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Tot, aortli 3 f'c /•?,'; J 

No. 6403 







1784— 1792 





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PREFACE, ending with Notes on Method, and Abbreviations . . vii 


CORRIGENDA, ETC. to Vol. V xxxvii 


(a) From 1784 to 1792 ........ i 

(b) Addenda from c. 1781 to 1792 ...... 982 

APPENDIX I (State of the poll for the Westminster Election, 1784) looi 

APPENDIX II (Key to the dates of the series of mezzotints issued by 
Carington Bowles) ......... 1002 







THE appearance of Volume V of this series in 1935, in which 
Mr. F. G. Stephens's work was resumed after a lapse of over fifty 
years, renders it unnecessary to introduce Dr. Dorothy George. It is a 
work requiring the most painstaking industry, and only when done in this 
detail can it serve its full purpose in offering the most varied side-lights 
on public events and social life, which can be understood and utilized even 
apart from study of the prints themselves. Encouragement of this first- 
hand study must, however, be the main object of the catalogue, and the 
genius of the two artists who come into prominence during the period 
covered by the present volume, i.e. Rowlandson and Gillray, will ensure 
the interest of the amateur as well as that of the historian. 

Though the volume covers a shorter period than Volume V, not only 
are more prints described, but they are more important in character, for 
caricature was playing an increasing part in the life of the time. Moreover, 
the volume approaches the climax of English caricature in the rivalry of 
Fox and the younger Pitt (who had only just appeared with such amazing 
briUiance in the political arena) and in the initial excitements of the French 

It should be repeated that the catalogue is based on the separate series 
of 'Political and Personal Satires' in the Department of Prints and 
Drawings; that it does not profess to include all prints of this category 
scattered under masters and engravers in the departmental collection, or 
prints in the Museum Library, though it does so to some extent in both 

As the value of the satirical print as an historical document increases 
progressively in proportion to the completeness of the collection, it is 
much to be hoped that help will be given by friends of the Museum in 
filling gaps in the series. 

Dr. George wishes to express her thanks for the help given her by 
Mr. Collins Baker, Mr. E. H. Blakeney, Mr. Robert Cust, Mrs. Arundell 
Esdaile, Mr. W. R. M. Lamb, C.V.O., Mr. William Roberts, Mr. Alfred 
Rubens, Mr. E. Wolf of Copenhagen University, and Mr. R. W. M. 
Wright. She is much indebted for the facilities given her by the Librarians 
of the Royal Collections at Windsor, of the House of Lords, of the Guild- 
hall, of the India Office, and of the Westminster Public Library, as well 
as by Messrs. Quaritch, Mr. W. T. Spencer of New Oxford Street, and 
The Walker Galleries, Bond Street. The gift by Mrs. Breun to the 
Department of the MS. Lists of the late Mr. H. Breun has enabled several 
identifications to be made (see Corrigenda). The Holland House Collection 
of Caricatures, so kindly lent to the Department by Lord Ilchester, has 
been used only for No. 7906, but it will be invaluable for later volumes. 

January, 1938. A. M. HIND. 



THE method used is that of Volume V, namely, that of the earlier 
volumes with certain modifications. The prints are divided into two 
categories, political and non-political; there are many border-Hne cases 
and it is scarcely possible to classify these with rigid consistency. The 
political prints are arranged chronologically according to the date of 
publication. Undated prints are given a conjectural date enclosed in a 
square bracket. Non-political prints are arranged in years, but grouped 
according to subject or artist. The prints are first described and then 
elucidated. The titles are given in capitals, the inscriptions on the plate 
and the publication line in italics. Where there is no title an explanatory 
caption is given, unless the original title has been discovered : in both cases 
this heading is enclosed in a square bracket, in the latter case with a note 
of origin. The dimensions are those of the subject, not the plate, except 
where the contrary is specified, the first being the upright, the second the 
horizontal measurement (reversing the order in Volumes I-IV). 

As in Volume V 'engraving' is used to include line-engraving, etching, 
and stipple-engraving; woodcut serves for both woodcut and wood- 
engraving. The prints are numbered in continuation of the numbers in 
previous volumes. Copies or slightly altered states have the number of 
the original followed by the letter A (or A, B, C, &c.). No distinction is 
made between different states unless there has been some essential altera- 
tion in engraving or lettering. The addition of a press-mark preceded by 
the letters B.M.L. indicates that the print is in the British Museum Library, 
not in the Print Room. A few prints in other public collections have been 
described ; these have no serial number. As in Volume V the titles of prints 
described by Mr. Stephens in earlier volumes but belonging to the years 
covered by the current volume have been included in the text and have 
been indexed; these are, however, very few. 

The small subject-index is supplementary to the index of persons and 
to the cross-references in the text. It is intended to show broadly from 
year to year what were the main preoccupations of the caricaturist, and 
also, so far as possible, to give references to those subjects which are most 
sought after by students. Political events are not indexed, but will be 
found under the appropriate dates and from the cross-references there 
given. Since most of the prints are either political or personal the scope 
for a useful subject-index is relatively small. 

The descriptions and explanatory notes by Mr. Hawkins for the prints 
in his collection were not continued beyond the end of 1783. There are 
occasional attributions or identifications on his prints. 







'De Vinck 




Grego, Gillray 

Grego, Rowlandson 




L. &W. 


Blum, Andre S., La Caricature Rivolutionnaire 
{ijSg a 1795). Paris, 1916. 

Histoire des Caricatures de la Rdvolte des Franfais. 
Par M. Boyer de Nimes^ Auteur du Journal du 
Peuple. Deux tomes. 1792. [Issued in parts.] 
Fran9ois-Louis Bruel, Histoire Aeronautique par les 
Monuments Peints, Sculptes, Dessin^s, et Grave's des 
Origines a 1830. Paris, 1909. 

[A collection of caricatures, mounted in twelve folio 
volumes, transferred from the B.M.L. (press mark 
Tab. 524).] See Volume V, p. viii. 
Histoire-Musee de la Republique frangaise par 
Augustin Challamel. Deux tomes. Paris, 1842. 
[A collection of Kay's etchings bound in two 
volumes transferred from the B.M.L. (press-mark 
1267. g. I, 2).] 

Bibliotheque Nationale^ Inventaire analytique de la 
Collection de Vinck. Tomes /, ii par F. L. Bruel, 
Paris, 1909, 1 9 14; Tome Hi par M. Aubert et 
M. Roux, 1921. 

Eduard Fuchs und Hans Kraemer, Die Karikatur 
der europaischer Volker von Altertum bis zur Neuzeit, 
Berlin, [1901]. 

Genuine Works of Mr. James Gillray. Published 
T. M'Lean, 1830. 

Iconographie de la Reine Marie- Antoinette. . . . par 
Lord Ronald Cower. Paris, 1883. 
James Gillray the Caricaturist, with the History of 
his Life and Times. Ed. T. Wright [1873.] 
Joseph Grego, Rowlaftdson the Caricaturist. Two 
vols. 1880. 

Inventaire de la Collection d'Estampes relatives a 
rhistoire de France leguee en 1863 a la Bibliotheque 
Nationale par Michel Hennin, redige par Georges 
Duplessis. Tome 3. Paris, 1880, 1881. 
Muse'e de la Caricature, ou Recueil des Caricatures 
les plus remarquables, publiees en France depuis le 
quatorzieme siecle jusqu'a nos jours, calquees et 
gravees par E. Jaime. Deux tomes, Paris, 1838. 
A Series of Original Portraits and Caricature Etch- 
ings by John Kay with Biographical Sketches and 
Illustrative Anecdotes. Ed. H. Paton. 2 vols. 
Edinburgh, 1877. 

Laurie and Whittle's Catalogue of New and Interest- 
ing Prints . . . 1795. (Numbered list of 'Quarto 
Drolls', pp. 95-9-) 

F. Muller, De Nederlandsche Geschiedenis in Platen. 
Amsterdam, 2^^ deel. 1876, 77. 
'George Paston' [pseudonym for Miss E. M. 
Symonds], Social Caricature in the Eighteenth 
Century. 1905. 



Rubens = Alfred Rubens, Anglo-Jezmsh Portraits. A Bio- 

graphical Catalogue of Engraved Anglo-Jewish and 
Colonial Portraits from the Earliest Times to the 
Accession of Queen Victoria. 1935. 

Tbieme-Becker = U. Thieme, F. Becker, F. C. Willis und H. VoUmer, 

Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Kiinstler. Leipzig, 
1907, &c. (in progress). 

Van Stolk = G. van Rijn, Atlas van Stolk, Katalogus der Historie- 

Spot- en Zinne-prenten hetrekkelijk de Geschiedenis 
van Nederlandj verzameld door A. van Stolky Cz. 
Vol. vide deel. Amsterdam, 1902. 

Weber = A. Weber, Tableau de la Caricature mddicale depuis 

les origines jusqu'a nos jours. Paris, 1936. 

Westminster Election == History of the Westminster Election. . . . By Lovers 
of Truth and Justice. 1784. Second ed., 1785, in 
Print Room. 

Wright and Evans = Thomas Wright and R. H. Evans, Historical and 
Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James 
Gillray, 1851. 
Since the Volume went to Press the edition of Gillray's plates published 

by Bohn in 1851 has been acquired. The Account by Wright and Evans is 

the key to this edition, and the numbers appended to the descriptions in 

the Catalogue are those of the plates. 


B.M.L. = British Museum Library. 
H.L. = Half length. 
T.Q.L. = Three-quarter length. 
1. = left, 

r. = right. 

\ pi. = plate. 


THE sixth volume of the Catalogue covers nine years, almost the 
whole of Pitt's peace ministry, a period as historically complete as 
any short space of time can be whose limits are set by the beginning and 
end of a calendar year. The increased output of prints and their more 
important character show the growing vogue of graphic satire. Many 
things, besides the pre-eminence of Gillray and Rowlandson, combined 
to make this the beginning of the great age of English caricature. The 
etching or aquatint, monochrome or coloured, was eminently suitable for 
display in shops and attractive to the collector.^ It was not suitable for 
magazine illustration, and an attempt in 1784 to make the hand-coloured 
caricature the raison d'etre of a monthly publication appears to have been 
an instant failure (Nos. 663 1 , 2). Production, untrammelled by periodical 
publication, could adapt itself to the curve of political or social excitement. 
Something was due to the dramatic character of the period : the long duel 
between Pitt and Fox, the trial of Hastings, the Regency crisis, the impact 
of the French Revolution. The print proved its value as propaganda in 
the India Bill crisis. There was a close relation between the parliamentary 
debate, the newspaper, and the political print, as well as between written 
and graphic satire. Sheridan accused Dundas of making a speech that 
sounded like 'hints for paragraphs and sketches for prints'.^ He was 
himself a master in that art. The political prints assume a high degree 
of political intelligence and are evidence of an intense interest in politics. 
Among other things they illustrate the entertainment value of parliament. 
Pastor Moritz, a German visitor, records that he went daily (in 1782) to 
the gallery of the House of Commons and preferred the entertainment to 
be found there to most other amusements. He adds that a few constant 
attendants paid the doorkeeper a guinea for the session. 

The importance of wit and ridicule in politics gave scope to the carica- 
turist. Verse satire, the squib, and the lampoon were political weapons; 
The Rolliad and the Probationary Odes were (in one sense) serious contribu- 
tions to political controversy. The relation between written and graphic 
satire was both general and direct. The most obvious point of contact in 
this volume is in the works of Peter Pindar (Wolcot) which occasioned 
prints by both Gillray and Rowlandson. The direct connexion is often 
hard to trace and would afford endless scope for research. In many cases 
doubtless the point of departure was a spoken witticism embodied in a 
newspaper paragraph. Or, the paragraph may derive from the print. 
A ribald paragraph, based perhaps on a House of Commons jest, appears 
to have inspired An Imperial Stride! (No. 7843), interesting for its French 

The selection of a butt to discredit a party or group was common to 
the printed word and to pictorial satire. Rolle, the hero of The Rolliad, 

^ See below for the exhibitions of the printsellers. Holland in 1789 informed 
his customers : 'Caricature Collectors may now be supplied with the greatest variety 
in London of political and other humourous prints, bound in volumes and orna- 
mented with an engraved title and a characteristic vignette: one hundred prints 
in a Volume, Five Guineas Plain or Seven Guineas Coloured. A Greater Number 
in a Volume in Proportion.* Advertisement appended to Jordan^ s Elixir of Life. 

* Pari. Hist, xxiv, p. 295 (i2 Jan. 1784). 

3 See below, pp. xv-xvi. 



scarcely figures in caricature, but echoes of that work and of the Proba- 
tionary Odes are frequent. They can be traced in the treatment of (e.g.) 
*Watson with a wooden leg', Michael Angelo Taylor and Thurlow. An 
outstanding example (on the other side) is Weltje, who adds an additional 
touch of ridicule to satires on the Prince and his friends. Wraxall compares 
the effect of a squib on Weltje during the Regency crisis with that of the 
song Lillihurlero a century earlier.^ Weltje's counterpart was Mrs. Schwel- 
lenberg, Fanny Burney's enemy, who appeared in verse satire long before 
she was discovered by the caricaturists. ^ She certainly detracted from the 
Queen's popularity. 

The growth of political realism and insight noted in Volume V continues. 
Under the old convention that the Opposition are patriots political satires 
had (until 1782) been mainly anti-ministerial. The prints are the best 
evidence of the freedom with which political views of every shade could 
be expressed. This liberty could degenerate into the basest propaganda 
founded on personal scurrilities, as in many of the Westminster Election 
prints of 1784; the extremes of non-political personal abuse are illustrated 
by the attacks on Philip Thicknesse. The highest personages were not 
immune from gross attack. 

Besides a knowledge of politics the prints assume an acquaintance with 
literature, and especially with Milton and Shakespeare. Many satires 
depend on literary allusions. A Bobadil is the generic term for a boastful 
soldier. A fallen statesman is naturally Wolsey. Fox is repeatedly Milton's 
Satan and once his 'fleshliest incubus'. To represent Fox as Falstaff, the 
Prince as Prince Henry was irresistible. Don Quixote appears repeatedly, 
Barataria once; Burke's Reflections evoked comparisons with the Don 
which anticipated Tom Paine (No. 7678). Burke against Hastings is twice 
(ironically) compared with Cicero against Verres. 

A favourite type of satire is a scene from a play. An outstanding example 
is the auction scene in The School for Scandal with the Prince as Charles 
Surface (No. 6968). The parts in The Road to Ruin (No. 8083) are assigned 
so aptly to the Prince, the Duke of York, and one of the Barrys that the 
supposition that they may have been Holcroft's originals becomes irre- 
sistible. When politicians fall out they are inevitably Peachum and Lockit 
from The Beggar's Opera (No. 7856). 

The travesty of the picture, particularly of the historical painting, was 
developed by Gillray and Rowlandson; they had been anticipated by 
Hogarth in his Paul before Felix (No. 3173), but while he attacked the 
vogue for old masters, his successors ridiculed the work of contemporaries, 
notably Fuseli. 

Modernity and variety are characteristics of the prints. An occasional 
print in the manner of the 60 's or 70 's seems conspicuously old-fashioned. 
The favourites of the caricaturists are seen, not conventionally, but im- 
perceptibly ageing from year to year. New forms are introduced. Bun- 
bury 's Long Minuet and Progress of a Lie started a fashion for the strip 
design, a sequence of figures or groups in large and relatively expensive 
prints. There were many imitations and adaptations. Gillray applied it 

' Memoirs, 1884, v. 306-10. 

* In Mason's Heroic Epistle to Sir William Chambers (Jan. 1773): 

Fair Schwellenbergen smiles the sport to see, 

And all the Maids of Honour cry Te! He! 
She does not appear in these prints till 1786, and then in an illustration to The 
Rambler's Magazine (No. 6981). 



to the procession (No. 7526) and to the banquet (No. 7330). Others 
(notably G. M. Woodward) arranged the figures in two or more rows, 
avoiding the unwieldy length of the strip. This arrangement may have 
suggested a new type of satire, that of a sequence of figures showing the 
effects of time, as in The Clerical Exercise (No. 8031), or a sequence of 
incidents as in The Progress of Passion (No. 8104). 

The use of colour became increasingly general and most prints were 
issued plain or coloured. Not all; Sayers' prints were primarily designs in 
black and white, with or without aquatint. Paul Sandby's balloon satires 
of 1784 are examples of aquatint in which colour would clearly be out of 
place. The same process was used for many of the contemporary French 
satires. But the idea seems to have gained ground that all satirical prints 
of any importance should be coloured. Gillray's elaborate Shakespeare 
Sacrificed would appear, like some others of his prints about this period, 
to have been conceived as an etching with aquatint, not intended for 
colour. Sneyd wrote to Gillray in 1800 : 'Would it not (now that Boy dell's 
"Shakespeare" is more familiar) be well to have coloured impressions from 
that plate ?'^ 

In spite of the modernity of the prints, old themes persist or are revived, 
as in the period covered by Volume V. Directly in the Danse Macabre 
tradition is a print by ColUngs (No. 7609), a sequel to one by Rowlandson 
on the theme of Death and the doctor. In No. 8259 Death preaches to 
a careless congregation ignorant of his identity. More subtly in the 
tradition is the figure of Death which stands as servant at Gillray's Miser's 
Feast. A similar figure watches a pair of lovers in No. 6699. ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 
(No. 7416) is a version of an ancient theme which in French prints of the 
sixteenth century and later had been directed at the magistrate or lawyer. 
Here the villain is merely the Devil. A medal with a double-headed profile, 
so designed that when inverted the Pope's head becomes that of the Devil, 
was a favourite token among the Protestant Reformers of Germany, 
Holland, and Switzerland in the sixteenth century.^ It was applied to 
Cromwell in a satirical medal of 1650. In No. 6669 Bishop Shipley is 
conjoined with the Devil in this way, with the original inscription as used 
circa 1540: Ecclesia perversa tenet faciem Diaboli. The idea was revived 
or re-invented and was applied in England and France to heads, generally 
profile, with contrasted characters when inverted. In France the phisionomie 
a double visage had a political character circa 1789-90. It was again current 
in France from about 1820 as a popular type of comic print.^ English 
examples in this volume are not political (No. 7617, Sec). 

The graphic history of John Bull continues to develop in this Volume.* 
He is depicted ten times as a bull, thirteen times as a man, once as an ass. 
George III is twice styled John Bull, but scarcely, as in earlier prints, 
typifies the nation. Two associated conceptions governs John's personality 
both as man and beast; he is the honest creature, overburdened with taxes, 
generally patient but not always. And he is the same creature bewildered 
by the conflicting and self-regarding voices of the politicians. In the 
second category he tends to be a countryman. When he is compared 
with his French counterpart he is well-fed and plainly dressed — in con- 
trast with a famished, ragged but foppish fellow. In 1785 he is a fat, easy- 

^ Bagot, Canning and his Friends, 1909, i. 171. 

^ F. P. Barnard, Satirical and Controversial Medals of the Reformation, 1927, p. 5. 

3 Grand- Carteret, Les mosurs et la caricature en France. Paris, 1888. 

* See Catalogue, vol. v, pp. xii-xiii. 



going creature, cheated by a French charlatan who prospers on money 
extracted from England. 

As a bull in 1784 he supports, or is ridden by, the rival candidates for 
his favour. Thereafter, he sinks snorting under heavy taxes (Nos. 6962, 
7852) or turns on his tormentors (No. 7640) or bears the weight of foreign 
princes in token that in a European war England will pay the piper 
(No. 7857). As a man he is generally a stout, plainly dressed citizen, 
crushed by taxes in Nos. 6914, 7145, 7625. In 1791 (No. 7857) he is the 
thin, ragged taxpayer of a prospective war with Russia. In 1790, during 
the Spanish war scare, he is a fat, overburdened, unmilitary soldier, angrily 
dismayed at the helmet of 'glory' which Pitt is about to place on his head. 
In Nos. 7888, 8141 (1791 and 1792) by Gillray he is an uncouth country- 
man speaking a dialect which seems to suggest Somerset, bewildered by 
politicians as he is in No. 7361 (1788) also by Gillray: though simple he 
is not devoid of sense and the implication is that his heart is in the right 
place. As the patient ass in No. 8076 he is the victim of politicians who 
compete for the loaves and fishes; Gillray 's fat 'cit' in No. 8145, who is 
grossly gorging while he grumbles at the Ministry and complains of the 
*slavery' of taxes (1792), is clearly John Bull, though the name is not used. 
He represents English slavery as contrasted with French liberty. The 
John Bull in top boots of Gillray (No. 5612) based on a design by Nixon 
of 1779 seems to belong to the year 1788.^ The top-boots reappear in this 
volume only when John Bull is a traveller in France (No. 8199). In an 
undated and ostensibly French, but probably English, print which seems 
to belong to the winter of 178 1-2, John Bull has the unusual form of a 
bearded Jew ; he conforms to type by bending under a load of taxes. John 
Gilpin may almost be regarded as a relation of John Bull. He is depicted 
twenty-one times in this volume and is similar in type to Bull. 

The Frenchman, Spaniard, and Dutchman continue to be depicted on 
traditional lines : the Dutchman wears the same bulky breeches and sleeved 
waistcoat, always has a pipe and is usually smoking. The Spaniard is a 
don in the cloak and ruff of the Elizabethan period. The Frenchman 
remains ragged, hungry, and foppish, but from 1791 becomes in the hands 
of Gillray also bloodthirsty and savage. The old names deriving from 
Arbuthnot of Nick Frog, Don Strut, and Lewis Baboon are dropped. 
John Bull also appears to have acquired a personality in which his literary 
origin has been forgiven, unless an allusion to the Crown Inn in No. 8065 
is to be regarded as deriving from Arbuthnot. 

There are some interesting examples in this volume of the reciprocal 
copying of English and French prints. The first is The Grand British 
Balloon (No. 6710), either a copy or the original of a French print of 
which there are at least two versions, while a third was published at Berne. 
M. Grand- Carteret considers the English version the original; there is, 
however, something Gallic about both design and conception, while the 
number '2440' must surely derive from Mercier's VAn 2440. The French 
version is surmounted by a cock, the English by a lion. At a date probably 
after the use of captive balloons by the French army in 1794 this balloon 
was copied in a German print of two (French) balloons from which bombs 
descend upon two armies, one being put to flight (Bruel No. 145, de 
Vinck No. 920). The English print was reissued during the French in- 
vasion scare of 1798, the balloon being transformed into The Grand 
Republican Balloon (see Volume VII). A print, La Minerve^ of a balloon 

* See p. xxxvii. 


in which the Belgian aeronaut Robertson (fits de Robert) professed to be 
able to circumnavigate the globe in the interests of science, is copied from 
a version of this print. 

An English version appears to have been the original of other copies 
described in this volume. There are two prints, both by Gillray, in which 
French liberty is contrasted with English slavery, both to some degree 
ironical. In the first (No. 7546) Necker is contrasted with Pitt: Necker 
is chaired in triumph, but is made slightly ridiculous by his complacent 
expression and the laurel wreath that floats over his head in the form of a 
halo. Pitt arrogantly tramples on the crown and is surrounded with 
instruments of death and torture, symbols of the supposed slavery involved 
in an excise duty on tobacco. This print was copied in France as two 
separate prints with the titles Constitution de France (Necker's wreath 
being removed), and Constitution d'Angleterre. The latter part was again 
copied, probably after the outbreak of war. In No. 8145 (1792) a starving 
sansculotte is compared to a gross John Bull avidly gorging while he 
grumbles at the slavery of taxes. This Englishman was copied in a French 
print of 1794 (see Volume VII). 

Other copies have no political significance in regard to Anglo-French 
relations, they are merely plagiaristic and are signs of the admitted 
supremacy of English caricature. In No. 7883 (1791) Gillray depicts two 
groups of French ragamuffins : ' The National Assembly Petrified' and * The 
National Assembly Revivified* at the news of the King's escape and recapture 
respectively. This also was copied as two separate prints, La Petrifaction 
and La Satisfaction ^^ the tricolour cockades altered to fleur-de-lis badges 
to show that the capering Frenchmen are emigres, the prints being 
instanced by Challamel to show that French caricature could be expressive 
and need not depend on written inscriptions. A rather similar subject by 
Isaac Cruikshank of emigrant clergy learning of the decree that all returning 
Emigres would be put to death (No. 8130) was copied with alterations to 
represent emigres in Rome in 1798. Another print by Cruikshank of the 
Duke of York's presentation of his bride to the King and Queen (No. 
7931) was copied to represent the marriage of Marie Antoinette. A print 
of Catherine II angrily chastising the Duke of Brunswick and maltreating 
the King of Poland (No. 8124) was also copied with alterations in which 
Francis II takes the place of Stanislaus. A print of Brunswick's retreat 
(No. 8125) was also copied, while its principal group appears as a vignette 
below one of the best known French caricatures of this period, Le Trium- 

An Imperial Stride (No. 7843) is the most noteworthy instance of an 
English print copied in France ; with some alterations it became UEnjambde 
Imperiale. Champfleury calls the latter 'Une des plus piquantes caricatures 
de la Revolution, avec une pointe de gauloiserie tres rare au milieu des 
sombres et dures images du temps.' It is indeed entirely unlike the French 
satires of the period, except where the figure of Catherine was again copied 
or imitated, but it is typical of the English prints on the Tsarina and one 
of several by the same hand. The designs of Catherine on Constantinople 
were a preoccupation in England in connexion with Pitt 's Russian Armament. 
Another outstanding French satirical print is La Grande Armee du ci- 
devant Prince de Conde. Champfleury calls it 'la plus amusante peutetre 
de toute la Revolution', and the de Goncourts, while disparaging the 
caricatures published during the Revolution, make an exception of this 
' Published Depeuille, 1797. Broadley, Napoleon in Caricature, ii. 374. 



print as 'vraiment heureuse*. While it was probably based on a sketch or 
detailed description from France the print is in the manner of Richard 
Newton and the script is in the handwriting of the prints published by 
Holland. There is another version, apparently a French copy, slightly 
larger, and with a few additional inscriptions, but drawn with less freedom 
and humour. Impressions of both are in the Print Room, but as a purely 
French subject it is not included in the Catalogue. 

The supremacy of English caricature at this time is sufficiently seen in 
a comparison of English prints with French Revolutionary caricatures. 
The latter are propagandist weapons in a fierce struggle, and it is significant 
that expressiveness and gauloiserie are found by French commentators in 
those prints which are based on the work of English artists. They can be 
set against the debt which Rowlandson may owe to Debucourt. 

Political Satires. 

The year 1784 opened during the Christmas pause in the conflict 
between Pitt and the minority of the House of Commons. The waxing 
and waning of the numbers of political prints from year to year and even 
from day to day, well indicate the curve of political excitement. High- 
watermark was reached in this year with 325 prints, 257 appearing in the 
first five months. As in the previous December the Coalition and the 
India Bill are at first the sole subjects of caricature. Then every stage of 
the parliamentary struggle is illustrated, and the graphic rendering of 
constitutional themes is remarkable. The confidence of the Foxites during 
January and February that Pitt's fall was imminent is not reflected in these 
prints. Their general tenor is the defeat and humiliation of Fox ; the King's 
action is often approved. As in 1782-3 Fox is Guy Vaux, Cromwell, 
Milton's Satan, and Carlo Khan. He is also Catiline, Charles III, Milton's 
*Incubus' and even Beelzebub. A great impression was made by Sayers' 
Mirror of Patriotism (No. 6380): Fox looks in a glass which reflects the 
face of Cromwell. The French Ambassador wrote ']e sais de bonne part 
que M. Fox a ete sensible a cette caricature.' And before his rehabilitation 
Cromwell stood for a treacherous dictator. The two opposing themes are 
that of Fox as a would-be dictator trying to usurp the prerogatives of the 
Crown' with Pitt as the defender of the Constitution, and that of Pitt as 
the creature of secret influence, attacking the House of Commons, and 
achieving office by the back stairs, with Temple holding a conspiratorial 
dark lantern. It is significant that it is in Foxite prints that Pitt is sup- 
^ ported by 'popular frenzy' (No. 6438, &c.) and the 'breath of popularity' 
(No. 6445), while in No. 6486 the King and Pitt are upheld by bubble- 
balloons representing 'the wishes of the people'. This was the Whig view 
of the debacle. Trotter, Fox's secretary, wrote 'the passions of the vulgar 
made and kept Mr. Pitt minister'. The important share of the prints in 
evoking this frenzy was generally admitted (see e.g. No. 6473). Sheridan, 
attacking Dundas for a speech which 'might fairly be deemed hints for 
J. paragraphs and sketches for prints', spoke of the 'arts that had been 
practised ... to corrupt the majority'.^ The constitutional issues from 
the Foxite angle are well summarized in three prints by Rowlandson on 
the dissolution, probably from the designs of an amateur (Nos. 6436, 
6469, 6476). 

* For the aspects of the India Bill which gave rise to this theme cf. an article 
by the writer on Fox's Martyrs in the Transactions of the Royal Historical Society ^ 

* Pari. Hist. xxiv. 295 (12 Jan. 1784). 



After the dissolution the prints relate almost entirely to the Westminster 
Election, and the excitement is reflected by their numbers, 89 for April 
alone. To understand them it is necessary to compare them with the day- 
to-day results of the poll, given in Appendix I. Most of the prints are 
propaganda, and in many the Duchess of Devonshire is grossly attacked, 
to deter her from her very important canvassing activities. A Foxite squib 
gives among the items of a supposed 'Secret Service Ledger': *To several 

Print Shops ^£2,000.' *To Mr. for his indecent engravings £500.'' 

Political issues almost disappear, and the election was fought mainly on 
personalities. No attempt was made to defeat Hood, who stood jointly with 
Wray, and all the energies of the party were directed against the latter. 
Fox at first despaired (No. 6500), but Wray was vulnerable from his 
reputation for parsimony; he was supported by the unpopular Jackson,^ 
agent to the Duke of Newcastle, who shared his reputed addiction to small 
beer (No. 6492), and he had made two proposals which were used against 
him with deadly effect, one relating to Chelsea Hospital, the other to the 
taxation of maidservants (No. 6475). 

Wray owed his position in Westminster to his advocacy of parliamentary 
reform, an issue at the famous meeting of 14 February (No. 6426). For 
this reason he was supported at the election by Dr. Jebb and by Major 
Cartwright, who appears in the first of the election prints as The Drum 
Major of Sedition (No. 6474). But Reform is scarcely alluded to in the 
election prints, and the character of the scanty references to it in this 
volume are consistent with the lack of public interest in the matter.^ 
Since the Duchess of Devonshire was not deterred from canvassing by 
the campaign against her, this was probably damaging to Wray. The great 
importance attached by the party to her efforts is illustrated by the prints 
and borne out by her correspondence. When she left London, ostensibly 
on account of her mother's health, she was urgently recalled by the Duke 
and Duchess of Portland, the latter saying (13 April), *I am almost worn 
out. ... If we should lose it is owing to your absence.' A letter from 
the Duchess to Countess Spencer shows how nearly the vile campaign 
against her succeeded, and how thoroughly she deserved the tributes in 
the Foxite prints (No. 6599): *. . . I am unhappy beyond measure here 
and abus'd for nothing. Yet as it is begun I must go on with it . . . they 
insist upon our all continuing to canvass — in short they say having begun 
and not going on would do a deal of harm. . . .''^ The number of the prints 
is significant of the great importance of the election and they are indis- 
pensable to an understanding of its history. They descend to a level of 
base propaganda that is exceptional in these caricatures. 

The election over, the political temperature immediately dropped. The 
crisis of 1783-4 is retrospectively summed up in No. 6485 from the Foxite 
standpoint. For the remainder of the year the subjects are echoes of the 
general election, the collapse of the whigs, the baneful influence of Fox 
on the Prince of Wales, unrest in Ireland which the Opposition are expected 
to exploit. On the other side Pitt is attacked for his peerages and secret 

^ Westminster Election, p. 352. The blank may safely be filled with Dent's name. 

^ He shot himself 5 Apr. 1797. Lond. Chronicle, 7 Apr. 

^ Wyvill found it impossible in the winter of 1784-5 to get popular support 
by meetings and petitions for Pitt's Reform Bill. Wyvill Papers, iv. 394-409. He 
attributed its defeat to the influence of the aristocracy 'for want of the general 
support of the people'. A Defence of Dr. Price . ^. 1792, p. x. 

* Anglo-Saxon Review, 1 899, Sept., pp. 74 ff. Cf. Diaries and Corr. of Malmesbury, 
1844, ii. 65. 

xvii b 


influence. The perennial topic of taxation, in abeyance during the crisis, 

The year 1785 was politically quiescent after the heats of 1784. The 
political satires fall to 49, fewer than in any other year of Pitt's ministry, 
and many are echoes of old themes, notably the influence of Fox on the 
Prince. The Westminster Scrutiny produced only one print (No. 6783), 
a noteworthy one by Rowlandson, exulting at Fox's success. The chief 
subjects are the Irish Propositions and taxes. On the former the Opposition 
were effectively attacked by Sayers in No. 6795. Pitt is castigated for the 
tax on maidservants (actually on their employers) and the Shop Tax. The 
prints reflect the ribald and factious allegations in parliament over the 
servant maids (No. 6794). The shop tax was a more serious aflFair and, 
together with the Irish Propositions, was construed as an attack on British 
trade (Nos. 6785, 6798). Its extreme unpopularity appears in the prints; 
it was to be a leading issue in the Westminster election of 1788. Chan- 
cellors of the Exchequer taxed at their peril, any tax might evoke the 
cry of 'liberty and property'. 

Eighty-three political satires for 1786 are a sign of increasing political 
tension due chiefly to the attack by the Opposition on Hastings and to the 
suspected marriage of the Prince of Wales. As a subject of caricature the 
latter prevailed, and the prints reflect the intensity of the gossip and 
innuendo at the beginning of the year. The marriage was complicated 
by the Prince's debts, now a public issue (No. 6945) and by his discreditable 
associates (No. 6924). The relations between the Prince, the Opposition, 
and his parents have become disturbing cross-currents in politics and are 
represented, exaggerated, and distorted in caricature. The imputation of 
miserliness against the King and Queen first appears in these prints in 
No. 6945, in connexion with the Prince's debts. This imputation was also, 
by an unlucky coincidence, linked with the question of Hastings. His im- 
peachment is anticipated in No. 6925, &c. He was defended by Gillray 
in The Political-Banditti assailing the Saviour of India (No. 6955), and on 
the whole it was rather Burke than Hastings who was the subject of attack 
until the unlucky aff"air of the bulse. This, a package of diamonds for 
the King, was sent through Hastings by the Nizam of the Deccan, and had 
to be presented immediately after the debate by which the question of 
impeachment was decided. Innuendo and slander were sharpened by the 
Queen's fondness for jewels and she acquired the name of the Queen of 
Diamonds (No. 6978). From this moment the tide of opinion, as seen in 
these prints, turned against Hastings, and there was an outbreak of 
lampoons and verse satires. The turning-point is also of course that of 
Sheridan's famous speech (and of a less famous one in which he made 
insinuations about *a large diamond').^ From this date bribery with jewels 
is a recurrent theme in prints relating to Hastings. The way had been 
prepared by allusion in The Probationary Odes and The Rolliad. 

Other subjects of satire are the Sinking Fund, the defeat of Richmond's 
fortification scheme by the casting vote of the Speaker (No. 6921), the 
attack on the King by Margaret Nicholson. This last was linked up with 
Mrs. Fitzherbert in one of several prints in which the Prince is Prince 
Henry with Fox as Falstaff (No. 6974). The aflPairs of Europe came within 
the range of caricature owing to the designs of Joseph II on Bavaria and 
of the French on Holland (No. 6917). The Commercial Treaty with 

' Wraxall, Memoir Sy 1884, iv. 342-5. 


France is the subject of one print (No. 6995) ; it remains to be a leading 
topic of 1787 when it was attacked in Parliament. 

In 1787, a year of political calm, the number of prints drops to 69. 
The two questions before parliament were the impeachment of Hastings 
and the French Treaty. The Opposition attempted to repeat the tactics 
used against the Irish Propositions, by mobilizing industrial interests 
against it. The treaty was so manifestly favourable to England that they 
failed (No. 7140). There is a noteworthy attack by Gillray on the distribu- 
tion of Indian patronage by Dundas (No. 7152). The Prince's debts 
remained a troublesome question (No. 7162) and Fox's famous denial of 
the marriage is ridiculed in Gillray 's Dido Forsaken (No. 7165). 

Foreign affairs, besides the French treaty, are represented by the Dutch 
crisis. On this there is {inter alia) an interesting set of prints by Ramberg 
(No. 7176) and a fantastic design by Gillray (No. 7181). The effects of 
war between Russia and Turkey on the situation in Holland were realized 
by the caricaturists (Nos. 7180, 7181). The outcome was a diplomatic 
triumph for Pitt and this was one of the very few occasions when his policy 
was not attacked by the Opposition. Consequently the prints are without 
political rancour, in marked contrast with those on the later disputes with 
Spain and Russia. 

Excitement returned in 1788 for four reasons: the trial of Hastings, 
a secondary storm over Indian affairs raised by the Declaratory Act, a by- 
election in Westminster, and the Regency crisis. The political prints 
increase to 143. The trial roused intense interest in the first year, and 
thereafter dragged out its weary length (see No. 7269) little regarded 
except by those immediately concerned. The opening, as a social sensation, 
and a triumph for Burke's passionate rhetoric, is depicted in Raree Show 
(No. 7273). *It would be difficult to convey', writes Wraxall, *an idea of 
the agitation, distress and horror excited among the female part of the 
audience by his statement of the atrocities and in many instances of the 
deeds of blood, perpetrated as he asserted by Hastings's connivance or by 
his express commands.'^ The 'deeds of blood' and the allegations deriving 
from the affair of the bulse are symbolized in Gillray's Blood on Thunder 
fording the Red Sea (No. 7278) which is in direct opposition to his Political 
Banditti^ reissued in this year. Since irony is of the essence of Gillray's 
satire the question arises as to whether it was intended to ridicule the 
character of the attack on Hastings. Other satires scarcely support the 
suggestion : he and Sayers adopted opposite sides and parodied each others 
prints, Gillray using Sayers's signature, first in two prints based on the 
admission tickets to Westminster Hall (Nos. 7276, 7277). In the third 
pair Sayers depicts Burke displaying in a magic lantern objects monstrously 
transformed on the sheet: a Benares flea becomes an elephant, a 'Begum 
wart' becomes Pelion and Ossa piled on Olympus, a weasel becomes a 
whale (this is one of many prints based on literary allusions). George 
Forster described it two years later as one of the happiest ideas that had 
appeared for a long time, adding that it was a witty criticism on Burke's 
hyperbole.^ Gillray retaliated with a print in which Hastings displays 
a camera obscura to the King and Queen ; in its diminishing rays an elephant 
is reduced to a flea, Ossa to a wart, murdered Indian women to 'skin'd 
mice', a whale to a weasel (Nos. 7313, 7314). Contrasted views of Sheri- 
dan's famous Begum speech are given in two prints by Dent : The Triumph of 

^ Memoir Sy 1884, v. 67. 

^ Voyage . . . en Angleterre et en France fait en 17 go. Paris, An iv, p. 52. 



Genius over Injustice (No. 7331) is in direct opposition to the Long Winded 
Speech in which Sheridan is the verbose mouthpiece of Burke (p. 499). 

During the trial the Ministry trembled at the attempt of Opposition to 
*raise the dead' over Pitt's Declaratory Bill (No. 7283). The unpopularity 
of Dundas was expected 'very materially to injure Pitt's reputation and 
Government',^ the Opposition even hoped to 'storm the closet'^ but Pitt's 
conciliatory handUng of the affair dispelled their hopes. 

With the interruption of proceedings in Westminster Hall satires on 
the trial cease; public attention was concentrated on the by-election for 
Westminster caused by Hood's appointment as First Lord (No. 7339). 
No opposition to his re-election was expected, and Grenville attributed 
Hood's defeat to his 'security for the first three days and total inactivity 
for three days more'. The supposed consternation of the Government^ 
is scarcely supported by the correspondence of Ministers,'^ but the defeat 
was sensational and had important consequences. Popular interest was 
not lessened by the identity of the Foxite candidate. Lord John Townshend. 
As usual, the election was fought mainly on personalities, but the Ministry 
was damaged by the Shop Tax, though Hood had voted for repeal, thus 
evoking the ancient gibe of 'two faces under a Hood' (No. 7341), and by 
the policy of naval promotions (No. 7126) that had led to Howe's resigna- 
tion and thus to the election. The Ministry were genuinely convinced 
that bribery and impersonation had taken place on a large scale, and the 
belief is reflected in a number of prints. The High Bailiff is said to have 
been so intimidated by the result of the Scrutiny in 1785 that 'he yielded in 
every case to the most abject fears on every threat of Mr. Fox'.^ In the prints 
Townshend is more harshly dealt with than Hood, and Gillray produced 
several anti-Foxite satires. He also attacked the Pittite cfl«ar^^ of the election 
(No. 7371) and attacked Treasury assistance to election expenses (No. 7369). 
The election was hardly over, followed by Fox's departure to Switzer- 
land (No. 7370), when the King's illness became the all-prevailing theme, 
and remained so until the end of the Regency crisis. On this subject there 
are twenty-four prints from November 5 to the end of the year. The 
excitement continued to increase during the first months of 1789. For 
this year, out of 92 satires, 46 are directly concerned with the Regency, 
while echoes of the crisis recurred for several months. The prints afford 
a striking survey of the whole affair from every point of view, the carica- 
turists being remarkably well informed. The blaze of publicity, and the 
grossness of the allegations which were bandied about are illustrated. The 
King is treated with respect, at first the prints are unfavourable to the 
Prince and the Opposition, and then, in spite of his undoubted popularity, 
turn against Pitt in what appears to have been a concerted campaign.^ 
The newspapers are said to have been bought by the Opposition (No. 
7510), though The Times remained Pittite.^ The personal and constitu- 

^ Buckingham, Courts and Cabinets of George III, i. 361. 

^ Cornwallis Correspondence, i. 369. 

3 A. Stephens asserts that Townshend's election 'revived the declining hopes 
of his party' and 'seemed to appal and confound Ministers'. Memoirs 0/ Home 
Tooke, 18 13, ii. 70-1. 

^ Buckingham, op. cit. i. 414; Hist. MSS. Comm., Dropmore Papers, i. 348-9. 

5 Buckingham, op. cit. i. 414, 417. 

^ Pitt is urged by a pamphleteer to 'be cautious; and, in manly contempt of 
Print-Shops, Pamphlets, and Prostitute Publications, keep the reins till the King 
and People are secure.' Alfred, B.M.L., T. 1 120/5. 

' Hist, of the Times, 1935, pp. 52 ff. Cf. No. 7526, based on a publication by 



tional points at issue come to startling life in the prints : Pitt is accused of 
being the prince's competitor, as he was by Burke (No. 7382), and there- 
after, as if in revenge for old names of Carlo Khan and Charles III, he is 
occasionally styled Prince William or William IV (No. 7494). Other points 
are the part taken by Thurlow (No. 7377), Fox's claim for the Prince's 
inherent right to the regency independently of parliament (No, 7381), the 
dominating influence of Sheridan at Carlton House (No. 7513), the jealousy 
between him and Fox (No. 7497), Burke's wild speeches (No. 7499), the 
allegations against the Queen (No. 7510). The sudden dashing of the 
confident expectations of Carlton House is well rendered in Sayers's 
Regency Twelfth Cake (No. 7509). The crisis expired in the laughter 
caused by the arrival of the delegation from Ireland *a day after the fair' 
(No. 751 1). The King's recovery, at which rejoicing was unbounded, 
could hardly be a subject of satire, but disappointment found an outlet 
in ridicule of the thanksgiving procession to St. Paul's : the clumsy horse- 
manship and unsoldierly appearance of *cits', the high prices asked for 
seats on the route, empty 'peep-holes' at three guineas each, 'seats in the 
gutter one shilling' (Nos. 7524-5). Restoration Dresses (No. 7522) shows 
the loyal emblems worn by ladies of both parties in succession to the 
'Regency caps' of the Opposition ladies. The duel between the Duke of 
York and Colonel Lennox was an epilogue to the crisis ; the prints illustrate 
the unfortunate publicity which inflamed the quarrel. Prints on the royal 
visit to Weymouth constitute a pleasanter sequel: Nos. 7544 and 7555 
might be comic illustrations to the account of the expedition in Fanny 
Burney's Diary. 

The year ended in calm and the caricaturists were able to take cognizance 
of events in France. Already in 1788 Le Deficit (No. 7376) by Isaac 
Cruikshank had illustrated the French financial crisis. He produced a 
similar print, Les Sacrefices Forces (No. 7553), on the surrender of feudal 
privileges on 4 August. Both are acute and well-informed satirical com- 
ments, and they were possibly commissioned for circulation in France. 
Prints on the fall of the Bastille register enthusiastic approval, satire and 
caricature being reserved for the royal family and especially the Queen, 
whom Gillray travesties as Messalina (No. 7548). The removal of the 
royal family from Versailles to Paris is treated as comedy (No. 7560), the 
unpopularity of Orleans is reflected in No. 7559. 

During the next three years the gradual change of attitude towards the 
French Revolution is of outstanding interest. European affairs were in 
the foreground of the national consciousness. The year 1790 was out- 
wardly calm, with some ominous aspects. The number of political prints 
falls to 74. The main preoccupations are the attempted relief of dissenters 
by repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, the Spanish crisis over Nootka 
Sound, a Westminster election, and lastly, Burke's Reflections on the French 
Revolution. The prints are without exception hostile to dissent, the cry 
of the Church in danger being effectively raised. An organized agitation 
by the dissenters and an agreement to support at the general election only 
those well-affected to the cause of civil and religious liberty injured their 
cause, Fox having made the matter a party question. But above all, their 
unpopularity was due to Price's famous Revolution Sermon (4 Nov. 1789) 
much circulated as a pamphlet, and to a pamphlet by Priestley in which he 
anticipated that symbolical 'grains of gunpowder' would blow up orthodoxy 
and hierarchy 'perhaps as suddenly, as unexpectedly, and as completely 
as the overthrow of the late arbitrary government in France' (No. 7632). 



Price and Priestley are the chief villains of a number of satires on the 
dissenters, who are compared with the republican sectaries of the seven- 
teenth century. The first and leading print on the subject (No. 7628) 
contains, significantly enough, the first hostile allusion to the French 
Revolution, and the Foxites are attacked for their support of the dissenters. 
The motions for repeal in 1787 and 1789 had passed unnoticed by the 
caricaturists (cf. No. 7347). 

The expenses of the by-election in Westminster in 1788 had been so 
heavy that each side agreed to support one candidate only. The arrange- 
ment (common in similar circumstances) was denounced as a shameful 
coalition, and Home Tooke appeared on the hustings and demanded a 
poll (No. 7638). The consequences of the compact affected Westminster 
politics for many years and were a factor in the success of Sir Francis 
Burdett. The beginning of the crisis over Nootka Sound (now Vancouver 
Island) coincided with the election. Pitt was accused of truckling to Spain 
(No. 7662), of keeping the people in the dark by secret diplomacy (No. 
7653), of thrusting the overburdened John Bull into war (No. 7666). 
Howe was attacked for keeping the Navy in port instead of fighting the 
dons (No. 7669). The Spanish Convention (No. 7687), though entirely 
satisfactory to Great Britain, was attacked as base servility to Spain. These 
accusations preceded Fox's violent attack on the Convention. Party 
rancour increased in proportion to Pitt's success.^ 

The sensation caused by Burke's Reflections is amusingly reflected in 
the prints, which emphatically do not support the French Ambassador's 
opinion that the book had united the whole nation against changes in 
France.^ The passage about Marie Antoinette is generally selected for 
ridicule, and caricature anticipated Tom Paine in representing Burke 
as Don Quixote (No. 7678); he carries the shield of Aristocracy and 
Despotism. The attack on Price's sermon is treated with more respect, 
it was as a direct consequence of the book that the attack on Versailles 
and Price's sermon were jointly pilloried by Isaac Cruikshank (No. 7691). 
When Gillray depicts Price terrified by Burke and conscience it is Burke 
who is caricatured (No. 7686). 

A hundred and nineteen political prints for 1791 denote some rise in 
the political temperature and much interest in the marriage of the Duke 
of York and in the joint establishment of the Duke of Clarence and 
Mrs. Jordan, events that inevitably brought the Prince and Mrs. Fitz- 
herbert back into the limelight (No. 7910). The Spanish Convention 
continued to be a subject of factious acrimony, but was soon over- 
shadowed by the Russian Armament. This was an occasion when, as over 
the Irish Propositions in 1785, the Opposition succeeded in mobilizing 
public opinion and deflecting Pitt from his policy. 'The country through- 
out have told Mr. Pitt they will not go to war.' The resulting crisis was 
important, though not serious, Pitt was too firmly entrenched, the 
Opposition too much discredited. 'Were Mr. Fox a fresh man', Storer 
continues, 'there would be little difficulty in getting into office : but he has 
so many old scores to wipe off, that I am not sanguine enough to foresee 
any favourable event likely to happen soon either for him or his party. '^ 
The interesting prints on the Armament stress the arguments against war : 
loss of trade (No. 7841), heavy taxation (No. 7842), the supposed selfish 

^ Auckland Correspondence, ii. 387-9 (6 May 1791). 

2 Stoker, Pitt et la Rev.franfaise, Paris 1935, p. 49. 

3 Auckland Corr., loc. cit. 



duplicity of Prussia, bent on acquiring Danzig and Thorn (No. 7847). 
These and other points were neatly selected from the debates. And when, 
owing to this opposition, the policy of the Armament (by which Pitt had 
hoped to repeat his Spanish success) was dropped, the humiliation of 
England and triumph of Catherine were the subject of a print (No. 7857). 
Throughout, Catherine's designs on Turkey are the subject of ribald 
comment, and while some of the prints are well informed, others are 
merely indecorous. An Imperial Stride (No. 7843) is typical and is note- 
worthy for its French copy.^ The episode of the bust of Fox ordered by 
the Tsarina on account of his opposition to the Armament was the subject 
of prints in 1791 and 1792 (No. 7902). General ideas on foreign policy 
are discoverable in the prints on the Russian crisis: opposition to secret 
diplomacy (No. 7871), the preservation of the balance of power (No. 

English politics were increasingly darkened by the French Revolution. 
The flight to Varennes is said to have roused universal sympathy in 
England for the French royal family; this does not appear in the prints, 
the affair is treated as comic (No. 7884). In No. 7886 the breaking of the 
King's oath to preserve the Constitution is the serious nucleus of a comic 
print. Burke's famous quarrel with Fox was ominous and a great oppor- 
tunity to the caricaturists (No. 7854). No mercy is shown to either party, 
Burke is treated as a renegade who turns against his companions in infamy 
(No. 7861). The split in the whig party is foreshadowed in No. 7858, the 
first of the anti-Jacobin prints. Gillray developed the anti- Jacobin theme 
in Rights of Man . . . (No. 7867), dedicated to the Jacobin clubs of England 
and France, anticipating by two years the use of the word by Burke, the 
earliest instance in the O.E.D. The theme was carried to extremes in 
satires on the second anniversary of the fall of the Bastille (No. 7890) 
which represent the state of mind which led to the Church and King riots 
in Birmingham. Despite this (presumably) loyal spirit the royal family 
receive harsh treatment in 1791. The theme of miserly hoarding is 
prominent (No. 7836). The Newmarket sensation over the Prince's horse 
Escape is cleverly satirized by Rowlandson (Nos. 7918, 7919). 

There are 96 political satires for 1792 which opened uneventfully and 
closed with England on the verge of war with the French Republic. The 
high level of the stocks and proposals for a reduction of taxation reflected 
Pitt's expectation of prolonged peace and the stability of his government. 
Nevertheless, the Ministry had been shaken by the defeat of the Russian 
policy, and there were rumours of cabinet reconstruction echoed in a 
famous print by Gillray, Malagrida Driving Post (No. 8069). Pitt's security 
was shown in the dismissal of Thurlow, the subject of several prints, 
notably Gillray 's Sin^ Death and the Devil (No. 8105). The Opposition, 
in 1792, as in 1791, attempted to make capital out of the Mysore War; 
its conduct was attacked to the indignant astonishment of Cornwallis, and 
only the complete defeat of Tipu put an end to a series of innuendoes 
relating to dispatches from India (Nos. 7904, 8090). 

The first action against 'French principles' was the proclamation in 
May against seditious writings, satirized by Gillray in an attack on the 
supposed besetting sins of the royal family (No. 8095). The proclamation 
was aimed chiefly at Paine, but was thought by the Whigs to be directed 
against the Association of the Friends of the People (No. 8087) and an 
attempt to split their party. Talleyrand notes the infinite harm done to 
" See above, pp. xv-xvi. 


the Association by the second part of Paine 's Rights of Man.^ This 
(No. 8137), with Burke's Reflections, the proclamations, the Friends of 
the People, the camp on Bagshot Heath (No. 81 15), the association of the 
Opposition with Talleyrand and Chauvelin (No. 8088) were all factors in 
the inflaming of opinion and in the eventual split in the Whig party. The 
prints express alarm and resentment at Paine (No. 81 31) and at corre- 
spondence with France (No. 8108). Paine 's book is now chiefly read for 
its proposals on social reform; contemporaries were mainly interested in 
the attitude towards * Kings and Priests'. 

French affairs are increasingly the subject of caricature: the retreat 
from Tournai and the murder of Dillon (No. 8085), the decree against 
emigres (No. 8130); the invasion of the Tuileries is ironically contrasted 
with the 'baiser Lamourette' (p. 922). The September Massacres are the 
subject of a terrible satire by Gillray (No. 8122). On the other hand the 
French princes are satirized in No. 8068, and the bombast and retreat 
of Brunswick are ridiculed (No. 8125), though the French army is depicted 
as a band of ragamuffins (No. 8124). The famous decree of 19 November 
is amusingly satirized in French Liberality , or an attempt to conquer all the 
World by being too civil by half (No. 8136). In this there is little rancour, 
and French poHcy is more severely dealt with in No. 8150, Philosophy 
run mady or a stupendous Monument of human Wisdom (quoting the phrase 
of Fox on the French constitution that had so exasperated Burke). The 
first and only allusion to the guillotine is in No. 813 1. 

At the end of 1792 there was again a trend towards the anti- Jacobin 
theme and two prints (Nos. 8149, 8150) were issued as propagandist tracts 
by the 'Society for preserving Liberty and Property . . .' a body eulogized 
by Sayers in Nos. 8138 and 8144 and ridiculed by Gillray in No. 8141 as 
*The Association for vending two 'penny scurrilities', where Pitt is accused 
of bewildering John Bull by false alarms. Burke's famous dagger scene 
was ridiculed by Gillray in No. 8147. The first and only serious hint of 
war (15 Dec.) is in an anti-levelling print by Sayers (No. 8138) in which 
a sailor and soldier shout for 'King and Country'. A premature war scare 
in April had evoked a caricature of George III arming in defence of the 
unpopular French princes (No. 8084). The specifically patriotic prints 
are few, in fact the only ones wholly in that category are Sayers' print 
(No. 8138) and a propagandist print contrasting British Liberty and 
French Liberty (No. 8149). In No. 8150 Gillray treats the same subject 
with an irony which removes it from patriotic propaganda. 

This is the main outline of public affairs as depicted in graphic satire. 
There are many subsidiary themes, notably Pitt's peerages, and the 
campaign against the slave trade. Resentment at the would-be dictator 
is first directed against Fox, then against Pitt for arrogantly appropriating 
the powers of the Crown, a theme not entirely confined to the Regency 
crisis (e.g. No. 7936). Throughout the prints are a corrective to the 
suavity of official portraiture. Burke is depicted as irritable and un- 
balanced, verging at times on madness in his attacks on Hastings (No. 
7529), in his praise of Marie Antoinette, in his quarrel with Fox, in the 
dagger scene, and especially during the Regency crisis, when he spoke 
wild words that were long remembered against him (Nos. 7499, 7689). 
This aspect of Burke was politically important, and is often forgotten by 
historians who marvel at his exclusion from high office. Mr. Sichel says 

» Dispatch of 23 May 1792, ostensibly by Chauvelin. Pallain, La Mission de 
Talleyrand d Londres, 1888, p. 299. 



that Sheridan in caricature is *a bloated Silenus'. That is not so in the 
period of this volume. His face becomes drink-blotched and he has a sly 
and occasionally a conspiratorial expression. He is repeatedly Bardolph 
(No. 7528) and Joseph Surface (No. 7510). In fact, apart from the 
exaggerations of the anti-Jacobin prints, a Sheridan emerges not unlike 
the Sheridan of Whig opinion, expressed by (among others) Lord Fitz- 
william. Lord Holland, Lady Bessborough, and Creevey. 

Though many of the prints attack the Ministry in Opposition language, 
the strong Whiggish undercurrent apparent in the prints of Volume V 
up to 1782 is absent, and the prevailing spirit seems to be Tory in senti- 
ment. The King is no longer a tyrant, he is a figure of comedy, and it is 
necessary to bear in mind that the popularity he acquired over the India 
Bill (well illustrated here) greatly increased as a result of his illness, so 
that, as Lord Holland says, by 1807 he had 'long been the most popular 
man in his dominions'. Evidence of this popularity is perhaps to be 
seen in the hatred incurred by the republican Paine. Brutus, a hero in 
the days of Wilkes (No. 5237), is actually associated with Catiline in 
No. 813 1. Though parsons are ridiculed the Church is not attacked, and 
there is none of the ultra-Protestant, No-Popery attitude which inflamed 
the opposition to the Quebec Bill and culminated in 1780. A few emblems 
of Popery are associated with Mrs. Fitzherbert, but a measure of Catholic 
relief passed unnoticed by the caricaturists, who reserve their venom for 
Dissent. Fox's Libel Act is equally unnoticed, but the proceedings for 
libel against Shipley (No. 6669) are approved. Except for a belated echo 
of Saratoga (No. 6996) allusions to America are made only as gibes against 
North, or Howe, or Paine (No. 7867). 

How far caricature was the means of conveying to France, there to be 
misunderstood, the contentions of faction, we do not know. Two French 
copies of an English print of Pitt as a cruel tyrant have already been notf d. 
A striking instance of an Opposition theme used in France at a critical 
moment is that embodied in No. 7838 (1791), where Pitt runs off with 
the Bank of England, that is, proposes to use unclaimed dividends to the 
extent of ^500,000 subject to repayment on demand. This harmless 
proposal was used by Brissot in January 1793 to prove, as an argument 
for war, that England's financial position was desperate. Prints of Fox, 
Sheridan, and others as disloyal Jacobins can only have contributed to 
French misconceptions of the condition of England. The violence of 
political satire, though significant, was to some degree a convention which 
must have been discounted by those chiefly concerned. For instance, 
a print of George III wheeling Hastings in a barrow, inscribed 'What 
a man buys he may sell' (No. 7267), is reputed to have greatly amused the 

Personal Satires. 

In passing from political satires to those classed as personal the transition 
is in some degree from satire, occasionally savage, to comic art in general. 
An element of cruelty, however, is present in some of the personal satires, 
notably in the virulent campaign against Thicknesse, led but not begun 
by Gillray, and in the prints on the Gunning scandal, which absorbed the 
town for months. Both subjects have links with contemporary literature. 
Miss Gunning and her mother were novelists ; the Memoirs of Thicknesse ^ 
the occasion of the prints, are still readable. 

Personal scandal is especially represented in the series of Tete-a-tete 



portraits ; these decline in interest and increasingly depend on summaries 
of cases of crim. con. relating for the most part to inconspicuous people. 
In 1792, judging from the costume, the portraits cease to be contemporary 
and appear to be reissues of old plates. They have not therefore been 
included in the Catalogue. Where the personal details or clues can be 
tested they are often glaringly inaccurate, e.g. in the cases of Admiral Pigot 
(No. 6824), Lord George Gordon (No. 7004), and Sir William Hamilton 
(No. 7708). The series had been the mainstay of The Town and Country 
Magazine y and it expired in 1792. Horace Bleackley dropped his elucida- 
tions at the end of 1790. A new set of personal prints, chiefly of Edinburgh 
characters, begins with the work of Kay in 1784. 

In the literary satires Johnson remains the leading figure. In No. 7052 
his ghost protests against the outrages perpetrated by his biographers: 
these are, in 1786, Boswell (for The Tour)y Mrs. Piozzi (for the Anecdotes)^ 
and Courtenay for his now forgotten verses. The Tour to the Hebrides 
was illustrated in an amusing set of plates in which all that was undignified 
and ridiculous in Boswell is thrown into relief. Walcot's Bozzy and Piozzi 
was wittily illustrated by Rowlandson (No. 7051). The Life is the subject 
of one print only (No. 8282), and that is represented by a copy or re-issue 
dated 1803. In this Johnson's ghost reproaches Boswell both for the Life 
and the Tour\ Boswell's (now re-discovered) journal appears to be a 
conspicuous feature. Sir John Hawkins was, like Boswell, a butt of the 
period: he is made the 'Editor' of The Probationary Odes and the 'Pre- 
liminary Discourse', in which his History of Music is ridiculed, is put into 
his mouth. He is also ridiculed in Bozzy and Piozzi^ and appears in 
No. 7051. His Life and Works of Johnson (parodied by Porson in the 
Gentleman^ s Magazine^ 1787) was not then published ; it was pilloried 
together with Boswell's Tour in No. 7417, in which Johnson's ghost again 
reproaches Mrs. Piozzi, this time for the Letters. 

Gibbon is the subject of two prints. The Luminous Historian (No. 7418) 
is an unkind caricature, but the title perpetuates Sheridan's tribute in 
Westminster Hall to 'the luminous pages of Gibbon'. In No. 7419 his 
'Roman History' outweighs the bulky works of Watson of Llandaff, who 
figures also in political satire. Samuel Parr, the Whig Dr. Johnson, was 
caricatured by Sayers for his famous Preface to Bellendenus (No. 7185). 
The rage for Werther was the subject of a set of prints by Rowlandson 
after CoUings, only one of which (No. 7055) is in the Museum. 

Prints on the theatre are numerous and interesting. Werter, a Tragedy 
for Masters and Misses ^ is an amusing satire on Reynolds's play; though 
non-political it is in the spirit of The Rovers in the Anti-Jacobin. The 
taste that prefers the Dancing Dogs, the Learned Pig, and Harlequin to 
Shakespeare (a recurrent theme, cf. No. 5063, &c.) is satirized in The 
Downfall of Taste and Genius (No. 6715). The Pit Door (No. 6769), on the 
other hand, is a realistic rendering of the crowd storming Drury Lane to 
see Mrs. Siddons in a famous part. The success of Mrs. Siddons is the 
subject of No. 6776 and of Gillray's Melpomene (No. 6712), where she is 
unjustly accused of the deadly sin of parsimony. The way in which 
Mrs. Jordan charmed the town in The Romp is seen in No. 6875. Many 
actors and actresses are caricatured, the favourite subjects being Mrs. 
Siddons, Holman, and (for other than professional reasons) Mrs. Jordan, 
Miss Farren, and Mrs. Wells. Episodes in the history of the theatre are 
illustrated : the defeat of Palmer's attempt to invade the monopoly of the 
two patent theatres is the subject of No. 7214 by Gillray. The demolition 



of Drury Lane and the temporary transference of the company to the new 
Opera House (which nearly provoked O.P. riots) is satirized in Nos. 8009, 
801 1. A more important theatrical crisis in the same year was the rivalry 
between a licensed opera with Court patronage and an unlicensed opera 
house supported by the Prince of Wales and the Opposition (No. 8010). 

There are some interesting views of theatre interiors : Covent Garden 
(No. 7063), the Pantheon (No. 8008), both by Rowlandson, as are two 
characteristic prints of Box Lobby humours (Nos. 7064, 8254). A political 
print by Sayers shows the arrangement of curtain and footlights at Drury 
Lane. A Country Theatre after Pyne (No. 7812) gives a comic but realistic 
view of stage and audience and of the construction of the building, a 
glorified barn. Ballet is represented by a performance of Amphion and 
Thalia (No. 8008), by the impersonation of a ballerina by Delpini (No. 
6873), and by a caricature of La Guimard in her last London season 
(No. 7589). In No. 8007 Vestris and others, engaged for the (unlicensed) 
opera in 1791, solicit alms. 

The rage for amateur theatricals gave rise to a number of prints in 
which the fat Mrs. Hobart is a leading figure. In April 1784 she made 
her debut in caricature in political prints. In the same month she figures 
in a too-youthful part in (apparently) a dramatized version of Fanny 
Burney's Cecilia. A play at the Duke of Richmond's theatre with Mrs. 
Hobart and Lord Derby in parts for which they were unsuited was a social 
sensation of 1787 (No. 7315). In No. 7301 Lord Derby is being coached 
by Miss Farren. 

Among the prints on music is a well-known caricature of Mme Mara 
singing at a concert (No. 7167). She is satirized (with politicians and other 
musicians) in Gillray's Ancient Music (No. 7163), a fantasy based on Wol- 
cot's Ode upon Ode. In Sayers's Charmers of the Age (No. 7056) Mara 
and Rubinelli sing together. Rowlandson 's famous Vauxhall shows the 
orchestra with Mrs. Billington singing. There are caricatures by Nixon of 
Tenducci, Dr. Arne, and Abel (Nos. 8268, 8240, 8264). 

The outstanding satire on art and artists is Gillray's attack on the 
Shakespeare Gallery (No. 7584), the first of a series of bitter gibes at 
Boydell. Here the exclusion of engravers from the Academy seems to 
account for part of the rancour. The main interest of the print lies in 
the brilliant travesties of the work of the history painters exhibited in the 
Shakespeare Gallery. Figures from four pictures by Fuseli, two by 
Northcote, and from single pictures by Reynolds, West, Opie, and Boydell 
are solidly planted on smoke rising from Boy dell's * Sacrifice'. The works 
of Fuseli lent themselves to such exercises in travesty, and he was again 
victimized by Gillray in Wierd-sisters (No. 7937), another Shakespearean 
subject. Rowlandson amusingly burlesqued Fuseli 's Nightmare in a 
political print (No. 6543). Two anonymous travesties of portraits of 
Cosway and his wife, both by Cosway, are in a different category, since 
they are caricatures of their subjects, and ridicule the vanity which led 
Cosway to depict himself as a magnificent Rubens cavalier, while Mrs. 
Cosway was also represented as a figure from a picture by Rubens 
(Nos. 7019, 7020). These satires are unkind, but Cosway is said to have 
commissioned the ungentlemanly caricature of Manini (No. 5770). Artists 
at work are depicted in a manner between satire and genre by Rowlandson 
in two studio interiors (Nos. 6724, 6862), and a sign painter's workshop 
where a young painter is engaged on work beneath his dignity (No. 7770). 
Comedy and realism are combined in his Dutch Academy (No. 8195). 



Sculpture is represented by Locatelli (probably) and Mrs. Darner, while 
in the (political) satires on the bust of Fox commissioned by the Tsarina 
the bust is remarkably like that by Nollekens, of which so many replicas 
were made for Fox's admirers, and which is shown in Nollekens 's portrait 
in the National Portrait Gallery. As before, the architect best known to 
the caricaturist is Sir WiUiam Chambers. The connoisseur and the 
antiquarian remain favourite subjects: two realistic prints just touched 
by comedy are Rowlandson's Print Sale (No. 7746) and Copper Plate 
Printers at work (No. 6859). 

As in Volume V, there are more prints on Cambridge than on Oxford 
(here represented only by No. 7742). Cambridge prints include an 
elaborate interior intended for the drawing-room in the Master's Lodge 
at Jesus College, which is an undeserved gibe at the Master, Dr. Beadon. 
A decree against tavern dinners is the subject of two prints (Nos. 7016, 
7017). There are two satires on Anglo-Indian life, both by Gillray, one is 
an exercise in fantasy and calumny ; the other, closely following the design 
of an amateur, is a realistic representation, filled with portraits, of the 
weekly levee held by Cornwallis. It makes an excellent illustration to the 
Memoirs of Hickey. 

Among the fashions of the moment the craze for balloons takes the first 
place. In England, as in France, they were ridiculed as fleeting follies; in 
fact, they stood for all that was ephemeral and visionary, a veritable mania. 
In graphic satire, indeed, they were a passing fashion and (temporarily) 
disappear after 1785. The balloon inevitably suggested the bubble, symbol 
of all that was fraudulent and fleeting. Paul Sandby is par excellence the 
artist of the balloon. In his early political caricatures he had specialized 
in the theme of flight: on a broomstick, or on a bubble, or by means of 
bellows worked by the Devil. It is therefore in the tradition that early 
balloon prints, when political, should be associated with the Devil, while 
recent scientific discovery had connected them with 'inflammable air'. 
In No. 6486 George III is supported by bubble-balloons in the manner 
of the boat depicted in Sturm's Collegium Experimentale of 1701 . The non- 
political balloon prints described in this volume combine symbolism with 
reahsm. In prints by Sandby of actual happenings the balloon is in the 
form of a head wearing a fool's cap, as in No. 6701, whose title connects 
it with Bishop Godwin's Man in the Moone. Something of the popular 
suspicion attaching to what was a fashionable craze was due to the fact 
that leading practitioners were foreign, and the successes of Lunardi and 
Blanchard were set off^ by the fiasco of Moret. 

Another fashionable mania was that for pugilism. The famous fight of 
Humphries and Mendoza is the subject of a fantastic design by Ramberg 
(No. 7425). Other sporting subjects are realistic prints of York Races by 
Mason together with a street scene in York, showing a tangle of vehicles 
and race-horses (Nos. 8243, 8255, 8256). The faro bank, that profitable 
undertaking which in 1782 had been particularly the resource of Fox and 
his friends, had become by 1792 the peculiar field on a business footing 
of a group of women of fashion connected with Carlton House — so much 
so that the Prince of Wales was accused of sharing in their profits (No. 
8075): . 

Striking changes in costume took place during this period. The fashion 
for pouter pigeon busts, and inflated ^derrieres\ together with small waists 
and gigantic hats and muffs, began in 1786 and continued to occupy the 
caricaturists during 1787. Some of the prints suggest that the fashion may 



have owed something to Mrs. Fitzherbert. These fashions were conspi- 
cuously without the stiffness which had characterized earHer inflations, 
e.g. the cork rump of 1776. Their extravagances were long remembered 
(No. 6874). The large feathered hat, which we now associate with Gains- 
borough and the Duchess of Devonshire, was regarded as an echo of Rubens. ^ 

In men's dress the high-coat collar and sparrow-tail coat appear as early 
as 1784 (No. 6718) and were at first associated with Major Topham 
(No. 6854). Tight-fitting breeches (No. 6723) gradually become longer 
and longer, and by 1790 were buttoned or tied below the calf (No. 7794), 
thus developing into the pantaloon. The high-crowned hat appears in 
1790, and in 1791 another phase of pre-occupation with fashions of both 
men and women begins. Men wore cropped hair (also sometimes worn by 
women), short, double-breasted waistcoats with high multiple collars, 
tail coats with wide revers and pantaloons. Exaggerated forms of this 
dress were worn by the bucks and bloods, who carried bludgeons or canes, 
wore tall hats on the side of the head and enormous spurs on very short 
boots (No. 8040, &c.). These bucks were called 'crops' from their short 
hair, but this was then, unlike that of the later 'croppies' of Ireland and 
'crappies' of Scotland, without political significance and seems to have 
anticipated the modes that in France were associated with Jacobinism and 
the guillotine. The Prince of Wales is never depicted in any approach to 
these extravagant fashions. The 'crops' par excellence were Lord Barry- 
more and his brothers and on the stage Goldfinch in Holcroft's Road to 
Ruin (No. 8083). 

The stock subjects of caricature noticed in Volume V persist with some 
change of emphasis which corresponds to changing manners. They are 
to be found in the social caricatures published by Bowles and in the 
'Drolls' published by Sayer. The 'cit', especially the cockney sportsman, 
continued to be popular, both in the hands of Bunbury and in the more 
plebeian prints. John Gilpin became almost at once a favourite subject, 
the *cit' on horseback was irresistible and Henderson's reading of the 
poem made it widely popular (No. 6886). The theme of bad horsemanship 
was one which Bunbury (equerry to the Duke of York) had already made 
his own. He elaborated it in his Gambado prints (No. 7321). There are some 
interesting personalities in the prints on quacks, who include Cagliostro 
and de Loutherbourg. A political print (No. 7514) shows Dominicetti 
stoking his furnaces in his bathing establishment in Cheyne Walk. 

As before, the problems of poverty are scarcely touched on. Enclosures 
and high food prices are a subject of No. 6993, which is more directly 
concerned with guzzling aldermen. The neglect of the poor by parish 
officers is the subject of No. 5877. The attitude to the burning of the 
Albion Mills (No. 8020) is that of the poorer classes, who believed that 
the mills used adulterated flour and raised the price of bread. Some indica- 
tion of the state of poverty and rags then accepted as normal is incidentally 
given in Rowlandson's print of London cinder-sifters (No. 7444) and in 
No. 7733, where a bill-sticker is realistically depicted. A strong radical 
or democratic feeling in Gillray seems to find expression in his persistent 
satires on elderly women of fashion. His fierce attack on Lonsdale for 
his treatment of tenants and colliers in Whitehaven in two notable prints 
(Nos. 8155, 8156) was courageous in view of the proceedings then pending 
against Wolcot. One contains the only allusion (an indirect one) to the 
Game Laws. 

^ Cf. George Forster, op. cit., p. 52. 



The supremacy of Gillray and Rowlandson in the period of this volume 
does not depend only on their own work but on their influence on other 
artists. After the two masters, the most noteworthy caricaturists and 
satirical artists are Sayers, Boyne, Bunbury, Robert Dighton, Isaac Cruik- 
shank, Kay, CoUings, Newton, Nixon, Woodward, F. G. Byron, Ramberg, 
Dent, and Wigstead, who may or may not be an artist here styled *H.W.\ 
who might also have been called Amico di Rowlandson. There are also 
artists who occasionally did caricatures, though they are chiefly known 
for their other work. Of these the most important is Paul Sandby, whose 
latest caricatures belong to the year 1784. Henry Kingsbury, known as a 
mezzotint engraver, was also a caricaturist and one whose work is difficult 
to identify : he appears to have been imitative and eclectic. The manner 
of Joshua Baldrey (if the attributions here made are correct) is more 
distinctive. There are two interesting plates after Pyne ('Ephraim Hard- 
castle'), one of which was afterwards copied and improved by Rowlandson. 
Though Blake's name appears in the index it is merely as the impersonal 
engraver of the work of Collings. 

The question of attributions is necessarily diflficult since mystification 
and imitation were rife; the work of the draughtsman was sometimes 
transformed by the engraver, and one artist may have worked on the plate 
of another. And though many of the attributions are conjectural they 
have been made with reserve: the probable insensibly merges into the 
hypothetical and it is believed that plates not so attributed are in fact the 
work of (e.g.) *H.W'., Kingsbury, and Isaac Cruikshank. Other mezzotints 
than those so attributed may be by Dighton, for though his manner is 
distinctive it may have been obscured by the opaque water-colour on the 
Print Room impressions. 

When Gillray uses Sayers 's signature (see No. 7146) it cannot be with 
intent to deceive: even the initials have a bold curve that distinguishes 
them from the authentic *J-S.', while the faint echo of Sayers 's manner 
in no way obscures his own more powerful hand. The signature (once 
used by Rowlandson but without attempt at imitation) is used only on 
plates parodying those of Sayers, in attacks on Pitt, whose henchman 
Sayers was, and on a scurrilously salacious print, utterly unlike the work 
of Sayers. There are in this volume prints attributed by some collectors 
to Gillray, and which may be his, on the assumption that he was adopting 
a childish incompetence (Nos. 7963, 7968, 7969, 7970, 7977). Returning 
from Brooks's (No. 6528) is among the prints published in 1830 from plates 
by Gillray formerly in the possession of Miss Humphrey: despite the 
incorrect drawing there is something in manner and script not inconsistent 
with his work, while the motive for concealment is obvious. Stronger 
documentary evidence would be needed to authenticate other plates 
attributed to Gillray, e.g. Prince Pitt (No. 7389) ; if the attribution should 
be correct other plates by the same hand would be added to the Gillray 

Other plates attributed to Gillray may, with some confidence, be assigned 
to other artists. Hudibrass and his 'Squire (No. 6361) belongs to a set of 
prints by an artist who sometimes uses the pseudonym *Annibal Scratch' 
and who in the early months of 1784 seems to adopt two manners, 
significantly apportioned to Pittite and Foxite prints. In the former he 
is precise, the inscriptions are in printed characters, in the other he is 
sketchy and the script is cursive. Both suggest the hand of Collings, and 



both manners blend in No. 6614, where concealment is abandoned and 
the signature S.C. is used.^ A set of prints on the marriage of the Prince 
of Wales (No. 6924, &c.) is also attributed to Gillray by Grego on the 
theory that *he disguised his style to accommodate a rival of his publisher*. 
Their authorship is an interesting problem since they are by one or more 
competent caricaturists whose work in this volume is traceable only in 
1786 and 1787. Angelo's attribution of The Marriage of Figaro (No. 6924) 
to Wicksteed, *a celebrated seal-engraver*, is supported by a resemblance 
to the only print in the volume published by Wicksteed. Angelo is not 
unerring and he attributes the same print under its alternative title of 
The Marriage of a Day to Austin, who seems ruled out both by his distinc- 
tive manner and by his personal devotion to Fox (No. 6604). Another 
artist who might be considered for Nos. 6469 and 6954 is the W.M. 
(Mansell) of No. 6931. Nos. 6990 and 6992, clearly by Boyne, are at- 
tributed to Gillray by Grego. 

Another set of prints, one signed J.B., is attributed by E. Hawkins to 
Boyne. They are unlike his work, one is published by Joshua Baldrey, 
others from Baldrey 's address, and they are by no means inconsistent 
with Baldrey 's work, including a signed caricature of 1780, which, though 
less assured, might well be by the same hand at a later date. 

The relations of Wigstead and Rowlandson involve other problems. 
In etchings in the Print Room Wigstead appears as an artist of some 
competence, basing himself on Rowlandson. He also furnished Rowlandson 
with ideas and sketches. There is, however, an etching of John Gilpin 
(No. 8251), which, like No. 6722, would, except for Wigstead's signature, 
be attributed to Rowlandson. Wigstead's contemporary status as an artist 
seems to have been superior to that of Rowlandson. The Morning Post 
in 1789 admires a print (No. 7842) etched by Rowlandson, signed *H.W. 
inv*^', but regrets that 'the respectable talents of Wigstead should condescend 
to current topics' like 'the common order of caricaturists'. This would 
seem prima facie a mere tribute to Wigstead's status as an amateur and 
a man of some social position as compared with Rowlandson who worked 
for the printsellers. The tone of Wigstead's obituary notice in the 
Gentleman's Magazine (cited by Grego) supports the supposition. It is 
therefore surprising to find two trade cards for Wigstead, one as 'Painter*, 
the other as 'Painter &c.' of Gerrard Street, Soho. One is dated by Miss 
Banks 1785, the other 1788. 

This problem merges into another, the authorship of a number of 
etchings, apparently by the same artist, all with the same script and all 
published by Holland, who sometimes, perhaps always, though his 
own manner is distinctive, etches the work of other draughtsmen. Some 
of these have been attributed to Rowlandson, one is signed H.W., which 
naturally suggests Wigstead, a by no means unlikely attribution judging 
from a comparison with etchings by him. The manner, however, has more 
similarity with that of No. 7632, 'Etch'd William Holland'. The artists 
whose work 'H.W.' has etched appear to include Nixon (No. 7646), 
Newton (Nos. 7881, 7924), Woodward (Nos. 7987, 7988), possibly Byron 
(No. 7991, &c.). One of these 'H.W.' prints is attributed by E. Hawkins 

^ All are published by Wells except perhaps one published for John Cook. 
John Cooke etched Monmouth Street after Collings in 1789 (Westminster Public 
Library). This plate and Principles of Politeness, published by Fores, 16 Nov. 1790 
(Victoria and Albert Museum), support the attribution. The Pittite prints are 
Nos. 6361, 6386, 6419, 6493, 6549; the Foxite prints Nos. 6417, 6425, 6427, 6438, 
6445, 6491. Nos. 6631 and 6632 are in the manner of No. 6614, and signed 'S.C 



to *West'. Temple West is an obscure caricaturist whose work does not 
appear to be known before 1803.' 

If attributions in this volume are correct the work of Isaac Cruikshank 
as a political caricaturist dates from early in 1784, perhaps the year in 
which he came to London, since to this year belong also small etchings 
of Edinburgh characters similar in subject, scale, and design, though not 
in manner, to those of Kay. In any case he was an established caricaturist 
some years before 1794, the date given in Thieme Becker. Isaac Cruik- 
shank adopted different manners and was sometimes an imitator of Gillray ; 
he spells his name in almost as many ways as Shakespeare, and though he 
often uses the signature *I.C.* the initials are sometimes in block capitals, 
sometimes cursive and undistinguishable from *J-C.* or T.C.'^ 

Kay's work also begins in 1784. Nearly all his portraits have an element 
of caricature : to have included them would have overweighted the Cata- 
logue, and those only are described which are humorous or satirical in 
manner or intention. They are listed in the B.M. Catalogue of Engraved 
Portraits. He produced a few political satires ; a very early example of his 
work and a rare plate ,3 The Fox Chace . . . (No. 6418), is on the political 
crisis of 1784, doubly exceptional in that it is not a Scottish subject. 

The Hanoverian Ramberg is represented by some interesting plates. 
They are in the grand manner burlesqued, reminiscent of Mortimer, and 
characteristic of the pupil of Benjamin West. Ramberg was in England 
from 178 1 to 1788 as a protege of George III and was an Academy 

Robert Dighton is chiefly represented in this volume by the work which 
he did for Bowles's series of humorous mezzotints. These were engraved 
from his finished water-colours of approximately the same size as the 
print. A charming water-colour of the Westminster Election of 1788 has 
been described from a photograph presented to the Department. A great 
caricaturist was perhaps lost by the early death of Richard Newton. His 
work is often, though not always, marred by poor drawing, but it shows 
great gifts for bold design and the grotesque. He was original and 
versatile, with a turn for portraiture, and though his humour is often 
crude as well as rollicking this is natural in a boy. 

Though Dent is of no account as an artist he deserves attention as a 
caricaturist, especially for his later plates. His pungency of political and 
personal allusion and a gift for portraiture (his figures, however small or 
burlesqued, are generally unmistakable) explain the contemporary admira- 
tion for his work which Angelo records. ^ His Westminster Election prints 
of 1784 are indefensible^ in subject and treatment, but he gained in facility 
as he learned to exploit his own shortcomings and to adapt his etchings 
to colour. Some of his plates (notably No. 751 1) reach a higher level than 
would seem possible from his earlier work. Sayers' also has little merit 
as an artist, but much as a caricaturist. He has had something less than 

^ Broadley, Napoleon in Caricature, i. 46. 

^ He even uses both types of initial on the same plate, see General Fast, published 
by Fores, 4 May 1796. 

3 It is not included in a Print Room Collection of Kay's etchings or in the 
Edinburgh reprint, both of which are claimed to be complete (the former up to 

'^ Thieme Becker. 

5 Reminiscences, 1904, p. 334. 

^ See above, p. xvii, n. i. 

7 The name is so spelt in the D.N.B.^ but see No. 7628. 



justice because his most famous prints (of 1783-4) are also among his 
worst. By the use of soft ground etching or aquatint he improved upon 
his original feeble and scratchy technique.^ He is the only satirist in this 
volume in whom consistent political views can be discovered. These are 
support of Pitt, support of Hastings, hatred of dissent and Jacobinism, 
and his political prints appear only in response to the political situation. 

As in Volume V amateurs are well represented. Bunbury had the first 
place in contemporary reputation, and he is here represented by his most 
famous prints, which did in fact introduce a new form.^ Frederick George 
Byron, who died at the age of twenty-eight in 1792, is of the school of 
Bunbury, with perhaps greater talent. His view of Lunardi's balloon in 
the Pantheon (1784) is beautifully drawn, he also became a competent 
etcher. A set of aquatints published in 1802 gives a charming impression 
of the humours of travel in France in 1790 (Nos. 8271-5). He appears to 
have worked professionally for Holland and scarcely ranks as an amateur.^ 
James Hook, brother of Theodore, was an amateur caricaturist of great 
promise. Caricatures in 1787 and 1788, when he was a Westminster 
schoolboy, have surprisingly little of the amateur. According to Angelo 
his sketches and caricatures induced Sir Joshua Reynolds to recommend 
that he should be educated as an artist."^ Three interesting sporting sub- 
jects are after paintings by Mason, the friend of Gray and Horace Walpole. 
They are strange productions for a Canon of York, actively engaged in 
politics and reputed to be aiming at a bishopric (see No. 6485). There is 
little of the amateur about them except a close imitation of Rowlandson 
which in No. 8243 suggests the actual copying of figures. According to 
Angelo, James Douglas caricatured Gibbon (No. 7418). 

The work of the occasional amateur is less frequent than in Volume V, 
when Darly specialized in publishing plates after 'Ladies, Gentlemen, 
and the most Humourous Artists.' Gillray etched plates after Georgiana 
Keate, Mr. Battye, and S. L. Egerton, Bretherton after Miss Fanshawe 
(better known for her verses). Miss V. Aynscombe did satires on costume, 
as did Mercer, said to be a military officer. One *R.R.', identified by 
Angelo as Rushworth, a Counsellor, was an amateur of some note. Many 
plates were doubtless based on 'hints' or sketches by amateurs, often 
anonymous. Several of such sketches, elaborated and etched by Rowland- 
son, are in the Print Room (Nos. 6365, 6476, 6525, 6561). Their general 
character is to stress the text which is literally transcribed by the artist. 
It seems probable that elaborate political prints by Rowlandson were 
generally based on the sketch or instructions of some one more interested 
in politics. 

Printsellers and Publishers. 

In this volume Fores, Holland, and Hannah Humphrey take the first 
place as sellers of satirical prints. Fores, whose imprint first appears in 
January 1784, comes at once to the front. Holland, established by 1782, 

* There is in the Print Room a charming brush drawing in sepia and gouache 
by Sayers of musicians, called *A Rehearsal*. 

* See above, p. xii. 

3 He was not, as is said in Thieme Becker, a nephew of the poet but a grandson 
of the fourth Lord Byron and a first cousin of the poet's father (Collins, Peerage^ 
I779> vii. 138), As the youngest son of a younger son he may well have worked 
professionally for Holland, as he seems to have done. Angelo calls him a lieutenant 
in the Navy. Reminiscences, 1904, i. 330. 

* Op. cit. i. 324-5. Hook's name is not mentioned, but his identity is clear. 

xxxiii c 


seems to have made his way more slowly, but he published books as well 
as prints and by 1786 was the publisher of important prints by Gillray. 
Miss Humphrey, though her imprint appeared in 1774, was at first 
associated with (?her brother) William; her business increased as he 
gave up print-selling, but she does not appear to have rivalled Fores and 
Holland until her association with Gillray. This did not become assured 
and exclusive until the latter part of 1791. Before this, though she had 
published many of his plates, he had also worked for Holland (1786, 1787), 
Phillips (1787), Fores (1787, 1788, and 1791), and Aitken (1789). It is 
significant that from the time of his permanent association with (or 
bondage to) Miss Humphrey his output became both steadier and greater. 

Humphrey is sometimes mis-spelt Humphreys or Humphries in 
publication-lines, and the imprint *H. Humphreys, 3 Bedford Court* 
(No. 6975) suggests another address of Hannah Humphrey. Doubt is 
cast on this identity by two trade cards of 'Humphreys Engraver', one 
at 3 1 Villiers Street, the other with the address altered to Bedford Court. 
There are also two trade cards of Miss Humphrey in the Print Room: 
'Humphrey Printseller' one 51 New Bond Street, the other with the 
address altered to 18 Old Bond Street. The card of W. Humphrey 
'Printseller &c.', drawn and engraved by Bartolozzi, is altered from a card 
designed for a music-seller. 

Fores sometimes styles himself 'satirist' and in No. 6961, where his 
shop is depicted, seems to declare himself an enemy of the Prince of 
Wales, and thus a Pittite. No such partisanship appears in the productions 
of the other printsellers (apart from the association of Cornell with Sayers), 
and Holland in 1784 called himself 'Mr. Anyside' (p. 152). In 1793, 
however, he went to Newgate for a seditious publication, and his portrait, 
with that of his wife and little girl, appears in an etching by Newton of 
political prisoners in Newgate. 

The chief feature of the caricature print-shops during the period of 
this volume is the more or less permanent exhibitions of Holland and 
Fores. Holland opened his exhibition in 1788 at the establishment which 
he sometimes called 'Garrick's Richard' or the 'Museum of Genius' 
(No. 7301, &c.). Fores followed his example in 1789 at 3 Piccadilly 
'opposite the Paris Diligence Office'. It was advertised at some length in 
his New Guide for Foreigners . . . (c. 1790): 'To the works of Hogarth, 
Bunbury, Sayre, and Rowlandson, is added every other Caricature Print, 
executed by other hands that has been published during the course of 
many years, the whole forming an entire Caricature History, political and 
domestic, of past and present Times. . . .' Both advertised drawings as 
well as prints, and Holland added paintings. Both (as time went on) 
announced as an attraction the French caricature prints. Both charged 
a shilling for admittance. Fores added as an additional attraction in 1790 
and 1791 'the head and hand of Count Struenzee* (see No. 4596), casts 
taken in wax after his execution by order of the King of Denmark. They 
may be the casts brought from Paris by Thicknesse and previously ex- 
hibited by him in Bath (see No. 7721). In 1793 Fores added a model of 
the guillotine. Aitken announced an exhibition gratis (No. 7529), but the 
advertisements soon ceased. The printsellers' exhibitions appear to have 
been discontinued shortly after 1792, when the vogue of the caricature 
was still in the ascendant. 

The old-established City firms of Bowles and Robert Sayer^ supplied 
' See Volume V, pp. xxxvii-xxxviii. 


a quite different public with their 'postures* (humorous mezzotints) and 
'Drolls'. These were issued in series at more or less regular intervals, and 
were advertised as suitable for sale by country booksellers.' Bowles also 
sold sets of crude engravings and cheap popular prints which verge upon 
the folk print, though they were more expensive and sophisticated than 
the chap-book. Examples of these are Nos. 6893-8. Sayer reissued in 
his series of 'Drolls' prints originally published by Darley; No. 8258 is 
an altered plate of the Macaroni series with the costume partially brought 
up to date. Wallis of Ludgate Hill specialized in broadsides headed by 
engravings intended for a similar public, which was also that of Tringham. 

Many artists occasionally published their own prints. Kay of Edinburgh 
did so exclusively, Paul Sandby frequently. Dent also appears to have 
employed printsellers, instead of working for them. It is only rarely that 
a plate of Dent is published by one of the established printsellers, e.g. by 
Aitken. There is something furtive about his output, especially and 
naturally in 1784.^ The imprint of 'Crookshanks' (cf. No. 6697) appears 
in 1784 on two plates here attributed to Isaac Cruikshank. 

Except for Kay's prints very few were published outside London. Allen 
of Dublin published a set of prints after Dighton and there are one or 
two Irish prints without imprint. Mrs. Lay of Brighton published a print 
by Rowlandson; Boulter of Norwich issued a crude local print. 

' Laurie and Whittle, Catalogue of Prints, 1795. 
^ See above, p. xvii, n. i. 




p. X, 1. 10. For 'Vol. vii', read 'V^* deeF. 

p. XXX, 1. 10. For 'The plates and text were used*, read *The plates were 

copied and the text reprinted*, 
p. xxxvi, 1. 34. For ^Brookes's' read *Brooks*s\ 
4958 By Moreau le jeune. Reproduced, Gazette des Beaux Arts, 1910 (ii), 

p. 113. 
5017 The Madras Tyrant is probably Josias du Pre, Governor of Madras 

1770-3. Note on impression in the India Office Library. 
5020 The Farmer-Macaroni is identified by H. Breun as 'Beard*. 

5024 The S^ James's Macaroni is identified by H. Breun as F. Walsh. 

5025 The Newmarket Macaroni is identified by H. Breun as *Cox*. 

5026 The Piccadilly Macaroni is identified by H. Breun as Deard (a 
famous toyman, whose shop was a fashionable lounge). 

5034 The Woolwich Macaroni is identified by H. Breun as 'Captain Cox 

of Train of Artillery*. 
5187 p. 144, 1. 27. For 173 1 ?-8o, read 173 1 P-iSoq. 
5217 The three musicians are Abel, Pinto (playing the French horn), and 

Fischer the oboist. J. H. Mee, The Oldest Music Room in Europe , 191 1, 

p. 20 (reproduction). 
5217 A A smaller version signed 'H W Bunbury del*, more correctly drawn, 

and etched with more freedom, is in Anderdon*s Royal Academy Cata- 

logueSf iii, No. 69. (4|X3f in.) 
5393 A copy in line with the title Rencontre de M^ de Mirabeau et M*"^ 

de Villeroy a Aix-la-Chapelle was published in France as a caricature of 

Mirabeau-Tonneau and his mistress. De Vinck, No. 1959. Reproduced, 

Grand-Carteret, UHistoire, la Vie, les Moeurs . . ., iv. 1928. PL xix. 

5539 By Gillray. 

5612 and Introduction, p. xii. The date of Gillray *s John Bull is probably 
1788: a print published by J. Aitken, 2 March 1801, John Bull at the 
Sign, the Case is altered, shows the Englishman with meagre fare, the 
Frenchman with roast beef; on the wall is a copy of No. 5612 inscribed : 
A Frenchman in iy88. . . . 

5699 A public house next the hustings in Covent Garden was Proctor *s, 
the sign of the Fox. (Election advertisement, 1788, B.M. Add. MSS. 
27837, fo. 18.) The suggestion that an allusion to Sir W. B. Proctor was 
intended is therefore incorrect. 

5777 The conjectural identification of the subject as Gaetano Manini is 
confirmed by a note by Gulston, the collector, on another impression: 
'Manini very like.* 

5804 Bunbury*s original drawing, called 'Entrance to an Oxford College*, 
is in the Victoria and Albert Museum (Dyce Coll. No. 752). 

5831 Apparently by the same artist as No. 5937, attributed to Gillray. 

5874 (Tete-a-tete). Mr. W. Roberts points out that Miss F. is the 
Mrs. Ford painted (with a child) by Romney for Governor Johnstone 



in 1778, now in the National Gallery. See H. Ward and W. Roberts, 

Catalogue Raisonni of the Works of Rotnney^ 1904, ii. 57- 
5892, 5936, 5937 Generally attributed to Gillray. 
6138 Last paragraph. For 591 read 541. See No. 6768. 
6180 There is a copy of the Rambler's Magazine in the British Museum, 

see Private Catalogue. 
6284 Perhaps by S. Collings, possibly in collaboration with Nixon. Nos. 

6245, 6267, 6275, 6332 are in a similar manner. 
6306 Reputed to be a portrait of Gaetano Vestris. Sometimes attributed 

to Gillray. 
p. 842. Index of Artists. Delete Hook, 
p. 844. Idem. Wigstead died 1800 not 1793. 


(Nos. 6361-8283) 


*Les caricatures sont le thermometre qui indique le 
degre de ropinion publique. . . .* 

BOYER-BRUN, Histoire des Caricatures de la Revolte des 
FranpaiSy 1792, p. 10. 

*La caricature est I'artde rAngleterre,unart inimitable, 
primesautier, unique, qui a la fantaisie, I'etrangete, 
le dereglement, la philosophic, le rire, I'eloquence, la 
majeste railleuse de Shakespeare.* 

E. ET J. DE GONCOURT, Htstotre de la Societe frangaise 
pendant la Revolution^ 1854, p. 279. 




[? Collings.] 

Pu¥ by W Wells N^ 132 Fleet Street Jany r^ 1784 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Fox (1.) and Burke (r.) 
sit side by side in the stocks as Hudibras and his 'squire Ralpho. One foot 
of each is imprisoned; their hands are clasped. Burke looks at Fox, who 
sits with closed eyes and a dejected expression. Pitt stands (r.) holding a 
halberd and a bunch of three keys labelled Treasury. All are in pseudo- 
seventeenth-century costume. On the wall behind Fox hangs a scourge 
with two lashes, one inscribed Prerogative y the other Vox Populi, indicating 
the two causes of the fall of the Coalition. Behind Burke's head is a placard : 

This day is pu¥ An Essay on y^ Tumblime and Beautifull by Ralph B. 

(an allusion to Burke's essay on 'The Sublime and the Beautiful'). In front 
of the stocks lie two papers inscribed India Bill and Warrant of . . . Temple^ 
since Temple had conveyed to the Lords the king's desire for the defeat 
of the India Bill. A whipping-post attached to the stocks is inscribed 
Otium cum Dignitate. Beneath the design is etched : 

Sure none that see how here we sit. 
Will judge us overgrown zvith wit; 
For who without a cap & bauble 
Having subdu'd, a bear & rabble^ 
And might zvith honor have come off. 
Would put it to a second proof: 
A Politic exploit right fit. 
For Coalition zeal & wit! 


One of many satires on the fall of the Coalition, see No. 6283, &c.: 
Burke takes the place usually given to North, doubtless owing to his 
supposed share in the India Bill; cf. No. 6383. See also No. 6540. 

Attributed to Gillray by Grego, p. 53. 


[? J. Barrow.] 

Pu¥ by y. Barrow Janv i 1^84 White Lion Bull Stairs Surry Side 
Black Friars Bridge. 

Engraving. Fox, with a fox's head, stands (r.) in profile to the 1. holding 
out his arms towards a goose which is flying away. He is saying, Ohy I 
fear I have now lost the Goose for ever. On the ground at his feet is a large 
placard : Advertisement. Just fled from the Arms of M^ Reynard, S^ James's^ 
a Goose y remarkable for laying golden Eggs. Whosoever can return the Goose 
to the distressed looser shall receive for their kindness a large golden Egg. 
N.B. She cannot be found in the North, she took wing direct from that point. 


A satire on the fall of the Coalition, see No. 6283, &c. Fox's supporters, 
especially the electors of Westminster, were often depicted as geese ; cf . 
No. 5843, &c. 

6363 THE INCUBUS, 1784 [Jan. 1784]^ 

T P (monogram) [^Gillray ?] 

Engraving. Fox, as Belial, seated in a depression in the centre of a large 
mass resembling a balloon in process of deflation, which is inscribed Puhlica 
Fides. Four vertical posts marked with figures seem intended to measure 
the (rapidly decreasing) degree of Publica Fides on which Fox can still 
count. These posts are headed 4, jB [? Boreas], Ind, and j respectively. 

Fox is a fat, almost-naked creature, with horns and talons ; a fox's head 
is tattooed on his arm; with one talon he clutches the post marked Indy 
[? Independent], with the other and his foot he tears at a paper inscribed 
charters^ indicating the chartered rights which his India Bill was supposed 
to attack, see No. 6369. 

The deflating mass rests on a rock inscribed in large letters Rock, and 
in italics. Land TaXy CustotnSy Excise, Malty Tradsy Agriculturey WindowSy 
Houses y Salty indicating the burden of taxation. Against it leans (1.) a 
spear, and Britannia's shield inscribed Defender of the Faith. Other 
emblematic objects are a large cap of Liberty on a pole projecting from the 
mass (r.), a large cannon inscribed Defender of the Faithy 3. ship whose 
rigging only is visible behind the cannon, a heap of cannon balls (r.), and 
a waning moon (1.). 

Beneath the design is engraved : 

S^ Withold footed thrice the Wold 

She met the Night Mare & her nine Foal, 

Aroynt thee Witch aroynt 

To every Independant Man in Great Britain this Plate is dedicated. 

An attack on the Coalition: 'Defender of the Faith' implies approval of 
the king's action against the India Bill, see No. 6283. Cf. No. 6361. For 
the parliamentary struggle and Fox's dwindling majority see No. 6373, &c. 

All illustration of the lines : 'Belial, . . . The fleshliest Incubus', Paradise 
Regainedy Bk. II, 11. 150-2. 
7^X12 in. 

OF ENGLAND. [Jan. 1784] 

F. N: 1784.^ [Rowlandson.] 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). The interior of a 
witches' cave, three witches round a blazing cauldron; through the mouth 
of the cave, and in the upper r. corner, appears Westminster Bridge, 
leading to the houses and towers of Lambeth, showing that the cave is in 
Westminster, evidently the House of Commons. From the flames ascend- 
ing from the cauldron emerge the heads of Fox, North, and Burke. Other 
emblems also ascend : a rosary and cross (indicating the popery ascribed 

* So dated and attributed by E. Hawkins. 

* Perhaps standing for the coalition of Fox and North ; cf. No. 6367. 


to Burke, cf. No. 6026), a small pig, labels inscribed Deceit^ Prides Corrupt 
par . . .[liament] (in reverse), Loane Lottery. 

The witches, whose three broomsticks (1.) lean against the side of the 
cave, are bringing more ingredients to the pot which disseminates the 
plagues of England: a hag (r.) stands about to drop a paper inscribed 
Rebellion into the cauldron; she says. Well sister y what hast thou goty for the 
ingredients of our Charmd Pot. Another witch (1.), crouching over a bag 
from which emerge two men, one of whom is a serpent from the waist 
downwards, answers, A Beast from Scotland^ tis calVd an Er — skin, famous 
for Duplicity low Art & Cunning — the other a Monster who'd spurn even at 
Charters Rights. Erskine, who is leaping from the sack, says, / am like a 
Proteus can turn to any Shape from a Sailor to a Lawyer y and always lean 
to the Strongest Side. Erskine, first entering Parliament in 1783, see No. 
6369 (8), was one of Fox's martyrs. The serpent-man says: 

Over the Water and over the Lee 
Thro Hell I woud follow my Char lee. 

He is John Lee (1733-93), Attorney- General in the Coalition and a 
violent party man. The allusion is to his speech calling the East India 
Company's charter *a mere skin of parchment to which was appended a 
seal of wax'. Wraxall, MemoirSy 1884, iii. 182. See Nos. 6290, 6369, 6384. 
He is being welcomed out of the sack by a small monster of revolting 
appearance. The third witch with a face of fury leans over the cauldron, 
which is supported by harpies and the skeleton of a monster with out- 
stretched wings. On the ground, in front of the cauldron and within a 
magic circle indicated on the extreme r., lie a playing-card, dice (emblems 
of Fox), a dagger, a headsman's axe, guineas, &c. 

One of many attacks on the Coalition and the India Bill, see No. 6280, &c. 

Grego, Rowlandsony i. 111-12. 




Published Janv 4. 1^84 by W. Humphrey 22^ Strand. 

Engraving. The image of Dagon has fallen from an overturned rectangular 
pedestal (r.) whose base is inscribed Broad Bottom. The image is a stout 
man with a double-faced, Janus-like head, consisting of the faces of North 
and Fox, decapitated ; the hands are severed at the wrists ; it lies prone, the 
face of North to the ground, that of Fox uppermost. 

In the distance is Tower Hill, with a scaffold surrounded by tiny figures 
representing a crowd. A figure kneels before a block, the headsman's axe 
is raised. In the middle distance (1.) is the gable end of an inn, its sign that 
of a headsman's axe. A stout man stands beneath it. It is inscribed Tower 
Hill. Beneath the title is engraved : 

And behold Dagon was fallen upon his face to the ground before the ark of 
the Lord & the head of Dagon and both the Palms of his hands were cutt off 
upon the threshold. 

The defeat of the India Bill and fall of the Coalition was *rare news' for 
the India House in Leadenhall Street, see No. 6271, &c., 6399. Coalition 
Ministries were usually designated 'Broad Bottom'. 


The original sketch for this satire, very feebly drawn by an amateur, 
together with Rowlandson's drawing, which closely follows the intention 
of the original, are in the Print Room. The title and inscriptions were 
written by the amateur. (201 c. 6/16.) 

Grego, Rowlandsorif i. 112. 



Pu¥ as y Act directs Janv 4 1784 by E D Achery S* James's Street 

Engraving. The king stands with two profiles, one facing 1. towards North 
and Fox, the other r. towards Pitt ( }) and Shelbume. He says to Fox and 
North, Hanover — y^ Bishop of Derry — Serving Turnips — Volunteers of Ire- 
land. This profile does not resemble the king, as does the other, which is 
saying. Extend the Prerogativey & exercise it as you will — Oh! the damn'd 
Coalition. A crown is suspended above his head ; he holds a sceptre in his 
1. hand, reversed, its tip touching the floor. 

The foremost of the two men on the r. has little resemblance to Pitt ; 
he wears a ribbon, and is possibly intended for Lord Gower or the Duke 
of Richmond ; he holds out his hand to the king, saying. We'll Do it. Shel- 
burne, standing behind him (r.), puts his hand to his chin watching the 
king with a sly expression. (He was not even mentioned for a place in 
Pitt's administration. Wraxall, Memoirs^ iii. 202.) North (I.) stands behind 
Fox taking his arm ; he says. From Hypocrisy Deliver us Oh Lord; Fox, who 
holds a paper in both hands, says Amen; both look dejected. 

The point is obscure as the king did not conceal his dislike of Fox and 
the Coalition and openly supported Pitt, but cf. No. 6370. Hervey, the 
eccentric Earl-Bishop of Derry, played a prominent part in the grand con- 
vention of volunteers in Dublin in November 1783, see No. 6610. 



/. B. [J. Boyne.] 

Janv 5 Published by E. Hedges AT" 92 Cornhill, & Sold by S. Fores 
N" 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving. A design similar in subject and treatment to The Banditti 
(No. 6281). Fox (General Blackbeard) lies on the ground, surrounded by his 
followers. He is supported by Keppel, who gazes at him with a melancholy 
expression. Burke, in a monkish robe, kneels beside him holding a glass 
of some restorative. Four men lean anxiously towards him from the r. : 
North, very large and fat, appears to be collapsing from distress and is 
supported by Portland, wearing a ducal coronet; Sheridan, with a satyr's 
beard and profile, kneels in front of Fox, his hands clasped; he wears 
oriental robes, a laurel wreath, and a sabre inscribed Satire. Lord John 
Cavendish stands behind him, stretching out an arm towards Fox ; he wears 
Turkish trousers, and a fur-trimmed tunic over his coat. 

The head of a young man with curly hair looks over North's shoulder; 
he may be holding the standard which waves over Portland's head, the 
apex of a pyramidal composition. This flag bears the arms of the Coalition : 
a medallion with the cypher F iV, supported by a fox (1.) and a badger (r.) ; 


a face or crest surmounting the medallion represents the features of Fox 
and North combined as in The Mask (No. 6234) ^^^ without a dividing 
line. The motto is Vox Populi. 

Behind Fox (1.) is Perdita Robinson, bending over him and holding a 
smelling-bottle to his nose; her r. arm is held out behind her towards the 
Prince of Wales (1.) who kneels, kissing her hand, which he holds in both 
his. Three ostrich feathers in his hat stress his identity. A setting sun (1.), 
in which is a fox's head, is partly obscured by a mass of cloud. 

'The Battle of Leadenhall' is the contest over Fox's India Bill, cf. No. 
6286, &c. Perdita continued to be associated in the public mind with the 
Prince of Wales, though the liaison had ended ; for her association with Fox 
see No. 61 17, &c. 



Published as the Act directs by Thomas Cornell Bruton Street 6^^ January 

Engraving. Fox, as Phaeton, falls head downwards from his chariot in the 
clouds. He holds in his r. hand a rolled document inscribed India Refo[rm\ 
Bill. The front of his chariot is visible (r.); on the 1. are his steeds : a lion 
and a unicorn emerging from clouds; they are guided by a hand which 
projects from the upper margin of the design, holding ribbons attached 
to their mouths, which are the continuation of a scroll inscribed Dieu et 
mon droit. Behind the motto are the rays of the sun. Beneath the title is 
etched : 

^^ Ambition this shall tempt to rise 
Then whirl the Wretch from high" &c. &c. 


The third of Sayers's effective satires on Fox and the India Bill (see 
Nos. 6271, 6276, 6372). He is here represented as defeated by the king 
in an attempt to usurp the royal power. Cf. Nos, 6271, &c., 6285, 6363, 
6371. 6372, 6374, 6394, 6395, 6396, 6426, 6443, 6447, 6450, 6454, 6458, 
6460, 6503, p. 1 12, 7158. For other prints directly indicating the popularity 
of the king's action, see No. 6409, &c. 



Pu¥Jany 7<* 1784 y W. Humphrey iV° 227. Strand 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A design in compart- 
ments arranged in two strips, five above and four below, similar to Two 
new Sliders for the State Magic Lanthern^ No. 6287; Fox and North are 
represented throughout as a fox and a badger as in Nos. 6176, &c., 6428. 

[i] The Fox Beats y^ Badger in y^ Bear Garden. 
An arena, surrounded by a pillared portico, part of which is visible, 
crowded with cheering spectators, men on the roof holding a large flag 



inscribed Victoria Victoria. They applaud the fox, who stands on the 
prostrate body of the badger. This indicates Fox's victory over North in 
the House of Commons in March 1782, cf. No. 6187. 
3^X21% in. 

[2] The Fox's Dream 

The fox, an impoverished gambler, sits meditatively on his haunches by 
the side of a road on a heath, opposite a signpost pointing to Hounslow. 
At his feet are dice and a dice-box. Above his head, in circles surrounded 
by rays, are a barred window and a pitcher reversed and spilling its 
contents.* He is contemplating the career of a highwayman. 

[3] The Badger's Dream 

The badger crouches dejectedly on a settee; above his hand, in circles 
surrounded by rays, are a gallows and ? a block. He is dreaming of the fate 
with which he had often been threatened by the Opposition during his 
Ministry, cf. Nos. 5660, 6179, &c. 
316X2^ in. 

[4] Sathan unites them 

A winged Devil joins the hands of the fox (1.) and the badger (r.). He is 
saying Necessity, The Coalition is thus begun. Cf. No. 6189. 
3ftX2f in. 

[5] They Quarter their Arms. 

The escutcheon is a full money-bag, inscribed Treasury Bag, its open 
mouth is full of guineas. Its string is supported on the head of John Bully 
who has ass's ears. The supporters are the fox, dexter, and the badger, 
sinister, each about to help himself to the contents of the bag. The motto 
is Money Money Money (cf. No. 6213, &c.); see No. 6441. 

[6] The Priest advertises y= Wedding 

The Devil stands behind a counter inscribed Pay Table y handing out 
money to three journalists. One says Harry will take both sides y — he is 
probably Henry Bate Dudley, then editor of the Morning Herald (cf. 
No. 5676, &c.); the second. Me will Post theniy — probably an allusion to 
the *Morning Post' (editor W. Jackson); the third, /'// Chronicle The 
Coalitiony — probably an allusion to the *Morning Chronicle' (editor 
W. Woodfall). 

[7] The Honey Moon— or Edistone Lighthouse. 
The fox and badger beside a large bonfire on the sea-shore. The fox 
apphes a long shovel to the burning sunmiit of the pile; the badger leans 
against the pile, resting on his shovel. They are perhaps burning charters, 
cf. No. 6364. A full moon shining over a small boat at sea is inscribed 
Honey Moon. 

' So it seems to be ; Grego describes it as a head on a pole. 




[8] The new Orator Henley — or the Churching 

Another scene in Parliament : the fox and badger sit side by side on 
a settee on a dais facing a parson, who stands in a tub supported on a 
block inscribed Honest Jack L — e. He holds out a charter with a dangling 
seal, saying A charter is nothing but a piece of parchment zvith a great Seal 
dangling to it. An allusion to the speech of John Lee, Attorney- General 
under the Coalition, on the East India Company's Charter; see Wraxall, 
MemoirSy 1884, iii. 182, and Pari. Hist. xxiv. 49; cf. No. 6364, &c. Behind 
him, supporting the tub, is the Devil. In front of the tub, holding out his 
hand towards the wedded pair, is a man on a seat inscribed A Seat for 
Portsmouth. He is Erskine, brought in for Portsmouth on the accession to 
power of the Coalition. He says. Necessity Amen. Under the colonnades 
are heads on poles, above them is inscribed mopstick Majority. A satire on 
Fox's majority in the House of Commons, see No. 6380, &c. For Henley 
cf. No. 2835, &c. 


[9] The Wedding Dance and Song — 

The Devil (1.), the badger (c), and the Fox (r.) dance hand in hand. In 
the Devil's 1. hand is a string, the ends of which are attached to the noses 
of the fox and the badger. 

Above their heads is a scroll inscribed : 

The Song 

Come were all Rogues together 
The People must pay for the Play 
Then let us make Hay in Fine Weathear 
And keep the Cold winter away. 

Come were all Rogues together 

For the idea of a honeymoon applied to the Coalition see No. 6186, &c., 
and the debate of 17 Feb. 1783 (Pari. Hist, xxiii. 469, 483). Cf. Nos. 6393, 
6399, &c. 

Grego, Rowlandsonj i. 1 12-13; Gillrayy pp. 52-3. 

3|X3 in. Whole design, 7|xi2^in. 


Pu¥ as the Act directs Janv 12^^ 1^84 by [name obliterated] 

Engraving. The king, with two profiles, stands in front of a double door 
inscribed Le Double Cabinet y the words forming the title. He holds out his 
hands to the Duke of Dorset (1.) and to Fox (r.) who kneel to kiss his hand, 
one profile being turned to each; North stands behind Fox (r.). The hand 
which Dorset kisses is put through a door which screens one side of the 
cabinet from the other. Dorset holds a paper inscribed His Grace D of 
Dorset; Fox holds his East India Bill. 

On the wall (r.) hangs a picture of Bute as a cat on all fours with a human 
head, he is booted and spurred and wears a tartan plaid and kilt, the ribbon 
of the Garter, and a sword. Beneath is inscribed, Le celebre Chat Ecossers 
que a obtenu un place dans le Cabenet Royal il qa [y-a] vignt quatre ans On 
le represent botte et loruble [botte et I'oreille ?] surtout aux ministres du Roy. 


This hangs behind North. On the opposite side of the wall (1.) behind 
Dorset is an empty frame inscribed, Le Quadrant pour le compagnon du 
Chat Eccossois gu'on ne a pas encore trouve. 

Dorset was appointed ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to 
France on 26 Dec. 1783, see No. 6397. A satire on secret influence which 
seems to lack point as its French lacks correctness : the king did not attempt 
to conceal his hostility to his ex-ministers, Fox and North, but cf. No. 
6366. See also No. 6417, &c. 


[? Collings.] 

Pu¥ by T. Cornell Bruton Street Janv 9. 1^84 

Engraving. Fox rises from a chair, reaching out his arms towards a crown 
which appears among clouds in the upper 1. corner of the design. He is 
in profile to the 1.; from his coat-pocket protrudes A Bill for r^/[orming 
the] East India [Company]. 

Part of a circular table is visible (1.); on the ground lie a dice-box and 
dice. Beneath the design is etched : 

Is this a Diadem I see before me? 

Come let me clutch thee^ 

I have thee not, and yet I see thee stilly 

Art thou not fatal Vision sensible 

To feeling y as to sight? or art thou but 

a false creation 

Proceeding from the heat-oppressed Brain? 


One of the many satires representing Fox as attempting in his India Bill 
to secure the power of the Crown for himself. Cf. Nos. 6276, 6368, &c. 


J S [Sayers] f plate y 4^^ 

Published as the Act directs by Thomas Cornell Bruton Street y 12*^ 
January 1^84 

Engraving. Fox is surrounded by his late colleagues, who regard him with 
varying expressions. All are H.L. figures closely grouped. Above their 
heads and dominating the group is a hatchment with the arms of the Earl of 
Rockingham, its comer obscuring the *e' of the title. The motto. In Coelo 
QuieSy above a skull and cross-bones, implies that the political situation is 
the outcome of Rockingham's death, followed by Fox's resignation. Cf. 
Nos. 6010, 601 1, &c. Fox scowls angrily, not looking at his followers. 
Portland (1.) and Lord John Cavendish (r.), both in profile, one on each side 
of Fox, gaze at each other with expressions of dismay. Above their heads 
Keppel (1.) scowls and Lord Derby (r.) grins, saying Hear hear hear. Lord 
Stormont (r.), in profile to the r., turns his back on the others with a 
satisfied smile as if contemplating apostasy. 



Below Fox Lord Carlisle and Lord North gaze up at him, both in profil 
perduy North looking through an eye-glass. Burke (r.), in profile to the 1., 
looks up with a distressed expression. 

Beneath the design is etched on a scroll : 

All these and more came flocking^ but with Looks 
Downcast and damp, yet such wherein appeared 
Obscure some Glimpse of Joy , to have found their Chief 
Not in despair J to have found themselves not lost 
In Loss itself y which on his Countenance cast 
Like doubtful huCy but he his wonted Pride 
Soon recollecting, with high Words that bore 
Semblance of Worth not Substance gently raised 
Their fainting Courage and dispell' d their Fears 

Miltons Paradise lost. 

One of several satires in which Fox, dismissed from office, is compared 
with Lucifer banished from Paradise, cf. Sayers's Paradise Lost, No. 601 1. 
The divided interests of the Coalition are indicated. The other plates of 
the series are Nos. 6271, 6276, 6368, 6380. Cf. No. 6627. 


Pu¥ by E, Darchry S^ James's Street Janv 12*^' 1784 

Engraving. Viscount Townshend (1.) and the Duke of Richmond (r.), 
astride on a see-saw composed of a great gun poised on a pyramid of 
cannon-balls, compete for the office of Master-general of the Ordnance. 
Townshend had succeeded Richmond (12 April 1783) in the Coalition and 
Richmond had been re-appointed (23 Dec. 1783) under Pitt, but the 
position of the new Ministry was still precarious. 

Townshend, holding up his arms, says. Trick & Trick run for the Rubber; 
Richmond, whose end is uppermost, looks down, his hands on the gun, 
saying, Win or lose, Fll have nothing else. The head of North, appearing 
from clouds (1.), directs a blast at Townshend, while the head of Cornwall 
(r.), in his Speaker's wig, directs a corresponding blast at Richmond. 

Behind each end of the see-saw is a group of figures : behind Townshend, 
a woman holding an infant with a ragged child beside her, and two old 
soldiers, one with a crutch, saying. By Jasus this is like our lord lieutenant 
(Townshend was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1767-72, see No. 5133); the 
other, who has a wooden leg, says. Which are we to apply to now. 

Behind Richmond is a group of his supporters, and behind them on the 
extreme r. is a signpost with four arms pointing respectively to Shoreham, 
Dover, Arundel, and Chichester-, at its foot is a milestone inscribed XXIII 
Miles. This indicates the powerful influence of Richmond in the county 
of Sussex and its boroughs. The supporters (seven) include one, or per- 
haps two, sailors, who shout All vote now and Sussex for ever, a short and 
stout parson, a man with a civic chain round his neck, and a military officer. 

Cornwall was M.P. for Winchelsea at this time, and in the 1784 election 
was returned for Rye. The borough of Chichester had been for many years 
under the dictatorship of the Duke of Richmond. Oldfield, Representative 
History, 1816, v. 10. 

In front of the pyramid of cannon-balls supporting the see-saw are 
a grenade and two barrels of munitions, one inscribed Oak, the other 


(cracked) Beach. In the foreground are three maps: one oi Plymouth (1.) 
showing the coast and fortifications; one inscribed Portsmouth Gosport 
200000, also showing fortifications; and in the centre, a map of England 
and Wales inscribed Friar Bacons's Plan to surround all England zvith a 
Brasen Wall. 

In the air above the centre of the see-saw, among clouds, is a carved 
head inscribed Brasen; from one side of the mouth (1.) are the words Time 
WaSy from the other (r.) Time is. Roger Bacon in popular legend and chap- 
book was a necromancer with a brazen head, cf. Nos. 6436, 7898. 

One of many satires on the struggle between Pitt and Fox in Parlia- 
ment from 12 Jan. to the dissolution on 25 March, see Nos. 6363, 6375, 
6376, 6377, 6379, 6380, 6383, 6384, 6389, 6391, 6398, 6402, 6403, 6404, 
6406, 6415, 6417, &c., 6419, 6420, 6437, &c., 6449, 6460, 6461, 6462, 6463, 
6469. Richmond's personal interest in the details of the Office of Ordnance 
was well known. He had a passion for fortification and projected fortifica- 
tions to defend the naval arsenals against invasion. Wraxall, Memoirs ^ 
1884, iv. 104-6. By an odd coincidence, when the fortifications proposed 
by Richmond were discussed in Parliament (27 Feb. 1786), it was Cornwall 
the Speaker who gave his casting vote against them, thus defeating the 
Government, see No. 6919. 

81 X 14! in. 


Pu¥ as the Act directs Janv 13*^ ^ sold at the City of Bristol, Mint S^ 

Engraving (coloured impression). The title is that of a song etched beneath 
the design. Fox, with a fox's tail, lies prostrate. Pitt strides across him 
holding up a document inscribed A more palatable East India Bill by 
W. Pitt ; he is saying, O my dear Country men look dozon See how I bestride 
your prostrate Enimy; I tread on Artfull Fox and all his Schemes. Fox says : 
My Indian Schemes of wealth & I must fall, But that this Boy should ride 
me's Worst of all. Burke (1.) stands behind in profile to the r. dressed as a 
Jesuit (cf. No. 6026), his hands together as if in prayer; he says. The Lords 
have pulVd you dozvn may the Lord raise you up again. 

Behind (r.) a building inscribed India house is falling sideways, but is 
supported by timber props inscribed respectively The Lords Prop, City of 
London Prop, and wicham prop, the last perhaps an allusion to Lord 
Mahon, M.P. for Wycombe, a violent opponent of the India Bill (see 
No. 6286), or perhaps Lord Shelburne, as in No. 6378. For the India 
Bills see Nos. 6271, &c., 6406. The drawing is crude and incorrect. 

Beneath the title is engraved : 

A Song, tune an Ass in the Chaplet. 

Ye Muses awhile cmne attend to my Pray^ 

That the words to the subject mayfitt. 
While the Fox & the Badger are lost in dispair 

Let us raise up our Voices to Pitt 

to Pitt to Pitt &c. 




How finely Fox humbug' d the WestminstsW geese^ 

With a deal of palaver & wit, 
Yet all his designs were the Nation to fleece y 

But at last he fell in to a Pitt. 

a Pitt a Pitt &c, 

The India reform was a notable plan 

Yet the taste of the Lords did not hit 
His Schemes they despised & detested the man 
Who now has made room for a Pitt 

a Pitt, a Pitt, &c. 

If Brittons were wise & their own good could see 

What is for their happiness fit 
To preside at the helm who better can be 
Than Chatham's descendant a Pitt 

a Pitt a Pitt &c, 

5 ^ 
The name in itself has a magical sound 

All Europe rembers it yet 
When Conquest & Glory Beamed widely aroud 
Thro' the wisdom & Virtue of Pitt 

of Pitt, of Pitt, &c. 
Like the Father the Son does in excellence rise 

In Eloquence, Honor & Wit, 
Then let us all selfish designers despise 
But high lift the Bumper to Pitt 

to Pitt, to Pitt &c. 
For Pitt as Chatham's son cf. No. 5984. For the Fox and Badger cf. 
Nos. 6176, 6369, &c.; for the Westminster Geese, No. 5843, &c. 
5f X8i^6 in. PI. c. iif X8f in. (cHpped). 

Pu¥ Jany 15 iy84 by W Humphrey 22y Strand 
Engraving. The king stands on a dais of five steps watching a tug-of-war 
between the opposing parties. He is without his breeches, and these, 
inscribed Government, are being tugged at by the two party-leaders, their 
followers tugging in a chain behind. He is blindfolded, wears one half only 
of a crown, and holds the sword and scales (evenly balanced) of Justice. 

On the 1. Fox, with a fox's head, pulls at the breeches. North pulls at 
Fox, and Burke at North. The fourth and last man on this side is shorter 
than the others and is probably Viscount Townshend, see No. 6373. 

The four men on the other side are less clearly characterized (r.). The first 
can only be Pitt, though the resemblance is slight; behind him is Shel- 
bume, who was not suggested for office at this time; the third has some 
resemblance to Lord Sydney, Pitt's Home Secretary.^ The fourth, who 

^ The first and third are identified by Mr. Hawkins as Barre and Keppel; this 
seems politically impossible, and though there is perhaps a slight resemblance to 
Barr^, there is none to Keppel. 



is not pulling with the others but stands on cannon-balls, looking through 
a telescope, is the Duke of Richmond, Master of the Ordnance under Pitt, 
see No. 6373. 

Two framed pictures hang on the wall, one on each side of the king : on 
the 1. a shaded rectangle with four stars represents Chaos. On the r. North, 
the Devil, and Fox (minute and freely sketched figures) are playing battle- 
dore and shuttlecock with the crown, which flies in the air, decorated with 
the three feathers of the Prince of Wales, an emblem of the adherence of 
the Prince to Fox and his party ; cf . No. 6401, &c. For the struggle between 
Pitt and Fox see No. 6373, &c. 



Pu¥ as the Act directs Jany ly 1^84 by J Smith & Sold at AT*' 2 Ped- 
lars Acre West^ Bridge 

Engraving. Fox and North are on one side (1.) of a broken bridge, the 
king (r.), flouting them, is on the other. The broken timbers of the bridge 
fall into a stream through the broken masonry of a single arch; they are 
inscribed War Office, Treasury, Chancellor Ship, Councill Chamber, Navy 
Office, Admiralty. The road (1.) on which Fox and North stand is inscribed 
Road to Preferment', the gateway of St. James's Palace is partly visible on 
the extreme r., adjacent buildings are inscribed Cleavland Row ; two sentries 
stand with muskets. The king stands on the palace side of the broken 
bridge, bending down, his back to the ex-ministers, holding out to them 
the crown between his legs, he looks towards them through his legs, saying. 
Here *s my Crown & You may view it Toll de rol de ri do. North holds Fox's 

arm. Fox says. Who woul [wV] have thought his M y had such a Broad 

Bottom to support him (cf. No. 6365). 

One of many satires on the contest between Pitt and Fox before the 
dissolution of Parliament on 25 March, see No. 6373, &c. 



[? J. Barrow.] 

Pu¥ by J. Barrow. Jany ig. 1784. White Lion Bull Stairs, Surry 
Side, Black Friars Bridge. 

Engraving. Pitt (1.) and Fox (r.) each hold one wing of a large goose 
which is flying between them, though a chain is attached to a collar round 
its neck, the other end being fixed to a staple at Pitt's feet, where are also 
nine large eggs. The goose turns its head towards Pitt, saying, / think 
Gentlemen you make me look very silly. 

Fox, his r. arm raised in his accustomed orator's gesture (cf. No. 5755), 
is saying : 

Have I for Britons felt such pangs. 

And made so many long harangues. 

And having graspt at last the Goose, 

Must I be made to let her loose? 


Pitt answers 


And must I see her golden joy 
Plac'd in the Bosom of a Boy^ 
Unripe in Judgment y bold in prate. 
Unfit to wade the depths of State, 
To make us peace, or war to wage. 
There is not Judgment in your age. 
To lead the British Lion, Pitt, 
Thy youth 's unseemly and unfit, 
r II give you Sir a proof of this. 
You helpt to beg our present peace. 
When Monsieur scarce could keep his legs. 
Sure, you deserve no golden Eggs, 
To give the goose to such a lad, 
Enough to make a Fox run mad: 
ril have the Goose I now declare. 
Or from a Fox, Fll turn a Bear. 

Gently wise Sir, nor think your tongue. 
Must carry all things right or zurong. 
You say you* II have the Goose, But when? 
Possession *s nine points out of ten: 
And now Fve got her, fast Fll hold. 
Yes, pocket too the Eggs of Gold; 
Let who will call it getting Pelf, 
It *s duty to my King, and self. 
You say you* II have the Goose again. 
Not surely Fox, in this Kings reign, 
But, be not overmuch perplext. 
You have a prospect in the next. 

Fox and Pitt stand in profile, facing each other, not caricatured. 

For Fox and the geese, usually the electors of Westminster or persons 
deluded by him, cf. No. 5843, &c. Here the goose is evidently ministerial 
office, which Pitt represents as only possible to Fox on the accession of 
the Prince of Wales (cf. No. 6401, &c.), although at this time the Foxites 
were confident of a speedy return to power. For the struggle in Parliament 
see No. 6373, &c. For *our present peace' see No, 6172, &c. 



Finunt \sic'\ respice [W. Dent.] 

Pu¥for S.W. as the Act directs, by J. Cattermoul N"" 3^6 Oxford Street 
Janv ig^^ 1784. 

Engraving. Thurlow, seated (1.), a birch-rod in his r. hand, in the other 
an open book inscribed A new guide to India, looks towards Pitt, who 
stands before him dressed as a young girl though wearing a bag- wig. Pitt 
stands in profile to the 1. ; to his waist is tied a key marked T. (for Treasury) 
which is decorated with bells and resembles a child's coral (cf. No. 7325). 
Thurlow was again appointed Chancellor (23 Dec. 1783) on the dismissal 
of the Coalition; he wears an enormous Chancellor's wig. 

Against the wall which forms the background are objects to indicate the 



nature of the lessons taught in Thurlow^s schoolroom. A bookcase is 
inscribed Newbery^s Works ^ indicating the extreme youth of Pitt, Newbery 
being the publisher of books for children. It is surmounted by a bust of 
Fox, grinning; he is bearded and has satyr's ears; this is inscribed A true 
Whig. Beside it (r.) hangs a circular bust portrait of George III as a Roman 
emperor. He wears a wreath of thistles. An arm, inscribed Secret Influence^ 
extends from a tartan plaid on the extreme 1. of the design, the hand hold- 
ing a thistle to the nose of the king, indicating the supposed influence of 
Bute or of other Scots. The frame of the portrait is decorated with thistles. 
Over it is inscribed A great Whig. On the other side of the bust of Fox is 
a wall-map in which the face of Shelburne forms the British Isles. His hair 
is inscribed Scotland^ below this and across his forehead is an Ecliptic line ; 
below are England^ Channel ^ German Ocean (1.), and Wales, Dublin (r.). 
A fragment has been torn off, containing ^w[erica] and part of the West 
/w[dies] . The map is inscribed British Geography made easy to youth by 
Wycombe 1783 (cf. No. 6374), and above it is written A false Whig. 

Shelburne was Baron Wycombe in the English peerage until 1784, when 
he was created Earl Wycombe and Marquis of Lansdowne. One of many 
indications of Shelbume's unpopularity, here attacked for the peace of 
1783, see No. 617 1, &c.; it illustrates the danger to Pitt of including him 
in his Ministry, cf. Orde's letter to Shelburne, Fitzmaurice, Shelburne, 
1912, ii. 284. For Thurlow's part in overtures from the King to Pitt in 
1783 cf. No. 7502. 


Pu¥ Jany ig*^ iy84 by W. Humphrey AT" 227 Strand. 

Engraving. Fox, scarcely caricatured, stands before the door of the 
Treasury (r.), which is closed with an enormous padlock. He looks 
to the 1., holding a dagger in his r. hand, the key of the padlock in his 1. 
Beside him (r.) is his watchdog, with the head of North, his star attached 
to his collar. 

In the background (1.) is a wall, perhaps the wall of the Privy 'Garden, in 
front of some buildings. Ballads for sale (or placards) are strung along the 
wall, a man sits beside them, three others stand on the pavement. 

For the special application of this attack on Fox, as guarding the door 
of the Treasury, see No. 6380. One of several satires in which he is com- 
pared to Cromwell, see No. 6380, &c. For the struggle between Pitt and 
Fox in Parliament before the dissolution, see No. 6373, &c. 
1016X7? in. 

JSf. Plate y' 5'^ [SzytTS.] 

Published y^ 20*^ January 1^84 hyja^ Bretherton New Bond Street 

Engraving. Fox in back view (H.L.) in the attitude of an orator, his r. 
hand raised clasping a document. His reflection in a mirror which hangs 
on the wall is that of Cromwell in armour, in a similar attitude, with an 
angry frown. 


Fox's I. hand rests on a table on which are writing-materials, and a copy 
of the [Mornin]^ Chronicle on which can be read, Tuesddiy . . . Hasty Sketch 
of yesterdays Business At half past Two o Clock M^ . . . rose and . . . State 
of Nation. The document he holds is inscribed Resolution . . . Resolved . . . 
Resolved . . . Resolved. A card stuck under the frame of the mirror is faintly 
inscribed, — Requested meet (?) the friend of the People (?) speak this evening. 

One of a number of satires in which Fox is compared to Cromwell, see 
Nos. 6239, &c., 6379, 6384, 6391, 6408, 6412, 6422, 6424, 6457, 6671, 7492, 
7630, 7857. See also election squibs reprinted in The Westminster Election, 
pp. 96, 98, 105, in which Fox is Oliver Cromwell and intended in his India 
Bill *to render himself independent of the Crown and to set himself up 
above the laws of his country'. The Morning Chronicle reports the debate 
of 12 Jan., when 'the House at half past two in the morning went into 
Committee on the State of the Nation' and Fox moved, inter alia, that the 
payment of money towards public services after the prorogation or dissolu- 
tion of Parliament should be *a high crime and misdemeanour'. Pari. Hist. 
xxiv. 299. As a result of this debate Fox, relying on his majority, had 
counted on displacing Pitt, attempting to show (against law and precedent) 
that the Crown had not the prerogative of dissolution. Russell, Corr. of 
FoXy ii. 227 ff. For Fox's attempts to stop supplies see Pari. Hist. xxiv. 
299 ff., 581, 595 ff., and Nos. 6379, 6384, 6425, 6434, 6446, 6462, 6481. 

The French Ambassador, d'Adhemar, wrote of this print, 'J^ sais de 
bonne part que M. Fox a ete sensible a cette caricature.' Britsch, La 
Jeunesse de Philippe J^galite, 1926, p. 406. The print is described by 
Archenholtz, Tableau d'Angleterrey Bruxelles, 1788, i. 150, and evidently 
made a great impression. For the series see No. 6372. 



J 5/. [Bayers.] 

Published as the Act directs by Ja^ Bretherton New Bond Street 

20^^ January 1784 
Engraving. A Scotsman enclosed in a letter, from which his head (r.) and 
. legs protrude at either end; he lies horizontally, and a signpost (1.) pointing 
To London, shows that he is being projected through the air from Scotland 
to London. A thistle at the foot of the post indicates Scotland. He has a 
raw-boned Scottish countenance, wears a Scots cap and tartan stockings. 

The letter is inscribed in large letters To The Majority S^ Stephens 
Westm^ Free Duke or no Duke, the franking being further shown by the 
word Free in a circle. Portland was accused of corrupting Scottish M.P.S 
by a fund for travelling-expenses. Pari. Hist. xxiv. 339 ff. 
iiJX9Jin. (pi.). 


Jany 21'^ 1J84 Pu¥ as y' act directs by J. Langham Russell Street 
Cov^ Garden 

Engraving. Fox and North as itinerant musicians, much caricatured, 
receive plates of broken victuals from a maidservant. North, very bulky 
and on a larger scale than Fox, beats a tambourine, he looks downwards, 
his tongue protruding (or perhaps he has just caught a penny in his mouth). 



Fox has a large hurdy-gurdy slung across his shoulder and supported on 
his knee, his other knee is protected from the cobbles of the street by a 
small four-legged stool. He holds out his hat to receive the food which 
the girl, who leans out from a street door, is slipping into it from a plate. 
The Foxites were still counting on success ; for the contest see No. 6373, etc. 



Pu¥ as the act directs Jan^ 22 1784 by W Humphrey 22y Strand 

Engraving. Fox (1.), as Satan, stands with the Prince of Wales ; he is address- 
ing the serried ranks of the Majority^ in front of whom stand four officers, 
each holding a standard: the Duke of Portland (r.) in profile to the I. 
wearing a ducal coronet, holds a standard inscribed Belial; next is North 
holding a standard inscribed Mammon and decorated also with the points 
of the compass, the letter n pointing west towards Fox ; he wears (incor- 
rectly) a baron's coronet. Next stands Burke, his standard inscribed 
Moleck the Sublime & Beautifull; he wears a Jesuit's biretta (cf. No. 6026) 
decorated with a rosary, and large spectacles. Last (1.) stands Keppel, 
dressed as a sailor in trousers ; his standard is inscribed Asmodeus or Julias 
the 27^*, one of many allusions to the battle of Ushant on 27 July 1778, 
which gained him the name of Admiral Lee Shore, see No. 5992, &c. 
Behind these four stand men in close ranks holding pikes, freely sketched. 
The front rank is inscribed with the word Majority four times repeated. 

Fox, from the knee downwards, has the legs of an animal terminating in 
cloven hoofs. A fox's brush hanging below his coat is faintly indicated. 
He wears a military hat surmounted by the figure of a small dragon with 
a forked tongue; on the front of the hat is a fox. From his 1. wrist hangs 
an oval mask of his own features, smiling. He stands in profile to the r., 
scowling and saying to his followers : 

Will ye submit your necks & chuse to bend 

the supple knee? ye will not if I trust 

to know ye right . . . 

Jar not zvith liberty , but well consist 

Who can in reason or in right assume 

Prerogative o^er such as live by right 

His equals if in power & splendor less 

In freedom equal . . . 

Much less to look for adoration to tK abuse 

Of those Imperial titles which assert 

Our being ordain* d^ to govern not to serve 

The Prince of Wales, also in profile, stands on the extreme 1. He wears 
a crown or coronet surmounted with his three ostrich feathers, and rests 
the point of his sword on the ground. He holds Fox's arm and tramples 
under foot a paper inscribed Ich Dien. 

One of many satires on the struggle between Pitt and Fox in Parliament 
from 12 Jan. to the dissolution, see No. 6373, &c. For Fox and the Prince, 
see No. 6041, &c. See No. 6482, a sequel by the same artist. For Fox as 
Satan see also Nos. 6012, 6392, p. 74, 6585, and cf. No. 6430. 





Pu¥ Jany 23, iy84 by W. Humphrey AT^ 22y Strand. 

Engraving. On the r. is The old Building, an inn of old-fashioned construc- 
tion with a projecting upper story and attic, representing Great Britain 
or the Constitution. On the 1. is the king, apparently asleep, driving off 
to Hanover in a coach with a crown on its roof. Two men and a barefooted 
woman who holds up two naked infants kneel beside the coach in attitudes 
of despairing entreaty. In the upper 1. corner of the print, above the coach, 
an eye looks towards the *01d House' labelled, Turn out those Robbers and 
repair the House. 

The robbers in possession are members of the Coalition. The lowest 
story, stone-built and solid but sinking beneath the weight of the upper 
floors, is inscribed Public Credit, a large padlocked gate being inscribed 
Funds. Outside it sits Fox, in the form of a fox, on a stone inscribed 
Protectory he points towards the padlock. A chain attached to his waist is 
attached to a curving pillar, inscribed Coalition, which is the bending 
support of a balcony. Beside him, seated on a turnstile, is North saying, 
Give me my Ease And do as you Please. On the other side of the gateway 
the crown stands on a block inscribed To be Sold. 

The first floor is supported by two massive beams or props, one. The 
Lords, being intact (indicating the part taken by the Lords in rejecting the 
India Bill), the other. Prerogative of the Crown, is almost chopped through 
by one of two lawyers in a first-floor window inscribed y' two Lawyers', he 
sits with one leg over the sill wielding an axe. Beside him projects from a 
beam the sign of the house. Magna Charta, a torn document with a 
pendant seal; the signboard is dropping down. He is Lee the Attorney- 
General, pilloried for his speech on the East India Company's Charter, see 
No. 6364, &c. Next him is another lawyer, who shakes his clenched fist 
towards Magna Charta. He is perhaps James Mansfield (1733-1821) who 
succeeded Lee as Solicitor-General (Nov. 19) on the death of Wallace. 

The first-floor balcony, an excrescence on the original structure sup- 
ported by the pillar Coalition, extends round the corner of the house above 
Fox and North. It is filled with revellers: a harlequin leans over it, next 
him is Burke, who blows a long trumpet from which issue the words 
Sheridan Sheridan Sheridan dan Sher idan, pointing towards a group on 
his 1. which includes a man (Sheridan?) flourishing a bottle and dressed 
as a clown or zany (cf. No. 7273), and two women, one of whom resembles 
the Duchess of Devonshire. Beside her a large flag projects from the 
balcony, Man of the People; on it is a fox's brush. On the rails of the 
balcony is a placard Here 's the Whore of Babylon the Devil and the Pope. 
The wall behind is inscribed The old Building. 

The projecting windowless attic or cornice is divided, in front of the 
house, into partitions numbered from i to 10. Round the comer (r.) the 
wall is inscribed The accursed 10 years American War fomented by opposition 
and misconducted by a timid Minister. The roof is composed of stones or 
large irregular slates, on each of which is the word Tax, showing that the 
security of the house is endangered by the weight of taxes. On it sits a 
bird, probably a raven of ill omen. 

The fact that the Coalition is in possession of the house well illustrates 

17 C 


the insecurity of Pitt and confidence of Fox. Cf . Russell, Corr. of C. J. Fox^ 
1883, ii. 227, and No. 6373, &c. For Fox's attempt to keep the Treasury- 
padlocked see No. 6380, &c. For the king's recurrent desire to go to 
Hanover when indignant at English politics cf. Nos. 6007, 6185. Fox is 
compared with Cromwell by the word Trotector', see No. 6380, &c. 

The original drawing for this is in the Print Room. The inscriptions are 
identical with those on the plate, except that the word Sheridan emerging 
four times from Burke's trumpet is written Sher- dan, (201 c. 6/20.) 

Grego, Rowlandsoriy i. 1 14-15. 
8^X13 in. 

M ^Y 

Jany 26^^ iy84 Pu¥ hy E. Darchery S^ James's Street. 

Engraving. George III (Majesty) enthroned on a dais of two steps. Behind 
his chair, half-hidden, is Bute in Highland dress, his cap decorated with 
a small boot. On the king's r. is Thurlow with the body of a bird of prey; 
he stands in profile to the r., wearing his Chancellor's wig. On his 1. is a 
serpent with a barbed tail, and a human head intended for that of Pitt ; it is 
suspended in the air, looking towards the king, who says. Go to myfaithfull 
Janazaries; Order them to repair to the DivaUy & do instant execution on the 

In the foreground (r.) Britannia sits on the ground asleep. A statesman 
wearing a ribbon, partly cut off by the r. margin of the print, leans towards 
her, touching her shoulder and saying, Theives! Theives! Zounds awake 
Madam, or you'll have your Throat cut. He is perhaps intended for Lord 
John Cavendish. "^ 

One of the few attacks on Pitt's Ministry before the dissolution; it is 
significant that neither Fox, North, nor Burke appears. For Scottish 
influence cf. No. 6387, and for 'secret influence' in general No. 6417, &c. 
For Thurlow cf. No. 7502. For George III as an oriental despot cf. No. 
6608, &c. 


[? Ceilings.] 

Pu¥ Jany 2f^ 1784, hy W, Welky N° 132, opposite Salisbury Court) 
Fleet Street. 

Engraving. A scene in front of the East India House, Leadenhall Street, 
which forms the background. A fox (C. J. Fox) is being hunted by three 
dogs, who are being huUoa'd on by two men with huntsmen's whips and 
a number of spectators, two of the most prominent being Jews. They 
evidently represent City and East India interests. The fox turns round to 
snarl at a greyhound whose collar is inscribed Pitt. His India bill, which is 
blazing, is tied to his tail, and to it is tied a brick-shaped box inscribed 
MT [empty] . The other dogs are a bulldog with Thurlo on his collar, and 
a small spaniel who is T^w[ple]. 

* He is identified by Mr. Hawkins as Temple, but as the print is directed against 
*back-stairs' influence and the new Ministry, this appears impossible. 



For the defeat of Fox's India Bill see Nos. 6283, 6368, &c. Cf. also 
No. 6519. 


[W. Dent.] 

Pu¥ for H.B,^ as the Act directs, by J. Cattermoul, N<' 376, Oxford 
Street, Javy 29^* 17S4, 

Engraving. Fox, as a fox with a human head, is being chased (1. to r.) by- 
dogs with human heads, by two huntsmen on foot, and by Lord Temple 
riding on the king, an ass with the face of George HI. Partly visible on the 
extreme 1. is a high stone arch, surmounted by a crown and a thistle, and 
inscribed Starting Place. From it Temple has just emerged; his jockey 
cap is inscribed Stow (the name of his estate) to make his identity clear ; 
from his mouth protrudes a long tongue inscribed Rumor, his coat is 
patterned with what appear to be tongues. On his cap stands Rumour as a 
small woman with ass's ears, blowing a trumpet. The rein in the king's 
mouth is inscribed Secret influence. Temple holds a whip whose broad 
lash is inscribed Prerogative to indicate his message to the House of Lords 
on the king's wish for the defeat of the India Bill, see Nos. 6283, 6417, &c. 
Seated behind him on the ass's back is a demon wearing a tartan plaid, to 
indicate that an evil Scottish influence still prevails as in the days of Bute 
(cf. No. 6385). 

The dogs' heads are profile portraits: the foremost couple are Pitt and 
Thurlow; a key inscribed T (for Treasury) hangs from Pitt's collar, which 
is inscribed Castril. Thurlow wears his Chancellor's wig; his collar is in- 
scribed Beetle Brow and a disk representing the Great Seal is fastened to it. 
Behind him is Richmond, wearing his ribbon and star; his collar is inscribed 
Ordnance and it is fastened by a cannon-ball. Behind Pitt is Dundas, his 
collar inscribed Thistle. The hindmost dog is Lord Nugent, his collar 
inscribed Old Rat (see No. 6059, &c.). 

The two pedestrians are both dressed in long legal gowns, and both blow 
horns, the foremost (Pepper Arden) blowing Char — Char — Charters, the 
other (Kenyon) Char — Charters. The words signify the exploitation by 
the opponents of the Coalition of the attack on chartered rights involved 
in the India Bill, cf. No. 6364, &c. Arden, Pitt's friend and Solicitor- 
General, was one of the most indefatigable opponents of Fox's India Bill. 
Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iii. 206-7. 

Fox's brush is inscribed Coalition — Receipt tax (see No. 6243, &c.) 
India Bill (see No. 6271, &c.). Beside him is a signpost pointing To 
Brookes' s', it is decorated with dice and surmounted by a dice-box, indi- 
cating that Fox out of office must return to the gaming-table for support, 
cf. No. 6013. 

Two heads look down upon the chase from the sky : above Temple and the 
King, Shelburne's smiling face (1.) is the centre of rays ; above Fox (r.) North's 
head emerges from clouds directing a blast at Pitt to impede his progress. 

This satire, while mainly directed against Pitt's Ministry, see No. 6417, 
&c., also pillories Fox, cf. No. 6400. For the king as an ass cf. Nos. 5669, 
5683, 6007, 7308. 

' The words 'for H.B.' are scored through. 




First Sketch, published JarP 2g iy84 as the act directs, by S. Fores 
Ar« 3 Piccadilly. 

Engraving. Fox, as a fox with a human head, speeds over the ground (r. 
to 1.), covering in his stride a wide expanse of country. 

Other prints in this series are Nos. 6407, 6412. 



Pu¥ as the Act directs Jany 30 1784 by B. Walwyn N. 2 Pedlars Acre 
West* Bridge 

Engraving. Fox, in the foreground (1.) holding a firebrand, leans back- 
wards as he watches the Parliament House (r.) rise shattered in a vast 
explosion which extends to the adjacent buildings. A path inscribed Train 
of False Patriotism leads from his feet to the explosion. His cap appears 
to be part of a dark lantern ; on it stands the minute figure of the Devil 
holding a trident. His flaming brand is inscribed Oratory y in his 1. hand 
he holds a garment inscribed Cloak of Deceit. The pavement on which he 
stands is inscribed Loyalty. From Fox's pocket hang three papers inscribed 
respectively, Dear F. . . y Louis (with a fleur-de-lis seal or cipher) — indi- 
cating the attitude of Fox towards the recent war, cf. Nos. 6239, ^393* 
Majority 8; and Satan Spe[ech]. The majority against Pitt's India Bill 
on 23 Jan. was only eight. Pari. Hist. xxiv. 412. 

The explosion is inscribed Gunpowder of Dissention and Messauge from 
the (followed by a small crown). Flying into the air with the Parliament 
House are a crown, Pitts India Bill and Mutiny Bill (Fox having carried 
a resolution on 12 Jan. (see No. 6380) postponing the second reading of the 
Mutiny Bill till 23 Feb. 

In the distance, watching the explosion, is a group inscribed Conspirators. 
Prominent among them are North, Burke as a Jesuit (cf. No. 6026) holding 
a book and a rosary, Keppel holding a flag inscribed 2 y July (the date of the 
battle of Ushant, 1778, see No. 5992, &c.). 

One of many satires on the contest between Pitt and Fox before the 
dissolution, see No. 6373, &c. For Fox as Guy Vaux see Nos. 6007, 6022, 
6478, 6583, 6593, 7861. 



Pu¥ asy' Act directs Janv 1784 by J Smith & sold at AT" 66 Drury 
Lane [address of Holland]. 

Engraving. Scottish members of Parliament walk from Scotland, a sign- 
post (1.) pointing along the Road to preferment. On the extreme 1., on the 
farther side of a stream inscribed Tweedy part of an emaciated figure in 
tartan is visible. He is inscribed Famine; a thistle grows at his feet. His 
head is outside the picture, but he is saying ; 



My Sons lett Intrest be your God 
& crouch beneath the premiers nod 
Nor lett the loss of honest name 
Impede your daring rise to fame. 

On the south side of the Tweed (r.) are four Scotsmen, variously clad 
in tartan, all with thistles in their caps. The first two are back to back and 
are dancing a Scottish reel, with satisfied smiles ; one is singing : 

Over the water &' over the lee 

& over the water to . . . [Charley]. 

In front of this pair walks a man in a tartan plaid and bare legs ; he carries 
his tartan breeches on a pole across his shoulder; they are labelled Instruc- 
tions for Members of P 1. He may be intended for Dundas, through 

whom the Scottish patronage was exercised, and who managed the elections 
of Scotjtish M.P.S and representative peers. The foremost figure on the 
extreme r. supports himself on two sticks ; he is saying Thanks to my Wise 
Nephew for this journey. He is probably Lord Adam Gordon, uncle of the 
fourth Duke of Gordon, M.P. jfor Kincardineshire and conmiander of the 
forces in Scotland. In the background four shadowy figures on a small 
scale represent other Scots on the way to Westminster, two of them carry 
their breeches on sticks over their shoulders. 

A satire on the poverty of Scotland and the subservience and self- 
interest of Scottish M.P.S. For the allegation of Jacobitism cf. No. 5667. 
8xi2| in. 


/. C. del [? Cruikshank.] 

Published according to Act of Pari* Jany 30*^ 1784 

Engraving. Fox (1.) holds a standard inscribed The Protector's Standard. 
On the top of its staff is a cock, cf. No. 6564. Behind him is a crowd 
of his supporters, on a small scale but with standards inscribed Confus[ed\ 
order ^ Vox Populiy Anarchy, and mobility. He holds his hat in one hand. 
Confronting him (r.) is a Scots officer in a Highland regiment, drawing his 
sword. Behind the Scot is a table on which is a crown inscribed This Pll 
ever deffend. Behind is a pyramid. 

One of the few prints favourable to the Scots, cf. No. 5534. The Scot 
probably represents the attitude of Scottish M.P.S in general, see No. 
6390. *M^ Adam' is written in an old hand, but Adam, in spite of his duel 
with Fox, see No. 5575, was a firm adherent of the Coalition. Dundas 
would be possible. For Fox as Cromwell see No. 6380, &c. For the contest 
in Parliament between Pitt and Fox, No. 6373, &c. 


T [or JI C 1784 [ ? Cruikshank.] [c. Jan.] 

Publish [sic'\ according to Act of Parliament 

Engraving (coloured impression). An angel (1.) seizes Fox by the r. arm, 
and removes a mask (of his own features) from his face, revealing the face 



of a devil, which from its bushy eyebrows and long nose has a certain 
resemblance to Fox. To ward off the angel, Fox, who has talons in place 
of finger-nails, holds out his 1. hand. He has a barbed tail; a fox's brush, 
just cut off, lies on the ground. The angel is probably intended for Pitt, 
though the characterization is vague. 

In the background (r.) is a fire in whose flames are the figures of three 
minute demons; two demons with webbed wings fly between Fox and the 
fire; one has the features of Burke, the other appears intended for North. 

For Fox as Satan cf. No. 6383, &c. 
711x81 in. 

AND BURKE'] [Jan. 1784^] 

Engraving. Design in a circle. A group of three bust portraits, that of 
Fox (1.) facing T.Q. to r., Burke slightly behind him, and looking in the 
same direction. North in profile to the r. 

The pamphlet consisted of quotations from the speeches of the three 
politicians before the Coalition, violently attacking each other, cf. No. 
6187, &c. See also Nos. 6365, 6369, 6399, 6609, 6615. 

4I in. diam. 

A copy of this print (diam. 4I in.) is a heading to broadsides on the 
Westminster Election. (In collection of squibs, &c., in the Guildhall 

6393 A Another impression, the heading to an advertisement of the third 
edition of the book, Feb. 1784. The advertisement heads a large sheet of 
three closely-printed columns, giving an exhaustive and attractive table of 

This 'celebrated Index' was said to have been used with great effect in 
the elections. Morning Posty 6 Apr. 1784. 

Size of bill, 22f X 11 in. (margins perhaps cut). 

This has the word frontispiece engraved above the design, which has 
been cut off No. 6393. 

6393 B A copy issued as the frontispiece to the 'Beauties and Deformities 
of Fox, North, and Burke', an amalgamation of the 'Beauties . . .' with 
'The Deformities of Fox and Burke', both books being published by 
J. Stockdale. To this is attached another print, see No. 641 1, the whole 
making a folding frontispiece : 

Published as the Act directs Febv 16. 1784, by J, Stockdale, 

3I in. diam. B.M.L. 12301. b. 14. 

6393 c A copy in woodcut called the cerberus is on the last of four folio 
pages, as the heading to an index of 'The Beauties' in four columns, not 
identical with that of No. 6393 A. Beneath is engraved: 

Cerberus hcec ingens latratu regna trifauci 

Personat, &c. &c — Virg 
On the other pages are a review of the book from the English Review for 
Feb. 1784; an address by Josiah Tucker, dated i March 1784, on the 

' The preface is dated 9 Ian. 1784. 




'Cardinal Point' between the king and the House of Lords on one side 
and the House of Commons on the other; a Hst of M.P.s divided into 
those who supported Mr. Pitt and the Constitution, and those who voted 
against him, dated 19 March 1784. This was election propaganda, pub- 
hshed by Stockdale, Trice 6d. each; il. is. per Hundred, or 81. 8s. per 

4f in. diam. B.M.L. 1890. e. 22, fo. 3. 

OPPRESSION. [c. Jan. 1784] 

Published as y^ act directs 

Engraving. George III stands facing a large pair of scales, the beam 
inscribed Right weighed against Oppression. He is in back view, his head 
turned in profile to the r. ; in his r. hand is a sword inscribed Perogative 
with which he has just cut the three supports of the r.-hand scale which 
falls upside down; North and Fox, holding the severed supports, fall head 
downwards towards a pool inscribed Mire of Opposition. The king says, 
To preserve Justice ^ Villainy must fall. In the other scale (1.) is the India 
HousCy its fa9ade roughly depicted; this is supported by the king's 1. hand, 
his arm being inscribed Government Security. The three supports of this 
scale are inscribed Rights ^ Charters & Privileges. \ Sovreign protection^ and 
Laws defence. The three supports of the other scale are Possession of 
Property y held by Fox, Love of Power, held by North, and Influence & 
Oppression held by both. Fox says This is the most dirty fall, I ever had; 
North says / am fallen, never to rise again. 

The date of this may be any time after the defeat of the India Bill in the 
Lords, cf. Nos. 6286, 6368, &c., and before the dissolution of Parliament 
on 24 March, it was probably issued early in 1784. 

One of several prints approving the king's action against the India Bill, 
see No. 6409, &c. 


/ B [J. Boyne.] [Plate, i] 

Publish,d by E. Hedges N"" g2 Cornhill Feb i. iy84 

Engraving. Fox dressed as an Eastern prince, in Turkish trousers, a 
striped tunic, and a long robe which trails on the ground. He stands looking 
over his r. shoulder with an arrogant expression, his r. hand on his hip, a 
rolled document, evidently the India Bill, held out in his 1. hand. For 
Fox's ambition, cf. No. 6380, &c. A companion print to Nos. 6396, 6433, 


6395 a [CARLO KHAN] 

/ B [J. Boyne.] Plate, i 

An earlier impression of No. 6395, without imprint, the title written in ink. 
For Fox as Carlo Khan see Nos. 6276, 6285, 6462, &c. 




/ B [J. Boyne.] Plate 2. 

Puhlis.d by E. Hedges N^ g2 Cornhill Febv 1 1^84 

Engraving. North seated in a chair asleep, facing the spectator, head rest- 
ing on his r. shoulder. He wears Turkish trousers and is wrapped in a 
long voluminous robe (symbolizing the India Bill, see No. 6368, &c.) 
similar to that worn by Fox in No. 6395, a companion print. 


6397 THE GRAND CRICKET MATCH [i Feb. 1784.] 

Engraving. From the Rambler* s Magazine. A game of cricket. The bats- 
man, Dorset (r.), wears riding-boots and stands with his back to the bowler, 
looking over his r. shoulder; he says, My Notches against any Man in 
France for 1000. The bowler, who wears jack-boots, says, Begar me vill 
knock down his Stumps. There are five fieldsmen, one American, the 
others French; they say (1. to r.): Me vill catch him out at first Stroke; He 
plays well at de Cricket y he be one very good Ambassadeur; He be very clever 
at getting de Notches; He no speak in de Senate but he be one bon Cricketer. 
The last fieldsman has a tuft of feathers on his head showing he is American ; 
he says. If you play' d for 13 Provinces you' d lose. 

A satire on the appointment of the Duke of Dorset as ambassador to 
France, see No. 6370. He was a noted cricketer. The text satirizes his lack 
of esprit and political capacity. 


Pu¥ as y Act directs Febv 2 1784 by B Walwyn N"* 2 Pedlars Acre 
WesV Bridge. 

Engraving. Two adjacent stages, on which stand the quack doctors, Pitt (1.) 
and Fox (r.), addressing the mob, each with his assistant and his zany, and 
each protected by an umbrella supported on a long slanting pole. Pitt's 
umbrella is inscribed D^ Pittardo^ his stage (1.) is inscribed Rigestir \sic'\ 
Office where Servants may hear of good places . He stands in the attitude of 
an orator, his hat in his hand. On the front of his stage, their legs dangling, 
sit his assistants : the Duke of Richmond (1.), his Garter ribbon inscribed 
RichmondunguSy holds out a bill in each hand. Receipt Tax Repeald and 
Youth an Enormous Crime. For the unpopular Receipt Tax see No. 6243, 
&c. At the other side sits the zany, then the usual attendant of the itinerant 
quack doctor (cf. No. 8183); he is smiling and appears to be dipping a 
spoon into a box inscribed Treasury.^ His hat is inscribed Sec^ 
showing that he is George Rose, re-appointed Secretary to the 
by Pitt. 

Fox stands, holding his hat, his 1. fist raised. His umbrella is 
D^ Renardo &c.'y on its apex is a small fox standing on its head, 
form (r.) is inscribed The Art of Gaming taught & Practised in all its 
Branches by. His zany, sitting on the 1. corner of the platform, is iBurke, 
his hat inscribed BurkobuSy a rosary hanging from his waist indicating the 
Jesuit (cf. No. 6026). He holds out a bill in each hand inscribed To the 

' He is perhaps banging on a salt-box, cf. No. 7067. 

24 i 


Independent Electors of West — and An Address to his M y. At the back 

of the stage, facing the spectators behind it, sits North, his Garter ribbon 
inscribed Punch Lethargo. He wears a bag-wig, but his paunch, outlined 
with buttons, indicates Punch. He holds out a bottle labelled Cathartic 
Drops, in the other hand is a bill. Motion Pills for Members. 

In front are the heads and shoulders of the audience, a bald head in front 
of Fox inscribed An MT [empty] house indicates Sam House. In the back- 
ground buildings are freely sketched. Behind Pitt is the India house \ three 
small figures stand on its roof waving their hats. In the centre, between 
Pitt and Fox, is S*^ Stephens. 

One of many satires on the contest between Pitt and Fox before the 
dissolution, see No. 6373, &c. 



Pu¥ by E. Dachery as y^ act directs Feby 2^ 17S4, S^ James's Street. 

Engraving. Fox (with a fox's head) and North are being dragged into the 
air by ropes hanging from a circular balloon and attached to their necks ; 
their heads hang limply. Long scrolls issue from their mouths. North 
saying. Would I might be Hang'd, To be Hang'd with you my Dear with 
yoUy Fox saying, & I would so too. 

The scene is the riverside, a bank in the foreground (r.) being crowded 
with men, waving their hats and huzzaing; twelve labels which issue from 
them being inscribed respectively r. to 1.: Huzza, O be Joyfull \ Huzza; 
Huzza [twice] | Huzza; Old England for ever \ There they go, good luck go 
with them. Huzza; Huzza. \ Huzza; Huzza. \ Huzza; poor Devils, how 
richly they deserve their fate \ Huzza ; it is a pity they were not Hang'd 7 
Years ago. \ Never did Rope fit better \ & never was exaltation more proper \ 
what Joy to poor old England. \ Huzza; Huzza. A curve of the river shows 
a crowd of spectators in the distance, there are boats with flags as if for 
a regatta, and on the farther side of the water the buildings, including 
(?) St. Paul's and the Tower, are flying flags. 

Inset in the design is a rectangle (r.) inscribed This Print is most Humbly 
Inscribed to by his most obedient Humble Servant James 


One of many satires on the fall of the Coalition, see Nos. 6286, &c., 
6365, 6369, 6405, 6409, 6414, 6419, 6443, 6448, 6450, 6454, 6455, 6458, 
6489, 6673, 6674. Cf- No. 6373, &c. 
7^X1 if in. 


Pu¥ as y^ act directs Feby 3 1784 by B. Walwyn N"^ 2 Pedlars Acre 
WesV Bridge 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt (1.) and Fox (r.) playing battledore 
and shuttlecock with the East India House, which is in the air between 
them, upside down, its roof inscribed India House, a small figure of the 
king, wearing his crown, holding to its side. Pitt's battledore is inscribed 
Royal Confidence, that of Fox, Majority. 

Behind Fox, in the middle distance, stands the Devil holding a trident, 
and farther off", two small demons. The sun is setting behind them, a face 



in its disk. In the centre of the horizon is a precipitous mound inscribed 
Mount of Power with the Temple of Fame on its summit. The road up to 
this from the ground is inscribed Road of true Patriotism Now Untrode. 
The temple is irradiated. 

One of many satires on the contest between Pitt and Fox before the 
dissolution, see No. 6373, &c. Its condemnation of both parties is excep- 
tional. Cf. Nos. 6387, 6428. 


Published by E. Hedges N^" 92 Cornhill Febv 3 1^84 

Engraving. Fox (1.) chisels a bust of the Prince of Wales, while North (r.) 
turns aside to sharpen a chisel on a stone. The bust, in profile to the 1., 
stands on a rectangular pedestal inscribed Extremly docile, easy moddeVd 
into Vice and exceeding soft about the head. The intention of the portrait is 
realistic, but the likeness is poor. Fox kneels in profile to the r., his chisel 
resting on the bust is inscribed Vice, in his r. hand he raises a mallet 
inscribed Distruction; he has a complacent expression. North kneels on 
the r. side of the bust directed to the r., frowning with an expression of 
angry distress. 

See also No. 6971, &c. For the relations of Fox and the Prince of Wales 
cf. Nos. 6231, &c., 6375, 6377, 6383, 6439, 6451, 6468, 6528, 6535, 6546, 
6585, 6593, 6771, 6772, 6782, 681 1, 6928, &c., 6974, 7162. See also prints 
on the Regency, No. 7377, &c. 


Pub^ Feby f 1784 by W. Humphrey N^ 227 Strand. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Pitt, as a naked infant 
seated on a circular shield inscribed Shield of Chatham, grasps by the neck 
twin serpents; one has the head of Fox (1.), the other that of North. Fox 
has an expression of contempt. North one of distress ; their bodies, the tips 
of which have been already cut off, extend (1.) from the shield intertwined, 
that of Fox being inscribed East India Bill, that of North, American War. 
Pitt, whose chubby childish face has no resemblance to that of the Minister, 
gazes straight before him, saying These were your Ministers. 

One of many satires on the struggle between Pitt and Fox before the 
dissolution of Parliament, see No. 6373, &c. 

Similar in intention and character to No. 6403. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 115. 
7lfXi2f in. 

DESTROYED [3 Feb. 1784]^ 


Engraving. Britannia, a massive giantess, has seized Fox in her r. hand, 

North in her 1., and is dashing them to destruction. She holds Fox above 

' So dated by Mr. Hawkins and Grego. 



her head by the r. ankle while she grasps North round the neck. Their open 
mouths and outstretched arms express terror. She is a draped figure, nude 
from the waist upwards, cut off below the knees by the margin of the print. 
Her shield and cap of Liberty on its staff are beside her (1.). A streaming 
cloak and freely sketched clouds add to the sense of rapid movement. 

Similar in intention and character to No. 6402. 

Reissued, History of the Westminster Election y p. 95. 

Grego, Rowlandsony i. 116 (reproduction). 


Pu¥ as y' Act directs Febv 6 1784 by B. Walwyn N"" 2 Pedlars Acre 
West' Bridge. 

Engraving. The king sits in a four-wheeled open car supported on clouds, 
hurling thunderbolts inscribed Thunder of Disolution^ at Fox, North, and 
Burke (1.) who are falling into an abyss from which flames arise. The king 
is in profile to the 1. wearing a crown; three other crowns fall from him 
after the dismissed Ministers, while a fourth, broken, and inscribed India^ 
has fallen from Fox's head. The car is propelled from behind by a chain of 
four nien who push each other's shoulders ; the foremost is Pitt, inscribed 
P, next is a man inscribed J"., poorly characterized and representing either 
Thurlow or Temple (who resigned 23 Dec. 1783). Next comes Richmond, 
inscribed R. ; Sydney, inscribed *S., is last. The chair is about to fall from 
its supporting clouds into the abyss ; its hind wheel is inscribed Mon Droit 
and four of its spokes are axes. 

George III, by the rash use of his prerogative of dissolution, seems about 
to follow the Coalition Ministry to disaster. At this time the Foxites were 
protesting against the Crown's prerogative of dissolution. Russell, Corr, of 
Fox, ii. 230; Pari. Hist. xxiv. 303, &c. See No. 6373, &c. 
9-1X13 1 in. 


Pu¥ as the act directs Febv 7 1784 by B. Walwyn N" 2 Pedlars Acr 
\sic\ WesV Bridge 

Engraving. George III on horseback, about to strike down a three-headed 
dragon, with the heads of Fox, North, and Burke, which is under the hoofs of 
his rearing horse. The monster has webbed wings with a serpent-like body, 
its tail is barbed, and from the mouth of each head issues a barbed dart. 

One of many satires on the fall of the Coalition, see No. 6399, ^^•> 
several directly indicating the popularity of the king's action, see Nos. 6285, 
6286, 6368, 6394, 6409, 6419, 6441, 6443, 6466, 6512, 6601. 
7jXiof in. 


B [Rowlandson.] 

Pu¥ Feby f^ 1784 by W. Humphrey AT^ 227 Strand. 

Engraving. Pitt (1.) and Fox (r.) stand facing each other in profile, each 
with his 1. leg raised, and looking up at the India House, upside-down in 



the air, which they are treating as a football. Pitt is slim and elegant; 
behind him on a reading-desk is an open volume inscribed Blackstone^ to 
show that Pitt (a barrister) had studied law. Behind Fox a table is partly 
visible showing dice-box and dice; at his feet are playing-cards. 

One of many satires on the contest between Pitt and Fox before the 
dissolution, see No. 6373, &c. For Fox's India Bill, see Nos. 6271, 6368, 
&c. Pitt's first India Bill was defeated on 23 Jan. by a majority of eight 
only, and Fox obtained leave to bring in a new India Bill. Cf . No. 6462 ; 
Pari. Hist. xxiv. 392 ff.; Rose, Pitt and National Revival^ pp. 162-3. 

Grego, Gillray^ i. 117. 


Second Sketch — Published Fehv 9.1 iy84 as the act directs by S Fores 
iV^ 3 Piccadilly 

Etching (coloured and uncoloured impressions). , Fox (1.) and North (r.), 
stripped to the waist, are engaged in a pugilistic encounter. Fox's torso is 
so hairy that it suggests the effect of tarring and feathering. They stand 
in profile with clenched fists. Fox's left being near North's nose ; both are 
fat, clumsy, and muscular. 

Above Fox's head is etched, 

Thiis let me wipe dishonor from my name^ 

And hurl thee from the earthy thou stain to goodness — 

Above North's, 

Perdition take thee, villainy for thy falshood! 
Now nothing but thy life can make atonement 

There was no foundation for the suggestion of antagonism between Fox 
and North. Cf. No. 6393. 

Other prints in this series are Nos. 6388, 6412. 



W, D. [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs, by J. Cattermouly N"* 3y6 Oxford Street, Feb. 
10*^ 1784, 

Engraving. Fox, as Cromwell, in a travesty of seventeenth-century dress, 
paints a picture of the execution of Charles I. The picture is supported 
at an angle on a table or stand and rests against the wall. Fox's palette is 
the base of a crown, his brush is a sceptre, the point of which he holds 
against the head of the prostrate king. 

The picture represents the king face downwards, six men standing 
behind him, one the headsman with an axe, another a man holding an open 
book. The background is the fa9ade of the Banqueting House. In the 
foreground are two symmetrical rows of flat circular hats representing the 
heads of spectators. The frame is inscribed Outlines and (below) Jaw. 30. 

Fox wears a cloak, slashed doublet and breeches, a high-crowned hat 

* For an unpublished print dated 9 Feb. see No. 8244. 


in which a large fox's brush takes the place of a feather ; this is inscribed 
The Man of Moderation. He stands in profile to the r., painting with a 
complacent expression. Behind him stands Justice (1.) with her sword 
(inscribed Justice) raised to strike. In her 1. hand she holds scales ; in the 
higher scale (r.) sits a fox, which is much outweighed by the other, inscribed 
Loyalty. She stands in front of a pillar inscribed Pro rege^ lege, grege. In 
the foreground, in front of Fox, lies a sword partly drawn from the 
scabbard, its blade inscribed Commonwealth. Against its hilt is propped 
an open book, Patriotism by C. Cromwell. A cat of demon-like appearance 
crouches towards the book. 

Another picture hangs above that on which he is working. It represents 
a fox (1.) standing on its hind legs and presenting a document inscribed 
Independence to America in the guise of an Indian brave (r.) ; it holds the 
cap of Liberty on a staff. Behind the fox is a setting sun; another (? rising) 
sun shines down upon the Indian ; both have faces. 

One of many satires representing Fox as Cromwell. See No. 6380, &c. 
For Fox and America cf. No. 5987. 

Pub Feby 12 1784 by 

Engraving. George III sits in a small rectangular enclosure or pound 
formed on three sides by horizontal rails, three corner-posts being serpents 
with the heads of Fox, North, and Burke. On each rail is the word 
Faction ; the body of Burke (1.) is inscribed Deceit^ of Fox, Ambitiony of 
North (r.). Envy; to the back of each neck is attached a pair of wings. The 
fourth side of the pound is a stone wall, on which is a sign with a hand 
pointing The way to the House of L . 

The king is seated in profile to the 1. on a pumpkin-shaped seat inscribed 
Preroga\tiv€\ ; he wears an ermine-trimmed robe but no crown. He says, 
/ will maintain my Dignity tho^ I have But Half a Crown left. At his feet lies 
a crown (half-obscured by Fox's serpentine tail) and a broken sceptre. The 
tails of Fox and North are knotted together; that of Burke touches that 
of Fox. 

In the background (r.) is Fox as a fox, walking on his hind legs and lead- 
ing a number of asses by a string attached to their noses. A signpost shows 
that they are going To oblivion. The asses say / am a representative and 
we are all trew members. This group, which is on a minute scale, is 
inscribed S^ Stephen's Plain. 

One of several satires indicating the popularity of the king's action in 
the defeat of the Coalition, see No. 6405, &c. 
7^5X11 in. (pi.). 

Published by E. Hedges N° g2 Cornhill, Febv 14^^ 1784 

Engraving. A witch seated beside her cauldron evokes the ghost of Crom- 
well, who rises from clouds (1.) wearing armour to look fiercely at Fox 
(r.) who stands horror-struck, hands held out, the hair rising on his head. 
The witch, a thin hag naked to the waist, in profile to the 1., points towards 
Cromwell, who has a fixed and angry scowl. Her cauldron is ornamented 
with a skull and grotesque masks. The background is shaded to indicate 



a dark cavern, a ghostly wind being suggested by the swirHng draperies and 
hair of the witch. The hght radiates from Cromwell and his armour, falling 
on the witch and Fox. 

One of many satires in which Fox is compared to Cromwell, see No. 
6380, &c. For the ghost of Cromwell see also No. 6006. 

6411 FRONTISPIECE. [16 Feb. 1784] 
Design' d at Brookes' s. Executed at S* James's Palace. 

Engraving. Frontispiece from 'The Beauties and Deformities of Fox, 
North, and Burke'. Fox, North, and Burke chain and blindfold the British 
Lion who wears a royal crown. Fox (1.) stoops to put the chain round his 
neck. North (c.) kneels placing a bandage over his eyes. Burke (r.) stands 
holding the chain, a key, and a padlock. In the background stands Pitt, 
holding the hand of Britannia who, contrary to custom, wears a feathered 
hat. Behind him the (rising) sun, half below the horizon, a face in its disk, 
sends out rays. 

One of many satires on the Coalition as usurping the prerogative of the 
Crown, cf. Nos. 6237, 6409. 

In the book (B.M.L. 12301. b. 14) this plate is pasted to a reduced copy 
of No. 6393, the whole forming a folding frontispiece. 
6iX4f in. 


Third Sketch — Published Feb^ 18. 1784 — as the act directs by S Fores 
N'' 3 Piccadilly. 

Engraving. Pitt stands in profile to the 1., leaning forward and stretching 
out his r. hand to take the hilt of an irradiated sword, which descends 
towards him from the upper 1. corner of the design, where are three heads 
of cherubs. Pitt's appearance is idealized; he has a profile of classical 
correctness, the attitude of a stage hero; his 1. hand is held backwards over 
a circular table on which lies a book inscribed Locke on the human Under- 
standing. On the wall behind this is a bust portrait of Chatham, wearing 
peer's robes and a tie-wig. On the 1. of the wall and behind the sword is 
an open sash-window, through which is seen a crowd of heads with a banner 
inscribed The Harmonic Society \ they are Pitt's opponents. 

As in the other prints of this series, the words of the speakers are etched 
in very small script over or beside the heads of the speakers The three 
cherubs address Pitt, the first saying, 

This sword of Justice take; 

And as thy Father uid ity so do thou 

Thy King and Country^ now, await thy strength. 

To crush the vipers that would ruin both. 

God save great George your King, 
The second, 

Long may he live and reign. 
The third, 

God save your King. 



Pitt says, 

Though I am ignorant in the ways of meny 

I yet can boast a heart, as free from guilt 

As any be, who e^er did wield this sword; 

And whilst a sinew nerv'st this arm of mine. 

Or whilst my veins run full with Chathams bloody 

ril save my Country y and my King with truth; 

And thus I take it — to support them both. 

The members of the 'Harmonic Society' outside the window are singing, 
their faces in profile to the r. and looking up at Pitt, except North who is 
full-face, with a fixed scowl. Faint dotted lines (confusedly) connect their 
words with their mouths. 

North sings, oh damn Pitt's limbs and eyes; Fox, who is next him, sings, 
O Nicky Nicky now arise; Keppel sings, O hear our call; Burke, wearing 
spectacles and a Jesuit's biretta (cf. No. 6026), sings. Take himy and *s poli- 
ticks. An almost hidden profile, which appears to belong to a mitre, 
probably that of Shipley, Bishop of St. Asaph, sings, That he mayn't see 
our tricks. An invisible speaker says. Give him infernal kicks. Behind (1.) 
are Lord John Cavendish and the Duke of Portland (wearing a coronet), 
who sings Or we must fall. Prominent in the foreground is Sheridan ; a 
large scroll attached to his neck hangs over the window-sill inside the room; 
it is inscribed : 

We'll ne'er get credit more 
If we've no place in store 

To fee a dun 
What will the People say 
When we are out of play 
And cant our Tradesmen pay 

Of we're undone. 
The members are requested to 
bring as many Friends as possible. 

A heavy tasselled curtain drapes the side of the window, and the 1. side 
of the design. 

One of many satires on the contest between Pitt and the late Coalition 
before the dissolution, see No. 6373, &c. Other plates in the series are 
Nos. 6388, 6407. For Pitt as Chatham's son see No. 5984. 


JS [Sayers.] 

Published 18^^ Febrv 1^84 by Jos' Bretherton 

Engraving. Thomas Powys, M.P. for Northamptonshire, walking in profile 
to the 1., carries on his shoulders a large rectangular bale, corded, and 
inscribed Landed Interest For M[^ Fo]x at Brookes' s By the Carrier from 
the S^ Alban's. He is very thin and lanky, his buttoned coat descending 
nearly to his ankles. Beneath the design is etched: 

To Pitt by Friendship I am tied 

Yet always with his Foes divide 

Wou'd make this Son of England's Glory 

A creature neither Whig nor Tory 



Wou'd have him quit his high Condition^ 
To grovel in a Coalition, 
Perswade him that a Tavern Vote 
Shou'd make a Premier change his Note 
{A vote from coalescing Embers 
of Faction, more than County Members) 
Thus make this persevering Elf 
As inconsistent as myself. 

Powys was regarded as the mouthpiece of the independent county 
members, see No. 5990. He took a leading part in Jan.-Feb. 1784 in the 
endeavour to effect a coahtion between Pitt and Fox, the first step being 
a meeting (26 Jan.), at the St. Alban*s Tavern, of members 'distinguished 
for high character, large property, and acknowledged uprightness of inten- 
tion', Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iii. 278-80. They appointed a committee 
and opened negotiations with Pitt and Portland, which continued inter- 
mittently till I March. Ann. Reg., 1784-5, pp. 265-72; Pari. Hist. xxiv. 
450-1 ; Russell, Corr. of Fox, ii. 233 ff.; Rose, Pitt and National Revival, 
pp. 164-6. See also Nos. 6437, 6438, 6457, 6459, 6581, 6618. 


Published by E. Hedges A^" g2 Cornhill Febv 19*^ 1784 

Engraving. The Devil is about to hang a monster with the heads of Fox 
and North. This creature, with the body and wings of a goose and the 
legs of a man, has the head of Fox, while on the back of the 1. thigh is the 
head of North. The scene is outside the gateway of the TREASUR Y, sup- 
ported by Corinthian colunms. Fox stretches out his goose's neck towards 
the Treasury, saying, 77/ stretch my long Neck and get in if I can. The King, 
wearing a crown, leans out of a window immediately over the gateway, 
saying. Curse on those who would ruin their Country and King. 

A gallows stands in front of the gateway. Fox is thrusting his neck 
through it in his efforts to reach the Treasury, but a noose, of which he 
seems unaware, is round his neck ; the cord from it passes over the gallows 
and is held by the Devil, who says, answering the King, / zvill, says Old 
Nick, for they are now in the string. He is a satyr, powerfully built, with 
horns, a beard, and a barbed tail. North, whose head is turned r., looking 

away from Fox, says, / am d d that I e^er coelig'd with this man. His 

face expresses horror, while that of Fox is complacent. A row of buildings 
(r.), at r. angles with the treasury, forms a background. 

An illustration of the (misplaced) confidence of Fox in his speedy defeat 
of Pitt. Cf. Russell, Memorials & Corr. of Fox, 1853, ii. 227. For the 
contest in Parliament see No. 6373, &c. For the part taken by the king 
cf. No. 6405, &c. 


Pu¥ Febv 20*^ 1784, by E. Darchery S^ James's Street. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). On an oblong cloth- 
covered table are the heads of Burke (1.), North (c), and Fox (r.). In front 
of the table is a block and a headsman's axe, above which are the words 



Pro bono Publico. Behind the table, framed by lines which appear to repre- 
sent the back of a chair, stands the Chancellor (Thurlow) in profile to the 
r., saying, Is it your Lordships opinion that these Heads be now Committed 
to the Polls on Temple Bar? The Ayes have it 

A satire on the struggle between Fox and the Ministry over a dissolution, 
and especially on Fox's attempt to postpone the Mutiny Bill, see Pari. Hist. 
xxiv. 719 if. See No. 6373, &c. See also No. 8244. 


SB [Gillray.] 

London Published as the Act Directs; by G Humphrey N'^ 48 Long Acre. 
London. 20 Feb 1784. 

A reissue of No. 6319 with an altered imprint. Coloured impression. 


Annibal Scratch delin. & sculp. [PCollings.] 

Pu¥forJo'' Cook Fleet Street, Feb 21'^ 1784 

Engraving. The interior of a latrine up to which leads a flight of stairs (r.) 
indicated by a balustrade inscribed Back Stair. The king is seated on a 
long seat inscribed Treasury; he turns his head in profile to the r. to greet 
Temple and Pitt who have just entered by the back stair. He says to them 
iS * * * * thou on my right hand until I have made thine Enemies thy Foot- 
stooly waving them towards a vacant seat on his r. hand. In his 1. hand, 
on the floor, and on the seat beside him are papers inscribed respectively 
Resoluti[or{\ of Parlm^ Resolution of y^ CommonSy Commons Resolution, 
Commons Address. Above the vacant seat is pasted a H.L. portrait, the head 
torn off", inscribed Lord Chatham. 

Temple, with a smile, introduces Pitt to the king, holding him by the 
lapel of his coat; in his 1. hand is the dark lantern of a conspirator. Pitt 
stands shyly hesitating at the top of the stairs, watching the king dubiously, 
his 1. hand in his waistcoat pocket, a finger in his mouth (as in Nos. 6425, 
6445). On Temple's head is a circular temple ; he wears a long cloak, con- 
fined at the waist by a belt inscribed Secret Influence (the second word 
indicated only). From the back of his neck hangs down below his waist a 
miniature ladder, indicating the secret means by which he has gained 
access to the king. He looks towards the king with a triumphant smile. 

Beneath the design is inscribed : 

The fate of Publick Spirit and the stink 
Of that corrupted Cause whose secret powW 
Brought * * * * [Pitt] into the State, and all his mob 
With loss of Honours 'till one greater man 
Regain them and restore the public trust. 
Sing Patriot Muse! Milt. 

A satire on the message from the king to the Lords given by Temple 
(17 Dec. 1783), and the first of many satires on the 'back stairs' by which 
Pitt achieved office. 'Secret influence' was the subject of several prints by 

33 » 



the same artist, see Nos. 6425, 6438, 6445. See also Nos. 6370, 6385, 6387, 
6418, 6436, 6444, 6464, 6492, 6515, 6564, &c., 6587, 6603, 6801. Cf, No. 
6373, &c. 

HOUNDS 1784 [c. Feb. 1784] 

[J. Kay.] 

Engraving. The King (1.) stands, arms extended, a trowel in his r. hand, 
watching a fox immediately in front of him which is leaping across a pit, 
representing Pitt, and chasing the king's hounds (r.); he shouts My 
hounds, my Pit! my Temple! The fox (Charles Fox) has a ribbon across his 
body inscribed Liberty. His leap has shattered a small rectangular temple 
(1.) with Ionic columns, inscribed Temple of Secret influence. Within the 
temple hangs the lantern which symbolizes the conspiratorial influence of 
Temple, see No. 6438. Similar lanterns hang from the collars of the king's 
hounds who represent the Ministers. Another lantern, on which the fox 
is urinating, is within the pit. A spade, which appears to have been just 
dropped by the startled king, falls into the pit, which is inscribed Vanity 
pit. In the fox's mouth is a garment, perhaps just torn from one of the 
king's hounds, which turns its head to snarl; it wears a judge's wig and is 
probably intended for Thurlow. Two of the pack are coupled with a chain, 
one lies on its back on the edge of the pit, overthrown by Fox. On a 
raised and sloping platform, inscribed Treasurery [«c] Benchy close to the 
pit, four hounds, on a smaller scale than the others, instead of fleeing before 
the fox, stand barking at him. A bird flies (1. to r.) above the dogs ; a label 
issuing from its mouth is inscribed Coalition^ infamous Coalition. 

By the fox's forelegs is the base of a falling pillar which he has overthrown 
in his leaping chase and which had stood in the pit ; it is inscribed [Monu- 
ment] to Eastern Tyranny. The figure of a naked man inscribed Injustice 
falls from its summit ; he holds a sword in his 1. hand, in his r. is a pair of un- 
even scales, in one of which he puts his 1. foot. The capital of the pillar is 
decorated with a sword and a club crossed ; a lantern hangs from it by a rope. 

On the extreme 1. the profile and hand of Lord North appear; he holds 
a flag inscribed Boreas and blows a blast which propels the fox on his chase 
after the hounds. The king wears a crown and the star of the Garter. 

This plate was probably etched when the supporters of Fox and North 
were confident that they would shortly overthrow Pitt's Ministry, based, 
as they maintained, on the secret manoeuvres of Temple and the vanity of 
Pitt, and relying on the parrot-cry of 'infamous Coalition' (see Nos. 6176-9, 
&c.). For the contest see No. 6373, &c., for 'secret influence' No. 6417, &c. 

Collection, No. 38. 


Feby 23, 1784, Pub. by W, Wells, N" 132 Opposite Salisbury Court, 
Fleet Street. 

Engraving. George III, as Jove, holds a sheaf of thunderbolts and has just 
hurled Fox from the clouds into an abyss in which are Burke, Lord John 



Cavendish, and North. The king and his Ministers stand among clouds; 
he wears classical draperies and a crown inscribed Prerogative. An eagle 
stretches its head angrily towards the falling Fox. 

Immediately above Fox stands Pitt wearing a laurel wreath, the centre 
of a glory of rays, his arms outstretched in the attitude of an orator. 
Between Pitt and the king, his 1. hand on Pitt's shoulder, stands Barre, to 
whom Pitt had recently given the clerkship of the Pells, instead of keeping 
it for himself, in lieu of Barre's unpopular pension (see No. 6028), thereby 
acquiring much credit. On the king's r., directing his actions, stands 
Thurlow, in wig and gown. These are the most prominent of the gods in 
the clouds. On each side of Thurlow is a head: one (1.) probably Lord 
Carmarthen and the other (r.) Sydney (Secretaries of State). On the r. (on 
Pitt's I.) is an elderly clergyman, possibly Dean Tucker, and on the extreme 
r. the Duke of Richmond in profile to the 1. 

Fox, falling through the air, is about to join his colleagues below; from 
his 1. hand drops an axe inscribed Faction. Burke (1.), dressed as a Jesuit 
(cf . No. 6026), stands in profile to the r., grasping a rock to which is attached 
a chain. He is being pushed forward by a grinning demon who kneels 
behind him. Lord John Cavendish crouches on the ground grasping 
Burke's rock; under his 1. hand are papers inscribed East India Bill (see 
No. 6271, &c.), Receipt Tax (see No. 6243, &c.). North (r.) kneels grasping 
a large rock with both hands. 

Beneath the design is inscribed : 

First Typhon strove more daring than the resty 
With impious hands the imperial bolts to wrest: 
Him and his Crew the red right arm ofjove, 
Doivn to their native Hell irtdignant drove. 

One of many satires on the contest between Pitt and Fox before the 
dissolution, see No. 6373, &c. For the popularity of the king's intervention 
cf. No. 6405, &c. Cf. No. 6287 (10). 


[? Barrow.] 

Pu¥ by J. Barrow Feb 23 1784, White Lion Bull stairs Surrey side 

Engraving. Fox stands in the attitude of an orator, r. arm raised, 1. arm 
by his side, fists clenched, mouth open, looking upwards. He faces slightly 
to the 1. (cf . No. 6054). From his mouth issue the words : 

That I afn called The man of the People is well known^ and is as equally 
just — I am resolved to support their voices^ rights^ atid Liberties. As I am not 
able to do this by being only a Pratesman^ it is requisite that I be made a 
Statesman^ and indeed placed in the Treasury to be a close guard of the 
Peoples Treasure. The justness of ?ny claim to this honour isy my beings The 
man of the People. Till this Justice and honour is done me, and this essential 
service is done the People, my Opponents may expect Researches, Motions and 
Harangues, for I am determined with my Jaw to knock-down all before me. 

The background is a panelled room and boarded floor, the lines neatly 


Beneath the design six verses are engraved, the first and last being : 

1. Some conquer by swords. 

And some by soft words. 
And others by Querks of the Law; 

But this is the Man, 

That carries his plan. 
And all by the power of his Jaw, 

6. The new Ministration, 

He fills with Vexation, 
Both Pitt and the Lord of the Law, 

He*ll work them about. 

Till he works them all out, 
And works himself in with his Jaw. 

One of many satires on the contest between Pitt and Fox before the 
dissolution, see No. 6373, &c. Cf. No. 6479. 

Subject, iox7|in.; including title and verses 14JX7I in. 


{c, Feb. 1784] 
Pu¥ as the Act directs 

Engraving. Fox stands at the open first-floor window in the central bay 
of the tavern, addressing a crowd which is indicated by a few upturned 
heads. He holds out his 1. arm and looks to his r. Beneath the window are 
the words The King's Arms Tavern,^ and on the 1. side of the bay, Coulson. 
A meeting of Westminster electors was held on 14 Feb. in Westminster 
Hall, to consider an address to the king thanking him for the dismissal of 
the Coalition Ministry. Fox and Sir Cecil Wray competed for the chair, 
the Foxites being in a clear minority. The platform broke, Fox fell, and 
in the confusion a bag of evil-smelling powder was flung in his face. He 
was shouted down with cries of *No Coalition*, *No Dictator*, and he and 
his supporters were driven from the hall. Resolutions moved by Dr. Jebb 
were passed against the Coalition, in favour of parliamentary reform and 
in favour of Wray's candidature. The Foxites went to the King's Arms, 
where Fox harangued the crowd and was afterwards drawn in his coach 
by his supporters past Carlton House to Devonshire House, where he 
again made a speech. For the importance attached to the occasion see 
Disney, Life of Jebb, 1787, i. 191 ff.; Hist. MSS. Comm., Abergavenny 
MSS., p. 66. See also Pari, Hist. xxiv. 664 ff.; A full Account of the Whole 
Proceedings in Westminster Hall, 1784 (B.M.L. 8132. d. 64); Book of the 
Wars of Westminster, 1784; Westminster Election, pp. 60-4; E. Stanhope 
and Gooch, Life of Charles third Earl Stanhope, 19 14, pp. 58-9; and Nos. 
6422, 6423, 6426, &c. 


* Cf. Morning Post, 16 Feb. 1784: *We often find that those persons whom we 
most affect to despise, are frequently the means of doing us the most essential 
services, witness the frequent illiberal abuse plentifully bestowed by Carlo Khan 
on the Crown: yet Saturday last, in his disgraceful retreat from Westminster Hall he 
found his only security in the King's Arms.* 





WD, [Dent,] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs, by J, Cattei'mouly N"" 3y6y Oxford Street y 
Febv 24^^y 17S4, 

Engraving. The facade of the King's Arms tavern in Palace Yard, from 

the central first-floor bow- window of which Fox, a fox with a human head, \/ 

addresses the electors of Westminster, who are geese with human heads 

(cf. No. 5843, &c.). Fox's more prominent supporters, also as geese, look 

from the windows. (For this incident see No. 6421, &c.) Above the window 

is an escutcheon with the arms of Fox reversed, surmounted by a royal crown 

on which sits a fox with Fox's head. The supporters are : dexter, a fox with 

the head of Burke, its brush inscribed Old Nick; sinister, a fox with the 

head of North, its brush inscribed Old Fox. It has the family motto Faire 

sans Dire (used by Fox on his book-plates). On the window beneath is 

inscribed Young F 's Arms, Beneath the window the words King*s 

Arms have been scored through and Westminster Hall substituted. The 
name Coulson is on each side of the central bay. 

Fox says, Gentlemen^ Electors , for heaven's sake! recollect that some of the 
present men supported the American War ; but do not recollect that my now 
dear Coalition Friend was the Author and conductor of that accursed war — . 
(Fox, as reported in the Press, said, inter alia, 'Gentlemen, I need not 
tell you that the present Administration were the greatest enemies to the 

reform of abuses, nor that they supported the American War *, Hist, 

of the Westminster Electiony p. 62, &c.) 

Five heads on the long necks of geese surround Fox at his central 
window; next him is Keppel, with a scowl. In the adjacent windows are 
similar heads, all much caricatured. Lord Derby, grinning, says No back 
stairs (cf. No. 6417). 

From two windows on the second floor, which flank Fox's coat of arms, 
more heads emerge. One of three heads in the 1. window says, The Man 
of the People for ever. In the r. window are the Prince of Wales and Mrs. 
Robinson (Perdita) ; she leans out, he puts a webbed foot on her neck. 

The ground-floor windows are also crowded with human geese and 
partly obscured by the geese in the street outside. Sam House looks from 
the central window shouting, Huzza huzza. Outside the window is a coach 
without horses, on the box of which stands a goose with the head of the 
Earl of Surrey. It is ready for the procession to Devonshire House, see 
No . 642 1 . On the roof stands Jeff^ery Dunstan, saying, Old Wigs and Charley 
for ever and a fig for Charters; his accustomed bag is thrown over his back 
and inscribed Poison Bag (cf. No. 6425). Another goose, perhaps Sheridan, 
leans out of the coach window. 

In the foreground two processions of geese meet; the one advancing 
from the 1. is headed by a goose with a club, wearing a hat and spectacles, 
saying No secret influence. He is Hall the apothecary. He is faced by the 
leader of the other procession, holding a flag with a bust portrait of Crom- 
well, inscribed Fox for Ever, the staff surmounted by the cap of Liberty. 

The heads, which are much caricatured, are probably all portraits. 
Fox's committee for the occasion consisted of Mr. Byron, Mr. Byng, 
Mr. Burke, Mr. Sheridan, General Burgoyne, Lord Derby, Lord Surrey, 
Lord Foley, Colonel Fitzpatrick, and others. The address was left for 



signature at 'M"" House's, Pall-mall; M*" Hall's Long Acre; M"" Chaplin's 
Bridges-street . . . and M^ Debrett's, Bookseller, Piccadilly'. History of the 
Westminster Election^ 1784, pp. 60, 66. 

For Fox as Cromwell see No. 6380, &c. 
12^X9! in. 

ARMS TAVERN FERY 14, 1784 \c. Feb. 1784] 

Engraving. Headed by frontispiece, showing that it is taken from one of 
the many pamphlets issued in connexion with the struggle between Pitt 
and Fox. Another representation of the scene in Palace Yard, see No. 
6421, &c. The fa9ade of the tavern fills the greater part of the design, show- 
ing a central bow, surmounted by the royal arms, and four stories with sash- 
windows, all blank, except for the head and shoulders of Fox, larger than 
life, addressing a crowd beneath. In the foreground are full-length figures 
looking up at Fox. They include Sam House (r.) in his accustomed dress, 
Jeffery Dunstan, with his bag over his shoulder, a lamplighter with an oil- 
can and a long ladder; a carter in a ragged coat holding a whip; a sweep with 
soot-bag and brushes; a mechanic wearing an apron; a butcher with a club ; 
and a man with a box slung round his shoulders, who may be a rat-catcher. 
Between these men and the railings of the tavern is a dense crowd indicated by 
a sea of heads. The bias of the print is shown by the character of the mob. 

Published by E Hedges iV" 92 Cornhill Febv 25'* 1^84. 

/ Engraving. Fox, as Harlequin, and North, as Pantaloon, performing on 
y a stage. Looking up at them from the pit are members of their party, while 

from the stage-box (1.) they are watched by the Prince of Wales and Mrs. 
Robinson (Perdita). After the title is etched a small fox running off with 
a goose (cf. No. 5843, &c.). Fox (1.) stands with one leg raised, his wooden 
sword held over a bust of George III which is on a rectangular pedestal 
ornamented with the royal arms. Above the bust a crown and sceptre are 
suspended, attached to a small balloon whose apex is concealed by the 
festooned curtain which extends across the upper part of the design. Fox's 
r. foot rests upon a document; his back is turned to North, but he covertly 
passes to him a paper inscribed Prerogative. 

North (r.) stands, full face, close to Fox; he is a large bird with human 
head and feet, but with wings for arms, his Garter ribbon across his breast. 
Both Fox and North have a fixed smile, but their brows have an anxious 

The stage is a narrow rectangular room; the curtain has the usual orna- 
ment inscribed Veluti in Speculum. On the back wall is a framed H.L. 
portrait of Cromwell in profile to the 1. On the r. wall is a map of the 
Independent States of America. 

The front row in the pit look up with pleased amusement and are in 
profile or profit perdu except a man on the extreme r. whose back is to the 
stage; he says O Tempora O Mores. The others (1. to r.), most of them 
saying encore, are Lord Surrey, Keppel, Stormont, Carlisle, Portland, Lord 
John Cavendish, Burke. The second row are in back view. The Prince 
of Wales says Bravo ^ Bravo. 



One of many satires on the Coalition : they stage an attack on the king 
for his use of the prerogative (cf. No. 6405), which Fox, as Cromwell (see 
No. 6380, &c.) wishes to usurp, while North is pilloried for the loss of 
America, cf. No. 6441. For Fox as Harlequin cf. No. 6498. 

Also a coloured impression with the imprint burnished out. 


An^ Scratch d [? Ceilings.] 

Puh, Feb. 26. iy84, by W. Wells, N^ 132 Fleet Street, 

Engraving. Pitt, riding a rocking-horse, is confronted by the padlocked 
door of the Treasury (r.), inscribed Thus far and no further, while its two 
leaves are fastened by four enormous padlocks, each inscribed Resolv'd. 
Pitt's horse is a spirited, realistically drawn animal, despite its rockers, 
which are inscribed Despotism and Aristocracy. The rein is inscribed Jure 
divino. Pitt is very young, holding his finger to his mouth as in No. 6417. 
He holds a whip whose lash is inscribed Prerogative, the word being 
followed by Pro me issuing from his mouth. Under his r. arm is a book 
inscribed Royal Primer, From his posteriors a blast inscribed My Honor 
is directed against Fox, who stands behind the horse's hind legs, a large 
scroll inscribed Pro Patria issuing from his mouth, and holding a birch- 
rod inscribed Unanimity, Beneath the design is etched : 

Ye tinsel Insects whom a Court maintains. 

That count your beauties only by your stains. 

Spin all your Cobwebs o'er the eye of day! 

The Patriot's hand shall brush you all away ; 

All that his Grace may preach, their Lordships sing, 

To make a Saint of P a God the ; 

All, all but Truth drops dead born from the press. 

Like the last Gazette or the last Address. 

One of many satires on the contest between Pitt and Fox before the 
dissolution of Parliament, see No. 6373, &c. The 'Resolutions' which 
padlock the Treasury are those moved by Fox and others on 12 Jan., &c., 
to obstruct and dislodge the Ministry by preventing the issue of money. 
Russell, Corr. of Fox, ii. 228, see also No. 6380, &c. *My Honor' appears 
to be an allusion to Pitt's speech of 20 Feb. refusing to resign as a pre- 
liminary to a coalition with Fox, in which he said *my own honour and 
reputation I never will resign'. Pari. Hist. xxiv. 661. One of a sequence 
of prints by the same artist, see No. 6417, &c. 
8JX13 in. 


JS.f [Bayers.] 

Published the 2f^ Febv 1^84 by Thomas Cornell Bruton Street 

Engraving. A bust portrait of Fox sneezing violently. In the lower I. 
corner of the design an open bag, partly cut off by the margin of the print, 
falls to the ground, inscribed Cabinet Bag for 1783, The ingredients of 



the sneeze are indicated by words radiating from Fox's face : Euphorhiiiniy 
Coalitioriy Capsicum, Receipt Tax, India Bill, Violation of Charters, Crotn- 
welVs Ambition, Cataline's Abilities, Damiens Loyalty, Machiavels Politics, 
Beneath Fox is etched : 

Whereas some d d Rogues have been guilty of Treason 

In making me sneeze when I wanted to reason 

And whereas it appears upon Analization 

That this Bag's vile Contents wou'd have poisoned a Nation 

And whereas tho' the Scheme has for once been defeated 

The Dose may at some future Time be repeated 

I conjure my Constituents wherever they be 

To take Care of themselves, and be careful of me. 

During the struggle in Westminster Hall on 14 Feb. between the 
supporters of Fox and Wray for the possession of the hustings, a man 
threw in Fox's face a leather bag, supposed at first to contain assafoetida, 
which proved to be euphorbium. Hist, of the Westminster Elections, p. 61. 
Fox was shouted down: *No Grand Mogul! No India Tyrant! No 
Usurper! No Turncoat! No Traitor! No Dictator! No Cataline!' Pari. 
Hist. xxiv. 666. See Nos. 6421, &c., 6432, 6437, 6465, 6481, 6627. For the 
Receipt Tax, see No. 6244, &c.; for the India Bill, No. 6368, &c.; for 
Fox as India Tyrant, see No. 6276, &c.; as Cromwell, No. 6380, &c.; 
as Catiline, No. 6784, &c. 



AnniU' Scratch de [? Collings.] 

Puh. Feb. 2y. 1784. by W. Wells N'' 132. Fleet Street. 

Engraving. The rat-catcher sits in the doorway of a bare, ramshackle room, 
on the floor of which are large steel traps and rats, some already caught. 
He is John Robinson, Secretary to the Treasury under North, who 
managed elections for the Government, issuing the money from the 
Treasury. The rats have human bodies with rat's heads, and crawl over 
the floor on their hands and knees. One rat is caught by the arm in a trap 
inscribed Buck Hounds, though the place of Master of the Buck Hounds 
had disappeared with the passing of Burke's Bill of Economical Reform. 
In the foreground a rat in naval uniform is caught by the tail in a trap 
inscribed Baronet', he is crawling towards another trap. Seat in y^ new 
ParlK The three other rats are advancing to traps inscribed respectively, 
Private Pension, Peerage, Place 1000 a Y^. 

On the wall hangs a torn and unframed portrait completely covered by 
an enormous cobweb, inscribed William 5^. In contrast to this is a framed 
W.L. portrait of Charles I, his head irradiated, inscribed Sanct. Carol. Pri. 
Next it (r.) hangs a ragged document inscribed Magfia Chart[a] In fine 
preservation. Over the door (1.) the lower part of a portrait inscribed 
Robinson Crusoe is visible, showing the identity of Robinson who sits 
beneath it. Beneath the design is inscribed : 

Thus when Renegado sees a Rat 

In the traps in the morning taken 

With pleasure he goes Master Pit_ to pat 

And swears he will save his Bacon 



For the part taken by Robinson in giving evidence to Pitt to convince 
him that a majority could be secured, and in the plans for the elections 
to be held in 1784, see Parliamentary Papers of John Robinson^ 1^^4-1^84^ 
ed. W. T. Laprade, 1922. Robinson's former post as Treasury Secretary 
was then held by George Rose, who had succeeded Sheridan on the fall 
of the Coalition. 

Those who left the Opposition to vote with the Ministry before the 
dissolution of 24 March were known as 'Robinson's rats'. On 10 Feb. the 
Morning Post printed across two columns a woodcut of six rats, beneath 
which was * J^ck Robinson' as the heading to a list of twenty-three names, 
printed in full, without comment. This was perhaps the inspiration of this 
print, as well as of the more famous one by Rowlandson, see No. 6431. 
See also Nos. 6428, 6485, 6603, 6775. For the Treasury rat-catcher cf. 
No. 5099 (1773). 


Pu¥ as the Act directs Febv 28, 1784 by W. Humphrey 227, Strand. 

Engraving. Fox and North, as fox and badger with human heads, chase 
(1. to r.) five hounds, behind whom runs John Robinson, who looks round 
with a face of distress at his pursuers. Round his shoulders is slung a rat- 
trap, and his coat is inscribed Rat Catcher. In front of him and among the 
hounds run three rats, much smaller in size than the dogs. The collar of 
the' dog immediately in front of Fox is inscribed W.P. [Pitt]. Fox says, 
Perdition catch such Vermin. Behind the fox and badger runs Burke, wear- 
ing a Jesuit's biretta (cf. No. 6026) and blowing a horn. The ground 
between pursuers and pursued is inscribed Field of Contention. 

In the middle distance is a square building resembling the Treasury, 
and inscribed S* Stephens Kennell. Behind it on a hill is a circular temple, 
sending out rays, probably intended for the temple of Fame, as in No. 6400. 

Though a satire on 'Robinson's rats', see No. 6427, &c., it is unfriendly 
to the Coalition, cf. No. 6400 (by the same artist). For Fox and North as 
fox and badger see Nos. 6176, 6369, 6518. 
^^X 13 in. 


[? J. Barrow.] 

Pu¥ by J. Barrow Febv 28. 1784. White Lion Bull Stairs. Surry side 
Black Friars Bridge. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Seven nude men swim, in a broad river 
between flat grass banks, after a duck (1.) which is saying, How these hungry 
Whelps Strive for me. The heads are poorly characterized and only two, 
Fox and North, can be identified with certainty. A judge's wig on the 
bank (r.) appears to belong to a man with a bald head who is swimming 
beside it, perhaps intended for Lord Loughborough, who lost the post of 
First Commissioner of the Great Seal on the fall of the Coalition. 

A satire on the efforts of the Coalition to regain office; see No. 6373, &c. 
Duck-hunting by spaniels was then a favourite plebeian sport. 



STATESMAN, [? c. Feb. 1784] 

Engraving. The Devil (1.), with mallet and chisel, stands beside a realistic 
bust of Fox inscribed Discord. The Devil, who has a human face, horns, 
pointed ears, a satyr*s legs, and a barbed tail, says. He has a Tongue that 
shall Weedle zvith any Devil. Beneath the title is engraved : 

Sure informing thee^ this Devil takes unusual Care 

As its own Darling he Designs the Bare, 

And forms thee^ by the Prince of Darkness. 
Cf. No. 6383, &c. 




Pu¥ by W. Humphrey N° 22J Strand. 

Engraving. Robinson (see No. 6427), on his hands and knees, catches rats 
in a ramshackle room, his rat-traps on his back. The rats have human faces. 
A doorway (1.) is inscribed Treasury \ rats are grouped near it. A placard 
is pinned on the wall inscribed : 

J ck R n Rat Catcher to Great Brittain. Vermin preserved. 

Rats of Note 

Sr S G n H H n 

F C / S G n 

J C n A r 

L C X W C r 

S D s R y 

E D g C T r 

W D n H e 

p r s D n 

M y E r. 

A G n 

F r 

C G d. 

M n 

These names are taken from a list in the Morning Post, 10 Feb. 1874, 
which gives them in full : 'Sir Sampson Gideon, Lord Frederick Campbell, 
Sir James Cockburn, M^ Le Cox, M'" S. Daws, Sir Edward Dering, Sir 
William Dolben, M'' Fludyer, General Murray, M^ [i.e. Lord] Adam 
Gordon, M^ Frazer, Sir Charles Gould, M'"Masterman, Sir H. Hoghton, 
Sir S. Griffin, Sir Geo. Osborne, M'" Ambler, M^ William Chaytor, M"* 
Rodney, M^ C^ Taylor, Lord Hinchinbroke, M^ S. Dutton, M"" Ewer.' 
One name only is omitted by Rowlandson, that of Sir George Osborne.' 

Robinson, with a cunning leer, holds out a paper inscribed Pension to a 
spectacled rat; other rats look on with interest. Round his waist is a belt 

^ The constituencies of these M.P.s are easily found in The Royal Kalendar for 
1784, and they can be compared with Robinson's notes on the state of the con- 
stituencies which he prepared for the election of 1784. Parliamentary Papers of 
John Robinson, ed. W. T. Laprade, 1922, pp. 66-106. 



inscribed Cestus of Corruption to which money-bags are attached. The 
trap or cage on his back is baited with a miniature coronet and a paper 
inscribed Places. Inside it are two rats; another is climbing up towards 
the trap, saying, We'llFerrett them out; these three are ordinary rats without 
human faces, and smaller than the others. The floor is strewn with 
guineas. On a shelf (r.) is another trap, one rat inside it, another about to 

Fox's dwindling majority is attributed to the corruption managed by the 
late Treasury Secretary. See Nos. 6427, 6428. 

Reissued, Westminster Election, p. 283 ; the date has been added to the 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 118 (reproduction). Reproduced, Grcgo, Hist, of 
Parliamentary Elections , 1892, p. 265. 


Publishd March r^ 17S4 as the Act directs by S. Fores N" 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving. North and Burke kneel in profile to the 1., in an attitude of 
prayer, beneath a gallows (1.) from which hangs Fox, his eyes bandaged. 
North says. We have left undone those things we ought to have done and done 
those things we ought not to have done; Burke, dressed as a Jesuit (cf. No. 
6026), says, and there is no help for us. 

Fox's hands are behind him; an attached label is inscribed East India 
Bill (see No. 6271, &c.). Two spectators stand near the gallows; one says, 
Huzza! what the Poison Bag could not effect the Halter has; the other points 
at Fox. 

For the Toison Bag' see No. 6426, &c. For a similar satire on the fall 
of the Coalition see No. 6287 (9). For Fox as Cromwell see No. 6380, &c. 

6433 FORTis. 
[J. Boyne.] 

London Pu¥ March 2 1^84 by E Hedges N g2 Cornhill 

Engraving. Pitt, in Roman armour, ascends a hill (r. to 1.) looking round, 
with an air of triumph, over his 1. shoulder. He holds a drawn sabre above 
his head; on his 1. arm is an oval shield on which is the head of Chatham. 
His cloak flies out behind him. He is a burly figure with little resemblance 
to Pitt. 

A companion print to No. 6395, &c. For Pitt as Chatham's son cf. 
No. 5984. 


Published As the Act Directs. March 2^ iy84 by S. Fores. N: 3 Picca- 

Engraving, partly aquatinted. Fox as Don Quixote, advances against a 
windmill (r.). The sails are affixed to a building inscribed Treasurey; in 



their centre is the head of Pitt, irradiated, in profile to the 1. North as 
Sancho (1.) stands timorously behind Fox, saying, It is the Most Perilous 
Adventure your Worship Ever Engaged in. Fox says, / tell the [sic\ Sancho 
I will Stop his Supplies. He is in armour with shield and spear and wearing 
the barber*s basin as a helmet. A landscape is indicated as the background. 

For Fox's attempts to stop supplies see No. 6380, &c. 
7j^Xiof in. 



Fourth Sketch Published as the act directs March 2 1784 by S. Fores 
N° J Piccadilly — a Companion to this in a few days 

Engraving. Design in an oval. A W.L. portrait of Montgolfier directed 
to the r., seated on and among clouds. In his r. hand he holds a long clay 
pipe, from which soap-bubbles are ascending; he points with his 1. hand 
to the largest and highest of the bubbles. He says, the words etched across 
the clouds below his feet: 

O by gar! dis be de grande invention — Dis will immortalize my King^ my 
Country^ and myself; We will declare de War against our ennemi; we will 
make des English quake ^ by gar: We will inspect their Campy we will intercept 
their Fleet , and we will set fire to their Dock-yards: And by gar, we will take 
de Gibraltar in de air balloon, and when we have Conquered d'Eenglish, den 
we conquer d^ other Countrie, and make them all colonic to de Grand Monarque. 

The (unsuccessful) launching of a 'grand aerostatic machine' on 19 Jan. 
at Lyons, in which Jacques-fitienne Montgolfier and others ascended, 
caused great excitement. London Magazine, 1784, pp. 147, 203. Cf. Nos. 
6333, 6709, 6710, also satires on the military use of balloons. 

Reproduced, Grand-Carteret et Belteil, La ConquSte de Pair, 1910, p. 99. 


Pu¥ March 3^ 1784 by W Humphrey N" 227, Strand. 

Engraving. George HI as Friar Bacon, the necromancer of popular fable, 
stands beside the 'brazen head', a bust full-face, on a high pedestal, which 
forms the centre of the design. He stands (1.) wearing a hooded cloak over 
his ribbon and star, turning his head in profile to the r.; in each hand he 
holds a wand, which points to the visions he has evoked. These are con- 
tained in two of three circles, which fill the upper part of the design, each 
bordered by the word Constitution and each showing the Constitution at 
different periods. From the mouth of the brazen head issue three labels, 
each attached to one of the three circles, inscribed Time is past (1.), Time is 
(c), and Time was (r.). 

The first shows the king seated on his throne and surrounded by a glory 
of rays, which fill the whole circle. Two small circles of equal size impinge 
on its circumference, one inscribed balloons, the other Air balloons, they 
contain, on a minute scale, scenes which represent the interior of the two 
Houses of Parliament. This appears to represent an early stage of the 



Constitution when the Crown was all-important, and Parliament in embryo 

The next circle, present day, contains three circles of diminishing size ; 
in the largest is the king on his throne, in the next is a scene in the House 
of Lords; in the smallest is a scene in the House of Commons. 

The king points with one wand to the House of Commons in the second 
circle, with the other to the king in the first circle, saying, What is this To 
ThiSy showing that he desires an unlimited monarchy, to which Parliament 
should be merely an air balloon. 

The third circle (r.) contains three equal circles containing, respectively, 
the king on his throne and the two Houses of Parliament. This represents 
the Constitution as it was until the manoeuvres of George HI and the action 
of the House of Lords in defeating the India Bill (see No. 6283, &c.) led 
to the situation in circle two, an increase in the royal power with which the 
king is far from satisfied. 

The room is that of a magician ; behind the brazen head is a table with 
bottles, a retort, and a telescope. Behind George HI is a globe, and beside 
it a large open book. Through a doorway on the extreme 1. look Fox, 
North, and Burke ; the first says Beware. The new Ministry (unrecog- 
nizable) hasten down a flight of stairs inscribed Back Stairs (see No. 6417, 
&c.), which leads into the room from the r. A demon leads the foremost, 
who holds a conspiratorial dark lantern, and says The Temple of showing 
that he is Temple, who was appointed Secretary of State on 19 Dec. and 
resigned on 21 Dec. The next man says we must destroy this Coalition', the 
third says, A Fig for the Resolutions , that is the resolutions moved by Fox 
in order to dislodge Pitt, including those against the issuing of money from 
the Treasury, see Pari, Hist, xxiv, debates of 12 Jan., 16 Jan., 2 Feb., 
20 Feb., and No. 6380, &c. 

One of the comparatively few anti-Pitt satires at this time. Cf. Nos. 
6417, &c., 6427, &c., 6444, 6469» 6476» 6486, 6552. For the brazen head, 
cf. Nos. 6373, 7898. For the theme of the increasing power of the House 
of Lords cf. No. 7623. 
* Grego, Rowlandson, i. 119. 

Reissued, Westminster Election, p. 292. 


J 5/ [Bayers.] 

Published 3^ March 1784 by Ja' Bretherton 

Engraving. Fox stands full face as if addressing the House of Commons, 
but headless. His right arm is raised, his hat is in his r. hand, a handker- 
chief in the 1. Beneath the title is etched : 

M^ in one of the most animated Speeches he ever made in his Life 

engaged the Attention of the whole house — he began with saying That he 
should have sat a silent Spectator of the business of the day if a very personal 
Attack had not been made upon him by calling him the Head of a Faction, he 
assured the Gentleman nothing was farther from his Heart, all now wished for 
was a Union upon a broad basis, upon a fair, tho' not an equal footing, and if 
the Right honourable Gentleman over the Way would but submit to a Capitula- 
tion, he would most cordially concorporate with him. 



As to the Idea of his having lost any part of his Weight with his Con- 
stituents he assured the Right Honble Gentleman he was convinced he never 
stood higher in their good Opinion than in his present Situation. For although 
{said he) a Host of Ruffians (I will not call them Electors) desperate as Chair- 
men from Brookes' s lately made an Attempt upon my Life {here somebody 
sneezedy U" Mahon laughed and was called to order by the Chair) I say upon 
my Life Sir I have no doubt but that in Case a Dissolution takes place I shall 
be prepared to meet it with as high a head as any Member of this House. 
^' Sublimi feriam sidera vertice^ 

M' then brought forward to their View the only means of securing a 

permanent and popular Administration ridiculed the Impropriety of attending 
to Addresses from corporate Bodies, accused S^ Rich^ Hill of throwing Scrip- 
ture and Rochester in his Teeth, and concluded with an earnest Exhortation to 
the Country Gentlemen to lay their Heads together and take into Considera- 
tion the Measures which had brought Charles to the Block. 

Sir Rich^ Hill said he should neither quote the Bible or Rochester, though 
he couldn't help saying he would recommend to some Gent** of that house the 
Precepts of the one and the Repentance of the other, he also recommended That 
in order to ease the Landed Interest the Reckoning of the Gentlemen at the 
S^ Albans should be paid out of the Balance remaining in ikf Rigby' hands, — 

M^ P s [Powys] rose, and was going to enter into an Explanation of the 

Consistency of his own Conduct but the House seemed not disposed to hear 
him, so he was angry. 

The Remainder of this important Debate will be 
given in our next. 

A burlesque of Fox*s speeches on 28 Feb. and i March, the former 
being a debate on Powys*s motion for a united and efficient Administration, 
that is, for a coahtion between Fox and Pitt according to the proposals of 
the country gentlemen who had been meeting at the St. Alban's Tavern, see 
No. 6413, &c. ; the latter, a debate on Fox*s motion for an Address to the king 
to remove his Ministers. Sir Richard Hill's quotation from the Bible and 
Rochester was on 28 Feb. Pari. Hist. xxiv. 639. See also Wraxall, Memoirs, 
1884, iii. 424 and n. For Fox*s sneeze see No. 6426, &c. For his allusion to 
the Stuarts (i.e. to Charles II), see Pari. Hist. xxiv. 627 f., 652 f., 657 f., 
and Nos. 6438, 6445. For chairmen from Brooks's cf. No. 6453, &c. 

The allusion to the balance in Rigby's hand relates both to the meetings at 
the St. Alban's Tavern organized by Powys, and to the debate on the motion 
of the Attorney-General (Kenyon) that Rigby should account for the 
balance in his hands as Paymaster-General, which afforded an opportunity 
for stating that the account of Lord Holland was still unsettled, since his 
executors (one being Fox, another the discredited Powell, see No. 6195) 
had not proved his will. Pari. Hist. xxiv. 672 ff. 
9 X 6i in. 


Annibal Scratch del[} Collings.] 

Pub. March 4, 1784, by W. Wells, N° 132 Fleet Street. 

Engraving. An old stone building, representing the House of Commons, 
is being demolished by Pitt and his supporters and shored up by Fox and 
North. The two latter (\.) are holding up a long beam, inscribed Constitu- 



tional Advice^ which supports a massive stone inscribed SPQB and flanked 
by a stone on which is carved within a wreath the cap and staff of Liberty. 
Pitt and his supporters (r.) ascend a long ladder, inscribed Back Stairs (see 
No. 6417), which rests against the roof. Its rungs are inscribed (reading 
upwards), [Secjret inf[luence]y New Mi[mstry] Addr[ess], Address^ Addres\s\^ 
Popular Frenzy. The foremost figure on the ladder is Folly, a young 
woman wearing a cap and bells, both her cap and belt inscribed Folly. She 
holds a flag on which is a royal crown and the word Aristocracy ^ and looks 
round with a smile, saying, Down with it We will erect a Prerogative Court 
in its stead. Below her is a man dressed in shirt and breeches, tugging at 
an enormous chain, attached by a grappling-hook to the stone on which is 
the cap of Liberty. The rungs under his feet are inscribed Address^ an 
allusion to the loyal addresses which were pouring in, approving of the 
dismissal of the Coalition. See *The Gazette', Jan.-March 1784, passim. 
These were compared by the Opposition to those presented to Charles II 
in 1682-3, see No. 6437, ^c- ^^tt stands lower, putting his upper foot on 
the rung inscribed New Mi[nistry'\\ he turns round, addressing a crowd 
below him, and saying. Well pidl an old House over their Heads! Huzza. 
Below him, on the step of Secret influence, stands Temple; he holds a flag 
inscribed Omnipot[ence] Anarch[y] and directs the rays of a conspiratorial 
dark lantern towards Wisdom who stands beside Fox, a tongue of flame 
rising from her head. She holds a flag inscribed Union, its solid staflF con- 
trasting with the flimsy one held by Folly; she points at Temple, saying, 
Friends take care what you are about. 

On the extreme r. beside the ladder, on which his hand rests, stands 
Thurlow. Behind are a number of men with pick-axes and mallets engaged 
in demolition; they are Addressers. The ladder rests on a paper inscribed 
Constitution. Beneath the design is etched: 

Man with strong reason is endowed, 

A beast scarce instinct is allowed; 

But let this Rabble's worth be tried 

Tis plain that neither are their guide 

Can they discern the different natures. 

And weigh the power of other Creatures, 

Who by this partial work have shew'n 

They know so little of their own. 

The flag held by Wisdom is a plea for the plan of Powys and the country 
gentlemen who met at the St. Alban's Tavern (see A?in. Reg., 1784-5, 
pp. 265 flF., and No. 6413, &c.) for a union between Fox and Pitt, the word 
* coalition' being shunned. 

The character of this attack on Pitt shows his improving position. For 
the 'popular frenzy' which supported Pitt see also Nos. 6445, 6485, 6486, 
6522, 6537, 6538, cf. No. 6581. No. 6445 is a sequel to this print, see 
No. 6417, &c. 

i2X9i in. 


By B. Walwyn N° 2 Pedlaler's Acre 

Published as the Act directs Febv March 6'* 1784 [sic] 

Engraving. A series of isolated figures irregularly spaced. North (1.) leans 
back in an arm-chair asleep, his arms folded; over his head is the word 



Indolence. Next is Burke as Oeconomy (in allusion to his Bill of Economical 
Reform) seated full-face in an upright chair mending a stocking. He wears 
a Jesuit's biretta (cf. No. 6026). The central figure, larger than the others, 
is Fox, standing full-face with his hands on his hips, wearing a royal 
crown; he is Ambition (cf. No. 6395). Love and Wine are represented by 
the Prince of Wales seated on a chair with a courtesan (perhaps intended 
for Mrs. Robinson) on his knee; he holds a wine-bottle in his r. hand, she 
holds up a wine-glass in her 1. On the extreme r. Pitt, as Improvement^ sits 
primly in an upright chair, full face, holding an open book. The drawing 
is childish, the line shaky. 

For Fox and the Prince, cf. No. 6401, &c. 

[? J. Barrow.] 

Pu¥: hyj. Wallis. N'' 16, Ludgate Street. March. 6. 1^84. 

Engraving. Justice (1.) flogs Fox at the tail of an elephant, as culprits were 
then flogged at the cart's tail. The elephant is in profile to the r. Fox is 
stripped to the waist, a rope round his neck is attached to the animal's tail, 
his hands are on the animal's hind-quarters ; he looks over his r. shoulder 
with an expression of anguish. Justice, a blind-folded woman in pseudo- 
classical draperies, stands with a knotted scourge raised to strike; she says 
Vengence is mitie^ I will repay. On the elephant's flank is engraved. He 
that exalteth himself Shall be abased. 

Fox's position is contrasted with that depicted by Sayers in the famous 
Carlo Khan^s Triumphal entry into Leadenhall Street, see No. 6276. Cf. 
No. 6399, &c. 


Published by M. Smith, March 8, 1784; and sold at No. 46, in Fleet 
Street [Price one Shilling.] 

Engraving. North and Fox as supporters of the Coalition Arms (cf. No. 
6369 (5)), which rest on the prostrate body of the king, on whom North 
rests his 1. foot and Fox his r. North stands (1.) dexter, holding in his r. 
hand a flag on which are two demons and the word Coalition ; the staff is 
surmounted with a skull ; in his 1. is a small flag with thirteen oblique stripes, 
an allusion to the loss of the Colonies, which forms part of the first quarter 
of the arms. Fox holds a ragged cap of Liberty on its staff; his r. hand, 
resting on the escutcheon, holds a small axe which forms part of the second 
quarter of the arms. The crest is formed of the heads of North and Fox 
back to back, in profile, r.; from their mouths comes a ribbon with the 
word Faction. The motto which supports the figures of Fox, North, and 
the king, is Neck or Nothing. 

Beneath the plate is a printed explanation of the Coalition Arms : 

Lately granted by a new College of Arms to two Illustrious Persons for their 
numerous and distinguished Virtus 

*'Go and do thou likewise^*, 



They are thus emblazoned: 

First Quarter. A Standard zoith the Thirteen Stripes of the American 
States; Base^ Edmund S^ Omer's [Burke], like a skilful Dentist y drawing the 
Teeth of a Lion. 

Second. Ouarterfyy First and Fourth^ Implements of Gambling; Sinister 
Chief a declining Axe; Dexter base, the head of Charles ^ Martyr; Fesse Point 
Arms of H—ll — d [Holland, the arms of Fox, cf. No. 6422]. 

Third. A Gallows ^ Two Halters charged Proper, 

Fourth. Britannia Renversed. 

Crest. Janus ^ with the motto Faction, 

Supporters. Dexter, the Promoter of Independence with the Flag of 
Coalition. Sinister; the Man of the People , with a Liberty Cap worn Thread- 
bare; both Supporters trampling on an injured [King] who is extricating 

Himself from their Oppression. 

The arms are as described : Burke (H.L.) applies a pair of forceps to the 
teeth of a lion, seated passively. Above them is a paper inscribed Reform 
Bill (cf. No. 5645, &c.). The implements of gambling are dice-box, dice, 
and cards. From the gallows hang a fox (1.) and North (r.). Britannia, 
seated head downwards, holds out an olive-branch, emblematical of the 
peace and the loss of America. 

One of many satires on the Coalition, see Nos. 6369, 6399, &c.; it is 
exceptional at this date in dwelling on the loss of America (cf. No. 6424) 
rather than on the India Bill (cf. Nos. 6285, 6361, &c.), which, however, 
is implied in the prostrate position of the king (cf. No. 6276, &c.), from 
which he is recovering, see No. 6405, &c. 



Pub March 8^^ by W. Humphrey AT^ 22y Strand 1784 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A burlesque representa- 
tion of Pitt's procession to the City on 28 Feb. to dine with the Grocers' 
Company and receive the freedom of the City. The procession is headed 
by a band of musicians (1.), by the Gold Box carried on a pole (voted 
10 Feb. 1784 but not presented till 5 Feb. 1785), and by banners. Close 
to a banner inscribed N° 45 capers Wilkes, scattering coins with both 
hands. On the three other banners are the words Pitt and Prerogative [the 
actual banner was *Pitt and the Constitution']; Youth a most enormous 
Crime \ and emblems of the Grocers' Company, including two sugar-loaves. 
The coaches, drawn by the populace, are here represented by three 
small wheeled chairs such as were used for children and invalids. In the 
first is Sir Wattey, drawn by satyrs ; he is Sir Watkin Lewes, alderman and 
M.P. for the City, see vol. v and index. Both he and Wilkes took a promi- 
nent part in the reception of Pitt, both had opposed the India Bill and 
supported Pitt in the House of Commons. He is followed by Pitt as Master 
Billy seated jauntily on the back of his chair, his hands on his hips ; a man 
sits at his feet holding a banner inscribed Kings Men. His chair is followed 
by men with long staves. Last comes Sir Barney; his projecting sword 
appears to have tripped up two of the rabble. He is Sir Barnard Turner, 
Alderman and Sheriff, who had taken a leading part in restoring order 

49 E 


after the Gordon Riots. He was knighted (i6 Jan. 1784) for moving the 
City Address to the king. Westminster Magazine, 1784, p. 118. 

The crowd is drawn with much freedom and spirit, some wave hats, 
some scramble for coins ; hats fly in the air with the words Pitt and Plumb 
Pudding for ever Huzza! A man on the extreme r. shouts King for ever. 

Behind the procession are the houses of a street leading to the gate of 
Grocers Hall (I.), probably representing Cheapside or the Poultry (although 
access to the Hall was through Grocers' Alley). Spectators lean from the 
windows of the houses. The large corner house has a wide shop- window, 
surmounted by the Royal Arms and the words Tommy Plumb Grocer to 
his Majesty. From one of its windows a spectator says, O what a Charming 
Youth. Behind Pitt is a shop inscribed Toy Shop Wax Work. On the 
extreme r. is a large inn with bay-windows whose sign is a large H.L. por- 
trait of Chatham in profile to the 1., inscribed Lord Chatham, and below, Neat 
Wines. A figure leaning from one of its windows says. Very like his Father. 

The procession is described at length in the newspapers, e.g. Morning 
Post, I and 2 March. It is called *the grandest procession of the kind since the 
year 1761 when M^ Pitt's illustrious Father . . . received the same marks of 
distinction from the Citizens of London'. See also Nos. 6471, 6538, 6807, 
6813. On his return to Berkeley Square Pitt was attacked by a mob opposite 
Brooks's, see No. 6453, &c. For Pitt as Chatham's son cf. No. 5984. 

Reissued, Westminster Election, p. 83. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 119-20 (reproduction). Reproduced, Grego, 
Hist, of Parliamentary Elections, 1892, p. 264. 


Published by E Hedges N'' g2 Cornhill march 8^^ 1784 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt, with Britannia and the British Lion, 
attacks a many-headed monster with a serpent's tail which encircles a column 
inscribed British Constitution', on this is a bust of the king. Pitt wears 
Roman armour; he holds a club in his r. hand, Britannia's shield in his 1., 
and appears to represent Hercules slaying the hydra. The necks of the 
monster join in a flattened mass on which stand Pitt, Britannia, and the 
lion, all three threatening the heads, which are those of the late Ministry : 
(1. to r.) North, Burke, Lord John Cavendish, Lord Derby (who had been 
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster), Keppel, Portland, and Fox. 

The bust of George III is in profile to the 1.; against his shoulder rests 
a shield inscribed Dieu et mon Droit. The whole group rests on a platform 
or pedestal, and appears to represent a piece of sculpture, the title forming 
part of the design. On each side of the title is inscribed: 

Ye British Chiefs who mount the waves 
And ye who meet the tented foe: 
Behold the young the wise the brave; 
Repelling all your country's woes. 

December 17th was the date of the defeat of the India Bill in the Lords, 
see Nos. 6283, 6368, &c. From a constitutional standpoint, one of the most 
extreme of the attacks on the Coalition. See Nos. 6399, 6405, &c. Similar 
in design and intention to No. 6450. 

12X9J i^« 




Pu¥ March 11. 1^84 by W. Humphrey N" 22y Strand 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Fox (r.) in armour, 
attacks a many-headed monster (1.), a scaly beast, with wings, talons, and 
writhing serpentine necks. From each mouth issues a barbed fang and 
words: Tyranny \ Assumed Prerogative \ Despotism; Oppression; Secret 
Influence; Scotch Politik; and (from heads on the ground) Duplicity and 

Fox (r.) stands in a theatrical attitude, his sword oi Justice raised above 
his head, his Shield of Truth on his 1. arm, a cloak flying out behind him. 
He has already cut off three heads. Behind him are his supporters: two 
naked and emaciated figures prostrate themselves at his feet, inscribed 
E* Indians. A serried rank of men in armour with shields and spears are 
the English; their standard has a seated figure of Britannia holding a cap 
of Liberty and is inscribed Standard of Universal Liberty. They say : While 
he protects us we will support him. Next them is a smaller body, inscribed 
Irishy dressed as Irish Volunteers. They say. He gave us a free Trade and 
all we asked He shall have our firm support [see Nos. 5653 (1780), 6003 


In the background, behind the hydra (1.), four men holding hands caper 
round a flag inscribed Standard of Sedition. They perhaps represent 
foreign countries rejoicing at the dissensions of England; one appears to 
be dressed as a Frenchman, another as a Dutchman. 

One of the most extreme of the Foxite prints ; it is exceptional in defend- 
ing the India Bill, see Nos. 6271, 6368, &c. For 'Secret Influence' see 
No. 6417, &c. See also No. 6436, &c. 

Reissued, Westminster Election^ p. 43. 

Grego, Rowlandson^ i. 120. 


Annibal Scratch del et sculp. [? Ceilings.] 

Pub: by W, Wells, AT" 132 Fleet Street, March iP^ iy84. 

Engraving. A sequel to No. 6438. George III, seated on a balloon, points 
downwards with his sceptre to an image of Pitt (r.) as a naked child, on 
a column which is inscribed Family Presumption. The king looks down 
at North, Fox, and Burke, saying, / command you O Shadrach Mesech & 
Abednego! The three stand (1.) in attitudes expressing intense self-right- 
eousness; they say: Know O King we will not worship y'^ Golden Image; on 
each head rests a tongue of flame. They stand outside a dilapidated build- 
ing on the extreme 1. inscribed S^ Stephens, shored up by a beam, whose 
base is at their feet, inscribed Resolutions Unrescinded. From its coping- 
stone flies an ensign flag inscribed Firm S.P.Q.B. The king's balloon is 
inscribed Prerogative; its lower axis emits a blast inscribed Gracious 
Answer. Behind the balloon and Pitt are clouds inscribed Breath of 

Pitt stands sucking his finger (cf. No. 6417); on his head is a sugar- 
loaf surmounted by a flag inscribed Febv 28, an emblem of the Grocers' 



Company which had entertained him on that day, see No. 6442. Kneel- 
ing figures do obeisance before the image of Pitt, those in the foreground 
representing the least reputable trades : a lamplighter (1.), with his ladder 
and oil-can, kneels in profile to the r.; a butcher prostrates himself; a 
chinmey-sweep kneels with clasped hands ; a ragged scavenger, his shovel 
and basket beside him, kneels in profile to the 1., the basket stands on a 
paper inscribed \Worshipfu\ll Company of Scavenger[s]. In the foreground 
lie papers inscribed Garret Address (an allusion to the mock elections of 
Garratt), Address^ and The worshipfull Company of Chimney Sweepers. A 
crowd of kneeling figures (1.) is worshipping the idol; they hold standards, 
three of which are inscribed Bristol^ Westminster, and London, representing 
the addresses to the king which had been compared by Fox to those made 
to Charles II, see No. 6438, &c. 
Beneath the design is etched : 

A Gilded Image — & before it — 

A Mob on Marrow-bones adore it 

That immemorial time have sold 

All Conscience to his God-ship Gold: 

Look ere you leap & scan the pit, 

Your sapient Worships may be bit 

Not all that glitter 's Gold, alass. 

Your baby 's but a thing of Brass. 

The sequence of satires by this artist well illustrates the declining 
fortunes of Fox, see No. 6417, &c. See also No. 6438, &c. 


Pu¥ as y^ Act directs March 11, 1784 by W Humphrey 22y Strand 

Engraving. Fox (1.), George III (r.), face each other in profile; each tugs 
hard at a rope attached to the nose of an ass which stands between them. 
The ass is The People ; he is heavily burdened with many sacks, inscribed 
Taxes, or Tax, and one. Taxes 1784. The king, wearing a crown and a 
sword inscribed Prerogative, tries to drag the animal on to a road down 
which points a signpost inscribed Road to Absolute Monarchy. A sign- 
post behind Fox points down the Road to Republicanism. Fox says, / 
humbly Insist upon the management or else will not grant any Supplys (see 
No. 6380). In the distance is a signpost. To Aristocracy, pointing to a 
road out of sight behind the ass, whose back is turned to it. 

For Pitt and prerogative, cf. No. 6417, &c.; for Fox and republicanism 
cf. No. 6380, &c. 

WD. [Dent.] 

Pu¥ II March 1784 by H Humphrey N° 51 New Bond Street 

Engraving. Pitt stands between two beasts, one with the face of North (1.), 
the other with that of Fox (r.). They have the mane of a lion and the 
claws of a bear; the tails resemble a fox's brush. North's tail is in- 
scribed Conscience, that of Fox Honor. Pitt wears a plumed helmet inscribed 
Wisdom and encircled with a laurel-wreath, a tunic with a belt inscribed 



Cestus of Virtue. He looks towards North, whose teeth he is drawing with 
a forceps. Fox Hes prostrate, vomiting; a crown inscribed Asia has fallen 
from his head. Pitt's outstretched 1. arm holds out over Fox a heart 
inscribed Indostatiy which appears to have been torn from Fox. 

One of many satires on the defeat of the India Bill, see Nos. 6271, 
6368, &c. Pitt is the *London Trentice*, having received the freedom of 
the City, see Nos. 6442, 6567. 

[? J. Barrow.] 

Pu¥ by H. Humphrey. March 11. 1784. N" 50 New Bond Street. 

Engraving. Fox and North dressed as nurses : Fox stands outside a house, 
his hand on an empty cradle on which is a notice Reynard State Cradle 
Wrocker; North (1.) looks from a window above the open door, holding out 

a dirty cloth and saying, A Sh n piece of BuisnesSy this Susan — I am 

afraid we Shall not in a hurry be able to get out the Stain. Fox, his back to 
North, answers, And Stinks most horridly y it will require great Judgement 
to bring it to its former Colour. A placard on the house is inscribed. Wanted 

a Child to NursCy by Rachel N /f, & Susan F Xy lately removed from 

S^ James's. Can be well Recommended from the three Feathers in Pall — 
Mall — . (An allusion to Carlton House, and the close association between 
Fox and the Prince of Wales, see No. 6041, &c.) 

One of many satires on the defeat of the Coalition, see Nos. 6283, 6399, 
&c. A print with the same title is No. 5850. 
I2jx8| in. 

ELEPHANT REMOV'D. [c. March 1784] 

Engraving above engraved verses in two columns. The Lion (George III) 
sits under a canopy, holding a sceptre ; on his r. is a bull (John Bull), on his 
1. an elephant (Pitt). Before him (r.) stands a deputation of ganders; the 
foremost gander holds a paper inscribed We Ganders and walks between 
a bear (North) on his 1. and a fox (Fox) on his r. The fox leads the bear 
by a chain which passes over the back of the gander; in his r. hand is a 
pair of spectacles. The ganders are the supporters of the Coalition in the 
House of Commons. 

A satire on the repeated motions for the removal of Ministers from Jan. 
to I Mar., when Fox's motion for an address to the king was carried by 
twelve only. Pari. Hist. xxiv. 687-713. Wraxall, Memoirs^ 1884, iii. 309- 
10. Cf. Nos. 6373, &c., 6473. 

The Ganders Address 

We Ganders begy your Majesty 
would condescend most graciously 
to sendyon^ Elephant away 
{a beast that feeds on beans and hay 
and therefore never should pretend 
with high-fed creatures to contendy) 
' 'Your' corrected to 'yoi^' in a contemporary hand. 



who got by stealth into a place^ 
by others filVd with far more grace. 

We have a noble Bear and Fox 
who feast on honey ^ fowls ^ and ducks; 
Their powW and wisdom we can swear for 
and have informer days paid dear for ; 
But they're become fast friends of late 
and resolved to uphold that state, 
which their contentions had o'erthown [sic], 
and they'll rebuild what they've pulVd dozon. 

Besides our noble Renard has 
a pair of Spectacles of glass, 
which if your Majesty but chose, 
to let him place upon your nose, 
Ked \sic\ make you see in darkest night 
whatever he thinks wrong or right. 

As to yon^ stripling Elephant, 
though^ all your Grandees of the Land 
should foolishly attempt to prop him, 
Renard and Boreas would stop him. 
And We, your faithful Ganders, say: 
that none but they should bear the sway. 

The Lion*s Answer 

Gentlemen Ganders! we are pleas' d 
with your harangue, it is confess' d 
that bears & fox's rule with grace 
o'er any flocks of Sheep and Geese. 
But we've more Cattle in the Stable, 
whom elephants are better able 
to govern, than your Bear and fox. 
For besides Sheep and Geese and Ducks 
we reign o'er many a noble Stag 
and many an usefull Bull and Nag, 
who do not relish {as we hear) 
the Government of Fox and Bear. 

Tis true our Elephant is young. 
But he 's no fool and will grow Strong. 
We trust he never will disgrace 
a father, who once fill'd that place. 
And here 's our old good friend the Bull 
who knows his merits to the full; 
He thinks him a good honest creature 
endow' d with sense and with good nature, 
and will stand by him to the last 
(says he) whatever it may cost. 
With vices none of you can charge him; 
Thus we have no mind to discharge him. 

For Spectacles we have no need. 
But thank ye as much, as if we did. 

Broadside (clipped), 13! X9I in. 

' See note on previous page. * 'Through' corrected to 'though* 


6450 GORGON 
Puhlishd by E Hedges N"" g2 Cornhill March 13 1784 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Fox's head, directed 
to the 1.; his hair is composed of writhing serpents, each with a human 
head, representing a member of the CoaHtion Ministry ; in the centre, above 
the forehead, is North; on the 1. are Lord Stormont, Keppel, and the Duke 
of Portland, who is in profile to the r. and faces, with an alarmed expression, 
Burke, his vis-a-vis on the opposite side. On the r. are also Lord Derby, 
Lord John Cavendish, and Sheridan, who has a beard and the ears of a 
satyr as in Nos. 6281, 6367. Behind these fully characterized heads are 
others shaded to form a background, and almost all grotesque; one of these 
(r.), in profit perdu to the r., is identified by Miss Banks as Lord Carlisle. 
Beneath the design is etched : 

This horrid head in antient times was knowUf 
To petrify beholders into stone. 
But Pitt the Perseus of the present day. 
With patriot zeal has took its powW away. 
The venom' d heads from him received no quarter 
Or stings that pointed at the India Charter. 

Similar in design and intention to No. 6443 by the same artist. One of 
many satires on the defeat of the Coalition, see No. 6399, &c. For the 
India Bill see Nos. 6271, 6368, &c. 

91^6X81 in. (pL). 


Pub March 14 1^84 by J Wallis N'' 16 Ludgate Street >/ 

Engraving. The Prince of Wales drives (r. to 1.) a lady in a high gig 
drawn by six goats. The near leader is ridden by Fox, with a fox's 
head, as postilion. On the side of the gig is a coronet and the Prince of 
Wales's feathers. Three men on goats ride beside the gig; the foremost 
has horns and is seated facing the tail of the animal. He is identified by 
Mr. Hawkins as Lord Jersey, which is unlikely at this date (but see No. 
61 15); he is probably Robinson. Next comes a stout man, looking up at 
the gig, who resembles Lord North (cf. No. 6266). Last comes Colonel 
Tarleton in military dress, wearing the feathered helmet made familiar 
by Reynolds's portrait. The lady is probably Mrs. Robinson; this is 
confirmed by the presence of Tarleton, see No. 6266, &c. Cf. No. 6452. 
On the extreme r. is a signpost pointing To Windsor, the words written 
in reverse. 

A satire on Fox's relations with the Prince of Wales, cf. No. 6401, &c. 
For the continued association of the Prince and Terdita' in the public mind 
cf. Nos. 6928, 6930, 6977. 


^ The second part of the title, and the publication-line, have been added on a 
pasted strip, the paper beneath it being cut away. 



6452 lOB 

Publish' d According to the Act by J, Fores N. 3 piccadily March 14 

Engraving. Fox as Job lies on a low oriental bed, vomiting into a chamber- 
pot, supporting his head on his r. hand. He wears a hood or turban, a 
buttoned tunic, trousers, and slippers. Above the design is inscribed And 
There lived in the Land of Uz a Certain man Whose Natne was , . , & That 
/ Man Was perfect & Upright^ One that Eschewed Evil. 

^ Beneath the design three verses are etched, the first being : 

M' Fox M' Fox: 
If you had the* * * 
What a blessing f would be toy iiation; 
IfPerdita Would 
For once do some good 
She'd Secure you a tight Salivation 

M' Fox 
She'd . . . [ut supra]. 

For Fox and Mrs. Robinson see No. 61 17, &c. Cf. No. 6451. 
Subject, 5-Jx8^ in.; pi., ii-J-x8J| in. 


Pu¥ as the Act directs March [18] 1784 By E. Saner N"" [49] Jermyn 
S' S' James's^ 

Engraving. The mob, using bludgeons and fists, attack Pitt's procession 
in St. James's Street on its return from the City on the night of 28-29 Feb., 
see No. 6442. The scene is in front of Weltje's shop, from whose first- 
floor balcony the Prince of Wales, wearing his ribbon and star, waves a 
hat, shouting Fox For Ever huzza. Across the shop-front is inscribed 
C. Weltje Cotectioner [sic] to his Royal Highness. Immediately below is a 
coach, from which Pitt is addressing the mob who are attacking with 
bludgeons. Its roof is inscribed Mastir Billy. On the extreme r. stands 
Fox, waving his hat. Sam House, supported on the shoulders of another 
man, holds up a flag inscribed Down with Pitt. A banner, Pitt & Preroga- 
tive, lies on the ground. On the extreme 1. is a banner. Kings Men, as in 
No. 6442. Spectators look from the windows of the houses. The house 
behind Fox is inscribed Kelseys. 

The mob attacked the procession opposite Brooks's ; Pitt was forced to 
take refuge in White's, and the three coaches which were being drawn by 
the crowd were broken to pieces. The presence of Fox and the Prince of 
Wales is, of course, apocryphal. For Weltje's shop see No. 5888. He had 
a brother, and the two are sometimes confused. He figures largely in 
prints and squibs as a supporter of the Prince of Wales and the Foxites, 
see index. For Kelsey's shop see Gillray's print (1797), reproduced Grego, 
p. 230. It was said, in defence of the mob, that Pitt's followers had been 
breaking windows which were not illuminated, including some at Carlton 
House and at Weltje's. Morning Post, 2 Mar. 1784. See Stanhope, Life 
of Pitt, 1879, i- 15^-3* ^^^ No- ^4^4- 

^ The figures in brackets are written in ink. 




Puh, According to Act Mar. 18 y 1^84 by T, Cornell, Bruton Street 

Engraving. Design in an oval. Pitt, with an air of extreme youth and 
innocence, stands on a rectangular pedestal, which rests on the bodies of 
North and Fox. He puts his foot on a serpent, with the head of Burke, which 
coils round the pedestal. He holds a post or beam, inscribed Pillar of the 
PubliCy on which is the cap of Liberty. An irradiated wreath is suspended 
over his head. He looks down at Fox (r.) who looks round over his 1, 
shoulder, his India Bill in his hand. North lies prone, his head thrown 
back. Beneath the title is etched : 

The Pitt is raised. The Fox is fallen. The North-wind ceases, and Edmund 
Reassumes his Native Self. 

One of many satires on the defeat of the Coalition and the India Bill, 
cf. Nos. 6176, 6286, 6368, 6399, &c. 

Published by E Hedges A^" g2 Cornhill March ig*^ 1^84 

Engraving. Fox, North, and Burke in deep mourning, with mourning 
scarves round their wide-brimmed hats. Fox (centre) stands full-face up 
to his knees in a circular pit, saying, / shall be lost for ever in the depth of 
this terible Pitt. North (1.) stamps on the ground, his fists clenched, saying, 
Is all our coalizing come to this, O! I could tear my flesh for madness. Burke 
(r.), standing stiffly in profile to the 1., says, / think as matters are now it 
will be my wisest way not to assist you any longer. The word 'fox* in the 
title is represented by a fox running with a goose in its mouth (cf. No. 
5843). Beneath the design is etched : 

Three mourning Patriots here are in the dumps. 
They played their cards, but lost for want of trumps, 
Renoun'd alike for Eloquence and wit. 
The wily F — x has tumbled in a Pitt. 

One of many satires on the fall of the Coalition, see No. 6399, &c.; it 
misrepresents the attitude of North (as of Burke) who offered to resign all 
claim to office if the union of Pitt and Fox could be thus secured. Cf. 
No. 6413, &c. 


[J. Barrow?] 

Pu¥ March 02. [sic] 1784. by H. Humphrey. N" 51. New Bond Street. 

Engraving. Fox sits in a small two- wheeled cart drawn by an ass, which is 
led (r. to 1.) by a man with a whip over his shoulder. A sign-post (1.) points 
To Malmsbury. The cart is inscribed S^ James's Pass For Paupers. In the 
foreground (r.) stands North, under a small tree resembling a weeping 
willow, his back to the cart, saying, Alass poor Charly. On the 1. a man 
stands full-face, holding a long staff or pole in his r. hand. 



Fox*s rejection for Westminster is anticipated : he was M.P. for Malmes- 
bury, a close borough, from 1774 to 1780, when he was elected for West- 
minster. His defeat seemed likely from the Westminster meeting of 14 Feb., 
see No. 6421, &c., as well as (later) from the state of the poll, see Appendix 
I. Paupers were then taken in a *pass-cart' by constables from county to 
county and so passed to their place of settlement. This humiliating form 
of transit was (legally) reserved for vagrants, not for the more respectable 
^settled poor'. Cf. No. 6562. 
89x13 in. 


W. D. [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs by J. Ridgway, Piccadilly, March, 20^^ 17S4. 

Engraving. A satire on the scheme of the country gentlemen, meeting at the 
St. Alban's Tavern, for a 'union' between Pitt and Fox. The scene is outside 
a public house inscribed S^ Albans (1.) ; the sign projecting from the corner 
of the building is half the face of Fox, as in The Mask, No. 6234; the other 
half (in place of that of North) is a royal crown. Members of the supposed 
united ministry dance hand in hand round a may-pole, on the top of 
which is the head of George III, the eyes closed, the tongue protruding. 
Beneath the head the pole is wreathed with bunches of grapes and vine- 
leaves. The two figures in the front of the circle are Fox (1.) and Thurlow 
(r.). Fox has the body of a fox; he looks round over his r. shoulder with 
a triumphant smile. Thurlow, in Chancellor's wig and gown, in profile 
to the 1., gazes at Fox. On his r., also in profile to the 1., is Burke dressed 
as a Jesuit (cf. No. 6026). The central figure on the farther side of the 
circle is Shelburne, who dances between Portland (1.) and Burke (r.). 
Richmond, in profile to the r., dances between Portland and Fox. Horns 
sprout from the heads of Portland, Fox, and Burke, while those of the 
other three are surrounded by haloes. 

North, dressed as a nurse, stands (1.) watching the dancers. He holds 
Pitt, a little mannikin. His Garter ribbon is inscribed Nurse Nor\tK\\ he 
says, Come, buss — e, buss — e, Billy my dear, and Fll teach you how to take 
care of yourself . North has horns, Pitt a halo. 

Behind North (1.) is the door of the inn, over which is inscribed Mess^^ 
Powass and Mash 'em Dealers in British Spirits. In front of the door stands 
Marsham holding a foaming tankard, inscribed PF (monogram), and a 
paper. Resolved, That Union may be effected without Principle. In an arm- 
chair outside the door sits Powys, who with Marsham, M.P. for Kent, 
directed the proceedings at the St. Alban's Tavern (though Thomas 
Grosvenor was the nominal chairman). On the ground between them 
is a paper inscribed Respite . . . 48 hours, . . . Cromwell. 

On the extreme r., outside the circle of dancers, is the Prince of Wales, 
beating a drum and blowing a pipe, while he dances to his own tune. His 
hat is ornamented with three enormous ostrich feathers and the words 
Ich dien. He, Powys, and Marsham have satyrs' ears, suggesting that they 
are less diabolical than the Foxites, who have horns. Beneath the title is 
etched : 

Round about the Maypole see how we trot, hotpot, hot, brown Ah we have 
got Midas. 



For the proposed union of parties, see No. 6413, &c. For Fox as Crom- 
well cf. No. 6380, &c. 


iV^ 9. Published 20^^ March 1784, by G. Humphrey, N° 48 Long Acre, 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Pitt, as Britain's Hope, 
stands leaning on an anchor (1.) beside Fox and North, who have no 
bodies, their heads resting on their hips as in No. 5570. Pitt's 1. hand is 
patronizingly outstretched over the head of Fox. His head is irradiated 
and encircled with the words Vertus an degrePlus eminent. A hand emerges 
from a cloud above Pitt's head, holding over it a ribbon and star inscribed 
Reward of Virtue. 

Over the heads of Fox and North is a mass of solid cloud on which rests 
a jumble of buildings representing Indian castles and temples, inscribed Air 
Castles on an Improved Plan. The two stand with expressions of sulky 
melancholy. North's Garter ribbon is draped over his breeches, which are 
inscribed Sans Souci\ those of Fox are inscribed Sans six Sous. Beneath 
the title is engraved : 

See Britain^ s Hope with looks serene, expose 

The Coalition Chiefs, his Countrie's Foes; 

Who building India Castles in the Air, 

Have made themselves of Nobodies a Pair. 

One of many satires on the fall of the Coalition and the India Bill, see 
Nos. 6368, 6399, &c. For the effect of the Coalition on Fox's political 
prospects cf. No. 8099. 


N° 10. London Publish' d 20*^ March 1784, by G. Humphrey N<* 48 
Long Acre 

Engraving. Fox, North, and others ride a race (1. to r.) mounted on lions. 
Fox is slightly ahead of North; behind are three other members of the / 

Coalition of whom only Burke, in top-boots, his whip raised to strike his ^ 

mount, can be identified. They advance towards the royal box (1.) in 
which stand George III and Queen Charlotte. The king, impassive, in 
profile to the 1., holds the crown over the edge of the box, ready to present 
it to the winner, who is clearly Fox. The queen weeps, holding a hand- 
kerchief to her eye. Fox (a fox's brush projecting from his coat-tails) has 
passed The Winning post. On a short flight of steps beside the post stands 
a young man, full-face, perhaps Pitt, holding a flag in one hand, a pair of 
evenly balanced scales in the other. 

On the r. is a pavilion, with three boxes, crowded with spectators, too 
freely sketched for identification, except for the Prince of Wales and a lady * 

who may be Mrs. Robinson, on the extreme 1. 

One of a number of satires representing Fox as trying to obtain for him- 
self and his party the prerogatives of the Crown, cf. No. 6380, &c. Its 
precise significance is obscure: perhaps a satire on the proposed union 



between Fox and Pitt, see No. 6413, &c., represented, as in No. 6457, as 
a victory for the former. The king had reluctantly agreed to the negotia- 
tions ; Pitt held out for 'fair and equal terms'. Stanhope, Life of Pitt y 1879, 
i. 147. 

W. D. [Dent.] 
Ptib^ as the Act directs, by J. Brown, Rathbone Place March 21, 1784 

Though dated 1784 this print relates to 1785. See No. 6785. 


Pu¥ 22^ March 1784, by W*» Humphrey. N<> 227 Strand, 

Engraving. Fox, a blind beggar, is led (1. to r.) by a dog with the face of 
North. He holds the dog's cord in his r. hand, a long spiked staff in the 
other, its head ornamented with a crown; round his waist is a belt. A 
bandage across his eyes is inscribed East India Bill; he looks over his r. 
shoulder saying, This damn'd Bill has blinded me. North says. Be comforted. 
There's none so blind as those who will not see. They advance towards 
a building on the extreme r., one window of which is partly visible; it 
suggests a debtors' prison, cf. No. 6483. 

One of many satires on the defeat of the East India Bill, see No. 6368, 
&c., and the gradual defeat of Fox in his contest with Pitt before the 
dissolution, see No. 6373, &c., virtually decided by 8 March, cf. Nos. 6461, 
6462. For Fox as Charles HI cf. No. 6622. 


Pu¥ 24 March, 1784, & Sold by F. Reilly High Holborn. 

Engraving. A cock-fight between cocks, one with the head of Pitt (I.) the 
other with that of Fox. Pitt is in full feather, wings erect, one claw held 
up, threatening Fox. Fox looks down dejectedly, tail-feathers gone, wings 
drooping. The backers stand behind their champions : the Devil leans over 
Fox, holding up a money-bag and saying. He pecks again for £100! A 
bishop behind Pitt, resembling Markham, Archbishop of York, holds out 
his arm saying. Done M^ Devil. George HI leans across the arena, intently 
watching his champion. Behind him, his arm resting on the king's shoulder, 
stands Wilkes, looking over his r. shoulder at those standing behind him. 
Pitt's other chief backers, grouped together in the foreground with the 
king, are Thurlow, the Duke of Richmond, and Lord Nugent. Behind 
Richmond, his mouth open as if shouting, is a profile resembling that of 
Grafton . Behind the nearer spectators is a crowd of Pitt's supporters, some 
waving their hats, some with favours in their hats. On the r. behind Fox 
five of the most prominent spectators are Jews (Fox's creditors) ; one stands 
in the foreground talking to North and holding up both hands as if in 
despair; they stand on the floor of the pit, only their heads and shoulders 



being visible. Of the other backers of Fox, Burke can be identified by his 
Jesuit's biretta (cf. No. 6026) and his spectacles. Another is a butcher 
smoking a pipe. 

One of many satires on the contest between Pitt and Fox before the 
dissolution, see No. 6373, &c. Fox's defeat seemed certain by 8 March 
when his majority was reduced to one on a motion for an address to the 
Crown against the retention of Ministers not having the confidence of 
Parliament, and on 9 March the Mutiny Bill was passed unopposed. 
Wraxall, MemoirSy 1884, iii. 313 fit. See Nos. 6462, 6463, 6482. For Pitt 
and Fox as fighting-cocks see No. 6598. For Fox and the Jews cf. Nos. 
6617, 6623. For the king and Wilkes see No. 6568, &c. 


Published as the Act directs March 24^^ 1^84 by S. Fores. N. 3 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). An imitation of, and 
sequel to, Sayers's famous print, Carlo Khan's triumphal Entry into Leaden- 
hall Street y see No. 6276. Fox, in oriental dress as before, lies on the 
ground (1.), having fallen from the elephant on which Pitt, with a serene 
and unmoved expression, sits in triumph. The elephant stands in profile to 
the r., facing the door of the East India House ; its head, as before, is that 
of North, though with an expression of bewildered distress. Pitt holds out 
in his 1. hand his New India Bill; in his r. is the Stamp Acty under his arm 
Supplies, and projecting from his pocket the Mutiny Act. Fox is saying, 
Perdition Take thee for the Chance is thine. On the ground beside him are 
a dice-box and dice. 

This represents the situation after 8 Mar. when the contest in the 
Commons, see No. 6373, &c., was virtually decided. See No. 6461, &c. 
For Fox's attempt to hold up supplies see No. 6380, &c. Pitt's *New 
India Bill' is prophetic in anticipating the Bill passed in Aug. (cf. No. 
6634); his first India Bill was rejected on 23 Jan. Pari. Hist. xxiv. 412. 
Cf. No. 6406. 


[? J. Barrow.] 

Pu¥ by J. Barrow. March 24. 1784. White Lion Bull Stairs, Surry 
Side Black Fryers Bridge. 

Engraving. Fox, in the air, is kicked as a football between two groups of 
three men; from each coat-pocket falls a bunch of grapes. He says: 

For all my cares, and long Harangues, 
Must I receive these kicks and bangs? 
Oh most ungrateful, stupid Blocks! 
For serving thus your Old Friend Fox. 

In each group is one prominent figure with a leg raised to kick; on the 1. 
he is a sailor in round hat and short trousers, he grins ; pointing at Fox and 
saying, The next kick shall send him to Bengali. A man behind, wearing 



long striped trousers, says Heflyes like a Wild Goose. The third, partly cut 
off by the margin of the print, is Jeffery Dunstan, collector of old wigs, see 
No. 5637, often used in pictorial satire as representative of the rabble 
who supported Fox. The prominent figure on the r. is a stout citizen 
saying, Tho* he '5 a FoXj he shall have Monkeys allowance. One of his two 
companions says. Instead of the Grapes ^ he has got the Gripes. 

A satire exulting in the success of Pitt over Fox in the House of Com- 
mons, see No. 6461, &c. 

8Jx 131^6 in. 


[? I. Cruikshank.] 

Pub. 24^ March 1^84. by W. Humphrey, N° 22y Strand. 

Engraving. A design in compartments. A satire on Pitt*s return from 
Grocers' Hall on the night of 28-29 Feb., see No. 6453. The inscriptions 
over each compartment form a running comment on the whole. 

[i.] A T.Q.L. portrait of Pitt as Will Trim, standing in profile to the r. 

[2.] A similar portrait of Fox directed to the r., his r. hand in his 
breeches pocket, his 1. thrust in his waistcoat. 


[3.] Fox (1.) and Pitt (r.) standing one on each side of a large cake on a 
table, each with an arm raised menacingly. Behind them, faintly indicated, 
is the Speaker (Cornwall), in his chair, and a sea of heads, showing that this 
is a contest in the House of Commons. 12 Jan. 1784 (when Parliament 
met) was expected to be 'Charles Fox's Twelfth Day, when he will chuse 
King and Queen'. Gaussen, A Modern Pepys, ii. 241. 


[4.] The king (1.) seated in his closet at a table. He hands a letter, which 
he has just written, to a man holding a dark lantern, and covered with a 
long cloak. The Devil directs the intrigue: he stands facing the king 
between Temple on his r. and Pitt, standing shyly, hat in hand, whom he 
is introducing to the king. One of a number of satires in which Temple is 
represented as a conspirator with a dark lantern, see No. 6417, &c. 


[5.] A stout citizen standing on the sea-shore, where a number of men 
are carrying chests and bales from a ship at anchor. Beside him are pack- 
ing-chests and sugar-loaves, representing the tea and sugar sold by grocers. 
He is Fig the Smuggling Grocer, and is saying. This Fellow Charles is no 
Friend to Smuggling, Fll be revenged on the Dog. He is a member of the 
Grocers' Company, contemplating the entertainment of Pitt, see No. 6442. 
It was actually Pitt who checked smuggling, cf. No. 6634. 

4^X3 in. 

[6.] A mob attacks the windows of a large building, Pitt stands con- 
spicuously in the foreground, apparently about to throw a stone. A stout 
citizen who shakes his stick at Pitt, is having his pocket picked. Jeffery 



Dunstan stands with his sack over his shoulder waving his hat and looking 
at Pitt. See No. 6453. 


[7.] A street scene, the sequel to the attack: Pitt and one of his company 
are being thrashed by men with sticks. 

4AX4f in. 

The inscriptions over the compartments of the design are : 

Will Trim \ and Charles \ Fight for the Cake^ and Charles was like to get 
it. I But the Conjurer y the Devil & Will instigate Nobody [the king] to write 

to the L ds of the Bed Chamber to Juggle Charles out of the Cake. \ Fig 

the Smuggling Grocer determines to get drunk with Will in the City^ where 
they agree to \ kick up a Rioty and break Charles's Windows. \ Will & his 
Drunken Companions get soundly drubVdfor their Pains. 

An attempt to transfer to Pitt the blame for the riot of 28 Feb., see 
No. 6453. For Temple and the Lords see No. 6417, &c. 

8xi2f in. 

6465 THE DISCOVERY [24 Mar. 1784^] 


Engraving. Frontispiece to The Book of the Wars of Westminster : from the 
Fall of the Fox . . . to the 20^^ Day of the Third Months 1784. A group 
of seven men and women standing in a semicircle. Slightly detached 
stand North (1.) and Fox (r.) addressing the seven, who are the Witch 
of Endor, with other witches and other supporters of Fox, who have 
met in Westminster Hall on 14 Feb. to prepare for the meeting on that 
day, see No. 6421, &c. North addresses the Witch of Endor, saying. Call 
Fiends and Spectres from the Yawning Deep. The Witch, in profile to the 
1., addresses her companions to whom she holds out a bag: 

Cast in your mite each Midnight Hag 
Fill the Protectors Poisoned Bag. 

Each witch (who is to cast *in her collected drugs and the name of her 
Lover', op. cit., p. 15), holds out an object towards the bag. 

The one standing next the Witch of Endor says. Here 's Old Nick^s Nose; 
her neighbour says. Here 's DeviVs Dung.^ In the centre of the semicircle 
stands Jeffery Dunstan saying the Wind of Boreas. The next two witches 
say BeliaVs Tongue and a Traitors Heart. On the outside of the semi- 
circle (r.) stands Sam House saying: 

and Gibbetts Blocks 
But Hold ye Hags for here comes Fox, 

Fox enters, his arms outstretched towards the witches, saying. And set 
the Ministers of Hell to Work. 

The background is the pillared wall of Westminster Hall, on which are 
two escutcheons, one with a mantle, the other a chevron with three swans 
or geese. 

^ Advertisement: 'This day was published . . . .' London Chronicle ^ 24 Mar. 1784, 
* A slang term for assafoetida. Grose, Diet. Vulgar Tongue , 1796. 



Possibly one represents a peer's mantle, and is an allusion to the 
promises of peerages made by Fox, see Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iii. 255, 
the other the Westminster geese, see No. 5843, &c. 

The witches* bag is that which was thrown at Fox in Westminster Hall, 
see No. 6426, &c. It was dropped accidentally by the Witch of Endor when 
she clapped her hands at a speech by Sam House; it fell and burst *and 
all the Effluvia of Hell broke in upon the Scaffold', op. cit., p. 20. For Fox 
as Cromwell see No. 6380, &c. 

A copy of the book is in the Print Room. 



Pu¥ March 25. 1784 by J. Wallis N 16 Ludgate Street 

Engraving. A fox (I.) runs (r. to 1.), carrying off the flat embroidered 
bag decorated with the Royal Arms in which the Great Seal is kept. The 
heavy cord is twisted round its neck and held in its mouth, while the 
tassels trail on the ground. From the projecting bow-window of a house 
(r.) leans Thurlow in his Chancellor's wig and gown calling Stop Thief. 
The background is formed of houses on the opposite side of Ormond 
Street (Thurlow's was No. 14) freely sketched. 

On the night of 23-24 Mar., the Great Seal was stolen from the 
Chancellor's house. Ann, Reg., iy84-5y pp. 185-6. As this was on the eve 
of the dissolution, when the Seal would be needed for the issuing of writs, 
it was suspected to be the work of Fox or his friends ; see Hist, of the West- 
minster Election, 1784, pp. 77-82; Stanhope, Life of Pitt, 1879, *• 158-60. 
The theft delayed the dissolution for one day ; Parliament was prorogued 
on the 24th, and dissolved by proclamation on the 25th. See also Nos. 6468, 
8^X12 in. 


Published March 26. lySj^ by H. Macphail AT** 68 High Holborn 

Engraving. Pitt's head, irradiated, emerges from the centre of a mass of 
cloud. Through the cloud (r.) looks the swarthy face of Fox, partly oblite- 
rated by the rays from Pitt. From the two upper corners of the design 
appear the heads of North and Burke. Below the cloud stand two H.L. 
figures: George III (1.), in profile to the r., looks up benignly at Pitt 
Britannia (r.), in profile to the 1., points with her r. forefinger to Pitt, 
while she appears to address the king, saying : 

them [sicl Fiends of Darkness to P — t 
Shall Soon give Way, 
Reflect new Glories and 
Augment the Day. 

Verses addressed to Britannia by the king are engraved beneath the 
design : 

' Evidently an error for 1784. 



Behold Madam Goddess that Black Looking Dog 
Which O, our Sweet Patroness deserves a Good Flogy 
As a Desert which he Merits may he er^e be Disgraced, 
And no more in office let him ever be placed. 
All shall Yeild to A Youth who you see. 

Like Chatham, Shall be 

For Matchless was he, 

Who begat thee. 
And thou Like him Immortal shall be, 
Reynard's Ambitions so Rampant and high. 
His Tongue 's all deceit His words all a Lye, 
Our Charters attempted which we hold so near. 
To root out our Blessings at Prices so dear. 
All shall Yeild &c. 

Pitt we hold Loyal as Britains great Boast, 
Preserves this our Country as our Ships will our Coast, 
Pretenders we've many Our Rights to Maintain, 
But all Like bold Reynards thier Pretentions are Vain 
All shall Yeild &c. 
Let Reynard delight in his Cards and is [«c] Dice, 

Lord N [North] and B [Burke] both may Glory in Vice, 

But the Virtues of Pitt tho he is but a Youth, 
Shines zvith Lustre Supreme for Speaking the Truth, 
All shall Yeild &c. 

One of many satires on the defeat of Fox by Pitt in the struggle before 
the dissolution, see Nos. 6373, 6462, &c. *Our Charters attempted' is an 
allusion to the Charter of the East India Company, see Nos. 6290, 6364, 
&c. For Pitt as Chatham's son cf. No. 5984. For the popularity of the 
part played by the king cf. No. 6405, &c. 



[c. Mar. 1784] 
[J. Boyne.] 

London Publishd by J. Boyne AT" 2 Shoe Lone [sic] Fleet S* w^ 

Engraving. A satire on the theft of the Great Seal, see No. 6466. Fox (r.), 
as Falstaff, his back to the wall of a house, supports on his shoulders the 
Prince of Wales, who holds out an open sack into which a man standing 
within a window is about to put the Great Seal. This man's face is partly 
concealed by a cloth tied over his head. Fox is bearded, and wears the 
doublet, slashed breeches, and wide boots of Falstaff (as in No. 6231); his 
feathered hat lies on the ground beside him ; he holds the feet of the prince 
who kneels on his shoulders, his head in profile to the r. looking up at the 
window. The corner of the house is inscribed G* Ormond Street. 

Mrs. Robinson (Perdita), standing with a courtesan, is in profile to the 
r. watching the escapade. Her hands are in a muff and she wears a large 
feathered hat on which is a lozenge inscribed Perditi. Her companion looks 
towards her, pointing to the Prince ; like Perdita she is fashionably dressed, 
but her breasts are uncovered. The word suggests both the status of 
the pair and the plight of their friends who are reduced to burglary (cf. 
No. 7375). 

65 F 


The man inside the house may be intended for Fitzpatrick, cf . a squib 
called 'The Consultation' : 

Says F — t k to Fox, *0h how can we atel 

By Jasus you know we have both pawn'd our plate ?* 
Black Reynard replies, *We can have one good meal, 
By filching from Thurlow his boasted Great Seal,* 
Westminster Election, p. 421. 

For the relations between Fox and the Prince of Wales cf. No. 6401, &c. 



Pu¥ March 26^^ by W, Humphrey N" 22y Strand. 1784, 

Engraving. Pitt, as an auctioneer, disposes of British liberties. A large 
notice-board, high on the wall (centre), is inscribed Commission Warehouse, 
Money advanced on all sorts of Useless Valuables, by Pitt & C° Auctioneers. 
— ^A^^. Licensed by Royal Authority. The auction room is the House of 
Commons. Pitt stands (r.) at a high rostrum; above his ornate chair are 
the Royal Arms. Immediately below him is the Speaker, Cornwall, in his 
chair. Pitt leans forward, in profile to the 1., his raised hammer inscribed 
Prerogative; he says to the porter, who holds on his head an enormous 
pyramid of books. Shew the Lot this way Harry, agoing — agoing — speak 
quick or its gone — Hold up the Lot ye Dund — Ass. The porter, Dundas, 
stands in the centre of the design, both hands holding the board which 
rests on his head; he looks up at Pitt saying, / can houVd it na higher Sir. 
His load is Lot I, the books are inscribed Rights of the People in 558 Vol. 
(the number of members of the Commons). The Speaker, acting as the 
sale-clerk, writing on a roll inscribed Sundry acts, says, We shall get the 
Supplies by this Sale. 

A crowd of members walk out of a doorway (1.), their backs to Pitt, 
holding their hats under their arms ; they say. Now or Never, Despair not, 
and Adieu to Liberty. At their feet is inscribed Chosen Representers. Fox, 
who stands in front of the last man, facing Pitt, in the attitude of an orator, 
hat in his r. hand, 1. arm outstretched, legs wide apart, is saying, / am 
determined to bid zvith Spirit for Lot I. he shall pay dear for it that outbids me. 

Beside Pitt's rostrum and the Speaker's table stand several peers, 
inscribed Hereditary Virtuosies; the most prominent, in wig and gown, is 
Thurlow; he points with outstretched arm at Fox, saying. Mind not the 
nonsensical Biddings of those common Fellows. 

On the walls are various lots for sale : Lot 2. is Magna Charta; a row of 
stout volumes on a high shelf (1.) is Lot 3., Obselete Publick Acts. Beneath 
these hang on the wall Lot 4, a sword, and Lot 5, the mace, hanging head 
downwards. Lot 6 is a judge's tie-wig. Lot 7 is a gown or surplice. 

A Foxite satire on the struggle between Pitt and Fox, the former backed 
by the Crown and the Lords, the latter by the Commons, see No. 6373, &c. 
Its particular application is to the dissolution of Parliament, see No. 6476, 
&c. One of the relatively few anti-Pitt satires at this time; similar in inten- 
tion to Nos. 6436, 6476; cf. No. 6474. 

Reissued, Westminster Election, p. 48. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 121. 

Six 13 in. 




Publish' d March 2y 1784 as the act directs by M, Smith, & sold at 
N'' 46y in Fleet Street, — Price one Shilling, 

Engraving. Part of the interior of a large church, perhaps intended for 
Westminster Abbey. Burke and Sheridan, dressed in deep mourning, are 
weeping over the tomb of North and Fox. The figures of North and Fox 
(with a fox's head) He side by side, on a rectangular tomb, their hands held 
together but the fingers not touching. North is the nearer; his obesity 
conceals much of Fox, his eyes are closed, he is fully dressed, his bag- 
wig dangling over the side of the tomb. Fox looks alert, his tongue hanging 
from his mouth. The tomb is inscribed, They were lovely in their lives and 
in their Death they were not divided. At the head of the tomb (r.) a cross- 
beam, forming a gallows inscribed The True Reward of Such Virtues^ rests 
on the capitals of two Corinthian columns. From it hang two nooses of 
rope; below, on a slab between the pillars, is inscribed. Thus Gamesters 
united in Friendship are found. 

Burke (1.) and Sheridan (r.) stand together in theatrical attitudes, 
Sheridan's arm across Burke's shoulder; each holds a handkerchief to his 
face. Large mourning-scarves are draped round their wide flat hats and 
over their shoulders. Burke, identified by the paper inscribed Sublime and 
Beautiful protruding from his pocket, says Alass; Under the best of K — gSy 
an allusion to his speech of 15 Apr. 1782, see No. 5979. A black-bordered 
locket dangles from his neck. Sheridan, identified by papers inscribed 
Theatrical Justice and The Critic^ says Ah Sure a Pair was never seen so 
justly form'd to meet by Nature. 

In the background are other tombs. A rectangular Gothic tomb, on 
which reclines a draped figure, is behind that of Fox and North. Against 
the wall (1.) behind Burke is a tomb sacred to . . . Virtues of Jemmy Twitcher 
(Lord Sandwich), it is ornamented by a trophy of crossed axes. A figure 
hanging from a gallows, part of a decorative wall-tablet, is inscribed Here 
Rests Watt Tyler. A large rectangular wall-tablet inscribed To the Glorious 
. . . of Jonathan Wilde^ is decorated by scourges, birch-rods, and a skull 
and cross-bones. 

One of many satires on the defeat of the Coalition; the date relates it 
especially to the dissolution, cf. No. 6476, &c. 

Published by I. Notice Oxford Road march 2f^ 17S4 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Pitt, at a City feast, is 
waited on by members of the Corporation. He sits in a chair looking 
towards Sir Watkin Lewes (1.), who kneels at his feet in profile to the r. 
holding up a plum-pudding in which is stuck a large leek, emblem of 
Wales. Pitt is very youthful, on the back of his chair are the letters WP. 
Behind him (r.) Wilkes advances holding a chamber-pot; he appears very 
old and toothless. Behind is a crowd of spectators, shaded to form a back- 
ground, none being conspicuous. The heads are much caricatured, their 
mouths wide open. Beneath the design is etched : 

The Chancillor Billy behold here is seated 

To tast a plum-pudding by Sir Watty Intreated, 



He Sticks on a leake^ more his fancy to please y 
And in hope of preferment is down on his knees. 

Squinting J k [Jack] as the C n [Chamberlain] row^^ in behind 

Supposing he may want to s te when he *s dine'dy 

He holds the utencil & thinks no disgrace — 
Lord! how folks are worshiped in power and place. 

Pitt was entertained three times in the City before the dissolution of 
Parliament, the famous occasion being on 28 Feb., when Lewes and Wilkes 
took a prominent part in his reception, see No. 6442. On 13 Mar. he 
dined at Goldsmiths* Hall and on 20 Mar. at the London Tavern. Cf. also 
No. 6538. For 'Plum Pudding Billy* cf. No. 6813. 
10^X71 in. 

[J. Boyne.] 

London Published March 28 y^ 1^84 by E. Hedges N° g2 Cornhill 

Engraving. A portrait of Burke, draped in a monkish robe and bald- 
headed; the bare toes of an enormous foot protrude from his gown. He is 
seated beside a rock (1.), on which he rests a book in which he is writing; 
his 1. hand is raised. 

For Burke as a Jesuit see No. 6026. A companion print to Nos. 6395, 
6396, 6433. 

6473 SFORZA 

by Rob: GomersalL 

Price 6^ 

Published 2g*^ March I784y by W*^ Leaky y6 Wood Street. 

Engraving. A copy of the title-page by T. Cecill to Gomersall's The 
Tragedie of Ludovick Sforza Duke of Millan. It decorates the centre of a 
plate engraved with words attacking Fox. A fox seated on a throne holding 
a sceptre, apparently unconscious of a lion (France) which stands be- 
hind him on its hind-legs and removes his crown. The lion (r.) holds a 
fleur-de-lis flag. In the foreground a fox (Sforza) is worrying a sheep; 
behind is a group of dead sheep. The fox is seated on rising ground beside 
a river, on the farther shore of which is a closely built town. At the bottom 
of the design is engraved, London. Printed for John Marriott. 1628. 
Tho: Cecill. sculp. 
Above the design is engraved : 

The following exact Copy of a Print published in the Year 1628 is offered 
for the Amusement of the Public With Sir Richard Hill's Verses delivered in 
the House of Commons on Monday the 8^^ of March iy84y entitling them 
His Majesty's most gracious Answer to the Mover of the late humblcy loyaly 
dutiful and respectful Address. 

Hill's verses are engraved on the 1. side of the print, with annotations on 
the r. ; they are printed in Pari. Hist. xxiv. 743-4. They profess to be 

^ a8 Mar. was Sunday, 



George Ill's answer to the Address to the king to remove his Ministers, 
moved by Fox on i Mar., which the king answered on 4 Mar. Ibid., 
pp. 699 ff. and 717-18. Hill's line, All hail to thee Great Carlo Khan! is 
annotated : Alluding to the print of M' Fox riding upon an Elephant in the 
character of Carlo Khan (see No. 6276). North answered Hill saying, 
*it was exactly that kind of idle nonsense about Carlo Khan, &c., that 
had misled the weak part of the country so strangely'. Ibid., p. 744. Cf. 
No. 6449. 

In the centre, beneath the print of Sforza, is engraved : 

A Fox thus mounted on a Throne^ 
Would give the People cause to moany 
But Freemen will by Englands Laws, 
Support their King & Pitts great cause. 

Cf. satires on Fox as Cromwell, No. 6380, &c. 
5JX3 in., pi. 9jxioin. 
Another impression without publication-line. 



Pu¥ March 29 1784 by M*"^ Dacheray S^ James's Street 

Engraving. A tall lean man stands addressing the populace in Covent 
Garden. His head is turned in profile to the 1., he grasps a long staff in his 
r. hand, his 1. is on his hip, and he wears a long sword attached to his belt. 
Behind him (1.), on a smaller scale, stands Lord Hood in admiral's uniform, 
a drawn sword in his r. hand, holding out his hat in his r. as if making a 
speech. He is saying Two faces under a Hood. No one appears to be listen- 
ing to the two orators. 

In the background (r.) is the portico of St. Paul's, Covent Garden. On 
it is a group of people, very freely suggested, one of whom, with hat held 
out and hand on breast, is addressing the crowd below; they look up at 
the speaker, some waving their hats ; one has a wooden leg and is supported 
on a crutch. They are supporters of Fox, their backs are turned to the two 
principal figures. 

The speech of the Drum Major (Major Cartwright) is etched below the 
title : 

All Gentlemen and others Electors for Westminster who are ready and will- 
ing to Surrender their rights and those of their Fellow Citizens to Secret 
Influence and the Lords of the Bedchamber let them repair to the Prerogative 
Standard lately erected at the Cannon Coffee House where they shall be kindly 
received untill their Services are no longer Wanted. This Gentlemen is the last 
time of Asking as we are determined to Abolish the power of the House of 
Commons y and in future be governed by Prerogative as they are in France and 

Gentlemen the Ambition of the enemy is now evident. Has he not within these 
few days past Stole the Great Seal of England, while the Chancellor was 
taking a Bottle with a female favoute [«c], as all great men do — I am informed 
Gent^ that the Enemy now assumes Regal Authority and by Virtue of the 
Great Seal {which he Stole) is creating of Peers and granting of Pensions. A 
most shamefull Abuse Gent^ of that Instrument. If you assist tis to pull down 



the House of Commons every person who hears me has a chance of becoming 

a Great Man if he is happy enough to hit the fancy of Lord B [Bute] of 

M^ J n [Jenkinson] . Huzza God Save the King — . 

The radical Major John Cartwright, Hke his friend Dr. Jebb who 
nominated Sir Cecil Wray on i Apr., was a strong opponent of the Coalition 
and of Fox's India Bill. F. D. Cartwright, Life and Corr. of Major Cart- 
wright^ 1826, i. 154. The irony of the burlesqued Pittite speech is increased 
by the identity of the speaker, the advocate of annual parliaments and 
manhood suffrage. For the alleged attack on the Commons cf. No. 6469, 
&c. For the theft of the Great Seal see No. 6466, &c. The first print 
on the Westminster Election; voting began on i Apr. This election, in 
which Hood and Wray, the Ministerial candidates, were opposed by Fox, 
becomes almost the sole subject of pictorial satire till after the close of the 
poll on 17 May. For the daily state of the poll see Appendix I. 

Grego, Rowlandsony i. 121. Small copy, Grego, Hist, of Parliamentary 
Elections f 1892, p. 267. 
9fx8f in. 


Pu¥ March 30*^ 1^84 by M" Dacheray S^ James's Street 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A scene outside 
Chelsea Hospital; the building (1.) is falling in ruins, columns from the 
pediment lie on the ground, and among them are the terrified pensioners 
fleeing from the debacle. Some lie prostrate, crushed by the pillars, others 
are escaping as best they can by the help of their sticks and crutches. In 
the distance (r.) Sir Cecil Wray is being mobbed by a group of maid- 
servants and by a pensioner who raises his crutch to smite. Two women 
attack him with brooms, one saying. Tax Servant Maids you brute, and 
starve poor Old Soldiers a fine Member of Parliament. Another woman 
empties a chamber-pot over his head. A dog barks at the fray. 

A Westminster election satire, see No. 6474, &c. For Wray (1734- 1805) 
see C. Dalton, Hist, of the Wrays of Glentworth, 1881, pp. 187 fiP. His 
proposals to abolish Chelsea Hospital and to tax the employers of maid- 
servants were highly damaging to him in the election. (He published an 
address to the electors of Westminster, explaining that he had no wish to 
reduce the pensions of the veterans, but had proposed to save expense by 
devoting all the money to pensions, the men to live where they pleased: 
^20 to each in-pensioner with an overplus to provide for 1,000 out- 
pensioners. Morning Post, 29 Mar. 1784.) For these proposals see also 
Nos. 6491, 6502, 6525, 6537, pp. 104, 113, 6576, 6586, 6590, 7892, 7894. 

The pencil sketch for this print is in the Print Room (201. c. 6/47). 

Grego, Rowlandsony i. 122. 



Pu¥ March jr^ 1784 by W. Humphrey 22y Strand 

Engraving. A scene in the House of Commons. Fox (1.), riding the British 
lion, faces Pitt riding the white horse of Hanover. In the centre, behind 



and between Pitt and Fox, is the Speaker's chair, empty. Above it are the 
Royal Arms, but in place of the British Lion, as the dexter supporter, are 
the words We shall resume our Situation here at pleasure Leo Rex, In place 
of the horse of Hanover in the fourth quarter is the word Strayed. Fox, 
with a whip in his r. hand, holds out a bridle towards Pitt saying. Prithee 
Billy dismount before ye get a fall — and let some abler Jockey take Your Seat. 
The lion says. If this Horse is not tamed he will soon be Absolute King of our 

Pitt is riding bareback holding the animal's mane, the horse kicks 
violently towards the members of the House of Commons who flee from 
its heels (r.) looking back in alarm. Its forefeet are planted on a document 
inscribed Magna Charta Bill of Rights Constitution-, its ears are back, 
its head viciously forward, and it is saying to Fox, Pre-ro-ro-ro-ro-ro-ro- 
rogative, while it is excreting towards the Commons, its tail streaming, 
emitting a blast inscribed My faithful Commons. Pitt, who is very slim, 
says to his mount. Bravo — Go it again — I love to ride a metal Steed Send 
the Vagabonds packing. 

In the rear of the fleeing Members is the Speaker (Cornwall) in back 
view, in his gown and wig, carrying the mace. Beneath the title is etched : 
A Scene in a New Play lately acted in Westminster with distinguished 
Applause. Act 2'^ Scene last. 

A satire on the dissolution of Parliament (prorogued 24 Mar., dissolved 
by proclamation on 25 Mar.). Similar in intention to Nos. 6436, 6469. 
See also Nos. 6470, 6477, 6538. 

A pencil sketch for this print, apparently by an amateur, is in the Print 
Room. Pitt is poorly drawn and the fleeing M.P.s are merely indicated. 
The inscriptions are given in full (201. c. 6/21). 

Reissued, Westminster Election^ p. 131. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 123 (reproduction). Reproduced, Grego, Hist, of 
Parliamentary Elections ^ 1892, p. 268. 

6477 THE RISING OF PA— LAMENT. [c. 31 Mar. 1784] 


Engraving. The interior of the House of Commons. The Speaker (1.) in 
his chair holds out both arms towards the bodies of Fox (1.) and North (r.), 
which hang from a gibbet inscribed Coalition. He says. This is a Dissolu- 
tion. A member seated (r.) says, / wish many Trees may bear such Fruit. 
Behind him Burke stands in a pillory saying. This is Sublime and Beautiful. 
One of several satires on the dissolution of Parliament on 25 Mar. 
See No. 6476, &c. 


W. D. [Dent.] 

Published, as the Act directSy by J. Ridgway, Piccadilly y Mar^ 31^^ ^7^4 

Engraving. Fox, as Guy Vaux on 5 Nov., is carried (1. to r.) in a chair 
resting on two poles by Hall, the apothecary, and Sam House, two of his 
prominent supporters in Westminster. Fox, who is smiling, holds in his r. 
hand a dark lantern inscribed Amor Patriae y in the 1. a bundle of matches 



labelled Far the new Parliament. Hall (r.), in profile to the r. wearing 
spectacles, in place of a hat has a pestle and mortar inscribed All Apothe- 
cary Drugs prepared, Sam is in his usual dress (see No. 5696) with open 
shirt and imgartered stockings, but wearing a hat in which is a large fox's 
brush and a favour inscribed Vatix. Beneath the design is etched in three 
columns on a scroll : 

Electors know no reason why 
They should not vote for Carlo Guy 
SaySf barnacled Doctor Capsicum 
And Sam^ the patriotic Scum^ 

So^ {as boysy you may remember ^ 
Parade the streets in November^) 
From door to door in doleful ditty 
Beg he may represent the City^ 

Declare Parliament he'll reform^ 
And other mighty deeds perform y 
Deeds y which in place he quite forgot 
But now he'll do them piping hot. 

A satire on the Westminster election, see No. 6471, &c. For the begin- 
ning of Fox's canvass see Nos. 6479, 6480. He published an advertisement 
dated 30 Mar., thanking the electors 'for the very flattering and generous 
assurances of support he has received on his canvass*, and apologizing to 
others. Morning Post ^'7,1 Mar.; Hist. West. Election, p. 132; and No. 6479. 
One of the few references to parliamentary reform in pictorial satire during 
this decade, cf. Nos. 5638, 5657, &c. (1780), 6575, 7480. For Fox as Guy 
Vaux see No. 6389, &c. 
7^X12 J in. 

6478 a a later impression (clipped), Ridgway's imprint erased and 
replaced by [Pub] by H Humphrey N'> 51 New Bond Str[eei\ 


Publish' d as the Act directs March 31 1^84 by H M'Phail High 
Holborn N 68 

Engraving. Sam House stands (centre) looking towards Fox (1.), who 
stands, his 1. hand in his pocket, as if about to bribe, holding out in his r. 
hand an object intended for the jaw-bone of an ass (cf . No. 6420) and say- 
ing, This shall do you justice. House holds erect a fox's brush from which 
streams a flag inscribed The Intripid Fox; his 1. hand in his pocket holds a 
bunch of ribbons for election favours. He says. He'll tip them his jaw. One 
of Fox's supporters stands on the r., a fox's tail and election favour in his 
hat, saying, He Will Make Me an East India Governor. A compact group 
of four is advancing from the extreme r., their leader, holding up a pennant 
to which is attached a fox's brush, says. And Fm to be A Captain; he also 
wears a favour and a fox's brush in his hat. Next him is a stout man wear- 
ing a cap, holding a foaming tankard inscribed Sam House ; one of the two 
behind is blowing a trumpet. Sam kept open house for Fox's supporters 
at his public house in Wardour Street, see No. 5696, &c. 

A satire on the Westminster election, see No. 6474, &c. Fox canvassed 



personally from door to door, and on 30 Mar. issued an advertisement 
apologizing to those on whom he had not yet had time to call : *he proposes 
to have the honour of waiting on them as early as possible*, see No. 6478. 
7fXi2f in. 


Publish' d as the Act directs by S. Fores N: 3 Piccadilly March 31 iy84 

Engraving. Fox, North, and Burke stand together (r.) addressing and 
feeding a number of geese representing the electors of Westminster (cf. 
No. 5843, &c.) while Pitt stands behind the geese (1.) saying, Ye Fools they 
are Wolves in Sheeps Cloathing I am your Guardian. North, in profile to 
the 1., holds a satchel under his 1. arm inscribed Treasury Grant; with his 
r. he scatters coins to the geese, saying. We Guard these Grains forYou, Fox 
stands beside him holding a List of Voters and saying 77/ promise any 
thing For your Votes. Behind and between them is Burke wearing a hat 
with an election favour and holding a flag inscribed For The Liberty of The 
Flock. Six of the ten geese are saying FoXy looking towards him, two are 
picking up coins, one turns round towards Pitt saying, but You Give no 
such Grains. 

One of several satires on the beginning of Fox's canvass, see No. 
6478, &c. 

W. D. [Dent.] 

Pub. March 31 1^84 by H. Humphrey, iV*' 31 New Bond Street.^ 

Engraving. A dog with three heads : that of Fox in the centre is larger 
than those of North (1.) and Burke (r.). Round its neck is a collar inscribed 
Coalition, fastened by the padlock of Interest; from the collar rise the 
Prince of Wales's feathers inscribed Ich dien. AH the mouths are open as 
if snarling. The animal's tail is a fox's brush inscribed Euphorbium alias 
stinking popularity, an allusion to the bag thrown at Fox on 14 Feb., see 
No. 6426, &c. 

The animal stands on guard before a closed door, probably intended for 
that of the Treasury, Portland being inscribed in an oval across the panels. 
Beneath this is a knocker composed of a mask of the faces of Fox and 
North, as in Sayers's famous satire, see No. 6234, with a ring in its mouth. 
The stone arch surrounding the door is decorated with emblems of the 
Coalition : the keystone is a mask of Cromwell ; on each side of it is an axe ; 
at the spring of the arch is the mask of Lord Derby (1.) and of Keppel 
(r.); both have horns; Derby is grinning and Keppel scowling. Beneath 
each mask is a noose of rope. 

One of several satires on the attempts of Fox to prevent the issue of 
money, &c., see No. 6380, &c.; the passing of the Mutiny Bill unopposed 
on 9 Mar., however, marks the end of these attempts, see No. 6461, &c. 
See No. 6507, a sequel. For Fox as Cromwell see No. 6380, &c. 

* Another imprint has been erased, cf . 6478 A. 



DEFEAT [n.d. c. Mar. 1784] 

Sold by W, Humphrey N° 22y Strand 

Engraving. A sequel to No. 6383 by the same artist. Fox (r.) stands 
addressing his downcast followers ; he rests his r. foot on a stone inscribed 
To reign is worth Ambition e'en in Hell; his r. hand is extended, in his 1. he 
holds the staff of Liberty, surmounted by its cap inscribed LibertaSy the 
word scored through. Behind him and falling into an abyss is a crown 
inscribed Paper Crown. By Fox's head are the words: 

What tho* the Field be lost all is not Lost 
th* Unconquerable Will & Study of Revenge 

Vide Milton Par^^ lost Book i^ 

The foremost of the forces of Satan is Burke (cf. No. 6361) who stands 
dejectedly, supporting himself on the staff of a reversed flag inscribed 
Moleck the Sublime & Beautifull. He wears a Jesuit's biretta (cf. No. 6026). 
Behind him, seated awkwardly on a rock, is North resting on the staff of 
a reversed flag inscribed Mammon. On his forehead is the letter N and 
encircling his arm is (incorrectly) a baron's coronet reversed. Between and 
behind North and Burke appear the heads of Sheridan and Keppel. 
Sheridan is in profile, his eye is closed, he wears a turban inscribed School 
for Scandal, beneath which appears an animal's ear(cf. No. 6281). Keppel's 
hat is inscribed 27 July, the accustomed gibe at the Battle of Ushant, see 
No. 5992, &c. Port}and stands behind North covering his face with his 
arms; he wears a ducal coronet and holds a standard (not reversed) 
inscribed Belial. Behind Portland kneels a man in Highland dress; he 
is probably Loughborough. Behind are other forms and faces, slightly 
indicated but expressive of despair. Clouds of smoke form a back- 
ground. Across them is inscribed Hell of Disappointment. Two small 
black creatures with barbed tongues fly upwards. 

The defeat of the Coalition was apparent by 9 Mar. when the annual 
Mutiny Bill was passed unopposed. See No. 6461, &c. 
9X13 J in. 

A print in the Guildhall Library, 


Engraving. Fox, as Satan, with webbed wings ascends through flames. 
A scroll is inscribed Method to dethrone the K . .g AD 1784. Beneath 
the design nine lines from Paradise Lost are engraved, beginning : 

As in a Cloudy Chair ascinding rides 

For Fox as Satan cf. No. 6383, &c.; for his ambitions. No. 6380, &c. 



OUT OF OFFICE [? c. Mar.-Apr. 1784] 


Engraving (coloured impression). Probably from a book or pamphlet. A 
design in two compartments ; in both Fox is making a speech, his hat in 
his 1. hand. On the r. he stands in front of a small arc of colonnade as in 



No. 6287 (3). He points before him with his open hand. Beneath the title 
is etched : Commit him to Newgate! Own Sentiments! — Government must be 
supported! Necessity! 

On the 1. he is shouting, his r. arm raised and his fist clenched. Behind 
him is the wall of a strongly built prison with a barred window, probably 
intended for a debtors' prison, cf. Nos. 6460, 6540, 6558, 6567. Beneath 
the title is etched: Rights of the People! Constitution! — Constituents! — 
Corrupt influence! — Impeachment! Charter -Rights! 

For a similar satire on Fox in and out of office see No. 6207, &c. 


[? £:. Mar .-Apr. 1784] 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox, North, and Burke form a recruit- 
ing party: North stands (c.) holding a pike, his hand on his hip, saying. 
All gentlemen Voluntiers who will serve his Majesty Carlo Khan^ repair to 

the Portland Blocky or the Sign of the Duke . On his high grenadier's 

cap is the word Coalition ; a fox's brush hangs from it and on its summit 
is a fox suspended above the points of a compass like a weathercock, the 
fox pointing to N. Fox (r.) beats a drum saying. Present Pay^ good 
Quarters and a handsome Landlady (the Duchess of Devonshire). Burke 
(1.), taking a ragged recruit by the hand, addresses him with raised fore- 
finger : Join the Coalition and you shall he cloathed; the recruit says, Serjeant 
Kite & Corporal Trim for ever! Burke wears a Jesuit's biretta (cf. No. 
6026) decorated with a fox's brush and the words Sublime & Beautiful. 

This satire probably relates to Fox's canvass for Westminster, see No. 
6474, &c. Cf. a squib quoted in Westminster Election^ p. 244: 'To-day 
M^ Fox and his Company will perform "The Recruiting Officer" [by 
Farquhar]. The part of Captain Brazen by M^ Fox, that of Serjeant 
Kite by Sam House, and the other characters as usual.' For Carlo Khan 
see Nos. 6276, 6473, &c. 

6485 [THE STATE OF THE NATION] [1784^] 
Published as the Act directs 

Engraving. (No title.) George III and Pitt pull down Britannia from a 
platform supported on two pillars : Constitution and Commons of England. 
Both pillars are broken, Pitt puts his foot on that of the * Commons'. The 
king (r.) kneels on one knee in profile to the 1. pulling at a ribbon, inscribed 
Frenzy of the People ^ which is attached to Britannia's chair; Pitt also pulls 
at the ribbon, holding out to the king, whom he faces, a bust portrait of a 
king inscribed Sweden. Fox (1.), standing on a platform lower than that 
of Britannia, tries vainly to prevent her fall, holding her hand. His plat- 
form is inscribed The Principals that raised the House of Hanover and is 
supported on three columns, each inscribed Whigism. The distressed 
Britannia drops her staff and cap of Liberty and her shield; she grasps 
three documents : Magna [Ch]artay Bill of Rights^ and Habea[s] Corpus. 

* Another impression has the title (as above) and 'July i by J. Wjsen Walbrooke 
— 1784' written in an old hand. 



The high back of her chair is decorated with three feathers inscribed 
respectively Ireland^ East Indies^ America. A number of rats inscribed Jack 
Robinson (see No. 6427, &c.) nibble at the bases of the broken pillars of the 
'Constitution' and the 'Commons'. A number of shields, each inscribed 
with a name, rise behind Fox and above the king. Those of Fox contain 
the names of the Whig magnates who supported the Coalition, those over 
the king the names of those who actively supported Pitt. The former are : 
FitzzvilliamSy Carlisle^ Surryy Manchester^ Pelham^ Conwayy Hertford^ 
Tozvnshend, Portland, Powis, Mansfield [James], ^ Saville,^ Masham, 
Stormonty Marlborough, Derby, Cavendish, Spencer. The latter are Jebb, 
Jenkinson, Galoway, Bute, Mason (with a bishop's mitre), M'^Crief, Price, 
Trotman, Shelburn, Temple, Wilks 45, Muir Atkinson. Against Wilkes* 
shield is Es^ on Woman. 

Pitt holds out to the king a portrait of Gustavus III to incite him to a 
coup d'etat, similar to that by which in 1772 Gustavus had altered the 
Swedish constitution (from a weak and despotic republic into a strong and 
(temporarily) limited monarchy, see No. 8101), by means of 'popular 
frenzy' (cf. No. 6438, &c.). The loss of Ireland and India as well as 
of America is prophesied. The absence of North from among the (Whig) 
supporters of Fox indicates the unpopularity of the Coalition, while 
Radical names (Jebb, Mason, Price, Shelbume, Wilkes) indicate the nature 
of the opposition to Fox. The mitre implies that Mason's support of 
Pitt is due to hopes of preferment. (Mason had publicly declared that 
he would not accept a bishopric. Walpole, Letters, xiii. 126-7.) With 
these are included the obscure (Fiennes Trotman, M.P. for Northampton ; 
'M^Crief ' is perhaps intended for Mackreth, 'Bob', ex-waiter of White's, 
and usurer), as well as notorious 'king's friends' (Bute and Jenkinson). 
Richard Atkinson was a partner in Mure and Atkinson, see Trial of Lord 
Melville, 1806, p. 109, &c. For other anti-Pitt satires see No. 6436, &c. 
For the title cf. No. 5479, &c. 
7JgX8f in. 


Pu¥ i'^ April, 1784. by W. Humphrey N"* 22y Strand 

Engraving. George III supported in the air by Thurlow (1.) and Pitt and 
Temple (r.) who are themselves floating and held up by air-balloons. The 
king is excreting a blast inscribed. Proclamation for Dissolution from a 
Broad Bottom', this expands into clouds which obscure the upper part of a 
building immediately below, representing the House of Commons. The 
clouds are inscribed R — y — / Inflammable Air. Thurlow, in Chancellor's 
wig and gown, who holds the king under the r. leg, is inscribed Neighbours 
I Have Lost the Seal (see No. 6467, &c.). Two circular balloons above his 
head are attached to cords which pass round his shoulders, one inscribed 
Wishes of the People, the other Air Balloons. Identical balloons on the 
other side of the design support Temple and Pitt, that of Pitt being 
inscribed Wishes of the People (cf. No. 6438, &c,). The king looks up with 
a melancholy frown, his r. fist raised and clenched. The faces of his three 
supporters express melancholy and concern. Temple wears a temple- 
shaped head-dress inscribed Temple. 

On the ground, behind the House of Commons (1.), is a band of men, on 

* Probably, he was one of Fox's martyrs ; possibly Lord Mansfield, see Walpole. 
Letters, xiii, p. 108. ^ Sir George Savile died 10 Jan. 1784. 



a very small scale, holding a flag inscribed Firm. The three centre figures 
in the front rank are Fox (c.) with Burke (1.) wearing a Jesuit's biretta (cf. 
No. 6026) and North (r.) wearing his Garter ribbon. Rays of light emanate 
from the band until they are obliterated by the heavy clouds issuing from 
the king. In the foreground (r.) lies a minute British lion, muzzled and 

A satire on the dissolution of Parliament, see No. 6476, &c. For other 
anti-Pitt satires see No. 6436, &c. At this time 'air-balloons' were adver- 
tised for sale, the sending up of small ones was a craze : 'They are now 
become a common spectacle in most parts of our island', London Magazine, 
1784, p. 159; see also p. 76. For the King as 'Solomon' cf. No. 7525. 


Published as the Act directs April r* 1^84 by H. Humphries N" 51 
New Bond Street. 

Engraving. Sam House (1.) and the Duchess of Devonshire (r.) sit in 
profile facing each other, a barrel between them, each raising a foaming 
tankard, one inscribed Sam House (see No. 5696), the other Devonshire. 
Sam holds in his r. hand a torn paper inscribed Sure Votes. Over his head 
is a flag inscribed Fox and Liberty. The Duchess wears a large favour at 
her breast inscribed Fox. In the background are the hustings with an 
election crowd, behind which is a crude representation of the portico of 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden, with its clock, beneath which is inscribed Sic 
Trancit Gloria Mundi. Polling began in Westminster on i Apr., see Nos. 
6474, 6478, &c. For the Duchess and Sam cf . Nos. 6529, 6539, 6548, 6577. 


Publish' d r^ April iy84 as the Act directs. P^ r. 

Engraving. The head and shoulders and the scythe of Time appear 
above a large open book which he holds. On its 1. page is the Knave of 
Clubs with the head of Fox; behind his feet is inscribed Pam be Civil. On 
the r. page is the Knave of Hearts with the head of North. On the lower 
edges of the book are Fox (1.) and North. The book rests upon two cliffs, 
between which is a ravine into which it will fall when it is closed and across 
which the title is etched. Time's hour-glass stands beside the book (r.); 
he is the conventional figure with wings and a scythe. Pam connotes the 
Knave of Clubs (see No. 6556). 

One of many satires on the defeat of the Coalition, see No. 6399, &c. ; 
its date relates it with the elections, see No. 6478, &c. For Fox as Knave 
of Clubs see also Nos. 6976, 8144. 


Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine. George III (1.) and Fox with 
a fox's head (r.) stand each trying to pull the crown away from the other. 
The king says, Ungratefull Monsters; Fox, Let me have this and Fll be 



satisfied. North stands beside Fox, putting his hand on the crown; he looks 
through his eye-glass saying, Let us have it between us. Pitt (1.) pulls at the 
king's coat-tails saying, Their Ambition knows no bounds. 

One of many satires on the ambition of Fox to acquire the prerogatives 
of the Crown, cf. Nos. 6276, 6380, &c. 

5fX3f in. 

RACTER OF A MOTHER. [i Apr. 1784] 

Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine, The Duchess, seated by a 
cradle, nurses an infant. The Duke sits beside her holding out a small 
saucepan. On the ground beside him is a large book. Treatise on getting 
and nursing of Children by the Duke of D. In front of a large fire are towels 
hanging on a line. On the chimney-piece are a statuette of a Madonna and 
Child, vases of flowers, and a jug. On the panelled wall above an oval 
mirror hangs a picture of a pelican with her young. A bird-cage hangs 
from the wall. 

The Duchess's reputed neglect of her infant while canvassing for Fox 
was a favourite subject of satire, see Westminster Election^ p. 234, and No. 
6546. Inspired by Rousseau, it was said, she nursed her own children, *a 
maternal duty wholly neglected by our fashionable Dames'. Pigott, 
Female Jockey Club^ 1794, P- 16. For the Westminster election see No. 
6474, &c. 
5^X3! in. 


Annibal Scratch Fecit. [? Collings.] 

Published April 2*^ iy84 by Wilh Wells N° 132 Fleet Street 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Sir Cecil Wray stands 
between a Chelsea pensioner (1.), who threatens him with a crutch and a 
clenched fist, and a servant-maid (r.), who threatens him with a broom. 
Wray, hands deprecatingly outstretched, turns his head in profile towards 
the furious pensioner, who has a wooden leg and a bandaged eye. The 
maid stands on a paper inscribed Tax on Servants \ close behind her (r.) 
is a door over which is inscribed Register Off [ice] for Maid Serv[ants]. The 
door is padlocked and placarded. This House to be Let. 

Behind is the river with the fa9ade of Chelsea Hospital falling in ruins. 
In the centre, above Wray's head, a broom and crutch, tied with ribbon, 
are irradiated. Beneath the design is etched : 

Sir Cecil Wr Sir Cecil Wr 

What a strange game it is you play 
To keep y' seat which Charley gave^ 
You call your worthy Patron knave! 
To ease the crippled Vefrans cares 
You pull their home about their ears 
And all the pretty Maids to sarve. 
You turn them out of doors to starve. 

One of many satires on Wray's unlucky financial proposals, see No 



6475, &c. For his election in 1782 as Fox's nominee see No. 5998. For 
this he was called Judas, see No. 6492, &c. 

Reissued, Westminster Election, p. 304. 
8xi2| in. 


Pub by Giles Brush the Foxite April 2 1^84 

Engraving (partly coloured). Wray stands holding in front of him a large 
guinea, representing his coat of arms ; the supporters are, dexter, the Devil 
(1.) and, sinister, a figure dressed as Folly who represents Jackson, steward 
to the Duke of Newcastle and one of Wray's election committee. Wray 
holds a ladder, emblem of the back stairs, see No. 6417, &c.; in his r. hand, 
which rests on the guinea, is a conspirator's dark lantern. Judas is inscribed 
across his hat in large letters. He says : Talk not to me of Ghosts me thought 
I saw T , . . .rs Ghost, who haunts my Guilty conscience (probably Sir 
Charles Turner, d. 1783, one of the most respected of the Rockingham 

On the monstrous guinea are the royal arms reversed and burlesqued: 
the leopards resemble monkeys, the lion has a barbed tail. Round the edge 
is inscribed The Golden Key or Secret Influence. The Devil, nude with 
horns, hoofs, and barbed tail, is kneeling; he says, Judas my child be not 
fearfull of Your election you are certain of my Vote, tho but a Lodger Lord. 
(Lord Mountmorres, one of the most determined enemies of Fox, was 
asserted in a Foxite handbill of 16 Apr. to be a lodger in a hotel, not a 
householder. Westminster Election, p. 106; Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iii. 
297.) Jackson (H.L.) has satyr's ears and a barrel in place of a hat; he is 
dressed as a zany or pierrot, in his r. hand is a rattle. Across his back is 
inscribed : The Scrub & Beer Butler to the Duke of N — c — stle & Public 
Fool to Judas Iscari[ot]. Beneath the design is etched: From such evils 
Good Lord Deliver us. 

One of many election satires on Sir Cecil Wray. He was called Judas 
for opposing Fox who had brought him in for Westminster in 1782, see 
Westminster Election, pp. 138, 141, 143, &c., and Nos. 6491, 6502, 6510, 
p. 113, 6574, 6576, 6578, 6586, 6589, 6621. 

In the Guildhall Library is the proof of a print — no title except words 
issuing from the mouth of the Devil: Wray & Hood hanging from the Key 
of the Back Stairs with Small Beer etc. (cf. Nos. 6492, 6562, &c.). 


[? Collings.] 

Published April 3^ 1^84 by Wells N^ 132 fleet SK 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). The Duchess of 
Devonshire, followed by two other ladies, canvasses a fat butcher. The 
butcher stands holding the duchess's 1. hand in his 1. hand, while he wipes 
his mouth on his sleeve and leers jovially towards her. The duchess, in 
profile to the 1., bends towards him, her r. hand raised. She has a fox's 
brush in her hat, which is inscribed Fox ; her skirts are looped up, showing 



half-boots, and she advances with a masculine stride. Behind her walk 
two ladies arm in arm, both wearing Fox favours at the breast; one is 
probably the duchess's sister. Lady Duncannon, the other one of the 
'select party of the finest women in England' who generally accompanied 
the duchess, including Mrs. Crewe and the Ladies Waldegrave. West- 
minster Election^ pp. 258, 299, &c. Others were Lady Archer, Mrs. 
Bouverie, Mrs. Sheridan, *the Keppels', ibid., pp. 246, 259, 299; Cornwallis 
Corr., i. 166. See also No. 6494. One (r.) turns her head to kiss an artisan 
wearing an apron, while she slips a purse into his hand. 

The butcher stands outside a butcher's stall, across the front of which 
another butcher leans, knife in hand, grinning; he says. By George Fd kiss 
the Dutchess. A block and axe stand in front of the stall. The scene is 
probably St. James's Market. 

The first direct satire on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devonshire 
for Fox, but see No. 6487; polling began on i Apr., see No. 6474, &c. 
For the results of her canvass see No. 6588, &c. 

Reproduced, Stokes, Devonshire House Circle y p. 198. 
8^Xi2f in. 

[Rowlandson.] [3 Apr. 1784]' 

Pu¥ by W. Humphrey, 22y. Strand. 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire embraces a good-looking young 
butcher, their lips are about to meet; her r. arm is round his shoulders, 
with her 1. hand she slips a purse into his breeches pocket. His r. hand is 
on her waist. Behind him is the butcher's stall with joints of meat, a 
chopping-block, and cleaver. The stall partly conceals the Duchess of 
Portland holding by the shoulders another young butcher who turns his 
back and rejects her overtures. The ladies wear riding-habits and hats 
trimmed with ostrich feathers and a fox's brush with a large Fox favour. 
Beneath the title: Requesting the favour of an early Poll. 

One of many satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devonshire, 
see No. 6493, &c. Cf. a Foxite squib quoted in Westminster Election, 
p. 193, where 'Fox's three friends' are Georgiana the Devonite, Dorothy the 
Portlandite, and Harriet the Duncannonite. For the Duchess of Portland 
see No. 6539. 

Grego, Rowlandson^ i. 124. 


A print in the Guildhall Library, 


[Apr. 1784] 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox stands between two women saying 
despairingly AlVs lost. They wear fox-brushes and favours; each puts a 
hand in his pocket. Their identity is shown by two signposts : Road to 
D — cannon (1.) and Road to Devonshire (r.). 

One of many coarse satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devon- 
shire, see No. 6493, &c. Fox's prospects at first seemed hopeless, see 
No. 6500, &c., and Appendix I. 

7|Xiof in. 

* Dated by Mr. Hawkins and Grego. 




Pu¥ April 4^^ 1784 by W. Humphry AT^ 22y Strand. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Two T.Q.L. figures: 
Doctor Monro (1.) in profile to the r. inspects Fox through an eye-glass 
held in his 1. hand. Fox, in a strait jacket, his face distraught (stressed by 
his dishevelled hair), his arms folded, sings : 

My Lodging is on the Cold ground and very hard is my Case 
But that which grieves me most is the Loosing of my Place. 

Monro says. As I have not the least hope of his Recovery Let him be removed 

among the Incurables — M o. Dr. John Monro was physician to Bedlam. 

Beneath the design is etched : 

Dazzled with hope He could not see the Cheat 

Of aiming with impatience to be great — 

With wild Ambition in his heart we find 

Farewell content and quiet of his mind 

For Glittering Clouds he left the solid Shore 

And wonted happiness returns no more. 

One of many satires on the fall of the Coalition, cf. No. 6489. See also 
Nos. 6496, 6500, &c. 

Grego, Rowlandson^ i. 124. 
7|Xii in. 

6496 [FOX IN BEDLAM.] [?Apr.] 
/ C^ 1784 [? Cniikshank.] 

Publishd according to Act of Parliament 

Engraving. (No title.) Fox reclines on a blanket laid on straw, clad only 
in breeches and a pair of unlatched shoes. He wears a crown made of 
twisted straw and in his r. hand is a bunch of straw which he holds as 
a sceptre. Sam House stands (1.) outside a thin partition putting his head 
through a small rectangular aperture to look at Fox; he says, Ah poor 
Charley I thought it would come to this. Fox says. Do you not behold friend 
Sam I have obtained the height of all my wishes. 

See No. 6495. Fox despaired of success during the early part of the 
Westminster Election, see No. 6500, &c. For Fox*s ambitions see No. 
6380, &c. 
7x91 in. (pL). 

6497 CARLO KAN [?Apr.] 
/C2 J7^^[?Cruikshank.] 

Publish' d according to Act of Parliament. 

Engraving. Fox standing, his waistcoat and breeches partly unbuttoned 
to show his ruptured person which he is holding with both hands. Beneath 
the title is etched. This State Tinker in Sundry pursuits not for fame but 
Cashy at last undertook to cajole the Westminster Electors; the task being 
severe and straining to excess Poor Carlo became Bursen, & altho several 

^ Title from Grego. ^ The first letter may be T or J. 

81 G 


medical people of little fame were calVd m, B d zvith the rest declared it 

a ruptured case and incurable. 

Probably published when Fox's defeat at Westminster seemed certain, 
see No. 6500, &c. Carlo Khan was the name given to Fox in Sayers's 
famous print, see Nos. 6276, 6473, &c. The doctor is probably William 
Bromfield, surgeon to the Lock Hospital, &c., see D.N.B. 



[? C.Apr. 1784] 

Engraving. Probably cut from a book. Fox stands, looking to the 1., 
dressed as Harlequin, his club thrust through his belt. He has a long thin 
horizontal moustache. His shoulders are raised as if in a shrug; his r. elbow 
is close to his side, his hand held out deprecatingly. The background is a 
landscape with trees. 

Perhaps relates to the Westminster Election, cf. No. 6500, &c. See 
No. 6424. 

6499 ANY— BAD— SHILLINGS! [? c. Apr. 1784] 

Engraving. Fox as a Jew money-changer or trafficker in bad money (for 
which Jews were notorious, see Colquhoun, Police of the Metropolis ^ 1796). 
His arms are folded, a sack or large bag is held under his r. arm; he looks 
out of the corners of his eyes to his r., frowning. He has a beard, a large 
three-cornered hat, an overcoat with a double cape over the shoulders, 
striped and ungartered stockings, and flat shapeless shoes or slippers tied 
with strings. There are large patches on all his garments, his shoes, and 
his sack. 

Perhaps relates to the Westminster Election, cf. No. 6500, &c. 

[J. Boyne.] 

Published Aprill 5. 1784 by H, MacPhail N° 68 High Holborn. 

Engraving. Fox, a ragged beggar, is barked at by two dogs (1.). Beneath 
the title is engraved, / am grown so Unfashionable that Dogs bark at me 
as I halt by them. He stands full-face, gazing disconsolately to the 1. 
He wears a ragged coat fastened by one button, but exposing his hairy 
chest. His hands are plunged into the bottomless pockets of his tattered 
breeches, his stockings hang round his ankles; he has only one shoe, 
unfastened, through which his toes protrude. A line of trees beside a path 
leading to a gate suggests St. James's Park. 

At the beginning of the Westminster Election, see No. 6474, &c., Fox 
despaired of success. On 7 Apr. he wrote, 'Worse and worse, but I am 
afraid I must not give it up, though there is very little chance indeed.' 
Russell, Corr. of C.J. Fox, ii. 267. See Appendix I and cf. Nos. 6495, 6496, 
6497, 6498, 6499. 5 Apr., when Fox was *in great jeopardy', was 'the 
great push' in Westminster. Cornwallis Corr. i. 165. For Fox as a beggar 
cf. also Nos. 6578, 6624. 




[? J. Barrow.] 

Pu¥ by H. Humphrey. April 5 1784. N" 51 New Bond Street, 

Engraving. Pitt (1.) and Fox (r.) are engaged in a cudgelling match. Fox 
holds out the mace (which has more resemblance to a sceptre), but it is 
broken by a blow from the staff held by Pitt (which resembles that held 
by the king in No. 6504). On Fox's arm is a shield inscribed Resolutions ^ on 
that of Pitt is one inscribed Addresses. The allusion is to the resolutions 
against Pitt's ministry moved by Fox in the House of Commons (see No. 
6380, &c.) and to the great number of loyal addresses which were made 
to the king thanking him for the dismissal of Fox and appointment of Pitt, 
satirically designated 'popular frenzy', see No. 6438, &c. The background 
is the lower part of a building showing three sash-windows drawn like an 
architect's elevation. 

Cf. an election advertisement by Hood and Wray: *M^ Fox has upheld 
the House of Commons against the Freeholders, Electors, and people of 
Great Britain, in the case of the Middlesex Election, and in all the late 
important questions in Parliament.' Westminster Election^ P- 95• 


/ C [Cruikshank.] 

Pu¥ 5^* April 1784. 

Engraving. Sir Cecil Wray is cudgelled by two Chelsea pensioners; 
another hurries towards the fray on crutches. A maid-servant (1.) is about 
to strike him with a mop, saying, /'// souse him, a Dog, Tax Maid Servants, 
ha! ; a bucket stands behind her. One of the pensioners (1.) raises a (broken) 
wooden leg to strike; his r. sleeve is empty and is held to his coat by a 
hook; he has a patch over one eye. The other, who is being tackled by 
Wray, has a wooden leg, and a wooden r. arm raised to strike. In the back- 
ground sits a fourth pensioner, cheering on the others, waving his hat and 
a crutch; his wooden leg has been broken off for use against Wray. 

One of a number of satires against Wray for his proposals to abolish 
Chelsea Hospital and tax maid-servants, see No. 6475, &c., and for his 
desertion of Fox, for which he was called Judas, see No. 6492, &c. Cf. 
Westminster Election, p. 95, an ironical defence of Wray on these three 
charges. A genuine defence, dated 29 Mar., is quoted on p. 89. See also 
ibid., pp. 145, 288. 


ERECTED 1784. 

Pu¥ Aprill 6 1784 by J Wallis N° 16 Ludgate Street. 

Engraving. The roof of a building, showing the upper part of a row of 
windows, on which is an enormous weathercock, the vanes of which are 
the heads of Fox and North. On the roof rests a die; above this are the 



four points of the compass below a dice-box which supports a second die 
from which project the two heads. That of North is in profile to the r. with 
a long fox's brush protruding horizontally to N. From Fox's mouth pro- 
trudes a barbed dart pointing to E; he says : Oh that I had never turn'd 
my face towards the East-In'^*^"^, Spiked on the weathercock is a card : 
Knave of Hearts, cf. No. 5962. 

One of many satires on the Coalition and the East India Bill, see Nos. 
6271, 6368, &c. It indicates Fox's plight, see No. 6500, &c. Cf. The 
Political Weathercocky No. 6230. 


J: B n 

Pub: by W, Stafford Oxford Mar* Ap 6 1784 

Engraving (coloured impression). A figure divided vertically from the 
crown of the head, composed half of Lord Hood (1.) and half of Sir Cecil 
Wray (r.), the two Ministerial candidates for Westminster, stands on the 1. 
On the r., and on a smaller scale, the king drives two electors towards 
Hood and Wray. That part of the candidate who represents Hoo4 is 
dressed in naval uniform, and holds out a flag resembling an ensign, from 
which half of the St. Andrew's cross is missing; on it is a broken sceptre. 
Wray's half is dressed in military uniform (he was a captain in the Lincoln- 
shire militia), and holds a long spear, on the point of which sits a bird 
intended for a magpie but with more resemblance to a dove. The king 
wears his Garter ribbon and star, a crown is suspended above his head ; in 
his r. hand he holds a staff identical with that used by Pitt in a cudgelling 
match against Fox, see No. 6501. (It has two circular knobs at the butt- 
end, and a cross-piece near the tip.) He says : / am resolved to have a P 1 

[Parliament] of my own Chusing see therefore that you Vote as I have Com- 
manded. The two electors advance reluctantly towards the candidate, 
saying : 

Thus are we Driven to Vote for Hood & Wray 
Our Tongues say Yes but our hearts say nay. 

For the Westminster Election see No. 6474, &c. 

6505 THE MASK 

Pub^ as the Act directs April 6'* 1^84 

Engraving. Design in an oval. A candidate, hat in hand, obsequiously 
addresses an election mob from a hustings. He wears a mask, which covers 
his face, representing features set in a smile. He is in profile to the r., over 
his eye is a black patch. He bends forward, holding out his r. hand; in his 
pocket is a paper inscribed Bribe. The hustings is inscribed Land of 
Promise. Behind it and between his legs is a crowd of heads and hats. In 
the distance are two lamp-posts; each has a man astride on the lamp- 
bracket, waving his hat; a dead dog or cat flies through the air. Beneath 
the oval is inscribed in a rectangle Hypocrisy ofi the Hustings. 

Perhaps the generalized representation of a candidate; he has some 
resemblance to Sir Cecil Wray, see No. 6475, &c. 



Published by E. Hedges N g2 Cornhill April 6'* 1784 

Engraving. North as Bacchus sits astride a cask, in front of which Fox lies 
on his back, his mouth under the wine which pours from a hole in the 
cask. North is naked, his hair and person garlanded with grapes and vine- 
leaves, a garland crossing his shoulder in place of his Garter ribbon. He 
says. Friend of mine; in his r. hand is a bunch of grapes, in his 1. a wine- 
bottle whose contents he is pouring upon Fox. 

Similar in intention to earlier satires on the Coalition, cf. Nos. 6213, 
6235, &c. 

W, D [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs by T, Brown, Rathbone Place, Apr^ 7. 1784. 

Etching. A sequel to No. 6481. A view of Temple Bar, with the heads 
upon it, much larger than life, of North (1.), Fox (c), and Burke (r.) whose 
spectacles have fallen off and rest on the top of the arch. Each head wears 
a wig. In three niches (in place of the two on the real Temple Bar) are the 
headless bodies of the three: that of North (1.), standing stiffly in profile 
to the r., is inscribed Avarice; that of Fox is a fox standing on its hind legs 
inscribed Ambition; that of Burke (r.) dressed as a Jesuit (cf. No. 6026) in a 
monk's robe, with a rosary hanging from his waist, and wearing sandals, 
standing stiffly in profile to the I., is inscribed Hypocrisy. 

Above the niches are the royal arms, reversed and burlesqued : they are 
in a circle resembling a guinea (cf. No. 6492); in place of the horse of 
Hanover is a fox ; the supporters are (dexter) Britannia with three feathers 
in her helmet, indicating the Prince of Wales; and (sinister) a female 
figure (r.) whose head is irradiated. The lion stands upon a broken crown. 
Beneath is the motto. Evil be to them that Evil think. The archway beneath 
the niches is closed by a spiked gate, almost covered by a placard : 


Since People in gerCral agree 
This place should have fit Members three 
{ Whigs, who for so high a station. 
Have proved their qualification,) 
Where they, pro bono publico. 
The Crows their parts so rare may show. 
And the Nation serve most truly 
Elected I return ^em duly. 
returning officer 

On each side of the arch bills are posted; on the 1. two play-bills : At the 
Kings Theatre by his Majesty* s Servants, The Patriots with The Triumph of 
Virtue. Below this is. At the little Theatre by a Strolling Company will be 
attempted Oliver Cromwell.^ after the play a dance of furies by Reynard, 
Boreas and Omer with the Mock Patriot which will be performed in a masterly 

* Oliver Cromwell, an historical play by G. S. Green, pub. 1752, was never 



manner. On the r. : D^ Ax undertakes to cure the most confirmed Disorders j 
by three doses y and to restore the Constitution to perfect Health. . . . Beneath 
this is, Your Votes are desired for Edmund^ Frederic y Charles Cerberus (see 
No. 6481). 

One of many prints in which Fox is compared to Cromwell, see No. 
6380, &c. For Burke as Edmund St. Omer cf. No. 5251. Cf. also Nos. 
5660, 5661 (1780) where the heads on Temple Bar are those of North, 
Sandwich, and Germain. For the results of the election cf. No. 6516. 


[J. Boyne.] 

Published Aprill 7, 1784 by H. Humphrey N^ 31 New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). North and Fox as 
invalids sit (1.) close together in arm-chairs, both wearing dressing-gowns, 
instead of coats, and night-caps. A man approaches them from the r. hold- 
ing in each hand a bowl of soup in which are frogs ; one frog falls to the 
ground, two others sit on the floor. He holds his hat under his arm; he 
has a chain of alternate wine-bottles and glasses across his shoulder in 
place of a ribbon and, in place of a star, a medallion inscribed Never Tired 
on which is a gridiron (the emblem of the Beef Steak Club); he wears a 
sword. Fox and North have expressions of melancholy discomfort; Fox 
places a hand on his chest saying, Oh ... Oh ... Oh I shall never get my 
Strength again; North says, will this Bouillon give me a new Majority in the 
house. The man with the soup, whose French nationality is indicated by 
the frogs but not by his appearance or dress, says, yes Yes my dear Friends 
it will mend your Constitutions Apace. 

Godefroi Charles Henri, due de Bouillon (d. 1792), was in England 
1783-4. Fanny Burney quotes (9 Dec. 1783) a mot of Walpole on 'the 
duke who tries to pass for an Englishman and calls himself M'" Godfrey. 
But I think says M^ Walpole, he might better take an English title and call 
himself the Duke of Mutton Broth'. Diary y ii. 237. Cf. Walpole, Letters, 
xiii. 68-9. The due de Bouillon, according to a Foxite newspaper para- 
graph, *has interested himself very zealously in M^ Fox's cause'. West- 
minster Electiony pp. 309-10. He and the Due de Chartres were said to be 
'constant attendants in Covent Garden'. Ibid., p. 305. See also Ann. Reg.y 
17^4-5. p. 183. 
iif X8f in. 


[Apr. 1784^] 
[? I. Cruikshank.] 

To be had in the East & in the West, price 6^ 

Engraving. Sir Watkin Lewes, riding (1. to r.) on a galloping goat, turns 
his head full face saying, / hope I shall have better luck than I had at 
Worcester. He holds a leek above his head, another leek is in his hat. He 
was defeated for Worcester at the general election of 1774 and was elected 
' So dated by Miss Banks. 


for the City of London on the death of George Hayley, 30 Aug. 178 1. 
Beneath the title is etched : 

iS*" Watty he visits his Friends in full Speedy 
With hopes in his Canvass that he may succeed^ 
Should he be thrown out^ 'twere a wonderful Pity 
For another Knight like him is not in the City, 

Lewes had taken a prominent part in opposition to Fox's India Bill and 
in support of Pitt, see No. 6442. The poll for the City closed on 6 Apr., 
Lewes being the second of the four members elected. London Chronicle, 
6 Apr. 1784. 


Pu¥ April 8^^ iy84 by W Humphrey N" 22y Strand 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). The three candidates 
for Westminster, see No. 6474, &c. : Fox stands (c), his hand on his breast, 
his 1. arm outstretched holding his hat, his mouth open as if speaking; 
he is inscribed Demosthenes. Lord Hood (1.) stands directed to the r., his 
hands crossed on the head of his cane ; he is Themistocles. Sir Cecil Wray 
(r.), his arms folded, looks over his r. shoulder with a sly expression; he 
is Judas Iscariot. 

One of many satires on Wray for his desertion of Fox, see No. 6492, &c. 
See also No. 6545. The figure of Hood is copied in No. 7341. 

The plate is the frontispiece to the ist edition of the Westminster 
Election; in the 2nd edition, where No. 6599 is the frontispiece, it faces p. i. 

Grego, Rowlandsony i. 124-5 (reproduction). Reproduced, Grego, Hist, 
of Parliamentary Elections y 1892, p. 266. 

ELECTION [8 Apr. 1784^] 

Engraving. An election mob in the Piazza, Covent Garden, the facade of 
St. Paul's Church, with figures gesticulating on the hustings, indicated in 
the background. The whole space is crowded with people in violent and 
disorderly contest. In the foreground (1.) a man with a grotesquely ugly 
profile, holding a flag inscribed No Back Stairs No Court Candidate Free- 
dom for Every is carried on the shoulders of a lean man. He is followed by 
a man whose queue is being pulled by a large burly market-woman, who 
clenches her fist. In the centre a stout man, probably a chairman, a patch 
over one eye, attacks with a bludgeon a well-dressed man of exaggerated 
leanness, holding him by the lapel of his coat. The bludgeon-man has a 
favour in his cap inscribed (?) Towny his victim a favour inscribed An 
Elector. Three men lie on the ground, one (r.) lies across another; a large 
favour in his hat is inscribed No Undue Influence. A woman with a stall 
of cakes is being thrown down. Two viragoes (r.) fight viciously, one holds 
the other's nose flourishing a broken bottle over her head. Behind her is 
a flag inscribed The Womans Man for Ever. Hats, stones, clubs, a wig, a 
^ So dated by Mr. Hawkins. 



cat, fly in the air. In the thick of the crowd (1.) a coach is being overturned, 
a man leans from the window. 

Three figures on a very small scale address the mob from the hustings, 
the central one being Fox, the others Hood and Wray. Near the hustings 
is a high gallows with a fox's head; from it hangs a placard: Dying speech. 
A man brandishes a squalling cat which he holds by the tail. High on a 
pole surmounted by a crescent is hung a petticoat inscribed No petticoat 
Government. To a broom is attached a flag inscribed Slats & Garters to 
sell. Other flags are inscribed, No Black Leg the Admiral for Ever; Whig 
Interest ; No Soldiers No Bayonets ^ and No Faction No F. Above the design 
is engraved, The Rival Candidates ^ a Farce y^ Performed at Covent Garden 
Theatre ! 

Covent Garden and its vicinity during the election (see No. 6474, &c.) 
was *a scene of outrage and even of bloodshed, resembling the Polish 
dietines'. Wraxall, Memoirs^ 1884, iii. 341. 

A prelude by Colman, *The Election of the Managers*, was played at the 
Haymarket showing 'the hustings of Covent Garden with the entire routine 
of an election — flags, mottos, mobs, and uproar*. London Chronicle, 3 June 
1784. Baker, Biog. Dram., i8i2, ii. 188. Of. No. 5699 (1780) and No. 
7352, &c. (1788). 

6512 THE SOLILOQUY OF REYNARD! [c. 8 Apr. 1784] 

[? J. Barrow.] 

Printed as the Act directs^ for E. Richy No. 55, Fleet-Street — Price 6^ 

Engraving. Heading to a printed black-bordered broadside. Fox, with a 
fox's head, lies full length on a table, his hands together like a recumbent 
figure on a tomb, as in No. 6470. One mourner stands at his head (1.), 
another at his feet (r.), each holding a handkerchief to his eyes. Round 
their flat hats and over their shoulders are mourning-scarves. The mourner 
at his head is identified in an old hand as Burke. Both are poorly charac- 
terized. Beneath the (printed) title is printed. Alias the Goose-Catcher! 
[cf. No. 5843] — alias Carlo-Khan! [cf. No. 6473] — alias the Westminster 
Mountebank! — alias the Man of the People! — &c. To which is added, a 
Devonshire Lamentation! and an Epitaph! by the Widow of the Murdered 

Beneath are verses in two columns : first. Soliloquy (40 11.), beginning, 

^'The gloomy Crisis of my Fate draws near; 
''And in Despight of all my puffing Friends, 
"{Whose subtile Paragraphs, and well-frarrHd Lies, 
''Made Truth itself seems false, and Falshood true) 
"My Fame Politic dies! . . . 

It ends, 

"But, Oh! the King would hear his Subjects Cries! 
"And {Spite of all my Efforts to prevent it) 
"Their Charters, Rights, and Liberties maintain' d!'^ 

Having 'discharged the above tremendous Cataract of Oratory', Fox fell 
into a trance, as represented in the plate. Cf. No. 6405. 

' A comic opera by Bate (Bate-Dudley), 1775. 


In The Devonshire Lamentation (18 11.) the Duchess asks rhetorically: 
Did I the Tongue of Calumny defy^ 
And o'er the Bounds of Delicacy fly? 
Forget my Sex's softness^ to defend 
The sinking Cause of my politic Friend; 
And all for nought? — 
In the Epitaph (14 11.) the widow mourns her *butcher'd Husband* 
(killed in an election riot, cf. No. 6593).^ 

A satire on the Westminster Election, see No. 6474, &c. From 3 to 17 or 
19 Apr. Fox's defeat seemed certain, see Appendix I and Russell, Corr. of 
FoXy ii. 267-8. See No. 6513, a sequel. For the canvassing of the Duchess, 
see No. 6493, &c. For the broadside obituary, a traditional form both of 
eulogy and satire, see J. W. Draper, A Century of Broadside Elegies, 
5|x8-| in.; broadside, i8|xi3 in. 

[? J. Barrow.] 

Printed as the Act directs^ for E. Richy No. 55^ Fleet Street. 

[c. 8 Apr. 1784] ^ 
The plate of No. 6512 used to illustrate a similar black-bordered broadside. 
After the (printed) title is printed Alias the Goose-Catcher! . . [as in No. 
6512] &c. &c. &c. who departed this Life under the Hustings^ near S* Paul's 
Covent-Gardenj a few Days after the Commencement of the Polly for want 
of Assistance y although attended by the whole learned Body of Irish Chairmen. 
To which is added his Elegy! by her Grace of D e. With his Epitaph! 

The last dying words are lengthy; they begin: Terdition catch that 
Wray! I am lost for ever! . , .* and end, 'curse on all the World but my dear 
Perditta; oh! I am now nothing'. For Fox and Perdita see No. 61 17, &c. 
Beneath are verses in two columns. 

A sequel to No. 6512. 
5jx8f in.; broadside, i8|x 13 in. 


Pu¥ April 10*^ iy84 by W. Humphrey N*" 22y Strand 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). North as Mother Cole 
is seated full-face in an arm-chair, the tips of his fingers sanctimoniously 
together. Beside him sits Fox, as Loader, a handkerchief in his r. hand, his 
1. pointing upwards . North says, Ay I am agoing; a wasting and a wasting — 
what will become of the House when I am gone Heaven knows — No — When 
people are Missed then they''" Mourn' d — Sixteen years have I lived in S* 
Stephens Chaple comfortably and creditably; and tho I say ity could have got 
bail any hour of the day! no knock me down doings in my house y a set of regular 
sedate sober Customers — no rioters — Sixteen did I say — Ayy eighteen years have 
I paid Scott and Lot — and during the whole time nobody have said M^^ North 
Why do you so? unless twice that I was threatned with impeachment and three 
times with a Halter! 

^ No. 6513 is dated 8 Apr. 1786 by Mr. Stephens. Nicholas Casson, a constable, 
was lulled on 10 May. If he is *the murdered man' No. 6512 would appear to 
relate to the prospects of a scrutiny or to the defeat of the Coalition in the election. 



Fox says, May I lose deal^ with an honour at bottom^ if Old Moll does not 
bring tears in my Eyes. 

Mother Cole wears a hood and loose gown over her petticoat, her shoes 
are slashed to ease her bulging feet. By her side is a bottle labelled Con- 
stitution Cordial. Fox is dressed in his customary manner; at his side is 
an overturned dice-box and dice. After the title is etched See Foot's Minor 
page 2g. 

North is represented as the sanctimonious bawd (for whom Mother 
Douglas was the supposed original) who became a follower of Whitefield, 
Fox as the sharping gamester. The words of the play are cleverly parodied, 
the indictments of Mother Cole being changed into the threats of impeach- 
ment which Fox had made against North, cf. Nos. 6187, &c., 6393. 

Grego, Rowlandsony i. 125. 


Published as the Act directs April 10. 1784. 

Engraving. A man-of-war supported on two trestles, one at the stem (1.) 
the other at the bows. Temple stands in the ship, in profile to the 1., 
hands on the upper end of a two-handed saw, whose blade passes vertically 
through the ship, its lower handle held by Thurlow, in profile to the r., 
whose head is under the vessel's keel. They are dividing the ship longi- 
tudinally from poop to bows; on her hull is inscribed. The Old Constitu- 
tion built in the Year 1688 Broke up in 1^83-4 as no longer Serviceable. 
The saw-blade is inscribed Unhackneyed in the way of Sawing. Temple 
says. They shall have the Starboard side at S* James's. Thurlow says, My 
Family at Stephen's [the Lords] shall have the Larboard side. 

George III stands, in profile to the 1., leaning forward from the r. margin 
of the design, a raised axe in his hands, having hacked off the figurehead, 
Britannia, which lies on the ground. He says. And I'll have you MisSy to 
light my Fire. 

On the 1. is a new ship on the stocks. The Absolute, at r. angles to the 
Old Constitution, showing her poop, supported by props, three of which 
are inscribed Ambition, The backstairs, and Secret Influence. She is Building 
at Chatham, probably an allusion to Pitt. Beneath the design is engraved 
£1^000 p* Annum for Double Tides, an allusion to Thurlow's income as 
Lord Chancellor; he had held office under North, Rockingham, and Shel- 
burne, lost it under the Coalition and was re-appointed under Pitt. Cf. 
also No. 6252. 

One of a number of satires on the part taken by Temple in the defeat of 
the India Bill in the Lords leading to the appointment of Pitt by 'back- 
stairs' influence. See No. 6417, &c. 

6516 THE TIMES. 

Publishd by S. Fores. N° 3. Piccadilly. April 10. 1784. 

Etching. Fox stands full-face with a wooden r. leg supported by a crutch 
under his r. arm. His 1. hand is held towards three winged fish, flying 
away from him, to each of which is tied a loaf. They are inscribed Loaves 
& Fishes. Across Fox's waistcoat is inscribed Bowels of Compassion for 
India; his paunch is shrunken as compared with its normal size. The head 



of his crutch is that of North, the crutch itself is inscribed Majority of the 
Home of Commons. The wooden leg is inscribed Popularity ^ the other leg 
Oratory. A man (1.) stoops down holding a flaming torch to the bottom of 
the crutch, while he empties a bag inscribed Gun Powder on the ground 
at its foot. 

Behind is the outline of a hill above which (1.) rises a sun surrounded 
with rays, inscribed Pitt and Sun rise. Low down (r.) a setting sun is half 
below the horizon; its rays are smaller and shadowed by clouds. This is 
inscribed Fox and Sun set. 

The disappearance of Fox's majority, based on the support of North and 
his followers, was by this time certain, see No. 6657, &c. For the loaves 
and fishes cf. No. 6915, &c. 

Publishd Aprill 10 Turner Snow Hill 

Engraving. A fox guzzles grapes at the foot of a vine which extends across 
the design from 1. to r. Beside his fore-paws (1.) is a mask lying on the 
circular top of an E.O. table (cf. No. 5928, &c.); near it lie playing-cards. 
Behind (r.), the Devil bears off North who is seated on his shoulders. 

Fox is apparently represented as having thrown off the mask of public 
spirit. The print was perhaps published in 1783, cf. No. 6208. 


Published April y' iiy iy84^ by G. Humphrey Print Seller N'^ 48 Long 
Acre London. 

Engraving. A pyramid of heads supported on a rectangular base, in front 
of which lie a badger (1.), representing North, and a fox (r.), their tails 
crossed and held together by a ribbon. In a central medallion above the 
animals' tails is a profile with the head of Fox superimposed on that of 
North, as in No. 6183 but reversed. A scroll draped from each animal's 
head across the medallion is inscribed Interest , & Ambition. 

The apex of the pyramid is the head of Fox wearing a laurel wreath 
and saying. If his Highness Wags a Feather Fm down. The head beneath 
him is that of the Prince of Wales wearing a coronet with the words Ich 
Dien and decorated with the three feathers, the central one supporting 
the head of Fox. The Prince says. It deserves an Increase of Establishment 
to be thus Situated (for the dispute between the king and the Coalition 
Ministry in June 1783 over the Prince's establishment see No. 6257, &c.). 
The Prince's head rests upon that of Burke, in profile to the 1., and that of 
North to the r. Burke says, Mine is not an (Economical Situation (alluding 
to his Bill for Economical Reform, see No. 5657, &c.); North says, / wish 
I was Uppermost. These two heads rest on the mitres of three bishops, all 
full face and poorly characterized. That on the 1. is identified in a con- 
temporary hand as Hinchcliffe (Bishop of Peterborough and Master of 
Trinity, noted for his liberal opinions). The other two are probably 
Shipley, Bishop of St. Asaph, and Watson of Llandaff ; these three had 
opposed the American War, and were prominent Whigs (cf. No. 5983). 
The bishops rest on four heads, those on the outside being in profile, the 



Other two full-face. Lord John Cavendish, in profile to the 1., ssiys^ I cannot 
fall much lower; next him is the Earl of Surrey, then Keppel, then Powys, 
saying, Landed Interest ^ and yet I ain neither Top nor Bottom, Five heads 
form the base of the pyramid : the third and fourth from the 1., facing each 
other, are Lord Carlisle and the Duke of Portland ; the fifth, in profile to the 
r., may be intended for Sheridan. 

One of many attacks on the Coalition; the date suggests that it was 
intended to influence the Westminster Election, see No. 6474, &c., and 
Appendix L For Fox and the Prince cf. No. 6401, &c. Cf. No. 6428. 
iiiixSf in. 


B.K. sc, 

April 12 iy84 Pub d as the Act direct [sic] N" 14 Dover Street. 

Engraving. Fox stands (r.) behind his peep-show, a rectangular box, 
supported on trestles, which is a model of the India House showing (r.) 
the Leadenhall Street fa9ade. On the side of the box (1.) are two circular 
holes through which Britannia stoops to look. She supports herself on her 
shield which rests on the ground; in her 1. hand is the cap of Liberty on 
a long staff. The box is inscribed A View of India. On its top stand three 
small figures or puppets : an Englishman brandishing a club in his 1. hand, 
his r. holds by the neck a kneeling Indian; on his 1. a headless Oriental 
proffers gifts. 

The only satire in the Catalogue explicitly vindicating Fox's India Bill ; 
cf. No. 6277, a defence of the Bill which is partly at least ironical, and 
Nos. 6386, 6582. 

Reissued 14 July 1789, see No. 7543. 



Pu¥ April 12*^ iy84 by M« Dacheray S^ James's Street 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire (r.), in profile to the 1., kisses a fat 
butcher, putting her arms round his shoulders. She wears a hat trimmed 
with feathers and ribbons. A plump woman approaches the butcher from 
the 1. holding out her arms and shouting Huzza — Fox for Ever. Her dress, 
with uncovered breast, suggests that she is a courtesan.^ Behind (1.) a man 
wearing jack-boots holding a butcher's tray under his arm advances 
towards the group, waving his hat and shouting. 

* Grego suggests that she may be the Duchess of Gordon, but the duchess, like 
Mrs. Hobart (also plump), was opposed to Fox. Anti-Fox newspaper paragraphs 
did their best to suggest that the ladies who canvassed for Fox were of bad charac- 
ter, e.g. : 'Among the fairest of the fair canvassers on the part of the Man of the 
People, none was more successful than the Corbina alias the White Crow, not the 
Bird of Paradise [Mrs. Mahon], nor the Perdita [Mrs. Robinson], sent so many polls 
to the Hustings.' Quoted in Westminster Election, 1784, p. 232. *Lady Grosvenor, 
Lady Dornhoff, Lady Cr — [Craven], just come from Paris, and Lady Worsley, are 
among the canvassers who have the modesty to attempt to dictate to the honest 
tradesman and independent citizen.' Ibid., p. 240. Cf. No. 6546, &c. 



One of a number of satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devon- 
shire for Fox at the Westminster Election; it appears in No. 6625. Cf. 
No. 6393, &c. 

Grego, Rowlandsoriy i. 126 (reproduction). Reproduced, Grego, Hist, of 
Parliamentary Elections^ 1892, p. 270. 
8jxi2f in. 

6520 A Another impression, imprint erased and replaced by W. Humphrey 
N° 22y Strand. 


WPC, [Carey.] 

Pub. according to act of Par^ by W: Holland^ N° 66 y Drury Lane, 
April 12, 1784. 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire is the centre of a group of can- 
vassing ladies. She stands full-face looking to the r., holding in her r. 
hand a fox's brush, in her 1. a large flag on which is a bust of Fox supported 
by seated figures of Britannia, with the British lion, and Liberty. It is 
inscribed. If ever our smiles were your delight; if ever the blessings of Liberty 
were an englishman's pride support a cause on which Our happiness & your 
own security equally depend. Remember you are now called forth to defend 
the cause of Love & Liberty Assert your rights Defend ours! 

Fox and Liberty ^^^ Women of Westminster 

Three other ladies, all young and pretty, stand behind the duchess ; it is 
impossible to say which of the canvassing ladies they represent. Lady 
Duncannon and perhaps Mrs. Crewe were her most usual companions, 
see No. 6493. A rough-looking man has put an arm round the duchess's 
shoulder, a butcher is embracing the lady on her r. All the ladies wear 
feathered hats with Fox favours and two wear Fox favours on their dresses. 

In the background (1.) is the facade of Covent Garden Church, the three 
candidates standing under the portico. Fox on the r. The figures on the 
clock-face over the portico are reversed. A crowd stands in front of the 
church, looking towards the ladies and waving their hats. On the r. are 
other spectators partly concealed by the large flag. 

Similar in character to Nos. 6532, 6541. 
8ixi2f in. 

WG[} Phillips.] 

Pub'^ by [sic] 

Engraving. Time with his sc5rthe flies above and between Pitt (1.) and Fox 
(r.) who kneel on the ground. The Duchess of Devonshire holding a pair 
of shears stands behind Fox on the extreme r. Time holds two long 
tobacco-pipes in his mouth, one inscribed Court-favor the other Popularity ^ 
through which he is blowing two chains of bubbles, inscribed A bubble 
bubble^ which Pitt catches in his mouth, holding up both hands towards 
Time. Time looks towards Fox saying. Ha! Ha! Ha! Charley it is Billys 



turn now: although the pretty Dutchess y wisKd to clip my pinions. Pitt says, 
Thus while I am feeding my tender Frame with the Balsamick drops may no 
secret blast or boisterous hurricane break their Texture. Fox says, O! Time^ 
thou comforter of the degraded^ and slandered; thou unvailer of plotSy & 
secrets; grant, Oh! grant, once more, some of those precious Bubbles, by which 
I have heretofore been pampered. The Duchess says, / tvill chearfuly submit 
to any Thing to serve my Friend. Beneath the title is etched, or Charley after 
many stir's neglected by Time for attempting to climb too high. 

Behind Pitt (1.), on a rocky pinnacle, is a circular temple inscribed S^ 
Jameses, emitting rays of light. Behind Fox (r.) is a lighthouse inscribed 
House of Commons, from the top of which hangs a flare, a fire burning in 
a basket, implying that the influence of the House is slight compared with 
that of the Court. On the horizon (centre) are pillars, round temples, and 
hills, suggesting a view of Rome, from which Time appears to have flown. 
For Pitt's popularity cf. No. 6438, &c.; for Fox's ambition. No. 6380; for 
the Duchess and Fox, No. 6493, &c. 


Pub April 12 iy84 by J. Wallis N° 16 Ludgate Street 

Engraving. Fox is being chaired by demons, who advance towards flames 
(1.) in which stands a devil with a pitch-fork waiting to receive him. Fox, 
seated, holding out his hat, his 1. hand on his breast, says, Westminster was 
pretty Hot but this much more so. The demons who support Fox's chair and 
prance along behind it appear to have been copied from the Devil in 
No. 6283. The foremost has the same twisted ram's horns, the claws of a 
bird of prey, and barbed tail. He shouts Fox for Ever . His companions 
resemble him with slight variations. One also says Fox for Ever, another, 
holding up a dice-box, says. He is the Devels own Representative. Two little 
demons stand in front of the flames ; one says Fox for Ever, holding up 
a fox's brush, the other blows a trumpet. Two heads of demons look from 
the fire, and two small black winged creatures are flying in the flames. 
Beneath the design is engraved: 

Tho Reynard for Westminster *s Surely thrown out 
Yet Hell will Elect him you need not to doubt 
As member they ve Chair d him the only thats fit 
To manage affairs in the Bottomless Pitt. 

One of many satires on the Westminster Election, see No. 6474, &c. 
Fox despaired of success until about 20 Apr. Russell, Memorials and 
Corr. of Fox, ii. 267-8. See Appendix 1. 
8iixi2f in. 


Pu¥ April 12^^ iy84 by W. Wall N" 31 Charles S^ opposite Middlesex 

Engraving. Fox is being chaired (1. to r.) in a high-backed chair wreathed 
with laurel, according to the custom in Westminster at the close of an 

» Title probably cut off. 


election, cf. No. 6590. The three supporters of the chair (T.Q.L. figures 
in the foreground) are three ladies, all young and pretty, one of course the 
Duchess of Devonshire. On the third (1.) is inscribed Portland Place ^ 
probably the Duchess of Portland, possibly Lady Archer, called *the 
Portland Place Archer* in No. 6114. The other is probably Lady 
Duncannon, see No. 6493, &c. All three wear hats trimmed with a fox's 
brush. The foremost lady (r.) holds a paper inscribed British Constitution. 
Beside Fox in his chair is the cap of Liberty on its staff; he holds up a torn 
paper inscribed Rights of England; in his 1. hand is a paper inscribed 
Privileges of the People. A cluster of cherubs' heads beside him, emerging 
from clouds, is inscribed Voice of the People \ the principal cherub blows 
a trumpet from which issue the words Fox & Liberty. 

In the background behind the chair (1.) is a sea of heads; on the r. is 
Sam House wearing his hat. Beneath the design is etched : 

Friends freemen Britons all your strength be tried 

To quell oppression stem corruptions tide 

Let shouting plaudits fill resounding air 

And Fox & virtue set in freedom* s chair. 

An election print ; the tide had not yet turned in favour of Fox, cf . No. 
6523 and Appendix L 

6525 THE WESTMINSTER WATCHMAN. [c. 12 Apr. 1784] 


Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions) . Fox, dressed as a watch- 
man, stands full-face, his r. hand grasping his staff (inscribed Uprightness)^ 
his 1. on his hip. Over his head is the word Liberty; his lantern stands 
on the ground beside him sending forth rays inscribed Truth. His dog 
(1.) is Vigilance. Zigzag flashes of lightning among clouds, inscribed 
Ministerial Thunderbolts ^ threaten him from all sides. 

In the background (r.) two sham watchmen are running off to the r. 
holding staves and dark lanterns, which contrast with that of Fox, which 
sheds its rays in all directions. The foremost is Sir Cecil Wray in military 
uniform, saying. For Chelsea Ho a ; the other wearing a hooded cloak over 
his naval uniform is Lord Hood saying. For Greenwich Ho a. They are 
followed by two dogs. Beneath the design is etched. To the Independent 
Electors of Westminster This Print of their Staunch Old Watchman The 
Guardian of their Rights and Privileges is dedicated by a gratefull 


This is followed by an engraved inscription : N.B. Beware of Counter- 
feits as the Greenwich and Chelsea Watchmen are upon the look out! 

This plate illustrates the Westminster Election^ p. 166, where it faces an 
address to the electors from *An Independent Elector', dated 12 Apr., 
where Fox is called 'your faithful watchman over ministerial encroach- 
ment'. There had been no suggestion of abolishing Greenwich Hospital; 
for Wray's proposals about Chelsea Hospital see No. 6475, &c. For the 
dark lantern as emblem of Temple's intrigue see No. 6417, &c. 

Reissued (or perhaps etched for), Westminster Election^ p. 166. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 126-7 (reproduction). Reproduced, Grego, Hist. 
of Parliamentary Elections ^ 1892, p. 277. 



6526 THE POLL. [i2 Apr. 1784]' 

London, Publishdby PF"» Humphrey, N"" 22y Strand. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A see-saw representing 
the state of the poll between Fox and Wray, Mrs. Hobart (1.) seated on one 
end, the Duchess of Devonshire (r.) on the other, in front of the polling- 
booth in Covent Garden. Mrs. Hobart, enormously fat, quite out- weighs 
the Duchess, and is, moreover, held down by Lord Hood who kneels 
behind her (1.), while Sir Cecil Wray stands beside him watching the con- 
test with an enigmatical expression. Fox stands behind the Duchess trying 
to hold down her end of the plank, but in vain ; his uplifted 1. arm and 
closed eyes express the despair which he actually felt in the early days of 
polling (Russell, Corr. of Fox, ii. 267). The ladies face each other astride 
the plank, their arms outstretched, their bosoms bare. 

The plank rests on an irregular stone post. An excited crowd, very 
freely sketched, watches from the hustings and from below them; they 
scream encouragement to the rivals, waving their hats. Over the head of 
Wray is a play-bill. The Rival Candidates Farce; behind the Duchess is 
another, Duke and no Duke Play. The former was a comic opera by Henry 
Bate (afterwards Bate-Dudley), first played 1775, the latter a farce by 
Tate, 1605.2 

The first appearance in this catalogue of the much caricatured Mrs. 
Hobart (see Index). Her canvassing for Hood and Wray was the subject 
of many squibs. The print was perhaps suggested by a press paragraph 
(n.d.) quoted in the Westminster Election, p. 325 : *M^^ Hobart, to convince 
the world that Sir Cecil as well as M^ Fox, is a favourite of the loveliest part 
of the creation, takes her station near Sir Cecilys side of the Hustings . . . 
and where, ye agents and observers, can you find among the female race, 
one fitter to be placed in contrast to the fair Duchess T Mrs. Hobart (d. 
II Mar. 1 816, aged 77) was related to Sir C. Wray: she was the daughter 
of Lord Vere Bertie by Ann Carey, illegitimate daughter and heiress of 
Sir C. Wray, nth bart., who was succeeded by his cousin, father of the 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 127. 


WD [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs, for the Proprietor by J. Carter, Oxford Street. 
April 13*^ iy84 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire about to kiss a short fat butcher; 
one arm is round his neck, her r. hand under his apron. She says, Pll leave 
no Stone unturned to serve the Cause', he answers, Then you shall have my 
Plumper — but what says your Calf— mayhap, he 's Jealous. She wears a hat 
trimmed with a Fox favour and four fox's brushes inscribed respectively, 

' So dated by Mr. Hawkins and Grego, probably because at this date the 
majority of Wray over Fox was at its highest point, see Appendix I. 

2 There were two other dramatic performances of this name, see Baker, Biog. 



Fox, FoXf Love, and Liberty. Her skirt is festooned up with Fox favours 
and brushes inscribed Fox, showing her legs. A Httle chimney-sweeper 
Hes on the ground looking under her petticoats and saying, Sweep y sweep. 
A dog sniffs at her leg. The butcher has stuck into his girdle a paper 
inscribed Leg of Mutton 10 1} Clare M^ [Market] . Behind him and on the 
extreme r. is a placard on a pole, inscribed Cockspur Street. Behind the 
duchess is a shorter lady holding up a purse inscribed Bett no Bribe. ^ 

On the extreme 1. stands Lord Surrey holding in his r. hand a beer mug 
inscribed Surry and talking to a chimney-sweeper whose hand he holds, 
saying, Come and Breakfast with me, and vote for Charly — it zvill be the 
making of us all if he gets in — he'll do such things — he'll reduce the price of 
Gin and Porter. The ragged sweep answers. Will he, then danUme, tho' I 
live but in a hogstye, Pll Give him a Plumper — Fox for ever — . 

One of many gross satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devon- 
shire, see No. 6493, &c. Surrey was a notorious toper, cf. No. 8159. 



London, Published April 1 3^^ 1784, by G. Humphrey, AT" 48 Long Acre. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Design in an oval. The Prince of Wales, 
drunk, staggers along supported on his r. by Fox, on his 1. by Sam House. 
He wears a Fox favour and a Prince of Wales plume in his hat. Fox, whose 
1. arm is linked in the Prince's r., points at him with his r. forefinger. 
House (r.) stands in back-view, turning his head to look at Fox. 

A satire on the election activities of the Prince of Wales, see Nos. 6530, 
6547. Cf, No. 6401, &c. 

The deliberately incorrect drawing appears to be an attempt to conceal 
the identity of the artist. ^ 

Reprinted, G.PT.G., 1830. Reproduced, J. Ashton, FlorizeVs Folly, 
1899, P- 72- 



Pu¥ April 14^^ iy84 by W, Humphrey N"" 22y Strand. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). The Duchess of 
Devonshire (r.), in morning cap and gown, makes tea for Fox and Sam 
House who sit side by side on a sofa (1.). The duchess leans back in her 

^ Cf. 'Hint to the canvassing Duchesses and Countesses — ^When these ladies may 
again give, as it can be proved they have given, five guineas for a bundle of broccoli, 
eight guineas for a leg of mutton &c. &c. the tradesman may certainly take the 
money with a safe conscience, if he votes on the other side; and this has already 
been done in three instances in Westminster.* Newspaper paragraph quoted, West- 
minster Election, p. 243. 

^ *We are informed . . . that the means used by a Certain canvassing D s is, 

to lay Ten Guineas against one, that they do not, or dare not vote for her dear 
Charley. . . .' Ibid., p. 250. 

^ A note by E. Hawkins on one impression: 'Townsend del. Lady Spencer 
etch'd.' Lady Spencer was a Foxite and the attribution is extremely improbable. 
Drawings (in a very different vein) by Lady Spencer were etched by Gillray. 




chair, one hand on the tap of the urn, while she hands a cup to a footman 
who stands with a tray, Sam (1.) has been served first; he sits stirring his 
tea and gazing adoringly at Fox (r.), who playfully pats his bald head. A 
spaniel stands in front of them, begging. On the wall behind are two 
freely sketched W.L. portraits : behind the duchess is Reynolds's portrait 
of her husband standing by his horse (as in No. 6546), the other is over the 
heads of House and Fox. 

A satire showing the importance to Fox of the publican, Sam House, 
who kept open house for Fox's supporters as in 1780, see No. 5696, &c. 
Cf. No. 6487, &c. 

Grego, RowlandsoTiy i. 128-9 (reproduction). Reproduced, Grego, Hist. 
of Parliamentary Elections y 1892, p. 276. 


Pu¥ April 14 1784 by [name erased] Great Russell S^ Covent Garden. 

Engraving (coloured impression). The interior of the shop of an apothe- 
cary or quack medicine vendor. Three persons have entered (1.): the 
Duchess of Devonshire stands full-face offering the apothecary (r.) a 
purse, while she holds out her r. hand to Fox who stands beside and 
slightly behind her. She says. His Tail restore^ You shall have more. The 
apothecary, standing in profile to the 1., takes the purse saying. My 
Famous Pills cure many Ills. He is well dressed and wears a doctor's tie- 
wig. Fox puts his 1. hand to his forehead with a distressed expression; 
under his foot is a paper inscribed D^ Leakes Antivanerial Drops. A lady 
standing behind Fox, her hands in a muff, says, Oh poor Fox will Loose his 
tail. Behind the apothecary is the shop-window with a counter in front 
of it. On the counter are two small phials, each labelled Tkf Fox, and a 
pill-box, besides glass jars. In the window are displayed glass bottles of 
various shapes filled with coloured liquids. (Advertisements of Dr. Leake's 
pills and drops were frequent in the newspapers and were posted as bills, 
cf . No. 6540.) The duchess wears a Fox favour in her hat which is trimmed 
with a fox's brush and three ostrich feathers, worn as an emblem of the 
interest taken by the Prince of Wales in the election. Westminster Election, 
p. 327. Her companion wears a fox's brush in her hat. 

One of many gross election satires against the Duchess of Devonshire, 
see No. 6493, &c. For the Prince's activities cf. No. 6528. 

[Pu¥ April 14, 1784 by J. Wtngrave.^] 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Mrs. Hobart sits stiffly 
in an opera-box in profile to the 1. Beside and behind her sits another lady, 
also in profile. The hair of both is elaborately dressed and surmounted 
by an erection of feathers, flowers, or ribbons, tilted forward and projecting 
behind the puffed-out hair. 

From its position in a volume of Westminster Election squibs and prints 

^ From an impression in the Guildhall Library. The B.M. impression is the 
reissue of 1792. 



collected by Home Tooke, it was evidently issued as an election print. The 
lady closely resembles Mrs. Hobart in Dark Lanthern Business (p. 112). 
See No. 6526, &c. 

Reissued by Fores, 15 Mar. 1792. At this date it might well pass for 
a print of Mrs. Fitzherbert and Miss Pigot. 


W: P: C. Fecit [Carey.] M. 

Pub. as the act directs by W. Holland N^ 66 Drury Lane April [15 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire and three other ladies dance with 
four butchers in St. James's Market. The couples are holding hands 
behind their backs; the butchers leer at their partners. All the ladies wear 
large Fox favours in their hats, which are trimmed with fox's tails. Over 
the heads of the dancers is inscribed Love & Liberty! Freedom & Fox! 
On the extreme 1., behind the dancers, a man plays the fiddle, a Fox favour 
in his cap. 

In the background (1.) is a butcher's stall with joints of meat hanging 
from hooks. A bird sits on a calf's head, saying, Fox for ever. Spectators 
watch the dance ; a boy waving his hat shouts Fox & Liberty. Two bull- 
dogs bark Fox for ever. Behind the stall stand Hood and Wray looking 
disconsolately at the scene; they are Candidates in the dumps. 

The daily poll turned definitely against Wray and in favour of Fox on 
13 Apr.; it was not till 27 Apr. that Fox passed Wray. See Appendix I. 
For the canvassing ladies see No. 6493, &c. Similar in character to Nos. 

Reproduced, Stokes, Devonshire House Circle ^ p. 210. 
I2|xi2| in. 


Published by H Macphail N 68 High Holborn R: Lyford Sculp. 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Duchess of Devonshire in riding- 
dress kisses a butcher, her r. hand on his shoulder, a riding-whip in her 1. 
hand. They stand beside the butcher's stall on which hang joints of meat. 
A round chopping-block with a cleaver is in front of the stall (r.). The 
butcher's bulldog (1.) befouls the Duchess's dress. She wears a hat poised 
on a high coiffure, and decorated with three upstanding ostrich feathers, 
and three drooping fox's brushes, emblems of the Prince of Wales and Fox 
(cf. No. 6530). The butcher wears a round hat in place of the more usual 
cap. Beneath the title is engraved: O! Times! O! Manners! The Women 
Wear Breeches & the Men Petticoats. 

See No. 6493, etc. 

Another impression (uncoloured) without publication-line. 

' Added by Mr. Hawkins, perhaps to reinforce etched figures. 



6534 BOTTOM SNOUT & QUINCE vide Shakespeare Mid, Summer 
Night Dream 

I. B. [J. Boyne.] 

London Published April 15^^ 1^84 by J. Wallis N 16 Ludgate S^ ^ 

Engraving. Fox (1.) as Bottom with an ass's head sits on an upturned 
market-basket in the Piazza, Covent Garden. The eyes and eyebrows and 
the arrangement of the hair make the head resemble that of Fox with a 
disconsolate expression. North and Burke, as Snout and Quince, stand 
regarding him in profile to the 1. North, as the tinker, wears a tucked-up 
apron; he holds up his hands, saying, O Bottom thou art Changed. What 
do I see on thee. Burke, dressed as a Jesuit (cf. No. 6026), his biretta worn 
over a bald head, his 1. hand on North's shoulder, looks over him at Fox, 
saying. Bless thee Bottom Bless thee thou art Translated. 

Fox is seated outside the Shakespeare Tavern which was his election 
head-quarters : in the arch of the arcade behind him is a sign The Shak- 
spea[re] Tavern, with a bunch of grapes; on the wall above is Great Piazza. 
On the r., above the heads of North and Fox, is the portico of St. Paul's 
Church, where polling took place. 

One of many satires on the Westminster Election, see No. 6474, &c. 

12^X9 i^- 


A Scene in the Tempest between Trinculo, Stephana and Caliban. 

W. D. [Dent.] 

Pub^ as the Act directs, by T. Brown, Rathbone Place, April 75** 1784 

Engraving. A scene near the shore of the island; the wrecked ship with 
splintered masts, lying on the shore (r.), is the Royal George. The Prince 
of Wales as Trinculo (1.) stands in profile to the r. holding a bottle of wine 
in his r. hand, addressing Fox who is Stephano; he says: Give me dear 
woman — and give me good wine — and you may govern all things else as thine. 
He wears a fool's cap with bells, ornamented with three ostrich feathers 
and Ich dien. Beside him is a barrel inscribed Butt and P. of W. Fox as 
the drunken butler, directed to the 1., holds out his r. fore-finger 
to the Prince, saying: Tajfy — when the Island's ours — my brave Boy — 
/ — rilbe King — and you shall be Viceroy; in his 1. hand he holds a dice-box 
inscribed Compass. On the ground at Fox's feet, facing the Prince, kneels 
Caliban, a hairy body with the head of North; he says: 

My Jove, Fll lick your shoes & obey your nod. 
And his, for sure he 's Bacchus, the bloated God. 

Over the sea and above the wreck is a bright crescent encircling a dark 
disk, shedding its rays on clouds. 

A satire on the relations of the Prince of Wales with the Coalition, cf . 
Nos. 6237, 6401, 6528, &c. For similar allusions to the Royal George 
cf. Nos. 6042, 6574. For Fox's ambition cf. No. 6380, &c. 


' Another publication-line has been erased. 




Published Aprill ye 16 1^84 by J Wallis N° 16 Ludgate Street 

Engraving. The hustings in Covent Garden: five poll-clerks sit in front 
with their large open books ; on the platform behind are the three candi- 
dates, flanked by Sam House (1.) and the Duchess of Devonshire (r.). In 
the foreground a ragged boy or man in back view, supported on crutches, 
addresses a poll-clerk (centre), saying, ikf Fox Sir; the clerk holds out to 
him a book on which to swear, saying. You have PoVd no more than Seven 

Times so help you . Wray (1.) leans forward, saying to Fox (r.) who 

clenches his fist threateningly, no Man Can have Seven Votes; Fox answers, 
/ am for Liberty of Conscience. Between them (full-face) stands Hood, in 
naval uniform, his large aquiline nose exaggerated ; he says, / must put 
my Nose Between that they may not see each Other. 

The duchess, wearing a cloak, her hands in a mufF, looks down discon- 
solately, saying, / have Kiss'd & Canvas' d for him & after all must see him 
Rejected. Sam House stands on the opposite end of the hustings, full-face, 
holding a foaming tankard inscribed House; he says. So have I too Maam 
but all wont do. A well-dressed elector standing below House raises 
his hat, shouting. Hood <£f Wray for ever Huzza. Another stands beside 
him in conference with a poll-clerk. 

Posts with placards in front of the hustings show the electors where to 
vote according to their parishes: on the 1. is Saint James' Sy on the r. Saint 

An advertisement informed the electors of Westminster 'that in conse- 
quence of the exertions made by the friends of Lord Hood and Sir Cecil 
Wray to detect false votes, and the parochial books being produced on the 
hustings, such a check has been given to the infamous practices of M^ 
Fox's party, as to have occasioned the rejection of great quantities of 
illegal voters. . . .' Quoted in Westminster Election^ p. 108. See No. 
6553, &c. Cf. No. 7363. 
7JX11 in. 

Pu¥ as the Act directs April 16. 1784 by C. JoneSy Brewer Street. 

Engraving. Two dogs, with the heads of Hood and Wray, followed by 
huntsmen chase a fox (1. to r.) down a slope inscribed Constitution Hill. In 
front of the fox (Fox) is a sign-post, one arm pointing (r.) To Cov. Garden; 
two others pointing 1. are To St. James's and To the Gallows: The fox's 
tail, inscribed Patriotism ^ brushes the eye of Wray, who says. This is a 

swinging Brush it smarts D y he has Blinded me quite. The fox, turning 

his head back, snarls: Ha Ha my old Friend you have Run hard for a little 
Foxes P — ss. Hood, half a length behind the fox, and in the foreground, 
says : Never fear Brother, a little Court Water will soon heal the Smart. 

Behind Wray floats or flies a witch-like old woman carrying the staff and 
cap of Liberty; she says. Hack Forward , good Dogs, Tally O Ho W—y he 
has worried all my Geese & put my Hen Roost in an Uproar. Her skirt is 
inscribed. Secret Influence; Prerogatives; Addresses, Petitions &c. (For the 
addresses thanking the king for dismissing the Coalition see No. 6445, &c.) 
Behind her, on the extreme 1. of the design, appear the head and shoulders 
of the king wearing his crown ; he says. Tally O Tally O my Brave Chelsea 



Tally O, alluding to Wray's proposal to abolish Chelsea Hospital, see 
No. 6475, &c. Behind are two shadowy huntsmen; one, mounted, says 
Wee' I whip him Down by G — d\ the other blows a horn. 

For the Westminster Election see No. 6474, &c. Fox did not draw ahead 
of Wray till 27 Apr., see Appendix I. 


[? Phillips.!] 

Published by S. Fores, N^ 3. Piccadilly. April 16. 1^84. 

Engraving. Pitt (1.) stands in profile to the r. making punch in an enormous 
punch-bowl which stands on a low table with six carved legs. He squeezes 
(in place of lemons) the heads of Fox and North ; liquid pours from them 
into the bowl, in which is a sugar-loaf inscribed House of Commons with 
a drawing of the interior of the House : the Speaker in his chair, the clerk 
at his table, and rows of seated members on each side, one member stand- 
ing to speak. Pitt, who wears a long apron, is saying. Thus I dissolve ye 

Thus thy parts being disunited, the effects will be less pernicious to my Con- 
stitution. Beside the bowl on the table is a large bottle of Popular Spirit, 
of. No. 6438, &c. The bowl is decorated with an escutcheon on which is a 
cask with two canisters, the supporters being two jovial-looking men, each 
with a flag. This is probably a burlesqued coat of arms for the Grocers' 
Company (not resembling their own). On the wall behind (r.) is very faintly 
etched a circular temple resting on a bracket, indicating the part played 
by Lord Temple in the defeat of the Coalition, cf. No. 6417, &c. 

Pitt received the freedom of the Grocers' Company on 14 Feb., see 
No. 6442, &c. Cf. election verses, 'The Grocer's Delight; or, a Sugar 
Plumb for Master Billy', Westminster Election, p. 468. For the dissolution 
see No. 6476, &c. 


Published as the Act directs April ly. 1784 by H. MacPhail N° 68 
H^ Holbarn, 

Engraving. A fountain composed partly of the figures of two ladies who 
sit back to back in profile above the centre of the basin, water (or wine) 
gushing from their knees. They also shower coins from bags, that held 
by one figure (1.) being marked D, showing that she is the Duchess of 
Devonshire, the other P for the Duchess of Portland. Between their heads 
is a vertical fox's brush surmounted by a ducal coronet and the Prince of 
Wales's feathers which are the apex of the structure. The shallow fluted 
basin of the fountain stands on a rectangular base. Its rim is decorated 
with masks, one in the centre, the others in profile 1. and r.; from all of 
them liquid pours to the ground, the central stream inscribed Sham 
Pay — n. (Probably an allusion to Sir Ralph Payne, noted for his hospitality, 
whose house in Grafton Street was a meeting-place for the leading Foxites. 

^ Angelo, Reminiscences y 1904, i. Other prints by the same artist are signed 
W. G. 



Wraxall, Memoirs y 1884, iii. 411.) The block on which the ladies sit is 
inscribed This Conduit is Free for the Publick. The Duchess of Portland 
(Lady Dorothy Cavendish) was the sister-in-law of the Duchess of Devon- 

Fox stands on the 1. of the basin, Sam House on the r. Fox holds out 
his coat-pocket to receive the shower of coins from the Duchess of Devon- 
shire, saying, From their Emptyness I shall fill my Pockets. He stands full- 
face, his r. hand on his hip. House holds out his hat to catch the coins 
poured out by the Duchess of Portland, turning his head in profile to the 
1. and saying. Friend Charles this will pass Current at Westminster. In his 
1. hand he holds out a foaming tankard inscribed Sam House. 

One of many satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devonshire and 
Sam House, see No. 6487, &c. For the Duchess of Portland see No. 6494 
and Westminster Electiony p. 232. The election, according to a Pittite 
statement, was 'said to cost the Duchess of Devonshire 600 1. per day'. 
Ibid., p. 268. 

Published by I. Notice Oxford Road April ly 1^84 

Engraving. No title. Fox and Burke (H.L.) seen through the barred 
window of a brick building in which they are imprisoned. They are 
Hudibras and his squire as in No. 6361, but in a prison instead of in the 
stocks. Above the barred aperture is inscribed Bailiffs for Middlesex show- 
ing that it is a sponging-house for debtors (cf. No. 6483, &c.). Outside 
stands the Duchess of Devonshire looking at them over her r. shoulder. 
She wears a hat with a Fox favour, trimmed with feathers and fox's tails 
as in the canvassing caricatures, but wears a plain riding-dress of mascu- 
line cut^ instead of the usual voluminous petticoats. Her 1. hand rests on 
a tasselled cane. She is Hudibras's Lady who visited the pair in prison 
and released them; her words are etched beneath the design: 

heavens! quoth she, can this be true? 

1 do begin to fear His you: 

Not by your individual whiskers. 
But by your dialect and discourse. 
That never spoke to man or beast 
In notions vulgarly exprest: 
But what malignant star alas! 
Has brought you both to this sad pass? 

Hudibras, canto i mo. [i.e. Part II, canto i]. 

On the brick wall of the prison bills are posted : Several Pouting lips to 
be hired by the day by Deven ;^ Hood Ray Fox; Hood and Wray for ever ; 
Leakes justly famous pills for curing the veneral . . . [cf . No. 6530] ; No 
Coalition No Bribery. 

^ Cf. 'Her Grace sometimes rides about in a black riding habit, which is very 
convenient in case she should be obliged to enter into contact with a Chimney- 
Sweeper*. A newspaper paragraph quoted in Westminster Election, p. 246. 

- One of the advertisements for Hood and Wray ran: 'To be hired for the day, 
several pair of ruby pouting lips, of the first quality, [etc. etc.].* Westmimter 
Election, p. 99. 



One of many satires on the Westminster Election, see No. 6474, &c. 
For the Duchess of Devonshire, see No. 6493, &c. 


WPC[C2iTey]fec' M. 

Pub. by W. Holland AT" 66 Drury lane April 20, 1^84 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire (r.) and a stout butcher (1.) dance 
side by side ; she holds out her dress v^^ith her r. hand ; he holds a steel in 
his 1. hand. Across his apron is inscribed All upright Members for ever. 
Three grinning butchers stand (1.) playing a tune with marrow-bones and 
cleavers, each cleaver being inscribed Ancient British Music. Behind (r.) 
a grinning chimney-sweeper sits holding his brush in the r. hand, a cleaver 
inscribed Ancient British Music in the 1. He sings : Toll lol de dol de dol de 
dol dol dol. The Duchess wears Fox favours, as do the butchers. A favour 
at her breast is inscribed Love & Liberty and one at her waist Freedom & 
Fox. In her hat is a fox's brush. 

One of many satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devonshire, 
see No. 6493, &c. Similar in character to Nos. 6521, 6532. 

Pu¥ April 20y 1784, by J Linn Ludgate Street 

Engraving. A fox stands with his fore-paws caught in a large steel trap, 

beside which is the bait, the representation of a crown. Beside him is the 

Duchess of Devonshire holding her handkerchief to her eyes and saying : 

Alas! poor Fox your die is Cast, 

You're trap'd zvith all your Triks at last. 

In her hat is a Fox favour, the fox's brush, and the three ostrich feathers 
which are the emblems of Fox and the Prince of Wales, cf. No. 6530. 
The fox turns his head towards her, saying : 

O Charming Dutchess mourn my fate ^ 
But think upon the Tempting bait. 

The trap is attached by a chain to a staple at the side of an arched door- 
way (r.). A hand projects from the 1. margin of the design pointing to the 
fox with the words Guilty Death. (See No. 6657.) 

One of many satires in which Fox (as Carlo Khan, Cromwell, or Charles 
III) aims at the crown, cf. No. 6380, &c. His capture implies defeat in the 
Westminster Election, see Appendix I, or on the general election. 

A print in the Guildhall Library, 


London. Published April 20^^ 1784 as the Act Directs, 

Engraving (coloured impression). A street scene ; Sir Cecil Wray is mobbed 
by maidservants, and flies in terror from a Chelsea pensioner (r.). From 



a first-floor window a servant empties a chamber-pot on his head. He says, 
Quarters Quarters Alas! No Back Stairs friend to rescue me. The pensioner 
has a wooden leg and is supported on a crutch; he Hfts the other crutch 
menacingly, saying. No Quarters Judas turn me & my aged bretheren out of 
our comfortable Quarters. Three maidservants attack him, one (1.) with 
a mop, two (r.) with brooms. They say respectively: Fll mop his filthy 
carcase till I make it as white as his Liver; You' I tax us will you treackrous 
Dog; Let me at him old Boy [to the pensioner] Fll brush his jacket. On the 
ground is a paper: Plan for Demolishing Chelsea Hospital & taxing Maid 

For these allegations against Wray see Nos. 6475, 6492, &c. For the 
back -stairs see No. 6417, &c. 

6543 THE COVENT GARDEN NIGHT MARE, [c. 20 Apr. 1784^] 

Pub^ by W. Humphrey A^" 227, Strand. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A parody of The Night- 
mare by Fuseli (which attracted popular attention at the R.A. in 1782^), 
deriving much of its humour from its contrast with that picture. Fox, 
naked, lies prone on a low bed, one arm hanging to the floor, the other 
above his head. On his breast sits a demon, while a horse with staring eye- 
balls puts its head through draped curtains. The horse, the demon, and 
the general arrangement are closely copied from Fuseli, in reverse; but the 
burly nudity of Fox is in complete contrast with his elegant female in 
pseudo-classical draperies. In Fuseli's picture is a circular table of classical 
shape on which are toilet bottles, &c.; on the smaller table beside Fox are 
a dice-box and dice. 

Fox anticipated defeat at Westminster, see No. 6474, &c.: on 20 Apr. 
the fortunes of the poll began to appear definitely in favour of Fox, see 
Appendix I. 

The original drawing, incised for transfer to the plate, is in the 
Broadley Collection, vol. i, in the Westminster Public Library. 

Fuseli's picture was burlesqued (181 6) by Cniikshank. Reid, No. 599. 

Grego, Rowlandson^ i. 129. 


Pu¥ April 22 iy84 by Han Humphrey Bond Street. 

Engraving. The fat Mrs. Hobart canvasses butchers for Hood and Wray. 
She advances to two butchers seated in front of their stall before a punch- 
bowl which stands on their chopping-block. She holds out a purse, saying. 
Hood and Wray my dear Butcher. They disregard the lady but look at each 
other: one (1.), very obese, leans back in his chair smoking a long pipe, 
from the bowl of which issues a label inscribed /am engaged to the Dutchess. 
The other puts a hand on his shoulder, saying, Pho' give her a glass; he 

* So dated by Mr. Hawkins. 

* A stipple engraving was published by J. R. Smith, 20 Jan. 1783. 



holds a wine-glass towards her. The butcher's dog snarls at her petticoats. 
On the punch-bowl is the figure of a fox. A third butcher stands behind 
Mrs. Hobart, putting one hand on her hip, holding the other above her 
head; he says, The fattest I ever handled. Behind him and on the extreme 
r. stand two butchers with a dog, who say, Lincolnshire dafnmee and a 
Plumper by G — d. The butcher's stall, freely sketched, forms a back- 
ground; from it hang a carcass, joints of meat, and a sheep's head. 

For Mrs. Hobart see No. 6526 and index. A song on a broadside en- 
titled The Court Canvass or Madam Blubber has been pasted to the back of 
this print, probably by Miss Banks; it was reprinted in the Westminster 
Election, pp. 480-1, and is also given in full by Grego. Its refrain is some 
variation of 'The Dutchess was here before you*. Another song began: 

'Since women of fashion govern the State 

And you M" Hobart, have sure the most weight 

I wonder you've no better candidate 

Than Sir Cecil Wray.' 
Op. cit., pp. 478-9. 
Grego, Rowlandson, i. 129-30. 


Pub April 22 iy84 by E Shirlock Drury lane 

Engraving. Pitt, dressed as Harlequin, stands, his 1. foot planted on the 
back of the prostrate Fox, his r. touching the back of North (1.), who 
stands disconsolately in profile to the 1., his hands together as if in prayer. 
Pitt's arms are outstretched; on his r. hand stands Lord Hood, on his 1. 
Sir Cecil Wray. Pitt, only to be identified by the word Pit on his cap, has 
a broad grin, and is saying, Theese are pretty parliment Poppets. Fox says, 
D — fi such pantomime as this; North says. One Minister to another still 
succeed & the Last Fool as welcome as the former; Hood says, / will alway* 
serve my King & Cauntry; Wray answers, / like a Good parliment birth 
brother Hood. In the background (r.) is the portico of Covent Garden 
Church ; figures on the hustings are suggested ; a crowd watching the antics 
of Harlequin is also indicated. On the 1. of the church are houses. 

The figures of Hood and Wray appear to have been copied from those 
in No. 6510, the arms being differently posed: each has one arm on his 
breast, the other extended. One of many satires on the Westminster 
Election, see No. 6474, &c. For the state of the poll see Appendix I. 


Pu¥ April 22 iy84 by Jn° Hanyer Strand— 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire seated in a chair offers her bared 
breast to a fox dressed as an infant, which stands on its hind legs before 
her, placing a paw across her lap. Her own infant, seated on the ground (r.) 
neglected, stretches out her arms to her mother with a protesting scream. 
In the foreground (1.) a cat Hcks the face of a dog which sits on its hind 



legs, while a kitten crawls neglected beside it. Behind the animals is an 
empty cradle. On the wall (1.) is Reynolds's portrait of the Duke of Devon- 
shire standing beside his horse, as in No. 6529. Another portrait (r.) is of 
a stout man wearing a hat walking to the r., one hand in his pocket, the 
other resting on a stick (? Fox). These are very freely sketched. 

One of many satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devonshire for 
Fox. Cf. Nos. 6490, 6625. 

Grego, RowlandsoTiy i. 132 (reproduction). 



April 22"^ 17S4. Pu¥ hy SW Fores N'' 3. Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A group of courtesans 
and brothel-keepers. One of the courtesans (1.) introduces the Prince of 
Wales, who stands beside her, to another standing in profile to the 1. She 
says. He is as Generous as a Prince And a Prince should not be Limmited. 
He says. He supported my Cause, an allusion to the political crisis which 
arose on the question of the Prince's establishment, see No. 6257. Two 
stout bawds stand in conversation in the centre of the design, smiling at 
each other; they wear cloaks and hoods and carry muffs; one, identified 
by Mr. Hawkins as Mrs. Windsor, says, He introduced his R — H to my 
house. Behind and on the extreme r. a third courtesan, older than the others, 
and of debauched appearance, waving a fox's brush, says : / have taken 
many a Pound of his Money Fox for Ever Huzza. The Prince wears his 
ribbon and star, his hat is adorned with three erect ostrich feathers, and 
a drooping fox's brush; each courtesan holds a fox's brush. A fox takes the 
place of the word fox in the title. 

There were many newspaper paragraphs alleging that Fox was supported 
by the women of the town : e.g. * . . .his interest is strong in King's Place,' 
*The support of M^ Fox, from drabs and duchesses, swindlers, uncertifi- 
cated bankrupts, and foreigners, is exactly that which alone could be ex- 
pected. . . .' Westminster Election, pp. 224, 240, cf. also p. 242. Cf. Nos. 
6520, 6549. For a similar satire on the relations of Fox and the Prince of 
Wales see No. 6231. Cf. also Nos. 6401, &c., 7356. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 132. 
Sfx 131^5 in. 

ABJECT CANVASSERS. [22 Apr. 1784] 


Engraving. A canvassing scene in a poor and disreputable district of West- 
minster, indicated by Peter Street on the corner of a house. The Duchess 
of Devonshire canvasses a cobbler; she sits supported on Fox's knee, put- 
ting one foot on a cobbler's stall that he may do some imaginary repairs, 
for which she lavishly pays the man's wife, who leans forward, both hands 
held together to receive the coins. The cobbler and his wife are behind a 
stall protected by a pent-house roof. On this is a notice. Shoes made and 



mended by Bob. Stichttt Cobler to her Grace the Tramping Dutchess NBDogs 
Wormd Cats Gelded. From an open casement window above it a man leans 
out waving a fox's brush; he holds a tankard and a long clay pipe in his 1. 
hand. Beside him a woman holds her head to vomit from the window, her 
elbows supported on the sill. A dog lies under the cobbler's stall. 

Fox, his r. knee on his hat on the ground, the other supporting the 
duchess, turns round to give his r. hand to a ragged man to whose mouth 
Sam House holds a tankard, his other hand pressed on the elector's head, 
who is shown by his long shovel to be a scavenger. Behind, a chimney- 
sweeper with his brushes and his boy with brush and shovel are amused 
spectators. These figures fill the space to the 1. of Fox and the duchess. 
Behind are the irregular gabled roofs and casement windows of old West- 

For the Westminster Election see No. 6474, &c. This design appears to 
illustrate a newspaper paragraph: 'Her Grace of Devonshire has now 
directed the efforts of her canvass to the purlieus of Peter Street, Petty 
France, and Tothill Fields Bridewell. Sam House and her Grace form a 
very agreeable tete-a-tete^ and appear to canvass with equal success.* 
Westminster Election^ p. 244 (see No. 6487). One of the points made in this 
and similar satires (cf. No. 6536) is that only householders who paid poor 
rates, &c. were qualified to vote. The demand for a scrutiny was based 
on allegations that such unqualified persons had voted for Fox. Cf. *No 
less than one hundred unwashed unshaven^ and shirtless rogues (alias 
journeymen Spitalfields weavers) tendered their votes for M'" Fox on 
Friday and Saturday last, but owing to the excellent precaution of having 
the parish books at the Hustings, they were rejected.' Westminster Election^ 
p. 240. See also Nos. 6566, 6575, &c. The title is from Thomas King's 
farce (1769). 

Reissued, Westminster Election^ p. 254. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 130-2 (reproduction). Reproduced (without the 
background), Grego, Hist, of Parliamentary Elections , 1892, p. 275. 


[? Collings.] 

Puh. April 22. 1784. by W. Wells, AT" 132. Fleet Street. 

Engraving. Fox is seated on the ground, a chain attached to his I. ankle; 
North (r.) squats beside him with an anxious expression, holding him by 
the arm. Three ladies stand round the disconsolate couple. The Duchess 
of Devonshire leans towards him, holding out her arms and saying. Take 
comfort — the Duke will never let you zvant a bit of Bread. Fox says. By 
Heaven I shall abhor the sight of them that ever bid me be of comfort more. 
Behind the Duchess (1.) stands a lady putting her hands together and say- 
ing My dear Lord will nevermore be at the head of y^ Treasury \ she is the 
Duchess of Portland,* see No. 6494, &c. Behind North the third lady 
approaches Fox holding out her arms, and saying Where is he! Oh let me 
clasp him in these eager arms and comfort him with love. She is probably 
Mrs. Robinson (Perdita), often mentioned as canvassing for Fox; cf. 
Cornwallis Corr., i. 166, and Nos. 61 17, 6520. 

* Mr. Hawkins identified her as Lady North, but she is not mentioned among 
the canvassing ladies. 



The Duchess of Devonshire wears a riding-habit and a hat with a Fox 
favour and a fox's brush. The other ladies wear plain straw hats and 
a Fox favour at the breast, that of Mrs. Robinson being inscribed Fox 

For Fox's despair of success at the beginning of the poll, see Russell, 
Memorials and Corr. of C. J. Fox^ ii. 267. On 20 Apr. he was hopeful, 
on 27 Apr. confident. Ibid., p. 268. See Appendix I. 



PF. Z). [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs by J. Brown^ Rathhone Place. April 22^ 1784. 

Engraving. The candidates for Middlesex and their supporters race (r. to 
I.) to Brentford. The foremost rider is Wilkes on a horse wearing a royal 
crown (indicating George III, cf. No. 6568); he holds up the cap oi Liberty 
on its staff. Half a length behind, and nearer the spectator, is Mainwaring, 
holding up a sword whose blade is inscribed Justice. His horse's human 
head is blindfolded, in its mouth is a pair of scales ; in one balance is Byng 
Dunston, in the other and heavier, Wilkes Manwaring. The horse probably 
represents Justice, its rider was a well-known Middlesex Justice and chair- 
man of the Middlesex Sessions. Behind Wilkes, his horse's head hidden, 
is a rider not identified, he has lost his stirrups and clutches his saddle with 
both hands. Behind these three and in the centre of the design is George 
Byng, the friend of Fox and the Prince of Wales, M.P. for Middlesex since 
1780 (see No. 6078). He rides a pair of horses (representing the Coalition), 
standing with one foot on the saddle of each ; the near horse has the head 
of Fox, the other that of North; the tail of the near horse is a fox's brush 
inscribed Grace. The fore legs of the pair touch a paper inscribed Test. 
Byng's whip is inscribed Coalition and he is saying, Spur them up behind 
Doctor^ or I shall lose the race^ addressing Hall, the Westminster apothecary, 
who rides like a hobby horse a pair of crutches tied with a ribbon ; in place 
of a hat he wears a mortar inscribed All [sic^ Blue and Bujf\ he holds up 
his pestle as if it were a whip. 

Behind Byng, Jeffery Dunstan rides an ass with long ears and the head 
of Sam House ; he looks round to address the Duchess of Devonshire who 
is the last of the cavalcade. The Duchess (r.) rides astride, her bunched- 
up skirt showing spurred half-boots. Her horse has the head of the Earl 
of Surrey; she says, Byng for ever — and may the Hearty Cock ever stand 
stout in our sarvice. Dunstan says. Well said my Dutchess — Charly's 
Whipper-in for ever. Huzza. The Duchess wears a heavily trimmed hat 
in which is a large election favour and four fox's tails, each inscribed Byng. 
On the extreme 1. is a sign-post pointing To Brentford. 

The Middlesex election was on 22 Apr. Wilkes and Mainwaring stood 
together for the Government, Byng stood alone, so that the situation 
resembled that in Westminster, but polling lasted one day only, the result 
being Mainwaring 1,792, Wilkes 1,518, Byng 1,504. A scrutiny was 
demanded for Byng, who was one of Fox's martyrs. London Chronicle , 
23 and 27 Apr. 






iV« 13. Pu¥ April 23'^ iy84 by G Humphrey. N 48 Long Acre 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire stands, her feet apart, raising her 
skirt to allow a fox (Fox) to take cover under her petticoats. She turns her 
head in profile to the r. towards a huntsman on foot who halloos to his 
hounds. Tally O my good Dogs; his two dogs bark. No Coalition and No 
India Bill. The duchess says, My dear Fox get into Cover. She looks very 
handsome and bold, a sash round her waist streams out in the wind ; in her 
hat are the usual ostrich plumes fcf. No. 6530, &c.), fox's brush, and favour 
inscribed Fox. The fox crouches under her feet, looking round at his 
pursuers in alarm. 

One of many satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devonshire 
see No. 6493, &c. For the state of the poll see Appendix I. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 132. 



Published as the Act directs April 23 1784 by H M' Phail N 68 High 

Engraving. Pitt (1.) holds out in his 1. hand towards Fox (r.) a chain ; in his 
r. is a mask ; he stands on Magna Charta. Fox looks away from Pitt, hold- 
ing a sword in his r. hand and pointing to a British ship at sea; above the 
ship is inscribed. Rule Britania Britania Rule the Waves For Britains never 
Shall be Slaves. The ship and the words are enclosed within a rectangle 
on the r. of the design. Fox is saying / will ever Maintain the Rights of the 
People In Parliament, for it is that Parliament only that Can keep Us from 
Slavery and Oppression. 

On the 1. of the design, beside Pitt, are three rectangles arranged 
vertically one above the other, which correspond to that on the r. In the 

highest are the words By the K s Letters Patent P s [Pitt's] New 

Invented Fetters after the French Fashion. Below this is a chain resembling 
that held by Pitt and a pair of wooden shoes, traditional emblem of French 
slavery. In the lowest compartment, inscribed Slavery, is an almost naked 
man seated in a dungeon, his wrists chained to the wall. 

One of the comparatively few satires directly attacking Pitt published 
in 1784. See Nos. 6417, &c., 6436, &c., 6556, 6587, 6603. 


[? Phillips.] 

Published by S. Fores, N" j, Piccadilly, April 24 1784, 

Engraving. Five men stand round six chamber-pots, arranged in two piles 
of three, each inscribed Poll Book 1784 and supported on a rectangular 



block or table on which the title is engraved. Each man holds his nose. 
One (1.) in profile to the r., who holds a spoon, is vomiting; he says: 

/ already am sick 

Of this poisonous trick 

The busines so thick 

T'would weary old Nick 

With spoon or stick 

Right from wrong to pick. 

His vis-a-vis (r.), who stirs the contents of a pot with a spoon, says : 
The cause I may gainy 
Though with labour and pain 
I can hardly refrain 
From puking amain 
Thro such fillth for to tag 
Is wores [sic\ than euphorbium bag 

(an allusion to the bag thrown at Fox in Westminster Hall, see No. 
6426, &c.). 

The other three stand together behind the table; the central one says, 
A hogo here is. Worse than Cats pis Than Devils Spew. Or Asafoetida. Two 
demons hold out a net which stretches behind the scrutineers. One (1.) 

Ay Brother and by my tail, 
The Sheriffs shall admit no bail. 

The other (r.) says : 

Spread the net and you shall see 
Many a false oath will come to me. 

A satire on the demand for a scrutiny made on behalf of Wray as soon 
as it appeared that Fox might secure a majority (see Appendix I). On 
23 Apr. the committee for Hood and Wray issued an advertisement pledg- 
ing themselves 'should the various manoeuvres of M^ Fox's party so far 
prevail, ... in justice to the injured Electors that not only a scrutiny shall 
be demanded, but supported with every possible exertion*. Westminster 
Election, 1784, p. 109. On 5 May, &c., Hood and Wray's Committee for 
the scrutiny advertised the names of seven banks receiving subscriptions 
'for supporting the said scrutiny', ibid., p. 114. 

For the scrutiny see Nos. 6555, 6557, 6563, p. 123, 6575, 6578, 6589, 
6590, 6619, 6621, 6622, 6623, 6624, 6626, 6671, 6783 (the defeat of the 
Ministry), 7124, 7339, 7389, 7480. 
7|Xioiin. (pi.). 


[ ? J. Barrow.] 

Pu¥ April 24. 1784. by H. Humphrey. N"" 31. New Bond Street. 

Engraving. Four men stand in the pillory, in pairs. The arrangement is 
not that of the actual pillory : they stand on a cross-bar which connects two 
high posts, one at each side of the design, each of which supports a board, 
through the holes in which are thrust the heads and hands of two victims. 
The cross-bar is much above the level of the ground. In the centre of the 
design, below the cross-bar, is inset the head of Fox in an oval, on a much 



larger scale than the figures ; he has an expression of scowling perplexity. 
The men in the pillory say (1. to r.), / am only vexed I was not Paid before 
I swore; Little did I think of this &y Dam such pay as this; They Promise to 

keep me from Danger-, and, Dam her Gr e she brought me to this. 

They are supposed to be men who had taken 'the bribery oath', or had 

sworn falsely that they were qualified electors of Westminster, undergoing 

the punishment for perjury. The implication is that the scrutiny, see No. 

6553, &c., will reveal a number of persons who will be indicted for perjury. 

Beneath the design is engraved : 

These little Villains must submit to fate 

That great ones may enjoy the World, in State. 

Three prints in the Guildhall Library, 



Pub April 24^ by H. Humphrey Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A night-scene under the Piazza of 
Covent Garden, the centre of the square in the background is seen through 
an arch of the arcade. A couple, embracing, hurry through a doorway (r.) 
over which is Haddocks (a well known bagnio). The Duchess of Devon- 
shire, her breast bare, holding a lantern, takes a prim young man by the 
arm, saying. Vote for whom you please but Kiss before you Poll. He answers, 
tis too much neighbour! I could not go through with it. Behind (1.), Mrs. 
Hobart directs her lantern upon an old and decrepit Chelsea pensioner 

and a negro supported on stumps and crutches; she says, D n the 

Duchess, She got all the young voters. 

A satire on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devonshire, see No. 
6493, &c., and Mrs. Hobart, see No. 6526, &c. 
81X13 in. 


Published April 24, 1^84 by J. P. Elwen. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Three isolated groups, each with its 
title (as above). On the 1. Pitt stands behind the throne of George HI, 
who turns to him as if asking advice. In the centre Fox and North stand 
together. Fox (r.) with a cloven hoof which rests on Ch[art]er India, North 
with Taxes issuing from his pocket; above their heads are an axe and 
halter. On the r. the Duchess of Devonshire embraces a butcher, who 
pockets a bribe of io£. Above their heads is a signpost : a ducal coronet 
with a pair of horns. 

A combined attack on the Coalition, see Nos. 6176-9, 6393, &c.. Fox's 
India Bill, see Nos. 6271, 6368, &c., and the canvassing of the Duchess of 
Devonshire, see No. 6493, &c. The Foxite theme of Pitt's subservience 
to the Crown (see No. 6417, &c.) is countered. 




W.P.C. [Carey.] 

Pub. for W. P. Carey N" 66, Drury Lane, April 26, 1784. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Wray sits (r.) in despair; a demon holds 
out to him a halter, saying, All that remains for you to do now is to imitate 
your great predecessor and use this Halter. Wray says. Disappointed in my 
hopes, abandoned by my friends and dispised by my enemies I must now bid 
adieu to this world. Beside him are inscriptions alluding to Chelsea 
Hospital, the tax on maidservants, and other taxes: On Weddings, Do to 
Prevent population, On Births (cf. No. 6253). Pitt stands looking at Wray 
in alarm, saying. In thy fall i see my ruin! From his pocket issues a Satyr 
on Woman (cf. No. 6556). 

In the background are two scenes on a small scale : on the 1. Fox is being 
chaired by three ladies ; he holds the cap and staff of Liberty. On the r. 
Churchill stands in the pillory for Perjury ; a hostile crowd is indicated. 

For Fox's increasing majority over Wray see Appendix I. Churchill was 
the chairman of Hood and Wray's Committee. He was called in a squib 
dated 20 Apr. 1784 'Prince of the United Parishes of S^ James's and St. 
Margaret's Westminster'. For Wray as Judas see No. 6492, &c. 



Pub April 26 1784 by F Clarkson N° 75 S^ Pauls Church Yard v 

Engraving. Fox and the Duchess of Devonshire walk together (1. to r.) 
hand in hand; her petticoats are being blown up to the knee by a blast 
from the mouth of North, whose head emerges from clouds in the upper 
1. corner of the design. She says. The Favourable assistance of Boras is very 
gratefull when heated by the fateigues of Canvasing. Fox dances along with 
a slyly jovial expression, holding up in his 1. hand a purse labelled Fresh 
Supplies ; he says, Charly loves to kiss & play as sweet as Sugar Candy. The 
Duchess wears a hat trimmed with a large Fox favour, three ostrich feathers 
(cf. No. 6530, &c.), and a fox's brush. From her 1. leg hangs the ribbon 
of a garter inscribed Fox. Immediately behind the Duchess is Burke on 
hands and knees peering under her petticoats; he says. Heavens how 
happily the principels of the Sublime & Butiful are blended. Behind him 
walk together two rough fellows (1.), one a butcher, who turns grinning to 
his companion and points to the Duchess's legs and saying, / thought we 
ware all to avoid a Scrutany if Possible. Across the front of his cap is the 
word Fox. The other answers. So we are, for except in this instance Dam 
me if I think we are able to bare one. On the extreme r. a grinning youth 
plays a fiddle to which Fox dances ; he sings, 

Charly loves good Cakes & ale 
Charly loves good Brandy. 

The corner of a wall above his head is inscribed Henrietta Street, 
showing that the scene is Covent Garden. 
For the proposed scrutiny see No. 6553, &c. 


113 I 




W.P.C [Carey.] M 

Pub. by Jacob DoucCy at the HustingSy Covent Garden — and in Drury 
lane — April 26, 1784. 

Engraving. Pitt (1.), riding an ass with the head of George III, is pierced 
by the sword of Fox (r.) who is mounted on a bull inscribed John Bull. 
Pitt, very thin, holds up his hand submissively, his sword has fallen to the 
ground; it is a Scottish broadsword, the blade inscribed A present from the 
ThaTWy to show that he has inherited Bute's supposed secret influence with 
the king. The ass is inscribed The ♦****'* A**^ i.e. The Queen's Ass, a 
familiar name for the Queen's zebra which grazed in the grounds of Buck- 
ingham House, much used in pictorial satire c. 1762, see No. 3870,' &c., 
and cf. No. 7384; the ass (George III) is saying. Prerogative! prerogative! 
now my dear boy^ Pam, cut him^ hack him, slash him! Fox, his sword resting 
on Pitt, its blade inscribed The Sword of Rinaldo, says, Such be the fate of 
Tyrants! The bull is snorting Z) — n prerogative. 

One of the few prints directly attacking Pitt published during the election, 
see No. 6552, &c. Pam connotes Knave of Clubs (see No. 6488), here Pitt, 
but Fox in No. 6488, &c. Pitt, 'immaculate Billy', was ridiculed for his 
chastity, cf. No. 8054. For George III as an ass cf. Nos. 5669, 5683, 6007. 


WPG [Carey.] M. 

Pub. as the Act directs by W. Holland N" 66 Drury lane [n.d.] 

Engraving. Mrs. Hobart (1.), enormously fat, and the Duchess of Devon- 
shire (r.) stand facing each other in profile. Mrs. Hobart holds under her 
r. arm a fat badger with the head of Wray, his collar inscribed Ministerial 
Badger. The Duchess holds a fox under her 1. arm ; the animals snarl at each 
other; the fox (Fox) says. Poor Badger! Where's your scrub majority now! 
The badger answers, A fig for your Electors! Mountmorres is acquainted 
with the whole bunch and he swears you'll find them, my cunning Fox, sour 
grapes in the scrutiny. Mrs. Hobart says, / shall burst with indignation. 
Behind her and hung on a wall is a downward-hanging flag inscribed 
Ensign of Disappointment, with a key inscribed Key of the Back Stairs, see 
No. 6564. Between the heads of the canvassers is posted a bill, the lower 
part only being visible : And for the coarse, vulgar abuse which appear in 
certain manifestos, signed John Churchill, the Select Committee are only sorry 
to see the friends of the Court Candidates so very angry at this period of the 
Poll, as they will probably stand in need of some portion of temper at the close 
of it. With this caution they leave the Committee at Wood's at full liberty to 
rave about bribes and bludgeons, perjuries and butchers, lodgers and wounds, 
weavers and cleavers, and according to their own discretion to decorate their 
advertisement with all that election quackery suggests in desperate cases. 

By order of the Committee 

R. Morrell, Secretary. 
* Also the title of a print of the Prince of Wales. See No. 7156. 



Probably an actual poster: R. Morrell signed the advertisements of a 
Select Committee at Irelands', Bow Street, on illegal votes. 

Behind the Duchess on the extreme r. are two slatternly ballad-singers 
who sing, Charley Fox with a Plumper for me!^ and Fox with a Plumper for 
me! Above their heads is the lower part of a placard inscribed : 

an unalterable friend to the rights of the People. 
I am with every sentiment of gratitude and respect ^ 
Your most obedient^ 
And most humble seri/ 
C. J. Fox. 

S^ James's S^ April 26 


The Duchess wears a large favour in her hat inscribed Fox & Liberty ; 
one of the ballad-singers, whose breasts are uncovered, has a similar favour 
inscribed Fox. 

For the allegations that Lord Mountmorres, a leading supporter of Hood 
and Wray, was a lodger without a vote, see No. 6492. John Churchill was 
the active chairman of the Election Committee of Hood and Wray who 
signed the party advertisements from Wood's Hotel. For some of the gibes 
alluded to in Morrell's notice see Nos. 6548, 6575, &c. For the scrutiny 
see No. 6553, &c. For Mrs. Hobart and the Duchess as rival canvassers 
see No. 6526, &c. For the state of the poll see Appendix I. 

The drawing, incised for transfer to the plate, is in the Print Room 
(201* b. 2). 


Publish' d by I Notice Oxford Road April 26 1784 

Engraving. Through a grated window in the stone wall of a dungeon looks 
the disconsolate face of Fox; beneath the window is inscribed Pray 
Remember the Poor Debters. Burke (r), walking in profile, approaches from 
the r., holding in both hands a bag inscribed Broken Victuals. He has a 
distressed expression, saying. Her Grace is very good to him I think — well 
tis an oeeconeical [sic] situation. In the centre of the design is the low door 
of the prison, studded with nails and fastened by a chain and huge padlock. 
One of many satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devonshire, 
see No. 6493, &c. For other satires on Fox's poverty, cf. No. 6500, &c. 
For Fox as Carlo Khan see Nos. 6276, 6473, &c. For the debtors' prison 
cf. No. 6483, &c. He was now confident of success, see Appendix I. 


[ ? J. Barrow.] 

Pu¥ by E. Rich April. 28. 1784. N 55. opposite Anderton's Coffee 
House. Fleet street. 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire (r.), wearing very wide hooped 
petticoats, shelters a fox beneath them. Its head projects from a slit 




which she holds open with her hands, its tail shows between her feet. 
She says : 

Here my dear Reynard when all trouble* s pasty 

You'll find a Borrough open at the last. 

Her hat is trimmed with the usual ostrich plumes and fox's brush, cf. 
No. 6530, &c. North stands facing her, saying He's IN for a Borrough, 
Beneath the design is inscribed : 

In vain may Wits reprove^ and Criticks blarney 
Nor shall concealment in this cause defamCy 
Reynard in gratitude of such protectiony 
Now pays the devoirs of his Election. 

One of many gross satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devon- 
shire for Fox, see No. 6493, &c. It anticipates news of the return of Fox 
for Tain, Dingwall, and Kirkwall (the Orkney boroughs) on 26 April, 
which Fox records on 7 May. Russell, Memorials and Corr. of Fox y ii. 269 ; 
see No. 6614, &c. 


Published Aprilly 29, 1^84 by A Aitken N"" 2 Orange Court Drury 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire, intoxicated, walks arm-in-arm 
between two supporters, the one on her r. being Fox, the other one of his 
more prominent adherents. Sam House (r.) walks before them, acting as 
a link-boy with a lighted torch, his hat, decorated with a fox's brush, in his 
r. hand. Fox says, Hold up Georgiana another Q** [ ? quartern] an we shall 
soon be at Piccadilly. The Duchess says, My Eyes & Limbs I shall Spew 
on the Duke to night. Her other supporter says, pointing to Sam House, 
mxike hast Sam her Grace is taking short in the poop. Sam answers, / will 
my lord Heaven bless her Grace. 

The Duchess wears no hat, but her hair is decorated with a plume of 
three large ostrich feathers (cf. No. 6530); her breast is bare. 

One of many satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devonshire for 
Fox, see No. 6493, &c. 
9fxi3f in. (pL). 


[Rowlandson, probably after Townshend.] 

Pu¥ April 2g*^ by H Humphreys [sic] Bond Street 

Engraving. The piazza of Covent Garden, with the hustings, showing a 
line of hill in the distance inscribed View of Richmond Hill. In the air, 
flying towards the hustings, is Mrs. Hobart encased from the waist down- 
wards in a circular balloon to which is attached a hammock-like platform, 
on which lie two voters, face downwards, looking over the side. The lady, 

' Dilly was colloquial for diligence, the most rapid form of stage-coach, which 
became known as mail-coach after 1784. 



in profile to the 1., looking upwards, excessively fat, with uncovered breast, 
is saying This may save him; her petticoats have been transformed into 
the balloon, her *last shift'. A blast issues from her posteriors. One of her 
passengers in profile to the 1. holds out his hand, saying, / see the Hustings. 
The other, facing in the opposite direction, says, thank God I am an outside 
Passenger. A flock of birds scatters r. and 1. of the balloon. 

Wray, kneeling on one knee, and Hood standing behind him (r.) look 
up eagerly to the balloon, holding out their hands. Wrays says, A foul 
wind is fair for us; Hood says, O come sweet Air Balloon or I must off in one. 
The hustings under the portico of St. Paul's are freely sketched ; gesticula- 
ting orators, hat in hand, address the crowd. One of the houses on the r. 
(north) side of the piazza is inscribed Lows; a flag flies from a window. 

Beneath the print is etched the title and an explanation in a centre 
column, with the words of a song on each side of it : 

The grand political Balloon launched at Richmond Park on the of March 
1784 and discharged by secret influence with great Effect in Covent Garden 
at 12 O Clock on the same day. 

As it may be necessary to explain to the Public upon what principals a body 
was conveyed 12 Miles with so great velocity it must be understood that the 
lady tho ponderous being of a very Volatile disposition^ out of decency sewed up 
her petticoats when a little accident happening an inflammable Gas was 
generated which immediately raised her to a considerable height in the Atmo- 
sphere and by the attraction of secret influence was conveyed to her desired 

Object the support of Hood and Wray and the constitution and descended 

happily to the Hustings with two outlying and dependent Voters. 

The Song^ Tune Bellisle March^ begins : 

Tho' in every Street 

All the Voters you meet 
The Dutchess knows but how to court them 

Yet for outlying Votes 

In my Petticoats 
Vve found out a way to transport them. 

This print was anticipated by a large bill signed 'Katterfelto Junior' 
dated 28 Apr. adjuring the 'Friends of Hood and Wray' 'not to dispond 
. . .the outlying Voters still remain ... a much distinguished Lady has 
found a way of conveying them any distance her rival cannot reach. . . . 
This friend to the Constitutional Candidates will descend upon the public 
Hustings between one and three As an Air Balloon . . .'. Copy in Guildhall 
Library (Collection of Squibs on the Westminster Election), reprinted 
Westminster Election, pp. 109-10. Mrs. Hobart had a villa on Ham Com- 
mon (which she called Sans Souci)^ hence probably the allusion to Rich- 
mond Hill. See No. 6526. 

The sketch for this print (lojx I2f in.) by an amateur is in the Print 
Room (201. c. 6/23, 25). In this the inscriptions are as in the print with 
words further to explain the rough sketch: 'Irish chairmen' being written 
below St. Paul's Church. Its manner resembles that of sketches by 
Viscount Townshend in the Department. It was attributed to him: 'M''^ 

H 1 has not ballooned a single vote to the Hustings since she was 

caricatured by the unmerciful Viscount of Hanover Square'. Newspaper 
paragraph quoted in the Westminster Electiony p. 363. (Townshend lived 



at 9 Hanover Square.) Rowlandson's working drawing incised for transfer 
is with the sketch, showing that much of the design was etched directly 
on the plate. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 134. 
8 J X 9i in. ; with the song, 1 3ig X 9i in. 



Pub April 2g, 1784 by J. Hedges Royal Exchange 

Engraving. A satirical sequel to No. 6456, in which Fox is in the cart. 
Fox drives (r. to 1.) Sir Cecil Wray as a pauper in the county pass-cart to 
the place of his settlement in Lincolnshire. Fox sits on the high driving- 
seat of a ramshackle cart flourishing his whip and looking round at Wray, 
who sits disconsolately in profile to the r., his hands clasped and resting 
on the side of the cart. Fox says, / will drive you to Lincoln where you may 
Superintend the Small beer & brick dust. Wray says, / always was a poor 
dog But now I am worse than ever. Hood stands (r.) in profile to the 1. look- 
ing at the cart and saying Alas poor Wray. A signpost (1.) points to Lincoln. 
On a tilt which covers part of the cart, behind Wray's head, is inscribed 
The Lincoln shire Caravan for Paupers. 

One of many satires on Wray's defeat, see Nos. 6573, 6574, 6576, 6578, 
6586, 6589, 6590, 6591, 6592, 6594. 

Wray's country house was Summer Castle, near Lincoln. An accusation 
of parsimony (see No. 6492, &c.), combined with his proposals for the 
abolition of Chelsea Hospital and for a tax on servants (see No. 6475, &c.), 
seriously prejudiced his chances at Westminster. See Wraxall, Memoirs, 
1884, iii. 341. For the state of the poll see Appendix I. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 132-3 (reproduction). Reproduced, Grego, Hist, 
of Parliamentary Elections, 1892, p. 281. 
9X13 in. 

6562 A A later impression, n.d., signed T. Rowlandson fec^. Hedges* 
imprint erased and replaced by London, Published & sold by W. Humphrey 
N° 3 Lancaster Court. 

6563 THE DEPARTURE [29 Apr.^j 
Etch'd by T Rowlandson Published by W Humphrey. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Fox seated on an ass 
takes leave of two ladies, one on each side of the ass, holding a hand of 
each. From under his saddle protrudes his India Bill. On his 1. stands the 
Duchess of Devonshire (r.) holding out to him a fox's brush. She says: 

Farewell my Charley — let no fears assail 

For Sure no Fox had e^er so fine a Tail. 

Fox answers, looking down at her : 

If that a Scrutiny at last takes place 
I can't tell how 'twill be & please your grace 
But Ladies for your Friendship & good zvill 
My Bushy Tail is at your service still. 

^ See below ; dated 1 8 May by Grego, when perhaps the print was reissued. 



Lady Duncannon, holding Fox's r. hand, looks across at the Duchess 
saying : 

Ah! Sister, Sister, must he then depart 

To loose poor Reynard: almost breaks my heart. 

They stand outside a house; three ostrich feathers over the door (r.) 
indicate Carlton House. From a window the Prince of Wales looks at the 
group below. On the extreme 1. and facing Fox, stands Burke in profile 
to the r. as a post-boy in jack-boots, and holding a whip ; under his arm is 
his Plan of economy (cf. No. 5657). A signpost points (1.) To Coventry, 

Fox retires *to Coventry' on account of the threatened scrutiny, see No. 
6553, &c. Cf. also No. 6614, &c. For the India Bill, see Nos. 6271, 6368, 
&c. For the canvassing of the Duchess and other ladies see No. 6493, &c. 
For the Prince of Wales and the election see No. 6528, &c. 

There is an earlier impression (copy in Guildhall Library) with the 
imprint Puh April 2g^^ 1784 by S. Hedges Royal Exchange. North (after- 
wards erased) is seated on the ground like a beggar (r.), naked except for 
a tartan plaid on his shoulders ; he holds up his breeches on a staff, saying : 
If you to Coventry with Baalam go 
I still will Coalize — ge up — ge — ho. 

For the Coalition cf. No. 6393, &c. 
Grego, Rowlandson, i. 140-1. 
9X13 J in. 




London Published April jo^* ^^7^4 by G Humphrey iV" 48 Long Acre. 

Engraving. An election-procession marches (r. to 1.) towards the hustings 
which are indicated by a corner of the pediment of St. Paul's Church and 
a crowd. A band of butchers, with marrow-bones and cleavers, heads the 
procession. Next walks the Duchess of Devonshire, holding up on a pole 
a pair of breeches inscribed Man of the People, and surmounted by a crow- 
ing cock. She is followed by a lady holding up on a pole a placard with 
Fox (a fox) a?id the Rights of the Commons. A third lady holds up on a pole 
a mob-cap and apron inscribed No Tax on Maid Servants. They are 
followed by sturdy-looking citizens wearing Fox favours, one of whom 
carries a fourth standard : a key tied in a hoop and inscribed Key of the Back 
Stairs,^ in allusion to the 'secret influence' which favoured Pitt, cf. Nos. 
6417, &c., 6557, 6592, 7139, 7325, 7339, 7372, 7634, 8102. House is seen 
between the first two ladies, waving his hat and wildly cheering the pro- 
cession; other spectators do the same. See No. 6475, &c. 

The Duchess is more characterized than her two companions, who 
are probably her sister Lady Duncannon and perhaps Mrs. Crewe, cf. 
No. 6493, &c. All three wear the ostrich plumes and fox's brush which 
were worn as emblems of the Prince of Wales and of Fox (see No. 
6530, &c.). 

' This emblem appears to have been first used on 14 Feb., during Fox's proces- 
sion to Devonshire House (see No. 6421, &c.), when 'at Lord Temple's, a wag held 
up a flag tied to a stick, hung round with crape, which he called the Secret Influence 
Key in Mourning'. Full and Authentic Account of the Proceedings in Westminster 
Hall, 1784, pp. 26-7 n. 



Reissued, Westminster Election, p. 219. 

The original sketch for this design by an amateur, with the inscriptions 
as in the plate, together with Rowlandson's sketch incised for transfer, is 
in the Print Room (201. c. 6/14, 27). See also No. 6576. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 134. Reproduced, Grego, Hist, of Parliamentary 
Elections, 1892, p. 282; Stokes, The Devonshire House Circle, 1917, p. 206. 

6564 A Another impression with altered publication-line : the words after 
G. Humphrey have been erased and Printseller & Dealer in Natural 
Curiosities, N^ 48 Long Acre engraved in their place. 


[W. Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs, for the Proprieter, by T. Bun, S^ Martinis Lane 
April 30, iy84 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire (1.) carries a fat butcher (r.), both 
her arms round his waist, his r. arm is round her waist, their faces are in 
profile looking at each other. She says, Fll try all measures to bring the 
matter to a proper Issue ; he says. Oh! — who can withstand such charms. She 
wears a large hat trimmed with a Fox favour, laurel branch, and four fox's 
brushes inscribed respectively, Love and \ Liberty \ Delicacy and \ Decorum. 
A crudely drawn hand on a signpost (r.) points with a thumb To Covent 
Garden. Behind the Duchess (1.) is the corner of a building inscribed 
Newport Market. 

One of many gross satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devon- 
shire (see No. 6493, &c.), in which Dent appears to have specialized. 
These 'filthy prints' were denounced in the press ; see Westminster Election, 
pp. 194, 324, 327, 376. Cf. No. 6588. 

T. Petherfed [Rowlandson.] 

Pu¥ May i'^ 1^84 by W. Humphrey N" 22y Strand. 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire, carrying Fox on her back, 
approaches an alehouse. The host, a negro, 'Mungo', stands on his door- 
step delightedly filling a glass for the Duchess ; a fat disreputable slattern 
stands behind him. The Duchess, who supports herself by a large staflf, 
holds a full purse in her hand, saying. For the good of the Constitution give 
me a Glass of Gin, the suggestion being that she will pay a large sum for 
the gin to secure a vote (cf. No. 6548). Her hat with ostrich plumes and 
fox's brush has a favour inscribed Fox ForNi. Fox, one hand resting on her 
shoulder, waves his hat ; they are both in profile to the r. Over the doorway 
of the alehouse (or perhaps brothel) is inscribed Mungo' s Hotel Dealer in 
British Spirits ; the woman says. Give the poor Man a Vote my Dear he is 
a good Man for the Ladies. A dog beside her barks at the visitors. The 
gabled roofs and casement windows indicated in the background suggest 
that this is an old and disreputable part of Westminster, resembling Peter 



Street as in No. 6548. The crowd, which is very freely sketched, also suggests 
a low neighbourhood ; a man and woman walk or dance along, their arms 
round each other's shoulders ; he flourishes a full tankard. An excited group 
shout and wave their hats round two tall standards : one. Fox and Liberty all 
(yver the worlds above two crossed executioner's axes, the other. Rights of 
the Commons and No Prerogative^ with a cap of Liberty on the pole, cf. 
No. 6380, &c. 

One of many satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devonshire, 
see No. 6493, &c. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 135. 

813X13 in. 


[i May 1784] 

Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine ^ ii. 146. A design in two com- 
partments. On the 1. Fox obtains his freedom by letting himself down 
by a rope through a hole which has been broken in the stone wall of a 
prison (cf. No. 6483, &c.); a barred window is behind his head. He says, 
/ have got my Freedom without being beholden to the Grocers. Cf. No. 6648. 

In the other and wider compartment men sit round a table on which 
is a punch-bowl. Pitt (r.), in profile to the 1., has risen from his chair to 
accept the box containing the freedom of the City, handed to him by a man 
in a furred robe. He says, This Honour is highly acceptable to me. The man 
offering the box says, You honour us greatly. One of the members of the 
Grocers' Company says, M^ Pitt is a Sweet Man arid a Fig for M^ F.y 
another says, M'' Pitt is welcome to MacCy Cinnamon and All-Spice^ but not 

a brace of Nutmegs for M^ F . A man seated on the 1. points over his 

shoulder towards Fox escaping and says. There he goes. 

For Pitt's dinner with the Grocers on 28 Feb., when he was presented 
with the freedom of the City and became a member of the Company, see 
No. 6442. 



Pu¥ May i'^ 1^84 by I. CookCy Fetter Lane 

Engraving. The king (1.) and Wilkes (r.) stand together, each with his r. 
arm on the other's shoulder. Wilkes says, / now find that you are the best 
of Princes [cf. No. 5979] ; the king says. Sure! the worthiest of Subjects & 
most Virtuous of men. Wilkes holds the staff of Liberty reversed, the cap 
resting on the ground. From his coat-pocket hang two papers, A^* B N° 45 
and Essay on Woman (cf. No. 5245). Beneath the design is etched : 

O rare Forty five! 
O dear Prerogative! 

The Wolf shall dwell with the Lamby <Sf the Leopard shall lie down with the 
Kid; & the Calf & the young Lion & the Failing together: & a little Child 
shall lead them. Isaiah. Chap. xi. V. xvi. 

There are many allusions to the alliance between the king and Wilkes 



involved in the latter 's uncompromising opposition to Fox's India Bill and 
support of Pitt. See the lines entitled 'New Coalitions': 

When foes like oil and vinegar unite 

Which are wrong principles, and which are right ? 

When Piety and Blasphemy agree, 

Can there a stranger Coalition be! 

O best of Kings! cries W kes, for ever live! 

Subjects like W kes, says G , kind fortune give! 

Asylum for Fiigitive PieceSy i, 1785, p. 264. See also Westminster Election, 
p. 329. See Nos. 6461, 6550, 6569, 6571, 6584, 6988, 7149. Cf. also 
No. 6162, a humorous anticipation of the reconciliation, then (1782-3) 
regarded as impossible. 

Small copy, Grego, Hist, of Parliamentary Elections , 1892, p. 254. 



Another version, reversed, without publication-line. 'Virtuous' is spelt 
VirtuoSy and an asterisk is prefixed to 'little Child' with the note * Vide Pitt, 
Approximately the same size (clipped). 

6569 GIVE JUSTICE HER CLAIMS. [i May 1784*] 

Engraving. Wilkes (1.) and George HI (r.) hang from a post, the ropes 
round their necks nailed to an oval (as in No. 6178) bearing the arms of the 
City of London without the dagger, perhaps intended to suggest that the 
City, by its attitude to Pitt and the king, was disarmed. From a cloud in 
the upper 1. corner the Devil leans out holding a pitch-fork ; he points a 
finger at them, saying. Ha! Ha! Ha! What! come together at last. 

See No. 6568, &c. 
7|x6f in. 


Published by E Hedges N'' 92 Comhill May j^ iy84 

Engraving. An imitation of The Mask by Sayers, see No. 6234: instead 
of the faces of North and Fox, those of the Duchess of Devonshire (1.) and 
Fox (r.) are joined together to form a mask, the division down the centre 
of the nose. The hair of the Duchess extends above that of Fox, while 
his 'gunpowder jowl' extends below the point of her chin. 
Beneath the design is etched : 

Two faces here in one you see designed. 

Each strongly mark'd declares the inward mind, 

One seems ambitious of a daring soul. 

The other soft the passions to controul. 

One rough & virulent, th* other fair & free. 

With looks that promise sensibility. 

When such as these in harmony unite. 

The contrast surely must amize [sic\ the sight, 

A satire on the relations of Fox and the Duchess, see No. 6493, &c, 

9x8^ in. 

* So dated by Mr. Hawkins. 




Pu¥ as the Act directs May 3^ 1784. 

Etching. Design in a circle. An adaptation of Sayers*s Coalition Medal 
struck in Brass , see No. 6183. Busts of Thurlow, Wilkes, and the king 
superimposed, simulating high relief. Thurlow, facing 1., wearing his 
Chancellor's wig, is the uppermost ; both his bushy eyebrows are visible, 
the mace projects from behind him. The king is in profile to the r. 
Squeezed between Thurlow and the king is the head of Wilkes, elon- 
gated and much caricatured, squinting violently. Behind the heads is a 
background of horizontal lines in an irregular oval ; outside this oval and 
within the circle are emblems of the slavery threatened by this triumvirate : 
a pair of shackles (1.) and a set of stocks fastened by a padlock (r.). 

For the 'coalition' between the king and Wilkes, see No. 6568, &c. The 
absence of Pitt is significant. 
8 in. diam. 



1784 Pu¥ May. 3'^ hy W. Watts [? Wells] Fleet Street. 

Engraving. One side of a poor street. Liberty Lane, showing (1.) a cobbler's 
bulk or stall, next it the shop of a 'botching tailor', next it a 'penny barber's'. 
The one-storied cottages recede in perspective from the 1., the roofs being 
visible only on the r. ; Fox is canvassing the residents. He kneels in the 
roadway, putting his face to the bare posteriors which the cobbler, who is 
within his stall, offers to him. A placard beside the stall is inscribed Shoes 
neatly mended by W. Heeltap. Beside the stall (1.) a man stands, saying, 
What a prickley Beard the Rascal has got. Over the central house is in- 
scribed Tiniy Stich Tailer Small Jobs done here. The tailor, wearing a night- 
cap, sits on the sill of his casement window, his back towards Fox, with a 
pair of open shears in his hand. He says Mine will be a Savory Rellish If 
he's fond of Cabbage. For cabbage cf. Nos. 5805, 7867, 8035, &c. Over the 
barber's window projects a striped pole, from which hangs a board inscribed 
Shave for a penny. In front of its window a man is walking away from Fox, 
saying. No Ray [W^ray] ; from his bare posteriors he emits a blast inscribed 
Fox for ever. On the extreme r. a man disappears into a doorway, his bare 
posteriors emitting a cloud of smoke inscribed Love and Liberty. 

One of the few satires on the canvassing of Fox in which the Duchess of 
Devonshire is not introduced. See Nos. 6474, 6493, &c. 

A print in the Guildhall Library, 

Published as the Act directs May j — 1784 by E. Benson N° ig Helton 
Str* long Acre. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox stands complacently, saying, / Hugg 
myself with assistance of 4^^ Reg^ alias Black-Guard I am chose for Westm*: 
Shou'd I be thrown out on Scrutiny — What shall I do. The Duchess of 



Devonshire (I.), wearing Fox favours, hat with feathers and fox-tails, says, 
My D^ Fox never dispair I have a Buro you shall be in again [cf. No. 6559]. 
Behind (r.) are Jeffrey Dunstan, standing (as in No. 5637, &c.) with his 
sack of old wigs on his shoulder, and a little chimney-sweep riding an ass. 
The former says. Sweet Duche's I will decline in Favor of Charles & turn 
over my Interest. The other, waving his brush, says, Fox for ever Hur^a 
now my Hearts for Garat. 

Fox, if rejected on a scrutiny, see No. 6553, &c., through the help of his 
ragamuffin friends will receive the seat of Garrat (Wandsworth), where 
mock elections were held, Dunstan being elected three times. Cf. No. 
6614, &c. 


[.f^ Kingsbury.^] 

Pub May 6 1^84 by J. Wallis N" 16 Ludgate Street. 

Engraving. Fox (Wisdom) is led in triumph between the Duchess of 
Devonshire (Virtue) on his r. and Lady Duncannon (Prudence) who holds 
his 1. hand in her 1. hand. They advance towards the Temple of Fame (r.) 
where Britannia holds out her arms, saying. Welcome to my arms. The 
ladies wear the usual ostrich feathers, fox's brush, and Fox favours in their 
hair (cf. No. 6530). The Duchess also holds a fox's brush in her r. hand; 
she says : 

Let Envy rail & Disappointment rage. 

Still Fox shall prove the Wonder of the Age. 

Her sister says : 

Triumph & Fame shall every Step attend 
His Kings best Subject & his Country's Friend. 

Behind (1.) stands Sir Cecil Wray, his arms folded, his hair composed of 
writhing serpents, and wearing a cloak. He looks over his 1. shoulder at 
the trio and says : 

Now by the ground that I am banishdfrom 
Well could I curse away a Winters night. 

For Wray's defeat see No. 6562, &c., and Appendix L For the canvassing 
ladies see Nos. 6493, 6588, &c. 
9X12! in. 


Publishd as the Act directs by W. Moore Vere S^ Oxford S^ May 6. 


Engraving (coloured impression). Sir Cecil Wray stands in a man-of-war, 
the Royal George (symbolizing George HI), which is sinking under the 
waves, the ship being on a ver}' small scale in relation to the man. He says, 
/ thought by embarking with so great a Commander I should have been 
brought safe into Port. He looks towards a curiously-drawn globular hum- 
* Attributed, somewhat doubtfully, to Rowlandson by Grego (i. 135). 



mock (1.) inscribed Westminster^ indicating the rocks which have wrecked 
the ship. 

For other satires on Wray's defeat see No. 6562, &c. For Wray as Judas 
see No. 6492, &c. For similar allusions to the Royal George cf. Nos. 6042, 



W,D. [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs, by J. Browtiy Rathbone Place, May 6, iy84. 

Engraving. Hall, a Westminster apothecary who was a prominent sup- 
porter of Fox, walks beside the asses which draw (1. to r.) a cart crowded 
with disreputable voters. A signpost (r.) is formed of a mask (on a pole) 
of the heads of the Duchess of Devonshire (1.) and Fox (r.) as in No. 6570. 
On the half-head of the Duchess is a Fox favour and a fox's brush. From 
each corner of the mouth issues a label terminating in a pointing hand : 
To Spittalfields (1.) and To Covent Garden (r.). Hall, in profile to the r., 
walks holding a whip over his shoulder. His hat is decorated by a fox's 
brush, a Fox favour, and a laurel branch; similar branches and favours 
decorate the (human) heads of the two asses which draw the cart, harnessed 
tandem. Hall says: 

If Carlo falls — no more the Graces smile; 

Nor Lords with gluttony reward my toil; 

So with expedient Fll cheer each drooping heart 

And boldly deliver my vote-pregnant Cart. 

The heads of the asses have ass's ears and are decorated with foxes' 
brushes and laurel-branches. The leader says, The Major will call this 
reforming Parliament in a Summary way [Major Cartwright, see No. 6474 
and cf. No. 6478]. Round his neck hangs from a ribbon a medal on which 
is a portcullis, indicating that he is an active Westminster Justice of the 
Peace (see No. 4850) ; perhaps a Justice Kelly who was very active in Fox's 
interest, see Westminster Election, p. 360. See also No. 6593. The wheeler, 
with a broadly grinning face, says. Fox, Fox, Fox, Fox, Huzza &c. He 
resembles Captain Morris, whose songs were a feature of the election, cf. 
Westminster Election, p. 277. On the front of the clumsy two-wheeled cart 
is inscribed H — ALL, Covent Garden, Common poll Cart, N° 6oy5. On it 
stands a pestle and mortar inscribed Man-midwife ; in it is a laurel-branch. 
The wheels have just passed a rock inscribed Conscience, and are about to 
encounter a larger one inscribed Scrutiny. 

The small cart contains ten voters, their heads and shoulders arranged 
in a pyramid. The man who forms the apex holds up a large coin, shouting, 
Fox and the Constitution — Alehouse for ever Huzza — huzza. All but three 
are hatless or wear caps ; of those distinguished by hats (with election favours) 
two say, A voting we will go we'll go — we'll go &c. and Huzza, huzza', the 
third holds up a pair of crutches from one of which hangs a flag on which 
is a shield with a dice-box and dice, a weaver's shuttle, and a paper 
inscribed y 0,000 I. Beneath are the words Fox and the Loom holders for 

'Spitalfields weavers' at this time stood for the poorest and least reputable 
of London artisans. There were allegations in newspaper paragraphs that 




Spitalfields weavers, who of course would not be qualified voters, had been 
brought to Westminster to vote for Fox, e.g.: 'Yesterday an eminent 
weaver gave information that near sixty distressed manufacturers in the 
neighbourhood of Spitalfields had been seduced to poll for M'" Fox* 
— quoted, Westminster Election, p. 243. ^Spitalfields. We understand in 
those parts, that perjury is an unexceptionable qualification*, ibid., p. 262. 
See also p. 277. 

For the Westminster Scrutiny see No. 6553, &c. For alleged voters 
from Spitalfields see Nos. 6557, 6583, 6593, 6627, 7366. For other 
pauper voters see No. 6547, &c. 
8jxi2f in. 


Published as the Act directs^ May 7, 1784, 

Engraving. No title. Two men stand in the pillory on a small platform (1.) ; 
over their heads is a cask, inscribed Small Beery erected on a pole. Over 
the head of one 1. is Judas , indicating Sir Cecil Wray, over the other J . .k- 
s..n indicating John Jackson,stewardof the Duke of Newcastle and a promi- 
nent supporter of Wray, see No. 6492. A large key hangs from the corner 
of the pillory, the emblem of the back-stairs by which Pitt and his sup- 
porters were supposed to have obtained office, cf. No. 6564. Behind (r.) 
walks a procession of maidservants who look scornfully at the victims ; one 
carries a flag inscribed Tax on Maid Servants ; others, a broom, a mop, and 
a shovel. Immediately behind the platform the heads of a crowd, a row of 
staves marking the constables who stand in front, are suggested. Fox (r.) 
stands in the foreground haranguing the crowd; he holds a Union flag 
inscribed The Rights of the Commons. Behind him is a mob of men waving 
their hats, among whom Sam House is conspicuous. The scene is by the 
hustings in Covent Garden, the portico of the church (r.) being lightly 
sketched behind Fox. 

For Wray's defeat see No. 6562, &c. During the election he was called 
'Judas Iscariot', 'Knight of the Back-Stairs', 'Sir Chelsea Tax-Girl*, 
'Knight of the Key*, and 'Lord High Keeper of the Small Beer cellar*, 
&c. See Westminster Election, passim. See Nos. 6475, 6492, &c. 

The figure of Fox, the crowd, and the procession of maidservants are 
similar to those in No. 6586, showing that one must have been copied from 
the other, or both from a common source. 

An impression with the imprint Published as the Act directs June 26*^ 
1783 by H. Humphreys N° 51 New Bond Street is clearly ante-dated. 


[ ? Kingsbury.] 

Pu¥ May 10 1784 by J, Moore iV' ig Hallon [? Hatton] Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox acts as barber to the Duchess of 
Devonshire ; he applies a razor to her cheek, holding her chin. She is seated 
on a settee (1.) covered with striped material. Sam House stands (r.) hold- 
ing a barber's bowl, a towel under his arm. 

For the Duchess and Sam cf. No. 6487, &c. 
8JX12J in. 




Pub^ iP^ [May] 1^84 by H. Humphrey N" 22y Strand 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A blind beggar, Sir 
Cecil Wray, is led (r. to 1.) by his dog, round whose neck hangs a Subscrip- 
tion Box. He supports himself by a long staff; in his 1. hand is the dog's 
cord, and under his 1. arm is a larger box, inscribed Subscription Scrutiny 
Box. He sings : 

Pity the Weaky and Needy pray 

Oh pity me J Pve lost the day. 

Behind the dog is a placard inscribed : 

See here the Dogy of all his kindy 
The fittest for a Beggar blindy 
The Beast can bark or grunt as Hog. 
His name is Churchill — Oh the Dog! 

John Churchill was the Chairman of the Election Committee of Hood 
and Wray. He signed the advertisements asking for subscriptions for 
the expenses of a scrutiny which were issued on 5 May (and later), the 
scrutiny being formally demanded on the declaration of the poll (17 May). 
See Westminster Electiony pp. 114, 1 15-16. 

The freely-sketched pillars of a portico in the background indicate 
Covent Garden Church, where polling took place. 
Beneath the title is etched : 

Ye Christians y Charitable y good and Civil 
Pray something give to this poor wandering Devil 
By Men cast outy perhaps y by God forgiveny 
Then may one Judas find a road to Heaven. 

This plate illustrates the Westminster Electiony p. 196, facing a squib 
dated 6 May, which may have inspired it : a petition from Tim Flanagan, 
Chairman, to John Churchill, Chairman, asking for a share in the collection 
for Hood and Wray, on account of his poverty. At the close of the poll 
on 5 May *a wag hoisted 2i poor's boXy upon a staff bearing this inscription; 
Pray remember Sir Cecil Wray's Scrutiny'. Ibid., p. 353. For the 
Scrutiny see No. 6553, &c., for Wray's defeat No. 6562, &c. For 'Judas' 
see No. 6492, &c. Cf. No. 6500, &c. 

Rowlandson's pencil-drawing for this print is in the Print Room, 
together with the suggestion on which it was based. This is a mere indica- 
tion of the positions of man and dog and the pillars of the portico, giving 
the inscriptions in full, except that in the penultimate line a blank is left 
which has been filled in by *God for' (201. c. 6/1, 3). 

Grego, Rowlandsony i. 137. 



plowlandson.] May iP^ 1^84^ 

Engraving. A satirical coat of arms for Sir James Lowther, created Earl of 

Lonsdale on 11 May 1784. The two supporters are ragged militiamen 

* Probably ante-dated in allusion to the date of Lowther's peerage. 




realistically drawn, one (dexter) being without shoes, with ragged stock- 
ings, through which his toes protrude, the other (sinister) is without 
breeches, a ragged shirt about his legs. On their cross-belts are the letters 
W.M. [Westmorland Militia]. On the shield are six documents, inscribed 
respectively. False Musters; False Certificates for Volunteer Companies; 
False Returns; Retention of Cloathing; Contract for Building a Man of War 
(above a ship in construction, consisting of a few timbers only^) Can- 
celled and Money Returned; Retention of Bounty. Beneath is the motto Who. 
Doubts, it? Above is a very large earl's coronet. 

Lowther was Gustos Rotulorum and Lieutenant of Cumberland and of 
Westmorland, and brigadier-general of the Cumberland and Westmor- 
land militia; he is here accused of dishonestly enriching himself at the 
expense of the County Militia. This was the subject of a petition, rejected 
nem. con. by the House of Commons, 5 May 1783. See Letters of Lady 
Harriot Elioty 1915, pp. 79, 81. See also No. 8156. For his offer to equip 
a man-of-war at his own expense in 1782, see No. 6246 and The Rolliady 
Part II, No. V. For his character and reputation see D.N.B. His peerage 
was a reward for the great borough interest which he had put at Pitt's 
disposal; he had also brought Pitt into Parliament for Appleby in 1781. 
Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iii- 357-6°. See also No. 6631, &c. 

Grego, Rowlandson/i. 136. 
iiiixi3iin. (pi.). 



W.D. [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs by J. Brozvtiy Rathhone Place, May, 13*^ 1^84 

Engraving. An imaginary scene at Brooks's. Fox stands in the centre, his 
waistcoat pockets hanging out empty, liquid dropping from the knees of 
his breeches, which a dog is licking. A man stands (1.) in profile to the r., 
holding his nose, his 1. hand on Fox's shoulder; he says, Charles, Fll lay 
$000 I. You have beshit your Breeches. Fox answers. Done, for / have not — 
Patrick did I beshit myself? and, in another label (r.), addressing those who 
stand on his 1., Done I take you all. He looks towards an Irish chairman (1.) 
who stands hat in hand, answering No, your Honor, you gave me 2 thirteens 
& i to do it for you — and a promise to keep me, if I shit your honor good luck. 
Lord Derby (r.) grinning, his r. hand on Fox's shoulder, says, io,ooolyou 
have — this is a safe Bett. Next (r.) stands the Prince of Wales, laughing and 
saying Ha, ha, ha, cunning Ro — e [rogue], ha, ah, ha, he has taken us all 
in — ha, ha, ha, Paddy shit in his breeches, ha, ha, ha, I shall laugh till I piddle 
myself. He wears a hat with three ostrich feathers. The last two figures, 
who, like the Prince, stand in profile to the 1. and wear ribbons, say, looking 
at Fox, Horrid stench! 5000! and Aye, a bonny lad he smells as sweet as a 
Rose in June Fll lay looool. The former resembles North, the other is 
perhaps Portland. 

In the foreground the floor is strewn with cards, dice-boxes, and dice. 
The background is a wall in which are three doors. Over the centre one 
is the head of a man or demon with horns, beneath it is inscribed Brookes 
dealer in Foreign Spirits. On the door is written E.o. & faro. Over the r. 
door is written Billiards, over the 1., Chess; over the former is a framed 
picture of two cocks fighting, over the latter, a picture of a horse-race is 
^ Also an earlier impression without the ship's timbers. 


partly visible. The lower part of the wall is panelled, the upper part 
covered with a wall-paper, in a design of squares and circles. 

The filthy story occurs in Theophilus Swift's Gamblers^ i777> h 1- 55° 
and n.; see No. 6279. ^^^ ^-O. see No. 5928, and for Faro, No. 5972. 
Brooks's 'Foreign Spirits' may connote the alleged support of Fox by the 
French Ambassador (injunctions to his tradesmen), and the Due de 
Chartres. Westminster Election^ pp. 243, 246, 248. 


Pu¥ as the Act directs May 15 1784 by E Hedges g2 Cornhill 

Engraving. Fox (1.), as a butcher, rides a large and ferocious bull which 
advances towards a group of his terrified supporters (r.). He wears a 
striped butcher's coat or tunic, a cap inscribed Liberty ^ a roUed-up apron, 
oversleeves to the elbow, his steel hangs from the back of his waist so as 
to prod the bull. In his r. hand is a small flag inscribed Oratory^ with the 
shaft of which he goads the bull. He says, My dear Fellow Butchers assist 
me or I shall not be able to Keep my Seat. The men he addresses are fleeing 
from the bull, except for North (r.), wearing a butcher's apron and steel, 
who faces Fox, his arms held up in alarm, saying. Zounds Charly I thought 
to have had y^ pleasure of knocking John Bull 0' the Head, but now am in fears 
for my own Safety. The bull's horn is inscribed Prerogative ; he is trampling 
on a yoke inscribed Yoke of Infatuation and a wig inscribed Whigs. Behind 
(1.), two serpents raise their heads from a leafy bush and direct barbed darts 
against the bull; they are Independant Country Gentlemen (cf. No. 6413). 

John Bull, enraged by the demagogy of Fox, and with the help of 
Prerogative, tramples the Whigs under his feet. Many of the addresses to 
the king, see No. 6438, &c., had thanked him for using his prerogative 
to dismiss the Coalition. A print on Pitt's triumph at the election. 

WG. [? Phillips.] 

Published by S Fores iV^ 3 Piccadilly May ly 1784 

Engraving. An election crowd is being addressed by Fox (1.) from the hust- 
ings. The lower part of the pillars of the portico and the door of St. Paul's 
Church are behind Fox ; the houses of the NW. corner of Covent Garden 
Piazza, with spectators looking from the windows, form a background on 
the r. A voter with Hood Wray in his hat approaches the hustings. Fox 
stands, r. fist raised, saying : 

Gentlemen I sincerely do wish you to lead 
To Greatness to Glory to Freedom — indeed 
Notwithstanding this Hubbub & this Hurly-Burly 
Am conscious you nee'r to your Friends will be Churly 
The Victory gained &' Treachery overthrow 
Gratefully — in what eeW you Wish I am your own. 

He is surrounded by supporters, one of whom (1.) holds out a bottle to 
two men who advance from the 1. as if to vote. Beneath and in front is the 

129 K 


crowd. Among the more conspicuous figures in the foreground (1. to r.) 
are : a boy astride a small cask which is labelled Small-beer S^ C W [Cecil 
Wray], its tap is padlocked (see No. 6492, &c.) ; he wears a key, shouting 
No back Stairs (see No. 6564, &c.). Behind him is a man with a flag 
inscribed Fox & the Constitution. A tall lank man leaning on a crutch is 
Corruption. Next him a man sits on the shaft of his ginger-bread barrow, 
saying, Here* s your Spice Nuts. The barrow, on which is a bottle and glass, 
is inscribed Fox Gin & Gingerbread for ever. A small dog befouling the 
ground represents Ease. A very stout man is shouting : 

May your Understanding lax 
For making the Receipt Tax. 

He is Alderman Calipash^ representing the clamour raised in the City 
against the Receipt tax proposed by the Coalition and attacked by Wray, 
see No. 6244, ^^- ^ "^^^ wearing top-boots and a riding-hat is labelled 
Politician ; he shakes his fist at Fox, saying : 

Thou Oliver Caesar Machiavilian 

In that deep plot the Coalition [see No. 6380, &c.]. 

A poor woman holding an infant labelled Virtue appears to be address- 
ing the back of the 'Politician' ; she says : 

As Virtuous I am 
The Vicious I damn. 

An Indian Tyrant holding a tasselled cane, his coat-pocket labelled 
Extent, is saying : 

Had he passed the India Bill 

I could no more my Coffers fill 

With Rupees. Or in Blood have glutted 

Oh! I should like the Reformer guted [see No. 6519]. 

Behind him a man holding the dark-lantern which indicates Lord Temple 
(cf. No. 6417) is saying: 

The hack Stairs I say 

Is the forwardest way [see No. 6564, &c.]. 

A scuffling group (r.) appears to represent an honest citizen being 
attacked by a bruiser. Beneath is inscribed Rights of the People. 

A large house at the NW. corner of the piazza is evidently the head- 
quarters of one of the candidates. A flight of steps leads to a balcony or 
terrace on each side of the front door; people look from the windows and 
from the balcony. 

Beneath the design is etched : 

The Mirror of Truth is here held up to view 
A Candidate Right Honourable & true 
Who always has been the Peoples Protector 
A stanch friend to the rights of every Elector 
Yet Envy & Avarice has made a great rout 
Because the Shoe pinches they'r heard to cry out. 

The poll was declared on 17 May, see Appendix I. See No. 6600, a 
companion print by the same artist. 






W.D. [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs, hy J, Browriy Rathhone Place, May ly, 1784, 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire (1.) walks (r. to I.) holding a 
number of small puppet-like men who hang limply, five over her r. 
shoulder, a sixth under her 1. arm. A signpost (1.) inscribed Corruption 
points To Henrietta Street Covent Garden. She says, There are more ways 
than one of bringing the matter to a point. One of the weavers says, She'll 
make Plumpers of us. She wears a riding-habit and a hat ornamented with 
the usual Fox favour, a laurel branch, and four foxes' brushes inscribed 
respectively Love and \ Liberty \ Guy \ Vaux. A poor woman, pregnant (r.), 
an infant in her arms, holding a little ragged boy by the hand, watches the 
Duchess. Behind her is a signpost inscribed Poverty pointing (r.) to Spittal 
fields ; it is decorated with a laurel branch. The boy says, Mammy, what 
is the fine Lady going to do with my Daddy? She answers, She's taking him 
to the Ladies Committee Room to examine if he's properly qualified for 

One of many coarse satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devon- 
shire, see No. 6493, &c., and cf. No. 6588, &c. For the alleged voters from 
Spitalfields see No. 6575, &c. For Fox as Guy Vaux see No. 6389, &c. 


Pub May ly. 1784 by Edward Shirlock Drury Lane 

Engraving. An imitation of Sayers's famous print, see No. 6234. A com- 
posite mask formed of the faces of Wilkes and George III divided vertically 
by a line down the centre. Beneath the design is etched : 

Now Jacky & Georgee together is Joind, 
The people may weep for it is a verry bad Sign, 
For Jacky^ determind to have some more pelf. 
Let who will Starve, he will serve himself 

One of several satires on the ending of the feud between Wilkes and the 
king, see No. 6568, &c. 


Pu¥ May 18^^ 1784 by G. Humphrey N" 48 Long Acre, London. 

Engraving. The Prince of Wales (1.) sleeps on a grassy bank, his r. elbow 
supported on a bank or rock. His hat with three ostrich plumes and the 
motto Ich Dien leaves no doubt of his identity. A huge toad (r.) climbs 
up his body to whisper in his ear : Abjure thy Country and thy parents And 
I will give thee dominion over Many powers. Better to rule in hell than Serve 
on Earth. His fox's brush shows that the 'Preceptor' is Fox. Trees are 
indicated behind the Prince (1.). Behind Fox are water-weeds (r.). 



Beneath the design is etched : 

Not Satan to the Ear of Eve 

Did e'er such pious Counsel give. Milton. 

For Fox and the Prince of Wales cf. No. 6401, &c. For Fox as Satan 
of. No. 6383, &c. 

Grego, Rowlandsony i. 140. 

REGIMENT, [18 May 1784^] 


Engraving. Sir Cecil Wray (1.) is being drummed away from the hustings ; 
Sam House, the central figure, beats a drum, looking at Wray. On the r., 
ignoring Wray, stands Fox addressing the populace, a cheering crowd 
behind him; he holds a flag on which is the figure of Britannia seated, 
holding the staff and cap of Liberty, and the words Champion of the People. 
He says. Friends & Fellow Citizens I cannot find words to express my feelings 
to you upon this Victory. Wray walks beside a procession which marches 
to Sam House's drum. It is headed by Chelsea pensioners with wooden 
legs, who scowl at him ; one carries a crutch over his shoulder. They have 
two flags, inscribed respectively May all public Deserters feel public Resent- 
ment (Wray had deserted the cause of Fox who nominated him for West- 
minster in 1782, see No. 5998), and Chealsea Hospital. They are followed 
by a detachment of maidservants, with a flag inscribed Tax on Maid 
Servants ; they carry over their shoulders a broom, a brush, a mop, a shovel. 
A crowd cheers frantically; hats are waved at the procession and at Fox. 
Behind Fox is part of the portico of St. Paul's, Co vent Garden, the scene 
of his triumph at the hustings, see No. 6590, he. 

For the allegations against Wray see Nos. 6475, 6492, &c. ; for his defeat, 
No. 6562, &c. 

The figure of Fox, the crowd, and the procession of maidservants closely 
resemble those in No. 6576 : one must have been copied from the other, 
or from a common source. 

Reissued, Westminster Election, p. 209. 

Grego, Rowlandson, 1. 138-9 (reproduction). Reproduced, Grego, Hist, 
of Parliamentary Elections, 1892, p. 284. 


[18 May 17842] 


Pu¥ by W. Humphrey \sic\, N° 22y, Strand London. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). The king, seated on a 
throne on a dais of two steps, says, / tru^t we have got such a House of 
Commons as we Wanted. On his r. is Thurlow (1.) with the body of a bird 
of prey; he is saying Damn the Commons, the Lords shall Rule. Behind the 
throne crouches Bute in Highland dress, saying to Thurlow, Very Gude, 
Very Gude Damn the Commons. On the king's 1. is a head in profile to the 

* So dated by Grego. ^ So dated by Mr. Hawkins and Grego. 



1. supported on an erect serpent's body; probably intended for Pitt (a poor 
portrait but resembling Pitt in No. 6664). 

In the foreground (r.) sits Britannia asleep, resting her elbow on her 
shield. A man wearing a ribbon, perhaps the Prince of Wales, rushes up 
from the r. with outstretched arms, saying. Thieves! Thieves! Zounds awake 
Madam or you'll have your Throat Cut. 

The new Parliament met on 18 May. An interesting indication of the 
persistence of the legend of Bute's secret influence, cf. No. 6005. See No. 
6417, &c., and No. 6603. For Thurlow's language cf. No. 7320. 

Grego, RowlandsoUy i. 140. 

CHAPEL [After 17 May] 

S C Fee' [Collings.] 

Engraving. The interior of the House of Commons. The Duchess of 
Devonshire carries Fox on her shoulders; she looks round at the 'rabble' 
who follow her, headed by a little chimney-sweep, using his brush and 
shovel to beat a tune. She says. When I take a thing in hand I always 
succeed. Her hair is decorated with a fox's brush. Fox in his orator's atti- 
tude, r. fist clenched and held out, hat held out in his 1. hand, says, / could 
never have got in without your Grace's assistance. Behind the chimney- 
sweep is (?) Sam House in a shirt and breeches which are unfastened at the 
knee ; he holds up on a pole a chemise or shift inscribed All sorts of Shifts 
made by C. J. FoXy saying. This is the Devonshire method of introducing 
Members — Carlo for ever. Behind is a man with a lighted torch or link, 
saying. Sir Cecil has got the Devonshire Cholic. A band of butchers play on 
marrow-bones and cleavers; one of them says. She is a devilish fine Carcass 
—fine Meat! On a pole is the cap of Liberty together with a fox's brush 
and a petticoat. In the background (r.) the Speaker, in his chair behind 
the table with the mace, &c., and clerks are freely sketched: a sea of heads 
behind indicates the members. 

The effectiveness of the canvassing of the Duchess, see No. 6493, &c., 
is indicated by the grossness of the squibs and prints relating to it, which 
aimed at stopping her activities. Cf. Walpole, Letters, xiii. 142. The 
Duchess 'certainly procured the greatest part of M^ Fox's votes for him: 
though the Court party endeavoured to deter her by the most illiberal and 
indecent abuse . . .', cf. No. 6565, &c. See also Nos. 6493, 6573, 6589, 
6591, 6594, 6597, 6599, 6601, 6983; cf. the flag 'Sacred to Female 
Patriotism' (Nos. 6590, 6600). 


IC. [1. Cruikshank.] 

Pub ig. May 1784. by WH N'' 227 Strand. 

Engraving. The three candidates for Westminster end their race: Hood 
(1.) on a galloping horse, saying. Worthy S* Cecil Vm sorry for YoUy but 
don't be discouraged, a Scrutiny shall do your Business at any Rate. Not a 



length behind gallops Fox, holding up his hat and looking round with a 
triumphant smile at Wray. Over his head are the words : 

"It is not in the force of mortal Arm^ Scarsely in Fate''\ 
"to bind the struggling souly that galVd by wanton power'* 
"indignant swells against Oppression.** 

Wray (r.) is mounted on a braying ass, which kicks, its fore-feet firmly 
planted; he has dropped the reins, and lost his stirrups; his hands are 
folded and he is looking down with a melancholy expression, saying : Give 
me a helping hand, my Lord, or Pm undone. In front of his ass's head is a 
signpost inscribed Distance Post. Beneath the design is etched : 

A Political Heat, run in Covent Garden, between Old Veteran a famous 

Horse the Property of his M y, Dutchess a Filly, the Property of the 

Duke ofD e, and Judas an Obstinate Ass, who was clearly distanced. 

Fox's success is attributed to the Duchess of Devonshire, as in No. 
6588, Stc. For Wray as Judas, see No. 6492, &c. For his defeat see 
No. 6562, &c. For the scrutiny see No. 6553, &c. See also Appendix I. 



Pub^ as the Act directs May 20 1784 by W Humphrey N^ 227 Strand 

Engraving. Sir Cecil Wray in the foreground, standing on the edge of a 
circular platform, looks down over his 1. shoulder at the procession which 
is chairing Fox round Covent Garden. He holds his r. hand to his mouth, 
in his 1. he clutches a paper, Instruction to make A Speech. The heads and 
shoulders of the procession appear over the edge of the platform : in front 
(1.) are men on horse-back, some playing musical instruments, their hats 
decorated with favours and leaves. (They appear to represent the 'squad- 
ron of gentlemen on horseback in the blue and buff uniform', who were 
followed by trumpeters. London Chronicle, 18 May.) Their flag is inscribed 
The Whig Cause. Next come men on foot immediately in front of Fox, 
with a flag inscribed Man of the People. Fox, smiling, is seated above the 
heads of his supporters, his chair wreathed with laurel branches. The 
striped jacket of one of his bearers shows that he is a butcher; next comes 
Sam House. Behind walk men, some wearing their hats, which are decor- 
ated with favours and foxes' brushes. Their flag is inscribed Sacred to 
Female Patriotism. 

Behind (r.) is the facade of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, the pediment 
inscribed House of Call for Candidates. The windows of the houses on the 
south of the Piazza (1.) are crowded with spectators; others stand on the 
roofs waving their hats. 

Beneath the title are the words spoken by Wray : / am Bit D n the 

Fox, the D ss, Chelsea Hospital, Maid Servants, Small Beer, the back 

Stairs & all together, to be Sure Pm no Speaker Ive no Head I shall not 

be brought in but the Scrutiny His M y will have that and that Bald 

Pated Son of a B h Sam H se [House] not content with giving my 

Opponent [sic] Plumpers Threatned to give me A Plumper in each Eye if I 
did not Cock my Hat fother Way. 

The actual procession on 17 May, much more extensive than is shown 
here, carried the flags depicted, with others: 'The Rights of the Commons' 
and 'Independence!', and was followed by the state carriages of the 
Duchesses of Devonshire and Portland drawn by six horses, and each 



attended by six running footmen. See newspapers. For the allusions in 
Wray's speech see Nos. 6475, 6492, 6564, 6592, &c. ; for his defeat No. 
6562, &c. ; for the scrutiny, No. 6553, &c. For the influence of the Duchess 
of Devonshire see No. 6588, &c. For the procession on 17 May see Nos. 
6593, 6600, p. 140. 



A Catch to be Performed at the New Theatre Covent Garden for 

Admission Apply to the D ss. 

N.B. Gratis to those who wear large Tails. 

Etch'd by T. Rowlandson Pu¥ and sold by W"" Humphrey 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). The Duchess of 
Devonshire with two other catch-singers. Fox and North, who are dressed 
as fat old market-women. The Duchess (1.) elegantly dressed, but with 
her breast uncovered and wearing her election hat with Fox favours, 
feathers, and fox's brush, puts her 1. hand on Fox's shoulder, pointing to 
a tomb-stone beside her (1.) inscribed, beneath its skull and cross-bones, 
Here lies poor C — C — L — RA Y, She sings : Look neighbours look here lyes 

Poor C ray [Cecil Wray]. Fox, his 1. hand grasping a crutch-headed 

stick, turning to North, sings Dead & turned to Clay, North (r.), also 

with a stick, sings What Old C /. Through the wings peers the 

anxious-looking, spectacled profile of Burke (r.). Three framed pictures 
decorate the wall behind the performers: The fox who had lost his Tail (cf. 
No. 6530), a tail-less fox looking at four others who are discussing the 
situation. This is flanked by two oval pictures. Fox and Crow (1.), the fox 
looking up longingly at the crow on a branch, and Fox and Grapes (r.), a 
fox on its hind-legs below a vine-branch, cf. No. 5962. 

For Wray's defeat see No. 6562, &c. Cf. also No. 6588. 

Grego, Rowlandson^ i. 142 (reproduction). 

811X13 J in. 

WG [? Phillips.] 

Piccadilly May 21 1^84?- 

Engraving. A monster representing Sir Cecil Wray, or Treachery, lies on 
his back beside a pond, one elbow in the water. He has a frog's mouth, 
a naked hairy body with a rat's tail, and wears the pecuHar-shaped hat 
worn by Wray ; in his r. hand is a dark lantern, emblem of conspiracy, in 
his r. a large key, emblem of the back stairs, cf. No. 6564, &c. A fox, 
carrying off a goose, stands over Wray, urinating upon him savagely, and 
saying : 

May you never ^ never rise! 

By treachery to gain the prize 

Thus I treat you with contempt 

Until passed actions you repent. 

' So dated by Grego. ^ The publisher's name appears to have been erased. 



^ ^ ' As I was trusted with the Key 

I meant to pick their bones quite free 
But Fox the keenest of his race 
Has thus o'er turn' d me with disgrace. 

A gosling lies on its back beside Wray. The goose and gosling appear 
to represent the Westminster electors (cf. No. 5843, &c.) whose bones 
Wray had expected to pick. In the distance (1.) is a small cottage, on the 
roof of which a cock stands crowing. 

For Wray's defeat see No. 6562, &c. 

W.D. [Dent.] 

Puhlishedy as the Act directSy by J, Brown, Rathbone PlacCy May 21^^ 


Engraving. A satire on the chairing of Fox on the declaration of the poll 
for Westminster. Fox, with a fox's body, sits astride a goose with the head 
of the Prince of Wales ; he grins with satisfaction ; on his erect brush is 
inscribed At your Grace's service. Behind him (r.) holding hands, come 
the Duchess of Devonshire and Sam House; they dance along, the 
Duchess with her r. hand on her hip, Sam with his 1. She wears a riding- 
habit ; in her large hat are a Fox favour and a branch of laurel with four 
fox tails, inscribed respectively. Love and \ Liberty \ Guy \ Vaux. Sam's 
hat, like those of the four other men in the procession, is decorated with 
a Fox favour, a fox's brush inscribed Fox^ and a laurel branch. The hat 
of the goose with the head of the Prince of Wales has a Fox favour, three 
ostrich plumes with the motto Ich dien, and a laurel branch. In front of 
the goose is a procession of four men: the foremost (1.) holds a wand of 
office and a paper inscribed with the (correct) result of the poll : Charly 
Boy 6234 Hood 66g4 Wray 5gg8. Round his neck is a medalHon on which 
is a portculUs, and (in reverse) Key herald^ suggesting that he is a West- 
minster Justice and had carried the large key, emblem of the 'Back Stairs' 
which was a feature of Fox's election processions, see No. 6564. He is 
perhaps Justice Kelly, see No. 6575 ; he has a concave and repulsive profile. 
Next come the drum and fife of the procession, both wearing high caps 
like those of the Grenadiers. The man with the drum is the apothecary, 
Hall, wearing spectacles ; his drum is his mortar, inscribed All Apothecary. 
On the front of his cap is a fox on its hind legs, and ALL Blue and Buff 
dependants. Lord John Cavendish, playing the fife, is very short, his head 
on a level with Hall's elbow; on his cap is a fox on its hind legs and Uncle 
Jacky. Immediately in front of the goose walks the Earl of Surrey holding 
a banner on which are the words Success to FoXy Freedom^ Weavers, 
Butchers and Irish chairmen, and a burlesque coat of arms for Westminster: 
a portculHs on a shield, with two geese (cf. No. 5843, &c.) as supporters; 
the motto is A pliant Conscience. The crest is a fox's head (dexter) and a 
goose's head (sinister). 

The allegations and insinuations in this print repeat those of similar 
prints by Dent on the Westminster Election, see No. 6575, &c. 'Irish 
chairmen' is an allusion to the death of Nicholas Casson, a constable, in 
Covent Garden, in a contest with a Foxite body of Irish chairmen and 



butchers who were marching with marrow-bones and cleavers on 10 May. 
Westminster Election^ pp. 116 ff. and 379 ff. (cf. No. 6512). For the pro- 
cession see No. 6590, &c., and cf. No. 6524; for Fox and the Prince, cf. 
No. 6401, &c. For Fox as Guy Vaux cf. No. 6389, &c. 
Six 12/5 in. 

6594 vox POPULi, vox del 

[?I. Cruikshank.] 

Pub 23^ May 1784 by W Humphrey iV^ 227 Strand. 

Engraving. Fox stands, full-face, smiling ; he holds a stout staff of liberty 
surmounted by a Phrygian cap. His 1. hand, holding a laurel branch, rests 
on his hip. On his 1. stands the Duchess of Devonshire (r.), turning her 
head in profile to the r. and holding out on her 1. arm a Shield of Virtuey 
against the arrows of Malice and Envy ; other arrows fall to the ground, 
broken by their impact with the shield, inscribed Woman Hater and Morn- 
ing Post. In her hat are the usual fox's brush and ostrich plumes. A star- 
shaped halo is lightly sketched behind her head. Sir Cecil Wray (1.) walks 
off in profile to the 1., bending beneath a heavy burden and supported on 
his stick. The burden consists of three bundles. Deceit, Ingratitude, and 

Per\ju\ry, attached to his shoulders by a band inscribed Cecil W y. 

Black clouds above his head emit forked lightning. Over his head are the 
words / acknowledge my Transgressions, and my Sins are ever before me. 
Over Fox's head flies a cherub holding out a laurel wreath; he blows a 
trumpet directed towards the Duchess, from which issues the word 
Victory. After the title is etched Dedicated to the Ladies who so con- 
spicuously exerted themselves in the Cause of Freedom. 

The Morning Post was conspicuous for its scurrilous paragraphs against 
Fox and the Duchess of Devonshire. Westminster Election, pp. 218, 219 n., 
224 n., 228 n., 325, 352, and Nos. 6597, 6616. Fox's victory is attributed 
to the Duchess, see No. 6588, &c. For Wray's ingratitude see No. 6492, 
&c. ; for his defeat No. 6562, &c. 


Pu¥ May 24 by J Notice Oxford Road 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire sits astride a galloping fox, her 
face to its tail. A signpost by the fox's head points (1.) To Cuckolds Hall; 
on the top of the post is a pair of horns. The Duchess wears a hat trimmed 
with ostrich feathers and with a ribbon inscribed Fox. 

One of many similar allegations against the Duchess of Devonshire, see 
Nos. 6493, 6588, &c. 

Reissued 24 May 1787. 

Pub May 25 1^84 by J. Shirlock Drury Lane 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox (r.) walks (1. to r.) carrying the 
Duchess of Devonshire seated on his shoulders, her legs much exposed, 



one with a garter inscribed Fox (reversed). He says Pray support me till 
you are quite spent. She holds in both hands Fox's queue, saying, /// hold 
fast by your tail & am sure we cannot fail. Behind is a high brick wall in 
which is an open door (r.). In the background, in front of the wall, three 
canvassing ladies (1.), on a small scale, ride their respective candidates. The 
first is the Duchess of Devonshire, riding a fox ; the other two ride animals 
with human heads; in front is (probably) Lady Salisbury, with a melan- 
choly expression, riding Hood, and last the fat Mrs. Hobart on Sir Cecil 
Wray. These three say respectively (the words written in reversed looking- 
glass characters): Fojt; /or ever\ Hood for ever\ and One Ray of hope is left. 

The poll was declared on 17 May, see Appendix I, so that the print was 
out of date when published. One of many satires on the canvassing of the 
Duchess of Devonshire and other ladies, cf. Nos. 6493, 6588, &c. Accord- 
ing to a newspaper paragraph Lady Salisbury 'is the only woman of rank 
who has interfered on the Ministerial side. . . . But her proceedings have 
been marked with such delicacy and dignity^ as to shame the mobbing 
conduct of her rivals*. Westminster Election^ p. 259. For Mrs. Hobart see 
No. 6526, &c. 

Reproduced, Fuchs, Die Frau in der Karikatur, 1906, p. 450. 


Veritas fedt 

Pub 25 May 1784 by W Humphrey , N 22y Strand. 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire, supported by Truth and Virtue, 
tramples on Scandal. She stands full-face, one foot on a cloud, the other 
on the prostrate body of an almost nude man inscribed Scandal^ who lies 
face downwards, one hand resting on the Morning Post, the other holding 
serpents. She wears feathers in her hair, a scarf over her shoulders, and 
a very wide hooped petticoat. Her r. wrist is held by a draped female 
figure (1.) inscribed Truths who holds up her mirror in her 1. hand. A 
similar figure inscribed Virtue holds her 1. wrist ; both stand upon clouds. 

For the Morning Posty see No. 6594, &c. See also No. 6588, &c. 

Reproduced, Paston, pi. xxxi. 



Pub May 25 1^84 by W. Humphrey , N° 22y, Strand. 

Engraving. Two fighting-cocks with the heads of Fox (1.) and Pitt (r.) on 
the floor of the House of Commons. The steel spur on Fox's leg is inscribed 
Coalition^ on that of Pitt, Prerogative. Between them stands a full money- 
bag or small sack, inscribed The Purse of the Nation. In the centre, behind 
the heads of the two cocks, is the Speaker (Cornwall) in his chair ; seated 
members form a background, symmetrically arranged, r. and 1., a sea of 
heads being indicated by freely-drawn circles. 

The print suggests an equality between the combatants very far from 
fact, although the heads behind Pitt appear to be more numerous than 
those behind Fox. For 'Pitt and Prerogative' cf. No. 6442. For the 



Coalition see Nos. 6176-9, 6399, &c. For Pitt and Fox as fighting-cocks 
see No. 6461. 

8xi2i in. 

TISM TO BRITANIA [25 May 1784^] 


Engraving. Design in an oval. Used as a frontispiece to second edition 
(1785) of The Westminster Election and probably designed for it. Britannia 
seated on a throne (r.) raised on three steps holds out a laurel v^rreath 
towards the Duchess of Devonshire who is led towards her by the draped 
figures of Liberty (1.) holding the staff and cap of Liberty, and Fame (r.) 
with her trumpet. The British lion lies at Britannia's feet (r.) looking over 
its shoulder at the Duchess. Beneath the title is etched : 

**She smiles — 
Infused with a Fortitude from Heaven"! Vide Shakespears Tempest, 

See also No. 6588, &c. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 141-2. Reproduced, Grego, Hist, of Parliamentary 
Elections, 1892, p. 285. 

WG [? Phillips.] 

Published by S Fores N" 3 Piccadilly May 26 1784 

Engraving. A burlesqued representation of the chairing of Fox on the 
declaration of the Westminster poll on 17 May. The scene is one side of 
the Piazza, Covent Garden, with one of the streets leading into it, both 
densely crowded. In front (r.) is a woman ( } the Duchess of Devonshire) 
riding an ass and waving a fox's brush. A man in the crowd beside her 
waves his cap, shouting Petticoat Forever. Next her marches a man holding 
a wand of office ; then comes a man carrying a coffin on his shoulders on 
which is a skull and Memento Memori 1784. He is followed by a man 
holding a bludgeon, who looks round at Sam House. Sam, with a satisfied 
grin, holds a wand of office ; he walks in front of a band of butchers with 
marrow-bones and cleavers; they have a flag with a marrow-bone and 
cleaver and the words Marrow bones & Cleavers Constitutional Supporters. 
They are followed by a man holding up a branch inscribed Tree of Good 
& Evil. Next are men playing musical instruments, a horn, trumpet, &c. 
Behind them the crowd becomes even denser as it surrounds Fox's trium- 
phal chair: Fox is a grotesque non-human object with pointed ears, seated 
in a chair decorated by a thicket of branches in which is stuck a flag with 
the words Sacred to Female Patriotism and two hearts. 

Near the front of the procession is a body of men on horseback with a 
flag inscribed Perdition to Scrutiny's & High Bailiffs. In the crowd couples 
are embracing. The windows of the houses are crowded with spectators, 
and the whole scene, which is grotesquely drawn, has the appearance of 
a saturnalia. 

' So dated by Grego. 


Below the design is etched : 

See the Godlike Youth advance 
Sports prepare and lead the dance 
Fetes prepare and laurels bring 
Songs of triumph to him sing. 

Similar in manner and design to No. 6582, but contrasting with it in 
political intention. For Fox's chairing on 17 May see No. 6590, &c. The 
coffin is probably that of Casson, the constable, see No. 6593. 

A print in the Guildhall Library, 


Lockington Savile 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox, swarthy and saturnine and of 
Jewish appearance, sits in a chair surrounded with greenery as if in an 

Fox was chaired in a chair decked with laurel branches, 'laurels green 
of Covent Garden*, see No. 6590, &c. 


Pu¥ as the Act directs May 28^^ iy84 by F Clarkson y3 S* Pauls 
Church Yard 

Engraving. The gigantic figure of Fox strides across an ocean, the r. foot 
planted on land inscribed East Indias, the 1. on land inscribed Loyalty. 
He stands full-face, in his clenched r. fist he holds out a sheaf of thunder- 
bolts inscribed Defiance, his 1. hand rests on his hip. He wears a crown 
composed of playing-cards, the three principal cards being the ace of clubs, 
the knave of clubs, and the ace of diamonds. On the crown are also the 
letters v and p. 

On the ground at his feet minute figures are variously engaged : on the 
1. (in the 'East Indias') a circle of orientals prostrate themselves before a 
sun with a face on it inscribed Pitt which rises above a mountainous 
horizon inscribed Mountains of the East; round the sun are the words 
Rising under y, followed by a crown. 

On the opposite side is a scene in front of the hustings in Covent Garden. 
The Duchess of Devonshire, looking up at Fox, holds a number of threads 
attached to the noses of a crowd of electors, one of whom holds a 
flag inscribed Indep^ Electors; a hat with a fox's brush is hoisted on its 
staff. The Duchess holds in her r. hand a flag inscribed Woman of the 
People. Behind her a butcher (inscribed Butcher) advances threateningly 
with a knife or club. 

Beneath the design is inscribed. The Materials that form'd this Image 
came from Holland & by A number of loose principled people was Sett up & 
Worshiped in A most Idolatrous manner this attracted that part of the people 
calld the Mob [as much as a preceding Image known by its bad shape & 
squinting Phiz] Untill the Northern Apostacyl! when many returned to their 
Establishd Worship & it's thought like other Objects its popularity will soon 
sink into Oblivion as its foundation is extremly Precarious and Tottering, 



This satirical account of Fox refers to his unpopular father, Lord 
Holland, the 'public defaulter of unaccounted millions', cf. Nos. 4299, 
4842, &c., and compares his popularity, until the Coalition with North, 
with that of Wilkes. For his India Bill see No. 6271, &c. His election is 
attributed to the canvassing of the Duchess of Devonshire, see No. 6588, 
&c. For the popularity of the king's intervention cf. No. 6405, &c. 
13^X9! in. 


Pu¥ May 28^^ 1784 by T, Comeille Bruton Street 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Fox, with a fox's head 
and brush and dressed in tartan kilt and plaid, gallops (r. to 1.) on a shaggy 
pony along the road from Kirkwall to London. He waves his cap, saying. 
From the Heath covered Mountains of Scotia I come. The background is a 
mountainous landscape with a lake on which is a boat. A signpost (1.) 
points (r.) To Kirkwall and (1.) To London. 

Fox had been returned for the Orkney boroughs in case he should be 
defeated for Westminster, see No. 6614, &c. He sat for them pending the 
result of the scrutiny, see No. 6553, &c. 

A pencil-sketch for this is in the Print Room (201. c. 6/44 b). 

A note on the print attributes the design to Lord James Manners. 
Grego, Rowlandson, i. 143. 


Pu¥ as the Act directs May 2g. 1^84 by T Hardy Strand 

Engraving. Pitt stands in front of the throne to which he points with a 
hand holding a number of threads attached to the noses of his supporters, 
who advance through a doorway, the foremost kneeling or prostrating 
themselves. Across his forehead is a placard inscribed Interest; he says. 
Approach & Salute the Broad Bottom of Royalty!! He holds a large flag 
inscribed Standard of venality on which are a large earl's coronet indicating 
Lonsdale (see No. 6579), two duke's coronets, a mitre, a baron's and a 
viscount's coronet, and three money-bags, each inscribed Cole (cf. No. 
6213), followed by the words to be Given Away. On the ground at Pitt's 
feet are the words. Road to Preferment. 

The king kneels on the throne exposing his 'broad bottom' to the Pitt- 
ites ; it is irradiated and to it are attached a pair of small wings ; it is further 
adorned with Garter star and ribbon inscribed Honi Soit qui mal. . . . He 
bends forward, his body in a horizontal position, so that his head and 
shoulders are hidden by a curtain (1.) inscribed Secret Influence Drying 
Clouts! Nursing Making toast [cf. No. 7923] Rocking the Cradle, &c. &c. &c. 

The crowd of Pittites advances through a doorway surmounted by a 
large royal crown flanked by a birch-rod and a sword. Across the doorway 
is inscribed Hall of Prerogative 1784, and over the heads of the members, 

Majority of y' New P T We are your Devoted Slaves. Their heads are 

crudely drawn and few can be identified : a man in the forefront in tartan 



is evidently Dundas. A man full-face in the centre of the crowd who is 
inscribed Rat Catcher and has a rat on his forehead is John (or Jack) 
Robinson, see No. 6427, &c. Thurlow in wig and gown kneels in profile 
to the 1., and a man on the extreme r. resembles Barre. A parson in the fore- 
ground is probably Mason, cf. No. 6485. 

For the peerages, &c., given by Pitt at this time see Wraxall, Memoirs, 
1884, iii. 351 ff., Ann. Reg.y iy84-5, pp. 214 ff. The first of several satires 
on the subject, see No. 6631, &c. For Pitt and 'secret influence' see No. 
6417, &c. For other satires hostile to Pitt see No. 6552, &c. 
8Jxi2f in. 

6604 FOX'S FOOL [c. May 1784] 

[P. Sandby.^] 

Published as the Act directs 

Etching. A portrait of William Austin with ass*s ears walking in profile 
(1. to r.), his hat decorated with Foxite emblems: a Fox favour, a fox*s 
brush, and a laurel branch. In his r. hand he carries a watchman's rattle 
and a fox's brush and his cane which is under his arm. Under his 1. arm 
is a portfolio, marked with an A, referring to a note below the print, A. 
Drawings turnd out of R. Academy. He is tall and slim and fashionably 
dressed, wearing top-boots, looking much younger than his age. 

Behind are the backs of a row of houses, seen over a brick wall, drawn 
with topographical precision. Outside the first-floor window of a dignified- 
looking house is a large board inscribed Drawing And Etching Taught by 
W Austen Rodney PlacCy surmounted by a bust wearing a cocked hat. 

Beneath the title is etched : Most Humbly Dedicated to Sir Sam^ House &c 

When Billy proudly struts the Streets 
A Universal laugh he meefs 
From Men, while Boys from School 
Cry out Gadzooks! what Thing is That 
With such a Head and such a Hat? 
O Lord! its Fox's Fool. 

For Austin see No. 5318. He was engraver, caricaturist, print-seller, 
fashionable drawing-master, and an ardent admirer of Fox. 
74X5f in. 

6605 [HENRY FLOOD.] [? c. May 1784] 

Engraving. A bust-portrait of Flood in profile to the 1. Two other heads 
in profile to the 1. are below and behind him on the extreme r. As a back- 
ground there is a series of four gibbets (r.), a body hanging from each, and 
a firing-party (1.) of three minute figures firing at persons at close range. 

Identified in an old hand as *M^ Flood the Irish Orator, to the electors 
of Seaford 1784'. Richard Bull has added the note *very like' to an impres- 
sion in his collection of 'Honorary Engravers'. 

For the complicated history of the election for Seaford, 1784-6, see 

* In the William Sandby bequest. With the print is one of Austin's advertise- 
ments with pencil notes, giving his address as 'York Street St James & Lawrence 
Street Chelsea* with a list of his pupils since 1768; they include 'Marquis Towns- 
hend' (cr. 1786). 



Oldfield, Representative History of Great Britain, 181 6, v. 451; the writer 
states that he himself introduced Flood to the borough. Flood, having 
paid ;C4,ooo to the Duke of Chandos for a seat for Winchester on a by- 
election in September 1783, was not returned at the general election on 
account of a misunderstanding with the Duke. He was one of twenty-six 
candidates who offered themselves for Seaford between March 1784 and 
March 1785; he was twice defeated owing to manipulations of the poll by 
the returning officer ; on a third election, though not returned, a committee 
of the House of Commons on 13 Mar. 1786, declared him elected. See 
Luders, Reports on Controverted Elections, I790> "i- 32 ff. In 1784 he was 
a Pittite, having opposed Fox*s India Bill, but soon went into Opposition. 
By the same artist as No. 6606, probably an amateur. See also No. 6607. 
3fX2iin. (pi.). 

6606 FLOOD OF CORRUPTION [?^. May 1784] 

Engraving. A bust-portrait of Henry Flood in profile to the r. Behind his 
shoulders waves are indicated. On the margin is written in an old hand, 
*At the Winchester Election when M'" Flood was a candidate'. Flood was 
not returned for Winchester at the general election, see Nos. 6605, 6607. 

By the same artist as No. 6605. 
3}X2f in. (clipped). 


[?t. May 1784] 

Engraving. No title. A satire on Henry Flood. A procession, surrounded 
by a crowd, is chairing a man who holds a punch-bowl in his r. hand ; in the 
1. he holds a wand on the top of which is a horn. Some of the crowd wave 
similar wands. He wears what may be intended for a fool's cap. Houses 
in the background indicate a wide street or market-place. Beneath is 
etched : 

While Winton of late was o^er flooded with joy 
At the sight of a pretty fac'd Irish boy 
Some wags would asemble, by way of a frolick 
Which gave this Adonis a kind of Horn cholic. 

Flood sat for Winchester from 1783, on Lord Stanhope's death, but was 
not returned in 1784. He was notoriously ugly. See Nos. 6605, 6606. 
3iX2iin. (pi.). 

6608 BEHOLD THE MAN! [c. May 1784] 

Engraving. Frontispiece to The Intrepid Magazine. A copy of No. 5547, 
a portrait of George III as an oriental potentate, his head turned in profile 
to the r. ; the expression of arrogance and cunning is more conspicuous than 
in the mezzotint. Beneath the title is engraved : 

Whose true Character shall be given in the Intrepid Magazine. The 
'magazine' 'By the Reverend William Hamilton, M.A.' consists wholly of 
propaganda against Pitt, chiefly written before the dissolution of Parlia- 
ment; it gives, however, the Cambridge University poll. See No. 6609. 
5f X3I in. Copy in Print Room. (B.M.L. P.P. 5445.) 





Engraving. From the Intrepid Magazine^ illustrating a * History and 
Character of Stockdale the Bookseller'. Stockdale stands in a smithy, 
holding on an anvil a large book which he is about to strike with a hammer. 
Another large book, horse-shoes, and farrier's tools lie on the ground. 
Behind is an ass waiting to be shod. Horse-shoes hang on the wall. Stock- 
dale wears a blacksmith's apron but is otherwise dressed like a well-to-do 
citizen, and wears a ruffled shirt. 

Stockdale (see D.N.B.) is attacked as the publisher of Pittite pamphlets, 
notably 'The Beauties of Fox, North and Burke' and 'The Beauties and 
Deformities of Fox, North and Burke', see Nos. 6393, 641 1. He is here 
said to have been brought up as a blacksmith, and from being a porter in 
Almon's pamphlet-shop to have become a bookseller and publisher, 
although scarcely capable of writing his own name; his shop, opposite 
Burlington House, Piccadilly, is a lounging-place for newsmongering poli- 
ticians. J. Ridgeway, his brother-in-law, also of Piccadilly, is the publisher 
of 'The Intrepid Magazine', a Foxite pamphlet, see No. 6608. Three 
adjacent booksellers in Piccadilly were noted for their political pamphlets 
during the Westminster Election ; Stockdale, Ridgeway, and Debrett, the 
two latter being Foxites. 

Grego, RozulandsoTty i. 144. 
6iX4f in. 

I June 1784 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Hervey, Bishop of 
Deny and Earl of Bristol, stands full-face, dressed half as an Irish Volun- 
teer, half as a bishop. In his r. hand he holds a drawn sword above his 
head, in his 1. he holds downwards a Holy Bible. On one half of his head 
(1.) is a military hat, on the other half a mitre and a closely-curled wig. 
One half of his body and one leg is dressed in the uniform of an officer 
of the Irish Volunteers, the other wears a long gown with a lawn sleeve. 
Beneath half the design is inscribed (1.), I am going to Bristol 'y beneath the 
other half, Heigh! Derry Ho! 

At the volunteer convention in Dublin in Nov. 1783 the bishop appeared 
in great pomp as delegate for Derry, attended by a troop of dragoons led 
by his notorious nephew 'Fighting Fitzgerald' (see No. 5198, &c.). See 
Hardy, Memoirs of the Earl of Charlemonty 18 12, ii. 104. His apparently 
seditious activities in 1784 gave great uneasiness to the Government, see 
Lecky, History of England y vi. 332 ff. See also No. 6654, &c., and cf. his 
arms in The Heraldry of Nature y 1785, p. 28, where his crest is 'A mitre 
crossed by two swords dipped in blood'. 
10 J X 8-1 in. (pL). 

6611 THE CO VENT GARDEN DELUGE. [i June 1784] 

Engraving. From The Rambler's Magazine. The Duchess of Devonshire, 

Fox, and others stand on a balcony slightly above the level of the street. 

' The plate is missing from the B.M.L. copy. 



Beneath are Wray, Hood, and other passers-by. The Duchess says, You 
shall come in Charley ; she urinates, a stream falling on to Wray below, who 
looks up, saying. This was designed for the Admiral^ Fm not used to Salt 
Water. Lord Hood, just behind him, says, She has given you a Broadside. 
A boy says. It does not rain but it pours; a woman (r.) says. This is striving 
against the Stream. A fat butcher (1.) points up at the balcony. Three 
ladies are beside the Duchess on the balcony. Behind and looking over 
the Duchess's shoulders are Fox (1.), saying. Drown the Rascal, and the 
Duke of Devonshire, from whose head project long horns. 

One of many satires on the part taken by the Duchess of Devonshire in 
the return of Fox for Westminster, see Nos. 6493, 6588, &c. 
6^X3! in. 


Engraving. From The Rambler^s Magazine. A scene in front of the hust- 
ings in Covent Garden ; the Duchesses of Devonshire and Rutland fighting, 

tearing each other's hair, each with a backer. One (1.) says, D shire for 

ever! The other (r.), a butcher, holds out a lemon, saying, R 1 — —d 

for ever! Fragments of torn garments lie on the ground. Behind is a crowd. 
The background is the portico of St. Paul's Church, with the roof of the 
hustings attached to the front of the pillars. 

The two beautiful Duchesses were political opponents. The Duchess 
of Rutland, who was in Ireland, could have taken no part in the election. 
For that of the Duchess of Devonshire see No. 6588, &c. 


L,..,dD,,..l pinx^ 

Pu¥ as the act directSy by S. Fores N*" 3 Piccadilly June 5 1784 

Engraving. Lewes, in profile to the r., sits astride a ram which is eating 
a bunch of grapes. Across the plate is etched : 

The Lordly Knight, 

The Coalition bite. 

Now takes the earliest hour 

To taste the grapes, — before theyWe sour. 

Beneath the design is etched : 

Here I am, 

Riding upon a black ram. 

Like a Whore as I am: 

And for my Crincum, Crancum, 

Have lost my Bincum Bancum; 

So pray M^ P — tt, give me my place again. 

The words imitate those said, by the custom of certain manors, by a 
widow who had lost her free bench, or life tenure of her husband's copy- 
hold, for unchastity. See Jacob's Law Dictionary, s.v. Free Bench; 
Spectator, No. 614, i Nov. 1714. For Alderman Sir Watkin Lewes, M.P. 
for London, see No. 6442 and index. 

145 ^ 


The artist's name is clearly an allusion to Lord Delaval, who deserted 
Fox on the result of the elections, see his speech on 19 May, Pari. Hist.^ 
xxiv. 835, and The Delavaliad in Political Miscellanies y 1790, pp. 24-7. 



SC Fee' [Collings.] 

June, 6, 1784. Pu¥ by W, Wells, N^ 132 Fleet S^ 

Engraving. Fox (r.), in tartan kilt and plaid, harangues a group (1.) of six 
Scots in Highland dress, who are lean, ragged, and uncouth. He says: 
Gentlemen! — I am ready to execute whatever you command — Is there a 
Stuart among you — say the wordy he shall be your king — or I will abolish 
monarchy and episcopacy — I am a Presbyterian! — any thing — I am particu- 
larly attached to this country — or any other that I can make my market of — . 
In the upper 1. corner of the design Lord North's head appears from 
clouds, blowing a blast inscribed Comfort at Fox. The Scots have dour, 
calculating expressions and listen intently; one has bagpipes under his 
arm. A barren and mountainous landscape is indicated ; two birds of prey 
fly near Fox (r.). 

A satire on Fox's election for the Orkney boroughs: having decried 
Scottish influence he ofi^ers to support any Scottish cause: Jacobitism or 
the militant Presbyterianism of the Covenanters. See Nos. 6559, 6602, 
6619, 6622, 6626, 6635; cf. also No. 6563. 



Satire Sculp. 

Published as the Act directs Juney 7'* 1784, 

Engraving (partly coloured). An extract from a speech by Fox attacking 
North in 1779 engraved on a scroll with etched figures in the four corners. 
In the upper 1. corner North, seated on the Treasury Chest, listens with 
gestures of alarm ; two dismayed supporters sit behind him. In the opposite 
corner (r.) Fox stands, r. fist raised 1., arm extended. He has risen from 
the Hunger & Poverty Bench, behind which two of his supporters sit 
listening complacently. In the lower 1. corner the Devil (H.L.) looks up 
through a single eye-glass at North, saying. Whom I have put together let 
none put asunder (cf. No. 6189). In the opposite corner (r.) a satyr reclining 
on the ground holds up the scroll on which Fox's speech is engraved 
saying, Charley is at his Old Tricks! The speech fills the greater part of 
the design : 

The Speech of the Right Hon: C. J. Fox in the House of Commons, On 
January the 22^ [i.e. June 22"*^], 1779. 

The Noble Lord (North) after owning that we had no foreign Alliances had 
triumphantly spoken of unanimity . . . [see Pari. Hist., xx. 936, quoted in 
Beauties of Fox, North, and Burke, 1784. The passage ends, altering the 
words in the Beauties (where they were correctly quoted)]: The Idea of 



a Coalition with such a Monster was too horrid to be Admitted for a Moment! 
Gentlemen must Have foregone their principles & have given up their Honor 
before they could have approached the Threshold of an Alliance so Abominable 
so Disgracefull and so Everlastingly to be Cursed by Englishmen! 

A satire on the Coalition, cf. No. 6393, &c., with an allusion in the title 
to the Westminster scrutiny, see No. 6553, &c. 



Pu¥ by J. Wallis N^ 16. Ludgate Street, June, 8 17S4. 

Engraving. Demons drag persons towards the flames of hell, from which 
emerge the heads and shoulders of other victims. The figures are dispersed 
over the design, some being in the air, others on the ground. A gallows 
(1.) stands on a pile of sacks supported on rocks beside the pit of hell; 
Christopher Atkinson, the dishonest corn-factor (see Nos. 6021, 6667), is 
tied to it by the wrists. One demon sits on his back, another pours the 
contents of a bowl into his mouth saying, The Gold you were so fond of Is 
turned into boy ling lead & you must Swallow it. So much for corn Con^ 
tractors. A third demon flies towards him with a pitchfork. Next, a flying 
demon drags by the wrist Lord George Gordon ; he points to the flames 
below, saying, Once^ twice & thrice welcome^ my dear lord — Georgy Your 
Riots in June, put all Hell in tune. Gordon says. Oh M^ Devilj I acted purely 
for the good old Cause. (See No. 5694, &c.) Riding through the air (r. to 1.) 
on a galloping horse are four members of the Coalition : North holds the 
reins, and looks through his eye-glass, saying. This is a damnd ugly place 
I wish I were Safe & Sound at Bushy. Back to back with him, their arms 
tied together, sits Fox, holding a dice-box and saying. We've play*d to deep 
This last Cast has Sunk us. Next him sits Burke, perpetrating an Irish 
bull : By Jesus I hope we are all above going downwards. Facing the horse's 
tail, with a book in his hand, sits Sheridan saying. This is a Tragical 
Manner of finishing a Comedy. A horned satyr urges on the horse with a 
pair of bellows. 

Between the horse and the ground are three other victims : a man being 
dragged downwards by a demon who winds his serpent-like legs round 
him ; a demon clutches a military officer saying. Ah Colonel, Colonel, you 
Cheated your poor Soldiers But you shan't cheat me. A demon grasps round 
the body a parson in gown and bands, holding a copy of the morning post ; 
he says. My good Sir, You have out done tis all here in Hell for Lying you 
must now take the Reward due to your ingenuity. He is William Jackson (see 
D.N.B.), who in 1780 succeeded Bate as editor of the Morning Post, which 
made scurrilous attacks on the Duchess of Devonshire during the West- 
minster election, see No. 6594, &c. 

Below all these figures which fill the upper part of the print are men and 
women in the flames of Hell (1.) ; others are dragged towards it across level 
ground behind which flames are rising. Twelve persons are actually in the 
flames, conspicuous among them a fat woman holding a bottle in one 
hand and a glass in the other. A young man in a riding-hat holds out 
his arm towards her saying, ho! Mother Cole! leave me a drop. (Mrs. Cole 
in Foot's Minor was Mother Douglas, a noted procuress, probably here 
representing Mrs Windsor, see No. 6547.) ^ Gordon rioter, a *No- 
Popery' favour in his hat, flourishes a club, saying, D — m my Eyes! No 



popery (see No. 5679, &c.). A man clutches money-bags under his arms 
saying, Fll hold my bags fast, there are Thief s even in Hell. Among the 
others in the flames is a parson. Lord Sandwich is dragged towards the 
pit by two demons. He holds a scroll inscribed Catches & Cannons and 
Glees (cf. No. 5668) , saying, Can I have a Girl here, and good Claret or 
Champaigne I care not a fig. One of the demons, who is semi-human, 
wearing clothes, answers. Ah my dear Jemmy, I am glad to see you, no Girls 
here but old Quondams enough. After him walks Bute, his arms held out in 
horror, saying. Ah! woe is me, wou'd I were Safe in the Cool Isle of Bute. 
He wears a flat Scots cap, and a Garter ribbon and star with a Court suit, 
as in satires of twenty years earlier. He is pushed by a large demon and 
dragged by two small ones, one of whom (1.) holds a string attached to one 
of his legs. This imp has one wooden leg, with a large spur like that 
attached to game-cocks, on the other leg is a top-boot, emblem of Bute, 
cf. No. 3860, &c. (1762). After Bute walks Mansfield in judge's wig and 
gown, his r. hand raised admonishingly, a large book in his 1. hand. He 
says. Their proceeding here, are Contrary to all the rules in the Kings Bench 
I do not like the place. He is propelled by a long pitchfork held by a horse- 
headed monster on the extreme r. ; a small demon holds up the end of his 
long gown. Last walks Lord Loughborough in wig and gown between 
two ladies, saying, / demur to going any further Fll try to repleven you both 
out again. The lady on his r., with three ostrich feathers (suggesting the 
Duchess of Devonshire) in her hair, says. As you have brought us thus far 
you Should not leave us in the Lurch. The other, with lappets of lace and 
flowers in her hair, says, There will be no Danger of being try'd here I hope 
for Grim, Con. 

A composite satire, in an obsolescent manner, combining attacks on the 
Coalition, on Christopher Atkinson, Lord George Gordon, who supported 
Fox at the Westminster Election {Westminster Election, p. 242, &c.) but 
had incurred little unpopularity in 1780, cf. No. 5694, on Bute, Sandwich, 
and Mansfield, the subjects of many satires described in Volumes IV 
and V. The * Colonel' may be Lonsdale, see No. 6579. 
9i|xi4f in. 


Published as the act directs by, S Fores 3 Piccadilly June 10 1784 

Engraving. A Jew, bound by a rope, crouches kneeling on a low bench 
which he holds with both hands. Fox stands behind hi^n (1.) holding with 
both hands the handle of an auger with which he is boring the Jew's 

posteriors. He says, /'// bore you by If you don't produce money 

immediately: you Jewish Son of a bitch. The Jew says, O Shweet Shir let 
me up and You shall have the monies. Over the Jew is etched : A few days 
since, a Jew, well known in the Alley, applied to a certain Person for the pay- 
ment of a large sum that he had lent him; but instead of paying him, He had 
him tied to a Form, and actually with an auger, began the operation of boring 
him, until he promised, never again to ask him for it, until he thought proper 
to pay him — And also made him swear to get him a thousand pounds more, 
instantly. — This is a fact well authenticated. 

A satire on Fox's notorious indebtedness to Jews, cf. Nos. 6461, 6623, 


P F Sold at N° 34 King Street S^ Ann's Soho June 12*^ 1^84. 

Engraving. No title. Fox (1.), leaning on a spade beside a heap of coals, 
holds out his 1. hand towards Pitt (r.), who stands holding the reins of a 
pack-horse. A placard on a pole in the coal-heap is inscribed The Best sort 
of Opposition Coals to set the Nation in a Blaze By Charles & Co. The coals 
are heaped over a low arch or culvert under which is the horned head of 
a devil among flames, representing a coal-pit. A flag, inscribed Fullers Earth 
to take the stains {Left by Old Servants) Out of Government^ is fixed to the 
saddle-bags of Pitt's horse. Fox says. Come Billy let Us Shake Hands & 
Unite. Pitt answers, No No Charley Keep' with Your Old Partner Under 
the Coals. Beneath the design is etched : 

A Collier was very Earnest with a Fuller^ pressing Him that they Two 
might take one House^ & Live both together in It. My Friend^ replied the 
Fuller y You must excuse Me: It would be very improper for us to Cohabit 
under the same Roof. No Pleasure nor Profit could accrue to me thereby; nor 
indeed could I expect Other than Troubles & Inconveniences from it. Consider 
with Your self how very Pretty it zvill be, when I have made Goods delicately 
clean, for You to make 'em as black as Your Coals. 

^sop's Fables SS^\ 

There was, of course, no question at this time of the co-operation of 
Pitt and Fox ; for the Union' proposed by Powys and Marsham see No. 
6413, &c. 


Pu¥ 14 June 84 by E Shirlock Drury Lane. 

Engraving. A fight between Wray (1.) and Fox (r.) who face each other 
with clenched fists. Fox is dressed in tartan kilt, coat, and stockings, to 
indicate that he is M.P. for the Orkney boroughs, see No. 6614. He says, 
ril beat you until you Pi — ss Small Beer. Wray, in shirt, breeches, and top- 
boots, says, ril hit you such thump that will bid your Scotch crowdy Good 
morrow. Behind each is a backer holding out a lemon ; that of Fox is the 
Duchess of Devonshire in coat and breeches, wearing her electioneering 
hat with its Fox favour and plume of three ostrich feathers (see No. 6530). 
She says : Take Courage III support the cause while I can ware the Breaches. 
Lord Hood stands bejfiind Wray, saying : Hit him low & you will make him 
Surrender as I made Monsieur on the twelfth of April, an allusion to 
Rodney's defeat of de Grasse in 1782 when the French flag-ship surren- 
dered to Hood, see No. 5991. Behind the seconds stand spectators : behind 
the Duchess are Sam House saying, Well dun Fox, and Lord North. 
Behind Hood are four ragamuffins, one with Hood & Wray on his hat, 
another waving a stick and shouting O Wray. 

For the scrutiny demanded by Wray on the closing of the Westminster 
poll see No. 6553, &c. 

10X15 in. 



W,D. [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs by J. Browtiy Rathhone Place, June 14^^ 17 84, 

Engraving. The king as Arthur stands between Fox (1.) as Grimhald and 
Pitt (r.) as Philidely turning his back on Fox and holding out his hands to 
Pitt. The names are inscribed on scrolls above the figures. 'Arthur' vi^ears 
a crown, a tunic and cloak trimmed with bands of ermine, with cross- 
gartered boots; he turns his head in profile to the r. towards Thilidel', who 
stands in profile to the 1. with curiously-shaped wings, one inscribed 
Majority, holding a wand in his r. hand and wearing a laurel wreath. His 
cloak, slashed doublet, and hose appear to be intended for Elizabethan 
costume. 'Grimbald' stands full-face, clasping his hands, looking with a 
scowl to the r. His wings droop, one is inscribed Minority ; horns sprout 
from his forehead, a barb protrudes from the tip of his fox's brush; his 
feet are those of a beast of prey. His wrists and ankles are shackled and 
linked by chains. He wears a tunic made of snake-like scales on which is 
a demon's mask. A crown inscribed Asia has fallen from his head and lies 
at his feet, together with a trident. 

Beneath the title is etched: Victory! victory! Vice is in chains, . . . 
Victory! victory! Virtue reigns, vide King Arthur. 

A satire on the defeat of Fox in the general election, with an allusion to 
the defeat of the India Bill (cf. No. 6286, &c.). The characters are from 
Dryden's King Arthur or the British Worthy in which Philidel, *a gentle 
aerial spirit, friendly to the Christians', is opposed by *Grimbald, a fierce 
earthy goblin'. Baker, Biog. Dram., 1812, ii. 39. 


A print in the Guildhall Library, 


Pub: 15*^ June 1784 by W Holloway Strand. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox ties firebrands to the tails of foxes 
to send them into standing com. Sheridan (r.) kindles brands at a fire 
which burns in a pot inscribed Treason Sedition Reverse. Fox holds up a 
burning brand inscribed Sedition ; he has just attached a brand to the tail 
of a fox inscribed S . . rry (Lord Surrey) and says Make Haste Dick & let 
me have some more firebrands. Sheridan answers, / am Inflaming as fast as 
possible Charly ; beside him two foxes are tied up, waiting for their brands : 
Morning Herald (the Opposition newspaper) and B ke (Burke). Run- 
ning towards the corn (1.) are two foxes: No — th and Fitzp — tr — ck. 

For the theme of factious and seditious opposition by the disappointed 
Foxites cf. No. 6785. For the foxes and firebrands cf. No. 5963 (1782). 
Six 12 J in. 


Published as the Act directs June 16^^ 1748 [sic] by H M' Phail N 68 
High Holburn 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire (r.) fights Mrs. Hobart (1.). The 
r. fist of the Duchess is near her opponent's nose, her 1. hand is on her hip. 



Mrs. Hobart, both fists extended, says : Fll have no more for my Nose 
Bleeds; the Duchess answers : / have not done yet Madam. A backer stands 
behind each; Fox (r.) says, Well done Georgiana to her again, A hand 
extends from clouds holding a laurel wreath over his head. Wray, behind 
Mrs. Hobart, says. If she Cant Beat her A Scrutiny Shall. A hand from 
clouds holds a fool's cap over his head on which is a butterfly and an ass*s 
ear. Behind Wray, holding a cane, stands Lord Hood saying, Alas poor 
Judas you will lose ye day. The dishevelled hair of the ladies hangs down 
their backs : Mrs. Hobart, very stout and decolletee, the Duchess, slim and 
wearing a riding-habit with a coat of military cut. She has two Fox favours 
in her hat, ostrich feathers (see No. 6530), and a fox's brush. The other 
has feathers in her hair and a large favour inscribed Hood & Wray. 

For the Duchess of Devonshire and Mrs. Hobart as rival canvassers see 
No. 6526. For the Westminster scrutiny see No. 6553, &c. For Wray as 
Judas see No. 6492, &c. 


Pu¥ June i6 1784 as the Act directs by S Fores 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving. Fox, dressed as a Tudor monarch, starts from a low couch on 
which he has been lying, his eyes staring in horror. In his r. hand he 
grasps a sword inscribed Injustice. Round his neck, on a ribbon inscribed 
Order of Blacklegs^ is a medallion bearing a dice-box and dice. At his feet 
is a helmet (r.) with a closed visor inscribed Helmet of Unrighteousness ^ and 
various documents inscribed rts^tctivtly Pet** Kirkwa[ll\ ; Westminster Elec- 
tion; Private list 2500 bad votes on my side of the Question; Ways and means 
P — W — [Prince of Wales] Newmar[ket] Brooks's — Dutchess — North — 
D — de Chart[res] &c. &c. &c. &c. ; India Bill For the better security Of 
power to me and my Friends. 

Fox wears a ruff, slashed doublet and trunk-hose, an ermine-bordered 
cloak, and slashed shoes. A curtain hangs on each side of the couch; it 
partly conceals (1.) a framed portrait-head of the Duchess of Devonshire 
in profile to the r., wearing at her breast a Fox favour. 

Above the design is etched : 

If we be conquerdy Let men conquer uSy 

And not these Bastard Britons^ whom my Father 

Has in their own Land^ Cheaten, spurn d and trod 'on 

And left them on record an Heir of Shame. 

Are these men fit to be the Heirs of England? 

A satire on the return of Fox for the Orkney boroughs, see No. 6614, &c., 
and on the Westminster scrutiny, see No. 6553, &c. It was stated during 
the scrutiny proceedings that Fox's agents knew of lists of bad votes; this 
occasioned an insulting remark by Erskine. Pari. Hist., xxiv. 863 (6 June); 
Wraxall, Memoirs^ 1886, iii. 403-4. For Fox (a descendant of Charles II) 
as Charles III cf. No. 6460, &c. For the defeat of the India Bill see No. 
6286, &c. John (afterwards Sir John) Sinclair petitioned against Fox's 
return for Orkney. For Fox and the Prince see No. 6041, &c. The Due 
de Chartres, a friend of Fox, and other French noblemen were alleged to 



have assisted him at the Westminster Election. Westminster Election, 
pp. 246, 248, &c. 
lofxiof in. 

Published by W Fores AT" 3 Piccadilly June ly 1784, 

Engraving. Fox is being thrown over his horse's head; he clasps the 
animal's neck, his feet are above his head; papers fall from his inverted 
coat-pockets, inscribed Votes by Female Influence 3000 and Votes from 
Dukes Place &c. 2000. The horse is snorting He he he he, its heels are in 
the air; it has shied at a rock (1.) inscribed Scrutiny Rock. Beside the rock 

is a tree and a signpost inscribed To West r. 

One of several satires on the scrutiny demanded by Wray at the close 
of the Westminster poll, see No. 6553, &c. Duke's Place, a liberty within 
the precincts of the City, was chiefly inhabited by Jews, cf. No. 6617, &c. 
For *female influence' see Nos. 6493, 6588, &c. 


A print in the Guildhall Library, 


[W. P. Carey.] 

Published by M^ Anyside [Holland] N" 66, Dmry Lane, June 19, 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox (1.) as a field preacher, an open book 
of hymns in his 1. hand, addresses a plebeian gathering (T.Q.L.) standing 
below him. Sam House (r.) leans along the branch of a tree saying, Bravo 
Charley. North, chapeau-bras, wearing his ribbon and star, holds out a 
collecting-bowl to an old woman who takes money from a stocking 
inscribed Charitable Fund. Fox says : Deluded brethren, my arguments were 

as refreshing as the Dew of Heavn in S^ St ns Chapel — till an Evil 

Minister procured a Majority in that once hallowed Temple: You all, every 
one of you, who prostituted your voices on this occasion are damned in the next 
World! . . . Do you wish to go to Heaven ? if you do you must be charitable — 

hand the box round N th, this Election can no more be supported without 

money than that at Covent Garden. 

A dissenting minister on the extreme 1., his eyes raised sanctimoniously, 
says, O What a wonderful reformation . . . [more persuasive than that of 
Whitfield] which has gulled thousands of poor credulous Devils. A pregnant 
courtesan looks up at Fox weeping. 

For the subscription to the expenses of the scrutiny, cf. No. 6624. ^^^ 
Fox as preacher see No. 6661. 

[ ? J. Barrow.] 

Pu¥June. 22. 1784 by E. Rich N° 55 Fleet Street 

Engraving. Fox stands directed to the 1. holding a begging-box. He is 
dressed in his accustomed manner, but his coat, breeches, and stockings 



are ragged, and his toes protrude from one shoe, which is unbuckled. He 
says, My worthy Geese iSf , Ganders^ although I have every reason Imaginable 
To beltevey that I have not one real vote in a Hundred yet if you will put your 
Mite into my Box I will endeavour all I can to Bother my opponents and you 
into the Bargain. Pray remember the poor Fox. His box is inscribed, Fox*5 

Begging Box. For the Good of my Self. Let my Country be D d. In the 

background (r.) Sam House holds up the Standard of Sedition. Three 
butchers stand beside him with marrow-bones and cleavers, one shouting 
Fox for ever. Beneath the design is etched: 

Politic Reynard here in Statuquo 

Displays at once his poverty & woe 

Your kind assistance is his only plea 

That he may Stand the fatal Scrutiny 

His Wits you^ II find your Pockets is to fleece 

Beware ye ganders and beware ye Geese 

The Widows mite he'll take between his Clutches 

With as much Glee as he would kiss a Dutchess. 

Fox, like Sir Cecil Wray, also depicted as a mendicant, see No. 6578, 
relied upon a public subscription for the expenses of the scrutiny (see 
No. 6553, &c.). See advertisement dated 16 June in the newspapers of that 
and subsequent dates; cf. p. 152. For Fox as a beggar see No. 6500, &c. 
For Westminster electors as geese cf. No. 5843, &c. 



Pu¥ June 24. 1784. by J. Wallis N"* 16 Ludgate Street, 

Engraving. A design in two compartments, the Duchess of Devonshire (1.) 
'politic mad', and the Duke (r.) attending to his infant. 

[i] The Duchess stands looking to the 1., her hair partly loosened and 
streaming in the wind which blows her petticoats. She holds in her r. hand 
a long staff, on which is the head of Fox, and two pendant foxes' brushes; 
on a cross-piece is the word Liberty. In her r. hand is a ribbon from which 
hangs a large flat ribbon- trimmed hat ; in her hair are ostrich feathers (cf. 
No. 6530). In her 1. hand she holds out a print of ( ?) the Prince of Wales, 
W.L., leaning against a horse. ^ She is saying A Prince should not be limited. 
On the ground at her feet is a paper inscribed Secret Influence^ and a print 
which is copied in reverse from No. 6520. A loosened garter hangs 
beneath her petticoat bearing the Cavendish motto, Cavendo tutus. Across 
the front of her bodice is a large Fox favour. A bird stands on a cloud 
above her head saying. No Tax on Maidenheads no Wray. It resembles 
a dove but may be intended for the bird ( ? a starling) which appears in 
prints of the Duchess canvassing the butchers. 

For the attachment of the Prince of Wales to the Duchess see Wraxall, 
Memoirs, 1884, v. 370-2, and No. 6263. 

[2] The Duke sits on a chair, his infant face downwards on his knee; 
he appears to be changing her napkin ; clean towels hang over a line beside 
' It resembles Reynolds's portrait of the Duke of Devonshire. 



him; at his feet is the cradle. He is saying, This Work does not suit my 
Fancy, Ah William every one must be cursed that like thee takes a Politic 
Mad Wife. From his coat-pocket hangs a paper, Letters to Married 
Women. On the back of his chair is a ducal coronet. On the ground is a 
paper. Your Votes are requested for C. J. Fox. Beside the duke (1.) is a 
round table on which are a tea-pot and cup. On the wall are his hat and 
a bust portrait of himself with horns. On a shelf are pieces of pottery, 
including the headless figure of a woman. A curtain is draped across the 
upper r. corner of the design. 

A newspaper paragraph alleged : * While her Grace is busied in canvass- 
ing the Constituents, her domestic husband is employed in the nursery ' 

Westminster Electiony p. 234. Cf. No. 6546, &c. 
9jx6}| in. Whole print, qJ X 14! in. 

Pub 24 June 1^84 by E. Shirlock Drury Lane 

Engraving (coloured impression). An adaptation of No. 5539. Fox, 
dressed half in tartan, half in blue and buff, sits in a latrine between two 
circular holes, down one of which his 1. leg is thrust. He says, / have a 
Right to two Seates in the House^ but damn me if I know how I shall get into 
the other however I will make a motion for the high Bailiff. The Duchess of 
Devonshire approaches him (1.) holding out a purse and saying : 

Alass poor Fox I bewail your case 

Take this purse it will procure you the place. 

On the wall is a thistle growing out of a crown which is not reversed as 
in No. 5539. 

Fox's two seats are the Orkney boroughs, see No. 6614, &c., and West- 
minster, from which he was excluded by the High Bailiff pending the results 
of a scrutiny, see No. 6553, &c. On 25 May he presented a petition to the 
House of Commons praying for an order to the High Bailiff for an imme- 
diate return. Pari. Hist., xxiv. 843 fF. 


WD. [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs by J. Brown, Rathbone Place, June 25^* 17S4. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A conventional vine- 
branch ascends the 1. side of the design, then turns at right angles ; from it 
hangs a symmetrical cluster of heads or masks of Fox and his supporters 
with closed eyes; the stalk attaching it to the branch is inscribed Ripe 
Fruit for Old Nick. The central and largest head is that of Fox. On the 
1. and r. and slightly lower are the heads of North and Burke ; these three 
are larger than the remaining heads. Between them and beneath Fox's 
chin are Keppel (1.), and (r.) perhaps Jack Lee. The apex of the cluster, 
between the stalk and Fox, is Lord Derby looking downwards. Flanking 
him, in profile, are Lord Stormont (1.) and Lord John Cavendish (r.). 
Below Stormont and above North is the Duke of Portland, in profile to the 
1. Below Cavendish and above Burke is an unidentified profile having 



some resemblance to Carlisle. The lowest point of the cluster is the 
mask of Sam House. Between this and the heads of North and Burke on 
each side are two small profiles : below North (1.) that of Hall the apothe- 
cary, and between Hall and House the hideous profile of the Westminster 
Justice ( } Kelly), see No. 6575, &c. ; below Burke (r.) that of the Earl of 
Surrey, and between Surrey and House that of Powys. 

On the ground at the foot of the vine-branch and beneath the cluster 
is a pile of objects inscribed Trophies. In the foreground (1.) is a pair of 
crutches inscribed Patriotic Props, In the centre of the base of the pile are 
(1.) a fox's brush inscribed Euphorbium (an allusion to the *sneezing-bag* 
thrown at Fox, see No. 6426, &c.) and (r.) a mask of the faces of Fox and 
North inscribed Coalition imitated from The Mask by Sayers, see No. 6234. 
On the extreme 1. is a document inscribed (Economy (but the word scored 
through) 24,0001. P^ Annum; against it lie a pair of spectacles, emblems 
of Burke and the meagre results of his Bill of Economical Reform (cf. 
No. 5657). On the extreme r. is a pestle (inscribed Capricum, Capricum) 
and mortar and another pair of spectacles, emblems of Hall the apothecary. 
Beside the pestle is a document inscribed Receipt Tax, an unpopular 
measure of the Coalition (see No. 6243, &c.) which was dropped by Pitt; a 
flag inscribed J^fy 27^*, a gibe at Keppel's conduct at the Battle of Ushant 
in 1778 (see No. 5992, &c.); a paper inscribed American War, a gibe at 
North. In the centre, lying against the fox's brush, is a document inscribed 
India Bill (see No. 6271, &c.) and an open book inscribed Platonic Love. 
The three remaining trophies, at the summit of the pile, are a weaver's shuttle 
inscribed Weavers, to insinuate that Fox had bribed Spitalfields weavers to 
vote for him, see No. 6575, &c. ; a laurel branch, emblem of victory in the 
Westminster Election ; and a butcher's cleaver inscribed Westminster Elec- 
tion, emblem of the butchers canvassed by the Duchess of Devonshire, 
see No. 6493, &c. Cf. No. 6372. 

Published June 28 y 1784, by H. Humphrey New Bond Street. 

Engraving. Fox and North stand in the pillory on a small platform 
supported on a post above the heads of a circle of spectators. Their heads 
only are confined ; North is in back- view, Fox stands full-face looking to 
the 1., his hands clasped. The spectators are T.Q.L. ; Sam House is con- 
spicuous (1.) holding a foaming tankard and saying, Come Charly here^s 
to the Electors of Westminster one Good Turn deserves another. A woman 
in back-view holds a basket of eggs on her hip ; she says. Come Who'll buy 
my Plumpers Two a Penny Plumpers. A man next her (r.) is about to throw 
an egg, saying. Here goes a Plumper for Charly. 

One of many satires on the Coalition, see Nos. 6176-9, 6393, &c., and 
on the Westminster Election, see No. 6474, &c., and Appendix I. 
12X8^ in. 


London Published 28^^ June 1784, by G Humphrey, N" 48 Long Acre. 

Engraving. A dragon with the head of Fox (1.) breaking in pieces, crouches 
on a rectangular pedestal inscribed Idol of the People [these words forming 



the title] Vide Hist, of Bel & the Dragon. Pitt (r.) rams a pole into the 
mouth of Fox saying, Behold Whom 'f Worshipd. On the corner of the 
pedestal, under the dragon's outstretched neck, is a pile of balls ('pills'); 
another pile is on the ground. Burke and the Duchess of Devonshire stand 
behind the dragon watching its destruction with gestures and expressions 
of grief. North (r.), his back to Pitt, walks weeping away through a door- 
way, a handkerchief held to his eye. Beneath the design is engraved : 
This Dragon long had reigned the People's Wonder ^ 
But Daniel's Pills have made him burst asunder. 

A satire on the defeat of the Coalition in the general election, of. No. 
Six II in. 


[? c. June 1784] 
[? S. Sparrow.] 

Published by S. Sparrow N° ly RosomarHs Street Clerkenwell [Price 
6 pence^] 

Engraving. A satire on the taxes on windows, coal, soap, &c. In the fore- 
ground a small cart laden with coals is drawn (r. to 1.) by an ass harnessed 
in front of an ox. A carter stands by the ox, wearing a cap inscribed No 
tax upon Caps ; he says : 

/ hope we shall sheam Measter P 1 

and meak him to blush for want of more wit. 

The ass says. The tax upon Horses is enough to make a Dumb Ass speak. 

Behind the coal-cart is a woman standing outside a cottage door (r.), her 

hands in a wash-tub. She says : 

Is that Tkf P 1 1 wish he was nigh 

for instead of the Soap he makes me use Lie. 

A large three-storied house stands at r. angles with the cottage, it has 
a gabled pediment. Out of thirty-two windows all but seven have been 
blocked up. A visitor stands, one foot on the doorstep, pointing to a man 

who stands behind him, saying. The Hon^^' M' P 1 desires to know 

whether Esq^ Blockup is at home. ... A servant in livery at the door holds a 
lighted candle, saying, / hope His Honour will excuse our darkness it is to 
save Taxes. Pitt (1.) stands holding a tasselled cane and saying, / must 
overlook it all for necessity has no Law. A woman looks out of the centre 
window of the top floor, saying. We have got seven windows left now so we 
are not in total darkness. 

Pitt's budget speech of 1784 proposed {inter alia) an additional tax on 
coals of 3^. the chaldron to raise the general duty to that paid in the Port 
of London, a 10^. tax on saddle- and carriage-horses, exempting those used 
for trade and agriculture (see No. 6672, &c.), a tax of zs. or 6d. upon hats ; 
to compensate for the reduction of the tea-duties he laid a window-tax on 
houses with seven windows and over which were rated to the house-tax, 
explaining that a household paying 10s. 6d. for window-tax (on a ten- 
windowed house) would consume 7 lb. of tea and be saved the whole duty 
of 7^. per lb., a net saving of 1 55. 4^. Pari. Hist.y xxiv. 1008 ff ., 1026 ff. This 
was known as the Commutation Tax, see No. 6634, &c. 

* Added in ink. 



The soap-tax had been proposed in North's budget in 1782 and accepted 
by the Rockingham Ministry, see No. 5968, &c. The coal-tax was given 
up (7 July) as it was found injurious to industry, ibid., p. 1215. These 
taxes became a popular subject of graphic satire in the absence of other 
topics, cf. No. 6671 and index s.v. Taxation. 

The print perhaps relates to an incident of 1785 : Jenkinson blocked up 
a number of windows at his country house, Addiscombe Place, near 
Croydon, see No. 6940. For Pitt as a visitor to Jenkinson cf. No. 6801. 


from an Original Design by a Young Man 

SC Fecit. [PCollings.] 

Puh. by G. Lister i. July 1784, 

Engraving (partly coloured). Frontispiece to the first ( ? the only) number 
of the Court and City Magazine^ (see also No. 6632), illustrating 'The 
Levee : or. The Minister bestowing his Favours'. Pitt stands (r.) receiving 
a crowd of suppliants, on whom he is bestowing coronets ; they are ugly, 
slovenly, and of plebeian appearance. The foremost kneels obsequiously, 
his hands crossed on his breast, saying. My Wife longs to be a Lady. Without 
a Coronet I cannot satisfy her. Behind him a man, wearing top-boots and 
walking with a crutch, holds out his hand towards Pitt saying, This will 
ennoble my blood. Pitt, holding out a viscount's coronet, says, / make no 
Bargain, but I expect Gratitude. Of the others, one (resembling Wilkes) 
says, ril thank you, even for a barony ; another. Give me a Coronet, or I declare 
hostillities. Behind stands a satisfied suppliant, wearing a baron's coronet 
in a swaggering attitude, hands on hips, saying, I feel myself a Lord. In the 
background three new peers in back-view wearing coronets (an earl 
between two barons), are walking away through a doorway. Pitt stands 
in front of a small round table on which are two coronets and a star. On 
the walls are two pictures: a profile bust-portrait of the king inscribed 
Jure Divino and a genealogical tree inscribed Genealogy of ... . 

New peers created in May and June were Lord" Lonsdale (see No. 6579) 
and four barons : Grey de Wilton, Sommers, Berwick, Sherborne. There 
were also promotions, and English titles were given to Irish and Scottish 
peers. For Pitt's peerages see also Nos. 6603, 7149, 7183, 7480, 7495, 7623, 
8061, 8154. Ann. Reg.y 1784-5, pp. 212 ff.; Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iii. 
351-9; A. S. Turberville, in History, xxi. 350 ff. (March 1937). 



SC, Fecit. [PCollings.] 

Pub. I. July, 1784, by G. Lister. 

Engraving (partly coloured). Plate in The Court and City Magazine, p. 7, 
see No. 6631. George III (1.) seated on a throne with Thurlow and Pitt 

* The plates appear to have been the raison d'etre of the magazine, which is 
'Number i. Price 6d. (To be continued the First of every Month)' and is 'Embel- 
lished with Two large Quarto Copper-Plates, most beautifully coloured, each of 
which is superior to those which are sold for One Shilling and Sixpence at any 
of the Printsellers shops in London . . .'. 



beside him, while Fox, Burke, and North squirt water at him, which is 
intercepted by Pitt. Fox (r.) discharges with vigour the contents of a large 
syringe at the king, saying. Take this for robbing me of India (cf. No. 6368, 
&c.). Pitt interposes his person and hands; he turns to the king, saying, 

/ am young and able to defend your M y from their dirty Attacks. The 

king says, / require no more than my constitutional Weight in the Scale. 
Thurlow, standing behind the throne, says. Prerogative is not to be squirted 
away. Burke stands on Fox's r. also discharging his syringe, saying. Suppose 
we charge our Squirts with Aqua-fortis? Behind Fox, and on the extreme 
r., is North, holding a syringe and saying. Can't we storm the Treasury y my 
Rt. hon Friend? The king's throne is merely a small arm-chair on the 
back of which is a crown. He is seated on a dais of one very low step, 
probably symbolic of the limitations of the prerogative. 

The addresses to the king (Jan. to April 1784), see No. 6445, &c., had 
shown the unpopularity of the Foxite attitude to the prerogative, cf. Nos. 
6380, &c., 6657. 


6633 THE D SS PURCHASING A BRUSH. [i July 1784] 

Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine. A chimney-sweep stands 
between the Duchess of Devonshire (r.) and another lady who are can- 
vassing for Fox. The Duchess, who wears a riding-habit, puts her hand 
on his shoulder saying, /'// give you thirty Guineas for your Brush. The 

other, probably intended for Lady Duncannon, says. Let her G e have 

a good Brush. The scene is Covent Garden ; behind the Duchess (r.) is the 
back of a coach. 

A satire (alleging bribery) on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devon- 
shire for Fox, see No. 6493, &c. 

[W. Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs, by J. Mount Oxford Road. July 9'* 1784, 

Engraving. Pitt addresses a crowd of women in Leadenhall Street outside 
the India Office, on his measure to reduce the duty on tea in order to 
prevent smuggling. He stands in profile to the r. on a tea-chest, which 
rests on the back of Fox who lies prone. All the women except the fore- 
most are of the poor and disreputable sort ; the foremost, who is stout and 
whose hair is fashionably dressed, may be intended for Mrs. Hobart but 
more probably for a bawd. Pitt says: Ladies^ notzvithstanding I secure 
universal approbation by reducing the price of Tea^ a weedy so nourishing that 
it may be called the Manna of Females j I shall in good timCy turn the waste 
Lands into Juniper grounds^ that you may never be in want of a drop of Gin, 
to comfort your Bowels and reconcile you to the loss of Day lights Fire-light 
& Candle light. Behind Pitt (1.) stands Sam House, shaking his fist and 
saying. Dam your Catlap — give us Windows^ Coals and Candles^ or my eyes 
and limbSy Til thump Your bread-basket. Fox, whose head is close to Sam's 
feet, says, Push him off, Sam^ or^ he'll squeeze my lights out. The foremost 
woman says, Billy for ever. Huzza! The next, who wears a ragged apron, 



says, Bless the little Cock of Wax. One behind says, Give us glorious Gin 
and then you'll be a greater man than your Father. The tea-chest on which 
he stands is inscribed with quasi-Chinese characters and the words Bohea 
Tea Duty Free and Fast India Bill. The India House (1.) is shored up by 
two beams inscribed Majority and Prerogative (see No. 6368, &c.). On 
its cornice stands a spurred game-cock saying Cock a doodle doo. 

For Pitt's reduction of the tea-duties and substitution of a window-tax 
(Commutation Tax) see Pari. Hist., xxiv. 1008 ff. (20 June); for the taxes 
on coals (withdrawn) and candles see ibid., pp. 1027-9 (3° June). Sam 
House as a publican would naturally object to cheap tea combined with 
taxes on windows, coals, and candles. Pitt's India Bill was debated on 
6 July, ibid., pp. 1085 ff.; see Cambridge Hist, of India, v. 200 ff. (cf. No. 
6462). For the taxes see Nos. 6630, 6649, 6671, 6672, 6773, 6778, 6781, 
6794, 6800, 6914, 6940, 6962, 7083, 7339, 7386, 7389, 7480, 7670. 

Reproduced, Social England, ed. Traill, 1904, v. 647. 


6634 A Another impression, Mount's imprint obliterated, Pu¥ July 9 
iy84 by H Humphrey AT^ 51 New Bond Street. 


Pub. by S W Fores N'' 3 Piccadilly July 14 iy84 

Engraving. The Westminster scrutiny in process : Corbett, High Bailiff of 
Westminster, in the chair, seated full-face at the head of an oval table. 
Fox stands in the foreground (1.) declaiming, his right arm raised, fist 
clenched ; he says : / Pledge myself to pursue and bring this man to Answer the 
Mischiefs occasioned by his Timerity and his obstinacy and I will bring all the 
Orkneys and every friend of Charles Stuart to support me. He wears High- 
land dress, tartan coat, kilt, stockings, and plaid with a sporran, to signify 
that he was M.P. for the Orkney boroughs, see No. 6614, &c. On the 
table in front of him is an open book. Eloquence or the Art of making wrong 
appear right. Next to Fox is a lawyer in wig and gown, writing on A List of 

Lodgers Votes in & out of Vest r. Next him and on the r. hand of the 

High Bailiff is another man writing. On the Bailiff's 1. hand two men are 
seated at the table, one is writing on a List of Bawdy House Keepers in 

West r (cf. No. 6547). All four men are holding their noses. A man 

standing behind (1.) says. This business stinks horribly. A man behind on the 
r., with a drink-bloated profile, says, / can smell how matters goe. The High 
Bailiff, his mouth firmly closed, his eyes turned towards Fox, appears to 
be saying 1. 1. 1. am. . . . Before him is a paper : A political Plan from the 

Present M y [Ministry]. Beneath the design is etched: And as he 

reasoned of the Electors, the Elected, and Judgment to come Felix trembled. 

Fox delivered a protest to the High Bailiff: 'Before I go upon the business 
of this scrutiny I do hereby solemnly protest against its legality, and 
reserve to myself the right of impeaching it hereafter, either in any Court 
of Judicature, or before a committee of the House of Commons under 
M^ Grenville's Act : And I hereby also declare, that I reserve to myself the 
right of Suing the High Bailiff for all the expences, or the double of them, 
which are drawn upon me by this illegal act in the appointment of this 



scrutiny. C. J. Fox.' The scrutiny was conducted in the Vestry room of 
St. Ann's, Soho, with one counsel for the High Bailiff, two each for Fox 
and Wray, and three scrutineers on each side. The proceedings were 
public and were reported in the newspapers. London Chronicle^ 12 June, 
17 June, &c. ; Westminster Election^ 2nd ed., 1785, p. 553. For the scrutiny 
see also No. 6553, &c. ; for lodger votes, Nos. 6492, 6557. 



W.D, [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act direct^ by A, Aitken^ Drury Lane, July 14*^ 1784. 
Pu¥ July 14 1784 by H Humphrey N^ 51 New Bond Street. 

Engraving. The Devil seated (1.) plays a fiddle to which three dogs, with 
the heads of Fox, Burke, and North, dance on their hind legs. Fox (1.), 
wearing an oriental turban and a collar inscribed Carlo KhaUy has a fox's 
brush inscribed Reform. Burke (c), with the body of a lean spotted dog, 
wears spectacles and a Jesuit's biretta (cf. No. 6026) and his own tight 
pig-tail queue; his collar is inscribed S* Omer. His thin tail is inscribed 
OEconomy. He faces Fox, his back to North, who has a fat, spotted body, 
wearing a lady's muslin cap ; his collar inscribed Boreas and his tail Virtue. 
The Devil says, Fll make you dance ye Dogs my Fiddle de dee. 

The name Carlo Khan was given to Fox by Sayers's famous print on the 
India Bill, see No. 6276. Fox supported Sawbridge's motion for Reform 
on 16 June 1784, cf. No. 6671. For the dancing dogs cf. No. 6715. 



A set of W.L. portraits by Sayers of members of both Houses of Parlia- 
ment (cf. Nos. 6052-77, 7290-4). 



Published by jfa' Bretherton 14*^ July 1784 

Engraving. Stormont stands, r. hand on hip, 1. thrust in his waistcoat, 
wearing the ribbon of the Thistle and a sword. 

6itX4/6in. (pi.). 


Published y'^ 14^^ July 1784 by James Bretherton 

Engraving. Keppel in admiral's uniform, holding his hat in his r. hand, 
his 1. hand in his waistcoat-pocket, stands full-face, looking slightly to 
6i|X43^in. (pi.). 





Published 14*^ July 1^84 by Ja' Bretherton 

Engraving. Cornwall stands in his Speaker's wig and robes ; his chair and 
a raised dais are indicated behind him. He looks to the r., holding out his 
hat in his 1. hand. Beneath his feet are the words Order ^ Order, pray Order. 




Published by Ja' Bretherton 14*^ July 1^84 

Engraving. Sydney, Pitt's Secretary of State for the Home Department, 
stands in profile to the 1., his hat held out in his r. hand, his 1. on his sword. 
6iiX4Ain. (pi.). 

6641 [JOHN LEE.] 


Published by Ja' Bretherton 14^^ July 1784 

Engraving. Lee, M.P. for Clithero, stands with his arms folded, looking 1. 
He had been Attorney- General from 19 Nov. to 26 Dec. 1783, and was 
noted for his remark on charters, see No. 6364. 



Published 14 July 1784 by Ja' Bretherton 

Engraving. Powys, M.P. for Northamptonshire, stands in profile to the 
1. bending forward, both hands extended. The very melancholy expression 
in this and other prints is consistent with his practice of prefacing his 
speeches *on occasions of great interest, by a copious discharge of tears, 
which he seemed to command at will', Wraxall, Memoirs y 1884, iii. 280. 
See No. 6413, &c. 

6i|X4Ain. (pi.). 


Published 14^^ July 1784 by Ja^ Bretherton 

Engraving. Francis Se3nmour Conway (i 743-1 822), M.P. for Oxford, 
eldest son of the Earl of Hertford, stands looking slightly over his 1. 
shoulder, his head in profile to the 1., holding a document in his r. hand, 
his 1. hand on his hip. 

61-1X4^ in. (pi.). 

161 M 



London Published as the Act directs July 24 1784 

Engraving. Thurlow as Balaam, riding (r. to I.) on an ass with the head 
of Pitt, is confronted by Fox (1.) holding a sword with a serpentine blade 
and the shield of Britannia. The ass says, Am not I thy Pitt=ifull Ass; 
upon which thou hast ridden ever since I was thine. Thurlow, on a larger 
scale than Fox and the ass, which is much overweighted, wears his 
Chancellor's wig and gown and holds his mace against his r. shoulder ; he 
looks fixedly at Fox. A low and irregular stone wall forms a background. 

Beneath the design is etched : 

And they came unto Balaam and said unto him^ thus saith Balak the 
TempleitCy let nothing, I pray thee, hinder thee from coming unto me, for I 
will promote thee unto very great honour, and I will do whatsoever thou say est 
unto me: come therefore I pray thee, curse me this People. 

Balaam rose up in the Morning and saddled his Ass, and went with the 
Lords of the Bed-Chamber, now the Man of the People stood in the way for 
an adversary against him, and when the Ass saw the Man of the People, he 
fell down under Balaam and Balaam's anger was kindled; and he smote the 
Ass with the Mace. 

The satire has little relation to the political situation. For Thurlow*s 
part in negotiating between the king and Pitt cf. No. 7502. For hostility 
between Pitt and Thurlow see No. 8096, &c. ; for Temple see No. 6417, &c. 


Pu¥ as the Act Directs by J. Brown July 24*^ 1784 

Engraving. The Duchess of Devonshire and Fox as a mare and a stallion. 
Burke (1.) as a groom holds by a halter the mare, whose head is that of the 
Duchess wearing ostrich feathers (cf. No. 6530). A groom, whose head 
is hidden behind the body of the animal, leads the stallion, which has the 
head of Fox in profile to the 1. and a fox's brush, towards the mare. Burke 
says to the other groom, She takes it kindly my Lord. 

One of many satires on the canvassing of the Duchess of Devonshire, 
see No. 6493, &c. Cf. an election squib, published as an advertisement, 
12 Apr. 1784: *To all canvassing Duchesses and Ladies. To Cover this 
Season . . . that in-famous StalHon, called Carlo Khan [see No. 6276]. . . .' 
Westminster Election, p. 103. 

Similar in manner and character to No. 6646. 


[c. July 1784] 
/. Brown 

Pub as the Act Directs by I Brown Silver S^ Golden Sq'^ 

Engraving. A horse gallops (1. to r.) with the head of Fox and a fox's 
brush. On it is a tartan horse-cloth to indicate that Fox was M.P. for the 
Orkney boroughs, see No. 6614, &c. Behind (r.) is a brick wall on which 

' Title probably cut off. 



is a bill inscribed, Discord got by VolponCy and Volpone was got by the Scotch 

peasant his . 

Similar in manner and character to No. 6645. 


[?I. Cruikshank.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs by I Crookshanks No 5J, Stanhope Street^ 
Clare Market. July 26, 1784, 

Engraving. The king descends the steps of his throne to receive a tarred 
and feathered man who is being led towards him by Pitt. The victim, 
whose hands and face only are free from feathers, advances (r. to 1.), his 
r. hand in Pitt's 1. He is the Duke of Rutland, appointed Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland by Pitt, 11 Feb. 1784. He says. Is this usagCy Sire t for the Repre- 
sentative of Majesty ? You might as well have sent me to govern a Madhouse! 
Pitt turns towards him, saying, Let not your noble spirit be cast down. Your 
gracious Master shall revenge this insult. The king advances with out- 
stretched arms, saying, My second self in this pickle! Wild Irish indeed! But 
my Military Hounds will soon run the frantic Devils down. The throne is 
raised on a dais of three steps, from the lowest of which the king is step- 
ping; on its seat are the orb and sceptre; the back is ornamented by two 
carved cherubs holding a crown. Behind, looking round a doorway, are 
the Prince of Wales and Fox, laughing. The Prince says. His Plumage does 
not seem to sit easy on him^ Charley. Fox answers, / honor the People for 
their spirit; it will teach him to keep a civil tongue in his head. 

During the spring of 1784 there was much unrest in Dublin arising from 
the defeat of a bill for protective duties on Irish manufactures; strike- 
breakers and others were tarred and feathered, see No. 6650. *The Duke 
of Rutland was, on his first appearance at the theatre, hooted and insulted 
as if he had been a Verres. . . .*, Hardy, Memoirs of the Earl of Charlemont^ 
1812, ii. 146. See also Lecky, Hist. ofEngland^ 1887, vi. 359. For Fox and 
Ireland see No. 6659, &c. 


Pu¥ 2 y July 1784 by J. Parry London 

Engraving. Fox stands deprecatingly, attacked by members of City Com- 
panies. A stout liveryman of the Apothecaries' Company (r.) squirts the 
contents of a syringe at his forehead, while a man next him says. This will 
enable you to make Motions with Ease ; behind him, on the extreme r. is 
a man holding a pennant inscribed Worshipfull Company of Apothecaries. 
On Fox's 1. a liveryman of the Grocers' Company is kicking him, saying. 
We can give you a Thousand good Reasons [probably intended for a pun on 
raisins, cf. No. 6010] for presenting [you'^^ this Freedom. Behind him is a 
man holding a pennant inscribed Wor^ Company of Grocers. A man stand- 
ing behind Fox pokes at his 1. cheek, saying. This Sir is the Freedom of 
us Barbers \ behind him is a man holding a pennant inscribed Worsh} 

' Inserted in ink. 


Company of Barbers. On Fox's r. the Lord Mayor faces him with clenched 
fists, saying, Sir I present you the Freedom of the City in this Box. His train- 
bearer holds up his long furred livery gown. Behind the Mayor is a man 
with a stick raised to strike Fox, and also the City Mace-bearer with the 
mace over his shoulder. On the extreme 1. are two men in the uniform of 
the City militia carrying muskets ; one says, WeHl present him with Boxs 
Enough. In the background (1.) is a man holding a pennant inscribed Wor 
Compy of Taylors and saying trim him till his Backside make buttons. The 
attackers all wear furred livery gowns. 

Fox's India Bill had made him unpopular in the City, cf. No. 6285. The 
Lord Mayor, 1783-4, was Robert Peckham. Cf. No. 6567. 
13x71 in. 

6649 THE MEETING OF PARLIAMENT. [? c. Aug. 1784] 
W.D. [Dent.] 

Sold by W Humphrey. 

Engraving. A pugilistic encounter between Fox (1.) and Pitt (r.), the 
former's backer being North, the latter's Pepper Arden. All four stand 
with clenched fists; the two combatants are stripped to the waist and 
blood is indicated on their fists and persons. North says. Touch him about 
the Lights brother Charley — Fll warrant he'll be glad to commute with you — 
and ril cool Master Pepper. Arden, in legal wig and gown, says. Courage 
Billy i zounds! — dont be afraid^ me Dispatch — the Law is on your side — . 

The Commutation Act was Pitt's measure for reducing the tea duties 
to prevent smuggling and reduce prices and in compensation to put addi- 
tional duties on windows or ^lights'. Pari. Hist. xxv. 1374 ff. (i Aug. 
1784). See No. 6634, &c. 

ENEMIES OF IRELAND [i Aug. 1784^] 

American Inven* Hibernia Fecit 

Engraving. From the Hibernian Magazine y 1784, p. 345. A man who has 
been stripped of all clothes (including his wig) except his breeches kneels 
on one knee in profile to the r. holding up his hands in supplication. Four 
persons are about to tar and feather him. A man holding a large brush 
says to him. This will teach you Humanity for Thousands of Starving Manu- 
facturers, driven almost to Desperation, by the United efforts of Foreign <Sf 
Domestic Enemies. A man holding a bucket inscribed For the Enemies of 
Ireland says Anoint him well — I have tar enough for the whole tribe — 
Parasites, PI — ce men Pens — onrs, mock Patriots, Paragraphers — Black- 
guards and all — and a Speedy Exportation to the whole — Hurra, Boys, 
Hurra! Behind the victim stands a man with a bag of feathers inscribed 
Real Irish Cloathingfor Apostate Patriots &c. &c. He says: 
Was not you very dull, when you took off our Wool 

To leave us so mu£h of the leather, the leather 
It ne'er enterd your Pate, that a Sheeps-skin well beat 

Would rouze a whole Nation together, together. 

^ The plate is misplaced in the B.M.L. copy of the magazine, as p. 345 occurs 



Behind stands a woman holding feathers ; she says : You shall be well 
fledg'dy Tho' I strip my old Gander for it. 

Behind the figures is a bleaching-green where linen is hung up on lines 
supported by posts. The adjacent buildings (r.) are evidently connected 
with the industry. 

Opposite the plate is printed: *The distressed Manufacturers of Ireland, 
being drove to Desperation by the Rejection of protecting Duties, have 
adopted the Example set them by their American Brethren [cf. No. 5232] 
of tarring and feathering such Persons as refuse to enter into a Non- 
importation and Non-consumption Agreement, judging that Measure the 
only Expedient to save this oppressed kingdom from Poverty and Wretched- 
ness. . . .* 

In 1784, a time of commercial distress, there was great disorder in 
Dublin on account of the rejection of proposals for protective taxes for 
Irish manufactures. This was supposed to have been promoted by the 
master manufacturers. The unrest was almost limited to Dublin. See 
No. 6647, &c. 
6ixioJ in. 


FRUIT. [i Aug. 1784] 

Engraving. From the Ramhler^s Magazine^ ii. 257. The Duchess of 
Devonshire and Fox, as Adam and Eve wearing girdles of fig-leaves, sit 
side by side under a tree, embracing. North with ass's ears peeps at them 
from behind the tree. A serpent with the head of Burke, looking down at 
the pair, is coiled round the trunk. 

The text, a dialogue, refers to Fox's financial help from the Cavendish 
family, whose money or generosity is now exhausted. The Duchess makes 
an 'honourable retreat' from Fox. Cf. No. 6656, a sequel. 



Pu¥ Aug* J7^* 1784. by W. Wells N'' 132 Fleet Street. 

Engraving. A satirical representation of the unsuccessful attempt of the 
Chevalier de Moret to make a balloon ascent from Chelsea, 11 Aug. 1784. 
A balloon is exploding, and in doing so has broken in two a circular temple, 
which from the bells on its cornice appears to be that of Folly. From the 
centre of the explosion several objects recalling past hoaxes are being 
propelled upwards, together with a circular balloon on which is seated 
Moret the aeronaut, looking down exultingly and holding up a large bag 
inscribed Guineas. His balloon is inscribed Aero Statick Diligence to 
Ostend in a few hours. From the lower pole of the balloon a blast of air is 
discharged inscribed Gratitude. 

Round the balloon are emblems of credulity : a paper inscribed Stokwell 
Wonder y on which are an overturned chair, table, and dishes. For this see 
Narrative of the Astonishing Transactions at Stockwelly 1772, B.M.L. 719, 
c. 17 (which records the manifestations of a poltergeist). The figure of a 
woman in a nightgown, surrounded by rays, and the words Cock Lane 



Ghost \ for this hoax see 'English CreduHty, or the Invisible Ghost*, No. 
3838 (1762), and Boswell's Jb^/wow, i. 406. An open book, Trial of Elizabeth 
Cannings see No. 321 1, &c. A bottle from the neck of which emerges a 
Frenchman with a long queue resembling Moret as depicted in this print. 
For the Bottle Imp see Nos. 3022-7, 5245, &c. A paper on which rabbits 
are drawn, inscribed Rabbit Woman; for the hoax of Mary Tofts the 
Rabbit Woman, see No. 1778, &c. 

The balloon explodes as it leaves a platform on which the Temple of 
Folly rested. Over the doorway of the temple is a cabalistic inscription, 
broken in half. In the lower 1. corner of the design are the heads and 
shoulders of North and Fox, their necks on a level with the top of the plat- 
form. North, blowing a blast of air towards the balloon, says, Boreas will 
give thee a Breese. Fox, his eyes half-closed, says. My dear Chevelere thou 
art a man after mine own heart. Beneath the design is etched : 

Twas ever our superior cause 
A Trial by our native laws. 
Then let us if we must be bit 
Be still the dupes of British wit. 

The suggestion is that the ascent prepared by Moret was a hoax com- 
parable to that of the Bottle Conjurer. The balloon, according to the 
London Chronicle^ was constructed of coarse and porous canvas and 
attached to two poles ; a fire was lighted beneath it but it remained stationary. 
The mob broke into the grounds of the Star and Garter, where the 
spectators who had paid for admission had been waiting patiently, and 
made a bonfire of the balloon, Moret being rescued from the mob by some 
gentlemen. This account ends, *this celebrated Frenchman may boast of 
having made as many fools as any bubble that ever was attempted for the 
purpose of imposing on the credulity of poor John Bull, the famous Bottle 
Conjurer not excepted!', London Chronicle, 12 Aug. 1784. London Maga- 
zine, 1784, ii. 119-20. 

A print of Moret's machine (exhibited at Pimlico), an ornate circular 
temple with bells hanging from the roof, to which a small car is attached, 
is reproduced, W. Lockwood Marsh, Aeronautical Prints & Drawings, 
1924, pi. 37 and p. 20. 

For another English satire on Moret's fiasco see a reproduction (coloured) 
of an EngHsh print in Grand-Carteret et Delteil, La Conquete de Voir, 19 10 
{hors texte) : 


Engraving. A slim and foppish Frenchman stands behind a very fat, 
good-natured John Bull, his chin over the latter's r. shoulder, his r. hand 
in John's coat-pocket, his 1. pointing to a little parti-coloured balloon 
which floats upwards (r.). He says : Monsieur percieve you that one great 
Vonder 'tis one of the greatest curiosities dat ever de Vorld did see — Hwill go 
three thousand miles before de Sun set — and before tomorrow zvill be in de land 
where de peoples live on de air and Sunshine, dat is a great distance from 
London monsieur. The balloon is inscribed: To the People and Sun — dis 
Present is made by Mons^ Knavette Balonist on Earth. John Bull gazes up, 
saying, Tis wondrous strange indeed — these French people are the most 
ingenieus hands living. 



In the background (1.) is a crowd hastening To Chelsea (inscription on 
signpost). On the r. is a view of the city, showing St. PauPs and a cluster 
of spires and buildings inscribed : London famed for fools Roast Beef and 
Plum Pudding. 

Beneath the design is the Frenchman's satyr-like head with an inscrip- 
tion issuing from his grinning mouth: French men Dutch men Italians ^ 
Swedes and Hungarians if you have any Dancing Bears Monkies Camels 
Butterflies Beetles Lap Dogs or Baloons or any other Whims — bring them to 
England and by Gar you will be loved and well paid for your pains— for de 
English is one great pack of fools — beside John de Britain is very good tempered 
if you can tell him one very good storie he mil belief you and his pocket is 
yours. Cf. No. 6707. 
6|x6i in. B.M.L. 1800. a. 26. 


Published as the Act directs Aug'^ 30^^ 84 and sold by R Paye N" 57 
Broad Street Gold** Square 

Stipple. A W.L. portrait of Frederick Augustus Hervey, Bishop of Derry 
and Earl of Bristol. His r. hand is held out in the attitude of an orator, 
forefinger extended, his 1. hand is under his apron. His head is turned in 
profile to the 1., his mouth open as if speaking. For this plate with addi- 
tions, see No. 6654. 


A portrait (n.d.): Z)*" Frederick Hervey^ Earl of Bristol & Bishop of 
Derry, is probably the original, perhaps a copy in reverse, of No. 6653. It 
is etched without (apparent) satirical intention. 


Published as the Act directs Aug'^ 30^^ 84 

Stipple. The same plate as No. 6653 with additions; the publisher's name 
and the final *y' of the title being erased. In the bishop's r. hand is a flaming 
fire-brand. On his 1. shoulder sits a small winged demon holding up a 
paper inscribed An Arch-Bishoprick. 

Hervey took a prominent part in the Grand Convention of Volunteers 
in Dublin in Nov. 1783, as a delegate from Co. Derry, see No. 6610. His 
attitude towards the Volunteers and Reform was regarded as seditious: 
Rutland wrote to Pitt, 24 July 1784, asking what measures should be taken 
against 'this intemperate mischievous man'. Pitt considered proceedings 
against him likely to do more harm than good. Correspondence between 
M^ Pitt and the Duke of Rutland, 1890, p. 24. For the unrest in Ireland 
see Nos. 6647, 6650, 6659, 6671, 6785, 6805. 

For another impression, with further additions, see No. 6662. Cf. No. 
6785, &c. 

Reproduced, Social England, ed. Traill, 1904, v. 494. 

6^X5 J in. 

6655 PERDITA UPON HER LAST LEGS. [i Sept. 1784] 

Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine, ii. 281. Mrs. Robinson 
(Perdita) (1.) begs from the Prince of Wales (r.) who hands her a purse. 



She wears a low-cut dress in rags. They stand on the pavement of a street ; 
behind is a high brick wall on which are play-bills headed Jane Shore and 
Florizel and Perdita. 

For the annuity secured for Perdita see No. 63 1 8. For her relations with 
the Prince see No. 5767, &c. 

six 3 J in. 


THO' NOT IN BLUE. [i Sept. 1784] 

Engraving. From the Rambler^ s Magazine^ ii. 314. A sequel to No. 6651. 
The Duchess of Devonshire and Fox as Adam and Eve in Paradise, but 
wearing girdles of fig-leaves, stand hand in hand in a well-furnished room. 
On the wall are two portraits : a H.L. of (presumably) the Duke of Devon- 
shire wearing horns, and a man and woman embracing on a settee. The 
frame of the latter is decorated with the Prince of Wales's feathers, presum- 
ably alleging a liaison between the Prince and the Duchess, cf. No. 6115. 
The text quotes the five lines from Paradise Lost beginning : 
Half her swelling breast naked met his. 
One of many satires in 1784 on the relations between Fox and the 



Published as the Act directs by J. WhitakeTy Ave Maria Lane, 

Engraving. Frontispiece from Fox*s Martyrs^ 2nd edition^ (B.M.L., 
8133. bb 6). A tomb commemorating the fallen Ministers and their 
supporters; Burke writes an inscription, while Sheridan stands by as a 
gravedigger with a spade. The tomb is a large rectangular block sur- 
mounted by a pyramid. On the front and the r. side lengthy double- 
columned inscriptions are indicated, that on the front beginning with the 
only legible word, Representation. Burke, dressed as a Jesuit (cf. No. 6026), 
kneels in profile to the r., his graving-tool at the end of the inscription which 
has reached to the lower part of the second column of the face of the monu- 
ment. The pyramid is supported at the corners on the heads of ex-Ministers : 
in the front. Fox (1.) and North (r.) ; behind (r.) a poorly-characterized head, 
probably intended for Portland. Between the heads of Fox and North are 
engraved the words To the memory of the martyred senators. Below this, 
across the face of the monument, is engraved : His saltern accumulem donis 
etfungar inani Munere. 

Behind the monument on the r. and partly hidden by it stands Sheridan, 
tall and slim, his r. hand resting on a spade, his 1. holding a paper inscribed 
School for Scandal. In front of his spade, on an absurdly minute scale, 
bones and skulls are indicated. 

On the face of the pyramid, enclosed in a rectangle, is the picture of a 
fox, its front paws caught in a trap beneath which is a crown, as in No. 
6542. A hand appears in the upper r. corner with a finger pointing to the 
words Guilty Death. 

The defeat of the Foxites in the elections is attributed to the designs of 
Fox on the prerogatives of the Crown, cf. Nos. 6276, 6380, 6671, &c. 
' Reviewed in the Gentleman's Magazine, September 1784. 


Ninety-seven persons are mentioned in the pamphlet, one or two of whom 
found seats elsewhere. The number of members losing their seats was 
generally said to be 160, most of whom were of the Coalition party. 

7iX4f in. 

6658 WAYS AND MEANS. [i Oct. 1784] 
Engraving. From the Ramhler^s Magazine. Fox, his r. hand in the pocket 
of the Duke of Devonshire, turns towards the Duchess, whose r. hand is 
on his shoulder. He says. His pocket is empty y but I have found a Handful 
in yours. She says, looking towards the Duke, What signifies £60^000 to 
a Man of your fortune? The Duke says, You have half ruined me to serve 
that Fellow. The scene is a street; in the background is a high wall 
between two houses. 

One of many prints implying that the Duchess lavished money in behalf 
of Fox at the Westminster Election, cf. No. 6548. 

W.D. [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs by J. Brown Rathbone Place. Oct" f^ iy84 

Engraving (coloured impression). A boat, in which are Fox, Burke, and 
North, is attached by cords to a round balloon. Beneath it is an apothe- 
cary's pestle and mortar, from which ascends a cloud of the Patriotic Gaz 
with which the balloon has been filled ; the mortar is inscribed Blue & Buff 
Stink-pot. A spectator stands on each side of the mortar : the Devil with 
the face of the Duke of Portland (1.), pointing upwards, holds a knife with 
which he has cut the ropes of the balloon ; he says to his vis-k-vis. Hall, the 
Foxite apothecary. There they gOy Doctor y a nice trim. Hall (r.) looks at the 
balloon through a medicine-phial used as a telescope ; he answers, Aye — 
they'll do it — if that blind Jade J — t — e [Justice] dont overset them. The 
balloon is inscribed Oratory ; on it (or in it) are Hibernia (1.) and Britannia 
(r.). Hibernia, holding her shield with a crowned harp, raises her sword 
to strike Britannia, who defends herself with her shield and spear. In the 
open boat slung from the balloon Fox sits facing the bows (1.), holding 
a pennant inscribed Neck or Nothing. A cannon, inscribed Independence y 
projects over the bows. In the centre sits Burke dressed as a Jesuit (cf. 
No. 6026), saying. By JasuSy it will be sublime & beautiful to pop down 
among the Congress. North sits in the stern looking through his eye-glass 
and holding the tiller, which is attached to a rudder consisting of a large 
book inscribed History of the American War. The boat is inscribed New 
flying Machine from Portland to. Berry. Beneath the title is etched : con- 
structed on the same principle as the American Air Balloon^ but containing 
more inflammable air than any hitherto inventedy designed by Monsieur Le 
Diable and executed under his direction by Mess*^ Charles and Co in order to 
try experiments during the parliamentary Recess. 

There were rumours, believed by the Lord Lieutenant, Rutland, that 
Fox and his party were fomenting if not causing the unrest in Ireland at 
this time. Rutland wrote to Pitt, 16 June 1784, *M^ Fox, I am informed, 
says, "He shall make his harvest from Ireland . . ." * (cf. No. 6671), and 



on 24 July 1784, *I ask myself . . ., whether these factions which the Duke 
of Portland's administration has planted in this country may not acquire 
strength by placing the Bishop of Derry at the head of the Papists and all 
the malcontents who openly or secretly abet M^ Fox and his adherents 
here . . . .' Correspondence between M^ Pitt and the Duke of Rutland^ 1890, 
pp. 22 and 26. See Nos. 6647, 6654, &c. See also No. 6812. For the 
^American Air Balloon' cf. No. 6288. 


[i Nov. 1784] 

Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine. Four men, each with a 
courtesan, sit round a gate-legged table on which are glasses and a wine- 
\y bottle. The Prince of Wales (1.) sits on a woman's lap ; next him (r.) is a 

man in legal wig and bands, probably intended for Erskine. Colonel 
Tarleton, wearing the helmet made familiar by engravings from Reynolds's 
portrait, sits with a woman who is probably intended for Mrs. Robinson 
(Perdita), cf. No. 61 16. On the extreme r. sits Fox, a woman on his lap. 
The king is entering through a door (1.), immediately behind which is the 
Prince. The room is low, with a boarded floor, and no furniture except 
table and chairs, but with pictures on the wall. 
For Fox and the Prince see No. 6041, &c. 



[?J. Boyne.] 

Price r Pu¥ Nov' 2^ 1^84. hy E. Todd 

Engraving. The interior of a church : Fox preaching. North as clerk sitting 
beneath him. Fox (r.) in a high pulpit bends forward gesticulating with 
an expression of unctuous melancholy; he wears a plain coat and bands. 
North sits in the clerk's desk immediately under the pulpit, leaning back 
with folded hands. Both are directed to the 1. A barrier separates the pulpit 
from the congregation; within it in profile to the 1. stands Sheridan, as 
pew-opener, taking a coin from a young woman whom he is ogling; she 
looks aside demurely. Kneeling devoutly with his elbows on the barrier, 
immediately opposite North, is Burke as an elderly woman in cap and 
cloak, wearing spectacles. In the background is a square pillar supporting 
two arches which are partly visible. In front of the pillar are members of 
the congregation. Beneath the design is etched : 

How spruce tvill N th beneath thee sit! 

With Joy officiate as thy Clark/ 
Attune the Hymn^ renounce his Wit, 

And carol like the Morning Lark! 

To Comick Richard, ever true. 

Be it assigned the Curs to lash. 
With ready Hand to ope the Pew, 

With ready Hand to take the Cash, 



For thee, O beauteous and sublime! 

What Place of Honour wilt thou find ? 
To tempt with Money were a Crime; 

Thine are the Riches of the Mind. 

Clad in a Matron's Cap and Robe, 
Thou shalt assist each withered Crone; 

Andy as the piercing Threat shall probe, 
BeH thine to lead the choral Groan! 

S* James's Chron' Oct"" 21 

A satire on the fall of the Coalition, see No. 6399, &c. For Fox as 
preacher see p. 152. 

See Wright, Caricature History of the Georges, pp. 399-401, where 
eleven more verses are given. 


Published as the Act directs Nov' 5'* 84 [name erased] 

Stipple. Hervey, Bishop of Derry and Earl of Bristol. An impression 
from the same pi. as No. 6654, with further additions. A rectangular 
altar, on which the title is etched, has been placed on the ground (1.) 
beneath the arm holding the firebrand. The simple shading under the feet 
has been altered to suggest grass, &c., and in the distance on a low horizon 
a city in flames is faintly etched. Below the design in place of the title in 
Nos. 6653, 6654, is engraved: 

Of base Ingratitude possest. 

With rank Rebellion in his Breast 

Tho* rich yet poor tho* proud yet mean, 

Tho' rob'd in purest Lawn, Unclean: 

With such Hypocrisy of Heart, 

As makes astonished Virtue start. 

When such a Soul, the DevH shall fish up, 

Depend upon H tis D s B p [Derry 's Bishop]. 

The date, 5 Nov., suggests that the satirist is chiefly moved by Hervey 's 
advocacy of Catholic emancipation. See Lecky, Hist, of England, vi, 1887, 

P- 337- 

For another No-Popery print dated 5 Nov. cf . No. 5489 A. The Hibernian 
Magazine announced, July 1784 (p. 415), that in a subscription for building 
a Roman Catholic chapel in Londonderry, at the head of the list was 'that 
illustrious friend to the civil and religious rights of all mankind, the Bishop 
of Derry, who gives 200I . . .'. 



Pub. as the Act directs by W. Holland, N" 66 Drury Lane Nozf 9. 

Engraving. Thurlow, the Lord Chancellor, stands holding the ears of 
his horse (1.) with a scowl. He wears riding-dress with bands and his 



Chancellor's wig ; his riding-whip and hat are on the ground. Behind (r.) 
four men stand together in a row watching him with amusement. They 
are (1. to r.) the Prince of Wales, Fox, Burke wearing a Jesuit's biretta (cf . 
No. 6026), and North. Trees, lightly sketched, form a background. 

Beneath the title is etched the newspaper paragraph which the print 
illustrates : 

The C — r was taking an airing a few days ago^ on horseback^ near HighgatCy 
the horse unfortunately stumhledy and had nearly throzvn his rider. His Lord- 
shipy enraged at this faux paSy alightedy andy taking the beast by the earsy 
looked him sternly in the face: the poor affrighted horse instantly trembled 
every limb [sic\y and fell into a violent sweat; the trembling continued so long 
that his lordship was obliged to mount his servants horse y and ride back to 

town, — We hear that the horse is since dead! — It is a C s misfortune; not 

his faulty that God should have bestowed upon him an austerity of countenance y 
dreadful enough to frighten man or beast to death. 

Morni?jg Heraldy NoverrC ^, l^S4 

Thurlow lived at 14 Ormond Street. 

A satire on his terrifying scowl, cf. Probationary OdeSy No. xvi : 

Once more, with mightier oaths, by G — d I swear; 
Bend my black brows, that keep the peers in awe, 
Shake my full-bottomed wig, and give the nod of law. 

8JX13 in. 


Vide Gazeteer Nov', ii. 

Pu¥ Nozf 25^* i';84 by S. W. Fores A7^ 3 Piccadilly near the Hay 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A lady on horseback 
rides between Pitt and Wilberforce mounted on asses. The ass (1.) on the 
lady's r. is galloping, its rider (Wilberforce) waves his hat triumphantly 
towards Pitt whose ass refuses to move. A man standing behind it (r.) by 
a milestone inscribed Wimbledon Commony is about to kick the ass violently. 
The lady, whose horse is restive, raises her riding-switch to beat Pitt's ass. 

The incident, as related in the Gazetteery is that Mr. Wilberforce gave 
an entertainment at Wimbledon to Mr. ElHot, Miss Woodley (now Mrs. 
Elliot), Mr. Pitt, &c. *In honour of the approaching nuptials much wine 
was drank — and the young Minister was praeter solitum levis'\* On the 
departure of Miss Woodley all wished to escort her across the common; 
horses could not be found, but two asses appeared, Wilberforce mounting 
one, Pitt the other; on Pitt's ass refusing to start, a passer-by exclaimed 

*What will nobody kick the Minister's A !' A kick from Elliot, or the 

dread of a kick, made the ass gallop across the common. A ballad on the 
subject, with the same title, was published by Fores, 26 Nov. 1784, 
probably to accompany this print, B.M.L., C. 20, f. 2/257. Eliot (not 
Elliot) married, not Miss Woodley, but (1785) Pitt's sister. 

Rowlandson's drawing for this is in the Print Room (201. c. 6/52). 

Grego, Rowlandsony i. 143. 



[W. Dent.] 
Pu¥ as the Act directs hy A. Aitken, Drury Lane Nov^ 2g*^ ^7^4- 

Engraving. Illustration to a sheet of etched verses. The front of a Lottery 
Assurance OfficCy the windows plastered with advertisements. Sam House 
stands on the doorstep, speaking to a ragged woman (r.) with an infant in 
her arms and a little ragged boy. Sam's breeches are ragged; in his 1. hand 
is a paper inscribed Policy N^ ^5, his r. palm is extended to take a coin 
which the boy puts into it ; he says to the woman, ComCy give me the money 
— Dam it Fll try once more. She holds in her hand a pawn-ticket inscribed 
Duplicat[e] a Coat 2 6; she has given the half-crown to the boy to hand to 
Sam. Behind Sam, just inside the door, is a dog with the head and tail 
of a fox, looking up at a bird resembling a duck but intended for a pigeon, 
which flies towards him with a ticket in his mouth inscribed N^ 342. Behind 
the woman is the door of a pawnbroker's shop adjoining the Lottery Office. 
Over the door are three balls and Money lent ; in the side-window are the 
words PursCy Pawnbroker^ and watches, a tankard, &c. On the other side 
of the Lottery Office (1.), perhaps belonging to it, is a door over which is 
Anthony Parkes. On the doorstep stands a lottery-office tout, grotesquely 
dressed and blowing a trumpet from which hangs a flag inscribed Take 
Notice. A Provision for life may be gained by a 6^ Chance. In his r. hand 
are hand-bills inscribed Pretty Plans. He wears a conical hat on which is 
a feather inscribed Riches Now or Never , with a tunic and trousers orna- 
mented with large spots. 

The bills in the Lottery Office window are inscribed respectively Solid 
Acres . . . ; Terra firma\ An Eligible Plan . . . ; Read Judge and Compare . . . ; 
20 Tickets may be gained If . . . ; Earth Balloons . . .;An important considera- 
tion . . . ; 300 I may be gained if .. .\ No ... at this office; . . . A Caution; 
Lottery Clubs; Observe the Amicable Society . . .; A rational Mode . . .; 
Affluence .... 

Beneath the design are verses in two columns headed by a scroll on 
which the title, lottery chances, is etched. Each end of the scroll is held 
by a Christ's Hospital boy holding his cap; these boys drew the tickets 
from the lottery wheels at the Guildhall. 

A New Songy to the Tune of Galloping dreary Dun. 
A Lot fry we have and each has a Chance y 

Handle the Cole^s the fun y 
Tho* he should fly y in a BallooTty to France. 
With a State Roundabout 
Gaming gaily, 
Galloping y gambling to handle the Cole*s the fun. 

(The first of eleven verses.) 

The advertisements in the window of the Lottery Office are based on 
actual advertisements ; the newspapers during the drawing of the lottery 
were full of Lottery Office puffs, among which those by Parkes were con- 
spicuously alluring. His advertisements were headed 'Parkes & Riches!', 
and he offered the possibility of wealth from the sum of sixpence upwards. 



He professed to be 'the first who conceived the possibility of giving very- 
extended Benefits for the most trifling sums adventured . . . the eager 
liberality of a generous Public did way [sic] his Risque and amply recom- 
penced his Talents and his Time'. The other names (Goodluck, Staple- 
ton, Margray) in the cautionary verses are those of actual lottery offices, 
to be found in contemporary advertisements. There was an 'Amicable 
Society of Lottery Adventurers' as well as an 'Equitable Society . . .'. 

It was a fact that during the drawing of the lottery the business of all 
shops used by the poorer classes in London dwindled except that of the 
pawnbrokers which multiplied, owing to the system of (illegal) lottery 
assurances by which, for very small sums, tickets were insured against being 
drawn as blanks. See Ashton, History of English Lotteries y 1893, pp. 293 ff. 

Sam House, with his policy N^ 45 and the 'Fox-dog', gives the satire a 
political application. House had 'commenced politician' in 1763 'in support 
of Wilkes and Liberty', Life and Political Opinions of the late Sam House 
[1785], p. 15. 

i3|X9iin. (pi.). 

6666 THE CALEDONIAN DUTCHMAN. [i Dec. 1784] 

Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine. Lord George Gordon (1.) 
with a drawn sword in his r. hand, 1. arm outstretched, greets the Dutch 
Minister in a portico outside one of the doors of St. James's Palace. A 
plainly- dressed Dutchman, his hands in his breeches pockets, stands 
behind the Minister. Two Grenadiers on duty stand at attention. Gordon 
wears a flat hat or cap, a dark coat (over which is a sword-belt), and breeches 
of Dutch pattern. 

Gordon had offered his services to the Dutch Minister (Baron de 
Lynden) to serve against the Emperor Joseph II, who had presented an 
ultimatum to Holland. He had also been inducing seamen and naval 
officers to volunteer 'to serve the United Protestant States of Holland 
against the King of the Romans and all their popish enemies'. On 10 Nov. 
he 'paraded the streets at the West end of the Town in blue and buff, a 
cockade and a large broad sword, suspended by a belt ... he went singly 
to S* James's ; there meeting the Dutch Ambassador, he gave him a salute 
as he came down stairs from the levee, and drawing his sword laid it, with 
great solemnity, at the feet of the Ambassador. . . . His Excellency was, 
at first, greatly surprised ; but after a moment's recollection, he went on 
without taking the smallest notice of his Lordship', London Chronicle y 
1 1 Nov. and 20 Nov. 1784. (This differs slightly from the account in the 
D.N.B.) Gordon had made himself conspicuous as an advocate for Fox 
in the Westminster Election. For his attitude to the United Provinces 
cf. No. 7134. 

Mark delin. Lane fecit, [Rowlandson.] 

Published Dec" 10, 1^84^ by T. Harris, High Street, Marybone. 

Engraving. Atkinson stands in the pillory outside the Corn Exchange. He 
stands on a narrow platform just above the heads of the crowd; his head 
and hands, instead of being held in the usual vertical board, are put through 



holes in a board which is almost horizontal ; on its edge are the words He 
that HUMBLETH himself shall be exalted. A small sheaf of corn stands on 
each side of his head. 

The crowd stands round and beneath the pillory, as well as on the roof 
of a coach, &c. (r.). Immediately in front of the pillory and in back view 
(H.L.) are rough-looking men with constables' staves. In the centre (back- 
view) the sheriff is indicated by his long wand. The windows and roofs 
of the buildings behind are also crowded. Beneath the design are the 
words of a song; after the title are the words, with an Excellent New Ballad^ 
to he sung by a High Character^ to the Tune of the Vicar & Moses (cf. 
No. 6130). The words, supposed to be spoken by Atkinson in the pillory, 
are printed in full by Grego. Below the ballad are the words : NB. Good 
Allowance to those who Contract for a Quantity. 

For Atkinson see Nos. 6021, 6616, &c. After a much-delayed trial he 
was sentenced on 27 Nov. 1784 in the King's Bench for perjury to a year's 
imprisonment, to be pilloried as near as possible to the Corn Exchange in 
Mark Lane, and to pay a fine of £2,000 — London Chronicle, 27-30 Nov. 
1784. He was actually pilloried on 25 Nov. 1785, see No. 6838, &c. 

Grego, Rowlandsony i. 143-4. 

ioftx8i|in. PL i3jX9iin. 



[W. Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act direts [sic'\ by J. Brown, Rathhone Place, Dec^ 13^^ 

Engraving. A balloon in the form of a mask of the faces of North and Fox, 
imitated from Sayers's print, see No. 6234, but reversed, supports a boat 
in which are seated the Duchess of Devonshire (1.) and the Prince of 
Wales (r.). On the ground below are five spectators. The mask wears a 
turban to indicate Carlo Khan, see No. 6276. It has ass's ears to which are 
attached the ropes which support the boat. In the bows of the boat, 
which has a man's head as a small figurehead, is a flag on which is a bur- 
lesque of the Cavendish arms: the heads of apes with horns instead of 
three stag's heads. At the stern is a pennant inscribed with the Cavendish 
motto, Cavendo tutus. A pair of propellers project from the sides of the 
boat, broader than those on Lunardi's balloon. The Duchess and the 
Prince embrace indecorously, leaning backwards to look up at the balloon. 
He says It rises majestically, she answers Yes, I feel it. 

The spectators (1. to r.) are Lord John Cavendish in profile to the r. 

looking up through a telescope or roll of paper and saying His H , no 

doubt, being a lover of the Science, will make some curious Experiments. The 
Duke of Devonshire stands in profile to the r. facing a Frenchman ; he puts 
his hand to his forehead, saying, Looking up has made my Fore-head ake 
confoundedly. He wears the ribbon of the Garter. The Frenchman, a petit- 
maitre in ruffled shirt and high toupet-wig with a large bag, laughs and 
points upwards, saying. Ha, ha, ha, why — it is our way in France. Miss 
Farren, her arms folded, turns her head in profile to the r. to speak to 
Lord Derby, from whose forehead sprout stag's antlers (indicating the 
liaison of Lady Derby with the Duke of Dorset) inscribed Platonic Love 



and Maid of the OakSy the former indicating his relations with Miss Farren, 
the other the play by Burgoyne written for the Fete Champitre given at The 
Oaks in Kent on the marriage of Lord Derby in 1774 (cf. Nos. 5587, 7623). 
Derby looks through a telescope, saying, She^s a beautiful vessel^ indeed, — 
she seems to move at a great rate on the Equinoctial Line, Miss Farren 
answers, Aye, my dear Lord, when shall we take a flight from our Platonic 
Box and Jog together in the Milky-way. 

Beneath the title is etched : 

Desined for conveying the high Fliers of Fashion over the Channel, from 
Dover to Calais, and in which, it being snug, easy and convenient, the enter- 
prising Pair may safely make the Grand Experiment: Che sara sara 

Ye Masters of Packets! ye poor silly loons! 

Sell your boats and get Blanchard to make you Balloons, 

For our fair modern Witches, no longer aquatic. 

Will never more cross but in boats Aerostatic. 

A satire on Blanchard 's second ascent in England, Dec. 1784, from *the 
Rhedarium*, Park Lane. The Prince of Wales, the Duke and Duchess of 
Devonshire, and a large party of their friends were present, the Duchess 
and the ladies wearing blue and buff ribbons. Fox's colours; the two last 
cords were held by the Duchess and another lady. The boat was guided 
by wings or propeller, and the two aeronauts, Blanchard and Jefferies, 
carried flags. The Duchess of Devonshire let off^ a small balloon with a 
blue and orange cockade as a signal for the cutting of the cords. She had, 
it was said, taken a hundred tickets for her friends, London Chronicle, 30 
N0V.-2 Dec. For the Duchess of Devonshire and the Prince of Wales see 
Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, v. 371-2, and No. 61 15, &c. For Eliza Farren 
and Lord Derby, see No. 5901 and index.. 

Reproduction, Bruel, No. 103. 


W^ Jones inven* 

Published by H Humphrey New Bond Street J j^* Dec'' 1784 Price One 

Engraving. The interior of a church, probably the Cathedral of St. Asaph, 
showing one ruinous wall, with an inverted Gothic window. Shipley, Dean 
of St. Asaph, stands (1.) on a large book inscribed Law of Libel Vol. I., 
holding a firebrand inscribed Dialogue between . . . against a rough map 
(1.) of North Wales indicated by cracks on the plaster wall, the places 
marked being S^ Asaph and Chester. Above the dean are the winged heads 
of two cherubs. On the window is a large medallion with a profile head 
drawn so that it appears to be that of a devil with horns, while if turned 
upside down it is the head of Shipley wearing the hat of a dean (cf. No. 
7617, &c.). Round it is inscribed, Ecclesia perversa tenet faciem diaboli. 
On the wall to the r. of the window are two profile bust-portraits facing 
each other, inscribed Doctor Sacheverell (1.) and Ccesar Borgia (r.). 
Between and above them is a bishop's mitre. Beneath them is a shelf of 
books: Law of Libels II and Law of Libels III, standing upright; leaning 
against them are two volumes of Sermons. Beneath is a torn paper inscribed, 
The Jurors for our Lord the King upon their Oaths present That . . . Sedi- 



tious. In the centre, beneath the window, are the two halves of a pillory, 
irregularly across one another, showing the holes for head and hands. 

William (afterwards Sir William) Jones (hence the artist's name) pub- 
lished in 1782 a political tract of radical tone. The Principles of Government^ 
in a Dialogue between a Gentleman and a Farmer. Shipley brought it to the 
notice of a County Committee for Flint, who gave it a vote of approbation, 
and he also ordered it to be translated into Welsh, but abandoned the 
project on hearing that its contents might be misinterpreted. He was 
violently attacked at a county meeting, and therefore had a few copies of 
the pamphlet printed with a preface in his own defence. The Treasury 
declined to prosecute, but Shipley was indicted for libel at Wrexham 
Sessions in April 1783. After a protracted prosecution, in which the argu- 
ments in the King's Bench (15 Nov. 1784, &c.) turned on the function of 
the jury in a libel case, the judgement was arrested (22 Nov. 1784) and 
proceedings set aside. Howell's State Trials, xxi. 847-1046. The legal 
question raised in the trial was decided by Fox's Libel Act of 1792. See 
No. 6670. The medallion is copied from the Pope-Devil medals of the 
sixteenth century; see F. P. Barnard, Satirical and Controversial Medals 
of the Reformation, 1927, no. 42, &c. 


23 & 24 Dec^ iy84^ 

Sold at iV" 22y Strand, London, 

Engraving, with roulette shading. Shipley, Dean of St. Asaph, is drawn 
(r. to 1.) in a small four-wheeled chaise by six goats with bells (indicating 
folly) on their horns. He sits complacently, displaying the leg on which is 
a shackle with a short length of chain. The goats are prancing, the near 
leader stands on his hind legs. Behind the chaise (r.) is a large pillar sur- 
mounted by a ball inscribed Mansfield and, below. Seditious perhaps 
Treasonable. In front is a small open pillory. In the foreground (1.) is 
*Mother Cambria', wearing a fool's cap and bells; she stands in profile to 
the 1. holding a baton on which is a small head of the dean; one foot rests 
on a crown, with the other she is kicking a cap of Liberty, which is in the 
air, reversed. By it are the words : Liperty is her foot-pall now ; by the 
crown : Tamm Kingss & Crouns. A winged demon applies a pair of bellows 
to her ear. The chaise is crossing a barren plain with mountains in the 
distance. In the upper 1. comer of the design four men in clerical dress 
stand round a bonfire which is beside a church ; two wave their hats, one 
holding up a laurel wreath, while a figure is suspended head-downwards 
above the flames. This scene is inscribed Spiritual pastimes. 
Across the print is engraved : 

Fve escaped with my Ears & from Newgate you find; 

And as to my honour, thaVs left far behind; 

Which all the World knows, but Welch Goats, whom I blind. 

This appears to satirize the rejoicings on Shipley's return to St. Asaph 
through Shrewsbury, Wrexham, and Ruthin after the abandonment of the 
prosecution for libel which had lasted nearly two years, see No. 6669. 

7X10^ in. 

^ Miss Banks has written 'pb. Feb: 8. 1785*. 

177 N 



W,D. [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs^ by J, Brown, Rathbone Place, Dec'' 24^ 1784. 

Engraving. Fox in the chair (centre), with three leading Whigs on each 
side of him ; all are seated as if in a latrine. All wear enormous wigs (indi- 
cating that they are Whigs) resembling those worn by the Speaker and by 
judges. After the title are the words Most heartily Inscribed to the Worship- 
ful Company of Barbers. ... In the centre foreground is their secretary, 
a demon, wearing a similar wig and seated on a chamber-pot inscribed 
S^ Albans. He holds a pen in his r. hand ; with his 1. he holds his nose. 
He is seated before a headsman's block inscribed K. Charles's Pillow , on 
which he is writing a Plan of Operations for 1785. Beside him are an axe, 
a newspaper inscribed Morn^ Herald, and an open book. History of the 
Commonwealth. He says : 

My Sirs, you'll shite great things I think. 

You make such an infernal stink. 

Labels issuing from the mouths of the members of the club are num- 
bered. J*^ is the Earl of Surrey, on the extreme r. saying. Say, what's to 
be done, pray tell our Secretary — Scratch. Next him is Burke, 2^, holding 
a paper inscribed Oeconomy, indicating his Bill of Economical Reform 
(cf. No. 5657, &c.) ; he says, India and Irish affairs will make — a good batch. 
Next, and on Fox's 1. hand is North, 5^, holding a paper inscribed Reform. 
He says : 

Commutations & Juries shall be my Tale, 

Such subjects — by straining hard — must sure avail. 

North vigorously opposed, 16 June 1784, Sawbridge's motion for a reform 
of Parliament which Fox, of course, supported. Pari. Hist. xxiv. 975 ff. 
Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iii. 424. Cf. No. 6636. The Commutation tax 
was attacked by the Opposition, cf. Nos. 6630, 6634, &c. 

Fox, 4'*, seated in a raised arm-chair, with a H.L. portrait of Cromwell 
behind his head, holds a paper inscribed Prerogative ; his face is contorted 
and he says: 

Reform & Scrutiny shall not be forgot, 

No, no, ril strain to give it them smoaking hot. 

On his r. sits Keppel, 5'*, saying: 

To get them out Fll strain as I have strain' d before, 
Tho', dear C02. they are as frightful as a Lee Shore. 

One of many gibes at Keppel for his conduct at the Battle of Ushant, 
27 July 1778, see No. 5992, &c. 
Next, 6'*, is Lord Derby, saying : 

We shan't get in, I fear, tho' we do our best, 
Powys, 7'*, on the extreme 1., responds: 

No, we too compleatly did beshit our Nest. 

A satire on the bankruptcy of the Whigs after the general election, cf. 
Nos. 6657, 6673, 6674, 6770, 6790, 6791. For Fox as Cromwell see No. 6380, 
&c. For Fox and Reform see No. 6636, and Ireland see No. 6659. 
For the Scrutiny see No. 6553, &c. The Whig Club was formed in 1780 
at the time of the Westminster Committee of Correspondence, and in con- 



nexion with the adoption of Fox as candidate for Westminster (see Nos. 
5650, 5675, &c.), cf. also No. 8140. For India cf. No. 6915. 

Sixisf in. 

JNfet sculp 1784^ [Nixon.] 

Engraving. A stout farmer rides (1. to r.) past an inn on a cow. The cow 
befouls and tramples on a paper inscribed Tax on Ho\rses\. The farmer 
looks triumphantly over his r. shoulder at a group of spectators standing 

at the door of the inn, and snaps his fingers, saying, Pitt be D d. A 

basket containing poultry hangs from the saddle. Part of the inn is on the 
1. of the design, its sign is a stout man holding a foaming tankard gazing 
at three sacks, inscribed Joe Jolly 1784 (a '7' appears to have been etched 
over the '4'). Five amused spectators stand by the door; from a window 
above two men applaud the farmer. 

Pitt's budget of 1784 imposed an annual tax of lo^. on saddle- and 
carriage-horses, exempting those used for trade and agriculture; see Nos. 
6630, 6914. 

On 27 Nov. 1784 one Jonathan Thatcher rode his cow to and from the 
market of Stockport in protest against the horse-tax, Chambers, Book of 
DaySy ii. 627, where there is a copy of a similar print. 



Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Heading to a printed 
broadside. Fox, with the body of an owl, flies off (r.) with money-bags 
slung round his neck and across his back. North, with the body of an ass, 
stands on the ground looking up at him, his Garter ribbon across his body. 
He says. Consider F — x the Coalition. Fox says, / have all that eeW my heart 
could wish on. Four of his five bags are inscribed : For the Woman of the 
People (Fox and Perdita had been called 'The Man and Woman of the 
People', see No. 61 17; during the Westminster Election the Duchess of 
Devonshire had been called 'the Woman of the People') ; M^ Faro {^20^000 ; 
An Independence-^ For M' E-O £10^000. For the game of E.O. see No. 
5928, &c. ; for Fox's faro bank at Brooks's see No. 5972. On the ground 
between North and Fox is a round ointment-box inscribed Fox^s lungs for 
hoarseness and a larger pot inscribed Ointment of Transformation. 

The explanatory text relates the fable of the Screech-owl and the Ass 
as told by Apuleius or Lucian, and applies it to the coalition between Fox 
and North : the woman of Thessaly is a witch or the spirit of sedition ; she 
transformed herself into a screech-owl by rubbing herself with the oint- 
ment of Popularity. An observer watched the transformation and tried to 
imitate it, but using by mistake the ointment of Folly instead of that of 
Popularity became an ass. Popularity has changed Fox into a screech-owl 
(sedition) and Folly has made North an ass. For the defeat of the Coalition 
in the general election cf. No. 6671, &c. 

7f X 12 in. (pi.). Broadside, i7|x i2| in. 

' Note by E. Hawkins Tub. i Jan. 1791*, cf . alteration of date on print from 1784 
to 1787. 

^ Miss Banks has written 'about the year 1786 or before'. 





Engraving. Fox stands (1.) with a melancholy expression, taking from 
Mother Shipton a long wand which she puts into his hand. She leans 
towards him, supported on a stick held in her 1. hand, and says : 

Long have I viewed thy troubled Soul 
Fear not for thou shaVt yet controul 

And be Great Britains chief 

England will sink without thy aid 
Take this good Wand be not afraid 
And guard its pudding & its beef 

Behind her (r.) is a temple, Sacred to Liberty ; Britannia reclines on its 
domed roof, holding the staff and cap of Liberty. 

A Foxite satire significant of the completeness of the defeat of the 
Coalition in 1784, cf. No. 6671, &c. 

[?I. Cruikshank.] 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A burlesque coat of 
arms for the borough of Preston relating to a contested election. On the 
escutcheon is a lamb with a banner. In place of supporters are: (1. or 
dexter) the mayor holding a long staff; he says, / am Mayor & my will is 
law ; on the r. (sinister) a woman with straw in her hair puts one foot on the 
back of a lean man with horns on his forehead, who is on his hands and 
knees at her feet, in profile to the 1. He holds a mace; a label issuing from 
his mouth forms a support to the escutcheon : P — rk — r made me a Cuckold. 
F — k — n my Sergeant usurps my power. From horns ^ a Sullen wife & Mayor 
tremendous Angels & Ministers of grace defend us. The woman holds a 
chamber-pot inscribed B — g — ne\ she says, pointing to the figure which 
serves as crest, / wish to eat the Child I am pregnant with sooner than 
B — g — ne should be elected member for P — st — n. The crest is a H.L. figure 
of Folly wearing a fool's cap and holding a scourge in one hand, a bell in 
the other; he says: See Gods Judgment in me through my Mothers rash wish. 
Burgoyne was M.P. for Preston from 1768 till his death in 1792, being 
returned on Lord Derby's interest. In 1784 the return was petitioned 
against on the ground that the mayor and bailiffs had arbitrarily admitted 
a number of unqualified voters. He was found duly elected, 22 Apr. 1785. 
Oldfield, Representative History of Great Britain^ 1816, iv. 95-6. See also 
W. Dobson, Hist, of the Parliamentary Representation of Preston^ 1856. 
In 1784 the defeated candidates were Ralph Clayton and M. A. Taylor; in 
1790 there was no contest. 





Series of Tete-a-tite Portraits 

6676 N° XXXIV. MRS B LES. 

London^ Puhlish'd by A, Hamilton Jun* Fleet Street JarP i; 1784. 
Engraving. Town and Country Magazine^ xv. 625. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate * Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. An account of 
George Augustus North (1757-1802), son of Lord North. His maiden 
speech is here said to have been the laconic seconding of Fox's motion for 
his East India Bill. (See Pari, Hist, xxiii. 1208.) He is here called M.P. 
for one of the Cinque Ports; he was actually M.P. for Harwich 1778-84, 
returned for Wootton Bassett in 1784. (He was a prominent supporter of 
Fox in the Westminster Election, and was styled Colonel as Colonel of the 
Cinque Port Volunteers.) Mrs. Bowles is said to be his mistress. She was 
Miss D — v — s, daughter of an eminent wine-merchant who became bank- 
rupt ; being destitute she became the mistress of Lord B who on his 

marriage arranged a marriage between her and his butler, for whom he 
obtained a genteel place in the Customs. On her husband's death she 
appealed to Lord North for assistance and met his son. 
Ovals, 2| X 2i^g in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



London, Published by A. Ha^nilton Jun^ Fleet Street, Jan^ 16; 1784. 
Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xv. 681. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate * Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . , .\ An account of 
a preacher whose chapel is crowded with a fashionable congregation on 
account of his family connexions, and who, though he has not published 
his sermons, is noted for his attack on Wesley in conjunction with Toplady. 
Evidently Rowland Hill (1744-1833), brother of Sir Richard Hill, M.P., 
who preached at Surrey Chapel, built for him in 1783. The portrait con- 
firms the identification. He is here said to have been expelled from an 
Oxford college before being ordained, whence he graduated B.A. at Cam- 
bridge and was refused ordination on account of his irregular preaching. 
Mrs. S. is the daughter of an eminent distiller and widow of a Colonel S. ; 
she is constantly in his company, though in spite of slander their intimacy 
is probably platonic. 
Ovals, zli X 2i in. ; 2JJ X 2 in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

6678 N° II. MISS ST— NS— N. 

London, Published by A. Hamilton Jun' Fleet Street, FelP J. 1784. 
Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvi. 9. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate * Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .*. An account of 




Francis Russell, fifth Duke of Bedford (i 765-1 802), who had been 
initiated by some of his Westminster schoolfellows into the fashionable 
brothels of King's Place. Miss Stevenson is the daughter of an eminent 
physician who found herself penniless on his death, was seduced and 
deserted, and is now protected by the Duke. 
Ovals, 2|X2 in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

6679 N° IV. THE PLEASANT M^s g LE. 


London, Published by A. Hamilton Jun'' Fleet Street, March i; 1784, 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvi. 65. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames. They illustrate *Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .*. An 
account of the Due de Chartres, his admiration of England and his adop- 
tion of the dress of an English buck. See No. 6822. 

*The well known M'^ G — e, near Portland-place', called the gentle 
G — e, is the daughter of an eminent merchant; she was about to marry 
a Colonel G. when her father became bankrupt; she has since had pro- 
tectors who have been succeeded by the French Buck. 
Ovals, 2|x 2 in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


London, Published by A. Hamilton Jun^ Fleet Street, Apr^ i; 1784. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvi. 121. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. An account of 
James, seventh Earl of Salisbury (see No. 61 15), Lord Chamberlain, who 
in manners and dress is a complete contrast to his father 'Lord Jehu', see 
No. 5138. Some of the 'first-rate demi-reps* have been associated with 
him. Miss W. is the younger of two sisters living in Portman Street, 
known as the 'vis-a-vis W — ts — ns\ from their elegant carriage, celebrated 
courtesans who have amassed a fortune, and have eclipsed Perdita, the 
Bird of Paradise (Mrs. Mahon), and the other 'high-plumed impures'. 
Ovals, 2ii X 2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


London, Published by A, Hamilton Jun' Fleet Street May i; 1784, 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvi. 177. Two bust portraits 
in oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. An account of 
Thomas Townshend (1733-1800), cr. Baron Sydney 1783, Pitt's Secretary 
of State for the Home Department. Miss Wharton, the daughter of an 
eminent apothecary who died insolvent, was induced by her milliner under 
threat of imprisonment for debt to become the mistress, first of a French 
marquis, then of the D. of Q. (Queensberry). She was delivered from 
the milliner-procuress by Sydney. Identified by H. Bleackley as Juliet 

Ovals, 2f X 2i\ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



6682 N*» XIII. MISS B— SH— p. 


London, Published by A. Hamilton Jun"" Fleet Street i June 1784, 

Engraving. Tozvn and Country Magazine, xvi. 233. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. An account of 
George John, second Earl Spencer (1758-1834), brother of the Duchess of 
Devonshire. Miss Bishop is said to be the natural daughter of a baronet 
and a chambermaid at an inn on the Bath road ; having eloped from school 
with Lord B., who deluded her by a mock marriage ceremony, she was 
deserted and fell into the hands of Mrs. Windsor of King's Place (see 
No. 6260) from whom she was delivered by Lord Spencer. 
Ovals, 2f X2 in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

6683 N° XVI. MISS F D G. 

London, Published by A. Hamilton Jun' Fleet Street July J, 1784, 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvi. 289. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate * Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .*. An account of 
an elderly Irish peer, a M.P. with a seat in Essex, who has held lucrative 
posts in England and Ireland. He is probably Lord Nugent, of Gosfield 
Hall, near Braintree; see volume v. Miss F. is identified by H. Bleackley 
as Fanny Fielding. 

Ovals, 2|X2 in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



London. Published by A. Hamilton Jun^ Fleet Street, Au^ i; 1784. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvi. 345. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate * Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .*. An account of 
William Eden (1744-1814), afterwards first Lord Auckland. His gallantries, 
it is said, would fill a volume. Miss H. is the illegitimate daughter of a 
distinguished peer, who having been seduced became a much-toasted 
courtesan. The Secretary has furnished a house for her in Marylebone. 
She is identified by H. Bleackley as Eliza Halifax. 
Ovals, 2|X2i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


London, Published by A. Hamilton, Jun* Fleet Street, Sep^ i; 1784. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvi, \oi. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. An account of 
a *near relation' of the author of the bill 'to prevent bribery and corruption 
at elections'; he is probably William Wyndham Grenville (1759-1834). 

'Charlotte Ph ps' is the daughter of an eminent musician, left destitute 

on his death; after having been deserted by two protectors she met the 
Generous Gallant who settled ^£200 a year on her. Identified by H. 
Bleackley as Charlotte Phillips. 
Ovals, 2f X2j in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



6686 N° XXV. MISS LUCY P— RS— NS. 


London^ Publish' d by A. Hamilton JurC Fleet Street OcV i; 1784. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvi. 457. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .*. The successor 
to a 'new created baronet' who amassed a fortune as contractor in Germany 
in the Seven Years War; he is M.P. for a county; his chief interest is in 
horse-racing. Perhaps Sir George Amyand (1748-18 19), who took the 
name of Cornewall on his marriage. Son of George Amyand, cr. baronet 
in 1764, a member of the London banking firm of Amyand, Staples and 
Mercer. Cornewall was M.P. for Herefordshire, 1774-1796; G. E. C, 
Baronetage, v. 130. Miss Parsons, the daughter of a Nottinghamshire 
farmer, was seduced and endeavoured to become a fashionable courtesan. 
The baronet now makes her an allowance. 
Ovals, 2f X 2j in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

6687 N° xxvin. miss amb — se. 

London, Published by A. Hamilton, Jun"" Fleet Street, Nov" i, 1784, 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvi. 513. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .*. An account of 
Admiral Lord Hood, M.P. for Westminster and styled 'Approved Candidate* 
because, in spite of the Scrutiny (see No. 6553, &c.), there is no doubt of 
his majority,* and Miss Ambrose, daughter of a celebrated friseur, who 
was seduced, entered a brothel, and was glad to escape from it by accepting 
Lord H[ood's proposals. 
Ovals, 2|X 2i^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

6688 N° XXXI. MRS R— ss. 


London, Published by A. Hamilton Jun" Fleet Street DeC^ i; 1784. 

Engraving. Tozvn and Country Magazine, xvi. 569. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. An account of 
Vincenzo Lunardi, who made the first balloon ascent in England, see 
No. 6858. Since his ascent ladies have vied with each other in their atten- 
tions to him, but he does not desert Mrs. R., the widow of a Captain Ross. 
Ovals, 2| X 2^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 



Engraving. Three H.L. figures. James Robertson of Kincraigie (1.), in 
prbfile to the 1., wearing a Highland bonnet, holds up a stick with a carved 
top representing a man's head in profile. The centre figure is John Dhu 
or Dow, in military uniform, turning his head in profile to the r. to speak 

' Identified by H. Bleackley as Lord Rodney. 


to a man wearing a wig and cocked hat who puts both hands on Dhu*s 1. 

They are three well-known Edinburgh characters : Robertson, *the daft 
highland laird', Dhu, a strong and fierce corporal of the Town-Guard, and 
*daft Jamie Duff', known as Baillie Duff, who assumed an imitation of the 
dress and insignia of the city magistrates. See No. 6696. 

Title from MS. index. 'Collection', No. 5. 

3 JX 4ft in. 


K 1784 

A later impression with title, signature, date, and inscriptions. Robertson 
says. We're a' Fool folk \ Dhu says to Duff, What do you say^ Sir; Duff 
answers Do di do my Chairiy referring to the brass civic chain which he 
habitually wore. Kay, No. II. 


K. fed 1784 

Engraving. A lady wearing a riding-habit and a large hat trimmed with 
feathers, walks 1. to r., a cane in her r. hand, her profile partly concealed 
by her hat. Just behind her a man, his arms dangling, is regarding her with 
an anxious scowl. They walk on the pavement of a street; a stone wall 
forms a background. 

Thomson, a wealthy Edinburgh grocer and a widower, was anxious for 
a well-connected wife. He paid attentions (unsuccessfully) to a daughter 
of Sir Hew Crawford of Jordanhill. Kay is said to have observed this scene 
on Calton-Hill on the day of the ascent of Tytler's balloon (27 Aug. 1784). 
The print caused great excitement and the lady's brother threatened to 
cudgel Kay, who thereupon re-issued the plate, exaggerating the lady's 
hat, and also issued No. 6691. 

* Collection', No. 11. Kay, No. XL VI, where the grocer is called Alex- 
ander Thomson. 
4 X 2f in. 


Kay fee* 

Engraving. A stout porter (1.) holds by the lapel the waistcoat of Captain 
Crawford, a dapper little man who crouches on the ground, holding up 
his hands in alarm, his hat and stick beside him. His sister, see No. 6690, 
stands in profile to the 1., her stick raised in her r. hand. She is dressed as 
in No. 6690, but the hat, though smaller, has a larger erection of ostrich 
feathers. Behind Crawford, another lady. Miss Hay of Mountblairy, 
dressed in a more feminine manner, stands full-face holding up her arms 
and screaming. 

An imaginary scene etched in retaliation for Crawford's threat, see No. 

^Collection' No. 12; Kay, No. XLVII. 



[/. Kay 1784^] 

Engraving. Arnot, grotesquely tall and thin, in profile to the r., holding 
a long cane, puts a coin into the proffered hat of a beggar who stands (r.) 

Arnot (see No. 6698), who had a nervous antipathy to beggars, is 
ironically depicted as giving alms to a well-known Edinburgh beggar, 
John Duncan, once a seller of gingerbread. 

*Collection\ No. 21. Kay, No. VIII. 



K. Fee. iy84 

Engraving. Two officers in Highland dress stand back to back in profile ; 
in the background and on a minute scale is sketched a body of Highland 
soldiers carrying muskets. One (r.) looks up waving his sword; the other 
looks down resting his hands on the hilt of his drawn sword. 

They are depicted as they appeared when recruiting for a volunteer body, 
the Caledonian Band, raised in 1783 for defence against the French. 
Before the commissions arrived preliminaries of peace had been signed 
and the Band was converted into a body of Freemasons (cf. No. 7022). 
The Marquis of Graham (1.) (see Wraxall, Memoirs^ 1884, iii. 385-7) had 
been elected colonel, and Lord Buchan (see D.N.B.) lieutenant-colonel. 
Their martial attitude contrasts with the actual status of the corps. 

'Collection', No. 23. Kay, No. CXVI. 


K.fee* 1784 

Engraving. Lord Monboddo, seated full-face, writing at a small rect- 
angular table. His 1. forefinger supports his cheek, his elbow resting on 
the table. On the wall behind his head is a picture : eight naked children, 
all with tails, hold hands and dance in a circle. The room has a boarded 
floor and a curtainless window (r.). 

A satire on Monboddo 's Of the Origin and Progress of Language ^ 6 vols. 
(1773-92), in which he studied man as one of the animals and maintained 
that the ourang-outang was a class of the human species, see No. 7205. 

'Collection', No. 39. Kay, No. VI. 

6695 COURTSHIP. [1784] 

Engraving. A caricature of two heads facing each other in profile. The 
man (r.) laughs with gaping mouth, the woman, whose profile is grotesque 
with long nose and underhung jaw projecting beyond the tip of her nose, 
smiles broadly ; each appears much pleased with the other. 

' Signature to Kay only. 



This caricature was presented by Kay to his second wife while he was 
courting her; it is suggested that the man is intended for Kay. 

'Collection', No. 41. Kay, No. LX. 


/ Crookshanks S'^ 

PubF as the Act directs Jun 1 1784 

Engraving. H.L. portrait of John Dhu or Dow in uniform and wearing 
a cocked hat. He is seated and holds a glass, resting his elbow on a table. 
He holds a Lochaber axe. He scowls ; his face is blotched with the effects 
of drink. Beneath the title is etched : 

And faithfully he tootned his Glass & Whisky was his kirn ay. 
Dhu was a favourite subject of John Kay, cf. No. 6689. 

6697 PRIM^ LINiE [c. 1784] 

Edinburgh J. C, del [Cruikshank]. 

Aquatint. Dr. WiUiam CuUen (1710-90) walks r. to 1., his head bent 
forward at a right angle with his back, his r. hand thrust under his waist- 
coat, his 1. arm hanging by his side. Behind are the houses of an Edinburgh 
street; in a gap between two houses Arthur's Seat appears. 

The leading professor of the Edinburgh School of Medicine for many 
years. An etching by Kay dated 1784 depicts CuUen walking in a similar 
attitude (Kay, No. CIH). 


[?I. Cruikshank.] 

Published as the Act Directs Janv iy84 

Aquatint (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A tall and very thin man 
is being blown by a gust of wind ; he holds on his hat with his r. hand ; in 
his 1. is a cane. Behind him two chairmen with a sedan-chair are struggling 
with the wind ; its occupant appears to be emerging through the window. 
In the background is the Castle. 

A satire on Hugo Amot (1749-86), author of the History of Edinburgh, 
who opposed local taxation and is said to have retarded for ten years the 
building of the South Bridge in Edinburgh. The subject of several cari- 
cature-portraits by Kay, see No. 6692 and B.M. Cat. ofEngr. Br. Portraits. 
Similar in manner to No. 6697. 


London, Pu¥ Dec' jo^* iy84. by T. Trotter 

Engraving. A lady lies in a stone coffin, her charming feathered head rest- 
ing on a skull. The coffin, a stone sarcophagus inscribed Hie jacet Stella 



ccettty I In spec [sic\ resurectionis Carnis, is supported on stone masonry. 
A young man steps into the r. end of the coffin, on which rests the lady's 
foot, his 1. foot poised on a stone on the ground, inscribed. Sic iter adastra. 
He bends forward, raising her 1. hand to his Hps. The grace and charm 
of the pair is in contrast with two macabre figures who stand on the ex- 
treme 1. and r. : A man (1.) stiffly erect, as if wearing grave-clothes, his 
fiercely staring eyeballs turned sideways upon the coffin ; on the r. a naked 
and emaciated figure holding a broken spear, with a skull-like head 
resembling that of Death in No. 7083, but wreathed with roses and laugh- 
ing broadly, holds his sides. On the 1. droop the branches of a weeping 
willow; on them stands a Cupid aiming his bow at the lady. In the fore- 
ground (1.) is a skull which looks up, saying, Alas, poor Yorick. Beside it, 
and at the feet of the grim watcher, is a dilapidated tombstone decorated 
with a skull in profile and inscribed : To this Complection we must come at 
last. Behind are trees and the ruins of massive stone buildings, with a 
pyramid (r.), the apex of which is broken away. 

This scandal is the subject of several prints showing that the scene is 
among ruins in Ireland, the persons concerned a *Lady C and an Irish 
volunteer (as lover or husband), suggesting the Charlemont family. See 
Nos. 8246-8. 


[P. Sandby.i] 

Published as the Act directs 1784 Price 2. 6. 

Aquatint. A companion print to Nos. 6701, 6702, 6703. A balloon in the 
form of a grinning face wearing a fool's cap across which is etched ; 

An English Balloon [the title] 

When the World is all Mad, it is sure the best rule 
To go smooth zvith the current in playing the Fool 
*Tis a lesson in practice by simple John Bull 

O the Mad Folks of Old England &c. 
I wish some zuise Doctor wou'd point it out plain 
How the Gas or Mad Merc'ry enters the Brain 
Then I wish he wou'd cure it, but fear it's vain 

O the Mad Folks of Old England &c. 

Asses' ears project from the cap, and on the front, above the inscription, 
are two figures facing each other in profile : a clown (1.) and Punch blowing 
soap-bubbles (r.). The balloon or head is suspended between two plat- 
forms on a rope slung from masts supported by pulleys ; a flag flies from 
one of them (r.). ^Inflammable air' or gas is being pumped into the balloon 
by two large bellows, one on each platform, worked by men using levers. 
On each platform are well-dressed spectators ; through the space between 
the platforms a crowd of more distant spectators is seen ; behind them is 
the fafade of Bethlehem Hospital (Bedlam). Behind each platform is a 
group of trees. Flames appear to issue from the back of the balloon. 

A satire on Lunardi's ascent from the Artillery Ground on 15 Sept. 1784. 
On one platform (1.) are ladies, two wearing enormous calash-hoods, with 

' From the Sandby Bequest. 



one of whom a man, probably Lunardi, is shaking hands. A very stout 
woman in a riding-habit is seated. A man standing behind holding a 
speaking-trumpet gives orders. A lady ascends to the platform by a 
ladder. On the other platform, besides some very stout gentlemen, is 
a young man using a speaking-trumpet with a small dog under his arm ; 
probably Biggin, see No. 6706. A cat and dog were taken up. 

Verses are etched on the vertical front of each platform in the lower r. 
and 1. comers of the print : 

(1.) Close to those Walls where Folly holds her throne 
And laughs to think Monroe would take it down 

It once was a rule, when a Wit playd the Fool 

To give him a Cap with a bell 
When Philosophers wise on Air Bubbles rise 

It surely would fit them as well 

Toll loll &c 

(r.) All that on Folly Frenzy could beget 

Fruits of dull Head and Sooterkins of Wit. Popes Dunc[iad] 

Cam, and IsiSy no more be proud of your Store 

In Classics^ and ArtSy take no trouble 
Quit your Logic and Greeks if for Fortune you seek 

Lunardi will shew you his Bubble 
Toll de roll. 

See Lunardi's Account of the First Aerial Voyage in Englandy 1784. 
There are in the Print Room an etching (coloured) by J. J. Brewer of the 
ascent from the Artillery Ground, and a plate published by Fores, 23 Sept. 
1784, of *The Enterprizing Lunardi's Grand Air Balloon'. For others 
satire on balloon ascents see Nos. 6333, &c., and index. See also prints in 
Banks Collection, i, ff. 20-30 (B.M.L. 1890. e. 15); Kay, Nos. XXXVI, 


6700 A An earlier state, without publication-line and without the two 
four-line verses, the couplets only being etched on the platforms. 
Reproduced, Bruel, No. 103. Banks Collection, i, fo. 45. B.M.L. 1890. 
e. 15. 


[P. Sandby.] 

Aquatint. A companion print to Nos. 6700, 6702, 6703. A procession 
accompanies a cart taking a deflated balloon and aeronauts to their point 
of departure. In the sky is a figure seated in a chariot drawn by a flock of 
geese. The cart is drawn (r. to 1.) by six asses. The balloon is in the form 
of a fool's cap with large ears, as in No. 6704. On it is inscribed Caelum 
ipsum Petimus Stultitia (cf. No. 6702). In the car of the balloon are two 
men, seated, with a dog ( ? Blanchard and Sheldon). Four men stand in 
it, two waving flags (one decorated with a skull and cross-bones), the others 
their hats. The procession is headed (1.) by a man on horseback with a 
speaking-trumpet, apparently giving directions. Three men follow on 



clumsy, decrepit horses holding poles to which ribbons are attached (a P 
on the flank of a horse may stand for Paul Sandby) ; next, a boy on an ass 
beating a pair of drums leads a party of musicians, with marrow-bone and 
cleaver, tambourine, fiddle, &c. Next are the asses drawing the cart 
accompanied by a body of men carrying trophies on poles ; these include a 
coat and a pair of breeches. Spectators stand or walk on both sides of the 
procession ; they include a woman with two children, three Highlanders 
taking snuff, a Jew with his show-case under his arm talking to a stout 
citizen, and two chimney-sweeps. 

The background appears to be drawn with topographical precision. A 
high paling encloses the grounds of a large building. At right angles to 
this, and to the road along which the procession is passing, is an avenue 
of trees. On the r. is a detached brick building. The Union Coffee House. 

Probably a satire on Sheldon's balloon (see No. 6702). The title derives 
from The Man in the Moone; or a Discourse of a Voyage thither y by D. Gon- 
sales y by Godwin, bishop of Hereford, 1638. 

Cf. a French print of a balloon drawn by asses, Moyen infaillible de 
diriger les Ballons (1787), reproduced, Grand-Carteret et Delteil, La 
Conquete de Vair, 1910, p. 40. 

Reproduced, W. Lockwood Marsh, Aeronautical Prints and Drawings^ 
1924, pi. 47. 
9X13 in. 


[P. Sandby.] 

Aquatint. A companion print to Nos. 6700, 6701, 6703. An enormous 
balloon not completely inflated rests on a platform suspended between two 
masts ; it is exploding, flames and thick clouds of smoke pour from a crease 
in its contour, a number of men with faggots on their backs run from the 
balloon, others are on the platform, which is covered by a large cloth or 
net which hangs in folds. In the air (1.), as if having sprung from the 
exploding part of the balloon, is a small balloon in the form of a head, 
identical with that in No. 6704, with the same inscription and passenger. 
From it streams, in place of a rope, the tail of a kite. 

This evidently represents the bursting of Keegan's balloon in the garden 
of Foley House. A circle of posts with a rope keeps the spectators, who 
are fashionably dressed, from the balloon. Two men inside the barrier 
(r.), probably Blanchard and Sheldon, who was to be pilot (see No. 6703) 
run towards the balloon shouting directions through speaking-trumpets. 
In the foreground is one of the small balloons which were commonly sent 
up on the occasion of an ascent, cf . No. 6668. In the background are trees. 
A number of spectators watch from the top of the high garden-wall (1.).^ 
Behind are houses, evidently those in or near Portland Place. Sheldon's 
projected ascent ended in disaster on 25 Sept. 1784. He attempted to fill 
a balloon more than three times the size of Lunardi's by heated or rarefied 
air produced by a furnace suspended below the balloon. The balloon was 
supported on two masts and on a platform; it burst while it was being 
filled. See London Chronicle^ Sept. 24, 28, 29. Except for the contour of 

"f Probably a pun on Foley (House). 

* Foley House was noted for its extremely high wall. Town and Country Maga- 
zincy xvi. 625. 



the balloon which appears to burlesque human posteriors, and for the little 
balloon in the shape of a fool's head, this is probably a realistic rendering 
of the scene, see No. 6703. 


[?P. Sandby.] 

London Published Oct 20 1^84 by E Wyatt N" 360 Oxford Street. 

Aquatint. A companion print to Nos. 6700, 6701, 6702. A realistic view 
of the bursting of Keegan's balloon in the gardens of Foley House. The 
balloon, supported on two masts, is burning. Spectators stand in the fore- 
ground behind a rope ; two men, one wearing a short jacket and trousers, 
the other in ordinary dress with top-boots, shout directions through 
speaking-trumpets. They are numbered J and 2, referring to a marginal 
note : i The Principal Figure 2 Companion to ditto (see No. 6702). They 
are safely behind the rope and are addressing men who are attempting to 
deal with the conflagration. Beneath the title is etched, A View taken in 
Lord Foley s Garden Sep, 2g. 1784. In the background are the houses of 
Portland Place, with other buildings (r.) to the NE. of it. 

Captain Edward Thompson, R.N., writes in his diary under 27 Sept. 
1784: ^M*^ Sheldon, a man of surgical ability, but an arrant Quixot in air- 
balloon bubbles . . . obtained Lord FoUey's garden to exhibit his airy 
nonsense in. The country was deserted to attend this matter. The balloon 
was of canvass and filled with straw and smoke, and four gentlemen 
Daedali to ascend.* Cornhill Magazine, vol. 17 (1868), p. 639. See No. 

Reproduced, W. Lockwood Marsh, Aeronautical Prints and Drawings, 
1924, pi. 46; Bruel, No. 129. 

Banks Collection, i, fo. 37. B.M.L. 1890. e. 15. 


[P. Sandby.] 

Aquatint, heading to etched verses. A balloon in the form of a face with 
ears and wearing a fool's cap, as in No. 6701, is rising from the ground. 
On the front of the cap is the title of the print. An aeronaut stands in the 
circular basket manipulating a pair of wings and leaning over to look at 
the ground. A coiling rope hangs from the balloon. The balloon is tilted 
and the face looks down grinning at the crowd which is standing on roof- 
tops. A dome (probably St. Paul's) and spire are visible. The figures, 
though minute and slightly sketched, are well characterized. Two shout 
through speaking-trumpets. Beneath is etched: 

Since air Ballooning is the Ton among the Higher Folk 
A Middle Class may take it up and Turn it to a Joke. 

And a joking we will go &c 

By Complaisance and French BalloonSy Gay Gallias Flighty Sons 
Next year 'mongst other pretty Toys, may Smuggle over Nuns 

And a joking we will go &c 



Then Justice P [? Pitt] may take it up, as matter of Great weight 

Or lay a New and Heavy Tax on evWy Thing thats Light 

And a joking &c 

Pray drop your jokes ye naughty Men some pretty Ladies say 
For Modesty canH hear a joke y hut in a Middle way. 

And a joking &c 

Yet in a joke a Tale to tell may Jill them with surprise 
If Men jind Gas for their Balloons y in time they^d Quick arise 

And a joking we will go 

The Graces now may take the Bally let them the Point Discuss 
Who with their pretty Lilly Hands have stroked Lunar dVs Puss 

And a joking we will go 

How Vain Philosophers will Prate, how Vain is all our Trouble 
This World like Keegans Huge Balloon is nothing but a Bubble. 

See Nos. 6702, 6703. This same balloon floats in the air in No. 6702. 
3jX5iV>9Ax6|in. (pL). 


[i Jan. 1784] 

Engraving. From the Rambler^ s Magazine. In the upper part of the print 
are two spheres each encircled by a belt or gallery; on one (1.) stands 
Katerfelto, on the other (r.) Montgolfier. They address each other, hat in 
hand: Katerfelto says, Monsieur Montgolfier let us be reconciled ', Mont- 
golfier answers, Let us fly up to de Sun M^ Katerfelto, On the top of 
Katerfelto's balloon stands his black cat, apparently surrounded by 
kittens; on the other sits an ape playing the fiddle. The devil holding a 
broom flies between the two balloons. In the lower part of the print are 
the heads and shoulders of spectators, who stand looking up and pointing. 
Labels from the mouths of four of them are inscribed Wonderful! wonder- 
ful! (cf. No. 6162); How soon can they get to heaven? 'y These balloons are to 
carry the mails', There^s the devil to pay in the Air, 

For other prints inspired by Montgolfier 's ascents in 1783 and for the 
quack Katerfelto see volume v (index). 

6706 LOVE IN A BALLOON. [i Nov. 1784] 

Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine. A balloon just above the ridge 
of a roof on which are spectators. It has a rectangular cage or basket in 
which stand Lunardi and a lady embracing. Lunardi (r.) says. Ah Madame 
it rises Majestically ; she answers, I feel it does Signor. A man seated on the 
roof says. Damme he's no Italian but a man every Inch of him. The balloon 
is striped and covered with a net. A pair of 'oars' or wings is attached to 
the basket. In the distance (r.) is St. Paul's. 

One of many satires on the balloon ascents of Lunardi and others. 
Mrs. Sage (with Biggin) was to have accompanied Lunardi (see No. 6700) 
but the weight was too great. 





Published as the Act directs, Fehy 20^^ 1784, by J. Basire, N"" 16, 
S* John's Lane, Clerkenwell. 

Engraving. Well-dressed spectators gaze upwards at a round balloon 
decorated with suns, crescent moons, and stars. It supports an open boat 
with a sail and rudder in which two Frenchmen sit facing each other. 
One (1.) holds an umbrella, the other bends towards him gesticulating. 
Beneath the boat hangs a rectangular cage containing three birds. 

One of many satires on balloon ascents, here combined with ridicule of 
the foppish Frenchman (cf. p. 166). 
7|xsf in. Banks Collection, i, fo. 44. B.M.L. 1890. e. 15. 


Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles N° 6g in S^ PauVs Church 
Yardy London. Published as the Act directs, i April 1784 

Engraving (coloured impression). Spectators, slightly caricatured, stand in 
a circle watching a monk falling head first from a shallow, open boat 
attached to a round balloon. A French flag flies from each end of the boat. 
Beneath the title is engraved : 

Here Old Father Paul, 

Gets a terrible fall. 

From a Balloon as it mounted in Air; 

Ah! Montgolfier says he. 

You have fairly gulVd me. 

So in future be caWd Men — gull— fair. 

One of many satires on balloon ascents. For Montgolfier see Nos. 6333, 
6334 (1783). For Father Paul (in Sheridan's Duenna) cf. Nos. 3780-2. 
9i^gX6J in. Banks Collection, i, fo. 48. B.M.L. 1890. e. 15. 


Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, N° 6g in 5' Pauls Church 
Yard, London. Published as the Act directs 16 Dec^ 1784. 

Engraving. Two French balloons (1.) fight two English balloons (r.). The 
two centre balloons are small compared with the two exterior ones on 
the r. and 1. From the French balloons hang shallow, open boats, from the 
sides of which cannon project ; rectangular cages are suspended from the 
English balloons. All have a sail attached to the cage or boat, and a flag, 
French or British. In each are three men, one being a navigator, and one 
with a musket ; the third appears to be firing one of the cannon. In the 
larger English balloon the man with a musket speaks through a trumpet. 
Beneath the design is engraved : 

Behold an odd Fight, two odd Nations between. 
Such odd fighting as this was never yet seen; 
But such fights will be common (as Dunce to feel Rod) 
In the Year of One Thousand eight Hundred and odd. 

For other anticipations of aerial warfare see Nos. 6435, &c., 6710. 
SieXQie in- Banks Collection, i, fo. 48. B.M.L. 1890. e. 15. 

193 o 



Published De(f r^'*, I784y by J, Wallis, N"" i6, Ludgate Street, 

Engraving. An elaborate and fantastic military (or naval) balloon, to which 
is attached a ship and other appendages, with letters referring to explana- 
tory notes which are missing but have been supplied from an altered 
re-issue of 24 Feb. 1798 entitled *The Grand Republican Balloon . . .*. 

The balloon is round and is crossed horizontally and diagonally by 
exterior galleries. On its summit stands the British lion, crowned and 
holding an admiral's flag. Round the equator of the balloon is a carved 
projecting gallery on which are tents and one or two men whose minute size 
shows the large scale of the balloon. A single larger tent (r.) is *A Tent 
for the Inspector of the Cordage' ; a row of smaller tents (1.), 'Tents for the 
Aerial Navigators and Pumpers'. A feathered wing projects from each side 
of the balloon : *small wings for Ornament'. On the centre of the upper 
half of the balloon is a royal crown, with above it 2440 (cf . Mercier, L'An 
2440y revey sHl en fut jamais y i^'jz) and below it G.R. A platform sup- 
ported on a carved bracket, a 'Gallery for mounting Guard', projects in 
profile from the central gallery (1.) ; it is crowded with men, one of whom 
looks through a telescope. A lantern on a vertical post is erected at the 
point of junction of this platform with the balloon ; it is 'The Light House'. 
Attached to this platform by ropes is 'A small Balloon to serve as a Boat' ; it 
resembles Lunardi's balloon and in its basket is a man. In large letters 
across the balloon below the gallery are the words Pro Bono Publico. 'Pipes 
to let out the Inflammable Air' project from the centre of the lower half 
of the balloon and also in profile to the 1. ; below the latter is a platform 
on which are men ; the pipes emit smoke. 

The balloon is connected with the ship beneath by stout and elaborate 
cordage on pulleys, including two pairs of triple 'Rope Ladders to which 
the Ship is fastened'; and also by a large cylinder or pipe which enters the 
balloon at its lowest point, this is 'The Grand Aerostatic Pipe'. The ship 
is elaborate and fantastic, its bows (r.), projecting in a spike, terminate in 
a sail; on this spike 'A Cannon for Signals' is being fixed. Behind it, let 
into the bows, are organ-pipes; they have been removed from the 1798 
reissue. Below is a row of large windows ; they are 'Ordinances and Coffee 
Houses*. On the deck of the ship are elaborate buildings : at the stern (1.) 
is a building with a steeple, a turret, a bell under a pent-house, and a 
baroque fa9ade; it resembles a church, but in the republican version of 
1798 is 'The Hospital'. Beside it is a platform supporting a gigantic 
telescope which projects beyond the stem of the balloon. Three men stand 
by it, one looking through it, another holding a flag. They are 'Aerial 
Officers on the look out'. The roof of a smaller building in the bows is 
*The General's House*. To the deck of the ship (r.) is attached a large sail, 
the upper part of which is attached to the balloon by cords and pulleys. 
In the side of the ship is a row of rectangular apertures, open, through each 
of which projects the muzzle of a gun. Below is a row of tall windows, each 
with a pediment, 'Apartments for Officers'. A large and ornate projection 
from the stern, on which is a small building with a round tower, is 'The 
Helm', the building being 'The Lodge of the Helm- Keeper*. 

Below the keel of the ship and attached to it by ropes and pulleys are 
three other elaborate appendages. In the centre hangs a large cask, one 
end of which is approached by a gangway or rope-ladder from the ship. 



This is 'Grand Magazine of Combustibles*. On the I. is a cage, resembling 
that of a parrot, but with two floors, both crowded with people; on the 
lower floor there is also a tent. A broad gangway, crowded with people, 
connects it with the ship. A small rectangular building beside the cage is 
approached by a rope-ladder from the gangway. The cage, gangway, &c., 
have all been removed from the 1798 plate and are therefore unexplained.* 
From the bows of the ship is suspended a cottage-shaped building, also 
approached by a gangway on which are figures; this is 'The Water Closet'. 
The summit of a rocky mountain is sketched in the lower r. corner of the 
design. For anticipations of aerial warfare see Nos. 6435, &c., 6799. 

This print was the basis of a jest or hoax by ^^tienne Gaspard Robertson 
(i.e. fils de Robert), Belgian physician and aeronaut (i 763-1 837). He 
circulated widely a pamphlet, La Minerve, Vaisseau aerien, destine aux 
Decouvertes et propose a toutes les Academies de V Europe par le Professeur 
Robertson^ Vienna 1804, reprinted Paris 1820, the plate of *La Minerve* 
being an adaptation of a French copy of No. 6710 (see below) with the 
addition of a descending parachute. The cage is transformed into a 
circular paviHon for * dames curieuses*. In this he professed to be able to 
circumnavigate the globe in a few days. The interior contained laboratory, 
lecture-hall, theatre, &c. J. Grand-Carteret et L. Delteil, La Conquete de 
Vair vue par Vimage^ 1910, pp- 151-5 (reproduction). 

A copy was pubHshed at Berne in 1784 (*B. A. Dunker inv. et del.'). The 
initials G.R. are removed, the crown modified, and the British lion replaced 
by the Gallic cock. 

A similar version, pub. a Paris chez Pithou^ is reproduced, Bruel, No. 203. 

Another version, reversed and altered, was published *A Lyon chez 
Joubert rue Merciere'. The lion is replaced by a cock holding a banner 
inscribed 2440. The crown and G.R. are replaced by an escutcheon of 
Folly with cap and bells (cf. No. 6700, &c.). Reproduction, Grand- 
Carteret, op. cit., p. 152; also of No. 6710, p. 151. 


W.D. [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs by J, Brown, Rathbone Place, NoV" 9^* 1^84^ 

Engraving (coloured impression). A very fat alderman in a furred livery 
gown and tie-wig, with a very protruding stomach, is being fed with turtle 
soup, &c. He is seated in an armchair on a small dais inscribed, ^*Fair 
round Belly with good capon lin'd'\ Shakespear. A lean French cook (1.), 
with a very long queue and ruffled shirt, stands in profile to the r. holding 
out a tureen inscribed Turtle ; he says. By gar, if de paunch vos not as thick 
as de head he vos burst. Another cook puts soup into the Alderman's mouth 
with a spoon. At their feet are five empty dishes and a sauce-boat. Behind 
the alderman (r.) approach two waiters, one bringing an ice-pudding, the 
other a bottle of Champaign and a glass ; he says. By Got, his worship to 
fill de Belly will empty My Lor's cellar. At their feet are three empty plates 

^ In a French version they are explained as 'Filles de bonne volenti dans leur 
H6tel garni*. 

^ The date appears to have been altered in ink from 1784 to 1785, perhaps for 
reissue on the following Lord Mayor's Day. 


and six empty wine-bottles inscribed Champaign^ Hock^ Burgundy y Claret. 
Above the aldennan's head is inscribed: Oye Cooks! what havock Gluttony 
makes among your Works. 

On each side of the title is an escutcheon, one (1.) with the City arms, 
the other (r.) with a turtle. Beneath the title twelve lines of verse are 
etched, beginning: 

First in Glutton^s list stands K — tch — n 
His appetite is ev^r itching; 
With Turtle stiff, and solid haunch, 
The hungry Cit Balloons his paunch; 

Henry Kitchin, or Kitchen, of the Curriers* Company, Alderman of 
Farringdon Within, was a favourite butt of Dent, see Nos. 6260, 6314. 
He was elected alderman in 1779, died 5 Feb. 1786. Beaven, Aldermen of 
London, ii. 136. 



Pu¥ Dec' 6^* 17^4^ fy J' Ridgeway N° ig6 Piccadilly London. 

Aquatint. Design in an oval. Mrs. Siddons stands on the stage, her head 
turned in profile to the 1., her 1. hand outstretched to take a heavy purse 
which hangs on a pitchfork emerging from clouds. To take it she has 
dropped a dagger which falls to the ground. In her 1. hand is a cup whose 
contents she is pouring on the ground. The panniers of her dress fly back- 
wards revealing two bulging pockets, one full of guineas, the other of notes 
or cheques inscribed £1000, £300^ &c. She is saying: 

Famish'd & spent relieving others woe. 
Your poor devoted Suppliant only begs. 
This morsel for to buy a bit of Bread. 

The black clouds of smoke from which the pitchfork projects rise in a 
pillar of cloud from the pit of the theatre where flames are indicated, from 
which come the words Encore! Encore! In the background a temple of 
Fame on a mountain-top is collapsing, the pillars shattered; the figure 
of Fame falls backward, dropping his trumpet. 

Mrs. Siddons had an undeserved reputation for stinginess, see D.N.B. 
Cf. No. 7716. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 68. Reproduced, Paston, pi. Ixxiii. 
13x9! in. 


Violante inven: Felix fecit [ ? Townshend.] 

Published as the Act directs 26 April 1784 by E. D Achery S^ James:' 

Engraving. The proscenium of a small theatre is suggested by an archway 
over which is the accustomed motto, forming the title. On the front of the 
stage a very fat lady (1.) and a thin man (r.) in Elizabethan or early Stuart 



dress advance to meet each other with outstretched hands. Beneath the 
design is etched : 

Fore Gad that Caecilia*s a charming young Woman ! 
Were you Miss Larolles at the Play at Ham-Common ? 

The figures are identified in a contemporary hand as Mrs. Hobart and 
Mr. Bradshaw. Mrs. Hobart had a villa on Ham Common which she called 
Sans Souciy where she gave fetes and amateur theatricals. Walpole, Letters, 
xii. 26, 365; XV. I, 117. Miss Larolles, a character in Fanny Burney*8 
Ceciliay is a young and lively lady to be impersonated by the fat Mrs. 
Hobart. Cf. No. 7737. 

The manner resembles that of drawings by Townshend. 



Designed by Fashion. Exec^ by Folly, 

W.D. [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs by J. Cattermoul Oxford Street^ March 2g*^ 

Etching. The box of a theatre seen from the front. Lord Derby 1. and 
Miss Farren r. sit facing each other in profile, their heads close together, 
both smiling. He sits on the back bench leaning forward, she sits on the 
front bench turning round towards him. She holds a fan on which is a 
profile head of an old crone inscribed Diana^ with some resemblance to her 
own sharp features ; on each side of it is a leafless tree. Her hair is elabo- 
rately dressed with feathers and ringlets in the fashion of c. 1777. Round 
her tightly-laced waist is a narrow belt inscribed Cestus^ evidently repre- 
senting the girdle of chastity. In the opposite corner of the box (1.), her 
back turned to the lovers, is a woman wearing a cloak and hood. The box 
is decorated with emblems of the relations between Lord Derby and Miss 
Farren : two heads decorate the sides of the box, one of Lord Derby (1.), 
with satyr's ears, a beard, and stag's horns, one inscribed Dorset^ looking 
with a grin towards the couple in the box. On the opposite side is a similar 
head, with satyr's ears and small horns sprouting from his forehead; he 
looks with a grin at the lovers and is perhaps intended for the Duke of 
Dorset. A bird is perched above the centre of the box ; it leans towards the 
lovers saying Cuckoo. Beneath the centre of the box, at the central point 
of a carved festoon of leaves, a pig and a cat face each other, each with its 
fore-paws on the other's shoulder. 

Beneath the title is etched, A Scene^ in the green Boxes between Lord 
Doodle and Miss Tittups with her Mamma at an humble distance. Below this 
are the thoughts of Miss Farren : What a charming life I lead to what I did — 
my Lord likes me — and I like my Lord. Miss Tittup in Garrick's Bon Ton 
was one of Miss Farren 's first London parts. Lady Derby had a liaison with 
the Duke of Dorset from 1778. Her husband refused to divorce her, being 
determined to prevent their marriage. G. E. C, Complete Peerage. On her 
death in 1797 he married Miss Farren. See No. 5901. 




AS IT GOES. [c. 1784] 

S.C, fed' [Collings.] 

Ful^ by W. Humphrey 22y Strand, 

Engraving. Men, women, and animals rush r. to 1. : figures representing 
modern follies pursue others representing Truth, Art, &c. A hooded 
female figure (1.) holding a serpent, representing Faction or Discord, holds 
up a cracked mirror which she appears to have taken from Truth who runs 
beside her. Behind them are three female figures: Painting, holding a 
palette and brushes, lies on the ground, about to be trampled on by a pig 
with a collar inscribed Learned Pig ; on one side of her is Sculpture, a young 
woman with a mallet and chisel half-seated on the ground, and on the 
other Music, prostrate, with a lyre and laurel wreath beside her. The 
pursuers are mountebanks and performing animals, the foremost being the 
Learned Pig. Beside it is a monkey riding a large dog and holding a flag 
inscribed Gen^ Jacko ; another monkey in military uniform is bounding 
forward. An equestrian performer rides a horse standing on one leg. A 
harlequin, with his club, a Mother Shipton, and a fashionably dressed man 
waving his hat march forward. With them are other performing animals : 
a hare beating a drum, a dog in legal wig and gown, and another dog 
dressed as a woman. Open on the ground lie Shakespeares Plays and Popes 
Works. A H.L. statue of a woman on a terminal pillar has three pairs of 
breasts; a man wearing cap and bells is sprinkling her high-piled hair 
with powder; above her head is the word Nature. In the upper r. 
comer of the print part of an ascending balloon is visible, its car inscribed 
Lunardiy while the aeronaut waves a flag with three fleurs-de-lis (see 
No. 6700). 

Behind the figures are four battered columns, on each of which is a 
statue. Fame (1.) holds two broken trumpets; Wisdom^ holding a shield 
and spear, is decapitated, her owl perches on her neck ; Justice holds her 
sword and scales, both broken ; Virtue is a man with a wooden leg supported 
on a crutch, holding out his hat as if begging. In the background are 
sketched two ruined temples, each on a hill: [Temlple Fame and Temple 

A satire on the taste and amusements of the day. General Jackoo or 
Jacko, 'the astonishing monkey from the fair of S*^ Germain's Paris', per- 
formed at Astley's during the summer season of 1784. See play-bills in 
Banks Collection, i, ff. 72, 74, 77; B.M.L. 1890. e. 15. Two troupes of 
performing dogs, 'from France and Italy', were much advertised attractions 
at Astley's and Sadler's Wells in the summer of 1785. Ut supra and 
ff. 75, 76, and No. 7214. For the Learned Pig see No. 6857, &c. The 
equestrian performer and the Harlequin and his companions probably 
satirize performances at Astley's Amphitheatre and the Royal Circus, at 
both of which, besides feats of horsemanship, there were pantomimes, that 
at Astley's being (1784) Harlequin Emperor of the Moon. At Drury Lane 
Harlequin Junior, or, the Magic Cestus was part of the bill, and at Covent 
Garden there was a new farce. Aerostation, or the Templars Stratagem. 
Newspaper advertisements, Oct., Nov., &c., 1784. 

For the association of balloon ascents with these 'foUies', cf. No. 6333, 
&c., and balloon prints passim. 






Pu¥ May 4^^ 1784 by H. Humphrey Bond Street 

Engraving. A French petit-maitre stands chapeau-bras (1.), in profile to the 
1., bending forward, his 1. hand in his breeches pocket, his r. hand raised. 
Behind him are five ladies on their knees, making gestures of supplica- 
tion. He wears bag-wig, laced suit, and sword. The ladies, who are young 
and pretty, wear feathered hats or feathers in their hair. He says, parblue 
Mesdatnes vous rCy viendrez pas. Beneath the title is etched: 

With clasped hands and bended knees 
They humbly sought the Count to please 
And beg'd admission to his house 
Not that for him they care*d a louse 
But wished within his walls to shine 
And shew those charms they think divine 
His Ex beheld these Belles unmoved 

His A e their impudence reproved 

Cannaille he said shoud ne^er come there 
& rumped them with a pet en Pair. 

The French ambassador was Comte d'Adhemar. 
Grego, Rowlandsony i. 147. 



Pub<^ Novemr 8*^ 1784 by W. Humphrey N"" 227 Strand 

Engraving. A young man (1.) in riding dress, faces two money-lenders (r.) ; 
all are seated beside a table on which is a coffee-pot, cup, &c. He leans 
back in a nonchalant attitude, his riding-whip in his r. hand, his 1. held out 
towards the usurers. Although the likeness is not pronounced, the star on 
his coat, together with his youth, indicate the Prince of Wales. Both 
usurers are gnarled and elderly, one, with the beard and profile of a Jew, 
is reading a large deed with pendent seals. The other, wearing a bag-wig 
and holding his hat on his knee, looks towards the deed with a satisfied 

The first of many satires on the Prince's debts, cf. No. 6965, &c. 

Grego, Rowlandsony i. 148. Reproduced, Fuchs, Die Juden in der 
KarikatuTy 1921, p. 46. 
8iXi2f in. 


[ ? Rowlandson.] 

Pub as the Act directs y 12*^ May. 1784. by a Lover of Natural History. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A slim man, standing, 
chapeau'brasy in profile to the r. He is fashionably dressed in a high-collared 



coat cut back to form tails, and shirt frill; his shoes have very large 
buckles. His hair is in a queue resembling that worn by the Macaronies 
c. 1772 but smaller and attached to the back of his head instead of falling 
on his shoulders. Beneath the title is etched, These Species of Insects , of late 
are become exceeding numerouSy {like the Green Louse, when first brought to 
Amsterdaniy from a single one, has proceeded such Swarms as to be of alarming 
Consequence) their Colours are various, & cast their Coats like the Camelion, 
sometimes to ten different Shades of a day, it is difficult to distinguish the Male 
of these Reptiles from the Female, as the Voice & Manner approaches nearer 
to the Feminine than Masculine. Liquor they are peculiarly fond of, and 
when in a State of Inebriation are so troublesome, that it requires a stout Cane 
to keep them from stinging you. They are in being all the Year round, are 
chiefly to be found in the Boxes of the Theatres, Publick Gardens, Concerts, &c. 
You may hear them long before they come to View, by a shrill squeak of Dem 

me. Gad Zounds, Blood & Thunder, D m'd Boar & such Phrases. The 

celebrated Linneus attributes their Generation to the Putrified Essence of 
Lavender, Bergamot, Marchalle Powder, Violets, Pomatums, Snuff, Grease 
&c. &c. Although their first Appearance has a terrible Aspect, they are as 
harmless and inoffensive, when sober, as New Born Babes. 

A Buckling of this Species, differs from a Buck, much in the same manner 
as a Hornet to a Wasp. 

Endorsed in an old hand Tutador, a Jew Musician', evidently Charles 
Furtado, pianoforte player and composer. Eitner, Lexikon der Musiker, 
1901.' See Nos. 7413, 7439. The dress resembles that of Topham, a leader 
of fashion, cf. No. 6854, ^c-» ^^id shows an early instance of the sparrow-tail 
coat, which became fashionable in 1786, see No. 7021. The title seems to 
have been applied to foppish specialists in dress, cf. No. 7021 and verses 
called The Shoe-Tie, by T. Nicholls (a poetaster fl. c. 1790-1823), which 
are *incribed to Alexander Guppy Esq. commonly called the New Insect*. 
He is alleged to have introduced recent fashions (1789) in men's dress, e.g. 

I gave the coat its present shape. 

Made small the tail, and stretch 'd the cape. 

Public Advertiser, 9 Oct. 1789. 
ii|X7f in. (clipped). 


T. Rowlandson Invenit Engrav'd by W. P. Carey 

London Publishdjune 24. 1^84 by I. R. Smith N'' 83 Oxford Street. 

Stipple. A brothel scene. The fat bawd (1.) leans back in an arm-chair in 
a drunken sleep; the contents of a glass in her r. hand pour over a dog; 
a bottle on the ground at her feet spills its contents. There are three 
couples of revellers, the three women all pretty ; one puts her arms round 
the neck of a man who waves his hat in one hand while with the other he 
pours the contents of a punch-bowl on to the sleeping woman's head. 
Another sits on the knee of a very young military officer while she snatches 
off the wig of the third man (r.), old and ugly, who is dallying with the third 
young woman. The room is lit by a candle-sconce on the wall (1.). 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 145. Reproduced, Jensen, Karikatur-Album, i. 

^ Information from Mr. Rubens. 



H, Repton inv^ [Rowlandson f.] 

Pub. 24 July 1784 by E: Bull Ludgate Hill. 

Engraving. A park scene, crowded with men and women fashionably- 
dressed. The central figure is a short fat lady, with a very wide hooped 
petticoat elaborately frilled. On each side of her are two ladies, young and 
elegant, one with a parasol, the other ( ? the Duchess of Devonshire) with 
a fan. Some of the men are dressed in the manner often considered 
characteristic of the plainer dressing introduced after the French Revolu- 
tion: high-collared coat, round hat, tight breeches, and half-boots. One 
man only has sword, bag- wig, and chapeau-bras; one is in regimentals. 

Grego, RowlandsoTiy i. 147. Reproduced, Paston, pi. xxxiii. 



Pu¥ August 8^^ 1784 by H. Humphrey N 18 New Bond Street 

Engraving. Illustration to the song of this title which is engraved on the 
same sheet but from a separate plate. A lean clerk leads (r. to 1.) a fat vicar 
whose hand, holding a tobacco-box, is thrust though the clerk's 1. arm. 
The vicar wears hat, gown, and bands ; in his 1. hand is a long tobacco-pipe. 
The clerk holds up a lantern in his r. hand, in his 1. is an open book; he 
looks round at the vicar with a vacuous smile. Behind (1.) is a village 
church ; three women in mourning weeds stand beside it, holding up their 
hands in distressed surprise. The clerk, having come to fetch the vicar to 
bury an infant, stayed to drink till past midnight, when both staggered out 
to go to the church. 

This is imitated from No. 6130, though drawn with much more ability 
and spirit. Beneath is the song, The Original Words by G. A. Stevens Esq. ; 
it is a different version from that of Nos. 6130, 3771, which are those of the 
printed broadside The Vicar and Moses in Roxburghe Ballads ^ iii. 313, 
attributed to Stevens in the B.M. Catalogue. 

In the penultimate verse are the lines : 

The Taste of the Times , 
Will relish our Rhymes, 
When the ridicule runs on a Parson. 

For the great popularity of prints of The Vicar and Moses see No. 6130. 
The subject was also represented in pottery: the Vicar in the pulpit, 
Moses in the desk below. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 147-8. 
9iX9 in. 


H. Wigstead delin* S. Aiken fecit [? Rowlandson.] 

Published Sep' 25, 1784 by I. R. Smith N^ 83 Oxford Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Interior of a book-lined room, probably 
the back-shop of the bookseller who is also a publisher. The bookseller, 



a stout man, with a pen behind his ear, his spectacles on his forehead, 
stands with his hands behind his coat-tails, looking down superciliously at 
an open book or manuscript which the author holds out. The author, lean, 
deprecating, and nervous, wears a bag-wig and ruffled shirt and stands in 
a half-crouching attitude with his hat under his arm. Another manuscript 
protrudes from his coat-pocket. A clergyman in hat and riding-boots stands 
with his back to the other two, reading near-sightedly a book which he has 
taken down from a shelf. On the extreme r. is a door with glass panels 
partly concealed by a curtain ; this probably leads to the front shop. Next 
the door, 1., is a sloping desk with writing-materials. Piles of heavy volumes 
lie on the floor, r. and 1. A set of library steps stands against the wall (1.). 

Sketch in Royal Library, Windsor, reproduced, Oppe, Rowlandson, 
1923, pi. 8. (A rat-trap takes the place of the pile of books on the r.) 
Wigstead exhibited a drawing, Poet and Bookseller, at the R.A. 1784. 
Oppe, op. cit., p. 10. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 148-9. 
14! X 10 J in. 

y, Nixon fecit 1784 [Rowlandson.] 

Pu¥ Nov'' J. jy84 by W Humphrey N'' 22y Strand. 

Engraving. The interior of a breeches-maker's shop or workroom. Two 
men standing, one on a chair, the other on a stool, are attempting to pull 
up the very tight breeches of a stout man, who is lifted from the ground 
by their efforts. A stout woman enters from the r. holding a pair of 
breeches under her arm. On the wall is a placard : Ramskin^ Elastic Spring 
Breeches Maker They set close to the Hips and never alter their Shape which 
Thousands can Testify Likezvise a large & curious assortment of Breeches 
Balls Straps Boot Garters &c &c &c. Breeches and straps hang on the 
wall (r.). The room is raftered and very scantily furnished. 

A satire on the fashion for close-fitting leather breeches. Southey writes 
retrospectively of this fashion : *when a gentleman was in labour of a new 
pair of breeches, all his strength was required to force himself into them, 
and all the assistant-operators, to draw them on . . .'. Letters from England 
by Espriellay 1807, ii. 328. 

The drawing for this, incised for transfer to the plate, is in the Print 
Room (201. c. 6/45). 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 148. Cf. ibid., ii. 236. 

6 A Another version, reversed, coloured impression : 
J, Nixon inv^ Rowlandson ScuL Imprint perhaps cut oflF. 

* Caricatures*, ix. 57. 


Rowlandson 1784 

Engraving. The interior of an artist's studio. The painter sits with his 
back to his easel, looking intently towards the historian, an elderly man 



of pedantic appearance, seated in an arm-chair (1.) reading from a paper 
held in his 1. hand, his r. hand extended to emphasize his words. The 
young man rests his r. elbow on the sloping top of a drawing-table in front 
of the casement window. In his r. hand is a charcoal-holder, its end in his 
mouth. His 1. hand supports on his knee a portfolio. Behind the easel 
and beside the fireplace is the artist's wife (r.) holding a naked infant on 
her knee, both well suited to serve as models for a history-painter. On the 
easel is a canvas on which a classical subject is sketched. Sketches are 
pinned on the wall above the chimney-piece on which are a candlestick, 
bottles, &c. Above the historian's head (1.) is a bust on a bracket. At the 
artist's feet are his palette and brushes. A cat sleeps beside the woman's 
chair. The painter wears fashionably-cut clothes negligently arranged ; his 
hair is dishevelled. Cf. No. 6862. 

Grego, Rowlandsottf i. 150. Reproduced, Paston, pi. cvi. 


Rowlandson 1784 

Engraving. A sketch of fish-wives with their baskets ranged on the pave- 
ment (1.) ; behind are the masts and sails of vessels in Billingsgate dock. 
Facing them is an irate customer with a gouty leg, a fish- wife (r.) fastens 
a flat fish to his wig, while a small urchin tugs at his coat-tails. He clenches 
his fist and waves his stick, shouting with indignation. Of the women 
opposite, one holds out a fish towards him, shouting, another laughs with 
hands on hips, a third lies on the ground drunkenly vomiting, the contents 
of her basket spilling. Behind stands a woman drinking from a bottle. 
All are gross and fat, their breasts bare. 


H, Bunhury del 84 
H Bunhury Esq^ Delin*. W. Dickinson Excudit 
London, Published OcV j*' 1784 by W, Dickinson, 

Stipple. A road-side scene ; two horsemen stand by their horses outside 
a farrier's shed (1.). One horse is held by a youth, the farrier stands beside 
it arguing with the rider who stands with his whip under his arm. The 
second (r.) stands behind, beside his horse's head (its body being cut off 
by the r. margin of the print), looking gloomily down at his watch. The 
shed is an open stone building with a pent-house roof; a farrier's hand and 
arm are just visible within it. Behind is a church tower among trees, its 
clock pointing to 8 o'clock. A sign-post (r.) points To Liverpool xv Miles, 
In the foreground (1.) lies a dog. 

Reproduced, C. Veth, Comic Art in England, 1930, p. XVI. 
7is Xsii in. 


H, W. Bunhury Esq' DelK C. White, Sculp*, 

Publish^ June the 25^* 1784 by C. White, Stafford Row Pimlico. 

Stipple. Three visitors regard with amusement a soldier who acts as 
barber. A soldier sits (1.) outside a tent, his hair lank and undressed, his 



chin lathered, a cloth round his neck. The barber stands flourishing a 
razor; he is in full regimentals, wearing a busby, with intrenching tools (a 
spade and axe) thrust through his belt. Facing him in profile to the 1. 
stands a lady with a man in riding-dress on each side of her ; one points, the 
others raise their hands in amused surprise. A grinning black boy in livery, 
wearing a turban and carrying a riding-whip, stands behind them. A sentry 
stands on duty beside the tent with his musket across his shoulder. 
Another soldier stands on the extreme r., his hands crossed on his breast. 
A row of tents, backed by trees and the contour of a hill, forms a back- 
ground. In the middle distance an officer with another soldier appears to 
be inspecting the camp. 

One of many camp scenes which were popular subjects of pictorial satire 
between 1778 and 1782. Cf. No. 5523, &c. 


J. P. De Loutherbourgh Pifvx^, Etched by Tho" Lettan, V. M. Picot 

London^ Pu¥ April 11, 1^84. by V. M. Picot, N° 471 Strand^ 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A landscape with 
figures, showing citizens driving and walking on the outskirts of London, 
probably on Sunday. In the foreground (1.) is a family group : man, wife, 
three children, and two dogs ; the stout man carries his hat and wig, and 
mops his head. Two young butchers with a bulldog watch a high gig with 
two horses, driven recklessly by a stout citizen with a courtesan seated beside 
him. The gig passes a stage-coach driving in the opposite direction; 
coachman and inside and outside passengers turn to look at it, as do the 
humble occupants of the basket behind the coach. In the distance 
carriages of various sorts disappear in a cloud of dust ; one man drives with 
his arm round a woman's waist. In the background (r.) are cottages with 
a pot-house or kiln. 

Cf. No. 6143, a similar subject by Bunbury. 

Reissued, i Mar. 1794, by C. Knight. 


Published as the Act Directs, May 7** 1784 by C. L, Hannell Great 
Bandy Leg Walk, Borough. 

Engraving. A man (1.) stands holding a cheque or bill in his hand. He 
wears a nosegay and riding-boots, and holds a walking-stick. He looks 
towards a man on a smaller scale (r.) holding two rolls of cloth or silk, 

stockings, and a watch, who says, M' Wells ff. Enquired for you iS**. 

The other answers, He be D d. We never mean to Pay. 



Published Jany 11 1784, 22 j Strand London by W. Humphrey 

Engraving. Three men, squire, barber, and parson, seated round a circular 
table, the squire reading aloud from the Daily Advertiser. He sits in 



profile to the r. wearing pince-nez and dressed in the manner of twenty 
years earlier: wide hat, full curled wig, and coat with wide cuffs. The 
barber faces him, listening intently, his pipe in his r. hand ; his wig is awry. 
Beside him is a pile of wig-boxes surmounted by a barber's bowl. The 
stout parson sits full face on the farther side of the table smoking, a wine- 
glass in his r. hand. A punch-bowl and glasses are on the table. Above the 
design is engraved : 

The ParsoTiy Barber & the Squire^ 
Three Social Souls who News admire. 

A reissue of a print published 2 Mar. 1777 byW. Richardson, Strand; 
it is generally accepted as Gillray's first etching. 


Pu¥ as the Act directs Jany 16 1^84 by H Humphrey N'' 51 New Bond 

Engraving. A companion print to No. 6732. Orpheus (r.), an elderly 
fiddler with a wooden leg, is being pushed out of Hades by a demon, while 
another clutches Eurydice, a shrewish-looking woman, round the waist, 
dragging her in the opposite direction. At the feet of Orpheus is an open 
music-book with the words If ere that Cruel Tyrant Love ; his bow is under 
the demon's foot. He passes under a rocky arch in front of which mon- 
strous creatures writhe and point. 

In the background are Pluto and Proserpine seated on a throne laughing 
at the separation. Attendant demons stand round the throne ; behind (r.) 
are small figures undergoing various torments: Ixion on the wheel; 
Sisyphus rolling his stone up a mountain; Tantalus standing in a stream; 
Prometheus on a mountain attacked by the eagle. Skulls and bones lie in 
the foreground (1.). 


Pu¥ as the Act Directs Jany y 16 1^84 by H Humphrey N° 51 New 
Bond street 

Engraving. A companion print to No. 6731. Andromeda, a fat woman 
wearing a cap, is shackled by the wrists to a rock (r.) by the edge of the sea. 
She screams at the approach of a cat-like monster with a scaly tail which 
swims towards her. Perseus (L), an elderly man wearing jack-boots, rides 
through the air on an ass ; he is armed with a spit which he raises to strike 
the monster. Across the water in the distance spectators wave their hats 
and cheer; they are in the dress of the period. 


Published Nov 25. iy84, by J. Wallis, N" i6, Ludgate Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Illustration to an engraved song. A 
woman asleep on a bank, her straw hat and basket of eggs beside her. 
Her petticoat has been cut off at the knee, showing the top of a gartered 



Stocking. A pedlar (r.), his pack on his back, walks off, holding the 
piece of petticoat, looking round with his finger to his nose. 

Beneath, to the tune, Round about the Maypole, &€., are the words of 
the familiar nursery rhyme, beginning : 

There was a little Woman as I heard tell, 
and ending, 

Lord have mercy on me, surely His not /. 
8J in. diam. 

BARN. [i June 1784] 

Engraving. From the Rambler*s Magazine. The interior of a barn, filled 
with strolling players. A man (1.), dressed only in breeches, shoes, and 
stockings, stands looking at a woman who is ironing a shirt on a table ; he 
says. Iron my shirt in an instant. A girl on the extreme 1. is twisting his 
pigtail queue. Two men wearing hats stand behind the table, saying, Tis 
woman that seduces all mankind and Brother w'are both in the zvrong. A 
stout woman attempts to pull on a pair of breeches, saying, My breeches 
are too small. A woman holding an open book looks over her 1. shoulder 
to say Button the Lady's breeches; she appears to be addressing a man 
dressed as a military officer who holds an open book, saying. Let us take the 
road. On the extreme r. a woman seated by a table is saying And he so 
pleas' d me. On the wall a play-bill is stuck up. Beggars Opera . . . Filch. . . . 
On a pile of hay or straw are properties : a crown, sceptre, trumpet, &c. 

6735 LADY SQUAB TAKING A RIDE. [i July 1784 ] 

Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine. A short, stout lady rides in 
profile to the 1. under some trees. She wears a small feather-trimmed hat 
and a riding-habit. Her seat is awkward and stooping. In the distance is 
a man on horseback. 


Plates to The Wit's Magazine, vol. i (copy in Print Room, i* a.i) 


Stothard del. Blake sculp. 

Published as the Act directs, by Harrison & Co. Feby i, 1784. 

Engraving. Frontispiece to The Wit's Magazine, i. 1784. The interior of 
the temple, Mirth seated on a raised seat holding a book ; she wears classical 
draperies and her hair is wreathed with vine leaves. On each side of her 
is a row of worshippers : on the 1. men hold their sides with laughter, one 
lies on the floor; on the r. men and women jest together coyly, a lady looks 
at a man from behind her fan. Behind Mirth are two pictures, one (1.) of 
Don Quixote with Sancho Panza and Rozinante, the other (r.) Falstaff 
standing with shield and sword. On each of the two side walls are three 
busts in niches ; on the r. are Vol[taire] and Stem[e]. 




Collings del Blake sculp. 

Published as the Act directs, by Harrison & O March i. 1784. 

Engraving. The Wit's Magazine, i. 41. Illustration to verses (p. 71 f.) with 
the same title. A sow takes in its teeth the coat-tails of a fat parson who 
lies face downward on the stones of the sty. From his pocket projects 
a Tything Table. Three small pigs scamper about the sty. A yokel in a 
smock-frock enters with a raised club to release the parson. Another with 
a pitchfork leans over the low paling with a grin ; a small boy much amused 
looks over; a woman with a child in her arms watches with amusement. 

The parson, dissatisfied at the young pig offered by * Hodge', has 
entered the sty in order to choose the best of the litter. One of many 
satires on tithes, cf. No. 6209, &c. 


Collings del, Blake sculp. 

Published as the Act directs, by Harrison & C" April J, 1784. 

Engraving. The WiVs Magazine, i. 81. Illustration to *A Preservative 
against Duelling', pp. 89-92. The interior of a coffee-house. Two young 
men in regimentals stand near the fireplace (1.) ; one, whose broken sword 
lies on the ground, is being threatened with a hot poker held to his nose 
by a man in riding-dress, who holds the lapel of his coat. The other with 
his sword attacks from behind the man with the poker, but is held back 
by a customer and a waiter. Two bystanders hold up their hands in alarm. 
A parson seated at a table holding a newspaper watches the fray. Behind 
is the bar, within which stands a young woman much alarmed. Over its 
arched alcove is inscribed Orgeat, Jellies &c. ; glasses, bottles, &c., are 
ranged on shelves. On the wall is a map inscribed Pacific Ocean. A wall- 
clock points to 1.30. In the background (1.) is a glass door of the coffee- 
house ; by it stands a waiter with a coffee-pot ; a customer raises his stick 
threateningly as if to strike him. 

Two young ensigns have insulted the company, and especially the young 
woman in the bar, by the grossness of their talk. On being reproved they 
demanded satisfaction ; an altercation arose, swords were drawn, and the 
man making the reproof defended himself with a red-hot poker. 


Collings del. Blake sculp. 

Published as the Act directs, by Harrison & C<* May i. 1784. 

Engraving. The Wifs Magazine, i. 123. Illustration to verses by Holcroft 
with the same title, pp. 151-3, said to be taken from L'Utile col Dolci, pub- 
lished at Florence 'with the approbation of the archbishop'. A scene in 
a Florentine street or piazza in front of a Gothic shrine (1.) in which is a 
Virgin and child. Two blind beggars, each with a dog, are fighting. A 
well-dressed man walks off with their hats, looking at them over his 
shoulder with a smile. Spectators look from a window and a door. 
A penniless man of ancient family prays regularly to the Virgin for relief. 



On one occasion he hears two blind beggars at her shrine boasting of the 
weahh concealed in their hats; he thereupon runs away with the hats, 
confesses to a prelate, who approves, but insists on taking a major share 
of the spoil. 


Collings del. Blake sculp. 

Published as the Act directs by Harrison & C" June i. 1784. 

Engraving. From The Wit's Magazine^ i. 161. Illustration to verses, *May 
Day ... By M^ Collings', p. 191. Milkmaids with their 'garlands' and 
little chimney-sweepers dance to a fiddle played by a man with one leg. 
There are two 'garlands' or pyramids of plate arranged with greenery, 
ribbons, &c. One (1.) is surmounted by an urn with a streamer attached 
to it. It was carried by two chairmen, who have put it down while one 
drains a tankard ; the other has removed his wig to mop his forehead. The 
other (r.), surmounted by a short brush, is on the head of a milkmaid. 
Other milkmaids dance ; one holds out her hand to receive a coin from a 
woman in a doorway over which is inscribed Original Shaving Shop A 
Room for Ladies. A projecting lantern or sign is inscribed Shave for 
a Penny. Gentlemen Dispatched in a moment. A child leans out of the 
window over the door holding a rattle, a woman stands behind. Other 
spectators look from adjacent windows. The little 'climbing boys' are 
dressed up and dancing, beating their brushes on their shovels. All wear 
wigs, two have laced hats. One, a mere infant, is dressed chiefly in a 
large wig and vandyked paper frills. The street is Milk Street; over a shop 
window is Peter Pi . . . Pewterer. Play-bills are posted on the wall : Theatre 
Royal Drury Lane . . . Jovial Crew . . . May Day and Pantheon . . . Concert. 

The shop of the 'penny-barber' shows that this is a poor neighbourhood ; 
the milkmaids' display is less elaborate than that described by J. T. Smith, 
as seen by him in 1771, and their customers, before whose doors they 
dance, are less opulent. See Nollekens and his Times y 1905, pp. 19-21. In 
the picture of milkmaids on May Day by Hayman at Vauxhall, described 
by Smith (op. cit.), the fiddler was wooden-legged as in this print. 

Reproduced, Johnson's England^ ed. A. S. Turberville, i. 174. 


Collings del. Smith Sculp. 

Published as the Act directs ^ by Harrison & C^ July i. 1784. 

Engraving. The Wifs Magazine y i. 201. Illustration to 'Humourous De- 
scription of a Citizen and his family at Vauxhall' which is transcribed 
without acknowledgement from the essay of Colman and Thornton in 
The Connoisseur (May 10, 1755). A scene outside the orchestra at Vauxhall. 
A stout woman puts a handkerchief round her husband's neck to protect 
him from the night air. Her daughter holds her fan to her face and looks 
towards a beau in the middle distance who inspects her through his glass. 
A waiter walks off (r.) with glasses and a bottle. There are other figures. 
The background shows the orchestra (1.), with two musicians, and the 



organ; on the r. are trees, and the * covered walk*; two men sit at a table 
with a bowl of punch. Cf. Nos. 6900, 6901. 
6x8 in. 


Collings del. Smith sculp. 

Published as the Act directs by Harrison & C° August i. 1784. 

Engraving. The Wit's Magazine y i. 241. Illustration to Cowper's famous 
ballad printed on pp. 271-3, probably transcribed from the Public Adver- 
tiser. Gilpin gallops (r. to 1.) past * The Bell ' at Edmonton to the astonish- 
ment of spectators standing in the doorway, and of two old gaifers on a seat 
outside the inn door. Mrs. Gilpin looks from a window, not a balcony ; two 
other heads are at the window. He is without hat and wig, his cloak 
streams out behind him, and two broken bottles hang from his belt. A 
dog barks, a pig runs away, a boy waves his hat. The inn is a large one with 
sash windows and outside shutters. On its signboard, beneath the bell, is 
the word Roberts. A waiter is arranging a trestle-table in the road (1.). 

See also No. 6886, &c. 

Reproduced, Print Collectors^ Quarterly^ July 1936, p. 172. 


Collings deP Thomas Sculp*, 

Published as the Act Directs^ by Harrison & C^ N'' 18, Paternoster 
Row, Sep^ I, 1784, 

Engraving. The Wit's Magazine^ i. 281. Illustration to an article with 
the same title, pp. 286-8. A scene in St. James's Park during a sudden 
squall of rain. A number of people with umbrellas ; some hold them open, 
others attempt to open them, in face of difficulties caused by the crowd 
and the wind. In the background are trees, Westminster Abbey, and the 
spire of St. Margaret's. 


Published as the Act directs, by Harrison & O Oct*^ i. 1784, 

Engraving. The Wit's Magazine, i. 321. Illustration to verses with the 
same title, p. 351. The interior of an inn bedroom, showing a large four- 
post bed with check curtains. A fat doctor, seated on the foot of the bed, 
is being forced to drink from a large pot held by a man wearing a check 
dressing-gown, nightcap, and slippers. A chambermaid leaning on her 
broom, a waiter, and a coachman stand within the open door (r.), watching 
with amusement. Standing on a recessed window-seat (1.) are medicine 
bottles and pill-boxes. 

A trick played upon a doctor notorious for over-prescribing and for 
unwanted visits : a visitor to the inn feigns illness, and forces the doctor to 
drink a compound of all his draughts and prescriptions. 

209 P 



Published as the Act directs , by Harrison & Co. Nov^ i. 1784. 

Engraving. The Wit's Magazine, i. 361.^ Illustration to an article, with 
the same title, p. 368. Men and women seated on benches on each 
side of a dinner-table. A waiter hands a foaming tankard of beer to a 
woman with a child on her lap, who looks at the child so that the beer is 
about to fall. The waiter, looking at the woman, lets the gravy from a dish 
which he holds in his 1. hand pour over another diner, 'the greatest beau in 
the company*. A man (r.) turns round to look at the disaster; a large grey- 
hound puts his head on the table and, the text explains, devours the con- 
tents of his plate. The others, though amused, do not cease eating ; one 
man gnaws a bone held in both hands. In the foreground a dog and cat 
quarrel over a bone. The room is neatly furnished : three framed pictures 
hang on the wall, and ornaments are ranged on the chimney-piece. The 
price of the ordinary was is. 6d. 

The humours of a Sunday dinner in the inns near London were a 
common subject of satire. Cf. Johnson's England, 1933, i. 192-31 and 
No. 6885. 

6746 THE DOG. 

Published as the Act directs, by Harrison & C" Decf i. 1784, 

Engraving. The Wit's Magazine, i. 401. Illustration to verses with the 
same title, by W. Whitehead, pp. 431-3. A lady wearing a feathered hat 
falls to the ground from the back of a dog on which she has tried to ride. 
A maidservant with a broom, and a servant-lad look grinning round the 
door (1.). The carpet, wallpaper, an ornate chair, &c., show that the room 
is well furnished. See No. 7093. 


A set of prints (n.d.) after Dighton, bound together, all with the imprint 
of WiUiam Allen (as No. 6747). The costume is that of c. 1784. (298*. 
a. 7.) 


Twelve Elegant and Humorous Prints of Rural Scenes, adorned with 

Comic Figures. By Robert Dighton. i. 
Dublin Printed for Will'*' Allen, A^^ 32 Dame Street, 

Engraving. Two boys play at single-stick outside an inn-door (1.). A 
wagoner and a stable-boy (r.) watch the contest. A soldier and a young 
woman seated on a bench against the inn flirt rompingly. A soldier beats 
a drum. On the r. is a thatched stable or barn with the back of a carriage. 
In the background is a church-spire among trees. Over the inn-door is 
inscribed Guttle Downs Home Brew'd; in the doorway stands a yokel 
scratching his head. 


* Frontispiece to vol. ii in B.M.L. copy. 




Engraving. Spectators (r.), who from their dress appear to be *cits*, watch 
a sack-race with great amusement : five women close together (1.), two of 
whom have fallen ; a dog barks at them. On the r. is a small, rustic inn, 
with a signboard of a horse's head. In the foreground an elegant milk- 
maid carrying a pail talks with a military officer. In the background are 
trees and a small cottage. 


Engraving. In front of an inn (I.) three young women and two boys, 
holding hands, dance round a maypole. The inn has the sign of the 
plough and harrow ; a stout man stands in the door, grinning and capering 
and holding up a foaming tankard. A man in riding-dress and a fashion- 
ably dressed lady stand together (1.) watching the dance. In the back- 
ground (r.) are small cottages and low hills. 



Engraving. A gipsy woman (r.) takes the hand of a young woman, who 
listens with pleasure; another young woman pushes back a young man 
so that he shall not hear the prophecy. Another young man and young 
woman complete the group. Behind (r.) are two other gipsy women, one 
smoking a pipe. 



Engraving. A rough-looking man (1.) with a club holds the chain of a 
dancing bear, while another man (r.) plays the fiddle. On the bear's shoulders 
sits a monkey wearing a hat. Amused spectators are grouped in a semicircle. 
On the 1. a boy holds back a dog eager to rush at the bear. The scene is 
outside a rustic-looking inn (1.). On the extreme r. is a knock-kneed pot- 
boy carrying a number of pots slung across his shoulder. In the back- 
ground are trees with a spire and a country house. 


Engraving. A minister stands on a bench under a tree, arms held up, a 
handkerchief in his r. hand, preaching to a small circle of devout old 
women and artisans. Two boy chimney-sweeps riding on the same donkey 
approach from the r. and point derisively at the preacher. The scene is 
rural, with bushes and grass, but in the distance is the dome of St. Paul's. 


Engraving. A scene outside an inn (r.), from which a very fat and jovial 
woman is bringing a large punch-bowl ; over the door is Good Entertainment 
for Man and Horse The Widow Tap-tub. Against the house is a table at 



which sit or stand two sailors with two young women; on it is a large 
sirloin of beef and a tankard. They watch a young woman dancing alone ; 
a sailor stands behind her with folded arms. A man with a wooden leg 
seated on a stool (1.) plays the fiddle. In the background is the sea with two 
ships. A large flag flies from the inn, and a bird is in a wicker cage which 
hangs against the wall. 


Engraving. Men and women walk beside a line of trees outside a park 
wall, probably that of St. James *s Park. On the extreme r. is a sentry-box; 
a soldier on guard buys something from a boy with a basket. A young 
woman tries to sell a rose to an elderly military ofl[icer on crutches, who 
grins through an eye-glass. Behind (1.) is another sentry-box with a sentry. 


Engraving. The interior of a tea-garden. People are playing bat, trap, and 
ball; a waiter runs (1. to r.) holding a round tray with tea-things and a 
kettle. Three smartly-dressed people stand in conversation on the extreme 
r. In the background is the wall, almost concealed by trees, a small 
summer-house or gazebo to which leads a flight of steps, and a row of 
alcoves for tea-drinking, in one of which a man and woman are seated. 
Cf. Johnson* s England t i. 189 ff. ; Wroth, London Tea Gardens of the Eighteenth 
Century ^ passim. 



Engraving. Men skating, probably in one of the London parks. Among 
them are a Dutchman smoking a pipe, his hands in the pockets of his 
baggy breeches, and a small boy. A man has fallen on his back. A man sits 
on a stool on the ice to have skates put on. Behind, spectators stand or walk 
beside the ice. In the background are a paling and bare trees, the smaller 
ones surrounded by railings. 


Engraving. A quack doctor advances to the edge of his platform, smiling 
down at his scanty audience. He wears a laced suit and sword and holds 
up a medicine-phial. The doctor's boy, beside his master, stoops forward, 
hat in hand, to offer handbills. Behind, three patients sit in a row, the 
most prominent being a man with a crutch. The most interested spectators 
are a chimney-sweeper's boy and a carter in a smock-frock. A *cit' and his 
stout wife walk away, looking over their shoulders. On a post at the corner 
of the platform is the sign Doctor Van Cheatall. In the background is the 
Tower of London. For the quack doctor cf. No. 8183. 
5^X9! in. 




Engraving. A scene in the small courtyard of a London inn, at which a 
stage-coach has just arrived. A stout lady is getting out of the coach, larger 
in scale than the other figures ; the coachman is taking game, &c., from the 
box. A short stout 'cit' yawns and stretches. Another man looks sourly at 
his watch; packages lie on the ground, including a hamper directed to 
Alderman Guttle, A smiling waiter (r.) invites the company to enter the 
inn. Through the folding gates of the yard is seen a street with a distant 

For Margate as the cits* watering-place, cf. Nos. 5049, 7096, 7744, 7755. 


[After Dighton.] 

510. Printed for & Sold by Bowles & Carver y N'' 6g in S* Pauls 
Church Yard, London, 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 6760. The 
interior of a farrier's smithy. A country woman sits on a low stool, while 
a farrier pulls at her tooth with a pair of pincers which he grasps in both 
hands. He presses one^foot on her outstretched leg while a grinning 
assistant holds her head in both hands. A third man stands behind, also 
grinning and holding a stick above his head ; one eye is bandaged. All three 
wear leather aprons. The wretched woman holds the tooth-drawer*s left 
sleeve with one hand, his nose with the other; her eyes are closed. A boy 
(r.) flourishes a broom. Behind (1.) is the lighted forge. An anvil, horse- 
shoes, and farrier's tools are in the foreground. A grinning face looks in 
through a wide-open window (r.) ; on the sill is a large tankard. Thatched 
buildings and trees are seen through the window. Cf. Nos. 8051, 8052. 
I2f X9if in. 'Caricatures', i. 178. 


[After Dighton.] 

511. Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, iV" 6g in S* Pauls 
Church Yard, London. 

Published as the Act directs [date erased, c. 1784]. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 6759. The 
interior of a well-furnished room. The dentist stands in front of a middle- 
aged woman seated in a chair (1.); he holds her forehead with one hand, 
with the other he applies a small instrument to her mouth. She grasps a 
glove in her gloved 1. hand. A black boy in livery stands behind the dentist 
(r.) holding an open case of instruments ; he looks round grinning with a 
finger in his mouth. A young woman stands clasping her hands and look- 
ing with an expression of horrified concern at the operation. The dentist 
wears a bag-wig. A cat arches its back and miaows. 

Through a draped sash-window is a gateway to a quadrangle, in front 
of which a sentry is marching; another sentry's head is visible, indicating 



St. James's Palace. On the wall is a bird in a cage and an oval landscape. 
Below it is a settee on which is a guitar. The floor is carpeted. Cf. 
No. 7766. 

I2f X9J in. 'Caricatures', i. 179. 

After Dighton.] 

515. Printed for & Sold by Bowles & Carver^ N"" 6g in S* Paul's 
Church Yard, London. Published as the Act directs [date erased, 


Mezzotint. A street scene ; a stout hackney coachman seizes by the collar 
a tall, lean French barber, who deprecatingly holds out an empty pocket. 
The barber is fashionably dressed with ruffled shirt ; a comb and scissors 
project from his waistcoat pocket; other tools of his trade have fallen to 
the ground. The coachman wears a round hat in which are two tickets, 
one 102 N, showing the number of his coach ; there are holes in his coat, 
waistcoat, and stocking. Behind him (1.) is his coach. On the opposite side 
of the road (r.) are two amused spectators : a sailor wearing a round hat 
and striped trousers, and a fat oyster-woman holding a little girl on one 
arm ; a knife hangs from her waist, and behind her on a bench is a basket 
of oysters. They stand outside an alehouse, indicated by the sign of 
chequers and the words London Porter on the shutter of an open sash- 
window, from which two men are leaning ; the dial of a clock inside the 
room shows that it is five o'clock. Large brick houses receding in per- 
spective complete the background. Beneath the title is engraved : 

Pay me my Fare and be damned to you. 
Me ad only von Sixpence pon my Honare. 

One of many satires on the popular theme of the beggarly French fop. 
I2f X9I in. * Caricatures', i. 24. 


516. Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles ^ N" 6g in S^ Pauls 
Church Yardy London 

Published as the Act directs [date erased, 1784]. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). The interior of a well-furnished room. 
A young woman turns aside with a gesture of disgust from a young man of 
simian appearance who is grinning sheepishly. Her father stands behind 
her with outstretched arms, pleading desperately for her acceptance of the 
man. The suitor, holding his hat in both hands, turns away from the lady 
with an imbecile grin, but is being pushed towards her by a third man, 
probably his father. Through two sash-windows (1.) appear houses and 
the steeple of a church. Between them is an oval mirror in a carved frame. 
A landscape hangs on the other wall (r.). The floor is carpeted. 
i2jX9Jin. 'Caricatures', i. 136. 




517. Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, N° 6g in S^ Pauls 

Church Yardy London. 
Published as the Act directs [date erased, 1784]. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). Two grinning chairmen, walking 
diagonally r. to 1. towards the spectator, carry a sedan-chair, from the 
side window of which hang the head and shoulders of a lady, asleep or 
drunk, her 1. arm hanging down outside the chair. She is dressed as a 
shepherdess, a garland of flowers in her hair ; in her r. hand is a crook which 
also projects through the window. Beside the chair (r.) walks a little 
grinning chimney-sweep, very broad and short, with soot-bag and brush, 
but with a striped turban or cloth on his head and holding up a smiling 
mask. The chair is crossing an open space or wide street, probably Covent 
Garden, with houses in the background. 

A chimney-sweeper was a not unusual character at a masquerade, and 
it was sometimes said that real sweeps, butchers, &c., posing as masks, 
visited masquerades. 
12IX9JI ^^' * Caricatures', i. 206. 

(518) See No. 3793 [1784] 

Also an uncoloured impression. 


See No. 3792 [1784] 

Emblems of licentiousness include a volume of The Rambler's Magazine, 
which began in 1783. Also an uncoloured impression. 

Similar subjects (n.d.), with a cautionary intent, with the imprint of 
Bowles and Carver, are: 

THE TREE OF LIFE, an altered version of a print by J. Pace after 1. Dole- 
man. 'Caricatures', iii. 51. 

Ibid., p. 52. 

HIEROGLYPHICKS OF A CHRISTIAN. J. Bakewell inv^. Ibid., p. 53. 

Cf. also Nos. 6903, 6908. 


520. Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, N° 6g in S^ Pauls 
Church Yard, London. Published as the Act directs [date erased, 


Mezzotint. A companion print to No. 6765. A lady seated on the end of 
a sofa looks out of a window through which is seen a building resembling 
an inner courtyard of St. James's Palace. Her r. elbow rests on a small 
circular table on which is an inkstand with a pen ; she holds up a rose. She 



wears a feathered hat, a muslin fichu, frilled muslin apron, and a sash over 
a voluminous draped skirt. The wallpaper and the window-curtains are 
striped, as is the material which covers the sofa. Behind her is a bureau- 
bookcase, with books behind glass doors and partly concealed by a curtain. 
The floor is completely covered by a patterned carpet. 

She is probably intended for an inmate of one of the fashionable houses 
of ill fame in King's Place, cf. No. 6547, &c. See also Nos. 6866, 8198. 

Reproduced, Social Englandy ed. Traill, 1904, v. 483. 

A coloured impression in 'Caricatures*, i. 106. 

i2|Xio in. 


521. Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles ^ N*^ 6g in S^ Pauls 
Church Yardy London, Published as the Act directs [date erased, 

Mezzotint (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A companion print to 
No. 6764. A smiling and buxom young prostitute is seated, full-face, one 
arm across the back of her chair, the other leaning on a small table on 
which are a bottle, a glass, and bread. Her hair falls on her shoulders ; she 
holds one end of a kerchief exposing her breast. The room is slatternly, the 
ceiling is broken, and there is a hole in the floor. The walls are stencilled 
or papered. Tom bed-curtains hang against the wall over a mattress which 
is propped against it. On the floor is a bunch of flowers in a chamber-pot. 
A broadside on the wall is headed by a print of a Tyburn crowd surround- 
ing four bodies hanging from a gallows. Through an open sash-window 
with broken panes the roofs of houses are seen ; behind them is a church 
12IX9I ^' 'Caricatures*, i. 107. 


522. Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, N° 6g in S^ Pauls 
Church Yard, London 

Published as the Act directs [date erased, 1784]. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 6767. A 
lady stands in frilled petticoat and chemise which reveals the full contours 
of her bust, while the staymaker (1.), young and fashionably dressed, kneels 
on one knee holding his yard-measure round her waist, gazing at her 
amorously. Her r. hand is on his shoulder. On a chair (1.) is a pair of 
stays. On the ground (r.) is his hat with more stays tied together by a 

The room is fashionably furnished with a draped blind half-concealing 
a window (1.). The wall is papered, the floor carpeted ; against a wall is a 
striped settee over which hangs an oval mirror in an ornate carved frame, 
with two cupids supporting garlands. 

12 Jx 9 J in. 'Caricatures', 1. 184. 




523. Printed for & Sold by Bowles & Carver, N° 6g in S^ PauVs 
Church Yard, London, 

Published as the Act directs [date erased, 1784]. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 6766. A 
young woman wearing hat, lace-trimmed mantle, and gloves sits, her r. leg 
resting on the knee of a young man (1.) who kneels on one knee placing a 
slipper on her foot. He is dressed in the height of the fashion in a cutaway 
coat and a high swathed neckcloth ; she looks coyly at him, he gazes ardently 
at her. On the floor is the other slipper and the shoe, unbuckled, which she 
has taken off. Her muff is on a table beside her (r.). 

The room is fashionably furnished. Striped curtains drape the window 
(1.) through which trees are seen. The wall is papered and the floor 
carpeted. An elaborate chimney-piece partly visible (r.) is decorated by 
an urn flanked by a pyramid on a rectangular base. 

i2iX9fin. 'Caricatures*, L 185. 

IN PLACE. EN EMPLOI (539). See No. 3772 [1784] 

OUT OF PLACE. HORS D'EMPLOI (540). See No. 3773 [1784] 


[After Dighton.] 

541, Printed for & sold by Carington Bowles N" 6g in S* Pauls Church 
Yard, London. 

Published as the Act directs [date erased]. 

Mezzotint (coloured and uncoloured impressions). The fat woman of 
No. 6138 struggles to get through posts which frame an opening in a low 
wooden rail or barrier in St. George's Fields. A beau (r.), almost identical 
with the man who is pulling her through in No. 6138, leans on one elbow 
on the near side of the rail. Behind him, on the farther side of the rail, 
a fat citizen looks at her through a single eyeglass. She holds a closed fan 
in her r. hand. A spaniel barks at her. In the middle distance (1.) two men 
are laughing together; one carries on his head a large corded trunk. In the 
distance are the buildings of Saint George's Spa, the name engraved on 
the fa9ade. A large tree (r.) extends its branches across the upper part 
of the design. In the distance (r.) are trees behind a ramshackle paling, 
extending to the buildings of the 'Spa*. 

This was the *Dog and Duck*, a place of entertainment which by this 
time was on the down-grade towards the disrepute which led to its sup- 
pression. See W. Wroth, London Pleasure Gardens, 1896, pp. 271 ff. 

13 X 10 in. Crace Collection, Portfolio XXXV, No. 35. * Caricatures*, i. 54. 


[After Dighton.] 

542. Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles y N"* 6g in S^ Pauls 
Church Yardy London. 

Published as the Act directs [date erased, 9 Nov. 1784^] 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A struggling crowd, partly within and 
partly without the pit door, a spiked gateway, of Drury Lane Theatre. 
Men, respectably dressed but of plebeian appearance, stand in the fore- 
ground on the outskirts of the crowd or fight their way in, some with 
sticks. There are a few women; one who has fainted but is in an erect 
position owing to the crowd, is being revived with smelling-salts. A man 
is vomiting. In the foreground two lady's hats, the ribbons partly torn off, 
lie on the ground with shoes and the broken fragments of a shoe-buckle. 
In the background two ladies and a man are passing through a narrow door 
into the theatre itself; through the doorway is seen a section of an upper 
gallery and boxes below it, both crowded. On the exterior wall, above the 
heads of the crowd, is a play-bill. By Command of their Majesties. At the 
Theatre Royal Drury Lane this present Thursday Oct 21 1784 The Grecian 
Daughter . . . Euphrasia M" Siddons. To which will be added The Devil to 
Pay. followed by words in small type among which Sir John Lovelace 
Af King is just legible. Tomorrow the Tragedy of Hamlet Hamlet by 
M' Kemble. 

The crowd for a performance by Mrs. Siddons of one of her famous 
parts (cf. No. 6126) was especially great, but there were many complaints 
of the overcrowding at the London theatres. 

Reproduced, Johnson's England, ed. A. S. Turberville, ii. 178. 
I2| X 9I in. * Caricatures*, i. 41 . 

' Impression exhibited at Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1932. 






Pu¥Jany 7. lySs by G. Wallis Ludgate Hill 

Engraving. Pitt puts the Coalition to flight. He stands on the 1., having 
just discharged an arrow from his bow, which pierces Fox (r.) in the 
Achilles tendon. He says: 

Thus do I strive with heart and hand 
To drive Sedition from the Land, 

Fox, prostrate and massive, supports himself on his hands to look at Pitt, 

saying : 

There is nought but a place or a pension that will ease 
The Strain that Fve got in my tendon Achilles 

Burke, behind Fox, rushes away from Pitt, his arms outstretched in terror, 
saying : 

Before thy Arrows Pitty I fly 

O D — n that word prolexity 

North, between Burke and Pitt, also in flight but holding a sword and 
shield, says: 

This cursed eternal Coalition 

Has brought us to a rare Condition 

Pitt has a quiver with arrows slung across his shoulder; he. North, and 
Burke wear contemporary dress ; Fox wears a tunic, greaves, and sandals. 

Burke was reproved by Pitt on 30 July 1784 for his prolixity in bringing 
forward a motion for papers on the conduct of Hastings : *if the hon. 
gentleman went on in that manner, making motions for which there were 
no parliamentary grounds, there would be no end to it.' Pari. Hist. xxiv. 
1264. Burke again spoke at length; on rising a third time he was shouted 
down and was told by W. W. Grenville that his pressing 'himself so 
frequently on the House' was 'contrary to all rule, and if tolerated, there 
was an end of all debate'. Ibid., pp. 1271-2. Cf. Nos. 6776, 6788. Fox 
actually strained his Achilles tendon about this time, Pari. Hist. xxv. 6 
(4 Feb.). For the consequences of the Coalition to the Whigs cf. Nos. 
6671, 6790, &c. 

Grego, Rowlandson^ i. 152. 


[ ? J. Barrow.] 

Pu¥ Janv 1785 by J. Barrow, Red Lion Bull Stairs Surry side 
Black Friars Bridge. 

Engraving. A fox represents the first word of the title. Fox (1.) and the 
Prince of Wales (r.) sit opposite each other playing cards at a circular table. 



Each holds a wine-glass; on the table are guineas, cards, and a bottle. The 
Prince asks. Fox, are not you the Shuffler? Fox sings (the words in a label 
issuing from his mouth) : 

Tho* matters at present go cross in the Realm, 
You will one day be K—g Sir, and I at the helm; 
So let us be jovial, drink, gamble and sing. 
Nor regard it a straw, tho' we're not yet the thing. 
Tol'de-rol, Tol, Tol, Tol-de-rol 


The proverb informs us. Each dog has his day, 
So those that oppose us, this Fate must obey. 
But time*s on our side Sir, and now on the wing. 
To make me a Statesman and you Sir the K—g, 
Tol-de-rol, Tol, Tol, Tol-de-rol. 

In vain are harangues, I as well may be dumb. 
And let motions alone, till our day Sir, is come. 
Then Thurlow & Pitt, from their State we will fling. 
They may go below stairs Sir, so we are the thing. 
Tol-de-rol, Tol, Tol, Tol-de-rol, 

Thus seated in state Sir, well fill all our Soul, 
At the Fountain of Venus, at Bacchus*s bowl, 
In all that we please Sir, we'll take a full swing 
For who's to controul a Prime Statesman and King? 
Tol-de-rol, Tol, Tol, Tol-de-rol. 

An indication of the completeness of Pitt*s victory in 1784 (cf. No. 
6671, &c.). For the relations between Fox and the Prince cf. Nos. 6237, 
6401, &c. For the Regency crisis, when this prophecy seemed on the point 
of fulfilment, see No. 7377, &c. Cf. No. 6795. 



Pu¥Jany 9. iy8s—by S. W. Fores N'> 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (partly coloured). A companion print to No. 6779. Three 
men are seated on a settee behind a circular gaming-table, on which are 
cards, a dice-box, and guineas. On the r. is the Prince of Wales, a dice-box 
in his 1. hand; with the r. he points to the star on his coat, saying. Who sets 
a thousand on This? The man on the 1., perhaps Sheridan, answers, 
stretching out his r. arm to the Prince, / say done — at it for a thousand. 
Fox, who sits between them, holds out his r. hand covertly to Sheridan 
and takes from him a pair of dice, saying. Give me the cog'd dies and I'll 
nick him. 

One of many satires on the evil influence of Fox on the Prince of Wales, 
cf. Nos. 6237, 6401, &c. See also No. 6774. 




[W. Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs j by J. Brozvtiy Rathbone Place^ Jan^ 22^ ^7^5- 

Engraving. Pitt and Fox, stripped to the waist, face one another in a 
pugilistic encounter: Pitt (r.), tall and slim. Fox (1.), slightly shorter but 
far stouter. The backers are North behind Fox, and Pepper Arden, the 
Attorney-General, behind Pitt. North says, Touch him about the Lights^ 
Brother Charley — 77/ warrant heHl be glad to commute with you — and Fit 
cool Master Pepper. Arden says. Courage Billy y zounds! dont be afraid, use 
Dispatch — the Law is on your side. 

The print anticipates the opening of the session on 25 Jan. Its especial 
application is perhaps to the Westminster Scrutiny, see No. 6553, &c. 
For Arden, see Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iii. 179, 204 fF., &c. *Lights* and 
'Commute' are punning allusions to the Commutation Tax, see No. 6634, 
7iix 121^5 in. 


London Pu¥ Jan^ 2y*^ 1783, by W George 22y Strand 

Engraving. Design in an oval. A H.L. portrait of Fox, leaning back with 
an inscrutable expression, similar to that in No. 6772 by the same artist. 
His r. hand, holding a dice-box, is raised above his head. Below the title 
is engraved : 

Seven is the Main: Seven! 
Who sets Charley any more money? 

Before the publication-line is, — Billy Sly [? Pitt], in a few days — , but see 
No. 6778, a companion print by the same artist. 

One of several satires implying, as on his resignation in 1782, that 
Fox*s only resource is the gaming-table ; see No. 6804, a reissue of No. 6015. 





Pu¥ Feby 4^ 1785, by J. Ridgeway, Piccadilly 

Engraving. Fox as Dr. Busby birches Pitt and his supporters in a lofty 
hall with stone walls. Fox (1.) sits under a statue of Justice which is in an al- 
cove above his head, a birch-rod in her r. hand, in the 1., her scales evenly 
balanced. Pitt lies across Fox's knee, his posteriors scarred; he says, O 
pardon me & Fll promise you on my honor that I will Honestly & boldly 
endeavour a reform!^* Fox, his birch-rod raised to smite, says, ThaVs all 
Twaddle! — so here* s for your India Task! there! there! there! & there* s for 
blocking up the old Womens Windows & making them drink Tea in the dark! 

— there! there! & there* s for O Fve aa a hundred accounts to settle — 

there! there! there! there! there! there. Those who have been already 
chastised are borne off (r.), a sea of heads, on the backs of the Foxite party. 



The last three only are characterized: Robinson is carried off on North's 
back; he is identified by the rats which leap from his rolled-up coat, cf. 
No. 6427, &c. Sheridan (identified by the School for Scandal which pro- 
trudes from his pocket) carries off Sir Richard Hill, identified by two 
papers projecting from his coat : Bible Joke and Rochester Sermon (see The 
Rolliady No. Ill, Probationary OdeSy No. IV), Next, Burke carries off 
Richard Atkinson ('the minor Kinson' of The Rolliady No. VIII), from 
whose pocket projects Rum Contr[act]. Beneath the title is engraved: 

*^ Illustrious BumSy might merit more regard; 
Ah! Bums too tender for a stroke so hard" 

VideRolliad. See No. 6816. 

(A parody of the lines on the Treasury bench : 

*No sattin covering decks th 'unsightly boards; 

No velvet cushion holds the youthful Lords, 

And claims illustrious Tails such small regard ? 

Ah! Tails too tender for a seat so hard.' 
With the gloss, 

*Alas! that flesh, so late by pedants scarr'd 

Sore from the rod, should suffer seats so hard.') 

A propagandist print issued by the publisher of The Rolliady and mis- 
representing the actual state of politics, but cf. No. 68 1 8. For the allusions 
to the windows and tea, see No. 6634, &c. For 'twaddle', a new word, cf. 
No. 6958. 

Grego, Gillrayy p. 73. Reprinted, G. W. G., 1830. 

12IX9I i^- 


Pu¥ Feby the 7 178^ by S, W. Fores N'' 3. Piccadilly, 

Engraving. Fox and Burke ride (r. to 1.) a galloping horse beside a mile- 
stone inscribed J Mile to Perdition, Between them sits Mrs. Siddons, 
whom Burke holds round the waist. Fox holds the reins and lashes the 
horse, turning round to say, No Prolixity B ke. Here 's no procrastina- 
tion, Burke says. Now we'll show the Mahratta's something Sublime and 
beautiful. Mrs. Siddons, as Lady Macbeth, holds a dagger in her r. hand, 
a bowl in the 1., saying. That which hath made them drunky hath made me 
bold. Behind them, r., pointing to the r., is a signpost. To Popularity, 

For Burke's prolixity cf. No. 6770. Mrs. Siddons played Lady Macbeth 
for the first time in London at her benefit, 2 Feb. 1785, Drury Lane. 
Genest, vi. 336-7. 
lof X14I in. 


[W. Dent.] 

See the Debate on the Westminster Scrutiny in the Papers of Thursday 

Engraving. Pitt, as a game-cock with a human head, stands guard at the 
door of the Treasury (1.), which is inscribed Cock Pit Barn Door, He says, 



Cock a doodle do. In the foreground a large hen with the head and wig of 
Sir Lloyd Kenyon, Master of the Rolls, faces in profile a small man, 
Michael Angelo Taylor, who holds his hat deprecatingly. Kenyon says, 
Chicken! — way, you was less than a chick, quite addled in the shell, when you 

turned tail to the T — s y Cock and his crums of comfort. Taylor says. 

Dear Master, permit me to explain — my meaning was good — when I said that 
I was a mere chicken of the Law — . At his feet is a paper inscribed New 
Species of Poultry by Master Biddy. Two game-cocks with human heads 
in profile to the 1. stand (r.) watching the conversation; one is Jack Lee, 
Attorney-General under the Coalition, the other James Mansfield, his 
Solicitor-General. Mansfield says, Dont you think, honest Jack, that we can 
make a tough Pullet of him? Lee answers. Impossible! — he^s worse than an 

ill-roasted egg, d d on one and not worth a curse the other side. Round 

the Treasury door (1.) seven chickens with human profiles wearing legal 
wigs are pecking at guineas. 

Michael Angelo Taylor, M.P. for Poole, then a Pittite, voted against 
Pitt on the Westminster Scrutiny, saying apologetically (9 Feb. 1785) that 
*he was young — he was but, what he might call himself, a chicken in the 
profession*. Sheridan ridiculed the remark, saying, Terhaps it would have 
been as well . . . that the chicken had not left the barn door of the Treasury 
. . .*. Lee and Kenyon also spoke. Pari. Hist. xxv. 42, 47, &c. Taylor was 
ridiculed as 'the Chick of Law* in the Probationary Odes and the nick- 
name stuck to him for life. He soon went over to the Opposition. For the 
Westminster Scrutiny see No. 6553, &c. 


PuV> Feby 18. lySs by S W Fores AT" 3 Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Design in an oval. 
H.L. portrait of Pitt in the House of Commons, standing at the table on 
which are books and two documents inscribed Parliamentary Reform and 
Commutation Act. Three shadowy seated figures watch him : Fox (1.) says. 
Oh that I had him at Brooks's! Fd Reform him. Next, a man wearing a 
hat says. If I had him at Deal Fd soon Smuggle him — Oh that poor Charley 
had continued in. He'd never suppress our trade. The third says. He has 
made a Bankrupt of me. Oh that I could Adulterate. (The smuggled tea 
had been much adulterated.) Above the design is etched. Save, oh Save 
my Country!!! My Fathers' dying words I never can forget. 

The print anticipates Pitt's motion for Parliamentary Reform, on 18 
Apr., but his intention was well known, especially through a circular letter 
of Wyville to the Reform Committees on 27 Dec. 1784. The measures for 
suppressing smuggling and for the reduction of the tea- duties (so reducing 
the profits of smuggling and adulteration), the loss to be supplied by the 
'Commutation Tax', an additional duty on windows, had been passed in 
1784, see No. 6634, &c. A companion print to No. 6774. 


London Pu¥ Feby 2y lyS^ by S W Fores A/^ 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (uncoloured and partly coloured impressions). A sequel to 
No. 6772. The Prince (1.) has risen from the settee, the table is overturned, 



and holding a poker in his hand he drives Fox and ( ?) Sheridan from the 
room. Dice-boxes and cards He on the floor. He says, Outf ye ungrateful 
Villains! And never dare to enter here again. Fox (r.) turns his head to say, 
Forgive me this once. And Fll be your slave for ever — If your H ss dis- 
cards mCy What mil become of me ? The other says, / say off— He* s nicked 
us Charley, 

6780 PAR NOBILE [fratnim]. [Feb. 1785^] 

Aquatint. A silhouette of two profiles facing each other. On the r. is 
Wilkes ; on the 1. the devil, horned and bearded, grins at his brother. 
4jx6in. (pi.). 

LIGHTS, [i Mar. 1785] 

Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine. Britannia is attacked by Pitt 
who strikes her in the face. She is supported by Fox (r.), who holds her 
1. arm. Behind Pitt (1.) stands Thurlow, who appears to be restraining him. 
On the extreme 1. is another spectator. Britannia*s shield and spear are 
on the ground, and Pitt's 1. foot is on the shield. In the background are 
houses and the pavement of a street. 

An attack on the Commutation Tax, by which the tax on windows was 
increased to compensate for a reduction on the tax on tea, see No. 6634, &c. 


6782 THE SPARTAN BOY. [i Mar. 1785] 

Engraving. PI. to the Hibernian Magazine^ 1785, p. 57, but this impression 
appears to have been issued separately. Design in an oval. H.L. portrait 
of the Prince of Wales, in profile to the r., wearing a hat. His hands are 
crossed on his breast, hugging a fox whose head protrudes from under his 
r. arm. The fox says, / shall get through at Last. 

The accompanying text relates the tale of the Spartan boy who concealed 
a stolen fox until he was bitten to death, and explains that the subject of 
the print is not Spartan in character, but rather resembles Prince Hal; the 
resemblance consists in his * holding a wiley and insidious Fox near his 
heart . . . and in persisting to keep him till he gnaws his vitals, and brings 
him to destruction*. For Fox and the Prince cf. No. 6401, &c. 
4X2f in. 



Pu¥ by W Humphry near Temple Bar Strand, f^ March lySs. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A scene in the Vestry 
Room of St. Martin's, Westminster, symbolizing the defeat of the Govern- 
ment on the Scrutiny on 3 Mar., when Sawbridge carried by 38 his 
motion that the High Bailiff be forthwith ordered to make his return. 
Fox (1.) and Wray (r.) are fighting; Wray's sword is broken and he shrinks 
* So dated by Miss Banks. 


back from Fox, who threatens him with the sword oi Justice. Fox*s shield 
is inscribed Majority 38 ^ Wray's is inscribed Ingratitude. A flying cherub 
holds over Fox's head a laurel wreath, and a scroll inscribed, It is Ordered 
that Thomas Corbett. Esq^ do immediately Return — . From his mouth issues 
the word Victory. Fox says, The Wrath of my Indignation is kindled and 
I will pursue them with a mighty hand and outstretched Arm until Justice is 
done to those who have so nobly supported me. Wray says. My Knees wax 
feeble and I sink beneath the weight of my own Apostacy — . He steps back 
across the prostrate body of Corbett, the High Bailiff, who says, my 
Conscience is now at peace. Wray's counsel in the Scrutiny are fleeing to 
the r. in confusion. Three of them say, respectively : Nor Law nor Con- 
science nor the aid of Potent Ministers can 'ere support this Contest 'gainst 
such a Chief; Help! Help! Our Chief is fallen! O Conscience support me — , 
and. Our support is gone and we are fallen into a Pitt, yea even into a Deep 
Pitty — . Fox's counsel advance behind him from the 1. in triumph. The 
foremost raises a book inscribed Truth; three others hold rolled docu- 
ments inscribed respectively. Law, Eloquence, and Perseverance. On the 
walls of the room are notices: At a Vestry holden in and for the Parish of 

S* Martin in the Fields It is ordered that the Parish Officers be Vigilant 

in apprehending all Vagabonds in this Parish. A placard purporting to be 
a transcript of the creed begins, / believe in Murphy the Assessor Almighty 

maker of good and bad V [votes] visible & invisible and. . . . from thence 

shall come to Judge the quick & the [dea]d Next to this is a List of 

bad votes Jn"" Hale Esq"" J. Matthias Sen"" J. Matthias J. . . . 

After the title is etched : and his famed Cecilian Forces on the Plains of 
S^ Martin on Thursday the 3^^ day of February lySs by the Champion of the 
People and his chosen Band, after a smart Skirmish which lasted a consider- 
able time, in which many Men were lost on both sides. But their great Ally 
at length losing ground. Desertions took place and notwithstanding their vast 
superiority in Numbers and weight of Metal at the first onset, they decreased 
apace, altho' often rallied by the ablest Men in Command, till at length the 
Forces gave way in all quarters & they were totally overthrown. This Print 
is dedicated to the Electors of the City & Liberty of Westminster who have 
so nobly stood forth and supported their Champion upon this trying occasion 
by An Independent Elector. 

At this time the Scrutiny was completed only in the parish of St. Ann's, 
Soho, and was proceeding in St. Martin's (Wray had expected greater 
success in St. Margaret and St. John's) ; many bad votes were detected on 
both sides, the relative positions remaining unaltered. The court was 
dilatory and incompetent, the proceedings very expensive, and it was 
estimated that two more years would be needed for completion. For the 
High Bailiff's conscience, cf. Sheridan's speech on 8 Feb., Pari. Hist. xxv. 
48, 50. Arthur Murphy had been appointed assessor in succession to 
Francis Hargrave who had resigned. Garrow and Philips were counsel for 
Fox, Rouse and Morgan for Wray. On 4 Mar. the High Bailiff made the 
return, the unqualified votes having been deducted: Hood 6588, Fox 6126, 
Wray 5895. On 3 Mar. there were illuminations in Westminster. West- 
minster Election, 2nd ed., 1785, pp. 539 ff. Pari. Hist. xxv. 1-146. For the 
Scrutiny see Nos. 6553, &c. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 153-4. Reproduced, Gvtgo, Hist, of Parliamentary 
Elections, 1892, p. 287; Manchee, Westminster City Fathers^ 1924, p. 18. 

225 Q 



Published if^ March lyS^ by Th(/ Cornell Bruton Street 

Engraving. A scene in the House of Commons. Pitt stands by the table 
in back view, r. arm held out, his head turned to address Fox. Fox (r.) 
and North are seated on the front Opposition bench; Fox, wearing his 
hat and holding a stick, bites his fingers and turns his head away from 
Pitt, looking sulky and abashed. North, his forehead puckered in a frown, 
conceals his face behind a paper on which he is writing. The Speaker, 
Cornwall, stands (1.) in profile to the r. ; below him the Clerks of the House, 
John Hatsell, Clerk (1.), and John Ley, Clerk Assistant (r.), are seated at 
the table. Beneath the title is etched : 

*^Quousque tandem ahuterey Catilina^ patientia nostra? quamdiu ettam" 
"furor iste tuus nos eludet? &c &c'\ 

Perhaps an allusion to the dispute between Pitt and Fox on 9 Mar., 
in a debate on the Scrutiny, when Pitt accused Fox of 'speaking of the 
recently elected House with the most insolent contempt and invective', and 
was restrained by the Speaker from quoting the words of another member 
spoken in a former debate. Pari. Hist, xxv. 140, 142. For Fox as Catiline 
of. Nos. 6426, 7492, 8067, 8072. 

I2|XlIi^6 ^^• 

W.D, [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs^ by J. Brozmiy Rathbone Place March 21 1784 

V 1785] 

Engraving. Hibernia, seated, holds on her lap Fox (1.) and North, whom 
she is suckling (r.). She says. Bless the little Innocents! Behind her (1.) 
Britannia lies on the ground, her shield and spear beside her, Hibernians 
foot resting on the shield which is inscribed Equal Participation. At 
Hibernia's feet Burke kneels in profile to the r., holding a staff inscribed 
Faction^ he earnestly addresses a man whose body is partly composed of 
an Irish harp inscribed Sedition^ he is in profile to the 1., horns sprout from 
his forehead; his resemblance to the Bishop of Derry in No. 6654 is 
marked. Fox, North, and Burke are naked infants. Britannia says : 

Sister y this treachery you may have to rue^ 
BewarCy you may yourself with me undo. 

The bishop {'Sedition') says: 

Proceed ye precious Imps! ye politicians good! 

Who first crVd that poor Ireland must have cloaths and food! 

Now bawl that Britian^s ruined with as fair a face y 

To get Ministers out and your dear selves in place. 

Beneath the title is etched : 

These sweet Babes by Britannia quite cast outy 
At length have found a Parent brave and stout. 
They* II good children prove y she a fond mother y 
BecausCy hence they may assist each other. 



For the clamour raised and exploited by Fox against Pitt's Irish Resolu- 
tions see Lecky, vi. 399-401 ; Russell, Memorials and Correspondence of 
FoXy ii. 270 f. Rutland wrote from Ireland to Pitt, 16 June 1784, 'M'' Fox 
I am informed, says. He shall make his harvest from Ireland.* 

The demand for 'protecting duties' was made in Ireland in April 1784, 
cf. No. 6647. The Resolutions on Commercial Intercourse between Ire- 
land and Great Britain were laid before Parliament on 22 Feb. 1785, and 
were attacked by Fox. Pari. Hist. xxv. 3 1 1 if . See letter of Pulteney to 
Rutland, 22 Mar., on the manoeuvres of the Opposition. Hist. MSS. 
Comm. Rutland Papers y iii. 193-4. Rose, Pitt and National Revival^ pp. 
249 ff. For Irish unrest see No. 6654, &c. For the Irish Propositions see 
Nos. 6787, 6788, 6789, 6792, 6794, 6795, 6796, 6798, 6799, 6800, 6801, 
6802, 6805, 6806, 6809, 6812, 6964, 7124, 7135, 7389, 7480. 
9X7 J in. 


From the Original Painting by Guido^ in S^ James^j Palace Pu¥ 
March lyS^ 

Engraving. Fox and North, both about to be executed by demons, reach 
out, one for dice-box and dice, the other for guineas. Fox (1.) kneels on 
the ground beneath a gallows, of which he appears unaware, his neck is in 
a noose, and a winged demon hauls at the rope which is over a pulley. 
North (r.) kneels so that his neck is under the blade which is supported 
in a gibbet (an anticipation of the guillotine) and is being let down by 
another flying demon. He is intent on the coins and ignores the threatening 
blade. Beneath the title is etched : 

O infortunati ambo^ si quid mea carmina possint 
Ad impia Tartara mit. . . . 


6787 THE HIBERNIAN ATTEMPT. [i Apr. 1785] 

Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine. George III, seated on the 
throne, holds a sceptre ; on his head is half a crown, he points to America, 
a negro wearing a feathered head-dress who waves a striped flag and is 
carrying off (1.) the other half of his crown. Pitt stands complacently on 
the king's r. ; between and behind them is Thurlow. In front of the throne 
(r.) is a snorting bull (John Bull) ridden by an Irishman who twists its tail 
and goads it with the shaft of an Irish flag. 

An attack on Pitt's Irish Resolutions, represented as an attack on the 
sovereignty and prosperity of England. See No. 6785, &c. 

JSf. [Bayers.] 

Published &^ April lyS^ by Th& Cornell Bruton Street 

Engraving. A scene in the House of Commons. Burke stands on the 
shoulders of two seated members: his r. foot is on the 1. shoulder of 
Powys, his 1. on the r. shoulder of Sawbridge. His arms are crossed on his 



breast, his r. arm clutching his 1. shoulder; from his mouth float three 
scrolls inscribed, Invective against ye Minister, Short Observations on India 
Affairs [a long scroll], and Tropes on the Irish Trade Bill. Powys looks up 
at him with an angry expression; he holds in his hand a thick bundle of 
papers inscribed Mem^ of Important Observation^ Obvious Objections 
Perpetual Motions Doubts Facts Surmises Queries &c^ &c*. Sawbridge 
looks gloomily away from Burke, his 1. leg stretched along the seat; he 
holds a paper inscribed Mock Motion for Reform in the Representation &c. 
Three members seated behind Burke hide their heads or turn aside from 
his spate of words. Beneath the title is etched : 

Sublimi feriam Sidera Vertice 


Burke is represented as the chief bore of the House, standing on two 
other would-be bores (cf. No. 6770). Burke published his very lengthy 
speech (on 28 Feb.) on Indian affairs *as entering more into the detail of 
the subject' than the other speeches in the debate. Pari. Hist. xxv. 182- 
259. He denounced Pitt's 'Offices Reform Bill' on 8 Mar. as *a direct and 
violent contradiction to Magna Charta and the common law of the land'. 
Ibid., p. 372. He spoke extravagantly but shortly on the Lancashire peti- 
tion against the Irish Resolutions on 16 Mar. Ibid., pp. 366-7 (see No. 
6785, &c.). Sawbridge's motion for shorter parliaments had been intro- 
duced in May 1782, May 1783, March and June 1784, and was again 
moved on 3 May 1785. Ibid., p. 514 f. See No. 7291, &c. 
I2|x8| in. 

JSf [Bayers.] 

Published 12^^ April lyS^ by Tho^ Cornell Bruton Street 

Engraving. No title. Pitt's Propositions for freedom of commerce between 
England and Ireland are supported on an Irish harp which rests on a 
rectangular framework above a fire which is being made to blaze by North 
and Fox. North (1.), on hands and knees, his cheeks inflated, blows at the 
flames ; Fox (r.), seated on a bulky roll inscribed Petition from the Cotton 
Manufacture[rs]y plies a pair of bellows. The fuel of the fire consists of 
papers inscribed Rumour, Evidence at the Bar (2), Pamphlets, Pleadings at 
y" Bar (2), Arguments. The flames and smoke which extend above their 
heads are inscribed Distrust, To Scotland, Discontent, To the Chamber of 
Commerce, Objections, Jealousy, To Manchester. 

A good representation of the campaign of misrepresentation which was 
directed against Pitt's Irish Resolutions in England. See Rose, Pitt and 
National Revival, 191 1, chap. xi;Parl. Hist. xxv. 409-14. A petition from 
Lancashire contained 80,000 signatures, and there were petitions from 
most manufacturing and commercial towns, notably Glasgow, Paisley, and 
Bristol. For the Propositions see No. 6785, &c. 
71X915 in. 

6790 MORNING PREPARATION. [25 Apr. 1785^] 

Aquatint. A companion print to No. 6791. Fox, North, and Burke in a 

* Publication-line apparently cut off. 



poverty-stricken room: North (1.), seated in a low arm-chair, leans back 
yawning, arms above his head, legs stretched out. On the wall above his 
head hangs a broken pair of bellows, emblem of his Borean blast. Burke, 
(r.), very thin, seated on a three-legged stool, is mending the breeches which 
he has taken off. Behind his head is a spider in the centre of a cobweb. 
Between and behind them stands Fox, in the attitude of an orator, r. arm 
raised, rehearsing a speech and regarding himself in a cracked mirror (r.) 
which reflects his anxious and gloomy expression. Above his head a dark 
lantern, emblem of a conspirator, hangs on the wall (cf. No. 6784, &c.). 

A satire on the desperate plight of the Opposition, cf. Nos. 6671, &c., 
6994, 8140. 

Grego, Gillrayy p. 72. 

6790 A Another version, differently drawn and aquatinted, and with a 
more emphatic line. No inscription. 




Pu¥ Ap^ 25^* lyS^ by W. Humphrey N"* 22y Strand. 

Aquatint. A companion print to No. 6790. Fox in the foreground (r.) 
leans back disconsolately in a low chair ; in his r. hand is an empty purse, 
in the 1. Pitts Speech. Beside him in his upturned hat are a dice-box and 
dice. On the 1. Burke, stripped to the waist, kneels before his three-legged 
stool on which is propped an open book inscribed Reform ; he is flagellating 
himself with a birch-rod held in his r. hand, and a rosary attached to a 
cross in his 1. Behind, as if seen in a camera obscura or through a window, 
North is embracing a young woman wearing tattered garments ; above their 
heads is the view of an avenue inscribed S^ James's Park. Cf. Gillray's 
Crumbs of Comfort^ No. 6027. 
12^X9X6 in. 

6792 The first Sketch for the CONCERTO COALITIONALE & infernale 

JSf [Sayers.] 

Published 2^^ April 1785 by Thomas Cornell Bruton Street 

Engraving. A concert by the leaders of the Opposition. Fox (1.), seated, 
plays the fiddle with gusto, looking towards Lord Surrey (centre), who 
plays the 'cello, turning to Fox. Fox stamps on a torn piece of music under 
his feet, inscribed God save [Gr]eat G[eorge] our King. On Surrey's 1. sits 
Lord North, blowing with a scowl the bassoon ; William Eden (r.) stands 
in profile to the 1., playing with a satisfied smile the Irish harp. Behind 
this first row of performers are Burke, Lord Derby, and Lord Stormont : 
Burke stands (1.) leaning forward and blowing the trumpet, his r. hand on 
his hip; Derby, full-face, plays the oboe; Lord Stormont (r.) blows the 
French horn. On the floor (centre), facing the players, is an open book of 
music inscribed Ballanamonioro (the refrain of a song by Captain Morris, 
* The words in italics have been added to the title in faint script. 



see No. 6795). Burke and North, the mouthpiece of the latter's bassoon 
representing the trunk of the elephant, recall the Burke and North of 
Sayers's Carlo Khan, see No. 6276. 

The Opposition violently opposed Pitt's Irish Propositions, exploiting 
the clamour against them both in England and Ireland, see No. 6785, &c. 
For the final form of the design see No. 6795. 
io|Xi2j in. 

6792 A An earlier impression without the words : *The first Sketch for* 
and 'Unpublished'. 


London published as the Act directs May 6'* 17 S 5 

Engraving. Sam House (r.) lies dead, dressed in a shroud and extended 
on a butt of beer. At his head (1.) kneels Fox, tears streaming down his face, 
holding out a handkerchief in his 1. hand. The scene is a cellar with low 
windows and a raftered ceiling. Beneath the title is etched : 

See poor Sam House extended on his Bier! 
Here end his AiVs while Charley brews a tear — . 

House, the Wardour Street publican, died on 23 Apr. 1785. Just before 
his death he was visited by Fox. Life and Political Opinions of the late 
Sam House [c. 1785], pp. 39-40. He kept open house for Fox during the 
Westminster Election, see No. 5696, &c., and index. 


Published 23 May 1785 by S. Hooper N^ 212 High Holborn^ & Sold 
at all Print & Pamphlet Shops in Town & Country. 

Engraving. Pitt stands in a street, attacked from all sides by maid- 
servants. On the 1. a fat cook attacks him with a spit, another woman uses 
a mop. On the r. a young woman throws at him the contents of the pan 
of a close-stool, another holds up a broom. Behind Pitt is a house showing 
three first-floor windows, two of which are blocked up, the word Com- 
mutation written across them. From the third a woman empties a chamber- 
pot on Pitt's head. On the r. is a shuttered shop, inscribed Retail. On the 
door is written Remo'ved to Dublin. Beneath the design is engraved : 

On Pretty Maids beware Will Pitt 
How taxes thou dost lay 
On Pretty Man 'twere far more fit 
All Folks do sing or say. 

The Cooks will Roast thee all alive 
The House Maids well will Scour thee 
The Chamber Maids will Jointly strive 
With Close Stool pan to Show'r thee, 



You sloped the Lights that God did give 
And Drench' d us with your Tea^ 
Such Commutation whilst we live 
No more Ah! may we see. 

On Retail Shops be no Tax laid 
They do the Poor Supply 
Nor Give to Ireland our Trade^ 
This is the Nations Cry, 

A comprehensive attack on Pitt's budgets of 1784 and 1785 and on the 
Irish Propositions, see No. 6785, &c. For the Window (or Commutation) 
Tax, see No. 6634, &c. For the proposed tax on employers of maidservants 
(2^. ()d.y with a maximum of 10s.) see Pari. Hist. xxv. 562 flF., Wraxall, 
Memoirs, 1884, iv. 122-4, ^^^ cf. the attacks on Sir Cecil Wray (No. 6475, 
&c.); for the Shop Tax see Pari. Hist. xxv. 778 ff. (23 May 1785); Ann. 
Reg.y 1785-6, p. 346. On 14 June there was a riot against the Shop Tax: 
Pitt was mobbed with cries of *No Shop Tax, no Irish Bill'. Shops were 
shuttered and decorated with hatchments, crape, and inscriptions, including 
'Removed to Ireland'. London Chronicle, 15 June 1785. For the Maid- 
servant Tax see also Nos. 6797, 6800, 6801, 6808, 6914, 6962, 7480. For 
the Shop Tax see No. 6798, &c., and for the combination of propaganda 
against the Irish Propositions and the Shop Tax see also Nos. 6798, 6799. 



Published y'' y^^ June 1785 by Thomas Cornell Bruton Street 

Engraving. A more elaborate version of No. 6792. Fox, Surrey, and 
North are drawn as in No. 6792, but are spaced to allow of additional 
figures. Between Fox and Surrey, Powys, the second violin, is seated on 
the ground, looking with an agonized expression (cf. No. 6413) towards 
Fox, the first violin. From Fox's pocket hangs a paper : Irish Propositions 
set to music for the White Boys. Burke is farther to the 1., blowing his 
trumpet with a deeper scowl. Lord Derby has been displaced from his 
central position for Lord Sandwich, seated in an arm-chair, holding a roll 
inscribed Catches & Glees with which he beats time, turning to the r. 
where Stormont blows the French horn as before. Farther to the r. Lord 
Carlisle, in profile to the 1., plays the clarinet (or hautboys). Derby, stand- 
ing between Burke and Sandwich, plays the pipe and tabor. Eden plays 
the Irish harp as before and in the same position, but at his feet is a squall- 
ing cat, watched contemptuously by a large dog whose collar is inscribed 
watch. Another dog howls with its fore-paws on the open music-book 
inscribed Ballanamonioro. On the extreme 1., in profil perdu to the 1., 
Portland is seated at the harpsichord; his music is also [B]allanamonioro. 
In the foreground (1.) is a fox, its collar inscribed Fox, standing on a kettle- 
drum, its cloth decorated with the Cavendish arms and motto, Cavendo 
tutus, and snarling at an overturned side-drum decorated with the royal 
arms ; this indicates Fox's attitude to the Crown and the support given to 
him by the Duchess of Devonshire. Other books of music, a cittern, &c., 
lie in the foreground. 



On a chimney-piece, behind Portland, is a bust, laurel-wreathed with 
a blank face, inscribed ovris; against it lean a lyre and a smiling mask. 
Two manuscripts hang down from the chimney-piece: Critique on the 
Rolliad and Probationary Odes for the Laureateship. These emblems 
signify the anonymity of the two famous political satires which went 
into several editions in 1785 after appearing in the Morni?ig Herald. 

On the back wall, above the heads of the performers, are (1. to r.) 
marrow-bones and cleavers, reminiscent of the bands of butchers who 
had supported Fox in the Westminster Election. Next is a framed picture : 
Fox beating a tambourine, North playing a clarinet to which dance per- 
forming dogs and a hare. In the centre is an oval bust portrait of the 
Prince of Wales, the frame inscribed Auspicium melioris Mvi (see No. 6771). 
The third depicts Fox leading a performing bear, while a man, resembling 
a bearded Jew, plays a hurdy-gurdy. On the extreme r. a legal wig is hung 
above a set of bagpipes ; it is inscribed New Wig [Whig] with the letters 
C.P\ on the bag are the letters PC, on one of the pipes 1745. They repre- 
sent Loughborough, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and his self- 
seeking changes of party (cf. No. 5287). 

A comprehensive attack on the Oppositian and their attitude to Pitt's 
Irish Propositions, see No. 6785, &c. The orchestra is playing Captain 
Morris's song, *The Treaty of Commerce*, a clever attack on the Proposi- 
tions put in the mouth of an Irishman; the refrain ends 'Ballinamona Ora, 
The Treaty of Commerce for me'. For the Whiteboys and their outrages 
in Ireland see Lecky, Hist, of England y ii. 198, 250, iv. 324 ff., vi. 408. 

A later state of No. 6795 A, with alterations and additions. 



Published 28^^ May lyS^ by Thomas Cornell Bruton Street 

Engraving. An unpublished^ state of No. 6795. In place of the chinmey- 
piece with the bust of Apollo, &c., is an open sash-window through which 
is seen a Jew (intended for Fox) turning the handle of a hurdy-gurdy 
strapped to his back. The two pictures which flank the portrait of the 
Prince are absent, the space on the 1. being partly filled by a violin and bow 
hanging from the wall. 


JSf 8'^ June 1785 [not published]^ 

Engraving. The trunk of a tree projects horizontally from a trestle on 
which it rests. Within its circumference is the head of Lord Sydney, in 
profile to the r., facing the point of an auger with which a judge (Lough- 
borough), whose head is in back-view, is boring into the transverse section 
of the log. The point of the auger is the smiling head of Lord Stormont, 
in profile facing downwards, the top of his wig being the point of contact. 
Two small stumps of branches are inscribed J*^ Proposi[tion] and 2'^ 
Proposition. After the title is etched, a hasty Sketch of yesterday's Business. 
A comment on the debate in the Lords of 7 June on the Irish Proposi- 

' Note by Miss Banks. 2 Note on print. 



tions (see No. 6785, &c.): Stormont attacked Sydney, asking him to inform 
the committee why the Government had abandoned the original eleven 
Propositions and substituted such very different ones. Loughborough 
supported Stormont who had been answered by Thurlow. Pari. Hist. 
XXV. 821 ff. Cf. No. 7623, where Stormont is *a boar or bore'. Lough- 
borough is generally depicted in back-view, wearing an elongated judge's 
wig, probably to indicate his political character. 

Small copy, Wright, Caricature Hist, of the Georges [1863], p. 407. 



[W. Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs^ by J. Nunn Queen Street^ June 18^^ lyS^ 

Engraving. A maidservant and a shopkeeper (1.) are being chased down- 
hill by Thurlow and Pitt and their pack of hounds. A signpost with two 
arms on the extreme 1. points To Prostitution y and To Poverty : a servant- 
maid runs in the former direction, a shopkeeper in the latter, saying. The 
Boy knows as little of Trade as he does of Maids or he would forbear to run 
us down with Taxes; his wig and hat fly from his head, and he is closely 
followed by a dog with the head and wig of Arden, Attorney-General, 
his collar inscribed Pepper. All the dogs but one have human heads; the 
exception is Junto ^ a greyhound sniffing at the petticoats of the woman. 
Behind him is a dog with two heads, the collar inscribed Joint T^ Curs; 
one takes in his teeth a mop which the woman trails behind her. They are 
George Rose and Thomas Steele, the Treasury Secretaries. The four 
other dogs are inscribed Chicken (Michael Angelo Taylor, see No. 6777), 
White Beary Limbs ^ and Jowler. The second is Lord Sydney (who is grinning 
delightedly), the third Carmarthen ; the fourth, in legal wig and gown, is 
Kenyon, saying, We^ll be no longer Teased and Tormented. Behind Pepper 
Arden, Thurlow, in his Chancellor's wig and gown, rides on the back of 
the Devil, one of whose horns he holds ; in his r. hand he brandishes a 
document inscribed Aristocracy ; he says : 

Away with Medium between Rich and Poor^ 
By G — d we'll ancient Vassalage restore 

Behind him and on the extreme r. Pitt rides Britannia, who advances, 
her hands and feet on the ground, saying : 

Thus the stubborn Youth goads me to the Heart 
Himself y as yety unconscious of the smart. 

Her shield is on the ground ; Pitt holds her by the hair and goads her with 
her own spear. 

For the tax on maidservants see No. 6794, &c. For the Shop Tax see 
No. 6798, &c. 

STAB RECEIV'D ON THE 13TH OF JUNE 1785. [c. June 1785] 

[? Collings.] 

Engraving. A scene near one of the City quays : empty warehouses on the 
r. ; dismantled ships in the background (1.) with brooms at their mastheads 



showing that they are for sale. Two men wearing aldermen's gowns carry 
on their shoulders the coffin of Trade which is covered by a tattered pall 
on which are the Royal Arms. The foremost (r.) resembles Sawbridge, 
who on 23 May attacked Pitt bitterly for the Shop Tax; the other, a fat 
man covering his face with a handkerchief, is probably Watkin Lewes, a 
Pittite who also spok against the tax, both being M.P.s for the City. 
Pari. Hist. xxv. 781, 787. 

In the foreground (1.) Britannia kneels at a fire which she blows with 
bellows, saying Alas! The fire is under a pot supported on three sticks; 
in it a shuttle and an implement for carding wool are burning. A broken 
spinning-wheel, her shield, and broken spear lie beside her. Behind is 
Hiberniay a meretricious-looking woman holding the Irish harp and flourish- 
ing a whip ; she drives before her the dejected British lion ; he is laden 
with bales of commerce and says / did not think it would come to this. The 
coffin of Trade is being carried towards a deep pit (r.) in the foreground, 
beside which stands a devil with the head of Pitt, holding a pitch-fork and 
saying to them. Bring all your Riches to my great Pitt. He is inscribed Pius 
the VII. A tattered flag hangs from the empty warehouses, which are 
inscribed Gone to Ireland (reversed). In the background, near the ships, 
is the shell of a ruined building, perhaps the Customs House. 

On 13 June the Shop Tax received the royal assent. Attacks on the tax 
are combined with the campaign against the Irish Propositions as in No. 
6794, &c., it being the tenor of the petitions, &c., that English trade and 
industries would be ruined by Irish competition. See No. 6785, &c. 
There was strong opposition to the tax in London and Westminster, and 
motions for its repeal were moved by Fox in 1786 (when it was reduced, 
see No. 6936), 1787, 1788, and in 1789, when Pitt agreed to its repeal. 
The tax was from dd. to 2s. in the pound of the rent (incorrectly given in 
the Ann. Reg., 1^84-3, p. 346, as is. to 2^.), Dowell, Hist, of Taxation, 1888, 
iii. 10-13. ^B'or its incidence cf. Pari. Hist. xxv. 1164 flP., xxvii. 1338 ff^. It 
was one of the chief electioneering cries of the Westminster Election of 
1788, cf. No. 7339. See also Nos. 6794, 6797, 6799, 6800, 6801, 6807, 6808, 
6813, 6814, 6914, 6936, 6940, 6962, 7132, 7136, 7158, 7305, 7386, 7480, 
7481, 7625, 7633. 
9 X 14 in. 


Published as the Act directs June 20 1785 by SyW, Fores A^" 3 Picadilly 

Engraving. A mob of shopkeepers (1.) attacks Pitt, who rides (1. to r.) a 
snorting bull (John Bull). He is seated facing the animal's tail, which he 
holds in his 1. hand, his raised r. arm flourishing a loop of rope. At his 
back is his Irish Bill. A signpost (r.) points To Dublin. Under the bull's 
hind legs are West^ Petet[ion]y Manche[ster] Petetion, and London Petetion. 
The snorting bull gallops from the mob which advances in close order from 
the 1. ; the men shout with faces of fury and hurl missiles. One brandishes 
a cat by the tail, saying : For his taxing of Shops III dowse this in his Chops. 
A butcher holding a cleaver says: M^ Pitt M' Pitt Yourself you'll 

Be /. They have two banners : No Shop Tax and No Tax on Maids, 

and a cap of Liberty on a pole. In the background are shuttered shops 
inscribed Those Shops to Lett enquire of M' Pitt ; in front of them on the 
pavement stand Fox and the Prince of Wales arm-in-arm (cf. No. 6041, 
&c.), grinning at the riot. 



On 14 June there was a riot in Westminster. Pitt was hooted as he left 
the House of Commons ; he was burnt in effigy at night, see No. 6798, &c. 
There were 64 petitions against the Irish Propositions. Rose, Pitt and 
National Revival, p. 257. See No. 6785, &c. For combined propaganda 
against the Shop Tax and the Propositions see No. 6794, &c. 


Published as the Act Directs, June 21'* lyS^ by T, Woodman & 
H MutlozUy Russel Court, Covent Garden, 

Engraving. Pitt (1.), seated at a table, shrinks back in horror at the ghost 
of Chatham. Chatham appears (r.) from among clouds, emitting rays 
which reach across the room ; his r. hand is raised admonishingly, in his 1. 
is a birch-rod. Beneath the title is engraved : 

Spirit. What art thou doing degenerate Boy ? 

Billy. Take any shape but that, and my firm nerves shall never tremble 

Pitt's pen drops from his hand, his hair rises on his head ; on his writing- 
table (r.) are documents: Tax on Women Servants; on Windows, and Tax 
on Retail Shops. Under the table is a bag inscribed The Budget, from which 
emerges a paper. Tax on Gloves. Under Pitt's feet are Manchester Petition, 
Birmingham Petition (cf. No. 6799), and Irish Propositions. Beside them is 
a bundle of papers inscribed An Account of y^ Rents of Houses with more 
effectual means of oppressing the people. Behind Pitt's chair (1.) is a box 
inscribed Money for those who vote as I please. 

The Glove Tax was from id. to 3^. a pair according to the cost, see 
No. 6801. For the other taxes see Nos. 6794, &c. (servants), 6634, &c. 
(windows), 6798, &c. (shops), and for the Irish Propositions No. 6785, &c. 


Published as the Act Directs, July r^ lyS^ by J. Marshall N"* g6 
Greenchurch Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Design in an oval. Illustration to verses 
(a parody of John Gilpin) printed in five columns beneath the plate. Pitt, 
with arms outstretched, staggers back against a fir-tree as a farmer (1.) 
fires point-blank from the door of his house. From the bag which falls 
from his broken belt documents, inscribed Hawkers & Pedlars (Tedlars' 
scored through), Gloves, fall to the ground. Two cats (1.) worry a paper 
inscribed Tax on Retail Shops. A goose (r.) runs off with Tax on Maids ; 
three dogs scamper off, the foremost (r.) holding Irish Propositions in his 
mouth. Two women look down from a casement window. In the back- 
ground (r.) is Pitt's carriage. The title continues : Who, John Gilpin like, 
ran a greater Risk than he intended, and came home safe at last. 
The verses describe the adventure alluded to in The Rolliad: 

How, as he wander'd darkling o'er the plain, 
His reason drown'd in Jenkinson^s champagne, 
A rustic's hand, but righteous fate withstood, 
Had shed a Premier's for a robber's blood. 



Pitt and Wilberforce are described as dining with *Daddy J n* to 

concert a plan, 

"To crush the Poor, and save the Rich, 
"For which he is the Man". 

On their return they lose their way, inquire of a farmer, who refuses to 
believe that Pitt is 'Chatham's son*, and fires at them; the bullet breaks the 
belt round Pitt's waist, his Irish Propositions and Taxes fall to the ground, 
and he is only saved from falling by a 'foreign fir'. The theme is that of 
secret influence and of evil intentions behind the Irish Propositions and 
the taxes. Pitt says to Jenkinson : 

"To secret influence I owe 

"The power I possess: 
" 'Twas you that shew'd me the Back-Stairs, 

"And duty I profess. 

The 'foreign fir' appears to indicate Scottish influence : 

"My Parent B [Bute] whose Scottish mind, 

"No injury ere forgave, 
"Asserted once, and kept his word, 

"That London he'd enslave. 

(an allusion to the Shop Tax). 

For the incident when Pitt was mistaken for a robber and fired at, see 
Wraxall, Memoirs y 1884, iii. 220 and n. ; the verses support the contention 
of the Quarterly reviewer (xiii. 211). It was the subject of a song by 
Captain Morris, Billy Pitt and the Farmer. For the Shop Tax see No. 
6798, &c. ; for the Glove Tax, Nos. 6800, 6962, 7305 ; for the tax on maid- 
servants, No. 6794, &c.; for the Irish Propositions, No. 6785, &c. For 
Pitt and secret influence see No. 6417, &c. 

An imitation of the illustrated broadsides of John Gilpin, see No. 
6886, &c. 
7i®6X9i6 ii^- Broadside, I7ix io|| in. 


JSf, [Sayers.] 

Puhl^ by Th(f Cornell 2 2"^ July lyS^ 

Engraving. Lord Sackville advances in profile to the 1., declaiming, 1. knee 
raised as if climbing a citadel, 1. hand on his breast, holding up in his 
r. hand a cylindrical roll resembling a document, but inscribed Telum 
imbelky symbolizing his unsoldierly conduct at Minden. His feet are cut 
off^ by the lower margin. Behind and below him (r.) are the grinning heads 
of Lord Stormont and Lord Derby, saying Hear Hear Hear. Sackville 
faces a flag inscribed Irish [Propositions ^ above which is a dove with an 
olive-branch, symbolizing the reconciliation between the Opposition and 
Sackville, who is supposed to be acting under their orders. Below the 
design is etched : 

Head Quarters Brookes' s^ 18^^ July 1785 
You are to attack the Enemy's Propositions at six o'Clock this evening [Fox] 



To [Sackville] 

The signature and address are represented by strokes of erasure, see 
No. 6802 A. 

Beneath the plate is written in an old hand ( ? Sayers') : 

When France our Arms at Minden tried 
Gainst France opposd on Mindens plain^ 
When [erased] And Brunswick gave the Word 
Bid Sackville bring his pow'r he cried 
The Noble Lord demurr'd 
Pitt's propositions now the foe 
He boldly mounts the Breach 
Obeys Command & aims a Blow 
With all his pow'r, — of Speech. 

On 18 July Lord Sackville created a sensation by reappearing in the 
Lords to oppose the Irish Propositions. He had virtually retired from 
politics on his dismissal on the eve of North's fall in 1782, but had sup- 
ported Pitt against the Coalition. Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iv. 157-62, 
where this print is described ; Pari. Hist. xxv. 873-6. For the Propositions 
see No. 6785, &c. For attacks on Sackville for Minden, cf. Nos. 3680, 
5961, &c. 
6x5! in. 

6802 A Another version, with the same imprint, closely resembling No. 
6802, but on a larger plate. Under the marks of erasure Fox is just legible 
as signature, Sackville in the address. Beneath the design is etched : 

Opposed to France on Minden' s Plain 
When Brunswick gave the Wordy 
** Bring all your Power my L**d G*******" [Germaine] 
The noble Lord demurred; 
PitVs Propositions now the Foe 
He boldly mounts the Breach 
Obeys Command and strikes his blow 
With all his Power . . . of Speech 



EHP Eliz^ Hen*'' Phelps, pinx^ W^ Phelps Ini^ F Jukes Sculps 
London, Published as the Act Directs, by W"" Phelps, July i. 1785. 

Aquatint. The title is engraved on the facade of a one-storied, flat-roofed 
building, decorated with pilasters. Beneath the design is engraved: An 
Historical, Emblematical, Patriotical, and Political Print, representing the 
English Balloon, or National Debt in the year iy82, with a full View of the 
Stock Exchange, and its supporters the Financiers Bulls, Bears, Brokers, 
Lame Ducks, and others, and a proportionate Ball of Gold, the specific size 
of all the Money we have to pay it with supposing that to be Twenty Millions 
of Pounds sterling, the Gold and Silver Trees entwined with Serpents, & 
upheld by Dragons, for the pleasure of Pluto & all his Bosom Friends, 
' This line is erased, the first line having been written above it. 



On the roof of the building a large globe (the debt) is supported on the 
shoulders of two bears and two bulls, all with human heads, representing 
the bulls and bears of the Stock Exchange. A much smaller globe within 
it represents the £20,000,000. The globes are framed in a twisted pillar, 
rising from each corner of the roof and turning to form an arch over the 
globe. The pillar is covered with conventional foliage and flowers and 
entwined with two serpents with women *s heads; above these are two 
winged dragons with men's heads wearing crowns ; these dart out barbed 
tongues and look up at a winged man wearing Roman armour and holding a 
key who stands on the globe. In the clouds in the upper 1. corner of the 
print is forked lightning. Beneath it is a small winged figure of Fame 
blowing a trumpet and holding an olive-branch. In the distance, behind 
the Stock Exchange building, and seen above its roof, is a landscape with 
a poverty-stricken woman with two children (r.), and a ruinous building (1.). 

This emblematical design is inset in a realistic street-scene with houses. 
On the pavement, in front of the Stock Exchange and of an adjacent 
stationer's shop (r.), well-dressed citizens are walking or standing in con- 
versation. Three have webbed feet, showing that they are *lame ducks', 
see Nos. 5835, 6273; they walk off to the 1. 

A satire on the large national debt and on stock-jobbing. The stock- 
brokers met at New Jonathan's Coffee House in Change Alley, re-named 
Stock Exchange in 1773 when the name was written over the door. A new 
building was opened in 1802. Wheatley, London. 
i8j^gXi4i in. 



Pu¥July 3&^ iy85. by W Humphrey. Strand 

A reissue (coloured and uncoloured impressions) of No. 6015 (1782) with 
an altered publication-line. Cf. No. 6774. 

JSf [Bayers.] 

Pu¥ r^ August 1785 by Thcf Cornel Bruton Street 

Engraving. Fox (1.) standing on English soil, and Hervey, Bishop of Deny 
(r.), standing on land representing Ireland, embrace across a narrow piece 
of water inscribed S^ George's Channel. The bishop resembles, and is 
probably copied from, the figure in No. 6654, &c. His r. hand holds up 
a burning brand, his 1. is on Fox's shoulder. Fox's profile is hidden behind 
that of the bishop ; in his outstretched 1. hand is a burning brand held 
horizontally above burning buildings which are sketched on the r. of the 
design (in Ireland). Behind Fox is a building resembling St. Paul's, above 
which are heavy clouds. In the channel are ships. 

Fox, having denounced the original Irish Propositions as ruinous to 
British trade, attacked the altered and additional Propositions framed 
to meet the British objections, as damaging to Ireland's prosperity, an 
infringement of her legislative independence, and therefore fatal to her 
liberty. See the lengthy debate of 12 May, Pari. Hist. xxv. 575-778; Fox 
said (p. 778), *I will not barter English commerce for Irish slavery.' Such 
speeches set Ireland aflame; the altered Propositions, passed in England 



(18 July), roused such violent clamour in Ireland that they were dropped. 
Rose, Pitt and National Revival^ 191 1, pp- 260-6; Memoirs of Grattan^ 
1 84 1, iii. 238 if. For the Propositions in their original and final forms see 
ibid., pp. 489 ff. For Fox and Ireland see No. 6659, &c.; for the Proposi- 
tions No. 6785, &c. 


s d 
Plain 6id Colour'' d 1:1 

Engraving. Apparently an Irish print. ^ Two ships, the Britannia (1.) 
and the Hibernia (r.), lie side by side, their sterns towards the spectator. 
Tattered sails blow from the Hibernians broken masts. On the flag in her 
stern is an Irish harp and the words Bound for Commerce. On board, a 
starving and ragged weaver dangles a shuttle, saying. Their Cruel Restric- 
tion has caused my Affliction ; a spinning-wheel with a broken thread stands 
near him. Beside him (r.) is an alert Irish Volunteer holding a musket and 
saying, Wee are Determined to be Redressed. In the centre of the ship another 
volunteer, holding a bayoneted musket, says, Nish na Gaugh Braugh (cf. 
No. 5572). Pitt stands (1.) in the stern of the Britannia^ saying, / dread the 
Storm the Padys are Resolute. Next him is a Scot in tartan (probably 
Dundas, perhaps Bute), saying, Dinna mind 'em lads the K- -gis oor friend; 
through a window below is seen the head of the king. Three men on the 
deck look towards the Hibemiay pushing her off with poles : one says Wee 
of Bristol will ever Oppose you^ another Manchester Lads will Back you ; the 
third Sheffield also. The poles keep the shutters over the port-holes of the 
Hibernia closed. From a port-hole of the Britannia (I.) protrude cylindrical 
rolls inscribed Woollen Cloth and &c &c. Between the two vessels is a 
small ship's boat in which are three men. One, dressed as an Irish Volunteer, 
endeavours to raise the shutters of the port-hole which the pole of the 
Bristol man keeps shut ; he says. Open Ports and Free Trade^ or (cf. No. 
5572). The second man, folding his arms, looks towards the Britannia^ 
saying. Now isy' Time Boys All or none wee will be Free — . The Britannia's 
flag is a Union Jack, inscribed The Emblem. 

An attack on the Irish Propositions (to give Ireland trading advantages), 
see No. 6785, &c., which confuses the points at issue. The starving weaver 
would be more appropriate in a print on the Irish demand for protection 
in 1784, cf. No. 6647. The demand for open ports and free trade appears 
reminiscent of 1779, cf. No. 5572. Woodfall wrote from Dublin, 16 Aug., 
of the illuminations and ecstasy at the defeat of the Propositions, 'though, 
God knows, the people, both within doors and without, seem to be as yet 
pretty much in the dark as to the real import and bearing of the business 
which they have so hastily disposed of*. Auckland Correspondence ^ 
1861, i. 83. 


[i Aug. 1785] 
Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine. A design in two compartments, 
the 1. inscribed 1785, the r., 1784. On the 1. is a street scene; Pitt is being 

* No. 5488 (1778), an Irish print, also cost b^d. 



mobbed. A glazier attacks him from the 1., a butcher (r.) standing in front 
of his shop is about to smite him with a leg of mutton. From a first-floor 
balcony a servant-maid urinates upon him and threatens him with a mop. 
She is being egged on by Fox who stands beside her. 

On the r. is a city feast ; Pitt stands at the table making a speech, citizens 
listen attentively. 

Pitt's unpopularity in the City owing to the Shop Tax is contrasted 
with his popularity in 1784, notably when he was entertained by the 
Grocers' Company, see No. 6442, &c. Pitt was actually hooted and burnt 
in effigy on 15 June on account of the tax. London Chronicle ^ 16 June 1785. 
For the tax see No. 6798, &c. For Pitt and the City cf. No. 6813. 


Printed as the Act directs for the Author y and sold by E. Rich, Book- 
seller y No. S^y Fleet-Streety August lOy 1785, Price Six-pence. 
Engraving. Heading to verses printed in three columns. Pitt stands full- 
face, extending his arms towards Dundas (1.) and George HI (r.). Two 
labels issue from his mouth : 

Alas! my Dundas 
You^ve made me an Ass. 

O George Fve hurt your Reputation 
And lost my own throughout the Nation. 

The verses attack Pitt for the Shop Tax and the tax on maidservants. 
The shopkeepers, *a discontented race', are advised: 

With-hold your slanders, lest they tax your tongues. 
Let Pitty FoXy ThurloWy Burke have sov 'reign sway, 
Inferior souls were only born to obey. 

The closed shops are mentioned: 

While some did write, to shew their wicked wit, 
These shops to letty enquire of M' Pitt! 

But that's not all the wretches have to rue, 

For see in effigy expos 'd to view — 

Great Chatham's son, all clad in sable hue! 

For the Shop Tax see No. 6798, &c. ; for the tax on maids, No. 6794, &c. 
3I X 5^ in. Broadside, 14J X 9 J in. 


London: Printed for J. WalliSy No. 16 Lugate Street y August 25, 1785, 

Engraving. Heading to Fitzgibbon's speech, printed in three columns. 
John Fitzgibbon (1.), in legal wig and gown, stands resting his r. hand on 
a table on which are documents. His r. hand, holding a roll inscribed 
PropositionSy points at Grattan, who is about to leave the room (which has 



no resemblance to the Irish House of Commons) by a door on the r. 
Between Fitzgibbon and Grattan, Flood lies on his back, saying, / can 
stand no longer. Grattan, holding a paper inscribed 30yOOo£y says, Alas 
poor Floody I see you're down, so I'll e'en take my self off , with what I've got. 
On 15 Aug. Orde presented the Bill for the Irish Propositions in the 
Irish House of Commons, but abandoned it since its fate had been sealed 
in the debate of 12 Aug. It was, however, violently attacked by Flood and 
Grattan and defended by Fitzgibbon ; the theme of the speech was that 
the Bill was highly advantageous to Ireland and that 'if Ireland seeks to 
quarrel with England she is a besotted nation'. The debate was memorable 
as the first time Flood and Grattan had spoken together since their 
notorious altercation in 1783 (see No. 6272), Auckland Journal and Corre- 
spondence, i. 82. Grattan 's ^30,000^ is intended for the ,£50,000 voted to 
him by the Irish Parliament in 1782, see No. 6003. For the Irish Proposi- 
tions see No. 6785, &c., and cf. No. 6810. 
4iX7i|in. Broadside, 1 6|X9f in. 



Pu¥ as the Act directs, by Moorey Bond Street. Aug^ 30^^ ^7^5- 

Engraving. A number of barber's blocks (for wigs) with human faces lie 
on the floor, where they are being overturned by a fox (Fox), who pushes 
over with his paw one of Pitt, inscribed Af P. He says, Heavens! what a 
pretty little Figure! what a pity that it should want Brains. Behind him (r.) 
is a counter on which stand two blocks, one, Thurlow, inscribed Wool- 
sack, being the largest of all. Facing him is a man wearing a legal wig 
inscribed Teased; he resembles Camden (supposed to have been induced 
to support Pitt by his son). Two blocks hang on a string from a nail, back 
to back in profile. The r.. Chicken, is Michael Angelo Taylor (see No. 
6777), the other is inscribed Hawk ( ? Lord Hawke). The other blocks lie 
on the floor, overturned; they represent the leading Ministerialists but 
many cannot be identified with certainty. Next Pitt is Dundas, inscribed 

M' D. The others (1. to r.) are L^ M n. (Mahon); L<^ W; M. of G. 

(Marquis of Graham) ; L'^ M (Mulgrave) ; M of C (Marquis of Carmarthen, 
his head entirely hidden) ; D of R (Duke of Richmond) ; Af iS ( ? Robert 
Smith, afterwards Lord Carrington, M.P. for Nottingham, cf. Wraxall 
Memoirs, 1884, iii- 399 ^•^) 5 ^^ ^- (head hidden, ? Lord Galloway) ; SirL. K. 
(Lloyd Kenyon, Master of the Rolls) ; M^ R. (head hidden, ? George 
Rose^) ; A.G (Pepper Arden, the Attorney-General) ; L^ S. (Lord Sydney) ; 
L'^ H (Lord Hood); S.G. (face concealed, Archibald Macdonald, the 
Solicitor-General). In the background (1.) is a door over which is a placard, 
Master Jenky, Block provider to his M y NB Wanted a fresh assort- 
ment of Blocks for immediate use. 

A satire on the Ministry, alleged to be puppets of Jenkinson, the tool of 
the Crown, cf. No. 6417, &c. Camden and Thurlow (cf. No. 6644) appear 
to escape overthrow by Fox. For the 'Propositions rejected' see No. 6809. 

^ The first figure might conceivably be 5. ^ Or Steele, Rose's colleague. 

3 Dudley Ryder or Rolle would also be possible, but the concealed head suggests 
the secret influence of the Treasury, 

241 R 



I Sept. 1785. 

Engraving. PL to the Rambler's Magazine^ iii. 300. Engraving. The 
Prince of Wales, seated on a settee, reads a book, his arm round the 
shoulders of a courtesan. Two other courtesans, each with a man (one 
being Fox) appear to be listening to them. A wine-bottle and glasses are 
on a small table. On the wall is a bust portrait of George III. This illus- 
trates *A colloquy or reading M''^ Erringtons Trial for Adultery*, pp. 300-1 
(B.M.L., 518, c. 15/4), see Nos. 6826, 6832. 

For Fox and the Prince of Wales, see No. 6401, &c.; for the Prince as 
Florizel, No. 5767. 

5ftX3fin. B.M.L., P.C. 

W.D [Dent.] 

Pu¥ as the Act directs, by J, Nunn, Great Queen Street, Sep" 5'* 

Engraving. Fox and North descend by a parachute from a balloon, only 
the lower part of which is visible ; it is inscribed Carlo Khan's East India 
Bill Ascended Dec^ 1783. The parachute, descending from a short rope 
hanging from the balloon, is in the form of an umbrella with an anchor, 
emblem of hope, attached to it by three ropes. Fox (1.) and North (r.) 
stand on the fluke of the anchor, supporting themselves by its stock and 
by the side-ropes which attach it to the covering of the parachute. The 
stock is inscribed, This Gleam of Hope with Mess^^ Floods Gratten & Go's 
Compliments to the Coalition. Immediately beneath them is a seat inscribed 
Treasury Bench, to which Fox points with a satisfied smile. North also 
looks down smiling. The parachute is inscribed Irish Propositions. Across 
the lower part of the print is etched : 

Death blow to their Hopes. The loss of Public Confidence, not restored by 
misleading the public opinion, and overthrowing the Propositions by gross 

The Opposition in the British Parliament contended that the Propositions 
would ruin the Manufacturers of this Country. 

The Same Party insisted, in Ireland, that the Propositions would ruin the 
Manufacturers of that Country. 

The Coalition hoped to recover the disaster caused by the India Bill, see 
No. 6271, &c., by their defeat of Pitt's Irish Propositions, see No. 6785, &c. 
The Opposition, by misrepresenting the Irish Propositions as ruinous to 
England, obtained alterations in protection of British trade; they then 
maintained that *a regulation of commerce, purporting to be equal, may 
be advantageous to a rich country, and ruinous to a poor one'. Pari. Hist. 
XXV. 95 1 . But the theme that the Propositions were destructive of Ireland's 
newly acquired liberty was that which was used with the most deadly 
effect, see No. 6809. For Fox and Ireland cf. No. 6659. 

The first parachute experiment was that of Blanchard, in London, 
2 June 1785, who dropped one attached to a dog. 





[W Dent] Designed by Corporation Executed by Merry 

Pu¥ as the Act directs by J. Nunn, Great Queen Street, Oct. 6'*, 1785. 

Engraving. A man in armour, the 'City Champion', attacks a number of 
others who fall in a heap (1.) covered with black spots representing the 
stains caused by an inkpot which has been thrown at them. Behind the 
champion (r.) is a small overturned table under which lies a man, also 
covered with ink-stains and shouting Remember^ Sir, We are on the King^s 
Commission. The Champion is about to hurl a long, narrow book inscribed 
Assess Book; on his 1. arm is a shield with the City Arms and the motto 
No Shop Tax. He says, Avaunt ye Judas's and betrayers of the People — 
turn out ye busy mischief-making Monkies — how dare you meet in our Hall to 
enforce your odious Shop Tax — out ye money Changers — I say turn out ye 
Monkies — . One of the overthrown commissioners says: Whereas the 
Marshal? Fll charge you with an assault and battery. Another, running 
away (1.), says, He looks as dreadful as the Black Prince. On the floor are 
books, inkpot, torn papers, &c. The fracas takes place on a platform (the 
hustings at Guildhall). Just below it, in the foreground, are the heads of 
spectators ; Wilkes looking through a spy-glass is on the extreme 1. Two 
lawyers face each other in profile, one (Fielding) saying. Sir, its disturbing 
the King's Peace, the other (Garrow), Sir, there can be no riot — there's but 
one person — . On the extreme r. two grinning cits say to each other. Let 
them go to Grocers hall — will they treat them as they did plumb-pudding 
Billy? (see No. 6471), and No, No, the Wind is changed (cf. No. 6807). 
Beneath the title is etched. Dedicated to the Armourers and Braziers Com- 
pany Bella, horrida bella! Below are verses : 

To grind the Cits, and serve themselves. 
Assembled were some courtly Elves; 
"No Tax on Shops" the roof resounds, 
And Merry great with fury bounds — 
Attacks the Groupe with horrid yell — 
Repuls'd by Andrews — Merry fell — 
No sooner down than up again, 
Resolvd the Battle to obtain. 
He boxes hence the Assessors, 
Become, by first blow, aggressors. 
Now books and papers on them fall. 
And huge Inkstands discharge their gall; 
When lo! they lie, for Billy's good. 
Besmeared with Ink instead of blood. 
And Merry roars ''Whilst I can fight", 
**Pll e'er defend the City's right." 

The opposition to the Shop Tax in the City had been led by John Merry, 
a Common Councillor of Bishopsgate Ward. On 26 Sept. (after many 
adjournments and much discussion) the Commissioners of the Land Tax, 
ex officio Commissioners of the Shop Tax, met at Guildhall, found them- 
selves locked out of all rooms by order of the Court of Common Council, 
therefore adjourned to the hustings of the Hall. They were interrupted by 
Merry, to whom one Andrews called out, 'Sir, we are executing the King's 
Commission.' Merry answered 'You have no business here', seized the 



minute-book and threw it into the Hall, was seized by the Commissioners 
and forced from the hustings, but reascended to it and hurled the inkpot 
at the Commissioners, who gave him in charge of the City Marshal. The 
City Quarter Sessions were taking place ; Merry was charged with assault : 
the Commissioners procured Fielding (probably William, Henry's son). 
Merry obtained Garrow — after a long hearing the matter was dismissed 
by the Mayor. London Chronicle y 28 Sept. 1785. For the Shop Tax see 
No. 6798, &c. 


[i Dec. 1785] 

Engraving. From the Rambler^s Magazine. A riot in a London street. 
A collector with his book stands in the foreground, a citizen kneels implor- 
ingly at his feet, a maidservant attacks him with a mop, another pours 
from a window the contents of a chamber-pot on his head. A more 
copious stream descends from an upper window; a cat, stones, &c., fly 
through the air. Men with clubs and banners run towards him; the 
banners are inscribed No Shop Tax and No Pitt. An open book. Shop Tax^ 
lies at the collector's feet. For the Shop Tax see No. 6798, &c. 




London Printed & Published, 21 Dec. lyS^ by W. Hinton AT" 5 
Sweetings Alley Royal Exchange. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). William Eden (r.) 
rushes towards Benedict Arnold (1.) who receives him with open arms. 
Eden's r. hand, holding a pen, is on his breast, in his 1. he holds out a 
paper inscribed Liberty. From his coat-pocket three documents protrude : 
Commissi to America^ £6^000 p' Annunty and Commerce Negotiator to 
France. Arnold, in regimentals, wearing a hat and holding a sword in his 
r. hand, is saying Liberty^ his eyes turned sanctimoniously upwards. 
Across the design is etched : NB every Man has his Price S^ Ro¥ Walpole's 
Politicks. Beneath the design is etched : 

Two Patriots {in the self same Age was Born,) 

And both alike have gain'd the Public scorn, 

This to America did much pretend. 

The other was to Ireland a Friend, 

Yet Sword, or Oratory, would not do. 

As each had different Plans in Veiw, 

America lost! Arnold, & Alassf 

To loose our Eden now is come to pass. 

Eden, on account of his ability in conunercial and financial questions, 
was asked by Pitt to negotiate the Commercial Treaty with France (see 
No. 6995, &c.) as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 
Auckland Correspondence, i. 86 ff. His apostasy is compared to that of 
Arnold, see No. 6173. See Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iv. 243-5; Rose, 
Pitt and National Revival, 191 1, p. 230 f. Cf. Billy Eden or the Renegado 



Scout in Asylum for Fugitive Pieces, ii, 1786, p. 268 f., one of many squibs 
on Eden for accepting office. For the title cf. Rondeau beginning: *0f 
Eden lost, in ancient days', ibid., p. 170. He was already regarded as a 
time-server, cf. the ironical advice (put into Loughborough's mouth) to 
go on 'attacking Pitt's measures, and he may be bought off by a place'. 
Rambler's Magazine, ii. 319 (Aug. 1784). Eden w^as one of the Com- 
missioners to America in 1778, see No. 5473, &c. He had been one of the 
ablest opponents of the Irish Propositions, see No. 6795. 
8fxi2f in. 


PuhlisKdforJ. Ridgway N" ig6 Piccadilly 1785. 

Engraving. Frontispiece from the 2nd ( ?) edition of The Rolliad, see No. 
6817. A burlesque genealogical tree (the title being his supposed motto: 
he puts forth leaves through the honour of his ancestors) for John Rolle, 
M.P. for Devon. His supposed ancestor, Rollo of Normandy, lies on the 
ground wearing armour, a sword and ducal coronet beside him; from his 
body ascends the stem of the family tree, with fourteen circles culminating 
in the one enclosing J^oAw Rolle, Member for Devonshire 1785. 


Printed for James Ridgway, opposite Sackville-street, Piccadilly. 

Engraving. The supposed coat of arms of John Rolle, see No. 6816. An 
escutcheon with the motto Jouez hien voire role. On it are three French 
rolls and two rolled documents. The crest is a H.L. portrait of Lloyd 
Kenyon, the Master of the Rolls, to whom the volume is dedicated 
(pp. vii-xix) in a postscript originally added to the 8th number: 

Behold the Engraver's mimic labours trace 
The sober image of that sapient face 

In this dedication Kenyon is viciously attacked as responsible for the 
Westminster Scrutiny. (See No. 6553, &c.) 

3iX3iin. (pL). 


Published by E. Jackson Mary le bone Street 

Engraving. Pitt lies prone on a whipping-block ; Fox (1.) holds up his coat- 
tails in his 1. hand, while he raises a birch-rod in his r., Pitt's bare posteriors 
being much scarred. Pitt says. This is a question of feeling not ArgumK 

Probably a satire on the successful opposition to Pitt by Fox in 1785 
over the Scrutiny, see No. 6553, &c., and the Irish Propositions, No. 6785, 
&c. Cf. No. 6775. 




Series of Tete-a-tite Portraits 

[MRS G M.] [i Jan. 1785] 


Engraving. Town and Country Magazine^ xvi. 625. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete annexed . . .*. An 
account of Lord Foley, called Lord Balloon from the abortive balloon- 
ascent in the garden of Foley House, see No. 6702, &c. After his wife's 

death he established Mrs. G m in a house in Marylebone. She had 

been a strolling actress; being destitute on her husband's death, 'she was 
a constant prey to pimps and tally women' until she met Lord Foley. 

The plate is missing from the B.M. copy of the magazine, and also from 
the Hibernian Magazine. 

B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

6819 N° XXXVH. MRS H . 


London, PuhlisKdJany 14; 178 5, by A, Hamilton JuW Fleet Street. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvi. 681. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. An account of 
Hervey, bishop of Derry, the portrait resembling, and probably copied 
from, that of No. 6654, &c. His politics are attributed to patriotism. His 
amours with ladies of rank (whose names are spared) are justified by 
separation from his wife. Mrs. H. does not attempt to conceal her attach- 
ment ; she is separated from her husband, a clergyman. 
Ovals, 2|X2 in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

6820 N° II. MISS PH— LP— T. 


London, Published by A. Hamilton Jun' Fleet Street Febv i; 1785. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvii. 9. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. An account of 
the Marquis of Carmarthen. Miss Philpot made her mark as a courtesan 
at Marylebone Gardens and impressed Carmarthen at Brighton as she 
came from bathing. 
Ovals, 2ft X 2 in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


London, Published by A. Hamilton Jun"" Fleet Street, March i; 1785. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvii. 65. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. He is a man of 



wealth and fashion who after a career of intrigue with women of fashion 
married a dowager countess. He is Andrew Stoney (afterwards Bowes), 
she is Lucy Raymond, a courtesan. He is the subject of another Tete-a- 
titey see No. 7192. 
Ovals, 2|X2 in. B.M.L., P.P. 2442 b. 

6822 N° VH. MISS W— LP— LE 


London, Published by A. Hamilton Jun^ Fleet Street, April i; 1785. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvii. 121. Two bust portraits in 
oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. A favourable 
account of the Due de Chartres, his Anglomania and English servants. 
At Ranelagh he met Polly Walpole whose rich city lover visited her at 
week-ends only. He is the subject of another THe-a-tite, see No. 6679. 
Ovals, 2| X 2i^g in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

6823 N° X. HON. MRS F 


London, Published by A. Hamilton Jun^ Fleet Street May 2; 1785, 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvii. 177. Two bust portraits 
in oval frames illustrate * Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. An account 
of Charles Henry Mordaunt, 5th Earl of Peterborough (1758-1814), and 
of his father's amours, see No. 5418. After an attachment to an opera 

dancer he became the lover of *M^^ F ', i.e. Lady Anne Foley, wife of 

the Hon. Edward Foley, daughter of Lord Coventry. The liaison caused 

a trial for crim. con. in 1785 (B.M.L., 518, 1. 12/2). 

Ovals, 2^X 2xV» 2i®6X 2 in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


London, Published June i; 1785, by A. Hamilton Jun^ Fleet Street. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvii. 233. Two bust portraits 
in oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. An account of 
a naval officer who has had no opportunities of displaying his courage, a 
Ministerial M.P. with 'the greatest number of boroughs in the kingdom at 
his command'. Identified by H. Bleackley as Hugh Pigot; this appears 
to be correct, but Pigot, M.P. for Bridgnorth from 1777 to 1784, was one 
of Fox's martyrs. For Pigot see vol. v. He had been a captain at the 
taking of Louisbourg (1758) and Quebec (1759). ^^s. Wentworth is a 
noted demi-mondaine whom the Admiral has established in a country 
villa with vis-a-vis and servants. 
Ovals, 2^Q X z^Q in. ; 2f X 2 in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

6825 N° XVI. LEONORA. 

London, Published by A. Hamilton Jun"" Fleet Street, July i; 1785. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvii. 289. Two bust portraits 
in oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. An account 



of an Irish peer, a companion of Burke, complimented by Johnson on his 
extensive reading, a benefactor to Goldsmith, embarrassed by losses at cards. 
Leonora is the daughter of a watchmaker, who visits him at his villa a few 
miles beyond Westminster Bridge. Evidently Lord Charlemont. 
Ovals, 2f X 2i^g in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


Puhlishd by T: Walker N'' yg Dame Street^ 

Engraving. Hihernian Magazine, 1785, p. 420. Two bust portraits illus- 
trate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. An account of Mrs. Errington 
and Captain Buckley, cf. Nos. 681 1, 6832. 
2JX2J in. B.M.L., P.P. 6154 b. 



London, Published by A. Hamilton, Jun' Fleet Street, Sep' i; iyS$, 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvii. 401. Two bust portraits 
in oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .*. An account 
of Martin Bladen Hawke, 2nd Baron Hawke, son of Lord Hawke, K.B. 

He lived at 14 Bloomsbury Square. Mrs. H n is a courtesan *for some 

time known as the summit of the impures'. 

Ovals, 2f X 2 in. ; z^^ X 2 J in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


London, Publish' d by A. Hamilton Jun' Fleet Street, OcV i; 1785, 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvii. 457. Two bust portraits 
in oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .*. An account 
of an Irishman, noted for his hospitality, the reputed lover of many women 
of fashion, who at one time was said to keep one of the largest and best 
studs in Europe. Mrs. Hastings, the daughter of a Roman Catholic 
gentleman of Lancashire, is the victim of a bogus marriage. 
Ovals, 3 X 2j in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 


London, Published by A. Hamilton Jun' Fleet Street, Nov"" i; 1785. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvii. 513. Two bust portraits 
in oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .'. An account 
of Charles Howard, loth Duke of Norfolk (1720-86). His amorous dis- 
position has developed only since the death of his wife (1784). Miss Jarvis, 
a Roman Catholic, is descended from a good Norfolk family, but was forced 
by destitution to become a courtesan. 
Ovals, 3 X 2 J in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

' The plate is missing from the B.M.L. copy of the Town and Country Magazine, 
p. 345. 




London, Published by A. Hamilton Jun* Fleet Street 1 DeC": 1785. 

Engraving. Town and Country Magazine, xvii. 569. Two bust portraits 

in oval frames illustrate 'Histories of the Tete-a-Tete . . .*. An account 

of Cardinal de Rohan and Mme de la Motte, and the affair of the diamond 


Ovals, 3 X 2 J in. B.M.L., P.P. 5442 b. 

DISE TO THE PRINCE. [i Feb. 1785] 

A printed letter w^ith small woodcuts representing objects, from the 
Rambler's Magazine, 

My (deer)! 

(Eye) (can) (knot) {heojhold (yew) (butt) (eye) am struck zu{eye)th a 
(pan)/c, and must salute (yew) out of (hand). (Yew) are (awl) the (world) 
(toe) mel Were (eye) (butt) (inn) (yew)r (arms), (eye) should (bee) happy. 
Had (eye) a (maid)g«(head) it should (bee) at (yew)r ser{y\Q,€),for (eye) (can) 
(knot) (bear) (toe) (bee) from (yew). How is M^ (fox) ? (eye) long for a 
(brush) from h{eye)m. (Well) may the Duchess (bee) del{eye)ghted w{eye)th 
h{eye)m. Every (bell) (eye)^ mad for h{eye)m. (Bee)r(eye)w^ (inn) (yew)r 
(hand) the Colonel [Fitzpatrick?]. 

Adieu, my (heart), 

The i^'ixd) of Para{&ice). 

Mrs. Mahon, *the bird of paradise', a noted courtesan of good birth, 
tried to attract the Prince of Wales. H. Bleackley, Ladies fair and frail, 
1909, pp. 247 ff. See No. 5948, &c. 

6832 [MRS. ERRINGTON AND OTHERS] [i Oct. 1785] 

Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine. Five bust portraits in oval 

frames, the centre one inscribed M" E—g — n, the others Cap: S h, 

Cap: R — b — ts. Cap: B — k — y (of the Coldstream Guards), and Cap: 
S — h—y. The trial of Mrs. Harriot Errington (see No. 681 1) at Doctors 
Commons took place in 1785 for adultery with Augustus Murray Smith, 
an officer in the Marines, Captain Buckley, Captain Southby, *and many 
others'. Cf. No. 6826. 
Ovals, ifxif in. 

6833 A PEEP AT THE GARTERS. [i Dec. 1785] 

Engraving. Rambler's Magazine, iii. 418. Illustration to a dialogue. A 
lady stands on the stage at Covent Garden, pointing to the 1., her head 
turned in profile to the r. She wears full dress, with a very wide hooped 
petticoat from which hangs a long train, visible owing to the shortness and 
tilt of her hoop, which displays her legs, revealing the garter on her r. leg. 
On the r. is a corner of the orchestra, showing three musicians, one holding 
a bassoon. On the 1. two men stand immediately below the stage leering 
up at the actress. 



She is *M" B s\ i.e. Bates, who was playing at Covent Garden 

1785-6. Sarah Harrop, a singer, married Joah Bates 1780. 

5fX3i'sin. B.M.L.,P.C. 

J. K, Baldrey Sculps [? after Bearblock] 

Pu¥ Fehy 23. 1785. by J. K. Baldrey. Cambridge. 

Engraving. A companion print to No. 6835. A lean man, in profile to the 
1., runs holding a small covered pot (a chafer for hot water) in his 1. hand; 
under his r. arm is a barber's bowl, under his 1. arm a folded towel. Beneath 
is etched : 

Saepe velut qui 

Currehat fugiens hostetn. 

Foster was for many years hairdresser to Clare Hall, eccentric but 
honest, noted for his rapidity in walking, talking, and shaving. Camb. 
Antiq. Soc.^ Catalogue of Exhibition of Cambridge Caricatures, Fitzwilliam 
Museuttty 1908. 

Cf. * Epitaph sent to Bob Foster . . . since which time the University has 
made him a more lasting and characteristic present, of a Silver Bason: 

Cut smooth by Death's tremendous razor. 
Lies dapper Bob, eccentrick Shaver, . . . 

Excursions to Parnassus ... by a Gentleman of the University of Cam- 
bridge, 1787', p. 61. 

The print illustrates not only an individual, but a type, extinct, according 
to J. T. Smith, in London by 18 15, but surviving in some country villages. 
He *flies about' to his customers, always carrying napkin, soap, pewter 
basin, and a covered leaden pot for hot water. Ancient Topography of 
London, p. 33. 

An impression (or copy) of this print. Pub. Jan. J, 1787, by J. K. 
Baldrey, Cambridge is described in Wordsworth's Social Life at the English 
Universities, 1874, p. 136. 


J. K. Baldrey Sculps [? after Bearblock] 

Pu¥ Feby 23. 1785, by J. K. Baldrey, Cambridge. 

Engraving. A companion print to No. 6834. Foster shaves a man seated 
(1.) in a chair, draped in a sheet. They face each other in profile. Foster 
puts his 1. hand under his client's chin, holding the razor up with a 
dramatic gesture. Beneath the design is etched : 

Tonsor ego — Tonsoris opem si forte requiras, 
Mappa subest — ardet Culter — et Unda tepet, 

Des nummos — uno tibi Barba evanuit ictu. 
Si male, tolle obolum: si bene—plura refer. 

Described, C. Wordsworth, Social Life at the English Universities, 1874, 
pp. 136-7, where a different and longer version of the epigram is given, 



attributed to Gilbert Wakefield. For Foster or Forster see also Gunning, 

Reminiscences y 1854, i. 179-80. 


6836 THE BARON. 
Brighton deP. Bath me fecit 

London Published Sepr J, 1785, by /. Gary A/^ i88 Strand 

Aquatint (coloured and uncoloured impressions). An elderly man seated 
in profile to the 1., looking through a magnifying-glass. His large hat is 
under his 1. arm, his 1. hand, resting on his knee, is distorted as if by 
rheumatism. His dress is old-fashioned, with a flapped waistcoat and full- 
skirted coat. Beneath the title is a vignette of a bottle labelled Brandy and 
an escutcheon with a medley of four aces. 

A portrait of the self-styled Baron Newman or Crooked-finger Jack, see 
Nos. 4836 (1773), 4651 (1774). He committed suicide at Bath in 1789. 
8/6X61^6 in. 


Price Six Pence 
Printed & Published by W Hinton N" 5 Sweetings Alley Royal 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Atkinson stands on a 
rectangular platform, his head and hands closely confined in a pillory, 
which pivots on a tentral post, on which is the culprit's hat. An official 
standing beside him says. Walk Round Sir. Atkinson says. Upon my 
Honor & Reputation^ notwithstanding every effort of Money & Interest am 
compeld to be thus exposd But, Its well its no Worse. A sea of heads surrounds 
the platform. In the foreground are constables with their staves and (r. and 
1.) the two sheriffs (H.L.) on horseback wearing their chains. Behind is 
the Corn Exchange with its pillared front. Spectators watch from the 
windows of the adjacent house (r.). 

For Atkinson see Nos. 6021, 6667, &c. This plate was probably etched 
before the punishment took place, see No. 6838. 


Printed & Pu¥ by W. Hinton N 5 Sweetings Alley Royal Exchange 
Nov 26 1785. 

Engraving. An altered state of No. 6837. The background and crowd are 
as in No. 6837, but the figure of Atkinson has been redrawn as a portrait 
in profile, closely resembling that in No. 6839. ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ■^°- 7070 ; 
he leans with his head and shoulders through the open pillory ; no words 
issue from his mouth. The pillory has also been redrawn, and the man 
standing beside it has been removed. Four verses of a song are engraved 
below the title, beginning : 

Sure no Exaltation more proper could fit 
The Genius and Honor of Contractor Kit 



A Friend to the Goverment [sic] & to the Nation 
Ther'e none who behold him who Envy'd his Station 

Derry Down &c. 

Reduced and altered from a print (not satirical) published by Hinton. 
The original drawing by J. Barlow, in pen and wash, is in the Print Room. 

7AX7f in. 


Publish' d as the Act directs by J. Com, N° 55, Fleet Street, Noif 2g, 

Engraving. Design in a circle. A man, not caricatured, stands on a circular 
platform, his head and hands leaning on the pillory, the upper portion of 
which is so raised as to prevent constriction. Behind are the heads of a 
crowd, in front of which and surrounding the pillory are constables holding 
long staves. In the background a street converges in exaggerated per- 
spective. See No. 6838. Beneath is engraved: 

In the Pillory here you may View the Corn-factor, 

The Perjured Kit Atkin — n, alias Contractor 

Ye Agents of All sorts throughout the Nation, 

Now tremble for fear of the same exaltation. 

For Christopher Atkinson see Nos. 6021, 6667, &c. He was pilloried 
outside the Corn Exchange in Mark Lane on 25 Nov. 1785, labels being 
pasted on the pillars of the Com Exchange, 'Christopher Atkinson Esq; 
for perjury'. London Chronicle, 26 Nov. 1785. 
Diam., 6| in. 


Pu¥ January the 13. 1785 by W. George, N'^ 22y Strand, 

Engraving. Edward Topham, seated in profile to the r., a pen in his hand, 
has just kicked over his circular writing-table in frenzied inspiration. He 
raises his clenched 1. fist. An inkstand and fragments of paper inscribed 

Epilogue M^' W [Wells] Hay-Market, Epilogue M« S s [Siddons] 

Drury-lane, and Prologue for M^^ F [Farren] Covent Garden lie on the 

ground. On the wall (r.) hangs an oval bust portrait of Mrs. Siddons, her 
head turned in profile to the 1. Above and behind Topham 's head is a small 
parrot in a cage, saying. Bravo Cap^^ Prologue! Bravo! 

Topham was noted for his skill in composing prologues and epilogues, 
see No. 6855, &c. For his connexion with Mrs. Wells see Nos. 6854, 6999, 
and index. 


Published by W. Humphrey, AT" 227, Strand. 

Engraving. A W.L. caricature of a man standing in profile to the 1. by the 
sea-shore, his arms behind him. The profile is grotesque, the neck very 
thick, the legs disproportionately small. In the distance is the poop of a 
ship inscribed Godfrey in large letters, probably the name of the captain. 




LK^ [Kay.] 1785^ 

Engraving. The interior of a crowded church. The preacher stands in a 
high pulpit (1.) facing his congregation with a stern expression. Beneath 
him is the precentor, John Campbell (see No. 5894). The congregation 
sits in a gallery, under the gallery, and in the body of the church round the 
pulpit. Men predominate. Most of the congregation are asleep, some turn 
their backs on the preacher. 

Dr. Alexander Webster (1707-84) preaching in the Tolbooth church 
(the SW. portion of St. Giles's). The congregation represents persons 
notoriously little addicted to church-going : Webster's actual congregation 
consisted of the strictest Presbyterians known as 'Tolbooth Whigs' from 
their resemblance to the covenanting Whigs of the seventeenth century. 

Collection, No. 8. Kay, No. X. 


J. Kay Invent et Fecit, 1785^ 

Engraving. Graham, the well-known quack, stands above and behind 
a crowd of listeners, all men, some in profile, some in back view, some 
full-face, the heads and shoulders only being visible, except in the fore- 
ground where there is a row of H.L. figures seated apparently on a bench. 
The expressions of the audience vary, some look up at the lecturer, others 
turn their backs, many are grinning. Graham holds a rolled document in 
one hand as in No. 6324, &c. The room is lit by a small pendant chandelier 
with four candles, and by single candles in sconces round the walls. 

Graham lectured in Edinburgh on 29 July 1783 in Mary's Chapel, 
Niddry's Wynd ; a public repetition was prohibited, he was confined to the 
Tolbooth between Aug. 9 and 19 ; on his release he lectured in a large room 
in Bailie Fyfe's close, probably that here depicted, his hearers paying the 
fine of £20 which had been imposed on him. For Graham see No. 6323, 
&c., and index. 

Collection, No. 7. Kay, No. XII. 


1785 m 

Engraving. William Martin, grinning broadly, stands in his rostrum, 
holding up a print (a profile head of a bearded man) ; in his r. hand is his 
hammer. Beneath him is a sea of raised heads, about two-thirds being in 
profile to the r., the others in profile to the 1., with a few in back view. 
All wear hats. The rostrum is lit by two candles. 

Martin was a noted Edinburgh bookseller of humble origin, full of 
anecdote and humour in his auction-room. See No. 6845. 

Collection, No. 56. Kay, No. LXI. 

' Added to impression in Kay. 




J.K, Fed 1785 

Engraving. Six men (H.L.) inspect prints. One, in profile to the r., holds 
up a print of the Three Graces, another, facing him, holds a print of the 
broadly grinning head of Martin, see No. 6844. 

These two are James Sibbald, the well-known Edinburgh bookseller 
and publisher, and George Fairholme of Greenhill, a great collector of 
Rembrandt etchings. William Scott, a plumber and a collector, looks over 
Sibbald's shoulder, inspecting the Graces through a glass. Of two figures 
standing behind Fairholme, one is James Kerr, banker. The other two 
are imaginary. 

Collection, No. 42. Kay, No. CLXII. 


K, Fed 1785 

Engraving. A lady, holding on her feathered hat, walks against a high 
wind which blows her dress against her person, draping her legs from the 
waist downwards. She holds a small nosegay and is followed by Graham, 
wearing his accustomed suit of white linen with black stockings ; he holds 
a larger nosegay and stares at the lady. Both are in profile to the r. Behind 
them is the balustrade of the North Bridge, Edinburgh. 

For Graham in Edinburgh see No. 6843. The lady is *said to resemble 
a Miss Dunbar, sister of Sir James Dunbar, Bart.* 

Collection, No. 44. Kay, No. XI. 


[?c. 17853 

Engraving. Caricature portraits of Alexander Hunter of Polmood and 
Roger Hog of NewHston. Hunter (1.) walks in profile to the r., stooping, 
with a long cane ; his dress is old-fashioned. Hog (r.), very stout, stands full- 
face, his breeches partly unbuttoned and slipping from his waist. Behind 
is the balustrade of the North Bridge. 

Hog (d. 1789) was miserly, very careless in his dress, and was accustomed 
to preface his remarks with *I say\ Hunter died Jan. 1786. 

Collection, No. 27. Kay, No. XVH. 


K, Fed 1785 

Engraving. Two cocks fight in a cock-pit, a man standing over each cock ; 
the spectators are in a circle several rows deep. The wall of the room is of 
stone, with three boarded-up windows ; it is the unfinished kitchen of the 
Edinburgh Assembly Rooms. The heads are on a small scale and crowded 



together, but several are portraits, one being Deacon Brodie. Beneath the 
design is etched : 

Thus we poor Cocks , exert our Skill & Bravery 
For idle Gulls y and Kites , that trade in KnavWy 

Collection, No. 55. Kay, No. XLIV. 
six 4 J in. 


Woodman & Mutlow, Ini^ Sculp- 

Published as the Act directs 28 Ap^ 178^, by Woodman & Mutlow, 
N° 30 Russel Court, Covent-Garden. 

Engraving. Judges, lawyers, and others rush headlong from Westminster 
Hall. Three women are among the crowd, one of whom has fallen on her 
back. In the background is a Gothic doorway, on each side of which are 
two windows; through the upper 1. window appears a maidservant with 
a mop. Beneath the title is printed : Or, Courts of Law without a Covering, 
and Lawyers^ Fears without Foundation; Causes without an Issue, and an 
Issue without a Cause. This is followed by two quotations from Virgil, 
below which are verses printed in five columns. The last is : 

However strange, 'tis strictly true. 

That thus a simple Wench 
Did — (what no other Power could do) — 

Drive Mansfield from the Bench! 

For the incident see No. 6852, &c. Mansfield resigned 4 June 1788, his 
work in the King's Bench for the last two years having been done by 
BuUer, owing to the Chief Justice's ill-health. For his failure to retire 
earlier cf. Auckland Correspondence, ii. 207, and No. 7123. 
9|x8J in. Broadside, i6|x loj in. 


Vol. XVII. [i May 1785] 

Engraving. From the Town and Country Magazine, xvii. lyi. Ten judges 
in wigs and robes flee in panic, some being prostrate on the floor. The 
Royal Arms are on the wall (1.). A woman looks through a skylight. 
For this incident see No. 6852, &c. 

6851 HEADS AND TAILS UNCOVERED. [i June 1785] 

Engraving. From the Rambler^ s Magazine. A woman brandishing a mop, 
having fallen through a skylight, sits astride the head of a judge ; other 
judges and lawyers, some having lost their wigs, flee in confusion. A 
woman lies on the ground. On the back wall of the building are the 
Royal Arms, and on each side of them a statue in a niche, that on the 1. 
being Justice with her scales. 

For this incident see No. 6852, &c. 
5x3! in. 




Pub May 2y. iy84 [1785] by Wallis Ludgate Hill^ 

Engraving. Illustration to verses printed in four columns beneath the 
plate. Judges, counsel, and others are rushing in a wild panic from 
the Court of King's Bench in Westminster Hall, some escaping over the 
prostrate bodies of those who have fallen down some shallow stairs, just 
visible under the heap of bodies. The mace lies on the ground near an 
elderly man in wig and gown on the extreme r. who kneels in a crouching 
position. A man (1.) escapes through a broken window. 

A satire on an incident of 22 Apr. 1785 during a sitting of the King's 
Bench; a skylight was broken and pieces of glass fell among the judges; 
supposing that the whole building was about to fall they fled, but soon 
returned. The court was very full as an interesting case was being heard — 
a claim by Lord North, as Warden of the Cinque Ports, to a chest of silver 
value ;()30,ooo salvaged from a wreck on the Goodwin Sands. According 
to some stories, the damage to the skylight was caused by an inquisitive 
maidservant who dropped a pail and mop. London Chronicley 23 and 26 
Apr. 1785. See also Nos. 6849, 6850, 6851. 

One verse of the song (*To the Tune of the Roast Beef of Old Eng- 
land') is : 

Beneath the feet of M d [Mansfield], B r [BuUer] lies, 

*^Thro* all created Space" keen E ne [Erskine] flies. 

The wigless W — 11 — s [Willes] leaped over A — h — t's [Ashurst's] Head, 

While B — r — t [Bearcroft], L — e [Lee] and M y [Murphy] swiftly fled; 

Gay limping F — d — g [Fielding] took a peep above 
A Damsel saw, but durst not think of Love ; 
The Coxcomb, Student, and Attorney vile, 
Jew Bail, and Tipstaff^, added to the Pile. 
All rush in Terror, or from Gain or Sport, 
And headlong tumble down the Steps of Court. 

*Gay limping F — d — g' is probably William Fielding, b. 1748, son of 
Henry, a barrister who is said to have inherited his father's conversational 
powers. He was lame from a paralytic stroke at the age of 30. 

The Lawyer's Panic; or^ Westminster Hall in an Uproar was played at 
Covent Garden 7 May 1785 and at the Haymarket 16 Aug. 1785. Baker, 
Biog. Dram, 

Grego, Rozvlandsony i. 155. 
9x13 J in. 


^ Drawn by T. Rowlandson Aquatinto by F. Jukes. Engraved by R. Pollard 

jy -^V^*'^^ London Publish' d June 28'^ 1785. by J, R, Smith N'^ 83 Oxford Street 

Aquatint (coloured and uncoloured impressions). An evening scene in 
Vauxhall Gardens. On the extreme 1. is the orchestra with the organ 
behind and performers on the kettledrums, string and wind instruments. 
The vocalist, Mrs. Weichsel, sings, in profile to the r., from the adjacent 

» The verses are Trinted for J. Wallis, No. i6. Ludgate Street'. 



(and slightly lower) balcony, just above the heads of the crowd. A violinist 
and another musician are seated behind her. In the supper box beneath the 
orchestra is Dr. Johnson seated full-face, between Boswell and Goldsmith 
(d. 1774), who face each other in profile, both caricatured; of two stout 
women one is reputed to be Mrs. Thrale. 

Many groups fill the foreground and middle distance. The two centre 
figures are the Duchess of Devonshire and Lady Duncannon arm in arm. 
A naval officer with a wooden leg and a patch over one eye is reputed to 
be Admiral Paisley (? Admiral Pasley, 1734-1808). Major Topham, an 
excellent portrait, stands (1.) in profile to the r. staring through an eye- 
glass. Between Topham and the supper-box are two men, one of whom is 
identified as Lord Camelford.^ An elderly parson,^ reputed to be Bate 
Dudley but not resembling him, gazes at the Duchess from behind a tree. 
Next him a man dressed as an officer in a Highland regiment with kilt and 
broadsword is supposed to be James Perry, editor of the Morning Chronicle. 
On the r. the Prince of Wales, conspicuous by his star, whispers to Mrs. 
Robinson (Perdita), though their liaison was ended. Her r. arm is linked 
with an ugly and elderly little man, probably Robinson. On the extreme 1. 
an elderly couple advance arm in arm in profile. 

Behind the Prince is a group standing on a small platform (or tables), 
showing H.L. above the crowd. In the foreground (r.) is a supper-table 
under trees where two cits entertain two courtesans. Lamp-lit trees and 
the covered way form a background on the r. 

One of Rowlandson's most famous etchings. A water-colour (8|xio 
in.) of the lower 1. corner of the design, showing Johnson's supper-box, 
the two figures on the extreme 1., and the group on the r. of the box 
including Camelford and Topham, was exhibited 1936 by Frank T. Sabin, 
New Bond Street. It is almost exactly as in the etching except that a corner 
of the background on the r. is omitted ; the scale is approximately the same. 
(Reproduced, Catalogue, pi. CXI.) 

Grego, Rowlandsony i. 157-61. Often reproduced, e.g. Angelo, Reminis- 
cenceSy 1904, ii. i (coloured pi.). 



Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Topham, in full regi- 
mentals, standing in profile to the 1., directs a large syringe at a sun (1.) 
rising above a hill, inscribed Genius of Holman. Behind him, holding 
leading-strings attached to his epaulettes, are Mrs. Wells and John 
Henderson. Above Topham's head flies an owl with papers in its beak 
inscribed Prologue (twice) and Epilogue. He says, looking up : 

Yes much belov'd and all excelling Pair 
What Modern Beau can do^ I nobly dare 
Against this Youthfull Phaeton will write 
Censure^ defame, do every thing but fight. 

* In the reproduction in Angelo 's Reminiscences; to whom the name refers is 
not clear. 

^ He closely resembles the parson of No. 7059 who is probably William Jackson 
of the Morning Post. 

' Title and date from Grego. 

257 S 


Mrs. Wells says : Well done Noble CapV* down with him a forward Boy 

indeed^ to attempt the Character of our Friend H n here^ and contrary to 

your Superior Opinion. Henderson, clenching his fist, says, Presumptious 
Youth, what! does the Stripling dare, in the same path to Fame, with me to 
walk — Damnation! A soldier with a musket standing on the extreme r. 
says, looking towards Topham, A Soldier, by the bloody Arm of Mars, he 
looks far better fitted for to tend my lady's Lap Dog — or her Fan to bear. 
Verses are etched beneath the design : 

To whaty oh Muse! can I compare. 
In Heaven, Water, Earth or Air, 

The furious Epilogue ? 
His Dress to ape, if ape they can, 
Of every Fop is now the Plan, 

And he's alone the Vogue. 
See, to the Side-Box now he flies 
The Optic to his Eye applies 
To aid his piercing Sight; 
Whatever he cannot comprehend. 
His Fiat to the Shades shall send, 

And damn to endless Night. 
Should Holman Garrick's Art display, 
'Tis Twaddle,^ boreish, damn'd outre. 

Quite vulgar, unrefined: 
His W — lis and H — nd — n alone 
Possessed of Merit, will he own 
To others Worth is blind. 

Topham (see No. 5596) was noted for his talent in writing prologues and 
epilogues, for his dress, and the ease and elegance of his manners. He was 
in close relations with the actress Mary Wells, see No. 6855, &c., his daily 
paper The World being started (i Jan. 1787) partly with the object of 
puffing her. According to The Jockey Club, Part H, 1792, p. 180, *he only 
kept her upon puffs, while she kept him upon her salary. Holman (b. 1764) 
made his first appearance on the stage as Romeo at Covent Garden 25 Oct. 
1784. During the season he played Richard HI (12 Jan. 1785) and (for his 
benefit, 15 Feb. 1785) Hamlet. These were both parts of Henderson, then 
the leading actor at Covent Garden, and in public estimation second to 
Garrick; he died 25 Nov. 1785. Genest, vi. 354, 358, 359. Holman was a 
schoolfellow of Rowlandson; see also No. 7059, also by Rowlandson. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 166 (reproduction). 

6854 A A reissue, with the imprint, Pub by WG. N^ 22y Strand. The 
verses have been erased from the plate and printed beneath it. According 
to Grego the print was republished in 1793, op. cit., p. 320. 


Pu¥ 5 Ocr iy85 by T. Cornell Bruton St^. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Captain Topham walks 
in profile (r. to 1.) looking sideways after a lady in the background who is 

' See No3. 6775, 6960. 



walking down a street at r. angles to that in which he is walking. A sign- 
post behind her points To The Wells indicating that she is the actress Mary 
Wells to whom Topham was attached, see Nos. 6854, 6999, 7058, and 
index. Topham is slim and upright, a cane under his 1. arm. He wears a 
cut-away ('sparrow- tail*) coat with a high collar, shirt-frill, and close- 
fitting breeches, cf. No. 6718, &c. He was a noted writer of prologues and 
epilogues, cf. Nos. 6840, 6854. 

Reissued, 7 Mar. 1786, see also No. 7060. 

Grego, RowlandsoTij i. 167. 


Puhlis'd March 2y. lyS^. by T, Smith N" 6 Wardour Street Soho 

Engraving. The giant, good-looking and slim, his legs disproportionately 
long, stands in a room surrounded by admiring spectators. He rests his 
r. hand on the head of a foppish young man in regimentals. An elderly 
officer (1.) stands on a chair inspecting him through a spy-glass. A young 
man in riding-dress holds out one enormously thick leg, his other leg 
being thin. A fat lady (r) clutches the giant's coat. A fat parson gazes up 
at him and a dog fawns on his r. leg. A buxom courtesan enters through 
a door on the 1. On the wall is a placard : The Surprising Irish Collossus. 
King of the Giants Measuring Eight Feet Five ( ?) Inches , . . Noble Order 
of S Patrick. 

A portrait of Patrick Cotter, who called himself O'Brien, claiming 
descent from Brian, king of Ireland. He exhibited himself in England 
from c, 1779 to 1804. D.N.B.y where this print (presumably) is called an 
engraving by T. Smith; Kay, ii. 1 15-17. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 154.* 



Published by S. W. Fores N^ 3 Piccadilly April 12^^ lyS^, 

Engraving. A semicircle of spectators, seated and standing, crowded one 
behind the other, watch the performance of the pig, who stands before a 
row of initial letters, one of which he holds in his mouth. Over the 
chimney-piece is a placard, The Surprising PIG well versed in all Languages, 
perfect Arethmatician Mathematician & Composer of Musick. On the r. 
wall of the room hangs a large shoe. 

The learned pig caused a sensation in 1784 and later, see Nos. 6715, 
7214. Cf. Southey, Letters of Espriella, 1807, iii. 49: *the learned pig was 
in his day a far greater object of admiration to the English nation than ever 
was Sir Isaac Newton.' See also Boswell, Johnson, ed. Hill and Powell, 
iv, 1934, pp. 373, 547 f. 

^ Grego cites Capt. E. Thompson's Diary under date 18 Nov. 1784, but the 
passage relates to Charles Byrne, 1761-83, with whom Cotter is often confused. 



6857 A Another impression, with the additional imprint, & F. Clarkson 
N° 73 S^ Pauls Church Yard, is in Banks Collection, i, fol. 8i, B.M.L. 
1890. e. 15. 



Pu¥ 5 Sep' lySs by T. Cornell Bruton Street, 

Engraving. Lunardi, slim and handsome, walks diagonally towards the 
spectator from the r., supported on a staff, his 1. hand held out as if begging. 
On his back is his collapsed balloon, a large bundle from which project a 
net and two oars or propellers. His dress is fashionable but ragged. In the 
background are trees and a church. Beneath the title is etched : 

Behold an Hero comely tall and fair! 
His only Food Phlogisticated Air! 
Now on the Wings of Mighty Winds he rides! 
Now torn thro' Hedges! — Dash'd in Oceans tides! 
Now drooping roams about from Town to Town 
Collecting Pence f inflate his poor Balloon; 
Pity the Wight and something to him give. 
To purchase Gas to keep his Frame alive. 

Lunardi's balloon made several ascents in 1785 : from St. George's Fields 
29 June (when he filled the balloon but did not ascend, allowing Biggin to 
take his place), 9 Aug. from Liverpool, 5 Oct. from Edinburgh. Cf. No. 
6880. Phlogiston was the name given by Priestley to oxygen, cf. No. 7887. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 164 (reproduction, p. 163). Reproduced, Paston, 
pi. cxxvii. 

9fx8f in. 

6858 a Reissued 1786 with the imprint, Pu¥ March 24^^ 1786 by 
E Jackson N" 14 Marylebone Street Golden Square. 


Rowlandson 178^ 

Engraving. The interior of a workshop, a low room with raftered ceiling 
and casement window (r.). Prints hang to dry on lines stretched below 
the roof. A stout man (1.) turns the press, using both hands and a knee 
and leaning back to pull at the lever. A boy takes a sheet from the press. 
Under the window (r.) two men are inking plates. In the 1. corner is a dog. 
An elderly man (artist or connoisseur) wearing a hat and spectacles inspects 
a print with a scowl. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 167. 







Published by S. W. Fores Carracature Ware-House N° 3 Piccadilly 
London — Nov" 24^ lyS^ 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A mail-coach, driven 
r. to L, is overturning, the off back wheel having fallen off. The near horse 
is falling, the other rears violently. The driver has dropped the reins and 
holds up his arms; he is hidden by the guard seated on his 1. w^ho falls 
backwards, his blunderbuss is going off and shatters the roof of the coach, 
causing letters and letter-bags to fly into the air. A pistol at his side is also 
going off; it fires point-blank at the bare posteriors of an elderly woman 
who has fallen head downwards, screaming, her person much exposed ; she 
was apparently an outside passenger. A man puts his head and arms out 
of the coach-window, shouting in terror. On the centre panel of the coach 
and above the Royal Arms is inscribed The Mail Coach; on each side 
panel, GR. In the background (r.) is a signpost pointing to the 1., To Bath, 

The mail coach, with its guard seated on the box, was instituted in 1784 
in the face of much obstruction ; no outside passengers were to be carried. 
The coaches were first tried on the London-Bristol road, and were rapidly 
extended. D.N.B. s.v. John Palmer. 

Grego, Rowlandson^ i. 168-9. 


[Dec. 1785] 


Engraving, slightly aquatinted (coloured impression). An eloping couple 
drive headlong in a coach and four (r. to 1.) pursued by an angry father 
on a galloping horse who shakes his whip at them. He is followed by three 
grooms on horseback. The man leans from the off window of the coach, 
the lady from the near window; both aim pistols at the father who is close 
behind them. Two postilions ride the near horses. A signpost (r.) points 
To Gretna Green. A group of trees and a cloud of dust form the back- 

Grego, Rowlandson^ i. 171, where the companion print, The Reconcilia- 
tion^ or the Return from Scotland^ published 17 Dec. 1785, by W. Hinton, 
is reproduced (p. 172). 
lojx 17 in. 'Caricatures', ix. 145. 


[Pub. S. W. Fores. 30 November, 1785]* 

Engraving (coloured impression). The interior of an artist's studio. A 
young man is seated in an armchair at his easel, with palette and brushes. 

* Imprint apparently cut off. Not to be confused with Rowlandson's Trip to 
Gretna Green, 181 1. 
2 Imprint cut off. 



On the canvas is a classical scene: a goddess surrounded by naked 
infants. His nude model (r.) reclines sleepily on a sofa (r.), holding a piece 
of drapery. Her hat, shoes, and garments are beside her. Two men enter 
(1.) through a door: a young man in riding-dress who stares at the model, 
an elderly man who holds up his hand in apparent disapproval. The 
painter turns round as if to prevent their entry. On the wall sketches are 
pinned (suggesting the art of the history-painter). There is also a statuette 
on a bracket (r.). The room is lit by a window on the painter's 1. Cf. 
No. 6724. 

Grego, RowlandsoHf i. 170. (Reproduction, p. 169.) 
7^ X 1 1 j®6 in. * Caricatures', ix. 11. 


[Pub. I Oct. 1785 by T. Cornell Bruton Street]' 

Engraving (coloured impression). One of two designs on the same plate, 
see No. 6864. A cobbler (1.) preaches in a bare, raftered room with a case- 
ment window. He stands behind a reading-desk on which is a large, open 
book, leaning forward, pointing, gesticulating, and shouting. The heads 
of his congregation, old men and women, are below and on the r. The title 
is from Burke's book, A Philosophical Enquiry into the origin of our Ideas 
of the Sublime and the Beautiful (1756). 

Grego, Rowlandson^ i. 160 (reproduction). 
8^ X 6 in. 



Engraving (coloured impression). A companion design to No. 6863 on the 
same plate. A scene in the House of Commons showing the corner of the 
clerks' table (L), the benches on the r. crowded with members, and part 
of the gallery above, with two persons looking over. The new member 
stands, knees bent, hat in his 1. hand, right hand extended; his attitude 
and expression convey the impression of a halting and embarrassed speech. 
He is in full dress, with sword and bag-wig. The members listen with 
expressions of contemptuous amusement or boredom. 

Grego, Rowlandson^ i. 165. 

Rowlandson lyS^ 

[Pub. 30 Nov. 1785 by J. R. Smith, 83 Oxford Street.]' 

Engraving. The interior of a bedroom. A young man crawls from under 
a large four-post bed on which a young woman is kneeling, holding up her 
arms in supplication towards an elderly man and woman in night attire 
who have entered from the r. behind a watchman and a man with a 
blunderbuss; the latter kneels, pointing his weapon at the apprentice. The 
* Imprint cut off, supplied from Grego. 


watchman puts his staff under the bed to push out the apprentice; his 
lantern stands on the floor beside him. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 70. 

6866 COMFORT IN THE GOUT. [1785] 


Engraving (coloured impression). A fat man (1.) seated in an arm-chair, 
his swathed 1. leg supported on a stool, his crutches and an open Treatise 
on Gout beside him. A meretricious-looking young woman bends over 
him, putting her r. hand on his r. shoulder and holding his 1. hand. A 
young woman of disreputable appearance pours out wine for him. A foot- 
man in livery (r.) is about to put a large tureen on a dinner-table (r.). A fat 
man is seen through an open door. A dog and cat lie together in the fore- 
ground. Behind the man's chair are the curtains of a bed. Probably one 
of the establishments in King's Place, cf . No. 6764, &c. Similar in character 
and probably a companion print to No. 6867. 

Reissued, i July 1802. 

Grego, Rowlandsoriy i. 156 (reproduction). 
8|x i2fg in. * Caricatures', ix. 15. 

6867 A CULLY PILLAG'D. [1785] 


Engraving (coloured impression). The cully, a thin, middle-aged man, 
stands terrified in a squalid bedroom between a bully (1.) and a young 
prostitute (r.) seated on a bed. The bully takes him by the shoulders, the 
woman picks his pocket. An overturned chair, a cat in a water-jug, and a 
rat eating from a plate on the floor add to the squalid disorder. Similar in 
character and probably a companion print to No. 6866. 

Grego, Rowlandson^ i. 167. 
8j^gX iij in. 'Caricatures', ix. 14. 

Rowlandson 1785. 

London Pu¥ by S. Aiken. N"" 3 Dufours Place, Broad Street Soho. 

Engraving (coloured impression). One of two designs on the same plate, 
see No. 6869. A young woman lies under a tree asleep, partly supported 
by a small beer barrel; a rake is beside her. Next her a young man sits up 
yawning and stretching. A dog sits beside them ; in the distance are sheep. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 175. 
6Jx8^|in. 'Caricatures', X. 171. 

6869 NAP IN TOWN. 

Rowlandson 1783, 

Engraving (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 6868 on the 
same plate. A young woman (r.) lies full length on a sofa; next her in 



the opposite corner of the sofa is an elderly man in regimentals, also asleep. 
The feet of both rest on a chair (1.). A cat sleeps on the floor. 

Grego, Rowlandsoriy i. 175. 'Caricatures', x. 171. 


6870 COURTSHIP IN HIGH LIFE [15 Dec. 1785]^ 

Engraving, slightly aquatinted (coloured impression). The Prince of Wales 
(r.), wearing his star, kneels at the feet of a lady (1.), his r. hand holds her 
1. hand, his 1. hand is on his breast. The lady wears a large feathered hat 
and has some resemblance to the Duchess of Devonshire, cf. No. 6263, &c., 
none to Mrs. Fitzherbert. A companion print to No. 6871 on the same 

Grego, RowlandsoTif i. 170. 
8f X7ig in. 'Caricatures*, x. 180. 

6871 COURTSHIP IN LOW LIFE [15 Dec. 1785]' 


Engraving, slightly aquatinted (coloured impression). A sailor with a 
wooden leg and a good-looking young woman of meretricious appearance 
sit side by side on a barrel ; he pours wine into a glass. A companion print 
to No. 6870 on the same plate. 
Grego, Rowlandsoriy i. 170-1. 
8fX7in. 'Caricatures*, X. 180. 


[Attributed to Rowlandson, perhaps by Kingsbury.] 

London Published as the Act directs ii Aug^ ^7^5 ty ^' Hinton 
N° 5 Sweetings Alley CornhilL 

Engraving (coloured impression). The interior of a luxuriously furnished 
room. A young woman (r.), fashionably dressed, looks down demurely as 
she receives the eager advances of an elderly and toothless man wearing 
a bag- wig and sword and the ribbon of an order. He covertly gives a purse 
to a fat and elaborately dressed bawd who stands behind him. 

Grego, Rowlandson^ i. 162-3. 

yS [Sayers.] 

Published 26^^ April lyS^ by Ja' Bretherton 

Engraving. Delpini, dressed as a woman, both arms held above his head, 
runs forward in profile to the 1. imitating a dancer. Beneath the title is 
etched: ^' Grace was in all her Steps" &c. 

For Delpini, stage manager and actor in pantomime, see No. 5361. 
Mme Rossi was the leading dancer at the opera in the spring of 1785. 
(Advertisements in Public Advertiser.) 


' Publication-line cut off. 



RR delin. [? Rushworth.] 

London Published July 11*^ 1785, by S. W, Fores N° 3 Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Two fashionably dressed shopmen 
supply ladies with pads to extend their dresses at the back. Two other 
ladies have already been fitted ; a fifth, who is buxom, sits on a stool clasp- 
ing an inflated specimen at which she smiles with satisfaction. Various 
types of these pads or 'derrieres' hang on the wall, and a pile lies on the 
ground (r.). A dog, shaved in the French manner showing very thin hind- 
quarters, is begging. Beneath the title is engraved : Derriere begs leave to 
submit to the attention of that most indulgent part of the Public the Ladies in 
general^ and more especially those to whom Nature in a slovenly moment has 
been niggardly in her distribution of certain lovely Endowments, his much 
improved {aridce nates) or Dried Bums so justly admired for their happy 
resemblance to nature. Derriere flatters himself that he stands unrivalled in 
this fashionable article of female Invention, he having spared neither pains nor 
expence in procuring every possible information on the subject, to render himself 
competent to the artfully supplying this necessary appendage of female excellence. 

A reversion to the fashion which produced the * cork-rump', see No. 
5381, &c. The 1785 model, however, is an inflated petticoat, resembling 
part of a crinoline and is adapted to a less formal type of dress than that 
of 1776-7. It was described as a 'fashionable circumvallation of tow and 
whalebone'. Town and Country Mag., 1787, p. 538. It was balanced by 
a gauze projection covering the breast. The extravagance of these fashions 
was long remembered, Southey describes them in 1807: 'there were pro- 
tuberances on the hips called bustlers, another behind which was called 
in plain language a rump, and a merry-thought of wire on the breast to 
puff out the handkerchief like a pouting pigeon.' Letters of Espriella, ii. 
335. See No. 7099, &c. 

Described by Angelo, Reminiscences, 1904, i. 326-7, who attributes it 
to Rushworth, a counsellor. Reproduced, Fuchs, Die Frau in der Kari" 
katur, 1906, p. 284. 


6875 THE ROMP. 

RR delin: [? Rushworth.] 

Publishehed [sic] Dec"" 23^ 1785, by S. W. Fores at the Caracature Ware- 
house N^ 3 Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured impression). The boxing scene from The Romp, Act 
II, between Young Cockney (1.) and Priscilla Tomboy. They face each 
other with clenched fists. Young Cockney is fashionably dressed and 
portly, Priscilla 's large hat and mittens are on the floor. Behind her (r.) 
stands Captain Sightley in regimentals and Miss La Blond wearing a large 
hat which conceals her face. Behind them on the extreme r. is a folding 
screen. Framed pictures decorate the wall. 

Mrs. Jordan made her first appearance at Drury Lane on 18 Oct. 1785; 
during her first season she played Priscilla Tomboy, &c., and was estab- 
lished in public favour. In this performance Dodd played Young Cockney, 
Barrymore, Sightley, and Miss Barnes, Miss La Blond. The Romp 



(B.M.L. 1344. c. 11) and D.N.B. The comic opera (altered from Bicker- 
staff e's Love in the City for the Dublin stage c. 1780) became a favourite 
owing to Mrs. Jordan's acting. Baker, Biog. Draftt. Cf. No. 7910. 

Reissued with the date altered to Jany 3 iy86. 
ioJXi6i in. 

J. Nixon 1785 

Pub by W Holland N° 50 Oxford Str*. 

Aquatint. A clumsy and ramshackle two-wheeled chaise numbered 65, 
with a folding hood (raised) and a broken wheel, is driven (1. to r.) along 
the sea-shore. The driver sits on the hind-quarters of the horse, flourishing 
his whip ; the reins are of rope. A stout woman fills the interior. In the 
distance (r.) a similar chaise is driven r. to 1., the driver seated on the front 
of the vehicle. In the distance (1.) is a jetty with a lighthouse; beside it is 
a ship, probably the English packet. Behind are low mountains. 

The jetty is probably the South Bull leading to the Pigeon House, the 
harbour and landing-place for packets, with Howth beyond. The sands are 
Blackrock Sands, a promenade for Dubliners. A noddy was a two- 
wheeled chaise, plying in the streets of Dublin. Twiss, Tour in Ireland^ 
1776, p. 280. The word was also used in Scotland, O.E.D. 

Reproduced, C. Maxwell, Dublin under the Georges, 1936, p. 255. 

NER. [? c. 1785] 

Designed by J. Dunthome, EtcKd by T. Rozvlandson.y 

Engraving. Vestrymen, parish officers, and others surround a table, some 
seated some standing, savagely gormandizing and shamelessly competing 
for the food. A stout woman enters (1.) carrying on a dish a large sucking- 
pig at which a fat parson beside her points angrily, presumably because he 
thinks he has been defrauded of a tithe-pig (cf. No. 6737). A man brings 
in a large cheese. A maidservant descends the stairs, seen through the 
open door, carrying a large tureen. 

Through a casement window (r.) is seen a crowd of the parish poor; some 
scowl, a man with crutches puts his hand through the window begging. 
An angry beadle with a staff and badged sleeve threatens him with his fist. 
The room is either a vestry-room or a room in one of the new county 
workhouses which were built after 1776. On the walls are placards headed 
Benifit Club and King Charles Rules Make no long Meals, also a Plan of a 
County Workhouse, a gabled building with a high paling. A grandfather 
clock (r.) points to 1.30. Against it lie two beadle's staves. On a shelf a 
book of Poor Laws lies on the top of a Bible. On a small table (r.) an ink- 
pot stands on two books, one inscribed Poors Rates. Above the door (1.) 
hangs a wicker cage, from which a bird, perhaps dead from hunger, pro- 
trudes its head. 

A satire on the greed and callousness of clergy, vestrymen, and parish 
officers, and on their self-interested administration of the Poor Laws. 
12JX19I in. 

* From an impression in the collection of Mr. Minto Wilson. 

G. M. Woodward Delin. R. Cooper Sculp. 

Publish' d as the Act directs July, 10. 1785. by G. M. Woodward N" 28. 
Gary Street Lincolns Inn. London. 

Stipple. A companion print to No. 6879. Design in a circle. The justice 
(1.), wearing clerical bands, sits in an armchair, his gouty 1. leg resting on 
a stool, a crutch under his r. arm. A countryman stands facing him, hat 
in hand. Between and behind them another man stands full-face, his head 
bandaged, his hands in his pockets. A fashionably dressed clerk stands 
beside the justice, who rests his 1. elbow on a small writing-table from 
which hangs a document inscribed This Indenture \ Ecouter \ ma Fille 
ouvrez \ les yeux & soyez | attentive aux \ conseils. A bookcase is on the r. 
Beneath the title is engraved : 

Pd have your Reverend Worship knowy 
*Twas he that gave me the First hloWy 
To take such rubs I did dispise^ 

And in return clos'd up his eyeSy » 

Your Honor cant think me to blame. 
Your worship would have done the same. 

Diam., 9I in. 

Right — you are very right Friend John, 
Pay for the Warranty — and be gone. 

6878a a (coloured) reissue (cropped): Published Sep' 5^* ^78 5y by 
S. W. ForeSy at his Caracature WarehousCy N° 3 Piccadilly. 


G. M. Woodward Delin. R. Cooper Sculp. 

Publish' d as the Act directs July. 10. 1785 by G. M. Woodward AT** 28 
Carey Street Lincolns Inn London. 

Stipple. A companion print to No. 6878. Design in a circle. The interior 
of a watch-house. A burly watchman stands (1.) facing an elderly constable 
who sits frowning in his arm-chair. He holds out a broken lantern and 
points to a thin, fashionably dressed, and apparently drunken man who 
stands beside him with closed eyes, holding a large stick in his 1. hand. 
Next the constable is a clerk writing at a desk. The room is lit by a lantern 
slung from the roof. A map on the wall apparently represents the roads 
of the parish and the beats of the watchmen. A fire bums in a grate (r.). 
Beneath the title is engraved : 


This wicked dog did lift his handy 
First knocked me dowUy then bid me stand; 
The peaceful neighbours he awokcy 
And then the Knave my lanthorn broke, 



At which the Villain loud did Laughs 
So down I knocked him with my staff. 


If so: — you Justice did yourself y 
Therefore begone thou prating Elf. 

For the tricks played by watchmen on those whom they falsely charged 
with having broken their lanterns cf. Fielding, Amelia j Book I, Chap. II, 
and No. 5618. 
Diam., 9I in. 

6879 A A coloured impression, cropped : Published Sep^ 8^^ 178 5y by 
S. W. ForeSy at the Caracature WarehousCy N^ 3 Piccadilly. 


Pub by R Haraden N^ 85 Tottenr^ O Road. 

Engraving. A crowd surrounds Luhardi who is carried on the shoulders 
of a group of men: he waves his hat and smiles. On the extreme 1. a 
portion of his balloon is visible, obscuring the *Adam and Eve' public 
house, indicated by its projecting sign of Adam and Eve with the apple, 
inscribed W. Shaw. A tattered banner waves. A ragged chimney-sweep ( ?), 
holding a small boy before him, rides an ass. In the foreground are a milk- 
woman with a pail, a butcher, and a stout man holding up a courtesan to 
see Lunardi. Beneath the design is etched : 

An adventerous stripling so sweet Ovid Sings 
Had the boldness to Soar once on two mighty Wings. 
Unguided by Judgment and wandring too high 
He met his Just fate and was plungd from the Sky 
See first Voyage pc^. 65.^ 

The mob appears good-natured, but is said to have been *a good deal 
exasperated, and Lunardi, not without some hazard, escaped from their 
fury\ London Chronicky 1785, 14 May. The ascent was made from the 
Artillery Ground ; in less than half an hour the balloon burst and descended 
near the Adam and Eve Tea Gardens. Ibid. Cf. No. 6858. 

Banks Collection, i, fol. 35. B.M.L. 1890. e. 15. 

A print, Lunardi Downfall in Totnamcourt Road (4jX3i in.), is in the 
same collection, fol. 35. The ascent from the Artillery Ground on 15 Sept. 
is the subject of two prints, ibid., fol. 30. 

* A quotation from *An Epistle to Sig. Vincenzo Lunardi' printed in his Account 
of the first Aerial Voyage in England, 1784. It continues: 

And all that the world from this tale have been able 
To learn, was, to give false Ambition a fable. — 
But from flights such as yours we've reason to hope 
Philosophy one Day may gain wider scope, . . . 



[From a drawing with a Pen by H. Bunbury.] 
[Published by J. Jones Great Portland Street April 20. 1785.] 

Engraving. Proof before letters. A gouty and obese man (r.) seated in a 
chair plays the *cello. Both legs are swathed, the feet wrapped in slashed 
coverings; the r. leg rests on a stool. The Devil (1.), hat in hat, holds in 
a pair of tongs a cinder against the r. knee. Bottles and glasses stand on a 
table. A pair of crutches lean against the chair. The hands of a wall-clock 
point to 12.25. Title, &c. are from pencil notes on the print. 


From an Original Drawing by H. Bunbury Esq^ in the Possession of 
S^ Joshua ReynoldSy to whom this plate is Inscribed^ by his much 
obliged <Sf most humble Servant^ John Jones. 

Published as the Act directs y May 12. lyS^y by J, Jones y Great Portland 
Street & W. Dickensony No 158 Bond Street. 

Stipple. A scene in a barber's shop during the Westminster Election of 
1784. The centre figure is a man seated, full-face, swathed in a sheet, 
while a boy (1.) applies tongs to his hair, which a man (r.) is combing. 
From the pocket of the boy protrudes a label inscribed Hood; from that 
of the other, [Wr]ay. On the ground projecting from the sheet is [F]ox. 
In the foreground (1.) a customer is seated, clasping his bald head with a 
concerned expression as he reads a newspaper; behind his head is a notice. 
State of the Poll. Two men, their hair freshly curled, stand in profile to 
the 1. before a looking-glass (1.) adjusting their cravats. On the extreme 
r. a barber shaves a man whose face is lathered; the barber's apron is 
inscribed Success to the Poll. Next, a stout man wearing top-boots, standing 
full-face, turning his head upwards and in profile to the 1., stanches a cut 
on his cheek with a towel. A boy stands beside him holding a barber's 
basin. In the centre foreground two dogs tug at a bag- wig; one (1.) wears 
a Hood & Wray favour, the other a Fox favour. A large hat on the ground 
has a Hood and Wray favour. A barber's block has been overturned (1.). 
On another (1.) is a wig. Wigs and wig-boxes decorate the back wall. For 
the Westminster Election see No. 6474, &c. Cf. Gillray's last plate after 
Bunbury 's A Barber'' s Shop in Assize Titne. 
18x251 in. 

6882 A A smaller version engraved by C. Knight was published 21 Apr. 
1802 by Jn° Harris. The inscriptions relating to the election are omitted. 

A French copy by David Weiss was engraved in 1785 ; a small copy of 
this was published in France in 1789 with the title Le Perruquier Patriate , 
and the inscription : 

Au sort de la Patrie oui mon coeur s' inter esse 
Que Von me laisse fairCy il n^ est plus de debat: 
Je Rase le ClergCy je peigne la NoblessCy 
J'accomode le Tiers-Etat. 



Coloured impression in Print Room, 
de Vinck, No. 2813. Blum, No. 15. 
3x41 in. 

H, Bunhury Esc[ delK J. Jones fecit. 

Published as the Act directs Sepr J*' lyS^. by J. Jones, AT" 6j, Great 
Portland Street, Marylebone. 

Stipple. A wooded scene in the immediate suburbs of London, with St. 
Paul's in the background. Two *cits' with guns prepare to fire, since their 
dog points at a bush, behind which, concealed from the sportsmen, squats 
a man excreting (1.). A man holding a powder-flask watches with amuse- 
ment from the top of a gate (r.). Another dog sits in the foreground (r.). 
Beneath the title is engraved : 

Against the Wind he takes his prudent way. 
While the strong Gale directs him to the prey; 
Now the warm scent assures the covey near. 
He treads with caution & he points with fear. 


clausisque expectat ocellis 


For the favourite theme of the Cockney sportsman cf. Nos. 7756, 8208. 
lojx 12J in. 

6883 A Another version (n.d.), 
Rowlandson scul H, Bunbury Del 

The verses are etched, the publication-line and Latin inscription perhaps 
cut off. The size of the figures is approximately the same as in No. 6883 . 
9X I3i in. * Caricatures', ix. 43. 

[J. H. Grimm del.] 

Published as the Act directs, by Harrison & C" Feb i^ 1785, 

Engraving. Wit's Magazine, ii. i. Men skating on the Serpentine. A stout 
man lies on his back across another man; he receives the contents of a 
bottle and glass, apparently dropped by a man with a wooden leg who is 
about to fall on top of him. A dog runs away ; two young women stand 
on the ice watching the catastrophe. On the bank (1.) a ragged man puts 
on the skates of a fashionably dressed man seated on a bench (1.), his hands 
in a muff. Behind is a tent in which people are drinking. Small figures 
skate in the distance ; a man pushes a woman in a chair. 

Reproduced, Johnson's England, ed. A. S. Turberville, i. 184. 

Original water-colour drawing in Print Room. 
5 1 X 7i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5441 c. 


Published Oct' i. 1785, 

Engraving. Wit's Magazine, ii. 155. A stout citizen drives his wife in 
a two-wheeled cart uphill, one wheel passes over a pig so that the cart is 



about to overturn, while the horse runs away, to the terror of the occupants. 
An old woman (1.) shakes her fist at them, other pigs are put to flight. 
Other pleasure-seekers are bound in the same direction, the object probably 
being to dine at an ordinary, cf. No. 6745. A coach has passengers on the 
roof, including a man with a wooden leg; two men ride on the same horse, 
one losing his hat and wig. Behind is another couple in a gig. In the back- 
ground (r.) is an inn indicated by a signboard which bestrides the road. 
5^X7 J in. B.M.L.. P.P. 5441 c. 

Other plates in the Wit's Magazine y vol. ii, are: 

Christmas Gambols, i Jan. 1785.^ 

The Devil and the Lawyer, i Mar. 1785. 

The Breeches. 1 Apr. 1785 . * Scene from the Comic Tale of the Breeches.' 
Monks in a church. 

Custom of riding the black ram. 1 June 1785. Illustration to the 
Spectator, No. 614, i Nov. 1714. (See Jacob's Law Dictionary, s.v. Free 


Published March 25^* 1785 by L Wallis, Ludgate Street London, 

Engraving (coloured impression). Design in an oval. Heading to Cowper's 
John Gilpin printed in five columns. Gilpin gallops (r. to 1.) past the *Beir 
at Edmonton clasping his horse's neck. In the balcony over the door 
Mrs. Gilpin holds up her hands in horror; five other persons look from the 
balcony. Two men seated on a bench outside the inn are laughing. A pot- 
boy (1.), his pots slung on his shoulder, points at the rider, so does a fish- 
woman, while a dog eats her fish. Geese run, and a dog barks. Behind (r.) 
are a post-chaise and a row of buildings. The signpost with the bell sign 
and the words Good stabling stands by a horse-trough. Beneath the 
(printed) title is printed, A Droll Story, Read by ikf Henderson at Free- 
mason' s-Hall. 

John Gilpin was shown by Richard Sharp to Henderson, who introduced 
it into recitations in 1785 with astonishing success. It was first published 
in the Public Advertiser in 1782, and appeared in various forms as a chap- 
book in 1783. D.N.B. It was also read at Drury Lane by Baddeley 
(chap-book in Banks Coll. vii. No. 26), and by Lee Lewes (D.N.B). For 
the popular theme of city horsemanship cf. No. 7524, &c. See also Nos, 
6742, 6887-6902, 6906, 7513, 8251. Cf. Nos. 6801, 8270. 
7iX9fin. Broadside, 17X II J in. 

Banks Collection, vii. No. 22. B.M.L. 1890. e. 21. 


Published as the Act directs Mar. 2^^ 1785. by T: Woodman & 
H: MutloWj Russel Court, Covent Garden. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Design in an oval. Heading to Cowper's 

John Gilpin printed in five columns, the title also being printed. Gilpin 

gallops (1. to r.) along a country road, holding his horse's mane; his hat and 

' This plate faces p. 441, vol. i, in the Print Room copy of the magazine. 



wig fly off. A turnpike man (r.) opens a gate ; a donkey brays and a dog 
barks. An apple-woman (1.), seated by the roadside smoking a pipe, points 
at Gilpin while a boy steals her apples. In the background are cheering 
spectators and a house with persons looking from the windows. The 
ballad is 'To the Tune of Chevy Chase'. See No. 6886, &c. 
7IX9I in. Broadside, lyfx iif in. 

Banks Collection, vii. No. 21. B.M.L. 1890. e. 21. 

IC [Cruikshank]. 

Published April 5 lyS^ by W Holland 66 Drury Lane 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Heading to Cowper's 
John Gilpin printed in four columns. Gilpin (r.) gallops (1. to r.) past the 
*Beir at Edmonton. Mrs. Gilpin and others lean from a bow-window (1.). 
A crowd of riders (1.) gallops in pursuit; pigs and geese scatter. In the 
background, on the r. of the inn, are a large sign (the *Beir and Good 
Stabling)^ a post-chaise, a wagoner beside his covered wagon, from which 
look spectators, and a man holding open a turnpike gate. Beneath the 
(printed) title is printed, Delivered by M' Henderson with repeated Applause^ 
at Free-Masons-Hall See No. 6886, &c. 
7 X 9ig in. Broadside, lyf X io| in. 

Banks Collection, vii, Nos. 23, 24. B.M.L. 1890. e. 21. 


Printed for J. Fielding y Pater-noster-Row [c 1785] 

Woodcut. On cover of chap-book of 16 pp.: The History of John Gilpin^ 
. . . Read by M^ Henderson . . . 3rd ed. Gilpin gallops (1. to r.) along a 
country road, past a house (1.). See No. 6886, &c. 
iJX2f in. Banks Coll. vii, No. 27. B.M.L. 1890. e. 21. 

6890 [JOHN GILPIN] [Apr. 1785] 

Engraving. Illustration on the outside [p. i] of a double folio sheet 
engraved with music, p. 2, and words, pp. j, ^, in two columns of Cowper's 
John Gilpin Price J* Printed and sold by John Welcker Music and Instrument 
Seller . , , N° 18 Coventry Street Haymarket. Gilpin gallops (r. to 1.) on a 
country road, his hat and wig falling off. In the background are trees and 
(r.) a toll-gate with small figures. The words are : as humourously delivered 
by M' Henderson with repeated applause at the Free Masons Tavern. 

Advertised 'this day is published', in the Morning Posty 19 Apr. 1785. 

See No. 6886, &c. 
4^X7 in. PL iiX7f in. Banks Coll. vii, No. 25. B.M.L. 1890. e. 21. 


Callings Fed 

Published as the Act directs, May 2 1^85 by W Humphreys Strand 

Engraving. Heading to Cowper's John Gilpin printed in five columns 
below the (printed) title. Gilpin clutches the mane of his galloping horse ; 



he has lost his stirrups, and wig and hat fly into the air. In the background 
(1.) is an inn and horsemen on a small scale. A boy runs after Gilpin. After 
the title is printed, A Droll Story, Read by M^ Henderson at Freemason's- 

See No. 6886, &c. 
6f X9i in. Banks Coll. vii. No. 28. B.M.L. 1890. e. 21. 

6892 JOHN GILPIN. 221 

Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, N° 6g in S^ Pauls Church 
Yard, London. Published as the Act directs, 2 June, lyS^. 

Engraving. Gilpin rides (r. to 1.) under the balcony of the 'Bell' at Edmon- 
ton; his hat and wig fly into the air. His wife, with two other persons, 
leans from the balcony. A postilion stands at the door leading to the inn- 
yard (r.) within which is a post-chaise. A dog barks, pigs run away. 
Beneath the design is engraved the verse beginning : 

*Stop, Stop, John Gilpin! here's the house I' 

See No. 6886, &c. 
6JX9I in. Banks Coll. vii. No. 29. B.M.L. 1890. e. 21. 


A set of six plates, numbered i-6, all with the same publication- 
line and date, the first inscribed Book no. Size ^. 4i X 5f in. Banks 
Coll. vii, No. 31. B.M.L. 1890. e. 21. 


Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, N^ 6g in S* Paul's Church 
Yard, London. Published as the Act directs, 25 July lyS^. 

Engraving. Design in an oval. Gilpin is about to mount his horse in 
Cheapside. Behind is the door of his linen-draper's shop inscribed John 
Gilpin; on each side the window displays patterned fabrics. Next it (r.) 
is a silversmith's shop with a classical urn over the door. Three ladies, 
his customers, stand outside Gilpin's door. A fruit-seller (r.) sits in the 
street by her wares. The corner of Wood Street is shown leading out of 
Cheapside, Beneath the design is engraved the verse beginning : 

For saddle tree scarce reach' d had he. 
See No. 6886, &c. 


Engraving. Design in an oval. Gilpin gallops towards a toll-gate (1.) which 
a man runs to open. Beside the gate is a turnstile for foot-passengers. 
Beneath is engraved the verse ending : 

How, in a trice, the turnpike men 
Their gates wide open threw. 

273 T 


6895 JOHN GILPIN. 3 

Engraving. Design in an oval. Gilpin gallops (r. to 1.) past the 'Bell* at 
Edmonton. His wife and family watch from the balcony ; an inn-servant 
from the door. Dogs bark and spectators are amused. Beneath is engraved 
the verse beginning : 

Stopf stop J John Gilpin! here's the house! 

6896 JOHN GILPIN. 4 

Engraving. Design in an oval. Gilpin outside the callender's house in 
Ware. The callender stands by the horse holding a hat, while Gilpin puts 
on the over-large wig. He wears a dressing-gown. On the steps of his 
house, inside a wall and railing, is a figure of Britannia. Two donkeys (1.) 
complete the design. Beneath is engraved the verse beginning : 

Whence straight he came zvtth hat and zvigy 

6897 JOHN GILPIN. 5 

Engraving. Design in an oval. Mrs. Gilpin (1.) holds out a coin to the 
driver (r.) of her chaise who stands bowing deferentially beside his horse. 
Her sister and two children stand behind her. In the background is the 
inn and the chaise. Beneath is engraved the verse beginning: 

Aftd thus unto the Youth she said 

6898 JOHN GILPIN. 6 

Engraving. Design in an oval. Gilpin gallops (r. to 1.), the Youth on a 
horse with blinkers has passed him and is about to seize his rein. Behind 
gallop five other pursuers. In the background are two detached houses. 
Beneath is engraved the verse beginning : 

The Youth did ride, and soon they met; 


Engraving. On the same pi. as No. 6900. Gilpin gallops (1. to r.) past the 
*Beir at Edmonton, which is crudely drawn. Another house is on the 1. 
Spectators watch from the inn balcony and from the windows of both 
houses ; others stand to stare, geese hiss, dogs bark. See No. 6886, &c. 
Sifx^A in. Banks Coll. vii, No. 31*. B.M.L. 1890. e. 21. 


Engraving. On the same pi. as No. 6899. Gilpin approaches a toll-gate 
(1.). A man holds out his hat and wig. 

See No. 6886, &c. 
SlX^ie in. Banks Coll. vii, No. 31*. B.M.L. 1890. e. 21. 



TO VAUX-HALL, . . . 

Published as the Act directs^ 2 July, 1783, by E, Tringham^ N° 36, 
Hosier Lane, West Smithfield, 

Engraving. Design in an oval. Heading to a set of verses, a parody on 
Cowper's John Gilpin, printed in five columns below the (printed) title. 
John Gilpin, his wife, and two daughters, in a sculler, collide with another 
sculler in which two men are passengers ; his hat has fallen into the water 
and he clutches his wig. In the background are other boats, and the 
houses and hills of the Surrey side of the Thames. The verses relate the 
misadventures of an expedition to Vauxhall, and include the stock subject 
of the citizen's complaint at the dearness of the fare, cf. No. 6741. 

See No. 6902 and No. 6886, &c. 
7ix8f in. Broadside, iSJx iif in. 

Banks Coll. vii. No. 32. B.M.L. 1890. e. 21. 


Sold at N° 4 Aldermary Church Yard London 

Engraving. Gilpin and Mrs. Gilpin seated at a Vauxhall supper-table. 
A small boy stands in front of the table. Next Mrs. Gilpin is a younger 
lady. They sit under two lamp-lit trees. Behind is a row of supper-boxes 
and in the background (r.) the covered walk. In the middle distance men 
and women are promenading. 

See No. 6901 and No. 6886, &c. For Vauxhall see No. 6853. 
6i^gX8J in. Banks Coll. vii, No. 33. B.M.L. 1890. e. 21. 


[After Dighton.] 

$43 Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, N" 6g in S^ Pauls 
Church Yard, London. Published as the act directs [date erased, 
c. 1785]. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 6907. Design 
in a circle inset in an oblong. A compass, inscribed Fear God, its legs 
forming arcs of the circle, encloses the figure of a young man standing in 
a rural landscape ; he points with his 1. hand to two sacks full of guineas 
at his feet. In the background is a harvest scene (1.), a stream with a water- 
wheel (r.), and in the distance a church (r.) and windmill (1.). Round the 
circle is inscribed Keep within compass and you shall be sure, to avoid many 
troubles which others endure. Beneath the circle. Industry Produceth Wealth. 
Beneath the design are four verses, the last : 

By honest & Industrious means 
You'll live a life of ease 
Then let the Compass be your guide 
And go where e'er you please. 

In the four corners of the oblong outside the circle are scenes showing 
the fatal results of an unrestrained life, (i) In the upper 1. comer a gambler 



is seated by a circular table on which are cards, dice, and an empty money- 
bag; he puts his hand to his forehead with a distraught expression. On 
the wall behind his head hang two pistols and through a window is seen 
a body hanging from a gibbet. (2) In the upper r. corner a courtesan robs 
a young man who is in a drunken sleep ; bottles and glasses are on a table. 
(3) In the lower 1. corner a ship drives upon rocks. (4) In the lower r. 
corner three prisoners are seen through a barred window ; on the wall is 
a pair of shackles. 
i2fX9|in. 'Caricatures*, iii. 62. 

6903 A A crude copy (coloured), in reverse, the last only of the four 
verses being engraved. 

six 4^ in. (clipped). 

THE VICAR AND MOSES. (546) See No. 377i— [c- 1785] 

[After Dighton.] 
Cf. Nos. 6130, 6721. 


^§2 Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, N° 6g in S^ Pauls 
Church Yardy London. Published as the Act directs [date erased, 
c. 1785]. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). Beneath the title is engraved. From 
Pope's favourite Poem of January and May, or the Merchant's Tale , from 
Chaucer. A garden scene. A young woman (r.) kneels on the back of her 
blind old husband, who stoops down, clasping the trunk of a pear-tree to 
support her that she may reach her lover who sits in its branches leaning 
towards her. The old man is dressed in an oldfashioned manner, with 
wide cuffs ; the other two are fashionably dressed : she wears a feathered 
hat and long elbow -gloves ; the anchor of Hope is suspended from her neck 
on a ribbon. He wears boots with deep tops, and a round hat. In the back- 
ground (r.) is a piece of water crossed by a wooden bridge with Chinese 
rails. Beneath the design are engraved eight lines from Pope, beginning : 

At least kind Sir, for Charity's sweet sake 
Vouchsafe the Trunk between your arms to take. 

She is pregnant, and has deceitfully asked her doting husband to help her 
to reach a pear for which she craves. 
12JX9I in. * Caricatures', i. 6. 


See No. 3766— [1785] 
[? After Dighton.] 


555 Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, N^ 6g in S* Pauls 
Church Yard London. Published as the Act directs [date erased, 


Mezzotint (coloured impression). A young man, with a young lady whom 
he is about to place in a coach, is interrupted by the lady's father or 



guardian (r.), who runs towards them with outstretched arms. The coach 
is partly visible on the r. ; the liveried coachman turns round to watch the 
pair; the lover's r. foot is on the step of the coach. On the r. is a park 
wall with trees. In the foreground is an arch-topped coffer, similar to those 
carried by milliners. 
12JX9I i^- * Caricatures', i. 181. 


S§8 Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles^ AT" 6g in S^ Pauls 
Church Yardy London. Published as the Act directs, 10 July 1785. 

Mezzotint (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Gilpin gallops (r. 
to 1.) past the 'Bell' at Edmonton. His wife leans from the balcony over 
the door. With her are three children and a woman holding an infant. 
Two horsemen are in pursuit, one holds up Gilpin's wig. A spaniel barks. 
The inn appears to be drawn with some topographical correctness. A sign 
bestrides the road (r.) with the words The Old Bell \ An Ordtnar[y] \ Late 
Lan and, below the bell, J. King from. Another sign is on the front of the 
house. Beneath the design are engraved the six verses beginning : 

Away went Gilpin — atid away 
Went Gilpin's hat and wig; 

See No. 6886, he. * Caricatures', ii, Frontispiece, 

iif X9J in. Banks Coll. vii, No. 30. B.M.L. 1890. e. 21. 

[After Dighton.] 

560 Printed for & Sold by Bowles & Carver, N'' 6g in S^ Pauls 
Church Yard, London. 

[After Dighton.] 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 6903. A 
young woman stands within a compass inscribed Fear God, holding an 
open book inscribed The Pleasures of Imagination Realized. At her feet is 
an open chest full of guineas from which hang bank-notes and jewels; it is 
inscribed The Reward of Virtue. A small dog stands beside her. In the 
background (r.) is a country house, on the 1. farm-buildings and hay- 
stacks. The four corners are filled (as in No. 6903) with the disasters which 
beset the woman who does not 'keep within compass', (i) A woman weeps 
dejectedly with cards and an empty purse on the ground at her feet. 
(2) A drunken woman lets an infant fall from her arms ; on the wall is a torn 
print inscribed Domestic Happiness. (3) A woman is being conducted to 
the watch-house by two watchmen, one with his lantern, the other with 
a rattle. (4) She beats hemp in Bridewell, a man standing behind her with 
a whip, as in Hogarth's Harlot's Progress. The words round the circle are 
the same as in No. 6903. Beneath the circle is inscribed Prudence produceth 
esteem. Below the design four verses are engraved, the first : 

Instead of Cards my Fair-one look, 

(/ beg you'll take it kind) 
Into some learned Author's Book, 

And cultivate your mind. 



The original water-colour is in the Print Room ; the design in the circle, 
but not the corner designs, reversed. Reproduction, Apollo ^ xiv. loo 
(Aug. 193 1). 
i2iX9|in, ^Caricatures*, iii. 63. 

[After Dighton.] 

34y Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, N° 6g in S^ Pauls 
Church Yardy London, Published as the Act directs 16 Aug. 1785. 

Engraving, partly mezzotinted. A reduced version of No. 6907 with the 
same inscriptions, but different verses : 

Attend unto this simple fact , 

As thro' this life you rove. 
That virtuous and prudent ways 

Will gain esteem and love. 

5TiX4|m. (pi.). 


Engraving (coloured impression). A crude copy of No. 6908, in reverse, 
differing in details. 
5|X4i^6in. (clipped). 

6910 THE TRUE BRITISH TAR. [c. 1785-6] 
[After Dighton.] 

561 Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, N° 6g in S^ Pauls 
Church Yardy London, 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A sailor (1.), who looks with a grin 
towards the spectator, sits on a corded sea-chest pointing at his prize- 
money which is heaped up on a larger chest in front of him. He is gaily 
dressed, wearing a hat with a ribbon favour, long pig-tail, striped trousers ; 
a bunch of seals dangles from his waistcoat. His smoking pipe lies on the 
ground behind him. In his r. hand is a sheaf of papers inscribed List of 
Prizes taken at the [ ?] Huntinna S^ Eustatia. Five money-sacks stand on 
the chest, three being inscribed respectively £10,000, Spanish Dollars, 
and £3,000; a sixth lies open with coins issuing from it. Four wine- 
bottles, one labelled Made[ira], and a glass also stand on the chest. Through 
an open sash-window is seen a man-of-war whose sails are being lowered. 
On the wall (1.) behind the sailor's head is a ballad headed by an oval bust 
portrait of George III and the words God save the King-, below the verses 
is a crown. Beneath the design is engraved : 

Now the Wars are all over. 
Faith ril live in clover; 
Fve enough of this Pelf, 
For my friends and myself. 

For the capture of St. Eustatius see No. 5842, &c. Cf. No. 4496, a 
similar subject. 



Reproduced, C. N. Robinson, The British Tar in Fact and Fiction^ 
1909, p. 318. 
12 Jx 9 J in. 'Caricatures', i. 18. 

[After Dighton.] 

562 Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, N^ 6g in S^ PauVs 
Church Yard, London. Published as the Act directs [date erased, 
c^ 1785-6] 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A pretty and coquettishly dressed milk- 
maid stands full-face, her pails hung from a wooden yoke across her 
shoulders. Her expression and pose suggest that she is about to receive 
favourably the overtures of an elderly beau who stands ogling behind her 
(r.), holding coins in his hand. In the background are farm-buildings and 
I2f X9J in. 'Caricatures', i. 183. 


See No. 3755— [c- 1785-6] 

See also No. 6154. 


See No. 3756 — [c. 1785-6] 

See also No. 6153. 


[After Dighton.] 

566 Printed for &' Sold by Bowles & Carver, N^ 6g in S* Paul's 
Church Yard, London. [Date cut off, c. 1785-6.] 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 6913. The 
interior of a room, probably in a club or fashionable tavern. Men are 
seated at a large circular table on which is a punch-bowl, wine-glasses, a 
decanter labelled Port, long pipes, and bound books of music, two open, 
the third, which is closed, inscribed Catches and Glees. The seated men 
are singing, pointing at each other; others stand behind, some singing, or 
watching the singers ; one reads a newspaper through an eyeglass, another 
smokes a pipe. In the foreground a spaniel stands on its hind legs against 
the table. A curtain drapes a tall window through which is seen a line of 
houses and a church spire. In a panelled alcove hangs a mirror in an 
ornate frame. The heavy tablecloth rests on the ground, the floor is 
carpeted. Beneath the title twelve lines of the catch which is being sung 
are engraved, beginning : 

Sir you are a Comical Fellow, 

Your Nose it is hooked. 
Your Back it is crooked. 

Yes you are a Comical Fellow^ 



Possibly a meeting of the Catch Club, founded 176 1 ; members took the 
chair in turns at the dinners which were held weekly at the Thatched 
House Tavern from February to June. Grove, Diet, of Music. 

The original water-colour is in the Print Room. Reproduction, Apollo^ 
xiv. 102 (Aug. 193 1). 
i2|X9| ^"- 'Caricatures*, i. 76. 

[After Dighton.] 

56y Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, N'* 6g in S^ PauVs 
Church Yard London, Published as the Act directs [date erased, 
c. 1785-6] 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 6912; a 
similar group of men in a similar room stand or sit at a rectangular table 
singing from a large music-book held open on the table. Punch-bowl, 
wine-bottle, glasses, pipes, a tumbler are on the table which is covered by 
a heavy cloth. Their expressions are more serious than those of the catch- 
singers. Two men in the background are smoking, one of whom is lighting 
his pipe. A dog sits in the foreground looking up at the singers. The words 
of the glee are engraved beneath the print, beginning : 

Which is the properest Day to drink, 
Saturday, Sunday, Monday, 

The Glee Club was formed in 1787, earlier meetings having taken place 
informally at private houses, beginning in 1783 with meetings at the house 
of Mr. Robert Smith in St. Paul's Churchyard when glees, canons, catches, 
&c., were sung after dinner. Grove, Diet, of Music. 
12IX9J ^^' * Caricatures', i. 77. 

A similar subject by Rowlandson to Nos. 6912, 6913 is the frontispiece to 
the Lyric Repository. A Collection of . . . Songs Duets Catches, Glees & 
Cantatas . . . Printed for J. French N° 164 Fenchurch Street. lySy. Copy 
in Print Room. 
5fX7f in. 





Pu¥ as the Act directs ^ by J. Nunn Queen Street, Jany iP^ iy86. 

Engraving. John Bull stands full-face, shouting and stamping with rage, 
on a block of turf inscribed Land-Tax 45 in the pound. Across his shoulders 
are two yokes, one inscribed National — Debt &c., the other Civil-List &c. ; 
from the four ends hang objects representing taxes. From the 1. end of 
the former dangles a figure made up of barrels, bars, &c., the head repre- 
sented by lighted Candles ; it is inscribed Excise-Man ; the rope attaching 
it to the yoke is Excise. Its r. hand (1.), inscribed Auctions, holds out an 
auctioneer's hammer; the 1. holds a bottle of Wine, in a stand inscribed 
Plate. The other portions of the body are inscribed Beer, Tea, Cyder, 
Spirits, Malt, Tobacco, Calico, Hides, Glass, Soap, Coffee, Chocolate. 
Between its legs are the words Licenses &c. &c. The head of a crocodile 
inscribed New Taxes extends from the lower 1. corner of the design, 
directing a barbed tongue at the Excise Man. From the other end of this 
yoke a bundle of scrolls dangles from a rope inscribed Taxes : Maid Servants, 
Men Servants, Carriages &c. Game, Places, &c &c. A similar bundle of 
Stamps hangs from the 1. end of the Civil-List yoke : Medecines, Warrants 
of Attorney, Cards & Dice, Almanacks, Notes, Horses, Receipts, Bonds &c. 
News-papers, Pamphlets, &c. &c. From the r. end of this yoke hangs a 
pyramid of barrels, sacks, &c., its rope inscribed Customs: they are in- 
scribed respectively. Wine, Cloth, Leather, Salt, Pepper, Coals, Sugar, Wool, 
Tobacco &c &c. 

Two feathers (or leaves) fly upwards, inscribed Attornies (1.) and Pawn- 
brokers (r.). Portions of two buildings are visible on the extreme 1. and 
r. : on the 1. is a two-storied house, the roof inscribed Tile Tax, the 
front inscribed Brick Tax, Insurance Tax, Window Tax, House Tax, its 
wide blocked-up door or window. Shop Tax. On the r. is the comer of 
a church, inscribed Parochial Taxes, Poor's rate. Watch, Lights, Scavenger 
Pavement &c. A tombstone ( ?) resting against it is inscribed State Taxes, 
Births, Christenings, Marriages, Deaths and Burials. The Briton wears a 
bandage over one eye inscribed Commutation-, his hat is labelled Stamp 
and Turn-pike. His shouting mouth is inscribed Custom and Excise and 
these words, together with Stamp, are inscribed respectively on his 
body and limbs. A caterpillar crawls towards him from the r., inscribed 
Marriage Portions. Beneath the title is etched : 

From top to toe, all o'er stuck full 

With Taxes grievous, poor John Bull, 

By acts of state so strictly bound. 

Pays shillings fourteen in the pound; 

Should Taxes new the rest surprise. 

Like Shop-Tax, stamps and laws excise, 

John must sink beneath the evil. 

Or kick them all to the Devil. 



A comprehensive view of the burdens, national and parochial, old and 
new, which weighed down John Bull but were lightened by expanding 
trade. The stamp duties were extended by North in 1782, doubled by 
Lord John Cavendish (1782), and extended by the Coalition (1783) to 
Receipts, see No. 6243, &c., and to the registration of births, deaths, and 
marriages, see No. 6253, &c. Pitt's first budget (1784) included new duties 
on hats, coals (withdrawn), horses (see No. 6672), hackney coaches, bricks 
and tiles, paper, licences for shooting and licences for traders in excisable 
goods. For the Commutation Tax, lowering the tax on tea and raising that 
on windows, see No. 6634, &c. For the tax on shops see No. 6798, &c., and 
on maidservants No. 6794, &c. Pitt's licence duties were extended in 1785 
to the legal profession (attorneys, &c.) and to pawnbrokers. See Dowell, 
Hist, of Taxation and Taxes', Rose, Pitt and National Revival^ 191 1, chap, 
viii. See also Nos. 6962, 7132, 7145, 7389, 7480, 7494, 7869. 

An altered version was issued in 1790, see No. 7625. 


Published, as the Act directs, by W^ Moore, New Bond Street, Jany 2^ 

Engraving. Pitt and the Opposition fight for the loaves and fishes of office ; 
these are represented by three loaves and two fishes on a pole behind and 
between the two sets of combatants. Pitt (1.) and Fox (r.) face each other 
with basket-hiked single-sticks. Behind Pitt is Pepper Arden, saying, 
Zounds! at him again, Billy, bang him over his sconce with your Crab — 
d — mn it, the Sinking-fund will support you. Behind Arden is a very small 
man, also armed with a single-stick. His breeches-pocket is inscribed 
Agency ; from it protrudes a paper. Defence of Governor Hast[ings], showing 
that he is Major John Scott, M.P. for West Looe, the agent of Hastings. 
Fox is tall and burly, he and his two supporters. North and Burke, look 
much more than a match for Pitt, Arden, and Scott. Burke, holding a 
single-stick, says : Dont spare, Charley, peg him about the noddle with your 
Shillany — and Til have a touch with the little Major — / have a tough bit of 
Bamboo, and dam'me Fll Macartney him. 

The print anticipates the meeting of Parliament on 24 Jan. 1786, and 
shows that the Opposition were expected to attack the Ministry on the 
question of Warren Hastings, on which public opinion had been violently 
at issue since his return to England in June 1785. A motion of censure 
had been carried in May 1782 ; Burke had given notice of a hostile motion 
in the House of Commons, but members of the Opposition urged at a 
private meeting at the Duke of Portland's shortly before 24 Jan. that this 
should be dropped. But the zeal of Burke and Fox was unabated: Fox 
raised the question of the East India Company, Hastings, and Macartney 
on the first day of the Session, giving 'the highest encomiums to Lord 
Macartney'. Pari. Hist. xxv. loio, &c. Wraxall, Memoirs, iv. 141 ff. Rose, 
Pitt and National Revival; Camb. Hist, of India, v. 307. Macartney arrived 
in England in Jan. 1786, having been offered the post of Governor- General 
in succession to Hastings. D.N.B. See No. 6925, &c. For the Sinking 
Fund, see No. 7551. The loaves and fishes of office are a recurrent theme 
with Dent. 




Published Febv 7 iy86 by J, Parry N° 30 Henrietta S' Cov^ Garden 

Engraving. A stout butcher stands beneath a triangular gallows on which 
are hooks; he raises a man round whose neck is a noose of rope and is 
about to hang the noose from one of the hooks, as if he were dealing with 
a carcass. Four bodies hang from hooks on the farther side of the gallows, 
inscribed Coalitio ; one, in profile, is perhaps intended for Fox, the others 
are in back view. The man in the butcher's hands wears a ribbon and is 
evidently intended for North, but the characterization is poor. At the 
butcher's feet, on the scaffold, squats a skeleton with a scythe, holding up 
a noose of rope to three men who regard him with terror; another man sits 
in back view at the butcher's feet (r.), supporting his head in his hands. 
These are probably supporters of the Coalition. In the background are 
crowds of spectators ; two groups look from the roofs of coaches ; a man (r.) 
in Highland dress is probably Dundas. 

A satire showing the continued unpopularity of the Coalition, cf. No. 
6671, &c. 



Pu¥ Feby i&^ iy86 by S Hedges A7^ 9J ComhiU} 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A confused design : in 
the centre the kings of England (1.) and Prussia (r.) sit together under a 
canopy; they turn their heads in profile, gazing intently at each other. 
Behind George Ill's chair a British sailor lounges, behind Frederick's a 
Prussian grenadier with a musket stands erect. Frederick holds the ends 
of two chains attached to the necks of the Habsburg eagle beneath the feet 
of the two kings ; the two beaks of the bird hold a scroll inscribed Universal 
Monarchy ; with its claws it strikes fiercely at the prostrate bodies of a man 
and woman, evidently intended for inhabitants of the United Provinces. 
Beneath the bird is the word Austria. On the sides of the canopy under 
which the kings sit are shields, one (1.) inscribed Hanover Brunswick Hesse^ 
the other (r.), Saxony Deux Pont Mayence &Cy representing German States 
under the control or influence of England and of Prussia. On the 1. and 
r. of the two kings, as if supporters to an escutcheon, are W.L. figures on 
a large scale of military officers; each holds the hilt of his sword, saying, 
Whilst you agree I am ready. One (1.) is the Reig^ Duke of Brunswick^ the 
other Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. In the lower r. corner of the design 
a Frenchman wearing a bag-wig milks a cow inscribed Holland^ a dog barks 
at him angrily. Next the cow a man seated on the ground, probably 
intended for the Stadtholder, holds up his hands imploringly to the two 
kings, saying. Pray protect me. Isolated figures round the two sides and 
upper edge of the design represent the other Powers of Europe : a crowned 
bear (1.) inscribed Russia^ couchant, looks greedily towards a much smaller 
bear inscribed Poland. Russia says, Tortur'd by Ambition — backed by 

* Another imprint appears to have been erased, leaving the last words : Spring 



Brother Joseph; Poland answers, / am not muzzled. The bust of an oriental 
wearing a turban (Turkey) looks over its shoulder (across Poland) towards 
Russia, saying, By the great Prophet thou art but a Woman. A crowned 
monkey with a sceptre and shield, representing Louis XVI, is seated on a 
globe inscribed Holland^ saying, Mundus vult decipi. Down the r. side of 
the print are three crowned busts looking towards the two kings : Sardinia 
says, You shall not Settle without me; Spain says, Oh. give me the Rock (cf. 
No. 6025, &c.), Portugal says. Oh! buy my Wine (an allusion to the prefer- 
ence to Portuguese wines, given by the Methuen treaty and threatened by 
the pending commercial treaty with France). On the 1. side Sweden says, 
/ am in the pay of France ; Denmark says, / lay by at present. After the 
title is etched. Toasts upon the Occasion, [by the] 
King of Prussia '\ 

King of Great Britain \ 
The Berlin Union J 
Confusion to the Bavarian Project 
The wooden walls of old England 
The Illustrious House of Brunswick & Wolfenbuttel 
Destruction to the French Interest in Holland and Prosperity to the House of 

May the British Lion & the Prussian Eagle remain united for Times ever- 
May the united Strength of the British Lyon and the Prussian Eaglle preserve 
the ancient Constitution of the German Empire and the Protestant Interest. 
May universal Monarchy the Bane of Human Nature for ever remain a base- 
less Vision &c. 

The amity and co-operation between England and Prussia to check the 
designs of Austria and France here depicted did not exist in spite of 
British diplomatic efforts at Berlin. Frederick, however, to hold the Em- 
peror Joseph in check, had concerted a German League of Princes which was 
joined by George III as Elector of Hanover. 'The Bavarian Project' was 
Joseph's scheme for the exchange of his discontented Belgic lands for the 
Electorate of Bavaria. France was (temporarily) successful in establishing 
her (anti-British) influence over the United Provinces, and to do so secured 
the withdrawal by Joseph of his demand for the opening of the lower 
Scheldt and his claims on Maastricht. The Stadtholder's position was 
threatened by the Patriots who were supported by France, cf. No. 6292. 
France roused suspicion in England also by her Eastern policy and by 
fortifications at Cherbourg. Camb. Hist, of British Foreign Policy y 1922, 
i. 160 fF. Rose, Pitt and National Revival^ chap. xiii. The designs of 
Russia were at this time more threatening to Turkey than Poland. Camb. 
Mod. Hist. viii. 524. 

Grego, Rowlandsony i. 182-3. 



Published Feb 24. iy86 by S. Fores N"" 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). George III, dressed 
like a farmer, rides a sorry horse towards Windsor. Queen Charlotte sits 

* Identified by Mr. Hawkins as Metz (Conrad Martin), but perhaps W. Mansell : 
the heads resemble those in No. 6931. Attributed by some collectors to Gillray. 



pillion behind him like a farmer's wife ; he is in profile, she full-face, both 
feet in a wide stirrup or platform. He points awkwardly with his stick 
towards Windsor. A dog walks before them, its collar inscribed G.R. 
Windsor Castle (1.) is among trees; a signpost (1.) points To Windsor and 
To Slough. On the extreme r. is a milestone, XX Miles from S^ James's, 

The title is from Farquhar's play (1700). One of many satires on George 
Ill's farming activities, cf. No. 4883 ; the first of many in which he and 
the queen are a farmer and his wife, see Nos. 6934, 6946, 6947, 6984, 7355, 
7897, 7905, 7915, 7924, 8106, 8129. 

Reproduced, Paston, pi. clxix. 


JSf [Sayers.] 

PuhV' r^ March iy86 by J Cornell Bruton Street 

Engraving. The Speaker in his hat and robes stands in back view directing 
a stream (as Gulliver extinguished the fire in the royal apartments in 
Lilliput) upon Lilliputian fortifications and cannon; those seen between 
his legs are being dashed to pieces. Beyond are the masts of ships. The 
devastating stream is inscribed Casting vote. The r. side of the Speaker's 
chair is visible (r.). 

A satire on the casting vote given by Cornwall in the debate of 27 Feb. 
against the Duke of Richmond's scheme for fortifying Portsmouth and 
Plymouth, see No. 6921, &c. The division occurred at 7 a.m. 28 Feb. 
Cf. the description of a print by Wraxall, Memoirs^ 1884, iv. 270. 
9ix6iin. (pi.). 



Published March f^ lySOy by S. W, Fores, at the Caracature Ware- 
house, N^ 3 Piccadilly, 

Engraving. The Duke of Richmond (1.) sleeps in an arm-chair beside a 
table on which are playing-cards and bits of broken tobacco-pipes arranged 
to represent fortifications. On the r. are two cannons, one on a gun- 
carriage ; a cat sits on its muzzle miaowing at Richmond, one paw on the 
table. By his side (1.) are plans on rollers and a box of long tobacco-pipes. 
On the wall hang two pictures on rollers as if they were plans. In one (1.) 
soldiers with wheelbarrows, &c. work on the sea-shore, off which dis- 
mantled ships lie at anchor. In the other, cannons and cannon-balls with 
one sentry lie along the sea-shore, off which are ships at anchor with 
brooms at their mast-heads to show that they are for sale. Richmond's 
hat, overcoat, and sword hang on the wall between the two pictures. At 
his feet is an open book inscribed Trial of Colo^ Debbeig. 

One of several satires on Richmond's unpopular plan for fortifying 
Portsmouth and Plymouth, see No. 6921, &c. Debbiege was a colonel of 
Engineers of some distinction who had an acrimonious correspondence 



with Richmond during July-Oct. 1784; this led to a court-martial for 
writing 'unbecoming letters'. See the printed correspondence in B.M.L. 
6875, df. 27. He was referred to by Barre, in the debate of 14 Mar. 1785 
on Richmond's plan of fortifications, as 'honest and oppressed'. Pari. Hist., 
XXV. 388. See also The Rolliad, pt. II : 

Learn thoughtless Debbeige now no more a youth, 
The woes unnumber'd that encompass truth. 

He was again court-martialled 28 June 1789, &c., on the prosecution of 
Richmond, was found guilty, but only suspended from pay and duty for 
six months. 

Grego, Rowlandsoriy i. 183-4 (reproduction). 


Published as the Act directs, March 8^^ iy86. by H: Humphrey N" 51, 
New Bond Street 

Engraving. The Duke of Richmond as Uncle Toby (in Sterne's Tristram 
Shandy) stands (r.) directing the operations of Pitt as Corporal Trim, who 
stands with a raised pickaxe, turning his head to receive his orders. Both 
wear military uniform. Pitt's grenadier's cap is on the ground beside him. 
A crutch is under Richmond's 1. arm, the other crutch outstretched in his 
1. hand ; in his r. he holds a paper on which is the plan of a star-shaped fort 
inscribed Plans of Fortifications Plymouth Portsmouth. The sentry-box is 
behind him. They stand on the sea-shore; three men-of-war (1.) are at 
anchor flying the British flag, the nearest is the Artois (a prize of the 
American war). Above the ships, among clouds, the Speaker, Cornwall, 
leans forward, one hand resting on his table, the other extended ; from his 
mouth issues a blast inscribed Stop there Trim ; cannons in embrasures and 
on a gun-carriage rest on the clouds, pointing towards Pitt. On the ground 
at Pitt's JPeet is an overturned wheelbarrow inscribed Useless to be Disposed 
ofy with a pick and spade, and a roll, Plans of ... . Beneath the title is 
engraved. Raising Fortifacations for the good of the Nation. 

A satire on the defeat of Richmond's scheme for the fortification of 
Portsmouth and Plymouth; the resolution moved by Pitt on 27 Feb. 1786 
was defeated by the casting vote of the Speaker, see No. 6919. The scheme 
had been violently attacked in the House of Commons on 14 Mar. 1785; 
in the meantime a board of military and naval officers had reported 
favourably on the scheme. Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iv. 104-8, 261-71. 
Pari. Hist. xxv. 375-91, 1096-156. According to Wraxall, Pitt 'shocked 
public opinion by the prominent part which he took in projecting so 
obnoxious a system in defiance of every objection'. It was supposed to be 
an attack on the Navy, and was very unpopular. It and the Duke are 
pilloried in The Rolliad, Pt. II, No. iii. The measure was defeated by the 
country gentlemen. (But Pitt managed to find funds for improving the 
defences of the two dockyards. Rose, Pitt and the Great War, p. 124.) 
See also Nos. 6373, 6919, 6920, 6922, 6923, 6940, 6951, 6952, 7148, &c., 
7150. 7389, 7480, 7481, 7494, 7554. 





[J. Lockington.] - 

London Puhlishd as the Act directs Mar^ 9. iy86 by J Lockington 
Engraver Saville Passage^ Conduit Street, Hanover Square. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Two ovals and a circle 
in decorative frames arranged vertically. Round the upper oval the title 
is engraved. Within it is a bust profile portrait in an oval, probably intended 
for the Duke of Richmond but resembling Lord Amherst (commander-in- 
chief). This is N° i.y and is surrounded by military trophies and sur- 
mounted by a broken mural coronet. The circle, inscribed N° 2, contains 
a full-face bust portrait of Warren Hastings ; it is surrounded by a laurel 
wreath, at the apex of which is an oriental bed. Military trophies, spears, 
bayonets, &c., surround the circle. In the lower oval is engraved: 

NO I. 
This is one of those extraordinary personages termed Conquerors; and may 
be thought great like Alexander , he having been where ambition has destroyed 
numbers; as tho* mankind was only made to be cut to Pieces, Such we call a 
Hero, a Warrior , a General, or Mankiller. 

N° 2. 
This is the head of an Eastern Chief. The Chiefs of which place is under 
great Subjection of Lacks of Rupees and Berguders or else Deposed of their 
Crowns; Torn from their families or Starved by our Modem Conquerors: 
which has been the case lately, he is called Tulgagee Mahah Rajah. 

To be Continued 

A satire on (i) the defeat of Richmond's scheme for fortifications, see 
No. 6921, &c. (or perhaps on Amherst, one of the conquerors of Canada), 
and (2) on Hastings, the attack on whom had been opened by Burke's 
speech of 17 Feb. 1786, moving that Dundas's resolutions of censure of 
28 May 1782 should be read, and pressed further in the debates of 3, 6, and 
7 Mar. Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iv. 258-61, 274 ff. Pari. Hist. xxv. 
1060 ff., 1 183 ff. See No. 6925, &c. The title is from Stevens's famous 
Lecture on Heads. 
12 x7ft in. 


Vide Tris. Shandy, 
Publishd by J. Mills Strand, March JJ^*, iy86. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A sequel to No. 6921, apparently by a 
different artist. The Duke of Richmond sits in his sentry-box (1.) looking 
with a nielancholy expression and outstretched 1. hand towards miniature 
fortifications at his feet, against which other and more permanent fortifica- 
tions are directing their fire: cannons in the embrasures of castellated 
buildings. His 1. foot rests on miniature sacks, a spade and grenade lie at 
his feet. On the extreme 1. is a miniature cannon inscribed Ratio Ultima 
Regum. Inside the sentry-box (which resembles a garden-latrine) a print 
of men-of-war is pasted upside down, implying that Richmond's scheme 
removed the Navy from its function of the first line of defence. In his 


r. hand he holds a Gazette, on which the script is illegible except for the 
figures V , the votes (including that of the Speaker, see No. 6919), by 

which his scheme had been defeated. Pari. Hist., xxv. 11 56. In the back- 
ground is a dense mass of foliage, showing the small scale of all the 
fortifications. For Richmond's scheme and its defeat see No. 6921, &c. 
I2|X9 ^^' 

6923 a uncle TOBY'S RETREAT 

Another state, probably earlier (uncoloured), in which y. Gary is substituted 
for J. Mills in the publication-line. On the front of the sentry-box is 
inscribed En la Rose flueri [sic], *En la rose je fleuris' being the motto of 
the Lennox family. There is no inscription on the cannon. Richmond's 
paper is inscribed Morning Ghronicle in place of the 'Gazette'; under the 
caption is Fortificatio\n\ and the last lines are legible : 

For the AmernP 170 
Against i6g 

Majority I 

The print of ships is inscribed, / was willing but not able. 

Fitz delin* Herbert fecit. 

Published March Jj^* 1786, by S. W. Fores, at the Caracature Ware- 

s. d. 

house N° 3 Piccadilly. Price 2 . 6 

Engraving (coloured impression). One of a set of prints by one or more 
artists on the marriage of the Prince of Wales and Mrs. Fitzherbert. 
The interior of a well-furnished room. The Prince of Wales (1.) takes the 
hand of Mrs. Fitzherbert and is about to put the ring on her finger. The 
officiating minister (L), Weltje, stands in profile to the r. holding a book 
inscribed Matrimony and Hoyle^s Games. From his pocket issues a paper, 
Weltjie's Nat** Bill. A cork-screw and another implement hang from his 
waist by a jewelled chain, simulating a rosary and cross ; he wears a long 
gown over fashionably cut clothes. Next Mrs. Fitzherbert (r.) stands 
George Hanger, giving her away; he wears regimentals with a huge 
cocked hat; under his 1. arm is a bludgeon (cf. No. 71 16). The Prince 
wears the insignia of the Garter, Mrs. Fitzherbert (poorly characterized) 
wears a triple ostrich plume in her hair with the motto Ich dien. On the 
wall are two pictures: a T.Q.L. portrait of Mrs. Fitzherbert, and (r.) a 
Leda and the Swan, partly concealed by a curtain which fills the upper r. 
corner of the design. Beneath the Leda is a semicircular table on which 
are vases and a book. Love's Last Shift (Gibber's play). A hanging cande- 
labra is part of the design. 

The very secret marriage took place in Mrs. Fitzherbert's drawing- 
room in Park Street, 15 Dec. 1785, in the presence of her brother and 
uncle. See Wilkins, Mrs. Fitzherbert and George IV, 1908, i. 96 ff. The 
suspected marriage became the talk of the town. Walpole writes, lo Feb. 
1786: *0h but the hubbub you are to hear and to talk of, and except 
which you are to talk of nothing else, for they tell me the passengers in 



the streets, of all ranks, talk of it. . . .' Letters, xiii. 363. For the contra- 
dictory reports see Orde to Rutland, 16 May 1786. Hist. MSS. Comm., 
Rutland Papers, iii. 300. From this time for some years Hanger figures 
prominently among satires of the Prince's boon companions, and Weltje 
(see No. 5888), important at Carlton House, is a favourite subject in lam- 
poons and satires against the Prince and the Whigs. Hanger's dress, that 
of a major in the Prussian service, worn with a huge Kevenhuller hat, 
caused amusement when first seen at court (1782). Huish, Memoirs of 
George III, 1831, pp. 98-9. The print appears in No. 6961. The title is 
from Holcroft's The Follies of a Day, or, the Marriage of Figaro, an adapta- 
tion of Beaumarchais' play, produced 14 Dec. 1784 at Covent Garden with 
great success. 

Angelo describes this print, attributing it (as The Marriage of Figaro) 
to Wicksteed, *a celebrated seal-engraver in Henrietta Street, Covent 
Garden'. Reminiscences, 1904, i. 329. He attributes The Follies of a Day 
to Austin (ibid., p. 331), whose manner it does not resemble. See also 
Nos. 6927, 6928, 6929, 6937, 6941, 6942, 6943, 6944, 7143. 



yS.f [Sayers.] 

Puhlishd if^ March iy86 by Tho" Cornell Bruton Street 

Aquatint. Burke dressed as a Roman senator, but wearing his own wig, 
stands, his head turned in profile to the 1. towards Hastings, whom he is 
denouncing; his r. arm is raised holding up a paper inscribed Articles of 
Impe[achme]nt. With his 1. arm he extends his cloak to shelter a seated 
figure on the r., who covers his face with his hands, and at whose feet lie 
a noose of rope and an open book. Cash D^ and Cash C[*'] with ruled 
£ s. d. columns, the entries on the credit side being erased. Hastings, on 
the extreme 1., is in oriental dress, his face turned aside, his hands held out 
as if protesting his innocence. In the air, hurled by Burke, are two papers : 
Treaty of Peace with the Mahrattas and the portrait of an oriental, his 
hands bound, inscribed Cheyt Sing. Beneath the title is etched : 

Had Hastings been accused in Verres^ Time, 

And Asians Preservation been his Crime, 

Tully, His said, with all his Powers of Speech 

Had urg'd the Roman Senate — to impeach. 

But had that Tully lived in PowelVs Day, 

And known the official ^' Error of his Way'* 

He wou'd have dropH the Impeachment and y'^ Halter 

And for his Merits screened the good Defaulter. 

Burke's violent attacks on Hastings are contrasted with his screening and 
reinstatement of Powell, the defaulting cashier in the Paymaster's office, 
who committed suicide in 1783, see Nos. 6195, 6929. The print anticipates 
the impeachment, which was not inevitable until the debate of 13 June 
on the treatment of Che5rt Singh. Rose, Pitt and National Revival, 191 1, 
pp. 232-4. Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, pp. 336 ff. Pari. Hist. xxvi. 91 ff. See 
Nos. 6915, 6922, 6926, 6939, 6948, 6955, 6966, &c., 7139, 7268. For the 
trial see No. 7269, &c. For Burke as Cicero accusing Verres cf. No. 7138. 
ioJx8f in. 

289 U 



[Dent.] Designed by Disappointment Executed by Envy 

Pu¥ for the Proprietory as the Act directs by J. Brown^ May Fair^ 
March jp^* iy86. 

Engraving. Burke stands directed to the 1. making a speech, r. arm 
raised, 1. hand on his breast. He wears spectacles and from each eye a 
beam of light, inscribed False Optics, is directed upon two pairs of docu- 
ments on the floor : True Case of M^ Hastings and As it appears to Honest 
Edmund; the others. True Case of Powell and As it appeared to hottest 
Edmund. A large tail or excretion resting on the ground behind him is 
Misgovernment. In the upper 1. corner of the design just beyond his r. 
hand is a large bunch of grapes (rupees) inscribed Lack, implying that his 
violence against Hastings is due to deprivation of office. On the wall 
behind his head (r.) is a picture of Fox crucified, dice taking the place of 
nails piercing his hands. Below his feet is inscribed Carious India Bill 
(cf. No. 6368, &c.). Burke, dressed as a Jesuit (cf. No. 6026), kneels at his 
feet holding up a cross. Beneath the title is etched : 

His notions do fit things so welly 

That which is which, he cannot telly 

But oft times y tho* sure as a gun. 

Mistakes the other for the oncy 

For whilst one thing seems to catch the eye. 

To another he'd his hand apply; 

With words honest Edmund has the knacky 

To painty as suits besty things white or blacky 

Thus Hastings is blacky which is as clear y 

As that Powell did pure white appear; 

But he knows what's whaty and that's as highy 

As Oriental wit e'er could fly. 

Burke*s attacks on Hastings are contrasted with his reinstatement of 
Powell, as in No. 6925, of which this appears to be an imitation, with the 
added coarseness characteristic of Dent. 


31 Delin^ Game Fecit 

Published by W. S. Fores Mary 2&^ iy86 at his Caracature Ware- 

s. d. 

house N° 3 Piccadilly i ..6 

Engraving (coloured impression). A W.L. portrait of Mrs. Fitzherbert, 
walking 1. to r., her hands in a muff, her head turned to the spectator. Her 
hat has three ostrich feathers and the motto Ich dien to indicate her 
marriage, see No. 6924, &c. Her hair hangs loosely on her shoulders and 
her dress has the fashionable protuberances at the bust and below the 
waist, cf. No. 7099, &c. 31 presumably indicates the lady's age : she was 
born in July 1756, see No. 6935. The print appears in No. 6961. 

Reproduced, Fuchs, Die Fran in der Karikatury 1906, p. 452. 




Artifice Inv^ Executed by Folly 

Published by J, Phillips N"" 164 Piccadilly March 21 iy86 Price 
2«* ; 6 

Engraving (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 6924, &c. 
The Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert, dancing to the fiddle of George Hanger 
(r.), advance towards an open door (1.) through which is seen a large bed, 
the curtains raised ; above the pillows are a crown and triple plume. The 
feathers are repeated on a chamber-pot under the raised valance of the bed. 
They are more elaborately dressed than in No. 6924 ; their arms are round 
each other's waists, the Prince holds with his r. hand the 1. hand of 
Mrs. Fitzherbert. She wears a small crown, with flowers and ribbons, and 
triple ostrich plume. George Hanger is dressed as in No. 6924 ; he stands 
in profile to the 1., watching the couple fixedly; a bludgeon hangs from his 
wrist. An open music-book at his feet shows that he is playing the Black 
Joke. On the floor (1.) are an open book, Matrimonyy and a torn paper, 
Cirtificate, Over the door is a picture of Cupid with his bow turning away 
from Danae receiving the shower of gold. 

Sophie V. la Roche in Oct. 1786 saw a crowd gazing at caricatures of *the 
life and marriage of the Prince of Wales*; she mentions one showing the 
bridal chamber, with a picture of Danae, but notes that the ostrich feathers 
were ^upside down over the bride's night-chamber'. Sophie in London, 
trans. C. Williams, 1933, p. 262. They are not inverted in this print. 'The 
Wedding Night' was an unsuccessful musical farce by James Cobb (Hay- 
market, 1780). 



Every Body delin* Nobody fecit, [? Kingsbury.] 

Published March 21, iy86, by S. W. Fores at the Caracature Ware- 
houscy N° 3. Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A companion print to 
No. 6924, &c. Mrs. Fitzherbert (1.) and the Prince (r.), dressed as in No. 
6924, stand facing each other, some distance apart; a long broom lies on 
the ground between them. He holds out his hands to receive her, she 
gathers up her skirts to leap. Behind the Prince on the extreme r. stands 
Fox, pushing him forward ; his breeches are joined to his shoulders, show- 
ing that he is 'Nobody' (cf. No. 5570). In the foreground a cat jumps out 
of a bag. In the back wall is an arched doorway surmounted by the feathers 
and motto (Ich dien) of the Prince. Through the doorway three ladies and 
a man are seated at a table, carousing. The nearer lady (Mrs. Robinson, 
cf. No. 6451) looks round singing: 

All I desire of mortal Man 
Is for to love whitest he can. 

The man says, holding up a glass, Well said Rohby — His Father will Broom 
Stick him. 

On each side of the doorway is a large picture : one (1.) is of three men. 
The Prince of Wales stands with his r. hand on the shoulder of FalstaflF (1.) 




who holds out a wine-glass and points to the 1. George Hanger (r.) puts 
his r. hand on the Prince's shoulder, impelling him in the direction to 
which Falstaff, who appears to be Fox, is pointing. The pendant to this (r.) 
is a nude figure ( ? Venus) lying on a couch. 

The Prince's marriage is attributed, as in No. 6932, to the secret influence 
of Fox, aided by such satellites as Hanger. Fox opposed the marriage, see 
letter of 10 Dec. 1785, Russell, Memorials and Correspondence of Fox^ ii. 
278-83. It was, of course, damaging to the Whigs. (Lady Francis believed 
it to have been performed at Devonshire House in the presence of the 
Duchess, Fox, &c. Parkes, Memoirs of Francis ^ ii. 376.) See also Nos. 6932, 
6950, and cf. No. 7910. For Fox and the Prince see No. 6041, &c., for Fox 
as Falstaff, No. 6974, &c. For a later state see p. 987. 



Published March 25, 1786, by I. Mills, Strand. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 6924, &c.' 
Mrs. Fitzherbert (1.) and the Prince of Wales (r.), their arms round each 
other's shoulders, leap over a broom-stick (see No. 6929), inscribed Pro 
Salute AnimcBj held out by Weltje who kneels (r.) in profile. With his r. 
arm he pushes the Prince forward. George Hanger (1.) kneels facing him, 
he is helping Mrs. Fitzherbert to leap the broom-stick. She is also pushed 
forward by Weltje, who stands behind Hanger. The Prince is stout with 
a double chin, unusual in prints of this date. On the wall are two H.L. 
portraits, their heads turned away from the group with the broom-stick: 
Mrs. Robinson (Perdita) in profile to the 1., a free copy of Reynolds's por- 
trait now in the Wallace Collection, and ( }) the Duchess of Devonshire (r.) 
in a large feathered hat, perhaps deriving from Gainsborough's famous 
W.L. portrait. Both frames are decorated with the ostrich plumes of the 
Prince of Wales. 

For the Prince and Perdita Robinson see Nos. 5767, 6451, &c. ; for his 
attachment to the Duchess of Devonshire see Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, 
V. 371-2, and No. 61 15, &c. The title is from Dryden's play, All for Love, 
or The World Well Lost. 
lo^Xisf in. 

Done by W.M. [Mansell.] 

Pub 26 March iy86 by W Humphrey , Lancaster Court 

Aquatint. Design in an oval. Thirteen heads arranged in four rows, the 
first, second, and fourth having three heads, the third four. In the upper- 
most row the Prince of Wales (1.) and the King (r.) face each other in 
profile ; the likeness between them is stressed. Between and slightly above 
them is Queen Charlotte, in profile to the 1., her hair inscribed Queen of 
hearts, cf. No. 6978. In the next row Fox, full-face, is the central head of 
the design; Mrs. Fitzherbert (1.) (unrecognizable) wears a low crown 
inscribed Queen would be, and the feathers of the Prince of Wales ; George 
Hanger, in profile to the 1., wears the large cocked hat made familiar by 

* Perhaps an imitation of No. 6924, &c., by a different artist. 



No. 6924, &c. The next four heads are (I. to r.) : Mrs. Siddons, wearing 
a low crown inscribed Queen Rant^ looking wildly over her shoulder to the 
r. ; Burke, wearing spectacles and a cap or turban, his back turned to Pitt 
who is in profile to the r. ; on the 1. in profile to the r. is the Duchess of 
Devonshire, wearing a low crown and a collar which are inscribed Queen of 
Fox. In the lowest row the central figure is the broad back of North wear- 
ing his ribbon ; on the 1. is Mrs. Abington, a ribbon in her much-curled 
hair inscribed Queen Scrub (see No. 7053); on the r., in profile to the 1., 
is the Duke of Richmond. 

The print is described by Angelo, Reminiscences y 1904, i. 329 (repro- 

6931 A Other impressions (coloured and uncoloured), imprint: London 
Pub. by W^ Holland. N° 50 Oxford Street (n.d.). 



Designed by Carlo Khan. 

Published by Wilh Holland N"" 66 Drury Lane London. March 27 1^86 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). The interior of a large 
church or cathedral. Burke, dressed as a Jesuit (cf. No. 6026), standing 
within a low, semicircular wall at the foot of a crucifix, marries the Prince 
of Wales and Mrs. Fitzherbert. The Prince is about to put the ring on her 
finger. Fox gives her away, holding her 1. wrist. Beside him (r.) stands 
Weltje in back view but looking to the 1. at the ceremony. A napkin is 
under his 1. arm, bottles project from his coat-pockets, and the tags on his 
shoulder denote the liveried manservant. To the 1. of Fox appears the 
profile of George Hanger. On the 1. North sits, leaning against the altar 
wall, sound asleep, his legs outstretched. He wears his ribbon but is 
dressed as a coachman, his hat and whip beside him. All the men wear 
top-boots to suggest a runaway match. Behind the Prince in a choir seat 
is a row of kneeling monks who are chanting the marriage service. The 
crucifix is partly covered by a curtain, but the legs and feet are painfully 
distorted as in No. 6026. On the wall and pillars of the church are four 
framed pictures : David watching Bathsheba bathing, St. Anthony tempted 
by monsters. Eve tempting Adam with the apple, and Judas kissing Christ, 
the last being over the head of Fox. 

For the marriage see No. 6924; for the supposed influence of Fox, 
No. 6929. No. 7298 (first issued 1786) is a companion print. The title is 
perhaps from a farce by Coffey, 1732. For Carlo Khan see No. 6462, &c. 

Grego, Gillrayy p. 95 (reproduction), under 27 Mar. 1788, when the 
plate was reissued. Wright and Evans, No. 32. Reproduced, J. Ashton, 
FlorizeVs Folly, 1899, p. 92. See below, p. 987. 



Pu¥ by J Carter Oxford Street, March 2f^ iy86 

Engraving (coloured impression). Design in an oval. H.L. portraits of the 
Prince of Wales (r.) and Mrs. Fitzherbert (1.), both in profile to the 1., his 



figure concealing her 1. shoulder. She wears a large hat with three ostrich 
plumes and a favour, Ich dim. Her breast is covered by the projecting 
arrangement of inflated gauze which was much caricatured c. 1786. In the 
Prince's hat is a favour inscribed Benedict. 

For the marriage (21 Dec. 1785) see No. 6924, &c. A companion print 
to No. 6960. See also No. 6938. 


Engraving (coloured impression). Design in an oval. Bust portrait of 
George III and Queen Charlotte in profile to the r., his taller figure con- 
cealing her r. shoulder and the back of her shady hat which has a trans- 
parent brim. Both are plainly dressed as in prints depicting them as a 
farmer and his wife, see No. 6918, &c. This (reversed) is the original of 
the portrait {Lot i) in No. 6968. In the lower 1. corner of the plate outside 
the oval a small anchor is etched. The print appears in No. 6961. 
4 X si in. 

6934 A Another impression, aquatinted and coloured, iy86 after the 


Published March 31, 1786, by I. Gary, Strand. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A W.L. portrait of 
Mrs. Fitzherbert, her head turned slightly to the 1., her arms crossed at 
her waist. She wears a large hat with three feathers, her breast is covered 
by projecting gauze, and her hips enormously extended by the device then 
fashionable, see No. 7099, &c. Her waist is very small, and appears smaller 
from her dress, which shows small feet and ankles. 

For Mrs. Fitzherbert's age see No. 6926. 


London Published for the Proprietor 31 Mar iy86 N" 5 Sweetings 
Alley Royal Exchange 

Engraving. Dundas is seated on a bench in a cobbler's bulk or stall, a 
narrow shed with a pent-house roof. Pitt approaches him from the 1., 
Major Scott from the r. Pitt holds out a paper inscribed Shop Tax 
mended, saying, he has Mended this it will Last some Time now. Scott holds 
out a torn paper inscribed Easting's Defence, saying, Canyon Mend this for 
me Master Crispin. Over Dundas 's knees hang papers inscribed India Bill, 
Arbitrary Power, and Secre{i\ Influ[ence]. He looks at Scott, saying, They 
want new Souls! But Fll try what can be done. The doorway above his 
head is inscribed. Cobbling for Exportation by Harry Dunass. 

A satire on the influence over Pitt of Dundas, and on their expected 
protection of Hastings. The resolutions of censure on Hastings of May 
1782 (see No. 6915) had been moved by Dundas and on 17 Feb. 1786 
Burke requested the Clerk to read them, ironically suggesting that Dundas 



was the man to take action against Hastings. Dundas had moved, 14 Apr. 
1783, for leave to bring in an India Bill (cf. No. 6940). The Shop Tax, 
see No. 6798, &c., was reduced in 1786. For secret influence cf. No. 
6417, &c. 
8X12J in. 


Published I'* April 1786, by S. W. Fores at the Caricature Warehouse, 
N" J, Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured impression). One of a set of prints on the marriage 
of the Prince of Wales, see No. 6924, &c. Mrs. Fitzherbert (1.) and the 
Prince of Wales dance ; she holds out her apron in her r. hand, his 1. arm 
is raised as if dancing a Scots reel ; he appears about to take her 1. hand. 
The musicians are Burke, Weltje, and Hanger: Weltje, wearing a hat, sits 
(1.) on a low stool, beating a pistol upon a warming-pan which he holds 
between his knees. Burke stands behind him holding a gridiron in the 
manner of a violin and with a pair of tongs as bow. He says. Oh Burn the 
Pan it is not Beautifull. Weltje answers, Damme but His Sublime (one of 
many allusions to Burke's book). George Hanger stands (r.) beating the 
heavy end of his bludgeon on a salt-box ; he is stamping and dancing, his 
hat is on the ground at his feet. Through an aperture in the wall behind 
his head is seen an ornate bed, decorated with triple ostrich plumes; 
behind the pillows is a cross. Two pictures, both inscribed Hamlet, are 
on the wall : on the 1. the Lord Chamberlain with his wand (Lord Salisbury 
as Polonius) approaches George III, saying, / will be brief your noble son 
is mad. On the r. Laertes addresses Ophelia, saying : 

He may not as inferior persons do 

carve for himself for on his choice depends 

the sanity [sic] & health of the whole state. 

On the floor, in the foreground, lie two books and a paper inscribed 
respectively. Bold Stroke for a Wife [Mrs. Centlivre] ; Clandestine Marriage 
[Colman and Garrick] ; and 77/ have a Wife of my own. Beneath the title 

is engraved. As performed at the Theatre Royal, C n [Carlton] House 

for the Benifit of the Widow Wadman. A patterned carpet completes the 

April Fool; or. The Follies of a Night, a farce by MacNally (not men- 
tioned by Genest), was played i Apr. 1786 at Covent Garden, but was 
not printed. Baker, Biographia Dramatica, 1812. 

6937 A A later state, very worn, with the same date: a settee has been 
added against the wall behind the Prince, and there is additional shading 
on the floor, background, &c. 

Reproduced, Paston, pi. clxvii. 


Published April r^ iy86 by S. W. Fores iV« 3 Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Design in an oval. Profile portraits of 
the Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert arranged as in No. 6933, except that the 



Prince's head is higher than that of the lady, and apparently an imitation 
of that print. Both are more plainly dressed, without feathers or favours 
in their hats. 


London puhlishd as the Act directs April i^ iy86 by Alex'' M'Kenzie 
N"" loi Berwick Street Soho 

Engraving. A stage-wagon drawn (1. to r.) by four horses with human 
heads, whose large, hairy ears suggest asses rather than horses. The wagon 
is inscribed Fox. Sheridan & Pennylus. India Papers. It is piled with 
books and documents, inscribed Vol. cxiiy Letters &c, India Papers j Private 
Correspondence y and Delhi. The tilt or cover, which is pushed back to show 
the papers, is punningly inscribed To Battle Hastings. The two leaders are 
led by a demon who flourishes a whip ; both have rosaries with crosses 
round their necks; the near leader is Burke wearing his Jesuit's biretta 
(cf. No. 6026), the other has some resemblance to Sheridan. The near 
wheeler is Fox, the off wheeler resembles Lord Surrey: the rosary would 
be more appropriate to him than to Sheridan. In the background is 
Brooks's, the cornice inscribed Brooks's hot-hell. The building is drawn 
with topographical correctness, and resembles Malton's plate of 1800, 
except that it is detached on the north as well as the south. On the extreme 
1., behind the demon, is a post supporting a placard inscribed. In a Few 
Days will be performd a Comedy called Impeachment by a Ragged Company 
(late) His Majesty s Servants Principal Characters by M'' A. M' C. M' F. 
M' B ikf D. M' G. [William Adam.?, John Courtenay (or Lord Carlisle), 
Fox, Burke, Lord Derby. ^] Below the title is etched: N.B. the Proprietors 
{never) Ac(^ for Plate ^ Money ^ lewels, Notes or Bonds. 

A satire on the pending impeachment of Hastings, see No. 6925, &c. 
A companion print to No. 6940 by the same artist. 

6940 [THE SHOP TAX.] 

London Published as the Act directs April i^ iy86 by A M'^Kenzie 
Ar« JO J Berwick Street Soho 

Engraving. A companion print to No. 6939 by the same artist. Four men 
stagger (1. to r.) bearing on their backs buildings representing Edinburgh^ 
York (with the Minster), Bristol with its churches, London with St. Paul's, 
Westminster with the Abbey, the last two joined together. On the r. 
Dundas stands beside a block inscribed India House, which has fallen 
down, its facade being uppermost. He says, Jenky do help me up with this 
India business. Jenkinson stands on the extreme r. carrying a hod and a 
bundle of plasterer's laths ; he says, / cannot stay Dundass I have not yet 
stoppd up all my Windows. Behind him is the corner of a building on which 
is a placard. For a Publick Benefit Represented zi/^ universal Murmuring one 
Act called the Shoplifters the principal Characters by young Premier from 

^ The identity of Mr. G. is mysterious: Grey was not a M.P. till July 1786, his 
maiden speech being on 21 Feb. 1787. 



Chathafn. Master Prettyman Steele &c &c NB Tickets issued by Mess 
Skinner Stock &c inadmissible NB the Author of Fortification has with- 
drawn his Entertainment Vivant Rex and Regnia [«ic]. The men carrying 
the cities walk across bare land ; in the distance is a man ploughing. The 
foreground (1.) is inscribed, Vast tracts of land to Lett enquire in Dozening 
Street. Beneath the design is etched : 

When Charley but an India House had laid upon His Back 
The Nabobs loudly hiss'd at him! Directors halloo'd Quack 
Their Angel* (now a Devil [Pitt] tum*d and fearless to Invade 
Packs Cities, Towns, upon his Imps and runs away with Trade. 
* See the Addresses and Thanks on a change of Ministry. 

For the Addresses (1784) in favour of Pitt see No. 6438, &c. ; for his 
unpopularity over the Shop Tax, No. 6799, &c. Petitions for its repeal 
were debated on 2 Mar. 1786; the repeal was rejected but Pitt brought 
in a Bill reducing the rate. Pari. Hist., xxv. 1164!?. On 23 Feb. Mr. Stock 
of Ludgate Hill gave evidence at the bar of the House on behalf of the 
London shopkeepers. London Chronicle, 24 Feb. Dr. Pretyman (Pitt's 
secretary and Cambridge tutor) and Thomas Steele, Secretary to the Treas- 
ury, as personal friends of Pitt were the subject of much ridicule by the 
Opposition wits, cf. No. 7147; Rolliad, Nos. IV, VHI; Probationary Odes, 
No. XVH ; Prettymaniana, &c. For Richmond's abortive fortifications see 
No. 6921, &c. For Fox's India Bill see No. 6271, &c. For the Shop Tax 
see No. 6798, &c. For Dundas and India see No. 6936. Jenkinson blocked 
up many windows at his country house, Addiscombe Place, to escape the 
window tax.^ For this he was ridiculed by Courtenay, 10 May 1785: 
* persons . . . notwithstanding they had six or eight sinecure pensions, had 
thought proper to block up most of their windows . . .'. Pari. Hist. xxv. 
573; Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iv. 123. See No. 6630. 
10X15 in. 


Published April the y^ iy86 by S. W. Fores at his Caracature Ware- 
house N° 3 Piccadilly London. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). One of a set of prints 
on the suspected marriage of the Prince of Wales, see Nos. 6924, 6942, &c. 
The scene is the churchyard of a country church, a Gothic building partly 
visible on the extreme r. Mrs. Fitzherbert (r.), in a riding-habit and a 
large feathered hat, leads the Prince (1.) towards the church door; in her 
1. hand is a riding-switch and a padlock with a chain. She turns to him, 
saying : 

Oh! fie my dear, let's go unto the Alter; 

And then you know our conscience cannot falter. 

' Cf. Congratulatory Ode to the Right Hon. Charles Jenkinson, on his being 
created Lord Hawkeshury [21 Aug. 1786]: 

Your very roof is chilling. 
There Bounty never spreads her ray ; 
You e'en shut out the light of day, 
To save a paltry shilling. 



The Prince, in riding-dress, looks towards her, but holds out his hat 
towards a flat gravestone, on which his r. foot rests, saying : 

'Twas there the famous Catherine W [Wade] 

And the more famous Taylor laid: 
Who after strugling hours two; 
Yielded their breath: leVs do so too. 

The tombstone is inscribed : 

Here on this Stone were laid 

Tom Stitch and Kitty W . . . . 

'Twas here they languishd here they sighed 

And here dear Souls they Four times died^ 

an allusion to the trial for rape of a Brighton tailor, see No. 6942, &c., and 
to the popular chap-book (various editions, c. 1 750-1 824), Wanton Tom; 
or the merry History of Tom Stitch the Taylor. The Prince's friends and 
satellites peep at the couple from behind tombstones: in the foreground 
on the extreme r. kneels Weltje, Behind a rectangular tomb on the extreme 
I. are the profile heads of Fox and Hanger. Fox says, Will they stop in the 
Porch; Hanger says. And follow the Taylors Example. Near them North, 
asleep, supports his head on a stone inscribed He is not Dead But Sleepeth 
here. In the distance (r.) a man in riding-dress crouches behind a tomb. 
The title is from Bickerstaffe's popular comic opera The Padlock (1768). 


Published 5^* Aprils iy86, by S. W. Fores, at the Caricature-Ware- 
house, N° J, Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). One of a set of prints 
on the suspected marriage of the Prince of Wales, see No. 6924, &c. The 
Prince (r.) and a tailor (1.) are fighting, each supported by a woman. The 
tailor fights with a yard-measure inscribed The Brighton Taylors Yard, using 
his goose or iron as a shield ; he says, Well have no Idolatry. His cap resembles 
a fool's cap; his stockings are ungartered; his shears lie at his feet. The 
Prince raises a bludgeon similar to the one carried by Hanger (see No. 6924, 
&c.), its head being the profile head of Hanger; it is inscribed. The Royal 
Bang you or Whapp ye. In his 1. hand is a rolled document inscribed 
Matrt[mo]ny\ he says. There shall be no Fornication. Mrs. Fitzherbert 
stands on the extreme r. holding up her hand admonishingly and saying. 
Stand stiff for the Sex Georggy. Behind the tailor (1.) stands a young 
woman in profile and pregnant (Kitty Wade), raising her 1. fist and saying, 
/'// Wade to my middle for Snip. In her r. hand are a cucumber and onions, 
the tailor's emblems, cf. No. 5805. Behind this couple is the tailor's 
house, inscribed, J. Motherhill — Womans Taylor. Behind Mrs. Fitzherbert 
is an inn, of which she appears to be the landlady, with a signpost sur- 
mounted by a crown : George & ye Dragon, with St. George on horseback 
killing the dragon. John Motherill was a Brighton tailor tried for rape 
against one Catherine Wade. A shorthand account of the trial was pub- 
lished. Rambler's Magazine, 1786, p. 125. Cf. Nos. 6941, 7076. 




See No. 7298. It appears to have been first issued 5 April 1786. 


Published iP^ April Ij86^ by S. W, Fores y at the Caricature Ware^ 
hou^e, N° 3j Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). One of a set of prints 
on the marriage of the Prince of Wales, see No. 6924, &c. The Prince 
presides at a carouse round a circular table. His chair is above the level 
of the table on which he puts his 1. foot, crushing a wine-bottle ; his r. hand 
rests on the shoulder of ( ?) Sheridan, his 1. holds a wine-glass above his 
head; he says, Fall too Ye royal crew! Drink Drink! your bellies full! pray 
do! Ai treats I never winces. Five men (r.) are seated on his 1. : next him 
is Fox, holding a dice-box, and offering coins to Lord Derby on the 
opposite side of the table; a pack of cards is beside him. Next him is 
Burke, looking admiringly towards the Prince. Next is North. In the 
foreground sits George Hanger drinking, his long nose much caricatured ; 
between his knees he holds his club or shillelagh. Behind his chair 
sits Keppel. On the 1. side of the table and on the Prince's r. is first 
{ ?) Sheridan, then Weltje, then Topham (a Ministerialist journaUst), then 
Lord Derby, leaning on the table and pointing to two coins. Next is a man 
in naval uniform,^ turning away from the table, resting his head on his arms 
which are on the back of his chair. On the table beside him is an open 
music-book inscribed. Catches Glees Which is the properest Day to Drink 
Saturday. In the foreground sits a stout and jovial-looking man.^ Most 
of the guests are holding glasses. A punch-bowl, decanters, glasses, a 
lemon, two dishes of fruit are on the table. On the extreme 1. is a high 
window draped with curtains. A picture on the wall (r.) connects the scene 
with the Prince's marriage: a bishop (1.) with a book marries a couple in 
quasi-Elizabethan costume. 

Cf. a letter from Hugh Elliot to Pitt from Brighton, 17 Oct. 1785, 
endorsed by Pitt 'Shewn to the King'. 'H.R.H. risks being lost to himself, 
his family and his country if a total and sudden change does not take place.' 
Quoted from Pitt MSS. 105 by Rose, Pitt and National Revival, p. 396. 
In 1786 Carlton House 'exhibited a perpetual scene of excess'. Wraxall, 
Memoirsy 1884, p. 306. Cf. No. 6944. 


Published i^^ April iy86y by S. W. Fores at the Caricature Ware- 
houscy N° 5, Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 6943. The 
Prince of Wales and George Hanger are being instructed in the principles 
of boxing. Hanger (1.) strikes an attitude with clenched fist, under the 
direction of an instructor (r.) who points at him. The Prince (c.) takes a 
boxing pose. Behind the instructor (r.) is a chair on which are the Prince's 
coat with its star and a paper, Martin Boxing Master. On the ground is 

^ Perhaps Admiral Hugh Pigot, see No. 5996, &c. (1782). 

^ Perhaps Captain Morris (to whom the music-book may belong). 



an open book, Leson the first. Hanger's coat and hat are on the ground 
behind him. On the wall are two brackets supporting (1.) the Dying 
Gladiator, and (r.) a man striking a prostrate enemy with a dagger. Two 
pictures represent a duelling scene (1.) and a landscape with Windsor 
Castle (r.). 


[Gillray.] Designed by Helagabalis. Executed by Sejanus. 

Pu¥ April 21 iy86. by Will"" Hollandy N° 66 Drury Lane 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). George HI and Queen 
Charlotte stand before the open gate of the Treasury , from which Pitt has 
just wheeled a barrow laden with money-bags. Pitt, the straps of the 
barrow round his shoulders, his coat-pocket bulging with guineas, 
obsequiously hands the king a money-bag. George HI stands full-face, 
legs astride, a money-bag inscribed £100000 under his r. arm, another 
in his r. hand and all his pockets overflowing with guineas. Queen Charlotte 
(1.) stands on his r. taking a pinch of snuff, and looking up at him with 
a smile of greedy and satisfied cunning ; in her apron is a heap of guineas. 
Military officers wearing high cocked hats with feather trimmings (in a 
French fashion), and long pigtail queues, stand round the King and Queen, 
in a semicircle, in front of the spiked gates of the Treasury, playing musical 
instruments : fifes, bassoons, a horn, &c. The pockets of the two in the 
foreground (1. and r.) are crammed with guineas, those of the others, 
presumably equally full, are concealed. They represent the placemen and 
Ministerialists of the Treasury Bench. The most prominent (r.) is probably 
Lord Sydney. In the foreground (1.) an old sailor, armless and with two 
wooden legs, sits on the ground, his empty hat before him. On the r. the 
Prince of Wales, in rags, hesitates to take a paper inscribed Accept £200000 
from your Friend Orleans y which a slim and foppish Frenchman, in bag- wig 
and chapeau-braSy standing on the extreme r., offers him, taking his hand. 
He is very different from the heavily built Due d 'Orleans (who succeeded 
his father in Nov. 1785) who had recently presented his portrait by 
Reynolds (now at Hampton Court) to the Prince of Wales. He had 
adopted the English manner of dress and made it fashionable in France. 
See Britsch, Lajeunesse de Philippe ^galite, 1926, pp. 417, 419. 

On the Treasury wall is a number of placards and torn shreds of paper : 
Charity A Romance (torn) ; God save the King (torn) ; Last Dying Speech of 
Fifty-Four Malefactors executed for robbing a Hen-Roosty headed by a 
number of bodies hanging from a gibbet (an allusion to the king's farming 
activities at Windsor, see No. 6918, &c.) ; a bill headed by a violin and bow 
and inscribed From Germany just arrived a large & Royal Asortment (on 
the king's fondness for German musicians) ; (Economy an old Song (torn) ; 
British Property a Farce (torn); Just publish' d for the Benefit of Posterity: 
The Dying Groans of Liberty ; a placard with the Prince of Wales's feathers 
and the motto Ich Starve (torn), in place of Ich dien, and another with two 
clasped hands and the word Orleans (torn). The last two are above the 
heads of the Prince and the Due d'Orleans. After the title is etched. 
Dedicated to Mons^ Necker. 

A satire on the debates of 5 and 6 Apr. 1786 on Pitt's motion for a grant 
of ;£2io,ooo to discharge the debts on the Civil List. ParL Hist. xxv. 1348- 



57; Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iv. 304-7. Fox urged an additional grant for 
the Prince, whose debts were notorious. For the proposed loan by Orleans 
see the letter of the Duke of Portland to Sheridan 13 Dec. 1786, quoted, 
Huish, Memoirs of George IV y i. 168-9. Portland was anxious to get rid 
*of this odious engagement'. For Necker cf. No. 5657 (1780). 

The first of many allusions to the supposed miserliness of the King and 
Queen, see No. 7836, &c. For the Prince's debts see No. 6967, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 79-81 (reproduction). Wright and Evans, No. 18. 


Published April 24^ iy86 by S. Trent N i. New Street Covent Garden. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A farm-yard scene with Windsor Castle 
on a hill in the background. George III, wearing a smock frock, his Garter 
ribbon hanging down his leg, and holding a pitchfork, gives orders to two 
guardsmen who are taking his carrots and turnips to market (as in Nos. 
6947, 7915). One rides off (r.), the vegetables on the back of his saddle, the 
other loads his horse with a bundle. Outside a farm-building (r.) Queen 
Charlotte scatters corn to chickens. 

George Ill's admirable farming activities in the Great Park at Windsor, 
on land reclaimed from marsh, were a favourite subject of ridicule, see 
No. 6918, &c. They were usually associated with insinuations of miserli- 
ness, an allegation first appearing in No. 6945, cf. 

Let great George his porkers bilk. 
And give his maids the sour skim-milk. 

'Song' (n.d.) in Political Miscellanies , 1790, &c. 


[ ? Kingsbury.] 

Pu¥ Apr^^ 2g. iy86 by S, W. Fores at the Caracature Warehouse N° 3 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A farm-yard scene 
with Windsor Castle in the distance (r.). In the centre four pigs feed at 
a trough; George III (r.) and Queen Charlotte (1.) stand on each side of 
it facing each other in profile, both slightly caricatured. At the King's feet 
are a bucket and a young pig. The Queen scatters grain to chickens and 
ducks. On the r. a guardsman walks off carrying a bundle of turnips across 
his shoulder (see No. 6946). In the background (1.) are haystacks and farm 
buildings ; from one projects the sign of a royal crown inverted. A young 
woman (probably one of the princesses) advances with a basket (cf. No. 
7897). On the r. is a large placard on a post. Mantraps & Spring Guns, 
Behind it are sheep. 

Similar in intention to No. 6946, but more elaborate and better drawn. 
For the man-traps cf. No. 7399 and Peter Pindar (Wolcot) in Epistle to 
James Boswell Esq. [1786] on George III: 

He, ev^ry body knows, and evWy thing \ 

Which clever smith, the prettiest man-trap makes, 


with the note, 'His M y hath planted a number of those trusty 

guardians around his park at Windsor, for the benefit of the pubHc' 

The print is described by Angelo, who attributes it to Kingsbury. 
Reminiscences ^ 1904, i. 326. 



Pu¥ as the Act directs, by J. Brown, May fair, April 2g^^ iy86. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A blacksmith's forge ; Fox (centre) holds 
a piece of iron, inscribed Proof, on the anvil which Burke (1.) raises his 
hammer to strike. A second hammer-man raises his hammer, his arms 
conceaHng his head; he is probably Francis. North (r.) kneels blowing up 
the fire with his mouth, his bellows hang on the wall behind him. All wear 
leather aprons and are in shirt-sleeves, North wearing his ribbon. Fox 
supports himself with a crutch ; his 1. sleeve is torn at the elbow, revealing 
two dice inscribed, D^ Brookes's Elbow Grease, an allusion to his gaming 
at Brooks's, cf. Nos. 5972, 6013, &c. The anvil consists of two blocks: 
on the upper is drawn a brooding hen with the head of Burke sitting on 
scrolls inscribed Murder and (reversed) Peculation-, on the lower block 
Burke, armless and legless, lies face downwards, his head resting on a 
pointed weapon inscribed Impeachment', beneath is etched. The Force of 
Envy. On the wall above the anvil is a piece of crumpled sheet metal, 
inscribed Accusation. A large piece of rough iron lies on the ground (r.) 
inscribed Impeachment. 

One of several satires on the impending impeachment of Warren 
Hastings, see No. 6925, &c. Peculation is evidently an allusion to Powell, 
see No. 6926. 

POST HORSE DUTY, dated 30 Apr. 1786, an apparent error for 1787, 
is catalogued under that date, see No. 7159. 


Published May J*' iy86 by W. S. Fores at the Carracature Ware- 
House Piccadilly, 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A companion print to 
No. 6954. Design in a circle. Mrs. Fitzherbert sits on a settee ; the Prince 
of Wales kneels at her feet, holding her 1. hand, his r. hand on his breast ; 
they face each other in profile, her expression calculating, his artless. 
She wears a very large hat trimmed with three feathers ; in her r. hand is 
a paper inscribed. Articles of Capitulation 8,000 Per An. A Duchess in my 
own right. The mockery of Marriage by a Priest and a Parson. The words 
are followed by a cross and a rosary. Behind her, on the back of the settee, 
sits an owl, emblem of wisdom. Above the Prince's head, within a frame, 
as if in a picture, are a braying ass's head, a fool's cap, and a birch-rod. 
Outside the circle, in the corners of the plate, are four inscriptions : 



[i] ''She 's wholly your's. My heart 's so full of joy 
''That I shall do some wild extravagance 
"Of love inptiblicky and the foolish worldy 
"Which knows not tenderness, will think me mad." 

[2] * * Go! whither ? go from all that 's excellent! 
"Faith, honour, virtue, all good things, forbid 
"That I should go from her on whom my love is set 
"Above the price of kingdoms. Give, ye gods! 
"Give to your boy, your Caesar, 
" This rattle of a globe to play withal, 
"This gewgaw world, and put him cheaply off; 
*ril not be pleas' d with less than'* 

[3] The Governess of the Fort, and Garrison of Fitzhubbub ; after apolitical 
resistance of time prpper, surrenders to the besieger; as by the articles of 

[4] It would be sin. 

That I , 

Should want a cap and rod. 

Yet no one fears, 

But with long ears. 

He will be crowned a God. 

One of many prints on the suspected marriage, see No. 6924, &c. As 
in No. 6953 the Prince is the tool of Mrs. Fitzherbert. 
Diam., 9 J in. 

6950 THE HUMBUG WEDDING [i May 1786] 

Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine. The interior of a bedroom, the 
Prince of Wales and Mrs. Fitzherbert in a bed, which is decorated with 
the royal arms and triple ostrich plume. The King and Queen enter 
through a door (r.) ; he holds a document inscribed Act Pari (the Marriage 
Act of 1772, see No. 4970, which forbade the marriage of a prince or 
princess of the blood under the age of twenty-six without the King's con- 
sent). Beside the bed stands a monk with an open book, who raises his 
finger admonishingly to the King and Queen. An elderly man (1.) writes 
at a table. On the wall is a portrait of Fox, above the door a picture of a 

Fox was falsely reputed to have abetted the marriage which he had tried 
to prevent, see No. 6928, &c. 


[i May 1786] 

Engraving. From the Rambler's Magazine. Three men are blown into the 
air by an explosion, the central figure being the Duke of Richmond seated 
astride a gun, the carriage of which falls to the ground. The other two are 
falling headlong; from one (probably Pitt) falls a Bill to fortify. Guns and 
stones from the fortifications also fly up from the explosion, which has 



been caused by the firebrand of the Speaker, Cornwall, who stands on the 
1., smiling with satisfaction, the smoke from his brand inscribed Casting 
Pole (see No. 6919). Two sailors stand in a boat (r.) waving their hats with 
exultation at the disaster. 

For the defeat of Richmond's plan for fortifying Portsmouth and 
Plymouth see No. 6921, &c. 
3^X51 in. 

6952 H(EYE)S GR(ACE)ES LA(MEN)TAT(EYE)ON. [i May 1786] 
[His Grace's Lamentation.] 

Printed hieroglyphic letter, with small woodcuts representing objects, 
indicated by the words in brackets. From the Rambler's Magazine, iv. 148. 

(Awl)(ass)! my /fo(bee)(bee)j; (horse) ^(ass) r(yew)w his (head) ^^^(inn)^^ 
a (pea)o5^ (4°)/(eye)(cat)(eye)o«^, ram(pe3.)artSy (bastion })sy andgarr(tyty 
(sons), fare{yft\\). The (hee)reath of (one) (man) /f(ass) (bee)/(ass)^^^ (awl) 
my (ass)(pea)(eye)r(inn)^ c{2iss)les. (Arm)(eye)^^, leg{tyt)ons, can now /(&) 
«;(eye)^A(inn) th{eye)s (eye)5/(&), «;(hen) the (Devil) (can)(knot) (bee) 
fl(bell) (toe) r^/(urn) (bee)(inn)^ (inn)(cap)a(bell) 0/ to(pea)(inn)^ w{eye)th 
(Bee)r(eye)(tun)5. (Butt) «;(hat) gall{eye)c r(sLSs)cal can dare (toe) exh{tyty 
(bee)(eye)< his l(ant)tern jaw d f{2ice). A s(mn)gle reg{eye)m{men)t of 
(Bee)r(eye)(tun)5 (can) make {c2ip)t{eye)ves o/(awl) th{eye)r (men), ra{eye)se 
(awl) th{eye)r (woman)j (bell)/(eye)^j, & shew (man)/j(eye)«J ^(hat) (awl)- 
(hee)ion's sons (can)(knot) (bee) s{ycw)rp{2iss)ed (inn) val{eye)o(yew)r (man)- 
hood & {c2ip)ac(eye)ty. (Well) at (last) (eye) 5/i(awl) t(yGw)rn my (i's) (toe) 
(toe)«;^r d(eye)tchy (pea)/(ant) (hec)atter(cyc)es there, (toe) s{eye)lence 
unc{Gye)v{eye)l Speakers. 

For the Duke of Richmond's plan of fortifications 'blasted' by *one 
man', the Speaker, see No. 6921, &c. 



Pu¥ as the Act directs May 3^ by A Sherlock Princes Street Lambeth 

Engraving (coloured impression). A procession walks (1. to r.) along Pall 
Mall towards the gateway of St. James's Palace. George Hanger marches 
in front beating a drum, one of his drumsticks being a birch-rod. Behind 
him Fox and North march together. Fox playing the flute. North the 
French horn. After them comes the Prince of Wales, Mrs. Fitzherbert 
seated astride his shoulders, her breast and legs much exposed, she points 
authoritatively to St. James's, her r. hand on the Prince's head. Behind 
(1.) marches Burke, wearing a Jesuit's biretta (cf. No. 6026) and playing the 
fife. From his pocket protrudes a paper inscribed Sublime, in allusion to 
his book. In the background houses with shop-fronts are freely sketched. 
A sentry stands on each side of the palace gate. 

The Prince is represented as the tool of Mrs. Fitzherbert (cf. No. 6949), 
with the Opposition as abettors of the marriage, see No. 6932, &c. 




Published 9^* May iy86 by S. W, Fores at the Caracature Ware-house 
A^" 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 6949. Design 
in a circle. The Prince of Wales (1.) and Mrs. Fitzherbert (r.) sit side by 
side on two upright chairs ; she holds on her knee an infant in long clothes, 
which the Prince watches paternally. Behind her (r.) is a cradle decorated 
with ostrich feathers. Cf. Nos. 6963, 6967, 6980, 6989, 7143, 7565. 
Diam., 9! in. 

6954 A A later state with additions but with the same date: A little boy 
in trousers wearing a paper cap resembling a papal crown, and holding up 
a cross-hilted wooden sword, stands (1.) by the Prince. On the wall above 
the Prince's head is a picture of a bishop christening an infant ; the parents, 
plainly dressed, stand beside the font. 



Pu¥ May ii^^ iy86. by. Will"" Holland N"* 66 Drury Lane, 

Engraving, slightly aquatinted (coloured and uncoloured impressions). 
Hastings, in oriental dress, rides (r. to 1.) a camel. He and the camel look 
down with dignified contempt at Burke (1.), who fires a blunderbuss point- 
blank at the Shield of Honour on Hastings's 1. arm. On the shield is a crown. 
Behind Hastings are Fox and North (r.) : Fox raises a dagger with bur- 
lesqued gestures and an expression of frenzied rage ; North, very short and 
fat, clutches one of the bags behind Hastings inscribed Lacks Rupees added 
to the Revenues this is tied to another inscribed Rupees D°. The three 
assailants are much caricatured and all wear armour; Burke, grotesquely 
thin and like some malignant insect, wears a Jesuit's biretta (cf. No. 6026). 
He somewhat resembles the Don Quixote of No. 7678, &c., cf. also No. 
7158; a wallet of Charges is slung across his shoulder, bare feet project 
from the greaves which cover his legs. North wears his Garter ribbon over 
his armour, with a feathered helmet and top-boots. The point of a large 
sabre with a damaged blade projects through the tattered scabbard which 
is inscribed American Subjugation. Fox wears the cloak of a conspirator 
over his armour (cf. No. 6389, &c.). Hastings (not caricatured) wears a 
jewelled turban, floating draperies, trousers, and slippers; his camel is 
heavily draped. On its back are bags, inscribed Saved to the Company and 
Eastern Gems for the British Crown^ with a rolled map. Territories acquired 
by W. Hastings. The background is a mountainous landscape. 

One of many satires on the pending impeachment of Hastings, see 
No. 6925, &c. Similar in spirit to No. 7270. Contrast No. 7278, also by 
GiUray. See Rose, Pitt and National Revival^ 1911, pp. 224 ff., and No. 
6979, &c. 

Reproduced: Social England ^ ed. Traill, 1904, v. 499; S. C. Roberts, 
Picture Book of British History^ iii, 1933, p. 25. Copy by Fairholt in 
Wright, Caricature Hist, of the Georges [1868], p. 421. 

Wright and Evans, No. 31, dated 1788, when the plate was reissued. 

305 3C 


6955 A A reissue, Published 1788 by Will^ Holland AT" 30 Oxford Street 
Coloured impression, 'Caricatures*, iv. 3. 


Vide Begars Opera 

Pu¥ May 22,iy86. by W. Maynard N" i. S* Martins Court Leicester 

Engraving (coloured impression). Design in an oval. The Prince of Wales, 
wearing a hat and his star, stands full-face, his arms slightly extended, as 
if directing attention to the semicircle of eight v^^omen seated on chairs 
around and behind him. Beneath the design is engraved. Thus I stand like 
the Turk with his Doxies around, &c. The ladies in the foreground may be 
Mrs. Fitzherbert (1.) and the Duchess of Devonshire (r.). All are good- 
looking and most are fashionably dressed. The lov^^er 1. comer of a picture 
is visible on the vi^all (r.). It perhaps represents a woman (Mrs. Fitzherbert) 
kneeling beside a crucifix. Cf. No. 6961. 



L — nsd — le inv^ 

[Published May 26^^ iy86 by W. Moore N'' 48 New Bond Street^ 

Engraving. Lord Lonsdale straddles across the River Eden^ a foot on each 
bank. He raises an axe above his head in both hands to cut down a large 
oak inscribed Liberty on the 1. of the river. On the r. of the river, on the 
horizon, is the town of Carlisle ; in front of it the land is covered with mush- 
rooms inscribed 1400. On the 1. side of the oak is a signpost inscribed, 
The New Road to Westminster, the hand pointing along Corruption Lane. 
A broken arm from the signpost, inscribed Old Road to Westminster, lies 
on Freedom Common. The branches extending over the latter are leafy, 
those over the toadstools are broken and bare. Punch, with a hump, 
dressed in the traditional manner, capers beside the post, pointing towards 
Corruption Lane and trampling on a paper inscribed Charter. A bridge 
across the river is breaking, a boat sinks. 

Lonsdale, who often returned nine members, was called Jimmy Grasp- 
all, Earl Toadstool, in election squibs. Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iii. 358 n. 
In order to establish his interest in the borough of Carlisle, he induced the 
Mayor to admit 1,400 men to the freedom of the city as honorary freemen 
or faggot voters; they were chiefly from Lonsdale's collieries and estates. 
These voters were petitioned against by J. Christian Curwen, who became 
a candidate on the death of the Hon. Edward Norton in March 1786, and 
again by Rowland Stephenson on the succession of Lord Surrey to the 
dukedom of Norfolk, 31 Aug. 1786, and were declared illegal. Oldfield, 
Representative History, 1816, iii. 264-5. Punch is John Lovii:her, candi- 
date in 1786. R. S. Ferguson, Cumberland and Westmorland M.P.s, pp. 200 
ff. and frontispiece. 


* Written in an old hand. 




Pu¥ as the Act directs by J, Carter, Oxford Street , May 2f^ iy86. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Design in an oval. A companion print 
to No. 6933. The Prince of Wales (r.) and Mrs. Fitzherbert (1.), H.L. 
portraits, embrace, holding each other round the waist; their half-shut 
eyes give them a maudlin expression. Above their heads are the Prince's 
feathers and motto, Ich dien. At the base of the oval are two crossed broom- 
sticks, cf. No. 6927, &c., joined by a bow of ribbon and a rosary. 

'Tippy and Twaddle' is one of several pieces of slang recommended 
by George Hanger (or W. Combe) to 'lovely Cyprians' as 'fashionable 
and elegant expressions'. Life of Col. George Hanger , 1801, ii. 179-80. 
'Twaddle' in Grose's Diet, of the Vulgar Tongue (1796) is 'Perplexity, 
confusion, or every thing else: a fashionable term that for a while suc- 
ceeded that of bore' (cf. No. 6147, 6775). Cf. 'The Birth of Twaddle', 
verses on the superseding of the word 'bore' : 

With his last breath expiring Bore, 

Had left his throne to Twaddle. 

Asylum for Fugitive Pieces, i, 1785, pp. 66-8. The earliest entry in the 

O.E.D. is 1782. Cf. Nos. 6775, 7713. 


J 5/ [Bayers.] 

Published 29* May iy86 by Th(f Cornell Bruton Street 

Aquatint. A bearded Jew (1.) points out to Fox and North the high price 
of stocks ; he holds out to North (r.) a paper inscribed 3 Per Cents Consol 
done at y5 for y next opening. North holds out his hands in dismay. Fox 
stands between and behind them, looking gloomily at North. The Jew 
stands behind a counter on which hangs a paper, India Stock 162 Bank 
Stock 241 India Bonds ^o [? or 59] Prent. Navy & VictuaW Bills Per Cent 
Discount Exchequer Bills Prem Per Cent Scrip. At North's feet lies a paper 
headed Af Sheridans Speech upon iVf Pitts Plan of Finance. The back- 
ground is the wall of a room with arched recesses or alcoves. 

These prices are approximately correct, except that of Bank Stock, which 
fluctuated between 139 and 175 during the year. The rapid rise of the 
stocks during 1785 and the slower rise during 1786 can be traced in the 
Annual Register: at the beginning of 1785 India Bonds had been at a dis- 
count of 6; in May 1786 they were at a premium of 70, touching 175 in 
September and 341 in 1786. Sheridan's speech is that of 4 May 1786 when 
he maintained that Pitt's estimate of j£i, 000,000 surplus on the revenue, 
available for a sinking fund, was fallacious. Pari. Hist. xxv. 1416 ff. Cf. 
No. 6960. 
911X74 in. 



7 5/ [Bayers.] 

Pub¥ 2g May iy86 by Thc^ Cornel Bruton Street 

Engraving, slightly aquatinted. Stanhope stands in his library, declaiming ; 



he has just risen from his chair and holds his pen in his raised r. hand, his 
1. rests on a small table (r.) covered with documents. He wears a cocked 
hat ; his leanness is caricatured, his legs being of exaggerated thinness. His 
r. foot rests on a large volume, Cocker's Arithmetic. Under his 1. hand are 
Observations upon M^ Pitts Plan and M . . of Tkf Sheridan's Speech — / 
prefer the Noble Lord['s'] Plan to th[at] of the Minister less visionary. Behind 
the table is a bookcase against which are pinned two placards, the smaller 
superimposed on the other. The larger is a Table of the Average Price of 
Stocks for April iy86y the prices being partly hidden by the smaller print : 
a man rides a horse in the air, above a line of buildings ; a flying figure 
blows a trumpet. It is inscribed Ready for Ascension in a few Days Aerial 
Figures and Thin glittering Textures of the filmy Dew. On the r. is a small 
cupboard on legs, its open door showing a chamber-pot whose overflowing 
contents drip on to a document inscribed To Prevent Bribery at Elections. 
On the pot are papers inscribed Sinking Fund and Surplus ; these fragments 
appear to have been torn from a document inscribed Report of the select 
Committee upon the Ministers Plan for the Reduction of the National Debt. 
Amount of Taxes Red\ucti\on of Salar[ies'\. Above this is an oval picture 
of the three Graces, to ridicule Stanhope's lanky figure and awkward 
gestures. Beneath the title is etched : 

One St .... pe pester' d his Relations 

With sage Advice about the Graces 
But left Finance and Calculations 

To plodding Pates y and graver Faces. 

Another St .... pe now appears 

Ye Pitts and Neckars give him place 
In Figures first of Financiers 

The first of Figures too in Grace. 

Stanhope (Pitt's brother-in-law) is contrasted with Lord Chesterfield; 
after his succession as third Earl Stanhope he attacked Pitt's scheme for a 
sinking fund (see No. 7551, &c.) by speech and pamphlet {Observations on 
M^ Pitt's Plan for the Reduction of the National Debt). He brought forward 
his own 'Plan for rendering the Reduction of the National Debt permanent' 
on 22 May on the second reading of Pitt's Bill. Pari. Hist. xxvi. 17 if. ; 
G. Stanhope and G. P. Gooch, Life of Charles ^ third Earl Stanhope ^ 19 14, 
pp. 67 ff. For his awkward gestures cf. Rolliadj No. H : 

. . . This Quixote of the Nation 

Beats his own Windmills in gesticulation, . . . 

9 J- Xsii in. 


Prosecution Inv* Justice fecit 

Published May 31, iy86 by SW Fores at the Caracature Warehouse 

N"" 3 Piccadilly 
NB Gentlemen's Designs Executed without any Expence 

Engraving (coloured impression). A spurred game-cock without tail- 
feathers, representing the Prince of Wales, stands in the foreground on a 



flat tasselled cushion ; in his beak is a bunch of three tail-feathers. He looks 
towards a wheelbarrow (1.) drawn by Weltje, in which are bunches of three 
feathers similar to that in his beak. These are being arranged by George 
Hanger, who leans over the barrow, holding a bunch inscribed Lad[y] 

M ne [Melbourne]. The other bunches in the barrow are inscribed 

To Lady M d\ To the D ss of D e\ To Miss Van k. On the 

ground is a bunch, To M'* F t. On the r. a smiling oyster-woman 

points at the bird's denuded tail. The background is formed by shops in 
Piccadilly, not drawn with topographical precision. In the centre is the 
shop of Fores Purveyer of Caracatures to the Public N'^ 3 Piccadilly, the 
words written over the door. Above them are the three heads of Burke (1.), 
Fox (c), and North (r.) on spikes but arranged like the balls of a pawn- 
broker. The windows on each side of the door are divided into nine panes, 
in each of which is a print, very freely sketched; the central ones are Out 
of Fits (1.) and In Fits (r.), see Nos. 8252, 8253 ; Fat & Forty, No. 6927, 
is on the 1. of the door ; Figaro, No. 6924 in reverse, is on the r. Next it, 
and on the extreme r. of the window is No. 6934. On one side of Fores 
(1.) is a poulterer's shop inscribed Partrige Purveyer of Geese to His High- 
ness &c; on the other (r.) is Bullock Purveyer of Meat to His Highness &c. 
&Cy geese hang in one open shop-front, joints of meat in the other. Over 
each shop door is a crown with the Prince of Wales's feathers. 

For Lady Melbourne, the Duchess of Devonshire, and the Prince see 
Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, v. 370-2, and cf. Nos. 61 15, 6263. Miss Vanneck, 
third daughter of Sir Joshua, ist Bart., was mentioned by Walpole, 

26 Aug. 1795, as one of the Prince's court at Brighton. Lady M d is 

perhaps the wife of Viscount Maitland, one of Fox's martyrs, *a nice little 
painted doll'. G. E. C, Complete Peerage. For the suspected marriage with 
Mrs. Fitzherbert see No. 6924, &c. Cf. No. 6956. In this print Fores seems 
to declare himself an opponent of the Opposition, 
lojxisj in. 



PuM as the Act direts [sic] by J Brown, Rathbone Place, June 28^^ iy86 

Engraving (coloured impression). A snorting bull (John Bull) lies down, 
overburdened by a vast load of taxes which are represented by a high 
mound of large rolled documents on his back. Pitt, Dundas, and Arden, 
in shirts and breeches, tug hard at a long chain of alternate loaves and 
fishes which issues from the bull's posteriors. Pitt leans back, his r. foot 
on the animal's rump, singing: 

Pull, pull away, pull the Fishes, 

With them we will fill our Dishes; 

Pull, pull the Loaves, pull a good crop. 

For we have many mouths to stop. 

The other two tug at the chain behind him, their mouths open as if 
singing a chanty. Arden 's wig is falling off. Loaves and fishes lie in a pile 
at their feet inscribed, Pensions, Annuities, Gratuities, &c. &c. 

The taxes reading downwards and 1. to r., are: Land Tax Bill, An Act 
to impose a Tax on Shops (large). An Act to impose a Tax on Houses, An 
Act to impose a Tax on Horses, An Act to tax Hats, An Act to impose a Tax 
on Windows, An Act to impose a Tax on Insurance, Tea Tax (very small), 



Tax on Spirits, Tax on Cyder, Tax on Bricks & Tiles, Tax on Auctions, 
An Act to impose a Tax on Perfumery, An Act to Tax Men & Maid Servants 
(large), Tax on Births Deaths &c. &c.. Tax on Gloves, Tax on Receipts, 
Salt, Tax on Sugar, Tax on Malt, Tax on Coals, Tax on Wine, Tax on 
Candles, Tax on Beer, Tax on Glass, Tax on Soap, Tax on Cloth, Tax on 
Tobacco, Stamp Duties, Tax on Hides, Tax on Paper, Tax on Medicines, Tax 
on Wool, Tax on Carriages, Tax on Pepper, &c. &c. &c &c. Other rolls 
which are placed vertically along the edges of the pile are Deals & Battens, 
Coffee and Chocolate, Commutation. 

For the taxes cf. Nos. 6801, 6914, &c. The title indicates the overriding 
of the House of Commons in the appointment of Pitt (1783), cf. No. 6438, 
&c. One of many satires on the loaves and fishes of office, cf. Nos. 6195, 
7130, 7154, &c. 

Pub r^ July 1786 by T Allen. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Mrs. Fitzherbert stands in profile to the 
1., her hands clasped across her waist, leaning backwards from the waist. 
Her dress protrudes in front giving her the appearance of pregnancy, the 
silhouette of the front resembUng that of the back, inflated according to 
the fashion of the day, see No. 6874, &c. Her breast is covered by pro- 
jecting gauze, also a fashion much ridiculed. She wears a wide-brimmed 
hat trimmed with three feathers and the motto Ich Di[en]. From her neck 
hangs an oval miniature head of (presumably) the Prince, and a rosary. 

For the suspected marriage of the Prince of Wales and Mrs. Fitzherbert, 
see No. 6924, &c. ; for the expected child, No. 6954, &c. 
81X5^ in. 


Engraved after the Original painted by Maria Closestool in the possession 

of his M St y 

[?W. P. Carey.] 

London. Published by G. Humphrey N° 48 Long Acre July 5^* iy86. 

Engraving. George III is seated (1.) on a rectangular altar bending forward, 
his posteriors bare and irradiated like a sun. He wears a crown ; he bends 
forward as if to caress three fanged serpents emerging from the altar, 
inscribed, The King \ of \ Prerogative. A pair of hands emerges from 
clouds : one has taken the sceptre from the King's hand, the other is about 
to remove his crown. Pitt (r.) kneels behind the altar, holding out a scroll, 
the Irish Propositions, and saying : 

Thou Sun of glory! Source of all thaVs great! 

At whose command I rule this headstrong state, 

On thee with fainting heart, for aid I call 

O save thy fav' rite from untimely fall: 

(No council summoned to approve the scheme) 

From our joint heads these Propositions came, 

W^hile luckless I alone, must bear the blame, 

Tliick & threefold petitions come to Town 

Lords, — Commons, — Merchants, — all on Billy frown!!! 



Behind him is a bundle of papers held together by a scroll inscribed 
Provision for the Boghouse 1785. They are: Petition to the [Pajrliament ; 
Manchester Remonstr[ance]; from Glasgow; Rights of the People; West- 
minst[er] Petition; Popula[r] Resentment. Behind the bundle is a pyramid 
inscribed Sacrifices to Liberty The Gracchi, De Witt, Gaveston, Mortimer \ a 
hand pointing from the apex to Pitt is labelled, The next to fall. In the 
distance is a ruined temple : Temple of Freed[om] a British ruin. On the 
side of the altar on which the King is seated is a medallion surmounted 
with crossed axes inscribed Prerogative of the People. It encloses a severed 
head in a bowl inscribed Charles I. 

This reversion to the abortive Irish Propositions of 1785 (when there 
were many petitions against them), see No. 6785, &c., seems to indicate a 
lack of material for an attack on Pitt ; the threats to the King and Pitt are 
clearly absurd. Probably a skit on a picture exhibited by Maria Cosway 
(cf. No. 7019) at the R.A. in 1784: *A Persian going to adore the sun.' 
7iX9f in. 


Pu¥ as the Act directs, for the Proprietor, by J Carter, Oxford Street 
July Jj^* 1786 

Engraving (coloured impression). Britannia (1.), a beggar wearing only a 
ragged shift, supports herself on her broken spear outside the door of the 
Treasury ; her broken shield lies beside her. She says, Alas! why give to 
the Rich and neglect the Poor — is this Oeconomy. In the doorway a dog, his 
collar inscribed Pit, excretes on a paper inscribed Oeconomy. Behind his 
head is a placard inscribed: Resolved. That No additional Income be 
allowed to young George. W.P. Above the door is an implement resembling 
a gridiron, then called a saveall, cf. Nos. 7322, 7329; the Queen uses it 
in No. 7922. In the centre Carleton in back view, his ribbon of the Bath 
inscribed Quebec Bill, walks off with a sack over his shoulder inscribed, 
1000 I. Per Annum; he says: Sure there never was so able and honest a 
Commissary as Brook Watson — Pll swear that. On the r. Watson walks off 
to the r. holding a torn paper: To the Livery of London I pledge myself not 
[torn] to accept of Place or Pension. He has a wooden leg, wears his sheriff's 
chain, and holds a document inscribed Annuity. His coat-pocket bulges 
with guineas. He says. Sure there never was so brave & frugal a General 
as Sir Guy — /'// swear that. A signpost between the two men points (1.) 
To the City of Quebec, (r.) To the City of London. Beneath the title is 
etched : 

Unlike to paltry Beggars who in Moorfields stand, 

And meanly ask for daily bread with hat in hand; 

Or brave Tars who by War, not Shark, have lost a leg. 

To gain the priviledge in street to starve or beg. 

The Parliament July 1786 granted a Pension of i cool per Annum to Sir 
Guy Carleton, knt. of the Bath, Govenor of Canada, Commissioner of 
Accounts &c^, and for the natural Lives of his Lady and two Sons, also an 
Annuity of 500I to Brook Watson Esq^ Representative, Alderman & Sheriff 
of the City of London. AB Sir Guy was Commander in chief at the same 

time Mr W was Commissary General to the Army, in America, during 

the late War &c. 



The Prince of Wales being heavily in debt, Fox and Sheridan appealed 
for the payment of his debts and an increased revenue, but were in a small 
minority (5 Apr. 1786). Pari. Hist.y xxv. 1348 ff. ; the King also refused 
help and was clearly supported by Pitt. Rose, Pitt and National Revivaly 
191 1, pp. 398 ff. See No. 6967, &c. On 11 Apr. 1786 Carleton was again 
appointed Governor of Quebec; for the Quebec Act, said to have been 
suggested by Carleton, see No. 5228, &c. A pension to Carleton 's wife and 
sons of jCi,ooo a year was approved by the House of Commons, 26 June 
1786, when Carleton was attacked by Courtenay for the Quebec Act. 
Pari. Hist.y xxvi. 190-4. Brook Watson, alderman and M.P. for the City 
of London, had been Commissary-general to the army in Canada under 
Carleton, and a pension of ;£5oo a year was granted to his wife. (City 
members were required to pledge themselves not to accept place or 
pension. Cf. Nos. 7193, 8075.) For the attitude to the commissary as a 
war profiteer cf. Foote's Commissary^ 1765. As a Pittite, Watson was a 
butt of the Opposition, cf. the Rolliad on 'Modest Watson, on his wooden 
leg' (his leg was bitten off by a shark). For the Prince's debts see also 
Nos. 6945, 6967, &c., 7158, 7162, 7165, 7166. 
6^1 XII in. 


Publish' d as the Act directs iP^ July, 1786, by J. Burke^ 

Engraving. Warren Hastings sits full-face in an arm-chair. At his feet are 
many neatly corded rectangular packages across which he straddles, one 
under his r. foot being inscribed W.H, one under his 1. foot, Bulse^ of 
Dia[monds] Ent^ at S^ James's. A larger package (r.), inscribed Bengal and 
S^ Ja[mes's]y is marked with a crown and broad arrow. On this are two 
books: Defence (small) and Charges against W — H iy86 (large). His r. 
hand rests on a table (1.) and on a document inscribed: Fort George . . . 
Humbly . . . entreating acceptance . , . a Bulse of Diamonds. Beside it is a 
small paper inscribed Gov^ Ge^ and a book : Bribery. 

The first of many prints on the diamond presented to the King: on 
14 June 1786 Hastings presented to George IH a diamond sent by the 
Nizam of the Deccan ; the packet had been forwarded to him from India, 
and by a series of accidents did not reach him till 2 June, and could not 
be presented till 14 June, the day after the momentous debate of 13 June, 
cf. No. 6925. Sheridan insinuated on 21 June that the gift was a bribe from 
Hastings to the King. 'Newspapers and print-shops formed the channels 
through which the enemies of Hastings generally transmitted their accusa- 
tions or insinuations over the kingdom.' Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, iv. 
342-5. Pari. Hist.y xxvi. 146. See The Bulse, in Asylum for Fugitive 
Pieces, iii. 125-8. Cf. Orde to Rutland, 14 July 1786: 'The story of the 
diamond I really suppose to be a very simple matter, which is, as any other 
possible subject would be, taken hold of to insinuate connection between 
the Court and M^ Hastings by the means of corruption. I really believe 
that the packet happened to come at this unlucky moment, and that the 
contents or value of them was unknown, as the Nabob's signet had never 
been broken till it was put into His Majesty's hand.' Rutland Papers, iii. 
323. See also Nos. 6969, 6978, 6979, 6981, 7139, 7149, 7169, 7264, 7273, 

^ This print should have been placed before No. 6965. 

2 Cf. The Lounger, 15 July 1786: Tray what is a bulse} I understand it to be a 
package for diamonds as a rouleau is for guineas.' 



7274, 7287, 7288, 7301, 7308, 7312, 7325, 7329, 7383, 7384, 7399, 7554, 
7626. Cf. No. 7836, &c. For similar personifications of cards see No. 
6969, &c. 





Pu¥ as the Act directs, for the Proprietor , by J Carter, Oxford Street, 
July i^^ iy86— 

Engraving (coloured impression). A ramshackle coach and four conveys 
the Prince's establishment from Carlton House to Brighton, only the two 
wheelers appearing within the print. Weltje drives; his box-seat is 
crammed with provisions: a calf's head, leg of mutton, sirloin, carrots, 
turnips, &c., and is inscribed Purveyor, Coachman, Cook and Butler \ from 
it hang a gridiron (or saveall) and an iron pot inscribed L.W. [Louis 
Weltje] St James's Street. The head-bands of the wretched horses are 
inscribed Whim and Caprice. Inside the coach Mrs. Fitzherbert sits read- 
ing Principles of Oeconomy; the Prince, seated on her 1., gazes at her 
amorously. In front of them are boxes and a bundle inscribed Childbed 
Linnen. On the roof of the coach sits Hanger (1.), an enormous bludgeon 
under his arm, reading a paper inscribed For Sale by Tattersall The 
Princes Stud. His feet rest on a cask of Small Beer standing, with a basket 
of Raisin Wine, on the boot behind the coach. On the front of the roof 
sits Fox, very disconsolate, holding a pair of bellows. Between them is a 
large basket containing a close-stool, a warming-pan, and a cradle. On the 
panels of the coach are the Prince's feathers and motto, upside-down, and 
two stars. 

A satire on the ostentatious retrenchments of July 1786, when the Prince 
closed half of Carlton House, dismissing the workmen, the King hav- 
ing refused to pay his debts, see No. 6965, &c. Orde wrote to Rutland 
17 July 1786, *The Prince of Wales's resolution is a striking measure, but 
if it was a scheme of party to throw reflexion on the King and to raise the 
credit of the Prince at the expence of His Majesty, it has not answered.' 
Hist. MSS. Comm., Rutland Papers, iii. 324. See Wraxall, Memoirs, 1884, 
iv. 352-3. The Prince went to Brighton in a hired post-chaise on 11 July, 
Mrs. Fitzherbert followed on 24 July. The rumour that she was pregnant 
was commonly believed at the time. Wilkins, M"^ Fitzherbert and George 
IV, i. 169-71, cf. No. 6954, &c. See No. 6989, a sequel. See also Nos. 
6945, 6968, 6970, 6980, 6982, 7143, 7158, 7167. 


London Published July 18 iy86 by S, W. Fores N 3 Piccadilly, 

Engraving (coloured impression). The reduction of the Prince of Wales's 
establishment at Carlton House is represented as the auction scene in The 
School for Scandal (iv. i). Lot I, a portrait of the King