleted the revision of this volume, in Jalna- 
pur, on the 25th of Bahman, in the first year 
of Shahjahan, by order of Khan Zaman 
Bahadur Firuz Jang, commander-in-chief of 
the army of the Deccan. 

Shaida, of Fathpiir, one of the great poets 
of the court of Shahjahan, died in Kashmir, in 
the latter part of the reign ; see Oude Cata- 
logue, p. 124, and 'Amal Salih, fol. 698. 

Add. 6589. 

Foil. 453; 10 in. by 6^; 19 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Zulka'dah, 
A.H. 1183 (A.D. 1770). [J. F. Hull. J 



The second volume of the Akbar-Namah. 

It wants the preamble and the first three 
lines of the eighteenth year. The Khatimah 
occupies foil. 447 b — 453 a. 

Add. 26,203. 

Foil. 676 ; 15 in. by 9 ; 21 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik, with three 
'Unvans and ruled margins ; dated Sha'ban, 
A.H. 1232 (A.D. 1817). [Wm. Erskine.] 

The first and second volumes of the Akbar- 
Namah. 

The second part of vol. i. begins, without 
any heading, on fol. 157 b. But there is a 
break further on, and the chapter recording 
the institution of the Ilahl JEra (Lucknow 
edition, vol. ii. p. 10) begins on fol. 161 b 
with an 'Unvan. The second part concludes 
with the defective account of the seventeenth 
year, fol. 308 a, and the Khatimah, fol. 311 b. 
Vol. ii. begins with an 'Unvan on fol. 319 b, 
and ends with the Khatimah, foil. 671 b — 
676 a. 

The MS. contains seventy-six miniatures, 
executed in the late Indian style, and oc- 
cupying little more than half a page each. 



Add. 7652. 

Foil. 473 ; 14i in. by 9 ; 19 lines, b\ in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, with 'Unvan 
and ruled margins, probably in the 17th 
century. [Cl. J. Rich.] 



F-^ 

^j^^ {J^^ 



The A'ln i Akbari, or third volume of the 
Akbar-Namah. 

A tabulated index of contents in the same 
handwriting as the text, foil. 1 — 12, is pre- 
fixed. 



Transcriber : ^j^ji>\ 



^li jTj^ Jj-v^ 
ke2 



252 



AKBAR. 



Both sides of fol. 408 are occupied by 
drawings in gold and colours representing 
various jewelled ornaments. 

A note written on the first page shows 
that the MS. was purchased by some person 
not named, in the ninth and bound in the thir- 
teenth year of the reign of Muhammad Shah. 

Add. 6552. 

Foil. 430; 13| in. by 9; 21 lines, 5 J in. 
long; written in fair Nestalik, with two 
'Unvans and gold-ruled margins, probably in 
the 17th century; partly stained by damp. 

[J. F. Hull.] 

The A'in i Akbari, with a full table of 
chapters in the same hand as the text, 
foil. 1—12. 

Add. 6546. 

Foil. 599 ; 10 in. by 6J ; 19 lines 3| in. 
long ; written in small Nestalik ; dated Shah- 
jahanabiid, Jumada I., the first year of Rafi' 
uddarajat, A.H. 1130 (A.D. 1718). 

[James Grant.] 

The same work, with two tables of con- 
tents, foil. 1—10, and 582—599. 

Copyist : ^y> ^^ S:, ^j\yc\j 

The transcriber Ramrae states at the end 
that he had collated the present MS. with 
other copies in Shahjahaniibad and Agra, in 
the 2nd and 4th years of the reign of Mu- 
hammad Shah. 

Add. m4.^. 

Foil. 408 ; 12f in. by 8^ ; 21 lines, 6 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with 'Unvan and 
ruled margins, apparently in the 18th cen- 
tury. [N. B. Halhed.] 

The same work, with a full table of con- 
tents, foil. 1 — 12, and marginal notes by 
Halhed. 



Add. 5609. 

Foil. 293 ; 13 in. by 8 ; 21 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik, apparently 
in the 18th century. [J. B. Halhed.] 

The same work, with marginal notes by 
Halhed. 

This copy wants the account of India 
(Gladwin's third volume), with the exception 
of the concluding chapters, which treat of 
the great men who visited India and of the 
Indian saints. It closes with the notice on 
Khizr and Elias. 

A table of contents of the whole work is 
prefixed, foil. 1 — 12. 

Add. 16,872. 

Foil. 486; 12 in. by 7^; 19 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in Nestalik with 'Unvan and 
ruled margins ; dated Zulhijjah, A.H. 1196 
(A.D. 1782). [Wm. Yule.] 

The same work. 

Add. 6553. 



long; 



Foil. 159 ; 121 by 8|; ; 20 lines, 4f in. 
written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
18th century. [James Grant.] 

A portion of the A'ln i Akbari, containing 
an account of the Subahs of India (Gladwin's 
second volume). 

'Or. 1117. 

Foil. 149 ; 13 in. by 9 ; 21 lines, 5 in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik, apparently 
in the 18th century. [Warren Hastings.] 

The latter part of the same work, con- 
taining the account of the Hindus (Glad- 
win's third volume). It wants the con- 
cluding chapters, on the great men. who 
visited India, etc. 



AKBAR AND JAHANGIR. 



253 



Or. 169. 

Poll. 279 ; 8 in. by 5^ ; 15 lines, 3^ in. 
long; written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
17th century. [Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

A history of Akbar, from his accession to 
A.H. 1010. 

Author : Shaikh Ilahdad Faiz'i Sirhindi, 

Beg. Ic ^J j\ «Ji' i^ ji'^\ j^'i^'i C^yi^ j.^ 

Shaikh Ilahdad is also the author of a 
Persian dictionary entitled Madar ul-A^zil 
(Add. 6643), written in A.H. 1001, from 
which we learn that he was the son of Asad 
ul-'Ulama 'Ah Shir of Sirhind. It appears 
from the preface of the present work that 
he was attached to the service of the 
Bakhshi ul-Mulk, Shaikh Parid Bukhari. 
The latter, having remarked that an his- 
torical work entitled Vakiat i Mushtaki (see 
EUiot, vol. iv. pp. 534 — 557) concluded with 
the period of Humayun, and contained no 
notice of the important events of the reign 
of Akbar, desired the author to supply the 
deficiency. The result was the present 
history, to which no title is given in the 
text, but which is called Akbar Namah in 
the subscription. 

The Ma'agir ul-Umara, Add. 6568, fol. 347, 
contains a full account of the life of Shaikh 
Parid, afterwards Murtaza Khan, who held 
high military commands under Akbar and 
Jahangir, and died A.H. 1025. See also 
Blochmann, Ain i Akbari, vol. i. p. 413. 

The work is written in a plain and un- 
pretending style. It appears to have been 
compiled from the Tabakat i Akbarshahi and 
the Akbar-Namah of Abul-Pazl, with some 
additions especially relating to the cam- 
paigns in which the author's patron was 
engaged. The history is brought down to 
the capture of Asir, and the subsequent 
return of Akbar to Agrah in Safar, A.H. 1010. 
An account of the work by Prof. Dowson, 



with some extracts, will be found in Elliot's 
History of India, vol. vi. pp. 116 — 146. 

Add. 26,215. 

Poll. 316 ; 9| in. by 5J ; 17 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, apparently in 
the 17th century. [Wm. Eeskine.] 

Memoirs of the Emperor Jahangir. 

Beg.jjj j\ ^>jd C>sK^^_ ^\ ObUw ObUfrj\ 

.There exist two recensions of the Memoirs 
of Jahangir, or rather two distinct works 
have been circulated under that name. 
One of them, which is arranged in strictly 
chronological order, bears the stamp of au- 
thenticity, and there is no reason for doubt- 
ing that it was written, as stated in the body 
of the work (printed edition, p. 352) by the 
Emperor himself, from his accession to the 
seventeenth year of his reign, and continued, 
under his supervision, by Mu'tamad Khan, 
from that date to the beginning of the 
nineteenth year. It was afterwards re-edited 
by Muhammad Hadi, with an historical intro- 
duction and a continuation which brought it 
down to the end of the reign ; and it has 
been lately published, with the latter addi- 
tions, by Sayyid Ahmad, under the title of 
Toozuk i Jehangeeree, Ally Gurh, 1864. It 
had been previously made known by some 
extracts translated by James Anderson in 
the Asiatic Miscellany, vol. ii. pp. 71 and 
172, and by Prancis Gladwin in his History 
of Hindostan, vol. i. p. 96. 

The second work, which may be called the 
garbled memoirs, is confused in its arrange- 
ment, and contains very few dates. It makes 
up for what it lacks in historical precision, 
by digressions on irrelevant subjects, silly 
stories of Hindu jugglers, and extravagant 
descriptions of jewels, costly presents, and 
lavish expenditure. A copy in the library 



254 



JAHANGIR. 



of the Eoyal Asiatic Society is dated A.H. 
1040, i.e. three years after the death of Ja- 
hangir. The work was probably written in 
the early part of the reign of his successor, 
and, it may be presumed, with the wish of 
superseding the genuine memoirs, which con- 
tained many severe passages on Shahjahan, 
It is to be regretted that so poor a fabrication 
should have been given to the world in Major 
David Price's translation, London, 1829, as a 
genuine production of Jahangir. 

The differences between these two works 
have been pointed out by S. de Sacy, Journal 
des Savants for 1830, pp. 359 and 430, by 
Morley, Descriptive Catalogue, p. 112, and 
lastly, in the most exhaustive manner, by 
Sir Henry Elliot and Prof. Dowson, in the 
History of India, vol. vi. pp. 251 — 391, where 
copious extracts from both are given. 

The present copy contains the first volume 
of the authentic Memoirs, extending from 
Jahanglr's accession to the end of the twelfth 
year of his reign, and corresponding to 
pp. 1 — 221 of Sayyid Ahmad's edition. It 
is stated in the continuation of the Memoirs, 
p. 239, that in the thirteenth year of the 
reign Jahangir ordered the account of the 
first twelve years to be bound up and dis- 
tributed to the chief officers of the empire. 
The work is there designated by the title of 
Jahangir Namah, which is also found, in the 
handwriting of the transcriber, on the first 
page of this MS., and is applied to this 
work in the preface of the Maasir i Jahangiri, 
written A.H. 1040. 

In some copies it is called, as in the printed 

edition, i^a.SoI^ '^y 

A manuscript translation of the first nine 
years, by Wm. Erskine, is preserved in Add. 
26,611. 

Add. 6554. 

Foil. 140, 8| in. by 5; 16 lines, 2| in. 



long ; written in Shikastah-amiz, apparently 
in the 17th century. [James Grant.] 

The spvirious Memoirs of the Emperor 
Jahangir. 

Beg. lija-j Jijm\ Jiia jM ^ Ji ^^\ 

This copy agrees with Price's translation, 
but it contains a continuation not found in 
the latter, and extending from fol. 124 a to 
the end of the volume. 

The following statement of the contents 
of this continuation will show that it is of 
little historical value. Account of the cam- 
paign of Mahabat Khan against the Afghan 
chief Allahdad Khan, fol. 124 a. Progress 
of Jahangir to Lahore and Ajmir, in Pabi' I., 
A.H. 1029. Reception of the Portuguese 
envoys from Surat, and their account of the 
gold discoveries, fol. 127 a. Reception of 
some Darvlshes, and narrative of their adven- 
tures in China, Turkistan, Gurgistan, Egypt 
and Barbary, fol. 128 b. Arrival at court of 
a Turkish ambassador with presents and a 
letter from the Padishah of Riim, in A.H. 
1033, fol. 137 a. Destruction of a colossal 
dragon, armed with horns and claws, and 
measuring thirty cubits in length, which in- 
fested the jungle near Ajmir, fol. 138 b. 
Tiger hunt of Jahangir in the same jungle, 
fol. 139 b. Prologue of I'timad ud-Daulah* 
to the Pand-Namah, or moral precepts of 
Jahangir, fol. 140 a. 

The MS. breaks off in the last lines of 
that prologue, which will be found translated 
in Elliot's vol. vi. p. 261. A translation of 
the Pand-Namah is given in the same volume, 
pp. 493—616. • 

These Memoirs, which bear no distinctive 
title, have been variously called Jahangir 



» Mirza Ghiya§ ud-Din Muhammad, of Tehran, father 
of Nur Jahan, and prime minister of Jahangir, who 
conferred upon him the title of I'timad ud-Daulah. He 
died in A.H. 1031. See Muhammad Hadi's introduction 
to the Tuzuk i Jahangiri, p. 20, and Bloehmann, Ain i 
Akbari, vol. i. p. 508. 



JAHANGIR. 



255 



Namah or Tarlkh i Sallmshahl. The present 
copy is endorsed ^jj^^suX^ uiJp' 

Or. 170. 

Poll. 103 ; 13f in. by 8^ ; 18 linos ; 5 in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, with 'Unvrm 
and gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 
19th century. [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

The same work. 

This copy agrees with Price's translation, 
and the narrative ends, on fol. 93 a, with 
the same passage. The rest of the volume 
contains the Pand-Namah above mentioned, 
without the prologue of I'timad ud-Daulah. 

The first line of this MS. is 

ylil^ &Lj iJL»32 ^Jiji v^J^b jjIaU).^!^ »U.^b *'Jo 

but the second coincides with the sixth of 
the preceding copy, and from this point both 
texts are substantially the same. 

In the subscription the work is designated 
as the Jahanglr Namah entitled Tuzuk i 
Jahanglrl, ^^^Gl^ <^jy^ t^-* **^ jt^^W • 
The latter title, Tuzuk i Jahanglrl, is written 
within an illuminated circular ornament on 
the first page. On fol. 3 a is a miniature re- 
presenting Jahanglr sitting upon his throne. 



Add. 26,218. 

Poll. 161; 9| in. by 5|; 17 lines, 3^ in. 
long; written ia Nestalik; dated Nirankot, 
Tatah, Zulka'dah, A.H. 1074 (A.D. 1664). 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

The third volume of the Ikbal-Namah, 
«*\j JU51, containing the history of the 
reign of Jahanglr, from his accession to his 
death. 

Author : Mu'tamad Khan, ^J^ j-,:>* 
Muhammad Sharif, a native of Persia, 



received in the third year of Jahangir a 
military command and the title of Mu'tamad 
Khan. He was subsequently attached as 
Bakhshi to the service of Prince Shahjahan, 
whom he followed in the Deccan campaign. 
On his return to Court, in the 17th year of 
the reign, he was appointed to the duty of 
carrying on the Emperor's memoirs. He rose 
to a higher rank under Shahjahan, attained 
the ofiice of Mir Bakhshi in the tenth year 
of the new reign, and died in the thirteenth, 
A.H. 1049. See Ma'agir ul-Umara, Add. 6568, 
fol. 487, Tazkirat ul-Umara, Add. 16,703, 
fol: 93, and Toozuk i Jehangeeree, p. 352. 

The Ikbal-Namah consists of three volumes, 
the first two of which, containing the his- 
tory of Babar, Humayun, and Akbar, are 
extremely rare, while the third, devoted to 
the reign of Jahangir, is very common. See 
Aumer, Munich Catalogue, p. 92. The third 
volume is the only part of the work found 
in the present and the following copies. A 
somewhat condensed translation of it by 
Wm. Erskine is preserved in manuscript in 
Add. 26,612. The text has been printed in the 
Bibliotheca Indica, Calcutta, 1865, and in 
Lucknow, A.H. 1286. 

See EUiot's History of India, vol. vi. pp. 
400 — 438, where copious extracts are given. 
Compare Morley's Catalogue, p. 120, N. Lees, 
Journal of the Roy. Asiat. Soc, new series, 
vol. iii. p. 459, and Stewart's Catalogue,p. 14. 

The transcriber. Shah Muhammad, describes 
himself in the subscription as Vaki'ah-Navis 
and Bakhshi under Lashkar Khan, Subahdilr 
of Tatah. 

Add. Q6^5. 

Poll. 234 ; 8J in. by 4^ ; 15 lines, 2^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in tlie 
17th century. [James Grant.] 

The same work. 

The first page of the text, fol. 3 b, the last 



256 



JAHANGIR. 



three leaves, ff. 232 — 34, and a table of con- 
tents, foil. 1 — 2, have been supplied by a 
later hand. 

Add. 16,694. 

Poll. 113 ; 9^ in. by 6 ; about 18 lines, 
written for the most part diagonally, in 
Shikastah-amlz, probably in* the 18th cen- 
tury. [Wm. Yule.] 

The same work, imperfect at the end. It 
breaks off at p. 276, line 7, of the Calcutta 
edition. 

Add. 26,216. 

Foil. 208; 8 in. by 5f ; 15 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in NestaHk, apparently in the 
18th century. [Wm. Eeskine.] 

The same work. 

Add. 6582. 



Poll. 183 ; 9i in. by 6| ; 18 lines, 3^ in. 
in cursive Nestalik, appa- 



long ; written 



rently in the 18th century. [J. P. Hull.] 

The same work. The transcriber states 
at the end that he wrote this copy in the 
third year of the reign ( ?}, for his son Nur 
Muhammad. The latter's seal is found 
impressed on the same page. 

Or. 1408. 

Poll. 223; 9i in. by 6 ; 13 Knes, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with ruled mar- 
gins, apparently in the 18th century. 

The same work, with nine rather coarse 
miniatures. On the first page is written 
"H. Griffiths, 1783." 

Add. 26,219. 

Poll. 182; 9f in. by 5J; 15 Unes, 3| in. 



long ; written in neat Nestalik ; dated Eajab, 
A.H. 1204 (A.D. 1790). 

[Wm. Erskine.] 
The same work. 



Copyist : j^^ ^^l*' 

At the end, and in the same hand, are 
found : 1. Some proverbial sayings in prose 

and verse c^lsP**^ )b\ai\ , arranged in alpha- 
betical order from 1 to (_>-, fol. 180 a. 
2. Some epigrammatic sayings of Mulla 
Dupiyazah, sjU) jii iU Jy, fol. 181 b. 

Add. 19,275. 

FoU. 226; 9|; in. by 6^; 11 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Zulhijjah, 
A.H. 1230 (A.D. 1815). 

The same work, wanting a few pages at 
the end (Calcutta edition, pp. 305 — 308). 

Egerton, 1002. 

Poll. 173 ; 141 in. by SJ ; 13 lines, 5^ in.' 
long; written in Nestalik, about the be- 
ginning of the 19th century. 

The same work, wanting the last two 
pages. 

Appended is a tract on lucky and unlucky 
days, according to the sayings of the Imams, 
by Muhammad Bakir B. Muhammad Taki, 
foU. 172 o— 173 b. It is dated Jumada IL, 
A.H. 1222 (A.D. 1807). 

Add. 26,217. 

FoU. 149; lOi in. by 6^; 15 and 17 lines, 
3| in. long ; written in Shikastah - amiz, 
probably about the beginning of the 19th 
century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

The same work. 

Or. 171. 

Poll. 219; 9i in. by 5^; 19 lines, 3^ in. 



JAHANGIE. 



257 



long ; written in Nestalik, with 'Unvan and 
gold-ruled margin ; dated Shahjahanabad, 
Eabi' I., A.H. 1148 (A.D. 1735). 

[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 



A history of the early life and reign of 
JahangTr. 

Author : Kamgar HusainI, ^J.^^-^' jUC«lS 

Khwajah Kamgar had grown up in the 
service of Jahangir, whom, as he states in 
the present work, he accompanied on one of 
his journeys to Kashmir. He says also, fol. 
63 a, that he served under his uncle 'Abd 
Ullah Khan Bahadur Firuz Jang in the 
campaign against the rebel Khanjahan Lodi, 
and that he brought the latter's head to 
Shahjahan (A.H. 1040; see Khafi Khan, 
vol. i. p. 442), who rewarded him with a 
promotion and the title of Ghairat Khan. 
In A.H. 1048 he was appointed Subahdar of 
Dehli, and afterwards transferred to the Su- 
bah of Tattah, where he died in A.H. 1050. 
His life is told at length in the Ma'a§ir 
ul-Umara, Add. 6568, fol. 395, and Tazkirat 
ul-Umara, Add. 16,703, fol. 73. A summary 
of that life, with two extracts from the 
present work, will be found in Elliot's His- 
tory of India, vol. vi. pp. 439 — 445. See 
also N. Lees, Journal of the Eoy. As. Soc, 
new series, vol. iii. p. 461. 

The author says in the preface that 
Jahangir had written a record of his reign 
extending from his accession to a short time 
before his death, but as that history, entitled 
Jahangir Namah, did not include an account 
of his early life, Kamgar was induced to 
supply that deficiency in the present work, 
which he wrote in the third year of Shahja- 
han's reign, corresponding to A.H. 1040, 
and to which he gave the title of Ma'agir i 
Jahangirl. 

The above title appears in the preface, 



both in the present and the following copy. 
Khafi Khan, however, who often quotes the 
work, and commends it as a more veracious 
history than that of Mu'tamad Khan, desig- 
nates it only by the more general term of 
Jahangir Namah; see vol. i. pp. 216, 325, 
442. 

In a conclusion, which is not found in the 
present copy, but in the following, the 
author says that, as in the memoirs of his 
reign written by Jahangir himself essential 
events were mixed up with much unim- 
portant matter, he had thought fit to make 
an.abstract of that record and to complete it 
with an account of Jahangir's minority, and 
of the latter part of his reign. He adds that 
he wrote it in plain language, as a work 
intended for the public at large. 

Contents: Account of Jahangir's birth 
and early life, fol. 6 a. His accession, fol. 
23 b. History of his reign, arranged year 
by year, from the first to the twenty- second, 
in which he died, fol. 30 a. Events which 
took place from the death of Jahangir, 28 
Safar, A.H. 1037, to the accession of Shah- 
jahan, 7 Jumada II. of the same year, foil. 
214 o— 219 b. 

'^•♦-**? (_-*i=>'^ j.^ f^j—i J..»S? \jj^ 

A modern table of contents is prefixed. 



Copyist 



(<*•*" '^^ (O"*" 



Add. 26,220. 

Poll. 67; 10| in. by 6|; 20 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in Nestalik, probably in the 
18th century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

The same work. 

This copy is imperfect. It wants the 
latter part of the seventh year, nearly the 
whole of the eighth, a portion of the 
twenty-first, and the last section of the pre- 
ceding copy. These and other lacunes of 
less extent appear to be due to the defective 



258 



SHAHJAHAN. 



state of the MS. from wliich it was tran- 
scribed. 

Or. 184. 

Poll. 132; 7i in. by 4^; 9 lines, 2| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated from No- 
vember, A.D. 1829 to January, 1830. 

An account of the capture of the fort of 
Kangrah. 

Beg. Jj\ ji «5>U Ja- j!iU»!j\ Js> ^ CJjJ^ 

The text contains neither title nor author's 
name. In the subscription the work is 
called ijji^ isj/ xi ^jJ:, and the author iJ-«» 

Mirza Jalala Tabataba'i, of Ispahan, came 
to India in A.H. 1044, and, having been 
enrolled among the court chroniclers by 
Shahjahan, he wrote a history of five years 
of that sovereign's reign, but was prevented 
by the envy of his rivals from carrying on 
that work. See the 'Amal i Salih, Add. 
26,221, fol. 707, where he is highly praised 
as the master of a new style, unapproached 
by any of the fine writers of India. See 
Elliot's History of India, vol. vi. pp. 517 — 
531, where extracts of the present work are 
given. Tavo other works are ascribed to him, 
viz., the above mentioned history of Shah- 
jalian, entitled Padishah-Namah, a portion of 
which, including the years 5 — 8 is extant (see 
N. Lees, Journal of the Roy. As. Soc, new 
series, vol. iii. p. 463, and Elliot, vol. vii. 
p. 132), and the institutes of Kisra Anushirvan 
translated from the Arabic under the title of 
Ll.>\*.jy or (j'jj— ^ '"^ j^-^"^' ^^^ printed in 
Calcutta, 1824 (see Ouseley's MSS., No. 467, 
and Bibliotheque de S. de Sacy, vol. iii. 
p. 290). 

The present work was written after the 
death of JahangTr, who is referred to by his 
posthumous title. It is a six-fold account 
of the expedition which Shahjahan, then 
governor of Gujrat, sent under command of 



Rajah Bikramajit against the rebel Surajmal, 
son of Rajah Basu, in the 13th year of 
Jahangir's reign, A.H. 1027. In order to 
display the inexhaustible wealth of his 
rhetorical resources, the author relates the 
same events in six separate pieces, written 
in as many different styles of composition. 
They begin respectively on foil. 2 b, 41 h, 
69 b, 93 a, 107 b, and 121 b. 

The transcriber was Ajodha Parshad, whose 
seal is found at the beginning of each part. 

Or. 173. 

Poll. 435; 111 in. by 5|; 19 Hues, 3| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, apparently in 
the 17th century. [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

History of the early life of Shahjahan and 
of the first ten years of his reign. 

Author: Muhammad Amin Ibn Abul- 

Husain Kazvini, ^ji,y^ yi~** y' t^^ (^' '^'■»^ 

Beg. JU* ^ Jj\i J kloil ,^j^ Oj^a 

The author says in the preface that he had 
repaired from Iran, his native country, to 
India, and had entered the imperial service 
as Munslii in the fifth year of Sbahjahan's 
reign. The emperor, who had not been 
satisfied with the performance of the court 
chroniclers hitherto employed, was still look- 
ing for a better qualified writer, when the 
author submitted to him his account of the 
Bundelah war,'and met with entire approval. 
He was in consequence appointed historio- 
grapher on the 29th of the month of Dai of 
the eighth year (A.H. 1045), and was directed 
to prepare a full history of Shahjahan from 
his birth to the end of the tenth year of his 
reign, and to submit it to the Emperor's re- 
vision. The result was the present work, to 
which the above title was given by Shahjahan. 

Although the author states that he had 



SHAHJAHAN. 



259 



ordei's to prepare another volume containing 
tlie second decade of the reign, we learn from 
other sources that the task was entrusted to 
other hands. It is stated in the Amal i 
Salih, Add. 26,221, fol. 709, that Mlrzii 
Aminfi, after being employed on the Padi- 
shah Namah, was transferred to the office of 
collecting intelligence, «jlij *^. In the 
Mirat ul-'Alam, Add. 7657, fol. 462 b, the 
author of the Padishah Namah, who is there 
called Mulla Muhammad Amin Mashhadi, is 
mentioned as an eminent calligraph. 

The Padishah Namah is divided into three 
sections, called Mukaddimah, Makalah, and 
Khatimah, as follows : I. Birth of Shahjahan, 
account of his predecessors, and history of 
his minority, fol. 10 b. II. His accession and 
the first ten years of his reign, fol. 122 a. 
III. Biographical notices of the Shaikhs, 
men of learning, physicians, and poets of 
the period, fol. 419 b. 

The years of the reign are solar years, 
beginning on the festival of Nauruz. The 
last however is incomplete, ending with the 
month of Shahrivar, or sixth month, corres- 
ponding to Jumada I., A.H. 1047. The reason 
alleged is that at that time Shahjahan, re- 
verting from the solar to the lunar reckoning, 
ordered that the eleventh year should begin 
on the first of Jumada II., the month in which 
he had ascended the throne. 

See Morley, Descriptive Catalogue, p. 121, 
Elliot's History of India, vol. vii. p. 1, and 
the Critical Essay, p. 41. 

The first and last leaves of the MS., as 
well as foil. 220—224, 293—296, and 353— 
356, have been supplied by a later hand. 



Add. 20,734. 

Eoll. 445; 151 in. ^y 9; 15 Unes, 5.| in. 
long; written in large Nestalik, with a rich 
'Unvan, illuminated borders, and gold-ruled 
margins, probably in the 18th century. 



The same work. 

This fine volume contains nine large 
miniatures, painted in the most highly- 
finished Indian style, some of which cover 
two opposite pages. They represent the fol- 
lowing subjects : Birth of Shahjahan, p. 23. 
Portraits of his ancestors, from Timur to 
Jahanglr, pp. 35, 36. Shahjahan sending 
the elephant 'Alam-Guman as a present to 
Jahangir, p. 128. Eestive banquet on Shiih- 
jahan's accession, pp. 253, 254. Shahjahan 
riding on the white elephant, p. 359. Nup- 
tial procession of Prince Dara-Shikuh, pp. 
521-, 522. Prince Aurangzlb spearing a 
furious elephant, p. 551. The taking of 
Daulatabad, pp. 557, 558. Shahjahan sitting 
on the peacock throne, surrounded by his 
court, pp. 689, 690. Prefixed is a modern 
table of contents, occupying two pages. 

On the fly-leaf at the end is written : 
" J. T. Roberdean, acting judge and magis- 
trate of Allahabad. Presented by the King 
of Dehli [Akbar II.], through the Prince 
Mirza Jahangeer, the latter being under the 
official controul of the magistrate of that 
district, and accepted by permission of the 
Right Honorable the Governor-General, 
October, 1815." 

After passing through several hands the 
MS. was given to Captain T. Macan, Luc- 
now, September, 1825, and presented by the 
latter, in a letter appended to the volume, 
on the 10th of September, 1831, to the Earl 
of Munster. 

Or. 172. 

Poll. 345 ; 12 in. by 7i, 25 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik; dated 
Shahjahanabad, Bajab, A.H. 1251 (A.D. 
1835). [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

The same work, with a table of contents, 
foil. 1—3. 



Copyist: JJjj*- 



LI,2 



260 



SHAHJAHAN. 



Add. 6556. 

Foil. 631 ; llj in. by 8^ ; 25 lines, 5| in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik ; dated 
Kabul, Safar, A.H. 1109 (A.D. 1697). 

• [James Grant.] 

The official history of the reign of Shah- 
jahan, from his accession, Jumada II., A.H. 
1037, to the end of the 30th year of his 
reign, Jumada I., A.H. 1067. 

Author : Abd ul-Hamid LahaurT, j-^ iXxc- 

Beg. IjSJwUrt ^^b ^^T J^^i^ s/ ,_^^ ui^j 

The author, who calls Lahore his native 
place, says in the preface that he was living 
in retirement at Patnah, when Shahjahan, 
who admired the matchless elegance dis- 
played by Abul-Fazl in the Akbar-Namah, 
upon being told that 'Abd ul-Hamid had 
mastered that style of composition, called 
him to court, and entrusted to him the task 
of writing the annals of his reign. 

'Abd ul-Hamid did not live to complete 
the work. According to Salih, Add. 26,221, 
fo\. 708, who speaks of him as a pupil of 
Abul-Fazl, he died in A.H. 1065. In a pre- 
face prefixed to the third decade of the reign, 
beginning on the first of Jumada II., A.H. 
1057, we are told that the first and second 
Daftar, comprising the first two decades, had 
been written by 'Abd ul-IIamid, and revised 
by Sa'd Ullah Khan (Shahjahan's Vazir), 
and that, the former being prevented by the 
infirmities of old age from proceeding with 
the third, the writer, Muhammad Varig, who 
was his pupU and had assisted him in his 
work, was appointed his successor, and was 
ordered, on the death of Sa'd Ullah Khan, 
to submit his composition to 'Ala ul-Mulk 
Tuni, entitled Fazil Khan, for revision. 

Mulla Sa'd Ullah, of Lahore, afterwards 
Sa'd Ullah Khun, surnamed 'Allaini, entered 



the service in the 14th year, and was raised 
to the Vazirate in the 18th year of Shah- 
jahan (A.H. 1064-5) ; he died A.H. 1067. 
'Ala ul-Mulk Tuni came from Persia to the 
court of Shahjahan, and was apppinted to 
the office of Khansiiman in the 19th year of 
the reign (A.H. 1055-6). He received in 
the 23rd year the title of Fazil Khan, was 
appointed VazIr by Aurangzib in A.H. 1073, 
and died a few days later ; see 'Amal i Srdih, 
Add, 26,221, fol. 692; Ma'a§ir ul-Umark, 
Add. 6568, fol. 303, and Tazkirat ul-Umara, 
Add. 16,703, fol. 75. Muhammad Varig was 
kiUed by a mad student in A.H. 1091 ; see 
Elliot, vol. vii. p. 121. 

The work consists of three volumes (Daf- 
tar), each of which comprises a period of ten 
lunar years. They begin respectively on 
foil. 12 b, 226 b, and 388 b of the present 
copy. 

The first volume, although embracing the 
same period, and containing nearly the same 
matter as the Padishah Namah of Muham- 
mad Amin, differs from it in its wording and 
in its division. While, according to the 
latter, the reckoning by lunar years was to 
commence with the second decade, it is 
followed by 'Abd ul-Hamid from the be- 
ginning of the reign. The full account of 
the predecessors of Shahjahan and the history 
of his minority, which form a considerable 
part of the preceding work, are omitted in 
the present. Each volume concludes with 
an account of the Mansabdiirs, and some 
biographical notices of the Shaikhs, learned 
men, physicians, and poets of the period. 
The first two volumes of the Padishah 
Namah of 'Abd ul-Hamid have been printed 
in the Bibliotheca Indica, Calcutta, 1867-8. 
An account of the work and of its continu- 
ation by Vari§, with extracts by Professor 
Dowson, will be found in Elliot's History of 
India, vol. vii. pp. 3 — 72, 121-2. See also 
Morley's Catalogue, p. 122, N. Lees, Journal 
of the Roy. As. Soc, new series, vol. iii. 



SHAHJAHAN. 



261 



p. 462, Critical Essay, p. 40, Munich Cata- 
logue, p. 95. 

Copyist : ,_^j^ aJJl^-^i am li^^ 

A full table of contents, foil. 1 — 6, and a 
short account of the minority of Shahjahan, 
from his 16th year to his accession, without 
author's name, foil. 7 — 11, are written by the 
same transcriber. 

Egerton 1003. 

Foil. 234; 11^ in. by 7^; 15 lines, 4J in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, with ruled 
margins, probably in the 17th century. 

The first Daftar of the preceding work. 

Or. 421. 

Foil. 238 ; 12f in. by 8^ ; 23 lines, 5^ in. 
long; written in Nestalik, with TTnvan and 
ruled margins, dated Zulka'dah, A.H. 1124 
(A.D. 1712). [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

The same Daftar, with some marginal 
notes. A contemporary table of contents 
occupies four pages at the end. Another, 
by a later hand, is prefixed, foil. 1, 2. 

Add. 26,222. 

Foil. 242; lOf in. by 6^; 21 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik; dated 
Sha'ban, A.H. 1159 (A.D. 1746). 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

The second Daftar of the Padishah Namah 
of 'Abd ul-Hamid. 

Add. 26,250. 

Foil. 16 ; 8i in. by 4^ ; 13 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in a cursive Indian hand of 
the 18th century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

A fragment of the same Daftar, cor- 
responding to pp. 1 — 19 of the second 
volume of the Calcutta edition. 

Or. 175. 

Foil. 463; 9 J in. by 5| ; 15 lines, 3^ in. 



long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
18th century. [Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

A history of the first thirty years of the 
reign of Shahjahan. 

Author : Muhammad Tahir, takhallus 
Ashna, entitled Inayat Khan, B. Zafar Zhan 
B. Khwajah Abul-IJasan, ijJji?* ^'i j^ 



'Be£ 



ylalijU sl—iiil-j J, 



Muhammad Tahir, son of Zafar Khan, 
governor of Kabul and of Kashmir, was 
raised to the rank of Khan in the 23rd year 
of Shahjahan, and filled in succession the 
offices of Daroghah i Huziir and of Daroghah 
i Kutub Khanah, or keeper of the imperial 
library. He retired from the service in the 
first year of Aurangzib, and died in Kash- 
mir, A.H. 1081. See Ma'a§ir ul-Umara, 
Add. 6568, fol. 375, and Tazkirat ul-Umara, 
Add. 16,703, fol. 68. He left, besides the 
present work, a Divan and a Masnavi. See 
Sprenger, Oude Catalogue, p. 339. 

This work is, according to the preface, 
abridged from the official record of the first 
thirty years of the reign, written by 'Abd ul- 
Hamid (and continued by Vari§) which the 
author found in the imperial library, when 
appointed to its keepership, in the 31st year 
of the reign, A.H. 1068. He adds, however, 
that, from the fourth year to the tenth, he 
followed in preference the Padishah Namah 
of Muhammad Amin Kazvini. 

The history is preceded by a short account 
of Shahjahan's ancestors and of his early 
life. The account of his reign is brought 
down to Jumada I., A.H. 1067, the close of 
the thirtieth year. Two additional chapters, 
written in the present copy by a later hand. 



262 



SHAHJAHAN. 



foil. 457 — 463, contain a short account of 
the Subahs of Hindostan, and select verses 
by some Amirs of Shalijahan's court, in- 
cluding the author's father and the author 
himself. 

A full table of contents, in modern hand- 
writing, is prefixed, foil. 1 — 7. 

An account of the work by Professor 
Dowson, with a translation of the preface 
and some extracts, will be found in Elliot's 
History of India, vol. vii. pp. 73 — 120. See 
also Morley's Catalogue, p. 123, and Stewart's 
Catalogue, p. 15. 

Add. 5614. 

Foil. 56 ; 13 in. by 7^ ; 19 lines, 4J in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, with gold- 
ruled margins, apparently in the 17th 
century. [N. B. Halhed.] 

A portion of the same work, containing 
the introduction, the first four years of the 
reign, and part of the fifth. It corresponds 
to foil. 9 — 72 of the preceding copy. 

Or. 174. 

Foil. 205 ; 13^ in. by 8^ ; 17 and 18 lines, 
4f in. long; written in large Nestalik; 
dated Benares, A.H. 1020, probably for 1220 
(A.D. 1805). [Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

A history of the reign of Shahjahan. 

Author : Muhammad Sadik, entitled Sadik 

Khan, ^J^^ J^i^ v_.*la\ii:^' jii'^ s*^ 

Beg. Vjc,OJ.>ji\ C^-a»- j_j>»'a*<j.j Jw»a- (_>uUs»\ 

The author states in the preface that he 
had been attached, as news-writer, to Prince 
Shahjahan in his campaign against the Rana 
(A.H. 1022), and that he proposed in the 
present work to record briefly the events 
which he had witnessed from that prince's 
accession to his confinement, an event 
brought about, he adds, by the folly of Dara 
Shikuh. 



Respecting the author's life, we learn 
from other passages of this history the fol- 
lowing particulars. He was apparently a 
Persian by birth ; his uncle on the father's 
side was Ishak Beg Yazdi, afterwards Ha- 
Idkat Khan, an Amir of Shalijahan's court, 
who died A.H. 1074 (fol. 316). At the 
accession of Shahjahan, Sadik was raised to 
the ofiice of Bakhshi (fol. 7 b). He was 
then appointed tutor (3a51>\ to Prince Shuja, 
whom he accompanied on his campaigns in 
Khandes and Malvah, and subsequently in 
Badakhshan (foil. 52 b, 10 a). In the 20th 
year of the reign, he obtained the post of 
Daroghah of the Ghusalkhanah, or private 
audience chamber (fol. 140 a), and from 
that time he appears to have remained in 
constant attendance upon Shahjahan. He fol- 
lowed the emperor to Kabul in the 22nd year, 
when he received the first intelligence of the 
loss of Kandahar (fol. 158). At the time of 
the defeat of Dara Shikuh and the victorious 
advance of Aurangzlb, he was one of the 
few Amirs who remained faithful to Shah- 
jahan, and he comments severely on those 
who deserted the ailing sovereign to flock 
round his rebellious son. He was one of the 
messengers sent to the latter in the futile 
attempt to bring him to submission (fol. 
201 a). In the concluding part of his 
history he gives a detailed account of those 
transactions, and quotes in full the letters 
that passed between father and son. 

In the list of Mansabd^irs, which he gives 
at the end of the first twenty years of the 
reign (fol. 150' &), the author enters himself 
as one of the commanders of six thousand. 

No title appears in the text ; but the MS. 
is endorsed ^^^\Ji, Ojly. Another copy of 

this rare work, in Sir H. Elliot's collection, 
bears the no more specific title of Shahjalian 
Namah ; see Elliot's History, vol. vii. p. 133. 
The history of Sddik Khan begins with 
the illness of Jahangir and the accession of 



SHAHJAHAN. 



263 



Shahjalmn. The events of the reign are 
then told year by year and in a simple style. 
The narrative closes with the confinement of 
Shahjahan ; but it is stated in the last line 
tliat he lived eight years in captivity. This 
is probably a later addition. The formula 
ftilo i\/«, which frequently follows the name 
of Shahjalum in the body of the work, shows 
that the main part of it was written during 
his reign. 

A table of contents is written in a later 
hand on the fly leaf. 

Add. 26,221. 

Foil. 710 ; 10 in. by 5f ; 17 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in Shikastah-amiz ; dated 
Jumada I., A.H. 1142 (A.D. 1729). 

["Wm. Erskine.] 



^^ 



A history of Shahjahan. 

Author: Salih, JLj 

Beg. ^^ ^^\i ^^jisii^j J^ ^j^ ^jj alaii, 

The author, Muhammad Snlih Kanbu, of 
Lahore, designates himself in the preface by 
the name of Salih only. In another place, 
fol. 709 a, he calls himself the pupil and 
younger brother of Shaikh "Inayat Ullah, of 
Lahore, whom he mentions as a writer of 
consummate elegance, the author of a history 
of Shahjahan and his predecessors, entitled 
Tarikh i Dilkusha, and of the well known 
collection of tales, Bahar i Danish. The 
latter work has a preface by Salih (see Add. 
18,409), who is also the author of a collec- 
tion of letters written by himself in the 
name of Shahjahan and in his own. This last 
work, entitled Bahar i Sukhan (Or. 178), was 
completed A.H. 1074. Salih was from his 
childhood the intimate friend of Abul-Bara- 
kat Munir, a poet of Lahore, who died in the 



prime of life in A.H. 1054; see fol. 699 b. He 
cannot be identified, as has been attempted 
by Professor Dowson, Elliot, vol. vii. p. 123, 
with Mir Srdih, a Sayyid and an eminent pen- 
man and poet, surnamed Kashf i ; for the latter 
died, according to the Mirat ul-'Alara, Add. 
7657, fol. 462, in A.H. 1061, i.e. nine years 
before the composition of the present work. 

The author, who dilates in a verbose pre- 
face on the praises of Shahjahan, describes 
his work as an abridgment of the histories 
of his reign. It was completed, he says, 
after long delays, in A.H. 1070, a date con- 
veyed by the chronogram ^^\ (^jixi ^0i V^' . 
The record of Shahjahan's death, A.H. 1076, 
must therefore be a later addition. Others 
are also found in the biographical notices, 
some of which contain dates as late as A.H. 
1080 ; see fol. 693 a. 

Contents: Preface, fol. 2 b. Birth of Shah- 
jahan, fol. 4 b. Account of his predecessors, 
from Jahangir upwards to Timur, fol. 6 b. 
History of Shrdijahan's minority, fol. 14 a. 
History of his reign, from his accession to 
the time of his confinement, fol. 107 a. Ac- 
count of his death, fol. 675 a. Biographical 
notices on the eminent mea of Shahjahan's 
time, divided into the following classes : 
Sayyids and Shaikhs, fol. 679 b ; 'Ulama, fol. 
6906 ; physicians, fol. 694 b ; poets, fol. 696 a; 
prose-writers, fol. 707 a; calligraphs, fol. 
710 b. The following copies contain, in ad- 
dition to the above, a list of the princes and 
Mansabdars, Add. 20,735, pp. 696 — 725, 
Add. 6557, foil. 534—546. 

See Professor Dowson in Elliot's History 
of India, vol. vii. pp. 123 — 132, Critical 
Essay, p. 41, Morley's Catalogue, p. 124, N. 
Lees, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
new series, vol. iii. p. 463, and Copenhagen 
Catalogue, p. 21. 

The MS. is endorsed as aj«\i J^^ j-jUl/ 



264 



SHAHJAHAN. 



Add. 20,735. 

Foil. 363 ; uniform with Add. 20,734 (see 
p. 259 «), and written about the same time. 

[Earl of Munster.] 

The latter half of the same work, begin- 
ning with the 11th year of the reign, and 
corresponding to foil. 410 5—711 of the pre- 
ceding copy. 

This volume contains miniatures, in the 
same style as those of Add. 20,734, and re- 
presenting the following subjects : Rajah 
Partab Singh brought as a captive before 
Shahjahan, p. 141. The taking of the fortress 
of Paluyiin, p. 142. Shahjahan overtaken by 
a snoAvstorm on his way to Kabul, pp. 193, 
194. Reception by Shahjahan of the wives 
of Nazr Muhammad, Khan of Turan, p. 248. 
Reception of Nazr Muhammad Khan by Shah 
Abbas, pp. 269, 270. Battle fought by prince 
Muhammad Aurangzib with the Uzbeks at 
Balkh, p. 288. The principal buildings 
of Shrdijahanabad, namely, the Shaikhpurl 
Mosque, p. 368, the Nakkar-Khilnah, p. 369, 
the Dlwrm i 'Am, p. 370, the fortress, 
viewed from the Jumna, p. 371, the Aurang- 
abadl Mosque, p. 372, the Jami' Masjid, 
p. 373. Solemn entrance of Shahjahan into 
the fortress, pp. 435, 436. Funeral of Shah- 
jahan, pp. 608, 609. 

There are besides some drawings of lions 
and gazelles on pp. 366, 607, 610. 

A modem table of contents, occupying 
two pages, is prefixed. 

Add. 6557. 

Foil. 546 ; 10 in. by 5f ; 17 lines, 3f in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Calcutta, 
Zulhijjah, A.H. 1186 (AD. 1773). 

[James Grant.] 

The latter part of the same work, begin- 
ning with the 8th year of the reign, and cor- 
responding to Add. 26,221, foil. 324 a— 711. 



In the subscription the work is designated 

Prefixed is a full table of contents, foil. 1 
and 2. 

Transcriber: i^^ 

Add. 24,089. 

Foil. 234; lOf in. by 7; 13 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in a cursive Xestalik, ap- 
parently in the 18th century. 

[Wm. H. Morlet.] 

A detailed account of the siege of Kan- 
dahar by Prince Dara-Shikuh, A.H. 1063. 

Beg. ^^l*U.^>b i^jj^ \^ '-r'V^ US' ^js^ ^^j-**- 

The author, whose name does not appear, 
states in the preface that he has recorded 
only that which he had either seen with his 
own eyes, or ascertained from trustworthy 
witnesses, and that, as he Avas neither a 
courtier nor an official writer, his only object 
was to present a true statement of facts to 
his friends in India. 

The work is called in the subscriptions of 
the present and next following copies rijlj 

(_fjlajji' . It is, no doubt, the Tarlkh i Kan- 
dahar which Khafi Khan quotes, vol. i. 
p. 722, and ascribes to Rashid Khan, known 
as Muhammad Badi', Divan of Mahabat 
Khan. This Rashid Khan, also called Badi' 
uz-zaman Mahabatkhani, was appointed 
Divan i Khalisah in the 24th year of Au- 
rangzib, and died in the 41st year of the 
same reign. See Tazkirat ul-Umara, Add. 
16,703, fol. 46. 

The Lata'if ul-Akhbar is divided into three 
parts, called Aghaz, Paimayish, and Anjam, 
as follows: I. Account of some previous 
events, namely, the revolt of the Uzbeks 
against Nazi* Muhammad Khan in A.H. 
1056, former attempts on Kandahar, and 



AURANGZIB. 



265 



march of Dura Shiliuh to that place, fol. 
3 b. II. Events of the siege, recorded day 
by day, from the 10th of Jumada II., A.H. 
10G3, to the 15th of Zulkadah of the same 
year, fol. 19 a. III. Return of Dara Shikuh 
to Multan, fol. 228 a. 

Add. 8907. 

Foil. 125 ; 12^ in. by 1\ ; 21 lines, ^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Muharram, 
A.H. 1217 (A.D. 1802). 

The same work. 

Or. 183. 

Foil. 119 ; 11 in. by 6| ; 21 lines, 4| in. 
long; written in Shikastah; dated Jumada II., 
A.H. 1234, (A.D. 1819). 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

The same work. 

Add. 26,234. 

Foil. 74 ; 8 in. by 4^ ; from 15 to 20 
lines, 3 in. long; written in Shikastah-amlz ; 
dated Nirmal, Jumada I., A.H. 1193 (A.D. 
1779). [Wir. Erskine.] 

A history of the first five years of the 
reign of Aurangzib. 

Beg. ^jljo^a-j c-JJaU eiiJj v_->iaj; (^^ 

This work, which is without preface or 
title, contains a detailed history of the event- 
ful period in which Aurangzib succeeded in 
. deposing his father, crushing his competitors, 
and establishing himself on the throne. The 
author does not disclose his name, nor does 
he make any reference to himself in the 
course of his narrative. lie refers to no 
authority, but writes apparently from a 
personal knowledge of the emperor, his sur- 
roundings, and the military events of the 
time. He assigns the loftiest motives to the 
darkest deeds of that crafty and unscrupu- 



lous prince, and speaks of him throughout 
in the adulatory strain of a courtier. 

In the subscription the work is called 
^JSU jii. jjii' Jlfi. »U,^b ft«\j J^, and ascribed 
to Mir Khan, Subahdar of Kfibul. In a con- 
temporary endorsement the title is written 
i^j^\s. i«U^ and the same author is named. 
Sayyid Mir, afterwards Amir Khan, who is 
probably meant, was a younger brother of 
Shaikh Mir Kliwafi, and had been, like the 
latter, one of the early followers of Aurangzib. 
In A.n. 1008, after the arrest of Muradbakhsh, 
he was appointed commander of the fortress 
of Dchli, with the title of Amir Khan, and 
entrusted with the keeping of the captive 
prince. He was made SObahdar of Kabul 
in the fourth year of the reign, and retained 
that post down to the 11th year. His death 
took place in Dehli, two years after his dis- 
charge, A.H. 1080. See Ma'asir ul-Umara, 
Add. 6568, fol. 311. 

Another Amir, Mir Miran, son of Khalil 
UUah Khan, bore also the titles of Mir Khiin 
and Amir Khan, and was appointed Su- 
bahdar of Kabul in the 20th year of Au- 
rangzib ; but he had not been, like the 
former, associated with the early fortunes 
of that prince. See ib., fol. 68. 

Contents of the work : Praises of Au- 
rangzib's justice and piety, fol. 3 a. His 
birth and minority, fol. 4 b. Provincial 
governments assigned by Shahjahan to his 
sons ; Aurangzib's campaigns in the Deccan, 
fol. 8 a. Illness of Shrdijahan; ambitious 
designs of Dara Shikuh, fol. 11 b. Messages 
exchanged between Aurangzib and his father, 
and confinement of the lattei', fol. 30 a. 
Arrest of Muradbakhsh ; pursuit of Sulaimiin 
Shikuh ; Aurangzib's first accession, fol. 38 b. 
War with Shuja , fol. 48 a. Second defeat of 
Dara Shikuh, near Ajmir ; his pursuit and 
capture, fol. 52 b. Sultan Muhammad's 
campaign in Bengal, fol. 60 b. Expedition 
of Mu'azzam Klian to- Assam and his death. 



M M 



266 



AURANGZIB. 



fol. 72 a. Illness of Aurangzib and Lis 
recovery in the month of Safar, A.H. 1073, 
fol. 73 a. 

The work concludes with a notice of the 
death and burial of Shahjahan, on the 29th 
of Rajab, A.H. 1076. 

The transcriber, Muhammad A'zam, son 
of Muhammad Kasim, of Nander, states 
that he wrote this copy for E,ae 'Ajab Singh, 
Munshi of Navvab Mubariz ul-Mulk Zafar 
ud-Daulah Bahadur. 

On the first page is written : " From 
Henry Eussell, Esq. to Wm. Erskine, Oct. 
1811." Another copy of the same work, in 
a miscellaneous volume, Egerton 1004, foil. 
4 — 57, wants the introductory chapter in 
praise of Aurangzib. 

Add. 25,422. 

Poll. 104 ; 10^ in. by 6| ; 13 lines, 4 in. 
long, in a page; written in fair Shikastah- 
iimiz, with 'Unvan and gold-ruled margins ; 
dated Murshidabad, A.H. 1170 (A.D. 1757). 

[Archibald Swinton.] 

An account of the disastrous campaign of 
the Khankhanan Mir Muhammad Sa'id Ar- 
dastanl (better known as Mir Jumlah) in 
Kuch Bahar and Assam, in the fourth and 
fifth years of the reign of Aurangzib, A.H. 
1072 and 1073. 

Author: Ibn Muhammad Yali Ahmad, 
surname d Shihab ud-din Tillish, ^j s^ ^j>\ 

Beg. uLlU3\ uLilU O^-ia- ^!iU J.»9- <ij;J*<,\j Jys. 

The author states in the preface that the 
sufferings and losses of the imperial army 
had been kept secret by the wish of the 
Khankhanan. As he had been in attendance 
upon the latter through the whole campaign, 
he felt called upon, after the death of that 
general, to write a truthful account of it. 



together with a description of the country 
and its inhabitants. He candidly avows, 
however, that his main object was to draw 
upon him the attention of men in power, 
and thus to obtain his recall from his dreary 
post in Bengal to the residence. 

The work is divided into the following 
three parts: Mukaddimah. Causes of the 
march of the imperial army into Kuch Bahar 
and Assam, fol. 5 h. Makalah I. Defeat of 
Bim Narain and conquest of Kuch Bahar, 
fol. 7 h. Makalah II. Conquest of Assam, 
fol. 13 a. The narrative concludes with the 
death of the Khankhanan, which took place 
on his return to Khizarpiir, on the second of 
Ramazan, A.H. 1073. 

Copyist : li-**- \jj^ 

The Tarikh i Asham, as this work is com- 
monly called, has been translated into Urdu 
by Mir Bahadur AK Husaini, Calcutta, 1805, 
and from the latter into French by T. Pavie, 
Paris, 1845. See Stewart's Catalogue, p. 18, 
Garcin de Tassy, Litterat. Hind., vol. i. p. 233, 
and Elliot's History of India, vol. vii. p. 199. 

Add. 23,887. 

Foil. 106; 8f in. by 4|; 15 lines, 3^ in. 
long; written in Nestalik; dated Haidarabad, 
Shavvrd, A.H. 1189 (A.D. 1775). * 

The same work. 

Copyist : ^ ^\ iy^ j^ ^\ ^^\ ss- jju, 

. Add. 26,229. 

Poll. 312; Hi in. by 7^ ; 20 lines, 'o\ in. 
long; written in Nestalik; dated Tattah, 
Rabr II, A.H. 1150 (A.D. 1737). 

[Wm. Ekskine.] 

History of the first ten years of the reign 
of Am-angzib. 



AURANGZIB. 



267 



Author: Munshl Muhammad Kfizim B. 
Mul ammad Amin Munshl, ^Ji J=>o j^ ,_jii« 

Beg. J>lfe.T yy^ JS«j »^b ^\ 

The author, a son of Mirza Aminii, who 
wrote the Padishah Namah, was appointed 
royal Munshl, as he states in his preface, in 
the first year of the reign. Some specimens 
of his writing having pleased Aurangzlh, he 
was commissioned to compile from official 
records the annals of the reign, and to sub- 
mit them to the emperor for correction. 

The history begins with the departure of 
Aurangzib from Aurangabad in Jumada I., 
A.H. 1068, and is brought down to the end 
of Rajab, A.H. 1078. 

The 'Alamglr Namah has been printed in 
the Bibliotheca Indica, Calcutta, 1865 — 1868. 
An account of the work, with some extracts, 
will be found in Sir H. Elliot's History of 
India, vol. vii. pp. 174 — 180. See also 
Morley's Catalogue, p. 125, N. Lees, Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, new series, vol. 
iii. p. 464, Khafi Khan, vol. ii. p. 210, 
Stewart's Catalogue, p. 15, and Munich 
Catalogue, p. 97. 

Copyist : J-oli li.*^ 

Add. 5613. 

FoU. 415 ; lOf in. by 6| ; 19 lines, 4i in. 
long; written in Nestalik, with ruled margins ; 
dated Azimabad, Zulhijjah, A.H. 1184 (A.D. 
1778). [N. B. Halhed.] 

The same work. 

Add. 26,231. 

Foil. 501; 10| in. by 5J; 15 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in Shikastah-amiz, apparently 



in the 18th century. 
The same work. 



[Wm. Erskine.] 



Copyist : ^sd\>\ j^\ ^],y^ Jj cV'^y» 

A table of contents, in the same hand as 
the text, is appended, foil. 498—501. 

On the first page is a Persian note stating 
that the MS. was purchased for fifteen rupees 
in A.H. 1139. 

Add. 5604. 

Foil. 524; 10 in. by 5^; 17 lines, Sj in. 
long; written in Nestalik, probably in the 
early part of the 18th century. 

The same work, wanting a few lines at the 
beginning. 

Add. 11,635. 

FoU. 279; 9 in. by 6; about 19 lines, 4^ 
in. long, mostly written in diagonal lines, 
in Shikastah ; dated §afar, the 12th year of 
the reign of Muhammad Akbar Padishah 
(Akbar II.), A.H. 1233 (A.D. 1818). 

The same work. 

Add. 26,230. 

Foil. 449 ; 10 in. by 7^ ; 13 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in Nestalik, in the 18th 
century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

The first portion of the same work (Cal- 
cutta edition, pp. 1 — 542). * 

Add. 27,249. 

Foil. 292; 9J in. by 5|; 14 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, in the 18th cen- 
tury. [J. MaCDONALD KiNNElR.] 

The first half of the same work (Calcutta 
edition, pp. 1 — 600). 

The first page bears a Persian seal with 
the date A.H. 1173, and another bearing the 
name of 'Azim ud-Daulah Vala-jiih, with the 
date A.H. 1216, below which is written 
" From His Highness the Nabob of the 
Carnatic to John Macdonald Kinneir." 

M M 2 



268 



AURANGZIB. 



Add. 26,233. 

Toll. 165 ; 9| in. by 6 ; 19 lines, 3f in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Muharram, 
the 47th year of 'Alamgir (A.H. 1115, A.D. 
1702). [Wm. Erskine.] 

History of the first ten years of the reign 
of Aurangzib. 

Author : Hatim Khan, ^^\i>■ JU- 

Beg. «—*-»■ *1^ "-ojC- ij^\j\ jJ-<9 

The author describes his work, in the 
preface, as an abridgment of the annals 
written, in an ornate and metaphorical style, 
by Muhammad Kazim B. Muhammad Amin 
MunshI, to which he has added some facts 
omitted in the original. 

Although condensing the matter of the 
'Alamgir Namah, he inserts a great many 
poetical pieces not found in the latter work. 

Hatim Khan, who calls himself a born 
servant of the court o\j aJU-, does not appear 
to have left any trace in history. He 
probably wrote the present abridgment be- 
fore the completion of the original. In the 
enumeration of Aurangzib's sons, which he 
gives in his introduction, fol. 6 b, he makes 
no mention of the fifth, Muhammad Kam- 
bakhsh, who was born in the tenth year of 
the reign, A.H. ^1077, and his account of 
the tenth year stops short at the very be- 
ginning, 'Alamgir Namah, p. 1038. 

In the subscription the work is called : 

Add. 26,242. 

Foil. 96 ; 8^ in. by 6 ; 11 lines, 3f in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, on paper of 
Portuguese manufacture, in the 19th cen- 
tury. [Wm. Erskine.] 

Journal of the Siege of Haidarabad by 
Aurangzib, in A.H. 1097. 

Beg. .>lj\jjjL». i>^iijbs^l^ JiV x^}jj M^jjj 



This work, which is written in mixed 
prose and verse, and in a facetious and 
satirical vein, is extremely popular in India, 
where it is commonly called Vaka'i' i Haidar- 
abad, or, from its well known author, Yaka'i' 
i Ni'mat Khan 'AlT. It contains neither 
preface nor author's name, and is divided 
into seven sections, describing severally the 
events of the 13th, 14th, and 15th days of 
Eajab, and the l7th, 18th, 25th, and 29th 
of Sha'ban, A.H. 1097. 

The author, originally called Mirza Nur 
ud-Din Muhammad, was born in India, of 
a Persian family which had given some cele- 
brated physicians to Sliiraz. He is generally 
known by the title of Ni'mat Khan, con- 
ferred upon him by Aurangzib in A.H. 1104. 
But towards the close of the same reign 
he received the title of Mukarrab Khan ; 
and at the beginning of the reign of Baha- 
durshah that of Danishmand Khiin. He 
died in the third year of the latter reign, 
A.H. 1121. His poetical compositions, which 
he wrote under the takhallus of 'All, are 
renowned for their wit and the pungency 
of their satire. See Oude Catalogue, pp. 127, 
151, and 328, Tazkirat ul-Umara, Add. 16,703, 
foil. 90, 101. 

The Vaka'i' i Haidarabad has been litho- 
graphed, with the ^usn u 'Ishk of the same 
author, in India, without name of place, 
A.H. 1248. Another edition, with copious 
marginal notes by Maulavi Makbiil Ahmad, 
has been printed in Lucnow, A.H. 1259. 
Khafi Khan gives numerous extracts from 
it in his history, vol. ii. pp. 338 — 359. See 
also Mackenzie Collection, vol. ii. p. 128, 
and Sir H. Elliot, vol. vii. p. 200. 

Add. 26,241. 

Foil. 67 ; 91 in. by 6 ; 15 lines, 3^ in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik, probably 
in the 19th century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

The same work. 



AURANGZIB. 



269 



Add. 23,884. 

Foil. 169 ; 7i in. by 5^ ; 11 lines, 3f in. 
written in small Ncstalik ; dated Sa- 
tarah, Rajab, A.H. 1246 (A.D. 1830). 



long; 



A history of Aurangzlb, from his rise to 
power to the 34th year of his reign, A.H. 
1101—1102. 

Author : Isardas, a Nilgar, of the town of 
Pattan, ^^ »Jo ^Jh^ J\i py (_y*b^.l 

Beg. ^\^ ^'ui^lj ^jj\i^ ^^ (jS^.^ k— "^^ 

The author states in the preface that, 
having been from his youth to his thirtieth 
year in constant attendance upon the Kazl 
Shaikh ul-Islam, he had enjoyed ample 
opportunities of acquiring a knowledge of 
contemporary events, both from the conver- 
sation of eminent men of undoubted veracity, 
and from his own observation. 

Shaikh ul-Islam, son of Kazl 'Abd ul- 
Vabhfib, was appointed, A.H. 1086, in lieu 
of his father deceased, judge of the imperial 
army, Kazi e Lashkar, and retired from 
oflBice A.H. 1094. He obtained leave to go 
to Mecca in A.H. 1096, and after his return 
led a retired life in Ahmadabad, where he 
died A.H. 1109. See Maagir 'Alamgirl, 
pp. 147, 239, 251, and 394. 

In the conclusion of the present work, the 
author relates a circumstance in which he 
was personally concerned, namely, the sur- 
render by the Rajput chief, Durgadas Rathor, 
of Saif un-Nisa and Buland Akhtar, the 
children of the rebellious son of Aurangzib, 
Muhammad Akbar. He states that, after 
the departure of his first patron. Shaikh ul- 
Islilm, for Mecca, he passed into the service 
of Shuja'at Khan, governor of Gujrat, who 
appointed him Amin in Jaudhpur. His 
intimate relations with the Rajput chiefs 



enabled him to persuade Durgadas, who had 
abetted the late pr'ince in his rebellion, and 
kept bis children, to sue for pardon by 
giving up Saif un-Nisa. The author escorted 
the princess to Court, and, having subse- 
quently obtained the surrender of her brother, 
Buland Akhtar, he was rewarded with a 
command of 250 men, and a Jagir at Mirath. 

Muhammad Beg, a Turkoman of Herat, 
received the title of Shuja'at Khan and the 
governorship of Gujrat in the thirty-first 
year of Aurangzib, A.H. 1098. He died in 
A.H. 1113 ; see Tazkirat ul-Umani, Add. 
16,703, fol. 5, and Maa§ir i 'Alamgirl, p. 441. 
The surrender of Buland Akhtar took place, 
according to the same authorities, fol. 151 
and p. 395, in the 42nd year of the reign, 
A.H. 1109. 

The work is divided, according to the 
preface, into seven sections, called Savanih. 
But this division is not observed throughout ; 
the first four only of the above sections have 
distinct headings, as follows : 

1. Illness of Shahjahan ; Dara - Shikuh 
fortifies Akbarabad ; disturbed state of the 
empire ; defeat of prince Shuja', fol. 7 a. 

2. Aurangzib's professions of friendship 
for Muradbakhsh; his march on Akbarabad; 
meeting of the brothers near TJjain, and 
their encounter with Jasvant Singh ; defeat 
of the latter, fol. 16 a. 

3. Muradbakhsh recovers from his wounds; 
Aurangzib continues his march upon Akbar- 
abad ; Muradbakhsh, instigated by his 
followers, overtakes him ; both princes en- 
camp on the Jumna; Muradbakhsh placed 
in confinement, fol. 29 b. 

4. Aurangzib sets out for the Deccan 
to chastise the rebel Siva; submission and 
surrender of the latter; his subsequent es- 
cape, fol. 52 a. 

The rest of the volume is divided by 
rubrics, which are no longer numbered. The 
latest events recorded are the death of Aghur 
Khan, who fell in an encounter with a party 



270 



AURANGZIB. 



of plundering Jiits, fol. 164 a, the appoint- 
ment of 'Umdat ul-Mulk Khanjalian Kukal- 
tilsh to the Subahdari of Lahore, fol. 165 a, 
and the above mentioned submission of 
Durgadas. 

The first two of the above events took 
place, as we learn from the Maagir ul-Umara, 
foil. 67 and 196, in the 34th year of Aurang- 
zib, A.H. 1101-2. 

The author's name is repeatedly written 
(_,-bj— jtl, as above, in the present copy. Dr. 
J. Bird, describing a MS. of the same work 
in his possession. History of Gujarat, p. 89, 
oaUs him Shridas, a Nagar Brdhman of 
Gujardt. Another history, written under the 
same title, by Muhammad Ma'siim, and re- 
lating only to the early part of Aurangzib's 
reign, is mentioned in Sir H. Elliot's History 
of India, vol. vii. p. 198. 

It is stated in the subscription that this 
copy was transcribed by K'han Singh, of 
Shahjahanabad, from a MS. written A.H. 
1163 for Lalah Klmshhal. The first two 
leaves of the volume contain an English 
notice on the work by an anonymous writer. 

Add. 19,495. 

Poll. 293 ; 8| in. by 5 ; 15 lines, 2| in. 
long; written in neat Nestalik, with two 
'Unvans and gold-ruled margins, apparently 
in the 18th century. [Tho. Eoebuck.] 



(j^^Jls- ^Ic 



A history of the reign of Aurangzib, 
Author : Muhammad Saki Musta'idd Khan, 
^JS- jjtjL^ ^J^'*' •^'*^ 

Beg. ^^Uj ^1 ^IjfJ ^\^ <^\i^\ 

This work has been printed in the Biblio- 
theca Indica, Calcutta, 1870-1. An account 
of it, with some extracts, will be found in 
Sir H. Elliot's History of India, vol. vii. 
pp. 181 — 197. See also Morley's Catalogue, 



p. 127, Critical Essay, p. 42, Khafi Khan, 
vol. ii. p. 211, and Stewart's Catalogue, 
p. 22. 

An anonymous notice on Bakhtavar Khan, 
appended to a copy of the Mirat ul-*Alam, 
Add. 7657, has been mentioned above, p. 126 a. 
Its concordance with the shorter record of 
his death in the present work, Calcutta 
edition, p. 253, shows that it is diie to Mu- 
hammad Saki. He states there that he had 
been brought up by Bakhtavar Khan, in 
whose establishment he filled the ofiices of 
Munshi and Divan, and that he had assisted 
his patron, during the last seventeen years of 
his life, in the composition of the Mirat ul- 
'Alam, which Aurangzib authorised him, 
after the author's death, to make public. 
He adds that he passed at that time into 
the imperial service with a Mansab. The 
posts of Vaka'i'-navis, Mushrif i Khavasan, 
and Munshi e Nazarat, to which he was suc- 
cessively appointed, are recorded by him in 
the present work, pp. 254, 407, and 462. 

The author says in his preface, fol. 36 b, 
that, in the reign of Shah 'Alam Bahadur, 
he was desired by his noble patron, 'Inayat 
UUah Khan, to compile a history of the forty 
years of the reign of 'Alamgir, which, owing 
to that sovereign's prohibition, had not been 
included in the 'Alamgir Namah. He com- 
pleted the work in A.H. 1022, a date con- 
veyed by the above title, and subsequently 
prefixed to it a sketch of the first ten years 
of the reign, abridged from the 'Alamgir 
Namah, foil. 1—36. 

This 'Inayat Ullah Khan, son of Mlrzii 
Shukr Ullah, and a Persian by birth, was the 
favourite secretary of Aurangzib, whose 
letters and notes he published in two sepa- 
rate collections, entitled Ahkam i Alamgiri, 
and Kalimat i Tayyibat. He was succes- 
sively appointed Divan i Khalisah, Khansa- 
man, and Subahdar of Kashmir, and died 
A.H. 1139 ; see Maagir ul-Umara, Add. 6568, 
fol. 389. 



AURANGZIB. 



271 



On the last page is the seal of Riijah Dehl 
Singh, with the date 1186 (A.H.) 

Add. 26,232. 

Poll. 433 ; 9 in. hy 4| ; 14 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written partly in Shikastah and 
partly in Nestalik, probahly in the 18tli 
century. [Wm.. Erskine.] 

On the fly leaf is written: "Bought at 
Bombay in Jan. 1807, for R. 36, W. E." 

Add. 6558. 

Foil. 223 ; llf in. by 8J ; 17 lines, 6| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, in the 18th cen- 
tury. [James Gkant.] 

The same work, wanting a few lines at 
the end. 

Prefixed is a full table of contents, foil. 

1—8. 

Or. 23. 

Poll. 174; 8 in. by 5^; 15 lines, 4 in. 
lonff ; written in cursive Shikastah-amlz ; 
dated Bhander, district of Irach, Subah of 
Akbarabdd, Zulhijjah, A.H. 1140 (A.D. 1728). 

Historical memoirs relating chiefly to mili- 
tary transactions in the Deccan, from the 
struggle of Aurangzib for the empire to the 
establishment of Shah 'Alam Bahadur upon 
the throne, A.H. 1119. 

Author: Bhlmsen, son of Raghunandan- 
das, i_)J\s>yx>^^ J.!j j^;--» ^• 

Beg. L-*5\5 »^ (^y*» ]} (./"ij-** u^^.^j u^.^J-" 

An abridged translation of this work, 
made on the present copy, has been pub- 
lished, without the title or author's name, 
by Jonathan Scott, in his " History of the 
Dekkan," vol. ii. pp. 3—123. The learned 
translator describes in his preface the original 



as " a Journal kept by a Bondela officer, who 
attended Dulput Roy, the chief of his tribe, 
in all Aurangzebe's campaigns, which was 
presented to me by the Raja of Dutteeah, a 
great-grandson of Dulput Roy, when I acted 
as Persian interpreter to a detachment under 
Colonel Popham, in the Ghoed country." 

The author, who is designated in the sub- 
scription as Bhlmsen Kayath, was born, as 
he states on fol, 7 b, at Burhanpur, in the 
23rd year of tlie reign of Shahjahan (A.H. 
1059), and was a nephew, on his father's 
side, 6f Bhugandiis, who had obtained under 
Aurangzib the title of Diyanat Riie, and the 
office of Divan. He served under Rao Dal- 
pat, a Bundelah chief, who played a con- 
spicuous part in the Deccan wars, and by 
whom he was placed at one time in com- 
mand of the fort of Naldrug. Tinder that 
leader he took an active share in most of 
the military events of the period, which he 
records here in a plain and unpretending 
style, and chiefly from personal recollection. 

After a short introduction, treating of his 
chief's ancestors, and of his native city 
of BurhanpQr, the author enters upon his 
narrative, fol. 10 a, at the time of Aurangzib's 
march from the Deccan to Agrah (A.H. 1068). 
The last event he records is the defeat and 
death of Prince Kambakhsh (A.H. 1120), 
after which he left the service and retired 
to his native place. He states, in his con- 
clusion, that he completed the present work 
in A.H. 1120. 

Rao Dalpat, son of Rfio Subhkarn, and 
great-grandson of Rajah Barsingdeo, whom 
Jahangir rewarded for the murder of Abul- 
Pazl with the Zamlndarl of Bundelkhand, 
entered the imperial service in the 11th 
year of Aurangzib, obtained the title of Riio 
in the 27th, and gradually rose to a com- 
mand of three thousand. After Aurangzib's 
death, he followed the fortunes of Muham- 
mad A'zam Shah, and fell by his side in the 
battle of Agra, A.H. 1119. His Ufe is told 



272 



SUCCESSORS OF AURANGZIB. 



at length in the Ma'a§ir ul-Umara, Add. 
6567, fol. 273 ; see also Khaf i Khan, vol. ii. 
p. 591. 

The title of the work is given in some 
verses at the end of the preface, the last of 
which is: 

dJb j^Uai- \JL^i ^\ &isr* .^ ^_jli« jLi jmJ\ 
and in the subscription it is designated as 

Copyist : *I>.o ^»>jj,* s)j uvy^ 

On the fly-leaf is the following _ note, 
written by G. C. Renouard, May, 1835: 
"This copy of the DilkushA was brought 
from India by Capt. Jonathan Scott, and 
sold by him with many other Eastern MSS. 
to Priestley, a bookseller in Holbom, from 
whom I purchased it in 1807," etc. 

Or. 24. 

Foil. 216 ; 9 in. by 7| ; 15 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Jumfida II., 
A.H. 1196 (A.D. 1782). 

Official record of the first two years of 
the reign of Shah 'Alam Bahadur Shah. 

Author : Mirza Muhammad, entitled Da- 
nishmand Khan, ,\\^t'A^i c-^l^la:" j..^ hjx* 

Beg. uiii^jJ (^V^ j'^ r=^ J J^ 

The author is the Ni'mat Khan who has 
been mentioned, p. 268 b. He states in the 
course of the present history, fol. 44, that 
he had entered the service in the reign of 
Shahjahan, and had received successively 
from 'Alamglr the titles of Ni'mat Khan and 
Mukarrab Khan. Being entrusted with the 
court jewels, as Daroghah i Javahir-khanah, 
he kept them at Gwaliyar during the wars 
which followed 'Alamglr's death, and de- 
livered them safely to Shah 'Alam after his 
accession. On that occasion he received the 



title of Danishmand Khan, and was appointed 
to the duty of drawing up the official history 
of the reign, liJjlf* li.^ jwU »U»ii' j . 

Contents : Preface, fol. 2 b. Birth and early 
life of Shah 'Alam, fol. 9 a. Death of Aurang- 
zlb, 28 Zulka'dah, A.H. 1118; reception of 
the mournful tidings by Shah 'Alam in Pesha- 
war, 18 Zulhijjah, and his accession, fol. 26 a. 
His march against Muhammad A'zam, on 
the 14th of Rabi' I., A.H. 1119, and defeat 
of the latter, fol. 34. Record of the reign, 
carried on month by month, and often day 
by day, from Eabi' II., A.H. 1119, to the 
end of Zulka'dah, A.H. 1120, foil. 41 a— 
216 a. 

In an imperfect copy. Add. 16,875, foil. 
86 — 249, the work is endorsed JU sU. «*\ifeli 
j<>'>^j ; but it is designated as Bahadur Shah 
Namah among the sources of the Ma'asir ul- 
Umara, Add. 6565, fol. 8, and bears the 
same title in the Munich Catalogue, p. 97, 
and the Library of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, No. 47. It is mentioned as Tarikh i 
Shah 'Alam Bahadur Shah in Elliot's History 
of India, vol. vii. p. 568, and without any 
title in the Critical Essay, p. 46. 

The same author has described the close 
of Aurangzib's reign, and the confl^ict of 
his two sons, in a shorter work entitled 
Jang Namah, which has been lithographed 
in Kanpui", A.H. 1279, and is noticed by 
Elliot, vol. vii. p. 202. 

Another work, entitled, like the above, 
Tai-ikh i Shah 'Alam, which is described in 
Stewart's Catalogue, p. 16, and extracts of 
which are given, pp. 315 — 327, is there 
erroneously ascribed, p. 317, to Ni mat Khan 
'All. It is an anonymous history extending 
to the entire reign of Bahadur Shilh, and 
consequently of later date, and probably 
identical with the Tarikh i Bahadur Shahi 
of Elliot, vol. vii. p. 565. 

Copyist : u-oli' J^ 1 j-s- 



SUCCESSORS OF AURANGZIB. 



273 



Or. 25. 

Foil. 142 ; 9 in. by 7| ; 15 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
18th century. [G. C. Renouard.] 

A history of the minority of Farrukh-Siyar 
and of the early part of his reign. 

Beg. ^.^ (_j«Uj j\ j3^1b i^jAJ\ ^^ u-^*-* 

The title and the author's name are found 
in the subscription: j^* «*U jxm f^^ \^KiS 

S^\ ^^j.^ 'i^ jif c-fl.ii'><^"> . Mir Muhammad 
Ahsan, with the poetical surname Ijad, is 
mentioned by Siraj, who states that he died 
A.H. 1133 ; see Oude Catalogue, p. 149. The 
author of the " Critical Essay" describes him, 
p. 47, and Add. 16,720, fol. 19, as a Munshi, 
Mir Muhammad Ahsan, entitled Maani Khan, 
who wrote by order an account of some of 
the events of Farrukh-Siyar's reign. 

This history is written with the most 
irksome prolixity and the pompous monotony 
of strained panegyric. 

Most of the rubrics have been omitted in 
the present copy ; but the principal subjects 
are the following: Birth of Farrukh-Siyar 
at Aurangabad, on the 19th of Ramazan, 
A.H. 1096, and his early life, fol. 14 a. His 
proclamation at Patna, on the last day of 
Safar, A.H. 1124, fol. 40 a. Prince Izz ud- 
din's advance against Farrukh-Siyar and his 
defeat, fol. 57 h. Further progress towards 
Dehli, on the 21st of Sha'ban, fol. 72 a. 
Passage of the Jumnah, on the 13th of Zul- 
ka'dah, A.H. 1124, and dispositions for a 
battle, fol. 87 a. Defeat of the imperial 
army before Dehli, on the 13th of Zulhijjah, 
fol. 93 6. 

In the latter part of the volume the 
occurrences of the Court are recorded day by 
day down to the 29th of Safar, A.H. 1125. 

Add. 26,245. 

Foil. 124; 8 in. by 4 ; 15 lines, 3 in. long ; 



written in cursive Shikastah-amiz, about the 
close of the 18th century. [Wm. Erskine.] 
A history of the successors of Aurangzlb, 
down to the overthrow of the Sayyids in A.H. 
1133. 

Beg. jjjUaiurt «5 1j|_^Aft»- jL»,\^ iJJj\ji- ^jUJ . . . 

We learn from the preface that the author, 
who does not disclose his name, was living 
in Lahore, engaged in the pursuit of science, 
when reverses of fortune compelled him to 
look for employment 'in the capital. He 
found Dehli disturbed by the feud then 
existing between the Emperor Farrukh-Siyar 
and the two Sayyids. We are further told, 
fol. 6 J, that, through the protection of some 
influential person, only designated as having 
accepted the office of Divan at the hands of 
the Vazir, he obtained some post under the 
same chief, and that he wrote the present 
work at the request of his patron. 

The author displays a strong feeling of 
partisanship for the Sayyids. 

Contents : Death of Aurangzib and con- 
test of his sons, fol. 8 h. Accession of Ba- 
hadur Shah, and his victories over A zam Shah 
and Kambakhsh, fol. 12 a. The Sikh war, 
fol. 26 h. Death of Bahadur Shah and the 
struggle between his sons, fol. 36 h. Kjc- 
cession of Jahandar Shah, fol. 45 a. Rise 
of the Sayyids and advance of Farrukh-Siyar, 
fol. 55 a. Accession of Farrukh-Siyar, fol. 
55 a. Decline of his power, his deposition 
and death, fol. 62 a. Proclamation of Niku- 
siyar at Agrah, fol. 85 a. Proclamation of 
Rafi' ud-daulah at Dehli, fol. 87 b. Ac- 
cession of Miihammad Shah, fol. 94 a. 

The rest of the volume is taken up by a 
detailed account of the resistance of the 
Sayyids to Nizam ul-Mulk, and their final 
defeat. It closes with a short mention of 
the subsequent death of Kutb ul-Mulk 
(A.H. 1137). 

On the flyleaf is written ^^jL—i^o-ilaL* .£ji 

K N 



274 



SUCCESSORS OF AURANGZIB. 



and on the first page : " Memoir on the 
reign of the Emperor Furroksear. Ex- 
tracted for Col. Malcolm from the library of 
Nizam Aly." 

Or. 26. 

Foil. 87; 8| in. by 8; 15 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
18th century. [C. G. Eenouakd.] 

Historical notices relating to the reign of 
Farrukh-Siyar and the first four years of 
Muhammad Shah's reign. 

Author : Shivdus Lakhnavi, ^sy4^ U"^*^^ 

Beg. i:,ifJ J<^ ti JS^ ^J^3 o-^ d> o-* V* 
The author says that he had spent a long 
time as Munshi in the service of the great. 
His work is not a connected history, but a 
compilation of court-news and detached 
narratives, written in a plain and unadorned 
style, to every one of which is prefixed the 
heading «^.\ij . Many official letters and 
imperial firmans are inserted in full. 

The arrangement of the contents may be 
seen from the following leading subjects : 
Honours conferred by Farrukh-Siyar on the 
two Sayyids and other officers after his 
victory, fol. 2 b. Submission of Rajah Ajit 
Singh ; Mir Jumlah sent to Patna, fol. 3 b. 
Honoiars conferred upon Muhammad Murad 
I'tikad Khan, fol. 16 b. Confinement of 
Farrukh-Siyar, on the 8th of Rabi' ul-akhir, 
AJI. 1129, fol. 25 a. Proclamation of Rafi' 
uddarajat, fol. 26 a. Proclamation of Nikii- 
siyar, and taking of Agrah, fol. 27 b. Ac- 
cession of Muhammad Shfdi, fol. 32 b. 
Nizam ul-mulk takes possession of the Dec- 
can, fol. 40 b. Death of Husain 'All Khan 
and Ghairat Khan, fol. 45 b. * Abdullah 
Khan proclaims Sultan Ibrahim, and marches 
against Muhammad Shah, foL 55 a. His 



defeat on the 13th of Muharram, A.H. 1132. 
Offices bestowed by Muhammad Shrdi after 
his victory, and subsequent events at court 
narrated mostly day by day, fol. 61 b. 
The last of any importance is the appoint- 
ment of Nizam ul-Mulk to the Vazirate, on 
the 15th of Jumada I., A.H. 1134, fol. 85 a. 

Copyist : sJ^j .x^ 

This work is mentioned by Prof Dowson 
in Elliot's History, vol. viii. p. 331. 

Add. 25,787. 

Foil. 234; 10^ in. by 6^ ; from 18 to 20 
lines, 4| in. long; written partly in Nestalik, 
partly in Shikastah-amiz, apparently in the 
18th century. [Wm. Cuketon.] 

A history of the house of Timur, more 
especially of its Indian branch, brought down 
to the seventh year of Muhammad Shah, 
A.H. 1137. 

Author: Muhammad Hadi, called Kamvar 
Khan, ^^U- j^lio t-J^lif ^J^>\l, s^ 

Beg. jjWjj'^ »*'■»■ J j*-**"!)^.-? lic^li ftjsf^ j^jft. 

Muhammad Hadi, who has been mentioned, 
p. 253 6, as the continuator of the Jahrmgir 
Namah, was appointed controller of the 
household of Prince Muhammad Ibrahim, 
and received the title of Kamvar Khiin in 
the second year of the reign of Bahadur 
Shah. He 'Commenced the present work 
after completing his general history of India, 
the Haft Gulshan i Muhammad Shahi (Elliot, 
vol. viii. p. 13). See N. Lees, Jom-nal of the 
Royal As. Soc, new series, vol. iii. p. 469, 
Moi'ley's Catalogue, p. 99, Critical Essay, 
p. 45, and Elliot, vol. viii. pp. 17 — 20. 

The present MS. contains only the first 
volume of the work. It treats of the fol- 
lowing subjects: Origin of the Turks and 



SUCCESSORS OF AURANGZIB. 



275 



history of Chingiz Khan, fol. 3 a. Timur, 
fol. 10 a. Shahrukh, fol. 40 a. Ulugh Beg, 
fol. 56 a. *Abd ul-latif and his successors to 
the death of Sultan Husain, fol. 59 h. Rise 
of the Safavis, fol. 67 h. Babar, fol. 75 h. 
Humayun, fol. 89 a. Akbar, fol. 157 a. 

The part of the work which relates to 
Persia is avowedly abridged from the Rauzat 
us-Safa and Habib ut-Siyar. 

Add. 25,787 * 

Foil. 414 ; 11 in. by 8^; 15 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, probably in 
the 18th century. [Wm. Cureton.] 

The first half of the same work. It wants 
about seven folios at the beginning, but 
contains, in addition to the preceding MS., 
the reign of Jahangir, which begins on fol. 
346 J. 

Add. 7003. 

Foil. 102; 10 in. by 8J; about 15 lines, 
5 in. long ; written on one side of the leaves 
only, on paper water-marked 1807, by John 
Haddon Hindley. 

Extracts from the preceding work, viz. 
1. The origin of the Turks, and sketch of 
the life of ChingTz Khan, fol. 2. 2. The 
history of Timur, from his birth to A.H. 779, 
foil. 56—93. 

The English translation of some passages 
is added in the margin, and a few notes from 
Abulghilzi and Baizavi are written on the 
opposite page. 

At the end of the volume, and written in 
the inverse direction, are some lists of the 
successors of Chingiz Khan in the Great 
Horde, Kipchak and Turkistan, from a 
Persian source, and from De Guignes, foil. 
94—102. 

Add. 6579. 

FoU. 209; \\\ in. by 8^; 20 lines, 4| in. 



long ; written in fair Nestalik, in the latter 
part of the 18th century. [James Grant.] 



^\.), 



>\ 



V 



A history of the Timurides of India, from 
their origin to the 16th year of Muhammad 
Shah, A.H. 1146. 

Author: Muhammad ShaH' B. Sayyid 
Muhammad Sharif, poetically surnamed 

Varid, i>,^y (_>oii?*' i— ft?^ i>^ (^ ^^^ 'i-^ 

Beg. jifi^ j^lj jj y ^9- J\ 

This history, written in a very stilted and 
artificial style, gives a compendious account 
of the earlier reigns, but becomes fuller in 
the time of Aurangzlb, and still more so for 
the period of his successors. 

We learn from the preface that the present 
volume is only the first of four parts, called 
Tabakahs, of which the complete work was 
to consist, and which were to be severally 
devoted to kings and Amirs, to Fakirs, 
'Ulama and poets. 

Respecting the author's life, the following 
few facts may be gleaned from his verbose 
introduction. He descended from a family 
of Sayyids, who were in charge of the 
Mashhad of Tehran. His father,- Muhammad 
Sharif, set out for India in company with 
his master Mulla SalTm of Tehran, who was 
invited to the court of Aurangzlb, but 
having separated from him, landed at Surat 
and settled in Haidarabad, where he soon 
entered the service of 'Abdullah Kutubshah. 
He afterwards attached himself to Prince 
Bahadur Shah Shah 'Alam. While he was 
governor of l^::^ (probably Naginah), a 
town described as situated at five days' 
journey from Dehli, in the vicinity of 
Sanbhal and Muradabad, a son, the present 
author, was born to him, A.H. 1087. 

Muhammad Shafi' lived in comfort with 

N N 2 



276 



SUCCESSORS OF AURANGZIB. 



his father until the latter's death, which took 
place in A.H. 1117. He then took service 
for a short time under Prince Muhammad 
'Azim, after which he retired from office, and 
devoted himself entirely to literature, under 
the liberal patronage of Bairam Khan, first 
known as Mirza Bakir and subsequently as 
Bakir Khan, third son of EuhuUah Khan, 
the victorious general of Aurangzlb. 

He had cultivated poetry from his ninth 
year upwards, and had written, before the 
present work, a complete Divan and four 
Masnavis, viz. 1. Gulistan i Nairang, an 
historical poem in the measure of Nizami's 
Khusrau u Shirin. 2. Mir'at i Farrukhi, 
in the measure of the Shahnamah. 3. Cha- 
man i Didar, in imitation of the Makhzan 
ul-Asrar, and 4. A Saki-Namah. 

He completed the present work, with the 
exception of a later continuation, extending 
from A.H. 1141 to 1146, in A.H. 1142 (see 
fol. 23 b). He boasts of his being above 
any suspicion of falsehood or unfair bias, 
and states that from A.H. 1100 he depends 
partly upon his own recollections, partly 
upon the testimony of credible witnesses, 
while for the last 22 years, beginning with 
the death of Aurangzib, he only records 
events which had come under his ob- 
servation. 

Contents : Preface, fol. 4 b. Notices on 
Bairam Khan and his family, fol. 13 b. 
Tabakah I. TImur and his successors, fol. 
23 b. Babar, fol. 26 b. Humayun, fol. 29 a. 
Akbar, fol. 37 a. Jahangir, fol. 54 b. Shah- 
jahan, fol. 68 b. 'Alamgir, fol. 85 a. Shah 
'Alam Bahadur Shah, fol. 107 a. Jahandar 
Shah, fol. 132 b. Farrukh-Siyar, fol. 148 o. 
Eaushan-akhtar Muhammad Shah, fol. 166 a. 

The history of the last reign was in the 
first instance brought down to the month 
of Sha'ban, A.H. 1140. Subsequently the 
author added a continuation, comprising the 
next six years, and concluding with the 
month of Shavval, A.H. 1146, fol. 175 a. 



In conclusion, and as a separate narrative, 
is found an account of the battle fought by 
Mubariz ul-Mulk Sarbuland Khiln with 
Maharajah Abhai Singh, son of Ajlt Singh, 
at Ahmadabad, Gujrat, A.H. 1141, fol. 199 b. 

The author states at the end that this 
first volume was completed on the 14th of 
Zulka'dah, A.H. 1146. 

Prefixed, in the same handwriting as the 
text, are a table of contents, foil. 1, 2, and 
a note in Persian, fol. 3, stating that this 
MS. had been transcribed from a copy dated 
A.H. 1196, in the library of Samsam ul-Mulk 
Shahnavaz Khan, at Haidarabad. 

The work is also called Tarikh i Cha- 
ghatai ; see N. Lees, Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, new series, vol. iii. p. 470, 
and Elliot's History of India, vol. viii. 
pp. 21—24. 



Add. 26,244. 

Foil. 260 ; 9i in. by 5; 17 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik, in the 
18th century. [Wm. Eeskine.] 



tr^!^' J!>-' 



History of the successors of Aurangzib, 
to A.H. 1151. 

Author : Muhammad Kasim, ^15 s^ 

Beg. i^j^yLc L2_>1 jo ij>Ji:i c>JVjyfi>j j^y cJi^Aut 

The following facts relating to the author's 
life may be gathered from some passages 
of the present work. In the reign of Shah 
'Alam Bahadur he was one of the officers 
attached to that sovereign's sons, then stay- 
ing in Behar. He followed, later on, the 
fortunes of Nizam ul-Mulk, in whose army 
he held the rank of Bakhshi, and served in 
the Deccan wars. He was sent by the latter 
with a force of 1700 horse and 2000 foot to 
the succour of Hafiz ud-Din Khan, and took 



SUCCESSORS OF AURANGZIB. 



277 



an important part in the operations carried 
on, under the command of his schoolmate 
Sayyid Lashkar Khan, against the Mahrattah 
leader Somna, brother of Apu Rao. He 
appears to have been a familiar associate of 
Mutavassil Khan, a relative and son-in-law 
of Nizam ul-Mulk, who was then Faujdar of 
Baglanah, and to whom he devotes a full 
notice at the end of this work ; see foil. 39 b, 
203, 204, and 257. 

This history is divided into two parts. 
The first extends from the death of Aurang- 
zib to the deposition of Farrukh-Siyar, on 
whose sad end the author dwells in the tone 
of the warmest partisanship. The second 
part, which begins, fol. 151 h, with the pro- 
clamation of Rafi" ud-Darajat, deals princi- 
pally with the conflict of Nizam ul-Mulk 
with the Sayyids and his wars with the 
Mahrattas. 

The title and the author's name appear in 
the conclusion of the first part, fol. 150 b. 
The author states there that he wrote that 
part in the space of four months and a half, 
and finished it on the 2nd of Ramazan, 
A.H. 1147. The second part must have 
been completed about four years later, A.H. 
1151 ; for the author says towards the end, 
fol. 256, that Tahmas Kull Khan {i.e. Nadir 
Shah) was then besieging Kabul, that his 
armies had advanced as far as Multan, and 
that Muhammad Shah was gathering his 
forces to march against him. 

Contents : Death of AurangzTb, contest 
between his sons, and reign of Shah 'Alam, 
fol. 4 b. Death of Shah 'Alam and reign of 
Jahandar Shah, fol. 36 b. Reign of Farrukh- 
Siyar, fol. 59 a. Proclamation of Rafi' ud- 
Darajat, fol. 151 b. Rising of Nizam ul- 
Mulk in the Deccan, fol. 157 a. Accession of 
Muhammad Shah and fall of the Sayyids, 
fol. 171 b. Recall of Nizam ul-Mulk, in- 
stallation of Mubariz KhiTn, and his defeat 
by the former, fol. 178 a. Nizam ul-Mulk's 
waxs with the Mahrattas, fol. 198 a. Ex- 



pedition to the Carnatlc, fol. 234 a. War 
with Baji Rao and conclusion of the treaty 
by which Malvah was ceded to him, fol. 
245 a. 

In the first part the course of the narrative 
is interrupted by two long digressions, re- 
lating to the stories of Siyiivush, foil. 7b b — 
87 b, and of Hatim, foil. 96 a— 105 b. 

Another history of the same period, en- 
titled 'Ibrat Namah, was also written by a 
Muhammad Kasim ; but the latter describes 
himself as a dependent of the Amir ul- 
Umara Sayyid Husain 'All Khan, and cannot 
therefore be identified with the present 
writer ; see Elliot's History, vol. vii. p. 569, 
and Morley's Catalogue, p. 105. 

On the first page is impressed the seal of 
Kadir Jang Bahadur, with the date A.H. 
1184, and a note stating that he received 
this MS. as a gift from Ahsan-ullah Khan, 
son of Navvab Rahim-uUah Khan, A.H. 
1188, in Aurangabad. 

On the fly-leaf is written : " From Heni*y 
Russell, Esq., Resident at Hydarabad, to Wm. 
Erskine, Esq., Oct. 1811." 

Or. 180. 

Foil. 217 ; 8| in. by 5^; 15 lines, SJ in. 
long; written in Nestalik, on European 
paper; dated Zulhijjah, A.H. 1202 (A.D. 
1788). [Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

Memoirs of the Amir ul-Umara Samsam 
ud-Daulah Khandauran and of his times. 

Beg. tiUlic /jj ,_^a5-^ ^ ^^.J^ ^i)'■•' '^■^^ ^ >_ii> 
Khwajah Muhammad 'Asim, afterwards 
Khandauran, entered the service of Azim ush- 
Shan towards the close of Aurangzib's reign, 
and became a confidential sei'vant of that 
prince's son, Farrukh-Siyar, who on ascending 
the throne conferred upon him the title of 
Samsam ud-Daulah Khandauran and a 
command of seven thousand. After the 
fall of the Sayyids he was raised by Mu- 



278 



SUCCESSORS OF AURANGZIB. 



haramad Shah to the post of Amu* ul-Umara, 
and was in command of the imperial army 
which was routed by Nadir Shah at Karnal in 
A.H. 1151. He fell wounded in the battle, 
and expired the next day. His life, which is 
closely connected with the leading events of 
the reigns of Farrukh-Siyar and Muhammad 
Shah, is fully related in the Maugir ul-Umara, 
Add. 6567, fol. 198. 

The author, whose name does not appear, 
was evidently a dependent of Samsam ud- 
Daulah. As he writes in a uniform strain 
of fulsome panegyric, and in the most 
wordy style, the work will be found 
extremely tedious and of little historical 
value. The present copy is moreover ex- 
ceedingly incorrect. The narrative closes 
with the restoration of Muhammad Shah to 
the throne and the departure of Nadir Shah 
from Dehli, A.H. 1152. The rest of the 
volume, foil. 156 — 217, is taken up by a 
rhetorical description of the mournful gloom 
spread by the death of the Amir ul-Umara 
through the various departments of his 
princely establishment. 

Contents : Preface, fol. 4 b. Enumeration 
of the ancestors of Muhammad Shah, from 
Timur downwards, fol. 9 b. Account of the 
family of Samsam ud-Daulah, viz. his grand- 
sire Khwajah 'Abd ul-Mumin Khan, who 
came from Bukhara to India, his father 
Khwajah Muhammad Kasim, and his brothers; 
their history from the close of the reign of 
Shahjahan to the death of Aurangzlb, and 
the hero's early life, fol. 31 a. Reign of 
Bahadur Shfih, fol. 56 b. Reign of Farrukh- 
Siyar, fol. 68 b. Sayyid 'Abd Ullah Khan, 
fol. 80 a. Victory of Muhammad Shah, fol. 
84 b. Navvab Sa'iidat Khan, and the in- 
vasion of Nadir Shah, fol. 98 b. Departure 
of Nadir Shah and restoration of Muhammad 
Shah, foil. 144 6—156 a. 

The work, which bears no specific title, is 
designated in the subscription as j-^s* aiUij 



is distinct from the history entitled Jauhar i 
Samsam (Elliot, vol. viii. p. 72), in which 
Samsam ud-Daulah also plays a conspicuous 
part, but is probably identical with a ISIS, 
entitled ^J^j^^i^^ /i ^ »^ '^^ *5U-j, in the 
library of King's College, Cambridge, No. 204. 
A modern table of contents, foil. 1 and 2, 
is prefixed. 

Add. 24,028. 

Foil. 89 ; 121 in. by 7f ; 29 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, about the close of 



the 18th century. 



[H. H. Wilson.] 



&«\j JW b\^ &cJJu 



^ 



A history of the successors of Aurangzib, 
from the latter's death to the accession of 
'Alamgir II. 

Author : Ghulam 'AH Khan B. Raushan 
ud-Daulah Bhak'hari Khan Bahadur Rustam 
Jang B. Raushan ud-Daulah Zafar Khan, 



Bes. 



j5j ^^U'j ^_Sy 



,U» 



The author's father, Navvab Bhak'hari 
Khan Raushan ud-Daulah Rustam Jang, 
was, as we learn from the present work, the 
friend and minister of the young and gallant 
Subahdar of Multan and Lahore, Muln ul- 
Mulk Rustam i Hind, commonly called Mir 
Manu, son of 'the Vazir I'timad ud-Daulah 
Kamar ud-Din Khan. See the life of the 
latter in Ma'a§ir ul-Umara, Add. 6567, fol. 87. 
He assisted him in stopping the advance of 
Ahmad Shah Durrani, in A.H. 1162, and stood 
by his side later on in the encounter and 
subsequent negociations, which led to the 
surrender of Lahore in A.H. 1165. He was 
arrested and afterwards put to death by the 
treacherous widow of Mu'in ul-Mulk, who 



SUCCESSORS OF AURANGZIB. 



279 



remained in power for some time after her 
husband's death. 

Ghulam 'All Khan was attached as Munshi 
to the service of Prince Javanbakht, who 
died in Benares, A.H. 1203. Wm. Franklin, 
who in his " History of Shah Aulum," 
published in 1798, follows him as his princi- 
pal authority, states that he was then living 
in Lucknow. 

The author states in the preface that he 
wrote the present work after completing his 
history of Shah 'Alam, and as an introduc- 
tion to that work, which he designates there 

by the titles of j_^U. Jls- ^^T and [sU.] r; .15 
4-U> jj\p (see p. 282, Add. 6563). He re- 
marks that the same period had been already 
treated by two previous writers, one of whom 
displayed excessive partisanship for the Say- 
yids, Husain 'Ali Khan and 'Abdullah Khan, 
while the other gave undue prominence to 
the military operations of the Firang and of 
Ilahverdl Khan, Subahdar of Bengal. 

Contents: Preface, and Kasldahs in praise 
of Shah 'Alam and Prince Javanbakht, fol. 
1 6. Aurangzib's death, fol. 6 b. Defeat of 
A'zam Shah by Bahildur Shah, fol. 8 a. Ac- 
cession of Bahadur Shah, fol. 10 b. Death of 
'AzTm ush-Shan and victory of Mu'izz ud-Din 
(Jahandar) Padishah, fol. 12 b. Victory of Far- 
rukh-Siyar, fol. 16 a. His accession, fol. 19 b. 
Death of Da'ud Khan Pani, and victory of 
Mir Husain 'All Khan, fol. 22 a. Death of 
Asad Khrm, fol. 22 b. Confinement of Far- 
rukh-Siyar, fol. 27 a. Proclamation of Bafi" 
ud-Darajat and Raf 1' ud-Daulah, fol. 29 a. 
Accession of Muhammad Shilh, fol. 30 a. 
Death of Husain 'All Khan ; defeat of 
Ghairat Khan and 'Abdullah Khan, fol. 36 a. 
Expulsion of Sarbuland Khan from Gujrat, 
fol. 52 b. Bajl Rao's march upon Dehli, fol. 
57 a. Invasion of Nadir Shah, fol. 69 a. 
Events of A.H. 1157, fol. 64 b ; A.H. 1158, 
fol. 65 a ; A.H. 1159, fol. 66 b. Events of 
A.H. 1160-1. Invasion of Ahmad Shah 



Durrani and accession of Ahmad Shah, fol. 
67 b. A.II. 1162, fol. 71 b ; A.H. 1163, fol. 
73 b. Safdar Jang marches against Ahmad 
Khan (Bangash), fol. 74- a. Nasir Jang in 
the Deccan, fol. 77 a. A.H. 1165. Invasion 
of Ahmad Shah Durrani and surrender of 
Lahore, fol. 78 b. Deposition of Ahmad 
Shah and proclamation of 'Alamglr II., fol. 
83 b. Death of Mu'ln ul-Mulk, Subahdar 
of Lahore, in his 28th year, in Muharram 
A.H. 1167, foL 84 b. 

The work concludes with an account of 
the disturbances which took place at Lahore 
after" the Subahdiir's death. 

Add. 18,679. 

Foil. 243 ; 9 in. by 6 ; 13 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, late in the 18th 
century. 

The same work. 

On the fly-leaf is a Persian note describing 
this copy as the author's autograph, a state- 
ment which tlie incorrectness of the text 
completely disproves. 

Add. 6585. 

Foil. 155; 9i in. by 6; 12 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, in the latter 
part of the 18th century. [J. F. Hull.J 

A history of the reigns of Muhammad 
Shrdi and his successors, down to the begin- 
ning of the reign of Shah 'Alam. 

Author : Shakir Khan, ^Ji>■ yJ^ 
Beg. ^_^U> Olii i^jaij^ ^j»«U- i> j-«'j^ (_Jj3\ 
The author's name is written, as above, in 
the margin of the second page of the pre- 
face, fol. 11 b. It appears from other pas- 
sages that he was the fourth son of the 
Amir Shams ud-Daulah Lutf Ulliih Khan 
Bahadur Sadik Nlknam Mutahavvir Jang, 
who, at the time of Nadir Shah's invasion, 
was appointed governor of Dehli, (foil. 41 a, 
99 6), and that he held at that time the rank 



280 



SUCCESSORS OF AURANGZIB. 



of Bakhshl in the Eisalah i Sultani (fol. 42 a). 
When Dehli was taken and sacked by the 
troops of Ahmad Shah Abdall (A.H. 1170), 
he escaped to Benares, and, after applying 
in vain to Mir Kasim, he sued the English 
officials for protection and support (fol. 
98 seqq.). 

Shakir Khan is named in the life of his 
father Lutf Ullah Khan Sadik, of Panlpat, 
Ma'cl§ir ul-Umara, Add. 6568, fol. 435. 

The narrative, which is much wanting in 
order and precision, and is entirely destitute 
of dates, begins, fol. 12 a, with a long enu- 
meration of the honours and offices conferred 
by Muhammad Shah upon Nizam ul-Mulk 
and his followers, and then goes back to the 
assassination of Sayyid Husain 'All Khan 
(fol. 23 a) and the fall of 'Abdullah Khan. 
The latest events recorded are the proclama- 
tion of 'All Gauhar Shah 'Alam in Dehli 
(A.H. 1173). fol. 88 h, and the defeat of the 
Sikhs by Ahmad Shah Durrani, in the second 
year of Shah 'Alam's reign (A.H. 1174), fol. 
90 6. The concluding pages contain some 
advice for the better government of the 
empire, fol. 91 a, an account of the author's 
reverses and his exile from Dehli, fol. 98 h, 
a dry enumeration of the Shaikhs, 'Ulamfi, 
Amirs, and Rajahs of the period, fol. 107 a, 
and tables of official salaries, etc., fol. 113 a. 

The title ^yl^ ^<Li> g^lS is written in the 
hand of the copyist on the fly-leaf. 

Prefixed to the work is a short abstract, 
by the same author, of the Tuzuk i Timuriy- 
yah, or Institutes of Timur, foil. 1 J— 10 h. 
An appendix i_-> lii aJU- , containing forms of 
legal deeds, appointments, and other official 
documents, occupies the latter part of the 
volume, foil. 122 a — 155 a. 

Add. 6577 and 6578. 

Two uniform volumes, containing foil. 288 
and 387 ; llf in. by 8 ; 19 lines, 4^ in. 



long ; written in Nestalik, in the 18th 
century. [James Grant.J 

History of the Indian empire, from the 
death of Aurangzib to A.H. 1195, with a 
detailed account of transactions in Bengal 
from A.H. 1151 to A.H. 1195. 

Author : Gliulam Husain B. Hidayat 'All 
Khan B. as-Sayyid 'Alim Ullah B. as-Sayyid 

Eaiz Ullah ut-Tabataba'i ul-Hasani, (^^j^-s- -^ 

Beg. (_j«U«\ ^J<iMyJ> (j2ol:ii*»j ^_^UiLj (_jmIa*<» 

Sayyid 'Alim Ullah, a celebrated Shaikh of 
Bengal, died, as stated in the present work, 
Add. 6578, fol. 134 h, in 'Azimabad, A.H. 
1156. His son, the author's father, Hidayat 
'All Khan, deputy-governor of Beliar under 
Mahabat Jang, held subsequently the posts of 
Eaujdar under Muhammad Shah, and of 
Mirbakhshi under Shah 'Alam. He died 
in his Jaglr, Husainabad, Behar, A.H. 1179 
(Siyar ul-Mutaakhkhirin, p. 776). 

The author, Mir Ghulam Husain Khan, 
was the eldest son of the latter. After 
acting for some time as Mir Munshi in the 
service of Shah 'Alam, and as representative 
of the Navvab Kasim 'Ali Khan in Calcutta, 
he was engaged in various services under 
the English Government. See Elliot's His- 
tory, vol. viii. pp. 194 — 198. 

The present work was commenced, accord- 
ing to the preface, in the month of Safar, 
A.H. 1194, and completed^ as stated at the 
end, in Eamazan, A.H. 1195. The author 
subsequently added to it an introduction 
entitled ^^^IJLJ^ jju« i^^. 

This Mukaddimah is dedicated to the 
Governor-General, Warren Hastings. It is 
borrowed, as stated in the preface from an 



SUCCESSORS OF AURANGZIB. 



281 



earlier work, a general history of India 
from the time of the Kauravas and Pandavas 
to the establishment of Aurangzlb on the 
throne, written by a Munshi, who had perused 
for that compilation the Persian histories as 
well as such Sanscrit works as had been 
translated into Persian. Ghuliim Husain 
adds that he had been content to transfer it 
to his pages, leaving out some redundant 
phrases and correcting some clerical errors. 
The work thus designated is, as has been 
noticed before, p. 231 a, the Khulasat ut- 
Tavarikh of Munshi Sujan llae ; but the 
above shows how utterly unfounded is the 
charge of " glaring plagiarism " brought by 
Captain N. Lees against the author ; see 
the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
1868, p. 423. 

An English translation of the work (not 
including the Mukaddimah) by a French 
convert to Islamism, Haji Mustafa, was 
published in Calcutta, 1789. The first 
portion of that version, about a sixth of 
the entire work, was reprinted, with some 
verbal corrections, by General Briggs, Lon- 
don, 1832. The section relating to Bengal 
was translated by Jonathan Scott, and 
printed in his " History of the Deccan," 
vol. ii. pp. 313—461. 

The Mukaddimah was printed in Cal- 
cutta, 1836, and the entire work was litho- 
graphed in three volumes in the press of 
Navalkishor, Lucknow, A.H. 1283. An 
Urdu translation by Bakhshish 'Ali, entitled 
Ikbal Namah, is mentioned by G. de Tassy, 
Idtterature Hindoui, vol.i. p. Ill, and another 
has been published in India under the title 
of Mirat us-Salatin. See also Morley's Cata- 
logue, p. 105 ; Leyden Catalogue, vol. iii. 
p. 14 ; Mackenzie Collection, vol. ii. p. 129; 
and Munich Catalogue, p. 85. 

Contents of the present copy : History of 
the Dehli empire, from the death of Aurang- 
zlb to the departure of Nadir Shah, A.H. 1152 
(Lucknow edition, pp. 375—486), Add. 6577, 



fol. 8 b. Continuation of the above to the 
time of composition, Ramazan, A.H. 1195 
(Lucknow edition, pp. 846—961), fol. 128 h. 
Sketch of the character and reign of Aurang- 
zlb (English translation, vol. iii. pp. 337 — 
453), fol. 249 a. History of Bengal from 
the death of Shuja' ud-Daulah to the time 
of composition (Lucknow edition, pp. 487 — 
844), Add. 6578, foil. 9—387. 

Transcriber: ^ys^jjo ^;it-» f^]^^ >x»^ 

A full table of contents is prefixed to each 
volume. 



Add. 16,699. 

Foil. 555 ; Hi in. by 8 ; from 17 to 19 
lines, b^ in. long; written in a cursive Nes- 
talik, about the close of the 18th century. 

[Wm. YtJLE.j 

The same work. 

Contents : History of the Dehli Empire, 
from the death of Aurangzlb to A.H. 1152, 
fol. 1 b. History of Bengal, fol. 107 a. 
Continuation of the history of the Dehli 
Empire, from A.H. 1152 to 1195, fol. 413 b. 
Sketch of the reign of Aurangzlb, fol. 520 b. 



Add. 6563. 

Foil. 262; Hi in. by 7| ; 19 lines, 5| in. 
long; written in a cm'sive Nestalik, in the 
latter part of 18th century. [J. F. Hull.] 

A history of Prince 'All Gauhar, after- 
wards Shah 'Alam, from the deposition of 
Ahmad Shah, A.H. 1167, to A.H. 1203. 

Author : Ghulam 'AH Khan B. Bhak'hari 
Khan Rustam Jang, c?)V^ t^ u^ ij* r^ 

Beg. iJ^\j:>\ ^JCfi^ t^ J--, \J^si»■'^ ■^- -W"- 

The author and the work have been men- 
tioned above, p. 278 b. The latter is written 
in the most inflated and adulatory style. 
o 



282 



SUCCESSORS OE AUEANGZIB. 



It consists of two parts. The first begins 
with the accession of 'Alamgir II., and ends 
with the installation of Shfih 'Alam on the 
throne of Dehli. 

Contents : 'Alamgir II. proclaimed by 
Ghazi ud-DIn, fol. 12 a. 'Ali-Gauhar's ex- 
pedition to Eevari and Hansl, fol. 16 b. His 
recall by the Vazir, fol. 18 b. Death of 
Alamgir, fol. 41 b. Accession of Shah 
'Alam, fol. 50 a. Second year of his reign, 
fol. 107 6. Third year, fol. 131 a. Fourth 
year, fol. 139 b. Fifth year, fol. 1-15 b. 
Sixth year, fol. 150 b. Seventh year, fol. 
156 b. Eighth year, and subsequent events, 
fol. 160 a. 

The second part, which is stated to have 
been written a long time after the first, is 
not divided into years. It begins, fol. 181 b, 
with the revolt of Zabitah Khan, his march 
upon Dehli, and his defeat by Najaf Khan 
(A.H. 1185). The latest events recorded are 
the death of Erince Javanbakht Jahandar 
Shah, to whose service the author was 
attached as Munshi, in Benares, on the 25th 
of Sha'ban, A.H. 1203, fol. 259 a, the victory 
of Rana Khan over Isma il Beg Khan and his 
triumphant entry into Agra, and finally Shah 
'Alam falling into the power of the ruthless 
Ghulam Kadir. The blinding of the unfor- 
tunate monarch is only alluded to at the end, 
and the elegy in Avhich he bewailed his fate 
concludes the volume. See Erancklin, His- 
tory of Shah Aulum, p. 250. 

The author inserts, fol. 246 a, a letter 
which he wrote in the name of Erince 
Jahandar Shah to George III. of England, 
the text and translation of which have been 
given by Francklin, pp. 242 — 249. A table 
of contents is prefixed, foil. 1 and 2. 

Add. 24,080. 

FoU. 532 ; 10| in. by 6^ ; 14 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, with two 
'Unvans and gold-ruled margins, in the 18th 
century. [Wm. H. Mokley.] 



The same work. 

This copy, as compared with the preceding, 
contains the following additions : 1st. At the 
end of Eart I. an enumeration of Shah 
'Alam's children and wives, foil. 377 6—378 b. 
2nd. At the beginning of Eart IL, fol. 381 b, 
some verses beginning thus : «.! ji" ^_^^ Jm 
(JIa-.! JL&. 3rd. At the end of Eart II., 
foil. 527 b — 532 a, a continuation, in which 
are narrated the enormities of Ghulam Kadir, 
his flight before the Mahratta forces under 
Ranfi Khan, his capture, the restoration of 
Shah 'Alam, on the 10th of Rabi' IL, in the 
30th year of his reign, and, finally, the death 
of Ghulam Kadir by torture, on the 5th of 
Jumada IL, in the 31st year (A.H. 1203). 

Or. 466. 

Foil. 501 ; llj in. by 6^ ; 17 lines, 4 in. 
long. Written in a cursive Nestalik, early 
in the 19th century. 

[Geo. "Wm. Hamilton.] 



LSj^ ^jU 



A history of the Timurides of India from 
their origin to A.H. 1225. 

Author: Muhammad 'Ali Khan Ansarl, 
son of Hidayat ullah Khan B. Shams ud- 
Daulah Lutf-uUah Khan Siidik Mutahavvir 

• • • 

Jang, 1^ ^Ji- B^\ c-o^JA jjj ijj\^\ ^J^ ii-^ 

i^JJic^ jy^ ^i\jO ^Jif *U\ t_jVi) aJjijJl ij-v- 

Beg. s\yjb jlij ^^Jy 4i\xLs-l ^i^ jl ^JS^^ 

The author was a nephew, on his father's 
side, of Shakir Khan, the author of a history 
of Muhammad Shah (p. 279 b). He wrote the 
present work, as he states in the preface, in 
A.H. 1202, as a means of recommending 
himself to a powerful personage then residing 
at Murshidabad, whose patronage he coveted, 
namely Mu'in ud-Daulah Mubariz ul-Mulk 
Khankhanan Sayyid Muhammad Riza Khan 



THE TIMUEIDES. 



283 



Bahadur Muzaffar Jang, in whose honour 
he gave it the title of Tarikh i Muzaffari. 
But he subsequently added a continuation, 
which brings down the history to A.H. 1225. 

The author's patron was the celebrated 
Muhammad Rizii Khan, a native of Shiraz, 
who became, under Majd ud-Daulah, Na'ib 
Nizamat, or Deputy-Governor, of Bengal and 
Behar, and who died, as stated in the present 
work, fol. 472 6, in Murshidabad, Safar, 
A.H. 1206, at the age of seventy-four. He 
had appointed the author Daroghah of the 
Faujdari 'Adalat of Tirhut and Hfijipur. 

The Tarikh i MuzaflPari, which in the early 
period of the Timurides is a mere com- 
pendium, becomes a detailed and valuable 
record for the time of Muhammad Shah and 
the subsequent reigns, where the events are 
narrated year by year, and treats also very 
fully of the transactions in Bengal during the 
same period. It is the chief authority fol- 
lowed by Mr. H. G. Keene in his " Fall of 
the Moghul Empire ;" see p. 296. Some 
extracts will be found in Sir H. Elliot's 
History, vol. viii. pp. 316—330. 

Contents : Timur, fol. 38 a. Babar, fol. 
40 a. Humayun, fol. 43 a. Akbar, fol. 62 a. 
Jahanglr, fol. 58 h. Shahjahan, fol. 65 h. 
Aurangzlb, fol. 77 a. Bahadur Shah, fol. 97 a. 
Jahandar Shah, fol. Ill a. Farrukh-siyar, 
fol. 118 h. Muhammad Shah, fol. 129 h. 
Ahmad Shah, fol. 237 a. 'Alamglr II., fol. 
289 a. Shah 'Alam, fol. 342 a. Akbar 
Shah II., fol. 497 h. 

The latest events mentioned are the suc- 
cession of Buland Ikbid to the Nizamat of 
Bengal, in A.H. 1225, and the death of the 
poet Khamush, a friend of the author, in the 
same year. The last page contains an enu- 
meration of the Governors-General and of 
the British Residents at the Dehli Court. 

The following additions are prefixed to 
the work : Table of the Hindu Rajahs and 
the Sultans of Dehli, from the beginning of 
the KalijugtoShah 'Alam, fol. 2 6. Chrono- 



logical table of the Timurides, from Timur to 
the death of Akbar Shah II., A.H. 1253, fol. 
10 h. Full table of the contents of the 
Tarikh i Muzafiari, fol. 15 a. Genealogy of 
Timur, traced from Adam, and genealogy 
of his descendants down to Jahandar Shah, 
fol. 28 a— 33 h. 



Add. 24,084. 

Foil. 103 ; 9i in. by 6 ; 18 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, about A.H. 1227 
(A.D. 1812). [Wm. H. Morley.] 



^j!>J' 



AX3 



^ 



A history of the Timuride Emperors of 
India from their origin to A.H. 1227, and 
of the Nazims of Bengal. 

Author: Intizam ul-Mulk Mumtaz ud-Dau- 
lah Maharajah Kalyan Singh Bahadur Tahav- 
vur Jang, son of Mumtaz ul-Mulk Maharajah 
Shitab Rae Bahadur Mansur Jang, ^UajLJ\ 



Beg. ^}c^ ^^3 s-i^"' j> J^}ji>,_3 (J^}j^ 
The author was a grandson of Riie Himmat 
Singh, a Dehli Kayath, who, as he states in 
the present work, fol. 73 b, was Divan of the 
Amir ul-Umara Samsam ud-Daulali at the 
time of Nadir Shah's invasion. His father, 
the well-known Nazim of Behar, Maharajah 
Shitab Rae, died in Patna, A.H. 1187, 
A.D. 1773, when Kalyan Singh was at once 
appointed his successor in his fiscal and 
judicial functions. See Mill's History of 
India, vol. iii. p. 546, Siyar ul-Mutaakhkhirin, 
Lucknow edition, pp. 790 — 796, and Tarikh 
i Muzaffari, Or. 466, fol. 406 b. 

The author boasts in the preface of having 

been the first of the noblemen of India who 

took ofiice under the English. In the Fasli 

year 1188 (A.D. 1781), having been taxed 

00 2 



284 



THE TIMUKIDES. 



by Mr. Hastings with thirty-four laks of 
rupees for the revenue of Behar, he had to 
make good, out of his private means, a deficit 
occasioned by the rebellion of Chait Singh, 
Rajah of Benares, and other refractory Za- 
mindars. He repaired, a ruined man, PaslI 
1195, to Calcutta, where he stayed twenty- 
four years. After a long illness, which de- 
prived him of his eyesight, he was allowed, 
FaslI 1218, to return to Patna, where he 
found his property dilapidated, and Avas 
coldly received by the natives. It was then 
he undertook, at the request of Mr. Abraham 
Welland, to write a history of the Nazims 
of Bengal, and, as an introduction to it, a 
record of the Timuride Emperors. The result 
was the present work, which consists of two 
distinct parts, called Bab. The author adds 
that, being unable from his state of blind- 
ness to refer to his notes, he was obliged to 
trust to his memory. 

The present volume contains only the first 
part of the work. It treats very briefly of 
the early Timurides, more fully of the later, 
from the accession of Aurangzib to that of 
Akbar Shah II. The author states at the 
end that he completed it on the 24th of 
Rabr II., A.H. 1227. 

Contents : Timur, Babar, etc., fol. 12 h. 
Aurangzib, fol. 28 h. Muhammad A'zam, 
fol. 30 b. Bahadur Shah, fol. 35 a. Jahan- 
dar Shfih, fol. 38 a. Earrukh-Siyar, fol. 42 b. 
Muhammad Shah, fol. 52 b. Ahmad Shah, 
fol. 77 b. 'Alamgh- II., fol. 91 b. Shah 
'Alam, fol. 97 b. Akbar Shah, fol. 103 a. 

The history of the Nazims of Bengal, which 
was to form the second part, is found as a 
distinct work, entitled Varidat i Kasimi, in 
Add. 24,083. 

Add. 16,713. 

Poll. 5; 15 J in. by 12; written in Nestalik, 
in the latter part of the 18th century. 

[Wm. Yule.] 



Chronological tables of the Timurides, 
from Timur to Shah 'Alam. 

The tables are divided into columns, each 
of which is devoted to a sovereign. It con- 
tains, in separate compartments, his name 
and titles, the names of his parents, the dates 
and places of his birth and his accession, 
the length of his life and of his reign, his 
conquests, his Vazirs, his children, lastly the 
manner, date, and place of his death. 

Or. 145. 

EoU. 33 ; 12 in. by 6 ; written in a cursive 
Shikastah-amiz, A.D. 1839. 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

Chronological tables of forty- three kings 
of Dehli and Emperors of Hindostan, from 
the time of Timur to the date of composi- 
tion, A.H. 1255. 

Author: Sayyid Ahmad Khan, ^^li- .i.^^ ,^.^^ 
Beg. J»^ ^^j^ ^j J^ i<^\j\ 

We learn from the author's preface, foU. 
4, 5, that he compiled this useful work for 
Mr. Robert North Collie Hamilton, Chief 
Commissioner of Agra. In his conclusion, 
fol. 33, he states that he completed it in the 
space of six months, ending in Safar, A.H. 
1255. He then gives a list of the historical 
works which he had consulted. 

The body of the work consists of eleven 
sheets, measuring, when unfolded, 26 in. in 
width. Each of them comprises four reigns, 
and is divided fnto eighteen columns, con- 
taining the following indications : — 1. Serial 
number of each king. 2. His name and 
titles. 3 and 4. Names of his father and 
mother. 5. His tribe or family. 6. Date of 
his birth. 7. Place of his accession. 8. His 
age at the time of his accession. 9 and 

10. Date and chronogram of his accession. 

11. Length of his reign. 12. Legend of 



THE TIMURIDES. 



285 



his coinage. 13. His age at death. 14 and 

15. Date and chronogram of his death. 

16. His surname after death. 17. Place of 
burial. 18. Historical notices. 

Timur heads the list, and is immediately- 
followed by his contemporary Nusrat Shah 
Lodi, who ascended the throne of Dehli in 
A.H, 801, and the latter's successors down to 
Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, A.H. 915—922. The 
Timurides begin with Babar under No. 14, 
and end with the reigning Emperor Bahadur 
Shrdi, who succeeded his father Akbar Shah 
A.H. 1253. 

These tables have been lithographed at 
Agra in 1840. The author, Munshi Sayyid 
Ahmad Khan, Munsif of Dehli, gives in the 
preface an account, not found in the pre- 
sent copy, of his genealogy and of the 
honours acquired by his ancestors. See 
Elliot's History, vol. viii. p. 430. 

Or. 182. 

Foil. 57; 9 in. by b^; 13 lines, 3^ in. 
long; lithographed in i)lain Nestalik, A.H. 
1267 (A.D. 1851.) [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

Chronological tables of the Timurides of 
India, giving the dates and places of the 
birth, accession and death of each sovereign, 
together with their portraits and representa- 
tions of their tombs. 

Author : Muhammad Fakhr ud-Din Hu- 

sain, ^^Jw^ ^J>.Ci^\Jd ^^ 

Beg. j\m\ jd j\):> j\j^\ LZj/j jya^ 

In addition to the princes of Timur's line, 
from Timur himself to his latest descendant, 
Abii Zafar Siraj ud-Din Muhammad Bahridur 
Shah, who ascended the throne A.H. 1253, 
the tables contain Shir Shah and his son 
Salim Shah, Tahmasp Safavi, Nadir Shah, 



Ahmad Shah Durrani, and his son Timvir 
Shah. 

The author compiled them by desire of 
the Emperor of Dehli, the above mentioned 
Bahadur Shah, in the thirteenth year of his 
reign, A.H. 1266, with the assistance of 
Hakim Muhammad Ahsan Ullah Khan, and 
of the painters Ghulam 'All Khan and Babar 
'All Khan. The work was completed in the 
following year. 

Some of the versified chronograms are by 
Lalah Saman Liil, with the poetical surname 
of Farhat. The portraits are stated to be 
faithful reproductions of original paintings. 
The first, representing Timur, is illuminated. 
Added is a succinct account of the ancestors 
of Timur, foil. 51—57. 

Add. 25,020. 

Foil. 346; 9^ in. by 6; 11 lines, 3f in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, about the close of 
the 18th century. [Claud Martin. J 

Abstract of daily intelligence from Dehli, 
extending from the 1st of Safar, A.H. 1195, 
to the 29th of Jumada II. of the same year 
(January — June, A.D. 1781). 

Under each day of the month are found, 
separately recorded, the doings of the Em- 
peror (Shah 'Alam), and of the Navvab Zul- 
fakar ud-Daulah Najaf Khan, who was then 
Vakil i Mutlak, or chief minister of the 
empire, the latter, as the most important 
personage of the period, occupying the greater 
space. To the above are added, especially 
in the early part of the volume, separate 
heads of intelligence relating to some other 
chiefs and generals of the time, as Mirza 
Shafi' Khan, who was fighting the Sikhs, 
Amiin Khan, engaged with the Mahrattas, 
Khwajah 'Ain ud-din, Chait Singh of Benares, 
Partab Singh of Jaipur, Bana Chhatar Singh 
of Gwaliyar, and news from some other 
places, as Akbarabad, Farrukhabad, Bareli, 
Ilahabad, Etava, and Daranagar. 



286 



AKHBAR. 



The book is endorsed JJ>'\ ^^-^ «-r'^ 



Tlie above date is written by mistake for 
1195. 

Add. 25,021. 

Foil. 389; uniform with the preceding, 
and written by the same hand. 

[Claud Martin.] 

Abstract of news-letters from Dehli, similar 
to those above described. The dates are 
often wanting, or, when given, frequently 
wrong, and months belonging to different 
years have been jumbled together in great 
confusion. 

Contents : Ramazan (A.H. 1195), from the 
15th to the 29th, fol. 1 a. Shavval (A.H. 
1198), imperfect, fol. 25 b. Zulhijjah (A.H. 
1197), fol. 39 a. Rajab (A.H. 1196), fol. 
91 6. Sha'ban (A. H. 1196), fol. 178 a. 
Ramazan A.H. 1193), fol. 246 h. Shavval 
(A.H. 1194), fol. 271a. Zulka'dah (A.H. 
1194), fol. 327 a. 

Add. 24,038. 

A volume made up of 117 slips, averaging 
28 in. by 6J, written in Shikastah, in the 
early part of the 19th century. 

[H. H. Wilson.] 

1. Poll. 1 — 56. Akhbar, or news-letters, of 
the Court and Residency of Dehli, from the 
1st to the 25th and from the 28th to the 
30th of June, A.D. 1810. There are two 
slips for each day, one recording the daily 
doings of the Emperor (Akbar H.), the 
other those of the Resident, Mr. Archibald 
Seton. 

2. Foil. 57 — 87. Extracts from the A wadh 
Akhbar, recording the daily doings of the 
Navvab Vazir ul-Mamalik Sa adat Ali Khan, 
of the Begam in Faizabad, and of the 
minister Muhammad Rahmat "AH Khan, from 
the 23rd of Muharram to the 24th of Safar, 



A.H. 1225, corresponding to 1 — 31 March, 

A.D. 1810. 

3. Foil. 88— 115. Extracts from the A wadh 
Akhbar, relating to the Nawab, the Begam, 
and Mirza Jan Khanahzad Khan, from the 
6th of Muharram to the 3rd of Safar, A.H. 
1226, corresponding to 1—28 February, 1811. 

4. Foil. 116—118. News-letters from Au- 
rangabad, relating to broils between the 
Shl'ahs and Sunnis, dated the 8th of Rabi' II., 
the 14th and 20th of Jumada I., A.H. 1243, 
corresponding to 30th Oct.— 10th Dec. 1827. 



Add. 23,148 and 23,149. 

Two uniform volumes, containing respec- 
tively foil. 497 and 425 ; 7| in. by 5^ ; about 
13 lines, 4^ in. long; written in cursive 
Nestalik, about A.D. 1825. 

Akhbar, or daily intelligence from the 
Court of Akbar Shah Padishah for 1824 and 
1825, with the heading ^l^\jU-\ t^'^ 

These reports record, under separate head- 
ings, the daily doings of Akbar Shah, of the 
English Resident ^^!j^<jo-U5, the Collector 

and the Judge cJ^yf- t-«-Uj, the news of 
Jaipur, those of Daulat Rao Sindhiyah, and 
miscellaneous intelligence. 

The first volume extends from the 7th of 
February, 1824, to the 31st of December of 
the same year ; the second from the 1st of 
January, 1825, to the 28th of October of the 
same year. 

They appear to have been drawn up 
for the use of the Resident, Sir David 
Ochterlony, and they come to an end with 
his tenure of oifice. The arrival of his suc- 
cessor. Sir Charles Theophilus Metcalfe, on 
the 20th of October, 1825, and his installation 
in the Residency on the 25th, are recorded 
under the above dates. 

On the fly-leaf is written : " C. EUiot, Esq., 
47 Portland Place." 



GUJEAT. 



287 



Add. 22,624. 

Foil. 193 ; 9| in. by 6 ; about 14 lines, 
4^ in. long ; written in cursive Sbikastab. 

Akhbar, or news-letters of the Dehli Court, 
from the 8th of January, 1830, to the 29th 
of December of the same year; written, 
apparently for the Resident, by Munshi Jwa- 
lanath. 

These letters, dated about every fourth 
day, and headed la> L-iUaljUi-l iUJ^iU-, record 
very minutely, under separate headings, the 
daily doings of the Emperor Akbar Shah, 
of the Eesident, Mr. Erancis Hawkins, and, 
after the 4th of December, 1830, of his suc- 
cessor, Mr. William Byam Martin. To the 
above are added news relating to Mr. Thomas 
Metcalfe, Collector of Dehli, and Mr. William 
Eraser, Commissioner for the Dehli territory ; 
lastly, intelligence from Jaipur and from the 
courts of Eanjit Singh and of Lucknow. 



INDIA.— LOCAL HISTORIES. 



Add. 26,279. 

Eoll. 52; 10 in. by 5^; 15 lines, 3 J in. 
long; written in Nestalik; dated Barodah, 
Eabi' I., A.H. 1223 (A.D. 1808). 

[Wm, Eeskine.] 

An account of the siege and capture of 
Mandu by Muzaffar Shah II., king of Gujrat, 
A.H. 924. 

Beg. j>^ ^^^ iy j\ j\^ j^ 

The author, whose name does not appear, 
was a court-poet, who wrote this work, in 
mixed prose and verse, by order of Muzaffar 
Shah, and who states in the preface that it 
was his first essay in prose. 



The narrative begins with the setting out 
of Muzaffar ShiTh on the 4th of Zulka'dah, 
A.H. 923, and concludes with the banquet 
offered to him by Mahmud Khilji of Malvah, 
in the capital generously restored by him to 
the latter, on the 15th of Safar, A.H. 924. 

An account of this expedition will be 
found in Eirishtali, Bombay edition, vol. ii. 
pp. 408-9, Briggs' translation, vol. iv. p. 84, 
and Bird's History of Gujrat, pp. 223 — 225. 

Add. 26,277. 

Eoll. 223; 8^ in. by 5^; 19 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in small Nestalik ; dated Ju- 
mada I., A.H. 1042 (A.D. 1632). 

[Wm. Erskine.] 

History of the kings of Gujrat, from their 
origin to the death of Muzaffar Shah III., 
A.H. 1000. 

Author : Sikandar B. Muhammad, sur- 
named Manjhu Akbar, ^.s- y.^ ^^_ jjjil> 

Beg. jLi!i\ ^\J\ ^Jt \ij J*s. i^jJl <)JJ ^^ 

The author is designated in. the subscrip- 
tion as MauhlnalskandarB. Manjhu, favourite 
companion (Nadim) of Jahangir. He enu- 
merates in the preface the following earlier 
histories of the kings of Gujrat : Tarikh i 
Muzaflfar-Shrdii, Tarikh i Ahmad Shahi, 
written in verse by Hulvi ShirazT, Tarikh i 
Mahmud-Shahi, Tarikh i Muzaffar-Shahi, 
dedicated to Muzaffar B. Mahmud, Tarikh i 
Bahadur-Shahi. No man, he says, had yet 
composed a comprehensive history of the 
dynasty, and, as the above works had been 
written in the lifetime of the several sove- 
reigns whose names they bear, they were 
necessarily biassed, and showed only the fair 
side of their character. He wished there- 



288 



GUJRAT. 



fore to offer in the present work a true and 
impartial view of their lives and dispositions. 

The author was a witness of the last 
struggle of the dynasty; he served under 
Khan A'zam (Mirza, 'Aziz Kokah), Governor 
of GuJKit, in the campaign which resulted 
in the complete rout of Muzaffar Shah and 
his ally Jam of Surat, the taking of Juna- 
garh, and, finally, the capture and death of 
the dethroned king, A.H. 999-1000. See 
Bird's History of Gujrat, pp. 412—422, 
the life of Mirza 'Aziz in the Maagir ul- 
Umara, Add. 6567, fol. 164, and Blochmann's 
Ain i Akbari, vol. i. p. 325. 

The Mir'at i Sikandari was completed, 
according to the Mir'at i Ahmadi, Add. 6580, 
fol. 13 b, and Bird's translation, pp. 99 and 
175, in A.H. 1020, or forty years after the 
overthrow of the Gujrilt dynasty. 

The kings whose reigns it records, with the 
dates of their accession, are the following : Za- 
farKhan, afterwards Muzaffar Shah, A.H, 810, 
fol. 3 h. Ahmad Shah, A.H. 813, fol. 14 a. 
Muhammad Shah, A.H. 845, fol. 26 b. Kutb 
ud-Din Shiih, A.H. 855, fol. 29 a. Da'ud 
Shah, A.H. 863, fol. 40 b. Mahmud Shah, 
A.H. 863, fol. 41 b. Muzaffar Shah, A.H. 
917, foh 77 a. Sikandar Shah, A.H. 932, 
fol. 107 b. Bahadur Shah, A.H. 932, fol. 114 b. 
Mahmud Shah, A.H. 943, fol. 152 b. Ahmad 
Shah, A.H. 961, fol. 178 a. Muzaffar Shah, 
A.H. 968, fol. 200 a. 

See Morley's Catalogue, p. 83. The Mir'at 
i Sikandari has been printed in Bombay, 
1851 ; see Zenker, vol. ii. no. 763. 



Add. 27,253. 

FoU. 256; lOJ in. by 6; 17 lines, 3^ in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik ; dated Arcot, 
Jumada I., A.H. 1162 (A.D. 1749). 

[J. Macdonald Kinneir.] 

The same work. 

On the first page is written : " From His 



Hishness the Nabob of the Carnatic to John 
Macdonald Kinneir," and lower down »jjo)^ j/ 
^^li- i_Aj>a2 s^ " Presented by Mohammad 
Najib Khan." Above is the seal of the 
Navvab 'Azim ud-Daulah Vala Jah, with the 
date A.H. 1216. 

Najlb was one of the two Khans designated 
as regents of the Carnatic by the will of 
Navvab 'Umdat ul-Umara, in 1801 ; see Mill, 
History of India, vol. vi. p. 333. 

Egerton, 697. 

Foil. 260 ; 9i in. by 5^ ; 15 lines, 3^ in, 
long, in a page ; written in Nestalik ; dated 
Shawal, A.H. 1196 (A.D. 1782). 

[Adam Clarke.] 

The same work. 

Copyist : ^J\^ «JJ1 C^>)-^ ^ ^ x^ii. >\<<° 

jA^J^jUt CX}] JoM i-JjS- «*JA sjiji 

Add. 6595. 

Foil. 209 ; 8| in. by 5i ; 15 or 16 lines, 
31 in. long; written in Shikastah, apparently 
in the 18th century. [James Grant.] 

The same work. 

Add. 26,278. 

Foil. 204; 81 in. by4|; 15 lines, 3f in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Zulka'dah, 
A.H. 1211 (A.D. 1797). [Wm. Eeskine.] 

The same work. 

Add. 6580. 

Foil. 460; li| in. by 8i; 24 Hnes, 5^ in. 
long, in a page. Written in fair Nestalik, 
dated Zulka'dah, A.H. 1202 (A.D. 1788). 



iSO^^ \Zj\j>o 



A history of Gujrat, from the earliest 
times to the defeat of the Mahrattas at 
Panipat, A.H. 1174. 



GUJRAT. 



289 



Author : 'All Muhammad Ivlian, ^^^sf As- 






li) 



Beg. ^JJ^\ CiliU »U»>V -y^ d^j^>^ >3s~' ;_>-,^ 

This is the work, a portion of which, 
amounting to a sixth of the whole, has been 
translated into English by Dr. James Bird, 
and published under the title of " Political 
and Statistical History of Gujarat," London, 
1835. See Morley's Catalogue, p. 84, and 
the Leyden Catalogue, vol. iii. p. 13. 

The author states in his preface that, 
having been appointed, towards the close of 
the reign of Muhammad Shah, Divan of 
Gujrat, he began in A.H. 1161 to compile an 
extensive return of the revenue of the SQbah, 
to which he gave the title of ijs.*s-\ c^y^ 
C^\j^ i>l>\ s^i>-\ Bjyo . Subsequently, however, 
by the advice of some friends, he decided to 
detach the historical matter, which formed 
an appendix to the above return, to expand 
it, and to issue it as a separate book. He 
commenced this new composition, the pre- 
sent work, in A.H. 1170, the fourth year of 
'Alamglr II. He says further on that from 
A.H. 1120, when, at the age of eight or nine 
years, he had left Burhanpiir for Gujrat, he 
had been constantly engaged in taking note 
of passing events and collecting historical 
information from trustworthy persons. 

Contents : Preface, fol. 9 b. Introduction 
(Mukaddimah). Account of Gujrat and of 
its revenue at former periods, fol. 14 a. 
Hindu Eajahs, fol. 19 a. Muhammadan rule 
from A.H. 696 to the rise of the Gujrat 
Dynasty, fol. 22 a. Kings of Gujrat (abridged 
from Mirat i Sikandari), fol, 24 b. Sketch 
of the Timuride dynasty, from its origin to 
A.H. 1173, fol. 45 a. Pall of the Gujrat 
dynasty ; Akbar's conquest and his reign, 
fol. 47 a. (J. Bird's translation ends with 
the above section.) History of Gujrat under 
Jahangir, fol. 76 a, Shahjahan, fol. 81 6, Au- 
rangzib, fol. 95 b, Bahadur Shah, fol. 146 b, 
Jahandar Shah, fol. 152 a, Parrukh-Siyar, 



fol. 153 a, Muhammad Shah, fol. 167 a, Ah- 
mad Shah, fol. 284 b, 'Alamgir II., fol. 306 a, 
and Shahjahan II. (Muhyl us-Sunnah), to the 
end of A.H. 1174, fol. 362 b. 

Khatimah : Description of Ahmadabad and 
its suburbs, fol. 369 a. Saints and Say- 
yids buried there, fol. 377 a. Inhabitants, 
fol. 416 a. Hindu temples, fol. 419 b. Mea- 
sures and weights, police-stations, etc., fol. 
429 b. Districts and Parganahs of the Subah 
of Gujrat, fol. 437 a.; mountains and divers 
curiosities of the province, fol. 457 b. 

Prefixed is a full table of contents, foil. 
1 b—8 a. 

Add. 21,912. 

Poll. 222 ; 10| in. by 5| ; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, in the latter part 
of the 18th century. 

The first portion of the same work. 

It ends abruptly in the thirteenth year of 
the reign of Aurangzib, A.H. 1080, and cor- 
responds to foil. 9 — 111 of the preceding 
copy. 

Add. 26,280. 

Poll. 199 ; lOi in. by 5| ; 15 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Barodah, 
A.D. 1808. [Wm. Eeskine.] 

An abridgment of the preceding work. 

Beg. C^laiwa Jafrl j\ iJ^ CJ^jif s^yo 

The original work is textually followed, 
but considerably shortened by the omission 
of passages of minor importance. The dates 
of kings and governors are given in tabular 
form. The preface and introduction of the 
original are omitted, and the work closes 
with the accession of Ahmad Shah, A.H. 
1161. 

This copy was written, as stated in the 
subscription, for Mr. Samuel Adam Green- 
wood, whose Persian seal, bearing the date 
A.H. 1222, is impressed on the first page. 

pp 



290 



SIND. 



Add. 19,366. 

Foil. 50; 9.f in. by 6; 13 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in rude and ill-shaped Nesta- 
Hk; dated Kajab, A.H. 1237 (A.D. 1822). 






!U 



\i 



History of the Jarijah, the ruling tribe of 
the Kach territory, from its origin to the 
Hindu (Samvat) year 1875 (A.D. 1819). 

Beg. i^ *isU> ft3s;W s^'J »_j.«-J c«i.b ^b 

It is stated at the beginning that this 
account was written down from the oral 
statements of a person whose name is written 

j^ y.<iV (_y^> *-'.'^Uj^ 3,n inhabitant of Virah, 
Parganah of Bhuj, in the month of Phagun, 
1878 (February, 1822). At the end it is 
stated to have been translated from Gujriiti 
by order of Mr. Walter, Assistant Resident 
of Kach, and to liave been written in very 
unidiomatic Persian. The latter statement 
is fully born out by the text. 

The origin of the race is traced to Sham, 
son of Krishan, who dwelt in the kingdom 
of Rum. The narrative, in its early portion, 
is altogether legendary. Further on it as- 
sumes a somewhat more historical character, 
although still bearing the impress of popular 
tradition, and some events are recorded, the 
dates of which are expressed in Hindi coup- 
lets, quoted in the original language. The 
earliest of those dates refer to the chief Lakh 
Phalani, who was born in 922 (A.D. 866), 
and died in 1041 (A.D. 985). In the subse- 
quent period Ahmadiibad is frequently men- 
tioned as the seat of empire, and the Gujriit 
kings, especially Mahniud Bigarah (A. D. 
1459 — 1526), are often introduced. 

The history closes with the Rao Bharmal 
Ji, in whose time Kach was brought under 
English influence. He succeeded his father, 
Raidan Ji on the throne of Bhuj in 1870 



(A.D. 1814), and, after being ejected by 
some Muhammadan chiefs, was re-instated 
in 1872 (A.D. 1816) by Captain Macmurdo. 
In 1875 (A.D. 1819) he was put into con- 
finement, and replaced by his son Rao Dilir. 
See the Account of the province of Cutch, 
by Captain James Macmurdo, Bombay Trans- 
actions, vol. ii. pp. 205 — 241, where the 
Jarajahs are especially mentioned, pp. 224 — 
230. 

Or. 1582. 

Foil. 25; 9i in. by 6 ; 17 lines, 2,\ in. 
long ; written in Shikastah-amiz, apparently 
in the 19th century. [Sir H. Rawlinson.] 

The history of Chach, Riijah of Alor, and 
of the conquest of Bind by Muhammad B. 
Kasim SafaM. 

Author : Muhammad B. 'All B. Hamid B. 
Abi Bakr Kufi, ^\ ^^ .i-eW- ^^ ^s- ^_ j.»s^ 

Beg. 0.9- ^j j^'^jij'-. _/«jU-tA-.'i t^U-j J.«U 

This work, which has all the appearance 
of an historical romance, professes to have 
been translated from an anonymous Arabic 
original, which the author purports to have 
found in Alor or Bakhar, in or shortly after 
A.H. 613, in the possession of a descendant 
of the Arab conquerors. 

It was written under Mu'izz ud-Din Mu- 
hammad B. Sam, and his vassal Niisir ud-Din 
Kabachah us-SalatTn, who are both mentioned 
in the preface as reigning sovereigns, and is 
dedicated to the latter's Vazir, *Ain ul-Mulk 
Fakhr ud-Dlnrfusain B. Abi Bakr ul-Ash'ari ; 
see foil. 3—6. 

The work is designated in the preface by 
the names of .iJ* xji and &*\j ^ ; but it is 
generally called, from the name of its hero, 
Chach Namah. 

Mir Ma'sum, who begins his history of 
Sind, Add. 24,091, fol. 5 «, with an abstract 
of the Chach Namah, and 'AHshlr in Tuhfat 



SIND. 



291 



ul-Kiram, Add. 21,589, fol. 255, call the 
author "Ali B. Hamid B. Abi Bakr ul-Kufi. 
According to Nizfim ud-Din Ahmad, Tabakat 
i Akbarshahi, Add. 6543, fol. 460, the original 
title of the Chach Namah was Minhaj ul- 
Masalik. 

A full account of the work, with an abstract 
of its contents, will be found in Sir H. Elliot's 
History of India, vol. i. pp. 131 — 211. Some 
extracts, translated by Lieut. T. Postans, 
have been published in the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. vii. pp. 93 — 
96, 297—310, and vol. x. pp. 183—197, 
267—271. 

The present copy, which is endorsed :^Jo 

^^ ^e- mU -3. oi«> , contains only the first 

portion of the work. It is disfigured by 
small gaps, which appear due to the muti- 
lated state of the MS. from which it was 
transcribed, and has also a more considerable 
lacune after fol. 20. The latter extends 
from p. 147, line 3, of Elliot's abstract to a 
passage preceding, by 1^ page, the heading 
"Chandar sits on the throne of Chach," 
Elliot, p. 154 The fragment breaks off'thi-ee 
lines below the heading, "Dahir sends another 
letter to Dharsiya," Elliot, p. 155. 

Add. 24,091. 

Foil. 207 ; 8i in. by 5^ ; 14 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with ruled mar- 
gins, probably in the 17th century. 

[Wm. H. Morley.] 

History of Sind from the Muhammadan 
conquest to its final absorption into Akbar's 
empire. 

Author: Muhammad Ma'sum, takhallus 
Nami, B. Sayyid Saf a'i ul-Husainl ut-Tirmizi 
ul-Bhakarl, j.x^ ^ ^Uj (^jA^^^ ^yaj>^ a^s* 
Uij««j u£-<« ijj^\j %o\ ^^JiS\ J^xJ^ ^J'Jut 



Beg. (_^U\ ^ ^Ip a'^j^ i^^ji^^ji 

Tlie author descended from a family of 
Sayyids of Tirmiz, which had been for some 
generations settled in Kandahar. His father, 
Sayyid Safa'i, took his abode in Bhakar, 
Sind, and, after discharging for many years 
the office of Shaikh ul-Islam, died there, as 
stated in the present work, fol. 190 b, in 
A.H. 991. Some time after his father's death 
Mir Ma'sQm went to Gujrat, and was intro- 
duced to Nizam ud-Din Ahmad, the author 
of the Tabakat i Akbarshahi, then Divan of 
the Sfibah, M'ith whom a common taste for 
historical research soon made him intimate. 
Jle entered the service of Akbar in the 40th 
year of the reign, A.H. 1003-4, and was sent 
by him, A.H. 1012, on a mission to Shah 
'Abbas. On his return he received from 
Jahanglr the title of Amin ul-MuIk, and 
returned in A.H. 1015 to his native city of 
Bhakar, where he died shortly after. He 
wrote poeti'y under tlie name of Nami, and 
has left a Dlviin, some Magnavis in imitation 
of the Khamsah of Nizami, and two medical 
works entitled Tibb i Niimi and Mufradat i 
Ma'sdmi. See Maasir ul-Umara, Add. 6568, 
fol. 465; 'Alishir Kani', Add. 21,589, foil. 
293, 520 ; Blochmann, Ain i Akbari, vol. i. 
p. 514; Riyaz ush-Shu'ara, Add. 16,729, 
fol. 454 ; and Taki ud-Din Kashi, Oude Cata- 
logue, p. 37. 

Mir Ma'siim states in the preface that he 
had completed this work, after long delays, 
for the benefit of his son Mir Buzurg. 

It is divided into four parts, called Juz, as 
follows : I. Conquest of Sind in the Khilafat 
of Valid B. 'Abd ul-Malik, and its history 
under the Umayyades and Abbasides, fol. 4 b. 
II. History of Sind under the emperoi-s of 
Hindostan, and under the Sumarahs and the 
Sammahs, fol. 27 b. III. History of the Ar- 
ghiini dynasty, fol. 66 b. IV. Account of the 
annexation of Sind to Akbar's empire, and of 
the Amirs who governed it down to the time 
of composition, fol. 194 a. 
pp2 



292 



TATTAH. 



This last section concludes with the death 
of Mirza Janl Beg, which took place in Bur- 
hanpur, A.H. 1008, prohably the time in 
which the work was completed. See Ma'a§ir 
ul-Umara, Add. 6568, fol. 462, and Bloch- 
mann, Ain i Akbari, vol. i. p. 363. 

An account of the Tarikh i Sind, or Tarikh 
i Ma'sumi, as it is also called, with ample ex- 
tracts, will be found in Elliot's History of 
India, vol. i. pp. 212—252. Its contents are 
fully stated by Morley, Catalogue, p. 72. 

The present copy was taken, as stated in 
the subscription, from a transcript of the 
author's autograph. The copyist Muhammad 
Ja'far. son of KazI 'Abd us-Salam Tamimi 
AnsarT, of the fort of Chandokah &S^>iJU- C->jS, 
(Chandkoh of Thornton's Gazeteer) adds that 
he wrote it for some royal personage whose 
name does not appear. 

Add. 16,700. 

Foil. 178; 8f in. by 5J; 15 lines, 2| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, apparently in the 
I7th century. [Wm. Yule.] 

The same work. 

This copy wants the first page, which has 
been replaced by a spurious beginning. 

On the margins of fol. 178 is transcribed 
a letter written by Khankhanan to Mirza 
Janl Beg, summoning him to make his sub- 
mission. 

Add. 26,281. 

Poll. 231; 8 in. by 5| ; 11 lines, 3^ in. 
long; written in Nestalik, with an 'Unviin 
and ruled margins, apparently in the 18th 
century. [Wm. Erskine.] 

The same work. 

The short preamble is here detached from 
the Preface proper, the beginning of which 
is marked by a rather coarse 'Unvan. 

Appended to the work, but separated from 
it by the subscription, is found an account 
of Dudah Sumarah, ruler of Tattah, foil. 



229 a— 231 h. The same addition has been 
noticed by Morley, p. 74, in a copy belong- 
ing to the Royal Asiatic Society. 

Add. 23,888. 

Foil. 74; 12 in. by 1\; 17 lines, 5^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, on European 
paper, in the 19th century. 

A history of Tattah from the earliest times 
to A.H. 1018. 

Author : Tahir Muhammad Nisyani B. 

Sayyid Hasan, of Tattah, ^^ ^j'^^ ^^^fclia 



«JlJ 



Sj^ 



Beg. J^-^^ t_-^j i^\ J\ (jLii d^ ^J..^ cJu> 

See, for an account of this work and an 
abstract of its contents. Sir H. Elliot's His- 
tory of India, vol. i. pp. 253—288. 

A long and diflFuse preface begins with 
eulogies on Jahangir, his sons, and the 
author's patron, Mirza Shah Muhammad 
Beg 'Adil Khan, son of Shah Beg Khan, 
entitled Khan i Dauriin, by whose desire the 
present work was written. The author states 
that he had been attached to the service of 
Mirza GhazI Beg Tarkhan, surnamed Vakari ; 
that, at the time of Akbar's death, A.H. 1014, 
being in his twenty-fifth year, he obtained 
from Ghazi Beg, then called to the succour 
of Shah Beg Khan for the defence of Kan- 
dahar, leave to return to his native place 
Tattah, and that he there applied himself to 
the study of the standard Persian poets, under 
the tuition of Maulana Ishak ul-Bhakari. 
He adds that he commenced the present 
work A.H. 1021, and completed it A.H. 1030. 

The present copy wants the end of the 
preface and the first part of the history. 
The latter begins fol. 9 a, in the midst of the 
account of the foundation of Tattah, and the 
rule of Jam Nandah, who is stated to have 
died A.H. 914. (See Elliot, pp. 273—276.) 



SIKHS. 



298 



Further on are found the followinfr sec- 
tions, called Tabakah, two of which only are 
numbered : Tabakah III. Mirza Shah Husain, 
son and successor of Shah Beg Arghun, fol. 
11 b. Tabakah IV. Mirza Isa Tarkhan, fol. 
21a. (See Elliot, pp. 276— 278.) Tabakah. 
Mirzfi Muhammad Baki Tarkhan, fol. 27 a. 
(See Elliot, pp. 278—285). Tabakah. Mirza 
Pa'indah Muhammad Tarkhan (including the 
history of Mirza Jiini Beg), fol.4<la. Tabakah. 
Mirza GhazI Beg Tarkhan, the last of the 
family, fol. 56 a. 

The last section concludes with the death, 
by poison, of Ghazi Beg. 

Mirza Ghazi Beg Tarkhan, poetically called 
Vakari, the author's first patron, was ap- 
pointed governor of Sind at the death of his 
father Jam Beg, A.H. 1008, and died sud- 
denly A.H. 1018 ; see Maaigir ul-Umara, Add. 
6568, fol. 470, and Blochmann, Ain i Akbari, 
vol. i. p. 363. 

Mirza Shah Muhammad Beg, to whom the 
work is dedicated, was the eldest son of Shah 
Beg Khan Arghun, who held the government 
of Kandahar from A.H. 1002 to 1028, and 
was then transferred to that of Tattah, which 
he resigned in the same year. He is men- 
tioned in the life of his father, Maagir ul- 
Umara, fol. 349, as a man of considerable 
talent and learning. Compare Blochmann, 
ib. p. 377. 

Mir Muhammad Tahir Nusyani is men- 
tioned by 'Alishir Kani' in the Tuhfat ul- 
Kiram and in his Tazkirah, Add. 21,589, foil. 
357 b, 500 b, as one of his principal authorities. 

Add. 24,414. 

Poll. 167; 9| in. by 6J ; 11 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in cursive Nestalik, in the 19th 
century. [Sir John Malcolm.] 

I. Toll. 1—125. 

A life of Giiru Nanak, the founder of the 
Sikh religion, translated from the Panjabi. 



Translator: Khwajah 'Abd ul- Hakim 
Khan, ^Jj»- *:^ J>j^ *»-^j»- 

Beg. \ji,^y:\ y j^bb ^ ^U5^ J^j\J a^ ^ 

The translator states in the preface that, 
on his arrival at Calcutta, he obtained em- 
ployment from Col. John Malcolm, and re- 
ceived from him a Panjabi book called Pothi 
Janam Sak'hi, treating of the birth and 
wanderings of Gurii Nanak, which he was 
directed to translate with the assistance of 
a NanakpanthI Darvish called Agi Ram. He 
completed the present condensed translation 
A.D. 1806. 

It is divided into 87 chapters (Bayiin), 
corresponding to the section termed Sakhi in 
the original, and assumes the form of a 
dialogue, in which the questions are put by 
Guru Angad, the successor of Nanak, and 
the answers given by Bala Sandhu Jat, one of 
the latter's companions. See Malcolm, Sketch 
of the Sikhs, London, 1812, pp. 10 and 24, 
Wilson's works, vol. ii. p. 124, McGregor, 
History of the Sikhs, London, 1846, p. 48, 
and J. D. Cunningham, History of the Sikhs, 
London, 1849, p 51. Prefixed is a table of 
chapters, foil. 1 b — 3 a. 

II. PoU. 128—167. 

Translation of the Meetings of Nanak. 

This work is probably translated from the 
Panjfibl by the same 'Abd ul-Hakim ; but 
it has no preface. It is an account of the 
interviews of Nanak with a number of 
holy personages of various times and coun- 
tries, and of the discourses in which he 
expounded to them his doctrines. 

Contents : Meeting of Nanak with Adam, 
and discourse on the creation of man. Meet- 
ing with Rukn ud-Din at Mecca, and dispute 
on faith. Meeting with four Imams and 
with Rukn ud-Din at Medina, with Shaikh 
Sharaf in Sirhind, etc., etc. 



294 



SIKHS. 



Prefixed is a table of the 21 discotirses, 
foU. 128 b, 129 a. 

English translations of some passages of 
both the above works are written in the 
margins. 

Add. 24,033. 

Foil. 115 : 7| in. by 5| ; 14 lines, 4^ in. 
long; written in Shikastah; dated Lahore, 
Rabi' I., A.H. 1229 (A.D. 1814). 

[H. H. Wilson.] 



&« 



\i 



&>AJ'v»- 



,J\i 



History of the Sikhs, from their origin to 
A.H. 1222. 

Author : Bakhtmal, J^Isi 
Beg. j^. jiP J* (J-^*: 'V.jA^ ^'^ "^"^ '^ 
The author, a Sikh, states that, during 
the days of leisure he had enjoyed in the 
companionship of Bhrd Lai Singh, he had 
written two works on the above subject, 
namely, a detailed history and an abridgment. 
The former having been, when only half 
finished, carried off by thieves, and the 
latter taken away by Mr. John Malcolm, he 
was led by a growing taste for his theme to 
write the present work, to which he gave 
only a moderate extent. 

The second of tlie above works is pre- 
served in the library of the Royal Asiatic 
Society ; see Morley's Catalogue, No. 85. It 
is one of the authorities followed by Malcolm 
in his " Sketch of the Sikhs," where the 
author is called, p. 14, Bhakta Malli. 

Contents : Early period, from Nanak to 
the death of Bandah, fol. 2 a. Wars with 
Ahmad Durrani, fol. 20 b. Establishment 
of the Sikh power, and the Mahratta wars, 
fol. 34 b. Rise of George Thomas (see Wilson, 
in Mill's History of India, vol. vii. p. 192), 
fol. 54 a. Progress of the English ; Lord 
Lake's campaigns, fol. 66 a. History of 
Ranjit Singh, fol. 78 a. 



The last section ends with an account of 
Ranjit Singh's transactions with the Raja and 
Rani of Patiyalah in A.H. 1222. (See Wilson, 

ib. p. 196.) 

The latter part of the volume contains 
the following additions, written in the same 
hand : Tables of distances on routes leading 
from Lucknow to the principal towns of 
India, foil. 86 a— 105 b. A short collection 
of maxims and rules of conduct, foil. 106 a — 
115 &. 

Or. 187. 

Poll. 177 ; 11 in. by Q^ ; 17 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written by various hands in Nestalik 
and Shikastah-amiz ; dated Pebruary, A.D. 
1835. [Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

A history of the Sikhs, from their origin 
to A.D. 1811. 

Beg. ji>\y^ Jlff-j UJj c^a-£> jt>yi J^ jjjV^ 

The author, whose name is not given, says 
in the preface that he was in the service of 
the Honourable East India Company, and 
had been appointed official news-writer, ^.\jj 
j\il>, for Panjab. He wrote the present 
work by desire of Colonel (afterwards General 
Sir) David Ochterlony, in A.D. 1811. 

The work begins with an account of the 
ten Gurus or spiritual leaders of the Sikhs, 
from Nanak to Gobind Singh. The subse- 
quent history of the sect and the lives of the 
leading Sikh chiefs are then told with great 
detail. The narrative concludes with a full 
account of Ranjit Singh, which begins on 
fol. 124 a. It is brought down to the end 
of the negotiations with Mr. Metcalfe (A.D. 
1808 — 1811 ; see Cunningham, History of the 
Sikhs, p. 146), and closes in the month of 
June, 1811. 

The author designates his work in the 
preface as j^V^iC*. sjji Ji^\ i^J^^i 

The title written on the fly-leaf is 



.1::/ 



AsH ^J3 



JHANG SI'AL. 



206 



A table of contents occupies two leaves at 



the beginning. 



Or. 191. 

Foil. 76 ; 11^ in. by 7 ; 19 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated September, 
A.D. 1862. [Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 



Jj^ i-^ ^^ 



Xi 



A history of the Jhang district and the 
Si'al tribe. 

Author : Niir Muhammad, of the Si'al 
tribe, commonly called Chela, |»y s^ ^y 

^>JL». l_J;& JlL« 

Beg. ^\xm\ ^Jli]\ icAiS- ^Jp J^j &U j.»il 

The Jhangdistrict, which is situated in Pan- 
jab, between Multan and Lahore, about the 
confluence of the Jhilam and the Chinab, is 
properly called Jhang i Si'al, from the Si'al 
tribe by which it is chiefly held. The Si'als 
trace their origin to a Rajput elan formerly 
settled in Jaunpur, which, in consequence of 
internal strife, emigrated in the 13th century 
to the Panjab, where their chief, Pae Si'al, 
was converted to Islamism. 

This work has been lithographed under 
the following title : " The history of Jhung 
Siyal, by Noor Mahomed Chela of Wasoo 
Ustana," Meerut, 1863; with an English 
preface, containing a notice of the author, 
by Col. Geo. Wm. Hamilton. We learn from 
the latter that Nur Muhammad Chela was a 
landed proprietor of the Jhang district, well 
versed in Arabic and Persian literature, and 
highly respected by all classes. 

The author states in the preface that, 
when he was introduced to Major Geo. Wm. 
Hamilton, he was told by the latter of his 
desire to obtain a history of the Jhang district, 
and that, as no work of the kind had ever 
been written, with the exception of a small 
book called Si'alnamah, which contained a 



brief account of Valldad Khan and 'Inayat- 
Ullah Khan, he undertook to supply that 
want, and began collecting information from 
all persons acquainted with the local history, 
carefully weighing and sifting their evidence. 
He followed his own judgment, as well as 
his patron's taste, by drawing up the present 
narrative in a plain and concise style. 

The work is divided into three sections 
(Eukn), as follows : 1. Immigration of the 
Si'als, and their genealogy, fol. 2 a. 2. History 
of the chiefs of the Si'fds down to the pre- 
sent day, fol. 16 a. 3. Description of the 
district, manners of the inhabitants, etc., fol. 
m b. 

At the end is a Khatimah, fol. 74 a, con- 
taining a notice of the author's life, wa-itten 
by his son. From it we learn that the 
author, after spending several years on the 
present work, died in January 1862, leaving 
it unfinished. At the request of Col. Hamil- 
ton, his son, whose name does not appear, 
undertook to revise and complete it, and 
brought that task to a conclusion in Sep- 
tember of the same year. 

The following title is written on the first 
page : ^ J'^l J^ ^c ii,tJo. ^jU ^^^ 
JlL> tfX^ . In the body of the work the 
name of the district is always written ^iJ-:^ . 

Appended is a large map of the district, 
with the names in Persian, a reduced copy 
of which is found in the lithographed edition. 

Or. 468. 

Foil. 93 ; lOi in. by 6^ ; 17 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written by the same hand as the last. 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

The same work. 

At the end are three draughts of the notice 
on the author by his son, foil. 89 — 91. 

The last two leaves, foil. 92, 93, contain 
lists of places situated east of the Chinab, 
in the Du'ab of the Jilam, and west of the 
Jilam. 



296 



KASHMIR. 



Add. 24,032. 

Poll. 131 ; 11 in. by 7| ; from 17 to 19 
lines, 5 in. long ; written in cursive Nestalik 
and Shikastah-rimiz, apparently in the 18th 
century. [H. H. Wilson.] 

The chronicle of Kashmir, RajataranginT, 
translated from the Sanscrit. 

The Sanscrit text of the Rajataranginl of 
Kalhana, with its three continuations by 
Jona Raja, Sri Vara, and Punya or Prajnya 
Bhatta, which, although bearing distinct 
titles, are generally included under the 
above denomination, was printed in Calcutta, 
1835. The work of Kalhana was pub- 
lished with a French translation by A.Troyer, 
Paris, 1840—1852. An abstract of the first 
six books of Kalhana's chronicle has been 
given by Professor H. H. Wilson in the 
Asiatic Researches, vol. xv. pp. 1 — 92. 

The Rljatarangini was translated from 
Sanscrit into Persian for Akbar, A.H. 998, 
by MuUa Shah Muhammad, of Shahabad, 
and re-written in an easy style, A.H. 999, by 
'Abd ul-Kadir Bada'unI ; see Muntakhab ut- 
Taviirikh, vol. ii. p. 374, and Elliot, vol. v. 
p. 478. 

The latter version is probably the work, 
some portions of which are contained in the 
present volume, as follows : — 

I. The latter part of Kalhana's chronicle, 
fol. 1 a. It relates to the reign of Jaisingh, 
and begins abruptly at the time when Bhoj 
and Rajvadan concert a joint attack upon 
that king's army, commanded by Shasht Chan- 
dar. It corresponds to pp. 482 — 563 of 
vol. iii. of Troyer's translation, but the diver- 
gence between the two versions is so great 
as to make it diflB.cult to understand how 
they can have flown from one and the same 
source. 



It is stated at the end that this chronicle 
was written by Kalhan ^^ in the time of 
Jai Singh, that it was divided into seven 
sections called Tarang, and embraced a period 
extending from the year 653 of the Kali 
Yug to the year 4249 of the same era ( A.D. 
1148). 

II. Continuation by Jona Pandit, fol. 20 a. 
Jona ^fi- wrote, as stated at the beginning, 
in the time of Zain ul-'Abidin, and by his 
order. His chronicle begins with the latter 
part of the reign of Jai Singh, who is said to 
have survived Kalhan five years, and to have 
died after a reign of twenty-seven years. It 
comes down, according to the Calcutta 
edition, to A.D. 1412. 

III. Continuation by Sri Vara, fol. 66 b. 
Sirl Pandit C^^, ^jj^ , as the author is called 
in the MS., who was a pupil of Jona, says 
at the beginning that it was incumbent upon 
him, after the death of his master, to carry 
on his work, and that he received moreover 
the Sultan's commands to that eifect. His 
chronicle, which is imperfect at the end in 
the present copy, is brought down, according 
to the Calcutta edition, to A.H. 1477- 

IV. A fragment of the last section, which 
was written according to the Calcutta edi- 
tion by Prajnya or Punya Bhatta, and comes 
down to the conquest of Kashmir by Akbar, 
A.H. 995, A.D. 1587, fol. 99 a. 

This fragment begins with the conquest 
of Kashmir and Tibet by Mirza Haidar 
Dughlat, and his return from Tibet, A.H. 
952. It ends with the attempted flight of 
Yusuf Khan, who is sent back to Kashmir 
by the emissaries of Rajah Bhagvandas, A.H. 
992. 

Add. 16,706. 

Foil. 180 ; 91 in. by 5^ ; 17 lines, 2| in. 
long ; written in small Nestalik, probably in 
the 18th century. [Wm. Yule.] 



KASHMIR. 



297 



A history of Kashmir from the earliest 
times to A.H. 1023. 

Beg. jxJi/cJi\^ j^!!L-jUi.\ J^jyo 

The author, whose name is not given, ap- 
pears to have been a dependent of a Kash- 
miri Sayyid, Shah Ahul-Maali, to whom he 
gives a prominent place in the later period 
of his history. This Sayyid Shah Abul- 
Ma all was the second son of Sayyid Mubarak 
Khan, who was raised for two months to the 
throne of Kashmir in A.H. 986, and died in 
exile at FirQzabad A.H. 999 (see fol. 169 a). 
Abul-Ma ali played an active part in the fre- 
quent broils which disturbed Kashmir for 
some years before the conquest, and was then 
placed under the command of Rajah Man 
Singh, under whom he served for four and 
twenty years. After the latter's death, in 
A.H. 1021, he was presented, with Haidar 
Malik Charvarah, the author of the next 
following work, to the emperor Jahjingir, 
who conferred upon him a Mansab and a 
Jagir in Tattah. 

The work begins without any preface; after 
a short account of the Hindu period, in which 
the dates of the Hijrah, from A.H. 531 
downwards, are frequently given, it enters, 
fol. 11 b, upon the Muhammadan period, 
which occupies the rest of the volume. 

There is after fol. 41 a lacune extending 
from the death of Zain ul-'Abidin, A.H. 878, 
to that of Mirak Hasan, A.H. 893. 

The narrative becomes very full for the 
later period, especially from the death of 
'All Shah, A.H. 986, fol. 110 a, to the end. 
The last events recorded are the appointment 
of Haidar Malik Charvarah to the govern- 
ment of Kashmir, the death of Rajah Man 
Singh, A.H. 1021, and the departure of 
Sayyid Shsh Abul-MaVdi for his Jagir in 
Tattah, A.H. 1023. 

The title Baharistan i Shrdii is found in 
some verses at the end, which contain also 



the date of completion, A.H. 1023, expressed 
by the chronogram j^^ ^^UU, **\3 . The 
same title has also been written by a con- 
temporary Persian hand on the first page. 

Mention is made in the preface of the 
Vaki at i Kashmiri (see p. 300 a) of an abridged 
history of Kashmir, written, previously to 
that of Haidar Malik, by Mullii Husain Kari ; 
but whether the present work is meant, 
remains doubtful 

Add. 5636. 

Foil. 163; 9i in. by 5^; 17 lines, 2| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, apparently in 
the 17th century. 

A defective copy of the same work, want- 
ing about twenty leaves at the beginning, 
and eight at the end, besides some single 
leaves in the body of the volume. 

It begins shortly before the death of Sultan 
Shihab ud-Din, A.H. 780 (Add. 16,706, fol. 
17 b), and breaks ofi" a little after the death 
of Yakub Shah by poison (Add. 16,706, fol. 
172 b). 

Add. 8906. 

Foil. 224 ; 10.^ in. by 6^; 12 lines, 3f in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with ruled mar- 
gins; dated Lucknow, Shawal, A.H. 1216 
(A.D. 1802). 

History of Kashmir, from the earliest times 
to its conquest by Akbar. 

Author : Haidar Malik, son of Hasan 
Malik B. Malik Muhammad Naji Charvarah, 
ijjj^ i_yo.lj s^ tlJic ^^ till* ^J.,J,. jjj liilo jj,-». 

Beg. sy ci*-J' C->j*-^ ylys- iiSo\ ^J\ 

The author belonged to a noble Kashmiri 
family, which took its name from its heredi- 
tary seat Charvarah, also written Chadvarah, a 
village near Sirinagar, which is mentioned in 
Jahangir Namah, p.30i, and in Ikbrd-Njimah, 
p. 159, as the birth place of Haidar Malik. 
In the account of his life, which he gives in 

Q Q 



298 



KASHMIR. 



the latter part of the present work, he says 
that he had spent four and twenty years of 
his life in the service of Yusuf Khan Chak, 
the last king of Kashmir, whom he followed 
in his banishment to his Jagir in Bengal. 
He carried out with great success, as Fauj- 
dar of Jais, an expedition against Riijah Bal- 
bhadr, and was personally engaged with 
Shiraf kan Khan in the attack, in which the 
latter succumbed, A.H. 1016. Having, with 
his brother 'All Malik, protected that Amir's 
widow, Mihr un-Nisa Begam (afterwards 
Nur Jahan), against all dangers, he was 
warmly recommended by her to Jahangir, 
who bestowed upon him the titles of Chagha- 
tai and Rals ul-Mulk, with the government 
of Kashmir. It was, he says, through his 
influence with the Emperor that his old 
friend Dilavar Khan was appointed (A.H. 
1027) Subahdar of the province vice Ahmad 
Beg Khan. His autobiography concludes 
with a full account of the conquest of Kisht- 
var, A.H. 1029—30, the credit of which he 
gives to his brother 'Ali Malik, and of the 
visit of Jahangir to Kashmir at the same 
period. 

The author says in the preface that he 
commenced this work A.H. 1027, in the 12th 
year of Jahanglr's reign ; but further on, fol. 
4 b, A.H. 1029 is mentioned as the current 
year, and towards the end. Add. 16,705, fol. 
224, an event of A.H. 1030 is recorded. 
The main part of the contents is abridged, 
as stated foil. 78, 79, from the Rajatarangini, 
but the Hijrah dates are substituted for those 
of the Hindu aera, and some additions have 
been made to it in the later period. 

The conclusion consists of two parts (kism), 
as foUows: 1. Life of the author, fol. 196 a. 
2. Description of Kashmir, fol. 202 b. 

The work of Haidar Malik is mentioned 
by Saint Martin, Journal Asiatique, vol. i. 
p. 367,. who notices two copies in the Paris 
Library I. See also Wilson, Asiatic Researches, 
vol. XV. p. 2 ; D. J. r. Newall, Journal of 



the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. xxiii., 
pp. 409, 435-6, ib. vol. xxxiii. p. 280 ; Baron 
C. von Hugel, Kashmir, p. 3 ; Aumer, Mu- 
nich Catalogue, p. 98 ; and Library of King's 
College, Cambridge, No. 81. 

Add. 16,705. 

Toll. 230; 8 J in. by 4f; 16 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written in a cursive Nestalik, with 
ruled margin, probably in the 17th century. 

[Wm. Yule.] 

The same work, wanting about four leaves 
at the beginning. 

The text is fuller than that of the pre- 
ceding copy, and the account of the author's 
life, which in the latter stops short at the 
appointment of Dilavar Khan, is here com- 
plete. 

Add. 11,631. 

Foil. 125 ; 74 in. by 4^ ; 14 lines, 2f in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with ruled 
margins ; dated Zulhijjah, A.H. 1127 (A.D. 
1715). 

History of Kashmir, from the earliest times 
to A.H. 1122. 

Author : Narayan Kiil, poetically sur- 
named 'Ajiz, j?.Uj j_>ali^' ^j^ ^^\J> 

Beg. j^jJ}-» u"^ o-^^i^J^ uJj^ O"^ 
The author, a Kashmirian by birth, had 
long made himself famUiar with the annals 
of his native country, and had often been 
urged by Kashmirian nobles to write its 
history, when'at last an opportunity offered 
in the fourth year of the reign of Shah 'Alam, 
A.H. 1122. 'Arif Khan, who was then Nil'ib 
and Divan of the Subah, had collected the 
Sanscrit chronicles of Kashmir and wished 
to become acquainted with their contents. 
The author then procured the translation 
made of them by Malik Haidar (see p. 297 b), 
which was too diffuse for the general taste. 



KASHMIR. 



299 



F 



and, after comparing it with the Sanscrit ori- 
ginals and eliminating some exaggerated and 
incredible statements, gave its substance in 
a condensed form in the present abridgment. 

This 'Arif Khan, also a Kashmirian, ■who 
had previously acted as deputy (Na'ib) under 
the Subahdar Ibrahim Khan, afterwards 'Ali 
Mardan Khan, had then been for a year at 
the head of the government of Kashmir, 
during the absence of the new SQbahdar 
Navazish Khan, who had not yet reached 
his post. See fol. 119 a, Tazkirat ul-Umara, 
fol. 72, and Newall, Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, vol. xxiii., p. 441. 

Contents : Mukaddimah. Name and origin 
of Kashmir, fol. 5 a. Rajahs, fol. 7 a. Mu- 
hammadan kings, fol. 54 a. Conquest of 
Kasim Khan, fol. 103 a. Arrival of Akbar, 
fol. 108 b. Siibahdiirs from the conquest to 
A.H. 1122, fol. 116 a. Khatimah. Topo- 
graphy and curiosities of Kashmir, fol. 119 b. 
The author says in the concluding hues that 
the words ^^ji^iS *W> J^V J^^^ convey at the 
same time the title of the work and the date 
of its composition. The chronogram is only 
approximative, for it expresses A.H. 1121 
instead of 1122. 

The work of Narayan Kul is known as 
Tarikh i Kashmir ; it is mentioned by Wilson, 
Asiatic Researches, vol. xv. pp. 5, 6, Hiigel, 
Kashmir, p. 3, and Newall, loc. cit., p. 409. 
A copy presented to Baron Carl von Hiigel 
in Kashmir is described, without author's 
name, in the Vienna Catalogue, vol. ii. p. 191. 

Add. 24,030. 

Poll. 256; 8 in. by b^; 11 lines, 3 J in. 
long ; written in broad Nestalik, on European 
paper; dated Jumada I., A.H. 1222 (A.D. 
1807). [H. H. Wilson.] 

The same work. 

Or. 186. 

Foil. 117; 8 in. by 4^ ; 17 lines, 3 in. 



long; written in Nestalik; dated Sambat 
1871 (A.D. 1814). [Geo. W. Hamilton.] 

The same work, 

A modem table of contents is prefixed, 
foU. 1—4. 

Add. 24,029. 

Foil. 131 ; 9^ in. by 6 ; 11 Unes. 3f in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, on European 
paper ; dated April, A.D. 1820. 

[H. H. Wilson.] 

' A history of Kashmir, from the earliest 
times to the conquest of Akbar. 

Author : Aba {sic) Rafi' ud-Din Ahmad B. 
'Abd us-Sabur B. Khwajah Muhammad Bal- 
khi Kashmiri, takh. Ghafil, d.^>-\ ^^.^jJ^ ^j \>\ 

Beg. jjb J ciJdJ\ iJA!l« l-jU?- o-V* J /-* 
The author says in the preface that Kalhan 
Pandit, who had written his Razah Tarang 
according to the false creed of the idolaters, 
and in a spirit opposed to the true faith of 
Muhammad, had been hitherto followed by 
ancient and modern historians. He deter- 
mined, however, to disregard the statements 
of unbelievers, and to compile from the works 
of his predecessors a true and compendious 
account of the Muslim kings of Kashmir. 
He states at the end that he completed the 
work in Shahjahanabad, in the month of 
Safar, A.H. 1136. The same date is expressed 
by the words [read wli] ^ ^'vao, versified 
chronogram. 

Contents: Origin of Kashmir, curiously 
connected with the legendary Sulaiman, and 
account of the early Rajahs, fol. 4 a. Mus- 
lim kings, beginning with Shahmlr, fol. 21 h. 
Akbar's conquest, fol. 100 o. Beauties of 
Kashmir, fol. 126 b. 

Q Q 2 



300 



KASHMIR. 



The historical portion concludes with the 
return of Akbar to Agrah, and the death of 
Yaljcub Khan Chak, who is said to have been 
poisoned by means of a Khil'ah sent by 
Akbar. 

The Naviidir ul-Akhbar is mentioned by 
Wilson, Asiatic Researches, vol. xv. p. 5, 
where the author is called Rafi' ud-Din Mu- 
hammad, as also in HUgel's Kashmir, p. 3. 

Or. 26,282. 

Foil. 315; 8| in. by IJ; 15 lines, 3 in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, with ruled 
margins, apparently in the 18th century. 

[Wm. Eeskine.] 

A history of Kashmir, from the earliest 
times to A.H. 1160. 

Author : Muhammad A'zam, son of Khair 
uz-Zaman Khan, ^^»- yUpl^jki- ^>Jj Jacl s^ 

Beg. jVaSlj c.\^\JL3Ci Ol^^ iJJJOJ 

The author was a Kashmirian by birth, 
and a disciple of a holy Shaikh of Kashmir, 
Muhammad Murad Nakshabandl, who died 
A.H. 1134 (see fol. 268 h). He states in the 
preface that the original history of Kashmir, 
which he calls ^5y jj^^, the work of some 
Hindu chroniclers, had been translated and 
brought down to their own times by several 
Muslim writers, as MuUa Husain Kari, after 
him, Haidar Malik Chadvarah and some 
later authors ; and that, about the same time, 
some Hindu (probably Narayan Kul, p. 298 b) 
had written a very short compendium of the 
same history. Finding that those works did 
not contain full notices of the holy men 
of Kashmir, nor give an account of the 
events of recent times, it occurred to him to 
supply that deficiency by the present work, 
in which he added to the political history 
notices of the Sufis and 'Ulama of each 



period, and also of the poets and elegant 
writers who had flourished in more recent 
times. 

He commenced it in A.H. 1148, a date ex- 
pressed by the above title, but did not com- 
plete it till A.H. 1160. The latter date is 
fixed by the words i5j^\^.^ c^joj j l-oj in a 
versified chronogram at the end. 

The lives of Shaikhs, grouped under each 
reign, form the great bulk of the work. 

The author says at the end, fol. 305 h, that 
his aim in collecting them had been to assert 
the spiritual eminence of the holy men of 
Kashmir against the disparaging opinion ex- 
pressed by a Sayyid of great repute, Mir 
Muhammad Yusuf, of the Nakshabandi and 
Kubravi orders, who had visited the country 
in A.H. 1146. He adds that he had been 
prevented by a severe illness from com- 
pleting them by notices of the Shaikhs then 
living (A.H. 1160), and concludes by enu- 
merating the following works used in his 
compilation : Tarikh i Sayyid 'Ali. Tarikh 
i Rashidi, by Mirza Haidar. Muntakhab ut- 
Tavarikh, by Ahsan Beg. Tarikh i Haidar 
Malik Chadvarah. Rishi Namah, by MuUa 
Nasib. Darajat us-Sadat, by Khwajah Ishak 
Navachii. Asrar ul-Abrar, by Baba Da'ud 
Mashkubi. Tuhfat ul-Fukara and other tracts 
by the author's Murshid, Shaikh Murad. 
Ma'agir i 'Alamgiri. 

For the last fifty or sixty years he had 
relied, he says, exclusively upon information 
orally obtained and upon his own observation. 

The work is divided into a Mukaddimah, 
three parts (Kism) and a Khatimah, as 
follows: Mukaddimah. Description of Kash- 
mir, fol. 3 a. Kism I. Hindu Rajahs, fol. 8 b. 
Kism II. Muslim Kings, fol. 31 J. Kism III. 
Conquest of Akbar, fol. 126 a. Reign of 
Jahangir, fol. 154 a. Shabjahan, fol. 170 b. 
Aurangzib, fol. 188 a. Bahadur Shah, fol. 
233 b. Farrukh-Siyar, fol. 243 b. Muham- 
mad Shah, fol. 260 a. Khatimah. Curiosities 
of Kashmu-, fol. 306 6. 



RAJPUTS. 



301 



The Vaki'at i Kashmir is the authority 
chiefly followed by Newall in his " Sketch of 
the Mahomedan history of Cashmere," Jour- 
nal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. xv., 
pp. 409, 441. See also Wilson, Asiatic Re- 
searches, vol. XV. pp. 2, 5, Journal Asiatique, 
vol. i. p. 366, vol. vii. p. 6, Dorn, Bulletin, 
vol. xiii. p. 352, and Rajatarangini, vol. iii. 
p. 636. It has been translated into Urdu 
by MunshI Ashraf 'Ali, and lithographed in 
Dehli, 1846; see Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, vol. xxiii. p. 253, and 
Biblioth. Sprenger., no. 240. 

The present copy wants the first page and 
a few lines at the end. About ten leaves, 
containing notices of the poets of Shah- 
jahan's time, and the beginning of the reign 
of Aurangzib, have been lost after fol. 187. 

Or. 185. 

Foil. 215; 111 in. by 7i; 17 lines, 4^ in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, with 'Unvan and 
gold-ruled margins, apparently in the 18th 
century. [Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

The same work. 

A table of contents, in a later handwriting, 
occupies two pages at the beginning. 

Add. 24,031. 

Foil. 402 ; 9| in. by 6J ; 15 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik; dated 
Benares, June, A.D. 1820. [H. H. Wilson.] 

The same work. 

Copyist : to ,_»al« ^jjx.*^^ ^^^^ e^^ l^^ 

Or. 1271. 

FoU. 102; 12 in. by 6^ ; 13 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik, dated 
Akbarabad, Shavval, A.H. 1198 (A.D. 1784). 

A history of the Rajahs of Dhundhar 



(afterwards Rajahs of Jaipur), from their 
origin, about A.H. 380, to A.H. 1198. 

Beg. Sjjjij c^\y^\j [^J^S ji'vi- ij'^-j-jj s.*»- J*> 

It appears from the preface that the pre- 
sent history was translated from a Hindi 
original, obtained from Jaipur, in A.H. 1198, 
by (Major) James Brown. The Persian ver- 
sion is due to the Major's Munshi, Jan 'Alam 
Shirin-Rakam, who completed it in Agra, in 
the month of Shavval of the same year. 

Major Brown was the head of the mission 
sent from Calcutta to the Dehli Court in 
1784. See Francklin's Life of Shah Aulum, 
p. 115, and Keene, Fall of the Moghul Em- 
pire, p. 149. 

The narrative begins with Isar Singh, who 
held sway in Gwaliyar and Narwar about 
A.H. 380, and whose grandson Diilah Rae 
became the founder of the Kachwahah 
dynasty in Dhundhar. It grows more cir- 
cumstantial as it reaches the time of Akbar, 
fol. 40 a, when Rajah Mansingh, son of Bhag- 
want Singh, and his successors, began to 
play a conspicuous part in the Moghul Em- 
pire, and it comes to a close with the first 
years of the reign of Maharajah Partab Singh, 
who was reigning at the time of composi- 
tion. 

The last events of any importance recorded 
are the interview of the Maharajah with 
Shah 'Alam before Jaipur, his successful cam- 
paign against his rebellious tributary Rao 
Partab Singh of Alwar, and his return to his 
capital, in Shavval, A.H. 1198. 

This history agrees on the whole, in spite 
of many discrepancies of detail, with Tod's 
"Annals of Amber or Dhoondar," vol. ii. 
pp. 345 — 374. Partab Singh died, according 
to the same work, p. 375, in the year 1813. 

The work is designated in the preface as 
jO\> s^i^ji ij^j^ ^iri*'^ *»-i)V' J^ Jj^ 

Prefixed is an abstract of the contents, on 
nine leaves of smaller size. 



302 



RAJPUTS. 



The first page of the text bears the Persian 
seal of Major James Brown, with the date 
1191. 

Add. 27,254. 

Poll. 289 ; 12 in. by 8J ; 9 lines, 4^ in. long, 
in a page ; written in a fair and large Nes- 
talik, with a richly illuminated 'Unvan and 
gold-ruled margins; dated A.D. 1130. 

[SiE John Malcolm.] 

Historical notices on some princely families 
of the Rajput and Sikh territories, with por- 
traits of the existing representative of each. 

Author : Col. James Skinner (see p. 65 a). 

Beg. iUb*. JalJ\ fti" ^JJ^\ cJOU iiAv^ >iJ^ >y^ 

The work is divided into four parts, called 
Tabakah. The first Tabakah, comprising the 
Bajputs, is subdivided into four sections, 
called Daf ahs, as follows : 

Daf 'ah 1. Riinas of Udaipur, fol. 9 a. 

Daf'ah 2. Rajahs of Jaudhpur and the 
kindred Eajahs of Bikanir and Kishangadh, 
fol. 29 a. 

Daf'ah 3. Rajahs of Jaipur, fol. 69 a, and 
the following kindred or feudatory chiefs: 
Raos of Uniyarah ' ij^j\, fol. 80 a. Thakurs 
of Jhalai '" ij'k^?- , fol. 85 a. Thakurs of Dun 
^,j<> (situate between Kishangadh, Dudu, 
Jhalai and the river Binas), fol. 89 a. Raos 
of Machari ijj>-\* and Alwar'= ^^1, fol. 93 a. 
The clan called Khankarut CL>jJ^^ , fol. 
101 a. Thakurs of Dudu'* _,^ji, fol. 103 a. 
Thakurs of Pachiwar^ jy-h-^> fol- 109 a. 
Thakurs of Digi ' Jl, fol. 114 a. Thakurs 



» See Thornton, East India Gazetteer, under Ooniara. 
'' Thornton's Jhullaee. ' Machery and Alwur, ih. 

* Doodoo, 20 miles N.E. of Kishangadh on Allen's Map 
of the Western Provinces. 

' Thornton's Puchewor. ' Diggee, tJ. 



of Torri^ t/jjy, fol. 119 a. Thakurs of 
Khatri or Khetri,'' ^jji-^ or ^jys^ > fol. 122 a. 
Thakurs of Nawalgadh ^j/jy (between Ba- 
sahu, Sikhanah, Saikar and Surajgadh),' fol. 
128 a. Thakurs of Basahu " ^U-j , fol. 133 a. 
Thakurs of Saikar 'jil*., fol. 137 a. Raos of 
Patan ■" j^^b, fol. 142 a. Rajahs of Nimranah " 
si^^, fol. 147 a. 

Daf'ah 4. Raos of Rewari ^j}y>.^, and 
Rajahs of Sonipat" c^,^^y4>, fol. 155 a. 

The second Tabakah treats of the following 
Sikh families : — 

Rajahs of Lahore, fol. 177 a. Rajahs of 
Jind '' jji-3- , fol. 190 a. Rajahs of Patiyalah '' 
«3LL, fol. 198 a. Rajahs of KaithaP J^ 
(situate between Bhudwiil, Pa,i, Phawah and 
Chhantar), fol. 205 a. Rajahs of Nabhah ' 
«^U , fol. 209 a. Rajahs of Alu ^T, or Ka- 
purthallah' nA^j^yioi. 213 a. Rajahs of 
Thanesar" ^l^, fol. 221 a. The Kalsiyah 
or Kalisiyah Eajahs, so called from their 
place of origin, Kalsi ,_5-i> , near Chhicha- 
rauH ' ^3j^^ > whose state is situate between 
Kapurthallah, Rfihun, Machhidarah and Jiju, 
fol. 225 a. Lords (Walis) of Radaur " ^j^j , 
a state situate between the river Ghagar, the 
mountains, and the towns of Jakadharl and 
Ladwah, fol. 228 a. Rjljahs of Ladwah* Jjj!i), 
fol. 232 a. Rajahs of Jagadhari and Buriah," 
fol. 236 a. 

The third Tabakah treats of the following 
Khans, or Muhammadan Chiefs : 

B Toree, ih. ■> Khetree, ib. 

» See Nowulgurh in the district called Shekarwut, Tod's 
Map of Eajasthan.' ^ Thornton's Busaoo. 

' Seikur in Tod's Map, ib. ; Sikur, under Shekhawuttee 
in Thornton's Gazetteer. ^ Thornton's Patun, 

° Neemranee, ib. " Eewaree and Soonput, ih. 

P Jheend, ib. i Putteeala, ib. 

' Khytul, under Narbah, ih. It is marked about .SO 
miles S.E. of Thanesar in Allen's Map of the "Western 
Provinces. » Narbah, Thornton. » Kapoorthella, ib. 

" Thunnesir, ib. " Chicherouly, ib. 

" Eudowra, about 20 miles west of Thanesar in Allen's 
Map. " Thornton's Ladwa. y Jugadree and Booreah, ib. 



RAJPUTS. 



303 



Navvabs of Farrukhnagar," fol. 241 a. 
Jagirdars of Dujjinah,'' fol. 249 a. Nawabs 
of E-ilniyah,' fol. 254 a. Nawabs of Bha- 
walpur, fol. 263 a. 

The fourth Tabakah contains a topographic 
description of the district of Hariyanah, with 
an account of the towns of Hisar, Hansi and 
Kanund/ fol. 267 a. 

The history of each family is briefly traced 
from its origin, or from the earliest records, 
to the time of composition. 

At the beginning are found : 1. A table 
of the Rajahs and Amirs whose portraits 
are contained in the volume, foil. 1 b — 2 b. 
2. A dedication in verse to General Malcolm, 
with Colonel Skinner's Persian seal, which 
reads "Nasir ud-daulah Karnil (Colonel) 
James Skinner Bahadur Ghalib Jang, 1830," 
fol. 3 b. 

It is stated at the end that the work was 
finished on the 10th of June, 1830. 

The following are the persons whose por- 
traits are introduced : 

The author, Col. James Skinner, fol. 4. 
E-ana Jawan Singh of tJdaipur, fol. 8. Rana 
Man Singh of Jaudhpur, fol. 28. Rajah Ratan 
Singh of Bikanir, fol. 57. Rajah Kalyan 
Singh of Kishangadh, fol. 64. Rajah Jagat 
Singh of Jaipur, fol. 68. Nup Singh of tJni- 
yarah, fol. 79. Karam Singh of JhalaT, fol. 
84. Chand Singh of Diin, fol. 88. Bakhta- 
var Singh of Alwar, fol. 92. Manohar Singh, 
father of the Amirs of Khankariit, fol. 100. 
Jivan Singh of Dudu, fol. 102. Samir 
Singh of Pachiwar, fol. 108. Bhup Singh of 
Digl, fol. 113. Chaman Singh of Todri, 
fol. 118. Bakhtavar Singh of Khetri, fol. 121. 
Udai Singh of Nawalgadh, fol. 127. Siyam 
Singh of Basahu, fol. 133. Lachhman Singh 
of Saikar, fol. 136. Lachhman Singh of Pa- 
tan, fol. 141. Lachhman Singh of Nim- 
ranah, fol. 146. Puran Singh of Rewari, 



* FtuTucknuggur, ib. ^ Doojanuh, ih. " Raneeuh, ih. 
^ Hureeanah, Hissar, Hansee and Kanoond, ih. 



fol. 154. Aman Singh of Sonipat, and Tuta- 
Ram, fol. 169. Sardar Ranjlt Singh of La- 
hore, fol. 176. Rajah Sankit Singh of Jind, 
fol. 189. Rajah Karam Singh of Patiyalah, 
fol. 197. tjdai Singh of Kaithal, fol. 204. 
Rajah Jaswant Singh of Nabhah, fol. 208. 
Path Singh of Alu, fol. 212. The son of 
Mahtab Singh, Rnjah of Thanesar, fol. 220. 
Hira Singh Kalisiyah, fol. 224. The Rani 
of the late Rup Singh of Radaur, fol. 227. 
Sardar Ajlt Singh of Ladwah, fol. 231. Gulab 
Singh of Jagadhari and Sher Singh of Buri- 
yah, fol. 235. Navvab Muzaffar Khan of 
Farrukhnagar, fol. 240. Dxindi Khan of 
pOjanah, fol. 248. Navvab Zabit Khan 
BhatI of Raniyah, fol. 253. Navvab Dalil 
Khan of Bhawalpur, fol. 262. 

Add. 24,051. 

Poll. 234 ; 12f in. by 8^ ; 9 lines, 4^ in. 
long, in a page; written in large and fair 
Nestalik, A.D. 1830. 

The same work, without the portraits. 

This copy does not contain the dedicatory 
verses to Sir John Malcolm. The date of 
completion, as given at the end, is somewhat 
earlier than in the last, namely the 15th of 
April, 1830. 

Add. 16,709. 

Poll. 51 ; 10| in. by 6^ ; 11 lines, 3f in. 
long; written in fan- Nestalik, with gold- 
ruled margins ; dated Muharram, the 12th 
year of Aurangzib (A.H. 1080, A.D. 1669). 

[Wm. Ytjle.J 

A history of the fortress of Gwaliyar, from 
its origin to A.H. 1078. 

Author : Hiraman B. Girdhardas, MunshI, 

Beg. ^yi-A9- ij-o^ J ttrt^ »«^ " t^^ >*-»* 



304 



GWALIYAR. 



The author was Munshi to Mu'tamad Khan, 
who held the command of Gwaliyar from 
A.H. 1071 to 1078. We gather from his 
narrative that he was engaged on Aurangzlb's 
side in the great battle fought against Shuja', 
near Shahjahanpur, A.H. 1069. 

Mu'tamad Khan, a eunuch, formerly called 
Khwiijah Nur, was attached by Aurangzib, in 
the first year of his reign, to the service of his 
captive father, with the above title. He was 
afterwards appointed in succession to the com- 
mand of the fortresses of Dchli, Gwaliyar, 
Agrah, and returned to Court after a second 
term of office in Gwdliyar, A.H. 1091. See 
Tazkirat ul-Umara, Add. 16,703, fol. 93, and 
Ma'a^ir i 'Alamglri, pp. 174, 195. 

No title is given to the work in the text, 
but in the subscription it is called «*Uj\J)ji' 

The history begins with the foundation of 
Gwilliyar, 332 years after Bikramajit and 
315 before the Hijrah, by Suraj Sen, a Kach- 
wahah Zamindar, in obedience to the order 
of a devotee named Gwalipa, who mira- 
culously healed him, and changed his name 
to Suraj Pal. His descendants are then enu- 
merated. They are followed by Sultan Shams 
ud-Din (Iltatmish), the slave of Kutb ud-Din 
Aibak, fol. 9 a, the Tunur Rajputs, fol. 15 a, 
Bahlul Lodi, fol. 17 a, Babar and his suc- 
cessors, fol. 19 a. 

The history becomes fuller with the reign 
of Aurangzib, fol. 28 «, whose wars with his 
brothers are related at some length, down to 
the imprisonment of the Princes Muhammad 
Sultan and Sulaiman Shikiih in the fort of 
Gwaliyar. 

The last chapter, fol. 44 6, treats of the 
governorship of Mu'tamad Khan, and the 
various buildings erected by him in Gwaliyar. 
It concludes with his appearance at the Em- 
peror's Court on his transfer from Gwaliyar 
to Agrah, in Sha'ban, A.H. 1078. 

The early part of the present work, down 
to the reign of Shahjahiin, is borrowed, with- 
out acknowledgment, from aGwalivar Namah 



written in A.H. 1050 by Shaikh Jalal Hisari ; 
see Miscellaneous MSS., Add. 16,859, iv. 

Copyist : y^^ s^ 

A copy of the present Gwaliyar Namah, 
belonging to the Library of Eton College, is 
mentioned by Samuel Lee, Travels of Ibn 
Batuta, p. xiii. 

Egerton 699. 

Foil. 21 ; 9| in. by 6J ; 13 lines, 41 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, about the begin- 
ning of the 19th century. [Adam Claeke.] 

A short history of the fortress of Gwaliyar, 
from its foundation to A.H. 1194, 

Beg. j\^\/ &Ali' ^J■ViJ fj\d3j\ J\^l 

According to the opening lines this account 
was written down from the dictation of Mot'i 
Ram and Khushhal, two Hindu inhabitants 
of Gwaliyar, by order of Capt. Wm. Bruce. 

Contents : Account of the foundation of 
Gwaliyar by Rajah Son Pfd (afterwards Suraj 
Pal), a Kachhwahah Rajput, and of his suc- 
cessors, fol. 1 b. Sultan Shams ud-Din 
GhorT takes it from the last Rajah, Sarang 
Dev, fol. 8 b. Man Singh, son of Kalyan 
Singh, a Rajput of the Lunar line, and his 
son and successor, Bikramajit, dispossessed 
by Bilbar, fol. 15 b. Rjlna Bhim Sen, of 
Gohad, obtains Gwrdiyar by the treachery of 
the commander Kishvar 'AH Khan, in the 
second year of Ahmad Shah, but is soon 
afterwards ousted by Patel Rao (Sindiah), 
fol. 20 b. Its capture by Major Popham, on 
the 2nd of Sha'ban, A.H. 1194 (the 4th of 
August, 1870;' see DuflPs History of the 
Mahrattas, vol. ii. p. 420), fol. 21 a. 

Add. 16,710. 

Poll. 31; 6i in. by 4^; 10 lines, 2| in. 
long; written in Nestalik, in the latter part 
of the 18th century. [Wm. Yule.1 

The same work. 



BHARTPUR. 



305 



long; 



Or. 190. 

Foil. 106; 8 in. by 5|; 11 lines, 3^ in. 
written in cursive Nestalik; dated 
Agrah, Rajab, A.H. 1234 (A.D. 1819). 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

History of the Mahratta war in Hindostan 

from A.D. 1803 to 1805, and especially of 

the part played in it by Ranjit Singh, the 

Jat Rajah of Bhartpur. 

Author: Dhunkal Singh MunshI, ^y^^i 

Beg. ^\j t^US tjjjU-.^ ^^\iJ ^ (J^ y^yr 

The author, a dependent of Ranjit Singh, 
states incidentally that he was employed by 
the latter in his negotiations with Lord Lake. 
He gives throughout a prominent place to 
his master, and displays a most bitter ani- 
mosity against General Perron and Daulat 
Rao Sindhiyah. His language is extremely 
prolix and overloaded with metaphors. In a 
versified epilogue he says that he was induced 
to write this work by a friend, Munshi MotI 
Ram, and that he completed it in A.H. 1121. 

The history begins with an account of the 
rise of General Perron, of Lord Lake's march 
against him, and of the capture of Ramgarh 
(A.D. 1803). It concludes with a detailed 
narrative of the siege of Bhartpur, and of 
the treaty between Lord Lake and Eanjit 
Singh (April 1805). The death of the latter 
in Govardhan (A.D. 1806) is briefly recorded 
at the end. 

It may be noticed that the Rajah of 
Bhartpiir is styled &iCi«> C-oai, jS>^j^ *?-^V' 
jii\> and frequently designated by the name 
of j'^^y^ alone. 

The work is called in the subscription 

«xJkw> >S*x^j ft?-]j jSy «5ou-> (J-^j^ii iJ^ '— ^^ ij* 
j^'^, and at the end of the next- following 

copy ^_^^^ s>iLi-» J5oj*i> x^}jj 



A full account of the life of Ranjit Singh, 
who reigned in Bhartpur from A.D. 1776 to 
1806, will be found in the following His- 
tory of Bhartpur, Add. 19,501, foil. 26—39. 
Compare Mill's History of India, vol. vi, 
pp. 597—612, Creighton's Siege of Bhurt- 
pore, p. X., and Thornton's Gazetteer, under 
Bhurtpore. 

Or. 189. 

Poll. 70 ; Hi in. by 6| ; 15 lines, 4 in. 
long; written in Nestalik; dated Rabi' II., 
A.H. 1250 (A.D. 1834). 

[Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

The same work, without the epilogue. 

Add. 19,501. 

Poll. 66 ; 12i in. by 8^ ; 15 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in large Nestalik, in the 19th 
century. 

A history of the Jat Rajahs of Bhartpur, 
from their origin to A.D. 1826. 

Author : Francis Gottlieb, 



Beg. y\j ij.v • ■ • • "iJ/S *J^ vJU^ »^j^ tt^ 

The author, who describes himself as a 
German, bom in Poland and educated in 
India, professes to have drawn this account 
of the Jats from Hindi! sources. He adds 
that he wrote it for Major Abraham Lockett. 

After an introduction treating of the Hindu 
cosmogony, religious system, and the gene- 
alogy of their early kings, the history proper 
begins, fol. 14 b, with Bud Singh aJC:-. ^, 
who, after being imprisoned by his cousin, 
Muhkam Singh, son of Churaman, Rajah of 
Thiin, escaped to the court of Jaisingh Siwal 
of Jaipur, obtained from him the territory 
of Mathura Bandra'in, built the fort of Dig, 
and, assuming the title of Rajah, became 
the founder of the Bhartpiir family. 



306 



ROHILLAS. 



After a reign of twenty years he became 
blind, abdicated in favour of his eldest son 
Surajmal, and died twenty years later, Sam- 
vat 1813. 

The reigns of his successors are as follows : 
Surajmal, fol. 20 a. Javahir Singh, who 
succeeds Samvat 1820, fol. 22 b. Eatan 
Singh, fol. 24 b. Guhar Singh, who suc- 
ceeds Samvat 1826, fol. 25 b. Eanjit Singh, 
Avho succeeds Samvat 1833, and dies Samvat 
1863, fol. 27 b. Randhar Singh, who dies 
Samvat 1880, fol. 39 b. Baldev Singh, fol. 
43 b. Balwant Singh, fol. 50 a. Usurpation 
of Purjan Sal and Mfidhau Singh, fol. 60 b. 

The history concludes with the siege of 
Bhartpur by Lord Combermere, Samvat 1882, 
and the restoration of Balwant Singh (A.D. 
1826 ; see Wilson, Mill's History of India, 
vol. ix. p. 183), fol. 63 b. 

A short sketch of the Jilt Rajahs is given 
by Tod in his Annals of Rajasthan, vol. ii. 
pp. 369 — 371. See also an abstract of their 
history by Harsukh Riie in Elliot's History, 
vol. viii. pp. 360-368. 

Add. 24,410. 

FolL 138 ; 9| in. by 5^ ; 12 lines, 31 in. 
long; written in large NestaHk, about the 
close of the 18th century. 

[SiK John Malcolm.] 

A detailed history of the celebrated Rohilla 
chief, Najib ud-Daulah, who was raised 
by Ahmad Shah Durrani to the office of 
Amir ul-Umara, A.H. 1170, took a leading 
part in the wars against the Mahrattas and 
the Jats, and remained absolute master of 
Dehli until his death, A.H. 1185. 

Beg. ftlfcjj ^U ^li. i_^- j^ s^ Jc c:^LJ j^ 

The work begins, without any preamble, 
with an account of the early career of Najib 
Khan. It has neither title nor author's name. 
Spaces are frequently left for rubrics, which 
have not been entered. 



The narrative is circumstantial, and written 
in a plain and unpretending style. It con- 
cludes with the death of Najib ud-Daulah. 
A Persian note on the fly-leaf, fol. 2 a, ascribes 
the work to Sayyid NQr ud-Din Husain Khan 
Bahadur Fakhri. 

Appended are two historical extracts, one 
containing the chronology of the Timurides 
from their origin to the birth of Aurangzib, 
fol. 127 a, the other an account of the foun- 
dation of Shahjahanabad, fol. 134 b. 

Add. 6594. 

Foil. 176; 9 in. by Q\; 13 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in fair Nestabk, in the latter 
part of the 18th century. [James Grant.] 

U^ (^AJ ^J^ 

A history of the Afghan chiefs of Kather 
(or Rohilkand), from their origin to the 
settlement which followed the affair of Lai 
Dang, A.H. 1188. 

Author : Shlv Parshad, ^U>^ ^joi. 

Beg. iiy> (J^.lJj (ji^.^ (j5j^ ^ Jy>.j~\ u^J 

The author was, as appears from the pre- 
face, in the service of the Rohilla chief, 
Navvab Faiz Ullah, who employed him as 
his agent in his negotiations with the Colo- 
nel in command of the British force at Bil- 
gram. There he became acquainted with 
Mr. Kirkpatrick, at whose request he wrote 
the present work. He completed it in the 
month of Mtiharram, A.H. 1190, and dedi- 
cated it to the Nawab, to whom it was 
submitted for correction. 

This work agrees in substance, and often 
verbatim, with the original from which Mr. 
Charles Hamilton derived his "Historical 
Relation of the origin, progress, and final dis- 
solution of the Rohilla Afgans," London, 1787, 
but which appears, from the few verbal 



ROniLLAS. 



307 



extracts inserted in the English text, to 
be somewhat fuller. It must be remarked, 
however, that the author of Hamilton's orieri- 
nal, if he was, as stated by the translator, 
an Afghan, could not be identified with the 
present writer, whose name, Shiv Parshad, is 
a conclusive proof of Hindoo nationality. 

After enlarging in his preface on the seven 
virtues of Paiz Ullah Khan, and the beauties 
of his residence, ESmpur, the author begins 
a short account of former Afghan rulers, 
from Shir Shah to 'Adll, fol. 11 h. 

The history of the Rohillas commences 
with the settlement at Kather, in the reisrn 
of Shah Jahan, of Shah 'Alam Khan and 
Hasan Khan, the ancestors of the ruling 
race, fol. 15 h, and the career of the former's 
grandson, 'Ali Muhammad, fol. 17 6, the 
first who achieved independence. It con- 
cludes with the defeat of the Rohillas by 
Shuja ud-Daulah with his English allies, 
and the subsequent peace. The last event 
recorded is the release of the families of 
Hafiz Eahmat and Dundi Khan from their 
captivity in Ilahabad, Sha'ban, A.H. 1189. 

The preface is in a different hand from the 
rest of the work, and appears to have been 
added subsequently. 

The contents of the work are fully stated 
in Elliot's History, vol. viii. pp. 175 — 179. 

Add. 8988. 

Foil. 113 ; 8i in. by 5| ; 12 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, about the close 
of the 18th century. 

The same work. 

In this copy the eulogy on Faiz Ullah 
Khan and Rampur is left out. 

Towards the end the text becomes fuller 
than that of the preceding copy, especially 
in the account of the transactions which 
resulted in the release of the captive families, 
and contains some additional paragraphs, 
109 h — 116 6, relating to the end of Ahmad 



Khan and the other sons of the Bakhshi 
Sardar Khan. 

Add. 26,214. 

Foil. 93 ; 8^ in. by 4? ; 16 lines, 3| in. 
long; written in Shikastah; dated in the 
Bengali year 1210 (A.D. 1802). 

[Wm. Ebskine.] 

The same work. 

This copy wants the preface, but agrees 
in other respects with Add. 6594. 

A few letters of Saadat 'All Khan and 
others are added at the end, fol. 92 a — 93 h. 

Or. 198. 

Foil. 193 ; 11 in. by 7 ; 15 lines, 4J in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated July, A.D. 
1865. 



[Geo. W. Hamilton.] 



History of the Eohilla chief Hafiz ul- 
Mulk Hafiz Eahmat Khan (see p. 212 h). 

Author : Muhammad Mustajab Khan, 



^^ V>U^-- j..^ 



Beg. 



The author, a son of Hafiz Rahmat, says 
in the preface that he had long entertained a 
design to write the life of his father, with an 
account of his ancestor, Shaikh Shihab ud- 
DTn, surnamed Kuti Baba, the first of the 
family who had emigrated from their ori- 
ginal seat Shuravak Vapasin to Hindustan. 
Havinsr noticed that recent historians had 
given a distorted account of Da'ud Khan, 
'Ali Muhammad Khan, Hafiz Rahmat Khiin, 
and other Eohilla Amirs, he determined to 
carry out that intention, set about collecting 
the most authentic information from his own 
relatives and other trustworthy persons, and, 
yielding to the entreaties of his brothers, 
Allahyar Khan and Muhammad 'Umar Khan, 

rr2 



308 



OUDE. 



published the present work, written, as 
stated at the end, in A.H. 1207. 

Contents: Mukaddimah. History of Shaikh 
Shihiib ud-Din and his descendants, fol. 6 b. 
Fasl I, History of Hafiz Rahmat from his 
birth to the death of *Ali Muhammad Khiin 
(A.H. 1161), fol. 11 b. Fasl II. His history 
from the latter period to his death (A.H. 
1188), fol. 29 b. Khatimah. Account of his 
children and of some events subsequent to 
his death, fol. 172 b. 

The last section concludes with the release 
of the family of Hafiz Rahmat from the 
fortress of Uahabad, in Sha'ban, A.H. 1189, 
and an account of the provision made for 
them. 

The " Life of Hafiz ool-Moolk," published 
by Mr. Charles Elliott, London, 1831, is a 
considerably abridged version of the present 
work. It contains, however, a continuation, 
pp. 130—141, which is not found either in 
this or the following copy of the original. 

An expanded recension of the Gulistan i 
Rahmat was written under the name of Gul 
i Rahmat by a nephew of the author, Sa adat 
Yar Khan of Bareli ; it was lithographed in 
Agra, in 1836. An account of both works 
will be found in Sir H. Elliott's History, 
vol. viii. pp. 301—312. 

Add. 22,715. 

Foil. 206 ; lOi in. by 6 ; 17 lines, 4f in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Ramazan, 
A.H. 1233 (A.D. 1818). 

The same work. 

Egerton, 1001. 

Foil. 234 ; 13| in. by 7| ; 17 Unes, 4 in. 
long; written in cursive Nestalik; dated 
Rabr I., A.H. 1227 (A.D. 1812). 

A history of Burhan ul-Mulk and of his 
successors in the government of Oude, down 
to A.H. 1223. 



Author: Ghulam 'Ali Nakavi B. Sayyid 
Muhammad Akmal Khan, ^^\ (^^ Js- ^"^M- 

^^li- J^ s^ yx^ 
Beg. iS*.^ J^^j 4>L> ^j^ljjk!j>:& jULI* ^J^^y *«*i 
We learn from the preface that the author, 
born in Rae Bareli, was transferred in his 
eighth year to Dehli, where his father dis- 
charged the duties of physician to Shah 
'Alam, and of governor to Akbar II., then 
heir apparent. Before he had completed his 
course of study, the capital fell a prey to 
the ruthless Ghulam Kadir, A.H. 1202, and 
he was fain to escape to Lucknow, while his 
father fled to the Deccan. In A.H. 1213 he 
joined his father, who had just returned from 
a pilgrimage to Mecca, and for seven years 
led with him a wandering life in Southern 
India. After his father's death, he went back 
to his native land, and soon after, in A.H. 
1222, entered the service of Colonel John 
Baillie, then Resident at the Court of 
Lucknow, whom he calls i-dDJl J-ii^ «JjjJl iil«& 
i-iX;*- ^^'^J^ jii\> ^J^ ^J^. . It was by Col. 

Baillie's desire that he wrote the present work 
in A.H. 1223. 

Muhammad Faizbakhsh, who mentions the 
author in his Farah Bakhsh, Or. 1015, as a 
personal acquaintance, calls him Sayyid 
Ghulam *Ali Khan, of Rae Bareli. 

Burhan ul-Mulk SaVidat Khan, originally 
called Mir Muhammad Amin, may be called 
the founder of the Oude Dynasty. He came 
to India in the reign of Bahadurshiih with 
his father Mirza Naslr of Naishapur, who 
settled in Patna. Under Muhammad Shah 
he rose to high commands, and obtained the 
Subahdarl of Oude. Made a prisoner at the 
battle of Karnal, A.H. 1151, he shortly after 
died of his wounds. He was succeeded, as 
governor of Oude, by his nephew and son-in- 
law Abul-Mansur Khan Safdar Jang, who 
was subsequently appointed Vazir ul-Mama- 
lik, and from whom the later kings of Oude 
are lineally descended. 



OUDE. 



309 



As Burhan ul-Mulk and his successors 
played an important part in all the wars 
that then distracted Hindostan, this work 
contains in fact a history of the Moghul em- 
pire during that eventful period. 

Contents: History of Burhan ul-Mulk. 
Accounts of Nizam ul-Mulk, Kamar ud-Din 
iChan, Zakariyya Klian, Khan Dauran, and 
other AmTrs. Invasion of Nadir Shah, fol. 6 b. 
History of Safdar Jang (A.H. 1151—1167). 
Mahabat Jang in Bengal. Rising of the 
Rohilahs. Suraj-mal. Growing power of 
the Sikhs. Najib Khan. Invasion of the 
Mahrattas under Brdaji, and war with Ahmad 
Shah Durrani, fol. 39 b. History of Shuja 
ud-daulah and contemporary events, A.H. 
1167-88, fol. 107 b. Asaf ud-daulah, A.H. 
1188—1212, fol. 172 a. Saadat AH Khan, 
A.H. 1212—1223, fol. 214 a. 

The history is brought down to the meeting 
of Saadat 'AH with the Governor-General 
Marquis Wellesley at Canpur, A.H. 1216. 
It concludes with a brief account of the 
Governors-General and Residents at the 
Court of Lucknow from that time to A.H. 
1223. 

It is stated in the subscription that this 
copy was written for Eakhr ud-Daulah Mirza 
Shah Mir Khan. 

The 'Imad us-Saadat has been litho- 
graphed, with an appendix containing a 
detailed account of Bfda Rao, in the press of 
Navalkishor, Lucknow, 1864. An account 
of the work, and of an expanded recension, 
subsequently written by the author under 
the title of Nigar Namah i Hind, will be 
found in Elliot's History, vol. viii. pp. 394 — 
402. It is one of the works consulted by 
H. G. Keene for his " Fall of the Mot'hul 
Empire," p. 295. See also Morley's Catalogue, 
p. 93. 

Or. 1015. 

Foil. 265 ; 13i in. by 9i; 17 lines, 6^ in. 



long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Zulhijjah, 
A.H. 1247 (May, A.D. 1832). 

A history of Faizabad, the original seat of 
the Navvabs of Oude, and of the Court of 
Lucknow, from A.H. 1179 to A.H. 1233, 
with an introduction containing a sketch of 
the Timuride Emperors from their origin to 
the downfall of the Sayyids. 

Author : Muhammad Faizbakhsh, of Ku- 
kuri, ^sj^'i J^ jij^, ^^J .y^ 

Beg. iJJU- ijii \i e^ ^^■^ -W 

We learn from the preface that the author 
had come as a youth, in A.H. 1183, from 
his native place to Faizabad, then the fa- 
vourite residence of Shuja ud-Daulah. Four 
years later he entered, as Tahvlldar of the 
Treasury, into the service of Javahir 'AH 
Khan, an Eunuch who had been appointed 
Nazir in A.H. 1181, and retained that post 
under the elder Begam, the widow of Shuja' 
ud-Daulah. His office brought him into 
daily contact with the Dehli Amirs who 
at that time flocked to the Court of the 
Navvab. 

After the death of Javahir 'AH, which 
occurred in A.H. 1214, he discharged the 
same duties under the latter's adoptive child 
and successor, the Eunuch Muhammad Da- 
rab 'AH Khan, who, being fond of learning, 
caused the author to read to him the princi- 
pal works of history. 

Sayyid Ghulam 'AH Khan, of Rae Bareli, 
the author of the preceding work, who on 
a former occasion had stayed a year and 
some months in Danlb 'All's house, paid a 
second visit to Faizabad, in attendance upon 
the Collector of Gurakhpur. Finding him- 
self unable to answer that gentleman's in- 
quiries respecting the death of Shuja' ud- 
Daulah and the erection of his mausoleum 



310 



OUDE. 



in Gulab Bari, he applied to the author for 
information, and, the circumstance having 
been mentioned in the presence of Darab 
'All, the latter regretted that the events 
which had followed the death of Shuja' ud- 
Daulah had not yet been recorded. Acting 
upon his master's hint, the author entered 
the very next day upon the compilation of the 
present work, which was completed in the 
same year, A.H. 1233, a date expressed in a 

versified chronogram by the words JUX..; 

His patron died, as stated at the end, 
fol. 264 a, on the 7th of Shavval of the same 
year. 

Contents : Preface, fol. 2 b. Sketch of 
the Timurides, down to Jahangir, fol. 7 a. 
Eeign of Shahjahan, fol. 18 b. Aurang- 
zlb's wars with his brothers, and his death, 
fol. 59 b. A'zam Shah and Bahadur Shah, 
fol. 105 a. Contest of Jahandar Shah with 
his brothers, and his accession, fol. 109 a. 
Rising of Farrukh-Siyar with the Sayyids, 
and the former's reign, fol. 120 a. Kule of 
the Sayyids after the death of Parrukh-Siyar, 
and their fall, fol. 143 a. 

Part II. Historv of Paiziibad ; its first 
beginnings under Burhiln ul-Mulk, and its 
extension under Shuja' ud-Daulah, from A.H. 
1179, to the latter's death, on the 3rd of 
Zulka dah, A.H. 1188, fol. 150 h. Accession 
of Asaf ud-Daulah, and events at Paizabad 
till Shavval, A.H. 1190, fol. 154 a. Life of 
the Eunuch Javahir 'All and contemporary 
transactions, till llabl' II., A.H. 1194, fol. 
165 b. Events of A.H. 1166. Spoliation of 
the Begams. Arrest of Javahir 'Ali, etc., fol. 
177 b. Early Hfe of Darab 'Ali Khan, fol. 
217 b. Account of Gulab Bari and Shuja' 
ud-Daulah's monument, fol. 230 b. Death 
of Asaf ud-Daulah, 28 llabi' II., A.H. 1212, 
fol. 239 a. Death of Javahir 'Ali Khan, 
15 Jumada II., A.H. 1214, fol. 243 a. Death 
of the Begam at the age of 86 years, 26 Mu- 



harram, A.H. 1230, fol. 254 a. Last years 
of Darab 'Ali Khan, and his death, 7 Shavval, 
A.H. 1233, fol. 257 a. 

This work is mentioned under the title of 
Tarikh i Paiz Bakhsh in Elliot's Histoiy, 
vol. viii. p. 175. See also Sprenger, Journal 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. xxiii. 
p. 248, No. 122. 

Or. 179. 

Poll. 283; 8 in. by 6; 13 lines, 3J in. 
long; written in Nestalik; dated March, 
A.D. 1865. [Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

The first part of the same work, viz. the 
preface and the history of the Moghul Em- 
pire, corresponding to foil. 2 b — 150 a of the 
preceding copy. 

Prefixed is a table of contents, foil. 1 
and 2. 

Or. 193. 

Poll. 42 ; 9i in. by 6 ; 13 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Shikastah-amiz ; dated 
Shahjahanabad, Ramazan, A.H. 1240 (A.D. 
1825). [Geo. Wm. Hamilton.] 

li'oT ^AS ^\^\ d^ J> iUaj"^^ c--w-^ 

History of Paizabad, abridged from the 
preceding work, by Sayyid Mahdi 'Ali, poeti- 
cally surnamed ImamT, {,jai^ ^ t/'H* •^^^ 

Beg. i_r^^ '^^/^ j^ " ci'^"^ "^"^ 
This abridgment was written, as stated 
in the preface,'by desire of a noble Amir and 
Sayyid, Mirza Husiim ud-Din Haidar Khan 
Bahadur. 

Add. 16,721. 

Poll. 320 ; 8| in. by 6 ; 11 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in a large Nestalik, about the 
close of the 18th century. [Wm. Ytjle.] 



JAUNPUR. 



311 



Abstract of Akhbar, or news-letters, re- 
cording daily occurrences at the court of the 
Navvab of Oude, Vazir ul-Mamalik Asaf ud- 
Daulah, from the 28th of Zulka'dah, A.H. 
1209, to the 14th of Muharram, A.H. 1211 
(June 1795— July 1796). 

The volume is endorsed, c^\j\m^\ ^\-^^ 
ji»\^ iiijSi\ i_i^T ciDUJ\ yjj i_->ly 

It is imperfect at beginning and end, and 
has two lacunes extending from the 23rd of 
Zulhijjah, A.H. 1209, to the 24th of Rabi' II., 
A.H. 1210, and from the 28th of Jumada II., 
A.H. 1210, to the 13th of Sha'ban of the 
same year. 

Or. 188. 

Foil. 55 ; 10.| in. by 6 ; 13 lines, 4 in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Zulhijjah, 
A.H. 1282 (A.D. 1866). 

[Geo. Wm. HAMiiiXON.] 

A history of Jaunpiir. 
Author : Khair ud-Din Muhammad Ila- 
habadT, ^obT «J1 s^ j^>ll^^ 

Beg. iJ-»sf ^^_cii\ jf-o- ji.aj i\^ J iJ.»a- AjO 

The occasion on which the work was 
written is related at length in the preface. 
An Arabic inscription had been found on 
a stone pillar in the courtyard of a mosque, 
in the fortress of Jaunpur. Mr. Abraham 
Willand, who came to Jaunpur in 1796 (as 
Judge of the Zillah) having applied to the 
author for a translation of it, the latter 
answered that it was of no historical interest, 
and volunteered at the same time to supply 
all the information that Mr. Willand could 
desire respecting the origin and history of 
Jaunpur. This he did in the present work, 
which is divided into the two following sec- 
tions (Bab) : I. History of the Sharki Sultans, 
from the time of Firuz Shah (A.H. 752) to 
the defeat of 'Ali Kuli Khim by Akbar, 
A.H. 974, fol. 4 a. II. Account of the erec- 



tion of the various ancient buildings of Jaun- 
piir, fol. 27 a. 

The fly-leaf bears the title of j^yr J>J^ . 

The work is also designated as Jaunpur 
Namah ; see Journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, vol. xxiii. p. 254. A somewhat 
abridged version was published in Calcutta, 
1814, under the title " Translation of the 
history of Jounpoor, from the Persian of 
Fukeer Khyr ood-deen." 

Add. 25,795. 

Foil. 34 ; 6 J in. by 4 J 9 lines, 2^ in. long; 
written in Nestalik, about A.D. 1805. 

[Wm. Cureton.J 
A short historical account of Jaunpiir. 
Author: Ghulam Hasan Zaidi ul-Vasiti, 

J^V' «-?>^J u"^ c^ 

Beg. J\j a/jJUi j_^ (jiJ^^ J^loj} 

The author was Munshi to Mr. Charles 
Chisholme, Registrar of Jaunpur, by whose 
desire he wrote this work. 

Contents ; Fasl I. History of the founda- 
tion of Jaunpiir and of the Sharki dynasty, 
fol. 2 b. Fasl II. Account of the principal 
buildings of Jaunpur, fol. 17 b. Tatimmah. 
Notices on six 'Ulama of Jaunpur, fol. 28 a. 
The last of these is the author's master, 
Maulavi Raushan 'AIT, then one of the pro- 
fessors of the College of Fort William. 

Foil. 31 — 34 contain a list of the quarters 
and streets of Jaunpiir. 

This is apparently the author's autograph. 
On the first page is written : " Charles Chis- 
holme, Esq., Jaunpore, 6th June, 1805." 



Add. 27,316. 

Foil. 102 ; 9 in. by 6^ ; 15 lines, 4 in. 
long, in a page ; written in cursive Nestalik, 
apparently about the close of the 18th cen- 
tury. [D. Forbes.] 



312 



BENGAL. 



History of the life and rule of 'All Virdi 
Khan Mahabat Jang, Nazim of Bengal, and 
of his successor Shuja' ud-Daulah. 

Beg. JJiijJ ^^\J\ ^^j\ L->la!l jj*« ^J\ .sW' 

The author, who does not disclose his 
name, states, fol. 28 «, that he completed the 
work A.H. 1177 in Ilahabad, where he was 
detained by illness. He occasionally quotes 
as his authorities some of the chief actors in 
the events which he relates, as *Abd ul-Hadi 
Khan Bakhshi, and Mir Muhammad Ja'far 
Khan. 

A miscellaneous volume, Add. 6945, written 
by the Rev. J. H. Hindley, contains, fol. 18, 
the beginnings of the various sections of the 
present work, and the following notice of its 
author : " ^ tiJo. ^\^ ^c>jj ei\ ^.j\5 , by Eusoph 
Alee Khaun [Yusuf 'Ali Khan], son of Gho- 
laum Alee Khaun, an intimate friend of 
Mahabut Jung. He married a daughter of 
Alia ud Dowlat Surferauz Khaun." 

The history of 'AH Virdi Khan is slightly 
imperfect in this copy ; it breaks off in A.H. 
1168, about a year before his death. The 
account of the short-lived reign of Shujii' ud- 
Daulah begins on fol. 89 a. It concludes 
with the accession of Mir Muhammad Ja'far 
Khan to the Nizamat, and the subsequent 
capture and death of Shuja ud-Daulah. 

The author incidentally refers, fol. 101 b, 
to his history of the Nizamat of Mir Muham- 
mad Kasim. 

The work is called in the subscription r^jU 
^<^\^ ll^ioj . It is generally known as 
Tririkh i Mahabat Jang. See Elliot's MSS., 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
vol. xxiii., p. 248. 

Add. 22,382. 

Poll. 67 ; 8i in. by 7 ; 15 lines, 4| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik ; dated Ramazan, 
A.H. 1198 (A.D. 1788). 

A portion of the same work, correspond- 



ing to foil. 1 a — 86 a of the preceding copy. 
The last event recorded is the death of Rajah 
Jangi Ram, Naib of Behar, and the appoint- 
ment of Eajah Ram Narayan as his successor. 
In the subscription the work is called ^Jd 

lli\^ SjyO J2»\j Liii»- CL-^V^* w^^'^j *^' 

Add. 6593. 

Eoll. 118; 8| in. by 6^; 13 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Nestalik, in the latter part 
of the 18th century. [James Grant.] 

The same portion of the preceding work. 

Or. 1118. 

Foil. 93 ; IQi in. by 7 ; 14 lines, 4 in. long; 
written in Nestalik, late in the 18th century. 

[Warken Hastings.] 

A history of the Nazims of Bengal, from 
the rebellion of Subha Singh, a Zamlndar 
of the district of Bardwan (A.H. 1107, C. 
Stewart's History of Bengal, p. 328) to the 
death of 'Ali Virdi Khan (A.H. 1169). 



Beg. 



^ O-.^^ o,>r^\ 



(ijl^Xit 



The author, who does not give his name, 
states that he wrote this work by order 
of Mr. Henry Vansittart, Governor of Fort 
WiUiam (A.D. 1760—1764), whom he desig- 
nates by the title of Nasir ul-Mulk Shams 
ud-Daulah Tahavvur Jang. 

His name is found in the following title, 
written in English on the fly-leaf, " Moon- 
shee Selim Oolla's History," 

This is the original of the " Narrative of 
the transactions in Bengal," translated by 
Francis Gladwin, Calcutta, 1888. The pre- 
sent copy is imperfect at the end ; it breaks 
off at the flight of Murshid Kuli Khan, 
p. 183 of GladAvin's translation. 

Add. 16,702. 

Foil. 244; 9^ in. by 6; 13 lines, 3^ in. 



BENGAL. 



313 



long; written in cursive Sliikastah-?lmiz ; 
dated Murshidilbad, Jumada I., A.n. 1188 
(A.D. 1774). [Wm. Yule.] 

A history of the Nazims of Bengal, from 
the rise of All Virdi Khan Mahabat Jang to 
the arrest of Sayyid Muhammad Riza Khan, 
A.H. 1186. 

Author : Karam 'Ali, ^ ^^ 

Beg. ci*-.xioLtf jIjUaa. JjJjw 'Jji^j >jji^ 13 »>.♦» 

The author states in the preface that he 
belonged to the family of the Nazims. He 
personally attended upon Saif ud-Daulah 
during his illness, and was afterwards at- 
tached to the service of Sayyid Muhammad 
Riza Khan Muzaffar Jang (see foil. 230 a, 
239 h). He says that he wrote the present 
work in A.H. 1186, in order to relieve his 
affliction, at the time when the arrest of that 
eminent ruler had spread dismay through 
Bengal. 

Contents : History of Mahabat Jang, from 
his early life to liis death, on the 9th of 
Eajab, A.H. 1169, fol. 4 h. Rule of his 
grandson, Siraj ud-Daulah, ff)l. 104 h. Rule 
of Mh' Muhammad Ja'far Khan, from his 
accession on the 14th of Shavval, A.H. 1170, 
to his deposition, fol. 130 a. Nizamat of 
Mir Muhammad Kasim Khan, from the 10th 
of Rabri., A.H. 1174, fol. 153 h. Mir Mu- 
hammad Ja'far Khan, from his restoration on 
the 10th of Rabi' I., A.H. 1177, to his death 
on the 14th of Sha'bcin, A.H. 1178, fol. 
190 a. Reign of his son, Najm ud-Daulah, 
from his accession to the Nizamat, and the 
appointment of Muhammad Riza Khan as 
Na'ib or Deputy, to the former's death, 
on the last day of Zulka'dah, A.H. 1179, 
fol. 196 6. Nizamat of Najm ud-Daulah's 
brother, Saif ud-Daulah, from the 9th of 
Zulhijjah, A.H. 1179, to his death, fol. 204 a. 
Nizamat of Mubarak ud-Daulah, from his 
installation in Zulka'dah, A.H. 1183, to the 



abolishment of the Nizamat in A.H. 1185, 
fol. 231 h. 

Khatimah. Arrest of Sayyid Muhammad 
Riza Khan, on the 23rd of Muharram, A.H. 
1186, and account of subsequent events, 
concluding with the appointment of Manl 
Begam as manager of the Nizfimat, and the 
disbandment of the Bengal army on the first 
of Jumada H., A.H. 1186, fol. 239 i. 

In the subscription the author is termed 
" the chief of the elegant writers of the 
period, Mirza Karam 'All Khan." It is stated 
there that this copy had been written for 
Col. Alexander Dow by Lillah A mar Singh 
and Jaisingh Rae. 

Add. 24,083. 

Foil. 219; 9| in. by 6 ; 13 lines, 3| in. 
long ; written in Shikastah-Amiz ; dated 
'Azimabad (Patna), Rabi' H., A.H. 1227 
(May, 1812). [Wm. H. Morley.] 

A history of Bengal and Behar, from the 
accession of Mir Muhammad Kasim Khan 
to the Nizamat, A.H. 1174, to the FaslI 
year 1193, A.H. 1198, when the author was 
deposed from the Niyabat of Behar and 
called to Calcutta. 

Author : Kalyan Singh, ft5ow«» ^JJ^ 
Beg. o^. % ^ o/U^ Cilo <d3 j^' 

This work, which was written from the 
author's dictation at Patna, A.H. 1227, forms 
the second part of the Khulasat ut-tavarikh 
(see p. 283 h). 

It contains a very full account of the 
events that took place during the above 
period in Bengal and the adjoining provinces, 
and in which the author's father, Shitab 
Rae, Na'ib of Behar, and himself, as his 
successor, played no unimportant part. 

Contents : Preface, the same as that of 
Khulasat ut-tavarikh, fol. 2 b. Summary 

8S 



314 



BAHMANIS AND NIZAMSHAHIS. 



account of the early Nazims of Bengal, viz. 
Mahabat Jang, Siraj ud-Daulah, and Mir 
Muhammad Ja'far Khan, fol. 7 b. Early 
career of Mir Muhammad Kasim Khan, and 
his accession to the Nizamat, fol. 15 b. 
Proclamation of Shah 'Alam, and his arrival 
at Patna ; Mir Kasim attends his court, fol. 
27 a. Shah 'Alam leaves Patna for Oude, 
fol. 31 b. Mir Kasira's feud with Shitab 
Rae ; arrival of General Coote ; arrival of 
Jagat Sith, fol. 33 a. Mr. Ellis's attack upon 
Patna, fol. 51 b. The Council declares war 
against Mir Kasim, fol. 54 a. Defeat and 
death of Muhammad Nakl Khiin, fol. 56 b. 
Battle of Nrdah Udwah ; flight of Mir Kasim, 
fol. 60 a. Mir Ja'far restored ; transactions 
with Shitab Rae, fol. 66 6. Mir Kasim sent 
by Shuja ud-Daulah to reduce the Bundelahs, 
fol. 90 a. Shuja ud-Daulah attacks Patna, 
fol. 92 a. Shitab Rae called by Shuja and 
sent to Calcutta to treat of the peace ; Major 
Munro ordered to Patna, fol. 96 a. Battle 
of Baksar, fol. 101 b. Shuja applies for sup- 
port to Malhar Rao and Ahmad Khan Ban- 
gash; peace concluded, fol. Ill b. Death 
of Mir Ja'far ; accession of Najm ud-Daulah, 
fol. 116 a. Lord Clive in Ilahiibad and Mur- 
shidabad, fol. 119 b. Muhammad Riza Khan 
in Patna ; death of Saif ud-Daulah, fol. 136 a. 
Hastings appointed Governor-General; Mu- 
hammad Riza Khan and Shitab Rae recalled 
to Calcutta, fol, 140 b. Illness and death of 
Shitab Eae, fol. 154 b. Hastings' return 
from Benares to Patna ; the author appointed 
Na'ib of Behar, fol. 159 b. Arrival of General 
Clavering ; his contest with Hastings, fol. 
164 b. Account of the Subahdars of Oude, 
from Shuja" ud-Daulah to Sa'adat 'All Khan, 
fol. 168 b. The author's difficulties with the 
Council ; affairs of Chait Singh, fol. 173 b. 
Memoir of Shitab Rae's life from the time of 
his first arrival at Patna to his death, and of 
the author's to the time of writing, fol. 190 b. 
An account of the Governors-General from 
Lord Clive to Lord Minto, and of 124 officers, 



civil or military, with whom the author and 
his father were personally acquainted, fol. 
202 A. 

A note, probably in the hand of Mr. Abra- 
ham Willand, states that the MS. was received 
in successive quires, from the author's son 
Daulat Singh, from the Ist to the 24th of 
May, 1812. 

Add. 9996—9998. 

Three uniform volumes, respectively con- 
taining foil. 232, 168 and 156 ; 9 in. by 8 ; 
15 lices, 4| in. long, in a page ; written 
in small Nestalik ; dated Muharram, A.H. 
1197 (A.D. 1782). 

A history of the Bahmanis and of the 
Nizamshahis, from A.H. 742 to A.H. 1004. 
Author : 'All B. 'Aziz UUah Tabataba, Jl& 

Beg. cJb jj^ j,U ,JLj6 »io1 ^Uo 

The author states in the preface that he 
wrote this work by command of the reigning 
Sultan, Burhan Nizam Shah (A.H. 999—1003, 
according to Pirishtah, Bombay edition, 
vol. ii. pp. 297 — 307), and that he com- 
menced it A.H. 1000, a date expressed by 
the numerical value of the above title. In 
the present copy, however, the history is 
brought down to the latter part of A.H. 
1004. 

The twenty-one Sultans included in the 
above period form three dynasties (Tabakah), 
the seats of vhich were respectively Gulbar- 
gah, Bedar, and Ahmadnagar. Their names 
and dates are, according to the present MS., 
as follows : — 

Tabakah I. 'Ala ud-Din Hasan Shah Bah- 
manl, who assumed sovereignty on the 28th 
of Sha'ban, A.H. 742, and died A.H. 758, Add. 
9996, fol. 7 a. Muhammad Shah B. Hasan 
Shah, who died A.H. 775, fol. 25 6. Mujahid 



BAHMANIS AKD NIZAMSHAIIIS. 



315 



Shah B. Muhammad Shah, who died A. H. 
779, fol. 27 6. D.Vud Shah B. Mahmud 
Khan, who died A.H. 780, fol. 29 a. Muham- 
mad Shah B. Mahmud Khan, who died A.H. 
799, fol. 29 b. Ghiya§ ud-Din Bahman 
Shah B. Muhammad Shah, deposed after a 
month's reign, fol. 31 a. Shams ud-DTn 
Da'lid Shah B. Muhammad Shah, deposed in 
Safar, A.H. 800, foi. 32 a. Taj ud-Dm Flriiz 
Shah B. Ahmad Khan, who died in Shavval, 
A.H. 825, fol. 33 b. 

Tahakah H. Shihab ud-Din Ahmad Shah 
B. Ahmad Khan, who died in Rajah, A.H. 
838, fol. 44 b. 'Ala ud-Din Ahmad Shah B. 
Ahmad Shah, who died in Jumada I., A.H. 
862, fol. 63 a. Humayun Shah B. *Ala ud- 
Din Ahmad Shah, who died in Zulka'dah, 
A.H. 865, fol. 74 a. Nizam Shah B. Humayiin 
Shah, who died in Zulka'dah, A.H. 867, fol. 
81 a. Muhammad Shah B. Humayun Shah, 
who died in Safar, A.H. 887, fol. 91 b. Mah- 
mM Shah B. Muhammad Shah, who died in 
Zulhijjah, A.H. 904, fol. 114 a. 

Tahakah III. Ahmad Shah Bahrl, from his 
birth to his accession, A.H. 891, and from his 
accession to his death, A.H. 911, fol. 146 a. 
Burhan Nizam Shall, who died on the 24th 
of Muharram, A.H. 961, foil. 200 6—232 b 
and Add. 9997, foil. 1 «— 82 a. Shah Husain 
Nizam Shah, who died on the 7th of Zulka'- 
dah, A.H. 972, Add. 9997, fol. 82 b. Murtaza 
Nizam Shah, who died on the 18th of Eajab, 
A.H. 996, Add. 9997, foil. 128 6—168 b, and 
Add. 9998, foil. 1 «— 95 a. 

Prom this point the reigns are no longer 
kept distinct. The main headings are as 
follows : — 

Accession of the Shahzadah (i.e. Miran 
Husain B. Murtaza), fol. 95 a. Treachery of 
Mirza Khan; death of the Shahzadah (Ju- 
mada I, A.H. 997); massacre of foreigners; 
assumption of power by Jamal Khan, fol. 
97 b. Salabat Khan escapes from the fortress 
of Karlah, and rallies the Amirs against 
Jamfd Khiin, fol. 107 «. 'Adil Shah comes 



to the succour of Burhan Shah ; war with 
Jamal Khan, fol. Ill a. (Jamal Khan was 
routed and killed on the 13th of Rajab.A.H. 
999 : see Firishtah, Bombay edition, vol. ii., 
p. 297.) Expedition sent against the Portu- 
guese at Chiyul, on the 2nd of Sha'ban (A.H. 
1001, Firishtah, p. 302); fol. 116 b. Punish- 
ment of some traitors (i.e. Amjad ul-Mulk 
and others, who had attempted to release 
Prince Ismail from the fortress of Jund), 
fol. 119 a. 

There is here a gap of nearly two years, 
the latter part of the reign of Burhan Shah, 
who died on the 18th of ShaTian, A.H. 1003, 
and the four months' reign of his son Ibra- 
him (Pirishtah, pp. 307 — 309) being entirely 
passed over. 

Causes of the advance of the Moghul into 
Deccan and of their retreat (A.H. 1004, 
Pirishtah, pp. 312—318), fol. 123 a. Sack 
of the town of Ahraadnagar by the Moghuls, 
fol. 132 b. Night attack of Abhang Khan 
on the 23rd of Rabi' II. (A.H. 1004), fol. 
134 b. Breach made in the wall ; heroic 
defence of Chand Bibi, (Rajab A.H. 1004, 
Pirishtah, p. 316), fol. 141 b. Peace made 
with Prince Murad (commander of Akbar's 
army, Pirishtah, p. 318), fol. 150 a. 

This last chapter concludes with the depar- 
ture of the Moghul army on the 27tli of 
Rajab (A.H. 1004) and the submission of 
Ikhlas Khan and other Abyssinian Amirs to 
Chand Bibi. 

The author states in the latter part of the 
work, fol. 123, that he had been a witness of 
the events therein recorded. 

Copyist : ^^^ j-»*? 

The Burhrm i Ma'a§ir is mentioned, without 
author's name, in the Critical Essay, p. 49. 
There is a copy in the Library of King's 
College, Cambridge, No. 65. 

Add. 23,883. 

Poll. 330 ; 10 in. by 6 ; 14 lines, 3| in. 
s 8 2 



316 



ADILSHAHIS. 



long ; written in close Nestalik ; dated 
February, 1832. 

A history of the 'Adilshahis of Bijapur, 
from their origin to A.H. 1020, and of con- 
temporary Dynasties in the Deccan, Hin- 
dostan, and Persia. 

Author : Raf I' ud-Din Ibrahim B. Nur ud- 
Din Taufik SliirazT, ^^.jj^ ^y ^^ ^1^^ ^yjjJi ^j 

Beg. jy^ ^J^J'yst ObT oUJj^ 

The work was written in A.H. 1017 and 
1018 (see foil. 206 b, 232 b), and subsequently 
brought down to A.H. 1020. At the time 
of composition the author was, as we are in- 
formed in the preface, in his 70th year; he had 
been from his 20th year upwards in the ser- 
vice of 'All 'Adil Sbiih, and his nephew and 
successor Ibrahim. Rafi 'ud-Din had origi- 
nally repaired to India as a merchant, and 
had visited Dehli A.H. 967, and Sagar A.H. 
968 (see foil. 215 a, 23 a). His first office at 
the Bijapur court appears to have been that of 
Steward (Khwansalar) to 'Ali 'Adilshah, who 
occasionally employed him also as Secretary 
(see foil. 107 ft, 87 b). He was imprisoned 
with Afzal Khan, in the early part of Ibra- 
him's reign (fol. 125 b); but was sent in A.H. 
1005 on an important mission to the court 
of Ahmadnagar. He held at the same period 
the offices of Governor of Bijapur, Steward 
of Prince Path Khan, and Master of the 
Mint (fol. 152 a). 

In the Putuhat i 'Adilshahi, Add. 27,251, 
Rafi* ud-Din is mentioned by the name of 
Rafi'a, and described as the author of a work 
entitled Parhang Namah (see fol. 169 a). 
His mission to Ahmadnagar is also recorded, 
partly in his own words, in the same work, 
foil. 216 6—227 b. His name is written in 
full, Rafi' ud-Din Ibrahim Shirazi, in the 
latter passage, as well as on fol. 12 a, where 
he is further designated as the author of 



Tazkirat ul-Muluk. Zuhiir, quoted in Add. 
26,269, fol. 42 J, states that when he was 
appointed court-chronicler, A.H. 1051, he 
received from Baba Khiin a copy of the Taz- 
kirat ul-Muluk of Rafi' ud-Din Shirazi. 

The work is written, with the exception 
of the preface, in a plain and easy style. It 
is divided into nine books (Pasl) and an 
appendix. 

Contents: Preface, fol. 5 6. 1. History of 
the Bahmanis from their origin to the acces- 
sion of Mahmud Shah, A.H. 968, fol. 12 b. 

II. History of Yusuf 'Adilshah, fol. 23 a. 

III. Reign of Ismail 'Adilshah, fol. 32 b. 

IV. Reign of Ibrahim 'Adilshah. History 
of the Rais of Bijanagar, fol. 36 b. V. His- 
tory of 'All 'Adilshah, from his accession to 
his expedition with Ramraj against Ahmad- 
nagar (A.H. 966), fol. 41 b. VI. History of 
the Kings of Gujrat, down to Akbar's con- 
quest, fol. 46 a, of the Nizamshahis of Ahmad- 
nagar, fol. 58 b, of the Kutubshiihis, fol. 76 b, 
and continuation of the reign of 'Ali 'Adil- 
shah to the taking of Binkapur (A.H. 982). 
VII. History of the rise of Afzal Khan, and 
of the close of the reign of 'Ali 'Adilshah, 
fol. 87 b. VIII. Reign of Ibrfihim 'Adilshah 
II.; history of Ibrahim B. Burhan Mzam- 
shah, fol. Ill b. IX. History of the Timur- 
ides from Babar to Akbar, concluding with 
the accession of Salim (Jahangir) and an 
account of Malik 'Anbar, fol. 156 b. History 
of the Safavis of Persia, concluding with a 
full history of Shah 'Abbas I. to A.H. 1018, 
fol. 238 a. Account of the excavations of 
Ellora and Lakhmiyah, fol. 280 a. Expedi- 
tion of Prince Parviz into Deccan, and his 
arrival at Asir, A.H. 1020, fol. 284 b. 

Khatimah : Legends of Haftavad and 
Mahbud, after Pirdausi, fol. 292 b. Account 
of the island of Pegu, from a MS. by Mun- 
jan Khan* B. Kishvar Khan, fol. 303 a. 

* This Munjan Khan is mentioned elsewhere as grand- 
father of Mir Ibrahim, a later historian of Bijapur. See 
Add. 26,270, p. 318 b. 



ADILSHAHIS. 



317 



Voyage of some Turkish sailors in search of 
the golden mountain, fol. 307 b. Notices on 
some Indian rivers, curious fishes, crocodiles, 
ambergris, mines of diamond and ruby, cloves, 
the rhinoceros, monstrous childbirths, etc., 
fol. 314 b. 

Copyist : «5a«JU^ 

Prefixed is a notice of the work and the 
author's life in English, foil. 2a — 4 b, in which 
it is stated that no person then living in 
Bijapur had ever seen a copy of the book. 

Add. 27,251. 

Foil. 405 ; 91 in. by 5^ ; 16 lines, 2f in. 
long ; written in fair Nestalik, apparently in 
the 17th century. [J. Macdonald Kinneie.] 

A history of the 'Adilshahis of Bijapur, 
from their origin to A.H. 1054. 

Author : FuzunI AstarabadI, (_5i>b\jLj\ ^^y 
The author states in the preface that, after 
performing a pilgrimage to Mecca, being 
prevented by the unsafe state of the roads 
from returning to his native country, he had 
set out for India, and landing, after a dis- 
astrous voyage, on the coast of Malabar, had 
repaired to Bijapur, where he was hospitably 
received by Mustafa Khan," and by him 
presented to the then reigning Sultan Mu- 
hammad. 

The work was written A.H. 1050, as in- 
cidentally stated towards the beginning (fol. 
6 b). But it was subsequently continued to 
a later period ; for the last section, with 
which the present copy concludes rather 
abruptly, relates to a visit paid by Sultan 
Muhammad to the shrine of Sayyid Mu- 
hammad Gisii Daraz in A.H. 1054. 

» Mirzii Muhammad Amln received the title of Mustafa 
Khan at the accession of Sultan Muhammad, and became 
one of the most powerful officials of the court of Bijapur ; 
S90 Basatln us-SalutIn, Add. 26,269. 



This MS. wants the first page. The 
beginning of the work, as found in the next 
copy, is as follows: j ^\f\ Xj^ JoKAi j^j 

It is divided into six books (Bab), treat- 
ing of the following six reigns: 1. Yusuf 
'AdUshah, fol. 7 a. 2. Isma il 'AdUshiih, fol. 
fol. 35 a. 3. Ibrahim, fol. 59 a. 4. 'All, 
11 b. 6. Ibrahim II., fol. 147 b. 6. Sultan 
Muhammad, fol. 314 b. The last two, being 
much fuller than the preceding reigns, make 
together about two-thirds of the whole 
work. 

Of the origin of Yusuf, the founder of 
the dynasty, the author gives a fanciful ac- 
count, which he professes to have derived 
from authentic records. He makes him out 
to have been a younger son of Sultan Sulai- 
man the Great, who, on the accession of his 
elder brother Sallm II., was secretly removed 
from the palace, where a violent death 
awaited him, and committed to the cai*e of 
a wealthy merchant called Khwiijah Mahmud. 
The latter conveyed him clandestinely to his 
native place, Silvah, and some years later 
to Bedar, where he arrived A.H. 880. A 
different story, he adds, has been told by 
other historians, namely, Firishtah, Mulhl 
Da,M Bedarl, Maulana Husam ud-Din Kan- 
dahari, Mirza Nizam ud-Din Ahmad, and Raf i' 
ud-Din Ibrahim Shirazi, author of the Taz- 
kirat ul-Muluk (p. 316). This he then pro- 
ceeds to give according to the version of the 
last mentioned author. 

At the end of the fifth Bab are found 
notices of the poets who lived at