(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Catalogue of Pulmonata or air-breathing Mollusca, in the collection of the British Museum; pt. 1"

= L0 



■CO 
:LO 



^CO 



CO 



iN!v. or 

Toronto 

LiBRAPV 



I 



hoWuioa 



CATALOGUE 

OP 

PULMONATA 

OR 

AIE-BREATHING MOLLl^SCA 

THE COLLECTION 

OF THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM. 



PART I. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THl? TRUSTEES. 

1855. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



PREFACE. 



The principal object of the present Catalogue is to give a 
complete List of the Free Air-Breathing MoUusca {Mol- 
lusca Pulmonata), with descriptions of all the genera and 
species known to exist, indicating at the same time, by 
a B.M. in the margin, those contained in the British 
Museum. 

The descriptions of the species of Shells belonging to 
these animals are by Dr. Louis Pfeiffer of Cassel, so 
well known for his attention to the Shells of Terrestrial 
MoUusca. The account of the animals and their arrange- 
ment has been brought up to the present state of the 



JOHN EDWARD GRAY. 

British Museum, 
29 March, 1855. 



Digitized by the Internet Arcliive 

in 2008 witli funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



littp://www.arGliive.org/details/Gatalogueofpulmo01brituoft 



CATALOGUE 



PULMONATA. 



Order V. PULMONATA. 

Respiring free air in a closed chamber lined mth pnlmonic 
vessels, usually placed on the front of the back of the animal and 
covered by the shell, having an opening closed by a valve on the 
side. Animal hermaphrodite with reciprocal impregnation. 
The larva shell-bearing, shaped like the parent, and without any 
cephahc fins when first hatched : they are almost universally %\ith- 
out any operculum. The teeth are numerous, similar, subequal, 
placed in many cross series on the lingual membrane. 

Pulmonata (Les Pulmones), Citvier, Reg. Anim. ii. 401, 1817. 

Milne-Edw. Ann.Sci. Nat. 1848, ix. 112; Wieginann Arch. 
1849, 85. 

Philippi, Handb. Conch. 235. 

Latr. Fan. Nat. 1825. 

Loven, Moll. Suec. 
Coelopnoa sen Celopnoa, Schweiger, Naturg. 738, 1820. 

Eichwald, Zool. Spec. 
Vuimohr&nches, Blainv: Bull. Soc. Philom. 1814, 178; 1816, 

122; Organ. Anim. i. t. 8, 1822. 
Pulmobranchia, Goldfuss, Handb. Zool. 656, 1820. 
Pulmonata inoperculata, Fe'russac, Tab. Sgst. 31, 1821. 

Rang, Man. 149, 1829. 
Adelopneumona, Gray, Land. Med. Repos. 1821 . 



2 PULMONATA. 

Pneumonea, Hartmann in Sturm Fauna, vi. 33, 1821. 
Pulmobranchiata, Gray, Ann. Philos. viii. 107, 1824. 

Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat. xUv. 98, 1826. 

Deshayes, Ency. Meth. iii. t. , 1830. 

D'Orbigny, Moll. Cuba, i. 139, 1841. 

Reeve, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1841, 7G. 
Pulmonobranchiata, Sow. Man. 1842. 
Pulmonibranchiata, Agassiz, Index, 1847- 
Pulmonea, Latr. Fam. Nat. 1825. 
Adelobranchia, Risso, Eur. Me'rid. iv. 54, 1826. 
Coelopneumonata inoperculata, Menke, Syn. ed. 2 
Coelopneumonata g}'mnostoma, Menke, Syn. 7, 1828. 
Pulmonifera, Guilding, Zool. Journ. ii. 440, 1828. 

Fleming, Brit. Anim. 225, 255, 273, 1828. 
Pulmonacea, C. Ffeiffer, Naturg. Moll. iii. 1. 6, 1828. 
Pulmonaria, Griffith in Cuvier A. K. xii. 26, 1834. 
Colimacea, Reeve, Conch. Syst. ii. 64. 

G. B. Sow. Manual, 1839, ed. 2. 112, 1842. 
Pneumonica, Verloren, Organ. Generat. 1836. 
Pneumobranchia inoperculata. Gray. 
Pneumoneata, Hartmann, Syst. 1840. 
Coelopnoa gvmnostoma, Menke, Syn. ed. 2. 13, 1830. 

L, Ffeiffer. 
Pneiimobranchiata, Gray, Turton's Man. ed. 2. 77, 1840; Syn. 

Brit.Mus. 1840; 1842,90. 
Pneumobranchia, Lamk. Hist. A. s. V. \i. 292, 1819. 

Gray, Syn. B.M. 1840. 
Pneiimobranchiata, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 169, in Mrs. 

Gray's Fig. Moll. iv. Ill, 1850. 
Saccobranchia, Leach, Brit. Moll. 12, 44, 1852. 



Synopsis of Families. 

I. GEOPHILA. Eyes at the apex of an elongated cylindrical 
peduncle. Tentacles cylindrical, shorter and lower down 
than the eye-peduncles, sometimes very small or wanting. 
Operculum none. Terrestrial. 

A. Head, eye-peduncles and tentacles retractile under the skin. 

a. Mantle covering the head. Tentacles in the front of the 
mantle. 

\. jANELLiDiE. Mantle covering the entire back. Tentacles 
two. 



PULMONATA. d 

b. Front of body, head and tentacles distinct from and retractile 
into the mantle. 

* Young with an operculum, at length deciduous, and protected 
by an external shell which afterwards becomes hidden in 
the shield-like mantle of the adult. 

2. Cbyptellad^. 



** Young and adult without any operculum. 

3. Testacellid^. Foot without any subcaudal gland. Teeth 
numerous, slender, conical, distant (fig. 1). Jaws none. 
Body and shell spiral, subcaudal. 



Fig. I.— Teeth of Testacellus. 




4. Arionid^e. Foot with a distinct gland rather above the tip. 

Teeth numerous, four-sided, close together on the lingual 
membrane. Jaw homy, distinct. 

5. Helicid^. Foot tapering behind, without any subcaudal 

gland. Teeth numerous, four-sided, close together on the 
lingual band (fig. 2). Jaw homy, distinct. Body and shell 
subcentral, dorsal. 



Fig. 2. — Teeth of Achatina fulica. 






In these figures, c represents the central, / the lateral, and w the 
exterior lateral teetli, 

b2 



4 PULMONATA. 

B. Head, eye-peduncles and tentacles simply contractile. 

6. Veronicellid^. Body elono;ate. Teeth numerous, four- 

sided, close on the lingual membrane. 

7. Onchidiad^. Body ovate. Teeth numerous, four-sided, 

close on the lingual membrane *. 

II. LIMNOPHILA. Eyes sessile. Tentacles two, subcylindrical 
or jiattened, simply contractile. Operculum none. 

8. AuRicuLiD^. Eyes on the nape at the inner side of the 

base of the subcvlindrical tentacles. Teeth like Helicidce 
(fig. 3). 

Fig. 3. — Teeth of Auricula. 






9. Lymnead^. Eyes on the hinder side of the base of the flat- 
tened or fihform tentacles. Teeth like Helicidce. 



III. THALASSOPHILA. Eyes sessile, on the front part of the 
frontal disk formed by the expanded tentacles. Head pro- 
duced. Lingual membrane very broad. 

10, SiPHONARiAD^E. Shell conic. Operculum none. Teeth 
like Helicidce (fig. 4). 

Fig. 4. — Teeth of Siphonaria. 




* The teeth described as those of Peronia Mauritiana, in the ^n«. 
of Nat. Hist., Nov. 1853, were those of Tesfacellus. See Ann. and 
Mag. N. H. Jan. 1854. 



PULMONATA. 6 

11. AMPHiBOLiDiE. Shell spiral. Mouth oblong. Operculum 
spiral, horny. Teeth like Helicida (fig. 5). Lingual mem- 
brane very broad. 

Fig. 5. — Teeth of Amphibola. 



I. GEOPHILA. Eyes at the apex of an elongated cylindrical 
peduncle. Tentacles cylindrical, shorter and lower down 
than the eye-peduncles, sometimes very small or wanting. 
Operculum none, except Cryptella? Terrestrial. 

Geophila (Les Geophiles), Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 3. 18, 1821. 

Hartmann in Sturm Fauna, 33, 1821. 

Gray, Mrs. Gray''s Moll. iv. 111. 
Geocochlides, Latr. Fam. Nat. 1825. 
Geophilae, 3/e«^e, Syn. 7, 1828. 
Terricola, Fleming, Brit. Anim. 225, 1828. 
Geochares, De Crist, et Jans. Cat. i. 1832. 
Terrestrial Inoperculata, Gray, Turt on' s Manual, 101, 103, 1840. 

A. Head, eye-pednncles and tentacles retractile under the skin. 

a. Mantle covering the head. Tentacles in the front of the 
mantle. 

Fam. 1. JANELLIDtE. 

Tentacles two, retractile, placed on the front edge of the 
mantle over the head. Body attached the whole length to the 
back of the foot, rather swollen on the hinder part of the middle 
of the back. Mantle thin, covering the whole of the back, and 
separated from the foot by a broad lateral groove, ttith three 
converging grooves in front above, the lateral one to the hinder 
side of the tentacles and forked beneath, the central medial, and 
extending along the centre of the back, giving off branches on 
each side, to the edge of the mantle. Aperture of respiration cir- 
cular, small, on the front of the back on the right side of the central 
groove. Aperture of reproduction on the edge of the mantle on 
the right side, under the aperture of respiration. Foot narrow, 
in three bands, crenated on the edge. 

Shell none. 



6 PULMONATA. 

1. JANELLA. 

The only genus of the family. 

Janella, Gray, in Mrs. Gray's Figures of Mollusca, iv. 112 ; Ann. 
4" Mag. N. H. Dec. 1853. 
Philippi, Handb. Conch. 237. 
Limax, sp., Quoy Sf- Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe. 

1. Janella antipodarum. B.M. 

Body (in spirits) ovate lanceolate, back convex, dark brown. 
Janella antipodarum, Gray, Ann. ^- Mag. N. H. Dec. 1853. 
Hub. New Zealand. A single specimen. 

Bod}' elongate, convex ; back rounded ; tail not keeled, taper- 
ing, acute behind, without any subcaudal gland. Mantle cover- 
ing the whole of the back, with a slightly raised lateral margin, 
leaving a rather broad space between it and the edge of the foot, 
thin, small, with a longitudiual groove along the centre of the 
back extending the whole length of the animal, and giving out 
branches from each side which diverge backward to the edge ; in 
front, over the head, there is given out a short, straight, diverging 
branch on each side to the hinder base of the tentacles, then 
forked, and the two branches continued on the under edge of the 
mantle to the corner of the mouth ; the tentacles two, arising 
from the front just within the edge of the mantle, and quite re- 
tractile like those of the Slugs. Aperture of respiration is a very 
small foramen, with a raised edge on the right side and close 
to the central groove on the back, just above the aperture of re- 
production. Mouth inferior, at the end of the foot, with three 
tubercles in front, which are formed by the continuation of the 
grooves on the front of the mantle, .\perture for reproductive 
organs on the front part of the edge of the right side of the 
mantle, about one-fourth the entire length fi-om the head. 

The foot narrow, divided into three indistinctly-marked lon- 
gitudiual bands, the middle band rather the widest, the lateral 
bands with rather distant cross grooves, most ihstinct on the 
outer edge and with shorter marginal grooves between them, 
giving the edge of the foot a crenated appearance ; the end of the 
body is suddenly more slender, with a ]n-ominence on the back 
just before this sudden alternation, as if the mass of the viscera 
were confined to the first two-thirds of the body ; but this may 
be caused by the contraction of the animal from being in spirits. 

Shell none, or at least there is no appeai'ance of any through 
the skin. 

Length tlu-ee-fourths of an inch. 



PULMONATA. / 

2. Janella BITENTACULATA. 
Depressed, yellowish, black spotted. 

Limax bitentaculatus, Quoy Sf Gaimard, Voy. Astrol. t. . f . . 
Janella (bitentaculatus), Cfray in Mrs. Gray's Fig. Moll. iv. 112, 
1850. 

Mrs. Gray, Fig. Moll.t. 180. f. 15. 

Philippi, Man. Conch. 239. 
Hob. New Zealand, Tasman's Bay, on leaves. 

" Head distinct, mouth oval ; tentacles rather short, clubbed at 
the end ; eyes very small, terminal. Back with a deep longitu- 
dinal groove extenchng the whole length, commencing from the 
head, divided rather to the left to svu-round the pulmonary aper- 
ture, which is placed on the back, and with oblique striae di- 
verging from each side of this groove. Foot scarcely distinct 
from the rest of the body, yellowish white ; the back is dirty 
yellow, with pale brown spots. It has no appearance of any 
shield containing a horny shell." — Quoy. 

May be the same as the former. 



b. Front of body, head and tentacles distinct from and retractile 
into the mantle. 

Fam. 2. CRYPTELLAD^. 

Animal when first hatched enclosed in a spiral shell, and fur- 
nished with an operculum which eventually falls off, and the shell 
is at length hidden in the substance of the mantle. Subcaudal 
eland ? Teeth ? 



1. CRYPTELLA. 

Body elongate, compressed, rather high, gibbous above. Head 
truncate ; tad keeled, acute, short. Mantle shield-shaped, co- 
vering half the body, free in front; hinder part covering the 
front of the shell. Opening for respiration on the right side of the 
mantle, under the hinder jmrt of the shell ; anus rather in front 
of the mantle; orifice for generation behind the small tentacles. 
Foot slender. 

Shell spathulate, oblong, depressed, transversely striated, 
rather thick, brittle; front part white, covered with the mantle ; 
hinder exserted like a small boss, green, shining, with a hidden 
spire. 



8 PULMONATA. 

Cryptella (canariensis), Webb Sf Berthelot, Ann. Sci. Nat. 1833, 
xxviii., in Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 170. n. 442. 

Cruerin, Mag. Zool. t. 36. 

Troschel, Wiegm. Arch. 1836, ii. 210. 

Desk, in Lamk. Hist. vii. 712. 
Cryptellus, D'Orb. Moll. Cuba, i. 237. 
Parmacella (ambigua, sp.), Fe'russac, Hist. Moll. 

Sow. Gen. Shells, xiii. t. 103. 

Philippi, Handb. 240. 
Testacella, sp. (ambiguus), Ferussac, Moll. Terr. 9. 6. t. 8. f. 4. 

1. Cryptella ambigua. B.M. 

Nucleus of the shell very thick, sohd, covered w-ith a green 
polished periostraca, with only half a whorl exposed ; the rest 
of the shell thick, white, covered with the mantle of the adult 
animal. 

Testacellus ambiguus, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 27 ; Hist. Moll. ii. 

95. t. 8. f. 4 ; t. 8 D. f. 9. 
Parmacella calyculata, Sow. Gen. Shells, xiii. t. 103, 1823. 
Parmacella ambigua, Philippi, Handb. 240. 
Cryptella canariensis, Webb ^- Berth. Ann. Sci. Nat. 1833, xxviii. 
Cryptella ambigua, D'Orb. Hist. Nat. Canar. 50. t. 1. f. 1-12. 

Gray, Fig. Moll. iv. 113. t. 204. f. 1, t. 283. f. 5. 
Hab. Canary Islands. 

The Cryptellce leave their egg covered with a shell furnished 
with an operculum. The animal when 1)orn is entirely contained 
in the voung shell, on the edge of which is afterwards developed 
the second concretion. They are condemned to carry during the 
rest of their life the envelope that served them for a cradle, al- 
though in enlarging this part of the shell, they gradually till up 
the cavity which formerly contained the body. 

The operculum is said to be formed a little before the animal 
leaves its egg ; it is horny, thin, encrusted on the surface, or- 
bicular beneath, conical and swollen above, like that (an epi- 
phragm) of Helix naticoides ; its colour is dark brown ; as the 
animal increases in size, it gradually leaves its shell ; its tail 
first appears too large to enter the shell, but we have not been 
able to fix precisely the time when it throws oft' its operculum. 

The animal commences to elongate externally, at the same 
time that the edge of the shell enlarges into the shajie of a disk 
to cover the most important viscera, the protruding body aug- 
menting by degrees under the mantle until the animal acquires 
the adult iorm.— Webb Sf Berthelot, 51. 

Is it a true operculum ? The authors compare it with the epi- 
phragm of Helix naticoides. 



PULMONATA. if 

Fam. 3. TESTACELLID^. 

Teeth numerous, conical, distant, in diverging cross series on 
a broad lingual membrane. Mouth proboscis-hke. Jaws none. 
Shell spiral or subspiral, external, on the hinder part of the body. 
Operculum none. 

TestacelUdae, Gray, Ann. Sf Mag. N. H. 1833. 
TestaceUina, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 170. 
Ancylidia, part., Rajin. Anal. Nat. 143, 1815. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

a. Body subspiral ; labial tentacles small. 

1. Testacellus. Shell ear-shaped. 

2. Plectrophorus. Shell conical. 

b. Body spiral J labial tentacles elongate, contractile. 

3. Oleacina. Shell fusiform. Pillar smooth. 



a. Body subspiral J labial tentacles small. 

1. TESTACELLUS. 

Shell small, ear-shaped, subspiral ; mouth very large. Animal 
elongate, produced in front, with a groove on each side of the back. 
Mantle and shell on the hinder end of the back ; mantle usually 
the same size as the shell (but capable of great extension so as to 
cover the rest of the body). Teeth pin-shaped, slightly curved, 
with a roundish head and acute tip, only attached by a small 
subcentral roundish process (see page 3, lig. 1). 

Limaces a coquilles, Favanne, Conch, i. 429; Zoom. 76. f. A. 
Testacelle (Testacella), Cuvier, Leg. d'Anat. Comp. i. t. 5, 1800 ; 
Ann. Mus. v. 435 ; Mem. Moll. xii. ; Reg. Anim. ii. 403. 

Lamk. Sy.tt. A. s. V. 96. 

Drop. Tabl. 99 ; Hist. 23, 30, 221. 

Blainv. Man. Malac. 463. 

Philippi, Handb. Conch. 240. 
Testacellus, Faure-Biguet, Bull. Soc. Phil. n. 61, 1802. 

Montf. Conch. Syst. ii. 94. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. ii. 26. 96 »; Hist. Moll. 

Menke, Syn. 1828, 13, 1830. 

B 5 



10 PULMONATA. 

The TestacellcE have a peculiar mantle (or rather appendage of 
the mantle) which is simply gelatinous, contractile, and habitually 
hidden under the shell, divided into several lobes, and susceptible 
of an extraordinary development, so as to envelop the whole of 
the contracted body, and thus protect it from extreme drought. 

They pass the greater part of theii* life in holes under groimd, 
only coming to the surface to change their locality, and remain 
buried one or two feet deep in the earth during the cold and 
verj' dry weather. They deposit their eggs under ground ; they 
are oblong, large, and covered with a thick elastic coat, and 
burst when moved into a warm place. When the animal de- 
posits its eggs, the head and tentacles are drawn in so that the 
opening of the oviduct is the end of the body. They live chiefly 
on worms, but sometimes attack slugs and small specimens of 
their own species, shells of their own kind being found in their 
stomach. 

Rafinesque names, but does not describe, Testacina, Urcinella 
and Zilotea. — Anal. Nat: 1815. 

1. Testacellus haliotideus. B.M. 

Yellowish red or grey, spotted or spotless. Tentacles cylin- 
dric. Shell ovate, pointed behind, horn-coloured, thick, i-ugose 
externally, shining within. Spire white, broad and flat. 

Limax, Favanne, Conch. Zoom. t. 7G- f. A 1, A 2. 

Testacelle ormier. Faure-Biguet, Bull, de Sci. iii. n. 61. 38. t. 5. 

f. 2. A, B, C, D. 
Testacelle, Cuvier, Ann. Mus. v. 435. t. 29. f. 6, 7, H; Mem. 

Moll. xii. t. 1. f. 6, 7, 11. 
Testacella em-op;ea, De Roissy, Sonnini, Buff. Moll. v. 252. 
Testacellus europseus, Montf. Conch. Syst. ii. 93, 96. 
Testacella haUotidea, Drop. Tabl. 99 ; Hist. 121. t. 8. f. 43, 48; 

t. 9. f. 12, 14. 

Lamk. E. M. t. 463. f. 4, cop. Drop. 
Blainv. Man. Malac. 463. t. 41. f. 2. 
Testacella galli.x, Oken, Lehrb. Naturg. i. 311. t. 9. f. 8. 
Testacellus haliotideus, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 26; Moll. ii. 94. 

t. 8. f. 5-9. 

Moquin-Tandon, Joiirn. de Conch, ii. 125. 

Var. 1. Pale yellow, not spotted. — Ferussac, f. 5, 6. 

Yax. 2. ? Testacella, Ferussac, Hist. Moll. ii. t. 8 F. f. 24, 25. 

Gray, Fiff. Moll. t. 286. f. 5. 
Var. 3. Testacellus bisulcatus, Risso, Hist. Eur. Merid. 1826, 

iv. 58. 
Testacella bisulcata. Dupuy, Moll. France, 45. t. 1. f. 2. 



PULMONATA. 



11 



Var. 4. Testacellus Haliotidea, var., Aleron in Guide Voyage in 

Roussillon, 1847, p. 327- 
Testacella companyonii, Dupuy, Moll. France, i. 47- 1. 1. f. 3. 
Hab. South of Europe, South of France and Spain : introduced 

into England. 

2. Testacellus Maugei. B.M. 

Reddish brown, spotted ; edge of foot orange. Tentacles fili- 
form. Shell ovate elongate, thin, finely striated ; spire elevated, 
distinct. 

Testacellus haliotoideus, Lamk. Syst. i. 96. 

Bosc, N. Diet. H. N. xxii. 80. 

Buffon, Deterville, iii. 239. 

Roissy, Buffon, Sonnini, v. 253. 

Ledrii, Voy. Teneriffe, i. 187- 
Testacellus Maugei, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 27 ; H. Moll. ii. 94. 
Hab. Teneriffe ; introduced into England in gardens. 

2. PLECTROPHORUS. 

Shell very small, subconic, subspiral, on hinder part of the 
body ; mouth round, with a slight fold on the back edge. Animal 
produced in front with a granulated disk (enlarged mantle?), 
produced before and slightly behind the shell, and with a similar 
broader granular shield (true mantle ?) in front of the back ; 
with the aperture of respiration in the middle of the right side of 
the front disk, as in the shield-like mantle of Limax and Arioii. 

Teeth ? 

Limaces a coquilles, Favanne, Conch. Zoom. t. 76- 
Testacelle, sp., Cuvier, Leg. d'Anat. Comp. i. t. 7- 

Lamk. Syst. A. s. V. 96. 
Plectrophorus, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 10. 25. 96\ 1819; Hist. 

Moll. ii. 84 ; not Bosc. 

Gruy,Lond. Med. Repos. 1821; Proc.Z.S. 1847, 170. n. 439. 
Philippi, Handb. Conch. 241. 
Plectophorus, Gray, Syn. B.M. 1842, 68, misprint. 

This genus is only knovra from a single species observed by 
the elder D'Orbigny in Teneriffe, and figured by Ferussac from his 
details, and from figures in the old work of Favanne, an author 
whose figmes often require correction. It is so unlike the usual 
form of terrestrial Mollusca, especially in having the shell placed 
at a distance from the aperture of res])iration, that we cannot 
but believe there has been some inaccuracy in the description 
which wants verification. There is reason to believe that one 



12 PULMONATA. 

figure which has been named P. corninus, only represents an 
Arion ater with some hardened mucus on its suhcaudal gland, 
which has been mistaken for a shell ! This species differs from 
the others in wanting the posterior shield bearing the shell. 

1. Plectrophorus D'Orbignii. 

Shell conical, acute; mouth oval, very concave internally ; left 
lip thick, right lip sharp-edged. 

Testacelle de Teneriffe, D'Orbigny, MSS. 

Plectrophorus Orbignii, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 26 ; Moll. ii. 8/. 

t. 6. f. 7. 
Hub. Teneriffe (D'Orbigny). 

2. Plectrophorus costatus. 

Cochlea testacea terrestris, Favanne, Conch. Zoomorph. t. 76. 

f. C 1, C 2. 
Testanella costata, Bosc, Buffon, Deterv. Coq. iii. 240. 

Roissy, Buffon, Sonnini Moll. v. 254. 
Plectrophorus costatus, Fervssac, Tab. Syst. 26 ; Hist. Moll. ii. 

86. t. 6. f. 6, cop. from Favanne. 
Hub. Maldives. 

Only known from a drawing and description sent by M. Solen- 
drac de Pilmont, " an English (?) traveller," to Favanne. 

3. Plectrophorus? corninus. 

Side of foot pale black-banded. 

Limax, Favanne, Conch, i. 429 ; Zoom. t. 76. f. B 1, B 2. 
Testacella cornina, Bosc, Buffon, Deterv. Coq. iii. 239. 

Roissy, Buffon Moll. v. 253. 
Plectrophorus corninus, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 26 ; Hist. Moll. ii. 

86. t. 6. f. 5, from Favanne. 
Hub. ? 

A verj' doubtful species : see note to the genus. 

b. Body spiral: labial tentacles elongate, contractile. 
3. OLEACINA. 

Shell oblong, acuminate, more or less fusiform ; whorls six to 
eight, last nuich the largest. Pillar arcuately truncated. JMouth 
narrow elliptical, oblong or oval. Peristome simple, straight ; 
of outer lip sinuate. Foot elongate ; head produced ; mouth 
proboscidiform. Labial tentacles triangular, slender, elongate, very 
dilatile, produced on the sides ; upper tentacles elongate, swollen 



PULMONATA. 



13 



at the ends above the eyes. Aperture of reproduction on the 
right side rather behind" the right tentacles: no dart nor vesi- 
cula multifida. Teeth small, conical, in arched cross series. 
Carnivorous, eating moUusca. 

Oleacina, Bolten Mus. (1/98) ; ed. 2. 181.9, 77- 

Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 178. n.485. 
Polyphemus, Mont. Conch. Syst. 1810. 

Say, Amer. Conch. 
Glandina, Schum. Essai Syst. 202, 1817- 

Albers, Heliceen, 197- 
Cochhcopa a, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 1821. 
Cochlycopa, Swainson, Malac. 1840. 
Halia, Risso, Eur. Merld. iv. 1826, not Macgill. 

Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 178. u. 486. 
Priamus, Beck, Index. 

Ferussacia, Risso, Eur. Mend. iv. 81, 1826. 
Vediantius, Risso, Eur. Me'rid. iv. 81, 1826. 
Cionella, Albers, Heliceen, 199. 

Say described the animal ; Dr. Wyman, in the Boston Journ. 
Nat.' Hist. iv. 416, and in the Terrestrial Air-breathing Mollusks 
of the United States, gives the anatomy of the Oleacina trun- 
cata, the North American species ; Morelet described the animal 
of Glandina carminensis {Journ. Conch, ii. 1851, 27. t. 1), and 
Dr. Louis Raymond the anatomy of the Algerian species, O. Al- 
gira {Journ. Conch. 1853, 14. t. 1), showing the uniforai struc- 
ture of these species. Dr. Raymond observes, the tongue is very 
similar to that of Testacellus, rough, with small inclined spines. 
These spines are acute, resistent, and adherent by a moderately 
sized base. He considers " Testacella as a Glandina with a ru- 
dimentary shell." 

" The teeth, on the surface of the tongue, are sharp pointed, 
elongated and somewhat recurved, arranged in lines ' en chevron,' 
the apex being directed backwards. There are no teeth on the 
median hne, corresponding to the axis of the tongue ; and in this 
respect it differs from many of the Pulmoniferous Gasteropoda, 
in which a range of median symmetrical teeth is generally found 
to exist." — Wyman, Bost. Journ. iv. 416. pi. 23. f. 1. 

a. Pillar lip distinctly truncate. 
* Country unknown. 

1. Oleacina Priamus. B.M. 

Shell ovate, vcntricose, thin, smooth, diaphanous, fulvous- 
rosy, ornamented with distant, square, chestnut-red dots, dis- 



14 PULMONATA. 

posed in transverse lines ; spire short ; lip sharp. Lon. 68, lat. 
34 ; ap. lon. 48, lat. 25 mill. 

Helix Priamus, Menschen in Cat. Mus. Gron. n. 1355. 

Gronovii Zoophyl. fasc. 3. t. 2. f. 10, 11 (Cochlicopa). 

Fer. Pr. 355 ; Hist. t. 135. f . 5. 
Helix Priapus, Gmel. 3654. n. 198. 
Buceinum ficus, Martyn, Univ. Conch, ed. Chenu {Bibl. Conch, ii.), 

25. t. -28. f. 3. 
Buceinum stercus pulicum, Chemn. ix. pt. 2. 35. t. 120. f . 1026, 

1027. 
Bulla stercus pulicum, Gmel. 3434. n. 45. 
Bulla Priamus, Dillw. Descr. Cat. i. 493. n. 51. 
Buhmus Priamus, Brug. in Enc. Mcth. i. 360. n. 104. 
Achatina Priamus, Lara. xii. p. 131 ; ed. Desh. 299. 

Kiister, t. 3. f. 7, 8. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 279. 
Achatina maculata, Swains. Exot. Conch, t. 23. 
Priamus stercus pulicum. Beck (teste Desh. 300). 
Priamus, Sow. Conch. 21an. ed. 2. f. 545. 
HaUa stercus pulicum, Herrm. Ind. Gen. Mai. i. 495. 
Hub. ? " Spain " {Martyn). " Coast of Guinea ? " {Fer.) 

Dr. Beck and some other authors have considered this as a 
marine species, but hardly on sufficient evidence. Many terres- 
trial shells are washed down by the rivers into the sea, and are 
often found on the coast with zoophytes parasitic on them ; they 
have, for this reason, formed it into a genus, imder the names of 
Halia and Priamus. 

** American. 
2. Oleacina voluta. B.M. 

Shell oblong, subfusiform, rather sohd, smooth, reddish under 
the greenish-horny epidermis ; spire short, conic, rather obtuse ; 
whorls seven or eight, flattened, the last nearly eq\ialling two- 
thirds the length, attenuated downwards ; sutm-e lineai-, white- 
margined ; columella strongly arched, abrujjtly truncated at the 
base of the narrow, jjointed-oblong aperture; peristome sharp. 
Lon. 51, lat. 19; ap. lon. 30, lat. 9 mill. 
Bulla voluta, Chemn. ix. pt. 2. 16. t. 117- f- 1009, 1010. 

Dillw. Descr. Cat. i. 486. n. 34. 
Bulimus glaus, Brug. Enc. Meth. i. 365. n. 111. 
Hehx glans (Cochlicopa), Fe'r. Pr. 362. 
Achatina glans, ]jam. xiii. 132, ed. Desh. 300. 

Blainv. Malac. t. 40. i. 2"? 

Kiister f t. 7. f- 4, 5. 



PULMONATA. 16 



Achatina voluta, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 279. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 55. t. 14. 

Desk, in Fer. ii. 177- n. 40. t. 124. f. 5, 6. 
Oleacina volutata, Bolt. 110. n. 1411. 
Polyphemus glans, Montf. ii. 415. t. 104. 

Villa, Disp. Syst. 19. 

Sow. Conch. Man. f. 288 (err. 298). 
Glandina olivacea, Schumacher, 202. 
Glandina glans, Beck, Index, 78. n. 10. 
Glandina voluta, Pfr. Symb. ii. 136. 

Morelet, I. c. 37. 

Jib. 197. 
Cochlycopa glans. Swains. Malac. 335. 
Hub. Antilles. 



3. Oleacina leucozonias. B.M, 
Shell suhfusiform-oblong, very finely striated longitudinally, 

chestnut, in-egularly striped with remote, wavy, white lines ; 
whorls eight, slightly convex, the last equalhng the spire, an- 
gular ; anterior lips whitish, prominent ; columella shghtly 
arched, ribbed, obliquely truncated ; aperture irregularly oblong, 
narrow ; peristome simjjle, white, dextral margin angularly di- 
lated towards the base. Lon. 46, lat. 17; ap. Ion. 24, lat. 8 mill. 

Martini, iv. 220. t. 148. f. 1371, 1372. 

Voluta leucozonias, Walch in Naturforscher,[\. 110. t. 1. f. 3,4. 

Gmel. 3453. n. 56. 

Dillw. Descr. Cat. i. 547. n. 110. 
HeUx leucozonias (Cochhcopa), Fe'r. Pr. 363. 
Achatina albolineata, Lam. xv. 132, ed. Desh. 301. 

Crouch, 19. t. 15. f. 5 a. 

Kuster, t. 14. f. 7, 8. 
Achatina leucozonias. Sow. Gen. Shells, n. 14. 

Reeve, Conch. Syst. ii. t. 176. f. 3; Conch. Icon. t. 14. f. 52. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 280. n. 103 ; Ic. n. 15. Bui. t. 24. f. 1 1. 

Desh. I. c. 178. n. 41. t. 123. f. 13, 14. 
Polyphemus leucozonias, Jff?i. Cat. 4. 
Glandina leucozonias, Beck, Index, 78. n. 7. 

Morelet, I. c. 38. 
Hab. Martinique. 

4. Oleacina straminea. 

Shell oblong, somewhat fusiform, thin, fragile, ver\' poUshed, 
straw-yellow, pellucid ; spire elongate, convexly conic ; apex 



16 PULMONATA. 

rather pointed ; whorls five, moderately convex, the penultimate 
ones rather broad, the last ovate, a little longer than the spire ; 
aperture elongate, narrow, attenuated posteriorly, dilated ante- 
riorly ; columella short, concave, acuminated above, twisted ; 
peristome sharp, contracted in the middle, dilated forwards. 
Length 37, breadth 13 mill. (Desk.) 

Achatina straminea, Desk, in Fer. Hist. ii. 172. n. 34. t. 123. 
f. 11, 12. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 507- 
Locality unkno\vn. 

5. Oleacina attenuata. 

Shell oblong-fusiforai, slender, thin, smooth, very shining, 
fulvous, marked with darker arcuate streaks ; spire elongate, 
conic ; apex rather blunt ; suture slight, rather simple ; whorls 
seven, rather flat, the last fonning about three-fifths of the total 
length, attenuated in front ; columella somewhat callous, slightly 
arched and twisted, obliquely truncated at its base ; aperture 
very narrow, oblong, acute above, dilated towards the left side 
near the base; peristome simple; right margin sinuate. Length 
31, breadth 11 mill. {Pfr.) 

Achatina attenuata, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Ic. 

n. 43. Bui. t. 26. f. 10, 11 ; Mon. Suppl. 507- 
Hab. Central America. 

6. Oleacina oleacea. B.M. 
Shell subfusiform-oblong, thin, smooth, very shining, greenish- 
horny, pellucid ; spire conic, apex rather acute ; sutm-e somewhat 
margined ; whorls seven to eight, slightly convex, the last a little 
exceeding the spire, somewhat attenuated at the base ; columella 
short, ai-ched, obliquely truncated above the base of the pointed- 
oblong aperture, dilated towards the base; peristome sharp, 
dextral margin dilated midway in front. Lon. 29, lat. 10; ap. 
Ion. 15^, lat. 5 mill. 

Helix oleacea (Cochlicopa), Fer. Pr. 360 et Mus. ! 
Achatina oleacea, Desk, in Enc. Meth. ii. 11. n. 6; in Gu^. 
Mag. 1831, t. 3 ; I. c. 172. n. 33. t. 123. f. 5, 6. 

Lam. ed. Desk, xxiii. 307. 

Orb. Moll. Cub. i. I(i5. t. 10. f. 15, 16. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 280; Ic. n. 79. Bui. t. 38. f. 3, 4. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 14. f. 51. 
Achatina fulgcns, Mus. Berol. olim. 
Poh^)hemus"oleaceus, Pfr. in IViegm. Arch. 1839, i. 352. 



PULMONATA. 17 

Glandina oleacea, Beck, Index, 78. n. 9. 

Pfr. Sy7nb. ii. 136. 

Phil. IconA. 6. 131. t. 1. f. 1. 

Morelet, I. c. 37- 

Alb. 197. 
Hab. Cuba. 

7. Oleacina glabra. 

Shell ovate-conic, thin, glabrous, shining, pale homy, orna- 
mented with nan-o\v, distant, rufous stripes, vanishing at the 
middle of the last whorl ; spire conic, apex obtuse ; suture very 
finely crenulate-margined ; whorls eight, flattened, the last 
scarcely exceeding the spire; columella very obhque, strongly 
arched", truncated at the base of the subtriangular aperture ; peri- 
stome simple, dextral margin regular. Lon. 28, lat. 11 ; ap. Ion. 
14, lat. 5 mill. 

Achatina glabra, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 281 ; Ic. n. 113. Built. 67. 
f. 1, 2. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 14. f. 58. 
Glandina glabra, Pfr. Symb. iii. 90. 

Morelet, I. c. 37. 
Hab. Porto Rico. 

8. Oleacina assimilis. 

Shell ovate-oblong, rather sohd, smooth, pellucid, very shining, 
reddish horn-coloured ; spire convexly conic, rather blunt ; su- 
tiu'e bordered ; whorls five and a half, scarcely convex, the last 
about as long as the spire, slightly attenuated in front ; colu- 
mella slightly twisted, obliquely truncated ; aperture perpencU- 
cular, narrow, rhomboidally-semiovate ; peristome simple, blunt, 
with the right margin slightly sinuate. Length 20, breadth 9 
mill. (Pfr.) 
Achatina assimilis. Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 6"] . t. 15. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 508. 
Locality unknown. 

9. Oleacina obtusa. 

Shell ovate, attenuated each way, apex obtuse, smooth, rather 
solid, pellucid, flesh-coloured ; suture margined, obsoletely cre- 
nulate ; whorls five and a half, very slightly convex, the last a 
little exceeding the spire; columella nearly vertical, abruptly 
truncated; aperture rather wide; peristome simple, margins 
united by a veiy thin callus, dextral scarcely dilated in the 
middle. "Lon. 26, lat. 11 ; ap. lon. \2h, lat. 5^ mill. 



18 PULMONATA. 

Achatina obtusa (Glandina), Pfr. in Phil. Icon. i. 6. 132. 1. 1 . f. 3 ; 
Mon. Helic. ii. 281 ; Ic. n. 80. Bui. t. 38. f. 5, 6. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 15. f. 62. 

Desh. I. c. 173. n. 35. t. 134. f. 3, 4. , 
Glandina obtusa, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 42. 

Alb. 197. 

Morelet, I. c. 37. 
Hah. Real Llejos, Province of Nicaragua, Central America. 

10. Oleacina Lindoni. B.M. 

Shell oblong, attenuated each way, rather solid, smooth, 
shining, pale fulvous, marked with darker, slightly prominent, 
arched lines of growth ; spire conic, rather acute ; suture 
slightly margined ; whorls eight, nearly level, the two last de- 
scending obliquely, the last equalling the spire, gibbous within, 
on the columella; columella short, obliquely truncated at the 
base of the aperture ; aperture very narrow, somewhat channelled 
at the base ; peristome simple, margins united by a callus, the 
dextral arched dilated in front. Lon. 21, lat. 6; ap. Ion. 10^, 
lat. 2 mill. 

Achatina Lindoni (Glandina), Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1846, 
p. 116; Mon. Helic. u. 281. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 25. f. 88. 

Desh. I. c. 174. n. 36. t. 134. f. 5-7. 
Glandina Lindoni, Morelet, Journ. Conch. 1852, p. 37. 
Glandina onychina, Morelet, Test. Noviss. i. 14. n. 25. 
Achatina onychina, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 508, 657- 
Hob. Cuba. 



11. Oleacina delibuta. 

Shell cylindrical, thin, very faintly striated, shining, semi- 
diaphanous, horn-coloured-greenish ; spire conoidal, short, with 
the apex rather blunt ; suture scai-cely impressed, bordered ; 
whorls seven, rather tlat, the last longer than the spire ; colu- 
mella callous, twisted, slightly truncated exteriorly ; aperture 
narrow, dilated in front, ])early v\ithin ; jieristome simple, with 
the outer margin dilated in the middle. Length 2.'3, breadth 10 
mill. {Mor.) 

Glandina delibuta, Morelet, Test. Noviss. ii. 13. n. 108 ; Journ. 

Conch. 1852, 40. 
Achatina delibuta, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 508. 
Hub. Province of Vera Paz, Guatemala. 



pulmonata. 19 

12. Oleacina labida. 

Shell ovate-conic, rather solid, very faintly striated, semiti'ans- 
parent, horn-yellow, marked on the last w horl with several pale 
gi-eenish streaks ; spire conic, short ; suture scarcely impressed, 
bordered ; whorls seven, little convex, the last equalling half the 
total length ; columella callous, twisted, scarcely truncated ; 
aperture narrow, semiovate. Length 22, breadth lOimill. {Mor.) 

Glandina labida, Morelet, Test. Noviss. ii. 13. n. IO7. 
Achatina labida, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 508. 
Hab. Vera Paz, Guatemala. 

13. Oleacina Riisei. 

Shell turreted-oblong, rather solid, smooth, marked with di- 
stant impressed longitudinal lines, shining, irregularly painted 
with rather broad fuscous streaks ; spire elongate, rather blunt ; 
suture neai'ly simjjle ; whorls seven, scarcely convex, the last 
forming not quite two-fifths of the total length, somewhat atte- 
nuated in front; columella slightly arched, abruptly truncated 
above the base of the aperture, which is almost perpendicular, 
sinuately semiovate ; peristome simple, straight, right margin 
slightly sinuate. Length 20, breadth 7 mill. {Pfr.) 

Achatina Riisei, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1852, p. 151 ; Ic. n. 114. Bui. 

t. 67- f. 3, 4 ; Mon. Suppl. 509. 
Hab. Porto Rico {Riise). 

14. Oleacina solidula. 

Shell subfusiform-oblong, rather solid, bright fulvous, sub- 
pellucid ; sy)ire conic, rather obtuse ; suture submarginate ; whorls 
six, scarcely convex, the last less than five-ninths the length ; 
columella strongly and obliquely truncated ; aperture narrow, 
lengthened acuminate ; jieristome simple, obtuse, dextral margin 
arched midway in front. Lon. 13, lat. 4^ ; ap. Ion. (ij, lat. 2mill. 

Pol}'])hemus solidulus, Pfr. in Wiegm. Arch. 1840, i. 252. 
Glandina sohdula, Pfr. Symh. ii. 136 ; Ic. n. 82. Bui t. 38. f. 8-11. 

Reeve, n. 92. t. 18. 

Desk. I. c. 174. n. 37. t. 134. f. 8-11. 

Phil. Icon. i. 6. 131. t. 1. f. 6. 

Alb. 198. 
Achatina solidula, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 282. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 18. f. 92. 
Var. Glandina paragramma, Morelet, Test. Noviss. i. 15. n. 31 
Hab. Cuba. 



20 pulmonata. 

15. Oleacina incerta. 

Shell oblong, transparent horny ; spire somewhat obtuse ; 
whorls six, rather flattened, smooth, shining, faintly margined 
round the upper part ; columella conspicuously truncated ; aper- 
ture oblong, naiTOwed at the upper part. Length 12^ mill. 

[Reeve.) 

Achatina incerta. Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 90. t. 18. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 509. 
Glandina incerta, Morelet in Journ. Conch. 1852, 35. 
Locality unknown. 

Very like 0. solidula, from which it differs in being more ven- 
tricose towards the base. 



16. Oleacina subulata. 

Shell subcylindrical, attenuated each way, smooth, horny-ful- 
vous, pellucid ; spire elongate-conic, rather acute ; whorls six to 
seven, the highest slightly convex, the rest rather level, marked 
with an opake line below the suture, the last less than three- 
sevenths the length ; columella slightly oblique, narrowly trun- 
cated ; aperture oblong ; peristome simple, dextral margin arched 
in front, midway. Lon. 12, lat. 2| ; ap. Ion. 6, lat. 2 mill. 

Polyphemus subulatus, Pfr. in Wiegm. Arch. 1839, 352. 
Glanchna subulata, Pfr. Symb. ii. 136. 

Phil. Icon. i. 6. 132. t. 1. f. 10. 

Alb. 198. 
HelLx orysaca, Rang, teste Orb. 

Achatina orysaca. Orb. Moll. Cub. i. 16?. t. 10. f. 20-25? 
Achatina subulata, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 282; Ic. n. 83. Bui. t. 38. 
f. 12, 13. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 18. f. 89. 
Hab. Cuba. 



17. Oleacina follicularis. 

Shell ovate, thin, smooth, pellucid, fidvous ; spire short, blunt ; 
whorls five, little convex; suture shghtly bordered; columella 
scarcely arched, truncated ; aperture narrow, oblong, forming 
more than half of the total length. Length 12, breadth 5 mill. 
(Mor.) 

Glandina follicularis, Morelet, Test. Noviss. i. 14. n. 26. 
Achatina follicularis, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 510. 
Hab. Isla de Piuos, near Cuba. 



PULMONATA. 



21 



18. Oleacina suturalis. 

Shell ovate, greenish-homy, thin, pellucid, shining ; spire conic, 
rather acute ; suture deep, rufous or blackish ; whorls five and a 
half, convex, the last less than four-sevenths the length ; colu- 
mella nearly straight, white, shghtly truncated obhquely at the 
base of the pointed-oblong aperture; peristome sharp, dextral 
margin sinuous in the middle. Lon. lOi-, lat. 4|; ap. Ion. 6^, 
lat. 2 mill. 

Polyphemus sutm'alis, Pfr. in Wiegm. Arch. 1839, i. 353. 
Glandina suturahs, Pfr. Symb. ii. 136. 

Phil. Icon. i. 6. 132. t. 1. f. 7- 

Kuster, t. 18. f. 22, 23. 

Alb. 198. 
Achatina suturahs, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 285 ; Ic. n. 85. Bui. t. 38. 
f. 16-18. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 20. f. 118. 
Hab. Cuba. 

19. Oleacina Antoniana. 

Shell ovate-conoidal, pellucid, shining, yellowish-grey, mi- 
nutely striated ; whorls five, convex, the last equalling two-fifths 
the length ; suture deep ; aperture oblong-oval ; peristome sharp ; 
columella strongly truncated. Lon. 2i, lat. 1^ lin. 
Achatina hyahna, Anton, Verz. 41. n. 1589 (not Rang). 
Achatina Antoniana, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 285. 
Hab. S. America. 

20. Oleacina crenulata. 

Shell fusiform-ovate, rather sohd, reddish-horny, shining ; 
apex of the spire obtuse ; whorls six and a half, slightly convex, 
the last descending, shoi-tcr than the spire ; suture margined and 
verv minutely crenulate ; apertm-e dilated below; columella 
shghtly arched, strongly truncated ; peristome simple. Lon. 24, 
lat. 11 ; ap. lon. 11 mill. 
Achatina crenulata, {Sow.'?) Ant. Verz. 44. n. 1595. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 285. 
Glandina crenulata, Pfr. Symb. ii. 59. 
Hab. Central America. 

21. Oleacina Ottonis. 

Shell subfusiform, rather sohd, yellowish-homy, shining ; 
whorls six and a half, flattened, gradually increasing, the highest 



22 PULMONATA. 

ornamented with fine, close, longituilinal plaits, scarcely crossing 
the sutiu-e of the last whorl ; sutm-e impressed, elegantly crenu- 
late ; columella arched-truncate ; aperture naiTow ; peristome 
simple, dextral margin enlarged in the middle. Lon. 12, lat. 4 
mill. 

Cochlicopa Ottonis, Pfr. Symb. i. 4/. 
Glandina Ottonis, Pfr. Symb. ii. 136. 

Phil. Icon. i. 6. 132. t. 1. f. 5. 

Alb. 197. 
Achatina Ottonis, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 286 ; Ic. n. 112. Bui. t. 44. 

f. 11-13. 
Glandina semistriata, Morelet, Test. Noviss. i. 16. n. 32. 
Hah. Cuba. 

22. Oleacina sicilis. 

Shell fusiform, much attenuated on both sides, rather solid, 
shining, pale horn-coloured, sculptured with minute plaits, which 
disappear on the last whorl ; spire turreted ; whorls eight, rather 
flattened; sutm-e minutely crenulated; apertm-e very narrow, a 
Uttle longer than the spire ; columella rather short and straight, 
truncated arcuately ; peristome simple, with the margins united 
by a thin callus. Length 16-17, breadth 6 mill. (Mor.) 

Glandina sicilis, Morelet, Test. Noviss. i. 13. n. 24. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 512. 
Hab. Guajaibon Mountains, Cuba. 

23. Oleacixa isabellina. 

Shell fusiform-oblong, thin, shining, under a lens closely striated 
spu-ally, isabelhne, pellucid ; sutm-e bordered with an impressed 
line ; whorls six, slightly convex, the last scarcely shorter than 
the obtuse, conic spire ; columella obhque, nearly straight, shghtly 
trimcated above the base of the elhptic-oblong apeiture ; peri- 
stome simple. Lon. 26, lat. 10 ; ap. lon. 13, lat. 5 mill. 

Achatina isabellina(GlandLna),P/'r. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1846,32; 
Mon. Helic. ii. 286. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 21. f. 95. 

Hab. Mexico. 

24. Oleacina ornata. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, longitudinally closely and regidarly cos- 
tulate, fhaphanous, fulvous-reddish, ornamented with scattered 



PULMONATA. 23 

darker stripes ; spire pp'amiclate, acute ; suture erenulate-mar- 
gined "ith a parallel furrow ; whorls eio:ht, very slightly convex, 
the last scarcely equalling the spire ; columella nearly straight, 
abruptly trimcated ; aperture oblong, attenuated each way, 
pearly within. Lon. 7-, lat. 31; ap. Ion. 37, lat. 14 mill. 

Achatina costulata, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, 75 (not Adams). 
Achatina ornata, Pfr. in Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, 117; Mon. 

Helic. ii. 287. 
Hub. New Granada. 

25. Oleacina truncata. B.M. 

Shell oblong-ovate, solid, very closely plicate- striated longi- 
tudinally, ashy rose-coloured ; spire conic, rather acute ; suture 
subcrenulate-margined ; whorls six, very slightly convex, the last 
less than the spire ; columella shghtly arched, abruptly truncated 
at the base ; aperture oval-oblong, narrowed each way ; peristome 
sharp. Lon. 59, lat. 24 ; ap. lon. 31, lat. 12 mill, 

K'dmmerer, Conch. 128. t. 10. f. 5. 
Bulla truncata, Gmel. 3434. n. 49. 

Dillw. Descr. Cat. i. 493. n. 50. 
Buccinum striatum, Chemn. ix. pt. 2. 36. t. 120. f. 1028, 1029. 
Bulimus striatus, Brug. Enc.Meth. i. 366. n. 113. 
Hehx rosea (Cochlicopa), Fer. Pr. 356; Hist. t. 135. f. 3. 
Achatina rosea. Desk, in Encycl. Meth. ii. 10, n. 3. 
Achatina striata. Lam. ed. Desk. 35. 313. 

Kiister, t. 3. f. 3, 4. 
Achatina truncata, B'Orb. Moll. Cub. i. 163. t. 10. f. 13, 14? 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 287 ; Ic n. 78. Bui. t. 38. f. 21,22. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 13. f. 47. 

Desk. l. c. 179. n. 43. 
Poh'phemus glans. Say in Philad. Journ. i. 282. 
Glandina truncata, Say, Amer. Conch, t. 20 ; ed. Chemn. {Bibl. 
Conch. iii.)28. t. 7. f. 2, 2«. 

Beck, hid. 78. n. 15. 

Alb. 197. 
Hab. Florida. Cuba? {B'Orb.) 

Animal elongate, as long again as the shell, granulated ; tenta- 
cles four, abruptly deflexed at the tips, lower one shorter; hps 
beneath the tentacula elongated, ])alpiform, almost as long as the 
upper tentacles, attenuated, acute at the tip, used to feel the 
way when the animal is in motion. — Say. See anatomy by Dr. 
Wyman, Boston Journ. N. H. iv. 416. 



24 pulmonata. 

26. Oleacina bullata. 

Shell papyraceous, inflated, diaphanous, ellipsoidal, white, 
tinged with rusty-brown, closely striated longitudinally; spire 
forming one-eighth of the total length ; whorls five, moderately 
convex ; suture middle ; aperture forming two-thii-ds of the total 
length, broadly lunate ; columella moderately arched, covered 
with a callous lamina. Length 1^, breadth | inch. (Gould.) 
Glandina bullata, Gould in Proc. Bost. Soc. 1848, iii. 64. 
Achatina bullata, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 512. 
Hab. Louisiana. 

27. Oleacina striata. B.M. 

Shell fusifonn-oblong, solid, finely striated longitudinally, 
brovTiish-white, UTCgularly ornamented with narrow, rufous 
stripes ; spire tm-reted-conic, apex rather obtuse ; suture mar- 
gined, subdenticulate ; whorls seven to eight, shghtly convex, the 
last less than the spu-e, attenuated at the base ; columella scarcely 
arched, abruptly truncated at the base ; aperture elliptic-oval ; 
peristome straight, sharp. Lon. bCi, lat. 20 ; ap. Ion. 29, lat. 10 
mill. 

Buccinum striatum. Mull. Verm. ii. 149. n. 339. 

Chemn. ix. t. 120. f. 1030. 
Helix tenera, Gmel. 3653. n. 121. 
Helix incumbens, Dillw. Descr. Cat. ii. 955. n. 154. 
HeUx Miilleri (Cochhcopa), Fer. Pr. 357- 

Orb. Synops. 9. 
Achatina striata, Gray in Ann. Phil, new ser. ix. 414. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 287. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 6. f. 19. 
Achatina Miilleri, Gray, Griff. Anirn. Kingd. t. 27- f. 5. 

ham. ed. Desh. 33. 312. 

Kuster, t. 3. f. 9. 

Guerin, Iconogr. Moll. t. 6. f. 14? 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 8. f. 25. 
Achatina dactylus, Brod. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, 32. 

Mull. Sy7wps. 31. 

Reeve, Conch. Syst. ii. t. 179. f. 16. 
Bulimus Miilleri, D'Orb. Voy. 256. 
Glandina striata. Beck, Ind. 77- "■ 2. 

Alb. 197. 
Hab. S. America; Cayenne {Fer.); Bolivia [D'Orb.); Island of 
Tumaco [Cuming, Brod.). 



pulmonata. 25 

28. Oleacina Marminii. 

Shell ovate-oblong, subfusiform, thin, pellucid, white, apex 
obtuse, lougitu(Unally plaited; aperture longer than the spire; 
sutui-e elegantly crenated. Lon. 53, lat. 21 mill. 

Achatina Marminii, Desk, in Encycl. Meth. ii. 11. n. 5; in Gu^r. 
Mag. 1831, t. 19. 

Kiister, t. 3. f. 2 (fig. Guer.). 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 288. 
Glandina Marminii, Beck, Ind. JS. n. 16. 

Alb. 197. 
Hab. ? 

29. Oleacina turris. 

Shell oblong-tun-eted, closely and lightly costulate-striate, rather 
thin, diaphanous, flesh-coloured ; suture margined ; whorls seven, 
very slightly convex, the last less than three-sevenths the length ; 
columella vertical, not reaching the base, abruptly truncated ; 
aperture semioval, subdilated below. Lon. 43, lat. 15; ap. lon. 
19, lat. 8 mill. 

Achatina turris (Glandina), Pfr. Symb. iii. 91 ; Mon. Helic. ii. 288. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 13. f. 45. 

Desk. I. c. I8(i. n. 51. t. 134. f. 1, 2. 
Hab. ? 

30. Oleacina Candida. 

Shell fusiform, acuminate, rather thin, slightly shining, sculp- 
tured with indistinct distant plaits, white ; spire conic, acuminate, 
with the apex blunt ; ^vhorls six, enlarging gradually, moderatelv 
convex, the last as long as the spire ; suture bordered and slightly 
crenulated ; columella arched, abruptly truncated at its base ; 
aperture acuminately semioval; peristome simple, sharp, straight. 
Length 24, breadth 9 mill. (Sh.) 

Achatina canthda (Polyphemus), Shuttleworth in Bern. Mittheil. 
1852, 202. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 512. 
Hab. Mexico {Sandoz, Nicolet). 

31. Oleacina dominicensis. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, thin, finely and very closely costulate- 
striate, shiniu?, rufesceut-rosy, ornamented with broad, distant, 
chestnut stripes ; spire conoidal, obtuse ; whorls seven, slightlv 
convex, the last scarcely shorter than the spire, s])otted with in- 
terrupted stripes towards the base; columella slightly archtu, 
obliquely truncated at the base of the semioval aperture ; peri- 

c 



26 



PULMONATA. 



i stome simple, dextral margin dilated angularly below the middle 

Lon. 34, lat. 12; ap. Ion. 18, lat. 6J- mill. 

f Bulla tmrita at maculata, Chemn. ix. pt. 2. 1/. t. 117. f. 1011. 

1 Bulla dominicensis, G7nel. 343'3. n. 41. 

( Dillw. Cat. i. 487. n. .35. 

1 Helix domiuicensis (Coclilicopa), Fer. Pr. 364. 

1 Bulimus maculatus, Brug. Enc. MeVi. i. 365. n. 112. 

^ Achatina fusco-lineata, Lam. 16. 133, ed. Desk. 302. 

Kiister, t. 7. f. 12. 
Achatina domiuicensis, Desk, in Lam. 302. 
Anton, Verz. 44. n. 1593. 
Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 289. 
; Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 14. f. 56. 

Polyphemus Bruguiereus, Bou-d. Elem. t. 12. f. 11. 
Glandina maculata, Beck, Ind. 77. n. 3. 
Glandina domiuicensis, Pfr. Symb. ii. 135. 

Alb. 198. 
Hab. Haiti. 

32. Oleacina semisulcata. 

Shell elongate, subturreted, apex obtuse, fulvous, marked with 
distant brown flamelets, regularly striated, smooth at the base : 
aperture very small, subtriangular ; columella much contorted 
Lon. 37 mill. 

Achatina semisulcata. Desk, in Enc. Meth. ii. 11. n. 7 ; »« Fer. ii, 
186. u. 52. t. 123. f. 7, 8. 
Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 290. 
Achatina domiuicensis, var. ?, De.th. in Lam. 302. 
Glandina semisulcata, Beck, Ind. 77- n- 4. 
Hab. ? 

33. Oleacina procera. 

Shell fusiformly turreted, rather thin, sculptured longitudinalh 
and crowdedly with fold-like ribs, silk-shining, diajdianous 
whitish, irregularly marked with broad chestnut streaks, whicl 
are interrupted on the middle of the last whorl ; spire elongate 
with the apex rather jioiuted ; suture dee]) ; whorls ten, convex 
the last forming two-fifths of the total length, slightly impresset; 
at its middle ])art ; columella obliquely twisted, produced to th<| 
channeled base of the a])erture, which is sinuately semiovate J 
peristome rather simple, with the right margin flexuous, angu 
, larly ])roduced in the middle. Length 30, breadth 9^ mill. (Pfr. 

Achatina procera, Adams, Contrib. to Conch, n. 2. p. 24. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 513. 
Hab. Jamaica. 



Si 



pulmonata. 27 

34. Oleacixa moxilifera. 

Shell fusiform-ovate, thin, pellucid, regularly eostulate-striate, 
ribs vanishing on the middle of the penultimate whorl, fulvous- 
rosy, ornamented with remote, rufous, ])ale-margined lines ; sjjire 
short, conic ; suture elegantly and closely granulose ; whorls 
seven, nearly level, the last less than three-fifths the length, ven- 
tricose ; columella scarcely arched, abruptly truncated at the 
base; aperture narrow, semioval. Lon. 29, lat. 14 i ; aj^. Ion. 19, 
lat. 6i mill. 

Achatina monilifera (Glandina), Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, 75 ; 
Mon. Helic. ii. 290. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 14. f. 50. 
Hab. Central America ; Coban, near Vera Cruz. 

35. Oleacixa rubella. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, pellucid, thin, sculptured with rib-like 
striic, redchsh honi-coloiu-ed, irregularly marked with distant 
brown lines ; spire conic, verj' variable in length ; suture verj" 
minutely granulose ; v\horls seven to eight, moderately convex, 
last venti-icose ; columella almost rectilinear, sometimes twisted, 
abruptly truncated ; aperture narrow ; ])eristome sharp, \Aith the 
outer margin slightly dilated in the middle, bordered with brown 
extemallv, united with the columellar one by a thin callus. 
Length 28-32, breadth 14 mill. (Mor.) 

Glandina rubella, Morelet, Test. Noviss. i. 14. n. 27. 
Achatina rubella, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 513. 
Hab. Vera Paz, Central America. 

This may be a variety of 0. monilifera, Pfr. 

36. Oleacixa stigmatica. 

1 Shell fusiformly ovate, thin, striated indistinctly and minutely, 
shining, homy, marked with distant, rather broad, brownish 
chestnut-coloured streaks ; spire conic, blunt ; whorls seven, 
moderately convex, the last forming three-fifths of the total 
[length ; suture bordered very narrowly and crenulatcd minutely ; 
icolumella scarcely arched, abruptly truncated at its base ; aper- 
ture semiovate ; peristome shrup, right margin rather flexuous, 
with the edge fuscous. Length 14, breadth 5 mill. {Sh.) 

'Achatina stigmatica (Polvphemus), Shuttleworth in Bern. Mit- 
\ theil. 1852, 202. 
' Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 514. 
lab. Cordova, Vera Cruz {Jacot-Guillarmod). 

c2 



28 PULMONATA. 

37. Oleacina DELICATULA. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, tliiu, diaphanous, closely folded and fur- 
rowed, very shining, flesh-coloured-horny, marked with distant 
iiaiTOW reddish-brown streaks, which are bordered w ith w hitish ; 
spire raised, conic, ])lunt ; whorls eight, convex, the last forming 
three-fifths of the total length ; suture impressedly bordered, 
crenulated ; columella arched, abruptly truncated at its base ; 
aperture semiovate, somewhat dilated in front ; peristome sharp, 
straight, with the edge pale. Length 17, breadth 8 mill. {Sh.) 

Achatina delicatula (Polj'phemus), Shuttleworth in Bern. Mittheil. 
1852, 202. 
Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 514. 
Hah. Vera Cruz. 

38. Oleacina Griffithsii. B.M. 

Shell fusiform -tun-eted, longitudinally closely costulate-stiiated, 
homy straw-coloured, ornamented with scattered rufous stripes ; 
spire elongate, turreted, apex rather acute ; whorls ten, very 
slightly convex, the last scarcely equalling two-fifths the length, 
impressed in the middle, rather gibbous at the base ; columella 
obliquely twisted, obliquely truncated at the base of the aper- 
tiu'e ; aperture irregular, sinuous-oblong ; peristome somewhat 
thickened within, white, dextral margin angulai-ly dilated in the 
middle. Lon. 22, lat. 6^ ; ap. Ion. 9, lat. 3J-. 

Achatina Griffithsii, Adams in Proc. Bost. Soc. 1845, 14. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 290; Ic. n. 54. Bui. t. 27. f. 4, 5. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 15. f. 64. 

Alb. 195 (Melia). 
Bulimus Griffithii, Adams in sched. olim. 
Glandina Griffithii, Pfr. in Zeitschr.f Malak. 1845, 158. 

3Iorelet in Journ. Conch. 1852, 39. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

39. Oleacina ligata. 

Shell turreted, somewhat fusiform, thin, closely sculptm-ed with 
longitudinal hair-like stria;, silk-shining, jiale fulvous, irregularly 
marked ^^ith narrow, distant, reddish-brown streaks ; sjiire tiu-- 
reted ; apex rather ])ointed ; suture impressed ; whorls eight, 
scarcely convex, the last forming three-fifths of the total length, 
varicose, furrowed and constricted in the middle ; columella 
short, almost rectilinear, truncated oljliquely ; a])erture in-egular, 
rather triangulai- ; peristome slightly expanded, with the con- 



PULMONATA. 2y 

stricted part thickened internally, and with the lower ]iart retreat- 
ing somewhat angularly. Length 17, breadth 5^ mill. {Pfr.) 

Achatina ligata, Adams, Contr. to Conch, n. 2. p. 25. 

Pfr. Mon. Supjjl. 514. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

40. Oleacina jamaicensis. 

Shell fusiform-turreted, closely and vertically ril)bed, shining, 
wliitish, oi-namented with a few rufous stripes ; sj)ire turreted, 
rather acute ; suture crenulate, submarginate ; whorls ten, nearh 
level, the last less than one-third the length, manv-varicose. 
nearly smooth below the middle, attenuated ; columella nearl}- 
straight, obliquely truncated at the base ; apertm-e narrow, 
semioval. Lon. 22, lat. 7 ; ap. Ion. 7, lat. 3 mill. 

Achatina jaraaicensis (Glandina), Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, 
1^7; Mon. Helic.u.29l. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 15. f. 61. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

41. Oleacina Philippiana. B.M. 

Shell ovate-subfusiform, thin, shining, very closely costulate, 
lutescent-greyish, ornamented with broad, deciurent, deep chest- 
nut stripes ; spire conoidal, rather obtuse ; whorls eight, the 
lower rather tumid below the suture, the last equalling four- 
ninths the length ; columella slightly arched, obliquely truncated ; 
aperture oblong-oval, concolorous within ; peristome simj)lc, 
broadly chestnut-margined. Lon. 22, lat. 9; ap. lon. lOi, lat. 4 
mill. 

Achatina (Glandina) Philippiana, Pfr. Synib. iii. 90 ; Mon. Helic. 
ii. 291. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 14. f. 49. 

^. With the ribs more subtle and the streaks narrower. 
Achatina elegans, Adams, I. c. 25. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

42. Oleacina tortillana. 

Shell subfusiform-ovate, rather solid, regularly sculjiturcd with 
close longitudinal strisR, shining, i)ellucid, jiale horny, irrcgularlv 
marked with opake lutescent spots iind stri])es ; suture subm;u'- 
ginate ; whorls seven and a half, slightly convex, the last scarcely 
exceeding the obtuse conic spire ; columella strongly arched, 
abruptly truncated above the base of the elli])tic-oblong aperture; 



30 PULMONATA. 

peristome simple, obtuse, dextral margin subdilated in the middle. 
Lon. 20, lat. 8 ; ap. Ion. 10, lat 3f mill. 

Achatina (Glan(Una) Tortillana, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1846, 32; 
Mon. Helic. u. 291. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 15. f. 66. 
Hab. Tortilla, Central America. 

43. Oleacina yucatanensis. 

Shell ovate-oblong, rather solid, longituchnally closely plicatu- 
late, fiilvesccnt -hyaline ; spire elongate-conic, apex obtuse ; suture 
smooth, marginate, denticulate ; whorls six, convex, the last less 
than four-ninths the length ; columella slightly arched, abruptly 
truncated near the base of the apeitm-e ; ajierture subrhombic 
oval, pointed above ; peristome simple. Lon. 23, lat. 9^ ; ap. 
lon. 11, lat. 4i mill. 

Achatina (Glandina) yucatanensis, Pfr. Symb. iii. 92; Mon. Helic. 

ii. 291. 
Hab. Yucatan. 

44. Oleacina venusta. B.M. 

Shell ovate-tun-eted, thin, closely longitiulinally sti-iated, pel- 
lucid, rosy, ornamented with narrow whitish and brown longitu- 
dinal sti'ipes (the brown vanishing from the middle of the last 
whorl) ; spire turreted, rather acute ; suture margined ; whorls 
seven, nearly level, the last shorter than the spire ; columella 
nearly vertical, twisted, obliquely truncated at the base of the 
elliptic-oblong aperture ; peristome simple, sometimes white- 
margined. Lon. 18, lat. 7 ; ap. lon. 8, lat. 3 mill. 

Cochlicopa venusta. Pfr. Symb. i. 46. 
Glandina venusta, Phil. Icon. i. 6. 133. t. 1. f. 9. 
Achatina venusta, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 291 ; Ic. n. 87. Bui. t. 38. 
f. 23, 24. 

Reeve. Conch. Icon. t. 15. f. 63. 
Achatina (j\Ielia) venusta, Alb. 195. 
Hab. Jamaica ; var. Demerara. 

45. Oleacina nemorensis. 

Shell oblong, rather fusiform, thin, closely and longitudinally 
striated, silk-shining, pellucid, fulvous rose-coloured, irregidarly 
marked with narrow, slightly arcuate chestnut streaks ; spire tur- 
reted ; apex rather blunt ; suture imjiressed, slightly bordered ; 
whorls seven, scarcclv convex, the last forming a little more than 
two-fifths of the total length ; columella perpenchcular, straight, 
obliquely and narrowly tiuncated at its base ; aperture narrow. 



PULMONATA. 31 

rather semiovate ; peristome simple, sharp, right margin gradually 
retreating below the middle. Length 20, breadth (i mill. [Ffr.) 

Achatina nemorensis, Adams, Contr. to Conck.n. 2. p. 25. 
Pfr. Ic. n. 86. Bui. t. 38. f. 19, 20 ; Mon. Suppl. 515. 
Hob. Jamaica. 

46. Oleacina similis. 

Shell similar to 0. nemorensis, hut the outlines of the spire are 
nearly rectilinear, and consequently the sjiire is more slender ; 
the surface is highly pohshed and has but a few excessively fine 
transverse stria; ; the brown stripes are wider. It also resembles 
O. Phillipsii, but its spire is shorter, with a greater divergence. 
Length 075, breadth 023 inch. [Ad.) 
Achatina similis, Adams, Contr. to Conch, n. 7- p- 103. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 515. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

47. Oleacina nitida. 

Shell elongated, ovate-fusiform, reddish-brown, with very dark 
brown transverse stripes, about four or five on each whorl ; 
varicose coincidently with the brov\'n stripes, the varices being 
inihcated by the thickening of the shell within, and a deeply im- 
pressed line in front of each; well-pohshed and shining ; apex 
subacute ; spire with the outlines rectilinear, or moderately con- 
vex, with a well-impressed suture; aperture long ovate, very 
acute above ; labrum sharp, subangular at two-thirds of the di- 
stance from its up])er extremity ; columella much curved, broadly 
truncated. Length 096, greatest breadth 0-31, least breadth 
0"3 inch. (Adams.) 

Achatina nitida, Adams, Contrih. to Conch, n. 7- p- 103. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 515. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

48. Oleacina Tngallsiana. 

Shell fusiform, pale bro^vnish, with but four or five dark brown 
transverse stripes, vnth very minute rather numerous but not 
crowded transverse stria; ; spire with moderately convex outlines ; 
apex rather small ; whorls seven, moderately convex, with a 
well-impressed finely corded suture ; aperture very long, rather 
narrow ; hp thin, with the edge sharp and cm-ved forwards ; 
columella moderately produced and arcuate. Length 075, 
breadth 0-25 inch. (Adams.) 

Achatina Ingallsiana, Adams, Contrib. to Conch, n. 2. p. 25. 

Pfr. Mon. Sujjpl. 516. 
Hab. Jamaica. 



32 pulmonata. 

49. Oleacina unicolor. 

Species similar to the preceding, but the shell is uniformly 
light brown, without any (lark stripes ; the striae are rather more 
strongly impressed ; the columella is not arcuate, and the form 
is rather more slender. Length 0'7, breadth 0-:21 inch. {Adams.) 

.\chatina unicolor, Adams, Contrib. to Conch, n. 2. p. 26. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 51C. 
Hah. Jamaica. 

50. Oleacina angiostoma. 

Shell fusiform, pale reddish, with transverse rather narrow 
dark brown stripes, of which there are about four on each whorl, 
except on the first three ; with extremely fine crowded transverse 
striae ; spire with moderately convex outlines ; apex rather small ; 
whorls seven, moderately convex, with a well-im])ressed suture ; 
aperture very long and narrow ; labrum very thin and sharp ; 
columella produced to an extraordinary degree, straight, a little 
twisted. Length 072, breadth 022 inch. {Adams.) 

Achatina angiostoma, Adams, Contrib. to Conch, n. 2. p. 25. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 516. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

51. Oleacina nana. 

Shell ovate, rather thin, sculptured with regular and crowded 
slight ribs and furrows, fuscous, with a pale band along the su- 
ture ; spire conic, rather jjointed ; whorls six, moderately convex, 
the last about twice as long as the spire ; columella strongly 
arched, abru])tly truncated at its base ; aperture semiovate ; peri- 
stome straight, sharp. Length 13, breadth 6 mill. {Sh.) 

Achatina nana (Polyphemus), Shuttleworth in Bern. Mittheil. 
1852, 202. 
Pfr. Mon. Supj)l. 516. 
Hab. Cordova, Vera Cruz (Jacot-Guillarmod). 

52. Oleacina fusiformis. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, thin, longitudinally closely costulate, mi- 
nutely reticulated with transverse lines, fulvous, with darker 
strij)es ; spire conic, rather acute, apex redchsh ; suture margined ; 
whorls seven to eight, slightly convex, the last a little exceeding 
the spire, attenuated at the base ; columella slightly arched, 
abru])tly truncated, reddish ; aperture narrow, oblong ; jiei-istome 
.simple, bent back, margin rubicund. Lon. 87. lat. 35 ; ap. Ion. 
50, lat. 16 mill. 



PULMONATA. 33 

Achatina fusiformis, Pfr. in Proc. Zonl. Soc. 1845, 75; Mon. 
Helic. ii. 2[)2. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 9. f. 31. 

Desk. I. c. 181. n. 45. t. U7. f. 1-3. 
Hab. Mt. Coban, near Vera Cruz, Central America. 

53. Oleacina Sowerbyana. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, rather thin, diaphanous, closely plicated 
longitudinally, miequally decussate-granulated b}' distant spiral 
striae, fulvous-reddish, ornamented with remote brown stripes ; 
spire conic, apex acute ; suture white-margined, crenulated ; 
whorls seven and a half, nearly level, the last less than five- 
ninths the length ; columella arched, abruptly truncated at the 
base ; aperture pointed-oblong ; peristome simple, margins united 
by a thin callus, dextral bent back. Lon. 88, lat. 38 ; ap. Ion. 52, 
lat. 20niill. 

Achatina Sowerbyana (Glantlina), Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 184(), 
32 ; Mon. Helic. ii. 293. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 8. f. 2G. 
Glandina, Alb. 198. 
Hab. Totontepec, Mexico. 

Var. 1. Elongate. 

Achatina Ugnaria, Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 8. f. 27. 

Hab. ? (Mus. Dennison.) 

54. Oleacina aurata. 

Shell oblong-fusiform, solid, opake, violaceous, covered with a 
deciduous, silk-shining, brownish-yellow periostraca, granularly 
decussated, yellowish near the aperture, pearly within ; suture 
bordered, whitish, denticulate, irregular ; whorls six, moderately 
convex, the last a little shorter than the s})ire, attenuated in front ; 
columella arched, truncated oljliquely ; apertm-e elliptical ; peri- 
stome straight, sharp, with the margins thickened. Length 87, 
breadth 35 mill. (Mor.) 

GlancUna aurata, Morelet, Test. Noviss. i. 12. n. 20. 

Achatina aurata, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 5\7. 

Hub. Woods in the province of Vera Paz, Guatemala. 

55. Oleacina coroxata. 

Shell ovate-oblong, rather thin, subdiaphanous, longitudinally 
closely plicated, irregidarly decussated with distant, impressed, 
s[)iral lines, vanishing below the middle of the last whorl, flesh- 
colourc<l, ornamented with brownish spots, with some fainter in 

c5 



34 PULMON'ATA. 

front ; spire conic, rather acute ; suture crowned with strong 
distant teeth ; whorls seven, very sUghtly convex, the last less 
than iive-ninths the length ; columella strongly arched, abruptly 
truncated at the base ; apeitiu-e obloug, semioval. Lon. 88, lat. 
35 ; ap. Ion. 52, lat. 20 mill. 

Achatina coronata, Pfr. in Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, 158; Mon. 

Helic. ii. 2915; Ic. n. 77- Bui. t. 38. f. 1, 2. 
Glandina, Alb. 198. 
Hub. Mexico. 

56. Oleacina lignaria. 

Shell oblong-cylindrical, light brown bay, somewhat obscurely 
and irregularl}" marked with streaks of a ilarker colour ; whorls 
eight, scul])tm'ed throughout with oblong granules, rudely cre- 
nulated at the sutm-es ; columella abrujjtly truncated ; aperture 
rather small. Length 94, breadth 32 mill. (Reeve.) 

Achatina lignaria. Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 27. t. 8. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 517. 
Locality unknown. 

57. Oleacina Liebmanni. 

Shell subfusifonn-oblong, solid, longitudinally pUcated, the 
interstices obsoletely decussated with close spiral lines, whitish ; 
spire conic, rather obtuse ; suture elegantly crenulate ; whorls 
eight, slightly convex, the last less than the spire ; columella 
straightish, subvertical, abruptly truncated above the base of the 
narrow semioval aperture. Lon. 67, lat. 26 ; ap. lon. 'ib, lat. 12 
mill. 

Achatina Liebmanni, Pfr. in Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, 159; Mon. 

Helic. ii. 293 ; Ic. n. 5. Bui. t. 23. f. 4, 5. 
Achatiua striata. Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 19. t. 6. 
Glandina Liebmanni, Alb. 198. 
Hab. Mexico. 

58. Oleacina plicatula. 

Shell oblong-fusiform, thin, sculptured mth crowded faint 
longituihnal folds, obsoletely decussated with spiral stria;, dia- 
phanous, little shining, brownish desh-coloured ; spire elongate 
conic, with the apex blunt ; sutm-e bordered and minutely cre- 
uulated ; whorls seven, scai'cely convex, the last as long as the 
spire, a little more convex, attenuated in front ; columella callous, 
scarcely arched, abruptly truncated at the base of the aperture, 



PULMOXATA. 36 

which is semiovate and very shining within ; peristome simple, 
thin. Length GO, breadth 25 mill. {Pfr.) 

Achatina plicatula, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Ic. 

n. 3S. Bid. t. 26. f. 2; Mon. Suppl. 517. 
Hab. Andes, New Granada. 

59. Oleacina conspersa. 

Shell oblong, somewhat fusiform, rather thin, striated longi- 
tudinally and decussated with transverse strise, which are more 
obsolete towards the base, shining, fuscous, couspersed with 
whitish spots ; spire elongate conic, with the apex rather blunt ; 
suture crenated with strong whitish teeth ; whorls six, scarcely 
convex, the last a little shorter than the spire, slightly attenuated 
in front ; columella nearly rectilinear, broadly and abru]itly trun- 
cated above the base of the aperture, which is almost ])erpen- 
dicular, sinuately semiovate ; peristome simple, sharp. Leiiifth 

60, breadth 23 mill. {Pfr.) 

Achatina conspersa, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Man. 

Suppl. 518. 
Locahty unknown. 

60. Oleacina fulminea. 

Shell tuiTeted, very finely decussated, ornamented with ob- 
long-quadrate spots and angular wavy stripes of violet-red, alter- 
nately separate, on a whitish ground ; suture crisped ; spire, apex 
obtuse; whorls eight to nine, slightly convex, the last a little 
exceeding one-third the length ; columella slightly arched, ob- 
Uquely truncated at the base of the aperture ; aperture narrow, 
oval-oblong. Lon. 64, lat. 19 ; ap. Ion. 25, lat. 10. 

Helix fulminea (Cochlicopa), Fer. Pr. 366. 
Achatina fulminea, ham. xvii. 133, ed. Desk. 303. 

Deless. Recueil, t. 28. f. 6. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 293. 
Glandina fulminea, Beck, Index, 77. n. 1. 
Hab. ? 

61. Oleacina rosea. B.M. 

Shell ovate, attenuated each way, diaphanous, uniformly ful- 
vous-rosy, closely striated and granulated between the stria; ; spire 
conic, rather obtuse ; suture margined and denticulate ; whorls 
six and a half, slightly convex, the highest glabrous, the last ex- 
ceeding the spire ; columella nearly straight, rather callous, ab- 
ruptly truncated ; aperture elliptic-oblong, pointed above. Lon. 
60, lat. 24; ap. lon. 32, lat. 12 mill. 



36 PULMONATA. 

Helix rosea (Cochlicopa), Fer. Pr. 356; Hist. t. 1.36. f. 8, 9. 
Achatina rosea, Gray in Ann. Phil, new ser. ix. 414. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 294 ; Ic. n. 55. Bui. t. 27. f. 6, 7. 

DesA. i« Fer. 180. ii. 44. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon t. 13. f. 46. 
Glandina rosea, Pfr. in Phil. Icon. i. 6. 133. t. 1. f. 2. 
Glandina Cummgii, Beck, Index, 78. n. 13. 

Alb. 198. 
Ha6. Central America ; y. Honduras. 

62. Oleacina Petiti. 

Shell ovate-oblong, rather solid, jjale straw-yellow, sculptured 
with very crowded longitudinal fold-like striic and ^^ith very 
minute transverse stripe ; spire conic, blunt ; whorls six, moderately 
convex, last ovate, longer than the spire ; suture bordered antl 
crenulate ; aperture ovate-oblong, narrow, acuminated posteriorly; 
columella cylindrical, arched, abruptly truncated at its base ; 
peristome simple, blunt. Length 40, breadth 19 mill. {Desh.) 

Achatina Petiti, Desh. in Fer. Hist. ii. p. 175. n. 38. t. 122. 
f. 12-14. 

Pfr. Mon. Snppl. 518. 
Glandina Petiti, Morelet in Journ. Conch. 1852, i. 37. 42. 1. 1. f. 5. 
Hub. A^icinity of Lake Nicaragua, Central America. 

()3. Oleacina Vanuxemensis. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, thin, pellucid, fulvous-rosy, whitish 
spotted, decussated with longitudinal and transverse striae from 
the a])ex to the middle of the last \\\\ov\ ; suture crenulate, ])a- 
pillate; spire conic, rather acute; whorls six, slightly convex, 
the last equalling three-tifths the length ; columella arched, ab- 
ruptly truncated ; apertm-e oval-oblong. Lon. 53, lat. 24 ; ap. 
Ion. 34, lat. 12 mill. 
Achatina Vanuxemensis, Lea, Ohs. i. 196. t. 19. f. 73 (Glandina). 

Pfr. Symb. iii. 91 ; Mon. Helic. ii. 294. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 13. f. 48. 
Glandina, J/6. 198. 
Hub. Mexico. 

64. Oleacina Carminensis. 

Sliell oblong-fusiform, solid, longitudinally and crowdedly 
folded, obsoletely decussated between the folds, whitish or red- 
dish-fuscous ; s{)ire elongate conic, ^Aith the apex rather blunt ; 
suture granulaily bordered ; whorls seven, convex, the last about 
as long as the spire ; columella callous, straight, truncated ; 



PULMOXATA. 37 

aperture ovate ; peristome simple, with the margins joined by a 
thin caUus. Length 49, breadth 20 mill. (Mor.) 

Glandina Carminensis, Morelet, Test. Noviss.i. 14. n. 28; Journ. 

Conch. 1851, i. 42. t. 1. f. 1-4 (animal). 
Achatina rosea, var.. Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 13. f. 46(5. 
Achatina Canninensis, Desh. in Fe'r. Hist. ii. 182. n. 46. t. 13/. 

f. 11-13. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 518. 
Hab. Isle of Carmen, Yucatan. 

65. Oleacixa decussata. 

Shell oblong-ovate, somewhat fusiform, solid, attenuated on 
both sides, decussated with very crowded longitudinal striae and 
smaller transverse lines ; reddish-fulvous ; spire conic, with the 
apex blunt ; whorls seven, rather flat, the penultimate one 
broader, the last ovate, attenuated in front ; suture bordered and 
crenulated ; apeiture elongate, narrow, attenuated at each ex- 
tremity ; peristome simple, sharp ; columella narrow, cylindrical, 
twisted at its fold-shaped base. Length 45, breadth 18 mill. 
{Desh.) 

Achatina decussata, Desh. in Fer. Hist. ii. 182. n. 47. t. 123. 
f. 3, 4 ; t. 134. f. 33-35. 
Pfr. Mon. ii. 519. 
Locality unknown. 

66. Oleacina Daudebarti. 

Shell oblong, rather turreted, thin, glassy, pale fulvous, de- 
cussated with slight rib-like striie and minute transverse striae, 
attenuated at both extremities ; suture bordered, crenate ; spire 
elongate, with the apex blunt ; whorls six and a half, enlarging 
gradually, the first ones smooth, the last as long as the spire, 
ovate, rather obtuse in front ; a])erture narrowly ovate, attenuated 
posteriorly, dilated in the middle and in front ; columella naiTOw, 
twisted, cvlindrical, scarcely concave, truncated obliquelv. Length 
62, breadth ■22 mill. {Desh.) 

HeUx rosea var. elongata, Fer. Hist. t. 135. f. 1,2. 
Achatina Daudebarti, Desh. in Fer. ii. 183. n. 18. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 519. 
Achatina Audebarti, Desh. ib. in hid. 19. 
Hab. Central America. 

67. Oleacina peruviana. 

Shell cylindrical-fusiform, thin, pellucid, longitudinally very 
elegantly striated, slightly decussated with transverse striae, white, 



38 PULMONATA. 

variegated with reddish-brown flamelets and hnelets; suture 
shghtly channeled ; whorls nine, nearly level, the last exceeding 
the spire, furnished with incumbent ribs ; columella rather arched, 
truncated at the base, transversely lamellose ; aperture narrow, 
oblong ; peristome simple. Lon. 48, lat. 18 ; ap. Ion. 25, lat. 8 
mill. 

Achatina peruviana. Lam. xiv. 132, ed. Desk. 301. 

Desk. Encijcl. Meth. ii. 10. n. 4 ; Hist. Moll. 185. n. 50. 

Deless. Recueil, t. 28. f. 5. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 294. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 14. f. 57. 
Hehx pretiosa (Cochlicopa), Fer. Pr. 362 bis; Hist. t. 135. f. 4. 
Glandina peruviana. Beck, Index, 78. n. 8. 
Hub. Peru. 

68. Oleacina Largillierti. 

Shell oblong-attenuated, thin, very finely and closely longitu- 
dinally ])licatulate,obsoletely decussated Avith impressed concentric 
lines, pellucid, fulvescent-hyaUne ; spire elongated, obtuse ; su- 
ture smooth, denticulated ; whorls seven, slightly convex, the 
last scarcely exceetling two-fifths the length ; columella arched, 
slightly truncated above the base of the apertm'e ; aperture 
pointed-oval, rounded at the base ; peristome simple. Lon. 28, 
lat. 10 ; ap. lon. 12, lat. 5 mill. 

Achatina LargiUierti (Glandina), Pfr. Symb. iii. 90 ; 3Ion. Helic. 

ii. 295. 
Hab. Yucatan. 

69. Oleacina carnea. 

Shell ovate-oblong, rather solid, minutely decussated with 
spiral and longitudinal striiie, which become indistinct below the 
middle of the last whorl, diaphanous, silk-shining, flesh-coloured ; 
spire gradually tapering, with the ajiex blunt ; suture denticulated 
elegantly and crowdedly ; whorls six, moderately convex, the 
last scarcely shorter than the spire, shghtly attenuated in front ; 
columella slightly arched, abruptly truncated ; aperture perpen- 
dicular, semiovate, rather rlumiboidal ; peristome simple, straight, 
blunt. Length 27, breadth 11 mill. {Pfr.) 

Achatina carnea, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Ic. n. 36. 

Bui. t. 25. f. 28-30; Mon. Suppl. 519. 
Glandina cvlindracea, Phillips in Proc. Acad. Philad. 1848, iii. 67, 

t. l.f. 33? 
Hab. Central America. 



pulmonata. 39 

70. Oleacina Gayana. 

Shell turreted, rather fusiform, thin, sculptured with very mi- 
nute longitudinal plaits, pellucid, reddish-yellow ; spire turreted, 
rather pointed ; w horls seven, moderately convex, marked with 
verv short (Ustant redilish-brown streaks near the suture, which 
is simple ; last whorl forming less than two-fifths of the total 
length, somewhat attenuated in front ; columella slightly folded, 
receding, shortly and obliquely truncated ; ai)ertiu-e nearly per- 
pendicular, narrow, oblong ; peristome simple, with the right 
margin rather rectilinear, arcuatelv dilated forwards. Length 21, 
breadth 7 mill. (Pfr.) 

Achatina Gavana, Adams, Contr. to Conch, n. 1 . p. 103. 

Pfr. Moil. Suppl.4^\. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

71. Oleacina portoricensis. 

Shell turreted-oblong, smooth, irregularly sculptured with im- 
pressed longitudinal lines, shining, ornamented with darker 
stripes ; sjnre elongate, rather obtuse ; whorls eight, nearly level, 
the last a little exceeding one-third the length ; columella arched 
in front, abruptly truncated near the base of the ajierture ; aper- 
ture elliptic-semioval ; peristome simple. Lon. 20, lat. 7 ; ap. 
Ion. 8, lat. 3^ mill. 

Achatina portoricensis, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848 ; Man. 
Helic. ii. 258. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 18. f. 93. 
Hab. St. John's, Porto Rico. 

72. Oleacina Phillipsii. B.M. 
Shell fusiform-cylindrical, longitudinally striatidate, shining, 

pale horny, adorned with chestnut streaks, irregularly fhsposed 
on the last whorl, not extending to the base ; spire elongate, 
apex rather obtuse ; suture margined, subcrenulate ; whorls 
eight, rather flattened, the last scarcely exceethng one-third the 
length ; columella slightly arched in front, obliquely truncated ; 
aperture narrow, semioval ; peristome simple, sharp. Lon. 20, 
lat. 5i ; ap. lon. 7, lat. 2f mill. 

Achatina Philbpsii, Adams in Proc. Bost. Soc. 1845, p. 13 (Glan- 
dina). 

Pfr. in Zeitschr.f. Mai. 1845, p. 158 ; Ic. n. 57. Bui. t. 28. 
f. 4, 5 ; Monoyr. Helic. ii. 265. 

Phil. Icon. ii. 1(5. 21(5. t. 1. f. 4. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon, t. 16. f. 60. 

Alb. 195 (Melia). 



40 PULMONATA. 

Glaudina Phillipsii, Morelet in Journ. Conch. 1852, i. 397. 
Hab. Jiimaica ; Savannah la Mar. 

73. Oleacixa propinqua. 

Shell somewhat fusiformly turreted, sculptured mth rib-like 
stria;, shining, horn-coloured, marked with slightly arcuate red- 
dish-brown lines, which for the most jjart are bordered witl» 
white ; whorls seven to eight, rather flat, the last fonning aboui 
two-sevenths of the total length ; columella nearly ])erpeudicular. 
truncated shortly and obliquely at its base ; aperture oblong, ani 
gulated; peristome simple, with the right margin recetUng in' 
feriorly. Length 14, breadth 8j mill. (P/>.) 

Achatina propinqua, Adams in Bost. Proc. 1845, p. 13. 

Pfr. Mon. iv. 265. n. 6b ; Suppl. 492. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

74. Oleacixa Blandiana. 

Shell regularly conic, but verj- slender, verj- pale brown or 
horn-colour, with very dark brown transverse broad bent stripes, 
about three on each whorl, less distinct on the upper whorls, and 
wanting on the nuclear whorls, with rather tine regular transverse 
striae ; rather thickly and verj- finely crenulated at the upper 
margin of the whorls; apex moderately obtuse, smooth on the 
first whorl ; spire very long, with the outlines rectilinear ; whorls 
nine, moderately convex, slightly and acutely shouldered above, 
with a well-impressed suture ; apertiu-e rather long-ovate, small ; 
labrum sharp, very thin ; columella nearly straight (most nearly 
allied to O. propinqua). Length 0-62, breadth 0'135 inch. (Ad.) 

Achatina Blandiana, Adams, Contr. to Conch, n. 5. p. 83. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 492. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

75. Oleacixa proxima. 

Shell conic, but slender, very pale brown or horn-colour, « ith 
dark bro\ra transverse stripes, about three on each « horl, less 
distinct on the upper whorls ; with fine regular transverse small 
elevated lamellae ; apex moderately obtuse, smooth on the nu- 
clear whorls ; spire long, with the outlines nearly rectilinear ; 
whorls eight, plauulate, abruptly shouldered above, with a rather 
deep suture ; aperture small, ovate ; labnun thin and sharp ; 
columella nearly straight. Length 0'385, breadth 01*95 inch. 
{Adams.) 



PULMONATA. 41 

Achatina proxima, Jc?ams, Contrib. to Conch, n. 9. p. 167. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 655. 
Hab. Near Swift River Head, Portland, Jamaica. 

This shell resembles O. Blandiana. Its divergeuce in the 
upper whorls is less than in that shell, but its mean divergence 
is greater. 

"JQ. Oleacina perplexa. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, much elongated, almost transparent, pale 
yellowish -brown, with transverse moderately curved lines of dark 
brown, of which the last colours the labrum, three to four on 
each whorl, wanting on the upjjer whorls, and scarcely percep- 
tible at and above the middle of the spii-e ; with fine, not crowded, 
transverse striae ; lines, which indicate the varices that are coin- 
cident with the brown stripes, scarcely distinguishable from the 
striae ; apex subacute, with nearly one and a half smooth whorls ; 
spire much elongated, with the outlines moderately curvihnear ; 
A\horls about six and a half, moderately convex, with a well-im- 
pressed suture ; aperture long, ovate, quite narrow and acute 
above ; columella a little twisted, scarcely truncate. Length O'SiJ, 
breadth 009 inch. {Adams.) 

Achatina perplexa, Adams, Contrib. to Conch, n. 5. p. 84. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 492. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

77. Oleacina vicixa. 

" Perhaps a variety of O. Phillipsii ; but the shell is furnished 
with numerous longitudinal striae, never brown-banded ; the 
infi-a-sutural line is more remote from the suture ; the sjjire is 
shorter." Div. 22°: spire Ion. 0-3: total Ion. 0-54, lat. U-175 
mill. 

Achatina vicina, Adams inBost. Proc. 1845, p. 14. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 265. 
Hab. Jamaica. 



78. Oleacina curvilabris. 

Shell oblong-tuiTeted, rather solid, very closely costulate, dia- 
phanous, shining, luteous-horny, remotely white-striped ; spire 
turreted ; suture marginate ; whorls eight, nearly level, the last 
less than three-sevenths the length, impressed midway in front ; 
columella vertical, abruptly truncated at the base of the aperture; 



42 



PULMOXATA. 



aperture narrow, oblong ; peristome white-bordered, dextral 
margin curved forwards. Lon. 16, lat. 5 ; ap. Ion. 6|, lat. 2^ 
mill. 

Achatina cm-\'ilabris (Glandina), Ffr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, 
p. 137 ; Mon. Helic. ii. 258. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 18. f. 9-4. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

79. Oleacina tenera. 

Shell elongate, somewhat conic, horu-coloiu-ed, with numerous 
well-impressed regular transverse strife; apex subacute; spire 
with the outlines a little convex ; whorls seven and a half, 
scarcely convex, somewhat shouldered above, with a well-impressed 
suture ; aperture ovate, acute above ; labrum thin, slightly ad- 
vanced in the upper half, retreating below ; columella moderately 
cm-ved, distinctly ti-uncated. Length 03, breadth 0-075 inch. 
{Adams.) 

Achatina tenera, Adams, Contrib. to Conch, n. 7- p- 104. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 49/. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

80. Oleacina solitaria. 

Shell elongate, ovate-conic, pale bro^-n, with dark brown 
transverse lines, about three on each whorl, wanting on the two 
or three first whorls ; with excessively minute crowded transverse 
striae ; spue with the outlines a little convex ; apex rather small ; 
whorls eight, moderately convex, slightly shouldered, with a 
rather deep suture ; last whorl subjjlanulate, long ; labrum thin, 
sharp, a little produced in the middle ; columella well-produced 
and turning a little to the left. Length 052, breadth 0'15 inch. 
{Adams.) 

Achatina solitaria, Adams, Conir. to Conch, n. 9. p. 1 68. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 497. 
Hab. New Hope, Westmoreland, Jamaica. 

81. Oleacina costulosa. 

Shell conic, turreted, translucent, very pale brownish horn- 
coloured, darker at the varices, with the surface apparently stri- 
ated, but having on each whorl about seventy small approximate 
regular transverse ribs ; but the unclear whorls are smooth ; with 
rather indistinct varices, of which there are two or three on each 
whorl ; apex rather obtuse ; spire with the outlines nearly recti- 
linear, except near the apex; whorls nearly nine, moderately 



PULMONATA, 43 

convex, with a well-impressed suture ; aperture broadly ovate ; 
labrum not advanced along the middle, much rellected in the 
lower half; columella moderately produced, nearly straight, 
well-truncated. Length 0'86, breadth 0-27 inch. (Adams.) 

Achatina costulosa, ^^f/ams, Contr. to Conch, n. 1 . ]). 102. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 499. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

82. Oleacina arcuata. 

Shell fusiform-turreted, rather thin, shining, with close and 
slightly arched ribs, amber-yellow, adorned with narrow, remote, 
arched, pale margined red stripes ; spire subulate, acute ; suture 
crenulate; whorls nine, level, the last less than one-third the 
length ; columella nearly straight, slightly truncated ; aperture 
oblong; peristome simple. Lon. 13, lat. 3i; ap. Ion. 4|, lat. 2 
mill. 
Achatina arcuata (Glandina), Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, 

p. 138; Mon. Helic. ii. 261. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 17- f- i?3. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

83. Oleacina Dunkeri. 

Shell turreted, rather thin, smooth, pellucid, shining, fulvous ; 
spire elongate, with the apex blunt ; suture impressed, bordered, 
obsoletely crenulated ; whorls nine, scarcely convex, the last 
forming less than one-third of the total length ; columella arched, 
truncated highly and almost vertically ; aperture semiovate, 
somewhat triangular ; peristome simple, with the right margin 
arcuately produced in the middle. Length 28, breadth 74 mill. 
iPfr.) 
Achatina Dunkeri, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. ; Ic. 

u. 76. Bui. t. 37. f. 25, 26 ; Mon. Suppl. 500. 

/3. Larger, chestnut-coloured, j)aler at the lower part. Length 
38, breadth 8 mill.— P/r. Ic. Bid. t. 43. f. 5, 6. 

Hab. Haiti {Salle). 

84. Oleacina semitarum. 

Shell subulate, apex obtuse, pale homy, longitudinally sub- 
striate, shining ; whorls ten, somewhat flattened, the last scarcely 
exceeding one-fourth the length ; columella strongly arched, ob- 
liquely truncated at the base of the apertm-e ; aperture oblong- 



44 PULMOXATA. 

acumiuate, wide at the base ; peristome simple, dextral margin 
rather arched in front. Lon. 28, lat. 6^; ap. Ion. 7, lat. 4 mill. 

Helix semitarum, Rang in Mus. Paris. 
Achatina semitarum, Jay, Catal. 

Pfr. Symb. ii. 59 ; Mon. Helic. ii. 263 ; Ic. n. 59. Bui. t. 28. 

f. 10, 11 {Zeitschr.f. Mai. 1852, p. 110). 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 16. f. 7^. 
Achatina octona, Turt. Man. f. 7'2 ? 

Gray, Man. 18. t. 6. f. 72"? 
Hab. Antilles. 

Compare Bui. terehraster, Lam. 

85. Oleacina Gcssei. 

Shell subulate, thin, diaphanous, waxy, remotely ribbed, very 
finely striated between the ribs on the lower whorls, becoming 
obsolete downwards ; whorls nine to ten, slightly convex, the 
last scarcely exceeding one-fourth the length ; columella oblique, 
reaching the base of the aperture, slightly truncated ; aperture 
narrow, oblong; peristome simple, dextral margin dilated down- 
wards. Lou. 12, lat. 2f ; ap. lon. 'd^, lat. 1^ mdl. 

Achatina Gossei, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 138 ; Mon. 
Helic. ii. 267. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 20. f. 114. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

86. Oleacina pellucexs. 

Shell subulate, thin, rather closely sculptm-ed with minute 
ribs, translucent, pale brownish ; spire elongate, with the apex 
rather blunt ; whorls seven, tlat, the last forming less than one- 
third of the total length ; columella almost rectilinear, very nar- 
rowly truncated ; aperture ovate-angulai" ; peristome simple, 
with the lower part of its right margin retreating. Length 65, 
breadth If miH- (Pfr-) 

Achatina pellucens, Adams in Proc. Bost. Soc. 1845, p. 13. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. n. 295. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

87. Oleacixa l^vis. 

Shell much elongated, conic, very pale brown, shining, very 
thin, smooth, with microscopic transverse striit, which are quite 
numerous on the upper whorls; spiie with rectilinear outlines; 
apex not very small ; whorls seven, a little convex, with a mode- 



PULMONATA. 45 

rately impressed suture ; aperture ovate, acute above ; labrum 
thin and sharp ; columella slightly arcuate. Length 042, 
breadth 0"1 inch. (Adams.) 

Achatina laevis, Adams, Contrib. to Conch, n. 2. p. 26. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 502. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

This may be only a variety of O. pellucens ; but that shell 
has more numerous striae (Adams). 

88. OlEACINA LONGISPIRA. 

Shell much elongated, conoidal, pale brovru, shining, with 
very lightly impressed, not very numerous transverse striae ; apex 
obtuse ; outlines of the spire slightly cm-vilinear ; whorls ten, 
moderately convex, with a well-impressed suture ; aperture sub- 
rhomboidal, subacute above ; labrum thin, slightly advanced in 
the upper half, retreating below ; columella very oblique, di- 
stinctly truncated. Length 0'45, breadth 01)9 inch. (Adams.) 

Achatina longispu-a, Adams, Contrib. to Conch, n. 7- P- 104. 

Ffr. Mon. Suppl. 503. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

89. Oleacina gracilior. 

Shell conoidal, but very slender, pale horn-coloured, with 
about twelve transverse oblique slightly prominent lamelloid 
ridges, which are more distinct next below the sutiu-e ; apex 
rather acute ; spire with the outlines nearly rectilinear ; whorls 
eleven, a little convex, with a distinct suture ; aperture ovate, 
very acute above, retreating below on both sides, but less on the 
left side ; labrum thin ; columella moderately arcuated and trun- 
cated. Length 0'55, breadth 009 inch. (Adams.) 

Achatina gracihor, Adams, Contrib. to Conch, n. 7- p- 104. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 503. 
Hab. Jamaica. 

90. Oleacina osculans. 

Shell conoidal, but very slender, dull honi-coloured, with about 
fourteen transverse oblique rather jirominent lamelloid ridges, 
which are somewhat arcuated with the convexity forwards ; apex 
rather obtuse; spire with the outlines rectihncar, except near 
the apex ; whorls nine, flattened or concave along the middle, 
with a well-impressed suture ; aperture ovate, very narrow and 



46 PULMONATA, 

acute above, retreating much below on both sides ; columella 
subspiral, distinctly tnmcated in a young shell, indistinctly so in 
an old one, with the edge somewhat dilated, so as to resemble a 
Spiraxis. Length 0-35, breadth 0-06 inch. (Adams.) 

Achatina osculans, Adams, Contrib. to Conch, no. 7- P- 104. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 503. 
Hab. Jamaica. 



*** European and African. 

91. Oleacina cerea. 

Shell 6blong-turreted, thin, minutely and regularly striated, 
shining, pellucid, pale wax-coloured ; spire rectilinear, with the 
apex blunt ; suture moderate, minutely creuulated ; whorls eight, 
scarcely convex, the last forming a little more than one-fourth 
of the total length, slightly angulated below the middle ; colu- 
mella cuiTcd, abruptly truncated ; aperture oblique, oblong ; pe- 
ristome simple, straight, with the right mai-gin shghtly arcuate. 
Length 14, breadth 4f mill. [Pfr.) 

Achatina cerea, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. ; Ic. n. 67. 

Bui. t. 37. f. 5-7 ; Mon. Suppl. 501. 
Hab. Fernando Po {Eraser). 

92. Oleacina oryza. 

Differs fi-om 0. triticea, Lowe, by the aperture being longer 
than the spire, by the plait on the body of the penult whorl 
wanting or very indistinct, and the columellar plait absolutely 
wanting (Lowe). 

Helix triticea ^. edentula, Lowe, Prim. 61. t. 6. f. 26. 
Achatina oryza (Fusillus), Lowe in Ann. ^- Mag.2iid ser. ix. 120. 
n. 45; Synops. Diagn. 10. 
Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 509. 
Hab. Porto Sancto. 

93. Oleacina terebella. 

Shell ovate-oblong, rather solid, smooth, whitish horn-co- 
loured ; s]nre regularly conic, rather blunt ; suture hnear ; whorls 
five to six, the up|)er ones flat, the penultimate moderatclv con- 
vex, the last forming three-fifths of the total length, descending 
anteriorly, rounded in front ; columella broad, callous, trun- 
cated broadly and obliquely ; aperture perpendicular, acuminately 



PULMONATA. 47 

seitiiovate ; peristome simple, blunt, with the right margin ar- 
cuately dilated forwards. Length 11, breadth 4i mill. (Pfr.) 
Achatina terebella (Fusillus), Loice in Ann. S)- Mag. 2nd ser. ix. 
120. n. 47 ; Synops. Diagn. 11. 
Pfr. Ic.n.lU. Bui. t. 44. f. 9, 10; Mon. Suppl. 510, 
Hab. Porto Sancto (WoUaston, Armitage). 

94. Oleacina melampoides. 

Shell ovate, somewhat fusiform, thin, very smooth, shining, 
pellucid, pale amber-colom'ed ; spire short, conic, blunt ; sutm-e 
ver\- slight, bordered with an impressed hue ; whorls nearly six, 
flat, the last forming about five-sevenths of the total length, at- 
tenuated in fi-ont ; columella arched and tv\isted, obhquely tnm- 
cated, whitish ; aperture perpenchcular, narrow, in-egularly semi- 
ovate ; peristome simple, sharp. Length Sf , breadth 3^ mill. 
(Pfr.) 

Helix melampoides, Lowe, Prim. Faun. Mad. 60. t. 6. f. 24. 
Achatina melampoides, Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 122. t. 22. 

Pfr. Ic. n. 34. Bui. t. 25. f. 31, 32 ; Man. Suppl. 510. 
Achatina tornateUina, var. ?, Pfr. Mon. ii. 277- 
Hab. Madeira. 

95. Oleacina procerula. 

Shell fusiformly elongate, rather solid, faintly striated, shining, 
fulvous ; spii-e elongate-conic, rather blunt ; sutm-e slightly bor- 
dered ; whorls sLx, rather flat, the last longer than the spu-e ; co- 
lumella callous, white, nan-owly truncated ; aperture middle ; 
peristome blimt ; right margin scarcely arched. Length 13, 
breadth 4 mill. (Mor.) 

Glandina procenda, Morelet in Journ. Conch. 1851, iv. 357- t. 9. 
■ f. 12 ; 1852, pp. 35, 274. 
Achatina procerula, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 511. 
Hab. La Calle, Algiers. 

Intermediate between Gl.folliculus and Gl. subulata, Pfr. 

96. Oleacina folliculcs. B.M, 
Shell oblong, rather solid, smooth, subpelliicid, homy-lutes- 
cent ; spire elongate-conic, rather acute ; suture linear, marked 
with an opake line ; whorls six to seven, nearly level, the last 
less than two-fifths the length, shghtly attenuate<l at the base ; 
columella nearly straight, subvertical, callous, obsoletely tmn- 
cated above the base of the clhptic-oval aperture; peristome 



48 PULMONATA. 

straight, margins united by a callus, dextral obtuse, strongly 
arched in fi-ont. Lon. 10, lat. 3^^; ap. Ion. 4, lat. 2 mill. 

HelLx folliculus, Gronov. fasc. 3. 296. t. 19. f. 15, 16. 

Gmel. 3654. n. 199. 

Fer. Pr. 373 (Cochlitoma). 
Achatina folliculus. Lam. xxiii. 133 ; ed. Desk. 303. 

Mich. Compl. 52. t. 15. f. 44, 45. 

Phil. Sicil. i. 141. t. 8. f. 27; ii. 114. 

Webb ^ Berth. Syn. 320'? 

Cantr. Malac. Med. 138. 

Terv. Moll. Alg. 31. 

Rossm. X. 34. f. &bQ. 

Deless. Recueil, t. 28. f. 9. 

Pfr. Mon. ii. 283; Ic. n. 84. Bui. t. 38. f. 14, 15. 

Desk. I. c. 170. n. 32. t. 134. f. 28-30. 
Glandina folhculus (Cionella), Alb. 199. 

Morelet, Journ. Conch. 1852, 35. 
Achatina nitidissima, Kryn., Pfr. Mon. ii. 284. n. 113? 
Achatina Risso, Desh. Enc. Me'th. ii. 12. n. 9. 
Achatina folhcula, Pot. cV Mich. Gal. i. 127. 
Ferussacia Gronoviana, Risso, Hist. iv. 80. n. 180. t. 3. f. 27. 
Columna folliculus, Jan. Catal. 4. 
Cionella folliculus, Bec^, Index, 79. n. 1. 
Pupa spleucUdula, Costa (teste Scacchi, Catal. 16). 
Poh^jihemus folliculus. Villa, Disp. Syst. 20. 

Graells, Catal. de los Moluscos, 4'C. 7- 
Glandina folliculus, Pfr. Symb. ii. 135. 

Phil. Icon.i. 6. 134. t. 1. f. 13. 

Ktister, t. 18. f. 16-19. 
Bulimus folliculus, Morelet, Moll, du Port. 73. 
Physa scaturiginum, Drop. 56. t. 3. f. 14, 15. 
Vediantius cristallinus, Risso, Hist. iv. 82. n. 183. t. 3. f. 24. 
Hab. S.France; Portugal; Italy; Sicily; N. Africa. 

97. Oleacina Leacociaxa. 

Shell rather minute, very like Bui. Maderensis, Lowe, in shape 
and colour, allied to Ach. folliculus, from which it differs, be- 
sides the size, l)y being attenuated gradually from a broader 
base, by its ajieiture rather narrowed above, by its labrum arcu- 
atelv prominent above, and by the columella being distinctly trun- 
cated and prominent. It differs from A. gracilis, Lowe, in being 
more oblong, not fusiform, by its spire, which is extremely blunt, 
and by the above-enumerated characters of the apeitui-e, labrum 
and columella (Lowe). 



PULMONATA. 49 

Achatina Leacociana (Cylichnidia), Lowe in Ann. ^ Mag. N. H. 
2nd ser. ix. 119 ; Synops. Diayn, 10. n. 43. 
Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 511. 
Hab. Madeira (T. S. Leacock). 

98. Oleacin'a nitidissima. 

Shell c^lindi'ical, pellucid, very smooth, very shining, horny- 
lutescent ; aperture oblong ; whorls five, the last larger ; apex 
obtuse. Lon. i". 

Achatina nitifUssima, Forbes in Jard. Ann. ii. 250, 1838. 

Wmjm. Arch. 1839, ii. 223. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 284. 
Glandina nitidissima, Kiister, t. 18. f. 20, 21. 

Morelet, Journ. Conch, iii. 36. 
Hab. Algeria. 

99. Oleacina algira. B.M. 

Shell oblong-acuminate, thin, closely striated, whitish under 
the deciiluous, lutescent epidermis ; spire conic, turreted, apex 
rather acute ; suture margined, minutely crenulated ; whorls six 
to seven, rapidly increasing, subi)lanidate, the last nearly equal- 
ling the spire, or a Uttle exceeding it ; columella slightly arched, 
abruptly truncated ; ajierture pointed-semioval ; peristome sim- 
ple, sharp, margins united by a thin callus, the dextral dilated in 
the middle in front. Lon. 40, lat. 12; ap. lon. 19, lat. 7 mill- 
Bulimus algirus, Brut/. Enc. Metk. i. 3fi4. n. 110. 
Bidimus Poireti, C. Pfr. iii. 34. t. J. f. 3, 4. 
Hehx Poireti (Cochlicopa), Per. Pr. 158 ; Hist. t. 136. f. 1-5. 
Polyphemus striatus, Montf. ii. 415. 
Polyphemus algirus, Jan. Cat. 4. 
Achatina algira. Desk. Exped. de Moree, 165. 

Lam. ed. Desk, xxviii 308 ; in Ferussac Hist. p. 184. n. 49. 

Cantr. Malac. Med. 139. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 2SS. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 13. f. 43. 
Achatina Boreti (misprint for Poireti), Gray, Ann. Phil, new ser. 

ix. 414. 
Achatina Poireti, Ross7n. ii. 18. f. 123. 

Pot. Sf Mich. Gal. i. 1.30. 

Schmidt, Syst. Verz. 13. 
Achatina cornea, Brumati, Monfalc. 35. f. 5. 
Glandina algira (Cionella), Alb. 198. 

D 



50 PULMONATA. 

Glandina Als;ira, Beck, Index, 78- n. 19. 

Morelet, Journ. Couch. 1852, p. 38 ; 1853, p. . 
Glanclina Poiretii, Beck, 1. c. n. 20. 

Kiister, t. 11. f. 1, 2 ; t. 17. f. 22-24. 
Hab. Littoral provinces of Austria ; Camiola ; Dalmatia ; Italy ; 
Zante ; Morea ; Algeria. 

100. Oleacixa dilatata. 

Shell ovate-conic, rather thin, closely costulate-striate, white 
under the lutescent epidermis ; spire conic, obtuse ; sutiu-e white- 
margined, finely crenulate ; whorls six to seven, rather level, the 
last exceeding the spire ; columella strongly arched, abruptly 
truncated ; apertm-e in-egularly oval ; peristome simple, sharp, 
margins imited by a thin callus. Lon. 36, lat. 14 ; ap. Ion. 20, 
lat. 9 mill. 

Achatina dilatata, Zgl. Miis. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 289. 
Achatina Poireti, Mich. Test. Alg. 9. t. 1. f. 19. 
Achatina algira. Reeve, n. 43. t. 13. 
Glanchna dilatata (Cionella), Alb. 198. 
Achatina algna ^, Phil. Sicil. i. 141. 
Achatina tumida. Pari-, in sched. 
Cochlicopa algira, Phil. Sicil. ii. 115. 
Polyphemus dilatatus, Jan. Catal. 4. 
PohiAemus tumidus, Villa, Disp. Syst. 19. 
Glandina dilatata, Beck, Index, 78. n. 18. 

KUster, t. 17- f- 19-21. 

Morelet, Journ. Conch. 1852, 38. 
Helix rosea, var., Fe'r. Hist. t. 136. f. 6, 7 ? 
Hab. Sicily. 

[The teeth of Achatina acicula, the type of what I had intended 
for Section B. of this genus, as described by ^Ir. Thomson, 
Ann. 4' Mag. N. H. 1851, iv. 92, appear to be like other 
HelicidcB ; they must therefore be retained in that Family.] 



Fam. 4. ARIONID^E. 

Foot dilated ; upper surface of the tip truncated and furnished 
with a transverse lunate or an erect longitudinal gland. Jaw 
horny, lunate. Teeth numerous, four-sided, in close cross 
series. 



PULMONATA. 51 

Arionidffi, Gray, Syn. B. M. 1840,1842; iti Turton's Manual, 
ed. 2. 101, 104, 1840; P. Z. Soc. 1347, 169; Mrs, Gray, 
Fiy.Moll.iv. 111. 

Ariouea, Herrmannsen, Index, 81. 

Helix, § Pherepora, Desmoulin, Linn. Soc. Bord. 1824, iii. 



Synopsis of Genera. 

A. Body elongate, attached its whole length to the zipper surface 

of the foot. Mantle shield-like, simple, entirely enclosing a 
fiat, oblong, not spiral, shell. Subcaudal gland lunate, trans- 
verse, horizontal. Aiionina. 

1. Arion. Back keeled, attenuated behind. 

2. Geomalacus. Back convex, rounded behind. 

B. Body more or less spiral, prominent from the middle of the 

upper part of the foot , and covered u-ith a more or less deve- 
loped spiral shell, sometimes hidden by the refiexed edge of 
the mantle. Subcaudal gland linear, perpendicular. 

a. Body and shell subpeltate, very slightly spiral. 

3. Drusia. Body vuiited to the back of the foot, only sepa- 

rated by a lunate groove behind. Shell quite enclosed, thin, 
with a small, more solid apex. 

4. GiRASiA. Body united to the back of the foot, only sepa- 

rated by the convex hinder ed^e. Shell partly exposed, 
ovate, expanded, with solid apex. 

5. Mari^lla. Body free and separate from the back of the 

foot. Shell quite enclosed in a thin mantle. 

b. Body and shell subglohose, distinctly spiral. 

* Shell quite enclosed in the thin mantle which is produced in 
front. 

6. Laconia. Shell subglobose ; spire of few whorls. Mouth 

very large. 

** Shell permanently covered by the refiexed thin edge of the 
mantle, leaving the central portion exposed. 

7. Parmacellus. Shell thin, depressed. Mouth verj' large. 

d2 



o2 PULMOXATA. 

*** Shell exposed, more or less covered by the thickened oy 
rejiexed processes of the edge of the mantle. 

8. ViTRiNELLA. Shell imperforate, very thin ; spire conic. 

Mantle lobe covering the greater part of the shell. 

9. IIelicarion. Shell imperforate, very thin, depressed ; spire 

short, last whorl very large. Mouth very large, lunate or 
rounded. Mantle lobes small. 

10. Nanina. Shell perforated, depressed, smooth below. 
Mouth lunate. Peristome straight, simple. 

11. Stexopus. Shell perforated, conical or depressed, thin, 

diaphanous, last whorl broadest. Mouth roundish lunate. 
Peristome acute. 

**** Shell exposed. Edge of mantle not reflexed. 

12. Ariophanta. Shell sinistral, umbilicated, thin, diaphanous. 

Mouth oblique. 

13. ZoxiTES. Shell dextral, umbilicated. thin, horn-coloured. 
Mouth hmate ; lip rather thickened within. 

A. Body elongate, attached its whole length to the upper surface 
of the foot. Mantle shield-like, simple, entirely enclosing a 
fat, oblong, not spiral, shell, or only some calcareous gra- 
nules. Subcaudal gland lunate, horizontal, transverse. 
Arionina. 

1. ARION. 

Elongate, subcylindrical. Tail tapering, with a large mucous 
pore over the tip. Shield anterior, shagreened. Pulmonary 
cavity anterior, under the shield ; aperture anterior. Orifice of 
vent "quite contiguous, inferior. Shell ovate, or only some cal- 
careous granules in the cavity of the shield. 
Arion, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 10. 16. 96 ». 96 --. 1817, 1821 ; Hist. 
Moll. ii. 53. 

Gray, Turton's Manual, 104 ; P. Z. Soc. 184/, 169. n. 429. 
Fleming, B. A. 256, 1828. 
Leach, Brit. Moll. 45. 
Limacia, Hartmann, NeueAlpiner, 208, 1821. 

Shell. — Limacella, Brard, not Blainville. 
Limacellus, Turton. 



PULMOXATA. 53 

In the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 1847, p. 169, I 
by mistake referred Limacellus, Blaiuville, to this genus instead 
of Philomycus. 

a. Shell none, or hemispherical and spongy. 

1. Arion ater. 

Blackish red or whitish, edge of the foot generally marked 
with darker cross lines. 

Limax ater, Miiller, Verm. 2. 

Gmelin, S. N. i. 3099. 

Drop. Tahl. 101 ; Hist. 122. t. 9. f. 3, 5. 

Sturm, D. Faun. 1. t. 

Nunneley, Trans. Phil. Soc. Leeds, 46. t. 1. f. 1 ; t. 2. f. 1 ; 
t. 3. f. 1, 3; t. 4. f. 1 ; t. 5. f. 1 (anat.). 
Limax rufus, Razoumowsky, H. N. Jorat. i. 268. 

Drop. Hi.'it. 123. t. 9. f. 6. 

Sturm, D. Faun. t. 1. 

Brard, Hist. 123. t. 4. f. 19,^20. 
Limax succineus, Miiller, Verm. /• 

Amelia, S. N. i. 3100. 
Limax liiteus, Razoumowsky, H. N. Jorat. i. 268. 
Limax marginellus, Schrank, F. Boica, 252. 
Limax suffiiscus, Drap. 

Feruss. H. Moll. ii. t. 8 D. f. 1. 
Arion empricorum, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 17.96^; 3/o//. ii. 60. 
t. l.f. 1,8; t. 2. f. 1,2; t. 3. f. 2. 

Leach, Brit. Moll. 47. t. 8. f. 1, 2. 

Aider, May. Zool. <^- Bot. ii. 106. 

Troschel in Wiegm. Arch. 1836, 279. t. 9. f. 1 (tongue). 
Arion ater. Gray, Turton's Manual, 104, 103. f. 1. 

Var. a. Black or brown. — Ferussac, I. c. t. 2. f. 1. 
Limax ater. Lister, Phil. Trans, ix. 96. t. 16, 1674. 

A^ar. 0. Black, dorsal keel pale greenish. — Miiller, Verm. 
Limax ater, /3., Gmelin, S. N. 

Var. y. Black, edge yellowish or scarlet. — Midler. 

Limax ater, y., Gmelin, S. N. i. 

Limax marginellus, Schrank, F. Boica, 252. 

Var. S. Blackish, edge yellow or scarlet. — Drap. Hist. t. 9. f. 5. 
Ferussac, Hist. t. 2. f. 2. 

Var. e. Dull rufous, edge yellowish or scarlet. — Drap. 



54 PULMONATA. 

V^ar. f. Rufous. — Ferussac, Hist. t. 3. f. 2. 
Limax subfuscus, List. Arig. App. t. 2. f. 1. 

Razoumowsky, H. N. Jorat. i. 268. 

Drap. Hist. 125. t. 9fi8. 
Arion subfuscus, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. I/. 96^. t. 9. f. 8 (cop. 

Drop.). 
Limax rufus, Brong. E. M. t. 84. f. 1. 

A"ar. 17. Entirely red. — Ferussac, I. c. t. 1. f. 1, 2, 5. 
Limax ruber, Drap. Hist. 123. 
Lamk. E. M. t. 463. f. 2. 

Var. 0. Yellowish.— Fer«ssac, /. c. t. 1. f. 4. 
Limax succineus, Midler, Verm, 7. 

Gmelin, S. N. i. 3100. 
Limax luteus, Razoitmousky, H. N. Jorat. i. 268. 
? Ariou subflavus, Johnston. 

Var. I. Dull brown, sides yellowish or saffron-coloured. — Fe- 
russac, t. 1. f. 6, 7- 

Var. K. Greenish, with a yellowish streak on each side. — Fi- 
russac, t. 1. f. 8. ("young not come to its colour.") 

Var. X. White, edge of the foot yellow or white, without black 

streaks. 
Limax albus, iJ/«/Zer, Est. om Swampe, 61 ; Venn. ii. 4. 

Walck. Naturf. iv. 136. t. 1. f. 7, cop. E. M. t. 84. f. 3. 
Arion albus, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 17. 96 ' ; Hist. Moll. ii. 64. 

t. 2. f. 3. 
Ai'ion empricorum, var., Leach, Brit. Moll. 49. 

Svibvar. 1 . White. 

Subvar. 2. White, edge ycWow.— Ferussac, Hist. Moll. t. 2. f. 3. 

Subyar. 3. White, edge and nape yellow. 

Subvar. 4. White, tentacles black. 

Hub. Europe. England : common. 



2. Arion melanocephalus. 

Yellow, or yellow reticulated with grey ; head and tentacles 
dark ; shield irregular, shagreened. 
Arion melanocephalus, Faure-Biguet, Ferussac, Tub. Syst. 18. 

96 0. 

Hab. Eiu-ope ; France ; Dauphiny. 



PULMONATA. 



55 



3. Ariox flavus. 

Yellow, not spotted ; head and tentacles blackish ; ch pens 
granulosa. 

Limax flavus, Midler, Verm. 10. 

Arion flavus, Fe'russac, Tab. Syst. 24. 963. 

Limax aureus, Gmelin, S. N. i. 3102. 

Nilsson, Moll. Suec. 5. 
Hub. Europe ; Denmark and Norway. 

4. Arion fuscatus. 

Brown ; cljiieus with a dark streak on each side and rufous 
on the edge ; sides of body greenish ; edge of foot whitish, 
with small transverse black lines. 
Arion fuscatus, Fe'russac, Tab. Syst. 18. 96 " ; Hist. Moll. ii. 66. 

t. 2. f. 7. 

Blainv. D. S. N. wvi. 429. 
Hab. Europe ; Paris {Fe'russac). 

5. Arion aterrimus. 

Black ; sides and under surface of the foot black (in spirits) ; 
back with very large elongate nigosities. 
Hab. South Africa. 

As large as Arion ater. 

6. Arion sulcatus. 

Black brown ; edge of the foot chestnut, dark-streaked ; 
shield granulose ; body deeply grooved ; aperture of respiration 
subanterior. 

Arion sulcatus, Morelet,Moll. PQTtu(jal,t. 1. 
Hab. Portugal, Douro {Morelet). 

7. Arion fuligineus. 

Sooty ; edge of foot narrow, reddish, dark-rayed, yellowish in 
front; shield gibbose, vermiculatcd ; body rugulose, blunt behind ; 
aperture of respiration subanterior. 
Arion fuligineus, Morelet, Moll. Portugal, 30. t. 2. f. 1. 
Hab. Portugal, Doiu-o {Morelet). 

8. Arion tumidus. 

Blackish brown ; edge of the foot yellow, dark-rayed, with a 
subcentral longitudinal chestnut streak ; shield small, vennicu- 



56 Pt'LMONATA. 

lated ; body cylindrical, end conic, obtuse, deeply sulcated ; head 
and tentacles short ; aperture of respiration subanterior ; foot 
ii'on-grey, with a broad livid zone ; mucus white. 
Var. 2. Bronze-green, head and tentacles darker. 

Arion tumidus, Morelet, Moll. Portitr/al, t. 2. f. 2. 

Hab. Portugal. 

. The tentacles show the eyes w hen they are only half-expanded. 

b. Shell distinct, oval, concave, rarely wanting. 

9. Arion hortensis. 

Black or bluish, w ith small grey longitudinal bands ; edge of 
the foot orange. 

Limax subfuscus, Pfeiffer, Syst. Anord. 20. 
Limax fasciatus, Nilsson, Moll. Suec. 3. 

Limax circumscriptus, Johnston, Edinb. Phil. Jovrn. 1828, v. 77- 
Arion hortensis, Fe'russac, Tab. Syst. 18 ; Hist. Moll. ii. 65. t. 2. 
f. 4, 6. 

Gray, Med. Repos. 1821. 

Alder, Mag. Z. 8f B. iii. 105. 

Stimpson, Shell Neiv Engl. 

Shell. — Limacella variegata, Turion, Man. ed. 1. 25. t. 3. f. 16. 
Limacella concava, Brard, Hist. 121. 

Var. 1. Grey, uniform, with black bands. — Ferussac,t.2.{. 6. 

Var. 2. Reddish grey ; edge red with black bands. 
Limax alpicoia, Fe'russac, Hist. t. 8 a. f. 2, 3, 4. 

Hab. Europe; Paris (Ferussac). N. America, Massachusetts 

[Stimjjson). jS. Alps. 

? New genus ? or monstrositj' ? 

FoiTD like Arion ; back cylindrical, hinder end rounded. Foot 
broad, not margined or sharply detined ; shield small ; aperture 
of res]nration rather anterior ; subcaudal gland terminal. " Le 
plan locomoteur ne lie i)as anterieurement avec la tcte de I'ani- 
mal, mais offre une solution de continuite qui forme une espece 
de sac ou elle s'engage dans la contraction." 

Shell none, only some irregular callous concretions. Back 
brown, w ith two paler lateral streaks ; foot orange, hke Testa- 
cella. 
Hab. Portugal, River Alvega {Morelet, Moll. Portugal, 50) 



PULMONATA. 57 

2. GEOMALACUS. 

Bodyratlier depressed, shield granular ; back rounded, convex, 
not keeled. Subcaudal gland lunate, horizontal. Resj)irator\" aper- 
ture rather in front of the middle of the lower edge of the mantle. 
Foot divided into three equal longitudinal bands. Teeth square, 
close, like Helix. 

Shell none. 

Geomalacus, Allman, AthencBum, 1843,851; Proc. Brit. Assoc. 
Cork, 1843; Ann. ^ Mag. N. H. 1845, xvii. 297. 

Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847; Mrs. Gray's Moll. iv. 112. 
Philippi, Handb. Conch. 239. 

1. Geomalacus maculatus. B.M. 

Intense black, beneath pale brownish white ; back and shields 
with numerous minute subequal yellow spots, generally more nu- 
merous on a line on each side of the body. 

Geomalacus maculatus, Allman, Ann. Sf May. N. H. 184G, 297- 1. 
Mrs. Gray, Fig. Moll. t. 280. f. 1. 

Hah. Ireland. Rocks in damp weather at Glouin Caragh, south 
of Dingle Bay, Co. Kerry. Discovered in 1842 by W. An- 
drews, Esq. 

The subcaudal gland is small, and scarcely to be distinguished 
in specimens in spu'its. These animals are difficult to keep alive 
in confinement. 



B. Body more or less spiral, prominent from the middle of the 
upper part of the foot, and covered with a more or less de- 
veloped spiral shell, sometimes hidden by the reftxed edye of 
the mantle. Subcaudal gland linear, perpendicular. 

Helix, § Pherepora, Desmoulin, 1824. 

a. Body and shell subpeltate, very slightly spiral. 

3. DRUSIA. 

Mantle subpeltate, on the middle of the back ; under side of 
the body confounded with the upper surface of the foot, and only- 
separated from it by a transverse arched j)osterior groove. Aper- 
ture of respiration on the middle of the right side of the mantle. 
Foot high, keeled behind : bock of the neck with three grooves, 
the central double, the lateral one bent down to the side of the 

D 5 



58 PULMONATA. 

head behind the lower tentacles. Aperture of generation at the 
back of the right tentacle. " Teeth regular, numerous." 

Shell oblong, depressed, expanded, thin ; mouth very large ; 
apex subspiral, thick, solid. 

Parmacella, sp., IVebb Sf Van Beneden, Mag. Zool. 

Gray, Fig. Moll, iv., in Mrs. Gray's Fig. Moll. t. 282. f. 2. 

Messrs. Webb and Van Beneden do not mention the caudal 
gland in their description, but it is very visible in Morelet's 
figure and the one figured by Ferussac. 

1. Drusia Valenciennii. 

Shell depressed, oblong, spathulate, concentrically striated ; 
apex pale green, thick, smooth, of half a whorl. 

Parmacella Valenciennii, Webb S)- Van Beneden, Mag. Zool. 
Gray, Fig. Moll. iv. & iii. t. 282. f. 2. 
Morelet, Moll. Portugal, 40. t. 4, from life. 
Hub. Portugal, in the Hippurite hills of Alcantara {Webb). 

Herbivorous, living chiefly on Cochlearia acaidis, breeding 
ia April. 

" The shell is of an oblong spatulate shape, marked with striae 
of growth ; it is very thin and extremely fragile, olive out- 
side and pearly within. Its base terminates in an extremely 
smooth demi-spire of a clear gi-ecn colour. On one of the sides 
of the spire, between it and the margin of the plate of the 
shell, there is a kind of small raised hook to which a protube- 
rance of the skin corresponds on the back of the animal ; this 
protuberance, when seized between the hook and the margin of 
the shell, serves to fix this latter in its place ; so that if not at- 
tended to, it is apt to be broken ofl", in attempting to raise it. 
This circumstance does not exist in the Cryptella of the Canaries, 
and we know not if it be found in other species of the genus 
Parmacella. An appendage of the skin enters also the demi- 
spire, of which it assumes the form." — Webb. 

" Jaws like a horse's hoof." — Morelet. 

" Mr. Webb's figure from the animal preserved in spirits is 
detestable : the form, the development of the jaws, the contrac- 
tion of the tentacles, give an entirely false idea of the animal." — 
Morelet, 44. 

" Ce coquille proprement dite, qui fait saillee au point ou le 
tortillon se separe du plan locomoteur, est entierement re- 
couverte ]iar la membrane fine et blanchatre qui ta])isse la 
crypte intermediaire. EUe engaine I'extremite de Tanimal, qui 
se termiup comme celle des Helices. 



PULMONATA. 59 

" Le teste qui lui est adherent n'est fixe au manteau que par 
une couclie tres-fine de tissue cellulaire, qui s'en detache pour 
s'implauter sur le cord anteriem*. Le mucus est blanc argente." 
— Morelet, 48. 

2. Drusia perlucidus. 

Body oval, depressed, nearly perlucid, white, marked with 
black dots. Tentacles very small, with a black streak. Mantle 
oval. Shell ovate, horny, with an indication of a whorl at the 
top. — Quoy. 

Limax perlucidus, Quoy 8f Gaim. Voy. Astrol. Moll. ii. 146. 1. 13. 

f. 10-13. 
Hab, Isle of France. 

Length 1| inch. The opening of the generative organs is be- 
hind the base of the right tentacle. 

" Intermediate between Limax and Parmacellus," Quoy. 
Though Quoy and Gaimard have not mentioned the subcaudal 
gland, I have ventured to place it in this family with doubt. 

3. Drusia infumatus. 

Shell.— Limax (Arion) infumatus, Ferussac, Hist. Moll. ii. 96 -. 

t. 8F. f. 1,3. 
Parmacella (infumata). Gray, Fig. Moll. iv. 113, t. . f . . 
Hab. ? 

Onlv known from Ferussac's figure. Deshayes observes, but 
perhaps only from the figure, that the mantle shows no external 
appearance of a shell. 

4. Drusia? Deshayesii. 

Parmacella, n. s. from Quran, Morelet, Moll. Port. 45, not de- 
scribed. 

Parmacella Deshayesii, Moquin-Tandon, Act. Soc. Linn. Bard. 
XV. 261. 1. 1. f. 6; Journ. Conch. 1851, p. 145. 

Hab. Quran. 

Very hke P. Valenciennii, and may be a variety of it, but is 
larger, browner, uniformly coloured, and emits a nauseous odour. 
Jaw a thin crescent. — Morelet. 

5. Drusia Gervaisii. 

Shell claw-hke, very thin, whitish; apex subspiral, rather 
thickened, poUshed, yellow or greenish coloured. — Moquin. 

Animal olive-brown, spotless. Nocturnal. Mucus very shining. 
— Faisse. 



60 PULMONATA. 

Parmacella Gervaisii, Moquin-Tandon, Joum. Institut, 1847, 
n. 730; Mem. Acad. Motitpel. 1847; Joum. Conch. 1851, 
p. 145. 

Parmacella , Diqmy, Moll. France, iii. Index, n. 220, 1849. 

Hab. South of France, on the arid plains of Crau and Les 
Coutures [Vaisse). 

(). Drusia? Alexandrinus. 

Rufous; back behind the shield keeled. Shell oblong, ear- 
shaped, covered with the skin, with a vestige of a posterior spire. 
Body subc\ lincbical and blunt in front, acute behind, w ith the tip 
recurved behind the mantle, triangular, keeled. Mantle oblong, 
short behind the mi(Ulle of the body. Colour pale reddish trans- 
lucent, variegated with the blackish intestines ; soft part of the 
mantle and hinder part of the back deep nifous ; front of body 
very finely rugulose, hinder part with oblique, transverse, nearly 
parallel lines. Tentacles four, two upper elongate-eyed. Re- 
spiratory aperture under the middle of the shell in the hinder 
part of the right side of the mantle. Head with a curbed line 
on each side from the mantle to the lower tentacle, and two 
contiguous lines on the middle of the back to the forehead. 
Opening of the generative organs near the base of the right ten- 
tacle. 

Parmacella Alexandrina. Ehrenb. Sym. Phys. 1828. 

Mo<juin-Ta7tdon, Me'iu. Acad.loulouse, 1850; Joum. Conch. 

1851, p. 145. 
Morelet, Moll. Port. 43. 
Hab. N. Africa; Alexancbia. {Ehrenb.) 

The figures from the living animal promised have not yet been 
published, no part of the work having ap])eared for many years. 

7. Drusia ? Rangianus. 
" Shell destroyed." 

Arion Rangianus, Ferussac, Bull. Sci. Nat. 1827, x. 300. 

Hab. Isle of France. 

- Allied to Arion extraneus, but not described. 

8. Drusia? Mauritius. 

Parmacella mamitius, Ferussac, Bull. Sci. Nat. 1827, x. 300. 
Hab. Isle of France [Rang). 

" J\Ir. Rang sent Ferussac a drawing and a specimen of the 
shell and animal. It is allied to P. Pallioium of the Brazils, but 
is very distuict from it and its congeners." Not further described. 



PULMOXATA. 61 

These five species may not belong to this genus ; but the 
partial exposure of the shell is not mentioned, anil therefore 1 
suspect it is closed, more especially as they are compared with 
**^ Drusia Valenciennii. 

See also " Parmacella Olivieri," Eichwald, Fauna Caspio-Cau- 
casica, t. . f . , copied Mrs. Gray's Fig. Moll. t. 282. f. 1 : 
from the Caucasus. 



4. GIRASIA. 

Body united to the back of the foot, only separated by the 
convex hinder edge. Shell partly exposed, ovate, exi)anded,with a 
solid apex. Back of the neck under the collar with three grooves, 
the central groove between the tentacles double-edged, the lateral 
one single, bent down on each side to the sides of the head at 
the back of the lower tentacles ; the head is only ])artly retractile, 
so that the base of the upper tentacles, w hich are comjiletely re- 
tracted, are exposed on the top of the head like two perforations. 
The aperture of the generative organs is rather behind tlie base 
of the right tentacle. The hinder part of the Ijody attached to 
the back of the foot nearly to its hinder enil, whicli is separated 
from the deep concavity on the back of the foot by a deep lunate 
cross groove. In all these particulars, the animal exactly agrees 
with the Portuguese species of Drusia. 

1. GiRASIA HOOKERI. B.M. 

Shell oblong, elongate, slender, arched concentrically, very 
thin, horny, wrinkled ; thicker, but equally horny, in the ujjper 
part of the centre ; the apex thick, white, solid, suboblong, elon- 
gate ear-shaped, with a lateral submarginal spire of half a whorl. 

Hab. India, Khasya {Dr. Joseph Hooker). 

2. GiRASIA? RUTELLCM. 

Animal bright gamboge-yellow, with four tentacles ; posterior 
portion of the body behind the shell keeled; shield strengthened 
internally with a shovel-shaped shell of a ])early or nacreous 
ap])earance. obtuse and globose at the apex, with a deep sinus, 
covered with a thin transparent ei)idermis, transversely wrinkled 
by the hues of growth; colour white. Length i, breadth about 
\ of an inch. 
Parma(;ellus rutellum, Uutton, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1849, 

p. 649 ; Arch. Naturg. 1852, p. 289. 
Hab. Afghanistan ; Candahar. In April crepuscular. 



62 PULMOXATA. 

Perhaps the same as the fomier, but the shell does not agree, 
and the description does not mention the aperture in the man- 
tle, &c. 

3. GiRASIA EXTRANEA. 

" Shell a thin horny pelhcle, without any appearance of a 
spire. Mantle with a" circular opening showing the brownish 
pellicle. Foot truncated behind, with a subcaudal pore the 
whole height of the truncation, with a veiy strong keel above to 
the back of the shield. The body encased in a nick in the back." 
• — Ferussuc. 
Limax (Arion) extraneus, Fe'russac, Hist. Moll. ii. .96. 2. t. 8 F. 

f. 5, 7 ; Bull. Sci. Nat. 1827, x. 300. 
Parmacella (extranea). Gray, Fig. Moll. iv. 113. t. . f . . 

Hab. ? 

" We have not found in these two species {Arion Rangii and 
A. extraneus), contracted in spirits, the orifice of the organs of 
generation." — Fer. Bull. Sci. Nat. x. 300. 

M. Deshayes, in his description of Fe'russac's figure, appears 
to have overlooked this authentic description of the animal. 

4. GiRASIA? PROBLEMATICA. 

Mantle much-produced, forming a collar in front. Body con- 
vex and raised behind. Foot small, short. 

" Shell yellow, convex externally, concave internally, like a 
half egg-shell."— DesA. from Fe'russac's figure. 
Limax (Arion) problematicus, Fe'russac, Hist. Moll. ii. 93 ^. 

t. 8 F. f. 13-18 (16, 17 a shell?). 
Parmacella (problematica), Gray, Fig. Moll. t. . f . . 

Hab. ? 



5. JtlARIJlLLA. 

Mantle or body convex, produced like a fleshy collar in front, 
swollen behind, and separated from the upper part of the foot, 
in a cavity of which it lies ; fringed on the side. Foot com- 
pressed, truncated, and with an elongate perpendicular gland 
behind. 

Shell quite hidden by the mantle, half ovate, solid, with a thin, 
horny, more or less expanded edge. 
" Clypeidella, Valenc. MSS." B.M., not Clypidella, Swainson. 



PULMONATA. 



63 



1. MARIiELLA DUSSUMIERI. B.M. 

Foot proiluced beliiiul, keeled, truncated with a double edge. 
Mantle shield-like, free in front, convex, and separated behind 
by a distinct groove from the front jjart of the back of the foot ; 
smooth above, with three slight keels on the hinder part, the 
central one the longest and most distinct. Back without the 
least appearance of a hole. Back of the neck with three grooves, 
central double, lateral diverging to the hinder part of the side of 
the head. 

Shell completely hidden, half ovate, elongate, solid, white, 
with a thin narrow corneous margin ; apex subtenninal on the 
right hinder edge, internally horny, only slightly concave. 
" Clypeidella Dussumieri, Valeric. MSS.," French collection 

jyur chased in London. 
Hab. Mahi, near Sechelles {M. Dussumier). 



b. Body and shell subglobose, distinctly spiral. 
* Shell entirely and permanently covered with the mantle. 

6. LACONIA. 

Shell subglobose, entirely and permanently covered with a thin 
expansion of the mantle. Spire of few whorls, last verj- large. 
Aperture very large, lunate. Mantle edged, produced in front, 
forming a broad collar. 

1. Laconia Ferussaci. 

Vitrina, sp. ? Desh. in Ferussac Hist. Moll. t. 8 F. f. 10, 11. 

Gray, Fig. Moll. i. 286. f. 3. 
Hab. Unknown. 

Only known by Ferussac's figure. 



** Shell permanently covered by the thin reflexed edge of the 
mantle, leaving the central portion more or less exposed. 

7. PARMACELLUS. 

Shell subglobose, spiral, partly and permanently covered by the 
mantle ; the front of the mantle rather produced, forming a small 
fleshy collar ; the hinder part rather convex. 



64 PULMONATA. 

Pannapelle (Parmacellus), Cuv. Ann. Mus. v. (1804) 435; Mem. 
Moll. n. xii. ; Rey. Anim. ii. 403. ed. 2. 

Philippi, Handb. Conch. 240. 
Parniiicella (§ B), Bluinv. Man. Malac. 463. 
Parniacella, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 170. n. 441. 

Montfort, Conch. Syst. 

Ferussac distinctly sajs, " Point de pore miiqueux terminal," 
which induced me to place this genus in Limacina {Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1847, 170) ; but he iders to Peltdln and not to Parmacella 
Olivieri. 

1. Parmacellus Olivieri. 

Parmacella Olivieri (Parmacelle d'Olivier), Ciivier, Ann. Mus. 

V. 435. t. -29. f. 12, 15; Mem. Moll. xii. t. ; cop. Lanik. E. 

M. 4(i3. t. 3 a, b. 

Blainv. Man. Malac. 463. t. 41. f. 3. 
Parmacellus Olivieri, Feruss. Tab. Syst. 25. 96 c, Hist. Moll. 

ii. 79. t. 7. f. 2, 5. 
Parmacella Mesopotamiae, Oken, Lehrb. Natirrg. 307. t. 9. f. — 

(from Cuvier). 
Hub. Mesopotamia. 

It appears that Ohvier only found a single specimen, which 
was described and dissected by Cuvier. Fcrussac says that neither 
the shell nor the animal is now to be found in the Paris ^Museum 
(Hist. Moll, ii.), so that the species must remain in doubt until 
specimens are brought from JNIeso])otaniia. 

In the figure the hinder part of the foot is large and high, 
which separates it from the following ; the figure also shows a 
distinct spiral tip to the body. 

M. Morelet is inclined to regard the Testacella ambigua of 
Sowerby as the shell of Parmacella Olivieri; but this shell 
shows lio indication of the spiral apex to the body which is re- 
presented in Cuvier's figures. (See Moll. Port. 42 ; Journ. 
Conch, iii.) 

2. Parmacellus gracilis. B.M. 
Foot slender behind, upper part keeled. Shell large, ear- 
shaped, convex. Spire very obscure (injured) (verj- thin), white, 
rather ])early and striated" within, covered with a thick, hard, 
olive, polished periostraca produced beyond the edge of the thin, 
white, calcareous part. 

" Parmacella Olivieri," French collection purchased in London. 
Hub. ? 



PLLMONATA. 65 

Body convex, rounded, quite free nearly to the respiratory 
aperture, and lying on a Hat place on the back of the foot, with 
a keeled edge on the margin of the hinder ])art. Back of the 
neck with three grooves, the central one double, the lateral bent 
down to the hinder part of the side of the head. Orifice of 
generation at the hinder base of the right tentacle. Respiratory 
aperture in the middle of the mantle shield ; mantle with a large 
central hole, exposing part of the shell. Foot slender, com- 
pressed, keeled at the upper edge, truncated behind ; subcaudal 
gland distinct, ])eii)endicular. Teeth numerous, in very close 
crowded cross lines, compressed, with a flat ridge ending in two 
teeth. 

3. Parmacellus punctatus. — Van Hasself, Bull. Sci. Nat. 

1824, iii. 82. 
Hab. Java. 

4. Parmacellus t^niatus. — Van Hasselt, Bull. Sci. Nat. 

1824, iii. 82. 
Hab. Java. 

5. Parmacellus reticulatus. — Van Hasselt, Bull. Sci. 

Nat. 1824, iii. 82. 
Hab. Java ; higher regions. 

These three species are not described. M. Van Hasselt ob- 
serves, that they all have a slit in the envelope which covers the 
shell : this slit is usually closed, but the animal can at will open 
it so widely as almost entirely to expose the shell. 



*** Shell exposed, more or less covered by the thickened edge 
of the collar of the mantle, or by fleshy processes of the 
mantle which are expanded over it. 

8. VITRINELLA. 

Shell imperforate and veiy slightly perforated ; spire conic ; 
whorls rapidly enlarging, last large, rounded or keeled. Peri- 
stome simple, not reflexed. 

Animal : the hinder ])art of the mantle jiroduced and more or 
less covering the hinder jjart of the j)enultimate whorl. Foot 
truncated behind, subcaudal glaiul linear. 

Vitrina, sp., Qiioy ^* Gaimard, Voy. Astrol. ii. 136. 
Naniua, sp., Beck, Index; Pfeiffer, Monoy. 



66 



PULMONATA. 



1. VlTRINELLA FLAMMULATA. 

Shell depressedly globose, perforated, pellucid, fragile, smooth, 
fulvous, zoned with red flamelets ; aperture semi-lunate, sinistral 
margin not inflected ; whorls three and a half, slightly convex. 
Lat. raaj. 6, miu. 5, alt. 34 lin. 

Animal : back of the mantle produced and covering the hinder 
part of the penultimate v/\iovL—Voy . Astrol. t. 2. f . 3, 7 ; Gray, 
Fig. Moll. t. 71. f. 3. 

Helix flammulata, Quoy Sc Gaim. Astrol. Zool. ii. 136. t. 11. 
f. 5-7. 

Pfr.Mon.Helic. i. 61. 
Vitrina flammulata, Lam. ed. Desk. vii. 730. n. 6. 
Nanina flammulata, Gray, Fi(j. Moll. iv. 111. 

Pfr. Symb. ii. 63. 
Hah. Celebes. 

2. VlTRINELLA VIRIDIS. 

Shell solid, discoidal, strongly keeled, convex above, globose 
beneath, green ; zoned with a yellow band ; whorls four and a 
half, nearly plane ; aperture ample, triangular ; peristome sim- 
ple, acute ; umbilical fissure scarcely distinct. Lat. 9, alt. 6 lin. 

Animal : mantle produced behind, covering the hinder part of 
the penultimate whorl. — Voy. Astrol. t. 2. f. 16 ; Gray, Fig. 
Moll.t. 71. f. 1. 
Vitrina vii-idis, Qiioy Sf Gaim. Astrol. ii. 138. t. 11. f. 16-18. 

Lam. ed. Desk. vii. 730, n. 7- 
Nanina viridis. Beck, Lid. 4. 

Gray, Fig. i»/o/Z. iv. 1 1 1 . 
Helix viridis, Pfr. Mon, Helic. i. 82. 
Hab. Celebes. 

3. VlTRINELLA . 

Vitrina couverte, Eydoux, Voy. 

Nanina , Gray, Fig. Moll. iv. 111. t. 288. f. 3. 

Not described. 

9. HELICARION. 

Animal large ; neck elongate ; mantle edge with some small 
lobes reflexed over the shell. 

Shell im])erforate, very thin, depressed ; spire short ; last 
whorl very large ; mouth large, lunate or rovmded ; pillar edge 
rather inflexed. 



PULMONATA. 



67 



Helixai-ion, Ferussac, Prod. 1819. 
Helicarion, Ferussac, Tab. Sysf. 23, 24, 1821. 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 184/, H'9. n. 431. 
Helicolimax (/3. Helicarion), Blainr. Man. Malac. 462 & 654. 
Vitrina, sp., Pfeijfer, Monogr. ii. 492. 

Australasian. 

1. Helicarion Cuvieri. 

Shell heliciform, subglobose, depressed, sharply striated, 
greenish-brown ; whorls ?, the last very ample, rounded ; aper- 
ture rounded, lunar, inner side simple ? ; columella scarcely spiral. 
Length 5-^, breadth 4^, axis 3^ lin. 
Hehcarion Cuvieri, Fer. Pr. 20; Hist. t. 9. f. 8 ; t. 9 A. f. 1, 2. 

Blainv. Bid. Sc. Nat. xx. 482. 

Beck, Lid. p. 2. n. 1. 
Vitrina Cuvieri, Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825, ix. 408. 

Sow. Gen. n. 11 ? 

Reeve, Conch. Syst. ii. t. 162. f. 2 ? 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 507. 

Desh. I. c. 96.21. n. 10. 
Vitrina Australasite, Blainv. 1 
Hab. Australia? 

2. Helicarion Freycineti. 

Shell depressed, rather thin, smooth, shining, opake, pale 
fidvous ; spire scarcely convex ; suture linear ; whorls 3, rapidly 
increasing, the highest nearly level, the last depressed, rounded, 
rather w ider at the base ; aperture scarcely oblique, transversely 
lunar-oblong ; peristome simple, narrowly membranous, mar- 
gined all round, upper margin scarcely dilated in front ; colu- 
mellar margin not receding, shghtly arched. Lat. raaj. 19, 
min. 14, alt. 8 mill. 
Helixarion Frevcineti, Frr.Pr.ii.20; His^.t.9A.f.3, 4; t.9B.f.2. 

Blainv. Diet. Sc. Nat. xx. 482. 
Helicarion Frevcineti, Fer. in Voy.de Freyc.Zool. p. 465. t. 67. f. 1 . 

Beck, Ind. p. 2. n. 2. 
Vitrina Frevcineti, Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825, ix. 408. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 508. 

Desk. Z. c. 96. 22.n. 11. 
Vitrina Cuvieri, Sow. Gen. 11. f. 2 (Beck). 
Helicolimax Australasia", Blainv. Diet. Sc. Nat. xxxii. 255. 
Helix (Vitrina) Helicarion, Voigt in Cuv. Thierr. iii. 76. 
Hab. Port Jackson, Australia. 



68 pulmonata. 

3. Helicarion nigra. 

Shell oval, nearly plane, rufous ; aperture ellijitical, ample, left 
margin slightly inflected ; whorls four, the last very large. Lat. 6, 
alt. 2i lin. 

Animal black, large, neck elongate, contractile into the shell. — 
Qtioy. 

Vitrina nigra, Quoy ^- Gaim. Astrol. ii. 135. t. 11. f. 8, 9. 

Lam. ed Desk. vii. 730. n. 5. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 50.9. 
Hab. Port Western, Australia. 

Australasian : animal not known. Perhaps Vitrinse. 

4. Helicarion Strangei. 

Shell depressed, very thin, smooth, shining, brownish or green- 
ish horn- coloured; spire small, scarcely convex, with a minute, 
lateral apex ; suture impressed, slightly bordered ; whorls three, 
scarcely convex, enlarging rapidly, the last depressed above, 
rounded at the periphery, more convex beneath ; aperture oblique, 
large, lunate, nearly circular ; peristome simple, rather blunt ; 
with the margins approaching each other ; right margin dilated 
forwards, coluraellar margin receding, strongly arched, with a 
verv narrow membranaceous edge. Height 5, greatest breadth 
10,' least breadth 7h mill. (Pfr.) 

Vitrina Strangei, Pfr. in Proc. Z. S. 1849, 132; Mon. Suppl 5 ; 

Ic. t. 2. f. 9-12. 
Hab. Brisbane, East coast of Australia (Strange). 

This shell resembles much the figm'e of V. nigra, Quoy, but 
it may be easily distinguished by the number of its whorls and 
by the receding columellnr margin. 

5. Helicarion Milligani. 

Shell depressed ovate, rather solid, polished, very shining, of 
an olivaceous blackish colour ; sjHre convex ; whorls three, en- 
larging ra})idly, the penultimate one convex, the last depressedly 
rouuded, rather broad beneath ; aperttn-e very oblique. Innately 
ovate, of the same colour within ; ])eristome simple, a little in- 
flected ; right margin dilated forwards, columellar margin slightly 
arched. Height lOs, greatest breadth 2'2\, least breadth 16 
mill. [Pfr.) 

Vitrina Milligani, Pfr. in Proc.Z.S. 1851, p. ; Mon. Siippl. p. 4. 
Hab. A small island in Macquarie Harbour, Van Diemen's 
Laud {Milligan). 



PULMONATA. 



69 



This curious shell is very like young specimens of H. Busbyi, 
Gray, but im])erforate. 

6. IIelicarion Verreauxii. 

Shell depressed, slightly striated, thin, diaphanous, little 
shining, of an olivaceous-fulvid colour ; si)ire nearly flattened ; 
suture impressed, bordered ; whorls three and a half, enlarging 
rapidly, the last depressed, narrow and rather flat beneath ; 
aperture very oblique, large, lunarly ovate ; peristome simple, 
sharp, with the margins approximated to each other, right mar- 
gin curved forwards, columellar margin shortly receding, slightly 
arched. Height 6, greatest breadth 13, least breadth 6 mill. (Pfr.) 
Vitrina Verreauxii, Pfr. in Proc.ZooI. Soc. 1849, p. 132; Mon. 

Stfppl. p. 5. 
Hab. Australia (Verreaux). 

7. Helicarion castanea. 

Shell depressed, with the periphery ovate, slightly striated, 
very polished, chestnut-coloured ; spire flat; whorls three, scarcely 
convex, the last large, with a broad membranaceous edge be- 
neath ; aperture a little oblique, lunate-oval ; peristome with a 
yellow stripe behind its membranaceous margin. Height 5, 
greatest breadth 9, least breadth 7 mill. {Pfr.) 
Vitrina castanea, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Mon. 

Suppl. p. 5; Ic. t. 6. f. 1-4. 
Hab. Australia. 

8. Helicarion robusta. 

Shell helicoid, transverse, depressed-globose, rather strong, 
polished, veiy bright, pale yellowish-green, striated with regular, 
obtuse lines of growth ; s])ire obtuse ; whorls three, the last large ; 
apex subcentral ; rounded beneath ; aj)erture rounded, left mar- 
gin reflected above, forming a small umbilical fissure. Breadth i, 
axis \ poll. 
Vitrina robusta, Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. 1846, 181 ; Eicjjed. 

Shells, 1851, 10. f. 11. 
Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 508. 
Hab. East coast of Australia. 

Polynesian : animal unknown. Perhaps Vitrina*. 

9. Helicarion Keppelli. 

Shell depressed, with the periphery oblong, thin, slightly and 
arcuately striated, principally near the suture, highly polished. 



/U PULMONATA. 

pellucid, greenish white ; spire flat, with the apex subtle, but 
scarcely prominent; suture impressed, indistinctly bordered; 
whorls scarcely three, eularjjing rajjidly, the last convex and 
narrow beneath ; aperture large, oblique, ovate ; peristome 
simple, straight r right margin dilated forwards, columellar mar- 
gin strongly arched, with a slight membranaceous edge. Height 6, 
greatest breadth 14, least breadth 10 mill. {Pfr.) 
Vitrina Keppelh, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1853, 51 ; Hon. Suppl. 622; 

Ic. t. 6. f. 8-10. 
Hab. New Caledonia [Capt, Keppel). 

10. Helicarion zebra. 

Shell rounded, umbdicated, dejjressed-convex above, more 
convex beneath, hyaline, ornamented with obliquely wavy flame- 
lets of white and chestnut colour ; whorls four, thinly striated 
above ; aperture rather dilated ; umbilicus very small. Breadth 7j 
axis 5 mill. 
Vitrina zebra, Le Guill. in Revue Zool. 1842, 136. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 509. 
Hab. Auckland Islands. 

11. Helicarion tenella. 

Shell small, amber-like, subperforate, conspicuously striated 
with lines of growth ; spire rounded, apex subcentral ; whorls 
three, cotivex, declining ; suture channelled ; aperture nearly 
circular ; lip arched in front. Breadth ^, axis ^\ poll. 
Vitrina tenella, Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. 1846, 181 ; Exped. Shells, 

1851, 11. f. 10. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 509. 
Hab. Sandwich Islands. 

12. Helicarion caperata. 

Shell helicoid, depressed-globose, obtusely angled at the cir- 
cumference, thin, suboi)ake, furrowed with conspicuous lines of 
growth and oblique, branching wrinkles, especially above, pale 
fulvous-horny, perforation covered ; spire of three and a half 
convex whorls, rapidly increasing ; suture deep ; apex subcentral ; 
aperture nearly circular ; lip sim))le, bent over the umbilicus ; 
columella simulating a callus, passing into the second spire. 
Lat. max. ^^o? alt. \ poll. 

Vitrina caperata, Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. 1846, 181 ; Exped. 
Shells,\Sb\, 10. f. 9. 
Pfr. Moil. Helic. ii. 509. 
Hab. Sandwich Islands. 



PULMONATA. 71 

13. Helicarion PLANOSPIRA. 

Shell ovate, thin, slightly striated, pellucid, shining, greenish 
hovn-eoloured ; spire small, flat ; suture scarcely impressed ; 
whorls three, enlarging very rapidly, the last depressed above, 
more convex and narrow beneath, with a slight membranaceous 
edge ; aperture large, very oblique, lunate-roundish, somewhat 
pearly within ; peristome thin : right mai'gin arcuately dilated 
forwards and slightly expanded, columellar margin strongly 
arched. Height 7, greatest breadth 13, least breadth 10 mill. 
(P/r.) 
Vitrina planospira, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1853, 51 ; Mon. Suppl. 623 ; 

Ic. t. 6. f. 14-16. 
Hab. Salomon's Islands. 

14. Helicarion dimidiata. 

Shell much-depressed, with the periphery ovate, veiy thin, 
sculptured with minute arcuate striae, silky shining, pale horn- 
colom-ed ; spire nearly flat ; whorls two and a quarter, which are 
open beneath, with a very narrow membranaceous edge ; aper- 
ture horizontal, as large as the whole shell ; peristome simple, 
with regularly curved margins. Height Ig-, greatest breadth 54, 
least breadth" 4 mill. (P/V.) 

Vitrina dimidiata, Pfr. in Proc. Z. S. 1851 ; Mon. Suppl. 6. 
Hab. New Zealand {Strange). 

15. Helicarion Salomonia. 

Shell globose-conic, extremely thin, sculptured with crowded 
oblique folds, pellucid, shining, brownish-olivaceous; spire conic, 
rather blunt ; suture impressed ; whorls four, convex, the last 
forming about three-fifths of the total length ; aperture obhque, 
ovate ; peristome simple, straight, with regularlv arched margins. 
Length 11, breadth \) mill. {Pfr.) 

Vitrina Salomonia, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1853, 51 ; Mon. Suppl. 623 ; 

Ic. t. 6. f. 17-iy. 

Hab. Salomon's Islands. 

Asiatic. 

16. Helicarion irradians. B.M. 

Shell depressed, with the periphery ear-shaped, thin, with 
crowded, arcuate, radiating impressed lines, obsoletely decus- 
sated with irregular spiral striie, diaphanous, scarcely shining, of 
a cinnamon hora-colour above ; spire small, raised into a slight 
papilla ; suture impressed, bordered ; whorls nearly foiu-, rather 



72 PULMONATA. 

flat, enlarging rapidly, the last depressed, more convex beneath ; 
aperture very oblique, lunate, nearly circular ; peristome simjile, 
thin, with the columellar margin regularly arched. Height 8j, 
greatest breadth 18^, least breadth 14 mill. [Pfr.) 
Animal brown. — B.M. 

Vitrina iiTadians, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851 ; Mon. Suppl, 
p. 3. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

Asiatic : animal unknoicn. Perhaps Vitrinae. 

17- Helicarion Ceylanica. 
Not described. 

Vitrina Cevlanica, Beck, Index, 2. n. 12 ; Mus. R. C. \'iii. t. 1. f. 3. 

Pfr. Mon. ii. 503 ; Ic. t. 6. f. 34-38. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

18. Helicarion papillata. 

Shell depressed, thin, nearly smooth, bright, pellucid, pale 
flesh-coloured ; spire nearly level, papillated in the middle ; su- 
ture deeply impressed, margined ; whorls three and a half, slightly 
convex, striatulate near the suture, the last depi'essed, sometimes 
sculptvu'ed with obsolete spiral lines, periphery rounded, base 
rather wide ; aperture very oblique, ample, rounded-lunar, wider 
than high ; peristome thin, upper margin dilated above, colu- 
mellar receding, much-arched. Lat. maj. 10, min. 8, alt. 5 mill. 

Vitrina papillata, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848 ; Mon. Helic. 

ii. 502. 
Hab. Luzon, Philippines. 

19. Helicarion planulata. 

Shell much-depressed, subdiscoidal, nearly smooth, bright, 
flesh-coloured ; si)ire nearly level ; suture impressed ; whorls 
three, very slightly convex, very rapidly increasing, the last de- 
pressed, narrow at the base ; ajierture ver}" ample, veiy oblique, 
lunar, transversely dilated ; peristome tliin, upper margin dilated 
in front, columellar far receding, arched. Lat. maj. 11, min. 8, 
alt. 4^ mill. 

Vitrina planulata, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848 ; Mon. Helic. 

ii. 502. 
Vitrina depressa. Beck, MSS., not Jeffr. 
Hah. Luzon, Philippines. 



pulmoxata. 73 

20. Helicarion aperta. 

Shell much de])ressed, slightly convex above, wide open at 
the base, smooth, subopake, gieenish-white ; spire minute, 
lateral ; suture smooth ; whorls two and a half, slightly convex, 
very narrow at the base, wide open, the last very large, smoothly 
vaulted ; aperture horizontal, ear-shaped, open to the apex ; pe- 
ristome quite simple. Lat. maj. 11, min. 8, alt. 3 mill. 

Vitrina aperta. Beck, ]\ISS. 

Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848 ; Mon. Helic. ii. 502. 
Hab. Luzon, Philippines. 

9*. Platycoster, only known from the following short ac- 
count, is probably one of the Vitriiice of Pfeiffer. " It approaches 
the genera Helix and Vitrina, but a difference in the shell in- 
duces me to separate it." — Hasselt. 
Platycoster, Hasselt, Bull. Sci. Nat. iii. 82, 1824 ; Proc. Zool. 

S'oc. 1847, 169. 

Philippi, Handh. Conch. 481. 
Helicopsis, sp.. Beck, Index, 1837. 

1. Platycoster corneus. 

Platycoster comeus, var., Hasselt, Bull. Sci. Nat. iii. 82, 1824. 

Hab. Java. 

10. NANINA. 

Shell perforated, depressed, polished, smooth above and below. 
Mouth lunate or lunate elliptical ; peristome the thickness of the 
shell, straight ; columellar lip short, reflexed, very often covering 
the perforation. Mantle edge thick, prominent, with a more or 
less large lobe on each side ; the left expanded on the lower 
part of the whorls. Foot narrow, truncated behind, with a 
short conical process above the truncation ; gland hnear, erect. 

Vitrina, sp., Quoy S)- Gaim. 

Blainv. Man. Malac. 654. 
Nanina (citrina). Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, ii. 58 ; 1847- 
Macrochlamys (vitrinoides), Benson, MSS. Journ. Asiat. Soc. 

Beng. 1832, j. 13, not described. 
Tanychlamys (vitrinoides), Bensow, MSS. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 

1834. 
Stenopus, part., Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 169. 
IIelico))sis, Beck, hid. 
Microcystis, Beck, Ind. 
Nauinia, Sow. Conch. Man. 198. 1842, misprint. 

B 



74 PULMONATA. 

Nanina (retrorsa) has very many teeth in a slightly doubly 
curved line ; the central tooth is simple ; the central lateral teeth 
have a broad double base ; the more external ones (the change is 
gradual) have a nan-ow double base, each of the lobes being 
bifid: — see Troschel, Wiegm. Arch. xv. (1849) 236. t. 4. f. (J, 
The upper jaw is simple, arched, entire. 

Dr. Albers divides this genus into four, with the following 
characters : — 

1. Xesta. Shell smooth, polished — N. citrina. 

2. Microcystis. Shell smaUish, verj' smooth ; month broad, 
subvertical — N. orhis. 

3. Hemiplecta. Shell above granular or decussate striated, 
beneath polished, last whorl more or less keeled — IV. bulla. 

4. Ryssota. Shell above rugose-striate, beneath poUshed, last 
whorl depressed, dilated in front — JV. Sowerbyana. 



a. Continental India. 

1. Nanina nana. 

Shell rather small, convex-conoidal, pale brownish ; whorls 
six to seven, closely convoluted, the last roimded ; apertiu-e ra- 
ther wide ; lip simple ; umbiUcus evanescent j apex veiT obtuse. 
Lat. 01 poll. 

Hehx nana, Hutton, Journ. As. Soc. vii. 218. pt. 1. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 31. 
Hab. Simla, Himalaya. 

2. Nanina cacuminifera. 

Shell with a covered umbihcus, conic, trochifoi-m, hom-co- 
loured ; spire attenuated towards the blunt, nipple-shaped apex ; 
whorls eight, slowly increasing, flattened above and marked 
with seven spiral, minutely granulate lines, with more minute 
similar intermediate ones ; last whorl acutely compressed and 
keeled, convex, ])olished and with radiating striae beneath ; aper- 
ture securiform ; peristome sharp, with the lip scarcely dilated 
and reflected above. Height 10, greatest breadth 19, least 
breadth 16 mill. 

Helix cacuminifera, Benson, in Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1850, 

arch, 214. 

Reeve, n. 744. t. 124. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 36. 
Hab. Neilgherries (Jerdon). 



PULMONATA. 75 

3. NaNINA FASTIGIATA. 

Shdl imperforate, elevate-conic, verj' thin, nearly smooth, 
little shining, pellucid, whitish horn-coloured ; spire conic ; apex 
rather pointed ; suture im])ressed, bordered ; whorls seven, mo- 
derately convex, the last acutely keeled, not descending an- 
teriorly, rather flat beneath and impressed in the centre ; aper- 
ture nearly perpendicular, depressed, somewhat quadrangular ; 
peristome simple, straight, with the margins almost parallel ; 
columellar margin short, callous. Height 4^, breadth 4 mill. 
(P/r.) 
Helix fastigiata, Hutton, Journ. As. Soc. vii. 217. pt. 1. 

Wiegm. Arch. 1839, ii. 222. 

Pfr. Mon. i. 37. n. 57; Ic. n. 919. t. 141. f. 15, 16 ; Mon. 
Suppl. 40. 

Reeve, n. 82.3. t. 133. 
Hub. Simla, Himalaya. 

4. Nanina vesicula. 

Shell perforate, conoidal-depressed, thin, nearly smooth, 
shining, translucent, pale horn-coloured ; spire short, conoidal, 
with the apex acuminate ; suture deep ; whorls six, the last one 
rounded, not descending, convex beneath ; apertiu-e nearly per- 
pendicular, luuate-rouuded, of equal height and breadth ; peri- 
stome simjjle, sharp, with the columellar margin perpendicular, 
reflected into a short, triangular lamina near the pei-foration. 
Height 7^5 greatest breadth 15, least breadth 13 mill. (Pfr.) 
Nanina vesicula, Benson, Journ. As. Soc. vii. 216. 

Albers 59 (Xesta) 
Helix vesicula, Pfr. Mon. i. 48. n. 88; Ic. n. 820. t. 129. f. 21, 

22 ; Mon. Suppl. 47. 
Hab. Himalaya Mountains. 

5. Nanina orcula. 

Shell scarcely perforate, conic- globular, thin, with irregular 
rib-like striae, rough, horn-coloured, translucent ; spire obtusely 
conic; suture deep; whorls three and a half, rounded, the last 
imperceptibly descencbng ; aperture very oblique, lunate-round- 
ish ; peristome simple, straight, with the margins somewhat 
convergent ; columellar margin a little reflected, half covering 
the perforation. Height If, breadth 2 mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix orcula, Benson, Ann. and Mag. N. H. 2nd ser. vi. 251. 

Pfr. Ic. n. 882. 1. 136. f. 18-20 ; Mon. Suppl. 42. 
Hab. Bengal and Bahar, India. 

e2 



"6 pulmonata. 

6. Nanixa Bimaensis. 

Shell subpeifoiate, obtusely conoidal, obliquely striate, quite 
milk-white ; spire elevated, w ith the apex blunt, polished ; whorls 
six and a half, flattened, not shining, as it were dusty above, 
flattened, shining beneath ; aperture roundish-trapeziform ; peri- 
stome simple, sharp ; columellar margin reflected at its insertion, 
almost covering the perforation. Height 31, greatest breadth 
32, least breadth 2!) mill. (.1/.) 

Nauina Bimaensis, Mousson, Fav. Moll. 111. t. 21. f. 1. 

Alb. 60 (Hemiplecta). 
Helix Bimaensis, Pfr. Mo?i. Suppl. 45. 
Ilab. Island of Bimah {Zollinger). 

7. Nanina rareguttata. 

Shell subperf orate, orbicularly conoidal, striated, nearly smooth, 
yellow, conspersed with scarcely elongated oily spots; whorls 
five and a half, enlarging rapidly, moderately convex, the last 
somewhat inflated, declivous above, convex beneath, uniform or 
with a single brownish band ; spire short, with the apex dia- 
phanous; aperture large, obliquely roundish-lunate, flesh-co- 
loured within ; peristome simple, straight ; columellar margin 
sharp, reflected at its insertion. Height 26, greatest breadth 32, 
least breadth 2G-5 mill. {M.) 

Helix rareguttata, Mousson, Fav. Moll. 112. t. 21. f. 3. 

Eeewe, n. 492. t. 91. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 45. 
Hab. Island of Bimah. 

8. Nanina trochus. 

Shell imperforate, trochiform, conic, white, with a broad red 
band, apex obtuse. Lat. 10 lin. 

HeUx trochus. Mull. Verm. ii. 79- »• 275. 

Chejnn. ed.2. Helix,n. 127. t. 21. f. 13, 14. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 46. 
Trochus hortensis, Chemn, ix. pt. 2. 52. t. 122. f. 1055, 1056. 
Nanina trochus. Beck, hid. 4. 
Hab. East Indies ? 

9. Nanina Zecythis. 

Shell scarcely perforate, conoiJal-depressed, thin, nearly 
smooth, shining, translucent, pale reddish horn-coloured, varie- 
gated with paler spots ; spire short, conoidal, rather acuminate ; 



PULMONATA. // 

suture moderate ; whorls six, very little convex, the last one 
broader, not descending, rather flattened beneath ; aperture 
nearly perpendicular, broadly lunate, its breadth surpassing its 
height; peristome simjile, sharp, with the columellar margin 
arcuate, somewhat declivous, very shortly reflected above. 
Height 7j greatest breadth 13, least breadth lOl mill. (Pfr.) 

Hehx Zeevthis, Benson in Ann. ^- Mng. N. H. 1852, May, 40(i. 
Pfr. Ic. n. 936. t. 143. f. 12-14 ; Man. Svppl. 47. ' 

^. Larger,with the spire more raised and seven whorls. Height 
9, breadth 15 mill. [Pfr. Ic. t. 143. f. 15.) 
Hob. Rajmahal Hills, India {Bacon). 



10. Nanina subjecta. 

Shell perforate, conoidally depressed, thin, striated, oily- 
shining, diaphanous, horn-coioured ; spire shortly conoidal, ra- 
ther pointed ; suture slight, whitish ; whorls six and a half, very 
little convex, the last broad, somewhat depressed, not descend- 
ing, httle convex beneath ; aperture not very oblique, roundish- 
lunate, broader than high ; peristome simple, straight, columellar 
margin slightly receding, arched, very shortly reflected above. 
Height 9, greatest breadth 17, least breadth 14 mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix spreta, Benson MSS. olim, not Adams. 

HeUx subiecta, Benson in Ann. c)- Mag. N. H. 1852, May, 4(17. 

Pfr. Ic. 935. t. 143. f. 9-11 ; Mon. Suppl. 48. 
Hab. Rajmahal Hills, India, 



11. Nanina nuda. 

Shell scarcely perforate, conoidally depressed, thin, faintly 
striated, pellucid, pale fulvid horn-coloured; spire conoidal, 
rather acute ; suture impressed, slightly bordered with white ; 
whorls six, moderately convex, the last larger, inflated, not de- 
scending ; aperture almost diagonal, roundish-lunate, broader 
than high ; peristome simi)le, straight, with the margins some- 
what convergent ; right margin arcuately dilated forwards, co- 
lumellar margin slightly receding, arched, dilated and reflexed 
above. Height 7, greatest breadth 11, least breadth 9f mill. 
(Pfr.) 
Hehx nuda, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. ; Ic. n. 1102. 

t. 1(51. f. IG, 17 ; Mon. Suppl. 48. 
Reeve, n. 781. t. 129. 
Hab. Himalaya Mountains {Fortu?ie). 



78 



PULMONATA. 



12. Nanina glauca. B.M. 

Shell subperforate, orbiculate-conoidal, quite glabrous, bright, 
bluish-hyaline; spire elevated, rather acute; whorls six and a 
half, slightly convex, the last much wider, rounded; aperture 
subvertical, lunar ; peristome simple, straight ; columellar margin 
scarcely dilated, nearly closing the perforation. Lat. maj. 12i, 
min. 11, alt. 7f mill. 

Nanina glauca, Benson (teste Busch). 
Helix glauca, Bens. Pfr. Symb. iii. 65. 

Phil. Icon. iii. 17, HeUx, t. 10. f. 8. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 539. t. 87. f. 1-3. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 48 ; 7c. ii. 118. 

Reeve, n. 771. t. 128. 
Nanina (Xesta) glauca, Alb. 59. 
Hab. Bengal. 



13. Nanina fragilis. 

Shell thin, fi-agile, glassy, olivaceous, conic-discoidal ; spire 
slightly exserted, apex obtuse ; whorls five, convex above, sub- 
planulate beneath ; aiierture oblique, rounded-ovate ; peristome 
acute. Lat. 035 poll. 

Nanina fragihs. Button, Journ. As. Soc. vii. 216. 
Helix fragihs, Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 48. 

Bens, in Ann. S,- Mag. Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. ii. 163. 
Hab. Kirmalliah, Himalaya. 

14. Nanina Bajadera. 

Shell reversed, globose-conoidal, rather thin, fulvid, with 
strong longitudinal folds, which are smaller alternately ; spire 
conoidal, with the apex rather blunt, reddish-brown ; whorls fom-, 
rather convex, the last one inflate, rather sharply keeled in the 
middle, descending anteriorly, compressed beneath near the um- 
bilicus, which is extremely narrow; a))erture large, oblique, 
lunate-roundish ; peristome simple, straight : columellar margin 
broadlv dilated and reflected above. Height 20, gi-eatest breadth 
30, least breadth 25 mill. (Pfr.) 

Hehx Bajadera, Pfr. in Z.f. M, 1850, 69; Ic. n. 860. t. 133 
f. 10, 11 ; Mon. Suppl. 52. 
Reeve, n. 3S8. t. 75. 
Hab. Bombay {Benson), 



PULMONATA. 



79 



15. Nanina oblita. B.M. 
Shell perforate, rather lenticular, very thin, with crowded ar- 
cuate folds above ; pellucid, jKile horn-coloured ; sinre depressed- 
turbinate, rather pointed ; whorls six, very little convex, the last 
not descending anteriorly, surrounded at the periphery with an 
obtuse, denticulated keel, more convex and with radiating stria; 
beneath ; aperture little oblique, lunate ; peristome simple, thin, 
straight : basal margin slightly arched, shortly reflected near the 
perforation. Heiglit 11 5, greatest breadth 2.i, least breadth 20 
mill. (P/r.) 

Helix oblita, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Mon. Suppl 54. 

Reeve, n. 444. t. 83. 
Hab. India. 

16. Nanixa Baconi. 

Shell narrowly perforate, depressed turbinate, verj- thin, i)el- 
lucid, pale horn-coloured, elegantly decussate by wrinkled stria; 
and silky shining above, ])olished beneath with radiating striae ; 
spire coiioidal, with the apex rather pointed, brownish ; suture 
impressed; whorls five, rather convex, slowly increasing, the 
upper ones bordered above with a reddish-brown narrow band, 
the last one not descending anteriorly, keeled, convex beneath ; 
aperture nearly perpendicular, lunate, angular ; peristome sharp, 
with the margins convergent ; columellar margin perpendicular, 
forming a rounded angle, with the basal one very shortly reflected 
above. Height Si, greatest breadth 14, least breadth 13 mill. 
(Pfr.) 
Helix Baconi, Benson, in Ann. Sf Mag. Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. vi. 251. 

Pfr. Ic. u. 917. t. 141. f. 11,12; Mon. Suppl. 55. 
Hab. Moradabad, North India {Bacon). 

17. Nanina Jenynsi. 

Shell subperforated, turbinated, striatulate, thin, shining, 
keeled, milky, with one brown band above the keel ; spire short, 
conical, acute ; whorls five and a half, very slightly convex, the 
last more convex beneath ; aperture angularly lunar ; peristome 
simple, acute; columellar margin slightly reflected above, nearly 
closing the perforation. Lat. maj. 12, min. 11, alt. 71 mill. 
Helix Jenynsi, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845. 131 ; Mon. Helic. \. 

81; /c. n. 821.t. 129. f. 23,24. 
Phil. Icon. \\. 11.86. t. 7.f. 8. 
Nanina (Xesta) Jenynsi, Alb. 59. 
Hab. ? 



80 pulmonata. 

18. Nanina infula. 

Shell subperforate, trochiform, thin, pellucid, whitish horn- 
coloured, with the upper surface little shining, shghtly striate 
and girdled with elevated, concentric, somewhat distant lines ; 
spire conic, with the apex rather pointed ; whorls six, moderately 
convex, the last one keeled, more shining and nearly smooth 
beneath ; aperture rather oblique, transversely square, lunate ; 
peristome simjjle, sharp, straight; columellar margin nearly jier- 
pendicular, a little dilated and very shortly reflected above. 
Height 7, greatest breadth 8, least breadth 7i mill. {Pfr.) 

HelLx infula, Benson, in Ann. Sf Mag. N. H. 2nd ser. ii. 160. 
Pfr. Ic. n.804. t. 12?. f. 24, 25; Mon. Suppl. 58. 
Reeve, n. 783. t. 129. 
Helix turbiniforniis, Benson, in Journ. As. Soc. (olim). 
Hab. From the vicinity of the town of Murshedabad, Bengal, 
and of the Hill of Patharghata in the province of Bahar, 
India. 



19. Nanina Barrakporensis. 

Shell subperforate, raised-trochiforra, thin, faintly striated, 
shining, pellucid, brownish horn-colom-ed ; spire conic, rather 
acuminate ; suture deep ; whorls six, convex, enlarging gradually, 
the last keeled, not descending, rather convex beneath ; aperture 
scarcely oblique, depressed, lunate, somewhat angular ; peristome 
simple, thin, straight ; columellar margin short, a little reflected 
near the punctiform perforation. Height 3^, breadth 3^ mill. 
(Pfr.) 
Helix Barrakporensis, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Ic. 

n. 969. t. 147. f. 20-22; Mon. Supjil. 59. 
Reeve, n. 816. t. 132. 
Hab. Barrakpore, India (Bacon). 

20. Nanina semifusca. 

Shell orbiculate, depressed, thin, fragile, horny, smooth, slightly 
angidated at the margin, perforated beneath ; aperture ovate 
semilunar, margins very thin, acute ; whorls narrow, slightly 
convex. Lat. maj. 18, min. 15, alt. 9 mill. 
Helix semifusca. Desk, in Belanger, Voy. Zool. p. 414. t. 1. 

f. 8-10. 

Pfr. Mon. Ilelic. i. 54. 
Hab. Pondicherrv. 



pulmonata. 81 

21. Nanina striata. B.M. 

Shell rather solid, subpellucid, whitish ; pcriostraciim thin, oli- 
vaceous ; spire slightly convex, closely striiited transversely ; the 
last whorl nearly smooth in front. Lat. 15, alt. 9 lin. 

Nanina striata. Gray in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, 59. 

Miill. Synops. 5. 
Helix striata, Pfr, Mon. Helic. i. 55. 
Hub. ? 

22. Nanina decussata. 

Shell perforate, depressed, thin, nearly smooth, veiy minutely 
decussated above under a strong lens, silky shining, pale reddish 
horn-coloured ; spire little raised ; apex blunt ; sutiu-e slight, 
bordered ; whorls six, moderately convex, enlarging gradually, 
the last not descending, obsoletely angled at its periphery, rather 
flattened beneath ; aperture little oblique, depressed, lunate, 
somewhat angular ; peristome simple, straight, with distant mar- 
gins ; columellar margin scarcely arched, declivous, very shortly 
reflected above. Height 1 1, greatest breadth 25, least breadth 
2U mill. (Pfr.) 

Helix decussata, Benson, Pfr. Mon. i. 70. n. 158; Ic. n.92'J. 
t. 141. f. 23, 24 ; Mon. Swppl. 62. 
Reeve, n. 743. t. 124. 
Hab. Bengal. 

23. Nanina vitrinoides. B.M. 

Shell subperforate, depressed, thin, smooth, fragile, pale homv ; 
spire scarcely elevated; suture margined; whorls six, very slightly 
convex, the last wide, more convex beneath; aperture widely 
lunar ; peristome simple, straight, acute, columellar margin 
scarcely retlected. Lat. maj. 23, min. 21, alt. 12 mill. 

Animal, Gray, Fig. Moll. t. 71- f- 5. 

Helix vitrinoides. Desk, in Guer. Mag. 1831, t. 26 ; Encycl. 
Meth. ii. 225. n. 51. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 689. t. 110. f. 10-15. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 56. 

Strickland in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848, p. 142 ; Moll. t. 2. 

f. 1-3. 
Reeve, n. 151. t. 34. 
Helix ])etrosa, Hiift. Journ. Asiat. Soc. iii. 83. 

Pfr. Mon. i. 56. n. 114 (fide Benson in Ann. c^ Mag. N. H. 
2nd ser. ii. 163). 
Naoina (Xcsta) vitrinoides. Alb. 59. 

E 5 



82 PULMONATA. 

Nanina vitrinoides. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 183-4, 58; Fig. Moll. 

iv.lll.t. 71.f. 5. 
Helicella vitrinoides, Beck, hid. 6. 
Vitrina subcentralis, Beck, MSS. 
Hab. Bombay ; Philippines. 

24. Nanina resplendens. 

Shell subperforated, depressed, quite glabrous, shining, thin, 
pellucid, lutescent-horny ; s])ire slightly prominent ; whorls six 
and a half, slightly convex, increasing gradually, the last regu- 
larly augmented, slightly convex beneath, deeply impressed in 
the middle ; aperture nearly vertical, depressed, wide, lunar ; 
peristome simple, acute ; columellar margin descending very ob- 
liquely, basal very slightly reflected m the centre. Lat. maj. 19, 
min. 16^, alt. 9 mill. 

Helix resplendens, Phil, in Zeitschr.f. Malak. 1846, 192. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n.688. t. 110. f. 7-9. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 56. 

fieeve, n.430. t. 81. 
Nanina resplendens, Trosch. in Arch. f. Nat. 1849, i. 234. 

Alb. 59 (Xesta). 
Helix expolita, Desh. in Fer. i. 190. n. 255. t. 87. f. 1. 
Hab. Birmah, near Mergui. 

25. Nanina Maderaspatana. B.M. 

Shell very narrowly umbilicated, depressedly-globose, striately 
wrinkled, pale rufous, white-zoned and clouded ; whorls five to 
six, scarcely convex, t)ie last slightly inflated ; aperture oblique, 
lunate-oval ; peristome simple, rather thickened at the umbilicus, 
reflected. Lat. maj. 32, min. 26^, alt. 19 mill. 

Helix Maderaspatana, Gray in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, 67. 

Mail. Synops. 9. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 170. t. 31. f. 7, 8. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 63 ; 7c. i. 203. 

Reeve, u. 392. t. 75. 
Helix Korekouke (Helicella), Fer. Pr. 237 <^' illus. 

Desh. I. c. 180. n. 241. t. 102. f. 7-9. 
Nanina (Ryssota) Maderaspatana, Alb. 61. 
Helix pondicheriensis, Pfr. Symb. i. 38. 
Nanina Korekouke, Beck, hid. 4. 
Hab. E. India, Pondicherry, Maderaspatam, &c. 

26. Nanina lubrica. 

Shell perforate, depressed, indistinctly radiatingly striated, 



PULMONATA. 



83 



very polished, yellow-fulvid or olivaceous ; spire nearly flat, with 
the apex scarcely prominent, blunt ; suture slij;:;htly channeled ; 
whorls tive, the last rounded, convex beneath ; ajjerture scarcely 
oblique, broadly lunate ; peristome sharp, sometimes with a 
rather distant whitish internal lip ; columellar margin descend- 
ing obliquely, slightly sinuate, somewhat thickened and slightly 
reflexed above. Height 11, greatest breadth 24, least breadth 
20 mill. (B.) 

Helix lubrica, Benson in Ann. 4" Mag. N. H. 2nd ser. x. p. 

Reeve, n. . t. . 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 629. 
Hab. Darjiling, Sikkim-Himalaya (Trotter). 

27. Nanina honesta. 

Shell subperforated, orbiculate, smooth, bright, pellucid, horny- 
whitish ; spire depressedly conoidal, shghtly ])ai)illate ; whorls 
five, verv slightly convex, increasing gradually, the last obsoletely 
angulated at the outline, convex beneath ; aperture widely lunar; 
peristome simple, straight, basal margin smoothly arched, colu- 
mellar very slightly reflected above. Lat. maj. 13, min. lis, 
alt. 7^ mill- 
Helix honesta, Gould, 3ISS. 
Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 57, 
Reeve, n. 452. t. 84. 
Hab. Birmah. 

28. Nanina Perrotteti. 

Shell perforate, depressed, rather thin, smooth, lucid, horn- 
coloured ; spire scarcely subturbinate, with the apex rather 
pointed ; suture slight, simple ; whorls five and a half, scarcely 
convex, the last one somewhat depressed, not descending, rather 
flattened beneath; aperture nearly perpendicular, depressed, 
lunate; peristome simjile, straight, scarcely reflected near the 
open perforation. Heiglit 4, greatest breadth 8, least breadth 
7 mill. {Pfr.) 
Helix Perrotteti, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1851, 13 ; Ic. n. 1088. t. lo'J. 

f. 41-44; Mon. Suppl. (53. 
Hab. The Neilgherries {Perroitet, Gu&in) 1 

29. Nanina planiuscula. 

Shell rather small, depressed, brown, polished ; whorls five, 
the last rounded at the margin; aperture transverse. Lat. 01 
poll. 



84 PULMONATA. 

Helix planiuscula. Hutt. Journ. As. Soc. vii. pt. 1. p. 218. 

Pfr. Moti. Helic. i. 60. 
Hab. Simla, Himalaya. 

30. Nanina interrupta. B.M. 

Shell sinistral, orbiculate-convex, tumid beneath, nmbilicated, 
obtusely angled at the outline, very closely striated longitudi- 
nally, with interrupted bands transversely disposed above the 
striae; apex obtuse ; peristome thin, acute. Lat. — ? 

Hehx interrupta, Benson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, 90. 

Miill. Sy/wps. 10. 

Bens. Zool. Journ. v. 461. 

Pfr. Moil. Helic. i. 63. 
Ariophanta interrupta. Beck, Ind. 5. n. 4. 
Nanina interrupta, Pfr. Symb. ii. 63. 
Hab. India; Sicrigale. 

31. Nanina solata. 

Shell perforate, depressed-globose, radiately striated, shining, 
bluish-white, reddish-brown anteriorly and of a reddish-chestnut 
colour towards the apex, with very numerous ti-anslucent points, 
with one chestnut-coloured band above the angle of the penult 
whorl, and one to three obsolete bands beneath ; whorls five, mo- 
derately convex, the last rather angled, rounded anteriorly ; spire 
blunt ; aperture oblique, transversely ovate-lunate ; peristome 
brownish chestnut-coloured within, bordered with white ; labrum 
straight, deflected, with the columellar margin rather reflected, 
nearly covering the umbilicus. Height 11, greatest breadth 23, 
least breadth 18 mill. (B.) 

HelLx solata, Benson in Ann. Sf Mag. N. H. 2nd ser. ii. 15.9. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 67. 

Reeve, n. 741. t. 24. 
Hab. South India; The Neilgherries (Jerdon). 

32. Nanina Theodori. 

Shell perforated, depressed, thin, subdiaphanous, homy-lutes- 
cent, very closely costulated above, decussated with impressed 
concentric lines, smoother beneath, excentrically striatulated with 
concentric lines gradually vanishing towards the perforation ; 
spire scarcely elevated, rather obtuse ; suture impressed, obso- 
letely margined with red ; whorls six and a half, very slightly 
convex, gently increasing, the last obsoletely angidated ; aperture 
depressed, lunar ; peristome simple, straight, columellar margin 



PULMONATA. 85 

descending veiy obliquely, very slightly reflected above. Lat. 
maj. 26, min. 23, alt. 13 mill. 

Helix Theodori, Phil, in Zeifschr.f. Malcik. 1846, 191. 

Chemti. ed. 2, Helix, n. 6S7. t. 110. f. 1-3. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. /O. 
Nanina (Hemiplecta) Theodori, Alb. 60. 
Hub. E. Indies ; Mergui. 

33. Nanina bistrialis. B.M. 

Shell slightly perforated, globosely depressed, thin, fragile, 
very finely striated, under a lens decussated with close, obsolete 
striae, horny straw-coloured, zoned in the middle with two close 
red lines ; spire scarcely convex ; whorls four, nearly level, 
rapidly increasing ; a])erture ample, lunar-oval ; peristome simple, 
columellar margin recurved. Lat. maj. 31, min. 25, alt. 15 mill. 

Nanina bistrialis. Beck, Ind. 2. 

Pfr. Symb. ii. 17. 

Alb. 5'J (Xesta). 
Helix bistriahs, Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 61. t. 11. f. 10, 11. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. /I ; Ic i. 90. 

Desk. 186. n. 249. 

Reeve, n. 483. t. 90. 
Helix exihs, Chemn. ix. pt. 2. 121. t. 129. f. 1149; not MiW. 

{Helicella) Fer. Pr. 2'M\ ; Hist. t. 92. f. 1. 
Hehx diaphana. Leu, Obs. i. 166. t. 19. f. 65 (not Lam.). 
Hub. Pondicherry, Trauquebar. 

34. Nanina vitellina. 

Shell perforate, depressed-globose, scarcely shining, brownish 
orange-coloured, very minutely decussated above ; spire shortly 
conoidal, rather blunt ; whorls five and a half, moderately convex, 
the last one somewhat descending anteriorly, scarcely striate 
below its periphery, which sometimes is obsoletely angulated, 
white round the umliillcus, which is contracted and extremely 
narrow ; aperture oblique, lunate-rounded ; peristome simple, 
with the margins distant, columellar margin white, thickened 
and reflected, rather dilated above. Height 18, greatest breadtli 
29, least l)readth 24 mdl. {Pfr.) 

Helix vitellina, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848, 109; Z.f.M. 
1848, 92; Ic. u. 763. t. 122. f. 22, 23; Mon. Supjjl. 72. 
Reeve, n. 390. t. 75. 
Hab. Base of the Neilgherries {Jerdon, Bcnscn). 



86 i'ulmonata. 

35. Nanixa ligulata. B.M. 

Shell perforated, depressedly-globose, longitudinally striated 
above, minutely decussated, glabrous beneath, white, zoned with 
a single, rather broad, luteous band, above the outline ; whorls 
five, ])lanulate, the last convex beneath ; aperture irregularly 
lunate-elli])tical ; peristome simple, dextral margin straight, colu- 
mellar slightly reflected, forming an obsolete angle with the 
basal. Lat. maj. 26, min. 23, alt. 17 mill. 

Helix ligulata (Hehcogena), Fer. Pr. 47 ; Hist. t. .31. f. 2. 

Pfr. Symb. i. 38 ; Moti. Helic. i. 71 ; Ic i. 206. 

Cliemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 174. t. 33. f. 1,2. 

Desk. ISO. n. 240. 

Reeve, n. 395. t. 76-83. 
Helix semisculpta, Mus. Reg. Berol. olim. 
Nauina ligulata, Beck, Ind. 4. 

Alb. 59 (Xesta). 
Hab. Bengal. 



36. Nanina Bombayana. 

Shell subglobose, a little depressed, subdiaphanous, bright, 
pale rosy, very finely striated longitudinally ; whorls five, convex ; 
umbilicus rather small; aperture semi-rotund; lip sharp, white 
outside. Lat. 26, alt. 20 mill. 

Helix Bombayana, Grat. Act. Bord. ii. 406. t. 1. f. 1. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 41. 
Hab. Bombay. 



37. Nanina Chastellii. B.M. 

Shell perforated, depressed, lenticular, keeled, obliquely sti-i- 
ated, whitish, variegated diversely with brown spots, white-zoned 
in the middle ; whorls six to six and a half, ])lauulate ; aperture 
rather angularly lunar, brown inside ; peristome simple, acute, 
columellar margin dilated, reflected, not hiding the perforation. 
Lat. maj. 27, min. 24, alt. 14 mill. 

Hehx Chastellii (Helicella), Fer. Hist. (1832) t. 80. f. 4. 

Ckemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 445. t. 74. f. 8-10. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 78. 

Desk. 106. n. 144. 

Pfr. Ic. ii. .53. 
HeUx Cracherodii, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, 67. 

Mailer, Synops. 9. 
Hab. E. Indies ? (Mus. Gray.) 



PULMONATA, 



87 



38. Nanixa anceps. 

Shell scarcely perforated, lenticular, pale horny, acutely keeled, 
striated above, shining beneath ; whorls six, very slightly convex, 
the last more convex beneath, smooth, marked below the com- 
pressed, slightly prominent keel with a few impressed concentric 
lines ; aperture angularly lunar ; peristome simple, thin, colu- 
mellar margin very slightly reflected. Lat. maj. 17, min. 16, 
alt. 9 mill. 

Caracolla anceps, Gould in Bost. Journ. iv. 4. 454. t. 24. f. 4. 
Helix anceps, Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 551. t. 88. f. 8-10. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 80; Ic. ii. 126. 

Reeve, n. 155. t. 35. 
Helix (Thea) anceps. Alb. 118. 

Helix serrula, Benson ?, fide Mason in Journ. As. Soc. xvii. 
Hub. Tavoy, Birman Empire. 

39. Nanina indica. 

Shell perforated, orbiculate-convex, rather solid, closely costu- 
late-striated above, granulately decussated with close impressed 
lines, entirely fulvous ; whorls five and a half, nearly level, the 
last more convex beneath, smooth, marked beneath the keel with 
a few impressed concentric lines ; aperture angularly-lunar ; 
peristome straight, white, columellar margin slightly thickened, 
rather reflected above. Lat. maj. 22, min. 19, alt. 11 mill. 

Hehx indica, Pfr. Syjnb. iii. 66 ; Mon. Helic. i. 80. 

Reeve, u. 448. t. 83, 
Hab. E. Indies ; Nilagiric Mountains. 

40. Nanina acuducta. 

Shell perforate, thin, lenticular, conic, sharply keeled, with 
riblike strife above, which are very closely decussated and gra- 
nulated by impressed lines ; spire scarcely raised ; aj^ex rather 
blunt ; whorls five, flattened, nearly coutabulate, the last ventri- 
cose and smooth beneath, marked with numerous impressed 
spiral lines ; keel compressed beneath ; aperture lunate, angled, 
nearly axe-shajied ; peristome thin, simple, columellar margin 
vei-y shortly reflected above. Height 1 1 , greatest breadth 22, 
least breadth 19 mill. (Bens.) 

Helix acuducta, Benson in Ann. Sf Mag. N. H. 1850, March, 214. 

fieere, n. 739. t. 124. 

Ffr. Mon. Suppl. 7^. 
Hab. Neilgherries Mountains, South India (Jcrdon). 



88 pulmonata. 

41. Naxina Humphreysiana. B.M. 

Shell openly perforated, orbiculate-coiioidal, convex beneath, 
rugosely granulated, fulvous-yellow, chestnut-banded at the 
margin ; spii-e elate, rather acute ; whorls six to seven, slightly 
convex, the last compressed around the perforation; aperture 
oblique, lunar ; peristome simple, acute, columellar margin 
scarcely reflected. Lat. raaj. 53, min. 4/, alt. 33 mill. 

Helix Ilumphrevsiana, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. vii. 463. 
t. 12. f. 16. " 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 168. t. 31. f. 3, 4. 

Fer. Hist. livr. 34. t. 2. f. 7. 

Pfr. Moil. Helic. i. 43; Ic. i. 201. 

Desk, in Fer. 185. n. 248. t. 89. f. 7. 

Reeve, n. 387, t. 74. 
Xanina (Hemiplecta) Humphreysiana, Alb. 60. 
Var. H. gemina, V. d. Busch, Pfr. Mon. i. 43. n. 73. 

Reeve, n. 374. t. 73. 
Hab. Pondichen-y ; Singapore. 

42. Nanina bullula. B.M. 
Shell rather small, glabrous, translucent, subtrochiform, co- 

noidal ; whorls five, convex, the last rounded ; suture impressed ; 
umbilicus narrowed; aperture wider; hp simple. Lat. 015 poll. 

Helix bullula, Hutfon, Journ. As. Soc. vii. pt. 1. 218. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 86. 

Reeve, n. 819. t. 133. 
Hab. Simla, Himalaya. 

43. Nanina humilis. 

Shell subtmbinate, slightly striated, horn-coloured, brownish, 
diaphanous, oily glistering; spire convexly conoidal, with the 
apex rather pointed ; whorls five, rounded," the last one not de- 
scending anteriorly, obsoletely angulated at its periphery; um- 
bihcus broad and deep ; aperture very oblique, nearly circular ; 
peristome simple, sharp, straight, with the columellar margin not 
reflected. Height 2, greatest breadth 34, least breadth 3 mill. 
(Pfr.) 
Helix humilis, Hiiffon, Pfr. Mon. i. 106 n. 267; Ic. n. 823. 

t. 129. f. 28-30; Mon.'Suppl. 83. 
Reeve, n. S-25. t. 133. 
Hab. Landour, India (Benson). 



pulmonata. 89 

44. Nanina? Belangeri. B.M. 

Shell orbicnlate-glo])ose, slightly depressed, translucent, rosy, 
whitish beneath, iimbilicated, decussated above with thin striaj ; 
aperture large, oblique ; lip simple. Lat. maj. 46, min. 37, alt. 
2S mill. 
HeUx Belangeri, Desk, in Belong. Voy. Zool. 43. t. 1. f. 1-3. 

Lam. ed. Desk. 157. p- lf*l. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic i. 69 ; Encycl. Meth. ii. 233. n. 69, ^ in 
Per. 100. n. 137. t. 69 I. f. 4. 
Nanina Belangeri, Beck, Ind. 4. 
Hab. Pondicherry ; Malabar. 

45. Nanina labiata. B.M. 

Shell openly perforated, depressed, thin, striatulate, obsoletely 
decussated above with concentric lines, beneath smooth, bright, 
fulvous ; sjiire nearly level ; whorls six, subj^lanulate, the last di- 
lated, depressed ; ajjcrture wide, lunar ; peristome acute, usually 
rufesccnt, callous-lipped internally, upper margin rounded in 
front, basal evenly subarcuated, columellar very slightly reflected. 
Lat. maj. 40, min. 35, alt. 20 mill. 
Helix labiata, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, 65 ; Mon. Helic. 

i. 73 ; iii. 117. n. 554. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 182. t. 35. f. 6-8. . 
Nanina Bensonis, Hutt. MS. 
Nanina (Hemiplecta) labiata, J //vers, Heliceen, 61. 

Var. Uniform whitish, front side fulvous or white with a single 
chestnut band. 
Hab. Landour, East Indies. 

46. Nanina splendens. 

Shell discoidal, piu'ple-brown, polished, faintly striated con- 
centricallv and radiately, radiating stria; remote, the others very 
closely placed ; spire scarcely elevated ; whorls seven (omitting 
the apex), closely convoluted; ai)erture lunate; lip furnished 
with a cUstant, internal, thickened ridge. Lat. 065 poll. 
Nanina splendens, Hutton, Journ. As. Soc. vii. pt. 1. 215. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 73. 
Hab. Mahassu, Himalaya. 

b. Ceylon. 
47- Nanina semidecussata. 

Shell ])erforate, conoidal, solid, striated, decussated with spiral 
stria;, which are most distinct above, opake, uniformly reddish- 



90 



PULMOXATA. 



brown ; spire conoidal, rather pointed ; whorls seven, very little 
convex, the last one keeled, not descending, convex, striate be- 
neath, mth the spiral lines obsolete ; aperture diagonal, lunate, 
angulate ; peristome simple, straight, blunt, with the columellar 
margin very shortly reflected above. Height 18, greatest 
breadth 33, least breadth 30 mill. (P/r.) 

Helix semidecussata, Pfr.in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Ic. 

n. 955. t. 145. f. 8, 9 ; Mon. Sujjpl. 53. 
Reeve, n. 56/. t. 102. 
Hab. Island of Ceylon. 

This shell is very nearly allied to H. inversicolor, Fer., but it 
differs from it by its being perforate, and the spire more raised. 

48. Nanina Emiliana. B.M. 

Shell perforate, conoidally lenticular, rather solid, sculptured 
above with crowded oblique ribs, rather regularly granulated by 
impressed spiral lines, opake, yellowish-brown ; s])ire conoidal, 
with the outlines slightly concave, with the apex raised, rather 
blunt ; whorls six, moderately convex, enlarging slowly, last not 
descending, compressedly keeled, convex beneath and radiately 
striate, slightly shining ; aperture oblique, angularly lunate ; peri- 
stome simple, straight, with the columellar margin shortly re- 
flected near the perforation. Height 8, greatest breadth 16^, 
least breadth 15 mill. {Pfr.) 

Hehx Emiliana, Pfr. in. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. ; 7c. n. 10/5. 
t. 158. f. 33-35 ; Mon. Suppl. 55. 
Reeve, n. 608. t. 108. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

49. Nanina Juliana. B.M. 
Shell openly perforated, depressedly-turbinated, apex obtuse, 

solid, ponderous, smooth, striated at the suture, white ; whorls 
five, slightly convex, the last rosy in front, zoned with a red line 
at the suture, ornamented with a chestnut band at the margin 
shaded downwards, nearly level beneath, impressed in the middle, 
umbilical area brown ; aperture obliquely lunar; peristome simple, 
obtuse, basal margin slightly thickened. Lat. maj. 43, min. 36, 
alt. 23 mill, 

Nanina Juliana, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, 58. 

Midler, Synops. 5. 

Beck, hid. 4. n. 11. 

Alb. 61 (Ryssota). 
Helix rosacea, Sow. in Beech. Voy. 143. t. 38. f. 2. 
Helix Dufomii, Grat. in Act. Bord. xi. 407- t. 1. f. 2. 



PULMONATA. 



91 



Helix citrinoides, Grat. ibid. 161. 

Helix commendabilis, Fer. Pr. 235 {Graf.). 

HeUx Juliana, Chetnn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 180. t. 33. f. 15-17- 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i.44 ; Ic. i. 211. 

Fer. Hist. t. 88. f. 1 ? 

Reeve, n. 373. t. 72. 
i/a6. Ceylon. 

50. Nanina Gardeneri. B.M. 

Shell subperforated, turbinated, solid, decussated with longi- 
tudinal and more distant spiral striae, bright chestnut ; spire ele- 
vated, rather acute ; whorls six and a half, slightly convex, the 
last larger, nearly smooth, ornamented at the margins with a 
white zone ; aperture obliquely lunar, white inside ; peristome 
simple, straight, columellar margin slightly thickened, rather 
dilated above, nearly closing the perforation. Lat. maj. 22, min. 
ly, alt. 15 mill. 

Helix Gardeneri, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 229 ; Mon. 
Helic. i. 47. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 703. t. 112. f. 12, 13. 

Reeve, n. 446. t. 83. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

51. Nanina Layardi. 

Shell perforate, turbinate, rather thin, covered with wrinkled 
stria;, scarcely shining, pellucid, pale horn-coloured ; spire co- 
noidal, with the apex rather pointed ; wlun-ls five and a half, 
moderately convex, the last one keeled, not descending, convex 
beneath ; aperture little oblique, rounded-lunate, scarcely an- 
gular ; peristome straight, thin, sharp, with the columellar mar- 
gin very shortly reflected above. Height 9, greatest breadth 13, 
least breadth not quite 12 mill. (Pfr.) 

Helix Layardi, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Ic. n. 953. 
t. 145. "f. 3, 4 ; Mon. Suppl. 55. 
Reeve, n. 614. t. 109. 
Hab. Ceylon {Layard). 

52. Nanina Chenui. B.M. 

Shell sub])erforate, depressed, rather thin, malleately-subde- 
cussated with fine striae and im])rcssed spiral hues, chestnut-ful- 
vous ; spire scarcely elevated, obtuse; whorls four and a half, 
nearly level, slightly wrinkU-d-striate at the scarcely inijjressed 
suture, the last angulated, not descending, ornamented with a 



92 PULMONATA. 

peripheral band of pale and chestnut, diluted below ; aperture 
rather oblique, truncated-oval, opaline within'; ))eristome straight, 
nearly simple, columellar margin slightly thickened, slightly di- 
lated-reflected at the closed perforation. Lat. maj. 40, min. 34, 
alt. 20 mill. 

Helix Chenui, Pfr. in Zeitschr. f. Malak. 1847, p. 145 ; Mon. 
Helic. ii. 438. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 739. t. 119. f. 14-16. 

Reeve, n. 3/0, t. 72, 
Hab, Ceylon? 

53. Nanina Ceylanica. B.M. 

Shell perforate, subglobose-depressed, rather solid, diaphanous, 
scarcely shining, pale reddish horn-coloured, distinctly decussated 
and granidated above ; whorls four and a half, little convex, the 
last surrounded in the middle with a white band, which is bordered 
on both sides, or only beneath, with a reddish-brown line ; aper- 
tui'e middle-sized, oblique, roundish-lunate ; peristome simple, 
straight, blunt ; columellar margin rather thickened and slightly 
reflected above. Height 13, greatest breadth 26, least breadth 
21 mill. (Pfr.) 

Helix Ceylanica, Pfr. in Z. f. M. 1850, 67 ; Ic. n. 795. t. 127. 
f. 6, 7; Mon. Suppl. 71. 
Reeve, n. 411. t. 7S. 
Helix bistrialis /3., Pfr. Mon. i. 71. 

/3. Larger, uniformly fulvid-yellow; height 1 7, greatest breadth 
32i, least breadth 28 mill. 

y. With the white peripherical band wanting, with a chestnut- 
coloured band in its place, and sometimes several reddish-brown 
lines. 
Hab. Ceylon- 

This species diifers from N. bistrialis in the structure and 
sculpture of the shell, in the proportion of the whorls and of the 
aperture, &c. 

54. Nanina Woodiana, 

Shell depressed, thin, smooth, very shining, brownish horn- 
coloured ; spire little raised, with the apex very minute ; suture 
impressed ; whorls six, scarcely convex, increasing slowly, the 
last one not descending anteriorly, dejiressed, slightly angulated, 
rather flat beneath ; umbilicus narrow, 0})en ; aperture nearly 
perpendicular, lunate j peristome simple, straight, sharp, with 



PtLMONATA, 93 

the columellai' margin soarcely reflected. Height 4 1, greatest 
breadth 10, least breadth 9 mill. (P/r.) 

Helix Woodiana, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Ic. n. 946. 
t. 144. f. 7, 8 ; Mon. Suppl. 8/. 
Reeve, n. 600. t. 107. 
Hab. Ceylon {Layard). 

c. Singapore. 

55. Nanina Lychnia. 

Shell imperforate, conic, much depressed, thin, translucent, 
polished, fuscous ; spire conic, rather blunt ; suture bordered ; 
whorls six and a half, narrow, rather flat, the last scarcely broader, 
with a sharp compressed keel at its peripheiy, moderately convex 
beneath, excavated in the centre ; aperture scarcely obUqiie, nar- 
row, axe-shaped ; peristome simple, sharp, with the lower margin 
arched, slightly thickened towards the umbilical region. Height 
5^, greatest breadth not quite 12, least breadth 11 mill. {B.) 

Helix Lychnia, Benson in Ann. S)- Mag. Nat. Hist. 2ud ser. x. p. 

Reeve, n. . t. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 626. 
Hab. Isle of Singapore {Bacon). 

56. Nanina naninoides. B.M. 

Shell perforate, orbiculate-convex, rather solid, pale fulvous, 
distinctly and closely striated above, often slightly decussated 
with obsolete concentric hues, nearly smooth beneath, distantly 
striatulate ; spire depressedly conoidal, apex obtuse ; whorls six, 
very slightly convex, the last rather angular, imi)ressed in the 
middle ; aperture transversely lunar ; peristome straight, obtuse, 
rather thickened, very slightly reflected at the open perforation. 
Lat. maj. 25, min. 22, alt. 1'6 mill. 

Helix naninoides, Bens. Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 486. 

Phil. Icon. ii. 9. 2. t. 6. f. 3. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 158. t. 25. f. 7, 8. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 70 ; Ic. i. 193. 
Nanina (Xesta) naninoides. Alb. 59. 
Hab. Singapore ; Chusan. 

d. China. 

57. Nanina cinnamomea. 

Shell subperforated, depressed, thin, bright, diapliauous, very 
minutely and irregularly striated, cinnamon ; suture moderate ; 



94 PULMONATA. 

whorls seven, narrow, scarcely convex ; umbilicus small, half- 
covered ; aperture rather oblique, semilunar ; peristome simple, 
thin, acute. Lat. niaj. 22, min. 20, alt. 11 mill. 

Helix cinnamomea, Val. in Mus. Paris. 

Eydoux in Guerin, Mag. 1838, t. 116. f. 1. 

Reeve, n. 442. t. 83. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 54. 
Nanina (Xesta) cinnamomea. Alb, 58. 
Hab. Natunas Archipelago, Chinese Sea. 

58. Nanina Pfeifferi. 

Shell subperforate, orbiculate-convex, solid, smooth, bright, 
very finely plaited at the submarginate sutm-e, chestnut-red, apex 
fulvous ; spire slightly elevated ; whorls six to six and a half, 
nearly level, the last rounded, subdepressed ; aperture lunar, con- 
colorous within ; peristome sim])le, dextral margin sinuated, 
acute, basal slightly thickened, callous ; columellar margin rather 
reflected. Lat. maj. 28, min. 25, alt. IG mill. 

Helix Pfeifferi (Nanina?), Phil, in Arch.f. Nat. 1845, i. 62. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 172. t. 31. f. 9, 10. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 54 ; Ic. i. 204. 

Dcsh. Helic. 163. n. 217. t. 99. f. 1-3. 

Lister, t. 60. f. 57 ? 
Nanina (Xesta) Pfeitferi, Alb. 59. 
Hab. China. 

59. Nanina Redfieldi. 

Shell umbilicated, conoidally globose, thin, irregularly striated 
and very obsoletely decussated, diaphanous, shining, fulvid horn- 
coloured ; spire conoidal, rather blunt ; whorls five and a half, 
convex, enlarging regularly, the last inflated, not descending ; 
aperture little oblique, lunate-roundish, higher than broad, pearly 
within ; peristome simple, straight, sharp, with distant margins ; 
columellar margin nearly perjiendiculai-, dilated above, half cover- 
ing the narrow umbilicus. Height 14, greatest breadth 17, least 
breadth 15 mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix Redfieldi, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. ; Ic. n. 1104. 
1. 161. f. 21, 22 ; Mon. Suppl. 80. 
Reeve, n. 688. t. 118. 
Hab. Shang Hi, China (Fortune). 

60. Nanina epixantha. 

Shell depressed, faintly striated and very minutely granulated 
imder a lens, shining, yellowish horn-colour ; spire scarcely 



PULMONATA. 95 

convex ; apex blunt ; suture impressed ; whorls four, little convex, 
enlarging rapidly, the last not descending, more convex beneath ; 
umbilicus narrow, forming about one-eighth of the total breadth, 
open ; ajierture scarcely oblique, roundish-lunate ; peristome 
simi)le, straight ; upper margin slightly depressed, columellar 
margin expanded into a triangular lamina. Height 8, greatest 
breadth i5, least breadth 13 mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix epixantha, Pfr. in Zeitschr.f. Mai. 1850, p. 70 ; Ic. n. 869. 
t. 134. f. 13-15 ; Mo7i. Suppl. 84. 
Reeve, n. 454. t. 84. 
Hab. Shang Hi, China {Fortune). 

e. Japan. 

61. Nanina conospira. 

Shell openly perforate, globose-conic, rather thin, faintly stri- 
ated, httle shining, pale horn-coloured; s{)ire conic, with the 
outlines convex and the apex rather pointed ; whorls five and a 
half, convex, the last rounded, not descending; ajjerture little 
oblique, nearly semicircular ; peristome simple, straight, with 
distant margins; columellar margin somewhat dilated, expanded. 
Height 5, greatest breadth 6, least breadth 5| mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix conospira, Pfr. in Z. f. M. 1851, p. 14 ; 7c. n. 963. 1. 146. 

f. 17, 18; Mon. Suppl. 50, 
Hab. Japan. 

62. Nanina Sieboldtiana. 

Shell scarcely perforate, globular, thin, horn-coloured, pel- 
lucid, shghtly striate and very obsoletely decussate ; spire short, 
conoidal, rather acuminate ; whorls five and a half, moderately 
convex, the last one ventricose ; aperture lunate-circular; peri- 
stome simple, sharp, with the columellar margin arcuate, dilated, 
convexly reflected. Height 13, greatest breadth 18, least breadth 
15^ mill. {Pfr.) 

HeUx Sieboldtiana, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1850, p. 8/ ; Mon. Suppl. 42. 

Reeve, n. 495. t.[n. 
Hehx ravida, Pfr. Mon. i. 42. n. 69 ; Ic. i. 201. t. 31. f. 1, 2 (not 
Benson). 

Hab. Japan {Sieboldt). 

f. Sumatra. 

63. Nanina castanea. 

Shell perforated, subglobose, obscure, chestnut, with an adnatc 
red and white band ; whorls striated. Lat. 17 hn. 



96 PULMOXATA. 

IlelLx castanoa, ULiill. Verm. ii. 67- n. 262. 

Chemn. ix. pt. 2. Icio. t. 131. f. 1177, 11/8. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 44. 
Nanina castanoa, Beck, Ind. 4. 
Hab. Sumatra. 

64. Nanina convoluta. 

Shell orbiculate-depresscd, thin, smooth, fragile, bro\^■nish 
horn-coloured, with a single white ])eripheral band ; spire mo- 
derately produced ; whorls iive, narrow, moderately convex, en- 
larging slowly, the last larger, broader, perforated beneath ; aper- 
ture semilunate ; peristome simjile, sharp ; columellar margin 
scarcely reflexed. Height 10, breadth 16 mill. (^Desh.) 

Helix convoluta, Desk, in Fer. Hist. i. 401. n. 255 bis, t. 87. f. 2. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 48. 
Hab. Sumatra. 

65. Nanina umbilicaria. 

Shell perforated, orbiculate-convex, solid, opake, bright, in-e- 
gularly striated, white, ornamented with three miequal chestnut 
bands, one at the suture, two at the outline, basal area chestnut ; 
whorls seven, scarcely convex, the last obsoletely angled ; aper- 
ture oblique, wide, lunar ; peristome simple, obtuse, basal margin 
slightly thickened ; columellar margin (hlated, reflected, not 
covering the perforation. Lat. maj. ci3, min. 2S, alt. 17 mill. 

Helix umbilicaria, Le Guillon in Revue Zool. 1842, p. 1^7- 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 63. t. 11. f. 14, 15. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 64 ; Ic. i. 92. 
Nanina (Xesta) umbilicai'ia. Alb. 59. 
Hab. Sumatra. 

g. Java. 

66. Nanina inquinata. 

Shell subperforate, conical-semiglobose, thin, nitidulous, mi- 
nutely granulated, fawn-coloured ; whorls five and a half, nearly 
level, the last sprinkled with brown spots and flamelets, obso- 
letely keeled, rounded in front ; a]>erture subrhombic limar ; peri- 
stome simple, acute. Lat. maj. 28, min. 25, alt. 16 mill. 

HelLx inquinata, V. d. Biisch in Phil. Icon. i. 1. 10. t. 1. f. 4. 

Pfr. Symb. ii. 19 ; Mun. Helic. i. 46 ; Ic. i. 202. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, u. 169. t. 31. f. 5, 6. 

Reeve, n. 399. t. 76. 
Nanina (Hemiplecta) inquinata, Alb. 60. 
Hab. Java. 



pulmonata. 97 

67- Nanina gemina. B.M. 

Shell very narrowly umbilicated, depressedly-turbinated, obso- 
letely angulated, iiTegularly subgranular with concentric and 
obhque strise, brunneous, beneath pale, lutescent, surrounded in 
the middle by a white band, adnate with a narrower rufous band ; 
whorls six, rapidly increasing, scarcely convex ; aperture lunate- 
oval ; peristome simple, inflected above. Lat. niaj. 4\), min. 41, 
alt. 28 mill. 

Helix gemina, V. d. Busch in Phil. Icon. i. 1. p. 9. t. 1. f. 1 (Na- 
nina?). 

Pfr. Symb. ii. 18 ; Mon. Helic. i. 43. 

Hab. Java. 

68. Nanina halata. 

Shell scarcely perforate, conoidal, thin, smooth, diaphanous, 
bluish-green, uniform, or with two pale red bands ; spire convex- 
conoidal, dusty, with the apex rather blunt ; whorls six, mode- 
rately convexj the last one not descending, obtusely angulated 
in the middle, rounded anteriorly, convex and shining beneath ; 
aperture oblique, lunate, somewhat trapezoidal; peristome simple, 
straight, sharp, with the margins distant from each other, colu- 
mellar margin reflected above in a very small lamina. Height 
19, greatest breadth 28, least breadth 25 mill. (Pfr.) 

Nanina halata, Mouss. Jav. Moll. 112. t. 21. f. 2. 

Alb. 60 (Hemiplecta). 
Helix halata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 486. t. 90. 

Pfr. Ic. n. 929. t. 142. f. 9, 10 ; Mon. Sujipl. 45. 
Hub. Dompo, Java {Zollinger). 

69. Nanina bataviana. 

Shell perforated, depressedly-globose, thin, obtusely keeled, 
above ciiuiamon-coloured, obliquely closely costulated, chestnut 
beneath, striated, pale towards the umbilicus, umbilical area 
chestnut ; whorls six and a half, very slightly convex ; a])erture 
angulately-lunar ; peristome nearly simple, archedly reflected at 
the perforation. Lat. maj. 33f, min. 29, alt. \7h mill. 
Hehx bataviana, V. d. Busch in Phil. Icon. i. 1. p. 9. t. 1. f. 3. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 77 (Nanina?) ; Spnb. ii. 17; Ic. i. 87- 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 58. t. 11. f. 1-3. 

Reeve, n. 463. t. 86. 
Nanina bataviana, Mouss. Jav. Moll. 17. t. 1. f. 1. 

Alb. 60 (Hemiplecta). 
Hab. Java. 



98 pulmonata. 

70. Nanina cincta. B.M. 

Shell depressed above, inflated beneath, lonwitiuliually striated, 
umbilicated, red-brown, ornamented ^^ith a black or brown band 
above the middle of the whorls ; whorls four ; spire planulate ; 
apei-ture somewhat rounded ; lip simple ; columella smooth. 
Lat. 23, alt. 15 mill. 

Helix cincta, Lea, Obs. i. 168. t. 19. f. 68. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 54. 
Hab. Java? 

71. Nanina javanica. B.M. 

Shell perforated, orbiculate-convex, closely eostulate-striated 
above, nearly smooth beneath, lutescent-horny, zoned with three 
naiTOw red bands, two near the margin, the third near the suture ; 
spire short ; whorls six, nearly level, the last slightly keeled ; 
keel vanishing in front ; umbilical area red ; aperture somewhat 
angularly lunar ; peristome simple, straight ; coliunellar margin a 
little dilated at the open perforation, slightly reflected. Lat. 
maj. 28, min. 23, alt. 15-16 mill. 

Helix javanica, JjffTw. 40. p. 7(i; ed. Dh. p. 45. 

Chemn. ed. 2, HeUx, n. 62. t. 11. f. 12, 13. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 64; Ic. i. 91. 

Desk. Hist. Hel. 187- n. 250. 

Reeve, n. 396. t. 76. 
Hehx javacensis (Helicella), Fer. Pr. 234 ; Hist. t. 92. f. 2. 
Nanina javanensis. Gray in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 59. 
Nanina javana, Beck, hid. 4. 
Nanina javanica, Mouss. Jav. Moll. 15. t. 1. f. 3. 

Alt). 59 (Xesta). 
Hab. Java. 

72. Nanina centralis. 

Shell perforate, conic-orbiculate, keeled, faintly striated above 
with excessively minute gramdations, cinnamon-coloured ; spire 
conic, with the outlines rectilinear ; whorls five and a half, flat- 
tened above, the last pale in the region of the keel, convex and 
shining beneath, obscurely cinnamon-coloured round the perfora- 
tion ; aperture obliquely subtrapezoid ; ]ieristome simple, in- 
flected round the perforation. Height 12, greatest breadth 22, 
least breadth 20 mill. {Mouss.) 

Nanina centralis, Mousson, Jav. Moll. 17. t. 2. f. 1. 

Alb.m (Ilemiplecta). 
Helix centralis, Pfr. Mon. Suppl, 78. 
Hab. Java (Zollinger). 



pulmonata. 99 

73. Nanina ryssolemma. 

Shell sinistral, orbicular, solid, opake, yellowish-fuscous above, 
sculptured with serial coarse impressions, paler Ijeueath, nearly 
smooth, whitish in the umbilical region ; spire scarcely raised, very 
blunt; whorls five and a half, flattened, the last angled, but round- 
ed towards the aperture, ventricose beneath, slightly descending 
towards the umbilicus, which is wide and deep ; aperture very 
oblique, roundish-lunate, pearly within, w ith a fuscous edge ; 
peristome straight, sharp, with the inargins joined by a rather 
thick callus ; columellar margin rectilinear, produced above into 
a triangular lamina. Height 19, greatest breadth 40, least 
breadth 33 mill. (Alb.) 

Nanina ryssolemma, Albers in Z.f. M. 1852, p. 86. 
Helix ryssolemma, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. G34. 
Hab. Java? 

h. Philippine Islands. 

74. Nanina gradata. 

Shell imperforate, globose-turbinate, striatulate, thin, hyaline ; 
spire tiu-binated, ajjex acute ; whorls six, slightly convex, gra- 
duated, the last acutely keeled in the middle, convex beneath, 
imder a lens very minutely striated concentricalh- ; aperture 
squarish-lunar ; peristome simple, acute, columellar margin 
slightly and verticallv descending. Lat. maj. 5, min. 4f , alt. 5 
mill. 
Helix scalarina, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1846, p. 110; in Z.f. M. 

1851. p. 128. 
HeUx gradata, Pfr. Mon. i. 38. n. 60 (not Gould). 

Reeve, n. 165. t. 3/. 
Hab. Leyte, Philippines. 

75. Nanina fulvida. B.M. 

Shell subperforatcd, globosely-turbinated, thin, pellucid, pale 
fidvescent, very closely granulose above (under a lens), glabrous 
beneath, bright ; spire elate, apex obtuse ; whorls five and a half, 
the highest ])laue, the last one and a half rounded; aperture 
lunar ; peristome simjjle ; columellar margin shghtly thickened, 
reflected at the obsolete perforation. Lat. maj. 31, min. 27^, 
alt. 22 mill. 

HeUx fulvida, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 87. 
Phil. Icon. i. 2. ^.21. t. 2.f. 2. 
Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 171. t. 31. f. 1 1, 12. 



100 PULMONATA. 

Helix fulvida (Nanina?), Tfr. Symb. ii. 18 ; Mon. Helic. i. 45 ; Ic. 
i. 204. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 29. t. 7- 
Nanina (Hemiplecta) fiilvida. Alb. 60. 
Hab. Mindanao, Philippines. 

76. Nanina coxoidalis. 

Shell oibiculate-conoidal, with the perforation almost covered, 
elevated above, convex beneath, with radiating striae, pale brown- 
ish ; whorls five, bordered above, reticulate-striated or ^Tinkled, 
reddish-bro^Mi violaceous, the last with a narrow band of chest- 
nut-colour; peristome simple, imperceptibly thickened. Height 
21, greatest breadth 32 mill. {Adams Sj- Reeve.) 

Helix conoidalis, A. Adams Sf Reeve, Voy. Samarang, Moll. 63. 
t. 16. f. 11. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 523. t. 96. 

Pfr. Mon. Siippl. 46. 
Hab. Isle of Mindoro. 

77- Nanina spectabilis. 

Shell subperforated, turbinately-depressed, soUd, veri' bright, 
homy luteous, ornamented with one perciurent red or blackish 
band ; spire more or less elevated, apex often reddish ; whorls 
five and a half, slightly convex, the last angulated beneath the 
band ; aperture widely lunar; peristome simple, acute; colnmellar 
margin slightly reflected, covering the perforation. Lat. maj. 17. 
miu. 15, alt. 10 mill. 

Hehx spectabilis, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 41. 

Phil. Icon. i. 7- P- 155. t. 4. f. 13. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 165. t. 32. f. 3, 4. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 47; Ic. i. 199. 

Desk. I. c. 164. n. 219. t. 97. f. 11-13. 

Reeve, n. 148. t. 34. 
^. Helix spectabilis, var., Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, t. 32. f. 5, 6. 
Nanina (Microcystis) spectabilis, Alb. 60. 
Var. jS. Vitrina fusco-succinea, Beck, MSS. 
Hab. Samar, Philippines. 

78. Nanina gemma. 

Shell scarcely perforate, conoidally orbicular, thin, smooth, 
shining, pellucid, greenish-glassy ; spire depressed conoidal ; 
suture slightly bordered ; whorls four, very little convex, enlarging 
regularly, the last not descending anteriorly ; aperture little ob- 
lique, roundish-lunate ; peristome simple, straight ; columeUar 



PULMONATA. 101 

margin short, arched, a Uttle reflected above. Height 5, greatest 
breadth 9, least breadth 7 mill. (Pfr.) 

Hehx gemma, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848, p. 109; Z.f. M. 
1848, p. 90 ; Ic. n. 762. t. 122. f. 19, 20 ; Mon. Suppl. 49. 
Reeve, n. 1()8. t. 37. 
Vitrina sutiiraUs a. Beck, MSS. 

^. Smaller, whitish-glassy, with the spire less elevated. — Pf/. 
/c. t. 122. f. 21. 

Vitrina sutm-ahs /3, Beck, MSS. 
Microcvstis margarita. Beck, MSS. 

M'orch, Cat. Yold. 2. n. 30. 
Hab. Albulug, island of Zugon ; var. ^. from Camiguing [H. 
Cuming). 

This shell differs from H. glauca by its spire less elevated, and 
by the more slowly increasing whorls, the last one being nar- 
rower. 

79, Nanina maxima. 

Shell perforated, depressed, slightly turbinated, solid, heavy, 
obliquely and irregularly striated, fulvous above, marked with 
broader and narrower yellow bands ; spire suljturbinate, with the 
apex rather blunt ; suture deep ; whorls six and a half, enlarging 
slowly, the upjier ones flat, the following regularly vaulted, the 
last keeled at its peripheiT, moderately convex, shining, chestnut- 
coloured beneath ; aperture little oblique, lunate, milky-white 
within ; peristome simple, straight, blunt, with distant margins ; 
basal margin somewhat thickened within, shortly dilated above 
and almost covering tlie perforation. Height 42, greatest breadth 
90, least breadth 77 mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix maxima, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1853, p. ; Mon. Suppl. 

627. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 

80. Nanina Oweniana. 

Shell perforated, turbinately depressed, thin, radiatingly striated 
above and decussated with extremely crowded spiral strife, not 
shining, fulvous ; spire shortly conoidal, blunt ; suture bordered ; 
whorls foiu- and a half, enlarging gradually, convex, the last not 
descending, with a j)ale keel at its periphery and a rufous band 
below the keel, horny-greenish and shining beneath, with irregu- 
larly impressed spiral Uncs; aperture nearly diagonal, lunate, 
rather rhomboidal, pearly within ; peristome simple, straight, 



102 PULMONATA. 

with distant margins ; cohnnellar margin declivous, callous, sinu- 
ated above, shortly dilated and reflexed near the jjerforation. 
Height 17, greatest breadth 32, least breadth 2()i mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix Ovveniana, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1853, p. ; Mon. 
Suppl. 628. 

Hub. Philippine Islands. 

81. Nanina Armida. 

Shell subperforate, rather turbinate, thin, fainth' and minutely 
striated, diaphanous, slightly shining, fulvous horn-coloiu'ed; spire 
convexly conoidal, with a subtle and rather blunt apex ; sutm-e 
impressed, bordered with white ; whorls six, moderately convex, 
enlarging gradually, the last not descending, furnished with a 
short, sharj), white keel, more convex beneath ; aperture nearly 
perpenchcular, lunate, slightly angled ; peristome simple, straight, 
with distant margins ; columellar margin declivous, slightly 
thickened above. Height 8, greatest breadth 16, least breadth 
14 mill. (Pfr.) 

Helix Armida, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1853, p. 53; Moti. Suppl. 628. 
Hab. Mount Isarog, Isle of Luzon (H. Cuming). 

82. Nanina ceratodes. 

Shell subperforated, globosely-depressed, thin, minutely stria- 
tulate, nitidulous, pellucid, horny ; spire scarcely elevated ; 
whorls five, subplanulate, increasing rapidly, the last subde- 
pressed ; aperture ample, obliquely lunar ; peristome simple, 
acute ; columellar margin very slightly reflected, nearly hi(ling 
the perforation. Lat. maj. 16^, min. 14, alt. 9 mill. 

Helix ceratodes, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 128. 

Chenm. ed. 2, Helix, n. 690. t. 110. f. 16, 17. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 57. 

Reeve, n. 150. t. 34. f. 147-150. 
Vitrina centralis. Beck, MSS. 
Hab. Luzon and Mindoro, Phihppines. 

83. Nanina succinea. 

Shell depressed, obsoletely perforated, thin, pellucid, bright, 
amber-like ; suture moderate, slightly margined ; whorls five, 
increasing rapidly, very slightly convex ; aj)crture lunar ; peri- 
stome simple, acute ; columellar margin slightly reflected, cover- 
ing the obsolete perforation. Lat. maj. 10, min. 8i, alt. 6 mill. 



PULMONATA. 103 

Helix succinea, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 39. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 541. t. '6']. f. 6-8. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 58= 

Reeve, n. 161. t. 36. 
Nanina (Microcystis) succinea. Alb. 60. 
Hab. Luzon and Mindoro, Philippines. 

84. Nanina subfusca. 

Shell subperforate, depressed, thin, minutely sti-iated, pellucid, 
brownish horn-coloured ; spire scai'cely raised ; suture slight, 
somewhat bordered ; whorls four and a half, scarcely convex, 
enlargins; rapidly, the last rounded at its perijihery, not descend- 
ing anteriorly ; aperture a little oblique, broadly lunate ; peri- 
stome simple, thin, straight, with convergent margins ; riglit 
margin rather sinuate, columellar margin nearly perpendicular, 
scarcely reflected above. Height 6^, greatest breadth IH, least 
breadth 10 mill. (Pfr.) 

Vitrina subfusca, Beck in Mus. Cuming. 

Hehx subfusca, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848, p. 109; Z.f M. 

1848, p. 91 ; Ic. u. 761. t. 122. f. 16-18; Mon. Suppl. 62. 
Hab. Isle of Luzon {H. Cuming). 

85. Nanina lucidella. 

Shell minute, perforated, depressed, striatulate, very bright, 
brunneous ; spire subplanulate ; suture white-margined ; whorls 
four, level, the last scarcely more convex beneath, impressed in 
the middle, very naiTowly perforated ; aperture obliquely lunar ; 
peristome simple, obtuse ; columellar margin steep, scarcely 
thickened. Lat. maj. 3f, min. 3, alt. 2 mill. 

Helix lucidella, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1846, p. 41; Mon. Helic. 
i. 60. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 164. t. 37. 
Hab. Luzon, Philippines. 

86. Nanina sagittifera. B.M. 

Shell subperforated, depressed, thin, pellucid, obliquely striated 
and obsoletely wTinkled, fulvous, ornamented with arrow-shaped 
spots, and a single obsolete red band at the keel ; suture im- 
pressed, slightly channeled at the last whorl ; whorls four and 
a half, nearly level, the last inflated ; ajierture very oblique, 
lunate-oval, milky inside ; peristome simple, slightly thickened 
at the columella, scarcely reflected, upper margin deflected. 
Lat. maj. 47, min. 38, alt. 26 mill. 



104 PULMONATA. 

Helix sagittifera, Pfr. in Proc.Zool.Soc. 1842, p. 86 ; Mon. Helic. 
i. 62; Ic. i. 197. 

Phil. Icon. i. 4. p. 77- t. 4. f. 1. 

(Nanina?) P/r. Sy/ni. ii. 20. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 163. t. 32. f. 10, 11. 

Desk. I. c. 159. n. 211. t. 99. f. 15-19. 

Reeve, n. 3. t. 1, and var. 
Helix hepatica, Reeve, n. 9. t. 3. 
Naniua (Rvssota) sagittifera, Alb. 61. 
Hab. Philippines. 

87. Nanina Borxeexsis. 

Shell obliquely perforate, depressed, rather thin, decussated by 
distinct stria; of growth and numerous oblique impressed Unes, 
dark fulvous ; spire scarcely raised, blunt ; suture bordered with 
an impressed line ; whorls four, little convex, increasing rapidly, 
the last one marked at the perqihery with a blackish band, which 
is dilute towards the centre ; more convex beneath and irregu- 
larly radiated with chestnut streaks ; apertui-e oblique, large, 
transversely lunate-oval, pearly within, with tlie band translu- 
cent; peristome simple, sharp, with the columellar margin re- 
flected into a short triangvdar lamina, which covers half the um- 
bilicus. Height 25, greatest breadth 52, least breadth 42 mill. 
(Pfr.) 
Helix Bomeensis, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849, p. 127 ; Mon. 

Suppl. 70. 
Hah. Borneo. 

This species in shape, size and habitus greatly resembles N. 
sagittifera; but its sculpture is difterent, its spire less raised, 
its whorls increasing rather slowly, and its apertm-e is lai'ger 
and more oval. 



88. Nanina ovum. B.M. 

Shell slightly perforated, globosely-depressed, obliquely striated 
and irregularly wrinkled, slightly decussated with im])resscd hues, 
very close at the a])ex, remote and irregular on the last whorls, 
obtusely keeled, entirely deep fulvous, or ornamented with a pale 
band above the keel, and a ])urplish-black liand beneath the 
keel ; suture channeled ; whorls five, tumid above, tlie last ex- 
cavated at the columella ; apertiu-e lunate-elliptical, inside bright, 
milkv ; peristome simple, thick, dcxtral margin archedly dilated. 
Lat.maj. 115, min. 80, alt. 70 mill. 



PULMONATA. 105 

Helix ovum, Val. in Humb. Voy. Zool. ii. 240. t. 57- f. 1 • 

Fer. in Bull. Zool. 1835, p. 32. 

(Nanina?) Pfr. Symb. ii. 19. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 155. t. 25. f. 1, 2. * 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 66; Ic. i. 190. 

Desk, in Fer. i. 155. n. 20/. 

Reeve, n. I. t. 1. f. 1, 2, 4. 
Nanina (Ryssota) ovum, Alb. 61. 

Helix meridionalis. Gray in Wood, Suppl. t. 7- f- 42 (not Risso). 
HelLx (Helicogena) otalieitana, Fer. Pr. 49 ; Hist. t. 29. f. 4, 5. 
Eiu-ycratera otaheitana. Beck, Ind. 46. 
Chromoeoclilea tahitana, Hartm. Erd- u. Sussw. Gart. i. 186. 

t. 65, 66. 
Hob. Philippines. 

89. Nanina nobilis. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, depi'esseil, rather turbinate, solid, 
striated, slightly decussated with impressed spiral and oljlique 
lines, fulvous ; spire little raised, shortly turljinate ; whorls six, 
scarcely convex, the last surrounded in the middle with a raised, 
blunt ridge, below which is a dark chestnut-colom-ed band, which 
is difiPuse and vanishes towai'ds the umbilicus ; aperture large, little 
oblique, broadly lunate, pearly within; peristome simple, straight; 
columellar margin reflected into a short triangulai* lamina near 
the umbilicus. Height 30, greatest breadth 53, least breadth 45 
mill. {,Pfr.) 

Helix nobihs, Pfr, in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849, p. 12/; Ic. n. 771. 
t. 125. f. 1, 2; Mon. Suppl. 69. 
Reeve, n. 381. t. 74. 

/3. Whitish, vnth. a single narrow peripheric band, beneath 
which the last whorl is of a pale violaceous colour. 

Hehx obliquata. Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 384. t. 74. 

Hab. Borneo; the variety ^. from the Philippine Islands (?). 

90. Nanina MiJLLERi. B.M. 

Shell obtectly perforated, convexly-orbiculate, slightly keeled, 
solid, fulvous, darker beneath, marked with a broad red band 
beneath the keel ; suture linear ; whorls four and a half, rapidly 
increasing, the highest plane, miiuitcly rugulosely reticulated, 
the last convex towards the aperture, irregularly malleately ru- 
gose ; apertm-e lunate-oval ; peristome simple, upper margin 
shghtly inflected, columellar a little expanded, covering the per- 
foration. Lat. maj. 39, min. 33, alt. 23 mill. 

F 5 



106 PULMONATA. 

Helix Miilleri, Pfr. in Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1844, p. 178; Mon. 
Helic.i. 67; Ic i. 191. 

Che)nn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 156. t. 25. f. 3, 4. 

Desk, in Fer. IfiO. n. 213. t. 100. f. 11-13. 

Reeve, n. 19. t. 4. 
Nanina (Ryssota) Miilleri, Alb. 61. 
Helix o\^im y, Pfr. Symb. ii. 20. 
Hab. Philippines. 

91. Nanina bulla. B.M. 

Shell subijerforate, globosely-depressed, very thin, pellucid, 
veiy minutely decussated with close spiral and oblique striae, 
slightly keeled, pale fulvous, red-zoned at the keel ; suture 
scarcely impressed ; spire hardly exserted ; whorls four, nearly 
level ; aperture lunate-rounded, u-idescent inside, one-banded ; 
peristome simple, upper margin bent inwards, columellar scarcely 
expanded. Lat. maj. 40, min. 31, alt. 23 mill. 

Helix bulla, Pfr. inProc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 151 ; Mon. Helic. 
i. 68 ; Ic. i. 207. 

Phil. Icon. i. 4. p. 77. t. 4. f. 2. 

Ckemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 175. t. 33. f. 3, 4. 

Desk. Helic. 161. n. 214. t. 100. f. 6, 7- 

Reeve, n. 15. t. 4. 
Nanina (Hemiplecta) bulla, Alb. 60. 
Helix vesica (Nanina ?), Pfr. Symb. ii. 21 (not Lea). 
Hab. Phihppines. 

92. Nanina gummata. B.M. 

Shell slightly perforated, conical, somewhat depressed, mi- 
nutely decussated above with longitudinal and transverse striae ; 
brown, dull; clothed with a gummy epidermis ; smooth beneath, 
vei-y bright, yellowish-brown, zoned at the margin with a broad 
luteous band, adnate, with a broader rufous band beneath ; 
whorls six and a half, convex, narrow ; aperture wide, lunar ; 
peristome simple ; columellar margin thickened, reflected, nearly 
covering the perforation. 

Helix gummata, Sow. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1841, p. 25. 

Pfr. Symb. ii. 18 ; Mon. Helic. i. 73 ; Ic. i. 216. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 184. t. 34. f. 1, 2. 

Reeve, n. 134. t. 31. 
Nanina (Hemiplecta) gummata. Alb. 60. 

Helix luteofasciata, Lea, Philad. Trans. 1841, j). 462. t. 12. f. 13. 
Hab. Luzon. 



pulmonata. 107 

93. Nanixa xanthotricha. B.M. 

Shell obtectly subperforate, rather depressed, cinnamon, re- 
gularly and minutely granulated above and bejond the margin, 
clothed with a silky epidermis ; hairs close, short, golden ; suture 
deep ; whorls six, rounded, the last glabrous beneath, shining, 
the smooth part separated from the granular by a sUght angle ; 
aperture wide, lunar, milky inside, brown-margineil ; peristome 
simple, acute, columellar margin much thickened. Lat. maj. 31, 
min. 2S, alt. 18 mill. 

Helix xanthotricha, Pfr. Symb. ii. 21 ; Mon. Helic. i. 7-4 ; Ic. i. 
217. 

Ckemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 186. t. 34. t 16, 17- 

Desk. Helic. 16:i n. 218. t. 99. f. 4-8. 

Reeve, t. 31. f. \32 b, c. 
Nanina (Hemijjlecta) xanthotricha. Alb. 60. 
Helix velutina, Soiv. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1841, p. 25 (not Lam.). 
Hah. Guimaras. 

94. Nanixa Morchii. 

Shell perforate, rather depressed, thin, very minutely decus- 
sated and granulated, covered with very short l)ristles, pale horn- 
coloured, with a reddish- bro\vn peripherical line, and with a 
chestnut-coloured band beneath ; spire short, convex, with the 
apex prominent ; whorls live, moderately convex, the last obso- 
letely angled at its periphery, smooth and shining round the per- 
foration and a little be\ond the basal band, the smooth ])art 
touching the granulated part without forming an angle ; aperture 
nearly vertical, roimilish-lunate, pearly within, \^'ith the band.s 
translucent ; peristome simple, sharp ; columellar margin very 
slightly reflected aljove. Height 12, greatest breadth 20, least 
breadth 18 mill. {Pfr.) 

HeUx xanthotricha /3, Pfr. Mon. i. 74; Ic. t. 34. f. 18, 19. 

Reeve, t.3\. f. 132 a. 
Helix spec, nova?, March, Cat. Kierulf. 1. n. 3. 
Hehx Morchii, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1851, p. 12; Mon. Suppl. 73. 
Hab. Negros, Phihppines {H. Cwniny). 

95. Nanina setigera. B.M. 

Shell obtectly subperfoi'ate, somewhat semiglobose, thin, 
brunncous, upper suri'acc and exterior of the base slightly gra- 
nulated, clothed with a setigerous epidermis, beneath smootli 
and shining, with a broad luteous band beneath the margin and 
around the umbilicus ; spire depressedly conoidal ; whorls six. 



108 PULMONATA. 

convex ; aperture rounded lunar ; peristome simple, columellar 
margin thickened. Lat. maj. 30, min. 27, alt. 20 mill. 

Helix setigera, Sow. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1841, p. 25. 

Pfr. Symb. ii. 21 ; Mon. Relic, i. 74 ; Ic. i. 218. 

Delessert, Recueil, t. 38. f. 5. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 187. t. 34. f. 20, 21. 

Chenu, III. Conch, t. 25. f. 5. 

Reeve, n. 135. t. 31. 
Nanina (Hemiplecta) setigera. Alb. 60. 
Hab. Luzon. 

96. Nanina Zeus. B.M. 

Shell obliquely perforated, somewhat depressedly-convex, 
solid, sculjjtured with oblique wrinkles and raised spu-al lines, 
rufous, ornamented above M'ith white flashing stripes; whorls 
four and a half, convex, the last convex beneath, angulated in 
the middle, furrowed beneath the keel with deep, concentric 
grooves ; apertiu-e very oblique, subtrapezoidal, iridescent within ; 
jjeristome acute, straight ; columellar margin short, reflected over 
the perforation. Lat. maj. 60, min. 47, alt. 30 mill. 

Helix Zeus, Jonas in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 188. 

Phil. Icon. i. 3. p. 47. t. 3. f. 1. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 160. t. 26. f. 4-6. 

Fer. Hist. t. 64 A. f. 9. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. 67; Ic. i. 195. 

Desh. Helic. 156. n. 208. t. 64 A. f. 9; t. 100. f. 1, 2. 

Reeve, n. 17- t. 4. 
Nanina (Ryssota) Zeus, Alb. 62. 

j8. Smaller, with the umbilicus quite closed. Height 22, 
breadth 43 mill. 
Hab. PhiUppines. 

97. Nanina Lamarckiana. 

Shell obliquely perforated, depressed, slightly keeled, thin, 
irregularly striated and wrinkled, olivaceous-red, ornamented 
below the keel with a blackish-rufous band, shaded off below ; 
sutm-e impressed ; spire scarcely elevated ; whorls four and a 
half, the highest nearly level, very minutely decussated ; aper- 
ture widely ellijitical, milky or opaline inside ; peristome simple, 
thin, dilated at the columella, reflected, half covering the oblique 
umbihcus. Lat. maj. 60, min. 48, alt. 32 mill. 

Helix Lamarckiana, Lea in Tr. Am. Phil. Snc. vii. 461. t. 12. f. 11. 
Cheinn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 159. t. 26. f. 1-3. 
Pfr. Symb. ii. 19; M071. Helic. i. 67 ; Ic. i. 194. 



PULMONATA. 101' 

Helix Lamarkiana, Besh. Helie. 158. n. 210. t. 102. f. 1-3. 

Reeve, n. 20. t. 4. 
Nanina (Ryssota) Lamarckiana, Alb. 62. 

/3. Smaller, paler, thinner, more distinctly keeled. Heio-ht 24, 
greatest breadth 55, least breadth 43 mill. B.M. 

Helix caducior. Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 12. t. 3. 
Hab. Philippines {Cuming). 

98. Nanina semiglobosa. B.M. 

Shell subperforated, semiglobose, thin, lutescent-homy, very 
minutely granulated above; suture scarcely impressed; whorls 
six, plane, the last keeled, beneath the keel smooth, shining, 
marked with a pale brown band ; aperture lunate-ellijitical, 
banded inside ; peristome simple, acute; columellar margin widely 
reflected, half covering the very narrow umbilicus. Lat. maj. 44, 
rain. 3.9, alt. 26 mill. 

Helix semiglobosa, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 38; Mon. 
Helic. i. 75. 

Reeve, n. 118. t. 27. 

y. Smaller, with five whorls, of which the last is rather convex 
above. Height 15, greatest breadth 30, least breadth 27 mill. 
Hab. Philippines. 

V9. Nanina porphyria. B.M. 

Shell pei-forated, depressed, solid, rugosely striated obliquely, 
rufous, marbled with very numerous subprominent pale yellow 
spots and stripes, keeled, below the keel brown-banded, beneath 
olive-fulvous, brighter ; whorls fom* and a half, jjlauulate, regu- 
larly increasing, the last oj)enly channeled round the perforation ; 
aperture subrhombic ; peristome simple, thin, columellar margin 
archedly reflected. Lat. maj. 43, min. 38, alt. 26 mill. 

Hehx porphyria, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 87. 

(Nanina?) Pfr. Symb. ii. 20; Mon. Helic. i. 76 ; Ic. i. 198. 

Phil. Icon. i. 2. p. 22. t. 2. f. 3. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 164. t. 32. f. 12, 13. 

Desh. Helic. 157. n. 209. t. 100. f. 8-10. 

Reeve, n. 8. t. 3. 
Nanina (Ryssota) porphjTca, Alb. 62. 
Hab. Philippines. 

100. Nanina Darondeani. 

Shell orbicular, umbilicated, keeled, depressedly-convex 
above, pale olive-brown, beneath convex, chestnut ; whorls five. 



no 



PULMONATA. 



obliquely ^M-inkled, finely and closely transversely striated ; aper- 
ture rounded-oval, concave towards the narrow umbilicus, brown 
inside, white-banded ; peristome acute ; columella white, widely 
reflected above the umbiUcus; umbilicus moderate, deep, de- 
pressed at the margin. Lat. 41, alt. 19 mill. 

Helix Darondeani, Soul. Revue Zool. 1842, p. 101. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 76; Voy. de la Bonite, Moll. t. 28. 
f. 21-23. 
Hab. Luzon, Philippines. 

101. NaNINA CUVIERIANA. B.M. ? 

Shell openly perforated, orbiculate, thin, pellucid, obliquely 
striated, keeled, olivaceous-lutescent, ornamented with a broad 
rufous band beneath keel, shaded off douTiwards ; spii-e scarcely 
elate ; whorls five, planulate, the last convex beneath ; aperture 
wide, lunar ; peristome simple, acute, columellar margin very 
slightly reflected. Lat. maj. 32, min. 28, alt. 14-15 mill. 

Helix Cuvieriana, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. vii. 461. t. 12. f. 12. 

(Nanina?) Pfr. Symb. ii. 18; Mon. Helic. i. 77; Ic.i. 196. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 161. t. 26. f. 7-9. 

Reeve, n. 28. t. "J. 
Nanina (Hemiplecta) Cuvieriana, Alb. GO. 
Hab. Luzon, Philippines. 

102. Nanina exilis. 

Shell perforated, nearly discoidal, keeled, pellucid, thin, pale 
fulvous, depressed above, sharply striated, more convex beneath, 
and with less distinct strise ; whorls six, nearly level, the last not 
descending, ornamented beneath the keel with a narrow rufous 
band ; umlnlical area sometimes reddish-1)rowu ; aperture wide, 
elliptical ; jieristome simple, acute, columellar margin very slightly 
reflected. Lat. maj. 35, min. 30, alt. 15 mill. 

Helix exilis, MYill. Verm. ii. 22. n. 221. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 78; /c. n. SSI. t. 13/. f. 10-12. 

Desk. Helic. 364. n. 431. t. 64 A. f. 1. 

Reeve, n. 16. t. 4. 
HelLx explanata, Quoy Sf Gaimard, Astrol. Zool. ii. 123. t. 10. 
f. 10-13 ! 

Lam. ed. Desk. 194. p. 121. 

Fer. Hist. t. 64 A. f . 1 ? 
Nanina exilis, Beck, Ind. 4. 

Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 59 ? 
Hab. New Guinea ; Philippines. 



PULMONATA. 



Ill 



103. Naxina biangulata. 

Shell subperforated, scalarifomi, thiu, horny-rubelline, faintly 
striated, rather shining ; whorls seven, gradually increasing, the 
last bicarinate ; lower'keel thread-Uke at the margin, the higher 
passing through all the whorls ; aperture lunate-oval ; peristome 
simple, acute, almost hiding the very narrow perforation. Lat. 
maj. 15, miu. \3h, alt. 9 mill. 

Hehx biangulata, Pfr. in Phil. Icon. i. 7- p- 155. t. 5. f. 12 ; Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 18-15, p. 40 ; Mon. Helic. i. 80; Ic. ii. 125. 
Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 550. t. 88. f. 6, 7- 
Reeve, n. 15/. t. 35. 
Alb. 118(Thea). 
Hab. Luzon, Philippines. 

104. Nanina filocincta. 

Shell perforated, depressed, thin, pellucid, horny, striatulate, 
bright ; spire scarcely elevated, obtuse ; whorls five and a half, 
slightly convex, keeled, the last convex beneath ; keel thread- 
like, conspicuous on the higher whorls, but not exserted ; aper- 
ture vertical, somewhat ear-shaped lunar; peristome simple, 
straight, columellar margin very oblique, elongated, descenchng, 
suddeulv ascending on the right. Lat. maj. 11, min. 10, alt. 6^ 
mill. 
Helix filocincta, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 124; Mon. Helic. 

i. 82 ; Ic. ii. 127. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 553. t. 88. f. 24-26. 
Reeve, n. 158. t. 36, 
Nanina (Xesta) filocincta. Alb. 59. 
Hab. Mindanao, Philippines. 

105. Nanina excentrica. 

Shell subperforated, nearly level above, inflated beneath, thin, 
waxen, shining, slightly ridged with excentric striae, acutely 
keeled ; whorls four, plane above, rapidly increasing ; aperture 
hatchet-shaped ; peristome simple, acute, dilately reflected at the 
very narrow perforation. Lat. maj. 18, min. 15, alt. 8^ mill. 
Helix excentrica, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 41 ; Mon. Helic. 
i. 83. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 552. t. 88. f. 14-16. 

Reeve, n. 152. t. 34. 

Alb. Ill (Corasia). 
Hab. Philippines. 



112 pulmonata. 

106. Nanina Paxayensis. B.M. 

Shell obtectly perforated, depressed, orbicular, keeled, rather 
thick, greyish-brown above, ver\' minutely granulated, ratUately 
striated beneath, very bright, olivaceous ; spire depressedly co- 
noidal; whorls six, planulate, the last not deflected; aperture 
angulate-lunar, whitish inside ; peristome simple, thickened be- 
low, shghtly expanded at the columella. Lat. maj. 44, min. 40, 
alt. 21 mill. 

Animal, B.M. Caudal gland verj' large ; teeth four-sided, 
close. 

Carocolla Panayensis, Brod. MSS. 

HeUx Panayensis, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 86 ; Symb. ii. 36; 
Mon. Helic. i. 75 ; iii. 166. 

Ckemn. ed. 2, HeUx, n. 215. t. 30. f. 1-3. 
Nanina (Hemiplecta) Panayensis, Albers, Heliceen, 61. 
Helix semigranosa, var.. Reeve, Icon. t. 27. f. 115, 117 a. 
^. Helix Panayensis, var., Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, t. 30. f. 4. 
Hab. Panay ; /3. Cayagan, Philippines. 

107. Nanina semigranosa. B.M. 

Shell subperf orate, depressed, suborbicular, pale olive-bro^Ti, 
apex redchsh, granulated above, smooth beneath, shining; spire 
conoidally depressed ; whorls six, the highest subplanulate, the 
two last rounded, the last obtusely angulated in the middle, with 
one rufous band ; aperture wide, lunar ; peristome simple, slightly 
thickened at the base. Lat. maj. 36, min. 32, alt. 20 mill. 

HeUx semigranosa, Soiv. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1841, p. 26. 

Pfr. Spnb. ii. 21 ; Mon. Helic. i. 74 ; iii. 166. 

Chemn. ed. 2, HeUx, n. 185. t. 34. f. 3, 4. 

ReeL-e,t. 27. f. 1176. 
Helix Blainvilhana, Lea in Philad. Trans, vii. 463. t. 12. f. 13. 
Nanina (Hemiplecta) semigranosa, Albers, Heliceen, 61. 
Hab. Luzon, Philippines. 

i. Moluccas. 

108. Nanina simplex. 

Shell orbiculate-convex, imperforate, slightly impressed be- 
neath, obliquely striated, pale reddish (more darklv banded) ; 
spire subconoidal, apex reddish ; hp simple, rather acute. Lat. 
40, alt. 23 mill. 



PULMONATA. 113 

HeUx (Helicogena) simplex, Lam. 42. p. 77, ed. Desk. 45. 

Per. Pr. Add. 48 bis; Hist. t. 25 B. f. 6. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 20. 

Desk. Hist. Hel. 162. n. 215. 
Euryciatera simplex, Beck, Ind. 46. 
Hab, Amboina. 

109. Nanina misella. B.M. 

Shell imperforate, somewhat convexly-orbiculate, thin, very 
obscm-ely striatulate, bright, pellucid, pale homy; whorls five 
and a half, nearly level, the last keeled, slightly convex beneath, 
impressed in the middle ; aperture subvertical, angulate-lunar ; 
peristome simple, thin, columellar margin obliquely arched, 
slightly thickened. Lat. maj. 8, min. 7, alt. 4 mill. 

Helix (Helicostyla) misella, P^r. Pr. 306 ; in Voy. de Preycinet, 

Zool. 473. 
Helix misella, Quoy ^ Gaim. Astrol. ii. 122. t. 10. f. 5-9. 

Lam. ed. Desk. 195. p. 121. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 210. t. 29. f. 14-16. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 38 ; Ic. i. 23/. 

Reeve, n. 632. t. 111. 
Nanina (Microcystis) misella, Alb. 60. 
Caracolla misella. Beck, Ind. 31. n. 5. 
Hab. Guan Island, Moluccas ; Sandwich Islands. 

110. Naxina Clairvillia. B.M. 

Shell perforated, somewhat turbinated, smooth, lutescent, 
bro\ra above ; whorls six, convex, the last tumid ; aperture 
roimded-lunar ; peristome white, obtuse, columellar margin steep, 
somewhat arched, slightly reflected. Lat. maj. 43, min. 36, 
alt. 32 mill. 

Hehx (Ilelicella) ClairviUia, Per. Pr. 243; Hist. t. 91. f. 1. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 43. 

Desk. I. c. 182. u. 243. 
Nanina Clairvillia, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 59. 

Beck, Ind. 3. 

Geue, t. 26. f. 277 (Becit). 
/3. HelLx ClairviUia, var. a. Per. Hist. t. 91. f. 2, 3. 

Hab. Amboina. 

111. Nanina Stuarti^. B.M. 

Shell obsoletely jierforated, depressedly turbinated, striated, 
white, variously ornamented with bro\Mi and blackish bands ; 
spire widely conoidal ; whorls six, scarcely convex, the last rather 



114 PULMONATA. 

planulate beneath ; aperture vciy oblique, lunar ; peristome 
simple, upper margin arched fonvards, cohimellar shghtly re- 
flected, nearly covering the jjcrforation. Lat. maj. 40, min. 3G, 
alt. 26 mill. 

Heli.x Stuartise, Ch-ay in Mus. Brit. 

Pfr. in Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1845, p. 154 ; 3Ion. Helic. i. 44 ; 
Ic. i. 315. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 311. t. 54. f. 9-11. 

Fer. Hist. t. 8/. f. 5. 

Desk. I. c. 185. n. 247. 

Reeve, n. 462. t. 86. 
Nanina (Xesta) Stuartiae, Alb. 59. 
Nanina Steuarti, Beck, hid. 4. n. 24 ? 
Hab. Celebes. 

112. Nanina cidaris. 

Shell globose-turbinate, rather thin, with oblique wrinkled 
striae, shining, pale fulvous ; spiral conoidal, with the apex blunt ; 
whorls six, the upper ones scarcely convex, the last one inflate, 
obsoletely angidar, with transverse impressed lines coarsely de- 
cussate, with one reddish-brown band at the peripheiy, rather 
compressed beneath round the umbilicus, which is very naiTow ; 
aperture little oblique, rounded-lunate, pearly inside, with the 
band shining through ; peristome simjfle, sharp, with the mar- 
gins convergent, columellar margin reflected above into a trian- 
gular lamina. Height 25, greatest breadth 40, least breadth 36 
mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix cidaris. Lam. Hist. A. s. V. 43. 77 ; ed. 2, Desk. 45. 

Delessert, Recueil, t. 26. f. 11. 

Pfr. Mon. i. 45. n. 79 ; Ic. n. 748. 1. 122. f. 1-3 ; Mon. Suppl. 
43. 

Chenu, Illustr. Conch, livr. 7'2. t. 12. f. 11. 

Reeve, n. 464. t. SG. 
Nanina (Ryssota) cydaris. Alb. 61. 
Nanina rapa, Beck, Ind. 3. 
Hab. Timor. 



113. Nanina nemorensis. B.M. 

Shell subperforate, orbiculate-conic, solid, bright, white, sur- 
rounded with brownish bands ; whorls six, scarcely convex ; 
aperture lunate-rounded ; peristome simple, acute, basal margin 
thickened inwards, slightly reflected at the columella. Lat. maj. 
33, min. 30, alt. 25 mill. 



PULMONATA. 116 

IIc4ix nemorensis, 3I}iU. Verm. ii. ind. 

Fer. Pr. 232 (Helicella). 

Che7nn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 183. t. 35. f. 9-11. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 46; Ic. i. 215. 

Reeve, n. 474. t. 88. 
Nanina nemoreusis, Gray in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 59. 

Beck, Ind. 4. 
Naniua (Xesta) nemorensis. Alb. 59. 
Var. Helix sulphurea, Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 476. t. 88. 
Helix nemoralis, Miill. Verm. ii. 62. n. 257. 
Helix cretacea. Born, Mus. 376. t. 16. f. 1, 2. 

Chemn. ix.pt. 2. 119.t. 129. f. 1146, 1147. 
Helix Neuvardii, De Haan {Menke, Syn.). 
Hub. Moluccas; New Ireland. 

114. Naxixa trochus. 

Shell perforate, conic, trochiform, rather solid, minutely stri- 
ated, scarcely shining, white, with a single broad brown band, or 
several uaiTow ones, which sometimes are confluent, at the peri- 
phery ; spire conic ; apex white, rather blunt ; whorls six, mo- 
derately convex, the last not descending, rounded at its peri- 
phery, rather flattened beneath ; aperture oblique, roundish- 
lunate, uniformly milk-white within ; peristome simple, straight, 
C(jlumellar margin declivous, somewhat thickened and reflected 
mto a very small convex lamina near the open perforation. 
Height nearly 20, greatest breadth 25, least breadth 22 mill. [Pfr.) 

Helix trochus, Milller, Pfr. Mon. i. 46. n. 82; Z. f. M. 1851, 
p. 10 ; Ic. i. 160. t. 146. f. 3-5; Mon. Suppl. 46. 
Reeve, n. 475. t. 88. 
Hab. Moluccas. 

115. Nanixa Steursii. 

Shell perforate, depressedly turbinate, closely decussated with 
irregular striae and impressed spiral lines, not shining, pale yel- 
lowish, with a blackish-purple band above and a broad whitish 
band below the periphery ; spire rather pointed ; whorls five, 
enlarging graduall)', scarcely convex, the last rather flattened 
beneath, marked near the perforation, with a fuscous- |)urple area ; 
apertm'C oblique, lunate ; peristome simple, sharp, with the colu- 
mellar margin imperceptibly dilated and reflexcd. Height 14, 
greatest breadth 23, least breadth 19 mill. (Sh.) 

Nanina Steursii, Shuttleworth in Bern. Mitth. Aug. 1852, p. 194. 
Helix Steursii, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 627. 
Hab. Amboina(r. Steurs). 



116 pulmonata. 

116. Nanina stolephora. B.M. 

Shell somewhat obtectly perforated, subdiscoidal, nearly 
smooth, obliquely striated, obtusely augulated, depressed above, 
very pale yellowish-red, convex beneath, surrounded beneath the 
angle with a red band, paler downwards, reticulately striated ; 
whorls four, nearly level ; aperture very oblique, strongly de- 
pressed ; peristome scarcely thickened, margins united by a cal- 
lus, nearly covering the perforation. Lat. maj. 52, min. 40, alt. 
20 mill. 

HelLx stolephora, Valenc. in Humb. Voy. Zool. ii. 242. t. 56. f. 4. 

Pfr. in Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1844, p. 179; Mon. Helic. i. 52 ; 
Ic. i. 196. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 162. t. 32. f. 1, 2. 

Desk. Hist. Hel. 159. n. 212. t. 100. f. 3-5. 

Reeve, n. 14. t. 4. 
Helix (Hehcella) buphthalmus, Fer. Pr. 238; Bull. Zool. 1835, 

p. 33. 
Helix Lamarckiana 0, Pfr. Symb. ii. 19. 
Nanina stolephora, Pfr. Symb. ii. 63. 

Alb. 61 (Ryssota). 
Nanina bicolor, Pfr. Symb. i. 36. 
Eurycratera stolephora. Beck, Ind. 46. 
Hab. New Spain {Valenc.) ; Asiatic Archipelago {Fer.). 

117. Nanina aulica. B.M. 

Shell perforate, depressed, thin, diaphanous, shining, very vary- 
ing in colours and bands, with radiating strise and generally spiral 
irregularly impressed lines above ; spire veiy shortly raised, ob- 
tusely conoidal ; whorls four and a half, rather flattened, rapidly 
increasing, the last one depressed, very obsoletely angulated at 
its periphery, more convex beneath ; aperture very large, oblique, 
truncate-oval, the proportion of its breadth to its height being 
6:5; peristome sim})le, straight, with the upper margin descend- 
ing very slowly, columellar maigin arcuate, shortly reflected 
above. Height 23, greatest breadth 48, least breadth 41 mill. 
(Pfr.) 
Helix aulica, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Ic. t. 34. 

f. 4, 5, t. 147. f. 10; Mon. Sitppl. 61. 
Reeve, n. 481. t. 89. 
Hab. Moluccas. 

118. Nanina luctuosa. 

Shell perforated, conoidally depressed, rather thin, distinctly 
striated, principally near the sutm-e, variously painted and 



PULMONATA. 117 

banded ; spire conoidal, with the apex rather pointed and for the 
most part blackish-violaceous ; whorls four and a half, mode- 
rately convex, enlarging gradually, the last not descenchng, more 
convex beneath ; aperture diagonal, lunarly ovate, much Ijroader 
than high ; peristome simple, straight, with the columellar margin 
very declivous, reflected above into a triangular lamina. Height 
17, greatest breadth 32, least breadth 26 mill. {Pfr.) 

Nanina luctuosa, Beck, Ind. 3. n. 2. 

Helix luctuosa, Ffr. Mon. Suppl. 629. 

Helix citrina, var., Miill. ; Chemn. ; Pfr. Mon. i. 53. 

a. Chestnut-coloured above, with a broad white band above 
the peripherv, white beneath, with a brown umbilical spot. — 
Chemn. ix. f."ll74! 

yS. BrowTiish-grey above, with the peripherical girdle of the 
same coloiu", bordered with brown. — Chemn. f. 11/5. 

y. White, with a single blackish-brown girdle. — Chemn. 

f.ll71. 

Hab. Moluccas. 

119. Nanina rapa. 

Shell perforated (imperforate) subglobose, with sunken dots, 
and a sanguine band; whorl deflected inwards above. Lat. 
18 lin. 

Helix rapa. Mull. Verm. ii. &7. n. 261. 

Chemn. ix. 2. p. 134. t. 131. f. 1176. 

Pfr. in Zeitschr.f. Mai. 1844, p. 178; Mon. Helic. i. 62. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 19. t. 4? 
Hab. Amboina. 

120. Nanina monozonalis. 

Shell perforated, orbiculate convex, ventricose, bright, very 
finely decussated above with close longitudinal and transverse 
lines, chestnut, with one white zone above the middle; spire 
scarcely elevated ; whorls five, slightly convex, the last inflated, 
w hitish around the open perforation ; aperture large, rounded- 
lunar ; peristome acute, columellar mai-gin slightly reflected. 
Lat. maj. 50, min. 42, alt. 26 mill. 

Hehx monozonalis. Lam. 4. p. 66 ; ed. Desh. p. 2.^. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 72; Ic. n. 9.94. t. 150. f. 12, 13. 
Desh. in Encycl. Meth. ii. 256. n. 126; in Per. i. 182. 

n. 244 (with a variety ?, t. 88. f. 4, 6). 
Reeve, n. 467. t. 86. 



118 PULMONATA. 

Helix unizonalis, Encycl. Meth. t. 462. f. 6 ! 

(Helicella) Fe'r. Pr. 241 ; Hist. t. 91. f . 4 ! ! 
Nanina monozonalis, Crray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 59. 

Beck, Ind. 3. n. 6. 

Alb. 61 (Ryssota). 
Zonites unizonalis, Swains. Malac. 331. 

/3? With two broad reddish-brown bands. — P/r. Ic. t. 14/. 
f. 14. 
Hab. Amboina. 

121. Nanina distincta. B.M. 
Shell nmbiUcate, semiglobose, rather turbinate, soUd, faintly 

striated, minutely foveolate above, fulvous flesh-coloured ; spire 
broadly conoidal, rather blunt ; whorls five and a half, mode- 
rately convex, the last marked with a white peripherical band, 
scarcely descending anteriorly, convex beneath, compressed and 
white round the umbilicus, which is narrow and open ; aperture 
httle oblique, lunate-roundish ; peristome simple, blunt, colu- 
mellar margin rather thickened, reflected above into a mode- 
rate lamina. Height 32, gi-eatest breadth 56, least breadth 49 
mdl. {Pfr.) 

Helix distincta, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1850, p. 69; Ic. n. 863. t. 134. 
f. 1,2; Mon. Suppl. 81. 
Reeve, n. 465. t. 86. 
Hab. Moluccas. 

122. Nanina citrina. B M. 
Shell perforate, conoidally depressed, rather solid, very faintly 

striated, smooth, shining, yellow, reddish, white, ciimamon- 
coloured or violaceous, vnXh. reddish-brown, white or black 
bands ; spire conoidal, rather blunt ; suture white-bordered ; 
whorls five, rather convex, enlarging regularly, the last rounded, 
scarcely more convex beneath ; aperture oblique, roundish- 
lunate ; peristome simple, upper margin descending immediately 
from the point of its insertion ; columellar margin dechvous, 
nearly rectilinear. Height 22, greatest breadth 39, least breadth 
33 mill. Breadth of the aperture to its height=10 : 9. iPfr.) 

Animal. — Mantle not produced behind. — Voy. Astrol. t. 2. 
i.\,2= Gray, Fig. Moll. t. . f . . 
Helix citrina, Linn. Syst. ed. 10. p. 771 ; ed. 12. n. 679. p. 1245. 

Qiwy Sf- Gaim. t. 11. f. 1,4. 

Born, Mus. 377- t. 13. f. 14, 15 ; t. 15. f. 1-10. 

Chemn. ix. pt. 2. 130. t. 131. f. 1167 1175. 

Lam. 44. p. 77 ; ed. Desk. p. 45. 



PULMONATA. 119 

Helix citrina, Fer. Pr. 240; Hist. t. 71-73; in Voy. de Freyc. 
Zool.47l.t. 67. f. 2, 3. 
Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 181. t. 24. f. 1, 2 ? ; t. 35. f. 1-5. 
Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 53, hi. 60; Icon. i. 212. t. 147. f. H, 

12, 13, 15. 
Desk. I. c. 189. t. 88. f. 2. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 482. t. 89 ; var. y. t. 90. f. 485. f. a, h. 
Helix variegata, Humphr. Mas. Calonn. {Fer.) 
Nanina citrina, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p, 59. 
Nanina citrina et luctuosa, Beck, Ind. 3. 
Naniua (Xesta) citrina, Albers, Helic. 58. 
Vitrina citrina, Quoy ^- Gaim. Astral, ii. 140. t. U. f. 1-4 (and 

animal). 
Zonites citrina, Sivains. Malac. 331. 

Seba, Mus. iii. t. 39. f. 1-10. 
Pomatia succinea, ruteola, diniidiata, rutila, flaveola, citrina, pa- 

leacea, straminea, Bolt. 74. n. 953-960. 
Hah. Moluccas. 



123. Nanina tumens. 

Shell perforate, turbinate-semiglobular, rather solid, slightly- 
striated and (under a lens) obliquely decussated, diaphanous, 
shining, yellowish-white, with a single narrow reddish-brown 
band ; spire flesh-coloured, conoidal, with convex outlines and 
a rather blunt apex ; suture somewhat bordered above ; whorls 
five and a half, moderately convex, the last rounded, not descend- 
ing ; aperture oblique, roundish-lunate, of equal height and 
breadth ; peristome simple, straight, with the columellar margin 
callous, dilated above into a reflected triangular lamina. Height 
26, greatest breadth 39, least breadth 34i mill. [Pfr.) 

Helix tumens, Deshayes in Fer. Hist. i. 188. n. 252. t. 89. f. 4. 

Reeve, n. 477- 1. 88. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 43. 
Helix citrina, var., Pfr. Jc. t. 24. f. 1, 2? 
Hab. Moluccas. 



124. Nanina vitellus. 

Shell narrowly perforate, conoidally semiglobular, rather solid, 
smooth, little shining, yellow, with a white line at the suture ; 
spire conoidal, with the outlines convex and the apex rather 
pointed ; whorls five, moderately convex, enlarging rapidly, the 
last rounded ; aperture little oblique, roundish-lunate ; peristome 
simple, sti-aight, with the margins scarcely convergent, columellar 



120 PULMOXATA. 

margin very shortly reflected above. Height 22, greatest breadth 
35, least breadth 32 mill. {Pfr.) 

Nanina vitellus, Shutileworth in Bern. Mittheil. Aug. 1852, 

p. 194. 
Helix vitellus, Pfr. Ic. n. 957. t. 1-15. f. 14 ; Mon. Suppl. 44. 
Helix citrina, var.. Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 88. f. 478. 
Hab. Amboina. 

This may be considered as a variety of A'^. citrina. 

125. Nanika Lenxepiana. 

Shell perforate, turbinate-globular, thin, marked with slight 
and crowded oblique strise, diaphanous, painted with broader and 
smaller bauds, which are alternately pale hom-coloured, trans- 
lucent and white, rather opake ; spire shortly conoidal, with the 
outUnes convex, and the apex rather acuminate ; suture deep, 
somewhat channeled ; whorls five and a half, moderately convex, 
the last one large, ventricose, not descending anteriorly ; aper- 
ture diagonal, lunate-rounded ; peristome simple, straight, with 
the margins a little convergent, right margin slightly dilated in 
the middle, columellar margin reflected into a veiy small trian- 
gular lamina. Height 22, greatest breadth 32, least breadth 28^ 
mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix Lennepiana, Pfr. in Zeitschr. f. Malak. 1852, p. 91; Ic. 

n. 1074. t. 158. f. 31, 32; Mon. Siippl 44. 
Locahty unkno^ATi, probably from the jNIoluccas. 

126. Naxixa gypsacea. 

Shell perforate, conoidal, rather solid, irregidarly striated, a 
little shining, white, with two pale bro«niish bands around the 
periphery ; spire conoidal, x\ith the outlines convex and the apex 
rather pointed ; whorls six and a half, slowly increasing, mode- 
rately convex, the last one not descending, obsoletely angular at 
the periphery, rather flattened beneath ; aperture little oblique, 
broadly lunate ; peristome simple, straight, with the columellar 
mar?in reflected into a small, convex lamina. Height 18, greatest 
breadth 30, least breadth 27 mill. (Pfr.) 

Helix g^iosacea, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1850, p. 82; Ic. n.878. t. 135. 

f. 22,'23 ; Mon. Suppl. 45. 
LocaUty unknown. 

j. Borneo. 

127. Naxixa coxicoides. 

Shell imy)erforate, conoidal, rather thin, slightly striate, keeled 
and marked with several obsoletely raised spiral lines near the 



PULMONATA. 121 

keel, rather shining, horn-coloured; spire conic, with concave 
outlines and the apex rather blunt ; suture tlat ; whorls seven, 
flattened, slowly increasing, the last one not descending, showing 
a brown band on the compressed, sharp keel, rather convex be- 
neath and impressed in the centre ; aperture oblique, depressed- 
rhomboidal ; peristome simple, straight, sharp, with the colu- 
mellar margin a little thickened above. Height 8, greatest 
breadth 18, least breadth 16 mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix conoicoides, Metcalfe in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 71- 

Beeve, n. 44.9. t. 84. 

Pfr. Ic. n. 1020. t. 153. f. 20, 21 ; Mon. Suppl. 37. 
Hab. Borneo. 

128. Nanina Tais. 

Shell imperforate, convex on both sides, keeled, rather thin, 
shining, horn-coloured yellowish or brownish horn-coloured, di- 
stinctly striated and very obsoletely decussated by spiral impressed 
lines ; sjnre convex ; apex blunt ; suture impressed, bordered ; 
whorls six, scarcely a little convex, increasing gradually, the last 
not descending, acutely keeled, convex beneath ; aj)erture nearly 
perpendicular, quadrangular, somewhat callous within ; peristome 
simple, straight, sharp, with parallel margins, right margin short, 
basal margin slightly arched, columellar margin entering, decli- 
vous, callous, dilated above. Height 7, greatest breadth 13, 
least breadth 12 mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix Tais, Hombron S)- Jacquinot, Voy. au Pol Sud, Moll. t. 7. 
f. 42-45. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 37. 
Hehx Thais, Pfr. in Z. f. M. 1849, p. 6S ; Ic. n. 782. t. 125. 
f. 32, 33. 

Reeve, n. 598. t. 107. 
Helix tropidophora, A. Adams ^* Reeve, Voy. Samarang, Moll. 
59. t. 14. f. 14. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 581. t. 105, and var. t. 107. f. 601. 
Hab. Marquesas Islands and Borneo. 

129. Nanina Brookei. 

Shell subperforate, reversed, solid, turbinate, keeled, with 
crowded striae and minute granulations, imdulated above l)y large, 
forward descending folds, shining, chestnut-coloured ; spire sub- 
turbinate, rather pointed ; whorls five, nearly flat, inflate below 
the suture, the last one rather obtusely carinate, ventricose, striate 
and minutely foveate, blackish beneath ; aperture oblique, rather 
quadrangular, bluish-white inside ; peristome simple, straight, 

G 



122 PULMONATA. 

with the margins joined by a white callus, the columellar margin 
declivous, rather thickened, dilated and reflected over the perfo- 
ration. Height 45, greatest breadth 76, least breadth 63 mill. (P/r.) 

Hehx Brookei, Adams Sf Reeve,V. Samarang, Moll. 60. 1. 15. f. 4. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 377- t. 73. 

Pfr. Ic. n.870. t. 135. f. 1, 2; Mon. Suppl. 52. 
Helix gigas, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1850, p. 81. 
Hab. Borneo. 

130. Nanina regalis. 

Shell perforate, reversed, conoidally depressed, keeled, with 
crowded undulate striae and granulations, finely banded or uni- 
form ; spire conoidal, rather pointed ; whorls six, nearly flat, 
slowly increasing, the middle ones obliquely undate, the last not 
descending, with a sharp keel, which is compressed from the 
lower side, shining, convex, very minutely decussated beneath, 
excavated in the centre, with the spnal striffi obsolete near the 
perforation ; aperture oblique, rather securiform ; peristome 
sharp, basal margin arched, sinuated towards the umbilicus, co- 
lumellar margin very slightlv reflected. Height 13, greatest 
breadth 27, least breadth 25 mill. [Pfr.) 

Helix regalis, Benson in Ann. &• Mag. Nat. Hist. March 1850, 
p. 215. 

Pfr. Mon. Supjil. 52. 

a. With the undulate ribs scarcely conspicuous ; colour a dirty 
wine-red, with a whitish-green band, which is bordered with 
blackish-chestnut, on the suture and on the keel ; periomphalum 
whitish-yellow, surrounded by a blackish band. 

Helix vittata, Adams §• Reeve, Voy. Samarang, Moll. 60. t. 15. 

f. 7 (not Mull.). 
Helix regalis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 529. t. 96. 
P/r. Jc. n. 915. t. 141. f. 5, 6. 

/3. Uniformly purplish-brown, with more distinct undulate ribs. 

Hehx regalis, var.. Reeve, t. 80. f. 426. 

Pfr. Jc. t. 141. f. 7, 8. 
Hab. Sarawak and Balambangan, Borneo {Taylor). 

131. Nanina glutinosa. 

Shell perforate, conoidally lenticular, keeled, thin, glutinous- 
shining, of a light chestnut-colour, marked with very minute 
spiral lines ; spire conoidal, rather pointed ; suture scarcely im- 
pressed, obscurely bordered ; whorls six, rather flat, the last not 



PULMOXATA. 123 

descending, girdled at its periphery with a compressed, rounded, 
darker-coloured keel, convex beneath ; aperture oblique, lunate, 
angular; peristome simple, straight, sharp, coluniellar mai-gin 
very shortly reflected above. Height Uh, greatest breadth 28, 
least breadth 24 J mdl. (Pfr.) 

Helix glutinosa, Metcalfe inProc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p 70 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 54. 
Hab. Borneo. 

132. Nanina Souleyetiana. 

Shell ))erforated, conoidal, depressed, rather solid, VAith wTinkled 
striae and with very crowded waving lines above between the 
stria;, pale fulvous ; spire shortly conoidal, rather blunt ; whorls 
six, rather flattened, increasing slowly, the last one sharj)lv 
keeled, convex, and with a chestnut-coloiu-ed band below the 
keel, deeply excavated in the middle; aperture very oWique, 
lunate, angulated ; peristome simple, with the margins nearly' 
parallel, right margin forward, somewhat arcuate, columellar 
margin rather thickened, very shortly reflected above. Height 
18, greatest breadth 12, least "breadth 36 mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix Soulevetiana, Pfeiffer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851 ; Ic n 950 
t. 148. f. 16, 17 ; Mon. Suppl. 74. 
Reeve, n. 378. t. 73- 
Hab. ? 

133. Nanina Donovani. 

Shell perforated, somewhat depressed, thin, keeled, striate, 
very- minutely decussated above with oblique lines which are 
rather concentric beneath, scarcely shining, diaphanous, fulvous ; 
spire very shortly conoidal, sutui-e impressed ; whorls five and a 
half, flat, rapifUy increasing, the last one dilated, not descending 
anteriorly, rather flattened above, with one chestnut-coloured 
band on the keel, which is rather sharp, inflated below the keel 
and slightly excavated to the middle ; aperture oblique, rhom- 
boidally oval, pearly inside ; peristome simple, sharp, with the 
columellar margin very declivous, reflected into a vaulted trian- 
gular lamina near the perforation, which is extremely narrow and 
not penious. Height 21, gi-eatest breadth 47, least breadth 37 
mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix Donovani, Pfeiffer in Z.f. M. 1851, 26; Icon. n. 967. t.l47. 

f. 8, 9 ; Mon. Suppl. 75. 
Hab. Borneo. 

This species has nearly the same sculpture as N. Humphrei/- 
siana ; in shape it more resembles N. stolephora. 

g2 



124 PULMOXATA. 

k. New Guinea. 

1.34. Nanina Foullioyi. 

Shell orbiculate-conoidal, umbilicated, fulvous-olive under the 
oUvaceous epidermis, depressedly concave beneath, white ; whorls 
five and a half, slightly depressed at the suture, finely cancel- 
lately-granulated, the lowest zoned in the middle with a white 
band, broadly bordered beneath with dark violet ; umbilicus 
deep, contracted towards the outline; a])erture oblique, semi- 
oblong, contracted behind and siniiated at the base ; hp sharp, 
reflected at the umbilicus. Lat. 46, alt. 29 mill. 

Hehx Foulliovi, Le Guillou in Revue Zool. 1845, p. 187. 
Pfr. Moil. Helic. ii. 44. 

Hab. New Guinea ; Triton Bay. 

135. Nanixa Baudini. 

Shell orbiculate-convex, substriated, pale fidvous ; whorls 
seven, very slightly convex, the last slightly keeled with white 
at the base ; suture smooth ; umbilicus veiT small ; aperture 
neai'ly perpendicular, very small, obliquely semilunate ; peristome 
simple, shghtly thickened beneath. Lat. 22 mill. 

Helix Baudini, Desk, in Encycl. Meth. ii. 256. n. 12". 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 55. 
Nanina Baudini, Beck, hid. 4. 
Hab. New Guinea. 

136. Nanina divisa. B.M. 

Shell perforate, very much depressed, rather thin, obliquely 
striated above and obsoletely decussated with impressed lines, 
reddish-fulvid ; spire little raised, with the a))ex blunt ; suture 
bordered ; whorls five, flat, the last one not descendmg, com- 
pressedly keeled at its ])eripheiT, convex, rather smooth and 
shining beneath ; aperture oblique, lunate, angulated ; peristome 
simple, straight, with the columellar margin shortly reflected 
above. Height 9^, greatest breadth 24, least breadth 21 mill. 
(Pfr.) 
Helix divisa, Forbes in Voy. of the Rattlesnake, Apj). 376. t. 2. f. 5. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 11. 
Hab. Louisiade Islands {Macgillivray). 



PULMONATA. 



125 



1. Islands of the Pacific. 

137. Nanina MacAndrewiana. 

Shell imperforate, conoidally globular, rather solid, decussated 
under a leus with stri;c of growth and very crowded spiral lines, 
pale rose-coloured, surrounded with close-set blackish-brown 
lines ; spire conoidal ; apex red, blunt ; suture moderate ; whorls 
four, the upper ones moderately convex, the last inflated, scarcely 
descending anteriorly, uniformly rose-coloured at the base ; aper- 
ture little oblique, roundish-lunate, dirty wine-red within ; peri- 
stome simple, with distant margins, right margin sharp, colu- 
mellar margin purplish, dilated above, reflected and affixed. 
Height 13, greatest breadth 17, least breadth 14 mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix MacAndrewiana, Pfr. in Z. f. M. 1853, p. 53; Mon. 

Suppl. 625. 
Hab. Great Savage Island {MacAndrew). 

138. Nanina callifera. 

Shell imperforate, depressed, thin, smooth, shining, pellucid, 
fulvous horn-coloured; spire shghtly raised, rather convex; suture 
scarcely impressed ; whorls five and a half, rather flat, enlarging 
gradually, the last subangular at its periphery, flattened beneath 
and white-spotted in the centre ; apertm-e nearly perpendicular, 
transverse, angularly lunate ; peristome simple, sharp, straight, 
columellar margin short, thickened into a dentiform callus, which 
is prolonged backwards. Height 3, greatest breadth 7, least 
breadth 6 mill. {Pfr.) 
Helix callifera, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1850, p. 68 ; Ic. n. 802. t. 127- 

f. 13-16; Mon. Suppl. 34. 
Reeve, n. 634. t. 111. 
Hab. Marquesas Islands. 

139. Nanina succinulata. 

Shell orbicular, convex-depressed, pale amber, very bright, 
pellucid ; whorls Ave, depressed, the last scarcely keeled, convex 
beneath, depressed in the middle ; spire obtuse ; aperture ob- 
lique, semirotund, acute, scarcely angulated above, in front. 
Lat. 8, alt. 5J- mill. 
Helix succinulata, Le GuilL Revue Zool. 1842, p. 138. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 37. 
Hab. Gouaham and Nonkahiva Islands. 



126 pulmonata, 

140. Nanina pertenuis. 

Shell minute, subglobose, pellucid, ven" bright, greenish- 
golden, imperforate ; spire depressed ; whorls four and a half, 
convex, the last ample, angular at the circumference, radiated 
with remote furrows beneath; apertiu-e ample, lunate; lip 
simple. Lat. |, alt. Vo poU- 

Helix pertenuis, Gould in Proc. Bost. Soc. 1846, p. 172; Exped. 
Shells, 1851, p. 45. f. 60. 
Pfr. 3Ion. i. 38. n. 59 a. 
Hob. Am-ora Island. 

141. Nanina cicercula. 

Shell depressedly globose, thin, rather opake, imperforate, 
whitish-green, sculptured with conspicuous lines of growth and 
scattered spiral striae, beneath rounded, with a moderate central 
pit ; whorls five, convex, the last angulated ; aperture lunated ; 
labrum simple ; columella scarcely reflected above. Lat. \, alt. 
2% poll. 

Hehx cicercula, Gould in Proc. Bost. Soc. 1846, p. 1/1 ; Exped. 
Sh. 1851, p. 43. f. 73. 
Pfr. Mon. i. 39. n. 61 a. 
Hab. Hawaii Island. 

142. Nanina subrutila. 

Shell imperforate, orbicular, depressed, pellucid, glabrous, 
bright, lutescent, slightly keeled ; whorls five, scarcely convex ; 
aperture semilunar, rather gibbose ; lip simple, thin. Diam. 
0-3-0-4". 

Helix subrutila, Migliels, Bost. Proc. 1845, p. 19. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 39. 
Hah. Oahu Island. 

143. Nanina rectangula. 

Shell imperforate, orbicular-conic, solid, striatulate, greyish 
straw-coloured, basal area ornamented « ith a sutural line and 
broad chestnut bands ; spire elevated, obtuse ; whorls six to six 
and a half, slightly convex, the last almost rectangularly keeled, 
nearly level beneath, slightly excavated in the middle ; aperture 
depressed, subtrapezial ; columellar margin thickened, slightly 
one-toothed, with callus. Lat. maj. 13, min. 12, alt. 10 mill. 

Helix rectangula, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 130. 
Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 217. t. 28. f. 8, 9. 
Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 35 ; Ic. i. 242. 



PULMONATA. 



127 



Helix (Trochomorpha) rectangula, Alb. 116. 

Helix hapa, Homhr. S,-Jacq. Voy. Pol Sud, Moll. t. 7- f- 38-41. 

Reeve, n. 615. t. 109. 
Hab. The Marquesas. 

144. Nanina Salomonis. 

Shell orbiculate, depressed subconic, umbilicated, cancellated ; 
whorls six, depressedly-convex, the last rounded, depressed be- 
neath, plane ; aperture oblique ; lip sharp ; inner lip very ob- 
lique, reflected above, nearly hiding the very small umbilicus. 
Lat. 18, alt. 13 mill. 
Helix Salomonis, Le Guillou in Revue Zool. 1842, p. 137- 

Pfr. Mon. i. 47. n. 85. 
Hab. Salomon Islands. 

145. Nanina doliolum. 

Shell perforated, turbinated, very closely and minutely costu- 
late-striated, pellucid, not shining, horny ; spire turbinated, apex 
rather obtuse ; whorls five, slightly convex, the last nearly level 
beneath ; aperture depressed, widely lunar ; peristome qviite 
simple, straight. Lat. maj. 3i, min. 3^, alt. 2i mill. 
Hehx doliolum, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1846, p. 41 ; Mon. Helic. 

i. 50. 
Hab. Zebu Island. 

146. Nanina concentrica. 

Shell trochiform, subfulvous, pellucid, slightly umbilicated; 
whorls five, obsoletely striated transversely (with three remote 
stria;), the last keeled", depressedly-convex beneath ; spire conic- 
depressed; aperture subovate, sUghtly angulated in front, mar- 
gin acute ; umbilicus very minute, obsolete. Lat. 7, alt. 6 mill. 

Hehx concentrica, Le Guillou in Revue Zool. 1842, p. 139. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 51. 
Hab. Tonga Island. 

147. Nanina Pacifica. 

Shell perforated, subtrochiform, thin, pellucid, striatulate, 
homy ; spire conoidal, rather acute ; whorls six to six and a half, 
slightly convex, the last acutely keeled, a little more convex 
beneath, smooth, bright ; aperture depressed, angulate-lunar ; 
peristome simple, acute, columellar margin scarcely dilated, in- 
serted into the punctiform perforation. Lat. maj. 5§, min. 5, 
alt. 4 mill. 



128 PULMONATA, 

Helix pacifica, Pfr. Symb. iii. 6G; Mon. Helic. i. 52; Ic. ii. 125. 

Chenm. eel. 2, He/i,r, n. 549. t. 88. f. 3-5. 

Reeve, n. 640. t. 112. 
Jf«6. Cocos Island, Pacific. 

148. Nanina Nouleti. 

Shell rounded, conic-depressed, umbilicated, chestnut, shining, 
elegantly striated longitudinally and obliquely, depressed beneath, 
brighter, nearly smooth ; whorls five to six, depressedly-convex, 
transversely and very smoothly striolated above ; spire chestnut, 
slightly exserted, obtuse ; aperture oblique, lip acute, rather 
thickened below, whitish, hiding or partially covering the small 
umbilicus. Lat. 30, alt. 19 mill. 

Helix Nouleti, Le Gidll. in Revue Zool. 1842, p. 13/. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 69. 

Reeve, n. 405. t. 7/ ? 
Hab. Viti Islands. 

149. Nanina pusilla. 

Shell minute, thin, depressed, obliquely striated above, whitish- 
green, more gi-een beneath, shghtly pohshed, perforated; spire 
of fom' whorls, nearly flat ; sutm'e deep ; aperture circular ; lip 
simple. Lon. ■^■^, lat. -^-^ poll. 

Helix pusillus, Gould, Exped. Shells, 1846, p. 19; 1851, p. 40. 

Pfr. Mon. i. 9/. n. 239 a. 
Hab. Sandwich Islands. 

150. Nanina tumulus. 

Shell small, solid, yellowish, orbiculate-pyramidal, nearly level 
beneath, perforated by a moderate umbilicus ; spire elevated, 
conic-rounded ; whorls six to seven, slightly convex, furrowed 
with very oblique stria;, the last obtusely angled at the margin, 
compressed near the aperture ; aperture small, transverse, lunate ; 
peristome simple. Lon. |, alt. ^'o poU. 
Helix tumulus, Goidd in Proc. Bost. Soc. 1846, p. 175; Exped. 

Shells, 1851, p. 62. f. 53. 
Pfr. Mon. i. 85. n. 204 a. 
Hab. Feejee Islands. 

151. Nanina lurida. 

Shell globosely-conic, depressed, quite glabrous, bright, livid- 
chestnut, i)aler beneath, steej) towards the minute umbilicus; 
whorls six, convex, radiately and obtusely striated, the last 



PULMONATA. 



129 



slightly angulated near the aperture ; suture impressed, mar- 
gined ; aperture lunate, throat livid ; lip acute, reflected at the 
umbilicus, white. Lat. 1, alt. 2 poll- 

Ilehx lurida, Gould in Proc. Bost. Soc. 1846, p. 1/9. 

Pfr.Mon. i. 47. n. 83 a. 
Nanina lurida, Gould, Exped. Sh. 1851, p. 31. f. 68. 

Hab. Feejee Islands. 

152. Nanina rubricata. B.M. 

Shell globosely-conic, solid, scarcely perforated, shining above, 
reddish-chestnut, with radiating striae disposed in groups and 
decussated by spiral lines, quite glabrous beneath, hvid-chestnut, 
sloping towards the centre ; whorls six, convex, ample ; suture 
slightly margined ; ajierture semilunar, throat dusky ; lip simple, 
reflected at the columella, white. Lat. 1, alt. f poll. 
Helix (Nanina) rubricata, Gould in Proc. Bost. Soc. 1846, p. 178 ; 

Exped. Shells, 25. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 69. 
Nanina rubricata, Gould, Exped. Sh. 1851, p. 29. f. 66. 
Hab. Feejee Islands. 

153. Nanina calva. 

Shell thin, depressedly globose, bright, pale greenish straw- 
coloured, umbilicus contracted ; whorls five, not turgid, lines of 
growth obsolete ; suture not impressed, margined ; aperture 
semilunar ; lip simple, sharp, a little reflected at the umbihcus. 
Lat. ^, alt. i poll. 

Helix calva, Gould in Exped. Shells, 1851, p. 31. f. 69. 
Helix casca, Gould in Proc. Bost. Soc. 1846, p. 179. 

Pfr. Mon. i. 41. n. 68 a (not Lowe). 
Hab. Feejee Islands. 

154. Nanina modicella. 

Shell minute, orbiculate depressed, very faintly striated, horn- 
coloured fulvous ; whorls foiu- and a half, moderately convex, se- 
parated by a channeled suture ; umbilicus wide ; aperture simple, 
roundish-semilunate. Height li, breadth 3 mill. {Desk.) 
Helix modicella. Per. Miis. ; Desk, in Fe'r. Hist. i. 90. n. 123. 

t. 86. f. 3. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 92. 

Hab. Tahiti. 

g5 



130 pulmonata. 

155. Nanina minutalis. 

Shell very minute, orbiculate depressed, white, glassy, faintly 
striated ; whorls four and a half, moderately convex, narrow ; 
umbilicus broad ; aperture rouuded-semilunate, oblique, simple, 
with sharp margins. Height 1, breadth 2 mill. {Desk.) 
Helix minutalis, Fer. Mus.; Desk, in Fer. Hist. i. 83. n. 110 

(not figured). 
Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 91 (compare Z.f. M. 1852, p. 152). 
Hab. Tahiti (Des/i.) ? 

156. Nanina cultrata. 

Shell small, orbicular, depressed, quite glabrous, shining, 
greenish-bro\ni, rounded beneath, and bent into an umbilical 
pit, imperforate ; spire of five convex whorls, the last keeled 
above ; apex obtuse ; suture margined ; aperture narrow, lunate ; 
lip simple ; columella oblique, callous, white, planulate, inflected, 
resembhng a tooth below. Lat. ^f'o, alt. t^q poll. 

Helix cultrata, Gould in Proc. Bost. Soc. 1846, p. 172; Exped. 
Shells, 1851, p. 46. f. 59. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 37. n. 55 a. 
Hab. Tahiti and Eimeo. 

157. Nanina radians. 

Shell imperforate, depressed, thin, smooth, veiy shining, pel- 
lucid, horn-coloured, irregularly radiated with whitish stripes ; 
spire scarcely raised, convex ; suture impressed, a little mar- 
ginate ; whorls four and a half, nearly flat, the last one not de- 
scending, angular at its ujiper periphery, convex beneath and a 
little impressed in the centre; aperture nearly peqiendicular, 
lunate, angular ; peristome quite simple, straight, sharp. Height 
4, greatest breadth 9, least breadth 8 mill. (Pfr.) 

Helix radians, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Ic. n. 942. 
t. 144. f. 22, 23 ; Mon. Suppl. 39. 
Reeve, n. 618. t. 110. 
Hab. Island of Tahiti. 

158. Nanina calculosa. 

Shell small, glassy, fragile, shining, smooth, horn-coloured, 
globose-pyramidal ; whorls four, moderately convex, the last an- 
gular and slightly keeled at its periphery, convex beneath, im- 
pressed in the umbilical region, but inii^erforate ; aperture lunate ; 



PULMONATA. 131 

lip simple, with the internal margin rounded. Breadth Vo^h 
of an inch, axis a little less {Gould). 

Helix calculosa, Gould, Exped. Sh. 1851, p. 48. f. 63. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 41. 
Hab. Tahiti. 

159. Nantna Stoddarti. B.M. 

Shell imperforate, depressedly turbinate, solid, slightly rugose, 
nitidulous, brunneous and pale banded, or yellowish with darker 
bands ; spire depressedly conic ; whorls five, nearly level, the 
last more convex, angular in the middle, slightly convex at the 
base ; columella very short, slightly thickened, entering ; aper- 
ture lunar ; peristome simple, acute. Lat. maj. 15, min. 14, 
alt. 10 mill. 

Helix Stoddarti, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 65. 

Midler, Synops. p. 8. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 36. 
Hab. Phillip Island, Pacific. 

160. Nanina Campbellii. B.M. 

Shell imperforate, orbiculate, convex on each side, closely 
wrinkled above, slightly decussated with spiral stria;, pale brun- 
neous, ornamented above the margin with one broad pale band ; 
spire conoidal, obtuse ; « horls four and a half, nearly level, the 
last angulated in the middle, nearly smooth beneath ; columella 
short, obhque, slightly thickened ; aperture angularly-lunar ; 
peristome thin, acute. Lat. maj. 19, min. 17, alt. 12 mill. 

Helix Campbellii, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 65. 

M'uller, Syn. p. 7- 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 36. 
Hab. Phillip Island, Pacific. 

161. Nanina EX^EauATA. 

Shell imperforate, discoidal, thin, smooth, shining, pellucid, 
reddish-brown horn-coloured ; spire fiat ; suture scarcely im- 
pressed, bordered ; whorls six, flat, enlarging slowly, the last 
obtusely angular at its upper periphery, rather flat beneath and 
impressed in the centre ; aperture perpendicular, narrowly 
lunate ; peristome simple, sharp, with the basal margin almost 
rectilinear. Height 3, greatest breadth 7, least breadth 6 mill. 
iPfr.) 



132 PULMONATA. 

Helix exfequata, Gould in Proc. Bost. Soc. 1846, p. 171 ; Exped. 
Sh. 1851, p. 47. f. G7. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 193. n.498 a; Ic. n. 801. t. 127. f. 21-23 

Mon. Suppl. 35. 
Reeve, n. 627- t. 111. 
Helix disculus, Ffr.in Z.f. M. 1850, p. 88 (not Deshayes). 
Helix obtusangula, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1850, p. 153. 
Hub. Kanai, Sandwich Islands. 



162. Nanina aurulenta. 

Shell imperforate, depressed, thin, indistinctly and faintly 
striated, shining, diaphanous, whitish, with a single brownish- 
yellow baud above the middle ; spire short, rather conoidal ; 
whorls four, moderately convex, enlarging gradually, the last 
rounded, not descending ; aj)erture little oblique, roundish- 
lunate; peristome simple, sharp; columellar margin ascending 
in an arch. Height 5, greatest breadth 9, least breadth 8 mill. 
iPfr.) 

Microcystis aundenta. Beck, MSS. 
March, Cat. Yold. p. 2. n. 29. 
Helix aundenta, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 626. 
Hab. Pitcairn Islands. 



163. Nanina Nov^e Hiberni^. B.M. 

Shell perforated, globosely-depressed, keeled, obliquely rugu- 
losely striated, thin, fulvescent, zoned with a rufous line at the 
keel ; whorls six, very slightly convex, the last more convex 
beneath, nearly smooth, obsoletely decussated with concentric 
hues ; aperture limai", inside bright, concolorcus ; jieristome 
straight, obtuse, columellar margin slightly thickened. Lat. 
maj. 19, min. 17, alt. 10 mill. 

Helix Novae Hibernise, Quoy S)- Gaim. Astral, ii. 124. t. 10. 
f. 14-17. 

Lam. ed. Desk. 193. p. 120. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 548. t. 88. f. 1, 2. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 79. 
Nanina Novae Hollandiae, Beck, Ind.4. 

Pfr. Ic. h. 124. 

Reeve, n. 429. t. 81. 
Nanina (Ilemiplccta) Novae Hiberniae, Alb. 60. 
Hab, Port Carteret, New Ireland. 



pulmonata. 133 

164. Nanina Adamsi. B.M. 
Shell imperforate, orbicular, faintly striated, ojiake, very 

polished, fulvous-yellow or yellomsh-vvhite, uniform or multi- 
fariously variegated and rayed with dark fulvous and chestnut- 
coloured lines and bands ; spire short, rather convex ; apex 
blunt ; whorls three and a half, scai'cely convex, the last de- 
pressed, rather flattened beneath ; aperture roundish-lunate ; 
peristome simple, sharp ; columellar margin rather oblique, di- 
lated, white. Height 6, greatest breadth 11, least breadth 10 
mill. (P/r.) 

HelLx Adamsi, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 66; Ic. t. 129. 

f. 1-6 ; Mon. Siippl. 33, 
Hehx ornatella, Pfr. Ic. i. 234. t. 29. f. 23-26 ; Mon. i. 32. 

n. 42 (part.). 

Desk. Hist. Helic. p. 165. n. 220. t. 99. f. 9-14. 
Reeve, t. 107. f. 596 a. 
Microcystis filiceti. Beck, Ind. 2. n. 5. 

Nanina (Microcystis) flliceti. Beck in M. R. C. viii. t. 3. f. 4 a-d. 
Nanina (jMicrocystis) Adamsi, Alb. 60. 
Hab. Pitcairn Islands and Opara {H. Cuming). 

165. Nanina brunnea. 

Shell imperforate, orbicular-convex, very bright, deeply ful- 
vous, spriukled above with white dots ; spire slightly convex ; 
whorls four and a half, subplanulate, increasing gradually, the 
last shghtly convex beneath, imjjressed in the middle; aper- 
ture rounded-lunar ; peristome acute, simple, very thin, slightly 
thickened in the place of the umbilicus. Lat. mej. 6, min. 5^, 
alt. 3^ mill. 

Helix brunnea, Anton, Verz. p. 35. n. 1.328. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 208. t. 29. f. 27-29. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 33; Ic. i. 235. 

Reeve, n. 628. t. 111. 
Nanina (Microcystis) brunnea. Alb. 60. 
Helicopsis glandula. Beck, Ind. 2 {Anton). 
Microcvstis aurulenta. Beck, MSS. 

March, Cat. Yold. 2. n. 29. 
Hehx aurulenta, Pfeiffer, Supp. n. 1591. 
Microcvstis margarita. Beck, MSS. 

Morch, Cat. Yold. 2. n. 30. 
Helix margarita, Pfeiffer, Supp. iii. 
Hab. Pitcairn Island. 



134 pilmonata. 

166. Naxixa orxatella. 

Shell imperforate, orbiculate-conrex, thin, keeled, smooth, 
very shining, pellucid, pale or darker yellow or fulvous, imiform 
or marked with a single reddish -brown band, rarely piu-ple-red 
beneath ; spii-e obtusely conoidal ; whorls four and a half, mo- 
derately convex, the last keeled, more convex beneath ; apeiture 
little oblique, lunate, slightly angular ; peristome simple, sharp, 
straight, with the columellar margin somewhat callous, entering. 
Height 7, greatest breadth \\^, least breadth lOi mill. {Pfr.) 

Microcystis ornatella. Beck, Index, 2. n. 4. 

Nanina (MicrocvstisJ ornatella, Beck in M. R. C. viii. t. S. 
f. a-h. 

Alb. Helic. 59. 
Helix ornatella. Pfr. Symh. ii. 36; Mon. i. 32 (part.); Suppl. 
38; Jen. 815. t. 129. f. 7-10. 
Reeve, t. 107. f. 596 6. 
Helix realis, Miihlf. in Anton, Verz. 35. n. 1329. 

jS. ? More depressed, imiformly greenish-yellow. 

Microcystis amoenula. Beck, Ind. 2. n. 6. 

Nanina (Microcystis) amcenula. Beck in M. R. C. \ui. t. 3. 

f. 5 a-d. 
Hab. Pitcaii-n Islands {H. Cuming) and Opara? 

This species, which has often been confounded with N. Adamsi, 
Pfr., may be distinguished from that shell by the number of 
its whorls, the last of which is keeled to the peristome, by its 
pellucidity and the more convex base. 

167. Naxixa orbis. 

Shell imperforate, discoidal, greenish-yellow, ver\- glabrous, 
bright, pellucid, smooth above, slightly convex beneath, impressed 
in the middle ; suture slightly margined ; whorls live to six, 
level, the last but one rather wider, angidated above ; aperture 
nearly vertical, wide, lunar; peristome straight, acute, simple. 
Lat. "maj. 9^, min. 8f, alt. 3^. 

Helicopsis orbis. Beck, Ind. 2 (Anton). 

Helix orbis, Pfr. Symb. ii. 35; Mon. Helic.i. 32; Ic. i. 234. 

Reeve, n. 623. t. 10. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helicc, n. 206. t. 30. f. 8-10. 
Helix planulata, Anton, Verz. p. 35. n. 1326 (not Lam.). 
Nanina (Microcystis) orbis, Alb. 59. 
Hab. Opara. 



pulmonata, 135 

168. Nanina subtilis. 

Shell imperforate, depressed, very thin, bright, pale homy ; 
spire scarcely exserted ; whorls four and a half to five, nearly 
level, gradually increasing, the last a little more convex at the 
base ; suture sometimes red-margined ; aperture transversely 
lunar ; peristome simple, acute. Lat. maj. 6, min. 5^, alt. 3| mill. 

Helix subtilis, Anton, Verz. 35. n. 1327. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 209. t. 29. f. 33-35. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 33 ; Ic. i. 236. 

Reeve, n. 626. t. 111. 
Helix vitrinella, Pfr. Symb. ii. 41. 
Helicopsis vitrinella. Beck, hid. 2 [Anton). 
Nanina (Microcystis) subtilis, Alb. 60. 
Hab. Oheatora Island. 

169. Nanina spiralis. 

Shell orbiculate, subconoidal, umbilicated, luteous, sculptured 
with numerous radiating stria;, sometimes obsolete ; spire ob- 
tuse ; whorls five, depressedly-convex, the lowest ornamented 
with a decurrent purplish-bliick band above the middle ; umbi- 
licus very narrow, deep ; aperture semiovate ; lip acute, scarcely 
reflected at the umbilicus. Lat. .34, alt. 20 mill. 

Helix spiralis, Le Guill. Revue Zool. 1845, p. 188. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 53. 

Reeve, n. 408. t. 77 ? 
Hab. Arrow Island. 

m. New Zealand. 

170. Nanina Mari^. B.M. 

Shell imperforate, nearly lenticular, rather thin, slightly striate, 
shining, greenish horn-coloured, indistinctly marked with nar- 
row oblique brownish stripes ; spire conoidal, with the outlines 
convex and the apex acuminate ; suture bordered ; whorls five 
and a half, rather flat, acutely carinate, the last one not descending, 
rather convex beneath and obsoletely spotted with brown ; aper- 
ture oblique, dejiressed, nearly triangular; peristome simple, 
sharp, straight, with the basal margin very slightly arcuate and 
shortly reflected at the columella. Height 3^, greatest breadth 
7i, least breadth 7 mill. {Pfr.) 
Nanina Marise, Gray in Dieffenb. Trav. i. 262. 
Helix Maria;, Pfr. Mon. i. 81. n. 192; Ic. n. 1045. t. 155. 

f. 40-42 ; Mon. Suppl. 39. 
Reeve. n.mA. t. 131. 
Helix umbraculum, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851. 
Hab. New Zealand. 



136 PULMONATA. 

n. African. 

171. Nanina Sowerbyana. 

Shell subperforated, de])ressed, solid, slightly shining, sub- 
decussated with close concentric striae and distinct lines of 
growth, olivaceous-lutescent ; spire depressed ; whorls four and 
a half, nearly level, rapidly increasing, the last depressed, dilated 
in front, deeply excavated beneath around the obsolete perfora- 
tion ; aperture very oblique, lunate-oval, milky inside ; peri- 
stome slightly thickened, margins united by a very thin callus, 
the upper arched forwards, the columellar slightly reflected, sub- 
dentate. Lat. maj. 52, min. 44, alt. 25 mill. 

Helix Sowerbvana, Pfr. Symb. i. 36. 

Phil. Icon. i. 2. p. 21. t. 2. f. 1. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 157. t. 25. f. 5, 6. 

Pfr. Mon. Belie, i. 68; Ic. i. 192. 

Reeve, n. 386. t. 74. 
Nanina (Ryssota) Sowerbyana, Alb. 61. 
Helix pachistoma, Hombr. ^- Jacq. Voy. Pol Sud, Moll. t. 3. 

f. 10-12. 
Hab. Canaries. 

172. Nanina Grateloupi. 

Shell shghtly perforated, semiglobose, slightly shining, regu- 
larly and closely striated above, irregularly decussated with spiral 
lines, dull chestnut, smooth beneath ; wliorls six, slightly con- 
vex, the last nearly level beneath ; suture slightly margined ; 
aperture lunar, concolorous inside ; peristome simple, acute, 
dextral margin sinuous, columellar callous, a little reflected. 
Lat. maj. 26^, min. 24, alt. 15 mill. 

Helix Grateloupi, Pfr. Symb. ii. 9.9 ; Mon. Helic. i. 69 ; Ic. i. 205. 

Ckemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 173. t. 31. f. 13, 14. 
Helix rufescens, Grot. Act. Bord. xi. 408. t. 1. f. 3? 
Nanina (Xesta) Grateloupi, Alb. 59. 
Hab. Madagascar ? 

173. Nanina rufa. B.M. 

Shell perforated, slightly depressed, thin, closely striated, 
slightly decussated with obsolete, concentric lines, horny-red ; 
spire scarcely elevated ; whorls six, very little convex, the last 
dilated, more convex beneath, angulated above the middle; angle 
evanescent in front ; apertm-e nearly vertical, lunar ; peristome 
simple, obtuse, cohnnellar margin very slightly reflected. Lat. 
maj. 19, min. 17, alt. 10 mill. 



PULMONATA. 137 

Helix rufa, Less. Voy. de la Coq. 305. t. 13. f. 2. 

Che?iin. ed. 2, Helix, n. 540. t. S7. f. 4, 5. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 73. 

Reeve, n. 193. t. 42. 
Nanina (Hemiplecta) rufa, Alb. GO. 
Nanina exilis, var.. Beck, Ind. 4. 
Hab. Mauritius. New Ireland? 

174. Nanina calamechroa. 

Shell perforated, globosely-depressed, thin, bright, pellucid, 
straw-coloured, regularly striated transversely, decussated by very 
fine spiral lines, scarcely visible with the naked eye ; whorls five 
and a half, increasing gradually; aperture lunar; peristome 
simple, acute. Lat. maj. 17, min. 15^, alt. 8 mill. 
Helix calamechroa, Jonas in Phil. Icon. i. 3. 47. t. 3. f. 2. 
Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 57; Ic. n.816. t. 129. f. 11, 12. 
Helix tenera, Jonas, olim. 
Nanina (Xesta) calamechroa. Alb. 59. 
Macrochlamys, Morch, Cat.Yold. 2. 
Hab. Guinea. 

Habitat unknown. 

175. Nanina liturata. 

Shell imperforate, tm-binate-semiglobular, rather solid, striated 
and minutely wrinkled, rather shining, reddish with bro\vnish 
bands, which are broken into single points or letter-like stripes ; 
spire depressedly turbinate ; a]iex rather pointed ; whorls five, 
moderately convex, the last one descending imperceptibly, rounded 
and marked with a chestnut-coloured peripherical Ijand, which is 
divided into regular square spots, rather convex beneath ; aper- 
ture diagonal, roundish-lunate ; peristome simple, ^ith the right 
margin imperceptibly expanded and the columellar one a little 
callous. Height 15, greatest breadth 23, least breadth 20 mill. 
(Pfr.) 
Helix liturata, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Ic. n. 931. 

t. 142. f. 13, 14; Mon. Suppl. 31. 
Locality unknown. 

176. Nanina insculpta. 

Shell imperforate, depressed, slightly convex on each side, len- 
ticular, sharply keeled, rather solid, chestnut, sculptured above 
with close-set ribs and with a spiral line parallel to the keel; 
whorls five, planulate, the last smooth beneath, marked with an 
impressed line near the keel ; columella armed with a single. 



138 PULMONATA. 

short, acute, white tooth ; aperture depressed, hatchet-shaped ; 
peristome simple, acute. Lat. maj. 8, min. 7i, alt. 4 mill. 

Helix insculpta, Pfr. Proe. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 129 ; Mon. Helic. 
i. 36 ; Ic. i. 243. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 219. t. 30. f. 15-18. 
Helix (Trochomorpha) insculpta. Alb. 116. 
Hub. ? 

17". Nanina cryptoportica. 

Shell small, orbicular-depressed ; apex pointed, thin, pellucid, 
bright, yellowish-green, faintly striated, rounded beneath, im- 
perforate, with a small central pit ; whorls five and a half, shtrhtly 
convex, the last keeled ; sutiu-e impressed, mai-gined ; apertm-e 
lunate ; lip simple ; columella strongly twisted above, forming a 
narrow, central sinus. 

Hehx crvptoportica, Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. 1846, p. 171 ; Ex- 
ped. Shells, 1851, p. 44. f. 72. 
Pfr. 3Ion. Helic. i. 39. 
Hab. ? 

178. Nanina Ammonia. 

Shell reversed, nearly globular, longitudinally folded, thin, 
fragile, pellucid, green ; spire short, acuminate ; whorls four, nar- 
row, convex, the last one the largest, dilated, convex and per- 
forate beneath ; apertm-e large, oval-rounded, oblique ; peristome 
thin, sharp, dilated at the base. Height 18, breadth 20 mill. 
{Desk.) 

Helix Ammonia, Valenc. in Mus. Paris. 

Desk, in Fer. Hist. i. 197. n. 265. t. 37 A. f. 1. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 41. 
LocaUty imknown. 

179. Nanina rubicunda. 

Shell perforated, depressecUy tm-binated, rugosely striated, ob- 
soletely and very minutely granulated, reddish under the deci- 
duous homy ejjidermis ; whorls five and a half, subplanulate, 
the last obsoletely angulated in the middle, more convex beneath ; 
aperture obliquely lunar ; peristome simple, straight, dextral 
margin dilated in front, columellar dilated, reflected, half-hiding 
the perforation. Lat. maj. 27, min. 21, alt. 15 mill. 

Hehx rubicunda, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 72; Mon. 

Helic. i. 47. 
Hab. ? 



PULMONATA. 



139 



180. Nanina Moussoni. 

Shell perforate, turbinate, thin, light, keeled, very minutely 
decussated by the striae of growth and very crowded impressed 
lines, which descend obliquely forwards, dia])hanous, whitish, 
with a single red band ; spire conoidal ; apex rather blunt ; 
suture slightly bordered ; whorls six, nearly tlat, the last large, 
keeled below the band, rounded anteriorly, rather convex beneath; 
aperture oblique, lunate, obsoletely angular ; peristome simple, 
straight, columellar margin slightly reflected upon the perfora- 
tion. Height 23, greatest breadth 38, least breadth 33 mill. 
iPfr.) 
Hehx Moussoni, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849, p. 12G ; Ic. n. 783. 

t. 125. f. 34, 35; Mon. Suppl. 53. 
Ueeve, n. 479. t. 88. 
Locality unknown. 

181. Nanina Eucharis. 

Shell orbicnlate, subdiscoidal, thin, pellucid, greenish, granu- 
lated above, smooth beneath ; spire conoidal, pointed ; whorls 
six, narrow, rather flattened, joined by a very minutely crenu- 
lated sutm-e ; last whorl thickened, with a narrow keel at its 
periphery, convex and perforate beneath ; aperture large, lunate, 
rather triangular, oblique ; peristome simple, sharp. Height 20 ; 
breadth 2)^ mill. (Desk.) 
Helix Eucharis, Deshayes in Fer. Hist. i. 363. n. 430. t. 64 A. 

f. 7, 8. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 54. 
Locality unknown. 

182. Nanina scalprum. 

Shell orbiculate-discoid, thin, pellucid, pale brownish horn- 
coloured, minutelv striated ; spire depressed ; apex acuminate ; 
whorls five, narrow, rather flat, joined, the last depressed, sharply 
keeled at its periphery, rather convex and perforate beneath; 
aperture depressed, rather triangular, oblique ; peristome simple, 
sharp ; columella with a single small tooth. Height 9, breadth 
16 mill. (Desk.) 

Hehx scalprum, Valenc. in Mus. Paris. 

Desk, in Fer. Hist. i. 362. n. 429. t. 64 A. f. 2-4. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 57. 
Locality unknown. 



140 pulmonata. 

183. Nanina securiformis. 

Shell oi-biculate-subglobose, thin, lucid, greenish, smooth, 
sharply angulate at the periphery ; spire broad, conoidal, with 
the apex acuminate ; whorls four and a half, moderately convex, 
rapidly increasing, the last one large, ventricose, convex and sub- 
perforate beneath ; aperture rounded-triangular, large ; peristome 
simple, thin, not reflected. Height 6, breadth 10 mill. [Desk.) 
Helix securiformis, Desk.inFer. Hist.i.362.n. 428. t. 64 A. f. 6,6. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 57. 
Locality unknown. 

184. Nanina zonites. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, thin, diaphanous, closely costu- 
late-striated, yellowish-horny ; spire scarcely elate ; whorls six, 
slightly convex, regularly increasing, the last ornamented with a 
rufous line above the midiUe, conspicuous even to the apex, base 
smoother, subplanulate ; umbilicus moderate, pervious ; aperture 
depressed, obliquely lunate-oval, iridescent inside; peristome 
simple, straight, columellar margin sfDreading a little. Lat. maj. 
25, min. 20, alt. 12^ mill. 

Helix zonites, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc.1845, p. 127 ; Mon. Helic. i. 99. 

Reeve, n. 615. t. 109. 
Hab. ? 

185. Nanina semipartita. 

Shell perforate, orbicularly discoidal, rather convex above and 
beneath, white, pale yellowish, with a narrow bro\ATi band at the 
periphery ; spne very short, blunt ; whorls five, rather flattened, 
striate and decussated above, last whorl depressed, convex at its 
periphery ; umbilicus very narrow, deep ; aperture oblique, ovate- 
semdunar, rather transverse ; peristome simple, blunt, with the 
basal margin dilated. Height 15, breadth 26 mill. {Desk.) 

Helix semipartita. Dash, in Per. Hist. i. 187. n. 241. t. 89. f. 5. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 71- 
Locality unknown. 

186. Nanina tnduta. 

Shell perforated, lenticular, acutely keeled, solid, closely plaited- 
striate above, decussated with close, concentric lines, striated be- 
neath, chestnut, paler beneath, with a chestnut areola round the 
perforation, clothed entirely with a very thin horny-grey epider- 
mis; whorls five, jdane, increasing gradually; aperture sub- 
rhombic ; ])eristome simple, columellar mai-gin very slightly re- 
flected. Lat. maj. 21, mm. 18, alt. 11 mdl. 



PULMONATA. 141 

Helix induta, Pfr.Proc.Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 128 ; Mon. Helic.i. 79. 
Hub. ? 

187. Nanina atomata. 

Shell orbiculate, slightly convex, beneath convex, perforated, 
striated, whitish, stained with brown ; lowest whorl keeled, with 
unequal blaek-brown spots on the upper surface ; aperture semi- 
ovate-squarish. Alt. 1^, lat. 2i liu. 

CarocoUa atomata, Menke, Synops. p. 76 ; ed. 2. p. 128. 
Helix atomata, Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 82 ; Ic. n. 760. 1. 123. f. 19-21. 
Helix cheiranthicola, Lowe 1 {Beck). 
Hab. ? 

188. Nanina variolosa. 

Shell perforated, depressed, acutely keeled, rather solid, opake, 
lutescent, very closely plaited above, and regularly decussated 
with concentric hues, covered subfasciately with white pustules ; 
spire nearly level ; whorls three and a half, very slightly convex, 
rapidly increasing, the last convex beneath, impressed below the 
keel ; columella short, vertical ; aperture widely hatchet-shaped ; 
peristome simple, acute, columellar margin slightly reflected, 
nearly hiding the perforation. Lat. maj. 23, min. 20, alt. 10 
mill. 
Hehx variolosa, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 128 ; Mon. Helic. 

i. 83; Ic. n. 10(54. t. 157. f. 7,8. 
Hab. ? 

189. Nanina problematica. 

Shell convex-depressed, thin, faintly striated, shining, pellucid, 
pale gold-yellow ; spire convex, with the a])ex rather jjrominent, 
blunt ; suture slightly bordered ; whorls four and a half, mode- 
rately conxex, enlarging rapidly, the last not descending, shghtly 
angled below the middle, rather flat beneath ; umbilicus middle- 
sized, conic ; aperture oblique, rather tra])ezoidal ; peristome 
simple, straight, columellar margin shortly expanded, sometimes 
perfectly covering the umbilicus by a dilated lamina. Height 4, 
greatest breadth 8, least breadth 6^ mill. {Pfr.) 
Helix problematica, Pfr. in Z. f M. 1852, p. 91 ; Ic. n. 1062. 

t. 157. f. 3, 4 ; Mon. Swppl. 87. 
Locality unknown. 

It is not certain that this singular shell is a full-grown form 
of Helix ; perhaps it may be the young state of some other 
genus. 



J42 PULMONATA. 



11. STENOPUS. 

Shell perforated, conical or depressed, thin, diaphanous; 
whorls five to six, last much broader ; apertui'e roundish lunate ; 
peristome simple, acute, ])illar-edge entering. 

Animal corrugate, elongate, rarely retracted ; walks with great 
difficulty, with a serpentine motion ; mantle scarcely produced 
beyond the edge of the shell ; upper tentacles elongate ; mouth 
between lower tentacles ; lips plicate ; penis cervical, elongate ; 
foot linear, tail with subcontractile tentacles, with a gland at the 
base . — Guilding . 

Stenopus, Guilding, Zool. Journ. 1828, ii. 527. 
Albers, Heliceen, oj. 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 169. 

1. Stenopus cruentata. B.M. 

Shell openly perforated, depressed, transversely phcatulate, 
horny-amber ; spire nearly level ; whorls five, very shghtlv con- 
vex, the last much wider, im])ressed round the perforation ; suture 
margined ; aperture rounded-lunar ; peristome simple, acute, 
columellar margin entering. Lat. maj. Sh, min. 7|, alt. 4i mill. 

Stenopus cruentatus. Guild, in Zool. Journ. iii. 527- 1. 15. f. 1-5. 

Swains. Malac. 190. f. 33. 

Sow. Man. Con. f. 515. 

Albers, Heliceen, 57. 

Gray, Fig. Moll. iv. 111. t. 72. f. 2, 4 ; t. 288. f. 4. 
Hehx cruentata, Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 65; iii. 68. 
Hub. St. Vincents. 

2. Stenopus jlivida. B.M. 

Shell perforated, conic, thin, striatulate, brown horn-colour, 
diaphanous; spire conic, rather obtuse; whorls si.\, slightly con- 
vex, the last ventricose beneath, keeled above the middle; aperture 
rounded-lunar ; peristome simple, acute, straight. Lat. maj. 4^ 
min. 4, alt. 3i mill. 

Stenopus lividus. Guild, in Zool. Journ. iii. 528. t. ; Suppl. 
27. f. 1-3. 

Sow. Conch. Man. f. 516. 

Albers, Heliceen, 57- 

Gray, Fig. Moll. iv. 11 1. 1. 288. f. 5. 
Helix livida, Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 52 ; iii. 58. 
Hab. St. Vincents. 



PULMONATA. 143. 



12. ARIOPHANTA. 

Shell sinistral, umbilicated, thin, tliaphanous, last whorl an- 
gular or keeleil ; apertui'e oblique, lunate ; peristome simple, 
acute, pillar-edge refiexed. 

"Edge of mantle of animal not produced." 

Ariophanta (Isevipes), Desmoulins, Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. iii. 227, 
1833. 

Beck, Index, 5. 

Alters, Heliceen, 62. 
Nanina (Isevipes), Gray ; Beck. 



1. ArIOPHANTA LiEVIPES. B.M. 

Shell sinistral, perforate, rather depressed, thin, keeled, with 
distinct striae of gro^Ath, decussated under the lens by several 
spiral lines, pale horn-coloured, with one brown peripherical 
band, aa hich sometimes is bordered with a white one ; whorls 
four and a half, rather flattened, the last one not descending, in- 
flated beneath ; aperture oblique, lunate, rather angulated ; peri- 
stome simple, straight, with the margins convergent, columellar 
margin ascending nearly perpendicularly, somewhat reflected. 
Height 14i, greatest breadth 28, least breadth 23 mill. (P/V.) 

Helix l8evipes,i1/«ZZ.,P/r.il/o??.i. 71. n. 1 62 (excluding the var. S); 
Mon. Suppl. 75 ; Mon. Helic. i. 71. 

Desk. Helic. p. 177- n. 238. 

Reeve, n. 397. t. 7C^. 

Midi. Verm. ii. 22. n. 222. 

Chemn. ix. pt. 1. p. 83 ; ed. 2. Helix, n. 523. t. 84. f. 22,23. 

(Helicella) Fer. Pr. 229 ; Hist. t. 92. f. 3-6. 
Helix Candida, Gmel. 15? (Beck). 
Ariophanta Ifevipes, Desmoulins, Bull. Bord. iii. 227. t. 1. f. 1-5. 

Fer. in Bull. Zool. 1835, p. 108. 

Gray, Fig. Moll. t. 288. f. 6, 7- 

Beck, Ind. 5. 
Vitrina la;vipes. Ant. Verz. p. 33. n. 1264. 
Nanina (Ariophanta) laevipes. Alb. 62. 

Pfr. Symb. ii. 63. 

Favanne, t. 63. f. L. 3. 
^. Helix Iffivipes, Chemn. ix. t. 108. f. 915, 916. 

var., Fer. t. 92. f. 6. 
y. Helix spadicea, Gmel. 16. 

Kdmmerer, p. 172. t. 11. f. 2. 



144 PULMONATA. 

S. Helix trifasciata, Chemn. ii. 308. t. 213. f. 3018, 3019. 

Helix laevipes, var., Fer. Hist. t. 92. f. 4. 
Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, t. 84. f. 20, 21. 

Arioplianta trifasciata. Beck, Ind. 5. 
Hab, Malabar, Tranquebar. 

2. Ariophanta trifasciata. B.M. 

Shell sinistral, perforate, rather conoidally depressed, striate, de- 
cussated with crowded spiral lines, little shining, fulvous-whitish, 
with three chestnut-coloured bands, one of which nms along the 
suture, the second above, and the third below the periphery of 
the last whorl; spire rather conoidally raised; whorls five, 
scarcely convex, regularly increasing, the last one keeled, rather 
rounded anteriorly, deflected, convex beneath ; aperture small, 
very oblique, regularly lunate ; peristome simple, sharp, with the 
margins distant, columellar margin declivous, rather thickened, 
shortly reflected near the perforation. Height 14, greatest 
breadth 25^, least breadth 22 mill. {Pfr.) 

Hehx trifasciata, Chemn. Conch. Cab. xi. 308. t. 213. f. 3018, 
3019. 

Pfr. Ic. n. 523 a. t. 84. f. 20, 21 ; t. 136. f. 13; Mon. Sup.76. 
Helix Iffivipes, var., Fer. t. 92. f. 4. 

Pfr. Mon. i. 72. 
Ariophanta trifasciata. Beck, Ind. p. 5. n. 3. 
Hab. Malabar, Tranquebar. 

3. Ariophanta Bombayaxa. 

Shell dextral, perforate, rather depressed, keeled, slightly 
striate and under the lens very minutely decussated above, 
scarcely diaphanous, brownish rose-coloured ; whorls five, little 
convex, the last one not descending, rounded anteriorly, convex 
and pale beneath ; aperture oblique, rounded-lunate ; peristome 
simple, blunt, with the columellar margin shortly reflected above. 
Height 16, greatest breadth 28, least breadth 23 mill. {Pfr.) 

Helix Bombayana, Grat., Pfr. Mon. i. 41. n. 68. 

Desk, in Fer. p. 181. n. 242. t. 69 I. f. 5. 

Pfr. Ic. n. 8.S2. t. 130. f. 4, 5 ; Mon. Suppl 7(^. 
Helix rubcscens, Desh. MSS. 
Hab. From woods near Bombay. 

4. Ariophanta Himalayana. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, sinistral, depressed, thin, pellucid, 
costulated above, pale fulvous ; spire scarcely elevated ; whorls 



PULMONATA. 145 

four and a half to five, nearly level, the last slightly keeled, 
brown -banded beneath the keel, tumid beneath ; aperture 
rounded-lunar ; peristome simple, aeute, columellar margin 
slightly descending, reflected. Lat. maj. 30, min. 25, alt. 15 mill. 

Helix Himalana, Lea, Obs. i. 167- t. 19. f. 66. 

Helix Himalayana, Benson in Zool. Journ. v. (1835) 461. 

Pfr. Mon. Hellc. i. 63. 

Reeve, Icon. n. 389. t. 75. 
Ariophanta Himalayana, Beck, Ind. p. 5. n. 5. 
Nanina (Ariophanta) Himalajana, Alb. Helic. 62. 
Hab. Himalaya. 

5. Ariophanta retrorsa. 

Shell perforated, sinistral, somewhat lenticular, rather thin, 
with impressed subsjnral lines and very fine wavy and confluent 
wrinkles, pale chestnut or yellow-brown ; spire scarcely elevated, 
apex rather acute ; whorls five and a half, rapidly increasing, 
very slightly convex, the last acutely keeled, gibbous beneath ; 
apertiu-e rounded-lunar ; peristome simple, columellar margin 
not reflected. Lat. maj. 44, min. 35, alt. 20 mill. 

Helix (CarocoUa) retrorsa, Gould, Bost. Journ. iv. 455. t. 24. f. 4. 
Helix retrorsa, Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 76 ; iii. n. 284. 
Cheimi. ed. 2, Helix, n. 686. t. 110. f. 4-6. 
Nanina retrorsa, Troschel, Wiegm. Arch. 1849, i. 234. t. 4. f. 6. 
Nanina (Ariophanta) retrorsa, Albers, Heliceen, &2. 
Hab. Bu'mah. 

6. Ariophanta Janus. B.M. 

Shell perforated, sinistral, orbicular, thin, diaphanous, obliquelv 
regularly and closely costidate-striated, brown above, coxivex 
beneath, reddish-chestnut, rather bright ; spire widely conoidallv- 
depressed ; whorls seven, planulate, the last keeled ; aperture 
lunar ; peristome thin, acute, columellar margin slightly reflected. 
Lat. maj. 36, min. 31, alt. 17 mill. 

Hehx Janus bifrons, Chemn. xi. 307. t. 213. f. 3016, 3017. 

(Helicella), Fer. Pr. 233. 
Helix Janus, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Sac. 1842, p. S7 ; Mon. Helic. i. 77; 
Symb. ii. 19 ; Ic. i. 88. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 59. t. 11. f. 4-6. 

Reeve, Icon. 494. t. 91. 

Hombr. S,- Jacq. Voy. Pol Sad, Moll. t. 5. f. 1-3. 
Hehx Mackensii, Souleyet in Voy. Bnnite, Moll. t. 28. f. 27-2.9. 
Nanina (Ariophanta) Janus, Alb. Helic. 62. 
Hehx Mackensiana, Soul. Revtie Zool. 1841, p. 347. 

H 



146 PULMONATA. 

Helix Balesteriana, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. vii. 460. t. 12. 

f. 10. 
Ariophanta Janus, Beck, Ind. 5, 
Hab. Mount Ophir, Malacca. 

/. Ariophanta nicobarica. 

Shell perforate, sinistral, solid, globular, obliquely striated, 
chestnut-red, white-zoned at the suture, outline and base ; sjure 
short, obtuse ; whorls five and a half, slightly convex, the last 
descending in front, inflated beneath ; aperture rounded-lunar, 
concolorous inside ; peristome simple, obtuse, white, columellar 
margin slightly reflected, almost covering the perforation. Lat. 
maj. 'i7, min. 30, alt. 27 mill. 

Helix (Pomatia contraiia) nicobarica, Chemn. ix. pt. 1, p. 79. 

t. 108. f. 911, 912. 
Helix nicobarica. Desk. Guer. Mag. 1839, t. 3. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 40. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 22. p. 49. t. 6. f. 6, 7. 
Ariophanta nicobarica, Beck, Ind. p, 5. n. 7- 
Hab. Nicobar Islands. 

8. Ariophanta Rumphii. 

Shell perforated, sinistral, orbiculate, keeled, dark cinnamon, 
white-banded at the keel, nearly level above, irregidarly rugosely 
striated, base convex, striated; whorls five and a half, level; 
aperture subrhombic, brown inside ; peristome simple, columellar 
margin passing above into a spreading triangular lamina. Lat. 
maj. 44, min. 36, alt. 20 mill. 

Helix Rumphii, V. d. Busch in Phil. Icon. i. 1. p. 9. t. 1. f. 2. 

(Nanina?), Pfr. Symb. ii. 20 ; Mon. Helic. i. 76, iii. n. 283. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 60. t. 11. f. 7-9. 

Reeve, Icon. n. 480. t. 88. 
Nanina Rumphii, Mouss. Jav. Moll. 18. t. 1. f. 2. 
Nanina (Ariophanta) Rumphii, Albers, Helic. 62. 
Hab. Java. 

9. Ariophanta Cysis. 

Shell narrowly and deeply umbilicated, sinistral, depressed- 
globiUar, rather thin, sculptured with oblique fold-like strife, 
brownish honi-coloured ; spire convex, with the apex flattened ; 
whorls four, convex, enlarging rapidly, the last inflated, obso- 
letely keeled at first, then rounded, shortly descending anteriorly, 
turgid beneath ; aperture obhque, large, lunate, rather ovate ; 
peristome simple, sharp, with convergent margins, outer and 



PULMONATA. 147 

basal margins imperceptibly thickened, columellar margin shortly 
reflected. Height 13, greatest breadth 43, least breadth 35 mill. 
(Bens.) 

Helix Cvsis, Benson in Ann. ^- May. N. H. 2nd ser. ix. 1852, 404. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 92. 
Helix Cystis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 737. t. 123. 
Hab. Neilgherries, South India {Jerdon). 



12*. ORPIELLA. 

" Animal with the usual anal lappel of Nanina covering the 
mucous pore, and six other smaller ones between this and the 
shell arranged in a double series along the back of the tail. 

" Shell somewhat like Cyclostoma tigrinus." — Gould. 

1. Orpiella Scorpio. 

Shell chestnut-red, tessellated with puqilish-black radiating 
lines ; spire depressed beneath, scarcely convex ; whorls four and 
a half, convex. 

Helix (Nanina) Scorpio, Gould, Exped. Shells, 24, 1846 ; Proc. 

Boston Soc. 1846, 178 ; Exped. Shells, 1851, 33. f. 87. 
Helix Scorpio, Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. i. 431 ; iii. 272. n. 1632. 
Hab. Feejee Islands. 



13. ZONITES. 

Shell broadly umbilicated, orbiculate, convex or discoidal, 
striated or decussated beneath, smooth, shining; whorls six or 
seven, gradually increasing in size ; mouth oljlique, lunate ; 
peristome straight, acute, and slightly thickened internally. 

" The animal [Helix algira) with the orifices for the generative 
organs on the neck, nearer the edge of the mantle than the head ; 
the lobes of the collar not larger than in other Helices, and some- 
times edge the shell ; the lips or buccal tentacles are very con- 
tractile and placed entire beneath the mouth, extending late- 
rally so as to be rather wider than the foot. If the mucous pore 
does uot exist in this species as in the A rions, a well-marked slit 
is to be observed in its place, to which the grooves on the upper 
part of the foot tend." — Fe'russac, Tab. Sysf. 10. 

According to M. Morelet the subcaudal gland of Z. euryom- 
phala is large and distinct, and the foot broad, dilated, and de- 
pressed behind. 

h2 



148 PULMOXATA. 

Zonites (algireus), Monff. Conch.ii. 283, 1810. 

Beck, Index. 

Alters, Heliceen, 63. 
Tragomma (algireus), Held in Isis, 1837, 916. 
xEgopsis (verticillus), Fitzint/er, Syst. Verz. 99. 
Helicoides (algira), Dumas, Compt. Rend. xxv. 113. 

If M. Desmoulins' figure of the animal of Ariophanta is cor- 
rect, it and Zonites will form a section by themselves, as they 
are figured with the foot depressed and broad at the end, hke 
the Arions and Helices, and not compressed and truncated, hke 
the Helicarions, Nanince, Stenopi, &c. Guilding's, Hardwicke's 
and Layard's figures of these animals, taken from life, show that 
the compressed form does not depend on the animal having 
been contracted in spirits. 

The jaws of Zonites are \vithout any marginal denticles, but with 
a more or less large rostrifonn prominence on the middle of the 
free edge ; the conical purse is without any versicula multifida, 
dart or dart-case. — Moquin-Tandon, Journ. Conch. 1853, 234. 



a. American. — Subcaudal gland large. Moreletia, Gray. 

1. Zonites euryomphala. 

Shell umbilicated, orbiculate-convex, thin, pellucid, greenish 
horny, regularly costulate-striate above, obsoletely decussated 
with concentric lines, more distantly striated beneath, very bright; 
spue scarcely elevated, obtuse ; whorls six, slightly convex, the 
last dilated, rather depressed, not descending in front ; umbilicus 
large, pervious ; aperture obliquely lunate-oval, u'idescent inside ; 
peristome straight, simple, margins connivent. Lat. maj. 3/, 
min. 32, alt. 17 mill. 

Animal (Morelet, t. 2. f. 6) pale grey, with darker grooves ; 
head blackish, with radiating striae between the tentacles con- 
verging towards the mouth ; labial appendages small, prominent, 
bright yellow ; tentacles black ; subcaudal gland large, erect. — 
Morelet. 

Hehx eurAomphala, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 71 ; Mon. 
Helic. i! 107; Ic. n. 943. t. 144. f. 1, 2. 

Morelet in Journ. Conch. 1851, ii. 14. t. 2. f. 6. 

Reeve, Icon. n. 533. t. 97. 
HeUx cymbalum, Morelet, Test. Noviss. i. 7. n. 1. 
Hab. Coban, Guatemala. 



PULMOXATA. 149 



b. European or North African. — Subcaudal gland moderate. 
Zonites. 

2. Zonites algira. B.M. 

Shell widely umbilicated, orbiculately-convex, obsoletely an- 
gulated, very minutely granulately-decussated above, radiated 
with a deciduous horuy-lutescent epidermis, shining beneath ; 
whorls six, the highest plane, the last convex ; aperture widely 
obliquely lunar ; peristome straight, caUous inside. Lat. maj. 
45, min. 40, alt. 19 mill. 

Helix algira, Linn. Syst.ei. 10. p. 769; ed. 12. n. 660. p. 1242. 

Born, Mus. 3(i6. t. 14. f. 3, 4. 

Chemn. ix. pt. 2. p. 77. t. 125. f. 1093, 1094. 

(Helicella) Per. Pr. 20;3 ; Hist. t. 81. f. 1-7. 

Lam. Hist. 77 ; ed. Desk. 46. 

Blainv. .Uo?. 461. t. 40. f. 8. 

Drap. Tabl. 94. n. 45. p. 115. t. 7. f. 38-40. 

Rossm. iii. 1. f. 147. 

Sow. Con. Mon. f. 279. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 126 ; Ic. i. 66. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Hdix, n. 39. t. 8. f. 3, 4. 

Des^. He//c. p. 91. n. 124. 
Helix oculus-capri. Mull. Verm. ii. 39. n. 239. 
Helix a'gopthalmos, Gtnel. p. 3614. n. 5. 
Zonites algireus, Monff. 283. t. 71. 
Zonites algira, Beck, Ind. 8. 

Alb. Helic. 63. 
Tragomma algirum. Held in Isis, 1837, p. 916 ; Descript. de 

rEgypte, t. 2. f. 20. 
Helix lusitanica, Linn. Mus. (fide Hanley). 

Morch, Cat. Kierulf. p. 1. n. 4 (Zonites). 
Helicoides algira Dumas, Compt. Rend. xxv. 113 (compare Pfr 

inZ.f.M. 1850, p. 123). 
Hab. S. France ; Sicily ; Sardinia ; Corsica. 

3. Zonites verticillus. B.M. 

Shell widely umbilicated, nearly semiglobose, minutely de- 
cussated above, yellowish-brown, ornamented with broad remote 
yellow stripes, beneath glabrous, shining, greenish-yellow ; 
whorls seven, all convex ; aperture lunate- subcircular ; peristome 
acute, simple, white, callous inside. Lat. maj. 33, min. 29, alt 
19 mill. 



150 PULMONATA. 

Helix (Helicella) verticillus, Fer. Pr. 202; Hist. t. 80. f . 8 & 9 
(young). 

Lam. Hist. 78 ; ed. Desk. 47. 

C. Pfr. Naturg. iii. 23. t. 5. f. 4, 5. 

Rossm. iii. 2. f. 149. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 12/; Ic i. 185. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 150. t. 24. f. 9, 10. 

Desk. Helic. p. 92. n. 125. 
Helix algira, Brumati, 31. 

var. Cantr. Malac. 126. 
Poniatia Baltheus, Bolt. Mus. p. 74. n. 951. 
jEgopsis verticillus, Fitzing, Syst. Verz. 99. 
Zonites verticillus, Beck, hid. 8. 

Alh. Helic. 63. 
Tragomma verticillus. Held in Isis, 1837, P- 916. 
Hab. Austria ; Styria ; Carintbia ; Camiola. 

4. Zonites albanica. 

Shell widely umbilicated, discoidal, at last keel-less, granu- 
lately-decussated, horny-brown, white-zoned, beneath yellowish, 
ornamented with a broad horny-brown band, shining ; whorls six, 
sUghtly convex ; umbilicus large, pervious ; aperture obUquely 
lunar ; peristome simple, acute, callous inside, margins nearly 
approximate. Lat. maj. 37, min. 33, alt. 14-15 mill. 

Helix albanica, Ziegl. Mus. Rossm. iii. 1. f. 148. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 127. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 615. t. 96. f. 1-3. 
Zonites albanica, Beck, Ind. 8. 

Alb. Helic. 63. 
Tragomma albanicum. Held in Isis, 1837, p. 916. 
Hab. Dalmatia and Albania. 

5. Zonites compressa. 

Shell widely umbilicated, depressedly-orbicular, obtusely an- 
gulated, above reddish, silky, very minutely trellised, beneath 
shining, white-zoned, radiated with ashy and whitish, below the 
angle interruptedly festooned with reddish ; whorls six, shghtly 
convex ; a])erture obliquely lunar ; peristome straight, acute, 
slightly li})ped inside. Lat. maj. 32, min. 28, alt. 12 mill. 

Helix compressa, Ziegl. Mus. Rossm. iii. 2. f. 150. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 128. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 616. t. 96. f. 4-6. 
Tragomma compressum. Held in Isis, 1837, p- 916. 



PULMONATA. 151 

Zonites, Alb. Helic. 63. 
Helix morlachica. Parr. MSS. 
Hah. Fiume. 

6. Zonites acies. B.M. 

Shell widely umbilicated, convexly lenticular, keeled, red- 
horny above, rather opake, costate-striate, ven,- finely decussated, 
beneath whitish, shining, pale horny below the compressed, whitish 
keel ; whorls six and a half, storied ; aperture lunate, hatchet- 
shaped; peristome straight, acute, very thinly hpped inside. 
Lat. maj. 31, min. 29, alt. 12 mill. 

Helix acies, Partsch, MS. 

(Hehcella) Per. Hist. t. 80. f. 7- 

Rossm. ii. 3. f. 152. 

Pfr. Mm. Helic. i. 128. 

Chenm. ed. 2, Helix, n. 619. t. 96. f. 15-17. 

Desk. Helic. p. 366. n. 434. 
HeUx acutimargo, {Zie(jl.) Brumati, 30. f. 3, 4. 
HeUx algira, OUvi f, Canfr. Malac. 127. 
CarocoUa acutimargo, Menke, Syn. ed. 2. 24. 
Tragomma acies. Held in Isis, 183/, p. 916. 
Zonites acies, Beck, Ind. 8. 

Alb. Helic. 63. 
Hab. Dalmatia. 

7. Zonites croatica. B.M. 

Shell mdely umbilicated, orbiculate-convex, above closely 
costulate-striate, very finely decussated, silky, horny, obtusely 
angled, white-zoned, beneath shining, yellowish-white, horny- 
banded beneath the angle; whorls seven, the highest acutely 
keeled, the rest slightly convex ; aperture obliquely lunar ; pe- 
ristome straight, acute, slightly callous inside, white. Lat. maj. 
28, min. 25, alt. 13 mill. 

Helix croatica, Partsch, MS. 

Rossm. iii. 3. f. 151. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 129. 

Chemn. ed. 2, HeUx, n. 151. t. 24. f. 7, 8. 

Desk. Helic. p. 365. n. 432. 
HeUx acies, var., Cantr. Malac. 127. 
Zonites croatica, Beck, Ind. 8. 

Alb. Helic. 63. 
Tragomma croaticum. Held in Isis, 1837, p. 916. 
/3. Helix croatica, Fer. Hist. t. 80. f. 5. 
Hab. Croatia; /3. Carniola. 



152 



PULMONATA. 



H. ZONITES CARICA. 

Shell widely umbilicated, paucispiral, depressedly-orbicular, 
obtusely keeled, above silky, very finely decussated, regularly 
granulated, striated, horuy-lutescent, beneath smooth, homy- 
whitish, yellow-rayed; suture deep; whorls four and a half, 
slightly convex ; aperture obhquely lunate-oval ; peristome acute, 
straight, rather callous-lipped inside ; lip white, externally lu- 
teous-pellucid. Lat. maj. 25, min. 23, alt. 1 1-12 mill. 

Helix carica. Roth, Diss. 17. t. 1. f. 6, 7, 21. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 12.9. 

Reeve, Icon. n. 946. t. 146. 
Zonites carica, Alb. Helic. 63. 
Hab. Caria. 



!>. Zonites chlorotica. 

Shell orbiculate-couvex, rather thin, greenish-yellow, sculp- 
tured above with crowded and equal grains, and on the last whorl 
with close longitudinal and more distant concentric striae, form- 
ing oblong grains ; spire shortly conoidal, convex, ^^■ith the apex 
blunt ; whorls five, the upper ones scarcely convex, the last one 
more convex, slightly keeled, rounded, smooth and shining be- 
neath ; umbilicus middle-sized ; aperture little oblique, large, 
roundish, sublunate, pearly within; peristome simple, straight, 
with a white li]) internally, with the margins convergent, colu- 
mellar margin shghtly reflected above. Height 16, greatest 
breadth oO, least breadth 27 mill. (Pfr.) 

Helix chlorotica, Pfr. in Z.f. M. 1851, p. 127; Jen. 1019. 1. 153. 

f. 18, 19; Mon. Siippl. 117. 
Hab. Grecian Archijielago ? 



10. Zonites smyrnensis. B.M. 

Shell widely umbilicated, orbiculate-couvex, obtusely keeled, 
horny-lutescent, above finely granulately decussated," beneath 
smooth, shining, remotely yellow-rayed ; whorls six, terraced ; 
ajjcrture obliquely lunar ; peristome straight, simple, acute, re- 
motely lipped inside. Lat. maj. 28, min. 26, alt. 13 mill. 

Helix smvrnensis. Roth, Diss. 16. t. 1. f. 8, 9. 

Pfr.' Mon. Helic. i. 129. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 617. t. 96. f. 12-14. 
Zonites, Alh. Helic. 63. 
Hah. Island of Syme, near Smyrna. 



PULMONATA. 153 

11. ZONITES GEMONENSIS. 

Shell widely umbilicated, orbiculate-convex, keeled, lutescent, 
above striated, slightly decussated, silky, beneath glabrous, 
shining ; whorls six, nearly level ; aperture angularly-lunar ; pe- 
ristome straight, acute, slightly lipped. Lat. maj. 18, min. l(j, 
alt. 8 mill. 

Hehx gemonensis, Fer. Pr. 204 ; Hist. t. 80. f. 6. 

Rossm. iii. 3. f. 153. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 129. 

Chemn. ed. 2, Helix, n. 618. t. 96. f. 12-14. 

Desk. Helic. 365. n. 433. 
Helix isodoma, Jems, Mantissa, 2. 
Zonites gemonensis, Beck, hid. 8. 
Tragomma gemonense. Held in Isis, 1837, p. 916. 
Zonites, Alb. Helic. 63. 
Hub. Friuha. 



12. Zonites Cycloplax. 

Shell orbiculate, depressed, decussated above with close-set 
waving and radiating stria? and with spiral strife, granulated, red- 
dish-brown horn-coloured, with a chestnut peripherical band, 
more smooth and paler beneath ; spire moderately convex, with 
the apex rather flattened ; suture indistinct, then impressed ; 
whorls five, flat, the last slightly (when youug, sharply) keeled, 
dilated anteriorly, rather turgid anteriorly near the suture, in- 
flated beneath ; umbilicus wide ; aperture lunate, somewhat 
quadrangular, oblique, sometimes with a slight whitish internal 
lip; peristome simple, sharp, columellar margin not reflected, 
forming an obtuse angle with the basal margin. Height 17. 
greatest breadth 42, least breadth 34 mill. {Benson.} 

Hehx Cycloplax, Benson, in Ann. Sf Mag. N. H. ser. 2. x. 348. 

Reeve, Icon. n. . t. . 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. p. 636. 
Hab. Darjiling, Sikkim Himalayah {Trotter). 



Fam. 5. HELICID.E. 

Foot tapering behind, without any subcaudal gland. Body 
and shell subcentral, dorsal. Teeth numerous, four-sided, close 
together on the lingual band. Eyes on the top of the upper 
eh)ngated retractile tentacles ; lower tentacles smaller, rarely 
wanting. 

H 5 



134 PULMONATA. 

Limacea (Limaciens), Lamk. Phil. Zool. 1809; Hist. A. s. V. vi. 
42, 1822. 

Menke,Syn. ed. 2. 13, 1830. 

Desk. Enc. Meth. iii. t. , 1830. 
Limacese, Menke, Syn. 7, 1828. 
Limaces, Ferussac, Prod. 12, 1819; Tab. Syst. 31, 1821. 

Rang, Man. 150, 1829. 
Limacidaj, Gray, Lond. Med. Repos. 1821 ; Ann. Phil. vm. 107, 
1824. 

Risso, Eur. Merid. iv. 64. 

Fleming, B. A. 255, 1828. 
Limacina, part., Wiegm. Handb. Zool. 1832. 
Limacinae, Sivainson, Malac. 162. 189, 327, 1840. 
Limacinea, Blainv. D. S. N. xxxii. 247, 1824 ; Man. Malac. 454, 
1825. 

Reeve, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1841, 7G; Conch. Syst. ii. 59, 1842. 
Limacoidea (part.), Fitz. Syst. Verz. 88, 1833. 
Limaciana, Jay, Cat. 32, 1836. 
Limacidia, Rajin. Anal. 'Nat. 1815. 
Limacinacea, Reeve, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1841, 76; Conch. Syst. ii. 

59, 1842. 
HelicejE, Menke, Syn. 8, 1828. 
HeUcina, IViegm. Handb. Zool. 523, 1832; ed. 2. 550, 1843. 

MacGill. Moll. Aberd. 43. 

Gray, Turton's Man. ed. 2. 110, 1840 ; Pr. Z. S. 1847, 170. 
Helicinffi, Swains. Malac. 160. 330, 1840. 
Helicoidea, Fitz. Syst. Verz. 92, 1833. 

Christ. ^- Jan. Catal. 1, 1832. 
Cochleadea, Beck, Index, 1, 1837. 

Coclileadea inoperculata, Fleming, Brit. Anim. 255. 257, 1828. 
Helicacese, Hinds, Zool. Sulph. 55, 1844. 

Helicea (Colimaces), part., Lamk. Phil. Zool. 1809; Extr. du 
Cour. 1812; Hist. A. s. V. vi. 61. 

Deshayes, Enc. Meth. iii. 1552. t. . 
Cochlea, Adanson, Voy. Seneg. 14, 1757- 
Glischms, Studer, Syst. Verz. 11, 1820. 

Helicida;, Gray, Ann. Phil. viii. 107, 1824 ; Turton's Man. ed. 2. 
101. 109, 1840; Syn. B. M. 1840. 

Risso, Hist. Eur. Me'rid. iv. 58. 

Guilding, Zool. Journ. ii. 440; iii. 527. 

Fleming, Brit. Anim. 255, 1828. 

Swainson, Malac. 160. 326, 1840. 
Colimacea, Reeve, Conch. Syst. ii. 64. 
Helicea, Menke, Syn. ed. 2. 14, 1830. 

Desk. Enc. Meth. iii. 552. t. , 1830. 

Forbes, Malac. Mon. 7, 1838. 



PULMONATA. 155 

Helicea, Ehrenb. Symb. Phys. 1831. 

Oken, his, 1833, 734. 

Pfeiffer, Symb. ad Hist. Hel. 4, 1841; Symb. ii. 1842; 
Zeifschr.f. Malac. 1846, 2. 
Cochleae, Fertissac, Prod. 18, 1819; Tab. Syst. 31, 1821. 

Ra7iff, Man. 156, 1829. 

Pfeiffer, Naturg. iii. 2, 1828. 
Pupadse, Fleming, Brit. Anim. 255, 1828. 
Chilogymnum, Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys. 1831. 
Chilodontem, Ehrenberg, Syinb. Phys. 1831. 
Colimacidae, D'Orbigny,Moll. Canar. 1837; Moll. Cuba, i. 137. 
140, 1841 ; PalcBont. Franc. 1842. 

Geinitz, Grundr. d. Ver'st. 319, 1845. 
Helicida, Beck, Ind. 5, 1837. 



Synopsis of the Tribes. 

I. Body elongate, attached its whole length to the upper surface 
of the foot, and entirely or partially covered by a dorsal 
mantle. Scutifera. 

1. Philomycina. Mantle thin, as large as the foot. Shell 

none. Tentacles four. 

2. Limacixa. Mantle shield-like, coriaceous on the front of 

the back, entirety covering a flat oblong, not spnal, shell, 
produced and free in front over the nape. 



II. Body more or less spiral, prominent on the middle of the 
upper surface of the foot, and covered with a more or less 
spiral shell sometimes partly hidden by the reflexed part of 
the produced edge of the mantle. Coclileophora. 

a. Body and mouth of the shell depressed, being broader from 
side to side than long from back to front, that is to say, in 
the longitudinal axis of the shell. 

3. Peltellina. Mantle enclosed in the shell in front, and 

produced behind over the hinder sui-face of the shell. Shell 
flat, ear-shaped. 

4. ViTRiNiXA. Mantle produced and thickened in front be- 

yond the edge of the mouth of the shell, forming a thickened 
coriaceous collar on the nape. 



156 PULMONATA. 

5. Pfeifferiana. Mantle edge dilated, produced and re- 

flexed over, covering more or less of the polished surface of 
the shell. 

6. Helicina. Mantle edge enclosed within the edge of the 

shell. 



b. Body of animal and mouth of the shell compressed, longer 
than broad from back to front than from side to side, that 
is to say, in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the 
shell. 

7. SucciNiANA. Animal vesicular, very large for the shell. 

Shell expanded, imperforate. Spire short. Aperture very 
large. Peristome thin, simple, pillar rounded in front. 

8. AcHATiNiNA. Animal moderate, enclosed. Shell ovate, 

imperforate. Whorls many. Aperture elongate. Peri- 
stome thin, not reflected. Front of the pillar truncated. 
Pillar rarely plaited. 

9. BuLiMiNA. Animal moderate, enclosed. Shell ovate, per- 

forate or imperforate. Whorls many. Apertm-e elongate. 
Peristome thin or reflected, rounded in front. 

10. Clausiliana. Animal small, enclosed. Shell subcyliu- 
drical, perforated. Mouth roundish or elongate, entire or 
plicate, with a distinct groove in front forming a rido-e 
round the axis. Peristome reflexed. Whorls at first slowly 
enlarging, then nearly of the same size, then contracting in 
size near the perfect mouth. 



ScuTiFERA. Body elongate, attached its whole length to the 
upper surface of the foot, and entirely or partially covered 
with a dorsal mantle. 



Tribe 1. PHILOMYCINA. 

Mantle thin, as large as the foot, entirely covering the back. 
Tentacles four. Respiratory aperture on the side near the 
head, 

Philomycina, Gray, P. Z. S. 184/, p. I/O. 



pulmonata. 157 

Synopsis of Genera. 

1. Philomycus. Body convex. — American. 

2. Meghimatium. Body depressed.— Asiatic. 

1. PHILOMYCUS. 

Animal convex, rather compressed, tapering and acute behind. 
N. America. 

Philomycus, Rqfinesque, Annal. Nat. 10, 1820. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 9. 96"*. 96y, 1821. 

Philippi, H. C. 239. 

Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, 170. n. 434. 
? Eumelus, Rajin. Annal. Nat. 10, 1820. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 9. 96'«. 96y, 1821. 
Limax, § C (Philomique), Blainv. Man. Malac. 464, 1825. 
? Limax, § D (Eumele), Blainv. Man. Malac. 4fi4, 1825. 
? Veronicella, part. (Eumele), Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, 178. n.488. 
Limacellus (lactescens), Blainv. Journ. Phys. 1817, 442. t. 11. 
f. 5 ; non Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 10. 16. 96 ». 96 ^ ; Hist. Moll. ii. 
52 (not Brard). 

Gray, Fiy. Moll. iv. 
Limacella, Blainv. Man. Malac. 463 (not Turton). 
Tebenophorus (carolinensis), Binney, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist. 
1841-51, iv. 163. 

Wyman, Boston J. N. H. iv. 411. 

The Pkilomyci have an elongated tapering form ; the head 
with two long and two short tentacles; the surface somewhat 
granular or regularly wrinkled ; the back is entii'ely enveloped 
with a shield-like mantle ; iu the front part of the right side is a 
notch or opening into the respiratory cavity ; the surface of the 
shield is smooth, neither granulated nor folded. 

" Back with a large cavity occupying the whole extent of the 
dorsal and lateral regions. "^ — IVyman. 

Mouth as in the genera Limax and Helix. The tongue is co- 
vered with an immense number of minute teeth, arranged in a 
transverse-linear series, and having a form more or less conical. 
Those on the median Hne (fig. 4 a) are readily distinguished from 
the lateral teeth by then- symmetrical form, and by being smaller 
than those nearest to them on either side. The lateral teeth 
(fig. 4 b. b. Sc c. c.) are all more or less inclined towai'ds the 
axis of the tongue. Those near the me(han line have an ob- 
tusely conical form, and at the apex arc sunnounted by a sharper 
conical point. As they recede from the centre this point dis- 



158 PULMONATA. 

appears and the teeth become regular cones, and at the same 
time gradually diminish in size, the extreme lateral ones being 
reduced to minute papillae. The respiratory cavity is attached 
to the viscera, and has no connection whatever with the shield. — 
Wymun, Boston Journ. iv. t. 22. f. 4 c. c. 

Shell minute, nail-hke, concealed in the front part of the 
mantle. 

They are found under decaying logs in North America, and 
under bits of wood or stones in damp places, feeding on decaying 
vegetable matter. 

M. De Blainville observes, " The combination of characters I 
have given for Limacella are so extraordinary^ that I doubt if 
I have carefully observed the mollusc on which it was founded." 
— Ma)i. Malac. 464. I fear this observation is equally appli- 
cable to most of the genera described from the specimens in the 
British Museum during his very short Aasit to London in 181/. 

In the Proceedings of the Zoological Societj' (1847, 1/8) I re- 
ferred Eumelus to Veronicella by an oversight ; it cleai'ly belongs 
to this genus. 

Dr. Philippi [Handb. Malac. 238), misled by Blaimnlle's cha- 
racter " bouclier n' est pas distinct," intended thereby to describe 
that the mantle covers the whole body instead of only a part 
of it. 

1. Philomycus carolinensis. B.M. 

" Grey brown mottled ; back with three darker streaks and a 
series of black dots." 

Limax carolinensis, Bosc, Vers de Buffon de Deterville, i. 80. t. 3, 
f. 1, cop. Ferussac, Hist. Moll. ii. 77- 1. 6. f. 3. 

Roissy {Buffon de Sonnini), Mollusques, v. 183. n. 11. 

Vaginulus carolinensis, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 15. 

Philomycus carolmensis, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 96". 

Tebeuophorus Carolinensis, Binney, Journ. Bast. N. Hist. Soc. 
iv. 163. 

Wyman, Bost. Journ. N. H. iv. 411. t. , anat. 

Limax togata, Gould, Invert. Mass. 3. 

Hab. N. America ; Carolina. 

" Limax togata. The shield is neither granulated nor folded, 
but exhibits a uniform rough appearance, somewhat hke deer- 
skin. Common in wood imder logs. — Gould. 

2. Philomycus lactescens. B.M. 
" Limax lactiformis, Shaw." 



PULMONATA. 159 

Limacellus lactescens, Blainv. Journ. Phys. 1817, p- 442.t.ll. f.5. 

Mrs. Gray, Fig. Moll. t. 285. f. 10. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 16. 96^; Hist. ii. 52. t. 7- f- 1, copied 
Blainville. 
Limacella elfortiana, Blainv. Man. Malac. 464. t. 41. f. 4. 
Hab. ? West Indies ? 

These specimens appear to be only bleached examples of the 
preceding species, or one very nearly allied to it ; but they (there 
are two) are in too bad a state to determine this question with 
accuracy. They form part of Sir Hans Sloane's Collection, and 
may have been brought from Jamaica or N. America. 

3. Philomycus dorsalis. 

Philomycus dorsalis, Binney. 

Tebenophorus dorsaUs, Binney, Pr. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1841, p. 51. 

Hab. N. America. 

4. Philomycus auADRiLus. 

Grey, back smooth, with four rows of irregular black spots ; 
tentacles long, black, close ; body attenuated in front, blunt be- 
hind. Length 6 lines. 

Philomycus quadrilus, Rafinesque, Ann. of Nat. 10, 1820. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 15. 96*. 
Hab. N. America ; River Hudson. 



5. Philomycus oxyurus. 

Fulvous grey, slender ; back ridged longitudinally ; tentacles 
brown ; the sides are very short ; tail acute, keeled above. Length 
8 lines. 

Philomvcus oxyurus, Rafinesque, Ann. of Nat. 10. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 15. 96''. 
Limax oxyurus, Blainv. Man. Malac. 464. 
Hab. North America ; New York. 

6. Philomycus fuscus. 

Brown ; tentacles thick ; back smooth ; tail compressed, acute. 
Length 3 to 12 lines. 

Philomvcus fuscus, Rafinesque, Ann. of Nat. 10. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 15. 96^'. 
Hab. N. America ; Province of Ohio. 



160 pulmoxata. 

7. Philomycus flexuolaris. 

Fulvous ; back varied with flexuous brown lines, slightly cross 
ridged, attenuated behind ; tail blunt. Length 1 or 2 inches. 

Philomycus flexuolaris, Rqfinesque, Ann. of Nat. 10. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 15. 9()". 
Hab. N. America; the Catskill Mountains. 

8. Philomycus nebulosus. 

Body nearly cylindrical, rounded at each end ; back with a 
cross of black and grey spots ; tentacles brown. Length 1 inch. 

Eumeles nebulosus, Rafinesque, Ann. of Nat. 10, 1820. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 15. 96*. 
Limax nebulosus, Blainv. Man. Malac. 464. 
Hab. N. America ; Ohio and Kentucky. 

9. Philomycus lividus. 

Back smooth, convex ; lurid brown, grey beneath, blunt be- 
hind ; tentacles black. Length 1 inch. 

Eumeles lividus, Rafinesque, Ann. of Nat, 10, 1820. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 15. 96". 
Hab. N.America; Ohio; Indiana; Kentucky. 

2. MEGHIMATIUM. 

Body rather depressed, convex above, rounded at the end. 
Mantle smooth. Respiratory aperture on the front of the right 
side. Tentacles four. 

Shell none. 

Asiatic. Scarcely to be distinguished from the former as a genus. 

Meghimatium, Van Hasselt, Bull. Univ. Sci. 1824, iii. 82. 

Cuvier, Reg. Anim. ed. 2. 

Desk, in Ferussac, Hist. Moll. ii. 96^. 

Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 170. 
Incilaria, Benson in Cantor, Chusan {animal), Ann. Sf Mag. N. H. 
1842, ix. 486. 

Philippi, Handb. Conch. 238. 

The name is from incile, a gutter, with reference to the gutter- 
like channel which divides the mantle from the foot. — Benson. 

1. Meghimatium striatum. 

Body elongate, attenuated at each end, pointed behind ; back 
convex, white, with narrow black longitudinal lines ; upper ten- 
tacles elongate, cylincU-ical, lower shorter. 



PULMONATA. 



161 



Meghimatium striatum, Fare Hasselt, Bull. Sci. Nat. 1824, iii. 82. 
Meghimatium strigatum, Ferussac, Hist. Moll. ii. 96^. t. 8E. f. 1. 
Hab. Java, in high forests {Van Hasselt). 

2. Meghimatium reticulatum. 

Body elongate, cylindrical, convex above, flat beneath ; mantle 
smooth, brown, netted with irregular blackish lines ; tentacles 
cylindrical, upper longer, pale brown. 
Meghimatium reticulatum, Vati Hassalt, Bull. Sci. Nat. 1824, 

iU. 82. 

Ferussac, Hist. Moll. ii. 96'. t. 8 E. f. 2, 3. 
Hab. Java. 

3. Meghimatium bilineatum. B.M. 

Body livid, with scattered brown spots and dots, t\\o lateral 
blackish lines, and a darker medial streak. Length H inch. 

Incilaria biliueata, Benson, Ann. SfMag. N.H. ix. 
Hab. Chusan, in earth under roots, on trees, &c. 

Body elongate, attenuated behind. Mantle everywhere mar- 
gining the body. Tentacles four, upper eye-bearing, lower 
entire. Aperture of respii-ation on the right side near the front 
of the mantle. 

4. Meghimatium cylindraceum. 

Body smooth, dark brovATi (in spii-its), oblong, rather ventri- 
cose. 
Meghimatium cylindraceum, Fer. Hist. Moll. ii. 96 * . t. 8 F. f. 8,9. 

Mrs. Gray, Fig. Moll. t. 286. f. 6. 
Hab. ? Only known by the figure of M. Ferussac. 

Tlie lar\'a of Microdon mutabilis, Lmn., a Dipterous insect, 
has been described as a genus of Limacidce, under the two 
names — 

1. Parmula (cocciformis), Von Heyden, Isis, 1823, p. 1247. 

2. Scutelligera (araerlandia), Spix, Abhand. K. Baier. Akad. 

Wissen. 1824, ix. l."! 
Hesperus, Zeifsckr. 1824, p. 295. 
Oken, his, 1825, p. 583. 
Gottiny. Gel. Anz. 1832, p. 1957- 
Gray, Proc. Zool. S'oc. 1847. 
Philippi, Handb. Conch. 
Elditt, Stettin Ent. Zeitung. 1845, p. 384. t. 1. f. 6-14. 



162 PULMONATA. 



Tribe 2. LIMACINA. 

Mantle shield-like, on the front of the back, entirely covering 
a fiat, oblong, not spiral shell, produced and free from the 
neck in front. 

Limacina, Gray, Turton's Man. ed. 2. 109, 111(1840) ; Proc. Zool. 

Soc. 1847, p. 170. 
Limax, Ferussuc. 

Cochleae nudae terrestres, Lister, Conch. 
Limacoidea, pars, Fitz. 

Synopsis of the Genera. 

1. Limax. Back rounded. Tail keeled. Dorsal shield marked 

\nth concentric striae, simple behind. Shell flat. 

2. MiLAX. Back keeled to the shield. Dorsal shield granu- 

lated or shagreened, truncated, with two small pores on its 
hinder edge. Shell convex. 

3. Phosphobax. Back rounded above. Dorsal shield marked 

with a small posterior marginal luminous disc. 

4. Malino. Back keeled. Dorsal shield large, front half con- 

centrically, hinder longitudinally furrowed. 

1. LIMAX. 

Body elongate lanceolate, tapering behind, hinder part keeled, 
without any terminal gland. Back with elongate rugosities, 
separated by anastomosing grooves. Back of the neck with three 
grooves, the central one double, the lateral ones bent doMii to 
the side of the head just behind the aperture of reproduction 
on the right side. Shield anterior, marked with concentric striae, 
rounded behind, enclosing an internally oblong shelly plate; front 
edge produced, free nearly to the lateral apertiu-e. PulmonarA' 
cavity under the shield, with the opening at the hinder part of the 
right edge. Orifice of the organs of generation on the side of the 
head just behind the base of the right tentacle. 

Limax, part., J Aster, Hist. Conch, i. 1685. 

Linn. S. N. 1740. 
Limax, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 10. 96", 96 „ 1821 ; Hist. Moll. ii. 

Hnrtmann, Neue Alpena, 1821, p. 208. 

Philippi, Handb. Conch. 238. 

Clark, Ann. i)- Mag. N. H. xii. 332. 



PULMONATA. 



163 



Limas, Cuvier, R. A. ed. 2. 

Voigt, iii. 41. 
Limacias, Rqfin. Anal. Nat. 1815. 
Limacella (shell), Brard, Coq. Paris, 1815, not Blainv. 
Limacellus (shell), Turton, Manual, ed. 1. 1831, not Blainv. 
? Pannacella (nigricans), Philippi, Moll. Sicil. 
Megaspis, Krynick. MSS. ined. 
KrjTiickia, Kaleniczenko, Bull. Soc. Moscou, 1839, p. 30, not 

described. 
Kr\Tiickellus, Kaleniczenko, Bull. Soc. Moscou, 1851, i. 215; in 

Arch. Naturg. 1852, p. 288. 

Dr. John Kaleniczenko {Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 1851, 
p. 215) describes a new genus of Russian slugs under the name 
of Krynickellus, because " le bouclier est libre dans sa partie 
anterieure jusqu'a I'oriiice rcspiratoire, caractere qui la distingue 
des Arioiis et des Limaces." In this and all the other characters 
which are given, it agrees with Limax cinereus, variegatns, and 
all the species of the true Limacince that have been hitherto de- 
scribed. 

The Slugs (Limax) sometimes suspend themselves by a kind of 
thread formed from the viscid secretion which covers their bodj' ; 
hence one of the smaller ones has been called Limax filans. 

The shell of the Slug {Limax) is covered with a distinct pe- 
riostraca. It has generally been believed that shells which are 
covered with a reflexed portion or imbedded in the mantle are 
destitute of this covering, and they have been separated from 
other shells for this reason. 

This is an error arising from the theory that the periostraca 
of shells is analogous to the scarf skin (cuticle) of vertebrated 
animals, instead of its being merely the part consisting almost 
entirely of animal matter that is first deposited by the animal 
when it is about to enlarge its shell, and which forms the basis 
of the new part of the shell afterwards strengthened. 



* Mantle elongate, produced behind. 

1. Limax cinereus. B.M. 

Grey, spotted ; dorsal keel acute, elongate, white ; tentacles 
grey or brown ; shield pointed behind ; respiratory hole poste- 
rior. Shell thin, concave. 

Limace cinereo-nigricante, Aldrov. iv. 702. 
Limax cinereus. Lister, Phil. Trans. 1674, ix. 96. t. 14 ; Anim. 
Angl. 127. t. 5. f. 6, 7, 9, 10 ; Synops. t. 102-105. 
M'uller, Verm. ii. 5. 



164 PULMONATA. 

Limax cinereus, Drap. Hist. 124. 

Sturm, D. Fauna, t. 
Limax cinereus maculatus, Linn. Iter CEl. 61. 
Limax maximus, Linn. S. N. xiii. 1081. 

Clark, Ann. c)- Mag. N. H. xii. 333. t. 10. f. 1, 2. 
Limax ater, Razoumowshy, H. N. Joral. i. 266. 
Limax fiiscatus, Razoum. 26/. 
Limax cinereo-niger, Sturm, D. Fauna, t. 

Nilsson, Moll. Suec. 
Limax antiquorum, Fe'r. Tab. Syst. 20; Hist. Moll. ii. 68. t. 4. 

Leach, Brit. Moll. 51. 
Limax maculatus, Nunneley, Trans. Phil. Soc. Leeds, 1837, i- 46. 
Shell.— Swammerd. B. N. i. 159. t. 8. f. 8. 

Lister, An. Anim. t. 2. f. 15; Syn. 101. t. 102. f. 3. 

Fe'riissac, Hist. Moll. ii. f. 4. 
Limacella ijaima, Brard, Hist. 110. t. 4.f. 1, 2, 9, 10. 

Var. 1. Black, keel and middle band of foot white. — Ferussac, 
H.Moll.t.SD.l 1. 

Clark, Ann. ^- Mag. N. H. xii. t. 10. f. 2. 
Limax ater, Razoum. 
Limax cinereo-niger, Sturm, D. Fauna, t. 

Var. 1 a. Black, keel black. — Ferussac, Hist. Moll. ii. t. 8 A. f. 1. 

Var. 2. Grey, spotless; shield black blue. — Ferussac, t. 4. f. 1. 

Var. 3. Ashy ; cl}'peus with black spots ; back with black lon- 
gitudinal streaks. — Ferussac, t. 7- (adult) f. 2, 3 (jun.). 
Clark, Ann. Sf Mag. N. H. xii. t. 10. f. 1. 

Var. 4 . Ashy ; clypeus spotted ; back with two black sti-eaks ; 
sides black dotted. 

Var. 5. Ashy ; clypeus and back with interrupted black streaks. 
Limax variegatus. Lister, An. Angl. App. t. 2. f. 2 ; Syn. t. 101. 
f. 4. 

Var. 6. Whitish ; clypeus with rounded black spots ; back with 
a series of black dots. — Ferussac, t. 4. f. 8. 

Var. 7- Ashv ; clvpeus and back with irregular black spots. 
Aldr. 703. f."3. 
Lister, Syn. t. 102. f. 1. 
Drap. Hist. t. 9. f. 10 ; Enc. Me'th. t. 463. f. 1. 

Var. 8. Ashy or blackish ; back with fine whitish bands. 
Limax fasciatus, Razoum. H. N. Joral. i. 267. 

Var. 9. Ashy ; back white spotted. — Aldrov. 703. f. 4. 

Var. 10. Ashy, whitish varied, with two rows of black spots. 



PULMONATA. 



166 



Var. 11. Ashy; edge white. 
Hab. Europe. 

On the copulation, consult Werlich, Isis, 1819, copied Fe- 
russac, Hist. Moll. t. 4 A. f. 1-4. 

Var. ^. alpina. Slender, cylindrical, obtuse behind, keeled above ; 
above yellowish, clouded, with irregular spots ; side dusky, 
edge blue ; shield dark brown, scutiform behind. 

Limax alpinus, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 21. 96*"; Hist. Moll. t. 4 A. 

f. 5, 6, 7. 
Limax cinereus, var., Blainv. D. S. N. xxv. 430. 
Hab. Europe; Alps; in forests (SfMc?er). 

2. Limax marginatus. B.M. 

Yellowish white, variegated with bluish grey ; clypeus and 
back with two blackish bands ; shield pointed behind, wrinkled ; 
tentacles dusky ; mucus colom-less. Shell oval, thin, slightly 
concave. — -Clark, t. 10. f. b. 
Limax marginatus, Milller, Verm. ii. 10 ? 

Macgillivray , Moll. Aberd. 78. 
Limax arboreum, Bouchard -Chantereaux, Cat. Moll. Terr, de 
Calais. 
Alder, Cat. Moll. North. 31. 
Limax arboreus, Forbes Sf Hanley, Brit. Moll.i\.\'i .t. E.E.E.f.2. 

Clark, Ann. S,- Mag. N. H. 1843, xii. 334. t. 9. f. 4-10. 
Limax flavescens, Clark, Ann. ^- Mag. N. H. vi. 204. 
Limax glaucus, Clark, MSS. 
Limax sahcetum, Bouillet, Moll. Auv. 18. 
Limax rustica. Millet, Mag. Zool 1843; Moll. t. 63? 
Hab. Europe. England; on trees covered with moss (C/arA:). 
France {Bouchard). 
See also Limax maculatus. Leach, Brit. Moll. 52. 



3. Limax viridis. 

Black-green, vei-y smooth; head blunt; body cylindrical, 
rather obtusely truncated ; back obsoletely keeled ; clypeus 
small, narrow, elliptical ; tentacles black ; neck elongated ; foot 
narrow, livid ; aperture of respiration medial. Shell less concave 
and less attenuated in front than of Limax squamatinus, 
Morelet. 

Limax virichs, Morelet, Moll. Portugal, 38. t. 3. f. 3. 
Hcd>. Portugal ; Serra de Caldeirao (Morelet). 



166 PULMONATA. 

4. LlMAX ONGUIFORMIS. 

Greenish brown ; body cjlindrical, with a black streak on each 
side, netted with very fine hnes ; shield elongate, elliptical, 
quite smooth, two-thirds the length of the body, with very small 
black dots; head and tentacles bluish, often contracted imder 
the shield; footUvid; respiratory apertm-e fln^erior. 

Limax onguiformis, Morelet, Moll. Portugal, 36. t. 3. f. 1. 
Hab. Portugal; Algarve. 

This slug appears less contractile than usual ; it is always 
more or less elongate, probably on account of the thickness and 
rigidity of the outer skin. — Morelet. 

5. Limax nitidus. 

Deep black ; shield smooth, shining, varnished, elongate, 
roimded, with the shell gibbose ; body cylindrical, with very fine 
longitudinal grooves ; the part of the nape under the fi'ont of 
the shield fulvous; foot reddish; respirator}- aperture rather 
posterior; shell thin, elhptical, slightly convex, concentrically 
striated, concave and subciystalline beneath. 

Limax nitidus, Morelet, Moll. Portugal, 35. 
Hab. Portugal; Algarve. 

6. Limax souamatinus. 

Small, slender, greenish-golden ; sides bluish ; tentacles black ; 
body minutely reticulated, four-streaked, lateral lines parallel, 
dorsal converging into a single one just behind the shield ; aper- 
tm'C of respiration medial, subanterior, thin, generally contracted; 
shield elongate, hke L. onguiformis; shell elhptical, concave, 
attenuated in fi'ont. 

Limax squamatinus, Morelet, Moll. Portugal, 3/. t. 3. f. 2. 
Hab. Portugal ; Serra de Caldehao (Morelet). 

Suspends itself by a secretion from the end of the foot. Per- 
haps a variety of the former. 

7. Limax melanocephalus. 

Ashy grey; pulmonary region and tip of the tail yellowish 
grev ; beneath paler ; head and tentacles black ; mucus gre)' ; 
body elongate behmd, keeled and acute ; sheU white, tliin, flat, 
elliptical. 
KrjTiickia melanocephala, Kaleniczenko, Bull. Soc.Imp.Moscou, 

1839, i. 30. 



PULMONATA. 167 

Krvnickellus melanocephalus, Kaleniczenko, Bull. Soc. Imp. 
Moscou, 1851, 215. 221. t.5. f. 2; in Arch. Naturg.\852, 288. 
IMegaspis melanocephala, Krynick. MSS. ined. 
Hob. Caucasus. 

8. LiMAX MINUTUS. 

Yellomsh brown, mixed with black above, beneath paler; 
head and tentacles black ; mucus milky. 

Megaspis minuta, Krynick. MSS. ined. 

Krynickellus minutus, Kaleniczenko, I. c. 224. t. 5. f. 3. 

Hub. Caucasus. 

9. LiMAX MACULATUS. 

Olive, dull grey, white spotted, beneath uniform whitish ; ten- 
tacles and lines on the nape darker blackish ; tail acute, end with 
a short keel. 

KrjTiickellus maculatus, Kaleniczenko, I. c. 226. t. 6. f. 2. 
Hab. Southern Tauria. 

10. LiMAX ElCHWALDII. 

Above uniform yellowish grey; tentacles and line on nape 
darker violaceous ; tail rounded, blimt, tip keeled ; mucus white. 
Krj-nickellus Eichwaldii, Kaleniczenko, I. c. 226. t. 6. f. 1. 
Hab. Tauria. 

11. LiMAX Dymczeviczii. 

Dull brown, with darker dots; neck with two white lines; 
tail rather acute, scarcely keeled at the tip. 
Krynickellus DjTuczeviczii, Kaleniczenko, I. c. 22/. t. 6. f. 3. 
Hab. Tauria. 



** Mantle short, rounded behind ; respiratory hole very 
posterior. Shell flat. 

12. LiMAX FLAVUS. B.M. 

Yellowish green or reddish with brownish short lines, forming 
a close network on the whole body ; tentacles bluish ; shield 
short, roimded behind ; aperture of respiration posterior. 
Limax succini colore, Lister, Exc. Anat. i. t. 1, t. 3. f. 4 ; Syn. 

t. 106 ; Tab. Anat. t. 5. f. 4. 
Limax llavus maculatus, Linn. F. Suec. 365. 



Ifi8 PULMONATA. 

Limax flavus, Linn. S. N. eel. xii. 1081. 

Clark, Ann. 8f Mag. N. H. xii. 338. t. 11. f. 11, 12. 

Forbes Sf Hanley, Brit. Moll. iv. 19. t. E. E. E. f. 1. 

Gray, Man. 114. t. 5. f. 16. 
Limax variegatus, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 21. 96 E; Hist. Moll. ii. 
71. t. 5. f. 1-6. 

Draj). Moll. 12/. 9. 

Stimpson, Shells N. Engl. 

Nunneley, Trans. Leeds Phil. Soc. 41. t. 1. f. 3 (1837). 

Leach, Brit. Moll. 53. 

Bouchard, Moll. Calais. 
Limax cinereus, var. y, M'uller, Hist. Verm. ii. 6. 
Shell. — Lister, Exc. Anat. t. 3. f. 5. 

Ferussac, Hist. Moll. t. 5. f. 4. 
Limacella unguiculus, Brard, 115. t. 4. f. 3. 

Var. 2. Greenish or reddish. — Ferussac, I. c. f. 2. 
Limax variegatus, Drap. Hist. 127. 
Morelet, Moll. Portugal, 34. 

Var. 3. Yellowish. — Ferussac, f. 3. 
Limace blonde des cuves, Brard. 

Var. 4. Brown, white spotted. 

Var. 5. Limax variegatus, Ehrenb. Symb. Phys. 
Hab. Eiu-ope : France; Spain; Portugal. N.America: Phila- 
delphia {Say) (introduced?). Var. Spia {Ehrenberg). 

M. Bouillet {Cat. Moll. Auvergne, 15) and M. Morelet {Moll. 
Portugal, 34) have observed that some Slugs, as L. variegatus, 
lose their colom- if the}- are tormented or kept in confinement : 
thus L. variegatus passes from bright yellow to dull ohve-green. 

13. Limax megaspidus. B.M. 

Shield short, rounded behind, smooth ?, with the apertiu-e of 
respiration on the hinder part of the right side. 

Limax megaspidus, Blainr. Journ. Phys. 1817, t. 11. f. 11, copied 
Ferussac, Hist. Moll. 76. t. 6. f. 4, fi-om spec, in Brit. Mus. 

Krynickellus cristatus, Kaleniczenko, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. 
t. 5. f. 1 a, cop. Blainville. 

Hub. ? 

The specimen in the British Museum is, and was when exa- 
mined by Ue Blainville, quite destitute of any trace of its natural 
colour, and has been so long in spirits that it is impossible to 
distinguish the sculpture on the shield, or even if the body was 



PULMONATA. 169 

keeled ; the end of the tail alone shows any traces of its original 
shape. 
It is probably only a small bleached specimen of Limaxflavus. 

14. LiMAX MORAVICUS. 

Varied with black and yellow streaks ; mantle black, spotless, 
in adult quite soft; pulmonary aperture behind the middle^of 
the mantle. Thick, the size of L. antiquorum. 

Limax moravicus, Ehrenb, Symb. Phi/s. 
Hub. Central Europe ; Moravia. (Ehrenb.). 

15. LiMAX CANARIENSIS. 

Body elongate, high and large in front, tapering to a blunt tip 
behind, greyish white, black spotted, rugosely striated above ; 
mantle oval, narrower in front, irregularly rugose ; back scarcely 
keeled. 

Shell oval, depressed, thin, with shai-]} edges (figs. 2, 3). 

Limax canariensis, D'Orb. in Webb ^ Berth. Canar. Moll. 4/. 
t.3. f. 1,2,3. 

Gray, Fig. Moll. t. 284. f. 2. 
Limax antiquorum, Ledru, Voy. Teneriffe, i. 186, 1819. 
Hub. Canaries ; Teneriffe. 

Differs from L. antiquorum in the small size of the keel. 
In the figiu-e the mantle is short, rather truncated behind, and 
the aperture rather behind the centre of the side. 

16. Limax ^EauiNocTiALis. 

Body short in front, marked with broad interrupted flattened 
ribs, smooth, elongate and strongly pointed behind, blackish ; 
mantle oval, rather rugose, rounded at each end ; respirator\' 
opening three-fifths towards the hinder end ; foot narrow. 

Shell broad, oblong, thick at the top, thin on the edge. 

Limax a>quinoctialis, D'Orb. Voy. Ame'r. Merid. 222. 
Hab. S. America; Republic of Equator; Guayaquil. On damp 
places near the river {M. Dupetit Thouars). 

*** Mantle short, truncated behind ; respiratory hole subcentral. 
Shell flat. 

17. LiMAX AGRESTIS. B.M. 

Reddish or grey, brown spotted or spotless ; clypeus elongate, 
rounded behind ; respii'atory hole subcentral ; keel of back short 
and obUque. 

I 



170 



PULMONATA. 



Shell.— -Lim&cena. obliqua, Brard, Hist. 118. t. 4. f. 5,6, 13, 15. 

Limax cinereus alter, Lister, Phil. Trans. 1674, ix. 96. t. 15 ; 

Anitn. Any. 130. t. 2. f. 16. 
Limax cinereus immaculatus, Linn. Fn. Suec. 366. 
Limax agrestis, Linn. S. N. i. 1082. 

jSIuller, Verm. ii. 8. 

Drap. Hist. 126. t. 9. f. 9. 

Sturm, D. Fauna, t. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 21. 96 e; Hist. Moll. ii. t. 5. f. 7, 10. 

Ehrenb. Symb. Phys. 

Morelet, Moll. Portugal, 34. 

Nunneley, Ann. S,- Mag. N. H. i. 204. t. 1. f. 4. 

O. Schmidt in Mutter's Arch. 1851, p. 278. 

Gray, Man. 117. t. 3. f. 17- 

Leach, Brit. Moll. 54. 

Clark, Ann. %■ Mag. N. H. xii. 338. t. 12. f. 13 j shell, 
t. 10. f. d. 

Forbes 8f Hanley, Brit. Moll. iv. 13. t. D. D. D. f. 2. 
Limax reticulatus, Midler, Verm. Hist. 10. 
Limax filans. Hoy, Linn. Trans, i. 183. 

Latham, Linn. Trans, iv. 85. t. 8. f. 1-4. 

Var. 1. Whitish, spotless. 

Var. 2. T\Tiitish ; back ashy. 

Var. 3. Whitish ; ch-peus yellowish. — Ferussac, t. . f. 9, 10. 
Limax filans, Hoy, Trans. Linn. Soc. i. 183. 

Latham, Trans. Linn. Soc. iv. 85. t. 8. f. 1-4. 

Var. 4. Whitish ; head black. 

Var. 5. Whitish or grey, minutely black dotted. — Drap. Hist, 
t. 9. f. 9. 

Var. 6. Reddish, with dusky spots. — Ferussac, f. 8. 

Var. 7- Rufous, black spotted. — Ferussac, f. 7- 

Limax reticulatus, Miiller, Verm. ii. 10. 

Hah. Europe; Portugal {Morelet). ? N. Africa ; Egypt (EAren- 

berg). 

Limax agrestis. — Mr. Forbes figiu-ed a monstrosity with the 
two upper eye-bearing tentacles united into a single conical pro- 
minence. Found by Mr. Gibbs at Sandown. — Brit. MoU. t. L L L 
f. 4. 

Monstrosity"? — Reddish ; dorsal grey, deep and strongly 
marked; shield two-lobed in front. Shell, Ferussac, I. c. 75. 



PULMONATA. 171 

Limax bilobatus, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 22. 96 e ; Hist. Moll. ii. 

74. t. 5. f. 11. 
Hab. Europe ; Paris (Ferussac). 

Probably only an accidental variety of L. agrestis. 

18. Limax sylvaticus. 

Violet, not spotted ; shield gibbous ; body subrugose. 
Limax sylvaticus, Drop. Hist. 126. t. 9. f. 11. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 22. 96 e ; Hist. t. 8 D. f. 2, from Drap. 
Var. minor, Morelet, Moll. Portugal, 33. 
Hab. France; Montpellier (Dr«p.). Var. /3. Portugal, on the 

high mountains of Cintra {Morelet). 

Perhaps a variety of L. agrestis, Ferussac. 

19. Limax bruxneus. 

Blackish, subrugose, neck longer than the shield. 

Limax brunneus, Drap. Hist. 128. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 23. 

Bouchard- Chant ereaux, Moll. Calais. 

Johnston, Trans. Berw. Club, i. 154. 

Gray, Man. Moll. l\7. 

Alder, Cat. Northumb. 32. 

Forbes S,- Hanley, Brit. Moll. iv. 20. t. F. F. F. f. 4. 
Limacella concava, Brard, Coq. Paris. 
Hab. France ; MontpelHer (Drap.). 

20. Limax tenellus. 

Greenish ; head and tentacles black. Length 10 inches. 
Limax tenelkis, Miiller, Verm. ii. 11. 

? Drap. Hist. 127. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 21. 96 E. 

Nilsson, Moll. Suec. 10. 

Alder, Moll. Northumb. 31. 

Forbes S,- Hanley, Brit. Moll. t. F. F. F. f. 3. 
Arion tenellus, Ray ^ Drouet, Moll. Champ. 
Hab. Europe : Denmark ; France. 

21. Limax tunicatus. 

Subcylindrical, dark drab or dusky brown, sometimes almost 
black ; shield short, rounded behind, with conspicuous inter- 
rupted concentric wrinkles ; neck smooth, with an elevated 

i2 



1/2 PULMONATA. 

central line ; back, behind the shield, marked with broken 
wrinkles arranged lengthwise ; upper tentacles granulated, black 
at the top ; foot very narrow. 
Limax tunicata, Gould, Invert. Mass, 3. 
Limax agrestis, Stimpson, Shells N. England. 
Hab. N. America ; Massachusetts. Under stones. 
May be the same as L. agrestis of Europe. — Gould. 

22. Limax andecolus. 

Body rather elongate, high, striated above, pointed behind, 
bluish grey ; mantle roundish, smooth ; back shortly keeled ; foot 
narrow. Shell depressed, thick at the tip, thin on the edge. 

Limax andecolus, D'Orb. Voy. Amer. Mend. 222. 
Hab. Bolivia. On damp places, 2700 metres above the surface 
of the sea : allied to Limax agrestis. 

23. Limax sandv^^ichensis. 

Grey ; sides of foot yellowish ; mantle elongate ; aperture of 
respiration medial. Shell oblong, thin (f. 9-11). 

Limax Sandwichensis, Eydoux, Voy. 

Gray, Fig. Moll.t. 288. f. 1. 
Hab. Sandwich Islands. 

24. Limax Ascensionis. 

Pale fulvous ; edge and under side of foot yellow, lead- 
coloured behind ; shield broad, oval, place of the shell marked 
by a convexity ; shell small, uaiTOW, ovate, acute, rather curved. 

Arion ascensionis, Gurnot Sf Lesson, Voy. Cog. Moll. t. 16. f. 4. 
Limax ascensionis, Quoy Sf Gaim. Voy. Astrol. t. . f. 14, 18. 
Mrs. Gray, Fig. Moll. t. . f . . 

Var. Black beneath. 

Hab. Ascension. Under stones at the top of the mountain. 

" Subcaudal gland none." In the figure the shield is ovate 
elongate, the aperture of respiration central. 

Doubtful species. 
25. Limax l^vis. 
Black, smoothish. 
Limax Isevis, Miiller, Verm. 10. 
Hab. Europe. 



PULMONATA. 173 

26. LiMAX GRACILIS. 

Slender, head and lower tentacles fulvous, upper tentacles 
brown ; mantle dark fulvous ; back brown, smooth ; tail keeled. 
Limax (Deroceras) gracihs, Rqfin. Ann. Nat. 1820. 
Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 23. 
D'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid. 221. 
Hab. N. America ; Kentucky. In woods. 

27. Limax cinctus. 

Yellowish ; shield and abdomen girt with grey. Length 
2 inches. 

Limax cinctus, Muller, Verm. 9. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 24. 
Hab. ? 

28. Limax fuscus. 

Reddish : lateral and dorsal line blackish. 

Limax fuscus, Muller, Verm. 11. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 23. 
Hab. Europe {Muller). 

29. Limax hyalinus. 

Hyaline ; tentacles obsolete, with brown lines from the ten- 
tacles to the shield. 

Limax hyalinus, Linn. Syst. Nat. xii. 1081. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 24. 
Hab. Europe. In moss : probably young. 

30. Limax scopulorum. 

Ash ; back bro\vn, smooth ; body ash ; shield and attenuated 
back black. 

Limax scopulorum. Fab. Voy. Norveg. 298. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 24. 
Hab. Norway, in cracks in the rocks. 

31. Limax campestris. 

Limax campesti-is, Binney, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1841, p. .51. 
Hab. N. America. 



174 PULMONATA. 

32, LiMAX CARINATUS. 

Body rounded in front, strongly keeled and acute behind; 
uniform deep black ; epidermis blackish ; foot blackish grey. 

Limax carinatus, Risso, Eur. Merid. iv. 56 (not D'Orb.). 
Hub. South of Europe ; Nice. Spring and autumn. 

33. Limax lineolatus. 

Body rugose, blackish, marked with grey lines, rounded in 
front, gradually keeled behind ; upper tentacles bluish ; foot 
edged with yellowish grey. 

Limax lineolatus, Risso, Eur. Merid. iv. 5/. 

Hab. S. Europe ; Nice. Under stones, December. 

2. MILAX. 

Back keeled from the end of the mantle. Mantle short, gra- 
nular, truncated behind, with two small pores on its hinder edge. 

Shell oval, thick, convex beneath. 

Shield with two small pores on its hinder edge, and with a 
deep groove round the shell ; vermiculated Uke the Arions : for 
these reasons Ferussac thought it might make a particular sub- 
genus. — Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 22. 

What is the genus Aspidoporus, Fitz. Verz. 90, 1833; Herm. 
Ind. i. 395, iii. 13 ? I have not been able to see the work : is it 
intended for this genus — as the name probably impUes pores on 
the shield ? 

1. MiLAX Gagates. B.M. 

Blackish, grey brown or greenish ; shield rounded behind, 
granular or shagreened, suiTOunded by a deep marginal groove ; 
back keeled the whole length from the back of the shield to the 
tail. 
Shell elongate, small. — Ferussac, Hist. Moll. 76. 

Limax gagates, Drap. Tabl. 100; Hist. 122. t. 9. f. 1, 2. 

Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 22. 96 E; Hist. Moll. 75. t. 6. f. 1, 2. 

Philippi, Mol. SiciLii. 102. 

Norman, Zoologist, 1853, Sept. p. 4048. 

Clark, Ann. S^- Mag. N. H. xii. 339. t. 12. f. 16-21. 

Forbes Sf Hanley, Brit. Moll. iv. 24. t. D. D. D. f. 63. 
L. cinereus, Blainv. D. S. N. xxvi. 430. 



PULMONATA. 175 

Var. 1. Black, shining. 

Var. 2. Lead-coloured or grey -black. — Ferussac, I. c. t. 6. f. 1, 2. 

Hab. Europe : South of France ; Malta ; Spain ; Sicily. 

" Back carinated throughout ; shield granulated, olivaceous 
black, with paler sides. Head bluish ; tentacles darker, parti- 
cularly the superior, which are deep violet. Shield ample, 
squarish, bilobed behind (being indented by the keel in the 
centre), granulated, same colom- as the rest of the body. Ge- 
neral colour very deep olive, or olivaceous black, becoming 
lighter at the sides, so that the margin of the foot is very pale, 
except near the tail, where it is darker :. sole nearly white. Keel 
extending the whole length of the back, sharply edged ; the edge 
somewhat darker than the rest of the body. Mucus colourless, 
abundant. Length rather less than 3 inches. When at rest 
assumes a rounded form, the head, tentacles, and even a portion 
of the foot being retracted beneath the shield. 

" Hab. Isle of Portland {Darbyshire) ; near Tenby, S. Wales." 

2. MiLAX SOWERBII. B.M. 

Yellowish, tessellated with brown ; head, tentacles, back, and 
dorsal keel yellow, sides i)ale. Shell oval, thickened and very 
convex beneath. 

Limax Sowerbii, Fer.Tab. Syst.t. 96 E ; Hist. Moll. t. 8 D. f. 5, 6. 

Alder, Mag. Zool S,- Bot. ii. 105. 

Clark, Ann. 8f Mag. N. H. xii. 338. t. 12. f. 14, 15. 

Denson, Mag. Nat. Hist. vi. 694. 

Forbes cf Hanley, Brit. Moll. iv. 22. t. E. E. E. f. 3. 
Limax carinatus. Leach, MSS. ; Brit. Moll. 54. t. 8. f. 3. 

Alder, Mag. Zool. Sf Bot. ii. 105. 

Gray, Turt. Man. ed. 2. 116. t. 3. f. 17. 
Limax marginatus, Drap. Hist. Moll. 124. t. 9. f. 7 (not Muller). 

Fer. Tab. Syst. t. 96 E ; Hist. Moll. u. t. 8 D. f. 4 ? 
Hab. Europe, England : France. 
Perhaps a variety of M. Gagates. 

3. MiLAX VALENTIANUS. 

Brown (in spirits) ; back and shield with two pale broad- 
edged black streaks; dorsal keel white; shield short, rather 
truncated behind ; apertare of respiration posterior. 

Limax Valentianus, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 2Lt.96E; Hist. Moll. 

ii. 2. t. 8A. f. 5, 6. 
Hab. Spain ; Valencia, in gardens. 



1/6 PULMONATA. 

4. MiLAX CRISTATUS. 

Greyish olive, reticulated with black ; back entirely keeled ; 
head and tentacles black ; tail compressed, rather blunt ; mucus 
deep yellow. 

Krynickellus cristatus, Kaleniczenko, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1851, 
p. 225. t. 5. f. 1. 

Hab. Southern Tauria, near Otuz. 

Dr. Kaleniczenko has referred Limax megaspidus, Blain\alle, 
to this species ; but the original specimen from which that spe- 
cies was described by M. de Blainville, in the British Museum, 
has a rounded and not a keeled back. 

5. MiLAX CARINATUS. 

Body elevated, compressed, bluish grey above, rugose, grooved ; 
mantle oblong, rugose, elevated in the middle, showing the situa- 
tion of the shell ; back keeled to the mantle. 

Shell ? 

Limax carinata, D'Orb. in Webb 8c Berth. Canar. Moll. 47. t. 3. 
f. -4-8. 

Gray, Fig. Moll. t. 284. f. 4. 
Limax cinereus, Ledru, Voy. Teneriffe, i, 186, 1810. 
Hab. Teneriffe : suspends itself by a thread. 

In the figure the mantle is rounded at each end, and the re- 
spiratory hole is nearly central. 

fi. MiLAX VIRESCENS. 

Body above green-bromi, smoothish ; shield very smooth, an- 
terior ; back keeled. Shell oblong, very thin, near the apex 
rather convex. — t. 8. f. 2. 

Parmacella virescens, Schultz in Philippi, Moll. Sicil. i. 125. t 8 

f. 2, shell. 
Limax virescens, Philippi, Moll. Sicil. ii. 103. 
Hab. Sicily; Panormo. 

7. MiLAX NIGRICANS. 

Body above black, nearly smooth, beneath brown ; shield ru- 
gose, anterior ; back keeled. Shell irregular, thick, i-ugiUose, 
flattish. 

Parmacella nigricans, Schultz in Philippi, Moll. Sicil. i. 125 t 8 

f. 1, shell. 
Limax nigricans, Philippi, Moll. Sicil. ii. 102. 
Hab. Sicily ; Parnormo. 



PULMONATA. 177 

8. MiLAX UMBROSUS. 

Body rugose, above bro^ii and white variegated, beneath 
white, spotless ; clypeus anterior ; head nearly entirely retractile 
under the shield ; tail strongly keeled above ; apertiu'e of respi- 
ration on the hinder part of the shield. Shell ovate-oblong, 
very thin, flattish, rather thickened near the tip. 

Parmacella variegata, Philippi, Moll. Sicil. i. 128. 
Limax umbrosus, Philippi, Moll. Sicil. ii. 102. 
Hab. Sicily. 

9. MiLAX ANTIPODARUM. B.M. 

Ovate, attenuated, rugose (in spirits), brown, back sharply 
keeled to the shield ; back with parallel grooves diverging from 
the shield, with short straight branches passing across from one 
to the other; shield oblong, short, I'ovmded behind, smooth, with 
netted grooves ; breathing hole rather behind the middle of the 
right side ; foot in three bands, the central band rather the 
broadest, with series of gi-ooves on each side from a zigzag cen- 
tral groove, the side bands with close, parallel, straight cross 
grooves. 
Hab. New Zealand. 



3. PHOSPHORAX. 

Body thick, broad ; the hinder part of the mantle with a mar- 
ginal disk formed of part of the mantle, which is lucid green and 
phosphorescent in the dark. Tail rounded. " Aperture for 
generation and respiration like Arion," according to the figure 
rather in front of the middle of the mantle. Shell rudimentary 
under the mantle, as in Limax. 
Phosphorax (noctilucus), Webb 8f Berth. Ann. Sci. Nat. 1833, 

xx\-iii. 307. 

Gray, P. Z. S. 184/, 169. 430. 
Limax, sp., D'Orb. in Ferussac, Moll. Terr. 76. t. 2. f. 8. 
Philippi, Haiulh. Conch. 238. 

It is doubtful whether this genus belongs to Arionidee or Li- 
macidce. It appears to have some affinity to the preceding genus, 
which has induced me to place it here rather than in the former 
family. 

" Limax noctilucus is furnished with a similar aperture in tlie 
mantle as that in Arion extraneus, from whence escapes a phos- 
phorescent matter."— FeVussac, Bull. Sci. Nat. 1827, x. 300. 



1/8 PULMONATA. 

1. Phosphorax NOCTILUCUS. 

Shell thick, oval, white, nearly transparent, smooth above, 
crystalline beneath. 

Limax noctilucus (L. phosphorescente), D'Orbigny in Ferussac, 

Hist. Moll. ii. 76. t. 2. f. 8. 
Phosphorax noctilucus, W^e66 Sf Berth. Ann. Sci. Nat. xxviii. 307. 
Hab. Tenerifife. 

4. MALINO. 

Body slender, obtusely keeled, ending in an acute prism. 
Head produced. Shield large, anterior, oblique, longitudinally 
grooved ; front part much produced, concentrically grooved, very 
contractile, very mobile, and moves rapidly from left to right and 
vice versa as the animal walks. Orifice of respiration large, 
rather behind the middle of the shield. Shell (quite hidden) not 
described. 

1. Malino lombricoides. 

Slender, flesh-coloiu-ed, black-dotted; body rather rugose ; 
shield grooved. Shell not described. 

Limax lombricoides, Morelet, Moll. Portugal, 39. t. 3. f. 4. 
Hab. Portugal. 

Form like Limax agrestis ; very vivacious ; singularly elongates 
the head when walking. 



The genus Oris of Risso {Eur. M&id. iv. 57), arranged by 
him in Limacides, appears to be a marine animal with foiu- small, 
not entirely retractile tentacles on the front of the back, and the 
eyes placed rather above and near the base of the front tentacles. 
The body is subcylindrical, soft, rather truncated in front, pointed 
behind, and covered with a very smooth semitrausparent fleshy 
mantle, which edges the foot and covers the head when re- 
tracted. 

Oris Ferussaci. 

Hab. Nice. In spring, at moderate depth (in the sea?). 

This is evidently not a Limacid, from the position of the eyes 
and the form of tlie mantle ; and the combination of characters 
is so extraordinary, that it requires further examination before 
it can be referred to any other family. 



PULMONATA. 179 

II. CocHLEOPHORA. Body more or less spiral, prominent on 
the {middle generally) upper surface of the foot, and 
covered with a more or less spiral shell sometimes partly 
hidden by the refiexed part of the produced edge of thf 
mantle. 

•d. Body and mouth of the shell depressed, being broader from 
side to side than long from front to back, that is to sujy, in 
the direction of the axis of the spiral shell. 



Tribe 3. PELTELLINA. 

Animal elongate, slug-like. Body subcentral, dorsal. Mantle 
enclosed, and the size of the shell in front, produced behind, 
and reflected over the back of the shell. Shell flat, ear- 
shaped, thin. 

]. PELTELLA. 

Animal elongate, slug-like, not capable of being withdrawn 
into the shield. Body elongate, ending in an elongated prism 
behind, without any posterior pore. Shell oblong, flat, more or 
less spiral, very thin. 

Parmacellus, Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 10. 24. 96"; Hist. Moll. 

Parmacella A, Blainv. Man. Malac. 463. 

Parmacella, sp., Philippi, Handb. Conch. 240. 

Peltella, Van Beneden Sf Robb, Guerin Mag. Zool. 1836, t. 75. 

Pectella, Gray, P. Z. Soc. 1847, 1/0 (misprint). 

Ferussac's character of the genus Parmacellus is taken from 
P. palliolum, which is quite distinct as a genus from P. Olivieri 
of Cuvier. 

1. Peltella palliolum. B.M. 

Green ; shell green, depressed ; spire very small ; aperture 
very large. 

Parmacellus palliolum, Fe'russac, Tab. Syst. 25. 
Parmacella palliolum, Fe'russac, Hist. Moll. ii. t. 7 A. f. \-i). 
Moquin-Tundon, Mem. Acad. Torin. 1850; Journ. Conch 
ii. 146, 1851. 
Parmacella Taunaisii, Blainv. Man. Malac. 463, 1825, 
Peltella palHolum, Van Beneden, Mag. Zool. 1836. 
Hah. Brazils {Taunay). 



180 PULMOXATA. 

Tribe 4. VITRININA. 

The mantle produced and thickened in front beyond the front 

edge of the shell, forming a thick fleshy corrugated collar. 
Vitriniua, Gray, Turton's Man. ed.2. 109, 1840; P. Z. S. 1847, 

Vitrinoidea, part., Fitz. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

1. Helicolimax. Mantle coveiing nearly the whole of the 

shell. 

2. ViTRiNA. Mantle covering the front edge of the last whorl 

and a part of the spire of the shell. 

3. ?SiMPULOPSis. Animal . Shell half ovate, very thin, 

membranaceous. Whorls three or three and a half ; last 
ventricose. Aperture large, oblong or rounded, oval. 

1. HELICOLIMAX. 

Mantle produced before and behind so as to cover nearly the 
whole of the shell when fully expanded. Shell depressed,"thin. 
Whorls rapidly enlarging. Mouth ver^- large. Columella with 
a wide membranous margin. 

1. Helicolimax Lamarckii. B.M. 

Shell depressed, oval, smooth, thin, bright, greenish-homy ; 
spire nearly level ; whorls two and a half, rapidlv increasino-, in- 
ternal margin free ; aperture ample, nearly horizontal, ear-shaped; 
peristome simple, upper margin arched-dilated in front, columel- 
lar widely membranous-margined. Lat. maj. 15, min. 10, alt. 
5i mill. 

Helicohmax Lamarckii, Fer. Pr. v. 21 ; Hist. t. 9. f. 9. 

Loue in Zool. Journ. iv. 338. t. suppl. 38. 
Vitrina Lamarckii, Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825, ix. 409. 

Loire, Faun. Mader. 40. t. 5. f. 1. 

JVebh c)- Berth. Syn. p. 311. 

Orb. Canar. p. 53. 

Beck, Ind. p. 2. n. 13. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 506; Icon. t. 1. f. 48-51. 

De.sh. Helic. 96. 20 F. n. 8. t. 8. f. 22, 26. 
Vitrina Teneriffa;, Quoy S,- Gaim. Astrol. ii. 142. t. 13. f. 4-9. 

Lam. ed. Desh. vii. 729. n. 4. 
Vitrina Cuvieri, Soiv. Gen. f. 2 (Lowe). 
Hab. Canaries; Teneriffe; Madeira. 



PULMONATA. 181 

" In its natural condition the shell is perfectly concealed by the 
cuirass, in which state the animal has exactly the aspect of a 
Limax with a veiy tumid, uneven, large raised cuirass, and thus 
it is always found in its places of retreat under stones, when moist 
and in a healthy condition. Removed from its natural abode, 
or after exposure to a free circulation of air, there soon appear, 
first a sinus, then a deep wide slit up the posterior half of what 
appeared before to constitute a uniform tumid cuirass. Through 
this opening appears the shell, the back part of whose last vohi- 
tion, as the animal becomes more and more dry, is gradually 
more exposed by the enlargement of the sinus which dilates more 
paiticularly on the left side, till finally the whole shell is exposed, 
with the exception of about a line's breadth of the outer lip, 
covered by a narrow portion of the cuirass like a border, which 
becoming broader towards the right side, extends backwards 
and partly over the s))ire in a kind of broad lateral lobe. The 
animal is even sometimes completely retracted within the shell, 
like a Helix ; and had I not ol)ser\ed in the same individuals the 
whole process of transition, from the asjiect of a Limax without 
the slightest ai)pearance of external shell, to that of a Helix com- 
pletely contained within one, the identity of the individuals in 
the two states would have seemed most questionable. 

" The posterior extremity is acuminated, pointed, triangular 
when the animal is at rest, elongated when in motion, convex 
and carinated down the middle. The keel is formed bv the- o])- 
position of the two lips of skin which form the edges of the bed 
in which the posterior part of the shell is sunk, and which thus, 
while giving the appearance of a keel, form in realit)' a close 
channel or groove. This is continued a part of the way down, 
but not to the extremity. The oblique grooves before mentioned 
on these lips of skin are continued on each side to the extremity 
of the tail, dividing it into compartments on each side. There 
is no appearance of a terminal mucous pore. 

" The head, neck, and tentacula of the animal are granulated ; 
with two very distinct grooves close together down the middle 
of the neck, beginning between the upper pair of tentacula and 
an intermediate raised black granulated line. The cuirass is 
sti'ongly wrinkled concentrically, like the lines at the ends of the 
fingers. The sides of the posterior extremity are, as before de- 
scribed, divided into regulai- compartments by equidistant lines 
running obliquely from the closed groove or keel down its centre 
to the edge. 

"The general ground-colour of the animal is either cinereous or 
a very pale reddish brown ; the tentacula and fore part of the 
head and neck rendered dusky by the dark granulations. The 
cuirass is more or less mottled by large confluent, often distinct. 



182 PULMONATA. 

black or dark brown spots or patches. The posterior extremity 
is of a uniform dusky brown, sometimes olivaceous. The sides 
are pale cinereous browTi. The cuirass and posterior extremity 
are sometimes also sprinkled with minute, opake, milky dots. 

" The animal is very slightly viscous ; the jnucus is hyaline. 
Length of the largest specimen seen, H inch; of this the tail 
was i an inch. It is found of all sizes, from this to ^ of an inch 
in length; the usual size is that of the specimen figm-ed. "When 
the animal is at rest, the cuirass occupies two-thu-ds of the whole 
length ; when it is crawling, about three-fifths of it ; the neck 
and tail then extending each about one-fifth beyond it. 

" When in motion it crawls with great activity. Contrary to 
any other of its tribe that I am acquainted with, if chsturbed or 
irritated, it onlv crawls the faster ; and if at rest and contracted, 
it directly puts itself in motion on being touched or disturbed." 
— Lowe. 

2. VITRINA. 

Mantle produced and covering the front edge of the last whorl 
and a part of the spire of the shell. Shell depressed, thin. 
Whorls two or three, rapidly enlarging, last dilated. Mouth 
very large. Peristome thin. Columellar edge thin, arched. 

Vitrina, Drop. Tabl. 33. 98, 1801 ; Hist. 23. 30. 119, 1803. 

Lamk. Phil. Zool. 1809 ; Hist. A. s. V. vi. 62. 

Flemiiiff, B. A. 255. 267, 1828. 

Alters, Heliceen. 
Semilimax, Ferussac, Essai d'une Method. 1802. 
Helicohmax, Ferussac, Essai, 1807 ; Prod. 21, 1819 ; Hist. Moll. 
31, 1821. 

Rang, 3Ian. 157, 1829. 
Helicolimax A, Blainv. Man. Malac. 462. 
Cobresia, Hubner, Monog. v. Test. 1810. 

Stiider, Coxe's Trav. Switz. 1789. 
Vitrinus, Montf. Conch. Syst. ii. 238, 1810. 
Hyalina, Studer, Syst. Verz. 11, 1820. 

Limacina, Hartmann, N. Alpina, i. 206, 1821 ; in Sturm, Fauna, 
vi. 41. 

The animal of Vitrina is intermediate in form between a slug 
{Limax) and a snail {Helix), having the shield-like mantle of the 
one and the globular external shell of the other. It can draw 
itself into the shell so as entirely to hide itself like the Snails. 



PULMONATA. 183 

a. European. 

1. VlTRINA PELLUCIDA. B.M. 

Shell rather eonvexly-depressed, nearly smooth, very bright, 
pellucid, beiylline ; spire moderate, slightly prominent ; suture 
a little crenul&ted, coneolorous or reddish ; whorls three, rapidly 
increasing, slightly convex, the last wide beneath, nearly level, 
impressed in the middle, slightly membranous-margiued ; aper- 
ture oblique (45°), lunate-rounded, as wide as it is high; peri- 
stome slightly inflected, regularly arched on each side. Lat. (» 
by 4f , alt. 3i mill. 

Helix pellucida, Miill. Verm. ii. 15. n. 215. 

Dillw. Descr. Cat. ii. 94/. n. 134. 

Cuvier, Regne Animal, ii. 405. 
HeHx hmacoides, Alten, p. 85. t. II. f. 20. 
Vitrina beryllina, C. Pfr. i. 17. t. 3. f. 1 ; iii. 65. 

Beck, hid. p. 1. n. 4. 
Vitrina pellucida, Rossm. i. 74. f. 28. 

Charp. Cat. Moll. Suisse, p. 2. 

Beck, Ind. p. 1. n. 5 ; & M. R. C. (ined.) viii. t. 1. f. 1. 

Reeve, Conch. Syst. ii. t. 162. f. 1. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 492. n. 1 ; Icon. t. 1. f. 14-17. 

DesA. 96". n. 1. 
Vitrina Miilleri et Dillwynii, Jeffr. Linn. Trans, xvi. pt. 2. p. 326? 
Cobresia helicoides vitrea, Hiibner (teste Fer.). 
Vitrinus pellucidus, Montf. Conch, ii. 239. 
Hyalina pellucida, Stud. Verz. p. 11. 
Limacina pellucida a, Hartm. in Neue Alpina, i. 246. 
Helicolimax pellucida, Fer. Pr. 7 ; Hist. t. 9. f. 6. 
Hab. Germany; Switzerland; France; Britain; Sweden, &c. 

2. Vitrina annularis. B.M. 

Shell depressedly-globose, thin, nearly smooth, pellucid, bright, 
greenish-hyaline ; spire slightly prominent, obtuse ; whorls three, 
gradually increasing, the last rounded, wide at the base ; aper- 
ture scarcely oblique, oval-rounded ; peristome simple, columellar 
margin short, nearly vertical. Lat. 4 by 3, alt. 2^ mill. 

Hyalina annularis, Stud. Verz. 11. 
Limacina annularis, Hartm. in Neue Alpina, i. 246. 
Helicolimax annularis, Fer. Pr. 8 ; Hist. t. 9. f. 7. 
Vitrina anmdaris. Gray, Ann. Phil, new ser. L\. 409. 

Charp. Cat. Moll. Suisse, p. 2. 

Beck, Ind. p. 1. n. 7- 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 493. n. 2 ; Icon. t. 1. f. 26, 29. 

Desh. 96 >«. n. 2. 



184 PULMOXATA. 

Vitrina subglobosa, Mich. Compl. 10. t. 15. f. 18-20. 

Morelet, Moll, du Port. 50. 
Hab. Swiss and French Alps ; Portugal. 

3. Vitrina Draparnaldi. B.M, 

Shell depressed, thin, smooth, very bright, pellucid, hyaline- 
or lutesoent-green ; spire very short ; apex scarcely prominent ; 
suture scarcely impressed, thread-margined ; whorls three and a 
half, rapidly increasing, the last depressed, elongated in front, 
rather broad at the base, nearly plane, scarcely membranous- 
margined ; aperture very oblique, transversely lunar, wider than 
high ; peristome thin, calumellar margin short, basal rather 
straight. Lat. 8 by 6|, alt. 3| mill. 

Helix Draparnaldi, Cuvier, Regne Animal, ii. 405. 
Helix diaphana, Poir. Coq. Fluv. et Terr. 77- 
Hehx elliptica. Brown in Wern. Trans, ii. 523. t. 24. f . 8 ? 
"Vitrina pellucida, Drap. Tabl. d. Moll. p. 98. n. 1 (not Mull.) ; 
Hist. 119. t. 8. f. 34-37. 

Brard, 78. t. 3. f. 3-6. 

Lam. vi. 2. n. 1 . p. 53 ; ed. Desh. vii. 728. 

Guerin, Icon. Moll. t. 5. f. 3, 

Desh. Enc. Meth. iii. 1133. n. 1. 

Gray, Manual, 120. t. 3. f. 21. 
Vitrina diaphana et depressa, Jeffr. Linn. Tr. xvi. pt. 2. p. 326? 
Vitrina Draparnaldi, Leach, Moll. 80. 

Pfr. Mon. He/ic. ii. 493. n. 3; Icon. t. 1. f. 18-21. 

Desh. 96 1^ n. 3. 
Vitrina major, C. Pfr. i. 47. 
Vitrina Audebardii, C. Pfr. iii. 55. 

Beck, Ind. p. 1. n. 3. 
Limacina pellucida ^., Hartm. in Neue Alpina, i. 246. 
Helicolimax major. Per. Essai, 43. 
Hehcoliraax Audebardi, Per. Pr. 6 ; Hist. t. 9. f. 5. 
Hehcolimax pellucida, Blainv. Diet. Sc. Nat. 255. t. 32. 

Sow. Conch. Man. f. 263. 
Hab. France and Britain. 

4. Vitrina diaphana. 

Shell depressed, thin, smooth, bright, diaphanous, greenish- 
hyaline ; s})ire minute, nearl} level ; whorls two and a half, 
rapidly increasing, nearly level, the last dilated, depressed, very 
naiTOW below, dilated at the deciduous, membranous margin; 
aperture nearly horizontal, very ample, ear-shaped ; columellar 
margin exceedingly arched. Lat. Gi by 4^, alt. 3 mill. 



PULMONATA. 186 

Vitrina cliaphana, Drap. Hist. 120. t. 8. f. 38, 39. 

C. Pfr. i. 48. t. 3. f. 2; iii. 55. 

Rossm. i. 73. f. 27. 

Charp. Cat. Moll. Suisse, p. 2. 

Beck, Ind. p. 1. n. 2. 

I/«rn. ed. Desk. vii. 728. n. 2. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 494. n. 4 ; Icon. t. 1. f. 30-33. 

Desh.96'''.n.4. 
Vitrina pellucida, Voith. in Sturm, Fauna, vi. H.3. t. 16. 

Blaiiw. Malac. 462. t. 41. f. 1. 
Cobresia limacoides patera, Hiibner (Fer.). 
Hyalina vitrea, Studer, Verz. 11. 
Limacina \dtrea a, Hartm. in Neue Alpina, i. 246. 
Helix Umacina, Alien, 81. t. 10. f. 19. 
Helix virescens, Studer in Coxe's Travels. 
Helix palliata, Hartm. in Alpina, ii. 
Helicolimax \'itrea, Fer. Pr. 5 ; Hist. t. 9. f. 4. 
j3. Vitrina balina, Ziegler, olim. 
y. Smaller. 

Vitrina nivalis, Charp. MSS. 
Hab. Germany; Switzerland; France. 

5. Vitrina pykenaica. 

Shell depressed, oval, shining, hyaline-green ; whorls two and 
a half, rapidly increasing, the last depressed, narrow at the base, 
surrounded by a very narrow membrane ; aperture horizontal, 
nearly regularly oval, with a ven,' thin callus inside, margins ap- 
proximate, dilated above the middle, subinflected, columellar 
sHghtly arched. Lat. 6 by 4, alt. 2^ mill. 
Hehcolimax pjTcnaica, Fer. Pr. 4 ; Hist. t. 9. f. 3. 
Vitrina p\Tenaica, Gray, Ann. Phil, new ser. ix. 409. 
Pfr.' Mon. Helic. ii. 495. n. 5; Icon. t. 1. f. 34-37. 
Desh. 96 1^. n. 5. 
Hab. Ppenees ; Valle Ossau, near the Pic du Midi. 

6. Vitrina elongata. B.M. 
Shell much depressed, ear-shaped, ver>' thin, smooth, bright, 

lutescent-hyaline ; sjjire punctiform, scarcely prominent ; whorls 
scarcely two, the last elongated in front, linear at the base, di- 
lated at the rather broad, membranous margin ; ajierture almost 
horizontal, oblong-oval, margins approximate, recurved above. 
Lat. 4i by 3, alt. U miU- 



186 



PULMOXATA. 



Vitrina elongata, Drap. Hist. 120. t. 8. f. 40-42, 

C. Pfr. i. 48. t. 3. f. 3 J iii. 56, 

Rossm. i. 73. f. 26. 

Bec^, Ind. p. 1. n. 1. 

littwi. ed. Desk. vii. 729. n, 3. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 495. n, 6 ; /cow. t. 1. f. 38-41. 

Desk. 96 19. n. 6. 
Helix semilimax, Fer. Pat. in Naturforscher, 1802, St, 19, t, 1, 

f. A, D. 
Testacella Germaniae, Oken, Lehrb. d. Naturg. iii. 312. 
Hyalina elongata, Stud. Verz. 11. 
Limacina vitrea ^, Hartm. in Neue Alpina, i. 246. 
Limacina elongata, Hartm. in Sturm, Fauna, vi. H. 5. p. 54. 
Helicoliinax elongata, Fer. Pr. 1 ; Hist. t. 9. f. 1 . 
/3. Helicolimax brevis, Fer. Pr. 2 ; Hist. t. 9. f. 2. 
Vitrina brevis. Gray, Ann. Phil, new ser. ix. 408, 
Hab. Germany and France, rather rare, 

7. Vitrina glacialis. 

Shell hyaline, flattened above ; whorls two ; aperture very 
patent, ovate-oblong. Lon. i, lat. | ". 

Vitrina glacialis, Forbes in Jard. Mag. 1837. 

Wiegm. Arch. 1838, ii. 273. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 496. n. 7, 
Hab. Switzerland. 



8. Vitrina Musignani. 

Shell subglobose, pellucid, hyaline, finely and elegantly striated 
longitudinally ; whorls three, the last rather large, slightly keeled; 
aperture rounded ; spire very little exserted. 

Vitrina Musignani, Mandral. in Giorn. Lett. n. 230. 
Arad. e Magg. Cat. rag. 113. 
Phil. Sicil. ii. 216. 
Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 496. n. 8. 



Hab. Sicily. 



9. Vitrina MaravignvE. 



Shell depressed, slightly convex, oval, horny-green, thin, 
bright, sub))ellucid, umbilicated, longitudinally striated ; whorls 
two and a half, the last much produced ; aperture very ample , 
exceedingly oblique, subovate. Lon. 2^, lat. If lin. 



pulmonata. 18/ 

Vitrina Maravignae, Mandral. Moll. Madon. 11. 

Piria e Scacchi, Antol. i. 124, 1841. 

Arad. e Magg. Cat. rag. 114. 

Phil. Sicil. ii. 216. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 496. 
Hab. Nebrodian Mountains, Sicily. 

b. Asiatic — Continental. 

10. Vitrina gigas. 

Shell rather solid, depressed, with arched striae, obsoletely and 
irregularly decussated by spiral lines, olive-horny ; spire minute, 
level ; suture impressed ; whorls two and a half, rapidly in- 
creasing, the last slightly depressed above, outline rounded, base 
narrow ; aperture very oblique, large, regularly transversely ob- 
long, slightly callous inside, margins nearly contiguous, upper 
and lower rather straight, columellar slightly arched. Lat. 30 
by 18, alt. 13 niilh 
Vitrina gigas, Benson in Journ. As. Soc. v. 350. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 496. n. 10. 
Hab. Bengal. 

11. Vitrina cassida. 

Shell depressed, thin,shghtly sti-iated, scarcely shining, not quite 
diaphanous, with the periphery ovate, pale greenish horn-coloured; 
spire very shortly conoidal ; suture slightly bordered ; whorls 
nearly five, enlarging rapidly, the last rounded, somewhat de- 
pressed, broad beneath and impressed in the centre ; aperture 
very oblique, lunarly ovate, pearl-shining within; peristome 
simple, upper margin a little dilated forwards, basal margin 
slightly arched, columellar margin slightly callous. Ileight 12, 
greatest breadth 26, least breadth 22 mill. {Pfr.) 
Vitrina cassida, Hutt., Pfr. Mon. ii. 497. n. 12 ; Siippl. 2 ; Icon. 

t. 2. f. 3-5. 
Hab. Simla, Western Himalaya. 

12. Vitrina pr^stans. B.M. ? 
Shell depressed-semiglobose, thin, striatulate, slightly decus- 
sated by rather distant spiral lines, scarcely shining, ])ak' horny ; 
spire not prominent ; suture very hghtly imjiresscd ; whorls three, 
rapidly increasing, tlie last convex above, outline subdepressed, 
base rather wide ; a])erture very oblique, subtriangular-semioval ; 
peristome simple, shghtly inflected, margins ajiproximate, cohi- 
mellai- receding, very arched. Lat. raaj. 20, min. Ki, alt. 10 mill. 



188 



PULMONATA. 



Vitrina prajstans, Gould in Bost. Journ. iv. 456. t. 24. f. 2. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 49/. n. 13. 
Hab. Tavoy, Birmah. 

13. Vitrina monticola. B.M. 

Shell depressed, thin, striatulate, shining, pellucid, luteseent- 
horny ; spire plane, scarcely prominent in the middle ; suture 
lightly impressed ; whorls fom-, rapidly increasing, nearly level, 
the last dejn'essed, not descending ; aperture obhque, rounded- 
lunar ; peristome simple, margins connivent, united by a very 
thin callus, arched-dilated above in front, the columellar forming 
an obtuse angle with the basal. Lat. 18 by 14, alt. 7i mill. 

Vitrina monticola, Benson, 3ISS. 

Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848; Mon. Helic. ii. 497 ; Icon, 
t. 2. f. 6-8. 
Hab, Bengal; Landour; Himalaya; Almorah. 

14. Vitrina Bensoni. 

Shell slightly depressed, thin, striatulate, bright, pellucid, pale 
horny ; spire scarcely elevated, obtuse ; suture impressed, slightly 
margined ; whorls three and a half, shghtly convex, the last 
rather depressed, rounded at the periphery, wide at the base ; 
apertm'e oblique, lunate-subcircular ; peristome simple, slightly 
inflected, margins connivent, rather dilated in front above, colu- 
mellar receding, much arched. Lat. maj. 12, min. 9^, alt. 6 mill. 

Vitrina Bensoni, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848 ; Mon. Helic. ii. 

497. n. 14. 
Hab. E. Indies. 

15. Vitrina birmanica. 

Shell depressed, transversely ovate, very thin and smooth, 
bright, luteous-green ; spire scarcely elevated ; whorls four, 
rapidly increasing, scarcely convex, disunited at the impressed 
suture, the last subplanulate at the base ; apertm-e very oblique, 
widely lunate-oval ; peristome acute, dextral margin arched in 
front. Lat. maj. 9}, min. 71? alt. 4f mill. 

Vitrina birmanica, Phil, in Zeitschr.f. Mai. 184", p. 65. 

Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 498. 
Hub. Near Mergui, Birman Empii'e. 

16. Vitrina Gruneri. B.M. 
Shell glol)ose-depressed, very smooth, dull, olive-horny ; spire 

scarcely raised ; suture white-margined ; whorls three and a half, 



PULMONATA. 189 

slightly convex, the last rather depressed ; aperture veiy oblique, 
lunate-oval ; peristome simple, margins connivent, columellar 
arched, subinflected. Lat. maj. 8, min. 6, alt. 5 mill. 

Vitrina Griineri, Ffr. Syinb. iii. 81 ; Mon. Helic. ii. 498. 
Hab. Arabia. 

17. Vitrina baccata. 

Shell small, thin, fragile, diaphanous and pale ; whorls appa- 
rently only one, or at all events the body whorl may be said to 
constitute the whole shell ; aperture nearly circular, lips scarcely 
interrupted, shghtly thickened and partially reflected ; surface 
of the shell polished, finely striated by minute lines of growth, 
and ornamented with longitucUnal bead-like lines or strings of 
minute bubbles, which can be seen only under a strong lens ; 
upper side depressed, flattened ; under side rounded, veutricose. 
Length H Une. (Hutton.) 

Vitrina baccata, Hutton in Journ. As. Soc. July 1849, p. 650. 

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 2. 
Hab. Melmandeh, between Kopik Pass and Candahar, Afghani- 
stan. 

c. Asiatic — Insular. 

18. Vitrina Cumingi. 

Shell depressed-globose, very thin, finely striated, bright, 
whitish homy ; spire very short, obtuse ; suture smooth, bordered 
by an impressed line ; whorls four, scarcely convex, the last in- 
flated, subdepressed, zoned in the middle by a rufous line ; aper- 
ture rather ol)lique, lunate-rounded ; peristome simple, margins 
remote, columellar subvertical, slightly arched, rather reflected 
above, resembling a punctiform perforation, scarcely arched above 
in front. Lat. maj. 20, min. 17, alt. 12 mill. 

Vitrina Cumingi, Beck, MSS. 

Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848; Mon. Helic. ii. 498. n. 1/; 
Icon. t. 2. f. 1, 2. 
Hab. Bohol, Philippines. 

19. Vitrina bicolor. 

Shell subglobose, thin, rather smooth, very bright, whitish- 
pink ; spire short, convex, obtuse ; suture impressed ; whorls 
three and a half, rapidly increasing, the last inflated, hyaline in 
front, rather naiTOW at the base, membranous-margined ; aper- 
ture scarcely oblique, lunate-rounded ; peristome very thin, dex- 



190 PULMONATA. 

tral margin regularly rounded, eolumellar receding, much arched. 
Lat. maj. 18, min. 14, alt. 10 mill. 
Vitrina bicolor, Beck, MSS. 

Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848; Mo7i. Helic. ii. 499. 
Hab. Guimaras, Philippines. 

20. Vitrina guimarasensis. 

Shell depressed-semiglobose, thin, striatulate, subdiaphanous, 
greenish-pink ; spire rather small, slightly elevated ; suture mai-- 
gined ; whorls scarcely four, nearly level, verj' rapidly increasing, 
the last inflated, subdepressed ; aperture oblique, lunate-subcu'- 
cular, as high as wide, slightly pearly within ; peristome verj' 
thin, dextral margin regularly arched, eolumellar receding, much 
arched. Lat. maj. 15, min. 11^, alt. 8 mill. 

Vitrina guimarasensis, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848 ; Mon. Helic. 

ii. 499. 
Hab. Guimaras, Philippines. 

21. Vitrina Beckiana. 

Shell depressed-globose, circuit oval, very thin, striatulate, 
pellucid, bright, veiy pale rubelline-homy ; spire moderate, short, 
obtuse ; whorls nearly four, very shghtly convex, rapidly in- 
creasing, the last subdepressed, wide at the base; aperture 
rather oblique, lunate-rounded, wider than high ; peristome sim- 
ple, margins remote, regularly arched above, eolumellar shghtly 
reflected above, receding at the base, much arched. Lat. maj. 
16, min. 13, alt. 8 mill. 

Viti-ina Beckiana, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848 ; Mon. Helic. 

ii. 499 ; Icon. t. 2. f. 37-39. 
Vitrina peratRnis, Beck in Sched. 
Hab. Phihppines. 

22. Vitrina politissima. 

Shell globose-depressed, rather solid, smooth, highly polished, 
diaphanous, horny, radiated more darkly ; spne moderate, con- 
vex ; suture impressed, submarginate ; whorls four, slightly 
convex, rapidly increasing, the last rounded-depressed, wide at 
the base ; apertiu-e oblique, lunate, rounded, as high as wide ; 
peristome simple, upper margin arched in front, colvunellar shghtly 
arched. Lat. maj. 14, min. 11, alt. 7^ mill. 
Vitrina politissima. Beck, MSS. 

Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848 ; Mon. Helic. ii. 499. n. 21 ; 
Icon. t. 3. f. 12-14. 
Hab. Zebu, Philippines. 



PULMONATA. 191 

23. ViTRiNA Leytensis. 

Shell depressed, circuit oval, very thin, smooth, very bright, 
lutescent-pink ; spii-e nearly level, scarcely elevated ; suture 
lightly impressed ; whorls three, rapidly increasing, the last 
nearly level above, more convex and rather wide at the base ; 
aperture slightly obhque, rounded, lunar, wider than high ; pe- 
ristome very thin, upper margin scarcely arched, columellar 
slightly reflected above, forming an obtuse angle with the lower 
at the base. Lat. maj. 13, min. 10^, alt. 7 mill. 

Vitrina Leytensis, Beck, MSS. 

Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848 ; Mon. Helic. ii, 500. n. 22 ; 
Icon. t. 3. f. 15-17. 
Hub. Pbihppines. 

24. Vitrina Margarita. 

Shell depressed-globose, very thin, striatulate, bright, pel- 
lucid, pinky-hyaline ; spire rather small, nearly level ; suture 
hnear ; whorls three and a half, nearly level, rapidly increasing, 
the last large, inflated ; aperture oblique, lunate-subcircular ; 

Eeristome veiy thin, upper margin ddated in front, columellar 
ghtly arched. Lat. maj. 14, min. 11, alt. 8 mill, 

Vitrina margarita. Beck, MSS. 

Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848; Mon. Helic. ii. 500; Icon, 
t. 2. f. 34-36. 
Hab. Pbihppines. 

25. Vitrina gutta. 

Shell depressed-globose, very thin, quite smooth, bright, 
hyaUne ; spire very slightly elevated ; suture linear, narrowly 
margined; whorls three and a half, nearly level, rapidly in- 
creasing, the last large, depressed-rounded, rather wider at the 
base; aperture slightly oblique, lunate-circular; ])eristome simple, 
regularly arched all round, columellar margin passing inwards, 
slightly reflected above. Lat. maj. 11, min. 8^, alt. 6 mill. 

Vitrina gutta, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848 ; Mon. Helic. ii. 500 ; 

Icon. t. 2. f. 25-27. 
Hab. Luzon, Philippines. 

26. Vitrina rufescens. 

Shell depressed-globose, verj' thin, plicatulate, bright, pellucid, 
rufescent ; spire shortly conoidal, rather obtuse ; suture im- 
pressed ; Avhorls nearly four, slightly convex, rapidly increasing, 
the last ventricose ; aperture scarcely oblique, lunate-subcircular ; 



192 



PULMONATA. 



peristome thin, subinflected, margins remote, the upper regularly, 
the columellar slightly arched. Lat. maj. 13, min. 10, alt. 8 mill. 

Vitrina rufescens, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848 ; Mon. Helic. ii. 

501; Icon.t.6.{. 11-13. 
Hub. Mindoro. 

27. Vitrina smaragdula. 

Shell slightly depressed, thin, scarcely striatulate, dvdl, dia- 
phanous, golden-gi'een ; spii-e rather small, nearly level ; sutvu-e 
slightly impressed, very narrowly margined ; whorls three and a 
half, nearly level, rapidly increasing, the last suljplanulate on each 
side, wide at the base ; apertme scarcely oblique, roimded-lunar, 
wider than high ; peristome thin, subinflected, upper margin di- 
lated in front, columellar scarcely receding, shghtly arched. Lat. 
maj. 12, min. 9^, alt. 7 mill. 

Vitrina smaragdidus. Beck, MSS. 

Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848 ; Mon. Helic. ii. 501. 
Hab. Negros, Philippines. 

28. Vitrina crenularis. 

Shell depressed, very thin, glabrous, bright, pellucid, golden ; 
spu-e plane ; suture slightly impressed ; whorls three and a half, 
nearly level, plicate-crenulated at the suture, rapidly increasing, 
the last depressed, wide at the base ; aperture obUque, rounded- 
lunar, wider than high ; peristome thin, slightly inflected, upper 
margin dilated in front, columellar slightly arched, basal rather 
straight. Lat. maj. 13, min. 10, alt. 7 mill. 

Vitrina crenularis. Beck, MSS. 

Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848; Mon. Helic. ii. 501 ; Icon. 
t. 3. f. 9-11. 
Hab. Philippines. 

29. Vitrina resiliens. 

Shell depressed, very thin, very finely and closely plicatulate, 
bright, pellucid, greenish straw-coloured ; s])ire nearly level ; 
suture slightly impressed ; whorls three and a half, nearly level, 
the last wide, depressed, almost entirely memJjranous at the 
base ; aperture oblique, lunate-oval ; peristome quite simple, 
columellar margin extending firmly, shghtly arched. Lat. maj. 
11, min. 8 J, alt. 6^ mill. 

Vitrina resiliens. Beck, MSS. 

Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848 ; Mon. Helic. ii. 501. 

Hab. Zebu, PhiUppines. 



CATALOGUES 

OF 

THE ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTION 

IN 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



I. VERTEBRATA. 

List of Mammalia. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S. &c. 1843. 2s.Gd. 

Catalogue of the Mammalia. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S. &c. 
Part 1. Cetacea. 12mo, 1850. 4s., with Plates. 
Part 2. Seals. 12mo, 1850. Is. 6d., with Woodcuts. 
Part 3. Hoofed Quadrupeds. Section I. (Ungulata furci- 
peda) 1852, with Plates of Genera, 12s. 

This work contains the description of the genera and species, 
and figures of the chief characters of the genera. 

List of Mammalia and Birds of Nepaul, presented by B. II. 
Hodgson, Esq., to the British Museum. By Dr. J. E. Gray 
and G. R. Gray. 1846. 2s. 

List of Birds. By G. R. Gray, F.L.S. &c. 

Part 1. Raptorial. Edition 1, 1844; edition 2, 1848. 3s. 
Part 2. Passeres. Section I. Fissirostres. 1848. 2s. 
Part 3. Gallinye, GrallEc and Anseres. 1844. 2s, (Out of 
Print.) 

The other sections of the Passerine birds are in progress. 

List of British Birds. By G. R. Gray, F L.S. &o. 1850. 4s. 

List of the Eggs of British Birds. By G. R. Gray, F.L.S, &c. 
1852. 2s, 6d. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. By Dr, J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. &c. 

Parti. Tortoises, Crocodiles and Am})hisbaemans. 1844. Is. 

Part 2. Lizards. 1845. 3s. 6d. 

Part 3. Snakes (Crotalidaj, Viperidae, Hydridajand Boidae). 
184!J, 2s. 6d. 

Part 4, completing the Snakes (Colubridre), is in prepara- 
tion. 

Catalogue of Amphibia. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S, 

Part 2. Batrachia Gradiontia. 12mo, 1850. 2s. Gd. with 
Plates of the Skull and Teeth. 



Catalogue of Fish. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. 

Part 1. Cartilaginous Fish. 12mo, 1851. 3*. With two 
Plates. 

Catalogue of Fish, collected and described by L. T. Gronow. 
12mo. 1854. 3s. 6d. 

These Catalogues of Reptiles, Amphibia, and Fish, contain 
the characters of all the genera and species at present known ; 
the latter are illustrated with figures of the genera. 

List of British Fish ; with SjTionyma. By A.White, F.L.S. &c. 
1851. 35. 

List of Osteological Specimens. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S. &c. 
and G. R. Gray, F.L.S. 1847. 2s. 

II. ANNULOSA. 

Catalogue of Lepidoptera, By G. R. Gray, F.L.S. 

Part 1 . Papilionidse, with coloured figures of the new spe- 
cies. ^1 : 5s. 4to, 1852. 

List of Lepidopterous Insects. By E. Doubleday, F.L.S. 

Part 1. Papihonida;, &c. 1844. 2s. 6d. (Out of Print.) 

Part 2. Erycinidce, &c. 1847. 9c?. 

Part 3. Appendix to Papilionidae, Erycinidae, &c. 1848. 9d. 

List of Hymenopterous Insects. By F. Walker, F.L.S. 

Part 1. Chalcidida;. 1846. Is. 6d. 

Part 2. Additions to Chalcididse. 1848. 2s. 

Part 1. Lepidoptera Heterocera. 1854. 4s. 

Part 2. Lepidoptera Heterocera. 1854. 4s. 

Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects. By Frederick Smith, 

m.e:s. 

Part 1. Andrenidae, &c. 1853. 6s., with Plates. 
Part 2. Apid«. 1854. 6s. 

Catalogue of Dipterous Insects. By F. Walker, F.L.S. 

Parti. 1848. 3s. 6c?. Part 4. 1849. 6s. 

Part 2. 1849. 3s. 6d. Part 5. Supplement I. 1854. 4s. 6d. 

Part 3. 1849. 3s. Part 6. Supplement II. 1854. 3s. 

Catalogue of Homopterous Insects. By F. Walker, F.L.S. 

Pai-tl. 1850. 3s. 6d. Part 4. 1852. 4s., with 

Part 2. 1850. 6s. Plates. 

Part 3. 1851. 3s. 6d. 

Catalogue of Neuropterous Insects. By F. AValker, F.L.S. 

Part 1. 1852. 2s. 6d. Part 3. 1853. Is. 6rf. 

Part 2. 1853. Ss.Gd. Part 4. 1853. Is. 

The Catalogues of Hymenopterous, Dipterous, and Homopte- 
rous Insects contain the description of the species in the Museum 
which apjieared to be undescribed. 



'3 

Catalogue of Hemipterous Insects. ByW. S. Dallas, F.L.S.&c. 

With Plates, Part 1. 1851. 75. Part 2. 1852. 4s. 

The Catalogue of Hemiptera contains the description of the 
new species in the Museum Collection, and figures of the more 
interesting genera. 

Nomenclature of Coleopterous Insects (with characters of new 
species). 

Part 1. Cetoniadffi. 1847- Is. By A. White, F.L.S. &c. 
Part 2. Hvch-ocanthari. 1847. Is. 3d. Bv A. White, 

F.L.S. 
Part 3. BuprestidsE. 1848. Is. By A. White, F.L.S. 
Part 4. Cleridce. 1849. Is. Sd. By A. White, F.L.S. 
Part 5. CucujidjE. 1851. 6d. By F. Smith, M.E.S. 
Part 6. Passalida;. 1852. 8d. By F. Smith, M.E.S. 
Part 7- Longicomia, with Plates, 1853. 2s. 6d. By A. 

White, F.L.S. 

List of Crustacea ; with Synonyma. By A. White. 1847- 2s. 

List of Myriapoda. By G. Newport, F.R.S. &c. 1844. 4rf. 

List of British Lepidoptera; with Synonyma. By J. F. Ste- 
phens, F.L.S. Part 1. 1850. 5s. ■part"2. 1852. 2s. Part 3. 
1853. 9d. 

List of British Aculeate HjTnenoptera ; with Synonyma, and the 
description of some new species. By F. Smith. 1851. 2s. 

List of British Anoplura, or Parasitic Insects ; %vith Synonyma. 
By H. Denny. Is. 

List of British Crustacea ; with Sjnionvma. By A.White, F.L.S. 
1850. 2s. 6d. 

Catalogue of Entozoa; with Plates. By W. Baird, M.D., 
F.L.S. 1853. 2s. 

III. MOLLUSC A. 

Catalogue of the Mollusca in the Collection of the British 
Museum. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S. &c. 

Parti. Cephalopoda Antepedia. 1849. 4s. 

Part 2. Pteropoda. 1850. Is. 

Part 3. Placuniadae and Anomiadje. 1850. 4d. 

Part 4. BrachiopodaAncylopoda; figuresof genera. 1853. 3s. 

Containing the characters of the recent and fossil genera, and 
the descriptions of all the recent species at present known. 

Catalogue of Phaneropneumona or Operculated Terrestrial Mol- 
lusca. By Dr. Louis Pfeiffer. 1852. 5s. 
Catalogus Concharum Bivalvium. By M. G. P. Deshayes. 
Part 1. Veneridae, &c. 1853. 3s. 

List of British ^lollusca and Shells; with Synonyma. By 
Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S. ' ^ 

Parti. Acephala and Brachiopoda. 1851. 3s. Gd. 



List of the Shells of the Canaries, described by M. D'Orbigny. 
1854. Is. 

List of the Shells of Cuba, described by M. D'Orbigny. 1854. Is. 

List of the Shells of South America, described by M. D'Orbigny. 
1854. 2s. 

List of the MoUusca and Shells collected and described by 
MM. Eydoux and Souleyet. 1855. Sd. 

Nomenclature of Mollusca. By Dr. W. Baird, F.L.S. &c. 

Part 1. Cyclophoridse. 1851. Is. 6d. 

IV. RADIATA. 

Catalogue of Marine Polyzoa. By G. Busk, F.R.S. &c., with 
characters and figures of all the species. 

Part 1. Chilostoma. 1852. 17s. With Plates. 
Part 2. Chilostoma. 1854. 15s. With Plates. 

List of British Radiata; with Synonyma. By Dr. J. E. Gray, 

F.R.S. 1848. 4s. 
List of British Sponges ; with Synonyma. By Dr. J. E. Gray, 

F.R.S. 1848. \0d. 

V, BRITISH ZOOLOGY. 

List of the British Animals; with Synonyma and references to 
figures. 

Part 1. Radiata. By Dr. J. E. Gray. 1848. 4s. 

Part 2. Sponges. By Dr. J. E. Gray. 1848. 10c?. 

Part 3. Birds. By G. R. Gray. 1850. 4s. 

Part 4. Crustacea. By A. White. 1850. 2s. 6c?. 

Part 5. Lepidoptera. By J. F. Stephens. 1850. 5s. 

Part G. Hymenoptera. By F. Smith. 1851. 2s. 

Part 7. Mollusca Acephala and Brachiopoda. By Dr. J. E. 

Gray. 1851. 3s. 6d. 
Part 8. Fish. By A. White. 1851. 3s. 
Part 9. Eggs of British Birds. By G. R. Gray. 1852. 

2s. Cid. 
Part 10. Lepidoptera (continued). By J. F. Stephens. 

1852. 2s. 
Part 11. AnopluraorParasiticInsects. By H. Denny. Is. 
Part 12. Lepidoptera (continued). By J. F. Stephens. 

1852. 9d. 

Part 13. Nomenclature of Hymenoptera. By F. Smith. 

1853. Is. 4d. 

Part 14. Nomenclature of Neuroptera. By A. White. 

1853. 6d. 
Part 15. Nomenclature of Diptera. (I.) 1853. Is. 
Part 16. Lepidoptera (completed). 1854. 3s. 

N.B.— These Catalogues can be obtained at the Secretary's Office 
in the British Museum ; or through any Bookseller. 



QL Llritish Museim (Ilntural History" 

430 Dept. of ''oology 
^5 Catalogue of Pulraonata 

L55 
B7 

BMED 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY