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Full text of "Catalogue of shield reptiles in the collection of the British Museum .."



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CATALOGUE 



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OF 



SHIELD REPTILES 



IX 



THE COLLECTION 



OF 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



PART I. 

TESTUDINATA (TOETOISES). 



BY 



JOHK EDWARD GRAY, F.R.S. &c. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 
1855. 



L-&T3^ 



lKi/&^^S/ 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The chief object in preparing the present Catalogue has lieen to give at one xiev,- a 
complete account of all the species of the Shielded Reptiles {Cataphracta) no^x' in the 
British Museum, and of those species known to exist in other Cabinets, but which are at 
present desiderata in the Museum, to enable travellers, collectors and others to assist in 
completing the national collection. 

An indication of the separate locality of each specimen is given ; its sex and state are 
also noticed. 

The figures of the new species contained in the Museum Collection have loeen drawn on 
stone by Mr. Ford, so well known for the beauty and accuracy of his pencil. 



JOHN EDWARD GRAY. 

British Miisevm, December 1, ISoii. 



4i 









CATALOGUE 



OF 



SHIELD REPTILES, 



Sect. II. SHIELDED REPTILES (CATA- 
PHRACTA). 

Body covered with square imbedded plates, generally 
forming a dorsal and ventral shield. The bones of the 
skull thick, united together into a hard mass, and including 
the quadrate bones and pterygoid processes. The tongue 
is short, affixed to the mouth, scarcely exsertible. The 
lungs are enveloped by a thick peritoneum, which performs 
the part and has the appearance of a diaphragm. The 
vent is round or linear, plaited. The male organ and va- 
gina are simple, the former having only a groove along its 
upper edge. Oviparous : the egg covered with a hard 
shell : the young, when hatched, having a large umbilical 
slit, which soon disappears. 

Reptilia Cataphracta (Shielded Reptiles), Grai/, Syn. 

Rept. 2 (1831) ; Arm. Nat. Hist. i. 275 (1838) ; Cat. 

Tort. B.M. (1844). 
Reptilia Loricata et SqCamata (part.). Gray, Ann. 

Phil. (182.5). 



Order III. CHELONIA (TORTOISES). 

The body enclosed in a case, formed of two shields 
united by their margins, and leaving only the head, ueck, 
limbs and tail free, which are covered with a scaly skin : 
the upper shield or thorax formed of the ribs more or less 
dilated on the sides, united together and adherent to the 
dorsal vertebrae by a toothed suture, preventing any mo- 



tion ; they are surrounded by a series of bones forming the 
edge of the shields : the lower shield or sternum is formed 
of four pair and a central anterior bone. The jaws are 
toothless, covered with a horny bill, rarely hid by fleshy 
lips : the upper bill covers the lower Uke a box. Eyes 
with distinct eyelids. The drum of the ear visible, nearly 
superficial. The legs short, thick. Tail conical. The 
vent is a circular hole. 

Chelonia (Chelonians), Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. i. 275 

(1835) ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 
Tortues on Cheloniens, Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Ghi. ii. 1 

(1835). 
Testudinata, Oppel, Reptilien, 1811. 

Bell, Zool. Jonrn. n. 513. 

Bona}). Saggio Anim. Vert. 5. 12 (1832). 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). ■ 
Chelonii, Latr. Rept. 

Gray, Ann. Philos. (1825) ; Syn. Rept. 3 (1831). 

Bonap. Saggio Anim. Vert. 5. 12 (1832). 

Eichwald, Zool. Sj)ec. iii. 194. 
Chelonea, Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. 268 (1822). 
Sterrichrotes (Chelonii), Ritzen, Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. 

Cur. xiv. 269 (1828). 
Les Cheloniens (Chelonii), Brongn. Bull. Soc. Philom. 
XXXV. (1808). 

Cuv. R. A. ii. 6 ; ed. 2. ii. 5 ; Oss. Foss. v. 

Latr. Rept. 

Blainv. Bull. Soc. Philom. (1816). 

Geof^. Ann. Mus. xiv. 5. 

Wiegmann ^ Ruthe, Handb. Zool. 163. 
Testudinata, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 2!) (1843). 
Testudines (Hedraeoglossae), Wagler, Syst. 133 (1830). 
FoRNiCATi, Haworth, Phil. Mag. (1823). 
Chelonia, Gray, Cat. Rept. B.M. 3. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



Oppel, in his Ordnungen, Familien u. Gattungen derRep- 
tilien (1811), divides the Tortoises (Teshidinati) thus: — 
I. Chelonii. 1. Chelonia. II. Amyd^. a. 2. Tri- 
onyx. b. 3. Chelys. 4. Testudo. 5. Emys. 

M. Cuvier, Regne Animal, u. 9 (1817), divides the Che- 
LONiENS or Testudo, Limi., thus : — 

1. Tortues de terre {Testudo). 2. * Les Tortues d'eau 
douce {Emys). ** Les Tortues a boite. 3. Tortues de 
mer {Chelonia). 4. Les Chelides ou Tortues a gueule 
{Chelys). 5. Les Tortues moUes ( r^voiiyf) . 

The same arrangement is foUovped in the Second Edition, 
ii. 8, and he has added the generic names wliich have been 
given by Fleming, Bell and others to his sections of Bron- 
gniart's genera. 

Merrem, Tent. Syst. Amphib. (1820), divides the Tes- 

TUDINATA thus : 

* Pedibus pinniformibus. 1 . Caretta. 2. Sphargis. 
** Pedibus digitalibus. 3. Triomjx. 4. Testudo. * Ma- 
tamata. ** Emys. *** Terrapene. **** Chersina. 

Dr. John Fleming, in the Philosophy of Zoology (1822), 
where he named many of the sections indicated by Cuvier 
in his Animal Kingdom, arranges the Chelonea thus :— 

* Cavity with a lid. A. Lips corneous. 1. Cistuda. 
** Cavity without a lid. 2. Testudo. 3. Emys. 4. 
Chelonura. 5. Chelonia. 6. Coriudo. B. Lips fleshy. 
7. Chelys. 8. Trionix. 

M. Latreille, in the Fam. Nat. du Regne Animal, 91 
(1825), divides the Order Chelonii thus : — 

Fam. I. Cryptopodes. l.Tortue. 2. Emyde. i. Ter- 
rapene (Tortue a boite). II. Gymnopodes. * Carapace 
ecailleuse et solide. 4. Saurochelyde (Tortue a longue 
queue). 5. Chelonee. 6. Chelys. ** Carapace molle. 
7. Trionyx. 

Dr. Gray, in the Annals of Philosophy for 1825, pro- 
posed the following arrangement : — 

I. Feet and head retractile into the carapace. Carapace 

solid, covered with horny scales. Cryptopodi. 
Fam. I. TESTUDiNiDiE. 1. Testudo. II. Emydid^. 
* Beak horny; sternum entire. Emydina. 1. Emys. 
** Beak horny ; sternum transversely sutured. Terra- 
phenina. 2. Terraphene. 3. Sternotherus. 4. Kinoster- 
non. *** Beak fleshy. Chelidina. 5. Chelys. 

II. Feet and head not or only partly retractile into the 

carapace. Carapace mostly soft. Gymnopodi. 
Fam. III. Trionicid.e. 1. Trionyx. IV. Sphar- 
GID.E. 1. Sphargis. V. Cheloniad^. 1. Chelonia. 



Mr. T. Bell, in his paper on the Characters of the Order, 
Families and Genera of the Testudinata {Zool. Journ. 
iii. 513, 1828), divides the Order thus :— 

A. Digitata. Fam. I. Testudinid^. 1. Testudo 
(greeca). 2. Pyxis (arachnoides) . 3. Kinixys (Homeana). 
II. Emydid.s;. a.. Sterno mobili. 1. Terrapene {c\a.usa). 
2. Sternotheerus (Leachianus). 3. Einosternon (longieau- 
datum). b. Sterno solido. 4. Hydraspis (galeata). 5. 
Emys (picta). 6. Chelonura (serpentina). 7. Chelys 

' (fimbriata) . III. Trionychid.e. \. Trionyx {Coxoms.'a- 
delicus). 

B. Pinnata. IV. Sphargid*. 1. Sphargis (mercu- 
rialis). V. Cheloniad^. 1. Chelonia {Mjdas). 

Dr. F. A. Ritzen, in his Natur. Eith. Amph., Xoca Act. 
Acad. Nat. Cur. xiv. (1828), proposes the following ar- 
rangement : — 

I. Sterrichrotes, Chelonii. A. Eretmochelones. 
Halichelones. a. Mydce. 1. Sphargis. b. Carettce. 

2. Chelone. II. Phyllopodochelones. B. Chersy- 
drocheloues. * Amydcs. 1 . Chelonia. 2. Trionyx. 3. 
Matamafa. 4. Emys. C. Podochelones. a. Cherso- 
chelones. Dysmydte. 1. Clemmys. 2. Terrapene. 3. 
Chersine. 

Dr. John Wagler, in the Naturliches System der Amphi- 
bien (1830), divides the Order Testudines (p. 133) 
thus : — 

I. Testudines oiacopodes. 1. Chelonia. 2. Der- 
matochelys. 3. Asjjidonectes. 4. Trionyx. 5. Chelys. 
G. Rhinemys. 7. Hydromedusa. 8. Podocnemis. 9. Plat- 
emys. 10. Phrynops. 11. Pelomedusa. 12. Cher- 
sina. 13. Clemys. 14. Staurotypus. 15. Pelusias. 
16. Cinosternon. 17. Emys. II. Testudines tylo- 
podes. 18. Cinixys. 19. Pyxis. 20. Cherseus. 21. 
Testudo. 

Dr. Gray, in the Synopsis Reptilium, Part i. (1831), 
divides the Chelonii thus : — 

Fam. I. Testudinid.5;. 1. Testudo. 2. Chersina. 

3. Kinixys. 4. Pyxis. II. Emyd.e. 5. Cistuda. 6. 
Emys. 7. Kinosternon. 8. Chelydra. III. Chelyd^. 
9. Sternotherus. 10. Chelodina. 11. Hydraspis. 12. 
Chelys. IV. Trionycid.«. 13. Trionyx. 14. Emyda. 
V. Cheloniad.j;. 15. Sphargis. 16. Chelonia. 

Wiegmann and Ruthe, Handbuch der Zoologie (1832), 
cUvide the Order Chelonii thus into families : — 

Fam. I. Chelon/E. 1 . Sphargis. 2. Chelonia. II. 
Chersinje. 1. Testudo. III. Emyd^. 1. Emys. 2. 
Chelydra. 3. Cinosternon. IV. Chelyd.«. 1. Chelys. 
V. Chilot^. 1. Trionyx. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



M. Charles Bonaparte, in his Si/sfema Generale d'Erpe- 
tologia, 80 (1832), divides the Testudinata thus : — 

Order I. Chelonii. Fam. I. Testudinid^. 1. Tes- 
tudinina. 2. Chelina. II. Trionicid^e. III. Chelo- 
NilD^. 1. Sphiirgidina. 2. Chelonina. 

Messrs. Dume'ril and Bibron {Brp. G6n. ii. 1835) divide 
the Tortoises or Cheloniens thus: — 

I. Les Chersites ou Toktues terrestres. 1. 
Tortue. a. Cherseus. b. Tortues. c. Chersine. 2. Ho- 
tnopode. 3. Pyxide. 4. Cinixys. II. Les Elodites 
ou Tortues paludines. A. Cryptoderes. 5. Cistude. 

a. Clausiles. b. Baillantes. C. Emi/de. a. Europeennes. 

b. Americaines. e. Africaines. d. Indiennes. 7. Tetro- 
nyx. 8. Plutystertie. 9. Eviysaure. 10. Staurotype. 
\\. Cinosterne. B. Pleuroderes. \2. Peltocephale. 13. 
Podocnemide. 14. Pentonyx. 15. Steniothere. 16. Plat- 
emyde. 17. Cheludine. 18. Chehjde. III. Les Po- 
TAMiTES ou Tortues fluviales. 19. Gymnopode. 
20. Cryptopode. IV. Les Thalassites ou Tortues 
MARINES. 21. Chelonee. a. C. franches. b. C. im- 
briquees. c. C. caouanes. 22. Sphargis. 

M.Charles L. Bonaparte, in his Tavola Analitica dei Che- 
lonii (1836), divides the Chelonii into three famiUes :^ 

I. Testudinidi. a. Testudinini. b. Euiidini. c. Hy- 
draspedini. d. Chelini. II. Trionicidi. a. Trioni- 
chini. III. Chelonidi. a. Chelonini. b. Spargidini. 

The following is the Specchio dei Geiieri e Sotfogeneri : 
I. Testudinidi. 1. Testudinina. 1. Cherseus. 2. 
Testudo {Testudo, Psammobates, Geochelone, Chelonoidis). 
3. Chei-sina {Cylindraspis, Chersind). 4. Homopiis. 5. 
Pyxis. 6. Kinixys (Ciiiofhorax, Cinixys). 2. Emydina. 
7. Cistudo. 8. Emys {Emys, Cyclemis). 9. Terrapene 
{Clemys, Rhinoclemys) . 10. Geomys. 11. Tetraonyx. 
12. Platysternon. 13. Chelydra. 14. Staurotyptts. 15. 
Kiiiosternmii {Sternotherus, Cinosternon). 3. Hydraspi- 
dina. 16. Pelfocephalus. 17. Podocnemys. 18. Etny- 
dura {Macquaria) . \9. Pelomedusa. 20. Pelusios. 21. 
Hydraspis {Platemys, Rhinemys, Phrynops). 22. Chelo- 
dina (Chelodina,Hydromedusd). 4. Chehna. 23. Chelys. 

II. Trionycid^. 5. Trionicina. 24. Ainyda {Aspido- 
nectes, Platypeltis, Pelodiscus, Amy da). 25. Trionyx. 

III. Chelonid^s. G. Chelonina. 26. Chelonia {Che- 
Ionia, Caretta). '27. Thalassochelys. 7. Sphargidina. 
28. Sphargis. 

Dr. J. E. Gray (Ami. Nat. Hist. 1838, i. 275) proposed a 
new arrangement of Reptiles with short characters, thus : — 

I. Squamata. 1. Saura. 2. Ophidia. II. Cata- 
phracta. 3. Amphisbenee. 4. Chelonia. 5. Emydo- 
saura ; — 

and he points out the analogies between this order and 
those of Mammalia and Birds. 



Swainson, in Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopcedia (1839), 
p. 343, arranges these animals thus : — 

Order I. Emydosaures (Crocodiles). Ord. II. Che- 
LONiDES (Tortoises) . Fain. I. Chelidrid^e (Crocodile 
Tortoises). 1. Chelydra. 2. Platysternon. 3. Chelys. 
II. TestudinidjE (Land Tortoises). 4. Testudo. 5. 
Chersina. 6. Honopus. 7. Pyxis. 8. Kinixys. III. 
Emyd.e (Rirer Tortoises). 9. Cistuda. 10. Emys. 
11. Kinosfernon. * Sternotherus. 12. Chelodina. 13. 
Hydraspis. IV. Trionycid.*. 14. Trionyx. lo. Emyda. 
V. Chelonid.e. 16. Chelonia. 17. Sphargis. 

Dr. Fitzinger (Systema Reptilium, p. 29, 1843) divides 
the Testudinata thus : — 

Order I. Tylopoda. Fam. I. Testudines. 1. Ci- 
nixys. 2. Chersina. 3. Testudo. Order II. Stegano- 
PODA. § 1. Rostrata. Fam. I. Emyd^. 1. Emys. 
2. Clemmys. 3. Chelydra. 4. Staurotypus. 5. Cino- 
sternon. Fam. II. Hydraspides. 1. Hydraspis. § 2. 
Mandibulata. Fam. I. Chelyd^. 1. Chelys. §3. La- 
biata. Fam. I. Trionyches. 1. Trionyx. 2. Aspido- 
nectes. Order III. Oiacopoda. Fam. I. Chelonia. 
1. Chelonia. 2. Thalassochelys. Fam. II. Dermato- 
chelyd^. 1. Derma tochelys. 

F. I. C Mayer (System des Thierreichs, 189, 1849 ; 
Wiegmann's Arch. 1850, 67) arranges the Tylopoda or 
Chelonians thus : — 

1. Bsenodactyli (Testudo). 2. Eressodaetyli (Emys, 
Trionyx). 3. Pterodactyli (Chelonia). 

The upper shield or carapace is formed by the ribs (eight 
pairs), enlarged and united together and to the annular part 
of the dorsal vertebra by toothed sutures, so as to be im- 
moveable ; the lower shield or plastron is formed of the 
pieces which represent the chest bone (usually nine), and 
a circle of bones analogous to the sternal cartilages of qua- 
drupeds. The vertebrae of the neck and tail alone are 
moveable. The two long envelopes are immediately covered 
with skin or scales, and surround the muscles of the ex- 
tremity. — Ann. Phil. 1825. 

The bones of the sternum are in general united together 
into a single plate, and are often affixed to the margin b}' 
a toothed suture, but in the CistudcB they are united to 
it by a cartilaginous band allowing of a slight motion ; 
and sometimes, as in the Box Tortoise, the sternum is 
divided into two or three parts by one or two cross 
sutures, allowing the front or hinder lobe, or both, to 
move on the middle or fixed part. In the genus Che- 
lydra, and the families Trionyeidte and Cheloniadce, the 
sternal bones form a ring, leaving a cartilaginous space in 
the centre. 

B 2 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



Synopsis of the Families. 

A. Digitate. 

a. Back with horny scales. 

1. TESTtTDrNID^. Feet club-shaped ; claws 5-4 or 4-4, blunt. 

Caudal shields united into one, incurved. Neck retractile. 

2. EMYDlD.a;. Feet palmated ; claws 5—4 or 4-4, acute. Caudal 

shields separate. Neck retractile. Pelvis attached to the 
vertebra; only. Sternal shields 11 or 12. 

3. CHELYDID^. Feet palmated ; claws 5-4 or 5-5, acute. 

Caudal shields separate. Neck contractile. Pelvis attached 
to the vertebrae and sternum. Sternal shields 13. 



b. Back with soft skin. 

4. TRIONYCIDffi. Feet palmated ; claws 3-3, acute, 
covered with a soft skin having a fle.xible margin. 



Bones 



5. CHELONIAD.S. 



B. Pinnate. 
Feet fin-shaped, compressed. 



A. Digitata. Feet digitate. 

Tortue de terre, Banhenton, Eno/. Meth. 689. 

Amydse, Oppel, Rept. 4, 6, 9 (1811). 

Laud and Freshwater Tortoises, Shaw, Zoo!, iii. 9. 

Testudo digitata, Merreiii, Tent. 20. 

Testudines stegauopodes et T. tylopodes, Wagler, Syst. 

138 (1830). 
Podochelones, Ritzen, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. xiv. 270 (1828). 

a. Leptonota. Back covered with hard horny scales. 
Toes digitate, 4- or a-claioed. 

Testudo, Merrem, Tent. 21. 
Amydse /3, Oppel, Rept. (1811). 

* Tylopoda. Feet clavate. 

Testudines terrestres, Plin. 

Testudo (Tortues de terre), Brongn., Cuvier. 

Test. Tylopoda, Wagler. 



Fam. I. TESTUDINIDiE (Land Tortoises). 
Head ovate, shielded ; jaws naked ; uostril apical. Neck 
retractile into the cavity of the shell. Feet short, club- 
shaped, armed with blunt claws. Shell very solid, thick, 
ovate, the ribs united together to the margin, in the adult 
state covered with homy concentrically grooved shields, 
marked with a permanent areola ; marginal plates 24 to 26, 
the caudal pair always united together into one broad gene- 
rally incurved plate. Sternum broad and solid, closed in 
the centre of the adult, and firmly attached to the thorax 
by a bony suture, covered by the end of the pectoral and 
abdominal plates. Tail short and thick. 

Testudinidae, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211 (1825) ; Syn.Rept. 
8 (1831). 



Testudinidse, Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 419, 513 (1828). 

Swainson, Lard. Cyclop. 344 (1839). 
Testudinina, Bonap. Tav. Analit. 5 (1836). 
Testudinoides, Fit:inger, Neue Class. (1826). 
Test. Tvlopoda, Wagler, Syst. Amph. 138 (1830). 

Fiiz. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 
Testudines, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 
Chersine, Merrem, Tent. 29. 
Chersinse, Wiegm. ^- Ruthe, Handb. Zool. 164. 
Testudo (Tortues de terre), Brongn. Cuv. R.A. ii. 9 ; ed. 2. 

ii. 9. 
Chersites ou Tortues terrestres. Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. 

ii. 1 (1835) ; Cat. Mus. Par. 3. 
Testudines terrestres, Plin. 
Testudinidse Testudinina (part.), Bonap. Saggio Anim. 

Fert. 12. 
Chersochelones (Dysmydse), (part.), Ritzen, Nov. Act. Nat. 

Cur. xiv. 270 (1828). 



Synopsis of the Genera. 

1. Testudo. Thorax and sternum solid: sternal plates 12; in- 

guinal plate moderate. Toes 5—4. 

2. Homopus. Thorax and sternum sohd ; sternal plates 12 ; 

inguinal plates moderate. Toes 4-4. 

3. Chersina. Thorax and sternum soUd : sternal plates 11. 

Toes 5-4. 

i. Kinlxys. Thorax, hinder ])art mobile ; sternal plates 12; in- 
guinal plates very large. Toes 5-4. 

5. Pyxis. Thorax solid. Sternum, fi-ont lobe moveable : sternal 
plates 12. 

1. TESTVDO, Linn. 

Thorax convex, subglobose, solid. Sternum soUd, covered 
with twelve sternal shields, the gular pair separate ; pectoral 
shields narrow ; inguinal shields moderate. Head scaly, 
with two frontal sliields above, and one vertical shield be- 
tween the eyes. Claws 5-4, blunt. 

Testudo (graeca), Gray, Ann. P^?7.x. 210(1825); Syn.Rept. 
8 (1831) ; Cat. Rept. B. M. 4. 

Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. 270 (1822). 

Bum. I- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 55 (1835); Cat. Meth. 
Rept. 3. 
Chersini, Merrem, Tent. 
Chelonoides (Boiei), Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Geochelone (stellata), Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Psammobates (georaetrica), Fitz. Syst. Rej). 29. 
T. (Testudo) grieca, Wagler, Syst. 138 (1830). 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Megalochelys (gigantea), Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Chersina (Cyliudraspis) Vosmaeri, Fitz. Syst. Rej)t. 29. 
Cherseus (marginatus), Wagler, Syst. 138 (1830). 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Testudo a.. Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 57. 
Testudo, sp., Linn. 
Testudo, Bum. S,- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 30 ; Cat. Meth. R. 3. 

Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 514. 

Wagler, Syst. 138 (1830). 

They are slow in their motions, eating vegetables and 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



roots ; living in woods or fields in warm and temperate 
parts of the world. lu colder climates they burrow, and 
sleep during the winter. 

In the genus Testudo the sternum is quite solid, but in 
some specimens of T. inauritiana, T. marginata, and Ho- 
rmpns areolatus, the hinder lobe has been observed to be 
moveable. On this account Dr. Wagler has separated the 
former into a genus, under the name of Cherseus. But it 
may be only a peculiarity of the females when they are about 
to deposit their eggs, and will probably, when these animals 
have been more obser\'ed, be found common to the females 
of all the species. 



A. The last vertebral shield almost always as ^vide as the 
caudal and two hinder marginal plates. American. 
Gophers. 

Gophers, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 4. 

1. Testudo Gopher. The Gopher or Mongofa. 
Shell oblong, depressed ; shields pale brown, grooved ; 
nuchal shield broad ; sternum produced in front, deeply 
nicked behind ; pectoral shields short ; head and cheeks 
covered with scales ; tail very short. 

Gopher, Barf ram' s Tracels, i. 55. 

La Tortue gopher, Bosc, N. Diet. H. N. xi. 269, 

?T. tessellata, Merrem, Tent. 31. 

Testudo Gopher, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 4. 

T. Pol3'phemus, HoUbrook, Amer. Rept. i. t. 1 . 

Say, Jonrn. A. N. S. Phil. iv. 204, 207. 

Baud. Rept. i. 256. 

Gray, Syn. 1 1 . 

Bum. f Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 105 ; Cat. Meth. 5. 

Schweigger, Arch. Kcenigsb. i. 317. 

Bonap. Tesfud. Europ. et Amer. 152. 
T. depressa, Lesueur, Cuv. R. A. ii. 10. 

Guerin, Icon. t. 1. f. I. 
T. Carolina, Litin. Syst. Nat. 

Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. H. iii. 97. 
T. tabulata, Schoepff. 56. t. 13? 
T. tabulata, var., Schlegel, F. Japon. 70. 
1 T. Schweiggeri, Gray, Syn. 10. var., in Griffith, A. K. iv. 7. 

Bum. Sr Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 108 ; Cat. M. R. 5. 

Hab. North America ; ,pine forests of Georgia and 
Florida. 

Specimens in British Museum : — 

a. Adult, brown ; 8|- inches. N. America. Presented by 

Richard Harlan, M.D. 

b. Adult, brown ; 10| Laches. N.America. Presented by 

Edward Doubleday, Esq. 

c. Adult, blackish. N. America ; Mexico. Mr. Warwick's 

Collection. 

d. Adult, blackish. North America. M. Parzudaki's Col- 

lection. 



2. Testudo tabulata. The Brazilian Tortoise. 
Shell subquadrate, oblong, depressed, sides contracted 
when adult ; shields black, grooved, areola small, nuchal 
plate none ; animal red or yellow, spotted. 

Testudo tabulata. Wall. Chelon. 70. t. 22. 

Baud. Rept. i. 242. 

Gray, Syn. 10 ; Cat. Rept. B.M. 5. 

Bell, Test. t. 1, 2. 

TJ^agler, Syn. t. 6. f. 9, t. . f. 1-8. f. 45, 48 ; Cat. 
Mi-th. R. 5 ; Neuw. Abbild. t. 

Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 89. 
T. Hercules, Spix, Bra::, t. 14. 

Gray, Syn. 9. 
T. Boiei, Wagler, Amphib. t. 6. f. 7, 8 ; Icones Amphib. 

t. 13. 
T. denticulata, Schoepf. t. 28. f. 1. 
T. caibonaria, Spix, t. 16. 

Bell, Test. t. 1, 2. 

Dumeril et Bibroii, Erp. Gin. ii. 99; Cat. Mith. 
R. 5. 
T. tessellata, Schneider, Schoepff . t. 12. f. 2, t. 13; Neuw. 

Abbild. t. 
T. Cagado, Spix, Braz. t. 1 7. 
T. sculpta, Spix, Braz. t. 18. 
T. Grseca, Her in. Obs. Zool. 
T. erosa, Schweigger. 
T. gigantea, Schweigger ? 
T. foveolata, Licht. Berl. Acad. 251 (1820). 
Sphargis mercurialis, Schinz, t. 8. f. 1 ! not Merrem. 
The Brazilian Tortoise, Gray, I. c. 5. 

Hab. America; Brazils; Cayenne; Guadaloupe ; Chili. 

a, b, c. Adult (stuffed). South America. 

d. Adult (stuffed). South America. Presented by the 

Zoological Society. 

e. Half-grown, with only eleven marginal scales (stuffed). 

West Indies. Presented by John Gould, Esq. 

f, g. Half-grown and young. South America. 

Osteology. Wiedemann, Arch. Zool. ii. 181. 

h, i,j, k, I, m, n, o. Shell only (adult and young). South 
America. 

p, q, r. Skeletons (half-grown). South America. 

This species differs in appearance according to the state 
of the surface of the shell. When perfect the surface is 
black, with small yellow impressed areolas to the plates 
surrounded with deep concentric grooves ; but the surface is 
often more or less worn, when the concentric furrows are 
destroyed, the surface becomes smooth, and the small 
areolas are obliterated. In this state it has been considered 
a distinct species. The hinder vertebral plate is large, as 
broad as the caudal, the hinder marginal and the half of 
the second hinder marginal plate. In one specimen, which 
has only eleven marginal plates on each side (the two liinder 
being imited ?), the hmder vertebral is as wide as the cau- 
dal and half the large hinder marginal plates. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



B. The last vertebral generally only as loide as the caudal 
and half of each of the hinder marginal shields. 
Confined to the Old World. 

Testudo B, Gh-ay, Cat. Rept. B.M. 6. 

a. Indian. 
3. Testudo Indica. The Indian Tortoise. 
Black ; pectoral shields short ; nuchal plates variable or 
wanting ; animal black ; last vertebral often as broad as the 
last three marginal. 

Testudo Indica, Gmelin, S. N. 

Gray, Syn. 9 ; Cat. Rej)t. B.M. 5 ; Cat. Zool. Soc. 
40. fig. 9. 
Chersina retusa, Merrem, Tetit. 

T. Elephantopus, Harlan, J. Acad. Phil. iii. 284. t. 9. 
T. nigra, Qi'oy, Voy. Uran. t. 40. 

Duin. ^ Bib. Erp. Ghi. ii. 115 ; Cat. Mith. R. 5. 
T. Californica, Quoy, Bnll. Sci. 
T. Dussuniieri, Schleyel, Mvs. Leyd. i. 

Pet. Gaz. t. 76. f. A. 
T. gigantea, Schioeiy. Arch. Kcenigsb. i. 327. 

Dum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 120; Cat. Meth. R. 5. 

Schoepf. Hist. Testudinum, t. 22. 

Shaw, Zool. t. 3. 

Wieymann, Bon. Trans, t. 13. 
T. Vosmaeri, Fitz. Cat. 44. 

Dum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 140 ; Cat. Mith. R. 6. 
T. nigrita, Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 81. 
T. Daudinii, Bum. S,- Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 125 ; Cat. Meth. 

R. 5. 
T. Elephantina, Dum. ^- Bib. Erp. G4n. ii. 110; Cat. 

Meth. R.b. 
T. Perraultii,I>Mm.^.Bii..E'rp.G^n.ii.l26; Cat.Mith.R.o. 
La ronde, Lacep. Quad. Ovip. i. 126. t. 5. 
T. orbicularis, Bechst. in Lacep. i. 154. 
T. rotunda, Latr. Rept. i. 107. 

T. Peltastes, Dum. S/- Bib. Erp. Gen.u. 138; Cat. MM. R. 5. 
Chersina (Cylindraspis) Vosmaeri, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29 

(1843). 
Testudo (Megalochelys) gigantea, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 

Hab. Isle of France ; Seychelles ; Isle Angouan ; India ; 
California ; Galapagos. 

m. Adult (stulfed). 
;'. Adult animal and shell ; 23 inches. 
/. Half-grown (stuffed). 
/. Young (stuifed) ; 7 inches. Nuchal plate none. 

ff. Young (stuffed) ; feet bad ; 6 inches. Nuchal plate 

none. 
i. Very young (stuffed) ; 4i inches. Whitish ; nuchal 

plate none ; nucleus of plates dark. 
d. Very young (stuffed) ; 4 inches. Nuchal ])late distinct. 

Last vertebral narrower than the last three marginal. 

Bengal. Presented by General J. Hardwicke. 

Osteology. Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v. 176. t. 11. f. 17, 20, 

skull. 
h. Upper shell only, very large and broad. Presented by 
E. Cross, Esq. 



a. Adult (shell only) ; 32 inches. Nuchal plate ; not a 

good state. 

c. Adult ; 2 1 inches. Nuchal plate distinct. 

e. Young (shell only) ; 14 inches. Nuchal plate di- 
stinct. 

h. Young (shell only); 5^ inches. Nuchal plate none; 
nucleus of marginal and gular plates pale. 

b. Very young (only upper part of shell) ; 4 inches. No 

nuchal plate. Presented by J. E. Gray, Esq. 

n. Skeleton; adult. India? Presented by Her Majesty. 

o. Skeleton ; half-grown. India. Mr. Bartlett's Collec- 
tion. 

p. Skeleton ; half-grown. 

q. Skull. India. Dr. Mantell's Collection. 

r. Monstrosity. Dorsal shields and the bones beneath them 
very convex, concave within. India. Mus. Zoological 
Society. 

Var. Elongate, compressed on the sides, and turned up at 

the edge. 
Testudo Vosmaeri, Fitz. 

s. Adult (stuffed). India? Presented by the Earl of 
Derby. 

Testudo Indica. — The skull in the Museum Collection, 
and the one figured by Cuvier, t. 1 1 . f. 1 7-20, have a veiy 
convex forehead. 



4. Testudo planiceps. The Flat-headed Tortoise. 
Tab. XXXIV. 

Skull much depressed, flat; forehead flat, rapidly shelving 
towards the nose-cavity. 

Testudo planiceps. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1853; Ann. ^ 
Mag. N.H. 1855, 153. 

Hab. Galapagos ? 

This species is only known by the skull. The fol- 
lowing are the descriptions and measurements of a skull 
of T. Indica and T. planiceps of nearly the same dimen- 
sions. 

Testudo Indica. — Skull high, convex ; forehead convex, 
rounded to the nose-cavity, broad between the eyes ; tem- 
ples flat behind ; cheeks small, four-sided ; edge of the jaw- 
between the nose-cavity and the mouth narrow and rounded. 
Nose-cavity oblong, nearly twice as high as broad, con- 
tracted on each side above. Palate broad, oblong, very 
deeply concave, and with concave converging sides in front. 
Sphenoid bone deeply concave beneath under the condyle ; 
lower jaws narrowed and rounded in front, not more than 
half as hieh as behind. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



T. planiceps. T. Indica. 

Length from condyle to fi'ont of li]) 5^ 5| 

„ from occipital crest to nose-cavity . . 5f 5J 

„ of palate concavity 2f 3^ 

„ of nasal opening ItV 2 

Width at condyles 4^ 4 

„ at end of temporal bones 3^ 4^ 

„ of palate concavity in middle 1 If 

Height fi-om back of upper lip to top of head If 2f 

,, from front of lower jaw 1 Of 

Testudo planiceps. — Skull much depressed, flat ; fore- 
head flat, with a rapid declivity towards the nose-cavity, 
narrow between the eyes ; temples produced, bent in be- 
hind ; cheeks large, subtrigonal ; edge of the jaws between 
the nose-cavity and the moutli high and erect. Nose-cavity 
nearly square, scarcely higher than broad, and very little 
contracted above. Palate narrow, nearly lozenge-shaped, 
truncated behind, rather deeply concave, with straiglit con- 
verging sides in front. Sphenoid bone flat beneath under 
the condyle ; lower jaw convex, erect in front and as high 
as beliind. 

After an examination of the specimens of the large Black 
Tortoise {T. Indica) in the various English and continental 
collections, including the specimens which had served 
Schweigger, Schlegel, Fitzinger, Dtimeril and Bibron, and 
others as the tvpe of the species, in the Catalogue of the 
Tortoises, &c. in the Collection of the British iNIuseum, I 
regarded them all as varieties of a single, very variable 
species, which had been scattered by man in different tropical 
parts of tlie globe. I see no cause to change this opinion 
with respect to the head above described and figured, even 
should it prove to be that of a black species, which is possible, 
as the black species is the only one known which has any 
affinity to it in point of size, and it is said to be from a shell 
of that colour. This skidl was sent to Haslar Hospital, and 
was said to have been taken from a specimen brought from 
the Galapagos Islands. 

The Black Tortoise of those Islands has been described 
by Dr. Harlan under the name of Testudo Elephantopus, 
but his figure and description so exactly agree with the 
adult Testudo Indica, and the specimen in the Gardens of 
the Zoological Society, brought from the Galapagos Islands, 
is so exactly similar to the specimens of Testudo Indica 
from the Mauritius, that I cannot think the usual black 
Galapagos Tortoise is difi'erent from that species, or like the 
skull here described under the name of T. planiceps. 

5. Testudo Horsfleldii. Horsfield's Tortoise. Tab. I. 

Shell oblong, rather depressed, pale, varied with blackish, 

especially upon the lower side ; the areola of the costal plates 

near their upper edge ; the gular plates elongate, triangular, 



longer than broad ; the anal plates broader than long, the 
hinder notch broad, triangular, the hinder marginal plates 
broad, with the nucleus on the centre of their margin ; the 
front edge of the fore arms with smaller scales than the 
hiuder ; the vent with two blunt spines on each side. 

Testudo Horsfleldii (Dr. Horsfield's Tortoise), Grai/, Cat. 
Rept. B.M. 7. 

Hah. India ; Afighanistan. 

a. Young. India ; Affghanistan. Presented by the Hon. 
East India Company. 

This species is very like Testudo sulcata, but the shell is 
more depressed, the margin rather more produced and 
toothed, and the scales of the fore feet are small and un- 
equal, and those on the side of the vent are shorter and 
broader than in that species. The nuclei of the hinder 
marginal shields are central, while in T. sulcata they are on 
the hinder edge of the scales. 

It resembles T. grceca, but the three pairs of sternal plates 
are longer in comparison to their width than any specimens 
we have, and the nuclei of all the hinder marginal plates 
are on the hinder edge, and not in the centre. 

6. Testudo stellata. The Starred Tortoise. 

Shell ovate, convex ; shields convex, grooved, black, 
yellow-rayed ; areola large, placed near the hinder edge ; 
nuchal shield none ; head and feet black, yellow-spotted ; 
tail short. 

Testudo stellata, Schweiyyer, Prod. i. 325. 

Gray, Syn. 12. t. 313 ; Cat. Rept. B. M. 7. 

Seba, Thes. t. 79. f. 3, t. 80. f. 3. 
T. actinoides. Bell, Zool. Journ. iii. 419. t. 14; Test. t. 1, 2. 

Dutn. ^- Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 66 ; Cat. Meth. R. .5. 
T. elegaus, Schoepff. t. 25. f. 1. 

T. geoinetrica, Shaw, Zool. v. t. 2. f. 1 ; Indian Rev. 1838, t. 
Le Geometrique, Lacep. Q. O. 155. t. 9. 

Young. Yellow ; black-rayed. 

Testudo stellata, Sckweiyger, Prod. 
T. elegans, Schoepff. Test. t. 26. 

Baud. Rept. t. 25. f. 1. 

Gray, Syn. t. 3. f. 1, 2. 
Geochelone stellata, Fitz. Syst. Schildk. 1 22 ; Syst. Rept. 29 . 

Very young. Shell yellow ; commissures of the shields 

black, forming together a lanceolate spot. 

Testudo elegans, Schoejiff. Test. t. 26, copied Shaw, Zool. 
ii. t. 6. 

Hab. India ; Ceylon. 

a. Adult (stuffed) ; 6 inches. Shields few-rayed. Ceylon. 
Presented by J. E. Gray, Esq. 

f, g, h, i. Adult (stuff'ed). Dorsal shields many-rayed. 
India. Capt. Boys' Collection. 

j, k. Animal (unstuffed). India. 



8 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



/. Animal and shell (stuffed) ; shield of the back conical, 
convex, truncated, many-rayed. India. From the 
Zoolcgical Society. 

Osteology : — 

e. Adult (shell only) ; 10 inches. Shields very high, trun- 
cated. PhiUppines. 

))t. Adult (shell only); 10 inches. Shields flattish. India; 
Madras. Presented by T. C. Jerdon, Esq. 

b. Half-grown (shell only). Shields flattish, black, with 

few yellow rays. 

n. Half-grown (shell only), like h. 

c. Young (upper shell only). Depressed, broad, pale ; nu- 

cleus very large, pale margin of shields blackish marked. 

(/ & o. Young. Nucleus moderate ; nucleus and margin 
brown-edged, with foui- broad yellow rays. 

Tlie specimens c and d show the very different size of 
the young of this species when they are first hatched, the 
shell c being nearly twice as long and wide as d, and yet 
the shields have only one or two rings round the nucleus, 
while in d they have several. 

b. African. 
7. Testudo geometrica. The Geometric Tortoise. 

Shell oblong, convex ; shields yellow, grooved, black- 
rayed ; areola yellow, truncated ; nuchal shield long. 

Testudo geometrica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 353. 

Grai/, Spi. 12; Cat. Kept. li.M. 8. 

Bum. 8,- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 57 ; Cat. Mith. R. 3. 

Seba, Thes. t. 80. f. 8. 

Lacep. Q. O. t. 3. f. 2. 

S/iaiv, Zool. ii. t. 2. 

Schoepff. Test. t. 10. 

Band. Rept. t. 25. f. 1. 
Psammobates geometricus, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 
Testudo (Psammobates) geometrica, Fitz. Syst. Schildk. 1 22. 
Chersine geometrica, Merrem. • 

T. luteola. Baud. Rept. ii. 277. t. 25. f. 3. 
T. tentoria. Bell, Zool. Journ. iii. 420. t. 24 ; Test. t. 1. 

Hab, Africa ; Cape of Good Hope ; Madagascar. 

/ ar. 1 . Shell oblong, elongate, narrow, discal plate flat or 
concave ; sternum flat or concave, brown, rare ; nuchal 
plate elongate, narrow ; caudal shield much incurved 
(7". geometrica). 

I. Animal and shell (young) ; 2^ inches. Plates rather 
convex. Cape of Good Hope. 

Osteology : — 

b, c, d. Shells only, various sizes, all wanting the front lobe 
of sternum. South Africa. 

e. Wanting front lobe of sternum ; discal shields rather 
convex. South Africa. Dr. Mantell's Collection. 

k. Shell (young) ; 2\ inches. Plates flattish. Cape of 
Good Hope. 



Var. 1. tentoria. Shell oblong, ventricose ; sternum 
convex, black-rayed ; nuchal plates elongate, narrow ; 
shields convex, truncated ; caudal shield incurved, con- 
vex (T. tentoria, Bell). 

Osteology : — 

a. Shell wanting the first lobe of sternum ; '\\ inches. 

South Africa. Mus. .Sloane. 
/. Shell. Cape of Good Hope. Presented by Gen. Th. 

Hardwicke. 
g. Shell only, wanting a few plates ; 5 inches. Vertebral 

shield very high. Cape of Good Hope. 

Far. 3. nigriventris. Shell oblong, ventricose ; sternum 
convex, dark in the middle, white on the sides ; nuchal 
plates short, truncated ; shields convex, often high, 
truncated. 

m. Animal and shell (wanting discal plates). South Africa. 

h. Shell (adulf) ; 5j inches. Dorsal shields high, conical ; 
caudal plate produced. Cape of Good Hope. Pre- 
sented by Robert Brown, Esq. 

i&j. Shell (young). Dorsal shield rather convex; cau- 
dal plate iuflexed. Cape of Good Hope. Presented 
by Robert Brown, Esq. 

n. Shell (half-grown). South Africa. 

o. Animal aud shell (very young). Mauritius. Presented 
by Lady Frances Cole. 

The specimen of Testudo luteola (Baud. Rept. t. 25) 
in the Paris Museum is evidently a young shell of this spe- 
cies, without any shields. 

There is no difference in the colour or in the size of the 
areolEe of the three varieties ; the nuchal shield of the va- 
riety tentoria is sometimes reduced to a linear transverse 
band, and is very rarely quite deficient. 

Schlegel refers Testudo tentoria and Pyxis aranoides of 
Bell to this species {Fauna Japonica). 

8. Testudo Verroxii. Verreaux's Tortoise. 
Shell rather depressed, broad, brown, varied with broad, 
black and narrow, pale yellow rays and spots ; beneath yel- 
low, brown varied with a few black rays ; marginal shields 
placed at an angle with respect to the costal shield ; nuchal 
plate triangular ; discal plates simple, convex ; areola black, 
with four yellow rays. Head above yellow ; feet with large 
imbricate scales in front. 

Testudo Verroxii, A. Smith, Illustr. Zool. S. Africa, t. 8 <?, 
worn. 

Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 9. 

Hab. South Africa. 

a. Animal and shell. South Africa. From Mr. Warwick's 
Collection. 

This species chiefly differs from T. geometrica in being 
more depressed, brown, with black and narrow yellow rays. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



9. Testudo semiserrata. The Toothed Cape Tortoise. 
Browii, yellow-rayed ; below yellow, black-rayed ; nuchal 
shield elongate, triangular ; anterior and posterior margin 
strongly serrated, the hinder margin recurved ; discal shield 
with six or eight, marginal shield with one or two, broad 
black rays ; the fore feet with large tubercular scales above 
the claws. 

Testudo semiserrata, A. Smith, IHust. S. Afric. Zool. t. 4. 
Gray, Cat. Rept. B.M. 8. 
Bum. Cat. MM. R. 3. 

Hab. South Africa. 

a. Adult. Shields rather convex. South Africa. From 
the South African Museum. 

6 & c. Shields scarcely raised. South Africa. From the 
South African Museum. 

Osteology : — 

d. Yomig (shell only). Thorax orbicular ; margin more 
acutely serrated. South Africa. From the South 
African Museum. 

10. Testudo radiata. The Coui. 

Shell hemispherical ; shields flat, grooved, black, yellow- 
rayed, areola small, rufous ; nuchal shield triangular ; 
sternum produced in front, truncated behind. 

Testudo racUata, Shaw, Zool. iii. t. 2. 

Grew, Mus. t. 3. f. 2. 

Bell, Test. t. 1, 2. 

Gray, Syn. 1 1 ; Griffith's A.K. ix. ; Cat. Rept. B.M. 5. 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 83 ; Cat. Me'th. R. 5. 

Wagler, Syst. Amphib. t. 6. f. 1, 2, skel. 
T. Coui, Baud. R. ii. 2/1. t. 26. f. 2. 
T. Madagascariensis, Comm. Mus. Par. 
T. calcarata (part.), Merrem, Tent. f. 11. 

Hab. Madagascar. 

k. Adult (shell and animal). Margin and shields much 
worn. Gular plate produced, rounded, not nicked ; 
anal plate very short, very convex. Madagascar. 

d. Shell and animal ; 6j inches. Gular plate nicked. 

Madagascar. 

/. Like k, but gular plate nicked. 

m & II. Very young (animal and shell). Madagascar. 

Osteology. Wagler, Syst. Amphib. t. 6. f. 1, 2, skeleton ; 
Cuvier, Oss. Fuss. v. 193. t. 12. f. 1, 6, 12, t. 13. f. 16, 
17, 27, 28, 35. 

a. Upper shell only ; 9 inches. Madagascar. From the 
Museum of the Royal Society. 

b & c. Shell only. Madagascar. Presented by Gen. Th. 
Hardwicke. 

e. Shell only, wanting some plates ; 5j inches. Mada- 

gascar. 

/. Young (shell only) ; 4 inches. Gular plate short, trun- 
cated. Madagascar. 



g & 0. Young (shell only). 

h. Very young (shell only). 

i. Half-grown (shell only). 

p. Skeleton and shell. Madagascar. 
Society. 



From the Zoological 



q. Shell only. Shield black, with very broad yellow rays. 
Madagascar. 



11. Testudo Pardalis. The Leopard Tortoise. 

Shell nearly hemispherical, blackish or yellow, black- 
spotted ; shields grooved ; areola of the costal shields near 
the upper edge ; nuchal shields none. 

Testudo Pardahs, Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 420. t. 25 ; Test. 
t. 1, 2. 

Gray, Syn. 12. t. 1. f. 2, 3 ; Cat. Rept. B.M. 7. 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 71 ; Cat. Meth. R. 4. 
T. armata, Boie, Erp. Jar. MS. 
T. bipunctata, Cuv. R. A. ii. 10. 

Gray, Syn. t. 3. f. 2, 3. 

Gottw. Schildk. t. k. f. 15. 
Testudo Boiei, Wagler, Icon. Amphib. t. 13; Syst. Amphib. 

138. t. 6. f. 7, 8. 
Chelonoides Boiei, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 
Geochelone chelonoides Boiei, Fit:. Syst. Schildk. 122. 
" T. biguttata, Cuv.," Fit:. 
"Testudo signata, Walbaum, t. 11," Schlegel. 
Geochelone pardalis, Fit:. Syst. Schildk. 122. 

Hab. Africa ; Cape of Good Hope ; Port Natal. 

d. Adult (animal and shell) ; 1 2^ inches. South Africa. 

From the South African Museum. 

e. Animal and shell (half-grown). South Africa. Pre- 

sented by the Zoological Society. 

Osteology : — 

/. Adult (stuffed) ; discal shield convex ; caudal shield 
produced, elongate. South Africa. From the Zoo- 
logical Society. 

g. Young (shell only, without front lobe of sternum) ; 
yellow, shields black-edged, areola spotted ; shields 
grooved. 

A. Sternum only ; 13 inches. South Africa. 



12. Testudo sulcata. The Grooved Tortoise, 

Shell oblong, depressed, dirty-yellow, dorsal line flattened, 
with a deep triangular notch in front ; front and hinder 
margin strongly reflexed and deeply toothed ; lateral edge 
slightly keeled ; caudal plate very broad, inflexed ; shields 
deeply grooved, areola small, of costal and marginal plates 
marginal. Animal blackish-brown ; scales over the eye- 
brows small ; sternum produced and bifid in front. Animal 
pale yellow ; feet with very large scales in front ; thighs 
with two large spines. 
Testudo sulcata. Miller, Cim. Phys. t. 26. 



10 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



Testudo sulcata, Grmj, Syn. 68 ; Cat. Rept. B.M. 7. 

Bum. (5- Bib. Erp. Ghi. ii. 74. t. 13. f. 1 ; Cat. MHh. 
R. 5. 
T. calcaiata, Schn. Syn. t. 12. 

Bechst. in Lacep. i. 346. t. 
T. radiata Seiiegalensis, Gray, Syn. 11. 

Schlegel, F. Japan. 74. 
T. Schoepfii, RiippeU. 
Geochelone sulcata, Fitz. Syst. Schildk. 122. 

Hab. Africa ; Abyssinia ; Cape ; Senegal ; " Buenos 
Ay res." 

a. Young (stuffed) ; 8 inches. Abyssinia. From the 

Frankfort Museum. 

Osteology : — 

b. Adult (upper shell only); 19 inches. South Africa. 



c. European. Cherseus. 
13. Testudo graeca. The Tartaruga. 

Shell oblong, subglobose ; shields rather convex, black 
and yellow-varied ; nuchal shield distinct. 

Testudo Grseca, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 552. 

Gray, Syn. 13; Cat. Tort. B.M. 9. 

Valenc. Expcd. Morea, t. 7. f. 1, t. 9. f. 4. 

Shaw, Zuol. ii. t. 1. 

Sc/ioepf. Test. t. 8, 9. 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. G^n. ii. 49 ; Cat. Mith. R. 5 ; not 
Pallas. 
T. Carolina, Herm. 
T. geometrica, Briinnich, Adriat. 92. 
T. Hermanni, Schneid. 348. 

Gmeti)i, Syst. Nat. 1041. 

Seba, t. 80. f. 1. 

Knorr, Del. Nat. ii. t. 52. f. 1 . 
T. pusilla, Shaw, Zool. iii. 53. 
T. Ibera, Pallas 1 Zool. Ross. ii. 

Eichw. Zool. Spec. ii. 196 ; Fauna Casp. Cauc. 43. 
t. 5? 
T. Mauritanica, Bum. ^ Bib. E. Gen. ii. 44 ; Cat. Mith. 
R. 3. 

Bonap. Test. Eur. et Amer. 251. 
African Land Tortoise, Edw. Birds, t. 204. 
T. Zohaffa, Forslmel, F. Arab. 12. 
Chersine grjeca, Merrem, Tent. 31. 
Testudo terrestris, Gesner, Quad. O. 107, fig. P.aii Quad. 

243. 
La Tortue grecque, Cuv. R. A. ii. 9. 
Testudo (testudo) graeca, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 

Hab. Europe ; North Africa ; Greece. 

Far. Shell very convex, black, yellow spotted ; edge of 
shell very blmit ; dorsal shields angular, deeply grooved ; 
tail very short, conical, blunt. Body 1 foot ; tail 1 
inch. 
Cherseus Iberus, Ch. Bonap. Amph. Eur. 271 

Hab. Iberia, near Tiflis. — Eichw. 



Males 1 Caudal plate broad, strongly inflexed, sometimes 
grooved. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Sternum flat, black ; caudal with a 

groove ; 5 inches. South Europe. Presented by 
J. E. Gray, Esq. 

d & e. Stuffed. Sternum black varied ; caudal plate entire ; 
51^ inches. South Europe. 

tn. Stuffed. South Europe. Presented by J. E. Gray, Esq. 

Osteology : — 

b. Shell only. Sternum rather concave, black ; 4^ inches. 

South Europe. Presented by Gen. Th. Hardwicke. 

o. Shell only. Caudal plate entire ; hinder lateral margin 
rather expanded. South Europe. 

Females 1 and young. Caudal plate rather narrow, flat, 
sometimes divided. 
T. Mauritanica, Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 44. 

c. Stuffed. Vertebral shields convex ; caudal plates with 

a groove ; sternum black ; 5 inches. South Europe. 
Presented by Gen. Th. Hardwicke. 

f. Stuffed. Sternum black varied ; 7 inches. Some of 

the marginal plates wanting. South Europe. 

_;'. Stuffed (young) ; 1\ inches. South Europe. Presented 
by Gen. Th. Hardwdcke. 

k, I. In spirits (young). South Europe. Presented by 
J. E. Gray, Esq. 

V. Adult (stuffed). Hinder marginal plates rather pro- 
duced. South Europe. Presented by J. E. Grav, 
Esq. 

Osteology : — 

g. Shell only ; h\ inches. South Euro]3e. 

h. Shell only ; 5 inches. South Europe. Presented by 

J. E. Gray, Esq. 
Testudo Mauritanica, Bum. ^' Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 44. 

i. Shell only ; 7\ inches. South Europe. Presented by 
Gen. Th. Hardwicke. 

n. Shell only (half-grown). 

p, q, r. Shell only (young). 

s & t. Skeleton and shell (adult and young). 

These shells vary considerably in external appearance. 
In some the caudal plate is broader and strongly bent in at 
the tip ; in others it is narrower and flat, or even sometimes 
slightly bent out at the tip. All the female and young 
specimens I have examined have this form ; I therefore 
consider it as a sexual character only. The caudal plate in 
both of these variations is often divided by a more or less 
distinct central longitudinal groove, which has been con- 
sidered as a specific character, but it varies greatly in 
distinctness in different specimens ; in some the margins 
over the hind limbs are more produced and reflexed than 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



11 



in others ; these appear to pass almost into T. marginata. 
This variet)' is figured by Schoejpff. t. 9. 

The hinder lobe of the sternum of the female is some- 
times moveable. 

Called Tartaruga at Rome, where they are sold in the 
market and eaten on fast days. 

In the College of Surgeons there is a very narrow and 
high variety, with the caudal plate spread out, and the 
margin dilated and reflexed. 

Schlegel refers T. marginata and T. Zolhafce as va- 
rieties of T. graca. 

14. Testudo marginata. The Margined Tortoise. 

Shell oblong, ventricose, hinder edge horizontally ex- 
panded ; shields black, yellow-varied, grooved, areola small, 
yellow ; nuchal plate sleuder, long ; animal blackish ; limbs 
largely scaled. 

Testudo marginata, Schoepff. t. 11, 12. f. 1. 

Gray, Syn. 11 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 9. 

Falenc. ExpM. Morea, t. 7. f. 2. 

Bum. S,- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 37 ; Cat. Meth. R. 3. 

Wagler, Amphib. t. 25. 
T. Graii, Herm. Obs. Zool. 219. 
T. Grffica, Lacep. Q. 0. t. 5. f. 2. 
T. greeca, var., Schlegel, F. Japan. 7. 
T. campanulata, Jf^alb. Chel. 124. 
T. lutraria, Gitiel. 
T. rotunda, Lacep., Scheuch. Phjs. Sacra, ii. 261. 

Hab. North Africa ; Barbary ; Algeria ; Greece ; Egypt. 

a. Animal and shell (young) ; 3^ inches. Caudal plate 
produced, flat. South Europe. Presented by J. E. 
Gray, Esq. 

Geocheloue rotundata, Fitc. Sijst. Schildk. 122. 
Testudo Cherseus marginatus, Fite. Sijst. Schildk. 122. 
Cherseus marginatus, TTagler, Syst. 138; Icon. Amphib. 
t. 2.5. 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 

Osteology : — ■ 

Caret, Sjnx, Cephal. t. 4. f. 12, 15, skull. 

a. Shell only (adult). The hmder margin very much pro- 
duced. Greece. Mr. Parry's Collection. 

It is doubtful if this is more than an accidental variety 
of T. greeca, for the hinder lateral margin of the shell of 
that species is often more or less produced. 

\Miat is Testudo Forstenii, from Gilolo, — Schlegel, Fer- 
hand. l 

Schlegel, on the cover of Fauna Japonica, gives the name 
of Testudo margaritifera to the figure of a Tortoise with 
hair from the base of a very high hump on its back. 



2. HOMOPUS. 

Shell depressed, solid. Sternum solid ; hinder lobe 
sometimes mobile ; sternal shields 1 2, gular plates separate, 
pectoral plates narrowed on the inner edge. Claws 4 • 4, 
elongate, acute. Fore-legs covered with uniform large 
elongated scales. Sternum convex ; gular plates short, 
separate. Africa. 

Homopus,Di(?«.(J-5t'5.-E'?75.Ge'?j.ii. 145(1 835); Caf.M.R.6. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 10 (1844). 
Testudo Homopus, Fit:. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 
Testudo, sp. Gray, Syn. 13. 
Testudo § Chersobius, Fits. Syst. Schildk. 122 (1836). 

1. Homopus signatus. The Speckled Tortoise. 

Shell oblong, uniformly inclined on the sides ; shield 

flattish, yellow, black-lined or dotted, areola blackish, sunk. 

Homopus signatus, Dum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 182 ; Cat. 
Meth. R. 6. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 10. 
Testudo signata, jralb. Chel. 71. 120. 

Schoepff. 120. t. 28. f. 2. 

Gray, Syn. 13. 

Bell, Test. t. 
T. denticulata, var., Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 1045. 
T. cafra. Baud. Rept. ii. 291. 
T. pardalis, jun., Schlegel, F. Japon. 73. 
Chersine signata, Merrem, Tent. 43. 
Testudo Chersobius cafra, Fitz. Syst. Schildk. 122. 
Testudo Chersobius signata. Fits. Syst. Schildk. 122. 

Hab. South Africa ; Cape of Good Hope. 

a. In spirits (young). South Africa. 

b. Dry, from spii'its (very young). Isle of France ? 

2. Homopus areolatus. The Areolated Tortoise. 

Shell oblong, depressed, bent up on the sides ; shields 
convex, grooved, yellow ; sutures deep, areola sunk, ful- 
vous ; nuchal shield slender ; animal pale bromi ; legs 
largely scaly. 

Homopus areolatus. Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Ghi. ii. 146. t. 15. 
f. 2, 3 ; Cat. Meth. R. 6. 

Ch-ay, Cat. Tort. B.M. 10. 
Testudo areolata, Thunb. N. A. Sued. viii. 180. 

Gray, Syn. 13. 

Bell, Test. t. 1, 2. 

Seha, Thes. i. t. 80. f. 61. 

Schoepff. t. 23. 
Chersina tetradactyla, Lesson, Bell. Sci. xxv. 119. 

Merrem, Tent. 43. 
T. fasciata, Baud. R. ii. 294. 
T. pusilla. Baud. R. ii. 299. 
T. Juvencella, Baud. R. ii. 299. 
Le Verniillion, Lacep. Q. O. 1C6. 
Testudo Chersobius fasciata, Fitz. Syst. Schildk. 122. 
Chersina fasciata. Men-em. 

Hab. South Africa ; Cape of Good Hope, 

c 2 



12 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



d. Animal and shell (dry). Cape of Good Hope. Mr. 

Parzudaki's Collection. 

e. Animal and shell (stuffed) ; discal shield very convex, 

truncated. South Africa. From the Zoological So- 
ciety. 

Osteology : — 

b. Shell only ; 3^ inches. South Africa. Presented by 

J. E. Gray, Esq. 

/. Shell only. Mauritius. 

a. Animal and shell (dry) ; not good state ; 3 inches. 
Cape of Good Hope. Presented by R. Brown, Esq. 

c. Animal and shell (stuffed) ; 3^ inches. From the South 

African Museum. 

Var. pallida. Shell hemispherical ; shields pale grooved, 
areola blackish ; caudal shield broad, incurved. 

Homopus areolatus, var. pallida. Gray, Testudinata, 5, ined. 

Hah. Africa. 

n. South Africa. Presented by Robert Brown, Esq. 

Apt to vary in the number and form of the vertebral, 
costal and marginal shields ; the nuchal shield is sometimes 
wanting, or reduced to a small triangular scale behind the 
angles of the marginal plates. 

Animal pale brown-black, strongly toothed ; head with 
small scales and a large six-sided occipital plate ; fore-leg 
with lanceolate tubercular scales ; tail short, conical ; cheeks 
covered with small scales. 

Testudo cafra and Testudo Juvencella, Daudin, of which 
only two very imperfect specimens exist in the Paris Mu- 
seum, are probably varieties of one of these species. The 
first has fifteen discal and the latter very convex dorsal 
plates. 

3. CHERSINA, Gray. 

Thorax convex, very solid. Sternum solid ; sternal 
shields 1 1, the gular pair united into a single produced one ; 
inguinal plates moderate. Claws 5*4. 

Palate of skull flat. 

Chersina, Gray, Syn. Rept. 14. 69 (1831) ; Grif. A. K. 

hi. ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 11 (1844). 
Testudo et Chersina, Fitz. Syst. Schildk. 122 (1836). 
Chersina (Chersina), Fit:. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 
Testudo (§ iii. part.), Dmn. ^ Bib. Erp. Ghx. ii. 1,51 ; 

Cat. Meth. R. 5. 

Dumeril and Bibron and Fitzinger have confounded this 
genus with the varieties of Testudo Indica, which have the 
gular plates united or apparently so. 

Palate of skull flat, very unlike that of true Testudines, 
where the palate is very deep, concave. 



1. Chersina angulata. The Angulated Tortoise. 

Shell oblong, ventricose ; shields black-grooved, yellow- 
varied ; areola yellow, sunk. 

Chersina angulata. Gray, Syn. 15. 69. t. 1, 2; Cat. Tort. 
B.M. 11. 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Testudo angulata, Dmi. MSS. in Mus. Paris. 

Sc/iweiffff. Arch. Koetiigsb. i. 321. 

Bell, Test. t. 1. 

Bum. Si- Bib. Erp. Gen ii. 330 ; Cat. Meth. R. 5. 
T. Bellii, Gray, Spic. Zool. t. 3. f. 4. 

K>iorr, Del. Nat. ii. t. 52. f. 2. 
T. flavo-fusca, 3Ius. Berl. 
T. pusilla, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 353. 

T. Graii, Bmn. f Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 135 ; Cat. Meth. R. 5. 
T. tabulata, var. Africana, Schweigg. Arch. Koenigsb. i. 322. 
? T. sculpta, Brandt, not Spix. 

Hab. South Africa ; Cape of Good Hope ; Madagascar. 

a. Adult (animal and shell ; stufied) ; worn. Pale horn- 

colour, with a brown spot in each areola ; 7\ inches. 
South Africa. Presented by J. E. Gray, Esq. 

b. Animal (half-grown), not good state ; 5y inches. Cape 

of Good Hope. Presented by Robert Brown, Esq. 

e. Animal and shell (half-grown), in spirits. Cape of Good 

Hope. Mr. Brandt's Collection. 
Testudo sculpta, Brandt, MSS., not Spix. 

/ & g. .\nimal and shell (stuffed). South Africa. 

Osteology :— 

c. Shell ouly (half-grown) ; 5^ inches. Cape of Good 

Hope. Presented by R. Brown, Esq. 

d. Shell only (young), solid ; 4 inches. Cape of Good 

Hope. Presented by J. E. Gray, Esq. 

(■&_;'. Shell only. Cape of Good Hope. 

Schlegel considers Kinixys castanea and K. Homeana as 
varieties of the species. 



4. KINIXYS. 

Thorax convex, hinder lobe becoming mobile, with a 
carious suture over the inguinal plate. Sternum solid ; 
sternal plates 12 ; gular pair separate ; inguinal plates very- 
large. Claws 5 • 4 or 4 • 4, cyUndrical, blunt ; outer front 
one small. 

Kinixys, Bell, Linn. Trans, xv. ; Zool. Journ. ii. 514(1828). 

Gray, Syn. 15 (1831) ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 11. 
Cinixys, Wagler, Syst. 138 (1830). 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843); Syst. Schildk. 121 
(1836). 
Cinothorax (Bellianus), Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 

In the young the dorsal suture is scarcely observable, 
but then the genus can be distinguished by the large size 
of the inguinal plates ; the suture becomes more observable 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



13 



as the animal increases in age, unlike the Box Tortoises, 
where the moveable lobes of the sternum often become 
annhylosed in the older specimens. Cuvier, having seen 
only one specimen (Reff. Anim. ii. 10), considered this 
Structure as an accidental deformity, and Wagler by mistake 
savs it is the front part that is moveable. 

In a very perfect ^young specimen in the Museum, the 
third costal shield is divided obliquely across by a regular 
linear suture into two distinct plates, from the hinder part 
of the upper to the front part of the lower or outer edge. 

The number of the claws is liable to vary in the same 
specimen. 

* Sternum truncated before and behind ; fifth vertebral 
plate evenly convex ; claws 4 • 4 or 5 • 4. Cinothorax. 

1. Kinixys BeUiana. Bell's Kinixys. Tab. II. 

Shell oblong, subquadrate, yellow, brown-rayed, rather 
depressed in front, margin nearly entire ; fourth and fifth 
vertebral shields equally convex ; nuchal shield elongated. 

Kiuixvs Belliana, Gray, Syn. 09; Cat. Tort. B.M. 12. 

Griffith, A. K. t. 
Cinixys Belliana, Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 1C8; Cat. 

Mkh. R. 6. 
Kiuixvs Shoeusis, Riippell, Mas. Senck. t. 
Cinothorax Bellianns, Fit:. Si/st. Rejit. 29 (1843). 
Cinixys (Cinothorax) belhana. Fit:. Sysf. Schildk. 121 

(1836). 

Hab. North and West Africa ; (naturalized in Guada- 
loupe ? and ^Mexico 1) . 

a. Animal and shell. Claws 5 '4. Yellow, much rubbed. 

Africa? Presented by Dr. John Edward Gray. 

b. Animal and shell (adult) . Claws 4 • 4. Yellow, brown- 

rayed. Gambia. Presented by J. Whitfield, Esq. 

c. Animal and shell (stuffed). Claws 4 • 4. Discal shields 

concentrically grooved, pale yellow, black-rayed ; areola 
brown varied ; sternum yellow, flat. "Mexico." Mr. 
Warwick's Collection. 

d. Very yoimg (in spirits). The nuchal shield short, small, 

distinct, the third costal jjlate on each side divided 
regularly and obliquely across ; the fore-leg with a row 
of triangular s]iines on the inner side, and two or three 
scattered irregular sjiines on its front part. Africa. 
Mr. Bartlett's Collection. 



** Sternum deeply notched in front ; claws 5' A; fifth 
vertebral plate regularly rounded. Cinixys. 

2. Kinixys erosa. Eroded Kinixys. 

Shell oblong, brown (yellow-rayed?), hinder edge re- 
flexed, toothed ; the fifth vertebral shield equally rouuded ; 
nuchal shield uone. 
Kinisys erosa. Gray, Syn. 16 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 12. 



Cinixys erosa. Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 16.t ; Cat. Mtth. 

R.'e. 

Testudo angulata (adult), Schlegel, F. Japan. 72. 
Kinixys castanea. Bell, Linn. Trans, xv. t. 18. 
Testudo erosa, Schn. Arch. Kceniysb. i. 321 (jun.). 
T. denticulata, Shaw, Zool. ii. t. 13 (jun.), not Linn. 
Cinixys castanea. Fit:. Syst. Rept. 29 ; Syst. Schildk. 121 . 
Testudo Schopfii, Fits. 

Toung. Back equally rounded ; five vertebral sliields 

scarcely raised. 
Kinixys castanea. Bell, Linn. Trans, xviii. t. 18. 

Fery young. Shell depressed, entire ; edge toothed. 

Testudo denticulata, Shaw, Zool. ii. t. 13, in Mus. Coll. 

Surg. 
T. erosa, Schweigger. 

Hub. West Africa ; Gambia. 

a. Adult shell (with fore feet only) ; 9i inches. Fore feet 

covered with three rows of large, long, triangular scales. 
West Africa ; Gambia. 

Osteology : — 

b. Half-grown (shell only) ; 6 inches. West Africa. Pre- 

sented by Thomas Bell, Esq. 
Kinixvs castanea. Bell, Linn. Trans, xv. t. 18. 

c. Half-grown (shell only) ; 5 inches. West Africa ? 

*** Sternum slightly notched in front ; claws 5 ' 4 ; fifth 
vertebral plate produced. 

3. Kinixys Homeana. Home's Kinixys. 

Shell oblong, subquadrate, brown, hinder edge reflesed ; 
up]3er edge of the fifth vertebral shield compressed, pro- 
duced ; nuchal shield generally distinct. 

Kinixys Homeana, Bell, Linn. Trans, xv. 400. t. 1 7 (1828). 

Gray, Syn. 15; Cat. Tort. B.M. 11. 
Cinixys Homeana, Bum. l^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 161. t. 14. 
f. 2 ; Cat. Meth. R. 6. 

Berthold, Act. Nat. Cur. xxii. t. 12 (1845). 

Fit:. Syst. Schildk. 121. 
Testudo Homeana, Gray, Zool. Misc. 1825. 
T. angulata (adult), Schlegel, F. Japon. 72. 

Hab. West Africa ; (naturalized in Demerara ? and Gua- 
daloupe ?) . 

Osteology : — 

a. Shell only ; 7 inches. Demerara. Presented by Sir 

Everard' Home, Bart. 

b. Shell only. Cape Coast, West Africa. Presented by 

Lieut. Matthew C. Friend, R.N. 

M. Schlegel {Faun. Japon. Chelon. 72) regards both 



14 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



K. castanea and K. Homeana as the adult state of Chersina 
angulata ! 

5. PYXIS. 

Shell subglobose, solid. Sternum with the front lobe 
mobile, the suture below the humeral and pectoral shields. 
Animal 1 

Pyxis, Bell, Linn. Trans, xv. t. 1() ; Zool. Journ. ii. .514. 

Gray, Syn. Test. U ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 12 (1844). 

BumMl ^ Bibron, Erp. G('n. i. 15,5 ; Cat. Meth. R. G. 

Wayler, Sysf. 138. 
Testudo § 6 (Pyxis), Fitz. Syst. Sc/iiklJc. 122; Syst.Rept. 

29. 
Testudo, sp., Schhgel. 



1. Vjn.s arachnoides. The Pyxis. 

Shell hemispherical, yellow and black varied, very va- 
riable in colour. 

Pyxis arachnoides, Bell, Linn. Trans, xv. t. IC. 

Gray, Syn. Ifi ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 12. 

Fit:. Syst. Rept. 2!). 

Bum.^Bib.Erp.Gen.\i.\bC,.\..\A.i.\; Cat.Me't/i. R.6. 
P. Madagascariensis, Lesson, Bull. Sci. xxv. 120. 
Testudo geometrica, var., Schlegel, F. Japan. 74. 
Testudo (Pyxis) arachnoides, Fit:. Syst. Schildk. 122. 
Pyxis arachnoidea, Tl^iegm. 

Hah. Madagascar; Isle of France. Mus. Bell (two 
specimens). 

M. Schlegel {Fatin. Japon. Chelon. 74) regards Pyxis 
arachnoides. Bell, as a variety of Testudo geometrica ! 



** Palmata. Feet palmate ; toes mobile ; claws 4 or 5, 
elongate, acute (p. 4). 

Testudines lutrariee, PI in. 

Emys ou Tortues d'eau douce, Bronyniart, Institute, 

1805. 

Oppel, Rept. 
Cuv. R. A. ii. 10. 
Elodites ou Tortues paludines, Bmn. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 

171 ; Cat. Meth. R. 7. 
Phyllopodochelones, Rit:en. 
Steganopoda, Fit:. Syst. Schildk. 
Amydse, sect., Opipel. 
Digitata (part.), Merrem. 
Gynmopodi, Latr. 
Phyllopodochelones, Chersydrochelones seu Amydae, et Po- 

docheloncs, Chersochelones seu Dysmydse, Rit:en. 
■Steganopodes, TJ^agler. 



t Rostrata. Month rostrate ; jaiv incased with a horny 
sheath, not covered ivithjleshy lips. 

Rostrata, Fit:. Syst. Schildk. 1836. 
Ohren Schildkroten, Oken. 
Emydoidea, Fit:. 
Fluviales seu Elodites, Diiin. ^~ Bib. 

Fam. II. EMYDID^ (Terrapens). 

Head rather depressed, covered with a hard or soft skin ; 
jaws with a naked horny beak ; nostril small, apical. Neck 
retractile into the cavity of the thorax. Feet depressed, 
expanded ; toes 5 • 5, 5 • 4 or 4 " 4, almost always webbed 
to the claws ; claws sharp. Tail conical, shielded beneath. 
Thorax generally depressed, solid, with a distinct bony 
margin, covered with horny ])lates. Discal plates 13, mar- 
ginal 24-26, caudal always separate ; sternal shields 1 1 or 
12, gular pair sometimes united. The vertebrae of the 
neck bent in a perpendicular bow. Pelvis only united to 
the vertebrae. Rapid ; living in freshwater ponds. Car- 
nivorous, eating mollusca, worms, insects and carrion ; only 
taking their food while in the water. Egg oblong, white. 

Emydidce, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 210 (1825) ; Syn. Rept. 17; 
Cat. Tort. B.M. 13. 

Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 514 (1828). 
Emydee, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 55; Syn. Rept. 17 
(1831). 

IJ'iegmann ^- Ruthe, Handb. Zool. 160. 
Fit:. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 
Sivainson, Lard. Cycloj). 344. 
Emydina (part.). Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 210 (1825). 
Eniydina, Bonap. Tab. .inalyt. 6 (1836). 
Terrapene, Bonap. Obserr. Rig. Anim. 153 (1830). 
TestudinidK, Testudinina (part.), Bonaj). Saggio Anim. 

Vert. 13 (1832). 
Emydoides (part.), Fit:. Neue Class. (1826). 
Emvs (Tortues d'eau douce) (part.), Brongn. Institute 
("1805). 

Oppel, Rept. (1811). 
Cuv. R.A. ii. 10; ed. 2. ii. 10. 
Merrem, Tent. 22. 
Tortues ii boite, Cuv. R. A. ii. 12. 
Elodites ou Tortues Paludines (§1. Les Cryptoderes), Bum. 

Sf Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 171, 201 ; Cat. Meth. R. 7. 
Phyllopodochelones (Chersvdrocheloues) (part.), Rit:en, 

Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Ciir. xiv. 269 (1828). 
Testudines lutrarise, Plin. II. N. xxxii. c. 4. 
Podochelones (Dysmyda;) (part.), Rit:en, I. c. 270 (1828). 
Chelidridse (part.), Swainson, Lard. Cyclop. 343. 

In some, perhaps in all the genera, the head of the 
males is larger and broader, the tail larger and longer, and 
more strongly clawed at the end, and the sternum more 
concave, as in the former family, than in the females. 

Dr. Harlan observes that the females of some species are 
more keeled than the males, but this distinction is very 
doubtful, and requires verification. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



15 



Synopsis of the Genera. 

A. Head and tail moderate ; sterno-costal suture simple. 

a. Sternum solid, truncated before and nicked behind, attached 
to the thorax by a bony symphysis, covered with the end of 
the pectoral and abdominal shields ; sternal plates 12 ; axil- 
lary and inguinal plates moderate or none. 

* Pectoral plates small, short, triangular, lateral, far apart. 

1 . Manouria. 

** Pectoral plates broad, square, close together, side by side. 
t Toes strong, free, not %cebbed, cross-shielded above. 

2. Geoemyda. Head covered with a thiu hard skin. Toes rather 

short, free ; claws 5 ' 4. 

tt Toes strong, webbed, cross-shielded above. 

3. Niooria. Head covered with a thin hard skin ; eyes large, 

close together, subsuperior. Toes very short, united. 

4. Geoclemys. Head covered with a thin hard skin, rhombic; 

forehead flat ; eyes lateral. Toes strong, shortly webbed. 

5. Emys. Head covered with a thin hard skin, broad, ovate; 

forehead convex ; eyes subsuperior ; branches of lower jaw 
narrow, covered with the beak. Toes short, strongly webbed. 

6. Chrysemys. Head covered with a thin hard skin, oblong; 

forehead convex ; eyes subsuperior. Sternum broad, rounded 
before and behind. Toes strongly webbed. 

ttt Tees elongate, largely vwbbed. with small scales above. 

7. Pseudemys. Head covered with a thin hard skin, ovate ; 

forehead convex ; eyes subsuperior ; branches of lower jaw 
dilated, flat, covered with a soft skin. Toes short, webbed. 

8. Batagur. Head covered with a thin hard skin, broad, ovate ; 

forehead convex ; eyes subsuperior ; branches of lower jaw 
narrow. Toes largely webbed. 

0. Malaclemys. Head depressed, covered with a soft skin, ovate ; 
forehead convex; eyes subsuperior. Toes broadly webbed. 

b. Sternum divided by a central cross suture, attached to the 
thorax by a ligamentous suture, covered by the end of the 
pectoral and abdominal shields ; sternal plates 12; axillary 
and inguinal plates very small. Toes webbed. 

t Legs scaly ; toes slightly webbed. 

10. Cistudo. Head rhombic; forehead flat; eyes lateral. Ster- 

num very broad; anterior lobe covered with the gular, 
humeral and pectoral plates," and quite free. 

11. Lutremys. Head ovate; forehead convex; eyes subsui)erior. 

Sternum broad; tlie suture l)etween the two sternal lobes in 
the short sterno-costal sutiu'e. 

tt Legs with crescentic shields ; toes broadly webbed. 

12. Cviora. Head rhombic ; forehead flat ; eyes lateral. Sternum 

very broad ; anterior lobe partly included in the sterno-costal 
suture. 

13. Cyclemys, Head ovate ; forehead convex ; eyes subsujierior. 

Sternum rather narrower than the cavity at each end ; the 
cross suture between the two sternal lobes in the middle of 
the long sterno-costal suture. 



c. Sternum divided by two cross sutures; central lobe attached 
to the thorax by a bony symphysis, covered by the end of the 
abdominal shields only; sternal plates II or 8; the axillary 
and inguinal plates large. Toes webbed. 

14. Kinosternon. Sternal plates 1 1 ; gular plates united ; humeral 

and pectoral distinct ; pectoral triangular. 

15. Aroinoclielys. Sternal plates 11 ; gular linear, rudimentary; 

pectoral broad, four-sided. 

16. Staurotypus. Sternal plates 8 ; gular, humeral and pectoral 

united together. 

B. Head and tail very large; sterno-costal symphysis covered 
with one or three peculiar plates. 

a. Sternum cross-like, acute before; sternal plates 10, with a 

broad one on each side, over the sides of the sternum. 

17. Cbelydi-a. Head depressed, covered with a soft skin. Shell 

with a single series of mai'ginal shields. 

18. Macroclemys. Head large, high, covered with symmetrical 

horny plates. Shell with a double series of marginal shields 
on each side. 

b. Sternum broad, truncated before ; sternal plates 12; sterno- 
costal suture covered with three or four additional plates. 

19. Platysternon. Tail cylindrical, shielded. Shell depressed. 

20. Dermatemys. Tail ? Shell convex. 

These genera pass gradually one into the other, and the 
similarity in the form of the sternum between Platyster- 
non and Emys converts the series into a circle. The genus 
Cistudo appears to unite them to the Land Tortoises, while 
Chelydra has some affinities with certain of the Chelydce. 



A. Head and tail moderate ; sterno-costal suture simple. 

Emydina (part.), Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 210 (182.")). 
Emydidse § A, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 13 (1844). 
Emys, Gray, Syn. Rejjf. 20. 

Dum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 234 ; Cat. Meth. R. 8. 



a. Sternum solid, truncated before and nicked behind, at- 
tached to the thora.v by a bony symphysis ; sternal 
plates 12; axillary and inguinal plates moderate or 
none. Emydina. 

Emydidse § A. a, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 13. 
Emydina (part.), Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 210. 
Clemmvs, IVagler, Syst. Repf. 137. 
Fit.:. Syst. Repf. 29 (1843). 

* Pectoral plates small, short, triangular, lateral, far 
apart. 

1. MANOURIA. 

Animal luiknown. Shell rather depressed ; caudal plates 
double, separate. Sternum solid, broad, produced and 



16 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



slightly nicked in front, with onl}' five pair of broad shields ; 
the pectoral shields being short, subtriangular, only occu- 
pying the angle between the outer edge of the humeral and 
abdominal shields ; axillary shields small, inguinal larger ; 
the areola of the discal shield central. 

The depressed form and divided caudal plate induce me 
to place this genus in Emyda. It most resembles Testudo 
Gopher in appearance, but is at once known from that spe- 
cies and all the other genera of Testudinid^e, Emydce and 
Chelyd(B by the peculiar form of the pectoral plates, which 
at first sight might he mistaken for a very large inguinal 
plate, if that ]ilate were not also present. In this respect it 
somewhat resembles the genus Khwsternon, but tliere the 
plate is only narrow at the inner end and reaches nearly to 
the centre of the sternum. 

The various genera of Tesfiidinidce have the pectoral 
plates much smaller than the others, and perhaps the small 
size of the plate in this genus shows its affinity among the 
EmyditKB to that family ; and were it not for the regular 
division of the caudal and the form of the pectoral plates, 
it might be regarded as nearly allied to the very variable 
Testudo Indica. 

1. Manouria fusca. Brown Manouria. Tab. III. 

Pale brown, nearly uniform. Discal shield concentrically 
grooved, with a central areola ; the anterior and posterior 
lateral margins acute, slightly sinuated and rather bent up ; 
the humeral and abdominal plates longer than broad, the 
abdominal very large ; gular produced, narrowed in front. 

Geoemyda spinosa, adult, Cantor, Rept. Malay. Peni/is. 1 . 
Manouria fusca. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, 133 ; Ann. ^' 
Mag. Nat. Jlisf. 'l85,j, xv. 68. 

Hah. Pinang. 

a. Shell only, in had state, wanting many of the horny 
discal shields ; front of the sternum acutely notched. 
Pinang. From the Zoological Society. 

/j. Shell only : adult. In a bad state ; front of the sternum 
deformedand worn nearly round. Pinang Hills. From 
Dr. Cantor's Collection. Presented by the Hon. East 
India Company. 

"Geoemyda spinosa. Cantor." 

" Found on the great liill at Pinang at a distance from 
water." — Cantor. 

Dr. Cantor's description of the animal is copied from the 
generic character of the genus Geoemyda in this Catalogue, 
and therefore has no special relation to the animal of this 
genus. 



** Pectoral plates broad, square, close together, side by 
side. 

t Toes strong, free, not webbed, covered with a series of 
plates above. 

2. GEOEMYDA. 

Head covered with a thin hard skin, oblong ; forehead 
rather convex. Eyes subsuperior. Branches of the lower 
jaw narrow, rounded, covered with the beak. Chin not 
bearded. Legs strong, not fringed behind, covered with 
large triangular scales. Toes strong, short, free to the base, 
covered above by a series of shields ; claws 5 • 4, short, 
curved. Hind foot with a distinct rudimentary clawless 
fifth toe. Tail tapering. Shell depressed, keeled ; areola 
of dorsal shields posterior, marginal ; hinder edge strongly 
toothed. Sternum solid, broad, truncated before, nicked 
behind ; shields six pair, subequal ; pectoral shields broad ; 
gular plate linear, baud-like, small ; axillary and inguinal 
plates small. The sternum is often concave, like Testudo. 

This genus differs from Eniys in the toes being quite free. 

Geoemyda, Groy,P)-oe. Zool. Soc. 1834; Cat. Tort. B.M. 14. 
Geoemys, " Gray," Bonap. Tab. Analyt. 7 (1836). 
Emys, sp., Gray, Syn. Rept. 20. 

Bum. Si' Bib. Erp. Gen. ; Cut. Meth. R. 
Testudo, sp., Miilter, Verhand. 

Bum. ^- Bib. MSS. ; Cat. Meth. R. 4. 
Chelonura, sp., Bonap. Obs. Cuv. R. A. 171 (1836). 

1. Geoemyda spinosa. The Spinose Land Emys. 

Shell oblong, subquadrate, keeled, flattened above, chest- 
nut-brown, front and hinder edge strongly serrated ; verte- 
bral plates broad, first suburceolate ; costal plates with a 
posterior, subsuperior areola, with a slight subconic tubercle ; 
beneath yellow, brown-rayed. Toung depressed, pale brown, 
bluntly keeled, with a distinct spine in the areola of each 
discal plate. 

Geoemvda spinosa, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834 ; Illust. 

Ind! Zool. t. . f. 2 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 14. 
Emys spinosa. Gray, Syn. 20 ; Illust. Ind. Zool. t. . f . 1 

(young). 

Bell, Test. t. 1, young. 

Bum. H)- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 32" ; Cat. Meth. R. 15. 
" E. bispinosa," Schleyel. 
Testudo Emys, G. Midler, Verh. Rept. 34. t. 4 ? (1844) ; 

(vertebral plates not keeled). 
T. Emydoides, Bum. t'j- Bib. MSS. ; Cat. Meth. R. 4. 

Hab. Pinang {Cantor) ; Sumatra (MUller) ; Java (Bu- 
miril). 

a. Adult (stuffed) ; 8 inches. Sumatra. River Auch. 

b. Young (in spirits). Sumatra. From the Leyden Mu- 

seum. 
" Testudo Emys, G. Milller." 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



17 



c and d. Young and adult (stuffed). Pinang, Singapore. 
Mr. Wallace's Collection. 

Fouiiff. Head and neck brown, with a large irregular 
yellow spot on each side of the nape. Costal shield with a 
small spine in the hinder edge of each areola. 

The forehead covered with large, the occiput and the 
hinder part of the branches of the lower jaw with smaller, 
flat, symmetrical plates, which are more distinct in the 
younger specimens. 

•ff Toes short, strong, covered ahove with transverse shields, 
united htj a scaly weh to the claws ; claws curved. 

3. NICORIA. 

Head covered with a thin horny skin ; forehead narrow. 
Eyes very large, rather close, subsuperior. Upper beak very 
strong, acute. Legs strong, not fringed beliind, covered 
with thick triangular scales, forming a series on the outer 
side of the front. Toes very short, united, free just at 
the end, covered above with band-like shields. Hind 
foot narrow, with a very obscure rudiment of a fifth toe, 
only to be seen in the skeleton or in the dry contracted 
state. Claws .5 • 4, curved. Shell depressed, three-keeled ; 
areola of dorsal shield posterior, marginal ; hinder edge 
strongly toothed. Sternum solid, broad, truncated before, 
nicked behind ; shields six pair, subcqual ; pectoral shields 
broad, square ; gular small ; axillary and inguinal plates 
rudimentary or wanting. Africa. 

1. Nicoria Spengleri. Spengler's Nicoria. 

Shell oblong, depressed, pale brown, three-keeled ; keels 
continuous, distant, black-edged ; hinder edge deeply ser- 
rated ; vertebral shields quadrate ; sternum black, yellow- 
edged. Animal olive, red dotted, with a white streak on 
each side of the neck. 

Testudo Spengleri, Walb. Berlin Naturf. vi. 122. t. 3. 

Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 1043. 
Emys Spengleri, Baud. R. ii. 103. 

Schweiff. Prod. 310. 

Merreni, Am ph. 23. 

Gray, Syn. 21. 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 308 ; Cat. Meth. R. 15. 
Geoemyda Spengleri, Gray, Proc. Zool. Sac. 1834 ; Cat. 

Tort. B.M. 14. 
Testudo serrata, Shaw, Zool. iii. 50. t. 9. 
T. serpentina, var., Latr. Rept. i. 1G3. 
T. tricarinata, Bory, Voy. Isl. Afric. Atlas, t. 37. f. 1. 
Chelonura serpentina (part.), Bonaj). Ohs. Cuv. R. A. 171. 

Hab. Africa? China. 

a. Adult ; animal dry (shell lost two scales) ; 3^ inches. 
China. Presented by John Russell Reeves, Esq. 

c. Adult (in spirits). From the Zoological Society. 



Osteology : — 

b. Half-grown shell ; the ossification incomplete on the 
entire circumference. Africa. 

Schlegel, in the Fauna Japonica, confounds Em^js cras- 
sicollis, E. Thurgi, E. Reevesii and Cistudo dentata with 
this species, but they do not even belong to the same natural 
genus. It appears to be rave on the Continent, as it is 
wanting in the Paris and Leyden Museums. 

Latreille and Prince Bonaparte confound this species with 
Chelonura serpentina. 



4. GEOCLEMYS. 

Head moderate, covered with a thin hard skin ; forehead 
flat ; cheeks perpendicular. Eyes lateral. Chin not bearded. 
Fore-legs covered with broad lunate scales. Toes short, 
strong, covered with transverse shields above, slightly 
webbed. Claws 5 • 4. Tail moderate. Shell depressed. 
Sternum solid, broad, truncated before, nicked behind ; 
aftixed to the thorax by a bony symphysis, covered by the 
ends of the pectoral and abdominal plates ; axillary and 
inguinal plates moderate, distinct. Asiatic and American. 
Emys, sp., Brongniart and others. 

This genus contains the more terrestrial and solid-shelled 
Terrapens with webbed feet ; their head is more square and 
flat-topped than in their more aquatic congeners ; and they 
have the eyes on the side of the face. The skull is square, 
with a broad flat forehead ; the orbits being placed quite 
on the side of the head and not interrupting the outline of 
the forehead, as in the more aquatic Emydes. 

These animals are essentially aquatic, but often leave the 
water for months together. They are very active and 
restless. 

* Back three-keeled : keels interrupted, nodose. 

** Back three-keeled; keels continued. 

*** Back one-keeled ; shields radiate, concentrically grooved. 

**** Back not keeled, depressed; shields thin, spotted. 

* Back three-keeled, spotted; areolce rugose, each ivith a 
very broad nodose longitudinal ridge; hinder edge 
entire or subdentate. Asiatic. 

1. Geoclemys Hamiltonii. Hamilton's Emys. 

Shell oblong, convex, solid, with three interrupted keels, 
slightly toothed behind, black, yellow-rayed ; shield con- 
vex, areola rugose, with a large irregular central keel ; 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



sternum keeled on the sides, black, yellow- varied. Head 
and body black, yellow-spotted. 

Emys Hamiltonii, Gray, Syn. 21.72; Cat. Tort. B.M. 19. 

Bum. ^' Bib. Erp. Gt'n. ii. 316; Cat. Meth. R. 14. 
E. guttata, B. Hamilton, MSS. 

Gray, II lust. Ind. Zool. t. 9. f. 1, not Schweig. 
E. Picquotii, Lesson, Belanyer, Joy. 29-1. 

Hah. India ; Bengal. Common in ponds. 

a. Animal (in spirits) . India; Bengal. From M. Picquot's 

Collection. 

h. Animal (stuffed). India; Bengal. From M. Picquot's 
Collection. 

The head is rhombic ; the forehead flat, rather convex 
over the eyebrows. 



** Back three-keeled ; heels continued. Asiatic. 
2. Geoclemys Reevesii. Reeves' Emys. Tab. V. 

Shell oblong, very convex, black (pale brown when dead), 
obscurely three-keeled ; keels distant, lateral and continued ; 
vertebral shields broad, six-sided ; margin entire; the second 
pair of sternal shields subtriangular, narrow at the inner 
edge ; inguinal and axillary plates large. Head black, cheek 
and neck yellow-lined. 

Emys Reevesii, Gray, Syn. Rept. 73. 

Dxim. S,- Bib. Erp. 'Gen. ii. 315 ; Cat. Meth. R. 14. 
E. Spengleri, var., Schlegel, Faun. Japon. 51. 

Hub. China. 

a. Adult, dry ; '2J inches. China. Presented by J. R. 

Reeves, Esq. 

c. Adult, stuffed. China. Mr. Bartlctt's Collection. 

Osteology : — 

b. Shell of adult ; 2f inches. China. Presented by J. 

R. Reeves, Esq. 

M. Schlegel also refers this most distinct species to 
Geoemyda Spengleri. It is much like E. Hamiltonii in 
general appearance, but differs in the keel being continued. 

Head rhombic ; crown flat, when dry rather convex 
over the orbits, smooth, brown, with a few pale dots ; 
cheeks with a short broad white line from the middle of 
the hinder edge of the orbits. Tympanum edged with a 
white lunate band above ; eyes lateral ; lower beak pale, 
brown-varied, with a broad short pale streak from its 
hinder edge. Toes short. The first vertebral plate broad, 
only slightly contracted behind. 

The second specimen (Tab. V.) has the same marks, 
but they have been rather distorted in the stuffing. 



3. Geoclemys Seba. Seba's Emys. 

Shell ovate, convex, brown, entire, three-keeled ; keels 
continuous, yellow, lateral ones arched ; vertebral shield 
broad ; marginal plates very broad ; sternum flat, keeled 
on the sides, brown, with a pale streak on each side. Head 
red spotted and streaked ; feet brown ; toes scarcely 
webbed. 

Seba, Thes. i. t. 79. f. 12. 

Emys Seba, Gray, Syn. Rept. t. 75 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 19. 
E. thermalis, Reyneau, in Lesson, Cent. Zool. 89. t. 29. 
Emys trijuga?, Eelaart, Prod. F. Zeylan. 1/7. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

a. Young, in spirits. Ceylon. Mr. Cuming's Collection. 

b. Young ; rather older than a. Trincomalee. Presented 

by Mr. Edward Gerard. 

Shell brown, with three pale keels ; marginal shield with 
a linear marginal spot ; under side black, with a broad white 
edge un each side of the sternum, and a narrow line in 
front. Head black, with symmetrical pale spots on the 
crown, face and chin ; a large round white spot behind 
the hinder angle of the eyelids, commencing a broad, more 
or less interrupted streak on the upper part of the side of 
the neck. Feet and legs black, with a few small white 
specks on the front of the legs. 

*** Back one-heeled ; shields radiately and concentrically 
grooved. North America. 

4. Greoclemys pulchella. The Engraved Geoclemys. 

Shell oblong, depressed, keeled in front, hinder edge 
slightly reflexed ; shields radiately and concentrically 
grooved, minutely yellow and black dotted, areola small ; 
nuchal slender ; sternum yellow, areola posterior, marginal, 
black. Animal chestnut-brown. 

Emys pulchella, Schweig. Prod. 303 (not Schoepff.). 
■ Bum. 4- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 251 ; Cat. M('th. R. 9. 
Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 20. 
E. scabra, Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. iv. 204 (not 

Linn.). 
Testudo insculpta, Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. T. iii. 1 12. 
Holbrooh, N. A. Herpet. i. 93. t. 13. 
Be Kay, 14. t. 4. f. 8. 
Emys speciosa. Bell, MSS. ; in Gray, Syn. 26 (var. shield 
smooth). 

Holbrooh, N. A. Herpet. iii. 17. t. 2. 
E. inscri[)ta, Mps. Par. 

E. JNIuhlenbergii, var., Schlegel, Faun. Japan. 56. 
Terrapene scabra, Bonap. Obs. Cur. R. A. 157. 
"Testudo scabra," Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 351 (not Gmelin 
nor Bona]).). 

Hab. North America. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Female. North America ; Pennsyl- 
vania. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



19 



Osteology : — 

b, c. Skeleton of male and female. Nortb America ; Penn- 
sylvania. 

The skull subquadrangular ; forehead broad, quite flat, 
rather raised over the nostrils ; sides of the head perpen- 
dicular, flattened. Nose truncated ; orbits lateral, not in- 
terrupting the outline of the forehead ; temples rather con- 
tracted behind ; branches of the lower jaw narrow, com- 
pressed. 

5. Geoclemys Muhlenbergii. The Two-Spotted 
Geoclemys. 

Shell oval-oblong, smooth, low, slightly keeled, contracted 
on the sides ; shields slightly radiately and concentrically 
grooved, chestnut, with yellow areola and rays ; nuchal 
linear. Head blackish, with two large, irregular, fulvous, 
occipital spots. 

Emys JIuhlenbergii, Schweh/. Prod. 310. 

Grai/, Si/n. 25 ; Cat Tort. B.M. 20. 

Bum. ^Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 304 ; Cat. Meth. R. 12. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. i. .59. t. 5 ; ed. 2. i. 45. t. 4. 

Be Kay, Zool. xV. York, 17. t. 8. f. 15. 
Testudo Muhlenbergii, Schoepff. Test. 132. t. 31. 

Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iv. 205. 
Emys biguttata or bipunctata. Say, Journ. Aead. Nat. Sci. 

Philad. iv. 205, 212. 
Chersina Muhlenbergii, Merrem, Tent. 30. 
Terrapene Muhlenbergii, i?ona/j. Obs. Cuv.R.A. 160(1830). 

Hab. North America, New Jerseyand East Pennsylvania. 

a. Adult (stuffed). North America. From the Zoological 
Society. 

Schlegel regards Testudo inscuJpta, Leconte, E. speciosa, 
Bell, as a variety of this species ! — Fauna Japonica. 



**** Back not keeled, depressed ; shields thin, spotted. 
North America. 

6. Geoclemys ^ttata. The Speckled Geoclemys. 

Shell ovate, depressed, dilated behind ; shields smooth, 
black-brown with round yellow spots ; nuchal linear ; ster- 
num yellow, brown-varied. Head yellow-spotted ; throat 
yellow-lined. 

Emys guttata, Schweig. Prod. 309, 433. 

Gray, Syn. 26 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 26. 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 295 ; Cat. Meth. R. 12. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. ii. 25. t. 4 ; ed. 2. i. 81 . t. 1 1 . 

Be Kay, Zool. New York, 13. t. 6. f. 12. 
Testudo guttata, Bechst. in Lact'p. Q. O. i. 310. 

Shaw, Zool. iii. t. 10. 
T. punctata, Schneid. Schildk. 30 ; Berlin Naturf. x. 264. 

Baud. R. ii. 159. t. 22. 

Latr. Rept. i. 1 W. 



Testudo punctata, Schoejjjf. Test. t. 5. 

Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iii. 117. 
T. anonyma, Schneid. Schildk. 30. 

Gothw. Schildk. f. 15. 
T. terrestris amboiuensis, Seba, i. t. 80. f. 7. 
Terrapene punctata, Bonap. Obs. Cuv. R. A. 159 (1830). 
Cyclemys punctata, Tf'ayler, Syst. 137. t. 5. f. 6, 7. 
Emys punctata, Merrem, Amph. 24. 

Say, Journ. Acad. Philad. iv. 205, 212. 

Harlan, A. H. 77. 

Hab. North America. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Presented by Henry Doubleday, Esq. 

b. Adult (animal dry). Spots on back few and large. 

North America. 

c. Adult (stuffed). Broad, depressed; spots few, large. 

North America. 

d. Adult (stuffed) . Body narrower, higher ; spots nume- 

rous. North America. 

e. Adidt (in spirits). 

f,ff& h. Adult (in spirits). North America. Presented 
by Dr. J. E. Gray. 

Osteology : — 

/. Skeleton of adult. North America. From the Paris 
Collection. 

Forehead flattened, rather rounded in front over the 
nose ; nose truncated ; cheeks perpendicular ; orbits lateral ; 
temples nearly parallel, scarcely contracted behind ; lower 
jaw narrow. 



5. EMYS. 

Head moderate, covered with a thin hard skin, oblong ; 
forehead convex. Eyes subsuperior. The branches of the 
lower jaw narrow, rounded beneath, and covered with the 
hind part of the horny beak. Chin not bearded. Fore 
legs covered with broad lunate scales in front. Toes short, 
strong, shielded above, webbed to the claws. Claws 5 • 4, 
curved. Tail moderate. Shell depressed. Sternum solid, 
broad, truncated before, nicked behind, affixed to the thorax 
by a bou}' symphysis, covered by the ends of the pectoral 
and abdominal plates ; axillary and inguinal plates mode- 
rate, distinct. 

Emys, sp., Brongniart. 

Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. 270 (1822). 

Gray, Syn. Rept. ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 15. 

IVieyni. S,- Ruthe, Handb. 166. 

Bell, Zool. Journ. iii. 515 (1828). 

Bum. S,- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 230 ; Cat. Meth. R. 8. 
Emys § 2, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 210 (1825). 
Clemmys, TT'agler. 

Fife. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 
Terrapene, Bonap. Obs. Rig. Anim. 153(1830). 

E 2 



20 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



Synopsis of Sections. 

* Back three-keeled J vertebral plates elongate, subtrigonal. 
Asiatic. 

** BacJc three-keeled; vertebral plates broad, square. Asiatic. 

*** Back more or less one-keeled, often becoming keelless. Old 
and New Worlds. 



* Back three-keeled; vertebral plates elongate, subtrigonal ; 
areola of discal shields tvith a narrow longitudinal 
ridge ; hinder edge suhdentate or entire. Asiatic. 

1. Emys crassicoUis. The Thick-necked Emys. 

Shell ovate, oblong, rather convex, black, slightly three- 
keeled ; keels close ; vertebral plates elongate, six-sided ; 
sides revolute, hinder edge serrated ; sternum flat, pale, 
and keeled on the sides. Head and neck thick, black. 

Emys crassicoUis, Bell, MSS. in Grai/, Sijn. 21. t. 7. f. 3 ; 
I'llust. hul. Zool. t. 9. f. 2 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. IG. 

Bum. i^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 325 ; Cat. Meth. R. 14. 

Cantor, Cat. 3. 
E. Spengleri, var., Schlegel, F. Japon. 51. 

Ilab. Sumatra and Pinang (Cantor, Cat. 3) ; Batavia, 
Java {Quoy) ; Borneo {Schlegel). 

b. Animal and shell (half-grown; in spirits). Sumatra. 

From the Leyden Museum. 

c. Adult (stuffed). Keels on sides of sternum yellow. 

India. 

d. Adult (stuffed). Sternum uniform black. India. 

e. Half-grown (in spirits). Shell brown, having a bronzed 

appearance ; vertebral jjlates distorted. Head brown, 
with a white spot over and rather before each eye, on 
the side of the chin, and on each side of the nape, 
surrounding the back edge of the tympanum, and in- 
distinctly continued across the throat ; a small white 
streak on the middle of the black tympanum. Su- 
matra. Mr. Bartlett's Collection. 

Osteology : — 

a. Shell only ; A\ inches long. Sumatra. Presented by 
Thomas Bell, Esq. 

/. Adult shell (very old). Ceylon. Presented by Dr. 
Kelaart. 

Fore legs with large, irregular, transverse plates on the 
inner side of the front, and a row of large, triangular, com- 
pressed, keeled scales on the outer. Toes short, strong, 
with a series of band-like scales above ; webs scaly. Hind 
legs granular, with a few large scales on the outer, and 
small close ones on the inner margin. 

"They are numerous in Pinang, inhabiting rivulets and 
ponds in the valleys. The throat is whitish, and a small 
white spot appears on each side of the occiput ; the verte- 
bral keels and the lateral spines become obhterated with 



age. It feeds ou frogs, and also upon shell-fish and animal 
offal, and is often taken by the angler with the hook." — 
Cantor. 

M. Schlegel could never have observed Nicoria Spen- 
gleri, or he would not have confounded it with this species. 

** Back three-keeled ; vertebral plates broad, square. 
Asiatic. 

2. Emys trijuga. The Three-keeled Emys. Tab. IV. 

Shell convex, oval, brown, three-keeled ; keels rather in- 
terrupted ; margin slightly toothed ; shields rugose, areola 
marginal, posterior, rugose ; first vertebral plate five-sided, 
keeled, rather narrower behind ; others six-sided, rather 
longer than broad ; sternum rather convex on the sides, 
blackish. Head brown, with a yellow streak over each eye ; 
beaks yellow-varied. 

Emys trijuga, Schweig. Prod. 310. 

" Dum.\ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 310 ; Cat. Meth. R. 15. 
Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 16. 
E. Belangeri, Lesson, Voij. Ind. 291, young. 
Testudo scabra, Shaw, Zool. iii. 55, from Seba, i. 1 26. t. 79. 
f. 1, 2. 

Hub. India ; Pondicherry ; Malabar ; Bengal ; ponds at 
Calcutta. 

a. Adult (animal and shell). Under side of marginal 

shield and edge of sternum 3ellow ; dorsal keels black. 
Compared with the specimens iu the Paris ^luseuni. 
Presented by Dr. J. E. Gray. 

Osteology. Tab. XXXVIl. f. 2, skulls. 

c. Adult skeleton. Margin of shell revolute. Head 
narrow, rather small (a female?). From the Leyden 
Collection. 

" Emys subtrijuga, Mies. Leyden." 

b. Adult skeleton. Under side of margin and edge of ster- 

num black ; dorsal keels yellow ; margin of shell not 
revolute. Head broad, large ; forehead rather convex, 
(a male?). India. From the Vienna Museum. 

" Emvs Hermanni," Schw. ? Mus. Vienna. 

Skull depressed ; forehead flat, rather convex over the 
orbits ; sides of the face slightly shelving ; cheeks and 
temples rather convex ; orbits large, sUghtly intruding on 
the outline of the forehead. 



3. Emys nigricans. The Blackish Emys. Tab. VI. 

Shell ovate, oblong, rather convex, revolute on the sides 
and slightly toothed behind, brown, shghtly three-keeled, 
the central keel prominent, blunt, interrupted in front and 
contiimed behind, the lateral keels far apart, indistinct 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



21 



and interrupted ; shield radiately striated, blackish-rayed ; 
areola of vertebral plates posterior, marginal, of costal 
plates superior, submarginal ; nuchal plate none ; margin 
yellow-spotted beneath ; sternum convex, rounded on the 
■side ; axillar}- plate moderate, inguinal large. Animal 
black ; neck with three or four yellow lines on the side ; 
chin and throat yellow, black-varied. 

Emys nigricans. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834; Cat. Tort. 
B.M. 18. 

Hab. Chiua. 

c. Adult (stuffed). China ? From the Zoological Society. 

a. Young animal (dry, from spirits) ; 2^ inches long. 

China ; Canton. Presented by the Hon. East India 
Company. From Dr. Cantor's Collection. 
Emys mutica. Cantor, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1842 ; Grai/, Cat. 
tort. B.M. 18. 

Osteology : — 

b. Shell and head (dry), margin broken ; 2\ inches. China. 

Presented by J. R. Reeves, Esq. 

Dr. Cantor's specimens of E. mutica only differ from the 
larger specimen in the Museum in the plates being worn. 

Head of the dry specimen uniform brown, showing no 
appearance of any pale marks. Forehead rather convex. 
Eyes subsuperior. 

The head covered with a thin skin ; neck granular ; the 
fore legs with two series of broad band-like shields on the 
inner and a series of narrower longer shields on the outer 
side. Toes covered with scales with a broad web, and 
with three or four band-like scales above near the claws. 
Claws black, curved ; the hinder stronger. Allied to the 
genus Batagur. 



4. Emys sinensis. The Chinese Emys. 
Shell ovate, convex, slightly three-keeled, olive, black- 
speckled ; shields smooth, with a central orange streak ; 
vertebral shields broad, six-sided, first narrowest, as long as 
broad ; areola of vertebral plates ])osterior, marginal, of 
costal subcentral, subposterior ; margin entire, rather revo- 
lute in front, and expanded over the leg behind, beneath 
yellow, with an oval, rather posterior, black-edged olive 
spot ; sternum high, slightly keeled on the sides. Head 
and neck olive, with narrow yellow lines. 

Emys sinensis. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834 ; Cat. Tort. 
B.M. 17. 
Hab. China ; Canton. 

a. Adult (stuffed) ; 4 inches long. China. Presented by 
John Reeves, Esq. 



Toes broadly webbed. Head elongate ; forehead rather 
convex ; eyes subsuperior. 

*** Back more or less one-keeled, often becoming keelless ; 
areola of costal plates simple; hinder edge entire or 
nearly so. 

t Asiatic. 

5. Emys Thurgii. The Thurgi. 
Shell oblong, rather convex, olive-brown ; margin yellow- 
ish, rather toothed behind ; vertebral plates, first quadrate, 
broader behind, second and third broad, six-sided ; sternum 
olive, sUghtly keeled on the sides. Head olive, with a broad 
yellow band from the nostrils, over the eyebrows, along the 
side of the neck ; feet oUve, yellow-spotted. 

Emys Thurgii, Gray, Syn. 22. 72; Cat. Tort. B.M. 17. 
Bum. |- Bib. Erp. Gere. ii. 318 ; Cat. Meth. R. 14. 
Testudo Thurgii, B. Hamilton, MSS. cop. Gray, Illust. 

hid. Zool. t. 
Emys flavo-nigra. Lesson, Bull. Sci. xxv. 12, and Belanger, 

toy. 22. 
E. Spengleri, var., ScMegel, Faun. Japan. 51. 

Hab. India, Bengal ; Pinang (Cawdor). 

a. Adult (stuffed) ; 13 mches. Blackish-brown ; under 

side of marginal plate yellow-edged. India, Bengal. 
From yi. Picquot's Collection. 

b. Young (dry) ; .5 inches. Shell keeled ; the hinder edge 

of the second and third vertebral jilates subnodose ; 
the middle of the vertebral and the upper part of the 
lateral costal shields and the hinder costal shield black- 
ish ; the marginal shields pale-edged. India, Bengal. 

M. Schlegel also refers this species, which he has not 
seen, to Geoemyda Spengleri. It has not the shghtest 
affinity to it, and is ten times the size ! 

The head ovate ; forehead rather convex ; eyes rather 
close together, subsuperior ; front of legs with broad lunate 
scales. Toes broadly webbed. 

6. Emys BeaUi. Beale's Emys. Tab. VIII. 

Shell ovate, oblong, solid, rather convex, olive, black- 
dotted ; back slightly contracted and keeled behind, hinder 
edge rather expanded, entire ; vertebral shields transverse, 
six-sided ; sternum rather paler, black-spotted and lined. 
Head yellowish, black-spotted ; chin and cheek yellow- 
marked ; occiput with two large eyed spots ; neck scarlet- 
lined, with three broader distant streaks on the upper side. 

Emys Bealii, Gray, P/-oc.2oo/. Soc. 1834; Cat.Torf.B.M.XT. 

Bum. S,- Bib. Erp. Gm. ii. 325 ; Cat. Mtth. /J. 14. 
Cistudo? Bealii, Gray, Syn. 71. 
Hab. China (Reeves). 



22 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



a. Adult (stuffed). Under sides with hard dark blotches. 

China. Presented by J. Reeves, Esq. 

Osteology : — 

b. Adult shell. Under sides brown dotted and lined. 

China. Presented by J. Reeves, Esq. 

Head moderate ; forehead nearly flat ; eyes sublateral. 
The fore legs with a single series of very broad lunate thin 
scales. Toes broadly webbed ; claws narrow, elongate. 



7. Emys Bennettii. Bennett's Emys. Tab. X. 

Shell oblong, rather convex, bluntly and subtvibercularly 
keeled, expanded and entire behind ; shields dark horn- 
colour, concentrically grooved, with a broad blackish edge ; 
the vertebral shields as broad as long ; first squarish, five- 
sided, convex ; second, third and fourth six-sided, blunt, 
keeled on the hinder half; fifth rounded in front, three- 
sided behind, nuchal plate oblong ; beneath yellow, with 
the middle of the sternal plates, all but the edge of the 
axillary and inguinal plates, and a very large spot rather 
nearer the hinder edge of the marginal shields, black. 
Animal olive. Head with symmetrical, narrow, dark-edged, 
curved lines on the crown ; temples w ith several narrow 
dark-edged longitudmal streaks ; neck with numerous 
narrow yellow lines. Legs yellow-lined. 

Emys Bennettii, Gray, Desc. Bept. Cat. (ined.) 13. n. 32 ; 
Cat. Tort. B.M. 21. 

Hub. China? 

a. Stuffed (adult). China? From the Zoological Gardens. 

b. Adult (stuffed) . Plate worn and discoloured from having 

been kept in confinement. China? From the Gardens 
of the Zoological Society. 

8, Emys Japonica. The Isigame. 

Shell oblong (when young suborbicular, strongly denti- 
culated behind), ochraceous yellow above, black beneath ; 
shield concentrically striated, becoming smooth ; vertebral 
shields broad, six-sided. Temples black-lined ; upper jaw 
not nicked. 

Emys Japonica, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 19. 

Bum. Cat. M>'ih. R. 8. 
E. palustris, var. Japoraca, Schleffel,Faun.Japon. t.8. f. 1—4 

young, t. 9 adult. 
E. vulgaris, var. Japonica, Schlegel, Faun. Japon. 53 ; Ah- 

bild. N. Amph. 127. t. 42. 

Hab. Japan. 

a & b. In spirits (adult and half-grown). Japan. From 
the Leyden Museum. 



The younger specimen is like F. Caspica, but more de- 
pressed and paler above, and the areolas of the costal plates 
are rather more central. 



ff European or North African. 
9. Emys Caspica. The Caspian Emys. 

Shell ovate, oblong, depressed, olive, with black-edged 
yellow netted lines ; shields flat, vertebral broad, six-sided ; 
sternum flat, black and yellow varied. Head, neck and 
feet yellow-lined. 

Testudo Caspica, Gmel. Reise, iii. 59. t. 10, 11 ; Syst. Nat. 

i. 1042. 
Emys Caspica, Schweiy. Prod. 298. 

Bum. S,- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 235 ; Cat. Meth. R. 8. 

Eic/iic. Faun. Casp. Caus. 45. t. 3, 4. 

Grai/, Cat. Tort. B.M. 19. 

Wa'yler, Sijst. t. 5. f. 1-3; Amph. t. 24. 
Emys lutraria, var. i, Merrem, Tent. 25. 
E. Syriaca, Licht. Berl. Mus. 
E. vulgaris, Gray, Syn. 24. 

Schlegel, Faun. Japan. 53. 
E. palustris v. Dalmatica, Schlegel, Faun. Japon. t. 8. f. 4. 
E. Sigritzii, Michahelles, Isis, 1829, 1295. 
E. Sigritz, Bum. Sr Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 240; Cat. Meth. R. 9. 
E. lutraria. Bell. Test. t. 1, 2. 

Gray, Griffith's A. K. t. 
E. leprosa, Schweig. Prod. 298. 
E. marmorea, Spi.e, Bras. 13. t. 10. 

Gray, Syn. 28. 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 248 ; Cat. Meth. R. 9. 
E. rivulata, Valenc. Zool. Morea, t. 9. f. 2, 3. 
? E. Iberica, Valenc. Zool. Morea, t. 9. f. 1 ? 
E. Europrea, Eichw. Zool. Spec. iii. 196. 
E. Caspia, Eichw. Zool. Sjiec. iii. 196. 
Clemmys Caspica, JVagler, Syst. 137. t. 5. f. 1-5; Icon. 
Amph. t. 24. 

Fitc. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 
Testudo Graeca, Pallas, Z. R. A. iii. 17. 

Hab. Border of Caspian Sea ; Morea ; Isle of Crete ; 
Sicily ; Algiers ; Spain. 

c. Adult (stuffed) ; 6^ inches. South Europe. 

d. Adult (stuffed). Shell and sternum pale, worn. Sicily. 

Presented by Dr. J. E. Gray. 

g. Adult (stuffed). Shell all black ; edge of nuchal shield 
elongate. From the Zoological Society's Gardens. 

h, i. Young (in spirits). Back with three interrupted 
keels, formed by a dark-edged, pale, oblong tubercle 
on the centre of the areola of the costal shields ; ster- 
num black, pale-edged; beak, temple and neck white- 
lined, with a round white spot over the middle of the 
tympiunm. North Africa. Mr. Eraser's Collection. 

j. Young (in spirits), like h. Algiers. Presented by John 
Doubleday, Esq. 

/■. Young (in spirits). Asia Minor. Presented by A. 

Christie, Esq. 
Emys Pannonica, Michahelles. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



23 



/. Young (in spirits). Upper margin with a large pale 
ring, and lower with two black spots on each ring. 
Banks of the Euphrates. 

m. Young (in spirits). Marginal plates with a subcentral 
black-edged pale band above, and a largo square sutural 
spot beneath, sometimes separated into a twin spot 
divided at the suture. Xanthus. I'resented by Sir 
Charles Fellows. 

Osteology : — 

a. Adult shell; \\ inches. Shell and sternum pale, worn. 
Europe. Presented by Thomas Bell, Esq. 

e, /. Adult skeletons and shell. Claws all elongate ; 
sternum black. Mr. Alexander's Collection. 

h. Young shell, with three nodulose keels ; sternum black ; 
2\ inches. South Europe. Presented bv Dr. J. E. 
Gray. 

Griffith, d. K.t. .t . 

The sternum becomes pale and worn when the animal is 
kept in confinement. The front of the fore legs with 
several series of broad lunate scales on the inner side, and 
two series of large ovate elongate convex scales on the outer 
edge. Skull depressed, broad ; forehead flat ; nose trun- 
cated ; cheeks nearly perpendicular ; orbits nearly entirely 
lateral ; lower jaw narrow. 

There is perhaps more than one species combined under 
this name, or the pattern of the marks on the young is 
subject to considerable variation, which can only be decided 
by the study of more specimens than we at present possess. 

Mr. Bell observes that the Testudo Eurojxsa is a species 
of Terrnpene ; if so, the name of it should be changed, as 
it is certainly the Emys of the ancients. — Gray, Ann. Phil. 
1825. 

ttt African. 

10. Emys laticeps. The Gambian Terrapen. 
Tab. IX. 

Shell pale olive, yellowish beneath ; sides rounded ; 
hinder lateral margin rather expanded and recurved ; binder 
end rather compressed above; plates thin, transparent, in- 
ferior plates with a narrow black edge. Head large, short, 
broad, covered with a smooth skin ; fore legs and neck with 
very narrow yellow lines when alive. 

Emvs laticeps, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1853 ; Ann. ^- Mog. 
Nat. Ilist. 1855, xv. 68. 

Hab. AVest Africa; Gambia. 

a, b, c, (1, e. Adult. West Africa. Mr. Castany's Col- 
lection. 

Eyes sublateral, near end of nose. Feet broadly webbed. 



The front of the large legs with two series of broad square 
scales on the inner, and two or three series of larger, more 
oblong scales on the outer edge. 

Somewhat like E. olivacea, but the shell is more convex ; 
and the vertebrae, as seen through the plates, are consider- 
ably wider. 

What is Emys Bonensis, Schlegel, in Mailer, Verhand. ? 



11. Emys ocxilifera. The Eyed Emys. 
Shell (very young) hemispherical, strongly toothed be- 
hind ; shields elevated, furrowed, granulated, grooved, each 
two connected longitudinally by a largish round black spot, 
and horizontally by a largish black circle, consequently 
each displaying two half-eyes, and anteriorly and poste- 
riorly two half-spots ; margin with a spot on each suture, 
the points of which correspond with the spot on the 
costal shield ; sternum yellow, with dark brown spots and 
streaks. 

Emys oculifera, Gray, Syn. 22 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 28. 
Testudo oculifera, Kuhl, Beitr. 77. 

Hah. South Africa; Cape of Good Hope ? Mus. Berlin. 



tttt North American. 

Several of the American Terrapenes have the claws of 
the front feet much elongated, especially the three central 
ones ; but this does not appear to be a permanent character ; 
for it is found in some specimens, and not in others of the 
same species. 

It may be observed, that the North American species of 
this genus require to be revised and accurately compared, 
as their present descriptions and the figures which have 
hitherto been published of them are often very unsatis- 
factory. 

* The dorsal shields variegated or ringed; the marginal 
shields tcith two half rings, the centre being on the suture. 

§ The dorsal {vertebral and costal) shields with a single 
concentric set of rings or spots on each. 

§§ The costal shield ivith a subcentral, transverse, pale 
streak, surrounded with irregular dark lines. 

§§§ The costal shield with a single, subcentral, forked, pale, 
transverse, irregular streak, 

** The dorsal shields variegated or ringed; the marginal shield 
with a single spot or ring, with the centre on its hinder 
edge. 

*** Back uniform. 



24 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



* The dorsal shields variegated or ringed ; the marginal 
shields ivith two half rings, the centre of the ring 
being on the suture. 

The system of colouring is most distinct in the young 
shell ; and as the animal grows, the position of the centres 
of the concentric rings or spots is considerably altered ; thus 
the spot which is central in the very young animal becomes 
more and more lateral as regards the shield it is under, as 
the animal increases in size. To define a species properly, 
it should be examined, compared, and described in all its 
stages of growth, wliich has as yet been the case with very 
few of the American Emydes. 

There are sometimes one and sometimes two centres 
of the spots or concentric rings under each of the dorsal 
shields ; but, in general, the centres of the spots in the mar- 
gin are placed on or near the suture between two marginal 
shields, so that a part of the same spots or set of rings is 
on two neighbourmg shields. 

The colouring matter which forms the spots or varie- 
gations on the shell, is situated in the skin under the 
shields. The marks are much more defined and regular 
in the young animal, and more distinct in the skin when 
the shields are removed, than when seen through the thicker 
shields of the older animal. The colouring matter appears 
to be much influenced by the health of the animal ; for 
specimens which are well marked often become less 
marked and almost uniformly coloured in confinement, 
rendering the distinction of specimens of shells which have 
died in confinement very difficult ; and in many cases the 
sternal shields themselves become thinner, and at length 
carious, which at once shows that the shell is in a diseased 
state, and should not be considered in its normal state of 
colouring. 

§ The dorsal {vertebral and costal) shields with a single 
spot or concentric series of rings on each. Sternum 
yellow, with a large, irregular, but defined dark 
blotch on the central line. 

12. Emys ornata. The Beautiful Emys. Tab. XII. 

Shell oblongs longitudinally rugose, olive ; vertebral 
shields irregularly ringed ; first four-sided, second and third 
rather long, six-sided ; costal shields with black-edged pale 
rings round a brown spot rather below the centre ; marginal 
shield with concentric pale rings round a posterior sutural 
spot ; beneath yellow, with round ringed spots on the 
suture of the marginal plates, and with a dark-edged, irre- 
gular, greenish line down the centre of the sternum, and a 
double one the whole length of the sterno-costal symphysis. 



Head, neck and beak with broad and naiTow vellow 
streaks. 

Emys omata. Bell, MSS. 

Gray, Syn. 30 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 22 ; Beechey, Foy. t. 
Dum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 286 (not Synon.). 

Hub. N.W. coast of America ; New Orleans, Mexico, 
Tampico, Yucatan. 

a. Half-grown (stuffed). Tropical America. 

j. Adult (stufl^ed). America. From the Zoological So- 
ciety's Gardens. Tab. XII. 

I. Adult (stuffed). Costal shields longitudinally furrowed ; 
dark-coloured rings indistinct. Mexico. 

m. Adult (stuffed). America. From the Zoological So- 
ciety. 

k. Half-grown (stuffed). The nuchal streak on one side 
interrupted. Mexico. 

i. Half-grown animal (dry). Plates radiately striated. 
West Indies? Mr. Scrivener's Collection. 

A. Young (stuffed). Plates radiately striated. Mexico? 

d & e. Very young (in spirits). Areola of vertebral plates 
with a posterior central spot and lateral streak ; costal 
with a central spot rather below the centre, surrounded 
with three or four regular rings ; marginal plates ^\'ith 
a spot on hinder margin, and rings in front of it. Head 
yellow-lined, with two broader lines on side of head. 
Mazatlan. Presented by Alexander Collie, Esq., R.N. 

f. Very young (in spirits). Exactly like d and e. "New 

Orleans." (?) From Mus. Paris. 

" Emys concinna, Tiumeril." Mus. Paris. 

g. Very young (in spirits). Mexico, 
c & n. Very young (dry). Mexico. 

Osteology : — 

b. Adult (shell onlv). Tropical America. Presented by 

Dr. J. E. Gray. 



13. Emys venusta. The Charming Emys. 
Tab. XII. a. 

Shell oblong, longitudinally subrugose, olive ; vertebral 
plates with irregular-shaped, concentric, pale rings, the 
costal vrith more regular, concentric, pale rings round a 
brown spot, which is rather above the centre ; marginal 
shield with concentric rings round a posterior sutural spot. 
Beneath yellow, with round dark s])ots on the suture of the 
marginal spots, and darker-edged, irregular, greenish lines 
on the central and other sutures of the plates, and a double 
line on the sterno-costal symphysis. Head, neck and beak 
with broad and narrow yellow streaks. 

Hub. Southern States of America ; Honduras (D?/«o«). 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



25 



a. Adult (stuffed). Shields smooth, polished; dark rings 
well marked. America. 

f. Adult (stuffed). Shields smoothish ; sternal bands in- 

distinct. Honduras. Mr. Dyson's Collection. 

g. Adult (stuffed). Shields radiately striated and concen- 

trically grooved ; sternal hands indistinct. North 
America. Gardens of the Zoological Society. 

h. Adult (stuffed). Back very dark blackish-brown ; shields 
rugose ; rings and sternal bands indistinct from me- 
lanism. Mexico. Mr. Warwick's Collection. 

e. Half-grown. Shields smooth ; rings concentric, regular ; 
sternal bands obliterated. Honduras. Mr. Dyson's 
Collection. 

Osteology : — 

b. Adult (shell only). Shields rather smooth ; dark spots 

very distinct. 

c. Half-grown (shell only) . Shields nearly smooth ; sternal 

bands distinct. 

d. Adult (shell only). Shields rather furrowed; sternal 

bands distinct. 



This species chiefly differs from E. ornata in the rings 
on the shields being more regular, and in the dark spot of 
the nucleus of the shield being higher up in the costal 
shields. The sternal bands are generally more or less 
obUterated in the specimens which have been in confine- 
ment. 



14. Emys callirostris. The Beautiful Beaked Emys. 
Tab. XII. 6. 

Shell oblong, very similar in markings to E. ornata and 
E. venusfa, but the pale rings are narrower, fewer, and in 
the anterior costal the outer one extends from the upper to 
the lower outer margin, and the pale rings on the marginal 
plates are narrower. The head and neck have crowded, 
narrow, yellow lines, forming symmetrical rings on the 
throat. Sternum yellow, nearly covered with dark-edged, 
concentric, irregular bands. Beak with beautiful symme- 
trical spots, surrounded with concentric black lines. 

Hah. America. 

a. Half-grown (stuffed). America. Presented by the 
Haslar Hospital. 



15. Emys pulcherrimus. The Dotted Emys. 
Tab. XXV. fig. 12. 

Shell (very yomig) oblong, broad, rather convex, con- 
vexly keeled, smooth ; pale brown (when dry), with a round, 
pale-eyed, dark, subcentral spot, and a curved, dark-edged, 
pale band below, and a more indistinct one above the spot 



on each of the costal plates. Vertebral shield broad, six- 
sided . Sternum yellow, with a broad, irregular-edged, black, 
central, longitudinal band, varied with yellow in front, and 
vrith a broad black streak on each side near the end of the 
sternal plates ; margins black-dotted beneath, with a large 
black ring on the middle of each plate. Head brown above, 
with three narrow pale streaks, one on the centre, and the 
others over each orbit ; the upper part of the neck with seven 
longitudinal streaks, edged with a series of minute black 
dots ; sides of neck, throat and feet minutely black-dotted, 
forming tortuous pale lines on the front of the legs. 
Ilab. Mexico. 

a. Stuffed. Young shields very thin, smooth, nearly trans- 
parent. Mexico. 

§§ The costal shield with a subcentral, transverse, pale 
streak, ivith more or less irregular, parallel, dark 
ohlong rings on each side. Sternum spotted. 

The front dark lines in the first or anterior costal some- 
times unite, forming spots, which are symmetrical on the 
two sides of the animal ; the first, second and third ver- 
tebral shields have an arched pale band, with parallel 
darker streaks ; and the fourth and fifth vertebral have 
an arched longitudinal band on each side, with parallel or 
concentric darker bands on each side of it. These bands 
are only to be distinctly observed in young well-marked 
specimens. 

16. Emys HolbrooMi. Holbrook's Emys. 
Tab. XV. fig. 1 . 

Shell oblong, rather convex, scarcely keeled, longitudi- 
nally rugose, pale, each shield with two oblong concentric 
rings, those of the vertebral plates longitudinal, of all the 
costal transverse ; marginal plates each occupied with two 
semiovate spots, formed of concentric rings. Sternum 
yellow, with a large black spot on each shield, and with 
two large oblong spots of irregular concentric rings along 
each sterno-costal suture ; nuchal plate elongate ; first ver- 
tebral square, rather longer than broad, others wide, six- 
sided. The head, beak, neck and feet yellow-lined ; temple 
with a large, broad, oblong streak from the back of the 
orbit along the sides of the neck. 

Emys Holbrookii, Grag, Cat. Tort. B.M. 23. 
Emys C/umberlandensis, Holhrook, N. A. Herpet. ed. 2. i. 
115. t. 18. 

Bum. Cat. Rept. 31. H.N. 13 (1851)- 

Hah. North America ; Cumberland River ; Louisiana. 

b. Adult (stuffed). Sternal spots large, diffused. North 
America. M. Parzudaki's Collection. 



26 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



h. Adult (stuffed). Sternum black-spotted. Louisiana. 
Mr. W. Smith's Collection. 

g. Half-grown (in spirits). Sternal spots large, solid, dif- 
fused, the hinder subconfluent. North America. Mr. 
Brandt's Collection. 

E. serrata, Brandt. 

c. Half-grovra (in spirits) . Three middle front claws elon- 

gate ; sternal spots round, solid ; band on the symphy- 
sis solid, black, interrupted in front. North America, 
Ohio. From the Leyden Museum. 
E. serrata, Mus. Leyden. 

d. Half-grown (stuffed). Spots on sternum solid, distinct, 

very like " e." North America, Louisiana. Mr. 
Smith's Collection. 

e. Young (in spirits) . Sternal spots annular, distinct only 

where the plate is deficient. New Orleans. 

/. Very young (in spirits). Sternal spots annular, brown, 
with a double marginal dark ring on the edge of the 
gular and the middle of the other plates. 

Emys sanguinolenta, Gray, MSS. Tab. XV. fig. 1. 

? Emys Kuhlii, Gray, Syn. Test. 73 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 28. 

Osteology : — 

a. Half-grown shell Sternal spots subannular. North 
America, Louisiana. From Mr. J. Drummond's Col- 
lection. 

Emys Holbrookii, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 23. 



This species is very like E. scripta, but there is a distinct 
pale streak on the fourth or hinder costal shield, as well as 
on the others, while in E. scripta there is only a single dark 
spot on the hinder margin of that plate, surrounded with a 
single series of arched, dark, concentric lines ; the form of 
the streaks on the neck and the extension of the dark 
marks on the stemo-costal symphysis are also permanent 
distinctions. 



17. Emys scripta. The Lettered Em\s. 

Shell oblong, longitudinally rugose, keeled, toothed be- 
hind, brown, irregularly yellow-ringed, and with irregular 
yellow streaks on the sides, forming two oblong rings on 
the first, second, third and fourth costal plate, and concen- 
tric rings round a posterior dark spot on the front costal 
shield ; nuchal shield linear, porrect ; vertebral shields 
bluntly keeled, first urceolate, fourth and fifth sLx-sided ; 
imder margin with a black spot on the back edge of each 
plate. Sternum yellowish, black-sj>otted, with a spot on 
each end of the sterno-costal symphysis. Head, beak, neck 
and feet yellow-lined, the central frontal line distinct ; the 
temple with a large pale spot. 

Emvs scripta, Merrem, Tent. 2-1. 

' Gray, Syn. 29 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 23. 



Testudo scripta, Schoepff. Test. 16. t. 3. f. 4, 5. 

Shatv, Zool. t. 12. 

Baud. Kept. ii. 140. 
Emys scripta, Schweigger, Prod. 297. 

Merrem, Tent. 24. 
T. serrata. Baud. Kept. ii. 148. t. 21. f. 1, 2. 

Schoepf. Test. t. 3. f. 5. 

Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iii. 105. 
Emys serrata, Schweigger, Prod. 301. 

Merrem, Tent. 26. 

Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. T. iii. 105. 

Dum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 267 ; Cat. Meth. R. 10. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. i. 49. t. 5 ; i. 31. t. 5. 
Testudo rugosa, var., Shaw, Zool. iii. 29. 
Terrapene scripta, Bonap. Obs. Rig. Anim. 155 (1830). 

Hab. North America ; New York. Near the coast from 
Virginia to Georgia. Sold in the markets of Charleston as 
the " yellow-bellied Terrapen : flesh good." — Holbrook. 

A large species ; shell often 12 or 14 inches long. 



Far. 1 . Temple with a large square yellow spot at the back 
of the orbit. Sternum pale, with a solid spot on each 
gular, axillary, inguinal and marginal shield. 

E. scripta. 

b. Young ; 4 inches. Front claws short ; stemal spot 
solid. North America. Presented by Major-General 
Thomas Hardwicke. 

Var. 2. Temple with a large square spot at the back of 
the orbit. Sternum pale, with regular subceutral 
black rings on each sternal plate. 

e. Half-grown (stuffed). Three middle front claws elon- 
gate ; sternum, lower margin with large black rings. 
North America. 

Far. 3. Temple with a large, broad, erect streak behind 
the eye, and a large triangular spot over the tympa- 
num. Sternum pale, with a round solid spot on each 
gular, axillary, inguinal and marginal plate. 

/. Young (in spirits). Green. North America. Presented 
by the Zoological Society. 

Var. 4. Temple with a large, broad, oblong streak from the 
back of the orbit along side of neck. Sternum with a 
large solid spot on most of the sternal and on each 
marginal, axillary and inguinal plate. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Three middle front claws moderate, 
broken ; sternum with a solid black spot on each gular, 
axillary, inguinal and marginal plate, and on one or 
two of the other sternal plates. 

Var. 5. Head and neck streaks very indistinct. Sternum 
black speckled, with a large irregular spot ou each 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



27 



shield, three on each abdominal plate (when the horny 
shields are removed, only concentric rings are seen). 

a. Adult animal and shell (in spirits). North America ; 

Cumberland River. From the Leyden Museum. 
" E. Troostii," Mus. Leyden. 

The indistinctness of the streak on this animal and marks 
on the shell may arise from the muddiness of the river, for 
the specimen was covered in several places with a coat of 
mud. The peculiar disposition of the colouring is to be 
seen when the shields of the back are removed from tlie 
skin. It may not be E. Troosfn of Holbrook, which is 
said to be a very depressed species. See No. 23. 



18. Emys Floridana. The Florida Emys. 
Shell oval, gibbous, longitudinally rugose, slightly cari- 
nated and entire behind, dark brown, with irregular yellow 
lines ; nuchal shield triangular, beneath yellow, with a half 
black spot on each edge of the marginal plate above and 
below ; jaws toothless ; first vertebral urceolate, second and 
third hexagonal ; plates olive, with several irregular black 
streaks, longitudinal on the vertebral and transverse on the 
costal plates. Sternum yellow. Head and neck dark olive, 
with two pale streaks for each eye, and two on each side of 
the neck below, the upper one with a branch to the eyes, 
the inferior pair united together in front of the throat with 
a single streak to the chin. 

Emys Floridana, Bum. ^-Bib.Erj). Gen. ii. 285; Cat.Meth. 
R. 12. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. ii. 47. t. 8 ; ed. 2. i. 65. t 8 
Gra;/, Cat. Tort. B.M. 20. 
Testudo Floridana, Lecoitte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 100. 
Terrapene floridana, Bonap. Obs. Cuv. R. A. 154. 

Hub. North America ; East Florida ; St. John's River. 

A large species, with the shell often 15 or 16 inches 
in length ; it seems to take the place of E. scripta in 
Florida. 



19. Emys annulifera. The Ringed TerrapexX. 
Shell (very young) oblong, with three series of oblong 
irregular rings on the vertebral plate ; a broad subcentral 
and some narrower pale lines on each costal plate, as in E. 
scripta and E. maculata. Sternum pale, with some oblong 
brown spots on the suture of the shield, and a round spol 
on the centre of each pectoral shield. Head pale-lined, as 



in E. scripta, but witliout the broad spot or nuchal band of 

that species. 

Emys annulifera. Gray, Syn. Rept. 32 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 28, 
Hab. ? 

a. Very young (in spirits). 

§§§ Three spots or sets of rings on each of the costal 
2)lates1 leaving a forked pale cross streak. 

20. Emys rivulata. The Varied Emys. Tab. XI. 

Shell oblong, brown, varied with yellow, with a broad 
central depression ; sides longitudinally rugose, hinder edge 
rather expanded, simply serrated ; nuchal plate elongate ; 
first vertebral plate urceolate ; second and third elongate, 
sLx-sided, the costal plates with a subcentral, forked or 
branched, horizontal, yellow band ; under side white, varied 
with irregular dusky clouds, forming obscure rings on the 
marginal plates. 

Emys rivulata, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 22. 
Hub. North America. 

a. Shell only ; 9| inches long. North America? 

I describe this species with doubt, as I have only seen a 
single shell in its adult state without the animal. 

The second and third costal plates with an indistinct 
areola in the higher part of the hinder edge, with two di- 
verging streaks to the outer margin. The marginal plates 
divided by a broad central pale streak, sometimes with an 
obscure indication of a pale lunule. 



Species icith sutural marginal spot, recpiiring further 
examination. 

21. Emys reticularia. The Chicken Tortoise. 
Shell ovate, gibbous, not keeled, entire, longitudinally 
rugose, dusky brown ; costal shield with an equal subsuperior 
ring, giving out diverging, sometimes anastomosing pale 
lines ; marginal plate with a central transverse pale streak. 
Sternum yellow, with a spot on the symphysis and on some 
of the sides of the margin. Head and neck dark brown, 
with narrow yellow lines ; throat dusky yellow, with three 
yellow streaks ; a streak from the nostril extended on the 
side of the neck. 

Testudo reticularia, Latr. Rept. i. 124. 
Emys reticularia, Merrem, Tent. 29. 

Gray, Syn. 2/ ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 25. 

f2 



28 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



Testudo reticulata, Bose. 

Baud. Kept. ii. 144. t. 22. f. 3. 

Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. T. iii. 103. 
Emjs reticulata, Sc/iweiff. Prod. 50. 

Merrem, Tent. 26. 

Say, Journ. Acad. Philad. iv. 204, 109? 

Bum. ^- Bih. Erp. Gen. ii. 291 ; Cat. Meth. R. 12. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. ii. 41 ; ed. 2. i. 59. t. 7. 
Terrapene reticulata, Bonap. Ohs. Cuv. R. A. 155 (1830). 

Hab. North America, on the coast between North Caro- 
lina and Georgia. The flesh is much esteemed. 

The shell is about 9 or 1 inches long. 



22. Emys Mobilensis. The Mobile Terrapen. 

"Shell oval, ecarinate, convex anteriorly, depressed pos- 
teriorly, entire in front, emarginate and subserrate behind ; 
jaws serrated, inferior furnished with a hook." Length 
15 inches. 
Emys Mobilensis, Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. ed. 2. i. 71 . t. 9. 

Hab. North America (Alabama). Greatly esteemed at 
Mobile as an article of food. 

The figures greatly resemble my E. ventricosa, but the 
margin is represented as having sutural spots, which is not 
the case with that animal. See No. 25. 



23. Emys Troostii. Dr. Troost's Terrapen. 
" Shell subrotund, much depressed, ecarinate ; posterior 
part of the margin very slightly serrated ; lateral and mar- 
ginal plates marked with blotches or lines of horn-colour. 
Sternum broad, dirty yellow, each plate with a large blotch 
near its centre. Head long, narrow ; upper jaw emargi- 
nate, lower jaw furnished with a tooth." 

Emys Troostii, Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. i. 123. t. 20. 
Hab. N. America (Cumberland River). 

Length of shell 8 inches. 

I have received an indistinctly marked specimen (evi- 
dently from its having lived in a muddy river) of E. 
scripta, from the Leydeu Museum, under the above name, 
and it is said to come from the Cumberland River ! The 
mark on the shell was only to be seen when the homy 
plates were removed. 

Can this be the shell intended in the above description ? 

24. Emys labyrinthica. The Netted Terrapen. 
Shell oval, regular ; hinder edge rather sinuous and ele- 
vated ; central hue swollen, not keeled, rugose, green, more 



or less brown, with a great number of sinuous and twisted 
yellow lines. Sternum entire in front, nicked behind, yel- 
low. Head rather large ; head and neck yellow streaked ; 
lower jaw toothed. 

Emys labyrinthica, " Lesueur, MSS.," Bum. Cat. Rept. 
Mus.H.N. 13 (1851). 

Hab. North America (Wabash River). 

What is Emys elegans, Wied, Voy.Amer.Septent.m. 255, 
from North America ? 



** Borsal shields variegated or ringed; the marginal 
shield with a single spot or ring, with the centre on 
its hinder margin. The costal shields with a single 
pale ring, surrounding the dark areola, giving out 
pale streaks from its circumference, diverging {some- 
times anastomosing or crossing each other) towards 
the margin of the plates. 

§ The areola and ring on the hinder upper angle of the 
first or front, and the front (?) upper angle of the 
other costal plates ; vertebral plates ? 

25. Emys ventricosa. The Swollen Terrapen. 
Tab. XIV. 



Animal 



■ ? Shell convex, ventricose, swollen on the 



sides of the back, slightly keeled in front, and more sharply 
so behind ; margin toothed behind ; the hinder lateral mar- 
gin bent up over the legs. Back rugose, blackish-brown, 
with some indistinct dark-edged yellow lines diverging from 
a squarish ring in the upper angle of the costal shields ; 
upper side of the marginal plates with some dark rings 
concentrically round the hinder outer margin. The first 
vertebra urceolate, about as broad as long ; the second, 
third and fourth elongate, six-sided. Sternum convex, pale 
yellow, with a narrow dark edge to the plates. 

? Emys Mobilensis, Holbrook, N. Amer. Herpet. i. 71 . t. 9 ; 
u. 53. t. 9 ? 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 25 ? 
Bum. Cat. Meth. R. Wl 



Hab. 



? 



a. Adult (shell only). 

The sternum may in the perfect specimen be more 
distinctly marked, as this example had evidently died in 
confinement, as proved by the carious state of the centre 
of the sternum. The colour is veiy much suffused in the 
hinder part, almost hiding the pattern of the paler marks, 
and the central dorsal shields are rubbed and worn, hiding 
the pattern in that part of the shell. The swollen form. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



29 



the obscure rounded keel on the first, and the sharp keel 
on the two hinder vertebral keels, are very peculiar, and 
the manner in which the rings are marked on the marginal 
plates is unhke any of the other American Etmjdes I have 
seen, except E. pseudogeoyraphica and geof/raphica. 

The figure of Emys Mobilensis {Holhrook, N. A. Herpet. 
i. t. 9) somewhat rejjresents this species, as far as regards 
the distribution of the colours of the costal shields (they are 
more definite than in our specimen), but the pattern on 
the upper and under sides of the marginal shield is entirely 
unlike, as the rings or spots are represented as being on 
the suture, half the spots being on each shield, as in the 
more common form of American Emydes. But in this 
respect, Dr. Holbrook's artist is not to be depended on, as 
he represents Emys geographica distinctly, and pseudogeo- 
graphica indistinctly, as having the rings of the same form, 
which authentic specimens show to be an error. 

Dr. Holhrook represents the head, neck, throat and feet 
of Emys Mobilensis as having broad yellow hues, the two 
central throat hues being united near the chin. 



§§ The dark areola and ring are in the upper hinder mar- 
gin ofthefrst, and gradually lower in the second and 
third, so as to be in the lower hinder margin of the 
fourth or last costal shield, and on the hinder margin 
of all the vertebral plates. 

There is generally a smaller dark spot in the centre of 
the other rings, formed by the netted lines, as ou the front 
lower edge of the first and second costal, and on the sides 
of the vertebral plates. 

26. Emys geographica. The Geographic Emys. 

Shell ovate, convex, smooth, tubercularly keeled in front 
and slightly toothed behind, olive-brown, with black-edged 
anastomosing pale lines ; first and fifth vertebral plates 
broad, five-sided, rest broad, six-sided. Sternum yellow; 
shields blackish-edged ; under side of the marginal plates 
ohve, with rather concentric, black-edged, broad and narrow 
pale lines. Head and feet with numerous yellow lines, and 
a triangular yellow streak on each temple. 

Emys geographica, Lesueur,Journ.Acad.N.S.Philad.i.S& 
t. 5. 

Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iii. 108. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 2\. 

Bum. ^-Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 256 ; Cat. Meth. R. 9. 

Say, Journ. Acad. Philad. iv. 204, 215. 

Harlan, liept. "6. 

Holhrook, jS\ A. Herpet. i. 99. t. 14. 

DeKay, New York, 18. t. 4. f. 7. 



E. Lesueurii, Gray, Syn. Rept. 31. 

Terrapene geographica, Bonap. Obs. Cuv. R. A. 156 (1830). 
Testudo geographica, Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iii. 108. 
Emys megacephala, Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. i. 51. t. 3. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 21. 
E. geographica. Bum. Cat. Meth. R. 9. 

Hab. North America ; New York ; Wabash River ; 
Cumberland River; Tennessee (Troost). 

a. Half-grown (animal dry, from spirits). Head small. 
North America. 

Emys Lesueurii, Gray, Syn. Rept. 31. 

The Museum specimen is in a bad state ; it chiefly difi'ers 
from E. pseudogeograjihica in the keel not being nodose, 
the vertebral plates very broad and short, and in the pale 
reticulations being finer. 

It may be distinct from the E. geographica or mega- 
cephala of Holbrook (which is represented by the same 
figures) ; and perhajjs it would have been better to retain 
for it the name under which I first described it. 

Dr. Holbrook represents the head of E. geographica as 
large (that may be sexual), with numerous regular green 
lines, an oblong elongated spot on each side of the nape, 
and an eyed spot on each side of the throat, near the angle 
of the mouth. 

27. Emys pseudogeogi-aphica. The Sharp-b.^cked 
Emys. 

Shell elongate-ovate, nicked in front, toothed behind ; 
vertebral keel tubercular, very distinct, netted with nume- 
rous yellow lines, with a ring surrounding a dark spot on 
the hinder edge of the costal and marginal shields, and 
three smaller spots on the vertebral plates. Sternum \el- 
low, darker clouded, darkest in the young. Head small, 
oval, brown, with numerous yellow Unes and a yellow sjiot 
on and across each temple. 

Emys Lesueurii /3, Gray, Syn. Rept. 31. 

Emys, Lesiieur, Mem. Mus. xv. 267 (1827). 

Testudo geographica, var., Lesueur, Ann. Lye. N. H. N Y 

iii. 110 (1836). 
Emys pseudogeographica, Lesueur, MSS. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. i. 103. t. 15 (lines on mar- 
ginal plates rugose). 

BeKay, 29. t. 2. f 3. 
E. geographica, jun.. Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 256. 

Holbrook, X. A. Herpet. i. 103. t. 15 (1842). 
E. geographica, var., Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 

Hab. North America ; Wabash Rirer. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Neck, temples and lips wiih broaa, 
distinct vellow streaks. North America. Presented 
by Dr. J. E. Gray. 

E. geographica a. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 



30 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



b. Adult (stuffed). Neck with many very narrow yellow 
lines ; temple and frontal streaks narrow ; lips dotted 
and lined. North America. M. Parzudaki's Col- 
lection. 

E. geographica /3, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 

c&d. Adult (stuffed). Frontal, temporal and labial streaks 
distinct, like "a." North America; Louisiana. 
Mr. W. Smith's Collection. 

e. Adult (large size). Frontal, temporal and labial streaks 
narrow, with other parallel narrower lines, somewhat 
similar to " c." North America ; Louisiana. Mr. 
W. Smith's Collection. 

/ & (/. (Half-grown). Back very high, compressed and 
shelving, sharply keeled ; frontal and temporal streaks 
distinct, moderate ; labial narrow, interrupted. North 
America ; Louisiana. Mr. W. Smith's Collection. 



Head olive, with a more or less broad yellow streak on 
the centre of the cromi, and a converging streak over each 
side of the occiput, arising from a broad angular spot on 
the temple at the back of the orbit. Neck yellow-streaked. 
There are generally some narrow yellow streaks on the 
crown and occiput, parallel or concentric with the principal 
lines above described, and a curved yellow line on the 
upper lip under the orbit, but in one specimen (4) the 
upper lip is varied with dots and minute yellow curved 
lines. 

The figure of Dr. Ilolbrook does not represent the dark 
spots of the areola which are so distinct in the stuffed 
specimens, and the markings on the marginal plates are 
verj' inaccurate. 



*** Shell and marffin uniformly coloured. Sternum varie- 
gated. 

28. Emys olivacea. The Quaker Emys. Tab. 

Shell depressed, broad, oblong ; plates very thin, smooth, 
transparent ; hinder part of the back bluntly keeled ; verte- 
bral plates broad, six-sided ; margin revolute, raised and 

expanded over the hinder legs. Beneath ? Sternimi 

yellow, with dark-edged variegations on the central line, and 
sinuated, subconcentric, dark-edged bands on the front part. 
Head small, olive ; forehead flat ; nose very short ; lower 
bfak with several pale cross bands in front. Neck and legs 
yellowish olive ; fore-legs with one or two broad pale 
streaks ; three middle claws of fore feet very long, straight, 
subulate. 

Hub. N. America? 

a. Adult (stuffed). Obtained alive from a dealer at Nantes, 
'.vlio said it was from the South of Europe ? 



Tropical or South America. 

\ Back uniform coloured ; margins and sternum often 
variegated ; submarginal rings sutural when present. 

29. Emys decussata. The Hicotee. 

Shell oblong, bluntly keeled, hinder edge slightly toothed ; 
dorsal shields rugulose, irregularly radiately grooved, uni- 
form pale brown, beneath yellowish, with obscure subocel- 
late spots on the axillary, inguinal, and on the suture of the 
marginal plates. Animal greenish ; cheek and throat indi- 
stinctly pale lined ; front of the fore legs with a series of 
broad transverse shields. 

Emys decussata, Bell, Test. t. I . 

Gr(>y,Syn.28; inGriffith,A.K.\.; Cat. Tort. B.M.24. 

Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 2/9 ; Cat. Meth. R.\\. 

Sayra, Cuba Rept. t. 1 . 
Testudo serrata. Baud. Rept. (not figure). 
Emys serrata, var., Schweig. 

Sc/ilegel, Faun. Japan. 58. 

Hab. West Indies ; Cuba ; Guadaloupe ; St. Domingo. 

a. Half-grown (stuffed). Sternum in a bad state from 
confinement in a menagerie. West India Islands. 
Presented by Dr. J. E. Gray. 

j. Adult (stuffed). Sternum discoloured. St. Domingo. 
From the Paris Collection. 

/r. ? Very young (in spirits). Uniform pale yellow. Tro- 
pical America. 

I. 1 Very young (dry). Uniform pale yellow. Tropical 
America. 



Osteology. Skull, Tab. XXXVI. fig. 2. 

b. Half-grown shell, from animal in confinement. America; 

West Indies. 

c. Adult (skeleton). Sternum and lower side of marginal 

plates with dark rings. West Indies. Presented by 
Dr. J. E. Gray. 

d. Adult (shell only). Sternum discoloured. V\'est Indies? 

e. Adult (shell only). Sternal and lower side of marginal 

shield with irregular rings ; some indistinct large ob- 
long sutural spots on the upper part of the marginal 
plates. West ludies. 

f. Half-grown shell. Sternum discoloured. West Indies. 

g. Adult (shell only). Sternum discoloured and eroded. 

West Indies. From the Zoological Society's Gardens. 

/(. Half-grown (shell only). Back dark ; sternum much 
eroded. West Indies. Presented by Thomas Bell, 

Esq. 

Emys decussata. Bell. 

i. Adult (skeleton). The upper part of the marginal shield 
with vcryiudistinct, and lower part more distinct, square 
annulate d sutural spots ; sternum with distinct irregu- 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



31 



lar-shaped symmetrical rings. St. Domingo. From 
the Paris Collection. 

" Emys decussata ? ," Mus. Paris. 

m. Adult (shell). Back dark brown ; upper part of the 
margin with obscure, lower with very distinct obloug 
spots on the suture of the plates ; sternum with irre- 
gular-shaped symmetrical rings and scattered black 
spots. West Indies. Presented by Dr. J. E. Gray. 

The heads of both the skeletons are large, and the space 
between the branches of the lower jaw is wide and rounded 
in front, very unlike the small head and the narrower and 
more acute space between the branches of the lower jaw in 
E. ruffosa. 

The animal and shell are well figured from life by Mr. 
Bell. The head, neck and feet are blackish olive, the fore 
legs alone having some obscure indications of broad yellow 
streaks, but the animal may have been in confinement. 
The under surface of the marginal plate has some indistinct 
sutural rings. 

M. R. de Sagra (Cuba Rept. t. 1) evidently figures the 
same species as the Hicotee. 

ft Back wiiform or black spotted; sterna! and fower side 
of marginal plates dark-edged, sometimes spotted. 

30. Emys rugosa. The Dark Hicotee. 

Shell ovate, oblong, rather tubercularly keeled, hinder 
edge slightly serrated ; sternum brown, sometimes dark- 
spotted ; shield dark-edged ; shields rugulose, areola in- 
distinct, margin dark-edged ; vertebral shields : first long, 
urceolate ; second, third aud fourth long, six-sided ; fifth 
broad, six-sided ; marginal shields yellow, black-dotted. 
" Animal brown ; head and nape greyish, with a pale streak 
from the back of each eye." — Sagra. 

Emys rugosa. Gray, Syn. 30 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 24. 

Dim. 4- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 284 ; Cat. Meth. R. 12. 

Sagra, Cuba Rept. t. 2. 
Testudo rugosa. Sham, Zool. iii. 28. t. 4. 

Hab. West Indies ; Cuba; Jamaica? 

Far. 1. Back mottled and Uned ; sternal shield one-co- 
loured, with a distinct dark edge. 
Emys rugosa, Sagra. 

Far. 2. Back spotless or with a few scattered round spots ; 

the dorsal, marginal and sternal shields with a regular 

dark brown edge. 
Emys rugosa, Gosse, Jam. 189. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Claws slender ; sternum eroded. West 
Indies. From the Zoological Society. 



Osteology : — 

b. Adult (skeleton). Three middle front claws very long, 

slender, compressed. St. Domingo. From the Paris 
Museum. 

"Emys decussata (J," Mus. Paris. 

c. Half-grown (shell only). Back and sternum rather dis- 

coloured. West Indies. 

Far. 3. Back brown, closely black-dotted ; sternum and 
under side of margin very closely spotted ; sternal 
shields dark-edged. 

Emys vermiculata. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 26. 

d. Shell only (adult). West Indies? 

]M. R. de Sagra {Rept. Cuba, t. 2) represents the head 
as having a pale central frontal streak and a broad pale 
band from the hinder edge of the orbit. 

The shell is vermiculated with black above, and with 
regular dark edges to the sternal shields and the lower side 
of the marginal shields. 

The head is much smaller than in E. rugosa, and the 
branches of the lower jaw are not so wide apart or so much 
rounded in front. 



tff Shell one-coloured ; sternum black, yelloio on the sides 
and margin; lower margin variegated. 

31. Emys scabra. The Rough Emys. 
Shell oblong, convex, brown, slightly keeled, flattish 
above, and shelving on the sides ; shields blackish-edged ; 
nuchal very short ; vertebral keeled, the first produced in 
front between the marginal plates. Head blackish, with an 
orange spot on each nostril, a band over each eyebrow, and 
a large spot on each side of the nape ; tail short. 

Emys scabra, Gray, Syn. 25 ; Cut. Tort. B.M. 20. 
Testudo scabra, Latr. Rept. i. 148. 

Baud. Rept. iii. 129. 

Bell, Test. t. 1, 2, adult. 
La Raboteuse, Lacep. Q. O. i. 161. t. 10, young. 
Testudo verrucosa, Latr. Rept.i. 1.56. 

Daud. Rept. ii. 134. 
Emys dorsata, Schoepf. Test. 136. 

Schweig. Prod. i. 297-42.5. 
Testudo punctularia, Daud. Rept. ii. 549. 

Schweig. Prod. 305. 

Graif, 'Syn. 2.5. 13. 

Dmn. S^-Bib. Erp. Ghi. ii. 243; Cat. Meth. R. 9. 

Schlegel, Faun. Japan. 55. 
Rhinochlemys (punctularia), Fitc. 

nab. Tropical America ; Cayenne ; Brazils. 

a. Very young ; just hatched (stuffed). Areola rugose, 
closely and minutely tubercular. South America. 

Lacep. Q. O. t. 10. 



32 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



I, c. Young (in spirits). Upper part of the marginal plates 
with short black vermicnlated lines ; the lower side 
yellow, with fewer tortuous similar lines on both sides 
of the body. 

d. Adult (in spirits). The lower part of the marginal plate 
pale. Neck with line of small black dots. Bad state. 
From the Zoological Society. 

Osteology. Cuv. Oss. Foss. v. 204. t. 12. f. 44, young 
sternum. 

In our adult and three young specimens there is a spot 
on each side of the nose, a streak commencing from the 
middle of the orbit, diverging to the sides of the nape, a 
spot on each side of the middle of that part, and a narrow 
streak on the temple from the upper and lower part of the 
back edge of the oibit, and the neck is marked with several 
narrow black lines on the sides. 

Mr. Bell's figure of the adult {Testudinata, t. 1) differs 
from these ui representing the superciliary bands as being 
united by a short transverse band in front. 

32. Emys D'Orbignii. D'Orbigny's Emys. 
Shell ovate, swollen, nearly smooth, keelless, slightly 
toothed behind, chestnut-brown, with a black dorsal streak 
and large triangular black spots on the edge of the disk ; 
first vertebral shield pear-shaped ; marginal plates brown, 
with a large central yellow marginal spot. Sternum black, 
irregularly edged with yellow. Head and neck yellow- 
lined, with a broader streak from the back edge of the eyes 
along the sides of the neck ; legs with broad yellow streaks ; 
toes webbed ; claws acute ; crown with numerous yellow 
streaks ; upper jaw nicked. 

Emvs D'Orbignii, Dum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 272 ; Cat. 
ileth. iJ. 11. 

ly Orbiyny, Voy. Amer. Wirid. Rept. v. 6. t. I. 
Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 22. 

Hab. South America ; Buenos Ayres. Mus. Paris. 

33. Emys dorsalis. The New Granada Emys. 
Tab. XIV. a. 

Shell oblong, convex, rather elongate, keelless, slightly 
toothed behind, dark brown ; shield smooth, slightly 
grooved, and rather paler on the edge ; first vertebral four- 
sided, the second, third and fourth six-sided, about as long 
as broad. Sternum blackish, with a broad pale band on 
each side, and on the edge of the anterior and posterior 
shields ; crown and cheeks black, with a broad pale streak 
from the nostril over the orbit and on the sides of the occi- 
put, a broad sinuous streak from the upper part of the back 
edge of the orbit and another more sinuous beneath it. 



Lips and throat yellow. Legs and feet yellow, black spot- 
ted and streaked. 

Emys dorsaUs, Spix, Bras. t. 9. f. 1, 2. 

Hab. New Granada; River Buonaventura. J. O. Good- 
ridge, Esq. 

a. Adult (in spirits). New Granada. Presented by the 
Admiralty from Haslar Hospital. 

Emys dorsalis (Spix, Test. Bras. 1 1 . t. 9. f. 1, 2) probably 
represents the young of this species, as the marks on the 
head agree with those on our specimen. This figure has 
been referred to E. scabra, but the form of the head bands, 
if they are correctly figured, at once separates it from that 
species. 



6. CHRYSEMTS. 
Head covered with a thin hard skin, oblong ; forehead 
rather convex. Eyes subsuperior. Beak naked ; upper 
with two small teeth in front ; lower beak extended behind, 
covering the rounded lower edge of the lower jaw. Fore 
legs covered with large transverse shields. Toes short, 
strong, shortly webbed, covered with hand-like scales above. 
Claws 5-4, compressed, arched, the three middle front 
often much elongated, subequal. Tail moderate. Shell 
depressed. Sternum solid, broad, truncated before and be- 
hind, affixed to the thorax by a bony symphysis covered 
at the end by the pectoral and abdominal shields ; axillary 
and inguinal plates moderate, distinct. Shield very thin, 
smooth ; the marginal plates with a subcentral marginal 
areola, surrounded with dark-edged concentric rings ; the 
humeral plate triangular ; the pectoral narrow, square. 

Chrysemys, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 2/ (1844). 
Emys (type). Bell, Zool. Journ. iii. 515. 



1. Chi-ysemys picta. The Painted Tortoise. 

Shell oblong, depressed, keelless, very smooth ; shields 
thin, olive-brown; discal shield with a broad yellow or red 
front margin ; vertebral shield with a narrow central Une ; 
sternum yellow. Head and throat black, yellow-lined ; 
tail long, slender. 

Emys picta, Sc/iweiy. Prod. 306. 

Merrem, Tent. 23. 

Gray, Si/n. 2(i ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 27. 

Dum. ^'Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 297 ; Cat. Mi-th. R. 12. 

Holbrooh; N. A. Herpet. ii. 19. t. 3 ; ed. 2. i. 75. t. 10. 

Be Kay, 12. t. 5. f. 10. 
Testudo picta, Herm., Schneid. Schildk. 348. 

Sehoepf. Test. t. 4. 

Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. V. iii. 115. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



33 



Testudo picta, Shaw, Zool. t. 10. f. I. 

Seba, Thesawr. i. t. 80. f. 5, young. 
T. cinerea. Brown, II lust. t. 48, young (dry). 

Shaw, Zool. t. 12. 

Schoepff. Test. t. 3. f. 2, 3. 
Eniys cinerea, Schweig. Prod. 306. 

Merrem, Tent. 24. 
Terrapene picta, Bonap. Obs. Cuv. R. A. 158. 
Cyclemys picta, Wagler, Si/st. 137. 

Hub. North America, iu ponds (never La running water), 
from Canada to Virginia. 

Far. 1 . Pale-edged, the front of the discal plates broad ; 
the lateral angle of the second, third and fourth verte- 
bral plates anterior ; the marginal plates with a yellow 
central spot and a broad concentric ring above, and 
a large yellow spot beneath. 

a. Adult animal (dry). Front claws very long, slender. 
North America. Dr. Mantell's Collection. 



North America. Presented by 



b. Adult animal (dry). 

Dr. J. E. Gray.' 

c. Young (from spirits). 
Testudo cinerea. Brown. 

f. Adult (stuffed). Claws rather long, slender, acute. 
North America. Presented by Henry Doubleday, Esq. 

g & h. Adult (stuffed). Three middle claws of front feet 
very long, slender. North America. 

New York. 



i. Adult (in spirits). Claws moderate, strong. 
Mr. Brandt's Collection. 



_;'. Half-grown (in spirits). Claws moderate, strong, curved ; 
sternum with angular spots on inner edge, some having 
a pale eyed spot in the centre. New York. Mr. 
Brandt's Collection. 



Osteology : — 
d. Adult shell. 



North America. 



e. Adult (upper shell only). North America. From Dr. 
Mantell's Collection. 

Far. 2. The yellow edge to the discal plates narrow, uni- 
form ; the outer angles of the vertebral plates in the 
middle of the margin ; the marginal plates with a 
small central marginal spot and two or three interrupted 
pale rings above, a large spot and a pale ring with 
a broad black edge beneath. 

k. Adult (stuffed). Claws short, strong, curved ; sternum 
plain-coloured. North America. 

/. Adult shell. Sternum with a large central dark blotch, 
pale Uned and dotted. 

These Tortoises may be seen in great numbers in ponds, 
basking in the sun on rocks or logs, plunging instantane- 
ously into the water on the approach of any one. They 



die in a very few days after being taken from the water. 
The young are more brilhantly coloured than the older 
ones. — Leconte. 

Wagler regards Eniijs marmorata, Spix, Bras. t. 10, as 
this species, instead oi E. vulgaris. — Syst. 137. 

2. Chrysemys BeUii. Bell's Emys. 

Shell oblong, solid, rather depressed in the centre, con- 
vex on the sides, olive, waved with irregular black-edged 
pale-dotted greenish lines placed on the edge and across 
the middle of each shield ; vertebrals nearly square, first 
urceolate, the rest sis-sided ; margin beneath black, yellow- 
dotted ; sternum flat, surrounded with an irregidar yellow 
edge ; front edge deeply denticulate. 

Emys Bellii, Graij, Sijn. 31 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 27. 

" Bum. i^- Bib. Erp. Gen. 302 ; Cat. Meth. 11. 12. 
E. speciosa, JV. Clift, Cat. Mus. Coll. Surg. no. 1525 (not 

Gray). 
Emys Origonensis, narla)i,Jmer.Journ.Sci.xxxi.3S2.t\Sl. 
Ilolbrook, Amer. Ilerpet. ii. t. 1 ; ed. 2. i. 107. t. 16. 
Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 23. 
U'ied, log. Amer. Sej)t. iii. 303. 

Hab. North America ? Mus. Coll. Surg. 

M.Bibron observes, that he has seen several specimens of 
this species in the " different Loudon Museums ;" the only 
one that has occurred to me is the one above described. 

Dr. Uolbrook's figure of Emys Origonensis (t. 21), in 
the dentated margin, and in the colouring of the sternum, 
greatly resembles this species, but the back is rather differ- 
ently coloured, and the sternum is truncated behind. It 
is probably only an accidental variety. 



tft Toes slender, elongate, covered with small scales or 
nearly naked, very largely webbed; claws conical, 
scarcely curved. 

7. PSEUDEMYS. 
Head moderate, covered with a thin hard skin, ovate ; 
forehead convex. Eyes subsuperior. Chin flat, not 
bearded ; branches of the lower jaw dilated, flat, covered 
with a soft thin skin. Fore legs covered with band-like 
scales. Toes slender, rather elongate, covered with scales, 
or with a smooth skin, widely webbed to the end of the 
toes. Claws 5 '4, acute, rather compressed, straight or 
slightly curved. Tail moderate. Shell rather depressed. 
Sternum solid, truncated before, nicked behind, affixed to 
the thorax by a bony symphysis, covered by the end of the 
pectoral and abdominal shields ; axillary and inguinal plates 
moderate, distinct. 



34 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



This genus is chiefly distinguished from E?ni/s by the 
flattened under jaw and the small size of the lower beak, 
the under jaw being chiefly covered with a soft skin, and 
by the slenderness of the toes and the breadth of the web, 
which most resembles that of the genus Bafagttr. 

The annulated spot on the under surface of the marginal 
plate on all the species I have examined is on the suture, 
so as to occupy a portion of two ueighbouriug shields. 



* Jaws entire ; upper only slightly nicked in front. 

Vertebral plates with three longitudinal, oblong, annu- 
lated spots, sometimes interrupted, each part forming an 
eyed spot ; the costal plates with two or three animlated 
spots, the larger and principal one on the hinder margin 
sending out pale diverging tortuous lines which separate 
the spots and transversely divide the shield into halves. 

1. Pseiidemys concinna. The Neat Emys. 

Shell oblong, smooth, keelless, olive-brown, pale ringed 
and lined, with a pale streak across each costal shield, with 
several unequal-sized more or less oblong annulated spots 
on each shield ; margin with a pale central cross-band 
above, with an oblong sutural spot beneath ; sternum yel- 
low, clouded with black, especially near the suture of the 
plates. Head olive ; neck and feet yellow-lined, with a 
broad lateral streak from the back of each eye. Fore legs 
with two yellow streaks ; webs with a triangular yellow 
spot on the margin between each claw. 

Emys concinna, Dum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 289. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 25. 

Hollrook, N. A. Ilerp. ed. 2. i. 119. t. 19. 
Testudo concinna, Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iii. 106. 
Terrapene concinna, Bonap. Ohs. Reg. Anim. 156 (1830). 

Hub. North America ; Savannah and Congaree Rivers. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Back keelless; costal with a square 

ring in the upper hinder angle of the first and second, 
which is rather lower down on the third plate, and 
with many curved lines subconcentric in front and 
below them. North America. From the Zoological 
Society. 

b. Young. Back slightly keeled behind ; the rings on the 

vertebral and costal plates well marked ; the principal 
annulated spot on the hinder margin is on the upper 
part of the first and the lower of the third plate. 
Sternum pale yellowish, edges of the plates darker 
clouded. North America, Louisiana. Mr. Smith's 
{Jollectiou. 

Emys concinna, Holbrook, N. Amer. Herp. t. 19. 

c. Adult (stuffed). North America, Louisiana. Mr. 

Smith's Collection. 



d. Very young. Sternum with a large black spot, form- 
ing a dark band on the central line and a seiies of 
spots on each side, and a narrow transverse line across 
the front edge ; a round spot on the outer edge of the 
pectoral and abdominal shields near the symphysis. 
Head and legs yellow-lined, a central frontal line, and 
a nai row line from the hinder uj)|ier and the middle 
of the lower edge of the orbit. Mexico. M. Parzu- 
daski's Collection. 

M. Leconte's figure, which is engraved by Dr. Holbrook, 
is a moderately good repiesentation of our younger speci- 
men. It chiefly differs in the marks on the shell being 
rather too regular and distinct, the streak on the head 
broader, and the toes are represented as covered with scales ; 
but both these and the claws show that it belongs to this 
genus. 

I have received the young Emys ornata from Paris under 
this name. 



2. Pseudemys ? hieroglypMca. The Hieroglyphic 
Emys. 

Shell oval, depressed, keelless, smooth, entire in front, 
elongated and imperfectly serrated behind ; sternum oblong, 
nicked behind, dingy yellow, sides olive varied. Head very 
small, upper jaw slightly eniarginate, lower jaw with a 
tooth ; first vertebral urceolate ; each costal shield with 
four or five, and each marginal with dark spots with con- 
centric yellow lines. 

Emvs hieroglvphica, Holbrook, N. Amer. Herpet. i.47. t.2; 
ed. 2. i. 111. t. 17. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 26. 
Dam. Cat. Mi'th. B. 12. 

Ilab. North America ; Cumberland River. 

A large species; the shell of the adult about 12 inches 
long. 

I am induced to refer this Tortoise, which I have not 
seen, to this genus, from the disposition of the colours, 
which resembles that of the preceding species. 

** Jaws with two strong teeth above and three below in 
front. 

Costal shield with a double subcentral cross band, con- 
taining an oblong ringed spot in the upper part of the first, 
the middle of the second, and the lower part of the third 

costal plate. 

3. Pseudemys serrata. The Potter. 

Shell oblong, longitudinally rugose, slightly toothed be- 
hind ; olive-browu, varied with iiTegular pale cross bands ; 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



35 



vertebral shields bluntly keeled ; first urceolate, rest long, 
sides shelving, beneath yellow, with sliglitly eyed spots on 
the sutures of the marginal plates ; sternum flat, darker 
clouded, with a davk-edged pale streak on the sutures, be- 
tween the outer sides of the sternal and marginal plates. 
Head and neck with two broad streaks ; jaws strongly 
toothed. 

Emys serrata. Say, Jotini. Acad. Philud. iv. 204. 

Harlan, Anier. Herpet. 78. 

Gray, Syn. 29 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 21. 
E. serrata, var., Schleyel, Faun. Japon. 58. 
E. irrigata. Bell, MSS. 

Bum. .f Bib. Erp. Gtn. ii. 276 ; Cat. Meth. R. 10. 
E. reticularia, Bell, MSS. (not Say). 
TestLido rubriventris, Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iii. 101. 

Duin. i5- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 281. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. 7. t. 6 ; ed. 2. i. 55. t. 6. 

Be Kay, IC. t. 7. f. 3. 
Terrapene rubriventris, Bonap. Obs. Reg. Anim. 154 
(1830). 

Hab. North America ; in running water with rocky 
beds. " Between the Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay. 
Sold in the Philadelphia markets as the Potter or Red- 
beUied Terrapen. The flesh is not greatly esteemed." — 
Holbrook. 



a. Just hatched (stuffed). The upper jaw distinctly bi- 
dentate. Head and jaws yellow-streaked. North 
America. 



Osteology : — 

b. Adult skeleton. 



North America. 



A large species ; shell of the adult 11 to 12 inches 
long. 



8. BATAGUE. 

Head moderate, covered vnth a thin skin ; chin not 
bearded. Feet largely webbed. Toes 5 • 5 ; the outer on 
each foot often clawless. Claws conical. Tail moderate. 
Shell oval, rounded, depressed. Sternum solid, broadly 
truncated before, nicked behind, affixed to the thorax by 
a bony symphysis, covered with the end of the pectoral and 
abdominal plates. Axillary and inguinal plates large. End 
of cavity contracted. Skull. Tab. XXXVI. fig. 4. 

Tetraonyx, Lesson, Bclangers Voy. 297 ; Hlust. Zool. t. 7 
(not Latr.). 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 338; Cat. Meth. R. 15. 
Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 29. 
Cyclemys, sp., Bell. 

Clemmys (Tetraonyx), Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29 (1842). 
Tetronyx longicoUis, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Trionys, sp.. Gray, Syn. Rept. 5. 



* Claws 4 • 4, strong. Back convex ; the gular plates 
very small, transverse. Batagur. 

1. Batagur Baska. The Batagur. Tab. XVI. 

Back olive ; adult not keeled ; first vertebral plate nearly 
square, as broad as long ; second, third and fourth broad, 
urceolate, or rather six-sided, rather longer than broad ; 
gular plate very narrow, scarcely wider in the centre, band- 
like ; anal plate shorter than broad. 

Tetraonyx Batagur, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 29. 

Emys Batagur, Gray, Syn. 24 ; Hlust. Lnd. Zool. iii. t. 8. 

Testudo Batagur, B. Hamillon, MS. 

Emys Baska, Gray, Hlust. Lid. Zool. t. , from B. Hamilton, 

MS. Icon. 
Tetraonyx Baska, Bum. «J- Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 341 ; Cat. 

Meth. R. 15. 
Emys Spenglevi, var., Schlegel, F. Japon. 51. 
Emys Tetraonyx, Schleyel, F. Japon. 43, joung. 
Tetraonyx lougicollis, Lesson, Belangers Foy. 297 ; Hlust. 

Zool.'t. 7. 
Tetraonyx Lessonii, Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Ghi. ii. 338. t. 16. 

f. 1 ; Cat. Meth. R. 15. 
Trionyx Cuvieri, Gray, Syn. Rept. 5, very young. 

Young. 

Erays dentata, Gray, Sy?i. Rept. t. 8 ; Hlust. lnd. Zool. 
t. , upper figure only. 

Hab. Incha ; Bengal ; Ganges ; River Iriwaddy, Pegu 
{Reynaud). 

a, b. Adult (stuffed). The space between the ribs not 
quite closed. India; Ganges. Mr. Blyth's Collection. 

** Claws 5 • 4, small, weak. Back convex ; the gular 
plates triangular. Kachuga. 

3. Batagur lineata. The Kachuga. Tab. XVII. 

First vertebral plate four-sided, about as long as broad, 
the second, third and fourth six-sided, second as long as 
broad, the fourth considerably longer than broad ; the 
gular plate short, triangular ; the anal as long as broad. 
" Head bluish-ash ; cheek and chin yellow-varied ; eyebrow 
and nape scarlet-lined ; chin with two yellow spots ; tail 
long." 

Emys lineata. Gray, Syn. 23; Cat. Tort. B.M. 17. 

Bum. ^' Bib. Erp. Ge'n. ii. 335 ; Cat. Meth. R. 15. 
Testudo kachuga, B. Hamilton, MSS. cop. 
Emys kachuga. Gray, Hlust. lnd. Zool. t. 74. 
E. tectum, var., Schlegel, F. Japon. 51. 

Hab. India; Nepaul. 

I. Young animal (stuffed) ; the second and third vertebral 
shields strongly keeled, ending in a tubercle behind ; 
the fourth and fifth sharply keeled. Nepaul. Capt. 
Boys' Collection. Tab. XVII. 

g 2 



36 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



Osteology : — 

b. Shell of half-grown. Vertebral plates obscurely keeled ; 

sides not quite ossified. Tanks and nullahs near 
Saharumpoor. Presented by Dr. Falconer. 

c. Adult (shell). Dark olive above; vertebral plates not 

keeled ; sides quite ossified. Nepaul. Presented by 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

d. Very young (plate only the size of the areola) ; second 

and third vertebraf plates nodose ; hinder margin of 
shell subdentate. India. Capt. Boys' Collection. 

Like B. Baslia, but differs in the number and size of the 
claws, and also in the shell becoming entirely solidified 
when only half the size. 



3. Batagiir Dhongoka. The Dhongoka. Tab. XVIII. 

Olive, with three black streaks ; vertebral plates keeled ; 
first, second and fourth urceolate, longer than broad ; third 
as broad as long ; sternum deeply notched behind ; gular 
plate triangular ; the anal plates rather shorter than broad. 

Emys Dhongoka, Gray, Illust. hid. ZooL ii. t. , cop. 
Testudo Dhongoka, B. Hamilton, MSS. 
E. lineata, var., Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 335 ; Cat. MM. 
R. 1.5. 

Grni/, Cat. Tort. B.M. 17. 
E. tectum, var.? Schlegel, F. Japan. 51. 
E. Duvaucellii, Dion. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 334 ; Cat. Meth. 
B. 14. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 15. 
Hardw. Icon. ined. Rept. t. 2. 

Hab. India ; Nepaul. 

a. Young (stuffed). Olive, with three black streaks, and 

sides of the back darker ; vertebral plates keeled ; the 
second and third tubercular on the hinder edge. India ; 
Ganges at Sultanpoor, near Benares. Tab. XVIII. 

Emys trivitCata, Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 331 ; Cat. Meth. 
R. 14. 

Cantor, Rept. Malay. 4. 
Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 17. 

Osteology. Tab. XXXVI. fig. 1, skull. 

b. Adult (shell only). The three streaks narrower and less 

distinct ; vertebral plates obscurely keeled. India. 

c. Adult (upper shell only). Second vertebral plate pro- 

duced, angular behind. Nepaul. Presented by B. 
H. Hodgson, Esq. 

d. Adult (upper shell only). The second vertebral plate 

rather truncated. Nepaul. PresentedbyB. H.Hodg- 
son, Esq. 

e. Skull. Nepaul. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Tab. XXXVI. fig. 1. 

/. Adult shell, broken on the sides. India. From the 

Zoological Society. 
" Emys Duvaucellii," Bibron, MSS. Cat. Zool. Sac. 



g. Half-grown shell, narrow. Hinder edge serrated ; second 
vertebral plate vrith a very distinct, acute, spine-Uke 
keel. India. From the Zoological Society. 

Emys lineata, Bibron, MSS. Cat. Zool. Soc. 

The figures in the Illustrations of Indian Zoology are 
from a young specimen with rather deformed vertebral 
plates. 

4. Batagnu^ oceUata. The Eyed Emys. 
Shell entire, nearly hemispherical (keeled when young) ; 
dorsal plates brown, each marked with a yellow-edged 
black spot ; vertebral plates : first pentagonal, rest six- 
sided ; tail short ; jaws toothed. 

Emys ocellata. Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 329. t. 15. f. 1 ; 
Cat. Meth. K. 14. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 18. 

Hab. India; Bengal (^e/an^e;'). Mus. Paris. 



*** Claws 5-4, small, weak. Back high, subangular. 
Pangshura. 

5. Batagur tecta. The Pangshure. 
Shell ovate oblong, solid, ohve, with a central interrupted 
red streak ; back angidarly elevated, compressed ; vertebral 
shields elongated, six-sided ; the first, second and third 
keeled, each produced and subtubercular behind ; margin 
quite entire, sheh-ing ; sternum flat, keeled, sides high, 
sloping, pale, vrith regular black spots. Head ohve, with 
two broad orange converging streaks ; neck with close olive 
lines. 

Emys tecta. Bell, Test. t. 1. f. 1-4. 

Gray, Syn. 23. t. 25; Ilhcst. Ltd. Zool. ii. t. 72. f. 1, 2 ; 

Cat. Tort. B.M. 15. 
Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 321 ; Cat. Meth. R. 14. 
Schlegel, F. Jajion. 51. 
E. trigibbosa. Lesson, Bull. Sci. Nat. xxv. 121. 

Bclauger, Voy. 29. 
Testudo Pangshure, no. 4, aud T. Khagraskata, no. \ii, B. 
Hamilton, MSS., cop. Gray, III. Ltd. Zool. 

Hab. India ; Bengal. 

a, b, c. Adult (stuffed). India. From M. Piquot's Col- 
lection. 

d. Adult (in spirits). India. 

e. Adult (stuffed). India. Presented by Dr. J. E. Gray. 

Legs covered with broad thin shields in front, fringed on 
the outer side ; the toes with a series of small, narrow, 
six-sided shields on the middle of the upper surface. 

Schlegel regards E. lineata, E. Batagur, E. Bhongoka 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



37 



and E. Kachuga as varieties of this species, an opinion for 
which he has no ground, as he says he has not seen any 
of them. 



6. Batagnr tentoria. The Dura. 

Shell ovate oblong, olive, with a blackish keel ; back 
rather angularly compressed ; shields slightly rugose ; the 
first vertebral one four-sided, as broad as long, the rest 
elongated, six-sided, keeled, the keel (of the third especially) 
produced behind into a tubercle ; margin dentated behind ; 
the marginal and sternal plates yellow-keeled ; sternum 
slightly elevated, and keeled on the sides, blackish, with 
yellow margins and edges to the plates. Head and neck 
brown, darker dotted and clouded. 

Emys tentoria, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834 ; Cat. Tort. 

B.M. 15. 
E. tectum, adult. Gray, Ilhist. Ind. Zool. t. 72. f. 3, 4, 5. 
Testudo Dura, B. Hamilton, Icon. ined. t. , MSS. 

Hab. India ; Deccan ; Mysore 1 

a. Adult (stuflFed) ; 6 inches. The third vertebral shield 

almost as broad as long ; sternum low. Deccan. Pre- 
sented by Colonel Sykes. 

b. Half-grown (stuffed). Olive ; hinder part of the foot, 

and the strong keel of the second and third vertebral 
shields, and a small spot on the middle of the hinder 
edge of the costal shields, blackish ; the second and 
third vertebral shields Ijroader than long, areola pos- 
terior ; sternum high. 

c. Half-grown (stuffed). India. From Capt. Boys' Col- 

lection. 

This species differs from B. tecta in the keel of the 
discal plates being blackish, not red, with black edges, and 
in the sternum not being spotted. 



9. MALACLEMYS. 
Head very large, depressed ; crown flat ; temples and 
nape covered with a soft spongy skin. Beak exposed ; 
lower beak large, convex beneath. Chin not bearded. 
Legs short. Fore legs with very thin reticulated scales. 
Toes rather short, strong, covered with a few very thin 
shields, united by a broad, nearly naked web to the claws. 
Claws 5 • 4, subequal, curved, sharp. Tail conical. Shell 
depressed, oblong. Sternum solid, truncated before, nicked 
behind, affixed by a bony symphysis ; axillary and inguinal 
plates distmct ; discal and marginal plates with a subceutral 
areola surrounded by concentric rings or series of spots. 



Living in salt-water marshes : moves quickly on land : 
torpid in winter. Egg oval : flesh well-flavoured. America. 

Malaclemvs, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 28. 
Emys § *■*, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 1825, 211. 
Terrapene, sp., Bonajj. Ohs. Cuv. R.J. 157 (1830). 
Emys, sp., Dim. f Bib.Erp. G^/i.ii.261 ; Cat. Meth. R. 10. 



1. Malaclemys concentrica. Salt-water Terrapen. 

Shell oval, rather convex, slightly tubercularly keeled ; 
shields (and the bone under them) pale yellow, marked 
with brown concentric rings, which are often impressed. 
Animal grey, black-spotted and lined. 

Malaclemys concentrica. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 28. 
Testudo concentrica, Shaw, Gen. Zool. iii. 43. t. 9. f. 1. 

Gray, Syn. 27. 

Bell, Test. t. 

Bum. ($• Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 261 ; Cat. Meth. R. 10. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. i. 87. t. 12. 

DeKay, Rept. N. Yo.-h; 10. t. 3. f. 4. 
Terrapin, Broion, Jam. 406. 
Le Terrapene, Lacep. Q. O. i. 129. 
Testudo Terrapin, Schoepff. Test. 64. t. 15. 

Rolbrook, X. A. Herpet. ii. 13. t. 2. 
Testudo palustris, Gmel. Syst. Kat. i. 1041 ? 

Lecoiife, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iii. 113. 
Testudo centrata, Lafr. Rept. i. 145. 

Dainl. Rept. ii. 153. 
Emys centrata, Schweig. Prod. i. 304. 

Say, Joiirn. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. iv. 205. 

Harlan, Rept. N. Amer. 77 . 

Merrein, Tent. 

Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211. 
Emys livida, Bell, MSS. 

Salt-water Terrai>in, Leconte, Southern States N. Amer. 
Terrajicue palustris, Bonap. Obs. Cuv. R. A. 157. 

Hab. North America, in salt-water marshes, from New 
York to Florida ; and West Inches. 

Var. 1. concentrica. Head black-lined ; limbs black- 
spotted ; shield smooth ; dorsal and sternal shields 
with well-defined dark rings. 

a. Animal (stuffed) and shell ; smooth, highly coloured. 
Head with large black lines on the cheeks. North 
America. Presented by Gen. Th. Hardwicke. 

Var. 2. Head black-speckled ; shield more or less deeply 
concentrically grooved, with dark rings. Sternum 
and lower side of marginal plates with dark rings. 

j. Half-grown animal (dry). North America. 
g. Adult (shell only). North America. 

Far. 3. centrata. Head black-speckled; shield more or 
less deeply concentrically dark-grooved. Sternum and 
lower part of marginal plates black-dotted and clouded. 

Testudo centrata, Latr. 



38 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



h. Adult (stuffed). Nortli America. Presented by the 
Earl of Derby. 

c. Adult (stuffed). North America. Presented by Gen. 

Th. Hardwicke. 

d. Adult (stuffed). Shields smooth ; hinder costal plate 

distinctly ringed. North America. Presented by 
Gen. Th. Hardwicke. 

e. Adult (in spirits). North America. 

k. Adult animal (dry : not good state). Back obtusely and 
interruptedly keeled ; dorsal shield rugose, dark brown ; 
sternum brown, with dark edge to the shields. North 
America. From the Zoological Society. 

Far. 4. tuberculifera. The three central vertebral plates 
with a central tubercle, the hinder tubercle orbicular. 

h. Shell only (young). California. Mr. J. Drummond's 

Collection. 
Malaclemys tuberculifera. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 

Far. 5. areolata. Head small ; back elevated. 

Emys areolata, Dvm. ^- Bib. MSS. 

Bum. Cat. Rept. Mus. irilist. Nat. 10. no. 7*. 

Hub. Central America ; Veiea. {Morelet). 

Osteology : — 

/. Shell only. North America. 

i. Skeleton of Far. 1 . North America. Zoological Society. 

Skull oblong ; forehead convex, shelving towards the 
temples ; orbits large, rather close together, shelving up- 
wards, enabling the animal to see above it. 

Mr. Bell, in his Testudinata, beautifully figures several 
specimens from life, showing the variations in the colouring 
of the animal. The animal varies in intensity from pale 
grey to blackish, and the spots on the temples, nape, neck, 
limbs and tail vary in size and depth, and are sometimes 
joined together into lines, which are often symmetrical on 
the two sides of the head. 

" As an article of food it is much preferred to any other 
species, particularly when dug out of the marshes in a 
torpid state : immense numbers are annually brought to 
market. The males are small, and have the concentric 
striee more deeply impressed than the females." — Le- 
conte. 

The very young specimens are about two inches long, 
pale brown ; shields with narrow concentric lines ; second, 
third, and front half of the fourth vertebral plate with a 
very broad rounded keel. Sternum brown-dotted ; plates 
pale-edged, with a line of spots on the front and hinder 
edse. Mus. Bell. 



A very young specimen in spirits in the Museum of 
the College of Surgeons, named " Testudo picta." The 
shell is pale brown ; each of the costal shields has two 
concentric very narrow rings near the margin, and an 
irregular ring in the centre, the continuity of which is 
often more or less interrupted. The vertebral plates have 
a similar double ring, but both the marginal and cen- 
tral ones are more irregular and mterrupted. The upper 
surfaces of the marginal plates are each marked with a 
single submarginal ring and a larger central spot. The 
sternal shields are brown-dotted, with a brown band near 
the margin of each. 



b. Sternum divided by a central cross suture, attached to 
the thorax by a ligamentous suture, covered by the 
end of the pectoral and abdominal shields ; sternal 
plates 1 2 ; axillary and inguinal plates very small. 

Emydidic § a, b. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 13. 
Emydidce § a. Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 514. 
Cistuda, Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. 270 (1822). 
Cistudo, Say, Journ. Acad. Philad. 

Bum. ^- Bib.Erp. Gen. ii. 207 (1835) ; Cat. MM. R. 7. 
Emys, JVar/ler, Syst. 138 (1830). 

Bonap. Obs. Ciw. R. A. 161 (1830). 

Fit:. Syst. Schildk. 1836; Syst. Rept. 29(1843). 
Pyxidemys (clausa). Fit:. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Terrapene, Khiosternon and Sternotherus, sp.. Bell. 

M. Daudin divides the Tortues a boites (T. clausa) 
thus : — 

* With both ends moveable. 1. T. Retzii. 2. T. tri- 
carinata. 3. T. Pennsylvanica. — ** With the hinder end 
only moveable. 4. T. odorata. 5. T. subnigra. 6. T. 
virgulata. 1 . T. clausa. 8. T. brevicauda. 

Cuvier, Reg. Anim. ii. 11 (1817), ed. 2. ii. 12, adopts 
Daudin' s divisions. 

Merrem gives to the Tortues ti boites the generic name 
oi Terrapene (p. 27, &c.). 

Mr. Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 302, 486 (1826), in his paper 
on the Box Tortoises, forms a subfamily of Emydida: for 
them under the name of Sternotherina, and refers to it the 
following genera : — 

I. KiNOSTERNON, Spix, Containing: 1. K. Shwianum. 
2. A', longicaudatum. 3. K. brevicaudatum. 4. K. Penn- 
sylvanicum. 5. K. Amboinense = Terrapene bicolor,Tp. 484. 
6. K. nigricans = Sternotherus Leaehianus. II. Ster- 
notherus, Bell, containing: 1. S. trifasciatus (t. 13). 
2. >S'. Leaehianus (t. 14), which is the same as K. nigricans. 
S.S.odoratus. 4. S.Boscii=KinostenionPennsylvanica; the 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



39 



same as Kinosternon, as regarded by Daudin. III. Terra- 
pen E.^/sn-ew. 1. T.Europceu. 2. T.Carolina. 3. T.maeu- 
lata (pp. 309, 48G). 4. T. nebii'osa (pp. 309, 484) ; both 
mere varieties of T. Carolina. To these, at p. 484 of the 
same vohime, is added as a new species : 5. T. bicolor (t. 1 6), 
said to come from North America, but it proves to be the 
same as Einosternon Amboinense of the former paper. 



f Legs with large scales in front ; toes narrowly webbed, 
shielded above. 

10. CISTUDO. 

Head moderate, covered with a thin, hard, continuous 
skin ; forehead flat. Eyes lateral. Legs covered with large 
angular shields, those on the inner side broadest. Toes 
short, very narrowly webbed to the claws. Tail short. 
Shell ovate, convex, solid. Sternum broad, rounded before 
and behind, completely closing the cavity of the thorax, 
affixed to it by a ligamentous .symphysis, and divided by 
a cross suture between the pectoral and abdominal plates ; 
the front lobe very large, almost entirely free from the 
symphysis ; sternal shields 1 2 ; inguinal and axillary plates 
none ; marginal plates 25 or 2/ ; nuchal plate small. 
North America. 

Cistudo, sp., Say, Journ. Acad. Philad. 

Cistudo, Dim. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 201 (185.5) ; Cat. 

With. R. 7. 
Cistuda § *, Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. 2/0. 
Cistuda, Gray, Syn. Repf. 1/ (1831); Cat. Tort. B.M. 

29 (1844), misprint. 
Cistula, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211, misprint. 

TFayler, Syst. 138. 
Les Tortues a boites (part.), Baud. Repf. 

Ciiv. R.A. ii. 11 ; ed. 2. ii. 12. 
Terrapene, sp., Merrem, Tent. 27. 
Terrapene, Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 308, iii. 514. 
Emj's, Pyxidemys, and E. Emys, Fit:. Syst. Schildk. 123 

(1836). 
Steruotherns, sp.. Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 308. 
Kinosternon, sp., Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. ,308. 
Emys § 1. Cishula, Bonap. Ohs. Cue. R.A. 162. 
Pyxidemys (clausa), Filz. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 
Cyelemys, Bell, Zool. Journ. 

Fits. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 
Terraphene, Grai/, Ann. Phil. x. 211 (1S25), misprint. 
Emys, Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. 270 (1822). 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 
Les Clausiles, Bum. Sf Bib. Erp. Gin. 210. 

The most terrestrial of the Box Tortoises, with short, 
strong, scarcely webbed toes. The legs are like those of a 
Land Tortoise. 

* Claws 5 ■ 4 := Cistudo. 
** Claws 5 ■ 3 1:= Onvchotria. 



* Claws 5 ■ 4. Cistudo. 

1. Cistudo Carolina. The Box Tortoise. 

Shell hemispherical, slightly keeled, brown, yellow-varied ; 
shields grooved; marginal plates 23-27. Animal black, 
yellow or red spotted. 

Cistudo Caiollna, Gray, Syn. 18 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 29. 
Testudo Carolina, Linn. Si/st. Nat. i. 352 ! 

Bum. c^- Bib. Erp. e'en. ii. 210; Cat. Mith. R. 7. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. iii. 9. t. 1. 
T. brevicauda, Lacep. Q. O. i. 164. 
T. clausa, Gmel. S,/st. Nat. i. 1043. 

Baud. Rept. li. 207. 

Schoepff. Test. t. 7. 

Lecoaie, Ann. Lye. N. T. iii. 124. 

Shaw, Zool. t. 7. 

Guir. Icon. t. 1. f. 2. 
T. virgul.ita, Latr. Repf. 100. 

Bai'd. Rept. ii. 201. t. 23. 
T. incarecrafa and T. incarcerata striata, Bonnaf. Ency. 29. 
T. cariuata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 353. 

Sc/ineidcr, SchildA: 361. 
Emys dubia, Schweig. Prod. 
E. Schneiderii, Schweig. Prod. 317. 
Terrapene guttata (or T. maculata), and Ter. nebulosa. Bell, 

Zool. Jmrn. ii. 309. 
La Bonibe, Lacep. Q. O. i. 164. 

Cistuda Blandingii, Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. iii. 35. t. 5 ? 
The Box Tortoise, Grew, Mas. 38. t. 3. f. 2. 

Edw. Birds, t. 205. 
Checkered Tortoise, Penn. Arcf. Zool. ii. 228. 
Emvs (Pyxidemys) Schneideri, E. (P.) virgulata, and E. (P.) 

clausa! Fil:. Syst. Schildk. 123. 
Terrapene clausa, Merrem, Tent. 

Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211. 
Emys (Cistudo) clausa, Bonap. Obs. Cuv. R. A. 162. 
Emvs (Pyxidemys) clausa. Fit:. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Emys/3. clausa, IVagler, Syst. 138. 
Emys /3. virgulata, IVagler, Syst. 138. 
Testudo Caroliulaua, Sclmeider, 33. no. 7. 
T. virginea, Grew, Mus. t. 3. f. 2. 
Cistudo clausa. Say, Journ. Acad. Philad. iv. 
Terrapene clausa, Merrem, Tent. 
Terrapene Carolina, Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 309. 
Terrapene " subretosa, Belt," Leconfe. 
Laud Turtle, Northern States N. America (Leconte). 
YmehnrrenTerraiien, Southern States N.Anierica(Leconte). 

Very youngi Emys (Emvoides) kinosternoides. Gray, Syn. 

32; Cat. Tort. B.M.'27. 
E. cinosternoides. Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 303 ; Cat. 

Me'th. R. 12. 

Hab. North America, from Hudson's Bay to Florida. 
Martuiique (Plee). 

a. Adult (stuffed). Shell yellow, black-rayed; beneath 

brown. North America. Presented by Dr. J. E. 
Gray. 

b. Adult (stuffed). Black, yellow-spotted. North America. 

Presented by Dr. Jacob Green. 



40 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



e. Youna; animal (dry). Discoloured from spirits. North 
America. Presented by Gen. Th. Hardwicke. 

I. Adult animal (dry). Shell yellow, black -rayed. North 
America. Presented by Gen. Th. Hardwicke. 

}. Adult (stuffed). Shell brown, paler rayed, with few 
yellow spots. North America. 

k. Adult (stuffed). Shell black, yellow-spotted, rather 
elongate, beneath brown. North America. Presented 
by H. Doubleday, Esq. 

/. Adult. Shields pale, darker rayed. North America, 
Louisiana. ]Mr. Smith's Collection. Called "Wood- 
land and Cane-brake Tortoise." 

m. Adult animal (dry). Shell black, with large yellow 
spots and rays. North America. 

n,o,p. Adult (stuffed). Larsre shields pale. North 
America. Mr. Smith's Collection. 

Osteology : — 

h. Adult (upper shell only). Shields black, with large 
yellow spots. 

g. Adult (upper shell only). Like "h." 

d. Adult (upper shell only). Shields pale, black-rayed. 

c. Adult (upper shell only). Wanting some shields. 

/. Adult (shell only). Back and sternum brown, with 
large yellow marks. 

q. Skeleton (adult). Male. North America. From the 
Paris Collection. 

Skull rather high ; forehead flat, rather shelving towards 
the nose; nose truncated; sides of face perpendicular; 
orbits lateral. 

The shell is so hard and the animal so strong, that it can 
easily walk with 60 lbs. on its back. Its food consists of 
fresh insects and the edible fungi, particularly the species 
of Clararia. Many persons are in the habit of keepmg 
them in their cellars, where they destroy snails, crickets, 
and other noxious insects. It may be questioned if they 
ever attempt, as has been said, to devour rats and mice ; 
they are not well formed for the pursuit of such active 
animals, who have too much sense to suffer themselves to 
be caught by so sluggish a hunter. The same may be said 
of the ridiculous stories of their catching and destroying 
snakes. — Leconte. 

" This species has been cited as an example of longevity 
among animals of the lower class : all tortoises are loug- 
lived, but the finding of an individual with a name and date 
engraved on its sternum jn-oves nothing ; the idle and foolish 
are fond of inscribing their names everywhere, and may as 
well antedate the time by half a century as state the true 
vear of their attempt at immortahty." — Leconte. 



** Claws 5-3. Vertebral plates ^. Onychotria. 
Onychotria, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849, 16. 

2. Cistudo Mexicana. The Three-toed Box Tortoise. 
Shell oblong, dark brown, pale spotted and rayed, spots 
and rays sometimes confused ; vertebral plates with a nearly 
continuous keel, and with a small intermediate one between 
the usual fourth and fifth plate ; hinder margin acute, revo- 
lute. Head pale brown ; fore-legs yellow or orange spotted, 
hinder uniform brown ; sternum flat, gular plate wider in 
front and gradually narrowed behhid. 

Cistudo (Onvchotria) Mexicana, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1849, 17. Rept. t. 2. 
Cistudo Carolina, var.. Bum. Cat. Meth. R. 1 . 

Hub. Mexico ; New Orleans. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Shell : back high, compressed, 

shelving ; plate black, yellow-rayed. Mexico. Mr. 
Warwick's Collection. 

b. Adult (stuffed). Shell oblong, evenly convex ; plate 

yellow, black-marbled. Mexico. JNIr. Warwick's Col- 
lection. 



11. LUTREMYS. 
Head ovate ; forehead rather convex ; cheeks sloping. 
Eyes subsuperior. Legs covered with large thick scales 
in front ; those of the outer side ovate, keeled ; of the 
inner broad, band-like. Toes short, thick, covered with 
band-like shields above, well webbed to the ends; claws 
5 • 4, short, curved. Tail conical. Shell depressed, rounded. 
Sternum broad, rounded before, rather truncated behind, 
entirely enclosing the limbs when they are contracted. The 
cross suture between the anterior and the posterior lobe in 
the middle of the short sterno-costal suture. Axillary and 
inguinal plates very rudimentary. 

Les Baillantes, Bum. S,- Bib. Erp. Gen. 221 (1835). 
Lutreniys (part.), Gray, Cat. Rept. B.M. 
Emys ("§ 2. Emvs), Bonap. Obs. Cuv. R. A. 164. 

Fit:. Syst'. Schihlk. ; Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 

Flemin'q, Phil. Zool. ii. 270. 
Emys a, Wugler, Syst. 138 (1830). 

1. Lutremys Europsea. The Speckled Tortoise. 

Shell depressed, ovate, brown, with radiating lines of 
yellow dots ; sternum slightly nicked behind. Head and 
body black, yellow-dotted ; tail elongate. 

Cistudo Europsea, Gray, Syn. 19 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 31. 

Btrm. §• Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 220 ; Cat. Meth. R. 7. 

Eichiv. Faun. Casp. Cauc. 44. 

Schley el, F. Japan. 52. 
Testudo Europsea, Schweiy. Schihlk. 323. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



41 



Testudo Europsea, Sfi/iw, Zoo/, iii. t. 8. 

Schoepff. Test. t. 1. 

Bojani's, Anat. t. 

Sturm, Foirna, t. a, b, c. 

Wugler, Amph. t. 5. f. 8, 9. 
T. flava, Lacep. Q. O. 135. t. 6. 
T. punctata, Goftw. Schihlk. t. k. f. 12. 
T. orbicularis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 3.51. 

11'iilff, Boruss. 3. 
T. lutraria. Rondel. Pise. ii. 1 70. 

Gesner, Q. O. ii. 113. f. 5. 

Aldrov. 710. 

BriiuH. AJiiat. 91. 
T. pulchella, Schoepf. t. 26, young. 
T. Meleagi-is, Shaw, Nat. Misc. iv. 144 (shell polished). 
Emys Heilenica, Valenc. Toy. Moreu, t. 8. f. 2. 
E. antiquonim, Valenc. Voy. Morea, t. 8. f. 1. 
1 E. capensis, Fit:. Syst. Schihlk. 
E. Hot'mauni, Fit:. Syst. Schildk. 
E. orbicularis, Valenc. 
E. Europsea, Valenc. Zool. Morea, t. 8. f. 1 . 

Fit:. Syst. Rept. 29 (1843). 
E. a. Europea, TVay/er, Syst. 138. t. 5. f. 8, 9. 
E. (Emys) lutraria, Bonap. Obs. Cuv. R. A. 164. 

Hab. Europe; France; Sicily; Morea; North Asia; 
North Africa ; Algeria ; ? Japan. Mas. Leyden. 

/. Young (in spirits) . Shell black, yellow spotted on edge 
of shields. Europe. Mr. Brandt's Collection. 

b. Shell and dry animal. Brown, yellow-dotted ; 6^ inches. 

Europe. 

c. Young. Hinder half only, with dry animal. Brown, 

paler rayed. Presented by Thomas Bell, Esej. 

Testudo pulchella, Schoepff. 

d. Young (in spirits). Animal white dotted ; shell pale 

brown, brown-rayed. Albania. Presented by W. W. 

Saunders, Esq. 
g. Adult (stuffed). Europe. From the Haslar Hospital 

Museum. 
i. Adult (in spirits). Europe. From the Zoological 

Society. 

k. Adult. Dorsal shell. Shield only ; carious, covered 
with a thick rough coat. Presented by H.R.H. 
Prince Bonaparte (Charles Lucien). 

Osteology : — 

Bojanvs, Anat. Test. Europ. t. 1, 31. 

Cuv. Oss. Foss. V. 184. t. 11. f. 13-16, skull; t. 12. f. 2, 

clavicle. 
Emys Europrea, IVagler, Syst. t. 5. f. 20-28. 

a. Adult (shell only). Black, yellow rathately dotted. 
South Europe. 

e. Adult (shell only). Back convex ; plate black, yellow- 

lined. Europe. Mus. Zool. Soc. 

h. Skeleton. Europe. 

The areola of the young specimen is marked with dark- 
edged sinuous lines on the discal shields, and a subceutral 



ring on the marginal ones ; these marks are sometimes to 
be seen on the areola of the plates of the adult. The other 
parts of the shields are destitute of any rings, and generally 
radiately spotted and streaked. 

•1"+ Legs with thin band-like shields in front. Toes broadly 
webbed, with small scales above. 

12. CUORA. 

Head covered with a thin skin, rhombic ; forehead flat ; 
cheeks flat. Eyes lateral. Legs strong, covered with broad, 
band-like, transverse shields. Toes strong, covered with 
distinct band-like shields above, widely webbed to the toes. 
Claws 5 ■ 4, strong, curved, acute. Tail moderate. Shell 
convex, very solid, three-keeled, at least when young. 
Sternum broad, rounded behind and before, completely 
closing the cavity of the thorax ; the front lobe large, 
affixed behind, with the cross suture nearly in the middle 
of the bony sterno-costal symphysis ; anterior lobe large, 
with the hinder part enclosed in the symphysis ; sternal 
shields 1 2 ; axillary and inguinal shields small, distinct ; 
marginal plates 25 ; nuchal plate small. Asia. 

Shell convex, like Cistudo. The legs and feet are those 
of an Asiatic Emys. 

1. Cuora Amboinensis. The Cuoro. 
Shell hemispherical, slightly three-keeled, blackish ; mar- 
gin broad, expanded ; nuchal shield linear ; sternum black 
and yellow varied. Animal blackish, yellow-varied ; head 
dark, with two broad yellow streaks on the side from the 
nose. 

Cistudo Amboinensis, Gray, Syn. 19 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 30 ; 

Illiist. Lid. Zool. t. 

Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 215. t. 15. f. 2 ; Cat. Meth. 
R. 7. 
Testudo amboinensis, Baud. Rept. ii. 309. 
T. Couro, Leschen. Mus. Par. 
Emys Amboinensis and E. Coura, Schiveig. Prodr. i. 214, 

31-5. 
Terrapene bicolor. Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. t. 16. 
Emys Couro, var., Schlegel, F. Japon. 64. 
E. (Pyxidemys) Couro, Fitz. Syst. Schildk. 122. 
Terrapene Couro, Fit:. 
Emys clausa (part.), Bonap. 
E. /J. Couro, iVagler, Syst. 138. 
Cistuda Amboinensis fl. Le%'eriana, Gray, Syn. 29. 

Hab. Amboina; Batavia ; Sumatra; Manilla; China? 
Soohog ; Java. Called Couro (Leschenault). 

a. Adult (stuffed). Shell rather elongate ; 6^ inches. 

India. Presented by Thomas Bell, Esq., F.R.S. 

b. Young. Head and feet dry ; shell broad, three-keeled ; 

2f inches. Lllust. Ind. Zool. t. 6. Presented by 
Dr. J. E. Gray. 



42 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



c. Very young (in spirits). With granular shields, and the 

costal shields with a keel rather above the centre. 
Philippine Islands. From Mr. Cuming's Collection. 

d. Half-grown (inspirits). Granular areola posterior, mar- 

ginal. Philippine Islands. From IMr. Cuming's Col- 
lection. 

e. Half-grown (stuffed). Singapore. 

/. Adult (in spirits). Amboina. From the Ley den Mu- 
seum. 

ff. Half-grown (stuffed). Asiatic Islands. Mr. Warwick's 
Collection. 

h. Adult (stuffed). Shell ventricose, high. Malacca. 
Presented by Commander John Ince, R.N. 

fc. Very young (dry). Slightly three-keeled. 



Osteology : — 

/. Skeleton of adult, 
seum. 



Amboina. From the Levden Mu- 



Ciiora Amboinensis is called " Baninr/ " by the Malays 
of the Peninsula ; it is numerous in the ponds, rivulets and 
paddy-fields in the valley of Pinang. The dorsal keels 
become obsolete with age, and the margms of the shell, 
particularly the hinder part, become revolute. — Cantor. 

Schlegel regards Eimjs castcmea, E. subitiger, Terrapene 
bicolor, Stei-notherus trifasciatus and St. Leachianus as 
varieties of this species. 

Leconte most erroneously confounds this with Cistudo 
Carolina. 



2. Cuora trifasciata. The Three-streaked Coura. 

Shell subovate, hemispherical, solid, keeled, dull yellow, 
red and black varied, with three blackish dorsal streaks. 
Sternum bifid behind. Head yellow, with two horizontal 
black streaks on the side of the head and neck, upper wider, 
with a triangular paler spot in front and two larger oval 
ones behind. 

Cistudo trifasciata. Gray, Sijn. 19 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 31 ; 
Ilhist. Ind. Zool. t. 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 219 ; Cat. Mith. R. 1. 
Steruotherus trifasciatus, Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 299. t. 1,3. 

TVar/ler, Si/st. 137. 
Emvs Couro, var., Schlegel, F. Japon. 64. 
E. (Pyxidemys) trifasciata, Fitz. Syst. Schildh. 123. 
E. trifasciata, Voiyt. 

Ilab. China. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Shell subovate. China. Presented 
by J. Reeves, Esq. 

e. Very old (stuffed). Shell oblong, like a. China. Mus. 
Zool. Soc. 



c. Adult (dry). Shell elevated, thick, worn on the surface. 

China. Presented by J. Reeves, Esq. 

Osteology : — 

d. Upper shell only. Like a. China. 

b. Very old ; deformed. Shell much depressed and ex- 
panded. China. Presented by J. Reeves, Esq. 



13. CYCLEMYS. 

Head ovate, covered, with a thin skin ; forehead rather 
convex. Eyes subsuperior. Legs strong, covered in front 
with thin, broad, band-like, transverse shields. Toes strong, 
covered with small scales above, webbed to the claws ; claws 
5 • 4, short, curved, acute. Tail moderate. Shell convex, 
solid, edge-toothed behind. Sternum rounded in front, 
truncated behind, narrower than the cavity, not covering 
the legs when contracted, with a distinct process on each 
side to form the symphysis. The cross suture between the 
anterior and posterior lobe in the middle of the long sterno- 
costal suture, so that both lobes are equally attached to the 
thorax. Asiatic. 

This genus has the same shield-like and well-webbed toes 
as Einys and Cuora, but differs from the latter in the ster- 
nal lobes being narrower than the opening of the thorax, so 
that, as in Emys, it does not cover the legs when they are 
contracted. This similarity has induced naturalists to place 
the species in the genus Emys, overlooking the fact of the 
lobes being mobile. 

Cyclemvs, Bell, Proc. ZooL Soc. 1842, I/. 

Fi'tz. Syst. Kept. 29 (1843). 
Les Baillantes (part.). Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 221. 

1. Cyclemys dentata. The Dhor. Tab. XIX. 

Shell suborbicular ; back flattened, keeled, hinder edge 
toothed ; sternal shields yellow, brown-rayed. 

Cistuda dentata. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 32. 

Emys dentata, Gray, Illust. Ind. Zool. t. , lower fig., 

young. 
E. Dhor or E. dentata. Gray, Syn. 20. t. 8, 9. 
E. Hasseltii, Boie, Mus. Leyd., young. 
E. Sjiengleri, var., Schleyel, F. Japon. 51. 
Cyclemys orbiculata, Bell, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1824, 17, adult. 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Cistnda Diardi, Dutn. (J- Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 227 ; Cat. Meth. 

R. S. 
" Testudo Diardii," Mus. Leyden. 
Tetraonyx affinis. Cantor, Cut. Rept. Malac. 6 1 

Hab. Java; Batavia ; Borneo; Pinang (Co»^o/'). 

Var. 1. Sternum raised on the sides. 
Bell, Testudinidee, viii. t. 3, lower figure. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



43 



a. Young (ill spirits). Suborbicular, depressed, brown, 
black-dotted, bluntl}- keeled, edge acutely toothed ; 
vertebral plates square, as broad as long ; sides of neck 
and throat yellow-lined ; feet yellow-spotted. Java. 
Presented by Thomas Bell, Esq. 

h. Young (in spirits). Java. From the Leyden Museum. 

d. Half-grown (skeleton). Front dorsal plate broader ; 
plates rugose, radiated. Java. Tab. XIX. 

Far. 2. Sternum nearly flat, the lobes rather broad, some- 
what like a Cuora. 
Bell, TestudinidcB, viii. t. 3, upper figure. 

Osteology : — 

c. Adult (skeleton). First dorsal narrow, urceolate ; plates 
worn. Java. From the Leyden Collection. 

Dr. Cantor describes three very young specimens of a 
Tortoise (the largest being onlv 2^ inches long), which 
were taken on the sea-shore of Pinang, under the name of 
Tetraonyx affinis. The Malays assert that this Tortoise 
also inhabits estuaries and rivers in the Peninsula, and that 
it grows to a considerable size. The outline of the shell 
and its composing shields strikingly resemble the young of 
Cyclemys orbiculata,Me\\\ — Cat. Rept. Penins. C. 

There can be little doubt that the above were the young 
of this species, which often has only 4 claws on the feet. 



2. Cyclemys platynota. The Flat-backed Emys. 

Shell ovate, convex, yellow-dotted, with the centre of the 
back quite flat, as if truncated ; shields striated ; areola of 
diseal shield central, of costal superior ; vertebral shields 
broader than long, 6-sided, 5th keeled ; the front and hinder 
margin strongly toothed. Sternum flat, truncated before 
and slightly nicked behind. Tail moderate, tapering. 

Emvs platvnota, Gray, Proc. Zoo/. Sac. 1834 ; Illi'st. Ind. 
Zoo/, t." ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 16. 
Cantor, Rept. Ma/ay. Penins. 3. 
E. Reevesii, adult?, Duni. Cat. Meth. R. 15? 

Hab. Sumatra (Miil/er) ; Pinang {Cantor, Cat. 3) ; Co- 
chinchina (Diard). 

a. Adult (stuffed). Sumatra? 

6, c, d. Adult, and half-grown (stuffed). Head yellow, 
varied ^vith a broad yellow streak on each side of the 
nape; throat yellow-streaked. Singapore. Mr. Wal- 
lace's Collection. 

e. Young. Shell only, with the ribs about half closed ; 
vertebral plate with two costal plates, with one raised 
black spot on the middle of tlie hinder edge of the 
nucleus. Singapore. Mr. Wallace's Collection. 

/. Very young. Shell very thin, with the black spot only 
very indistinctly marked. 



They are called " Katong " by the Malays in the Penin- 
sula. The head and neck, shell, tail and feet of the adult 
living animal are dirty yellowish or greenish brown, which 
becomes paler on the sternum. The nuclei of the vertebral 
shields are slightly raised ; the costal shields are depressed, 
their sides sloping towards the nuclei, thus forming as it 
were a very shallow hexagonal basis. The front and hind 
margins are broadly revolute, their toothed appearance 
worn off. The sternum is slightly concave in the centre. 
The}- inhabit the valleys of Pinang, and in confinement they 
refused to eat, and were never observed to enter a tank. — 
Cantor. 



e. Sternum divided by two cross sutures ; central /obe at- 
tached to the thorax /jy a bony symphysis, corered by 
the end of the abdominal shields only ; sternal plat es 
11 or S ; the axillary and inguinal plates large. 

Emydidffi § a, c. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 13. 
Terrapenina, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211 (1825). 
Terrapene (part.), Merrem, Tent. 27. 
Cistuda §, Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. 270. 
Einydidfe a. Bell, Zool. Journ. iii. 514. 
Cinostcrnon, Spix. 

JJ'iegm. ^- Ruthe, Handb. 160. 
Kinosternon, Bonap. Obs. Cur. R. A. 266 (1836). 
Les Tortues a boites (part.). Baud. Rept. 

Cur. R. A. ii. 11 ; ed. 2. ii. 12. 
Terrapene, sp., Merrem, Tent. 
Staurotypus et Cinostcrnon, TT^agler, Syst. 137. 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 356, 363 ; Cat. Meth. R. 
16, 17. 



14. KINOSTERNON. 

Head moderate, subquadrangular, pyramidal, covered 
with a hard thin skin. Chiu bearded. Feet and tail nearly 
naked, with a few scattered scales. Claws 5*4, rarely 4 '4. 
Tail of male elongate, clawed. Shell ovate, three-keeled, 
especially when young. Sternum rounded in front, entire 
or two-lobcd behind ; middle lobe covered by the abdo- 
minal plates, fixed by a bony symphysis to the thorax ; 
front and hinder lobes more or less free, articulated to the 
middle lobe : sternal shields 1 1 ; gular pair united into a 
triangular shield ; the pectoral shields triangular, narrow 
on the inner edges. Axillary and especially the inguinal 
plates very large, covering the suture. America. 

Terrapene, sp., Merrem. 
Sternotherus, Bell. 

Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211 (1825). 
Sternotherus, sp.. Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 304. 

Fife. Syst. Rept. 29 (184.3). 
Ivinostcrnon, Spix, Braz. 

Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 302; iii. 515. 

H 2 



44 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



Kinosternon, Bonap. Obs. Cuv. R. A. 166. 

Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 21 1 (1825) ; Syn. Rept. 24 ; Cat. 
Tort. B.M. 32. 
Cistudo, sp., Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Set. Philad. iv. 266. 
Tortues a boitcs § **, Cuv. R. A. 
Cistuda § 2, Flem. Phil. Zool. ii. 270 (1822). 
Cinosteruon, JVagler, Si/st. 137. 

Fife. Si/st. Rept. 29. 

Wieffm. ^- Riithe, Handh. 166. 

Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. ii. 363 ; Cat. MHh. 
R. 16. 
Cyclemys, sp., Wagler, Syst. 137. 

a. Sterno-coslal sidure elongate, narrow ; sternal lobes as broad 

as the openiny. Swanka. 
/3. Sterna-costal suture short, broad; sternal lobes narrower 

than the opening. Kinosternon. 



a. Sterno-costal suture elongate, narrow ; sternal lobes as 
broad as the opening ; abdominal shield longer than 
the front lobe of sternum. Swanka. 

Swanka, Gray, Cot. Tort. B.M. 32 (1844). 
Cinosteruon, Fitz. Syst. 29. 

1. Kinosternon scorpioides. Tlie Swanka. 
Shell oblong, ratlier compressed, with three continuous 
keels ; dorsal shields longly sis-sided, slightly imbricate ; 
sternum as broad and large as the opening ; anterior lobe 
entire, broad, longer than the middle lobe ; gular plate long, 
triangular; symphysis narrow, as long as the abdominal 
shields. 

Kinosternon scorpiodes. Gray, Syn. Rept. 24 ; Cat. Tort. 
B.M. 32. 

Bell, Test. t. . f. 
Cinostemon scorpoides, Wagler, Syst. 137. t. 5. f. 31-43. 

Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Ghi. ii. 365 ; Cat. Meth. 
R. 16. 
Kinosternon Shavianum, Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 304. 
Cinostemon scorpioideum, Wagler, Syst. t. 5. f. 44. 

Fit:. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Kinosternon longicaudatum, Sjnx, Bras. t. 12. 

Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211 (1825). 

Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 304. 
Chersine scorpoidea, Men-em, Amph. 33. 
Cyclemys tricarinata, Wagler, Syst. 137. 
Kinosternon brevicaudatum, Spix, Bras. 13, 
Testudo scorpoides, Linn. Syst. Xat. i. 152. 
Emys scorpoidea, Schweig. Prod. i. 312. 
Testudo Pennsylvanica, var., Shaw, Zool. iii. t. 15, young. 
T. tricarinata, Baud. Rept. ii. 178. 

Schoepf. Test. t. 2. 

Shaw,' Zool. ii. t. 11. 
T. Retzii, Baud. Rept. ii. 174. 
Emys Retzii, Schweig. Prod. 312. 
Terrapene tricarinata, Merrem, Tent. 28. 

Hub. Central America ; Brazils; Cayenne; Honduras. 



Far. 1 . Hinder part of sternum entire. 

b. Stuffed (not in good state ; wants dorsal plates ; no ap- 

pearance of keels). Central America. 

c. Animal dry (shell wants dorsal plates ; no appearance of 

keels). Central America. 
Kinosternon scorpoides, var. acuta. Gray, Syn. 14. t. 7. f. 1 . 

d. Adult (animal and shell, in spirits). Back very convex, 

rounded, distinctly three-keeled ; sternum rather con- 
vex ; tail very short ; spine very small. Female ? 
Tropical America. Presented by Thomas Bell, Esq. 

e. Adult (animal and shell, in spirits). Back convex, 

rounded, distinctly three-keeled ; sternum flat ; tail 
elongate ; claws very strong. Male? Tropical America. 

g. Adult (stuffed). Dorsal keels very distinct, vertebral 
plates small ; tail elongate. Mexico. 

h. Adult (animal, stuffed). Discal plates ver\' irregular; 
dorsal keel indistinct. Mexico. 



Osteology : — 

Cinostemon scorpoides, Wagler, Syst. Amph. t. 5. f. 31—13. 

a. Shell only, swollen and convex, wanting some plates. 
Dorsal keels only marked by very obscure lines. Cen- 
tral i\.merica. Presented by Dr. J. E. Gray. 

i. Adult. Back rounded ; dorsal keel only marked by a 
very slight line. 

Var. 2. Hinder part of sternum notched. Males. 

/. Adult (animal, dry). Dorsal keels regular, distinct. 
Head very large, broad ; sternum concave ; tail elon- 
gate ; claws large. Male ? 

VI. Adult (stuffed). Dorsal keels regular, distinct; sternum 
concave, truncated behind ; tail elongate ; claws large. 
Cayenne. M. Yerreaux's Collection. 

h. Adult (shell). Dorsal keels regular, distinct. South 
America. Mus. Zool. Soc. 

Far. 3. Back depressed. 

Cinostemon scorpoides, var.. Bum. Cat. M^th. R. 16. 
Eab. Bolivia; Santa Cruze dc la Sierra (D'Orbigny). 



2. Kinosternon cruentatum. Blood-spotted Swanka. 

Carapace swollen, oval, suddenly inclined behind, three- 
keeled, red-brown; sternum not nicked behind, yellow- 
brown. Head yellowish-green, darker above ; head, neck 
and limbs with small blood-red lines. 

Cinostemon cruentatura. Bum. ^- Bib. MSS. 
Bum. Cat. Rept. Mus. H. Xat. 10. 

Hab. North America (Dumeril). 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



45 



/3. Sterno-costal suture short, broad; sternallobes narrower 
than the opening ; abdominal shield shorter than front 
lobe of sternum. Kinosternon. 

Kiuostemon, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 33 (1844). 
Staurotypus, sp., Dum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. 
Sternot'herus, Fit:. Syst. Eejit. 29. 

3. Kinosternon Penasylvanicum. The JMud Tortoise. 

Sternum oblong, anterior and posterior lobes broad, 
rounded, entire ; the gular shield broad, short ; the pectoral 
and femoral shields triangular, almost reduced to a point 
at the inner margins. Head brown, pale marbled ; temple 
with three streaks of small white spots from the hinder 
edge of the orbits ; chin white-streaked and dotted ; throat 
with three distant, very narrow white streaks. 

Shell of young dark brown, with a small dark spot on 
the centre of each dorsal and marginal shield, and ^Tith 
a moderate round white spot on the under side of each 
marginal plate, edging the plate, a large spot on the middle 
of each axillary and inguinal plate, and a larger more irre- 
gular-shaped one on each sternal plate. 

Shell of adult oblong, convex, not keeled, dark brown, 
often eroded, yellow-brown beneath. 

Shell of males oblong, rather narrow; sternum flat or 
slightly concave ; head large ; tail elongate, thick, conical, 
with a large terminal claw :— of females oblong, rounded, 
broad ; sternum flat or rather convex ; head moderate ; 
tail short, conical, with a small terminal spine. 

Kinosternon Pennsylvanicum, Gray, Syn. t. C. f. 4 ; Cat. 
Tort. B.M. 33. 

Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 209. 

Bonap. Obs. Cuv. R. A. 167. 

Be Kay, Rept. New York, 21. t. 1, 2. f. 4. 

Wagler, Syst. 13". 

Dum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 367. 

Holbrook,N.Amer. Herpet. i. t. 15 ; ed. l.iii. 23. t. 3 ; 
ed. 2. 127. 
Testudo Pennsylvanica, Bosc, Rept. 

Gmelin, Si/st. Nat. i. 1042. 

Schoepf. Test. t. 24. f. a. 

Shaw,' Zool. t. 14. f. 2. 

Baud. Rept. ii. t. 24. f. 1-, 2. 

Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. T. iii. 120. 
Testudo glntinata, Band. Rept. t. 24. f. 4. 

Schoepf. Test. t. 24. f. 6. 
Terrapene Boscii, Merrem, Tent. 

Sternotherns pennsylvanicus, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211. 
Testudo Lutraria Pennsylvanica, Edw. Glean, ii. 77- 1. 287. 
Cistudo Pennsylvanica, Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 

iv. 266. 
Emvs pennsvlvanica, Schweig. Prod. 315. 

■ Harlan, Rept. N. Amer. 79- 
Terrapene pennsylvanica, Merrem, Tent. 27. 
Mud Tortoise, Penn. Arct. Zool. 80. 
Mud Tarapin, Leconte, S. States America. 



La Tortue rougeatre, Laeep. Quad. Ovip. i. 152. 
Bosc, N. B. H. N. XXXV. 267. 

Male. 

Kinosternon oblongum, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 33. 
Ilab. North America ; New York to New Orleans. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Female 1 Shell rounded, much eroded. 

North America. 
c, d. Young (in spirits). East Florida. Presented by 

Edward Doubleday, Esq. 

e,f. Young (in spirits). Like c and f/. North America. 
Presented byCapt. Sir Edward Belcher, R.N.,C.B. &c. 

g. Adult (stuffed). Female. Shell rounded ; sternum en- 
tire behind. North America. Presented by H. Double- 
day, Esq. 
j, h. Half-grown (in spirits). North America. 

i, ;'. Just hatched (stuffed). North America. 

k, I, m, n, 0. Adult (stuffed). Males and females. North 
America ; Louisiana. Mr. Smith's Collection. 

In the adult specimens from New Orleans in spirits the 
head is dark brown, with irregular white spots on the occi- 
put ; all of them have two broad dark-edged streaks from 
the back of the orbit, the upper extended along the side of 
the neck, the lower to the hinder end of the beak, and aa 
intermediate small pale spot on the tympanum ; these 
marks all become more obscure on the older specimens. 

The young specimens, with the same description of 
colouring and from the same locality, vary a little in the 
comparative width and form of the lobes of the sternum, 
even when they have the same form of tad, wliich is sup- 
posed to mark the sexes. 

4. Kiuostemon Doubledayii. Doubleday's Swa.nka. 
Tab. XX. 
Shell narrow, oblong, smooth, sides convex, back flat- 
tened ; sternum high on the sides, lobes much narrower 
than the cavity, rounded in front, bifid behind, the sym- 
physis very short. 

Kiuostemon Doubledayii, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 33. 
Hab. CaUfornia. 

a. Shell only (much worn) . California. 

Very like the preceding {K. Pennsylvanicum), but tlie 
sternum is much move raised on the sides. 



5. Kinosternon punctatum. The Dotted Swanka. 
Sternum rather lozenge-shaped ; anterior and posterior 
lobes rather tapering, with nearly straight edges, the hinder 



4(i 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



truncated behind ; the pectoral, and especially the femoral 
plates, subtrigoual, moderately broad at the inner margin. 
Head brown, minute and closely pale-dotted, with a short 
oblitjue dark-edged streak on the hinder margin of the 
upper beak ; throat pale-dotted ; thorax brown, with a few 
brown dots and a small dark spot at the apex of each dor- 
sal and marginal shield ; under side and hinder edge of 
marginal shields pale brown varied and lined ; sternum pale, 
slightly dotted and marbled with blackish brown. 
Hah. North America. 

a. In spirits (young). Female. Shell oblong, broad. 
Tail small, conical. Shield granular, rounded, entire. 
Head bro'ivn, minutely darker dotted ; temples with 
three streaks of small white spots from the hinder 
edge of the orbit ; chin white streaked and dotted ; 
throat with three distant very narrow white streaks. 
North America, East Florida {E. Doubleday). 

6. Kinostemon Hippocrepis. The Eyebrowed Swanka. 

Sternum oblong, anterior lobe broad, rounded, posterior 
lobe broad, rather truncated behind ; gular plates very 
narrow ; pectoral and femoral jilates triangular, narrow, 
reduced nearly to a point on the inner margin. Head 
brown, minutely dotted, with a broad pale streak from the 
nostril over the eyes to the side of the occiput ; temple 
with a second similar streak from the lower part of the 
hinder edge of the orbit ; throat brown; Shell of young- 
brown, with a few brown dots and a small dark spot at the 
apex of each dorsal and marginal shield, and a small pale 
spot on the edge of each marginal shield. Sternum pale 
brown, shield darker edged ; of adult imiform olive-brown, 
with black edges to the shields ; beneath yellowish brown, 
darker varied. 

Hub. North America ; New Orleans (ilf. iSa/Ze). 

a, h. In spirits. New Orleans. M. Salle's Collection. 

c. Half-grown (stuffed). The broad yellow band margining 
the upper part of the nose and crown is distinct, but 
the streaks on the temple are not to be observed in its 
])reseut state. The dorsal and marginal shields are 
uniform brown, ^vith a narrow margin, especially on 
the hinder edge. The pectoral and abdominal plates 
are united together in this specimen, so that the front 
lobe of the sternum must have been perfectly immove- 
able. North America. 

7. Kinosternou leucostomum. The White-Mouthed 
Swanka. 

Carapace ovate, smooth, rather convex, reddish-brown, 
hinder part slightly, back very shghtly keeled ; sternum 
not notched in front, vellow-broT^^l. Head moderately 



large, depressed ; jaws white ; head and neck with some 
reddish-yellow spots. 

Cinosternon leucostomum. Hum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. .5"0 ; 
Cat. Rej)t. Mus. H. Nat. 17. 

Hab. North America ; New Orleans ; Mexico; Central 
America ; Rio Suraasiuta (Morelet) ; New Grenada. 



Doubtful Species. 

8. Cinosternon hirtipes, Wagler, Sijst. t. 5. f. 29, 30 ; 
Icon. Am ph. t. 30. 
Bum. S)- Bib. Erp. Gui. ii. 570 ? ; Cat. Meth. R. 17. 

Hab. America. Brazils ? 



15. AEOMOCHELYS. 

Head moderate, subquadrangular, pyramidal, covered 
with a hard skin. Chin bearded. Feet and tail with a 
few scattered scales. Toes 5 ■ 4, webbed. Tail of males 
clawed. Shell ovate, keeled. Sternum truncated in front, 
nicked behind ; middle lobe covered by the abdominal 
plates, fixed by a bony symphysis to the thorax ; front and 
hinder lobes narrow, more or less mobile and articulated to 
the middle lobe. Sternal shields 1 1 ; gular pair united, 
rudimentary, linear ; the pectoral shields large, oblong, 
four-sided, transverse ; axillary and inguinal plates very 
large, covering the suture. America. Odoriferous. 

Kinosternou, sp.. Gray. 
Cistudo, sp.. Say. 
Terrapeue, sp., Merrem. 
Sternotherus, sp., Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 
Staurotypus, sp., Dum. ijf- Bib. 

1. Aromochelys odoratuin. The Stink-Pot. 

Shell oblong, convex, rounded, not or very obscurely 
keeled ; shields brown, dark-spotted ; the gular plates tri- 
angular ; the humeral plate rather oblique. Head moderate, 
with a white streak from the nostril over the eye, and 
continued on the side of the neck ; a second streak from the 
hinder end of the upper jaw ; neck with distant narrow 
yellow streaks. 

Kinostemon odoratum. Gray, Syn. Kept. 35. t. 6. f. 1 ; 
Cat. Tort. B.M. 34. 

Boiiap. Obs. Cup. R. A. ii. 168. 
Testudo odorata, Latr. Rept. i. 122. 
Baud. Rept. ii. 189. t. 24. f. 3. 
Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iii. 122. 
Cistudo odorata. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philud. iv. 
2(IC, 216. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. iii. 29. t. 4 ; ed. 2. i. 133. 

t. 22. 
Be Kay, Rept. N. York, 22. t. 7. f. 13. 
Testudo Pennsylvanica, var., Schoepff. Test. 1 10. t. 24. f. B. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



47 



Testudo glutinata. Baud. Rept. ii. 194. t. 24. f. 4. 
Terrapene Boscii, Men-pm, Tent. 23 ? 
Sternothems Boscii, Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 
Stemothcrus odorafus, Grmj, Ann. Phil. x. 2!1. 

Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 299. 

Fife. Sijst. Rept. 29. 
Terrapene odorata, Merrem, Tent. 23. 
Emys odorata, Schweic/. Prod. 313, 437. 

Harlan, N. H. 80. 
E. glutinata, Merrem, Tent. 24. 
Mud Tarapen, Leconte, Southern States America. 
Staurotypus odoratus. Bum. ^■Bilj.Erp. Gen. ii. 358 ; Cat. 
Mith. R. 16. 

Hab. North America ; New York ; New Orleans. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Shields spotted. North America; 

Louisiana. Mr. Smith's Collection. 

b. Young (in spirits). IMinutely pale brown speckled; 

head with a white streak "over each eye, and two 
streaks from the back edge of the orbit ; throat brown, 
with a broad streak of white spots. Delaware. Pre- 
sented by H. Doubleday, Esq. 

M. Leconte observes : " The synonyms cpioted to this 
species show more plainly the absurdity of the proposed 
divisions of the Tortoise family than anything which I 
can say." This was perfectly just, as they were divided in 
1833. 

Schlegel regards Emijs Pennsylvanica, E. odorata, Stau- 
rofi/pus triporcatus, and Kinosternon hirtipes as varieties 
of the same species. 



2. Aromoclielys carinatum. The Keeled Stink-Pot. 
Tab. XX. a. 

Shell oblong, convex, sharply keeled ; shields grey-brown, 
purple-brown spotted aud streaked, and with a broad dark 
hinder edge ; gular shield very small, linear, transverse ; 
the humeral plate oblong, transverse, like but smaller than 
the pectoral. Head brown ; crown and cheeks black-dotted 
(without any streaks) ; neck black-varied. 

Hab. North America ; Louisiana. 

'/, b, c, e. Adult (stuffed). Mr. Smith's Collection. 
Osteology : — 

d. Young shell only. Pale brown ; bleached ? North 
America. 



16. STAUROTYPUS. 

Head large, covered with a hard skin ; chin bearded. 

Feet and tail with a few scattered scales. Claws 5-4. 

Shell ovate, three-keeled. Sternum very narrow, acute 



before and behind ; middle lobe covered with the abdo- 
minal plate, which is produced on each side over the narrow 
bony symphysis. Sternal plates 8 ; the gular, humeral and 
pectoral plates of each side united into one ; femoral and 
anal shields small, distinct ; axillary and inguinal plates, 
especially the latter, large, covering the narrow suture. 
America. 

Staurotypus, TFar/Ier, Si/st. Ainph. 137. 

Grai/, Cat. Tort. B.M. 34. 

Fitc. S>/st. Rept. 29. 
Staurotypus (part.). Dim. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 356 ; Cat. 

Meth. iJ. 16. 
Terrapene, sp., Wiegmann. 



1. Staurotypus triporcatus. The Cross Emys. 
Tab. XX. b. 

Shell oblong, convex, brown, three-keeled, the central 
one very large, high aud cultrate behind, side ones highest 
in front ; vertebral plates long, imbricate, nuchal plates 
short, broad ; edge indented on the side, expanded and 
toothed behind. Head depressed, spotted and lined with 
white ; chin two-bearded ; neck thick. 

Kinosternon triporcatum. Gray, Syn. Rent. 76 , Cat. Tort. 

B.M. 34. 
Terrapene triporcata, Wiegm. Ms, 364 (1828). 
Staurotypus triporcatus. Bull. Sci. Nat. xvii. 293. 

TT'agler, Si/st. 137. t. 5. f. 44, 45 ; Icon. t. 23. 

Fitc. Si/st. Rept. 29 (1843). 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 356 ; Cat. Meth. R. 16. 

Hab. North America ; Mexico ; Central America ; Rio 
Sumasinta. 

a. Young (in spirits). Pale brown, varied with black. 

Mexico. 

b. Adult. The anal plates united into one. Mexico. 

Head of young animal, in spirits, large, dark brown, 
with small specks which are sometimes confluent into tor- 
tuous lines ; temple dark, with a broad white streak from 
the gape, ending in a narrow white ring round the tvm- 
panum ; throat with some irregular white streaks ; lower 
jaw with two white streaks in front ; chin with two small 
beards, aud a large oblong black gland ou each side of the 
edge of the lower beak outside of the beards. Thorax 
black-brown, with some broad pale marblings on each dorsal 
and marginal shield ; a black subcentral spot on each axil 
lary and inguinal plate ; the sternal shield black, with an 
irregular white margin. 



48 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



B. Head and tail very large ; sterno-costal symphysis 

covered with one or three peculiar plates. 

Emydidse § B, Gray, Cat. Tort. 13. 

a. Sternum cross-like, acute before; sternal plates 10, 
with a broad one on each side, over the sides of the 
sternum (the displaced abdominal 1). 

Emydidse §B, Gray, Cat. Tort. 13 (1844). 

17. CHELYDRA. 
Head large, rugose, covered with a soft skin ; chin two- 
bearded ; neck very thick, tubercular. Limbs large and 
strong, tubercular. Tail long, large, with three longitu- 
dinal series of compressed tubercles. Shell depressed, 
toothed behind ; marginal scales simple, in a single series. 
Sternum slender, cross-like, acute at each end, centre coria- 
ceous ; sternal plates five pairs, very thin, skin-hke, the 
nanow lateral prolongation of the sternum covered by a 
peculiar plate (perhaps the removed abdoraiual) ; gular 
plate small, united into a triangular plate ; marginal plate 
regular, in a single series. Claws 5 '4. America. 

Chelvdra, Schweiy. Mem. Kamiysb. (1812). 

'Fit:. Syst. Rejjt. 20 (18-13). 

TT'ieym. ^- Ruthe, Handb. 1G6. 
Chelonura, Flem. Phil. Zool. ii. 2/0 (1822). 

Bell, Zool. Journ. iii. 515 (1828). 

Holbrook, N. A. Hapet. i. 147. 

Bonap. Obs. Cuv. R.J. I/O. 
Emys § *, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 210 (1825). 
Rapara, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 210 (1828). 
Emvsaurus (Emysaure), Dum. ^' Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 349 ; 

Cat. Meth. R. \5. 
Emysaura, Dmn. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 350. 
" Emydosaurus, Dmn. ^- Bib.," Gray (misprint). 
Le Saiirochelys (Saurochelys), Latr. Fam. Nat. R. A. 
Les Chelydes, Cuv. R. A. ii. 12; ed. 2. ii. 13. 

1. Chelydra serpentina. The Alligator Terrapen. 
Tail with a central scries of compressed tubercles. 
Beards on neck and chin small. Shell oblong, depressed, 
centre impressed, doubly keeled, bluntly toothed behind. 
Younger : Shell three-keeled, hinder edge sharply toothed. 
—Schoepff. Test. t. 6. 

Chelydra serpentina, Schweig. Prod. 293. 420. 
Gray, Si/n. Rept. 3G. 
Wagler', Amph. 136. t. 5. f. 4G, 47. 

C. Lacertina, Schweig. Prod. 293. 

Fit:. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Testudo serrata, Penn. (not Shaio) Cat. Liverpool Mus. t. 
T. Serpentina, Linn. Syst. Nat. 351. 

Schoepfj-. Test. t. 6 (young). 

Band. Rept. ii. 98. t. 20. f. 2. 

Shaw, Zool. t. 19. 



Emysaura serpentina, Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iii. 127. 

Dvm. ^-Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 350. t. 17. f. 1. 
Testudo longicauda, Shaw, Mus. Coll. Surg. 
Serrated Tortoise, Penn. Arct. Zool. App. 46. 
Alligator Tarapin, Southern States N. America. 
Loggerhead or Snapping Turtle, Northern States N. Amer. 
Chelonura (serpentina), Flem. Phil. Zool. ii. 270 (1822). 

Say, Jouru. Acad. Philad. iv. 206. 

Bonap. Obs. Cuv. R. A. 171 (1836). 

Harlan, Amer. Herpet. 81. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. ed. 2. i. 139. t. 23. 

Be Kay, Rept. N. York, 8. t. 3. f. 6. 
Rapara serpentaria. Gray, Bonap. I. e. 
Emysaurus serpentina, Bum. ^- Bib. Cat. Meth. R. 15. 

Hab. North America, from New England to Florida. 

a. Y'oung animal (stuffed). North America. Presented 

by Gen. Ilardwicke. 

b. Adult (stuffed). North America. 

c. Young (in spirits). New Orleans. M. Salle's Collec- 

tion. 

d. Half-grown (stuffed). North America. 

e. Adult (stuffed). North America. Mr. Argent's Col- 

lection. 
h & i. Half-grown (stuffed). North America ; Louisiana. 
Mr. Smith's Collection. 



OsTKOLOGY. Tab. XXXVIII. fig. 1, Tab. XL. fig. 2, 

skull (half-grown). 
Tortue serpentine, Cuv. Oss. Foss. v. 185, skull. 

/. Skull (half-grown) . North America. Presented by the 
Zoological Society. 

g. Skeleton (young). North America. M. Parzudaki's 
Collection. 

" This species is very voracious in its habits, and destroys 
great quantities of fish ; it is also more ferocious than any 
other, and will seize with violence at anything presented to 
it, and not let go its hold even when the head is separated 
from the body. The wound inflicted by its bite is very 
severe. It is much sought after as an article of food : when 
old the flesh is musky." — Leconte. ^ 



18. MACROCLEMYS. 
Head very large, covered with numerous symmetrical, 
smooth, horny j)lates ; chin two-bearded. Neck thick, with 
large beards, horny at the tip. Tail conical, with a central 
series of compressed tubercles. Claws 5 • 4, strong. Back 
• convex, three-keeled, toothed behind. Marginal plates 31, 
produced, subtubercular, those on the centre of each side in 
a double series. Skull : nose produced in front ; palate 
deeply concave. Sternum slender, cross-like, acute at each 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



49 



end ; sternal plates six pair, thin ; the narrow lateral pro- 
longations of the sternum covered with a pecuhar plate, 
and often having some additional ones between it and the 
sternal plates on the inner and marginal plates on the outer 
side ; gular and anal plates small, generally united, trian- 
gular. 



1. Macroclemys Temminckii. Temminck's Snapper. 

Carapace strongly three-keeled, rounded, deeply serrated 
behind. 

Emys Lacertina, Bum. ^ Bib. MSS. 

Chelonura Temminckii, Troost, MSS., in Holbrook, N. A. 

Herpet. i. 147. t. 24. 
Emysaurus Temminckii, Buin. Cat. Rept. Mus. H. N.\&. 

Hub. North America. 



a. Adult. North America (Mississippi). From the Zoo- 

logical Society. 

b. Adult. North America (Mississippi). Mr. Smith's 

Collection. 

e. Adult (stuffed). Very large. North America ; Louisi- 
ana. Mr. Smith's Collection. 



Osteology. Tab. XXXVIII. fig. 2; Tab. XXXIX • 

Tab. XL. fig. 1, skull (adult). 

d. Skeleton. North America. Presented by John Dillon, 
jun., Esq. 



b. Sternum broad, truncated before; sternal plates 12; 
sterno-costal suture covered with three or four addi- 
tional plates, and with the ends of the pectoral and 
abdominal plates. 

Emydidee § B. e. Gray, Cat. Tfirt. B.M. 13. 

19. PLATYSTERNON. 

Head very large, covered with a thick hard horny case ; 
jaws very strong. Neck very thick, short, subretractile, 
with small granular scales. Limbs yery large, coutractUe, 
not capable of being retracted into the shell, covered vrith 
long lunate scales in front, and fringed on the outer hinder 
sides. Toes 5 • 4, webbed to the claws ; claws very strong. 
Tail elongate, cylindrical. Shell depressed, expanded, thin, 
covered with thin horny shields. Sternum flat, broad, 
truncated in front and behind, united to the thorax by a 
bony symphysis, covered with the ends of the pectoral and 
abdominal plates, and three small additional shields between 
them and the marginal plates. Axillary and inguinal plates 



small or none. Sternal shields 1 2 ; gular pair very short, 
broad, band-hke. Asia. 

Platysternon, Gray, Proc.Zool. Soc. 1831, 106; Cat. Tort. 
B.M. 35 (1844). 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. G^n. ii. 345 ; Cat. Meth. R. 15. 
Schlegel, F. Japan. 49. 
Clemmys (Platysternon), Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 

1. Platysternon megacephalum. The Helmeted 
Terrapen. 

Deep brown, edge of the shields grooved and slightly 
radiately striated. Head brown-rayed ; cheeks pale spotted ; 
sternum pale yellowish. 

Platysternon megacephalum. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, 
lOG ; Ilhcsf. Ind. Zool. t. 
Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Ghi. ii. 345. t. 16. f. 2 ; Cat. Meth 

R. 15. 
Schlegel, F. Japon. 49. 
Clemmys (Platysternon) megacephalum, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 
29. 

Hab. China. 

a. Stuffed (half-grown). China. Presented by J. R. 

Reeves, Esq. (Figured Illust. Ltd. Zool. t. .) 

b. Stuffed (adult). China. Gardens of the Zoological 

Society. 



Head . 



20. DEKMATEMTS. 

Toes ? Claws 



? Shell oblong, 
convex, not keeled, sides rounded ; hinder edge expanded, 
slightly reflexed, covered with very thin membranaceous 
shields ; hinder marginal shield broad. Sternum flat, 
rounded in front, notched behind ; the gular plates small, 
triangular, united to the upper shell by a bony symphysis, 
covered with the end of the pectoral and abdominal plates ; 
the sterno-costal sutures covered with four moderate-sized, 
distinctly defined plates ; the anterior small, and two hinder 
largest. The axillary and inguinal plates none. The cavity 
of the shell is scarcely contracted at the opening. South 
America. 

Derniatemys, Gray, Ann. 4' Mag. Nat. Hist. 1847, 60 ; 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 55. 
TTiegm. Arch. 1848, 197. 

1. Dermatemys Mawii. Mawes' Dermatemys. 
Tab. XXI. 

First vertebral plate seven-sided ; second, third and 
fourth longer than broad. Shell pale brown, upper surface 
covered with small close irregular depressions of a darker 
brown colour ; shields pale, nearly transparent, very brittle 



50 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



when dry ; under surface uniform pale yellowish-wliite, 
with slightly sunken grooves. 

" Emys Mawii, Bibron," Eraser's Cat. Mus. Zool. Soc. 

no. 6899. 
Dennatemvs Mawi, Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1 847, 60 ; 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 36. 
TTieffm. Arch. 1848, 167. 
Emys Berardii, Bum. 4' Sib. MSS. 

Bum. Cat. Mus. Hist. Nat. ii. no. 9* (1851). 

Hab. South America {Lieut. Mawe). 

a. Shell: length 17; width 11. Sternum: length 12^ 
inches. From the Museum of the Zoological Society. 

The specimen, which is not quite full-grown, has much 
the external appearance of Phrynops Geoffroyii, and the 
general thinness of the scales of the Chelydidce ; but there 
is no appearance of any scar on the inner surface of the 
sternum for the attachment of the pelvis, and though the 
gular scale is worn and nearly obliterated, yet it is suf- 
ficiently distinct to show that it has no intergular plate. 

Emys Berardii of Dumeril's Catalogue of the Paris Mu- 
seum is perhaps intended for this species. It is thus 
described : — 

" Shell yellow-brown, irregular, rugose, with a multitude 
of small vermiculations ; elongate, suboval, narrowed above 
the fore legs, rather sinuous behind ; hinder part of back 
slightly keeled ; nuchal small, short ; first vertebral pro- 
duced in front. Chest yellow, entire in front, notched be- 
hind. Head uniform brown, flat, broad, rather large ; jaws 
toothed. Toes broad-webbed. Tail strong, rather long. 

"Hab. South America {Mawe) ; Vera Cruz {Berard)." 

This is more likely to be the case, as Mr. Fraser's note, 
in the Catalogue of the Museum of the Zoological Society, 
shows that M. Bibron must have examined it, and these 
authors give the habitat as " South America {Mawe)," in 
their account of the species. If this be the case, !M. Bibron 
must have changed the name after his return to Paris. 



Fam. III. CHELYDID.ffi; (Chelides). 

Head much depressed, broad, covered with a soft skin or 
hard shields ; nostrils elongate, tubular ; eyes superior ; 
jaws horny. Neck long, broad, contractile, bent under the 
side of the shell in repose. Feet webbed. Toes 5 • 5, 
deeply webbed, with a lobe between each claw. Claws 
5 • 5, 5 • 4, or 4-4, elongate, acute. Shell depressed, 
covered with horny shields ; caudal pair always separate. 
Sternum attached to the thorax by a short bony suture. 



covered with the outer ends of the pectoral and abdominal 
plates, and with an additional intergular plate in front. 
The axillary and inguinal plates very small or none. Pelvis 
large, united to the vertebra and the hinder lobe of the 
sternum, leaving a scar. Living in ponds and rivers, ui 
warm climates. Eating flesh ; feeding only in the water : 
swimming with their whole shell under water. 

Emys § ***, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211 (1825), and note. 
Chehdina, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211 (1825). 
Eraydse (part.), Swainson, Lard. Cyclop. 344. 
CheUdridae (part.), Swainson, Lard. Cyclop. 343. 
Hydraspides, Fit:. Syst. Kept. 29 (1843). 
Chelydse, fJ'iegmann, Herp. Mex. 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 30 (1843). 
Phvllopodochelones (part.), Bitten, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur.xiv. 

269 (1828). 
Chersydrochelones (part.), Ritzen, I. c. 269. 
Amydse (part.), Ritzen, I. c. 269. 
HydraspicUna, Bonap. Tab. Analit. 8 (1836). 
Clielina, Bonap. Tab. Analit. 8 (1836). 
Terrapene (part.), Bonap. Saggio Anim. Vert. 12 (1832). 
Chelydae, IVieym. ^- Ruthe, Handb. 169. 
Chelydoides & Emydoides (part.), Fitz. Neue C/ass.(1826). 
Emys, sp., Brongn. (1803). 

Oppel, Rept. (1811). 

Merrem, Tent. 23. 

Cta: R. 4. (1817). 
Testudines steganopodes (part.), TTagler, Syst. 133. 
Testudinida chehna and T. testudinina (jiart.), Bonap. 

Saggio Anim. Vert. 13 (1832). 
Tortues paludines ou Cheloniens Elodites, § 2. Pleuroderes, 
Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 374 ; Cat. Meth. R. 17. 

In the Annals of Philosophy for 1825, 1 formed a section 
oi Emys (***) for Emys longicollis — " Toes 4'4 ; sternum 
thirteen-scaled," — and remarked: " The plastron of the last 
subgenus is covered with thirteen scales, that is, six pair 
marginal, and an unequal-sided hexagonal one in the middle 
of the anterior lobe." I have only observed an approximating 
distribution of the plates in a species of Sternotherus ; all 
the other Emyda that I have seen have had only the six 
pair of marginal plates, the first pair sometimes soldered so 
as to form only eleven plates. 

Mr. Bell, after stating that the same number of sternal 
plates exists in Sternotherus Leachianus and the two 
species of Chelys (see Zool. Journ. iii. 512, 1838), over- 
looked the other anatomical characters which unite these 
genera, and made no proposal to unite them into a natural 
group. 

Dumeril and Bibron in their large work merely change 
the name of the family as given in my Synopsis. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



51 



Synopsis of the Genera. 

A. Head moderate, depressed. Beaks naked. Intergular plate 
marginal. 

a. Claws 5 ■ 5. Head shielded. 

1. Sternothffirus. Front lobe of the sternum mobile, with a long 

internal process on each side. 

2. Felomednsa. Front lobe of the sternum fixed. 

b. Claws 5 ■ 4. Head with a thin skin, or subshielded. 

3. Flatemys. Head covered with a continuous skin ; neck 

warty on the sides. Shell depressed, light, sides revolute. 

4. Hydraspls. Head with many small shields. Shell depressed, 

thin, light, sides revolute ; cavity not contracted. 

5. Chelymys. Head with many small shields. Shell convex, 

very solid, strengthened with two compressed diverging 
bony folds in front, sides revolute. 



B. Head large or very large. 

c. Claws 5 • 4. Head flat, depressed; beaks naked; chin not 

bearded. 

6. Chelodlna. Intergular plate within the margin ; nuchal plate 

small on the margin. Jaws naked. 

7. Hydromedusa. Intergular plate on the margin ; nuchal plate 

large, hke the vertebral, and within the margin. Jaws 
warty at the angles. 

d. Claws 5 • 4. Head flat, much depressed ; beaks covered with 

fleshy lips ; chin bearded; intergular plate marginal. 

8. Chelys. Shell depressed, three-keeled. 

e. Claws 5 • 4. Head convex, rounded, covered with hard shields ; 

beaks naked. 

9. Peltocephalus. Head subquadrangular ; upper jaw hooked. 

Feet slightly webbed. 

10. Podocnemis. Head subdepressed, with a groove in front ; 

u])per jaw slightly arched. Feet broadly webbed. 



A. Head moderate, depressed. Beaks naked. Intergular 
■ jjlate margitial, between the gular pair. 

a. Claws 5*5. Head shielded. 
Chelydidae A. a. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 36 (1844). 

1. STERNOTH.ffiEUS. 

Shell roundish, rather convex, side plates narrow, frout 
one very short and square. Nuchal plate none. Sternum 
broad, front lobe rounded before, moveable, and furnished 
on each side of its hinder edge with an internal bony pro- 
cess, covered by the gular, humeral and pectoral plates ; 
central lobe only covered by the abdominal plates ; hinder 
lobe bifid, with an internal scar. Intergular plate marginal, 



between the gular. Beaks naked. Toes short, strong, 
shielded above, shortly webbed. Claws 5 • 5, strong, sharp. 

Sternothserus, Bell, Zool. Jotirn. ii. 514. 
Siemotherus, Gray, Sg7i. Rept. (18 ); Cat. Tort. 

B.M. 36. 

Di(m. ^- Bib. Erp. Ghi. ii. 397 ; Cat. Meth. R. 19 (not 
Fitzinger) . 
Pelusios, n^agler, Sysf. 137 (1830). 

Fitc. Syst. Repf. 29. 
Sternothserus and Terrapene, sp.. Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. 305. 
Terrapene, sp., Merrem, Tent. 
Kinosternou §, Bonap. Saggio Anim. Vert. 12. 

The genus Sternothcerus of Mr. Bell {Zool. Journ. ii. 
305) is exactly synonymous with one of Daudin's sections 
of the Tortues ii holies, and contains species of the genera 
Cistudo, Kinosternon, and the present genus, Sternothcerus. 

Mr. Bell, in his second paper (Zool. Journ. iii. 515), 
gives as the type S. Leachianus, which is the same as 
Terrapene nigricans of his former paper {Zool. Journ. ii. 
305) ; — placing the genus with the other Box Tortoises in 
Finydid<E, between Terrapene (claiisa) and Kinosternon. 

In my Synopsis of Reptiles I defined the genus so as to 
confine it to the species similar to that type ; and Dumeril 
and Bibron, in their work, adopted my views. Wagler 
uses Pelusios for the same group. 

Wagler {Syst. Rept.) quotes Mr. Bell's first species, S. 
trifaseiatus, as the type of his genus. 



* "Muzzle elongated, conical ; upper Jaw hooked." — 
Dumeril. 

1. Sternothserus niger. The Black Sternoth^rus. 

Shell oval, short, swollen, narrower in front, deep black ; 
mu2zle elongate ; upper jaw hooked, covering the lower. 
Head elongate, with two large parietal, a long fronto-nasal, 
and a moderate frontal shield ; upper jaws hooked. 

Stemotherus niger. Bum. Sf Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 397; Cat. 
Meth. iJ. 19. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 37. 

Hab. Madagascar ? Mus. Paris. 

In the text, MM. Dumeril and Bibron refer their figure 
t. 20.f. 1, to this species; but on the plates and in the 
explanation of the plates they name it S. castaneus, and it 
agrees with the latter in having a short head. 

** Muzzle short, rounded. 

2. Sternothaerus subniger. The Blackish Sterno- 

TH^RUS. 

Vertebral plates square, as long as broad, the fourth 

I 2 



52 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



broader than long ; two anterior marginal plates narrower 
than the first vertebral ; sides of the hinder lobes of the 
sternum contracted in front ; muzzle rounded. Jaws pale 
yellowish. 

Sternotherus subniger, Gray, Syn. 38; Cat. Tort. B.M. 37. 
La Tortue noinitre, Lacep. Q. O. i. 175. t. 13. 
Testudo subniger, Lacep. by Bechst. i. 260. 

Latr. Rept. i. 89. f. 1. 

Baud. Rept. ii. 197. 
Terrapene nigricans, Merrem, Tent. 28. 
Sternotherus nigricans. Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 399 ; 

Cat. Meth. R. 19. 
Emys Couro, var., Schlegel, Faun. Japon. 64. 
Pelusios subnia;er, JVagler, Syst. 137. 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Emys subniger, Schweig. Prod. i. 315, 438. 

Hab. Africa ; Madagascar. 

a. Adult animal (dry) ; shell worn. Africa. 

b. Adult (stuffed) ; shields slightly grooved. Madagascar. 

From the Paris Museum. 

c. Half-grown (in spirits) ; lost its dorsal shields ; shell 

short, rounded and convex. 



3. Stemothserus castaneus. The Natal Sternoth.erxjs. 

Vertebral plates broad, nearly square, nearly as long as 

broad, the fourth six-sided, longer than broad. Jaws pale 

yellow. Sides of the hinder lobes of the sternum straight. 

Sternotherus castaneus. Gray, Syn. Rept. 38 ; Cat. Tort. 
B.M. 37. 

Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 401. t. 20. f. 1 ; Cat. Meth. 
R. 19. 
Emys castanea, Schweig. Prod. 324. no. 38. 
E. Couro, var., Schlegel, Faun. Japan. 64. 
Testudo subnigra ;S, Baud. Rept. ii. 198. 
Sternotherus Leachianus,i?e//,Zoo/. Jrarw.ii. t. 14(young?). 
S. sinuatus, A. Smith, Illust. Zool. S. Africa, t. 1. 
Pelusios castaneus, TJ'agler, Syst. 137. 

Hab. South Africa; Madagascar (Qj/oy). 

a, b. Adult (stuffed). Two anterior marginal plates nar- 
rower than the first vertebral. Sternum of {a) flat, of 
(b) concave. Port Natal. From Dr. Krauss's Col- 
lection. 

Osteology : — 

c. Adult shell. Vertebral jilate bluntly keeled ; two ante- 
rior marginal plates nearly as broad as the first verte- 
bral. Sierra Leone ? 

The figure above cited of Sternotherus sinuatus of 
Dr. A. Smith is very like specimen " e," but the first 
vertebral plate is broader and not so long. 



4. Stemothaerus Derbianus. Lord Derby's Sterno- 
therus. Tab. XXII. 

Shell oblong, convex, rounded ; vertebral shields narrow, 
six-sided, much longer than broad, the last subtriangular. 
Head broad, the parietal and crown plates united into 
one ; muzzle bluntly rounded ; the sternum broad, with the 
hinder portion scarcely contracted in front, the front much 
rounded ; the central gular plate broad ovate, angular be- 
hind ; two anterior marginal shields as wide as the front 
vertebral. Jaws dark-lined. 
Sternothoerus Derbianus, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 37. 

Hab. West Africa. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Vertebral plates elongate, very narrow, 

half as long again as broad. West Africa ; Gambia. 
Presented by the Earl of Derby. 

Osteology : — 

b. Adult shell. Vertebral plates square, rather longer than 

broad. West Africa ; Sierra Leone. 

This species is separated from iS. castaneus and S. sub- 
niger by the shape of the vertebral plates, which in these 
species are broad, sLx-sided ; in the S. castaneus they are 
nearly as broad as long, and in the .S'. subniger the third 
and fourth are broader than long, and the fourth is ovate 
and swollen behind. Perhaps they may all prove only to 
be varieties of the same species, or dependent on age. 

5. Stemothserus Adansonii. Adanson's Sterno- 

TH-ERUS. 

Shell oval, fulvous, brown-spotted, back strongly keeled ; 
front vertebral plates much longer than broad. Sternum 
mobile in front, yellow, more or less varied with reddish- 
brown. Head flat, broad ; tail short. 

Pelomedusa? Adansonii, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 38. 

Emys Adamsonii, Schweig. Prod. 308. 27. 

Hvdrasi)is Adansonii, Gray, Syn. 40. 

Pe'ntonyx Adansonii, Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 394. 

Sternotherus Adamsonii, Bum. ^ Bib. Cat. Meth. R. 19. 

Hab. Cape de Verde ; White Nile. Mus. Paris. 



2. PELOMEDUSA. 
Head much depressed, shielded with two narrow frontal 
shields, separated by a groove, a large vertebral shield, and a 
large cheek-shield on each side. Chin two-bearded. Beaks 
exposed. Neck broad. Legs with strong band-hke shields 
in front, quite retractile. Toes short, strong, shielded 
above, webbed to the tips, mth a large rounded lobe 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



53 



between each claw. Claws 5 ■ 5, elongate, sharp. Shell 
depressed, sides narrow, revolute. Nuchal none. Sternum 
solid, rather narrow, truncated in front, narrower and nicked 
behind. lutergular shield small, marginal ; sterno-costal 
suture covered by the end of the pectoral and abdominal 
plates. Africa. 

Pelomedusa, Wagler, Sijst. 136 (1830). 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 39.. 

Fitz. Sijst. Rept. 29. 
Pentonyx, Bii/jpe!/, 3ISS. Mvs. Frank. (1831). 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 390 ; Cat. Mcth. R. 18. 
Hydraspis (galeata), sp., Bell, Zool. Journ. iii. 51.5. 



* Pectoral shields small, short, triangular ; humeral large ; 
occiput with small shields. Pentonyx. 

1. Pelomedusa Gehafiae. The Gehafia. 
Olive ; shields radiately and concentrically grooved ; be- 
neath pale yellowish-white, very slightly keeled ; pectoral 
shields triangular, not reaching to the central line. 

Pelomedusa Gehafiae, Gra;/, Cat. Tort. B.M. 38. 
Pentonyx Gehafiae, Riippell, Mus. Frank. (1831). 
Bum. Cat. Meth.R. 18. 

Hab. Abyssinia. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Abyssinia. From Dr. Riippell' s Col- 

lection. 

b. Young. Abyssinia. Dr. Riippell's Collection. 



** Pectoral and humeral shields equal, oblong, four-sided, 
tran.werse ; occiput largely shielded. Pelomedusa. 

2. Pelomednsa subrufa. The Pelomedusa. 

Shell brown, olive, ovate oblong ; first vertebral plate 
short, very broad in front. 

Pelomedusa subrufa, Graij, Cat. Tort. B.M. 38. 
Testudo subrufa (La Roussatre), Lacep. Q. O. i. 173. t. 12 ; 

Enc;/. Mcth. t. 6. f. 3. 
Testudo subrufa, Lotr. Rept. i. 120. 

Baud. Rept. ii. 132. 
Emys subrufa, Schweig. Prod. 308. 26. 
Hydraspis subrufa. Gray, SyA. 40. 
Testudo scabra, Retz. 
T. badia, Bound. Zool. Beytr. iii. 34. 
T. galeata, Schoepf. Test. 12. t. 3. f. 1 (young). 

Latr. Rept. i. 152. 

Shaw, Zool. iii. 57. t. 12. f. 3. 

Baud. Rept. ii. 136. 
Emys galeata, Schweig. Prod. 307. no. 25. 

Schlegel, Faun. Jajjon. 44. 

TFagler, Sysf. 132. t. 2. f. 36, 44. 
E. olivacea, Schweig. Prod. 307. 24 (young). 
Pentonyx capensis, Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 390. t. 19. 

f. 21 ; Cat. Meth. R. 18. 
Testudo senegalensis. Baud. Rept. 



Pelomedusa galeata, Wagler, Syst. 136 (1830), t.2. f.36,37. 
Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 

Hab. Africa; Cape of Good Hope; Madagascar; Senegal. 

Far. 1. Shields smooth, or with only a few concentric an- 
nular grooves. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Plates worn smooth. Cape of Good 

Hope. Presented by Dr. J. E. Gray. 

b. Young (dry) ; only two legs. Shields slightly concen- 

trically grooved. Cape of Good Hope. 

c. d, e. Very young (dry, from spirits). Shields smooth, 

slightly concentrically grooved. Cape of Good Hope. 
Presented by J. S. Bowerbank, Esq. 

h. Young (m spirits). South Africa. Mr. Bartlett's Col- 
lection. 

i &j. Young (in spirits). South Africa. From the Zoo- 
logical Society. 

k. Adult (stuffed). South Africa. 

Far. 2. Black, grey-black spotted ; shields all with close, 
rather granular, radiating ridges and concentric 
grooves ; areola small. 

g. Adult (stuffed). Black ; areola small. South Africa ; 
Cape of Good Hope. Mr. Warwick's Collection. 

/. Young (stuffed) ; wantmg sternum. South Africa. Pre- 
sented by J. S. Bowerbank, Esq. 

Osteology : — 

Pelomedusa galeata, Wagler, Syst. t. 2. f. 38-44. 

Toung, when alive, pale olive-green. 



*** Boubtful species. 

3. Pelomedusa Mozambica, Peters, MSS. (1848). 
Hab. Mozambique (Mus. Berlin). 

4. Pentonyx AyiEKic an a, Cornalia, Ferteb. Syn. in Mus. 

Mediolanensi, 13 (1849). 

Testa oblouga, in medio coarctata, minime carinata, scutis 
distiuctis ohvaceo-brunneis flavo-maculatis tribus lineis cas- 
taneis circumdatis. 

Hab. New York (!). 

b. Claws 5 • 4. Head covered with a thin skin, entire, or 

divided into small flexible shields. 
Chelydidae A. b. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 36. 

3. PLATEMYS. 
Head moderate, flat, covered with a continuous thin skin. 
Temple with small scales. Beaks naked, weak. Chin two- 



54 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



bearded. Neck warty on the sides. Hind legs with a series 
of three or four large compressed scales, forming a large 
compressed lobe on the outer edge. Legs with large hex- 
agonal scales in front. Toes strong, with a few broad shields 
above, webbed. Claws 5 • 4, acute. Shell oblong, depressed, 
flattened above, lateral margin revolute. Nuchal plate 
distinct ; anterior vertebral plates broad, large. Sternum 
solid, not mobile, rounded in front, deeply notched behmd. 
Tropical America. 

Platemys, Wayler, Sijst. 135 (1835). 

Platemys, sp.. Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. G^n. ii. 407 ; Cat. MMh. 
R. 20. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 41. 



1. Platemys plamceps. The Doubly-keeled 
Platemys. 

Shell quadrangular, fulvous, marked on each side of the 
disk with a large black spot ; back with two rounded keels, 
separated by a broad groove ; costal plates not arched ; 
sternum black, yellow-edged ; margin yellow, with trian- 
gular brown spots. Head covered with a thin single plate ; 
crown yellow. 

Hydraspis plamceps,G/-a(/,5y«.i?e;j/.40; Caf.Tort.B.31.39. 
Testudo planiceps seu platycephala, Schneid. Berl. Naturf. 

iv. t. 16. 

Sehoepf. Test. 115. t. 27. 
Emvs planiceps, Schweig. Prod. 303. no. 16. 
Platemvs planiceps, Wagler, Si/st. 135. 

Ftf^. St/sf. Rept. 29. 
E. platycephala, Schlegel, Faun. Japon. 45. 
Testudo Alartinella, Baud. Rept. viii. 344. 
Platemys Martinella, Bum. i|- Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 407; Cat. 

Mtth. R. 20. 
Emys canaliculata, Spix, Bras. t. 8. f. 1, 2. 
Platemys canaliculata, Wagler, Si/st. t. 4. f. I, 2, 3. 
? Emys discolor, Thnnb. MS. Schweig. 
1 E. Schoepffii, Wiegmann. 

Hab. Brazils ; Cayenne ; Surinam. 

a. Adult (in spirits) ; lost part of the shields. Guiana. 

h. Adult (in spirits) ; lost many of the shields. British 
Guiana. Mr. Schomburgk's Collection. 

c. Adult (stuffed). Rio Negro ; Brazils. Mr. Bates's 
Collection. 

Osteology : — 

Platemys canaliculata, Wagler, Syst. t. 4. f. 4-26. 

M. Schlegel regards Emys nasuta, E. Geoffroyana, 
Schweig., E. stenops, E. depressa, E. canaliculata, E. rufi- 
pes, E. viridis, Spix, E. Maximilittna, E. radiolata, Mikan, 
E. depressa, Neuwied, and E. pachyura, Boie, as all syno- 



nyms of this species ! Other naturalists regard them as 
belonging to more than one genus. 



4. HYDRASPIS. 

Head moderate, flattened, covered with a thin skin, di- 
vided into numerous subsymmetrical plates. Beaks naked, 
slender, weak. Chin two-bearded. Hind legs with a com- 
pressed scaly tubercle on the outer side, above the foot. 
Toes webbed. Claws 5 • 4, acute. Shell oblong, depressed, 
back flattish, lateral margin revolute. Nuchal plate di- 
stinct, anterior vertebral plate larger than the other, often 
very broad. Sternum solid, not mobile ; lobes broad, the 
front one rounded. Tropical America. 

Hydraspis, sp., Bell, Zool. Journ. 

Hydraspis, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 38 (1844). 

Platemys, sp., Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Ghi. ii. 407 ; Cat. Mm. 

R. 20. 
Rhinemys (part.), Wagler, Syst. 134 (1830). 

Fit^. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Chelodina, sp., Fitzinger. 
Phrvuops, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 41. 
' Wagler, Syst. 135 (1830). 
Fit:. Syst. Rept. 29. 



t Nee/c warty above. Lower part of the front of the 
hind legs with a compressed wart formed of two large 
compressed scales, with a group of five or six tin- 
equal scales on the lower side beneath them. The 
first vertebral plate ivider than the others. 

1. Hydraspis Spirii. The Grooved Hydraspis. 

Shell oval oblong, convex, middle of the back flattened, 
with a narrow central groove ; costal plates arched ; ster- 
num black. Head with numerous small plates ; chin two- 
bearded ; neck with conical acute spines ; the two outer 
toes of the fore-feet small, with short rudimentar)' claws ; 
the lower part of the outer side of the front edge of the 
hind legs with a compressed tubercle, formed of two com- 
pressed scales. 

Hydraspis Spixii, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 38. 

Platemvs Spixii, Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 409 ; Cat. 

MM. iJ. 20. 
Emys depressa, Spix, Bras. 4. t. 3. f. 2 (not Neuwied). 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1855 ; Jtm. ij- Mag. N. H. 
185,5, XV. 69. 
Rhinemys nasuta, var., Wagler, Syst. 134. 

Hab. Brazil. 

a. Adult (in spirits). Brazils. From M. Clausen's Collec- 
tion. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



55 



tt Neck nearly smooth. Lower part of hind legs rounded 
in front, and covered with five or six rather larger 
convex scales, the last heeled. First vertebral plate 
almost as wide as the others. Rhinemys. 

Rhinemys, part., Wagler. 

Dumml and Bibron separate the species belonging to 
this section thus, showing the very slight characters which 
divide them : — 

I. Back keeled the whole length. 

* Sternum reddish. 6. H. r^ifipes. 

** Sternum brown, ends yellow. 4. H. nasuta. 
II. Back interruptedly keeled. 

* Sternum black-spotted. 12. H. St. Hilairii. 
** Sternum not spotted. 1-1. H. Geoffroyana. 

III. Back keeled on the last three plates. 3. H. gihba. 

IV. Back not keeled. 

* Discal shieldsconcentrically andradiatelystriated. 

9. H. radiolata. 
** Discal shields longitudinally striated ; sternum 
black, yellow-edged. 1 1 . 77. Gaudichuudii. 
*** Discal shields smooth. 

f Sternum yellow ; thorax brown, uniform. 5. 
H. Wagleri. 
•ff Sternum yellow ; thorax brown, black-rayed. 
8. H. depressa. 
ttt Sternum brown, yellow-edged. 7. H. Miliusii. 

* Animal one-coloured. 

2. Hydraspis raniceps. The Toad-headed Hydraspis. 
Tab. XXIII. 

Shell oblong, depressed, middle of the back flat, margin 
very broad in front, narrow and bent up on the sides, 
broader and arched over the hind legs ; first vertebral shield 
large, as wide as long ; third and fourth narrow, longer 
than broad ; fourth and fifth with an acute keel on the 
hinder edge. Sternum rather broad. Head very large ; 
crowu and temple covered with small shields ; ears promi- 
nent ; neck smooth ; lower part of the outer edge of the 
hind leg with four larger scales, the last compressed, largest. 

Hab. Brazils ; Para. 

a. Adult (stuffed). First vertebral plate nearly square, 
two last vertebral plates keeled. Brazils ; Para. Mr. 
Bates's Collection. 

Osteology : — 

h. Adult (skeleton). First vertebral plate broader, con- 
siderably broader in front than behind ; last vertebral 
plates not keeled. From Mus. Paris. 

" Platemys Spixii." Mus. Paris. 



This species is very like H. gibba, but the back is more 
depressed, the margin much wider ; the head nearly double 
the size, compared with the size of the body ; the scales 
on the margin of the hind legs larger and more equal-sized, 
and the scales of the head small, more numerous and more 
equal in size. See Proc. Zool. Sac. 1853. 



3. Hydraspis gibba. The Black Hydraspis. 
Shell black, ovoid, middle of the back convex ; discal 
plates sUghtly striated, the last three vertebral plates tu- 
bercularly keeled behind ; costals flat ; sternum brown, 
varied with yellow on the edge. Head moderate, covered 
with many small symmetrical plates. The crown with five 
elongated shields, two in front and two behind, and one 
central ; the two front shields produced in front nearly 
to the back edges of the orbits. 

Hydraspis gibba. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 40. 

Emys ^\\)h9.,-Schioeig. Prod. 299. no. 7. ^ 

Rhinemys gibba, Wagler, Syst. 135. 

Platemys gibba, Diim. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 416. t. 20. f. 2 ; 

Cat'.Meth. R. 20. 
Hydraspis cayennensis /3, Gray, Syn. 42. 

Hab. South America. 

a. Adult (stuffed). The lower part of the outer edge of 
the hind-legs with three or four rather larger scales, 
the last much larger and keeled ; caudal plates higher 
than long. "Madagascar?" From M. Parzudaski's 
Collection. 



4. Hydraspis nasuta. Schweigger's Hydraspis. 

Shell roundish oblong, much depressed, keeled, waved, 
fulvous, hinder edge yellow ; sternum brown, sides and ends 
yellow. Head depressed ; crown separated from the fore- 
head by a straight line, with five nearly equal-sized shields, 
two in front and behind, and one in the centre between 
them. 

Hydraspis nasuta. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 40. 

Emys nasuta, Schweig. Prod. 298. no. 4. 

Platemys Schweiggerii, Dum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 435 ; 

Cat. MHh. jB. 21. 
Emys platycephala, var., Schlegel, Faun. Japan. 46. 
Rhinemys nasuta, Wagler, Syst. 134. 

Hab. South America. Mus. Paris (one specimen). 

? a. Young (in spirits). Lower part of outer side of hinder 
legs with four or five convex scales. Tropical America. 

The Museum specimen is very like what may be the 
young of H. gibba, but the head shields are different. 



56 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



5. Hydraspis Wagleri. Wagler's Hydraspis. 

Shell oval, much elongated, narrowed at each end, keel- 
less, rounded in front and truncated behind, reddish-brown ; 
shields smooth ; the first vertebral protuberant, three-sided ; 
sternum yellow. Head flat, smooth ; temple with small 
scales. 

Hydraspis Wagleri, Gratj, Cat. Tort. B.M. 40. 
Platemys Wagleri, Dum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 422 ; Cat. 
Meth. R. 20. 

Hab. Brazil. Mus. Paris (one specimen). 



6. Hydraspis ruflpes. The Red-footed Hydraspis. 

Shell brown, oval, truncated in front, angular behind ; 
back keeled ; sternum narrower behind. Neck and mem- 
bers reddish, with an oblong red spot above the ear ; head 
smooth, with one large frontal, three elongate occipital, 
and many small scales on the temples. 

Emys rufipes, Spix, Bras. 7. t. 6. f. 1, 2. 

Hydraspis rufipes. Gray, Syn. 41. 

Platemys rufipes. Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 435 ; Cat. 

Meth. i?. 21. 
Emys platycephala, var., Schlegel, Faun. Japon. 46. 
Rhinemys rufipes, IVagler, Syst. 134. t. 3. f. 43, 44, 45. 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Phrynops rufipes. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 41. 

Hab. Brazils. Mus. Munich. 

In Spix's figure of this species the superciliary plates 
are united to the frontal. It is very like our specimen of 
H. nasuta. 



7. Hydraspis Miliusii. Minus's Hydraspis. 

Shell oval, narrow and rounded in front, obtusely angular 
behind, keelless, black -brown ; shields smooth. Sternum 
brown, yellowish washed on the edge and middle line ; ab- 
dominal plates large ; head broad, thick, smooth ; temple 
with small scales. 

Platemvs MUiusii, Bum. et Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 431 ; Cat. 

Meth. R. 21. 
Emys stenops, Spix, Bras. 12. t. 9. f. 3, 4 (very young?). 
Emys platycephala, var., Schlegel, Faun. Japon. 47. 
Rhinemys nasuta, jun., TVagler, Syst. 134. 
Phrynops ? Miliusii, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 42. 

Hab. Cayenne. Mus. Paris. 

The figure of Emys stenops represents the crown and 
temples covered with small shields. 

The last three species may be only varieties or different- 
aged specimens of H. nasuta. 



** Animal and shell banded or spotted. 
8. Hydraspis depressa. The Depressed Hydraspis. 

Shell oval- oblong, rounded at each end, not keeled, oUve- 
brown, black-rayed, hinder margin yellow ; blackish-grey, 
side of the head with three black rays ; throat whitish, 
black-spotted. Sternum narrower behind than in front. 
Head covered with very small shields diverging from a 
small central vertical shield. Neck granular. The inner 
sides of the front of the hind legs with three or four convex 
slightly keeled scales, outer side with sLs small keeled 
shields. 

Hydraspis depressa. Gray, Syn. 41 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 39. 
Emys depressa, Merrem, Tent. 22 (not Spix). 

Neuwied, Beitr. Bras. i. 29 ; Abbild. t. 

Schinz, Rept. 43. t. 4. 
Platemys Neuwiedii, Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gdn. ii. 425 ; Cat. 

Meth. R. 20. 
Emys Lyrae, Reuse, Mus. Franlifort. 
E. platycephala, var., Schlegel, Faun. Japon. 47. 
Rhinemys depressa, TVagler, Syst. 134. 

Hab. South America ; Brazils ? 

a. Young, in spirits. Stenmm with many small spots. 

South America. Presented by Dr. Edward Riippell. 

b. Half-grown, m spirits. Sternum with fewer large spots. 

South America ; British Guiana. Presented by Che- 
valier Schomburgk. 



9. Hydraspis radiolata. The Rayed Hydraspis. 

Shell oval-oblong, narrowed and romided in front, rather 
obtusely angular behind, keelless, brown, varied with red- 
dish ; shields concentrically and radiately striated. Ster- 
num broad before and behind. Head covered with nume- 
rous scales ; neck tubercular. 

Hydraspis radiolata, (rray, Syn. Rept. 44; Cat. Tort. B.M. 

39. 
Emys radiolata, Mikan, Belect. t. 

" Neuwied, Beitr. i. 39 ; Abbild. t. 
Rhinemys radiolata, Wagler, Syst. 165. 
Platemys radiolata, Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 412; Cat. 

Meth. R. 20. 
Hydraspis planiceps, jun.. Gray, Syn. Rept. 40. 
Emys platycephala, var., Schlegel, Faun. Japon. 47. 

Hab. Brazils. Mus. Bell. 

Allied to H. depressa, but the sternum is represented as 
broader behind. 

*** Sj)ecies requiring further examination. 
10. Hydraspis BeUii. Bell's Hydraspis. 

Shell (young) very depressed, very obscurely keeled, 
brown ; middle of the hinder edge of vertebral shield 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



57 



rather elevated, margin very much expanded, deeply ser- 
rated behind ; beneath, yellow brown-rayed and varied. 
Sternum narrow, rather broader in front, attenuated and 
deeply acutely lobed behind. Head brown, moderate, with 
two subtrigonal hard occipital shields, and small shields on 
the temples ; chin two-bearded ; neck warty, yellow be- 
neath, with a yellow streak on each side, from the angle of 
the mouth and under the ear ; claws elongate, acute, com- 
pressed. 

Phrynops Bellii, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 41. 
Hah. ? Mus. Bell : a young specimen. 

11. Hydi'aspis Gaudichaudii. Gaudichaud's IIydraspis. 

Shell oval, oblong, truncated in front, rounded behind, 
keelless, brown marbled with black, and with yellow spots 
on the outer edge of each marginal shield. Sternum black 
in the middle, orange on the sides. Head large ; under 
part of the neck orange, marbled with brown. 

Hydraspis Gaudichaudii, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 40. 
Platemys Gaudichaudii, Duin. ^ Bib. Erp. G6n. ii. 427 ; 
Cat. Mefh. R. 20. 

Hab. Brazils. Mus. Paris (one very young specimen). 

12. Hydraspis Hilaii-ii. St. Hilaire's Hydraspis. 

Shell rather convex, pale brown, short, oval, narrowed at 
each end ; shields smooth ; vertebral broad, each furnished 
with a keel-hke tubercle. Sternum yellow, black-spotted. 
Head depressed, subsquamose, muzzle short, round. 

Hydraspis Hilairii, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 40. 
Platemvs Hilairii, Bum. 4'- Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 429 ; Cat. 
Mm. R.21. 

Hab. Brazils. Mus. Paris. 



13. Hydraspis afflnis. The Allied Hydraspis. 

Shell brown, obscurely black-rayed, margin strongly re- 
flexed over the hinder feet ; two last verteljral shields with 
an elevated compressed conical ridge. Neck long, black, 
with a yellow line on each side, "beneath yellowish. 

Hydraspis? affinis. Gray, D. C. 22. no. 10, ined. ; Cat. 
Tort. B.M. 41. 

Hab. BrazUs. Mus. Berlin. 



14. Hydraspis Geoffiroyaaa. Geoffroy's Hydraspis. 

Shell oval, oblong (of the same width at the two ends), 
rounded before, obtusely angular and nicked behind ; ver- 
tebral plates forming a gutter on each side of the tubercular 
keel. Body yellowish, spotted and rayed with brown, be- 



neath yellow. Head with small scales ; occipital and 
superciliary shields elongated. 

Hab. South America ; Buenos Ayres. Mus. Paris, two 
specimens, young and old. 



5. CHELYMYS. 

Head and tem])le covered with a smooth skin. Beaks 
naked, horny, strong. Chin not bearded. Neck not 
warty. Shell convex, solid, expanded behind ; side edges 
narrow, rather revolute ; nuchal shield distinct ; front 
cavity much contracted by two rather diverging septa, only 
leaving a space half the width of the outer opening ; verte- 
bral column sharply keeled within. Sternum sohd, narrow, 
with broad and shelving side wings, and a broad rounded 
notch behind. Claws 5 • 4, acute. Australia. 

Chelymys, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 41 (1844). 
Emydura, Bonap. Tab. AnaJyt. 8 (1836). 
Platemvs, sp.. Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 438 ; Cat. Meth. 
R. 2"l . 



1. Chelymys Macquaria. The Victoria Chelymys. 

Shell ovate, convex, blackish-brown marbled with grey, 
and rather rugose above, with sligttly impressed, narrow, 
netted grooves ; beneath convex, yellow ; vertebral plates 
nearly square, the fourth six-sided, elongate ; the marginal 
plates rather narrow in front, broader and slightly bent 
upon the sides, dilated, rather produced, and leaving two 
or three notches over the tail behind. 

Chelymys Macquaria, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 42. 
Emys Macquaria, Cuv. R. A. ii. 11. 
Hydraspis ^lacquaria. Gray, Syii. 40. 
Platemvs Macquaria, Bum. ^' Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 438 ; Cat. 
Meth.R.2\. 

Grey, Trar. TT'. Austr. ii. 445. 
Hydraspis Victori<E, Gray, Zool. Misc. 55. 
H. australis. Gray in Grey, Trap. TV. Austr. ii. 445. t. 6. 
Emydura Macquaria, Bonap. Tab. Analyt. 8 (1836). 

Hab. Australia. 

Var. 1 . High, convex. 

b. Half-grown (stuffed). Shields smooth ; vertebral rather 
broader than long ; hinder lateral marginal plates 
square. Australia. Presented by J. Gould, Esq. 

Hydraspis australis. Gray in Grey, Travels TF. Austr. ii. 
445. t. 6. 

Osteology : — 

a. Adult (shell only). Back with a verv narrow, slightly 
sunk, interrupted vertebral line; shield partly rugose ; 
vertebral ])lates rather longer than broad. Victoria 



58 ' 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



River, N.W. coast of Australia. Presented by Capt. 
William Chambers, R.N. 

Emys Macquaria, Dum. ^~ Bib. 
H3'draspis Victoriae, Gray, Zool. Misc. 55. 



Var. 2. Shell depressed, lighter; hinder margin expanded ; 
hinder lateral marginal plates broader than long ; ver- 
tebral plates six-sided, broader than long. 

r. Adult (stuffed). Australia. Presented by John Gould, 
Esq. 

d. Adult (stuffed). Australia. Presented by Sir Thomas 

Mitchell. 

Osteology : — 

e. Adult (shell only). Victoria River. Presented by Capt. 

William Chambers, R.N. 

/. Adult (shell only). Rather deformed, more depressed, 
and shelving downward behind. Australia. Mr. 
Argent's Collection. 



The two varieties, though so different in general appear- 
ance, are found together in the same river. Are they the 
sexes ? 



B. Head large or very large. 
Chelydidfe B, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 36. 

c. Claws b' A. Head flat, depressed ; leaks naked ; ehin 
not bearded. 

Chelydidse B. c. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 36. 

6. CHELODINA. 

Head elongate, covered with a skin divided into many 
small shields on the sides and temple. Neck very long, 
covered with a thin skin. Beaks naked. Chin not bearded. 
Legs strong, with a single series of very broad, thin, band- 
like shields. Toes strong, scaly above. Claws 4-4, acute, 
curved. Shell depressed, broad ; shields thin, smooth. 
Sternum very broad, rounded in front, nicked behind. 
Intergular plate large, long, six-sided, placed in the angle 
between the gular and humeral plates. Nuchal plate 
distinct. Australia. 

Emys § ***, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211 (1825). 
Chelodina, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 43 (1844). 
Chelodina, sp.. Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen, ii. 443 ; Cat. Meth. 

R. 21. 
Hydraspis, sp.. Bell, Zool. Journ. 
Hydraspis (Hydraspis), Fits. Syst. Rept. 29. 

TVagler, Syst. 134. 
Hydraspis, Bonap. Saggio Jiiim. Vert. 13 (1832). 



* Shields very thin, closely netted with minute black lines. 
1. Chelodina longicollis. The Yellow Chelodine. 

Shell oblong, depressed, brown ; first vertebral shield 
elongate ; the second and eleventh marginal shields with 
their front edge opposite the suture of the costal shields. 
Sternum flatfish, deeply nicked behind, yellow; shields 
black-edged. 

Chelodina longicollis, G;-«?/,.S'y?i. i?. 39. t. 6. f. 2; in Griffith, 
An. K. t. ; in Grey, Trav. Austr. ii. 445 ; Cat. Tort. 
B.M. 43. 
Testudo longicollis, Shaw, N. Holl. 19. t. 7; Gen. Zool. 
iii. 62. t. 6. 

Lacep. Ann. Mas. iv. 189. 
Emys longicollis, Schiveig. Prod. 309. no. 28. 

Schlegel, Faun. J upon. 43. 
Hydraspis lougicolhs. Bell, Zool. Journ. iii. 512. 
JJ^agler, Syst. 136, note. 
Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Emys (§ **'*) longicolhs. Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211 (1825). 
Chelodina Novse Hollandise, Dum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 443. 

t. 21. f. 2; Cat. Meth. R. 21. 
Emys porphyrea. Baud. Rept. ii. 142. 

Hab. Australia ; New Holland. 

a. Adult animal (dry). Depressed, oblong. Australia. 

Presented by Sir Joseph Banks. The specimen de- 
scribed by Shaw, Schweigger, &c. 

b. Adult (stuffed). More ovate and convex, 7 inches by 6 ; 

wants some plates. Australia. Presented by John 
Gould, Esq. 



2. Chelodina oblonga. The Oblong Chelodine. 
Tab. XXIV. 

Shell oblong, rather contracted in front, with a broad, 
impressed, vertebral groove, olive-brown, with irregular 
anastomosing lines, beneath yellowish ; marginal plates 
longer than broad ; second larger than the first or third, 
and rather angularly produced in the middle of the inner 
edge, which is opposite the suture of the costal plates. 
Sternum high, flat, strongly and sharply keeled on the 
sides ; neck warty, very thick ; pectoral plate longer than 
broad. 

Chelodina oblonga. Gray in Grey, Trav. Austr. ii. 434, 445. 
t. 7; Cat. Tort. B.M. 43. 

Hab. West and North Australia. 

a. Adult (stuffed). West Australia. Presented by John 

Gould, Esq. The specimen figured in Sir "George 
Grey's Travels. 

b. Adult (stuffed). Port Essington. Presented by Capt. 

W. Chambers, R.N. 

d. Adult (stuffed). Port Essington. 

e. Adult (stuffed). North Australia. Mr. Argent's Col- 

lection. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



59 



3. Chelodina Colliei. Collie's Chelodine. 

Shell oblong, elongate, narrowed, revolute and contracted 
on the sides, dilated and bent up behind over the hind legs. 
Pale brown, varied and rayed with bright brown. Sternum 
narrow, keeled on the sides. 
Chelodina Colliei, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1855. 

Hab. Swan River (^. Collie, Esq.). 



a, b. Adult (stuffed). Swan River. From Haslar Hos- 
pital. 

e. Very young (in spirits). Body scarcely larger than the 
head. Swan River. Presented by Sir John Richard- 
son, M.D. 



** Shields hard, horny, rugose. 

4. Chelodina sulcifera. The Grooved Chelodine. 
Tab. XXV. fig. 2. 

Shell oblong, rather depressed, dark brown ; plates thin, 
concentrically grooved ; vertebral plates convex, longer than 
broad; areola small, posterior; the sides rather reflexed, 
and rather dilated and bent up behind over the hind legs. 
Sternum brown ; shield rather convex ; sides sharply keeled; 
pectoral about as long as broad. 
Chelodina sulcifera. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1855. 

Hab. AustraUa. 



a. Adult? (shell only). Australia. Mr. Warwick's Col- 
lection. 



This species differs from C. longicollis in the thickness 
and grooved state of the plates, the small size of the areola, 
and the convexity and width of the vertebral plates. 



7. HYDROMEDUSA. 

Head elongate, depressed, covered with a soft dotted 
skin. Beaks narrow, exposed. Lips rather dilated and 
fleshy at the angle of the mouth. Chin not l)earded. 
Neck warty. Claws 4*4; outer toe on each foot small, 
clawless. Tail elongate. Shell oblong, depressed, expanded 
in front, slightly revolute on the sides. Nuchal plate large, 
placed behind the front marginal plate, Uke a sixth verte- 
bral ; the second pair of marginal plates large, edging the 



nuchal plate. Intergular plate large, long, marginal. Tro- 
pical America. 

Hydromedusa, Tf'ayler, Syst. 135. 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 43 (1844). 
Chelodina, Fitz. Verz. Wien, 45. 

Chelodina (part.). Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 446 (1835) ; 
Cat. Mtth. /d. 21. 



* Back nodose behind. 

1. Hydromedusa Maxiniiliani. Prince Maximilian's 
Hydromedusa. 

Shell oval, convex, entire, rounded in front, rather 
angular behind, pale brown, black-spotted ; nuchal plate as 
broad as the first vertebral ; the first vertebral longer than 
broad ; the fourth costal and last two dorsal shields pro- 
tuberant ; forehead flat. Throat yellow, brown-marbled. 

Hydromedusa Maxiniiliani, JVagler, Syst. 135. t. 3. f. 25, 26. 
Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 44. 
Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Emys Maxiniiliani, Mikati, Delect, t. 
Chelodina Maxiiiiiliani, Fitz. Verz. 48 ; Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. 

Gen. ii. 449 ; Cat. Meth. R. 21. 
Hydraspis Maxiniiliani, Gray, Syn. 42. 

Hab. Brazils. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Third and fourth costal and fourth 

and fifth vertebral plates acutely tubercular. South 
America ; Buenos Ay res. Dr. Miller's Collection, 
1848. 

Var. Fifth vertebral shield with cross ridge only ; hinder 
costal plate less prominent. 

b. Adult animal (dry). The nuchal or anterior vertebral 

plate trausversel}' divided in half. (Lost one vertebral 
plate.) 

" Brazils." From the French Museum ; sent under the 
name of Chelodina flavilabris. 

Osteology : — 

Peters in Miiller, Arch. Anat. ^ Phys. 1839, t. 14. 
Wayler, Syst. t. 3. f. 2-42. 

c. Shell wanting some plates ; vertebral plate tubercularly 

keeled ; fifth with a broad transverse prominence ; 
other shields smooth. La Plata. 



** Back with a central keel, rounded behind ; shields 
grooved. 

2. Hydromedusa flavilabris. The Yellow-lipped 
Hydromedusa. 

Shell elongate, depressed, oval, entire, rounded in front, 
rather angular behind ; nuchal plate rather narrower than 

K 2 



00 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



the first vertebral ; hinder discal plates flat ; the first ver- 
tebral broader than long ; second, third and fourth ver- 
tebrals bluntly keeled ; forehead convex. Jaws bright yel- 
low ; neck with acute warts. 

Hydromedusa flavilabris, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 44. 
Chelodina flavilabris, Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 446 ; Cat. 
Meth.R.2\. 

Hah. Brazils. 

a. Half-grown (in spirits). Shields nearly smooth. Brazils. 
From M. P. Clausen's Collection. 

H. Maximiliani, jun., Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 44. 

h. Young (in spirits). Shields concentrically grooved. 
Brazils. From M. P. Clausen's Collection. 

c. Adult (stuffed ; wanting head) . The anterior vertebral 
plate small, quadrangular, narrow in front ; second 
very large, broad in front, narrow behind, about as 
long as broad ; the third, fourth and fifth vertebral 
plates bluntly keeled ; the costal plates even, the first 
and third rather more convex than the others near the 
upper edge. South America. From the Zoological 
Society. 



*** Back not heeled, rounded behind. 

3. Hydromedusa depressa. The Depressed Hydro- 
medusa. Tab. XXVI. 

Shell oblong, depressed, dark brown, entire, rounded in 
front, rather angular behind ; nuchal plate short, broader 
than the first vertebral ; first vertebral square, as long as 
broad, with the front lateral angle produced. Sternum pale 
brown ; gular plates short, subequal. Head grey ; lips 
and beneath white ; neck with small conical warts. 

Hvdromedusa subdepressa. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 18.53; 
'Ann. ^- Mag. Nat. Hist. 185.5, xv. 68. 

Hab. Brazils. 

a. Adult (in spirits). Some of the plates of the back and 
sternum divided into a number of small roundish 
shields. Brazils. Mr. Brandt's Collection. 



d. Claws 5 • 4. Head J!at, mncfi depressed ; beaks covered 
with fieshy lips ; chin bearded ; intergular plate 
marginal. 

Chelydidffi B. d. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 36 (1844). 
Chelidina, Gray, Ami. Phil. x. 211 (1825). 
Chelouea B (part.), Flem. Phil. Zool. ii. 211 (1822). 
Chelydse, fl'iegm. ^- Ruthe, Handb. 167. 

Fitz. Si/st. Rppt. 30. 
Steganopoda mandibulata. Fit:. Syst. Rept. 29. 
Chelina, Bonap. Saggio Anini. Vert. 13 (1832) ; Tab. 

Analyt. !) (1836). 
Chelydoides, Fitzinger, Neiie Class. 1826. 



8. CHELYS. 

Head flat, broad, fringed with warty appendages. Eyes 
small. Nose elongated into a tubular proboscis. Mouth 
roundish. Jaws covered with soft lips ; lower jaw elevated 
behind. Tongue-bone very complicated {Ciiv. Oss. Foss. v. 
t. 1). Neck thick, flat, long, bearded on each side. Legs 
scaly. Tail short, warty. Shell ovate, convex, broader 
before, acutely three-keeled, flattened in the middle of the 
back. Shields thin, angularly gibbous. Sternum narrow, 
broader and rounded in front, narrower and bifid behind. 
Intergular plate marginal. South America. 

Chelvs, Daudin, Rept. 1802. 

'Oppel, Rept. (1811). 

Dumeril, Zool. Anal. 77 (1805). 

Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211 (1825). 

Flem. Phil. Zool. ii. 2/1 (1822). 

Bell, Zool. Joiirn. iii. 515. 

Wagler, Syst. 134. 

Merrem, Tent. 24. 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 

Bum. S,- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 455 ; Cat. Meth. 7?. 21. 
Matamata, Merrem, Tent. 21 (1820). 

Rit:en, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. xiv. 270. 
Chelys (Chclides ou Tortues a gueule), Cuv. R. A. ii. 14. 



1. Chelys Matamata. The Matamata. 

Shell oblong ; shields elevated, acute, forming three keels. 

Testudo Raxarara, Ferm. H. N. Holl. Equin. 51. 
T. fimbriata, Schneid. Schildk. 349. 

Gmel. Si/st. Nat. i. 1043. 

Srhoepf. Test. 07. t. 21. 

Shaw,' Zool. iii. 70. t. 18. 
Chelys fimljriata, Schweig. Prod. 294. 

Spix, Bras. t. 1 1 . 

IJ'agler, Syst. 134. t. 3. f. 4, 24. 
Matamata fimbriata, Merrem, Tent. 21. 
Testudo Matamata, Brug. Journ. H. N. 1792, 253. t. 13. 

Latr. Rept. i. 9. t. 4. f. 1. 

Schlegel, Faun. Japan. 41. 

Baud. Rept. ii. 86. t. 20. f. 1. 
T.terrestris major sive ^uparara., Bai-r^re, France Equin. 60. 
La Matamata, Citv. R. A. ii. 15. 

Chel3-x fimbriata. Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 212 ; Syn. 431 ; Cat. 
Tort. B.M. 44. 

Fife. Syst. Rept. 30. 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 455. t. 21. f. 1 ; Cat. M^th. 
R. 21. 

Hab. Brazils. 



a, b, c. Adult (stuffed). Brazils. 

Osteology : — 

Testudo fimbriata, Cuv. Oss. Foss. v. 189. t. 11. f. 21, 24, 

skull; t. il. f. 25, lower jaw. 
Chelvde, Cuv. Oss. Foss. v. 194. t. 12. f. 41, os hvoides ; 

t."l2. f. 3, clavicle; t. 12. f. 13 & 37, hand and foot. 
Chelvs :\Iatamata, Wagler, Syst. t. 3. f. 3-24. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



CI 



e. Claws 5*4. Head convex, i-ounded, covered with hard 
shields; beaks naked. 

Chelydidae B. e, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 36 (1844). 
Podocnerais, Wayler, Si/sf. 135 (1830). 



9. PELTOCEPHALTJS. 

Head large, subquadraugular, ]iyramidal, covered with 
six large, thick, rather imbricate plates ; forehead rounded. 
Eyes lateral. Jaws naked, very strong, hooked, toothless. 
Feet strongly webbed, with two large scales near the claws, 
without any compressed scales on the front edge of the 
hind legs. Claws 5-4, straight, strong. Tail clawed. 
Shell ovate, convex, rounded before, nicked behind. Nu- 
chal plate none. Sternum solid; marginal plates 10- 10; 
two caudal plates united into one plate. 

Peltocephalus, Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 3/7 (1835) ; Cat. 
Meth. R. 18. 

Fitz. Syst. Kept. 29. 
Podocnemis, sp., Wagler, Syst. 135. 

1. Peltocephalus Tracaxa. The Tracaxa. 

Shell ovate, smooth, entire, blackish-brown ; gular plates 
very small, subequal ; pectoral plate short. 

Peltocephalus Tracaxa, Dum. i^- Bib. Erp. Ght. ii. 378. 
t. 18. f. 2; Cat. Meth. R. !8. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 45. 

Fitz. Syst. Rejit. 29. 
Emys Tracaxa, Spi.v, Bras. 6. t. 5. 

Wagler, Syst. 135. 
Emys maerocephala, Spi.r, Bras. 5. t. 4, old shell, worn. 
Podocnemis tracaxa, Wagler, Syst. 135. 
Podocnemis maerocephala, Wagler, Syst. 135. 

Hab. Brazils. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Shields concentrically grooved. 
Emys Tracaxa, Spi.v, Bras. t. 5. 

b. Adult (stuffed). Worn nearly smooth ; head imperfect. 

Brazils. 

E. maerocephala, Spix, Bras. t. 4. 



10. PODOCNEMIS. 

Head convex ; crown with five shields, two nasal, one 
frontal, large, and two temporal, with a deep groove on the 
forehead ; cheeks with large shields. Chin two-bearded. 
Jaws naked, slightly arched, toothless. Eyes superior, 
close. Legs with some thin cresceutic scales in front. 
The upper part of the hinder edge of the hind foot 
covered with three large flat shields. Toes broadly webbed, 



with two broad thin scales above. Claws 5 "4, short, broad, 
flattened. Tail short, not clawed, with a diverging series 
of horny cross ridges on each side. Shell rather solid ; 
sterno-costal symphysis elongate; marginal plates 12'12; 
caudal separate. Nuchal plate none. Sternum broad, not 
mobile, narrower behind. 

Podocnemis, sp., TT'agter, Syst. 135. 

Podocnemis, Dum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 282 ; Cat. Mith.R.lH. 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 29. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 25. 

1. Podocnemis expansa. The Pitipu. Tab. XXVII. 

Shell oval, entire, keelless, very depressed when adult, 
tectiform and rather moderately keeled when young, much 
and horizontally expanded over the hind legs. Head broad, 
short ; of young white-spotted. 

Podocnemis expansa, Wagler, Syst. 135. t. 4. f. 1, 2. 

Dum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 383. t, 19. f. 1 ; Cat. M^th. 
R. 18. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 45. 

Fitz. Syst. Rept. 24. 
Emys Amazouica, Spix, Bras. i. t. 1, adult; t. 2. f. 1, 2, 

young. 
E. expansa, Schweig. Prod. 299. no. 8. 

Schlegel, Faun. Japon. 48. 
Hydraspis expansa. Gray, Syn. Rept. 41. 
Testudo Arrace, Humb. Pers. Nar. iv. 482 ? 

Hab. Brazils ; Cayenne. Mus. Paris. 

b. Adult (stuffed). Lakes of Upper Amazons : called Pi- 

tipu. Mr. Bates's Collection. 

c. Young (in spirits). Head blackish, with a white edge 

to the sides of the nasal and upper orbital edge ; back 
of the head with foiu' round equal spots, the lateral 
one above the front of the tympanum ; vertebral plates 
bluntly keeled ; marginal plate very wide. 

d. Young (stuffed ; rather deformed). Animal and shell 

black ; head white-spotted. Brazils. Zoological So- 
ciety. 

" Podocnemis expansa," Bibron, MSS. Cat. Zool. Sac. 
no. 366. 

Osteology. Tab. XXXVII. fig. 1, skull. 

Emys expansa, Cuv. Oss. Foss. v. 184. t. 1 1. f. 9-12, skull. 
Podocnemis expansa, Wagler, Syst. t. 4. f. 3-31. 



a. Adult (female). Shell only. 
Mr. Bates's Collection. 

e. Skull. ^Ir. Bates's Collection. 



Brazils : called Pitiu. 



Spix described the young as having a yellow head with 
two black dots, which does not agree with the Museum 
specimens. 

Schlegel regards E. amazonica and E. erythrocephata as 
synonyma of this species. 



62 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



2, Podocneinis Diimeriliana. The Tracaja. 

Tab. XXVIII. 

Shell oval, convex, swollen, nicked in front, brown varied 

with black ; the second and third vertebral plates keeled. 

Sternum yellowsh ; under side of marginal plates with a 

blackish-varied spot. Head elongate, rather narrow. 

Podocnemis Dumeriliana, IVagler, Syst. 155. 

Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 387 ; Cat. Meth. R. 18. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 45. 
Emys Dumeriliana, Schiueig. Prod. 300. no. 9. 

Schlegel, Favn. Japan. 48. 
Hydraspis Dumeriliana, Gray, Syn. 42. 

Young. Head black, with a yellow spot on the forehead, 
two larger on each side of the occiput and temples, 
and two on each side of the jaws. 

Emys Cayennensis, Schweig. Prod. 298. no. 6. 
Emvs ervthrocephala, Spix, Bras. t. ". 
Hydraspis lata. Bell, MSS. 

Gray, Syn. Sept. 77 ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 41. 

Hah. Brazils ; Venezuela ; Cayenne ; Guadaloupe. Mus. 
Paris. 



a. Adult female (stuffed). Lakes of Upper Amazon : 
called Tracaja. Mr. Bates's Collection. 

h. Young (stuffed) ; imperfect. Black. From the Zoo- 
logical Society. 
Hydraspis lata. Bell. 

d. Young (hi spirits). Brown ; edge of shell yellow ; be- 

neath paler brown. Para. Mr. Bates's Collection. 

e. Very young (stuffed). 

Osteology : — 

c. Adult shell. Tab. XXVIII. 



"The male Tracaja and PiYm are comparatively rarely 
caught ; they never come on shore, and can only be obtained 
by the arrow ; their number is also small in proportion to 
the females. I have not been able to obtain a specimen." — 
E. Wallace, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851. 

Schlegel regards Emys Tracaxa, E. macrocephala, and 
E. Dumeriliana as synonyma of this species, which he has 
not seen. 



3. Podocnemis SEXTUBERCULATA. " Testa ovata sterno 
fortiter adhsesa, hoc sex tuberculos prsebente sccus 
margines laterales, caruucula mentali luiica." 

Cornalia, Verteh. Synopsis in 3Iuseo Mediolanensi (1849), 
13. uo. 13. f. 3. 



b. Back covered with a soft skin. Toes digitate, webbed, 
three-clawed. Beaks covered with free Jleshy lips. 

Amyda, Schiveig. MSS. Institute of Paris (1 809) (see Dum. 

^ Bib. Erp. Gen. i. 416, 421) ; Prod. 
Trionyx, Geoff. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. xiv. 15. 
Oppel, Rept. 10. 
Merrem, Tent. 20. 
Amydsea, 0^^lel, Rept. (1811). 
Testudines stegauopodes (part.), Wagler, Syst. 133. 
Potamites ou Tortues fluviatiles, Dum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 
461 ; Cat. Meth. R. 22. 



Fam. IV. TEI0NYCID.5; (Soft Turtles). 

Head flattened, ovate. Eyes small, superior. Jaws horny, 
covered with dependent fleshy lips. Chin not bearded. 
Nostrils elongated into a thin cyUndrical trunk. Neck loug, 
contractile. Feet short, strong. Toes 5 • 5, short, expanded, 
strongly webbed, two outer clawless. Claws 3 • 3. Tail 
short, conical, simple. Shell covered with a hard cartila- 
ginous skin, usually expanded and flexible on the edge, the 
ribs only vinited together and to the vertebrae above, sejia- 
rate below. Sternum formed of a ring of bones, covered 
with a continuous skin, and in the adults furnished with 
rough callosities on the prominent i)art. Pelvis only at- 
tached to the vertebrEe. Living in rivers and lakes in warm 
climates : often lying in the mud with the head only ex- 
posed : eating flesh, and rarely vegetables. Eggs spherical. 

The ribs become united together for a greater propor- 
tion of their length, and the sternal callosities appear and 
increase in size as the animal increases in age ; hence thev 
do not afford specific, much less generic characters. 

Amyda, Schweig. MSS. 

Trionicidoe, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 211 (1825). 

Bonop. Saggio Anim. Vert. 13 (1832) ; Tab. Analyt. 

10 (183G). 
Swainson, Lard. Cyclop. 344. 
Trionichidae, Bell, Zool. Journ. iii. 515 (1828). 
Chilotfe, TJ'iegm. ^ Riithe, Handb. 1(J7. 
Triouicina, Donap. Tab. Analit. 10 (1830). 
Trionix (Les Tortues molles), Cuvier, R. A. ii. 15. 
Steganopoda labiata, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 30. 
Trionyches, Fitz. Sijst. Rept. 30. 
Trionichoides, Fit:inger, Neue Class. (1826). 
Phyllopodochelones (part.), Ritzen, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 

xiv. 269 (1828). 
Chersydrochelones (part.), Rit:en, I. c. 269. 
Amydse (part.), Ritzen, I. c. 269. 
Potamites ou Tortues fluviatiles, Dutn. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 

461 ; Cat. MM. R. 22. 
Gymnopodi (part.). Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 212 (1825). 
Trionvx, Geoffroy, Ann. Mus. xiv. 
Oppel, Rept. (1811). 

Geofi'roy used as characters the existence and non-exist- 
ence and form of the anterior vertebral bone ; but all the 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



63 



species of Trionyx have an odd bone ("marginal piece," 
Geoff.) on the margin, which is only slightly developed in 
the young. Geoffrey's figure of T. Egyptiacus is from an 
adult ; T. svhplanvs and T. carinnlus from young speci- 
mens ; T. Javanicus from an imperfect one, as complete 
specimens of this species have this bone. 

Fitzinger has divided this family into the genera Trionyx 
(ffranosus), Aspidonectes (Javanicus), Platypeltis (Bron- 
gniartii and ferox), Pelodiscus (Sinensis and labiatus), 
Aniyda (snbplanus and muticus), according to the union 
and separation of the cervical bones and the ribs, and the 
rugosity and partial smoothness of the surface of the 
dorsal plates ; but these characters alter with the age of 
the animals, and they separate nearly allied species and 
those coming from the same countries. 

Synopsis of the Genera. 

A. Sternum broad, with valves over the feet. Sternal callosities 

7 or 9. 

1. Emyda. The margin of the shield supported by bones. 

Sternal callosities three pairs, and a small anterior odd one 
behind the anterior pair. 

2. Cyclanosteus. Margin of disk flexible, boneless. Sternal cal- 

losities four pairs, and an odd one behind the two anterior 
paiis. 

B. Sternum narrow at each end ; the margin of the shield ex- 

panded, flexible, thin. Sterjtal callosities 4, 

§ Head moderate ; face conical ; eyes lateral. 

3. Trionyx. Head moderate, ovate, narrow in front. Dorsal disk 

solid. 

4. Dogania. Head very large, dilated behind, narrow in front. 

Dorsal disk not solidified imtil late in life. 

§§ Head elongates face very short j eyes anterior. 

5. Chitra. Head dilated behind, broad and short in front ; hps 

verc large, swollen. Dorsal disk solid ; first vertebral bone 
broad, crescent-shaped, early develojjed. 



A. Sternum broad, with valves over the feet. Sternal 
callosities 7 or 9. 

Trionycidre A, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 46. 
Trionyx, Bell, Zool. Journ. iii. 516. 

Wagler, Syst. 134 (1830). 

Fit;. Syst. Rept. 30. 

Bonap. Tab. Analyt. 10 (1836). 
Crvptopus, Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. .501 ; Cat. Meth. 
R. 23. 

1. EMYDA. 

Head moderate, ovate, narrow in front. Eyes near nose. 
Lips very thick. Dorsal disk convex, solid. Margin of 



the shell supported with a series of bones behind. Ster- 
num broad, rounded before and behind, with a moveable 
valve over each foot. Sternal callosities (of adult) 7, three 
(2 ■ 1) anterior, two lateral and two jjosterior. 

Emyda, Gray, Syn. Rept. ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 46. 

Trionj-x, Bell, Zool. Journ. iii. .516 (1828). 
Wayler, Syst. 134. 
Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30. 
Crvptopus, Bum. ^' Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 501 (1835) ; Cat. 
Meth. R. 23. 



1. Emyda punctata. The Bungoma. 

Shell oval, convex, granular, green (young with eyed 
spots) ; head with two orange spots on the occiput (young 
with a yellow streak from each eye, and the nape yellow- 
spotted). The odd anterior callosity small, roundish, tri- 
angular ; the posterior callosities of adult ovate, inner edge 
semicircular ; of young triangular, far apart. 

Emvda punctata, Gray, Syn. Rept. 50 ; Illusf. Ind. Zool. 
ii". t. 62, young ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 46 ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1855. 

Bell, Testud. t. 
La Chagrinee, Testudo punctata, Lacep. Q. O. i. 171. 
Testudo granosa, Schoepjf'. Test. 127. t. 30 A, B. 
Trionyx granosus, Schweig. Prod. 288. 

n'agler, Syst. 134. t. 2. f. 2, 33. 

Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30. 

Gray, Ind. Zool. ii. t. 64. 

Schlegel, Faun. Japon. 35. t. 5. f. 4. 
Cryptopus granosus. Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 501 ; Cat. 

Meth. R. 23. 
Testudo scabra, Latr. Rept. i. 194. 
T. Dura, B. Hamilton, Icon. ined. no. 
T. granidata, Shaiv, Zool. iii. 68. t. 14. f. 1. 

Baud. Rept. ii. 81. t. 19. f. 2. 
Trionvx Coromandelicus, Geoff. Ann. Mus. xiv. 16. t. 5. f. 1. 

iSIerrem, Tent. 20. 

Hab. India ; Pondicherry ; Bengal. 

a-c. Adult animal and shell (stuffed). India. From M. 
Picquot's Collection. 

f, g. Young (in spirits). India. From M. Picquot's Col- 
lection. 

h. Young (stuffed). From the Museum of the Bengal 
Society. 

k. Very young (stuffed). India. Capt. Boys' Collection. 

/. Adult (stuffed). India. Capt. Boys' Collection. 

Osteology : — 

Trionyx granosus, Cuv. Oss. Foss. v. 202. t. 12. f. 47, ster- 
num. 

d, e. Upper shells only. India. M. Picquot's Collection. 

(. Upper shield only. India. Presented by Gen. Th. 
Hardwicke. 



64 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



2. Emyda Ceylonensis. The Ceylon Dura. 
Tab. XXIX. a. 

Back and upper part of the head (in spirits) dull pale 
uniform olive-brown ; lips and lower part of the body whitish. 
The odd anterior sternal tubercle large, oblong, transverse ; 
the hmder callosities large, close, nearly united in the adult, 
with straight parallel edges. , 

Emyda punctata, Kelaart, Prod. Faun. Ceylon. 179. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

a. Half-grown (in spirits). Ceylon (F. Layard, Esq.). 

b. Adult (shell only). Ceylon. From the Zoological So- 

ciety. Sent by Dr. Kelaart. 

Dr. Kelaart described this species, probably from life, as 
" olive-green, with indistinct brown stri])es, and minutely 
punctulated ; beneath white or fleshy-white. Head green, 
black-striped ; lips yellow." . . . "This Water Tortoise is 
generally distributed in the lower part of the island, and is 
found in lakfs and tanks. Several we kept alive for 
months in a tub filled with fresh water, fed freely on ani- 
mal food, and also on bread and boiled rice. A large female 
laid three eggs, globular, about an inch in diameter, with 
a hard calcareous shell. This Tortoise too is put into wells 
to act the part of scavenger." It is called Kivi-Ibba in 
Cingalese. 



3. Emyda Senegalensis. The African Bungoma. 

Back, head and neck (of young) grey, with minute white 
spots ; sternum blackish, edged with dirty white. 

Emyda Senegalensis, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 47. 
Crvptopus Senegalensis, Bum. ^' Bib. Erp. G(n. ii. 504 ; 
'Cat. Meth. R. 23. 

Hah. "Senegal." Mus. Paris. 

Perhaps the vomig of Cydanosteus Petersii. 



2. CYCLANOSTEUS. 
Head moderate, ovate. Margin of the dorsal disk not 
supported by bones. Sternum broad, rounded before and 
behind, with a moveable flap over each foot. Sternal cal- 
losities 9, viz. four pairs, and an odd one behind the two 
anterior pairs ; the pair on the hinder lobe small, i;ir 
apart. 

Cydanosteus, Peters, MSS. (1848). 

? Crvptopus, sp.. Dim. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 504. 



1. Cydanosteus Petersii. The Gambian Cyclanosteus. 
Tab. XXIX. 

Shell broad, rounded before and behind ; sternal cal- 
losities 9. 

Cydanosteus (Cyclanorbis) Petersii, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1853 ; Jnn. |- Maff. Nat. Hist. xv. 69 (1855). 

Hab. W. Africa ; Gambia. 

Osteology : — 

b. Shell only, with back margin. Gambia. Presented by 
the Earl of Derby. 

a. Skeleton (imperfect). Gambia. Presented by the Earl 
of Derby. From Mr. ^^^litfield's Collection. 



2. Cydanosteus frenatus. The Bridled Cyclanosteus. 

Face black-lined. 

Cyclanosteus frenatus, Peters, MSS. (1848). 
Casi, Native of Mozambique. 

Hab. ^Mozambique (in fresh water) ; River Zambia, 
{Peters). 



B. Sternum narrow at each end; margin of the shield 
expanded, thin, flexible. Sternal callosities A. Tri- 
onyciua. 

Trionyx, Gray, Syn. Rept. 

Amyda, Bonap. Tab. Analyt. 10 (1836). 

Aspidonectes, Wayler, Syst. 134 (1830). 

Fitz. Syst. Rejjt. 30. 
Gymnopus, Dim. $ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 477; Cat. Meth. 

R. 22. 
Trionyx, sp., Bell 1 

§ Head moderate ; face conical ; eyes lateral. 

3. TRIONYX. 

Head rather large, ovate, dilated behind. Muzzle rather 
elongate, conical. Lips thick. Shield flexible on the edge. 
Ribs 8 ■ 8. Sternum narrow at each end. Sternal callosi- 
ties 2 or 4 ; the lateral one occupying part of both lateral 
sternal bones. 

Trionyx, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 49 (1844) ; Ann. Phil. 

X. 212 (1825). 
Tyrse, sp.. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 47 (1844). 
Trionyx, sp., Geoff. Ann. Mus. 
Platvpeltis, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 30. 
Trio'uix (ferox), Flem. Phil. Zool. ii. 271. 
Aspidonectes a, sp., Wagler, Syst. 134. 
Aspidonectes /3, IFagler, Syst. 134. 
Aspidonectes, Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30 (1843). 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD RErTILES. 



65 



Gvmnopus, sp., Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 477 ; Cat. Meth, 

R. 23. 
Potamochelvs, Fitz. Sijst. Repf. 30 (1843). 
Pelodiscus, Fitz. Si/st. Rept. 30 (1843). 

I had divided the American from the Old World species, 
believing they had only seven ribs, but on re-examination I 
find they both have the same number of ribs. 

The species may l)e thus divided according to their osteo- 
logical characters, but they can only be used with certainty 
by those vpho have a series of specimens of different ages 
of each species before them. 

* First vertebral bone broad, crescent-shaped, early deve- 

loped ; episternal bones rather far apart at the base. 

f Callosities 2 ; dorsal disfi with two pits in front, one on 
each side of the first vertebra. 

1 . Trionyx Rafeht. 

ft Callosities 4 ; dorsal disk with two pits in front. 

2. T. Argus. 

ttt Callosities 4 ; dorsal disk without any pits in front. 

3. T. perocellatus. 4. T. Nilolicus. o. T. Gangeticus. 
6. T. ferox. 7. T. muticus. 

** First vertebral bone oblong, not developed until late in 
life ; episternal bones elongate, close together at their 
base. Callosities 4. 

8. Tyrse Javanicus. 9. T. carinifenis. 10. T. frenatus. 

They may be divided according to the colouring of the 
head and limbs, but these colours often disappear or become 
indistinct in the adult animal. 

* Head and limbs with subeqiial white spots. 
1. Trionyx Rafeht. 2. T. Niloticns. 

* * Head and limbs with small and some larger ivhite spots. 

3. T. Gangeticus. 4. T. carhiiferus. 

*** Head spotted with longitudinal narrow black lines ; 
lips and chin sj)otted. 

ft. T. perocellatus. 6. T. ferox. 

**** Head with diverging black streaks on the crown. 
1 . T. Javanicus. 8. T. frenatus. 

***** Head with black-edged streaks enclosing the eye. 

9. T. Argus. 10. T. ferox (T. spiuiferus). 



The young of T. Niloticus, T. Gangeticus, T. Javanicus, 
T. frenatus and T. ferox have the spinose tubercles on the 
back in numerous parallel lines ; T. perocellatus has them 
in distant, rather irregular lines ; and Chiton Indica has 
close, isolated, I'ounded tubercles, very much crowded 
together on the nape ; the side and hinder part of the 
disk smooth. 

* Asiatic. 

1. Trionyx Rafeht. The Rafeht. Tab. XXX. 

Dull green. Head white-dotted. Sternal callosities 2 ; 
lateral transverse, rather dilated at the inner end ; anterior 
sternal bones far apart ; anterior part of the disk with two 
rounded cavities between the broad lunate first and the 
second vertebral bones. 

Tvrse Rafeht, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 49. 
Testudo Rafeht, Oliv. T'oy. Vers. ii. 453. t. 41. 

Shaw, Misc. t. 907. 
Testudo Euphraticus, Baud. Rept. ii. 305. 
Trionyx Euphraticus, Geoff. Ann. Mus. xiv. 17. 

Gray, Syn. 48. 
Gymnopus Euphraticus, Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 498 ; 
Cat. Meth. R. 22. 

Martin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1840, 56. 

Hab. Tigris and Euphrates. Mus. Zool. Soc. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Euphrates. Presented by Mr. Loftus, 

Euphrates Expedition, 1850. 

b. Adult (without sternum). Euphrates. From the 

Zoological Society. Presented by Capt. Chesney. 
Tab. XXX. Described by Mr. Martin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Osteology : — 

Skull of "a." Euphrates. 

The skull is much shorter and broader than that of 
T. Niloticus. 

2. Trionyx perocellatus. The Eyed Boulousse. 

Tab. XXXL 

Back of young with distinct irregular lines of tubercles, 
with six obscure spots. Head and neck olive ; lip and chin 
with small white spots, with narrow brown streaks from 
the front of the eyes to the lip, and from the back of the 
eyes across the temple ; anterior dorsal bone large, broad. 
Sternal callosities 4 ; hinder oblong, trigonal, oblique, with 
the rugosities in concentric oblong rings. 

Tyrse perocellata, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 48. 
Trionyx jierocellatus, Cantor, Ann. i^' Mag. Nat. Hist. 
T. tuberculatus. Cantor, MSS. 

T. stellatus, var. Javanicus, Schlegel, Faun. Japon. t. 5. 
f 6.', t. 7. f. 1, 2. 

Hab. China ; Chusan. 



66 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



rt, 6. Half-grown (in spirits). Chusan. Presented by the 
Hon. East India Company, from Dr. Cantor's Collec- 
tion. 

c. Younger (in spirits). Sternum black-spotted. Cbusan. 
Presented by the Hon. East India Company, from Dr. 
Cantor's Collection. 

e. Adult (stuffed). Disk 7 inches long, with two very 
small pits in front. China. 

/. Young (in spirits). The head in spirits lead-coloured 
black, black-dotted, with a narrow black streak on the 
forehead from the front of the upjier part of each eye, 
and a narrow black streak from the lip through the 
eve and extended on the sides of the nape. Throat 
whitish, marbled with blackish. China. Dr. Berthold 
Seemann. Tab. XXXI. From Haslar Museum. 



This species differs from T. carinatus in wanting the 
regular series of tubercles forming a keel on the back of 
the dorsal disk. 

Mr. Seemann' s specimen has the markings on the head 
very like those of a young stuffed specimen of T. ferox 
from North America which we received from Mr. W. Smith ; 
but the streak from the back of the eye in the American 
species is double, that is to say, pale, with a black edge on 
each side. 

This species may always be known in the young state by 
the scattered and irregular distribution of the dorsal tu- 
bercles. 



3. Trionyx Gangeticus. The Kaarey. 
Olive, vermiculated with dark brown (when young, with 
four or five large eyed spots). Head olive, white-dotted, 
with a yellow spot (white in spirits) behind each eye, at the 
angle of the mouth and on each side of the chin, and one 
on each side of the neck below the cheek. 

Tyrse Gangetica, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 47. 
Trionvx gangeticus, Cuv. R. A. ii. 16 ; Giierin, Icon. t. 1. 
f. 6, young. 

Sc'hlegel, Faun. Japan. 35 ; Cuv. Oss. Foss. iii. 222, 
adult. 
Aspidonectes gangeticus, Wagler, Sijst. t. 2. f. 12-18. 
Trionyx stellatus, var. Japonicus, Schlegel, Faun. Japon. 

t, 5. f. 7? 
Trionyx Hurum, Grarj, Illi/st. Iiul. Zool. t. 1 ; Sijn. Rept. 

t. 10. 
Testudo Hurum, B. Hamilton, Icon. ined. no. 13. 
Gvmnopus Duvaucelii, Bum. &r Hib. Erp. Ghi. ii. 487 ; 

'Cat. Meth. R. 22. 
Testudo Chin, B. Hamilton, Icon. ined. no. , copied 

Grai/, Si/n. Rept. 47. t. 10. 
Test, ocellatus, B. Hamilton, Icon. ined. no. 14. 

Grai/, Illust. Lid. Zool. t. 7 ■ 
Gymnopus Gangeticus, Cantor, Rept. Malac. 8. 
Jaccpiem. Voy. Ind. Rept. t. 9. 



?? Pelodiscus Sineusis, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 30. 

Gymnopus ocellatus, Dutn. ^' Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 189, young. 

Hab. India ; Ganges. 

a, b, c. Young (in spirits) ; 4 inches. Back with four 
black spots. India ; Ganges. 

d, e. Young (in spirits) ; 4 inches. Back with four large 
and two small posterior black spots. India ; Ganges. 

f. Very young (in spirits). Marks on face and spots on 

back very distinct. India. Mr. Argent's Collection. 

Osteology. Tab. XLIII. fig. 1, skull. 

Trionyx du Ganges, Cuv. Oss. Foss. v. 187. t. 11. f. 5, 8, 
skull; t. 13. f. 42; t. 12. f. 46, sternum. 

g, h. Dorsal disk, vertebra and ribs only. Nepaul. Pre- 

sented by J. B. Hodgson, Esq. 

i. Dorsal disk, vertebra and ribs only. Nepaul. Presented 
by H. Falconer, M.D. 

j. Skull of adult. Suttapoor ; Ganges. Capt. Boys' Col- 
lection. Tab. XLIII. fig. 1. 

/•. Skull (half-grown ; imperfect). India. 

/. Dorsal shields and sternum. India. From the Zoolo- 
gical Society. 

These bones {jj, h, i and /) may all possibly belong to 
T. Javanicus, as they were procured without any head or 
other characteristic parts. 

"The young (Testudo ocellatus. Buck. Hamilt. MSS. ; 
Gray, Illust. Ind. Zool. t. ) : — The head above pale olive, 
with a large yellow spot between the eyes and a similar 
one behind each eye ; neck, limbs, and posterior margin of 
the shell dark olive, with paler round spots. Shell olive, 
with black irregular Hues and four or five central ocelli, 
black in the centre, edged with red, round which a black 
ring. Sternum pale whitish olive." 

In the transition state, being about changing the livery 
{Testudo Hurum, B. Hamilt. MSS., cop. Gray, Illust. 
Ind. Zool. t. ) : — " Head yellow-olive, with irregular dark 
lines. Shell light olive, vermiculated with blackish or 
dark oUve ; the four ocelli are present, but are altered in 
colour and shape ; the centre, instead of being black, is, 
like the rest of the surface, light ohve, vermiculated with 
black ; the red ring is changed to black, and the outer 
black one to light olive. The shape is changed from round 
to irregular olive. Adult {Testudo Chin, B. Hamilton, 
3ISS.) : dark olive-green, vermiculated and spotted with 
light olive-brown ; beneath greenish-white. 

" It is of fierce habits, desperately defending itself by 
biting, and emitting, when excited, a low, hoarse, cackling 
sound." — Cantor. 

The largest specimen Dr. Cantor observed at Pinang niea- 
• sured as follows : — Head 4 ; neck 4 J ; shell 23 ; tail ;> inches. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



4. Trionyx cariniferus. The Keeled Boulousse. 
Tab. XXXII. 

The front edge of dorsal disk tubercular ; tlie hinder part 
of the disk with a central keel, continued by a central series 
of close triangular acute tubercles. Olive. Head large; two 
front sternal bones very elongate, produced ; the anterior 
vertebral bone rudimental. Sternal callosities ? 

Hab. IMoluccas. 

a. Half-grown (in spirits). Yellow. Head like body ; side 
and end of disk with scattered acute tubercles. Mo- 
luccas. From the Leyden Museum. 

Trionyx, n. s., Mus. Leyden. 

? Testudo alba, Bodd. Epist. iii. 21. 

c. In spirits (like a). Amboina ; Ceram. Madame Ida 

PfeifFer's Collection. 

d, e. Young (in spirits). Olive, with small round dark 

spots ; the larger spots in three series, one down the 
vertebral line, and the others in the middle of the 
sides. Head dark above and below, s\^nmetricallv 
white- spotted, the spots of tlie occiput and those of 
the chin larger, and with a very large irregular white 
spot at the side of the neck ; back of neck and feet 
white-spotted. Amboina or Ceram. Madame Ida 
Pfeiflfer's Collection. 

/,(/. Young (in spirits) ; like d and e. Mr. Bartlett's Col- 
lection. 

Osteology : — 

i. Half-grown skeleton ; anterior vertebral bone not deve- 
loped. Java. From the Leyden Museum. 
Trionyx stellatus, 3Iiis. Leyden. 

The specimens of this species are larger than the stuffed 
example of T. Javaniriis, but yet they have no appearance 
of any sternal callosities. 



5. Ti-ionyx frenatus. The Bridled Boulousse. 
Olive-brown (in spirits). Back with numerous close 
lines of small tubercles, two central parallel, the others 
rather irregular. Head brown, with a dark streak on the 
forehead, divided behind the eyes into three broad indistinct 
diverging streaks, and one from the hps at the base of the 
proboscis through the eyes to the sides of the throat ; lips 
brown, pale-spotted ; throat pale brown, sides of the neck 
whitish. Sternal callosities 4, small. 

a. Young (in spirits). From the Museum of the Zoological 

Society. 

" Gymnopus Javanicus," Bibron, 3ISS., Miis. Zool. Soc. 

b. Half-grown female (stuffed). It contained many full- 

sized eggs ; the sternal callosities are only very 
slightly developed. Singapore. Mr. M'allace's Col- 
lection. 



This species is very like Bagonia subjjiana, but the head 
is smaller and brown-lined, and there are indications of 
four sternal tubercles. The ribs are narrower, and the 
ends of the ribs are nearer the front side of the dilated 
part, and not in the centre, as in our specimen of D. sub- 
plana. The rudiments of the sternal callosities are on each 
of the two lateral sternal bones, while in Bagonia thev are 
only found on the anterior pair. 

The young specimen was named Trionyx Javanicus by 
M. Bibron, but the head was then entirely contracted into 
the shell, so that only the tip of the nose could be seen. It 
differs from that species in the position of the dark streaks, 
and in their being much less distinctly marked. 



6. Trionyx Javanicus. The Boulousse. 

The front and hinder edge of the dorsal disk tubercular. 
Olive-green ; crown of the head with one central and two 
radiating black lines ; two front sternal bones elongate, pro- 
duced. 

Testudo Javanica, Osbeck, China, 149? 
Tyrse Javanica, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 47. 
Trionyx Javanicus, Geoff. Ann. Mus. xiv. 1.5. t. 3. 
Sckweig. Prod. 287. 

Gray, Syn. liejif. 48 ; Il/iist. Ind. Zool. t. . f. 1, 2. 
Gymnopus Javanicus, Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gni. ii. 493 ; Cat. 

Mith. R. 22. 
Potamochelys Javanicus, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 30. 
Aspidonectes Javanicus, Fitz. 

TJ'ag/er, Syst. t. 2. f. l-Il. 
Cantor, Rept. Malac. 8. 
Testudo Gataghol, B. Hamilton, Icon. ined. no. 15? cop. 

Gray. 
T. rostrata, Thunb. X. Act. Suec. riii. 179. t. 7. f. 2, 3. 
Schoepff: Test. 93. t. 20. 
Baud. Rept. ii. 77, young. 
T. cartilaginea, Bodd. Bert. Naturf. ii. 2C3. 
T. Boddaertii, Schneid. Schildk. t. I. f. 1, 2. 
T. membranacea, Blumenb. Beyt. t. 2. 
Trionyx stellatus, Geoff. Ann. Mus. xiv. 13, young. 
Boulousse, Javanese. 

Hab. Java. 

a. Half-grown? (in spirits) ; 5^ inches. India. 

b, c. Young (in spirits) ; not eyed. India. 

(/. Half-grown (stuffed). Back with irregular rugose ridges ; 
anterior bone separate ; lateral sternal callosities con- 
tracted in the middle ; hinder oblong, oblique. India ; 
Deccan. Presented by Colonel Sykes, F.R.S. 

e,f. ? Very young (in spirits); uot good state. China. 
Presented by'W. Baird, M.D. 

g, //, i. Very young (in spirits). Back eyed. India. 

j. Very j-oung (dry skin) . India. 

k. Half-grown (stuffed). First vertebral bone slightly de- 
veloped India. Capt. Boys' Collection. 

L 2 



68 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



I. Very young (stuffed). Lidia. Capt. Boys' Collection. 

m. Adult (stuffed). The first vertebral bone united to the 
other, forming one disk. Head with seven black di- 
verging rays. Lidia. Capt. Boys' Collection. 

" Very yoimy : above olive-green ; the head and upper 
part of the neck with numerous small white spots, becoming 
larger and more distant on the cheeks and cliiu ; on the 
vertex two round black spots, on the occiput two diverging 
black lines. The shell with several large black, white- 
ringed spots, between which numerous smaller indistinct 
white spots ; margin pale white ; several longitudinal ridges 
composed of close minute tubercles : beneath greenish- 
white. Older : above uniform olive green ; the longitu- 
dinal ridges of the shell consist of tubercles more distant 
and proportionally smaller than in the young." — Cantor. 

This species is numerous in ponds and rivers in Pinang. 
The largest that Dr. Cantor observed measured as follows : 
— Head 2^ ; neck 2} ; shell C|^ inches ; tail | of an inch 
Ijug. Eaten by the Chinese. 

** African. 
7. Trionyx Niloticus. The Tyrse. 

Shell rather convex, vertebral line often depressed ; back 
green, spotted with white or yellowish. Callosities 4, far 
apart, lateral, dilated internally, hinder triangular ; first and 
second vertebral bones united by a smooth suture. 

Tyrse Nilotica, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 48. 
Trionyx Niloticus, Gray, Syn. 46. 

Schleyel, Faun. Japan. 32. 
Testudo triunsuis, Forsk. 9. 

Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1039. 
Trionyx JEsvptiacus, Geoff. Egypt, i. 116. t. 1. 

Schit-eTg. Prod. 286. 

Merreni, Amph. 20. 

Gner. Icon. t. 1. f. 7. 
Gymnopus jEgyptiacus, Dum. ($■ Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 484 ; 

'Cat. Meth. it. 22. 
Trionyx labiosns. Bell. Test. t. , from life. 
Emys sen Erais, Aristot. Hist. Anim. v. 9. 
Aspidonectes ^Egyptiacus, Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30. 
Le Tyrse ou Tortue molle du Nile, Ciiv. R. A. ii. 15. 

Ilah. North Africa; Nile; Egypt; Abyssinia; W.Africa. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Anterior dorsal plate luiited to the 

others. Egypt. Presented by Turnbull Christie, 
M.D. 

c. Half-grown (in spirits). Brown, with small white specks 
on shields and body, with some series of rather larger 
specks. G. JNIassam, W. Africa. 

b. Very young (stuffed). Egyjit. Presented by Turnbull 

Christie, M.D. 

/. Young (in spirits). W. Africa. Mr. Rich's Collection. 



d. Half-grown (stuffed). Anterior dorsal plate scarcely 

united. Egypt. From the Zoological Society. 

e. Adult (stuffed). Egypt. Mr. Thornton's Collection. 

Osteology. Tab. XLIIL fig. 2, skull. 

Trionyx labiosus. Bell, Testudiaata, t. , dorsum and 

sternum. 

y. Skeleton (mounted). Egypt. Dr. Riippell's Collection. 

h. Skeleton (mounted) of smaller animal. From the Zoo- 
logical Society. 



8. Trionyx Argus. The Eyed Tyrse. 

Olive-black, with numerous pale-edged, narrow, black 
rings. Head and feet marbled with black, with a black- 
edged yellow streak from the tip of the nose to the ear, 
enclosing the eye ; lips yellow, black-edged ; nuchal bone 
transverse, separate. Sternal callosities 4 ; hinder ones 
rather distant ; anterior vertebral bone broad, with two pits 
in the suture. 

Tyrse Argus, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 48 ; Knowsley Me- 
nag. t. 

a. Half-grown (stuifed). West Africa ; Sierra Leone ? 
Presented by the Earl of Derby. 

Consult — Trionyx Mortoni, Hallowell in Proc. Acad. Sci. 
Phi/ad. ii. 120. Ilab. Africa. 



*** American. 
9. Trionyx ferox. The Fierce Trionyx. 

Thorax very depressed, with a series of spinous tubercles 
on the front edge of the back. Head with a dark-edged 
streak from nostril across the eyes to the temples. A con- 
tinued longitudinal central series of keeled spines on the 
hinder part of the back, and other smaller series of smaller 
tubercles. 

Trionyx ferox, Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iii. 93 (1830). 

Merreni, Tent. 20. 

Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 212 ; Syn. 43. 

Say, Joiirn. Acad. Philad. ii. 203. 

Schlegel, Faun. Japan, t. 5. f. a, head. 

Schweig. Prad. 285. 
Testudo ferox, Penn. Phil. Trans. Ixi. 266. t. 10. f. 5. 

Schneid. Schildk. 330. 

Schoepf. Test. t. 19. 

Shaw, Zaal. iii. 64. t. 17. f. 1. 
La Molle, Lacep. Q. O. i. 137. t. 7. 
Trionyx Georgicus, Gcaff'. Ann. Mus. xiv. 7. 
Trionyx spiniferus, Lesueur, Mem. Mus. xv. 258. t. 15. 

ilolbraak, X. A. Ilerpet. ed. 2. ii. 11. t. 1. 

Be Kay, New York, 6. t. 6. f. 11. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



C9 



Gvinnopus spiniferus, Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 477. t. 22. 

■f. 1 ; Cat. Meth. R. 22. 
Trionyx carinatus, Geo^. Ann. Mns. xiv. t. 4. 

Merrem, Tent. 21, youna;. 
Aspidonectes feiox, IVayler, Sijst. t. 2. f. 34, 3.5. 
Trionyx Biongniartii, Schweiy. Prod. i. 288. 
Freslmater Turtle, Garden. 
Fierce Turtle, Shaw. 
Testudo Boddaertii, Schneid. Leipz. Ma(/. Nat. ^ CE/cnn. 

1706, iii. 263. 
Platypeltis ferox, Fitz. Sijst. Rept. 30. 

Hab. North America ; Georgia and Florida ; New Or- 
leans. 



(I. Adult (stuffed). North America. Presented by the 
Royal Society. The specimen described and figured 
by Pennant (re-stuffed). 

b. Half-grown (iu spirits). North America. 

c. Young (in spirits ; bleached). North America. Mr. 

Frank's Collection. 

d. Very young (in spirits). Back with small dark rings. 

North America ; Wabash River. From the Paris 
Museum . 

Trion\-x ocellatus, Lesueur, Wied, Voy.Amer. Sept. iii. 242. 
Trionyx annulatus, ITled, Voy. Amer. Sept. iii. 242. 



Of all the animals of the familv of Chelomdes, they fur- 
nish the most delicious and nourishing food. — Leconte. 

M. Wagler separates Trionyx carinatus, Geoff., into a 
section of his genus Aspidonectes distinct from T. ferox, 
and he regards T. ferox, T. muticus and T. spiniferus as 
three species. — Syst. 134. 

e. Adult female. With a row of large spines in front of 
the disk. North America. Mr. W. Smith's Collec- 
tion. 

f. Adult male. Back of shell deformed, very high, almost 

conical ; front edge of disk with a series of spines. 
North America. 

g. Half-grown (stuffed). Front of disk with very small 

spines. North America. Mr. W. Smith's Collection. 

In these three specimens (e, f y) there is a greater space 
between the inner ends of the lateral callosities than in the 
one described by Pennant, but this may probably arise from 
their not being quite so adult. 



The following species are very doubtful. The first ap- 
pears to depend on a badly observed young specimen, and 
the latter most probably arises from the error of the artist 
and the describer. 



10. Trionyx muticus. The Unarmed Trionyx. 

Thorax much depressed, without any spinous tubercles 
on the front edge. 

Trionyx muticus, Lesueur, Mem. Mus. xv. 257. t. 7. 

hulbrook, N. A. He'pet. ii. 19. t. 2. 

Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 95 (1830). 

Gray, Syn. Rept. 46. 
Gymuopus muticus, Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 482. 

Hab. North Auierica ; North-western lakes and Western 
rivers. Mus. Paris. 

" I cannot however as yet consider it perfectly distinct." 
— Leconte. 

The Soft-sc.\led Turtle, Bartram, Travels, t. 2. 

Trionyx Bartrami, Baud. Rept. ii. 74. 

Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iii. 96 (1830). 
Tortue de Bartram, Cuv. R. A. n. 16. 
Testudo ferox verrucosa, Schoepjf. Hist. Test. 96. 
Chelys Bartrami, Geo^. Ann. Mus. xiv. )8. 
Trionyx ferox (3. verrucosa, Schweiy. Prod. 286. 

Hab. North America (Bartram). 

Cuvier {R.A.n. 15), I think, correctly, regards Bartram's 
figure as only a T. ferox to which the artist has given addi- 
tional claws, and some aiijjearance of dorsal shields, pro- 
bably arising from the specimen having been partially dried, 
so as to show the bones through the skin. 



4. DOGANLA.. 
Head large, broad behind. Muzzle elongate, conical. 
Lips thick. Dorsal shield flexible on the edge. Ribs 8-t^, 
not united into a solid disk until late in life. Sternum 
narrow at each end ; callosities 2, small, only attached to 
the outer processes of the front lateral sternal bones. Epi- 
sternal lines forming a V, but not contiguous at their base. 
Tail very short. 

Dogania, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 49 (1844). 

Gymnopus, sp., Bum. ly Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 497 ; Cat. Meth. 

R. 21. 
Amyda, sp., Schweiyyer. 
Amyda, Fitc. Syst. Rept. 30 (1843). 
Aspidonectes, sp., Jf'ayler, Syst. lo4. , 

1. Dogania subplana. The Dogania. Tab. XXXIII. 

Shell flattened ; disk varied with yellow, with brown 
venniculations. Head yellow-varied ; sternal tubercles 2, 
small, lateral. 

Dogania subplana, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 49. 
Trionyx subplanus, Geoff'. Ann. Mus. xiv. 11. t. 5. f. 2. 
Schweiy. Prod. 289. 



70 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



Tvionys subplanus. Gray, Syn. 48 ; Illnst. hid. Zool. t. 

Schlegel, Faun. Japon. 34. 
Gymnopus subplanus, Dum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 497 ; Cat. 

'Meth. R. 23. 
Amyda subplana, Fit:. Sysf. Rept. 30. 

Hafj. Japan. 

a. Half-grown (dry). Stemaltubercles 2, very indistinctly 
indicated, narrow. Presented by Gen. Th. Hardwicke. 

fj. Half-grown (in spirits). Head brown, minutely white- 
dotted, with a narrow brown streak from each nostril 
to the eve, and with some very indistinct brown Unes 
on the "crown ; lip brown, with larger white spots. 
Back brown, very indistinctly white-dotted. Japan. 
From ^lus. Levden. 



§§ Head elongate ; face very short ; eyes anterior. 

5. CHITRA. 
Head very depressed, large, dilated behind. INIuzzle 
very short, broad. Lips very thick. Shield Hexible on 
the edge. Ribs 8-8. Vertebral bones distinct, narrow. 
Sternum narrow at each end. Sternal callosities 4. Epi- 
sternal lines elongate, far apart, nearly parallel. Skull 
much elongated and depressed. 



Chitra, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 49 (1844). 
Gvninopus, sp.. Bum. i^ Bifj. Erp. Gen. ii. 491 
'Mefk. R. 22. 

Cantor, Cat. Rept. Malay. 10. 



Cat. 



1. CMtra Indica. The Sewteree. 
Shield much depressed, with a narrow longitudinal central 
depression ; the anterior vertebra broad, crescent-shaped ; 
anterior sternal bones short ; lateral callosities oblong, four- 
sided, with parallel sides ; hmder triangular, front edge 
straight. 

Chitra Indica, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 49. 

Trionyx Indicus, Gray, Syn. Rept. 47. 

Trionyx ^Egyptiacus, var. Indicus, Gray, Illiist. Ind. Zool. 

i. t. 80. 
Testudo Chitra, B. Hamilton, Icon. ined. 
Gymnopus lineatus, Dum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 491 ; Cat. 

'Meth. R. 22. 

Hnb. India ; Ganges ; Philippines. 

c, d. Half-grown and young. The inner edge of lateral 
callosities slightly diverging in front ; anterior sternal 
bones narrow, elongate. India. Capt. Boys' Collec- 
tion. 

a. Adult (stuffed). Philippine Islands. From Mr. Cu- 

ming's Collection. 

b. Very young (in spirits). Olive; front of shield covered 

with close round subconic warts. Head olive, minutely 



black-dotted ; throat olive, minutely white-dotted. 
Philippine Islands. 

Osteology. Tab. XLII. 

c. Skull and os hyoides (very large). Nepaul. Presented 
by H. Falconer, M.D. 

The shells of the living specimens are remarkably de- 
pressed and smooth ; above, greenish-olive, vermiculated 
and spotted with brown or rust colour ; beneath greenish- 
white. 

" At Pinang this species is frequently taken in the fishing 
stakes. The Chinese inhabitants greatly relish this, as 
well as Tyrse Javanica, as articles of food. Individuals 
weighing 240 lbs. occur in the Ganges, and others of gi- 
gantic dimensions are not uncommon at Pinang. It is very 
powerful and of ferocious habits. The largest individual 
measured: — Head 6 ; neck 5 ; shell 37 ; tail 4 inches." — 
Cantor. 



B. Pinnata. Feet pinnate. 

Chelone (Chelonia), Brongniart, Bull. Soc. Philom. 18 . 

Bnmeril, Zool. Anal. (1806). 
Chelonii, Oppel, ReptiUen (1811). 
Chelones ou Tortues marines. Baud. 
Les Tortues de mer, Llaubenton, Ency. Mith. 

Cuv. R.A. ii. 12, ed. 2. ii. 13. 
Sea Tortoises or Turtles, Shaw, Zool. 
Testudmes marinae, PI in. II. N. ix. c. 20, xxxii. c. 4. 
Testudinata pinnata, Merrem, Tent. 1 7. 

Be!l, Zool. Journ. iii. 
Testudines oiacopodes, U'agler, Syst. Amph. 133 (1820). 
Eretmochelones, Ritzen, Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. xiv. 

269 (1828). 
Thalassites ou Tortues marines, Dum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 
506 ; Cat. Meth. R. 24. 



Fam. V. CHELONIAD^ (Turtles). 

Head globose, shielded ; nostrils rather tubular. Beaks 
horny, naked. Neck short, suhretractUe. Feet very long, 
not retractile, compressed, fin-shaped ; toes depressed, ex- 
panded at the end, and often armed with flat claws ; front 
feet longest. Tail short, thick. 

Shell low, cordate, with a defined liony margin, coveretl 
with horny shields or a leathery skin. Ribs free at the 
end. Sternum rmg-like, cartilaginous in the centre, and 
only united to the thorax by a cartilaginous suture. 

Seas of torrid and temperate zones : some eating alg£e, 
as Ch. Midas, which are used for food, and imported as a 
luxurv ; others, mollusca and radiated animals, as Ch. Ca- 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



71 



reffa, only collected for their oil. The horny shields are 
used for ornamental purposes. 

CheloniadK, Grmj, Ann. Phil. x. 212 (1825). 
Chelonidse, Sivainson, Lard. Cyclop. 344. 

Bonap. Saggio Anini. Vert. 13 (1832) ; Tab. Analyt. 
11 (1836). 
Caret toides, Fit:inger, Nette Class. (1826). 
Sphars;id£e, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 212. 
Cheloiiiee, Fit:. Sy.it. Rept. 30. 
Chelonas, Wiegmann i|- Ruthe, Handh. Zoo/. 164. 
Dermatochelydae, Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30. 
Chelonise oiacopodse, TTagler. 

Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30. 
Ilalichelones, Rit:en, Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. xi%'. 269 

(1828). 
Chelonea (b), Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. 270 (1822). 
Chelonia (Tortues de mer), Brorign. 

Ciiv. R.A. ii. 12. 

Oppel, Rept. (1811). 
Caretta et Sphargis, Merrem, Tent. 17. 



Synopsis of the Genera. 

a. Shell covered with a coriaceous skin. Sphargiua. 

1. Sphargis. Shell covered with a coriaceous skin. Claws none. 

b. Shell covered with horny shields. Chelonianina. 

2. Caonana. Shell covered with 15 or more horny, truncated, 

not imbricate shields, which are strongly keeled in the young. 
First and second toes clawed. 

3. Caretla. Shell covered with l.'i horny shields, imbricate and 

produced behind. Sternum strongly keeled on each side in 
all ages. First and sometimes the second toe clawed. 

4. Chelonia. Shell covered with 13 truncated, not imbricate, 

horny shields, smooth in all ages. First linger of each fin 
clawed. 



a. Shell covered with a coriaceous shin. Sphargina. 

Sphargidfe, Grai/, Ann. Phil. x. 212 (1825). 

Bell, Zool.'journ. iii. 516 (1828). 
Dermatochelydse, Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30. 
Sphargidiiia, Bonap. Saggio Anim. Vert. 13 (1832) ; Tab. 

Analyt. 11 (1836). 
Dermatochelys, Blainv. Bull. Soc. Philom. (1816) ; Joui-n. 
de Phys. (1816). 

TVagler, Syst. 133 (1830). 
" Lesveur" fide Cuv. R. A. ed. 2. ii. 14. 
Mydse, Rit:en, Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur.xiv. 269 (1828). 



1. SPHARGIS. 

Shell cordate, depressed, deeply longitudinally grooved, 
covered with a continuous coriaceous skin. Feet long. 
Claws replaced by small coriaceous scales. Beaks strong ; 



upjier with a very distinct notch on each side of the broad 
central notch. 

Sphargis, Mer rem, Tent. 19. 

Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 212 (1825). 

Bell, Zool. Journ. iii. 516 (1828). 

Wiegmann iji- Ruthe, Handb. Zool. 164. 

Bum. f Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 560 ; Cat. Meth. R. 25. 
Coriudo, Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. 271 (1822). 

Harlan, Amer. Rept. 
Dermatochelys, Blainv. Diet. Sc. Nat. ; Journ. de Phys. 
(1816) ; Bull. Soc. Philom. (1816). 

Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30. 

" Lesuenr," Cuvier. 

TVagler, Syst. 133(1830). 
Scytuia, IVagler. 



1. Sphargis coriacea. The Luth. 
Thorax ovate, cordate, sharply three-keeled. 

Sphargis coriacea. Gray, Syn. Rept. 51. 

Dmn. ^-Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 560. t. 24. f. 2 ; Cat. Meth. 
R. 25. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. ed. 2. ii. 45. t. 6. 

DeKay, N. York, 4. t. 5. f. 9. 

Storrer, Massach. Rept. 207. t. 
Testudo coriacea, Linn. Syst. Nat. 350. 

Schneid. Schildk. 312. 

Latr. Rept. i. 58. t. 2. f. 1. 

Shaw, Zool. t. 18. f. 1. 

Lacep. Q. O. i. t. 3. 
Coriudo coriacea, Harlan, Amer. Rept. 85. 
Testudo Lyra, Donnd. 

Sphargis Mercurii, Rond. De Pise. Mar. t. 5. f. 3. 
S. mercurialis, Merrem, Tent. 19. 

Temm. F. Japon. 6. t. 1-3. 

Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 212. 
Dermatochelys atlautica, Lesueur, Cuv. R. A. ii. 14. 
Testudo tuberculata, Penn. Phil. Trans. Ixi., young. 

Schoepjf. Test. t. 29. 

Gravenh. Delic. t. 
Spinose Tortoise and Tuberculated Tortoise, Penn. 
Coriaceous Turtle, Shaw. 

Hab. Mediterranean ; Atlantic Ocean {rare) ; Cape of 
Good Hope (Horstok); Chili (Molina); North America 
{Lesuenr) ; Japan, called Jalafa {Siebold). 



Young. — Thorax black, covered with a coriaceous skin, 
divided into numerous small polygonal scales ; back 
with seven white lougitudiual ridges ; belly white, with 
rather larger regular small polygonal shields ; fore-feet 
nearly as long as the shell, wliite-edged. 

Testudo tuberculata, Gravenh. Delic. t. 

Phil. Trans. Ixi. f. 4, 5. 

Schoepf. Test. t. 29. 
Dermatochelys porcata, IVagler, Syst. 133. t. 1. f. 1, 23. 

Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30. 

a. Stuffed (adult) . England ; coast of Dorsetshire. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



h. StufFed Tadult ; not in good state). West Indies; Nevis. 
Presented by W. Cottle, Esq. 

c, d. In spirits (young). ^ 

Rondeletius {De Pise. Mar. 4.11) thought that it was 
from the bones of this animal that the ancients formed 
their lyres, and for this reason it was called the Luth by 
Lacepede ; but the remains of the Greek lyre in the British 
Museum are evidentlv formed from bones of Testudo grieca. 

A skull labelled T. coriacea, from the Pacific Ocean, 
presented by Mr. Collie to the Haslar Museum, is so like 
that of C. Midas, as not to be distinguished from it ; the 
hole of the ear appears rather rounder than in the other 
skull, but very slightly so. 



b. Shell covered with horny shields. Chelonina. 

Cheloniadse, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 212 (182.5) 

Bell, Zonl. Journ. iii. 516 (1828). 
Chelonife, TT'ief/mann ^- Ruthe, Handb. Zool. 165. 

Fifz. Sysi. Rejjf. 30. 
Chelonina, Bonap. Sagyio Anim. Vert. 13 (1832); Tub. 

Anrihjt. 11 (183fi). 
Caretta, Merrem, Tent. 17. 

Carettoe, Rit:en, Nov. Act. Acad. Nut. Cur. xiv. 269 (1828). 
Chelonia, JT'agler, Sysf. Rept. 133. 

Bum. 4'- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 538. 
Chelone, Ritze.i, Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. xiv. 269(1828). 



* The inner surface of the upper and louder jaws simply 
concave; shields thin, rather membranaceous, brittle. 
Young three-heeled. 

2. CAOUANA. 

Thorax ovate, cordate, covered with fifteen thin, trun- 
cated, not imbricated shields, which are keeled in the young. 
Head large. Jaws slightly curved towards each other at 
the tip ; side of the lower jaws covered with angular plates. 
Marginal ])lates 27 (rarely 25). Carnivorous, eating mol- 
lusca and Crustacea. 

Youny three-keeled. 

The additional ])air of discal shields occupies the side of 
the narrow first vertebral shield, the three covering the 
space occupied by the broad front vertebral shield of Che- 
lonia. 

Caouana, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 21 (1825) ; Cat. Tort. B.M. 

Thalassochelvs, Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30 (1843). 

Ilaliohelys, Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30. 

Lepidochelys, Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30. 

Caretta, sp., Merrem, Tent. 18. 

Chelonia /3, sp., TT'ayler, Syst. 133. 

Chelonees Caouanes, Bum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 552 ; Cat. 

Meth. R. 25. 
Thalassochelys, Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30. 



The skull (Cuv. Oss. Foss. t. 11. f. 1-4) broad, short ; 
forehead flat, shelving, with the nose on the slope of the 
face ; the inner surface of the bones of the jaws smooth 
(the ridges being on the homy sheath). The pterygoids 
are broad, concave, with a deep diverging groove on each 
behind, edging the very narrow linear ridge-like triangular 
part of the body of the sphenoid, which has part of the 
basilary between it. Last vertebral bone narrow, elongate, 
thick-keeled, of nearly the same width the whole length. 

The outer edge of the pterygoid bones is produced into 
a lobe in the middle : this lobe appears to diminish in size 
as the skull reaches adult age. 

The frontal (Cur. Oss. Foss. t. 11 . f. 2/) does not ap- 
pear to increase in size so rapidly as the other bones, being 
larger in comparison in the young than in the adult skulls. 

1. Caouana Caretta. The Caouanne or Loggerhead. 

Claws two on each foot ; back convex, rounded, toothed 
behind ; vertebral plates six-sided, keeled, rather longer 
than wide ; caudal plate squarish, longer than broad, hinder 
marginal plate rather wider than the rest ; costal shields of 
young keeled above. 

Caouana Caretta, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 52. 
Testudo Caretta, Linn. Syst. Nat. 351. 

fT'alb. Clielon. 4. 95. 

Schoepf. Test. t. 16 & 16 B, t. 17. f. 3. 

Show, Zool. ii. t. 23-25. 
T. cephalo, Schneid. Schildk. 303. 

Temm. Faun. Japon. 25. t. 4. f. 1, 2 ; t. 6. f. 3. 
T. Caouana, Bechst. in Lacep. i. 110. 

Baud. Rept. ii. 54. t. 16. f. 2. 
Chelonia Caouana, Schweig. Prod. 292. 

Wagler, Syst. 133. t. 1. f. 1. 23. 

Gray, Syn. Rept. 53. 

Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 544 ; Cat. Meth. R. 25. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. ii. 33. t. 4. 
Ch. virgata, JVagler, Icon. t. 29 (not Cuv.). 
Ch. pelagiorum, Valenc. Rept. Morea, t. 10. 
Testudo corticata. Rondel. 
T. marina Caouanna, Ray, Quad. Ovip. 257. 
The Loggerhead Turtle, Brown, Jam. 465. 

Catesby, Carol, ii. 40. t 40. 
La Caouanne, Labat, Voy. Amer. i. 184. 311. 

Luclp. Q. O. i. 96. 
Test, nasicornis, Lnc^p. 

Edw. Birds, t. 206. 
Rhinoceros Turtle, Shaiv, Zool. t. 14, very young. 
Thalassochelys Caouana, Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30. 

Young black ; back three-keeled ; central highest. 

Hab. Atlantic Ocean ; Azores ; Messina ; Morea ; Mar- 
tinique ; Rio Janeiro. 



a. Half-grown (in spirits). Costal shield keeled above, 
margin toothed ; not in good state. Sloane Collection. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



73 



c. Adult (stuffed). Back covered vdt\\ Chehiiobia ; hinder 

margiiiiil plates less acute ; caudal plate elongate, sub- 
trianijular. Atlantic Ocean. Modelled in the Pedi- 
ment of the Museum. 

d. Half-grown (stuffed). Hinder marginal plates acute, 

rather produced ; caudal scarcely elongated. Atlantic 
Ocean. 

ff. Half-grown (stuffed). 

h. Half-grown (stuffed). 

_;'. Very young (in spirits). Black ; centre of upper and 
hinder edge of lower beak, the prominences of the 
sternal shields, and a very narrow margin to the mar- 
ginal shields, whitish. 

m. Young (in spirits). Lost the greater part of dorsal 
plates. 

Osteology : — 

Cuv. Oss. Foss. V. 187. t. 11. f. 1-4, skull; t. 12. f. 43, 

OS hyoides ; t. 12. f. 5. 
Wagle'r, Syst. Amjyh. t. 1. f. 3, 4. 

b. Half-grown (dorsal shield only). 

e. Skull (very large). Costal shields smooth. India? 

Presented by Thomas Bell, Esq. 
Chelonia Riippellii, Grat/, B.M. 

f. Half-grown. Back and belly shielded. Coast of Devon- 

shire. Presented by J. Wilson, Esq. 
Testudo Caretta, Mag. N. H. new ser. iv. 136. 

i. Half-grown (upper shield only) . 

k. Half-grown skeleton (mounted). 

I. Skull. Ceylon. Presented by Dr. J. Davy. 

2. Caouana olivacea. The Olive Caouanne. 
Claws one on each foot ; marginal shields 27 ; back flat, 
sides rather concave, side edges expanded, slightly bent up ; 
vertebral plates narrow, elongate, longer than wide ; verte- 
bral shields very sharply keeled ; caudal plate subtriangular, 
longer than broad, much larger than the other marginal 
plates ; head moderate. 

Caouana olivacea. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 53. 
Chelonia olivacea, Esc/isc/io/fCf Zool. Atl. t. 3. 

Cantor, Cat. Rept. Malay. 13. 
Lepidochelys olivacea, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 30. 
Thalassochelys olivacea. Fit:. 'Syst. Rept. 30. 
Ch. caouana, var.. Gray, Syn. 54. 
Ch. Dussumierii, Bum. S^ Bib. Erp. G^n. ii. 557 : Cat 

Met/i. R. 25. 
Ch. subcarinata, Riipp. MS. Mus. Franc/. ? 

Hab. Indian Ocean ; Malabar ; Philippines. 

a. Very young (in spirits). Dark brown ; neck, fins, and 

under side paler brown ; without any narrow anterior 
vertebral plate (the two united I). Philippine Islands. 

b. Stuffed (adult). With a narrow anterior vertebral plate. 



" Young. Above blackish-olive, lighter than in the adult; 
shell and fin edges with pale yellow. Sternum pale green- 
ish-yellow, washed with chestnut ; areola blackish. 

" Adult. Head brown ; shell blackish-green, some of the 
marginal scales of the fins yellow. Sternum yellow, washed 
with chestnut; 27 marginal shields ; fin with one nail. 

" The shell is broad, subcordiform, its length exceeding 
its breadth by ^\, three-keeled, the vertebral keel strongest, 
dentated behind ; marginal shields 27, obliquely placed, 
the first and fourth pairs of costals and the fourth vertebral 
shield each divided into two pieces. 

" The flesh of the Chelonia olivacea, though relished by 
the Chinese settler in Pinang, is unpalatable to Europeans." 
— Cantor. 

3. Caouana elongata. The Long Caouanne. 
Shell elongate, rather flattened in the middle, convex on 
the sides, and slightly dilated and flattened upon the side 
and contracted on the hinder edges ; marginal plates 27, 
last pair much longer ; caudal plates square, large, much 
longer than broad ; vertebral plates elongate, sis-sided, half 
as long again as broad. Claws ? Head . ? 

Caouana elongata. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 53. 
Hab. ? 

a. Shell only (adult). 

** The inner surface of the jaws with an angular subcen- 
tral ridge on the upper, and a sharp ridge on the inner 
edge of the lower one. Shields thick, horny, brittle, 
imbricate. Young three-keeled. 

3. CARETTA. 
Thorax ovate, cordate, three-keeled, covered with 13 
thick, horny, keeled plates, which are produced and imbri- 
cate on their hinder edge. Muzzle elongate, compressed. 
Beaks moderate, upper edge straight, toothless, lower slightly 
recurved ; side of lower beak with a single elongated shield. 
Sternum keeled on each side. Fins each with 2 claws. 
Palate concave, broad, narrow behind ; front of upper jaw 
with a single central ridge ; lower concave, with rather 
strong ridges on the inner edge. The last vertebral bone 
broad, short, half-ovate, about as long as wide at the 
base. 

Caretta, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 53(1844). 
Chelonia (Eremochclys), Fitz. Syst. Rept. 30. 
Caretta, sp., Merrem, Tent. 17. 
Chelonia (a), Jl'ayler, Syst. 133. 

Chelone'es imbriquees, Dum. ij- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 547 ; Cat 
, Meth. R. 24. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



1. Caretta imbricata. The Caret. 

Shell subcordiform, yellow, brown-marbled ; back keeled, 
shelving, strongly toothed behind. 

Caretta imbricata. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 53. 
Chelonia imbricata, Schweig. Prod. 291. 

Gray, Syn. 25. t. 7. f. 2. 

Bum. ^-Bib. Er2). Gen. ii. 547. t. 13. f. 2; Cat. Meth. 
R. 24. 

Temm. Faun. Japon. 13. t. 5. f. 12, t. 6. f. 4. 

Cantor, Malay. Rept. 13. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herpet. ii. 39. t. 5. 
Testiido imbricata, Lhm. Syst. Nat. 350. 

Schneid. Schildk. 309. 

Shaio, Zool. iii. t. 26, 27. 

Baud. Rept. ii. 39. 

Schoepff. Test. t. 18 A. B ; t. 17. f. 1, young. 
T. Caretta, Knorr, Belie, ii. 124. t. 50. 
Chelonia mnltiscutata, Kiihl, Beytr. 78, monstrosity ? 
Ch. pseudo-Caretta, Lesson, Voy. Bel. 302. 
The Scaled Tortoise, Grew, Mus. 38. t. 3. f. 4. 

Seba, i. t. 80. f. 9. 
Eretmochelys imbricata, Fitz. Syst. Rept. 30. 

Hub. Indian Ocean ; Amboyna ; New Guinea ; Sey- 
chelles ; Havanna ; Red Sea. 



a, b. Ilalf-grown (stuffed). Shell elongate, narrow. 

d. Young (stuffed). Shell broad. 

f. Very young (stuffed). Wants one fin. 

ff. Adult (stuffed). M. Parzudaski's Collection. 

h. Adult (stuffed). Raines' Island. Presented by Capt. 
John William Ince, R.N. 

i. Half-grown (stuffed). Mr. Tucker's Collection. 

j. Half-grown (stuffed). 

k. Young (stuffed). Shell narrow. From Haslar Hos- 
pital. 

l. Young (stuffed). From the Zoological Society. 



Osteology : — 

c. Half-grown (upper shield only). 

e. Lower shield of young. 

m. Skeleton. The Paris IMuseum. 

n,o,p, q. Adult (upper shield only). 



Back of Barn Island. 



Head brown, scales edged or rayed with yellow. Shell 
yellow, marbled or rayed with rich brown. Sternum yel- 
lowish-white. 

" In the yoiiny the areola of the sternal shield black." — 
Cantor. 

" The Caret or Hawkbill Turtle is called Kookeoloo or 
Kooseomboo by the Cingalese. It is caught on the southern 
coast of the island (Ceylon), and is very abundant at Point 
de Galle and Matura. It is rare on the northern part of the 



coast. Some specimens are sold for as much as £4 ; the 
price depends on the quality of the shell (shields). It is 
said that the natives remove some of the shields while the 
animal is alive, and return it to the sea; the shields are 
said to be reproduced, but for the truth of this we cannot 
vouch. The natives eat the flesh of this Turtle, but it is 
unpalatable to Europeans." — Kelaart, Reptiles of Ceylon, 
181. 



*** The inner surface of the upper and lower jaws with 
an acute ridge, concentric with the outer edge of the 
upper and inner of the lower jaw. Shield horny, 
thick, not imbricate. Young not keeled. 

4. CHELONLA.. 

Discal shields 13, not imbricate, truncated behind. 
Muzzle short, rounded. Jaws moderate, upper slightly 
notched in front, and feebly toothed on the side, lower den- 
ticulated, with a single elongate plate upon each side. The 
front toe of each fin clawed. Feeding on alga. 

Chelonia, Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. 271 (1822). 

Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 212 (1851) ; Cut. Tort. B.M. 54. 

Belt, Zool. Journ. iii. 516. 

Fit:. Syst. Rept. 30. 
Chelonia, sp. 

Chelonia /3, sp., TTagler, Syst. 133. 
Caretta, sp., Merre?n, Tent. 18. 

Cheloutes franches, Dum. ^ Bib. Erp. Gin. ii. 538 ; Cat. 
Meth. R. 24. 

Beaks not hooked ; upper jaw with two arched ridges, 
the inner one slightly marginal, the outer one near the 
margin, and interrupted by a deep pit in front ; of lower 
jaw strongly toothed ou the edge, with a strong subcentral 
ridge, with a large conical prominence in the middle, and a 
deep pit on each side in front of it. 

The ptervgoids concave, much contracted on each side, 
in the middle broad ; they and the flattened expanded tri- 
angular part of the sphenoid form a broad concave space on 
the back of the palate. 



f The vertebral bones behind the last rib transverse, broad 
in front, divided by two cross sutures. 

Chelonia § a. Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. 54. 

1. Chelonia virgata. The Carey. 

Shell short, subtectiform, chestnut, varied with yellow 
and rayed with brown ; sides strongly arched. 

Chelonia virgata, Schweig. Prod. 291. 
Cuu.R. ^. ii. 41. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



75 



Chelonia viriiata, Guer. Icon. t. 1. f. 4. 

Dicm. ^- Bib. Eip. Gen. ii. 541 (not Wagler) ; Cat. 
Mcih. R. 24. 

Sa(/ra, Cuba Rept. 26. t. 3. 
Ch. INIidas D, Gray, Syn. 52. 
" Cb. fasciata, Cuvier" Schlegel, F. Japon. 26. 

Schoepff. Test. t. 16 B. 

Bruce, Voy. t. 42. 
Chelonia maculosa, Citv. R. A. ii. 13. 

Dum. S,' Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 544 ; Cat. Meth. R. 24. 
C. lacrymata, Cuv. R. A. ii. 13. 
C. Midas, var. ft, Gray, Syn. Rept. 32. 
C. marmorata. Bum. ^- Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. 546. t. 23. f. 1 ; 
Cat. Meth. R. 24. 

Shaw, Zool. ii. 13. t. 22, var. 

Hub. Indian Seas ; Cape of Good Hope ; New Guinea. 



/. Half-grown (stuffed). Wants some plates. Dr. Man- 
tell's Collection. 



Osteology : — 

a. Young (upper shield only) . Vertebral shields broader 

than long. Atlantic Ocean. Presented bv W. Eling, 
Esq. 

b. Adult (stuffed). Vertebral shield longer than broad. 

South America. 

c. Half-grown (upper shield only). Vertebral shields ra- 

ther longer than broad. South America ? 

d. Half-grown (upper shield). Vertebral shield rather 

broader than long. 

e. Half-grown (upper shield). Vertebral shield as broad 

as long. From Haslar Hospital. 

h. Adult. Upper shield very dark-coloured. 
g. Half-grown skeleton. 



Young ? Black or greenish-olive ; chin, under side, broad 
edge of shell and fin, and the base of the hinder fin, 
white. 

a. Very young (stuffed). Margin of the shell and fin 
white. China. Presented by J. E,. Reeves, Esq. 

h. Very young (in spirits). Neck whitish. 

c, d, e. Very young (in spirits). 

f, g, h. Very young (in spirits). 

»'. Very young (stuffed). From the Zoological Society. 

" Young. Head, shell and fins greenish-black ; margin 
of the shell and fins and sternum white. 

" Adult. Head and fins chestnut, scales edged with yel- 
low. Shell greenish-yellow, with chestnut rays and spots. 
Sternum gamboge or greenish-yellow. 

"This species, the 'Pinyu' of the Malays of Pinang, is 



at all seasons plentifully taken in the fishing stakes in the 
Straits of Malacca, and is the ' Green Turtle ' of the Euro- 
pean inhabitants of our Malayan settlement and of the sea- 
ports of India. In size it equals Chelonia Midas, Schweig. 
(of the Atlantic), which it rivals in flavour. About De- 
cember and January is the season when the female deposits 
her eggs in the sandy beach of some sequestered island, 
and then the fishermen watch during the moonlight nights 
to ' turn turtles.' The eggs are of a spherical shape, 
about one inch in diameter, covered with a soft hemitrans- 
parent membrane of a pale yellowish colour. The expert 
eye of the fisherman baffles the pains with which the turtle 
conceals her eggs, and prodigious numbers are disinterred. 
They are very rich-flavoured, like marrow, and will keep 
for weeks although exposed to the air." — Cantor. 

" The breadth of the fronto-nasal shield in Chelonia vir- 
gata is only one-third of the length, whereas in Chelonia 
Midas it is one-half, and these proportions appear to be 
constant in all ages of the two species. The very young 
of both greatly resemble each other in colour and shape. 
Six liy-ing young were all of the following dimensions : — 
Head ^ ; neck j ; shell 2 ; tail \ of an inch ; and they pre- 
sented the following peculiarities : — 

" The shell cordiforin, the length exceeding the breadth 
by one-eighth ; the second vertebral shield much broader 
than the first, and altogether the largest of the series ; the 
second costal shield larger than the third ; the breadth of 
the fronto-nasal shield one-third of the length. Each fin 
with a single claw." — Cantor. 

"This Turtle (^Chelonia virc/ata) is found all round the 
island (Ceylon), and is very numerous in the Trincomalie 
Harbour for several months in the year ; a good-sized one 
can be bought for 6d., a very large one for \s. 6d. to 2s. The 
flesh of this Turtle is not far behind in flavour that of the 
well-known Green Turtle (Chelonia Mydas), so famous for 
making the T\irtle soup. The female lays from 100 to 200 
eggs of a globular shape, with a soft semitransparent cal- 
careous shell, which are much prized as articles of food by 
natives and Europeans. A native will consume as many as 
20 or 30 eggs at one meal, and we have seen Europeans eat 
a dozen for breakfast." — Kelaart, Reptiles of Ceylon, 181. 



ff The vertebral bones behind the last rib narrow, linear 
or vase-shaped, attenuated behind. 

Chelonia §**, Grai/, Cat. Tort. B.M. 54. 
Chelonia, Fit:. Sy'st. Rept. 30. 

2. Chelonia viridis. The Green Turtle. 
Shell subrotundiform, rather elongate, olive-green, when 

M 2 



76 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



dry fulvous, with brown spots ; back rounded ; vertebral 
shields hexagonal, nearly as long as broad. 

Chelonia viridis, Temm. Fawn. Japan. 18. t. 4. f. 4-6 ; t. 6. 

f. 1, 2. 
Testudo viridis, Schneid. Schildk. 309. t. 2. 
Testudo Mydas, Lati: Kept. i. 22. t. 1. f. 1. 

Baud. Bept. ii. 10. t. 16. 

Schoepf. Test. t. 17. f. 2. 
Chelonia Midas, Schweig. Prod. 291. 

Gray, Syn. 52. 

Bum. Sf Bib. Erp. Gen. ii. .538. 

Holbronk, N. Amer. Herpet. ii. 25. t. 3. 
Caretta esculenta, Merrem, Tent. 18. 
Testudo Japonica, Thunb. 
Testudo Thunbergii, Merrem, Tent. 19. 
T. Cepedienne, Baud. Bept. ii. 50. t. 17. f. 1. 
Chelonia Mydas, Gray, Ann. Phil. x. 212. 
Chelonia esculenta, Wiegm. ^- Buthe, Handb. Zoo!. 164. 

Hab. Atlantic Ocean ; North America ; Rio Janeiro ; 
Ascension ; Guiana ; India ; Bourbon ; New Holland. 

a, b. Half-grown (stuffed). Brazils. 



Osteology : — 

Chelonia ?, Cuv. Oss. Foss. v. t. 13. f. 2, 3, back ; v. 

206. t. 13. f. 6, sternum ; t. 12. f. 15 & 39, hand and 

foot. 
Testudo mydas, Spix, Cephal. t. 1. f. 5 ; t. 2. f. 5, skull. 
Caouane, Bojanus, Parergon. f. 192-195. 

c. Skull of young; weighed 66 lbs. From Dr. Mautell's 

Collection. 

d. Head, with the shields. 

(?,/. Skulls of adult; weighed 375 lbs. Ascension. Pre- 
sented by — Wauds, Esq. 

g. Skull of adult. Imperfect: discoloured. 



Tomig 1 Blackish-brown, keeled ; chin, under surface and 

narrow edge of shell and fins brownish-white. 

a, b, c, d. Very young (in spirits). Ascension. Presented 
by Capt. Sir Edward Belcher. 

e. Very young (in spirits). Sternal plates 6. Ascension. 

Presented by Capt. Sir Edward Belcher. 
/. Very young (in spirits). First vertebral plate irregular. 

Ascension. Presented by Capt. Sir Edward Belcher. 

g, h. Very young (in spirits) . Vertebral plates irregular, 
6 or 7. Ascension. Presented by Capt. Sir Edward 
Belcher. 

i. Very young (in spirits). Costal plates 5 • 5 ; last ver- 
tebral narrow. Ascension. Presented by Capt. Sir 
Edward Belcher. 

j, k. Very young (in spirits). Plates normal. Ascension 
Island. From H.M.S. Chanticleer. 

/. Very young (dry). 

The skulls differ considerably in the convexity of the 
forehead, and they offer two distinct peculiarities, which 
may indicate two species or the two sexes. 

In one form, of which I have examined four skulls of 
different ages, the width at the condyles of the upper jaw 
is the same as the distance from the edge of the vertebral 
condyle to the front edge of the palatine opening. 

In the other variety, of which I have examined five, all 
adult, skulls, the width of the condyles of the jaw is 
considerably more (half an inch) than the above-named 
distance. In the Chelonia Caretta the width of this part 
is very much greater than the space above named. 

I may observe that in the youngest skulls of the first 
variety the condyles are narrowest, so that part of this dif- 
ference may depend on the age of the skulls, which appear 
to become broader and shorter as they become older. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



APPENDIX. 



Page 3, add — 

Mr. John Leconte proposes a new arrangement of the 
Order into four great families. He observes : " I owe this 
arrangement in a great degree to the suggestions of my 
son." 

Fam. I. Pedes penniformes. Sternum esse episternali 
postice producto. 1. Chelonia. 2. Sphargis. 

Fam. II. Pedes compressi, ungulati. Sternum scuto 
singulo (abdominali) alato, alarum marginibus non inflexis. 

A. Sternum osse episternali postice producto. l.Chelydra. 

2. Stma-ofi/pus. 3. Trionyx. 4. Emyda. 

B. Sternum plus minus uni- vel bivalve ; osse episternali 

maximo entosternali obsolete (in pullis rudimentali) 
alis a scuto abdomiuah solum projectis. 1. Kino- 
sternon. 

Fam. III. Pedes ungulati, plerumque compressi. Ster- 
num scutis duobus alatis (pectorali abdominalique) alarum 
marginibus, excepta Cistudinse fortiter inflexis scutis cau- 
dalibus duobus distinctis. 

a. Sternum scutis 11 s. 12 tectum. Ungulus 5*5, 4 • 5, 
4 • 4 vel 4 ■ 3. 1 . Emys. 2. Platysternon. 3. Tele- 
ojrits. 4. Lutremys. 5. Cistudo. 

/3. Sternum scutis 13 tectum. 6. Chelys. 7 . Chelodina. 
8. Sternofhcenis. 9. Pentonyx. 10. Plutemys. 11. 
Podocnemis. 

Fam. IV. Terrestres. Corpus scutatum. Sternum ala- 
tum, scuto laterah osseo, alarum marginibus fortiter in- 
flexis. Pedes clavati, ungulati. Scutum caudale uunquam 
divisum vel stria superiore perpendiculari fortiter impressa 
quam in partes duas secari videtur. 1 . Testudo. 2. Pyxis. 
3. Homopus. 4. Kinixys. — Proc. Acad. Nat. Set. Pkilad. 
vii. 1854. 



1. Manouria fusca (p. 15), add — 

Teleopus luxatus, Leconte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 
vii. 187, Oct. 1854. 

" Upper jaw with three rows of serrated teeth ; the 
lower with two, the outer one the finest. Toes and claws 
5 • 5 ; fore claws long and rather sharp ; hind feet clavate. 



Claws nearly globular, the innermost one vride and flat, the 
edge rather sharp. 

" Inhabits Java ; and must from its shape be terrestrial 
in its habits. 

" It possesses a strange mixture of the characters of this 
family with those of the next." — Leconte, I. c. 187. 

Geoclemys Seba (p. 18). 

Dr. Kelaart believes that Geoclemys Seba (p. 18) is the 
young of Emys trijuga (p. 20), the difference in the form of 
the shell and the spotting on the head depending on the 
age of the specimens. I have never seen the young E. tri- 
juga, the adult G. Seba, nor any specimens in an inter- 
mediate state of growth. I may observe that the fore feet 
of Emys trijuga show its affinity to the genus Geoclemys, 
though the skull is that of an aquatic Emys. 

16. Emys Holbrookii (p. 25), add — 

a. Adult (in spirits). North America ; Mississippi. Mr. 
Brandt's Collection. 

The lower jaw rather flattened. 

To doubtful North American Emydes (p. 28), add — 

24*. Emys nigra. 

Emys nigra, Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. vii. 
96 (1854). 

" Shell oblong ovate, slightly compressed at the sides and 
emarginate, but not distinctly serrated posteriorly ; latero- 
posterior margins of carapace everted ; nuchal plate narrow, 
truncate anteriorly, broader posteriorly ; 24 marginal plates, 
the two posterior more or less quadrilateral, the two adjoin- 
ing pentagonal. Colour blackish above, the upper part of 
the head and neck presenting numerous very small yellow 
spots upon a black ground ; anterior extremities with a 
tinge of yellow ; under jaw and throat yellow, with dark- 
coloured markings ; plastron yellow in the middle, with 
large blotches of black and dark brown at the sides and 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



anteriorly and posteriorly ; under surface of tail and ex- 
tremities thickish ; tail of moderate length. 
Hah. Lower California ; Possa Creek. 

Length of carapace G^ inches." — HaUoweU. 

M. Leconte observes : " In the English Catalogue (of 
the British Museum) are described E. rivulata, E. scripta, 
E. HolbrooJtii, E. macrocephala and E. Bennettii. Not 
having these, and knowing that the descriptions must have 
been taken from dried and faded specimens, or from such 
as were bleached by long immersion in alcohol, I do not 
hesitate to pronounce them as having no real existence as 
distinct species, or at most as being slight variations from 
others well known and long ago determined." — Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phihtd. vii. 190. 

The figures in this work will show the evil of making 
such general assertions without examining the specimens on 
which the species are founded, and also that not one of 
them was described from either faded or bleached specimens. 

26. Emys geographica (p. 29), add — 

h. Adult (in spirits). Head with symmetrical concentric 
vellow lines ; frontal streak distinct ; temporal spot 
triangular, distinct. Sliell olive, witli several rather 
irregularly disposed irregular-shaped narrow pale rings, 
united Ijy anastomosing pale lines on each siiield ; the 
marginal plates with anastomosing angular narrow 
lines ; back bluntly keeled, the keel becoming narrower 
and more continued behind. Sternum yellow, with a 
dark margin to the inner edge of the hinder shields, 
and dark edges to the stcrno-costal symphysis and the 
axillary and inguinal plates ; the under side of the 
margin yellow, with a small oblong annulatcd spot on 
the hinder outer angle of the shield, and a small arched 
streak on the outer part of the front edge, com^ileting 
the outline of the spot on the preceding shield, so as 
to render the sjiot subsutural, thus showing a ]iassage to 
the species of the preceding division. North America ; 
Lake Champlain. Mr. Brandt's Collection. 

" Clemmys reticulata, Bnm. ^- Bib." 

This specimen agrees with Dr. Ilolbrook's figure oi Emys 
(jeographica. 

27. Emys pseudogeographica (p. 29), add — 

d. Half-grown (in spirits). The markings on the dorsal 
shield indistinct until the shields are removed. Ster- 
num dark varied, and with broad dark margins to the 
shields ; the lateral processes and the sterno-dorsal 
symphysis witli dark-edged pale irregular streaks. 
Head and throat with numerous narrow crowded black 
streaks. North America ; Mississippi. Mr. Brandt's 
Collection. 

" Emys geographica. Fits." 



30. Emys rugosa (p. 31), add — 

e. Adult (in spirits). Head olive-dotted and vermiculated 
with black, with a broad unspotted streak from the 
back of the orbit over the temple ; throat blackish 
streaked. Sliell olive above, bright red bencatli, with 
a broad black edge to all the plates ; the costal plate 
rugose ; the under side of tlie lateral marginal plates 
with an indistinct squarish ring round tlie marginal 
band, on the suture of two neighbouring shields ; 
legs olive-green, bandless ; webs very large, scaly ; 
claws elongate, subulate, nearly straight. " North 
America ; Mississippi." Mr. Brandt's Collection. 
(Dec. 1855.) 



31. Emys scabra (p. 31). 
The colouring of the head of this species slightly varies. 
There are two living in the Zoological Gardens : — 

1 . The spot before the eyes and the streaks on the back 
of crown and nape broad and continuous. 

2. Tlie spot in front of the eyes very narrow, linear and 
transverse ; the streak on the crown and nape narrow, in- 
terrupted in front so as to leave a spot in front of it, and 
with a small pair of narrow diverging streaks behind the 
others on the back of the neck. (Dec. 1855.) 



2. Chrysemys BeUii (p. 33), add — 

a. Adult (in spirits). Lateral angles of the vertebral plates 

central ; back olive, speckled and vermiculated with 
black lines, with a short subsymmetrical black-edged 
pale line near the centre of each discal shield. Ster- 
num black-varied. North America ; Mississippi. Mr. 
Brandt's Collection. 

"Emys marmorata, Wagler." — Brandt. 

b. Adult (in spirits). Like former, but sternal mark more 

indistinct. North America; Mississippi. Mr. Brandt's 
Collection. 

" Emys Oregonensis, Fit:" — Brandt. 



3. Pseudemys serrata (p. 34). 

Shell of live animal dark ; the costal shields divided in 
half by a broad transverse red band, rest subannulated. 
Under side bright red, as figured by Holbrook. Very active 
and vicious. Zool. Gardens. (Dec. 1855.) 

M. Leconte regards Emys serrata, Say, E. rubriventris, 
Lecoate, E. irrigata, Dumeril, and E. rugosa, Shaw, as 
synonyms of the same species, observing that it varies very 
much, but the essential character is the dentation of the 
jaws. 

M. Leconte considers, certainlj' erroneously, Emys ornata 
and E. annulifera as synonyma of E. hieroglyphica of 
Holbrook. 



CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES. 



79 



1. Cistudo Carolina (p. 39). 

M. Leconte erroneously cousitlers the variety C. Blan- 
dingii of Holbrook as synonymous with Lutretnys Melea- 
gris, a European species. — Jouni. Acad. Philad. vii. 189. 

M. Leconte, not having seen C. Mexicana, refers it as a 
variety of C. Carolina with doubt. 



14. KINOSTERNON (p. 43). 

In the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia for 1854, vol. iii. no. 5. p. 183, there is a 
paper by John Leconte, entitled " Descriptions of Four 
Species of Kinosternon" read on the 31st October 1854. 
The genus is divided into three groups, thus : — 

I. Consisting of those with bivalve sterna ; the valves 
joined to the abdominal piece by ligamentous hinges. 

1. K. longicaudatmn, Spix, Bras. 17. t. 12. 

2. K. scorpoides. Surinam. 

3. K. Mexiconum. Testa ovali, valde convexa, fusco-lu- 
tescente vel nigricante ; dorso fortiter tricarinato, margine 
undique decHvi, scutis vertebralibus secundo, tertio et quarto 
elongatis. Sterno utrinque rotundato, integerrimo ; cauda 
unguiculata. Mexico. 

4. K. integrum. Testa fusca, regulari, ovali, convexa, 
carinata, declivi, margine postice dispanso, laterali perpen-' 
diculari. Sterno magno, bivalvi, cistani omnino occludente, 
antice rotundato, postice paulo emarginato ; cauda brevis- 
sima, mutica. Mexico. 

5. K. lexicostomum, Dumcril, Mus. Acad. 

II. Anterior valve of sternum joined to the abdominal 
portion by a ligament and partly by a suture, the posterior 



by suture only ; wings tolerably long, with a deep divided 
groove on the anterior part. 

6. K. Pennsylvanicum. From Canada to Florida. 

7. K. Sonoriense. Testa modice convexa, postice latiore, 
antice et postice declivi, margine antice et postice dispanso, 
medio declivi, dorso indistincte tricarinato, carina intermedia 
vertebrali evidentiore ; alarum canali leviter exarata, prope 
rudimentali ; cauda unguiculata. Tacson in Sonora. The 
shell much less elevated than any other species. 

III. Sternum narrow, subcruciform ; valves joined to the 
abdominal portion of the chest by sutures, the lateral teeth 
of which are so large as to admit of but little motion, 
especially in the posterior one ; wings long and narrow, 
without any groove on the inner part. Tail unarmed. 

8. K. odorutum. From New York to Florida. 

9. K. guttatum. Testa ovali, dorso subtricarinato, fla- 
vida fusca maculata, margine undique postice valde declivi, 
minims expanso. Sterno flavescente, angusto, antice trun- 
cate, postice late emarginato, femoribus et cruribus seriebus 
pai5illarum latere interiore echinatis ; cauda mutica. Penn- 
sylvania. 

As I have not seen the species here described as new, I 
can give no opinion on their distinctness. A'. Pennsylva- 
nicum, from the description of the young, is evidently the 
species I have described under that name, but the other 
descriptions do not appear to be intended for the new spe- 
cies I have described ; at least the characters on wliich I 
have founded the species are not observed. 

K. guttatum, which is described as subcarinate, is evi- 
dently not the Aromochelys cai-inatum of this work. 

M. Leconte considers K. Doubledayii, from the descrip- 
tion given, to he a distinct species. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Tab. Page 

I. Testudo Horsfieldii 7 

II. Kinixys Belliana 13 

III. Manouria fusca 16 

IV. Emys trijuga 20 

V. Geoclemys Reevesii (Emys Reevesii on Plate) 18 

VI. Emys nigricans 20 

VII. Emys sinensis 21 

VIII. Emys Bealii 21 

IX. Emys laticeps 23 

X. Emys Bennettii 22 

XI. Emys rivulata 27 

XII. Emys ornata 24 

XII. A. Emys venusta 24 

XII. B. Emys callirostris 25 

XII. C. Emys olivacea 30 

XIII. Emys rugosa, var. 3. (Emys venniculata) 31 

XIV. Emys ventricosa 28 

XIV. A. Emys dorsalis 32 

XV. Fig. 1. Emys Holbrookii, jmi. (E. sanguinolenta) 25 

Fig. 2. Emys nigricans, jun. (E. mutica) 21 

XVI. Batagur Baska 35 

XVII. Batagur lineata (Emys lineata) 35 

XVIII. Batagur Dhongoka 36 

XIXv Cyclemys dentata 42 

XX. Kinosternon Doubledayii 45 

XX. A. Aromochelys carinatum 47 

XX. B. Stavirotypus triporcatus 47 

XX. C. Fig. 1. Kinosternon Pennsylvanicum, jun 45 

Fig. 2. Kinosternon Hippocrepis, jun 46 

Fig. 3. Kinosternon pmictatmn, jun 45 

XXI. Dermatemys Mawii 49 

XXII. Sternothaerus Derbianus 52 

XXIII. Hydraspis raniceps 55 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Tab. Page 

XXIV. Chelodina oblonga 58 

XXV. Fig. 1 . Emys pulcherrima 25 

Fig. 2. Chelodina sulcifera 59 

XXVI. Hydromedusa depressa 60 

XXVII. Podocnemis expansa 61 

XXVIII. Podocnemis Dumeriliana 62 

XXIX. Cyclanosteus Petersii 64 

XXIX. A. Emyda Ceylonensis 64 

XXX. Trionyx Rafeht 65 

XXXI. Trionyx perocellatus 65 

XXXII. Trionyx cariniferus 67 

XXXIII. Dogania subplana 69 

OSTEOLOGY. 

XXXIV. Testudo plauiceps 6 

XXXV. Fig. 1. Testudo ludica, jun 6 

Fig. 2. Testudo tabulata 5 

Fig. 3. Emys ? (undetermined) 

XXXVI. Fig. 1. Batagur Dhongoka 36 

Fig. 2. Emys decussata. 30 

XXXVII. Fig. 1. Podocnemis expansa 61 

Fig. 2. Emys trijuga (E. subtrijuga) 20 

XXXVIII. Fig. 1. Chelydra serpentina 48 

Fig. 2. Macroclemys Temminckii 49 

XXXIX. Macroclemys Temminckii 49 

XL. Fig. 1. Macroclemys Temminckii 49 

Fig. 2. Chelydra serpentina 48 

XLI. Chitra Indica 70 

XLII. Fig. 1 . Trionyx Gangeticus 66 

Fig. 2. TrionjTC Niloticus 68 



TiIdI 






JardATieat.Liflio^FlieTa F4, rlstiar. '^^ardmi. 



TESTUDO HORSFIELDIl 



TaloH. 







GHPora.hLhiJn 



Rard Jr Wert Lulio^phers.Si.Haitim Gaidm 



KINYJfIS BELLI ANA 



-ESTUDINID.^ 




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O-H Fnra 



F<reit.Gea?ge,L!l}io|r6.ph«-. HitinalJsrd.p 



MANOURIA FUSCA, 



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PesiiWes^, Llthcjiajiiers 5^ .naUxa Oxi^eai. 



EMYS TRIJUGA. 



EMYDID.-S 




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EMYS REF.VESII 






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EMYS NIGRACANS. 



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EMYS SINENSIS 




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EMYS BEALIl 




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TaL IX 




C,H,Poiii>0) »di»t 



EMYS LATICEPS, -ns (GamVia) 



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EIv'IYDIDtE 





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EMYS BENNETTII 



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^ad 6i jeor^t IjiC>o|r».pKsrs,H»tt!iit Gii^Bi. 



EMYS P.IV^ULATA 




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EM^/S ORMATA a.dult 



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EMYS VENUS TA 



TabXHB 




?ardS.Was. lap 



EMYS CALLOR-OSTRIS 




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EMYS OLIVACEA, 



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EMYS VERMICULATA 






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EMYS VENTRICOSA 






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AROMOCHELYS CARINATA 




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1 2. Kll-IOSTER-KON PENNSYLVANICUM, JUNIOR 

3 4, :__ HIPPOCREPIS. JUNIOR 

5g PUNCTATUM, JUNIOR 



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CHELODINA OBLONGA 



TabXX7^ 







GEFariLuK. 



FordJl'West Iny 



1 EMYS PULCHERRIMUS^ 2. CHELODINA SULCIFERA 



"4» 



lab.XXVI, 




KiH,*W?_'.t Irt^i 



HYDROMEDU3A DEPRESSA 






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PODONEMIS EXPANSA 



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EMYDA CEYLONENSIE 




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TESTUDO INDICA,'>'n.-ing 2 TE5TUDO TABIILATA 3 EMYt 



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Tab XXXVI 





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LBATAGUR DHOInGOKA 2. EMYS DF.CUSSATA 




TabJDOLVII 




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1 PODONEMIS EXPANvSA 2 EMYS SUBTRLJ'JGA 



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rabfflXIX 





MACRO CHELYS TEMMINCKU 



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Tab XL 







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vii^' 



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IMACROCHELYS TEMMINCKH 2 CHELYDRA SERPENTINA 



TabXLL 





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A 



pwcSWcs'l W 



CHITRA INDICA 



Td.bXLlI 




;;angkticl;s. 2 trionyx 



18 



i 



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