Skip to main content

Full text of "Catalogue of prints and drawings in the British Museum: Division I. Political and personal satires"

See other formats

L'-.^*~>. -..'►%-.•. 





-leu Sf/) mk . 

Ii'ujOiv uru^/ff 

W^ ¥j/fCira/m-',7ra_ ..-^ ^ .£ -'S 


Withf'i,Hfrf((Mji(ir.'.f't<rtijrnbPijJd(fJ)tvell(ram:(d' _y- ^_^ ThffmpMKipn Frrnchm/injUjJt.L'inyunijtrloniiijit- 

rar.K'.'ntflijh. itrdurei [hnf. Mum'^niuy h' D d lUljJIhiVlijJO, JohtGnnj- Iridajmi/irm hcM/ZshtnidBruti' 

"■ ■'''if- ' " • ' I, 

The earliest representations in the British Museum 

of the typical John Bull 

Nos. s6u-i2 












Sold at 


BERNARD QUARITCH 1 1 Grafton Street London W. i 

HUMPHREY MILFORD Oxford University Press London E.G. 4 


38 Great Russell Street London W.G. i 

1-7 A2» 





PREFACE, ending with Notes on Method, and Abbreviations . vii 



(a) Addenda to Vol. IV ...... i 

(b) From 1771 onwards ...... 7 

APPENDIX (Key to the dates of the series of mezzotints issued by 

Carington Bowles) ....... 786 






The Frontispiece gives the earliest representations in the British Museum of the 
typical John Bull, Nos. 5611, 5612. 


THE Catalogue of the Collection of Prints of Political and Personal 
Satire in the British Museum was begun by Mr. Frederic George 
Stephens during the Keepership of Mr. G. W. Reid. Five volumes by 
Mr. Stephens, covering events of the years 1320 to 1770, were published 
between 1870 and 1883, as follows: 

I. Nos. 1-1235 (Years 1320-1689). 1870. 

II. Nos. 1236-2015 (Years 1689-1733). 1873. 

III. Parti. Nos. 2016-31 16 (Years 1734-1750), 1877. 

III. Part ii. Nos. 31 17-3804 (Years 175 1-1760). 1877. 

IV. Nos. 3805-4838 (Years 1761-1770). 1883. 

In 1868 the Trustees purchased the large collection made by Mr. Edward 
Hawkins, F.R.S. (Keeper of the Antiquities from 1826 until his death in 
1867), and from Volume HI onwards Mr. Hawkins's notes formed the 
basis for many of the descriptions. 

These volumes contain a mine of information in illustration of public 
opinion in relation to the events recorded, and offer most valuable 
material to the historian. It is regrettable that Mr, Stephens, who lived 
until 1907, was not entrusted with the continuance of a work for which 
he was peculiarly well fitted. That the work was appreciated is shown 
by the fact that the first volume is out of print, and that comparatively 
small stocks remain of Vols. II-IV. 

Mr. Stephens, of whom an appreciative notice appeared in the second 
supplement of the Dictionary of National Biography, studied at the Royal 
Academy Schools, was an original member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brother- 
hood, and an occasional exhibitor until 1854. His handsome features as 
a youth were used by Ford Madox Brown for the Christ in his 'Christ 
washing St. Peter's Feet', and by Millais for Ferdinand in his 'Ferdinand 
and Ariel' (1849). 

Several portraits, including a study for the Christ, were privately printed 
in 1920 for the author's son, Lt.-Col. H. F. Stephens, R.E., in a volume 
entitled Frederic George Stephens: Twenty-four reproductiojis of pictures 
and drawings from his collection, with notes by J. B. Manson. 

Mr. Stephens gradually gave up painting for history and criticism, 
acting as art critic of the Athenaeum, between 1861 and 1901, and writing 
various shorter books, such as a Life of D. G. Rossetti, 1894, in addition 
to his Museum Catalogue. 

In 1930 the Trustees decided that the work should be resumed, and the 
Museum was fortunate in securing the services of Dr. Dorothy George, 
whose powers of careful research and clear exposition had been well 
shown in her book on London Life in the XVIIIth Century (1925). 

The present volume is of particular interest as covering the years of the 
American Revolution, and it is greatly to be hoped that the present author 
may have the opportunity of carrying the catalogue in succeeding volumes 
up to the Reform Bill of 1832, so that the classical period of EngHsh 
caricature may be adequately covered. 

The general title of the earlier volumes 'Catalogue of Political and 
Personal Satires' has been kept as a matter of convenience in a continua- 
tion, though 'Catalogue of Prints of Political and Personal Satire' might 



have been a more accurate description. The catalogue is based on the 
separate series of 'Political and Personal Satires' in the Department of 
Prints and Drawings. It does not profess to include all prints of this 
category which may be scattered under masters and engravers in the 
departmental collections, though it does do so to some extent. Nor does 
it profess to include prints in the Museum Library, though again numerous 
examples are admitted. To have attained completeness in these respects 
would have delayed the production of a single volume for a lifetime. 

Since the printing of the text a collection of caricatures mounted in 
twelve volumes referred to in the catalogue as B.M.L., Tab. 524, has 
been transferred from the General Library to the Print Room. 

Dr. George wishes to express her thanks for the help given her by 
Miss B. Cobb, Miss Julie Hubrecht, Mr. Randall Davies, Mr. Archibald 
Doubleday, Mr. Walter T. Spencer, and Mr. Minto Wilson. She is 
especially indebted to Miss Cobb for her translations from the Dutch. 

October, 1934. A. M. HIND. 


WITH some modifications the method used is that of the earlier 
volumes. The prints are first described and then elucidated; in 
complicated and elaborate prints the explanation is incorporated in the 
description for the sake of clearness and brevity. The titles are uniformly 
given in capitals, the inscriptions on the plate and the publication lines in 
italics. These inscriptions are transcribed in full, except in a very few 
instances where the fact of omission is made clear. Where there is no 
title an explanatory caption is supplied, unless the original title has been 
discovered; in both cases this heading is enclosed in square brackets, in 
the latter case with a note of origin. The dimensions are those of the 
subject, not the plate, unless otherwise stated, the first being the upright, 
the second the horizontal measurement. This reverses the order followed 
in the earlier volumes, where the horizontal dimension preceded the 
vertical. Left and right (unqualified) denote the left and right of the 

The terms used in describing the processes of the prints {engraving, 
woodcut, aquatint, or mezzotint) do not call for explanation in a work such 
as the present. But it should be stated that woodcut serves for both wood- 
cut and wood-engraving, and that engraving is used to include line- 
engraving, etching and stipple-engraving. Etching and engraving are very 
often used in combination at the period dealt with, and to decide whether 
a particular print is mainly etched or mainly engraved is in a very great 
number of cases almost impossible, while stipple is the combination of both 
etching and engraving in a dotted manner. 

The prints are numbered in continuation of the numbers in the earlier 
volumes. Close copies or slightly altered states have the number of the 



original followed by the letter A (or A, B, C, &c.). No distinction is made 
between different states unless there has been some essential alteration in 
the engraving or lettering. The addition of a press-mark indicates that 
the print is in the British Museum Library, not in the Print Department. 
A few prints have been described from reproductions or from the catalogues 
of other public collections ; these have no serial number. 

The chief deviation from the method of Mr. Stephens is in the arrange- 
ment of the prints according to the date of their publication instead of 
under the date of the event illustrated. Further notes on this method are 
given at the beginning of the Introduction. As monthly magazines were 
normally published on the first day of the month following that advertised on 
their title the prints are so dated ; e.g. a print from the December number 
of a magazine is dated i January of the following year. The indexes depend 
on this arrangement and illustrate {inter alia) the fluctuating fame of 
individuals, and the varying output of artists and printsellers. The small 
subject index is complementary to the cross-references in the text: it is 
intended to show broadly, from year to year, what were the chief subjects 
of public interest and the favourite objects of satire, and also, as far as 
possible, to give references to those subjects which are most sought after by 
students. For the sake of completeness and consistency it was necessary to 
include in the text the titles of the prints later than 1770 which Mr. Stephens 
had antedated, with their original number, and to index them as completely 
as the prints described in this volume. The numbers are arranged in the 
index in the chronological order in which the titles occur in this volume. 
Some of the prints described in earlier volumes remain to be dealt with in 
a later volume. By the arrangement here adopted prints can be traced 
either from the index of titles or from the date of publication. An asterisk 
in the index of persons and of titles denotes a foreign print. 

A few prints of the year 1770 which had been accidentally omitted from 
Volume IV have been included in this volume. 


Andrews = W. L. Andrews, Essay on the Portraiture of the Ameri- 

can Revolutionary War. New York, 1896. 
Chaloner Smith = J. Chaloner Smith, British Mezzotinto Portraits, 1883. 
De Vinck = Bibliotheque Nationale, Inventaire Analytique par F.-L. 

Bruel de la Collection de Vinck. Tome i. Ancien Regime. 

Paris, 1909. 
Hart = C. H. Hart, Engraved Portraits of Washington. Grolier 

Club, New York, 1904. 
Frankau = Julia Frankau, John Raphael Smith, his Life and Work. 

G.W.G. — Genuine Works of Mr. James Gillray. Published 

T. M'Lean, 1830. 
Grego, Gillray — James Gillray, the Caricaturist, with the History of his 

Life and Times. Ed. T. Wright. [1873.] 
Grego, Rowlandson = Joseph Grego, Rowlandson the Caricaturist. Two vols. 

MuUer = F. Muller, De Nederlandsche Geschiedenis in Platen, 

Amsterdam, 2^*® deel. 1876, 77. 
Paston = ' George Fasten' [pseudonym for Miss E . M . Symonds] , 

Social Caricature in the Eighteenth Century. 1905. 




Van Stolk 

Charles E. Russell, English Mezzotint Portraits and 
their States. 1926. 

U. Thieme, F. Becker, F. C. Willis und H. Vollmer, 
Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Ki'nistler. Leipzig, 
1907, &c. (in progress). 

D. M. StauflFer, American Engravers upon Copper and 
Steel. Two vols. Grolier Club, New York, 1907. 
G. van Rijn, Atlas van Stolk, Katalogus der Historic- 
Spot- en Zinne-prenten betrekkelijk de Geschiedenis van 
Nederland, verzameld door A. van Stolk, Cz. Vol. vii, 
Anisterdam, 1901. 


B.M.L. = British Museum Library 

H.L. = Half length 

T.Q.L. = Three-quarter length 

W.L. = Whole length 

1. = left 

r. = right 

pi. = plate 


THE fifth volume of the Catalogue continues the description of 
satirical prints from the end of 1770, where it was left by Mr. 
Stephens, to the end of 1783. His method has been followed with certain 
modifications described at the end of the preface. The system of arranging 
prints according to 'the date of the earliest event directly illustrated' is in 
fact impossible to follow consistently and involves placing prints before 
their date of publication. For instance, a print on the Jacobite rising of 
1745 (No. 1 156) has been dated [10 June 1688] because it contains an 
allusion to the supposed spurious birth of Charles Edward's father.' 
These prints are strictly topical, their significance and interpretation 
depend on the date of publication, and this, thanks to Hogarth's Act,^ is 
in most cases engraved on the plate. Chronologically arranged, they show 
in a remarkable way the tempo of political life, the fluctuations and inter- 
action of opinion and propaganda. There is scarcely a political or diplo- 
matic question which they do not illustrate, often from an unaccustomed 
angle : they illuminate the psychological strands in what Maitland calls the 
seamless web of history. 

The strictly chronological order has been applied only to political satires. 
The prints fall into two categories, political and non-political, the latter 
being classed as personal in accordance with the title of the Catalogue. 
This group includes social satires and non-political prints in general. As 
the political prints exclude the purely historical print (e.g. prints after 
West's Death of Wolfe, so opposed in spirit to Gillray's Death of the Great 
Wolf, a caricature of West's picture), so the personal and social satires 
exclude genre except where it is humorous or cautionary, and therefore 
a satire on manners or morals. Though most of the prints fall clearly into 
one or other category there are some which may be considered either 
political or personal; these are impossible to classify with rigorous 

But the value of these personal prints for social history depends upon 
a knowledge of their date; they are therefore arranged in years, though 
within each year chronological order has been waived in favour of arrange- 
ment by series, by artist, or by subject, overlapping categories which 
cannot be strictly observed. Taken together, the sequence of political and 
social prints reflects, as nothing else does, the changing and elusive spirit 
of the period. At the same time, a traditional symbolism and the recurrence 
of the same theme from age to age show how strong was the power of 
tradition, even in this art, so essentially of the moment. 

The thirteen years covered by this volume saw a change in the manner 
of pictorial satire and a great development in its political importance. 
These developments were closely inter-related and can scarcely be dis- 
cussed separately, they were due to the interaction of aesthetic and political 
causes, and they are the more marked since in 1771 political satire was 
at a low ebb, while during 1782-3 it was at the highest point yet reached. 

' This is an extreme case and the seeker after prints on the '45 would be unlikely 
to discover it. But it is less misleading than the frequent placing of prints one, 
two, or more years before the date of publication. 

^ 8 Geo. II, cap. 13. 



A third influence on the character and output of prints was that of the 
printsellers : the humorous print had become an important object of 
commerce and even of export ; it follows that a period of political deadness 
such as the one beginning in 1771 tends to produce a decline in the number 
of political prints with a corresponding increase in personal and social 

The change in the character of pictorial satire between 1771 and 1783 
is, broadly speaking, the progressive superseding of the old-fashioned 
'emblematical' or 'hieroglyphical' print, intricate and complicated, often 
depending on a key or explanation, by the caricature or satire dependent 
on expressive drawing, irony, wit, or humour, embodied in a design which 
makes an immediate appeal to the eye. The development is mainly due 
to the early work of Gillray and Rowlandson, with whom Mortimer must 
be associated from his influence on this phase of English caricature. The 
two types merge, and correspond to a distinction which can be traced in 
pictorial satire from an early date; the older type continued to exist and 
its influence is not yet exhausted. The newer manner was described in 
1784 as 'comic history painting'^ and there is no doubt that it owed some- 
thing to the new vogue for history painting which both influenced the 
art of the caricaturists and was itself a subject of caricature. The change 
in design was closely associated with a change in technique: the super- 
seding of engraving (or etching), heavily cross-hatched and conceived as 
a design in black and white, by the light etching intended to be coloured 
by hand. A few of the prints of the '50's and '6o's are coloured, but the 
colouring is partial and crude. The proportion of coloured prints progres- 
sively increases.^ In the earlier prints persons were usually represented 
conventionally, to be identified by some attribute or by words issuing from 
the mouth (a device which was by no means given up). For instance, 
Lord Holland was almost invariably a fox (as was Charles Fox at the 
beginning of his career); Gillray and his abler contemporaries draw a 
portrait of Fox, more or less caricatured, the varying emotions which the 
theme requires being rendered with much expressiveness. When he is a 
fox, much is made of the cunning and rapacity of the animal. 

The appearance of the typical John Bull of Gillray, a stout citizen or 
farmer wearing top-boots, is significant of the change. He is as charac- 
teristic of the newer manner as Britannia is of the old and appears first 
(though without his name) in a print of 1779 by Nixon or Gillray (No. 
561 1), afterwards copied, improved, and entitled John Bull by Gillray in 
a print of uncertain date (No. 5612).^ For some time, however, it appeared 
as if John Bull might have had a serious rival in Jack English (or England),^ 
a sailor generally successful and gallant, whereas John Bull is often plun- 
dered and bemused, as in No. 6227, where he is the deluded keeper of the 
Crown Inn. In No. 6210 by Gillray he is a stout and disconsolate man, 
and in No. 5860, probably relating to Yorktown, he is a plainly dressed 

' The Court and City Magazine, July 1784, perhaps the only issue (copy in the 
Print Room) containing two coloured plates. 'Comic history painting' is distin- 
guished from 'the Burlesque or what the Italians call Caricatura', the plates being 
described as an example of each kind ; the difference, however, is scarcely perceptible. 
Nothing is said of the old emblematical print. 

^ No. 3019 (1748) was advertised 'price 6d. plain, is. coloured'. General Ad- 
vertiser, 17 May 1748. No. 3091 (1750) was sold at the same prices. J. Langham 
(see Index of Printsellers) was a 'Print Colourer', see No. 6042. 

^ Both original and copy reproduced in the frontispiece. 

•♦ The verses describing John Bull in No. 5612 call him Jack English. 



and despairing citizen. The type, though it had appeared, was by 
no nraeans estabHshed. John Bull is often a bull (Nos. 5636, 5640, 5645, 
5687) as he had been in 1762 (No. 3907) and was in 1790 in a print 
by Gillray, once a mastiff (No. 5569). Earlier references to John Bull in 
these satires derived more or less directly from Arbuthnot's pamphlets: 
he is associated with his sister Peg (Scotland) and is cheated by Sawney 
(Bute), as in Nos. 3904, 3906 (1762). A similar adaptation of Arbuth- 
not's fable is ascribed to Townshend with a set of verses attributed to Fox 
(No. 6005). 

Other names given by Arbuthnot continue to be used: Lewis Baboon 
(Louis Bourbon) and Nic Frog frequently, Don Strut occasionally (No. 
5541). Lewis Baboon, or France, or the typical Frenchman as the case 
may be, is habitually a French petit-maitre ; Spain (or Don Diego or Don 
Strut) is almost always a Spanish don in quasi-Elizabethan dress with 
ruff, slashed doublet, and hose. A similar convention for Frenchmen and 
Spaniards was used in Dutch prints. The United Provinces are repre- 
sented by a rough peasant or burgher whose dress is almost that of 'the 
down-right Hollander' described by Goldsmith in 1755: 'one of the rudest 
figures in nature ; upon a head of lank hair he wears a half-cocked narrow 
hat laced with black ribbon; no coat but seven waistcoats, and nine pair 
of breeches, so that his hips reach almost to his armpits'. The hat had 
become high-crowned and circular with a narrow brim. 

America is a combination of noble savage and amazon (as in No. 5225), 
sometimes the Red Indian, sometimes the amazon prevails, occasionally 
a male Red Indian grasps a scalping-knife. Generally 'Miss America' 
(No. 6173) holds, or grasps at, the cap of Liberty on a staff or spear. The 
Phrygian cap of Liberty was a common object in pictorial satire from the 
days of Wilkes (a classic example being his portrait by Hogarth) ; it appears 
as early as 1741 in a print against Walpole by Gravelot (No. 2439). The 
earlier convention was a circular wide-brimmed hat as in No. 1921 (1733)- 
Just such a hat on the spear of Freedom appears in Dutch prints area 
1780 (Nos. 5718, 5730, 6292). The satires of Gillray and others on the 
bonnet rouge with the tricolour cockade appear to have increased the dis- 
credit into which this symbol was falling. It should be noted that in the 
typical emblematical print England, France, Spain, and America were 
commonly represented by their respective animals, as in Nos. 6004, 6229, 
and in No. 5581 (a French print). In Dutch prints a dog generally takes 
the place of the British lion, while the Dutch lion of Dutch prints, who 
usually holds the seven arrows of the United Netherlands, appears as a dog 
in English prints. Britannia and the Dutch Maid (No. 6292) have a certain 

The character of pictorial satire and caricature was also influenced by 
the work of the amateur. Incorrect and expressive drawing contrasted with 
the stereotyped correctness of the professional engraver who turned out 
figures of Britannia and Time for trade cards as well as for satires. Hogarth 
complained of this when he called caricature 'the lowest part of the art of 
painting and sculpture',' and this attitude explains the dedication (doubtless 
ironical) of one state of r/je5e«<:A (No. 3662) to the 'Honble Coll T . . .s . .d'^ 
when he engraved on a separate plate an account of the difference between 
Character and Caricatura.^ 

' J. B. Nichols, Anecdotes of William Hogarth, 1833, pp. 66-7. 

^ Viscount Townshend, see Index of Artists. 

^ Caricatura 'is, or ought to be, totally devoid of every stroke that hath a tendency 



The outstanding case of the persistence of an ancient theme, treated 
in a traditional manner, is that of the Danse Macabre.^ In this volume 
Nos. 5172, 5326, 5441, 5513, 6128 are in the vein of the Dance of Death. 
The subject of a grossly fat man supporting his own stomach in a v\^heel- 
barrow dates from at least 15 10 and was afterwards used to caricature 
Luther and General Galas. There are two instances of it in the Catalogue, 
Nos. 5433 and 6358. 

The development of the art of caricature owed much to the greater 
intensity of political life under the influence of the increased activity of 
the Opposition owing to events in America, combined with the demand 
for parliamentary and administrative reform. The publication of the 
debates in the daily newspapers added greatly to the actuality of pictorial 
satire, which shows how closely these debates were followed. The increas- 
ing importance of the satirical print during the period covered by the 
present volume is evident, both in reflecting the spirit of the times and in 
throwing light on that elusive thing — the mind of the common man, and 
from its eflPectiveness as propaganda. As an influence on the public mind 
the print had largely taken the place of the ballad, which in Walpole's time 
still had considerable political importance.^ It reached a public largely 
untouched by the newspaper and the pamphlet, and indeed it made graphic 
the contentions of the pamphleteers, while it seems that a print may have 
suggested ideas to Junius himself (No. 4868). The pamphleteers also used 
satirical prints as frontispieces to their works, and on occasion increased 
their effects by selling the plates separately (No. 4839). In estimating their 
eflFect it must be remembered that thousands gazed at them In the shop - 
windows, that they were pasted up in clubs, workshops, taverns, and ale^ 
houses, and were exported in large numbers. ^ 

During the American War the foreign circulation of prints was of great 
importance, and the tendency of English political prints was in marked 
^contrast to those on the Napoleonic War. It was a characteristic of 
English pictorial satire (at least until the fall of North's Ministry in 1782) 
to be almost exclusively anti-ministerial: prints which in England were 
merely factious seemed seditious or worse on the Continent. Not only, 
jwere ministerialists by convention regarded as placemen and pensioners 
while the Opposition were Patriots, but the Opposition claimed a licence 
of speech which they did not allow to the Government. Walpole, deplor- 
ing, in 1770, the licence of the press, sees no remedy, since 'Ministers are 
and ought to be lawful game, yet the law could not except them as proper 

to good drawing ... all the humourous effects of the fashionable manner of Caraca- 
turing chiefly depend on the surprize we are under at finding ourselves caught with 
every sort of Similitude in objects absolutely remote in their kind.' 

' See Francis Douce, The Dance of Death, 1833. 

^ Political Ballads illustrating the Administration of Sir Robert Walpole, ed. 
M. Percival, 1916. But the writer of a pamphlet on Sacheverell (1710) gives 'the 
chief means by which the lower order of Whigs attack a political Adversary' as 
'the Print, the Canto or Doggrell poem' and 'the Libell' (i.e. the pamphlet). Quoted 
Wright, Hist, of Caricature and Grotesque, 1865, p. 412. 

^ Wendeborn (for twenty years an intelligent observer of London life) was told 
by an eminent printseller that he sold great quantities of goods in the country, in 
Scotland, Ireland, the East and West Indies, America, and other parts of the 
world ; that caricature prints went in great numbers to Germany, and thence to 
the adjacent countries. He explains Hogarth's Act, noting that in Germany the 
words published as the Act directs were often taken to mean published by express 
order of parliament. A View of England towards the close of the eighteenth century, 
1791, i. 190, ii. 213-16. (Author's trans.) 



to be abused'.' The same one-sided licence was claimed in debate: Barre 
(in 1782), having demanded and obtained an apology from North for a 
remark which he considered unwarranted, 'attempted to demonstrate that 
every member possessed a right to use with impunity the most severe epi- 
thets towards a pubHc functionary, though that right was not reciprocal'. ^ 
The same attitude was extended to pictorial satirists, who, if ministerial, 
were included in ^The Hungry Mob of Etchers and Scribblers' (No. 3844). 
The mob of etchers was a small one : the obloquy encountered by Hogarth 
for The Times (No. 3970) will be remembered, while Mr. Stephens records 
(besides The Times) only one print which can be called an apology for 
Bute.^ The Morning Herald anticipated (30 March 1782) that the advent 
of a popular Ministry would bring ruin to the print-shops. 

But while the prints, up to a point, represent the attitude of the Oppa^ 
sition, they also reflect public opinion: they were for sale and they had to 
be popular. Th us during the American War a number of prints directed 
against France, Spain, and still more against Holland were by no means_ 
consistent with Opposition policy. Similarly, the significance of many of 
the No-Popery prints before and after the Gordon Riots is an interesting 
problem, ■* but they do not reflect the o£inion of either party in Parliament. 
It may be said that the opinion represented is mainly that of London, but 
that opinion had then a high degree of political importance which was 
.iiicreased by the wide distribution of the prints. 

The importance of the foreign circulation of prints can be illustrated at 

a number of points b y the copyiiTglJFErtgirsTi prints in America, Holland, 

and Franc e and b y the occasional copying of foreign prints in England. 

_The Opposition having espoused the cause of America, English prints 
made admirable enemy-propaganda, while conversely French and Dutch 
prints, being anti-British, were copied in England. Foreign prints were 
also issued with fictitious English publication lines (e.g. No. 4958, pp. 289, 
494). Portraiture was also used in France as in England for propagandist 
purposes, portraits of Franklin with appropriate symbols and inscriptions 
were multiplied (e.g. No. 5691). 

There is reason to suspect that a well-known series of propagandist 
portraits, ostensibly of English origin, usually described as portraits of 
officers in the American War, are of foreign, probably French, origin (see 
No. 5290, &c.). Besides the twelve usually included in the series, four others 
are here suggested as belonging to it: Franklin (No. 5407), Paul Jones 
(No. 5561), George HI (No. 5582), General Eliott (No. 6034). Some 
have French inscriptions, of all there appear to have been poor copies 
published in Augsburg, and all (including the German copies) have English 
publication lines, fictitious if this theory is correct, as probably are most 
of the artists' names. Most of the portraits appear to be imaginary and by 
the same artist who signs the plates of the two Howes 'Corbutt', the name 
used by R. Purcell, supposed to have died in poverty and disrepute c. i'](i(). 
Some of these plates show a distinct resemblance to the work of Purcell, 
suggesting that when he disappeared he went abroad and was afterwards 
employed on this series, probably in Paris. Purcell is known also as a 
caricaturist, and a French satirical print of 1778 is by 'Corbut' (p. 286). 

 Memoirs of the Reign of George III, 1845, iv, p. 168. 
^ Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, i, p. 368. 

^ The attacks on Bute in this volume can be counted from the number of times 
his name occurs in the index ; he is never anything but a villain. 
'^ Cf. below, p. xxiii. 

XV b 


The other artist suggested for one of the series is Brookshaw (No. 5561), 
who from about 1772 was working in Paris, and from 1779 in Brussels 
and Amsterdam. Only portraits which have a clearly political character 
are included in the catalogue ; a striking instance is the portrait of Washing- 
tion added to a London reprint of an American pamphlet (No. 5641). 

A particularly interesting example of reciprocal copying is connected 
with Dixon's The Oracle (No. 5225), evidently intended as a protest 
against the punitive measures under discussion in 1774. Time with a 
magic lantern shows, to Britannia, Scotia, Hibernia and America, Discord 
being put to flight by Concord, Liberty, Commerce, Truth and Justice, 
It does not appear to have been noticed that this is the origin of a well- 
known print by Guttanen of Nuremberg with the title The Tea-Tax- 
Tempest or the Anglo-American Revolution (No. 5490). America (reversed) 
is exactly as in Dixon's print, the other three have been transformed into 
Europe, Asia, and Africa. Time displays to them the triumph of America 
and the humiliation of British soldiers, apparently at Saratoga. A French 
copy (No. 5491) was published, and also an English copy in which the 
humiliating allusions are made clearer by words issuing from the mouth 
of Time (No. 6190). 

A set of Dutch prints of 1780 affords further instances of this reciprocal 
copying. An English No-Popery print (No. 5702) appears to be taken from 
a Dutch original (No. 5712). A Dutch print (No. 5722) has a crude 
English copy: it depicts {inter alia) Lord George Gordon and London 
in flames. A Dutch engraver of small skill wishing to represent (in 1781) 
'English Lords and Noblemen in the Parliament Assembly' (No. 5839) 
copied them from two English plates ridiculing the fashions of 1773 
(Nos. 5169, 5170). 

A magazine illustration of 1778 (No. 5472), showing the humiliation of 
England, the decay of British trade, the enrichment of France, Spain, and 
Holland at England's expense, and pillorying the two Howes for inactivity 
in America, had a whole progeny of copies, American, Dutch, and French, 
a translation of the English explanatory text being used. Paul Revere was 
a copier of English prints, including the one just mentioned. A print of 
1772 (No. 4940), showing for purposes of faction the supposed humiliation of 
England by Spain, was copied in 1774 by Revere to damage British prestige. 
American prints were rare or there would doubtless have been English 
copies. An interesting example is the famous print of the Boston Massacre, 
which was copied three times in England' to illustrate two English editions 
of the inflammatory Short Narrative of the Horrid Massacre in Boston . . . 
and an account of the affair in The Freeholders Magazine (Nos. 4378, 
4378 A (p. 2), 4839). Another example of the reprinting in England of an 
inflammatory American pamphlet with the addition of a frontispiece is 
No. 5641. 

By the close of the period covered by this volume, if not earlier, 
pictorial satire was recognized as peculiarly an English art and an English 
weapon. Archenholtz, who writes as an eyewitness of events in London 
between 1771 and 1784, remarks, 'il faut compter au nombre des privileges 
de cette nation, la liberte de faire des gravures satiriques, qui tournent en 
ridicule les ennemis du jour. Le Francois les chansonne, le Hollandois 
plus pesant frappe des medailles; I'Anglois a choisi la gravure, comme le 

' Mr. W. B. Goodwin of Hartford, Connecticut, conjecturally identifies No. 4839 
with the print after Pelham, one of the only two known impressions of which is 
in the possession of the American Antiquarian Society. 



plus propre a donner de la publicite a la satire.'^ In 1742 Gray, writing to 
Chute in Florence remarking on the present vogue for political satire in 
England, suggests that he should find and dispatch an Italian artist who 
should visit Holland on the way to learn taste. ^ The Dutch prints in this 
volume show a marked deterioration from the days when the English had 
learnt in the school of Romeyn de Hooghe. 

Political Satires i 771-1783. 

1 77 1 opened ostensibly in the state of political excitement which appeared 
to have become normal and which depended largely on the supposed 
influence of Bute and the Princess Dowager of Wales. The City Patriots, 
the Wilkites, and Junius fanned the flame. But the reaction had already 
begun : the attempt of the Opposition backed by Junius to rouse the country 
against the Ministry by accusing them of corrupt subservience to Spain 
(Nos. 4849, 4857, &c.) was a failure. A new and famous phase in the 
vendetta between Wilkes and parliament arose over the question of the 
publication of debates. Important as the consequences were, at the time 
it was little more than an episode in the quarrel, and was so treated in 
pictorial satire (No. 4852). In spite of a riot (No. 4850) this factitious 
excitement could not check the growing political apathy. The failure of 
the clamour for war with Spain and the divisions among the Opposition 
increased the reaction. In the public mind these divisions centred in the 
quarrel between Wilkes and Home and the consequent disruption of the 
City Patriots. The quarrel figures largely in the prints; neither the accusa- 
tion that it was promoted by the Ministry (see No. 4868, anticipating 
Junius) nor the glorification of the City Patriots in the Tower (No. 4864, 
&c.) could avert the decline in their political credit, correctly anticipated 
in No. 4887. Wilkes's diminished repute was probably increased by his 
association with the gambling assurances on the sex of d'Eon (No. 4870 &c.). 

Dejection and disillusionment among the supporters of the Opposition 
are reflected in No. 4955 (1772), remarkable as appearing in the Tozvn and 
Country Magazine, which had been among the more inflammatory periodi- 
cals. There is a general tendency to revert to conventional attacks on 
governmental corruption (e.g. Nos. 4877, 4885) with Bute and Mansfield 
playing their accustomed parts. Two altered plates (Nos. 5126, 5127), 
from the Political Magazine of 1767 and 1768, suggest a bankruptcy of 
ideas among the Opposition. Other interests of 1772-3 are the financial 
crisis (Nos. 4947, 4961), India (No. 5101, &c.), and the Partition of 
Poland (No. 4957). During these years George III is usually depicted 
asleep (as in No. 4957), or in some w^ay neglectful of his country's interests 
(e.g. No. 4883). 

The prints are of especial value in showing the stereotypes formed of 
leading politicians at dift'erent times. This aspect of Fox's career is of 
peculiar interest from the importance he attached to his 'darling popu- 
larity'. 3 He began under the cloud of his father's reputation and his own 

' Archenholtz, Tableau de VAngleterre, Bruxelles, 1788, i, pp. 149-50 (tr. from 
England und Italien). Cf. Boyer-Brun, Hist, des caricatures de la revolte des 
Frangais, 1792, p. 7: 'Les Italiens, qui ont presque tout invent^ dans les Arts, ont 
fait les premiers des Caricatures. Les Anglois se sont approprids ce genre en 
rimitant. Les Fran^ais ont marched dans cette carri^re sur les traces des Italiens et 
des Anglois.' 

^ Letters, ed. D. C. Tovey, i, p. 108. At about this time the caricatures of Ghezzi 
were copied in England. ^ See below, p. xxvi. 



politics. His first appearance was at the age of eight in The Sturdy Beggar, 
No. 3579 (1757)? a satire on the reversionary sinecures obtained by Henry 
Fox for his sons. In the same year in The Bawd of the Nation or the Way 
to grow rich (No. 3636) he and Stephen prophetically help their father to 
squander a fortune acquired at the country's expense. In No. 5223 (1774) 
the two young men, in bondage to the Devil, rob their father to pay their 
gaming debts. The great interest taken in his career from 1771 is notice- 
able — he is at first the leading macaroni, petit-maitre, and enemy of liberty 
(No. 4892, &c.),' but in 1773 (No. 5 113) he is shown making a secret 
compact with the gouty Chatham, to whom he is apparently dictating 
terms. When, in 1774, he 'commenced patriot' in good earnest his appear- 
ances in the Catalogue for some years become fewer. 

In 1774 American aff^airs reappear in the Catalogue. The prints on the 
American Revolution are of great interest in illuminating the difficult and 
controversial question of public opinion in England in relation to the war. 
As in America, 'the Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people' -.^ 
in England the struggle was against the minority in parliament who 
identified the cause of the Americans with Whig politics in general and 
with their own opposition to the authority of the Crown in particular^ 
The prints being anti-ministerial are naturally pro- American. That this 
was on the whole a popular attitude in London is borne out by the pressL 
..and by the attitude of the City Corporation. It was the cause of an active 
and able minority* backed by the prestige of the great Whig fami lies 
(though hampered by their disunion) and by the influence of dissent. 
_Secondly, this opinion prevailed and the war came to an end less because 
_ofYorktown5 than because of the state of mind of the country, influenced"" 
_by failure, by the extreme unpopularity of the Ministry, and by an active 
^propaganda which is graphically represented in these prints. This pro- 
American attitude had an incalculable eff"ect on American and Continental 
opinion ; it hardened the king's heart and convinced him that the Opposition ' 
was factiously regardless of the country's interests. Finally, reaction was 
inevitable, and the attitude of the Opposition to the war was probably 
one cause of the growing unpopularity of the Ministry after North's fall— 
the prints certainly suggest this, e.g. Nos. 6029, 6229. 

The prints bring out the great influence on the American Revolution of 
the series of crises connected with Wilkes : the villains here as in America 
are Bute and Mansfield, who are joined by North, Sandwich, and Germain. 
America in these prints, as in much contemporary literature, is the land 
of liberty and virtue, England that of corruption and slavery — Liberty 
taking flight to America being a familiar theme (No. 5580). 

The strong feeling against episcopacy which was so potent and so in- 
flammatory in America had its counterpart in England under the combined 
influence of dissent, of American opinion, of the attitude of the bench of 

' Cf. 'The Grand Defaulter's celebrated cub spent, not long ago, a whole week 
at the gaming table. He allowed himself no respite but when he went home to 
get a clean shirt. What a hopeful legislator!' Oxford Magazine, vi, p. 151, April 

- John Adams, quoted Schlesinger, New Viewpoints in American History, 1922, 
p. 162. 

^ F. J. Hinkhouse, Preliminaries of the American Revolution as seen in the English 
Press, lydj-iy^s. 1926. 

■* Cf. Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, pp. loo-i, 'With the two exceptions of Johnson 
and of Gibbon ... all the eminent or shining talents of the country, led on by 
Burke, were marshalled in support of the Colonies.' 

^ Cf. Washington's letters after Yorktown. 



bishops to the war and of the Anglican Church towards the doctrines of 

.Locke and the sacred right of rebellion." An interesting print, An attempt 

to land a Bishop in America (No. 4227 (1769)), illustrates the pre-war 

^ttitude of America and of many in England towards this controversial 

_c[uestion. The association of episcopacy and popery, common in the 

seventeenth century, survived in New England and significantly reappears 

in these prints (Nos. 5228, 6209, &c.). The bigotry which culminated in 

the Gordon Riots owed much, first to the allegations against Bute (No. 

4841), then to the passions roused by the Quebec Act as well as to the 

influence of American affairs in general. The treatment of Boston was 

compared with that of 'the French Roman Catholick town of Quebec' 

(No. 5286). 

Two contentions of the Opposition were in the highest degree comforting 
to tiie enemy : one that it was impossible that England should win and that 
_die war would end not only in defeat but ruin, the other, that victory if 
achieved would mean the end of liberty in England, These contentions 
are expressed directly and indirectly in the prints, which are in a high 
degree defeatist and as significant for the events they omit as for those 
they record. But the most effective war propaganda is the creation of an 
atmosphere of hate, therefore Indian atrocities and the representation of 
George III as a cruel tyrant are found in English pictorial satire as in 
revolutionary literature in America (Nos. 5470, 5631, &c.). The great 
difficulty of obtaining recruits in England was undoubtedly influenced by 
the unpopularity of the war in general and by a number of anti-recruiting 
s atires. No. ';2Q'; especially being of a deadly effectiveness, 

^724,15 -^^5-i^°?9?^"^^ "^^^^ the measures against the Colonies which 
f oTIovt ^e'd the Boston Tea-party (No. 5226). The Quebec Act, though not 
punitive, roused the most opposition in England as in America. This was 
the beginning of those denunciations of George III for breaking his 
Coronation Oath (No. 5227)^ which (presumably) bore fruit in his fatal 
opposition to Catholic Emancipation. In 1775 every political print relates 
to America; they are few, probably owing to the feeling of bewildered-- 
uncertainty which is appareat in._contemporary letters and memoirs^ 
During 1775 Sayer published a series of mezzotints remarkable for their 
knowledge of events in America, which were in fact the subject of in=^ 
numerable para graphs in the newspapers (p. 169, Nos. 5241, 5284, pp. 196, 
197.): ^owles also introduced the tarring and feathering of a commissioner 
of'c ustoms into his series of mezzotints (No. 5232). Here again, the 
dout'ts and uncertainties of opinion are reflected in the partly ironic^ 
partly humorous, attitude towards the doings of the American patriots, 
_Nbs. 5286, 5287 have more political importance: they are comprehensive 

statements of pro-American propaganda in its cruder and more extreme 

Till the disasters of Saratoga and Trenton, 1776-7 were years of success 
for the British. 1776 is noteworthy for two of the few anti- American «U\Xa' ' 
satires, one a crude and ill-timed print on the American entrenchments ^/t** 
near Boston (No. 5329), which incidentally illustrates the fact that at the 

' See Van Tyne, 'Influence of the Clergy and of religious and sectarian forces 
on the American Revolution,' Am. Hist. Rev. xix, pp. 44 ff. Cf. also James Murray's 
Impartial History of the presetjt War . . . [1779-80], ii, p. 109: 'All the jargon of 
Sir Robert Filmer was retailed in several pulpits.' 

^ Cf. a letter from Philadelphia of July 1775, 'Majesty has fallen so low as to be 
known by no other appellation but that of perjured tyrant, a popish villain who has 
broke his coronation oath'. Home Office Papers, iii, p. 248. See below, pp. xxii, xxiii. 



beginning of the war Putnam was the best known (in England) of the 

.^American commanders. The Westminster Magazine, completely changing, 

its attitude, published The Parricide, A Sketch of modern Patriotism 

(No. 5334), in which Fox appears for the first time as an active patriot. 

The occupation of Philadelphia occasioned a third anti-American print — 

The Flight of the Congress (No. 5401). By this time the Howes had roused 

suspicion and dislike in England, for their failure to follow up successes 

_in some circles, for their Whig opinions in others, combined with their 

alleged desire to prolong the war for the perquisites and pleasures of high 

command. In America they were regarded with distrust by the loyalists 

and with contempt by the Whigs. They were thus included in the series 

of propagandist American portraits' in silent contrast to American officers 

XNos. 5405, 5406). 

The year 1778 marks a crisis in the struggle: war- weariness in America 
(in spite of Saratoga) had reached a dangerous point. North's Conciliatory 
Propositions and the pending French alliance gave propaganda in America 
a new intensity which had its counterpart in England. The Closet (No. 
5470) is an almost incredibly violent attack on the king, the Ministry, 
and the conduct of the war. It is the most explicit expression among the 
prints of the theory (widely held in America) of the perversion of the 
constitution by a tyrannical system, centred in the King's closet and 
directed by Bute, which had led directly to failure and atrocities. Burgpyne 
and Simon Frazer are held up to contempt for the disaster of Saratoga; 
Indian braves are enjoying a cannibal feast upon the American prisoners 
who surrendered at the Cedars (May 1776) in accordance with baseless" 
allegations in America. ^ 

North's belated and ill-timed Conciliatory Propositions (No. 5473, &c.), 
which had a uniformly bad reception in England, must be judged by the . 
fears which they roused in America and in France. When the Bills with 
North's speech were distributed from Howe's headquarters Governor 
Johnson of Maryland was warned that 'it will prove more dangerous to 
our cause than ten thousand of their best troops'. The French, in spite of 
the alliance, dreaded above everything a reconciliation between England 
and America and did their best to impugn the good faith of the Proposi- 
Jiions, representing them as a proof that England had recognized her defeat.^ 
In England their reception was all that extreme patriots in America and the 
war party in France could desire. They were represented as humiliating, 
even by Whigs; the Opposition could hardly oppose the concessions but 
denounced them as specious and deceitful and poured scorn on the choice 
of the Commissioners. The first print on the subject (No. 5472) so exactly 
fitted the needs of enemy propaganda that it was copied for circulation in 
America in 1778 and again, by Revere, in 1780, and had a succession of 

' See above, p. xv. 

^ Captain Sullivan, one of the prisoners, wrote, 4 August 1776, from Montreal to 
his brother the general, a member of Congress, calling 'Almighty God to witness 
that not a man living could have used more humanity than Captain Forster did 
after the surrender . . . and whoever says the contrary, ... he is an enemy to peace 
and a fallacious disturber of mankind. What reason they can give for not redeeming 
us I cannot conceive; if they are wrongly informed that the affair of the Cedars 
was a massacre, why do they not rather fulfil the cartel than let their hostages 
remain in the hands of a merciless enemy, or do they regard their troops only while 
the heavens make them victorious?' Stedman, Hist, of the American War, 1794, 
i, p. 172. 

3 P. G. Davidson, 'Whig Propagandists of the American Revolution', American 
Hist. Rev., Apr. 1934. 



Dutch and French copies (Nos. 5726, 5726 a, b, and c, p. 451).' No. 5473 
shows the Commissioners kneeling obsequiously before America, en- 
throned and seated on bales of commerce destined for England's com- 
mercial rivals; they confess to tyranny and the commission of atrocities, 
while the concessions are represented as inspired by fear, and intended to 
deceive. No, 5487 shows the Commissioners making deceitful overtures 
to the Colonies in the guise of a zebra who is about to be saddled with 
the Stamp Act. The diplomatic tension in America before the Commis- 
sioners left America, having been obstructed and ridiculed in every way, 
as they had been ridiculed in England (Nos. 5474, 5475), is illustrated by 
a French satire (p. 286) representing England humiliated and despoiled 
of her trade as in No. 5472 and by another French satire on the Proposi- 
tions (p. 289). To this year also belongs Guttanen's engraving (No. 5490) 
copied without acknowledgement from Dixon. 

The scurrilous attacks on Wesley provoked by his attitude to the war 
reached a climax in 1778 and bear witness to the effect of his pamphlet 
A Calm Address to our American Colonies. They are here represented by 
the frontispieces to a succession of pamphlets in verse, probably by William 
Combe (Nos. 5493-6). The prints symbolize also the attacks by other 
writers : Wesley is sold to North and is charged with having changed the 
attitude of the common people to the war.^ The odium theologicum which 
inflamed the contest is shown in attacks on the Anglican clergy, more 
especially on bishops and above all on Archbishop Markham (see index). 

The No-Popery agitation which had been roused by the Quebec Act 
was given new stimulus by the Catholic Relief Act of 1778. The result 
was the formation of the Protestant Association, which carried on an active 
propaganda leading to the Gordon Riots. This propaganda, discoverable 
in forgotten pamphlets and in the newspapers, was also expressed in prints, 
some of which were probably paid for by the Association. But the theme 
was both traditional and popular and in Gillray it found a new expressive- 
ness. The first in the Catalogue is No. 5489, representing the king's 
entertainment by Lord Petre. 

When England and France were at last openly at war (July 1778) the 
attitude to the war changed its character; the prints in a broad view sup- 
port the statement that 'before France declared herself the protectress of 
America the British nation hardly considered itself at war'.^ The first 
event of the war with France (apart from some captures in the Channel) 
was the battle of Ushant on 27 July 1778, a date which was to become 
a political gibe directed against Keppel,'^ and frequently recurring in these 
prints. The unfortunate consequences of the battle and of the two courts 
martial to which it gave rise are fully displayed in these prints, in which 

' See p. xvi. 

^ Cf. Camden to Chatham, Feb. 1775: 'I am grieved to hear that the landed 
interest is almost altogether hostile to America, though the common people hold 
the war in abhorrence and the merchants and traders for obvious reasons are against 
it.' Chatham, Corr. iv, p. 123. 

^ J. Andrews, Hist, of the late War, 1786, iii, p. 220. 

* The significance is well illustrated in a clever dialogue by Mrs. Thrale written 
in August 1779: Johnson to W. W. Pepys. '. . . . Would you declaim upon the 
happiness of sound health to Beauclerc .'' Would you talk to your friend (sneeringly) 
Keppel of the twenty-seventh of July? Burke: Mr. Keppel might be talked to 
concerning the Business of that Day, Dr. Johnson, and often is, without any Dimi- 
nution of that Self Complacency, which in Good men ever attends the performance 
of their Duty, however unsuccessful the event.' Bulletin of the John Rylands 
Library, Jan. 1932. 





the spreading poison of faction in the Navy can be graphically traced 
(No. 5536, &c.). The hatred which Sandwich (Jemmy Twitcher) had 
incurred by the betrayal of Wilkes was rekindled; Sir Hugh Palliser 
became a symbol of iniquity. Gibbon wrote (6 Apr. 1779) of Keppel's 
trial 'the whole stream of all men, and all parties, runs one way. Sir Hugh 
is disgraced, ruined, &c., &c.' The exploitation of the affair by the Whigs,' 
it can scarcely be doubted, tended in the end to their discomfiture (No. 
5992, &c.). 

An increase in the number of political satires in 1779 reflects the growing 
strength and bitterness of the Opposition in spite of the difficulties of 
opposing a war with the Bourbon powers. A parody of the Birthday Ode 
(No. 5540) anticipates the Probationary Odes but in a more savage spirit. 
The attitude to the king is significant, by 1778 he was a cruel and obstinate 
tyrant (Nos. 5470, 5549);^ his portrait as an oriental despot was evidently 
popular, there are four versions of it (5546, &c.) besides a copy in 1784. 
Decaying trade and an obstinate king are the theme of No. 5574, with a 
significant dedication to Washington. 

The chief event of 1779 was the threat of invasion when the combined 
French and Spanish fleets were in command of the Channel. This evoked 
prints whose intention was patriotic (Nos. 5554-5), but the recruiting in 
London which was the result of this great danger was a subject of ridicule 
(Nos. 5551-2), as had been the raising of regiments by subscription after 
Saratoga. The exploit of Paul Jones is the subject of a number of prints 
in which he figures as a hero (see index) ; foreign prints show how damag- 
ing was his achievement to British prestige. The situation in Ireland was 
becoming increasingly threatening and is the subject of a print of great 
interest (No. 5572) from the light it throws on the volunteer and non- 
importation movement. Holland as a selfish and hostile neutral (a tradi- 
tional subject in these prints in every war since Utrecht) first appears in 
No. 5557, a print which illustrates incidentally the help which England 
then expected from Russia. 

Religious bigotry and an attack on the Catholic Relief Act of 1778 are 
comprehensively expressed in No. 5534, in which the direct action of the 
Scots against Popish chapels, &c., in Glasgow and Edinburgh is held up 
for imitation by the English, while the Beast of Rome absolves the king 
from his Coronation Oath.^ 

In 1779-80 Fox reached the zenith of his popularity after his duel with 
Adam (No. 5575) and the founding of the Westminster Association (Feb. 
1780), which nominated him their candidate for Westminster (to be elected 
without expense). The prints of 1780 reflect the intense violence of politics 
apparently increased by British successes in America. The standard theme 
of ministerial corruption and treachery dominates many prints. The 
County Associations, County Petitions, and Committees of Correspondence 
for securing parliamentary and administrative reform as a means to the 
reduction of the power of the Crown and peace with America are the 

' The best discussion is in Sandwich Papers, ii, 1933, Navy Records Society, 
ed. G. R. Barnes and J. H. Owen, unfortunately not published until the elucidation 
of No. 5536, &c., was in print. 

^ The changed attitude was noted in 1 779 by an observant and moderate loyalist 
living in London: 'The Ministry were formerly charged with the mischiefs of the 
public measures, but now the evil begins to be drawn from the Crown, and the 
King is said to be the author and promoter of the system, even in some sense 
against the sense of his servants.' H. C. van Shaack, Life of Peter van Shaack, 
New York, 1842, p. 240. ' See above, p. xix. 



subject of a number of satires (see index under Reform), Several prints 
associate the Protestant Association and Petition, sponsored by Lord 
George Gordon, with the County Associations and Petitions, to the detri- 
ment of the latter (Nos. 5633, 5649, &c.). The excitement connected with 
the Associations roused fears of civil war which soon subsided.' The 
overthrow of the Ministry is prophetically depicted in Nos. 5640 and 
5645; North, Sandwich, and Germain are threatened with the block 
(Nos. 5660, &c.). Prerogative's Defeat or Liberties Triumph (No. 5659) 
illustrates Dunning's famous motion. But the attacks on King, Ministry, 
and Church are interspersed with patriotic prints; the achievements of 
the Navy were a powerful counter-attraction to the misdeeds of the 
Ministry. Rodney was especially popular, he was known to be an enemy 
of Sandwich^ and believed to be the protege of the King (No. 5673). 

The No-Popery agitation which led up to the Gordon Riots is well 
illustrated in these prints; its association with the American War has 
rec eived scant attention. It was combined with allegations of Popery 
against the Church of England, much of it was directed against the King. 
It must be considered in relation to the attacks on the Quebec Act and on 
bishops and it indicates a strain of opinion, especially in London, similar 
to that which was exploited with such effect in New England. In 
February 1780, when the excitement over the County Petitions was at its 
height, Almon published a print (No. 5631) in which George III shares 
a cannibal feast with Red Indians while a bishop, probably Markham, 
hurries up followed by a sailor carrying scalping-knives and crucifixes. 
A little later the king as The Royal Ass (No. 5669) is led to Rome by Bute 
and Markham. In No. 5670 (as the Mangy Whelp) he is taken to the 
same destination by Father Peters. In No. 5671 the influence over the 
King of the 'Invisible Junto' (Bute, North, Mansfield, and the Devil) is 
outweighed by the Bible in a print dedicated to 'the truly honourable 
Lord George Gordon'. After as before the Riots Gordon is the Protestant 
Hero (see index). No. 5678 was evidently timed to coincide with the 
much-advertised mass meeting in St. George's Fields (No. 5694). This, 
like Nos, 5534, 5643, is a print in the spirit of the Popish Plot of a century 
earlier: George III and North make a combined attack on the Constitution 
and on Protestantism, urged on by the Pope and a swarm of devils. In 
No. 5680 (June 10) the King, in monkish robes, kneels before a crucifix on 
an altar, while the Protestant Petition lies torn on the floor, destined for 
ignominious usage. This is remarkable from its date, showing that the 
torrent of propaganda was scarcely checked by the riots. It was indeed 
diverted to showing that the Protestant Association was not responsible for 
the Riots (No. 5679, p. 408). Of all the prints relating to the riots one 
only (No. 5685) throws the blame on Protestant bigotry. The culprits are 
the ruffians of the underworld (No. 5679, &c.) or the Papists (No. 5841), 
while the Government is accused of fostering the riots in order to intro- 
duce a military despotism (cf. Nos. 5682, 5683, 5687). The hidden hand 
or foreign enemy, the subject of much official investigation (State Papers 
Domestic), is represented here only ironically in a Dutch print and its 
English copy (Nos. 5722, 5723), an omission not without significance. 

' Cf. Gibbon, 7 Feb. 1780, 'I think the rumours of a Civil War subside every 
day: petitions are thought less formidable . . .' Letters, ed. Prothero, i, p. 375. 

^ The Abbe Morellet wrote from France to Shelburne, 4 Apr. 1780, commenting 
on Rodney's victory of St. Vincent (No. 5658, &c.), 'Je suis fort fach^ de voir em- 
ployer ainsi les membres de I'Opposition.' Lettres de VAbbe Morellet, Paris, 1898. 



While the Lord Mayor deservedly is harshly dealt with (No. 5688, &c.), 
Gordon continues to be a hero. 

These prints support the indications that the political reaction which 
followed the Gordon Riots had in fact begun before them, and that it was 
chiefly caused by the methods of the County Associations and Committees 
of Correspondence which Walpole feared portended civil war (No. 5645). 
In view of the traditional attitude of pictorial satire' attacks on the Opposi- 
tion are of especial significance. Opposition Defeated (No. 5644) is note- 
worthy for its early association of Fox and the Prince of Wales in designs 
on the Crown. The check to political excitement caused by the Riots was 
probably increased by the taking of Charleston (a blow to the Opposition 
and significantly absent from these prints except for a hostile allusion in 
No. 5699), which would have meant complete disaster to Washington but 
for the arrival of Rochambeau (No. 5706) and the French fleet. 

At the end of 1780 the chief interest was in the critical relations between 
England and Holland. The King's manifesto of 20 December was a virtual 
declaration of war; war was popular in general for reasons which are well 
illustrated in the prints of Nic Frog (Holland) as a greedy neutral (No. 
5557, &c.), but it was violently attacked by the Opposition. The chaotic 
state of opinion in Holland is described rather than depicted in a set of 
Dutch prints (No. 5712, &c.), fourteen of which were copied on a small 
scale and combined in one plate (No. 5728) published with the explanations 
issued with the originals and forming a fair-sized pamphlet, one of the 
many with which the Republic was deluged at this time. They are 
markedly inferior in design and efi^ectiveness to the better English prints 
of the period, a reversal of the relative positions of the two countries in 
the earlier part of the century.^ They show the divided aims, delays, and 
uncertainties of Dutch policy, torn between the Patriots and the Orangists, 
and encumbered by the complexities of the constitution. Economic 
motives were dominant and conflicting, and were further complicated by 
the conflicting counsels of the English, French, Russian, and Spanish 
diplomats at The Hague, not to mention the American envoy. Appeals to 
the traditional resentment at the Navigation Acts and the rancour asso- 
ciated with the name of Cromwell (No. 5729, &c.) were added to arguments 
in behalf of economic self-sufliciency and naval prestige. The prints show 
also the exaggerated hopes which were entertained of the Armed Neutrality 
(No. 5714, &c.), and incidentally, how great was the impression made in 
the Republic by the Gordon Riots (No. 5728, &c.). Especially interesting 
is the multiplication of copies of No. 5726^ showing the (unrealized) 
expectations of securing a large share in the commerce of America which 
England had previously monopolized. No. 5733'* shows the real reason 
for the declaration of war as fear of the Armed Neutrality, while the 
pretext was the draft treaty with Congress discovered among the papers 
of Laurens. 

The declaration was in fact nicely timed to forestall the adherence of 
the United Provinces to the Neutral League, and was highly successful. 
As neutrals the Dutch had been of great service to America and France, 
as combatants they were to become the real losers by the war and to 
compensate England for her losses. This was foretold in an Orangist 

' See above, p. xiv. ^ See above, p. xvii, n. 2. 

^ See above, pp. xvi, xx. 

'^ A print not recorded by Muller: it appears to be absent from the Collection 
Van Stolk. 



print (No. 5712) and deplored in another Dutch print on the peace (No. 
6292). The protest against the war with the RepubHc by the Opposition 
peers was the subject of a Dutch print with a fictitious EngHsh publication 
line (p. 494). 

In 178 1 a decline in the hopes of the Opposition, due to the continuation 
of the political reaction, some military successes (Nos. 5827, 5828, &c.), 
and the popularity of the Dutch war (No. 5827, &c.), is shown in a fall in 
the number of political prints. The capture of St. Eustatius by Rodney 
was the focus of excitement (No. 5837) and a great blow to the patriots 
(No. 5923). Rodney's high-handed conduct on the island was a subject 
of heated controversy. The case against him is amusingly illustrated in 
No. 5842. By-elections in London and Bristol receive attention; an 
American candidate at Bristol evoked two anti- American satires (Nos. 
5832, 5833). Suddenly the situation was altered by the surrender of 
Cornwallis (No. 5855, &c,). After the Christmas recess the Ministry were 
clearly doomed. The prints are defeatist in character, and military disasters, 
actual and anticipated, are symboUcally depicted (Nos. 5959, 5961). The 
Opposition exulted at defeat with effects which are probably to be traced 
in the trend of opinion during 1782-3.^ 

At the beginning of 1782 the chief topics were North's budget and 
pending ministerial change, the protagonists being Fox and North. Banco 
to the Knave (No. 5972) depicts the exultation of the new ministers. Fox 
the chief winner; the scene is a faro bank at Brooks's which had been 
a source of income to Fox during 1781, a fact which was to be used against 
the new Ministry in connexion with the recall of Rodney. 

The immediate importance given to Pitt in these prints is of great 
interest: from the beginning, like Fox, he is his father's son. In The War 
of Posts (No. 5984), though not a Minister, he is the chief opponent of the 
old gang and holds a sheaf of thunderbolts inscribed 'The Lightining of 
my Father'. As soon as the 'War of Posts' was over the most striking 
change is in the growing unpopularity of ministers and especially of Fox. 
The first charge was that of republicanism (No. 5987, &c.), probably due 
to Fox's imprudent conversation at Brooks's and elsewhere and his avowed 
intention of striking a blow at the power of the Crown. If the verses 
attached to No. 6005 are rightly attributed to Fox they would appear to 
show an attempt to counter the effect of these allegations of republicanism. 
The new Ministry was visibly losing popularity when the news of the 
battle of The Saints arrived; Rodney was recalled in the moment of 
victory to be replaced by Pigot, the purely political appointment of an 
inadequate officer. Gillray illustrated with deadly effect the allegations 
that the appointment was to enable him to pay his gaming debts to Fox 
(No. 5997). There were better reasons for condemning it; the state of 
public feeling and the scandalous talk of the town are well illustrated in 
Gillray's four satires (No. 5992, &c.). Gibbon wrote (29 May), 'Every 
person of every party is provoked with our new Governors for taking the 
truncheon from the hand of a victorious Admiral, in whose place they have 
sent a Commander without experience or abilities.' 

Another failure of the new Ministry was Shelburne's scheme for 'arming 
the people' on principles similar to those of the Irish Volunteers. This 

* Loughborough wrote to Lord Carlisle on the attitude of the Opposition 
towards Yorktown: 'It is strange that they should never learn that to show exulta- 
tion in a public calamity makes them odious and aids those they are attacking.' 
Hist. MSS. Comm. Carlisle MSS., p. 539. 



had a bad reception and was dropped. Sheridan wrote naively to Thomas 
Grenville (26 May), 'The arming plan don't seem to take at all.'' It was 
attacked by Gillray in Malagrida and Conspirators consulting the Ghost of 
Oliver Cromwell (No. 6006). Fox lost credit by the treatment of the Dutch 
of his proposals for a separate peace (No. 6014). The Dutch refusal was 
a blow to ministerial prestige but fortunate for the country, as the terms 
eventually obtained (No. 6292) were much better than those offered by 
Fox, which included acceptance of free navigation under the terms of the 
Armed Neutrality. 

Fox's resignation on the death of Rockingham was a further blow to 
his popularity,^ the 'darling popularity'^ which all knew to be so important 
to 'the Man of the People'. There are many prints on this resignation: 
Gillray depicts him running back to his gaming at Brooks's as a sole source 
of sustenance, after an ignominious quarrel with Shelburne (No. 6013). 
Sayers's first political satire depicts Fox and Burke outside the gates of 
Paradise (No. 601 1), one of several applications of Paradise Lost to this 
situation. The prints entirely support Temple's warning to Fox 'that the 
people would not stand by him in his attempt to quit upon private grounds, 
which from their nature would appear to be a quarrel for offices, not a 
public measure'.'* Burke was also ridiculed by Gillray for his resignation 
in an amusing print in the worst of taste, Cincinnatus in Retirement (No. 
6026), in which he appears for the first time as an Irish Jesuit. Shelburne 
was not spared, he is represented as the triumphant conspirator who has 
ejected Fox from office (Nos. 6012, 6018, &c.). It was evident that his 
Ministry was unlikely to last (No. 6023). The prints by Gillray and 
Sayers of Fox, Burke, Barre, and Shelburne have a cruel effectiveness, 
while the misdeeds of North's Ministry still recur in pictorial satire 
(e.g. Nos. 6024, 6033). 

Prints on the defence of Gibraltar are a relief from the prevailing political 
acrimony. The preparations for the great combined attack which the 
Bourbon powers regarded as invincible are the subject of a print by Gillray 
in which Spain and Holland are admirably travestied as Don Quixote and 
Sancho Panza (No. 6025). The confidence of the enemy powers is illus- 
trated by one of the propagandist series of mezzotint portraits' (repre- 
sented by an Augsburg copy) in which Eliott points in dismay to the 
bombardment (No. 6034). Eliott's heroic and successful defence is the 
subject of Nos. 6035-8. The dramatic character of the two great successes 
in the West Indies and in the Mediterranean which changed the inter- 
national situation increased the unpopularity of the Ministry: they pro- 
duced a wave of patriotic feeling (Nos. 6040, 6043) unsympathetic to the 
consistent defeatism of Fox and his friends during North's Ministry; this 
is illustrated by more attacks on Fox, especially Nos. 6029, 6030. 

The year 1783 opens with the peace negotiations approaching finality and 
with the imminent fall of Shelburne. It was common form in English 
eighteenth-century politics to denounce the terms of peace, but in 1783 
the attacks were by comparison moderate. The recent successes had 

' Buckingham, Courts and Cabinets of George III, i, p. 32. 

^ Temple to Thomas Grenville, 4 July 1782: 'My opinion with all whom I have 
seen, is that Fox has undone himself with the public. . . .' Ibid, i, p. 52. 

^ Cf. Burke on Fox's India Bill, 'He has put to hazard his ease, his security, his 
interest, his power, even his darling popularity for the benefit of a people he has 
never seen.' Pari. Hist, xxiii, p. 1384. Lady Sarah Napier, Fox's cousin, uses the 
same phrase. 

 Buckingham, op. cit., p. 51. * See above, p. xv. 



removed a sense of humiliation (cf. No. 6040) and it was recognized that 
the terms were better than might have been expected. While addresses 
were being received approving the preHminaries signed on 20 January, 
Fox and North had agreed to turn out the Ministry by a combined attack 
on these terms. After a number of prints on the peace (not all completely 
unfavourable, No. 6172 taking a realistic view of the situation), the Coalition 
first appears in No. 6176, Shelburne Badger'd and Fox'd. The defeat of 
North had been the subject of prints depicting conflicts between the fox 
and the badger (North): the violent change of attitude is stressed in a 
number of prints on the united action of the fox and the badger (No. 6i86, 
&c.). The great number of prints on the Coalition shows, as nothing else 
can, the measure of its unpopularity (e.g. No. 6217) and must have done 
much to increase it; they must be studied in relation to the earlier prints. 
Though a case can be made for the Coalition, it seems clear that the 
popular indignation was not only genuine but natural,' though it was of 
course exploited. 

The prints of 1782 had shown Fox and North in violent conflict for the 
fruits of office; now they were shown in an unholy compact to enjoy them 
(e.g. No. 6225). The whole case against the coalition at its most exaggerated 
is displayed in these satires.^ According to Lecky 'the conduct of North 
was more blamed than that of Fox' . The evidence of the prints is that the 
reverse is true, so far as the public mind was concerned, even allowing for 
the fact that Fox was better copy and was treated unsparingly by Gillray 
and Sayers. In a number of prints Fox is sly and triumphant. North 
bewildered, notably in the famous Coalition Medal (No. 6183). Fox drives 
the coach. North is content to get up behind (No. 6226). Quotations from 
Fox's speeches were illustrated with damaging effect (Nos. 6187, 6207). 
His attitude to the Crown was clearly unpopular (No. 6239, &c.), especially 
in combination with his association with the Prince of Wales (Nos. 6231, 
6266). In No. 6237 he is the executioner of a crowned goose (the King), 
while North and the Prince of Wales caper for joy. His poverty on resign- 
ing office in July 1782, when he appeared, even to his friends, to be living 
at the expense of Perdita Robinson (No. 61 17), was highly damaging, and 
lent colour to the innumerable accusations that office meant plunder as 
much as power. Even on 30 March 1783 the new French Ambassador 
wrote to Vergennes, 'Le Ministre populaire (Monsieur Fox) est un etrange 
Ministre des Aflfaires ^trangeres; et lorsqu'il aura perdu sa popularite, ce 
qui s'achemine beaucoup, je ne sais ce qui lui restera.*^ 

These satires, and many others, helped to prepare the public mind for 
the reception of the two India Bills, when Fox, as Carlo Khan, was repre- 
sented as the emperor of the East appropriating the sovereignty of the 
king and the powers, profits, and patronage of the East India Company 
(No. 6276, &c.). The attack on the India Bills is one of many instances 
where the Opposition were able to raise a clamour by exploiting a popular 
cry. Lord Eldon wrote in his MS. Anecdote Book, 'Fox said that Sayer's 
caricatures had done him more mischief than the debates in Parliament 
and the works of the press. The prints of Carlo Khan [No. 6276], Fox 

' Cf. E. M. Wrong's excellent little Hist, of England, 1688-18 15, 1927, p. 182. 
The alliance 'is said to have shocked the nation, but it is hard to believe that 
England had suddenly become so squeamish'. 

^ Walpole wrote, 25 April 1783, expressing doubts of the duration of the 
Coalition. 'If satiric prints could dispatch them, they would be dead in their cradle; 
there are enough to hang a room.' Letters, xii, p. 436. 

Quoted, Fitzmaurice, Life of Shelburne, 1912, p. 269 n. 



running away with the India House [No. 6271], Fox and Burke quitting 
Paradise . . . [No. 601 1], and many other of these pubHcations, had certainly 
a vast affect upon the pubHc.'' Pictorial satires show in a remarkable way 
the movements of public clamour, which, if stirred up by the Opposition, 
were usually sufficient to induce the dropping or withdrawal of the un- 
popular measure. In this case the Opposition had the support of the 
Crown, and exploited the clamour to justify first the dismissal of the 
Ministry and then a dissolution. But this could hardly have been done 
without the unpopularity acquired by Fox and Pitt's popularity based on 
the Chatham legend, while Fox never wholly escaped from the discredit 
attaching to the son of the 'public Defaulter of unaccounted millions' 
(No. 4842, &c.). Fox, like Lord Holland, is represented in many prints 
as the fox deceiving the geese, the fox greedy for the grapes of office 
(cf. No. 6213). In proportion as Fox became unpopular, the King became 
popular and is represented as an injured prince (No. 5970, &c.) instead of 
as the tyrant of 1778-9. The back-stairs influence of the King over the 
India Bill, which earlier in the reign would have been a potent cry, was 
neutralized by the relations between Fox, the Prince of Wales, and the King 
as well as by the unpopularity of the Coalition. 

The volume ends with the dismissal of the Coalition (Nos. 6283-6291). 
There is only one exception to the contempt with which the ejected 
Ministry and the India Bills are treated, No. 6291. It strikes the defeatist 
note which had become unpopular (cf. No. 6229). The tenor of the prints 
is in direct contrast to the confidence of the Foxites that their speedy 
return to power was certain. The real turning-point of the reign was the 
end of the general election of 1784, but the arrangement of the Catalogue 
demands that it should end with the end of a calendar year; in 1783 this 
coincides with the Christmas recess which afforded a breathing-space in 
the contest of Fox and Pitt. 

Many subjects dealt with in the political satires have scarcely been 
touched on here: notably prints on Scottish, Irish, and Indian affairs. ^ 
The Irish Volunteers and Grattan's Parliament are the subject of one or 
two interesting prints. Scotland is either a pernicious influence, personified 
in Bute or represented by a thistle, or, in No-Popery prints, the saviour 
of Britain. The close following of parliamentary debates becomes increas- 
ingly noteworthy during 1782-3 (e.g. No. 5979). Elections do not figure 
largely : they had less significance when the Government secured a majority, 
instead of a majority securing a Government. Certain elections, however, 
were of great significance, especially Westminster elections (No. 5699, &c.). 
The defeat of Keppel at Windsor and his triumphant return for Surrey 
are the subject of several prints. A very interesting print depicts the 
election of two nabobs for Shaftesbury in 1774 (No. 5341); though fantastic 
it is substantially true. There are portraits in the collection which though 
slightly caricatured are admirably characteristic. This is especially the 
case with Sayers'sset of portraits primarily of members of parliament speak- 
ing in the debates of 1782 (Nos. 6052-77). 

Personal Satires 

In a period when political and social life were inextricably mixed, when 
politics were personal and social to an extreme degree, and were also a 
preoccupation of all classes, the line between political and personal satires 

' Twiss, Life of Eldon, i. 162. ^ See Subject Index. 



is naturally vague and fluctuating; almost all references to the Fox family 
for instance may be regarded as in some degree political. Even prints on 
the sex of d'Eon (Nos. 4870-4873, &c.) had a political significance from 
his association with Wilkes, though the part he had played as a secret agent 
of Spain and France was unknown. The popular portraits of characters 
in 'low life'' had often a political colour: Sam House was a leading Foxite, 
Jeffery Dunstan was chosen during the Westminster Election of 1784 to 
typify the less creditable supporters of Fox. A very favourite character 
in print-shops, the Chevalier Descazeaux (No. 5067), was, in the opinion 
of a French visitor in 1765, selected for ridicule and patronage because he 
was the embodiment of the Frenchman of English caricature : poor, vain, 
and absurd.^ 

Thus the personal prints supplement the political prints at many points, 
and many which now appear to be impersonal social satires were doubtless 
based on the gossip and scandal of the day. They belong to a small world 
when notabilities were known by sight to most of the town, partly owing 
to the display in the print-shop windows. Darly's series of Macaronies, 
which takes the chief place among the personal satires of 1771-2, especially 
has this intimate character, partly because many were after drawings by 
amateurs of their acquaintances. It is a guide to the celebrities of the 
day. In the absence of contemporary inscriptions (not always correct) 
only a few can now be identified with certainty, as for instance when 
a hint in the title is confirmed by a portrait: The Miniature Macaroni 
is Cosway, A Temple Macaroni is Lord Temple. 

Darly's series of larger plates (1776-8) is more general in charac- 
ter, but probably many if not most conceal personal allusions, e.g. a 
print in the Dance of Death tradition (No. 5441) depicts Mrs. Macaulay 
'painting her cheeks' — to quote Dr. Johnson. An ostensible illustration 
to Joseph Andrews appears to be directed against Lady Harrington 
(No. 5522). A set of three prints (Nos, 5376, 5430, 5435) ostensibly by 
'Dicky Sneer' or *R.S.', an elegant young man appearing in all three, 
relates to some joke or piece of gossip, and R.S. (perhaps identical with 
the R.S. of Nos. 5452, 5453, 4778, &c.) may, it is here suggested, be 
Richard Sheridan. ^ 

The series of vis-a-vis portraits illustrating a chronicle of scandal which 
was the chief feature of the Town and Country Magazine is said to have been 
compiled by the editor, Archibald Hamilton Junior, with the help of a 
Mr. Caracioli,'* presumably on information from different contributors — 
they appear to vary considerably in authenticity. It has been suggested 

' Cf. Goldsmith's account of the print-shop, 'Here, thought I, the painter only 
reflects the public voice. . . . But, guess my surprise when I came to examine this 
depository of noted faces! All distinctions were levelled here, as in the grave, and 
I could not but regard it as a catacomb of real merit. The brickdust man took 
up as much room as the truncheoned hero, and the judge was elbowed by the thief- 
taker; quacks, pimps, and buffoons increased the group, and noted stallions only 
made room for more noted strumpets.' Citizen of the World, Letter 109, 1761. 

^ Grosley, Londres, 1770, i, pp. 173 ff. Cf. The Connoisseur, No. 25 (i754). 'A little 
Frenchman, commonly known by the name of Count, and whose figure has long 
been stuck up in the windows of the print-shops, was always remarkable for the 
meanness, and the same time foppery of his appearance.' 

^ See pp. 274, 313. The difference in manner may be due to the etcher, or R.S. 
may have been responsible for the idea only, invenit connoting sometimes a sketch, 
sometimes a verbal description. A certain resemblance to early portraits of Sheridan 
(in the Dicky Sneer set) lends colour to the guess, as does the fact that Nos. 4778, 
4779 are scenes at Bath. 

■* E. H. W. Meyerstein, Life of Chatterton, p. 404 n. 



that Chatterton may have been responsible for the scandalous one on 
Walpole and Mrs. Clive (No. 4362).' Like the macaroni prints, they have 
been immortalized by Goldsmith and Sheridan.^ Most of them have been 
identified by H. Bleackley in Notes and Queries;^ a few of those left un- 
identified are here elucidated, and his conclusions have not invariably been 
accepted. In the first few years (1769-71) many of these had a political 
character which was violently anti-ministerial. This gradually disappears 
and the attitude to politicians is neutral with sometimes a slight govern- 
mental bias. The heads in most cases are conventionally drawn and have 
little value as portraits. The plates and text were used, a month later, in 
the Hibernian Magazine. 

Several printsellers published humorous mezzotints, the best known 
being those of Carington Bowles (Bowles and Carver from 1793), who 
issued a series which came out at more or less regular intervals over a period 
of many years. The firm was noted for selling prints many years after 
the date of publication;-* impressions were taken after the plates had 
become very worn, and the dates have usually been scraped from the 
print or, in later issues, burnished from the plate. Those in the collection 
lettered Bowles and Carver's Caricatures, xn two volumes dated 1820, are 
all coloured, and it is possible that the collection was made about that time. 
They are numbered serially, and from impressions that are both numbered 
and dated the dates of other numbered prints can be approximately 
ascertained. 5 Such prints were advertised as 'Half Sheet Size Metzotintos 
(commonly called Postures) Fourteen inches high by Ten wide, one shilling 
each, Plain; Two shillings, Coloured'.^ The series chiefly consisted of 
humorous prints, some were cautionary, some were portraits, some were 
pure genre. The draughtsmen and engravers were generally anonymous. 
The humorous prints included in this volume appear in general to be 
social rather than personal satires, but many are topical and also personal, 
and there are doubtless many personal allusions which cannot now be 
discovered. The Bowles shop in St. Paul's Church Yard was well known 
and is illustrated in two prints in his series (Nos. 3758 (1774), 6352). 

The series seems to represent City taste, and they are significantly 
different from Darly's series, partly the work of men of fashion, and 
intended for the Court end of the town. Favourite subjects are satires on 
Roman Catholicism (some in the guise of illustrations to Sheridan's 
Duenna) and on the rich clergy, both probably influenced by the spirit 
fostered by the contest with the Colonies. Lawyers and doctors are also 
ridiculed. Street scenes and satires on costume are frequent. Courtesans 
and (from 1778) camp scenes are favourite subjects. When the subject 
verges on politics the treatment is humorous and in the manner of social 
rather than political satire. Cases in point are two prints on the Coin Act 
(Nos. 3759, 4534 (1774)), a tarring and feathering scene in America repre- 

' E. H. W. Meyerstein, Life of Chatterton, p. 272. 

^ Mrs. Hardcastle says, '. . . All I can do is to enjoy London at second-hand. 
I take care to know every tete-d-tete from the Scandalous Magazine,' She Stoops 
to Conquer, ii (1773). Snake says of Mrs. Clackit, 'Nay, I have more than once 
traced her causing a tete-d-tete in the Town and Country Magazine, when the 
parties, perhaps, had never seen each other's face before in the course of their lives,' 
School for Scandal, i. i (1775). 

3 Tenth series, vol. iv, pp. 242, 342-4, 462-4, 522-3 (1905). 

* Angelo, Reminiscences, 1904, i, p. 308. 
5 See Appendix, p. 786. 

* Laurie and Whittle's catalogue, 1795, quoted Chaloner Smith, iv, p. 1753 
This catalogue included many prints published by Bowles, 



senting an actual incident (No. 5232, and p. 169), a print on the formation 
of the CoaUtion (No. 6348), and one on the proclamation of peace (No. 
6351). Other publishers issued similar humorous mezzotints, notably 
John Bowles, William Humphrey, and Sayer and Bennett. The series of 
Laurie and Whittle belongs to a later period and his prints are sentimental 
rather than humorous. 

Among standard subjects of humour that of the 'cit' is perhaps pre- 
eminent, especially among prints issued by the printsellers of the west 
end of the town. His country box, his horsemanship, his appearances in 
the Park, his Sunday excursions, his guzzling at City feasts were all popular 
subjects of pictorial satire and are all depicted in this volume, notably by 
Bunbury and St. George Mansergh. This theme merges into the equally 
traditional one of the tradesman or artisan who spends his time discussing 
the affairs of the nation, on which there are several prints. 

Grose enumerates the subjects which 'will always ensure the suffrages 
of the vulgar'. These include ridicule of the supposedly typical Scot, 
Irishman, Welshman, and Frenchman, all represented in this volume, 
especially the Frenchman. He is lean and hungry but dressed in shabby 
finery, and is generally contrasted with a plainly dressed well-fed English- 
man, the classic example being Hogarth's Calais Gate. This was a favourite 
subject of Gillray (Nos. 5612,' 5790). Grose continues, 'Of this kind are 
professional allusions: a physician and apothecary are lawful game by 
prescription, a tailor by trade, and a mayor, alderman, or churchwarden 
ex-officio'. All are represented here except the churchwarden, whose 
place is taken by the parish clerk. The medical profession is dealt with 
on the whole not unkindly in these prints (cf. Nos. 5457, 6347, 6350), but 
there is an interesting caricature by William Austin of Dr. William 
Hunter, the great anatomist, detected in the act of body-snatching (No. 
51 19). The theme of the quack merges into that of the physician; quacks 
ridiculed by name in this volume are John Hill of The Hilliad, Dr. Graham, 
Buzaglo, and the mountebank Katterfelto. 

Literature, in the present volume, is represented pre-eminently by 
Dr. Johnson. He is twice satirized by Gillray for his Lives of the Poets 
(Nos. 6103, 6328). In Bunbury's Chop House (No. 5922) there is a recog- 
nizable portrait of Johnson talking to Boswell, his cudgel-like stick beside 
him. The likeness to Johnson in one of the figures in Rowlandson's 
Rotation Office (No. 5273) is striking, and supports the probability that 
the office is that of Saunders Welch, at which Johnson attended for a whole 
winter. In a group by Mortimer (No. 6357), probably representing men 
of letters, artists, and actors, Johnson is a central figure. He has been 
identified as one of the figures in a popular political satire (Nos. 5479- 
81), and there are one or two allusions to his political pamphlets. It has 
already been suggested that Sheridan may appear in three prints of 1776-7; 
during 1783 he appears in political prints. Lord Lyttelton and his Dialogues 
of the Dead are clearly the subject of No. 5122 by William Austin. Chatter- 
ton is dragged into a political print with seeming irrelevance (No. 6291). 
There is an amusing caricature of Voltaire by Orde, and Alfieri appears to 
be the subject of No. 6315. 

Some interesting Cambridge satires and caricatures are due to Bunbury 

of Clare, Orde of Kings, Topham of Trinity, and to an unknown who 

produced a set of three prints in 1773 (Nos. 51 87-9). ^ 

' See frontispiece. 

^ No. 5189 was attributed to Bearblock in the Catalogue by the Cambridge 

xxxi c 


Most of the personal (and some of the political) satires are valuable 
material for the history of costume, including of course those which are 
direct satires on extravagant fashions. Many of the macaroni prints are 
incidentally satires on costumes : the macaroni manner of dress seems to 
have been the last flare up of ornate and elaborate masculine dress before 
the advent of the plainer fashions often attributed to the French Revolu- 
tion. These had, however, already appeared and were introduced into 
France by the Anglomanes. The macaroni fashions also mark the departure 
from the typical eighteenth-century men's dress: the full-skirted coats, 
sleeves with wide cuffs, flapped waistcoats and high-quartered shoes were 
displaced by a dress which, though ornate in material and trimming, is 
more close-fitting and simpler in silhouette. The enormous club of hair 
was one of the most characteristic features of macaroni dress (e.g. No. 
5008). The short-lived fashion of the large Artois shoe-buckle and the 
enormous button prevailed in 1777 but appears to have been rapidly killed 
by ridicule (No. 5432, &c.). The fashion for wearing riding-dress with 
a round high-crowned hat instead of the looped or cocked hat is caricatured 
in 1781. 

In women's dress monstrous hairdressing was a favourite subject of 
satire. The pyramid of c. 1770-2 was different in shape from the inverted 
pyramid of 1776-7, whose broad plateau suggested to the satirists the 
notion of a woman's head-dress decorated with scenes and ornament of 
all sorts, including military operations (No. 5330). The wearing of ostrich 
feathers in the hair was also a recurring subject of satire and was denounced 
as a moral offence (No. 5370). After the tight waists (No. 5444), 'cork 
rumps' (No. 5381), and exaggerated hair-dressing of 1776-7, women's 
dress became plainer, and masculine fashions of a military cut influenced 
costume during the period of militia camps from 1778 (e.g. No. 5600), 

The prints illustrate life and manners sometimes incidentally, for 
instance when they show the arrangement of a shop or the interior of a 
coffee-house or tavern, sometimes directly, in satires on changing fashions. 
Hieroglyphic letters afford evidence on popular pronunciation : Nos. 5658, 
5677 indicate the habitual addition of an aspirate but not its omission. 
A similar Irish letter (No. 5542) is sound as to aspirates but gives 'deuce' 
as the appropriate symbol for the word juice. Some light is thrown on the 
history of words, the word 'bore', in its origin a fashionable coterie word, 
is illustrated in No. 6147. Cartoon is used for a political satire in No. 5288, 
a humorous anticipation of a much later usage. Gillray calls his typical 
Irishman Paddy (No. 5605), anticipating by a year the earliest instance 
recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary. The older word, Teague, 
which Paddy displaced, is used in No. 5644. 

The collection of personal and social satires (taken together with the 
political satires) is sufficiently large and representative to enable the popular 
humour of the time to be to some extent recorded and classified. The 
most immediately striking thing is perhaps the passion for personal scandal 
and the ruthlessness with which it was exploited. This went together with 
censoriousness on things, such as fashions in dress, which involved 
manners rather than morals. Similarly, in political satires, certain gibes in 
the worst of taste were constantly repeated, as indeed they were in parlia- 
ment : the tragic death of Miss Ray was used as a gibe against Lord Sand- 
Antiquarian Society of an exhibition of Cambridge caricatures at the Fitzwilliam 
Museum in IQ08. But this was on the assumption that the date was c. 1800. James 
Bearblock, afterwards a fellow of King's, graduated B.A. in 1789, M.A. in 1792. 



wich; Germain is inevitably labelled Minden. The attacks on the Princess 
Dowager of Wales were virulent, as in the print in the Political Register 
commented on by Walpole;' they chiefly occur in Volume IV, but in 
No. 4852 she is 'The Pell Mell Jezebel'. A device to protect the publishers 
of libellous satires appears to have lapsed as they grew bolder through 
immunity. This was the confusion of personalities,^ said by Walpole to 
have been used in The Turnstile (No. 3608) to cover the identity of the 
Prince of Wales, 'pretended to be Lord Lincoln'. In No. 4960 North and 
Sir George Macartney seem to have been deliberately confused. In No. 
4946 a red herring appears to have been drawn across the identity of the 
Queen of Denmark (the sister of George III). There is no similar instance 
in this volume after 1772. 

The age of humanitarianism had begun, but its influence in these satires 
is slight, favourite and competing themes being political corruption, the 
nabob and the rich, vulgar, and pretentious citizen. There are allusions to 
the period of distress owing to high prices and a commercial crisis in 
1772-3, but they are political or personal (e.g. Nos. 4938, 5016). There is 
one incidental allusion to the grievance of Enclosure Acts (No. 5236). 
Allusions to distress and bad trade owing to the war were definitely political 
(e.g. No. 5574). Social injustice is, however, the theme of No. 5275. 
Burthens of Plenty (No. 5433), which to-day seems clearly directed against 
extremes of wealth and poverty, was probably intended more as a satire 
on gluttony, in an almost medieval spirit,^ or was perhaps a personal satire 
against some noted City guzzler (cf. No. 6314). Nos. 6347 and 6350, 
The Benevolent Physician, are sentimental rather than humanitarian.'* 
There was certainly sympathy for the sailor or soldier on half-pay or 
maimed and for the poor clergy, but in most of the prints on such subjects 
the intention seems to be to attack the Government, or the placeman, or 
the rich clergy, or to check recruiting. A very telling and genuinely sym- 
pathetic print on the soldier on half-pay (No. 6170) attacks a notorious 
grievance without political rancour. Such was the preoccupation with 
politics that subjects which would now be dealt with from the social or 
economic standpoint were treated as political. This was especially the 
case with prints on the clergy. ^ Poverty and unemployment are treated as 
a subject of comedy by Gillray (No. 5938) and a chained gang of convicts 
is treated with equal lack of sympathy by Dighton (No. 5957). The 
general attitude is that poverty and hunger are peculiarly the lot of the 
Frenchman in his shabby finery. An imitation of Hogarth's Harlot's 
Progress brought up to date (Nos. 5808-13) shows an actual improvement 
in the treatment of unfortunate women since 1734. 


The artists whose work is contained in this volume are recorded in the 
index, which throws some light on their varying output from year to year. 
Many of the prints are the work of those who for good reasons preferred 
to remain anonymous, many are by the nameless engravers who worked for 

' Memoirs of the Reign of George III, 1845, iii, p. 199. 

* Cf . the device used by Churchill in The Ghost, where Mansfield is first pilloried 
without being named and then mentioned as another person; Sandwich is first 
attacked as Lothario and then appears as a separate person under his own name. 

■* See above, p. xiv. 

* They are included only because they are companion prints to Nos. 3797, 379^ 
on The Rapacious Quack. * See above, pp. xviii, xix. 



the printsellers often from sketches or 'hints' provided by amateurs. The 
volume opens in the transition period between the death of Hogarth and 
the early work of Gillray and Rowlandson and their followers. Between 
1767 and 1774-5 political satire was almost restricted to illustrations in 

During the early 'seventies humorous prints are chiefly to be found in 
the various series issued by the printsellers, among whom Matthew Darly 
is outstanding. Darly specialized in engraving and publishing the work 
of amateurs : caricature was a fashionable hobby and one which for obvious 
reasons was exploited by the drawing-masters and teachers of etching who 
were also engravers and printsellers. The fashion was stimulated by the 
vogue of Townshend in political satire and of Bunbury in social satire. 
After 1770, Darly, who had been the chief publisher of political prints 
during the 'fifties and 'sixties, devoted himself almost entirely to personal 
and social satires, in which, especially during 1771-2, macaronies took 
a leading part. In general these were engraved by himself from the designs 
of 'Ladies, Gentlemen, Artists, &c.' (Nos. 4710, 4985), or, according to 
another title-page, were 'design'd by the greatest personages, artists, &c.' 
(No. 5005). The engraved page which was placed after the title-page of 
these three volumes' illustrates the way in which the amateur was en- 
couraged : 

'Comic Humour, Caricatures, &c. 

'In a series of Drol Prints, consisting of Heads, Figures, Conversations 
and Satires upon the follies of the Age Design'd by several Ladies, Gentle- 
men and the most Humourous Artists &c. Pub*^. by M Darly Engraver, 
and Printseller at No. 39 near York Buildings Strand, London, where 
Gentlemen and Ladies may have Copper plates prepared and Varnished 
for etching. Ladies to whom the fumes of the Aqua Fortis are Noxious 
may have their Plates carefully Bit, and proved, and may be attended at 
their own Houses, and have ev'ry necessary instruction in any part of 
Engraving, Etching, Dry Needle, Metzotinto &c. . . . Ladies and Gentle- 
men sending their Designs may have them neatly etch'd and printed for 
their own private Amusement at the most reasonable rates, or if for 
publication, shall have evry grateful return and acknowledgment for any 
Comic Design, Descriptive hints in Avriting (not political) shall have due 
Honor shewn 'em & be Immediately Drawn and Executed. . . .' 

The exclusion of politics is significant and marks an exceptional phase 
in the history of English caricature.^ 

Bunbury was, at first, the leading contributor to this series. His im- 
portance is indicated both by the priority given to his work (Nos. 4668, 
4670, &c.) and by the words 'Where may be had all the works of Mr. 
Bunbury &c.' appended to the publication line of, e.g., No. 4918. Darly, 
however, soon lost Bunbury as a client; from about 1772 James and 
Charles Bretherton were for some years the chief engravers of his work. 
Other engravers of plates after Bunbury described in this volume were 
J. R. Smith, Dickinson, Baldrey, and Rowlandson. The precocity of 
Charles Bretherton is noteworthy: in 1772, aged twelve, he etched five 
plates, four, and perhaps the fifth, being after Bunbury. 

An amateur closely associated with Bunbury is Charles Loraine Smith, 

' The volumes catalogued on pp. 38-41, 70-80. This advertisement is not in- 
cluded in the volumes in the B.M. collection but is transcribed from a volume in 
the possession (1934) of Mr. W. T. Spencer of New Oxford Street. 

' See above, p. xvii. 



better known for the sporting subjects of his later life. He is probably the 
C.L.S. of Nos. 4734, 4742, and 6147, and the C. Smith of 4752. His work 
resembles that of Bunbury; though less competent he had a gift for the 
slightly caricatured and expressive portrait which Bunbury lacked, and 
No. 6193, attributed to Bunbury by Walter Sichel, has more resemblance 
to the work of Smith as shown in Nos. 5983, 6125 (both supposed to have 
been engraved by Bartolozzi), and 6147. Two sketches by Smith, Posting 
in Ireland ' and Posting in Scotland, were engraved by Gillray in 1805. 

Other amateurs whose work was published by Darly were Edward 
Topham (afterwards the editor of The World and a favourite subject of 
caricature by Gillray and others), R. St. George Mansergh,^ and Thomas 
Orde. Orde, afterwards Lord Bolton, had a gift for portraiture as appears 
from the three plates described in this volume; No. 5510 is a particularly 
interesting satire on King's College, Cambridge. Two at least of his plates^ 
and probably the others were issued privately, not published. Coplestone 
Warre Bamfylde illustrated Anstey's Election Ball. Other amateurs, repre- 
sented in this volume by one or more prints, are Sir Edward Newenham, 
Lord de Ferrars, Elizabeth Gulston, Lady Craven, Captain Grose, Captain 
Minshull, and Captain Morse, the last an exhibitor of portraits at the R.A. 
It has already been suggested that Sheridan may have designed several 
prints. "* The attributions to Townshend in this volume are based on re- 
semblance to his not very distinctive manner or on newspaper allegations. 
A print which does not suggest the amateur is attributed to the notorious 
Leonard McNally. 

One of the few professional artists whose work in caricature can be 
identified during the early 'seventies is William Austin, whose manner is 
very distinctive. Like Darly, he was a noted drawing-master, a teacher of 
etching, and a publisher of prints. 5 That he was a rival of Darly is indicated 
in No. 5318. A caricature by him of Chatham and Charles Fox (No. 51 13) 
is particularly noteworthy. Some of Robert Dighton's earlier and less- 
known work is included in this volume. 

The humorous mezzotints, issued by several printsellers, like Darly's 
series, bridge the transition from the period of Hogarth to that of Gillray. 
In the well-known series of Carington Bowles^ the artists were generally 
anonymous, but it includes (in this volume) many plates after Collet, a 
follower of Hogarth, several drawn and engraved by J. R. Smith, several 
after Robert Dighton, three after S. H. Grimm, one after Earlom, and 
one (at least) by Philip Dawe. Dawe engraved a number of caricatures in 
mezzotint ; these probably include a set of five on the American Revolution 

' Reproduced in colour in Fuchs and Kraemer, Die Karicatur der Europaischer 
Vcilker, 1904-6. 

^ Probably Richard St. George Mansergh of Headfort (m. Mary Stepney), who 
was killed in the Irish Rebellion, 1797. He was the son of James Mansergh, who 
married Mary St. George of Headfort (Burke, Hist, of the Landed Gentry, 1847). 
He is perhaps identical with the Colonel Mansergh St. George, wounded in the 
American War, who drew for the Ladies of Llangollen in 1788 'striking likenesses' 
of 'Poor Rousseau'. He and his wife were travelling with Miss Stepney {Hamwood 
Papers, ed. Mrs. G. H. Bell, 1930, pp. 74, 115). A View in America in ijj8 (No. 
5482) resembles Mansergh 's manner. 

^ They are in Richard Bull's collection of the work of 'honorary engravers' now 
in the Print Room. ■* See above, p. xxix. 

' Austin at George Street, Hanover Square, appears in T. Mortimer's Universal 
Director, 1763, as 'Drawing Master, Teacher of Etching and Author of a Specimen 
for sketching Landscapes in a new and easy manner and of The Complete Drawing 
Book. This Artist imports foreign prints, drawings, and etchings.' Darly is not 
included in his directory. ^ See Appendix. 



published by Sayer and Bennet, 1774-5 (see p. 169, No. 5241, &c.). Two 
important political mezzotints (not caricatures) by John Dixon are included 
in this volume. 

Aquatint first appears in this Catalogue in 1776 (No. 5381). Paul Sandby, 
whose earlier caricatures had been directed against Hogarth, reappears 
after an interval of many years with two aquatints on Vestris (Nos. 5908, 
5909). Though Sandby has a small place in these volumes he is well 
known for his charming landscapes and scenes of social life. His drawings 
of the encampments in Hyde Park in 1780 are of historical interest. The 
dancing of Vestris was the subject of several charming aquatinted designs, 
two of which are attributed to Nathaniel or George Dance and Bartolozzi. 

A new period in English caricature begins c. 1780 with the early work of 
Gillray and Rowlandson. It was anticipated by the work of J. H. Mortimer, 
whose influence on both artists was marked; his combination of fantasy, 
caricature, and the grand manner marks the beginning of a new school. 
It is to be noted as early as 1768 in The Reviexoer's Cave, No. 4247.' 
Angelo attests the admiration evoked by his facility in drawing monsters 
and caricatures.^ After his early and sudden death in 1779 designs from 
his sketches were engraved by several artists (Nos. 5780, 5781, 6356-8), 
and it is possible that some of the early work of Gillray was based on his 
designs (cf. Nos. 5523, 5524, 5609). His Iphigenia's late procession from 
Kingston to Bristol (No. 5362) is sometimes attributed to Gillray. John 
Boyne appears also to have been directly influenced by Mortimer, con- 
spicuously so in Banditti (No. 6281). 

There is considerable doubt as to the authenticity of some of the earlier 
plates attributed to Gillray : he had several manners, and appears sometimes 
to have taken pains to conceal his authorship. There is reason to suspect 
his hand in a number of plates in this volume not attributed to him. With 
one exception (No. 5912) all the prints here catalogued as by Gillray are 
anonymous or pseudonymous, and while some of the initials or names used 
by him may indicate those who supplied him with ideas or sketches, others 
seem to be due to a peculiar secretiveness or obscure sense of humour,^ 
possibly, of course, to engagements to printsellers. In Returning from 
Brookes' s (1784) he concealed his style under an assumed amateurish in- 
competence, "* and in varying degrees and manners he would appear to 
have done the same in several prints described in this volume. As he 
afterwards used the signature of James Sayers, so, there is reason to suspect, 
he may in 1782 and 1783 have used those of Edward Topham and Thomas 
Colley. He was in close relations with John Nixon, a semi-amateur, and 
an imitator of both Rowlandson and Gillray, whose early work in this 
volume raises certain problems. No. 5616 is signed J. N. fecit but appears 
to be a Gillray. Politeness (No. 561 1), signed J. N. fecit et Inv* lyjg, has 
some resemblance to Gillray's manner and was copied by Gillray in a print 
(No. 5612) reissued by Humphrey from St. James's Street, that is, not 
before 1797. The question of authorship is of especial interest as the 
subject is Gillray's typical John Bull in top-boots, who, according to 

' Mr. Stephens attributes this to de Loutherbourg, who, however, did not come 
to England till 1771. No. 4247 is actually a different state from that described in 
the text, and is inscribed in an old hand 'etch'd by Mortimer'. 

^ Reminiscences, 1904, p. 108. 

^ Cf. a portrait (not caricature) of the Duchess of York published by H. Humphrey 
10 Apr. 1792, signed Charlott Zethen designet et fecit. 

* Real Character, see p. 408, is similar in manner to Returning from Brookes's, 
suggesting the concealed authorship of Gillray. 



H. M, Broadley, did not appear until 1809.' Mr. Hawkins attributes 
Nos. 5998 and 61 13 (Nos. 5999 and 6122 appear to be by the same artist) 
to 'Hixon'. Their manner resembles (though not conclusively) that of 
Nixon, suggesting a misreading of H. for N. There was, however, an 
engraver Robert Hixon, whose trade card {c. 1792) is in the Banks Collec- 
tion (D 2, 2164). 

The work of Thomas Colley, a caricaturist unmentioned in books of 
reference, seems to be confined to the years 1780-3. It has a crude and 
simple naivete both of drawing and sentiment which is both effective and 
attractive; he takes a special pleasure in naval victories, and his drawing 
of ships suggests that he had been to sea, probably in the navy. His manner 
is very individual but lends itself to imitation, and there seems to be a 
pseudo-Colley with more skill who imitates his manner and uses his 
signature. Several of the prints of this hypothetical imitator suggest the 
hand of Gillray, notably Nos. 6233, 6237, 6252. If the theory here put 
forward is correct, the true Colley had a singular absence of political 
rancour (e.g. Nos. 6043, 6170) quite incompatible with No. 6237. Certain 
prints signed E.T. (Topham) also suggest an imitation of Topham by 

The political work of James Sayers begins in 1782. His technique is 
amateurish and his line feeble, but his designs (notably the famous Carlo 
Khan, No. 6276) have a political effectiveness which approaches that of 
Gillray and gave him instant fame. His prints of 1783 and 1784 appear to 
have impressed contemporaries more than anything done at that time by 
Gillray, though they have none of his masterly and expressive drawing. 
His portraits (Nos. 6052-77) are valuable as likenesses and most useful 
in identifying the subjects of political caricature. William Dent^ was 
a caricaturist whose prints, according to Angelo, were admired, presumably 
for their political effect. This, however, depended chiefly on his scurrilous 
and indecent abuse of individuals ; aesthetically his work is less than value- 
less, his feeble and incorrect drawing and scratchy technique are amateurish 
with none of the merits of the amateur. He is probably to be regarded as 
an inferior follower of Sayers. The greater part of his work is after 1783. 

Printsellers and Publishers. 

The index includes artists who occasionally published their own work 
(e.g. Rowlandson and Paul Sandby) and booksellers whose imprint is on 
the plates which they had engraved for books and magazines, some of whom 
(e.g. Almon) also published an occasional print. The outstanding print- 
sellers in this volume who specialized in caricatures and humorous art 
are the two firms of Bowles, Matthew Darly, William Humphrey and the 
afterwards famous Hannah Humphrey, Sayer (or Sayer and Bennet), 
Wilkinson, Holland, and Mrs. Darchery. 

The early history of the two ancient and closely associated firms of 
Bowles, one of St. Paul's Churchyard, the other of Cornhill, is confused, 
but during the period covered by this volume it is clear. By 1709 (when 
they jointly published a map)^ both firms were in existence, Thomas 
'Next the Chapter House in St. Paul's Churchyard', John at the Black 
Horse in Cornhill. John Bowles of Cornhill ( ? John II) was in partnership 

' Pearson's Magazine, 1909. 

* A William Dent was a merchant whose address in a London Directory of 1784 
was Garra way's Coffee House. 

^ H. R. Plomer, Dictionary of Booksellers, 1932. 

XXX vii 


with his son from 1754 to c. 1764 when the style of the firm was John 
Bowles and Son. According to Chaloner Smith' the son died in 1762, 
according to Plomer he went into the business of his uncle Thomas 
(? Thomas II) in 1764; when Thomas died (8th April 1767) John bought 
the business for this son (Carington), so that the style Carington Bowles^ 
dates only from 1767 though older plates were reissued with his imprint. 
Carington died intestate in 1793 and was succeeded by his son Carington, 
who continued the firm from that date as Bowles and Carver. This shop 
at the old address was still, c. 1830, exhibiting 'obsolete plates' of the 
days of the South Sea Bubble. ^ When the houses in the City were num- 
bered (in and after 1766) Carington's shop became 69 St. Paul's Church- 
yard and John's 13 Cornhill. John died in 1779 and his business was 
carried on by Wilkinson, but not at the old address. Prints of both 
shops are listed in this volume, Nos. 5220 (1773), 3758 (1774), 6352 
{c. 1783). 

Robert Sayer was a rival of Bowles who succeeded to the very ancient 
business of the Overton family at the Golden Buck in Fleet Street. His 
partnership with Bennet, which according to Chaloner Smith was from 
1775 to 1778, appears to have lasted from 1774 to 1782 (see index). Sayer 
reissued a number of Darly's plates (see No. 5173, &c.). He died at 
Bath, 29 June 1794, aged 69, and was succeeded by Laurie in partnership 
with Whittle. Plates in the Carington Bowles series of mezzotints also 
appear in Laurie and Whittle's catalogue of 1795.'* 

Matthew Darly was the chief publisher of satirical prints from the 'fifties, 
when he was in partnership with C. Edwards at the Acorn in the Strand, 
to c. 1779. After abjuring political subjects^ from about 1771 he ad- 
mitted in 1778 a few political satires to his series, one of the most 
interesting of which (No. 5473) bears his own holograph signature instead 
of the usual MD. His activities dwindle after 1778 and disappear in 1781. 
During 1780 his publications were again chiefly political. The close 
association of Mary Darly with her husband has obscured her activities 
as a publisher, probably also as an artist. In this volume she is represented 
by the title-page (No. 5369), dedicated to Garrick and perhaps designed 
by herself, which was prefixed to the large composite volume of Darly's 
caricatures. But in the 'sixties she published or sold many prints at Ryder's 
Court, Leicester Fields (also like the Strand shop known as The Acorn), 
see (e.g.) Nos. 3817, 3818, 3912, 3919, 3937, 3992, 4071. In 1763 she 
published a guide to the art of drawing caricatures (copy in Print Room) 
from Ryder's Court, with sixty small plates, all apparently by herself, 
except for pi. 20, by or after Townshend, a version of No. 3371 without 
its background.^ The book was sold by herself at the Ryder's Court 
address. Her portrait by her husband appeared in 1772 as The female 
Conoiseur (No. 4692) in Darly's series. There are two portraits of Darly 
(Nos. 4632, 5367) and two prints of his shop in the Strand (Nos. 4701, 

The dwindling activities and final disappearance of Matt Darly coincide 
with the growing importance of the shops of the two Humphreys, probably 

' Op. cit., vol. i, p. 1. ^ See Appendix. 

•' Angelo, Reminiscences, 1904, vol. i, p. 308. 

* Chaloner Smith, iv, p. 1753 n. 

5 See above, p. xxxiv. He published one political print in 1771, No. 4879. 

* This was the first of the series of cards said to have been invented by Town- 
shend; it was said by Walpole to have had 'amazing vent'. Memoires of the last ten 
Years of the Reign of George II, 1822, ii, p. 68. See No. 3342. 



brother and sister: William of the Strand and Hannah of Bond Street 
(of St. James's Street from 1797), both associated with the new period 
of pictorial satire. Both firms reissued prints published by Darly; Darly 
had published two of Gillray's earliest plates, but William Humphrey was 
the chief publisher of his early work. The close association of the two 
men is illustrated in No. 5912, where Gillray acknowledges Humphrey 
as his superior in the art of etching. Another of the Humphrey family 
who also published Gillray's work was G. Humphrey of 48 Long Acre, 
whose imprint first appears in 1783. He is perhaps identical with the 
G. Humphrey who etched {c. 1780) a portrait of Dr. Benjamin Buckler 
which he inscribed (in 1813) *My first etching' (No. 5756). He was 
perhaps the father of Miss Humphrey's nephew George, who helped her 
at St. James's Street and at her death succeeded to her business. The 
Mrs. Humphrey who published No. 5526 (1778) would appear from the 
address to be the wife of William; Hannah, though often styled by courtesy 
Mrs., seems never to have used the title on her prints. 

Other printsellers who filled the gap left by Darly and supplied an 
increasing demand for political prints were Holland, Mrs. Darchery, and 
T. Cornell of Bruton Street. The last must be connected with 'the woman 
who keeps the print-shop in Bruton Street, who', according to Walpole, 
'says she has engraved all the drawings that are sent her, and that she gets 
by them, one with another, ten pounds apiece'.^ 

William Richardson of this volume was probably the father of the better 
known W. Richardson who issued a catalogue in 1792 saying that he had 
taken over his father's business. Another publisher of note is John Smith 
of Cheapside (formerly the Hogarth's Head), whose portrait occurs in 
No. 5530. Other notable printsellers who are represented by a few prints 
in this volume include Darling, Turner, Thane, Torre (famed as a pyro- 
technist), and Seago. All these as well as Smith and William Austin are 
included in one or other of the three portrait groups of dealers in prints 
listed in the B.M. Catalogue of Engraved British Portraits, vol. v. Austin, 
though a printseller, publisher, and dealer in prints, appears in this volume 
only as an artist and as the subject of a satirical print. It is probable, how- 
ever, that he published and sold the prints by himself in this volume of the 


' Letters, xii, p. 436 (Apr. 1783). 




(Nos. 4839-6360) 

The Power of the Mighty hath no Foundation 
but in the Opinion of the People. 

HOBBES, Behemoth 




Printed for and sold by W. Bingley, in Newgate- Street, Price 6d. 

Engraving, A larger version of Paul Revere's celebrated print better drawn 
and with minor differences. Seven soldiers (r.) urged on by an officer with 
a drawn sword fire at a crowd of citizens (I.), three of whom lie dead or 
dying, a fourth is carried off wounded. The soldiers are surrounded with 
smoke, some of which is intended to emerge from the Custom House, 
the building immediately behind them and on the extreme r. The archi- 
tectural background depicts King Street, Boston, In the foreground is a 
dog. Butchers^ Hall and Custom Hou\se\ are inscribed on the fagade of 
the house as in Revere's print but his 'G.R.' is omitted. Instead of Revere's 
waxing crescent moon there is a waning moon. After the (printed) title is 
printed, In which Mess. Sam Grey, Sam. Maverick, James Caldzvell, Crtspus 
Attucks, Patrick Carr were killed. Six others were wounded, two of them 
[Christopher Monk and John Clark] mortally. This inscription, with slight 
differences, appears beneath the verses on Revere's print. The same 
verses^ are here printed in two columns instead of three, and on the 1. 
and r. margins of the verses is an etched design; on the 1, a skull and 
crossbones within a wreath, beneath it is printed, Hozv long shall they utter 
and speak hard things? and all the workers of Iniquity boast themselves? 
They break in pieces thy people, O Lord, and afflict thine Heritage. Ps. xciv. 
4, 5. On the r,, enclosed in a circle, a flash of lightning emerges from 
clouds and strikes two broken swords ; in the centre of the clouds is a cap 
of liberty irradiated ; beneath is printed, They slay the Widows and the 
Stranger, and murder the Fatherless. Yet they say. The Lord shall not see: 
Neither shall the God of Jacob regard it. Ps. xciv. 6, 7, 

P'or the so-called Boston Massacre on 5 March 1770 see Van Tyne, 
Causes of the War of Independence, 1921, pp. 285-90, See also A Fair 
Account of the late Unhappy Disturbance at Boston. . . . London, 1770 
(B.M.L, 8175, b. 78), which controverts the inflammatory Short Narra- 
tive , . . (see below); Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of George III, 1845, 
iv, p, 120, 'It was shown clearly at the trial that the soldiers had endured 
threats, gibes, insults, and actual violence before they fired in what they 
believed was self-defence.' Van Tyne, p, 289. 

This plate, folded, was used as a frontispiece to an English reprint of 
A Short Narrative of the Horrid Massacre in Boston , , . Boston, printed 
by order of the Town . . , and re-printed for W. Bingley in Newgate Street, 
London, 1770. The Museum copy is inscribed in MS. 'Presented by 
Thomas Hollis^ Esq, May 14, 1770' (B.M,L. io6i,h, 11). The impression 

' In Revere's print there is an apostrophe. 

^ In Revere's version Preston (the captain) is printed 'P n' and venal Courts, 

'venal C ts.' 

3 Hollis wrote of the 'Boston Massacre' 'the business of White Rose is to inflame 
everywhere'. Memoirs, 1780, p. 379. 


in the Print Department has not been folded, Bingley doubtless selling 
separate prints. 

Revere's practice of copying English prints and the correction in his 
plate of the astronomical error in the drawing of the moon suggest that 
this was not copied from Revere. The origin of both was, perhaps, the 
plate of the 'massacre' engraved after a drawing by Henry Pelham, which 
Pelham accused Revere of copying in a letter of 29 March, 1770: '. . . 
after being at the great Trouble and Expence of making a design paying 
for paper, printing &c., find myself in the most ungenerous Manner 
deprived, not only of any proposed Advantage, but even of the expence 
I have been at, as truly as if you had plundered me on the highway.' 
Copley-Pelham Letters, Mass. Hist. Soc. Collections 71, 1914, p. 83; see 
also pp. 84, 86, and Stauffer, i. p. 206. For the Revere, often reproduced, 
e.g. M. Waldman, Americana, 1926, frontispiece, see Stauffer, No. 2675. 
9^X81 in. PI. i3|x9l|in. 

For another version of this design from the Freeholder'' s Magazine for 
May 1770 (i June) see No. 4378. The subject is a narrower upright than 
No. 4839 or the Revere, showing more sky and more ground. There are 
no inscriptions on the houses. Reproduced: Andrews, Portraiture, p. 28. 

A third version, 4378 A, apparently copied from No. 4378, and with the 
same titles, has additions: a dog as in No. 4839 (and the Revere) and an 
inscription on the house farthest r. of G.R. {}) Boston. It is the frontis- 
piece to another English reprint of the Short Narrative . . . Re-printed for 
E. and C. Dilly in the Poultry; and J. Almon in Piccadilly. 1770. 
5i|X4iin.B.M.L.,E. 2235/1. 

4840 THE HUMOURS OF A FAIR. [i Sept. 1770] 

Engraved for the Gentlemans Museum, and Grand Imperial Magazine. 

Engraving. The original drawing for this, attributed to Hayman, is de- 
scribed in No. 4428. The engraving is in reverse. The scene is a fair out- 
side the gate of St. James's Palace, in which the King's friends are satirized 
as showmen ; the principal booth displays the sign of a boot (for Bute) and 
a flag inscribed The Death of Brittannia with y^ Farce of Liberty. 

4841 A GAME AT SKITTLES. [i Oct. 1770] 

Engraving. From the London Museum, ii. 131. Bute, standing in profile 
to the r. on the bank of the Tiber, is about to throw a ball at nine skittles 
on the opposite side of the river. The ball is inscribed The Pretender ; the 
skittles represent the King and Queen and their seven children : two have 
royal crowns, six others have royal coronets, and one is surmounted by the 
Prince of Wales's feathers. In the background is a view of Rome, far from 
topographically or architecturally correct, but showing St. Peter's with its 
Piazza. In the foreground broken columns and fragments of masonry lie 
on the ground. Bute wears a Scots cap and a tartan plaid over a court suit; 
at his knee is the Garter ribbon. At his feet lies a rosary. 
Beneath the design is engraved. 

Treason & He to Rome are fled. 

There let him live without restrai7it; 

And, when the Spurious Monarch 's dead. 

Let him be made a Roman Saint. j ^^ jj^n 

ADDENDA, 1770 

This satire is described under No. 4457, but incorrectly, as Mr. Stephens 
had not seen it. Bute went to the Continent in 1768, visiting Italy, and 
returning to England in 1771. Cf. Chatham's attack on Bute, 2 March, 
1770 : 'the secret influence of an invisible power, . . . who, notwithstanding 
he was abroad, was at this moment as potent as ever'. Pari. Hist. xvi. 842. 

4x6^ in. 

BRITANNIA. [i Nov. 1770] 

Engraved for the Gentleman^ s Museum, & Grand Imperial Magazine. 

Engraving. The Britannia in full sail, fleeing before another ship (1.) 
manned by devils; a boat (r.), with five oarsmen and a steersman, tows the 
Britannia; there are rocks in the foreground (r.). The figures are on a 
minute scale, with large inscribed labels issuing from them. 

A shot from the Infernal Sloop has just broken the Union flag from its 
staff in the stern. Next it stands Bute, saying : Let her Sink to the Dee^l, 
I'll have my will! The rest of the crew of the Britannia (1. to r.) are : Lord 
Holland, with a fox's head, saying: Oh! What will be come now of my 
Unaccounted Millions. Holland had been styled in the City petition of 
1769 'the public defaulter of unaccounted millions', see No. 4296. Lord 
Mansfield, in Judge's wig and gown, says : 'tis y' Cursed Licentiousness of the 
Press that weighs us Down. Jeremiah Dyson, as a negro, says to Mansfield : 
Oh! Masters, Masters, what will you do for me your poor Mungo tiow. For 
Dyson as Mungo see No. 4267. Lord Sandwich, holding a curved cricket 

bat, says : d n em they'll Twitcher my Notches (an allusion to his fame 

as a cricketer and his nickname of Jemmy Twitcher from the Beggar's 
Opera). A small figure standing on bales inscribed National Debt and 
Pensions says : Keep to my Plannings and you'll be Safe Enough ; he resembles 
Grafton rather than North, who succeeded Grafton as First Lord of the 
Treasury on 28 Jan. 1770, Crouching behind bales inscribed Places and 
Pensions is the very unpopular Duke of Bedford, identified by his words. 
Oh Mercy on Bloomsbury Jack. In the bow, standing on a bale inscribed 
Stamp Act, a man with outstretched arms says : Arrah we shall be Drown' d 
on them Curst American Rocks; he is evidently Lord Hillsborough, 
Secretary of State for the Colonies and an Irishman. Sitting astride the 
bowsprit is a man in a legal wig, saying: if She Sinks I'll be Justice of Water 
instead of Air. He is probably Sir Fletcher Norton, appointed Chief 
Justice in Eyre of His Majesty's forests south of the Trent immediately 
after defending Mansfield's conduct in the Wilkes case in the Commons on 
I Feb. 1768, and elected Speaker in Jan. 1770, generally satirized as Sir 
Bull-face Double Fee. See Nos. 4238, 4462, and index. Possibly he is 
Eyre, the Recorder, see No. 4843. The men in the boat are rowing hard; 
the steersman says : Pull like Men my Boys well [sic] keep her up yet. Two 
of the oarsmen say : Ah Jack we madey" Foe Fly when Pit had the Helm, and 
if we keep sober & Resolv'd we may bring her into Harbour Yet. 

The Britannia is so heavily laden with bales inscribed Secret Services, 
National Debt, Pensions, Places, Reversions, and Stamp Act that she is low in 
the water; the sea is rough and the 'American Rocks' are near. For other 
allusions to the Stamp Act see No. 5487, &c. 

4X6i in. 


4843 THE COURT OF ALDERMEN [c. 1770] 

S. sparrow sculp. 

Engraving. Probably from a magazine. The Lord Mayor is seated in a raised 
chair at the head of the table, aldermen in furred gowns sit on both sides 
of the table. The six Aldermen on his r. wear laurel wreaths; over the 
head of each of the seven seated on his 1. dangles a noose of rope. In the 
Lord Mayor's hand is a paper, Grant for Pressing; a noose hangs over his 
head. Immediately below him a clerk is writing at the table. In the fore- 
ground a hangman bows hat in hand to the alderman sitting on the 
extreme r. , at the near end of the row on the Lord Mayor's 1. ; in his 1. 
hand is a rope ; from his pocket protrudes a broadside headed by a cut of 
a man hanging from a gibbet. He says : I am a Servant to Mr. All-man 
Shockspar and shall be glad to serve you. 

This appears to represent the inquiry into the conduct of the Recorder, 
Sir James Eyre, for refusing to attend the presentation to the king of the 
City Remonstrance on 23 May, 1770. The actual proceedings took place 
at a meeting of the Common Council on 27 Sept. 1770. A vote of censure 
was moved, being voted for by six aldermen and fifty-one commoners, 
against seven aldermen and eighty-eight commoners. The proceedings 
were published at length in the Wilkite magazines; see London Museum, 
ii. 410 ff., Sharpe, London and the Kingdom, i895> iii- loi- 

Among the six Wilkite aldermen on the r. of the chair Wilkes is speaking ; 
he says: You may Nash your teeth, Mr. Alderman, but we shall carry it 
Plumb in spite of your Kites and Blackbirds we will have the foolish Lad 
broke for neglect of Duty. William Nash, Samuel Plumbe, Sir Robert Kite, 
John Bird, and Sir Robert Ladbroke were anti- Wilkite aldermen. Another 
alderman is saying: He must let out his large House in Lincoln's Inn Fields 
to lodgers (the Recorder lived in Lincoln's Inn Fields). 

Four of the seven aldermen of the court party are speaking; they say 
(1. to r.) : They seem all to be out of their Heads; He 's a man of Honor & a 
Gentleman (the speaker is identified by Mr. Hawkins as Harley, the leader 
of the Court party in the City) ; a man with the head and pointed beard of 
Shakespeare to indicate that he is Alderman John Shakespeare says : 
I should not like to darigle in my own Manufacture; the last, seated on the 
outside, and identified by Mr. Hawkins as Sir Robert Ladbroke, says: 
No Body will ever regard our Resolutions. For Ladbroke see No. 4379. 

The Lord Mayor is Barlow Trecothick, who held office between the 
death of Beckford on 21 June, 1770 and the election of Brass Crosby on 
9 November. As was customary, he had backed a Press Warrant issued by 
the Lords of the Admiralty to enable it to be executed within the precincts 
of the City. A man impressed on this warrant was brought on 26 October 
before Wilkes, who was sitting at Guildhall as a Justice of the Peace for 
the City. Wilkes discharged the man on the ground that Press Warrants 
were illegal by Magna Carta. London Museum, ii. 491 ff . ; Ann Reg. xiii. 
i6i, 162; Sharpe, op. cit. iii. 106. For Sir James Eyre and his obsequious- 
ness to the Court see No. 4408. 



Engraving. Probably from a magazine. Two groups of persons who are 
candidates for the place of hangman. Inscribed labels issue from the 
persons of four of them. Two men sit side by side on a settee, wearing 

ADDENDA, 1770 

curiously shaped crowns or coronets, one (1.) shaped like a wall. The former 

holds a paper inscribed To J e G m showing that he is Justice 

Gillam, who ordered the soldiers to fire on the Wilkite mob outside the 
King's Bench Prison on lo May 1768 (see No. 4201). He says: Everyone 
knows my abilities as a Man-killer. His companion says : Let the Place be held 
by Co?nmission and let the two Kennedies & my self, be Lords Commissioners of 
the Rope. Behind, and to the 1. of the settee three persons stand together: 
A rough-looking man, flourishing a stick says : I wont accept of y^ Office with- 
out a Peerage to Support its Dignity. Next him is a Judge in wig and robes. 

On the r., their backs to a window, stand three men ; Sir Fletcher Norton 
in his Speaker's robes, and the horns which indicate that he is 'Sir 

BuUface Double Fee', see Nos. 4238, 4^.62, and index, says: B n 

S h has spoiVd y^ Trade, if Murderers were to be hang'd y^ Place might 

be worth accepf^. He stands between the two Kennedy brothers and is 
alluding to the reprieve (for transportation) of one of them, the other having 

been acquitted. B n S h may be intended for Sir Sidney Stafford 

Smythe, a baron of the Exchequer. This reprieve was for the murder of 
a watchman in a drunken brawl, and was believed to be due to the influence 
of the young men's sister, Polly or Kitty Kennedy, see Nos. 4399, 4463, 
5095. It was made a political question by Parson Home and others, 
see Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of George IV, 1845, iv. iio-ii; 
Stephens, Memoirs of Home Tooke, i. 185. 

The print appears to derive from a paragraph in the Oxford Magazine 
for March 1770 (iv, p. 113) reporting that Turlis the hangman had informed 
the Lord Mayor that 'he will sooner resign his place than burn the City 
Remonstrance' [of 14 Mar. 1770]. There was no order for burning the 
Remonstrance which was voted by the House of Commons on 19 March 
to be an unwarrantable and dangerous petition. Sharpe, London and the 
Kingdom. See also No. 4380. 


4845 THE TRIAL OF THE D. OF C, [Cumberland] AND LADY 

G R [Grosvenor] FOR CRIM. CON. [1770] 

Engraving. Probably from a magazine. One of several satires on the trial 
of the Duke of Cumberland on a suit for crim. con. on 5 July 1770 in the 
King's Bench. A judge on a raised seat, plaintiff and defendants, witnesses 
or spectators stand below, surrounding a rectangular barrier within which is 
a table, at which a clerk is writing. Four counsel stand within the barrier, 
two to the r. of the judge, two to his 1. 

The Judge (Mansfield) sits, his 1. forefinger raised, listening with a stern 
expression to the remarks addressed to him. In the centre, in back view, 
stands Lord Grosvenor, wearing a tie-wig with horns, to which he points, 
saying : / only want to know for a Certainty whether I am entitled to this Head 
Dress. On the 1. in profile to the r. stand Lady Grosvenor, holding out 
a fan, and Cumberland. She says : My case shall be laid before this Court, 
and I can have nothing to fear from an Upright Judge ; he says : / can do no 
Wrong. Behind him on the extreme 1. is a woman wearing a hood and 
holding a fan. She says : It was a Pity to disturb them when they were going 

to Prince Making. One of the counsel on the Judge's r. says : If her L d, 

has not bedded with her these two years She cannot be with Child, but she may 
be with Prince. The two counsel on the other side say : The Lady acted upon 
Revolution Principles She is strongly attached to the Present Family, and. 


There is no actual Proof of Adultery. A man in back view says : The Youth 
wanted a Sop in Pan. A cook, on the extreme r., says, laughing: How 

his R y \sic\ H — n — ss will be Roasted and Basted. 

See Nos. 4400, 4401, 4402 and the references there given. 

3f X6f in. 

4846 [MACKLIN.] [? 17701] 

Engraving. Macklin as Shylock supports on his shoulders Shakespeare who 
holds out a book in his r. hand, a pen in his 1. Macklin leans to the 1. holding 
out in his r. hand a pair of scales, in his 1. a knife. Behind are Tragedy and 
Comedy. Tragedy (1.), a draped woman holding a dagger, appears 
despondent, Comedy (r.) holding a mask, looks with contemptuous 
amusement at Macklin. Shakespeare is irradiated. Beneath the design is 

Immortal Shakespear! Child of Heaven & fire, 

The more we sink him rises still the higher: 

E'en thro' this Vehicle the Bard can pass 

Like Mecca's Prophet — mounted on an ass. 

For Macklin see Nos. 5175, 5203. 


Engraving. Probably from a magazine. A number of ladies (eleven in all) 
sit at a table at the head of which is their president or chairman. They are 
balloting for the admission of a member, according to the 'Authentic 
Rules of the Female Coterie' printed in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1770, 
p. 414, by which ladies balloted for men and men for ladies. The president 
sits in a raised chair, a hammer in her r. hand; she says: M^ Driver the 
New Member shall be admitted & duly return'd by me the proper Officer if 
upon examination he comes up to the Standard. Remarks from other ladies 
(1. to r.) are: I hold up my hand for M^ Driver, if it had not been for him, 
several Noble Families zvould have been extinct that have now a numerous 
Issue; The ability of every Candidate ought to be strictly Examined; The 
Gentleman to be elected into this Society shall not be Husband to any of us; 
No our plan is to supply the deficiency of Husbands; I move for the Admission 
of M' Driver as a Member. He has a promising Leg, an happy Assurance, & 

to crown the whole he is an Irishman; Lady H n [Harrington] has her 

Reasons for not suffering M^ Driver to return to Ireland, but she must not 
Engross him all to herself. The lady on the President's right is writing in 
a large book. On the table are writing materials, books, one being Essay 
on Man, a bottle marked Eau de Vie, a tray with coffee-pot, cups, &c. 

For the Coterie, a ladies' club formed in 1770, see 'A Georgian Ladies' 
Club', in Times Literary Supplement, 11 Aug. 1932, which is largely based 
on MSS. in the Public Record Office, Chancery Masters' Papers filed in 
the Suit C. 10 I no. I 35. See also Nos. 4472 (and references there given), 
5065, 5425. 

' Mr. Hawkins has written on the print Lond. Mas. Ap. 1770, but it is not in 
the B.M.L. copy of the magazine, which does contain, p. 207 (Apr. 1770), a portrait 
of Macklin as Shylock by Lodge, inscribed, This is the Jew, That Shakespeare drew. 
The print is also inconsistent with a laudatory 'Account of the Life and Genius of 
Mr. Charles Macklin', ibid., pp. 288-90. 


THE PEACE-MAKERS. See No. 4416 [i Jan. 1771] 

From the London Museum. On the Falkland Islands. 

SAME. See No. 4388 [i Jan. 1771] 

From the Oxford Magazine. 

4848 A CONFERENCE IN THE SHADES. [i Feb. 1771] 

Woodcut. From the Toztm and Country Magazine, iii. 36. It illustrates 
A Confa'ence in the Shades between the Duke of Bedford and Arthur Beard- 
more Esq. Bedford (1.), wearing the insignia of the Garter, holds out his 
arms in an attitude of despair. Beardmore, wearing a long livery gown 
and with the cap of liberty on a staff, holds out to him a paper inscribed in 
large letters Magna Ch[ar]ta, pointing with a monitory finger. Bedford 
died 14 Jan., Beardmore, a Wilkite Common Councilman, died 18 Jan, In 
the dialogue they discuss without heat the political situation, the quarrel 
between Wilkes and Home, &c. See No. 4861, &c. 
Sfxsf in. 

THE FATE OF CITY REM CES. See No. 4387 [i Feb. 1771] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 12. George III giving the 
Petitions and Remonstrances of his subjects to the little Prince of Wales 
who has asked for paper for a kite. 


See No. 4431 [i Feb. 1771] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazifie, vi. 28. Bute, Lord Mansfield, 
and Fletcher Norton demolishing the Temple of Liberty. 

DIEU ET MON DROIT See No. 4423 [i Feb. 1771] 


Frontispiece to Political Register, 1771. Ministerial misdeeds since 
1763. The second title is Bute's motto. 

4849 THE CONVENTION MAKERS. VOL. 3, No. 6. [i Mar. 1771] 

Engraving. From the Town and Country Magazine, iii. 80. The interior 
of a room ; a picture called A Convention, depicting the Convention between 
England and Spain on the Falkland Islands, is falling from a broken 

* No. 5134, published in 1773, satirizes the events of January 1771, and illus- 
trates Baratariana, first published April-May 1771. 


cornice inscribed National Honour, onto four prostrate figures. Two other 
men hasten in alarm from the picture. Londinia (1.), wearing a mural 
crown and carrying a shield with the arms of the City, points out the 
catastrophe to the Lord Mayor and two other men. Britannia and Justice 
with a sword and spear enter threateningly from a door (r.). Bute looks 
through a tvindow with a face of alarm. Magna Charta which hangs on 
the wall is obscured by a large cobweb. From an overturned inkpot on 
the floor flows a stream inscribed The Road from Rochford to y^ Tower. On 
the floor are also a crown, a broken anchor, inscribed Tory Administration., 
two books, one being Places and Pensions Ledger Vol. 22. 

In the picture, three figures stand on the seashore: an Englishman 
inscribed Submission, with his hat under his arm, takes the hand of a 
Spaniard, inscribed Reluctance, who turns his back. A third figure. 
Indemnity, waves a ragged cloth perhaps intended for a map of the Falkland 
Islands, and representing England's claim to an indemnity from Spain 
scattered to the winds. 

The convention between England and Spain was signed on 22 Jan. 1771 
by Rochford as Secretary of State, and Masserano the Spanish Ambassador. 
Spain disavowed the seizure of Port Egmont, but stipulated that its restora- 
tion should not aff"ect Spain's claim to sovereignty over the Islands which 
she had always (ineffectively) asserted. These satisfactory terms were the 
result of the fall of Choiseul, and the successful diplomacy of Harris at 
Madrid, which prevented war with Spain and France. They were violently 
attacked by the Opposition, and especially by Chatham. See Winstanley, 
Chatham and the Whig Opposition, 1912, pp. 407 ff.; Ann. Reg. 1771, 
pp. 46-53, 238; Junius' letter of 30 Jan. 1771, answered by Johnson's 
Thoughts on the late transactions respecting Falkland's Islands; Cambridge 
Hist, of the Br. Empire, i. 698 ff. See also Nos. 4415-19, 4856, 4857, 
4897, 4934, 4935, 4940. 
4fX7 in. 


See No. 4417 [i Mar. 1771] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 56. A conference between the 
kings of England and Spain over the Falkland Islands, the Princess 
Dowager of Wales is accused of having been bribed by the king of Spain 
to influence her son in Spain's favour. 

TWITCHER'S ADVOCATE See No. 4426 [i Mar. 1771] 

Dr. W. Scott or 'Anti-Sejanus'. 

4850 VIRTUE DISGRAC'D MARCH 1771 [i Apr. 1771] 

Design' d and Engrav'd for the Political Register. 

Engraving. From the Political Register, viii. 127. A design in two com- 
partments. Above is 'Virtue' imprisoned in the Tower. A head looks from 
each of two barred windows. At the gate stand Britannia and Liberty ; 
above their heads are cherubs in an arch of clouds. 

This represents the imprisonment of Crosby, the Lord Mayor, and 
Alderman Oliver. See Nos. 4852-4, 4860, 4864, 4938. 



In the lower compartment Westminster magistrates and constables 
stand on the steps of a portico, surmounted by clouds and two demons 
protecting 'Vice', the House of Commons. The two foremost figures are 
wearing the portcullis badge of the arms of the City of Westminster sus- 
pended from their necks, one holds a paper inscribed Riot Act. Behind 
are constables with staves, behind again figures in the doorway, one with a 

This represents the serious riot at Westminster on 27 March, when the 
Lord Mayor went from the Mansion House to the House of Commons 
where he was committed to the Tower. The badges were worn by the 
magistrates on Sir John Fielding's request 'for greater safety and effective- 
ness in suppressing riots ..." Public Advertiser, 16 Dec. 1665 and 8 Sept. 
1766. See Manchee, Westminster City Fathers, p. 256, for a photograph 
of a badge. For the riot see Aitn. Reg. 1771, p. 85 ; Corr. of George III, ed. 
Fortescue, ii. 245. For the unpopularity of the House of Commons cf. 
No. 4869, &c. 


4851 SIR GEORGE SAVILE BART. [i Apr. 1771] 
J. Lodge sculp. 

Engraving. London Museum, iii. 197. Bust portrait of Savile looking to the 
1. in an oval. Beneath the oval is an ornamental group of rolled documents, 
one is inscribed The C alder Navigation, another Nullum Ternpus. Beneath 
these are engraved 

A Wit 's a Feather, & a Chief's a Rod, 
An honest Man '5 the noblest Work of God. 


Savile introduced (1768 and 1769) the Nullum Tempus Bill for securing 
the land of a subject after sixty years' possession from any dormant right 
of the Crown, which was the outcome of the suit between Sir James 
Lowther and Portland, see Nos. 4895, 5136. He was also active in pro- 
curing the Act of 1769 (9 Geo. Ill, c. 71) for extending the navigation 
of the River Calder and for restoring the damage done by floods. See 
Commons' Journals, xxxii, pp. 223-4, ^^^ ^^- 49^1 • 
A companion portrait to No. 4856. 
Oval 3|X3i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5435 c 


Pub. by the Inventor J. Williams according to act of Parliament, April 
10, lyyi. 

Etching. Two carts conveying malefactors, after the manner of the usual 
procession to Tyburn, with a crowd of spectators in the foreground. 
Spectators also look from windows. The victims have numbers which 
refer to explanatory notes beneath the print: A^" J Lord Bloody scrol. 
N° 2 Alderman contract the Citys great Curse. N° j Lord Hellish Facts 
a Lover of Arbitrary Power &c. &c. 2'^ Cart. N° I Gray Goose a Lawyer 

' The letters in brackets appear to have been erased from the plate and then filled 
in with a pen. 



of infamous practices in any Court. N° 2 Col' Bluster remarkable for nothing 
but the murder of an innocent Woman. N° 3 Jemmy Twitcher. N° 4 Cockifig 
George one that never kept his Word with any on\e\. Labels issue from the 
mouths of the victims and the spectators. Each cart has a parson without 
a number; in the first cart (1.) he has a halter round his neck and is saying: 
Lying & Perjury & Deciet are my chief supports. He is Dr. W. Scott, 
Twitcher' s Advocate, see No. 4426. No. i , Lord Barrington, says : Oh! I hear 
the niurderd Allen call me to Account Oh! St. Georges Fields. No. 2, 
Alderman Harley : Oh! I have wrongd my Countrey & decievd my Fellow 
Citizens. Oh! that I had been but Honest. No. 3, Lord Hahfax: General 
Warrants and every oppressive measure against my country makes me repent 
Oh the cursed Jezebel [the Princess Dowager of Wales]. 

In the second cart (r.) the clergyman, Parson Home, is saying: my poor 
father used to say G — Damn ye Jacky never be seen to keep bad compy for 
fear you shoud come to be Hangd. He holds a paper on which is inscribed 
/ think. No. I, de Grey, in Judge's wig and gown, says: I have betrayd 

my Frieitd robd my country, been led by the nose by that infernal B h 

Jezebel Carlton, Oh me. No. 2, Luttrell, says: Arabella, poor Arabella 
Bolton! pray for your murderer Oh I am a damd Villian [sic"] . No. 4, Onslow : 
little did I think I shoud be pitted with such a parcel of Shake-Bags rascals 
Oh! that I had still been a hearty Cock. No. 3, Sandwich: / never since I 
have been Jemmy Twitcher have been in such Wicked & bad Company no not I. 

Spectators from the windows address the victims. L. to r. : Remember 
St. George's Fields effectual murthers; Cocking George you dont Die Game; 
Take care Panurge the Halters Round your neck (this is addressed to Dr. W. 
Scott, the parson, the reputed author of letters to the Press defending 
Sandwich, signed Panurge and Cinna); Here's a General Warrant for Ye ye 
Dogs; it is a pity he should escape he 's such a double rogue; What! the Vicar 
of Brentford [Home] are you doing duty there twil be your turn soon. Mem- 
bers of the crowd in the foreground (1. to r.) say: Miss Bolton's Curses on 

the Wretch; We could pick out a score more T rs [Traitors obliterated] 

to their Countrey; I think the Lawyer becomes a Cart and a Halter; I thought 
George [Onslow] had been better fedhe 's well trim'd; The Alderman had better 
minded Tare and Trett; Jemmy Twitcher false to his God, his King, his 
countrey & his Friend [Wilkes] . An Irishman says : By Jasus God if such 
varmint would be in Ireland to be ha?ig'dfor we woud stone 'em to death with 
Brick Bats; The Colonel shoud have been hangd at Brentford; Look at 
Double faced Jack the Parson of i5,[rentford] ; Hanging 's too good for that 
Rogue the Alderman; They have lived too Long. A soldier, in the uniform 
of the foot-guards & holding a musket, says: Damn the soldier that Draws 
a Trigger to oblige any Comander against an Englishman; Oh there's Tom 
Patts the Chicke?i Butcher's son I thought he would be hangd ere now; What! 
Cocking George. II' lay you the Long Odds you die as great a dunghill as you 
have livd. I say done first; Damn the Brentford Vicar they must hang hifn soon 
for he 's a Villian in disguise. A woman says : / thought the Pellmell Jezebel 
[half erased but legible] woud come to this. 

On 5 April such a procession in which two carts were preceded by a 
hearse went to Tower Hill attended by the mob. The figures in the carts 
were of pasteboard, nearly life-size, hanging from gallows, with names on 

their backs: L d B n; Ld. H x; Alderman H.; L 11 the 

Usurper; D — G — y; Jemmy Twitcher; Cocking George. They were 
burnt on Tower Hill and shortly afterwards their 'dying speeches' were 
sold in the streets. Gent. Mag. 1771, p. 188; Ann. Reg. 1771, p. 91. 



The occasion of the demonstration was the imprisonment of the Lord 
Mayor and OHver in the Tower (see Nos. 4850, 4853, &c.), and on the same 
day the L.M. was taken before de Grey who refused a writ of Habeas 
Corpus and re-committed him to the Tower. But except for the effigies of 
de Grey and Onslow (who started the action in the Commons against the 
printing of debates, see No. 4855), this satire is chiefly concerned with other 
and earher aspects of the struggle between Wilkes and the City on one 
side and Court, Ministry, and Commons on the other. Barrington is 
pilloried for his connexion with the 'Massacre of St. George's Fields', see 
No. 4196; 'Bloody Scrol' is a quotation from Wilkes's justification of his 
libel on the offending letter (written by Weymouth, not Barrington):^ 'I 
thought it my duty to bring to light that bloody scroll.' Pari. Hist. xvi. 543 ; 
Halifax for the general warrant of 1763, see Nos. 4050, 4203. Harley was 
the chief supporter of the Court among the aldermen, and as candidate 
for the City had defeated Wilkes in the election of 1768; see Nos. 4069, 
4190, 4213, 4235, 4269. For Luttrell, the Middlesex Election, and the 
alleged seduction of Arabella Bolton, see Nos. 4284, 4285, 4971. Sandwich 
was hated for his treachery to Wilkes over the Essay on Woman ; the satires 
relating to him are numerous, see No. 4075 and Vol. iv. pp. cxi-cxii, and 
index to this volume. For the Princess Dowager of Wales see Nos. 3846, 
3847, 4425, 4874, &c. The quarrel between Wilkes and Home absorbed 
popular attention in the early months of 1771. See Walpole, Letters, 
viii. 7, 27-8, 44 and Nos. 4861, 4862, 4863, 4867, 4879, 5102, 5127. 

ii|x6| in. 

TOWER. [i May 1771] 

Engraved for the Oxford Magazine. 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 136. Brass Crosby the Lord 
Mayor and Alderman Oliver seated at a table on which are rolled docu- 
ments: Charters of the City of London, Bill of Rights, Mag[nd] Chart[a.] 
The L.M. says: We are imprisoned for doing our duty, therefore Captivity is 
honourable. Oliver says: Our conduct is approved can the rulers at St. 
Stephens say as much? A warder in beefeater's dress by the door says: In 
1745 the Scots were sent here for rebelling, these Gentlemen are committed 
for their L — y — Ity. For this well-known episode in the struggle which 
secured the publication of parliamentary debates see Walpole's Letters, 
viii. 16-20, 24-6; Corr. of George III, ed. Fortescue, ii. 232 ff. Crosby 
remained in the Tower from 27 Mar. till the prorogation on 8 May. See 
Nos. 4850, 4852, 4854, 4857, 4860, 4864, 4880. 
Reproduced, Social England, ed. Traill, 1904, v. 475. 



[i May 1771] 

Engraving. From the Town and Country Magazine, iii. 193. Portraits 
(W.L.) commemorating the committal to the Tower by the House of 

' 'Twas W h urged th 'enforcing his commands ; 

'Twas B n that gave th 'exciting pay, See No. 4196. 



Commons of Crosby and Oliver. Crosby (1.) holds in his 1. hand a long 
staff resting on the ground on which is the cap of liberty. Oliver's r. hand 
also holds the staff. See No. 4853, &c. 


4855 LITTLE COCKING GEORGE. [i May 1771] 

Woodcut. From the Town and County Magazine, iii. 196. A man (W.L.) 
holds a fighting cock in both hands. Above his head is printed Cock a 
doodle-doo. George Onslow was known as little Cocking George, and 
is described in the accompanying text as 'the great champion of privilege 
and cock-fighting'. He was burnt in effigy, 5 April 1771, as the originator 
of the proceedings against the printers for the publication of parliamentary 
debates, see No. 4852. He complained, 8 Feb. 1771, 'Sometimes I am held 
up as a villain ; sometimes I am held up as an idiot ; and sometimes as both. 
To-day they call me little Cockifig George. They will find Sir, I am a cock 
they will not easily beat.' Czvendish, Debates, ii. z^j. Cf. No. 6065. 

4856 EARL OF ROCHFORD. [i May 1771] 
y. Lodge sculp. 

Engraving. From the London Museum, iii. 253. Bust portrait of Rochford 
in an oval, almost full face. Beneath the oval is a rolled document inscribed 
Convention with Spain, 1771. Beneath this is engraved, 

Man may escape from Rope & Gun, 

But Infamy he ne'er can Shun. 


Rochford carried on with ability and success the negotiations leading 
to the unpopular Convention with Spain of 14 Jan. 1771, see No. 4849. 
A companion portrait to No. 4851. 
Oval, 3f X3J. B.M.L., P.P. 5435 c. 


Done from the original Drawing by S. H. Grimm. Printed for S. Sledge 
Printseller, in Henrietta Street Covent Garden. Publish' d as the Act 
directs 2^ May ijyi. 

Engraving. A man wearing spectacles and of repulsive appearance with 
a gaping toothless mouth, sits draped in a sheet, while a French hair- 
dresser (his nationality indicated by his bag-wig and ruffles) applies tongs 
to his hair, and appears to be whispering in his ear. At this, or on 
account of the Speaker's Warrant dated 27 Mar. 1771, to the Lieutenant 
of the Tower to receive the Lord Mayor into custody, which he holds 
in his hand, the Politician starts in alarm. In the centre over the fire- 
place is an oval picture of Don Quixote tilting at a windmill. On the 1. 
hangs a map of the Iberian Peninsula, on the r. one of the British Isles. 
Hanging from a stool to the floor is An Accurate Map of Falkland P over 
which a dog and cat are fighting. On the floor are also a Letter to the Premier, 
a Last dying Speech, A new Song on Liberty (torn), a bundle of Jiinius's 
Letters and another of Votes. Open on a secretaire-bookcase is a History 
of the Constitution with my own Remarks, apparently in course of composi- 
tion. A bust of Oliver Cromwell is on the top of the book-case, 



A caricature portrait of Lord North; though he is generally treated in 
satire, c. 1771, as a tool of Bute and Grafton, Junius had particularly 
attacked him in his letter of 30 Jan. 1771 , as taking 'the whole upon himself. 
For the Falkland Islands see Nos. 4415-19, 4849, &c., in which the Ministry 
and the King are accused of corrupt subservience to Spain, a charge 
without foundation: see the negotiations with Spain in Cal. H.O. Papers, 
1770-2, pp. 65-6, 84-5, 104-7, 19°' ^93' 200, 209, 573 ; Lord Malmesbury's 
Diaries and Correspondence, 1844, i, pp. 58-78; Letters of Hume, ed. Greig, 
1932, ii. 240 fF. 

9JX12-I in. 

4858 THE NATIONAL UNION 1771. [i June 1771] 

Designed and Engraved for the Political Register. 

Engraving. From the Political Register, viii. 255. A man, standing on a 
bank, holds the stali of a large Union flag which is wrapped round a group 
of six standing figures who are poorly characterized, but are presumably 
patriots. One is Lord Chatham, holding a crutch; beside him stands a 
judge in wig and robes who is probably Lord Camden. 


THE LION BETRAY'D. [i June 1771] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 176. George III, as a lion, 
blindfolded and in chains, sits on a low platform surrounded by his 
counsellors, whose advice is inscribed on labels coming from their heads. 
These are (1. to r.): Sandwich (Jemmy Twitcher) with goat's legs, holding 
a cricket-bat and wearing a cricketing cap on the top of which rests an 
anchor to show that he is First Lord of the Admiralty. He says: Be advised 
by me and Fll give them a twitcher. ' A dog with the letter A'' resting on his 
head to show that he is Lord North, holds the chain riveted on the lion's 
right paw, saying: Be guided by me and go North about; with one leg, which 
terminates in a barbed point, he is stabbing the lion's breast, blood gushes 
out and is being drunk by rats. North's other leg is in a jack boot, emblem 
of the supposed influence of Bute, see No. 3860, &c. The Duke of Grafton, 
standing behind the lion, caricatured but not travestied as an animal, says: 
Shall a Lion regard the barking of Dogs. (This favourable treatment is due 
to the fact that the caricaturist had not anticipated Grafton's appointment 
as Lord Privy Seal on 8 June 1771.) Lord Mansfield in judge's wig and 
robes and holding a book, says: Let us put our own Laws in full force. 
Fletcher Norton (Sir Bull-face Double Fee) in his Speaker's robes, with 
horns and talons for fingers, says: /'// defend you as long as it is my Inter er 
\sic'\. In front of him stands Charles Fox as a young fox, wearing a bag- 
wig, his right hand, thrust through a muff, holds the ace of clubs, his left 
foot is in a dice-box, and two dice are on the ground beside him; he is 
looking through a single-eye glass; these emblems show his fondness for 
gambling and for French fashions. The lion is saying: / know you are all 
my friends and will take care of my Estate. 

The accompanying text explains that, owing to the influence of 'a north 
country servant' the king's present ministers are Jacobites, and that he has 

' Twitcher is dialect for a severe blow. O.E.D. See No. 4877. 



'discarded with contempt the descendants of those whose ancestors' 
brought his family into possession of their estates. An indication of the 
Whig creed that 'Revolution famihes' had a hereditary claim to office. 
Cf. No. 4303. 


HOOD SOCIETY. [i June 1771] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 161. Sir Fletcher Norton the 
Speaker, wearing horns in allusion to his nick-name, Sir Bull-face Double 
Fee, is seated in his robes behind a barrier inscribed S^ Stephens Bar; 
with three members of the house on his r. hand, and three on his 1. Before 
the bar, facing the Speaker, stand two printers ; one stands on the General 
Evening [Post], the other on the St. James Chroyiicle. The former asks: 
Is it agreeable to Magna Charta that a Man should be a Judge in his own 
Cause? The other says : If my Trial is coming on I beg I may be on the Jury 
as well as my Opponent. 

An incident in the struggle between the House of Commons on one side 
and the Press and the City on the other, over the publication of parliamen- 
tary debates. See a letter to the Speaker from Evans, printer of the London 
Packet, Political Register, x. 229; An7t. Reg. 1771, 183-93; ^^^- H.O. 
Papers, i'jyo-i']y2, pp. 223-4; •^. Stephens, Memoirs of Home Tooke, i. 
323-51 ; F. Bourne, English Newspapers, i. 209 ff. ; Corr. of George III, ed 
Fortescue, ii. 219-20. The printers were summoned to attend the House 
on 14 March; those who did so were reprimanded on their knees; Wheble 
and Miller refused to attend, being supported by Wilkes, Brass Crosby the 
Lord Mayor, and Oliver, whose well-known defiance of the House led to 
the imprisonment of the two latter in the Tower, see 4850, &c. Baldwin 
of the Whitehall Evening Post, Bladon of the General Evening Post, and 
Wright, apologized at the bar of the House and were discharged. 

The Commons are pilloried as the Robin Hood Society, a debating 
society of tradesmen, &c., which had long been a stock subject of ridicule; 
see Nos. 3260 (probably suggested by an article by Fielding in the Covent 
Garden Journal, 28 Jan., i Feb. 1752), 3539, 6331. See also Nos. 4850, 
4852-4, 4864. 

4861 THE DOUBLE DISCOVERY [i June 1771] 

Woodcut. From the Town and Country Magazine, iii. 262. A flying demon 
holds the level beam of a pair of scales, on which stand Wilkes (1.) and 
Parson Home (r.). Each stands in the attitude of a fencer, thrusting at the 
other with an outstretched goose-quill ; neither has the advantage. Wilkes 
wears a bag-wig, Home is in parson's gown and bands. The demon says : 
nicely pois'd indeed. The print illustrates 'The Balance of Honour and 

Patriotism; or a Dialogue between Mr. H and Mr. , in which 

the Demon of Discord very properly interferes'. The dialogue ends with 
Home's expressing a wish 'that you, good Mr. Devil, had been conducting 

me to H 11, before Malagrida [Shelburne] had persuaded me to 

engage in this d n'd controversy'. 

One of a number of satires on the quarrel between Wilkes and Home 
which began in November 1770 and was carried on by letters in the Press 


between 14 Jan. and 10 July 1771. See Stephens, Memoirs of Home Tooke,i . 
176 ff. These satires accuse Home of being inspired by the Devil, Ministers, 
&c. See Nos. 4852, 4863, 4866, 4868, 4886, 4948, 4967, 5104, 5129. 
An interesting indication of the distrust inspired by Shelburne then in 
the Opposition, and concerned at its weakness, of which this quarrel 
was one manifestation. Fitzmaurice, Shelburne, 1912, i. 423, 437. Cf. 
Nos. 4152, 4375. 


No. 15 [i June 1771] 

Etching. From the Town and Country Magazine, iii. 249. The 
Chevalier d'Eon (1.), wearing a military hat and the order of St. Louis round 
his neck, stands, partly draped, on a pedestal before a jury of twelve ladies 
(r.) who are to decide upon his sex, a matter which has for several weeks 
deeply engaged 'the polite and stock-jobbing world'. The accompanying 

text indicates the identity of the jury: Lady Har n. [Harrington.], 

L y R d. [Rochford?], L ^y T — sh — d [Townshend], 

L y G r. [Grosvenor], L- y Sarah B y [Bunbury], L y 

Lig r [Ligonier], L y R y [Rodney?]. The D. of N. [North- 
umberland?]. They pronounced the matter doubtful. 

For D'Eon see Nos. 4308, 4865, &c. 

This plate was used in the Hibernian Magazine, i. 263 (July 1771). 



Price 6'^. [c. June 1771] 

Etching with verses engraved beneath. Round a circular table draped with 
a cloth sit the devil (centre), the Pope (1.), and Home (r.); engraved labels 
issue from their mouths. By Home is an inkstand, and the table is spread 
with letters he is supposed to have written at the dictation of his two 
counsellors. He is saying : My D^ Friend Satan if Wilkes should undecieve 'm. 
His 1. hand rests on a partly written letter : Jesuits Hall June i, lyyi S^ . . . . 

The devil says to Home: I'll Insure you y" P — n — ss D gr, Bte, & 

N th's [Princess Dowager, Bute and North's] fav''^ and all my Fr^ at 

Court. The Pope says : And F II give you absolution for all, past Present & to 

Papers on the table are inscribed To Jn° Wilkes Esq^; . . . But I hope 

I have escaped the infection . . .; To Lord N th My lord I shall per sue 

such measures as will be to Your interest in opposing W kes Your &c. 

P. H rn. On the ground, peeping from beneath the table-cloth, an 

imp is writing on a scroll : . . .is now to support the cause of my Master andy' 
M — n — try. 

The letter to Wilkes is quoted from the unfortunate letter from Home 
to Wilkes of 3 Jan. 1766 in which he deprecated his clerical orders, adding 
apologetically, 'It is true I have suffered the infectious hand of a bishop to 
be waved over me; whose imposition like the sop given to Judas, is only a 
signal for the devil to enter. ... I hope I have escaped the contagion . . . 
if you should at any time discover the black spot under the tongue, pray 
kindly assist me to conquer the prejudices of education and profession.' 



This letter was published by Wilkes during their quarrel. A. Stephens, 
Memoirs of Home Tooke, i. 76. 

Beneath the design verses are engraved, 

Good People I Pray, give atten^" this way, 
Don't be frightri'd to see us together, 
The best will be Friends, for to serve their own ends. 
And their se?itim*^ change as the Weather. 

God Keep us from Sin, witho"^ & within, 
unTill [sic] certain of absolution. 
Which I have obtained, & thorowly gained, 
So a Fig for the Constitution. 

The Bishop's soft hand, his lawn Sleev's or Band, 
Cou'd never polute or defile me; 
If you think I am Wrong, look under my Tongue, 
And see if the Rogue has beguiVd me. 

It was Satan my Friend did y' Pope recomend. 
And they both of them swear to be trusty. 
So I'll try once again, my Old Friends & my Pen, 
For all Esq'' Wilkes is so Rusty. 

With fresh showers of Lyes I'll the Nation suprize. 
Nay the Devil shall stager to hear it. 

The infernals shall say, give H n hut his way. 

And he'll out Lye us all never fear it. 

For other satires on the quarrel between Wilkes and Home see No. 
4861, &c. For its political results see Walpole, Memoirs of George III, 
1845, iv, pp. 308, 325. 

7|x8| in. PI. i2X8| in. 


Dedicated to the Livery of London, the Constituents of Honiton, and all 
true Lovers of their King and Country. 

Hohnan Del. Bland Sculp. 

Published i^th June lyyi. 

Engraving, with verses printed beneath. The title (above the design) is also 
printed. Britannia (1.) with her shield and spear, followed by aldermen in 
civic gowns, advances with outstretched arms to meet Crosby and Oliver, 
who are coming out of the gate of the Tower (r.). Crosby, wearing his 
mayoral robe and chain, holds out the City Charter. Oliver, in his gown, 
holds out Magna Charta. There is a sentry on each side of the gate, and 
a beefeater stands behind Crosby. Crosby was M.P. for Honiton. 

For the civic procession from the Tower to the Mansion House, see 
Ann. Reg., i']']i, 104-5 '■> Walpole's Letters, viii. 31, 32. It was escorted by 
members of the Artillery Company, who let off twenty-four pieces of 
cannon at the Tower Gates, For the close of the dispute by the early rising 



of Parliament, see Letters of Hume, ed. Greig, 1932, ii. 241. For the 
imprisonment of Crosby and Oliver see Nos. 4850, 4852, 4854, 4860. 
Beneath the design are verses (36 11.). They begin, 

Joy to my sons and Patriots! — high in fame. 

My colonies shall toast you in their songs, 
And hiss the men who glory' d in their wrongs. 
Ye Foxes, Onslows, Ellis,^ Luttrell, hear! 
All Honourable Men! — to North most dear! 
Doth not some vengeance on those Villains wait, 
Who owe their greatness to a ruined State? 

• ••••••• 

and end, 

So shall ye live beloved, lamented die. 
Then rise two glorious Stars above the Sky. 

Sold by S. Hooper 25, Ludgate-Hill. Price One Shillitig. 
3f X7j in. Broadside 15 X io| in. 


Printed for S. Hooper, N" 25 Ludgate hill 25^^ June lyji, as the Act 

Mezzotint. Portrait (W.L.) of the Chevalier d'Eon, as a woman. He is 
fashionably dressed, and resembles a good-looking woman of fashion, his 
head turned slightly to the 1. showing an elongated pearl ear-ring. He wears 
a cap over high-dressed hair, a low-cut bodice with ruffled elbow-sleeves. 
His r. hand, on his hip, holds a sword. With his 1. hand, which holds a cane 
attached to his wrist by strings, he points 1. towards a military coat which is 
spread over a chair. He wears the order of St. Louis and a free-mason's 
apron. Behind him on the r. is a table covered with a cloth hanging in 
heavy folds ; on it is a document, A Policy 25 P C On the Ch^ D'Eon Man, 
or Woman, and two uniformly-bound books, Lettres du Ch'' D'Eon, UHist. 
du Ch'' D'eon. On the wall behind a military hat and sword hang directly 
over d'Eon 's head. On each side of him is a picture: one (1.) represents 
Mrs. Tofts producing rabbits (see Nos. 1778-86); the other depicts the 
bottle-imp, seated in a large funnel which is in the neck of a bottle (see 
Nos. 3022-7). The implication is that by the changes in his sex d'Eon is 
carrying on a fraud comparable to the two most notorious hoaxes of the 
century. Beneath each picture is the bust of a man ; that on the 1. is Wilkes, 
an associate of d'Eon, who was accused of trafficking in the insurances on 
his sex (see No. 4870). 

Beneath the title is engraved in French and English : Lady Charles, Louis, 
Cezar, Augustus Alexander, Timotheus, D'Eon of Beaumont — Advocate of the 
Parliament of Paris, Secretary to the A?nbassy at the Court of Russia, Aid de 
Camp oftheDuke de Broglio, Captain of Dragoons, Royal Censor, Secretary of 
Ambassy under the Duke de Nivernois, Kn^ of y^ Military order of S^ Louis, 
Minister Plenipotentiary to his Britanic Majesty, & accep*^ free Mason at 
the Lodge of immortality at the Crown & Anchor in the Strand. 

For d'Eon see Nos. 4308, 4862, 4870-3, 4881, 5108, 5427, 5512. 

12^X91 in. 

' For Welbore Ellis as Guy Vaux see No. 4384 (1770). 

17 C 

Chaloner Smith (iv, p. 1725) describes a print called 


Publish' d as the Act directs, by S Hooper No 25 Ludgate Hill 1 Sepf 

Mezzotint. D'Eon lying on a bed attended by Wilkes with a bowl of gruel. 
Parson Home reads a baptismal service for children held before him by 
a nurse. Paoli is present in armour, also Mrs. Macaulay with a book under 
her arm. An officer's uniform hangs on the wall. 

4866 A PRIVATE ORDINATION. [i July 1771] 

Engraving. From the London Museum, iii. 375. The interior of a church. 
A bishop (I.) stands behind a semicircular balustrade, his 1. hand out- 
stretched over the head of a kneeling clergyman in gown and bands. 
Behind the clergyman stands a demon saying : Fugiunt pudor, verumque 
fidesque. In quorum suheunt locum fraudes, dolique, visidiaeque, &c. &c. 
The pavement is of black and white squares. In a window of Gothic 
design are armorial bearings. Below the design is engraved, It is true, I have 
suffered the infectious hand of a Bishop to be waved over me: whose imposition, 
like the sop given to Judas, is only a signal for the Devil to enter. It is true that 
usually at that touch — fugiunt . . . \ut supra]. 

A satire on Parson Home, whose unfortunate reference to his ordina- 
tion in a letter to Wilkes, which is here quoted, was repeatedly used against 
him. See Nos. 4863, 4948, &c. 

6^x41 in. 



Original design in pen and wash for the engraving (reversed) with this title 
in the Oxford Magazine, vi. 200, June 1771, No. 4427, and for No. 4874. 
The Princess Dowager of Wales sits under a canopy of tartan (indicative 
of the alleged influence of Bute), with a face of dismay. Seven members 
of her supposed 'Junto' approach her. The words which the figures are 
supposed to be saying are written, without labels, and seem to indicate the 
beginning only of the sentences, each terminating in 'and', apparently a 
symbol for &c. The engraver has however copied them literally. 


See No. 4427 [i July 1771] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 200. 

The Princess Dowager of Wales and her supposed advisers in dismay. 




[i July 1771] 
Design' d & Engrav'dfor the Political Register. 

Engraving. From the Political Register, viii, 319. Parson Home (1.) in 
gown and bands and Wilkes (r.) in an alderman's gown, face each other 
threateningly. Home holds in his r. hand a rolled document, in the 1. a book 
inscribed Composition of your Debts. Wilkes has a rolled document in his 
1. hand, in his raised r. hand is a book inscribed Subscriptions to your 
Pamphlets. They are in the act of hurling books and papers at each other : 
Home's Speeches at Mile End, thrown by Wilkes, has just missed Home's 
head. Three documents inscribed Wilkes's; Adresses to the; and Free- 
holders of Middlesex are just behind Wilkes's shoulder, having been hurled 
by Home. Each has one foot on a volume inscribed Political Connections. 
Wilkes's other foot is on a paper inscribed Home's Letter. 

For the payment of Wilkes's debts see Stephens, Memoirs of Home 
Tooke, i. 270 ff. The accusation that Home was acting in the interest of the 
ministry was made by Junius in his letter to Grafton of 9 July 1771. For 
the quarrel between Home and Wilkes see No. 4861, &c. 

The plate was also used in the Royal Magazine, xxv. 654, Oct. 1771. 

5fX3l in. 

PAR— L— T OF PANDEMONIUM. [i July 1771] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 219. 

At each side of a table are seated figures with the heads and forms of 
grotesque monsters or animals. The bull-faced Sir Fletcher Norton (the 
Speaker) presides; in one hand is a scourge, in the other a staff to which 
are attached bags of money and a coronet. He says : He that dares be Virtuous 
shall be punish' d, but Ye my Friends shall be rewarded. Bute and Grafton 
are hovering above as imps. The table is emerging from flames and is 
decorated with The Coffin of Liberty. Two demons act as clerks at the head 
of the table in front of the Speaker. 

As usual in the series the explanatory text is in the form of a letter to 
the Editor, showing that the design represents 'the extraordinary appear- 
ance the present ministerial wretches will make in the next world. , . . 
I have erred on the favourable side ; for it is impossible for many of them 
to assume any shape or character that is not less horrible than their own.' 

The only two who can be identified are North, on the Speaker's r., as 
a dog wearing a ribbon and star, and Lord Holland as a fox clasping a 
number of money-bags. For the unpopularity of the House of Commons 
cf. also Nos. 4850, 4889, 4893, 4944, 4970. 

ENGLAND . [ ? July 1 77 1 ] 

Engraving. No. i of a series by the same artist,' see Nos. 4871-3. D'Eon 

' Calabi attributes this plate to Bartolozzi ; he describes another impression, with 
the date July 23, 1771, the words engraved beneath being an Enghsh version of the 
description on the r. margin of this print : Time, alzvays noted for a Babbler of Secrets 
.... Bartolozzi, 1928, No. 2229. 



(r.) dressed as a man and wearing jack boots, astride on the back of Time 
holding his scythe and hour-glass, flies across the Channel towards four 
satyrs who hold out a British flag to receive him. The figures have numbers 
which refer to notes engraved beneath the print, i , a nude satyr holding 
aloft the cap of liberty ; 2, a nude satyr with legal wig and bands ; 4, a satyr 
wearing a short coat; and 5, a satyr wearing a woman's low-cut bodice. 
No. 3, in back view, is a wine-merchant with wine bottles slung round 
his shoulders, he watches d'Eon through a telescope. 

The background is a view of the Channel, with two vessels, and Calais 
(r.) in the distance. 
Beneath the design is engraved : 

The Wind S. W. from M^ Dessin at the English Hotel at Calais. 
No. I. Miss D'n Arriving at the Standard of Liberty the Madness of the 

No. 2. F e at the Bloodsucker^ s publick office. 

No. J. L m at the Magazine of Sophisticated Wine. 

No. 4. LI d's Coffee Home or office of Policies. 

No. 5. Mother Cole's near the Lock-Hospital. 

A printed description is on the r. margin of the print : 

Enlevement de M"* Deon. Le Terns dont le pouvoir devoile les secrets les 
plus caches, s'etant mis en tete d'Eclaircir si M" Deon est chevalier ou 
chevalier e rencontre ce heros problematique sous leportique de L' hotel D'Angle- 
terre a Calais; le vieillard le saisit, & a la faveur d'un coup de vent S.E. il 
trensporte son nouveau Ganimede sur les Rives d'albion; on voit le groupe 
dans les airs sepresser d'arriver, I'un [sic] portant V autre, tandis que les amis du 
beau cavalier se preparent a le recevoir an rivage sur une converture, Uhomme 
au telescope est un fidel inarchand de vin compose en Angleterre, le satire a sa 
gauche est un honete Procureur, Enemi des affaires embroiiillees ; le faune qui 
tient le baton surmonte d'un bonnet,, signifie la liberte, et son in lustre [sic] 
Defenceur Wilks; les deux femelles a pieds de biche, sont renomees pour pre- 
tandre que m"*. Deon ne Vest point. 

During 1771 the sex of d'Eon was the subject of a number of bets and 
gambling insurances. Wilkes, who was an associate of d'Eon, was accused 
of trafficking in these policies. Cf. Controversial Letters of Wilkes, 
Home, &c., 1771, p. 72. See Nos. 4865, 4871, 4881. D'Eon was suspected 
of encouraging the bets in order to share in the spoil, and his mysterious 
disappearances heightened the suspicion. The question of d'Eon's sex as it 
affected these bets was decided in 1777, see No. 5427. See also No. 4308 

7^X loi in. 


Pub^ as the Act directs July ly, 177 1. 

Etching. No. 2 of a series, see No. 4870, &c. D'Eon, dressed half as a 
woman, half as a man, reclines on a couch (r.) ; he turns to speak to the wine- 
merchant (see No. 4873) who leans on the head of the couch. A small 
satyr or demon holds a cord which appears to be attached to D'Eon's head. 
The deputation stand round the foot of the couch : one man holds out a 



Petition from the Bulls & Bears in Change Alley. Another wears the 
insignia of a Free Mason, behind him the head of Wilkes is partly visible. 

Two satyrs advance from the 1. holding a chair supported on poles. It 
has arm- and leg-rests and appears to be intended for operations or medical 
examinations. On the ground (1.) is a pile of books, one inscribed On the 
use of the Night Chair invented by D^ A. after twenty years study. A paper 
beside it is inscribed, Vinegar of Saturn by D^ A. at the sign of the two 

Behind D 'Eon's couch is a chest of drawers on which stands a bust of 
Wilkes (cf. No. 4865). A heavy curtain drapes the r. side of the design. 

Beneath the title is engraved. 

Miss Epicoene D'Eon is discover' d in close consultation with its Wine Merchant 
& Privy Counsellor. The Free-Masons beg the Secret of its Sex may be kept 
inviolable; the Committee of Under-writers on the other hand Petition for the 
Discovery, & propose that Mons: A shall explore the sexual Signature 
manually after the manner used on the election of a new Pope, for which pur- 
pose the Doctor is seen introducing his new invented Night Chair. 

Another satire on the gambling insurances on the sex of d'Eon, see 
No. 4870, &c. For d'Eon as a Free Mason see No. 4865. 

Pub^ as the Act directs July ly: lyyi. 

Etching. No. 3 of a series, see No. 4870, &c. D'Eon (r.) dressed as a 
woman, is led by the hand by Wilkes towards an altar (1.), behind which 
stands a Jewish priest with two attendants. Wilkes holds the cap of liberty 
on a staff in his r. hand. Don Quixote, in armour, holds out his arms to 
prevent their approach to the altar. Behind d'Eon walks the wine-mer- 
chant holding aloft a trophy consisting of d'Eon 's hat, sword, order of 
St. Louis, jack boots, and (?) breast-plate. He turns round to look with 
anxiety at Sancho Panza who is threatening with his fists a nude satyr in 
clerical wig and bands who carries an infant in his arms. The temple is 
indicated by large pillars (1.) and a heavily-draped curtain. Beneath the title 
is engraved, 

The sex of Miss Epicane being incontestibly determined by the Birth of a 
Male Child without the intervention of a husband, she is elected Queen of the 
Amazons, & chuses for her Royal Consort the Guardian & Protector of 
Liberty; but as they are proceeding to celebrate the Nuptial Rites in the 
Temple of the Amazons, Don Quixotte appears, defies the future husband to 
single combat, disputes his Right to her Person & declares that Miss Epiccene 

is a Virgin, though Sancho Panzais [sic] all the time in dispute with F & 

the trusty Wine Merchant (now her Amazonian Majesty's Standard-bearer) 
about the honour of being Foster-father to the Young Prince her Son. 

'When the first policy was opened concerning D'Eons gender it was 
said with some mirth that the Chevalier was with child by Wilkes. Since 
the discovery of the fraud it is now said in sober sadness that M"" Wilkes 
has miscarried by M" D'Eon.' Midx Journal.^ 

7|X io| in. See No. 4873, a sequel. 

' Transcript (n.d.) by Mr. Hawkins. 


JULY 25th, 1771. 

Published according to act of Parliament, 25 July, ly/l. 

Etching. One of a series relating to d'Eon, probably No. 4, see No. 
4870, &c., and a sequel to No. 4872. A procession, 1. to r., conducting 
d'Eon dressed as a woman in a two-wheeled chair through the window of 
which his head appears. The chair is drawn by the wine-merchant, his 
bottles slung round his shoulders, and is pushed behind by a satyr on 
whose back is a large cylindrical package. Behind the chair and on the 
extreme 1. of the design, walks Don Quixote, in triumph, carrying his 
sword and spear. Beside the chair walks Sancho Panza blowing a trumpet 
and carrying on his head a cradle in which sits an infant, the order of St. 
Louis round its neck. On the top of the cradle are d'Eon 's hat, sword, and 
breast-plate. In front of the procession (r.) march two satyrs. The fore- 
most blows pan-pipes, and flourishes a knotted whip ; to his back are slung 
a pair of kettle-drums; he wears the jack boots of a French postilion. 
Behind him, the other satyr is performing, with a flourish, on the kettle- 
drums ; he wears a cap, a long gown, and a pair of legal bands. 
The (printed) title continues: 

The Champion of liberty, is worsted by the Knight La Mancha, who with the 
Knights of S^ George were to Assemble at Windsor, resolves there to publish 
the peerless Beauty and rare Virtue of Miss D'Eon, Queen of Amazons, 
and dare to single Combat any Knight who should be hardy enough to gainsay 
it. His Entry was Marshal' d in the following Manner, first came her Majesty's 
Sage of the Law beating kettle Drums, types of his Profession, next followed 
the Queen drawn by her Wine-Merchant in a Vehicle knowti at Paris by the 
Name of Brouette,^ by the side Marched Sancho bearing the Infant Prince 
in his Cradle, and last advanced the renowned & valourous Don Quixote. 

On 25 July there was an installation of Knights of St. George at Windsor 
at which the king's three eldest sons (among others) were installed. 
Ann. Reg. 1771, 216-18. 
7-|Xio in. 


[c. July 1 771] 

Engraving. A copy of No. 4427, Carlton House Junto in fear and trembling, 
difl^ering in several details, see No. 4867. The Princess and her supposed 
'Junto' are in dismay at the election of Wilkes as sheriff at midsummer 1771 
in spite of the efforts of the king. The Princess says : To have all power in 
y^ one hand, & all profit in y^ other, & yet not to be obeyed, is Oh, Grief 
of Griefs. North says : / depended on Home & the Lottery. From his pocket 
hangs a paper, To B. Smith Liveryman. The next man says : Half a dozen 
would not have been Sufficient. Lord Holland (I.) says : Damn y^ Blockheads, 
they know not their own Interest, and is answered by the man next him: 
They have not half your Wisdom. The other three (r.) say: / would rather 

engage with y" whole House of I 5 [Lords] ; / cannot call it Virtue, but 

a stubborn Brutality, to refuse such offers; Something must be done, lest they 

should be another Mordecai, & gall y'^ pride of a 

The king had written to North hoping that no pains would be spared to 

' The Paris equivalent of a Sedan chair. See No. 4932. 



secure the election of Plumbe and Kirkman, the two senior aldermen, next 
in succession for the office. Corr. of George III, ed. Fortescue, ii. 255-7. 
Robinson, Secretary to the Treasury, wrote to Benjamin Smith urging him 
to 'push the poll' against Wilkes ; the letter was taken by mistake to another 
Smith (Wilkite) who published it with great effect, and 'set the mob a flame'. 
Sharpe, London and the Kingdom, iii. 121 ; Letters of Hume, ed. G. B. Hill, 
212. Wilkes and Bull were elected by a large majority, the poll being 
declared on 3 July, see No. 4937. For the allusion to Home, see No. 
4861, &c. For 'the lottery', see an attack on North, 23 Apr. 1771, for 
using lottery tickets as bribes. Pari. Hist. xvii. 173-4. The allusion to the 
House of Lords is to the quarrel between the two Houses in December 
1770, see Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of George HI, 1845, iv. 218 f. ; Pari. 
Hist. xvi. 814 ff. Accusations against the Princess of Wales were revived 
by Alderman Townsend's speech on 25 March 1771, on 'the ambitious 
views of one aspiring woman . . . well known to direct the operations of our 
despicable Ministers'. Ibid. xvii. 135. See No. 4852. For the election see 
No. 4937. 


[i Aug. 1771] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vii. 12. Suffolk seated at a small 
round table with an open book scratches his head saying : D — n the French 
and the Language too. His instructor (r.) replies: Oh Mondieu my Lor you 
no Improve at all ... K man (1.) with the Secretar[y''s^ Book under his arm 
stands behind Suffolk's chair saying: If I have a Secretary's Salary I am 
satisfied. On the table is a large book, Fre[nch] Dict[ionary]. 

Suffolk was appointed Secretary of State for the Northern Department 
12 June, 1 77 1 ; he had previously been Lord Privy Seal. For his ignorance 
of French see Corr. of George III, ed. Fortescue, ii. 205 ; Walpole 's Reign 
of George III, 1894, iv. 173, 217; The Town and Country Magazine, iii. 
345-8. See also Nos. 4652 (1772), 4876, 4908. 

UNDERSTOOD, [i Aug. 1771] 

Engraving. From Every Man's Magazine, i. 29. Probably an improved and 
corrected version of No. 4876 A. Lord Suffolk sits in a high-backed chair, 
repelling with a gesture of despair the ministrations of his French servants. 
He says : Zounds! how I am Plagued with these Blockheads. I can speak 
French well enough, but they will not understand me. His 1. elbow rests on a 
table on which are writing materials and documents; one, a letter signed 

S k, falls to the ground. At his feet is a book. The Grammar. Behind 

him (r.) stands a valet-de-chambre playing the violin and singing, 
Ah! Mon Coeur-plein d' Amour 
Soupire pour un bon-Place a Cour fal al. 

A cook, black all over but wearing a bag-wig, enters from the r. with a 
long spit on which are two birds. Behind him is a servant with a wine 
bottle in one hand, he holds out to Suffolk a glass of wine on a salver. A 
valet or hairdresser approaches Suffolk from the 1. holding out in one hand 



a phial of medicine, in the other a chamber pot; he says : Oh begar, my Lor 
parle Anglois & me entendez vous beacoup \sic\ mieux ; a comb is stuck in his 
hair, which hangs loose down his back and is decorated with curl papers. 
Behind him enters a groom wearing top-boots and carrying a saddle on 
his shoulders. He is saying : begar de Spanish Cow Speak better Franch, me 
no understand him. Behind him, and on the extreme 1., a maidservant says : 
What! will he learn French before he can Speak plain English! 

In the foreground (1.) an ape sits on the floor writing on a paper inscribed 
The Modern History. A large cauldron and two pans lie on the ground, 
apparently the result of orders which have been misunderstood. See 
No. 4875, &c. 

4876a the distrest earl of the southern folk, 
prating french to his french servants, is by them 

Engraving. Another version, reversed, of No. 4876. The maidservant and 
the pots and pans are omitted. The words which the ape has written are 
turned so that they face the spectator not the writer. The words spoken 
are different: Suffolk says : They have not the least Idea, of the Paris Idion. 
[sic] — oh! mon Dieu! The violin-player says : Ah! Mon Coeur-plein d' Amour, 
pour un bon Place a Coiir. The hairdresser says : Ici, Je vous entends. The 
groom says: Begar de Spanish Cow is more intelligable [sic]. The book on 
the ground is The Crammer. 


RODE. [i Aug. 1771] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vii. 29. Britannia crawls on hands 
and knees over her shield. Her broken spear is on the ground. The 
Princess of Wales sits on her back holding reins and a whip, and supported 
by Bute. Lord Mansfield and the duke of Grafton (1.) pull her along by a 
hook through the nose. Lord North standing behind them, says : Pull her 
right to North. Lord Sandwich (Jemmy Twitcher) aims a blow at her with 
his cricket bat, saying: Hook her fast & F II give her a twitcher.^ Hercules 
(r.) exclaims : Oh Britannia; thou hast Cast all Virtue aside or Virtue should 
now assist you. Hibernia (r.) reclines upon her harp, saying: They have 
Rob'ed me of every thing but my Harp, and are now tearing my Poor Sister to 
pieces. In the background (r.) a volcano is in violent eruption. 

The explanatory text begins : 'Alas! poor Britannia! — To what a shocking 

situation art thou now reduced! Thy s n [sovereign] is ridiculed, thy 

M rs [Ministers] deservedly despised, detested and abominated! Thy 

people murmur and complain. Thy constitution is almost destroyed. 
Thou who was wont to be the en\y of all Europe are now become the 
laughing-stock of the whole world.' It ends with an appeal for the removal 
of evil counsellors. 

One of many satires on the supposed influence of Bute, Mansfield, and 
the Princess of Wales. See Nos. 4385, 4874, 4885, &c. 

Grafton had declined responsibility by refusing a seat in the cabinet on 

' See No. 4859 n, 


his appointment as Lord Privy Seal, I2 June 1771, and had Httle influence. 
Autobiography y ed. Anson 1898, pp. xxxv, 264. Cf. No. 4859. 


4878 THE PAGEANT. [i Aug. 1771] 

Designed & Engraved for the London Museum. 

Engraving. London Museum, iv. i. George III driving (r. to 1.) in an 
ornate glass coach ; facing him sits a courtier or minister wearing a ribbon. 
At the back of the coach in place of a footman sits a small demon holding 
over his shoulder a curiously shaped trident with barbed prongs which 
may represent one of the recently invented electrical appliances such as 
were used by Dr. Graham. A crowd of pedestrians run beside the coach, 
they are addressed by one of their number, who says : You Blackguards, 
why don't you halloo! Don't you know you are to be paid for it. 

A line of trees and a curiously-drawn view of Westminster Abbey in the 
background indicate that the scene is the Mall. 

A satire on the king's unpopularity; see also Nos. 4373, 4374- 
4^x6f in. B.M.L., P.P. 5435 c. 

Pu¥ accord^ to Act of ParP Aug* yth. lyyi by M. Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. Parson Home (1.) starts in terror at the silhouette of a man (r.) 
whose face is blank who appears from clouds and threatens him with a 
fulmen formed of a pen and darts of lightning. Home (dressed as a lay- 
man) has overturned his chair and table; his pens, ink, paper, and sand 
are on the floor. The Devil escapes from the window (1.). 

Home, having quarrelled with Wilkes, see No. 4861, &c., supported the 
ministerial candidates at the Sheriff's election, 24 June, see No. 4874. Junius 
thereupon attacked Home in his Letter to the Duke of Grafton (9 July) ironi- 
cally recommending him for preferment and accusing him of 'the solitary 
vindictive malice of a monk'. Home replied vigorously (13 July) and 
evoked a letter from Junius to himself (24 July), sent to him through the 
printer of the Public Advertiser, ending, 'this letter you see is not intended 
for the public, but if you think it will do you any good you are at liberty 
to publish it'. Home had it printed and retorted in a Letter to Junius 
(31 July). Another letter from Junius (15 Aug.) and one from Home 
(17 Aug.) closed the controversy, in which Home held his own. Letters of 
Junius, ed. C. W. Everett, 1927, 217 ff.; A. Stephens, Memoirs of Home 
Tooke, 1813, i. 352 ff. 



Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vii. 70. In a room with stone walls 
and barred window Lewes (r.) presents the Cardigan Address to the Lord 
Mayor, Oliver reads that of Carmarthen, Wilkes holds that of Pembroke, 



the place-names being engraved on the respective documents. The three 
prisoners wear furred civic gowns. 
Beneath the design is engraved: 

Thus Ancient Britons, gen'rous, bold & free. 
Untaught at Court to bend the supple Knee, 
Corruption's Shrine with hottest Pride disdain 
And only bow to Freedom's Patriot Train. 

During April the Lord Mayor received addresses from the three counties 
named and from the towns of Newcastle, Stratford, and Honiton, besides 
the freedom of the city of Worcester and of the town of Bedford. Ann. 
Reg., 1 77 1, 100. Wilkes of course was not in the Tower; he had refused 
to obey the summons of the House of Commons and they had been afraid 
to enforce it. Lewes, a Welshman, a City attorney and prominent City 
Whig, became an Alderman in 1772, and was knighted in Feb. 1773, when 
sheriff. Beaven, Aldermen of the City of London, 1913, ii. 135, 200, &c. 
For the imprisonment of Crosby and Oliver see No. 4853, &c. 


BROKERS OUTWITTED. [i Sept. 1771] 

Etching. From the Oxford Magazine, vii. 56. Scene in a stockbroker's 
office, or perhaps in Jonathan's or Lloyd's, a room with a small writing- 
desk (r.) and on the wall a Table of Interest. D'Eon, dressed as a man, 
enters from the 1. and is greeted by a stockbroker who takes his 1. hand 
and points with his r. to other brokers on the r. who watch the entry, some 
with dismay, others with pleasure. D'Eon says: Well Broker, how have you 
Managed our Scheme. The broker answers: Glad to see you returned 
Chevalier, we have took the Knowing ones in Swingingly. One broker says 

to another : Oh Ch st I've lost my all; the other answers : Let us Waddle 

off Quietly (a defaulter on the Stock Exchange was then called a lame-duck). 
A bearded Jew stooping over the desk with a pen in his hand, says : Ay 
and 'tis time for me to be going. Two men standing behind him say : / told 
you he would come back, and Ha! ha! ha! let them laugh that wins say I. 

Another satire on the gambling policies taken out on D 'Eon's sex, in 
which he was suspected of trafficking; his disappearances added to the 
mystery and suspicion which surrounded him. In May 1771 a caveat was 
entered at Doctors' Commons against his goods, as he had been advertised 
and no account could be had of him. Gent. Mag., 1771, 236. A compre- 
hensive appeal to the Lord Mayor (in the Oxford Magazine, June 1771, 
vi. 193 ff.) to put down abuses in his jurisdiction attacks gambling in- 
surances and expecially 'the late scandalous transaction of the policies on 
D'Eon's sex'; 'He or she D'Eon absconds . . . and the premiums are 
irretrievably lost . . .' See Nos. 4862, 4865, 4870-3. 


Design' d & Engrav'dfor the Political Register. 

Engraving. From the Political Register, ix. 57. Bust portrait (not carica- 
tured) in an oval frame of Mansfield in wig and gown in profile to the 1. 



A smaller version of this, in a circle, appears in No. 4439 (1770). It 
illustrates an article on Thoughts, Reflections, and Considerations, on the 
abject Condition of the Great, especially Courtiers, and the folly of those, 
who seek Connections with them. Cf. No. 4884. For satires on Mansfield 
see No. 4440, &c. and index. 
Oval, 3fX3|in. 


[i Oct. 1771] 

Etching. From the Oxford Magazine, vii. 88. The king in profile to the 
r. looks from a windov^ (r.) through a reversed telescope at a weather-cock. 
He wears a night-cap and a dressing-gown of chequered (or tartan) material 
intended to indicate Scottish influence. A monkey (r.) on a chair beside 
him imitates him. A cat plays with a book lying open on the floor inscribed 
The Art of Government by Mechanick Rules. A dog sits on a torn document 
To . . . Remonstrances. Five children are playing with a rocking-horse, 
which the eldest boy, the Prince of Wales, is riding. On the wall is a W. L. 
portrait of Bute, his r. hand resting on a table on which is a crown, imply- 
ing that he is the actual ruler of the country. 

Like others of the series this print illustrates a supposed letter to the 
editor: 'T. S.' complains that 'a certain young farmer' neglects his farm 
and his flock 'while he is observing the fickleness of the wind or making 
a curious button, and a twopenny snuflF-box', cf. Nos. 4380, 4417 (1771), 
5573, and p. 494. For the king's attitude to Remonstrances presented by 
the City see Nos. 4386, 4387, Reproduced, M. D. George, England in 
Transition, 193 1, p. 114. 

4884 CAMDEN [i Oct. 1771] 

Design' d & Engrav' d for the Political Register. 

Engraving. From the Political Register, ix. 105. Two bust portraits in 
ovals on one plate. This faces an article on 'The Patriot's Vision'. It is 
intended to contrast with No. 4882. For Camden see Nos. 4144, 4151- 
Ovals, 2jX2 in. 


See No. 4405 [i Oct. 1771] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vii. 96. A satire on the examina- 
tion of suspects accused of firing Portsmouth Dock-yard on 27 July, 1770. 
These examinations took place in the summer and autumn of 1771, see 
Cal. H. O. Papers, iyyo-iyy2, pp. Iv, 312-20. 

4885 THE EXCURSION TO CAIN WOOD. [i Nov. 1771] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vii. 128. Mansfield and the 
Princess of Wales fly through the air r. to 1. astride a broom-stick towards 
Caen Wood or Ken Wood (Mansfield's country house). This is indicated 



by a thick grove of trees on the top of which Bute and Sir Fletcher Norton 
wait their arrival attended by a fiddling demon. Bute beckons to them; 

Mansfield says : Liberty is to me a Joke but our Friends Madam at C n 

Wood will advise us what to do. The Princess sits behind him saying : My 
Lord is my sure Councellour, what he dictates shall be a Law. A demon as 
a running footman carries a document inscribed: A Plan for turning 

Guildhall i?ito a stable for the K 5 Horses ; tied to his legs are papers, P/fl« 

for a Coalition and Proceedings at Guildhall. A Scottish demon (r.) urges 
on the broom-stick with a pair of bellows. In the corner (r.) Wilkes says 
to the Lord Mayor: These birds of Ill-omen forbode no good to Liberty. 
The Mayor replies: We^ll be firm to the last and fear them not! Only their 
heads and shoulders appear above the lower margin. Behind their heads 
London is in flames, indicating the supposed designs of the Court on the 
liberties of the City. 

One of many satires on the supposed influence of Bute, the Princess 
Dowager of Wales, and Mansfield. See No. 4877, &c. 

6|X4^ in. 

4886 N° XXX. Vol. in. the city race. [i Nov. 1771] 

Engraving. From the Town and Country Magazine, iii. 529. Illustration to 
'The City Race; or, a peripatetic Dialogue amongst the late Candidates 
for the Mayoralty, and the Sheriffs'. The five candidates race from r. to 1. 
across an open space towards their goal, the Mansion House, part of the 
fa9ade of which is in the background. The foremost is supported on 
crutches, inscribed Treasury; he is William Nash elected through the 
support of the Ministry. He and the next three, Sawbridge, Townsend, 
and Hallifax are hurrying with outstretched arms. The last walks with 
folded arms, he is Sir Henry Bankes who was at the bottom of the poll with 
36 votes. A sixth alderman has fallen to the ground, and lies face down- 
wards, he is Brass Crosby the late Lord Mayor. Two dogs fight in the 
foreground (1.), one with his collar inscribed Court hast he other by the 
throat. In the background (r.) a mob is being harangued by Parson Home 
(see No. 4861, &c.), who leans from an open window. The two sheriffs, 
Wilkes and Bull, are near with their staves. Bull attempts to restrain the 
mob ; Wilkes turns his back on the disturbance holding the cap of liberty 
on his staff. 

The mayoral election, polling for which lasted from 28 Sept. to 3 Oct., 
was a victory for the Court, achieved in spite of an impassioned address from 
Junius to the Livery, urging them to elect Crosby and Sawbridge. Sharpe, 
London and the Kingdom, iii. 127-8; Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of 
George III, 1894, iv. 229-30; Beaven, Aldermen of London, ii, p. xxvi, Cf. 
No. 4887. 

3|x6| in. 

4887 PATRIOTICK METEORS [i Nov. 1771] 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xl. 520. Three heads, their necks 
decorated by civic chains, are being drawn swiftly through the air into 
the gaping jaws of a hippopotamus (1.) inscribed The Gulf of Oblivion. 
The foremost is Wilkes, after him comes Brass Crosby, the outgoing 
Lord Mayor, and last a bull, representing Frederick Bull, who had recently 



been elected sheriff with Wilkes. On the ground is a furred livery gown 
on which rest the city arms and two sheriff's staves. Beneath the design 
is engraved Exitus acta probat. 

One of the few anti-Wilkite satires, cf. No. 5245 ; it seems to represent 
correctly the actual state of opinion,^ which had been much influenced by 
the quarrel of Wilkes with Parson Home, Sawbridge, Townsend, and 
Oliver. See Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of George III, 1894, iv. 200, 
202. Cf. No. 4886. Wilkes's popularity with the mob continued, though 
Walpole wrote 15 Dec. 1771, Letters, viii. 122, 'Wilkes is almost as dead 
as Sacheverell, though sheriff'. Nevertheless he was voted a cup by the 
Common Council, Jan. 1772, see No. 5237. 

This plate was used in the Hibernian Magazine, i. 577 [i Jan. 1772]. 

4f X7 in. (pi.). 

4888 THE GREAT LUMINARY OF THE LAW. [i Dec. 1771] 

Etching. From the Political Register, ix. 233. The head of Bathurst, full- 
face, in a judge's wig, transfixed on the very elongated wick which projects 
from a candle in a candlestick. Beneath is engraved a parody of Pope's 
epigram on Newton : 

England & England's Laws lay hid in Night, 
Bute said let Bathurst be — and all was Light. 

Henry Bathurst was made Lord Chancellor and Baron Apsley on 23 Jan. 
1 77 1, and is generally agreed to have been the least efficient Lord Chan- 
cellor of the eighteenth century. 
6fX4|in. (pi.) 

4889 ROCKINGHAM [i Dec. 1771] 

Design' d & Engrav'dfor the Political Register. 

Engraving. From the Political Register, ix. 169. Two bust portraits in 
ovals on one plate (the print has been cut into two). 

This faces an article called 'Idea of a well-policed State', in which the 
House of Lords is to be 'the bust and trunk' of the constitution of the 
British Commonwealth, and is 'to direct the operations of liberty . . .' 
Indicative of the unpopularity of the House of Commons, cf. Nos. 4850, 
4869, 4893, 4970. 

Ovals, 2jxii|in. 


[i Dec. 1771] 

Woodcut. From the Town and Country Magazine, iii. 581. Three figures: 
in the centre Colonel Luttrell stands threatening the Duke of Cumberland 
(1.) with a whip, while he points with his 1. hand to a lady (r.) seated primly 
in profile to the 1., her r. hand raised. Luttrell says: The Honour of my 

' At this time there was a lull in political violence: cf. Burke, 31 July, 1771. 
*As to news we have little. After a noted fermentation in the nation, as remarkable 
a deadness and vapidity has succeeded it.' Corr. i. 256. Cf. Ann. Reg., 1772. i. 82. 



Family; Cumberland answers with a propitiatory gesture: 77/ marry her 
indeed. The lady, Mrs. Horton, says: / shall be a Royal Duchess. 

The woodcut illustrates 'A Trio; or a Dialogue amongst three very 

respectable Personages, a P e [Prince] without Brains, a Member 

without Suffrages, and a Duchess without a Title'. Cumberland's illite- 
rate love-letters had been satirized in Nos. 4400, 4401, 4402; on his affair 
with Lady Grosvenor, see No. 4845. For Luttrell, notorious as Wilkes's 
opponent at the Middlesex election, see No. 4284, &c. 

The marriage between the Duke and Anne Luttrell, daughter of Lord 
Irnham and widow of Christopher Horton, took place on 2 Oct. 1771. See 
Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of George III, 1894, iv. 236 ff. 



Engraving. Frontispiece to The New Foundling Hospital for Wit, Part IV, 
1 77 1. A blindfolded man walking in an empty street carrying a lantern. 
He wears a long furred civic gown. On a sign-board projecting from the 
corner of an adjacent house is a bust portrait of the Princess Dowager of 
Wales in profile to the r., inscribed O thou Head of the Wrong Heads! 
From the end of the bar supporting the board hangs a jack-boot, the 
emblem of Bute, in allusion to the supposed liaison between Bute and the 
Princess, see No. 3848 (1762), &c. From the toe of the boot hangs a bunch 
of grapes, the sign of wine for sale. On a distant house is a sign-board on 
which is a royal crown. Beneath the design is engraved, 

Alack, there lies more Peril in thine Eye, 
Than twenty of their Swords. 


For the supposed influence of the Princess Dowager of Wales, see Nos. 
4427, 4867, 4874, 4885. 

4^X2f in. B. M. L. 992. a. 4 

4892 THE YOUNG POLITICIAN. [? 1771] 
Published accord to Act by H. Bryer London 

Engraving. A young man, slim and elegant, with the head and tail of a fox 
seated between two hairdressers. He tears fragments from Magna Charta 
to be used as curl-papers. He is draped in a sheet, below which appear 
flowered breeches, A valet with a Last dying Speech hanging from his 
pocket holds a mirror. On a chair are a flowered coat and sword with 
a paper Inquiries into the late Riots (cf. No. 4850). On the floor are A peti- 
tion to the Commission[ers] of the Customs, a book entitled A New Essay on 
Politick By C — F — Esq^ and a bag of Poudre a la Marechale. On a table 
are jars inscribed Bergamot, essence, rouge. A bust [ .''Wilkes] is on a pedestal 
inscribed Cato bewailing the loss of Liberty. On brackets on the wall are 
statuettes of Venus and the three Graces and a clock whose hands indicate 
that the time is 12.30 (or 6). 

For other satires of Fox as petit-maitre and enemy of liberty see Nos. 
4810 (1773) and 481 1 (1771). 




Engraving. Holt (1.) sits above and between two other judges in West- 
minster Hall. He addresses a man in the Speaker's robes (r.) who covers 
his face with his hand and walks away abashed. A crowd stands round. 
This illustrates a mythical story current in the eighteenth century that 
during the famous case of Ashby v. White, 1701, in which Holt upheld 
the rights of voters against the corrupt assertion of privilege by the Com- 
mons, the Speaker in full state with a train of attendants entered the Court 
and threatened to commit the judge. On this Holt ordered him to begone 
or he would commit him, had he all the House of Commons in his belly. 
The application to the hated Speaker, Fletcher Norton, who had signed 
the warrant for the arrest of the Lord Mayor and Oliver (see No. 4853, &c.) 
was obvious. See Junius 's Letter of 22 Apr. 1771 on parliamentary 
privilege. For the unpopularity of the House of Commons cf. Nos. 4850, 
4860, 4869, 4889, 4970. 

COMMONS. [n.d. 1771] 

Etching. From the stage of a theatre, two figures address the audience: 
Charles Fox (1.) with a fox's head, holds under his 1. arm a tray in which 
are two doll-like infants in swaddling bands; in his r. hand is a paper 
inscribed, Norton & Fox Sponsors. He is saying: Discovered by the Secret 
Committee. In the centre is another man with a wide open mouth, whose 
head is perhaps intended for that of a dolphin. He holds a paper inscribed 
The Child of the People. On the r. of the stage is part of a fountain sup- 
ported by a satyr. On each side of the stage are two tiers of boxes ; in the 
lower box on the r. Punch is talking to a lady. 

On 10 April 1771 an infant was found near the House of Commons, by 
a fruit woman, who collected money for its maintenance from members 
of the House. It was reported {Oxford Magazine, 1771, p. 157) that the 
child was to be baptized Fletcher Norton after the Speaker, and that he 
and Charles Fox were to be god-parents. An interesting indication of the 
impression already made by Fox, cf. No. 4892. 



A series of engravings by Grignion after Wale of historical inci- 
dents ; they illustrate articles in the Oxford Magazine, applying 
the subject of the print to the politics of the day; see also Nos. 
4445-55 (1770). 


S. Wale del. C. Grignion sculp. 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 31. Two officers on horseback 

' This should be dated i May 1774; it is from the Sentimental Magazine, ii. 148. 



conferring; tents and horsemen in the distance. The design is in an oval 
with a frame composed of oakleaves and architectural ornament. 

A representation of the conference before the Peace of Ryswick (1697). 
Bentinck is compared with his descendant the 3rd duke of Portland (1738- 
1809), especially in connexion with the attempt to dispossess the Duke of 
Inglewood Forest, giving rise to the Act to limit the principle of Nullum 
Tempus occurrit Regi, see No. 4851. Junius attacked Lowther for this in 
his Letter to the Duke of Grafton, 22 June 1771. 
3|X4iin. (pi.). 

CRUSHED MDCCXLV. [i Mar. 1771] 

S. Wale del. C. Grignion sculp. 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 70. Three highlanders (1.) in 
tartan, their weapons on the ground, kneel bonnet in hand before three 
mounted English officers (r.); a standing soldier directs their submission. 
In the distance are English soldiers and a castle (1.). The design is sur- 
rounded by a frame headed by a trophy composed of a crown, laurel wreath, 
and weapons. 

The plate illustrates an article contrasting the present Duke of Cumber- 
land, who is attacked for his affair with Lady Grosvenor (see Nos. 4440, 
4441, 4844), and the previous holder of the title. Scotland and the Scots 
are also attacked. 

4iX4| in. (pL). 


[i Apr. 1771] 

S. Wale del. C. Grignion sculp. 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. no. Neptune, his trident in 
his r. hand, points with his 1. hand to Britannia seated (r.), with her sword 
and spear. He is showing her to a minister (1.) wearing the ribbon of an 
order. Behind is Neptune's car, the horses emerging from the water held 
by a triton who is blowing his horn. On the 1. appears the stern of a man of 
war, flying the Union flag. The design is in a frame decorated by nautical 
emblems. The plate illustrates 'a vision' which ends ' . . . how came 
Britannia to loose [sic] Falkland Islands?' See No. 4849, &c. 

4IX5I in. (pi.). 

OF WALES. [i May 1771] 

S. Wale del. C. Grignion sculp. 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 149. George III and Queen 
Charlotte direct the presentation by Diana of the infant prince to Jupiter, 
who is seated on clouds; across his eagle lies a scroll inscribed Nascenti 
Puero. A female figure reclining on clouds points to emblems of Justice 
and Liberty, and to a rampant British lion. On a colonnade are medallion 
portraits : Georgius, Fredericus, and Georgius II. Through an archway is 
a street, apparently the Strand, where a wagon decorated by the Union 



flag and the Royal Standard is being cheered by the passers-by. This is 
the procession to the Tower of the treasure taken from Spain during the 
Seven Years' War. The design is in a frame decorated by a crown, garlands 
of flowers, cherubs' heads, and architectural ornament. 

The accompanying text reminds readers of the auspices of the Prince's 
birth on 12 Aug. 1762: 12 Aug. (n.s.) was the day of the accession of the 
Brunswick family to the English Crown. 12 Aug. 1762 was the day of the 
arrival of the Spanish treasure. But, 'If an increase of liberty were really 
pognosticated [sic] by this prince's nativity, How comes it, that the freedom 
of election has been infringed, the decision by juries has been abridged, 
murderers have been screened, pardoned, rewarded' (an allusion to the 
reprieve of Kennedy, see No. 4844, &c., and the so-called Massacre of 
St. George's Fields, see No. 4196, &c.) . . .'and the greatest civil magis- 
trate in the kingdom confined in the English Bastile for not acting contrary 
to his oath, and the charter of his corporation, and after refused his right 
to a habeas corpus, and release, Avhich is the birth-right of every English- 
man founded on Magna Charta . . .' See No. 4853, &c. 

5X6|in. (pi.). 

JOHN HAMILTON [i June 1771] 

S. Wale del. C. Grignion sculp. 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 185. Queen Mary (1.), standing 
on a dais in a pillared room, gives a ring to a man who stands facing her, 
cap in hand. The royal arms of Scotland are over a partly-opened door 
through which Gothic arches are partly visible. The design is surrounded 
by a frame of conventional ornament. 

This illustrates 'Memoirs of John Marquis Hamilton' [i 532-1 604], 
a panegyric on his loyal services to Mary and James VI ; his descendants are 
urged to 'Go and do likewise'. The political intention is obscure since 
personal loyalty to the Crown by Scotsmen was regarded with high dis- 
favour. The actual Duke of Hamilton (Douglas, 8th duke) was a minor. 

4X4i in. (pi.). 


[i July 1771] 

S. Wale del. C. Grignion sculp. 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 222. From a platform under 
an arcade, a man (r.) in a long gown addresses a crowd in a market-place, 
surrounded by buildings. Below the platform (1.) are six men sitting at 
a table. The design is in a rectangular frame, decorated with garlands of 
oakleaves, a mace, &c. This illustrates 'Memoirs of the Marquis of 
Dorchester [1606-80], one of the Ancestors of the duke of Kingston', the 
episode illustrated being a speech 'to the trained band of Nottinghamshire 
at Newark, July 13, 1641' [sic i.e. 1642]. A panegyric on the virtue, 
political moderation, and learning of Dorchester, with an implied contrast 
to the character of modern peers. 


33 D 



[i Aug. 1 771] 

S. Wale del. C. Grignion sculp. 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vii. 24. Lady Jane (centre) stands 
on the scaffold, pointing to the block with her I. hand ; she hands a book to 
a man on her r. The headsman stands behind the block ; five other persons 
are on the scaffold. In the foreground appear the heads of spectators. 
In the background is the Tower of London. The design is in an octagonal 
frame, surmounted by drapery and a pediment beneath which are two 
skulls and an axe. The accompanying text describes the execution as 
'one among the many instances where innocence has been punished while 
infamy has been rewarded'. 
3^X4^ in. (pL). 


[i Sept. 1771] 

S. Wale del. C. Grignion sc. 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vii. 49. Charles (1.), seated and 
wearing a hat, in conversation with two men, one standing and gesticula- 
ting, the other seated. The background is the wall of a room or gallery, 
hung with pictures; to the r. is a door. The design is in a rectangular 
frame decorated with garlands of leaves, &c. 

Sir Thomas Osborne or Lord Danby, afterwards duke of Leeds, is 
narrating the well-known story of his grandfather Sir Edward Osborne, 
Lord Mayor of London, who as an apprentice is reputed to have saved 
from drowning the infant daughter of his master, whom he afterwards 
married. The text remarks, 'it were to be wished, that some of our new 
made nobility had any thing that reflected so much honour upon their 
3^X4^ in. (pi.). 



4470, 4903-4912 

Series of Tete-a-Tete portraits. 



An account of the Rev. Martin Madan. 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iii. 9. Tw^o bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or, 

Memoirs of Lord B n [Barrington] and L y H' [Harrington], 

between whom a 'permanent connexion' is alleged. An account of the 
political career and amours of Viscount Barrington (1717-93), styled 
'Hostile Scribe' on account of the letters written by him as Secretary at 
War approving the conduct of the soldiers at the riot of 10 May 1768, see 
Nos. 4196-4202. The amours of Lady Harrington and her husband, both 
of notoriously bad reputation, are recounted. Their town house was known 
as the Stable Yard (St. James's Palace), see No. 5033. She is said to have 
damaged her reputation by association with Miss A h and other 'demi- 
reps of the same class', that is Miss Ashe, the 'Pollard Ashe' of Walpole's 
Letters, who was reputed to be the daughter of the Princess Amelia and 
Rodney. Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, i. 224 and n. 

For the intimacy between Miss Ashe and Lady Caroline Petersham, 
afterwards Lady Harrington, see Walpole, Letters, ii. 452-6, &c. Walpole 
alludes in 1759 to a liaison between Lady Harrington and Barrington, 
Letters, iv. 332. 

Ovals, 2-|X2-i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

4904 N° IV. MISS H L BE Vol. Ill 


Engraving. Tovm and Country Magazine, iii. 65. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or Memoirs 

of L d W and Miss Harriot L, — mbe'. Weymouth's resignation 

of the Secretaryship in December 1770 is mentioned with approval, but 
the 'Memoirs' are chiefly concerned with his career 'as a gentleman, a bon 
vivant, and a man of gallantry'. 

Harriot Lambe is a well-known courtesan who is said to have borrowed 
her name from 'Sir P — nn — g — n L — mbe (now Lord M ne)' [Mel- 
bourne] . 

Ovals, 2|X2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



4905 N° VII. [sic] MKs D— V— S. Vol. Ill 

N° VIII. LORD C GH. [i Apr. 1771] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iii. 113. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames, 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed.' An account of the 
career and amours of Lord Catherlough, son of Robert Knight, Cashier 
to the South Sea Company. Miss Davis is the daughter of a farmer, and 
has lived with him 'near seven years', at his house in Golden Square. 

Ovals, 2|X2j in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

4906 N° X. MISS EV— NS. Vol. Ill 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iii. 177. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or, 
Memoirs of the Sorry Motion Maker and Miss Ev — ns'. An account of 
George Onslow (1731-1814) afterwards first Earl of Onslow, not to be 
confused with his cousin George Onslow (1731-92), 'little Cocking 
George', see No. 4855. The name is an allusion to his motions in the 
Commons on 14 and 15 Apr. 1769, that Wilkes's election for Middlesex 
was null and void, and that Luttrell ought to have been returned. 
Ovals, 2|X 2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 8442 b. 

4907 N° XIII. MRS M— RSH— L Vol. Ill 

N° XIV. LORD VAINLOVE. [i June 1771] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iii. 233. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed. . . .' An 
account of Viscount Vane (1714-89) who married in 1735 the widow of 
Lord William Hamilton, notorious for paying Smollett to insert her 
Memoirs of a Lady of Quality in Peregrine Pickle. 

Ovals, 2| X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

N° XVI. MISS P TT.i Vol. Ill 

N° XVII. MUNGO. [i July 1771] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iii. 289. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or. Memoirs 

of Miss Pr tt and Mungo'. The lady holds in her hand a miniature, 

which is that of 'Mungo'. A hostile account of Jeremiah Dyson. After 
ending his association with Mrs. Brown, a courtesan in Pall Mall, he met 
Miss Pratt, the daughter of a deceased half-pay officer. After being 
seduced she was forced by a so-called mantua-maker to become a 
prostitute. Mungo is now infatuated with her. Lord Percy is also 

Ovals, 2| X 2^ in. 

' The June number is missing from the B.M. copy of the magazine, its place 
being supplied by the number for June 1772. This is taken from a copy in the 
London Library. 



4908 N" XIX. M«s M LLS. Vol. Ill 

N° XX. LORD S K. [i Aug. 1771] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iii. 345. Two bust portraits in 

oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed ' An 

account of Lord Suffolk, his ignorance of French, and his alleged amours. 
For Suffolk, see Nos. 4652, 4875, 4876. 

Ovals, 2f X2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

4909 N° XXII. MRS D KE Vol. Ill 

N° XXIII. JOHN OF THE HILL. [i Sept. 1771] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iii. 401. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or, 

Memoirs of the Duke of R and Mrs. D ke.' An account of John, 

third duke of Rutland, 1696-1779, described as living like a patriarch at 
Belvoir Castle with his mistress, Mrs. Drake, his wife's lady's maid at her 
death in 1734, since when she has presided at his table, where her brother 
stands as valet-de-chambre behind his master's chair. His son by her, 

Mr. M rs [Manners], was a captain in the foot-guards, his daughter. 

Miss M rs, married Thomas Thornton, M.P. for Bramber. A plan is 

given showing the arrangement of a dinner at Belvoir Castle, at which the 
Duke and Mrs. Drake sit side by side, and the guests include the duke's 
grandchildren by his mistress, and his son's mistress 'commonly called 
Little Infamy D vis'. 

Ovals, 2f X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

4910 N° XXV. MRS W LLS. Vol. Ill 

N° XXVI. ADMIRAL K L [i Oct. 1771] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iii. 457. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed. . . .' An 
account of the naval career and amours of Admiral Keppel. For Mrs. 

Sarah W lis he is alleged to have furnished a house in Park Lane, settling 

on her £500 a year, with 'a genteel equipage' and the finest hunters, since 
she is a noted horsewoman. 

Ovals, 2f X2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

4911 N° XXVIII. MRS S MS. Vol. Ill 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iii. 513. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or. Memoirs 

of Lord T and Mrs. S ms'. An account of William, Earl Talbot 

(1710-82), Steward of the Household, alleged to be penurious. For attacks 
on his economies in the royal kitchen see Nos. 3914, 3989, &c. (1762). 
Ovals, 2|X2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

4912 N° XXXI. MISS J— NS— N [i Dec. 1771] 
No XXXII. L— T— W— Y 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iii. 569. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .' An 



account of the military career and amours of James O'Hara, second Lord 
Tyrawley (1690-1773). 

Ovals, 2f X2^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

DARLY, P. O. A. G. B. See No. 4632—1 Jan. 1771 

Portrait of Darly the artist and publisher of prints. Pub. Darly. 


and related numbers catalogued in vol. iv 

Darly's Series of Caricatures. 

Between 1771 and 1773 Matthew Darly issued six sets of twenty-four 
'Caricatures', 'Macaronies', and 'Characters', which he reissued in six 
volumes, each with an etched title-page. Simultaneously, he was issuing at 
least two other similar series of larger prints, one approximately 9X13, the 
other 6 X 9 in. A number of the plates in these three series were described in 
volume iv of this catalogue. Since its publication a complete set of the series 
in six volumes has been acquired. The order in the volume is not always that 
of publication. These volumes deal particularly with the macaroni, a w^ord 
for an extravagantly dressed and usually effeminate fop, which came into 
general use from about 1770, and apparently derived from the Macaroni 
Club 'composed of all the travelled young men who wear long curls and 
spying glasses'. Walpole, 6 Feb. 1764. The macaroni superseded the 
beau and anticipated the dandy; he was demode by 1776. Cf. F. Burney, 
Diary, ii. 105 (1775) the 'present ton is not Macaronyism'. 

Darly was the publisher par excellence of prints of macaronies which 
were much in vogue from 1 771 to 1773, his print shop being 'The Macaroni 
Printshop', see No. 4701. Many of the prints in these three series were 
reissued with others in a volume with a title-page dated i Jan. 1776, see 
No. 5369. 

Volume I. 


See No. 4710 — i Nov. 1771 

I. THE DOG BARBER' See No. 4668—25 Apr. 1771 

After Bunbury. 

V. I. 2. MONK LE MEDECIN. See No. 4670—13 June 1771 

[ PAfter Bunbury.] 

V. I. 3. A MACARONI See No. 4671—4 May 1771 

After E. Topham. 

4. THE CITY TONSOR. See No. 4672—1 July 1771 

5. MONK LE FRIZUER. See No. 4673—2 May 1771 

' Coloured impressions are in the B.M. Bunbury Collection. 



4913 [6] FRENCH PEASANT.' 

[After Bunbury.] 

Pu¥ accord^ to Act of ParW June yth lyyi by M. Darly, jp Strand. 

Engraving. A woman standing in profile to the 1. She is neatly dressed and 
wears a cap with a frilled border, and a striped apron. Her hands are in a 
large fur muff; she wears shoes or small neat sabots and a cross hangs from 
her neck. 

51x3^1 in. 

Another impression (coloured), having the same publication line and the 
number 6, with the title Peasant of the Alps, see No. 4674. 

V. I. 7. PEASANT OF THE ALPS.' See No. 4675—2 Apr. 1771 

After Bunbury. 

An original etching by Bunbury of this subject in reverse is in B.M. It 
differs from this plate : the background and foreground indicate undulating 
grass; fur tails protrude from the man's pocket. Paysan des Alpes is etched 
on the plate which is signed H. Bunbury fee. 

8. FRENCH • PEASANT. See No. 4677—1 Apr. 1771 

After Bunbury. 
An original etching by Bunbury of this subject is No. 4751. 


See No. 4782 — [18 June 1771] 

[After Bunbury.] pub"^ T. Scratchley? 

10. THE PARIS SHOE CLEANER' See No. 4679— [i July 1771] 
[After Bunbury.] 


Pu¥ accord^ to Act by M. Darly Nov^ 2^ lyyi N° jg Strand. 

Engraving. A man standing in profile to 1., his mouth wide open as if 
declaiming. Lank hair falls on his shoulders. He wears a low broad- 
brimmed hat, and is plainly dressed. His hands (gloved) appear to be 
clasped upon his stomach. Perhaps the portrait of a dissenting preacher. 


V. I. 12. THE TURF-MACARONI See No. 4634—2 Jan. 1771 

The Duke of Grafton. 

V. I. 13. MASTirEYS See No. 4680—1 July 1771 

[? After Bunbury.] Probably Dr. Samuel Smith, see No. 4921. 

V. I. 14. HAPPY PEASANT' See No. 4681—2 Aug. 1771 

[After Bunbury.] 

' Coloured impressions are in the B.M. Bunbury Collection. 
»Cf. No. 4919. 



4915 V. I. 15. GANYMEDE. 
[M. BsLTlyfec] 

Pu¥ according to Act ofParP March ist lyyi by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. A man standing in profile to the r., a cane in his r. hand ; his 1. 
is inside his waistcoat. His shoulders are round, almost to deformity. He 
wears a looped hat and ruffled shirt. 

A portrait of Samuel Drybutter, bookseller in Westminster Hall, con- 
victed of an unnatural offence in 1771. B.M. Cat. Engr. Br. Portraits. See 
No. 4305 (Drybutter not Vaughan). 



Pu¥ as the Act Directs Oct. ist lyyi, by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. A man (W.L.) stands in profile to the r., his mouth wide open 
as if singing. In his r. hand he holds blank sheets of paper evidently 
intended for music. His 1. hand holds the r. side of his coat. His hair is in 
an enormously long queue bound with ribbon. His hat is under his r. arm. 
He wears a large cravat, his shirt sleeves are frilled but his stockings are 
conspicuously patched. Probably the portrait of a French singer at 
Marylebone (then often called 'Marrowbone') Gardens depicted in the 
stock character of the beggarly Frenchman dressed in shabby finery. 


17. DOCTOR GRUEL. See No. 4682—3 Oct. 1771 

Identified in an old hand as Lord L n. [Lansdowne?]. On another 

impression he has been identified as Sir Nash Grose. He strongly resembles 
No. 4917. He appears to be wearing a legal wig and gown which would 
make the identification with Sir Nash Grose more probable. The wig 
resembles that worn by Serjeants at law, see No. 5900; Grose (1740-1814) 
did not become a serjeant till 1774. D.N.B.). 


Pub'^ according to Act of ParP by M Darly Oct yth lyyi. 

Engraving. Man standing stiffly in profile to the r., head thrown back 
with a contemptuous scowl. His I. hand resting on a cane. He wears a low 
broad-brimmed hat, a tightly-curled wig, buttoned coat, and gloves. The 
etching appears to be a copy of Humility, No. 4795. The same figure 
appears conspicuously (attending a quaker's meeting) in No. 4794. He 
strongly resembles No. 4682, and is probably intended either for Nash 
Grose or Lord Lansdowne (then Shelburne) to whom the title would 
apply, from the well-known name of Malagrida, the notorious Portuguese 
Jesuit, given to him in the Public Advertiser of 16 Sept. 1767. It is not 
unlike some portraits of Lansdowne, but is very different from the later 
caricatures, see No. 6022, &c. Also a coloured impression without *V. i.' 



See No. 4683 — 12 Nov. 1771 
Caricature portrait of Captain Grose. 



WITH CAPN BROAD See No. 4684—26 Oct. 177 1 

21. MON^^ LE. VIRTU' See No. 4685—3 Nov. 1771 

Caricature portrait of Dr. Bragge. 

LAND. See No. 4686—5 Nov. 1771 

V. I. 23. THE LILLY MACARONI. See No. 4687—13 Nov. 1771 
The Earl of Ancrum. 

V. I. 24. THE MARTIAL MACARONI. See No. 471 1—6 Nov. 1771 
Ensign Horneck. 
Four prints in Darly's second volume, see Nos. 4986-9, are dated 1771. 

Five prints from another series by Darly, see p. 38. 


H. W. Bunhury Inv^ 

Pu¥ accord^ to Act of ParV by M Darly jg Strand Oct ist ij'ji. 
Where may he had all the Works of Mr. Bunhury, &c. 

Engraving. A smaller version reversed of No. 4763 of the same date pub- 
lished by John Harris. Some of the same characters appear in No. 4919. 

15. THE MASQUERADE DANCE See No. 4635—8 Dec. 1771 


See No. 4636 — 14 Dec. 1771 


See No. 4639 — Oct. 19, 1771 


See No. 4641 — Oct. i, 1771 
Reproduced, Manchee, Westminster City Fathers, 1924, p. 28. 


T. Scratchley [M. Darly] Sc. [c. 1771] 

B [Bunbury] Inv'' 

Engraving. Publication line cut off. Perhaps belongs to the same series as 
No. 4918, which it closely resembles. A street scene, the curving line of 
the houses of the Place des Victoires with the monument to Louis XIV 
forming the background. The central figure is a coachman, dressed as in 
No. 4763, his hands in a large muff; he stands talking to a peasant woman. 
A lawyer, an umbrella under his arm, is having his shoes cleaned by a 
decrotteur on the extreme 1., the sign, resembling that in No. 4679, is 
inscribed, A La Dauphine S* Lovis Decroteve \sic'\ ; from it a shoe-brush 
dangles. The lawyer ignores a one-legged beggar holding out his hat. The 
dog-barber is not present, but a newly-shaved dog sits behind the coach- 
man. On the extreme r. walks a hairdresser, his hands in a large muff; 



he looks over his shoulder at a girl carrying a basket. In the background 
are coaches, a mounted soldier, a gendarme, pedestrians, another decrotteur 
plying his trade. 

SlixiiJ in. 


See No. 4764 — i Feb. 1771 
After Bunbury, pub. John Harris. 

A smaller version was published by Darly with the same date and was 
included in the volume with the title-page dated i Jan. 1776, see No. 5369. 

LE CABRIOLET See under No. 4633—17 Mar. 1771 

Bunbury, pub. Darly. 

This plate was reissued with the date 17 Apr. 1772 as No. 8 in a series by 
Darly, see No. 5056, etc. 


H. W. Bunbury fecit et a cere incidit iy66. 

Pub. accor to Act by [name erased] . . . ist lyyi 

Engraving. Another version, reversed and differing in many details, of 
No. 4752 ; etched by Bunbury (1750-181 1) when a Westminster schoolboy. 
Outside a thatched cottage, partly visible on the 1., Paris, a loutish peasant, 
hands the apple to an old harridan holding a fan and wearing a very wide 
hoop. Cupid, a hideous boy, holding a bow, is partly concealed by her 
petticoat. Juno (?), a hideous hag, strides towards them, brandishing a 
bottle. Minerva (?) in a soldier's coat and grenadier's cap, inscribed J.R. 
[?Juno Regina] , walks away to the r. looking over her shoulder; one fist 
is clenched, she carries a bottle and is smoking a pipe. One sheep (1.) 
stands behind Paris who is holding a crook. A basket and his hat are on the 
ground. In the foreground his dog chases the peacock and the owl. Two 
doves fly over the head of Venus. Two broadsides are pasted on the 
cottage wall: one headed Gods . . . the other, Thos the Wood Lous (?). 
Mountains are indicated in the background. 
Above the design is etched, 

Jun: hut to bestow it on that Trapes 

It mads me — Min: hang him Jackanapes. 

Printed on the same sheet is an impression of No. 4633. 
61X7^6 in. 

4921 MAZTirEYI [n.d. c. 1766] 

[ PBunbury] 

Engraving. Bust portrait in an oval of a clergyman in profile to the 1. It is 
the same head as that of MAZTITEYS, No. 4680, who is probably Dr. 
Samuel Smith, Master of Westminster School. The oval is decorated by 
two emblems which appear to be birch rods. Probably an original etching 
by Bunbury when at Westminster School, included here from its con- 
nexion with No. 4680; see also No. 5021. 

3^X2| in. (oval 2^X2^ in.). 


A FRENCH HAIR DRESSER ... See No. 4767—1 Mar. 1771 

[ PBunbury] Pub. W. Darling. 

GANYMEDE & JACK-CATCH See No. 4305 [1771] 

Pub. Darly. 

Ganymede is Samuel Drybutter, not Samuel Vaughan, see No. 4915. 

Five prints from a series published by R. Sayer and J. Smith. 


Brandoin pinx^ Grignion sculps 

London. Printed for Jn" Smith. N^ J5, Cheapside & RoV Sayer y 
N° 53 Fleet Street. Published as the Act directs 25 Sep'' lyyi. 

Engraving. A girl walking with mincing steps; her hands are crossed 
below her waist and she looks over her shoulder. She wears a hat, a low-cut 
bodice, over which is a little open coat, and a slightly hooped skirt. Cf. 
Connoisseur, No. 4, 21 Feb. 1754, Account of a New Order of Females called 
Demi-Reps. (By Colman and Thornton.) 



See No. 4601 — 25 Sept. 1771 
Grignion after Brandoin. 


Brandoin pinx^ Caldzoall sculp* 

London, printed for J. Smith. N" 35 Cheapside, & Rob* Sayer N° 53 
Fleet Street, as the Act directs 1st. Dec'' lyji. 

Engraving. A girl in dress and manner similar to No. 4922. She wears 
gloves and carries in her r. hand an arched-top coffer, in the 1. a rectangular 
box. Cf. Gay, Trivia, on the courtesan, 

With empty band box she delights to range 
And feigns a distant errand from the 'Change. 

Reproduced, Paston, PI. cxcv. 


Brandoin pinx* Grignion sculp. 

London. Printed for Ro¥ Sayer, N° 53 Fleet Street, & J. Smith 
N° 55 Cheapside, as y^ Act directs 1st Dec'' 177 1. 

Engraving. A girl dancing holding out in both hands a garland of roses. 
Her looped up skirt has a short train. From her head-dress of flowers and 
feathers hangs a piece of striped drapery which is worn over one shoulder, 
tied with tassels at the waist and falling in heavy folds down her back. 

7|X5iin. (PI.) 




Brandoin pinx' Caldwall sculp. 

London. Printed for R. Sayer, N" 53 Fleet Street, & J. Smith N" 33 
Cheapside as the Act directs, ist Dec^ 1771- 

Engraving. A girl in peasant dress carrying a hurdy-gurdy or vielle sus- 
pended round her neck. She wears a nosegay. 

7jX5|in. (PI.) 

CHARLES- JAMES CUB ESQ«. See No. 4811— [i June 1771] 

London Museum. Charles Fox, slim and elegant, dressed in the height of 
French fashion. 

4926 LE CHERCHEUR DE 20 P^ CENT [? c. 1771] 

E. N. Sculp* [Sir Edward Nezvenham] 

Engraving. Portrait : an elderly man w^alking or standing in profile to the 
1. resting both hands on the head of his stick. He has a long nose and 
pendulous under-lip, and wears a small hat and long coat with wide sleeves. 
He is probably a Jew. In manner this resembles the caricature portraits 
published by Darly in his Macaroni series from 1771. The collector, 
Richard Bull, has written beneath it 'Etch'd by Sir Edward Nuneham of 
Ireland'. Cf. Nos. 5012, 5578. 

5^X3! in. (clipped). In book of 'Honorary Engravers', i. 164. 


A Smith scidp. 

Engraving. Caricature portrait, W.L., of a man standing. In his r. hand 
he holds out a book inscribed Palace Almanac. A note explains this as 
Book of the French Laws. In his 1. hand he holds gloves, hat, and tasselled 
cane. Beneath is engraved This strange Object has such (a) penetrating 
Judgment in Law that he never undertakes a cause either for Plantiff or 
Defendant hut he proves successfull. He soon perceives if it's Equity or Fraud 
the latter he never maintains & with ease baffles the falacious Attemps {sic] 
of his opponent. 'Tis evident that all Act not in this manner for right or 
wrong we often find 

the grave Knight that nods upon the Laws 

Wak'd by a Fee, hems, and approves the Cause. Dry den. 

In a contemporary hand is written, * A Caracature of Matt : Duane Esq. of 
Lincoln's Inn Barrister-at-Law, 1771. Nov.' His dress, with long coat, 
wide cuffs, and high-quartered shoes, belongs to an earlier period. 

Duane (1707-85) was an eminent conveyancer, antiquary, and numis- 
matist, F.R.S., F.S.A., and a trustee of the British Museum. See No. 4768. 


[PORTRAIT OF SIR W. BROWNE, M.D.] See No. 4833. 1771 

Another impression has been acquired on which the collector, Richard 
Bull, has written 'Portrait of Sir W"^ Brown, very like him'. The etched 



quotation is from the Latin verses in defence of Browne's conduct as 
President of the College of Physicians believed to have been written by 

This portrait was copied for a tete-a-tete, see No. 4979. 

MASQUERADE. [i Mar. 1771] 

Engrav'd for the Oxford Magazine. 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 64. A number of figures in 
masquerade dress without masks, in a panelled room lit with candles in 
wall brackets. They represent the characters at the public masquerade on 
6 Feb. (1. to r.) — a coffin, a monk, a nun, a harlequin, a madman with straw 
in his hair, a Savoyard playing a hurdy-gurdy and leading a dancing bear. 
The bear-leader and bear were a Mr. Hooke and a Mr. Hodges. The coffin 
was at first supposed to be Col. Luttrell, then his brother, Town and 
Country Magazine, iii. 81-4. See also Wright, Caricature History of the 
Georges, 1867, p. 551. A plate with the same title, but a political satire, is 
No. 4376. See also No. 4375. 

3fx6| in. 

REGIONS OF TASTE. [i Apr. 1771] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vi. 98. Sir John Fielding (r.) with 
his eyes bandaged, is seated on the bench holding the sword and the scales 
of Justice. His clerk sits below him on his r. hand. Mme Cornelys 
appears before him supported on the shoulders of a lawyer and of a duchess 
wearing a coronet and ermine-trimmed robes. Fielding says : Not so blind 
but I can hit tlie right place for Intrigue. Mme Cornelys holding up her 1. 
hand, the other being round the duchess's neck, says : You shall pay dearly 
for your Insolence. The duchess (of Northumberland) says. Money shall 
not be wanting Councellor ; You & I must defend her against the blind Boy's 
Insolence. She hands the lawyer a bag of money; he takes it, saying: Your 
Grace need not fear , you have a noble Spirit, & delight to encourage real Merit. 

Behind these three is a page or attendant in fancy dress or livery with 
feathers in his cap, he holds a flag inscribed Empress of the Vast Regions of 
Taste and Magnificence. Behind (1.) stands the singer Guadagni, holding 
up both hands and saying : Pray Madame la Duchesse do make him repent 
taking Guadagni' s L50 — den you will Pier cy [a pun on Percy, the duchess's 
family name] mijie Art with your Goodness. 

Mme Cornelys was fined at Bow Street for performing an opera at 
Carlisle House without a licence under 10 George II, c. 28. Guadagni was 
also fined, for singing. For Mme Cornelys, Guadagni, and the Duchess of 
Northumberland see Walpole to Mann, 22 Feb. 1771, Letters, viii. 12-13. 
For the proceedings at Bow Street see Public Advertiser, 22 Feb. 1771, 
from which it appears that Mme Cornelys' counsel was Kenyon, after- 
wards Lord Kenyon. For the consequences of these proceedings see 
No. 5066. 







S T. [c. 1771] 

Engraving. Probably from a book or magazine. Three people are seated 
at a round dinner table, a young woman between a young man and an older 
man. While the older man turns towards a servant who is pouring out 
wine the lady takes a note from the young man. On the wall is a picture 
of a woman kissing a man while she stabs him to the heart. See the Town 
and Country Magazine, iii. 516-18, Oct. 1771, for an account of the 
elopement of Lady Mary Scott with her husband's young relative and 
protege. ForLady Mary Scott see No. 4352. See zho London Magazine x\. 
478-82 (pi.). 


JANUARY AND MAY. See No. 4606—16 Apr. 1 771 . 

Grignion sc. after Collet. Pub. Sayer and Smith. 

THE LADIES DISASTER. See No. 4595—2 Apr. 1771 

Caldwall sc. after Collet. Pub. Smith and Sayer. 
Reproduced, Paston, PI. cxiii. 

THE COTILLION DANCE. See No. 4599—10 Mar. 1771 

Caldwall sc. after Collet. Pub. Sayer and Smith. 

THE COUNTRY-MAN IN LONDON. See No. 4600—1 Sept. 1771 
Bannerman sc. after Collet. Pub. Smith and Sayer. 


See No. 4628 — 15 July 1771 
Pub. M. Darly and R. Sayer. 

This plate, inscribed Darly ini/, was issued with Darly's publication line 
on 25 Mar. 1768 (in the collection of Mr. W. T. Spencer, New Oxford 
Street, 1932), and included in a volume dated i Jan. 1776, see No. 5369. 

A French copy, with both French {Coiffure du grand gout pour la presents 
Annee) and English titles, attributed to the year 1780, is reproduced in 
Fuchs und Kraemer, Karikatur der Europatschen Volker, 1901, p. 116. 

THE FEMALE PYRAMID. See No. 4630 [i May 1771] 

Oxford Magazine. Reproduced Social England, ed. Traill, v, p. 482. 


See No. 4770 — i Dec. 1771 
Oxford Magazine. 

[A GENTLEMAN'S TOILETTE] See No. 4789—17 Dec. 1771 

I. Goldar after Pugh. Pub. L Wesson. 


THE CHELSEA GUARD See No. 4791—21 Dec. 1771 

Pub. S. Hooper. 

THE FRENCH LADY IN LONDON. ... See No. 4784—2 Apr. 1771 
After S. H. Grimm. Pub. S. Sledge. 
Reproduced, Paston, PI. cciii. 

4931 UAngloise a Paris. THE ENGLISH LADY IN PARIS, from an 
Original Drawing by Brandoin. 

J. B. Godfrey fecit. 

Published as the Act directs iS"* Ocf. 177 1, for S. Hooper N° 25 Lud- 
gate Hill London. 

Engraving. A stout middle-aged lady stands, facing T.Q. to the 1., at her 
toilet table the draped mirror of which reflects her complacent expression. 
A maid puts the finishing touches to her coiffure. She is elaborately 
dressed and wears a large nosegay on her 1. shoulder. A servant enters 
from the r. holding a circular tray on which are two cups, and a paper 
inscribed To her Grace. Another maid is adjusting her dress. Seated on a 
chair (1.) in profile to the r. is a gentleman holding his hat in his hand and 
looking towards the lady with an expression of deferential admiration. 

Over the chimney piece is a large mirror, a cloak and hat hang on the 
wall. Over the chimney is a H.L. portrait attached to the wall by a bow of 
ribbon. The wall above the mirror is decorated by a classical medallion 
profile. Reproduced Paston, PI. cci. 

ii|X9 in. 

THE ENGLISH LADY AT PARIS. See No. 4785. [5 Nov. 1771] 

After S. H. Grimm. Pub. S. Sledge. 


Brandoin Pinx^ Caldwell sculp. 

London, Printed for Jn" Smith, N° J5 Cheapside & RoU Sayer, 
N° 53 Fleet Street Published as the Act directs 20 Ocf^ ^77^- 

Engraving. Street scene, evidently in Paris. The physician, holding a 
large cane, sits in a two-wheeled chair or brouette which is being drawn 
from 1. to r. by a thin and ragged man, while another pushes the back of 
the chair. In front (r.) runs a footman holding an enormous syringe over 
his r. shoulder. At the back of the procession (1.) walks another doctor, short 
and stout, in a tie-wig and holding a large-headed cane, his hat under his 
r. arm ; a bottle labelled Anodyne protrudes from his pocket. Behind him 
walks a small shaggy poodle. 

Behind the chair in the centre of the design a street or place recedes in 
perspective, with a church spire in the distance. No. 4831 (n.d.) is a 
similar design. Cf. No. 4670. 

7 X 9i in. 




Brandoin Pinx' C. Grignion sculp. 

London, Printed jor Roh^ Sayer, N° 53, in Fleet Street & J. Smith 
N" 35 Cheapside, as the Act directs i" Nov' lyji. 

Engraving. Street scene, showing houses irregularly placed, foliage and 
rough stones on the ground, a stone tablet high on the side of a stone 
building is inscribed Rue d'Enfer (then a well-known street in Paris). The 
petit-viaitre (1.) is walking from r. to 1. but looks over his 1. shoulder towards 
his valet who advances from the r. holding out a paper inscribed Au petit 
Marquis. The marquis wears an enormous black bag with a solitaire ribbon 
loosely round his neck; a very large nosegay on his 1. shoulder, a sword 
whose hilt is decorated with ribbons ; his coat is covered with heart-shaped 
spots. The valet though wearing a ruffled shirt and laced waistcoat has 
his hair in curl-papers with a comb thrust into it. 

The grass-grown street probably satirizes the solitude of Paris streets 
compared with those of London. 
Reproduced, Paston, PI. ccii. 


THE CITY CHANTERS See No. 4433—1771 

Mezzotint by S. Okey after Collet. 

A street scene with an allusion to the election for sheriffs at midsummer 
1 77 1, see Nos. 4874, 4937. 

Series of mezzotints published by Carington Bowles. 

See No. 4514 [c. 1771] 
In Carington Bowles's smaller series. See No. 4515 [c. 1771] 




Engraving. London Magazine, xl. 610. A fortified sea port, with the Spanish 
flag flying from a circular fort (r.). In the foreground five EngHsh sailors 
are in chains, being compelled by two Spaniards to do forced labour on the 
fortifications — a castellated sea-wall. Two are prostrate on the ground, 
one stands protesting, one carries a hod, the last (1.) holds a spade. Three 
ships are approaching the harbour. The nearest (1.) is being boarded by 
men from a boat and its flag is being hauled down ; another boat rows to 
(or from) the ship. 

The affair of the Falkland Islands had roused a storm of protest that 
the Government was acting in corrupt subservience to Spain, see Nos. 
4849, 4857. This satire reflects the impression made by a dispatch from 
Rodney which reached the Admiralty in October 1771, see No. 4940. 

This plate, showing the imaginary humiliation of England by Spain, 
was copied by Paul Revere for the Royal American Magazine, Vol. i, July 
1774. Stauffer, No. 2686. 

4X6/g in. B.M.L., 159 n. 3. 


[i Jan. 1722] 
Design' d <Sf Engrav'd for the Political Register 

Engraving. From the Political Register, ix. 297. The Spanish Ambassador 
(Prince Masserano) seated on a throne-like chair under looped-up curtains. 
Lord North bows obsequiously before him, holding the Union flag which 
falls on the ground, the ambassador's feet resting upon it. In his r. hand is 
a paper inscribed Falklands Islands. Beneath is engraved, 

Thus we would buy your Friendship; 
and treat you with gentle loving kindness. 


One of many satires on the supposed subservience of the Ministry to 
Spain over the Falkland Islands, see No. 4849, &c. 

ADVICE TO A GREAT K G See No. 4424—1 Jan. 1772 

Engraving. Oxford Magazine. George III reading Johnson's False 
Alarm, and receiving conflicting advice from an angel and a demon. 

4936 ALAS: POOR MUNGO [i Jan. 1772] 

Woodcut. From the London Magazine, xl. 610. A man with his hand 
raised to his head looks with horror at a paper on a table, inscribed Resolved 
That . . . £1000. ... A woman seated by the table holding a handkerchief 
to her eyes looks at him reproachfully. An illustration to 'The Lamenta- 
tions of Jeremiah, being a dialogue between Mungo and his Mistress'. 

A satire on the debate in the Irish House of Commons, 25 Nov. 1771, 
on the grant to Dyson of a pension on the Irish establishment, which 

49 E 


was condemned by a majority of one and afterwards struck off the list. 
See Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of George III, 1894, iv. 49; Corr. of 
George III, iii. 125, and No. 4942. For the name of 'Mungo' see Walpole, 
op. cit., iii. 211, and No. 4267, &c. 



[i Jan. 1772] 

Engraving. From Every Man^s Magazine, 1. 263. The interior of a barber's 
shop. A barber holds the [head of a seated man wrapped in a sheet, but 
negligently allows the bowl of shaving water he holds in his 1. hand to pour 
over his customer. By the customer's side is a dog with a collar engraved 
King. A barber's assistant, raggedly dressed, is combing a wig on a block 
supported on a tall stand. Another holds up a looking-glass to a customer 
who is arranging his cravat. Another man brushes a hat. In the back- 
ground a spectacled man wearing a hat reads The London Evening Post, on 
which is inscribed Wilkes 2"^ 11; 

Bull 2194 

Kirkm^ 1949 

Plumb 1875 

Oliver 119. 

On a shelf are wigs of different kinds on barber's blocks on which faces 
are represented which are perhaps caricatures. Among them are two 
ladies' wigs, and a judge's wig. Two other wigs hang from the wall, and in 
the foreground two cats are playing with a wig which they have pulled out 
of a box. 

The figures are those of the votes recorded at the election for sheriffs at 
midsummer 1771, see No. 4874. 

The subject of the satire is from Murphy's popular farce (first played, 
1757), 'The Upholsterer or What News?', in which meddling tradesmen 
neglect their business to discuss politics, one being Quidnunc, an up- 
holsterer, another Razor, a barber. Cf. No. 5074, &c. 

6| X 4 in. 

4938 CHARACTERESTICKS. [i Jan. 1772] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vii. 229. Three half-length 
figures in circles of laurel leaves. Lord Mayor Crosby (centre) in his gown 
wearing a civic mural crown holds a scourge inscribed For Monopoly in 
one hand, in the other a scroll : Thanks and Prayers of the Poor. Behind 
him is a figure of Justice with her scales and a view of the Tower of London 
in which he had been imprisoned, see No. 4850, &c. Wilkes (1.), as Hercules, 
with a sheriff's staff holds a club For undue Influence and a scroll inscribed 
Herculas's Labours overcome Gen^ Warrants maintained Lib. of Press — 
Freedom of Election, &c. &c. &c. A bull (r.) wearing an alderman's chain, 
holding a sheriff's staff and with one hoof on a column inscribed Fortitude 
denotes Alderman Bull who was elected sheriff with Wilkes in 1771, see 
No. 4874. In the centre, between the circles, are the City arms and motto, 
Domine dirige nos, and the cap of liberty inscribed Libertas. 

Crosby as Lord Mayor was associated in the City with active measures 
against engrossers of wheat supplies, see Ann. Reg. 1771, p. 66. 

48 X ^16 ^^- Diam, of circles 2\ in. 




Engraving. From Every Man's Magazine, i. 3 10. A man stands in a panelled 
room or corridor wearing a toupet wig, a court suit with an elaborately 
embroidered and fringed waistcoat. He is taking a pinch of snuff from 
a box in his r. hand. Behind (1.) stands a beefeater holding a halberd. In 
the distance (r.) two men talking together are watching 'the City Apprentice' ; 
one points at him, the other appears to be Lord North wearing his Garter 

Probably intended to represent Thomas Harley, third son of the 
third Earl of Oxford, who was the leader of the Court party in the City. 
See Nos. 4069, 4190, 4202, 4213, 4235, 4269, 4852, 4953, 4966. No 
explanation accompanies the plate. 


Designed & Engrav'dfor the Political Register 

Engraving. From the Political Register, x. i . Rodney in back view stands 
on the shore watching thirteen ships at anchor. His hands are tied behind 
him by a strip of paper inscribed Orders. In the distance across the 
water is a town defended by a long castellated mole. Beneath the design 
is engraved, 

/ with thirteen Sail attended. 

Can this Spanish town affright ; 

Nothing has its wealth defended, 

But my Orders — Not to Fight. 
Hosier's Ghost. 

Rodney had accepted the command of Jamaica early in 1771 on the 
prospect of war with Spain over the Falkland Islands, see No. 4849, &c. 
In October 1771 a dispatch from him reached the Admiralty reporting an 
incident at Cartagena : a British schooner had been induced by threats to 
accompany two Spanish Guar da costa ships into the port without resistance, 
on a pretext of smuggling. Rodney had made protests to the Governor of 
Cartagena, and the lieutenant in command had been court martialled and 
dismissed the service. Nothing more was heard of the incident beyond 
official protests to the Spanish Ambassador, &c., but it gave rise to a 
rumour that war was imminent. See Calendar of Home Office Papers 
1770-2, pp. 310-11, 312, 324, 326. No. 4934 is a satire on the supposed 
humiliation of England involved in this incident. Glover's famous ballad, 
Hosier's Ghost, had been used in 1740 (as in 1772) to attack the Government 
for inaction against Spain, see No. 2422. 



THE TIMES. [I Feb. 1772] 

T. Bonnor del et sculp. 

Engraving. Frontispiece to the London Magazine, xli. A female winged 
figure (r.) in classical draperies stands upon clouds surrounded by rays of 
light. Over her head fly two cherubs, one holding a shield with the arms 
of the City of London, the other a civic mace and chains. Her r. hand rests 



on the head of a seated figure dressed as a harlequin round whose forehead 
is a placard inscribed The Times, In her 1. hand she holds a mask which 
she has just removed from his face, revealing an evil countenance; he turns 
away from 'the Genius of the London Magazine', and attempts to hide his 
scowling face with his hand. On his head is a weathercock inscribed The 
Fashions. In his r. hand he holds open a box from which are hanging 
narrow strips of paper inscribed : Continental Histor[y'\ ; State Sharping; 
Freewill; Bigotry; 200,ooo£; Dearness of Provisions; Prerogative ; Pensioti; 
Patriotism; The Drama. Similar labels decorate his person: Bon Ton; 
Popularity; Corruption; Nabobships; Bankruptcies; Crim. Con.; Fraud; 
Folly. Beneath the titles is engraved. 

Blest Genius! still be thine the arduous task; 
From motley Times to draw the Iron mask. 
On Errors eye to pour thy splendid ray, 
And give the glories of eternal Day. 

6|X4J in. 

4942 [HIBERNIA IN DISTRESS.]' [i Feb. 1772] 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xli. 3. Hibernia lies on the ground 
with her harp broken. On a table (1.) are two money bags, one full and 
labelled Exchequer, the other decorated with the Irish harp and almost 
empty. Into this Lord North is plunging his hand while a negro with out- 
stretched hand says : Don't forget poor Mungo my goodh^ N h. A man 

in hat and laced coat is trampling on Hibernia, saying to a bystander: 
S'^ George we must keep her down. Sir George [Macartney] answers : Ay my 

L^ T d. [Townshend] and exert ourselves or she will be too Strong for us. 

This illustrates an article, 'The History of the last Parliament of Ireland,' 
pp. 3-12. North is dipping deep into Irish revenue while the English 
Exchequer is full. The negro is Jeremiah Dyson whose pension on the 
Irish list has been rejected, see No. 4936. 
311 X 61 in. 



[i Feb. 1772] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, viii. 28. A kitchen. Fox stands 
at a table about to sign a document. In his 1. hand he holds four playing 
cards. From his pocket protrudes a book, Hoyles Free Gamester. He looks 
towards a slim young man (1.), who addresses him, holding a document 
addressed To James Fox Sq. They are watched with amusement by a cook 
(r.) who is holding two trussed birds on a spit and by a scullion boy. Two 
Admiralty clerks (1.) stand behind their spokesman. A fox hangs by its 
neck from the roof. The accompanying letter runs, 'Sir, it is very remark- 
able, that none but the most abandoned of mankind stand any tolei'able 

chance to receive the favours of the present M y [Ministry]. The young 

cub, who is in possession of a very lucrative and honourable post, [Lord 
of the Admiralty, resigned Feb. 20, 1772] keeps his office chiefly at Arthur's, 

' The title is taken from the index to the magazine. 



and when any material business is transacted, that requires his signature, 
he is obHged to leave his Game and retire into the Kitchen for that pur- 
pose. . . .' 

TAKEN BY SURPRISE. [n.d. Feb. 1772] 

[? After Viscount Townshend.] 

Engraving. On a platform, behind a low parapet, eleven men stand, ten 
dressed in furred livery gowns as if members of a corporation. The eleventh 
is dressed as a clergyman in gown and bands. Above them flies a large devil 
with a bull's head holding chains attached to two of the figures. Below 
them is a table on which are writing materials, books, papers, and a large 
bag. A clerk writes at it ; two figures stand behind it. In front of the table 
are standing figures. Engraved labels issue from the heads of the characters. 

The devil says : You have exceeded my most fervent wishes and shall have 
capital employments in my Infernal Empire. The figures on the platform 

(1. to r.) says: Nor I Brother F 1, upon my credit; Consume ye all, are 

these your tricks I never cribb'd a Shilling; This is worse than the Ribb'd 
Stocking Patent; Or a Walpole Administration; O Cromwell thy active 
Spirit alone can save us (a chain links this speaker with the devil) ; / have 
discovered your Villanys, and shall quit my Office with pleasure (this speaker 
wears a hat). The clergyman says : Make Restitution and give up your Trusts. 
The remaining speakers on the platform say : What shall we do I cannot face 
Justice! that is not our way (this man is chained to the devil) ; How could you 
think this wretch capable of succeeding my worthy Master,! have often told you 
what the animal would do for you; I have not shared in the Plunder nor will 
I join in the defence; Nor I Brother John. 

A man stands on the table with a large bag under his arm, he holds out 
a paper : Subpoenys in Chancery for defrauding the Burgesses, &c. towards 
a man standing behind the table who exclaims : But my dam' d Accounts will 
undo us. The man next him, who wears a furred livery gown, says : Defend 
I say defend ah Ben Ha Ha Ha. 

In the foreground (1.) a man wearing clerical bands, but with striped 
stockings, looks through a lorgnette made of a dice-box. Papers protruding 
from his pocket are inscribed: Minuets and Country Dances lyyo; Hoyle 
on Whis\f\. He is standing on a paper inscribed XXXIX Articles and says : 
If this be the case the Devil may be your Chaplain for me. A man with a 
maccaroni queue says to him: Gad so Brother Charles You" I get no Credo 
here. On the r. stands a bellman with a long badged coat and staff saying : 
O yes. Gentlemen hear me, methinks the spirit of Cato inspires me. Petition 
his Grace and y^ Lords, that noble House allways supports their Friends tho' 

their Crimes be Murder & Treason. Vid: the Cases of L n & B 

[ ? Bigby]. His bell is on the ground beside him. Behind him stands a man 
wearing a gown and holding a mace, he puts his 1. hand on the bell-man's 
shoulder, saying : Ah M^ Cato your Oratory is in vain that power alass is 
no more. On his extreme r. is a tall man wearing a bag-wig and court suit, 
his r. foot rests on a bale inscribed China Silk Smuggled. He says : Cato 
thou reasons well by such an expedient I escaped the Exchequer. 

This appears to be a general attack on the House of Commons who are 
pilloried as members of a corrupt corporation. Many of the allusions are 



obscure. The 'embrio chaplain' standing on the Thirty-nine Articles'? 
evidently C. J. Fox, who spoke (6 Feb. 1772) against the petition for relief 
from subscription to the articles (see Ann. Reg. 1772, pp. 171-2), and who 
prepared himself for his defence of the Church 'by passing twenty-two 
hours in the pious exercise of Hazard', Gibbon, Misc. Works, ii. 74. See 
also Walpole, Last Journals, 1910, i. 12. He resigned his office of Lord of 
the Admiralty on 20 Feb. 1772, which gives an approximate date to this 
print. ^ The man speaking to Fox is probably his brother Stephen. The 
man who deplores his 'dam'd Accounts' is perhaps Lord Holland, known 
as 'the public defaulter of unaccounted millions', see No. 4066, &c., against 
whom proceedings had been taken in the Exchequer, and whose accounts 
were not cleared for many years, see Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, ii. 344-5. 
The 'ribb'd stocking patent' appears to be intended for the two famous 
patents taken out in 1758 and 1759 by Jedediah Strutt, for the 'Derby rib 
machine', of great economic importance, but not associated with any charge 
of political corruption. See Felkin, Hist, of Machine-Wrought Hosiery, 
1867, ch. vi. 

For other attacks on the House of Commons see No. 4869, &c. 
The design is in the manner of caricatures by Lord Townshend. 

7f Xi2| in. 


[i Mar. 1772] 

Engraving. From Every Man's Magazine,!. 253- Queen Caroline Matilda, 
sister of George III, and wife of Christian VII of Denmark, richly dressed 
and wearing jewels, is being hurried down the palace steps by two soldiers. 
A man wearing a laced hat and the ribbon of an order, probably the King, 
stands by pointing at her; she holds out her 1. hand towards him, in the r. 
she holds a handkerchief towards her eyes. Behind him stands a woman 
with upraised hand, evidently the Queen Dowager, the King's step- 
mother, who was the instigator of the palace revolution against Struensee, 
the Queen's favourite, and the Queen. A soldier (r.) holding a musket 
with a fixed bayonet stands by. At the bottom of the steps is a coach, its 
door held open by a soldier; behind it are soldiers headed by a mounted 
officer with a drawn sword. 

This revolution took place on 17 Jan. 1772; Rantzau carried out the 
deportation of the Queen to Kronborg. See Cambridge Modern History, 
vi, chap, xxi, and Nos. 4946, 4950, 4956. 

4J X 6| in. 

D— M— K. [i Mar. 1772] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, viii. 56. A skimmington pro- 
cession : on a sorry-looking horse a man and sit astride, back to back ; 
the woman, richly dressed, sits in front, her skirts pushed back to show 
breeches. In her r. hand is a pistol, in her 1. a sword. The man holds a 
distaff. The procession is headed by a man (r.) holding aloft on a pole a 
petticoat and a pair of horns. Behind him walks a man beating a drum. 

' When the question was reconsidered (23 Feb. 1773), Fox spoke against sub- 
scription to the Articles at the universities. Pari. Hist. xvii. 749 f. 



Behind the horse is a woman carrying a broom over her shoulder and a 
woman blowing a horn. A spectator points and jeers, another walks with 
folded arms. 

The title, the design, and the explanatory text are contradictory: the 
design shows a faithless wife with a henpecked and acquiescent husband, 
punished in the barbarous and traditional way, by *a skimmington', accom- 
panied by rude music and jeers; the print is described as 'a representation 
of that amiable Queen conducting to prison by the merciless wretches 
employed by the wicked Dowager'. 

Whether the woman is Queen Caroline Matilda being taken to prison 
or the Queen Dowager is doubtful. Prima facie, she appears to be the 
Queen, pilloried as the mistress of Struensee and his supporter in a virtual 
dictatorship. The Queen of Denmark was dressed as a man, wearing 
buckskin breeches, when she met her mother, the Princess Dowager of 
Wales, in 1770. Walpole, Memon'5 of the Reign of George III, 1845, iv. 281. 
The man is evidently the feeble-minded and vicious Christian VII of 
Denmark, see English Hist. Rev., Jan. 1916. For the palace revolution in 
Denmark see Nos. 4945, 4950, 4956, and for a skimmington No. 1703. 

& MANAGERS.' [i Apr. 1772] 

Engraving. Political Register, x. 137. A number of men fall to the ground 
from a sack or basket held up by two demons. One demon (1.) says : There's 
a plentifull stock of Scotch Caterpillars for poor England. A third demon 
standing below says : / think I and my Brother Fiends could not spit our 
Spight more Effectually. The apex of an inverted pyramid of eight falling 
figures is a man seated on the ground saying : Aw my Saul Man, I have had 
a muckle dash, hut hope zve Shall rise again. In the background a man in 
a laced suit is seated at a table blowing soap-bubbles. Beneath the design 
is engraved. 

They go from the Devil to Court, 

And from Court to the Devil again. 


This version of the favourite theme of abuse of the Scots is evidently 
directed against the speculation mania in Scotland (indicated by the 
bubbles) which had disastrous consequences in England, see Nos. 4961, 
5016, 5109. 
5|X4|in. B.M.L., P.P. 3557 t.a. 


Published as the Act directs April 14. 1772. by W. Darling, Engraver, 
Great Newport Street. 

Engraving. A bishop (r.) standing behind an altar-rail, holds out both 
hands over the head of a kneeling clergyman. A demon kneels on the 
ground beside the latter; another has crept under his cassock, from 
which the tips of two wings project. Over the door is a picture of the Last 
Supper with Judas as a prominent figure. The lid of a large chest (1.) is 
slightly raised, from it hangs a paper inscribed: I Suit of Scarlet & Gold, 
' This was catalogued as No. 4023, and dated April 8, 1763. 



J Suit White & Silver, i Suit Blue & Silver, i Suit Flower'd Silk, i Suit 
Black Silk, I Black Velv^ Surtout. On the Chest is pasted a label: Left 
to Mess" Panchauld & Fo . . . Paris. On the ground is a book, A Course 

of Humanity on Miss S rs. 

Beneath the design is engraved : It is true I have Suffered the infectious 
hand of a Bishop to be wav'd over me, whose Imposition like the Sop given to 
Judas is only a Signal for the Devil to enter. &c. The scene represents the 
'infectious hand of a bishop' ordaining Home, see Nos. 4863, 4866. The 
inscription is a quotation from a letter of his to Wilkes in 1766. The list 
in the trunk is identical with that sent by Home to Wilkes in Paris, 25 May 
1767, together with the clothes which he left in Wilkes's care (as unsuited 
to his clerical calling and to the English taste), writing 'If you have any 
fellow feeling, you cannot but be kind to them; since they too, as well as 
yourself, are outlawed in England; and on the same account — their 
superior worth'. In the course of their quarrel Home accused Wilkes of 
having pawned these clothes. See Stephens, Memoirs of Home Tooke, i. 
76 ff. For the quarrel between Wilkes and Home, see No. 4861, &c. 


4949 THE JOINT STOOL. [i May 1772] 

Engraving. From the Political Register, x. 20 1 . A large roughly constructed 
three-legged stool made of rock. In the background is a mountainous 
landscape, inscribed Highlands, from which a wide road descends passing 
under the legs of the stool. The top of the stool, in which are fissures, is 
inscribed 1^0 Millions, The three legs, each showing signs of readiness 
to break, are respectively inscribed Commons (1.), Kings (centre), and Lords 
(r.). A small figure, Bute, in highland dress, is kicking violently at the 
centre leg of the stool. Beneath the design is engraved, It is easily over- 
turn' d. Shakespeare. 

Intended to show that Bute's pernicious influence with the King will 
overthrow and has already shaken the constitution of King, Lords, and 
Commons, on which the National Debt depends. The clamour against 
Bute had been revived by Chatham's speech on 2 March 1770, see 
No. 4841 &c. 


THE HORRORS. [i May 1772] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, viii. 145. Bute (1.) seated at a table 
and wearing the ribbon and star of the Garter, starts in horror at a headless 
figure (r.), which floats towards him, holding in his hands his head dripping 
with blood. Behind Bute stands Mansfield (1.), also horror-struck. A 
demon with a barbed tongue squats on the floor below the ghost, beckoning 
to Bute. On the table are a book. Prerogative, and a document inscribed, A 
Plan to Establish Arbitrary Power. On the floor are two papers : A Plan for 
limiting all Court favours to the Worst men we can find, and Bill to Limit the 
Descendants of George y" . • - (an allusion to the Royal Marriage Bill, see 
No. 4970). 

Struensee, the favourite of the Queen of Denmark, executed on 28 April 
(see No. 4956), actually experienced the fate with which the political 
satirists had long been threatening Bute, who was openly accused of being 



the lover of the Princess Dowager of Wales, and the power behind the 
throne and the ministry, and had been threatened with the fate of Mortimer, 
see No. 4150, &c. For Struensee see W. F. Reddaway, 'Struensee and the 
Fall of Berndorff', Eng. Hist. Rev., xxvii, 1912, pp. 274-86; Camb. Mod. 
Hist. vi. ch. xxi. See also Nos. 4945, 4946, 4956. 
5X31 in. 


[i May 1772] 

Engraving. From Every Man's Magazine, i. 459. An extremely fat bishop 
sits in an ornate two-wheeled chariot which is drawn (r. to 1.) by six curates 
wearing bands and long ragged gowns. In his r. hand he holds out a 
gothic church, two more churches are under his 1. arm. Behind his back, 
in place of a cushion, is a book, Self Detiial a Virtue. Two pigs stand 
behind him, their front hoofs supported on the back of the chariot. At his 
feet are two sucking pigs, a hen and a goose, representing tithes. The near 
chariot wheel passes over a book, The jg Articles. The bishop says : The 
Church was made for Me, not I for the Church. One of the curates says : 
Lord be mercifull to us poor Curates, another says : And send us more Com- 
fortable Living. 

The contrast between the higher and lower clergy was a constant subject 
of satire, see No. 4236. At this time attention was particularly directed to 
the clergy by the Bill for relief from subscription to the thirty-nine articles, 
see No. 4944, and by the motion on 17 Feb. 1772 opposed by the Ministry 
for a Nidlum Tempus Bill to protect the owner of real property against 
dormant claims of the Church. It was urged that danger to the poor 
parochial clergy was used as a screen for the rich 'to guard and defend 
luxury and superfluity', Ann. Reg. 1772, p. 89 f. ; Pari. Hist., xvii, pp. 301 ff. 


Anon. [i June 1772] 

Designed & Engraved for the Political Register. 

Engraving. From the Political Register, x. 265. The gateway of St. James's 
Palace. On its flagstaff is a standard bearing Bute's arms with the motto 
Avito viret honore (cf. No. 4423). Under the archway a Scotsman in kilt 
and plaid holds a prancing horse by the tail. Another Scot stands by 
flourishing a whip and holding in his 1. hand a saddle with stirrups. 

The death of the Princess Dowager of Wales (8 Feb. 1772) had made the 
persistent accusations of the Opposition less credible. The title appears 
to be an echo of Chatham's speech on secret influence, see Nos. 4841, 

6|X4i in. 

ALDERMEN [i June 1772] 

Engraving. From, the Oxford Magazine, Ym. 189. On a large pair of scales 

a slim man standing in the 1. scale completely outweighs two men in the 

' This was incorrectly dated c. 1733, and catalogued as No. 2003. 



Other. All three wear furred livery gowns. On the scales, at the feet of 
the Court alderman (Harley), are a money-bag, and notes marked 10,000. 
He says: Where are their Remonstrances now? Oh rare London Tavern! 
Behind him stand Mansfield and Bute, who points at him, saying: Deel 
down wi ye all ye loons, here is my Mon con give ye all a Drubbing. The 1. 
scale rests on the ground, the r. is high in the air; on it a very stout man, 
probably Brass Crosby the ex-Lord Mayor, is sitting. He is exclaiming 
in alarm : Oh Lord Oh Lord! I shall be down. Wilkes stands behind him 
saying : 5" death that damd Scot has put false weight in the Scale! A man 
kneeling on one knee holds the r. scale with both hands saying: Zounds! 
shall this little Wine Merchant out-weigh us all? In the foreground the cap 
of liberty on a stick is supported in a chamber-pot. On the wall is a picture 
of Britannia hanging from a gallows. The accompanying text runs, *We 
are now convinced that the weight of a city Alderman is not by any means 
equal to that of a court Alderman, especially if they are weighed in the 
scales of administration. The Patriotic Citizens seem to have lost all their 
influence, and Lord North has had very little difficulty in supporting a 
majority upon all occasions.' The reference is to the Court of Aldermen 
where Harley was the leader of the Court party in opposition to the Patriots. 
The Court of Aldermen, in constrast with the Common Council and the 
Common Hall, had in general a majority for the Court. For Harley see 
Nos. 4852, 4939, &c. For the London Tavern, a meeting-place of the Bill 
of Rights Society, see No. 5104. 


BAGNIO. [i June 1772] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, viii. 185. A drunken orgy in a 
room with mirrors on the wall. Britannia, dressed as a courtesan (r.), leans 
back in a chair, dead drunk, in her r. hand is a wine-bottle. One foot rests 
on her shield. A man standing behind pours over her the contents of a 
wine-bottle, in his r. hand he holds out a wine-glass. In the centre is a 
staggering figure wearing the ribbon and order of the Bath. His pocket 
is being picked by a plainly dressed man, while another holds his shoulder. 
Two men aimlessly flourish drawn swords. Another aims a blow with a 
long pole at a mirror. A courtesan has broken a mirror with a wine-bottle 
which she is waving in the air. In the background a woman, seated on a 
man's knee, is picking his pocket. On the floor in the foreground are 
broken wine-glasses, and a broken punch-bowl inscribed the Constitution. 
The explanatory text asks 'Who are the greatest drunkards.'' — Those at 
the helm — Who set the most glaring examples of adultery, fornication, 
&c. — . . .*, 



[i July 1772] 
Vol. IV. No. XVIII. 

Engraving. From the Town and Country Magazine, iv. 304. The design 
illustrates 'The Outs and the Ins, a Dialogue upon the Premier distributing 
. . . [ut supra]'. A scene in Palace Yard; part of the end of Westminster 



Hall visible in the background (r.). North stands on stilts which are strapped 
to his legs and held up by Mansfield (1.) and Bute (r.), who are seated on 
the ground. From his pocket hang papers inscribed Titles, Pensions. In 
the foreground (r.) a disappointed patriot hurries away covering his face 
with his hand: Wilkes 'retiring in rage and despair'. Behind on the 1. 
is a group of three smiling ministerialists, one holding up a bag of money. 
These are 'Mungo.' [Dyson], 'Geo. O.' [Onslow], and the 'duke of G' 
[Grafton]. In the background (r.) is a group of clergy, who are presbyterian 
parsons, returning to Scotland. (The dissenters had petitioned to be 
exempt from the penal laws, which were never executed against them ; the 
Bill was rejected in the House of Lords. Walpole, Last Journals, 1910, 
i. 89-92.) 

This satire attacks both ministerialists and patriots; Lord North says 
that 'the glorious stand against mock patriotism has placed it in such just 
disrepute that they are even ashamed of associating with each other'. He 
appeals for exertion and unanimity against 'the common foe . . , the loaves 
and fishes will be all our own'. 

4955a Pen and wash drawing for this reversed. 
6|X4| in. 


4956 THE FATE OF FAVOURITES. [i July 1772] 
Designed & Engraved for the Political Register. 

Engraving, From the Political Register, x. 329. A man kneels with his 
head on the block, his hat and wig are on the ground, the executioner's axe 
is raised in both hands. Behind (r.) at a table a man sharpens a knife. Two 
men (1.) stand in conversation, one holds in his 1. hand a paper inscribed 
Struensee. Below the steps of the scaffold are mounted soldiers holding 
drawn swords. Behind them are the faces of the crowd. 

The parallel between the story of Struensee and Queen Matilda Caroline 
of Denmark (see No. 4945, &c.) and the allegations which Wilkes and the 
patriots had been making for years against Bute and the Princess Dowager 
of Wales (Queen Matilda's mother) was too obvious to be missed. Here 
the threat to Bute of Struensee 's fate (he was executed on 28 Apr. 1772), 
though implicit, is clear. See also Nos. 4945, 4946, 4950. 


Engraving. Probably from a magazine. A group of seven monarchs wearing 
crowns and ermine-trimmed robes. At a table sit three who are studying 
a large map inscribed Map of the Kingdom of Poland. They are evidently 
Catharine II of Russia, Frederick of Prussia, and the Emperor. Facing them 
(1.) sits a king whose crown is broken, his head is bowed, his hands are 
tied behind his back, evidently Stanislaus II of Poland. Behind the three 
studying the map, two standing monarchs (r.) look on with expressions of 
concern, they are Louis XV (indicated hy fleur-de-lys) and Charles III of 
Spain. In a chair on the extreme r. George III lies back fast asleep; his 
chair is inscribed Brit. . . . Behind Stanislaus (1.) sits a bearded man with 
an elaborate triple turban ; his wrists and ankles are chained ; he probably 



represents the Grand Signer of Turkey with whom Catharine was at war. 
Above the map of Poland hang scales inscribed The Ballance of Power ; on 
the Hghter scale is a label inscribed Great Britain. 

A satire on the first Partition of Poland, the Russo-Prussian treaty for 
which was signed 17 Feb. 1772, the partition taking place 5 May 1772, 
and on the first Russo-Turkish War (1768-74). Evidently by the same 
artist as No. 5222; both depict George III as regardless of England's 
interests and blind to events in Europe. For the attitude of the Government 
to the situation, see a Cabinet Minute of Nov. 1772 in The Sandwich 
Papers, ed. G. R. Barnes and J. H. Owen, 1932, pp. 30-2. George III was 
by no means blind to the Polish question, see a remarkable paper in his 
handwriting in Corr. of George III, ed. Fortescue, ii. 428-9. See Nos. 4958, 



[c. 1772; perhaps later] 

London Printed for Rob* Sayer ar tthe \sic\ Golden Buck facing Fetter 
Lane End of Fleet Steet 

Engraving. Four monarchs inspecting a large map of Poland inscribed 
Pologne en 1772, spread out on a table. Catharine II of Russia is seated (I.) 
and points with both hands to the part of South Poland nearest the Russian 
frontier. She looks up towards Stanislaus II of Poland who stands with 
his 1. hand on the map, his r. clutching his crown which is slipping from 
his head; he looks at Catharine with a distraught expression. Opposite 
Catharine at the other side of the table (r.) stands Frederick of Prussia, 
in riding dress, his sword resting on the map near Dantzik and between 
Brandebour and Pomeranie. George III stands in profile to the r. between 
Stanislaus, to whom his back is turned, and Frederick, his 1. hand rests on 
the map, from which, however, he looks away. France blowing two trumpets 
flies above and away from the four monarchs. Clouds and trees form a 
background. Laurel branches are growing (r.) behind Frederick; two 
laurel wreaths lie at Catharine's feet. She wears an ermine-lined robe, 
and sits in an ornate chair, the arm of which is a carved eagle. 

Probably a French print : the engraving is in a French manner, and the 
publication line is evidently adapted (incorrectly) from an English print 
of an earlier date (before the numbering of the houses in Fleet Street 
c. 1766). 'Troelfth' is probably a French engraver's rendering of Twelfth, 
cf. No. 5229. In 1772 France was powerless to prevent the partition of 
Poland, especially in view of the latent hostility of England, Cfzmi. Mod. Hist. , 
vi. 357. This print maybe an eflfort of propaganda to suggest the joint action 
of France and England to prevent the partition (there were rumours in 
England in 1773 that such action was contemplated, see Nos. 5110, 5124), 
or at least, to secure the benevolent neutrality of England. George III is 
represented as indolently acquiescing in the Partition as in No. 4957. 
See also Nos. 5222, 5229. 

4959 BLACK HARRY. [i Aug. 1772] 
Designed & Engrav'dfor the Political Register. 

Engraving. From the Political Register , xi. i. The knave of a pack of cards 



facing 1. with the head of the Duke of Grafton. In his r. hand he holds an 
arrow. An anchor inscribed Bradshaw Hes diagonally across his person. 

This is an allusion to the appointment of Thomas Bradshaw, a Treasury 
Clerk, as a Lord of the Admiralty in succession to Charles Fox on 6 May 
1772. An anonymous letter in the Public Advertiser, 8 May 1772, addressed 
to the Lords of the Admiralty and transcribed by Walpole, explains the 
intention of this satire: '. . . by means of his uncommon address in admin- 
istering to the pleasures of the great, he was appointed one of the Secretaries 
of the Treasury, which office he held during the Duke of Grafton's admin- 
istration, and by exerting his happy talents between his Grace and the 
celebrated Nancy Parsons, he so far ingratiated himself with the Duke that 
he became his chief confidant, . . . and of course became his Grace's bosom 
friend; for which service he first received a pension of fifteen hundred pounds 
a year for three lives, and that not being sufficient is now made one of you. . . .' 
Walpole's comment is, 'The Duke of Grafton's ambition was to be at the 
head of the Admiralty, and he had insisted on Bradshaw being placed at 
the Board as a spy on Lord Sandv/ich, and to learn the business, that he 
might be his Grace's Secretary there, if he could obtain the command'. 
Last Journals, 1920, i. 109-10. Cf. Grafton, Autobiography, ed. Anson, 1898, 
pp. 258-63. 

Bradshaw, like Dyson, was one of the official M.P.'s who were singled 

out for distrust and abuse. Cf. Mason, Heroic Epistle, 'The R*g*ys, s, 

Mungos, B* ds*s there' [Rigbys, Calcrafts. . . .], and Letters of Junius, 

ed. Everett, 1927, pp. 153, 269. See Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of 
George III, 1894, iv. 45-6 and n. See also Nos. 4962, 5018. 



[i Aug. 1772] 

Engraved for the Oxford Magazine. 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, ix. 24. The devil, as a man with 
horns, bat's wings, and goat's legs, stands surrounded by flames. In his r. 
hand he holds out a ribbon from which hangs the badge of the order of the 
Bath. His 1. hand is round the neck of a man who kneels on one knee, and 
stretches out his hand towards the ribbon. This man wears a star and 
resembles caricatures of Lord North, but the allusion to the red ribbon 
suggests that he may be intended for Sir George Macartney, made K.B. 
on 29 May, and unpopular as a son-in-law of Bute and leader of the 
ministerial side in the Irish House of Commons (see No. 5134). Facing 
him on the 1. and seated among four money-bags is a demon. From a 
gallows on the 1. hangs a coronet. The devil says : Do as I command thee & 
I will heap favours & Honours on thee. The kneeling man says : / will sell 
my whole Country for a Ribband & a Coronet. From his pocket hangs a 
paper. Plan for paying off the National Debt (an explicit allusion to Lord 
North, see Nos. 4961, 4969). The seated demon says: Hozo Happy is that 
Man who glories in the ruin of Millions ; he holds a paper inscribed : Plan of 
the best ways & means of Concilliating the Affections of the People by ruining 
them all. The money-bags are inscribed : Purloined from the India Company; 
For bribing Juries ; Pensions on Ireland; For Pensioning Park — m — t. 

In spite of the allusion to Lord North, who got his Garter on 25 Mar. 
1772, the red ribbon suggests Macartney, as does the accompanying text: 



'. . . these honours are seldom conferred on any but those who will submit 
to the peremptory dictates of the minister, . . .' The ambiguity was 
perhaps a measure of precaution. 

FOR ENGLISH GOLD. [i Aug. 1772] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, ix. i . A Scotsman in the air astride 
a broom is carrying off six large money-bags, three being inscribed £2,000, 
£10,000, and £50,000. He scatters banknotes or bills ; men on the ground, 
some sinking into a bog, exclaim in horror at his action. In the centre Bri- 
tannia is seated, she says : This Scotch paper diet has brought me to a con- 
sumption. In the foreground (r.) Lord North seated, his back to the other 
figures, writes on a paper inscribed: Scheme for paying off the National 
Debt ; he says : I will not at present promise to pay ly Millions in ten Years. 
The scene is the sea-shore; three Scotsmen (1.) row out to sea in a boat 
loaded with money-bags, saying: We'll over the Water to Charly. The 
Scotsman on the broom, who resembles caricatures of Bute, says: The deel 
away zvi ye all ye English Pudding-bags ken ye nae that Paper is lighter of 
digestion than Gold. A man sinking in a bog-hole says : Oh I am Sunk for 
ever. Another, covering his face, says: Let me hide my Face, how can I now 
shew my self to my Creditors. 

A financial crisis in 1772, following the collapse of a speculative mania in 
Scotland, largely due to the Ayr Bank (see Letters of Hume, 1932, ii. 263-4) 
was precipitated by the failure of Alexander Fordyce, a Scot, and the 
leading partner in an important London bank, see No. 5016. There was 
a panic in the City, and the clamour against the Scots was revived. Walpole, 
Last Journals, 1920, i. 117 f. See No. 4947. North in his budget speech 
of I May 1772 estimated that if peace continued for ten years, the National 
Debt would be reduced by j{^ 17, 000 ,000. Pari. Hist., xvii. 489. See also 
No. 4969. 
4 X 6| in. 

4962 [SIX REMARKABLE HEADS.]' [i Sept. 1772] 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xli. 360. Six caricature portraits in 
circles illustrating 'The Sale by Auction, A Dream*, pp. 360-4, in which 
members or adherents of the Ministry are put up to auction at Christie's. 

N° I. The head of an ass, 'a prime minister' (Lord North), Minister and 
an ass being synonymous terms. 

N° 2. The bust-portrait of a man in riding-dress, wearing a jockey cap, 
a riding whip under his 1. arm. *A duke, a gambler, a privy-counsellor and 
a skeleton!' The Duke of Grafton, see No. 4959. Having refused a post 
in the Cabinet, he took little part in the Government, and attacks on him 
by caricatures were probably stimulated by the Letters of Junius, e.g. that 
of 27 Nov. 1771. Letters, ed. Everett, 1927, 269 ff. 

N° 3. Bust-portrait of a man in laced coat looking to 1., scarcely a carica- 
ture. He is described as 'the miraculous Br w himself alias Cream- 
coloured Tommy', and pilloried as a procurer. Thomas Bradshaw, a Lord 
of the Admiralty and secretary to Grafton. Junius, op. et loc. cit., attacks 
him, using and perhaps bestowing the epithet cream-coloured. He was 
' Title taken from 'Directions to the Book-binder'. 



surnamed 'the cream-coloured parasite'. Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, i. 351. 
Walpole calls him 'Pimp to Lord Barrington'. Notes on Mason's Satires, ed. 
Toynbee, p. 64. See Nos. 4959, 5018. 

N° 4. H.L. portrait of a negro in a striped suit. 'Mungo' or Jeremiah 
Dyson, here described as bought by the Irish patriots to be hanged in 
effigy, an allusion to the miscarriage of his Irish pension, see Nos. 4936, 

N° 5. Bust-portrait of a macaroni, wearing a small hat, a club or queue 
of hair, and holding a tasselled cane. He is described as 'the Cub', and 
was to be thrown away not sold, 'for all people seem to be of opinion, "That 
a Macaroni is worth nothing" '. He is C. J. Fox, who was the macaroni /)flr 
excellence, as the term was used by Walpole, for the extravagant young 
gamblers who were leaders of fashion. Cf. Walpole 's comment on Mason's 
lines : 

The Jews and Macaroni's are at war: 

The Jews prevail, and thund'ring from the stocks 

They seize, they bind, they circumcise C s F . 

Heroic Epistles. Written Summer 1772. 'The Chiefs of the Maccaronis 
became known beyond the limits of their fantastic Dominion by their 
excessive Gaming.' Mason's Satirical Poems, ed. P. Toynbee, 1926, p. 70. 
See also No. 5010. 

N° 6. Bust-portrait of an elderly man. He is 'Sir Gibby', one of the Scots 
who 'preside in our cabinets and lead kings as they list'. Sir Gilbert Elliot 
(1722-77), Treasurer of the Navy 1770, and reputed a special confidant of 
George III. Cf. Corr. of George III, ed. Fortescue, i. 316. 

6]|X4| in. (pi.); circles c. il| in. diam. 


Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, ix. 69. A companion print to No. 
4965. A man (1.) wearing a ribbon and star is seated in a high-backed chair 
at a small round table ; he shrinks back in horror at the sight of three mon- 
sters advancing towards him surrounded by flames. In the centre a horned 
demon with animal's legs, holds up in his 1. claw a table resembling tables of 
the Commandments in churches of the period. Its double columns are 

headed. Catalogue of the different Sins, Committed by the Earl of against 

God, his King & his Country. With the other claw he points at what is 
written below. On the r. a naked and emaciated figure with the head of a 
skull runs towards the statesman threatening him with a spear and out- 
stretched talons. A crocodile (r.) advances with open jaws. A serpent coiling 
round the statesman's leg, opens its jaws to strike. On the table are three 
money-bags and two documents, one headed Scheme for selling England to 
the French. On the floor are two books : Art of Bribery and Machiavel. The 
portrait is probably a generalized one, it has a certain resemblance to Graf- 
ton, none to Bute as suggested by the inscription 'Earl of '. Probably 

copied from No. 4964. 

4964 THE MINISTER IN SURPRIZE. [n.d., see No. 4963] 

Engraving. Another and probably earlier version of No. 4960 reversed. 
The words on the tablet held by the demon are The American Resolves are 



a Devil of a Dose. The papers on the table are inscribed New Members and 
Civil List in Arrears. The books on the floor are American Constitution and 
List of Pensioners. The crocodile and the figure with the head of a skull 
are absent. The minister is the same except that he has no ribbon and star. 
The 'American Resolves' may be the opposition to the Stamp Act which 
led to its repeal in 1766. For the succession of resolutions (1765-74) in the 
Colonies against trade with England see Schlesinger, The Colonial Mer- 
chants and the American Revolution, i']6y-']6. 

HOUR OF DEATH. [i Oct. 1772] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, ix. 108, A companion print 
to No. 4963 . In a large curtained bed a man lies surrounded by his weeping 
family. A clergyman kneels at the bedside in prayer. An angel radiating 
rays of light on the bed, points to the sky. 



Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, ix. 128. Six men in furred alder- 
men's gowns sit round a table on which is a punch-bowl. The most 
prominent alderman (r.) holds a paper inscribed A Treatise on good Eating 
and drinking. A seventh alderman stands, holding up a paper inscribed, 
behold our Brethren which serves as a title to a large picture on the wall, in 
which a bull, an ass, and a hog (H.L. figures) stand on their hind legs in 
conference. The presiding alderman appears to be Harley, see No. 4939, &c. 
The figures are caricatured, and in general of gross appearance. 

51x311 in. 

PHANT, [i Dec. 1772] 

Vol. IV. No. XXXIII. 

Engraving. From the Town and Country Magazine, iv. 585. Wilkes, hold- 
ing the cap of liberty on a staff and wearing a furred alderman's gown, is 
stepping into a state coach. He is being pulled back by another alderman. 
A third alderman (r.) is clasping his hands in distress. On the 1. one alder- 
man takes, though with an air of reluctance, money-bags and notes from 
another. All wear furred gowns. Behind (1.) a parson watches with a face 
of satisfaction ; with him is a very obese man. In the foreground a small 
boy (1.) appears to be clapping his hands while a dog barks, on the r. a little 
chimney sweep with brush and bag of soot points derisively at Wilkes. 
Behmd (r.) a man wearing a laced hat weeps into a handkerchief. 

Wilkes had been returned at the head of the poll for the mayoralty in 
1772 but was rejected by the Court of Aldermen in favour of Alderman 
Townsend, one of the City patriots who had quarrelled with Wilkes. 
Sharpe, London and the Kingdotn, iii. 132-4. The clerg}'man in the back- 
ground appears to be Parson Home. The transaction with money-bags is 
probably intended to represent Harley distributing bribes from the 
ministry to secure the rejection of Wilkes, for which the King was extremely 



anxious. Corr. of George III, ed. Fortescue, ii. 401. The accompanying 
dialogue consists of an altercation between Wilkes and Townsend without 
reference to the bystanders. For Townsend see Notes and Queries, nth 
S. v., pp. 2-4 (1912). For the quarrel between Wilkes and Home (which 
involved Townsend and others) see No. 4861, &c., and Nos. 5129-31; 
for Harley, No. 4939, &c. 


Published according to act of parliament Dec'' 28. 1772 byJ.Almon in 
Piccadilly, price ofie Shilling. 

Engraving. An eagle holds in his beak the beam of a pair of scales ; Lord 
North, in profile to the 1., and looking through his spy-glass, stands below, 
adding a document to the 1. and lighter scale; the r. scale rests on 
the ground (or ocean) within an area inscribed The South Sea. The 1. 
beam of the scale is inscribed 1772, the r. beam 1720. On Lord North's 
1. scale, that of 1772, are documents inscribed Reduct. of Navy; Secret 
Com.; Select Com. ; North is adding one inscribed Suspension of Supervision. 
The r. scale (empty) is inscribed India Stock ooooi. This is to show that 
the national credit in 1772 is even lower than at the time of the South Sea 
Bubble in 1720. Seated facing North is Britannia with her shield and 
spear; she holds out her hand saying to him An Able Minister would 
Balance it. Her foot is on a Map of Englatid, on which Hayes and Stowe are 
written in the south-west corner, to imply that able ministers might be 
found in those places, the seats of Chatham and Lord Temple. In the 
upper 1. corner of the design is a view of the Tower of London, the 
bridge inscribed Traitors Bridge. The pendant to this in the upper r. 
corner is a view (on a larger scale) of the gateway of St. James's Palace. 
George HI wearing a crown leans out of a window over the archway hold- 
ing a fishing-rod, at the end of his line is a large begging-box inscribed 
Date Obolum Belisario. In his 1. hand he holds out a paper inscribed 
Arrears of Civil List. Beneath the title is etched, 

Jove lifts the golden Balances that Show 
The fates of mortal men & things below. 

The documents on Lord North's scale refer to the appointment of a 
Select Committee on East India Affairs voted 13 Apr. 1772 and the 
further appointment of a Secret Committee in December. On 18 Dec. 1772 
a Bill was passed to restrain the East India Company from appointing 
supervisors in spite of the protests of the Company, see No. 5102. On 
23 Apr. 1 77 1 orders had been issued for reducing the Navy to peace 
strength. Cal. H.O. Papers, 1770-2, p. 247. See also corr. of Sept. 1772 
between North and Sandwich on the reduction of the Navy, Sandwich 
Papers, i. 1932, pp. 19-26. For the Civil List see also Nos. 5105, 5124. 

QigXiSa in- 

4969 BOREAS. 

Engraving. Fromtht New Foundling Hospital for Wit. Part V, 1772 (frontis- 
piece). A portrait of Lord North (T.Q.L.) speaking in the House of 
Commons. He is in profile to the r. looking through an eye-glass held 

65 F 


in his 1. hand, and reading from a paper held in his r. hand. Beneath the 
design is engraved, / Promise to pay seventeen millions in ten Years — if I 
am Minister {Parliamentary Register), an allusion to North's budget speech, 
I May 1772, Pari. Hist. xvii. 484, see Nos. 4961, 5099. 

A similar portrait, with the same title, probably copied from this one, 
was used in the Oxford Magazine, 1774, see No. 5231. 

5iX3iin. (pL). 


London: Printed for G. Kearsly in Ludgate Street. mdcclxxii. 

Engraving, An oval design which decorates the title-page of the Senators: 
or a candid examination into the Merits of the Principal Performers of SK 
Stephens Chapel. The Fourth Edition with Alterations and Additions. The 
Speaker, in the Speaker's chair, sits behind the table on which is the mace 
and a document inscribed Royal Marriage Bill. An axe is suspended above 
his head. His feet rest on two rolled documents beneath the table : Magna 
Charta and the Bill of Rights. A standing figure (r.) in armour, apparently 
intended for Cromwell, is pointing at the Marriage Bill. Members of the 
Ministry sit on the Treasury Bench, Other members are seen standing 
and sitting behind. Beneath is engraved : 

Thus our Senators cheat the deluded People with a shew 
Of Liberty , which yet they ne'er must taste of; 
Drive us like Wrecks down the rough Tide of Power, 
Whilst no hold's left to save us from destruction. 


This illustrates a poem which appears to have reached a fourth edition in 
a year. It is a violent attack on members of the ministerial party by name 
— members of the Opposition are correspondingly praised. 

For the opposition to the Marriage Act, see Walpole, Last Journals, 
1910, i. 23-4, 27-31, 33-71. The Bill was introduced into the Lords on 
20 Feb. 1772. Pari. Hist. xvii. 383 ff. It occasioned the resignation of 
Charles Fox, cf. Nos. 4944, 5 113. 
Oval, 2^x4! in.; pi. 3|X5| in. 





Series of Tete-a-tete portraits. 

4971 N° XXXIV. MISS J S. [i Jan. 1772] 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iii. 625. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames, illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed ; or, Memoirs 

of the Middlesex Champion and Miss J nes.' An account of Luttrell, 

who opposed Wilkes at the Middlesex election, and of his amours. The 
seduction of Arabella Bolton, see Nos. 4285, 4852, is alluded to, though 
the story is qualified as 'greatly exaggerated to serve the purposes of 
party', in order to render the colonel obnoxious at the time of his election. 
Allusions are made to the marriage of his sister to the Duke of Cumberland, 
in which he is said to have played 'a capital part', see No. 4890. Miss J. 
is identified by H. Bleackley as Polly Jones. 

Ovals, 2f X2j in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iii. 68i (Supplement). Two 
bust portraits in oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete 

annexed; or. Memoirs of the Reverend Joiner and Mrs. L n'. An 

account of Dr. Wilson, Master of the Joiners' Company, and Rector of 
St. Stephen Walbrook, a member of the Bill of Rights Society. He is 
said to have 'routed Home', and to be a doughty advocate of Wilkes. 
His past mistresses include 'Lady G — nst — n', see No. 4979, alleged to 
have since served him as a procuress. Being anxious to find a lady who 
was 'a female patriot' he was informed that there was only one, Mrs. 

Macaulay; in default of her, he discovered Mrs. L n, a widow of 

about forty, a 'public writer', proficient in history and politics. 

The Doctor's later intimacy with Mrs. Macaulay became notorious, see 
Nos. 5410, 5441. 
Ovals, 2| X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5542 b. 

4973 N° II. M=3 L SLE. Vol. 4 

N° III. LORD H N. [i Feb. 1772] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iv. 9. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . . .' An 
account of the political and military career and amours of William, 2nd 
Earl of Harrington, 1719-79, see No. 5033. His wife is spoken of as 
*a professed Messalina' who yet 'preserves some decency in her manners', 

see No. 4903. Mrs. L is the daughter of an officer (P ker) killed 

at the siege of Havannah and the widow of an attorney. 

Ovals, 2| X 2^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



4974 N° IV. M^s K DAL. Vol. 4 

N° V. THE EQUESTRIAN HERO. [i March 1772] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iv. 65. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .*. An 
account of Henry, loth Earl of Pembroke (1734-94), author of a 
'treatise on horsemanship' {Method of Breaking Horses, ist ed. 1762). 

His elopement with Miss H r [Hunter] is recounted, the pair going 

to the Hotel d'Angleterre, Brussels, kept by 'madam Bougie' (de Bouget), 

mother to 'Mrs. Kn les', wife of Admiral Knowles, then alleged to be 

divorced on account of an affair with Captain Gamb r (James Gambler, 

1723-89, afterwards vice-admiral). After his reconciliation with his wife 
he was reputed the lover of 'first rate toasts', who were supplanted by 

Mrs. K dal [Kendal]. She is the reputed daughter of the late Lord 

P 1 by 'the celebrated Peg Ham n. After she eloped from school 

with her dancing master, K , she became financially embarrassed, 

and established a successful boarding school at Brompton. Here she met 
Lord Pembroke, who induced her to give up her school by giving her an 
annuity of double the annual profits. 

Ovals, 2|X2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

4975 N°VII. M^s V T. Vol. 4 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iv. 121. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .' An 
account of the amours of a descendant of 'St. J', that is, Frederick, 3rd 
Viscount St. John and 2nd Viscount Bolingbroke, 1734-87. Mrs. (or 

Miss) V nt is a clergyman's daughter and milliner's apprentice who 

was drugged by a procuress on behalf of Lord B. 

Ovals, 2iiX2j in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

4976 N° X. M«s G N. Vol. 4 

N°XI. L D IRON— HAM [i May 1772] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iv. 177. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .' An 
account of the amours of Simon Luttrell, Baron Irnham, subsequently 
Viscount Carhampton and Earl Carhampton in the Irish peerage — then 
conspicuous as the father of Col. Luttrell and of Mrs. Horton who had 
recently married the Duke of Cumberland. 

Mrs. G., passing as an officer's widow, was married by arrangement to 
an oilman with a portion from Lord I. 

Ovals, 2II X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


N° XIV. CAPTAIN H R. [i June 1772] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vi. 233. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames on one plate illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed ; 
. . .'. An account of George Hanger (1751 ?-i824), son of Baron Coleraine 
and of Mrs. Baddeley (1745-86). Captain H is said to have insisted 



on her admission to the Pantheon, on the second night, in spite of the 

decision to exclude women of doubtful character; see No. 4998. 

Ovals, 2|X2j in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

4978 N°XVI. M«8 W T. [i July 1772] 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iv. 289. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. An 

account of Lord George Germain and of Mrs. W st, widow of a Captain 

W who had served under Germain in Germany. For Germain at 

Minden see Nos. 3680-7, &c. 

Ovals, 2f X2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

4979 LADY G STON. [July 1772] 


Engraving. From the Town and Country Magazine, iv. 283* (Occasional 
Appendix). Two bust portraits in oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the 

Tete-a-Tete annexed; or, Memoirs of Sir William B e and Lady 

G ston'. An account of Sir William Browne, M.D. (1692-1774) 

see D.N.B. Lady Gunston, a widow, is a demi-rep who forced a baronet to 
sign a paper promising marriage or a payment of 3(^10,000 by threatening 
him with a pistol. She is 'celebrated for her amours, intrigues and pro- 
curing' and feigned illness to secure the doctor, said to be an easy conquest. 
No Gunston baronetage is included in G.E.C. Complete Baronetage. The 
doctor's portrait appears to be copied from the W.L. caricature by Thomas 
Orde; see No. 4833. 
Ovals, 2| X 2| in. 

4980 N°XIX MADAME P LLE. [i Aug. 1772] 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iv. 345. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .*. The 
bravery of Sir Robert Murray Keith in protecting the Queen of Denmark 
at and after the palace revolution of January 17, 1772, see No. 4945, &c., 
is related with some accuracy. Mme P. is a French milliner in London. 
Ovals, 2|-X2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

4981 N°XXII MISS BETSY WIL X. [i Sept. 1772] 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iv. 401. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. An 
account of Sir George Savile, 1726-84, identified by his refusal to accept 
nomination as a member of the Committee on East India affajrs, see Pari. 
Hist. xvii. 464. From 'a pretty numerous list of his dulcineas', 'Nancy 

P rsons' alone is named, besides Betsy Wil x, a courtesan who 

'passes for a relation' when she visits him. See No. 4851. 

Ovals, 2| X 2^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



4982 N° XXV. M»8 O— SB— N. Vol. IV 
N° XXVI. LORD G R. [i Oct. 1772] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iv. 457. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate the 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. An 
account of the political career and amours of Granville Leveson-Govi^er 
(1721-1803), afterwards first Marquis of Stafford, alluding to the West- 
minster Election of 1749. Mrs. Osbern was a foundling apprenticed to a 
milk-woman, who has had a succession of wealthy lovers and is still 'scarce 

Ovals, 2|X 2^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

4983 N° XXVIII MISS L— B— T Vol. IV 
N° XXIX LORD P ^Y [i Nov. 1772] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iv. 513. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. An 
account of Lord Percy (1742-1817), afterw-ards second Duke of Northum- 
berland, and of his relations with his first wife, Lady Anne Stuart, daughter 

of Lord Bute, from whom he was divorced, and of his amours. Miss L 

is a courtesan to whom his purse is entirely devoted. 

Ovals, 2f X 2^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iv. 569. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. An 
account of the amours of a distinguished Law Officer of the Crown and of 
a young woman who presided at the bar of a coffee-house near the Temple. 
He is Thurlow, then attorney-general, who was an habitue of Nando's 

Ovals, 2^X 2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

4985-5055 and related numbers catalogued in Volume IV. 

Darly's series of caricatures, continued from p. 41. 

Volume II 

4985 [TITLE PAGE.]' 

Engraving. In conventional garlands of laurel leaves with architectural 
ornament: VOL.11. | OF | CARICATURES • | MACARONIES • | & | 
ARTISTS • &C I PUB° | BY • MDARLY • N°39 • 1 STRAND • [ 1772 • \ 

7 X 5 in. (pi.). 

4986 V. 2. I. CAPT^ CUTLASS. 

Pu¥ by MDarly N° jp Strand Nov^ 18^^ lyyi Accord to Act 
Engraving. A man (W.L.) walking to 1. and looking to his 1. with a smile 

' There is also a coloured impression. 


He wears an enormous cutlass. In his r. hand is a cane which rests on his 
r. shoulder; his left hand is on his hip. Dress : military coat and hat with a 
cockade, knee-breeches, low buckled shoes. His hair is in a large looped 

5^X3! in. 


Pu¥ by M. Darly accord to Act Dec' ist. ijyi {jg Strand) 

Engraving. A W.L. profile figure of a man in a hat and military coat with 
facings. His hair stands out in a long, thin, stiffened queue. His r. hand 
holds a tasselled cane which rests on his shoulder; his 1. is on the hilt of his 
sword. Possibly intended for Lieut. Alexander Murray, the officer in 
command of the Guards at the so-called Massacre of St. George's Fields, 
10 May 1768. (See No. 4196 and references there given.) This was still a 
live issue, see No. 4852 and Ann. Reg. lyyi, pp. 196-200. 



Pu¥ by MDarly accord to Act Dec' i" I'jyi {jg Strand) 

Engraving. A man standing (W.L.) in profile to r. He appears to be 
bowing, his r. hand is held out, his 1. fingers touch his breast. His profile is 
grotesque, with a bulbous nose and double chin. His hair is in a club. He 
wears a laced coat and waistcoat, frilled shirt-sleeves, low buckled shoes, 
and a sword. Billy Button is a character in Foote's play of The Maid of 
Bath, first played 26 June 1771, the part being taken by Weston. 


Pub^ by M.Darly Decern' 24"^ 1771 accord to Act. 

Etching. W.L. figure in profile of a lady in a riding-habit holding a riding- 
whip in her right hand. Her hair, without powder, is tied up in a club. 
She wears a cravat and a cap with an erect plume of feathers. 

Probably the Duchess of Grafton, the Duke being the Turf Macaroni 
in this series, see No. 4634; see also No. 5324. 


4990 V. 2. 5. THE OXFORD • MACARONI. 

Pub by MDarly accor to Act Jan^ 11^^ 1772 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man in profile to r. walking with mincing 
steps, both hands on his hips. He is slim except for a protruding stomach. 
He wears a tasselled mortar-board, a pair of bands, a long gown open and 
showing coat, waistcoat, and knee-breeches. His hair is curled on his fore- 
head and is in a long looped club. 

6^X4/0 in- 

' There is also a coloured impression. 



Puh according to Act JarV i 1772 by M Darly Strand. 

Engraving. A young woman, W.L,, walking to the r., she looks downwards 
over her r. shoulder. Her hands are crossed in front over a bundle wrapped 
in check material which she is carrying. She is elegantly dressed in a hat 
with ribbons, a cloak, a trained skirt. In manner and dress she resembles, 
though with a more demure air and a longer petticoat, A Modern Demi-rep 
No. 4922. Cf. No. 4923. 
6x4! in. 


See No. 4692—1 Feb. 1772 

A portrait of Mary Darly, by Matthew Darly. B.M. Cat. Engr. Br. Portraits. 


See No. 4693 — 3 Feb. 1772 

Pub accor to Act Feby 5 J772 by M Darly Strand 

Engraving. A W.L. standing figure, full-face, of a man dressed in the 
height of fashion. He stamps with rage, his r. leg being raised high; his r. 
arm is also raised, his fist clenched. His face (adorned with two patches) is 
distorted with anger. His hair is curled. He wears a small hat, a fringed 
cravat, a sprigged and laced waistcoat, sprigged stockings with clocks. 
A cane hangs from his 1. wrist and he wears a sword. Probably the portrait 
of an unlucky gambler, see No. 4697. For the gaming at this time see Last 
Journals of H. Walpole under date Feb. 1772. 



Pub according to Act by M Darly Feby 10^^ 1771 [sic]. 

Engraving. Portrait of a man, middle-aged or elderly, W.L. walking in profile 
to the r. He wears a macaroni wig with ringlets and a large club tightly 
bound with black ribbon. A small three-cornered hat is in his 1. hand, his 
r. is on his hip. He wears a sword, a nosegay, a rufiled shirt, and low buckled 



Pub by M Darly accord to Act Feby 14"' 1772 

Engraving. Full-face portrait of a man walking to r. and looking to his r. His 
r. hand is in his coat pocket, his 1. thrust in his waistcoat. He wears a looped 
hat, his hair or wig is in a long queue bound with black ribbon. He wears a 
sword, laced coat, ruffled shirt and cravat, low buckled shoes. A dog of 
greyhound type walks in front. 

He resembles portraits of Richard Grenville-Temple, ist Earl Temple 
(171 1-79). 


' There is also a coloured impression. 



4995 12. MISS LOVEJOY. 

Puh accor to Act Feby 9"" J772 by MDarly Strand. 

Engraving. A woman (VV.L.) walking to the 1. full face. Her hair is dressed 
high with tight curls at the side. She wears a fur-bordered cloak with a 
hood over a frilled and flounced petticoat with a looped-up train. Her 
hands are in a muff trimmed with frills of ribbon, A double row of pearls 
or beads is round her neck. A well-known house of ill-fame in the Piazza, 
Covent Garden, was known as Lovejoy's. H. Bleackley, Ladies Fair and 
Frail, p. 154. Cf. Nos. 4786, 5057. 

4996 V. 2. 13. A LAW MACARONI. 

Pub by M Darly Strand Febv i&^ ^772 accor to Act. 

Engraving. Portrait of a man, W.L., walking in profile to I. He wears a 
macaroni wig with a looped and bound club, and a cravat over a pair of 
bands. His long gown reaches to the ground. His r. hand holds a rolled 
document, his 1. is on his hip. 



R.S^ G.M. [St. George Mansergh] pinx^ I.W. sculp. 

Pub accord to Act by M Darly Strand March 4 iy'j2 

Engraving. A man, W.L., grotesquely caricatured standing in profile to the 
r. He is in the height of fashion (burlesqued) and there is nothing clerical 
about his dress. His r. hand holds a large tasselled cane. His wig has 
enormous rolls of hair. He wears a nosegay, a flowered waistcoat over a 
protruding stomach, a large cravat, striped breeches, clocked stockings. 
6|X4|in. (pi.). 

15. THE PARADE MACARONI. [Ensign Fitzpatrick.] 

See No. 4704 — 25 Feb. 1772 

4998 V. 2. 16. A PANTHEON NO. REP. 

Pub by M Darly Strand March j^ 1772 according to Act. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a lady, standing in profile to the 1. In her r. 
hand she holds a ticket inscribed PANTHEON admit Lady No. Rep. 
She resembles portraits of Mrs. Baddeley and appears to be regarding her 
Pantheon ticket with a complacent smile. She wears a low bodice and a 
necklace; a train from her shoulders falls over a frilled and flounced 
petticoat. Her elbow sleeves have wide lace frills, and she wears long 
gloves. Her hair is dressed high and ornamented with lace. 

Rep means a person of loose character. (O.E.D.) It was rumoured 
that 'women of slight character' would not be admitted to the masquerade 
for the opening of the Pantheon in February 1772. This was supposed 
to be directed against Mrs. Baddeley, but a story that she was escorted 
into the building by fifty gentlemen with drawn swords appears to be an 
exaggerated version of action taken by George Hanger, see No. 4977. 



Mrs. Harris comments on the mixed company, which included Mrs. 
Baddeley 'and most of the gay ladies in town and ladies of the first rank 
and character; and by appearance some very low people'. Letters of the 
First Earl of Malmesbury, i. 247. The Pantheon was opened on 27 Jan. 
1772, 'the company were an olio of all sorts; peers, peeresses, honourables 
and right honourables, jew brokers, demi reps, lottery insurers, and quack 
doctors.' Ann. Reg. 1772, 69. 
6fX4f in. 


See No. 4694 — 12 Mar. 1772 


See No. 4697 — 16 Mar. 1772 


Pub accor to Act March ly*^ 1772 by M Darly Strand 

Engraving. W.L. portrait (caricature) of a stout man walking in profile 
to 1. His 1. hand is outspread on his protruding waistcoat. He wears a 
tasselled mortar-board, a very long and voluminous gown which rests on 
the ground. Except for his hair, which is in a doubled-up macaroni club, 
and ruffled shirt-sleeves, he is plainly dressed. 


5000 V. 2. 20. A MACARONI LIVERYMAN.' 

Pub accor to Act March 25 iy'j2 by M Darly Strand 

Engraving. A very stout man of plebeian appearance standing in profile 
to the r. He wears a furred livery gown, and his hair is in a long doubled- 
up macaroni club. In his r, hand is a knife combined with a spoon by a 
folding device; in his 1. is a two-pronged fork. 


Pub accor to Act March 24^ iyy2 by M Darly Strand 

Engraving. A man standing, W.L., in profile to 1., with an auctioneer's 
hammer in his r. hand, a taper or candle in a stand in his 1. He is elegantly 
dressed in a laced coat, cravat, and ruffled shirt. Except for the exaggerated 
macaroni wig and an accentuated nose the portrait is hardly a caricature. 
It evidently represents Abraham Langford (171 1-74) of the Covent Garden 
Auction Rooms, the leading auctioneer at this time. He is probably the 
auctioneer styled 'the Macaroni' by Junius in his Letter to Grafton of 
22 June 1 77 1. Letters, ed. Everett, 1927, p. 213. See No. 5 171. 


Pub by M Darly Strand April i'' iyy2 according to Act. 
Engraving. A W.L. figure standing towards the 1. looking over his I. 
' There is also a coloured impression. 



shoulder. He is stout with an enormously protruding stomach. His r. 
hand is thrust inside his coat, his 1. is in his coat-pocket. His hat is under 
his 1. arm. He wears a laced coat, a shirt with lace ruffles and a sword. 

6|X4| in. 


Puh. by M Darly Strand April i'' iyy2 accor to Act 

Engraving. A man, stout and elderly, dressed as a bishop stands facing T.Q. 
to 1. His r. hand holds a tasselled mortar-board. He wears a silk gown, lawn 
sleeves, a pair of bands and an enormous wig. At the top of the plate is 
engraved. Bishop of Eider Down. Probably a portrait of the Bishop of Down, 
Dr. James Trail. Reproduced, A. E. Richardson, Georgian England, 1931, 

61^X4^ in. 


Puh. by M Darly accor to Act April 2^' 1772 Strand 

Engraving. Portrait, W.L., of a stout man facing T.Q. to r., looking to 1. 
over his r. shoulder. His 1. hand is thrust under his buttoned coat; his r. 
(gloved) rests on a cane. He wears a looped hat, a tightly curled wig and is 
plainly dressed. 

6^X4! in. 

Volume III 

5005 [TITLE PAGE.] 

Pu¥ accord to Act by M Darly Inventor 1772 

Engraving. Lettering in a frame ornamented with a garland of roses : 


7|X5iin. (pi.). 


See No. 4649 — i June 1772 

This appears to have been wrongly included in the series. It is published 
by Bretherton, not Darly. The same subject (a satirical portrait of Stephen 
Fox ('Ste') asleep) is No. 14 of this volume. 

No. I in this volume should be The Shuffling Macaroni, 2 April, 1772.^ 

' There is also a coloured impression. 

* Volume exhibited by Mr. Dyson Perrins at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1932. 


Pii¥ by M Darly Ap^ 3'^ ^77 2, accor to Act ( jp) Strand 

Engraving. Standing figure, W.L., of a tall slim man in profile to r. The 
profile and the enormous looped queue are caricatured. In his 1. hand he 
holds a long tasselled cane. He wears a three-cornered hat and ruffled 
shirt. Perhaps a portrait of some one named Porter. 

PARK. See No. 4690 — 23 Apr, 1772 

See No. 5533. 


See No. 4647 — 25 Apr. 1772 


Pub by M Darly accor to Act (jg) Strand May 7'* 1772 

Engraving. A man, W.L., dressed macaroni-fashion M^ith a small hat, 
looped club, and cravat. In his 1. arm he holds an open arched-top coffer 
full of caps and laces. In his r. hand he holds by a ribbon a w^oman's flat 
hat trimmed with ribbons. 
7X41 in. (pi.). 

5008 V. 3. 6. THE RIDICULE. 

Pub by M Darly accor to Act May 17'^ iy';2 (jg) Strand 

Engraving. Two men, W.L., walk to the r. in profile. One (r.) is tall and 
slim, dressed in the extreme of fashion, with laced hat, lace-trimmed cravat, 
and shirt frills. He wears a sword and looks through a lorgnette held in 
his 1. hand. In the r. is a tasselled cane. His looped club of hair is so 
enormous that it is supported on the head and shoulders of the short stout 
man (apparently a porter), who walks behind him, holding his coat-tails 
and grinning. Cf. The Ladies Ridicule, No. 4653 (1772), also caricaturing 
the enormous wigs of the period. 
7X41 in. (pi.). 

5009 7. A CHARACTER. 

Eliz. B.fec [PElizabeth B. Gulston.] 

Pu¥ by MDarly at jg Strand accor to Act May ig"" 1772. 

Engraving. A man standing in profile to r., apparently caricatured for his 
old-fashioned dress and straight lank figure. His 1. hand is outstretched, 
his r. holds a sword of which only the hilt is visible. He wears a wide flat 
hat and bag-wig. His long narrow coat hangs well below his knees. 
Beneath the title is etched: 

An Ugly Face & Staring Hat, 
A Carcase which has lost its Fat. 
An ill shap'd Coat, too bad for shew 
Yet Hides the Aukward Legs below. 



The Sword a Thing not meant for Har?n 
And Therefore Hug'd betwixt the Arm. 
Whene'er at Court he shews his Face 
The Breeding Ladies Quit the Place 
Take him in short from Top to Toe 
And set him down the Queer Old Beau. 

7X41 in, (pi.). 


Puh accor to Act by M Darly Strand May 20^^ 1772. 

Engraving. Caricature portrait, W.L., of a man in profile walking to the r. 
grotesquely dressed, probably for a masquerade. In his r. hand he holds 
a rod to each end of which is slung a fox's tail. A large fox's tail hangs 
from the back of his neck. A bell hangs outwards from the back of his 
waist. A ribbon flutters from his r. arm. He wears a small cap with a tuft 
of feathers at the top. Rows of feathers (quills) or ribbons hang from his 
cap, his waist, and from the tops of his stockings which leave his knees 
bare. Above is inscribed Tom Fool the First. 

At the masquerades (c. 1772) groups of young men from the universities, 
some dressed as 'Tom fools with cap and bells', were conspicuous. Wal- 
pole. Last Journals, 1910, i. 85 n. 

Evidently intended for C. J. Fox, a leader of fashion and already a 
favourite subject of caricature. See 'The senatorial Macaroni or Memoirs 
of a Young Cub' in The Macaroni and Theatrical Mag. Jan. 1773, with 
a plate. No. 4810, and for Fox as the leader of the macaronies, see 
No. 4962. Cf. The Senators, 1772, p. 13 (see No. 4970): 

By turns solicited by different plans. 
Yet fix'd to none, Fox dresses, games, harangues : 
Where varying fashion leads the sportive band. 
And whim and folly bound it hand in hand, 
Behold him ambling through these flow'ry ways 
A model macaroni, A VAngloise. 

7X41 in (pi.). 


See No. 4705 — 27 May 1772 

Reproduced, Faston, PI. cxix. 

5011 V. 3. 10. THE BALD FAC'D DOE.' 

E.T. [Topham] Inv^ Epping [M. Darly] sc. 

Pub by M Darly Strand May 2g*^ 1772, accor to Act. 

Engraving. Portrait, W.L., of a very stout woman standing in profile to r. 
Her r. hand is thrust beneath her apron, a bunch of keys hangs from her 
waist. She wears a cap, elbow sleeves, a figured handkerchief or scarf, 
a straight full skirt over a quilted petticoat. 

A portrait of Mrs. Owen, keeper of an inn at Epping, B. M. Cat. 
Engr. Br. Portraits. This was the Bald-Faced Stag in Epping Forest, a 

' There is also a coloured impression. 



well-known inn and a resort of Londoners for venison feasts and City hunts. 
Cf. Public Advertiser, Aug. 20, 1754; Life of Peter von Shaack, p. 158. 

7^X41 in. (pL). 

E.T. [Topham] Inv* M.K. Sc. 

Pub by M Darly Strand June r^ 1772, accor to Act 

Engraving. Three W.L. standing figures. On 1. a man with a Jewish profile 
and a small beard is in profile to the r. In his 1. hand is a long cane, in his 
r. a rolled document. Bundles of papers protrude from his pocket. He 
wears a wide-brimmed hat. The centre figure is full-face; his hat is in 
his hand. A paper, Annuities 20 p' cent, hangs from his pocket. The third 
figure is in profile to the 1. He smiles and holds the arm of the centre 
figure; in his 1. hand is a cane. The two men in profile are dressed in an 
old-fashioned way with wide-brimmed hats and long coats. Cf. No. 4926. 

7X4}! in. (pi.). 

5013 V. 3. 12. THE BATH MACARONI. 

Pub by M Darly Strand June i'^ 1772 accor to Act. 

Engraving. Portrait. A W.L. standing figure in profile to the r. His r. hand 
is in his breeches pocket, his 1. is thrust under his waistcoat. He wears 
a small hat, a bag-wig, a sword, a rufl[led shirt. 

61|X4|in. (pi.). 


Pub according to Act of Pari' June 7'^ by M Darly 59 Strand 

Engraving. A man, W.L., playing a violin. He faces r. but looks over 
his r. shoulder, his mouth open as if speaking. He is doing dancing steps. 
He wears a rather short coat, and a ruffled shirt. His hair is in an exag- 
gerated macaroni club. 

7X41 in. (pi.). 

14. THE SLEEPY MACARONI. [Stephen Fox, afterwards 2nd 
Lord Holland.] [Bunbury] See No. 4648 — 4 June 1772 

5015 V. 3. 15. THE CATGUT MACARONI. 

Pub by M Darly Strand, July 2^ 1772 accor to Act. 

Engraving. Portrait, W.L., of a man playing the violin. His figure faces the 
spectator, his head turned in profile to 1. He is dressed macaroni-fashion 
with a large looped club, 
7x41 in. (pi.). 

5016 V. 3. 16. A (four dice depicted) MACARONI. GAMBLER. 
Pub accor to Act by M Darly Strand July 2^ 1772. 

Engraving. W.L. Portrait of a man, with his head turned in profile to 1., 
with a dejected expression. In his r. hand is a money bag, in his 1. a paper: 



Scotch Bill for io,oool. The four dice of the title indicate that this is 
Alexander Fordyce, the most active partner in the firm of London bankers, 
Neale, James, Fordyce, and Down. He absconded in 1772, after which, 
10 June 1772, the bank stopped payment. See Walpole, Letters, viii. 
178-80, I July 1772. He was famous for speculations in 'Change Alley, 
at first very successful, and for his extravagant way of living. See Every 
Man's Magazine, July 1772, pp. 11-12. He was a Scot, and the failure 
rekindled the outcry against the Scots. The speculative mania which 
caused the crisis had begun in Scotland, see No. 4961. 

6|X4|in. (pi.). 

Banks.] See No. 4695 — 12 July 1772 

18. THE SIMPLING MACARONI. [Dr. Solander.] 

See No. 4696 — 13 July 1772 

19. THE SCAVOIR VIVRE. See No. 4698—12 July 1772 


See No. 4652 — i July 1772 


y.S. [monogram] 

Pub according to Act of Parl^ March i6 iyy2 by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. A man in military dress riding in profile to the r. on a horse with 
a long tail and a trimmed saddle cloth. His thin stiflFened queue projects 
from his head. Beneath is etched, Jos. or the Father of Murder. Rapine &c. 
Probably Lord Clive: there is a certain resemblance to his portraits; 
he was a large holder of East India stock, and had considerable influence 
with the Company; the parliamentary enquiry into his conduct was going 
on at this time. See Nos. 5101, 5102. 
5x7 in. 

22. THE LADIES RIDICULE. See No. 4653—17 July 1772 


Pu¥ according to Act July 21'^ 1772. by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. A man W.L. in profile to r. carries on his back a doll-like 
woman who takes the place of the macaroni club. She is swathed round 
in black ribbon and so attached to his shoulders in the manner of a club 
of hair. He leers, and carries a tasselled cane with a sharp handle set with 
what appears to be a snuff-box. He wears a large frilled cravat and a very 
short coat. She wears a ribbon-trimmed hat, frilled elbow-sleeves, her 
body is covered with the black swathing, her clocked stockings are visible 



to the knees. Probably a portrait of some (alleged) notorious procurer; 
perhaps Thomas Bradshaw whose portrait he somewhat resembles. See 
No. 4962. 
7-iX4| -in. (pi.). 


See No. 4700 — 14 July 1772 

She resembles the lady (? Mrs. Baddeley) in No. 4998. Reproduced, 
Social England, ed. Traill, 1904, v, p. 482. 

Volume IV 

5019 [TITLE PAGE.] 

Engraving. In an oval frame: VOL- | IV- I OF- | MACARONIES- | 
6x4! in. 


Pu¥ accord^ to Act July 24^'* 1^72 by M Darly 39 Strand. 

Engraving. A man W.L. standing in profile to 1. He wears the macaroni 
looped club, coat, waistcoat, and frilled shirt. With this he wears a round 
hat, loose gloves, and spurred riding boots. In his r. hand he holds a 
rough stick cut from the hedge, in the shape of the cane carried by the 
Macaroni Provider, see No. 5018. Beneath is engraved: 

E'en Farmers dress & mount their Pojiies, 
And all alike, are Macaronies. 

7X41 in. (pi.). 

Pub by M Darly Strand July 30^^ ^772 accor to Act, 

Engraving. A man W.L. seated in a chair, his r. leg crossed over his 1. knee. 
He looks in profile to the r. and points with his 1. hand, the other hangs 
over the arm of the chair holding a glove. He wears a flat three-cornered 
hat, a short tightly curled wig, a pair of bands, and a voluminous gown. 
Beneath is inscribed : 

Sanguineos oculos volvit, virgamque requirit. 

Probably a portrait of the head master of Westminster School, Dr. Samuel 

Smith, see Nos. 4680, 4921. 



See No. 4691 — 24 Aug. 1772 


Pu¥ according to Act Aug^ 12^^ 1772 by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. Man, W.L., seated full face. In his r. hand he holds out a 
drawing of a curiously-shaped chair inscribed Stool for the Piles. In his 1. 



he holds a drawing of a piece of furniture resembling a wardrobe inscribed 
Fume. From his pocket protrudes a paper, To [A]w Excel\lency\ The . . . 
an Emb[as]sador . On the ground are broken medicine phials. Bundles of 
dried herbs hang from a cord. He is dressed in a three-cornered hat, 
tightly curled short wig, coat and laced waistcoat with a ruffled shirt. 

6X4I in. 

Pu¥ accords to Act August g'^ by M Darly jg Strand 

Engraving, Two W.L. figures. A woman (1.) walks away from the man but 
looks round over her 1. shoulder. She wears a high conical cap trimmed 
with lace and ribbons, a hooded cloak over a voluminous skirt ornately 
embroidered at the hem. The man in profile to the 1. walks after her. 
His 1. hand holds a tasselled cane which rests on his shoulder, his r. is 
thrust under his waistcoat. He is fashionably dressed with a laced hat, 
and his coat appears to have epaulettes. 
7x4^1 in. (pi.). 

5024 V. 4. 6. THE S"^ JAMES'S MACARONI. 

Pub accord^ to Act Aug^ 12^'' iyy2 by M Darly jg Strand 

Engraving. W.L. back view of a man wearing a bag-wig and solitaire. In 
his r. hand he holds a tasselled cane which rests on the ground. He wears 
a sword. 

An etching by Bretherton after Bunbury with the same title is No. 4712. 
7x4^1 in. (pi.). 


Published according to Act Aug^ 18. 1772. by M Darly, jg Strand. 

Engraving. Portrait of a man standing full face in riding dress. His 
r. hand is in his breeches pocket, his 1. (gloved) holds the r. glove and 
a walking stick. He wears a small round hat with a knot of ribbon, a plain 
coat and waistcoat with a cravat and spurred top-boots. Beneath is en- 
graved: Returned from the Black Legg'd Club. 
7x411 in. (pi.). 


Pu¥ accord^ to Act Aug' 12"* 1772 by M Darly jg Strand 

Engraving. Portrait (caricature) of a very stout man with short legs standing 
in profile to the 1. He wears a three-cornered hat; his club is looped at the 
back of his very thick neck. He wears a plain coat, ruflSed shirt, spurred 

7x411 in. (pi.). 

5027 V. 4. 9. THE VAUX HALL DEMI-REP. 

Published according to Act Aug' 20. 1772, by M Darly, N° jg, Strand. 
Engraving. A woman walking to the r. and looking over her r. shoulder. 

81 G 


Her wrists are crossed, she holds between them a large sprigged handker- 
chief. She wears an elaborate ribbon-trimmed hat over a lace cap, a low 
bodice with a large nosegay and a cloak. A looped-up train shows a fairly 
short quilted petticoat. Her face is patched. 

7X411 in. (pi.). 


See No. 4709 — 27 Aug. 1772 


See No. 4654 — i Sept. 1772 


Published as the Act directs, SepV 7 1772. by M Darly, jp Strand. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man standing ; he sharpens a knife on a steel. 
On the r. is a butcher's block on which is a large calf's head. He is 
dressed as a man of fashion and wears a macaroni club, ruffled shirt and 
cravat. Beneath the title is engraved : 'Watts it you want Watts it you buy. 
A portrait of a butcher named Watts, see H. Angelo, Reminiscences, 1904, 
ii. 267. 



Published according to Act, SepV 7. 1772. by M Darly, jg, Strand. 

Engraving. A man and woman (W.L.) who appear to be quarrelling. A 
young woman (1.) runs 1. holding up in her r. hand a glass whose contents 
are being spilled. In her 1. hand she holds a sword hilt downwards. She 
wears a flat ribbon-trimmed hat, low ribbon-trimmed bodice. The man 
(r.) dressed as a macaroni holds a cane above his head in his r. hand; his 
1. hand is on the hilt of his sword. The mouths of both are open as if 
shouting. Beneath the title is engraved, Keeping it up. 


5030 V. 4. 14. A MUNGO MACARONI. 

Published according to Act, by M Darly, jg Strand, Sepf 10. 1772. 

Engraving. A negro, dressed as a macaroni except for his tightly curled 
natural wool, walks in profile to the r. His r. hand holds a cane, his 1. is on 
the hilt of a short curved sword or sabre with an ornamental hilt affected 
by macaronis. Perhaps a caricature of Jeremiah Dyson, always called 
Mungo after the name had been given him in a debate by Col. Barre, 
29 Jan. 1769. Mungo was a negro slave in the comic opera The Padlock by 
Bickerstaffe, and the name implied that Dyson was kept at dirty jobs for 
the Government. He was a butt of the caricaturists, see No. 4267, &c., 
and index. Perhaps Soubise, see No. 5 120, a caricature of whom was drawn 
by Angelo, Reminiscences, 1904, ii. 268. 

6l|X5in. (pi.). 




Pu¥ accord to Act, Sep' 24, iyy2 by M Darly (59) Strand, 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man standing in profile to the r. In his 1. 
hand he holds up a handkerchief, in his r. is a cane with a large tassel. The 
figure is about half the size of others of this series ; this, and the length of 
his sword, suggests that he is very small. He is dressed macaroni-fashion, 
though his looped club is small. Evidently Cosway, the miniature painter, 
who was very small, see No. 6102, and whose portraits this resembles. 
6l|X4|in. (pi.). 

Published according to Act. Sepf 7, 1772 by M Darly, jg Strand. 

Engraving. Portrait of a man walking to r. supported by crutches. He 
has a grotesque queue, wears a hat, cravat, and frilled shirt sleeves. His 
gouty legs are swathed beneath the knee. 



Pub'^ accord to Act Sepf 2g, iyy2 by M Darly jg Strand 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man standing full face. His r. hand rests on a 
tasselled cane. His 1. is thrust inside his waistcoat. He wears a laced hat, 
embroidered waistcoat, ruffled shirt, a solitaire, and a sword. He is knock- 
kneed. Probably a portrait of Lord Harrington whose house was called the 
Stable Yard (St. James's); Lady Harrington was called the Stable Yard 
Messalina, see No. 4903. See also No. 5322. Reproduced, Social England, 
ed. Traill, 1904, v, p. 229. 
7x41 in. (pi.). 

OTHER MACARONI. See No. 4656—17 Sept. 1772 

Not George III, but a builder named Prior. Angelo, Reminiscences, 1904, 
ii. 267. 


Published as the Act directs, Sepf 21 iyy2 by M Darly, 3g, Strand. 

Engraving. A man in military dress walking or running in profile to the r. 
His r. hand holds a cane, his 1. the hilt of a sabre. His queue, twisted like 
a rope, is looped up with narrow ribbon. He wears a hat with a feather, a 
coat with facings and epaulettes, a ruffled shirt, and half-boots. 
61X4^1 in. (pi.). 

Pu¥ accord to Act, Oct' i'\ 1772. by M Darly (jg) Strand. 

Engraving. Caricature portrait, W.L., of a man walking to the r. His 
profile is grotesque. He has a long, thin, tightly-bound queue. Under his 
r. arm is a knotted stick. His sword has a large old-fashioned hilt. He 



wears a hat trimmed with a leek, his coat is long; round his neck is knotted 
a striped neck-cloth. 

7X41 in. (pi.). 


See No. 4657 — 6 Oct. 1772 

Pu¥ accord^ to Act, OcV 6. 1772, by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. Portrait, W.L., of a man in macaroni dress. In his I. hand he 
holds out a peer's black velvet hat trimmed with ermine; his r. is thrust 
inside his waistcoat. He wears a three-cornered hat, and a solitaire. 
7X4iiin. (pi.). 

Pu¥ accord^ to Act Ocf 9. 1772 by M Darly (jp) Strand. 

Engraving. A man standing (W.L.) in profile to the r. whose face is 
grotesquely emaciated. He is high-shouldered almost to deformity, and 
hollow-chested. His hair is in ringlets with a double club. He wears a 
three-cornered hat, coat, ruffled shirt, and riding-boots. In his r. hand is a 
long tasselled cane. 

7X4I in. 


Pub'^ accord^ to Act Ocf 9. 1772, by M Darly (jp) Strand. 

Engraving. A man (r.) in shirt and breeches is being laced into stays by a 
shorter man who stands behind him. The taller man is knock-kneed and 
has some resemblance to the Duke of Grafton. On the ground is a chased 
goblet to which a label is attached. Duplicate 5. 5. o. The valet or stay- 
maker is dressed in the prevailing macaroni manner. 


Volume V 

5039 [TITLE PAGE.] 

Engraving. In an oval frame: VOL. 5. | OF | CARICATURES 



See No. 4658 — 10 Oct. 1772 

V. 5.2. THE. BUN. MACARONI. [Portrait of one of the Bunbury 

family ?] 

See No. 4660 — 9 Oct. 1772 

The little flags with the crest and the legend : 'Has the honour to sarve the 
Royal Family' in pencil and pen on the impressions there described has 
not been added. The figure is in profile to the r. 




Pub. accord, to Act Dec^ 2. 1772. by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. Portrait, W.L., full-face, of a young man standing with hands 
on hips, legs astride. He is not dressed in the macaroni manner, but wears 
a round cap, beneath which his own hair appears, a plain coat and neck- 
cloth, with a striped waistcoat. 


5041 V. 5. 4. LIGHT INFANTRY. 
Pub Dec" 18 1772 by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. An obese man in military dress marching in profile to the r. In 
his 1, hand he carries a musket with bayonet. His hat has a feather plume 
and he wears spatterdashes. 

7^X5 in. 

V. 5. 5. A MACARONI WAITER. See No. 4661— 11 Dec. 1772 

Pu¥ accord to Act Oct 30 1772 by M Darly jg Strand 

Engraving. A W.L. figure running forwards. He is grinning; in his r. 
hand he holds up a short shovel, in his 1. is a brush. His clothes are ragged ; 
his toes appear through remnants of buckled shoes. He wears a laced hat, 
a cravat, and a ruffled shirt. In place of a wig is what appears to be a 
tightly-curled lamb's fleece resting on his shoulders; two pieces of crossed 
wood imitate a sword. A miniature figure in ragged clothes and a long 
thin queue faces him astride a tasselled cane. 

He is a chimney sweeper dressed for the first of May celebrations which 
were usual in London. The small figure may represent a child-apprentice 
or climbing boy, though there is nothing juvenile in its appearance. 

6^X5 in. (pi.). 


Published according to Act Oct 2g. J772, by M Darly, jg, Strand. 

Engraving. A W.L. figure looking to 1. carrying under his 1. arm a roll of 
material; in his r. hand is what appears to be a yard measure. He is dressed 
macaroni-fashion with a large looped club, looped hat, and ruffled shirt. 


Published according to Act Oct' 22, 1772. by M Darly, jg, Strand. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man walking in profile to the r. Under his r. 
arm is a tasselled cane. His 1. hand rests on the end of the scabbard of his 
sword. His hair is in a macaroni club. His hat is low with a curved brim. 
He wears a ruffled shirt and cravat, striped breeches, and spurred riding- 
6{|X5in. (pi.). 

* The figure has been added in ink. 




Publish' d according to Act, Oct 22. iyy2. by M Darly, jg, Strand. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man standing with his feet crossed. In his r. 
hand is a tasselled cane and under his r. arm are sections of a pair of stays in 
course of construction. He wears a macaroni club, a laced hat, short coat 
and laced waistcoat, cravat, and ruffled shirt. Probably a stay-maker. 
7x411 in. (pi.). 


See No. 4662 — i Nov. 1772 


Publish'd as the Act directs Nov'' 14*^ iyy2 by M Darly, jg Strand. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man walking in profile to the r. In his r. 
hand he holds a botanic drawing, in his 1. a magnifying glass or lorgnette. 
His gouty r. leg is swathed; from his r. wrist hangs a knotted walking stick. 
A portrait of Joseph (afterwards Sir Joseph) Banks, see Nos. 4695, 5146, 
who at this time had recently returned from his expedition with Solander, 
see No. 4696, to Iceland. 



See No. 4663 — 19 Nov. 1772 


See No. 4664 — 26 Oct. 1772 


Publish'd according to Act, Nov 14. iyy2, by M Darly, 59, Strand. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man in profile to the r. In his 1. hand he 
holds out some obstetric instrument ; a pair of forceps protrudes from his 
coat pocket. He wears a bag- wig, three-cornered hat, laced waistcoat, 
shirt with lace ruffles, and a sword. 


St. James, fee 

Pu¥ accords to Act by M Darly jg Strand Nov 6, iyy2. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man with his head turned in profile to the 1. 
In his r. hand he holds a butcher's cleaver, his 1. is in his breeches pocket. 
He is plainly dressed in dark clothes, with a small wig, plain neckcloth, 
buttoned waistcoat concealing his shirt. Probably some one called Butcher. 

7X4g in. (pi.)- 

' '15' is written over or under an engraved '2'. 



5049 V. 5. 16. THE . MARGATE . MACARONI. 

Puh Nov'' 30 1772 by M Darly jg Strand accor to Act. 

Engraving. W.L. caricature portrait of a man in profile to the 1. He is obese, 
with very short fat legs. In his r. hand he holds an enormous cane which 
rests on the ground, in his I. is a lorgnette. He wears a looped macaroni 
club, a laced hat and coat and a sword. 

Margate already had the reputation of a plebeian watering place : Gray 
writes, August 1766, 'one would suppose it was Bartholomew Fair flown 
down from Smithfield in the London machine . . .' Cf. Cowper, 1779, 
'. . . Margate though full of company, was generally filled with such 
company, as people who were nice in the choice of their company, were 
rather fearful of keeping company with.' Corr. Ed. T. Wright, i. 155. 

7x41 in. (pi.). 


See No. 4659 — 22 Oct. 1772 


Published according to Act Dec'' ly. 1772 by M Darly, jg, Strand. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man in profile to the r. His hair is in an 
enormous twisted and looped club. He wears a laced coat and waistcoat, 
a frilled cravat and shirt, riding-boots, and a short sword. A riding-whip 
is under his r. arm. 
7X4|in. (pi.). 

Published as the Act directs Dee 7. 1772 by M Darly sg Strand. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man standing in profile to the r. He holds 
a book in his r. hand, a strap in his 1. He wears a short, tightly curled wig, 
and a light flowered dressing-gown over dark clerical clothes. 

61iX4Tiin. (pi.). 


Pu¥ accord to Act, Dec 24^^ 1772, by M Darly (jg) Strand. 

Engraving. Portrait of a stout man in military dress in profile to the r. He 
appears to be marching, his r. leg raised, his body thrown stiffly back. In 
his 1. hand he flourishes a sabre. His hair is in a long thin stiffened queue 
and he wears high boots with spurs. 
7x411 in. (pi.). 


Pub'^ accors to Act Jany 16"' 1773, by M Darly ( jp) Stratid. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man standing. He looks towards the r. 
through a single eye-glass held in his 1. hand; his r. is on his hip. He wears 
a hat, sprigged waistcoat, shirt with lace ruffles and cravat, striped breeches. 

7|X4|in. (pi.). 



Pu¥ accord to Act Jany 16, 1773, by M Darly (jg) Strand. 

Engraving. A man stands in profile to the 1. in a rural setting. He looks 
along the barrel of a gun with a raised trigger. He wears a large looped-up 
club, low hat, a coat with facings, half-boots and striped stockings. 
7x411 in. (pi.). 

OVEN. See No. 4665 — 4 Jan. 1773 

Pu¥ accord to Act. DeC^ 29'* 1772, by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. Portrait of a man standing in profile to the r., holding in his 
r. hand a conical vessel. He wears a tie-wig, three-cornered hat and frilled 

The title, and the resemblance to his engraved portrait, show that he is 
Christopher Pinchbeck the younger (c. 1710-83), the inventor, holding one 
of his inventions, perhaps his celebrated candlesnuffers. He is described in 
his patents as 'toyman and mechanician'. As an anti-Wilkite he was a sub- 
ject of raillery: The London Evening Post, 19-21 Nov. 1772, forecast the 
possible election as president of the Royal Society of *no less a person than 
the noted Pinchbeck, buckle and knickknack maker to the King.' Cf, 
Mason's Ode to Mr. Pinchbeck, 1776. 
6|X5in. (pi.). 

Twelve prints from a series issued by Darly in three volumes 1772-5.' 

5056 COURIER FRANCOIS. [i Jan. 1772] 
W. H. Bunbury Inv. T. Scratchley f. [Darly] 

Printed for Robert Sayer, Fleet Street. 

Engraving. A reissue with an altered publication line of a print issued by 
Darly with the above date. Darly also issued a larger version dated i July, 
1771, published by *T. Scratchley*. Both are in the collection of Mr. 
W. T. Spencer, New Oxford Street (1933). 

The same design was etched on a larger scale by J. Bretherton, see 
No. 4737, who also etched a smaller version in reverse. 
5f X 9 in. In Sayer's book of 'Drolls' . 

THE OPTICAL . CONTRAST. See No. 4703—16 Jan. 1772 

Pub by M Darly Strand Feby 24"' 1772 accord to Act. 

Engraving. Two men stand on the pavement outside a door-way under the 
pediment of which are the royal arms. Beneath them and over the doorway 
' Some were reissued, two on a page, in the volume whose title-page is No. 5369. 



is inscribed, Lovejoy, Kings arms Tavern, cf. No. 4995. This appears to 
be a representation of the entrance to Covent Garden Theatre. The taller 
of the two men (1.) has snatched off the other's wig, and holds it up in his 
r. hand. In his 1. hand is his sword, broken off below the hilt; his hat is 
on the ground. Behind and to the r. stands a short stout man with bare 
shaved head; his hat is in his r. hand. The taller man is dressed in the pre- 
vailing macaroni fashion and has a certain resemblance to Colman, then 
part-proprietor and manager of Covent Garden Theatre, see No. 5064. 
The wig of the other is of the type worn by 'cits', see No. 5463. 

\Puh accor to Act by M. Darly April 26"' 1772]^ 

Engraving. An elderly man, dressed in the macaroni manner with an 
enormous club of hair, walks, supported by a stick held in his 1. hand. 
His r. hand is firmly grasped by a young woman who points with her other 
(1.) hand in the direction to which she is leading him. She is tall and 
fashionably dressed and is evidently a courtesan. 

9^X5? in- 


See No. 4701 — 14 July 1772 

E. Topham. Inv^ et del. (Darly's shop) 

Reproduced, Paston, pi. cv; A. E. Richardson, Georgian England, 193 1, 



[Pu¥ according to Act Aug^ 9'* [}iyy2] by M. Darly Strandy 

Engraving. A man dressed macaroni-fashion with an enormous looped 
club but wearing an apron and a conical cap approaches a cooking-stove 
holding a saucepan in his r. hand; with his 1. he appears to be taking snuff. 
His sword and an elaborately laced hat hang on the wall. The interior of 
the kitchen is neat, with cooking utensils arranged in an orderly way. 
A looking-glass is on the wall. A bunch of carrots is on a table, a ham 
hangs on the wall. 

8|x6J in. 


[11 Aug. 1772]^ 
/. A. Fecit 

Printed for Robert Sayer, N° 53 Fleet Street. 

Engraving. A reissue with an altered publication line of a plate published 

' The publication line has been cut off, but is supplied from an impression belong- 
ing (1932) to Mr. W. T. Spencer of New Oxford Street. 

* The original date is supplied from a print in the collection of Mr. W. T. Spencer, 
New Oxford Street. 



by Darly with the above date belonging to the series issued 1772-4. 
Wood is seated on horseback in profile to the r., his gun in his I. hand. 
He has a grotesquely large nose, and has a somewhat clerical appearance. 
In the background (r.) beyond a piece of water is the facade of a large 
house with a pediment, evidently Mulgrave Castle, and a church. 
8^ X 6| in. In Sayer's book of 'Drolls' . 

[Pub. Darly. 17 Sept. 1772.]^ 

Engraving. Two men in coats with military facings are having a violent 
fight with some geese. A goose (1.) is biting the end of the long pigtail queue 
of one, who holds another goose by the neck in his r. hand and is about to 
strike it with his sword which is in his 1. hand. The other (r.) is threatening 
a goose with his sword and also with his tasselled cane. Three geese hiss 
angrily with outstretched necks, one lies dead on the ground. 

MUNDY'S RIDE. See No. 4637—12 Oct. 1772 

THE FLUTTERING MACARONI See No. 4706— 7 Nov. 1772 
(Miss Catley and the Earl of Ancrum) 

This plate was altered and reissued circa 1786 by Robert Sayer with the 
title A Fashionable Shittlecock. 


See No. 4699 — 16 Nov. 1772 
R. 5'. G. M[ansergh] 

Two prints from a larger series of Darly 's Caricatures 
continued from p. 41. 


See No. 4829 — 9 Mar. 1772 


See No. 4640 — 10 Aug. 1772 

BASTED. [i Jan. 1772] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, vii. 276. The interior of a kitchen. 
A pig is roasting on a spit (1.) in front of a large open fire. Lord Holland, 
obese, with a fox's head, stands watching a dispute between a cook-maid 
holding a wooden spoon, and one of his sons, who is young and slim with a 
fox's head and tail and appears to be intended for Henry Edward (1755- 
1 8 1 1 ) . The cook says : Lord Sir he'll spoil the Pig, and my Lady will blame me 

 The publication line has been cut off, the date is supplied from an impression 
belonging (1932) to Mr. W. T. Spencer of New Oxford Street. 



for it. Holland answers : Pishl you fool he taovLt hurt it, let him haste it. A 
maid-servant behind Holland (r.), clasping her hands, says : Lack a day! 
Such a fool as you make of him! In the foreground (r.) a young scullion with 
a basket of vegetables looks on in surprise. 

The explanatory text alludes to 'the celebrated story of the roasted pig at 
Holland House'. For Henry Fox see No. 5 112. 



MZ)[arly.] [1772] 

Engraving. Title-page to The Theatres, a poem, see No. 5064. Garrick 
between Tragedy and Comedy (1.) and two artisans or theatre carpenters 
(r.). On the r. a man with a Jewish profile smiling, holds out a paper 
inscribed Processions for Ever; from his pocket hangs a paper, To M^ 
Messiah, Drury Lane Mechanist. Garrick holds in his r. hand a paper 
inscribed Arthur's Round Table, his 1. hand points to Processions for Ever. 
He is trampling on papers inscribed, S . . . pear, B. John . . . [sic], Rowe, 
and . . . pear. A note by Mr. Hawkins says that the poem (the first part of 
which is on Garrick and Drury Lane) attacks Garrick for his jealousy and 
ill-treatment of actors, illiberal conduct to authors, and neglect of the 
higher drama for spectacles and processions. This neglect had long been a 
stock subject of complaint. See No. 1838 ('Shakespear, Rowe, Johnson, 
now are quite undone . . .'), an illustration to Gibber's Dissertation on 
Theatres, 1759. Garrick had altered Dryden's King Arthur or the British 
Worthy, and produced it at Drury Lane as a splendid spectacle. 

4^X5^ in. 




Engraving. From the first page of the second part of The Theatres, see 
No. 5063, which is an attack on Colman and Covent Garden. Colman sits 
on the lap of Mother Shipton, in his r. hand is a harlequin's sword, in his 
1., a paper inscribed 

For wooden Sword Fve changed my useless Pen 
I ne'er could Write & Hate all writing Men 

A ribbon sash with long ends is round his waist from which hangs a child's 
coral and bells. At his feet lies a bundle of pens. He looks towards 
Harlequin (1.) who is trampling on three books inscribed Shak . . ., Johns . . . 
[Jonson], and Shaksp . . . Mother Shipton, in conical hat and ruff, has a 
walking-stick in her 1. hand, her r. is over Colman's shoulder; she says: 
Oh my Coly my Coly oh my Coly my Deary. Across the engraving is printed. 
Bad has begun and worse remains behind. On the back is part of the poem : 

See curious Colman negligent of merit. 
Of Tragic energy and comic spirit 
Palm on his servile partners, and the town. 
Abject and vile dependents of his own; 



Colman is attacked for producing the pantomime of Mother Shipton at 
Covent Garden. This was played for the first time on 26 Dec. 1770 and for 
the fifty-seventh on 30 May 1771, Genest, v. 307, 311. 


I Nov. 1772. 

Engraving. The Macaroni and Theatrical Magazine, i. 5. A number of 
ladies, richly dressed, conversing in a room. Their dresses show the fashions 
of the day: hair dressed high, often ornamented with lace, trains over 
frilled and flounced petticoats, elbow sleeves with wide lace rufiles. These 
ladies are in a central group, to the r. and 1. of which are single figures. 
On a chair (1.) a lady in a hat holds a dog. Two others converse by a mirror 
in the background. The room has a striped wall-paper above panelling. On 
the wall are oval mirrors with candles in sconces, and a picture in an ornate 
frame. Looped up curtains surround a small sash-window. On the floor 
is a fringed and patterned carpet. This illustrates a dialogue, 'Extraordinary 
Meeting of the Female Members of the Coterie on the Case of Captain 

J s', which is a series of insinuations against the fashionable world and 

the character of certain leaders of note, in particular: 'D ss of A ', 

*C ss of Upp r O sy' [sic]. For the coterie see Nos. 4472, 

4847. 5095. 5425- B.M.L., P.P. 5201 



S. Wale del. J. Taylor sculp. 

Published Dec" 24. iyy2. 

Engraving. From the Westminster Magazine, i. 9. Illustration to an article 
with the above title. An auction-room. Cupid (centre) on a high rostrum 
holds up a hammer, pointing with his 1. hand at the lot for sale, a tall 
macaroni standing on a stool in profile to the 1., holding a cane, his hat under 
his arm. Behind the macaroni (r.) stands Mercury, who appears to have 
placed him on the stool. Other lots are on a high shelf behind Cupid's head, 
against which rests a ladder. Above them are numbered placards: \Ld\t I 
and Lot 2 have gone, their places are vacant. Lot J is a fashionably dressed 
lady; Lot 4 is a macaroni taking snuff; Lot 5 is a plainly dressed lady 
wearing an apron. Standing in front of the auctioneer (1.) is a crowd of 
spectators, fashionably dressed men and women, who are elderly and ugly, 
a lady with a fan in profile to the r. being the most prominent. Beneath the 
design is engraved, 

Cupid's soft Dart the softer Sex compels, 

And here the urchin knocks down Beaux & Belles. 

The text shows that the first three lots sold were a captain, Lady Bridget 
Lane, and the Duchess of Northumberland. 

Mrs. Cornelys was gazetted bankrupt in November 1772 and Carlisle 
House was advertised for sale in December. This was due to the proceed- 



ings against her, see No. 4929, and to the opening of the Pantheon, see 
No. 4998, See also No. 5194, a sequel to this print. 

Reproduced, E. Sherson, The Lively Lady Townshend, 1926, p. 266. 

61X31 in. 

THE ANTIQUARIANS. See No. 4771— i Feb. 1772 

From the Oxford Magazine. 


Publish'd as the act directs, 20'^ July iyy2. By J. Wood, on Ludgate 

Stipple engraving. W.L. full-face portrait of an elderly man, wearing his 
own hair, a wide three-cornered hat, and a long old-fashioned coat. In 
his r. hand are a sword, a stick, &c., his 1. is thrust under his coat into his 
breeches pocket. Beneath is engraved, 

// n'y a au monde que deux Heros 
Le Roi de Prusse et le Chevalier Descassau. 

In all the World, but Hero's two I hiozo 
Prussia' s fani' d King & Marquis Descassau. 

Vide the Chev^^ own Poetry. 

In another impression the face and hand are printed in red. To this has 
been added Born 10 Aug^ lyio. Died 16 Feb^ 1775. 

A portrait of the Chevalier Michel Descazeaux du Halley, for many years 
a debtor in the Fleet and a well-known London character, his vanity, his 
poverty, his (so-called) poetry, and his eccentricities being a standing subject 
of jest for many years. See Grosley, Londres, 1770, i. 173 ff.; R. Malcolm, 
Curiosities of Biography, 1855. Three earlier portraits have been described 
in this catalogue: No. 2852 (1736), No. 3092 (1750), No. 3800 (1760). The 
'Chev'' Descarceaux' [sic] is one of an etched group of caricature portraits 
including Long Sir Thomas Robinson, by General Sir Archibald Campbell 
(1739-91) in book of 'Honorary Engravers', i. fo. 162 (Print Department), 
which must be of an earlier date than 1772. He is drawn exactly as in this 
engraving, but in reverse. See also B. M. Catalogue of Engr. Br. Portraits. 


A reduced copy in line for a book illustration has a building with an 
outside staircase and in the distance Pegasus on Mount Helicon. It is 
surrounded by a border decorated with a trophy of crossed swords and 


Pu¥ by J. Roberts Engraver S^ Martins Lane, accord to Act, Oct 7'* 


Engraving. A tall lean man in profile to the 1. faces a shorter man in profile 
to the r. He wears plain dark clothes, a plain hat, short wig, plain shirt and 
neckcloth, no clerical bands. He looks perturbed and bites his r. thumb. 

' This was also published by Darly and re-issued in a composite volume of which 
the title-page is No. 5369. 



His 1. hand holds a long walking stick. From his pocket protrudes a book, 
Mead on Poison and a paper, Wanted a Curate. Behind him is a church 
inscribed Hayes, near it is a small detached house, probably the rectory, 
placarded To Lett. The shorter man is smiling; he takes snuff out of a 
Scottish mull. From his pocket protrudes a book, Farquhar^ Works. He is 
plainly dressed. Underneath is written in Mr. Hawkins's hand, 'Dav. 
Wilson. Bookseller Strand at Plato's Head'. His companion is 
Farquhar, rector of Hayes at this time. The parish records bear witness to 
his turbulent and quarrelsome disposition.^ For Wilson, see Nichols, 
Literary Anecdotes, iii. 625, 671. 
6X4I in. 


See No. 4813 — i Nov. 1772 
From the Macaroni Magazine. 

Terry Fecit. 

Publ^ as y Act directs Nov^ 25'* 1772 by G. Terry Pater Noster Row. 

Engraving. A man wearing quasi-military dress, a sash over his 1. shoulder, 
holds a mortar inscribed Cantharides and a pestle. He has a very long 
narrow stiffened queue which sticks out, making an acute angle with his 
neck. On this is inscribed Family Medicine Chests neatly fitted up. From a 
building whose wall just appears on the r. hangs a sign The Old Hog in 
Armour New Revived. In the background (1.) a monkey holds up a cat by 
the tail and administers a Purge, the label of the bottle being so inscribed. 
Beneath the title is engraved, 

With zvhat sweet Chymic Airs, he leads y^ City Band, 
Or deals his penny Wares from his important Hand. 

Apparently the caricature of an apothecary who was an officer in the City 
militia or Trained Bands. 

7X5 in. 

THE NOBLE GAMBLER [Lord Barrymore]. 

See No. 4828 — i Dec. 1772 

From the Macaroni Magazine. 

George Crosland delin [c. 1772] 

Engraving. Portrait of a man walking in profile to the r. In his 1. hand is 
a tasselled cane, in his r. is a pair of bands. He wears a three-cornered hat, 
short hair, dark coat and waistcoat, a bow cravat and frilled shirt sleeves. 
On the print is written in pencil, 'Rev*^ M"" Langford son of the Auctioneer' 
(see No. 5001). 


' Information (1931) from Canon Thompson, Rector of Hayes. 




T.O.p 1772. [Thomas Orde] 

Engraving. Voltaire, in profile to the 1., striding with much vigour and 
with theatrical gestures, r. arm bent, fingers touching his waistcoat, I. arm 
thrown out. He wears a plumed helmet, and a sword, and is lean and 
wrinkled. Beneath the etched title is etched, 

" Ne pretens pas a trop, tu ne scaiirais qu'ecrtre 

*'Tes Vers forcent mes pleurs, mais tes gestes me font rire. 

The collector, Richard Bull, has written beneath the print, 'Mr. Orde 
was at Turin in 1772, when Voltaire having Le Cain, and Mad^'^ Clairon 
with him, wished to have one of his own Pieces represented, and got some 
Strollers to fill the under parts, but at the Rehearsal, being out of all 
patience at the performance of one of them, dashed the book on the floor, 
started up, and threw himself into the above attitude, to show the Fellow 
what Acting was.' 
6JX5I in. In book of 'Honorary Engravers', i, No. 53. 

5072 THE BRISTOL DUEL. [Jan. 1772] 

Woodcut. From the Town and Country Magazine, iii. 700 (Supplement). 
A military officer (1.) holds his sword towards a man (r.) kneeling on one 
knee, his hands held up, his sword with its hilt on the ground, who says : 
What the D — / — had I to do ivith a Sword. An illustration to an account 
of *A Bristol Oddity' who, when acting as petty constable, had provoked 
a duel with a captain by arresting one of his men. 



Engraving, Every Man's Magazine, i. 409. The interior of a London 
coffee-house. The guests are absorbed in the newspapers and in conversa- 
tion. A man (r.) in dressing-gown and night-cap sits behind a table on 
which are newspapers and a tray with coffee pot, &c. The coff'ee pours 
unnoticed from the cup in his hand as he looks round in consternation at 
two men who hold between them The London Gazette and appear to be 
reading it aloud. A boy, wearing an apron, who listens while he runs, 
spills the contents of his tray. At another table two men sit in deep 
consultation over a paper which they hold between them. Two men 
stand behind in consultation. The room is panelled, with an ornately 
framed mirror on the wall. A smiling and fashionably dressed young 
woman stands in the bar (r.), behind her are shelves with glasses, punch- 
bowls, &c. 

5iiX3|in. B.M.L., P.P.5541. 


Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, viii, 229. An illustration of the 
passage from King John from which the title is taken. The interior of a 

' Catalogued with the incorrect date c. 1733 as No. 2010, and reproduced with 
this date in Social England, ed. Traill, V, p. 196. 



blacksmith's forge. Two men in leather aprons and rolled up shirt-sleeves 
stand at the anvil; one has a hammer in his r. hand, the iron in his 1. 
Both gape in consternation towards a tailor, who stands on the r. He 
holds in his hand a newspaper, The Morning . . . Monday July and reads 
from it. Under his arm is a large pair of scissors, a yard measure hangs 
from his pocket. The other smith, behind and to the 1., is similarly dressed; 
by him stands a man also wearing an apron but with a coat and a short 
wig. In the background is a woman holding a baby. On the 1. is a large 
forge with a cone-shaped chimney and an enormous pair of bellows. 
The roof is raftered. Four horse-shoes, a bent strip of iron, and the 
portrait of a man (possibly Wilkes) hang on the wall. A dog is asleep in 
the foreground. 

A satire on the favourite theme of tradesmen and artisans who neglect 
their business to settle the affairs of the nation. See Nos. 4937, 5086, 5614, 
&c. There is a mezzotint of the same subject by J, Finlayson after 
J. Donaldson, published i May 1769. 

6x4^- in. 


Engraving. Every Man' s Magazine, ii. 41. A plainly furnished but panelled 
room; into which a door (1.) opens showing trees, &c. An extravagantly 
dressed woman sits on a high-backed seat with a clergyman in gown and 
bands, whose arm is round her waist. Their backs are to the door through 
which enters a farmer in riding boots followed by his waggoner. A mastiff 
regards the couple on the seat with hostility or surprise. Her hair is 
dressed in an enormous pyramid decorated with lace and ringlets. She 
wears a low bodice and ruffled elbow-sleeves; in her r. hand is a closed 
fan, held in an affected manner. The clergyman gazes at her amorously 
and shows her an open book, Ovid's Art of Love. On a round table in 
front of them are two books : Acting and Art of Dressing. The husband is 
starting back in surprise, saying: Blessing on us! can that be my Dame. 
The waggoner, wearing a smock and carrying a long whip, says : Woundy 
Maester her head is grown as high as our Barley-mow! 
41x6^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5451. 


Engraving. From the Covent Garden Magazine, a cutting from which is 
with the print : 'The Story of the Ephesian Matron given us by Petronius, 
is so universally known, that we shall not repeat it here, but attempt 
a parallel in the character of a modern widow, whose history the world 
is but little acquainted with.' On a sofa (1.) a woman in widow's weeds 
sits beside a barrister in gown and bands; he is embracing her. They 
sit behind a table on which are documents, writing materials, and a wine 
bottle. Behind, an elderly man with a pen is making advances to a maid (r.), 
who holds a tray with two wine-glasses. On the wall is a picture of a 
crocodile shedding tears. 
6^X4-1- in. 

Oxford Magazine. See No. 4814-1 Dec. 1772 



GOING TO YE PANTHEON [n.d. c. 1772] 

Engraving. Probably from a magazine. A family group in the hall of a 
house. A stout short man walks in profile to the 1. In his r. hand is a large 
cane, in his 1. a laced hat. A maidservant lifts up his enormous club of 
hair while she brushes his coat. His wife, on his r., looks at him ad- 
miringly, her 1. hand under his chin; under her r. arm is a dog. Her hair 
is in an enormous pyramid decorated with jewels and lace. At her side is 
a little black boy wearing a feathered turban. 
6x4 in. 

OUT OF FASHION. IN FASHION See No. 4817— i Feb. 1772 

Pub. T. Bowen. 

1772- See No. 4818 — i May 1772 

From the Oxford Magazine. 

IN YE DRESS OF 1772. See No. 4820—1 July 1772 

From the Oxford Magazine. 

[A MACARONI.] See No. 4816— i May 1772 

London Magazine. 

5078 THE POLITE MACARONI, [i June 1772] 

Woodcut. Town and Country Magazine, iv. 242. Illustration to 'Character 
of a Macaroni'. A man in a macaroni dress standing in profile to the r. 
In his r. hand is a long cane. He wears a looped club of hair, small hat, 
ruffled shirt, a nosegay and a short, curved sword attached to his waist by 
a chain so that it hangs horizontally. The text describes 'the origin and 
present state of macaronies'. 

3|X3in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


Invented & Published by W"^ Tringham, May 2^"" 1772, as the Act 
directs under S^ Dunstatis Church, Fleet Street, Lotidon. 

Engraved letter in rebuses and in rhyme. The words and letters represented 
by objects are here within brackets. The figures of a macaroni (1.) and a 
lady (r.) facing each other form part of the title. 

My (Lady) 
(Eye) (Hope) (yew)'// (knot) frozen 2t'(hen) (eye) tell 
The (miss)fortune (witch) (ewer) hu}n{hee)le Servant {hee)fell 
My Wa{tye)ting on (yew) this iV'/zV( Fortune) prevented 
And (eye) (Eve)r Since have (bean) quite discon{tcnt)cd 
The th{eye)ng ^(hen) z:;(ass) (bee)y cu{rye)os{eye)ty led 
The {pan)theon {a\\'\)zvays ran {eye)n my (head) 
A Ticket (eye) s{pGa)dily got of her Gr(ace) 

97 H 


T(hen) r^(pear)W in my (chair) (toe) see the Z)(ear) (plaice) 
(Butt) my (chair)(men) /(?// down and (eye) fell in the dirt. 
6'(ewer) no Maccaroni z^(ass) (Eve)y so hurt 
And the (miss)fortune d{eye)d (butt) the Ra(\iee)(hee)le divert 
My (queue) w(ass) StoVnfrom me, my (head) et'(ass) disgraced 
My (coat) was (awl) d{eye)rt and my Waisticoat) Z)e(face) 
My (sabre) (eye) lost (witch) adorned my s{eye)de 
The (wig ?) of the (ladies) which «j(ass) my (heart)'^ Pride 
Atid my new f{Qss)hiond (hat) with a Brim ^'e(rye) narrow 
Shot away (eye)n the (crow)W and went of l{eye)ke an arrow 
Since the zvhole /(hat) (hee)fell me Ive fairly d{eye)splay'd 
Let the S{tete) of ( Yew)r Health by (ewer) (pen) (bee) /)or(tray) 
(Eye) am zvith (grate) respect 
(Ewer) Lady (ships) 

0(hee)dient Serv{znX) 


See the answer, No. 5080. For earlier examples of hieroglyphic letters 
see Nos. 1551, 1552, 1553, ascribed to the year 1710. See also Catalogue iv, 
p. Ixx. 

i3|X9in. (pi.). 


Invented & Published by W'" Tringham, June 20"^ ^77^, as the Act 
directs under S' Dunstans Church, Fleet Street. 

Engraved hieroglyphic letter. An answer to No. 5079. The same etched 
figures, reversed, ornament the title. 

Z)(ear) delec{Xzh\e) S{eye)r 

(Ewer) (letter) (eye) (saw) 
And the (heart) of a Rock (ewer) mis{¥oviune)s wou'd thaw 
(Eye) Pitied (ass) soon (ass) your (lines) met my (eyes) 
And (Yew) may at (pea.)resefit w{eye)th me Sym(pea.)athize 
For (eye) in a {tree)aty of Marr{eye)age of Late 
Had come (toe) Conclus{eye)on with Lord Awkward (Gate) 
The L(eye)cence (pea.)rocur*d and the Marr{eye)age gone thro 
(Toe) re{pezx) (toe) h{eye)s (house) zf(ass) the next th{eye)ng (toe) do 
(Butt) my (head) w(ass) so h{eye)gh and his door w(ass) so low 
T(hat) m(toe) the (house) / was (knot) a(bell) (toe) go 
My Lord (eye)n a {pez)et h{eye)s Instr{ye\v)ct{eye)ons X(pea.)rest 
T'(hat) my (head) (shoe)W in f(yew)t(ye-w)re (bee) otherw{eye)se Drest 
(Butt) before (eye) wo{yevf)ld my (pie)ramid Lower 
(Eye)d lose (coach) and 6 and hus(h3.nd) and Dower 
For (eye)// tell (Eve)ry Mo^(urn) drest (Maid)e« or w(eye)fe 
The h{eye)gher her (head) the (grate)er (eye)n \{eye)fe 
T(hen) (ladies) (toe) Sh{eye)ne (yew) Must learn (toe) (bee) Vain 
Of the Mount on (ewer) (head) and the length of (ewer) Train 
S{eye)nce Equal Mis{¥orXXLne)s on (hee)oth have at(io)ded 
Our {^)ces let's Jo{eye)n (ass) our Troubles are {hee)lended 

(Eye) am (grate)/jy Agreea(he\l) 
S' (ewer)s Awkward (Gate) 
i3|X9in. (pi.). 


THE MACARONY DRESSING ROOM See No. 4781—9 Nov. 1772 
C. White after Capt. Minshull. Pub. T. Bowen. 

Reproduced, Paston, PI. XV. 

Another print (not in B.M.), with this title was pubHshed by Darly, 
26 June 1772, and was one of the large plates reissued in the volume 
whose title-page is No. 5369. 


See No. 4830 — 22 July 1772 

THE FRENCH MAN IN LONDON. See No. 4787—12 Oct. 1772 

After Martin. Pub. Turner. 

5081 FRANCE. 


Brandoine delin. 

Publish'd by S. Hooper, N" 2$, Ludgate Hill, 25"' June IJ72. 
Engraving. A design in two compartments: 

France (1.) is represented by a lean French cook putting a cat on a long 
spit which he holds between his knees. On a table are fish (skate or dog- 
fish) and a small piece of meat in which the bone is conspicuous. The 
border of the design is ornamented by a bunch of frogs (1.), a string of 
onions, (r.) and hy fleur-de-lys. 

England (r.) is a fat and jolly cook standing by a large butt of beer, 
beside which is a foaming tankard. A large sirloin is on a low table (r.). 
The border of the design is ornamented by a large ham (1.), a fat capon 
(r.), and by the English leopards. 

One of many satires on the contrast between the beggarly Frenchman 
and the well-fed Englishman of which Hogarth's Gate of Calais, see No. 
3050, is the classic example. 
Each subject 7i8X4f in. (pi. 8jx io| in.). 

From the same series as Nos. 4922-4925. 


See No. 4603 — i Mar. 1772 
Caldwall sc. after Brandoin. 


See No. 4604 — 15 June 1772 
J. Goldar sc. after S. H. Grimm. 


See No. 4602 — 20 June 1772 
Caldwall sc. after S. H. Grimm. 




Brandoin Pinx^ Caldwall Sculp. 

London, Printed for J. Smith, N° J5, Cheapside, & Ro¥ Sayer N° 53 
Fleet Street. Published as the Act directs 20 March 1772. 

Engraving. A panelled ballroom with a small musician's gallery on the r. 
in which are a fiddler and a flute-player. In the centre a couple dance 
together, th eman standing behind his partner and holding her outstretched 
hands by the finger-tips. She looks serious, he leers towards her. On each 
side of the room seated spectators are in conversation pointing to, or looking 
at, the dancers. Lighted candles are in carved sconces on the wall. 

Appears to belong to the same series as Nos. 4595, 4605, 4608, 4609, 
4611, 4612. 
91X13^ in. 

TROOPS FORDING A BROOK. See No. 4608—25 Jan. 1772 

After Collet. Pub. Smith and Sayer. 

HYDE PARK. See No. 4612—12 June 1772 

Caldwall after Collet. Pub. Smith and Sayer. 

THE UNWELCOME CUSTOMER. See No. 4605—17 Aug. 1772 

Caldwall after Collet. Pub. Smith and Sayer. 


Sam: Sharp-Eye del^ ad vivum [ PBunbury]. J. Bretherton fec^ 

Publish' das the Act directs 2^ July 1772, by J. Bretherton N° 134 New 
Bond Street. 

Engraving. Two persons walking away from the spectator down a rectangu- 
lar piece of grass, bounded by shrubs, and also on the 1. by a symmetrical 
line of trees. Under the shrubs on the r. is a garden seat. The nearer figure 
wears a hood and cloak over very voluminous skirts, but a sailor's trousers 
are indicated through the petticoat. At this figure a dog (r.) is barking. He 
walks behind, and in pursuit of, a young woman. On a scroll in the upper 
part of the plate is inscribed, JACK ON A CRUISE A MISSEY IN Y^ 
OFFING. For another version of this design see No. 5313. 



Prints after Bunbury etched and published by J. Bretherton. 

THE VILLAGE BARBER. L. M See No. 4757—1 Mar. 1772 

JOHN JEHU L'INGHILTERRA See No. 4738—6 Mar. 1772 

MONSIEUR LE FOUET ... See No. 4753—6 Mar. 1772 


THE DOG BARBER LA FRANCIA. See No. 4669—29 Mar. 1772 

THE ST JAMES'S MACARONI See No. 4712—29 Mar. 1772 

THE FISH STREET MACARONI See No. 4713—29 Mar. 1772 

CANTAB. See No. 4725—2 May 1772 

EQUES CANTAB See No. 4723— May 1772 

Another version, not in B.M., was published by Darly, 12 Oct. 1772, and 
was one of the plates in the book with the title-page dated i Jan. 1776, 
see No. 5369. 

STREPHON & CHLOE. See No. 4755—28 Nov. 1772 

THE FULL BLOWN MACARONI See No. 4714—6 Dec. 1772 


M'' Bunhury delin. J. Brethertonf. Nezv Bond Street N° IJ4. 

Published 7'* December 1772. 

Engraving. A family scene of barren discomfort. An elderly man (1.) in 
profile to the r. sits in a high-backed wooden arm-chair asleep. Next him 
his wife sits asleep, her hands clasped, her 1. elbow supported on a table. 
At the table sits a boy asleep over a book. On the r., very upright on the 
edge of her chair, sits a middle-aged woman, wearing a low bodice, her hair 
dressed high. In the foreground a dog and cat are fighting. The room is 
lit by one guttering candle which stands on the table. A window and a door 
are indicated. 

Described (incorrectly) by F. de la Rochefoucauld, A Frenchman in 
England [1784]. 1933, pp. 81-2; reproduction. 


M' Bunbury delin. J. Brethertonf. 

Published 7"* December iyy2 by J. Bretherton New Bond Street. 

Engraving. On the 1. stands a thin man holding out his r. hand as if for 
money. In his 1. hand is a long bill headed . . . Mercer. . . . His hat is under 
his r. arm. He faces a stout man standing in profile to the 1. whose r. hand 
points at the bill. He is frowning and appears to be shouting. His 1. hand 
is behind his back. An open door is indicated in the background. 

Sf X 61 in. 


Bretherton f [after Bunbury] 

Published as the Act directs 10"' December 1772 by J. Bretherton N° 134 
New Bond Street 

Engraving. A group of men standing outside a dilapidated building, part of 



■which is visible on the r. One, wearing a broad-brimmed hat, holds in 
his 1. hand a torn paper on which parts of words are visible : [Pet]iYw[n] , . . 
[FT]eehold[Ts\ . . . Minist[ry] . . . His r. forefinger is extended as if laying 
down the law to his companions. On his r. stands a man holding his 
chin with an expression of deep thought. In his r, hand is ( }) a turncock. 
Next him (1.) is an artisan, listening intently, his breeches unfastened at 
the knee, his stockings ungartered; he holds a short hammer and is 
probably a shoemaker. Behind (r.) a man wearing a waistcoat over a ruffled 
shirt, but no coat, lounges against the stump of a tree and listens open- 
mouthed. On the top of the stump is an open dish of food which a dog 
is eating, his head twisted backwards in a peculiar manner. 
Beneath the design is engraved, 

The Rabble gather round the Man of News 

And listen zvith their mouths. 

Some tell, some hear, some judge of news, some make it, 

And he that lyes most, is most beleiv'd — 

One of many satires on the absorption of the common people in politics 
to the neglect of their own business. See No. 5074, &c. 

THE HOUNDSDITCH MACARONI See No. 4715—20 Dec. 1772 

Four prints after Bunbury etched C. Bretherton, Jun., 
published J. Bretherton. 

POSTIGLIONE INGLESE. See No. 4739— Apr. 1772 

POSTIGLIONE GERMANICO See No. 4740— Apr. 1772 

THE SHAVER AND THE SHAVEE. See No. 4756— Apr. 1772 

THE DELIGHTS OF ISLINGTON. See No. 4722—30 Apr. 1772 

Three prints after Bunbury etched C. L. S. or Charles Smith. 

THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS. See No. 4752—4 July 1772 

Cf. No. 4920. 

[A FRENCH POSTILLION]. Pub. J. Bretherton. 

See No 4742 — 30 July 1772 


See No. 4734 — 20 Aug. 1772 


Charles Bretherton Junr fecit. [? after Bunbury.] 
Published as the Act directs March 2 iyy2 by J. Bretherton N° 134, 
New Bond Street. 

Engraving. A sailor seated on a sorry-looking horse rides from 1. to r. along 
a country road. In his r. hand he holds the horse's tail, in his 1. a long horn 



which he is blowing. The harness is of rope with pulleys ; a rope attached 
to the horse's head is round the rider's waist. Round the horse's neck is 
wound a coil of rope attached to an anchor; its head is decorated with 
a Union flag, another flag is on the sailor's cap. The rider's r. foot is in 
a rope-ladder which takes the place of a stirrup. The heads and fore-legs 
of a pair of horses, on one of which a postilion is riding, advance into the 
picture from the r, 

7|-X i2| in. 

Wale delM Grignion sculpt 

Engraving. Probably from a magazine. The rotunda of the Pantheon, 
with a number of figures in masquerade dress, not caricatured. An ornate 
chandelier hangs from the centre of the roof. In recesses in the wall there 
are statues of draped figures. 
41X51 in. 

MONACHUM NON FACIT CUCULLUS. [Grose and Forrest] N.Hone. 
Mezzotint. See No. 4474 — 30 Jan. 1772. 


From an original Drawing in the Possession of Ro¥ Sayer. 

Charles Brandoin inv^ et delin. R. Sayer Excudit Ric¥ Ear lorn fecit 

London Printed for Ro¥ Sayer N° 53 in Fleet Street Published as the 
Act directs 20 May 1772. 

Mezzotint. The exhibition room of the Royal Academy in Pall Mall. 
The back wall and walls to 1. and r. covered with pictures up to the 
cornice, which supports a top light. The room is crowded with visitors 
looking at the pictures and conversing; some hold catalogues. In the 
centre of the room is a bench on which sit a dejected boy and an old lady 
reading a catalogue. A connoisseur with sword, chapeau bras, and 
pigtail queue, stoops to peer into a picture on the r. On the 1. a man 
wearing a hat and bag-wig, his profile caricatured, points out a picture to 
his companion. 

For other states of this print in the Print Department see Chaloner 
Smith, i. 259. Reproduced, A. E. Richardson, Georgian England, 193 1, 
p. 164. 
i6|X2i| in. 


/. Sanders pinxit I. R. Smith fecit 

published i^^^ June 1772 

Mezzotint. Letters scraped on work. The interior of the long room at 
Bagnigge Wells, filled with a crowd of tea-drinkers, fashionably dressed in 
the macaroni manner. The central group consists of a courtesan who 
stands arm-in-arm with a macaroni, while v/ith her 1. hand she beckons 
to another macaroni (r.) who bows, hat in hand. On the r. are groups 



seated and standing at tea-tables; a serving-boy walks (1. to r.) holding 
a tea-tray in one hand, a large kettle in the other. In the foreground (r.) 
a couple in deep shadow sit at a table. Two chandeliers with lighted 
candles hang from the ceiling. 

For Bagnigge Wells see Wroth, London Tea-gardens of the Eighteenth 
Century. Though a family resort for London citizens on Sunday after- 
noons, it was also reputed to be a place where apprentices were lured to 
disaster by courtesans ; a later print of the gardens is called The Road to 

J. Frankau, J. R. Smith, 1902, No. 20. Reproduced, E, B. Chancellor, 
Eighteenth Cetitury London, 1920, p. no. 

14 X 19! in. Crowle's Pennant, xiv, No. 42. 


ChaK Brandoin inv^ et delin R. Sayer Exciidit. Rich^. Earlom fecit 

London, Printed for RoU Sayer N° 53 in Fleet Street as the Act directs 
30 August ITJ2. 

Mezzotint. A view of the interior of the Pantheon. Ladies and gentlemen 
in the full dress of the day sit and stand in conversation. In the background 
(1.) is the organ, with a musician's gallery beneath it, and on the ground 
below a crowd of figures in rapid movement. On the r. are standing figures 
on the ground and in the gallery above; the wall being decorated with 
statues in niches. In the foreground on the extreme 1. is a short stout 
man, caricatured, turning his head to the spectators to look through an 
eye-glass; behind him and on his 1. stands a tall lady. Chaloner Smith, 
i. 259. Reproduced, M. C. Salaman, Londoners then and now (Studio), 
1920, p. 64. 


5092-5095 and numbers from Volumes III and IV 
Series of mezzotints published by Carington Bowles.^ 


240 Printed for Carington Bowles, Map & Printseller, N° 6g in 
jS' Pauls Church Yard, London. Published as the Act directs [date 
erased, 1772]. 

Mezzotint (a coloured impression). The counsellor (1.) and his client (r.) 
sit facing one another across a small round table, beneath which their 
knees touch. Each has a tea-cup. The lady wears a grotesquely-high 
pyramid of hair, decorated with pearls or beads, and a high lace cap v/ith 
ribbons and lace lappets. She looks intently at the Counsellor, her elbows 
on the table. His foot is pressed against hers. He is in profile to the 1., 
wearing a legal tie-wig, gown, and bands. On the wall is a framed picture 
of two monkeys sitting on each side of a round table, each with a tea-cup. 
One of many satires on the enormous pyramids of hair worn by ladies. 

i2i|X9| in. 'Caricatures', ii. p. 30. B.M.L., Tab. 524. 

' Nos. 4516, 4519, 4520, have the imprint of Bowles and Carver. 




246 Printed for Carington Bowles, Map & Printseller , N° 6g in 
S^ Pauls Church Yard, London, Published as the Act directs [date 
erased, 1772]. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A lady sitting at her toilet table adds 
the finishing touches to her pyramid of hair. Her head is in profile to the 
r., the mirror reflects a profile to the 1. Her chair has a carved back of 
curious pattern. The draped muslin toilet-table, with trinkets, powder- 
pufl", &c., is a good illustration of a toilet-table of the period. On a stool (1.) 
is an open box filled with ribbons and lace. Behind the toilet table (1.) is 
a sash-window surrounded with drapery. 

One of many satires on the elaborate hair-dressing of the period. 

i3^X9jg in. 'Caricatures', ii. 118. B.M.L,, Tab. 524. 


See No. 4516 — 17 Apr. 1772 


251 Pritited for Carington Bowles, Map & Printseller, N° 6g in 
S^ Paids Church Yard, London. Published as the Act directs . . . 
[date erased, 1772]. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A lady stands holding a black mask in 
her r. hand; she looks over her 1. shoulder towards a mirror on a dressing- 
table (r.) Her maid stoops over an open arched-top coff^er on a stool. 
Her dress is of the general character of the period, but its long gathered 
sleeves suggest that it is intended to be Elizabethan. In her high-dressed 
hair is a jewelled crescent. The maid wears a frilled muslin cap over her 
high-dressed hair. On the dressing-table is a card inscribed, Two Tickets 
for the Pantheon. The circular mirror is draped with embroidered muslin. 
On the wall are two mirrors in carved frames with candle-sconces. An 
arm-chair stands on the 1. A carpet with an arabesque pattern covers 
the floor. 

13 X 10 in. A coloured impression is in 'Caricatures', 

ii, p. 119. B.M.L. , Tab. 524. 


Printed for Carington Bowles. Map & Printseller, N'^ 6g in S' Pauls 
Church Yard, London. Published as the Act directs [date erased, 
c. 1772]. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A fashionably dressed young woman sits 
in an arm-chair (r.) looking towards an elegantly dressed young man, in 
bag- wig and solitaire, who has entered from the 1. He hands her a card, 
inscribed, Aliss Kenedy recommended for 6 Pantheon Tickets; she holds out 
her r. hand to take it. In his 1. hand is a sheaf of cards, one inscribed 
Coterie. She rests her 1. arm on a small table on which is a card inscribed 
Pajitheon, and an open book inscribed Whist Quadrille. In her 1. hand is a 


ticket inscribed Cornely^s. The luxury of the room is indicated by a marble 
column and a door surmounted by a pediment in which is a bust. A 
cockatoo on a perch screams at the visitor. 

She is the well-known courtesan Kitty or Polly Kennedy who has been 
confused with Polly Jones and perhaps with another Polly Kennedy, see 
Bleackley, Ladies Fair and Frail, 1909, p. 147 ff. The allusion in the title 
is to the very unpopular reprieve granted through her influence to her 
brother who had been sentenced to death for the murder of a watchman in 
a drunken brawl, see Nos. 4399, 4463, 4844. The (unsuccessful) attempt 
to keep ladies of bad reputation out of the Pantheon is also satirized, see 
No. 4998, The Coterie was a very fashionable and exclusive ladies' club 
which met at Almack's, see Nos. 4472, 4847, 5065, 5425. The assemblies 
of Mrs. Cornelys' came temporarily to an end with her bankruptcy and the 
sale of Carlisle House in December 1772, see No. 5066. For portraits of 
Polly Kennedy (who may however not be identical with the subject of 
this print, see Bleackley, op. cit.), see B.M. Cat. Engr. Br. Portraits; see 
also No. 5204. 

i2|-X9|in. 'Caricatures', ii. 22. B.M.L., Tab. 524. 

THE PAINTRESS OF MACCARONI'S. See No. 4582— c. 1772 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). Probably a portrait of Maria Cosway, 
see J. T. Smith, Nollekens and his Times, ed. W. Whitten, 1920, ii. 321, 
where an impression from the collection of Francis Wellesley, Esq. is 
reproduced as of Mrs. Cosway. The portrait resembles portraits of Mrs. 
Cosway and shows little resemblance to Angelica Kauffmann, suggested 
by Mr. Stephens as the subject. It is, moreover, a companion print to 
No. 4520, The Macaroni Painter [1772], a portrait of Cosway. See also 
No. 6102, Reproduced, Paston, PI. xcviii. 


See No. 4517 — 1772 

BLOSSOM. (255) SeeNo. 4518— 1772 

MONDAY. (256) See No. 4519— 1772 

THE MACARONI PAINTER . . . (257) [Cosway] 

Earlom after Dighton. 

See No. 4520 — 1772 

Reproduced, Paston, PI. xcvii, and Nollekens and his Times, ed. W. 
Whitten, ii. 320. 

AFTER HAVING KEPT IT UP. (258) See No. 4521— 1772 

THE PARSON AND CAPTAIN. (259) See No. 3789—1772 

HOW D'YE LIKE ME. (260) See No. 4522—19 Nov. 1772 


THE UNLUCKY VISIT . . . (261) See No. 4523—1772 

LOVE AND WINE. (263) See No. 4524—1772 

LOVE AND OPPORTUNITY. See No. 4591—'^. i772 

MAN (266) See No. 3769 — c 1772 

A reduced version is No. 3770. 


See No. 4573 — c. 1772 

The costume appears to be c. 1772-3. The background suggests the 
Pantheon, opened 1772. 


See No. 4576 — c. 1772 

From Carington Bowles's smaller series : 


See No. 4578 — i May 1772 

4583. 5096, 4775> 5097 

Similar mezzotints issued by other publishers. 


See No. 4583 — 20 Mar. 1772 
P. Dawe. Pub. John Bowles. 


[P. Dawe.?] 

Published May i^"" iyy2 by W. Humphrey, S* Martins Lane. 

Mezzotint. Street scene; a lean and foppish Frenchman (r.), clasping his 
hands in distress, is being roughly handled by a stout, plainly-dressed 
Englishman (1.). The Englishman holds the Frenchman's coat-collar, and 
threatens him with his r. fist. A sluttish woman standing behind holding 
a mop, holds her 1. fist over the Frenchman's head. The Frenchman wears 
a toupet-wig with a black bag and solitaire which has been broken in the 
fray. His sword-belt is twisted so that his sword hangs hilt downwards. 
He is wearing a laced coat and waistcoat with lace ruffles. The Englishman 
wears his own unkempt hair, a broad-brimmed hat, long plain coat, 
striped waistcoat and top-boots. A wall in which is a window (r.) forms the 
background. A notice is pasted on the wall, the only legible words being 
At the Royal . . . 
Cf. No. 4477. 



A MILLENER'S SHOP. See No. 4775—9 Apr. 1772 

Pub. W. Humphrey. 
Reproduced, Paston, PI. cxcviii. 


London. Printed for Rob^ Sayer N° 55 Fleet Street, [c. 1772.] 

Mezzotint. A group of three H.L. figures. Two ladies of meretricious 
appearance seated at a tea-table, a man with a large Macaroni club of hair 
is handing one of them a cup of tea. One holds a fan and looks coyly 
towards the man, the other leans over her shoulder. 

A scene at the Spa Fields Pantheon which was open from 1770 till 
March 1774 when the buildings were announced for sale owing to the 
proprietor's bankruptcy. In the Macaroni Magazine for January 1773, 
p. 162, is the notice, 'Pantheons: The Nobility's, Oxford Road; the 
Mobility's, Spa Fields'. A writer in the St. James's Chronicle, May 1772, 
professed to have been shocked at the request from more than one lady, 
'Pray, Sir, will you treat me with a dish of tea'. Wroth, London Pleasure 
Gardens of the Eighteenth Century, 1896, pp. 25-8. 




5098 THE STATE HACKNEY-COACH. [i Jan. 1773] 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xli. 589. It illustrates 'A Dialogue 
between a Politician and a Chinese'. A richly carved glass-coach, sur- 
mounted by cupids holding a crown is being driven (r. to 1.) on a road 
which leads past buildings to the Tower of London. Inside is the king 
leaning back fast asleep. At the back stands a devil holding reins attached 
to a bit in the mouth of the coachman, in his other hand is a whip with 
a long lash. His feet rest on the heads of two carved figures, one being 
Neptune with his trident. Above is engraved, They go fast zvhom the Devil 
drives. The place of the horses is taken by eight running men, reins 
being attached to bits in their mouths. 

The coachman is Lord North, the man-horses being the ministers or 
'king's friends'. They are poorly characterized, and the only two who can 
be identified are Lord Holland (or perhaps Charles Fox, see Nos. 4859, 
4892) with a fox's head, the near leader, and Dyson or 'Mungo' as a negro 
in a striped suit, see No. 4962, &c., the near wheeler. In front of him is 
a man holding a thistle, indicative of Scottish influence. The text explains 
that the harnessed men, since they 'submit their necks to the yoke of 
slavery, bridled, harnessed and obeying the lash', are on a level with 
'beasts of burden or hackney horses'. The occupant of the coach being 
'fond of his ease and careless of his interest and power, his servants 
drive him where they list'. Cf. No. 5132, &c. 
311 X 61 in. 

5099 THE POLITICAL RAT CATCHER. [i Jan. 1773] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, ix. 225. A W.L. caricature of 
Lord North as a rat-catcher. He stands holding in his 1. hand a rectangular 
cage which he supports on his hip, in it are a number of rats. In his 
r. hand is a staff headed by zfleur-de-lys to which are attached a money bag, 
a key, and a pennant inscribed in Hoc Signo Vinces. A document is 
displayed inscribed A Calculation of how many Millions of Rats may be 
destroyed if Ten Years of Peace is continued. Five rats hang by their noses 
from his Garter ribbon, two others run on his shoulder. Round his r. leg 
is a garter inscribed «o shame. His legs are astride and on the ground 
between his feet is a large book. Description of zchat quantities of Potvder 
will Catch Ratts of different Species. An open book shows a page inscribed, 
A List of all the great Offices of State haunted by Rats of all Qualities. 

The text explains that by means of bribes, pensions, offices, ribbons 
and peerages North 'has constantly in his trap upwards of five hundred of 
different species. . . . Every seven years he lets loose all the Rats in his 
trap to range the country and create confusion', that is, at each general 
election. For the allusion to 'Ten Years of Peace', see Nos. 4961, 4969. 
For the fleur-de-lys cf. No. 4935, for North's alleged corrupt support of 
the Bourbons over the Falkland Islands. 

This anticipates Rowlandson's well-known satire. The Apostate Jack 

R [Robinson] The Political Ratcatcher (1784). 

6^X4 in. 



5100 SHAH ALLUM IN DISTRESS. [Jan. 1773]^ 

Engraving. From the Westminster Magazine, i. 41. A design in two com- 
partments illustrating an article in Biblical phraseology, 'The First Chapter 
of the Book of Kings' and 'The Lamentations'. In the upper part is de- 
picted a meeting of the General Court of the East India Company; the 
directors seated at a table on which are writing materials, a book, and a 
hammer. In the foreground a large man, Governor Johnstone, is holding 
up by the seat of his breeches 'Shah AUum' or Sir George Colebrook for 
the derision of the other directors. In the background, behind a barrier, 
a crowd of men, apparently the proprietors of East India Stock, watch the 
proceedings with amusement. 

This illustrates a meeting of the General Court of the Company on 
1 Dec. 1772,- at which Governor Johnstone threw the blame of all the 
Company's miscarriages on their Directors who were 'buoying up the 
spirits of the Proprietary with a pompous account of their affairs. . , .' 
Colebrook, a banker and M.P. for Arundel, was a leading director of the 
East India Company, and had been chairman in 1769 and 1771. At this 
time his affairs were in great disorder as a result of over-speculation : he 
had contracted for 'all the alum in Bohemia, all the chip hats in Italy, . . .' 
Letters of the Earl of Malmesbury, i. 271, Ap. 6, 1773. See also Hume, 
Letters, 1932, ii. 263. The crisis was that in which Fordyce was ruined, 
see Nos. 4961, 5016. The name Shah Allum is here given because he 
had become rich by monopolizing alum. Westminster Magazine, i. 40. 

Over the lower design is inscribed The India-man zvrecked. L 12 
(probably a reference to 'The Lamentations' on the opposite page). 

A ship with broken masts in heavy seas is driving on to rocks (r.), on 
which is a flag-staff with a flag inscribed Treasury Cape. On the r. margin 
is inscribed L. 40,00,00. This symbolizes the ruinous state of the Com- 
pany's finances, on the verge of bankruptcy and burdened with an annual 
tribute of ^400,000 to the Treasury. See Ann. Reg. \']'ji, pp. 62 ff., and 
Camh. Hist, of the British Empire, iv, pp. i8i ff. See also No. 5101, &c. 


5101 THE GHOST OF OMICHUND [Jan. 1773] 

Engraving. From the Westminster Magazine, i. 67. It illustrates a dialogue 
in verse (a parody of Hamlet) between 'Nabob' (Clive) and Omichund. 
Omichund, wearing a feathered turban, appears from clouds addressing 
Clive with a minatory gesture. Clive, who is supported on each side by 
a military officer, starts back in horror. Omichund stands under a high 
palm-tree, from whose branches a man, stripped to the waist, is hanging 
by the wrists. A note explains that he is 'the man under Breeches punish- 
ment'. The scene is a walled enclosure or compound, on the r. behind 
Clive part of a high tent is visible. 

Beneath the title is engraved the beginning of the dialogue, spoken by 
the ghost of Omichund : 

What Woes, he cried, hath hist of Gold 
O'er my poor Country zvidely rolVd, 
Plunderers proceed! 

* The first (January) number of the Westminster Magazine appeared in January, 
contrary to the custom. In 1774 each number appeared at the beginning of the 
following month. 

^ Four Courts a year were held, the qualification for a vote being raised by North's 
Regulating Act of 1773 from £500 to £1,000 Stock. 



Clive's trick on Omichund who had threatened to divulge the negotia- 
tions with Mir Jaffier before the Battle of Plassey unless he was given 
30 lakhs of rupees is said to have led to Omichund's loss of reason and 
death and is the chief stain on Clive's reputation. See also Nos. 5017, 
5100, 5102, 5111. 

5IX3J in. 


[Jan, 1773] 

Engraving. From the Town and Country Magazine y iv. 705 (Supplement). 
It illustrates a dialogue, 'The Directors in the Suds or the Jaghire Factor 
dismayed at the Ghosts of the Black Merchants'. The scene is a room in 
the London Tavern at a meeting of Directors to consider opposition to 
the Bill for restraining the East India Company from sending out super- 
visors to India, see No. 4968. They sit at a long table, the chairman (Sir 
George Colebrook) in the centre, and are astonished at the entry (1.) of 
a procession of Indians wearing turbans and surrounded by smoke which 
obscures the directors seated on the chairman's r. Three 'black merchants' 
in single file head the procession and threaten Lord Clive, who stands (r.) 
facing them, his hands outstretched in horror, his chair overturned. In 
the dialogue the merchants accuse him of crimes and demand justice; 
one addresses him as 'Thou maker and destroyer of nabobs, princes, and 
traders! . . .' Clive retreats, saying, 'truth and justice are too powerful for 
hypocrisy and guilt'. This is typical of the attacks made upon Clive in 
the Press at this time. See Walpole, Last Journals, 1910, i. 162-4. ^^^ 
also Nos. 5017, 5100, 5111. 

31x61 in. 

5103 WORTHIES. [c. Jan. 1773] 

Engraving. Frontispiece from The Life of John Wilkes Esq.; in the Manner 
of Plutarch, 1773. Four bust portraits in ovals arranged in two pairs: 
Wat Tyler, with Ald^ Beckford; John Cade Esq'', John Wilkes Esq''. Between 
the ovals are four clasped hands forming a cross. Cade faces three-quarters 
to the r., Wilkes three-quarters to the 1., each squints violently. Beneath 
is inscribed These are thy Gods O Britain. This illustrates the pamphlet 
ascribed to Home, see No. 5104. One of the few attacks on 'the patriots', 
see No. 5334, &c., and for attacks on Wilkes Nos. 4326, 4887, 5130, 5131, 


Ovals, 2^X1^1 in. 


Woodcut. Westminster Magazine, i. 71. Parson Home, in profile to the 1., 
wearing clerical dress, holds a piece of burning tow to a pillared doorway 
inscribed London Tavern. In his 1. hand is a lantern. From his pocket 
hangs a paper inscribed Life of John Wilkes Esq. The design shows part of 



the fa9ade of the London Tavern, the meeting-place of the 'Society for 
supporting the Bill of Rights'. Beneath is inscribed: 

He has profan'd the sacred name of Friend, 
And icorn it into vileness. 
With hozo secure a brow, and specious form. 
He gilds the secret villain. Dry den. 

This illustrates a violent attack on Home called 'Patriotism blown up . . .'. 
Home is denounced as a rank apostate and Judas, a hypocritical parson and 
debauchee, who by his attacks on Wilkes has destroyed the cause of liberty. 
The occasion of the attack was a pamphlet just published, The life of John 
Wilkes Esq. atteryipted in the maimer of Plutarch (see No. 5103), of which 
Home was the reputed author. For Home's quarrel with Wilkes (which 
shattered the Bill of Rights Society, see Ann. Reg. 1771, p. 94) see No. 
4861, &c, 
6iiX4^in. B.M.L., P.P. 5443. 

5105 THE MOTHER AND THE CHILD. [i Feb. 1773] 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xlii. 33. Britannia seated, her 
spear and shield beside her, suckling an infant, George HL She is thin, 
with a melancholy expression and her breasts are shrivelled. The child 
wears a star ; a coral and bells are attached to his Garter ribbon ; his hands 
are stretched towards his mother's breasts and he is saying, 7nore Supplies. 
Above (1.) is a tasselled sack, quite full, inscribed GR. H; a similar sack on 
the r., open and quite empty, is inscribed GR HI. Above one is engraved 
Privy Purse in 1753, above the other. Privy Purse in 1773. This illustrates 
'Fragment of a Speech': 'Supplies . . . were never greater, and occasion was 
never less. Our mother Britain, has been drained of her nourishment 
till she is ready to expire: . . . yet her son, her best beloved, her eldest- 
born, still hangs upon her breasts, still suckles, and (barbarous!) still 
shrieks out for "More Supplies! More Supplies!" Unnatural boy!' 

A satire on the arrears of the Civil List, see also Nos. 4968, 5124. 
7X4iin. (pi.). 

THE YOUNG CUB. See No. 4810— i Feb. 1773 

Macaroniand Theatrical Magazine, i. 145. An illustration to 'The Senatorial 
Macaroni; or. Memoirs of the Young Cub'. (C. J. Fox.) 

5106 THE STATE COTILLON 1773. [Feb. 1773] 

Engraving. From the Westminster Magazine, i. 149. The interior of a 
panelled room: ten men holding hands dance in a circle to the tune of a 
bag-pipe played by Bute (1.) wearing a kilt and appearing from behind 
a curtain. The king watches with pleased amusement from behind a door 
(r.). The dancers are trampling on papers and state documents. 

Lord North, trampling on papers inscribed National Debt and Griev- 
ances, is between Lord Bathurst in his Chancellor's robes but wearing a hat, 
and Lord Barrington in a militar}' coat under whose feet are Dispatches from 
War Office; under Bathurst's foot is a paper, Appeals, Decrees. Next him 
(r.) is a youthful-looking minister stepping on a paper inscribed French 
Grammar to show that he is Suffolk, Secretary of State, pilloried for his 
ignorance of French, see Nos. 4875, 4876. His neighbour is only partly 



visible. Next comes a military officer trampling on a paper inscribed 
Middlesex Election to show that he is Colonel Luttrell. On Luttrell's r., and 
the central figure of the design, is Lord Mansfield wearing tartan stockings 
to show that he is a Scot and dancing upon Magna Charta. On his r. is an 
unidentified figure, then a minister treading on papers inscribed Whitfield 
Hymns to show (not very consistently) that he is Lord Dartmouth, v/hose 
strong attachment to the Methodists earned the nickname of the Psalm- 
singer. He had succeeded Hillsborough as Secretary of State for the Colonies 
on 14 Aug. 1772. Between him and Barrington stands Sandwich, wearing 
a sailor's trousers and standing on The Petition of the Navy Captains. 
Bute stands on a paper To Miss Vansittar[t] . Other papers on the ground 
are The Remonstr[atice of the City] and Petition of the East India Comp. 
The captains of the Navy had petitioned to the House of Commons for 
an addition to their half pay 9 Feb. 1773. Pari. Hist. xvii. 705-22. The 
request was approved by parliament, but opposed by North and the King. 
Corr. of George HI, ed. Fortescue, ii. 447, 451. At this time the latest City 
Remonstrance was that of 24 June 1771, that of 1773 was not decided 
on till II March 1773, nor presented to the King till 26 March. Sharpe, 
London and the Kingdom, iii. 135-6. The petition of the East India Com- 
pany appears to be that of 14 Dec. 1772, against the Bill to restrain the Com- 
pany from appointing supervisors for India, see Pari. Hist, xvii, 646 ff.; 
see also Nos. 4968, 5102. 

The plate illustrates 'A vision' of a full Council of the Ministry in the 
Cockpit (the Treasury) at which, on the sound of bagpipes, the ministers 
seized the papers on the table, scattered them on the floor, and 'danced upon 
them with a furious glee.' It appears that the two unidentified dancers are 
Viscount Townshend (appointed Master General of the Ordnance, 17 Oct. 
1772) and Jeremiah Dyson or 'Mungo'. 

Reproduced, Chase, The Beginnings of the American Revolution, 191 1, i, 

P- 350- 


[i Mar. 1773] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, x. 63. It illustrates 'A Modern 
Dialogue, amongst the Benchers and Anti-Benchers, Beelzebub, and his 
Imp', A tall column, on the top of which is a book on which stands a lamb 
bearing a cross to which is attached a pennon with a St. George's Cross, the 
whole representing Religion. Two opposing bodies of clergy strain at it 
with ropes: the bishops in lawn sleeves on the 1., ministers in gowns on 
the r. Over the ministers (r.) hovers Beelzebub, pointing to the column and 
saying: My Children that is not your God, but I am. 

The bishops, whose aim is to prevent the opposing party from pulling 
down the column, say : Let us keep it for our oivn Benefit and If Religion falls 
Adieu to our Stalls. 

The ministers say : We starve by Religion; Down with thejg Articles, and 
Let them that live by the Gosple [sic] Support it. They are assisted by a 
ragamuffin who attacks the column with a pick-axe. 

The dialogue concludes with the victory of the Benchers who say: 'Ha! 
Ha! Ha! How easily we can frustrate all their endeavours with a well- 
timed diversion. 

Ye Gods! What havock doth corruption 
Make amongst your works.' 

113 I 


This plate is indexed as The Zealots for and against the jp Articles. On 
23 February 1773 Sir W. Meredith moved without success for a committee 
to reconsider the subscription to the Articles at the universities. Pari. Hist. 
xvii. 742-59. A Bill for the relief of Protestant Dissenters was rejected by 
the House of Lords on 2 April 1773. Ibid. p. 759. Letter No. 1218 in Corr. 
of George III ed. Fortescue, ii. 468 refers to this rejection and shows the 
attitude of the King and Ministry. See Nos. 4944, 5188. 


Published March 20 iyy3 by S. Hooper on Ludgate-Hill 

Mezzotint. D'Eon, as a woman dressed as Minerva, stands outside a tent. 
In her r. hand is a spear, in her 1. the shield with the Medusa head inscribed 
At nunc dura dedit vobis discrimina Pallas. She is directed to the 1. and looks 
over her shoulder to the r. She wears the cross of St. Louis. 

In the foreground (r.) are muskets, a drum, flags, &c., one flag inscribed 
Impavidum Ferient Ruince. In the background (1.) is a camp, with a row of 
tents, a sentry and three mounted dragoons. Beneath the title is engraved : 
Knight of the Royal & military order of St. Louis Captain of Dragoons 
Aide-de-Camp to the Marechal Duke de Broglio; Minister Plenipotentiary 
from France to the King of Great Britain. Beneath, on a separate plate, is 
engraved an account of d'Eon; it concludes '. . . the secret of her sex was 
discover'd in London in feb^'J' 1771 through many accidents and Particulary 
{sic] through the declaration of the Princess Askoff . . .'. See No. 4865, &c. 
C. E. Russell, English Mezzotint Portraits, ii. 457. 

5109 THE STATE JUGGLERS 1773. [i May 1773] 
Engraving. From the Westminster Magazine, i. 272. Lord North as a 
juggler squats on a table which is on a raised platform. He wears a harle- 
quin's suit with his ribbon and star and holds a mask in his r. hand, in his 
1. a conjuror's box. On the table are three large money-bags, a pack of 
cards, balls, and cones. Behind him are ministers and ministerialists (1. to 
r.): Dyson as Mungo the negro slave holds up a round box, Sandwich holds 
his cricket-bat over his shoulder, on his head rests the model of a man-of- 
war. Behind North on his r. is Mansfield in judge's wig and robes; on 
North's 1. is Bute, holding a coronet over North's head; in front of Bute is 
Charles Fox or Lord Holland with a fox's head. On the r. are three other 
ministers all wearing ribbons, one with a military coat being Barrington, 
Secretary-at-War. In front of the table is a serpent on a pedestal. Below 
the platform is a crowd of people, some watching the juggler, others turning 
aside with gestures of despair. The principal figures are: a seated man 
holding a pole on the top of which is a pair of breeches with the pockets 
inside out to show his poverty ; a standing man with a ragged coat holds his 
head in despair; an emaciated Asiatic lies on the ground. 

The text explains the scene as a vision, a juggler's booth in St. James's 
Street, the serpent being a 'symbol of the Practitioner's address, cunning 
and deceit'. The figures round the juggler seeming to applaud were aiding 
his cheats. 'Handfulls of gold being thrown up in the air . . . scattered 
mischief and destruction all round.' The exasperated crowd at last 
demolished the booth and the scaffold. 



The commercial crisis of 1772, see No. 4961 &c., continued during 1773, 
see Corr. of George III, ed. Fortescue, ii. 436. The Secret Committee had 
made charges of rapacity and oppression against ser\^ants of the East India 
Company. Pari. Hist. xvii. 535, 829. 

6x31 in. 


Engraving. From the London Magazine, xhi. 160. Two men symboHzing 
France and Spain are in charge of a dancing bear which represents Eng- 
land. France (1.), dressed as a French fop, plays the violin; Spain, in cloak 
and slashed doublet, holds the rope attached to the animal's head. The 
bear has a shield on its forehead ornamented with the combined crosses of 
St. George and St. Andrew as in the Union flag. Round its body are 
scrolls inscribed Evil be to him that Evil thinks, and Ouisque me impune 
lacessit. In the background (r.) are two sovereigns in crowns and ermine- 
trimmed robes, one leaning on the shoulder of the other; they watch the 
scene w^ith amusement. Above the head of the bear-leader and in the centre 
of the design are two circles representing the reverse and obverse of a coin. 
On one (1.) are three heads, two resembling those of the fiddler and the 
bear-leader, the central one that of George III; the first two have expres- 
sions of cunning satisfaction. Above it is engraved The triple alliance. 
On the other are three clasped hands meeting in the centre of the circle; 
above it is engraved Tria jiincta in uno. Beneath the design is engraved 
Music hath charms to soothe a savage Beast. 

The print is explained in 'A Dialogue between a Politician and a Chinese', 
pp. 160-2. The Great Bear or G.B. is Great Britain; the fiddler is the 
French Ambassador [Comte de Guines], and the bear, 'clumsy, credulous, 
unsuspecting', dances to a French tune. The three heads and the three 
hands symbolize a triple alliance between England, France, and Spain 
('an honest fat open face [George III] between two scarecrows'). The two 
sovereigns in the background are the king of Prussia and 'his scholar the 
Emperor' who laugh at 'the folly of a triple alliance so motley and so 
unnatural'. The alliance is 'not yet' concluded. 

At this time there were rumours that England proposed to make an 
alliance with France to oppose the invasion and partition of Poland. 
\^z\Y>o\t, Last Journals, 1910,1.186. See an interesting paper in George Ill's 
handwriting of 1772 on a possible alliance of England, France, and 
Holland to protect Poland against Austria, Russia, and Prussia, if jealousies 
should arise between the three partitioning powers. Corr. of George III, ed. 
Fortescue, ii. 428-9. See also Nos. 4957, 4958, 5124, 5222, 5229. 

There was actually a crisis in March and April 1773 arising out of the 
Russo-Turkish war, which attracted little public notice, a threat of France 
and Spain to attack Russia which was checked by naval preparations in 
England (cf. No. 5124), and the diplomatic action of Stormont, British 
ambassador in Paris. Adolphus, Hist, of England, ii. 4-9; Corr. of 
George III, ed. Fortescue, ii. 470, 474. This shows how unfounded were 
the rumours of a triple alliance between England, France, and Spain in 
April 1773, although in the following year Vergennes, alarmed at the 
Treaty of Kutchuk-Kainardji (July 1774), contemplated the possibility of 
persuading England to join in an eflfort to check Russia. Corwin, French 
Policy and the American Alliance, 19 16, p. 6i. 




C— L— KE BROUGHT TO ACCOUNT. [i May 1773] 

Engraving, From the Oxford Magazine, x. 144. Two men (r.) kneeling in 
supplication before Lord North (1.) who stands with a pistol in his r. hand, 
about to take the large money-bags which the two 'nabobs', Clive and Cole- 
brooke, hold out to him. Colebrooke, a very small man, is saying: Save us 
my Lord or we Perish ; from his pocket hangs a paper inscribed Job in the 
Alley 30,ooo£. On Colebrooke's r. is Clive saying : You shall have the tenth 
of my Jaghire (this was the quit-rent given to Clive by Mir Jaffier amounting 
to nearly ^30,000 a year which the Directors had limited to ten years). 
Each has an iron band round his neck to which a chain is attached which 
is held in the mouth of a demon in the foreground. Another chain from 
its mouth is attached to North's wrist. North stands on a paper inscribed 
India Stock no Price. He is saying: / know the vileness of your deeds! But 
J must have more hush Money. From his pocket hangs a paper inscribed 
Report of the Secret Committee. Justice, a blindfolded woman holding 
scales with her sword raised to strike, hovers in the air behind this group. 
Bute, holding out a highlander's target and with a sword in his 1. hand, 
stands to protect the three men from the sword of justice; he wears a kilt 
and the Garter ribbon, and his face is covered with a mask to show that his 
influence is secret. Above the design is engraved : A new Scene for the 
Proprietors of India Stock. Below the title is engraved : Deel azva wi em Au 

R gues all alike, Bribers and Bribed. 

The plate anticipates the great debates in which Clive defended himself 
from the accusations in the Secret Committee on the East India Company, 
see Pari. Hist. xvii. 850 ff. He said 'Jaghires were as commonly given [by 
Indian princes] as pensions, lottery tickets and other douceurs by the 
minister in this.' Clive is called the Jaghire Factor in No. 5102, Baron 
Jaghire in No. 5144.^ See also Nos. 5100, 5102. 

5|X3f in. 


A set of tw^elve prints by William Austin, some of which are not 
political. The title and price of the series are engraved on the first only. 

5112 a macaroni ass match between the [CUBS]2 
NB. ST E [State] GAMBLERS. i 

' Cf. 'Protestation' in London Magazine, 1773, p. 44, beginning, 'You I love my 
dearest wife', has the line, 'More than Clive his black Jagheer.' Quoted, G. E. C. 
Complete Peerage, 1. 1910. Appendix H. 


Secure from Wars and dangerous Seas 
Colonel Jaghire enjoys his Ease 
Buys Land, and Beeves, with Indian Gold, 
Which some poor English 'Squire has sold. 

C. Anstey, Election Ball. 1776, p. 7. 

* 'Cubs' is written in ink, perhaps after having been first erased. In another 
impression it is engraved. 



SIGNS DEDICATED TO S. FOOT ESQR by L'eauforte & Burein 
Pr^ a Guinea.^ i 

Pu¥ as y' Act Directs May i'' ^77 3- 

Engraving. Two men riding (r. to 1.) on asses, between them is a small 
stream. The foremost ass is galloping, its rider sits facing its tail in order 
to jeer at his rival. The other ass, braying with outstretched neck, refuses 
to cross the stream in spite of the efforts of its rider who stands on the 
saddle, vigorously using a long-lashed whip. 

The title shows that the riders are sons of Lord Holland. The standing 
rider is short and stout and has a certain resemblance to caricatures of both 
Charles and Stephen, but is probably intended for Charles. The other is 
tall and lean, and is probably intended for Henry Fox (1755-1811), who 
at the age of nine lived only for horses; see No. 5062. In 1773 he was with 
his regiment at Boston. 

Beneath the dedication is engraved, 

I'll no Man call an Ape or Ass 
Tis his own Conscience holds the Glass 
Thus Void of all Offence I drav) 
Who Claims y^ Subject knows his Flaw. 
io|Xi4f in. (pi.). 


Pu¥ as the Act Directs May i'^ 1773 [W. Austin] 

Engraving. An interview between Chatham and Charles Fox. Chatham (1.) 
in profile to the r. has just left a wheeled chair, similar in principle, though 
of ornate design, to the modern bath-chair. A pair of crutches is supported 
in loops on the outside of the chair, Chatham is much caricatured and 
very thin, his gouty 1. leg and foot in a bulky woollen covering, probably 
one of the 'bootikins' described by Walpole. He wears a large night-cap 
and a pair of clumsy woollen gloves. He holds out both hands and faces 
his visitor with an expression of wary friendliness. Fox faces him with a 
somewhat truculent expression. His r. forefinger is extended as if making 
terms; his 1. hand is in his waistcoat pocket, and his hat is under his I. arm. 
An indication of the political importance which Fox had already acquired, 
and of his vacillating policy at this time. Having 'commenced patriot* 
(Gibbon to Holroyd, 21 Feb. 1772) over the Marriage Act, see No. 4970, 
he again took office as a lord of the Treasury in December 1772, and after 
opposing the Ministry was dismissed on 24 Feb. 1774. Chatham was then 
living in retirement, but was actually at Burton Pynsent not Hayes. 
Chatham Correspondence, vol. iv. 
io|xi4|in. (pi.). 


Pub'' as y" Act Directs May i 1773 [W. Austin] 

Engraving. One of the sons of Lord Holland asleep, half-sitting, half-lying 
' On another impression '12/6' has been substituted. 



on a garden seat, his breath issuing visibly from his mouth. His 1. foot is 
on the ground, his r. on the seat. He has a toupet wig with a large macaroni 
club, his hat has fallen to the ground. He is obese and is dressed as a 
macaroni, with a large nosegay. His curved sword or sabre hangs from 
his waist. 

A caricature of Stephen Fox afterwards 2nd Lord Holland who was 
constitutionally lethargic, and is usually depicted asleep, see Nos. 4648, 
4649, 5223. In the Covent Garden Magazine, July 1773, he is 'a celebrated 
sleeping, gambling Macaroni'. 

lofx 14I in. (pi.). 


Pu¥ as the Act Directs May i'^ lyy^ [W. Austin] 

Engraving. The scene is the sea-shore, with the Isle of Wight faintly visible 
in the background. A man followed by a woman walk in profile from r. to 
1., both much caricatured. He is using crutches, his gouty 1. leg is swathed 
or in a bootikin, and suspended in a sling which goes over his r. shoulder. 
He has an impossibly protruding waistcoat, and a large club of hair. 
A dog (1.) is barking at him. His wife holds in her r. hand a bottle labelled 
Hartshorn, in her 1. a very long cane. Her profile is witch-like with hooked 
nose and protruding bearded chin. A large hood almost conceals her 
hair, and she wears a long cloak. A cross hangs from a necklace round 
her neck. In the distance grotesque figures walk on the shore, most of 
them in various stages of decrepitude. One is labelled The Rabbit Doctor, 

St. A , under his arm is a large rabbit. This is St. Andre (1680-1776), 

an unqualified but fashionable surgeon who investigated the case of 
Mary Tofts in 1726, who professed to be delivered of rabbits, see Nos. 
1778-81. He vouched for her story in all its impossible details. In spite 
of the scandal caused by its exposure he eloped with, and afterwards 
married, Lady Elizabeth Molyneux on the night of the death of her 
husband whom he had been professionally attending. They settled in 
Southampton about 1750. 

lofxisfin. (pi.). 


Pu¥ as y^ Act Directs May i" lyjS [W. Austin] 

Engraving. A caricature of 'Long Sir Thomas' Robinson (i700?-77) walk- 
ing arm in arm with a short, fat and elderly woman, both in profile to the 1. 
He is very thin and wears the large hat, tie-wig, wide-cuffed coat and high- 
quartered shoes Vi'hich were then old-fashioned. His I. hand is on the 
hilt of his sword, his r. holds up a glass through which he looks. The 
lady is also much caricatured, a pair of spectacles is perched on her 
bulbous nose; she wears a calash hood, and a large nosegay. In her r. 
hand is a closed fan, a microscopic dog is carried under her 1. arm. She 

takes Sir Thomas's 1. arm. She is perhaps identical with Mrs. G s, 

a mistress of Sir Thomas who is described as short and stout and 'past 
her bloom'. See Tov:n and Country Magazine, April 1774, and No. 5253. 

' The letters in brackets are in ink. 


Behind the couple walks a small lean foot-boy, in laced livery, his hair in 
a long pigtail queue. He points jeeringly at the couple, and holds up a 
large key, looking through its handle as if through a glass in imitation of 
his master. 

There is an earlier caricature of Sir Thomas in a group by General 
Sir A. Campbell, which includes a portrait of the Chevalier Descassau 
(see No. 5067), 'Honorary Engravers', i. 161, and he has been identified 
with the figure standing in a side box in Hogarth's picture of the Beggar's 
Opera, D.N.B. 

Reproduced, Fuchs, Die Frau in der Karikatur, 1906, p. 352. 

iif X14I- in. (pi.). 



Pu¥ as the Act Directs May !"■ iyj3 [W. Austin] 

Engraving. An irate fishwife stands behind her trestle-table on which are 
fish. Her 1. hand is on her hip, in her r. she holds a coin towards 'Hans 
Turbot' (1.), whom she is scolding. He faces her, in profile to the 1., 
holding a large turbot by the tail. She is a gaunt woman with a hideous 
profile, wearing a flat hat and a short apron. Her r. wrist is tattooed, 
WL 45, perhaps a memento of Wilkes and No. 45 of the North Briton. 
Hans, who is ugly and corpulent, is scowling at the woman. In his r. hand 
is a cane on the head of which is engraved H. S. On the r., and in front 
of the trestle-table, stands Count Cork Skrew, dressed in an old-fashioned 
manner in large three-cornered hat and tie-wig, and coat with wide 

Perhaps a caricature of Hans Stanley of Paulton's near Romsey, 
M.P. for Southampton, the grandson of Sir Hans Sloane, who was 
awkward and eccentric. He never married and shot himself in 1780. See 
Walpole, Letters, xi. 105-6. His companion is perhaps the Earl of Cork 
(Edmund Boyle, 8th earl, 1742-98). 

io|Xi4f in. (pi.). 



Pu¥ as y Act Directs May i'^ I'/yj [W. Austin] 

Engraving. Two men walk from r. to 1. one behind the other; a following 
wind blows their hair and clothes. Both are uncouth and wear cockaded 
hats and are perhaps intended for half-pay officers. The hands of the 
man in front are in a muff. His pigtail queue is blown in front of him. 
The second man walks with crutches, his r. hand is replaced by a hook, 
in which he carries a nest suspended from strings on which are a hen and 
young chickens. Tied to his back is a child. He is smoking a short clay 

lof X 14I in. (clipped). 

' The name is written in ink perhaps after the engraved words had been erased. 




Pu¥ as the Act Directs May i lyyj [W. Austin] 

Engraving. A lean man (r.) wearing a doctor's tie-wig, is running from 1. 
to r. to escape from a watchman who stands (1.) springing his rattle. On the 
ground is a basket or hamper, the Hd of which has fallen open to show the 
body of a young woman in a shroud. A short irate man (centre) points 
at the escaping figure, turning towards the lean aged watchman, who holds 
in his 1. hand a large lantern, and a tall stick, whose head is carved to 
represent a head. In the watchman's hat, which is tied on with a scarf, 
is a tobacco pipe in full blast. The fleeing Anatomist holds a tall cane in 
his 1. hand; under his 1. arm is a dilapidated skull. He has dropped 
a paper inscribed Hunter's Lectur[es], showing that he is Dr. William 
Hunter (1718-83), the great anatomist. He built a house (1770) in Great 
Windmill Street to which were attached a dissecting room, lecture room, 
and a large museum, see No. 6128. The caricature deals with the body- 
snatching for the sale of corpses to surgeons, which went on to a con- 
siderable extent in this period. Reproduced, Social England, ed. Traill, 
1904, V, p. 573. 

lofxisfin. (pi.). 


Pn¥ as the Act Directs May i'^ lyyj [W. Austin] 

Engraving. One of the series Nature Displayed . , . but without title or 
number. A fencing match between a negro (1.) and a lady (r.) whose face 
is concealed by a fencing mask. The button of his foil touches her breast 
and he says : Mungo here Miingo dere, Mungo Ev'ry where, above, & below 
Hah! Vat your Gracy tink of me Now. He is fashionably dressed, a large 
nosegay lies on the ground beside him together with his laced hat, tasselled 
cane, and an open book: Les ^cole des Armes Avec Les Attudes [sic] est 
Positions Par Angelo [sic]. Two books lie on the ground by the lady, the 
uppermost being Vol 5^^ Mungo Bill. The duchess (Prior's 'Kitty', 1700- 
77) is thin and tall, and dressed in the manner of many years ago, as was 
her custom, in laced stomacher, and short lace-trimmed apron. 

'Mungo' generally connotes Jeremiah Dyson (see 4267, &c.), the quota- 
tion here given from Bickerstaffe's comic opera, The Padlock, having been 
applied to him by Barre. Here Mungo is Soubise, the black page and 
protege of the Duchess of Queensberry. The young man having become 
very boastful and extravagant, she articled him to Angelo, to be trained 
as an assistant in his fencing-school. He became 'one of the most con- 
spicuous fops of the town', never seen 'without a bouquet of the choicest 
flowers in his bosom'. Angelo, Reminiscefices , 1904, i. 348-51. The print 
is also a burlesque of Angelo 's great illustrated folio on fencing, UEcole 
d Armes avec I' Explication des Principales Attitudes et Positions concernant 
VEscrime, 1763, &c. Reproduced, Angelo, Reminiscences, i. p. 350, Paston, 
PL cxxxiv. 

io|xi4|in. (pi.). 

' The 'ts' has been added in ink, but is engraved in another impression. 






Pu¥ as the Act Directs May i'' lyjS [\V. Austin] 

Engraving. A military officer on a heavy cavalry horse, rides unconcernedly 
past a man whom he has knocked down. He wears a hat with a cockade, 
a sabre, cavalry boots, and a large nosegay. His hair is in a large macaroni 
club, tied with ribbons. In his r. hand he flourishes a short-handled whip 
with a long lash. His horse has a flowing mane and tail. 

Behind the horse the prostrate man (r.) looks round with a face of fury. 
He has a wooden leg which has been broken in his fall. Both hands are 
outstretched on the tray which he has been carrying, on which are a 
number of overturned and broken jelly-glasses. 

In the upper r. corner of the plate is a club of hair under which is en- 
graved : Club the First Both Natural & Artificial Flowing from Simple 
Nature The Size, about two thirds of his Carcase Weighs . Upwards of five 
pounds when full Dress'd & trussed up with Powder Lambs Wool Horse & 
Asses hair Fan de Mille fleurs &c. &c. &c. &c. &c. &c. 

io|xi4f in. (pi.). 


Pii¥ as the Act Directs May i" lyys [W. Austin] 

Engraving. A grave-digger (1.) resting on his spade holds out in his 1. hand 
a decayed skull towards a skeleton-like man wearing an old-fashioned tie- 
wig, who is sitting on a rectangular tomb while he leans his r. elbow on 
another tomb at right angles to his seat. This man holds a scythe in his 
1. hand, a pen in his r. He uses the second tomb as a writing table; an 
ink-pot stands upon it. His hand rests on two papers inscribed Marcus 
Aurelius Servius Tullius . . . and Addison — Dr. Swift. From the jaws of 
the skull held by the grave-digger issue the words, 

Life is a jest & all things shew it 
I thought so once but ?iow I know it. 

In the foreground are bones and a skull ; in the background (1.) a rat 
scampers away. 

Evidently a caricature of Lord Lyttelton (1709-73), author oi Dialogues 
of the Dead. He was noted for his thin, lanky figure and awkward bearing, 
see 'The Motion', No. 2479. He died in August 1773. 
iifXi4l|in. (pi.). 


Pu¥ as the Act Directs May i'^ 1773- [W. Austin] 

Engraving. The heads and feet of persons suddenly submerged by the 
breaking of ice appear above the surface. The central figure is Stephen 
Fox, whose shoulders and arms are above the water; his face expresses 
rage and alarm. There are also the heads and shoulders of three other 
men, two in back view, one in profile to the I. clutching the shoulder of 

' The number lo appears to have been engraved over a partly obliterated 9. 



his neighbour, his pigtail queue flying wildly in the air. Three pairs 
of legs emerge from splashing water: one wearing spurred jack boots, 
another wearing low shoes with skates, and a third wearing the high- 
heeled shoes and clocked stockings of a lady. See also No. 5 114. 
ii|Xi4-|in. (pi.). 

JUNTO. [i June 1773] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, x. 182. It illustrates a dialogue, 
called 'The Party Quare [Carre] in Council with their private but Grand 
Dictator hearkening to their resolves'. George III (r.) sits at a table in 
a high-backed chair or throne under a canopy, in conference with three 
Ministers. Round the door appear the head and shoulders of Bute (1.) 
in Scot's cap and Garter ribbon, behind him is a demon. The King points 
out to North, who sits opposite to him, a paper on the table inscribed The 
Civil List in Arrears. North holds up his hands deprecatingly ; from his 
pocket hangs a paper, Treaty of Alli[ance] zvith France & Spa[in] ; the 
demon's claws clutch at the back of his head. On the king's r. stands 
Sandwich holding a paper inscribed 20 Sail of the Lvie. The third minister 

appears from the text to be 'J n.', Charles Jenkinson, afterwards Earl 

of Liverpool, who according to Walpole, at this time 'began to assume the 
airs of a minister . . .' Last Journals, 1910, i. 177 n. On the ground are 
papers inscribed. Rights of the People of England, which is being worried 
by a small dog, and East India Affairs. 

The Junto agree that money must be had, and can be got by shamming 
war with France while taking a subsidy from France to preserve peace. 
At this time there was a rumour of an alliance with France while 
actually there had been naval preparations against France in defence of 
Russia, see No. 51 10. The print may also be an echo from the reign of 
Charles II owing to the sensation caused by Sir John Dalrymple's 
Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland, 1771; the Appendix with its docu- 
ments incriminating Algernon Sidney the Whig hero was published in 
February 1773, see Walpole, op. cit. i. 177, 179 f. For the arrears of the 
Civil List, see No. 5105. 


Published as the Act Directs June iyy3 

Engraving. Apparently No. 42 in some series. It illustrates a dialogue in 
verse engraved below the design between 'Lord' and 'Dean'. The 'lord', 
writing at a table, receives the visit of a dean, who bows, hat in hand, and 
proffers a money-bag, asking for a bishopric. On the wall hang a mirror 
(1.) with a pair of candle-sconces and a framed landscape. On the floor in 
the foreground are documents partly cut and destroyed: 'CHARTER 
COMMUNIUM Johannes dei Gratia and LIBERT ATUM give [}sive] 
MAGNA CHARTA. From a nearly closed box hang other documents 
also in bad repair: HABE . . CORPUS Rex Magna B ; Bill of Rights; nilla 
\sic] Ransom. In an open chest are neatly rolled documents, evidently 
recent patent rolls, or grants, one of which shows the words and Grant 
beloved. The document on which the Minister is writing is inscribed : 



List of persons proper for Pensions Rever\si\ons and Places for life &c. 

for his M y's private inspection. 

Sign' d J. E. ofB e [John Earl of Bute] 

M d [Mansfield] 

Lord N n. [Northington] a Pension — 4000 

L d Bingley on the I h E. [Irish Exchequer] 3500 

S'. G — B n. first Com. C m 3000 

Siniora B aforSrG 1 250 

Mungo Cam r. and a Pension [Dyson, Cofferer of the Household] 1500 

D n of G r [Dean of Gloucester] Vicar of Bray first B k 


insouable \sic^ C.J.F.... [Fox] , 

Beneath the design is engraved in two columns, 
DEAN. My Lord I hope your goodness will excuse 

This early Visit, since my only views 

Are centered in the glory of your House, 

And now have brought a trifle — for your Spouse 

Of which I beg her kind acceptance then 

Rank me my Lord, amongst the happiest men. 
LORD. My rev'rend Dean, Fm glad to see you now. 

Early or late; or any time, I vow: 

What news abroad, my revWend Dean, what news? 

Somethings behind — have you no trifling views 

In which my Interest can the least avail ? 

DEAN. Indeed, my Lord, there is a flying tale 

That my good Lord of B h [Bath] declines so fast 

With Age, and Gout, this fit zvill be his last. 
LORD. / know he 's old and cannot long be here: 

But, rev^ Dean, you know — what 'tis a Year: 

' Twill gain me Friends 

DEAN. My Lord I know that 's true. 

And all the Interest in my pow'rs your due 

In future times the same shall me controul 

My Friends — Estate my Body, and my 

LORD. 'Tis well my rev' rend Dean — all 's very right; 

On these conditions you're put down to night. 

You shall succeed 

DEAN. All grateful thanks are due; 

My gratitude shall shine, my Lord — ; my Lord adieu. 

Dr. Edward Willes, bishop of Bath and Wells, died 24 Nov. 1773, aged 
80. Dr. Charles Moss, Bishop of St. Davids, succeeded him. (Conge 
elire, 23 April, 1774. Cal. H. O. Papers 1773-5, p. 272). 

The Dean here depicted who is promised the 'first bishoprick', is 
Josiah Tucker, dean of Gloucester. He was reputed a ministerial propa- 
gandist. See Mason, Satirical Odes, ed. Toynbee, pp. 33, 91, 99, &c. The 
peer resembles portraits of Lord Rochford, one of the Secretaries of State. 


Engraving. Oxford Magazine, x. 217. A print from the same plate, 

altered, as No. 4179, an illustration to the Political Register for August 

' Indexed as Sainson pulling down Magna Charta. 




1767. Bute has been altered to Lord North by the re-drawing of the head 
and the elimination of the tartan check on his drapery. North, as Samson, 
pulls down four pillars which support the temple of the Constitution ; one 
falls in pieces, the others, about to fall, are inscribed : Accession of the House 
of Brumzvick; Revolution 1688; and Magna Charta. The cornice falls in 
fragments, from it fall a figure of Liberty, with her staff and cap ; West- 
minster Hall, a number of judges, a dome resembling that of St. Paul's, the 
cross on the summit of which is held by a bishop. Other figures are falling 
headlong ('Lords, Counsellors, or Priests'): Lord Chatham with his 
crutches, the king, his crown having fallen from his head, the queen ( ?), 
two other crowns are falling as well as a mitre. The lowest objects, those 
which were the first to be hurled down, are Britannia, the Irish harp, and 
a broken anchor. Clouds and lightning form a background. Beneath the 
design are engraved the eighteen lines from Samson Agonistes ending, 

Samson with these immixed, inevitably 
PulVd down the same destruction on himself. 

Cf. No. 5127, also an altered plate. 
5}|X4^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 6115. 

5127 THE OPERATION. [i Aug. 1773] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, x. 254. An adaptation of No. 4198 
from the Political Register June 1768, the same plate being used. Britannia 
sinks to the ground, one knee on her shield, her broken spear beside her, 
while blood gushes from wounds in her breast. Above her, wath a dagger 
raised to strike, stands a minister wearing a ribbon and star. Two others 
hold basins to catch the gushing blood, while two stand behind drinking 
from bowls of blood ; another stoops to look at Britannia ; a lawyer hands 
a bowl to Bute, seated (r.) in a high-backed chair. In the foreground (r.), 
seated on steps, is Lord Talbot, a stout man drinking from a bowl; he 
wears a spit instead of a sword to show that he is Lord Steward of the 

In the original version, Chatham was seated in the chair taking a bowl, 
he has been altered to Bute, by the redrawing of the head and the removal 
of his crutch. The judge offering him the bowl, identified by Mr. Stephens 
as Lord Mansfield, has been altered into a poorly characterized lawyer. 
This suggests, as do the features of the judge, that the original was intended 
for Lord Camden, as Lord Mansfield would certainly not have been 
removed from obloquy. The head of Bute in the original has been altered 
by the removal of the Scots cap and some change in the features, as other- 
wise there would have been two Butes. There is a slight change in the 
features of the minister identified by Mr. Stephens as Weymouth, and he 
is now probably intended for Lord Sandwich. The other figures have not 
been altered. It remains an attack on the Ministry in general, and on 
Lord Bute, but the temporary unpopularity of Chatham had long been 
forgotten. Beneath the design is engraved, as before. 

The Blood & Vitals from her Wounds he drezo, 

And Fed the Hounds that helped him to pursue. Dryden. 

Cf. No. 5126, also an altered plate. 





Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, x. 195. Lord North sits com- 
placently at a table weighing guineas in a pair of scales. Before him on the 
table are a bag of guineas and a pair of shears. Behind him, among clouds, 
stands Justice (r.), blindfolded, holding up her scales and threatening him 
with her sword. At the table sit three men, owners of the coin, watching 
North with gestures of horror. At a side-table (1.) another man weighs 
guineas, holding a pair of shears to deface those which are defective, 
A countryman, hat in hand, protests in alarm; a mastiff snarls at him. 
A doctor (1.) threatens a patient with a raised syringe. A judge (r.) fights 
with a man on the ground, whom he is about to strike with a rolled docu- 
ment. In the foreground Britannia reclines, clasping her hands in despair; 
three ragged children weep beside her. 

The Coin Act (13 George III. c. 71 supplemented by 14 Geo. III. c. 70) 
provided that any person to whom gold coins were tendered might cut 
or break them if found of light weight or counterfeit, the tenderer to bear 
the loss of defacement if found of good weight. See Ann. Reg. 1773, pp. 
195-6, Corr. of George III, ed. Fortescue, iii. 5. 'Retrospective' in the title 
probably indicates that the Act was retrospective in falling on those who 
had accepted coin before it was passed. A guide book, Decremps, Parisien 
a Londres, 1789, informs visitors to England that the first thing to be done 
is to provide themselves with scales to weigh guineas and half-guineas, as 
none are taken without being weighed. Mr. Hawkins notes 'as late as 1799, 
I saw light guineas offered to the Collector of taxes cut in two'. One of 
several satires on the Coin Act and on the use of scales which it involved, 
see Nos. 3759, 4534 (1774), 5158, 5234. 
4iix6f in. 

5129 [BULL'S TRIUMPH.] [i Nov. 1773] 

Woodcut. From the Town and Country Magazine, v. 524. Alderman Bull, 
wearing his furred gown and chain, is entering the Lord Mayor's coach. 
He treads on the back of Wilkes and his r. hand rests on the cap of Liberty 
which is on a long staff held by Wilkes. Two men (r.) lie prostrate and 
despairing on the ground, and two others, one a clergyman, stand behind, 
wringing their hands in consternation. A little boy (1.) claps his hands with 
amusement, behind him a fat butcher laughs at the scene. A dog barks at 
the prostrate figures. 

The accompanying dialogue shows that the prostrate figures are Saw- 
bridge and Oliver who have been knocked down by 'bawling liverj'^men'. 
The two standing figures are Parson Home, 'defroque', and an aspirant to 
the office of chaplain to the Lord Mayor if Sawbridge had been elected. 

At Michaelmas 1773 there was a heated contest for the Mayoralty 
between Wilkes and Bull on one side and Sawbridge and Oliver on the 
other. Wilkes and Bull were elected, Wilkes at the head of the poll. 
Their names were submitted to the Court of Aldermen which chose Bull, 
it was said by the casting vote of Townsend the outgoing Mayor. Bull 
was Wilkes's creature and the election was a complete discomfiture for 
Wilkes's enemies while the rejection of Wilkes in spite of his majority only 
increased his popularity. Walpole, Last Journals, 1910, i. 250. For Bull, 
see City Biography, 1800, p. 84. For the quarrel between Wilkes and 


Home, the origin of the spUt among the City patriots, see No. 4861, &c. 
See also Nos. 5130, 5131, 5235. 
6^X4 in. 


[i Nov. 1773] 

Engraving. From the MacaroTii . . . Magazine, ii. i. A bull in an alder- 
man's furred gown stands on his hind legs, leaning forwards. His horns 
are held by Wilkes who wears an alderman's gown, while another alderman 
twists his tail. A dog in alderman's gown, his collar inscribed Oliver, barks 
at the bull, two men (1.) point derisively, one dressed as an alderman, the 
other in parson's gown and bands. In the background (1.) a young man 
threatens with his cane a stout man who runs away weeping, his handker- 
chief to his eye. An alderman (r.) is whipping a girl who has fallen to the 
ground, her bundle of sticks beside her. 

The accompanying text explains this satire on the squabbles among the 
City patriots, Wilkes, Townsend, Bull, Sawbridge, &c. Alderman Bull 
is standing quietly while Wilkes holds him by the horns, and the 'Macaroni 
Alderman Sir W[atkin] L[ewes] twists his tail'. The 'Oliverian cur' 
[Alderman Oliver] tries to seize his nose; Parson Home, 'the associate of 
Judas', and Alderman Sawbridge, M.P., 'that austere tribune', look on and 
encourage the cur. Wilkes had pilloried his friends and former friends in 
the newspapers: he discovered that the Lord Mayor, James Townsend, 
had whipped a girl whom he found gathering sticks in his plantations, while 

the man of all the world who had served him most essentially was 'M 1 

L r, but he had been caned and had wept and Wilkes had gibbeted 

him 'to divert the spleen of his countrymen'. See also Nos. 4861, &c., 

5129, 5131- 
4X6|- in. 

5131 THE BULL OF GOTHAM. [i Dec. 1773] 

Woodcut. From the Westminster Magazitie, i. 669. Wilkes in his alder- 
man's gown approaches the Mansion House riding upon a bull; in his 1. 
hand is a whip. The bull has a human face and its forelegs are those of a 
man. It wears a long furred robe and mayoral chain. Behind walks a man 
in a furred gown, playing a Welsh harp decorated with a stag's head. This 
represents the election of Bull, Wilkes's protege, as Lord Mayor, see No. 
5129. The man playing the harp is Watkin Lewes, Sheriff 1772-3 and 
knighted Feb. 1773. See Nos. 4880, 5155, &c., and City Biography, 1800, 
p. 16. For his attitude in the quarrels among the city patriots see Oxford 
Magazine, x. 227-31. 

The text 'A Canonical Fragment', which accompanies the woodcut, is 
an attack on Wilkes: 'He was of the tribe of the Wilkites of the race of the 
Jews and his father's name was Israel. Now this man was a hypocrite, a 
dissembler of the truth, and great was his cunning: and he laid false snares 
and gained the hearts of the People, insomuch that they despised their 
Rulers, and him only did they obey.' He determined to humble those of the 
City who had remonstrated with him by causing a Bull-calf to rule over 
them: ^Behold ye people of Gotham, I bring you a chief ruler and a 
Head of the Elders!' For other anti-Wilkite satires, see Nos. 4326, 4887, 
5103. 5130, 5245- 




Published Decern: the 22, IJJS. 

Engraving. Round a circular table sit members of the Ministry and others. 
Standing on the 1., his I. hand on the back of a chair, is Lord Bute. Behind 
him is a folding screen inscribed This is a Horrid screen for Villany. To his 
r. in profile is the Duke of Grafton. On Bute's 1. and arranged round the 
table from 1. to r. are Lord Suffolk (?), Jeremiah Dyson, as Mungo the 
negro slave with a metal collar round his neck, and wearing a harlequin's 
dress. Next is Lord Rochford.' Next sits Lord Sandwich, wearing a 
cricketing cap and holding a cricket bat. Next, the central and dominating 
figure, is Lord Mansfield in judge's cap, wig, and robes. Next come Lord 
North and the King, so posed as to stress their likeness to each other; each 
is wearing his ribbon and star; a bandage is over the king's eyes. They are 
squeezed in between Mansfield and Sir Fletcher Norton, the Speaker, in 
his robes, with bull's horns projecting from his wig, to indicate his nick- 
name of Sir Bull-Face-Doublefee. The outside figure on the r., facing 
Grafton, is Lord Holland, with a fox's head. His r. hand, fist clenched, is 
on the table, on which lie three documents, the most prominent being The 
humble Address, Remo?istrance and Petition of the Lord Mayor. It lies across 
the Bill of Rights ; Magna Charta is the third. The room is panelled, and in 
each of three panels is a picture: on the 1. faggots piled round a stake are 
burning in a mountainous landscape. Next is an axe suspended over a 
block, with an adjacent thistle plant. This is immediately behind Mansfield 
and North, the axe appearing to be suspended over their heads. Behind 
Fletcher Norton and Lord Holland (r.) are spears, crossed muskets, a 
sword, and a pyramid of cannon-balls inscribed Provision for the Poor. 
Beneath the design is engraved : 

The Application of this subject is taken from Msops Fables by D^ Croxall 
{Fab. 18 page 33) The Moral of this Fable is that no body looks after a mans 
Affairs so ivell as he himself Servatits being but hirelings seldom have the true 
Interest of their Masters at Heart but let Things rim on in a Negligent constant 
Disorder and this gejier ally not so much for zvant of Capacity as honesty their 
Heads are taken up with the Cultivation of their own private Liter est for the 
Service and promotion of which that of their Master is postponed and often 
intirely Neglected. If this be the case as it certainly is among ordinary Masters 
and Servants and it is of so ill consequence to a Man not to Inspect the CEconofny 
of his own Household hozv deplorable must be the State of that People zvho have 
a King or Governor so Ignorant that he knows not or so Indolent that he Cares 
not what becomes of their Welfare & happiness Who leaves the Administration 
of every thing to the management of Servants and those Wicked self Interested 
ones perhaps some may fancy him a mild and good Prince because he does not 
like a Barbarian actually Butcher his people with his ozvn hands But he is 
passivelly a sad Creature and the tdtimate Author of all the Woe that his 
Subjects feel when by his neglect a Villanous Set of Ministers Triumph in the 
Ruin of the Nation or by his protection are screen d from the just Resentment 
& Indignation of an injured People. 

For the latest City Remonstrance to the King on 11 March 1773, see 
Sharpe, London and the Kingdom, 1895, iii. 135-7; Walpole, Last Jour- 
nals, 1910, pp. 180 f., 182-5. The chief interest of this satire lies in its 

' Identified by Mr. Hawkins as Halifax, but Halifax died in 1771 ; he resembles 
portraits of Rochford, see No. 5125. 



misrepresentation of the political situation, in treating George III as the 
puppet of his ministers and in giving so prominent a place not only to Bute, 
but to Holland, Grafton, Fletcher Norton, and Dyson. This attitude 
towards the King was common among satirists at this time. Compare the 
'Invocation' to the first number of the Westminster- Magazine, 1773 : 'When, 
in the Cabinet, six grey-headed Statesmen sit round a green-headed King, 
now amusing him with rattles, now feeding him with Court-pap, while they 

follow the heady current of their own humours '. See also Nos. 4883, 

5098, 5288. For threats of the scaffold to North see also No. 5135, &c. 

5133 [VISCOUNT TOWNSHEND.] [1773] 

Engraving, Frontispiece to Baratariana, 2nd ed. 1773. A bust portrait 
in an oval frame of George, fourth Viscount, afterwards first Marquis 
Townshend 1704-1807. Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1767-72. Outside the 
frame (1.) is a hand inscribed North; it holds a string which passes through 
the mouth and is held on the opposite side by a hand inscribed Bute. 
Beneath the portrait is engraved, 

In Coslum jusseris ibit 

And bid him go to Hell, to Hell he goes. 

These are quotations from Juvenal's Third Satire and Johnson's translation, 
London, 1737. 

In Baratariana, a reprint of letters from the Freeman^ s Journal by 
Langrishe, Flood, and Grattan, Townshend is ridiculed as Sancho Panza, 
Governor of Barataria, Ireland. Hume wrote, 13 Aug. 1767, 'I am told that 
Lord Townshend openly ascribes his own promotion entirely to the friend- 
ship of Lord Bute', Hume, Letters, 1932, ii. i6o. Townshend himself 
produced a number of caricatures directed against Bute. See Catalogue, iv, 
pp. xix. 56. See No. 5134. Copy in Print Department. 

Oval, 3jX2j^g in. 


Baratariana P. 203. [1773] 

Engraving. Illustration for the 2nd ed. of Baratariana, Dublin, 1773, 
representing 'The Privy Council of Barataria' (p. 20) at the meeting at which 
the summoning of parliament after repeated prorogations was decided on. 
(Ibid., pp. 203-5.) The figures seated and standing round the table have 
been identified by Edmund Malone in a note with the print as: (1. to r.) 
Philip Tisdall, Francis Andrews, Godfrey Lill, John Hely Hutchinson, 
Anthony Malone. Townshend, the Lord Lieutenant, sits at the head of the 
table ; behind him stands Sir George (afterwards Lord) Macartney and on 
his left sits Lord Annaly, from whose pocket hangs a fox's tail inscribed 
talliho. Walking into the room on the left is a figure leading two dogs 
Prorogat[ioji] and Protest; from his pocket hangs a paper. His Excellency to 
A. Cun. To 1000 Vis[its] . . . Castle £ii3yio. He is Alexander Cunning- 
ham, a Scottish surgeon. On the table is a proclamation: Townshend . . . 
Given at the Council Chamb^ Jan. 8th. 1771, and also a Mem: To sinky^ Ace: 
of the Motions upon them. Malone (at this time at the Irish bar) ends his 
note : 'All these portraits were drawn from memory and are all somewhat 
caricatured except Mr. Malone [the writer's uncle] whose profile is 



extremely like and not at all caricatured. Of Mr. Tisdall, Mr. Andrews, 
Mr. Lill, and Lord Annaly there are I believe no engraved portraits. Edm. 
Malone scripsit.* 

Baratariana is a reprint of letters in the manner of Junius pub- 
lished in the Freeman's Journal, April-May 1771, by Sir H. Langrishe, 
Flood, and Grattan attacking the administration of Townshend, see No. 
5133. The occasion of the abuse was the prorogation of parliament by 
Townshend because the Commons had rejected the customary Privy 
Council money bill on the ground that it did not take its rise in that house. 
Townshend protested against this as an infringement of Poyning's Law, 
ordered his protest to be entered in the Journals of both houses and 
prorogued parliament from three months to three months. The two dogs 
('the beagles of Catalonia and Barataria', op. cit., pp. 203-4) are an allusion 
to the famous prorogation and protest. The proclamation of 8 Jan. was 
reported by Townshend to Lord Rochford in a letter of 9 Jan. 1771. 
{Calendar of Home Office Papers, 1770-2, p. 184.) 

A copy oi Baratariana, 1773, is in the Print Department. The impression 
described can never have been bound in the book, where it is a folding 

5|x8f in. 


{<:■ 1773?] 

Engraving. Probably from a magazine, similar in manner to prints in the 
Oxford Magazine. Lord North on stilts carries Bute on his shoulders. He 
looks through his eye glass at a block and axe, in the foreground, against 
which lies a book inscribed The Book of Fate. The stilts, which replace 
North's legs from the knees downwards, are inscribed (1.) Lust of PowW, 
Fraud, Hypocrisy, and (r.) Arbitrary Power, Tyranny; they are breaking in 
pieces, under the blows of Time (1.) who raises his scythe to smite. Truth 
(r.) raises her mirror in her r. hand, pointing with her 1. at the block and 
axe. Bute, who holds North's eye-glass ribbon as if driving him by a rein, 
holds up his hands in horror at the sight, and has dropped from his 1. hand 
a sword inscribed Military Law. From his pocket hangs a label, Plan to 

Enslave K g L ds, & C ns. In the upper r. corner of the print 

the head (in profile to the 1.) and shoulders of the king appear from behind 
dark clouds and are surrounded by a glory of rays. 

The king, Bute, and North wear Garter ribbons, showing that the print 
must be later than 18 June 1772, the date of North's Garter. Cf. No. 5132, 
where North and Mansfield are threatened with the block, and Nos. 5238, 
5660, 5661, 5964, 5969, 5986, 6046, 6179, 6282. 

6^X4 in. 

129 K 



Series of Tete-a-tete portraits. 

5136 N° XXIV. MISS L— W— S. [i Jan. 1773] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, iv. 625. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames, illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .' An 
account of Sir James Lowther, afterwards Lord Londsale (173 6- 1802), his 
miserliness, his litigation with the Duke of Portland, and the Cumberland 
election contest. Miss L. is the barmaid of an inn on the road from 
Cumberland to London, whom he has established in lodgings in London. 

Ovals, 2i|X2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5137 N° XXXVII. THE AMIABLE MISS P N [Jan. 1773] 


Engraving. Tozon and Country Magazine, iv. 681 (Supplement). Two 
bust portraits in oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete 
annexed; . . .* An account of the infatuation of a rich clergyman, Mr, 
C n, who is a great sportsman, with Miss PI n, his wife's com- 
panion and a farmer's daughter. 
Ovals, 2f X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5138 N°II. M«s H N. Vol. V. 

N° III. LORD JOHN. [i.e. Jehu] [i Feb. 1773] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, v. 9, Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or Memoirs 

of Lord Jehu and Mrs. G s.' The man is dressed as a coachman and 

holds a whip. An account of James, 6th Earl of Salisbury (1713-80), 
whose prevailing passion is 'driving a set of horses in the dress of a coach- 
man'. His wife {?iee Keet) is said to have been the niece of his land 
steward whom he has sent out of his house with her children. Before 

this he had formed a permanent alliance with Mrs. H n who changed 

her name to G s; their son has now taken orders. Salisbury is said 

to have appeared only once (in 1745) in the House of Lords and to live 
now as a complete recluse. Cf. W. Coombe, Royal Register, iv. 1779, 
pp. 80 ff. 
Ovals, 2i| X 2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5139 N°IV. MADAME LA M N. Vol. V. 

N°V. L D C E. [i Mar. 1773] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, v. 65. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .' An 



account of Frederick, 5th Earl of Carlisle (1748-1825) and his amours, 

notably his liaison in Paris with a Madame la M n, a widow who has 

now come to England. 

Ovals 2f X 2j7g in. B.M.L. PP. 5442 b. 

5140 N° VII. THE FAMOUS M^s B— Y— Y. [x Apr. 1773] 
N°VIII. E. OF B— K— Y. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, v. 121. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .' 
An account of Frederick Augustus 5th Earl of Berkeley (1745-18 10). 
Mrs. Bayley was the mistress of the Duke of Cumberland between his 
affair with Lady Grosvenor and his marriage to Mrs. Horton. 

Ovals, 2l^?X2/g in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5141 N°X. SIGNORA B TINI.' [i May 1773] 

N°XI. E. OF EG T. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, v. 177. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed ; or, Memoirs 

of the Earl of E and Madame du T e'. An account of the 3rd 

earl of Egremont (1751-1837) and of his amours, especially with Mademoi- 
selle du T e who came under his protection on quitting her French 

convent to marry a rich financier; she accompanied him to England and 
lives under his protection. 

She is Rosalie Duthe, a French courtesan, the first mistress of the 
Due de Chartres ; her liaison with Egremont, whom she is said to have 
ruined, was notorious. Britsch, La Jeunesse de Philippe Egalite, 1926, 
p. 77 and n. 

Ovals, 2|X2/g in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5142 N°XIII. MISS P M. [i June 1773] 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, v. 233. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .' An 
account of an Irish peer, who had quarrelled with and challenged the 
Duke of Bedford when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and of Miss P, an 
actress, now his mistress, whom he first met at Bath in 1757. He is John 
Smith de Burgh, nth Earl of Clanricarde (1720-82), G.E.C., Complete 

Ovals, 2|X2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5143 N°XVI. MISS GR— SL— Y. [i July 1773] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, v. 289. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . . .' 
An account of Peter one of the Commissaries 'who in the last war in 

' An 'unaccountable error' of the engraver. Town and Country Magazine, v. 
177 n. 


Germany increased the national debt many millions, to fill their coffers'. 
He was the son of a glazier born in Wells ; after being bankrupt made 
a fortune during the war. Miss G. was his cook-maid. 

Ovals, zllxz^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5144 N°XIX. MISS CH N. [i Aug. 1773] 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, v. 345. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .' An 
account of Lord Clive and a Miss Fanny C, a clergyman's daughter and 
milliner's apprentice, who having been seduced and deserted accepted 
a settlement of ^100 a year from him. See No, 51 11, &c. 
Ovals, 2| X 2^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b, 

5145 N°XXII. MADAME H— N— L [i Sept, 1773] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, v. 401. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed ; . . .' An 
account of Charles Fox, in 'his political, his senatorial, and his gambling 
character' and of his amours: He was infatuated by Madame Heinel, 
then dancing at the opera, and approached her by buying and distributing 
two hundred tickets for her benefit. In the Westminster Magazine, i. 561, 
Sept. 1773, there are verses 'To the Young Cub on his keeping Madam 
H — n — 1*. The Macaroni Club complimented her 'with a regalo' of 
j()6oo. Burney, Hist, of Music, iv. 498 n. 
Ovals, 2| X 2^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b, 

5146 N°XXV, MISS B N. Vol. V. 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, v. 457. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .' An 
account of Joseph Banks, see No. 5046, &c. Miss B., the daughter of 
a gentleman of fortune who died insolvent, lives with great decorum as 
Banks's mistress. 
Ovals, 2| X 2f in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5147 N° XXVIII. MRS R Vol.V. 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, v. 513. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or. Memoirs 

of the Libertine Macaroni and Mrs. R n.' An account of Thomas, 

2nd Baron Lyttelton (1744-79), ^"<^ °f ^^^ amours. See No. 5198, &c. 
Ovals, 2f X 2/g in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


N° XXXII. THE D. OF S. A. [i Dec. 1773] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, v. 569. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .' An 



account of the amours of George, 3rd duke of St. Albans (1730-86). 
Mademoiselle la P. warned him in Brussels that he was being fleeced by 
sharpers at the house of a pretended marchioness there; he brought her 
to England where she resides under his protection. 
Ovals, 2|X2f in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5 1 49-5 1 68 and numbers from Volume IV 

Darly's series, continued from No. 5055. 

Volume VI. ' 

TITLE PAGE (Characters, Macaronies, and Caricatures by M. Darly) 

See No. 4666 — Nov. 1773 


See No. 4707 — 17 Apr. 1773 

5149 V. 6. 2. WHO 'S AFRAID 

Puh accord to Act March 18^'" iyy3 by M Darly jg Strand 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of an elderly man running forward, grinning, 
shouting with outstretched arms. In his 1. hand is a walking-stick. 
A wide looped hat on the back of his head shows straggling locks of his 
own hair. He wears a long coat with wide cuffs, a plain neckcloth, ruffled 
shirt-sleeves, and high-quartered shoes. 


Pu¥ by M Darly (jg) Strand Feby 13 1773. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man standing in profile to the r. In his r. 
hand he holds a bridle, a stick is under his 1. arm. He wears a small looped 
club, a low hat, plain coat, striped waistcoat, and spurred riding boots. 

7x5 in. (pi.). 


Pub accor to Act by M Darly 3g Strand Feby 9'^ 177 3- 

Engraving. W.L. caricature portrait of a thin man with a large head walking 
or running in profile to the r. His wig is a high toupet with a queue in 
a black bag. In his 1. hand he holds out a small three-cornered hat, in 
his r. is a sword whose point rests on the ground. He wears a short coat 
with facings and epaulettes, and a ruffled shirt. Beneath the title is en- 
graved : 

O [Wilkes ?] beware of this tremendous Hat and Arm, 

For should we by chance to meet it would me Harm. 

For tho I to the World a poli n now Appear. 

Yet d n me but to my Angelic Wh e am sincere. 

' Three prints issued in January 1773 are included in Volume v. See Nos. 4665, 


^ Number added in ink. 


Perhaps intended for Colonel Luttrell, Wilkes's opponent at the Middle- 
sex election 13 April 1769. When attacked by the mob at Brentford he 
was said to have lost nothing but his hat. See Nos. 4285, 4852, 4971. 

7x5 in (pi.). 


Pu¥ by M Darly (jp) Strand Fehy 5 1773. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man in profile to the r. He appears to have 
a scar on his cheek. He wears a bulky coat with a wide collar, a large 
neckcloth. In his 1. hand is a curiously shaped walking-stick. Except for 
his small looped hat there is nothing of the macaroni about his dress. 

7x5 in. (pi.). 


Puh accord^ to Act by M Darly jg Strand April 2^ iyy2 [sic] 

Engraving. Portrait of a man walking fast to the 1. and looking round to his 1. 
In his r. hand he holds out a striped and spotted handkerchief; in his 1. is 
a cane. Pens protrude from his coat pocket. His hair is in a twisted and 
looped club; he wears a three-cornered hat, frilled shirt, short coat, 
striped breeches, and a sword, 

7^X5 in. (pi.) 


See No. 4667 — i Apr. 1773 


Pub Feb. 28. iyy3 by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. Portrait, W.L., of a short man standing full face. In his r. hand 
are a number of wine glasses, his 1. thumb is thrust under his apron-string. 
He wears a wide hat, a striped handkerchief knotted round his neck, 
a rough irregularly shaped apron over his coat and waistcoat. 

7x41 in. (pi.). 

[No publication line.] 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man wearing a furred livery gown and a 
double-peaked fool's cap with bells. His head is turned slightly to the r. In 
his 1. hand is a watchman's rattle. 

He is Sir Watkin Lewes, a recently knighted alderman and city patriot. 
Sheriff of London 1772-3. See No. 5131, &c. 
7iX4|in. (pL). 


Pub accord, to Act by M Darly (jg) Strand July 5'* iyy3 
Engraving. A young man leaning against a bank under a tree holds out in his 

' Nvimber added in ink 


r. hand a square frame in which are displayed dead butterflies and moths. 
In his 1. hand is a butterfly net. His hat is a large butterfly; writhing cater- 
pillars represent his curled hair. A butterfly rests on his 1. coat cuff. His 
coat is adorned with symmetrical snails to represent trimming. 

This is evidently Moses Harris, entomologist and engraver, secretary 
to the Aurelian Society, who published The Aurelian, or Natural History of 
English Insects, Snails, Moths, and Butterflies, together zvith the Plants on 
■which they feed, 1766, with forty-five plates all drawn and engraved by 
Harris from life and brilliantly coloured (B.M.L. 459 f. 11). The frontis- 
piece, which is burlesqued in this print, is a self-portrait of the author with 
a large butterfly-net leaning against a bank with a box of butterflies in his 

6 J X 4iin. 

Juen-Ming del. Li Tsong Sculps 

Pu¥ by M Darly March 7 1773 39 Strand 

Engraving. The standing figure of a man whose head is that of a double- 
headed animal, to the 1. an ass, to the r. a bear. With his 1. hand (which also 
holds a whip) he leads an elephant whose head and trunk appear from the 
r. His r. hand rests on the pinnacle of a Chinese pagoda ornamented with 
dragons. Suspended round his neck is the figure of a bear showing that he 
has the Swedish order of the Polar Star. He wears tartan trousers. Beneath 
is etched: 

Frotn North to the South, I came forth right, 

By favor in duplici modo a Knight, 

In primis an Ass, secundus a Bear^ 

The one is a Fact, the other is Fair. 

A satire on Sir William Chambers, illustrating in detail Mason's Heroic 
Epistle to Sir William Chambers, Knight, . . . which had just appeared, and 
opens 'Knight of the Polar Star' ; it is both a political satire and an attack on 
Chambers' Dissertation on Oriental Gardening and on the Chinese pagoda 
which he had built at Kew for the Princess Dowager of Wales. Chambers 
is said to have been of Scottish descent, he was born in Sweden and was 
made Knight of the Polar Star by the king of Sweden. The elephant and 
ass illustrate the lines, 

In some fair island will we turn to grass 
(With the Queen's leave) her elephant and ass. 

They refer to Queen Charlotte's wild animals, including an elephant and a 
zebra known as the Queen's Ass (see No. 3870), which grazed in St. James' 
Park near Buckingham House. See Satirical Poems by William Mason with 
Notes by Horace Walpole, ed. Toynbee, 1926. 



P[ub as] the Act directs July 22^ 1773 by M Darly {3g) Strand. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man walking fast in profile to the r. In his 1. 
hand and resting on his 1. shoulder is a long pair of scales: a small pair is in 



his r. hand. An instrument resembling a pair of shears is attached to the r. 
side of his coat. His hat is ornamented with the feather of a pen. 

'The Act' is evidently the Coin Act, see No. 5128, &c., which had made 
scales necessary for all to whom payments were made in gold. 

13. THEODOSIUS HOMUNCULUS ESQ. [Theodosius Forrest.] 

See No. 4688 — 20 July 1779 


Pub accors to Act by M Darly (59) Strand Aug^ i'^ 1773- 

Engraving. Portrait of a man standing in profile to the 1. He wears a bag wig, 
a long coat with large cuffs, and a frilled shirt. His tongue protrudes. His 
hat is under his 1. arm. He holds a walking-stick in his 1. hand, and in his r. 
a print which appears to represent a fight between boxers in a room. On 
another impression is written in pencil, *Dr. Channing'. 

7x41 in. (pi.). 

5160 V. 6. 15. THE ANTIQUARIAN. 

Pu¥ as the Act directs Sep'' 9, 1773 by M Darly. 59 Strand. 

Engraving. Caricature portrait of a man in profile to the r. He is smiling 
and holds up in his 1. hand a coin with a head inscribed OTHO EMP. In 
his r. hand is a cane with a chased handle. He wears spectacles, a large 
flowing curled wig, an oddly-shaped cap decorated with a pair of horns like 
those worn on medieval women's head-dresses, an old-fashioned heavily- 
trimmed coat, a long brocade waistcoat and boots (which appear to date 
from the 17th century) with large spurs. His sword has a crescent-shaped 

Perhaps intended for Jeremiah Milles (1714-84), Dean of Exeter and 
president of the Society of Antiquaries 1768-84. Antiquarians were 
ridiculed in Foote's Nabob, Haymarket, 1772. 
7x41 in. (pi.) 

5161 V.6. 16. A REVD MACARONI. 

Pu¥ Accord to Act Ocf i'^ 1773 by M Darly 3g Strand. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a man standing in profile to the 1. He wears his 
own hair, a plain coat, riding breeches, and spurred boots. His 1. hand is in 
his breeches-pocket and under his arm is a riding- whip. 


Pub accor to Act by M Darly ( J9) Strand Aug^ 10^^ ^77 3 

Engraving. Portrait of a man standing in profile to r. He has a bulbous 
nose, a stubbly chin, a protruding waistcoat. In his r. hand is a tankard with 
an open lid, in his 1. a whip with a long lash. He wears a low wide three- 
cornered hat, a plain neckcloth, coat, long waistcoat, knee-breeches, 
buckled shoes. 

6iX4i in. 



5163 V. 6. 18. SEIGNOR CATGUT ANEO. 

Pu¥ AccoT' to Act Oct' 21. iyy3 by M Darly Strand. 

Engraving. A man seated and playing a viol da gamba, the upper end of 
which is decorated by a carved head w^ith a smiling face, wearing a laurel 
wreath, which is probably a portrait of the musician. He wears a small wig, 
a coat with large old-fashioned cuffs, and ruffled shirt-sleeves. 

Probably Abel, well known in London concert rooms at this time. 
There is a certain resemblance to an etching of Abel published in 1787 
called 'a Solo on the Viol di Gamba', Burney Collection of Theatrical 
Portraits, vol. i. fo. 4. 


5164 V. 6. 19. DOCTOR FORCEPS 

Pub accord to Act Oct' 21 lyys by M Darly Strand. 

Engraving. Portrait of an elderly man walking in profile to the r. He wears 
spectacles and walks with a tall cane. He wears a sword and is dressed in an 
old-fashioned way with a low wide hat, large tie-wig and long coat. 

Evidently a well-known accoucheur, dressed in the manner of the old- 
fashioned physician, see McMichael, The Gold-headed Cane, 1827. 

6x4! ^"• 


See No. 4689 — 21 Oct. 1773 


Pu¥ Accord to Act OcV 24^^ ^77 3 by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. W.L. caricature portrait of a lawyer walking in profile to the I. 
He is obese with several chins ; his head is shaved and he carries a large wig. 
In his I. hand is a rolled document. He wears a voluminous gown which 
rests on the ground. 



Pu¥ Accor- to Act. Oct. 11. 1773 by M Darly Strand 

Engraving. Portrait of a man facing T.Q. to 1. Under his 1. arm is a large 
book, in his 1. hand a drawing instrument. His r. hand is thrust under his 
waistcoat and under his r. arm is a macaroni cane. He wears a low 
three-cornered hat, frilled shirt and cravat, striped breeches and a sword. 
On the ground is a fragment of carved classical frieze, a paper and a pair of 

Probably a portrait of Robert Adam, the most celebrated of the Adam 
brothers. The book is perhaps intended for Works in Architecture by 
Robert and James Adam, whose publication in folio parts began in 1773. 
Reproduced by A. E. Richardson, Georgian England, 193 1, p. 200. 

6x4! in. 



Pub by Darly jg Strand Of 1, 1773. 

Engraving. Caricature portrait of a man standing or walking in profile to 
the 1. He wears a long cape-like coat with a wide collar which reaches to 
his ankles, a low looped hat and a small curled wig. He holds a stick in a 
hand which is concealed under his coat. 



Pub by M Darly 59 Strand Oct 18. lyys 

Engraving. Portraitof a man standing in profile to the 1. Under his arm is 
a large book, Vegetab[le] Syste[m] by D . . . He wears patched old-fashioned 
clothes and torn stockings, a short wig which fails to conceal his own hair. 
His hat is under his r. arm, a cane under the 1. 

A portrait of 'Sir' John Hill, a quack or charlatan with a diploma of 
medicine from the University of St. Andrews, but a botanist of some 
repute. He began the publication of his Vegetable System in 1759, the last 
of twenty-six folio volumes coming out in 1775. He was said to be *in 
a chariot one month, in jail the next for debt'. D.N.B. One of his remedies 
was advertised as Elixir of Bardana or Essence of Water Dock, see 
No. 4040, &c. 
5|-X4f in. 

5169, 5170 

Prints from a series published by Darly, continued from p. 90. 

5169 29. HATS. 

Pu¥ Accord to Act Ocr i. lyyj by M Darly, jp Strand. 

Engraving, A companion print to No. 5170. Twelve caricature heads show- 
ing the different types of hat then Vv'orn by men. 

Four of the heads were copied in a Dutch print to represent 'English 
lords', see No. 5839. 


5170 28. WIGS. 

Pu¥ Accord to Act Ocf 12. lyjS by M Darly jp Strand 

Engraving. A companion print to No. 5169. Fourteen caricature heads 
showing the different types of wig then worn. Most appear to be portraits : 
one is evidently a caricature of Lord Chancellor Bathurst, see No. 4888. 

Three of the heads were copied (one twice) in a Dutch print to represent 
'English lords', see No. 5839. 

Eleven prints 

from a series published by Darly, continued from No. 4699, p. 90. 


See No. 4642 — 20 Feb. 1773 



5171 [V. 2. 5.]' TO BE SOLD TO THE BEST BIDDER. 
E. T. inv' [E. Topham]. 

Pub accord to Act by M Darly jp Strand March 15'^ ^773- 

Engraving. An auctioneer holding up his hammer in his 1. hand, stands in 
his rostrum, a box supported on four legs, and reached by a ladder (1.), He 
wears a toupet wig with a large black bag, wide cuffs, ruffled shirt-sleeves. 
His three-cornered hat is under his arm. He is in profile to the r., his mouth 
open as if shouting. Evidently a portrait of Langford, see No. 5001. 
Beneath the design is etched : 

All the valuable goods and effects of a Scavoir-Vivre Bankrupt consisting of 
a collection of very scarce Books, (not to be met with in any of the Public 
Libraries) containing the most approved list of Cosmetics, Paints, washes, &c., 
&c.,for beautifying the Skin: together with an unique set of Antiques after 
the present mode and an excessive fine Statue of a Venus taken from Himself, 
when abroad; zvith a number of suits of Cloaths, Hats, &c., &c., &c., all 
au dernier gout & very fit for any one who has an intention of entering on the 
Business, together with the right of Patronage to the best Productions of the 
Age, from a late resolution of that Society. NB.: the Subscription unpaid 
— Likewise to be sold a Quantity of Articles in Mrs. Phillip's zvay, not the 
least worse for Wear.- 

Cf. a similar portrait of Christie, No. 61 01. 
6\ X 6J in. (clipped). 

5172 THE LAST DROP. [11 May 177333 
Pu¥ by Sayer, Print-seller, Fleet Street, London. 

Engraving. A reissue (n.d.) with a different publication line of a print pub- 
lished by Darly dated as above, which was No. i, Vol. 2 of the series pub- 
lished 1772-4. A short stout man stands on tip-toe by a table to drink 
from a large punch-bowl which he tilts forwards. Behind him stands a 
skeleton (r.), its 1. hand on his shoulder, its r. holding up a dart which it 
is about to plunge into the head of the drinker. An hour-glass where sands 
have run out is on the ground at his feet. The table (1.) is a small round one, 
on it are a wine glass and pipe. Cf. No. 5513. 

8|X 6| in. Book of Sayer's 'Drolls'. 

5173 REFIN'D TASTE. [c. May 1773] 
R.S'CM. [Mansergh] Inv' 

Printed for Rob^ Sayer, Fleet Street. 

Engraving. A reissue of a plate published by Darly (n.d.) which was No. 6 
of Vol. 2' in the series published 1772-4. A civilian (r.) standing in profile 
to the 1. gazes through a glass at a tall and bulky soldier in uniform (1.) 

' Number supplied from the impression in the volume belonging to Mr. Dyson 
Perrin, exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts, 193 1-2. 

^ At a Pantheon masquerade of 12 May 1773 one of the characters was 'Mother 
Phillips, with a parcel of advertisements, denoting her modest commodities, and the 
place of their sale'. Town and Country Magazine, v, p. 265. She kept a shop, see 
Archenholtz, Tableau de V Angleterre , Bruxelles, 1788, ii, 172. 

^ Date supplied from an impression in a volume belonging (1933) to Mr. W. T. 
Spencer, New Oxford Street. 


who Stands in back view, turning his head in profile to the r. towards the 
civiHan. The civihan is fashionably dressed wearing a bag-wig and sword, 
a cane under his arm. The soldier wears jack-boots and holds a long sword 
under his arm. 

Beneath the title is etched. 

Eternal Infamy, that Wretch Confound, 
Who Planted first this Vice on English Ground 
A Crime that spite of Sense & Nature reigns, 
And Poisons Genial Love & Manhood stains. 

Vide Rod. Random. 

6x9! in. Book of Sayer's 'Drolls'. 

2. 9. THE ECLIPSE MACARONY See No. 4643—12 May 1773 
O 'Kelly and his horse Eclipse. 

5174 V. 2. 18. THE BENGALL MINUET 

Pu¥ Accord to Act Nov 3 ly^j by M Darly Strand 

Engraving. In a panelled room without furniture, two figures in profile 
face each other in a minuet. On the 1. is an elderly man with a rather stiff 
manner, dressed in the fashion of the day, and wearing a toupet-wig with 
a black bag; he holds his hat in his r. hand. On the r. is a sharp-featured 
woman with her hair dressed high and ornamented with lace. She wears 
a low dress with elbow sleeves, long gloves, and a train over a flounced 
petticoat. On the alternate panels of the room are square pictures and oval 
mirrors in carved frames. 

The figures are perhaps satirical portraits of some 'nabob' and his wife 
preparing themselves for a London season or a Bath Assembly. Foote's 
Nabob was first played at the Haymarket in 1772. 



Young Vanity inV Old Envy sculp. 

Pub by M Darly Nov. 5. 1773. 39. Strand . where any sketch that is 
fair game will have due Honor shewn. 

Engraving. Macklin as Macbeth, his dagger held up in his 1. hand, his head 
in profile to the r. He wears a feathered hat, long hair, and Scottish dress : 
a large plaid, kilt, bare knees, and tartan stockings, a thistle badge hangs 
from his neck on a ribbon, a claymore (so-called) hangs at his waist. 
Beneath the title is etched, 

I see thee yet, in form as palpable 
As that which now I draw 

Macklin appeared, 3 October 1773, as Macbeth, the part being played 
for the first time in Scottish dress, before a very hostile audience, who 
expected to be 'spectators of his downfall', thinking his age would not 
allow him to go through the part to the end. 'Lady Macbeth's modern 
robes by no means accorded with the habits of the other personages, and 
Mr. Macklin's flowing curls, like the locks of an Adonis, were unpardonably 
out of character.' Macaroni and Theatrical Magazine, ii. 8, Oct. 1773 



Before this time Macbeth was dressed as a modern military officer. Genest, 
V. 414. The public treated him with great injustice, and accustomed to 
see him in comedy, and regarding his Shylock as above criticism, refused 
to accept him in a heroic part. Finally, on Nov. 18, he was refused a 
hearing and the mob could not be pacified till Colman reluctantly agreed 
to his dismissal. Macklin's assumption of the part roused many personal 
jealousies, see No. 5203. For Macklin see also Nos. 2599 (1743), 4846. 
There is an engraving of Macklin as Macbeth in the London Magazine, 
1773, p. 524, not in Scottish costume. 

8ix6|- in. 

V. 2. 21. SR BIBO BULKY See No. 4644—1 Dec. 1773 


See No. 4645 — i Dec 1773 

V. 2. 23. ARTILLERY DUTY See No. 4646—1 Dec. 1773 

A satire on military effeminacy. 

AT HORN-SEY. [c. 1773.] 

[? After R. St. G. Mansergh.] 

Published by R. Sayer, 53 Fleet Street. 

Engraving. Similar in manner to No. 5173 and probably also a re-issue of 
a print published by Darly. An obese citizen sits in a small heavily-built 
phaeton, drawn (1. to r.) by a clumsy pony ridden by an elderly postilion 
with a wooden leg, ambling slowly along. He takes his pipe from his 
mouth to say Don't hurry me John. Behind the carriage stands a footman 
in macaroni dress ; his master is dressed in a more old-fashioned manner. 
The title derives from the old gibe that 'cits' were all cuckolds. No. 4640 
(1772) is a similar subject by Mansergh, 
5|X 9I in. Book of Bayer's 'Drolls'. 

5 I 77-5 I 86 

A series of portraits of courtesans, &c.' 

5177 6. A NUN OF THE 3d CLASS 

Pu¥Jany J, 1773, by M Darly 3g Strand. 

Engraving. No. 6 in a series of bust profile portraits of women all styled 
either Nun, a common term for a courtesan living in a house of ill fame, 
or Abbess, the keeper of such a house. The sequence of the series is not 
that of date of publication. In all, the design is in an oval, enclosed in an 
oblong of the same dimensions, the oval and the rectangle being differen- 
tiated by engraved lines of different patterns, 

A young woman in profile to the r., her hair neatly dressed over a high 

' Six of these, with titles erased or stopped out, are included in a volume whose 
title-page is No. 5369, exhibited by Mr. Dyson Perrins, at the Burlington Fine 
Arts Club, 1 93 1 -2. 



cushion and decorated with loops of lace or ribbon. She is of demure ap- 
pearance and wears an ear-ring; a black ribbon is tied round her neck. 
She appears distinctly the social superior of No. 5178. 

5X3! in. Fairholt's 'Collection for Costume', i. fo. 114 b. 

5178 7. A NUN OF THE 2^ CLASS. 
Pu¥ by M Darly (jg) Strand, Feby 10*^ 177 3- 

Engraving. One of a series, see No. 5177. A young woman in profile to 
the r. She wears a muslin cap over straggling hair which falls on her 
forehead and neck. Suspended from her neck on a cord is a locket, on 
which is partly visibly the profile of a man. 

4iiX3f i^- Fairholt's 'Collection for Costume', i. fo. 113 b. 

5179 2. A NUN OF THE 4th CLASS. 
Pu¥ by M Darly (jg) Strand Feby ig. 1773. 

Engraving. One of a series, see No. 5177. Profile portrait of a young 
woman in profile to the 1. She wears a large mob-cap, beneath which her 
hair appears on her forehead and below the ear. Her dress is high to the 
neck and defines her breasts, 

5X3I in. Fairholt's 'Collection for Costume', i. fo. 115. 

5180 3. A NUN OF THE 6th CLASS 
Pu¥ by M Darly 3g Strand March i. 1773. 

Engraving. No. 3 in a series, see No. 5177. A young woman in profile to 
the r. wearing an elaborate cap, the frill of which conceals her eye. Her 
chin is patched. Her hair is fashionably dressed, her dress cut low; she 
wears a black ribbon round her neck. 

4^|X3| in. Fairholt's 'Collection for Costume', i. fo. 115 b. 

Pu¥ by MDarly 3g. Strand March r^ 1773. 

Engraving. One of a series, see No. 5177, the title showing that she is the 
keeper of a brothel. A stout truculent-looking woman in profile to the 1. 
Her face is heavily patched. She wears a mob-cap, beneath which her hair 
appears on her forehead and below her ear; over her shoulders is a handker- 
chief, and round her neck a string of beads. 

Sliest ^^- Fairholt's 'Collection for Costume', i. fo. 116 b. 

5182 8. A NUN OF THE ist CLASS. 

Pu¥ accor. to Act by MDarly ( jp) Strand March 22^ 1773 

Engraving. One of a series, see No. 5177. A young woman in profile to 
the 1. wearing a cap. Round her neck is a black ribbon. Her cheek is 

5X3I in. Fairholt's 'Collection for Costume', i. fo. ii3. 



Pu¥ by MDarly jg. Strand 24^^ March. 1773. 

Engraving. One of a series, see No. 5177. Portrait of a fashionably dressed 
and dignified woman in profile to the r. She wears a necklace and in the 
front of her low-cut dress is a nosegay. 

Possibly intended for Mrs. Baddeley, to whose portraits it has a certain 
resemblance, as also to the portrait called A Pantheon No Rep, No. 4998 

4^1x3! in. Fairholt's 'Collection for Costume', i. fo. iii b; 


Pub accor to Act by MDarly March 30 1773 {39) Strand. 

Engraving. No. 5 in a series, see No. 5177, the title here implying that the 
subject is the keeper of a brothel. A woman in profile to the r. of dignified 
and refined appearance. Her hair is fashionably dressed over a high 
cushion and ornamented with lace. A black ribbon is tied round her neck. 
Her dress appears to be loose neglige. 

4ii^3t ^' Fairholt's 'Collection for Costume', i. fo. 114. 

5185 10. A NUN OF THE H" CLASS. 

Pub Accord, to Act April, 26, 1773, by M Darly, 39 Strand 

Engraving. No. 10 in a series, see No. 5177. A woman in profile to the 1. 
wearing a ribbon-trimmed hat whose brim conceals the upper part of her 
face. Her shoulders are covered vi'ith a flowered sacque trimmed with 
ruchings of ribbon. 

4i|X3| in. Fairholt's 'Collection for Costume', i. fo. 113. 

5186 A NUN OF THE 2^ CLASS [n.d. c. 1773] 
Pub by M Darly 59 Strand 

Engraving. One of a series, see No. 5177. A woman in profile to the r. 
wearing a cap whose frill conceals her eye and much of her cheek. 

4j|X3| in. Fairholt's 'Collection for Costume', i. fo. 112 b. 

5 I 87-5 I 89 

Three Cambridge satires, by the same artist, probably an amateur. 


Published accord^ to Act of Parliament Janv 14^^ 1773 by M" Sledge 
Henrietta Street Covent Garden London 

Engraving. The interior of a panelled room ; a young man wearing a three- 
cornered hat and the gown of a fellow commoner of Trinity College, with 
his hands behind his back and without any indication of passion, spits in the 
face of a man in a closely curled wig. A cat, with arched back, stands on a 
chair watching the encounter. On the wall behind are ranged objects to 
show that it is the room of an active justice of peace: a picture (1.) of a man 
(T.Q.L.) with bare back standing at a whipping-post; a pair of jack boots 
hanging from nails on the lower edge of the frame gives an illusion of a W.L. 



figure. On the next two panels are hung a halter of rope and a chain. On 
the r. panel is a picture of Justice (H.L.) with ass's ears and wearing a fool's 
cap. One eye is blindfolded; in her r. hand is a wooden sword, in her 1. a 
pair of scales, one end of which she is holding down with her r. forefinger. 
(The J.P. was often styled a justass, see No. 6120.) Below this hangs an 
academic gown surmounted by a hat, beneath which stands a pair of shoes. 
Beneath the design is etched, 

Ah! Poor Justice, Oh fie [Stanley] 

Dud a cry. To treat him so scornfully, 
Ah! welladay. Shamefully, mournfully 
Wipe an Eye Fie. 

An impression of this print was one of a number sent by Cole the 
antiquary to Horace Walpole. He afterwards sent him the following 
explanation of it, April 18, 1775: 

'The Hon M"" Stanley, Brother to Lord Stanley & Fellow Commoner of 
Trinity College, is spitting in D"" Ewen's face. The Likenesses are tolerably 
well preserved: D"" Ewen [Ewin] does not squint enough. He cast M^ Stanley 
on a Trial in Westminster Hall, made him pay & ask Pardon' Add. MSS. 
5824, fo. 84 b. 

A note by Cole on the occasion of a letter (n.d.) from Ewin to himself 
announcing that Mr. Stanley had not got his degree ('M'' Stanley offered 
again and was stopped on the caput'), explains: 'This refers to M'' Stanley's 
spiting in D"" Ewins Face about Christmas Eve on some offence or con- 
ceived offence from D'' Ewin of which a Print is now made & sold : He is 
grandson to the Earl of Derby.' Ibid., 5844, fo, 42 b. 

He was the Hon. Thomas Stanley (1753-79), afterwards a major in the 
army. W. H. Ewin (i73i?-8o), St. John's College, a wealthy Cambridge 
brewer and usurer, was expelled from the university and suspended from 
his degrees in 1778 for lending money usuriously to an undergraduate, 
subsequently restored on a mandamus but severely censured by Lord Mans- 
field, and struck out of the Commission of the Peace. The subject of many 
lampoons by undergraduates. See D.N.B. 

The print appears in No. 5189. 

5X7! in. 

There is a W.L. portrait of 'D'' Ewing' walking in profile to the r. called 
The Man of Accomodation, etched by Anna Maria Dean after a drawing 
by 'M'' Porteus of Trin. Coll.' in book of 'Honorary Engravers', ii, fo. 157, 

Athanasius Credo fecit [i773] 

Published accordp to Act of Parliament on the i^^ day of Trinity Term 
by M" Sledge Henrietta Street Covent Garden, London. 

Engraving. Religion, a veiled woman holding a cross, is being roughly 
handled by two men wearing academic cap and gown with clerical bands. 
In the background is a half-ruined church (1.). 'The Louse', who is small and 
slight, has seized Religion by the hair, his r. hand grasps an upright post, his 
foot is on her gown and he is preventing her from being dragged away by 
her assailant. The other, 'the Bear', a large burly man, has seized her hood 
with his r. hand, with his 1. he pulls at her draperies, leaving her shoulders 
and breast partly bare ; his r. foot is on an open book. A small dog barks at 
them. Beneath the title is etched, 



A surly Bear in College bred, 
Determined to attack Religion; 
A Louse who crawl' d from Head to Head 
Defended Her — as Hawk does Pigeon 
Bruin, Subscription discojnmended. 
The Louse determhi'd to support it, 
But . . . Desunt multa . . . 

A satire on the petition to Parliament for relief from subscription to the 
Thirty-nine Articles rejected in 1772 and again in 1773, see Nos. 4944, 
5107. The print is described by Cole in a letter to H. Walpole: 'D"" Halli- 
fax the present Law Professor, commonly called Louse Hallifax from his 
affectation of getting among the Heads of Colleges and consorting with 
them. He wrote and preached excellently in defence of Subscription to 
Articles and against the Clerical Petitioners, than whom none was more 
violent and vehement than M'' Barker, a fat fellow of Queens' College, and 
warm Republican. The figures represent them very well: Barker particularly. 
The insignificant mean figure of D^ Hallifax is very well hit off.' Add. MSS. 
5824, fo. 84b. Samuel Hallifax, afterwards Bishop of Gloucester, was 
Regius Professor of Civil Law at Cambridge from 1770 to 1782. Some 
letters signed 'Erasmus' in 1772 in favour of subscription to Articles were 
generally attributed to him. SeeD.N.B. John Barker, D.D., became Master 
of Queens' College in 1780. Royal Kalendar, 1781, p. 236. 

The print appears in No. 5189. 

5189 VENUS TURN'D PROCTOR [c. 1773] 

London publish' d by ilf" Sledge Hetirietta Street Covetit Garden. Price 

Engraving. A man in academic gown and bands , with a small wig, stands with 
a complacent expression, 'in the attitude of the Venus de Medici*. A boy 
(1.) has just taken a dead cat from a hamper and holds it out towards him by 
the tail. A halberd stands against the wall, its spike transfixing a woman's 
ribboned hat, representing the spoils of a Cambridge proctor. On the wall 
are three framed pictures ; three unframed prints are also pinned up : these 
are this print (Venus turn'd Proctor) in the centre; No. 5188 (1.), and No. 
5187 (r.). The pictures are: (1.) The Gentleman and Scholar United, two 
T.Q.L. figures whose arms are tied together; one, in academic dress and 
wearing an old-fashioned coat with huge cuffs, is holding out a book in his 
r. hand ; the other, dressed as a macaroni wearing an enormous bag- wig ; he 
is holding up a sword in his 1. hand. Above their heads is a device of four 
crossed hands, inscribed The Union. The centre picture, its frame inscribed 
Dead Game, is of two books: Bible and University Statutes (out of this 
projects a pair of clerical bands inscribed 6^ 8^). On them lies an open 
pamphlet inscribed A Sermon preached at Wisbech assizes before . . . The 
third picture (r.) is Miss Boreas, the portrait (H.L.) of a woman whose face 
is made out of a pair of bellows. She was probably a Miss North. Beneath 
the print is etched, 

O Venus Beauty of the Skies, 

To whom a thousand Temples rise; 

Gay ly false in gentle Smiles, — 


In Mathematicks he was greater 

Than Tycho Brake, or Err a Pater: 

For he, by Geometrick Scale, 

Cou'd take the Size of Pots of Ale; 

Resolve by Sines & Tangents, straight; 

If Bread or Butter wanted weight; 

He knew What's What, & that's as high 

As Metaphysick Wit can fly; 

All lov'd him well, who knew his Fame, 

And sent him Cats, instead of Game. 

Cole sent an explanation of the print to H. Walpole, i8 April 1775 : 

'M^ Purkes [William Purkis, M.A.] of Magdalen College, Proctor in 1773 
to whom some wag advertised him by letter that a Basket of Game was 
coming to him by the Cambridge Coach, which turned out to be dead cats & 
dogs &c. It is an handsome likeness of him. He stands in the Attitude of 
the Venus de Medici in which Posture he would frequently place himself, 
before his Friends. Indeed, he is a most cotisummate vain coxcomb Always 
talking of uniting the Gentleman & the Scholar which gained him the Name 
of M'' Union. Tho' People thought it wrong thus to expose a worthy man, 
for he was no ways vicious but a good Tutor & no bad Scholar, yet others 
thought his Vanity deserved it.' Add. MSS. 5824, fo. 84 b. 

5 X 7I in. 

SUDS. [i Mar. 1773] 

T. H. (monogram). 

Woodcut. Westminster Magazine, i. 157. It illustrates an 'Authentic 
Relation of the Quarrel between Sir J. Mawbey and Rich. Wyatt Esq.' 
quoting from Mawbey 's letters to the newspapers in vindication of himself. 
Mawbey lies on the floor, warding off a blow from Wyatt, who stands 
over him, his nose bleeding. A waiter in the doorway starts back in alarm. 

This was a fracas in the Ordnance Arms Tavern arising out of reports 
that Mawbey had not defended his honour by challenging Wyatt, followed 
by an attempted justification of himself by Mawbey in the newspapers, 
which revived the quarrel. 'This transaction, ridiculous as it is, may have 
its use, in convincing the Patriotic Mob, what frail materials their firmest 
champions are made of; and how little those men have it in their power 
to h& patriotic on extraordinary occasions, who cannot on common occasions 
behave in a manly manner.' Ibid., p. 158. 

Mawbey (1730-98), a rich distiller, M.P. for Southwark, and Chairman 
of the Surrey Quarter Sessions, had been a supporter of Wilkes, but prided 
himself on being above party, so that he was a butt of the wits on both sides. 
See Nos. 5191, 5192. 
25|X3|in. B.M.L., P.P. 5443. 


Woodcut. From the Town & Country Magazine, v. 92. One of two com- 
batants lies on the floor, one eye closed from a blow; the other stands 



over him with clenched fists. Three men appear in the doorway. An 
overturned table, wine-bottle, &c., are on the floor. A representation of 
the quarrel between Sir Joseph Mawbey and Richard Wyatt. See Nos. 

5192 THE PISSING CONFLICT. [i Mar. 1773] 

Woodcut. From the Covent Garden Magazine. A coarse satire on the 
quarrel between Sir Joseph Mawbey and Richard Wyatt. See Nos. 5190, 



[i Feb. 1773] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, x. 17. It illustrates a dialogue, 

'The Pantheon Petition ; or the B ps melted by the Tears of the Ladies'. 

Two bishops (r.), one seated on an episcopal chair, the other standing by 
his side, receive a deputation which enters through a door on the 1. A 
fashionably dressed lady points to two kneeling beggars in rags, an 
emaciated man on crutches, his head bandaged, stands behind. Four 
fashionably dressed men, one wearing a ribbon, stand behind the lady. 

The dialogue shows that the deputation is petitioning against a proposed 
suppression of masquerades on the ground that they are good for trade ; the 
bishops are the Archbishop of Canterbury (Cornwallis) and the Bishop 
of London (Terrick) ; both make unctuous gestures of emotion and com- 
passion. The deputation includes the Duchess of Northumberland, who 
speaks on behalf of the poor weavers. Lord and Lady Harrington, the 
Bishop of London's lady, the Lord Mayor (Townsend), and a 'Jew 
Macaroni', who are not all represented in the engraving. 

There was a grand masquerade at the Pantheon on 18 Feb. 1773, Oxford 
Magazine, x. 60-1. 

5iiX3fin. B.M.L.,P.P.6ii5. 


Engraving. Westminster Magazine, i. 237. A sequel to No. 5066. A 
recruiting party of ladies outside the gateway of St. James's Palace. Mrs. 
Cornelys, in macaroni dress, holds a large flag inscribed Folly. She wears a 
cap with bells on her high-dressed hair. Behind her walks another lady 
similarly dressed, her hair ornamented with pearls; slung from her 
shoulders is a pair of kettledrums which Cupid is beating. They are 
watched by a crowd of fashionably dressed men and women. Beneath is 

Ye Maids, Dames, Courtesans, now lend your ears, 

FOLLY and LOVE beat up for volunteers. 

The text shows that Cupid is following Mrs. Cornelys' flag of Folly, and 
beating up for volunteers to be sold and to buy at his auction. His new 
quarters are 'at the French Ambassador's in Great George Street'. De 
Guignes was renowned for his lavish entertaining. 

5iX3jin. B.M.L., P.P. 5443. 




Van Grog fecit 

Published as the Act Directs June y' 22 lyys by T Pether Berwick S' 

Engraving. A companion print to No. 5 196. W.L. full face standing portrait 
of a man. He wears a heavy overcoat open in front, a wide-brimmed hat on 
the back of his head, buckled shoes, a thick neckcloth round his neck. His 
r. hand is in his waistcoat pocket, his left holds a switch. Beneath the title 
is etched: 

This Animal tho Not so well known as many Among the polite Circle 
Nevertheless can claim as Much folly to his Share as those of higher Rank, but 
so peculiar to himself, that it can cause Emulation in none, but such as Jack 
Catch [Ketch] and the Devil hath reservdfor their Own private purposes Sing 
I wonder we ant better company upon Tyburn tree. 



Van Grog fecit 

Engraving. A companion print to No. 5195, publication line apparently cut 
off. A corpulent man walks in profile from 1. to r., his 1. leg stiffly raised. 
He looks through an eye-glass held in his 1. hand; in the r. is a walking-stick. 
He is dressed elaborately, though not quite in the prevailing fashion : his 
bushy wig has a club, he wears a three-cornered lace-trimmed hat, laced 
waistcoat and a short coat. Over the lower part of his sleeve is tied what 
appears to be a sleeve-protector of some thin material. Beneath the title 
is etched, 

Ask me not what I was, See what I am, those who take me for a fool. 
Shew their Own Want, tis Money makes the Mare to go, & Sing tol lol de 
riddle lolfal lal de riddle lalfal lal de ra. 

Probably the portrait of some rich tallow-chandler. 
6X4I in. 

5197 This Day is published 



Woodcut. It illustrates an advertisement, clipped, printed on both sides, 
probably a hand-bill, for a book with the above title. A man stands, his 
r. leg in the teeth of a steel rat-trap, holding out in his r. hand a paper on 
which is printed. He means my Worship. Have I escaped the Gallows and 
pillory to come to THIS. His 1. hand is clenched and his head turned in 
profile to the 1. Above his head is printed, 

// in this vicious Age some Monster shoii'd, 

With more than mortal infamy endue^d. 

Count o^er the Crimes that gave him Power and Wealth, 

To Gorge on Rapines, Murders, Frauds, and Stealth; 

To Lifers last stage this miscreant P II pursue, 

And greet the Villain with a Villain's Due. 



This is continued in a contemporary hand, 

'Little vilHans must submit to fate 
Whilst great ones do enjoy y° world in State' 

'to be heard of at the Rotation Office Litchfield Street, St. Ann's Soho 

The title is printed below the woodcut and continues: containing a 
Portrait, or family piece of that Worshipful Banditti, emphatically called 
Trading Justices. 

The book, with a dedication to Lord Mansfield dated 30 July 1773, 
is a scurrilous attack upon the justices of the Litchfield Street Rotation 
Office, see No, 5273, presided over by Saunders Welch, the friend of 
Dr. Johnson, It is directed more especially against Thomas Bishop, the 
subject of the woodcut, one of the magistrates at that office, against whom 
Robert Holloway, the writer, had personal grievances. On the reverse of 
the sheet is a further advertisement of the book of a libellous character in 
which Bishop, though not named, is described as ' a worshipful Scoundrel, 
well known in the polite world ; who from a Shoeless Vagabond is become 
the most corpulent Butcher in the Litchfield Street Slaughter-house.' 

Holloway was prosecuted and convicted for the publication (B.M.L. 
12330. cc, 37). The case, Rex v. Holloway, is cited in Barnewall and 
Alder son, v, p, 595. 

8 X 4|- in. 


Engraving, Frontispiece (folding plate) to An Appendix to the Vauxhall 
Affray or Macaronies Defeated . . . iJJ^' Three macaronies chained 
together stand on the top of an altar from which rise flames and smoke, 
the result of a fire lit within the altar, which is being stoked by a nude man. 
The altar stands outside a temple with Ionic pilasters whose pediment, 
partly visible on the r,, is inscribed Temp, of Virtue. The 'sacrifice' is 
being directed by Parson Bate (afterwards Sir Henry Bate Dudley) who 
stands on the r., in profile to the 1., pointing to the macaronies with an 
outstretched pen. His 1. hand rests on a club of Hercules. He is saying: 
This incense shall revive degraded Manhood. The stoker asks him : Master! 
is it hot enough now? The three macaronies, who are small and eflFeminate, 

say : / otve this infamy to you two; If I had been advised by Mother D n 

I had not got in this damned Scrape; and, touching a locket which he wears, 
Oh! Save my Miniature Picture. 

They are the hon. Thomas Lyttelton, commonly known as the wicked 
Lord Lyttelton, see No. 5147, George Robert Fitzgerald, commonly called 
Fighting Fitzgerald, executed for murder in Ireland 1786, and Captain 
Crofts. The quarrel between these men and Bate began with the affair 
called the Vauxhall Affray, when Bate resented their impolite attentions 
to Mrs, Hartley, the beautiful actress, in July. This was followed by a 
'bruising match' between Bate and a supposed Captain Miles, really a 
servant of Fitzgerald, see Nos. 5199, 5200. The dispute continued in the 
newspapers during August 1773, particularly in letters from Bate to the 
Morning Post, reprinted in An Appendix to the Vauxhall Affray. See The 
Vauxhall Affray, 1773; The Rape of Pomona, 1773; Angelo, Reminiscences, 



1904, i. 117 ff. Bate was a frequent subject of caricature. He is said to 
have acquired the name of the Fighting Parson from this affair. Angelo, 
op, et loc. cit. 

7iX7f in. 


Engraving. Macaroni and Theatrical Magazine, i. 489. The interior of a 
panelled room. Two men fighting with fists : Bate (r.) wears a shirt with 
clerical bands, Miles (r.) is stripped to the waist, one eye is closed from the 
effect of a blow. Two seconds stand behind each of the combatants : two 
dignified-looking gentlemen behind Bate, two macaronies behind Miles, 
the foremost of whom wears a miniature round his neck. See Nos. 5198, 

4|x6|in. B.M.L., P.P. 5201. 


Engraving. Macaroni and Theatrical Magazine, ii. 7. An illustration to 'Anec- 
dote of the Rev. Mr. H y B e'. [Henry Bate]. Interior of an ale- 
house. A footman (1.), his hair in a pigtail queue and tags on his 
shoulder, strikes with his fists a man dressed as a macaroni; another 
macaroni, a miniature round his neck, see No. 5198, lies on the ground, 
a broken cane in his hand. On the wall are two prints each representing 
a Morning Post newsboy with his horn. In the cap of one (1.) is the letter 
B, he has a sheaf of papers inscribed M. Post. The other's cap has the 
letter T. The text explains that Fitzgerald's servant. Miles, when at 
Epsom revenged himself on his master for the drubbing received from 
Bate, see No. 5199. 

A note explains that 'The Morning-Post was originally sold by boys 
habited in a particular manner, and blowing a horn. The whim struck 

Mr. B e, and he and Dr. T r [Trusler] went to the Pantheon 

masquerade in that dress. This frolick appears to us so unworthy of a 
clergyman and a physician, that we have exhibited these two gentlemen so 
habited in the background of Capt. Miles' s Reve?ige\ For the Morning Post 
newsboys see H. Walpole, Letters, ix, 439-40. See No. 5550, &c. 
315 X 611 in. B.M.L., P.P. 5201 . 


[i Mar. 1773] 

Engraving. From the Macaroni and Theatrical Magazine, i. 211. This 
illustrates 'The Puppet Shew, ... or, A dialogue between Foote, Geo. 
Alexander Stevens, Harlequin and Polly Pattens', the scene being the 
Green Room just after the audience had left the theatre. Two of the figures 
are puppets, with strings attached to their hands and legs ; a man full-face, 
holding his hat, stands stiffly on the extreme I. and Polly Pattens, the 
housemaid, in mob-cap and long skirts in profile to the r. Between them 
stands Harlequin, club in hand, hat in the other, showing off the puppets. 



The Devil in the form of a satyr, holding a trident, points at Foote (r.), 
who stands in profile to the 1. facing his puppets; behind him is Punch. 
A curtain is festooned above the figures. 

A satire on Foote's puppet-play the 'Handsome House-maid or Piety in 
Pattens', produced in February 1773. The dialogue suggests that Stevens, 
famous for his lecture on Heads, had a share in the production. 



[i Apr. 1773] 

Engraving, Oxford Magazine, x. 105. On a high-backed sofa sit Miss 
Catley (r.) and a man wearing regimentals with a cockaded hat. She holds 
a book of music open on her lap, her 1. hand is raised as if teaching a spotted 
Dalmatian dog, which stands on its hind legs, to sing. A man in a long 
overcoat, holding a coachman's whip, his hat under his arm, stands behind 
the dog. A cockatoo on a perch behind the sofa is screeching, a spaniel is 
barking, and a cat miaou-ing at the musical efforts of the dog. The room 
is panelled; a large oval mirror hangs on the wall. The accompanying 
text (p. 104) says that 'the celebrated Miss C — t — ly on her return home 
from Drury Lane Theatre, ordered her servant to bring up the fat kitchen 
bitch and set her on her hind legs ; as she was positive she could learn her 
to sing as well as a certain lady . . .'. 

For Ann Catley in 1773 see Walpole, Letters, viii. 360, 19 Nov. 1773. 
See also Nos. 4468, 4706. She was not playing at Drury Lane at this time; 
she sang at Vauxhall, Marylebone Gardens, &c., appearing in 1770 and 
1773 at Covent Garden. Miss Younge (i744?-97) was a leading actress at 
Drury Lane, and one of the foremost of English actresses. 
5fX3|in. B.M.L.,P.P. 6115. 


Engraving. From the Macaroni Magazine, ii. 41. Macklin dressed as Shy- 
lock in a furred gown, lies on his back on a platform or stage. In his r. 
hand is a knife, in his 1. a pair of scales. Behind him stand Tragedy with 
a dagger and Comedy holding out a mask; astride on their shoulders sits 
Garrick in triumph, smiling, his hands on his hips. He wears a slashed 
doublet and is surrounded by a glory of light sending out rays. Beneath 
the platform are two demons, one has seized Macklin by the arm and is 
pulling him down into an abyss from which flames are rising; the other (1.) 
uses a pitchfork for the same purpose. 

The plate illustrates a detailed account of the repeated disturbances 
which led to Macklin's dismissal on 18 November, 1773. The public 
regarded Macklin's performance as Shylock as above criticism, but would 
not tolerate him as Macbeth. A plate of Macklin as Shylock, by J. Lodge, 
inscribed This is the Jew, that Shakespeare drezv, illustrates the London 
Museum for April 1770, see No. 4846. 

Garrick is said to have been jealous of Macklin's performance as 
Macbeth. Though this is hardly credible, it is not improbable that he felt 
mortified that the change in the dressing of the characters should come 


from Macklin and not from himself. Genest. v. 414. Macklin's assump- 
tion of a part usually played by Smith at Covent Garden was also a cause 
of offence. See No. 5175. 



Engraving. Probably from a magazine. A woman elaborately dressed in 
the fashion of the day sits on a high-backed sofa of an ornate French design. 
On his knees before her, his hands clasped in supplication, is a man 
wearing the ribbon of an order. He is elaborately dressed in the French 
fashion with high toupet wig, exaggerated black bag, fringed waistcoat, 
feathered hat. His hat is on the ground. On the back of the sofa sits a 
monkey, his hair in a high toupet in imitation of that of the man and the 
woman. He regards the suitor through an eye-glass. The room is panelled, 
and furnished in the contemporary French fashion. On the wall are a pic- 
ture of a nymph and satyr, and a clock on a carved bracket. 

Polly Kennedy, a well-known courtesan, described in Harris's List of 
Covent Garden Ladies for 1773, has been confused with Kitty Kennedy, 
see No. 5095. H. Bleackley, Ladies Fair and Frail, 316-18. 

THE MACARONI PARSON [Home]. See No. 4827— i Jan. 1773 

From the Macaroni Magazine. (Dr. Dodd was also known as the Macaroni 
Parson, see No. 5249.) 

THE STABLE ADVENTURE . . . [Lady Ligonier] 

See No. 4801 — i Feb. 1773 
Macaroni Magazine. 


See No. 4825 — i Mar. 1773 

From Macaroni Magazine. Reproduced, Paston, Sidelights on the Georgian 
Period, p. 72, and Social England, ed. Traill, v. p. 229. 

sham]. See No. 4812 — I Apr. 1773 
Macaroni Magazine. 


Engraving. From the Macaroni and Theatrical Magazine,!. 265. It illustrates 
'A Duelling scene in Islington Fields by Two Macaronies', between 'a 
young woollen-draper' and 'a military gentleman', the theme being the 
citizen's reluctance to fight. The duellists in macaroni dress face each 
other. Their seconds are partly visible on the 1. and r. margms of the 
design. The citizen (1.) holding a pistol in his r. hand raises his 1. to 
protect himself, dropping his other pistol. The other (r.) holds a pistol 
in his r. hand and fires another with his 1. 



The antagonists are identified in an old hand as 'Fitzgerald' (r.) and 
'Walker' (1.). This appears from the date to be incorrect: a duel between 
Thomas Walker Esq., well known on the turf, and Fighting Fitzgerald, 
see Nos. 5198-5200, caused a sensation in 1775, and was the occasion of 
a series of pamphlets addressed to the Jockey Club by the two combatants. 


BREAKFAST. See No. 4821— i May 1773 



See No. 4835 — i July 1773 
Macaroni Magazine. 


See No. 4822 — i July 1773 
From the Macaroni Magazine. 

THE DEATH HUNTER MACARONI. See No. 4823—1 Aug. 1773 
From the Macaroni Magazine. 


[Count Haslang.] Macaroni Magazine. 

See No. 4834 — i Aug. 1773 

THE MIDDLE TEMPLE MACARONI See No. 4826—1 Sept. 1773 
From the Macaroni Magazine. 


Engraving. Macaroni and Theatrical Magazine, i. 529. A free fight in 
the gardens at Vauxhall, the weapons being swords, canes, and bottles. 
The background shows trees (one with broken lamps) and part of one of the 
pavilions (1.). Women are escaping in alarm. The men are dressed as 
macaronies, but are of plebeian appearance. 

It was customary (from c. i^jz) on the last night of the Vauxhall 
season for the 'bucks' to break lamps, benches, bottles, &c. See F. Burney's 
Evelina (Letter XV), ed. Sir F. D. Mackinnon, 1930, pp. 244, 559. 
3|X5| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5021. 

THE MACARONI CARD PLAYERS. See No. 4824 [i Dec. 1773] 

Macaroni Magazine. 

THE MACARONIES. See No. 4806—1 Feb. 1773 

From The Lady's Magazine. 

THE FIRST OF APRIL. See No. 2002—1 Apr. 1773. 

From the Sentimental Magazine, i. 33. A satire on macaronies and others. 


THE GAMBLER DETECTED. See No. 4836—1 Apr. 1773 

From The Covent Garden Magazine. 


Engraving. From the Covent Garden Magazine} An illustration to a 
scurrilous story of 'Sir William L ' and a farmer's wife in Hertford- 
shire. The interior of a dairy with churn, milk-pans, &c. A man and 
woman embracing fall on the floor, a cat upsets a bowl of cream; the 
farmer with a hay-rake, and his man Hodge enter at the door. 

5208 STEPHEN CUB IN THE SUDS. [i Aug. 1773] 

Engraving. From the Covent Garden Magazine} Stephen Fox in the bed- 
room of a tailor (indicated by the scissors and garments hanging on the 
wall) is being seized by his club of hair by the tailor, who is getting out 
of bed. He is also being attacked by a sweep and his two little 'climbing 
boys' who have entered by the door. The text relates an alleged drunken 
escapade of Stephen Fox, 'a celebrated, sleeping, gambling Macaroni', 
who had mistaken the room for that of a woman. 


OF HIS SUPPER. [i Sept. 1773] 

Engraving. From the Covent Garden Magazine} An illustration to 
'A whimsical Bagnio Adventure'. An overturned supper-table at which 
a man and woman have been sitting; he has fallen to the floor, she stands 
covering her face with a hand. A military officer enters the room and 
threatens the man with a drawn sword, pointing to the woman. Behind 
him is another woman, equally horror-struck. The text relates the 

accidental meeting, at a 'house of rendezvous', of Doctor L and 

Captain D, each with the other's wife. 



DISAPPOINTMENT. [i Oct. 1773] 

Engraving. From the Covent Garden Magazine. An illustration to 
'A curious Anecdote of Lord G , . . .' Lord G , in riding- 
dress, is seated in a cauldron, a kettle hung over one leg, and surrounded 
by other kitchen utensils. The scene is an inn kitchen, servants stand 
round and others are entering the room. The text relates the misadventure 
of Lord G. in an inn on the Bath road. The cook-maid had defeated his 
amorous overtures by making him drunk, the ostler then decorated him 
with pots and pans. 

' The magazine is not in the B.M.L. but cuttings from the book accompany the 


CORNUTED. [i Nov. 1773] 

Engraving. From the Covent Garden Magazine. A fat man lies on the 
ground, pointing angrily at a man and woman who hold up their hands 
deprecatingly. Three men wearing hats threaten the couple with clubs 
and clenched fists. 



[i Jan. 1773] 

Engraving. From Every Man's Magazine, 1. 257. A young man stands on 
the pavement outside an arched doorway through which can be seen 
a short elderly man behind a counter. Over the door is inscribed, Young & 
Wife Mercers. Rolls of material are piled up on shelves. The apprentice 
stands with his legs apart, his r. hand in his waistcoat, his 1. in his breeches 
pocket. He is dressed like a macaroni and wears a nosegay. On the r. 
a vv^oman who has just passed by looks round at him ; she carries on her 
head a basket of vegetables. Just behind her walks a little chimney-sweeper 
with his brush and bag of soot. On the 1. two young women have just passed, 
one looks round at the apprentice. Reproduced, M. D. George, England 
in Transition, p. 172. 

6f X4 in. 


See No. 4609 — i Jan. 1773 

Goldar sc. after Collet. Pub. Sayer and Smith. 

THE BOLD ATTEMPT. See No. 4607—1 Jan. 1773 

Caldwell sc. after Collet. Pub. Smith and Sayer. 

THE COUNTRY CHORISTERS See No. 4611—22 Mar. 1773 

Goldar sc. after Collet. Pub. Smith and Sayer. 

52 1 3-52 1 8 and numbers from Volume IV 

Prints after Bunbury etched and published by J. Bretherton. 

TRIM. Tris: Shan. 

H. W. Bunbury del. iy']2. J. Bretherton f 

Published as the Act directs 26 Jany 1773. By J. Bretherton N" 134, 
New Bond Street. 

Engraving. One of a series of illustrations to Sterne's Tristram Shandy, see 
Nos. 5214-16. Uncle Toby (r.) marches from r. to 1., a crutch under his 
1. arm, pointing with his r. crutch towards the fortifications (1.) built on 
the bowling green, where the Gate of S' Nicolas is flanked on each side 



by a jack-boot. In his 1. hand he holds the London Gazette. Trim, holding 
up a pickaxe, marches in front of his master. He has a long pig-tail, and 
a pad is tied over his 1. knee. On the ground behind is a grenadier's cap. 
Behind Uncle Toby is the sentry-box, in it is pasted up the plan of a 
fortification. The background is a rough paling behind which are trees. 
Shandy Hall appears behind the Gate of St. Nicolas. 
Beneath the design is engraved, 

"What an honest triumph in my Uncle Toby's Eyes as he march' d to the 
Ramparts zvith the Gazette in his hand & Trim with a pickaxe ready to 
execute the Contents; what intense pleasure in his Eyes as he stood over the 
Corporal! Heaven! Earth! Sea!" 

9IX15 in. 

Vide Tris. Shandy Vol. 2^ 

H. W. Biinhtiry delin. iyy2 J. Brethertonf. 

Publish' d as the Act directs 30"* Jany 1773. by J. Bretherton N° 134. 
New Bond Street. 

Engraving. One of a series of illustrations to Tristram Shandy, see Nos. 
5213-16. Dr. Slop, short and fat, seated in an arm-chair (c.) holding in 
his 1. hand the book containing the form of excommunication, points with 
his r. at Obadiah who is disappearing (1.), one leg and his back alone being 
visible. A handkerchief hangs over the doctor's cut r. thumb. Behind 
him on the 1. stands Mr. Shandy, in dressing-gown and night-cap, smoking 
a long pipe, he is frowning and holds out his 1. hand in protest at the 
doctor's curses. Uncle Toby, his crutch under his 1. arm, stands on the r. 
pointing with his 1. hand at a map of Flanders which hangs on the wall 
over Dr. Slop's head. He turns to speak to Corporal Trim, who stands (r.) 
at attention in profile to the 1. holding a long broom. 
Beneath the design is engraved, 

"May all the Angels & Archangels, Principalities and Pozvers, & all the 
Heavenly Armies, curse & damn him — him — Obadiah. (Our Armies swore 
terribly in Flanders, quoth my Uncle Toby, but nothing to this"). 



H. W. Bunbury delin. J. Brethertonf. 

Puhlish'd as the Act directs 3'^ February 1773. By J. Bretherton 
N" 134 New Bond Street. 

Engraving. One of a series of illustrations to Tristram Shandy, see Nos. 
5213-16. Obadiah (1.) mounted on the coach-horse at full gallop attempts 
to pull up his horse, leaning back in the saddle, his cap in his r. hand. 
On the ground is Dr. Slop's pony. Behind the pony on the r. Dr. Slop 
lies on his back; a spotted dog prances over him. The doctor lies under 
a sign-post terminating in a hand pointing To Shandy Hall. Behind the 
coach-horse, which is wearing blinkers, is the angle of a high garden wall ; 
in the distance (r.) is a church spire among trees. 



Beneath the design is engraved, 

"WhenObadiah & his Coach Horse turn'd the Corner rapid, furious, pop, 
full upon him — nothing I think in Nature can be supposed more terrible than 
such a rencounter — Obadiah pull'd of [sic] his Cap twice to D^ Slop, once when 
he was falling & again when he saw him seated." — Vide Vol i^' Tristram 



H. W. Bunbury delin. J. Bretkerton f. 

Published as the Act directs 3^ February 1^73. By J. Bretherton 
N°. 134 New Bond Street 

Engraving. One of a series of illustrations to Tristram Shandy, see Nos. 
5213-15. Dr. Slop and Susannah exchanging abuse. Susannah (r.) 
stands behind the cradle in which lies the infant Tristram, a plaster across 
his nose. A lighted candle is in her 1. hand; with her r. she holds the 
bridge of her nose, looking at the doctor with a face of fury, her mouth 
wide open. Dr. Slop stands scowling, his legs wide apart, the cataplasm 
in a ladle in his r. hand ; he threatens Susannah with his fist. His wig is 
blazing, his hat lies on the floor. A chair has been overturned and lies 
by the cradle. Obadiah is hurrying into the room from the 1., a basin 
in his r. hand, a bottle under his r. arm, a chamber-pot in his 1. hand. 
Behind is a screen, nine leaves of which are visible. A large grandfather 
clock pointing to 6.15 stands by the wall (r.); a table with two medicine 
bottles appears from behind the screen. On the wall are two portraits. 
Beneath the design is engraved, 

''Susannah, rowing one way & looking another, set fire to Dr. Slop's Wig, 
which being somewhat bushy & unctuous withal was as soon burnt as kindled — 
You impudent Whore cried Slop (for what is passion but a wild Beast) 
You impudent Whore cried Slop getting upright with the Cataplasm in his 
hand — / never was at the destruction of any body's nose said Susannah, which 
is more than you can say; — Is it? cried Slop, throwing the Cataplasm in her 
face — Yes it is cried Susannah returning the Complement with what was left 
in the pan" — Vide Tris. Shandy vol. 4. 



Bretherton f. 

Published 23^ March 1773. 

Engraving after Bunbury. Three men playing musical instruments: A fat 
man (1.) sitting in a chair plays a viol da gamba, perhaps a portrait of 
Abel, see No. 5163. A thin man in profile to the 1. plays a flute. He 
wears a bag-wig, laced coat, ruffled shirt and sword. A piece of music 
protrudes from his coat pocket. Behind, a stout man plays a horn. 
9X7!- in. 


M'' Bunhury del. 
Scarron. B. 2^ J' Br ether ton f 

Publish' d May 2g^^ lyyj. 

Engraving. An illustration to Scarron 's Roman Comique (1651), Book II, 
ch. XX. The scene is the room of an inn. Ragotin, almost bald, sits in an 
upright chair wearing a long sword and jack boots; his legs do not reach 
the ground. The ram (1.), on its hind-legs, is about to butt him. The 
encounter is watched by a man who leans on the back of his chair, by 
another seated behind the ram, and by a third standing between Ragotin 
and a group of two ladies and a man on the r., one being Inezilla, who had 
just been reading her novel. Behind this group are the curtains of a bed. 

7|Xi2-| in. 


See No. 4758 — i Jan. 1773 

A MILITIA MEETING. See No. 4759—2 Jan. 1773 

THE X.MAS ACADEMICS ... See No. 4728—20 Jan. 1773 

JOLLUX. See No. 4726—6 Feb. 1773 

THE SALUTATION TAVERN. See No. 4716—20 Mar. 1773 


See No. 4721 — 15 May 1773 

SNIP ANGLOIS. See No. 4748—20 Dec. 1773 

SNIP FRANCOIS. See No. 4749—20 Dec. 1773 


See No. 4762 — 23 Dec. 1773 

5219 and numbers from Volume IV 
Series of mezzotints published by Carington Bowles.^ 


269 Pri?ited for Carington Bowles, Map & Printseller, N° 6g in S' 
Pauls Church Yard, London. Published as the Act directs [date 
erased, c. Jan. 1773.] 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). Street scene. A fashionably dressed 
man walks (r. to 1.) between two prostitutes, who have seized him by the 

' No. 4533 (but not the reduced version) has the imprint of Bowles and Carver. 



shoulders and arm. One (r.) hands to a man who lurks behind her a 
handkerchief she has taken from his pocket. A link-boy walks in front of 
the party holding his torch downwards. Through the glass panes which 
fill the upper part of the door of the bagnio (1.) a woman smiles and 
beckons. Over the door is inscribed WINES, The scene is probably 
under the piazza in Covent Garden. The women are fashionably dressed. 

I2f X9f in. 'Caricatures', i, p. 186. B.M.L., Tab. 526. 

BEAU MORDECAI INSPIR'D. (270) See No. 4525— c. 1773 


See No. 4526 — c. i^T2 

DOCKING THE MACARONI (273) See No. 4527—19 Jan. 1773 

P'SHA YOU FLATTER ME. (274) See No. 4528—1773 


See No. 4529 — 1773 

TATION. (281) See No. 4530—1773 

IRISH PEG IN A RAGE . . . (283) See No. 4531—29 May 1773 


See No. 4532 — 13 July 1773 


See No. 4590 — c. 1773 

THE CHURCH CHORISTERS. (289) See No. 4533— 1773 

After Grimm, 

Also a reduced version, No. 206 in the smaller series, pub. 2 Sept. 

5220, 5221 and numbers from Volume IV 

Similar mezzotints issued by other publishers. 


y. Smith pinx^ [J- R- Smith]. J. Smith fecit. 

Publish'' d April 2"'^ 1773. Printed for John Bowles, at N° 13 in Cornhill. 

Mezzotint. Four persons gazing at the prints displayed in a print-shop 
closely resembling though not identical with that in No. 3758 (1774) which 



is evidently by the same artist. A man and woman (1.) in macaroni dress 
stand together, he holds her 1. hand smihng, and pointing at one of the 
prints with his r. hand. She turns aside smihng behind her fan. Two men 
(r.) stand in conversation ; one (r.) points out to the other, who is in back 
view, both hands held up in astonishment, one of the prints in the top 
row, apparently that of Wesley. A dog befouls the foot of the man facing 
the shop- window. 

Beneath the title is engraved. 

While Macaroni and his Mistress here. 
At other Characters, in Picture, sneer, 
To the vain Couple is but little known. 
How much desej'vifig Ridicule their own. 

Some of the prints displayed are identical with those in No. 3758, the 
shop of Carington Bowles. In this design, however, the prints are dis- 
played without margins. In both shops the highest row consists of portraits 
which extend into the row below (r.). All are of leaders of religion, among 
whom Bunyan, John Wesley, and Whitefield are conspicuous. That of 
Whitefield is the much reproduced mezzotint by Greenwood after Hone, 
published by Carington Bowles, 1769. The others are humorous mezzo- 
tints including The Paintress of Macaroni's, No. 4582, The Macaroni 
Painter, No. 4520, Lady Betty Bustle, No. 5094. 

The print illustrates the close relationship between the two firms of 
Bowles who were partners in many prints. In spite of the close resemblance 
with the shop-window of Carington Bowles, as depicted in Nos. 3758 and 
6352, it appears to represent 13 Cornhill. The panes are smaller and do not 
display the margins of the prints, the architectural detail above the window 
is different and the prints appear to be on a large frame fixed outside the 
actual window, part of which appears on the extreme r. Reproduced, 
R. T. Halsey, Boston Port Bill, Grolier Club, 1904, p. xvi. 
i2fX9fin. Cheylesmore Collection. 

WIFE. See No. 4584 — 2 April 1773 

P. Dawe. Pub. John Bowles. 


[Philip Dawe fecit 

Published as the Act directs July 3^ 177 3- Printed for John Bowles at 
N° 13 in Cornhill] 

Mezzotint. Proof before letters on which is written 'Pantheon Macaroni'. 
The title and publication line are supplied from an impression belonging to 
Mr. W. T. Spencer of New Oxford Street. A macaroni dressed in a grotesque 
exaggeration of the prevailing fashion. His hair is in a high pyramid with 
side curls, an enormous club hangs down his back. A small three-cornered 
hat is perched on the top of his hair. He w^ears a large nosegay. He stands 
in a mincing attitude by a toilet-table, draped with muslin on which are 
boxes and toilet jars, the latter inscribed essence and Rose. The wall is 
panelled and ornamented with mouldings ; the floor is carpeted and there 



are two cane-seated chairs of an unusual pattern.' Reproduced, Paston, 
PI. XX ; J. T. Smith, A Book for a Rainy Day, ed. W. Whitten, 1905, p. 265. 

12IX9I in. 


See No. 4772 — 15 May 1773 
P. Dawe. Pub. W. Humphrey. 


See No. 4788 — i Sept. 1773 
Pub. H. Bryer. 

' This probably represents the dress of 'Lord P ' as a macaroni buck at the 

Pantheon masquerade of 12 May 1773. See Oxford Magazine, x. p. 179, where 
his dress is described. 

161 M 


5222 MERLIN.' [i Jan. 1774] 

Engraving. From the Westminster Magazine, i. 684. A sequel to No. 4957. 
Merlin (1.) points with his wand to a procession of the sovereigns of Europe 
which circles round him, moving from 1. to r. He stands within a circle 
bordered with cabalistic signs, a globe stands beside him; he wears long 
robes and his high cap is decorated with a skull and cross-bones. First walks 
a sovereign with three heads, the centre head wearing a crown, between a 
woman's head with ass's ears and a man's head with stag's horns. This 
appears to represent the king of Denmark, deceived by his wife and Struen- 
see, an episode which belongs to 1772, see Nos. 4945, 4946, 4950, 4956. Next 
walks a crowned personage carrying a halter in his r. hand, and in the 1. a 
Book of Prayer which he is reading. Perhaps Frederick, called the Heredi- 
tary Prince, son of the Dowager Queen of Denmark, who had conspired 
against Struensee and had shown great vindictiveness towards him. 

Next walks Catharine of Russia in a furred robe. Her r. hand is on the 
neck of an oriental who kneels beside her, whom she appears to be strang- 
ling; another oriental wearing a jewelled turban stands beside her clasping 
his hands in despair. With her 1. hand she holds a monkey by the arm. 
The two orientals probably represent the Grand Signior of Turkey (in 
allusion to the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-74, and Pugachoff, the Cossack 
who led a rising against Catharine (1773-5). 

Next is a sovereign whose crown is breaking, evidently Stanislaus II of 
Poland. Behind him walk two sovereigns in consultation, one holding 
a wolf or dog on a leash, and in his 1. hand a mask ; the other holds an open 
map inscribed Map [of Po]land: probably the Emperor Joseph II and 
Frederick II of Prussia discussing the Partition of Poland. Behind them 
walks a prince wearing a feathered hat who appears absorbed in his snuff- 
box (perhaps the king of Spain). Then comes a sovereign wearing a crown 
and a long dressing-gown rubbing his eyes as if sleepy. He is perhaps 
William V, Stadholder of Holland, who became sleepy after the slightest 
exertion; he was not, however, a sovereign prince.^ After him walks the 
king of France, indicated by the fleur-de-lys which decorates his crown and 
his robes; he holds an oval miniature, the portrait of a woman, probably 
intended for Mme. du Barry. After him walks George III, carrying an 
infant, whom he is feeding (Prince Augustus Frederick, born Jan. 1773). 
Last in the procession is a countryman with a hay-rake, smoking a pipe, and 
wearing the hat shaped like an inverted flower-pot which indicates Holland 
in caricature. 

In the background on a hill sits the Pope wearing his triple crown ; his 
papal chair is tottering and from his hand, raised as if in alarm, falls a paper 
inscribed Jesuits & treac[hery]. In 1773 Clement XIV (d. 1774) suppressed 
the Jesuits, a shock to the prestige of the Papacy, and the cause of calumnies 
which probably hastened his death, which was ascribed, possibly with 

' Indexed as Merlin: A Picture of Europe for 1773. 

- Gustavus III of Sweden appears to be absent from the procession, though in 
view of his recent coup d'etat he might be expected to figure prominently. 



truth, to poison. See Walpole, Last Journals, 1910, i. 401-3; Cambridge 
Mod. Hist. , vi. 594-6. For the Partition of Poland see ibid., Nos. 4957, 4958, 
5110, 5229. 

5223 ROBBED BETWEEN SUN AND SUN [i Jan. 1774] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, x. 502 (folding plate). Lord 
Holland with his two sons Charles and Stephen seated at a table. Each 
has the profile of a fox but wears a wig. Lord Holland (centre) in a high- 
back chair, looks towards Stephen (r.) holding up his hands with an ex- 
pression of horror. Stephen is asleep, beside him on the table is a small 
phial or medicine-bottle. Charles (1.), very alert, picks his father's pocket, 
taking out a purse. On the ground at his side are emblems of gambling : 
a dice box, dice, and a book inscribed Hoyle. Beneath the table crouches 
a demon : he is looking at Charles, and holds in each claw a chain which 
is round Charles's leg, his tail is wound round Stephen's ankle. Over 
Charles's head is engraved Hie Niger est. (With his black hair and eyebrows 
he was what was then called 'a black man', cf. Walpole, Letters, viii. 359.) 
Lord Holland wears an old-fashioned tie-wig. Both the sons are fashion- 
ably dressed, and wear bag-wigs, that of Charles being a very high toupet 
in the French fashion. 

This appears to illustrate the last verse of a poem called *To the Young 

Cub on his keeping Madame H n — 1' [Heinel] (see No. 5145) printed 

in the Westminster Magazine, Sept. 1773 : 

From sons what Sire such blessing reaps! 
One never wakes — One never sleeps ; 

Yet both partake his bounty : 
The Law says, If a man's undone. 
And pillag'd thus 'tween Sun and Sun 

He 's free to sue the County. 

In the winter of 1773-4 Lord Holland paid Charles's debts to the extent 
of ^(^140,000. The print is described as representing *a committee lately 

held on ways and means by a certain nest of F s that infested the 

neighbourhood ; whether the subject of debate was to find out some fresh 
method of satisfying the veracity \sic\ of the old one; to preserve the 
pluhder already got, or to repair the destruction made by the folly of the 
young Cubbs, is uncertain. . . .' Stephen Fox was called the Sleepy 
Macaroni, see Nos. 4648, 51 14, &c. 

E. Hawkins (MS. index) mentions another impression or version 
enclosed within a coiled snake. 

6|x io\ in. 

5224 STRIKE— BUT HEAR. [n.d. Feb. 1774] 

Engraving. John Home stands in the foreground, declaiming at the bar of 
the House of Commons. His r. arm is raised ; his 1. hand is in his breeches 
pocket. From the r. of the design the mace appears. On the other side of 
the bar the Speaker sits in his chair. On each side of him are three rows of 
members, many of them without heads; a number of heads with pendent 
bag-wigs are floating above the Speaker's head, showing that many of the 
members have lost their heads in excitement. 



This depicts the appearance of John Home at the bar of the House on 
i8 Feb. 1774. Home's friend Tooke had appealed to him for help to 
prevent a pending enclosure Bill by de Grey which would pre-judge a case 
in litigation between himself and de Grey concerning the common-rights of 
Tooke 's estate at Purley. The passing of the Bill was apparently inevitable, 
but Home published in the Public Advertiser a nicely-timed letter to the 
Speaker, signed 'Strike but Hear', which was a deliberate and violent libel. 
He calculated that the House would be so exasperated at the breach of privi- 
lege that the business of the day would be neglected, that he would be sum- 
moned to the bar, and would have an opportunity of explaining his motives 
and the injustice of the Bill. The event was according to plan : the members 
lost their heads and clamoured to the Speaker for the punishment of the libel. 
First Woodfall and then Home were called to the bar. Home made his 
speech; both were discharged; time was given for further consideration 
of the Bill and the clauses obnoxious to Tooke were dropped. See Pari. 
Hist., xvii. 1005 ff. ; Walpole, Last Journals, 1910, i. 289 ff. ; Corr. of 
George III, ed. Fortescue, iii. 68-9; A. Stephens, Memoirs of John Home 
Tooke, 1813, i. 422-30. 

7X4I in. 


[30 Mar. 1774] 

Inv^ Drawn «Sf Engrav'd by J. Dixon. 

Kempes Row Facing Ranelagh Walk Chelsea 

Mezzotint. Time, with a magic lantern, throws upon a curtain an allegorical 
vision of the triumph of Concord over Discord, which he is showing to 
figures representing Britannia, Hibernia, Scotia, and America. Time (1.), 
his scythe and two books on the ground beside him, supports his lantern 
on a globe on which he leans his elbow, he points at the vision on the 
curtain with his 1. hand, his mouth open as if declaiming. On the globe 
is a paper inscribed. Unite. Britannia, with her shield and spear, sits 
between Hibernia (1.) to whom she turns, and Scotia. Hibernia's 1. arm 
is round Britannia's shoulder, her harp is beside her. Scotia stands looking 
at Time's vision. All are dressed in pseudo-classical draperies in the 
manner of Reynolds, those of Scotia being of tartan. Opposite them (r.) 
America sits on a bale of goods, another bale behind her, representing the 
commerce of the colonies. She is in T.Q. back view, gazing at the vision. 
She has a feathered head-dress, is partly draped, like an Amazon, with 
bare arms and legs ; in her 1. hand is a bow, a quiver of arrows is slung on 
her back. 

In the circle of light thrown on the screen Concord is putting Discord 
to flight. Concord, a crowned figure, a star on her breast holding out a 
bow, reversed and unstrung, advances (1. to r.) escorted by a winged figure 
wearing a medallion on her breast which resembles Britannia's shield. 
Behind walk together Plenty (or Commerce) holding a cornucopia, and 
Liberty holding up her staflp surmounted with the Phrygian cap of liberty. 
Last walk Truth holding up a mirror, and Justice holding out scales. 
Cherubs fly above their heads ; the foremost holds up a drapery on which 
is engraved Publick Credit', three are holding up an orrery. Before them 



flies Fame blowing her trumpet. Before this procession (r.) hag-like 
figures are being put to flight. One has two faces, the fangs of a serpent 
darting from one of the mouths. Another holds up a serpent in his hand. 
A large coiled serpent hisses on the extreme r. The circle of light from the 
lantern falls on a heavily draped curtain. 

This print indicates the renewed interest in America caused by news 
of the Boston Tea Party which first appeared in the London Evening Post, 
20 Jan. 1774. On 10 Mar. North read to the House of Commons the 
king's message on 'the outrageous proceedings at Boston , . .'. Pari. Hist., 
xvii. 1 159. The first print on American affairs since those on the 'Boston 
Massacre', 1770, see No. 4839. 

Exhibited at the exhibition of the Society of Arts in 1774. It is the basis 
of a well-known satire published in Paris, see No. 5490. 

Chaloner Smith, i. 218. 

20X23g- in. 

BITTER DRAUGHT. [i May 1774] 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xliii. 184. America, a partly- 
draped female figure, is being held down by Lord Mansfield (r.) in judge's 
wig and robes, while North, holding her by the throat, pours the contents of 
a tea-pot down her mouth. America ejects the tea in a stream directed at 
North's face. From his pocket hangs a paper inscribed Boston Port Bill. 
Sandwich (1.) kneels, holding America down by an ankle, while he lifts the 
edge of her draperies and peers beneath them. Behind Mansfield (r.) stands 
Bute in Scots cap and kilt, holding a drawn sword, its blade inscribed 
Military Law ; pistols are thrust through his belt. Behind America stands 
Britannia resting one hand on her shield; she averts her face and covers 
her eyes with her hand. Behind Sandwich (I.) stand two men dressed in 
the French and Spanish fashions and representing France and Spain or 
the monarchs of France and Spain ; the order of the Golden Fleece hangs 
from the neck of Spain. They stand close together, pointing towards 
America with expressions of interest and concern. 

In the foreground is a torn document inscribed Boston petition. In the 
background is the sea ; on the horizon and on a minute scale are the spires 
of a town surrounded by ships, above is engraved, Boston cannonaded. 

The print illustrates a report of the debates on the Boston Port Bill: the 
text of the Bill is given in full because it is 'of vast importance to the 
mercantile part of the nation and indeed to the whole British Empire', 
pp. 165-85. The Boston Port Bill became law on 31 Mar. (one of the 
'five intolerable acts') passed as a punishment for the 'Boston tea-party' 
(16 Dec. 1773): the port of Boston was closed and its rights transferred to 
Salem till compensation should be made for the destruction of the tea, 
Boston, of course, was not cannonaded. Gage was its military and civil 
governor and he closed the harbour in accordance with the Act on i June, 
see Nos. 5227, 5228, 5230, 5236. The 'Boston petition' is presumably 
the petition of Americans in London to the House of Commons against the 
Boston Port Bill, Pari. Hist., xvii. 1189-92. For other references to the 
tax on tea see Nos. 5232, 5282, 5490, 5491, 6190. For the 'Tea Party' see 
Van Tyne, Causes of the War of Independence, 1921, ch. xix. 

Reproduced in Bernard Fay's Franklin, 1929, p. 362, but incorrectly 
dated 1770. 




A copy signed P. Revere Sculp, was published in the Royal American 
Magazine, vol. i (June 1774), StaufFer, No. 2673. Reproduced, Propylden- 
Weltgeschichte, ed. W. Goetz, vi. 193 1, p. 461, J. T. Adams, Hist, of the 
American People, 1933, p. 93. 


5227 THE WHITEHALL PUMP. [i May 1774] 

Engraving. From the Westminster Magazine, ii. 168. Lord North pumps 
water upon the prostrate figure of Britannia while he looks at her through 
his spy-glass. On the top of the tall pump is a head of George III in profile 
to the 1. adorned with a laurel wreath. Britannia holds her spear in her r. 
hand, beneath her is her shield; she lies across a Red Indian brave, also 
prostrate, and holding a knife, who represents America. Beneath them on 
the ground are a number of documents. Behind North (1.) is a group of 
ministerialists who are approving spectators. Two judges, each holding 
a document, appear to be Apsley, the Lord Chancellor, and Mansfield. 
Behind Mansfield stands Sandwich. Three others are less prominent and 
cannot be identified. Above their heads is an open window from which 
look Lord Holland, with a fox's head, and a companion wearing a ribbon 
who may be intended for Bute. On the r. two men hold out their hands in 
protest. One is Wilkes ; his companion, who wears a long gown and bands, 
may be intended for Lord Camden. 

The accompanying text explains the 'Vision'. North, under Scottish 
influence, is pumping upon 'that daft unruly body Mistress Britannia . . . 
with her child America, and all her boasted rattles and gew-gaws such as 
Magna Charta, Coronation Oaths, Bill of Rights, Charters of Companies 
and Corporations, Remonstrances, Petitions . . .'. 'All the miscreants and 
tools of State' rejoice at the sight. Round the head on the pump, though 
surrounded with fogs, could be read the words, 

His brows thick fogs instead of glories grace, 
And lambent dulness plays around his face. 

The vision was inspired by 'the Dissentions of our Colonies and the 
Fever of the Mother Country'. It is an attack on the Bills against Massa- 
chusetts on account of the Boston Tea Party, see No. 5226, which were 
discussed between i Mar. and 25 Apr. Pari. Hist., xvii. 1163 ff. ; see Corr. 
of George HI, ed. Fortescue, iii. 80 ff. See also Nos. 5228, &c. 

5228 THE MITRED MINUET. [i May 1774] 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xliii. 312. Four bishops wearing 
mitres dance together, each holding the hand of the one opposite him so 
that four hands cross in the middle. They dance round the Quebec Bill 
which lies on the floor. Other bishops, not wearing mitres, are seated in 
a semicircle behind them, watching with approval. On the 1. are three 
figures who appear to be directing the dance : Lord Bute in highland dress 
plays the bagpipes, next him is Lord North pointing to the dancers, and 
on North's 1. is a minister wearing a ribbon. Above their heads flies the 
Devil pointing to North with his r. hand, his 1. forefinger laid against his 
nose. The scene is a panelled room. 



The explanatory text is a violent attack on the Quebec Act, passed 
22 June 1774, from the No-Popery standpoint: the bishops' 'crossing of 
hands was to show their approbation and countenance of the Roman 

The Quebec Act, though not a punitive measure, was classed with the 
three acts passed against Massachusetts, the Boston Port Act, the Massa- 
chusetts Government Act, the Administration of Justice Act, and with the 
Quartering Act as the five intolerable Acts, rousing far the most opposition 
though it was 'dictated by an enlightened liberalism ... to secure the 
loyalty of the French Canadians. To these it granted complete religious 
liberty and the restitution of their peculiar legal and political institutions'. 
S. E. Morison and H. S. Commager, The Growth of the American Republic, 
New York, 1930, p. 21. See also R. Coupland, The Quebec Act, 1928; 
Cavendish, Debates on the Bill for the Government of Quebec, 1 889. Chatham 
on 18 June denounced it in the House of Lords as 'a most cruel, oppressive 
and odious measure, tearing up justice and every good principle by the 
roots'. Pari. Hist., xviii. 1402. See also the King's Speech, ibid., 1407. 
For the Act see also Nos. 5233, 5236, 5282, 5285, 5286. No. 5681 perhaps 
relates to this Act. 

This plate was used in the Hibernian Magazine, iv, 451, Aug. 1774. It 
was copied by Paul Revere for the Royal American Magazine, October 
1774, Stauffer, No. 2688. 


5229 THE POLISH PLUMB-CAKE. [i Sept. 1774] 

J. Lodge sculp. 

Engraving. From the Westminster Magazine, ii. 416. Four monarchs sit 
round a table on which is a round 'cake' divided into four sections marked 
Russia, Germany, Prussia, and (smaller than the others) France. In the 
centre sits the Emperor, crowned, a drawn sword in his hand. On his r. is 
Catharine of Russia in profile to the r. holding a cleaver. On his 1. is Frederick 
of Prussia, wearing a hat with a cockade; he also holds a drawn sword. 
In the foreground (1.) sits the French king (who in age more resembles 
Louis XV than his grandson who succeeded him in May 1774); he holds 
a knife, and his portion is much smaller than those of the other three. 
Behind (1.) is the king of Poland weeping, his crown about to fall from his 
head. On the r. stands a man in a jewelled turban flourishing his sword, 
probably the Grand Signior. From under the table-cloth appears a demon 
who points at the king of Prussia. Beneath the design is engraved. 

Thy Kingdom Stanislaus, is now at stake. 

To four such stomachs, His a mere plumb-cake. 

The accompanying text explains that Frederick 'a King more savage than 
an Indian', 'lets the Emperor of Germany [sic] and the Empress of Russia 
go snacks; while he off^ers the King of France a share to keep him from 
attacking Germany'. The demon says 'though they have executed his 
design they shall not long enjoy the plunder!' For the partition of Poland 
see also Nos. 4957, 4958, 5 no, 5124, 5222. 






J. Dixon invenit et fecit 

Published 7. Sep"" iyy4. Printed for John Bowles, at N° 13 in Cornhill. 
Pr. r 6'^ 

Mezzotint. A black horse, rearing violently, has just thrown its rider, 
whose head has struck a mile-stone and broken it across. The part still 
standing is inscribed To Boston VI Miles. Behind it (r.) is a sign-post 
inscribed To Salem. The rider lies on his back, clutching his head with 
his r. hand, his legs are in the air. He wears a laced coat and waistcoat and 
gloves, his hat and wig are on the ground. The horse is looking wildly 
down at its rider. The scene is a narrow country road, with bushes in the 
foreground and low mountains in the distance. 

General Gage, who succeeded Hutchinson as Governor of Massachusetts, 
removed the legislative assembly from Boston to Salem (May-June 1774), 
the Port of Boston having been closed under the Boston Port Act. All 
shipping for Boston was forced to enter by Salem or Marblehead and 
thence through Cambridge by wagons. The result was to inflame the 
opposition of the colony to England. Five representatives to a General 
Congress were elected and the subscribers to a Solemn League and 
Covenant pledged themselves to suspend all commercial intercourse with 
Great Britain until the Boston Port Act was repealed ; and in a number of 
ways Gage was defied and insulted. The rider may represent either Gage 
or Great Britain overcome by the resistance of Massachusetts to the penal 
measures against the colony, cf. No. 5549. 

The manner of this mezzotint is that of the history painter, not of political 
satire. Reproduced, R. T. Halsey, Boston Port Bill, p. 157. 

5231 BOREAS. [i Oct. 1774] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine,^ xi. 276. A freely-drawn caricature 
of Lord North H.L. in profile to the r. He looks through an eye-glass held 
in two fingers. In the lower 1. corner of the print is a small head inscribed 
Mollis, its inflated cheeks direct a blast of air against North's back. Beneath 
is engraved, / Promise to reduce the Americans. The figure of North appears 
to be copied from No. 4969. 



Printed for Carington Bowles, N° 6g in S* Pauls Church Yard, 
London. Published 12 OcV 1774. 

Mezzotint. No. 217 in Bowles's smaller series. Two Bostonians tarring and 
feathering a customs officer. The victim, completely covered with feathers, 
kneels on one knee, his hands clasped. A rope is round his neck, its frayed 
end held by the American on the r. He looks round with a face of anguish 
to the other American (1.) who holds a large teapot, the spout of which 
is against the feathered man's r. shoulder. Behind is a gallows with 

 The only political satire in the Oxford Magazine, vol. xi (1774). 



a broken rope, suggesting that the victim has already endured a partial 
hanging. The man with the teapot wears a large plain hat, the figure 45 
written large both on the crown and the upturned brim. The other 
Bostonian holds a club over his 1. shoulder, he wears a large favour in his 
hat showing that he is one of the Sons of Liberty. Both men look grinning 
at their victim; both wear striped breeches. Trees form a background. 

A satire on the treatment given to John Malcom or Malcomb, an un- 
popular Commissioner of Customs, at Boston, as recorded in the English 
newspapers shortly before its publication. On 27 Jan. 1774 he had been 
tarred and feathered, led to the gallows with a rope round his neck, on the 
way there being forced as a torture to drink enormous quantities of tea. 
His offence was in attempting to collect Customs duties ; it was not con- 
nected with the Boston Tea Party. R. T. Halsey, The Boston Port Bill, 
1904, pp. 77-82. For his memorial to the Government of Massachusetts 
begging for relief and redress and his petition to the King for compen- 
sation and employment see Hist. MSS. Comm., Dartmouth MSS., i, p. 
348, ii, pp. 192, 263. 

Wilkes was a national hero in the colonies and '45' a patriotic symbol. 
'Liberty Tree' at Boston was reported to be decorated with 'Number 45, 
Wilkes and liberty'. London Chrofiicle, 13-16 Aug. 1768. 

Reproduced, Social England, ed. Traill, 1904, v, p. 447. 

A larger version with the same date, not in the British Museum, was 
published by Bowles as No. 306 in his series of folio mezzotints. The title 
ends at the word 'Boston', and beneath are the lines, 

For the Custom House Officers landing the Tea, 

They Tarr'd him, and Feathered him just as you see. 

And they drench' d him so well both behind and before, 

That he begg'dfor God's sake they would drench him no more. 

Reproduced R. T. Halsey, op. cit., p. 92. 

Another print, a folio line engraving, was issued by Carington Bowles 
on 2 June 1775 with the same title as No. 5232 and the verses quoted above. 
Malcomb is being lowered by ropes from the window of his house into 
a cart, before receiving his 'American suit'. R. T. Halsey, op. cit., 121 n. 

Another mezzotint depicting the same incident as No. 5232 probably 
by P. Dawe, was published by Sayer and Bennett, 31 Oct. 1774 with the 
title, Plate I. The Bostonians Paying the Excise-man, or Tarring & Feather- 
ing. Reproduced R.T. Halsey, op. cit., p. 83 and J. T. Adams, Revolutionary 
New England, p. 39. Malcomb, on his knees, tarred and feathered, his 
head pressed backwards, is being forced by five men to drink from a tea- 
pot ; one of them holds a rope which is round his neck. They are under 
Liberty Tree (r.) from a branch of which dangles a rope. On its trunk is 
a placard inscribed Stamp Act, upside down. Behind (1.) is a ship with 
furled sails from which masked men are emptying tea-chests into the 
water (the Boston tea-party). Nos. 5241, 5284 belong to the same series. 

The treatment of Malcomb is also the subject of a French engraving, 
John Malcom, by Godefroy in Recueil d'Estampes representant . . . la Guerre 
qui a procure V Independance aux Etats unis . . . (Print Department), 
Malcom, 'ce fier maltotier', is being lowered by ropes from his house into 
a cart. Collection de Vinck, No. 1164. 



5233 [FAME'S REWARDS.]' 

Terry del. et sculp. 

Engrav'd for the Whimsical Repository. According to Act, October i^^ 
iy74. Pater Noster Row. 

Engraving. In a rotunda whose walls are decorated with Ionic columns 
and garlands, Fame stands on a high cylindrical pedestal, blowing her 
trumpet. She is a winged figure, partly draped, in her 1. hand is a second 
trumpet. Beside her stands a boy with butterfly wings, wearing a bow and 
quiver, in his r. hand he holds a flower. Four other winged boys fly down 
from the pedestal with gifts for a crowd of suppliants who kneel below. 
One of them off'ers to a naval officer a pair of crutches, a wooden leg, and 
a paper inscribed Half Pay ; the officer holds a print of a man-of-war 
decorated with flags ; his ankle is in a sling. A parson is about to receive 
a bishop's mitre and a paper inscribed Living; his foot rests on a Bible, 
beneath which is a paper inscribed Protest^ Religion, probably a reference 
to the Quebec Act, see No. 5228, &c. Behind him a famished-looking 
man, holding a large volume inscribed Philosophy, is being offered a paper 
inscribed No literary Property. (In the case of Donaldson v. Beckett, 1774, 
the House of Lords decided that the Act of 1709 had abolished the perpetual 
copyright of the common law. See Pari. Hist, xvii, pp. 953, 1077 fF., 1400 ff'. ; 
Hume, Letters, 1932, ii. 286-9.) A fashionably-dressed man kneels on 
Britannia's shield beneath which lies M. Charta, a torn document; across 
it lies the cap of Liberty on its staff' and a paper inscribed General Warrants ; 
he is being offered a fool's cap and a collar or circlet attached to a chain. A 
man in legal robes is being given a bag of money and an order in the form 
of a Maltese cross. 

In the foreground stands a small blindfolded cupid, holding an arrow 
and a heart. On the 1. stand two spectators: one is evidently Sir John 
Fielding the magistrate, wearing a gown, his eyes bandaged as he was 
accustomed to sit at Bow Street, he holds a cross-hilted sword, emblem 
of Justice ; the other is a military officer with a wooden leg. Beneath the 
design is engraved, 

Plaudits of Fame, tho^ Mortals prize! 
Fancy 's the God they Idolize. 

Cf. No. 5275, also a satire on social injustice. 
6|X4f in. 

TO CITY REMONSTRANCES. [n.d. c. 1774] 

Sold by M''^ Sledge next Southampton Street Covent Garden & M^ 
Swan facing Norfolk Street Strand, price Six pence. 

Engraving. A freely-drawn representation of the gateway to St. James's 
Palace. From a window over the gate lean three men who have just thrown 
out a barrel labelled The Coin Act : in the centre is the king saying : This 
Coin Act will fully employ them to take of their attention to my immaculate 
Ministry. On his r. is Bute wearing a Scots cap ; he says : Hoot awa ye Scum 
of the Earth Til teach ye doctrine of Subordination. On his 1. is a judge, 
evidently Mansfield. A man who holds out a pair of scales is about to enter 

• No title. 


the palace ; he wears a long gown held up by the devil who points at him. 
Beneath the man with the scales is engraved : twas kind to help little Pinchy 
to a new Trade. Beneath the devil is engraved : I am always sure of my 
Friends here. Behind the devil walks a man in a furred alderman's gown 
holding his hat, he says : / hope my Lord you will secure me for the City again. 
He must be Thomas Harley, M.P. for the City of London, 1768-74, and 
the leader of the Court Party in the City. At the general election of 1774 
he resigned his seat for the City and unsuccessfully contested the county 
of Hereford, see No. 4953, &c. Behind (1.) stand three Scotsmen in kilts 
talking together ; one says : let them get a Bank in Air or muckle penny Notes, 
an allusion to the insolvent position of the Ayr Bank (Douglas Heron and 
Co.), see Hume, Letters, ed. Greig, 1932, ii. 263, 265, and No. 4961. 
Another says : this will plague the Loons & humble their pride. In the fore- 
ground (1.) a man in macaroni dress is accosting a courtesan, she holds him 
at arm's length, holding out a pair of scales and saying: You Maccaronys 
are light Chaps y^ Gold may be as light as yourself I'll weigh first. On the r. 
is a sentry-box before which stands a grenadier at attention. Beside him 
(r.) is a bearded Jew with a satisfied expression holding money-bags. A dog 
barks at him. 

One of several satires on the Coin Act, see Nos. 3759, 4534 (1774). 5128, 
5158. Pinchy is Christopher Pinchbeck, satirically called the King's 
Friend, see index; the Coin Act will be profitable to him as a maker of 
scales. For City Remonstrances see Nos. 4380, 4386, &c. The latest was 
that of 13 Mar. 1773, Walpole, Last Journals, 1910, i. 180-5; Sharpe, 
London and the Kingdom, iii. 135-7; Corr. of George III, ed. Fortescue, 
ii. 462-5. 
4^X61 in. 

FOR A MAYOR. [n.d. c. Oct. 1774] 

Engraving. Probably from a magazine.' A throng of figures in furred 
gowns, most of whom have animals' heads, surround a table, on which are 
open polling books, with triple columns of names. At the further side of 
the table sits Alderman Bull, with a bull's head, writing with a pen in his 
cloven hoof. On his r. hand is Wilkes. Behind stands a man with a goat's 
beard and horns probably intended for Watkin Lewes. Harley as an ape 
wearing spurred boots enters from the r. 

At the election for the mayoralty in Oct. 1774 Wilkes was head of the 
poll, next being Bull, the actual mayor. These two were therefore returned 
to the Court of Aldermen, eleven of them voted for Wilkes, while only two, 
Townsend and Oliver, voted for Bull. Sharpe, London and the Kingdom, 
iii. 143-4. Cf. Nos. 5129, 5130, 5131. 

5fX3f in. 

5236 THE DISSOLUTION OF P T [Parliament], [i Nov. 1774] 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xliii. 464. A street scene, in 
which a stage coach drawn by six horses and laden with passengers inside 
and out is being driven at full speed from r. to 1. They drive past a posting- 
inn, with an open gateway over which, as a sign, is a head of Wilkes in an 

' From the Sentimental Magazine, Oct. [Nov.] 1773. It relates to the election 
of 1773 when Bull was chosen by the aldermen, see No. 5129, &c. 



oval ; beneath it are the words John Wilkes Esq'' Neat Post Chaises. To the 
postilion on the near leader is attached a label inscribed Galloping Liberty. 
The coach-door is inscribed For the Corrupted Boroughs. Five passengers 
(ministerialist candidates) sit inside the coach, fashionably dressed. On 
the roof sit four men, two flourish clubs; one says: May the Patriots ride 
uppermost. The large boot or basket attached to the back of the coach holds 
six passengers ; it is inscribed : We are honest though poor, or who would be 
golted [sic'\ thus for his Country! The coachman turns round to the 
passengers saying : / will not overset Ye, if Ye do7tt overset Yourselves. On 
the ground are papers inscribed: Generall Warrants (see No. 4065); 
Boston Port Bill (see No. 5226); Quebec (see No. 5228, &c.); Inclosures. 
Bystanders (1. to r.) point and jeer at the coach: A ragged man (1.) sitting 
on the ground with two wooden legs, one of which is broken off, says : Ah, 
rot such Members, my Members are better! A ragged woman with two 
children says : You have Starved me, and my Children. A seated man points 
at the papers on the ground saying : What a litter they have left behind them. 
A man (r.) says to his companion : There they go, & the D 1 go with them. 

The explanation of this 'Vision' is appended to a sarcastic comment on 
election addresses of individual candidates. The candidates on the roof 
and in the basket are patriots and the coach was to stop at 'the Wilkes's 
Head in Brentford'. 

Parliament was dissolved suddenly on 30 Sept., about six months before 
the expiration of its seven years' term, then a very unusual event, see 
Ann. Reg. 1774, p. 152; Walpole, Last Journals, 1910, i. 375-9. The 
illegality of General Warrants issued by a Secretary of State had been 
established by the decisions of Camden (1763-5) arising out of the arrest 
of Wilkes, and others, for the publication of No. 45 of the North Briton. 
Throughout the reign of George III, private Bills for the enclosure of 
common fields, commons, and wastes were exceedingly numerous and 
very unpopular with cottagers and small farmers, cf. No. 5224. On 20 Oct. 
'a vast train of carriages and horses attend Wilkes to Brentford , . .' 
T. Hutchinson, Diary, i. 267. 

LONDON IN 1772. [i Nov. 1774] 

R. Dighton del. J. Jime sculpK 

Engraving. From the Gentleman's Magazine, 1774, p. 457. An ornate 
two-handled cup with a lid. It is decorated in relief wuth the City Arms 
and with a scene representing the assassination of Julius Caesar under 
which is inscribed : 

May every Tyrant feel 
The keen deep Searchings of a Patriots steel. 

The maker's name is round the base of the cup : 

Morson & Stephenson fee. Ludgate Hill. 

In the background are the arms used by Wilkes but without the motto 
{Arcui meo noji confido), cf. No. 5245. 

One of the three cups which had been voted by the Common Council 
24 Jan. 1772 to the three City patriots, Wilkes, Crosby, and Oliver for their 
opposition to the House of Commons over the printing of debates, see 
Nos. 4850, 4853, &c. Cf. No. 4887. 



The cup is described on p. 457. The has relief 'seems to indicate an 
idea of the meaning of the dagger or short sword in the City Arms very 
different from what the Antiquarians have hitherto suggested', namely, 
either the dagger with which Walworth slew Wat Tyler, or the short 
sword of St. Paul. 

The print is perhaps intended as an election warning against the excesses 
of the patriots. 


TUNE TELLER. [n.d. 1774?] 

Engrazed for y^ Whimsical Repository.^ 

Designed, & Engrav'd by G. Terry, Paternoster Row 

Engraving. The room of a fortune-teller. The devil seated and holding 
a wand has just called up the figure of a Red Indian who stands (1.) on the 
body of a prostrate soldier, on whose high cap are the letters G.R. The 
Indian, personifying America, holds up the model of a large square build- 
ing in his r. hand, the floors of which have given way, so that its occupants, 
crowds of tiny figures, fall headlong to the floor. In his 1. hand is a wand 
with which he points to the building which symbolizes the parliament. 
Behind him are clouds. Two ministers (r.) who have come to consult the 
fortune-teller start back, with arms raised in horror at the sight of the 
Red Indian. One appears to be intended for Lord North, the other wears 
a peer's robe. A demon looks out from under a tablecloth, holding the end 
of a cord which is attached to the ankle of the peer. On the wall is either 
a picture or a vision of Temple Bar, with three heads on poles, suggesting 
the fate which awaits the heads of the Government, cf. Nos. 5135, 5661, 
5969, &c. 

On the table under which the demon crouches is a celestial globe, a skull 
and bones. The fortune-teller and his clients are within a circle of 
cabalistic signs. On a shelf above his head are large books, the skeleton 
of a bird, and four bottles, in one of which is a body hanging from a gallows, 
in another a serpent-like monster. 

The Whimsical Repository prints appear in no other year but 1774, so 
that this almost certainly relates to the dissolution of parliament on 
30 Sept. 1774. 
6^x911 in. 


Emhlematist Inv. et Sculp. 

Publish' d Nov y^^ 1774 Price 6^ 

Engraving. A pile of rotten timber, supporting a centre staff which stands 
on a cube-shaped stone block. These timber props are lashed together 
with rope, but are splintered, broken, and worm-eaten. From the broken 
centre staff hangs a tattered flag inscribed Liberty on which is a damaged 
cap of liberty. On the stone is an hour-glass, the sands of which are nearly 
run out, surrounded by a serpent. The cube is inscribed Time Shezvith all 
Things. The supports of the drooping standard of liberty are inscribed 

' These words partly cut off. 




Magna Charta; Patriotism; Law; Liberty of Conscience; Religion (broken 
in half); Liberty of the Press; Common Hall; Bill of Rights (these last two 
are in good repair and represent the most radical body of the London 
Corporation and probably the Bill of Rights Society); Juries; Honesty 
(hanging by a splinter). From one of the posts hangs a broken pair of 
scales, emblem of Justice. 

On the ground in the foreground is a piece of timber from the pile 
inscribed Elections; across it lies an axe inscribed Bribery & Corruption. 
On the ground are also Britannia's broken shield, through a hole in which 
grows a thistle, emblem of Scottish influence; a torn Map of England, and 
a fragment on which is engraved a Tudor rose. 

In the upper r. corner are clouds from which comes a hand holding a 
pair of scales, beneath which is engraved i"' Sam^ 2^ Chap: 3^, Verse. 
['Talk no more so exceeding proudly; let not arrogancy come out of your 
mouth: for the Lord is a God of knowledge, and by him actions are 
weighed.'] From the hand and scales come rays of light. 

Parliament was dissolved on 30 Sept. 1774, and the new parliament met 
on 29 Nov. Cf. No. 5240. 


5240 THE CONSTITUTION OF ENGLAND. [n.d. ? 1774] 

Engraving. Three sturdy tree-trunks stand against one another in the form 
of a tripod, bound by a ribbon inscribed Respublica. The centre one is 
surmounted by a crown, the others, one by a mitre over which is placed 
a baron's coronet, the other by a smaller crown which appears to represent 
the top of a sceptre. From the centre hangs a pair of equally balanced 
scales, in each scale are three scrolls, inscribed respectively (1.) Religion, 
Law, Authority and (r.) Liberty, Right, Obedience. 

Similar in the character of the design to No. 5239 and possibly intended 
as a counterblast to it. 
5iX3f in. 

[Philip Dawe?] 

Plate II. London, Printed for R. Sayer, & J. Bennett, Map & Print- 
sellers, N" S3 Fl^ei Street, as the Act directs, ig NoV 1774. 

Mezzotint. One of a series, see pp. 169, 196-7, No. 5284. A cage inscribed 
Boston hangs from a branch of Libert[y] Tree. In it are ten hungry Boston- 
ians being fed with fish by three men standing in a boat, at the side of the 
peninsula on which the tree stands. The men in the cage are lean with 
lank hair and of puritanic appearance. Those in the front who have secured 
fish are thrusting them into their mouths, others with wide open mouths 
and clasped hands beg to be fed. They crouch forward to take the fish 
which are thrust between the bars in open boxes at the end of poles. One 
of the Bostonians stands in the centre with uplifted r. hand, holding out 
in his 1. hand a paper inscribed : They cried unto the Lord in their Trouble & 
he saved them out of their Distress Psal{m\ cvii. 13. He wears a minister's 
bands, and his expression and open- wide mouth shows that he is making 
a loud lamentation. On the 1. a man who is eating a fish held on the end of 



a pole has thrust his hand through the bars, holding a large bundle of neatly 
folded documents inscribed Promises. On the r. two men are fighting for 
a fish, one holds it tight, the other has seized him by the hair and tries to 
take it from him. 

In the open boat at the foot of the tree are two baskets of fish on one of 

which is a paper inscribed To from the Committee of . Of the 

three men who stand in the boat holding out the fish, one (1.) wears a round 
hat, jacket, and striped sailor's trousers, another (c.) wears a round hat, 
apron, and striped jacket; the third wears a broad hat, dark coat, and 
loose breeches. 

In the distance, behind the tree, on the sea-shore are British soldiers; 
a file of men with muskets over their shoulders drive off a flock of goats, 
the regimental band (three drums and two fifes) is playing. Cannons pointed 
at 'Liberty Tree' are in a semicircle on the r. On the sea are four British 

When the Port of Boston was closed (see No. 5230, &c.) many were in 
distress owing to lack of employment and the expense of conveying 
merchandise by land from Salem. Gifts of food, &c., were sent from all 
places on the continent, including a contribution of 'two hundred and 
seven quintals of codfish' from Marblehead, noted in the English press. 

In the summer of 1774 Gage ordered some regiments of foot with 
artillery to be sent to Boston ; they were encamped on the ground between 
the town and the narrow neck of ground, then called Boston Neck, con- 
necting it with the mainland, and a guard was placed there to prevent 
desertion. This was magnified into an attempt to cut the communication 
between Boston and its hinterland and to reduce the town by famine. 
Stedman, History of the American War, 1794, i. 98. 'Liberty Tree', a 
rallying point for patriots, was cut down for fuel while the British were 
blockaded in Boston in the winter of 1775-6. 

Knowledge of America is shown by the depiction of the Bostonians as 
undergoing the punishment given in the Colonies to slaves convicted of 
capital off"ences who were thus imprisoned and left to starve to death. The 
artist's irony seems directed against both sides, the English soldiers who 
direct their cannon at 'Liberty Tree', while the cage, symbol of slavery 
and barbarity, hangs on Liberty Tree. 

Reproduced R. T. Halsey, The Boston Port Bill, p. 172. 

13 X 10 in. 

BOREAS. [i Dec. 1774] 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xliii. 520 (folding plate). Lord 
North strides across a stream which flows from the door of Westminster 
Hall; floating down the stream is a crowd of members of parliament. 
North's feet are supported on two blocks inscribed Tyranny and Venality. 
In his r. hand are three papers inscribed Places; Pensions; Lottery Tickets; 
in his 1. is a flaming torch inscribed America. By the stream on the r. stand 
two figures : Britannia, with shield and spear, holding out a paper inscribed : 
Those that Should have been my Preservers have been my Destroyers', and 
Wilkes (recently elected Lord Mayor) in civic gown and chain. He holds 
a broom towards the foremost of the floating members and by his hand is 
a label: /'// stem the Stream. 



Beneath the design is engraved : 

See our Colossus strides with Trophies crozvn'd, 
And Monsters in Corruption's Stream abound. 

The plate illustrates 'A vision', headed by a quotation from a letter of 
Marvell (1665) 'The Parliament was never so embarrassed, beyond 
recovery. We are all venal cowards except a few.' 

The elections of 1774 did not reduce North's majority; the new parlia- 
ment met on 29 Nov. ; Wilkes, returned again for Middlesex, took his seat 
without opposition. 

This plate and the accompanying text appeared in the Hibernian 
Magazine for Dec. 1774 (i Jan. 1775). Reproduced, J. T. Adams, Revolu- 
tionary New England, 1923, p. 420. 


5243 THE STA * * * MAN [Statesman] ON STILTS, OR A PRIME 
M******R [Minister], IN HIS UNDRESS. 

Terry del et sculp. 

Engrav'd for y^ Whimsical Repository, according to y^ Act, Dec'' i. 

Engraving. A grotesque monster on stilts. It has two heads, one of an 
ass, the other of a rat; its body and tail resemble those of a hog. A ribbon 
and star indicate Lord North. Attached to each stilt is half a lottery 
wheel on which is inscribed (1.) Museum Lotfry G. 17 .. ; (r.) State Lottery 
R. 74. (The two halves together reading G.R. 1774.) The stilts stand on 
the prostrate body of Bi-itannia, lying across her shield, and the cap of 
liberty on its staff. On the ground are also flotsam from a wreck: a barrel, 
a bale of goods, a wheel, a broken anchor. On the r. appears the gable end 
of a shored-up but tottering public-house, the broken sign of which is a 
king holding an orb and sceptre inscribed, OR II. Behind, dismantled ships 
lie close to the shore, brooms at their mast-head show that they are for 
sale. Beneath the title is engraved, 

A Lyon for Paws, for a Noddle an Ass; 

A Crocodile's Heart, and a duplicate Face; 

Voracious as Death, he's docile as a Hog; 

Ambitious, yet fawns with the Foot of a Dog. 

The lottery wheel indicates that North's finance depends on lotteries. 
The 'Museum Lott'ry' is that of James Cox, who obtained a private Bill 
in 1773 to enable him to dispose of his collection of mechanical and 
jewelled toys by lottery. It was on show in Spring Gardens, 'Cox's 
Museum' being one of the sights of the town, cf. No. 5275. This lottery 
had no relation to national finance. 




Terry del. et sculp. 

Engrav'd for the Whimsical Repository, According to y^ Act, Dec'' i, 

Engraving. Lord North (1.), plays the fiddle smiling while three men 



circle round a sign-post surmounted by a crown; its three arms are 
inscribed America, England, and Scotland; the post is inscribed Politicks jr 

for y^. It is supported on the hub of a wheel which is held in the r, hands ^ 
of the three men, who walk round it, stripped to the waist, each applying 
a cat-o'-nine-tails to the back of the man in front. They are respectively 
America, as a Red Indian, with a feathered head-dress and a girdle of 
feathers, England as a sailor in trousers, and Scotland in a kilt, and with 
a ferocious expression. Behind stands Britannia (r.) in tears, leaning on 
her shield and on the staff supporting the cap of liberty, while she points 
to the three men. Beneath the title is engraved, 

Rouze, Britons, Rouze! behold thy staggering StatCy 
Discord destroys you. Concord makes you great; 
While thus at variance. Brother scourges Brother, 
Friends disunited must destroy each other. 
6|-X4i in. 

Pu¥ as the Act Directs 1774. 

Engraving. The two Jacks, one (1.) emerging from a jack boot, the other 
(r.) from a funnel in the neck of a bottle, face each other. The boot, the 
emblem of Bute, see No. 3860, &c., is decorated with a thistle and a scroll 
inscribed Nemo me impune Lacessit. The end of the scroll is forked and 
represents the tail of Jack Major, a winged demon with horns standing in 
the boot. 

Jack Minor, Wilkes, wears his Lord Mayor's gown and chain. His 
bottle is decorated with the City arms, across his funnel is a scroll inscribed 
with his motto, Arcui non meo confide [sic]. As the bottle-imp, see Nos. 
3022-7, 5275, he is identified with impudent imposture. Bute says to 
Wilkes: A' Jocky are ye there Lad. Weel Weel Ye' II soon be flat iti Y'er 
G'ued Auld Cause nu, sa i'll e'en bottle ye up, and keep ye till bresk anu Hull 
froth & fume on oor side the Question; what says tulVt Jock. Wilkes answers : 
Say, why if I crack there is 50o£ p^ Ann for Poor Jack (you know) if my 
bottle holds tight, if that fails me Fll apply to you — you Utiderstand me — Fm 
sinking going — going farewell. 

In the centre between the two Jacks is engraved : Biennial N°^ 


The year 1774-5 ^^^^ ^^at of Wilkes's mayoralty. 

Beneath the boot and the bottle, on a minute scale, are three labouring 
men wearing aprons, they are huzzaing with uplifted arms, two wave their 
hats. They are inscribed Wa . . . king Dreamers and are numbered i, 2, 
and 3. I (r.) says : Huzza our Jack for ever, every Pint pot is to hold a 
Gallon my boys, down with the free booters. 2 (1.) says : Ay and every Quartern 
loaf is to fill a Bushel, down with the Rents & Taxes my Boys. 3 (c.) says : 
they shan't Rob & murder us again I warrant me, have at 'em. 

Beneath the design is engraved : 

The Gold Chain's won, loithout the wooden leg: 
How long for this, have we been big with egg! 
Wise too the Choise pronounc'd & zvell approv'd 
And Jack, by Scotch, & English both, belov'd; 

177 N 


Religious Railers (mongrels) still Rail on; 

Our Jack on Record Stands, an upright John. 

Britons the joyfull, happy /Era boast. 

In which ye have two Jacks to Rule the Roast. 

One Cooks the Cab. [Cabinet] & one the Sapient City 

We're finely cook'd indeed! 'tis vastly pretty! 

Firm to his interest each with Zeal Abides, 

The Secret Motive gain on both their Sides. 

*Gued Auld Cause', the watchword of the republicans under the Pro- 
tectorate of Cromwell, is an allusion to the republican sympathies of the 
patriots. The election of Wilkes as Mayor in 1774 after being rejected in 
1772 and 1773 by the Court of Aldermen, and his return unopposed for 
Middlesex in 1774, coincide with the virtual end of his political importance, 
though his house in 1774-5 was a meeting-place for English, American, and 
French supporters of the Colonies, see No. 5246. For other Wilkite satires 
cf. Nos. 4326, 4887, 5103, 5130, 5131. 



Pu¥ Decb^ 10 1774 

Engraving in the manner of a chalk drawing probably by a French artist. 
A companion print to No. 5247. A man-monster of repulsive appearance, 
wearing the bands of a lawyer, and a long cloak which trails on the ground. 
A pair of pistols is stuck through his belt. He has pointed animal's ears, 
on his head are open pamphlets among which serpents writhe. His feet 
and hands are the paws of a lion or tiger; he has a bushy tail. In his 1. paw 
he holds by the hair a woman's head and a pen; in his r. (appearing from 
under his cloak) are scales loaded with coins, a dagger, the hilt of a sword, 
to which is attached a seal (?). Beneath the design is engraved: The Body 
Soul & Mijid of the Gazetier Cuirasse. 

A symbolical portrait of the swindler and blackmailer Charles Theveneau, 
who called himself Chevalier de Morande. Having fled from France on 
account of a libel he had written, he arrived in London destitute, and lived 
on vice followed by blackmail. He published in 1771 an attack on the Court 
of France called Le Gazetier Cuirasse and followed this up by other scurri- 
lous but well-informed pamphlets on Court scandals in France. In 1774 
he had ready for publication Memoires secrets d'une Femme Publique, i.e. 
Mme du Barry, compared with which he said the Gazetier Cuirasse was 
rose-water. The woman's head in the print appears to be that of the 
du Barry. The French Court made repeated efforts to secure Morande, 
but failed. In Mar. 1774, Beaumarchais came to London and negotiated 
the destruction of the whole edition for 32,000 livres and a pension of 
4,000 livres, evidently symbolized by the money in the scales. See P. 
Robiquet, Theveneau de Morande, Paris, 1882. Beaumarchais and Morande 
at this date used to meet supporters of the American Colonies at the house 
of Wilkes. Kite, Beaumarchais and American Independence, 1918, ii.p.56. 


Pu¥ Dec"" 20. iyy4 

Engraving in the manner of a chalk drawing. A companion print to 



No. 5246 by the same artist. Two women stand, one in each of two baskets 
which are fixed pannier-wise across an ass. Each is draped in a sheet and 
the nearer figure has a rope round her neck. Between their heads is a 
large open volume, one page inscribed Le Gazetier Cuirassd, the other, 
Memoir e dune Fille Publique. In front of the book is the head of Medusa, 
writhing with serpents, two serpents coming from its mouth. On the back 
of the ass is a wheel probably signifying that Morande, the writer of the 
two books whose titles are given, deserved to be broken on the wheel. 
The ass is covered with a voluminous drapery under the saddle, and from 
its nose come barbed darts. Behind is a gallows, and in the background on 
the 1. a windmill. Beneath the design is inscribed. 

If you know the Gazitier, You will know the Ass 

An attack on Theveneau de Morande. In 1774 his blackmailing of the 
French Court had been signally successful, see No. 5246. The head of 
Medusa in the design is taken from the frontispiece to Le Gazetier Cuirasse; 
ou Anecdotes Scandaleuses de la Cour de France. (B.M.L. 1195, d. 6 (i).) 
8^X5^ in. 




Series of Tete-a-Tete portraits. 

5248 N° XXXIV. PRETTY BETSY G N [i Jan. 1774] 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, v. 625. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. An 
account of Commodore John Byron (1723-86), afterwards Vice-admiral 
and grandfather of Lord Byron. 'Betsy' was a servant in his household, 
whom he now entertains in a genteel manner in lodgings. 

Ovals 2|X2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5249 N° XXXVII. M^« R N. [Jan. 1774] 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, v. 681. (Supplement.) Two 
bust portraits in oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete 

annexed . . .'. An account of Mr. D , a popular preacher, who having 

been imprisoned in the King's Bench for debt now preaches at C 

[Charlotte] Chapel. He is the notorious D"" William Dodd, executed for 

forgery, 27 June 1777. M"^^ R n is the young wife of a rich merchant, 

whom he visits without exciting the jealousy of his wife or her husband. 

Ovals, 2f X 2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5250 N° II. MISS B ^Y [Vol. VI] 


Publish' d as the Act directs ^ hy A. Hamilton Jun^ near S^ Johns Gate, 
Feb. I. 1774. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vi. 9. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. An 
account of Sir Francis Dashwood, notorious as the founder of 'The 
Franciscans' of Medmenham Abbey, and his mistress. The barony of le 
Despencer was granted to him on his removal from the Chancellorship 
of the Exchequer in 1763. 
Ovals, 2f X 2|- in. B.M.L,, P.P. 5442 b. 

5251 N° IV MISS S R. [Vol. VI] 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S^ John's Gate 
Mar'' I. 1774. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vi. 65. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. This 
repeats, or invents, scandals about Burke, including his supposed education 



at S' Omer, which after the Gordon Riots caused him to be termed a 
Jesuit, in which guise he was often caricatured by Gillray, see No. 6026 

&c. Miss S , his alleged mistress, is 'the daughter of an American 


Ovals, 2| X 2j^g in. ; 2f X 2f in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5252 N° VI. MISS H TER. 


Published as the Act directs by A Hamilton JurV near S^ John's Gate 
April I. IT] 4. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vi. 121. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or, Memoirs 

of Sir C B , and Sophia H r'. An account of the amours of 

Sir C, an elderly man who has not a seat in parliament *tho' his rank and 
fortune entitle him to a representation for a county'. 

He is Sir Cecil Bishopp of Parham, Sussex, 6*'' Bart., M.P. for Penryn 
1727-34, for Boroughbridge 1755-68, m. 1726, Anne, 2^^^^ d. of Viscount 
Falmouth, d. 1775. G.E.C. Complete Baronetage, i. 156. 

Ovals, 2| X 2^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5253 N° X. MRS G S. 


London. Published by A. Hamilton Jun'^ near S* John's Gate J^' May 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vi. 177. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames; an elderly lady with a minute dog under her arm, in profile 
to the r., a thin elderly man in a tie-wig in profile to the 1. This illustrates 
'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. An account of 'Long' Sir 
Thomas Robinson of Rokeby (? 1700-77), who had been Governor of 

Barbados. M" G s is said to be his present mistress, a short stout 

woman, 'past her bloom'; see No. 5 116. Sir Timothy Tallboy is a char- 
acter in Foote's play The Nabob (first played 1772). 

Ovals 2| X 2| in. ; 2^1 X 2^^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5254 N° XIII. MISS G Vol. VI. 


Published as the Act directs, by A. Hamilton JuW near S' John's Gate 
May I. 1774. 

Engraving. Toixm and Country Magazine, vi. 233. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. A 

flattering account of Colonel Barre, M.P. for W b [Wycomb]. Miss G. 

is a Scottish girl whose parents were reduced to poverty by the '45 . Barre 
is said to have found her contemplating suicide and to have made her his 

Ovals, 2f X2j^g in.; 2f X2|- in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



5255 N° XVI MRS sw N 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S^ John's Gate 
July J, 1774. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vi. 289. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. Richard 
Rigby (1722-88) and his alleged mistress. Rigby, as one of the Bedford 
Whigs and a particular adherent of the Duke of Bedford, is called Blooms- 
bury Dick, the duke having been called Bloomsbury Jack, see No. 4842. 

Ovals 2-| X 2| in. ; 2f X 2\. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5256 N° XIX MRS H K 


Published as the Act directs by A Hamilton Jun^ near 5' Johns Gate 
August J^' 1774 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vi. 345. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. The 
'submissive duellist' is 'Captain S.', so-called from an encounter in 
Flanders with the notorious fire-eater Fighting Fitzgerald, arising out of 
the Vauxhall Affray, see No. 5198, &c. He is Captain Scawen, who actually 
behaved with bravery, see Memoirs of George Robert Fitzgerald Esq., 1786. 
M" Horneck, with whom Scawen is said to have eloped to Brussels, is the 
wife of Captain H. See Gibbon, Private Letters, 1896, i, p. 207. 

Ovals, 2\\ X 2j| in. ; 2f X 2^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5257 N° XXV. MRS E 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun* near S^ John's Gate 
SepV I. 1774. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vi. 401. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or. Memoirs 

of L V and M" E 1'. An account of Arthur Annesley, 

Viscount Valentia (1744-18 16) and of Grace Dalrymple Eliot or Elliott, 
afterwards known as Dally the Tall, see D.N.B. Her husband. Dr. Eliot, 
is collecting evidence for a suit of crim. con., but she and Lord V. 'do not 
now live upon the most agreeable terms'. Early in 1775 there was a rupture 
and Grace began her career of fashionable demi-rep. H. L. Bleackley, 
Ladies Frail and Fair, 1909, p. 207. See No. 5321 and index. 

Ovals, 2| X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5258 N° XXVIII. MRS P 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun' near S^ Johns Gate. 
Oct' I. 1774. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vi. 457. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. An 



account of George Neville, Lord Abergavenny, and his alleged mistress, 
the daughter of a City contractor, who became an established demi-rep 
on her liaison with Lord A. 

Ovals, 2f X 2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5259 N° XXXL MRS M N 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S' Johns Gate 

Nov' I. 1774 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vi. 513. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. He wears 
a military hat, sash, aiguilettes, and gorget. An account of Edward Harvey, 
M.P. for Harwich, Adjutant-General and Major-General. His mistress 

is said to be M""^ M tin, a professed courtesan and adventuress, n^e 

P tt, 'sister to the renowned baronet who presented the Flintshire 


This tete-a-tete appears to be published in order to cast yet more mud 
at the Perrott family, see accounts of Sir Richard Perrott (d. 1796) under 
Nos. 4364, 4365, 4399. See also the scandalous Life, Adventures and 
Amours of Sir R. P. 1770; D.N.B. under Robert Perrot (d. 1550) and 
Burke's Peerage and Baronetage. The anti-Ministerial Press attacked him 
violently in 1770 because he presented a loyal address from the County 
of Flint to the Prince of Wales. 

Ovals, 2^1 X 2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5260 N° XXXIV MRS F R 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun' near S^ John's Gate 
Dec" I. 1774 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vi. 569. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or, Memoirs 

of Lord C gh m and M" F r'. An account of the amours of 

Henry, Viscount Conyngham, d. 1781. 

Ovals, 2li X 2j| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

Nine prints from a series issued by Darly continued from No. 5176. 


Pu¥ Accord to Act Jany i. 1774 by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. W.L. caricature portrait of a man playing the musette or 
pastoral oboe with a double pipe and drone resembling bag-pipes. His 
attitude is that of a man seated on a high stool, but there is no stool and 
he is chiefly supported by a wooden leg formed of one of the two pipes of 
his instrument. The bag of the musette, held under his r. arm, is a pig; 
he holds the animal's hind leg, which forms the second pipe, as if playing 
on it; in his r. hand he holds its tail. He turns his head in profile to the r. 
towards an open book of music on a music-stand. He is elderly and wears 
a curious tie-wig terminating in two corkscrew ringlets. 



'Swinetta' appears to be a name invented to suit the travesty of the 
musette as a pig; the name of the player has probably been similarly 
altered to 'Gruntinelli'. 


Reissued (n.d.) with an altered publication line: Printed for Robert 
Sayer, Fleet Street (in book of Sayer's 'Drolls'). 

8-^x6f in. 

5262 V. 3. 20. A JOURNEY TO LONDON 
Pu¥ Jany iP^ iyy4 by M Darly jg Strand 

Engraving. A middle-aged lady (caricatured) riding (1. to r.) preceded by 
her servant who carries two trunks behind him on his saddle. She wears 
the riding-habit of the period and a round hat with a feather. She rides 
with a single rein in her r. hand, in her 1. is a whip. The horses are ambling 
very slowly, both riders are using their whips. Similar in character to 
No. 5266. 


5263 V. 3. 18. A KNIGHT OF THE SPIT. 

Pu¥ by M Darly Jan 20 1774 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a naval officer standing in profile to the r. 
His hair is in a small pig-tail queue; his hat is under his r. arm. In his r. 
hand is a telescope; in his 1. a long cane. He stands in front of a low gun- 
embrasure behind which is the sea, with ships at anchor; in the distance 
is the Isle of Wight. 

Probably Admiral Thomas Pye, commander-in-chief at Portsmouth 
1770-73, knighted during the review at Spithead, 24 June 1773. D.N.B. 



(BATH) by an Officer of the Guards. [M. Darly?] 

PuMJany 21. 1774 by M Darly sg Strand 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of a stout man standing in profile to the r. His 
r. hand is in his breeches pocket, his 1. is thrust into his waistcoat; his hat 
is under his r. arm. 

Identified by M'" Hawkins as Sir Watkin Lewes. 

8|x6| in. 


See No. 4651 — 24 Jan. 1774 

[M. Darly, /<2c.] 'Baron' Neuman. 

5265 MY-SELF [i Feb. 1774] 
Printed for Robert Sayer, N° 53 Fleet Street. 

Engraving. A reissue with a different publication line of a plate published 
by Darly and dated as above which was No. 10, vol. 3 of the series issued 



1772-4. A fashionably-dressed young man, smiling fatuously, walks 

towards the spectators down a straight grass ride cut through trees. 

Beneath the title four lines of verse are engraved, beginning, 
As I walked by myself, I talk'd to myself; and thus myself said to me: 
For the same subject differently treated, see No. 4551 (1777). 

7I X 6^ in. Book of Sayer's 'Drolls'. 

ENGLISH GUINEAS FOR SILVER. See No. 4650—17 Mar. 1774 

Pub as the act directs by M Darly jg Strand Ap^ i. 1774 

Engraving. Two men ride in profile to the r. The one in front is fashion- 
ably dressed with a cockaded hat, in his 1. hand is a cane. The forelegs of 
the horse are raised as if galloping, but both hind legs are on the ground. 
The man behind, who is partly cut off by the margin, wears a round cap 
and is perhaps the servant of the other. His horse appears to be walking. 
A wall, above which are trees, is indicated behind the riders. Similar in 
character to No. 5262. 


5267 V. 3. 14. THE CONSULTATION 
Pu¥ April 27. 1774 by M Darly jg Strand 

Engraving. A man with the profile of an animal, perhaps a sheep, wearing 
gown and bands, holds a large tie-wig of the kind worn by judges in his 1. 
hand, the fingers of his r. hand are held out as if in calculation ; he looks 
at himself in an ornately framed oval mirror on the wall with an expression 
of singular imbecility. An open door in the back wall shows rows of books 
in a book-case: on its lintel stands a bust. An oval (H.L.) portrait hangs on 
the 1. of the door, it is of a man in wig and bands, probably the subject of 
the caricature. Two high-backed chairs are the only furniture of the room. 
Beneath the title is engraved, 

To Wig — or not to Wig 
That is the Question. 


Pu¥ Oct" 24 1774 by M Darly Strand. 

Engraving. Though without a number it belongs to a series of portraits 
of prostitutes, see No. 5177. A young woman (H.L.) in profile to the r., 
very slim and erect. She wears a small flat hat on her elaborately-dressed 
hair and a cape over her shoulders, in the front of which is a large nosegay. 

5X3! in. Fairholt's 'Collection for Costume', i. fo. 116. 

5269 NOSEE 

Pub'^ by M Darly jg Strand Jan i. 1774. 

Engraving. T.Q.L. portrait slightly caricatured, of 'Cervetto', or Giacomo 
Bassevi the 'cellist (1680-1783), noted for his large nose, playing the 'cello. 



He sits looking downwards and to the r. An open book of music, from 
which he is not reading, is on a stand behind his 1. arm. 

When he played in the orchestra at Drury Lane the occupants of the 
gallery used to call 'play up Nosey'. Grove, Musical Diet. 

Perhaps adapted from Zoffany's portrait of which there is a mezzotint 
by Picot published i6 Apr. 1771. Chaloner Smith, iii. 978. 

This print was reissued in a book of Darly's caricatures dated i Jan. 1776, 
see No. 5369, but does not appear to belong to a series. 



Pub by M Darly as the Act directs May 14"' 1774. 

Engraving. Bust portrait (caricature) in an oval of a very corpulent man, 
his enormously heavy jowl sunk between broad high shoulders. He is 
almost full face, looking to the r. His wig and features are small by com- 
parison with his chin, neck, and body. 

Probably portrait of a man called Meek. It was reissued in a composite 
volume dated i Jan. 1776, see No. 5369, but does not appear to belong 
to a series. 


A MEEK-ARONI HORNPIPE— See No. 4708—24 May 1774 

Pub. Darly. W.L. portrait of the subject of No. 5270. 
(Catalogued as 'Mack-aroni . . .'.) 

THE WESTMINSTER MACARONI. See No. 4655—3 Nov. 1774 

Pub. Darly. 

DRAWN FROM LIFE. [i Jan. 1774]^ 

/. Readpinx^ T. Roberts Sculp' North'"** 

Engraving. A clumsy figure holding a ladder across his 1. shoulder; in his 
r. hand is a lighted candle-lantern. He wears a cloak with a hood drawn 
over his head, above which is a hat with a brim extending into a flap at the 
back, his stockings and coat are in holes. From his waist hangs a pair of 
scissors. On the ground are a broom and a can with a handle and spout, 
with a hole in its side. On the print is etched. 

His Ability & Agility will fnake a Man Laugh 
As he lights 18 Lamps in an Hour and a half. 



Plate 2 [Oct. 1774] 

Photographic reproduction of an engraving. A man (1.) from whose hat 
sprout large stag's horns, leads a large wild boar, by a rope through a ring 

' With etchings by Darly. 

^ Written in a contemporary hand. 



in its nose. On the boar a woman is seated wearing a cloak and hood ; she 
carries a spaniel in her 1. arm. From each side of the branching horns 
hangs a money-bag, that on the 1. inscribed £500, 1768, that on the r. 
£1000 17 J 4. Beneath the design is engraved, And he arose, and tookJessCy 
and her Lap-Dog by night and departed unto the Land of Forty- Acres. 

Wyldbore was M.P. for Peterborough: the money-bags imply that his 
election cost him £500 in 1768, and £1,000 in 1774. A note attached to the 
photograph states that 15 Mar. is called Wyldbore day in Peterborough, 
as Wyldbore (d. 15 Mar. 1781) left a bequest to the bellringers of St. John's 
Church for a peal of bells on the anniversaries of his death. He bequeathed 
money to all who voted for him at his election in 1774 who should attend 
his body to the grave and who would accept it. 
3fX4f in. 

H.W. [Rowlandson.] 

Pub June 8'^ iyy4 by H. Humphry Bond Street. 

Acquatint. A London justice of peace seated behind a table in his office, 
his hands clasped. On his r, and 1. are three men holding their hats and 
canes, who may be either justices or visitors. At the end of the table (1.), 
sits the justice's clerk writing with his 1. hand. On the wall over the 
presiding justice's head is a placard, Robbery, Murder . . . Beware of Justice. 
The Middlesex Quarter Sessions, in order to reform the abuse of the 
private justice shop kept by trading justices, established Rotation Offices 
for the different districts of London in imitation of Bow Street, where 
certain magistrates (one or more at a time) sat in rotation. The best-known 
was that of Saunders Welch in Litchfield Street, which Dr. Johnson 
attended all one winter (Boswell, Life of Johnson, iii. 216, iv. 184). The 
figure wearing glasses, on the justice's 1., has a marked resemblance to 
Johnson. That the Litchfield Street office is depicted is probable: Angelo 
records a visit paid by himself and Rowlandson to 'an office then in Litch- 
field Street', to identify a man who had robbed Rowlandson. Reminiscences, 
ed. 1904, ii. 246-7. The initials H.W. show that the subject was suggested 
by Henry Wigstead. Grego, Rowlandson, i. 96. 

H.W. [Rowlandson.] 

Pub'^ June 8^^ by H. Humphry Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured and aquatinted impressions). A village doctor's house 
indicated by the sign of a pestle and mortar over the door, and by the 
placard. Probe Surgeo[n and] Man Midwife. From a casement window 
above the door the doctor in night-cap and shirt leans out, shaking his fist 
at a man who has knocked him up and is standing below, gaping with 
astonishment at the doctor's anger. The doctor holds his breeches in his 
r. hand. A wall (1.) with trees and a building behind it and low raiUngs in 
front, complete the design. 

The initials H.W. show that the subject was suggested by Henry 
Wigstead. Grego, Rowlandson, i. 96-7 (reproduction). 




Designed & Engrav'd by G. Terry, Paternoster Row. Engrav'd for 
the Whimsical Repository Sepf J'' I774- Published According to 
Act of Parliament. 

Engraving. A scene on the sea-shore. A hoven cow, that is, a cow danger- 
ously distended by eating green food, is being operated upon by a man who 
stands on a raised platform and pierces her flank with a pole ; in his r. hand 
is a curved pipe for the injection of smoke. Three country-people and a 
child gape in astonishment holding up their hands; a fat alderman in a 
furred gown does the same; from his pocket hangs a paper inscribed, Nine 
Days he liv'd in Clover. On the r. three doctors or apothecaries are attend- 
ing an emaciated and seemingly-dead woman (r.), who lies on straw, dressed 
only in a shift: one puffs smoke from a tobacco-pipe up her nostrils, 
another applies a pair of bellows, the third listens through an ear-trumpet. 
It appears that while the cow suffers from a surfeit, the woman dies of 
starvation. On the ground lies the hat of one of the doctors, in which is a 
letter. To M' Blake Ply moth. Three spectators (1.) watch the efforts of the 
doctors: one, an oriental, wearing a turban and draperies, holds out his 
hands in astonishment; he appears to represent the wisdom of the East 
(or the noble savage) confronted with the effects of English civilization. 
His two companions, fashionably dressed Englishmen, look on unmoved. 

Behind the sick woman (r.) is the wall of a building, probably a theatrical 
booth ; along it runs a narrow gallery where Punch is strutting ; he points 
to a placard on which is a representation of the bottle-imp emerging from 
his bottle, the great hoax of the century, see Nos. 3022-7, 5245. Beneath 
the bottle is a placard, Subscriptions taken in her^ for reducing the price of 
provision^. Other placards on the booth are inscribed, Marybone Gardens 

Fete Champetre ; Tkf R s Letters from y" Dead, this is behind the dead 

woman; Hearing Trumpets on a new Construction, behind the doctor with 
the ear-trumpet; Cox' s perpetual motion, or the Elephant & Nabob, an allu- 
sion to Cox's Museum, see No. 5243, his jewelled clockwork toys had been 
destined for an Indian prince; they are described in what Walpole calls 
'immortal lines' in Mason's Epistle to Shelburne, see Mason's Satirical Poems, 
ed. P. Toynbee, 1926, pp. 29, 112, 122, see No. 5243. At this placard an 
oafish countryman (r.) is gaping while a boy picks his pocket. In the back- 
ground is the sea; on the beach is a boat raised on stocks but already 
breaking up; this is inscribed The New Adelphi. The building of the 
Adelphi had been an unprofitable speculation, partly owing to the financial 
crisis of 1773, and the Adam brothers obtained a private Act in that year 
to enable them to dispose of the new buildings by a lottery, which took place 
in 1774. Across the water on the further side of a bay is a town inscribed 
A View of Plymouth. A rope extends from a church steeple on the extreme 
1., behind the spectators, to a distant spire in Plymouth, down this a man 
is gliding. 

A satire on the distresses, high food-prices, and financial failures of 
1773-4, with some special application to Plymouth, where possibly 

'M"" Blake' and 'M"" R s' are niggardly parish officers, who have allowed 

a poor woman to starve to death. Cf. No. 5233, also a satire on social 

6^X9! in. 



5276 THE GALLANT OUTWITTED. [i Jan. 1774] 

Engraving. Covent Garden Magazine. The interior of a barn. A woman, 
on the top of piled-up corn, has just overthrown a ladder, from which a 
fashionably dressed man is falling. A pig runs from behind the ladder. 

5iX3f in. 


See No. 2008 — Jan. 1774 
From the Sentimental Magazine, i. 505. 

5277 THE COLLEGE BUCK. [i Nov. 1774] 

Engraving. Hibernian Magazine, iv. 567. A young man, far from sober, 
supports himself by resting his r. hand on the top of a post; in his 1. hand 
he holds a handkerchief on which is slung a large key. He wears a hat, is 
plainly but fashionably dressed, wearing bands instead of a cravat. In the 
background are (r.) buildings of Trinity College, Dublin, on the 1. a tavern, 
with its signboard and dangling bunch of grapes, is partly visible. The 
plate illustrates 'The College-Buck. A Character' in the form of a mono- 
logue, from which it appears that he has left his gown in some house of ill- 
fame, and that the key is 'a devilish good weapon on a dark night, in a 
street wrangle or a gutter fray'. For Dublin 'bucks' at this time, see Buck 
Whaley's Memoirs, 1906, p. 13. 
6|X4^in. B.M.L., P.P. 6154 k. 


London. Printed for J. Williains at N° jg, Fleet Street. 1774. Price 

Engraving. Title-page to a set of scurrilous verses attacking well-known 
people by name. The interior of the Pantheon with a number of figures: 
a centaur (r.), ladies fashionably dressed, two men (one with a ribbon 
and star) with goat's legs, a parson in gown and bands ogling a lady, a 
group of three men (1.), one with a goat's head, another with a fox's head. 
The foot of the third rests on a paper inscribed Irish Protest. Among the 

persons attacked are Count Haslang {H g), see No. 4834, Lady 

Grosvenor (G s r), and Lady Ligonier (L g r). 

In the centre of the upper edge of the design is a trophy composed of 
a scourge and a birch tied with ribbon. 

A copy of the book is in the Print Department. 


Six prints after Bunbury etched and published by J. Bretherton. 


M"" Bunbury del. J^ Bretherton f 

Published by Bretherton 3^ January iyy4. 

Engraving. Two quack doctors (1.) are having a heated altercation in a 
street or square outside their respective houses. From the corner of a house 
on the 1. hangs a sign, D^ Walker's veritable antiscorbutic Pills. Beware of 



Impostors. From the house on the r, a sign projects, True antiscorbutic Pills. 
The doctors wear large wigs and swords, and carry three-cornered hats. 
One (1.) holds in his hand a medicine-bottle; behind them are two dogs 
fighting. Their wives (r.) are fighting violently; one (1.) has seized the 
other by the hair and is kicking her. Behind them (r.) two cats with arched 
backs are spitting at each other. In the upper part of the print (c.) is a 
shield with two ducks, and beneath is the motto: Quack Quack Quack. 
Beneath the design is etched: 

When once you've told & cant recall a Lye 
Boldly persist in't or your Fame will die. 
Learn this ye Wives, with unrelenting Claws 
Or right or wrong. Assert your husbands cause. 

8g\x 11^ in. 

THE HOPES OF THE FAMILY ... See No. 4727—3 Jan. 1774 

Also a later version, reduced (coloured impression) etched by Rowland- 
son, n.d., signed //. Bunbury del. 

4f X 6| in. 

Another version was published by Darly, 10 June 1772, and reissued 
in a composite volume dated i Jan. 1776, see No. 5369. (In the possession 
of Mr. W. T. Spencer, New Oxford Street, 1933.) 

[A POSTILLION] See No. 4747—10 Jan. 1774 

[AN ITALIAN VETURINO] See No. 4735—10 Jan. 1774 

No title: boots, long pigtail queue and z fleur-de-lys badge worn by the 
postillion show that this is a French post-chaise. 

[A FRENCH POSTILLION] See No. 4741—20 Jan. 1774 

EVERY SOUS BEGAD! See No. 4720—10 June 1774 

Four prints after Collet, published by Sayer and Bennet. 
THE MUTUAL EMBRACE. See No. 4613—10 Mar. 1774 

Goldar sc. 

THE UNLUCKY ATTEMPT. See No. 4614—10 Mar. 1774 

Goldar sc. 

THE DISCOVERY See No. 4615—10 Mar. 1774 

Goldar sc. 


See No. 4616 — i July 1774 
Caldwall sc. 



Ten prints from the series of mezzotints published by 
Carington Bowles.' 


See No. 4534 [1774] 
A satire on the Coin Act, see Nos. 3759, 5128, 5231. 


See No. 4535 [1774] 


(297) See No. 3779 [1774] 


See No. 4536 [1774] 
After Grimm. Reproduced Paston, PI. clxxxix. 
A smaller version was published on 25 June 1773. 

DAUGHTER ANNE. (299) See No. 4537 [i774] 

After Grimm. Reproduced Paston, PI. cxc, and Social England , 
ed. Traill, 1904, v. 484 (coloured). Cf. Chaloner Smith, i. p. 2. 

A smaller version was published 14 June 1771, see No. 4538. 

YARD. (300) See No. 3758 [25 June 1774] 

J. R. Smith, see No. 5220. Frankau, pp. 221-2. 


See No. 3759 [1774] 

A satire on the Coin Act, see Nos. 4534, 5128, etc. 

PROVISION FOR THE CONVENT. (304) See No. 3777 [1774] 


See No. 4539 [1774] 


See No. 4580 [20 Oct. 1774] 

Seven similar mezzotints issued by other publishers. 

Cole fecit 

Published April 15, 1774, by W. Humphry, S' Martin's Lane 

Mezzotint. Whitefield preaching to a group of country-people by the road- 
side. A sign, a lion rampant on a post with the chequers which denote an 
alehouse, shows that the scene is outside an inn. Whitefield, his squint 
very pronounced, stands in gown and bands, both arms raised, in the 
attitude familiar from the mezzotints in print-shop windows, see No. 5220. 

' Nos. 4535, 3779, 3777, 4539. have the imprint of Bowles and Carver. A political 
mezzotint, No. 306 in this scries, is described on p. 169. 



Some of his hearers, men and women, clasp their hands in prayer, some 
kneeHng; others grin slyly or scowl. Immediately in front of him an 
elderly man seated on a mounting-block, is asleep, his head resting on the 
head of his stick. A woman with three infants is seated in the foreground 
(1). A pot-man (1.), his sleeves rolled up, holds out a foaming tankard, 
either to the preacher or to one of the audience. Behind, in front of the 
signboard (1.) is a countryman on horseback. Behind Whitefield is the 
trunk of a large tree, under which the group is collected. 

Whitefield left England for America in 1769 and died in 1770. 
I2|X9£- in. Cheylesmore collection. 

FAT AND LEAN ... See No. 4776—2 May 1774 

Pub. W. Humphrey. 

BLADES ... See No. 4618—29 Aug. 1774 

Pub. Sayer and Bennet. 


See No. 4619 — 14 Sept. 1774 

Pub. Sayer and Bennet. 

DISTRESS. See No. 4620—10 Oct. 1774 

Pub. Sayer and Bennet. 

THE TUILLERIE MACARONIES See No. 4783—3 Mar. 1774 

Pub. F. E. Adams (probably by himself, cf. Chaloner Smith, i. p. 2.) 

IS THIS MY DAUGHTER ANN. See No. 4786—27 June 1774 

Pub. S. Sledge. Watson sc. after S. H. Grimm. 




Engraving. From the Westminster Magazine, ii. 640. It illustrates 'The 
XLVth Chapter of the Convention of the Gothamites'. The scene is in- 
tended for the House of Commons. A number of men sit round a table ^^'^ 
covered with documents ; one turns to point at a map on the wall behind (1.) 
inscribed North America, which is bursting into flames. At the far end of 
the table the Speaker in his gown has risen from his high-backed chair and 
calls the members to order. In the foreground (1.) Lord North is slipping 
bank-notes into the 1. hand of a man who stands bowing obsequiously. 
From North's pocket hangs a paper, List of the King's Friends. On the r. 
stands Wilkes in his mayoral gown and chain pointing out North to a 
lawyer in gown and bands who stands on his 1., evidently Serjeant Glynn, 
who with Wilkes had been elected for Middlesex at the general election, 
see No. 5236. Wilkes holds a document, A Remonstrance against the 
Proceedings of the Min^ of the Prince. Four men are sitting in the gallery. 
The text explains that 'Boreas' 'renewed the oppressions' of the Ameri- 
cans begun by Bute, 'with the lash, the sword and the fire and they were 
sorely smitten'. He put a 'bloody speech' into the mouth of the king 'and 
he bribed the Ministers and Nobles' and 'they did unanimously and shame- 
fully vote against the peace and posterity of this new tribe'. For the king's 
speech of 30 Nov. 1774 see Pari. Hist, xviii. 33 ('you may depend on my 
firm and steadfast resolution to withstand every attempt to weaken or impair 
the supreme authority of this legislature over all the dominions of my 
crown. ...'). The Remonstrance is probably that agreed upon in Common 
Hall II Mar. 1773, reputed to have been drawn up by Wilkes, so that 
his enemy Townsend, the Mayor, 'would be undone at S* James's if he 
presented it and stoned by the people if he did not'. Walpole, Last Journals, 
1910, i. 180 f., 182-5. ^^^ Bute, as the chief author of measures against the 
Colonies, see No. 5289, &c. 


5282 AMERICA IN FLAMES. [i Jan. 1775] 

Woodcut. From the Tozo?i and Country Magazine, vi. 659. America, as 
*a venerable lady' sits on the topmost of three steps, surrounded by flames. 
Above her head from among clouds two figures blow at the fire with 
bellows: Bute (1.), in Highland dress, plies bellows inscribed Quebec Bill; 
and in the centre Mansfield, in wig and gown, plies bellows inscribed 
Masachusets Bay. On his 1. sits the Devil (r.), an imp with horns, claws, 
and bat's wings. Beside America (r.) stands Lord North in profile looking 
at her through a lorgnette; in his 1. hand he holds the Boston Port Bill. 
Below four patriots are attempting to put out the flames, one with a bucket 
of water, two with syringes. Down the steps in front rolls a tea-pot spilling 
its contents. 

The text explains the patriots as 'well-known faces . . . often seen in and 
near the Mansion House and among the members of the society of the 

193 o 


Bill of Rights'. Wilkes is indicated by his squint, the man with the bucket 
has some resemblance to Parson Home, the others are too rudely drawn 
for identification. North is 'the ostensible agent of the trio' in the clouds. 

The tea-pot is a symbol of the Boston tea-party which had caused the 
measures here pilloried (except the Quebec Act): the withdrawal of the 
charter of Massachusetts and the Boston Port Bill, see Nos. 5226, 5227, 
5228, 5236, 5285. For other references to the tax on tea and its conse- 
quences see Nos. 5226, 5490, 5491, 6190. For Bute as the chief instigator 
of measures against the Colonies see No. 5289, &c. For the Quebec Act 
see No. 5228, &c. 

This woodcut was used in the Hibernian Magazine, Jan. 1775 [i Feb. 


5283 FRONTISPIECE [i Feb. 1775] 

iLon. Mag. 1775. 

Engraving. Allegorical figures representing Peace, America, and Britannia. 
Peace, a draped figure, stands in the centre poised on clouds ; in her r. hand 
is an olive branch, raised up and pointing towards a small circular temple 
in the clouds (1.) inscribed Temple of Commerce. In her r. hand she holds 
the r. wrist of Britannia who stands (r.) with her shield and spear. America, 
as a Red Indian woman with a feathered head-dress, a sheaf of arrows at her 
back and holding an unstrung bow, looks towards Peace and Britannia. At 
her side is a basket from which fruit is pouring. Beneath the design is 

When fell Debate & civil Wars shall cease. 

Commerce shall spread her Sails o'er all the Seas; 

England unrivalVd in the liberal Arts, 

Shall bear her Genius to remotest Parts, 

Take to thy Breast, America again. 

Thou may' St defy imperious France & Spain. 

5l|X4in. B.M.L., 159. n. 7. 

CAPTAIN IN THE SUDS. [? Philip Dawe] 

PI. III. London, Printed for R. Sayer & J. Bennett, N° 53 Fleet 
Street, as the Act directs 14 Feb. 1775. 

Mezzotint. One of a series, see pp. 169, 196-7, and No. 5241. The interior 
of a barber's shop. A customer is in the barber's chair, draped in a sheet, 
without his wig, one half of his face covered with soap. From the pocket 
of his coat hangs a paper inscribed Orders of Government. A man standing 
on the r. hands him a letter inscribed To Cap" Crozer; the letter-carrier 
is raising his hat and grinning. The barber frowns and pushes his customer 
by the shoulder as if to eject him from his shop; he holds a razor in his 1. 
hand and points to a broken barber's bowl on the ground, from which soapy 
water is pouring out. On the 1. is a door, the lower part closed by a gate; 
a man standing outside, points to the captain, with a grin. Over the door 
is the word Barclay, showing that the shop was in Barclay Street, New 

On a shelf against the back wall at r. angles with the door are two wig- 



blocks with carved faces. On one (1.) is an elaborately curled wig with 
a queue evidently belonging to the captain, since on it is a laced three- 
cornered hat with a cockade. At this shelf (r.) sits the barber's assistant 
dressing a wig, a comb is stuck in his unkempt hair; he looks over his 
shoulder grinning at the captain's plight, showing a lean and grotesque 
profile. On the wall above the shelf are pasted up: (1. to r.) The Speech of 
Lord Chatham; an engraved T.Q.L. portrait of Chatham seated at a table 
writing, inscribed Pitt (it resembles the engraving by Houston after Hoare 
of Pitt when Paymaster-General, but unlike the original Pitt holds a pen 
instead of a letter); an engraved H.L. portrait of Chief Justice Camden 
in judge's wig and gown, surrounded by a wreath. (None of the engraved 
portraits in the B.M. collection resembles this.) Camden was popular 
owing to his part in the repeal of the Stamp Act, and his statue was erected 
in New York (Van Tyne, Causes of the War of Independence, 1921, 195-6). 
Next are the Articles of Association ; the Association was signed by all 
members of Congress on 20 Oct. 1774, binding themselves and their 
constituents to cut off all trade with Great Britain ; committees were named 
to secure signatures and all who refused to sign or who infringed the 
Articles were declared 'enemies to liberty', ibid. 441-8, cf. No. 5297. 
Above the portraits and 'Articles' is a row of four wigs of different patterns 
hanging on the wall. Over these is a shelf on which are wig-boxes inscribed 
with the names of colonial patriots: Cornelius Low the big; Abraham « 
Levingston; Alexander M^Dugell; John Lamb. On the floor in the fore- ' ^ 
ground are other wig-boxes: Isaac Sears; Bleck Johnno; William Lugg; 
Antony Griffiths; Francis Van-Dyke; . . . el Broome: Jacobus V" Zent; 
Welle Franklin. Beneath the title is engraved. 

Thou Patriot grand, maifttain thy Stand, 
And whilst thou sav'st Americ's Land, 

Preserve the Golden Rule; 
Forbid the Captains there to roam. 
Half shave them first, then send ^em home. 

Objects of ridicule. 

This depicts an incident which was the subject of a 'Card' dated 
Oct. 3''^ [1774] circulated by the Sons of Liberty in New York praising the 
patriotic conduct of M'" Jacob Vredenburgh in refusing to complete the 
shaving of Captain John Crozer, Commander of the Empress of Russia, a 
British transport in the river, after he had been 'most fortunately and 
providentially informed of the identity of the gentleman's person when he 
had about half finished the job'. All 'Gentlemen of the Razor' were urged 
to follow this example. The 'card' was printed in English newspapers, e.g. 
Kentish Gazette, 7 Jan. 1775. The names on the wig-boxes show great 
knowledge of New York politics, some were well known at the date of the 
print: Alexander M'^ Dougell, 'the American Wilkes', John Lamb, the 
leader of the New York Radicals, Isaac Sears, the ultra-radical leader of 
the mechanics (Van Tyne, Causes of the American War of Independence, 
270). Antony Griffiths and Francis Van-Dyke were 'Sons of Liberty' who 
were especially active in the policy of intimidation ; Cornelius Low the big 
is presumably Cornelius P. Low, a member of the Committee of One 
Hundred appointed to administer local affairs after the battle of Lexington. 
Abraham Livingston was subsequently a captain in Marinus Willett's 
'Regiment of the Line'. Bleck Johnno is identified by Mr. Halsey as John 
Blagge an active patriot. William Lugg is unknown. Van Zandt, Broome, 




and Welle or Walter Franklin were influential merchants, the first among 
the most radical of the Sons of Liberty, the second Captain of the 'Union' 
Independent Company who drilled on the Common. The last had been 
active in enforcing Non-Importation after 1765. Halsey, The Boston Port 
Bill, as pictured by a Contemporary London Cartoonist, New York, Grolier 
Club, 1904, pp. 217-22. Reproduction, ibid., p. 215. 

I2f X9I in. 

Two other prints in this series, not in the B.M., are here described 
from photogravure reproductions inthe Boston Port Billhy R. T. H. Halsey, 
pp. 277-317. 


Plate IV. London. Pritited for R. Sayer & J. Bennett, N° 53 Fleet 
Street as the Act directs 16 Feb. 1775. 

Mezzotint. One of a series, see pp. 169, 197, and Nos. 5241, 5284. Virginian 
loyalists being forced to sign either the Association or the Resolutions drawn 
up by the Williamsburg Convention in Aug. 1774. A number of Liberty 
Men with large clubs are grouped round two casks on the top of which 
is a plank serving as a table; on this is the paper which the reluctant 
loyalists are being forced to sign. A man in profile to the r, is in the act 
of signing, while a truculent-looking cook stands over him with a large 
knife ; the cook has a cockade in his cook's cap and smokes a long pipe. On 
the 1. another loyalist is being dragged towards the gallows by a group of 
Sons of Liberty with clubs, his hands are clasped in supplication; one 
points at the gallows, another, who holds the victim by the collar, is about 
to cut off his hair with a pair of scissors. The gallows (r.) with its swinging 
sack of feathers and barrel of dripping tar is inscribed A cure for the 
Refractory. Among the spectators is a scowling woman (r.) in profile to the 
1., holding up an infant; a little boy clings to her skirts holding a flag 
inscribed Liberty and wearing a wooden sword and a hat with a cockade. 
There are also a negro, and a sour-looking minister with lank hair. One 
of the two barrels is inscribed Tobacco A Present for John Wilkes Esq^ 
Lord Mayor of London. The papers on it are inscribed The Resolves of the 
Congress and Non Importation. (The Resolutions of Williamsburg included 
an undertaking to conform to every resolution of the Continental Congress 
which should (in future) be consented to by the delegates from Virginia, and 
one that every exporter of tobacco should be considered an enemy to the 
community. They were printed in full in the Middlesex Journal of Sept. 17- 
20, 1774 and reprinted by R. T. H. Halsey, op. cit., pp. 260-9.) Behind, 
(1.) on a high pedestal inscribed Botetourt is a statue of a man standing, in 
peer's robes, pointing towards the gallows. The conciliatory policy of Lord 
Botetourt, the popular Governor of Virginia, 1768-70, was so successful that 
the Virginian House of Burgesses on his death voted 'by acclamation for a 
statue by "the best statuary in England" as a lasting and elegant Testimony 
that this Country will ever pay the most distinguished regard and veneration 
to governors of Worth and Merit'. It was erected in 1774, and is now stand- 
ing in Williamsburg. 

This appears to illustrate a paragraph in the London Chronicle of 26 Jan. 
1774: 'Many Virginians being reluctant to sign [the Association] a gibbet 
was erected in the capital, Williamsburg, from which was hung a barrel 
of tar and a barrel of feathers, each inscribed A Cure for the Refractory, 



which proved very effective in securing signatures.' Virginia and Maryland 
subscribed tobacco towards the fund for Wilkes initiated by the Bill of 
Rights Society. D. M. Clark, British Opinion mid the War of American 
Independence, 1930, p. 154. For the Association see Nos. 5284, 5297. 

B.M.L. Ac. 4714/14 (p. 277). 

CAROLINA. [? P. Dawe] 

Plate V. London, Printed for R. Sayer & J. Bennett, N° 53 in Fleet 
Street as the Act directs 25 March 1775. 377. 

Mezzotint. The chairwoman, an ugly, elderly woman, sits holding up a 
banner at the head of a table (r.) on which is a large document inscribed, 
We the Ladys of Edenton do hereby Solemnly Engage not to Conform to that 
Pernicious Custom of Drinking Tea, or that we the aforesaid Ladys will not 
promote y' zvear of any Manufacture from England untill such time that 
all Acts which tend to Enslave this our Native Country shall be Repealed. 
A young woman in a hat bends over the table to sign the paper. Another 
sits facing her, pen in hand ; she is of meretricious appearance, and is being 
kissed by a young man. Behind stand two women wearing hats, plainly 
dressed, and of puritanic appearance; one drinks from a large punch-bowl, 
the other helps her to support the bowl. On the r. is an open door, two 
ruffianly-looking men stand outside it, one holds out his hat ; a lady pours 
into the hat the contents of a tea-caddy, two other ladies stand by with tea- 
caddies. On the 1. of the chairwoman sits a demure young woman holding 
a fan ; beside her on the ground are tea-caddies which a dog is befouling. 
The dog licks the face of a doll-like child sitting under the table. 

B.M.L. Ac. 4714/14 (p. 317). 

5285 THE THISTLE REEL. [i Mar. 1775] 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xliv. 56. Three men dance 
round a tall thistle. The stem of the thistle is decorated with a Garter 
ribbon inscribed Honi soil qui Mai y pense ; its flower is surrounded by 
a glory of light from which issue rays terminating in a circle of black clouds ; 
over it are the words Carduus benedictus. Among the clouds (r.) is seated 
the Devil playing the bagpipes. The dancers are (1. to r.): Bute in court 
dress wearing the Garter ribbon, &c., and pointing with one hand to the 
thistle, with the other to a scroll on the ground inscribed Noli me tajigere. 
North, smiling, looks at the thistle through a lorgnette. Lord Mansfield 
in judge's wig and gown holds the Quebec Bill, while by his feet is a scroll 
inscribed Nemo me impune lacessit (the motto of the Order of the Thistle). 

The text explains this as 'a vision' seen in the Court Yard of St. James's 
Palace 'after a long argument at the Cocoa with the putrid Jacobites of 
that club'. The 'boreal triumvirate dance to the tune of "Over the water to 
Charley" but flee at the appearance of a ghastly bleeding figure . . . the 
injured Ghost of poor America', who asserts 'that her country would ruin 
ours, and France and Spain would profit by the downfall of both'. The 
guard rush out yelling 'a civil war, a civil war!' 

The Government's policy to America is generally attacked in these 
satires as inspired by Bute and Scottish influence, see No. 5289, &c., a 
favourite theme also in America. Here the Quebec Bill is singled out for 
especial condemnation, see Nos. 5228, 5286, &c. For the Cocoa Tree, 







a Tory club whose origin was a chocolate house formerly a resort of 
Jacobites, see Gibbon, Misc. Works, 1814, i. 154. 



April I. lyy^. Price 6^ 

Engraving. Seven figures on the sea-shore represent the situation in America : 
four (1.) take the offensive, two (r.) are prepared to defend themselves, while 
Britannia on the extreme r., blindfolded, is about to rush into a pit inscribed 
The Pit prepared for others. Each has a number referring to an explanatory 
note beneath the design giving the words spoken by each character. The 
two principal antagonists are Bute (i), who aims a blunderbuss at (5), 
America, a plainly dressed and sturdy man holding a club. Bute, who 
wears his Garter ribbons, tartan breeches, and a tartan plaid, is One String 
Jack, saying. Deliver your Property (Rann, 'Sixteen String Jack', was a 
noted highwayman hanged in 1774). America answers, I uill not be 
Robbed. Behind him and holding his 1. hand is (6), an English sailor 
wearing trousers, who says, / shall be wounded with you. Behind Britannia 
(7) rushes towards the pit saying, / am blinded. The Speaker of the 
House of Commons in his wig and robes, holding the mace, stands in the 
centre pointing at America and saying to Bute, I give you that 7nan's money 
for my use. Two figures on the 1. encourage Bute and the Speaker: A 
monk (3), kneels on the ground holding out towards Bute a cross and the 
model of a gibbet saying Te Deum. Behind him, and on the extreme 1., 
stands (2), a figure representing France, wearing bag-wig, solitaire, and 
feathered hat ; he is flourishing his sword and sajdng, Begar Just so en 
France. The words spoken by (2) and (3) are bracketed with the word 

In the background, on the horizon, are two towns: (8) Quebec (1.) standing 
on a clifl^, its spires and buildings surrounded by a wall, its castle flying the 
Union flag; (9) Boston, on the sea level, is in flames; (8) is described as 
The French Roman Catholick Town of Quebeck ; (9) is The English Protestant 
Town of Boston. 

This contrast is an attack on the Quebec Act and on the punitive 
measures taken against Massachusetts for the Boston tea-party. The attack 
on the Quebec Act as the establishment of Roman Catholicism in Canada 
is further stressed by the figures of the monk and of France, see No. 5228, 
&c. It is to be noted that the date of the print is before the opening of 
hostilities at Lexington, 19 Apr. 1775, cf. No. 5287. The words of Bute 
and the action of the Speaker indicate that America was being taxed for 
the benefit of England, while the title derides the theory that the colonists, 
like Englishmen without the franchise, were 'virtually represented' in the 
House of Commons. See Cambridge Mod. Hist., vii. 193 f. and M. C. Tyler, 
Literary History of the American Revolution, i. 103-5, 3°5 ^' 

Similar in manner and intention to No. 5287 and probably by the 
same artist. 

6f X ii-| in. 

Pu¥ According to Act of ParM . . . 1775. 

Engraving. Numbers on the plate refer to explanatory notes engraved be- 



neath the design. A symbolical representation of the situation in Massachu- 
setts. Groups of figures stand outside Boston which is being bombarded by 
ships of war. The directors of the 'Butchery' stand in the r. centre ; on the r. 
is a group of Scottish soldiers, on the 1. a group of English soldiers, (i) and 

(2) are 5 [Bute] and M [Mansfield] standing in consultation, and 

pointing with satisfaction to the bombarding ships. Bute, wearing his 
Garter ribbon and star, is dressed as a highland chief in feathered cap, 
kilt, and plaid, a drawn broadsword in his hand. Mansfield wears a coronet, 

a judge's wig and robes; he holds books in his 1. hand. B and M 

are bracketed together as Super Intendants of the Butchery from the two great 
Slaughter Houses. Slightly behind these two stand (3) and (4), one wearing 
a kilt and plaid with the hat and coat of a military officer; he holds a spear 
in his r. hand, a paper inscribed Pardon 1745 in his 1. hand. The other 
wears a legal wig and gown, in his 1. hand is a paper inscribed 
Solicit[or General] ; he points towards the ships, looking anxiously towards 

Bute and Mansfield. They are Col. F r and W n, bracketed 

together as Deputies to the above [to Bute and Mansfield]. (3) is evidently 
Simon Fraser (1726-82), eldest son of Lord Lovat, who was pardoned in 
1750 for his share in the '45. In 1756 he raised a Highland regiment which 
fought brilliantly in Canada and was disbanded at the peace. Many of its 
officers and men joined a regiment raised by Fraser at the outbreak of the 
American War, the 71st or Fraser Highlanders. Fraser was then a major- 
general but did not accompany his regiment to America. (4) is Wedder- 
burn, the Solicitor-General, who came to London with Fraser when they 
were both young men. The soldiers on the r. are (5), described as Scotch 
Butchers; they are in Highland dress, with lank hair and ruffianly faces, they 
have muskets with fixed bayonets, one holds a drawn broadsword; their 
standard is patterned with thistles. They press forward eagerly to obey 
the orders of Bute. The English soldiers (1.) stand with expressions and 
gestures of horror, their muskets and a pike on the ground at their feet. 
They are (6), English Soldiers struck with Horror, & dropping their Arms. 
The ships, which are bombarding the town at close range, fly flags decorated 
with a thistle ; one has a thistle for a figure-head. They are (7), The English 
Fleet with Scotch Commanders. In the background is (8), Boston; outside 
its walls a number of men on a minute scale are fleeing in disorder, many 
bodies lie on the ground. 

From the title, and from the fact that the fugitives appear to be unarmed, 
they are probably intended for harmless Bostonians killed by the British 
fleet. If an actual incident is intended, it must be the retreat of the British 
troops to Boston after Lexington' (19 Apr. 1775), though the bombardment 
may represent that of Charlestown during Bunker Hill. 

One of a number of satires ascribing the measures against the Colonies 
to Bute, see Nos. 5285, 5289, 5328, &c. 
7X 12 i|in. 


[i May 1775] 

Engraving. Yromtht Westminster Magazine/m. 20<). A two-wheeled open y 
chaise is being driven rapidly towards a chasm (1.), into which the two 

' Four plates of Lexington and Concord by Amos Doolittle after Earl were 
engraved in 1775; in these the figures are drawn with a stiff incompetence which 
resembles caricature. Reproductions in Jonas Clark's Opening of the War of 
Independence . . .Boston, 1875. B.M.L. 1851, b. 8. 





horses, inscribed Pnc?^ and Obstinacy, are about to plunge. The driver, Lord 
Mansfield, flourishes a whip, on his 1. sits the king, his eyes closed, holding 
a paper inscribed / Glory iti the Name of Englishman. Behind the chaise 
in the place of a footman, stands Bute, a drawn broadsword in his r. hand; 
he holds out papers inscribed Places, Pensions, and Reversions towards a 
crowd of spectators. A wheel passes over an open book. Magna Charta, 
the horses trample on another inscribed Constitution. In the air (1.) a demon 
flies off with a sack inscribed National Credit. A group of four bishops 
wearing mitres, and two laymen, one being North, hold out their hands 
obsequiously towards the chaise ; the foremost bishop is eating. The text 
explains that they are 'feeding on garbage, or picking up white sticks [rods 
of office], blue or red Rags [ribbons of the Garter or the Bath], &c., &c.' 
Behind the chaise are a running footman and two men who stretch out their 
arms as if to check its disastrous course ; one is Chatham with crutches and 
a gouty leg, the other in judge's robes is probably Lord Camden. Beyond 
the chasm (1.) is a group of Scotsmen, two write at a table, three others 
stand. The text explains them as 'Scotch clerks — Secretaries — Governors, 
&c.'. In the background (1.) is the sea; on the horizon is a town in flames 
inscribed America. In the foreground (r.) is a crowd of men and women 
of all conditions, including a bearded Jew, and a macaroni holding up a 
lorgnette who offers a purse to a young woman. A grimacing minister wear- 
ing a ribbon faces the crowd offering a money-bag. They represent 'the 
incorruptible virtue of Modern Electors as practised lately in the immacu- 
late Boroughs of Hindon and Shaftesbury'. George III is described as 'a 
full grown young man in leading-strings', driven to destruction by his ad- 
visers. Cf. No. 5132. 

For the gross corruption at Hindon in 1774 see Oldfield, Representative 
History of Great Britain, 181 6, v. 126 ff. For the Shaftesbury election 
see No. 5341. 

The word cartoon appears to be used ironically in its meaning of a 
design for a picture as it was used by Leech in 1843 for his caricatures of 
mural cartoons. The earliest instance in the O.E.D. of its use for a satire is 


QUARRELS. [c. 1775] 

Engraving. Probably from a magazine. America and Britannia are 
fighting: America (1.), a Red Indian woman with feathered head-dress, has 
a tomahawk in one hand, a scalping-knife in the other. Britannia (r.) seizes 
her by the shoulder, her spear raised to strike. Behind America stands 
Spain, he pierces with his sword the shield of Britannia which lies on the 
ground ; in his 1. hand he holds a rope which is round America's shoulders. 
Behind Britannia stands France, who pulls off her draperies leaving her 
breast bare, while he pierces her through the heart from the back with his 
sword. The scene is the sea-shore ; in the sea are the masts of sunken ships. 
Spain strides across two globes on the ground representing the two hemi- 
spheres. In the upper part of the design are three figures seated on clouds 
who point with satisfaction at the scene below: Bute, wearing a Scots cap 
and tartan waistcoat, puts his 1. arm round North's shoulder; on his r. sits 
Mansfield holding a large book, a demon (1.) clutches at him. 

News of the battle of Bunker Hill (17 June) reached London on 25 July. 



One of many satires ascribing the American dispute to the influence of 
Bute, see Nos. 5226, 5228, 5285, 5287, 5328, 5573, 5580, &c., and p. 217. ^ 
For the attitude of France and Spain see Corwin, French Policy and the 
American Alliance of 1778, 1916, chapters i-vi, 



Done from an Original, Drawn from the life by Alex'' Campbell, of 
Williamsburgh in Virginia. 

Published as the Act directs, 9 Sepf^ 177 5 ^y ^- Shepherd. 

Mezzotint. One of a series of portraits of officers in the American War, 
some at least being imaginary, and the pubUcation Unes perhaps fictitious. 
Washington in uniform and cocked hat on horseback, a sword in his hand, 
looking over his r. shoulder to the 1. In the background is a battle, infantry , 

with a flag firing point-blank at cavalry. Beneath the title is engraved, X^ 
General and Commander in Chief of the Continental Army in Atnerica. 

Washington was appointed C.-in-C. on 23 June. Campbell is unknown 
as an artist, and was unknown to Washington, who writes, 31 Jan. 1776, 
'M'' Campbell whom I never saw to my knowledge, has made a very 
formidable figure of the Commander-in-Chief, giving him a sufficient 
portion of terror in his countenance.' 

For others of the series, whose political intention is clear, the American 
oflicers being heroes, the British unsuccessful or barbarous, see Nos. 5291, 
5292-3, 5296, 5331, 5332, 5336-9. 5405» 5406, 5407-8, 5561, 5582, 6034. 
Copies of most if not all were issued by J. M. Will of Augsburg, see 
No. 6034. 

Chaioner Smith, iv, p. 1717. C. H. Hart, Engraved Portraits of Washing- 
ton, GroHer Club, 1904, No. 721 and p. viii. Andrews, pp. 55, 90. 

I2|x9f i"- 


Mezzotint. Inscription and publication line as in No. 5290, with the 
addition of London after Shepherd, and of loh. Martin Will excud Aug. 
[Augsburg] Vind. T.Q.L. standing portrait of Washington in uniform 
facing 1. with outstretched r. arm, looking over his 1. shoulder to the r. 
In the background is a battle, cavalry among clouds of smoke. 

A copy, probably by Will, see No. 6034, of a plate apparently belonging 
to the same series as 5290. 
C. H. Hart, No. 730 a. 

i2|X9f i"- 

y. Wilkinson^ pinx* [? 'C. Corbutt'.] 

Published as the Act directs by C Shepherd 9 Sep' 1775. 

Mezzotint. One of a series, see No. 5290. T.Q.L. standing in uniform 
his r. elbow leaning on the muzzle of a cannon. In the background (r.) 

' Perhaps a fictitious name. According to YilssW, Kunsllerlexicon, 1816, p. 5096, 
he is known only for this portrait, but see Nos. 5294, 5408. 




clouds of smoke with a battery of cannon firing. Beneath the title is engraved, 
Major General of the Connecticut Forces, and Commander i?i Chief at the 
Engagement on Buncker's-Hill near Boston, I y June 1775. Cf. No. 5329. 
Chaloner Smith, iv. 1716. Andrews, p. 91. 


5292 a 

Jl copy of No. 5292 published in Augsburg having the same inscription 
with the addition of London after the date and of loh. Martin Will excudit 
Aug. Vind. 


peint par Jean Wilckinson a Boston 

se vend a Londres chez Thorn. Hart. 

A copy of No. 5292, bust only, oval in rectangle. Beneath the title is 
inscribed Major General dans les Forteresses de la Province Connecticut, et 
Commandant en Chef de VExpedition a Bunckers-Hill pres de Boston le 
ly.Juin iyy6. 


[?*C. Corbutt'.] 

J London, Published as the Act directs 25 Octo" lyy ^ by C. Shepherd. 

Mezzotint. One of a series, see No. 5290. Bust portrait in an oval, looking 
to right, wearing a bag- wig and laced coat. Beneath the title is inscribed, 
of Boston in New England; President of the American Congress. Done from 
an Original Picture Painted by Littleford. The artist's name and publication 
line are perhaps fictitious, cf. Nos. 5292, 5294. 
Chaloner Smith, iv, p. 1715. Andrews, pp. 89-90. 


peint par Jean Wilckinson a Boston 
jf Se vend a Londres chez Thorn. Hart. 

Mezzotint. Apparently a copy, though an incorrect one, of No. 5293. 
Beneath the title is inscribed. President au Congres des XHI Provinces unies 
d'Amerique nS a Boston. 


[ ? W. Humphrey.] 

J Publish d 26. Ocf lyys by W. Humphrey, Gerrard Street, Soho. 

Engraving. An anti-recruiting satire, showing the calamities to which a 
soldier is exposed, and contrasting his lot with that of the working man. 
A tall emaciated soldier stands in the centre, his fingers interlaced, his 
expression one of bewildered melancholy; he is knock-kneed, his toes 
project through his tattered shoes. His wife and children are appealing 
to him: the woman barefoot and ragged, in an advanced state of pregnancy, 



with two crying infants in a basket which is tied to her shoulders, holds 
out her hands towards him. A ragged emaciated boy holds up his hands 
in supplication. The words The Target are inscribed beneath the soldier's 
feet. On the extreme r. across a stream a skeleton-like figure dressed in 
rags is seated on a stone inscribed Famine. He beckons to the soldier with 
a claw-like finger; at his feet are a skull and cross-bones, and a thistle, to 
indicate Scottish influence. At his back is a flag-staff and above his head 
flies a flag inscribed, 


If you Gent" Soldiers should die & be damned 
Your Wives & y^ Infants may live and he cramm'd. 

Vid. subscript" 

Two American soldiers (r.) are firing across the stream point-blank at the 
English soldier: one fires a musket, the other, torch in hand, a cannon. 
Across the front of their caps is written Death or Liberty, cf. No. 5329. 
Behind them is a hill on which is a fort. 

On the I. are the representatives of 'the lowest trades': A chairman on 
the extreme 1., stout and well-clad, holds with one hand the pole of a 
sedan-chair, with the other he points at the soldier. Next him a coachman, 
even more stout and prosperous, stands holding a whip and a large foaming \^ 

tankard, inscribed in reverse WH 1775, probably the initials of the artist. 
Between the coachman and the woman stands a little chimney-sweep, 
ragged but grinning. He points derisively at the soldier, in his 1. hand is 
a paper inscribed He would be a soldier, cf. No. 5783. On the ground is 
a paper inscribed, 

England shall exalt her Glories 

From her present patriot tories 

See what vast Subscriptions fly 

To make the unwilling Soldier die 

Above the design is engraved, Exposed to the Horrors of War, Pestilence 
and Famine, for a Farthing an Hour. Beneath the design (1.) is engraved 
J Shillings a Day, 2 Shillings a Day, I Shilling a Day, indicating the wages 
respectively of the chairman, the coachman, and the sweep. On the r. is 
engraved Yankees. Fire and Water. Szvord and Famine. Below these 
inscriptions is engraved. This Sketch displays the Hardship a Soldier and 
his Family endure on the bare Subsistance of Six-pence a Day, while the lowest 
Trades earn sufficient to enjoy the Comforts of Life. 

At this time subscriptions were being raised locally to provide comforts 
for soldiers and to increase the bounty paid to recruits, cf. Corr. of 
George III, iii. 257, 263. For the great difficulty of obtaining recruits see 
E. C. Curtis, The Organization of the British Army in the American Revolution, 
1926, chap, iii; Fortescue, Hist, of the British Army, iii. 1902, p. 170 f. 
For the actual pay of the soldiers, which was complicated by a system of 
allowances, see Fortescue, ibid., iii. 512 f. One of several anti-recruiting 
prints, see Nos. 5403, 5471, 5551, 5552. 


Thomlinson Pinx' [? 'Corbutt'.] 

Published as the Act directs, 31 OcV 1775, by C. Shepherd. ^ 

Mezzotint. One of a series, see No. 5290. A standing T.Q.L. portrait of 




a handsome and rather stout man in uniform, looking to the 1., pointing 
with the r. hand to the r. Behind (r.) are two cannon and a large flag 
inscribed An Appeal to Heaven to which Lee is pointing. Beneath the 
title is inscribed Major General of the Continental- Army in America. 

This can have little if any resemblance to Lee who was 'tall and remark- 
ably thin with an ugly face and an aquiline nose of enormous size' (D.N.B.), 
and is probably, like others of the series, an imaginary portrait. Lee, a 
British officer, who appears as a colonel on half-pay in the Army List for 
1774, was appointed second Major-General of the American army before 
Boston on 17 June 1775, the day of Bunker Hill. A 'restless, unstable 
untrustworthy adventurer'. L. C. Hatch, Administration of the American 
Revolutionary Army, New York, 1904, p. 10. For the flag see No. 5336. 
See also No. 5404. 
Chaloner Smith, iv, p. 1716. Cf. Andrews, p, 91. 


5296 A A copy, probably by Will, inscription as above, with the addition 
of London after Shepherd and of loh. Martin Will excud. Aug. [Augsburg] 
vind. Thomlinson is spelt Thomlinsen. 


Engraving. Two men seated in a 'necessary house'. One (1.) is tearing 
fragments from Resolution\s\ of the [C]ongress\ he turns in profile to the 1. 
The other, wearing spectacles, is reading intently a book called Answer to 
a P[amphlet en]titled Taxation. . . . Tir . . . On the wall behind them two 
prints are stuck up, one a bust portrait of Wilkes as Mayor (partly cut off 
by the 1. margin of the print), the other a caricature of a tarred and 
feathered man; above this is etched Album vertor in Alitem &c., and below, 

[Por]trait of W P Tarr'd & Feather'd 1774. 

The Resolutions of Congress, 14 Oct. 1774 and the Association 20 Oct. 
1774 were widely printed in the English Press, e.g. London Chronicle, 
15-17 Dec. 1774. See S. E. Morison, Sources and documents illustrating the 
American Revolution, 1929, pp. 118-25. They include a non-importation, 
non-consumption, and non-exportation association, cf. No. 5284. The 
book which one of the politicians is reading is evidently 'An Answer to a 
Pamphlet entitled Taxation no Tyranny, addressed to the Author and to 
Persons in Power'. The sub-title of S. Johnson's pamphlet, 'Taxation no 
Tyranny', published in Feb. 1775, is 'An Answer to the Resolutions and 
Address of the American Congress'. The Congress sat from 5 Sept. to 
29 Oct. 1774. For tarring and feathering cf. No. 5232, and p. 169. 


5298 THE CONTRAST. [c. 1775'] 

Engraving. A pastoral landscape divided by a stream, the sea with ships 
in the distance. On the 1. side a cow, representing the Colonies, is held 
by four men, two at her head, while the other two hold the tail ; a fifth man 
holds a basin for blood which is pouring from a wound in her neck. 
Another man lying on the ground holding a shepherd's crook stabs her 
hind-leg with a knife. On a decayed tree (1.) is perched a crow or raven. 
A blanket or cloth hung over one of its branches makes a shelter ; under 

' Mr. Hawkins has dated the print 1775. 


this sits a man drinking from a bowl, which another man has just brought 
from the cow. Behind, a man with an axe is cutting down an apple-tree 
laden with fruit. On the cow's hindquarter is a large stamp, representing 
the stamp imposed by the Stamp Act, 1765 (repealed 1766). 

On the other side of the stream (r.) is a contrasting scene: A cow 
garlanded with flowers, and trampling on a yoke, is being milked by a 
young woman; children drink milk from bowls. Other children feed the 
cow with flowers. Brimming milk-pails stand on the ground; a woman 
whose lap is full of flowers, gives flowers and milk to a child. Five little 
girls dance in a ring, holding hands. A boy stands in an apple-tree throwing 
down the fruit to a girl who holds out her apron. On the top branch of the 
tree two love-birds kiss. The scene is arcadian and in the distance two 
figures pursue a stag with bow and spear. Beneath the design is engraved 
Let us not Cut down the Tree to get at the Fruit. Let us Stroke and not Stab 
the Cow; For her Milk, and not her Blood, can give us real Nourishment and 

An appeal for conciliatory measures towards the Colonies in the interests 
of trade and the mother country. For other references to the Stamp Act 
see No. 5487, &c. 




5299-53 I I 

Series of Tete-a-Tete portraits 

5299 N° XXXIV MISS c — 


Publish'' d as the Act directs by A. Hamilton JmV near S* John's Gate, 
Jany 1775. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vi. 625. Two bust portraits, 
a lady facing T.Q. to the r., a barrister in wig and gown in profile to the 1. 
holding an eye-glass in r. hand. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a- 
Tete annexed; or Memoirs of the Powerful Pleader and Miss Lucy 

C n'. An account of Dunning (1731-83) and his amours. Unlike most 

portraits in this series, his is well characterized and resembles later cari- 
catures. Miss C is identified by H. Bleackley as Charlton. 

Ovals, 2\l X 2 J in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442. 



Publish'' d as the Act directs by A . Hamilton Jun" near S' John's Gate 
Jany 20. 1775. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vi. 681 (Supplement). Two 
bust portraits in oval frames, that on the r. being a profile to the 1. of John 
Wesley. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or. 

Memoirs of the Pious Preacher and Miss D mple'. An account of 

John Wesley and his supposed relations with Miss D , his 'fair 

Proselyte'. Miss D is the daughter of an 'eminent attorney'. 

Ovals, 2|X2j in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5301 N°II. M^s N— B— T. 


Published as the Act directs by A . Hamilton Jun^ near <S' John's Gate 
Feb I. 1775. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vii. 9. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed, or Memoirs 

of the hon. Capt. H y and M''^ N 1'. An account of Augustus John 

Hervey (1724-79) afterwards third earl of Bristol, of Miss Chudleigh (then 
known as the Duchess of Kingston, see No. 5319, &c.) and of M''^ Nesbit, 
to whom Hervey bequeathed almost all his unsettled property, D.N.B. 

Ovals, 2ii X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



5302 N° IV MISS W MS 


Publish' d as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun'' near S' John's Gate 
Mar'' I. 1775. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vii. 65. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. An 
account of George William, 6th Earl of Coventry (1722-1809) and his 
marriage to Maria Gunning. Also of Miss Williams, the daughter of 
a Welsh clergyman, w^ho had been seduced and deserted, and had been 
found destitute by Coventry. 
Ovals, 2| X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5303 N^VII MISS M— TH— WS 

Published as the Act directs by A . Hamilton Jun'' near S^ John's Gate 
Apr^ I. 1775. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vii. 121. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. An 
account of John, 2nd Earl of Ashburnham (1724-1812),^ and of Miss 
Matthews, said to have been till recently the mistress of one of the Perreaus 
whose trial for forgery was pending. 
Ovals, 2f X2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5304 N° X MISS L Y 

Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun'' near S^ John's Gate 
May I. 1775. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vii. 177. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. An 
account of a member of a noble family with a great fondness for the stage, 
who was considered at the Bedford as a dramatic critic whose judgements 
constituted 'the town'. He is the Fitzpatrick who led an opposition to 
Garrick at the Bedford and in the Press and is the Fizgig of Garrick's 
Scribbleriad. D.N.B., s.v. 'Garrick'. His amours after the death of his 

wife with Mrs. G and with Miss L y, the daughter of a bankrupt 

tradesman who had been seduced, are described. He appears to be the 
Hon. Richard Fitzpatrick, brother of the Earl of Upper Ossory and uncle 
of Fox's friend. Colonel Richard Fitzpatrick. See a family group, in B.M. 
Catalogue of Engr. Br. Portraits. 
Ovals, 2| X zl in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun'' near S^ John's Gate^ 
June I. 1773. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vii. 233. Two bust portraits 

' H. Bleackley identifies him with the Earl of Ancrum (1737-1815, succeeded as 
Marquis of Lothian 12 Apr. 1775). A place at Court and an alleged haison with 
Peg Woffington (i7i4?-6o) make the older man the more likely subject. He 
seems also from the text to be a peer of Parliament, which Ancrum was not. 



in oval frames, she looks T.Q. to the r., he T.Q. to the 1. They illustrate 

'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or Memoirs of Lord S th and 

Miss Harriet P U'. An account of Lord Seaforth (1744-81) and 

Harriet Powell, a courtesan. She is said to have been the daughter of an 
apothecary in the Borough, left destitute at his death, and after a succession 
of protectors entered the establishment of Charlotte H. [Hayes] ; but was 
much superior to her profession. Her liaison with Seaforth appears to 
have become permanent; they married (in or before 1779) and her death, 
Dec. 1779, is recorded in the Annual Register as that of Lady Seaforth. 
Notes and Queries, loth s. xii, p, 241. See B.M. Catalogue of Engr. Br. 

Ovals, 2|X2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jurf near S* Joht's Gate 
July I. I7y5. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vii, 289. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. 
An account of Philip Stanhope (1755-1815), fifth Earl of Chesterfield, 
who succeeded his godfather in 1773, and his amours while on the 
grand tour. 

Ovals, 2f X2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



Published as the Act directs by A . Hamiltoti JuW near S^ John's Gate. 
Aug' I. lyys. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vii. 345. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. He wears the ribbon and star of the Thistle. They illustrate 
'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. An account of Lord Stormont 
(1727-96) and his amours with Mile. Le Brun and others. 

Ovals, 2f X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5308 N°xxn. miss v— gh— n 

Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jwi^ near S' John^s Gate. 

Sep' J. 1775 
Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vii. 401. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or. 

Memoirs of G — - — 1 H e and Miss V gh — n'. A laudatory 

account of Sir William Howe (1729-18 14) and Miss Charlotte Vaughan, 
his supposed mistress, the daughter of a poor parson at Denbigh. 
For Howe see No. 5405, &c. 

Ovals, 2f X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b . 



5309 N° XXV MISS S TH 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jutf near S* John's Gate. 
Oct/ J. lyys. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vii. 457. Two bust portraits 
in oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or, 

Memoirs of the M s of G y, and Miss S th'. An account of 

Charles Manners (1754-87), styled Marquess of Granby, 1770-9; M.P. 
for Cambridge 1774-9, Duke of Rutland 1779. His liaison vi^ith Miss 
Smith, the seduced daughter of a Windsor shopkeeper, whom he had known 
when at Eton, is expected to be temporary should his talked-of marriage 
take place. See No. 5358. 

Ovals, 2| X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S^ John's Gate 

Nov'' I. lyys. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vii. 513. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or. Memoirs 

of the D e of B r and Miss L — gl — y'. An account, apparently, 

of Francis Egerton, third Duke of Bridgwater (1736-1803), which says 
nothing of the commonly known events of his life. Miss L. is a farmer's 
daughter who became stage-struck and joined a company of strolling 
players. The Duke gave her the superintendence of a small farm where he 
visits her incognito. 

Ovals, 2f X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5311 N°XXXI. MISS K T. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton JuiV^ near 6"' John's Gate, 
Dec" I. lyys. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vii. 569. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or, Memoirs 

of R H O Esq; and Miss K n' \sic\. An account of 

Robert Henley Ongley, M.P. for Bedfordshire, of Old Warden, Bedford- 
shire, and his mistress, a chamber-milliner. 

Ovals, 2| X 2\ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

53 12-53 18, ^^^ numbers from volume IV 

Prints published by Darly, of which only 5312 and 4638 appear 
to belong to series. 

Pu¥ by M Darly March 14 lyys Strand. 

Engraving. One of a series of portraits of prostitutes, see No. 5177. Bust 
portrait of a young girl in profile to the r. Her skin is patched. She wears 

209 p 


a cap over her hair which falls loosely on her forehead and neck ; over her 
shoulders is a patterned scarf. 

5x3! in. Fairholt's 'Collection for costume', i, fo. 117. 

THE MACARONY SHOE MAKER [See No. 4638—1 June 1775] 


[ ? After Bunbury] 

Puh JarP 10 by M Darly jg Strand J775 

Engraving. Another version of No. 5083. Two figures in back view walk 
across a grass lawn. The nearer is apparently a woman of vast proportions 
wearing a hood and cloak ; the title indicates that she is a sailor in disguise 
walking after a young woman. A spaniel barks at the sailor. On the r. are 
trees, on the 1. a line of trees. This differs from No. 5083 in the drawing 
and position of the figures and in the arrangement of the trees and garden- 
seat. See also No. 5797. 


Pub by M Darly 39 Strand 25 April 1775 

Engraving. An enormous pair of breeches reaching from the head to the 
feet of the wearer, and forming his (or her) sole visible garment. A face in 
profile to the r. appears through an unbuttoned aperture; on the wearer's 
head is a ducal coronet surmounted by large ostrich-feathers. The tiny 
high-heeled shoes suggest that the wearer is a woman. 

A companion-print to No. 5315, where the wearer of a petticoat appears 
to be a man. They are perhaps caricatures of a ducal pair where the 
husband was dominated by an overbearing wife, in which case she would 
appear to be Jane Maxwell (i749?-i8i2), wife of the 4th Duke of Gordon. 
The profile makes this not unlikely. 




Pu¥ Apr. 25. J775 by M Darly jg Strand 

Engraving. (Coloured impression.) A companion-print to No. 5314. A 
voluminous petticoat worn over the head as a hood and reaching to the 
feet of its wearer, whose face, in profile to the 1., appears through an 
aperture. One large gloved hand appears through a slit in the garment. 
A ducal coronet is on the wearer's head, low-heeled shoes suggest that the 
wearer is a man. Perhaps a portrait of Alexander, 4th Duke of Gordon 
(1745-1827); portraits of the Duke show that this is not unlikely. 

6|X4|in. (pi.). 


Pu¥ May 20 lyy^by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. A H.L. portrait (caricature) in profile to the r. in an oval, of a 
man wearing a soldier's conical cap, much elongated, on which the letters 



G.R. are partly visible. His profile, hair, and figure are almost in vertical 
straight lines. He wears a coat with military facings and a ruffled shirt. 
Reissued in book, dated i Jan. 1776, see No. 5369. 

4|-X3f in. 


E. Topham inv^ 

Pub by M Darly Dec^ 9. ly/^ {jg Strand) 

Engraving. A W.L. standing portrait (caricatured) in profile to the r. of 
James Bruce (1730-94). In his 1. hand he holds out an open book, Travels 
into Abyssinia by ... . His hat is under his r. arm. Beneath the title is 
etched : 

O Thou whose active search has dar'd explore 
Far distant Realms and Climes unknozon before; 
Thy toils now finishd and thy dangers past. 
Spite of Thy self we fix thee here at last. 

Bruce had recently returned to England, where he was at first received 
with great attention which soon gave way to scepticism and dislike; this 
led to the postponement of the publication of his travels till 1790. 
Reissued in book, dated i Jan. 1776, see No. 5369. 


5318 ECCE HOMO. 

Published as the act Directs by Dan. Demoniae. Betliel. lyys. B — b — y^ 

Engraving. The window of Matthew Darly 's print-shop in the Strand is 
being violently attacked by a man (William Austin), with the appearance 
of a maniac. He is shouting Damn your foollish Caricatures. In his r. hand 
is a cane, on his 1. arm is thrust a portfolio in the manner of a shield; it is 
ornamented by a broken anchor in an oval, round which is inscribed: 
Lifers a Jest and all things show it. I thought so once but now I know it. 
Papers flutter from the portfolio to the ground : sketches ; a paper inscribed 
Af" Townshend com'^ to M^ A and says he may Dine there ; a ground-plan 
inscribed the Plan for my Museum and (in reversed looking-glass writing) 
No 103 Oxford Street; a doctor's prescription. Black Hellebore 5 D^. 
Monrow ; a paper inscribed Proposals for Opening A Museum of Drawings 
. . .at 2 Gn^ Each Subs'' 1000 would do (?) & I have got already. Across the 
window is Ma^ Darly, and in each of three lower rows of panes a print is 
displayed, the most conspicuous being this print, entitled A Bethlemhite; 
the print beneath it suggests a chained maniac in Bedlam. 

In the street a broken-down coach is slightly sketched, with its wheels 
twisted or broken off; on it is an anchor like that on the portfolio. In the 
distance is an equestrian statue, evidently that of Charles II at Charing 
Cross. A dog watches the onslaught on the window. 

Beneath the design is etched: Be it known to all Men, that I upon 

Just cause before God and men do Declare & Pronounce War zvith and against 
all and every Printshop and Printseller within and without the City of London 

' The manner is not that of Bunbury. 


for reasons hereafter set forth and shall on all occasions act offensivly and 
defensivly as oportunity shall offer. Whereas I by the Extream necessity of 
my circumstances was forced to zvreek [sic"] my brains to finde out some Scheme 
thereby to suport myself in that prudent maner I first set of in and having 
been in the country in order to strengthen my Ideas and to get what was 
necessary I luckeyley projected one which beyond a doubt must have answered 
my porpose, which was to open a Museum of Drawings by the best Masters, 
had it not been for the most malicious wicked and Diabolical combinations 
consultations and insinuations of that most unfeeling set of Men cald print- 
sellers so being overwhelmed with disopointments and Poverty takes this 
despair ate method to rebuke their insolence. 

The suggestion that Austin is a lunatic is stressed by the prescription 
of 'D"" Munrow', Dr. John Monro being physician of Bethlehem Hospital 
with a great reputation in the treatment of insanity. 

On one impression of this print is written 'William Austen, drawing- 
master', on the other 'Austen the Drawing Master & print-seller' in 
contemporary hands. William Austin (1721-1820), like Darly, was an 
engraver and teacher of drawing, and at one time kept a print-shop in 
London and published caricatures, see index of artists. 

Attributed to Bartolozzi by Calabi, Bartolozzi, 1928, No. 2231. 



Published as the Act directs i Feb. lyys by W. Nicoll S* Pauls Ch. 

Engraving. From The Matrimonial Magazine, i. 9, illustrating 'Memoirs 
of the Married Maid of Honour . . .'. Three bust portraits in oval frames 
surrounded with elaborate ornament. Above, and slightly larger than the 

two others, is that of the D ss of K , the Duchess of Kingston, 

so-called. She looks T.Q. to the 1., a drapery falling from her head suggests 

Below are two profile portraits, that on the 1. is of a truculent-looking 

naval officer in profile to the r.: C H , he is Augustus John Hervey, 

then Captain Hervey, who secretly married Elizabeth Chudleigh in 1744; 
he became 3rd Earl of Bristol 20 Mar. 1775. The other, in profile to the 

I., wearing a ribbon and star, is D of K , Duke of Kingston, who 

died in 1773, whom Elizabeth Chudleigh had married bigamously in 1769 
(having been his mistress for about ten years), after procuring a verdict in 
the Consistory Court that she was a spinster. 

Beneath the design is engraved, 

 Atid in each hand 

A wanton Lover which by turns caressed her. 
With all the freedom of unbounded passion. Otway 

At this time an indictment for bigamy was pending, and on 24 May 1775 
she appeared in the King's Bench to answer it, the trial taking place in 
Westminster Hall, 15-22 Apr. 1776, see Nos. 5301, 5362, 5425. For satires 
on the notorious Miss Chudleigh in 1749 as Iphigenia, see Nos. 3030-3. 

6|X4f in. (pi.). 



TIONS, [i Feb. 1775] 

Engraved for the Matrimonial Magazine. 

Engraving. Matrimonial Magazine, i. 34, illustrating 'the History of 

Captain S : or, The Bath Adonis'. A man, richly dressed, leans his r. 

elbow on a console table, turning his head to look at his reflection in a 
mirror (1.) in a curved frame. He holds an open snuflF-box in his r. hand, 
his 1. is on his hip. He wears a laced coat, an epaulette on the r. shoulder, 
a flowered waistcoat, and a sword. The legs of the table on which he leans 
are elaborately carved, the floor is carpeted, the wall papered. An oval 
picture of Cupid shooting at a reclining figure hangs on the wall. The 
scene is the pump-room at Bath. 

Captain S. is said to have been successively a runaway apprentice, then 
billiard-marker, actor, fortune hunter, whose wife's fortune enabled him 
to buy a commission in the army; his deserted wife having died he has 
gone to Bath to secure another rich wife. 

6|X4 in. B.M.L., P.P. 5433 m. 

CINALLY. See pa. 65. 

Publish'' d according to the Act March J^' 1775' 

Engraving. Matrimonial Magazine, i. 65, illustrating 'The Loves and 

Amours of Lord V and the gay M""^ E '. A man kneels on one 

knee kissing the hand of a lady seated on a settee (r.). Her husband, a 
doctor in a tie-wig, enters through a door unnoticed. The panelled wall, 
a carved pediment to the door, an oval mirror in a carved frame, &c., 
suggest a richly-furnished room. 

Grace Dalrymple Elliott or Eliot is surprised by her husband Dr. John 
Elliott (knighted 1776, cr. a baronet 1778), with Lord Valentia (with whom 
she eloped in 1774). See No. 5257 and index. 
6i|X3| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5433 m. 

5322 THE H— R— G— N [Harrington] HARAM 

Published as the Act directs by W Nicoll S' PauVs Church Yard 
I April 1775 

Engraving. From The Matrimonial Magazine, i. 113, illustrating 'The 

Haram, or the Memoirs of the E of H n', in which the seraglio of 

Lord Harrington is described. A group of six women, with one man who 
wears a hat. One is a negress, wearing a feathered turban, another is in 
pseudo-classical dress, a third is dressed as a country girl, the others are 
dressed in the fashion of the day. One who is seated is playing a mandoline. 
The room is ornately decorated, the walls are faced with Corinthian pilasters. 
On the wall is a picture of an ape riding a goat. 

For Harrington see G.E.C. Complete Peerage and No. 5033. 


[i May 1775] 
Engraved for the Matrimonial Magazine 

Engraving. Matrimonial Magazine, i. 185. Portrait of a young man in 



a swaggering attitude in a park, indicated by trees and a wall. He stands 
legs apart, hands in his breeches-pockets, a tasselled cane thrust under his 
1, arm. He wears a sword. 

A portrait of Fitzgerald, known as Fighting Fitzgerald, illustrating an 
article with the same title as that of the print. See Nos. 5198-5200. 
5|X3j| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5433 m. 


Engrav' d for the Matrimonial Magazine. 

Published as the Act directs by W. Nicoll, S^ Pauls Church Yard, 
I June 1775. 

Engraving. Matrimonial Magazine, i. 234, illustrating 'The History of the 
Jockey Statesman'. The Duke of Grafton (r.) standing in open country 
in conversation, or altercation, with his wife (1.). Both are in riding dress, 
and both hold riding switches, the other hand being raised as if to enforce 
an argument. Grafton resigned his office of Lord Privy Seal Nov. 1775. 
His second wife (m. 1769) was Elizabeth, d. of Sir R. Wrottesley, dean of 
Windsor, by whom he had twelve children; see Nos. 4292, 4634, 4989. 

5fX3iin. B.M.L., P.P. 5433 m. 

5325 SIR TRISTE SHADOW. \c. 1775] 
[Lady Craven.] 

Engraving. On the print is written in Miss Banks's hand, 'Lady Craven del.' 
and 'Edward Roe Yeo Esq"" carrying up the Coventry Address'. A man, 
riding fast (r. to 1.) in profile ; behind him on the saddle is a large cylindrical 
package labelled Coventry address. From his mouth issues a label inscribed, 

Fm very much frighted 
but I shall be Knighted. 

A street-scene is indicated by houses on the 1. From the window of 
a house in the foreground looks Peeping Tom. 

At this time loyal addresses to the king on the American crisis were 
pouring in from counties, boroughs, &c. The address from 'the Gentle- 
men, Clergy, Traders and Principal Inhabitants of the City of Coventry' 
dated 25 Sept. 1775 was presented to the king by the two members for 
Coventry, Walter Waring and Edward Roe Yeo. London Gazette, 26-30 
Sept. 1775. 

Lady Craven (1750-1828, afterwards Margravine of Anspach) in 1786 
sent Horace Walpole a drawingof the Castle of Otranto. Letters, xm.j^i^20. 


[Attributed to Gillray.] 

Drawn by M H. from a sketch cut with a diamond on a pane of glass. 
Published according to act of Parliament June 15, 1775. 

Engraving. Two figures stand side by side: a skeleton (1.) wearing a 
feathered hat, a coat, and sword, a lady (r.) holding a cloak round her, 
and wearing feathers in her hair. She points with her 1. hand to a rect- 



angular tomb, on which is inscribed Requiescas in pace beneath a skull and 
cross-bones. They are standing on a road which leads to a large country 
house with a Palladian portico over which is a baron's coronet. In the air 
a cupid flies away, covering his face with his hand and holding his torch 
reversed. Beneath the design is etched : 

no smiles for us the God head wears! 

His torch inverted & his face in tears! 

[From Lord Hervey's Reply to Hammond's Verses to Miss Dashwood. 
Dodsley's Collection of Poems, iv. 73-8.] 
Grego, Gillray, p. 27. 

71X7^6 in. 

Ten prints from the series of mezzotints published by Carrington 
Bowles, catalogued in Volumes III and IV,' 


See No. 4540 — [c. 1775] 


See No. 4581 — 2 Jan. 1775 

THE WELCH CURATE. (320) See No. 3784— [1775] 

A satire on the rich clergy. 

EXTRA DUTY . . . (325) See No. 3783— [1775] 

A satire on monks. 

THE CONSPIRATORS. (326) See No. 3760— [1775] 

A satire on the clergy, lawyers, and physicians. 

BILLINGSGATE TRIUMPHANT . . . (327) See No. 4541— [1775] 

TYTHE PIG NO BAD SIGHT. (328) See No. 3785 [1775] 

A satire on the clergy. Reproduced, Paston, PI. clxxxvi. 


See No. 3788 — [1775'J 

[P. Dawe] See No. 4542 — 20 Oct. 1775 

CONFESSION. (333) See No. 3775— [i775] 

A satire on monks. 

Similar mezzotint published by Sayer & Bennett. 
THE BOTTLE COMPANIONS. (378) See No. 4622—1 Aug. 1775 

' Nos. 3784, 4542 have the imprint of Bowles and Carver. 




Not in B.M., described from a photogravure reproduction, R. T. Halsey, 
Boston Port Bill, p. 42, 


Pu¥ 16*^ Fehy 1776 by W. Humphrey Gerrard Street Soho. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). Ministers and others grouped round 
a table on which lies a goose which Bute holds down by the neck as he 
raises his broadsword to kill the bird. Bute (r.), in profile to the 1., wears 
Highland dress and the Garter ribbon; the bird has a small chain round 
its neck. In the foreground (1.) a fat bishop leans back in an arm-chair 
watching intently: he is probably Markham, Archbishop of York, see 
No. 5958, &c. Seven other spectators are poorly characterized: one 
wearing a ribbon and star leaning over the table may be intended for the 
king or North but resembles neither. A judge leaning on the bishop's chair 
may be Mansfield, but his profile is almost concave and has more resem- 
blance to Bathurst. Two others wear legal robes, one is perhaps Wedder- 
burn. A profile head on the extreme 1. resembles Sandwich. Germain is 
probably one of the other two. A tenth man (1.) is walking to the 1. holding 
up a large basket full of eggs. On the ground (1.) is a map of North America 
which is being befouled by a dog; on the r. are two bags, one inscribed 
Taxes is disgorging eggs. On the wall which forms a background is a picture 
of the British lion asleep, flanked by two framed inscriptions on which are 
verses (30 11.) which explain the print, beginning,  

In Gotham once the Story goes 
A lot of Wise-acres arose . . . 

Their most prized possession was a goose (the colonies), 

A Rara Avis to behold 
Who laid each Day an Egg of Gold^ 
This made them grow immensely rich 
Gave them an Avaritioiis Itch, . . . 

In order to make the bird lay two eggs instead of one : 

About her Neck they put a chain. 
And more their Folly to compleat 
They Stampt upon her Wings & Feet 
But this had no Effect at all, 
Yet made her struggle, flutter, squall. 
And do zvhat every Goose would do 
That had her liberty in view 
When one of more distinguish' d Note 

Cry'd D n her, let us cut her Throat, 

They did, but not an Egg was found 
But Blood came pouring from y' Wound. 

' Walpole wrote to Mann, 16 June 1779, 'we killed the goose that laid a golden 
egg a day' referring to trade, not to taxes. Letters, x. 427. 



One of a number of satires attributing the measures against the Colonies 
to Bute, see No. 5289, &c. For other references to the Stamp Act see 
No. 5487, &c. Cf. No. 5578. 

B.M.L., Ac. 4714/14. (p. 43.) 


[c. Feb. 1776] 

Engraving. Probably from a magazine. Street scene, the chairing of 
Alderman Hopkins elected City Chamberlain Feb. 1776. Hopkins, held 
aloft in a chair, holds a staff to which are tied three money-bags. The 
crowd waves hats and sticks ; a man holds a flag inscribed Hopkins for ever, 
down with Wilks & Liberty. In the foreground (1.) Wilkes reclines on the 
ground supported by a woman holding the cap of Liberty on a staff and 
a large tankard decorated with the City arms. Wilkes holds a paper 
inscribed Alass! how unstable the affections of a Mob. A bull in alderman's 
robes, representing Alderman Bull, kneels at his side. From a window (1.) 
a woman pours the contents of a jug over the cap of Liberty. A ragged 
ballad-singer (r.) sings from a broadside. 

When the Chamberlainship of the City fell vacant by the death of Sir 
Stephen Janssen, Wilkes stood for the post and was defeated by Alderman 
Hopkins. He made a speech accusing the ministers and the Directors of 
the Bank of having corrupted the electors and announced his intention of 
standing again in Midsummer, although the post was normally held for 
life. Wilkes was again defeated at Midsummer 1776, 1777, and 1778, but 
became Chamberlain in Nov. 1779 on Hopkins's death. Ann. Reg. 1776, 121 ; 
Sharpe, London and the Kingdom, iii. 163-4. ^^^ Hopkins see No. 5398. 



Published according to Act of Parliament r^ March 1776. 

Engraving. The interior of a blacksmith's forge. At the anvil stands y^ 
Mansfield, in judge's robes, forging the links of a chain. A number of 
ministers stand round: Lord North in the foreground (1.), holding up his 
lorgnette ; in his r. hand is An Act for Prohibiting all Trade. Lord Sandwich 
stands by North, holding a hammer in one hand, an anchor in the other, 
apparently intending to break this emblem of the navy. Behind them 
stands Bute, working the bellows of the forge, looking over his shoulder 
at North while he works. Through a window on the 1. appears the head of 
the king who is smiling fatuously. 

Lord North brought in the Bill for prohibiting all intercourse with 
America and for the seizure of American shipping on 20 Nov. 1775 
(16 George HI. c. 5). It met with great opposition. Ann. Reg. 1776, 109 ff.; 
Walpole, Last Journals, 1910, i. 495; Pari. Hist, xviii. 992 If., 1056-1106; 
Autobiography of Grafton, ed. Anson, pp. 275 ff. One of many satires 
making Bute the instigator of measures against the Americans, see No. 
5289, &c. 

6j^gX4 in. 




BOSTON 1776 

PublisKd as the Act Directs 

Engraving. Behind a well-made trench, fronted with palisades, appear 
the heads of its defenders; words issue from their mouths in long labels. 
One man stands on the top of the trench, his cap is inscribed Death or 
Liberty, his coat and stockings are ragged, and he stands as if shivering 
with cold, his bayonetted musket tucked under his arm and pointing 
downwards; he says / swear its plaguy Cold Jonathan ; I don't think They'll 
Attack us, Now You. The other men, whose heads and shoulders only 
appear above the trench, say (1. to r.): / dont feel bold today (the speaker 
is dressed as a minister, with flat hat, lank hair, and bands). His neighbour 
says, I fear they'll Shoot Again; a man wearing a Death or Liberty hat says, 

How, Borgoine & Clinton 
let us keep a good Sqint on 
for if they come here 
they'll warm us I fear 

Another man wearing a Death or Liberty cap says 

blast their Eyes 
We'll have no Excise 

Another minister of puritanic appearance says, 

Tis Old Olivers Cause 
No Monarchy nor Laws 

He holds a flag on which is a tree, inscribed Liberty, surmounted by a 
fool's cap and flanked by two gibbets labelled The Fruit. Another man 
wearing a Death or Liberty cap, says, / fear Our Gen^^ is Still a Labourer in 
Vain. The last man is in military uniform with epaulettes and a gorget; 
one hand is on a small cannon in an embrasure, the other holds a bottle 
which stands on a thick book, presumably a Bible; he says The Spirit 
moves us in Sun — dry places &c. Yet I fear the Lord is not With us. 
Beneath the design is etched, 

Behold the Yankies in there ditch's 

Whose Conscience gives such griping twitch's 

They'r ready to Be S — t their Brech's. Yankie Doodle do. 

Next see the Hypocritic parson 

Who thay all wish to turn an A — s on 

Altho' the Devil keps the farce on. Yankie &c. 

See Putnam that Commands in Chief Sir 

Who looks & Labours like a thief sir 

To get them daily Bread & Beef sir. Yankie &c. 

Their Congress now is quite disjoint' d 

Since Gibbits sis for them appointed 

For fighting gainst y' Lords Annointed. Yankie, doodle 

The artist appears to have been ignorant of Washington's appointment, 
15 June 1775, as commander-in-chief. He took over the command of the 
troops round Boston on 3 July 1775, superseding not Israel Putnam 
(appointed fourth major-general June 1775) but Artemas Ward. Boston 
was evacuated by Howe on 17 Mar. 1776. Cf. No. 5292. 



For the New England pine-tree flag, used before the stars and stripes, 
see No. 5336. 

One of the few satires hostile to the Americans, of. Nos. 5401, 6288. 

8x9! in. 


[i Mar. 1776'] 

Engraving. A companion print to No. 5335. A lady (T.Q.L.) in profile 
to the r. with the enormous coiffure of 1776-7 grotesquely exaggerated. 
Her hands are in a muff. Her inverted pyramid of hair supports three 
quasi-circular redoubts surrounded by cannon on which troops are fighting. 
On each is a flag large out of all proportion to the soldiers. There are also 
a train of artillery, and a number of tents. All the men in the redoubts 
are dressed as British soldiers but are firing point-blank at each other; 
their three flags are decorated respectively with an ape, with two women 
holding darts of lightning, and with a goose. 

Evidently intended to satirize the fighting at Bunker Hill, 17 June 1775. 
For similar satires on hair-dressing see No. 5378, apparently a parody of 
this print. 
8^X611 in. 



London, Published as the Act directs, 26 March 1776, by Tho' Hart. 

Mezzotint. One of a series, see No. 5290. T.Q.L. standing portrait of an 
officer in uniform, pointing to 1. with his r. hand and looking over his 1. 
shoulder to the r. A town with scattered buildings and several spires is in 
the background (1.), perhaps intended for the outskirts of Quebec. Beneath 
the title is engraved. Who Commanded the Provincial Troops sent against 
Quebec, through the Wilderness of Canada, and was wounded in Storming that 
City, under General Montgomery. 

Benedict Arnold (1741-1801) was wounded in the assault on Quebec, 
31 Dec. 1775, when Montgomery was killed. He figures later in English 
caricature as an arch-traitor, see No. 6173. See No. 5408, a copy, issued 
in connexion with Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga. 
Chaloner Smith, iv, pp. 1714-15. Andrews, p. 89. 



A copy, probably by J. M. Will, see No. 6034, having the same inscription, / 
except that London is after Hart and with the addition of loh. Martin Will ^ 
excudit Aug [Augsburg] vind. 
12^x9! in. 



London, Published as the Act directs 26. March 1776, by Th& Hart. 

Mezzotint. One of a series, see No. 5290. T.Q.L. portrait of a military 
officer between two cannon looking to the 1. ; his 1. hand rests on the breech 

' So dated in a contemporary hand . 



of a cannon, in his r. is a long spear. In the background is a tent (1.) and 
a stone fortification (r.) with cannon. Beneath the title is engraved, 
Commander in Chief of the Provincial Army against Quebec. 

After the assault on Quebec 31 Dec. 1775, by Montgomery and Arnold 
at which Montgomery was killed, the city was besieged with declining 
hopes of success, until 6 May 1776, when the Americans were routed by 
Chaloner Smith, iv. 1717. Andrews, p. 93, 

i2|X9^- ^^^ 

5332 a 

Copy, probably by J. M. Will, see No. 6034, having the same inscription, 
*■ except that London is after Hart, with the addition of loh. Martin Will 
excud. Aug. [Augsburg] Vind. 

i2|X9i- in. 

Lon. Mag. Pu¥ as y' Act directs, May i, iyy6. 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xlv. 171. A man half-seated on a 
three-legged stool which stands on the topmost of three steps, strikes 
with an axe at its legs; these are inscribed respectively Commons (from 
which a large piece has been chopped). Lords, and Privy Council. Behind 
him is a curtain decorated with the royal arms. In the foreground are four 
figures: Britannia, with her shield, seated and asleep, the staft' on which 
is the cap of liberty about to drop from her hand ; a Dutchman standing 
with his hands in his breeches pocket; a cloaked figure, representing Spain, 
points out the man with the axe to France, a man dressed as a French fop. 

The man with the axe may be either North or George III, but the royal 
arms suggest the king. The axe stands for bribery. The plate illustrates 
an article 'On Venality and Corruption', whose thesis is that the contest 
with America is supported as an opportunity for bribery and corruption 
and leads to the aggrandizement of Spain, France, and Holland. 


[i May 1776] 

Engrav'd for the Westminster Magazine. 

Engraving. From the Westminster Magazine, iv. 2i6. Britannia, held 
down by two men, is about to be stabbed by America, in the guise of a 
^' Red Indian woman with a head-dress of feathers, holding a tomahawk in 
one hand, a dagger in the other. Britannia is also being clawed by a lion, 
which advances under the guidance of a judge who holds reins attached 
to the animal's jaws. Behind the judge (presumably Camden) stands 
Chatham supported on crutches. Wilkes in his civic gown stands between 
America and Britannia, directing the attack. Grafton, who had recently 
joined the Opposition, holds her by one arm, a man in a civic gown and 
chain holds her by the other; he is probably Alderman Hay ley, Wilkes's 
brother-in-law, M.P. for the City, who was sheriff 1775-6. Among the 
other patriots is a fox, representing Charles Fox. Britannia's shield, 
trampled on by America, and her broken spear lie on the ground. In the 



centre of the foreground is an oval medallion on which is a pelican piercing 
her breast for her young. A partly-draped man, probably representing 
Discord or Faction, stands (1.) brandishing a flaming torch in each hand; 
his hair is composed of serpents. 

This illustrates 'Reflections on the Declarations of the General Congress' 
pp. 216-19, and, more particularly, a quotation from a pamphlet, 'The 
Rights of Great Britain Asserted against the Claims of America', which is 
an attack on English 'patriots': 'With an efltrontery without example in 
any other age or nation, these men assume the name of Patriots, yet lay 
the honour, dignity and reputation of their Country under the feet of her 
rebellious subjects. With a peculiar refinement on Parricide, they bind the 
hands of the Mother, while they plant a dagger in those of the Daughter, 
to stab her to the heart. . . .' This shows a complete reversal in the attitude 
of the Westminster Magazine, see No. 5288. The first appearance in this 
catalogue of Fox as a patriot, cf. No. 5113. 

One of the few satires which attack the Opposition. Cf. Nos. 5103, 
5644, 5650, 5665, 5829, 5836. Cf. also Nos. 5832, 5833. 



y. s. sc. 

Pu¥ May 12. lyyS by M Darly strand 

Engraving (coloured impression). A companion design to No. 5330. A lady 
(T.Q.L.) on whose grotesquely extended coiffure military operations are 
proceeding. She stands in profile to the 1. holding a fan. At the top of her 
pyramid of hair soldiers fire cannon from a rectangular fort (1.) which 
appears to be American at other soldiers firing cannon from an adjacent 
mound (r.) composed of ringlets of hair. Two immense flags flying from 
the fort bear, one a crocodile, the other a cross-bow and arrows; the flags 
of their opponents, the English, are decorated one with an ass, the other 
with a fool's cap and bells. Below this combat are tents and two men with 
a cannon. On the lower rolls of hair are red-coats marching in single file, 
followed by a baggage waggon. Lower down again, red-coats in boats are 
rowing towards two ships in full sail. 

This evidently satirizes the evacuation of Boston by Howe, 17 Mar. 
1776. There were many protests against the misleading account given in 
the Gazette, see London Chronicle, 7-9 May 1776. Walpole wrote 'nobody 
was deceived'. Last Journals, 1910, i. 540. The 'How' in the title is a 
pun on the name of the commander-in-chief, see No. 5405, &c. 



[? J. M. Will, after a plate by 'Corbutt'.] 

Published as the Act directs 22. Aug^ 1776. by Tho^ Hart London. Joh. j 

Martin Will excudit Aug. [Augsburg] Vind. ^ 

Mezzotint. Copy from one of a series, see No. 5290. T.Q.L. portrait of 
a naval officer standing apparently on the deck of a vessel ; he holds a drawn 
sabre in his r. hand, looking to the 1. and pointing with his 1. hand to the 
r. where there is a ship in full sail displaying a large flag on which is the 
design of a conventional tree inscribed Liberty Tree An appeal to God. 



Behind on the 1. is another ship displaying an enormous striped flag with 
a rattlesnake coiled to strike and the words Dont tread upon me. Clouds of 
smoke suggest a naval engagement. Beneath the title is inscribed Com- 
mander in Chief of the American Fleet. 

Esek Hopkins, an ex-sea captain and privateer in the war of 1756-63, 
was appointed by Congress, 22 Dec. 1775, commander-in-chief of the new 
navy, consisting of eight small ships hastily altered for war. In June 1776 
he was censured by Congress for lack of success, in Dec. 1776 his fleet was 
blockaded in Narragansett Bay by the British fleet, in Mar. 1777 he was 
suspended and in Jan. 1778 dismissed the service. Diet. Am. Biog. 

The two flags depicted were used for the American navy at the beginning 
of the war until superseded by that of the thirteen stripes resolved upon 
by Congress, 14 June 1777. The New England pine-tree flag, a flag with a 
white ground, a tree (Liberty Tree) in the middle with a coiled rattlesnake 
at its foot and the motto 'Appeal to Heaven', was used on the floating 
batteries about Boston in the autumn of 1775 and was six months later 
prescribed by the Provincial Congress for the Massachusetts navy. The 
other flag, that of the Continental Navy, was hoisted for the first time by 
^^Lieut. Paul Jones on Hopkins's flag-ship in the autumn of 1775. G. W. 
Allen, Naval History of the American Revolution, 1913, i. 64-5, 92-3. See 
No. 5973, &c. Similar in manner to Nos. 5405, 5406, signed Corbutt. 

Plate from which this is a copy is described by Chaloner Smith ,iv. 1715-16, 
Andrews, p. 90. 

i2|X9| in. 


Published as the Act directs 22 Aug* 1776 by Tho^ Hart London, 
loh, Martin Will excudit Aug. [Augsburg] Vind. 

Mezzotint. Copy from one ofa series, see No. 5290. T.Q.L. standing por- 
trait of a military officer, looking to the r. In his r. hand is a long spear, his 1. 
is on his hip. The background is a tree-trunk (1.) and foliage. Beneath the 
title is engraved, A distinguished Officer in the Continental Army. 

Sullivan conducted the evacuation of Canada up the Richelieu River in 
x the summer of 1776. 

An Augsburg copy of a plate which is listed by Chaloner Smith, iv, 
p. 1717. Andrews, p. 91. 

5338 JEAN SULIVAN [c. 1776] 

peintlpar Alexander Camphel [sic] a Williambourg en Virginie. Se vend 
a Londres chez Thorn. Hart. 

Mezzotint. H.L. portrait in an oval within a rectangle apparently copied 
from the original of No. 5337. Probably a companion print to No. 5292 A. 

J Published as the Act directs OcV i. 1776, by Tho^ Hart London. Joh. 
Martin Will excudit Aug [Augsburg] vind. [c. 1776] 

Mezzotint. Copy from one of a series, see No. 5290. Standing portrait, 
T.Q.L. of a fierce-looking military officer with fringed and beaded trap- 



pings to his uniform of Red Indian workmanship. He holds a musket against 
his 1, shoulder. Behind, among foliage, are three Indian braves (r.), one hold- 
ing a tomahawk, another a knife. Beneath the title is inscribed, Commander 
in Chief of the Indians in the Back Settlements of America. 

Published at this date, the print was clearly intended to suggest that 
Rogers was leading scalping-parties against Americans, see No. 5470, &c. ^^ 
Rogers, an American frontiersman, had been a commander of Rangers 
against Indians and French in the Seven Years War, had taken part in the 
suppression of Pontiac's Rebellion, 1763, and from 1765-8 had been 
commander of troops at Mackinac, a frontier post. After being charged 
with mutiny and embezzlement (1769) he came to England, was restored 
to half-pay, went to America in 1775 hoping for employment which he 
eventually obtained from Howe in August 1776, with the rank of lieut-col. 
His sole service in America was as a recruiting officer of American loyalists ; 
his only active service was in command of an outpost on Howe's east flank 
where he was surprised and crushingly defeated by Col. Haslett on 
21 Oct. 1776. Biography of Rogers by Allan Nevins, in his edition of 
Ponteach, Chicago, 19 14. His association with Indians was well known in 
England from his published Jowrna/y, 1765, and his tragedy, Ponteach; or 
the Savages of North America, 1766, a sympathetic account of the Indian 
character. It is here evidently exploited for political purposes. 

An Augsburg copy of a plate which is listed by Chaloner Smith, iv. 1717. 
Andrews, p. 91. 

i2|X9i in. 

DUMPS. [i Dec 1776] 

Lond. Mag. Nov. 1776. 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xlv. 599. On a platform of three 
steps stand North and Mansfield; North, smiling, holds up a dispatch 
beginning My Lord and signed How, the intermediate text being illegible. 
Behind them (r.), and on a lower step, stand Bute and George III. On the 
ground (1.) is a group of patriots who make gestures of distress, Wilkes 
being the most prominent. A seated and disreputable-looking woman 
holding the cap of Liberty is weeping. On the r. stand two ministers in 
conference, pointing with amusement and scorn at the patriots; one, 
Sandwich (r.), holds his finger to his nose, from his pocket hangs a paper 
inscribed List of the Navy; the other is probably intended for Germain. 
In the background is the sea, with ships of war, some in full sail, others 

This illustrates an article intended to counteract the effect of the news 
of the action on Long Island and the capture of New York, 'the friends 
of Ministry thinking every thing gained, the friends of America every thing 
lost', whereas it should be regarded as a fallacious and temporary success, 
'the beginning of sorrows'. Howe's dispatch of 3 Sept. 1776, reporting the 
landing on Long Island, was published in the Gazette of 10 Oct. Fox wrote 
to Rockingham, 13 Oct. 1776, of 'the terrible news from Long Island'. 
Memorials and Corr. i. 145. Cf. No. 5923, a more realistic representation 
of patriots reading the news of a British success. 

6JX4j in. 




PUNCH. [n.d. c. 1776] 

Mezzotint. A design in compartments showing the malpractices at the 
Shaftesbury election of 1774 which became notorious owing to the petition 
of the defeated candidate, the subsequent proceedings in the House of 
Commons, and actions at law 1775-6. Three compartments in the upper 
part of the print show interiors labelled Punch's Room (1.), Secretaries 
Room, and Age?its Room (r.), shown as three adjacent rooms, visible by the 
removal of the fourth wall. The interior of the rooms is revealed by Truth, 
a naked woman on the extreme r. who holds up an enormous curtain which 
would screen all the rooms if it fell. Underneath these compartments are 
scenes taking place in the street outside and below these rooms. A broad 
gangway crowded with voters leads from the street-level to the central 

In Punch's Room, a man dressed as Punch with a large hump and 
wearing a peaked hat and jack-boots stands on a stool putting a packet 
through a small opening in the partition dividing this room from the centre 
or Secretaries Room. Behind him a stout man stands by a round table, 
apparently making up the packets for Punch; he holds a paper in both 
hands, and says, this Note for 68 will make 3 votes. On the table are papers, 
a money-bag, and two piles of coins. At a rectangular table on the other 
side of the room (r.) a man is seated, pouring out wine from a bottle; 
another man stands opposite him, holding a wine-glass and saying. They 
swallow Pills well. At the back of the room are two wheelbarrows filled 
with money-bags, other money-bags lie on the floor. The room is quite 
bare except for tables, stool, and chair. The ceiling is raftered, there is 
a window in the 1. wall, and two hats hang on the wall. 

In the next room, a man stands on a chair facing the 1. wall and takes the 
packet which Punch is handing to him. Four birds, each with a coin (?) 
in its claws, appear to have just flown through the opening which is 
immediately above a padlocked door of communication. Behind him 
stands another elector, his hat in both hands, looking up at the opening. 
Two other men stand by, one holding a long staff. Two men sit at a round 
table ; one with a large hump is writing ; the other is in conversation with 
two men, one holding a paper, the other, holding his hat, appears to be 
making a request. Two hats hang on the wall. On the back wall hangs a 
large framed picture over which is inscribed We'll purchase Europe. It 
represents an Indian scene: a corpulent man sits on a canopied howdah 
on an elephant ; he is crowned and holds a sceptre ; money-bags are piled 
on both sides of the howdah; a mahout sits on the animal's neck. The 
elephant appears to be picking up money-bags from the ground with its 
trunk ; an Indian in a turban who lies across these bags is being beaten and 
kicked by a European. 

In the third room, two men sit writing at a round table, one points 
to three supplicants, saying Begone you Rogues you'll vote for Mort^ 
[Mortimer]. Of the three men whom he addresses, two stand hat in hand, 
the third hurries away putting on his hat and saying Nothing for honest men. 
Another disappointed voter stands between the two men at the table, his 
hands clasped. 

The lower part of the print represents the street below the three rooms. 
On the 1. is a procession (1. to r.) escorting Punch; in front walks a man 
carrying a flag inscribed Punch & Rupees for ever. He is followed by six 
men with marrow-bones and cleavers, which they are striking together to 



produce the traditional election noise. All wear election favours in their 
hats, the men with the marrow-bones have aprons twisted round their 
waists and are probably butchers. Immediately behind them is Punch on 
horseback, with an immense hump on both back and chest, a conical hat 
and a frill round his neck. His face is covered by a net and he is saying 
20 Guin[eas]for two Voices & one round Oath well swallowed. He is accom- 
panied and followed by a number of electors who wave their hats. In the 
centre is a sloping platform leading up to the 'Secretaries Room'. A boy 
with a long staff stands on the r. saying, None but Voters come in. A crowd 
of men stand upon it in conversation. In the centre is a woman who says 
My three tenants shall have more than 60. A hunch-backed man on the 1. 
says, / shall discover their Schemes. 

On the r. are steps giving access to the r. side of the gangway. A 
balustrade divides the open front of the Agents' room from the street, and 
is continued down the r. side of the gangway and by the side of the steps. 
Two men are mounting the steps; in the road below two men, hat in 
hand, are in conversation with a third, who appears to be the candidate; 
he grasps one of them by the hand, placing his hand on his shoulder. 

On the back of the print is pasted a press cutting from the London 
Chronicle (1776) 'A Card with the Figure of punch holding a Paper with 
the under-written Lines, was lately sent to the present Mayor of S y. 

With empty bags, and without noise or drum. 
In woful plight, behold, I'm once more come. 
Humbly to crave your Worship's kind protection, 
From threat 'ning evils of the last Election: 
In justice guard me from your folly past. 
If 'tis your first, I trust, 'twill be your last: 
Though I was punch, behind the Scene convey 'd, 
You, and your Friends the magic wire play'd.' 



At the election of Sir Thomas Rumbold and Sir Francis Sykes, the two 
ministerial candidates for Shaftesbury in 1774, several thousand pounds 
were distributed to the voters at the rate of 20 guineas a man. The mayor 
and aldermen were entrusted with the distribution and they devised a 
scheme by which a man disguised as Punch delivered guineas in parcels 
to electors through a hole in the door. The electors were then taken to 
another room in the house where 'Punch's Secretary' required him to sign 
notes for the money received made payable to an imaginary character, 
'Glenbucket'. The defeated candidate, Hans Mortimer, petitioned against 
the return on the ground of gross and notorious bribery by the members 
and their agents. Two witnesses swore that they had seen Punch through 
the hole in the door, and knew him to be Matthews, an alderman of the 
town. Witnesses also proved that voters who had taken the 'bribery oath* 
at the poll had taken Punch's money. 

The House of Commons resolved, 14 Feb. 1776, that Sykes, Rumbold, 
and six members of the corporation of Shaftesbury should be prosecuted 
for subornation of perjury; a bill was brought in for disfranchizing 
Shaftesbury. These proceedings were eventually shelved, but while they 
were pending Mortimer brought actions on 2 George III. c. 24 against 
Sykes for twenty-six acts of bribery, obtaining a verdict for twenty-two 

225 Q 




penalties amounting to 3^11,000. Oldfield, Representative History of Great 
Britain, 18 16, iii. 396 ff. 

This case, like that of Hindon, see No. 5288, was notorious in 1776; see 
WzX^oXt, Last Journals, 1920, i. 545-6, 562 (May-June 1776) (though the 
places were not more corrupt than other rotten boroughs, Oldfield, iii. 405), 
partly because in both cases the candidates were nabobs. Sir Thomas 
Rumbold succeeded Pigot as Governor of Madras and was enormously 
wealthy. See Nos. 5344, 6169. 

5342 THE CATCH SINGERS. [n.d. 1776?] 

Engraving. Four men singing and drinking at a small rectangular table. 
Each holds up a wine-glass in his r. hand, while he clutches a money-bag 
in his 1. At the head of the table (r.) sits Lord North in profile to the 1.; 
he sings, They'l do no More then we. Ha, Ha, He. His money-bag is 
inscribed Treasury £100000. On his r. sits a man whose bag is labelled 
oooooi Minden showing that he is Lord George Germain who became 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, 10 Nov. 1775. He sings, With their 
Hearts so Strong and Bold, and is clinking glasses with the neighbour on 
his r., who sings When Merrily we Shall see. The latter's bag is inscribed 
looooo Navy and he is identified by Mr. Hawkins as Lord Howe, then a 
vice-admiral, who was appointed commander-in-chief in North America 
in Feb. 1776. He has, however, a certain resemblance to Lord Sandwich, 
First Lord of the Admiralty, who was the 'soul' of the actual Catch Club. 
Charles Butler, Reminiscences, 1822, i. 74, see No. 5668, &c. Standing 
in profile to the r. is a man wearing military uniform, high boots, and a 
long pig-tail queue; his bag is looooo Army, and he sings Ha, Ha, He, We 
have FilVd our Bags with Gold. He is Sir William Howe, Lord Howe's 
brother, who was then in command of the troops in America, having 
succeeded Gage in Oct. 1775. On the wall is a map of America, reversed, 
the Atlantic Ocean being on the west of the continent. Germain was 
repeatedly satirized for his conduct at Minden (see Nos. 3680-7) in prints, 
as in the House of Commons. For the Howes, see No. 5399, &c. 
6|x6j5g in. 


[n.d. 1776?] 

Engraving. A man dressed half as a military officer, half as a bishop, stands 
with a drawn sword in his r. hand, on his 1. arm is a round shield inscribed 
Thirty Nine Articles, with a standard on which is a coat of arms. He wears 
half a cockaded hat, half a mitre. His r. side is dressed in a military coat 
with epaulette, on his r. leg is a spurred top-boot. He wears a gorget round 
his neck ornamented with the head of Medusa or Discord, with snaky 
locks. His 1. side is draped with a black gown and on his 1. leg is a dark 
stocking and buckled shoe. Two labels issue from his head, both on the 
military side, inscribed In hoc signo vincimus and Woe to thee Boston Sword 
go through the Land. 

The escutcheon on the flag is a cross counter-imbattled ; dexter chief, a 
crown and a mitre; dexter base, crossed swords; sinister chief, a mantle; 
sinister base, crossed keys. The supporters are, dexter, a seven-headed 
beast, traditionally representing the Church of Rome, cf. Nos. 378, 5534; 



sinister, a lady fashionably dressed and with her hair in an inverted pyramid 
surmounted by feathers, cf. No. 5370, &c. The motto is Le Diable defend le 
tort, and the crest is a mitre supporting a dragon holding a skull. 

In the foreground (1.) is a drum inscribed spirit stirring with a fife and 
a pair of kettle-drums. On the r. a large organ is partly visible inscribed 
soul inspiring. Behind the soldier-bishop is a cannon inscribed Alliance 
between Church and State ; from its muzzle issues a label inscribed, Ecclesias- 
tical Cannon. Behind is the sea with ships of war and a coast-town probably 
intended for Boston. The title is from Horace, Art of Poetry, 5. 

This Indicates the opposition to episcopacy in the Colonies which was an 
important factor in the growing antagonism to England before the war 
(Van Tyne, Causes of the War of Independence, 1921, chap, xiii, see also 
No. 4227) and was also vocal in England especially in the City of London, 
the Quebec Act in particular being denounced as a popish measure, see 
No. 5228, &c. The bishops were attacked for their support of the American 
war. Like several others, this satire is perhaps directed against Archbishop 
Markham of York, see No. 5400, &c. The date Is probably before news 
reached England of the evacuation of Boston, see No. 5335. 

Cf. No. 2635 (1745), a similar satire on Herring, Archbishop of York. 






Series of Tete-a-tete portraits. 

5344 N° XXXIV. MISS k— ghl— y. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jutf near S^ John^s Gate 
Jan. I. 1775. [sic, i.e. 1776] 

Engraving. Town and Country Magasine. vii. 625. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .' An 
account of one of the members for Shaftesbury, both nabobs, whose bribery 
was the subject of an inquiry by a Select Committee of the House of 
Commons in 1775 leading to an order for the prosecution of both members, 
see No. 5341. This appears to be intended for Sir Thomas Rumbold, 
since the other member, Sykes, is the subject of another Tete-a-Tete^ see 
No. 5351. The canard that he began life as a shoe-black at White's is 
not mentioned: a merchant's counting-house led to a writership in the 
East India Company. 

Ovals, 2fX2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



Published as the Act directs by A Hamilton Jun^ near S^ John's Gate 
Jan. 16. 1776. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, vii. 705 (Supplement). Two 
bust protraits in oval frames, one (r.) of a man in clerical gown and bands, 
illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. An account of a 
popular dissenting preacher in a London chapel, an alleged adventurer 
from Scotland, and of a young widow. 

Ovals, 2\\ X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


Published as the Act directs by A . Hamilton Jun^ near S^ Johi's Gate 
Feb. I. 1776. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, viii. 9. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. An 
account of the son of an 'eminent grocer' of London and of his amours, 
notably with Clara, a young actress at Drury Lane. Identified by 
H. Bleackley as Miles Peter Andrews and Anne Brown, afterwards 
Mrs. Cargill. Notes and Queries loth series, iv. 343. 

Ovals, 2ii X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



5347 N° IV CLARA H D 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jurf near S^ Johns Gate 
Mar. I. 1776. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, viii. 65. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-^-Tete annexed . . .'. An 
account of Philip Medows (1708-81), deputy ranger of Richmond Park, 
and of Clara Hayward (who had played Calista in the 'Fair Penitent' in 
Foote's company). H. Bleackley, Ladies Fair and Frail, pp. 208, 210. 

Ovals, 2| X 2J in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S* John's Gate 
Apr. I. 1776. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, viii. 121. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. An 
account of Lady Weymouth, wife of Hugh Boscawen, 2nd Viscount (see 
No. 4460, where he is called Lord Pyebald from the colour of his horses). 
She is here alleged to have been a milliner who induced Weymouth to 
marry her by representing that she was on the point of death. Her supposed 
lover is a young man from R — g — te in a counting-house in the City, with 
social ambitions, whom she is said to pay for his attentions. 

Lady Weymouth (m. 1736) was Hannah Catherine Maria, widow of 
Richard Russel and daughter of Thomas Smith of Worplesdon, Surrey; 
she died 23 Nov. 1786 aged 79. 

Ovals, 2| X 2 J in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S^ John's Gate 
May I. 1776. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, viii. 177. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or. Memoirs 

of Lord B u, and Signiora G — b — Hi'. An account of the amours of 

Sir Edward Hussey Montagu, cr. Baron Beaulieu 28 April 1762, Earl of 
Beaulieu 8 July 1784, d. 1802. See Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of 
George HI, 1894, i. 124 and note. The lady is the opera singer Gabrielli, 
see Walpole, Letters, ix. 291-2. 

Ovals, 2ii X 2^ in. B.M.L. , P.P. 5446 b. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton J mV near S' John's Gate 
June I. 1776. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, viii. 233. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames, the man in pseudo-seventeenth-century dress. They illustrate 



'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. An account of Mrs. Hartley, 
the original Elfrida in Mason's Elfrida, Covent Garden, Nov. 1772, and 
of the actor who played Edgar in the same performance. This was in fact 
Bensley, but 'Kiteley' (in Every Man in his Humour) is William, known as 
Gentleman Smith (.''1730-1819), who married the sister of Lord Sandwich. 
Mrs. Hartley was the heroine of the Vauxhall Affray, see No. 5198; see 
also B.M. Catalogue of Engr. Br. Portraits. 

Ovals, 2iiX2j in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5351 N°XVI. MISS R D 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S^ John's Gate 
July I. 1776. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, viii. 289. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . , .'. An 
account of the amours of Francis Sykes, ex-M.P. for Shaftesbury, see 
No. 5341. 
Ovals, 2|X2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5352 N° XIX MRS A— ST— D 

Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun* near S^ Johns Gate 
Aug^ I. iyy6. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, viii. 345. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .*. An 
account of General Richard Smith, usually believed to be the Sir Matthew 
Mite of Foote's comedy The Nabob, though Foote denied it, and of Mrs. 
Armistead (afterwards the wife of C. J. Fox), here called 'that celebrated 
T hais . . . who for some time has been the reigning toast in that line upon 
the haut ton'. 

Ovals, 2ii X 2^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S^ John's Gate 
Sep. I. 1776. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, viii. 401. Two bust portraits 
in oval frames illustrate ' Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . . *. 
De B., a foreign minister representing ' one of the greatest monarchs in 
Europe ' at the Court of St. James, appears from the Royal Kalendar to be 
Count de Belgioioso, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of 
'Germany and Hungary' \sic\ The lady is a singer, trained by a doctor in 
music [Dr. Arne], who has been singing nightly at Vauxhall during the 
season of 1776. She is identified by H. Bleackley as Charlotte Brent. She 
married Thomas Pinto, 1766, see D.N.B. 
Ovals, 2f X 2\ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



5354 N° XXVIII. MRS B 


Published as the Act directs by A, Hamilton Jim' near S^Johr^s Gate. 
Ocv i'^ 1776. 

Engraving. Tozvfi and Country Magazine, viii. 457, Two bust portraits on 
one plate ; the man dressed as Bobadil in pseudo-Elizabethan hat and cloak. 
They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed: or Memoirs of 
Capt. Bobadil and Mrs. B — 11 — my.' An account of the actor Henry 
Woodward 1717-77, and of the actress George Anne Bellamy (i727.''-88). 

One of Woodward's best parts was Captain Bobadil, and it is said that 
Garrick revived Every Man in his Humour in 1751 in order to employ 
him to the best advantage. Thespian Did. 

Ovals, 2li X 2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun*^ near S^ John's Gate 
Nov'' I. 1776. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, viii. 513. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed: . . .'. An 
account of the third Duke of Dorset (1745-99) ^^^ his amours. Miss 

G m, the daughter of a Sussex farmer who had been seduced and 

deserted, is said to be his mistress. 

Ovals, 2| X 2| in. B.M.L. , P.P. 5442 b. 

5356 N° XXXI MISS M— T— N 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun' near S^ John's Gate 
Dec' I. 1776. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, viii. 569. Two bust portraits 
in oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed: . . .'. 
An account of the amours of the son of one whose 'loyalty and patriotism' 
had 'raised him to the first rank in Ireland*, identified by H. Bleackley as 

Robert, 2nd Duke of Leinster (1749-1804), and of Miss M , who told 

him she was the illegitimate daughter of an Irish Lord Lieutenant. He 
wears the conventional Elizabethan costume of the eighteenth century. 
Ovals, 2| X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


Pub: 22 Feby 1776, by W. Humphrey, Gerrard Street Soho. 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of an obese and elderly man standing in profile 
to the r. He is plainly dressed in an old-fashioned manner except for a 
large nosegay in his coat and wears a wide broad-brimmed hat. His hands 
are behind his back and he holds a roll of papers inscribed Annuitys. 
Beneath is etched A real character. 

He is identified by Mr. Hawkins as 'Mr. Thomas a Bank Director', and 
is presumably Thomas of Hankey, Thomas and Co., 7 Fenchurch Street. 



The title suggests that he is an habitue of Tom's Coffee House, that is, 
either Tom's in Birchin Lane, Cornhill, or the more fashionable Tom's in 
Russell Street, Covent Garden, see Gent. Mag., 1841, ii. 265 ff. 

9I X 7 in. 


[i Apr. 1776] 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xlv. 96. Beneath the design is 
engraved. To the most Noble the Marquis ofGranby, andhis fair Marchioness, 
this Plate is humbly inscribed by their most devoted Servant The Editor. An 
allegorical scene. A draped female is led to a circular altar (r.) by Cupid, 
her hand is taken by Hercules. Truth holds up her mirror; three other 
female figures accompany the lady. A priest and attendants stand behind 
the altar. Minerva (1.) attacks a prostrate figure who is holding up a torch 
and a serpent. This is explained as 'Beauty and Modesty accompanied 
by the Goddess of Truth, Cupid and the Graces, invited by Virtue in the 
form of Hercules to sacrifice at the altar of Hymen, whilst Minerva, 
Goddess of Wisdom, destroys the evil Daemon of Envy and Discord'. 

Charles, styled Marquis of Granby, 1770-9, afterwards 4th Duke of 
Rutland, married, 26 Dec. 1775, Mary Isabella, daughter of the Duke of 
Beaufort. See Walpole, Letters, ix. 226, 291, 313. Cf. No. 5309. 



[? J. Mortimer.] 

Pu¥ 2y Aug* i'/y6,by W. Humphrey, Gerrard S* Soho. 

Engraving. W.L. portraits of a man and woman standing arm in arm, both 
in riding dress. He is tall and thin, with a black patch over his 1. eye; 
his r. sleeve hangs empty. She is very stout, wearing a feathered hat, a 
coat and waistcoat over a plain skirt; in her 1. hand is a whip. 

The manner resembles that of No. 5362. 
8|x6| in. 


This Plate is Humbly Inscribed to all Keepers of Lottery Offices. By 
their Huin'''^ Serv* A.B. 

Published as the Act Directs, Aug' 30*^ 1776, by AS. London. 

Aquatint. Design in an oval. Behind a table sits a conjuror, wearing a 
conical hat and a dressing-gown. He points with his wand at a lottery 
wheel, from which look two boys, wearing paper crowns. He is saying, Eo, 
Meo, and Area, stick close my Boys, and let me have all the Capital Prizes, in 
my Calcidation. One of the boys holds out a ticket to him. On the table in 
front of the conjuror, are books, one open, showing two pages of figures, 
jo,ooo, 20,000 . . . [&c. &c.]; two volumes inscribed Calculations, and 
Conjurations and two other books, one being The Life of Duncan Campbel, 

' No title, 



Deaf & Dumb Fortune Teller. A letter is addressed To Mr. Williams, 
Conjuror, Old Bailey. In the background is a second lottery wheel. 

A satirical portrait of John Molesworth who published calculations upon 
lottery numbers, the title probably suggested by that of a portrait of 
Molesworth standing by a lottery wheel, entitled, 'John Molesworth Esq'': 
i^tat 24, the Celebrated Calculator', see B.M. Cat. Engr. Br. Portraits. 

In November 1775 a man bribed one of the Christ's Hospital boys who 
was to draw the lottery to secrete a ticket and draw it from the wheel. 
Ashton, History of English Lotteries, 1893, 81-5. Molesworth 's calculations 
are here pilloried as equally fraudulent; in October 1776 the question 
whether his calculations were or were not an imposition on the public 
was decided in his favour at a debate of the Robin Hood Society (see No. 
4860, &c.), Londo7i Chronicle, Oct. 22-4, 1776. There is a trade card in 
the Banks collection (D.2. 2762) representing the 'Curious Wheels . . . used 
by Mr. Molesworth in proving his Calculations'. Duncan Campbell (d. 
1730) was a Scottish fortune-teller and charlatan. His life was written by 
8^ X 6| in. 

5361-FROM THE HAYMARKETT Loutherbourg Fecit. 

London, Printed for R. Sayer & J. Bennett N° 5J Fleet Street, as the 
Act directs 26 Dec'' 1776. 

Engraving (coloured impression). W.L. portrait (caricature) of a man in 
profile to the r. standing with his head and shoulders thrown back, his 
elbows crooked. He holds his hat in his 1. hand. He wears an exaggerated 
toupet-wig with a large club, a bulky cravat, short frogged coat, and a 

Described by Angelo as the caricature of 'a signor, a celebrated performer 
at the Italian Opera House', one of four plates on the same sheet, the 
others being "From Warwick Lane", 'a well-known M.D., the last remaining 
of the old school'; "From Oxford", 'a fat fellow of Brazen-nose College'; 
* * From Soho", ' a certain well-known lady abbess' (cf . No. 5 1 8 1 ). Reminiscences 
1904, i. 334. 

He is probably Delpini, see D.N.B., whose portrait he somewhat re- 
sembles and whose prominence in connexion with the Haymarket is at- 
tested by the Probationary Odes. 




[J. Mortimer.] 

Engraving. Seven figures walk from 1. to r. First is the (so-called) Duchess 
of Kingston, short and stout. She is saying By God and, and holds out 
her hands with a gesture of affirmation. Behind her walk three young 
women, her 'maids of honour', who are tall and slim in contrast with their 
mistress. One carries a large square bottle inscribed cordial. All four 
ladies are dressed alike in the fashion of the day with low bodices and 
high coiffures decorated with feathers and flowers. Next comes a fat 
clergyman, his mouth open as of shouting. He is followed by the physician 
wearing a big-wig and sword. Last walks the apothecary, lean and bent, 



also wearing a sword, and carrying an enormous and ornately decorated 
syringe which rests on his r shoulder. Beneath the design is engraved, 

Then the Duchess was brought into Court attended by her Chaplain, 

Physician, Apothecary , and three Maids of Honor. Morning Post. May i6: 

Elizabeth Chudleigh, known as the Duchess of Kingston, was tried for 
bigamy before the peers in Westminster Hall from 15 to 22 Apr. 1776. She 
was still remembered for her scanty dress as Iphigenia at a masked ball in 
1749, see Nos. 3030-3. The words she is speaking represent her oath 
in the Ecclesiastical Court in 1769 that she was unmarried. The title 
implies that the recent sentence in Westminster Hall transformed her from 
Duchess of Kingston to Countess of Bristol, by her secret marriage to 
Augustus Hervey, see Nos. 5301, 5319, who had recently succeeded. 
'Meadows' in the title indicates the Medows, who, as nephews of the late 
Duke of Kingston, were concerned in the case as claimants of the Duke's 
estates. At the trial she was dressed as a widow followed by 'four virgins 
in white', see H. More, Life and Corr., by W. Roberts, i. 81-3. See also 
Walpole, Letters, ix. 345-56; Letters of the First Earl of Malmesbury , i. 343 ; 
Hist. MSS. Comtn., Carlisle MSS., 1897, pp. 271, 310, 313. See also 
No. 5425. 

5363 [GEORGE COLMAN.] [1776] 

Engraving. Frontispiece from 'The Spleen or the Offspring of Folly . . . 
dedicated to George Colman Esq. author of The Spleen . . ,'. Colman, 
dressed half as a lawyer, half as Harlequin, runs forward, holding out in his 
1. hand a newsboy's horn inscribed London Packet. In his r. hand is a 
book, Viner Abrid[gem]ent. Flying behind him is a figure wearing Folly's 
cap and bells on the top of which is perched Minerva's owl. On the ground 
is an infant being suckled by a cat, while Spleen, an elderly hag, nude with 
dishevelled hair, stands behind. Beneath her is inscribed (a misquotation 
from Canto H of 'The Spleen'), 

[Her] favorite cat should wean her kitten 

And suckle little Master. 

Canto 1st. 

Beneath Colman is etched another misquotation, 

Mark but that look of his 
That half a smile, that half a grin. 
That speak the Eunuch-Soul within 

His feeble-featured Phiz! 

Canto 2^. 

In the foreground (r.) a drum, a mask, a flag, half a broken lyre, and 
a broken trumpet inscribed Flockton lie grouped together. 

'The Spleen' is an attack on Colman for his play 'The Spleen or Islington 
Spa', a farce produced 7 Mar. 1776 at Drury Lane by Garrick; it purports 
to be written by 'Rubrick' in revenge for the character of Rubrick in 
Colman's play. Colman is supposed to be the offspring of Wit and Folly 
suckled by Spleen who consigned him to a cat. He is represented as half- 
lavvyer, half-player because he had practised at the bar. He was supposed 
to trumpet his fame in the London Packet. 

8|X7 in. 




[n.d. c. Oct. 1776] 

Engraving. The stage of a theatre showing boxes 1. and r. On the 1. 
a group of men fight with fists and sticks. A manager (centre), hat in hand, 
attempts to address the audience. On the r. a man in clerical gown and 
bands holds up an open book inscribed Blackamoor [washed white]. A dog 
tears at his gown ; sticks and apples lie on the ground and are falling from 

Parson Bate's comic opera. The Blackamoor washed white, was produced 
at Drury Lane in Oct. 1776. It was greeted with uproar and after two 
nights of disturbance there was an organized riot on the third night. On 
the fourth Garrick had to promise that the play should be withdrawn. 
Baker, Biog. Dram. 1812. ii. 59-60. For Bate see index. 

4^X6 in. 


[i Feb. 1776] 

Engraving. From the Oxford Magazine, xiii. 418. The interior of a coal 
mine, supported by timber props. Two men, elaborately dressed and much 
alarmed, tied back to back, are being lowered by a rope down a shaft. The 
miners, holding picks and shovels, watch the descent with amusement. 
611X4 in. 


{Daniel Astle fecit, late Cap"" in the 46'^ Reg^ now not out of the Army.y 

Feb. 12, 1776. 
Engraving on a printed handbill. Portrait heads of two deserters. Beneath 
them is printed 'The above heads have a strong Resemblance of the under- 
neath Deserters, the largest of which is Baker, and the other Sheenes.' 
The characterization is that of caricature, the larger figure in the centre of 
the plate has a villainous expression, both are in profile to the r. Behind 
the head of Baker is a pike (1.), A representation of a stolen watch hangs 
from a nail over the head of Sheenes (r.). In the background (1.) is a 
gibbet from which a body dangles. The handbill is headed A Robbery and 
Desertion. The men are described and rewards off^ered. They had deserted 
from a recruiting party of the 46th Foot at Manchester. The boll is 
signed Dan^ Astle. 

The collector's note states, 'Immediately after the Robbery and Deser- 
tion, Captain Astle etch'd these two Portraits from memory, and had 
them distributed about as handbills, and the resemblance being so very 
striking they were taken up the next day, a great distance from the 

3i6 ^ 4s *"• 'Honorary Engravers', i. 214. 

5367 [MATT DARLY]' [c. 1776?] 

Engraving. Matthew Darly the engraver and publisher of prints stands 
beside an ass. He faces T.Q. to the r., his head in profile to the r. He is 
elderly and corpulent, his gouty r. leg is swathed. He partly supports 

' MS. note on the print. 


himself by a short stick on which he rests his r. hand, his other stick is 
under his r. arm, it being his custom to use two walking sticks, see No. 4632. 
In his 1. hand he holds a large scroll inscribed The Political Designer of 
Pots Pans and Pipkins. The ass, which stands behind him, is urinating 
and braying, the words we are Professors of Design issuing from his mouth. 
Darly called himself P.O. A.G.B. or Painter of Ornaments to the Academy 
of Great Britain, see No. 4632. He was noted both as caricaturist and as 
an engraver of architectural designs, ornament, and of plates for the 
great cabinet-makers, Chippendale and others. He published a medallion 
profile head of himself on i Jan. 1775 inscribed M. Darly P.O. A.G.B. 
which shows that this print is a good portrait. For Darly see Nos. 3844, 
4632, 4701, &c. 

4|X3iiin. (pi.). 


Pub. Nov'' 24. iyy6 by M Darly jg Strand 

Engraving. Standing W.L. profile portrait of a man in an oval enclosed 
in a rectangle. He walks from 1. to r. his head thrown back, his stomach 
projecting. He wears spectacles, a looped hat, a large tie-wig, and holds 
a tasselled cane. Probably a caricature of a doctor. 



Pu¥ by Mary Darly, Jany i. iyy6^ according to Act of ParV {39 

Engraved title-page. The lettering of the title is in an oval, the dedication 
in a circle beneath the oval, both being enclosed by a continuous border 
of ornament. The border is surrounded by scrolls of conventional orna- 
ment; from the two lowest scrolls, on each side of the dedication, hang 
two medallion bust portraits of Garrick, one (1.) in profile to the 1., the 
other (r.) in profile to the r. These resemble the decoration of the Society 
of the School of Garrick worn by Charles Bannister in a H.L. mezzotint 

This title-page was used for composite volumes of caricatures bound 
in boards which include prints not only before but after 1776. It may have 
been originally issued in connexion with one or more of the series of 
folio prints issued by Darly, possibly to subscribers to the very numerous 
series which appeared in at least two volumes between 1776 and 1778 
and perhaps in 1779, see Nos. 5370-6, 5429-51, 5513-22, 5599-5602. 
The contents of these volumes vary, some contain all six series of 'Maca- 
ronies' published I77i-3,see Nos. 4913,4986, 5149, &c., three plates being 
printed on one page.' They also include prints published between 1766 
and 1779 belonging to a number of different series, and in three sizes, the 
plates being printed one, two, or three on a page. 

The plates included in the composite volume appear to have Matthew 

' As in the volume exhibited by Mr. Dyson Perrins at the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club, 1932. 



Darly's imprint with two exceptions, No. 5860, which has no publication 
Une, and The Repository or Tatter'd Sale, a print of Tattersall's, pubUshed, 
perhaps etched, by Mary Darly, i Jan. 1777.' Mary Darly etched a por- 
trait of Garrick as Abel Drugger {B.M. Cat. of Engr. British Portraits), 
and the dedication may indicate a personal compliment from her to 
Garrick. She also published No. 4752. For Mary Darly see her portrait, 
No. 4692. 
i3iiX9iiin. (pi.). 


Prints belonging to the very numerous series published by Darly 
apparently in two volumes 1776-8, see No. 5369. There were several 
political satires in this series, see Nos. 5397, 5400, 5473-5, 5482, 



[M. Darly?] 

Pub. by M Darly. jp Strand March 20. ijyS. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions).^ A lady seated at a 
dressing-table in profile to the 1. A hairdresser, fashionably dressed, 
stands (r.) on a stool arranging the tall ostrich feathers in her hair, which 
is an enormous inverted pyramid decorated with feathers, lace, fruit, and 
carrots. A lady's maid, elaborately dressed, with her hair in the fashionable 
pyramid, stands by the table (1.) facing her mistress and holding out a basket 
full of apples, carrots, &c. Feathers and circular toilet-boxes for cosmetics 
lie on the dressing-table. 

The looking-glass and dressing-table are draped. The wall which forms 
a background is ornamented with mouldings. Two H.L. portraits hang 
on the wall. A carpet with a large arabesque pattern covers the floor. 

The fashion for an inverted pyramid of hair, somewhat heart-shaped, 
and decorated with long ostrich feathers and other ornaments, was much 
caricatured in 1776. This use of ostrich feathers is said to have been 
introduced by the Duchess of Devonshire, to whom Lord Stormont 
presented a long feather on returning from Paris in 1774. (Fairholt, Costume 
in England, 1896, i. 395 n.) Lady Louisa Stuart wrote in her old age of 'the 
outrageous zeal manifested against the first introduction of ostrich feathers 
as a headdress. This fashion was not attacked as fantastic or unbecoming 
or inconvenient or expensive, but as seriously wrong or immoral. The 
unfortunate feathers were insulted mobbed burned almost pelted . . .'. 
Selections . . ., ed. J. A. Home, 1899, p. 187. They were the subject of 
a pamphlet, A Letter to the Duchess of Devonshire, 1777. See also H. More, 
Life and Corr., by W. Roberts, 1834, i. 65. 

See also Nos. 5330, 5335, 537i-8i> 5383-8, 5393-5> 539^, 5427, 5429, 
5430, 5436, 5439-42, 5444, 5447-51, 5452, 5454, 545^, 5459-62, 5466, 
5467, 5515, 5517- Nos. 4546, 4547 also belong to 1776, and No. 4550 
to 1777. 

' An impression from the collection of Mr. Minto Wilson was exhibited at the 
Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1932. It is included in a volume belonging (1933) to 
Mr. W. T. Spencer, New Oxford Street. 

^ Only the uncoloured impression is numbered. 



The broad pyramid of 1776-7 differs from the erection of 1770-1 or 
1772 which was elongated with a narrow apex, see Nos. 4628 (p. 46), 
Reproduced, Paston, PI. xxi. 

I2jx8| in. 

OF 1776. 

[M. Darly?] 

Pub by M Darly April 10. 1776. 

Engraving. An enormous triangular mass of hair, attached to the head of 
a lady (full face) whose head and shoulders appear at the bottom of the 
print. The broad upper edge of the pyramid is decorated in the centre 
with a jewelled ornament from which spring ears of corn. The hair is 
adorned with long ostrich feathers, sprays of flowers, on one of which 
sits a bird, carrots, bunches of grapes, and other fruit. The central mound 
of hair is surrounded by symmetrical curls or ringlets. 

One of many satires on extravagant hair dressing, see No. 5370, &c. 

I2f X9 in. 

5372 32 THE CITY ROUT, 

Pub'^ accos to Act by M Darly jg Strand May 20. ijyS. 

Engraving. A satire on City manners. Persons standing in conversation 
at a party. The principal figures are two elaborately dressed ladies of 
plebeian, elderly, and unattractive appearance who face each other; one 
holds a card, the other a fan. Their hair is awkwardly dressed in the 
enormous mounds then fashionable, see No. 5370, &c. On the 1. a short, 
fat, and awkward footman brings in a tray on which is a triple stand of 
jelly-glasses, a foaming tankard of beer, &c. The other guests are men; 
one wears a furred alderman's gown. In the centre of the back wall is 
a picture of a man with a distraught expression dressed as a seaman or 
working man, who is being devoured by two lions, one on each side. 
Above his head are the letters S.P.Q.L. On the back of the print a note in 
a contemporary hand explains this as ^ Senatiis populusque Londoniensis the 
Aldermen and Commoners of London'. On the r. wall is visible the lower 
part of a W.L. portrait of a man in a furred livery gown. 
In the manner of R. St. G. Mansergh. 



[M. Darly?] 

Pub by M Darly May 25, J776. 

Engraving (coloured impression). The interior of a closed carriage made 
visible by being bisected longitudinally. In it two young ladies of pleasing 
appearance sit face to face in profile, apparently on the floor, or on very 
low seats, to make room for their monstrous mounds of hair. These are 
decorated with feathers, flowers, vegetables, &c. as in No. 5370. One 
(r.) holds a paper inscribed Pantheon 3^ Subscription, the other holds a 
fan. The roof of the carriage is ornamented with two ducal coronets. 



A vis-a-vis was a narrow coach in which only two persons could sit 
facing each other, being 'seldom used by any other but persons of high 
character or fashion', and 'usually finished in a superior manner than what 
the generality of carriages are'. Felton, Treatise on Carriages, 1795, p. 65. 
Cf. No. 5416. 

One of many satires on monstrous hair-dressing, it is perhaps intended 
for the Duchess of Devonshire, cf. No. 5370. 

Reproduced, Fuchs, Die Karikatur der Europai'schen Volker, p. 278. 
C. E. Jensen, Karikatur -album, 1906, i. p. 163. 

5374 5. A SCOTCH REEL. 

Pub. by M Darly. jg Strand, July 11, 1776. 

Engraving. Two couples dancing a reel. The ladies wear the monstrous 
feathered coiffures then fashionable, see No. 5370, &c. The man on the 
1. is short, ungainly, and very fat, he walks rather than dances. The other 
man dances with energy, one arm raised. All wear gloves. 
8|xi2| in. 


Pub. by M Darly jg Strand Nov: 6 1776. 

Engraving. A lady driving (r. to I.) in a high phaeton which is poised on 
very high springs. The two prancing ponies are very small relatively to 
the lady and the carriage. Her hair is extravagantly dressed in the manner 
of contemporary caricature. Perched on her mound of hair is a hat 
trimmed with ribbons and enormous ostrich feathers. The phaeton has a 
folding hood, which if raised would be very far from covering the lady's 
coiffure. The side panel of the carriage is ornamented with a ducal coronet, 
and the motto swift. She is driving over turf; in the distance are trees. 

Compare the prologue to Colman's comedy, The Suicide (Haymarket, 

'Tis now the reigning taste with belle and beau 
. . . Their art and skill in coachmanship to shew: 
A female Phaeton all danger mocks. 
Half-coat, half-petticoat she mounts the box. . , . ' 

Gent. Mag., 1778, 382. 
Cf. No. 5936. 

The feathers and the coronet suggest the Duchess of Devonshire, see 
Nos. 5370, 5373. See also No. 5394. Reproduced, Paston, PI. cxxii. 
8j»gXi2| in. 


R. S. [Monogram, i.e. 'Richard Sneer']i 
Pub-^ by M Darly Dec'' 6 1776 (jg) Strand. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A game of shuttlecock between two men 
who face each other, standing at opposite sides of the design, each with 
a raised battledore. One (1.) is short, obese, and of clerical appearance; 

' It is possible that R. S., or 'Dicky Sneer', denotes R. B. Sheridan. A comparison 
with portraits of Sheridan shows that this is not unlikely. The signature may 
denote either the subject or the artist, or possibly both. 



the other is slim with a long pigtail queue. High in the air between them 
is their shuttlecock, a lady with the enormous head-dress decorated with 
the long ostrich feathers of contemporary caricature; her skirts fly up. 
Beneath the design is etched 

Ladte[s] likes [sic] Shuttle-Cocks are now arrayed, 
The tail is Cork'd and feather' d is the head. 

Cf. the lines in Garrick's prologue to Sheridan's Trip to Scarborough 
first played 24 Feb. 1777, perhaps suggested by this print: 
Ladies may smile — are they not in the plot ? 
The bounds of nature have not they forgot ? 
Were they design 'd to be, when put together, 
Made up, like shuttlecocks, of cork and feather? 

This print is shown in No. 5435, Doleful Dicky Sneer in the Dumps, 
from which it seems that the slim man is intended for 'Richard Sneer'. 
No. 5430 belongs to the same set, by the same artist. 

One of a number of satires, 1776-7, on the prevailing fashion for 'cork- 
rumps', see No. 5381, &c., and for monstrous feathered head-dresses, 
see No. 5370, &c. See especially No. 5383. The cork rump was accom- 
panied by excessive tightlacing, see No. 5444, &c. 

8f X13 in. 


[M. Darly?] 

Pu¥ March i. lyyd hy M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. A lady (H.L.) in profile to the 1. with an enormous pyramid of 
hair in the fashion of the day. On the broad summit of the pyramid lies 
a miniature cupid fitting an arrow to his bow and about to aim in the 
direction in which the lady is looking. She wears the fashionable 'full- 
dress' of the period. Beneath is etched. 

Fair tresses Man's imperial race ensnare, 

And beauty draws us with a single hair. 

One of many satires on monstrous head-dresses, see No. 5370, &c. 
Others of a similar kind are Nos. 5330, 5335, 5378-80, 5384, 5441, 5442, 
5448, 5449. 



Pu¥ according to Act of Parl^ May i. 1776. by J. Lockington Shug 

Engraving. A companion print to No. 5379. A woman (H.L.) in profile 
to the r. on whose enormous erection of hair are depicted a number of scenes 
illustrating low-life on May-day in London. On the summit is a galloping 
pig with two small pigs. Below are two pairs of street-sellers ( ?), one offers 
drink to a woman ; the other, an old woman smoking a pipe, offers a tray of 
fruit or cakes to a woman and child. Below is a fruit or vegetable cart 
drawn by two asses or horses, tandem, their heads decorated with branches. 
In the lowest section of the coiffure is a jack-in-the-green surrounded by 
chimney-sweeps and bystanders. The woman's face is patched. 



Bunter was 'a cant word for a woman who picks up rags about the street ; 
and used by way of contempt for any low vulgar woman', O.E.D. The pigs 
probably represent the animals which routed about the garbage-heaps 
where these women did their work. 

Probably a parody of No. 5330 (Bunkers Hill). For similar designs see 
No. 5377, &c. 
6-I-X4I in. 


Pu¥ accord to Act of ParV July 9 1776 hy J. Lockington Shug Lane 
Golden Squ^. 

Engraving. A companion print to No. 5378. On an enormous erection of 
hair are depicted a masquerade and regatta. In the upper division of the 
coiffure a number of persons in masquerade dress are walking in a garden 
decorated by lanterns which surround the flower-beds and outline an 
archway; behind is a rotunda. In the lower division are a number of 
boats and barges, the central boat flying the Union flag. The hair is 
attached to the head of a H.L. figure with the body of a woman, but with a 
grotesque face and beard, perhaps intended for Father Thames or Neptune. 

This evidently represents the first regatta held in England, 23 June 1775, 
which took place partly on the Thames, partly at Ranelagh, where a temple 
of Neptune was erected. See Ann. Reg. 1775, pp. 132 and 2i6-i8. 

The chief regatta of 1776 was on 22 Aug., at Richmond, for the Prince 
of Wales's birthday. London Chronicle, 22-4 Aug. 
5^X7f in. 


London. Pub. ij"* June 1776 by W. Humphrey Gerrard Street, Soho. 

Price one ShiW 

Engraving. An enormous heart-shaped pyramid of hair extends from the 
head (full-face) of a young woman. On the centre of the top rests a kitchen 
fireplace with a joint of meat roasting at a spit; on the chimney-piece sits 
a monkey in a fool's cap looking at itself in a hand-mirror. Below the 
fireplace is a large circular cheese from which a wedge has been cut in 
which are three mice. Under the cheese, and draped across the hair, 
is a ribbon, decorated with household utensils: a mop, fire-irons, broom, 
gridiron, and ladle. A dog with puppies barks at a spitting cat with 
kittens. Round the cheese are vegetables: cauliflower, cabbage, asparagus, 
potatoes, &c. Beneath the title is etched, 

The Taste at present all may see, 
But none can tell what is to he. 
Who knows when Fashions whims are spread. 
But each may wear this Kitchen Head. 
The Noddle that so vastly swells. 
May wear a Fool's cap, hung with Bells. 

One of many satires in 1776 on extravagant hair-dressing, see No. 
5370, &c. 

13X9! in. (pi.). 

241 R 


Pu¥ Nov'' ig, iyy6, by J. Walker N" 13, Parliament S^ 

Aquatint. Perhaps a companion print to No. 5382. W.L. figure of 
a young woman standing in profile to r. and looking to the front. 
Her hair is in the enormous pyramid of caricature, on its apex is pinned 
a frilled cap with long streamers of lace and ribbon. The back of her 
skirt projects below the waist, and on the projection sits a poodle wearing 
a bow of ribbon. In her r. hand she holds a spray of moss rose-buds. 
She wears an apron and a skirt which shows her ankles. 

The 'cork rump', a cork support which extended the dress at the back 
in the manner of the 'bustle' of the nineteenth century but also encircled 
the hips, was the subject of many caricatures, 1776-7, see Nos. 5376, 

5383. 5403. 5429..543o> 5439> 5458, 5460. 

A print with a similar title was published by Darly in 1777, see No. 5429. 

6fX4i|in. (pi.). 

Pu¥ Dec'' 10. 1776. 

Aquatint. Perhaps a companion print to No. 5381. A man warm- 
ing his back at a fire, which is seen through his wide-apart legs; his 
heels are against the low fender. His hands are behind his back, holding 
out his coat-tails. His head is turned in profile to the 1., looking over his 
r. shoulder. He wears a toupet wig with a plaited queue, an elaborate cravat, 
and a short waistcoat; a bunch of seals hangs from his fob, cf. No. 5443. 


[n.d. c. 1776"] 

Engraving. A lake on which a boating accident has just occurred, the 
overturned boat partly visible on the extreme r. The central figure is 
that of a young lady seated serenely in the water supported by her volumi- 
nous petticoats and the concealed cork beneath them. Her hair is dressed 
in an enormous inverted pyramid, its summit decorated with feathers, 
flowers, and lappets of lace, which dangle to her shoulders; on her lap she 
holds a small dog. Two swans (1.) hiss at her. 

In the foreground the head of a man and of an elderly woman, both 
shrieking, rise above the water, their arms extended; a tasselled cane hangs 
from the man's wrist. A pair of woman's feet in high-heeled shoes waves 
above the water. These three, unsupported by cork, seem about to drown. 
Two men hang limply over the keel of the overturned boat. Beneath the 
title is engraved. 

You smiVd when like a Shuttle-cock I flew. 

The scene is chang'd, and miners the Triumph now — 

Despair ye Clods, behold the distant Shore, 

And for Cork-Rumps in vain the Gods implore! 

This is perhaps a comment on No. 5376, where the lady is used as a shuttle- 
cock. See also No. 5381, &c. 
7jXii| in. 

' Publication line probably cut off. 



[n.d, c. 1776'] 

Engraving (coloured impression). A young woman (H.L.) with her hair 
in a much exaggerated inverted pyramid which fills the greater part of 
the design and is the support for a dressing-table, draped with muslin 
festoons. On it are an oval mirror, a pair of tapers in candlesticks, two 
vases of flowers, a pincushion, toilet articles, a pair of buckles, rings, 
a necklace, &c., two books, a pen. 

One of a number of similar satires, see Nos. 5330, 5335, 5371, 5377-8o, 
5442, 5448, 5449. For extravagant hairdressing see No. 5370, &c. 
8x511 in. 

C, W. Bampfylde 28 March 1776. 

Engraving. From The Election Ball, 3rd ed., Bath, 1776. A bedroom. 
A lady in stays and petticoat (Madge Inkle) seated at a dressing-table, 
decorating her hair with long cock's feathers. Her stout elderly husband 
(r.), leaning on a walking-stick, looks on in surprise. A maidservant (1.) 
is about to leave the room, holding a cock, from which all the tail-feathers 
have been plucked. A cat watches the cock, holding up one paw. A lady's 
dress hangs over a chair; shoes, cock's feathers, and a paper inscribed 
Election Ball lie on the floor. In the background is the tester of a bed with 
curtains. A H.L. portrait on the wall is inscribed S^ Sim: Blunderhead. 
Beneath the design is engraved : 

Humano Capiti — &c. , &c. 

Jungere si velit, et varias inducer e plumas — 
Spectatum admissi risum teneatis Amici? 

Horat: de Art: Poet: 
A note to the lines illustrated (p. 35): 

'The Editor is sensible how very far Mr. Inkle's Description must fall 
short of the inimitable Design of the Frontispiece, which however he 
cannot value more as a masterly performance, than as a kind token of 
Approbation and Regard from his worthy and ingenious friend Coplestone 
Warre Bampfylde, Esq. of Hestercombe in Somersetshire.' 

See No. 5386 for another illustration of this subject. One of many 
satires on the monstrous hair-dressing of 1776, see No. 5370, &c. 
8 X 6j5g in. 


Five illustrations to Anstey's Election Ball designed by C. W. Bamp- 
fylde and etched by William Hassel, published at Bath in an Epistola 
Poetica Familiaris, addressed by Anstey to Bampfylde. (Copy in 
Print Department.) 


C.W.B. del. W.H. sc. Pub. by C. Anstey 30 Dec. 1776. as the Act 

Engraving. Margery in stays and petticoat seated before her dressing-table 

' Miss Banks has written on the back, 'bought 1785', but it is clearly earlier. 



holds the monstrous erection on her head. Her father, Inkle, seated on 
a chair (r.), watches in astonishment. A maid stands by an open door (I.) 
holding the cock which has been robbed of its tail-feathers, some of which 
lie on the ground, others adorn Margery's head-dress. A cat miaows at 
the cock. See also No. 5385. 

4i6 ^ 4i ^^' (Ii^set on p. 27.) 


C.W.B. del. W.H sc. Pub. 30 Dec. iyy6 by C. Anstey as the Act 

Engraving. Margery crouches in the open sedan chair, (r.) one chairman 
raises the roof to accommodate the feathered head-dress, the other points 
to the chair, looking, hat in hand, to Inkle who stands (1.) supported on his 

3f X4 in. (Below the text, p. 28). 


C.W.B. del. W.H sc. Pub. 30 Dec. iyy6 by C. Anstey as the Act 

Engraving. Two chairmen carry (r. to I.) the sedan chair. Margery in a 
crouching position is seen through the window. Old Inkle hobbles 
beside her (r.) supported on two sticks. 

3i6X4il in- (Inset on p. 29.) 


C.W.B. del. W.H. sc. Pub. 30 Dec. iyy6 by C. Anstey as the Act 

Engraving. Lord Perriwinkle stands, his r. hand inserted in his waistcoat, 
listening with a calculating frown to Inkle who leans towards him, speaking 
into his 1. ear. 

3iix si in. (Below the text, p. 31.) 


C.W.B. del. W.H. sc. Pub. 30 Dec. iyy6 by C. Anstey as the Act 

Engraving. Inkle (1.) and Lord Perriwinkle (r.) take each other's hands, 
bowing very low; Inkle rests his 1. hand on his stick, which supports him; 
the other, his hat under his arm, holds his 1. hand to his breast. 

3IX4I in. (Below the text, p. 32.) 


Printed for R. Sayer & J. Bennett, N° 53 Fleet Street, as the Act 
directs, July 20, iyy6 

Engraving. Two cocks fighting in a cock-pit. Behind them eight specta- 



tors, probably portraits, sit and stand. A man in riding-dress is having 
an altercation with the well-dressed man on his r. On their r. is a working 
man in an apron. Behind the circular pit and the surrounding circle for 
spectators is a straight brick wall with timber beams. On this is a burlesqued 
version of the royal arms. Probably suggested by Hogarth's print, see 
No. 3706. 

Six prints from the series of mezzotints published by Carington 

ALL SORTS. (337) See No. 4543— [c 1776] 

J. R. Smith del. et sc. 

THE YOUNG WANTON. (340) See No. 4544— [1776] 

[? J. R. Smiths] 

(341) See No. 4545— [1776] 

UNLOADED. (344) See No. 4546—25 Oct^. 1776 

A satire on hair-dressing, see No. 5370, &c, 

(345) A satire on hair-dressing. See No. 4547 — [1776] 


Printed for Carington Bozvles, at his Map & Pri?it Warehouse, N° 6g 
in S^ Paul's Church Yard, London. Published as the Act directs [date 
erased, 1776.] 

Mezzotint. Diogenes, a bearded elderly man wearing nondescript 
draperies and carrying a lantern, walks (1. to r.) with a stick. He is followed 
by a dog. A young man and woman (1.) point at him with derision; 
a boy (r.), holding to a tree, looks round at him with amusement. In the 
background is a piece of water with trees, and on its farther side, a house. 
On the 1. a dove-cote is partly visible, one bird flies from it. 

13x91 in. 

Ten similar mezzotints issued by other publishers. 


[Philip Dawe.] 

London, Printed for R. Sayer & J. Bennett, N° 5J, Fleet Street; as the 
Act directs, i Feb. 1776. 

Mezzotint. An aged and repulsively ugly couple walk under trees, both 

' Similar in manner to other prints by Smith of courtesans illustrating verses 
from Proverbs, see Frankau, pp. 99, 125, and Nos. 5823, 5824. 



dressed in a grotesque exaggeration of the fashion of the day. The man (1.) 
ogles the lady, whose pointed chin he holds, she smiles at him. He has a 
wig with an enormous looped-up macaroni club ; a comb stuck into the 
top of his head shows that he is a barber, and, except that Frenchmen in 
caricature are seldom fat, the three-cornered hat with a tuft of feathers 
at each corner suggests that he is French. He wears a sword and a large 
nosegay. From his fob hangs a chatelaine or group of chains ending in 
a heart, the model of a small animal, a thimble, &c. 

The lady has a grotesque witch-like profile; her face is patched; she 
holds a fan, and wears a large earring, and a large nosegay. Her enormous 
pyramid of hair is decorated with ostrich feathers, ribbons, &c. In the 
feathers is a bird's nest with young birds gaping for food which is being 
brought them by a bird which flies towards them. She resembles the old 
woman in No. 5466 by the same artist. 

Behind on the r. two simply-dressed young women wearing hats hold 
up their hands in amazement at the grotesque couple. 

Beneath the title is engraved. 

Search Court and City, Town and Country round. 
Two such Beauties scarce are to be found. 

For other satires on the monstrous hair-dressing of 1776-7 see No. 
5370, &c. 



[P. Dawe?] 

London, Printed for R. Sayer & J. Bennett, N° 53 Fleet Street, as the 
Act directs, 22^ Fehy iyy6. 

Mezzotint. A phaeton and pair stands outside a town house. The body 
of the carriage, which is carved and decorated, has been raised above the 
wheels on an expanding trellis-work so that it is on the level of the first- 
floor windows. A gentleman who holds the reins in his 1. hand leans 
forward to assist into the carriage a lady who is stepping through the 
window and over the low iron railing of the balcony. He wears a small hat, 
a looped macaroni club, laced coat, and top-boots. She is elaborately 
dressed in the height of the fashion with a vast pyramid of hair decorated 
with enormous ostrich feathers. On the ground below a man and woman 
(1.) stand gazing up at them; the woman holds a child in her arms, an 
older boy stands beside her, pointing up and waving his hat. In the door- 
way of the house (r.) a man and woman stand, looking up open-mouthed, 
the woman holding up a hand in astonishment. 

The house has large sash-windows, those on the first floor have oval 
balconies with wrought-iron balustrades. The facade is ornamented by 
vertical strips of carving in low relief between the windows. 

For phaetons see Nos. 5375, 5761, and for other satires on hair-dressing, 
No. 5370, &c. Reproduced, Paston, PI. cxxiv. 

13X9^1 in. 




[P. Dawe?] 

London, Printed for R. Sayer & jf. Bennett N" 53 Fleet Street, as the 
Act directs 28^^ March ijyO. 

Mezzotint. The interior of the rotunda at the Pantheon. A lady stands 
in the centre, the feathers (taller than the wearer) in her grotesquely high 
coiffure of hair having caught fire from the hanging candelabra. A maid- 
servant directs a jet of water to the blaze from the nozzle of a large 
pencil-shaped fire extinguisher, which she holds in both hands. A man 
holds up in both hands a long narrow board marked in lengths of feet with 
which he appears to be measuring the height of the head-dress. A lady 
and a gentleman sit on a sofa (r.), each with a hand held up in surprise. On 
the 1. are two ladies, seated, with a man standing behind them, bending for- 
ward as he looks through his lorgnette. The ladies are dressed in the fashion 
of the day, with long ear-rings, and large nosegays tucked into their low-cut 
bodices. On a scaffolding (r.) stand two workmen who are wielding 
mallets with great energy. In a gallery high up under the dome, fronted 
by a balustrade, are musicians (1.) partly obscured by the towering feathers, 
two violinists being visible. 

For other satires on the monstrous hairdressing of 1776 see No. 5370, 
&c. Reproduced, Paston, PI. xxii; A. S. Turberville, Men and Manners 
of the Eighteenth Century, 1926, p. 100. 


THE CONNOISSEUR AND TIRED BOY. See No. 4621—15 May 1776 
[P. Dawe] Pub, Sayer and Bennett. Cf. Chaloner Smith, i. p. 158. 

RIDICULOUS TASTE. See No. 4629—10 June 1776 

Pub. Sayer and Bennett 

A satire on hair-dressing, a reduced version of No. 4628 (1771). 


See No. 4623' — 29 May 1776 
Pub. Sayer and Bennett. 

A reduced version was issued i Apr. 1777. 


[P. Dawe?] 

London Printed for R. Sayer & J. Bennett N° 53 Fleet Street, as the 
Act directs 14 June 1776. 

Mezzotint. A lady stands at her dressing-table (r.), her hair in an enormous 
pyramid decorated with feathers torn from a peacock, an ostrich and 
a cock. A young girl wearing a hat holds the peacock by a wing ; another 

' Incorrectly dated 1766. 



wearing a cap tugs hard at one of its tail feathers (which are very unUke 
peacock's feathers). An ostrich (1.), which has lost most of its tail feathers, 
is about to pluck out those whicih ornament the lady's hair. A cock stands 
in the foreground (r.), having lost almost all its tail feathers, many of which 
lie on the floor. A black boy wearing a turban stands on his mistress's r., 
handing feathers from a number which he holds in his I. hand. The lady, 
who faces T.Q. to the r., is elaborately dressed in the fashion of the day. 
Her pyramid of hair is decorated with lappets of lace and festoons of 
jewels as well as with feathers. She wears large ear-rings, a necklace with 
a cross, her bodice is cut very low, and her elbow sleeves have lace ruffles. 
A pannelled wall forms the background. 

One of a number of satires on the hair-dressing of 1776-7, see No. 
5370, &c. 
i2f X 10 in. 


See No. 4610 — 10 June 1776 
After Collet. 
Pub. Sayer and Bennett. 
A smaller version (reversed) of No. 4609 (1773). 

THE SPORTING LADY. See No. 4624—1 Oct. 1776 

Pub. Sayer and Bennett. Reproduced, Paston, PI. cxvii. 


See No. 4777 — 29 May 1776 
Pub. W. Humphrey. 




Puh Ap" I lyyy by M Darly sg Strand 

Engraving. England, as an elderly, emaciated man, with a wooden leg 
and crutch, stands on one side of water inscribed The Atlantic Ocean. He 
wears a wide-brimmed hat; at his feet is Britannia's shield. In his 1. hand 
is a scourge with which he threatens five Americans on the other side. 
Four of them have hooks through their noses attached to cords which 
England is pulling. Nevertheless, one turns his back and looks round 
jeering; another is firing a miniature cannon held in both hands. The 
fifth shouts and points, waving his hat. Beneath the title is etched And 
therefore is England maimed & forc'd to go with a Staff, shakespeare. 
One of the few political satires in Darly's series, see Nos. 5369, 5370, &c. 

5397 A An apparently earlier state without numbers and the words 'The 
Atlantic Ocean'. It is, however, dated Sep^ I. 1777. 

The American who turns his back bares his person indecently; this has 
been altered in No. 5397. 


Published i'^ April 1777. 

Engraving. Hopkins, the City Chamberlain, seated in an armchair (r.) 
outside a small one-storied building symbolizing the Chamberlain's office. 
He holds a document inscribed i6\ P^ O, saying. It 's a fair price. Beside 
him (1.) is an open box inscribed City Chest, full of money-bags. The 
building behind him is decorated with the City Arms, and flies a flag 
inscribed Honesty Rewarded. A small projection from the main building 
immediately above Hopkins's head is inscribed Morgages Annuities Bonds 
in Judgement. ColatK Securities. 

He appears unconscious of a lawyer (1.) wearing a gown who advances 
towards him, holding by a chain a monster with the body of a dog and 
three human heads, two of which, and perhaps the third which is partly 
concealed, have bearded Jewish profiles. The lawyer holds a rolled docu- 
ment inscribed Bill to Pre[}vent Usury]; he is saying,//"/ can't extirpate 
ye, ril bridle you. Over his head flies Fame holding out a wreath and palm 
branch. The three heads of the monster are saying. How cursedly the Lawyer 
pulls; Damn this Bill I can't keep my Horse and my Whore now, and May 
our holy Phrophet Moses Confound 'em. In one paw is a rolled document 
inscribed To the Clerk of the City Till, in the other, Morgage on the Green 
horn Estates. 

The Bill held by the lawyer appears to represent that 'for regulating 
the grants of life annuities and for the better protection of infants against 





such grants' (17 George III, c. 26). See abstract of the Act, Ann. Reg. 
1777, p. 259. According to Walpole the Act was occasioned by a usurious 
bargain made by Hopkins for a loan to Sir John St. Aubyn (see No. 5414) in 
his minority, Last Journals, 1910, ii. 36-7. He was commonly called Vulture 
Hopkins, the noted usurer, City Biography, 1800, p. 136. As Chamber- 
lain, he was responsible for the City Chest, which contained funds de- 
posited for annuities for City orphans. Hopkins was Wilkes's rival, see 
No. 5327. He was four times a Director of the Bank of England (1765- 
79); M.P. for Great Bedwin 1771-4. A. B. Beaven, Aldermen of London, 

ii- 135- 
7^x8|in. (pi.). 


Published by W. Williams Fleet Street as the Act directs Oct: 10, lyyy 

Engraving. Two men of identical appearance, one (1.) dressed as a military 
officer, the other (r.) as a naval officer, sit opposite each other, one on each 
side of a round table. Between them, behind the table, stands the devil, 
a hand pointing at each brother. He says How How continue the War. 
He addresses Admiral Lord Howe and General Sir William Howe, who 
were then making a joint attack on Philadelphia. Admiral Howe (r.) says, 
Brother How poor we are How shall we get Rich ; the other answers, / donH 
know How How we can. In the background, seen through an open door, 
are four ships of war at anchor ; they are lying off an encampment of tents. 
In front of these is a plantation of cabbages, by which is a man with a 
cabbage cart, calling Cabbages Ho . . . w. 

During September and most of October 1777 no news arrived from 
either of the Howes. According to Walpole 'the nation from impatience 
of news, grew much dissatisfied, and the Howes were infinitely abused 
and accused of thinking of nothing but their vast profits'. Last Journals, 
1910, ii. 45. The cabbages probably indicate the alleged perquisites taken 
by the Howes, since cabbage was the name for pilfered pieces of stuff 
appropriated by tailors, the verb to cabbage meaning to pilfer. O.E.D., cf. 
No. 5805. 

The word How in the title and on the design is larger than the rest of 
the script to indicate the pun on the name of the brothers. This satire 
combines an attack on the Howes for dishonesty and inactivity with the 
suggestion that advice to continue the war comes from the devil. 

See also Nos. 5405, 5406, 5472. 

8|x i2| in. 


Pub Oc 28. lyy {sicl by M Darly 120 New Bond street & jg Strand 

Engraving. Archbishop Markham, dressed partly as a bishop, partly as a 
soldier. He wears a mitre decorated with a skull and cross-bones; his 
surplice is kilted up to show boots and breeches; his lawn sleeves appear 
through a sleeveless military tunic. Round his neck, below his bands, is 
a gorget inscribed Ectype. On his r. arm is an oval shield, on which is 
a figure of the Devil holding a spear inscribed Prototype. 

' Margin cut off, but 38 v. 2 in a book of Darly's caricatures in the possession 
of Mr. W. T. Spencer (1933). See Nos. 5369, 5370, &c. 



In his 1. hand he holds up a sword, inscribed York's Sermons. Slung 
across his back is a cannon, inscribed Cannon Law. His crozier hes on the 
ground and his r. foot stands upon an open Bible inscribed Biblia Sacra. 
John Cap. 10 V. i. After the title is etched : 

whom Patriarch Noah cursed, 
O Slave to Sem & Japheth. 
O may on his Head vengeance hurst, 
and push his Bones in Tophet, 
Pollutes the Lawn with human Gore 
What Devil can do more. 

Markham was translated to York in June 1777. He was much attacked 
for his attitude to the war, notably in the House of Lords, 30 May 1777, 
by Grafton, Shelburne, and others for a sermon contrary to the spirit 
of the Revolution. Pari. Hist, xix, pp. 326-51 (sermon quoted, pp. 348- 
50 n.); Walpole, Last Journals, ii. 29-30. Walpole calls him 'Archbishop 
Turpin', lo June 1777, Letters, x. 59. See also Nos. 5343, 5492, 5631. 
1 1 X 8l| in. 


Published Nov 20 lyyy by W"' Hitchcock, N° 5 Birchin Lane. 

Engraving. Animals in a wooded landscape with a mountainous back- 
ground. Howe, as a lion, chasing (1. to r.) the American leaders in the 
shape of different animals. The scene is in front of a wooded mound in 
which is a cave inscribed Cave of Rebellion. Resolved, netn: con never to 
run away. On the mound grows 'Liberty Tree', a tree inscribed Liberty; 
a squirrel sits on a branch scattering papers, inscribed Paper Currency, 
'jo dollers\ '100 dollers', &c. An opossum is climbing up the trunk. 
A roaring lion advances into the picture, his breath inscribed How; 
one paw is on a squared sheet of paper, inscribed Philadelphia, Delawar . . . 
The animals he chases are: an ass with a lion's skin on its back, inscribed, 
/. Hancock Pres; a tiger, Laurens; an armadillo, Washington; two foxes 
with collars round their necks, inscribed respectively Adams and 
[yi]<fa;«[^], evidently intended for John and Samuel Adams; a pig or wild 
boar is Putnam; a wolf is Lee; a stag whose collar is inscribed V . . .D. 
( PFrancis Van Dyke, a New York patriot) ; a puma and a badger ( ?) without 
names. In the air (1.) an eagle clutches in beak and claws a rattlesnake in- 
scribed Independence; and (r.) an owl flies away holding a paper, inscribed 
Louis Baboon a Paris. In the background (1.) is sketched a ship in full sail. 
Beneath the design verses are engraved : 

Impatient of Imperial sway, 

The Wild Beasts of America, 

In Congress ?net, disclaim'd allegiance. 

And to the Ass profess' d obedience. 

With such New Leader; feeling bold. 

No wonder they disdained the Old. 

Resolving roufidly, one and all. 

In the good cause, to stand or fall. 

Then herding, widerneath the Tree, 

Of Treason, alias Liberty; 

They boast the Baboon King's alliance, 

And at their own, hurl tnad defiance. 





Their foul revolt, their Monarch hears, 

And strait upon the plain appears. 

Aloud the British Lion roars, 

Aloft the German Eagle soars; 

When, Lo! 'midst broken Oaths and curses. 

The Rebel rout at once disperses. 

This represents the occupation of Philadelphia by Howe in Sept. 1777 
after the victory of Brandywine. In November there were reports in 
England of great successes over Washington which were not confirmed, 
Howe failing to bring him to a general action. In the meantime the sur- 
render of Burgoyne at Saratoga, 17 Oct. (see No. 5470), had disastrously 
altered the situation, but news of this did not reach London till 2 Dec. 
(see No. 5408). The owl flying to Louis XVI probably represents Benjamin 
Franklin's mission to France, where he arrived at the end of 1776. The 
'baboon king' is the king of France, 'Lewis Baboon' of Arbuthnot's Law 
is a Bottomless Pit, I'jiz, but the alliance was not decided on until Dec. 1777 
and not signed until 6 Feb. 1778. Lafayette had sailed for America in 
Apr. 1777 without the formal consent of the French Government. The 
rattlesnake was an emblem of the colonies and was on the earliest naval 
flag of the Americans, see Nos. 5336, 5973, &c. One of the few satires 
hostile to the Americans, cf. Nos. 5329, 5482, 5704, 5853, 6288. 

Reproduced, Propylaen-Weltgeschichte , ed. W. Goetz, vi. 481; S. G. 
Fisher, True History of the American Revolution, 1902, p. 346. 


5401 A. An earlier impression in which a blank has been left for the 
day of the month in the publication line. The owl with its document 
inscribed Louis Baboon a Paris is omitted, as are the words Lee, Putnam, and 
V . . . D on the wolf, boar, and stag. The background differs in several 
details, the plate having been reworked and strengthened for the later 
impression. In place of the ship is a group of trees. 

5402 THE TAKEING OF MISS MUD I'LAND. [c. Dec. 1777] 
Sold by W Humphrey 22y Strand London. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A rough plan of the 
Delaware river below the mouth of the Schuylkill which is shown as a 
quasi-rectangular piece of water. In its centre is a pentagonal fort-shaped 
island, inscribed Mud Islnd. Across this straddles a woman astride a 
cannon which she is firing at the British ship Isis, while her 1. hand fires 
a miniature cannon. Her hair is dressed over a broad cushion, cf. No. 
5370, &c. ; on it are two cannon and two flags, one the striped American 
flag with a serpent, see No. 5336, &c., the other the Union flag. On each 
side of the Isis are the Roebuck (1.) and the Somerset (r.), the latter in 
flames. In front of the Isis the topsails of the Eagle appear. Above 
Mud Island is the Vigilant, firing a broadside. Chevaux de Prize are marked 
in the river, above and below Mud Island. 

This appears to illustrate Lord Howe's dispatch of 25 Oct., published 
2 Dec. 1777 in an Extraordinary Gazette ; see also Ann. Reg. 1777, p. 134 ff. ; 
Walpole, Last Journals, 1910, ii. 79. In the attack on the strongly fortified 
Mud, or Fort, Island the Isis and the Merlin were destroyed. The Eagle 
was Howe's flagship, see No. 5472. Mud Island was taken on 15 Nov., 



the news reaching London 19 Dec. Its capture opened the navigation 
of the Delaware; Howe marched after Washington, but faihng to draw 
him into an engagement, withdrew to winter quarters at Philadelphia, 
cf. No. 5472. 


5403 HEAD QUARTER'S. [c. 1777] 

Engraving. Probably from a book. A recruiting soldier beats a kettle-drum 
which is placed on the projecting 'cork-rump' (see No. 5381, &c.) of 
a lady who stands in profile to the r., her hands in an enormous muflF. 
Her head-dress is similar to that of Bunker's Hill and Noddle Island, see 
Nos. 5330, 5335: on the summit are battlements, from which project 
cannon surmounted by a British flag; round the erection are files of 
soldiers, cannon project from the loop of hair beside the face. She stands . 

by a signpost in the form of a gibbet. It points To . Trenton ; from the ^ 
hand of the signpost dangles a noose of rope. A small recruiting placard is 
pasted on the gibbet-post, headed by the figure of a soldier and G R III., 
and inscribed, All gentlemen Volunteers that are able and willing to serve his 
M ... y let them report to the 3 flying shit pots, &c. In the background is 
the gable-end of an inn (the recruiting headquarters) in the door of 
which stands a soldier beating a drum, another soldier stands by him 
with upraised cane. Some one is pouring liquid from an upper window 
on to his head. The royal arms and the word Head-quarters are over the 
door, a British flag flies from a pole. In the distance (r.) is a minute 
figure hanging from a gallows. 

The words To Trenton indicate that this is a gibe at Washington's 
capture of Trenton (27 Dec. 1776) with its garrison of Hessians. One of 
several anti-recruiting prints, see No. 5295, &c. 


5404 CHARLES LEE, ESQUIER. [c. 1777] 
peint par Thomlinsen a Novelle Yorck 

Se vend a Londres chez Thorn. Hart. 

Mezzotint. H.L. portrait in an oval copied from No. 5296. The flag 
is very prominent and is inscribed. An \ une \ Appeal \ Appellation \ To 
au I Heaven \ Ciel. Beneath the title is engraved Major General d'Armee 
des XIII Provinces unies d'Amerique Prisonier de Guerre, fait par les 
Anglois.^ Lee was taken prisoner by a scouting party on 13 Dec. 1776, ^^ 
he was then second-in-command to Washington. He was at length 
exchanged and rejoined Washington at Valley Forge in May 1778. 



Corbutt Delink et fecit. [? R. Purcell] 

London: Published as the Act directs, lo"* Novr lyy/ by John Morris, 
Rathbone Place. 

Mezzotint. One of a series, see No. 5290; a companion print to No. 5406. 

' It is against the practice of this series to depict unsuccessful American generals. 
Possibly the plate was engraved before news of the capture. 



T.Q.L. portrait of a military officer facing front, looking to r. His r. 
elbow resting on masonry; a stone fortification on r. with cannon. He 
wears a ribbon and star. Beneath the title is engraved, Knight of the Bath, 
& Comma7ider in Chief of his Majesty's Forces in America. 

At this time the Howes were much blamed both in England and by 
American Loyalists for forbearing to attack the enemy, it was alleged for 
political motives, both being strong Whigs, and also for desiring the pro- 
longation of the war for financial reasons. See Detail and Conduct of the 
American War . . ., 3rd ed., 1780 (B.M.L. 1447, d. 23). See also Nos. 
5399' 5406, 5472, 5548[2]. Sir W. Howe sent home his resignation in 
Oct. 1777 and embarked for England in Sept. 1778. 

Chaioner Smith, iv, p. 1716. Reproduced, R. Hughes, Washington, iy62- 
1777, 1927, p. 274. 

5405 A. A copy, probably by Will, dated 10. May, 1778 but inscribed as 
♦x' above except delin in place of Delin* et fecit and the addition of Se vend 

chez J. M. Will a Augsbourg. Andrews, p. 90. 


Corbutt delin^ et fecit. [? R. Purcell.] 

London: Publish' d as the Act directs, 10^^ Nov'' 1777-, by John 
Morris, Rathbone Place. 

Mezzotint. One of a series, see No. 5290; a companion print to No. 5405. 
T.Q.L. portrait of a naval officer standing in profile to the 1. but looking 
to front, a sword in his r. hand, 1. hand pointing to 1. He appears to be on 
the deck of a ship. In the background 1. is a ship in action, with the sails 
of another ship. Beneath the title is engraved Commatider in Chief of his 
Majesty's Fleets in America. 

For the attacks on the brothers Howe at this time for inactivity see 
No. 5405, &c. 

For a reissue or copy of this plate, published 11 June 1794 by Laurie 
& Whittle, see Chaioner Smith, iv, p. 1733. 


5406 A. A copy, probably by Will, dated 10 Nov 1718 but inscribed as 
above except for Corbutt delin in place of delin*^ et fecit, and the addition 
of Se vend chez J. M. Will a Augsbourg. 


Desstne par C. N. Cochin Chevalier de VOrdre du Rot, en 1777 

Joh. Martin Will excudit Aug. Vind. 

Mezzotint. Apparently belongs to a series, see No. 5290, though unlike 
some others in the series it is engraved from a portrait. Franklin, T.Q.L., 
stands at a table directed to the r., holding a letter in his r. hand. His 1. 
rests on the table on which are writing materials. He wears his well-known 
fur cap, spectacles, a plain coat with fur cuifs. The table is of an ornate 
French design, with marble top. Behind his head is a curtain. Beneath 
the title is engraved Ne a Boston, dans la nouvelle Angleterre le 17. Janvier 



It appears to be after a bust portrait by Cochin which was often engraved. 

The three chief heroes of the American Revolution, especially in 
France, were Franklin, Washington, and Lafayette, their portraits being 
used as propaganda. Those of Franklin were especially numerous, cf. 
No. 5691. 

13x9! in. 

5408 GENERAL ARNOLD [c. Dec. 1777] 

peint par Wilckenson a Boston 

Se vend a Londres chez Thorn. Hart. 

Mezzotint. H.L. portrait in an oval copied from No. 5331. Beneath the 
title is engraved. Qui avec le General Gates aidoit de environer le General 
Lieutenant Bourgoyne, que toute VArmee se rendit Prisoniere, et Vobligea de 
mettre bas les Armes. 

At the two battles at Saratoga which caused the surrender of Burgoyne 
(Oct. 1777) Arnold took the most conspicuous part though nominally 
under Gates, see No. 5469. 

8x6J in. 




Series of Tete-a-Tete Portraits 



Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jurf near S' John^s Gate, 
Jan, I, lyyy. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, viii. 625. Two bust portraits 
in oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. 
An account of an Irish peer, w^ho had been a Commissioner of the Treasury 
and Postmaster-General. He is William, 2nd earl of Bessborough (1704- 
93). See Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of George III, 1894, ii. 138, 270-1, 
280. His mistress is described as the widovi^ of a French hairdresser. 

Ovals, 2|X2j in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton. Jun^ near S^ John's Gate, 
, V^A y^n,io.i777 
'^•^^  I Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, viii. 681. Two bust portraits 

in oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or. 

Memoirs of the Political and Platonic Lovers'. An account of Mrs. 

Catherine Macaulay and of Dr. Wilson, that of the latter being continued 

from the point at which it was left in the Tete-a-Tete of Jan. 1772, see No. 

4972. The house at Bath with its bust of Alfred which he presented to 

her is described, see No. 5598. 

Ovals, 2ii X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5411 N°II. THALIA 


Published as the Act directs by A . Hamilton Jun^ near S' John's Gate 
Feby I. 1777. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, ix. 9. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed: . . .'. 
The portrait of Lord Shelburne {Malagrida) is a link between satirical 
portraits of circa 1771 (see No. 4917) in which he is represented with a thin 
face and melancholy expression, and the caricatures of 1782 and later in 
which his face is round and slyly jovial. 

Thalia is Mrs. Abington (1737-1815), to whom Malagrida is said to 
allow j(^50 a week, a chariot and horses, with no interruption to her 
profession or restrictions on her visitors of both sexes. 
Ovals, 2|X2l- in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



5412 N°IV. LADY T 

N° V. C L S H 

Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jurf near S^ John^s Gate 
Mar. I. 1777. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, ix. 65. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. 
An account of Charles Loraine Smith^ and of Lady Tyrconnel, daughter 
of the Marquess of Granby, who is here said to have formed a liaison with 
S. after a rupture due to her husband's unjust suspicions. 

She was divorced Oct. 1777 for crim. con. with C. L. Smith, with whom 
she had eloped 13 July 1776, and married 28 Oct. 1777 Philip Anstruther. 
G.E.C., Complete Peerage. 

Ovals, 2|X2f in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S^ John's Gate, 
April I. 1777. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, Lx. 121. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames, the lady's hair elaborately dressed. They illustrate 'Histories 
of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. An account of William, 5th Duke of 
Devonshire (1748-1811), who is here said to have remained faithful to 

his mistress. Miss Sp r, a milliner and the seduced daughter of a 

curate, who is no longer young, in spite of his marriage [1774] to 'an 
universal toast, still in her teens'. For Charlotte Spencer see H. Bleackley, 
Ladies Fair and Frail, 1909, pp. 209-10. 

Ovals, 2LIX2J in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5414 N°X. MADAME LE F 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S^ John's Gate 
May I. 1777. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, ix. 177. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or, 

Memoirs of the Cozened Minor and Madame Le F re'. An account 

of a young Cornish baronet, who began a career of debauchery and ex- 
travagance while at Westminster School, and is now (aged 19) making the 
grand tour. He has formed a liaison at Geneva with the English wife of 
a Swiss watchmaker, whom he had known in London before her marriage. 
Sir John Saint Aubyn, 1758-1839, who succeeded his father in 1772. 
G.E.C., Complete Baronetage, iv. 53. A 'certain transaction' is mentioned 
'that has lately made so much noise, and will probably be the cause of 
a still greater uproar upon Midsummer day'. This is a reference to a 
usurious loan by Hopkins, the City Chamberlain, see No. 5398. 
Ovals, 2f X2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

' Described as the heir of a Northumberland baronet, evidently Sir W. Loraine of 
Kirkharle, 4th Bart., a cousin of Smith; his son and heir was born in 1779. In the 
Act of divorce he appears as Charles Smith Esq. of Enderby, Leicestershire. B.M.L. 
216. I. 3/62. See index of artists. 

257 S 


5415 N°XIII. MRS L M 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton 'jurf near S^ John's Gate 
June I. 1777. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, ix. 233. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed: or, 

Memoirs of the Amorous Justice and M" h m'. The Justice was 

'designed for divinity' and educated at Oxford but obtained a commission 
in Burgoyne's regiment, retired on an inherited fortune, becoming a judge 
'about four years ago'. He is Justice Addington of Bow Street; see The 
Farington Diary, i. 173-4. She is Mrs. Lessingham, who had passed as 
the wife of Derrick. John Taylor, Records of my Life, 1832, i, pp. 5-10. 
For Addington see No. 6120. 

Ovals, 2ii X zl in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5416 N°XVI. VIS A VIS T D 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S' John's Gate 
July I. 1777 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, ix. 289. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed: or. 

Memoirs of the E of C and vis-a-vis T d'. An account of 

the amours of Lord C, having no particulars by which he can be identified 

with certainty. Miss T d is a young courtesan of humble origin whose 

chief ambition is to own a fashionable carriage called a vis-a-vis. This 
Lord C. has satisfied. 

For Agnes Townshend see H. Bleackley, Ladies Frail and Fair, 1909, 
p. 282, and cf. No. 5936. For the vis-a-vis see No. 5373. 
Ovals, 2i|x 2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun'' near S^ John^s Gate 
Aug^ I. 1777. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, ix. 345. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .'. 
An account of a man so notorious for his gallantry and dissipation 'that 
his portrait will be immediately recognized'. It is of a good-looking man 
facing T.Q. to the 1. with an aquiline nose. He is in 'a constant state of 
intoxication', with a 'natural disposition for riot and confusion'. Identified 
by H. Bleackley as Captain Roper. He is alluded to in vol. xv, p. 122 
(1783) as Captain R r, who had died at Antwerp, after being con- 
tinually drunk for the last six years of his life. Thais is Miss F m, 

who, on the eve of her marriage in Ireland, eloped to England with a 
captain who deserted her, after which, having nearly starved as a strolling 
actress, she became a London courtesan. 
Ovals, 2| X 2I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



5418 N°XXII. MISS D N. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jurf near 5' John's Gate 
Sep' I. 1777. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, ix. 401. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed: . . .'. 
An account of the Earl of Peterborough (1710-79), the name in the title 
given to him because he invariably wears spectacles. His mistress is a Miss 
Dawson, whom he had persuaded to leave the house of an old lady to whom 
she was acting as a companion. 

Ovals, 2f X 2I in. ; 2f X 2^ in. B.M.L. , P.P. 5442 b. 

5419 N^XXV. MRS W— NT— R 

Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton jfun'' near S^ John's Gate 
Ocf I. 1777. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, ix. 457. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed: . . .'. 
An account of Lord Hillsborough (1718-93), afterwards Marquis of 
Downshire, alluding to the Royal Society Club, the account of which 
is in striking contrast to Sir A. Geikie's documented history of the Club. 
He is said to have 'filled several high offices with dignity and general 
applause'. Mrs. W. is the widow of a lieutenant in the Marines. 

Ovals, 2II X 2\ in. ; 2-| X 2^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun'' near S' John's Gate, 

Nov'' I. 1777. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, ix. 513. Two bust portraits. 
They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed: . . .'. An account 
of the amours of a Colonel C. in the Guards and of the widow of 'Lord 
A.H.', once a great beauty but ravaged by small-pox. 

Ovals, 2\lX2l in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5421 N°XXXI MISS C— T— R. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun' near S^ John's Gate, 
Dec' I. 1777. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, ix. 569. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed or 
Memoirs of the Sporting Rover and Miss C — rt — r'. The man is son of 

an old Mr. P n, who was well known on the turf, said to have been 

introduced to Charles Churchill by Lloyd. Identified by H. Bleackley 
as Thomas Panton. His amours and those of Miss Carter, a courtesan, 
are described. For Panton see Jockey Club, 1792, pp. 91-2. 
Ovals, 2| X 2f in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 




Pu¥ 2 f^ "J any lyyy by J. Jones Gerrard Street Soho. 

Engraving. A burly Roman senator and a small, thin, knock-kneed English- 
man face each other. Over one is etched The Roman Senator; over the 
other, The British Senator. The Roman (I.) in profile to the r., w^earing 
armour and a voluminous cloak, stands in front of a pillar with his 1. foot 
on a raised step ; he holds out his hands as if in surprise at the appearance 
of the Englishman. The Briton stands upon a square stool, his toes turned 
in; he looks at the Roman through a lorgnette, with an expression of 
dismay; his 1. hand is raised in astonishment. His dishevelled hair is in 
a short queue and he is dressed in the fashion of the day. On the ground 
at his feet are cards, dice, a dice-box; another dice-box is on the stool. He 
has just dropped the Knave of Clubs which falls to the ground. Behind 
him two game-cocks are fighting. In the distance the horizon is inscribed 
Surry Hills, indicating that he is M.P. for Surrey. 

He is James Scawen,' of Carshalton, Surrey, and Maidwell, Northampton- 
shire, whose gaming debts were notorious, see No. 5423. 

He was son of the nephew and heir of Sir William Scawen, a very rich 
merchant and great supporter of William HI. Several estates in Surrey 
were sold by him (1774) or by his trustees {c. 1781), including one to 
Robert Mackreth (1774), of White's (Bob), notorious as a money-lender 
(whose nomination for the borough of Castle Rising in 1774 so scandalized 
Walpole). Brayley, History of Surrey, iv. 66-7, 194, 226. 



[n.d. c. Jan. 1777] 

Engraving. A small thin man stands between two much larger men, who 
hold documents showing that they are money-lenders. He is James 
Scawen, M.P. for Surrey, see No. 5422. His thin legs are knock-kneed, 
his toes turn inwards. He looks towards the money-lender on his 1. and 
points with his 1. hand at a paper held up by the latter, whose beard and 
hooked nose show that he is a Jew. The Jew (r.) wears a bag-wig, laced 
coat and waistcoat; the paper he holds out is inscribed, Mortgage on the 
Surry Northamp[ton] Estates D° on the Cornwal D° on the . . . D° . . . 
Behind the Jew's back is an open window, within which sits a woman of 
forbidding appearance with a Jewish profile, who appears deeply interested 
in the interview. 

A large obese man (1.) stands in profile to the r., wearing a wide-brimmed 
looped hat, plain clothes, and a nosegay. In his 1. hand is a larger document 
than that held by the Jew ; in his r. hand is a large eyeglass. His document 
is inscribed, Annuitys gran^ to Tho: Bloodsuc^. An. 100, D° 20, D° ijO, 
D" ys iy> 100, D" 120, D" 25, D° 100, D" 150. Behind him a cat 
stands on its hind legs, while behind the Jew a dog does the same. At 
Scawen's feet are dice-boxes, dice, and cards. 


' Miss Banks has written 'Mr. Scawen* on the print. 



5424 THE DIABOLIAD. [i Apr. 1777] 

Lond. Mag. March lyyy 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xlvi. 152. Illustration to The 
Diaboliad, a satirical poem by William Combe published anonymously in 
1777. The Devil grown old is about to appoint a successor to reign in 
Hell. He rises from his throne (1.) and is about to surrender his crown and 
sceptre to an elderly man who mounts the steps on which the throne is 
placed. Five disappointed competitors stand behind the successful 
candidate, who is Lord Irnham. The others are young men; two approach 
together, one with a blank face on which is inscribed Whitlow, he holds 
in his hand a book or MS. inscribed Simiramis and wears a military gorget 
round his neck. Of the next couple, one holds a horseshoe in his 1. hand, 
a pen 'marked A in his r. ; from his coat-pocket projects a letter to Miss 
Hunter, under his I. arm is a riding- whip ; he is in riding-dress. He is 
described in the poem as a peer and rough rider, who assumed the author- 
ship of a book 'by A[ngeloni]' writ'. Last comes Volpone, Charles Fox, 
with a fox's head, holding out dice. He is fashionably dressed, his coat 
having very large buttons, see No. 5432. He is dismissed by the Devil, 

to bait. 
With mastiff zeal — a Minister of State. 

One of the other competitors is a young peer who combines vice with 
eloquence in the House of Lords [Lyttelton]. 

Behind, among clouds of smoke, stands a weeping man in chains. 
Demons and imps ('dragons and monsters') fly about. One, partly visible 
on the 1. of the print, crouches by the Devil's throne, writing on a scroll; 
he wears spectacles. In the distance on the r. angels escort a figure through 
an opening in the roof of the cave ; demons hold up a net between them 
and the competitors. Beneath the print is engraved, To reign is zvorth 
ambition, tho' in Hell! Milton. 

According to Walpole (Jan. 1778) Combe was brutally virulent against 
Lord Beauchamp and others, 'particularly Lord Irnham'. Last Journals, 
1910, ii. 95-6. Other persons attacked are Lord Hertford, Mr. Ayscough 
(Lyttelton's cousin), Lord Pembroke, Fitzpatrick (but as one whom in 
time the Devil will lose), and Selwyn for his supposed fondness for 
attending executions; Selwyn to Lord Carlisle, Feb. 1777, Carlisle A^SS., 
Hist. MSS. Cojnm.y 1897, p. 320. 



Almost identical with No. 5424 but in reverse and without Lond. Mag. . . . 

5425 THE DIABO-LADY. [i May 1777] 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xlvi. 208. Illustration to The 
Diabo-lady, a satire by 'Belphegor', probably Combe, which rapidly fol- 
lowed The Diaboliad, see No. 5424, to which this is a companion print 
by the same artist. The new sovereign of Hell, Lord Irnham, decides to 
choose a wife and sends his emissaries to 'Court, Cornelys' and the 

' In the poem this is A , but Angeloni is given in a quotation from it in the 

London Magazine. 



Coterie' (see No. 4847, &c.). He is depicted descending from his throne 
(r.) and leading up to it the successful candidate. Behind her (1.) are 
five disappointed aspirants : a fat and angry woman holds a paper inscribed 
Road from Kingston to Bristol showing that she is the so-called Duchess 
of Kingston, see No. 5362. She is unsuccessful because she lacked the 
vice of hypocrisy. Next her (r.) is a lady dressed half soberly in black, and 
half more elaborately, one half being inscribed Widow, the other half 
Bride. Behind appear (1. to r.) a lady in riding-dress holding out a paper 
Co««f[ ?ess] and the Stable Boy, showing that she is Lady Ligonier, see 
No. 4801 ; another holds out a paper inscribed Bible Oath, a lady who 
appears from the poem to have been acquitted for her first adultery on 'a 
Bible-Oath'. A woman holds up a paper on which is a gallows and the 
word Pereau's, showing that she is the notorious Mrs. Rudd, the mistress 
and instigator of one of the two Perreaus who were hanged for forgery, 
but who was herself acquitted. 

In the background is a crowd of disappointed candidates, dismissed 
because 'your Green-Room Dolls are kitchen Maids in Hell'. Imps fly 
about, some holding torches. Lord Irnham is fashionably dressed with 
horns, asses 's ears, and cloven hoofs; the end of his queue is barbed. 
Beneath the design are five lines from Paradise Lost beginning, 

O fairest of Creation, last and best 
Of all God's works . . . 



Engraving with roulette. A meeting of the Royal Society, the president in 
the chair and raised above the level of the other members. Members of the 
Council sit on his r. and 1. behind a long table. Except for a clergyman on 
the president's r. all the Council appear to be asleep or yawning. The backs 
of the heads of members of the Society appear in the foreground; they 
seem to be lifting up their hands in astonishment at the proceedings of 
the Council. The president, who wears a hat, holds in his r. hand a MS., 
Short on Grinding; in his 1. the Copley medal. On the table is a mace, 
and papers inscribed, Nat^ History; Anatomy; Nat. P/!/7o[sophy]. On 
the wall above the President's head is a bust of a man with the full wig of 
Queen Anne's reign. On each side of it is a picture : (1.) Midas with long 
ass's ears judging between Apollo and Marsyas; above it is written 
Aures Asininas habet Rex Midas, and beneath Veluti in Speculum. On the 
r. is a picture of the president with ass's ears, seated at the head of a table 
holding up a medal with sleeping members on each side of him; above 
it is written Redivivus iy77 Dormiente Consilio, and beneath, Et in Arcadia 
Ego. On the upper part of the design is etched in large letters Nil Admirari. 
Sir John Pringle was president of the Society 1772-8, making six annual 
discourses on the value of the investigations rewarded by the Copley 
medal. James Short (1710-68), optician, a member of the Royal Society, 
deposited with the Society a sealed paper to be read publicly after his 
death, describing a method of working object-lenses to a truly spherical 
form. For the Royal Society see also No. 2477 (1743). 

7x7! in. 



D'EON. [i Oct. 1777] 

Lond. Mag. Sep' lyyy 

Engraving. ¥TOTs\X\\t London Magazine, xWi. ^2 • D 'Eon (W.L.) dressed 
half as a woman, half as a man. On his r. side he wears a lady's full dress, 
his hair in the fashionable inverted pyramid decorated by a feather; he 
holds a fan in his gloved hand. On his 1. side he is dressed in a coat with 
military facings to which is appended the cross of St. Louis. He wears 
a sword and his 1. hand is on his hip, his hat under his arm. Beneath the 
title is engraved. Female Minister Plenipo. Capt. of Dragoons, &c. Qfc. 

This illustrates 'Memoirs of Mademoiselle D'Eon de Beaumont . . .,' 
pp. 443-6, occasioned by the recent decision (2 July 1777) in the King's 
Bench that one Hayes who had wagered that d'Eon was a woman, to be 
paid when he could prove it, had won his bet. The jury thus settled 
(incorrectly) the long dispute and many wagers on D 'Eon's sex, see 
No. 4865, &c. 

7^X4! in. 


G.L.S {Monogram) 

Engraving. W.L. caricature portrait of a man walking in profile to the 1. 
His hair falls on his neck, but the top of his head is nearly bald. He is 
roughly dressed, wearing a coat with a cape, and a neckcloth. In his r. hand 
is a walking-stick, in his 1. a hat. Beneath the title is engraved 


Sub rupe leones. 

On the print is written 'well known at Oxford' and in another hand, 'Sold 
by J. Seago, High Street S*^ Giles's London Pub. 1777'. 
7iX5f in. 

Prints from Darly's series continued from No. 5376. See No. 5369. 
Pub. Jany I. lyyy by M Darly jp Strand 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions, the latter only being 
numbered). A lady dressed in a grotesque caricature of the prevailing 
fashion walking (1. to r.) by the side of a lake. Her petticoats project 
behind her in an ascending curve, on which lies a King Charles spaniel. 
Her hair is dressed in a mountainous inverted pyramid, the apex repre- 
sented by her head; it is flanked by side-curls and surmounted by inter- 
laced ribbons from which hang streamers of ribbon and lace. 

One of a number of satires, 1776-7, on monstrous hairdressing, see No. 
5370, &c., and the 'cork rump', see No. 5381, &c. 


' Only the uncoloured impression is numbered. This is the first plate in two of 
three volumes with the title-page of i Jan. 1776 (see No. 5369) which have been 
examined, one belonging to Mr. Dyson Perrins, the others to Mr. W. T. Spencer, 
New Oxford Street. 



R. S. (Monogram) ['Richard Sneer''] 

Pu¥ by M Darly Jany i. ijyj 

Engraving. The back view of a number of persons seated on a low 
bench, caricaturing the dress of the period, especially the high-dressed 
hair, see No. 5370, &c., and inflated appearance due to 'cork rumps', see 
No. 5381, &c., which was combined with very tight lacing, see No. 
5444, &c. 

The persons are (1. to r.) : a man with a clerical wig, his head turned in 
profile to the r. ; a small child dressed like a woman with pinched waist, 
and cap trimmed with flowers and lace; a thin woman looking at her 
neighbour on the r., she has a monstrous erection of hair decorated with 
lace and flowers, pinched waist and inflated skirt; a fat woman, looking 
to the 1., similarly but more plainly dressed ; a man with a long pigtail queue, 
who is perhaps 'Richard Sneer'; he turns to his neighbour on the r., his 
hand at the back of her waist; a woman with a rectangular variation of the 
prevailing head-dress and elaborately braided hair; she is rather smaller 
than the other women and appears to be intended for a young girl. At 
the r. end of the bench sits a woman looking to the 1. whose head-dress is 
even more high and elaborate than that of the others. 

These persons, as well as the print itself, appear in No. 5435. No. 5376 
also belongs to the same set. 


Pu¥ Fehy I. ly/j hy M Darly. jg Stratid 

Engraving (coloured impression). Two men face each other with pistols, 
their seconds stand behind them. The duellist on the 1. kneels on one knee, 
his r, arm outstretched, his pistol in his 1. hand, the barrel pointing up- 
wards as if to ward off his opponent's shot ; his 1. elbow rests on his knee. 
His second stands with his arms folded. The other has just fired his 
pistol which is aimed directly at his antagonist. His second, with a pistol 
in his 1. hand, is shouting with his r. arm raised. They are in open country; 
hills are indicated in the distance. 
8|Xi2ii in. 


Pub. by M Darly Feb. 7. J777 

Engraving (coloured impression). A man, wearing a large nosegay and 
holding in his 1. hand a thin tasselled cane, dressed to show the prevailing 
fashion for large metal buttons, and large shoe buckles. The brim of his 
round hat is looped up at both sides by bands held by a large button on 
the crown; the buttons on his coat are enormous. His waistcoat has also 
a double row of small buttons. His rectangular shoe-buckles cur\'e across 
the instep, almost reaching the sole of the shoe. 

' Possibly R.B.Sheridan, see No. 5376 n. 

2 The title has been cut off and is supplied from a book of Darly's caricatures in 
the possession (1932) of Mr. W. T. Spencer. 



A cutting from the Morning Post, 14 Jan. 1777, is pasted on the print: 
'The macaronies of a certain class are under pecuHar circumstances of 
distress, occasioned by the fashion now so prevalent, of wearing enormous 
shoe-buckles, and we are well assured, that the manufactory of plated 
ware was never known to be in so flourishing a condition.' 

These buckles were called Artois buckles, it was the fashion to wear 
them of silver, and of a weight of from three to eleven ounces. Morning Post, 
26 May, 1777. See also Nos. 5437, 5443, 5446, 5452, 5454, 5462. Repro- 
duced, Paston, PI. XXV. 

i2-|x8| in. 

5432 A Another version in reverse, same size figure, smaller plate 
(clipped), same title, no pubUcation line. 


H. (orN.)R. J. T. [?] 

{PubY by M Darly Feby 24 lyjy jg Strand. 

Engraving. An enormously fat man walks (1. to r.) towards an eating-house 
followed by a lean and ragged man bent with the weight of a basket laden 
with food which he carries on his head and shoulders. The fat man is 
walking with a wheelbarrow, which he uses to support his enormously 
projecting stomach; the barrow is partly supported by straps which go 
over his shoulders and across his stomach. He mops his forehead with his 
1. hand. He wears a tie-wig, a laced coat and waistcoat, and is evidently 
intended for a rich and vulgar citizen. His porter is dressed in rags, with 
bare legs and toes projecting through his shoes; he carries one wine- 
bottle in his r. hand, two more under his r. arm; his basket, supported 
on a large pad or cushion, contains a turtle, a hare, two snipe, a haunch of 
venison (?), and three bottles. The fat man is about to enter a door over 
which is a sign, Good eating & cool rooms. This hangs from a projecting 
beam with pulleys ; from it three barrels are also hung as a sign. Over the 
door is inscribed Wines. Behind the ragged man is a row of tenement 
houses, whose nature is indicated by the nearest one. A ladder leads down 
to its cellar over the door of which is written Dinners & shirt wash' d for 
2 pence. Above the first-floor window is a large notice, Shafe & Cut hear; 
from it projects a barber's pole. Above the second-floor window is /. Nabbem 

The theme of a fat man supporting his own stomach on a wheelbarrow 
is an old one; it is that of a German caricature of a 'weinschlauch', a wood 
engraving of 1510, reproduced B. Lynch, A History of Caricature, 1926, 
PI. vi; also of Luther (followed by Katarina von Bora), reproduced Ashbee, 
Caricature, 1928, p. 40; of a French caricature of General Galas, c. 1635, 
illustrated in Wright's History of Caricature and Grotesque, 1865, p. 356. 

8Jxi2f in. 

LADY'S [sic] 

Pu¥ M Darly jg Strand Mar'' 11. 1777. 

Engraving. A very fat and a very thin woman face one another, both 
wearing the hoods supported with hoops of cane or whalebone known as 



calashes, from their likeness to the folding hoods of carriages called by 
the same name {O.E.D.). The fat woman (1.) leans back in an armchair, 
one foot supported on a stool ; her calash is like an almost spherical barrel. 
Her vis-a-vis sits upright, holding a fan, on a stool with folding legs; 
her calash is angular, showing its ribs ; she wears a very skimpy skirt with 
a fullness at the back indicating a 'cork rump', see No. 5381, &c. On the 
floor by the fat woman is a large trimmed bonnet, in which is a cat with 
kittens, one kitten prances at some distance. By the thin woman is a flat 
ribbon-trimmed hat, across which a dog is walking. No other furniture 
is visible, except a hanging lamp with one beak, suspended from the wall. 
On the wall are four framed pictures, two of birds, one of some feline 
animal, one cut off by the 1. margin. 

The calash is said to have been introduced by the Duchess of Bedford 
in 1765, Fairholt, Costume, 1896, ii. 292. See also Nos. 5450, 5527, 5532, 
8^Xi2| in. 


R Sneer Sukey Spightfull fed 

Pub by M Darly Ap. i. lyyy 

Engraving. A slim young man, fashionably dressed, sits at a table (r.), 
a pencil in his 1. hand, holding in his r. hand a print 'Miss Shuttle cock' 
(see No. 5376) reversed; the monogram R.S. is conspicuous, thus showing 
that he is 'Richard Sneer'.' On the wall above his head are two framed 
prints: one. The Back-Side of a front Row (see No. 5430), reversed and 
showing five persons only ; in the other, four ladies holding the four corners 
of a blanket toss a slim man, evidently 'Richard Sneer'; beneath it is 
inscribed Lex Talio[tii'\s. Behind the artist, who is unconscious of their 
approach, three women and a man advance towards him dragging a 
blanket ; they are characters from The Back-Side of a front Row : the elderly 
man advances into the picture from the 1., then come the three elderly 
women, the one in the centre shakes her fist at the unconscious artist; 
all smile. They intend to punish him for his caricatures by tossing him 
in a blanket. Beneath the design is etched, Heus bone, tu palles? pers [sic]. 

8|Xi2| in. 


MD [Darly.] 

Pub by M Darly jg Strand April i. lyyy 

Engraving. The occupants of a box at a theatre. A lady with an enormous 
inverted pyramid of hair decorated with the usual ringlets sits in front. 
The ringlets have eye-pieces at the back and are completely cylindrical; 
two men who sit behind her look through the two lower ringlets as if they 
were the fashionable single eyeglass. The lady herself looks through an eye- 
glass. On her pyramid of hair is an erection of rucked and interlaced 
ribbons, trimmed with sprays of flowers and surmounted by ostrich-feathers. 
Part of another box at right angles to this one is visible on the 1.; in it a 

' Possibly R. B. Sheridan, see No. 5376. 


man, in profile to the 1., looks through an eye-glass. An ornamental 
chandelier with candles is suspended between the boxes. 

One of a number of satires, 1776-7, on extravagant hairdressing, see 
No. 5370, &c. The same subject was treated by another artist, see No. 5462. 
Reproduced, Paston, PI. xxiv. 

I2^x8f in. 

There is a chalk-drawing by James Roberts in the Print Department, 
'Head Dress of Ladies 1777', of a lady's head in profile to the 1. with an 
enormous pyramid of hair surmounted by ostrich-feathers from which 
fall lappets of lace and ribbon. The height is perhaps scarcely exaggerated. 

5437 30. V. 2. SR WILLIAM WADDLE. 
MD [Darly.] 

Pu¥ April I. lyyy by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. Portrait (caricature) of a very fat man, with short legs and a 
thick neck. Behind him is a lake or river. He stands, legs apart, holding 
in his r. hand a tall cane. He wears the exaggerated buttons and shoe- 
buckles which became a subject of caricature in 1777, see No. 5432, &c. 
One button trims the front of his small hat, four decorate (and almost 
cover) the front of his coat, two are on his coat-sleeve. The collar of his 
coat appears to be black. Beneath the print is pasted a cutting from the 
Morning Post, 14 Apr. 1777: 'A correspondent remarks, the present ton 
of Gentlemen wearing black collars to all colour'd cloaths, looks as if 
Taste were dead, and all the fashionable part of mankind were in mourning 
for it.' Perhaps a caricature of Sir Watkin Lewes. 
8j|xi2| in. 


E. Topham. del. MD [Darly] 

Pu¥ April 10. lyyy by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving. Seven members of the City Militia, much caricatured, march 
(1. to r.) in profile. First, the drummer, short and enormously stout, 
beating his drum ; next a lean and stooping officer looking on the ground, 
his drawn sword in his 1. hand. Then come two pairs of men carrying, 
at different angles, muskets with bayonets; they wear military uniform 
and gaiters, but are shambling along in a very unsoldierly manner. Last 
comes a hunchback, holding a spear in his 1. hand and marching with 
vigour. Two birds fly over their heads. 

8x 13 in. 

MD [Darly.] 

Pub. by M Darly April 11 lyyy Strand near York Buildings 

Engraving. Two extravagantly dressed women face each other, each 
seated on, or rather supported by, an enormous cork which projects from 
the neck of a bottle. Both are elderly, one (1.) enormously fat, the other 
very thin. Both wear the grotesque pyramids of hair, flanked by ringlets like 
large sausages and surmounted by ostrich-feathers, so much caricatured 




since 1776, see No. 5370, &c. Their skirts are skimpy in front, show- 
ing the contour of their legs, but project in great panniers at the back. 
Both are gloved and hold fans. The cork and bottle of the fat woman is 
correspondingly broader than that of her thin vis-a-vis. This is a satire on 
the fashions of the day, especially the 'cork-rumps' which appear to have 
temporarily replaced hoops as a support to skirts and draperies, see No. 
5381, &c. 

MD [Darly.] 

Miss Bath Inv' 

Pu¥ April 30 lyyy by M Darly. 59. Strand. 

Engraving (a coloured impression). Two sedan chairs pass one another, 
going in opposite directions. In the nearer, proceeding from 1. to r., 
sits a lady, whose enormous head-dress surmounted by feathers projects 
far above the top of the chair ; the roof has been made to slide up on rods 
fixed at the corners, and is thus supported at a height above the top 
of the sedan. Through the window of the other sedan the head of a man 
is seen; the roof of the chair is in its normal position, but rods at the 
corners show that it can be raised if necessary. The chairs are private 
ones, elegantly shaped and decorated, a tassel hanging from each corner 
of the roof. The chairmen are in livery, wearing coats with coloured 

For other satires on hairdressing see No. 5370, &c. 



Mathina [or Mattina] Darly Sc. 

Pub May i. lyyy by M Darly jg Strand. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A lady sits, in profile to the r., at a dress- 
ing-table; she is dipping a brush into a pot marked Rouge, other toilet 
implements and a looking-glass are on the table. Her hair is in a grotesquely 
caricatured erection, with side curls, intended to ridicule the fashions of 
the day, cf. No. 5370, &c. ; on the top of it is a hearse drawn by six horses; 
it is decorated with enormous ostrich-feathers. Similar feathers adorn 
the heads of the horses. The lady is of commanding appearance with 
an aquiline profile, she wears a morning gown. 

Behind her back is a rectangular table at which (1.) stands a skeleton, 
both of whose hands are on an hour-glass standing on the table ; its sands 
have run into the lower glass, and have even been spilt on the table. On 
the table is a knife. The base of the skeleton's spine is transfixed by a 
large arrow. 

On the wall behind the lady's dressing-table is a portrait bust of a 
clergyman, in profile to the r. 

On the back of the print Miss Banks has written, 'M'^^ Macauley. 
Dr. Wilson's picture'. Mrs. Catherine Macaulay (1731-91), the historian 
and radical, was then living in the house of Dr. Thomas Wilson (a non- 


resident London rector) in Bath, where she had just received sLx odes 
from her admirers on her birthday, 2 Apr. 1777. Her practice of painting 
her face was well known. Dr. Johnson saying it was better she should 
'redden her own cheeks' than 'blacken other people's characters'. In 1778 
she married as her second husband William Graham aged 21, and quar- 
relled with Dr. Wilson. See Nos. 5410, 5598. 

For similar satires on hairdressing see No. 5370, &c. 


5442 15. V. 2. THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

MD [Darly.] 

Puh by M Darly May i lyyy where may be had Bath Caricatures 

Engraving. A companion print to Nos. 5448, 5449. The H.L. figure of 
a woman in profile to the r. is the foundation of an enormous erection of 
hair on the top of which is a pear-shaped flower-garden, surrounded 
by a hedge, in which is a stile. At the lower edge (r.) a gardener stands 
raking the gravel which surrounds a number of formal flower-beds. At 
the upper end (1.) is a circular temple, surmounted by a figure of Mercury. 
The rest of the hair is decorated with sprays of flowers. 

One of many similar satires on the fashionable pyramids of hair, see 
No. 5378, &c. , 
I2ix8| in. 


Pu¥ June i. ijyy by M Darly sg Stra?id. where may be had ^00 
comic subjects. &c &c. 

Engraving. A man standing full face, r. hand held out, his 1. on a thin 
tasselled cane. He wears a three-cornered hat trimmed with a button and 
tasselled cord ; a coat tight at the waist and then cut away to show a short 
striped waistcoat from which hang two bunches of seals and trinkets. His 
coat has a black collar over a broad shawl-shaped collar, is decorated 
with large buttons and shows lace rufiies. His legs are thick, his shoes 
clumsy with the large rectangular 'Artois' buckles which, like large metal 
buttons, had recently become fashionable and a subject of satire, see no. 
5432, &c. For black collars see No. 5437. Beneath the title is etched in 
three columns : 

With Buckle large & buttons too. 

Behold the Puppy strutt 

With Irish legs, & collar black, 

Also a tight braced Gut, 

Besides the hat of Prussian form. 

With tossels dangling down, 

Of Monkies good Lord like to this. 

When shall we Rid the town. 

View follys picture as it stands. 

This present Seventy-seven; 

For so much folly never was. 

As now is under heaven. 



Although the large buckles and buttons were a very short-lived fashion, 
this satire appears to indicate the beginning of the fashion for tight coats 
and short waistcoats with bunches of seals hanging from the fobs which is 
associated with the Prince Regent. See also No. 5382. 

MD [Darly.] 

Puh by M Darly. June 4. lyyy. Strand 

Engraving. The interior of a blacksmith's smithy. On the anvil is a portion 
of a pair of stays, at which two smiths strike with hammers, one (1.) holding 
the stays by pincers. A third man (r.) is measuring a lady round the 
chest with a tape; she stands very upright in profile to the right, and wears 
a deeply pointed bodice over an underskirt projecting at the back in the 
fashionable manner ; the upper part of her dress hangs on the wall behind 
her. She holds a closed fan in both hands, her hair is in a monstrous 
inverted pyramid, flanked by great curls and surmounted by feathers, see 
No. 5370, &c. Sections of a pair of steel corsets and the tools of a smithy 
lie on the floor. Pincers and horse-shoes hang on the wall. The forge with 
its fire is on the 1. On a shelf on the wall are bottles and covered jars, one 
marked close. 

A satire on the tight-lacing which was accentuated when 'cork rumps' 
became fashionable. See No. 5381, &c. See also Nos. 5452, 5464, 4552 


Walpole writes, 28 Mar. 1777, 'There has been a young gentlewoman 

overturned and terribly bruised by her vulcanian stays. They now wear 

a steel busk down their middle and a rail of the same metal across their 

breasts.' Letters, x. 31. 


5445 42. V. 2. DEEP ONES 
MD [Darly.] 

Pub. by M Darly 3g Strand June ly. 1777. 

Engraving. Seven profile heads (caricature) similar in character to Hats 
and Wigs, see Nos. 5169, 5170. Three are enclosed in ovals. 

All are evidently portraits : one of a very old man with closed eyes, one 
of a military oflicer, one of a bucolic-looking man wearing his own hair, 
possibly intended for Lord Surrey, afterwards Duke of Norfolk, one of a 
fat parson, one of a dissenting minister with lank hair and bands, one of a 
plebeian-looking man wearing the large buttons of the moment (see 
No. 5432, &c.), one of a military officer, his hair in a pigtail queue, and 
one of a man wearing a bag-wig. 
9|Xi3f in. 


MD. [Darly.] 

Pub. by M Darly jg Strand June 26. 1777 

Engraving. A burlesqued duelling scene. Two elderly men confront one 



another ; one holds a sword in his 1. hand ; his r. arm is raised so that the 
enormous button on his sleeve acts as a shield ; the buttons on his coat are 
about the size of dinner-plates ; his coat has a black collar and his shoes 
have large buckles, called Artois buckles, see No. 5432, &c. His opponent 
(r.) holds out a pistol in his r. hand, his 1. is held up as if to protect his 
face. He is dressed in an old-fashioned manner, with broad-brimmed hat, 
tie-wig, a long laced coat and waistcoat with wide cuffs, high-quartered 
shoes with small buckles. They are in a grass field, with trees on the 
8l|Xi2f in. 

5447 14. V. 2. DIVINE LOVE 
[M Darly?] 

Pub M Darly 59 Strand June 26 1777. 

Engraving, A courtesan sits on the knee of a fat clergyman, probably a 
bishop, in a black gown. She is dressed in the fashion of the day, her 
pyramid of hair is decorated with feathers, flowers and enormous curls ; 
her waist is very constricted. The carpet and the decoration of the wall 
are important parts of the design and suggest wealth and luxury. The 
wall is decorated with lines of moulding. In the centre, above the woman's 
head, is a decoration composed of a mitre, a heart, an arrow, &c. On each 
side of it are two large framed landscapes, partly cut off by the margins 
of the print. The carpet has an elaborate arabesque pattern. This is one 
of a number of satires on the clergy. 

MD [Darly] Bathf. 

Pub by M Darly July ii 1777. N" jg Strand 

Engraving. A companion print to Nos. 5442, 5449. The head of a woman 
in profile to the r. is the foundation of a monstrous inverted pyramid of 
hair, decorated with the wares of a fruiterer. On the top a basket of 
peaches and a large pineapple with its leaves. Down the side of the 
pyramid, where curls were worn, are large gourds of different shapes. 
The hair is further ornamented by two tall pottles of strawberries, bunches 
of grapes, pears growing on branches, a basket of plums, a basket of rasp- 
berries ( ?), and other fruit. For similar satires on the fashionable pyramids 
of hair see Nos. 5378, &c. 
I2|x8j in. 

5449 16. V. 2, THE GREEN STALL, 
MD [Darly.] Bath 

Pub. by M Darly. 59 Strand July 11 1777 

Engraving. A companion print to Nos. 5442, 5448. The head of a young 
woman in profile to the 1. is the foundation of a monstrous inverted 
pyramid of hair decorated with vegetables, carrots preponderating. On 

' This impression is without a number, it is F. 2, r/ in a book in the possession 
(1933) of Mr. Spencer of New Oxford Street. 



the top are heaped a large bundle of asparagus, a set of scales in one 
bowl of which are potatoes, a bunch of herbs (taking the place of the 
ostrich feathers of fashion), a cabbage, turnips, &c. Large carrots take the 
place of the large curls then worn flanking the coiffure ; three bunches of 
carrots are the main decoration of the surface of the hair, on which are also 
a cabbage and clusters of leaves (or lettuces). Trails of pea-pods hang 
from the top of the head-dress after the manner of the lace lappets and 
ribbons then worn. 

I2jx8| in. 

5450 20. V. 2. THE TON AT GREENWICH. 


Puh by M Darly N° jg Strand Aug 11. lyyy. 

Engraving. A woman walking (1. to r.) on a path in Greenwich Park 
followed by a man, probably a servant, carrying a huge umbrella under his 
arm. She wears one of the enormous hoods called calashes, from their 
resemblance to the folding hoods of carriages (see No. 5434, &c.) which the 
monstrous hair-dressing of the period had brought into fashion. In her 
r. hand she holds the strings of her hood, in the 1. a tall stick with a crook. 
She has the compressed waist with a skirt projecting at the back then 
fashionable (see Nos. 5381, 5444, &c.), a quilted apron, ankle-length petti- 
coat, her over-dress being looped-up for convenience in walking, and high- 
heeled shoes. Behind are grass and trees and Greenwich Observatory 
on its hill (r.). Reproduced, Paston, PI. xxviii. 

ii|x8| in. 

Hen Ibh. fecit. 

Pu¥ Sep' g. lyyy by M Darly Strand. 

Engraving. A short fat woman stands full face. Her dress bristles with 
detail, and her pyramid of hair instead of being smooth, as was usual, is 
closely frizzed. Her wide hooped petticoat shows her ankles. She wears 
gloves with tight bracelets and holds a closed fan in her 1. hand. 

iii|x8| in. 


RS J.H. 

Pu¥ 5 Ma;-* ^yyy ^y ^- Humphrey Gerrard Street SoJio who has 
great variety of humorous Prints Price One Shilling. 

Engraving. Two elderly and ugly women in a bedroom. One, who appears 
to be the mistress, clings with both hands to the post of a four-post bed, 
leaning backwards while her maid exerts all her strength to lace her stays. 
The maid holds a poker in both hands, the stay-lace has been twisted 
round it; one foot is placed on the projecting skirt of her mistress, which 
is extended by a 'cork rump', see No. 5381, &c. ; she leans back in 
order to pull the harder. The lady's hair is dressed in the prevailing 
fashion of caricature, trimmed with feathers, lace, flowers, &c. She wears 
a large pocket over her under-petticoat. On the wall are two H.L. 



portraits which appear to be caricatures of costume: one (1.), contem- 
porary, showing a woman with a compressed waist, a man with enormous 
buttons, see No. 5432, &c. ; the other (r.) perhaps EHzabethan. See also 
No. 5444, &c. 

Similar in manner to Nos. 4778, 5453. 



R. S. [Monogram.] J. H. 

Pu¥ 5 April lyyy by W. Humphrey y Gerrard Street , Soho. who has 
a great variety of humorous Prints, 

Engraving. Four women seated at a square card-table. The three whose 
faces are visible are old and ugly; the fourth, in back view, seated on a 
stool, appears to be a young woman. The woman on the 1. has put down 
her cards on the table, to take a handful of snuff from a rectangular 
box. Two small dogs bark at each other. Two small pictures or prints 
hang on the wall. The room and the players have a poverty-stricken 
appearance. Above the design is engraved Sans prendre vole. Similar in 
manner to Nos. 4778, 5452. 

W.H. [Humphrey]/. 

Pu¥ 2g April, lyyy, by W. Humphrey, Gerrard Street, Soho. 

Engraving. A man (1.) and woman (r.), dressed in the height of the fashion, 
meet one another, walking in a park indicated by two trees. Rays of light 
spread from the large buttons on the man's coat and strike the face of the 
lady, who falls back dazzled, lifting her arms as if to ward off the blaze. 
The buttons appear to be of cut-steel or silver with incised lines and a 
beaded edge, see No. 5432, &c. He wears a sword and carries a tasselled 
cane under his I. arm. His shoes have large Artois buckles. The lady wears 
the enormous pyramid of hair decorated with curls then fashionable, see 
No. 5370, &c. ; on its summit is an erection of ribbons, feathers, &c., which 
appears to be a hat. She holds a fan and wears a nosegay. Her dress has 
the tight waist, and inflated draperies over a comparatively narrow 
petticoat supported by a 'cork rump', see Nos. 5381, 5444, &c. Repro- 
duced, Paston, PI. xxvi. 

i2|X9^ i"- 

y. H. R. S. 

Pu¥ 5"* May iyyy,by W. Humphrey, Gerrard Street, Soho. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Three men sit at a rectangular table, 
on which stand two lighted candles and a medley of breakfast things : a 
coffee-pot, tea-pot, wine-bottle, &c. One stretches and yawns; one, 
drinking wine, is dressed as a huntsman; another, drinking coffee, is 
having his hair dressed by a servant who stands behind him. A fourth man 
stands by the table. A very stout man (r.) sits back in a chair pulling on 

273 T 


a top-boot, his other boot Hes beside him. A clock against the wall points 
to 5.15. A dog Hes asleep in the foreground. Beneath the design is 
engraved : 

The Man that will not leave his bed 

For sport so blithe & bonny, 

We'll swear he hates fatigue & dirt, 

And call him Macaroni. 

We'll wonder at his want of Taste, 
Since nothing so bewitches, 
As living all the winter long 
in Boots & Leather Breeches. 



J. H. R. S. See No. 4778—9 May 1777. 

Pub. W. Humphrey. 

An illustration to Anstey's Bath Guide. Similar in manner to Nos. 5452, 

PF// [Humphrey]. 

Published 14 June lyyy by W Humphry Gerrard Street Soho. 

Engraving. The interior of a farm-house kitchen. A young woman, 
fashionably dressed, has just entered by a door (1.) through which trees are 
visible. Her enormous head-dress has caught in a rack above the door and 
its feathers, flowers and ribbons are about to be torn off as she runs with 
outstretched arms towards the farmer, who rises from his chair by the 
fire and starts back in amazement. His wife, seated behind him, holds 
up her hands in astonishment; a child at her knee looks round in alarm. 
A boy, standing by the door, holds up his hands and gapes. A dog barks 
at her ; a cat has jumped on to a bin which stands under the window and is 
miaowing at her. On the r. is a large fire in an open fireplace, above it a pot 
hangs from a chain; a spit projects from the fireplace. Hams and black 
puddings hang from the roof. See No. 5370, &c. 


W. H. [Humphrey] tnv^ et fecK 

Pub. OcV 2g. lyyy, by W. Humphrey. 

Engraving. A fat doctor, wearing a large tie-wig, stands, his arms and legs 
wide-stretched, between a skeleton, representing Death, and his patient 
who is seen behind, unconscious of the conflict. Death (r.), in a threatening 
attitude, holds up a sheaf of arrows, some of which he has already hurled; 
they are labelled Consumption; Palsy; Gout; Dropsy; Scurvy; Venerial; 
Fever; Stone; Apoplexy; Suicide (written in reverse). The doctor, with an 

' The same subject differently treated was etched by Rowlandson (1782), coloured 
reproduction Fuchs, Die Karikatur der europalschen Volker, i. 56. 



expression of grim determination, holds outstretched a sheaf of remedies, 
some of which he has already hurled at Death. In his 1. hand he holds 
out his cane. These remedies are papers inscribed For the Dropsy . . .; 
For the Gout; Sovereign Remedy; Anodyne; Styptic; Solvent; Mercurials; 
Essence; Anti Venerial Drops; Tincture for (in reverse); Opeates; Balsams; 
some of the words are followed by the signs used in prescriptions. 
Behind (1.), seen through an opening in the wall, is the patient, a woman, 
fully dressed and wearing a cap, seated at a round table, her head resting 
on her hand, in her 1. hand she holds a cup. On the table are medicine- 
bottles. Behind her is a bed with curtains hanging from a tester. 
After the title is engraved ''Touch my Patient if you dare". 

8|Xi2f in. 



Pu¥ according to Act of ParV March 7. lyjj, by J. Lockington, 
Shug Lane, Golden Square. 

Engraving. The interior of a shop where the dress-supports known as 
'cork rumps', see No. 5381, &c., are made and sold. Two women (r.) sit 
at a counter, each finishing with a knife an almost complete cork rump. 
On the front of the counter is inscribed Money for old Corks. Cork rumps 
of different sizes are on shelves on the wall behind them. 

A woman with a camel-shaped hump behind her waist stands on tip-toe 
to see the effect in a mirror behind her (1.) which reflects her figure (not 
a back view, but as seen by the spectator). She appears to be looking at a 
second mirror which is not shown in the design. 

In the middle of the back wall, and in the centre of the print, an arched 
doorway is inscribed FITTING ROOM ; the door, the upper part of glass, is 
wide open, showing a boy or very small man fitting a lady with a cork 
rump. He is dressed as a Frenchman with a toupet-wig with a very long 
queue and is evidently 'Monsieur Le Que'. 

Very incorrectly drawn, apparently by an amateur. 



W. Smith inv. del. et so. 

Pu¥ According to Act of ParV Aug. 11 lyyy by J. Lockington, Shug 
Lane Golden Square London. 

Engraving. A figure divided vertically from the top of the head to the 
feet, one half (1.) being dressed as a lady, the other as a man, to show how 
enormously a woman whose hair was fashionably dressed over-topped 
a man. The lady's head-dress is the inverted pyramid of the period; on its 
broad summit rests an arrangement of lace and flowers but no feathers. 
The masculine half of the figure is dressed without exaggeration. Cf. No. 
5370, &c. 

7^X5^ in. 




Pu¥ Accord to Act of Par^ Sepv i 1777 by J. Lockington Shug Lane 
Golden Square 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A lady walking in 
profile to the 1., her hair in a gigantic pyramid, protects the erection by an 
enormous umbrella on a very long stick. Her draped over-skirt projects 
at the back in mountainous folds. On these is seated a foppishly dressed 
man taking shelter under the projection of her hair; he leans forward, 
holding his hat in his r. hand. He is in profile to the r., back to back with 
the lady. A simple countryman (1.), whose hat has fallen to the ground, 
gapes at the pair in amazement. A fashionably dressed man on the r. 
leers and points at them. One of many satires on hairdressing, see 
No. 5370, &c.,and the dress support called a 'cork rump', see No. 5381, &c. 

iiJxSi in. 


Published According to Act Sept. 25, 1777 by I. Lockington Shug Lane 
Golden Square. 

Engraving. Figures (H.L.) of three women, their hair dressed In caricature 
versions of the enormous pyramids of hair then fashionable. The centre 
figure, full face, is the smallest but her pyramid of hair is the highest of 
the three. The other two woman are in profile, facing towards the centre. 
Poised on their heads are lace caps trimmed with flowers and dangling 
lappets. Beneath the title is engraved : 

N.B. Fairer than the Egyptian, but not so lasting. 

For other satires on this fashion see No. 5370, &c. Apparently by the 
same artist as Nos. 5378, 5379. 


Publish' d April 2^ 1777. by S. Sledge Henrietta Street Covent Garden. 

Engraving. Two seated figures (H.L.) apparently in an opera-box. A fat 
lady (1.) whose pyramid of hair is flanked with the enormous cylindrical 
curls then fashionable and surmounted with flowers and feathers, looks 
in profile to the 1. smiling broadly. Her dress is cut low and she wears a 
necklace of beads or pearls from which hangs a cross. Her companion (r.) 
sits on the lady's 1., looking through one of her curls which he holds in his 
r. hand; his 1. eye is closed. On his coat are visible two of the enormous 
metal buttons then a subject of caricature, see No. 5431, &c. Beneath the 
title is engraved : 

Behold how Jemmy treats the Fair, 

And makes a Telescope of Hair 

How will this suit high headed Lasses, 

If curls are turned to Optic Glasses. 

See No. 5436, for the same subject by Darly. For satires on this type 
of hair-dressing see No. 5370, &c. 
6| X 6j| in. 




P. S. fecit 

London, Printed for R. Sayer, and J. Bennett, N" 53 Fleet Street, as 
the Act directs June the 5'* 1777 

Engraving. A barber has just left his house, the open door of which is seen 
on the r. He carries in his r. hand a large curled wig with a small queue 
tied with a ribbon bow. In his I. hand is an implement for curling hair; 
under his 1. arm is a barber's basin ; a pair of scissors projects from his coat 
pocket. He is neatly and plainly dressed, with a broad-brimmed hat. 
A dog prances at his side. Round the corner of his house (1.) appears a thin 
foppishly dressed Frenchman, probably a hairdresser, wearing a bag-wig 
and solitaire; he points at the barber saying Se de diffrence between de 
Aingleesh Barber & mineself,Ha! Ha! de AingleeshBougre. From the barber's 
door projects a striped pole, from which hangs a board inscribed. Shave 
for a Penny. Above the door is inscribed. Bleeding and Teeth drawn and 
Money for live hear. Inside the door two wigs are suspended. 




Publish' d Nov"^ 4*^ 1777 by W"" Hitchcock, N" 5 Birchin Lane Price V 

Engraving. The interior of a cobbler's work-room. The cobbler has 
seized his wife by the arm and is about to beat her with a strap. Her stays 
are partly laced, the end of the lace is twisted round a hammer. Her hair 
is dressed in the fashionable pyramid, surmounted by a meagre ostrich- 
feather, lace, &c. She wears a quilted petticoat and high-heeled shoes. On 
the r. is a cobbler's bench with tools ; lasts and tools are in a rack on the 
wall ; a wicker cage in which is a bird hangs from a hook. A print of a leg 
of mutton and turnips is pinned to the wall. Under the cracked casement 
window (1.) is a wooden chair. Beneath the title is engraved: 

The Hoity head & Toighty waist, 

As now they're all the ton, 
Ma'am Nell the cobbler's wife, in taste 

By none will be outdone. 

But, ah! when set aloft her cap. 

Her Boddice while she's bracing, 
Jobson comes in, &, with his strap 

Gives her, a good tight lacing. 

For tight-lacing see No. 5444, &c., and for hairdressing No. 5370, &c. 

5465 THE DEATH OF ROCHESTER. [Oct. 1777] 

W. H.fec' [PWilliam Humphrey.] 

Engraving. This design has been attributed to Gillray. Rochester (1647- 
80) reclines in a large arm-chair, his legs outstretched, listening to the 
ministrations of an elderly clergyman, who sits by his side (1.), a large open 



Bible on his knee, his head is thrown back, his mouth open as if declaiming. 
The Bible is open at a page headed XIX.C. Genesis. On the r, of the design 
are the draperies of a bed. At the head of the bed, on the extreme r. a large 
coat of arms is partly visible, with an earl's coronet, the supporter on the 1. 
being a very rampant lion. Rochester wears a night-cap and a loose gown 
which falls back to show knee-breeches. The parson is in cassock, gown, 
and bands, his wig is of the kind worn by the clergy c. 1777. He is 
toothless except for two fang-like upper teeth. 

The edifying end of Rochester, wit and libertine, was made familiar by 
Burnet's Some Passages of the Life and Death of Rochester, 1680, often 
reprinted in the eighteenth century. The parson should be Burnet (1643- 
171 5), though a much older man is depicted, perhaps a caricature of 
a living divine. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 27. 

Five Prints after Bunbury etched by J. Bretherton. 
NEWMARKET. A SHOT AT A PIGEON. See No. 4719— i Mar. 1777 

NEWMARKET. A SHOT AT A HAWK. See No. 4717— n.d. c. 1777 
A companion print to No. 4719. 

DAMN BUCHEPHALUS! See No. 4730— n.d. c. 1777 

DAMN MAMBRINO! See No. 4731— n.d. c. 1777 

POT FAIR. CAMBRIDGE. See No. 4729—25 June 1777 

Nine prints from the series of mezzotints issued by Carington 

THE HONEY-MOON. (351) See No. 4548— [1777] 

SIX WEEKS AFTER MARRIAGE. (352) See No. 4549—25 June i777 


See No. 455©— [i777] 

See also No. 5621. 
Reproduced, Fasten, PI. xxiii. 

MY-SELF. (359) See No. 455i— [i777] 

TIGHT-LACING . . . (362) See No. 4552— [i777] 

See also No. 5444, &c. 

' No. 4552 has the imprint of Bowles and Carver. 


BACHELOR'S FARE . . . (365) See No. 4553 [10 Nov. 1777] 

Reproduced with date, A. L. Simon, Bottlescrew Days, 1926, p. 20.^ 

THE AMOROUS THIEF . . . (366) See No. 4554—10 Nov. 1777 

Dated impression in the possession of Mr. W. T. Spencer, New 
Oxford Street, 1932. 

FATHER PAUL IN HIS CUPS . . . (367) No. 3781— [1777] 

An illustration to Sheridan's Duenna, first played Covent Garden, 


A reduced version (273), published 10 Nov. 1777, see Catalogue, iv, 
p. 758. 

FATHER PAUL DISTURBED . . . (368) No. 3782—10 Nov. 1777 

(Another impression, dated and not coloured.) 
Illustration to The Duetina. 

Four similar mezzotints issued by other publishers. 


Philip Dazve inven^ et fecit. 

Published as the Act directs. 8 May lyyy. Printed for John Bowles, 
iV<' 13 in Cornhill. 

Mezzotint. The interior of a luxuriously furnished lady's dressing- 
room. An old woman sits before the dressing-table, smiling at her reflection 
in the mirror, while two hair-dressers lift on to her head a monstrous wig, 
decorated with a nosegay of flowers, ribbons, large ostrich-feathers, and 
flanked with curls. She has a grotesque and witch-like profile, frontal 
baldness, and short, lank hair. She is elaborately dressed in the fashion of 
the day, wearing large pendent ear-rings, voluminous lace ruffles to her 
elbow-sleeves and a lace-trimmed apron over a much-trimmed dress. She 
clasps to her breast a King Charles dog. The two hair-dressers are evidently 
French, both are grinning; one (1.) wears a toupet-wig, with a large black 
bag and solitaire cravat; he is about to place the front of the wig on the 
lady's forehead. The other (r.) supports the back of the wig and is partly 
concealed by it ; his toupet-wig has a very long pigtail queue. 

The wall is hung with paper or brocade above a plain dado ; a patterned 
carpet with a fringe covers the floor. A window on the 1. is festooned with 
a heavy fringed curtain. The dressing-table in front of the window, with 
an oval mirror, is elaborately draped with embroidered muslin; on it are 
toilet jars, &c. For satires on this type of hairdressing see No. 5370, &c, 

' Another reproduction in C. N. Robinson, The British Tar in Fact and 
Fiction, p. 280, is dated 1781, and appears to be from a line engraving of the same 
picture. Eight lines of verse show that it was issued in connexion with Rodney's 
victory of 1781. 




[?P. Dawe.] 

London Printed for R. Sayer & J. Bennett, N" 53 Fleet Street, as 
the Act directs 25yany 1777. 

Mezzotint. A lady sits at her dressing-table, while a hair-dresser attends 
to her elaborate coiffure. She turns round in astonishment towards her 
husband (r.), who has entered from an open door and threatens the hair- 
dresser with uplifted riding-whip and clenched fist. He is in riding-dress. 
A maidservant enters behind him, smiling insolently, her 1. hand on her 
hip, her r. held up, the first two fingers extended. The lady's hair is 
dressed in the elaborate fashion of the period, a pyramid with curls, 
decorated with pearls, and an enormous head-dress of feathers. She wears 
a lace-trimmed wrapper over her low-cut dress. In her r. hand is a brush 
or pencil for the complexion ; the other is outstretched in alarm. The hair- 
dresser, who wears an enormous toupet wig, with side-curls and large 
looped club, is smoothing her hair with a comb. On the wall are two 
family portraits : a man with a beard (H.L.) and a lady (T.Q.L.) wearing 
a ruff^. The floor is of boards without a carpet. For satires on this type of 
hairdressing see No. 5370, &c. 


London, Printed for R. Sayer & J. Bennett, Map & Printsellers , 
N" 53, Fleet Street; as the Act directs, iP^ Oct' 1777. 

Mezzotint. Two Jews seated at an oblong cloth-covered table, one of 
whom is receiving coin, notes, watches, &c. from a highwayman who 
stands on the opposite side of the table (r,). Two other Jews (1.) stand 
behind the chair of the man receiving the booty. The highwayman, whose 
features are Jewish, is in fashionable riding-dress; the butt of a pistol 
protrudes from a coat-pocket, in his r. hand is a watch and seals, in his 1. 
a glove and riding-whip. In the foreground is a dog. 

Immediately behind the figures is a large screen, four leaves of which are 
visible, elaborately decorated with birds and foliage. This, as well as the 
dress of all but one of the men, suggests that the Jews are wealthy. The 
print is in the manner of genre rather than of caricature. 

There is another issue having the same publication-line, with the title 
A Scene in Duke's Place (not in B.M.). A reduced version was published 
27 May 1778 (not in B.M.). 

MARRIAGE. See No. 4625—5 Dec. 1777 

Pub. Sayer and Bennett. 





[? 'C. Corbutt'.] 

London : Publish' d as the Act directs, 2"'^ Jari^ 1778, by John Morris. 

Mezzotint. One of a series, see No. 5290. T.Q.L. portrait of a man in 
general's uniform standing under heavy drapery, probably that of a tent. 
He looks to the 1., r. hand on hip, his 1. resting on a document which lies 
on a small camp-table ; it is inscribed Arti[c\Qs\ of Convention between Gen'' 
Gates & Gen' Burgoyne. Beside it is a letter addressed Gen. Gates. Behind 
(1.) are two tents, one flying a large striped American flag; near them is 
a cannon. 

News of Burgoyne's surrender reached London on 2 Dec. 1777. 
Walpole, Last Journals, 1910, ii. 80, 85. Corr. of George III, ed. Fortescue, 
iii. 501. The disaster was debated in the Commons on 3 Dec. Pari. Hist. 
xix. 532 ff^. See also No. 5408. For Saratoga see No. 5470, &c. 

Chaloner Smith, iv. 1715. 
i2f X7f in. 

5469 a a copy having the same inscription, except that the date is 
10 May 1778, with the addition of Se vend chez J. M. Will a Augsboiirg. 

5470 N^ I. THE CLOSET. Price, i'. 

Bute InvK Germaine Ex'. Mansfield Sculp. 

Published as the Act directs Janv 28"' 1778. by I. Williams No. jg 
Fleet Street. 

Aquatint. A print in several compartments. In an inset rectangle in 
the r. upper corner is George Hi's 'Closet': the king seated at a table 
with his secret advisers around him. On his r. sits Bute, his I. hand 
on the king's shoulder. The Devil clutches the back of Bute's chair, and 
speaks into his ear through a trumpet ; beneath the chair is a head, writhing 
with serpents, probably representing Discord. Bute says, Be Bloody, Bold, 
and Resolute, be Firm — fear nothing. The king looks round him, his profile 
is malevolent, stupid and gross; he says, Sic Volo — / am Firm, hem! who's 
afraid? eh! On his left sits Lord Mansfield, in his hand is a scroll, inscribed, 
A Code of Laws for America ; he is saying Kill them or they will Kill you. 
Next comes Lord George Germain holding out a paper. Instructions to 
Generals Howe, Burgoyne, &c. He says, Tho Nature's Germins tumble all 
together, Ev" till Destruction Sicken. On the table are two papers, one 
inscribed / have closeted S'^ James the Cartouch Box Maker ; the other is 
addressed to My Lord Mayor of London. Both appear directed against the 
Lord Mayor, Sir James Esdaile,' a strong supporter of the Court. 

Below this rectangle are isolated figures : A man stands, blowing out his 

' On Michaelmas Day 1778 Esdaile was censured by the Livery for refusing to 
put to the vote the thanks of the Livery to the members for the city for their con- 
sistent opposition to the ministry. Ann. Reg., 1778, p. 204. 





brains with a pistol ; he says, Amende Honorable for using General Warrants ; 
at his feet lies dying a man in the wig and robes of the Lord Chancellor ; he 
says / was Yorke-shire but honest, but curse the Closet. He is Charles Yorke, 
whose remorse at accepting the Chancellorship under pressure from the 
king in his closet conduced to his sudden death in 1770, widely but 
wrongly believed to be due to suicide. The standing figure appears also to 
be intended for Yorke, who as Attorney General had advised that the com- 
mittal of Wilkes for the libel in No. 45 of the North Briton was legal. 
On the I. is a man dressed as a fool in cap and bells; he is running 
forward, in his r. hand are smoking firebrands, in his 1., arrows. He says, 
/ am firm too, in Folly, and is not this precious Foolery, my masters. 
Beneath him is engraved The Fool casteth Firebrands, Arrows & Death, 
and sayeth Am not I in Sport? On the r. is a headless figure in long robes, 
holding his head in his 1. arm, and holding out An h^^ Addr^^from the Loyal 
Town of Manchester to C/ia [erased] Geo: the III with lives & Fort. Murray 
Sec. The first of the loyal addresses of the autumn of 1775 came from 
Manchester, see Nos. 5325, 5471. It ended: '. . . We are ready to support, 
with our Lives [and] Fortunes, such Measures as your Majesty shall think 
necessary for the Punishment of Rebellion in any part of your dominions. 
. . .' London Gazette, 12-16 Sept. The erasure implies a parallel with the 
loyal addresses to Charles H on his dissolution of the Oxford Parliament in 
1681. See Eng. Hist. Rev. 1930, xlv. p. 552 ff.,and cf. Pari. Hist. xix. 620 
(22 Jan. 1778). 

In the centre of the print are a number of ships: at the top, three ships 
in full sail are labelled Quebec Hoy, probably an allusion to the very un- 
popular Quebec Act, see No. 5228, &c., and cf. No. 5286. Below, a small 
ship labelled Boston hoy is followed by a larger ship in full sail, labelled 
Weymouth Packet w"^ 20,000 in Doll'K This probably indicates one of the 
successes of the American privateers against British shipping. Below is 
a large ship at anchor, with furled sails, from which a boat rows to shore; 
she is labelled Chelsea Hoy. Below again, men are being helped ashore 
from a boat, some have already landed; they are crippled, without arms, 
with crutches, with a wooden leg, &c., indicating that the fate of the 
English soldiers is to be maimed Chelsea pensioners. Below again is a 
small triangular gallows, from which hang three figures. 

On the 1. side of the print, in four divisions, are episodes from the war 
in America. In the uppermost section, Indians are using scalping knives 
and tomahawks on prostrate and supplicating persons; in the centre, 
a young woman M'^Rae, kneeling and about to be killed by an Indian, 
says O horrid! is this the Marriage Ceremony. She is Jane M'^Crea, whose 
murder horrified both England and America. She was a loyalist and was 
being escorted by two Indians to her betrothed who was serving with the 
British forces, but she was killed by one of the escort.^ For its effect on 
opinion see Van Tyne, The War of Independence, 1929, pp. 398, 403. 
Behind (r.) a church and some houses inscribed Esopus are in flames. The 
village of Esopus was burnt, after Clinton's successful campaign up the 
North River in October 1777, by General Vaughan, who having been 
fired on as he entered the place, burned it with its stores and provisions. 
See the comment on this in the Ann. Reg. 1777, p. 175*. See also No. 


Below in the next compartment more Indian atrocities are depicted. 

' There is some uncertainty as to this, see Belcher, First American Civil War, 
191 1, ii. 295-6. 



A group of Indians sit round a naked man, bristling with darts, who is 
being roasted on a spit over a fire. An Indian, standing under a tree-trunk 
inscribed The Cedars (I.), holds up a skull; on the r. an Indian with a 
tomahawk holds up a scalped and bleeding head; other figures sit round 
the fire, one gnaws a bone. 

The Cedars (on the Rapids of the St. Lawrence) was the name given to 
an incident in the American expedition against Canada in 1776. A small 
American post was surprised by a party of regulars, Canadians and 
Mohawks, and captured without resistance. Arnold went out from 
Montreal to attack the captors, but to prevent the Indians from murdering 
the prisoners, he consented to a compromise for an exchange. Harper^s 
Encyclopedia of United States History. This satire is thus a gross calumny. 
It was perhaps suggested by Brackenridge's propagandist Death of General 
Montgomery at the Siege of Quebec^ i777> in which the writer apologizes in 
a note for some ferocious words put into the mouth of Carleton: 'I find 
my conscience pretty much at ease in this matter ... I have conversed 
with those who saw the scalps warm from the heads of our countrymen. 
I have had the relation from their mouths who beheld the fires lighted up, 
and heard . . . the horrid shrieks and gloomy bowlings of the savage tribes 
in the execution of the poor captives who, according to the threat of 
Carleton, were burned on an island in the river St. Lawrence after our 
unfortunate surrender at the Cedars.' Quoted by M. C. Tyler, Literary 
History of the American Revolution, ii. 223. Carleton's humanity to the 
Americans in the Canadian campaign is well known. 

Under this is Burgoyne marching at the head of his men who are 
without arms, their hands tied. He says, / have led my Rag-o-miiffians 
where they have been Peppered, He is dressed not in military uniform, but 
in slashed doublet and cavalier's boots, in his hand is a broadsword whose 
blade is jagged and worn, inscribed Physical Impossibility. His round 
shield is inscribed Scale of Talents; under each arm is a large book, Maid 
of the Oaks and Bon Ton &c., and the Devot^ Legions, a Poem. At his feet 
is the word Proclamations. On a hill in the distance is a serried rank of 
soldiers, on a minute scale, before them stands an officer holding a spear 
and a large striped American flag; they are Gates, see No. 5469, and his 
Americans, to whom Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga on 17 Oct. 1777. 

Burgoyne 's dress, &c., appears intended to represent him as a theatrical 
mountebank; his play 'Maid of the Oaks' was acted in 1774 (*Bon Ton', 
1775, is by Garrick). He issued a bombastic proclamation before taking 
the field in May 1777 which was much ridiculed. For contemporary 
opinion on the campaign see Van Tyne, War of Independence, 1929, 436-40. 
Many of the Opposition in England rejoiced at the catastrophe. 

The lowest compartment shows Scottish soldiers and foreign mercen- 
aries in flight, dying and dead. In the foreground (r.) a Highland officer is 
dying; he says, How hard O Frazer is thy Lot! Was it for this I sought the 
Court and Danced? He is Simon Fraser (not to be confused with Simon 
Fraser of No. 5287); he was a brigadier under Burgoyne, and was mortally 
wounded on 7 Oct. 1777. A fleeing Scottish soldier looks round saying, 
Hoot awa Lads, ken ye not that one Arnold is hard at our heels. All the 
soldiers have thrown away their arms, one of three Hessians in jack-boots 
says, De Devil vil ave mine Maitre, de Carcas Bucher. 

Down the 1. margin beside the two last designs is inscribed the word 
Saratoga. The supposed artists' names are arranged so that Bute inv^ is 
under the fleeing Scottish soldiers, Germaine ex* under the gallows. 



Beside Mansfield Sculp (under the headless figure holding the Manchester 
Address) is an axe. 

A satire which ascribes tyranny, failure, and savage atrocities to the 
influence of Bute, Mansfield, and Germain, and to the obstinacy of the 
king. For Germain's responsibility for failure see Fortescue, Hist, of 
the British Army, iii. 242; G. H. Guttridge, 'Lord George Germain in 
office', American Hist. Rev. Oct. 1927. Chatham, on 2 Dec. 1777, called 
the Americans 'Whigs in principle and heroes in conduct' whose affection 
had been lost 'by employing mercenary Germans to butcher them; by 
spiriting up savages in America to scalp them with a tomahawk' {Pari. 
Hist. xix. 477). For the employment of Indians see Hist. MSS. Comm. 
Dartmouth MSS. ii. 1895, pp. xii, 344-5, 447.' For allegations of Indian 
atrocities see also Nos. 5339, 5473, 5631, 6024. For Saratoga see also 
Nos. 5469, 5490, 5548[2], 5857. For 'the Closet' see No. 5638. 
8|xi4 in. 

A French engraving (n.d.) by Godefroy, after Fauvel, Sarratoga, 
depicts the surrender of Burgoyne 'avec 6040 soldats bien disciplines' 
to Gates with 'ies milices Americaines nouvellement tirees de I'Agri- 
culture . . .'. 

Beneath is engraved a 'Precis' of the campaign with a note on Indian 
soldiers in Burgoyne's army : 'Leurs affreux services refuses par Ies Ameri- 
cains, furent sollicites par le ministere britannique, qui convint de prix pour 
chaque chevelure d'infortunes colons qu'ils apporteraient, mais amis comme 
ennemis devenaient leurs [«c] proie. Le meurtre surtout de la jeune et 
belle Miss — Mac — Rea remplit tous Ies cceurs d'horreur . . . elle fut 
massacree par ces sauvages le jour de son mariage avec un officier anglais 
de I'armee de Burgoine'. 

No. 4 in Reciceil d'Estampes representant . . . la Guerre qui a procure 
VIndependance aux Etats unis de VAmerique. (Print Department.) Collection 
de Vinck, No. 1167. 


Puh. feb. 14,' lyyS. by a Non Subscriber. Price 6^. 

Engraving. Eight men stand in a row, holding muskets in a variety of ways. 
Their clothes are ragged, and they are thin and hungry-looking. 

At the beginning of 1778 places and individuals agreed to raise regiments 
at their own expense; Manchester began (Dec. 1777) by offering to raise 
a thousand men. Sergeants of the Guard were sent to Manchester to form 
the levies. Walpole, Last Journals, 1910, ii. 85, 89-90. The legality of 
raising regiments without the previous consent of parliament soon became 
an issue between the Government and the Opposition. Ibid. 93 ff. 
Fortescue, History of the British Army, iii. 245, 246. For the attitude of 
Manchester to the war cf. No. 5470. 

One of a number of anti-recruiting satires, see No. 5295, &c. 

4|x8i in. 

' Dartmouth wrote to Gage, 2 Aug. 1775: 'The steps which you say the rebels 
have taken for calling in the assistance of the Indians leave no room to hesitate upon 
the propriety of your pursuing the same measure.' Cf . a letter of Col. Ethan Allen, 
24 May 1775, asking Indians for aid against the king's troops. Ibid., p. 310. 



FOR FEBRUARY 1778. i Mar. 1778 

Engraving. From the Westminster Magazine, vi. 66. A cow representing 
the commerce of Great Britain stands passively on the sea-shore while an 
American with a feathered cap saws off her horns; one horn lies on the 
ground. A Dutchman milks the cow, looking over his shoulder with a grin. 
France, a foppishly-dressed Frenchman, and Spain, a don in slashed 
doublet and cloak, hold bowls of milk. In the foreground (r.) lies the 
British lion asleep, unconscious of a pug-dog which stands on his back, 
befouling him. Behind the lion stands a plainly-dressed Englishman 
clasping his hands in despair. 

In the background across the sea is a town inscribed Philadelphia; in 
front of it, on the shore, two men on a minute scale (General and Admiral 
Howe) are seated at a table. Both are asleep, a punch-bowl is on the table, 
on the ground beside them are wine-bottles and a barrel. Beside them, 
laid up on dry land, is a man-of-war inscribed Eagle (Howe's flag-ship). 

The explanation (p. 64) : 

*I. The commerce of Great Britain, represented in the figure of a 

II. The American Congress sawing off her horns, which are her natural 
strength and defence: one being already gone, the other just a-going. 

III. The jolly, plump Dutchman milking the poor tame Cow with 
great glee. 

IV and V. The Frenchman and Spaniard, each catching at their respec- 
tive shares of the produce, and running away with bowls brimming full, 
laughing to one another at their success. 

VI. The good ship Eagle laid up, and moved at some distance from 
Philadelphia, without sails or guns, ... all the rest of the fleet invisible, 
nobody knows where. 

VII. The two Brothers napping it, one against the other, in the City 
of Philadelphia, out of sight of fleet and army. 

VIII. The British Lion lying on the ground fast asleep, so that a pug- 
dog tramples upon him, as on a lifeless log: he seems to see nothing, hear 
nothing, and feel nothing. 

IX. A Free Englishman in mourning standing by him, wringing his 
hands, casting up his eyes in despondency and despair, but unable to 
rouse the Lion to correct all these invaders of his Royal Prerogative, and 
his subjects' property.' 

These paragraphs are followed by an attack on the Conciliatory Proposi- 
tions, see No. 5473, &c., as 'proof of the above'. There are no numbers on 
the plate. 

This print was copied for circulation in America with the title A 
Picturesque View of the State of Great Britain for 177S. Taken from an 
English Copy. Beneath the plate in two columns is the explanation quoted 
textually from the Westminster Magazine but omitting the paragraph on 
the Conciliatory Propositions. Reproduced, S. G. Fisher, True History 
of the American Revolution, 1902, p. 358. This copy may have been the 
immediate origin of a series of Dutch and French copies (1780) which it 
closely resembles, see Nos. 5726, 5726 A, B, and c, 5727. It was also copied 
in America as A Picturesque View of the State of Great Britain for lySo, 
attributed to Paul Revere, in which the word New York has been substi- 
tuted for Philadelphia (evacuated June 1778), see Stauffer, No. 2692. 



These copies and No. 5859, a sequel to them, show how well the print 
illustrated the motives and hopes of France in the war, as also its value 
as enemy propaganda. Much was said in France of the capture of the trade 
of the colonies, but the real motive of Vergennes was rather the destruction 
of English trade (on Mercantilist principles) and so the enfeeblement of 
England, and the damaging of her prestige. See E. S. Corwin, French 
J Policy and the American Alliance of 1778, 1916, pp. 14 f., 49 f. For 
Holland as a profiteering neutral see Nos. 5557, &c. For the Howe 
brothers see Nos. 5399, 5405, &c. 

Part of the design resembles and is perhaps imitated from No. 2665, 
The Benefit of Neutrality (1745). 

A French satire on a similar theme is No. 1209, Collection de Vinck: 

'Dessine d'apres nature a. Boston par Corhiit en 1778 et grave a 
Philadelphie par Va de hon cceur^ 

Numbers on the plate refer to an explanatory description in French. An 
English Admiral with wings and with the claws of a vulture for hands and 
feet is tied to a tree while the American Congress cuts the claws on his 
feet. A Spaniard holds one of the wings while a Frenchman cuts it off to 
prevent his flight. Another Frenchman carries off packets of tobacco, 
while an Englishman in despair breaks his pipes. A fat Dutchman collects 
feathers from the other wing of the eagle, while his companion trades under 
the nose of England. Beneath the explanation is inscribed : 

Tel qu'un dpre Vautour devorant VAmerique 
Anglais, impunement tu cms la mettre a sac: 
Mais pour la Men venger dhin traitement inique 
II ne I'y \sic^ reste pas une once de Tabac. 

Probably a satire on the evacuation of Philadelphia, June 1778. For 
'Corbut' cf. Nos. 5405, 5406. 
Van Stolk, No. 4289. 

6|x 10^ in. 


M Darly 

^' Pu¥ April I. 1778 by M Darly 39 Strand. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). The five commissioners 
(r.) recently nominated to negotiate peace with the colonies, kneel one 
behind the other at the feet of America, who sits (1.) on a pile of barrels and 
bales looking away from the Commissioners at a cap of liberty which she 
holds on a staff. She is a partly draped woman wearing a crown of feathers ; 
her head is irradiated, and above it is suspended a laurel wreath. The bales 
and barrels on which she sits are inscribed Tobacco for Germany; Rice for 
France; Tobacco for France; Tobacco for Holland; America 1778; Indico 
for Spain; Indico for the Mediterranean Ports, V.R. (Monogram.), cf. 
Nos. 5472, 5859, &c. The Commissioners are headed by Lord Howe in 
naval dress; he says, We have block'd up your ports, obstructed your trade, 



with the hope of starving ye, & contrary to the Law of Natiofis compelld 
your sons to war against their Bretheren. Behind him is General Sir William 
Howe, wearing the red ribbon of the Bath; he says We have ravaged your 
Lands, burnt your Towns, and caused your captive Heroes to perish, by Cold, 
pestilence & famine. Next is Lord Carlisle wearing the green ribbon of 
the Thistle; he says We have profaned your places of Divine worship, 
derided your virtue and piety, and scoff 'd at that spirit which has brought us 
thus on our knees before ye. He is foppishly dressed and appears deeply 
interested in his snuff-box, cf. No. 5474. Behind him is William Eden 
(afterwards Lord Auckland) with a pen behind his ear; he says, We have 
Ravish'd, Scalp'd, and murder'd your People, eve?i from Tender infancy to 
decrepid age, altho Supplicating for Mercy, cf. No. 5470, &c. Last comes 
Commodore George Johnstone, known as Governor Johnstone, in naval 
dress; he is saying, For all which material services, we the Commissioners 
from the most pious & best of sovereigns, doubt not your cordial duty & 
affection towards us, or willingness to submit yourselves again to recieve the 
same, whenever we have power to bestow it on ye. The five swords of the 
Commissioners lie in a pile on the ground beside Carlisle. 

The words of the speakers are in long labels, numbered, as are the five 
Commissioners, to show by whom they are spoken. 

The Howes refused to act under Lord Carlisle; the other three Com- 
missioners sailed for America on 21 Apr., arriving on 5 June. This satire 
anticipates even their Commission, which did not pass the Seal till 13 April. 
For the concessions off"ered and their reception see Cambridge Hist, of the 
Br. Empire, i. 765-7. The instructions to the Commissioners are printed 
in full in S. E. Morison, Sources and Documents of the American Revolution, 
186-203. They yielded all the original points at issue, stipulating only for 
the maintenance of political union. Ann. Reg. 1778, 315-32. The con- 
cessions would probably have been accepted if they had not been just antici- 
pated by the French alliance. S. E. Morison, Growth of the American 
Republic, 1930, p. 96. For the dismay which the announcement of 'Lord 
North's Conciliatory Propositions' caused in Parliament see Walpole, 
Last Journals, 1910, ii. no ff. Pari. Hist. xix. 762 ff., 19 and 23 Feb. See 
also Nos. 5474, 5475, 5476, 5487, 6229. 

Probably belongs to the same series as No. 5370, &c. 
8iXi2j^ in. 


Pu¥ by M Darly 39 Strand April i 1778. 

Engraving. Three members of Congress (r.) face the three Commissioners 
for the discussion of peace. Between the two parties and rather behind 
them stands a Scot in highland dress with an expression of alarm, probably 
intended for Lord Bute. The Congressmen wear long gowns with fur 
cufi^s and caps similar to the 'death or liberty' caps worn by the Yankees 
in the trenches in No. 5329. By their gestures and expressions they 
appear to be dictating terms to the Englishmen. Lord Carlisle, who 
is foppishly dressed, his hat under his arm, is taking a pinch of snuff 
and holding out his snuff-box to the foremost Congressman with an 
expression of alarm. Behind him Eden clasps his hands to his breast with 
a deprecatory gesture. Governor Johnstone, a reputed duellist, clenches 
his fists with a pugnacious expression. The Congressmen stand under two 



This appears to illustrate a speech of the Duke of Richmond on the 
American Concihatory Bills on 9 Mar. 1778. After stating that one of the 
Governors in America had offended members of Congress by making 
exception to their wearing woollen caps in council : 'How inadequate there- 
fore must this embassy be, where a noble lord [Carlisle] bred up in all the 
softness and polish that European manners make fashionable to rank — 
I say, how inadequate must such a meeting be amongst men in woollen 
night-caps!' Pari. Hist. xLx. 867. It should be noted that concessions to 
America, like severe measures, are attributed to Bute, cf. 'An Ode addressed 
to the Scotch Junto and their American Commission . . .', 1778. 

For the Commissioners see also Nos. 5473, 5475, 5476, 5487. 

Probably belongs to the same series as No. 5370, &c. 
8|Xi2| in. 

Pu¥ by M Darly May 6 lyyS Strand. 

Engraving. 'Hieroglyphic letter' or rebus in which words are represented 
by small etched objects, those in the title being on a larger scale: Britannia 
(1.) sits in profile to the r. holding out an olive branch. 

(Britannia) (toe) Amer{eYe)ca. My (deer) Daughter I (can) (knot) 
{hee)hold zv{Qye)thout (grate) pa{cye)n (ewer) {hezd)strong {back){ward)ness 
(toe) r€t{urn) (toe) (ewer) duty in (knot) op(posy)n^ (awl) the good (eye) long 
{&yt)ntended for (ewer) (sole) Hap{pm)ness & {heejing told t{hzt) (yew) have 
g{eye)v'n ewer (toe) a {} circular object) & (doublefaced) (Frenchman) 
(eye) have sent (yew) 5 over ( ? over above wise) (men) the {grate)est of all 
my {child)ren (toe) put (yew) (toe) r{eye)ghts & (Hope) (yew) zv{eye)ll 
/(eye)s(ten) (toe) them & m{eye)nd z^(hat) they say (toe) (yew) they have 
{eyc)nstr{yew)ct{eye)ons [instructions] (toe) g{eye)ve (yew) f(hose) th{eye)ngs 
yew (form)er/_y required so (bee) a good (girl) d{eye)scharge (ewer) (soldiers) 
& (ships) of zvar & (doe) (knot) re(bell) ag{eye)nst (ewer) (moth)er rely 
upon me & (doe) (knot) ( ? a carved bracket)^ toe /(hat) French /^(ass)c(awl) 
5A(awl) tell (yew) IC [I see] he ro(ants) toe Z»(ring) on an enm{eye)ty (toe) 
(awl) (a snake with its tail in its mouth ? union) {hee)ttveen (yew) <^ (eye) 
(butt) /(eye)5(ten) (knot) (toe) h{eye)m (awl) the (world) takes {knot)ice 
of h{eye)s (doubleface) /'// send h{eye)m such Messa{g's) from my (grate) 
(gun)5 as s{[h]awl) make [sic] h{eye)s (heart) repent & know /(hat) {I) good 
or (eye)// /(urn) mer{eye)ts a{knot)her. NB let (knot) 80 [ ? hate] take 2 
much hold on (ewer) (heart). 

/ am (ewer) fr{eye)nd & {Moth.)er. 

A satire on the mission of the Commissioners entrusted with North's 
Conciliatory Propositions, see No. 5473, &c. The Government had been 
attacked by Burke (16 Mar. 1778) for appointing commissioners after the 
Americans 'had been acknowledged an independent state by France' 
(Pari. Hist. xix. 909). The treaty between France and the Americans was 
signed on 6 Feb. 1778; on 13 Mar. the French Ambassador informed 
Weymouth of the treaty. See No. 5475, the answer to this letter. 
i3|X9|in. (pi.). 

' Not in B.M., transcribed from a copy in the possession (1933) of Mr. W. T. 
Spencer, New Oxford Street, where it is the first plate in a volume of Darly's 
caricatures, the title-page being a dedication to Garrick, see No. 5369. It belongs 
to the same series as Nos. 5370, 5429, &c. 


[Pub. by M Darly May 11 lyyS Strand.y 

Engraving. A 'hieroglyphic letter' or rebus in answer to the foregoing. 
America (1.), as a Red Indian woman, seated and leaning to the 1. ; she holds 
a flag with thirteen vertical stripes in her 1. hand, in her r. she holds out 
a fleur-de-lys. Beside her is an oval shield on which are thirteen stars. 

(America) (toe) her (Miss)taken (Moth)^r. (Yew) s{eye)Ily (old woman) 
/(hat) (yew) have sent a (lure) (toe) us is very (plane) (toe) draw our at{ten)- 
t(eye)on from our re(awl) (eye)}itrests (butt) we are determ{eye)n'd (toe) 
ab{eye)de by our own ways of th{eye:)nk{Qye)ng (Ewer) [your] 5 (child)ren 
(yew) have sent (toe) us sh(aw\) (bee) treated as V{ey€)s{, & safely 
sent home aga{eye)n (yew) may [? carved bracket] i them & adm{eye)re 
them, (butt) (yew) must (knot) {X)pect i o/(ewer) (puppet)s w(eye)// (comb) 
[come] home (toe) (yew) as sweet as (yew) sent h{eye)m, twas cruel toe send 
so pretty a (man) so many looo miles & (toe) have the fat{eye)gue of 
re[t]{urn)ing back after (spike ?)(eye)Ǥ' h{eye)s (coat) & d{eye)rt{tye)ng 
[dirting] f[hose] red (heel) (shoes) (eye)/ (yew) are w{eyes) follow (ewer) own 
ad{vice) (yew) gave (toe) jne take home ewer (ships) 5oW(eye)(ears) [soldiers] 
guard (well) (ewer) own tr(eye)fl(eye)(ling ?) [a fish]. & leave me (toe) my 
self as (eye) am at age (toe) know my own {eye)ntrests. w{eye)thout (ewer) 
(fool)(eye)5A ad{yice) & know /(hat) (eye) shlawl) {awVjways regard (yew) 
& my Brothers as relat{eye)ons (butt) (knot) as fr{eye)nds. 

(Eye) (am) (ewer) (grate)/_y {cye)njured 
Daughter Amer{tyt)k. 

America turns away from 'her mistaken mother' holding a fleur-de-Iys 
symbolizing the French alliance. The 'pretty man' with the 'red heel 
shoes' is Lord Carlisle, said by the Duke of Richmond to be unsuited to 
treat with the homely Americans, see No. 5474. A scurrilous poem, 'An 
Ode addressed to the Scotch Junto and their American Commission . . .', 

1778, has a line 'C — rl le's vermilton'd Heels'. B.M.L. 643, k. 14/1. 

i3|X9f in. pi. 

Mr. Hawkins describes a print, published by Darly, 177 [sic]. 


Lord North, holding a sword and olive-branch, is seated upon the back 
of the British lion, which is lying down muzzled. This must be a satire on 
the Conciliatory Propositions. 

A French satire on the Conciliatory Propositions is No. 121 5, Collection 
de Vinck: 


[After June 1778] 
Pu¥^ as the Act directs may 4 1778. 

'Lord Burthe',^ probably North, seated on an ass, which tries to cross the 

' This publication line has been erased in the Museum impression and replaced 
by Published 12th May, 1794 by Laurie & Whittle, N 53, Fleet Street. It is supplied 
from an impression in a book of Darly's caricatures in the possession (1933) of 
Mr. W. T. Spencer, New Oxford Street, see foregoing entry. 

* He is explained by F. L. Bruel as 'Lord Burke . . . Tun des principaux partisans 

289 U 


ocean in order to return to England. On his head is a crown and oHve 
branch ; from his pocket protrudes a paper inscribed Conciatory [Concilia- 
tory] Bill. Beneath the publication line is inscribed '/e Lord Burthe 
couronne sur iin Ane. Infortiinez Anglois, a quoi vos Bills Conciliatoire [sic\ 
ont-ils servis? I. Le representant de la Grande Bretagne presse de fuir 
VAvterique . . . ne poiwant regagner V Angleterre qti'd la nage, sa Flotte 
etant disperse ou deffaite. . . . 2. plusieurs Americains faisant treve a leur 
moderation naturelle que leurs ennemis ant gratuitement qualiffies de poltron- 
erie, chassent honteusement Vagent qui sous un voile honete vouloit ebranler 
leur liberie en semant la division parmi eux. j. Un Anglois faisant partie du 
petit nombre de cetix qu'on soiiffre encor en Amerique fait les plus \sic\ pour 
y retenir VAmiral. 4. Un Francois representant son Pays digne soutien et allie 
du plus beau de VUnivers s^empresse de couper le foible lien dont vainement 
V Anglois vouloit se servir. 

The evident allusion (in 2) to Johnstone's attempt to open a private 
correspondence v^rith members of Congress (June-July 1778), urging them 
to overthrow the French treaty, shows that the print is ante-dated in the 
fictitious publication line. 


COCK ESQR [c. 1778] 

Engraving. Publication line probably cut off. North and John Hancock, 
the first president of the Congress, stand in a conventional American 
landscape. North (1.) turns his head in profile to the r. towards Hancock, 
who faces him, holding out a handful of carrots while his r. hand is on 
the hilt of his partly-drawn sword. North wearing the insignia of the 
Garter points to the ground, his 1. hand holding his sword by the scabbard. 
A spaniel licks his feet. Hancock wears a fur-trimmed belted tunic and 
fur-trimmed leggings showing bare knees, his hair falls loosely down his 
shoulders. A puma (r.) paws the ground behind him. On North's r. is 
a sculptured head (? of George HI) on a pedestal. There is a landscape 
background of trees and hills ; on the r. are two palm trees. Beneath the 
design is inscribed : 

Hancock and N th. Supposed to meet. 

And thus, the first, his thoughts repeat. 
Let some, like Spaniels, own thy plan. 
In me, behold a different Man 
Who eeW he'd call thy House his Home, 
Wou'd with the mountain Tyger, roam. 
Live on the Roots, pluck' d from the Earth, 
From whence Himself, like Thee, had Birth. 

This appears to represent the refusal of Congress to accept North's 
Conciliatory Propositions, see No. 5473, &c. For the backwoods appear- 
ance of Hancock (a wealthy Boston merchant) cf. No. 5474. 

de conciliation, et I'adversaire de Pitt'. North seems more probable, though the 
artist has perhaps confused the two: Burke's famous speech on Conciliation was 
on 6 Mar. 1775; he spoke disparagingly of the mission of the Commissioners. 
Pari. Hist. xix. 778. 



5477 THE ENGLISHMAN IN PARIS [c. 1777-8] 

Sold by C. Sheppard, Lambeth Hill, Doctors Commons. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Three people seated at a round dinner- 
table. A fourth, an Englishman wearing a hat, stands up gnawing a large 
bird which he has seized from a dish which a servant (1.) has just brought 
in. A Frenchman seated at the table wearing an enormous toupet wig from 
which hangs a grotesquely elaborate queue, holds up his hands in protest; 
a second Frenchman, sitting with his hands on his knees, looks on in amuse- 
ment. A lady on the far side of the table, wearing an enormous cap on her 
pyramid of hair, is drinking wine as she watches the Englishman. On the 
wall are two pictures: two prize-fighters fighting (1.), and a monk standing 
outside a church (r.). Beneath the design is engraved : 

An American goose came hot from the spit 

Egad says the Englishman I'll have a bit 

His jaws he applies with wond'rous speed 

To devour the viands on which others should feed. 

Fie, fie, Mons^ La Anglois {sic\ cries the frenchman ; — forbear^ 

Why the limbs of your brother thus furiously tear? 

Think you we'll tamely look on and starve? 

No, no Mons'' Anglois, we wait for to carve. 

This appears intended to represent the attitude of France towards the 
American war before the signing of the Treaty on 6 Feb. 1778. See Ann. 
Reg. 1778, 37-8. 


5478 WILLI AMM PITT [sic] [c. 1778] 

Engraving. A French print. Chatham, supported on crutches, stands 
behind a balustrade, his r. hand held out in the manner of an orator. On 
each side of him is a seated figure, turning towards him, each wearing the 
ribbon of an order. Beneath the design is engraved II faut declarer la 
guerre a la France. 

This appears to be a French artist's representation of Chatham's last 
speech in the House of Lords on 7 Apr. 1778 to oppose the Duke of 
Richmond's advocacy of peace with America before war was declared with 
France: 'shall this great kingdom now fall prostrate before the House of 
Bourbon?' {Pari. Hist. xix. 1022 flF. ; Von Ruville, Chatham, iii, p. 340 f.) 
England and France were already virtually at war: Stormont had been 
recalled from Paris on the announcement (13 Mar.) of the French Treaty 
with America. For the dread inspired by Chatham in France, c. 1775-8, 
see Doniol, Hist, de la participation de la France a Vetablissement des jStats- 
Unis, 1. 60-4 ; Corwin, French Policy and the American Alliance, 1916, p. 142. 

6^X311 in. 


Pu¥ June 24. 1778. price i' 6^. 

Mezzotint. Fourteen single figures, in two rows one above the other, each 
seated in a little compartment representing a latrine. The upper row are 
all men, the lower all women. All wear hats. Almost all are in attitudes 
expressive of alarm, discomfort, or resignation. Names are written beneath 



each in an old hand, showing that all are in fact caricatures of men. They 
are (1. to r.): upper row — 'L'^ B.' [Barrington ?] his face concealed by his 
hat ; 'L'^ M.' [Mansfield] with the face of an aged man; 'L. N.' [Lord North] 
scarcely recognizable; *L. G. G.' [Lord George Germain]; 'Mr. Rigby'; 
'L*^ S.' [Sandwich ?], his head concealed by his hat. 'L*^ Land', turning up 
his eyes sanctimoniously [Shelburne }]. 

The lower row of women: *Co' Bare' [Barre], his head almost concealed 
by his hat; 'Mr Sawb.' [Sawbridge], the City patriot, his head leaning 
on his hand with a very melancholy expression; *L^ Car.' [Carlisle?], a 
young woman of pleasing appearance, with an untroubled expression; 
'S. F. N.' [Sir Fletcher Norton]; 'M^ W.' [Wilkes], recognizable by his 
squint; 'D. R.' [Duke of Richmond?]; *Mr. Johnson', with a certain 
resemblance to Dr. Johnson. 

General attacks on the Government were made by moving for a com- 
mittee on the State of the Nation ; see motions by Fox and the Duke of 
Richmond (accepted by North) 2 Dec. 1777, followed by debates in 
committee, 2, 11, 16, 19 Feb. 1778. Chatham's last speech 7 Apr. 1778 
was in a debate on the Duke of Richmond's motion for an address to the 
king upon the State of the Nation. Pari. Hist, xix, pp. 472 ff., 513 ff., 
672 ff., 718 ff., 745 ff., 1012 ff. 

There are other versions of this design, see Nos. 5480, 5481 ; it appears 
on the wall in No. 5633 and also in a pen drawing by Rowlandson, The 
School of Eloquence, in the collection of Mr. Oppe, exhibited Burlington 
Fine Arts Club, 193 1-2. It is mentioned in No. 6199. 

7l|x 13 in.; each compartment approximately 3|x if in. 

5480 THE STATE OF THE NATION. [2] [n.d. perhaps 1783] 

Sold by W: Holland N° 50 Oxford Sr Price r. 

Engraving (partly mezzotinted). Another version (reversed), and drawn 
more freely, of No. 5479. Beneath each figure is engraved an exclama- 
tion. These are, upper row (1. to r.) : O my back! ['L*^ Land' ?], Good Lack! 
[Lord Sandwich] ; What a Stench! [Rigby] ; Curse the French! [Germain] ; 
Fm quite gone! [Lord North] ; Damn the Don! [Lord Mansfield] ; We're all 
aground! [Lord Barrington]. Lower row (1. to r.): How Fm bound! [D^ 
Johnson] ; Fm quite sick! [Duke of Richmond] ; It's a Spanish Trick! [Wilkes] ; 
Fts [sic] all in vain! [Fletcher Norton] ; What a Strain! [Lord Carlisle] ; 
Fine Fun! [Sawbridge]; Fvejust done! [Col. Barre]. 
Beneath the design is engraved : 

In a certain Great House that there is in this Land, 
When a motion is made on your Feet you must stand, 
But in this little House it is quite the revarse. 
When a motion is made you must sit on your .... 

7^^X13; each compartment, upper row approximately 3YgXi|; lower 
row approximately 3/gX if. 

5480 A An earlier state, without the words beneath the figures and 
without publication line. 


Pu¥ by H. Humphrey, S^ James's Street [n.d.] 

Engraving. Another version of No. 5480 freely drawn in outline, with 



certain alterations in the hats, suggesting a publication some years later 
than 1778, perhaps 1784 or 1786. Words as in No. 5480. The first figure, 
saying O my Back!, wears a high-crowned hat instead of a three-cornered 
hat, and top-boots instead of shoes. The man saying Damn the Don wears 
a high-crowned hat instead of a low-crowned one. 

Three of the women in the lower row wear hats with higher crowns, 
those of the third and fifth being Welsh in shape. 

The design and the words below the design are enclosed by a marginal 
line, this measurement being 9|x 13 J in. 

The size of the compartments is approximately the same as in No. 5480. 

No. 1220 in the Collection de Vinck: Etat de la Nation Angloise with 
the comic publication line, A Londre a la taverne du vent, is presumably 
a French copy of No. 5479, 5480, or 5481. 

5482 V. 2. 69. A VIEW IN AMERICA IN 1778 ^ 

M D [Darly] sc. ^^^ 

Pu¥ by M Darly Aiig^ i. lyyS 

Engraving. A negro lies prone in the foreground (r.) ; he has been wounded 
by a cannon-ball; cannon-balls of various sizes lie on the ground near 
him. A man wearing a military overcoat with a sash stands over him ; he 
points with his three-cornered hat towards the negro, while he turns to 
a man standing on his r. whose dress resembles that of the members of 
Congress in No. 5474 with the addition of a large feathered hat and sword ; 
the Congressman is smoking a short pipe with a large covered bowl. 
Behind the negro stands an American soldier, with a feathered hat, who 
smiles and points towards three Death or Liberty men, one of whom turns 
his back, the other two look down with closed eyes and expressions of deep 
misery. Their clothes are ragged; one, who is very short, wears a cap 
inscribed Death or Liberty and a powder-horn inscribed Liberty or Death. 
In the background behind a palisade is a rectangular enclosure, with 
a flag inscribed U S. Behind the enclosure is a ruined fortification, from 
which cannon are being fired by one man only. Four or five men are 
visible behind the palisade. 

Perhaps a satire on the indifference of Congress to the sufferings of 
American soldiers, and on the attitude to negro slavery in America, 
illustrating Dr. Johnson's familiar gibe. 

One of the same series as No. 5370, &c. Probably from a sketch by an 
amateur, perhaps Mansergh. 
8|xi2j^g in. 


M Dsc y 

Pub by M Darly jg Strand Aug i. 1778. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A soldier stands at attention in profile 
to the 1. holding his musket with fixed bayonet. A long pigtail hangs 
from short, shaggy hair. He wears a pointed cap tilted over his eyes, 
military coat, and jack-boots. On his back is a variety of objects, including 
a flask, a pouch, a leg of mutton, and (?) a turkey. 




The Hessians were incorrigible plunderers of friend and foe in America. 

Probably belongs to the same series as No. 5482, but the numbered 
margin has been cut off. 


[n.d. c. Aug. 1778] 

Fuhl: as the Act directs by W. Richardson N° 68 High Holborn. 

Engraving. An English sailor wielding a cat-o'-nine-tails chases a French 
sailor into the wide jaws of a dragon or sea-monster; they symbolize the 
British and French fleets. The French sailor, whose jacket is decorated 
with fleur-de-lys, carries a man-of-war on his head; he shrieks in alarm, 
his hands outstretched. His trousers are undone and he puffs a blast at 
his pursuer resembling the smoke which comes from the ships' guns. 
Both men are running on the surface of the sea; within the jaws of the 
monster is a fleet; guns are firing towards a single British ship on the 1. 
which returns the fire. The jaws of the monster are inscribed Grand 

The battle of Ushant, the first naval engagement of the war with France, 
was indecisive, for though the advantage was with the British, the French 
made good their escape to Brest, see No. 5626. It resulted in the court- 
martials of Keppel and Palliser, see Nos. 5536-8, and gave rise to many 
satires, see Nos. 5486, 5570, 5992, &c. 

5i6X7f in. 


pr ^d 

Engraving, partly mezzotinted. A number of men sit and stand round a table 
in some coffee-house or club, smoking, reading, and drinking. A man in 
spectacles reads in the Gazette a dispatch signed Clin{ton'\ ; another looks 
over his shoulder with an expression of satisfaction. A military officer 
tears a paper to pieces in disgust, on it is a row of ciphers. On the edge of 
the table is a paper inscribed Gazzette extroy lyio. We have gain'd a battle 
& ha'd[e'\ the French General in my coach. Marlborough. (Apparently an 
allusion to Blenheim 1704.) 

On the wall (1.) is a large map : Map of America belonging to the English 
in iy62 when Pitt was prime minister. In the centre is A Map of America 
belonging to the English in 1778; only a fragment in the north is left, filled 
with writhing serpents. On the r. is a picture. The Mountain in Labour; 
from the bottom of a mound a mouse emerges, crowds of men throw up 
their arms making gestures of astonishment. Under the map of America 
in 1778 is a play-bill: At the Theatre Royal S' James' es. A Play of All in 
the Wrong, Obstant by M" King. . . . which will be [followed by] a Farce of 
the sobject\ion\ . . . America. 

This appears to represent the Gazette Extraordinary of 24 Aug. 1778 
which contained Clinton's dispatch of 6 July, relating his encounter with 



Washington and Lafayette on 28 June at Freehold or Monmouth on the 
retreat after his evacuation of Philadelphia. Both Clinton and the Ameri- 
cans represented the affair as a victory, see Gazette, loc. cit., and Ann. Reg. 
1778, p. 225*. All in the Wrong was a popular comedy by Murphy, first 
played in 1761; Thomas King the actor (1730-1805) was in 1778 at the 
height of his fame, though here George III is clearly indicated. 

4fx6 in. 


[i Sept. 1778] 
Lond. Mag : August. 1778 y 

Engraving. From the London Magazine, xlvii. 339. In the foreground 
Neptune and Britannia (r.) are seated on the sea-shore in conversation. 
Neptune points with his trident and Britannia with a finger at a young 
man with lank hair, seated on a rock (1.) ; who holds a large striped American 
flag, a cock stands on his shoulder crowing. In the distance the British 
fleet is in line of battle among clouds of smoke ; above flies Fame blowing her 
trumpet and holding a British flag. The design is surrounded by a con- 
ventional frame of garlands, palm-branches, &c. The accompanying text 
explains that this represents Neptune consoling Britannia and deriding 
America. The Gallic cock crowing on the shoulder of an American repre- 
sents the 'unnatural' alliance of America with France. The British fleet 
is represented as triumphant because 'the event of the action was more 
beneficial than many victories'. 

For the battle of Ushant, 27 July 1778, see Nos. 5484, 5626. The 
London Magazine had been strongly pro- American, this print illustrates the 
change produced by the French alliance. 



London. Printed for G. Johnson as the Act directs 3 Sep^ 1778, and 
Sold at all the Printshops in London & West?ninster. 

Engraving. A zebra, on whose stripes are engraved the names of the 
thirteen colonies, is being treated in various ways by four men. A man 
standing behind it is about to put on its back a saddle inscribed Stamp Act. 
This is George Grenville; he says, / say, Saddle the Beast She will be able 

to bear great burdens for plac n [placemen] & Pens rs [Pensioners]. 

Lord North (1.) holds the animal by a halter, saying My tiame is Boreas the 
First I hold the Reins, and will never quit them till the Beast is Subdu£d 
(cf. No. 5231). Two men (r.) hold the animal by the tail: one, whose coat, 
decorated with fleur-de-lys, shows that he represents France, is saying 
You are doing un grand Sottise, and Begar I vill avail myself of it. Dis Zebra 
Vill look very pretty in my Menagerie. The other, dressed as an English 
military officer, says, My name is Fabius the Second, & the Rudder is my 
Hand. Pull Devil — Pull Baker, but She'll Stand upon her legs at last. This 
is evidently Washington (a second Fabius Cunctator), and he is so identified 
in a contemporary hand. Behind Lord North stand three men, who 
represent the three Commissioners sent to treat with the Americans, see 
No. 5473, &c. The central figure, probably Lord Carlisle, holds in his 
hands objects intended for a wisp of hay and a sieve of oats; he says, 

' The title has been supplied from 'Directions to the Bookbinder'. 



I imagined the Animal woii'd have accepted our Hay & Oates; the man on 
his 1., probably Eden, says Our Offers are Rejected no terms but Inde- 

ypendence. The third, Governor Johnstone, older and more burly than the 
other two, says, / thought they wou'd have received us inore Friendly, but now 
give over all hopes. Behind the figures is the sea with a small town on the 
farther side of a bay. After the title is engraved, alive from America! walk 
in Gem' men and Ladies, walk in. 

The bias of the print is clearly shown by the allusion to the Stamp Act, 
passed in 1765 and repealed in 1766, without having been put in execution, 
intended to raise money towards the expenses of the defence and adminis- 
tration of the colonies. For other references to the Stamp Act (usually 
attributed to Bute) see Nos. 41 18, 41 19, 4124, 4125, 4130, 4140, 4141, 4142, 
4143, 4298, 4842, 5298, 5490, 5491, 6190, 6291, and p. 216. 

Collection de Vinck, No. 1216. 
6f Xioi in. 


Price 61'^ 

Published as the Act directs Sepr 29'* lyyS 

Engraving. A satire on Irish Volunteers. A burlesque representation of 
volunteers from an Irish city, whose buildings are seen on the horizon (1.) ; 
on the r. are hills. An allusion to 'the Poddle Hole' shows that it is Dublin. 
Small companies of civic soldiers march from 1. to r. The leading party, 
probably the Dublin Corporation, wear long civic gowns, their leader 
carries a long staff and a candlestick held upside down. Labels issue from 
the mouths of the three foremost: the man with the candlestick, probably 
the Mayor, says What Billy is it Nothing] the next man, who wears bands, 
and is perhaps the Recorder of the City, says Thus I am lead about for 
500 p. y^', the third carries a large key, and says, / am Done w^^ the Keys 
of y^ City. These three are followed by twelve or thirteen obese men in 
gowns, probably the aldermen; they carry standards on which words are 
engraved evidently indicating their occupations: J^a/Zfl/); Adze; Titlepage; 
Teatub; Grape; Grogram; Starch; Figg; Taplash. In front of this party 
(r.), but looking away from it, stands a man in armour with an oval shield 
inscribed The only AppraisS Office; he carries a flag on which are two 

The next party appears to be a company of beggars ; they are nearly all 
maimed, with crutches, &c. Their leader is a well-dressed man carrying 
a spear, he says, I Live & Fll die by my Beggars. They carry a large ragged 
flag on which is a horse or ass drawing a two- wheeled cart, within which is 
a man (or woman) ; on it is inscribed 3400 to Support me. With the party 
is a woman carrying an infant. The last beggar, waving his crutch, cries 
Hey for Channell Row. 

The next party (six persons) appears to consist of surgeons and apothe- 
caries. On their standard is a pestle and mortar. The last man carries an 
axe. Their leader, holding a spear, looks over his shoulder towards his 
followers, saying Tis we support the Gallows. 

The next (and last) party (1.) appears to be a company of watchmen or 
police. Their leader carries a halberd and says Ay Bro^ & y^ Gallows 
Supports us. This company of five carry halberds, and each has a lantern 



slung from his shoulders. Their standard is supported on a halberd to 
which is attached a watchman's lantern and is inscribed, Col B .... nfor 
ever Huzza. 

In the distance, between this party and the city, is a gallows on a minute 
scale, from it hangs a man inscribed Rat\ spectators stand round. Near it 
walks a man with broadsides, shouting The last speech of I do-no-who. 

In the foreground on the extreme r. is a tree. In front of it sits an ape, 
goat, or satyr playing a set of bagpipes ; he says A sure a Sett was never Seen 
so Justly formed to Guard our City. Two men wearing hats and long gowns, 
each holding a sword, recline against the roots of the tree ; one holds a paper 
inscribed The House Scheme, and is saying / stop'd at Corkefor w' / am now. 
Between them and the Mayor's party runs a small boy on a minute scale, 
he carries a paper and cries. The whole Order. In the foreground, and 
extending to the roots of the tree, is a piece of water on which are two 
boats, full of men and rowed by two pair of oars, the rowers apparently 
facing the bows, where in each boat a man holds an anchor. One boat (r.) 
has a large flag inscribed The Geography, on the top of the flag-staff is a 

spinning-wheel. The man with the anchor says Send D^ G d to the 

Adid he 's Seasick. The other boat has a flag inscribed The Salmon. The 
man with the anchor says, Shall y^ Pavers be Landed', a passenger carries 
a pickaxe. 

On the shore are various camp-followers, &c. Two men stand together, 
their backs to the parties of volunteers; one holds a staff surmounted by 

a ball and cross, saying. Darby Smoke our S -ffs. ; the other says / do so. 

Near them is a small tilt- wagon, drawn by two horses, a carter walking 
beside them, the wagon has a flag inscribed Custard &c &c. Behind it 
walks a woman with a child on her back holding up newspapers for sale ; 
she is calling High barny Jour^, and her paper is inscribed Hiber[nian] 
Journal; behind her walks a small boy who points at the marching watchmen. 
Beneath the design is engraved, The Mayor of Bantam, hearing y* our 
perfidious Enemies the French, had taken Umbrage from his Majesty, calls in 
the aid of his Ally, Ben, King of the Beggars, who takes the Field with his 

Hussars, attended by Gen^ Gallipot with the D 1 S 1 Militia, & 

Justice Bed-post at the head of S^ A s Watch, while Adm^ Spinning 

Wheel, on board y^ Geography, commands a fleet of Observation on the Poddle 

While grim S'' Tony, that sagacious Blade, 
With Fury marches to attack a Shade; 
Behold him followed by a Num'rous Train, 

Coeval Some, in a sad Lack of Brain 

Oh! happy City, blest with such a Head, 
At once so Valorous and so well bred; 
That none, for parts & penetration quick, 
Can vie w^^ our well Polish' d Candlestick. 

This appears to be a satire on the Irish Volunteers of Dublin. The 
volunteer movement began in Belfast in 1778, through fears of a French 
invasion, and spread rapidly, soon becoming political, see No. 5572. 

6Jx 12J in. 

' Cf. J. Isaacson, The Choice, ... in Foundling Hospital for Wit, 1772, p. 137. 
A note explains that 'The Poddle (more properly perhaps the Puddle) is one of the 
great common-sewers of the city of Dublin, . . .'. 





[? Gillrayi.] 

[n.d. 1778] 

Sold by W. Humphrey, N° 22'j Strand. 

Engraving. Twelve persons seated round a circular table, their hands in 
various attitudes of prayer, their heads bent. In the centre, under a canopy, 
decorated w^ith the royal arms, sit the king and queen, A man on the 
king's r. is intended for Lord Petre; a lady on the queen's 1. for Lady Petre. 
A tall emaciated monk who stands on the 1. on a low stool is saying grace. 
Two footmen stand behind. On the wall (r.) is a crucifix and (1.) the picture 
of a saint with a halo. On the table are plates, knives, and various dishes 
including a sucking-pig and a pie. The guests, especially those facing the 
king and queen whose backs are turned to the spectators, are caricatured, 
the king and queen are not. 

This represents the visit paid by the king and queen to Lord Petre at 
Thorndon, Essex, 19-21 Oct. 1778, while visiting Warley Camp. This 
was a recognition of the Catholic Relief Act of 1778, which was unopposed 
and passed almost unnoticed, though it was to lead to the Gordon Riots. 
It is the earliest in date of a number of anti-Catholic satires which heralded 
the Gordon Riots, see No. 5534, &c., and especially No. 5670. The print 
does much less than justice to the magnificence of the entertainment 
provided by Lord Petre, see the extracts from his journal in M. D. Petre 's 
The Ninth Lord Petre, 1928, pp. 38 ff. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 28. Wright and Evans, No. 368. 


5489 A Another impression with the publication line 

Published Nov"" 5. lyyS. by Pat'' Gahagan Oxford Road. 

Date and name are probably intended to stress the no-Popery propaganda 
of the satire. 'Oxford Road' is probably an attack on the high-church 
sympathies of the Oxford clergy, see No. 5492, an attack on clergy who 
'have learned their Exercises at the Loyal Schools at Oxford'. 


Angezvitter entstanden durch die Auflage auf den Thee in Amerika. 
Orage cause par Vlmpot sur le The en Amerique. 1778. 

[Carl Guttenberg of Nuremburg.] 

Engraving. An adaptation, in reverse, of The Oracle by John Dixon, 
see No. 5225. Time, with a magic-lantern, throws upon a curtain an 
allegorical representation of revolution in America. He points this out to 
four female figures personifying the four quarters of the world. ^ Dixon's 
Britannia, Hibernia, and Scotia have been transformed into Europe, Asia, 

* Attributed to Gillray; its manner has some resemblance to etchings after 
Mortimer, see No. 5362. 

^ See J. H. Hyde, 'L'Iconographie des quatre parties du monde dans les 
tapisseries' ; Gazette des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1924, pp. 253 if. 



and Africa. Europe and Asia sit side by side, Asia's arm on Europe's 
shoulder. Asia, a fair woman, holds on her lap a censer, from which pour 
clouds of incense. Europe wears a plumed helmet, and has a spear and 
a shield on which is a horse ; both wear pseudo-classical draperies. Africa, 
a negress wearing a turban, stands behind Europe gazing in horror at the 
vision. This group is on the r. On the 1. sits America exactly as in Dixon's 
mezzotint. On the bale of goods behind her are the letters C. G., and 
beneath them 4 F.; on the bale on which she sits is an inverted M. The 
letters C. G. are the initials of the artist.' 

Time also is copied from Dixon; his magic lantern throws a circle of 
light on a heavy curtain. In the centre of the vision is a tea-pot (resembling 
a coffee-pot) placed over a fire in which stamped documents are blazing. 
A cock, the emblem of France, is blowing at the fire with bellows. ^ The 
contents of the tea-pot are exploding, and a serpent and the cap of liberty 
on its staff are being shot from it into the air, surrounded by rays of light 
and clouds of smoke. This represents the consequences of the Stamp Act 
and the tax on tea. For the snake emblem on the American flag see 
No. 5336, &c. Beneath the clouds of smoke under the fire a prostrate lion 
is partly visible, and below, a flag with three leopards, representing the 
British royal standard, torn, its staff broken. By it lies part of a map, 
showing the English Channel, inscribed Detroits . . . and the head of a 
spiked club. On the 1. three beasts of prey are fighting. They appear to 
be a lion, a bear, and a puma or lioness. Within the circle on the r. American 
soldiers are advancing with a striped flag on which is a serpent. Before 
them advances an allegorical figure of America resembling the woman 
watching the vision ; her upstretched hand appears about to grasp the cap 
and staff of liberty which is shooting up from the exploding tea-pot. 
Behind her is a mounted officer with a drawn sword followed by soldiers 
with fixed bayonets. The muzzles of two cannon are also visible, with a 
man holding a cannon ball. On the 1., British soldiers are fleeing in 
disorder, the heads of the rearmost men being under a yoke. A storm with 
darts of lightning rages over their heads. 

The heavily festooned curtain shows pillars, and on the wall (r.) is 
a picture or tapestry of two nude men fighting, one lies prostrate. 

In the centre of the lower margin are two medallions : one (1.) is inscribed 
Auto dafe and Holland. J 560; it represents a man tied to the stake, while 
a monk, holding up a crucifix, holds a torch to the pile. On the r. is 
Wilhelm Tell, Switzerland. I2g6. Tell aims with a cross-bow at the apple 
on his son's head, while Gessler on horseback points at the child. Between 
the medallions is part of an oak-tree. The medallion representing Holland 
is supported (1.) by the Dutch lion holding in his paw a sheaf of seven 
arrows representing the United Provinces. Hercules with his club (r.) 
supports the medallion of Switzerland. 

The example of Holland and Switzerland in their contest with tyrants 
is depicted as emblematic of the revolt of the Colonies against England. 
See No. 6190, an English adaptation of this design where the allusions are 
made explicit by words spoken by Time. See also No. 5491. For other 
references to the tax on tea see Nos. 5226, 5282, 5491, 5850, 5859. For the 
Stamp Act see No. 5487, &c. For Saratoga see No. 6470, &c. 

13X17 in. 

' Nagler, Die Monogrammisten, ii. 27. 

^ Impressions with the cock are rare, as the engraver was compelled to remove 
this emblem. Portalis et Bdraldi, Graveurs du 18"^' Steele, 1881, ii. 363. 





Engraving. A reduced version in reverse of No. 5490. Beneath the title 
is engraved : 

Le Temps fait voir avec sa Lanterne Magique, aux qiiatre parties du 
Monde, que cet Orage que les Anglois ont excite, les foudroye eux-memes, et 
va donner a VAmerique les may ens de se saisir du bonnet de la Liberte. 

51x61 in. 


[n.d., c. 1778, perhaps 1777] 

P. Canon deP T. Parson Sd 

Engraving. A bishop in lawn sleeves and mitre holds out his hands 
towards a troop of soldiers who advance through a gothic doorway (I.), over 
which is inscribed Gate to Preferment. He turns round to speak to Britannia 
(r.), who leans against a pedestal inscribed Constitution ; she holds her shield 
and a long staff, and wears a cap of liberty. The bishop, Markham, 

/Archbishop of York, says to her. Madam a noble Corps, True and Staunch 
Friends to the Cause, have learned their Exercises at the Loyal Schools at 
Oxford. Britannia answers. This Gate is not y^ Door to your Master's 
Sheepfold, he that entereth not by y^ Door is a thief & robber I will not trust 
you, you would ruin my Constitution & tear my Cap. Behind Britannia appear 
the head and shoulders of a man who appears to carry a musket on his 
back, perhaps an Irish Volunteer, he says to her, Dear Madam Tory's & 
Jacobites were never Friends to the Brunswick Line remember ye Years 15 
& 45. 

The soldiers wear clerical bands and low-brimmed hats and carry muskets 
with fixed bayonets; on their banner is a mitre; their leader holds a 
crozier; he is saying Please you Madam, for Mitres, Deaneries and Pre- 
bendary s we will wade thro' an Ocean of Yanky Blood. The heads and 
shoulders of a number of parsons, similarly dressed, who are rushing 
uphill towards the Gate to Preferment to join the 'York Regiment', appear 
between the troop and the archbishop. 

In the foreground (r.) two soldiers are talking together; one says, Tom 
who the Devil will trust these Fellows who are neither true to God nor Man, 
for every one is a Deserter from the Prince of Life. The other answers, Let 
them alone, they are but hirelings if I was King I would hang them all. On the 
horizon are churches or cathedrals falling into ruin. 

The names of the artists are probably a punning allusion to the supposed 
activities of the Church of England in support of the war. Markham was 
attacked in the House of Lords by Grafton, Shelburne, and others, 30 May 
1777, for a sermon contrary to the spirit of the Revolution (of 1689). Pari. 
Hist. xix. 326-51. (Sermon quoted, pp. 348-50 n.) Walpole, Last Journals, 
1910, ii. 29-30, 86-8. 

See also Nos. 5343, 5400. 

6Jx io| in. 



Engraving. Frontispiece from 'Perfection; a poetical Epistle, calmly 



addressed to the greatest Hypocrite in England', an attack on Wesley for 
his 'Calm Address to our American Colonies', 1775. 

A fantastic escutcheon whose supporters are, dexter, a wolf wearing the 
fleece of a sheep, and sinister, a fox. Objects on the shield have letters 
referring to notes beneath the design giving references to the verses. Above 
a chevron are (dexter chief) a, an open book inscribed Forms and Lies and 
Book of Common Prayer; b, a key. Middle chief, a money bag inscribed 
40 Guts. Sinister chief, d, a mouse-trap and a crozier. Below the chevron: 
Middle base, the fagade of a building with a pediment inscribed I.W. 
[John Wesley] surmounted by a cupola having a weathercock pointing to N, 
that is, to Lord North. It flies two flags, one inscribed Calm Address, p. 21 , 
the other Perfection. At the centre base of an ornamental border to the 
escutcheon is the head of Wesley, wearing bands, his mouth open. Beneath 
it is a ribbon inscribed. My . Son . get . Money. 

The wolf, the dexter supporter (I.), wears a fleece inscribed I.W., he 
excretes a blast inscribed c, New Light 40 Articles. The reference is to : 

if Ministers but nod. 
Make earthly Kings co-equal with thy God 
To other rules of Faith add this of thine 
And tack one Item more to Thirty-nine. 

He stands on three superimposed slabs, inscribed Impostor Detected. 
Letters. Contributions to the Stock. Evans. I.W. detected. The fox (r.) 
excretes News from America ; he stands on three slabs inscribed Subscrip- 
tions I to the Temple. Rowland Hill, p. 17. 

The crest is a mitre inscribed Erasmus, with e, a dagger and the motto 
Good Will towards Men. 

Since Wesley's 'Calm Address to our American Colonies', an un- 
acknowledged abridgement of Johnson's 'Taxation No Tyranny' sold at 
a penny and achieving a great circulation, Wesley had been the target of 
virulent abuse which reached a climax of scurrility in 1778. See Tyerman, 
Life and Times of Wesley, iii. 261 ff. It was followed by 'A Calm Address 
to the Inhabitants of England', 1778. 'A wolf in Sheep's clothing or an old 
Jesuit unmasked . . .' was published in 1775. The mitre is an allusion to 
the allegations of Toplady and Rowland Hill, that Wesley had asked 
Erasmus, bishop of Arcadia in Crete, to consecrate him bishop and had 
been refused. The dagger is supposed to indicate the eff"ect of the Calm 
Address: 'And massacre Mankind with CALM address.' 

The slabs supporting the wolf and fox are inscribed with the names of 
attacks on Wesley: the chief attack on the 'Calm Address' had been by 
Caleb Evans, a Baptist minister and a 'patriot' in 'A Letter to the Rev. 
M^ John Wesley occasioned by his "Calm Address"'. Rowland Hill's 
pamphlet of abuse was 'Imposture detected . . .' 1777. 

The weathercock pointing to the north indicates that Wesley has sold 
himself to the Ministry. Wesley's New Chapel in the City Road, opened 
in 1778, was built by subscriptions. The key on the escutcheon represents 
'the Keys of Hell', because of Wesley's alleged fulminations against non- 
Methodists. The mouse-trap is 'Priestcraft's Trap'. 

This print and Nos. 5494-6, 5576, are all frontispieces to scurrilous 
pamphlets in verse by the same writer, all published by J. Bew, Pater- 
noster Row. 'Perfection' is attributed to W. Combe by J. C. Hotten in his 
introduction to D' Syntax [1868], p. xli. • 




FLOCKS. [1778] 

Engraving. Frontispiece from 'Sketches for Tabernacle-Frames', another 
scurrilous attack on Wesley by the author of 'Perfection . . .', see Nos. 5493, 

5495, 5496, 5576. Wesley (I.) as 'Reynard' with a fox's head, wearing an 
M.A. gown with clerical bands, bends forward to extract the teeth of a 
working man (r.) with an ass's head, who kneels before him. Wesley rests 
a cloven hoof on a pile of four books; inscribed Locke, Sidney, Magna 
Charta, and Acherly's Constitute; he wears a collar inscribed North. 

•Jl Acherley's constitutional treatises ('The Britannic Constitution', 1727, &c.) 
expressed an extreme form of the social contract theoryof Locke and others. 
Beside him is a table (1.) on which are two open books transfixed by a 
dagger, across which is a scroll inscribed Dispatch for America', one book 
is Impostor detected by R. Hill, the other Political Sophistry detected by 
Evans. For these pamphlets see No. 5493. 

The working man, dressed like a blacksmith, opens his ass's jaws for 
Wesley's ministrations; in one hand is a bottle inscribed Prim. Phys., in 
the other a pamphlet, A Calm Address (see No. 5493); from his pocket 
protrudes a volume of Hymns. 

Behind Wesley (1.) is a book-case, its pediment ornamented by a mitre, 
in allusion to Wesley's alleged desire for consecration, see No. 5493. Its 
three shelves of books are inscribed Primitive Physick ; Political Pamphlets ; 
and Prayers, Sermons, Hymns. Wesley's 'Primitive Physick, or an easy 
and natural Method of curing most Diseases' went through many editions 
from 1747; it was first noticed and attacked by the medical profession in 
1776 in a pamphlet by Dr. W. Hawes, an eminent physician, as 'calculated 
to do essential injury to the health of those persons who may place con- 
fidence in it'. On the back wall are two framed H.L. portraits: Jacobus II 
and Lucy Cooper, the latter inscribed Converted June 24 at I O'Clock in the 
Morning. According to the Explanation which has been cut off the im- 
pression, the pictures show him to be a Jacobite and 'an old letcher'. Lucy 
was 'a Lady still remembered in Covent Garden', 'Perfection', p. 14 n. 

The allusions in this satire largely repeat those of No. 5496, though their 
political animus is more pronounced. Wesley is depicted as 'a physical, 
a political and a Religious Quack', 'The Love Feast', p. 13 n. See No. 

5496. His influence with the common people is alleged to have softened 
their animosity to the Government, an anticipation, though with a more 
limited application, of the conclusions of Lecky and Halevy. 



Engraving. Frontispiece from 'The Temple of Imposture', 1778, one of 
V a number of scurrilous pamphlets in verse attacking John Wesley by the 
same author, see Nos. 5493, 5494, 5496, 5576. A large serpent, holding 
a bird in its mouth, encircles a number of objects indicating various phases 
of religious imposture (so called). The serpent, which represents Wesley, 
is inscribed The subtlest beast of the field (a). This is annotated below the 
design: (a) NB some Hyper-Critics say it was not originally written Field 
but Moorfields. Within the space enclosed by the serpent are (1.) a sealed 
letter inscribed Aldeberts Letter, and a Gridiron, inscribed Mahomet's 
Gridiron ; beneath a scroll inscribed Old Light at Mecca is an open book, 



Koran. Above a scroll inscribed New Light in Moorfields are three books : 
Bedlam Hymns; Druid Hymns; Ignat; Loyola Monita Secreta, and a bottle 
inscribed Gin in whose neck is a lighted candle. Dividing the Koran from 
these objects is a short curved sword of the pattern worn by macaronies 
c. lyji-Z (see No. 5030) inscribed, Calm Address of Both. Beneath the 
serpent is a scroll inscribed Wise as Serpents. Below the design is engraved : 

Thus modern Arts on Ancient Plans improve, 
A Bedlam-Serpent swallows Mecca's Dove. 

In the list (p. 31) Wesley is denounced as *0f all Impostors since the Flood 
the worst'. 

The Foundry, Moorfields, was from 1740 to 1778 Wesley's chief place 
of preaching and the head-quarters of Methodism in London. Its prox- 
imity to Bethlehem Hospital (Bedlam), combined with the hysteria which 
sometimes attacked his converts, was a common occasion of raillery. 

For similar, though less scurrilous, attacks on Wesley see Nos. 1785, 
2425, by Hogarth (1762). 

MURCIA. [1778] 

Engraving. Frontispiece to The Love-Feast, 1778; one of a number of 
scurrilous pamphlets in verse by the same writer against John Wesley, 
see Nos. 5493-5495, 5576. Wesley with a fox's head and a collar inscribed 
North, dressed as in No. 5494, kneels at the feet of Murcia or Venus (1.), 
a half-nude woman seated on a throne under a curtained canopy; she is 
about to place a mitre on his head. Her throne is decorated by a blind- 
folded cupid holding a cornucopia. A cloven hoof projects from Wesley's 
gown. A disappointed candidate for the bishopric, dressed in gown and 
bands, holds up his hands, in one of which is his wig. Another disappointed 
candidate slinks out of a door (r.), though which a boy enters with his hat 
in his hand, holding out a paper inscribed Wanted an Advowson. The scene 
is the interior of a Georgian church or chapel, with a gallery supported on 
columns. On the r. is a double-decked pulpit. Two chandeliers hang from 
the roof, one inscribed Gift of Miss Lucy Cooper (see No. 5494), the other, 
Gift of Alderman Gripus. Beneath the design is engraved: 

Thine be the Diocese of all Moorfields 
Romano wav'd his Wig, & cry'd. Huzza! 
Simonio disappointed stalk' d away. 

Murcia has selected three competitors for the diocese of Moorfields, 
where the Foundry was the Methodist head-quarters until Nov. 1778, 
see No. 5495. 'Romano' (William Romaine, 1714-95), 'Simonio' (Dr. 
Madan, 1726-90), and 'Reynardo', Wesley, all preach a sermon before 
her, she chooses Reynardo : 

Like other B . . . ps [Bishops] gorge the golden Bait, 
Amphibious Expletives of Church and State 
Strange, Gothic, feudal, self-erected things; 
Lord Priests, anointed Ayes and Noes for k ... gs 

The Love-Feast, p. 44. 



The intention of this satire, hke others by the same writer, is largely 
political: Wesley wears North's collar: 

He who on Canting lays so great a Stress, 

Cou'd drink hot Blood, yet write a Calm Address; p. 33 (see No. 5493). 
Madan had been accused of simony in 1767-8 in connexion with the living 
of Aldwinckle, to which on his recommendation Thomas Haweis had been 
presented, see also No. 4470. Romaine was a calvinist of the Church of 
England, and a great revivalist preacher. The attack on episcopacy should 
also be noted, cf. No. 5492, &c. 
711X7^ in. 

Mr. Hawkins describes another frontispiece to a similar satire on 
Wesley by the same writer : 


A frontispiece to 'Fanatic Saints; or Bedlamites inspired,' 1778. 

{a) A bottle of gin, with a glass, labelled Inspiration. 

{h) A pillory and a gallows, labelled Election. 

{c) A satyr's head with clerical bands labelled Perfection. 

Wesley and other Methodist preachers are charged in the poem with 
availing themselves of their character for sanctity to seduce their converts 
and turn their chapels into brothels. 




Series of Tete-a-Tete portraits. 

5497 N° XXXIV. MISS d — le. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jurf near S* John^s Gate 
Jany I. lyyS. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, ix. 625. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. An 
account of the amours of 'a professed voluptuary'. He is George James, 
Earl of Cholmondeley (1749-1827), see G. E. C, Complete Peerage. See 
No. 591 1. Miss D. is the seduced and deserted daughter of a Surrey 

Ovals, 2\\ X 2| ; 2| X 2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S' John's Gate 
Jan. 27. 1778. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, ix. 675 (Supplement). Two bust 
portraits, the man in clerical gown and bands. They illustrate 'Histories 

of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. An account of T y, a popular 

calvinistic preacher, evidently Toplady (1740-78). Mrs. L. is the widow 
of a rich tradesman. 

Ovals, 2f X 2^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun"" near S' John's Gate 
Feb. I. 1778. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, x. 9. Two bust portraits in 

oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete Annexed; . . .'. 

Scandal about an alderman and his housekeeper. They are identified by 

H. Bleackley as Alderman John Hart, see City Biography, p. 61 , and Hannah 


Ovals, 2\\ X 2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5500 N° IV. MISS C LM N. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S^ Johns GatCy 

March i. 1778 
Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, x. 65. Two bust portraits in 

305 X 


oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. 

An account of Lord V and Miss C — m — n, the daughter of an officer 

killed in the Seven Years' War. He is conjecturally identified by H. 
Bleackley as Lord Villiers. 

Ovals, 2f X2^g-; 2f X2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5501 N° VIL MISS SP C— R. 


Published as the Act directs by A . Hamilton Jiirf near S^ Johfi's Gate, 
April I'* lyyS. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, x. 121. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. One (r.) that of Lord North, facing T.Q. to the 1. w^earing his 
ribbon and star. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; 
. . .'. The account of North as minister is favourable on the whole. He 
is said to visit Miss S., one of the most beautiful 'demi-reps' with a villa 
at Blackheath. For Charlotte Spencer see H. Bleackley, Ladies Fair and 
Frail, pp. 209-10. 

Ovals, 2| X 2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5502 N° X. MISS L N 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jutf near S^ John's Gate 
May I. lyyS 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, x. 177. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . , .'. 
An account of Viscount Petersham, 1753-1829 (Earl of Harrington, 1779), 
Lieut. -Col. of the 3rd Foot Guards and A.D.C. to Burgoyne in 1777. 

G.E.C., Complete Peerage. He is said to have established Miss L n, the 

destitute orphan of a doctor, as his mistress. 

Ovals, 2|x 2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

5503 N" XIII. MRS p T 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S' John^s Gate 
June I. 1778. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, x. 233. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. The man wears armour with a ribbon and star. They illustrate 
'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; or. Memoirs of the Cautious 
Commander and M" Pr — tt'. An account of Lord Amherst (1717-97). 
He is said to have relieved the necessities of Mrs. P., the wife of a half-pay 
lieutenant, from charitable motives, to have fallen in love with her and to 
have procured the husband a captain's commission on condition that he 
gave up all claim to her. 

Ovals, 2| x 2j5g in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



5504 N° XVI. MISS SP KS. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jurf near S^ John's Gate 
July I. 1778. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, x. 289. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . ,'. 
Account of an admiral who distinguished himself in the war of the Austrian 
Succession and the Seven Years' War. Perhaps Lord Hawke (1705-81). 
His supposed mistress is a Miss Sparks. 

Ovals, 2f X 2 J in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jun^ near S^ JohrCs Gate, 
July \sic. i.e. Aug^ i. 1778. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, x. 345. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. An 

account of 'M"" B d', William Bird, and of his amours with Harriet 

Lambe, Lady Archer, and Grace Dalrymple Elliott; and of Anne, daughter 
of Lord Bute, wife of Hugh Lord Percy. Percy had begun a suit for 
divorce in May 1778 which was obtained in March 1779. H. Walpole, 
Letters, x. 232. 

Ovals, 2|X2| in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442. 



Published as the Act directs by A . Hamilton Jun^ near S^ Johfi's Gate. 
Sep' I. 1778. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, x. 401. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. 
An account of Sir Michael le Fleming, of Rydal, Westmorland, who is said 
to 'give the ton in dress and equipage' and of his gallantries. Miss (or Mrs.) 
Scott is said to be the daughter of a clergyman, who had eloped with a 
recruiting officer, had been deserted, and had become a courtesan. 
Ovals, 2|X2i; 2|x2j56 in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


Published as the Act directs by A . Hamilton Jun' near S^ John's Gate 
Oct' I. 1778. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, x. 457. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. 
An account of the amours of a man of fortune whose extravagance has 
compelled him to sell 'his choice collection of paintings at B.'. The lady is 
the divorced Lady Grosvenor, 'sans souci' being an allusion to the villa 
of the Duke of Cumberland near Potsdam, cf. No. 4844, &c. 

Ovals, 2f X2t in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



5508 N° XXVIII. MISS B — s 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton Jurf near 5' John's Gate 

Nov I. 1778. 

Engraving. Tozon and Country Magazine, x. 513. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . ,', 
An account of the extravagance and dissipation of Sir John Lade (1759- 
1838), nephew and ward of Thrale, now chiefly remembered for the 
prophetic verses written by Johnson on his coming of age. Boswell, Life, 
iv. 413. He married a woman of the town in 1789 and was a friend of the 
Prince of Wales. See G.E.C., Complete Baronetage, v. 109-10; Hayward, 
Life of M" Piozzi, i. 69. As the driver of a phaeton he is here said to rival 
Lord Molesworth. Miss B s is a milliner's apprentice whose acquain- 
tance Sir John made by the purchase of ruffles. 

Ovals, 2f X 2| in. B.M.L. , P.P. 5442 b. 

5509 N° XXXI. MISS C LE. 


Published as the Act directs by A. Hamilton JutV^ near S^ John's Gate 
Dec'' I. 1778. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, x. 569. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed; . . .'. An 
account of Alexander Wedderburn (1733-1805), afterwards Lord Lough- 
borough. Miss C. is the daughter of a rich citizen who had been drugged 
and seduced by a peer. 

Ovals, 2| X 2j in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


T. O [Thomas Orde] inV & deV f Bretherton f 3^ Jany 1778 

Engraving. A satire on Cambridge. The interior of a large room showing 
two sash windows, through one of which (1.) is seen part of the south 
side of the Senate House, through the other, the tower of St. Mary's 
Church, both drawn with topographical accuracy. Between the two 
windows is a niche in which is a statue of Athene holding her shield; 
in her outstretched 1. hand is held out a laurel wreath towards some men 
beneath her who have entered from a door on the r. Her owl sits beside 
her on the stump of a tree. Beneath the title is etched, dedicated to the 
illustrious Inheritress of her fame in Professors of Arts & Sciences, the 
University of Cambridge O Matre pulchra Filia pulchrior! Immediately 
below Athene, and concealing the lower part of her draperies a man stands 
on a high rostrum covered with a cloth. He wears a furred academic gown 
and bands, and holds out a rolled document in his r. hand. Immediately 
below the rostrum a man, not in academic dress, is seated at a table writing. 
He is in profile to the r. looking towards four men who have entered from 
the r. through an open door, apparently 'professors of Arts and Sciences', 
whose names he is recording. The foremost of these is a dancing-master 
who stands holding a bow in his r. hand, a kit or small fiddle in his 1. 
Next is a rough-looking elderly man wearing a round hat and long coat. 
The other two are middle-aged, one holding his hat and a cane and 



accompanied by a dog. On the 1., and behind the chair of the man writing, 
are two other 'professors'; a fencing-master, wearing a fencing-jacket, 
stands in back view, turning his head in profile to the r., his 1. arm raised, 
holding his foil horizontally. Behind him stands a thin man wearing a hat, 
one hand in his waistcoat pocket, the other thrust in his waistcoat. 

All the figures are probably portraits. The man on the rostrum resembles 
the later portrait of William Cooke, D.D., Provost of King's College from 
1772. The room is evidently in the old Provost's Lodge, probably that 
shown at the east end of the Chapel in fig. 55, Willis and Clark, Architec- 
tural Hist, of Cambridge, 1886, i. 548. Cf. Bunbury's satire on Cambridge, 
No. 4729 (1777), where Athene's owl is flying away from the town. 

i8f X 24I in. B.M.L. K, 8 (100). 


Coxheath fecit [? Bunbury.] 

Pu¥ Nov 10. 1778 by M Darly Strand. 

Engraving. (Coloured impression.) An enormously fat and short man 
dressed as a military officer rides a white horse in profile to the 1. His seat 
is grotesque. Beneath the title is etched Saddle White Surre[y] for the 
Field to morrow. King Rich^ 3^. 

The militia camp at Coxheath near Maidstone was formed in 1778 
as part of the defences against France and as a centre for recruits. 

Probably a caricature of Captain Grose (1731 P-qi), captain and adjutant 
of the Surrey militia from 1778 till his death. For Grose see No. 4577, &c. ; 
for Coxheath No. 5523, &c. See also No. 5787. 

5511a Re-issued (n.d.) with an altered publication line: Printed for 
Robert Sayer, N" 53, Fleet Street. In book of Sayer's 'Drolls'. 

7iX5f in. 

5512 [CHEVALlfiRE D'EON.]' [1778] 

Engraving. Frontispiece from 'An Epistle from Mademoiselle D'Eon to 
the Right Honourable L d M d [Mansfield] ... on his Determina- 
tion in regard to her Sex. 1778' (B.M.L. 11631. g. 31/12). Two figures 
stand joined together back to back, each with one leg only: d'Eon as a man 
is in profile to the 1., wearing a military hat, holding out a large sabre in 
his r. hand, his leg in a spurred jack-boot. D'Eon as a woman is in profile 
to the r. dressed in the fashion of the day, wearing a large feathered hat, 
and holding a fan. Each face has a large circular patch on the cheek. 
Beneath the design is engraved : 

Hail! Thou Production most uncommon, 
Woman half-man and man half-Woman! 

vid: Epistle. 

For Mansfield's decision in the King's Bench that D'Eon was a woman, 
see No. 5427. 

7X5i'gin. (pi.). 

' Written on the print in an old hand. 




Prints from Darly's series, continued from No. 5451. 

5513 43- V. 2. THE LAST DROP. 

Puh. by M Darly Jany ig. 17 j 8 Strand. 

Engraving. A lady seated in profile to the r. by a small rectangular table 
drinks from a wine-glass; on the table is a bottle labelled Brandy. Her 
hair is in the grotesque pyramid then fashionable, decorated with ostrich 
feathers and large curls. She appears unconscious of a skeleton which 
stands beside her, threatening her with an arrow held in its raised 1. arm. 
On the wall behind the figures are two W.L. portraits; one of a man, full- 
face, standing by a tree, holding a spear; he is dressed as a cavalier, wearing 
a feathered cap and short cloak; the other is of a stout man of plebeian 
appearance, in profile to the r., holding up a foaming pot of beer and a 
smoking pipe. Cf. No. 5172. 

I2|x8| in. 

5514 45. V. 2. LADY PELLICE, AND MR MUFF. 
H. J. (Monogram.) 

. . . M Darly . . . Strand Jany 20. lyyS.^ 

Engraving. A man and woman in conversation. The lady (I.) stands in 
profile to the r., the man stands facing to the front, but turns his head 
towards her. The hands of both are in a muff, that of the man being the 
larger. She wears the high-dressed hair with large side curls then fashion- 
able, but decorated only with a ribbon. She wears a hooded cloak with 
a border of fur, below which appears her dress. The man's wig has side 
curls which resemble those worn by the lady. 
I2X8| in. 


Puh. by M Darly N" sg Strand Feb. 26. lyyS 

Engraving. Four ladies sit at a square card-table; their cards have been 
thrown down face-upwards. The two who sit in profile to 1. and to r. are 
quarrelling violently; one (r.) points at her vis-a-vis in anger; the other (1.) 
has seized a candlestick and is about to hurl it at her partner, the lighted 
candle falls to the ground behind her shoulder; both are elderly harridans. 
Between them on the farther side of the table the player appears amused ; 
of her partner only the back is visible. The enormous pyramids of hair 
elaborately decorated in different ways play an important part in the 
design, as does the carpet, which is of an elaborate acanthus scroll design. 
The card-players sit in upright chairs with carved backs. On the wall is 
an oval mirror, on each side of which is a landscape. The dresses show the 
fashions of the day, the hair-dressing much caricatured, cf. No. 5370, &c. 
Copy by F. W. Fairholt in Wright, Caricature History of the Georges, 
1868, p. 256. 


' This line is scarcely legible; Miss Banks has written on the print '1777 or near 
that time*. 




Pub. by M Darly N° 39 Strand March 11. 1778. 

Engraving. The interior of a well-furnished room. A plainly dressed man, 
wearing a hat, threatens a hairdresser with his fist and a shovel taken from 
the fireplace ; he is being restrained by a neatly dressed maid-servant. A 
lady (r.) seated in an arm-chair watches the scene complacently. The hair- 
dresser looks towards a dog (1.) which is biting his leg. In his hand is a 
tress of long false hair, a pair of curling-tongs is pushed through the button- 
holes of his coat, in his hair or wig are stuck hairpins and a comb. The 
lady's hair is dressed in fashionable pyramid decorated with feathers, lace, 
and large curls. Over the chimney-piece, partly visible on the r., is a 
portrait of a lady in Elizabethan dress. The high, panelled door (1.) has 
a carved lintel. An elaborately patterned carpet covers the floor. Similar 
in manner to No. 5522. For satires on hair-dressing see No. 5370, &c. 




Pu¥ M Darly 3g Strand. June i. 1778 

Engraving. A barber is dressing the hair of a woman seated in profile to 
the r. An enormous heart-shaped cushion has been fixed on her head, and 
the barber, standing on tip-toe, is fixing to it a tress of false hair. The 
woman's own hair hangs loosely over her shoulders and forehead; in her 
hand is another piece of false hair. A woman wearing a cap and apron 
holds a mirror. On a round table are a number of curls and hair-pins. 
Wigs hanging on the wall and a barber's block indicate a barber's shop. 
On a shelf is a book inscribed Rev'^ M^ Spintext, implying that the barber 
is also a minister or local preacher; he is neatly dressed and wears a check 
apron. In the wall is a small lattice-window ; a vase of flowers stands on 
the sill. For satires on hair-dressing see No. 5370, &c. 
I2^x8f in. 


Pub by M Darly N° 33 Strand July 13. 1778. 

Engraving. Three women (caricatured) walking in profile to the r. beside 
the sea or a lake. Their head-dresses are caricatures of the prevailing 
fashion. The foremost walks with a closed parasol on a long stick like a 
shepherdess's crook; in her r. hand is a small bag or basket. Her hair is 
in a pyramid, with curls, on it is a lace cap with lappets, and a flat hat 
trimmed with ribbons and feathers. She is followed by a very thin 
woman, whose pyramid is decorated with more curls but with a smaller 
cap and hat, she holds a closed fan; behind walks a short stout woman 
with a frizzed wig bound by a ribbon. The dresses show the prevailing 
fashion for skirts, straight in front, puffed out at the back and showing the 

Miss Tittup, a character in Garrick's Bon Ton, was played by Eliza 



Farren, 1777, D.N.B. The tall thin lady is perhaps intended for Miss 
Farren ; there is a certain resemblance to later caricatures by Gillray. For 
hair-dressing see No. 5370, &c. 

8t^ X i2f in. 

ADULTERY [? 1778] 

Engraving. Another version in reverse of No. 4248, pub. Sayer, 21 July 
1768. It appears to belong to Darly's series, but is vvrithout publication 
8^Xi2i| in. 


Puh by M Darly OcV 18. 1778. 39 Stra[nd.y 

Engraving. A clergyman in hat, bands, and gown, under which appear 
spurred boots, walks between two watchmen, each with a lantern and staff. 
The three walk arm-in-arm in profile to the 1,, the watchmen supporting 
the parson, towards a door, the upper part of which is formed of open bars, 
through which appear the heads and shoulders of men and women, 
evidently the entrance to the parish 'cage* or lock-up. Outside it is a 
whipping-post and stocks, the post inscribed Winning Post. 

8|x 12 in. 

5521 V. 2. 76. MISS. BUM— BARDINI. 

Nov'' 5. 1778. M Darly jg Strand 

Engraving. The back view of a short stout woman who stands in front of 
an oval mirror in which her face is reflected. She wears a cap with lappets 
and a flowered dress. The mirror is hung above a marble-topped console ; 
on each side of it hangs a portrait of a lady. A carpet with a bold design 
covers the floor. 

i2f X8^ in. 


Engraving. Margins have been cut off, but this appears to belong to the 
series published by Darly. A fashionably dressed woman seated on an 
upholstered settee attempts to pull towards her a footman who resists her 
with an expression of distress. The scene is one corner of a lofty room with 
panelled walls and a painted ceiling, probably domed. A decanter of 
wine and two glasses are on a circular table (1.). A dog barks at the man. 
An elaborately patterned carpet covers the floor. The lady is fashionably 
dressed and of meretricious appearance. 

'The salacious Lady Harrington' is written on the mount of the print. 
She was the subject of many lampoons and satires, see No. 4903. Appar- 
ently based on Fielding's Joseph Andrews. Similar in manner to No. 5516. 
i2X8| in. 

' Margin cut off. 



See No. 4779 — I Jan. 1778 

M' R. S. inv^ W. H [Humphrey] fee. Pub. W. Humphrey. 

An illustration to Anstey's Bath Guide (Lady Pandora MacScurvy and 
General Sulphur). 


/. M. Inv. [? J. Mortimer]. W. H. Fe. [? Humphrey] 

Puh. Oct. 28. lyyS by W. Humphrey. 

Engraving. A crowd of visitors, chiefly women of disreputable appearance, 
making their way (r. to 1.) towards the camp at Coxheath, near Maidstone. 
The foremost is a courtesan wearing a military hat and coat carried on the 
shoulders of an officer ; she points to the camp with a spear ; a dog barks 
at her. Next, a woman leads by the arm a fat, elderly and amorous officer, 
of very unmilitary appearance, who holds his sword in his hand. Two 
elderly women, evidently brothel-keepers, are conspicuous; one holding 
crutches is being pushed in a wheel-barrow by a decrepit old man. Facing 
the crowd (1.) are three cannon, inscribed g P.; g Pounder and G.R. 12 
Pounder^ the last is being inspected by three women. In the background 
(1.) a cannon is being fired, and men are being drilled beside a group of 
tents. Behind the walkers (r.) three women are driving rapidly in a two- 
wheeled chair drawn by two horses towards the camp. 

The first of many satires on the militia-camps formed in 1778 in con- 
nexion with recruiting and as part of the defences of the country. Coxheath 
was visited by the king on 3 Nov., great crowds assembling. London 
Chronicle, 3-5 Nov. 1778. 'Camp News' was a considerable item in the 
newspapers and 'the Camp' by Tickell, an entertainment, was produced 
at Drury Lane, 15 Oct. 1778, and was very popular for two seasons, its 
chief feature being a realistic representation of Coxheath Camp by 
Loutherbourg. For camps see Nos. 3752, 4563, 4760, 5525, 5600-2, 5620, 
5773. 5775. 5778, 5794, 5950, 5953, 6156. 

Attributed to Gillray (Grego, Gillray, p. 27), but perhaps after a drawmg 
by Mortimer. Similar in manner to Nos. 5524, 5609. 

9¥Xi3^ in. 


Published Nov' 18^^ iTj8 by W. Humphrey. 

Engraving. Street scene; a fat man, plainly dressed and wearing riding- 
boots, is being dragged into a brothel by three fashionably dressed courtesans. 
One kisses him, one pulls, the third pushes him towards an open door (1.) 
over which is a projecting sign, a calf's head in a dish inscribed The Old 
Calfs Head, Lodgings for Single Men by S^ Fleecem. The door lintel is 
inscribed Kind & Tender Usage. The man holds out his hands in protest 
with an expression of dismay. A dwarfish ragged girl (r.) appears to be 
picking his pocket. A fat old procuress (1.) looks on laughing. A small 
dog (1.) and the overturned equipment of a shoe-black (r.) add to the 
confusion. In the background two men are in conversation, one smoking. 
After the title is engraved, Touch me not! Fm still a Maid. 

Attributed to Gillray (Grego, Gillray, p. 27) ; evidently by the same artist 
as No. 5523. 
i2|X9i^ in. 



FULL MARCH. [c 1778] 

London, Publish'd & Sold by W. Humphrey. 

Engraving. Two couples of very obese soldiers march in profile to the r. 
behind their equally obese leader. All carry muskets without bayonets and 
are dressed alike in plumed hats, coats with military facings and epaulettes, 
ruffled shirts and half-boots; their leader wears a sash. 

The two camps on Warley Common, Essex, and Coxheath, Kent, were 
much visited by the civilian population, and these visits and the militia 
were a popular subject of satire, see No. 5523, &c. George III stayed with 
Lord Petre, see No. 5489, when visiting Warley Camp in Oct. 1778. The 
camp is described, with an engraving of 'General Parker exercising the 
Army', in the Westminster Magazine, 1779, p. 377. 

8^X13 in. 


Published as the Act directs May f^ 1778, by M" Humphrey, S' 
Martins Lane, 

Engraving. A lady, seated (1.), watches through a lorgnette two small dogs 
dancing on their hind legs, while a foppishly dressed man, evidently a 
French dancing-master (r.), plays the fiddle. One dog is a grotesquely 
clipped poodle, the other appears to be a King Charles. A cockatoo 
watches from a perch. The lady is fashionably dressed and wears a hat 
trimmed with feathers. The room is indicated by a looped-up curtain and 
an ornate mirror with candle sconces hung on the wall by a bow of ribbon. 

i2|X9i- in. 


Pub: as the Act directs. Oct" 14 by W. Richardson N° 68 High Holborn 

Engraving. Lady, standing in profile to the 1., has drawn up, by a cord 
attached to a pulley, an enormous calash hood extending from above her 
high-dressed hair to her waist. She is fashionably dressed. For the calash 
see No. 5434, &c. 

Reproduced, Paston, PI. xxvii. 

i2|X7il in. (pi.). 

[W. Austin.] 

Published as y^ act Directs November. 1778 

Engraving. One well-dressed man is being thrashed by another to the 
amusement of the bystanders. The victim is running away with clasped 
hands and an expression of rage, his hat and cane are on the ground; 
his enemy (r.) raises his cane to strike, A woman (r.) of grotesque appear- 
ance, probably a fish-wife, grins and points at the fray; on her head is a 
large basket in which are a dog and a child who waves his hat in delight. 
Behind her appears the profile of an elderly man wearing spectacles. On 
the 1. is another group of spectators: a milk-girl, carrying pails attached to 
a yoke on her shoulders ; a fat man stands behind her, his hands on her 



shoulders. A third man is faintly indicated behind them. In front is a little 
chimney-sweep's boy, holding up his brush and shovel, with him is a 
ragged boy wearing the large tie-wig which was worn by sweeps on May 
Day. A dog is barking. In a scroll on the upper part of the design is 
etched: Ha Ha Ha I Can't help Laughing, No No nor You For Every 
Body Laughs at Worstead Stockings Mi . J, y^ Acknowledged Coward 
What! retreat at Noon Day & Suffer him Self to be Cane^ thus in y" heart of 
y" City of London O Terrible! a Merchant too & a Patriot A disgrace to 
y^ Names ha ha ha he he he keep it Up My Dear Boy keep it up [word 
erased] Dedicat^ to Every Soul that has a Spark of Fire in him in College 
or Out by their Humble Servant Brother Bamboo. P.S. If this Modest 
Patriot return y' Complement y^ Public will be favo^ with a Companion to 
this Print. A coward O dreadfull buy & stick it up for y^ joke sake. Price 
only I shilling. 
9^X151 in. 


E. Martin iuv^ J. F. Martin Sculp 

publish^ Decemr the 8. 17 y 8 

Engraving (stipple). The interior of a squalid room. A tailor seated cross- 
legged on a table, scissors and iron beside him, threading a needle, a 
garment on his lap. Under the table, on a low plank bed a burly infant, 
too large for its bed, is asleep. A flight of stairs (r.) leads directly from the 
room, showing that it is a garret. Two women of low type leer into the 
room through an open doorway, one of whom, seated on the stairs, holds 
a glass, indicating gin. The tailor, though ragged, is of a more refined 
type. Garments hang on a line across the room. A fire burns in the grate ; 
tea-things and half a loaf are on a stool. 

Rob^ Dighton Pinxit Rob^ Laurie Fecit 

Publish'' d Novr J*' 1778 by John Smith Cheapside London.y 

Mezzotint. Proof before letters. The interior of a club room at the Globe 
in Fleet Street, showing the 1. and back walls. Along the walls are oblong 
tables, behind which most of fifteen guests are seated. The chairman (1.) 
is seated in an ornate chair between two windows, the chair ornamented 
with a coat of arms which is repeated in a frame above his head : above a 
chevron is a punch-bowl with bottle and glass, below, a pair of scales. The 
motto, which enlaces two cornucopias, is Mirth with Justice. Five other 
framed coats of arms, probably those of similar clubs, and an ornate candle 
sconce decorate the back wall. 

The persons are well-characterized portraits. The chairman is 'Hurford, 
the Guildhall orator' (William Hurford, Deputy of Castlebaynard Ward), 
On his r., and on the extreme 1. are Wright, distiller in Fleet Street, and 
Hamilton, clerk to William Woodfall, printer, holding the Mor;/m^C/zro«?c/^. 
Opposite the latter sits Smith the printseller. On the chairman's 1. are (1. to 

' The inscription is taken, as are the names, from Chaloner Smith. On the B.M. 
impression is written in a contemporary hand, 'Court of Equity or Convivial City 
Meeting Published as the Act directs by J. Smith Cheapside 1779.* 


r.), Lamb, silversmith in Fetter Lane; Clark, sausage maker; Stephenson, 
an attorney; Clark, a bricklayer in Shoe Lane; Russell, a broker of Harp- 
Alley; Good, the auctioneer; Thorn; Dighton, the artist, on the extreme r. 
In tiae foreground (r.) by a small table sits Dighton's father; between the 
two Dightons is a man reading the Morning Post. In front of him and 
facing the chairman stands Towse of Vauxhall, speaking, pipe in his 1. 
hand, r. hand thrust in his waistcoat. Pipes, glasses, pots, papers of 
tobacco, and a punch-bowl are on the tables. Tom Thorpe, of the Globe 
Tavern, advances in the middle of the room, carrying a punch-bowl. 

For the convivial tavern-clubs of the period see Brasb ridge, Fruits of 
Experience, 1824, pp. 33 ff. He enumerates habitues of the Globe Tavern 
in Fleet Street who include Archibald Hamilton the printer 'with a mind 
fit for a Lord Chancellor', and William Woodfall. Thorpe, a Deputy 
Alderman, keeper of the Globe, was 'too convivial and too liberal to make 
it anything but a losing concern'. Reproduced, A. E. Richardson, Georgian 
England, 1931, p. 22. 

Chaloner Smith, ii, p. 803. 

12^X151 in. 

A TOUR TO FOREIGN PARTS. See No. 4732— n Mar. 1778 

J. Bretherton after Bunbury. 


Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, at his Map and Print Ware- 
home, N" 6g in S^ Pauls Church Yard London. Published as the Act 
directs, i Jan. 1778. 

Engraving. Street scene. A barber (1.) and a chimney-sweep are fighting; 
the barber's dress is spotted with black from the sweep's blows, that of the 
sweep is marked with white spots caused by hair powder. A girl with a 
basket of lemons slung round her neck stands behind the barber holding 
out half a lemon ; a dog is biting his leg. Two of the sweep's climbing boys 
are enjoying the scene; one, seated on the ground (1.), is putting on a 
large wig which has been taken from an open box inscribed Alderman 
Sapscull. A baker (r.) with a large basket of loaves on his shoulders looks 
on in amusement. A man and woman from a neighbouring tavern also 
watch the fight with amusement, the man holds a wine bottle, and holds 
out a glass to the combatants. On the tavern wall is inscribed Punch in 
Large Quantities and Hollands Gin and Roman Purl. Its sign is a bull's 
head, beneath which is the name Ben Boniface. A chequered board by the 
door indicated that ale is sold. No. 221 of a series. 

7jXio| in. 

Nine prints from the series of mezzotints published by Carington 


After Collet. See No. 4555—1 Jan. 1778 

Reproduced Paston, PI. cviii. 
A reduced copy (276) i Jan. 1778. 

' Nos. 4557, 4561 have the imprint of Bowles and Carver. 




FOR THE YEAR 1777. (373) 

Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, at his Map & Print Ware- 
house, N° 6g in S^ Pauls Church Yard, London. Published as the 
Act directs, i Jan. ijyS. 

Mezzotint. A lady advances into a breakfast parlour wearing an enormous 
calash or hood drawn over her pyramid of hair, on which is a cap of muslin 
and lace. She wears a short cloak over her dress, and carries a cylindrical 
reticule ornamented with bows in her 1. hand. She holds out her hand 
towards her hostess (1.), who runs forward to meet her holding out both 
hands. Behind and between them is a young man seated on a settee, 
holding a gun and wearing a three-cornered hat and top-boots ; he looks 
at the visitor's head-dress. Behind (r.), a maid-servant carrying a round 
tray with tea-things follows the visitor into the room. The hostess wears 
a hat tilted forwards over her high-dressed hair, showing clusters of large 
curls. At the back of the hat is a large bunch of feathers. She stands 
between a small rectangular table, on her r., and the fireplace, where a 
kettle is boiling. The room is panelled ; a candle-sconce and mirror hangs 
on the wall. For the calash hood see No. 5434, &c. 

Reproduced, M. C. Salaman, The Old Engravers of England, 1906, 
p. 174, with the title. The Spruce Sportsman: or Beauty the best shot (1780). 
13x91 in. 

THE MANCHESTER HERO . . . (381) See No. 4556— [1778] 

After Collet. 

A satire on the battalion raised voluntarily by Manchester on the news of 
Saratoga, see No. 5470. 

ABELARD AND ELOISA. (382) See No. 4557— [1778] 

THE PRETTY BAR MAID. (384) See No. 4558— [1778J 

After Collet. 

Reproduced, A. L. Simon, Bottlescrew Days, 1926, p. 38. 


See No. 4559— [1778] 
After Collet. 

THE PROVERB REVERS'D . . . (386) See No. 4560 [1778] 

After Collet. 

THE FEMALE FOX HUNTER. (387) See No. 4561— [1778] 

After Collet. 

TO COX-HEATH (391) See No. 4562-[i778] 

After Collet. A reduced version (284) is No. 4563. 

A satire on the militia, see No. 5523, &c. 



Four similar mezzotints issued by other publishers. 


[P. Dawe?] 

Published Feby 24, lyyS 

Mezzotint. A stout, ugly, and elderly woman holds in her 1. hand a 
barber's block, with a carved head in profile, on which is an elaborate 
pyramidal wig with ringlets. This she is covering with powder or flour 
from a dredger. Her hair is short and scanty ; on her head is a very large 
black patch, two smaller ones are on her temple. She is dressed in under- 
garments, showing stays, and frilled petticoat over which is worn a pocket. 
Her dress, the bodice of which is almost cylindrical from its stiffening 
whalebone, is on a stool behind her. Her back is turned to the casement 
window (r.) through which look two grinning old women, wearing frilled 
muslin caps. Over the window, and over the wall on its 1., is a heavily 
festooned curtain. Sacarissa stands facing a low rectangular table (1.), on 
which are a bottle and wine-glass, a candle (?) in a triangular shade, which 
is falling over, having apparently been knocked by the wig, patches, a 
comb, a paper, &c. Behind on the wall, in deep shadow, is a picture of 
a dome inscribed The Pantheon. Beneath the title is engraved, She Blooms 
in the Winter of her Days, like the Glastonbury Thorn. 

The design appears to be based on that of No. 4647, Lady Drudger 
going to Ranelagh, 1772. 
i2^X io| in. 

A CONVENT. See No. 4626—25 Apr. 1778 

Pub. Sayer and Bennett. 

A satire on monks. Eight lines from Sheridan's Duenna (first played 1775) 
engraved beneath the design. 

A mezzotint of the same subject was issued by Carington Bowles 
10 Nov. 1777, see No. 3782. Also a reduced version with the same date, 
see under No. 4626. 


See No. 4631 — [c. 1778] 

No publication line ; a reduced version was published by Sayer and Bennett, 
10 Aug. 1778. It appears to have been re-issued by Laurie and Whittle, 
who include it in their Catalogue, 1795, with the word 'fashion' substituted 
for ton. 

THE UNWILLING BRIDEGROOM ... See No. 4780—15 May 1778 
Pub. W. Humphrey. 



POPE, AND DEVIL &c. &c. 

Piib. as the Act directs i Ap. lyyg 

Engraving. An attack on the Catholic Relief Act of 1778. Symbolical 
figures are divided by the River Tweed. On the 1. stands a Scottish soldier 
in Highland dress, in his cap is a thistle. His drawn sword is in his r. 
hand ; he holds a shield inscribed Begone Judas, and a spear to which is 
attached a Union flag, inscribed, See Articles Union Claim of Rights 
Protestant Succession. He is saying, A Protestant Church & King Fll 
defend and For shame Brother John arise. Above his head is a symbolical 
figure inscribed The Church as in Rev. XII: a winged woman appearing 
from behind a sun sending out rays, beneath her feet is a crescent moon 
in which is a profile head. Two other figures stand on the Scottish side 
of the river : a man wearing a long gown and bands holds out a document 
inscribed Popesh Bill, he says, It's quite harmless now Sawney. A 'popish' 
bishop wearing a mitre surmounted by a cross stands behind him, slipping 
into his hand a money-bag inscribed 140,000, and saying No Faith keep* 
with Heritiek. A mountainous horizon indicates Scotland. 

On the other side of the Tweed (r.) the forces of Rome are triumphant. 
J" Bidl lies prostrate on his back, his hands shackled; a seven-headed 
monster on which rides a woman holding out a chalice tramples on him. 
John Bull is saying, Take care brother Sawney he took the advantage of me. 
The seven heads of the 'Beast of Rome' are saying. Fetter Sawney; Fire 
& Faggot; Burn your Bibles; We sit in the Place of God; To give pardon 
for broken Oaths; Monks Friar^ Jesuits fill the land, and (this head turning 
towards the woman on the monster's back). Madam Sawney has taken the 
Alarm. The woman, who is the 'Whore of Babylon', is dressed in the 
fashion of the day to represent a courtesan; she says. Lead on my Lord; 
by her chalice is engraved. Purgatory; works of Supererogation; Transub- 
stantiation; Indulgencies. A man wearing a ribbon and star holds the beast 
by a scarf round its neck; in his r. hand he holds out towards Sawney 
a pair of shackles like those worn by John Bull. He tramples on a tattered 
flag inscribed Union which lies on the ground, its staff beneath John. He 
is saying. That hot headed Scot will spoil my Plot. 

Behind kneels the Pope, in profile to the r., wearing his triple crown, 
keys and a cross hang from his girdle. He says / absolve The [sic] from the 
breach of thy Oath, showing that the man holding the Beast is the king, the 
words being an allusion to his coronation oath, of which so much was to 
be heard in relation to Catholic Relief.' A flying demon points down at 
the king, over whose head he holds a crown, saying Haman was but a Fool 
to Him. 

' Cf. An Heroic Epistle to an Unfortunate Monarch, 1779 (an imitation of Mason), 

Proceed, great Sir! and, breaking all restraint, 
Embrace the scarlet whore, and be a Saint. 
Sworn to maintain th' establish'd Church advance 
The cross of Rome, the miracles of France. . . . 


The proposal to pass a Bill to extend the provisions of the Catholic 
Relief Act of May 1778 to Scotland led to organized and violent rioting in 
Edinburgh, i Feb., and in Glasgow on 3 Feb. 1779, see Nos. 5548[9], 5643. 
The rioters were pacified by a proclamation from the Provost and magis- 
trates that the obnoxious Bill was 'totally laid aside'. London Chronicle, 
6-9 Feb. 1779. 

One of a number of satires, directed against the Catholic Relief Act, 
which accompanied the active propagandist efforts of the Protestant 
Association in pamphlets and in the newspapers, see Nos. 5489, 5548, 5643, 
5669, 5670, 5671, 5672, 5679, 5680, 5681, 5694, 5702, 5840, 5841. Cf. also 
Nos. 5633, 5638, 5649, 5667. John Bull is invited to imitate Sawney and 
obtain the withdrawal of Catholic Relief by direct action, cf. also No. 5540. 
The 'Beast' and the 'Whore' are in the tradition of a long series of No- 
Popery satires founded on the curious interpretation oi Revelation, xvii. 1-6, 
see, e.g., No. 378 (1643), 5702, 5712, and cf. Blake's water-colour of the 
Whore of Babylon, 1809, in the Print Department (reproduced, Figgis). 
(ilxi2l in. 


London. Publish' d as the Act directs 9'* April 17 yg by Robert Wilkin- 
son, at N° 58 in Cornhill. 

Engraving. The interior of a pawnbroker's shop. Behind a counter (1.) an 
old man wearing a cap and spectacles is bargaining with a customer over 
a watch. On the wall above his head is inscribed Money lent by Judas 
Gripe. The customer, a well-dressed man, leans on the counter. Next him 
is a young woman holding a garment which she intends to pawn. Behind 
her a man standing on tip-toe reaches over her head to offer the pawn- 
broker a wig. An elderly and ragged woman is counting the coins she has 
received. A man (r.) in profile to the r, has just taken the buckles off his 
shoes, his 1. foot raised on a stool. Behind the figures and against the wall 
at r, angles to the counter is a large cupboard, the upper part fronted with 
panes of glass ; behind this are many pawned articles including a number 
of watches, books, a violin, a sword, jugs, bowls, a barber's bowl, a hat. 
Inside the counter, which is hollow, are rolls of material. 

A satire on the poverty and distress caused by the war and taxation, 
cf. No. 5548 [12]. 

8|XiiJ in. 


Drawn by Cap" Bailly of the Porcupine Engraved by Christian Vincent. 

Portsmouth Published April 12 lyyg &' Sold at the Printifig Office 
N. 5 Walker Court Berwick Street Soho London. 

Engraving. Six medallions arranged in three pairs: 

[i.] (1.) The figure of Fame blowing her trumpet and holding out a 
laurel wreath; she flies over a number of ships in full sail. Round the 
medallion is inscribed Great is the Truth and it shall prevail. Beneath the 
design. Admiral Keppel Honorably Aquited From A False and Malicious 
Accusation By A Court Martial And His Claim To Victory Established 
Feb' 11'^ MDCCCIX [sic]. 

[2.] (r.) A winged female figure holds a wreath over a bust portrait of 



Keppel. An Ensign flag inscribed Vice of the Blue is held downwards 
concealing her feet. Round the medallion is inscribed Hon. Augustus 
Keppel. Beneath the design is etched : 

See Victory is Not Compleat 

The Vice has Crippled Both her Feet. 

[3.] (1.) A thin man in the dress of a naval officer holds out his hand as 
if confirming an assertion ; round his neck is slung a large book inscribed 

Log. Round the medallion is Sir H ^ [Hugh's^ Privy Councillor', 

beneath the design is 'Be So Good To Explain What you Mean By A 
Rumour You Never Heard Off\ P. 4J. 

Beneath this medallion is etched, within a border: 

Pox On This Log Tis Such a Clog 

On A Free Swearer's Conscience 

Twill Make him Stare Swear and Forswear 

And Spout Ridiculous Nonsense 

[4.] (r.) Another thin naval officer holding out a broken sword ( ?) in his 
r. hand; in his 1. are pages of a book, inscribed Log Book. Behind him the 
buildings of a town are faintly indicated, inscribed Coventry. Round the 

medallion is Sir H Himself. Under the design is, 'We Only Waited 

Sir Hugh Pallisers Coming-Down to Re-Attack The French' p. 142. 

Beneath the medallion is etched, within a border: 

With Marling Spike I Knot and Splice 
With Log Book Vampt Up Wondrous Nice 

With H ds {Hoods^ Orations And Advice 

Keppel Die And Triumph Vice 

[5.] (1.) A naval officer is violently kicking a book inscribed Log Book 
Formidable; three leaves have fallen from it. Round the medallion is 
/ Hold A Ships Log Book Sacred and They Kick Them About the Orlop. 
Beneath the design is inscribed 'How Came Those Three Leaves Cut Out 
of This Book From the xxv To The xxviiV. Page. yo. 

[6.] (r.) A naval officer standing between two chairs. He leans on the 
back of one (1.) inscribed Formidable; his 1. hand is on his forehead as if 
perplexed. The other chair (r.) is inscribed Fox. Round the medallion is 
Fox Cheerd The Formidable First. Beneath the design is 'Being On The 
Forecastle Can You Say There Was No Cheer From The Poop or Quarter 
Deck of The Formidable' p. y8. 

This illustrates the proceedings at the court martial (7 Jan. -11 Feb. 
1779) on Keppel for the action off Ushant, 27 July 1778, on the application 
of Sir Hugh Palliser, his Vice-Admiral, here accused of preventing Keppel 
from achieving a complete victory. The quotations (not always textually 
accurate) are taken from the folio Proceedings at Large of the Court-Martial 
. . . published by Almon. In No. 3 Palliser's 'Privy Councillor' is Captain 
Alexander Hood, captain of the Robuste, in whose Log Book alterations 
had been made after it was known that it would be produced at the court 
martial. 'The Rumour' in question was that Keppel was to be tried. 
No. 4 relates to Rear-admiral Campbell's evidence on the failure of 
Palliser to obey the signal, so preventing any further attack on the French. 
No. 5 relates to the evidence that three leaves for the days between 25 and 
28 July were cut out of the Log Book of the Formidable, Palliser's ship ; 
Bazely, the captain on the Formidable, being asked to explain, answered 
'I do not know, so help me God — I hold a ship's log book sacred'; adding 

321 Y 


that 'they kick them [a ship's rough log book] about the orlop'. No. 6 
relates to evidence on communications between the Fox frigate and the 

The result of the court martial was a triumph for Keppel, the charge 
against him being pronounced 'malicious and ill-founded', and in popular 
opinion was a virtual conviction of Palliser, whose conduct was believed 
to be due to the influence of Sandwich. The London mob attacked the 
Admiralty, burnt Palliser in effigy and gutted his house. 

The artist's name is perhaps an allusion to Captain Baillie of Greenwich 
Hospital and his exposure of Sandwich, see No. 5548 [4], [5]. He can hardly 
be Captain William Baillie, the well-known amateur engraver. The 
Porcupine appears in the Navy List of 1779 as a i6-gun sloop commanded 
by Captain Finch; in 1780 as a 6'^'* rate (24 guns) commanded by the 
Hon. H. S. Conway. 

The size of the plate and the page-references suggest that it was designed 
for Almon's Trial (B.M.L., 1890, d. 13). For the battle see Nos. 5484, 
5486, 5626; for the court martial see T. Hutchinson, Diary and Letters, 
ii, 1886, pp. 242-3, 299; Walpole, Letters, x, pp. 350, 352, 359, 360, 
362, 366, 377-83, 385-7, and Nos. 5537, 5538, 5548 [3], and for the 
blame incurred by Keppel Nos. 5570, 5626, 5650, 5658, 5992, &c. See also 
Mason's Ode to the Naval Officers of Great Britain, 1779. For the use of 
the log-book incident for electioneering see No. 5998. Cf. also No. 5999. 

14x8 in.; medallions, 3I in. diam. 


Engraving. Title apparently cut off. A ship's-boat (c.) rowed by three 
sailors, they look exultingly at a gallows (r.) from which hang Sir Hugh 
Palliser and Sandwich. The coxswain and the man in the bows wave their 
hats. The boat flies a flag inscribed Keppel for Ever, surrounded by the 
words, mergas profimdo pulchrior evenit. From the sea rises a Triton (1.) 
wearing a wreath, blowing his horn, and pointing to the gallows. This is in 
the form of a cross, from the 1. end of the cross-piece, inscribed .S'^ H. Kn\ 
Palliser hangs by a chain ; from his shackled ankles hangs his Log Book ; 
from his neck hang labels inscribed, 5 Lies (an allusion to his five charges 
against Keppel) and Formidable (the name of his ship). An arrow pierces 
him inscribed. Honours tendrestpart. From the r. arm of the cross, inscribed 
Tzvitcher, hangs Sandwich ; his shackled ankles are weighted by a book or 
block inscribed £400,000 Sunk. A label inscribed Essay oti Woman is 
attached to his shoulders, a wine-glass appears to be stuck into the lapel 
of his coat, a cross hangs from a girdle round his waist, probably an allusion 
to the orgies of the brotherhood of Medmenham Abbey. A cross-piece 
on the top of the gallows is inscribed, Exitiis acta probat; at the bottom is 
the date 1779. At its foot, under Sandwich, sits a courtesan holding a 
handkerchief to her eyes, above her is written Alass poor Kitty. 

Above the boat. Lord North sits on a pile of clouds, holding in one hand 
his eye-glass, in the other a large book, the Art of Financijtg. The devil 
behind him, pointing to the gallows, says in his ear The Gibbet has got their 
Bodies my Boy their Hearts & Souls are mine. 

Beneath the design is engraved : 

They reign' d a while but 'twas not long 
Before from world to world they swung 



As they had turn' d from side to side 
And as the Villains liv'd they dy'd. 

Keppel's court martial, see No. 5536, showed that in the action off 
Ushant, 27 July 1778, Palliser, his Vice- Admiral, had not obeyed Keppel's 
signal and that the log-book of his ship, the Formidable, had been altered. 
It was supposed that the political antagonism of Sandwich to Keppel was 
responsible for Palliser 's inactivity. Palliser was tried by court martial, 
12 Apr. -5 May 1779, and acquitted, though found 'reprehensible in not 
having acquainted the Admiral ... of his distress . . .'. Sandwich's great 
unpopularity dated from the part taken by him in producing a copy of the 
Essay on Woman to furnish ground for action against Wilkes in the House 
of Lords; see No. 4066, &c. It was given fresh impetus by the court 
martial on Keppel. For Palliser see also No. 5705. For North's financial 
difficulties and expedients see Nos. 5243, 5541, 5542, 5543, 5548 [i], 5578, 
5703. 5964. &c. 

5538 SAUNDERS' GHOST. [c 1779] 

Engraving, beneath which verses are printed in two columns. Sir Hugh 
Palliser (r.) sits at a round table; a horned demon with its arm round his 
neck holds up a large scroll inscribed Five Charges against Keppel. On each 
side of him sits a man or demon paying out money on to the table : one is 
clothed in drapery covered with fleur-de-lys to imply that Palliser was in 
the pay of France at the Battle of Ushant. On the 1. Britannia points out 
the scene to a companion who holds up his hands in horror. He wears 
a ribbon on which is inscribed, Sir Cha. Saund. She says to him. Was it 
for this you gave 5000 £, alluding to a legacy of ^^5,000 left by Saunders 
(d. 1775) to Keppel. The verses Saunders Ghost, A So7ig to the Tune of 
"Welcome, Welcome, brother Debtor'^ are an imitation of Glover's 'Admiral 
Hosier's Ghost'. They begin, 

"Haste thee! Saunders, England calls thee, 

"Awhile these blest abodes resign; 
"Treach'rous friends and foes conspiring 

"Threat my darling son and thine. 

That is, threaten Keppel, at this tirne very popular owing to the court 
martial on charges made by Palliser who was regarded as the tool of 
Sandwich. See Nos. 5536, 5537. 
4f X7I in. (pi.). Broadside, i2|x8 in. 


Published 4"* June lyyg by M'' Holt N° iii Oxford Street London. 

Engraving. (Coloured and uncoloured impressions.) A satire on the Scots ; 
an imitation but not a copy of the satire with the same title. No. 2678, 
c. 1745, repeated in 1762, see No. 3988, which according to Angelo was 
by George Bickham. A Scot in Highland dress and wearing a feathered 
cap is seated in a latrine, his legs thrust down two holes in the board. He 
grasps in his 1. hand a rolled document inscribed Act for [esta]blishitig 
Popery. Behind him a stone wall is indicated on which is etched (1.) a thistle 




growing out of a reversed crown, inscribed Nemo me impune lacessit. On 
the r. and over Sawney's head is engraved : 

^Tis a bra' bonny seat, o' my saul, Sawney cries, 

I never beheld sic before with me Eyes, 

Such a place in aw' Scotland I never could meet. 

For the High and the Low ease themselves in the Street. 

The thistle and the crown express the common accusation that the 
Scots were Jacobites. The 'Act for estabhshing Popery' is the Cathohc 
Relief Act, against which there were deliberately instigated and serious 
riots in Edinburgh and Glasgow in Feb. 1779, see Nos. 5534, 5548, 5678. 

I2|X9 in. 

5540 THE BIRTH-DAY ODE.* [c. June 1779] 

As it was performed before his M , on the /f^^ of June, By the Royal 


Engraving on a printed broadside. Three musicians and four vocalists 
perform the 'Birth-Day Ode'. The musicians read from a large book open 
on a table on the r., the score on the r. page; on the 1., the Distresses of the 
Nation an Ode performd in