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The chief object in preparing the present Catalogue has been to give a complete account 
of all the species of Eniydosanrians, Rhynchocephalia, and Amphisbsenians now in the Britisli 
Museum, and of those species which are known to exist m other Cabinets, but wliich arc 
at present desiderata in the Museum, to enable travellers, collectors, and others to assist in 
completing the National Collection. 

The woodcuts are those which were prepared to illustrate the series of papers on the 
arrangement and determination of the species of these animals first published in the ' Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society,' and have been kindly lent by the Council of the Society 
for the purpose. 


British Museum, September 7th, 1872. 

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Fam. I. GAVIALID^ 5 

Gen. 1. Gatialis 5 

gangeticus 5 

Gen. 2. Tomistoma 6 

Schlegelii (j 


Gen. 1. OopHOLis 8 

porosus 8 

pondicherianus 9 

Gen. 2. Bombifron^s 9 

indicus 9 

siamensis 13 

Gen. 3. PALnaA 13 

rhombifera 13 

Moreletii 14 

Gen. 4. Ceocodiltjs 14 

vidgaris 15 

Gen. 5. Molinia I7 

americana 17 

intermedia 18 

Gen. 6. Halceosia 19 

nigra 20 

Gen. 7. Mecistops 21 

cataphractus 22 



Gen. 1. Jacaee 25 

nigra 25 

latirostris 25 

multiscutata 26 

longiscutata 2G 

ocellata 26 

punetulata 26 

hirtieoUis 27 

Gen. 2. Catman 27 

trigonatus 28 

palpebrosus 28 

Gen. 3. Ailigatoe 28 

mississipiensis 29 

helois 29 


Gen. 1. Sphenodon 30 

punctatum 30 

Order AMPHISB.a;NIA 31 


Gen. 1. Trogonopeis 33 

Wiegmanni 33 

Fam. II. CHIROTID^ 33 

Gen. 1. Chieotes 34 

lumbrieoides 34 




Tribe I. Amphisb^xina 34 

Oen. 1. BL.\srs 34 

cinorcus 34 

Lrcii. 2. Anvtnsn.fsx 34 

alba 35 

americana 35 

eamura 35 

hett'rozonata 35 

petnei 35 

Tcrmicularis 35 

Darwinii 30 

jilumbea . . 30 

Uoii. 3. CrxiscA 36 

leucura 36 

violacea 36 

quadrifrons 36 

Gen. 4. Bronia 37 

brasUiana 37 

Gen. 5. Sarea 37 

caeca 37 

innocens 37 

fenestrate 38 


Gen. 6. Cadea 38 

punctata 38 

Tribe II. Anopina 38 

Gon. 7. Anops 38 

Kingii 38 

Gen. 8. Baikia 38 

africana 39 


Tribe I. Lepidosternina 39 

Gen. 1. Lepidosternon 39 

microcophaluni 39 

Grayii 40 

phoca3na 40 

octostegum 40 

Tribe II. Cephalopeltina 40 

Gen. 2. Cephalopeitis 40 

scutigera 40 

Gen. 3. Monoieophis 41 

capensis 41 

Gen. 4. Dalophia 41 

Welwitschii 41 





Emydosauri, Blainville. 

Gray, Ann. Phil. x. p. 195, 1825; Cat. Tortoises and 
Crocodiles Brit. Mws. p. 38, 1844. 
Crocodilia, Owen, Beport on British Fossil Eeptiles, Report 
of Brit. Assoc. 1841, p. 65. 

Huxley, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. iv. p. 1. 

Head large, covered witli a thin skin ; ears linear, closed 
with two valves ; gape wide ; tongue short ; jaws with a 
single series of conical teeth inserted in sockets and re- 
placed by teeth formed beneath them ; hinder part of the 
lower jaw produced behind the condyle ; nostrils small, 
anterior ; eyes small. Throat with two glands. Neck 
and sides of the body with a wrinkled skin, covered with 
small tubercular scales. Back with a hard disk, formed 
of longitudinal series of square, keeled, bony plates im- 
bedded iu the skin ; under surface covered with smooth, 
thin, square plates ; back of the neck with two groups of 
bony plates, the first called the nuchal, and the other the 
cervical plates. Tail compressed, with two series of com- 
pressed plates above. Vent longitudinal. Legs short ; 
feet webbed ; toes 4-5, but only the inner 3 of each foot 

Living in fresh and brackish water ; almost exclusively 
in tropical climates. Eating animals which they have 
killed by drowning. 

The distinction of the species of Crocodiles has hitherto 

been one of the difficult problems in systematic zoology ; and 
therefore I believe that it may be of some slight use to give 
the result of the examination of the very large collection 
of Crocodiles of all ages and from various localities which 
are contained in the British Museum. Knowing the diffi- 
culty that surrounds the subject, great exertions have been 
made to obtain specimens from dilFerent countries ; and 
the examination of these specimens has shown that the 
characters of the species, when allowance is made for the 
changes that take place in the growth of the animal, are 
quite as permanent as in any other group of Reptiles, and 
not more difficult to define. 

An outline of the synopsis of theCrocodUidie and Alligato- 
rida; was published in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History ' for 1862 (3rd series, vol. x.). Since that period 
additional specimens have been examined which have been 
received in the British Museum, and also those in other 
collections, especially the skulls in the museum of the Eoyal 
College of Surgeons, the specimens in the two museums at 
Liverpool, and in other local collections within reach. 
Among the specimens recently received by the British 
Museum are some typical skulls from the Dutch possessions 
iu the East, obtained from Leydeu, which enable us to 
determine with certainty the species described by the Dutch 

The determination of the species has always been at- 
tended with considerable uncertainty ; and if we may 


jiiilgo by the mnnner in which the specimens and the 
skulls of them iirt- iiiiuicd in Museums, or sent about by 
the more seietititie dealers, it would appear that us j'ot 
they arc not projH'rly understoi«l. 

1 do not mean as to the piveise limit of a sjiecies — that 
is to say, whether the specitneus from ditl'erent distriets of 
the same zoological or gcograi)hic!d province are mere local 
varieties of the same species or are dislinot : for that is a 
()uestion which I admit must, with the materials at our 
command, for the present remain unsolved and open to dis- 
cussion. But it is not unusual to find most distinct species 
confused midcr the same name, and specimens of the same 
species, only diflerent in age, separated uuder two or more 

I have endeavoured to condense into a short synopsis the 
principal leading characters, especially those t'uniislied by 
the esamination of the skull and the nuchal and dorsal 
idates, by which the different species of Crocodiles and 
Alligators may be most easily determined, the object being 
to furnish the zoologist with the best character to distin- 
guish the different species of Crocodile and Alligator with- 
out any pretence of giving an account of the comparative 
anatomy or osteology of the species. I make this state- 
ment, as confusion arises in the student's mind between 
the object of the studies of the two branches of the science, 
both equ;dly important ; but the one ought to be based on 
the examination and comparison of the largest possible 
number of specimens and species, while the most impor- 
tant papere on comparative anatomy are often those which 
arise from the examination of a single example of the 

There is a prejudice against such short essays ; and 
they incur the reproach of certain continental and native 
naturalists ; but after considering their objection and their 
practice, I am still of opinion that papers of the kind are 
far more useful to the working naturalist than the long 
descriptions of species which it is the custom of these natu- 
ralists to prepare, when their descriptions, instead of merely 
presenting the character of the species under consideration, 
give in full detail under each species (so as to hide in a 
mass of words the characters which you are looking for) 
the character of the genus or even of the famUy or order 
to which the species belongs. MacLeay weU observes, " The 
modem art of describing is too long, often insufferably long, 
whde human life remains as short as ever " (Illustr. Zool. 
S. Africa, p. 54). 

I know by experience that sjTioptical papers take far 
more mental and bodily labour to prepare than the descrip- 
tion of a single specimen, often taken at haphazard and 

regiu-ded as the typo of a species because it presents some 
striking peculiarities of apjiearance. 

Tins memoir, short as it is, is the result of the examina- 
tion and repeated reexamination at different periods of 
more than two hundred specimens of Crocodiles, — a series 
of the most characteristic specimens of each species having 
been laid out so that they could bo viewed and studied 
together at leisure, and their peculiarities and likenesses 
noted down. 

If nil the notes made during these comparisons were 
printed, as is the custom with many naturalists, they would 
fill man)' pages, and thus make a large work. Many papers 
and books are estimated by their size rather than by the 
extent of labour that has been bestowed upon them ; while 
the results of much labour and careful study, condensed 
into a few pages, are often spoken of by critics, who never 
undertook such researches, or who dislike the labour of con- 
densing their observations into systematic order, as merely 
the short notes of a hasty examination : at least that is the 
way in which some papers, which were the results of 
equally extensive examinations, have been regarded by 
naturalists who should have known better. 

I may further observe that even after so much study, 
when new specimens have been accumulated and with 
additional experience, one finds peculiarities overlooked and 
facts requiring verification when the old and newly ac- 
quired specimens are submitted to a reexamination and 
study. It is this experience that makes me inclined to 
place less reliance than other naturalists upon essays pre- 
pared by persons who come and look at a series of speci- 
mens for the first time and describe them offhand. Yet 
such works are often regarded as of authority, very often 
on account of their length or the beautiful manner in which 
they are printed or illustrated. 

The references to the ' Catalogue of the Osteological Spe- 
cimens in the College of Surgeons ' are based on the exa- 
mination of specimens in that collection ; and I have to 
thank the Council of the College for their permission to 
examine them, and Mr. Flower, the energetic Curator of 
the collection, for his kindness and assistance in determining 

If any evidence were required of the difficulties of de- 
termining the species of this family, I need only refer to 
the nomenclature of the skulls in the Catalogue above 
referred to, which was prepared by the late Curator of the 
collection. Professor Owen. 

In this collection, for example, I found what I consider 
to be three distinct species in one case, and two distinct 
species in another, confounded under the same name ; and, 


on the other hand, I found what I regard as skulls of the 
same species inserted under three different names. 

The skull of a Crocodile which is found in the internal 
rivers of India is named Crocodilus rhomhifer, Cuvier, 
(which is an American species,) tliough the specimen in the 
College Museum was received from Bengal. 

I do not by any means regard my determination of these 
skulls as infallible ; but I have taken every care to render 
it correct by repeated examination. I tirst arranged the 
skulls as they appeared to be alike, according to the cha- 
racters here assigned to them, without pajdng any attention 
to the names given, placing them in order according as 
their size showed the change iu the growth ; and ilr. Flower, 
Mr. Gerrard, and some other zoologists who are used to the 
examination of bones agree with me in my determination, 
and were much interested in obserWug how gradually the 
skuUs of different ages glided into each other. 

I must observe, if there is this difference of opinion in 
the determination of skuUs of recent CroeodUes, where the 
series of skulls of animals different in age can be compared, 
and where the skuUs are in a perfect state, how much 
more diffioult it must be to have confidence in the determi- 
nation of the skulls of fossil species, wliere the skulls are 
generally more or less imperfect, and perhaps only single 
specimens (often very imperfect specimens) have been 
examined ! 

The chief difficulty in distinguishing the species has 
originated from the very great changes that take place 
in the shape and proportions of the head of the animal 
in its different stages of growth ; but the changes seem 
nearly similar in aU the species, and therefore when 
once observed they can be easily allowed for. The differ- 
ence may be divided into three stages, exemplified in the 
young, the nearly fuU-grown, and the adult or aged speci- 
mens. The head and beak of the young are generally de- 
pressed, with more or less distinctly marked symmetrical 
ridge and depressions ; and these characters are gradually 
modified until the animal assumes its nearly full size — the 
skull becoming thicker and more solid, but yet retaining 
most of the characters that distinguish its young state. 
After this period, as the animal increases in age, the skuU 
becomes more and more convex, swollen, and heavy, and 
assumes a very different external form. 

It is to be observed that in all these changes in the ex- 
ternal form of the skull, the bones themselves of which it 
is composed preserve their general form and relation to 
each other ; and the sutures between these bones appear to 
me to offer some of the best characters for separating the 
species into groups. In many instances, when I have been 

in doubt, the sight of the intermaxillary suture has at once 
solved the difficulty, which has been verified by the obser- 
vation of the locality of the specimen. 

These changes in the form of the head have been among 
the causes that have made the study of the species of Cro- 
codiles so difficult. If this is the case with the recent 
species, how much more caution is requisite to determine 
the fossil remains of the animal ! Cuvier set a very good 
example in that respect : he commenced the study of each 
group of animals with an examination of the osteology and 
external characters of the living species, and then applied 
the knowledge he thus acquired to the distinction of the 
fossil remains ; but now we often find pateontologists, as 
they call themselves, neglecting, or, at most, only taking the 
outline of the osteological and zoological characters of the 
living species at second hand, and describing the fossil, and 
often forming a genus and species on a small fragment, thus 
encumbering the science with a multitude of names. 

At one time I proposed to give accurate measurements 
of the different parts of the skull of each of the specimens 
of the different species in the British-Museum collection ; 
but I am satisfied that the importance of such tables of 
measurements is overestimated : no doubt it has a very 
imposing appearance ; but a good figure is more useful than 
any amount of measurement. Every species has its normal 
measurements ; but these are liable to vary in the different 
individuals ; and any difference sufficient to show a di- 
stinction of species is easily appreciated by the eye, as it 
must alter the general proportions of the different parts of 
the head. 

It has been suggested that I ought to give the description 
of each separate bone of which the skuU is composed. This 
may be of use to the student of comparative anatomy, but 
is not of so much importance to the zoologist; for though 
each bone has a normal form in each species of Crocodile, 
yet they are each liable to considerable variation within 
certain limits in the different individuals of the species. 
The bones of the different genera have been described in 
several works on osteology, and have been well figui-ed by 
De Blainville and others. 

De Blainville, in his ' Osteographie,' devotes five folio 
jtlates to the osteology and dentition of recent Crocodiles, 
giving details of Crocodilus hiporcatus, C. lucius, C. vid- 
garis, C. ScMeijelii, C. hmglrostris, C. rhomhifer, and C. 
sderops. These plates were prepared to accompany an 
essay that M. de Blainville was preparing for the ' Memoires 
de I'Academie des Sciences de France ' when he died. 

Professor Carl Ecrnhard Briihl, of the Universities of 
Cracow and Pesth, has published twenty quarto etchings of 



the skeletons of Croeodilcs and AUigiitors, giving details of 
three or four spoi'ies. The i>liitos are oxcocdingly nocurato 
and full of details, being drawn and etehed by llio l'rt)fossor 
and his wife direct from the siwcimens. They were pub- 
lished at Vienna in 1S():?. There is a continuation of the 
work containing tbree additional plates, published in 186"), 
princijjally devoted to the canals of the eor-bono. 

I must hen' refer to a paper by Professor Huxley, en- 
tilled " On the Dermal Armom- of Jacarc and Caiman, 
with Notes on the Specific and Generic Characters of re- 
cent Crocodilia.'' As this paper contains an excellent 
account of the ostcologienl difterences between the different 
genera of Crocodilia, I have not considered it desirable to 
repeat them here, more especially as they were chiefly 
drawn up from specimens in the British JIuseum. 

Subseciuently to my Synopsis, Dr. Alexander Strauch 
published a memoir on the recent species of Crocodiles in 
the Mem. Acad. Sc. St. Pet. x. Xo. 13, ISOP.. pp. 120. He 
gives a compiled synopsis and diagnosis of all the species 
known, and of the synonymy, with their habitats, illus- 
trated by a map, and a detailed description of the thirteen 
.•ipecies in the St.-Petcrsburg Sluseum. But the specimens 
examined, characterized, and described are generally young ; 
and there is an evident want of material for so extensive 
a work, as is generally the case with the continental au- 
thors who do not visit the Enghsh collections. 

Srrforsis of the Families. 
A. The cervical and dorsal plates forming ime dorsal shield. 

1. GAVIALlDiE. The large front teeth and the canines in the 

lower jaw tit into notches in the margin of the upper jaw. 

B. The cervical shield forms a small group, which is separate from 
the dorsal shield. 

2. CROCODILID.E. The canines fit into notches in the upper 

jaw, and the large front teeth fit into pits or perforations in 
the front of the upper jaw. 

3. ALLIGATORIDjE. The large front teeth and the canines fit 

into pits or perforations in the edge of the upper jaw. 

The large front teeth of the Garials fit into a notch in 
the front of the upper jaw, and the canines into a notch 
also. In the Crocodiles the canines fit into a notch, as in 
the Garials, but the large front teeth into pits or perfora- 
tions in the front of the upper jaw ; and in the Alligators 
both the canines and the large front teeth fit into pits or 
perforations in the edge of the upper jaw. 

The geographical distribution of the genera may be thus 
exhibited : — 


I lalcrosia. 

Asia and Ailstualasia. 
Fam. Gariulidte. 

Fam. Crocodilidce. 



Fam. AUigatoridce. 




In Africa there are three species of Crocodiles. They all 
seem to have been known to Adanson. They are : — (1) the 
common Crocodile (called the Olive Crocodile by Adanson), 
Croeodilus vulgaris, which is spread over the whole of 
Africa, from north to south, and from east to west ; (2) the 
Black Crocodile of Adanson (Ifalcrosia nigra) ; and (3) the 
False Gavial of Adanson (the Mecistops cataphr actus). The 
two latter are confined to the rivers on the west coast of 

In India there are also three species of Crocodiles : — 
(1) the Oopholis porosus (or Croeodilus biporcatus of Cuvier), 
which is found only in the estuaries at the mouths of the 
large rivers ; (2) the Muggar ( Bombifrons indicus) ; and 
(3) the Garial or Ghurrial, which is confined to rivers in 
the interior of the country. The Coombeer or Muggar 
ascends the rivers to the mountains, where the water is 
often frozen. The Ghurrial, on the contrary, is confined 
to the lower level, where the climate is warm. 

In stating that there are three species of Crocodiles in 
India, I only intend to state that there are three distinct 
forms ; for I will not undertake to say, for certain, that 
the Muggar of Ceylon, of Siam, and of India are not di- 
stinct species. 

Mr. Blyth observes — " Both the Gangetic species of Cro- 
codiles have been received by the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, 
from Java. The Crocodiles are known to abound in Timor, 
from which island they may well have passed to Australia. 
Governor Grey met with them in the north-west." — Blyth, 
Rep. Austral. Vert, in Mus. A. S. C. 

If by "both the Gangetic species of Crocodile" Mr. 
Blyth means the estuarine Crocodile {Oopholis porosus) 
and the Coombeer or Muggar {Bombifrons indicus), no ex- 
ample of the latter animal from either Java, Timor, or 
Australia has occurred to me, and the animal figured as 
Croeodilus raninus by Dr. Salomon MiiUer is certainly 
Oopholis porosus; and there is in the British Museum a 


fine adult skull of that species, sent by the Leydeii ilu- 
seum from Java. 

The observations of MM. Dumeril and Bibron (Erp. Gen. 
pp. 2.5, 47), that Crocodiles are not found in Australia, and 
that the American Crocodiles are confined to the islands of 
that continent, are no longer consistent with facts ; indeed, 
long before the publication of their work, various travellers 
had recorded the occurrence of Crocodiles on the north 
coast of Australia. 

The estuarine Oopliolis porosus was observed by Governor 
Grey on the north-west coast of Australia. There is in the 
British Museum a skull of the species sent thence, and 
also a full-grown specimen killed and preserved in that 

The island of Borneo is inhabited by a false Garial 
named Tomistoma Schlegelii. I am not aware that it has 
been found in any other island of the archipelago. It is 
intermediate in character between the true Garial and the 

The Crocodiles and Alligators are widely distributed in 
America. There arc four American Crocodiles, and nine 
Alligators. One of the Crocodiles (Palinia rhombifer) is 
peculiar to the island of Cuba ; the other species of Cro- 
codiles and the Alligators are found on the mainland. The 
Alligator mississipeiisis is found far north, where the waters 
are often frozen ; aU the other Alligators and American 
Crocodiles are confined to the tropical and subtropical parts 
of the continent. Molinla americann is found in Cuba and 
St. Domingo, as well as in the rivers of the east and west 
side of the continent, showing the incorrectness of the 
assertion of MM. Dumeril and Bibron that the Crocodiles 
of America are confined to the islands of that continent 
(Erp. Gen. pp. 2.5, 47). 


The cervical and dorsal plates formed into a single con- 
tinuous shield. Teeth nearly of uniform size, all fitting 
into notches on the edge of tlie upper jaw. The front 
large teeth fitting into a notcli in the front, the canines 
into a notch on the sides of the front of the upper jaw. 
The jaws elongate, slender. 

Crocodilidae (part.). Gray, Ann. Phllos. x. p. 195, 1825. 
Crocodilida3§*, Ora>/, Cat. Tort, and Crocod. B. M. p. 36. 
GaviaUdai, Uaccley, Journ. I'roc. Linn. Soc. Zooh iv. p. IG, 

Synopsis of the Genera . 

1. Qavialis. Beak elongate, linear, end swollen. The lateral 

teeth oblique, not received into pits. 

2. Tomistoma. Beak conical, thick at the back, the lateral 

teeth erect, received into pits between the teeth. 

Beak of skull linear, end dilated from the enlarged nos- 

i. •! rr iu 27-27 28-28 

tnls. Teeth ^^ or —r^r-. 

25-2o 2b-lib 

The mandibular symphysis extends to the twenty-third 
or twenty-fourth tooth. Most of the lateral teeth of both 
jaws are directed obliquely, and not received into inter- 
dental pits. The front margin of the orbit is much raised. 

Gavial, Oppel. 
Le Gavial, Oitvier. 
Gavialis, Merrem. 

Gray, Atm. Phil. x. p. 195, 1825 ; Cat. Tortoises ^c. 
B. M. pp. 36, 57, 1844 ; Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. 
p. 132. 

Geoff. Mem. Mus. xii. 

Huxley, Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. iv. p. 20, 1859. 
Gavialia, Flemincj, Phil. Zool. 
Bamphostoma, Waijler, Syst. Amph. p. 441. 
llhamphognathus, Voyt, Zool. Brief, n. p. 289. 

1. Gavialis gangeticus. (The Garial or Nakoo.) 

Narrow-beaked Crocodile, Edw. Phil. Trans, i'lix. p. 039, 

t. 19. 
Le Gavial, Lacep. Q. 0. p. 1235, t. 1.5. 

Faujas, Mont. S. P. p. 235, t. 8. f. 46, 47. 
Lacerta gangetica, Ginelin, S. N. i. p. 1057. 

Shaw, Zool. iii. p. 197, t. 60. 
Crocodilus longirostris, SchneiJ. Amph. p. 160. 

Dandin, liept. p. 4293. 

Blainv. Osteoq. Croc. t. 2. f. 4, t. 3. f. 6, t. 4. f. c, t. 5. f. 5. 
Crocodilus arctirostris. Baud. Rept. ii. p. 393. 
Crocodilus teuuirostris, Cavier, Ann. Mus. x. t. 1. 

Tiedern. Amph. t. 15. 

Wagler, Syst. t. 7. f. 111. 

Merrem, Tent. p. 38. 
Gavialis gangeticus, Geoff. Mem. Mus. xii. 

Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 36 ; Cat. Tort. ^r. B. M. p. 57 ; 
Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. p. 132. 

Dnm.SfBih. Erp. Gen. iii. p. 135, t. 26. f. 2. 

Huxley, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. iv. p. 20, 1859. 

BrW, Slcelet. Krolcod. t. 8, 9, 10, 11, 17. 

Strauch, Syn. Crocod. p. 63. 
Crocodilus gangeticus. Tied. Opp>el, and Libosch., Naturg. 
Amph. p. 81, t. 14. 

Geoff. Mem. Mus. H. N. xii. p. 118. 

Burm. Gavial, t. 4 (skidls). 
Gavialis longirostris, Merrem, Amph. p. 37. 
Gavialis tenuirostris, Merrem, Amph. p. 38. 

Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. t. 2. f. 3. 
Eamphostoma tenuirostre, Wagler, Nat. Syst. Amph. p. 141, 

t. 8. f. 3. 
Le Gavial, Lacep. H. N. Q. Ouip. i. p. 235, t. 15. 



Uariol, Oiir»i, Motioffr. Fossil lieptilia of the London Clay, 
i. xi. 1849 (skeJe'toii). 

Hah. Indian rivers. Bengal, Nepal, Malabar. 


Boak of the head conical, tliick at the base. Teeth f^^^- 

The mandibular symphj-sis extends to the fifteenth tooth ; 

the liinder tooth of the upper jaw oud most of those of the 

lower jaw roeoived into interdcntiU pits. Prcmaxillary 

hardly expanded, orbital margins not raised. 

Gavialis, sp., MiUhr, Otvfn, Strauch. 

Tomistonia. .S'. Miiller, Wifjm. Arch. lS4fi, i. p. 122. 

Oral/, Traim. Zool. Soc. 1S(!0, vi. p. 133. 
Khvnchosuchus, /Iiu-kif, Joiini. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. iv. 

p. in, 1S")1». 

The upper edge of the intermaxillary bone extends back 
as far as the seeond canine tooth ; and in this character it 
differs from the skull of the slendcr-uoso Crocodiles, as Cro- 
cimIHus Gravcfii and Mecisto^s caUi^hractus. 

Dr. Falconer, when describing the skull of CrocodUus 
cataphractus in Ann. i!t Mag. Xat. Hist. 1846, xviii. p. 362, 
observes, " CrocodUus Schleyclii constitutes the passage from 
the true Crocodiles into the Gavials," and he shows how 
the skuU agrees with the Crocodiles' in the position of the 
nasal bones. 

Prof. Owen, in the first 'Essay on the lloptilcs of the 
Ix)ndon Clay,' Crocodiles, p. 15, observes, " The Bornean 
species, CrocodUus; Schleijelli, was in fact originally described 
as a new species of Ga\-ial ; but the nasal bones, as in the 
fossil from Sheppey (fig. in t. 2. f. 5), extend to the hinder 
borders of the external nostrils." This does not agree 
with our skull, nor with the figures of the skull in Blain- 
ville's ' Osteographie.' See also Huxley, Journ. Proc. Linn. 
Soc. Zool. iv. p. 18. 

1. Tomistoma Schlegelii. (Bornean Gavial.) 

CrocodUus gavialis Schlegelii, Miiller, Naturqesch. Ost-Ind. 

t. 123. f. 1-5. 
Crocodilus Schlegelii, Blainv. Osteoq. Crocod. t. 2. f. 3 t 5 

Briihl, Skelet. Krol: t. 8. f. 6. 
Owen, Fossils of the London Clay, p. 15. 
Burm. Gavial, t. 2. f. 7 (skuU). 
Ehynehosuchus Schlegelii, Hu.vlei/, Proc. Linn. Soc. iv. p. 17 

(1859) ; Ann. j- Mag. Nat. Hi.<!t. 1859. 
Mecistops Journei, ffrny, Cat. Tort. ^x. B. M. p. 38 (not 

Tomistoma Schlegelii, &ra?/, Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. p. 134. 
Gavialis Schlegelii, Strauch, Syn. Crocod. p. 63. 

Hob. Australasia, Borneo {Miiller, Brit. Mus.). 

The two figures of the skull in Midler ^- Schhytl, t. 3. 
f. 1 lit 2, show the dift'eronco that occurs in the form of the 
skull of the same species. 

In the British Mu.scum there is a young .spocimcn in 
spirits, and an adult skull received from the Leydon Col- 
lection, and a very fine adult skull from Borneo, obtained 
fi'om Mr. Mitten. 


The cervical plates forming a distinct shield, separate 
from the dorsal shield. Teeth strong, very unequal in size, 
hinder larger. The 9th upper and the 11th lower tooth 
larger, like canines, the large teeth of the lower fitting 
into pits or perforations, and the canines fitting into notches 
on the edge of the upper jaws. Nose of both sexes 

The upperside of the intermaxillary is slightly expanded 
behind, and its hinder end is divided and separated into 
two parts by the front end of the nasal bone. 

CrocodilidaB § **, Gray, Cat. Tort. Sfc. B. M. p. 36, 1844. 
CrocodUidee, Huxley, Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. iv. p. 5. 
Crocodilus, Cuvier. 

Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825, x. p. 195. 
Champse, Mtrrem, Tent. 

Professor Huxley divides this family into two genera, 
Crocodilus and Mecistops. See Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. 
Zool. iv. p. 6. 

The CrocodUes when they are first hatched have a very 
short beak to the head. This is even the case with the 
long-beaked Mecistops catuphractus, which in its very 
young state is hardly to be distinguished in the form of its 
beak from the young of the common Crocodile, Crocodilus 
mdyaris. As the young obtain strength the beak developes 
itself more or less rapidly according to the species, until 
its noi-mal character is attained. 

The head seems to continue of nearly the same form, 
merely increasing in size, for some time, perhaps years ; for 
we know little of the duration of the life of the Crocodiles, 
and they are probably long-li\'ed animals. As they reach 
maturity, and as old age creeps on, the skuU thickens 
considerably, and the jaws dilate and thicken on the 

The growth of the teeth, which are produced in succes- 
sion and gi-eatly enlarge in diameter, and the enlargement 
of the jaws proceed pari passu : the latter is also influenced 
by the development of these teeth and the larger alveoli re- 
quired to support them. 


The head of the Crocodile first increases in length com- 
pared with its width, and then, having arrived at a certain 
form, increases in width, thickness, and solidity. 

The same change takes place in the head and skull of the 
Bornean Garial, Tomistoma SchUgelii, as is found in lliiller 
and Schlegel's figures of the half-grown and adult skulls in 
their work. 

It is to be observed that each of the Crocodiles of India and 
Africa (and it may also be the case with those of America) 
seems to present two varieties — one with a broad and the 
other with a narrower face ; this variation occurring in each 
of the species appears to me to show that it is more probably 
a local, or perhaps even sexual variation than a specific 

If it were a sexual distinction it might soon be settled 
by observers in the country where they abound ; but the 
sex of the skins and of the sknUs sent to Europe is rarely, 
if ever, marked on the specimens. 

The broad-nosed variety is much more abundant in the 
Museum than the narrow-nosed one ; and this is against 
the form of the face being a sexual distinction, as one 
would suppose that they would be nearly equal in number, 
unless the narrow-nosed specimens are the males and they 
are more wary and not so frequently caught. 

Some naturalists might be incUned to regard them as 
distinct species ; but in the Museum series, large as it is, 
we have not sufficient materials to decide the question with 
any confidence. Perhaps, if the skulls of specimens from 
each locality could be compared, other characters might be 
found ; but this must be left for my successors in this field 
of research. 

In the short-nosed species the uppcrside of the Lnter- 
maxiUary bones is short, and the nasal bones are produced 
between their edges to the edge of the nostril ; and in the 
genus Halcroda they are produced beyond it, and form a 
bony septum between the nostrils. In the long and slender- 
nosed species the intermaxillary bones are rather produced 
behind, and the nasal bones do not reach the edge as does 
the long nostril in the genus Mecistops ; they are consider- 
ably short of it ; but still the nasal bones come between 
the hinder ends of the intermaxiUaries, and this character 
at once separates the skull of that genus from the two 
genera of Garials which have short nasal bones. 
The skulls of Crocodiles may be separated thus : — 

1. Nasal bone produced and separating the nostril into 
two parts. Halerosia. 

2. Nasal bone produced and dividing the edges of the 
nostril. Oopholis, Crocodilus, Molinia (americana), Bom- 
bifrons, Palinia. 

3. Nasal bone not reaching the nostril. Molinia (inter- 
media), Mecistops. 

The intermaxillary bone in Bomhifrons and Palinia is 
short and truncated behind. lu Halerosia it is rather pro- 
duced behind, the straight sides converging to a point. In 
all the other genera it is produced behind, with the 
hinder edges converging on the sides and truncated at the 

The palatal bone in all the genera is truncated or rounded 
in front, except in Mecistops, where it is narrow, short, and 
acute in front. 

The skulls of the genera Bomhifrons, Oopholis, and Mo- 
linia are easily distinguished in the young state, — the face 
of Oopholis being much longer and narrower than that of 
Bomhifrons, and that of Molinia longer and narrower than 
that of Oopholis. The following measurements are for 
three skulls which appear to be from animals nearly of the 
same state of growth, in inches and lines : — 

Bombifrons. Oopholis. Molinia. 
in. lines, in. lines, in. lines. 

Length of sk'ill, entire 48 58 69 

Length of face to front of orbit 2 8 3 6 4 4 

Length of forehead to front of 

orbit 2 2 1 2 4 

Length of palatine from con- 
dyle to front end 2 11 3 4 3 10 

Length of middle sutui-e of 

maxiUa . 1 2 1 H 1 7 

Length of middle suture of in- 
termaxiUaries 9 1 3 1 6 

Width at occiput 2 6 2 5 2 10^ 

Width at hinder contraction of 

beak 1 6 1 4 1 4i 

Width at notch 9 9 9 

The dorsal scales present considerable variations in dif- 
ferent specimens from the same locality ; but, allowing for 
such variations, the genera may be arranged thus : — 

1. The dorsal scales nearly uniformly keeled, in four or 
six longitudinal series; the outer series ovate-elongate. 

2. The dorsal scales nearly uniformly keeled, quadrila- 
teral as broad as long. Crocodilus, Palinia, Molinia, and 

3. The dorsal scales quadrilateral, as broad as long ; the 
vertebral scries scarcely keeled, the lateral series irregular 
and keeled. Halerosia and Molinia. 

The eyelid of the genus Halerosia is thickened with hard 
bony plates, as in some of the Alligators, with which it also 
agrees in the external form of the head and the disposition 
of the nuchal shield. In all the other genera it is thin and 


CATAT.norF. OF SmKl.l) KEniLES. 

Synopsis of ins Gbskra. 
Section I. OrnVn/ disk rhomhir, fr/xtratfti from the dorsal shielil. 

Normal Cnvoililos. 
A. .V«rA.i/ scutMt now. Dortal plates oi-ale-elont/ole, in four 

or «> longiludiiial trries. Estuorine Crocodiles. 
I. OopholU. Asift mill North AiistnJiii. 
15. Xuchal pltitfs four, in a t ran f verse series. Dorsal plates as 

broad as long, square. Fluviatile Crocodiles. 
«. lnterma.rillar!/ bone truncated behind, with a nearly straight 

hinder rdi/e. Fact broad, oblong, 

3. Boniblfi-oiu. Toes webbed. Legs distinctly fringed. Asia. 

3. PoUuin. Toes short, free. Legs with only nn indistinct 

fringe. America, 
li. Intenna.villiar;/ bone elongate, produced and truncated behind ; 

sutures sloping backirards and conrerging, then transverse or 

sinuous. Toes trebled. Legs fringed. 

•4. Crocodllns. Face oblong, without any ridge from front of 
orliit ; forehead flat. .Vfrica. 

5. Molinio. Face elongate, forehead convex, smooth, without 

ridge from orbit. Ajnerica. 

Section IL Cervical disk stronglg keeled on each side and nearly 
continuous icith the dorsal shield. Abenant Crocodiles. 

* Face broad, nasal bones produced into the nostrils. Alliga- 
toroid Crocodiles. 

6. Halcrosia. .-Vfrica. 

** Face very long, slender, riasal bones not reaching the nostrils. 
Garialoid Crocodiles. 

7. Mecistops. Africa. 

I. The tiape with a rltomhic disk formed of si.v plates, 
which is well separated from the dorsal shield. Nor- 
mal Crocodiles. 

A. Xuehal seuUUa none. Dorsal scales in few or six lon- 
gitudinal series ; the outer series ovate-eloiigate. Toes 
webbed. Legs fringed. The intermaxillary bone pro- 
duced, truncated, and converginr/ on the sides. Estua- 
rine or brackish-water Crocodiles. 


Face oblong : orbits with an elongated, longitudinal, 
more or less sinuous ridge in front. Nuchal scutella none, 
or rudimentary. Cervical disk rhombic, of six plates. 
Dorsal plates uniformly keeled, in four or six longitudinal 
series ; the vertebral series with straight internal edges, 
the outer ovate-elongate. Legs acutely fringed. Toes 
broadly webbed. Intermaxillary bone produced, and trun- 

cated behind, tlio sutures sloping backwards and converg- 
ing, and then transverse or sinuous. 

Oopholis, Gnu/, Cat. Tort. t$- Crocod. in D. M. 1844; Ann. 
i\- M(ui. Not. Hist. 3rd series, x. p. 207 ; Trans. Zool. 
,'Soc. iNiii, vi. p. l;!7. 

a. The dorsal scales in si.v loni/itiidinal series ; the vertebral 
ones clowjated like the others. 

1. Oopholis porosus. (The Saltwater Crocodile.) 

Crocodilus porosus, Sehn. Amph. p. 159. 

(Jray, Cat. Tort. 6,- Crocod. cjr. Brit. Mus. p. 58 ; 
P. Z. S. 1S61, p. 140. 
Crocodilus oopholis, Schn. Amph. ii. p. 165. 
Crocodilus biporcatus, Cuv. Oss. Foss. v. p. 65, t. 1. f. 4, 
18, lit (young skulls), t. 2. f. 8. 

Midler 4- Schle.jel, Verh. t. 3. f. 6 (middle-aged skull). 
Owen, Cat. Osteal. Mus. Coll. Surg. p. 159, nos. 719, 

723, 724, 727, 728. _ 
Huxley, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. iv. p. 11. 
Blainv. Osteoijr. Crocod. t. 1, t. 3. f. 1, t. 4. f. , t. 52. 
Burm. Gavicd, t. 2. f. 5 (head). 
Strauch, Syn. Crocod. p. 52. 
Crocodilus aeutus, Oicen , Cat. Ost. M. Coll. Surg. p.l57. n.713. 
Cluimpse fissipes, Wagler, Amph. t. 17. 
Crocodilus biporcatus rauinus, Midler ^' Schleyel, Verh. t. 3. 

f. 7 (aged skuU). 
Oophohs porosus, Grai/, Ann. tf- Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd series, 

x. p. 267, 1802; Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. p. 138. 
Champses biporcatus and C. oopholis, Merrem, Amph. 
pp. 36, 37. 

Hal). Asia and Australia; India, Bengal, and Penang 
(Hardwicke) : China {Lindsay) ; Trincomalee ; Borneo 
(Belcher) ; Tenasserim coast (Packman) ; Siam, Cambogia 

Var. ausiralis, Giinther. 

Crocodile, Landeshorough, Explor. of Austral, i. p. 70. 

Hab. North Australia (Elsey Sf Kraig). 

Dr. Giinther has pointed out to me that all the Austra- 
lian specimens which we have examined have one cross 
band of shields less than the Indian sj^ecimens ; that is 
to say, they have sixteen, and the Indian specimens seven- 
teen bands of shields from the neck to the base of the tail. 
That is the case both' with the small specimen in spirits and 
the large specimen, 17-^ feet long, which was procured by 
Mr. Kraig. 

In the British Museum there are the skin of an adult from 
N.E. Australia, another, 13 feet long, received from the 
Zoological Society, and several (two thirds half-grown) 
young specimens stuffed, and several young specimens in 



Tlie largest skull iri the British Museum is 29 inches 
long ; the adult skulls vary from 29 to 31 inches in length ; 
a half-grown species is 19 inches long. The skull 20 
inches long is said to be from an animal caught in Bengal 
that was 33 feet long. 

Cuvier figures the skulls of young and half-grown speci- 
mens. S. MiiUer and Sehlegel figure two skulls, one under 
the name of C. hiporcatus (f. 6), and the other under the 
name of C. hiporcatus raninus (f. 7) : the latter seems to 
be from an adult or aged animal ; the former (f. 6) from a 
full-grown one before the skuU is thickened and spread 
out. Another specimen, figured as C. hiporcatus raninus 
(f. 8), appears to be from a specimen of Grocodilus or 
Bomhifrons siamensis ; it certainly is not an Oopliolis, from 
the form of the dorsal scales and the presence of the nuchal 

There is a good series of skulls of this species in the 
Museum of the College of Surgeons ; but no. 725, named 
G. hiporcatus in the Catalogue, is the skuU of an adult Cro- 
codilus vult/aris ; and no. 713, called C. acutus in the Cata- 
logue, is Oopjholis porosus. 

The British Museum received from the Leyden Museum 
an adult skull of the Crocodilus {hiporcatus') raninus from 
Borneo ; it is 22 inches long, and agrees in every respect 
with the Oopliolis porosus from India. 

Mr. Landcsborough observes : — " Harmless as this animal 
is in Australia, we were not anxious for his company in 
his native element." — Exploration of Australia, p. 70. 

b. Tlie dorsal scales in fonr series ; the vertehred series 
broader than loiuj, the outer series elongate-ovate. 

2. Oopholis pondicherianus. (Pondicherry Crocodile.) 

Oopholis poiuUelierianus, Grai/, Ann. 4' Mag. Nat. Hist. 
3rd series, x. p. 268 ; Traiis. Zool. Soc. 18G9, vi. p. 139. 
Grocodilus pondiccriauus, Giinthcr, llept. B. I. t. 7. 

Tlie specimen of this species in the British Museum is 
small and only just hatched, but it is quite distinct from 
all the others. The vertebral series of plates are nearly 
twice as broad as those in 0. porosus ; the others also are 
rather wider in comparison ; all the dorsal scales are more 
keeled, and the keels of the scales on the side of the base 
of the tail are wider and more prominent. The black spots 
are larger and further apart. 

The specimen was purchased of M. Parzudaki of Paris, 
it having formed part of a collection which he received 
from the French Museum. 

B. Nuchal plates four , or rarely two or Jive, in a cross series. 
The dorsal pilates as hroad as long,in four or six series. 
FluviatUe or River Crocodiles. 

a. Tlte interina.villarg bones truncated behind, with a nearly 
straight premaanllary suture. Face broad, oUong. 

To observe the form of the premaxillary suture in the 
preserved specimens, it is only necessary to elevate the skin 
of the front of the palate and lay the bones bare. 

* Toes tuebhed ; legs distinctly fringed. Asiatic Crocodiles. 


The premaxillary suture straight or rather convex for- 
wards. The face oblong ; forehead with nodules in front 
of the orbits, but no distinct preorbital ridges. Nuchal 
plates four, in a curved line. Cervical plates six, in the 
form of a rhombic shield, distinct from the dorsal one. 
Dorsal plates oblong, rather elongate, all keeled, in sL\ 
longitudinal series, and with two short lateral series of 
keeled scales. The legs fringed with a series of triangidar 
elongated scales. Toes webbed. 

Bomhifrons, Gray, Ann. 4' Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd series, x. 
p. 269 ; Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. p. 139. 

SkuU with the nostrO. separate, the internal nostril as 
broad as wide, with a deep pit on each side in front of it, 
and rather bent down so as to open nearly horizontally. 

1. Bomhifrons indicus. (The Muggar.) 
(Figs. 1-4.) 

The intermaxillary short, nearly semicircular. 

Crocodilus vulgaris, var. indicus. Gray, Syn. Bept. p. 58, 

CrocodUus dubius, Geoff. Ann. du Mus. xii. p. 122 ? 
Crocodilus suchus, var. D, Dum. Enc. Meih. Bept. p. 27. 
Crocodilus palustris, Lesson, Bilangers Voy. j). 305. 
Gray, Cat. Tort. 4" Croc. B. M. p. G2 (young). 
Owen, Cat. Osteol. Mus. Coll. Surg. pp. 164 & 752! 
Giinther, Bept. B. Ind. t. 8. f. a. 
Strauch, Crocod. p. 48. 
Crocodilus bomhifrons. Gray, Cat. Tort. 4r Croc. B. M. p. 59, 

1844 (adult) ! 
Crocodilus bomhifrons (palustris?), Huxley, Froc. Linn. Soc. 

Zool. iv, p. 13!, 1859. 
Crocodilus bijiorcatus, Cautley, Asiat. Besearches, xix. t. 3. 

f. 1, p. 3! (not C!W>)- 
Crocodilus trigonops, Gray. Cat. Tort. ^ Croc. B. M. ji. 62, 

1844 (young) ! 
Bomhifrons trigonops. Gran, Ann. 4' Mag. N. H. 3rd series, 

X. p. 269 ! 




Fisr. 1. 

Bomhifrom indicus. Skull, adult. 

Crocodilus vulgaris, var. B, Dum. 4' Bibr. Erp. Gen. iv. 

p. 108. 
Crocodilus rhombifer, Owen, Cat. Osteol. Mus. Coll. Siirg. 

p. 164. no. 752 ! (not Cuvier). 
Crocodilus ?, Owen, Cat. Osteol. Mus. CoU. Surg. p. 159. 

no. 726 ! 
Bombifrons indicus, Gray, Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. p. 140. 

Bab. India, Ganges (Dr. Satjer); Madras (Jerdon); 
Ceylon {Kelaart). 

The dorsal shields in four series, all equally keeled, with 
two irregular series of plates on the sides. The shields are 
often nearly of the same form and size ; but sometimes there 
are larger and broader shields intermixed in and deranging 
the series, and at other times the whole vertebral series is 
formed of wider shields. 

This species has generally been confounded with Ooplwlis 
biporcatns and Crocodilus vulgaris. 

The face of the younger specimen isrugulose and depressed, 
with a deep pit on the sides over the eighth and ninth teeth ; 
there are two arched ridges on each side behind the nostril, 
and some rugosities in front of the orbits. In the older skull 
the face is very convex and rounded, rugose, with some more 
orlessdistinctrugositiesinfrontof the orbits, but not the dis- 
tinct longitudinal ridge so characteristic of Oopholis porosus. 

Prof. Owen described the peculiar form of the premaxil- 
lary in a skuU in the College-of-Surgeons Museum, sent 
from Bengal by Dr. Wallich ; but he refers the skuU to Cro- 
codilus rliombifer of Cuvier, which is an American species. 

The smallest specimen in the British Museum is 19 
inches, and the largest nearly 10 feet long ; there are skuUs 



-- > 

Bombifrons indieus. Skull, nearly ndult. 

showing that it grows to a much larger size. The speci- 
men I described as G. trigonalis is 24i- inches long. 

In mj' Catalogue of the Tortoises and Crocodiles in the 
British Museum, published in 1844, I described it, from 
two adult skulls from India of 18 and 20 inches length, as 
a new species, which I called Crocodilus homhifrons, point- 
ing out the straightness of the suture between the inter- 
masillary and maxillary bones. I observed that I had seen 
in the Paris Museum a large specimen which had been 
described by Dumeril and Bibron as an adult of Crocodilus 
biiiorcatus, which appeared to belong to this species, stating 
that it was immediately known from C. porosus by the 
breadth and convexity of the face. 

In the same work I separated the Inchan specimen from 
the common African Crocodilus, under the name of Croco- 
dilus palustris of Lesson, and pointed out that it seemed to 
be the same as the Crocodilus liporcatus raniaus of Miiller 
and Schlegel ; and I described two other, veiy young speci- 

mens under the name of Crocodilus tritjonops, on account of 
the shortness and width of the head. 

The examination of the specimens on which these species 
were founded, and the comparison of them one with another 
when ranged in a series, with the other specimens since 
obtained intercalated in their places according to their size, 
have convinced me that they are referable to mere varia- 
tions of growth of a single species, which is generally spread 
over the Indian peninsula. 

Var. Nose narrow, the intermaxillary bones rather 
longer and narrower. 

Hah. Ceylon (skull, Kelaarl). 

There may be two species of Ceylon Muggars, as in one 
of the heads the intermaxillaries appear to be longer and 
narrower than in others from the same coimtry. I have 
not sufficient materials to satisfy myself as to the distinct- 
ness of this species and the permanence of the forms. 



Fic :?. 




Bombifrom indicus. Skull : fig. 3, half-grown ; fig. 4, young, nat. size (see C. tru/onnps. Gray). 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

in. lin. 

in. lin. 

in. lin. 

17 3 

9 10 

4 8 

5 9 

3 7 

2 8 

11 6 

6 3 




5 5 

10 6 

5 11 

2 6 

6 9 

3 9 

1 (i 

5 11 

2 4 


Fig. 1. 

in. lin. 

Length of skull 20 

Length from occiput to 

front of orbit 6 9 

Length of face 13 3 

Length of lower jaw . . 27 
Width at occiput .... 13 o 
Width at hinder notch 9 2 
Width at notch 5 4 

The face becomes shorter compared with the width of 
the middle of the face as the animal becomes older. 

In the young (fig. 4) the length of the head is rather 
more than three times the width of the swollen part behind 
the notch ; in fig. 3 it is just three times, and in fig. 2 it 
is twice and a half the width at the same part ; and in 
the old skull (fig. 1) it is only a little more than twice 
the width of the face. 

As a good iUustratiou of the difference in the appearance 

of the skulls of the individuals of the species, I may give 
the measurements of two skulls of " Mu^ars " from India, 
of the same size, in the British-Museum collection : — 

Broad Narrow 

variety. variety. 

inches. inches. 

Length of the skuU along the forehead .91 9g 

Length of side of skuU 10| 10§ 

Width of back of skuU 5§ 5| 

AVidth in front of orbits 4| 4 

Width over largest tooth 3| 3j 

Width at notch 2L 2orlj| 

The broad-nosed variety (fig. 3) was presented by Sir J. 
Boileau, and the narrow one by Capt. Boys. 

A\Tien the two skulls are placed side by side, the large 
teeth are just the same distance apart ; and the different 
teeth in the two skulls exactly agree in size, position, and 
distance from each other. 



2. Bombifi-ons siamensis. (Siamese Muggar.) 
The face depressed, elongate, nearly smooth, with a slight 
nodule in front of the orbits ; intermaxiUarics rather 
elongate, half oblong. 

Crocodilus niloticus, Latr. liept. i. p. 206, t. (from Fau- 

jas de St.-Fond, Monl. St.-Pien-e, t. 43). 
Crocodilus siamensis, Schn. Amph. p. l.'iT. 

Grin/, Si/n. p. 60 ; Cai. Tort. c|- Crocod. B. M. p. 03 
(monstrosity)"? (from Perrmdt, Hist. Acad. Sci. in. 
p. 255, t. 54). 
Guiither, Eept. B. I. t. 18. f. 3. 
Strauch, Croc. p. 50. 
Crocodilus galeatus, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v. p. 52, t. 1. f. 9 
(from Perranlt). 

Bum. 4' Bihr. Erp. Gen. m. p. 113. 
Crocodilus palustris (part.),2)itn4. i^-Bibr. Erp. Gin. iii. p. 113. 
Crocodilus vulgaris (part.), Grnij, Sijn. p. 58. 
Diim. (|- Bdjr. Erp. Gen. ii. p. 108? 
Midler ^- ScJdcjel, Verh. t. 3. f. 9 (head ?). 
CrocodUus vulgaris, Owen, Cut. Osteol. Mas. CoU. Surr/. 

p. 107. no. 718? 
Bombifrons siamensis, Grai/, Ann. 6f Miir/. Nat. Hist. 3rd 
series, x. p. 2G0 ; Trans. Zool. Hoc. 1869, vi. p. 144. 

Hah. Siam, Cambojia {M. MouJiot). 

There is a weU-preserved half-grown siiecimcn of this 
species in the British Museum. It differs from all the spe- 
cimens of Bombifrons indicus in the collection in the face 
being much longer and not so tubercular and pitted. 

It has four series of nearly equal-sized, uniformly shaped, 
and keeled shields, with three interrupted series of unequal- 
sized smaller shields on each of the sides ; those of the outer 
series are the longest. 

As the head agrees with the figure of the head from which 
Schneider named his species, I have retained it ; and I have 
little doubt that the two keels which are present in that 
specimen are either an individual peculiarity or perhaps a 
character that developed itself as the animal approached 
old age I 

The skuU of the young animal in the Museum of the 
College of Surgeons, no. 718, appears to belong to this 
species ; but it requires more comparison. It is clearly a 
Bombifrons, and it is much smoother and longer than the 
skull of B. indicus of the same size and age. Prof. Owen 
observes, " The palatine suture between the premaxillary 
and maxillary bones passes obliquely backwards a little 
way at its commencement, and then extends truncated 
across ; but the premasUlary bones are larger than in the 
second Gangetio Crocodile. There is a small palpebrary 
ossicle above the anterior angle of the eyes." — Owen, I. c. 
p. 157. no. 718. 

There is a young specimen of a Crocodile, received from 
Singapore, which somewhat resembles the one from Siam 

in the form of the head, and has sis series of strongly 
keeled sliields on the back ; but the four middle ones, of 
nearly equal size and form, and those of the outer series, 
are narrower, and there is a series of much smaller ones 
below on each of the sides. I am by no means convinced 
that this will form a distinct species ; it is probably only 
an accidental or local variety. 

** The legs ivith an indented fringe of short narrow scales. 
Toes short, nearly free. American Crocodiles. 


The face oblong ; forehead very convex, with a ridge in 
front of each orbit, converging iu front and forming a 
lozenge-shaped space. Nuchal plates two or four, unequal. 
Cervical disk rhombic, of six largo plates. Dorsal plates 
large, broad, in six series ; the vertebral series nearly smooth, 
the lateral one strongly keeled. The intermaxiUaiy short, 
truncated behind the premaxillary, suture straight, trans- 
verse. (See Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iii. p. 72, t. 3. f. 1-5.) 

Palinia, Grmj, Cat. Tort, f Crocod. B. M. 1844 ; Ann. ^ 
Mai/. Nat. Hist. 3rd series, x. p. 270 ; Trans. Zool. Soc. 
1869, vi. p. 145. 

1. PaUnia rhombifera. (Cuban Palinia.) 

The upper surface of the forearms and thighs covered 
with convex keeled scales ; the outer edge of the legs and 
feet with a series of very elongate scarcely raised scales, 
forming only a slight fringe. The toes short, scarcely 

Aquez pahn, Hernaml. Nov. An. Mex. ii. p. 2. 
Crocodilus rhombifer, Cuvier, Ann. Mus. H. N. x. p. 51 ; 
Oss. Foss. V. p. 51, t. 3. f. 1-4. 

Tiedem., Oppel, ^ Lebosch, Nat. Amph. j). 75, t. 10. 

Graij, Sijn. Bept. p. 59. 

JJiira. 4' Bibr. Erp. Gin. iii. p. 97. 

Sar/ra, Cuba, t. 4. 

Strauch, Crocod. p. 41. 
Crocodilus rhombifer, Hu,clry, Proc. Linn. Soc. iv. p. 10. 

BJainv. Ostioi/'. Croc. t. 5. f. 3 (head?) (not Owen). 

Biirm. Oaria'l. t. 2. f. 4, t. 3. f. 5 (head). 
Crocodilus (Palinia) rhombifer, Gray, Cat. Tort. S^ Croc. 
B. M. p. 63 ; Ann. ^ May. Nat. Hist. 3rd ser. x. p. 270. 
Crocodilus planii'ostris. Graves, Ann. Gen. des Sci. Phys. de 
Bordeaux, n. p. 348. 

Gray, Syn. Bept. p. 59. 
Crocodilus Gravcsii, Bory de St.- Vincent, Diet. Class. H. N. 
iii. p. 109, t. . 

Bum. 4' Bihr. Erp. Gin. iii. p. 101. 
Palinia rhombifera. Gray, Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. p. 145. 

Hub. South America, Cuba (W. S. MacLeay, Eamon de 
la Sayra). 



Ill till' Ihiiish Alusoum there is ii woU-fjrown specimen, 
.") foot 4 inches long, of this species, collected in Cuba liy 
M. litimon do In Sjigra, and sent from the Frcncli Museum. 
Two young sjioeiniens in spirits, sent from Cuba !>)• J[r. W. 
S. MacLoay, are idmost 12 feet long, are pale brown, with 
small dots on the head, and a dark spot on tho middle of 
many of the dorsal scutella : tho face is irregularly tessel- 
lated with sipiare brown spots. 

Cuner described the Crocodihis rJiomhifer from two spe- 
cimens : — one in the Cabinet of the Academy of Sciences, in 
a nearly entire state ; and the other, a very mutilated skin, 
in the Museum, which also furnished him with tho skull 
figun'd in t. 3. f. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 of liis work on Fossil Bones, 
pp. r>l-70. The original habitats of these specimens wore 
not marki-d. But M. Kamou de la Sagra sent a young 
living specimen to the Jardin dcs Plantes, proving tliat 
this is an American species ; and it is probable that the 
Crocodile wliich llernandez describes and figures as coming 
from Xcw Spain, under the name of Aqite: palin, belongs 
to this species. 

M. Graves, in the ' Annales Generalcs dcs Sciences Phy- 
siques de Bordeaux,' describes a Crocodile under the name 
of C. planirostris, from a specimen which was formerly in 
the Collection of the Academy of Bordeaux, but is now in 
the Museum of that town. It was procured from M. 
Joumee, the surgeon of a ship that for some time traded 
with the negroes of the coast of Congo. M. Bory de St.- 
Vincent, for these reasons, thought it might have come 
from Africa; and he figured and described it under the 
name of Crocodihis GravesU in the Diet. Classique d'Hist. 
Nat. iii. p. 109, t. . 

MM. Dumeril and Bibron observe that, when they asked 
for a new account of the specimen, it was in such a bad 
condition that they could only reproduce the description 
written by M. Graves. The study of the description and 
figure, which are the only materials now left for the pur- 
pose, lead to the idea that it was not distinct from Croco- 
dilus rhomhifer, and was most probably brought from tho 
island of Cuba: the ships which are engaged in trade 
with the negroes on the coast of Congo frequently visit 
Cuba : so that it is not at all unlikely that the specimen 
was brought from that island. 

2. Palinia ? Moreletii. (Yucatan Palinia.) 

CrocodUus Moreletii, Dum. Arch, du Mus. vi. p. 255, t. 20 ; 

Cat. Kept. p. 28. n. 5*. 
Strauch, Croc. p. 42. 
Palinia ? Moreletii, Gray, Ann. S; Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd ser. 

X. p. 271 ; Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. p. 146. 

Dorsal scales keeled, nearly square ; scales of the sides 
and limbs smooth, without tubercles. 

J/al>. Yucatiin ; Lac Flores (M. Moreht). 

Tliis species is described from a specimen in tho Museum 
of Paris, which is very badly figured and indistinctly de- 
scribed in tho memoir above cited. 

There are two young specimens of Crocodiles, in spirit, 
without habitats, in the British Museum, which are pecu- 
liar in the large size of the nuchal shield, the strength of 
the keels of the dorsal shields, and the largo keeled scales 
of the forearms and thighs, in which they agree with 
Palinia rhombifera ; but there is so much difference be- 
tween the two, and between each of thcra and tho specimens 
of that species from Cuba, that I think they must be left 
in doubt for further elucidation. There are also two small 
stuffed specimens in tho collection (purchased of dealers, 
but without any locality attached), which are peculiar in 
having sis series of vmiform, squarish, very strongly keeled 
dorsal scales ; they are very unlike any other specimen in 
the collection, and may be uew ; but I do not like to de- 
scribe them in the present imperfect state of our know- 

b. The intermaxillary hone elonr/ate, produced and truncated 
behind ; the sutures sloping lachivards and converging, 
and then transverse or sinuous. Toes ivehhed. Legs 
with a fringe of elongated triangidar scales. 


Face oblong, depressed, without any ridge in front of the 
orbits. Nuchal shields four, in an arched series. Cervical 
disk rhombic, of six shields. Dorsal plates quadrilateral, 
as broad as long ; the vertebral series rather the widest 
and most keeled. Intermaxillary produced behind. 

Crocodilus, Ch-ay, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd ser. x. p. 271 ; 
Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. p. 146. 

" The Crocodiles live on the mud-banks or swimming 
about the rivers " of Africa. 

Dr. Balfour Baikie observes : — " The ninth upper tooth 
of Crocodiles is said to be enlarged like a canine ; but this 
is not correct. I have examined the dentition of eighteen 
skulls of various species : in the lower jaw there are always 
nineteen teeth ; but in the upper jaw the number in the 
adult is seventeen on either side, while in the young it is 
eighteen. This is owing to the second incisor being deci- 
duous ; and in old skuUs the socket is completely obliterated 



by the enlargement of the foramina for the two anterior 
teeth. Thus in old animals there are only four teeth in 
each intermaxillary bone, "while in the younger individuals 
there are always five. So, more strictly, it is the tenth, 
and not the ninth, upper tooth which is enlarged."— P. Z. S. 
1857, p. 50. 

1. Crocodilus vnlgaris. (Olive African Crocodile.) 

Crocodilus niloticus (part.). Baud. liept. ii. p. 267. 

WarjJer, Si/st. Amph. t. 7. f. 11. 1, 2. 
Crocodilus vulgaris, Cuvier, Oss. Fuss. v. p. 42, 1. 1 . f. 5 & 12, 
t. 2. f. 7. 

Blainv. OsUogr. Croc. p. 12G. 

Gray, Ann. Sf May. Nat. Hist. 3rd ser. s. p. 271 ; 
Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. p. 147, f. 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Huxley, Proc. Linn. Soc. iv. p. 6. 

Burm. Gavial. t. 2. f. 6, & t. 3. f. 9 (head). 

Strauch, Croc. p. 43. 
Ci-ocodilus suchus, Geojf. Ann. 3his. s. p. 84, t. 3. f. 2-4. 
Crocodilus chamses, Bory, Diet. Class. H. N. v. p. 105. 

FiK. 5. 

Crocodilus lacunosus, Gcnff. Croc. (TE'jypte, p. 167. 
Crociidihis marginatus, QeoJ]'. Desc. d'Ejypte, p. 365. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. p. 61. 
Crocodilus cataphractus, Ruppell, MS. 

Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 78 (Mus. Frankfort). 
Crocodile vcrd de Senegal, Adanson, Seneg. 

Cuvier, Oss. Foss. V. p. 4. 
Crocodilus acxitns, Owen, Cat. Osteol. Mus. Coll. Swrrj. p. 157. 

n. 715 (not Cuvier). 
Crocodilus binuensis, Balfour Bailcie, P. Z. S. 1857, xxv. 

pp. 49, 50 (skull described). 
Green Crocodile, Gray, Hep. of Brit. Assoc. 1862, Sections, 
p. 107. 

Hah. African rivers. Living on the mud-banks : North 
Africa, Egypt; West Africa, Senegal (Adanson), Gaboon 
(Murray, Cope) ; South Africa, Cape of Good Hope ; Cen- 
tral Africa, Kwora and Blnui (Bai/cie) ; Madagascar (Eavet, 
fide Cuvier, Oss. Foss. p. 44); Palestine, river Gischun 

The largest specimen in the British Museum is nearly 
Fig. 7. 

Fig. 6. 

Fig. 8. 



CrocodUxis vulgaris. Head and nuchal and cervical shields. 

15 feet long. There is a very fine skull received from Old 
Calabar, whose greatest width behind is 13 inches, length 
above upper surface from end of nose to back of occiput 
22 inches, width at the larger lateral tooth 7| inches, at 
the notch 4| inches. The intermaxillary bones are produced 
backwards between the ends of the maxilla!. The hinder 
nasal opening is transverse, inferior, and ascending nearly 
perpendicularly. The nose has two large oblong diverging 
prominences on the sides — one over the hinder edge of the 

notch, and the other over the hinder part of the root of the 
largest tooth, behind the notch. 

There is a second skuU from West Africa in the Museum, 
of nearly the same length, which is considerably narrower 
in aU its parts. Length along the upper surface from the 
end of the nose to back edge of occiput 20-L inches ; greatest 
width behind 12 inches, at largest lateral tooth 6i inches, 
at the notch 3| inches. 

These two skulls rather differ in the direction of the 



suturi" behind llip maxillan- lioncs : in the vddcT specimen 
it isniiu'li more proiliux^d lu-liind th;m in the other. 

I have oxnminiMl nntl compared witli c are siieeimens of 
different ages frjni North Africa i\ear tlie Nile, from West 
Africa nt Senepd and Ciaboon, South Africa at the Cape 
of Goo<l IIopo and Natal, and a specimen brought from 
Centnd Africa by Pr. liaikie ; and althougli they each ex- 
hibiti-d certain peculiarities, yet 1 believe, as far as the 
specimens at my command enable mo to form a judgment, 
that they all belong to a single species wliich is generally 
distributed over the African continent. 

At the same time, from the slight differences which the 
spocimeus from the different localities do exhibit, I should 
not be surprised, if we had a complete series of perfect 
specimens and of skulls of diftcreut ages from each locality, 
to find that there were sufficient differences between (hem 
to show that each locality has a special local variety or, 
perhaps, species : but unfortunately there is not in the 
liritish Museum, or in the other museums and collections 
to which I have access, such a scries ; all the specimens 
from the Cape of Good Hope and West Africa seem to be 
either in the adidt or very young state, while those from 
the other localities are either very young or of an inter- 
mediate age. On the other hand, the series of specimens 
from the same locality, as from S. Africa for example, 
whence we have most specimens, exhibit variations among 
themselves quite as great as between the specimens from 
various parts of Africa. It is therefore more safe to re- 
gard them all as one species. 

Tlie species grow to a large size ; we have a specimen 
from the Nile and some from the Cape of Good Hojic in 
the British Museum which are nearly 1.5 feet long. 

The skulls which seem to belong to larger specimens 
often reach the length of 24 or 2.5 inches. 

The history of the Nile Crocodile is given in great detail 
in the fifth volume of Cuvier's ' Eecherches sur les Osse- 
mens Fossiles,' v. p. 43. 

Geoflroy St.-HUaire, in his ' Essay on the Crocodiles of 
Egypt,' separated the Egyptian specimens into two species, 
under the name of CrococUlus laennosKS and C. manjinatus. 
In the ' Annates du Museum,' vol. x. p. 83, he described a 
third, under the name of C. sikJiv.s. Professor Owen has 
figured the skull of a Crocodile, from an Egyptian mummy, 
under the name of C. sucJms, Geoff., in the ' Monograph of 
the Fossil EeptUia of the London Clay,' published by the 
Palaeontographical Society, 18-50, t. 1. f. 2. I do not see 
how it differs from the Crocodiles at present found in the 
leUe. See also Huxley, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. iv. p. 1.5. 

In the 'Catalogue of Tortoises and Crocodiles,' p. 61, I 

sejiarated the adult (!ape Crocodiles from the North-African 
specimens, under the name of C. marc/hxttus, because the 
head is not so narrow ; but it is to bo observed that most 
of the North-African specimens with which I had com- 
piu'cd them were of small size, and consequently had the 
head less developed. 

T)r. Baikie described the Crocodile of Central Africa, 
found in the river Kwora and liinue (or Niger and Twedda) 
under the name of Crocodihis hinuensis ; it is of a dark 
green colour, and lives on the mud-banks or swimming in 
the rivers. 

Mr. Cope (' Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia' for 1859, p. 290) regards the 
Crocodile of Equatorial Western Africa (Ogobai) as the 
Crocodihis marginatus of Geoffrey. 

Dr. A. Smith, referring the Cape specimens to Grocodilus 
man/lnafits, observes, " they are occasionally found in the 
rivers west of Port Natal, but more abundantly in those 
to the eastward and northward, and occur in such num- 
bers in the rivers in a district north of Knrrichanc, between 
24° and 22° south latitude, that the natives who used to 
reside there were known by the appellation Baquana=t}ie 
people of the Crocodile." — Zool. South Africa, Appendix, 
p. 2, 1845. 

MM. Dumeril and Bibron, in their ' Erpetologie Gene- 
rale,' iv. p. 1U4, divided their Crocodilus vidgarls into four 
varieties, thus : — 

Var. a. The Crocodilus vuhjarls of Geoffrey, from North 
Africa, Egypt, and the Nile. 

Yar. b. Crocodilus ^xdtistris, Lesson, described from a 
specimen sent from the Ganges by M. Duvaucel, and from 
the coast of Malabar by M. Dussutoier. 

Var. c The Crocodilus marrjinatus, I. Geoffrey, from 
North Egypt and the Cape of Good Hope. 

Var. d. The Crocodile verd of Adanson, from the Nile, 
the Niger, and Senegal. 

There is no doubt that vars. a, c, and d are true Cro- 
codiles, and are what is considered in this essay to be the 
Crocodilus vulgaris of Africa. Var. b, on the other hand, 
does not belong to the same genus. I have not the slightest 
doubt this variety is founded on young and half-grown 
specimens of Bombifrons indicus, most distinct from Croco- 
dilus vulr/aris by the form of the head and the structure 
of the skull, as MM. Dumeril and Bibron would have 
found if they had examined any of the twelve specimens 
which they say they procured. They have named the 
adult specimen in the Paris Museum C. biporcatus. 

In the ' Ann. & Mag. of Natural History,' vol. xviii. t. 7, 
Dr. Falconer figures the skuU of a Crocodile under the 



Fipr. 9. 

Molmia intermedia. Skull, adult. 

name of C. marginatus, which is in the Belfast Museum. 
It is said to have been brought from Sierra Leone ; but I 
think this must be a mistake : it is not like the skull of 
any Crocodile I have seen from West Africa, and it is not a 
bad representation of the skull of a half-grown Bombifrons 
indints from India. Can the habitat be a mistake ? Per- 
haps the habitat was only intended for the first-described 
species, Cataphractus mecistops, for which it is the true 

A skuU of Cvocodilus vulijaris is described in Professor 
Owen's ' Catalogue of the Osteological Specimens in the 
iluseum of the College of Surgeons " under the name of 
Crocodilus acutus, p. 157. no. 715. 


Face elongate; forehead swollen, convex, especially in 
the adult ; orbits without any anterior ridge. Nuchal plates 
two or four, small. Cervical disk rhombic, of six plates, 
the side plates generally small. The legs fringed with a 
series of triangular elongate scales. Toes webbed. Scales 

of the forearm and thigh thin, smooth. Muzzle oblong, 
elongate, slender, with a swollen convexity on the middle 
of the face before the eyes. Nostril not separated by a 
long ridge : the internal nostril posterior, with an oblong 
sloping opening ; the intermaxillary suture produced be- 
tween tlie ends of the masiUse. 

Molinia, Gray, Ann. ij- Mcif/. Sat. Hist. 3rd ser. x. p. 27'2 ; 
Trcms. Zool. Soc. 1809, vi. p. 150. 

* Face slender. Dorsal plates irreyidar ; the central series 
small, keeled ; lateral scattered, stroni/li/ keeled. Nasal 
hones produced to the nostrils. Molinia. 

1. Molinia americana. (American Crocodile.) 

Crocodilus americanus (I'lumieri), Sclin. AmjiJt. ii. p. 23. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. c$- Croc. ^r. B. M. p. 60. 
Crocodilus acutus, Geoff. Ann. Mus. ii. p. 53, t. 57. f. 1. 

Cnvier, Oss. Foss. v. t. 1. f. 3 & 14, t. 2. f. 5. 

Gray, Syn. p. 60. 

Bum. Sf Bihr. Erp. Gen. iii. p. 120. 



I'rocodilus iioutus. Oicni. Cut. O.itfol. SpiC. ^[us. Coll. Siinj. 
\>. ]'u. iios. 711, 711*. 714, 71i>; lirpt. of Lomlon Chuj, ' 
t. IT), f. 10. 

B,hM. SktUl. Krokod. t. N & II, t. 10, t. 17. 
liurm. Gaviiil. t. l'. 1'. 1. 3, & t. 3. f. '), (!, 7 (head). 
Crocixiilus !uucricaiius(acutus, Cuv.), llu.rlf>i, Joitni. IVoc. 

iiiiii. i^'iK-. iv. !>. 11, ljsi!!». 
Moliiiin amoricaiiii, (rivii/, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. sit. ;j, 

X. p. 1*7-; Tnins. Zool. Soc. lS(i9, vi. p. 150. 
*? Cnx'odilus biscutatus (jmrt.), Cuv. Oss. Foaa. x. t. 12. f. (>. 

Tiolnn. Amph. t. 12. 
Crocodile do St.-Dominsuc, Ocoff. Ann. tlu Miis. ii. p. 53, 
t. 27. f. 1. 

llab. Tropical America. Cuba (W. S. MacLfai/); Ja- 
maica (B. M.) ; Wost Ecuador, Nicaragua (Fraser, lii- 
chanlson): West coast of America (B,l<her) : St. Domingo 
(Ci/i'iVr); Guatemala (Salvin). 

The siK'cimens in tlie British Museum var\- in length 
from 19 to 103 inches ; and the skulls show that they grow 
to a larger size. 

Croi-odihis ^laciJifHS from Guatemala, C. Itwyamis from 
Columbia, and C. mej-icanus, Bocourt, Nouv. Arch. Mus. iv. 
(with two plates of animal and skull), are probably only 
varieties of this species. 

Var. with two additional small cervical scutella behind 
the others. 
Crocodilus americanus. var ?, Crraij, Cat. Tort. 4' Croc. B. M. 

p. 00. 
Crocodilus acutus, var., A. Dum. Cat. Rept. p. 2S ; Arch, du 

Mas. vi. p. 256. 
Molinia americaua, var., Grai/. Ann. 4' ^I'lrj. Nat. Hist. x. 

p. 272; Trans. Zuol. Soc. 1869, vi. p. 151. 

Hab. AVest coast of America {Belcher) ; Mexico ( Warwiclc). 

Cuvier, in his ' Essay,' gives the history of this species 
under the name of " Le Crocodile a museau effile, ou de 
Saint-Domingue (Crocodilus acutus, nob.)," Oss. Foss. v. 
p. 45S, and figures the skull at t. 1. f. 3 & 14, and the nu- 
chal shield at t. 2. f. 5. 

Professor Briihl described and figured the skeleton of 
this species in his work. There is the skeleton of a well- 
grown specimen in the British Museum, and several skulls. 
The central prominence of the hinder part of the muzzle is 
sometimes much less developed than in the typical skulls. 

** Face very slender. Dorsal plates nearly uniform. Nasal 
bones not produced qidie to the nostrils. Temsacus. 

2. MoUnia intermedia. (Orinoco Crocodile.) 
(Fig. 9.) 

Dorsal plates in sis rows, all slightly and nearly equally 

elevated : the keels of tlio two vertebral series rather liirger 
than the othcr.s, ipKulrilati'ral, rather broader than long ; 
the lateral ones oval, with five or six large plates forming 
an iiiterniiiled line ou tlie sides. 

Crocodilus intcnncdius, Graves, Ann. Sci. Phys. ii. p. 344. 

Gray, Syn. p. 59. 
Crocodilus Journei, Bory, Diet, d'llist. Nat. v. p. 3. 
])um. 4' Bihr. Erp. Gin. iii. p. 129. 
A. Dtimcril, Arch, du Museum, x. p. 172, t. 14. f. 3 

Jlu.vlfy, Priic. Linn. tSoc. iv. p. 11. 
(Iroeodile de rOreno(iue, Parzudali, MS. 
Mecistops Journei (part.). Gray, Cat. Tort. Sf Croc. B. M. 

p. 58 (from Bory). 
Molinia intermedia, Graif, Ann. 4' May. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, 
vol. X. p. 272 ; Trans'. Zool. Soc. 1SG9, vi. p. 151, pi. 32. 
tigs. 4-6. 
?'.' ileeistops bathyrhynchus, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, 1S60, xii. p. 550 (skull). 

Hab. America: Orinoco. 

There is a young specimen in spirits in the British Mu- 
seum, sent by M. Brandt, of Hamburg, as Crocodilus acutus, 
and an adult skull, 20 inches long, received from Paris as 
Crocodile de I'Orenoque, and a second very large skull pur- 
chased in London. 

In my Catalogue of Tortoises and Crocodiles in the 
British-Museum collection, from aU 1 could then learn, 
I was induced to believe that the Crocodilus intermedius 
of Graves was the same as the Crocodilus Schlegelii of 
Borneo, and I therefore called the Bornean animal Me- 
cistops Journei. M. Dumeril, in his paper in the ' Archives 
du Museum,' not seeing the mistake, says that I refer 
the true Crocodilus intermedius to the genus Mecistops, 
and suggests that the Crocodilus acutus ought also to 
belong to it. 

M. Auguste Dumeril, for the purpose of comparing 
the head of this Crocodile with that of Crocodilus lepto- 
rhynchus of West Africa, gave a figure of the head and 
front part of the back of the Crocodile de Journee (Archives 
du Museum, x. p. 173, t. 14. f. 3) ; but it does not appear 
whether it is from a specimen, or only an enlarged 
copy of the figure of M. Bory de St.-Vincent. If the 
latter, it is so embellished that one is unable to discover 
its origin. 

Mr. Cope states that I have identified his Mecistops hra- 
cJiyrhynchus with the " C. intermedius of Graves ;" with the 
limited published materials as a basis he has reached a dif- 
ferent conclusion. (Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 
1865, p. 185.) 



Fi:?. 1'^. 

Fi";. 12. 

Fis. 11. 

Fig. 13. 

Halcrosia nigra, young. Head and cerrieal and nuchal plates. 

II. Nape with a broad flat-topped shield formed of two 
or three pairs of keded plates, strongly keeled on each 
side, and nearly continuous with the dorsal shield. 
Legs fringed. Toes webbed. Abnormal Crocodiles. 
A. Face broad ; nasal bone produced into the nostril. AUi- 
gatoroid Crocodiles. 

The premaxillary suture transverse, rather convex back- 
wards. Nasal bones produced beyond the intermaxillary, 
and forming a bony septum between the nostrils. The 
palatine bone produced to the same level as the lateral 
opening — that is, to the lateral inflection of the skuU. The 
face oblong, broad, without any ridge in front of the orbit. 
Eyelids with two bony plates. Nuchal plates four, in a 
cross row, strongly keeled. Dorsal plates in four scries ; 
the central broad, slightly keeled ; the outer narrow, di- 
stinctly keeled ; sides with largo convex scales. 
Halcrosia, Gray, Ann. Sf Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd series, x. 

p. 273 ; Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. p. 152. 
Osteolsemus, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. sii. p. 550. 
Prof. LiUjeborg has described an Halcrosia Afselii from a 
specimen in the Swedish Museum, sent by Afzelius from 

Sierra Leone (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 715) ; but it appears 
to be only a slight variety of Halcrosia nigra. 

Mr. Cope claims priority for the genus Osteolmnus, and 
states that his 0. tetraspis should not be identified with 
Halcrosia nigra (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1867, p. 200) ; but 
it appears to be only a slight variety. 

Halcrosia has the square head and elongated cervical 
shield formed of single pairs of scuteUa, and the bony eyelids 
of the Alligators with bony eyelids ; but it is a Crocodile, and 
there are two bones in the eyelid instead of one as in 
Caiman p>alpchrosus. 

The skull of the Alligator palpebrosus is easily known 
from that of this species, even in the young, by the cheeks 
of the former being flattened and nearly erect, and of the 
latter spread out, and in the supratemporal fossa; being 
open, while in the AUigator they are closed even in the 
young specimens. Most probably it was from an exami- 
nation of a skull of this CrocodUe that the statement has 
arisen that in some Alligators the canine teeth sometimes 
fit into a notch in the upper jaw, and not into a pit as they 
normally do in that genus. I wiU not undertake to say 
that such an abnormal state does not exist in the genus 
Alligator ; but I have not observed it. 

I) 2 



1. Halcrosia nigra. (Rlnck Africnn Crocodile.) 

(Figs. 10-i;J.) 

Krokodile noir du Nijrer, Adanson, MS., Miis. P<u-is (see 

C'miVr. O.ts. Fuss. iii. p. 41). 
African Ulaok Crocodile. Ortii/, li<-p. Brit. A.'ss. 1862, Sect. 

J.. 107. 
CrvKodilus nigcr, lAttr. Jfist. Nitl. Rept. i. p. ■■>!<' (.from 

Crocodilus iwli>obrosus, var. 2, Ciivia; O.w. Foss. iii. p. 41, 

t. 2. f. (> (part.). 
Crocoililus trigoiintus (part.), Ciivit'r, Oss. /•().•>•.«. iii. p. (''•). 
Osteohvmus tetraspis. Cope, Proc. Acad. Sdt. Sci. Philml. 

xii. p. "loO. 
Crocodilus frontutu.'s, A. Mwra,/. P. Z. S. 1862, pp. 139, 

213, tisr. head, t. 29, by Ford. 

Striiiicli, Si/n. Croc. t. 1 (head, younp;). 
Hnlcrosia frontata, Gnii/, Ann. ij- Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd ser. 

X. p. 277. 
Halcrosia ni<ji-n, Gra;/. Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. p, 153, 
Halcrosia Alzelii, LiUjehonj, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 715. 

Hab. West Africa : Senegal {Adauson) ; Gaboon ; Old 
Calabar; Ogobai River (Cope). 

Black, slightly mottled with pale whitish. Head pale 
olive, black-dotted; sides of lower jaw black-banded ; muzzle 
broad, oblong, trigonal, rather dilated on the sides ; fore- 
head high, broad, flat, with a small tubercle at the front 
angle of the orbit. Xuchal shields strongly keeled, two in 
a cross line in two gronps. Cervical shields six, in three 
pairs, all close together ; the two anterior pairs of equal 
size, large, strongly keeled, and bent in on the outer sides; 
the hinder pairs much smaller. The vertebral series of 
dorsal shields broad, square, scarcely keeled, with one, and 
in the front of the back two rows of oval, elongated, keeled 
shields on the side of them, and a few isolated, scattered, 
compressed, high, tubercular-like small ovate shields on 
the sides of the body. Shields of the upper arm oblong, 
trigonal, keeled, in six oblique cross series. The lines of 
the upper jaw sinuous, three-parted ; the front with five, 
the second with seven, and the hinder with five teeth. 

The largest specimen I have seen is in the Free Museum 
at Liverpool, and is nearly five feet long ; but I have no doubt 
it grows larger. The muzzle of this specimen from the tip 
of the nose to the orbit is 3| inches, its width in front of 
the orbit 2i inches, and at the notch of the canine teeth 
1 h inch. The eyelid is obliquely divided fiom the front of 
the orbit to the back of the eye. 

Tlie Black African Crocodiles appear to be a common 
species on the west coast of Africa ; for they are often 
brought to the port of Liverpool by the palm-oil ships, and 
frequently in a living state : indeed I am informed that 
there were some lately alive in the Society's Gardens in 
the Regent's Park. 

ilr. Andrew Murray, at my recommendation, has de- 
scribed it in the ' Proceedings ' of the Society as a now 
species of Crocodile under the name of C. frontatus ; for at 
that instant it did not occur to me that it might be the 
Black CroeodUe of .Vdanson, noticed as an Alligator. It 
is to bo observed that, although they liave specimens of this 
Crocodile in the Paris Museum in such abundance as to 
part with the skeleton of it as a duplicate, it is not in- 
cluded as Alligator j}al2)elrosiis, or under any name, in M. 
Aviguste Pumeril's List of the Rejitiles of West Africa, 
printed in th(^ last volume of the ' Archives du Museum ' 
of Paris. 

This Crocodile has very much the external appearance 
of the Caiman with bony eyelids, Crocodilus pa}2^ehrosus, 
Cuncr ; and I think it very likely that Cuvier mistook a 
specimen of it in the Paris Museum, which Adanson had 
marked vnih. his own hand " Krokodile noir du Niger," for 
a specimen of that species (see Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iii. 
p. 41); and it is still confounded with that species by 
the French naturalists : for there is a specimen in the 
British Museum, lately sent from M. Braconier, of the 
French Museum, under the name oi Caiman d paupieres 

Adanson, in his ' Voyage to Senegal,' at p. 10, mentions 
the occurrence of Crocodiles, and at p. 73 a second kind of 
Crocodile, which is as large as the other, and distinguished 
by the black colour and by the jaws being much more 
elongated. It is more carnivorous, and said to be fond of 
human flesh. 

Cuvier, in his essay on the species of existing Crocodiles, 
first published in the KJth volume of the ' Annales du 
Museum," and reprinted in his ' Ossemens Fossiles,' under 
the head of Le Caiman a paupieres osseuses {Crocodilus 
palpehrosus, nob.), after dividing this species into two 
varieties, expressed a doiibt if they were not inhabitants 
of different continents. He observes, " One of my indivi- 
duals, which has been for many years in the museum, has 
on it the half-effaced name of Krokodile noir du Niger in 
the handwriting of Adanson," — and proceeds thus : — " This 
naturalist, in his ' Voyage,' speaks of two Crocodiles in the 
Senegal. M. de Beauvois adds that he saw at Guinea a 
Crocodile and a Caiman. It is therefore clear that there 
is a species with the form of a Caiman that inhabits Africa. 

" There remains still an embarrassment. Adanson says 
his Black Crocodile has the muzzle longer than the Green, 
which is certainly the same as the Crocodile of the Nile ; 
but we have a specimen ticketed by his own hand which 
has a much shorter muzzle than that from Egypt. 

" Has Adanson made a mistake in writing this phrase ? 



or has he erroneously ticketed the specimen ? How arc 
we to disentangle these errors?" &c. (vol. v. p. 41). 

Dumeril & Bibron, in their ' Erpetologie Gcncrale ' (vol. 
iii. p. 75), adopt and repeat all that Cuvier has said, and 
still doubt if these two varieties may not be found, the one 
in America, the other in Africa. 

If Cuvier and his successors had examined the two spe- 
cimens on which they founded the account of his second 
variety of C. j'^^J^e^'fostis, they would have found that they 
were not only distinct species, but also species belonging 
to two genera or subgenera. The one which had served as 
the model for Scba, and which Seba, with the usual in- 
attention to true habitats at that period, said came from 
Ceylon, was a true AlUijator and a native of America ; and 
the other, ticketed by Adanson as from the Niger, was 
really a Crocodile from Africa : so that the sarcastic obser- 
vation which he made on travellers, and which may in 
some cases be true, was in this instance uncalled for, the 
traveller being in fact more accurate than the cabinet 
naturalist ; and Adanson only made a slip of the pen in 
saj-ing that the beak was hnrjer instead of sJiorler than the 
common Green Crocodile ; and any one who compares the 
Black Crocodile of Africa with an American Caiman vriU 
not think 31. Beauvois was very much out when he called 
it a " Caiman." 

Cuvier, in his Essay, when describing C'rocodllus biscuta- 
tus, established on the Gcivial du Senega! of Adanson, again 
refers to the Crocodile noir of that author. He states that 
among the drawings of Adanson there is a figure of a C'ro- 
codllus vuhjaris named Crocodile noir, and a Caiman a 
paiipiires osscuses inscribed the Crocodile vert. This must 
evidently have been an inadvertence, like the length of the 
nose ; but, as Cuvier observed, this is pardonable, as Adanson 
most probably named these drawings after he had forgotten 
them, and had been studj-ing other things, long after his 
voyage, which occupied some of the first years of his 
youth. (See Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iii. p. 53.) 

A Caiman, in some of its characters, but which is never- 
theless a true Crocodile, with the canines fitting into a 
notch and not into a pit in the upper jaw, is, there cannot 
be a doubt, the Crocodile that Adanson referred to ; for it 
agrees with his description in its colour and in its fcTocious 
habits. And further, that it is the Crocodile that the 
French naturahsts refer to, is i^roved by the fact, already 
recorded, that we have received from one of the persons 
employed by M. DumerO. at the Paris Museum a skeleton 
of a young specimen of the Black CrocodQe of West Africa 
as the skeleton of the American Alligator palpehrosus of 

Dr. Strauch refuses to believe that " Le CrocodUe noir '" 
of Adanson is the Crocod iltts frontatus, which is universally 
known as the Black Crocodile in West Africa, where Cro- 
codilus cataphractus is called a Gavial (see Zool. Rec. 
1866, p. 122). He afterwards gives in detail the reasons 
why he refers Adanson's " Crocodile noir " to C. cutaphrac- 
^tts and not to C. fro7itatus,a.nd states that Adanson's " Ga- 
vial du Senegal," which is the C hiscutat'iis, Cuvier, is in 
fact an American species and identical with C. aciUiis 
(BuU. Ac. Sc. St. Petersb. xiii. p. 51, or Melang. Biol, 
vi. p. C22 ; Zool. Rec. 1868, p. 120). These observations 
are a good example of the mistakes an industrious compUer 
may fall into. Ho forgets that Adanson wrote in Senegal 
about Senegal animals, and was not likely to describe or 
figure an American species. The best way to explain his 
descriptions is to compare them with West-African speci- 
mens, and with the names given to them by the inha- 

B. Face very long, slender ; nasal not reaching to the 
nostril. Gavialoid Crocodiles. 


Face subcylindrical, scarcely dilated in the middle ; orbits 
simple. Nuchal shields numerous, small, in two cross 
series. Cervical disk narrow, containing two or three 
pairs of plates. Dorsal plates small, all keeled, in six 
longitudinal scries, lateral one narrowest. Intermaxil- 
lary produced behind, and embracing the front end of the 

Mecistops, Gray, Ana. 4' J/cw/. Nat. Hist. 3rd series, x. 
p. 273 ; Cat.^ Tort. 4' Croc. ' B. M. p. 58 : Trans. Zool. 
Soc. 1809, vi. p. 156. 

Huxley, Froc. Linn. Soc. iv. p. 15, 1859. 

This genus has some resemblance to the Gavials ; but the 
structure of the skull and the position of the teeth are those 
of a true Crocodile. 

Professor Owen observes, " There is, however, a very 
close resemblance in the elongate, slender pi'oportinn of the 
skull, and the elongated festooned border of the jaws, 
between this species and the Crocodilus Schlegelii from 
Borneo." — Loc, cit. p. 158. The Crocodilus Schlegelii is a 

Dr. Falconer observes, " The nasal bones (in Mecistops) 
are extremely narrow and attenuated ; but, as in the true 
Crocodiles, they descend between the maxillaries so as to 
project into a notch between the intermasiUaries. The 


Fis. 14. 

FiR. Ki. 

Fisr. 15. 

Fig. 17. 


Mecisiojis cataphractm, young. Head and nuchal and cervical shields 

same holds good in C. Schle^jelii, where, as with the Gavials, 
the nasal terminates a short way in front of the orbits, and 
does not enter into the formation of the anterior portion of 
the beak " (p. 363). " This character is a good diagnostic 
mark between the Crocodile proper and the Gavial, sepa- 
rating C. Schfeffflii from the latter genus, under which 
MiiUer ranged it " (p. 363). 

Dr. Balfour Baikie states, " In all essentials the skuU of 
the Mecistops shows it to be properly classed as a member 
of the family CrocodLlidoe rather than the GaviaUdae. The 
teeth are irregular, the sides of the jaw not parallel ; there 
is a distinct swelling opposite the ninth remaining upper 
molar, and the lower canines are received into notches in 
the upper jaw."— P. Z. S. 1857, p. 58. 

1. Mecistops cataphractas. (^African False Gavial.) 
(Figs. 14-17.) 

Crocodilus biscutatus, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iii. pp. 52, 65, t. 5 

(very young). 
Crocodilus bisulcatuS; Bory, Diet. Class. H. N. v. p. 108 

Crocodilus cataphractus (Crocodile a nuque cuirassee), 
Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v. t. 5. f. 1. 2 [copied, A. Dimi. Arch. 
du Mus. X. t. 14. fig. 2]. 

Dura. 4' Bihr. E. G. iii. p. 126 (young). 
Bennett, Proc. Zoo?. Soc. 1834, p. 110. 
Owen, Cat. Osteal. Spec. Mus. Coll. Sury. p. 155. n. 710 
(Cuvier's type). 
The Crocodile, Bowdieh, Madeira, p. 232. 

Crocodilus leptorhynchus, Bennett, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 129. 
A. Dum. Arch, du Mus. x. p. 252, & i. p. 171, t. 14. 
f. 1. 
Mecistops cataphractus, Grai/, Cat. B. M. p. 58 ; Trans. 

Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. p. 157. 
Mecistops Bennettii, Gray, Cat. B. M. p. .57. 
Gavial of Senegal, Gray, Hep. Brit. Assoc. 1862, Sect. p. 107. 
Mecistops, Balfour Baikie, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 58. 

Hab. West and Central Africa : ? Fernando Po (Benne^) ; 
Gaboon, Lagos. Central Africa, river Binue (Baikie). 

The species has been described from small young speci- 
mens. It grows to a large size. There is an imperfect 
specimen which is scarcely adult, in the British Museum, 
that was sent from Fernando Po by Capt. R. F. Burton, 
which must have been 13 or 14 feet long. Unfortunately 
it wants the head ; the body is 5 feet, and the tail 8^ feet 

The specimen originally sent by Mr. Bennett was said 
to have come from Fernando Po ; but Dr. Balfour Baikie 
observes that Fernando Po is a small volcanic island, totally 
without the muddy rivers delighted in by Crocodiles, and 
possessing nothing but streams (which during the rainy 
season are tumultuous mountain-torrents) with rocky beds. 
—P. Z. S. 1857, p. 5.S. 

Most probably Mr. Bennett's specimen came from the 
coast, and was only received through agents at Fernando Po. 

Cuvier, in his essay, described, under the name of Croco- 



diJiis bisciiffitus, and figured the nuchal shields at t. 2. f. G, 
a species of Crocodile founded on a specimen in the French 
Museum which is lahelled in Adanson's handwriting 
" Gavial da SetieyaJ,'' and also on a verj' mutilated stuffed 
specimen which Cuvier found in the Museum of the Aca- 
demy of Sciences at Paris (see Oss. Foss. v. pp. 53, 65, t. 2. 
f. 6). He observes, " The colour of these specimens is 
scarcely darker than that of the common Crocodile ; there- 
fore it cannot be the Black Crocodile of Adunson." And 
he further specially remarks that " the jaws are a little 
longer and narrower than those of C. vulr/aris, but not so 
long and slender as those of C actdus." It resembles the 
latter in the dorsal shield of the vertebral line being only 
slightly keeled ; but its peculiar character is that the mid- 
dle of its nape is armed with two large pyramidal shields, 
and with two smaller ones in front of them. 

This Crocodile has been a paradox until this time. 
MM. Dumcril and Bibron regarded this mutilated specimen 
as only a specimen of the American Crocodile (C ameri- 
canus) with an anomalous development of the cervical and 
nuchal shields, observing that the specimens of this species 
are liable to variation in this respect ; but yet they do not 
describe any as exactly resembling Cuvier's description or 

It does not appear that the specimen labelled by Adan- 
son came under the examination of these naturalists ; at 
least I cannot find any reference to it in their work. 
Cuvier, unfortunately, does not state its size ; but I have 
a strong opinion that it must have been a very young spe- 
cimen oi Mecisto2^s catriphractus, before its elongated jaws 
were developed, and that the name of Gavial du Sener/al 
was very applicable to it. The back is grooved by the 
flatness of the vertebral series of shields, as described by 
Cuvier, and as is characteristic of the American Crocodile 
(C. a«(<«s)with which MM.Dumeril and Bibron compared 
it. But this is a ijuestion which can only be solved by 
the examination of the original specimens. 

Cuvier, in his Essay (vol. v. p. .58), observes, '• When 
in England in 1818, 1 saw at the Museum of the College 
of Surgeons a dried specimen of a Crocodile." This he 
describes and figures under the name of " Crocodile a nuque 
cuirassee" {Crocodilus cataphractus, nob.). 

In 1834 Mr. Edward Turner Bennett (P. Z. S. ii. p. 10) 
gave a notice of a specimen of Croeodilus mtaphractus of 
Cuvier being aUve in the gardens of the Zoological Society. 
At the Meeting of the Society on the' 22nd September, 
1835 (P. Z. S. iii. p. 129), after the animal had died, on 
more close examination he described this animal as a new 
species, under the name of Croeodilus leptorhynchus ; 

and Mr. Martin added some notes on its internal 

It is to be observed that Mr. Bennett and I were misled 
on this occasion by the erroneous breadth given to the 
animal in the figure published by Cuvier ; for he speaks of 
the length of the head being to its breadth as 3 to 1, in- 
stead of 2| to 1. 

In the Catalogue of the Tortoises, Crocodiles, and 
Amphibians in the Collection of the British Museum, 
published in 1844, I formed a genus under the name of 
Mecistops for this animal, and for the first time described 
a full-grown specimen of it, which we had received from 
the Gambia as Mecistops Bennettii; for M. lleiidal con- 
sidered it distinct from Cu'S'ier's animal, but observed that 
they might be varieties. This might aU have been avoided 
if we could have seen the original specimen ; but when I 
inquired for it, it could not be found. 

The specimen described and figured by Cuvier is fortu- 
nately now to be seen in the Museum of the College of 
Surgeons, referred to under No. 710 in the Catalogue of 
Osteological Specimens in that collection. It is a young 
dried specimen of the Crocodile which is now so frequently 
brought from the west coast of Africa ; and it affords no 
ground for the supposition of M. Dumeril, expressed in his 
paper " On the IleptUes of Western Africa " (Arch, du 
Mus. V. p. 252), that these may be distinct species ; and it 
shows that the figure of Cuvier, though characteristic, is 
not very carefully drawn, and that any difterence that may 
appear results from want of accuracy in the figure, and is 
not to be found in the animal itself, — supj^orting the opinion 
that I expressed in my paper in the ' Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist.' ser. 3, x. p. 274. 

M. Atiguste Dumeril, in his paper " On the Reptiles of 
Western Africa" (Archiv du Mus. x. p. 271), gives a good 
figure of a half-grown specimen of this species under the 
name of Croeodilus leptorhynchus, t. 14, aud places by the 
side of it a tracing of Cuvier's figure of Croeodilus cata- 
phractus to show that they cannot be alike; but the com- 
parison of the specimens on which these species were 
founded shows how much better it is to refer to nature 
than to depend on figures and descriptions, which are liable 
to the imperfection attending human observation and record. 

Dr. Falconer, in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History ' for 1 846 (xviii. p. 362, t. 6), described and figured 
a skuU of this species under Cuvier's name, which was in 
the Belfast Museum, and said to have been sent from 
Sierra Leone. " 

Dr. Balfour Baikie described the skull of a specimen 
from the river Binue ^see P. Z. S. 1857, p. 58). 




Tlu' upper and olovoiitli lowor tot'th loiigor, like cmiines, 
the ciiuiues of the lower juw titting iuto holes or pcrfoni- 
tions on the edge of tlio upper jaw. 

AUiiratoridw, Orai/, Cat. Tort. ijv. B. M. ]). 50, 1844 ; Trans. 
Zool. ifoc. 18{i!i, vi. p. Kit). 

Hu.vlty, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. iv. p. 3. 
Alligator, C'lii'iVc. 

(Jnii/, Ann. Phil. x. p. 195. 

Teeth strong, uneipial, the hinder ones differ in shape 
from the iiuterior. The front pair of mandibular teeth 
iuid the fourth pair (canines) ai-e received into pits on the 
edge of the pnvmaxilla and maxillai. The mandibular 
teeth behind these pass inside and not between the maxil- 
lary teeth. The premaxillo-maxiUary suttu-e on the palate 
is straight or convex forwards. The symphysis of the 
lower jaw is short. 

SpLx, in his work on Brazilian Lizards, gives very good 
figures of the Alligators, with the colours well marked. 
The memoir on South-American Alligators by Natterer 
contains ver)- accurate and detailed figures of the head and 
the neck-shield of the different species. He has figured 
some varieties or species verj- nearly allied to those here 
noticed, which have not come under my observation. 

Spix divided the Alligators into two genera : — Jacaretinga, 
with acute nose (1. /. mosehifer, t. l = Caiman palpehro- 
■ius, p. IGI ; 2. J. puiictulatus, t. 2=:Jacare punctulata, 
p. 159) ; and Caiman or Jacare, with blunt nose (including 
1. C. niger, t. A=Jacare nigra, p. 167; 2. C.Jtssipes= 
Jacare laiirostris, p. 167). 

His figures are very good representations of the species 
— indeed the best known. 

MM. Dumeril and Bibron admit the three species de- 
scribed and figured by Spix, thus : — 

1. A. schrops, p. 74 (Caiman noir, Spix, Bras. t. 4). — 
Head elongate, flattened ; a ridge in front of each eye ; 
upper eyelid Jiiielg striated. ]!\^ape with two rows of small, 
oval, compressed scales. Back with two central longitu- 
dinal ridges ; the three last cross bands of six keeled scales. 
Black, yellow-banded. I have no specimen agreeing with 
the account of the nuchal scales and the eyelid of A. scUrop>s : 
according to Spis the dorsal scales are elongate. 

2. A. cijnocqyJialus, p. 86 (Caiman Ji.ssi2}es, Spix, Bras, 
t. 3). — Head short, broad, thick ; a ridge in front of each 
eye; the upper eyelid rugose. Nape with tivo rows of large, 
square, keeled shields. Back scale keeled, the last three 
cross bands of four scales. Sides with some strongly keeled 
scales. Back green, black-dotted. 

3. A. jnoictuhitiis, ]). i)1 (Spix, Bras. t. 2). — Head elon- 
gate ; nose llattened, whh a rounded point in front, with- 
out any preocular ridges ; upper eyelid rugose. Nape with 
two rows of shields. Back flat, scarcely keeled. Sides 
with some larger scales. Yellow, black-dotted. 

John Natterer, in his ' Boitrag zu den siid-amerika- 
nischen jUligatoren,' edited by Fitzingcr, describes eight 
species of the genus Champsa : five have partly bony eye- 
lids, and three have them entirely bony. The five former 
belong to the genus under consideration. 

The preorbital ridge distinct ; beak broad, with three 
lateral fovcolaj ; eyelid striated ; beak broad and blunt : 
C. nigra, t. 21. 

The nuchal scutella many, in three series : C. fissipes, 
t. 22. 

The nuchal scutella many, in two series : C. sclerops, t. 23. 

The preorbital ridge evanescent ; beak without lateral 
foveoloe ; eyelids rugose ; the frontal ridge flexuous, bent 
in front : C. vallifrons, t. 24. 

The frontal ridge arched, bent back : C.punctulata, t. 25. 

M. Natterer gives the following proportional measure- 
ments of the heads ; — 

Width of Width of Width of 

Length of 

Width of 



beak above 
8th tooth. 

in. 1. 
Champsa nigra. 16 

in. 1. 

in. 1. 
3 6 

in. 1. 
4 9 

in. 1. 
5 1 

Jissipcs . . 10 3 

C 5 

2 7 

3 5 


sclerops . . 6 G 

5 8 

2 8 

3 3 


vallifrons . 7 10 

4 G 


2 9 

2 3 

puncitdata 10 5 

.5 4 

2 5 

3 2 

2 5 

The figures of the heads of the last two species differ 
from that of C. sclerops chiefly in the nose being narrower 
(C. punctidata being the narrowest and very slender), nar- 
rower than in any specimen that has come under my 
observation ; the lower jaws in the figure also differ in shape, 
that of C. vallifrons being the most slender. Dr. Strauch, 
who had M. Natterer's specimens to examine, regards the 
two latter as the same S23ecies, but distinct from sderops. 

SnfOPsrs of the Genera. 

I. The ventral scutella like the dorsal ones, bony and artietdected 
toyether, forming a shield. The eyelids with an internal 
bony plate. The cervical sndelta in pairs, foryning an elon- 
yated shield. Nasal bone short. Tropical America. 

1. Jacare. The orbits united by a bony cross ridge. Eyelids 

partly striated or rugose. 

2. Caiman. The orbits not united by a cross ridge. Eyelids 

bony, entu'ely smooth. 



IL The ventral snitella thin; the dorsal seutcHa bony, not articu- 
lated together. The eyelids Jleshy, smooth. The cervical 
scutclla in pairs, separate. Nasal bone clonyate, separating 
the ?wstrils. North America. 

3. Alligator. The face broad, depressed. 

Section I. The ventral scutclla lihe the dorsal ones, bony and 
articulated together, forming a shield. The eyelids 
with f'w internal bony plate. Tlie cervical seutella in 
pairs, forming an elongated shield. Nasal bone short. 
Tropical America. 


Head moderately high, shelving on the sides. Orbits 
united by a distinct bony cross ridge. Eyelids striated or 
rugose, strengthened by a small internal bone. The cer- 
vical seutella four or five pairs, forming a shield ; the dor- 
sal and ventral seutella both consolidated together, forming 
a dorsal and ventral shield ; the gular and ventral plates 

Jacaro, Gray, Cat. Tort. ^ Croc. B. M. p. 64, 1844 ; Ann. 

Sf Mar/. Nat. Hist. 3rd ser. x. p. 327, 1862 ; Trans. Zool. 

Soc. 1869, vi. p. 162. 

Huxley, Proc. Linn. Soc. 1859, p. 4. 
Jacaretinga, Spi.v, Lacert. 
Pelosuohus, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1868, p. 203. 

The pits in the maxilla are the cavities left by the pre- 
orbital ridges as they advance. The intermaxillary bone 
short, truncated behind, with an elongate-oval or lanceo- 
late cavity between this and the front of the palate. 

The figures of batterer are excellent to general appear- 
ance, but they do not agree with the measurements of our 
specimen ; that is to say, the nose of Champsa Jissipes, from 
the ridge, is about the same length as the forehead ; but in 
his figure it is represented as larger, and it is so in all the 
other figures : perhaps this is to allow for the perspective. 

A. Head elongate ; interorhifal ridges strong. Dorsal seu- 
tella elongate, keeled ; heels of vertebral series highest. 
Lumbar seutella in six longitudinal series ; nuchal seu- 
tella small, compressed. Eyelids striated, with a raiJier 
large interned bone. Bach blach, varied with yellow. 

Melanosuchus, Gray, Ann. Sf Mag. Nat. Hist. x. p. 328. 

1. Jacare nigra. (Black Jacare.) 

Crocodilus sclerops, Schn. Amph. p. 162. 

Blainv. Osteogr. Croc. t. 3. f. 2, t. 4. f. 13. 
Crocodilus yakarc, Baud. 

Alligator sclerops, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v. p. 35, t. 1. f. 6 & 7, 

t. 2. f 3. 

' Briihl, Sl-elet. Krohod. t. 12. f. 3, 5, 6, 7, t. 19. f. 21. 
Alligator sclerops, var.. Gray, Syn. Kept. 
Caiman niger, Spix, Bras. t. 4 (good). 
Champsa nigra, Nafterer, Beitr. t. 21 (good). 
Alligator niger, Otven, Cat. Osteal. Spec. Mus, Coll. Surg. 

p. 704. n. 16G (adult). 
Jacare nigra, Gray, Cat. Tort. Sf Croc. p. 65 ; Ann. Sf Mag. 

Nat. Hist. X. pi 328, 1862 ; Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. 

p. 163. 

Hab. Para, 13 feet long (Graliam) ; Guiana (Owen). 

I think it better to adopt Spix's name, as sclerops has 
been used for all the species. 

B. Head short J orbits with diverging rihs in front to edge 
of jaw. Dorsal scutclla broad, slightly keeled, equal ; 
the hmibar seutella in four longitudinal series ; nuchal 
seutella distinct, in two cross series. Eyelids rugose, 
with a small internal bone. Back olive, banded with 

Cynosuchus, Gray, Ann. cf- Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, x. p. 328. 

In many of the specimens the first scale of the nuchal 
shield has two keels, in others only one ; but in several 
specimens the scale has two keels on one side and only one 
on the other. 

a. Head short, broad, depressed, with very distinct preor- 
bital ridges to the edge of the jaw. Cervical disk short, 
broad, formed of four bands of seutella. Sides ofjaivs 
pale, with a series of dark S2)ots. 

2. Jacare latirostris. (Dog-headed Jacare.) B.M. 

Dorsal shields in eight longitudinal series, four on each 
side. Ventral shields in twelve series. 

Crocodilus latirostris andC. yacare, Daud. Rcpt. ii. pp. 407, 

Caiman fissipes, Spix, Bras. t. 3 (good). 
Champsa fissipes, Wagner, Icon. t. 17. 

Natterer, Beitr. t. 22 (good). 
Crocodilus sclerops, Wied. Abbild. t. 

Blainv. Osteogr. Crocod. t. 3. f. 2, t. 4. f. 13. 

Schinz, llept. t. 112. 
Jacare fissipes. Gray, Cat. Tortoises B. M. p. 64. 
Alligator sclerops, Pr. Max. Ahhild. t. 
Alligator cynocephalus, Bum. i( Bihr. Erp. Gen. ii. p. 86. 
Alligator latirostris, Uensel, Wiegm. Arch. 1868, p. 348. 



Jocaro linirostris, Onii/, Ann. xS' Mni/. Nat. Hist. 1802, x. 
J). ;{:JS : Titing. Zool. Soc. 1S()!), vi. p. 1(>3. 

Hah. Bnusil, Pernambuco (./. P. O. Smith); Suriimni. 

The noso of the young spocimen is iis long ns the width 
at the eighth tooth. The noso from the ridges nearly as 
long ns the back of the head; width of tlie muzzle at the 
notch one-half the length of the head. 

Var. 1 (three young in spirit). Head short ; sides of face 
pale, with a dark spot under each ear and another larger 
under each eye. The lower jaw pale; five round spots on 
each side, the middle one, under the eyes, the largest. 
Beak black, with interrupted or irregular pale brown cross 

Hah. Pernambuco (/. P. G. Smith). 

The smaller specimen is peculiar for the very small size 
of the ventral shield in fi'ont of the veut. The spots on 
the side of the face and lower jaw are to be seen in the 
older specimens when they are between 3 and 4 feet long. 

Var. 2. Head rather larger and narrower. The nose 
from the ridge rather longer than the back of the head ; 
width of the notch two-fifths the length of the head. 
Cheek and side of the lower jaw with five large black 
spots. Ventral shields in twelve series. Dorsal shields 

Hah. South America ; Lake of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. 

3. Jacare nmltiscutata. (Brazilian Jacare.) B.M. 

With sixteen series of ventral shields ; hinder ventral 
shields very narrow ; dorsal shields in ten longitudinal 
series, five on each side. 

Hah. Brasdl. 

A skin in the British Museum (46. 7. 10. 41). 

b. Head ehngate, lorujer than the width at the eighth tooth, 
with none or only indistinct evanescent ridges from the 
front of the orbit. Cervical disk oblong, elongate, of 
five series of scutella. 

* Face depressed, broad; sides ofthejaivs with a series of 
large coloured spots. 

4. Jacare longiscutata. (Long-shielded Jacare.) B.M. 

Dorsal scutella elongate, longer than broad, uniformly 

keeled, in ten longitudinal series on the middle of the body ; 

ventral scutoUa elongate, in fourteen or sixteen longitudinal 
series ; sides of the jaws pale, with five or six band-like 
spots ; the inner pairs of tho first and second series of cer- 
vical scutella largo and equal-sized. 

Jacare longiscutata, Gratj, Aim. ij- Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, 
X. p. 328 : Trans. Zool. Soc. 1860, vi. p. 164. 

Hah. South America (Brit. Mus.). 

This is very like the following ; but the head is rather 
broader, and the dorsal and ventral shields are much larger 
and more numerous. 

It is known from the young of Jacare nigra by its oUve 
colour, the spots on tho sides of the jaws, and the presence 
of the distinct nuchal scutella. 

5. Jacare ocellata. (Eyed Jacare.) B.M. 

Dorsal scutella broad, uniformly keeled, in eight longi- 
tudinal series in the middle of the body ; ventral scutella 
in twelve longitudinal series, the hinder ones smaller, larger, 
and more numerous ; the central pair of cervical scutella 
in the first series smaller than those that foUow. 

Jacare ocellata, Gray, Ann. 4" Mag. Nat. Hist. x. p. 329, 
1862; Trans. Zool. Soc. 1869, vi. p. 164. 

Hab. Lake of Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Brit. Mus.). 

** Face attenuated, rather high on the sides ; sides of the 
jaws one-coloured. 

6. Jacare pvmctulata. (Dotted-jawed Jacare.) B.M. 

Back yellow, banded with brown ; the sides of the head 

yellow ; upper and lower jaws yellow, one-coloured, or 

minutely speckled ; sides of the neck smooth, with flat 

scales : nose rather high and square. 

Jacare sclerops. Gray, Cat. Tortoises B. M. p. 64. 
Crocodilus sclerops, Schii. Amph. p. 162. 

Citvicr, Ann. Mus. & Oss. Foss. v. t. 1. f. 6 & 7, t. 2. 
f. 3. 

Tiedem. Amph. p. 60, t. 5. 

Guerin, Icon. t. 2. f. 2 & 10. 

Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 62. 

Dum. 1^ Bihr. Erp. Gin. iii. p. 79. 

Burm. Gavial. 1. 1. f. 5 & 8, t. 3. f. 1 (head). 
Crocodilus americanus, Laur. from Seba, t. 104. f. 10. 
Crocodilus caiman, Baud. Ihpt. iii. p. 394. 
Caiman (Jacaretinga) punctulatus, Spi.v, Bras. t. 2 (good). 
Champsa sclerops, Wagner, Syst. t. 7. f. 1, 2, & f. 42. 

Natterer, Beitr. t. 22 (heads good). 
Alligator punctulatus, Dum. i|- Bibr. Erp. Gen. ii. p. 91. 



Jaoare pnnctiilata, Gran, Ann. Sf Mag. Nat. Hist. 18G2, 
X. p. 329 ; Trans. Zoul. Soc. 1SG9, vi. p. 165. 

Hah. Brazil (^Lr) ; Surinam ; Argentine Republic {H. 


Natterer figures two other species, under the name of 
GJiampsa vaUifrons (t. 24) (Jacare valUfrons, Gray, Cat. 
B. M. p. 65), and Cli. inmchdata (t. 25) {Jacare punetu- 
lata, Gray, Cat. B. M. p. 65), which seem to differ from the 
former in the head being narrower and more tapering. I 
have seen no specimens agreeing with these figures ; but 
they look very Uke varieties of the above. At the same 
time some of our specimens appear to have a more at- 
tenuated snout than others ; but when you apply the cal- 
lipers to the nose and to the other parts of the head, the 
absolute proportions of the parts are very nearly the same, j 

A stuffed specimen from the Argentine Republic mea- 
sures 6 feet 9 inches long ; the head from the occiput is 10|, 
and the nose from the ridge 6^ inches. In another, from 
the Zoological Society's Gardens, 5 feet 10 inches long, the 
head from the occiput is 10 inches, the nose from the ridge 
6| inches long. A series of young specimens in spirits are 
pale brown ; the back and tail wth narrow brown cross 
bands, those on the back sometimes broken into square 
spots ; the cheek and outside of lower jaw pale yellow, 
without spots ; the sides of the nuchal disk dark-coloured. 

AUigator lacordairei, Frudh. de Borre, Bull. Ac. Behj. 
xxviii. 1869, p. 109, t. . 

Hah. British Honduras (PrvdJwmme). 

From a young specimen in the Museum of Brussels, and 
very difficult to determine from his figure. He considers 
it nearest to AUigator (Jacaretinga) punctulatus, Spix ; but 
it is too young to determine. 

7. Jacare Mrticollis. (Rough -nocked Jacare.) B.M. 

The scales on the sides of the neck rough, spinulose, 
pale yellow ; back and tail brown, cross-barred ; cheek and 
sides of the lower jaw yellow, not spotted. 

Hab. Demerara (Brit. Mus.). 

I may observe that, characteristic as are the figures of 
Dr. Natterer's paper, none of them exactly agrees in mea- 
surements with the specimens in the British Museum. 

In some specimens of the Jacare the first and sometimes 
even the second cervical scuteUa have two keels, in others 
only one ; but this is no specific distinction ; it is not rare 

to find species with two keels on one side of the neck and 
only one on the other. 

Mr. Cope describes the genus Perosvxhus, and thus cha- 
racterizes it : " Toes 5-4, with claws 2-3 ; no osseous nasal 
septum or bony eyelid; belly protected by a series of 
osseous plates as well as the back." 

Perosuchus fuscus, Cope (from New Granada), Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sei. Philad. 1868, p. 203. 

I do not see how this differs from Jacare. 


Head high, flattened on the sides, angulated above. (Jr- 
bits without any ridges. The eyelids smooth, strengthened 
with a large, single, internal bony plate. The dorsal and 
ventral scutella bony, articulated together, forming a dorsal 
and ventral shield; the gular and lateral ventral plates 
keeled, the abdominal ones smooth ; the cervical scuteUa 
four or five pairs, with sometimes one or a pair interposed 
between the second and third pairs. 

Skidl with the superior temporal fossae obliterated, the 
circumjacent bones uniting ; the eyelid with a single large 
bony plate covering the whole upper surface ; vomer not 
apparent on the palate. 

Caiman, Gray, Cat. Tort. 6,-c.. B. M. p. 66, 1844 ; Ami. di" • 
Mug. N. H. 1862, x. p. 330 ; Trans. Zool. 8oc. 1869, 
vi. p. 166. 

Huxley, Proc. Linn. Soc. iv. p. 3. 

This genus has been divided into two species— one having 
the cervical shields two, and the other four in a cross series ; 
in all the latter there are two in a cross series, with one or 
two interpolated between the other shields. 

I have seen no specimen which agrees in the nuchal 
shields with either of the figures in Cuvier, Oas. Foss., 
though our two species agree in other respects with his 
figures ; and how such species with distinct organic cha- 
racters could be regarded as varieties I am unable to learn. 

I cannot conceive what induced M. Cuvier in his 'Essay' 
to consider the two South-American Alligators mth bony 
eyelids varieties ; for he justly observes, " The Crocodile of 
St. Domiugo is not more distinct from the Crocodile of the 
Nile than these two varieties are from each other." 

In the Latin synopsis of the species, which is appended 
to the paper, they are regarded as distinct, and the second 
one is called C. trigonatus. Yet MM. Dumeril and Bibroii 
in their work persist in following Cuvier's first idea of their 
being only varieties, and in regarding Adanson's specimens 

If •?. 


:u Itoloiiging to the svcoiul varii-ty, iiiul also iu doubting if 
tlio " two viirii-tii's " arc botli fi-om Ainorion. 

Tho sptvinu'ii in tlio Uritish Miisoinu pnn-cs most di- 
stinctly that thorv' aro two very distinct Alligators wtli 
bony ("vclids found in TropiciJ America ; which agrees well 
with the chiinictor that M. Cuvier luid MM. Uuuieril and 
Bibron giro to tho two \nmetios of that species ; and these 
sixH-ies are, as Cuvier observes, as distinct from one another 
OS C. itiiurictiniis faini C. ruhjaris. The heads of both 
these sjiocios are figured by Dr. John Natteror in his 
•■ Essay on .Vmerican .VUigators" in the Vienna 'Transac- 
tions.' This author also figuivd a third species, which he 
calls A. ffibbicfj>s, which, if it is separable from A. trigo- 
niUus, must he distinguishable from it by very sliglit cha- 

The lilack Crocodile (Halcrosia paJpehrosa) of West 
.Vfrica has so much resemblance to this animal that Cuvier 
considered Adanson's Wost-Ati-ican spcciraeu a variety of 
this sjR>cies. 

Dumeril and Bibron evidently considered tho African 
and American animals tho same species ; and wc a short 
time ago received from M. Bracouier, of the Jardin dos 
Plantcs, a skeleton of the African species Halcrosia nigra 
under tho name of Alligator palpebrosxis, var. 

A. Head shelving on the sides. Nuchal scuiella in a single 
cross series ; cervical sciitella Jive pairs; dorsal scu- 
tella highly keeled, irregular, in six sei-ies; the lumbar 
scuiella in two lotigitudi)uil series ; the gidar and two 
outer lateral series of ventral sctdeUa heeled. The flat 
upper disk at the base of the tail broad and strongly 

Paleosuchus, Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, x. p. 330. 

1. Caiman trigonatns. (Hough-backed Alligator.) B.M. 

Crocodilus trigonatus, Schn. Amph. p. 151, vi. 

Tiedemann, Amph. p. 66, t. 67. 
Crocodilus palpebrosus, var. 2, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v. n 40 

t. 2. f. 1. ^ ' 

Caiman trigonatus. Gray, Cat. Tort. ^x. B. M. p. 66 ; Ann. 

if Mag. Nat. Hist. x. p. 330, 1862 ; Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. 

p. 167, 1S69. 
Alligator palpebrosus, Briihl, Skelet. Kroc. t. 19. f. 3. 
Chami)sa trigonata, Natterer, Beitr. t. 26 (good). 

Hab. Tropical America. 

The largest specimen in the British Museum is rather 
above 4 feet long. The young specimens have the lateral 
ventral shields keeled. 

B. Head flat, and erect on the sides. Nuchal scutella many, 
in tivo cross series; cervical scutella three pairs ; dorsal 
scutella slightly keeled; the lu7nbar scutella in four 
loiigiluitinal series; the gidar, the ventral, and the 
lateral abdominal scutella keeled. The flat upper disk 
at the base of the tail elongate. 

Aromosuchus, Gray, Ann. <Sf Mag. Nat. Hist. x. p. 330. 

2. Caiman palpebrosus. (Banded Alligator.) B.M. 

Brown ; tail black-banded. 

Crocodilus palpebrosus, var., Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v. t. 1. f. 6- 

,17, aiult. 2. f. 3. 
Cliampsa palpebrosa, Natterer, Beitr. t. 27 (good). 
Caiman (.lacaretinga) mosehifer, IS^ii.v, Bras. t. 1 (skull). 
Caiman pal])cbrosu.s. Gray, Cat. Tort. cf-c. B. M. p. 07 ; Ann. 
cj- Mag. Nat. Hist, x." p. 330, 1862 ; Trans. Zool. Hoc. 
186S), vi. p. 167. 
Crocodilus i)alpobrosus, Ticdm. Nat. Amph. t. 6. 

Bunn. Gauial. t. 1. f. 1, 2, & t. 3. f. 3 (head). 
Alligator paljjcbrosus, Mcrrem, Syst. p. 35. 
Gray, ISyn. liept. p. 63. 

Hab. Tropical America. 

Natterer figures the head of a species under the name of 
C. gibbice2^s ; but I do not see how it differs from the above, 
except that the head is a little higher — perhaps a sexual 
distinction. Dr. Strauch regards C. gibbiceps as the same 
as C. palpebrosus. 

Section II. The ventral scutella thin, the dorsal scutella 
bony, not articulated together. The eyelids fleshy, 
smooth. The cervical scutella in pairs, separate. Nasal 
bone elongate, separating the nostrils. North America. 


Head depressed, broad, without any ridges in front of 
tho orbit. Snout very broad, flattened and rounded at 
the end, the ninth maxillary tooth the largest. The eye- 
lids smooth, fleshy. The dorsal seuteUa not articulated 
together, in six longitudinal series; the ventral scutella 
thin ; the gular and abdominal shields smooth ; nuchal 
scutella one pair, small; cervical scutella three jjairs, 
hinder smallest. Nostril separated by a bony septum. 
The feet webbed. Dorsal plates in six longitudinal series, 
the two vertebral closer together. The sides with a short 
series close to the others, sometimes reduced to only one 
or two shields. 

Alligator, Gray, Cat. Tort. B. M. p. 66 ; Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. 
Hist. X. p. 330, 1862 ; Trans. Zool. Soc. 1S69, vi. p. 168. 
Huxley, Proc. Linn. Soc. iv. p. 3. 
Champsa, Wagler, Syst. Amph. p. 140. 



1. Alligator mississippiensis. (Alligator.) B.M. 

Alligator, Cateshi/, Carol, t. 63. 
Crocodilus mississippensis, Daud. llept. ii. p. 412. 
Crocodilus lucius, Cuvier, Ann. Mus. s., and Oss. Foss. v. 
t. 1. f. 8, t. 2. f. 4. 

Tiedem. Ainph. p. 58, t. 4. 

Merrem, Zoul. p. 34. 

Oiven, Cat. Osteol. Sj^ec. Coll. Surr/. p. 165. n. 760, 761. 

Bldinv. Osfeogr. Crucod. t. 2. f. 1, t. 5. f. 1. 

BnM, Skck't. Krolcod. t. 8. f. 5, 6, t. U. f. 3, 1. 10. f. 3, 

4, t. 11. f. 2, 3, t. 20. f. 
Burm. Gavial. t. 1. f. 3, 4, & t. 3. f. 4. 
Alligator mississippieasis. Gray, Cat. Tori. i^-c. B. M. p. 66 ; 
Ann. Sf Mag. Nat. Hist. x. p. 331 (1862) ; Trayis. Zool. 
Sac. 1869, vi. p. 168. 

Haufjhton, Ann. ^- Mag. Nat. Hist. (1868) i. p. 282, 
t. 10 (anat.). 
Crocodilus Cuvieri, Leach, Zool. Misc. ii. p. 117, t. 102. 
Alligator lucius, Merrem, Tent. p. 34. 

Dum. t^ Bihr. Erp. Gen. iii. p. 75, t. 25, 26. 
Alligator Cuvieri, Bory de St.- Vincent, D. C. H. N. v. p. 104. 

Hah. North America, New Orleans, Texas. 

Var. 1. The uose very broad and short. The largest 
specimen of this variety in the British Museum is nearly 
4 feet long. 

Var. 2. The nose narrower and longer. The largest 
specimen in the British Museum is of the same size as the 
former, which is nearly 4 feet long. Are they the two 
sexes ? 

The young specimens in spirit have the back black, 
with narrow white cross bands. The head pale brown, 
black-varied. Ventral shields in oiglit or ten longitudinal 
rather irregular series. 

There is a very young specimen of this species in spirit, 
from New Orleans, in the British Museum. It is black, 
with white cross bands. The beak is short, rather slender, 
with a ridge of skin in front of each eye, giving the appear- 
ance of a frontal ridge. 

2. Alligator helois. 

" Muzzle 6| inches from end to lines connecting orbits, 
5| inches wide near the middle. Two keels behind and 
between the eyes, diverging posteriorly ; a short and nearly 
transverse keel in front of the eyes. Upper eyelid divided 
by grooves into three areas ; an elevated keel above each 
ear-opening. Two oblique rows of elevated horn-like 
shields on each side of the neck, of rather small size, four 
in the inner, three in the outer row, the third of the 
inner and second of the outer form, with two large elevated 
median plates, a transverse row. Four very high, short, 
keel-like postcervicals. Eight rows of dorsal shields, ex- 

cepting antt-riorly, where there are six in the first cross 
row, and four in the two succeeding : aU are like heads of 
spikes keeled. Four rows on the tail at its middle. Lateral 
caudal shields continuous, abruptly elevated like the dorsals, 
subquadrate. Sides -with smaU rounded scales ; width be- 
tween dorsals and ventrals equal to length of third dorsal 
cross series. A large row of plates on the inner side ot 
the forearm. Claws long ; no palmar webs. Abdominal 
rows eleven, each plate with a thin ossification ; two or 
three large plates in the thoracic cross row. End of tail 
little serrate above, scarcely compressed. From end ot 
muzzle to occipital 12 inches, to between femora 32 inches ; 
from latter point to end of taU 50 inches : total 7 feet, 
10 inches. 

" Colour dark brown, with vertical yellow bars on the 
sides and taU, the former very irregular. Cliin, throat, 
under and upper lips yeUow, without spots." 

Alligator helois. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1865, 
p. 185. 

" Hab. Unknown (single specimen, Mus. Munich). 

" This rugged-looking species belongs to the genus Alli- 
gator as restricted by Gray, in which the prolongation of 
the nasal bones separates the external nares, and there is 
no cross ridge between the orbits. It approaches Jacare 
in that an external portion of this cross ridge exists on 
each side. The habitat is not known, as the single speci- 
men I have seen preserved is without label in the Museum 
of the University of Munich. Through the courtesy of 
Prof. C. von Siebold, I was enabled to make the above 


Body with four limbs and elongated taQ covered with 
smaU scales. Head quadrangular. Belly and underside 
of tail with four-sided smooth scales, in cross series. Tail 
with longitudinal ridges of compressed spines. Limbs four. 
Toes 5-5. Anus transverse. Claspers none. Penis none. 
" Quadrate bone suturally and immovably united with the 
skull and pterygoid ; columella present. Parts of the ali- 
and orbito-sphenoid region fibro-cartQaginous ; rami of 
mandible united by a short fibrous ligament. Temjiorai 
region with two horizontal bars. Vertebroe amphiccelian. 
Copulatory organs none." 

Rhynchocephalia, Gimther, Phil. Trans, clvii. p. 595, t. 26, 

27, 28. 

" Its chief peculiarities consist in the structure of the 



skull, aniphicwlinn vortobnc (Owen), uncinoto proccest-s of 
the rilw, ]in«ftuv of a <H>m|)licnto«l iilMlouiiiiiil stcrmmi, in 
the dentition, ulisi'Uco of ii eopulatory orpin, i^tc." — 6'i<i»- 
Ihtr, Xitol. Rtconl, lt>ti7, J). 138. 

Tllis onlor has all tlie ii]i|H>iinineo of Li/.aril8. but itwant-s 
the cl:i."*i'er»on thesiile of tin- vent, used in topuliition, and 
usually fidaely cidled n |>eiiis ; but they have uo relation to 
tliat jvirt (see limy, 'Ann. & Maj;. Nat. Hist." lj<71, vii. 
p. :2S.'{), which are always found in Lizards, l^nakos, and 
Anijihisbainians ; nud the quadrate bones of the skull, as in 
Croeotliles and Tortoises, are suturally united to the skull, 
and not articulated to it as in Snakes and Lizards. 

The sexuid organs of lu-ptilos have been misunderstood. 
Most authors Uovo considered Lizards and Snakes had two 
pfiifs; but the examination of the Monitors has shown 
that what have been called j)«i« were only chiywrs, by 
which the males held on during connexion, as in the Sharks 
and Rays araonp fish, and also in Snakes and Lizards, 
which, like nejirly all birds, except the Pucks, have no2^enis 
or entering organ. The Reptiles are variable in those par- 
ticulars. The Tortoises and Crocodiles have an entering 
organ and no claspers. The Amphisba^uians, Snakes, and 
Lizanls have no entering organ but distinct claspers. The 
BhiincfwcqiJialia, according to Dr. Giinther, have neither 
entering organ nor claspers. 


Head quadrangular, covered with small scales. Throat 
with a cross fold. Xape and back v\-ith a crest of com- 
pressed spines. Body covered with small scales. Belly 
and underside of the tail with large squarish, keelless, 
flat scales placed in cross series. Tail compressed, trian- 
gular, covered with small scales, and with a ridge of large 
compressed spines. Legs strong. Toes 5-5, short, strong, 
cylindrical, slightly webbed at the base, covered above and 
below with small scales. Claws short, blunt. Femoral 
pores none. Preanal scales small, a few of them are 
placed in the centre. 

Sphenodon, Gray, Zool. Miscell. p. 14, 1831, from skull {not 

Hatteria, Grarj, Zool. Miscell. p. 72, March, 1842 ; Ann. 

4- -1%. Kat. Hist. 1869, iii. p. 167; Cat. Liz. 1845 

p. 24U. 

Giinther, Phil. Trans. 1867: Zool. Bee. 1869, p. 111. 
Ehynchocephalus, Owen, Trans. Geol. Soc. 1845, vii. p. 64, 
t. 6. f. 5 ifc 7 (skull) ; Cat. Osteal. Sine. Mm. Cull 
Surff. 1. p. 142, 1853. 

The skull of this Lizard was described in 1831 in the 
following words:-" In the skull of an animal allied to 

Atjama or Uromastyx, in the College of Surgeons, I have 
observed that the ram\is {os complementaire, Cuv. ()s. 
i\)8. tig. (•) of tlie lower jaw rubs against llio lateral i)ro- 
C0S808 of tlio pterygoid bones, so as to prevent the lower 
jaw from nioving from side to side, and that in the species 
under consiileration tlu' hinder part of the upper jaw has 
a series of l(.'eth about half the length of the outer scries 
jilaced on a ridge just on the inner edge of the outer teeth, 
leaving a groove bdwecMi tlio two series for the lower jaw 
to fit into. This skull \\ill doubtless form the type of a 
new genus which I propose to call Sphenodon." 

Prof. Owen, eleven years afterwards, described and 
figured the same skull in the Trans. Geol. Soc. vii. 1 845, 
p. 64, t. 6. f. 5 & 7, and again, twenty-two years after- 
wards, in the Cat. Osteol. Spec. Mus. Coll. Surg. i. 1853, 
p. 42, and gave it the name of Rhynvhocejjhalus. Dr. Giin- 
ther, as well as Prof. Owen, overlooked my first description. 
Perhaps the label which I had attached to the skuU when 
I examined and named it and the other Reptiles at the 
request of Mr. Clift and his son, my hospital feUow student, 
had been lost. Dr. Giinther evidently seems to have thought 
the head was a modern acr]uisition when Prof. Owen de- 
scribed it. 

Another skull in the British Museum was figured in the 
'Zoology of the Erebus and Terror;' and the same skull 
was also figured by Dr. Giinther as Hatteria punctata. 

1. Sphenodon punctatuni. (Tuatcra or Narara.) 

Olive ; sides and limbs with minute white specks, be- 
neath yellowish ; the spines of the nuchal and dorsal 
crests yellow, of the caudal brown. The scales of the back, 
head, tail, and limbs small, granular, nearly uniform. The 
irregular folds in the skin are fringed at the top with a 
series of rather large scales ; an oblique ridge of larger 
scales on each side of the base of the tail, and a few 
shorter longitudinal ridges of rather smaller ones on each 
side of the upper part of the tail. 

Sphenodon, Gray, Zool. Miscell. p. 13, 1831 (skull only). 
Hatteria punctata. Gray, Zool. 31isceU. p. 72, 1842 ; Cat. 

Liz. Brit. Mks. p. 249, 1845 ; Zool. Erebus if Terror, 

t. (animal and skuU). 

GiintJier, Phil. Trtins. 1867 (anatomy). 
Ehynchocephalus, Given, Trans. Geol. Soc. vii. 1845, p. 64, 

t. 6. f. 5-7 (skuU) ; Cat. Osteol. Spec. Mus. Coll. Surg. i. 

p. 142, 1853 (skull only). 
Monstrous Lizard, Cooh's Third Voyage, i. p. 153, 1785. 
Tuatera or Narara, Dieffenh. New Zeal. ii. p. 205, 1843. 

Hah. New Zealand, Bay of Plenty. 

Dr. Dieffcnbach having presented to the British Museum 



a Lizard which the natives called Tiiatem, I described it at 
p. 72 of the 3rd number of the ' Zoological Miscellany,' 
which was published ou the 1st of May, 1842, as a new 
genus, under the name of HatUria, belonging to the family 
Ayamiihx, calling the species HiUteria punctata, without 
observing that I had previously described the skull 
under the name of Sphenodon. The animal was afterwards 
figured with its skull, afterwards obtained, in the ' Zoo- 
logy of the Erebus and Terror.' 

Dr. Dieffenbach observes that the species " lives in holes, 
especially on the slopes of the sandhills of the shore. The 
older missionaries say it was formerly very common, and 
the natives lived upon it ; but for the last fifty years it 
has been scarcely ever seen." This specimen was found on 
a small rooky island, two miles fi-om the coast, in the Bay 
of Plenty, and was given to Dr. Dieffenbach alive, but 
shortly died, as it would not eat any thing that was ofi'ered 
to it. It is extremely sluggish in captivity, and could be 
handled without any attempt at resistance or biting. The 
natives called it Tuatera. 


Body elongate, cylindrical, naked, with square imbedded 
plates placed in cross rings divided into two sets by a 
slight longitudinal groove on each side. Tail continuous, 
short, blunt. Tongue not sheathed, flat, enlarged and 
nicked at the end, ending in two smooth threads ; the rest 
covered with large flat papUloe or scales. Eyes small, under 
the skin ; eyelid none. Ears hidden under the skin. Mouth 
small ; jaws not extensile. Feet none, or rarely in front. 
Vent rather transversely plaited. Claspers one on each 
side. Skull very solid, orbits incomplete ; tympanic bone 
enclosed in the skuU, oblique. Parietal bone simple. Tem- 
poral and mastoid bones scarcely separate. 

Amphisbsenians (Amphisboenia), Gray, Cat. Tort. S^c. 1844, 

p. 68. 
Lacertilia, Amphisbaenoidea, Stannius. 
Giiiither, Phil. Trans. 1872. 

Stannius and Giinther arrange these animals with the 

Sir Andrew Smith kindly presented to the British Mu- 
seum, along with a number of other EeptUes which he has 
described, the types of his genus Monotrophis, which I had 
not before seen ; and having received from Mr. Welwitsch 
and from the collection of my late excellent and lamented 
friend Dr. Balfour Baikie two Amphisbajnians from Africa, 
and from Mr. Bates a species from the Amazons which I 

believed had not hitherto been recorded in the Catalogue, 
I proceeded to examine them ; and for the purpose of making 
the comparison more complete, I was led to study all the 
specimens of this tribe we have in the Museum. 

Examination of the species in the British Museum 
dissatisfied me with the manner in which the species had 
hitherto been arranged and described ; and after repeated 
examination, I have reduced my observations to the fol- 
lowing results : — 

The determination of the species themselves, and the 
means which a paper resulting from the reexamination 
and comparison of all the species in a large collection affords 
to a student, are much more certain than any isolated de- 
scription of the species regarded as new, however detailed 
and particular the description may be ; and in a compara- 
tive review of the species of a group or order the distinc- 
tions may be stated in a more condensed form. 

The Amphisbfcnians are very rarely collected ; hence 
few species are found in museums and noticed in systematic 
catalogues. This is explained by their living almost ex- 
clusively in the nests of ants, and being seldom seen by 
the casual observer. There is reason to believe that every 
country which has ants has some form of Amphisba;nians. 
Until lately they were thought to be confined to Tropical 
America, though one was described by Vandeli as occurring 
in Spain as long ago as 1780 ; but his essay and the animal 
itself were alike so little known to naturalists, that Pro- 
fessors Hemprich (in 1820) and Wagler each described 
Vandeli's species as new, the latter as a South-American 
species. Professor Kaup described a species from North 
Africa in 1830, and M. Gervais redescribed it as new in 
1835. MM. Dumeril and Bibron have described a speci- 
men in the Leyden Museum from Guinea ; Dr. Andrew 
Smith one as occurring at the Cape ; and Dr. Peters has 
added another from the east coast of Africa. The number of 
African species is in this Catalogue raised to seven. As yet 
none have been received from Asia proper ; but Sir Charles 
Fellows brought from Xauthus the same species that is 
found in Spain, Portugal, and North Africa. 

The following table shows the geographical distribution 
of the species here recorded : — 

Eastern Hemisphere. 

Fam. Tkogoxophu)^. 

1. Trofjonophis Wiec/manni. N. Africa. 

Fam. Amphisbjenidjj. 

2. Blanus cuureus. Spain, N. Africa, Asia Minor. 



3. Amphis/xnta^ fiolacM. East Afriou. 

4. Cifnism Uucura. (iiiinen. 

5. JiiiUiu <i/Vi»ii<ui. W. -U'rica. 

Fam. Lkpidostkruid^ 

TrJbo Cejifialopflttna. 

(5. AtimotroiAi\caj)tnsis. S. Africa. 
7. IMtloj>hia Wdivitschii. W. Africa. 

jytstem Hfmhphere. 
Fam. CmROTrD^. 
1, ChiroUs himhricoides, Mexico. 


Fam. Amphisb^nid^. 

Amphlshima alba. liraziL 
A. amt-ricana. British Guiana. 
A. Pttiei. Brazil. 
A. vermieiilaris. BraziL 
0. A. DartvlnH. Monte Video, Buenos Ajros. 

7. Bronia hrasiliana. Brazil. 

8. Sarea c;w«. W. Indies. 

9. Cafha 2^'"i(t<ita. Cuba. 

10. Ano2is Kiityii. Buenos Ayrcs. 


11. Ltpidostemon microcephahtm. Brazil. 

12. L. Graifi. Tropical America. 

13. L. phocana. Buenos Ayres. 

Tribe Cephahpeltina. 

14. Cepludopeltis lepidosUma. Brazil. 

The rings of oblong scuteUa on the skin are in most 
species interrupted on the sides, and in some species also 
on the vertebral line ; these interruptions form a more or 
less \ride depressed groove on the surface of the body, and 
are called the lateral and dorsal lines. 

The skin at this interruption is usually marked at each 
transverse ring -with two oblique grooves, which form a 
cross and divide the space into four minute triangular 
shields; in some cases, where the line is wider and less 
sunken, the transverse ring of shields is only divided at the 
sunken line by a single oblique groove caused by the 
tapering end of one of the oblong shields going before the 
end of the other. Sometimes this is the case with the 
dorsal line, and not with the lateral one. In some of the 
species, instead of only the four triangular shields in the 
lateral line, the shield between the cross groove is divided 
into several minute scale-like shields. 

In some of the larger species, as AmphisJxrnn nlha, some 
of the rings of shields are marked with an oblique groove 
crossing several shields, dividing each of them into two 
parts ; but these seem to bo mere indi\idual variations 
occurring on several parts of tho back of some specimens, 
and not present in others. 

Dumeril and Bibron give the number of tho teeth as one 
of tho specific characters. I have not been able to verify 
theii' observations ; they give the following as the number. 
There seems to be always an odd number of intermaxillary 
teeth, the middle one being usually large. 

Trogonophis Wiegmanni 
Chirotes caniculattis . . . . _13 

9.« 18 

3.7.3 13 

6.6 12 

Amphisbcena americana and A. alba. . '^ g' =^g 

Petrei . . 
• Danuinii 

.5.7.5 17 

8.8 16 
4. 7. 4 _ 15 

7.7 ~ 14 
5.5.5 15 

7.7 ~14 

8.8 ~16 

Anops Kingii "j 4 

Blamis cinereus 

Sarea cmca 
Cadea punctata 

1 •*-7.4 _15 
J 7.7 ~ 14 

Synopsis of the Families and Genera. 

I. Teeth conical, on the edge of the maxilla. 
1. Trogonophis. 

II. Teeth on inner side of maxilla. 

n. CHlROTlD.ff;. Body coveredwith uniform, four-sided shields. 
Legs two, anterior. 

1. Chirotes. 

m. AMPHlSB.ffanDJE. Body covered ■ndth uniform squai-e scales. 
Legs none. 

Tribe I. AMPHiSBaiNiNA. Head depressed, rounded on the 
sides in front ; nostrils on the upper part of the sides of the 

A. Lateral and dorsal lines distinct. 

1. Blanus. 

B. Lateral lines distinct. Bcrrsal none, or very indistinct. 

a. Nasal plates larye, extending across the muzzle. 

2. Amphisbaena. Head broad, depressed. 

3. Cynisca. Head narrow ; nose conical. 

b. Nasal shields small, separate above on the sick of a large sivollen 

rostral shield. 
i, Bronia. 



C. Lateral and dorsal lines not defined, or the lateral line only 
visible on the hinder pari of the bod;/. 

5. Sarea, Eostral rounded in front, placed behind the trian- 

gular nasal. 

6. Cadea. Rosti'al ti'uncated at the tip, convex in fi'ont ; nasals 

oval, lateral. 

Tribe II. Anopina. Head compressed, keeled on the sides in 
front ; the nostrils lateral, on the underside of the keels. 

7. Anops. 

A. Lateral line distinct and impressed. 

B. Lateral line none or only very slightly visible on the hinder 

])art of the body. 
8. Baikia. 

IV. LEPIDOSTERNID.E. Body with a sternal disk formed of 
very differently shaped shields. 

Tribe I. Lepibostf.rnina. Head conical, covered vriih sym- 
metrical polygonal shields. 

1. Lepidostemon. 

Tribe 11. Cephalopeltina. Head depressed, covered above 
■with a flat, horny, nail-like shield, either simple or trans- 
versely divided. 

A. Pectoral disk formed of large, diverging, unequal, polygonal 
shiehls. Crown-shield divided across. 

2. Cephalopeltis. 

B. Pectoral disk formed of si.r or eight ehmgate Imigitndinal 
j>arallel 'shields. Head-shield single. 

3. Monotrophis. Ilead-shield without any slit on the hinder 

part of its side edge. 

4. Dalophia. Head-shield vaih a linear slit on the hinder part 

of its side edges. 

I. Teeth on the ede/e of the jaw. 


Head oblong, depressed, rounded below ; nostrils lateral, 
in large nasal shields ; teeth conical, on the edge of the 
maxiUa. Body cylindrical, covered with rings of uniform, 
elongate, oblong, four-sided shields, without any sternal 
disk ; lateral line sunken, narrow, covered with a few 
minute scales ; preanal pores none ; tail conical, acute. 

Glyphodermes acrodontes. Bum. ^ Bibr. Erp. Gen. v. p. 467. 
Trogonophidffi, Gray, Cat. Tort. ^r. 1844, p. (18 ; P. Z. S. 
1865, p. 445. 


Head oblong, depressed ; nasul shields large, united by a 
short straight edge, behind the large triangular convex 
rostral. Crown with two pairs of shields ; temple with 

many small shields. Upper labial plate moderate ; lower 
labial shield larger, with a series of large chin-shields on 
each side, and a central gular one. Tail conical, acute. 
Preanal pores none. 

SkuU something like that of Acontias. 

Trogonophis, Kaup, Isis, 1830, p. 880. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. Sfc. 1844 ; P. Z. S. 1865, p. 445. 
Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat. 1854, xx. 1. 15. f. 3 & 4, p. 6. 

1. Trogonophis Wiegmanni. 

Trogonophis Wiegmanni, Katip, his, 1830, p. 880, t. 861. 
Feruss. Ball. Scl. Nat. xxv. p. 203, 1831. 
Bam. <f" Bihr. Erp. Om. v. p. 470. 
Gray, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 445. 
Amphisbffiiia elegans, Gemais, Btdl. Sci. Nat. de France, 
1855, p. 135; May. Zool. 1835, class 3. t. 11 (details 
not good). 

Hah. Tangiers (Frascr, B. M. 1848) ; N. Africa (B. M. 
1846) ; Algeria {Bumeril, B. M.). 

This animal was first described by Dr. Kaup, who showed 
that the teeth of it were placed on the edge of the jaw, as 
in the genera of the family Ayaniidce, which are all con- 
fined to the eastern hemisphere and Australia, while all 
the other genera of the order that have been examined 
have the teeth on the inner side of the jaw, as in the 
family lyuanidce, which is restricted to the New World. 

It was afterwards described by M. Gervais ; and even 
when Dr. Kaup had informed him, after inspecting the 
specimens, that it was the same as ho had previously 
described, he still regarded it as new, because he said the 
skull did not agree with Dr. Kaup"s figure : but this was a 
mistake. Dr. Kaup figured the skuU of TroyonopMs and 
of an AmpMsbeena for the sake of showing the difierence 
between them ; and M. Gervais must have compared his 
animal with the wrong figure. 

II. Teeth on the inner side of the edye ofthejaiu. 


Head depressed, rounded on the sides ; nostrils on sides ; 
teeth on the inner side of the maxilla. Body cylindrical, 
covered with rings of uniform, oblong, four-sided shields, 
and possessing two short weak front limbs provided with 
five subequal clawless toes ; lateral fine sunken, covered 
with scales ; preanal pores distinct. Tail cylindrical. 

Chirotidoe, Gray, Cat. Tort. ^r. B. M. 1844, p. 74 ; P. Z. S. 
1865, p. 445. 

Hermann, in ' Obs. Zool.," thought this genus might be a 




litlH>8, I^itr. 
I'hiiloitli'S, IXiuili It. 
RiiUiUiU!!, (>j>i><-l, p. 4G. 
Chiumi'SJiunis, SclmciiUr, Schliu. 
Chirutos, Ctii'iVc, Vi'. A. 

Graij, Ann. Phil. 1825, S. p. 204. 
(Skolotou) MiilUr in Tiedem. ZciUch. Phis. ii. 27;i, t. 21. 
f. S, I), 10. 

1. Cliirotes lumbricoides. B.M. 

Licorta lumbricoides, Shaw, Xat. Misc. vi. 
Liwrta inexioana, Donnd. Zool. Beit. iii. p. 135. 
L;u'orta suU-ata. Siuk-ow. Thin: iii. p. 147. 
Chirotos lumbriooiiU-s, FUm. Ph. Zool. ii. p. 278. 

Gnui, Cut. Toi-I. 1844, p. 74. 
Chirotos Kinaliculatus, Ciiv. It. A. 

Mfrmii, Tint. p. 181. 

Gmti, P. Z. S. 1805, p. 440. 
Chirotos moxicain, lion/. 
Ix- Cannolo. Lic'p. Q. b. i. p. 013. 
BijK^s caualiciilatus, Bonnat. Erp. p. 08, t. 12. f. 0. 
Chamivsaurus iiiopiis, l:<(hinz. 

Chaloidos propiis, Daud. liqit. iv. p. 372, t. 58. f. 4. 
Bimanus propus, Opjpel, p. 46. 

Hab. Tropical America, Mexico. 

Fam. ni. AMPHISB^NID^. 

Head oblong, rounded below ; nostrils lateral, in nasal 
shields ; teeth conical, on the inner edge of the maxillae. 
Body cylindrical, covered with rings of uniform, elongate, 
four-sided shields, without any sternal disk ; preanal pores 
distinct; lateral line linear, sunken, with a few small 
scales. Legs none. Tail cylindrical, rounded at the end. 

Amphisbfenidse. Grai/, Ann. Phil. 1825, x. p. 203 ; Cat. 
Tort. 4-e. 1844, p. '69 ; P. Z. S. 1865, p. 446. 
Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat. 1854, xx. 


The head depressed, rounded on the sides in front. Nos- 
trils on the upper part of the sides of the head. 

A. Lateral and dorsal lines distinct, sunken, covered with 
small triangular scales. Xasal shields large, square, 
lateral, formimj a part of the edrje of the upper lip, 
and separated in front by a broad, square, convex 
rostral shield. 

The rostral square, convex. The nasal shields large, 
forming part of the edge of the upper lip. The crown with 

a largo pontiigonal frontal sliiold and two pairs of square 
shiolds bchiiul it. Kyo-shiold triangular, between the upper 
edge of the front labial shield and the frontal. Temples 
covered with a series of scjuarish shields ; labial shields 
largo, Iho hinder smallest; the lower shiolds without any 
chin-shield between them and tho gular one. Tail rather 
tapering, blunt ; i)reanal pores distinct. 

SkiiU, Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat. 1854, xx. t. 14. f. 5, 6, 7. 

Blauus, IFf/'/?. Am ph. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. SfC. p. 72, 1844; P. Z. S. 1865, 
p. 446; P. Z.S. 1865, p. 447. 

1. Blanus cinereus. 

Blanus cinereus. Gray, I. e. p. 72 ; P. Z. S. 1865, p. 446. 
Amphisbsena cinerea, Vandeli, Mem. Acad. Lisbon, i. 

Gervais, May. Zool. 1836, t. 10. 
Bum. ^ Bihr. E. G. V. p. 505. 
Amphisbajna osyura, Wayler in Spix, Brasil. p. 72, t. 35. 

f. 1. 
Amphisba:na rufa, ITempr. Berl. Gcsellsch. 1829, p. 130. 
Blanus rufus, IVieym. Arch. 1836, p. 157. 

Hub. North Africa, Tangiers {Eraser, B. M.) ; South- 
west Europe, Spain ( Vandeli, 1780) ; Oporto (Allen) ; 
Constantinople ; Asia Minor. 

M. Gervais (Mag. Zool. 1837, class 3. t. 10) gives a 
figui'e of A. cinerea ; but the details of the head do not 
perfectly agree with our specimens ; perhaps this may be 
from want of care in tho artist. The number of -pairs of 
plates on the occiput varies from two to four. 

B. Lateral lines linear, distinct, sunken. Dorsal none, or 
very indistinct. Nasal shields not forming part of the 
upper lip. 

a. Nasal plates large, extending across the muzzle, united by 
a long straight suture, or united into one cross band ; 
the rostral triangular, under front edge of 7iasals. 
Crown ivith two pairs of broad shields. 

Head depressed, broad, and rounded in front. Frontal 
plates with one or two pairs of rather smaller similar plates 
Ijehind them. Preanal pores eight. 

Amphisboena, Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825, x. p. 203; Cat. 
Tort. 6fc. 1844, p. 70 ; P. Z. S. 1865, p. 447. 



* Head depressed, broad; occiput covered ivith sqiuire 
shields like the body ; preanal plates numerous. 

]. Amphisbaena alba. B.M. 

Body thick, one-coloured, with only one pair of plates 
behind the frontal plates. Occiput shielded like the body. 

AmphisbiBna alba, Linn. Mus. AdoJpJi. p. 20, t. 4. f. 2. 

Dum. 4- Bibr. E. O. v. p. 48-1. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. tf-c. 1844, p. 70 ; P. Z. S. 18G5, 
p. 447. 
Amphisbaena rosea, Shav, Nat. Misc. iii. t. 
AmphisbiEua pachyura. Wolf, Ahbild. ii. p. 61, t. 17. 
Amphisbaena ilavescens, Neuwied, Abild. t. 

Waqler, Icon. t. 16. f. 1. 

Sch'inz. Aniph. p. 129, t. 46. 
Le Blanch et, Laecp. Q. 0. ii. t. 21. f. 

Bab. Brazil. 

Preanal pores vary from six to eight, and the plates in 
front of the cloaca varj" in size. 

Varies in the size and form of the hinder pair of frontal 
plates ; preanal pores eight, often seven. 

There is a specimen in the British Museum sent by Mr. 
Brandt under the name of A. Barwinii. 

2. Amphisbaena ainericana. B.M. 

Body rather thick, black, and varied. Two or more 
pairs of plates behind the frontal plates. 

Amphisba;na amerieana, Scheucli. P. S. iv. p. 1179, t. 1129. 
f. D, t. 1249. f. 10. 

Seba, Thes. i. t. IS. f. 3, t. 22. f. 2, 3, t. 73. f. 4, 

t. 100. f. 3. 
Gray, Cat. 1844, p. 70 ; P. Z. S. 1865, p. 447. 
Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat. 18-54, xx. t. 14. f. 1-4 (skuU). 
Amphisbaena ftiliginosa, Linn. L. S. i. p. 392. 
Daud.RejU. t. 91. f. 2. 
Dmn. 4- Bibr. E. G. v. p. 480. 
Amphisbaena vulgaris, A. varia, A. magnifica, et A. flava. 
Law. Syn. pp. 119-122. 
Giterin, Icon. t. 18. f. 1. 
La Enfumce, Lacepi. Q. 0. ii. p. 459. 

Ilab. Tropical America : British Guiana, Berbice, De- 
merara (B. M.). 

The labial shields vary in number and shape ; the shields 
behind the frontal vary in number and size, but they are 
generally in pairs and subsymmetrical. 

Gervais figures the skull of the species (Ann. Sci. Nat. 
1854, XX. t. 14. f. 4). 

3. Amphisbaena camura. 

Body thick, short. Tail short, obtuse, with sixteen rings. 
Preanal plates ten, longer than broad; preanal pores four. 

Muzzle abruptly contracted, short, higher than broad- 
swollen, arched in profile. Eostral plate five-sided. Naso- 
rostrals nearly transversely parallelogrammic ; fronto-naso- 
rostrals nearly as broad as long. Occipitals rounded an- 
teriorly and posteriorly. Labials four, three high. Eye 
in the superior angle of the ocular, which is acute anteriorly 
and bounded behind by three segments of the first annulus. 
Mental plate nearly as broad as long. Length of head and 
body 15 inches, of tail 2 inches 6 lines. Head and upper 
parts of body and tail brown, below and a broad collar 

Amphisba;na camura. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 
1865, p. 350. 

Ilab. Paraguay. 

Nearly allied to A. angustifrons, Buenos Ayres. The 
head and plates arc relatively much shorter and more ob- 
tuse ; there is one more labial ; the yellow collar is not 
seen in the latter. 

4. Amphisbaena heterozonata. 

Each lateral scuteUum finely punctulated with black. 
Verticilli 170-180 ; 18 on the tail. 

Amphisba;na heterozonata. Barm. Beise d. La Plata, ii. 
p. 527, 1861 ; Zool. Bee. 1865, p. 149. 

Ilab. Mendoza and Tucuman. 

** Head rounded, narroiu ; preamd pores and preanal 
shields ten or twelve. 

5. Amphisbaena petrsei. 

Amphisbaena petraei, Dum. cf' Bihr. Erp>. Gen. v. p. 487. 
Gray, I. c. p. 80 ; P. Z. S. 1865, p. 447. 

Eab. Brazil (Mus. Paris). 

*** Head rounrlcd, narrow, rather p)roduced in front ; 
crown-shields large; occipital shields polygonal. Body 
slender, one-coloured ; preancd piores two or four ; pre- 
anal plates si.v, middle ones elongate. 

6. Amphisbaena vermiciilaris. 


Amphisbaena vermicularis, Wagl. in Spi.v, Bras. p. 73, 
t. 25. f. 2. 

Bum. Sf Bibr. Erp. Gen. v. p. 489. 
Grai/, I. c. p. 71 ; P. Z. S. 1865, p. 448. 
Hensel, Wiegm. Archiv, 1868, p. 339. 

Hab. Brazil(Z>c. Gardner, 'B.M., Mus. Paris) ; Porto Bello 
{Capt. Austin, B.N., B.M. : head in a very bad state). 




7. AiuphisbiBua ? Daiwiuii. 

Amphisbwna Darwnnii, Dum. 4' Bibr. Eq>. Gin. v. p. 1S)1. 
tfniy, /. f. i>. 71 : 1'. '/'. S. 1SG5, p. 448. 

Hah. Mouto Video (Mr. Darwin, Mus. Puris). 

8. Ainphisbaena plumbea. 
"Hoad 9ubi\inio;il : frontul plates with one pair of 
smaller similar plates beliiiKl thoni ; pivanal pores four. 

•• .VmphislxDnu plumbea, sp. n.," Philij'pi ? 

Hab. Mendoza (B.M.). 

•• Eyes distinct. Scutella longer Ihau broad ; vorticiUi 
270 + 21. Six preaual shields. Uniform reddish grey 
above, whitish below." 


Head flat, narrow ; nose conical, four-sided, rounded at 
the end; rostral triangular: nasal plates very large, sol- 
dered together, covering the front of the head ; crowii with 
a small frontal and a pair of parietal shields. Eyes di- 
stinct ; temples and occiput with large shields. Body very 
slender; lateral line distinct. Tail cylindrical, elongate, 
truncated. Preanal pores numerous. 

Cvnisca, Grai/, Cat. Tort. 4-c. D. M. p. 71, 1844; Proc. 
' ZooL Soc. 1865, p. 44S. 

1. Cynisca leucxu'a. 


Cynisca Icucura, Gniij, Cat. Tort. ^'c. B. M. p. 71 ; Proc. 

ZooL Soc. 1805, p. 448. 
Amphisbseua leucura, Dum. 4" Bihr. ErpJ Gin. v. p. 498. 
.\mphisba;na macrura, Schlegel, Mus. Leyden. 

Brown ; end of tail white. 

Hab. Guinea (Miis. Leijdeii) (not Guiana, as stated by 
mistake in the Catalogue). 

2. Cynisca ? violacea. 

Amphisbaena violacea, Peters, Berlin Monatsh. 1854, p. 620 ; 
Wiegnmnn, Arch. 1855, j). 49. 

Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 448. 

Hab. East Africa, Inhambane (Peters). 

This species is unknown to me; it is without a single 
frontal shield, and has four preanal pores and visible eyes. 

3. Cyiiisca quadi'ifrons. 

Head small, convex ; muzzle elongato, rounded ; eyes 
distinct, llostral triangular, with its outer extremity bent 
upwards. Two quadrangular naso-rostrals, which are con- 
tiguous along their inner edges ; after these follow four 
fronti-naso-rostrals, of which the inner larger ones are 
long, quadrangular, and somewhat broader in front, and 
havo an inner obtuse und an outer acute angle. The outer 
fronti-naso-rostrals are narrower but longer than the pre- 
ceding, with their exterior longer edges bordering upon 
the ocular and the second supralabial, or even upon a 
small part of the first supralabial, and their posterior short 
edges contiguous with the frontal; they also have an inner 
obtuse and an outer acute angle. Erontals two, which 
taken together are broader than long, their front edge 
being convex towards the fronti-naso-rostrals, on the 
outer side with the apes of their exterior right angle on 
the ocular; with a long outer posteriorly straight edge, 
bordering on the anterior upper temporals, and their pos- 
terior short straight edges united with a pair of small scales, 
which in size and shape are like those on the segments 
of the body. The ocular is irregularly quadrangular, has 
an anterior acute and an interior obtuse angle, is united 
by the longest anterior upper edge with the outer fronti- 
uaso-rostral, by the posterior upper edge with the anterior 
upper temporal, by the posterior lower edge with the third 
supralabial, and by the anterior lower edge with the second 
supralabial. Separate ante-, post-, and supraorbitals do not 
exist. Supralabials three, of which the middle- is the 
smallest, the hinder the largest. Temporal plates, espe- 
cially the two anterior overlapping ones, very large. Beside 
the mental, which is longer than broad, and has parallel 
sides, three infralabials cover the under lip on each side, of 
which the first is acutely triangular, with its point inserted 
between the submental and the second infralabial. This 
last is very long, four-sided, broader in front than behind. 
To the straight hinder edge of the mental is appended a 
very cordate posteriorly acute submental, the end of which 
is bordered by a pair of smaller submentals. Preaual pores 
four, and anal Up with four rather long segments. 

AmphisboBua quadrifrons, Peters, Berlin Monatsher. 1862, 
p. 25. 

By the small size of the body and the whole habit, as 
well as by the large temporal plates, this species is allied 
to both the hitherto known African Amphisbsenians A. 
leucura and A. violacea, from which they nevertheless are 
very easily distinguished. 

A. leucura, D. & B., is distinguished by the union of the 



naso-rostrals with the fronti-naso-rostrals, hy the prcseuce 
of an odd frontal, a supraoi-bital, and an anteorbital, by 
the unusually large first infralabial, and the much larger 
number (ten) of the preanal pores. 

A. violaceu, Ptrs. (ilonatsb. Ib54, p. (520) which agrees 
in the position and proportion of the rest of the scutella, in 
the number of the anal pores; and the segments of the anal 
lip, is distinguished by its single pair of fronti-naso- 
rostrals, by the extraordinary length of the frontals, which 
are quite three times as long as broad, and of both tem- 
poral plates, which by themselves cover the whole of the 
temporal region. 

b. Nasal shields small, separate above, on the side of a large 
swollen rostra] shield. 


Head ovate, rather convex ; rostral shield very large, 
hemispherical, with the small nasal shields inserted in 
notches on its hinder edge, which is placed over the front 
labial; crown convex, rounded on the sides, covered with 
two pairs of shields ; the front pair square, the hinder 
smaller, triangular, with a small triangular occipital shield 
on its outer side ; eye-shield triangular ; labial shields ^, 
the second upper and front lower large ; gular shield single, 
square, with a cross series of shields behind it. Eody 
cylindrical ; lateral line well marked ; the dorsal shields 
elongate, narrow ; the ventral ones rather broader, smooth ; 
preanal pores four ; the preanal shields six or eight, the 
central pair the largest, the lateral ones very small. Tail 

Brouia, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 448. 

Fig. 19. 

Fig. 18. 

Bronia hrasiiiana. 

1. Bronia brasiUana. B.M. 

Pale brown ; dorsal shields with a dark central spot. 

Bronia brasiUana, Gray, P. Z. S. 1805, p. 448, f. 1, 2. 

Hab. Tropical America; Santarem, on the Amazons. 
(Bate^, B. M.) 

C. Lateral ami dorsal liius not defined, or the lateral line 
only visible on the hinder part of the body ; rostral 
shield small ; nasal shields small, far apart, placed on 
the side of the hijh rostral. 

5. SAREA. 
Head conical ; rostral narrow, higher than broad, rounded 

in front, placed behind the triangular nasal ; crown with 
two pairs of shields ; the front largest, elongate, the hinder 
trigonal ; eye-shield triangular ; the labial shields 2^, the 
second upper and lower labial shields very large, the others 
smaller, with one large gular plate. Body slender, the 
dorsal scuteUa square, as long as broad, with a dark cen- 
tral dot ; two central longitudinal series of ventral scutella 
broader than long, smooth, white ; the lateral line very 
indistinct, scarcely visible except on the hinder part of the 
body. Preanal pores four ; preanal shields six, square. 
The eyes are sUghtly visible through the shields. 

Sarea, Gray, Cat. Tort. SjX. 1844, p. 71; P. Z. S. 1865, 
p. 449. 

1. Sarea caeca. B.M . 

Amphisbtcna cteca, Cnvier, li. A. p. 773. 

Diim. S; Bibr. Erp. Gen. v. p. 492. 
Sarea ca;ca. Gray, Cat. Tort. iS,x. B. M. p. 71, 1844; 
P. Z. S. 1865, p. 449. 

Hah. West Indies; Porto Bello {Capt. Austin, B.N., 
B. M.) ; St. Thomas's {A. H. Riise, B. M.). 

The specific name is not characteristic, as the eyes are 
as much seen through the shield as in many Amphisbte- 

2. Sarea? iamocens. 

Eyes not visible ; rostral shield triangular, not quadran- 
gular (as in A. punctata) ; two fronti-uaso-rostral shields ; 
rostral shield low and smooth, not keeled (as in A. Kinyii). 

Amphisba^na innocens, Weinland, Abhundl. Senckenbery. 
GescTlsch. 1863, iv. p. 137, pi. 5. f. 2. 

Hab. San Domingo. 

Understood to have been previously described (Zool. Rec. 
1865, p. 149). Dr. D. F. Weinland does not characterize, 
but gives a long description, with the following observa- 

The species is allied to A. cetca, but differs in the fol- 
lo\ving points: — 1, there are 212 verticiUi between the 
corner of the mouth and vent (226-229 in A. cmca) ; 2, 
the scuteUa are oblong, and not square as in A. ceeca ; 
3, there is no trace of a median dorsal groove as in A. 



3. Sareal feuestrata. 

Diplmlu-i foMOstratiis. Co/ic, I'lW. Amti: Phil. Soc. ISliO, 

j>. lt:4. 
Ampliisl'ipim nntilloiisis, Zool. iiVr. ISO;"), p. ll'J. 
lidnhanh ij- Liitltn. Zool. li(C. 18(50, p. 111. 

Hah. Tropical Ancrica. 

6. CADEA. 

Head conical; rostral narrow. l\i_trlu'r than broad, trun- 
cated at tlio tij), convex in front : nasals ovate, lateral ; 
crown with two larjre, triangular shields; frontal with a 
snuUl linear shield on each side of it ; and two pairs of 
siiuaro occipitivl shields, the liinder pair smaller ; e^e- 
shicld rhombic : eyes hidden ; labial shields ^^, subcqual, 

middle one in each lip largest ; temples covered with square 
shields : giilar plate single, elongate. Hody cylindrical ; 
lateral line very indistinct, scarcely to be distinguished, 
except on the hinder part of the body ; shields of the back 
square, of the under surface rather wider, but scarcely 
wider than long ; preanal pores four ; the preanal shields 
six, central ones elongate. 

Cadea, Gray, Cat. Tort. ^r. B.M. p. 71, 1S44; Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1S65, p. 450. 

1. Cadea punctata. 

Cndea punctata, Gray, Cat. Tort, tjc- p. 71 ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1865, p. 450. 
Amphisbxna punctata, Bell, Zool. Journ. n. p. 236, t. 20. 
f. 2. 

Dvm. S)- Bihr. Erp. Gen. v. p. 494. 
J. Vilhrs. Bep. Fis. Nat. de Cula, ii. 1867, pp. 69, 72. 
Amphisbxna cajca. La Sai/ra, Cuha, p. 195, t. 21. 

Pale brown, dotted and varied with deeper brown. 

Hah. Cuba (TT. ,S'. MacLeatj, B.JI.) : the specimen de- 
scribed by Mr. BeR. 

Tribe II. A^^OPINA. 

Head compressed, keeled on the sides in front ; the nos- 
trils lateral, on the underside of the keels. 

A. Lateral line distinct and impressed. 

7. ANOPS. 

Lateral line distinct, sunken; preanal pores "none" 
{Bell), "four" {Dum. ^- Bihr.). 

Anops, Bill, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1833, p. 99; Zool. Jown. v. 
p. 391, t. 16. f. 1. 

Grail, Cat. Tort. ^o. B. M. p. 72, 1844 ; Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1865, p. 450. 

1. Auops Kingii. 


Anops Kingii, Rell, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1833. p. 99; Zool. 
Journ. V. p. 391, t. 16. f. 1. 

Graij, Cat. Tortoisci cj"c B. 2L p. 72 ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1865, p. 450. 
Aniphisba;na Kingii, J)iim. ct Bihr. Erp. Gen. v. p. 497. 
Jlcmel, Wieytn. Arcliiv, 1868, p. 343. 

J/ah. S. America (P. P. King, C. Barivin) ; Buenos Ayres 
(B'Orhi(/ii)/, Mus. Paris). 

I have not been able to examine this genus, which was 
described by Mr. Bell from a specimen brought from South 
America by Capt. P. P. King, R.N. ; it is described in 
more detail by Messrs. Dumoril and Bibron from specimens 
obtained by Mr. Charles Darwin. 

The existence of the lateral line, which, according to 
Mr. Bell, " is more distinct than in AmpJiishfvna, though 
less so than in Chirotes," and the account of the plates of 
the head as described by MM. Dumeril et Bibron, show 
that it must be distinct from the following, which comes 
from Africa. 

B. Lateral line none, or only very slightly visible on the 
hinder part of the hody. 


The head compressed, elevated ; rostral plate very large, 
compressed, forming an arched crest from the mouth to 
the forehead, with a groove on the hinder part over the 
nostrils ; crown with two pairs of band-like shields behind 
the upper edge of the rostral, the front pair narrow ; eye- 
shield very minute ; eye invisible ; temples with two small 
shields ; the upper labial shields 3 — 3 ; the second upper 
large, produced, keeled on the side ; the hinder, under the 
temporal shield, larger, square ; lower lip covered with a 
single large shield on each side, separated by a square in- 
ferior rostral shield, and by two small gular plates placed 
one behind the other ; nostrils large, lateral, under the edge 
of the keel of the frontals. Body and chest covered with 
rings of similar oblong sipiare shields ; preanal pores 2 — 2, 
separated by a central shield. Tail cylindrical, rather 
conical at the tip. 

Baikia, Gray, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 450. 

In spirits the skin is loose and inclined to form a tin- 



like fold, sometimes on one and sometimes on another part 
of the body, with a central longitudinal ventral groove, 
without any appearance of a lateral line. 

Fig. 21. 

Fig. 20. 

Baikia tifriciina. 

1. Baiiia africana. B.M. 

Baikia africana, Gran, F. Z. S. ISijo, p. 451, f. 3, 4. 
Hab. West Africa (Dr. Balfour BailAe, B.M.). 


Head oblong, depressed, with a short horizontal keel in 
front. Nostrils in shields, under the keel of the rostral 
shield. Teeth conical, on the inner side of the raaxiUa. 
Body cylindrical, covered with rings of oblong, four-sided 
shields; the sternum with a disk formed of differently 
shaped shields ; preanal pores distinct. 

Lepidosternidse, Gray, Cat. Tortoises tj-c. B. M. p. 73, 1844 ; 
P. Z. S. 1865, p. 4'51. 


Head conical, covered with symmetrical polygonal shields ; 
the pectoral disk covered with many polygonal shields 
placed in oblique lines ; the dorsal and lateral lines well 
marked, broad, smooth, formed by the overlapping of the 
narrow ends of the sections of the rings. America. 

Lepidosternina, Grai/, P. Z. S. 1805, p. 451 . 


Head conical, covered with three pairs of symmetrical 
and a vertebral shield ; rostral shield large, broad, rounded 
in front; the pectoral shield formed of regular, nearly 
equal, symmetrical, rhombic or six-sided shields, sometimes 
united into long shields which are not symmetrical. 

Lepidosternon, IVagler in Sjrix, Serp. Bras. p. 70. 
Graij, Cat. Tori. cJt. p. 73; P. Z. S. 1865, p. 451. 

* Sternal plates of central series united into elongated bands. 
Lepidosternon . 

1. Lepidosternon microcephalum. B.M. 

Head short, broad, the vertebral plate broader than long, 
six-sided ; frontal short, broad, band-like ; parietal small, 
square ; ocular higher than broad. 

Lepidosternon microcephalum, Wayler, Serp. Bras. p. 70, 
t. 26 ; Icon. t. 16. f. 1. 

MiiUer, Ticdem. Zeiisch. 1832, iv. t. 22. f. 4. 
Dum. ^ Bibr. Erp. Gen. v. p. 505. 
Gray, Cat. Tort. ^c. B. M. p. 73 ; P. Z. S. 1865, p. 451. 
Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat. 1854, f. 8-11 (skull). 
" Lepidosternon macrocephalum, Midler," A. Smith, Z. S. A. 

note, t. .5. 
AmphisbKna punctata, Nemvied, Abh. 
Lepidosternon MaximiHanus, Wieymann. 

Hab. BrazU, llio (Dr. Gardner, B. il.). 

The specimen in the British Museum has the shields on 
each side of the central line of the sternal disk united into 
an elongate shield, which is not symmetrical on the two 
sides, and appears like an accidental peculiarity. 

In the Free Museum at Liverpool there are two speci- 
mens of this species, obtained by Mr. Jobert in Brazil. 
They are similar, but show that the sternal plates are liable 
to coalesce and form larger plates in an unsymmctrical 

In the larger specimens the iirst series of sternal plates 
on each side of the central line are united into longitudinal 
shields, which are not of equal length. The series of plates 
on the outer side of them are separate, but not quite sym- 

In the other specimen, which is rather smaller, the first 
series of sternal plates on the sides of the central line, and 
the second series on the outside of it on the right side, and 
second and third scries on the left side, are united into 
longitudinal parallel plates, which are of unequal length, 
the two central ones being the longest, and the two outer 
plates on the left side much longer than the outer one on 
the right side. 

The head-shields in both these specimens are exactly 
alike, the central crown-shield being much broader than 
long ; the hinder pair of frontal shields rather shorter than 
the front pair, and narrower on the central edge by the 
angular front edge of the crown-shield ; the two pairs of 
occipital shields are shorter than broad, the hinder pair 
being the smaller, and in one instance have coalesced on 
one side with the plate of the front pair. 

They all liave a brown spot on the centre of each of the 
dorsal scuteUa. 



*• Srt»"wa?j)7n<« «?? sfjiaraie, symmelnnil SjiIkmio- 

2. Lepidosternou Grayii. li.M. 

Head ratlier short, brond : the vcrtt-bral plate hexagonal, 
elongate, as long as broad ; the frontal plate verj- short 
and broad : the parietal shields oblique : the occipital 
much longer than broad; temjioral shields larger on the 
sides of the occipital ; plates of the sternal disk symme- 
trical, in oblique diverging lines. 

Lepidostcrnon Grayii. A. Smith. MS. Brit. Mus. 
Gniy, P. Z.S. 18(>o, p. 4r)2, f. 5, (i. 

Hah. South America? (Brit. Mxis.). 

Fig. 23. Eig. 22. 

Lepidosternon Grayii. 

Sternal disk formed of four diverging lines of uniform, 
similar-sized, symmetrical shields : the shields on the cen- 
tral line smaller, being divided down the centre by a 
straight suture. 

In 1848, Dr. (now Sir Andrew) Smith sent to the British 
Museum this specimen, with the name of LejiidosterrMi 
Grayii, informing me that he had described (or intended 
to describe) it in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society ' 
under that name. I cannot find that it has been so de- 
scribed, nor can I iind any notice of it in any other work, 
though it is very like, but evidently distinct from, the Lepi- 
dosternon pTiocceiia of Dumeril and Bibron, figured by M. 
d'Orbigny (Toy. Amer. ilerid.). 

3. Lepidosternon phocsena. 

Head broad ; the vertebral plate elongate, small, larger 
than broad, acute at each end ; the frontal and occipital 
plates large, shorter than broad, the frontal the largest ; 
the parietal plates short, broad, band-like ; the plates of the 
sternal disk uniform, symmetrical, oblique. 

Lepidosternon phocoena, Diim. ^- Bihr. Erji. Gen. v. p. 507. 
Gray, Cut. Tort. (|r. B. M. p. 73 : P. 'A. S. 1865, p. 453. 
D'Orbif/ny, Toy. Amer. Merid. Eq)t. t. 6. f. 7-10. 

Hah. Buenos Ayres {Bridyes, B. M. : stuffed). 

M. d"Orbigny"s figure is very like the preceding species ; 

but the head is represented shorter, the frontal plates are 
rather larger. The long occipital shield of that species is 
here represented by two pairs of square shields, as if the 
large ])late of the form(^r species wore divided across ; it 
also appears to bo a shorter, thicker species. 

The stuffed specimen which wo received from Mr. Bridges 
agrees with the figure in all these particidars ; but the head 
appears rather larger, perhaps from its being rather dis- 
torted in the preparation. 

Both the figure and the specimen belong to a species 
evidently very distinct from L. Grayii, and much thicker. 

4. Lepidosternon octostegum. 

Lcpidostemum octostegum, A. Dumiril. 

Stcindacliner, Novara liept. p. 53 ; Zool. Record, 1867, 
p. 134. 


The head depressed, covered above with a single, simple, 
or transversel}' divided, flat, horny, nail-like shield ; pec- 
toral disk formed of elongated, symmetrical shields ; the 
dorsal and lateral lines very narrow, indistinct, except 
near the hinder part of the body. 

Cephalopeltina, Gray, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 453. 

A. The pectoral disk formed of large, diverging, unequal, 
polygonal, symmetrical shields; tlie crown-shield di- 
vided into two by a trayisverse suture. America. 


Head covered with two large shields, the front one 
smaller : the sternal disk of eight or ten large shields ; the 
two central pairs parallel, one in front of the other ; the 
lateral pairs diverging. 

Cephalopeltis, J. Midler, Tied. Zeitsch. fiir Phi/s. 1831, iv. 
p. 269. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. 4x. 1844, p. 73; P. Z. S. 1865, 
p. 454. 

1. Cephalopeltis scutigera. 


Ceph.ilopeltis scutigera, Grat/, Cat. Tort. ^y. B.M. p. 73 

P.Z.<S. 1S65, p. 454. 
Cephalopeltis lepidosternou, Midler, I. e. t. 21. f. 6 (skuU), 

t. 22. f. 5 (head). 
Amphisbsena scutigera, Hempr. Naturf. Freund. zu Berlin 

1820, p. 127. 
Lepidosternon seutigerum, Dum. cyBibr.Erp. Gin. v. p. 509 
Cephalopeltis Cuvieri, MiiUir, Zeitsch. Physiol. 1832, iv 

p. 253, t. 20. f. 5, t. 21. f. 6 & 7. 



Coleopeltis Cuviori, J. Muller (fide A. Smith). 
Lcpidostornon Hcmpriohii, Wicgm. 

Hah. Brazil {M'dller). 

B. The 2'xctoral disk formed of si.v or eirjht elomjaie longi- 
tudinal parallel shields ; head-shield single. Africa. 


The head covered with a single nail-like shield, without 
any slits on the hinder part of its side edge ; the rostral 
plate between the nasal plates transverse, four-sided, 
broader than high ; the shields of the sternal disk regular, 
broad and truncated in front ; the rings of shields in front 
of the sternal disk formed of regular square shields, like 
those on the rest of the body. 

Monotrophis, A. Smith, Zool. S. Africa, Rept. t. 47. 
Gray, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 454. 

1. Monotrophis capensis. B.M. 

Monotrophis capensis, A. Smith, Zool.S. Africa, Rept. t. 47 
(white ; pink when alive). 
Gray, P. Z. S. 1805, p. 454. 

Hah. S. Africa (B. M.). The typo specimen of Sir An- 
drew Smith. 

Dr. Peters records Monotrophis capensis as found in 
Mozambique ; but on comparison it may prove a distinct 
species. In my notes I have a reference to Lepidosternon 
sphenorhynchum, Peters, MS., as an East- African species; 
but I cannot find it described or noticed anywhere. Can 

it be the name Dr. Peters gave to his Monotrophis befare 
he discovered that it had been described by Sir Andrew 
Smith ? 


The head covered with a single nail-like shield, with a 
Fig. 25. Fig. 24. 

Dalophia WehvitscMi. 

linear slit on the hinder part of its side edges ; the rostr; • 
plate small, triangular, with the point upwo'-ds betwee.i 
the nasal plates ; the shields of the sternal disk rather 
irregular, but symmetrical, each with an acute front edge ; 
the rings of shields in front of the sternal disk formed of 
unequal but symmetrical polygonal shields. 

Dalophia, Gray, P. Z. S. 1SG5, p. 454. 

1. Dalophia Welwitschii. 


Dalophia Welwitschii, Gray, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 455, f. 7, 8. 
Monotrophis capensis, Giinther, MS. B.M. (not A. Smith). 

Pale brown. 

Hab. Angola ; Pungo Andongo ( Welwitsch, B.M.). 


;3ritish liase t.ursl 

Dept. of Zoology 

Oatilo- - -^' - '.eld r