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Full text of "Catalogue of the specimens illustrating the osteology of vertebrated animals, recent and extinct, contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England"

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FOR THE PEOPLE 

FOR EDVCATION 

FOR SCIENCE 






LIBRARY 

.OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 





CATALOaUE OF THE SPECIMENS 



ILLUSTRATING THE 



OSTEOLOGY 



OF 



VERTEBRATED ANIMALS, 

RECENT AND EXTINCT, 



CONTAINED IN 



THE MUSEUM 



or 



THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS OF ENGLAND. 



PART III. 

Class AVES. 

BY 

R. BOAVDLER SHARPE, LL.D. 



LONDON : 
PRINTED FOR THE COLLEGE; 

AND SOLD BY 

TAYLOR AXD FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

ilDCCCXCI. 



FLAMMAM. 




POINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
KED LION COURT, FLEET STREET, 



PREFACE. 

In this (\italoo-ne of AvIpji skeletons in tlie Museum of the 
College of Surgeons, the author has endeavoured to assign to 
the species the most recent accepted name, to which lias been 
appended some of the most important synonyms. 

The general plan adopted in Professor Flower's ' (Jatalogne 
of Mammalia' has been followed in the })resent volume ; but it 
has been thought better to introduce a few illustrations, to 
enable the students who may not have the specimens imme- 
diately before them to comprehend the characters described in 
the text of the work. 

It has been considered advisable to commence a new series of 
numbers with the ]')resent Catalogue, and in future the Avian 
specimer.s will be distinguished from the JMauunalian by the 
addition of an asterisk ; thus : — *2-l, kx'. 

In conclusion, the author begs to thank Professor StrWxVRT 
for his kind assistance throughout the preparation of the work, 
especially in the examination of certain difficult points of struc- 
ture. To Dr. T{. "W. SiiriEiJtT ]\c U al-o extremely indebted 



IV PREFACE. 

for his kindness in looking over the sheets as they were passing 
through the press and for suggesting many alterations and 
improvements. The references given do not aim at a complete 
synonymy, which would have been beyond the province of the 
present Catalogue ; but a few names of papers and figures of 
different osteological specimens have been quoted wherever they 
have been deemed useful to the student. 



R. B. S. 



British Museum (Natural History), 
November 13, 1891. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



[Extinct species are denoted by an asterisk.] 

Page 

Subclass PASSERIFORMES 1 

Order I. P I C - P ASSE HE S 3 

Suborder I. PASSERES 3 

Division A. Passeres Acromyodi, or Oscines ... 5 

Subdivision A. Passekes Normales 

Family COllVID^ <"' 

Genus Trypanocorax, iSimd 7 

frugilegus {L.) 7 

Genus Corvus, L 8 

corax, L 8 

coronoides, Vig 9 

Genus Coteus, Kaup 9 

monedula {L.) 9 

Genus Corona, Km(p 10 

cornix {L.) 10 

corone {L.) 10 

australis (G'o^t/f?) 11 

tenuirostris {Moore) 11 

Genus Microcorax, Sharpe 11 

jamaicensis {Gm.) 11 

Genus Nucifraga, Briss 12 

caryocatactcs {L.) 12 

Genus Pica, Briss 1"^ 

pica (/>.) 13 

Genus Dcndrocitta, Gould 13 

rufa (>Sfo^i.) 13 

hinialiiyeiisi.s, lUijlh H 



VI iSYSTEMATlC INJ>EX. 

Puniily CORVID^E {continued). 

Page 

(Jeuus Cissa, Bole , . . . . 14 

cbineusis (Bodd.) 1-4 

(jleuus Garrulus, Briss 14 

glandarius (L.) 14 

bispecularis, Vii/ 15 

Genus Cyanocitta, Stric/il 15 

cristata (L.) 15 

Genus Graculus, Koch 15 

graculus (L.) 15 

Genus Corcorax, Less 1^' 

melanorhamphus {Vieill.) 16 

Family PAR ADlSEIDiE 10 

Subfamily Epimachin^ 17 

Genus Ptilorhis, Swains 17 

paradisea, Swains 17 

kSul>family Paradisein^ 18 

Genus Paradisea, L 18 

minor, Shaw 18 

Family PTILONORHYNCHID^ 18 

Genus Ptilonorbyncbus, Kuhl 18 

holosericeus, Kuhl 18 

Genus ^lurcedus, Cah 19 

viridis (Lath.) 19 

Genus Cblamydodera, G'oidd 19 

guttata, Goidd 19 

Genus Sericulus, Stvains 20 

melinua (Lath.) 20 

Family STUENID^: 20 

Genus fSturnus, L 20 

vulgaris, L 21 

menzbieri, Sharpe 22 

Genus Pastor, Taam 22 

roscus {L.) 22 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. Vll 

Family STURNIDiE (conthmed). 

Pago 

Genus Sturnopastor, IIod<js 22 

contra (L.) 22 

Genus Dilophus, F. 23 

carunculatus {Gm.) 23 

Family EULAEETID.E 23 

Genus Eulabes, Cuv 23 

interraedius (A. Hay) 23 

religiosus (L.) 23 

Genus Teraenuchus Cah 24 

pagodarum (Gm.) 24 

Genus Acridotheres, V. 24 

tristis (L.) 24 

Genus Lamprocolius, Sand 25 

purpureus (P. L. S. Midi.) .... 25 

Genus Heteralocha, Cah 25 

acutirostris (Goidd) 25 

Family AllTAMID.^ 2(5 

Genus Artamus, V. 20 

fuscus, Vielll 2G 

leucogaster ( Vcdenc.) 27 

sordidus {Lath.) 

personatus (Gould) 

Family DICllURID^ 

Genus Chibia, Hodgs 27 

hottentotta (L.) 27 

bracteata (CrouZc/) 28 

Genus Buchanga, Hodfjs 28 

pyrrhops {IIod</s.) '^^ 

Genus Dicranostreptus, Iteiclienh 29 

megarhyuchus (Q. cj* G.) 29 

Family ORIOLID.E 29 

Genus Oriolus, L -•-' 

meLuioccphalus, L 29 



27 
27 



27 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family OiilOLlBJE {continued). 

Page 

Genus Mimeta, Vig. 4' Horsf. 30 

viridis {Lath.) 30 

Genus Sphecotheres, V 30 

maxillaris {Lath.) 30 

Family ICTERID.E 31 

Genus Cassicus, Briss 31 

persicus {L.) 31 

Genus Molothrus, Swains 32 

bouariensis {Gm.) 32 

Genus Agelseus, V. 32 

phceuiceus {L.) 32 

humej'alis {Vuj.) 32 

Genus Nesopsar, Scl 33 

nigerrimus {Osbum) 33 

Genus Stuniclla, V. 33 

neglecta, Auduh 33 

(xeuns Scolccophagus, Swains 33 

fcri'ugineus {Gm.) 33 

Genus Icterus, Briss 34 

jamacai {Gm.) 34 

leucopteryx ( Wagl.) 34 

Family PLOCEID^ 34 

Genus Vidua, Cuv 35 

principalis {L.) 35 

Genus Steganura, lieichcnh 35 

paradisea {L.) 35 

Genus Pyromelana, Bj) 35 

oryx {L.) 35 

afra {Gm.) 35 

Genus Quclea, lieichcnh 36 

(juelea {L.) 36 

Genus Spermestes, Sivains 36 

nana {Pucher.) 36 

Genus Stictospiza, Shurpe 36 

formosa {Lath.) 36 

(icnus Amadiua, Sivains 37 

fasoiata {Gin.) 37 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. IX 

Family PLOCEID^ (contmued). 

Tage 

Genus Steganopleiira, Reichenh 37 

guttata (Shaw) 37 

Genus Hypochsera, Bp 38 

fcuea, Ilartl 38 

Genus Ta^niopygia, lieichenh 38 

castanotis (Gould) 38 

Genus Sporseginthus, Cab 38 

subflavus (F/ei77.) 38 

Geuus Munia, Hodcjs 39 

oryzivora (L.) 39 

maja (L.) 30 

puuctulata (L.) 39 

Genus Uroloncha, Cab 40 

acuticauda (Hodjjs.) 40 

Genus Poepliila, Goidd 40 

cincta, Gould 40 

gouldiae, Goidd 40 

Genus Xeochraia, Bjy 41 

phaeton (Hombr. t|- Jacq.) 41 

Genus Estrilda, Swains. 41 

cinerea, (Vieill.) 41 

Genus Sporopipes, Cab 42 

frontalis (Baud.) 42 

Geuus Sitagra, Beichenb 42 

eapensis (L.) 42 

Genus Ploceus, Cuv 42 

atrigula, Hodys 42 

Family CCEKEBID^ 43 

Genus Glossiptila, Scl 43 

ruficoUis (Gm.) 43 

Family TANAGKID^ 43 

Genus Eui)honia, Desm 43 

violacea (L.) 43 

Genus Calliste, Bole 43 

I'astuosa (Less.) 43 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family TANAGRID^ {continued). 

Page 

Gcuus Tanagra, L 44 

cana, Swains 44 

cj'anoptera ( Vieill.) 44 

ornata, &j)arrm 44 

Genus ypindalis, J. cf S 45 

uigricephala (Jameson) 45 

Genus llhamphoca3lus, Desm 45 

brasilius {L.) 45 

Genus Pyranga, V. 45 

rubra (L.) 45 

erythromelas, JlciU 46 

Family FRINGILLID^E 46 

Subfamily Coccothraustinje 46 

Genus Coccotliraustes, Briss 46 

coccothraustes (L.) 46 

Genus Chloris, Citv 47 

cbloris (L.) 47 

Genus Mycerobas, Cab 47 

melanoxanthus {Hodgs.) 47 

Genus Hedymeles, Cah 47 

ludovicianus {L.) 47 

Genus Spermophila, Swains 48 

albigularis {Spix) 48 

Genus Loxigilla, Less 48 

violacea (Z.) 48 

auoxantba (Gosse) 48 

Genus Phonipara, i)^) 48 

marchii, Baird 48 

Genus Cardinalis, Bp 49 

cardinalis (L.) 49 

Subfamily Fkingillinje 49 

Genus Fringilla, L 49 

cselebs, L 49 

montifringilla, L 50 

Genus Carduelis, Briss 50 

carduelis (L.) 50 

major, Tacz 50 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. xi 

Family FllINGILLID.E (eoniiuued). 

Subfamily FKI^'GILLINiE (continued). 

Pago 

Genus Chrysomitris, Bote 51 

spiiius (L.) 51 

Genus xicanthis, Bechst 5] 

cannabina {L.) 51 

linaiia (L.) 51 

Genus Bj'canetes, Cah 52 

githaginea (Lieht.) 52 

Geijus Fetronia, Kaup 52 

dentata (Siind.) 52 

Genus Fasscr, Driss 52 

domesticus (L.) 52 

montanus {L.) 63 

diffusus (SmitJi) 53 

euchlorus (LicJii.) 54 

Genus Scrinus, Koch 54 

serinus {L.) 54 

canaria (L.) 54 

icterus ( Vieill.) 55 

Genus ISycalis, Boie 55 

flaveola (Z.) 55 

Genus Carpodacus, Kaup 55 

erythrinus (Pall.) 55 

Genus Loxia, L 50 

curvirostra, L 50 

(jenus Pyrrliula, Briss •. . . 56 

pyrrhula (L.) qQ 

enropaa, Vieill 57 

Subfamily Emberizinje 57 

Genus Emberiza, Briss 57 

schoeniclus, L 57 

citrinella, L 57 

hortulana, L 58 

Genus Miliaria, Brehm 58 

miliaria (L.) 53 

(ienus rieetropLenax, 67r//< oS 

nivalis {L.) 58 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family FllIXGILLID^ (continued). 

Subfamily Ejibeeizin^ (continued). 

Page 

Grenus Cyanospiza, Barrel 59 

cyanea (L.) 59 

Genus Ammodromus, Sivains 59 

savannarum (Gm.) 59 

Genus Paroaria, Bp 59 

capitata (Z>"6>r5.) 59 

cucullata (Lath.) 60 

larvata (iJofW.) 60 

Family ALAUDID^E . 60 

Genus Otocorys, Bp ." . 60 

praticola, Ilensh 60 

Genus Alauda, L 61 

arvensis, L 61 

Genus Lullula, Kaup 61 

arborea (L.) 61 

Genus Galerita, Boie Q'l 

eristata (L.) 62 

Genus Mirafra, Horsf. 62 

horsfieldi, Gotdd 62 

Genus Pyrrhulauda, Smith 62 

leucotis (Stanl.) 62 

Family MOTACILLID^ 63 

Genus Motacilla, L 63 

lugubris, Temm 63 

melanope, PeiU 63 

borealis (Sundev.) 63 

Genus Aiitbus, Bechst 64 

pratensis, L 64 

campestris, L 64 

spipoletta (L.) 64 

Family MNIOTILTID^ 65 

Geuus Seiurus, Swains 65 

aurocapillus (L.) 65 

motacilla (ViciU.) 65 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XIU 

Family MNIOTILTIDyE (contim(ed). 

Page 

Genus Dcndrceca, Gmi/ 05 

{estiva (Gm.) 05 

Genus Parula, 7?/j 06 

americana (L.) 00 

Genus Mniotilta, V. 00 

varia (L.) 00 

FamUy CERTHIID^ 67 

Genus Certhia, L 07 

familiaris, L 07 

Genus Salpornis, Graij 07 

spilonota, Franll 07 

Genus Sitta, L 08 

csesia, Wolf 08 

Genus Sittella, Swains 08 

pileata, Goidd 68 

chrysoptera {Lath.) 68 

Genus Climacteris, Temm 69 

leucopha^a (Lath.) 69 

Family DiaEID^ 69 

Genus Pardalotus, V. 69 

affinis, Goidd 69 

Family MELIPHAGID^ 69 

Genus Melioruis, Grai/ 69 

novce hoUandia) (Lath.) 69 

longirostris {Gould) 70 

sericea {Gould) 70 

Genus Lichmera, Gah 70 

australasiana {Shaiv) 70 

Genus Glyciphila, Swains 71 

fulvifrons {Lewin) 71 

Genus Stigmatops, Goidd 71 

subocularis {Gould) 71 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family MELIPHAGID.E (coufuu,,;!). 

Page 

(ienus Ptilotis, Stuains 71 

tlavignla, Gould 71 

ornata, Gould 72 

fusca (Goidd) 72 

Gonus Xanthomyza, tSivaiiis 72 

plirygia (LatJi.) 72 

Gcinis Acanthochi3era, V. S)- If 72 

carunculata (Laih.) 73 

Genus Anellobia, Cab 73 

lunulata {Goxdd) 73 

Genus Tropidorhynchus, V. Sf H 73 

corniculatus (Latli.) 73 

Genus Acanthorhj-uchus, Gould 74 

superciliosus, Gould 74 

Genus Myzomela, V. Sf H. 74 

nigra, Gould 74 

sanguinolenta {LidJi.) 74 

Genus Entomyza, Swains 75 

cyanotis (Lath.) 75 

Genus Melithreptus, V. 75 

validirostris (Goidd) 75 

melanocephalus, Gould 75 

Genus Myzautha, V. ^- H. 70 

garrula {Lath.) 76 

Genus Prosthcmadera, Grai/ 76 

novae zealandise (Gm.) 76 

Family PAMD^ 70 

Genus Parus, L 76 

major, L 76 

cteruleu.s, L 77 

britannicus, Sharjie tj" Dnsscr ... 77 

Genus Lophophanes, Kauj) 77 

cristatus (L.) 77 

Genus Acredula, Koch 78 

caudata (L.) 78 

Genus Panurus, Koch 78 

biannicus (/>.) 78 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XV 

Page 

Family REGULID.E 79 

Genus Regulus, Cm 79 

cristatus, Kocli 79 

Family LANIID.E 7!t 

Genus Falcunculus, V. < 9 

leucogaster {Gotihl) 79 

frontatus {Lath.) 79 

Genus Lanius, L '^^ 

minor, Gm 89 

excubitor, L 81 

collyrio, L 81 

magnirostris, Less 81 

Genus Strepera, Less 82 

graculina ( White) 82 

arguta, Gould 82 

Genus Gymnorhina, Gray 82 

organicum, Gould 82 

Genus Cracticus, V. 83 

nigrigularis (Gould) 83 

cinereus (Gotdd) 83 

Genus Struthidea, Goidd 83 

cinerea, Goidd 83 

Genus Collyriocincla, V. 4' If. 84 

rectirostris, J. (^- S 84 

Genus Pinarolestes, Sharpe 84 

rufiventris (Gould) 84 

Genus Oreoica, Goidd 84 

cristata (Lewin) 84 

Genus Paehycephala, V. ^- H 85 

olivacea, V. SflF 85 

gutturalis (Lath.) 85 

Genus Eopsaltria, Swains ^o 

australis ( White) 85 

griseogularis, Goidd 86 

Family AMPELIDtE 8G 

Genus Ampelis, Tj 80 

garrulus, L 8G 



XVI SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Page 

Family TURDID.E 87 

Genus Sylvia, Scop 87 

hortensis (BecJist.) 87 

atricapilla (L.) 87 

Genus Phylloseopus, Boie 87 

borealis (Blasiiis) 87 

trochilus (L.) 88 

Grenus Acanthiza, V.<^If. 88 

nana, V. Sj- H. 88 

Genus Acrocephalus, Kcmm 88 

australis, Gould 88 

Genus Oreocichla, Gould 89 

lunulata (Lath.) 89 

Genus Geocichla, Gould 89 

cyanonotus (J. 4' S.) 89 

citrina (Lath.) 89 

Genus Turdus, L 90 

iliacus, L 90 

musicus, L 90 

viscivorus, L 91 

pilaris, L. 91 

migratorius, L 91 

jamaicensis, Gjn 92 

Genus Morula, Leach 92 

merula {L.) 92 

Genus Erythacus, Cuv 92 

lusciuia (L.) 92 

rubecula(L.) 93 

calliope (Prt??.) 93 

Genus Ruticilla, C. L. Brehm 94 

phosnicurus (Z..) 94 

Genus Copsychus, Warfl 94 

saularis {L.) 94 

Genus Saxicola, Bechst 94 

oenanthe (Z) 94 

Genus Sialia, Sivains 95 

arctica {Swains. i.\- Hi chard so a) ... 95 

Genus Myiadectes, Swains 95 

genibarbis, Swains 95 

solitarius, Baird 95 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XVU 

Pago 

Family MIMIDiE 9G 

Genus Mimus, Bole 96 

orphcus {L.) 96 

hiUii, March 96 

Gemis Galeoscoptes, Cah 96 

caroliuensis {L.) 96 

Family TROGLODYTIDJE 97 

Genus Anorthura, Rennie 97 

troglodytes (L.) 97 

Family CINCLIDvE 97 

Genus Cinclus, Bechst 97 

aqnaticus {Bechst.) 97 

Family ACCENTORID.E 98 

Genus Accentor, Bechst 98 

modularis (L.) 98 

Genus Ephthianura, Gould 98 

albifrons (J. 4' S.) 98 

Family TIMELIID.E 99 

Subfamily Liotrichix^ 99 

Genus Liothrix, Strichl 99 

lutea (Scop.) 99 

Subfamily Cisticolin^ 99 

Genus Megalurus, Hor.sf. 99 

gramineus, Gould 99 

Genus Sphenura, Licht 100 

brachyptera, LicJit 100 

Genus Stipiturus, Less 100 

malacburus (Shaw) 100 

Genus Sutoria, Xichols 100 

sutoria (Forst.) 100 



PART III. 



h 



xviii SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family TIMELIID^ {continued). 

Pag© 

Subfamily Timeliin^ lOl 

Genus Origma, Gould . . 101 

rubricata (La//t.) 101 

Genus Orthonyx, Temm 101 

spinicanda, Temm 101 

Genus Grallina, V. 102 

picata {Lath.) 102 

Genus Cinclosoma, V. ^ II. 102 

punctatum {Lath.) 102 

Genus Psophodes, V. Sf H. 102 

crepitans {Lath.) 102 

Genus Pomatorhinus, Ilorsf. 103 

superciliosus, Vig. ^' Ilorsf. .... 103 

temporalis, Vig. ^ Ilorsf. 103 

Genus Garrulax, Less 103 

leucolophus {Ilardw.) 103 

pectoralis {Goidd) 104 

Genus Crateropus, Swains 104 

canorus {L.) 104 

Genus Cinclorhampbus, Goidd 104 

cruralis, Vig. <^ Ilorsf. 104 

Family PYCNONOTID^ 105 

Genus Chloropsis, J. Sf S 105 

aurifrons {lemm.) 105 

hardwickii, Jard. (J- ScVfg 105 

Genus Pycnonotus, Boie 105 

aurigaster ( VieiU.) 105 

barbatAis {Desf.) 106 

Genus Molpastcs, Ilume 106 

bengalensis {BJgth) 106 

Genus yEgithina, V. 106 

typliia(L.) 106 

Family CAMPOPHAGID^E 107 

Genus Graucalus, Cuv. 107 

melanops {LatJi.) 107 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. xix 

Family CAMPOPHAGID^ (continued). 

Genus Graucalus (continued). pawe 

parvirostris, Goxdd 107 

macii, Less 108 

sclateri, Salvad 108 

mentalis, Vig. ^- Horsf. 108 

Genus Campophaga, V. 108 

raelanoschista (Hodys.) 108 

Genus Lalage, Buie 109 

sykesii, Stricld 109 

Family MUSCICAPIDiE 109 

Genus ITuscicapa, L 109 

grisola, L 109 

Genus Alseonax, Cah 110 

latirostris (Raffl.) HO 

Genus Micrceca, Gotdd 110 

fascinans (Lrt/Zi.) 110 

Genus Petroeca, Swains 110 

leggii, Sharpe 110 

phcenicea, Gould Ill 

rosea, Gould Ill 

hicolor (Vig. 4- Hor.<<f.) Ill 

vittata (Q. cf- (?.) 112 

Genus Pratincola, Koch 112 

rubetra(Z.) 112 

rubicola (L.) 112 

Genus Smicroruis, Gould 113 

brevirostris (Gould) 113 

Genus Miro, Less 113 

albifrons (Gm.) 113 

Genus Xanthopygia, 5Z^<A 113 

cyanomeliena (Temm.) 113 

Genus Malurus, V. ll-t 

cyaneus (/Cllls) 114 

Genus Myiagra, V. 4' IL 114 

concinna, Gould 114 

Genus Ehipidura, V. 4' H H-l 

albiscapa, Gould 114 

tricolor {Vidll) 114 

/. 2 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family MUSCICAriD^E {continued). 

Genus Terpsiphone, Glofjer 115 

paradisi {L.) 115 

Family HIRUNDINID^ 115 

Genus Chelidou, Boie 115 

urbica (Z.) 115 

Genus Hirundo {L.) 11(5 

rustica, L 116 

Genus Petrochclidon, Cab 116 

fiuvieola (S?^f7i) 116 

Subdivision B. Passeres Abnoemales. 

Family MENUEID^ 116 

Genus Menura, Davies 116 

superba, Davies 116 

Family ATRICHIID^ 117 

Genus Atrichia, Gould 117 

clamosa, Gould 117 

Division B. Passeres Mesomyodi. 

Subdivision Oligomyodji:. 

Family TYRANNID.E 118 

Genus Elainea, Sand 113 

cotta, Gosse 118 

Genus Pitangus, Swains 119 

dcrbianus {Kaaj>) 119 

caudilasciatus {UOrh.) 119 

Genus Megarliynchus, Thanh 119 

pitangua (//.) 119 

Genus Blacicus, Cab 120 

pallidus (Gosse) 120 

barbirostris (Swains.) 120 

Genus Myiarchus, Cub 120 

validus, Cab 120 

fctolidus {G'onsi) 121 



SYRTRMATTC IXDFA'. XXI 

Family TYIJANNID.E (continxed). 

Page 

Genus Tyrannus, Cuv. \'2] 

griseiis, Vieill 121 

Genus Milvulus, Swains 121 

tyrannus (L.) 121 

Family COTINGID^ 122 

Genus Chasmorhynchus, Temm 122 

nu(licollis( r/nZ^.) 122 

Genus Hadrostomus, Cab 122 

niger (Gm.) 122 

Family PITTID.E 122 

Genus Pitta, V. 122 

brachyura (L.) 122 

strepitans (Temm.) 123 

Subdivision Tracheophon^. 

Family PTEROPTOCHID^ 123 

Genus Hylactes, Kinr/ 123 

megapodius, Kittl 123 

Family DENDROCOLAPTIDiE 123 

Genus Oinclodes, Grai/ 123 

nigrifumosus (D'Orh.) 123 

Suborder II. EURYL^EMI 124 

Genus Cymbirhynchus, Vi(j 125 

macrorhyncbus (Gm.) 125 

Suborder III. TBOCHILI 125 

Family TROCHILID^ 127 

Genus Lampornis, Sivains 127 

mango (L.) 127 

Genus Aithurus, Cab. 4' JI- 127 

polytmus {L.) 127 

Genus Eustcphauus, lie'uhenb 128 

galeritus {Molina) 128 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family TROCHILID^ {continued). 

Page 

Genus Cceligena, Less 128 

clemencia3 (Less.) 128 

Genus Florisnga, B2) 128 



sp. incog. 



128 



Genus Trochilus, L 129 

sp. incog 129 

colubris, L 129 

Genus Bellona, Muls. ^ Verr 129 

cristata (L.) 129 

Suborder IV. SC'AFSORES 129 

Family GALBULID^ 130 

Genus Galbula, Briss 130 

sp. incog 130 

Family PICID^ 130 

Genus Gecinus, Boie 131 

viridis (X.) 131 

canus (Gm.) 132 

occipitalis (Vig.) 132 

chlorolophus (F/ftV?.) 133 

Genus Chrysophlegma, Gould 133 

flavinucha (Gould) 133 

Genus Melanerpes, Siuains 133 

erythrocepbalus (L.) 133 

carolinus (L.) 134 

Genus Sphyropicus, Baird 134 

varius (L.) 134 

Genus Dendrocopus, Koch 134 

major (L.) 134 

macii (VieilJ.) 135 

Genus lyngipicus, B^) 135 

hardwickii, Bh/th 135 

Genus Brachypternus, Strickl 135 

aurantius (L.) 135 

Genus Chrysocolaptes, Blyih 136 

guttaticristatus (TicJcell) 136 

Genus Campophilus, Gray 136 

principalis (L.) 136 



SYSTEMATIC JKDEX. xxiii 

Family PICID.E (confltiued). 

Page 

Genus lynx, L i;j(j 

torquilla, L 136 

Family INBICATORID.E 137 

Genus Indicator, V. 137 

minor, Stephens 137 

Family CAPITONID^ 138 

Genus Cyanops, Bp 138 

asiatica {Lath.) 139 

hodgsoni {Bonap.') 139 

Genus Xanthola^ma, Bp 139 

htemacephala (Mailer) 139 

Family IIHAMPHASTID.E. 

Genus Ehamphastos, L 140 

toco, P. L. S. Mull 140 

ariel, Vig 140 

carinatus, Swains 141 

cuvieri, Wagl 141 

erythrorhynchus, Gm 141 

Genus Aulacorhamphus, Oray 142 

prasinus (G^omZc^) 142 

Suborder V. UPUPJS 142 

Family UPUPID^ 143 

Genus Upupa, Briss. . , 143 

epops, L 143 

Order II. C L U M B .E 144 

Suborder I. COLUMBJS 144 

Genus Carpophaga, /SV?6^ 144 

rubricera, Tristr 144 

sylvatica {TicJcell) 144 

Genus Megalopropia, Reichenb 144 

magnifica (Temm.) 144 



r SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Suborder I. COLUMBuE {continual). 

Page 

Genus Lopholaimus, Gray 146 

antareticus {Shaw) 146 

Genus Ptilopus, StricM 146 

melanoeephalus {Gm.) 146 

fasciatus {Peale) 146 

swainsoui {Gould) 147 

Genus Crocopus, Bj) 147 

phoenicopterus {Lath.) 147 

Genus Columba, L 147 

a3nas, L 147 

livia, Bonn 148 

palumbus, L 148 

guinea, L 149 

leucocephala, L 149 

caribsea, Gm 149 

inornata, Vig 149 

Genus Ectopistes, Swains 150 

migratorius {L.) 150 

Genus QCna, Stvains 150 

capensis {L.) 150 

Genus Geopelia, Swains 150 

tranquilla, Gould 150 

cuneata {Gm.) 151 

humeralis {Temm.) 151 

striata {L.) 151 

Genus Macropygia, Sivaius 152 

phasianella {Temm.) 152 

Genus Turtur, Selby 152 

turtur(Z:.) 152 

rupicola {Pall.) 152 

Genus Zenaida Bp 152 

zenaida {Bp.) 152 

Genus Melopelia, Bp 153 

leucojitera (L.) 153 

Genus Chamoepelia, Reiclienh 153 

passerina {L.) 153 

Genus Leptoptila, Gray 154 

jamaicensis {L.) 154 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XXV 
Suborder I. COLUMB^E (continued). 

Pa^go 

Genus Geotrjgon, Gosse l-)-! 

cristata (Temvi.) 154 

moijtaua (L.) 154 

Genus Chalcopelia, B2> 155 

afra(L.) 155 

Genus Ocyphaps, Gould 155 

lophotes (Temm.) 155 

Genus Chalcophaps, Gould 155 

iudica (L.) 155 

chrysoehlora (Wai/l.) 156 

Genus Phaps, Selby 156 

chalcoptera (Lath.) 156 

elegans (Temm.) 15/ 

Genus Leucosarcia, Goidd 157 

picata (i«^7(.) 157 

Genus Phlogoenas, Scl 157 

crinigera {Puchemn) 157 

Genus Caloenas, Gray 158 

nicobarica (L.) 158 

Genus Starnoenas, Bj) 158 

cyanocephala (L.) 158 

Genus Goura, StejJi 158 

coronata (L.) 158 

Genus Didunculus, Peale 159 

strigirostris (Jard.) 159 

Suborder II. DIDI 159 

Genus Didus, L 159 

*ineptus, L 159 

Genus Pezophaps, StricM K^JO 

*solitarius (Gm.) IGO 



Order III. TllOGONES 161 

Genus Trogou, i 162 

mexicanus, Swains 162 

puella, Goxdd 162 



XXVI SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Page 

Orderly. COCCYGES 163 

Suborder I. MUSOPHAGI 163 

Genus Musophaga, Isert 164 

violacea, Isert 164 

Genus Turaeus, Cuv 164 

persa (Z.) 164 

Suborder II. CUCULl 164 

Family CUCULID^ 165 

Subfamily Cuculin^ 165 

Genus Coccystes, Gloger 165 

glandarius {L.) 165 

coromaudus {L.) 166 

Genus Cuculus, Briss 166 

canorus, L 167 

pallidus (Zrt^/i.) 167 

Genus Cacomantis, S. Milll 167 

flabelliformis (Lath.) 167 

Genus Chalcococcyx, Cab 163 

plagosus (Lath.) 168 

Genus Coccyzus, V. 168 

americanus (Z.) 168 

Genus Eudynamis, V. 4' H. 168 

C5'anocephalus (Lath.) 168 

honorata (L.) 169 

Genus Scythrops, Lath 169 

novae hoUandias, Lath 169 

Subfamily CENXEOPODiNiE 169 

Genus Centropus, Illig 169 

phasianus (Lath.) 169 

ateralbus, Less 170 

sp. incog 170 

bengalensis (Gm.) 170 

Subfamily Phgenicophain^ 170 

Genus Saurothera, V. 170 

vetula(L.) 170 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XXVU 

Family CUCULID^ (continued). 

Subfamily Phcexicophain.i: (continued). 

Page 

Genus Hyctornis, ScJ 171 

pluvialis (Gm.) 171 

Genus Taccocua, Less 171 

eirkee {Gray) 171 

Subfamily Neomorphin^ 172 

Genus Geococcyx, Wagl 172 

affinis, Haril 172 

Subfamily CROTornAGiNiE 172 

Genus Crotophaga, L 172 

ani, L 172 

Subclass CORACIIFORMES 173 

Order I. PICARIJE 173 

^nhoxAGvl. HALCYONES 173 

Family COLIID^ 173 

Genus Colius, Bi-iss 174 

colius {L.) 174 

Family ALCEDINID^ 174 

Genus Alccdo, L 175 

ispida, L 175 

bengalensis, Gm 176 

Genus Alcyone, Swains 1'6 

azurea (Lath.) 170 

Genus Ceryle, Bole 177 

rudis (L.) 177 

maxima (Pall.) 177 

alcyon (L.) 177 

amazona (Lath.) 178 

Genus Ceyx, Lacep 178 

solitaria, Temm 178 

GenuB Halcyon, Sivains 178 

emyrnensis (L.) 178 



XXVlll SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family ALCEDINID^ (continued). 

Genus Halcyon (continued). -p 

msicleaji, Jard. (^' Self))/ 17*J 

sauropliaga, Goidd 179 

chloris (Bodd.) 179 

sanctus, Vig. (J- ITorsf. 180 

Genus Dacelo, Leadi 180 

gigas (Bodd.) 180 

Family MOMOTID^ 180 

Genus Momotus, Briss 181 

lessoni, Less 181 

Genus Eumomota, Scl 181 

superciliaris (Jard. ^' Sdhy) .... 181 

Family TODID^ 182 

Genus Todus, Briss 182 

viridis, L 182 

Suborder II. GOUACIA^ 183 

Family CYPSELID^ 183 

Genus Cypselus, Illvj 183 

apus(Z.) 183 

Genus Panyptila (Cab.) 184 

melanoleuca (Baird) 184 

Genus Choetura, Steph 184 

caudacuta (Lath.) 184 

Genus Macropteryx, Swains 184 

corouata (Ticlell) 184 

Family CAPEIMULGID^. 185 

Genus Nyctibius, V. 185 

jamaicensis (Gm.) 185 

Genus Caprimulgus, Briss 186 

europa?us, L 186 

monticolus, Franld 186 

Genus Antrostomus, Nutt 87 

vociferus ( TFi?.9.) 7 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XXlX 



Family CAPRIMULGIDiE {continued) 

Genus Chordeiles, Siv. . 

texeusis, Lawr. 
Genus Nyctidromus, Gould 

albicoUis {Gui.) . 
Genus Eurostopodus, Gould 

albigularis (Vig.) 
Genus ^gothcles, Vir/. ^ Horsf. 

novaj-hoUandiic (Lath.) 



Page 
187 

187 

187 

187 

188 

188 

188 

188 



Family PODAEGID^ 189 

Genus Podargus, V. 189 

strig'oides (Lath.) 189 

cuvieri, Vig. ^ ILirxf. 190 

plumiferus, Gould 190 

Family STEATORNITHID^ 190 

Genus Steatornis, Humh 191 

cariepensis, Humh 191 

Family CORACIID^ 192 

Genus Coracias, L 192 

garrulus, L 192 

indicus, L 192 

Genus Eurystomus, V, 192 

australis, Swains 192 

crassirostris, Scl 193 

Family MEROPID^E 193 

Genus Mcrops, L 19-1 

persicus, Pall 194 

philippinus, L 194 

ornatus, Lalli 194 

viridis, L 195 



XXX SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Page 

Suborder III. BUCER0TE8 195 

Family BUCEEOTID^ 195 

Genus Bucorvus, Less 195 

abyssinicus (Bodd.) 195 

Genus Buceros, L 19G 

rbinoccros, L 19G 

sylvestris, V. 196 

Genus Dicboceros, Gloger 197 

bicoruis (i.) 197 

Genus Hydrocorax, Briss 197 

hj-drocorax, L 197 

Genus llhinoplax, Gloger 197 

\\^\\ {J . R. Forster) 197 

Genus Antbracoeeros, Reichenh 198 

coronatus {Bodd.) 198 

convexus (r^Hny;.) 198 

Genus Ceratogymna, 2?yi) 199 

elata (r(?/»)».) 199 

atrata (TeHiwi.) 199 

Genus Pbolidophalus, Elliot 199 

sharpii {Elliot) 199 

Genus Ebytidoceros, Cah 200 

plicatus {Forster) 200 

Genus Lopboceros, H. S,- E. 200 

birostris {Scop.) 200 

Genus Toccus, Less 201 

fasciatus {Shaw) 201 



Order II. BSEUDOGUYPHI 201 

Genus Lithornis, Owen 202 

vulturinus, Owen 202 

Genus Catbartes, III 202 

papa(L.) ' .... 202 

Genus Ebinogryphus, Ridjiu 203 

aura(Z.) 203 

califoruianus {Sluiw) 204 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XXXI 

Page 

Subclass FALCONIFORMES 204 

Order I. A C CI P I T R E S 204 

Suborder I. SERPENT ARII 204 

Genus Serpentarius, Cuv 204 

sccretarius (*Sfo^.i.) 204 

Suborder II. AC CI PIT RES 205 

Family VULTURIDiE 206 

Genus Yultur, L 20(3 

monachus, L 20G 

Genus Gyps, Sav 206 

fulvus {Om.) 206 

fulvesceus, Hume 207 

Genus Pseudogyps, Shm-pe 208 

bengalcnsis, Gm 208 

Genus Neophron, Sav 208 

percnopterus (L.) 208 

Family FALC02s^ID^ 209 

Subfamily Polyboein^ 209 

Genus Polyborus, V 209 

tbarus (Mol) 209 

Genus Ibycter, V 209 

australis ((?m.) 209 

Subfamily Accipitktn'^ 209 

Genus Circus, Lacep 209 

cyaneus {L.) 209 

assimilis, J. d^- S 210 

pygargus {L.) 210 

Eeruginosus {L.) 210 

Genus Astur, Lacep 211 

trivirgatus (2'.) 211 

badius(F.) 211 

novaj-bollandia) {(Jm.) 212 

torquatus {T.) 212 

Genus Accipitcr, Biiss 212 

nieus. L 212 



XXxii SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family FALC0:N'ID^E (continued). 

Page 

Subfamily Btjteonin^ 213 

Genus Erytlirotriorcliis, Sharpe 213 

radiatus (Lath.) 213 

Genus Buteo (Cuv.) 214 

buteo(Z.) 214 

borealis (Gm.) 214 

lineatus (Gm.) 214 

Genus Archibutco, Brehm 215 

lagopus (G-'m.) 215 

Subfamily Aquilin^e 215 

Genus Gypaetus, Storr 215 

barbatus (L.) 215 

Genus Uroaetus, Kauji 21 G 

audax (Lath.) 216 

Genus Aquila, Briss 216 

chrysaetus (L.) 216 

heliaca, Sav 216 

clanga, PaU 217 

Genus iS'isaetus, Hodgs 217 

fasciatus (V.) • ... 217 

Genus Lophoaetus, Kaup 217 

occipitalis (Baud.) 217 

Genus Butastur, Hodgs 218 

teesa (FranM.) 218 

Genus Helotarsus, Smith 218 

ecaudatus (Baud.) 218 

Genus Haliaiitus, Savign 218 

albicilla (L.) 218 

leucocephalus (L.) 219 

pelagicus (PaU.) 219 

leucogaster (Gm.) 219 

leucorypbus (Pall.) 220 

Genus Gypobierax, Biipp) 220 

angolensis (Gm.) 220 

Genus Haliastur, Selbg 221 

Indus (Bodd.) 221 

spbenurus ( V.) 221 



SYSTEMATIC IN1»KX. XXXlll 

Family FALCONIDvE {conUnued). 

Subfamil}- Aquilix.e (continued). 

Pago 

Genus Elanoides, V. 221 

furcatus (L.) 221 

Genus Milvus, Cuv 222 

milvus(Z:.) 222 

aogyptius (Gm.) 222 

melanotis (2\) 222 

govinda, Syl-es 222 

Genus Elanus, Sav 223 

cseruleus (Z>t's/.) 223 

axillaris (Lath.) 223 

Subfamily Falconing 223 

Genus Ikza, Hodgs 223 

subcristata ((7ow?(Z) 223 

Genus Microhierax, Sharpe 224 

cferulescens (L.) 224 

Genus Falco (L.) 224 

communis (Gm.) 224 

babylonicus, Gum 225 

melanogenys, Gould 225 

feldeggii, Srhl 225 

jugger, J. E. Gray 225 

subbutco, L 22G 

regulus, P«Z/ 226 

columbarius, L 226 

GenuB Hierofalco, Cuv 227 

islandus (6-';».) 227 

Genus Hieraeidea, StricM 227 

orientalis (Schl.) 227 

Genus Cerchneis, Boie 227 

tinnunculus (L.) 227 

cenchroides ( V. cj- If.) 228 

sparvcria (L.) 223 

Suborder III. PANDIONES 229 

Genus Pandion, Suv 229 

haliaotus {L.) 229 

PART III. C 



XXXIV SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Suborder IV. STBIGES 229 

Family BUBONID^ 230 

Genus Ketupa, Less 230 

flavipes (i7o(^(/.9.) 230 

Geuus Bubo, Cnv 230 

bubo(L.) 230 

virginianus (Crn;.) 231 

bengalcnsis {Franld.) 231 

coromandus (Lath.) 231 

nipalensis, Hodgs 231 

Genus Carine, Kavp 232 

noctua {Scop.) 232 

brama (T.) 232 

Genus Niuox, Hodgs 232 

boobook (ia^7t.) 232 

varicgata {Q. <^- G.) 233 

nova3-zealandia) {Gm.) 233 

connivens (Laih.) 233 

Genus Glaucidium, Boie 234 

radiatum (Tick.) 234 

cuculoides ( Vig.) 234 

Genus Asio, Briss 234 

otus (/..) 234 

accipitrinus (Pall.) 235 

grammicus (Gosse) 235 

Genus Syrnium, Sav 236 

aluco (L.) 236 

nebulosum (Forst.) 236 

Genus Nyctala, BreJnn 236 

tengmalmi (Gm.) 236 

acadica (Gm.) 237 

Family STEIGID^ 237 

Genus Strix, L 237 

flammea, L 237 

delicatula, Gould 238 

capensis, Smith 238 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XXXV 

Page 

Order II. rSITTACl 238 

Family PSITTACID^E 239 

Genus Nestor, ]V(u,l 239 

liypopoliiis, Forsf 239 

notabilis, Gould 239 

Genus Eos, Wuf/l 240 

cardinalis {Oray) 240 

coccineus {Lath.) 240 

Genus Lorius, Vi</ 240 

garrulus (L.) 240 

chlorocercus (Gould) 24 L 

Genus Trichoglossus, Vi(/. Sf Horsf. .... 241 

chlorolepidotus {Kuhl) 241 

multicolor (Gm.) 241 

Genus Glossopsittacus, J5^; 242 

auBtralis (Lath.) 242 

porphj'reocephalus (Dietrich.) .... 242 

Genus Calyptorhyncbus, Vi(/. ^- Ilorxf. . . . 242 

banksi (Lath.) 242 

funereus (Shaw) 243 

naso, Govld 243 

leachi (Kuld) 243 

baudinii, Vig 243 

xanthonotus, Gould 244 

Genus Callocephalou, Less 244 

galeatum (Lath.) 244 

Geniis Cacatua, Vieill 244 

haematuropygia (P. L. S. Mull.) . . 244 

galerita (Lath.) 245 

sulpburca (Gm.) 245 

Icadbeateri ( Tlr/.) 245 

ducorpsi (Jarq. et I'kcJi.) 240 

roseicapilla (ViciH.) 240 

Genus Licmetis, Wayl 2-10 

teuuirostris, Wagl 240 

Genus Callo[)sittacus, Less 240 

novte bollandiie (Lath.) 240 

Genus Nasiterna, Wacjl 247 

pusio, Scl 247 

c-> 



XXXVl SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family PSITTACID^E {conthiHed). 

Page 

Genus Ara, Briss 247 

ararauna (L.) 247 

maracana (F.) 248 

Genus Conurus, KiM 248 

pertinax {L.) 248 

vittatus {Shaw) 248 

seruginosus {L.) 249 

nanus ( Vig.) 249 

jendaya (Gm.) 249 

Genus Brotogerys, Scl 249 

virescens (Gm.) 249 

Genus Chi'ysotis, Sivains 250 

collaria(Z.) 250 

ajstiva (Lath.) 250 

amazonica (L.) 250 

auripalliata (Less.) 251 

agilis (L.) 251 

ochrocephala (Gm.) 251 

Genus Pionus, WagI 251 

menstruus (L.) 251 

senilis (Sjnx) 252 

Genus Caica, Less 252 

mclanocephala (L.) 252 

Genus Psittacns, L 252 

erythacus, Z 252 

Genus Eclectus, War/1 253 

grandis (Gm.) 253 

Genus Paltcornis, Vig 253 

torquatus (Bodd.) 253 

fasciatus (P. L. S. 3IuU.) 254 

eupatrius (L.) 254 

cyanocephalus (L.) 254 

Genus Polytelis, Wagl 255 

barrabandi (Swains.) 255 

mclanura (F;'^.) 255 

Genus Aprosmictus, Gould 255 

eyanopygius ( V.) 255 

erythropterus (Gm.) 256 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XXXVU 

Family PSITTACID.E (continued). 

Pago 

Geuus Pyrrhulopsis, Eeichenh 25(5 

personatus (Gray) 250 

spleudens, PeaU 256 

Geiuis Agapornis, Selbi/ 257 

puUaria (L.) 257 

cana (Gm.) 257 

Genus Platycercus, Vig 257 

pennantii (Lath.) 257 

adelaida), Gould 258 

icterotis (T.) . . . 25S 

eximius (Shaw) 258 

flaviventris (T.) 258 

zonarius (Shaiv) 25!) 

Genus Psephotus, Gould 25'J 

multicolor (T.) 25i) 

Genus Euphema, Wagl 259 

pulchella (Shaw) 251) 

bourkii (Mitch.) 200 

chrysostoma (Kiihl) 260 

Geuus Cyaiiorhamphiis, Bj:) 200 

novte-zealandise (Sj^)arrm.) .... 260 

Genus Melopsittacus, Gould 261 

undulatus (Shaiv) 201 

Genus Lathiimns, Less 201 

discolor (Shaiv) 201 

Genus Pezoporus, IIVkj 202 

formosus (Lath.) 202 

Genus Stringops, Graij 202 

habroptilus, Gmij 262 



Subclass ANSERIFORMES ^^3 

Order I. S T E G A N P D E S 203 

Suborder I. PIlAETHOyTHES 203 

Geuus Phaetbon, L 26-1 

scthereus, L 264 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Suborder II. SUL^E 264 

Gcijus ISula, Brisa 264 

bassana(Z.) 264 

australis, Gould 265 

sp. incog 265 

^nhoY^Ln-lll. I'HALACEOCORACES 266 

Family PHALACEOCOEACID^ 266 

Genus Phalacrocorax, Briss 266 

carbo {L.) 266 

urile {Gm.) 267 

graculus (L.) 267 

magcllanicus (&'?«.) 267 

stictocephalus (-B^j.) 267 

pygmaeus (Pall.) 268 

sp. incog 268 

Family PLOTID.Fl 268 

Genus Plot us, L 208 

novte-hollamliie, Gould 268 

. . uuhinga, L 269 

Suborder IV. PELECANI 269 

Genus Pelecanus, L 269 

onocrotalus, L 2G9 

conspiciilatus, 2\ 270 

Suborder V. FREGATI 271 

Genus Fregata, ^rm 271 

aquila {L.) 271 

minor {Gm.) 271 

Suborder VI. ODO^^TOPTEliYGES 272 

(ienus Odontopteryx, Owen 272 

*toliapica, Oxven 272 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XXXIX 

rage 

Order II. HEIIODIUXES ^^^ 

Suborder 1. ARBE^ ^"^ 

Genus Ardca, /> 

purpurea, L "' 

alba, L ^'J" 

melanopus, Waal ' 

274 
egretta, Gm 

plumifcra (Gould) ^^'^ 

herodias, L 

27') 

Genus Demiegretta, Bh/th 

,r' \ . . 275 
sacra (br)i>.) 

Genus Ardetta, Gray "^'^ 

minnta (L.) 

exilis (Gm.) ■^' 

flavicoUis (Lath.) 276 

Genus Bubulcus, i?7) ^^^ 

bubuicus (.-IhcZow/h) 2/b 

Genus Butorides, i?///</t ^" 

277 
virescens (X.) 

Genus Nyctieorax, Itajia 2^7 

caledouicus (i/rt^/t.) ^" 

977 
nsevius (5ocW.) -" 

. 278 
sp. incog 

Genus Eotaurus, Bri^s 

stellaris (i^.) "'^ 

lentiginosus (J/oH^) -' 

979 
Genus Cancbroma (L.) 

cocblearia (L.) ^79 



Suborder II. BALJ^NICIPITWES 279 

Genus Balicniceps, Gould -' 

/< 11 . • 279 

rex, Gould 



280 
Suborder III. SCOPI 

„ • . 2S0 

Genus Scopus, Urtss ^^ 

umbrctta, Gm 



xl SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Page 

SubordtT IV. CICONII 280 

Pamily CICO^IID.E 281 

Genus Cicoiiia 281 

ciconia {L.) 281 

Genus Leptoptilus, Less 281 

dubius (G-Vh) 281 

crumeniferus {Ciiv.') 282 

Genus Mycteria, L 282 

australis {Lath.) 282 

sencgalensis {Shaw) 283 



Suborder V. PLATA LE^ 283 

Family PLATALEID^ 284 

Genus Platalea, L 284 

leucorodia, L 284 

regia, Gould 284 

flavipes, Gould 285 

Family TANTALID^ 285 

Genus Tantalus, L 285 

sp. incog 285 

Genus Pseudotanialus, llidgiv 285 

ibis(/>.) 285 

Family IBIDID^ 286 

Genus GeronHcus, Waijl 286 

sp. incog 286 

Genus Carphibis, lieichenh 286 

spinicollis {James.) 286 

Genus Ibis, Larep 286 

strictipennis {Goidd) 286 

Genus Guara, Eeiclienh 287 

rubra {L.) 287 

Genus Falcinellus, V. 287 

falcinellus (A.) 287 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. xli 

Order III. L A M E L L I R S T 11 E 8 287 

Suborder I. PHCENICOPTBRI 288 

Fcamily PHCENICOPTERID^ 288 

Genus Phoenicopterus, Brlss 288 

roseus, PaJl 288 

ruber, L 289 

Suborder II. ANSERES. 

Family ANSERANATID^ 289 

Genus Auseranas, Less 289 

melanoleuous {Lath.) 289 

Family PLECTROPTERID^ 290 

Genus Plectropterus, Steph 290 

gambensis {L.) 290 

Family ANATID^ 290 

Subfamily CEREOPsiNiE 290 

Genus Cnemioruis, Owen 290 

*calcitrans, Oven 290 

Genus Ccreopsis, Lath 291 

nova!-hollandisD, Lath 291 

Subfamily Axseein^ 291 

Genus Anscr, Briss 291 

segetum (Gm.) 291 

cinereus, Meyer 291 

sp. incog 292 

domesticus 292 

cygnoides (L.) 292 

Genus Rcrnicla, Briss 292 

sp. incog 292 

antarctica (O'm.) 293 

sandwichensis, Vi<j 293 

Genus Cbloephaga, Ei/ton 293 

magcUanica (Gm.) 293 

Genus Chenalopex, Dum 294 

segyptiaca (Z,.) 294 



xlii SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Pamily ANATID^E {cuntinued). 

Subfamily CiGNiNiE. p 

Genus Cygnus, Bechsf 294 

musicus, Bechst 294 

olor {Gm.) 295 

bewieki, Yarr 295 

buccinator, Richards 296 

atratus {Lath,) 296 

Genus Dendrocygua, Stvains 297 

eytoni (Gould) 297 

fulva(&'m.) 297 

javanica [Horsf.) 297 

arborea {L.) 298 

Genus Cairina, Flem 298 

moschata (L.) 298 

Genus Tadorna, Fh'7n 298 

tadornoides (J. cj-^'.) 298 

cornuta (S. G. Gm.) 299 

Genus Anas, L 299 

boscas, L 299 

obscura, Gm 300 

Genus Querquedula, Stej^h 300 

crecca (L.) 300 

falcata (Georr/i) 301 

carolinensis (Gm.) 301 

Genus Cbaulelasmus, Sp 301 

streperus (L.) 301 

Genus Dafila, StepJi 302 

acuta (L.) 302 

babamensis (L.) 302 

Genus Mareca, Steph 302 

penelope (L.) 302 

americana (Gm.) 303 

Genus Spatula, Boie 303 

clypeata (L.) 303 

rhynchotis (Lnili.) 303 

Genus Malacorbynchus, Swains 304 

membranaceus (Lath.) 304 

Genus Aix, Boie 304 

galcriculata (L.) 304 

sponsa (/>.) 304 



SYSTEMATIC IXDEX. xHii 

Family ANATID^E (cuatlnued). 

Subfauiily Cygxin/E {continued). 

„ i'age 

Geuus Fulix, Sund 305 

cristata (Leach) 305 

marila(/v.) 305 

affinis (Eifton) 305 

coUaris (Donov.) 306 

Genus N3-roca, Flem 306 

ferriiginea (Gih.) 306 

australis, Gould 306 

Genus JEthyia, Bole 306 

ferina (L.) 306 

Genus Harelda, Ste^ih 307 

glacialis (L.) 307 

Genus iSomateria, Zeac^ 307 

mollissima (L.) 3o7 

Genus Pelionetta, Kmq) 308 

perspicillata (L.) 308 

Genus G^demia, Flem 308 

fusca (L.) 308 

nigra (L.) 308 

Genus Hiziura, Steph 309 

lobata (Shaw) 309 

Genus Tachyeres, Oiven 309 

cinerea (Gm.) 309 

Genus Clangula, LeacJi 310 

glaucion (L.) 310 

americana, Bp 310 

albeola (L.) 310 

Geuus Mergus, L 311 

merganser, i/ 311 

serrator, iy 311 

albellus, L 312 

Suborder III. PAL AM ED E^ 312 

Family PALAMEDEID^ 312 

Geuus Palamedea, L 312 

cornuta, L '6\2 



xliv SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Page 

Subclass GALLIFORMES 'SV6 

Order I. TUEINAKES 313 

Family DIOMEDEID^ 313 

Geuiis Diomedea, L 313 

esulans, L 313 

sp. iucog , . 314 

chlororhyncha, Lath. ...... 315 

derogata, Sivinh 315 

melanophrys, Temrn 315 

fuliginosa, Gm 316 

cauta, Gould 316 

Family PllOCELLARIID^ 316 

Genus Ossifraga, II. ^' J. 316 

gigantea (Gm.) 316 

Genus Majaqueus, Reiclienh 317 

conspicillatus {Gould) 317 

aequinoctialis {L.) 317 

Genus Thalassoica, Reiclienh 317 

glacialoides (Smith) 317 

Genus Fulmarus, Sfe2)h 318 

rodgersi, Cetss 318 

glacialis (L.) 318 

Genus Puffinus, Briss 318 

anglorum (T.) 318 

brevicaudus, Breindt 319 

Genus (Estrelata, Bp 319 

mollis (Gould) 319 

Genus Daption, Steph 319 

capcnsis (L.) 319 

Genus Prion, Leuejj 320 

desolatus (Gm.) 320 

vittatus (Gm.) 320 

Genus Thalassidroma, Vig 321 

pelagica (L.) 321 

Gcuus Cymochorbea, Coues 321 

leucorrhoa ( F.) 321 



SYSTRMATIC INDEX. xlv 

Page 

Ordorll. lilPEXXES 321 

Genus Spheniscus, Briss 322 

magellauicus, For.'^t 322 

demersas (L.) 322 

Genus Pygoscelis, WagJ 323 

tteuiata, Peale 323 

Genus Eudyptes, V. 324 

clirysolophus (Brandt) 324 

Genus Eudyptila, Bji 324 

minor (Forst.) 324 

Genus Aptenodytes, Forst 325 

forsteri, Gray 325 

pennanti, Gra>/ 325 

Order in. GALLO-GRALL^ 326 

Suborder I. GAVIJE 326 

FamUy ALCID^ 326 

Genus Alca, L 32G 

impennis, L 326 

torda, L 327 

Genus Lomvia, Brandt 328 

troile(L.) 328 

ringvia {Lath.) 328 

brucnnichii (Sahine) 328 

Genus Uria, Briss 329 

grylle(L.) 329 

Genus Mcrgulus, V. 329 

aUe (L.) 329 

Genus Fratercula, Briss 330 

arctica (L.) 330 

corniculata (Nainn.) 330 

Genus Phaleris, T. 331 

psittacula (P«?7.) 331 

Genus Simorhynchus, Gni 331 

cristatellus, Prt?/ 331 

Family STERCORARIID^ 332 

Genus Stercorarius, Briss 332 

catarrhactes (L.) 332 



xlvi SYSTEMATIC INDRX. 

Family STERCORARIIP.F. (ronfinufJ). 

Genus Lcstris, lU 382 

crepidatus (i?(<>;/.-.s) 332 

Family LARID.E 333 

Genus Larus, L 333 

marinus, L 333 

glaucus, Brilnn 334 

argentatus, Gm 334 

pacificus, LatJi 335 

fuscus, L 335 

crassirostris, V. 335 

cainis, L 335 

jamesouii, iVils 336 

ridibundus, L 336 

Genus llissa, Ste2jh 336 

tridactyla (L.) 336 

brevirostris (BrucJi) 337 

Subfamily Steenin^ 337 

Genus Sterna, Briss 337 

fluviatilis, Naum 337 

arctica, T. 338 

maxima, Bodd 338 

bergii, Lklit 338 

caspia, Pan 338 

Genus Hydrochelidon, Boie 339 

nigra {L.) 339 

Genus Gygis, Wagl 339 

Candida {Forst.) 339 

Genus Anous, Steph 339 

stolidus (L.) 339 

Genus Rhynchops, L 340 

flavirostris, V. 340 

Family CHIONIDID^ 340 

Genus Chionis, Forst 340 

alba, L 340 

minor, Ilartl 340 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. xlvii 

Page 

Family THINOCORID.^ 341 

Genus Thinocorus, Esrh 341 

rumicivorus, Escli 341 

Family GLAREOLID^ 341 

Genus Glareola, Briss 341 

l>ratincola (L.) 341 

Family CEDICNEMID^ 342 

Genus (Edicnemus, T. 342 

oedicnemus {L.) 342 

capensis, Licld 342 

grallarius i^Latli.) 342 

Suborder II. LIMICOL^ 343 

Family PAERID.E 343 

Genus Parra, L 343 

jacana, L , 343 

gallinacea, T 343 

Family CHARADRIIDJE 344 

Genus Pliivianus, V. 344 

OBgyptius {L.) 344 

Genus Charadrius, L 344 

pluvialis, L 344 

Genus Squatarola, Leach 345 

helvetica {L.) 345 

Genus Oreophilus, Gray 345 

totanirostris, J. Sf 8. 345 

Genus Erythrogonys, Oould 345 

rufiventer (Less.) 345 

Genus ./Egialitis, Boie 346 

hiaticula (L.) 346 

wilsonia (Orel) 346 

vocifera (L.) 346 

nigrifrons (T.) 346 

Genus Lobivanellus, StncH 347 

lobatus (Lath.) 347 

pectorali.s (Tr«(/7.) 347 

indicus (Bodd.) 347 



xlviii SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family CHARA'DRIID^ {contiwicd). 

Page 

Genus Vanellus, Briss 348 

vancllus (L.) 348 

Genus Hoplopterus, 5^> 348 

spinosus (Z/.) 348 

Tcntralis (irrtryZ.) 348 

Genus Strepsilas, 7/7 349 

interpres (L.) 349 

Genus Hsematopus, L 349 

ostralegus {L.) 349 

palliatus, T. 350 

fuliginosus, Gould 350 

Family SCOLOPACID^ 350 

Genus Recurvirostra, L 350 

avocetta, L 350 

rubricoUis, T. 350 

Genus Cladorhynchus, Gray 351 

pectoralis {Duhus) 351 

Genus Himantopus, Briss 351 

leucocephalus, Goidd 351 

himantopus, L 352 

Genus Phalaropus, Briss 352 

hyperboreus (L.) 352 

fulicarius (L.) 352 

Genus Scolopas, Briss 353 

rusticola, L 353 

Genus Philohela, Gray 353 

minor (Gm.) 353 

Genus Gallinago, Leach 354 

galliuula (L.) , . . . 354 

austmlis (Lath.) 354 

delicata (Ord) 354 

gallinago (L.) 354 

megala, Sivinh 355 

Genus Ehynchaea. Cuv 355 

capensis {L.) 355 

australis, Gould 355 



SYSTEMATir IXOF.X. xlix 

Family SCOLOPACID^. (continued). 

Page 

Genus Tringa, ^Wss 356 

crassirostris, T 356 

alpina, L 356 

cauutus, L 356 

maritima, (t>ii 357 

Genus Machetes, Gi'v 357 

pugnax (L.) 35/ 

Genus Calidris, Briss 358 

arenaria (Z.) 358 

Genus Tringoides, B2> 358 

hypoleucus (L.) 358 

Genus Totauus, Cav 359 

canescens (Gm.) 359 

glareola (L.) 359 

calidris (Z.) 359 

Genus Limosa, Briss 360 

lapponica (L.) 360 

iiropygialis, Gould 360 

segocephala (L.) 360 

Genus Numenius, Briss 361 

pboeopus (L.) 361 

variegatus (Scoj^.) 361 

minutus, Gould 361 

arcuatus (/>.) 362 

Genus Ibidorhynchus, Vig 362 

struthersi, Vig 362 

Su1)orderIII. GBALLJE 363 

Family GRUID^ 363 

Genus Grus, Pall 363 

cinerea, BecJisf 363 

antigone (L.) 364 

carunculata {Gm.) 36-1 

canadensis (L.) 365 

Genus Tetrai)teryx, Thvnh 365 

paradisea, Licht 36o 

Genus Anthropoides, V. 365 

virgo (L.) 365 

PART III. " 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Family GllUIDiE (continued). 

Page 

Genus Balearica, Briss 366 

pavonina (L.) 366 

elirysolepargus (LicJit.) 366 

Family ARAMID^ 367 

Genus Aramus, V. 367 

scolopaceiis (Gm.) 367 

Family IIHINOCHETID^ 367 

Genus Ehinochetus, Verr. 4- Dcs Murs .... 367 

jubatus, Yerr. Sf Dts Murs .... 367 

Suborder IV. HEMIPODII 368 

Geiuis Turnix, Bonn 368 

velox {Gould) 368 

maculatus, V. 368 

varius {T.) 369 

Genus Pedionomus, Gould 369 

torquatus, Gould 369 

Suborder V. PTEBOCLETES 369 

Genus Syrrhaptes, III 370 

paradoxus {Pall.) 370 

Genus Pterocles, T 370 

arenarius {Pall.) 370 

lichtensteini, T. 371 

Suborder VI. FULICARI^ 371 

Family OTIDID^ 371 

Genus Otis, Briss 371 

tarda, L 371 

tetrax, L 372 

australis, Gray 372 

Genus Eupodotis, Less 373 

edwardsi (J. E. Gray) 373 

sp. incog 373 

Genus Sypheotides, Less 373 

aurita {Lath.) 373 



SYSTEMATIC IKDEX. 

Pi: 

FamUy UPISTHOCOMID.E \i 



Genus Opisthocomus, /// 3 

ci'istatus (Gm.) 3 

Family CARIAMID^ 3 

Genus Cariama, Bris6- 3 

cristata (L.) 375 

Family EALLID^E 3 

Genus Porphyrio, Briss 3 

melanonotus, T. 3' 

pulverulentus, T. 3' 

alleni, Tliomjis 3 

sp. incog 3 

Genus Notornis, Owen 3 

*mantelli, Oiven 3' 

Genus Fulica, Briss 3 

atra, L .... 3 

australis, Gould 3 

americana, Gm 3 

Genus Gallinula, Briss 3 

chloropua (L.) 378 

tenebrosa, Gould 3' 

Genus Tribonyx, Duhas 3 

raoi'tieri, Dubns 3 

ventralis (Gould) 3 

Genus Pareudiastes, Hartl. tjl" Fiusch .... 3 

paciticus, H. 4' F. 3" 

Genus Ocydromus, ]\'(igl 380 

sylvestris, Scl 380 

lafresnayanus ( Verr. ^j- I) s Murs) . . 380 

australis (Sijarrm.) 380 

Genus Aptornis, Owen 381 

*otidiformis (Owen) ....... 381 

Genus Gallicrex, Bli/th 381 

cinerea (Gm.) 381 

Genus Rallus, L 38 1 

aquaticus, L 381 

philippensis, L. 382 

caribbacus, liidiju- 382 



lii SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Faniil)- HALLIDyE {rontinaeJ). 

Page 

Genus Gyranocrex, Salvad ^^^ 

plumbeiventris (Gr(o/) 382 

Genus Crex, Bechst 383 

crex (L.) 383 

Genus Ortygometra, Leach 383 

porzaua (L.) 383 

pusilla (Pall.) 383 

Carolina (L.) • . . . 384 

fluminea ((tohUI) 384 

Tamily PSOPHIID^ 384 

Genus Psophia, L 385 

crepitans, L 385 

Huborder yil. HESPEBORNITHES 385 

Family HESPEEORNITHID.E 385 

Genus Hesperornis, Jlursh 385 

*regalis, Marsh 385 

*crassipes, Marsh, 386 

Suborder VIII. PYGOPODES 387 

Family COLYMBID.E 387 

Genus Colymbu.s, Brlss 387 

glacialis, L 387 

septentrionalis, L 388 

Family PODICIPEDID^ 388 

Genus Podicipes, Latli 389 

griseigena (Bodd.) 389 

cristatus (L.) 389 

dominicus [L.) 389 

Genus Podilymbus, Less 390 

podiceps (L.) 390 

Genus Tachybaptes, lickhenh 390 

tluviatilis ('/',/ *(i-;.) 390 



SYSTEMATIC INDKX. liii 

Page 

Suborder IX. GALLIN.E 390 

Family PHASIANID.E 391 

(jcnus rhasianus, L 391 

colchicias, L 391 

versicolor, T. 391 

wallichii, Ilardw 392 

scintillans, Gould 392 

Genus Thaumalea, Wa^/J 392 

picta (L.) 392 

Genus Crossoptilum, Ilodys 393 

auritum, Fall 393 

Genus Lophopliorus, T. 393 

impej'anus {Lath.) 393 

Genus Euplocomus, T 394 

pnelatus (5j->.) 394 

nj-cthomerus (L.) 394 

lincatus (F/ry.) 394 

erythrophthalmus {RaJJl.) 394 

Genus Gallus, Bnss 395 

sonncrati, T. 395 

domesticus 395 

Genus Ceriornis, Swains 396 

satyra (L.) 396 

temminckii (Grai/) 397 

Genus rolyplectrum, T. 397 

thibetanum (Gm.) 397 

Genus Argusianus, liajia 397 

argus (L.) 397 

Genus Pavo, L 398 

cristatus, L ' 398 

Family TETKAONID.E 398 

Genus Tctrao, L 398 

urogallns, L 398 

tetrix, X 399 

Genus Lagopus, Briss 399 

seoticus {fMlli.) 399 

inutus (.Uo)(//h.) 4U0 



Iv SYt^TEMATlC INDEX. 

Family TETRAOXID.E {cuHtiimed). 

Page 

Genus Bonasa, /Steph 400 

bonasia {L.) 400 

umbellus (L.) 401 

Family PERDICID.F: 401 

Genus Perdix, Briss 401 

perdix (L.) 401 

Genus Caccabis, Kaup 402 

rufa (L.) 402 

saxatilis (Meyer) 402 

Genus Ammoperdix, Gould 402 

bonbami (Gray) 402 

Genus Francolinus, Steph 403 

sinensis (Osb.) 403 

pictus (/. cj- ,SV) 403 

cdaraator (T.) 403 

Genus Coturnix, Bonn 404 

coturnix (L.) 404 

Genus Perdicula, Hodgs 404 

asiatica {Lath.) 404 

Genus Excalfactoria, Bp 405 

australis, Gould 405 

Genus Ortyx, Steph 405 

virginianus (L.) 405 

Genus Eupsycbortyx, Goidd 405 

cristata (L.) 405 

Family NUMIDID.E 406 

Genus jS^uraida, L 406 

meleagris, L 406 

cristata, Pall 406 

Genus Meleagris, L 406 

gallopavo, L 406 

FamUy CllACID^ 407 

Genus Crax, L 408 

carunculala, T 408 

alectur, L 408 



SYSTEMATIC INDKX. Iv 

Family CRACIDJE (continued). 

Page 

Genus Penelope, 3Ierr 408 

superciliaris, T 408 

greeyi, G^-ai/ 409 

pileata, Wayl 409 

marail, Gm 409 

cristata (L.) 409 

Genus Pipile, iJp 410 

cumanensis (J«C(7.) 410 

Genus Mitua, Less 410 

tuberosa (Spiv) 410 

Genus Pauxi, T 410 

galeata (Lath.) 410 

Genus Ortalis, Merr 411 

motmot (L.) 411 

Genus Oreophasis, Graj/ 411 

derbianus, Gray ' . 411 

Family MEGAPODIID^ 412 

Genus Talegallus, Z^.^.s- 412 

lathami (Graij) 412 

Genus Megacepbalum, Grcaj 412 

maleo, MiilJ 413 

Genus Lipoa, Gould 413 

ocellata, Goidd 413 

Genus Megapodius, Q. S,- G 413 

tumulas, Gould 413 



Suborder X. CRYPTURI 414 

Genus Rhynchotus, Spix 414 

rufcscens (T.) 414 

Genus Tinamus, Lath 415 

solitarius ( F.) 415 



Ivi SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Page 

Subclass STRUTHIONIFORMES 410 

Order I. APTEllYGES 416 

Genus Apteryx, Shaiv 410 

australis, Shatu 410 

oweni, GoulrJ 410 

sp. incog 41 7 

Order II. RATITJE 417 

Suborder I. EHE^ 417 

Genus Rhea, Briss 418 

americana, LatJt 418 

darwini, Govld 419 

Suborder II. STRUT HIOXES 419 

Genus Struthio, Bi^iss 420 

camelus, L 420 

Suborder III. J^PT011NITH1F0R}JES 423 

Family ^PYORNITHIDJ^. 423 

Genus ^pyornis, Ls. Geoffr 423 

*maximus, Is. Geoffr 423 

Suborder IV. DINORNITHES 423 

Family DINORXITHID^ 423 

Genus Dinornis, Ou'en 423 

*nov8e-zealandiae, Given 424 

*maximus, Owen 425 

*sp. incog 426 

*struthioides, Owen 427 

Genus Megalapteryx, Haast 428 

*hectori, Haast 428 

Genus Anomalopteryx, Beichcnh 428 

*casuarina {Oiuen) 428 

*droma3oides {Owen) 430 

*didiformis {Oiven) 432 

*curta {Owen) 433 

*geranoides {Ovjen) 434 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. Ivii 

Family DINOllNITHID^ {continued). 

Page 

Genus Emeus, Reiclienh 434: 

*Qva.y\\)(i?,, Lydelclcer 434 

*crassus {Oiven) 435 

Genus Pachyornis, Lydehlcer 436 

*elephantopus {Owen) 436 

*sp, incog 436 

Suborder Y. CASUABII 437 

Family CASUARIID^ 437 

Genus Dromasus, V. 437 

novse-hollandiac {Lath.) .>. . . . . 437 

Genus Casuarius, Briss. . . .'.'«. . . . 438 

bennetti, GouM 438 

galeatus, V. 439 

australis, Wall 439 

Family DROMOENITHID^ 440 

Genus Dromornis, Oiuen 440 

*au3tralis, Owen 440 



PART HI. 



EXPLANATION OF THE ABBREVIATIONS. 



O. C. Old Catalogue. 
S. S. Separate Series. 
F. C. CataloKue of Fossils. 



OSTEOLOGICAL C ATA LOCI U K. 



PART III. 



Class AVES. 

The system of Classification followed in the present work is 
mainly that proposed l)y Mr. Henry Seeboh'.n in his ' Classi- 
fication of Birds,' and further elaborated in his ' Birds of the 
Japanese Empire ' *. There are some points in this system 
which I have slightly modified ; but they are of minor ini- 
j)ortance when compared with the fact that every group of 
])irds, as diagnosed by Mr. Seebohm, possesses a combination of 
definite features, which are characteristic of the group, and of 
that group alone, be it Order or Suborder. 

Subclass PASSEBIFOBMES. 

A. Young batched in a helpless condition, and requiring to be 
fed in the nest for many days, Imt not pissing through a 
complete downy stage. {Cf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 1.) 

[N.B. — The late Professor Sundevall raade the condition of the 
young at birth a primary character for his division of the Class 
" Aves." His two great " Agmiiia'' were GiimnofKP.dea and Dupii/- 
pa;des (Av. Teut. pp. 1, 102, 1 58). The naked condition of the 
young at birth is thus described bj' him : — "A tuft of down, the 
forerunner of the actual feather, is attached to the tip of the 

* Seebohm, H. Classification of Birds ; an attempt to Diagnose tlie Sub- 
classes, Orders, Suborders, and some of the Families of existing Birds. 8vo. 
London : 188'J. Pp. i-xii, 1-52. 

PART III. I- 



2 TASSERIFORMEH. 

feather about to be developed ; it is of a fragile and light nature, 
not easily observed, and does not hide the skin. The chicks 
themselves are helpless, cannot walk, and, until they are full-grown 
and have acquired the faculty of flight, they are brought up by 
the parent birds in a nest, constructed with some skill by the 
latter, and have the food placed in their mouths by the parent 
birds." {Of. Nicholson's translation, p. 43, 1889.)] 

It may here be noted that the subject has never been fully 
worked out, for the nestling of the Shore-Lark (Otocori/s alpestris), 
when hatched, is hidden by yellow down ; but this is arranged 
in tufts, and on examination is very different from the close-set 
down of a nestling Hawk or Owl, where it entirely covers the body. 
Another Passerine bird which shows downy tufts adhering to the 
apes of the true plume is Ptihcliloris hucllcyi, from Ecuador (cf. 
Scl. & Salv. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 158, pi. xvi. ; Scl. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 
xiv. p. 318, 1888). 

Probably all the genera of Passeriformes pass through a more or 
less downy stage ; but I think that the character of the downy 
plumage will be found in every ease to be different in complexion 
and development from the downy young of the Dasijpcedes, though 
Meiiura appears to he an exception, and 1 have recently separated 
it from the other Passeres. 

B. A spinal feather-tract on a considerable part of the neck, 
well defined hy lateral bare tracts and not split by a S])inal 

bare tract. 

Fm. 1. 



lit 







te 







fill 



WMm 




Doisril view of Turdua vmdcus, to show the pterylosis of a typical Passe- 
rine Bird. (From a specimen in the Index Series in the Natural 
Ilistorv Museum, by permission of Professor Flower, C.B., F.B.8.) 



PICO-PASSERES. 6 

C. A hind toe is always present (generally the jirst digit, but 

occasionally, in a few Scansores which have lost the hallux, 
the fourth digit) and is connected with the /le.vor longus hal- 
lucis (cf. figure of foot of Rook, infra, p. 5). 

D. Cervical vertebrae, including the cervico-dorsal ones, no 

exceeding fifteen in number. 

The Subclass Passeriformes may be subdivided into four 
Orders, viz.: — I. Pico-Passerbs. II. Columb^. III. Tro- 
GONES. IV. Coccyges. 



Order PICO-PASSERES. 

{Cf. Seebohm, t. c. p. 2.) 

A. Young hatched in a helpless condition and naked, not passing 

through a complete downy stage before acquiring feathers. 

B. Flexor longus hallucis leading to one or both (if two) hind 

toes (which is generally the hallux only, but is sometimes 
the fourth digit only, sometimes the first and fourth, and 
occasionally the first and second). {Vide fig. 3.) 

C. Ambiens and accessory femoro-caudal muscles absent. 

The Order Pico-Passeres may be divided into four Sub» 
orders :— I. Passeres. IL Euryl^mi. III. Tkochim. 
lY. Scansores. 



Suborder 1. PASSERES*, 
{Cf. Seebohm, t. c. p. 3.) 
A. Palate ijcgithognaihons f. 

* Cf. Dr. Shufeldt's " Contributions to the Comparative Ostfolo<ry of the 
Families of Nortli-Americau Passeres," Journ. Moipli. iii. pp. 81-11:^, 
pis. v., vi. 

t Cf. Huxley, T. Z. S. 18(17, p. 451 ; Parker, Trans. Z. 8. ix. pp. 28!) -;3.',2, 
pis. liv.-lxii. (1873 j, x. pp. 251 -3] 4, pis. xlvi.-liv. (187(i) ; Oates, Faun. Brit. 
Tnd., Birds, i. p. 4 {188'J). 

u2 



riCO-PASSERKS. 



FJz. 





:,pl.j 



- P/ 



//lom't/nv 



Ventral surface of skull of liook {Trypanocora.v fruf/iler/ux), to show tlie 
segithog-natlious palate and bony siplionium. v., vomer; mpl.p., 
maxillo-palatine process; ;;/., palatine ; jt?r/., pterygoid; j'., quadrate; 
bs., basi-spbeuoid ; s.r., splienoidal rostrum. (From a specimen 
in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons.) 



B. Deep plantar tendons not connected together by a vinculum. 

C. Oil-gland present, but nude. 

D. Spinal feather-tract well detined on the neck, and not forked 

on the upper back. 

E. Hallux always present and connected with the flexor longus 

hallucis, and not with the fle.vor perforans digitorum. {Vide 
ho-. 3.) 



PASSERES. 



Fio. 3. 



Fi.r. 4. 




Fis 



Fi" 



3. — Foot of Rook {Trypanocorax frugilegus), dissected so as to show the 
arrangement of the deep plantar tendons. f.l.h., flexor longus 
hallucis ; f.p.d., flexor perforans digitorum. (From a specimen in the 
Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons.) 

4. — Plantar surface of foot of Rook, to show the proportions of the toes 
in the family Corvidse. (From a specimen in the Museum of the 
Royal College of Surgeons.) 



Division A. PASSERES ACROMYODI, or OSCINES. 

The intrinsic muscles of the voice-organ fixed to the end of 
the bronchial scnii-rinos (cf. (rarrod. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 517). 



PICO-PA!SSERES. 



Fijr. (! 



st-i 





in.ti 



Syrinx of Rook (T.fruyilet/tis), to show the aiTangement and Acroniyodian 
attachments of the intriusic muscles. — Fig. o. Lateral view of syrinx. 
Fig. G. Dorsal surface of syrinx, st, muscle running from trachea to 
costal process of sternum ; II, III, second and third bronchial semi- 
rings, tlie first concealed by muscles ; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, G, syringeal muscles ; 
m.t.i, the membrana tympaniforrais interna. 



Subdivision A. PASSEHES NOllMALES. 
Family CORVID^. *. 

A. Outer and inner toes subeqiial in length. Fig. 4 (vide p. 5). 

B. No bony nasal septum, but a corresponding deficiency in the 

palate. 

C. Palatines obtusely quadrate near their posterior extremity. 

(Fig. 2.) 

Fig. 7. 




Lateral view of cranium of Rook ( T. /ni(/i7ff/tis). (From a specimen in 
the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons.) io.f., interorbital 
fenestra ; f.~P; frontal zygomatic process ; s.z.p., squamosal zygomatic 
process. 

* Cf. W. K. Parker, " On the Structure and Development of the Crow's 
Skull," M. Micr. .lourn. viii. pp. 217--22G, pis 34-.3G (1872); also Dr. 
Shiifeldt's ' Myology of tlie Raven,' 8vo. 18W. 



CORVID^. 7 

D. In the interorbital septum is a large fenestra situated iniine- 

diatelj in front of the optic foranuMi, and rather more than 
twice the diameter of the hitter. 

E. Zygomatic process of frontal and stiuamosal well-marked 

and nearly equal. 
" All the Corvidcv possess the s/jthoninni, one upon eitlu^r side 
the skull, it being a curved osseous tube, describ(Ml Ijy Nitzsch, 
which conducts the air from the tympanic cavity to the lower 
jaw." {Slwfeldt.) 

Genus TRYPANOCORAX. 

Suudevall, Av. Meth. Tent. p. 43 (1872). 

Trypanocorax frugilegus. 

CorvKs frugilegm, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 150 (L76G) ; Eytou, 

Ostcol. Av. p. 147 (1867). 
Trypanocorax friMiilegus, Sharpe, Cat. 13. Brit. Mas. iii. p. ( 1877). 

The Common Eook. 

Hah. Europe, wintering in N.W. India. 

1. Skeleton. 0. C. 1553 a. Yarrell Collection. 

2. Skeleton. 0. C. 1553 d. 

Presented by Professor Flower, C.B., F.R.S. 

3. Skeleton of male. From Uxbridge. 

Presented hy Mr. T. DevoHsliire. 

4. Skeleton of female. From Uxbridge. 

Presented hy Mr. T. DevonsJtire. 

5. Sternum (with furcula, right coracoid, and scapida). 

S. S. 830. Purchased. 

6. Skull. O.C. 1553 F. Presented hy IT. J. Bon,, or, Ks,j. 

7. Skull. From Southend. 0. C. 1553 E. 

Presented hy Mr. J. Marie. 

8. Skull, with malformed mandibles. 0. C. 1553 C (Figured 

in Yarrell's ' British Birds,' ii. p. 90.) 

9. Skull, 0. C. 1553. Ilni,t,-rin„. 

10. Skid! of nuile. From GeniKiiiy. P,ir(l,<is,d. 

11. Skull ol' I'riiialc. F'-oni ( JennauN . Piirc/iascd. 



b PICO-PASSERES. 

Trypanocorax frugilegus. 

12. Skull with lower jaw attached. The boiij' siphonium, which 

conducts the air from the tympanic cavity to the articular 
bone, is indicated on the left side by black paper. The 
ligaments are painted blue. Preseiited Inj Lord Lilford. 

13. Skull. Hed bristles have been passed through the siphonia 

into the tympanic cavities. The right membrana tym- 
pani has been removed. A red bristle has been passed 
into the opening in the left articular, through which air 
enters the lower jaw. Presented by Lord Lilford. 

14. Skull. The bony siphonia have been left attached to the 

articular bones. Presented hy Dr. D. Sliarp, F.R.S. 

15. Hyoid. The entoglossal is represented by a paired bone. 

Presented by Br. D. Sharp, F.R.S. 

16. Sternum and shoulder-girdle. 

Presented by Dr. D. Sharp, F.R.S. 

17. Pelvis with adjacent vertebrae. 

Presented by Dr. D. Sharp, F.R.S. 

Genus CORVUS*. 
Liiinieus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, i. p. 15-5 (1766). 

Corvus corax. 

Liiiiiieiis, loc. cit. ; Eyton, Ostcol. Av. p. 14-5 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
Erit. Mu8. iii. p. 14 (1877). 

The Common E/Aven. 

Hab. Europe and Northern and Central Asia, .North America, 
as far south as Mexico. The Raven of the Old and New Worlds 
is practically the same bird, but varies considerably in size in 
various localities. On the variation in the size of skulls in 
Eavens from Alaska and New Mexico, with figures, cf. Shufeldt, 
Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 38G. 

* The slieleton of Vvrvus sccqiuhitus is tiii-uifd in Meyer's ' Abbildtmyen 
von A'ogel-Skeletten,' ])1. Oli. Tlie ,-kull of C. sinmttus is figured by Shufeldt 
(Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus. 18S7. p. .386). 



q 
C'ORVin/E. '^ 



18. Cranium. 0. C. 1546. JIunlerian. 

19. Skull of female. From Germany. Purchased. 

20. Cranium, longitudinally bisected, with horny .heath of 

mandible attached. 0. C. 1547. Purchased, 

21. Sternum (with furcula. right coracoid, and scapula) 

Q 5^ 09 Y Purchased. 

22. Bones (various). U. Kj. 104/ a. 

Corvus coronoides. 

Corviis coronoides, Vigors & Horsfleld,Trans^Lina. Soc. xv.p. 261 ; 
Sliarpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 20 (1877). 

The Wuite-eyed Australian Raven. 

Hah. The whole of Australia, excepting the western portion 
{cf. Ramsay, Tab. liist Austr. B. p. 12, 1888). 

23. Skeleton. From Tasmania. 0. C. 1547 a. 

Gould Collection. 

24 Sternum (with furcula, left coracoid, and scapula). From 
Tasmania. ^ordd Collection. 

Genus COL-ffiUS. 
Kaup, Natiirl. Syst. p. 114 (1829). 

Colseus monedula. 

Corvus monedula, Linnceus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 156(1766); Eylon, 

Osteol. Av. p. 147. ... ,,. , , o - ^- , 

Calais monedula (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. m. p. 20 (lb. /). 

The Common Jackdaw. 

Ilah. Europe and Northern Africa. 

25. Skeleton. Presented hy Mr. W. Sibleij. 

26. Skull. 0. C. 1553 G. Presented hy W. J. Bovnor, Esq. 

27. Skull (bisected). 0. C. 1554. 

Presented hy J. U • Steicart, Ls<j. 



10 PICO-PASSERES. 

Colaeus monedula. 

28. Sternum (with furcula, right coracoid, and scapula). 
S. S. 831. Purchased. 



Genus CORONE. 
Kaup, Xatiirl. Syst. p. 99 (1829). 

Corone cornix. 

Corvus cornix, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. loG (176G). 

Corone cornix (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 31 (1877). 

The Hooded or Royston Crow. 

Hah. Europe. 

29. Natural skeleton : mounted (ribs and right wing defective). 

0. C. 1550. South Collection. 

30. Skull. O.C. 1550 a. From Egypt. 

Presented by Prof. Flower, C.B., F.R.S. 

31. Skull (mandible deformed). 0. C. 1552. Purchased. 

32. Skull of male. From Germany. Purchased. 

33. Skull of female. From Bonn. Purchased. 

34. Sternum (with furcula, left coracoid, and scapula) . 

S. S. 829. Purchased. 

35. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. O.C. 1552a. Purchased. 

Corone corone. 

Corvus corone, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat, i. p. 36 (1766). 

Corone corone (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 36 (1877). 

The Caurion-Crow. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia, locally distributed, wintering 
in N.W. India and China. 

36. Articulated skeleton: mounted (toes defective). 0. C. 1548. 

South Collection. 



COKVin.E. 



11 



37. Articulated skeleton: munntc'd (vi<;lit lialhix wantino). 0. C. 

15-48 A. Yarrell Collection. 

38. Sternum (with furcuki, right coriicoid, and scapula). S. S. 

g2g Purchased. 

39. Skull of female. From Germany. Purchased. 

40. Skull of mule. From South Germany. Purchased. 

41. Skull. 0. C. 15-49. Purchased. 

Corone australis. 

Coitus australis, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 475 (1865). 
Corone austmlis (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. ^37 

(1877). 

The Brown-eyed Australian Crow. 

JIah. The whole of Australia and Tasmania. 

42. Skeleton. From Tasmania. 0. C. 1547 b. Gould Collection. 

43. Sternum of female. From Tasmania. Gould Collection. 

Corone tenuirostris. 

Corvus tenuirostris, Moore, Cat. B. Mus. E. I. Co. ii. p. 558 (1856). 

The Malayan Slender-billed Crow. 

Hah. Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. 

44. Skeleton . . C. 1 548 c. Presented by Sir Stamford Baffles. 

45. Skeleton. 0. C. 1548d. Presented by Sir Stamford Raffles. 

Geuus MICROCORAX. 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 48 (1877). 
Microcorax jamaicensis. 

Corvus jama icensis, Gmelin, 8. N. i. p. 367 (1788). 
Microcorax Jamaicensis (Gin.), Sharpe, loc. cit. 

The Jamaican Crow. 

Ilab. Jamaica. 

46. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented by the Smithsonian Imtitution. 



12 



PICO-PASSERES. 



Genus NUCIFRAGA. 
Briss. Orn. ii. p. 58 (1760). 

A. No fenestra in intororbital septum, but an irregular deficiency 

in the ossification of the cranium above the optic foramen. 

B. Squamosal zygoma very long and broad at its origin, so that 

it forms a considerable portion of the orbital margin. 

C. Palatines with their posterior extremity prolonged backwards 

as a broad process (see fig. 9). 

D. Flexure of lower jaw opposite the naso-frontal suture. 



Fis 



Fiff. 8. 



'/ cf jfzp J/j&, 




Fig. 8. — Lateral view of skull of Nucifraga caryocatactes. so./., supraorbital 
fenestra ; o.f., optic foramen ; f.z.j)., frontal zygomatic process ; s.z.ji., 
squamosal zygomatic process. 

Fig. 9. — Ventral view of palate, to show the vomer and posterior extremities 
of palatine bones. 
(From a specimen in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons.) 



Nucifraga caryocatactes. 

Corvus caryocatactes, Liunajus, S. N. i. p. 157 (1766). 
Nucifraga caryocatactes, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 53 
(1877) ; Eyton, Osteol. Av. p. 148. 

The Nutcracker. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia. 

47. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1555 e. 

Presented hy C. G. Danford, Esq. 



48. Skull of male. From Germany. 

49. Skull of female. From Germany. 



Purchased. 
Purchased. 



CORVID.E. 13 

Genus PICA. 
Brissou, Orn. ii. p. 35 (1760). 

Pica pica. 

Corvus pica, Linnecus, S. N. i. p. 157 (1700). 

Pica caudata, Keys. u. Bias. Wirb. Eur. p. 45 (1840) ; Eyton, 

Osteol. Av. p. 147. 
Pica rusiica (Scop.), Dresser, B. Eur. vol. iv. p. 509, pi. 200 (1873). 
Pica pica (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 62 (1877) *. 

The Common Magpie. 

Hab. The whole of Eurofje and Xorthern Asia and North 
America. 

50. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1554 c a. 

From the Zoological Gardens, 1885. 

51. Skull. 0. C. 1554 C. Received in e.vchange. 

52. Sternum (with furcula, right coracoid, and scapula). 

S. S. 832. Purchased. 



Genus DENDROCITTA. 

Gould, P. Z. :S. 1833, p. 565. 

Dendrocitta rufa. 

Lanitis ntfus, Scopoli, Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. ii. p. (1786). 
Dendrocitta rufa (Scop.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 76 
(1877) ; Gates, Eaun. Br. Ind., Birds, i. p. 31 (1889). 

The Indian Tree-Pie. 

Ilah. Indian Peninsula and Burma. 

53. Sternum of female, ^vith shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1934. 

From the Zoological Society. 

* The skeleton of the American Magpie {Pica hudsonica) is described by 
Dr. Shufcldt (.Journ. Anat. Thv.*. xxii pp. ?jO^~?,r>0, p]. xv. figs. 6, 8, 9, 
lU) 



14 PICO-PASSERRS. 

Dendrocitta himalayensis. 

Dendrocitta himalai/ensis, Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 4o ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 79 (1877) ; Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, 
i. p. 32 (1889). 

The Himalayan Tree-Pie. 

ITah. Himalaya Mountains. 

54. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal (s. n. Crj/pai- 

7'Jnna sinensis, Hodgs.). 

Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus CISSA. 
Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 975, note. 

Cissa chinensis *, 

Coracias chinensis, Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl. Daubent. p. 38 (1783). 
Cissa sinensis (Bodd.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p 85 (1877) ; 
Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 28 (1889). 

The Green Magpie. 

Hub. Eastern Himalayas to Burma. 

55. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented by B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus GARRULUS. 
Briss. Grn. ii. p. 46 (1760). 

Garrulus glandarius. 

Corvus glandarius, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 156 (1766). 
Garrulus glandarius(L.) ; Sharpe, Cat.B. Brit.Mus.iii. p. 93(1877). 

The Common Jay. 

Hab. Em-ope. 

56. Skeleton. From Riding Mill, Northumberland. 0. 0. 

1554 E. Presented by the Rev. H. H. Slater. 

57. Skull. From Damsdorf, Silesia. Purchased. 

58. Skull. 0. C. 1554 p. Received in exchange. 

69. Skull. 0. C. 1555. Hunterian. 

60. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle (wanting right scapula). 
S. S. 1249. Purchased. 

* A skeleton of Ci.im fhalassina is figured in Meyer's ' Abbildungeii, 
pi. Ixxxi. fig. 1. 



COKVIP^. 15 

Garrulus bispecularis. 

Garruhis hisjiecrtlaris, Yigovs, P. Z. H. 1830, p. 7; Sharpc, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus. iii. p. 100 (1877) ; Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. 
p. 39 (1889). 

The Himalayan Jay. 

Hab. Himalaya Mountains. 

61. Sternum, with sboulder-oirdle. From Nepal. 

Presented />>/ B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

62. Pelvis. From above specimen. 

Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esi], 

Genus CYANOCITTA. 

Strickland, Ann. & Mag. N. H. xv. p. 261 (1845). 

Cyanocitta cristata. 

Corvus cristatus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 157 (1706). 
Cyaiwcitta cristata (L.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 107 
■(1877). 

The Blue Jay. 

Hab. Nearly the whole of North America. {Cf. A. 0. U. 
Cheek-list, p. 2-41.) 

63. Skeleton of male. From the Zoological Society. 

Genus GRACULUS. 
Koch, Syst. baicr. Zool. p. 91 (1816). 

Graculus graculus. 

Corviis gracnhis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 158 (1760), 
Fregiltis graculus, Cuv. llegne Anim, i. p. 406 (1817). 
Graculus gracidus (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 146 (1877). 

The Eed-billed Chough. 

Hab. Europe and Northern Asia. 

64. Skull. 0. C. 1551. Presented by Dr. Leach. 

65. Sternum, with t-houlder-fjirdle. S. S. 1825. Stores. 



1() PICO-PASSERES. 

Genus CORCORAX. 
Lesson, Trnite, p. 325 (1S31). 

Corcorax melanorhamphus. 

Coracias melanorhamphus, Vieillot, Xouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat, viii. 

p. 2 (1817). 
Corcorax leucopterus (Temm.), Gray, List Gen. B. 1841, p. 52. 
Corcorax melanorharnphus (V.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus, iii. 

p. 149 (1877). 

The White-winged Chough. 

Hah. Australia, from Southern Queensland to New South 
Wales and South Australia. 

66. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of male (wantino- left coracoid 
and scapula). New South Wales {E. P. Ramsay). 
S. S. 1352. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Family PARADISEID^ *. 

A. Outer toe longer than inner. {Vide p. 17, fig. 12.) 

B. luterorbital septum almost entirely occupied by large fenestra, 

with a large deficiency in cranial wall immediately behind, 
and not separated from the former by a bony bar. 

C. Flexure of mandible immediately below nasal aperture. 

D. Frontal and squamosal zygomata nearly equal. 

E. Palatines with the posterior extremity prolonged as in 

Nacifraga. 

Fig. IL Fig. 10. 

Il''''^^\..y iof sof f:p 




Fig. 10. — Lateral view of skull of Farndisea minor. — io.f., inteiorljital 
fenestra ; so./., supraorbital fenestra ; f.z.p., frontal zygomatic process ; 
s.z.p., squamosal zygomatic process. (From a specimen in the Museum 
of the Ivoyal College of Surgeons.) 

Fig. 11. — Ventral view of palate, to show the vomer and the posterior extre- 
mities of the palatine bones. 

* Skeletons of several genera of Paradiseidse are figured in Meyer's ' Ab- 
bildungen der Vogel-Skeletten.' Manueodia (pis. vii., vii. a), Uranorym (pi. 
Ixxvii.), Schle<icliu (pi. Ixxviii.), Okmnurus (pi. v.). 



PARADISEID.r,, 
FiiT. 12. 



17 




Plantar surface of foot of Paradisea apoda, to show the proportions of the 
toes. (From a specimen in the Natural-History Museum, by per- 
mission of Dr. Giinther, F.R.S.) 

Subfamily E p i m a c h i n ^. 

Genus PTILORHIS. 

Swainson, Zool. Journ. i. p. 481 (1825) 

Ptilorhis paradisea. 

Ptihrhis 2^aradisea, Swainson, loc. cit.; Sharpe, Cat. B. iii. p. ]o4 

(1S77). 

The Common PwIFLe-bird. 

Hab. Australia : Wide-Bay district to New South Wales. 

67a. Natural skeleton of female*. From Lismore, N.S.W. 

Purchased from Mr. A. P. Goodicin. 

67. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. Clarence River, 
N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1050. 

Presented bij P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

* Professor Stewart has carefully dissected the head of this specimen and 
finds the siphonium well ossified. 

PART III. <^ 



18 PICO-PASSERES. 

Subfamily P a r a d i s e i n ^ . 

Genus PARADISEA. 
Linnfeus, Sj'st. Nat. i. p. 166 (1766). 

Paradisea minor. 

Paradisea minor, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vii. p. 486 (1809) ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. iii. p. 168 (1877); Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skel. pi. vi. 

The Lesser Bird oe Paradise. 

Hah. New Guinea. 

68. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. 0. 1541 A. Prepared 

from a specimen which died in the Gardens of the Zoolo- 
gical Society. 

Family PTILONORHYNCHID^. 
Genus PTILONORHYNCHUS. 

Kuhl, Beitr. zur Zoologie, p. 150 (1820). 

Ptilonorhynchus holosericeus. 

Ptilo7ior7v/nchiis holosericeus, Kuhl, he. cit. • Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus. vi. p. 381 (1881). 

The Satin Bower-bird. 

Hab. Australia. 

69. 69 A. Natural skeleton of male. From Lismore, New South 

Wales. Purchased from Mr. A. P. Goodwin. 

70. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Society. 

71. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of female, wanting left coracoid 

and scapula. Clarence River, N. S. W. {E. P. Ramsay). 
S. S. 029. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



PTILOXORHYNX'HID.t;. 



19 



Gemis -ffiLURCEDUS. 

Cahnnis, Mus. Hein. Tli. i. p. l'13, note (1850). 

.ffiluroedus viridis. 

Gracula viridis, Latham, Iiid. Orii. Sup))l. ii. p. xxviii (1801). 
jElurcedus viridis, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 385 (1881). 

The Australian Cat-bird. 

Ilah. Australia. 

72. Sternum, with shonlJer-girdlo. Richmond E-iver, N. S. W. 

Presented Inj Dr. E. P. Ramsa)/. 



Genus CHLAMYDODERA. 

Gould, B. Austr., text to pt. i. pi. 3 (1837). 

A. Flexure of mandible beneath the middle of the nasal 

aperture. 

B. Large deficiency in interorbital septum, us well as in the cranial 

wall, the two being separated Ijy a l)ony bar, the upper fora- 
men extending as far forwards as the interorbital deficiency. 

C. Palatines with the posterior extremity prolonged. 

D. A slight backward ])rolongation of angular. 

Fig. 13. 

{".f sof f.z.p s.:.p. 




Lateral view of skull of Chlamydodvra (jxittata. — io.f., interorbital fenestra ; 
so.f., supraorbital fenestra ; f.'^-p-, frontal z\'gomalif process ; «.:.;>., 
squamosal zygomatic process. 

Chlamydodera guttata. 

Clilamijdera r/udala, Gould, B. Z. S. lsf;2, p. 102. 

Chlami/dodera guttata, 8harpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 390(1881). 

The Large Spotted Bower-bird. 

Hah. Interior Province and N.W. Australia. 

73. Skeleton (imperfect). 0. (". 151Ua. Oould Collection. 

g2 



20 PICO-PASSERES. 

Genus SERICULUS. 

Swainson, Zool. Journ. i. p. 478 (1825). 

Sericulus melinus. 

Tardus melinus, Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. ii. p. xliv (1801). 
Sericulus melinus, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 395 (1881). 

The Eegent-bird. 

Hah. Australia. 

74. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. Clarence River, 
N. S. W. {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1078. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Family STURNIDiE. 

A. Flexure of mandible below the naso-frontal suture. 

Cranial deficiency very large, and extending as far 
forward as the somewhat narrow interorbital fenestra. 

B. Frontal and squamosal zygomatic processes only slightly 

developed. 

C. Palatines with the posterior extremity slightly prolonged. 

D. A marked backward prolongation of angular. 

Genus STURNUS*. 

Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 291 (1766). 

Fig-. 14. 

I'of sof f.:p s.zp 




Lateral view of skull of Sturnus vulgaris. — io.f., interorbital fenestra ; 
so.f., supraorbital fenestra; /.-.p., frontal zygomatic process; s.z.p., 
squamosal zygomatic process; a, backward prolongation of mandible. 

* " That part of the Passerine palatine which is arrested from forming a 
bony palatal floor generally exists as a free fore-looking spine. This is well 
seen in the Sparrow ; it is the interpalatine process. ... In Ducks and Swans 
this is a separate knuckle of bone ; and in looking over a large number of 
Starling skulls, I find it in certain of them." {Parker, Trans. Linn. Soc. (2) 
Zool. V. pt. 1, pi. .XX. fig. 12.) An examination of a skull of aS*. vulgaris 
which Professor Stewart has recently made proves that Stnrnus also pos- 
sesses the bony siphoninm. 



STURNID^. 21 

Sturnus vulgaris. 

Sttirmis vidf/ans, Linnfeus, loc. cif. ; Eyton, Osteol. Av, p. 135 
Parker, Trans. Linn. Soc. (2) Zool. v. p. 109, pi. xx. fig. 12; 
Sharpe, Cat. E. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 20 (1890). 

The Common Starling. 

Hah. Europe, wintering as far east as the Persian Gulf. 

75. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1538. Purchased. 

76. Skeleton of female. Presented by 2fr. W. Sibley. 

77. Skeleton. 0. C. 1537 a. Tarrell Collection. 

78. Skeleton of female. From Riding Mill, Northumberland. 

0. C. 1539 B. Presented by the Rev. H. II. Slater. 

79. Skeleton of male. From Dorsetshire. 

Presented by R. Boicdler Sharpe, Esq. 

80. Natural skeleton : mounted (toes defective). 0. C. 1537. 

South Collection. 

81. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

82. Skull of male. From Dorsetshire. 

Presented by R. Bowdler Sharpe, Esq. 

83. Skull. 0. C. 1539. Presented by Dr. Leach. 

84. Skull. 0. C. 1539 a. Received in exchange. 
86. Skull. 0. C. 1539 c. Presented hy W. J. Bonnor, Esq. 

86. Cranium. 0. C. 1510. Purchased. 

87. Skull. Old Coll. 

88. Hyoidean arch. 

89. Sternum of male (No. 82). 



22 riCO-PASSEKEs<. 

Sturnus menzbieri. 

Sturmis vulgaris, auct, ex IikL Orient. 

Sturnus menzbieri, Sharpe, Ibis, ] 887, p. 438 ; id. Cat. B. Erit. Mus. 
xiii.p. 33,pl. i. (1890); Oates,Faun. B.In(i.,Birds,i.p.522(1889). 

The Indian Starling. 

Ilab. Siberia, wintering' in the Indian Peninsula. 

90. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. S. S. 1874. 

Presented hy B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus PASTOR. 
Temminck, Man. d'Orn. i. p. 83 (1815). 

Pastor roseus. 

Tiirdus roseus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 294 (17G6). 
Stiinms roseus (L.), Scopoli, Ann. i. p. 130 (1709). 
Pastor roseus (L.), Sharps, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 63 (1890); 
Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 518 (1889). 

The Rose-coloured Starling. 

Hal). South-eastern Europe to Central Asia, wintering in India. 

91. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented hy JJr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 

92. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2041. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Genus STURNOPASTOR. 

Hodgson in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84 (1844). 

Sturnopastor contra. 

Sturnus contra, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 290 (1766). 
Sturnopastor contra (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 57 
(1890) ; Gates, Fauu. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 542 (1889). 

The Pied Starling. 

Hah. Indian Peninsula, ranging eastwards into Assam. 

93. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. S. S. 1873. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

93 A. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

J'resented hy JJr. ./. Anderson, F.ILS. 



EULABETID^. 23 

Genus DILOPHUS. 
Vieillot, Analyse, p. 34 (1816). 

Dilophus carunculatus. 

Gracula caruncalata, Gmelin, Syst. ^"at. i. p. li'JO (1788). 
Dilophus carunculatus (Gm.), Sharpo, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii, p. 61 
(1890). 

The Wattled Starling. 

Ilab. The greater part of Africa and Southern Arabia. 

94. Skeleton of female. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Family EULABETID^. 
Genus EULABES "". 
Cuvier, llegne Anim. i. p. 401 (1817). 

Eulabes intermedius. 

Gracula intermedia, A. Hay, Madr. Journ. xiii. pt. 2, p. 157 (1844). 
Mainatus intermedius (Hay), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 104 

(1890). 
Eulabes intermedius (Hay), Gates, Pauu. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 511 

(1889). 

The Malayan 1'alking Myna. 

Hub. Burmese countries south to the Malayan Peninsula, east 
to Cochin China, and west to the Himalayas and Central India. 

95. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Frenented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Eulabes religiosus. 

Gracula religiosa, Liunajus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 164 (1766). 

Eulabes religiosus (L), Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 511 

(1889). 
Mainatus religiosus (L.)» Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 99 

(1890). 

The South-Indian Talking Myna. 

Hob. Ceylon and Southern India. 

* Professor Stewart lias kindly examined for nie skulls of several jrcnera 
of Corvida; aud allied families. He lii;ds that iu Eulabes the siplioiiiuiii 
is well ossified. 



24 PICO-PASSERES. 

Eulabes religiosus. 

96 a. Natural skeleton of male. Presented by Mr. AhntJuims. 

96. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle but wanting furculu. From 

Nepal. Presented by B. H. Ilodyson, Esq. 

97. Pelvis. From Nepal. Presented by B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus TEMENUCHUS. 

Cabauis, Mus. Hein. Th. i. p. 20-i (1850). 

Temenuchus pagodarum. 

Turdiis jxnjodarnm^ Gmelin, Sj^st. jVat. i. p. 816 (1788). 
TemenucTius jycf/odarum (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. 
p. 73 (1890); Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 533 (1889). 

The Black-headed Myna. 

Ilab. Afghanistan and the whole of the Indian Peninsula. 

98. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1917. 

Presented by Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 

Genus ACRIDOTHERES. 

Yieillot, Analyse, p. 42 (1816). 

Acridotheres tristis. 

Paradisea tristis, Linnaeus, f^Tst. Xat. i. p. 167 (1766). 
Acridotheres tristis, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 80 (1890) ; 
Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 537 (1889). 

The Common Myna. 

JIab. India :ind Burmese provinces. 

99. ISternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented by B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

100. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle, hut having the right 

coracoid and scapula removed to show articulation. S. S. 
187G. Presented by Dr. John Anderson, F.R.S. 

101. Pelvis. From Nepal. Presented by Ji. IL Hodgson. Esq. 



EULABETIDiE. 25 

Genus LAMPROCOLIUS. 

Sundcvall, K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. Stockholm, 1835, p. 104. 

Lamprocolius purpureus. 

Turdus iturpureus, P. L. S. Miiller, S, N. Suppl. p. 143 (1770). 
Lamprocolius purpureus (MuU.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. 
p. 175, pi. viii. fig. 1 (1890). 

The Pukple-headed Glossy Starling. 

Hah. West Africa from Senegambia to Gaboon, extending to 
Equatorial Africa. 

102. Sternum, with sboulder- girdle. S. S. 2154. Purchased. 

Genus HETERALOCHA*. 

Cabanis, Mus. Hein. Th. i. p. 218 (1850). 

A. Mandible curved, with no median articulation. 

B. A great backward prolongation of the angular. 

Heteralocha acutirostris, 

Neomorplui acvhrustris, Gould, P. Z. S. lb3G, p. 144. 
Neomorpha gouldii, Eyton, Osteol. Av. p. 150, pi. ix. f. 
Heteralocha acutirostris (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. 

p. 143 (1877); BuUer, B. New Zealand, 2nd cd. p. 7, pi. 2 

(1888). 
Heteralocha gouMi, Meyer, Abhild. Yogel-Skel. pi. xlvii. 

The Htjia. 

Hah. New Zealand (North Inland). 

103. Skull of female bird. From Port Nicholson, New Zealand. 

0. C. 1516 A. Freaented hy Sir Everard Home, Bart. 

104. "Wing-bones of above specimen. 

105. Leg-bones of above specimen. 

* The anatomy of Heteraloc/ta is described by Garrod in the P. Z. S. 1872, 
pp. G4:J-G47. Cf. also Foibe?, Ibi.-^, l'^8L p. 20. 



26 



l'ICO-PASSERf;s. 



Family ARTAMID^ ^. 

Genus ARTAMUS. 
Yieillot, Analyse, p. 41 (1816). 

A. Nasal capsule bony, leaving small rounded nasal aperture. 

B. Posterior extremity of the palatines gradually passing into 

a long slender process continuous with its internal angle. 

C. Frontal zygomatic pi'ocess long, broad at base ; squamosal 

hardly marked, but 

D. Angular without backward prolongation. 

Fio-. IG. Fi?-. 1.5. 



i^_£. soJ- Ifp- ^/P- 




Fig. 15. — Lateral view of skull of Artamus leucogader (enlarged). — io.f., 
interoibital fenestra ; so.f., supraorbital fenestra ; f.~-p., frontal zygo- 
matic process ; s.z.p., squamosal zygomatic process. (From a specimen 
in the Museum of the Iloyal College of Surgeons.) 

Fig. 16. — Ventral view of palate (enlarged). 

Artamus fuscus. 

Artamus fuscus, Vieill. N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xvii. p. 297 (1817) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii, p. 11 (1890) ; Oatos, Faun. 
Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 498 (1889). 

The Ashy Swallow-Shrike. 

Hah. India to Tenasserim, Siam, and China. 

* According to Nitzsch (cf. also Forbes, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 838), Artamus 
wants the aftershaft of the feather. Eyton gives a short description of the 
skeleton of A. leucogaster in his ' Osteologia ' (p. 12-3). 

The skidl of specimen 106 a seems to show that Artamus is a Laniine 
form, and has nothing to do with the Starlings. The prolongation of the 
posterior internal angle of the palatines as a long and delicate spine and 
the osseous olfactory capsule prove the alhnity of Artaiuus to Lanius beyond 
a doubt. 



^ DICKURID^. 27 

106. Sternum and shouldor-glrJlc of female (wanting left cora- 

coid and left scapula). S. S. 1879. 

Presented hy Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 

Artamus leucogaster. 

Artamus leticoijaster (Yalenc), Sharpe, Cat. ]5. Brit. Mua. xiii. ]). 3 
(1890). 

The White-bellied Swallow-Shrike. 

flal. i\ustralia and the Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan 
Subregions. 

106 A. Natural skeleton of female. From Lismore, N.S.W. 

Pifrchased of Mr. Goodwin. 

Artamus sordidus. 

Turdas sordidus, Lath. Ind. Oru. Siippl. iv. ]». xliii (1801). 
Artamus sordidus, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 19 (1890). 

The Dusky Swallow-Shrike. 

Ilab. Australia. 

107. Skeleton from Tasmania. 0. C 1578 G. Gould Collection. 

Artamus personatus. 

Ocypterus personatus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1840, p. 149. 
Artamus personatus (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 16 
(1890). 

The Masked Wood- Swallow. 



Hah. The whole of Australia, excepting the northern parts. 

1578 H. 
Gould Collection. 



108. Skeleton, from Western Australia. 0. C. 1578 h 



Family DK^RURIDJ^ *. 

Gcuus CHIBIA. 
Hodgson, Ind. Review, i. p. ;524 (1837). 

Chibia hottentotta. 

Corvris liottentottus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 15.5 (1706). 
Chibia hottentotta (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 235 
(1877); Gates, Fauna Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 320 (1889). 

* Dr. Meyer gives a ligure of tlie slieletoii of Dicrurus leucops from Celebes 
i7i his ' Ahbiklungeu der Vdgel-Skeletteu ' (pi. xxvi.). 



28 PICO-PASSEKES. 

Chibia hottentotta. 

The Hair-crested Drongo. 

Hah. Indian Peninsula and Himalaya Mountains to Burma 
and Tenasserim. 

109. Skeleton (wanting sternum and shoulder-girdle). 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

110. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. S. S. 1864. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq, 

111. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

112. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting fiircuk. From 

Nepal. Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

113. Pelvis. From Nepal. Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Chibia bracteata. 

Dicrurus bracteatus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1842, p. 132, 
Chibia bracteata (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 23G 
(1877) ; Ramsay, Tab. List Austr. B. p. v (1888). 

The Australian Drongo. 

Hah. Nearly the whole of Australia, excepting the western 
portion of the continent and Victoria. 

114. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Sydney, N. S. W. {E. P. 

Ramsay). S. S. 1082. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus BUCHANGA. 
Hodgson, Ind. Review, i. p. 326 (1837). 

Buchanga pyrrhops. 

Dicrurus pyrrliops, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 14 (1844). 
Buchanga pyrrhops (Hodgs.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 251 

(1877). 
Dicrurus longicaudatus, Jerd. ; Gates, Fauna Brit. Ind., Birds, i. 

p. 214 (1889). 

The Indian Ashy Drongo. 



ORTOLID^. 29 

Ilab. The whole of India, exceptino- the North-western States 
(Sind &c.). 

115. Sternum and shoiilder-oirdle, wanting left coracoid and 
scapula. S. S. 1883. From Nei)al. 

Presented by D. II. Hodgson, Es(j. 



Genus DICRANOSTREPTUS. 

Eeichenbach, Syst. Av. pi. Ixxxviii. fig. 12 (1850). 

Dicranostreptus megarhynchus. 

Edolias megarhynchus^ Quoy & Gaimard, Voy. dc I'Astrol., Zool. 

i. p. 184, pi. vi. (1830). 
Dicranostre'ptus megarhynchus (Q. & G.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 

Mus. ill. p. 256 (1877). 

The Long-tailed Drongo. 

Hah. New Ireland. 

116. Sternum and shoulder-girdle, wanting right scapula. Fi'om 
New Ireland {J. Brazier). S. S. 2439. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



Family ORIOLID^*. 

Genus ORIOLUS. 
Linnajus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 160 (1766). 

Oriolus melanocephalus. 

Oriolns melanocephalus, Linnoeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 160 (1766) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 215 (1877) ; Gates, Faun. 
Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 506 (1889). 

The Indian Black-headed Oriole. 

Hah. Indian peninsula and Burmese countries. 

* A figui'o of the skeleton of Oriolus formosus is given by Dr. Meyer 
(Abbildungcn cler Yiigel-Skeletten, ph xxv.). 



30 PICO-PASSERES. 

Oriolus melanocephalus. 

117. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of male (wantino; left coracoid 

and scapula). S. S. 1907. 

Presented hy Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 

Genus MIMETA. 
Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 326 (1826). 

Mimeta viridis. 

Gracula viridis. Lath. Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. xxviii (1801). 
Oriolus viridis, Vieill. X. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xviii. p. 197 (1817); 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 212 (1377). 
Mimeta viridis, Vig. & Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 326 (1826). 

The New South Wales Oriole. 

Hah. Australia, from the Wide-Bay district to New South 
Wales and Victoria. 

118. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. Dobroydo, N. S. AV. 

[E. F.Ramsay). S. S. 926. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclafer, Esq., F.R.S. 



Genus SPHECOTHERES. 

VieiUot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxxii. p. 5 (1819). 

Sphecotheres maxillaris. 

Turdus maxiUaris, Lath. Ind. Orn., SuppL p. xliii (1801). 
Sphecotheres australis, Gould, B. Austr. fol. iv. pi. 15 (1848). 
Sphecotheres maxiUaris (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus, iii. 
p. 224 (1877). 

The Bare-faced Oriole. 

Hah. Australia. 

119. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. Richmond River, 
N. S. W. {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1360. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



ICTRRID^. 



31 



Family K'TERID.E*. 

A. Flexure of mandible well marked and situated below posterior 

border of nasal aperture. 

B. A very large main fenestra in interorbital septum, with a 

small secondary one in front ; cranial deficiency large, 
two-thirds of longth of interorbital fenestra. 

C. Frontal zygomatic process small but well marked ; the 

squamosal broad and blunt. 

D. Angular much prolonged backwards. 

E. Palatines with a slender prolongation of posterior external 

anole. 



Fiir. 1? 



iol so/ fzp S!P 




Lateral view of skull of Sturnella matjna. — io.f., interorbital fenestra ; so.f., 
supraorbital fenestra ; f.z.p., frontal zygomatic process ; s.z.p., squa- 
mosal zygomatic process ; a. backward prolongation of mandible. 



Genus CASSICUS. 
Brisson, Orn. ii. p. OS (1700). 

Cassicus persicus. 

OrioJus i^ersicus, Linna;us, Syst. Xat. i. p. IGl (1700). 
Cassicus persicus (Linn.), Sclater, Cat, B. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 321 
(1886). 

The Yellow Hang-nest. 

Ilal). South America. 

120. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1408. 

Presented J>y the Smithsonian fast iii/t Ion. 

* For the osteology of the geiuis Sturnella and the N. American Lleridfc, 
rf. Shufeldt, .Tourn. Anat. Phys. xxii. pp. .'J09-3-TO, pi. xv. 



32 PICO-PASSERES. 

Gemis MOLOTHRUS *. 

Swainson, Faun. Bor.-Amer. ii. p. 277 (1831). 

Molothrus bonariensis. 

Tanar/ra bonariensis, Gmelin, 8yst. Xat. i. p. 898 (1788). 
Molothrus bonariensis (Gm.), Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mas. xi. p. 335 
(1886); id. & Hudson, Argent. Orn. ii. p. 72 (1888). 

The Argentine Cow-bird. 

Hah. Brazil, Bolivia, and the Argentine Republic. 
121. Natural skeleton. Fro7n the Zoological Society. 

Genus AGELSUSf. 
Yieillot, Analyse, p. 33 (I81G). 

Agelseus phoeniceus. 

Oriolus plicenicens, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. IGl (17G0). 
Arjelcnis phoeniceus (L.), Sclater, Cat, B. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 340 

(1886). 

The Red-winged Blackbird. 

Hal). North America. 

182. Skull of male. From Fort Wiugate, New Mexico. 

Presented hy Dr. R. W. Shufeldt. 

123. Skull of female. From Fort Wingate, New Mexico. 

Presented hy Dr. R. W. Shufeldt. 

Agelseus humeralis. 

Leistes humeralis, Vigors, Zool. Journ. iii. p. 442 (1827). 
^(7eZfTOs7iumerffZis(Vig.), Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 342 (1886). 

The Cuban Marsh-Starling. 

Hah. Cuba. 

124. Natural skeleton : mounted. 

Presented hy Mr. J. Ahrahams. 

* I have followed Dr. Sclater's classification of the Ictcridoi ; but Dr. Shu- 
feldt shows that Molothrus is very Fringilliue in its skeleton (Journ. Anat. 
Phys. xxii. p. 348), while he writes to us later, " Dolichomjx is stiU more 
puzzling." 

t For the osteology of this genus, see Dr. Shufeldt, Jouru. Anat, Phys. 
xxii. pp. .300-350. 



ICTERIDyK. 33 

Genus NESOPSAR. 
Sclater, Ibis, 1859, j). 4-37. 

Nesopsar nigerrimus. 

Icterus nigerrimus, Osburn, Zoologist, xvii. p. 0602 (1859). 
Nesopsar nigerrimus, Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 353 (1886). 

The Jet-black Hang-nest. 

Hah. Jamaica. 

125. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of female (wanting right 
coracoid and right scapula). S. S. 1442. 

Presented hij tlie Sniithsonian Institution. 

Genus STURNELLA. 
Vieillot, Analyse, p. 34 (1816). 

Sturnella neglecta. 

Sturnella neglecta, Audub. B. Amer. vii. p. 339, pi. 487 (1843). 
Sturnella magna, pt., Scl. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 358 (1886). 

The Western Meadow-Lark. 

Hah. Western United States. 

126. Skull. From Fort Wingate, New Mexico. 

Presented by Br. R. W. Shufcldt. 

Genus SCOLECOPHAGUS *. 

Swainson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., Aves, p. 494 (1831). 

Scolecophagus ferrugineus. 

Oriolus ferrugineus, Gmelin, Syst. Xat. i. j). 393. 

Scolecophagus ferrugineus, Scl. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 390 (1886). 

The Rusty Blackbird. 

Ilah. North America. 

127. Sterumn, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1281. 

Presented hy the Snufhf^-onian Institution. 

* An account of tlic osteology of this genus is given by Dr. h'liulVIilt in 
Journ. Anat. I'hys. xxii. ])]). ;i09-3o0. 

I'AKT 111. I) 



34 PICO-PASSERES. 

Genus ICTERUS*. 
Brissoii, Oni. xi. p. .So (1760). 

Icterus jamacai. 

Oriolus Jamacai, (Traeliii, Syst. Nat. i. p. 391 (1788). 

Icterus jamacai (Gm.), Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 333 (1886). 

The Brazilian Hang-nest. 

Ilah. Brazil. 
128. Natural skeleton. From the Zoological Society. 

139. Natural skeleton. Presented hy Mr. J. Ahraliams. 

Icterus leucopteryx. 

Fsarocolius hucojjtenj.c, AVagler, Syst. Av. sp. 16, p. 172 (1827). 
Icterus leucopteryx (Wagl.), Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mxis. xi. p. 387 

(1886). 

The Banana-biku. 

Ilab. Jamaica. 

130. Sterninn and sboulder-girdle of t'enuile (wanting left 
coracoid and right and left scapula?). S. S. 1441 a. 

Presented hy tlie SrnitJisonian Institution. 



Family PLOCEID^. 
Cranial deficiency large, with minute interorbital fenestra, not 
as large as the o])tic foramen. 

Frontal zygoma small; squamosal large. 

Articular not prolonged backwards. 

Palatines with the posterior external angle slightly prolonged. 

Fig. 18. 

«/ if/ i-.:.p s:p 




Laleral view of skull of Pyromelana oryx. — o.f., optic foramen ; s<i.f., supra- 
orbital fenestra ; /.;:r.^., frontal zygomatic process; s-z.^h, squamosal 
zygomatic process. 

* For an account of the osteology of certain North- American species of 
thi.'* genus, see Shufeklt, Journ. Anat. Phys. x.xii. pp. 309 -o40. 



PLOCEID^. 35 

Genus VIDUA. 
Cuvicr, Aiiat. Conip., Tabl. Uis. (18U0). 

Vidua principalis. 

Emhcriza i^rhiclpaUs, Linnicus, Syst. 'Sni. i. p. 313 (ITOIJ). 
Vidua principalis (L.), Shaq3e,Cat. B. Brit. Mus.xiii. p. 1^03 (1800). 

The Long-tailed Whydah-bird. 

Hah. Africa. 

131. Skeleton of male. Freseufed by Mr. J. Ahrahatus. 

Genus STEGANURA. 
Keichenbach, Syst. Av. taf. Ixxvi. tig. 3U (ISoU). 

Steganura paradisea. 

Emherzia paradisea, Linuteus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 312 (170()). 
Steganura paradisea (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. '2\\ 
(1890). 

The Broad-tailed Whydah-bird. 
Ilab. Africa generally^ excepting the west Qow^i. 

132. Natural skeleton : mounted. Presented by Mr. .J. Abraliains. 

Genus PYROMELANA. 

Bonaparte, Saggio Distr. Met. Anim. Vcrtcbr. p. 141 (1831). 

Pyromelana oryx. 

Emberiza ori/x, Linuteus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 3u9 (ITOO). 
Pyromelana ory.v (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 230(1890). 

The Red Bishop-bird. 

IM. South Africa. 

133. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Preserded by Mr. J. Abrahamt<. 

Pyromelana afra. 

Loxia afra, Gmclin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 857 (1788). 

Pyromelana afra (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 241 

(1890). 

I) 2 



ofi PK'O-PASSERES. 

Pyromelana afra. 

The Black-bellied Bishop-bird. 

Hah. West Africa. 

134. Natural skeleton : inonnted. Presented hj Mr. J. Abrahams. 

135. Natural skeleton. Presented hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Genus QUELEA. 
Reichenbach, 8yst. Av. taf. xlvi. fig. 1 (1850). 

Quelea quelea. 

Emberiza quelea, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 3<>3 (1760). 

Quelea quelea (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 257 (1890). 

The Eed-billed Weaver-Pinch. 

Hab. The greater part of Africa. 

136. Natural skeleton of male. Presented hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Genus SPERMESTES. 

Swainson, B. W. Afr. i. p. 201 (1837). 

Spermestes nana. 

Pyrrhula na7ia, Pucher. Bev. Zool. 1845, p. 52. 
Spermestes nana (Pucher.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 266 
(1890). 

The Grey-headed Weaver-Pinch. 

Hab. Madagascar. 
A 136. Natural skeleton of female. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Genus STICTOSPIZA. 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 287 (1890). 

Stictospiza formosa. 

Frinrj'dla forvwsa. Lath. Ind. Oni. i. p. 441 (1790). 
iStktospiza formosa (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mas. xiii. p. 287 
(1890). 

The Green Weaver-Einch. 

Hah. Indian ])eninsula. 

137. Natural skeleton of male. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 



i'i,i)CKin,E. 37 

(Jen us AMADINA. 
Swainsoii, Zool. Jouni. iii. p. 34!) (1S27). 

Amadina fasciata. 

Ijoxia fasriata , Gmelia, Sj'st. Nat. i. p. 859 (1788). 
Amadhia famcuda (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. ]}. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 289 
(1890).' 

The Cut-throat Weaver-Finch. 

Hah. Senegambia to N.E. Africa. 

138. Natural skeleton of male : luouuted. 

Presented by M^r. J. AIuvIkihik. 

139. Natural skeleton of female. Presented hy Mr. J. . {hrali'nus. 

Genus STAGANOPLEURA. 

Reichenbach, Syst. Av. taf. Ixxv. fig. 25 (1851). 

Staganopleura guttata. 

Loccia guttata, Shaw, Mas. Lever, p. 47, fig. 2 (1792). 
Staijanopleura guttata (Shaw), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. 

p. 292 (1890). 
Estrilda guttata, Ramsay, Tab. List Austr. B. p. 10 (1888). 

The Spotted-sided Weaver-Einch. 

Hah. Australia, from the AVide-Bay district to New South 
Wales and South Australia. 

140. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. ' 

Premnted hy Mr. J. Ahralnnus. 

141. Natural skeleton of mal<' : mounted. 

Presented hy Mr. J. Jln-aham^. 

142. Natural skeleton of male : articulated. 

Pi-€senied hy .]fr. .7. .\hrali<uiis. 

143. Natural skeleton of male : articulated. 

Presented hy Mr. ./. Ahrah.ams. 

144. Natural .skeleton of male : articulated. 

Presented hy }fr. J. Ahrah'UDs. 



38 PrCO-PASSERES. 

Genus HYPOCH-ffiRA. 

Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 450 (1850). 

Hypochaera aenea. 

Hypochera cenea, Hartlaub, Jouru. f. Orn. 1S54, p. 115 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 308 (1890). 

The Black Weaver-Finch. 

Ilah. Senegambia. 

145. Skeleton of male: articulated. Presented htj Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Genus T.ffiNIOPYGIA. 

lieichenhach, Singvogel, p. 20 (1861). 

Tseniopygia castanotis. 

Amadina castanotis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 105. 

Toiniopygia castanotis (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. 

p. 3 LI (1890). 
Estrelda castanotis (Gould), Ramsaj', Tab. List Austr. B. p. 10 

(1888). 

The Chestnut-eared Weaver-Finch. 

Hah. Nearly the Avliole of Australia. 

146. Natural skeleton. Presented hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 

147. Natural skeleton. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

148. Natural skeleton. Presented J>y Mr. J. Abrahams. 

149. Natural skeleton. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 
A. 148, 149. Sterna. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Genus SPOR.ffiGINTHUS. 

Cabanis, Mus. Hein. Th. i. p. 170 (1850) 

Sporseginthus subflavus. 

FrinyiUa suhjlava, Yieill. N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxx. p. 575 (1889). 
Sporcr/inthvs suhjlavus (V.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 324; 
(1890). 

The Sanguineous Waxbill, 

JI<d>. The greater {)art of Africa. 

150. Natural skeleton. L* resented Ay JAr. J. Abrahams. 



I'LocKiD.K. 3y 

Genus MUNIA. 
Hodgson, Asiiit. liesearch. xix. p. ir)3 (183G). 

Munia oryzivora. 

Fjoxia orj/zivora, Linnteus, Syst. Xat, i. p. ;}()2 (ITOf)). 

Padda oryzivora (L.)? Horsf. & ifoore, Cat. B. E.I. (.'o. ii. p. .j04 

(1856).' 
Mania oryzivora (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. :}2S 

(1890)." 

The Java Weaver- Finch or Java Sparrow. 

Hdh. Malayan Peninsula, Siimatni. and Java. 

151. Xatnral skeleton of temale : mounted. 

Pre.'ivnted Uy Mr. J. AJiraliains. 

152. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Presented by Mr. J. Alirdlnuns. 

153. Natural skeleton. Presented hy ^^r. J. Ahrdhitnts. 

154. Natural skeleton. Presented by Mr. J. Ahraluuns 

Munia maja. 

Loxia maja, Linnaeus, S3st. Xat. i. p. 301 (176G). 

Munia maja (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 332 (l8!)i»j. 

The White-headed Weaver-Finch. 

Hab. Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Java. 

155. Natural skeleton: momited. Presented by M,-. J. Alir<(Ji(iiiis, 

Munia punctulata. 

Fringilla punctulata, Linnieus, Syst. >«at. i. p. 302 (1760). 
Munia inuictaJata (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 'Mi) 
(1890). 

The Spotted Weaver-Finch. 

Hob, Indian Peninsula, eastwards to Assam. 

156. Natural skeleton of n)ale : mounted. 

.I*ri'.<t'ii(cd by Mr. J. Ahrabinn.^. 



40 PICO-PASSERES. 

Genus UROLONCHA. 
Cabanis, Mus. Hein. Th. i. p. 173 (1850). 

XJroloncha acuticanda. 

Munia acuticauda, Hodgson, Asiat. llesearch, six. p. 153 (1836). 
Uroloncha acuticauda (Hodgs.), Sharpe, Cat, B. Brit. Mus. xiii. 
p. 356 (1890). 

The White-rum ped Weaver-Finch. 

Hah. Himalayas to the Burmese countries. 
157. Skeleton of male. Presented hy Mr. J. Ahrahams. 

Genus POEPHILA. 
Gould, Proc. Zool. 8oc. 1842, p. 18. 

Poephila cincta. 

Amadina cincta, Gould, Proc. Zool. 8oc. 1836, p. 105. 
PoepJiila cincta (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 376 
(1890). 

The Banded Weaver-Finch. 

Uab. North-eastern and Southern Australia. 

158. Natural skeleton : moxmted. Presented hy Mr. J. Ahrahams. 

159. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. New South Wales {E. 

P. Ramsay). S. S. 1084. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Poephila gouldi2e. 

Amadina gouldice, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 5. 
Poephila fjoiddia; (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 378 
(1890). 

Mrs. Gould's Weaver-Finch. 

IIa]>. N.W. Australia. 

160. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

J^ resented hy ^^r. J. Ahrahamf^. 



PLOCEiP^:. 41 

Genus NEOCHMIA. 
Bonaparte, Consp. Av. i. p. 458 (1850). 

Neochmia phaeton. 

Fringilla phaeton, Hombron & Jacquinot, Ann. Sci. Nat. (2) x\ i. 

p. 314(1841). 
Neochmia phaeton (H. «fc J.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 389 

(1890). 

The Crimson Weaver-Einch. 

Hah. N. Australia. 

161. Skeleton of male. Presented Jiy ]\fi'. J. Ahniluuns. 

162. Skeleton of female. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

163. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

Prom the Zoological Society. 

Genus ESTRILDA. 
Swainson, Zool. Journ. iii. p. 349 (1827). 

Estrilda cinerea. 

Fringilla cinerea, Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xii. p. 176 

(1817). 
Estrilda cinerea (V.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 395 (1 890). 

The White-vented Weaver-Einch. 

Hah. Western and North-eastern Africa, as well as the Lake 
Regions. 

164. Natural skeleton of male ; mounted. 

Presented by Mr. J. xibrahams. 

165. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Presented by Afr. J. AJ>rahams. 

166. Natural skek^ton of male. Presented by Mr. J. Ahraliams. 

167. Natural skeleton of male. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

168. Skull. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 



42 PICO-PASSERES. 

Genus SPOROPIPES. 

Cabauis, Arch, fiir Naturg. viii. p. 'A32 (1847). 

Sporopipes frontalis. 

Loxia frontalis, Daudin, Traite d'Orn. ii. p. 445 (1800). 
Sporojii/ies frontalis (Daud.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 409 

(1890). ' 

The Rufous-necked Weaver-Einch. 

Hah. N.E. Africa and Senegambia. 

169. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Presented hij }fr. J. Ahraluuns. 

Genus SITAGRA. 
Eeichenbach, Syst, Av. taf. Ixix. %. 15 (1850). 

Sitagra capensis. 

Onolus ccqjensis, Linnaeus, Sj'st. Xut. i. p. 10:3 (17GG). 

Sitagra capensis (L.), 8harpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 430 (1890). 

The Cape Weaver-bird. 

Ilah. Western Cape Colony. 

170. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Presented hy Mr. J. Ahraliams. 

Genus PLOCEUS*. 
Cuvier, Rt'gne Auim. i. p. 363 (1817). 

Ploceus atrigula. 

Ploceus atrir/ida, Hodgson in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84 (1844) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 491 (1890). 

The Indo-Malayan Weaver-bird. 

Hid). Malayan Peninsula, tlirough the Burmese countries to 
Eastern Bengal and Lower Himalayas. 

171. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1910. 

Presented hy Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 

* A skeleton of Hyphantornia rucidlata \» tigurod by Meyer ( Abbdd. Voj>-.- 
Skel., Lief. xv. tab. cxliv. i\)T. \). 



CCEREBID.E. — TAKAGUID/K. 43 

Family ( '(EREBID.?^. 

Genus GLOSSIPTILA. 

Sclater, 1'. Z. S. 185G, p. 269. 

Glossiptila ruficoUis. 

Tanagra ruJicolUs, Graelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 894 (1788). 
Glossiptila rajicollis (Gm.), Sclater, Cat. E. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 48 

(1880). 

The Red-throated Blue Tanager. 

Hah. Jamaica. 

172. Stcniuiii and shoulder-girdle (wanting fnrcula, right cora- 

coid, and scapula). S. S. 143(5. 

Presented hy the Smithsoniaa Institution. 

Family TANAGRID^. 
[Cf. Forbes, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 143.] 

Genus EUPHONIA. 
Desmarcst, Hist. Xat. Tangaras, pi. xix. (1805). 

Euphonia violacea. 

Tanarjra violacea, Linnaeus, Sj'st. Nat. i. p. 315 (176G). 
Euplwnia violacea (L.), Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 74 (1886). 

The Violet Tanager. 

Hah. Brazil. 

173. Skeleton. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.E.S. 

174. Skeleton. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, E^q., F.R.S. 

175. Skeleton. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus CALLISTE. 
Bole, Isis, 1826, p. U74. 

Calliste fastuosa. 

Tanarjra fastuosa, Lesson, Cent. Zool. p, 184, pi. 58 (1830). 
Calliste fastuosa (Less.), Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 98 (188G). 

The Superb Tanager. 

If ah. IJrazil. 



44 pico-PAssKR?:s. 

Calliste fastuosa. 

176. Natural skeleton of female : mounted. 

Presented hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 

177. Natural skeleton: mounted. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

178. Natural skeleton of female. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

179. Natural skeleton of female. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

180. Natural skeleton. From the Zoological Society. 

181. Sternum. Presented by Mr. .J. Abrahams. 

Geuus TANAGRA. 
Liimaeiis, Sjst. Nat. i. p. 213 (17GG). 

Tanagra cana. 

Tanagra cana, Swainson, OrD. Dr. pi. 37 (1841); Sclater, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mas. xi. p. 1.56 (1886). 

The Silvery-blue Tanager. 

Hab. Central and Southern America. 

182. Natural skeleton. From the Zoological Society. 

Tanagra cyanoptera. 

Baltator cijanoptenis, VieiUot, Xouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xiv. p. 104. 
Tanagra cganoj_)t€ra (V.), Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 157 
(1886). 

The Blue-shouluered Tanager. 

Hab. Brazil. 

183. Natural skeleton. From the Zoological Society. 

Tanagra ornata. 

Tanagra ornata, Sparrman, Mus. Carls, pi. 95 (1786) ; Sclater, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 161 (1886). 

The Archbishop Tanager. 

Ilab. South America. 

184. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle (wanting left scapula). 

S. S. 1.551. /'resented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.B.S. 



TANA(;i;ii>.T':. 45 

Genus SPINDALIS. 
Jardine et Selby, lUustr. Ornitli. iv. pi. 9 (18;3(;). 

Spindalis nigricephala. 

Tanagra nigricephala, Jameson, Edinb. N. Phil. Joiirii. xix. p. 213 

(1835). 
Spindalis nigricephala (Jam.), Hclater, Cat, B. Erit. Mus. xi. p. 1(30 

(1886). 

The Cashew-bird. 

Ilah. Jamaica. 

185. Sternum of male, (wanting right coracoi J and both scapulce). 

S. S. 1434. 

Presented hy the SmitJisonian Institution. 

Genus RHAMPHOCCGLUS. 

Desraarest, Hist. Nat. Tangaras, p. 5, pi. xxviii. (1805). 

Rhamphocoelus brasilius. 

Tanagra brasUia, Linnaeus, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 314 (1766). 
BhamphocceJas brasilius (Linn.), Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xi. 
p. 170 (1886). 

The Brazilian Ued Tanager. 

Hah. Brazil. 

186. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of male (wanting left scapula). 

S. S. 2162. From the Zoological Societi/. 

Genus PYRANGA*, 
Yieillot, Ois. d'Amer. Sept. i. Preface, p. iv (1807). 

Pyranga rubra. 

Mmcicapa rubra, Linna?us, Syst. Nat. i. p. 326 (1766). 
Fyranga cestiva (Gm.), Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 182. 
Fgranga rubra (L.), A. 0. U. Check-list, p. 291 (1880). 

The Summer Tanager. 

* For remarks upon the osteology of the genus Pyraruja, cf. Shufeldt in 
' The Auk,' v. no. 4, Oct. 1888, p. 441 ; and in Journ. Morph. vol. iii. no. 1, 
1889, p. 189, pi. vi. fig. 2o. 



46 PICO-PASSERES. 

Pyranga rubra. 

Hah. North America, wintering in Central and the northern 
])art of South America. 

187. Natural skeleton of female. Presented hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Pyranga erythromelas. 

Taaayra rubra, Linua:'us, Syst. Xat. i. p. 314 (1766). 

Pyranga rubra (L.), Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xi. p. 188 (1886). 

Pyranga erythromelas, Yieill. ; A. 0. U. Check-list, p. 291 (1886). 

The Scarlet Tanager. 

Hah. Eastern North America, wintering in Central and South 
America. 

188. Natural skeleton of male. Presented hu Mr. J. Ahrahams. 



Family FRINGiLLIUiE. 

Subfamily C o C c o T H K A u s T I N ^ . 

Genus COCCOTHRAUSTES *. 

Briss. Oru. iii. p. 218 (1760). 

Coccothraustes coccothraustes. 

Loxia coccothraustes, Linnteus, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 299 (1766). 
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. 
p. 36 (1888). 

The Haweinch. 

Hah. Europe. 

189. Articulated skeleton (im})erfecr). 0. (). 1556. 

Sontli Collection. 

190. Natural skeleton. 0. C. 1557. South Collection. 

* For the anatumy of Habia melanocephala and Coccothraustes vesjiertinus, 
cf. Shufeldt, Auk, v. p. 438, vi. p. 74. For good figures of the skull of 
Coccothraustes, cf. AV. K. Parker, Trans. Zool. Soe. vol. x. pt. vi. 1878, pi. 50. 
figs. 1,2; also Huxley, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 452, fig. 33. Cf. also Sharpe, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus. xii. p. 2: Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, ii. p. 195. 



FKIN(;iLLIL)iE. 47 

Genus CHLORIS. 
Cuvicr, Lecons Anat. Comp. i. tab. 2 (1800). 

Chloris chloris. 

Loxia Moris, Linn:eus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 804 (17G6). 
Lir/unmis chloris (L.), Koch, Syst. baier. Zool. p. 230 (181(5) 
Clihris chloris (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Erit. Mus. xii. p. 21 (1"' 

The Greenfinch. 

Ilah. Europe. 

191. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0.0.1559 a. Purchased. 

192. Skeleton. 0. 0. 1559 b. Purchased. 

193. Skull. 0. 0. 1559. Hunterian. 

194. Skull of female. 0. 0. 15G0. Purchased. 

Genus MYCEROBAS. 
Cab. in Wiegm. Arch. xiii. p. 350 (1847). 

Mycerobas melanoxanthus. 

Coccothraustes nulanoxanthus, Hodgson, Asiat. llcscarch. xix. p. 150 

(1836). 
Mycerobas melanoxanthus (Hodgs.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. 

p. 41 (1888). 

The Spotted-winged Grosbeak. 

Hab. Himalaya Mountains, ranging- into the bills of Western 
Oliina. 

195. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented J>tj B. H. Hodgson., Esq. 

Genus HEDYMELES. 
Cabanis, Mus. Kein. Th. i. p. 152 (1850). 

Hedymeles ludovicianus. 

Loxia ludoviciana, Liunaus, Syst. 2sat. i. p. 3u() ( 17()(i)- 
Iledymeles ludovicianus, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. ]\Ius. xii. p. 58 (1888). 

The Rose-breasted Grosbeak. 

Flah. North Anu'rica. 

196. Natural >keletoii. Presented l>;j Mr. J. Al>rah<uns. 



48 PICO-PASSERES. 

Genus SPERMOPHILA. 

Swainson, Zool. Journ. iii. p. 348 (1827). 

Spermophila albigularis. 

Loxia albigularis, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 40 (1824). 
Spermophila albigularis (l^pix), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. 
p. 93 (1888). 

The White-throated Grosbeak. 

IJah. Brazil. 
A 196. Natural skeleton of female. 2^ resented hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Genus LOXIGILLA. 
Lesson, Traite, p. 443 (1831). 

Loxigilla violacea. 

Loxia violacea, Linnaeus, Sj^st. Nat. i. p. 306 (1766). 

Loxigilla violacea (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 82(1888). 

The Black Grosbeak. 

Hah. Antilles. 

197. Sternum and shoulder-girdle (wanting right coracoid and sca- 
pula) . S. S. 1440. Presented hythe Smithsonian Institution. 

Loxigilla anoxantha. 

Spermophila anoxantha, Gosse, Birds of Jamaica, p. 247, pi. 62 

(1847). 
Loxigilla anoxantha (Gosse), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 85 

(1888). 

The Yellow-backed Grosbeak. 

Hub. Jamaica. 

198. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of male (wanting furcula, left 
coracoid, and scapula). S. S. 1439. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus PHONIPARA. 
Bonaparte, Consp. Av. i. p. 494 (1850). 

Phonipara marchii. 

Fhonipara marchii, Baird, TrGC. Philad. Acad. 1863, p. 297; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 150 (1888). 

March's Grosbeak. 



KRINGILLID.E. 49 

Ilah. Antilles. 

199. Sternum and shoulder-girdk; of male (\vantin<r ri^lit and 

left scapulaj) . S. S. 1437. 

Presented hy the Sinithsoidan Institution. 

Genus CARDINALIS. 

Bonaparte, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 111. 

Cardinalis cardinalis *. 

Lo.via cardinalis, Linna3us, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 300 (1700). 

Cardinalis virginianus, Bonap. loc. cit. 

Cardinalis cardinalis (L.), Sharpe, Cat. E. Brit. Mus. xii. p. ]f!l 

(1888). 

The Virginian Cardinal. 

Ilab. North America. 

200. Natural skeleton: mounted. 0. C. 15G1. (Toes defec- 

tive.) Brookes Coll. 

201. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Presented by Mr. J. Ahraluuns. 

202. Skull. 

203. Sternum. S. S. 1298. 

Presented by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Subfamily F li I N G ] L L I N ^ . 

Genus FRINGILLA. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 318 (1706). 

Fringilla caelebs. 

Fringilla coilebs, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 318 (1700) ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 170 (1888). 

The Chaffinch. 

Ilab. Europe. 

204. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 15G6 C. Old Coll. 

205. Skeleton. 0. C. 1566 d Purchased. 

206. Natural skeleton of female. Presented by Mr. W. Sibley. 

* For good account of the skull of tliis sjjecies, cf. W . 1\. railvLr, Traus. 
Zool. Soc. vol. X. pt. vi. 1878, p. 26."). 

PAKT III. E 



i 



50 nCO-PASSERES. 

Fringilla montifringilla. 

Fringilla montifringilla, Linnseus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 178 (1766) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Miis. xii. p. 178 (1888). 

The Brambling. 

Hah. Eurojje and Northern Asia. 

207. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1566 E. 

From the Zoological Society/. 

208. Skull of male. From the Alps. Purchased. 

209. Skull of female. From the Alps. Furchased. 

Genus CARDUELIS. 
Brisson, Orn. iii. p. 53 (1760). 

Carduelis carduelis. 

Fringilla carduelis, Linnseus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 318 (1766). 
Carduelis elegans, Steph. in Shaw's Gen. Zoology, xiv. p. 30 (1826). 
Carduelis carduelis (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 186 

(1888). 

The Goldfinch. 

Ilab. Europe. 

210. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. (J. 1566. Furchased. 

211. Skull (imperfect). 0. C. 1567. 

F resented by Dr. Leach. 

212. Skull (imperfect). 0. V. 1568. 

F resented hy Dr. Leach. 

213. Sternum and shoulder-girdle (wantino- right sca})ula). 

S. S. 1407. Furchased. 

Large Siberia n Bace. 

Carduelis major. 

Taczanowski, P. Z. S. 1870. p. 672. 

214. Skeleton of male. Siheria. 

J're.'^entcd hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 



FRINGILLID^. 51 

Genus CHRYSOMITRIS. 

Boie, Isis, 1828, p. ,322. 

Chrysomitris spinus. 

Fringilla spinas, Liuuaius, Syst. Nat. i. p. 322 (1706). 
Chrysomitris spinus (L.), Sharpo, Cat. B. Erit, Mus. xii. p. 21 3 

(1888). 

The Siskin. 

Ilah. Europe and Northern Asia. 

215. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1569 A. 

Yarrell Collection. 

216. Skull. 0. C. 1569. Presented h<j Dr. Leach. 

217. Skull. 0. C. 1570. Presented hy Dr. Leach. 

Genus ACANTHIS. 
Bechsteiu, Orii. Tascheub. p. 125 (18U3). 

Acanthis cannabina. 

Frinrfdla camiabina, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 322 (1766). 
Linota cannabina (L.), Bp. Comp. List B. Eur, & N. Amer. p. 3-» 

(1838). 
Acanthis cannabina (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 241 

(1888). 

The Common Linnet. 

Hah. Europe. 

218. Natural skeleton : mounted (skull damaged). 0. C. 1565. 

PurcJtased. 

219. Skeleton. 0. C. 1565 e. Purchased, 

220. Skull. 0. C. 1565 f. Presented hy Mr. Marie. 

221. Sternum, with shoulder-oirdle. S. S. 1259. Purchased. 

Acanthis linaria. 

Fringilla linaria, Linnajus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 322 (1766). 
Acanthis linaria (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 245 (1838), 

The Mealy Redpoll. 

e2 



52 PICO-PASSERES. 

Acanthis linaria. 

Hah. Northern Eiu'ope, across Siberia to North America. 

222. Skull of female. The Alps. Purchased. 

Geuus BYCANETES. 
Cab. Mus. Hein. Th. i. p. 164 (1850). 

Bycanetes githaginea. 

Fringilla githcKjmca, Licht. Verz. Doubl. p. 24 (1823). 
Erythrospiza githaginea (Licht.), Sbarpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. 

p. 284 (1888). 

The Trumpeter Bullfinch. 

Hah. The countries south of the Mediterranean, eastwards to 
Persia and N.W. India. 

223. Natural skeleton of male. From Algeria. 

Presented hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Genus PETRONIA. 
Kaup, Natiirl. Syst. p. 158 (1829). 

Petronia dentata. 

Xantlwdira dentata, Sundevall, (Efv. K. Vet.-Akad. Fiirh. Stockh. 

1850, p. ]27. 
Petronia dentata (Sundev.), Sbarpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 295 

(1888). 

The Abyssinian Eock-Sparrow. 

Hah. North-eastern Africa. 

224. Natural skeleton of male. From the Zoological Society, 

Genus PASSER. 
Brisson, Orn. iii. p. 71 (1760). 

Passer domesticus. 

Fringilla domestica, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 323 (1766). 
Passer domesticus, Pallas, Zoogr. Ivosso-Asiat. ii. p. 29 (1811) ; 
Sbarpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 307 (1888). 



FRIXGILLIDit:. 53 

The Common Sparrow. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia. 

225. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1572 d. 

From the Zoological Sociely. 

226. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1571. 

Presented hy W. Home Cliff, Esq. 

227. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1571 a. . Old ColL 

228. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1571b. Old Coll. 

229. Natural skeleton of male. Presented hy Mr. K. Geoiuje. 

230. Skeleton. 0. C. 1572 a. Purchased. 

231. Natural skeleton. Bidnig Mill, Northumberland. 0. C. 

1572 c. Presented hy the Bet: H H Slater. 

232. Skull. 0. C. 1572. Presented hy W. Home CH/t, Esq. 

233. Sternum. S. S. 1258. Pnrchaml. 

Passer montanus. 

Fringilla montana. Linnaius, Syst. Nat. i. p. 324 (1700). 

Passer montanus (L.), Sharpc, Cat. B. Brit. Mus xii. p. 301 (1888). 

The Tree-Sparrow. 

Hah, Europe and Asia. 

234. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1572 B. 

Yarrell Collection. 

I 

Passer diffusns. 

Pyrrjlta diffusa, Smith, Eep. Exped. Centr. Afr., App. p. 50 (1836). 
Passer diffusus (Smith), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 33G 

(1888). 

The Southern Grey-headed Sparrow. 

Hab. South At'riua. 

235. Skeleton (di-sarticulatod). From the Zoological Sorh'ty. 



54 PICO-PASSERES. 

Passer euchlorus. 

Auripnsser emJilora, Licht. ; Bonaparte, Consp. Av. i. p. 519 

(1S50). 
Passer eucMorus (Boiiap.), Sharpe, Cat, B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 3-11 

(1888). 

The Golden-headed Sparrow. 

ITah. Arabia. 

236. Skeleton of female. Presented hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Genus SERINUS. 
Koch, 8yst. baier. Zool. p. 228 (18] 6). 

Serinus serinus. 

Frmgilla serinus, Linnoeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 320 (1766). 

Serinus Jioriulanus, Koch, loo. cit. 

Serinus serinus (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit, Mus, xii. p. 368 (1888). 

The Serin Pinch. 

ITab. Central and Southern Eui'ope. 

237. Skn]] of female. From South Germany. Purchased. 

Serinus canaria. 

Frinrjilla canaria, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 321 (1766). 
Serinus canaria (L.), Cabanis, Mus, Hein. Th. i, p. 163 (1850); 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 370 (1888). 

The Canary Finch, 

Hab. Madeira, Canary Islands, and Azores. 

238. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1571 K. 

239. Skeleton, 0. C, 1571 e. Purchased. 

240. Skull. 0. C. 1571 f. Purchased. 

241. Skull, 0. C. 1571 g. Purchased. 

242. Skull, 0. C. 1571 h. Presented bxj Prof. Flower, F.R.S. 

243. Sternum, with shoulder- oirdle, S. S. 1260. Purchased. 



FHINCILLID.E. 55 

Serinus icterus. 

Fringilla ictera, Vieillot, Enc. Moth. iii. p. 972 (182:5). 
CritJuufra chrysopy(ja, Swainson, Birds W. Afr. ii. p. 20(), pi. 17 

(1837). 
Serinus icterus (V.), Sharpo, Cat. B. Brit. ]\[us. xii. p. 35G (1888). 

The Golden-humped Seed-eater. 

Hah. Western and Southern Africa. 
244. Natural skeleton of female. Presented Inj Mr. J. Ahndnuiis. 

Genus SVCALIS. 
Boie, Isis, 1828, p. 324. 

Sycalis flaveola. 

Frimjilla jlaveola, Liuna)U3, Syst. Nat. i. p. 377 (170G). 
Emheriza brasiliensis, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 872 (1788). 
Sijcalis hrasiliensis (Gm.), Cabanis & Tscliudi, Faun. Peruan. p. 215 

(1845-46). 
Sycalis flaveola (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 377 (1888). 

The Brazilian Seed-eater. 

Hah. The oreater part of South America. 

245. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

Fro)n the Zoolmjical Society. 

Genus CARPODACUS. 

Kaup, Natiirl. Syst. p. 1 <i 1 (1 829). 

Carpodacus erythrinus. 

Loxia erythriua, Pallas, N. Coram. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. xiv. 

p. 587, pi. 23. fig. 1 (1770). 
Carpodacus erythrinus (Pall.), Sliarpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xu. 

p. 391 (1888). 

The Rosy Bullfinch. 

Ilah. Northern Europe and Northern Asia, wintering in India. 
246. Sk.-K'tou <.r male. /'resented l>>j Mr. J. Ahra/utnus. 



56 PK'0-PASSR1!KS. 

Genus LOXIA. 
Liunfpus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 290 (1766, pt.). 

Loxia curvirostra. 

Lo:via curvirostra, Linnseus, loc. cit. ; Sharpc, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 
xii. p. 435 (1888). 

The Common Crossbill. 

Ilah. Europe unci Northern Asia. 

247. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1561. 

South Collection. 

248. Natural skeleton : mounted (hinder part of cranium re- 

moved). 0. ('. 1561 A. Yarrell Collection. 

249. Natural skeleton of male. 0. C. 1561 a. 

From the Zoological Society. 

250. Skull (hinder cranium removed). 0. C. 1563. 

Presented hy Sir Everard Home, Bart. 

251. Skull. 0. C. 1562. 

Presented //// Sir Everard Home, Bart. 

252. Skull of male. From South Germany. Purchased. 

253. Skull of female. Fi om South Gcn-many. Purchased. 

Genus PYRRHULA, 
Brisson, Orn. iii. p. 308 (1700). 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula. 

Loxia 2-)yrrhvJa, Linnaeus, Svst. Nat. i. ]). 4-J:(J (1700). 

Pijrrhula ruhiciUa, Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. ii. p. 7 (1811, pt.). 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula (L.), Sliarpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 446 

(1888). 

The E-ussian Bulleinch. 

Hd). Northern Euro])e and Siberia. 

254. Natural skeleton. Presented hy Mr. J. Ahrahams. 

255. Skull of male. Alps. Purchased. 

256. Skull of female. Alps. Purchased. 

257. Skull of female. Alps. Purchased 



FUINGILLID.E. 57 

Pyrrhula europsea. 

Ft'mr/illa pyrrhula (nee L.), Temminck, ]M;xn. d'Orn, p, 200 (1815). 
Pyrrhula eurojia^n, Vicillot, N, Diet. d'Hist. Nat. iv. p. 28G (181G) ; 
Sharps, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 447 (1888). 

The Common Bullfinch. 

ILih. Western, Central, and Southern Euro|)e. 

258. Skeleton. 0. C. 1571 c. 

259. Skeleton. 0. C. 1571 e. Purclniml. 

260. Sternum and slioulder-<);irdle (wanting left clavicle, left 

coracoid, and scapula). S. S. 1261. Purchased. 



Subfamily EMBEiuziNiE. 

Geuus EMBERIZA. 

Brisscn, Orn. iii. p. 257 (17G0). 

Emberiza schoeniclus. 

Emheriza sclwmiclus, Linuams, Syst. Nat. i. p. 311 (170()) ; Sharpo, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 480 (1888). 

The Reed-Bunting. 

Ilah. Europe and Northern Asia. 

261. Natural skeleton : mounted (skull injured). 0. C. 1574 a, 

Yarrell Coll. 

262. Skull of male. From South Germany. Purchdml. 

Emberiza citrinella. 

Emheriza citrinella, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 309 (17GG): Sharpc, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 515 (1888). 

The Yellow Bunting, or Yellow-ammeh. 

Hah. Europe. 

263. Skeleton. 0. C. 1574 b. Purchased. 

264. Skull. O. C. 1574. Presented hj Dr. Leach. 

265. Skull of male, P'rom the Alps. Purchased. 



58 PIC0-PASSERE8. 

Emberiza hortulana. 

Emberiza Jiortuhnm, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 309 (1766); Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 530 (1888). 

The Ortolan Bunting. 

Ilul). Europe. 

266. Skull of female. From South Gerinauv. Purchased. 

Genus MILIARIA. 
Brohm, Isis, 1828, p. 1278. 

Miliaria miliaria. 

Emberiza miliaria, Liimteiis, Syst. Nat. i. p. 308 (1766). 
Miliaria miliaria (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 552 
(1888). 

The Common Bunting. 

Hah. Europe, extending into Western Persia. 

267. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 859. Purchased. 

Genus PLECTROPHENAX. 

Stejneger, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus. v. p. 33 (1882). 

Plectrophenax nivalis. 

Emberiza nivalis, Linnoeas, Syst. Nat. i. p. 308 (1766). 
Plectrophanes nivalis, Mej'cr, Zus. u. Bericht. Meyer u. Wolf's 

Tascheub. p. 57 (1822). 
Plectrophenax nivalis (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 572 

(1888). 

The Snow-Bunting. 

Ifah. Northern Europe, North(n-n Asia, and North America. 

268. Skull (imperfect). 0. C. 1573. 

Presented hfj Dr. Leacli. 



fringtllid.t;. 59 

Genus CYANOSPIZA. 

Baird, Birds of N. Amer. p. 500 (185S). 

Cyanospiza cyanea. 

Tanagra cyanea, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 315 (17()0). 
Cyanospiza cyanea (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. i[iis. xii. ]). 017 

(1888). 
Passerina cyanea, A. 0. U. Check- list, p. 288 (1886). 

The Indigo Bunting. 

Hah. Xorthcrn and CVntral America. 

269. Xatural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Presented 1>>j Mr. J. Ahnihanis. 

Genus AMMODROMUS. 

Swainson, Zool. Journ. iii. p. 348 (1827). 

Ammodromus savannarum. 

Frinr/illa savannarum, Gmelin, Syst. Xat. i. p. 021 (1788). 
Coturniculus tivicrus, Gosse, Birds of Jamaica, p. 242 (1847). 
Ammodromus savannarum (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. ilus. xii. 

p. 687 (1888). 

The Grasshopper-Sparrow. 

Hah. North America to ( Vntral America and the Antilles. 

270. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1441. 

Presented hji the Srnif/isonidn Institution. 

Genus PAROARIA. 
Bonaparte, Saggio Distr. Met. An. Vertcbr. p. 141 (1832). 

Paroaria capitata. 

Tachyphonus capifatus, D'Orbigny & Lafr. Syn. Av. p. 29 (1837). 
Paroaria capitata, Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 472 (1850) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 812 (1888). 

The Yellow-billed Cardinal. 

Hah. Southern BraziL 

271. Skeleton of male. Presented hy Mr. J. Ahraliams. 



60 PICO-PASSERES. 

Paroaria cucuUata. 

Loxia cucidlata, Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 378 (1790). 
Paroaria cucuJlata, Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 471 (1850) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 810 (1888). 

The Red-crested Cardinal. 

Hah. South America. 

272. Natural skeleton of female : mounted. 

Presented hy Mr. J. AJiraJiams. 

272 A. Natural skeleton of female : mounted. 

PvfU'iited hy Mr J. Abrahams. 

Paroaria larvata. 

Frhujilla larvata, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 4 (1783). 

Paroaria dominicana, Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 471 (1850). 

Paroaria larvata (KoM.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 811 

(1888). 

The Red-headed Cardinal. 

Hah, Brazil. 

273. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 203G. 



Family ALAUDID.E *. 

Genus OTOCORYS. 
Bonaparte, Nuovi Ann. Sci. Bologna, ii. p. 407 (1838). 

Otocorys praticola. 

Otooorys alpestris praticola, Henshaw, Auk, i. p. 263 (1884). 
Otocorys praticola, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 539 (1890). 

The Prairie Horned Lark. 

HaJ). United States of America. 

274. Sternum and coracoids. S. S. 1294. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

* For the osteology of the Common Horned Lark {O. aliKstris), cf. Shu- 
feldt, Bull. U.S. Geol. Siin^ xii. p. 627, pi. iv. (1882), vi. p. 119," pi. iv. 
(1881). Cf. also Garrod, P. Z. S. 1877, pp. 507, 512. 



ALAUDIl)^. 



61 



Genus ALAUDA. 
Liniiffius, Syst. Xat. i. p. 287 (1766). 

Alauda arvensis. 

Alauda arvensis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 287 (1766) ; Sharpc, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 5G7 (1890). 

The Sky-Lark. 

Hah. Europe. 

275. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 0. (J. 1576. 

South Coll. 

276. Skeleton. 0. C. 1576 A. Varrell Coll. 

277. Skeleton. 0. C. 1576 B. Varrell Coll. 

278. Skull of adult male. From the Alps. Purchased. 

279. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 11:08. Furchased. 

Genus LULLULA. 
Kaup, Xatiirl. Syst. p. 92 (1829). 



LuUula arborea. 

Alauda arborea, Linnaeus, Syst, Xat. i. p. 287 (1766). 
Lullula arborea (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 636 
(1890). 

The Wood-Laek. 

Hah. Europe. 

280. Skull of adult female. From the Alps. Purchased. 

281. Sternum of male, with shoulder-oirdlo. S. S. 1935. 

From (he Zoological Society. 



62 PICO-PASSERES. 

Genus GALERITA. 
Eoie, Isis, 1828, p. 321. 

Galerita cristata. 

Alauda cristata, Linnaeus, S3'st. Nat. i. p. 288 (176G). 
Galerita cristata (Linn.). Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 626 
(1890). 

The Crested Lark. 

Hah. Europe. 

282. Skull of male. From Bonn. Piii'chased. 

Genus MIRAFRA. 
Horsficld, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 159 (1821). 

Mirafra horsfieldi. 

Mirafra horsfieldi, Gould, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 1 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 604 (1890). 

Horsfield's Bush-Lark. 

Hah. Australia. 

283. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. New South Wales {E. F. 

Ramsay). S. S. 1.367. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus PYRRHULAUDA. 

Smith, Illustr. Zool. South Africa, Avcs, pL 24 (1839). 

Pyrrhulauda leucotis. 

Loxia leucotis, Stanlej- in Salt's Travels in Abyssinia, Appendix, 

p. 59 (1814). 
Pyrrhulauda leucotis (Stanl.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. 

p. 657 (1890). 

The White-eared Pinch-Lark. 
Hah. N.E. Africa. 

284. Natural skeleton of female : mounted. 

Presented l»j ^fr. J. Ahrahams. 



MOTACILLID.E. 63 

285. Natural skeleton of male. 

Presented hij Mr. J. AOruhams. 

Family MOTACILLID^ *. 

Genus MOTACILLA. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 328 (1766). 

Motacilla lugubris. 

MotaciUa Inrjuhris, Temminek, Man. d'Orn. i. p. 253 (1820) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 460 (1S85). 

The Pied Wagtail. 

Hah. Western Europe. 

286. Skeleton. 0. C. 1582 b. Purchased. 

287. Skull. 0. C. 158a. Purchased. 

288. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1404. Purchaml. 

Motacilla melanope. 

Motacilla melanope, PaUas, Eeis. lluss. Eeichs, iii. App. p. 6y6 
(1776); Sharps, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 497 (1885). 

The Grey Wagtail. 

Hah. The whole of Europe and Asia, wintering in the south. 

289. Skeleton. O.C. 1582 c. Purchased. 

Motacilla borealis. 

Motacilla Jiava horealis, Sundcv. (Efv. K. Vct.-Akad. Fiirh. Stockh. 

1840, p. 53. 
Motacilla horealis, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 522, pi. vii. 

figs. 1-3 (1885). 

The Indian Field- Wagtail. 

* For remarks upon the osteohjgy of the genus Anthus, cf. Sbufeldt, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club (Cambridge, U. S.), vol. vii. no. 4, Oct. I88i', p. ^Ib, also 
.Journ. Morphology (U. S.), vol. iii. no. 1, p. 96, June 1889. 



64 PICO-PASSERES. 

Motacilla borealis. 

Hah. Northern Europe and Northern Asia, wintering in Africa 
and India. 

290. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of male (wanting left coracoid 

and scapula), S. S 1881. 

Presented hi) Di\ J. Anderson, F.R.S. 

Genus ANTHUS. 
Bechstein, Naturg. Deutschl. ill. p. 704 (1807). 

An thus pratensis. 

Anthus pratensis, Linnaius, Syst Nat. i. p. 287 (1766) ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 580 (1885). 

The Meadow-Pipit. 

Hah. Europe. 

291. Skull of male. From Silesia. Purcliased. 

292. Sternum and shoulder-girdle (wanting furculum and left 

coracoid and scapula). S. S. 1405. Purcliased. 

Anthus campestris. 

Anthus campestris, Linnteus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 288 (1766) ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 569 (1885). 

The Tawny Pipit. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia, wintering in India and 
Africa. 

293. Skull of male. From Silesia. Purcliased. 

Anthus spipoletta. 

Alauda spipoUtta, LiuuKus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 288 (1766). 

Anthus spipoletta (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 592 (1885). 

The Alpine Pipit. 

Hah. Europe. 

294. Skull of male. From Gcrnumy. Purchased. 



:MXioTir/riii.^. 65 

Family MNIOTILTID^^ *. 

Genus SEIURUS. 
Swninson, Zool. Journ. iii. p. 171 (1S27). 

Seiurus aurocapillus. 

Motacilla auricapilla, Linnaius, Syst. Xat. i. p. 334 (1760). 
Seiurus auricapiUus (L.), Sharpe, Cat, B. livit. Mus. x. p. 339 
(1885). 

The Golden-headed Warbler. 

Hah. North America. 

295. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of male, wanting left coracoid 

and scapula (keel of sternum damaged). S. S. 1430, 

Presented }>ij the Smithsonian Institution. 

Seiurus motacilla. 

Turdus inotucilla,\\Q\\\oi, Ois. Anier. Sept. ii. p. 9, pi. 65 (1807). 
Seiurus motacilla (VieilL), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 342 
(1885). 

The Louisiana Water-Thrlsh. 

Hah. North America. 

296. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of female (wanting left coracoid 

and both scapulfe). S. S. 1421). 

Present c(l A// tlw Snilt/isoniitn Institution. 

(Jenus DENDRGBCA. 
Gray, List Gen. 1S42, App. p. 8. 

Dendroeca aestiva. 

Motacilla astiva, Gmeliii, Syst. Nat. i. p. 996 (1788). 

Dendroeca cestiva (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 273 (1885). 

* For observations upon the osteology of several species of the genera 
Dendroeca, Panda, Mniotilfa, Seiurus, Certhia, and Sifta, cf. Shufeldt, " Con- 
tributions to the Comparative Osteology of the Families of N orth-American 
Passeres," Jouvn. Morph. (U. S.) vol. iii. no. 1, June 1889, and vol. iii. no. -3, 
.1889. 

PAKT 111. F 



66 riCO-PASSRRES. 

Dendroeca aestiva. 

The Yellow Warbler. 

Hah. North America. 

297. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of male (wantinor left coracoid 
and clavicle and both scapula). S. S. 1427. 

Presented hij the Smithsonian Institution. 



Genus PARXJLA. 
Eonaparte, Comp. List B. Eur. & X. Amer. p. 20 (1838). 

Farula americana. 

Parus americanus, Liuuasus, Sj'st. Nat. i. p. 311 (1766). 

Panda americana (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 257 (1 885). 

The Yelloay-backed Blue Warbler. 

Hah. North America. 

298. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1431. 

Presented h\j the Smithsonian Institution. 



Genus MNIOTILTA. 
Vieillot, Analyse, p. 45 (181G). 

Mniotilta varia. 

Motacilla varia, Liiina;us, Syst. Nat. i. p. 333 (1766). 

Mniotilta varia (L.), Sliarpe, Cat. B, Brit. Mus. x. p. 251 (]8S5>. 

The Black-and- White Warbler. 

Hah. North America. 

299. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1428. 

Presented hij the Smithsoni<(n Inslilution. 



CKUTiiiin.K. 67 



F:nnily ('ERTHIIDJ^. 

(Jenus CERTHIA. 
Liiintcus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 1S4 (17G0). 

Certhia familiaris. 

Certlna familiaris^ Linnipus, loc. ci.f. ; Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 
viii. p. 323 (1883). 

The Common Creeper. 

JI((I>. Europe. 

300. Skeleton. O.C.I 535b. Purchaml. 

301. 302. Skulls of males. Froui the Alps. Purchased. 
3C3, 304. Skulls of females. From the Alps. Purchased. 

305. Skull. 0. C. 1535. Presented hy Dr. Leach. 

306. Sternum and shoulder-oinlle (wanting left clavicle and 

scapula). S. S. 1409. Purchased. 

Geinis SALPORNIS. 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, p. 7. 

Salpornis spilonota. 

Certhia spihuota^ Praukliu, I'roc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 121. 
Salpornis apilnnnla. Gates, Fauna Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 333 
(1889). 

The Spotted Grey Creeper. 

Hah. Indian Peninsula. 

307. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of female (wanting left sca- 

pula). S. S. 1914. Preseniedlnj Dr. J. Aralerson, F.P.S, 

F 2 



68 rico-PAssKREs. 

Genus SITTA*. 
Liiinicus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 177 (17<)B). 

Sitta csesia. 

Sitta casia. Wolf, Taschenb. Dciilsch. Yogelk. i. p. 128 (1810) ; 
Dresser, Birds Eur. iii. p. 17-">, pi. Hi* (1873). 

The Common Nuthatch. 

Hah. Soutliern and Central Europe to Asia Minor. 

308. Natural skeleton (toes imperfect). 0. C. 15o(3. 

South Collection. 

309. Natural skeleton : niountetl. O.C. 153(3 B. 

YarreU CoUerfion. 

310. Sternum and shoulder-oinlle (wanting left sca])ula). 

S. S. 1398. FnrchaseiL 

Genus SITTELLA. 
Swainson, Class, li. ii. p. 317 (1837). 

Sittella pileata. 

SittcUa jnleata, Gould, Proc. Zool. 8oe. 1837, p. 159 ; id. Handb. 
B. Austr. i. p. 612 (1865). 

The Black-capped Nuthatch. 

JI<(h. Australia. 

311. Skeleton. 0. C. 1.533. ffiinferuin. 

Sittella chrysoptera. 

Sitfella ehrysopifra, Latham, lud. Urn. Suppl. p. xxxii (1801) ; 
Gould, Handb. B. i^ustr. i. p. 609 (1865). 

The Orange-winged Nuthatch. 

ILih. Australia. 

312. Sternum and shoulder-o;ii*dle (wanting right sCapula). 

Dobroyde, N. S. W. {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1G96. 

Presented hij Dr. P. P. Ramsay. 

* Cf. F. A. Lucas, Troc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xiii. p. 3.37. 



DlC.KIOJi. 69 

Genus CLIMACTERIS. 

Temmiiiek, Man. d'Oni. ji. Ixxxv (^ImJii). 

Climacteris leucophsea. 

Certhid leucopha^it, Latham, liid. Urn. Sappl. p. xxxvi (ISO I). 
Climacteris leucoplicpa (Lath.), Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. (500 
(1865). 

The White-throateu Creeper. 

Hah. Australia. 

313. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. Dobroyde, N. 8. \\ . 

(^E. P. Ramsai/). 

Presented hj P. L. ScJafer, Esq., F.R.S. 

Family DK^.EIILE. 

(knus PARDALOTUS. 

Vielliot, Analyse, p. :31 (181G). 

Pardalotus affinis. 

PurdidotHS affinis, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. -o ; Sha;-i)0, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 57 (1885). 

The Tasmanian Diamond-bird. 

Hab. Tasmania and Southern Australia. 

314. iSternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Dobroyde, N. S. 

Wales {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 945. 

Presented l>;i I'. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus MELIORNIS. 
Gray, List Gen. B. 1840, p. I'J. 

Meliornis novae hoUandiae. 

C'erthia novce ludlaadicp, Latham, Ind. Urn. p. 290. 
Meliornis novce hollandiie (L.), Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. -186 
(1865). 

The New-Holland Honey-eater. 

Hah. Australia. 

315. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. Dobroyde, X. S. W. 

Presented hi/ Dr. E. P. Ramsni/. 



70 PK'O-PASSEKES. 

Meliornis novae hoUandise. 

316. Skeleton. O.C. 1589 c. (JonUl CulUriinn. 

Meliornis longirostris. 

Meliphcuja longirontris, Gould, Pi'oc. Zool. Soc. J 846, p. 83. 
Meliornis hmjirostris, Gould, Haiidb. B. Austr. i. p. 488 (1865). 

The Long-billed Honey-eater. 

Hah. Western Australia. 

317. Skeleton. From Western Australia. 0. C. 158i» A. 

Gould Collection. 

Meliornis sericea. 

Melipluuia sericea, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 144. 
Meliornis sericea, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 490 (1865). 

The White-cheeked Honey-eater. 

Ilah. Australia. 

318. Sternum of female, with sboulder-o;irdle. Dobroyde, 

N„ S. W. [E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 950. 

Presented hi) P. L. Sclafer, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus LICHMERA. 
Cabauis, Mus. Hein. i. p. 118 (185U), 

Lichmera australasiana. 

Certhia australasiana, Shaw, Gen. Zool, viii. p. 226 (1812). 
Lichmera australasiana (Shaw), Gould, Haudb. B. Austr. i. p. 403 
(1865). 

The Tasmanian Honey-eater. 

Huh. Tasmania. 

319. Skeleton. From Hobart Town. Tasmania. 0. C. 1589 B. 

(joidd Colhrtion. 



DKVElD/t:. 71 

(;. nus GLYCIPHILA. 

Swainson, Class. !>. ii. p. 'A'2(') (1S37). 

Glyciphila fulvifrons. 

Certhin fulrifrons, Lcwiti, Xat. Hist. New South Wales, p]. 22 

(1822). 
Ghjciphila fulvlfruna (Lewiii), (loukl, Haiidb. B. Austr. i. p. 495 

(1865). ' 

The Pulvous-fronted Honey-eater. 

Ilah. South Australia. 

320. Skcletou. Froui Western Australia. 0. C. IT^SD K. 

Gould Collection. 

321. Sternum, with shouUler-oirdle. Sydney, N. S. W. {E. P. 

liaitisatj). S. S. 10S5. 

Presented hij P. L. Sclafer, Es(/., F.R.S. 

Genus STIGMATOPS. 

Gould, M. Austr. i. p. oOO. 

Stigmatops subocularis. 

GIi/cij)Jiila'? suhoeularis, Gould, I'roc. Zool. ^'oc. 18^57, p. 154. 
Sti(j}ii(ttops suhoeularis, Gould, loc. cit. 

The Least Honey-eater. 

Hah. Western Australia. 

322. Skeleton. From Western Australia. O, C. 1589 f. 

Goidd Collection. 

Genus PTILOTIS. 
Swainson, Class. B. ii. p. 32G (1837). 

Ptilotis flavigula. 

ri'ihtisjl(ivi(iv((i, (n)uld, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1838, p. 24 ; id. llandh. 
B. Austr. i. p. 508 (18()5). 

The Yellow-throa-Ted Honey-eater. 

Il<(l). Tasmania. 

323. Skeleton. From lluhart Town, Tasmania. 0. C. 1580 E. 

Could Collection. 



72 nro-PAssEHEs. 

Ptilotis ornata. 

Ftilotis ornata, Gould, Proc. Zool. 8oc. 1838, p. '24 ; id. Handl». 
B. Anstr. i. p. 515. 

The Gkaceful Honey-eatek. 

//((/'. South and Westei'ii Australia. 

324. Skeleton. AVestern Australia. 0. (MnSDD. 

GoithI Collection. 

Ptilotis fusca. 

MelipJiatja fvsca, Gould, Synopsis 11 Austr. pt. ii. 

Ptilotis fusca (Gould), Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ix. p. 229 (188-1). 

The Puscous Honey-eater. 

Hah. From Rockingham Bay to New South AVales and 
Victoria. 

325. Sternum. Dobrovde, N. S. W. [E. F. Ramscvi). S. S. 

951. ^Presented % F. L. Sclater, Es>j., F.R.S. 



Genus XANTHOMYZA. 

Swainson, Class. B. ii. p. ;j27(1837). 

Xanthomyza phrygia. 

Mo-ops plir)j(jii(s, Latham, Ind. Orn. 8ui)pl. p. xxxiv (1801 ). 
XaiitJiomi/za phrtiijia (Lath.), Gould, Haudb. B. Austr. i. p. 527 
(1865). 

The Warti -faced Honeys-eater. 

Hah. Eastern Australia. 

326. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. Dobroyde, 
X. S. AV. {E. F. Fanim/j). S. S. 948. 

Presented hy F. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus ACANTHOCH.ffiRA. 

Vigors and Horsficid, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 320 (1826). 



i>U'.i<:ii>it;, 73 

Acanthochaera carunculata. 

Merops carutuuldtan, LaUiuui, liul. Oiu. i. p. 270 (ITUU). 
Antliochcera carunculata, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 138 (1865). 

The Wattled Honey-eater. 

Hah. Eastern and Soutlicrn Australia, and Tasmania. 

327. Skeleton. From Western Australia. 0. C. 1589 G. 

Gould Collection. 

328. Hyoidean ai-ch, with " hrusli "-tongue attached. 

329. KSternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. IS. 930. 

Clarence River, N. S. W. {E. P. Ramsay). 

Preseuti'd Inj P. L. Sclater, Enq., F.R.S. 

Genus ANELLOBIA. 
Cabanis, Mus. Heiii. Th. i. p. 120 (1850). 

Anellobia lunulata. 

Anthcchcrra lunulata, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 153. 
Anello'iia lunidafa, Gould, Handb. B. Ausstr. i. ]). 543 (18(55). 

The Lunulated Honey-eater. 

Ilah. Western Australia. 

330. Skeleton. From Western Australia. 0. C. 1589 H. 

Gould CoUeclion. 

Geuus TROPIDORHYNCHUS. 

Vigors and Horsfiold, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 823 (1820). 

Tropidorhynchus corniculatus. 

Merops cornicidatxis, Latham, Ind. Orn. i. ]). 270 (170<i). 
Tropidorhynchus cornictdattis (Lath.), Gould, Handb. li. Austr. i. 
p. 545 (1865). 

The Eriar Bird. 

Ilah. Eastern Australia. 

331. Skeleton. 0. C. 1589 r. From Grafton. Clarence Kiver, 

N. S. AY. Presented In/ C. E. Porter, Es<j. 

332. Skull. 0. ('. 1541 b. Presented hj C. E. /'orler, Esq. 



74 rico-rAssEREs. 

Genu- ACANTHORHYNCHUS. 

Gould, Proc. Zool. 8oc. 1837, p. 24. 

Acanthorhynchus superciliosus. 

AcanfhorJit/ncJius sKpcrciliosns, Gould, Proc, Zool. Soc. 1837, 
p. 24 ; id. Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 553 (1865). 

The White-etebrowed Honey-eater. 

Hah. Western and South-western Australia. 

333. Skeleton. From Western Australia. 0. C. 1589 I. . 

Gould Collection. 

Genus MYZOMELA *. 
Vigors and Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 310 (1S2(J). 

Myzomela nigra. 

^L/zomela nigra, Gonld, h. Aubtr. part 2 (ciincelled), 1838; id. 
Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 558. 

The Black Honey-eater. 

Ilah. The o-reater part of Australia. 

334. Skeleton. From Western Australia. 0. C. 1589 l. 

Gould Collection. 

Myzomela sanguinolenta. 

Certliia saiKjuinoIetita, Latham, Ind. Oru. Suppl. p. xxxvii (1801). 
Myzomela sanguinolenta (Lath.), Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 555 
'(1865). 

The Blood-red Honey- eater. 

Ilab. Australia. 

335. Sternum of male, ^vith shoulder-girdle. Dohroyde, N. S. AY. 

{E. P. E<(msu>/). S. S. 952. 

F resented In/ F. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

* Cf. Foibf.s, r. Z. S. 187'J, pp. i'.")0, I'-ir. 



jnCA'AVM. 



75 



Gliuis entomyza. 

Swaiusou, Class. Birds, ii. p. 328 (1S37). 

Entomyza cyanotis. 

GmmU cyanotis, Latham, Incl. Orn. Suppl. p. sxix (1801). 
Entomiiza cyanoUs (Lath.), Gould, Hundb. B. Austr. i. p. 5G0 
(1865). 

The Blue-faced Honey-eater. 

J Jab. Eastern Australia. 

336. Sternum of female, with slioulder-girdle. Clarence lliver, 
N. S. W. {E. F. Ramsay). S. S. 923. 

Presented hj P. L. Sclater^ Esq., F.R.S. 



Genus MELITHREPTUS. 

Yieillot, Analyse, p. 40 (181(3). 

Melithreptus validirostris. 

Hoimatops validirostris, Gould, P. Z. S. 1836, p. 144. 
Melithreptus validirostris, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 565 
(18G5). 

The Strong-billed Honey-eater. 

JIah. Tasmania and Australia. 

337. Skeleton. From Flinder"s Island, Australia. O.C. 

1589 N. Gould Colli'dion. 

Melithreptus melanocephalus. 

Melithreptus wchuwcephalus, Gould, 1*. Z. S. 1845, p. 62; id. 
Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 207 (1865). 

The Black-headed Honey-eater. 

Hab. Tasmania. 

338. Skeleton. From llohart Town, Tasmania. 0. C 1589 0. 

Gould Colleclioii. 



76 rico-rAssERES. 

(xenus MYZANTHA. 
Vigors and Horstield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 310 (1S2()). 

Myzantha garrula. 

Mrro23s (jarridus, Latham, Ind. Orn. SuppL p. xxiv (1801). 
Mi/zantha garrula (Lath.), Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 57-4 
'(1865). ' 

The Garrulous Honey-eater. 

Hah. Southern Australia and Tasmania. 

339. Skeleton. From Hobart Town, Tasmania. 0. C. 1589 m. 

Gould Collection. 

Genus PROSTHEMADERA. 

Gray, List Gen. Birds, p. 3 (lS4tt). 

Prosthemadera novae zealandiae. 

Merops novoi-zealandke, Gmelin, f^yst. Nat. i. ]>. 404 (1788). 
Prosthemadera novce-zcalandue (Gm.), BuUer, Birds of New Zea- 
land, i. p. 94 (1888). 

The Tui ou Parson Bird. 

Ilab. New Zealand. 

340. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

P resoded hij Mr. J. Ahraltams. 

341. Natural skeleton. -Presented h>j Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Family PARID.E*. 

Genus PARUS. 

Linnaeus, Syst. N^at. i. p. 34u (17<J0). 

Parus major. 

Parns major, Linnfeiis, Syst. Nat. i. p. 341 (1760); Dresser, 
Birds Eur. iii. p. 70, p]. ]O0 (1871). 

The Great Titmouse. 

* Cf. Sliufeldt, K. W., " On the Position of Chamcen in the System," 
.louru. Morpli. iii. pp. 47o-502 ; also Lucas, F. A., " Notes on the Osteology 
of the Paridfp, Sitfa, and Vhamccn;' Troc. U.S. Nat. Mas. xiii. pp. 3.-37-340, 
pi. xxvii. 



PAKID.E. 77 

H(tl>. Eurojie, Asia Minor, and Sit)('ria. 

342. ^'atnral .skcli^on : moimTcd. (). C. 157") a. 

y (irn'Il Collection. 

343. Skeleton. 0. (\ 1575 B. Purchased. 

344. Skeleton of female, froni Ikidino- jMiJl, Noi'tlninilx rlaiid. 

0. C. 1575 1). Fresenfcd hy tlw Her. ]f. If. Slater. 

345. Skull. 0. C. 1575. F resented In/ Dr. Leach. 

346. Sternu ni and shoulder-girdle (wanting left scapula and 

fnrcula). S. S. 1401. Purchased. 

Parus caeruleus. 

Farus (-(eruleuK, Linnaeus, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 341(1760); Dresser, 
Birds Eur. iii. p. 131, pi. 113(1871); Eyton, Osteol. Av. p. 109, 
pi. xvii. tig. 4. 

The Blue Titmouse. 

Hah. Central and Southern Europe to x4..sia Minor. 

347. Skeleton of yonng. 0. ('. 1575c. Purchased. 

Parus britannicus. 

Parus britannicus, Sharpe & Dresser, Ann. & Mug. N. H. (4) viii. 
p. 437 (1871); iifl.. Birds Eur. iii. p. 9:5, pi. ]07. fig. :> 
(1872). 

The British Coal Titmouse. 

IIal>. England. 

348. Skeleton of male, from Riding Mill, Northumherland. 

O. ( \ 1575 E. Presented by the Per. II. II. Slater. 

349. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1254. Purchased. 

Genus LOPHOPHANES. 

Kaup, Natiirl. 8yst. p. 'J2 (182!)). 

LiOphophanes cristatus. 

Parus cristatus, Linnaeus, Faun. Suec. p. 97 (1761). 
Lophophanes cristatus (Linn.), Dresser, Birds Eur. iii. p. 1.51, 
pi. 11. "3 (1871). 



78 PICO-PASSERRS. 

Lophophanes cristatus. 

The Crested Titmouse. 

Hah. Europe. 

350. Skull of male. From the Alps. Pvrcl(i!^ed. 

351. Skull of male. From South Germauv. Purcliazed. 



Genus ACREDULA. 
Koch, Syst. baier. Zool. p. 199 (181G). 

Acredula caudata. 

Parus caudatus, Lianaius, Sj'st. Nat. i. p. 342 (1766). 

Acredula caudata (Linu.), Dresser, Birds Eur. iii. p. 67, pi. 104 

(1872). 

The Long-tailed Titmouse. 

Hah. Northern and (Jentral Europe. 

352. Skull of male. From the Alps. Purchased. 

353. Skull of female. From the Alps. Pitrchased. 

354. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1402. Purchased. 

Genus PANURUS. 
Koch, Syst. baier. Zool. p. 201 (1816). 

Panurus biarmicus. 

Parus hiarmicvs, Linna3us, Syst. Nat. i. p. 342 (1766). 
Panurus hiarmicus (Linn.), Brit. Orn. LTnion List Brit. B. p. 24 
(1883). 

The Beauded Titmouse. 

Hah. Europe and Central Asia. 

355. Sternum and shoulder-oirdle of male, wanting left coracoid 

and scapula. S. S. 2149. From the Zoological Society. 



KEGT'LTD.K. — T.AKIID.T:. 79 



Family REGULID^. 



Genus REGULUS. 

Cuvier, Le(]on.s Anat. Comp. i. table 2 (1800) ; llegne 
Auira. i. p. :369 (1817). 

Regulus cristatus. 

Ref/uh's cristatus, Koch, Syst. baicr. Zool. p. 199 (1816) ; Dresser, 
Birds Eur. ii. p. 4.53, pL 71 (1874). 

The Goldcrest. 

Hah. Europe, North Africa, Northern Asia to Japan. 

356. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1579 a. 

Yarrell Collection. 

357. Skeleton. O.C. 1579 b. Purchased. 

358. Skull. 0. C. 1579. Presented h}j I) t\ Leach. 

359. Sternum and shoulder-girdle (wanting left coracoid and 

scapula). S. S. K399. Purchased. 

Family LANlIDiE ^. 

Genus FALCUNCULUS. 

Yieillot, Analyse, p. 4U (ISIG). 

Falcunculus leucogaster. 

Falcuin-ulas lennit/asfrr, (iould, P. /. S. 1 >;.i7, p. 144; id. Haudb. 
B. Anstr. i. j). '22'.) (LStJo). 

The White-bellied Shuike-Tit. 

Ilab. Western Australia. 

360. Skeleton. From Western Australia. O.C. 1597c. 

Gould Collection. 

Falcunculus frontatus. 

Lnnius frontatus, Latham, Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. xviii (1801). 
Falciinndus frontatus (Lath.), Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 228 
(1865). 

The Prontal Shrike-Tit. 

* For the osteolofry of Laniidcc, cf, Shufeldt, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. vi. 
p. 351. 



80 



PICO-PASSRRES. 



Falcunculus frontatus. 

Hall. Southern and Western Australia. 

361. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. Clarence River 
{E. P.Ramsay). S. S. 939. 

Presented hy P. L. Sctater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus LANIUS *. 
LinnjEUS, Sj^st. Nat. i. p. 135 (1766). 

A. Olfactory capsule fully ossified; external opening oval. 

B, Posterior extremity of palatines prolonged and with a spine- 



like extension of internal angle. 
Fio-. 20. 



Fiir. 19. 




Fig. 19. — Lateral view (enlaroed) of cranium of Lanius e.vcubitor, to show 
the bony olfactory capsule, the slight!}^ developed front.al zygomatic 
process, and the long and broad-based squamosal. 

Fig. 20. — Ventral view of palate, to show the spinous prolongation of the 
inner posterior angle nf the palatine.^. Letters as before. 

Lanius minor. 

Lanius minor, Cimelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. oOS (17S8) ; Dresser, E. 
Eur. iii. p. :39:3, pi. 149 (1872). 

The Lesser Grey Shrike. 



Hah. Central Europe and Africa. 
362. Skull of male. Prussia. 



Purchased. 



* The bony siphonium is present in Lanius. 



r-ANiTi).i*;. 81 

Lanius excubitor. 

Lanins e.rcubitOi\ Linmcus, Svst. Xat. i. p. I'-io (17'iG) ; Dresser, 
B. Eur. iii. p. ;i7o, pi. 145 (1871). 

The Great Grey Shrike. 

/f(il>. Euro})e. 

363. Skeleton: mounted. O.C. IGOOa. Yarrell Collection. 

364. Skull of male. From Grermuny. PtircJiased. 

365. Skull of female. From Germany. Pitrcliised. 

366. Sternum and shoulder-girdle (wanting left coracoid and 

scapula). S. S. 833. Purchased. 

Lanius collyrio. 

Lanius coUurio, Linnaeus, 8yst. Xat. i. p. 136 (1760); Dresser, B. 
Eur. iii. p. 399, pi. 150 (1872) ; Eytou, Osteol. Av. pi. xi. f. 

The Red-backed Shrike. 

Hah. Europe ; North Africa to Asia Minor. 

367. Skeleton. 0.(^ 1600 b. YarrellColU-fion. 

368. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

369. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

Prom the Zooloi/ical Societij. 

370. Sternum and shoulder-girdle (wanting left coracoid and 

scapula). S. S. 834. Purchased. 

Lanius magnirostris. 

Lanius magnirostris, Lesson, Voy. Belang. et Compl. Buff. ii. 
p. 415 (1834) ; Duvid & Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 97 (1877). 

The Large-billed Shrike. 

Ilah. Eastern Siberia, China, and Malay Peninsula. 

371. Skeleton. From Chcfoo, China. 0. C. IGOO C. 

1' resented by Consul Swinhoe, P.R.S. 

TART III. G 



82 nCO-PASSERES. 

Genus STREPERA. 
Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 330 (1831). 

Strepera graculina. 

oorviis graculinns. White, Voy. New South Wales, App. p. 251 

(1790). 
Strepera graculina (White), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 57 

(1877). 

The Pied Crow-Sheike. 

Hah. Eastern Australia. 

372. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0, C. 1542 (caudal vertebra? 

deficient). Gould Collection. 

373. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. Clarence River, 

N. 8. W. {E. P. Ramsay) . S. S. 1073. 

Presented h/ P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Strepera arguta. 

Strepera arguta, Gould, P. Z. S. 1846, p. 19 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Bnr. 
Mus. iii. p. 59 (1877). 

The Hill Crow-Shrike. 

Ilah. Tasmania. 

374. Skeleton, from Tasmania. O.C. 1542 a. Gould Collection. 

Genus GYMNORHINA*. 

Gray, List Gen. B. p. 37 (1840). 

Gymnorhina organicum. 

Gymnorhina organicum, Gould, Birds Austr. ii. pi. 48 (1848); id. 
Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 178 (1865). 

The Tasmanian Crow-Shrike. 

Hah. Tasmania. 

375. Natural skeleton : mounted (toes defective). 0. C 1545. 

Gould Collection. 

* A skeleton of Gj/mnorhina Iciicotiotd is figured by Dr. IMever in liis 
' Abbildungen von Viigel-Skeletten,' pi. xxix. 



LANIID.K. 83 

Genus CRACTICUS. 
Vieillot, Analyse, p. ;>7 (ls>Hi). 

Cracticus nigrigularis. 

Vanja nii/ror/idtiris, Gould, F. Z. >S. ISIjij, p. 14'{ ; l*]yfcnn, Osbnol. 

Av. p. 128. 
Cracticus nigrogalaris, Gould, Haiidb. B. Austr. i. p. 180 (1805). 

The Black-throated Crow-Shrike. 

Hah. Southern and Eastern Australia. 

376. Skeleton of male. Presented !>>/ Air. ./. AhraftKins. 

377. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. Clarence River, 

N. S. W. {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 918. 

Presented h/ P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Cracticus cinereus. 

Vanga cinerea, Gould, P. Z. S. I83(j, p. 143. 

Cracticus cinereus, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 180 (1805). 

The Cinereous Crow-Shrike. 

Hah. Tasmania. 

378. Skull from Tasmiinia. Gould Colh'din,K 

379. Skull from Tasmania. Gould Collect /mi. 

380. Skull from Tasmania. Gould Collect inn. 

Genus STRUTHIDEA. 

Gould, r. Z. S. l.s;:!(;. p. 143. 

Struthidea cinerea. 

Htrutliidea cinerea, Gould, loc. ri(. ; Sliarpc, Cat. B. Brit. Mu.s. iii. 
p. 140 (1877). 

The Grey Crow-Shrike. 

Hal). AustraHa ; New South Wales to Victoria, and north to 
the Gulf of Carj)entaria ('/. liamsay, Tab. List Austr. B. p. 12). 

381. ►Skeleton of male. Presented hy Mr. J. Alirahnms. 

382. Skeleton (imperfect). 0. C. ir)55A. Gould Collection. 

g2 



84 PIC'O-PASSERES. 

Genus COLLYRIOCIlXrCLA. 

Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 214 (1825). 

CoUyriocincla rectirostris. 

Colluricincla recti.rosfris', Jardine & Selby, 111. Orn. iv. pi. xxi. 

(c. 1837). 
Colluiivincla selhii, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 224 (1865). 
Colh/riocincla reciircstns (J. & S.), Sharpe, Cat, B. Brit. Mus. iii. 

p. 291 (1877). 

Selby's Shrike-Thrush. 

If((]i. Tasmania. 

383. Skeleton. 0. C. 1597 a. Goidd CoUection. 

Genus PINAROLESTES. 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 29.'j (1877). 

Pinarolestes rufiventris. 

Colluricincla rufof/aster *, Gould, P. Z. S. 1845, p. 80. 
Pinarolestes nijt(/ast<r (Gould). Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. 
p. 296 (1877).' 

The Rusty-breasted Shrike-Thrush. 

Hdh. Northern Australia. 

384. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. From Clarence 

River, N. S. W. {E. P. Eamsai/). S. S. 940. 

Pres^etifed hij P. L. Sclater, Es.j., F.R.S. 

Genus OREOICA. 
Gould, P.Z. S. 1837, p. 151. 

Oreoica crlstata. 

Turdus cnstaiiis, Lewin, Birds N. 8. W. pi. 9 (1822). 
Falcunculiis [/uttKralis, Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. 

p. 212 (1826). 
Oreoica gutturalis, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 231 (1865). 

* Vo.r hyhrida. 



LANIID.l':. 85 

The Chested Thickeeau. 
Hah. Southern Australia. 

385. Skeleton. O.C. 155)7 jj. Gould Collect Ivn. 

Genus PACHYCEPHALA. 

Yit^'ors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 238 (182G). 

Pachycephala olivacea. 

rachycejjhala olivacea, Vigors and llorslield, Traus. Linn. Soc. xv. 
p. 241 (1826); Gould, Handb. ^^. Austr. i. p. 218 (18G5). 

The Olivaceous Thickheaj). 

Ilah. Tasmania and Flinders Island, Bass's Straits. 

386. Skeleton, from Tasmania. 0.('. 1578 a. Gould Collection 

Pachycephala gutturalis. 

Turdus gutturalis, Latham, Ind. Orn. SuppL p. xli (1801). 
Puchi/cephcda (jutturalis (Lath.), Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 20 
(1865) ; Eyton, Osteol. Av. p. 124. 

The White-thkoated Thickhead. 

IJub. Southern Australia. 

387. Skeleton, from Tasmania. O. C. 1578 B. Gould Collection. 

Genus EOPSALTRIA. 

Swainson, Classitic. JUrds, ii. p. 25D (1S37). 

Eopsaltria australis. 

MotacUla australis, White, Voy. jS^cw South Wales, App. p. 23!', 

pL (17*J0). 
Eoijsaltria australis (AVhite), Gould, Handb. li. Austr. i. p. 2'J3 

(1865\ 

The Yellow-bueasted Robin-Shrike. 



86 PICO-PASSERES. 

Eopsaltria australis. 

Hal). Western and Southern Australia. 

388. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. George's River 

{E. P. Rammij). S. S. 944. 

Presented h/ P. L. Srlater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Eopsaltria griseogularis. 

Eopsaltria fjriseo(jal(trls, Gould, P. Z. 8. 1837, p. 144 ; id. Handb. 
B. Austr". i. p.' 294 (1865). 

The Grey-breasted Robin-Shrike. 

Hah. Western Australia. 

389. Skeleton, from Western Australia. 0. 0. 1578 C. 

Gould CoUection, 



Family AMPELID^ *. 

Genus AMPELIS. 
Limneus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 21)7 (17<)(J). 

Ampelis garrulus. 

Ampelis garrulus, Linnaeus, I. c. ; iSharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mas. x. 
p. 212 (1885). 

The Waxwing or Waxen Chatterer. 

Hal>. Europe, Northern Asia, North America. 

390. Natural skeleton of male: mounted. From Siberia. 

Presented Inj Mr. J. Ahrahanis. 

391. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1578D. 

Yarrell Collection. 

393. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2183. 

From the Zoological Societij. 

* For a complete account of the osteology of Ampelis cedrormn, ef. Shu- 
feldt, " Studies of the Macroehiies, Morphological aud otherwise, with the 
view of indicating their relationships and defining their several positions in 
the System,'" .Jdurn. Linn. Soe. (Lond(in), Zoology, vol. xx. ISSS, pp. 299-3U4, 
pis. xvii.-xxiv. 



'I'CUDID.K. 



87 



FMinily TUKDJD.E. 

Genu« SYLVIA. 
Scop. Ann. i. p. 154 (ITO'Jj. 

Sylvia hortensis. 

MolaciUa hurtensin, Bechst. Naturg. Deutt^clll. iv. p. 550 ( 17'.»5). 
Sylvia Jiortensis (Bechst.), Scebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 1 1 
(1881). 

The Garden- Warbler. 
Hah. Europe, wintering in Africa. 
393. Natural skeleton. 0. C. 1581 B. Yarrell Cullecttoa. 

Sylvia atricapilla. 

Motacilla atricapiUa, Linna3us, Syst. Nat. i. p. J332 (1766). 
S>/lvia atrica/iUa (L.), Scebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 23 (1881). 

The Blackcap Warbler. 

Ilah. Europe, wintering in Nortb-eastern and Western Africa. 



394. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. 0. 1581 P. 

From the Zoological Socieftj, 1885. 

Genus PHYLLOSCOPUS. 

Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 972. 

Phylloscopus borealis. 

Phyllopueuste horealls, Blasius, Naum. 1858, p. 313. 
Phylloscopus borealis (Blasius), Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. 
p. 40 (1881). 

The Arctic Willow-Warbler. 

Hah. Northern Europe and Northern Asia, wintering in the 
Burmese countries and the Indo-Malayan region. 

395. Skeleton. From Chcioo. O.C. 1581g. 

Presented hji Consul R. Sivinhoe, F.ll.S. 

396. Skeleton. FromC'hefoo. O. ('. 1581 ii. 

Presented hij Consul I\. S(cin/ioe, F./i'.S. 



88 rjco-PAssEiiEs. 

Phylloscopus trochilus. 

MotacUla trochilus, Liuua;us, Syst. Xat. i. p. 338 (1706). 
Phylloscopus trochilus (L.), Seebolim, Cat. E. Urit. Mus. v. p. 56 
(1881). 

The AVillow- Warbler. 

Ilah. Europe and Western Siberia, wintering in South Africa. 

397. Skeleton. 0. C. 1581 e. Purchased. 

398. Sternum, with shoiilder-oirdle, S. S. 1256. Pitrchased. 

Genus ACANTHIZA. 
Vigors & Horsfield, Traus. Linn. 8oc. xv. p. 224 (1826). 

Acanthiza nana. 

Acanthiza nana, Vig. & Horst'. Trans. Linn. Hoc. xv. p. 226 
(1826); Sharpe, Cat. B. Erit. Mus. ^•ii. p. 292 (1883). 

The Little Warbler. 

Ilah. Southern Australia. 

399. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

Freseutcd !>// Dr. E. P. Ilamsaij. 

Genus ACROCEPHALUS. 

Naumann, Nat, Land- u. Wasservog. niirdl. Deutscbl. 
Nachtr. iv. p. 199 (1811). 

Acrocephalus australis. 

Acrocephalus australis, Gould, Birds of Austr. iii. pi. 37 (1847) ; 

Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus, v. p, 100 (1881). 
Calamoherpe australis (Gould), Ramsay, Tab. List Austr. E. p. 10 

(1888). 

The Australian E-eed- Warbler. 

Ilah. Australia, from Southern Queensland to New South 
Wales and South Australia. 

400. Sternum of male with shoulder-girdle, wanting left 

clavicle. S. S. 1372. Eichmond River, N.S.W. (E. P. 
Ratiisaj). Presenied Uij P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



TUUL)1D.E. 89 

Genus OREOCICHLA. 

Gould, P.Z. »S. 1637, p. 145. 

Oreocichla lunulata. 

Turdas lunulutus, Latham, lad. Orn. Suppl. p. xlii. (1801). 
Oreocincla lunulata (Lath.), Gould, B. Austr. iv. pi. vii. (1848). 
GeocicJila lunulata (Lath.), Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 155 
(1881). 

The South- Australian Ghound-Thrush. 

Uab. From tlui Wide Bay district to New South Wales and 
South Australia. 

401. St(irnuni, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 928. 

-Presented hij F. L. Sclater, Ji!s(j., F.M.S. 

Genus GEOCICHLA. 
Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Is36, p. 7. 

Geocichla cyanonotus. 

Turdas CTjanotus, Jardine & Selby, 111. Orn. i. pi. 46 (18:28). 
Geocichla cyanonotus (J. & S.), Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. 
p. 172 (1881). 

The White-throated Ground-Thrush. 

Ilah. Central and Southern India. 

402. Sternum, with shotilder- girdle. S. S. 1895. 

Presented by Dr. Anderson, F.R.S. 

Geocichla citrina. 

Turdus citrinus, Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 350 (17^)0). 

Petrocincla cyanota {nee Jard.), Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 

(1844). 
Geocichla citrina (Lath.), Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 172 

(1881). 

The Orange-headed Ground-Thrush. 

Hah. Himala_yas, wintering in the Burmese countries, the 
Indian Peninsula, and Ceylon. 

403. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal (s. n. Petro- 

cincla cyanota). Presented Jiy B. U. llodyson, Fs<j. 



90 



PICO-PAiSSERES. 

Genus TURDUS. 
Liniucus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 291 (1766). 




Lateral view of cranium of Turdus pilaris, enlarged. Letters as before. 

Turdus iliacus. 

Turdus iliacus, Linnaeus, Sj'st. Nat. i. p. 292 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus. V. p. 189 (1881). 

The Redwing. 

Ilab. Europe and Northern Asia, wintering in Southern 
Europe. 

404. Skeleton of male. Presented hij Mr. T. Devonshire. 

405. Skull of male. From South Germany. Purcltased. 

406. Skull of female. From Bonn. Purchased. 

407. Skull. 0. C. 151)4. Presented l>u Dr. Leach. 

Turdus musicus. 

Turdus musicus, Linnoeiis, Bj'st. Nat. i. p. 292 (1766) : Seebohm, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 191 (1881). 

The Song-Thrush. 

Ilah. Europe and Western Siberia. 

408. Skeleton of male. Presented hij Mr. T. Devonshire. 

409. Skeleton. 0. C. 15itoA. I'mrhased. 



TrintiD/E. 



91 



410. Skeleton of young. O. ('. l.")l)2 a. 

411. Cranium. 0. C. 1598. Presented hij Dr. Le(M:h. 

412. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1250. 

Presented hij Prof. Parker, P.R.S. 

Turdus viscivorus. 

Turdus viscivorus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 291 (1766); Seebohm, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 194 (1881). 

The Missel-Thrush. 

Hah. Europe and Siberia, as far south as Southern Persia 
and the Himalaya?. 

413. Skeleton. U. C. 1593 d. Riding Mill, Northumberland. 

Presented Inj the Rev. II. II. Slater. 

414. Skull of female. South Germany. Purchased. 

Turdus pilaris. 

Turdus xiUaris, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 291 (1766) ; Seebohm, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 205 (1881). 

The Eieldpare. 

Ilah. Europe and Western Siberia, wintering in Southern 
Ei;rope. 

415. Skull. Presented hij Mr. II. Sawi/er. 

416. Skull. O. C. 1592. Presented hij Dr. Leach. 

417. Skull of male. Silesia. Purchased. 

Turdus migratorius. 

Tardus mii/raforms, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 292 (1766) ; See- 
bobm. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 220 (1881). 

The Red-breasted Thrush or American Eobin. 

Ilab. North America, wintering in Central America. 

418. Sternum and shoulder-girdle (wanting rightand left scaimlie), 

S. S. 1292. Presented hij tlie Snilfhsonian Institution. 



92 PICO-PASSERES. 

Turdus jamaicensis. 

Turdus jamaicensis, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 809 (1788) ; Secbohra, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 208 (1881). 

The Jamaica Thrush. 

Hah. Jamaica. 

419. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented Inj the Sutithsouian Inditution. 

Genus MERULA. 
Leach, Syst. Cat. Brit. :\rus. p. 20 (1816). 

Merula merula, 

Turdus menda, Linnteus. Syst. Nat. i. p. 295 (17G6). 

Merula merula (L.), Secbohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 235 (1881). 

The Blackbird. 

Hah. Europe and Central Asia. 

420. Skeleton of male and female. 

Presented hij F. S. Eve, Esq. 

421. Skeleton of female. Presented hi/ F. S. Eve, Esq. 

422. Skeleton of male. Presented hy Mr. W. SihleTj. 

423. Skeleton. 0. C. 1593 c. Purchased. 

424. Skull of adult male. From South Germany. Purchased. 

425. Skull of vouno-. From South Germany. Purchased. 

Genus ERYTHACUS. 
Cuvier, Leoons Anat. Comp. tab. ii. (1801). 

Erythacus luscinia. 

Motacilla luscinia, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 328 (1706). 
Philomela luscinia, Selby, Brit. Orn. i. p. 206 (1833). 
Erythacus luscinia (L.), Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 294 
(1881). 

The Nightingale. 

Hah. We.stern and Central Eurojie, wintering in Africa. 



TrRi)TD.i<:. 93 

426. Xahiral skeleton : mounted. O.C. 1580 a. 

Yarrell Collection. 

437. Skull. Gorniany. O.C. 1580c. Pirrc/iused. 



Erythacus rubecula. 

Motacilla riihecula, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 337 (176G). 
Enjthacus rubecula (L.) : Secbohm, Cat. B. Brit. Miis. v. p. 299 
(1881). 

The Redbreast. 

Hah. E nro|)e. 

428. Skeleton of male, from Riding Mill, Northumberland. 

0. C. 1581 M. Presented hj the Rev. II. H. Slater. 

429. Skeleton from Dorking. 0. C. 1581 0. 

Presented by Miss L. JJlxon. 

430. Skeleton. 0. C. 1581 d. Purchased. 

431. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1255. Purchased. 

Erythacus calliope. 

Motacilla calliope, Pallas, lleis. Euss. Reichs, iii. p. 697 (1776). 
Calliope l-amtscJiatl'ensis (Gm.), Strickl. Ann. & ilag. Nat. Hist. 

vi. p. 422 (18-11). 
Erythacus calliope (Pall.), Seebohin, Cat. B. Brit. 3Ius. v. p. 305 

(1881). 

The Siberian Ruby-throated Robin. 

Hah. Siberia and Northern China, wintering in India, the 
Burmese countries, Southern China, and the Philippines. 

432. Skeleton, from Chefoo. O. C. 1581 1. 

Presented hy Consul li. Swinlioe, F.R.S. 

433. Skeleton, from Chefoo. 0. C. 1581 k. 

Presented hij Consul R. Swinlioe, F.R.S. 



94 PICO-PASSKRRS. 

Genus RUTICILLA. 
C. L. T3rehm, Isis, 1828, p. 1280, 

Ruticilla phcenicurus. 

MotaciUa phcenicurus, Linnieus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 335 (ITHfJ). 
Ruticilla phcenicurus (L.), Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus, v. p. ^^WO 
(1881). 

The Common Redstart. 

Hal). Europe and Western Siberia, wintering" m Persia and 
Eastern and Western Africa. 

434. Skeleton of male, from Riding Mill, Northumberland. 

0. C. 1581 L. Presented In/ the Rev. H. H. Slater. 

435. Sternum and shoulder-girdle, wanting left scapula. S. S. 

1400. Purchased. 

Genus COPSYCHUS. 
Wagler, Syst. Av. note to art. Gracula (1827). 

Copsychus saularis. 

Oracula saularis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 165 (1 7G6). 

Copsychus saularis (L.), Sliarpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. p. 61 (18S3). 

The Dhayal Bird. 

Hah. India. 

436. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1888. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.P.S. 

Genus SAXICOLA, 
Bechstein, Ora. Taschenb. i. p. 216 (1802). 

Saxicola oenanthe. 

MotaciUa osnanthe, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 332 (1766), 
Saxicola oenanthe (L.), Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 391 
(1881). 

The Common Wheateak. 

Uab. Europe and Northern Asia, migrating into Northern 
Africa, Persia, N.W. India, and Mongolia in winter. 



TuuDin.?;. 95 

437. Natural skeleton (.fiiiiilc : moimteJ. 0. C. 15i^4 J5. 

From the Zoolorjical Society. 

Genus SIALIA. 
Swainson, Zool. Journ. iii. p. 173 (1827). 

Sialia arctica. 

Erythaca arctica, Swainson & llichardson , Faun. Bor.-Amor., 

Birds, p. 209, pi. 39 (1831). 
Sialia arctica (S. & R.), Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. IMV.i 

(1881). 

The Rocky-Mountain Blue-bird. 

flab. Rocky Mountains, wintering in (California. 

438. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of female (wanting both sea- 

pulse and right coracoid). S. S. 1295. 

Presented Jnj the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus MYIADECTES. 

Swainson, in Jard. Nat. Libr., Flycatchers, p. 132 (1838). 

Myiadectes genibarbis. 

Myiadestes genibarbis, Swainson, Nat. Libr. x, p. 134, pi. xiii, 
(c. 1838); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 370 (1881). 

Swainson's Solitaire. 

Hab. Islands of Dominica, Martinique, and S. Lucia. 

439. Sternum and shoulder-girdle (wanting right coracoid and 

scapula). S.S. 1241. 

From Mr. P. IT. Gosse's Collection. 

Myiadectes solitarius. 

Myiadestes solitarius, Baird, lleview^ Amer. B. p. 421 (18(54) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 3G9 (1881). 

The Jamaican Solitaire. 

Hob. Jamaica. 

440. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of male (wanting left coracoid 

and scapula). S.S. 1432. 

Presented b'j the Smitlisonian Institution. 



90 PICO-PASSEREH. 

Family MIMIDiE*. 

Genus MIMUS. 
Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 972. 

Mimus orpheus. 

Tnrdus orpheus, Linuocus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 293 (1766). 

Mimus orpheus (Linn.), 8harpe, Cut. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 340 (1881). 

The Jamaican Mocking-Thrush. 

Hah. Jamaica, Porto Eico, and San Domingo. 

441. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1457. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

Mimus hillii. 

Mimus hillii, March, Proc. Philad. Acad. 1863, p. 291 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 343 (1881) 

Hill's Mocking-Thrush. 

IlaJ). Jamaica. 

442. Sternum and shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula, S. S. 1458. 

Presented hij the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus GALEOSCOPTES. 

Cabanis, Mus. Hein. Th. i. p. 82 (1850). 

Galeoscoptes carolinensis. 

Muscicapa carolinensis, Linnteus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 328 (1766). 
Galeoscoptes carolinensis (L.), Sliarpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 335 

(1881). 

The American Cat-bird. 

Ilcdt. North America. 

443. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2591. 

* For osteological accounts of the North-American Thrushes, Mimiufe, 
genus Galeoscoptes, Sec, of. Shufeldt, Jouru. Morph. vol. iii. no. 1, June 1889, 
pp. 81-112 ; also o/. Frederic A. Lucas, "Notes on the Osteology of the 
Thrushes, Mimina3, and Wrens," Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xi. 1888, 
pp. 173-180. 



TKOGLODVTID.K. — ClNCLID.l-:. 97 



Family TilOGLODYTlU.^. 

Gemis ANORTHURA. 
llcnuie's 2iid ed. Mont. Urn. iJiit. p. o7U (1S33). 

Anorthura troglodytes. 

Motadlla iroglodytes, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 337 (1766). 
Anorthura troglodytes (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 269 
(1881). 

The Common AYhex. 

Hall. Euro[>e. 
444. Skeleton. (). C. lo^oc. PiircluiH'il. 



Family ClNCLIDvE *. 

Genus CINCLUS. 
Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb. p. 205 (18U2). 

Cinclus aquaticus. 

Cinclus aquaticus., Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb. i. p. 206 (1802) ; 
Crisp, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 49 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 307 

(1881). 

The Common Dipper. 

Hah. Western Europe. 

445. Natural skeleton : mounted. (J. C. lo'Jl A. 

Yarrell Colledioii. 

446. iSternum and shoulder-oirdle (wantino; ri<ilit coracoid and 

scapula). S. S. 860. Purchased. 



* For the osteology of tlie -\nierican Dipper {Cinclus tncxicanus), rf. 
ShuftkU, Bull. Xutt. Orn. Club, vii. p. 213 (1882;. 

J'AUT 111. H 



98 PICO-rASSEKEy. 

Family ACCENTORIDiE. 

Genus ACCENTOR. 
Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb. i. p. 19] (1802). 

Accentor modularis*. 

MotaciUa moihdaris, Linnaeus, Syst. Nut. i. p. 329 (17G6j. 
Accenfor modularis (Linn,), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. p. 649 

(1883). 

The Hedge-Spakrow. 

Hah. Europe, North Africa to Asia Minor. 

447. Skeleton of male. From Kidino- Mill, Northumberland. 

0. C. 1581 N. Presented hy the Rev. H. II. Slater. 

448. Skeleton. U. C. 1581 c. Purchased. 

449. Skull. 0. C. 1581. Presented tnj Dr. Leach, F.L.S. 

Genus EPHTHIANURA. 

Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 148. 

Ephthianura alb if r on s. 

Acanihlza aVifrons, Jard. & Selbv, HI. Oiii. ii. p. 50, figs. 1, 2 

(c. 1836). 
Ephthianura albifruits, 81iarpe, Cat. B. Brir. Mus. vii. p. 666 

(1883). 

The White-fhonted Waiiblek. 

Hah. AustraKa. 

450. Skeleton. From Chalky Island, Bass' Straits. 0. C. 

1584 D. Goidd Collection. 

451. Sternum of male, -with shoulder-girdle. From Dohrovde, 

N.S. Wales. S. S. 1697. 

Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ranisay. 

* For a complete account of the osteolog-y of Accoitor viodularis and a 
iiirure of its skull, cf. Shulbldt, " On the Position of Chauuca in the System," 
Journal of Moiphulnjiv. vid. iii. no. •>, 1889, pp. 475-502. 



I'niKMii).]:. [)[) 

Family TIMELIID^. 

Subfamily L I o 'i' lu (' Hi N^. 

Genus LIOTHRIX. 
Strickland, Ann. & Mag. N. H. vii. p. 2'J (1841). 

Liothrix lutea. 

Si/lvia hdea, Seopoli, Del Faun, et FIoi-. Insubr. ii. p. OG (1786). 
Liothrix luh'a, Sliarpe, Cat. 11 Brit. Mus. vii. p. 644 (1883). 

The Red-billed Hill-Tit. 

ILi/i. Himalaj'a Mountains. 

452. Skeleton of male. F reseated by Mr. J. Abrahains. 

453. Skull of female. Presented Uij Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Subfamily C I sT I c L I x .E. 

Genus MEGALURUS. 
Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Sue. xiii. p. 15!J (1820). 

Megalurus gramineus. 

Sphenoeacus r)rumineus, Gould, Proc. Zool. Sue. Ls45, p. IQ. 
Megalurus gramineus (Gould), 8harpe, Cat. E. Brit. Mus. vii p V>5 
(1883). 

The Little Ghass-bird. 

JIab. AVestern and Southern Australia. 

454. Sternum, with shoulder-oirdle. lliver Hunter, N. S. \V. 

Presented by Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

455. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1081. 

Presented by P. /.. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



n-I 



loo PICO-PASSERES>. 

Genus SPHENURA. 
Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. p. 40 (1823). 

Sphenura brachyptera. 

SpJienura brachyptera, Lichtenstein, loc. cit. ; Sharpe, Cat. B, Brit, 
Mus.vii. p. 114(1883). 

The Bristle-bird. 

Hah. New South Wale?. 
456. ISkeletoii. 0. V. 1531. Gould Collection. 

Genus STIPITURUS. 

Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 414 (1831). 

Stipittirus inalachurus. 

Miiscicapa malacliura, Shaw, Trans. Linn. Soc. iv. p. 241, pi. 21 

(1798). 
Stipiturns malachurus (Hhsiw), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. p. 100 

(1883). 

The Emu Wrex. 

Hah. Australia and Tasmania. 

457. Sternum, with slioukler-girJle. S. S. 1088. 

Presented Inj P. L. Sclater, E.'oj., F.R.S. 

Genus SUTORIA. 
Nicholson, I'roc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 195. 

Sutoria sutoria. 

Motacilla sutoria, Forster, Ind. Zool. p. 17 (1781). 

Orthotoinus lonr/icauda (Gm.), Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. As. Soc. p. 144 

(1849). 
Sutoria sutoria (Forst.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. p. 215 

(1883). 
Ortliomus suiorius (Forst.), Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 36 

(1890). 

The Indian Tailor-bird. 



TIMELHD.E. 101 

Hah. Indian Peninsula and Ceylon^ ranging into the Bur- 
mese countries and 8outhern China. 

458. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1906. 

Presented hij Dr. J. A)iderson, F.R.S, 



Subfamily Timeliin^. 

Geuus ORIGMA. 
IJould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 148. 

Origma rubricata* 

Sylvia ruhricata, Lath. Ind, Orn., 8iippl. p. Iv (1801). 
Origma rvhricata {hdiXh.}, Sharpc, Cat. B. Biit. Mus. vii. p. \'->^> 
(1883). 

The Rock-Warbler. 

JJah. New South AV:iles. 

459. Stornuin of iii;dc. with shoulder-gitdlc. 8. S. 1309. 

I'rPs^'iilril })if l)r. K. P, I'diiiSiUf, 

llenus ORTHONYX. 
Temrainck, Man. d'Orn. 2nd ed. i. pt. 1, p. Ixxxi (ls20). 

Orthonyx spinicauda. 

Orthotujx spinicauda, Temminck, PI. Col. iv. pis. 428, 429 (1827); 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. p. 329 (18S3). 

The Spine-tailed Ground-Thrush. 

Ifah. 8.E. Australia. 

460. Skeleton. O. C. ir>;32. Gould Collection. 

461. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. From Clarence 

River, N. S. W. {E. P. Ranmnf). S. S. 1079. 

Presented I'^i l\ f^. Sclater, Z!^-^'/., F.f^.S, 



102 I'ICO-PASSERES. 

Genus GRALLINA. 
VieiUot, Analyse, p. 42 (ISIG). 

Grallina picata. 

Gracida pimta, Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. xxix (1801). 
Grallina picata (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 272 

(1877). 

The Pied Wagtail Thrush. 

Hoh. Australia. 

462. Sternum of male, with shoulder-oirdle. ('larence Eiver, 

N. S. W. {E. P. Ramsaij). S. S. 931. 

Presented hij P. L. Sclafer, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus CINCLOSOMA. 

Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 219 (1826). 

Cinclosoma punctatum. 

Tardus punctatus, Latham, Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. xlix (1801). 
Cinclosoma j^anctatum (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 332 (1883). 

The Spotted Ground-Thrush. 

Nah. Tasmania and Southern and Eastern Australia. 

463. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1591 (left wing miss- 

ing). Goidd Collection. 

464. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 924. 

Presented h>/ P. L. ScUiter, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus PSOPHODES. 
Vigors & Horsfiekl. Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 328 (1826). 

Psophodes crepitans. 

Muscicapa crepitans, Latham, Ind. Orn. Suppl. ii. p. li (1801). 
Prophocles crepitans (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. p. 350 
(1883). 

The Coach-whip Bird. 

Hub. Eastern and Southern Australia. 

465. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 930. 

Presented hij P. L. Sclater. Esq., F.R.S. 



'I'lMKI.llD. 



103 



(jernis POMATORHINUS. 

Horsfiold, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 1(U (1S21). 

Pomatorhinus superciliosus. 

I'oiiKitorhinus superciliosus. Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. 
XV. p. 330 (182G): Sharpe, Cat. IL Brit. Mns. vii. ]). 41!) 
(1883). 

The White-eyebrowed Scimitar-Babbler. 

flah. Soutliern and Western Australia. 

466. Skeleton. From Western Australia. O. C. 15i»l A. 

Gould Collection. 

Pomatorhinus temporalis. 

PoinatorJitnus temporalis, Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Boo. 
XV. p. 330 (1826) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. ]\rus. vii. p. 118 
(1883). 

The Pale-fronted Scimitar-Babbler. 

Hah. Ne-.v South Wales. 

467. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 130<). 

r rt'.<ented Inj l\ L. Sdater, Est/., F./'.S. 

(xenus GARRULAX. 
Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. ()47 (1831), 

Garrulax leucolophus. 

Corvus leucolophns, Hardwioke, Trans. Linn. Soe. xi. \). 208, 

pL 1.5 (1815). 
Oarrulax leucolophus (Hardw.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. 

p. 435 (1883); Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 77 (188.4). 

The Himalayan White - crested Laughing - 
Thrush. 

Hah. Himalaya Mountains. 

468. Sternum, with shuuldcr-oirdle. From Neiial. 

J'rexented hy ]L II. Hodr/son, Esq. 

469. Pelvis ofahove ?))ecimen. 

rrr^adtd lu/ U. II. llodasuj,. Es,j. 



104 PTCO-PASSRRES. 

Garrulax pectoralis. 

lantlwcinda i->ector(dis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1835. p. 186. 

Garrulax pectoralis, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. p. 441(1888). 

The Black-gorgeted Laughing-Thrush. 

Hah. Eastern Himalayas to Tenasserini. 

470. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle (wanting left coracoid and 

scapula). From Nepal. 

Presented hij J3. J/. Hodgson, Esq. 

471. Pelvis of above specimen. 

Presented hif />. //. Hodgson. Esq. 

Genus CRATEROPUS. 

Swainson, Faun. Bor.-Amev., Birds, p. 487 (1831). 

Crateropus canorus. 

Turdus canorus, Liunaius, Syst. Xat. i. p. 293 (1766). 
Pastor terricolor, Hodgs. J. A. S. Beng. v. p. 771 (1836). 
Malacocercus terricolor (Hodgs.), Jerd. B. Ind. ii. p. 59 (1863). 
Crateropus canorus (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. p. 478 
(1883) ; Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 110 (1889). 

The Jungle Babbler. 

Hah. The whole of the Indian Peninsula. 

472. Sternum, with shoulder-girdles, of male. S. S. 1899. 

Presented hy Jh'. ^\nderson, P.P.S. 

Genus CINCLORHAMPHUS. 

Gould, Proc. Zool. 8oc. 1837, p. 150. 

Cinclorhamphus cruralis. 

Megalurus cruralis. Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. 

p. 228 (1826). 
Cinclorhamphus cruralis (Y. & H.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. 

p. 498 (188.3). 

The Brown Ground-Thrush. 



PYCXOXOTID.K. 



105 



Ilah. Soutli«'i-n and Eastern Australia. 

473. Sternum of male, with slioulder-trinlle. From the Rich- 
mond River, N. S. W. {E. P. Rcamay). S. S. 1301. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



Family PYCNOXOTll).^:. 

Genus CHLOROPSIS. 

.Tnrfline & Selhy, 111. Orn. i. pi. .'> (1S26). 

Chloropsis aurifrons. 

Phyllornh aurifrons, Temra. Pi. Col. pi. 484. fig. 1 (1829). 
Chloropsis aurifrons (T.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 20 
(1881) : Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 234 (1889). 

The Gold-fronted Green Bulbul. 

jI((I'. Hinuilaya IMonntains and Burmese countries. 

474. Sternum. From Nepal. J'resenfed hy B. If. /lodyso)), Esq. 

Chloropsis hardwickii. 

Chloroj^sis hardwickii, Jard. & Selby, lU. Orn. ii., App. pi. 1 (c. 
1836); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 18 (1881); Oate.s, 
Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 236 (1889). 

The Orange-bellied Green Bulbul. 

Hidt. Himalaya Mountains to Tenasserim. 

475. Sternum and shoulder-oirdle. From Nepal. 

Presented by B. H. Ilodfjson, Esq. 

Genus PYCNONOTUS. 

Boie, Isis, 1820, p. 97:5. 

Pycnonotus aurigaster. 

Tvrdvs auric/aster,\ieinot, X. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xx. p. 2o8(1818). 
Pycnonotus aurigaster (V.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 137 

'(1881). 

The Javan Yellow-vented Bulbul. 

Hah. Java. 

476. Skeleton. From the Zoologirnl Society. 



lOG PrCO-FASSRHEs. 

Pycnonotus barbatus. 

Tvrdus havhiifiix, Desf. Mem. Acad. Hoy. Sci. 1787, p. oOO, 

])1. xiii. 
Pjienonotvs harhafns (Desf.), Sharpe, Cat. E. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 14G 

(1881). 

The White-vented Bulbul. 

Hah. ^NTorth-eastern and Western Africa. 

477. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Presented hj/ Jfr. J. Ahraliams. 

Genu8 MOLPASTES. 
Hume, Stray Feathers, i. ]). 878, note (1873). 

Molpastes bengalensis. 

Lvos cafer vel piir/fPus, Hoclgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84 (1844). 
Pycnonotus hengaJeusis, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xiv. p. 550 (1845). 
Pycnonotus j^^/i/cus (Hodgs.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. 

p. 128(188]). 
Molpastes bengalensis (Blyth), Gates, Faun. Brit, tnd., Birds, i. 

p. 271 (1889). 

The Bengal Bed-vented Bulbul. 

Hah. Himalaya MDuntains from Kuuiaun to Assam and the 
hills of N.E. Bengal. 

478. Sternum of male (wanting left coracoid and left scapula). 

S. S. l.f)lo. Presented hi/ I)r. ./. Anderson, F.R.S. 

Genus .ffiGITHINA. 

Vieillot, Analyse, p. 44 (181G). 

.flBgithina typhia. 

Motacilla tiphia, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 331 (176G). 
lora tipUa (L.), Blyth, Cat. B. As. Mus. p. 214 (1849). 
^githina tipJiia (L.), Sharpe. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 7 (1881) : 
Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 230 (1889). 

The Common Green Bulbul. 

Hah. Indian Peninsula. 

479. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of fenude (wanting left sca- 

pula). S. S. 1898. Presented h>/ Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 



CAMPOrHA(ill>.K. 



lo; 



Ki<r. 2- 



Familv ( lAMPOPHAGID^^:. 




Lateral view of skull of Grmicalus menfalis (enlarn^ed). Letters as before. 

Genus GRAUCALUS. 
Cuvier, Regno Anim. i. p. 341 (LS17). 

Graucalus melanops. 

C'orvus melanops, Latham, Ind. Orn. Suppl. ii. p. xxiv (1801). 
Graucalus melanops (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B. lirit. Mas. iv. p. 30 
(1879). 

The Black-faced Cuckoo-Shrike. 

Hah. The whole of Australia, New Guinea, and the neigh- 
bouring Papuan Islands. 

480. Skeleton. From Western Australia. O.C. 1578f. 

Gould Collection. 

481. Sternum of male, with should<ir-girdle. 

Presented A// I h\ E. ]*. Jxdinsay. 

Graucalus parvirostris. 

Graucalus parvirostris, Gould, Proc. Zool, See. 1837, p. 134 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mas. iv. p. 32 (1879). 

The Small-billed Cuckoo-Shrike. 

Hah. Tasmania. 

482. Skeleton tVdiii 'rn^iiiiinia. U.C.ir)7SE. (iniild ( 'nlleclioii. 



108 



PICO-PASSERRS. 



Graucalus macii. 

Grancalus macii, Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 349 (1831); Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 34 (1879). 

The Larger Cuckoo-Shrike. 

Hah. India. 

483. Stermiiii, with sliouldcr-o-irdle. Nepal. 

Presented /'/y B. IT. Ifodgsou., Jlsij. 

484. Fiternum. with slioulder-oirdle. Nepal. 

Prcf^'ntcd. hi/ 7>. //. Hodgson^ Esq. 

Graucalus sclateri. 

Graucalus sclateri, Salvador!, Ami. Alus. Civic. Geiiov. xii. p. 325 
(1878) (e.r Piiisch, MSS. in Mus. Brem.); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus. iv. p. 40 (1879). 

The New-Ireland Cuckoo-Shrike. 

JJidj. New Ireland. 

485. Sternuin, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2;j61. 

Presented by P. L. ScJater, Esq., P. U.S. 

Graucalus mentalis. 

Graucalus mentalis, Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. 
p. 217 (1826); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 37 (1879). 

The Varied Cuckoo-Shrike. 

JJab. Australia. 

486. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. Clarence River, 

N. S. W. {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1083. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

486 a. Skeleton of male. From Lismore, N. S. Wales. 

Purchased of Mr. A. P. Goodwin. 

Genus CAMPOPHAGA. 

Vieillot, Analyse, p. 39 (1816). 

Campophaga melanoschista. 

Volvocivora melanosdiistus, Hodgson, Ind. Rev. i. p. 328 (1837). 
Ceblepyris luguhris, Sundevall, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, xviii. 
p. 109 (1846). 



MUSCICAPID.E. lOif 

Campophcuja hujubris, Sharpo, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. Co (1879). 
Campophaga mehnioschista, Oates, Faun. Brit, lud., Birds, i. p. 491 

(1889). 

The Dark-grey Cuckoo-Shrike. 

Hab. Indian Peninsula. 

487. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Nepal. 

Presented hi/ B. H. llodtjxoii, A'.s-y, 

Lalage sykesii. 

Lalage sykesii, Strickland, Ann. & Jlag. Xat. Hist. xiii. p. 36 
(1844) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 89 (1879). 

Campoj^haga syl-esii, Oates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 493 
(1889). 

The Black-headed Cuckoo-Shrike. 

Hah. Indian Peninsula and Ceylon. 

488. Steniuni with shoulder-girdle of male (wanting left scu- 

])ula and coracoid). S. S. 1918. 

Presented by Dr. J. Anderson, P.R.S. 



Family MUSCICAPID^. 

Genus MUSCICAPA. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 324 (170G). 

Muscicapa grisola. 

Muscicapa giisola, Linnaeus, loc. cit. p. 328 (1766) ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 151 (1879). 

The Spotted Plycatcher. 

Hah. Europe. 

489. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1596 a. (Bones of 

left wing wanting.) Yarrell Collection. 

490. Sternum with .-houlder-ginlle (wanting left scapula). S. S. 

1^0(1. Purchased. 



110 PICO-rA«8EUES. 

Genus ALSEONAX. 
Cabanis, Mus. Heiu. Th. i. p. 52 (1850). 

Alseonax latirostris. 

Mnmcapa latirostris, liaffles, Trans, Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 312 (1820). 
Alseonax latirostris (Raffl.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 127 
(1879) ; Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, ii. p. 35 (1889). 

The Southern Brown Plycatcher. 

Hah. Eastern Asia, from Japan to the Malayan Archipelago. 

491. Skeleton. From Chefoo, China. 0. C^. 159(3 D. 

Presented by Consal Siciiihoe, F.Ii.S. 

Genus MICRGBCA. 
Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1840, p. 172. 

Microeca fascinans. 

Lod'ia fascinans, Latham, Ind. Orn. SuppL ii. p. xlvi (1801). 
Ilicraca fascinans (Lath.), Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 258 
(1865) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 123 (1879). 

The Australian Brown Flycatcher. 

Hub. Australia. 

492. tSternuni with shoulder-girdle (wanting right scapula). 

S. S. 1370. N. S. Wales (K P. Ramsay). 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, J'Jsq., P.P.S. 

Genus PETRCECA. 
Swaiuson, Zool. Illustr. 2nd series, i. pi. 36 (1829). 

Petroeca leggii. 

Fetroica midticohr (see Swainson, loc. cit.), Gould, Haudb. B. 

Austr. i. p. 279 (1865). 
Petrosca leyyii, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 165 (1879). 

The Scarlet-breasted Robin. 

Hah. Australia and Tasmania. 

493. .Skeleton (toe? imperfect). 0. C. 15«4 A. Purc/iastd. 



JItTSCK'AI'ID.K. I 1 1 

Petroeca phoenicea. 

Petroica itluenkea, Gould, Proc. Zool, 8oe. 183(5, p. 105; (jlould, 

Haudb. B. Austr. i. p. 2S2 (1805). 
Petrveca phcemcea {Go\x\(i\ Shaipe, Cat. ]{. Brit. Mus iv. p \m 

(1879). 

The Elame-breasted Robin. 

Hah. Australia and Tasmania. 

494. Skeleton. From Hobart Town, Tasmania. 0. C. 1584u. 

Gould Collection. 

495. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. Ashfield. N. S. W. 

Presented by I)r. E. P. Ramsay. 

496. Stermnn with shoulder-crirdle of female (right scapula 

broken). Ashfield, X. S. W. 

Presented by Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

Petroeca rosea. 

Pttroka rosea, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 142; id. Handb. 

B. Austr. i. p. 277 (1865). 
Petroeca rosea, Sharpe, Cat, B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 17U (1S79). 

The Rose-breasted Wood-Robin. 

llab. Australia. 

497. Sternum and shoulder-girdle (wanting scapukvi). New 

Soutli Wales, Presented by Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

498. Sternum. New South Wales. 

Presented by Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

Petroeca bicolor. 

GraUina bicolor, ^■i<?ors ct Horsfield, Tr. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 233 
(1826); Gould, Handb. B Austr. i. p. 283 (1865). 

PtUwca bicolor (V. & H.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brii. Mus. iv p 173 
(1879). 

The Hooded Robin. 

Ilah. Australia. 

499. Natural .skeleton. 0. C. 1584. Gould CoUevLtun. 



112 PICO-PASSERES. 

Petrceca bicolor. 

500. Steniuin of male, with slioulder-ginlle. Clarence River, 
. N. S. W. [E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 9-13. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.E.S. 



Petrceca vittata. 

Muscicapa vittata, Quoy & Gaimard, Voy. do I'Astrol. i. p. 173, 
pi. 3. fig. 2 (1833) ; Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 286 (1865). 

Petrceca vittata (Q. & G.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 177 
(1879). 

The Buff-sided Uobin. 

Hah. Tasmania. 

501. Skeleton. From Hobart Town, Tasmania. 0. C. 1584 c. 

(joald Collection. 



Genus PRATINCOLA. 

Koch, Syst. baier. Zool. p. l!)(i (1816). 

Pratincola rubetra. 

Motacilla rubetra, Linntcus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 332 (1766). 
Pratincola rubetra (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 179 (1879). 

The Whinchat. 

Hah. Europe, Senegambia, and North-eastern Africa. 
502. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S.S.I 257. Purchased. 

Pratincola rubicola. 

Motacilla rubicola, Linuseus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 332 (1766). 
Pratincola rubicola (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 185 
(1879). 

The Stonechat. 

Hah. Europej Palestine, and Ixussia. 
603. Skull of male. Germany. Purchased'. 



MUSCICAI'in.K. 113 

(xenus SMICRORIVIS. 

(tou1(1, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 133. 

Smicrornis brevirostris. 

PA-ilo/nis brevirostris, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p, 187. 
Smicrornis brevirostris, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. ]>. 273 (180")) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 209 (1879). 

The Short-billed Dwarf Flycatcher. 

Ilal). Australia. 

504. Sternum of male, with shoul(ler-<rirdle. l^iclnuond River, 
N. S. Wale.. S. S. 1358. 

Presented Inj P. L. Sdater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus MIRO. 
LQSson, Traitr d'Orn. p. 389 (1831). 

Miro albifrons. 

Tardus nlbifrons, Gineliu, Syst. Xat. i. p. 822 (1788), 
Miro albifrons, Sharpe, Cat, B. Brit, Mus, iv. p. 235 (1879); 
Buller, B, New Zealand, 2nd ed. i, p. 30, pi. v. fig. 1 (1888). 

The South-Island Robin. 

Hah. South Island, New Zealand. 
505. Skeleton. 0. (J. 1590. Gmdd f'nlkrliou. 

Genus XANTHOPYGIA. 

Zanthopyffia, Blyth, .1. A. S. B. xvi. p. 123 (1847). 

Xanthopygia cyanomelaena. 

Muscicapa ajanomelana, Tcmm. Pi. Col. iii. pi. 470 (1838). 
Cijanoptila cijanomelanura , Blyth, J. A. S, B, xvi. p. 125 (1847)- 
Xanthop)/f/ia cifanomelfpna, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit, Mus, iv. p. 251 
(1879).' 

The Blue-and-Black Flycatcher. 

Ilcd). Japan and China, winterino- in Borneo. 

506. Skeleton. From Chet'oo, (!hina. 0. C. 1596 e. 

Prc'seided hi) Consul Siciidioe, F.P.S. 
VXKV III. I 



114 PICO-PASSERES. 

Genus MALURUS. 
Vieillot, Analyse, p. 44 (1816). 

Malurus cyaneus. 

Motacilla ci/anea, Ellis, Narr. Voy. Capt. Cook »S;c. p. 22 ; Gm. 

Syst. Nat. i. p. 991(1788). 
Malurus cyaneus, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 287 (1879). 

The Superb Waebler. 

Hah. East and South Australia. 

507. Skeleton. 0. C. 1585. Gould Collection. 

Genus MYIAGRA. 

Vigors & Horst'. Tr. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 250 (1826) ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 371 (1879). 

Myiagra, sp. 
(Probably Myiagra concinna.) 

508. Skeleton. From Western Australia. 0. C. 1596 C. 

Gould Collection. 

Genus RHIPIDURA. 
Vigors & Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 247 (1826). 

Rhipidura albiscapa. 

RMpidura albiscapa, Gould, P. Z. S. 1840, p. 113: id. Handb. B. 
Austr. i. p. 238 (1865); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 310 
(1879). 

The White-shafted Fantail. 

Hah. East and South Australia. 

509. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle (wanting right scapula). 

From Dobroyde, N. S. Wales \E. P. Ramsay/). S. S. 
954. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Rhipidura tricolor. 

Miiscicapa tricolor, Vieill. N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxi. p.490 (1818). 
Sauloprocta motaciUoides, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 244 (1865). 
Rhiiridura tricolor, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mue. iv. p. 339 (1879). 

The Black Pantail. 

Ilah. Australia, Papuan Islands, and Moluccas. 

510. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. New Britain. S. S. 2560. 
Presented hij P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



HIRTINDIXID.I^. 



IIT) 



Genus TERPSIPHONE. 

Gloger, in Froriep's Notizen, xvi. p. 278 (1827). 

Terpsiphone paradisi. 

Muscicapa lyaradisi, Linnoous, Syst. Nat. i. p. 324(1706). 
TerjmpJione paradisi, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Miis. iv. p. 3-40 (1879). 

The Pied Paradise-Plycatcher. 

Ilab. India. 

511. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 191G. 

Presented Jnj Dr. J. Anderiion, F.R.S. 

Familv HIHUNDINIDJ^. 

Fi-. 24. 











Diii'smI vi.-w of Hinntdo rusfica, to show ptcrvlosis, witl; tlif siiiiinl 
feathfr-tiact forked on the h)wer back. 



Gonus CHELIDON. 
Bole, Isis, I.S22. p. -,.-,(». 

Chelidon urbica. 

Hinindo nrhica, LiuniLUs, Syst. Nat. i. p. 344 ( I7'j(!). 
Chelidon nrbica, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mns. -. p. 87 (1885). 

The Common Martin. 

ILih. Europe, to Central Africa, Turkestan, and N.W. India . 

512. Skeleton. 0. C. 15^0 B. rarcliaml. 

513. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1253. Purchased. 

\ -2 



IIG PICO-PASSERES. 

Genus HIRUNDO. 
Linnfeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 343 (17GG). 

Hirundo rustica. 

Hirundo rustica, Linnaeus, Sj^st. Nat. i. p. 343 (176G) ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 128 (1885). 

The Common Swallow. 

Hah. In summer, Europe and Northern Asia. In winter, 
India, Malayan Peninsula, and Africa. 

514. Skull. O.C. 1530. Purchased. 

615. Skull. Germany. 0. C. 1530 A. Purchased. 

516. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 858. Purchased. 

Genus PETROCHELIDON. 

Cabanis, Mus. Hein. Th. i. p. 47 (]850). 

Petrochelidon fluvicola. 

Hirundo fluvicola, Blyth, J. A, S. B. xxiv. p. 470 (1855, ex Jerd. 
MSS.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 200 (1885). 

The Indian Cliff-Swallow. 

Hah. India. 

517. Sternum of male. From India. S. S. 1897. 

Presented by Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 



Subdivision B. PASSERES ABNORMALES. 
Family MENURIDiE. 

Genus MENURA*. 

Davies, Tr. Linn. Soc. vi. p. 207 (1801). 

Menura superba. 

Ilenura svpcrha, Davies, Tr. Linn. Soc. vi. p. 207 (1801) ; Gould, 
Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 298 (1865) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 
xiii. p. 661. 

* Cf. Garrod, P. Z. S. 1870, pp. .5L5, 510; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 28. 



ATRICHIIDA'. 117 

The Lyre-bird. 

Hah. Australia. 

518. Skeleton. 0. 0. 1536 f. Qould Collection. 

519. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1536 e. 

Presented hy Dr. George Bennett. 

520. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

521. Right metatarsus of above specimen. 

Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

522. Left metatarsus of above specimen. 

Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

523. Sternum (with right coracoid and scapula). New South 

Wales {E.P.Ramsay). S. S. 1066. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

524. Right foot, showing the scutellated planta tarsi. 

From the Camhridge University Museum. 

Family ATRICHIID^. 

Genus ATRICHIA*. 
Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 1. 

Atrichia clamosa. 

Atrichia clamosa, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 2 ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 659 (1890). 

The Noisy Scrub-bird. 

Hah. Australia. 

525. Sternum of nuile (with left scapula and coracoid). 

Richmond River, N. S. W. {J. Macgillivray). 

Presented hy-Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

526. Sternum of male (with left scapula and coracoid). 

Richmond River, N. S. W. {J. Macgillivray). 

Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

* Cf. Garrud, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 516. 



118 



PICO-PASSERES. 



Division B. PASSERES MESOMYODI. 

The intrinsic muscles of the voice-organ joined to the end of 
the bronchial semi-rings at or about the middle of the latter 
(cf. Garrod, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 517). 



Subdivision OLIGOMYODyE. 

Fig. 2o. Fig. 2(5. 




Cj6 




Svrinx of Pitta strepittms, to show the Mesomyodian arrangement of its 

intrinsic muscles. [See autea, p. 6.] 

st. Steruo-tracheal muscle, ht. Eroncho-tracheal muscle. 



Family TYRANNID^ *. 

[ty. Halvin & Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, ii. p. 3, 1889.] 

Genus ELAINEA. 
Suudevall, K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. iStockh. 1835, p. 89. 



Elainea cotta. 

Elainea cotta, Gosse, Ann. Nat. Hist. [2] iii. p. 257 (1849); 
Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 149 (1888). 

The Jamaican Olive Tyrant. 

IlaJ). Jamaica. 

* For tlie osteology of many of the North American Tyrannida;, cf. Shu- 
feldt, Journ. of Moi-phology (U.S.), vol. iii. no. 1, June 1889, p. 103, tigs. 
18, 19, of pis. v., vi. 



TYRANNID.E. 119 

527. Sternum of male. S. S. 1452. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus PITANGUS. 
Swains. Zool. Journ. iii. p. 165. 

Pitangus derbianus. 

Saurophagus derbianus, Kaup, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 44. 
Pitatigus derbianus, Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 175 (1888) ; 
Salv. &, Godm. Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, ii. p. 43 (1889). 

The Earl of Derby's Tyrant-bird. 

Hai>. From Texas, throughout Central America to Colombia 
and Venezuela. 

528. Skeleton. From Guatemala. 

Presented by Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.Ii.S. 

Pitangus caudifasciatus. 

Tijrannux caudifasciatus, D'Orb. in La Sagra's Hist. Xat. Cuba, 

Ois. p. 70, pi. 12(1839). 
Pitangus caudifasciatus, Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 179 

(1888). 

The Cuban Tyrant. 

Hab. Cuba and Jamaica. 

529. Sternum (with left coracoid and scapula). S. S. 1455. 

Presented by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus MEGARHYNCHUS. 

Thunberg, Disq. gen. Megarh. 1824. 

Megarhynchus pitangua. 

Lanius pitangaa, Liniucus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 13tj (1766). 
Megarhynchus pitangua, Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 189 

(1888) ; Salvin & Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, ii. p. 51 

(1888). 

The Hook-billed Tyrant. 

JIab. Southern Mexico to Brazil. 



120 rico-rAssEREs. 

Megarhynchus pitangua. 

530. Skeleton. From Guatemala. 

Presented hy Oshert Salrin, Esg., F.Ii.lS. 

531. Skeleton of female. From the Zoological Society. 

Genus BLACICUS. 
Cabanis, J. f. 0. 1855, p. 480. 

Blacicus pallidus. 

Myiohius pallidns, Gosse, I>. Jamaica, p. 166 (1847). 

Blacicus xxdUdus, Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 243(1888). 

The Buff-winged Elat-bill. 

Ilcih. Jamaica. 

532. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1454. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution.. 

Blacicus barbirostris. 

Tyranmda barbirostris, Swainson, riiil. Mag. i. p. 367 (1827). 
Blacicus barbirostris, Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 244 (1888). 

The Black-billed Flat-bill. 

Ilab. Jamaica. 

533. Sternum of male (with left coracoid). S. S. 1453. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus MYIARCHUS. 
Cabauis, in Thcbudi's Faun. Peruan., Aves, p. 152 (1845). 

Myiarchus validus. 

Myiarclms validus, Cabanis, Arch. f. Naturg. 1847, p. 351 ; 
Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 252 (1888). 

The Bed Petchary. 

Ilcdt. Jamaica. 

534. Sternum of male (with right clavicle, coracoid, and 

scapula). S. S. 1450. 

Prescnlid lui I hi SduI hioinKdi I nsl ll ulion. 



TYIIANNID^:. 121 

Myiarchus stolidus. 

Myiobius stolidus, Gossc, B. Jamaica, p. 168 (1847). 

MyiarcJms stolidus, Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 2G0 (1888), 

The Eoolish Petchary. 

Hah. Jamaica. 

535. Sternum of female (with right coracoid and scapula). 

S. S. 1451. Presented hij the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus TYR ANNUS. 
Cuvior, Leeons Anat. Comp. i. tab. 2 (1800). 

Tyrannus griseus. 

Tyrannus griseus, Yieillot, Ois. Amcr. Sept. i. p. 76, pi. 46 
(1807): Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. siv. p. 271 (1888). 

The Grey Petchary. 

Ilah. Florida, Jamaica, and coasts of Central America. 

536. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1595. South Collection. 

Genus MILVULUS. 
Swainson, Zool. Journ. iii. p. 165 (1827). 

Milvulus tyrannus. 

Muscicaim tyrannus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p, 325 (1766). 
Milvulus tyrannus, Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 277 (1888). 

The Scissor-tail Tyrant. 

Hah. Mexico, Central and vSouth America to Pampas of 
Argentine Republic. 

537. Skeleton. From Guatemala. 

Presented hy Oshert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S. 



122 nco-PASSEiiEs. 

Family COTINGID^. 

Genus CHASMORHYNCHUS. 

Temminck, Man. d'Oru. Analyse, p. Ixiii (1820). 

Chasmorhynchus nudicollis. 

Ampelis nudicollis, Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. viii. p. 1G4 (181 7). 
ChasniorJiynclms nudicollis, Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 40-i 

(1888). 

The Bell-bird. 

Ilah. S.E. Brazil. 

538. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2564. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Genus HADROSTOMUS. 
Hadrostomus niger. 

Lanius niger, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 301 (1788). 

Hadrostomus niger, Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 334 (1888). 

The Black Shrike. 

Hab. Jamaica. 

539. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1456. 

Presented hy the Sinkhsoniati Institution. 

Family PITTIDJ^. 

Genus PITTA. 
Vieillot, Analyse, p. 42 (1816). 

Pitta brachyura. 

Corvus hrachjurus, Linnajus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 158 (1766). 
Pitta brachyura, Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 423 (1888). 

The Bengal Pitta. 

Hah. Indian peninsula and Ceylon. 

540. Sternum (with left coracoid and scapula). S. S. 1909. 

Presented liy Dr. J. A»d(rso)i. F.]'.S. 



rTKRorTOCIIID.K. — DKNUIloCOLArTlD.E. 123 

Pitta strepitans. 

Pitta strepitans, Temminck, PI. Col. pi. 333 (1825) ; 8clater, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 428 (1888). 

The Noisy Pitta. 

Hah. E. Australia, Torres Straits, and S. New Guinea. 

541. Sternum of female, with slioulder-oinlle. From Clarence 
Eiver, N. S. Wales {K. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1074. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Ks<j.^ FJi.S. 



Subdivision TKACHEOrHON^. 
Family PTEROPTOCHID^. 

Genus HYLACTES. 
King, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1830, p. 15. 

Hylactes megapodius. 

Pteroptochus megapodius, Kittl. Mem. Acad. St. Pet. 1831, p. 182, 

pi. iv. 
Hylactes megapodius, Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xv. p. 349 (1890). 

Hah. Central and Northern Chili. 

542. Sternum. S. S. 2660. 

Presented hy A. H. Garwd, Esq., F.E.S. 

Family DENDROCOLAPTID^. 

Genus CINCLODES. 

Gray, List Gen. B. p. 16 (1840). 

Cinclodes nigrifumosus. 

Upucerihia nirjrifumosa, d'Orb. et Lat'r. Syn. Av. ii. p. 23. 
Cinclodes nigrifumosus, Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xv. p. 21 (1890). 

The Smoky-black Earth-bird. 
Hah. S. Peru and N. Chili. 

543. Sternum, with ^houlder-o-irdle. S. S. 17Hi. /'nrrhased. 



124 



PICO-PASSERES. 



^whovdei- II. EURYLjEMI^. 

[Cf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 4.] 

A. Palate aegithognathous. 

B. Young, when hatched, helpless, and not passing through a 

downy stage. 

C. Flexor longiis hallucis leading to the hallux, after sending 

down a tendon to ih.Q flexor perforaiis digitorum, which leads 
to the three front digits. 

D. Oil-gland present, but nude. 

E. Nasals holorhinal. 

F. Dorsal vertebra heterocoelous. 




Foot of Cymhorhynclms macrorhyncJius (enlarged), to show the arrane-emeiit 
of the deep plantar tendons, with the vinculum. 

* Cf. Forbes, P. Z. S. 1880, pp. -380-386, 391, "On the Syrinx and other 
points in the Anatomj' of the Eunjhcmidcc.^'' Cf. also Garrod, P. Z.S 1S77. 
p. 447. 



TROCHTLl. 

Genus CYMBIRHYNCHUS *. 

Vigors, Memoirs of Raffles, p. 054 (1830). 

Fig. 28. 



125 




\ entral aspect of craiiium of Cymhirhynchus maa'orhynchus (enlarged). 
Letters as before. 



Cymbirhynchus macrorhyuchus. 

Todus macrorliynclws, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 446 (1788). 
Cymhirhynchus macrorhynchv^, Porbes, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 382; 
Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 468 (1888). 

The Black-and-E^ed Broad-bill. 

Hah. Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. 

544. Natural skeleton of male. From Sarawak. 

Presented hy A. II. Everett, Esq. 

545. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2566. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.P.S. 



Suborder III. TRO CHILL 
[Cy. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 5 ; id. B. of Japanese Empire, p. 145.] 

A. Young, when hatched, helpless, and not passing through a 

downy stage. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

* For palatine bones and sternum of Co7-ydon mmutrunux, cf. Eytou, 
Usteol. Av. pi. 8. fig. 5, pi. 12. fig. ;'5. 



126 



PICO-PASSERES. 



C. Nasals holorhina], 

D. Front plantar leading to three front toes; hind jilantar 

leading to hallux. 

Fi;?. 29. 




Palatal region of Bellotia crisfata (eularged) to show vonun*, Ijroad in front, 
with a long mesial spine. 



Fi-. 30. 




Deep plantar tendons of Fatayona f/ir/as. (From Seebohm's 'Birds of the 
Japanese Empire,' by permission of the author.) 



TROCHILID.E. 127 



Family TROCHILID^ *. 

Genus LAMPORNIS. 
Swainson, Zool. Jouru. iii. ]). 358 (1827). 

Lamponiis mango. 

Trochilus mango, Liniiteus, Sj'st. Xat. i. p. 191 (176G). 
Lampornis mango (L.), Gosse, B, Jamaica, p. 88 (1847) ; Cory, 
B. West Indies, p. 144 (1889). 

The Mango Humming-bird. 

Hah. Jamaica. 

546. Sternum (wanting shonlder-girdle). From Jamaica. 
S. S. 1304. (jrosse Collection. 



Genus AITHURUS. 
Cabanis & Heine, Mus. Heiu. Th. iii. p. 50 (1860). 

Aithurus polytmus. 

Trochilus iwJglmus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 189 (17CG); Gould, 

Mon. Troch. ii. pi. 98. 
Aithurus pohjtmus, Cabanis &. Heine, I. c. 

The Long-tailed Humming-bird. 

Ilah. Jamaica. 

547. Sternum (wanting shoulder-girdle). S. S. 1449. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Instil nt ion. 



* Cf. Shiifeldt, P. Z.S. 1885, p. 8:35 ; id. P. Z. S. 1886, p. 465; id. Jouru. 
Linn. Soc. xx. p. .385 ; Stejneger, Auk, iv. p. 170 (1887) ; Lucas, t. c. p. 171. 
Figures of skeletons of Clytoltema rubinea and Phaethornis super oil ionus are 
given in Dr. Meyer's 'Abbildungen von Vogel-Skeletten,' Lief. vii. Taf. Ixii. 



128 PICO-PASSERES. 

Genus EUSTEPHANUS. 

llcichcnbach, Avium Syst. pi. xl. (184!)). 

Eustephanus galeritus. 

Trochihis galeritus, Molina, Hist. Nat. Chili, p. 219. 
Eustej)hanus [/aleritus, Gould, Mon. Trocli. iv. ])1. 2G5. 

The Chilian Fire-crown. 

Hah. Chili. 

548. Skeleton. 0. C. 1520. 

Presented hy Charles Stokes, Es<j., F.B.S. 

Genus CCSLIGENA. 
Lesson, Trochilidces, p. xviii (Ib'tili). 

Coeligena clemenciae. 

Ornismya demencin', Lesson, Oiscaux-Mouches, j). 210, pi. 80 

(1829). 
Delattria clemenciiv, Gould, Mon. Troch. ii. pi. GO. 

The Blue-throated Cazique. 

Ilah. Mexico. 

549. Natunil skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1519. 

J'n'sented hjj Charles Stokes, Esij.yF.ll.S. 

Genus FLORISUGA. 
Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av, i. p. 73 (1850). 

Florisuga, sp. 

550. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1523. Purchased, 



SCANSORES. 12'J 

Gomis TROCHILUS. 
LinuEeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 189 (17GC). 

Trochilus, sp. 

551. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1521. Purchased. 

552. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. 0. L522. Purchased. 

Trochilus colubris. 

TrocliUus colubris, Linna3us, Syst. Xat. i. p. 191 (17G0); Gould, 
Mon. Troch. iii. pi. 131. 

The E;UBY-throated Humming-bird. 

IlaJ). North America. 

553. Skull. Canada. Presented hij Sir 1>. <!lhh. 

Genus BELLONA. 
Muls. & Verr. Classif. Trochil. p. 75 (1865). 

Bellona cristata. 

Trocln'Ias cristatus, Linnanxs, Syst. Xat. i. p. 192 (1706). 
Orthorhi/iichus cristatus (L.), Scl. & Salv. Noraencl. Av. Neotr. 

p. 88 (1873). 
Bellona cristata, Elliot, Syn. Trochil. p. 178 (1878). 

The Blue-crest. 

Ilab. Lesser Antilles. 

554. Natural skeleton. Stores, IS^l. 



Suborder IV. SCANSORES. 
[Cf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 6 ; id. B. of Japan, p. 146. J 

A. Flexor perforans digkorum loading to third digit only. 

Flexor longus hallucis first sending a tendon to the other 
plantars, then a second to the fourth digit, after whicli (if 
the hallux is present) splitting into two tcndonSj one leading 
to the hallux, the other to the second digit. 

B. Feet zygodactyl(\ 

TAHT III. K 



130 PICO-PASSERES. 

C. Spinal feather-tract well defined on the neck, and forked on 

the lower (not on the upper) back. 

D. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

E. Cffica present. 

F. Oil-gland nude. 

G. Vomer absent or rudimentary. 

H. A narrow clavicular feather-tract on each side of the breast. 
I. A small after-shaft. 



Family GALBULIDJE *. 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C. Vomer absent. 

D. Ventral feather-tract without gular branch : a narrow 

clavicular tract on each side of the breast. 

E. Flexor longus hallucis first sending a tendon to the other 

plantar, then a second to fourth digit, after which (if 
hallux present) splitting into two tendons, one leading to 
the hallux, the other to the second digit. 

Genus GALBULA. 

Brisson, Ornith. iv. p. 80 (17G0). 

Galbula, sp. 

555. Skeleton (damaged). Stoirs, 1868. 

Family PICID^ f. 
\_Cf. Seebohm, t, c. p, C : id. B. of Japanese Empire, p. 146.] 

A. Cffica absent. 

B. Oil-gland tufted. 

C. Palate schizognathous. 

D. Vomer slender, pointed, split, the lateral halves separate. 

(Saurognathous, Parker.) 

* C'f. Sharpe, Keview, p. 84. 

+ C'f. Parker, "On the Morphology of the Skull in the Woodpeckers 
{Picidce) and Wrynecks {Ljngido'),'" Trans. Linn. Soc. 2nd ser. vol. i. pp. 1- 
2-2, pis. 1-5 (187o). Paiker k Newton, Enc. P.rit. ill. p. 71G (1875). 
Shufeldt, Auk, V. p. i'12. 



riciD.i.:. 



l;-}! 



E. Maxillo-palatines small, not fused together. 

F. Manubrial process of the sternum bifurcate. 

G. Femoro-cauJal and semitendinosus muscles present ; anihle.ns 

and accessory femoro-caudal absent. 
PL Tongue very long, worm-like, provided with a horny, barlx'.l 
tip, capable of great protrusion, tlie hyoid cornua (extending 
backwards over the skull (excejit in S/>^>f/i'opicns and XenZ 
plcus) . 




Ventral view of skull of Picus major (enlarged), to show split vomer. 
Letters as before. 

N.B. — Many of the above details, which supplement Mr. See- 
bohm's diagnosis for the family, are derived from U\\ Hargitt's 
volume on the Woodpeckers (Cat. B, Brit. Mus. xviii.) 



Henus GECINUS. 
Boie, Isis. is;il, p. o4i?. 



Gecinus viridis. 

Picus viridis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 175 (1766). 

Gecinus viridis, Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 37 (ISyO). 

The Green Woodpecker. 

J fab. Greater part of Europe to Asia Minor and Persia. 

556. Skeleton. From Bremen. 0. (■. 14(J9c. 

Preseided In/ [)r. Otfo Finsrh, C.M.Z.S, 

k2 



132 PICO-PASSERES. 

Gecinus viridis. 

557. Natural skeleton : mounted (hyoid bones wanting). 0. C. 

14G9. Purchased. 

558. Natural skeleton : mounted (liyoids wanting). 0. C. 1468. 

South ('oUecfio)K 

559. Skull. 0. C. 14G9 b. Purchased. 

560. Pelvis of above specimen. Purchased. 

561. Sternum of ditto. Purchased. 

562. Sternum, witb shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1475. 

Presented hy Sir Pichard Owen, F.R.S. 

£63. Sternum. S. S. 1941. Hunterian. 

Gecinus canus *. 

Pieus canus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 434 (1788). 

Gecinus canus, Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 53 (1890). 

The Grey-headed Green Woodpecker. 

Hcd}. Greater part of Europe to Siberia, N. China. 

564. Skull of male. From South Germany. Purchased- 

565. Skull of female. From the Alps. Purchased. 



Gecinus occipitalis. 

Picus occipitalis, Vigors, P. Z. 8. 1S30, p. 8. 

Gecinus occijiitalis, Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p, 56 (1890). 

The Black-naped Green Woodpecker. 

Hah. Himalaya Mountains. 

586. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented luj B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

567. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Nepal. S. S. 1859. 

Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

* Skeleton figiuvd by Dr. Meyer, Abbild. Vngel-Skeletten, Lief. xiv. 
Taf. cxi. 



PICID.E. 133 

Gecinus chlorolophus. 

Picus c7tloroloj>hus, Vieillot, N, Diet. Hist. Nat. xxvi. p. 78(1818). 
Gecinus cldorohj)hus, Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 59 
(1890). 

The Lesser Yellow-naped Woodpecker. 

Hah. Eastern Himalayas to Assam and tlie Malayan Peninsula. 

568. Sternum (with shoulder-girdle, wanting right scai)ula). 
From Nepal. [S. n. Bmchyloplms sei'icolUs.l 

Presented J>y B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus CHRYSOPHLEGMA. 

Gould, B. Asia, vi. pi. xxxvi. (1850). 
Chrysophlegma flavinucha. 

Picus faviuucha, Gould, P. Z. S. 1833, p. 120. 
Chrysophlefjma flavinucha, Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 127 
(1890). ' 

The Large Yellow-naped Woodpecker. 

Hah. Himalaya Mountains. 

569. Pelvis. From Xepal. Fresented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

570. Sternum of above sjjecimen. 

Fresented hy B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

571. Sternum. From Nepal. S. S. 18(50. 

Fresented hy B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

Geuus MELANERPES. 

ISwainson, Classif. B. ii. p. 310 (1837). 
Melanerpes erythrocephalus. 

Picus erifihrocqJudus, Liuiicous, Syst. Nat. i. p. 17-4 (1700). 
Melanerpes eri/tJu-ocephalus (L.), Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. 
p. 145 (1890). 

The Red-headed Woodpecker. 

Hah. North America. 

572. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1282. 

Freiiented hy the Smithsonian Insfihdion. 



134 pn'o-PAssi<:Ri:s. 

Melanerpes carolinus. 

Picus carolinus, Linnaeus {ex Catesby), Sj'st. Nat. i. p. 174 (1766). 
Melanerpes carolinus (L.), Hargitt, Cat. B, Brit. Mus. sviii. p. 170 
(1890). 

The Ued-bellied Woodpecker. 

Hah. E. United States to Florida and Southern Texas. 

573. Sternum (without shoulder-girdle). S. S. 12U7. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 



Genus SPHYROPICUS. 

/S^'hi/rapicKs, Baird, Hep. Expl. & Surv. Mississ. Pacific Bail. Eoute, 
ix. p. 101 (1858). 



Sphyropicus varius. 

Picus varius, Linuajus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 176 (1766). 

Sphyropicus varius, Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 188 (1890). 

The Yellow-bellied Woodpecker. 

Hah. North America, extending into Central America and 
the West India Islands. 

574. Sternum (without shoulder-girdle). S. S. 129G. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus DENDROCOPUS. 

Koch, Baier. Zool. i. p. 72 (1816). 

Dendrocopus major. 

Picus major, Linn. ISyst. Nat. i. \). 176 (1766). 
Dendrocopus major, Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 211 
(1890). 

The Great Spotted Woodpecker. 

Hah. Europe. 

575. Skull of female. From the Alps. Purchased. 

576. Sternum (with right coracoid). S. S. 861. PurcJia&ed. 



riciD.*:. 



135 



Dendrocopus macii. 

Picus macei, Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxvi. p. 80 (1818). 
Dendrocopus macii, Hargitt, Cat. 13. Erit. Mus. xviii. p. 260 
(1890). 

The Eulvous-breasted Pied Woodpecker. 

Hah. Eastern Himalayas. 

577. Sternum (with coracoids). S. S. 11)08. 

Presented hy Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 



Genus lYNGIPICUS. 

Bonaparte, Coiisp. Vol. Zj-god. p. 8 (1854). 

lyngipicus hardwickii. 

Picus hanhoiclii, Elyth, J. A. S. Beng. xv. p. 15 (1840). 
lijnr/ipicKS hardwiclii, Hargitt, Ibis, 1882, p. 45 ; id. Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 328 (1890). 

The Indian Pygmy Woodpecker. 

Hah. Indian Peninsula. 

578. Sternum of male, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 

19-20. Presented hy Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 

Genus BRACHYPTERNUS. 

Strickland, Proe. Zool. Soc. 1841, p. 31. 

Brachypternus aurantius. 

Picus aurantius, Linnaeus, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 174, (5(1760). 
Bracli]ix)ternns aurantius, Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 4i»4 
(1890). 

The Golden-backed Woodpecker. 

Hah. Plains of Indian Peninsula eastwards to Cachar. 

579. Steriunn of female, with coracoids. S. S. 1880. 

Presented Inj Dr. J. Andi'.fnoi). F.R.S. 



136 PICO-rASSERES. 

Genus CHRYSOCOLAPTES. 

Chrysocolaptes guttaticristatus. 

Pirns guttacristatus, TickcU, J. A. 8. B. ii. p. 578, ? (1833). 
ChrysocoJajytes r/uUacristattis, Hargitt, Cat. B. Brifc. Mus. xviii. 
p. 448 (1890). 

The SoiJTHEEN Golden-backed Woodpecker. 

Ilah. Throughout the Indian Peninsula to Assam and the 
Malay Peninsula. 

580. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented hi/ 13. II. Hodgson, Ksq. 

581. Sternum (wanting left scapula). Nepal. S. S. 1858. 

Presented hy B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus CAMPOPHILUS. 

CamiiqthUas, Gray, List Gen. Birds, 1840, p. 54. 

Campophilus principalis. 

Picus ^rincqmlis, Linnoeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 173 (17(i(>). 
Campopliihis princiiiaUs (L.), Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. 
p. 464 (18&0). 

The Ivory-billed Woodpecker. 

Hah. Gulf States of North America and Lower Mississippi 

Valley. 

582. Fore part of skull with both mandibles. 0. C. 1473. 

Presented hy W. Bidlock, Esq. 

Genus lYNX. 

Yunx, Linnanis, Syst. Nat. i. p. 172 (1766). 

Iijux, Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 559 (1 890). 

lynx torquilla. 

Yunx torquilla, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 172 (1766). 

Iipix torquilla, Hargitt, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xviii. p. 560 (1890). 

The Common Wryneck. 

Hah. Nearly the whole of Europe and Asia. 



INDICATORlDiE. l^" 



583. Skull of male. From the Alps. Purchased. 

584. Sternum, with shouiacr-girdlo. S. S. ia03. Purchased. 

585. Skeleton (incomplete). 0. C. 1475 A. [Sternum exhibited 

in separate series.] Purchased. 



Family INUICATORlDyE *. 

\_Cf. Seebohm,f. c. p. 6.] 

A. Palate jBgithognatlious. 

B. Ventral feather-tract forked on the throat, but not on each 

side of the breast. 

C. Vomer bifid. 

D. Femoro-caudal and accessory semitendinosns muscles present; 

ambiens and femoro-caudal absent. 

E. Ventral feather-tract forked on the throat and on each side 

of the breast. 

F. Oil-gland tufted. 

G. Cseca none. 

H. Trachea at its lower end consolidating into a bony box, 
formed by the fusion of the lowermost rings. To the en- 
larged uppermost bronchial half-rings the single slender 
intrinsic muscle of each side fans out to be attached at its 
middle. 

Genus INDICATOR t. 

Vieillot, Analyse, p. 28 (1816). 

Indicator minor. 

Indicator minor, Steph. Gen. Zool. ix. p. 140 (1815) ; Shelley, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 9 (1891). 

The Little Honey-Guide. 

Hah. Tropical Africa. 

586. Skeleton (somewhat damaged). From South Africa [E. 
L.Layard). 0.(M476e. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.E.S. 

* Of. Garrod, V. Z. S. 1878, p. 930. 

t Cf. Stoliczka, Str. F. i. p. 5l'9 (1873) ; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 25. 



138 



PICO-PASSERES. 



Family CAPITONIDvE *. 
ICf. Seebohm, t. c. p. 6.] 

A. Palate sometimes segithognathous, sometimes desmogna- 

tlious. 

B. Vomer bifid. 

C. Femoro-caiidal and accessory semitendinosus mnscies present. 

Ambiens and accessory femoro-caudal absent. 

D. Ventral feather- tract forked on the throat and on each side 

of the breast, 

E. Oil-gland tufted. 

F. Cseca none. 




Dee]) plantar tendons of Chotorhca chrysopoyon. 
F.P. Flexor perforans digitorum. F.H. Flexor longus liallucis. 

Genus CYANOPS. 
Bonaparte, Consp. Volucr. Zygod. p. 26 (1854). 



* Cf. Forbes, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 04 ; Shellev, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. pp. 15- 
121 (1891). 



CAriTONii)^. 130 

Cyanops asiatica. 

Trogon asiaticns, Latham, liid. Orn. i. p. 201 (17!iO). 
Megalcema asiatica (Lath.), Marsh. Mouogr. Capit. \i. 03, pi. xxix. 
(1870). 

The Blue-faced Barbet. 

Ilab. India and Burma. 

587. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1885. 

Presented hy Dr. J. Anderson, F.B..S. 

Cyanops hodgsoni. 

Megala'ma 7iod<jsom, Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 144 (1850) ; 
Marsh. Monogr. Capit. p. 83, pi. xxxvi. (1870). 

Hodgson's Lineated Barbet. 

Ilab. Himalaya Mountains to Burmah. 

588. Sternum (with right coracoid and scapula). From Nepal. 

Presented hy B. 11. Hodgson, Esq. 

589. Pelvis of above specimen. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

590. Sternum (with right coracoid and scapula). Nepal. 

S. S. 18(!1. Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 



Genus XANTHOL^MA. 

Eonaparte, Consp. Volucr. Zygod. p. 12 (1854). 

Xantholsema hsemacephala. 

Bucco Jieemacephahis, MiiUer, Syst. Nat., Suppl. p. 88 (1776). 
Xanthola^ma luvmaccyhala (Miill.), Marsh. Monogr. Capit. p. 101, 
pL xlii. (1870). 

The Crimson-gorgeted Barbet. 

Hal). Indian Peninsula, throughout the Burmese countries 
and the Malayan Peninsula. 



140 PIC0-PAS8ERES. 

Xantholaema hsemacephala. 

591. Sternum of male (with right coracoid and scapnla). S. S. 

1919. Presented hy Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 

592. Sternum of male (with right coracoid and scapula). S. S. 

1900. Presented by Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 



Family EHAMPHASTID^*. 

\_Cf. Secbohm, t. c. p. 6.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Vomer truncated. 

C. Post-scapular feather-tracts separated on lower back and 

rump. 

Genus RHAMPHASTOS f. 

Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 150 (1706). 

Rhamphastos toco. 

Bhamphastos toco, P. L. S. MiiU. Syst. Nat., Suppl. p. 82 (1776) ; 
Gould, Monogr. llhamph. pi. i. ; Scl. & Salv. Nomencl. Av. 
Neotr. p. 108 (1873). 

The Toco Toucan. 

Hah. Guiana to Brazil. 

593. Skull (mutilated) 0. C. 1460. 

Presented hy the British Museum. 

594. Skull, with horny sheath of mandibles removed. 0. C. 

14G3. Presented hy the British Aluseum. 

Rhamphastos ariel. 

Rhamphastos ariel, Vigors, iu Zool. Jouru. ii. p. 466 ; Gould, 
Monogr. llhamph. pi. 12. 

The Ariel Toucan. 

Hah. Brazil. 

* Cf. Garrod, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 462 ; Forbes, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 94 ; Sclater, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mas. xix. pp. 124-160. 

t A skeleton of Rhamphastos dicolorus is tigured by Dr. A. B. Meyer, in 
his ' Abbildungen von Vogel-Skeletten,' Lief. xv. Taf. cxlii. 



RHAMPHASTII).^. 



141 



595. Natural skeleton of feniiile : mounted. 

Presented hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 

596. Skeleton of male. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

597. Skeleton of female. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

598. Skeleton. 0. C. 1459 a. Purchased. 



Rhamphastos carinatus. 

Rhamphastos carinatus, Bwaius. Zool. lUustr. i. pi. 45 ; Gould, 
Monogr. Rhamph. x)l. 2. 

The Sulphur-breasted Toucan. 

Hab. Central America from Mexico to Panama. 

599. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 



Rhamphastos cuvieri. 

Rhamphastos cnvkri, Wagler, Syst. Av., Rhamphastos, sp. 5 
(1827); Gould, Monogr. Rhamph. pi. 2 (1835); iScl. & Salv. 
Nomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 108 (1873). 

Cuvier's Toucan. 

Hab. Upper Amazonia. 

600. Mandible, bisected, with liorny sheatli. 0. C. 14G3 A. 

Rhamphastos erythrorhynchus. 

Rhamphastos e^-ythrorh/nchus, Gmelin, Syst. Xat. i. p. 355 (1788); 
Gould, Monogr. Rhamph. pi. 6. 

The Red-billed Toucan. 

Jlab. Guiana and Lower Amazonia. 

601. Skull. 0. C. 14G4. Presented by the British Museum. 

602. Horny sheath of upi»er mandible. 0. C. 14G.5. 

Presented bi/ the lirilish Musmm. 



142 PICO-PASSERES. 

Rhamphastos erythrorhynchus. 

603. Horny slieath of upper and lower mandibles. 0. C. 14(11. 

Presented hy the British Museum. 

604. Skull, with horny sheath of mandibles attached. 0. (J. 

14G2. Presented hy the British ^fnselnn. 



Genus AULACORHAMPHUS. 

Gray, List Gen. B. p. .50 (1840). 

Aulacorhamphus prasinus. 

PterogJossus prasbius, Gould, Jlonogr. llhamph.pl. 47. 
Aulacorhamphus prasinus (Gould), Scl. ik Sal v. Koniencl. A v. 
Neotr. p. 109 (1873). 

The Golden-green Groove-billed Toucan. 

Ilah. (Jentral America, from Mexico to Guatemala. 

605. Skeleton. From Guatemala. [Cranium, sternum, and 

pelvis exhibited in separate series.] 

Presented hy Oshert Salvia, Esq., P.P.S. 

606. Cranium of above specimen. S. S. 2118. 

607. Pelvis of above specimen. 

608. Sternum of above specimen (with right coracoid and 

scapula). S. S. 2119. 



Suborder V. UPUPjE. 
\Cf. Seebohm, t. e. p. 7, and Birds of Japanese Empire, p. 158.] 

A. Deep plantar tendons free. 

B. Episternal ])rocess perforated to receive the feet of the 

coracoids. 

C. Palate desmognathous. 

D. Oil-gland tafted. 

E. Spinal feather-tract forked on the up)»er back. 



UPUPID^E. 143 

Fis. 83. 



mplp- 7,'^- J^ 




Ventral aspect of ^kuU of Upupa rpops (enlarged). Letters as before. 



Family UPQPIDiE. 

Genus UPUPA. 
Brissou, Ornith. ii. p. 455 (1760). 

Upupa epops. 

Upupa epops, Linnajus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 183 (17GG); Dresser, 
B. Eur. V. p. 179 (1871). 

The Hoopoe. 

Hab. Southern and Central Europe and Asia, to China and 
North-western India. 

609. Natural skeleton: mounted (ribs and toes defective). 0. C. 

1514. South Collection. 

610. Skeleton. From Bremen. O.C. 1514 a. 

Presented hy Dr. Otto FinscJi. 

6U. Skeleton. O.C. 1514b. Stores, ISGS. 

612. Skull. 0. C. 1514 c. Presented hy Prof. Flower, F.R.S. 

613. Skull. 0. C. 1516. 

Presented hy William Home Clifl, Esq. 

614. Skull. O.C. 1515. Ilnnterian. 

615. Skull of adult female. From South Germany. 

Purchased. 

616. Skull of young female. From South Germany. 

Purcliased. 



144 ■ COLUMB^. 

Upupa epops. 

617. Sternum. S. S. 1722. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclaler, Esq., F.R.S. 

618. Sternum, with right coracoid. From Calcutta. 

Presented hy Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 



Order II. COLUMB^E *. 

A. Palate schizognathous. 

B. Nasals schizorhinal. 

0. Basipterygoid processes present. 

Suborder I. COLUMBjE. 

Genus CARPOPHAGA. 

Selby, in Jardine's Nat. Libr., Ornith. v. p. 112 (1835). 

Carpophaga rubricera. 

Carpoplmga rubricera, Tristram, Ibis, 1882, p. 144, u. 79 ; Salvarl. 
Orn. Papuasia, iii. p. 557, 1882. 

The New-Ireland Pruit-Pigeon. 

Hob. New Ireland. 

619. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. New Irelnnd [J. Brazier). 

S. S. 2444. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Carpophaga sylvatica. 

Columha sylvatica, Tickell, J. A. 8. Beng. ii. p. 581 (18-33). 
CarpoplicKja sylvatica, Jerd. B. Ind. iii. p. 455 (1864). 

The Green Imperial Pigeon. 

Hah. India. 

620. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Society, 

Genus MEGALOPREPIA. 

Reichenbach, Natiirl. Syst. Yugel, p. xxvi (1852). 

Me gal op rep ia magnifica. 

Columba magnifica, Temmiuck, Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xiii. p. 125. 

* Cf. Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mus. p. 12.3 (1891). 



C'oLUMD.K. 



14;') 



Fiii-. U. 




\ 1 






i ' 



mpl p— ,^ 




h'u r-' 




Cranium of Culinnhn jui/iDiihiis, Letters as before. 



I'AKT III. 



146 COLUMBiE. 

Megaloprepia magnifica. 

Megalopre^na magnifica (Temm.), Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. 
p. 110 (1865). 

The Magnificent Truit-Pigeon. 

IJah. Australia. 

621. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left 

coracoid and scapula. From Clarence River, N. S. 
Wales {E.P. Ramsay). S. S. 1069. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.B.S. 

Genus LOPHOLAIMUS. 

Gray in Gould's B. Austr. v. pi. 61 (1841). 

Lopholaimus antarcticus. 

Colmnha antarctica, Shaw, Zool. New HoU. pi. 5. 
Lopliolaimus antarcticus (Shaw), Gould, Handb. B, Austr. ii. p. 116 
(1865). 

The Double-crested Pigeon. 

Hah. Australia. 

622. Sternum of a female, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left 

coracoid and scapula. From Clarence River, N. S. Wales 
{E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1067. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus PTILOPUS. 
Strickland, Ann. Mag. X. H. vii. p. 36 (1841). 

Ptilopus melanocephalus. 

Colmnha melanocephala, Graelin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. 781 (1788). 
Ptilopus melanocephalus, Schlegol, Mus. Pays-Bas, C'olumba3, p. 28 
(1S73). 

The Black-headed Fruit-Pigeon. 

Hah. Indo-Malayan Islands. 

623. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 

Prom the Zoological Society. 

Ptilopus fasciatus. 

Ptilonop^is fasciatus, I'eale ; Cassin, U. S. Explor. Exped., Birds, 
)i. 271 (1858); Finsch & Hartl. Faun. Centralpolyn. p. 115 
(1867); AVhitmeo, Ibis, 1875, p. 442. 



c\)i,uMn.T-:. 147 

The Banded Fruit-Pigeon. 

ll((h. Siiinoa. 

624. Skeleton. From Sainoa. O. C. 1427 F. Stores, 18G8. 

Ptilopus swainsoni. 

Ptilhwpus swaiiisonii, Gould, 1'. Z. S. 1S42, p. 18 : id. Hand)). 
B. Austr. ii. p. 106 (186.')). 

Savainson's Fkttit-Pjgeon. 

Ilah. Australia. 

625. Sterniini of male, with shoulder-girdle. From rjiclimoml 

l^iver. X. S. Wales (E. P. Ramscui). S. S. 1(;94. 

Prem^ted hy P. L. Sdafer, Es^j., F.R.S. 

Genus CROCOPUS. 
Bonaparte, Consp. Av. ii. ]). 1 1 (1857). 

Crocopus phoenicopterus. 

Colnmha phfaicojArra, Latham, lud. Oiii. ii. p. ."397 (17i>U). 
Crocopm pJicenlcopteriis, .Jerd. B. Ind. iii. p. 447(18(34). 

The Bengal Green Pigeon. 
Hah. Northern India. 

626. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Xejial. S. S. 18r)7. 

Presented hy B. If. Ifi>dg.<on, Es(^. 

627. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 99t). 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

627 a. Sternum. From Xepal. [S. n. T. ^ancti thomce.] 

Presented hy B. Ii. Hodgson^ Es<j. 

Genus COLUMBA. 
LiiiniEus, Svst. Nat. i. p. 270 (17G6). 

Columba oenas. 

Columha cenas, Linnaeu.s, Syst. Nat. i. p. '279 (1766). 
CohimJxt anas (Liiin.), Dresser, B. Kur. \ii. p. 2.3 (1876). 

The Stock-Dove. 



148 columbj:. 

Columba oenas. 

Hah. Europe and Western Asia. 

628. Sternum and shoulder-girdle, wanting right coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 835. Purchased. 

Columba livia. 

Columba livia, Bonnaterre, Encycl. ileth. i. p. 227 (1790) ; 
Dresser, B. Eur.vii. p. 11 (1879). 

The EocK-PifiEON. 

Hah. British Islands. 

629. Skull. 0. 0. 1435. Purchased. 

630. Skull. 0.0. 1435 a. 

a. Domestic Pigeons *. 

631. Skeleton. 0. 0. 1429 a. Hnnterian. 

632. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. 0. 1428. Ilunterian. 

633. 634, 635. Natural skeletons : mounted. 0. 0. 1428 a, b, c. 

Yarrell Coll. 

636. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. 0. 142<>. South Coll. 

637. Natural skeleton of ' Oarrier ' Pigeon : mounted. 0. C. 

1430. Purchased. 

638. Natural skeleton of ' Tumbler ' Pio;eon : mounted. 0. 0. 

1431. Ilunterian. 

Columba palumbus. 

Columba palwnbus, Limia3iis, .Syst. Nat. i. p. 282 (1760); Dresser, 
B. Eur. vii. p. 3 (1878). 

The Ring-Dove or Wood-Pigeon. 

Hah. British Islands. 

639. Skeleton. From Northumberland. 0.0.1433 d. 

Presented Inj Rev. H. H. Slater. 

640. Skull. 0. ('. 1433. Hunterian. 

641. Skull. 0.0.1443 b. Received in exchange. 

642. Skull. O. 0.1443 c. Purchased. 

* Cf. Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skei. i. Taf. xxxii., lix., cxii. (races of Domestic 
Pigeons). 



COLUMB.^.. 149 

643, 644, 645. Skulls, one longitudinally bisected. Purchased. 

646. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 83G. 

Put'chased. 

Columba guinea. 

Columha guinea, Linuaius, Syst. Nat. i. p. 282 (1760); Hartl. 
Orn. Westafr. p. 194 (1857). 

The Triangular-spotted PiGEON. 

IJ(d>. West Africa. 

647. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zooloijical Society. 

Columba leucocephala. 

Columha Iciicocep7ia7a,JAnn2eus, Sj'st. Nat. i. p. 281 (1706); Cory, 
Birds West Indies, p. 209 (1889). 

The White-crowned Pigeon. 

Flak West Indies. 

648. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented hi/ the Smithsonian Institution. 

649. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented Inj the SmitJisonian Institution. 

Columba caribsea. 

Columba caribci'a, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. 773 (1788) ; Cory, 
Birds West ludies, p. 211 (1889). 

The Eing-tailed Pigeon. 

Ilab. Jamaica and Porto Rico. 

650. Sternum of male. Presented h// the Smithsonian Institution. 

Columba inornata. 

Columha inornata, Vigors, Zool. Journ. iii. p. 446 (1827) ; Scl. & 
Salv. Nomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 132 (1873) ; Cory, Birds West 
Indies, p. 211(1889). 

The Cuban Pigeon. 

Ilidi. Jamaica and S. Dominn;o. 



150 cvlvmba:. 

Columba inornata. 

651, 652, iSterna of males, with shoulder-frirJles. 

Presented ht/ the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus ECTOPISTES. 

Swainson, Zool. Journ. iii. p. 362 (1828). 

Ectopistes migratorius. 

Columba migrator ia, Liunajus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 285 (1766). 
Ectojjistes mif/ratoria, Baird, Erewer, & Ilidgw. N. Am. B. iii. 
p. 368 (1874). 

The Passenger Pigeon. 

Nab. N. America. 

653. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 1276. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

Geiuis CCNA. 
Swaiiison, Classification of Birds, ii, p. 349 (1837). 

CT!na capensis. 

Columba ca^^enais, LinntBUs, Syst. Nat. i. j). 286 (1766). 

(Etta capensis, Sharpc, ed. Layard's Birds S. Africa, p. 572 (1884). 

The Cape Dove. 

llah. Africa. 

654. Natural skeleton of female : mounted. 

Presented hij J//-. J. Abrahams . 

655. Natural skeleton of male. I'resentcd by ]\Jr. J. Abrahams. 

Genus GEOPELIA. 
Swainsou, Classification of Birds, ii. p. 348 (1837). 

Geopelia tranquilla. 

Ccvpclia trawfidlta, (iould. P. Z. 8. 1844, p. 56 ; id. Handb. B. 
Austr.ij. 1). 144 ( 186,3): Salvad. Orn. Papuasia, iii.p. 1.54(1882). 



COLUMBi*:. 151 

The Peaceful Dove. 

Hah. Australia. 

656. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle (right scapula broken) . 

From Clarence River, N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsay). 
S. S. 927. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.E.S. 

Geopelia cuneata. 

Columba cuneata, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. 785 (1788). 
Geopelia cuneata, Gould, Birds Austr. v. pi. 74 (1845). 

The Graceful Ground-Dove. 

Hab. Australia. 

657. Natural skeleton of female : mounted. 

Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Geopelia humeralis. 

Columba humeralis, Temminck, PI, Col. iv. pi. 191 (1823). 
Geopelia humeralis, Gould, Birds Austr. v. pi. 72 (1844). 

The Barred-shouldered Dove. 
Hob. Australia. 

658. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Palmer, N. S. Wales 

{E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 925. 

Presented by P. L. Sdater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Geopelia striata. 

Columba striata, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 282 (1766). 
Geopelia striata, Salvad. Orn. Pap. iii. p. 155 (1882). 

The Barred Dove. 

Ilab. India and the Moluccas. 

659. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

660. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. 

Frotn the Zoolnyical Soc/ety. 



lo2 COLITMBJ:. 

Genus MACROPYGIA. 

Swainsoii, Classification of Birds, ii. p. 348 (1837). 

Macropygia phasianella. 

Columha pTiasianeUa, Temminck, PI. Col. 100. 
Macrojn/r/ia jihnsianella, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 148 
(1865). 

The Pheasant-tailed Pigeon. 

Ilab. New South Wales. 

661. Sternum ot female, with shoulder-girdle, wantino- left sca- 

pula. Richmond Eiver, N. S. Wales {E. P. Eamsaij). 
S. S. 1357. Presented by P. L. Sclafcr, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus TURTUR. 
Selby, Nat. Libr.. Ornitli. v. p. 169 (1835). 

Turtur turtur. 

Columba turtur, Linntcus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 284 (1766). 

The Turtle-Dove. 

Jldb. Euro})e. 

662. Sternum. S. S. b'67. Purchased. 

Turtur rupicola. 

Columba rxijjicolu, Ballas, Zoogr. Bosso-Asiat. i. p. 5GG (1811). 
Turtur rupicola, David & Oust. Ois. Chin. p. 385 (1877). 

The Asiatic Tuhtle-Dove. 

Hab. Northern Asia to China and Japan. 

663. Skeleton, from Shanghai. 0. (J. 1435 b. 

Presented by Consul Swinhoe, E.R.S. 

Genus ZENAIDA. 
]')onai»artc, Comp. List B. Eur. & N. A. p. 41 (1838). 

Zenaida zenaida. 

Columba zinaitbt. Bj). Jourji. Philad. Acad. v. p. 30 (1825). 



r()iA'i\ir..T:. 153 

Zena'ula amahUla, Uoiiapartc, List 15. Eur. & N. Am. p. 38 (1838) ; 
Sdatcr & Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Ncotr. p. 132 (1873). 

The Zenaida Dove. 

Ilab. West Indies, Florida Keys and coast of Yucatan. 

664. Sternum of female, with shoulder- <>ir(lle, wanting loft cora- 

coid. S. S. 1461. 

Presented by tlie Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus MELOPELIA. 
Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av. ii. p. 81 (1854). 

Melopelia leucoptera. 

Columha leucoptera, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 281 (170B), 
Melopelia leucoptera, Cory, 13. West Indies, p. 216 (1889). 

The White-winged Dove. 

Hah. (yuba, Jamaica, and San Domingo. 

665. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 1459. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institvtion. 

Genus CHAM^PELIA. 

llcidienbach, Natiirl. ^yst. Viif^^el, p. xxiv (1852), 

Chamsepelia passerina. 

Columha passerina, LinnsDus, Syst. Nat. i. p, 285 (1766). 
Chamopelia passerina, Baird, Brewer, & Ridgway, N, Am. B. iii. 
p. 389 (1874). 

The Passerine Ground-Dove. 

Hah. Southern United States to the West Indies and Northern 
South America. 

666. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left cora- 

coid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 14(50. 

Presented hy the Sniilhsonian Insdiui/on. 



154 COLUMB^. 

Genus LEPTOPTILA. 

Gray, List Gen. B. p. 75 (1841). 

Leptoptila jamaicensis. 

Columba jamaicensis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 283 (17(56). 
Engyptila jamaice^isis, C^ory, 15. West Ind, p. 212 (1889). 

The White-fronted Dove. 

Hah. Jamaica. 

667. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid. S. S. 

1463. Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

668. Sternum. 

669. Sternum of male, Avith right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 

1462. Presented hy the Smithso/uan Institution. 

Genus GEOTRYGON. 
Gosse, B. Jamaica, p. 316 (1847). 

Geotrygon cristata. 

Columba cristata, Temminck, Hist. Gen. Pigeons, p. 449 (1813-15). 
Geotrygon cristata, Cory, Birds "West Indies, p. 218 (1889). 

The Crested Ground-Dove. 

Ilcib. Jamaica. 

670. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

Geotrygon montana. 

Columha montana, Linna3us, Syst. Xat. i. p. 281 (1766). 
Geotrygon montana, Cor)-, Birds West Indies, p. 219 (1889). 

The Red Ground-Dove. 

Hah Antilles. 

671. 672. Sterna of males, with shoulder-girdles. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Instltnlion. 



colu.mba;. 155 

673. Stej'imin of female, with slioulder-girdle. 

Presented hy the Sinithsonian lnt<litutioiL. 

674. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

675. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 1017. Purchased. 

Genus CHALCOPELIA. 

Bonaparte, Consp. Gen, Av. ii. p. 67 (1854). 

Chalcopelia afra. 

Columha afra, Linnaeus, Syst. iS^at. i. p. 284 (1766). 
CJiaJcojyelia afra, Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 570 (1884). 

The Bronze-spotted Dove. 

Ilab. Africa. 

676. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2155. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Genus OCYPHAPS. 
Gould, r. Z. t>. 1842, p. 20. 

Ocyphaps lophotes. 

Columha lophotes, Temmiuck, PI. Col. 142. 

Ocyphaps lophotes (Temm.), Gould, Handb. B. Austr, ii. p. 139 

(1865). 

The Crested Pigeon. 

Hah. Australia. 

677. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting lelt coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 1016. Purchased. 

Genus CHALCOPHAPS. 

Gould, B. Austr. v. pi. 62 ( 1 84:3). 

Chalcophaps indica. 

Columha indica, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 284 (1766). 
Chalcophaps indica (L.), Salvadori, Orn. Pap, iii. }>. 17''> (1882). 



156 COLUMB^. 

Chalcophaps indica. 

The Green-winged Dove. 

Hah. India, through the Malay countries to the Moluccas and 
Now Guinea. 

678. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. 8. 1013. Purchased. 

Chalcophaps chrysochlora. 

Columba cJtrt/socJdora, Wagler, Sj'st. Av., Cohimbn, sp. 79 (excl. 

syu.) (1827). 
Chalcophaps chri/sochlora (Wagl.), Salvador!, Orn. Pap. iii. p. 169 

(1882). 

The Little Green-winged Dove. 

IIaJ>. Australia, Papuan Islands, and the Moluccas. 

679. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. 

Prom the Zoological Societij. 

680. Sternum of female. From Clarence River, N. S. Wales. 

Presented hy Dr. E. P. Pamsaij. 

Genus PHAPS. 
Selby in Jardine's Nat. Libr., Omith. v. p. 194, pi, xxi. (1835). 

Phaps chalcoptera. 

Columba chalcoptera, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 604 (1790). 
Phaps chalcoptera (Lath.), Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 122 
(1865). 

The Bronze-winged Pigeon. 

Hid). Austraha. 

681. 682. Skeletons of males. Presented by Mr. J. Ahrahanis. 

683. Skeleton. From Western Australia. 0. ('. 1427 a. 

Gould Collection. 

684. Skeleton. 0. C. 1427 b. Gould Collection. 

685. Skull of female. Presented l>y Mr. J. Ahraliams. 

686. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2167. 

Prom the Zoological /Society, 



CDLUMB.I^. 157 

Phaps elegans. 

Golumha elecjans, Teraminck, Lcs Pigeons, t'ol. ]). 5(), pi. 22. 
Phaps elegans (Temm.), Goukl, Hand)). E. Austr. ii. p. 125 (i8G5). 

The Brush Bronze-wing Pigeon. 

Hub. Australia. 

687. Natural skeleton : mounted. (). C. 1427. 

(roiiJd Collection . 

Genus LEUCOSARCIA. 

Gould, B. Austr. v. pi. 03 (1843). 

Leucosarcia picata. 

Columha picata ct 0. melanolenca , Latham, lud. Orn., Suppl. p. lix 

(1801). 
Leucosarcia picata (Lath.), Gould, Ilandb. B, Austr. ii. p. 120 

(1865). 

The Wonga-Wonga Pigeon. 

Hab. New South Wales. 

688. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. From Clarence 

River, N. S. Wales. Presented by Dr. E. l\ Ramsaij. 

689. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 1007. Pnrduiscd. 

Genus PHLOG(ENAS. 

Sclater, P. Z. 8. 1861, p. 366. 

Phlogoenas crinigera. 

Pampusanna crinir/era, Puchcran, Voy. Polo Sud, iii. p. 118 

(1853). 
Phlogoenas crinigera, Tweeddale, P. Z, S. 1877, p. 833. 

Bartlett's Pigeon. 

Hab. Sooloo Islands and Philippines. 

690. Bones of trunk. From the Zoological Society. 

691. Sternum, with slujulder-girdle. S. S. 997. 

J' resented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



158 



C0LUMR.7':. 



Genus CALCENAS. 
Gray, List Gen. B. p. 59 (1840). 

Caloenas nicobarica. 

Columba nicobarica, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 283 (176G). 
Caloenas nicobarica, Salvadori, Orn. Pap. iii. ]). 2uy (1882). 

The Nicobah Pigeon. 

Ifah. Malay Arcliipelaoo to the Moluccas and Papuan Islands 

692. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. 8. S. 2158. 

From the Zoological Sociefi/, 

Genus STARNCENAS. 

Bonaparte, Comp. List B. Eur. & N. A. p. 41 (1838). 

Starnoenas cyanocephala. 

Columba ci/anocej^hala, Linnajus, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 282 (1700). 
Starnoenas cyanocephala, Cory, Birds West Indies, p. 221 (1889). 

The Blue-heabed Pigeon. 
Hab. Cul^a. 

693. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2045. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Genus GOURA*. 
Stephens, Gen. Zool. xi. pt. 1, p. 119 (1819). 

Goura coronata. 

Columba coronata, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 282 (1766). 
Goura coronata (L.), Salvadori, Orn. Pap. iii. p. 191 (1882) ; Eyton, 
Osteol. Av. pL 1 g ; Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skelct. i. Taf. Ivii. 

The Common Crowned Pigeon. 

Hah. New Guinea. 

694. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1424. 

Brookes Collection. 

* Cf. Meyer, Abbild. '\^)g■el-S]veletten, i. Taf. Ivi. {Goura vicforite). 



i>ir>i. J 59 

695. Bones of trunk. 0. (J. 1425. Hnnterian. 

696. Sternum. 0. ('. U2G. Huntetdan. 

697. Sternum, with slioulder-girdle, without left coracoid and 

scapuk. S. S. 1765. Start's. 

6:8. Pelvis. 0. 0. 1426 a. 

699. Pelvis (bisected). 0. C. 1426 b. 

Genus DIDUNCULUS. 

Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped. viii. p. 208, pi. Ix. (1848). 

Didunculus strigirostris. 

Gnailiodon strigirostris, Jardinc, Ann. & Hag. Nat. Hist. xvi. 

p. 175, pi. 9 "(1845). 
Didunculus strigirostris (Jard.), Gould, Handb. B. Austr, ii. p. 550 

(1865). 

The Tooth-billed Pigeon. 

Ila/j. Samoa Islands. 

700. Natural skeleton : mounted. Specimen figured in Owen's 

Memoir on the Dodo (Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. pis. ii., iii. 
fig. 2). 0. C. 1424a. Presented hy Dr. George Bennett. 

Suborder II. DIDI. 

Genus DIDUS. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 2G7 (17GG). 

Didus ineptus. 

Bidus ineptus, Linnaeus, 8yst. Nat. i, p. 267(1766); Strickl. & 
Melville, Dodo and its Kindred, p. 1, pis. v,-xii. (1848); Owen, 
Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. pp. 49-85 (1866) ; Clark, Ibis, 1866, 
p. 141 ; Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. 1866, v. pp. 355-380, 
pis. xiii.-xviii. 

The Dodo. 



160 COLUMB.i:. 

Didus ineptus. 

JJah. Mauritius. 

701. Skeleton (imperfect). From the Miire aux Songes. 0. C. 

A. 1424 A. Purdiaae.d. 

702. Various bones (some exhibited in separate series). 0. C. 

A. 1424 b. Presented Jnj ihe lihhop of Maui'itms. 

703. Cast of head. A. 1424 b a. From the original in tlu' 

Oxford Museum. Purcluised. 

704. Sternum (injured). S. S. 1522. 

Presented J>ij the Bisliop of Manritivs. 

705. Oast of bones of the foot. 0. 0., A. 1424 b h. Purchased. 



Genus PEZOPHAPS. 
Strickland & Melville, Uodo and its Kindred, p. 4(3 (].'S48). 

Pezophaps solitarius. 

Didus soUtarins, Gmelin, Syst. ]S'at. ii. p. 728 (1788). 

Pezophaps solitarius, Strickl. & Melville, Dodo and its Kindred, 
p. 46, pis. xiii.-xT. (1848) ; A. Newton, P. Z. S. 18G5, p. 715 : 
A. & E. Newton, Phil. Trans, vol. elix. pp. 327-362, pis. xv.- 
xsiv. (1869): E. Newt. & J. W. Clark, op. cit. elxviii. pp. 438- 
4.51, pis. xliv.-l. (1879). 

The Solitaire. 

Ilah. Rodriguez. 

706, 707. Skeletons of male and female. A. 1424 D, E. Collected 
in Rodriguez by Rev. H. H. Slater (Transit of Venus 
Exjied. 1874). Presented hy the Poyal Societij. 

708. Various bones. 0. C, A. 1424 f. From Rodriguez. 

Collected hy the Rev. II. II. Slater. 

709. Various bones. 0. C, A. 1424 c. 

Presented hy Sir Edward, jXeictoji, K.C.M.G. 



TROGONKS. 



l()l 



Order III. TilOGONES *. 

[C'f. Sccbohm, t. c. p. 8; and Birds of Japanese Empire, p. 15i).] 

A. Second digit reversed. The front plantar (^flexor jyi'^'/orau.'i 

digiforum) split into two to lead to the two front toes, and 
the hind plantar {Jiexoi- loiujus hallucU) split to lead into 
the two hind-toes. 

B. Palat(! schizoffnathous. 




Left foot of Harpacfcs dnvauceli, to show tlie plantar t(;nd(iiis. 
F.P. Flexor perforans digitoruni. F.Il. Flexor longus liallucis. 

C. Basipterygoid processes present. 

D. Spinal feather-tract well defined from nape to oil-gland, and 

not forked. 

E. Young, when hatched, hel[)less, and not passing through 

a downy stage. 

* Clf. Forbes, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 8-36 ; Eyton, Osteol. A v. pi, 12. fi;:-. 2 
(])al.atine bones of Ilarpacfes rfimrardti). 

I'AKT 111. M 



W2 



TROGONES. 
Fig. 36. 
mjSLj] j)7 jjfjf Ipq p 




Ventral aspect of cranium of Troc/on jmeUn (enlarged). Letters as before. 



Genus TROGON *. 
Liunfeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 167 (1766). 

Trogon mexicanus. 

Trogon mexicanus, Swainson, Phil. Mag. p. 440 (1827) ; Gould, 
Monogr. Trogon. pi. 7 (1875). 

The Mexican Trogon. 

Hah. Mexico. 

710. Skeleton. From Guatemala. 0. C. 1467 c. 

Presented Inj Oshert Sahiin, Esq., F.R.S. 

711. Sternum. S. S. 2446. 

Presented hy Oshert Salvin, Esq., F.P.S. 

Trogon puella. 

Trogon puella, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 18 ; id. Monogr. 
Trogon. pi. 11 (1875). 

The Uay-tailed Trogon. 

Ilab. Central America. 
* Cf. Eyton, Osteol. Av. pi. -Ib (skeleton of Trogon melanocephalus). 



COCCYGES. 



10;-i 



712. Skeleton. From Guatoniala. O.V.UGln. 

Presented hy O^hei't Salv'ni, Esq., F.Ii.S. 



Order IV. COCCYGES. 

[Cf. Seebohni, t. c. p. 10.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C Hallux always present, and connected with the fiiwor Io/h/us 
hallucis, and not with the Jlexor perforans dif/ifonnii, which 
leads to the second, third, and fourth digits. 

D. Young, when hatched, helpless, and passing throngli a 
downy stage before acquiring feathers. 



A. 



Sul)()rder 1. .\fUSOriIAGl*. 
[Cf. Seebohm, t. c. p. 11.] 
Palate desniou'iiathons. 




Ventral aspect of cranium of MusopJtitf/a viulacea (fnlarj^ed). 
Letters as before. 

B. Plantars Galline. 

C. Spinal tract well defined on neck, and not forked on back. 

D. Oil-gland tufted. 

* Cf. Eyton, Osteol. Av. pi. 2 v., pi. 1:5. ii;."-. '2 (^Turacus fiiifax). 

m2 



1 04 COCCYGES. 

Genus MUSOPHAGA. 
Isert, Journ. Phys. Paris, xxxiv. p. 458 (1789). 

Musophaga violacea. 

Mvsojihaga violacea, Iscrt, Schrift. ges. Natui-f. Freund. Berlin, 
iii. p. is, pi. i. (1789); Shelley, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 448 
(1891). 

The Violet Touraco. 

Hah. West Africa. 

713. Articulated skeleton : mounted. From West Africa. 0. C. 

1467 A. 
Prepared from a specimen luhich died in the Zoological Gardens. 

Musophaga, sp. 

714. Skull. 0. C. 1467. Purchased. 

Genus TURACUS. 
Cuvier, Le(jons d'Anat. Comp. i. pi. ii. (1800). 

Turacus persa. 

Cucnlus persa, Linnaeus, Syst. ]*^at. i. p. 171 (1700). 

Turacus persa (L.). Shelley, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 437(1891). 

The Green-crested Touraco. 

IM>. West Africa. 

715. Sternum. S. S. 2404. 

Presented Inj P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



Suborder II. CUCULI. 
[Of. Seebohni, t. c. p. 12.] 

A. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

B. Feet zygodactyle. 

C. Plantars Galline. 

D. Oil-gland ])resent, but nnd«\ 

E. Palate desmognatlious, 



CUCULID/K. 



11)5 




Left lout ul' Eudynamis cijanoccphala, to show the anaugemont of 
the plantar tendons. Letters as before. 



Family CUOULID.^. 

Subfamily C u c u Li n ^. 

Genus COCCYSTES. 

Gloger, Hand- und Hilfsb. p. 20?. rS42). 



Coccystes glandarius. 

Cuculus ghndarius, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 169, no. 5 (17t;G) ; 

Eyton, Ostcol. Av. pi. 4 e. 
Coccystes rjJanclarius (L.), SheUey, Cat. li. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 312 

(1891). 

The Great Spotted Cuckoo. 



166 



COCCYGES. 



Coccystes glandarius. 

Hah. S.W. Europe and N. Africa. 

716. Skeleton of female. From Sooliag, Upper Egypt, Feb. o, 

1874. 0. C. U77B. 

Presented In/ Professor Flotver, F.P.S. 

717. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Soobag. S. S. 2593. 

Presented t>y Professor Floiver, F.R.S. 

Coccystes coromandus. 

Cuculus coromandus, Linuoeus, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 171 (1766). 
Coccystes coromandus (L.), ShcUey, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 214 
(1891). 

The Eed-winged Chested Cuckoo. 

II(d>. Indian Peninsula and Ceylon, Burma, China, Malay 
Peninsula, and Borneo. 

718. Sternum (with right scapula). Ne})al. S. S. 1866. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 



Genus CUCULUS. 
Jinsbon, Ornith. iv. p. 103 (1760) 




Ventral at^pect nf cmniinu of Cuctilns rannrus (ciilarjicd). Letters a.< before. 



CUCULID^. 167 

Cuculus canorus. 

CkcuIus canorus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 1G8 (176G); Shelley, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 245 (1891). 

The Cuckoo. 

Hub. Europe and Northern Asia, wintering in Africa, India, 
and the Moluccas. 

719. Natural skeleton: mounted. 0. C. 1476. South Collection. 

720. Skull of female. From Germany. Purchased. 
720 a. Skull. O.C. 147Gb. Purchased. 

721. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle (wanting right 

scapula). S. S. 1887. 

Presented by Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 

722. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1302. 

Presented by Prof. Parker, F.R.S. 

723. Sternum. From Nepal. P resented by B.H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Cuculus pallidus. 

Columha pallida, Latham, Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii. p. 270 (1801). 
Cucidus ixdlidus, Shelley, Cat. B, Brit. Mus. xix. p. 201 (1891). 

The Australian Cuckoo. 

Hub. Australia and Tasmania. 

724. Skeleton. From Tasnumia. 0. C 147Gc. 

Gould Collection. 

725. Skull. From Tasmania. Goidd Collection. 

Genus CACOMANTIS. 

S. Miill. Verh. Nat. Gesch. Land- en Volkenk. p. 177 (1842). 

Cacomantis flabelliformis. 

Cuculus Jiahelliforitiiii, Lath. Ind. ()rn., Sui)pl. ii. p. 30 (1801). 
Cocomantis fiabelUfonnis, Shelley, Cat. Ii. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 2GG 
(1891). 

725 A. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. From Do- 
l.royde, N. S. Wales [K. P. Ramsay). S. S. iUl. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, /I'.svy., F.R.S. 



168 COCCYGES. 

Genus CHALCOCOCCYX. 

Cabanis, Mus. Hein. iv. pt. 1, p. 15 (iSG2). 

Chalcococcyx plagosus. 

Cuculus pJagosu^, Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. xxxi (1801). 
LamprococcyM j^iJagosus (Lath,), Gould, Handb. E. Austr. i. p. (523 

(1865). 
Chalcococcyx 2>^<'!Josus (Lath.), Shello}-, Cat. E. Brit. Mus. xix. 

p. 297 (1891). 

The Bronze Cuckoo. 

Hab. Australia. 

728. Skeleton of male. From Western Australia. 0. C. 1476 d. 

Gould Collection. 

Genus COCCYZUS. 
Vieillot, Analyse, p. 28 (1816). 

Coccyzus americanus. 

Cuculus americanus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 170 (1766). 
Coccyzus americanus (L.), Shelley, Cat. E. Brit, Mus. xix. p. :j08 
(1891). 

The Yellow-billed Cuckoo. 

Ilah. N. America, wintering in S. America, 

727. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle (wanting right and left 

scapulae). S. S. 1446. 

Presented Inj the Sinitlisoruan Institution. 

Genus EUDYNAMIS. 
Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn, Soc. xv. p. 303 (1826), 

Eudynamis cyanocephala. 

Cuculus cyanocephalus, Latham, Ind. Oni., Suppl. ii. \). 30 (IbOl). 
Eudynamis cyanocephahis, Shelley, Cat, B. Brit, Mus, xix, p, 324 
(1891), 

The Australian Koel. 

Hah. Australia. 

728. Skeleton of female, 0. C. 1477 d. 

From the Zooloijical Socictij. 

729. Sternum. 0. ('. 1477 c. Presented hy Dr. E. P. Piunm>/. 



CUCULID.E. 169 

730. Sternum (with right coracoid and left scapuhi). Chirence 

River, Xew South Wales {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1354. 
rresenled Jnj P. L. Sclater, Esq., FM.S. 

Eudynamis honorata. 

Cumins honoratHs, Linnajus, Syst. iS'at. i. p. IGO (1706). 
Eudijnamis honorata (L.), bliellcy, Cat. B. lirit. Mus. xix. p. 316 
(^1891). 

The Indian Koel. 

Hah. Indian reninsula and Ceylun. 

731. Sternum of male (with right coracoid). S. S. l<Si»o. 

Presented hy iJr. J. Andcrsvii, F.P.S. 

Genus SCYTHROPS. 
Latham, Index Ornith. i. p. 141 (1790). 

Scythrops novae hollandiae. 

Svi/thro2^s novoi hollandio', Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 141 (1790); 
Shelley, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 330 (1891). 

The Channel-bill Cuckoo. 

Hah. Australia to the Molucca I?^land:«. 

732. Sternum of female (with right coracoid and scapula). 

From Richmond River, N. S. Wales (E. P. Pamsai/). 
S, S. 1355. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., FJi.S. 

Subfamily C e n t R o r o i) i n ^ . 

Genus CENTROPUS. 
Illigcr, Prodromus, p. 20b (1811). 

Centropus phasianus. 

Cuculus jdiasianus, Latham, Ind. Urn., Suppl. ii. p. 30 (1801). 
Centropus jdiasianus (Lath.), Shelley, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 340 
(1891). 

The Pheasant Coucal. 

Hah. Australia. 
733. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. From Richmond 
River, N. S.Wales {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1353. 

Presented l>y P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



170 COCCYGES. 

Centropus ateralbus. 

Centropiis ateralbus, Lesson, Feriiss. Bull, Sc. Nat. vii. p. 113 

(1826). 
Nesocentor ateralbus (Lessou), Salvadori, Orn. Papuasia, i. p. 384 

(1880). 

The Pied Coucal. 

Hah. New Ireland and New Britain. 

734. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From New Ireland. 

S. S. 2440. Presented Inj P. L. ScJater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Centropus, sp. 

735. Skeleton. 0. C. 1477 a. Stores, 1868. 

Centropus bengalensis. 

Cuculus bengalensis, Gmelin, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 412 (1788). 
Centropus bengalensis (Gm.), Shelley, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xis. p. 352 
(1891). 

The Indian Coucal. 

Hab. India and the Burmese countries to China. 

736. Sternum of female (with left coracoid and scapula). 

S. S. 1882. Presented hi Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 



Subfamily Phcenicophain^*. 
GcQus SAUROTHERA. 

Vieillot, Analyse, pp. 28, 70 (1816). 

Saurothera vetula. 

Cuculus vetula, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 169 (1766). 
Saurothera vettila (L.), Cory, B. W. Ind. p. 18 (1885) ; Shelley, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 370 (1891). 

The Jamaica Cuckoo. 

Hah. Jamaica. 

* Meyer, Abbild. Voj>-el-Skelet. Lief. iii. laf. xviii. {Lcpidvgranunux 
vumiiKji). 



CUC'ULIDvE. 171 

737. Skeleton (imperfect). Presented by H. E. Dresser, Esq. 

738. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1447. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus HYETORNIS. 
Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, p. 321 (1862). 

Hyetornis pluvialis. 

Gucidus pluvudis, Graehn, Syst. Nat. i. p. 411 (1788). 
Hyetornis pluvi(dis (Gm.), Cory, List B. W. Ind. i. p. 19 (1885); 
Shelley, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 372 (1891). 

The Eain Cuckoo. 

Hah. Jamaica. 

739. Sternum of male (with right coracoid and scapula). 
S. S. 1448. Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus TACCOCUA. 
Lesson, Traiti' d"Orn. p. 143 (1831). 

Taccocua sirkee. 

Centropus sirkee, Gray, 111. Ind. Zool. i. pi. 28 (1830). 
Taccocua sirkee (Gm.), Jerd. B. Ind. i. p. 353 (1862); Shelley, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 387 (1801). 

The Bengal Sirkeer. 

Hah. India. 

740. Sternum of female (with right coracoid and scajjula). 
S. S. 11)15. Presented hy Dr. J. Anderson, F.Ii.S. 



172 COCCYGES. 



Subfanii \y N E o Ji o H P H I N ^ . 
Geuus GEOCOCCYX. 

Witglcr, Isis, p. 524 (1831). Of. Shufcklt, Jouni. Anat. & Phys. xx. 
p. 244 ; Eytou, Osteol. Av. p]. 5 e {G. meximnus). 

Geococcyx affinis. 

Geococcif.v ciffinls, Hartlaub, Kev. Zool. Ib44, p. 215; Shelley, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 241 (isui). 

TuE Mexican Ground-Cuckoo. 

JIab. Mexico and Guatemala. 

741. Skeleton. From Guatemala. 

Presented hij Oshert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S. 

742, 743, 744. Skull, sternum, and pelvis of above specimen. 

S. S. 2130-2132. 

Presented hy Oshert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S. 



Subfamily Crotophagin^. 

Genus CROTOPHAGA. 

Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 154 (17(3(3). 

Crotophaga ani. 

Crotopharja ani, Linnaeus, J. c. ; Sclatcr & Salvin, Nomcncl. Av. 
Neotrop. p. 107 (1873) ; Shelley, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 429 
(1891). 

The Great Savana Cuckoo. 

Uab. Southern United States; Central America to South 
America. 

745. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Jamaica. S. S. 
1243. Gosse Collection, 



PICART.'E. 



173 



Subclass C0RACIIF0R3IES. 

\_Cf. Scebohm, Classif. B. p. 10.] 

Order I. V1GA.V.IM. 

Suborder I. IIALC TONES. 

Family COLIID^. *. 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C. Sternum with four notches on the posterior margin. 

D. All the toes directed forwards, the first prol);d)ly rever- 

sible. 

E. Hallux present, and connected with the jle.vor perforcms 

digitorum : the two plantar tendons blended. 




Ventral view of skull of Coliut cnpcnm (enlarged). Letters as before. 

F. Spinal feather-tract well defined on neck and not forked on 
the back : no bare tracts on the breast. 

* Cf. Murie, Ibis, 1872, pp. 262-280, pi. x. ; Garr.id, P- /- S. 1876, 
pp. 416-420; Forbes. Ibis, 1^81. p. 24. 



174 riCARi^E. 

Genii8 COLIUS*. 
Brisson, Ornitli. iii. p. 304 (1700). 

Colius colius. 

Loxia colius, Linnteus. Syst. Xat. i. p. 301 (1706). 
Colitis capensis, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 842 (1788); Sharpe, ed. 
Layard's Birds S. Afr. pp. 552, 853 (1884). 

The Cape Coly. 

Ilah. South Africa. 

746. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. A. 1478 a. 

Purchased. 

747. Natural skeleton of niale : mounted. 

Prefiented hi/ Afr. .7. AhraJiams. 



Family AL( ^EDINIDJE f. 

A. Palate desmognatlious. 

B. Basipterygoid j)rocesses absent. 

Fi-.-H. 

■mpl p pi 



PO 




Ventral aspect of skull of Dacelo giyas. Letters as before. 

* Cf. Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skelet. Lief. x. Taf. xciii. {Colius nii/ricullis). 

i' Cf. Murie, ' Anatomy of the Kingfishers ' ; Garrod, P. Z. S. 1873, 
p. 629, 1874, p. 510; Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skelet. Lief. iii. Taf.xvi. {Cittura 
sanyhirensis), Taf. xvii. {Tanysipfera f/alafen and Sauromarptis (/aiidichaudi). 



ALCKDINID.K. 



175 



C. Feet anisodactvle. Hallux connected with tlic flexor per- 
forans dir/itoriaii. 




Left foot of Dacelo gujas, to show plantar tendons. Letters as before. 

D. Spinal feather-tract well defined on neck, and not forked on 
the back : ventral feather- tract not only split in the centre, 
but also on each side of the breast by bare tracts. 



Genus ALCEDO. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 178 (1766). 

Alcedo ispida''. 

Alcedo is^pida, Linnjcus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 179 (1760); Sliarpc, 
Monogr. Alced. p. 1, pi. 1 (1870) ; Eyton, Ostcol. Av. pi. 5 b. 
fig. 2. 

The Common Kingfisher. 

Hah. Europe. 

* Cf. Meyer, Ahbild. Vogel-Skelet. Lief. vii. Taf. Ixiii. {Alcedo hpidoides). 



17G PICARI/E. 

Alcedo ispida. 

748. Articulated skeleton. 0. C. 1479. South Collection. 

749. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1478. 

Fresented by Sir Antliony Carlide, F.R.S. 

750. Skeleton. 0. C. 1478 c. Purchased. 

751. Skull. O.C. 1478 b. Purchased. 
753. Skull of male. Alps. Purchased. 

753. Skull of female. South Germany. Purchased. 

754. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

Froui the Zoological Society. 

755. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Purcliased. 

756. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1038. Purcliased. 

Alcedo bengalensis. 

Alcedo tyemjalensis, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 450 (1788); Sharpe, 
Monogr, Alced. p. 11, pi. 2 (1870). 

The Little IndTxVN Kingfisher. 

Ilah. The greater })art of Asia. Indian Peninsula, Malayan 
Archipelago, China, and Japan. 

757. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left scapula. 

S. S. 1877. Presented hy Ih. .1. Anderson, F.li.S. 

Genus ALCYONE. 
Swaiuson, Classif. of B. ii. p. 33G (1837). 

Alcyone azurea. 

Alcedo azurea, Latham, Ind. Orn., 8uppl. ii. p. xxxii (1801). 
Alcyone azurea, Sharpe, Monogr. Alccd. p. 41, pi. 13 (1870). 

The Azure Kingfisher. 

Ilal>. Australia. 



ALL'KDINID.'!';. 177 

758. Stornnin of mule, with ^houliler-^i^ircllc. From Cl;ir<Mice 

River, N. S. Wales [E. P. Ramsa>j). S. S. 1359. 

Presented Inj P. L. Sclafer, Es,/., F.U.S. 

Genus CERYLE. 

Boie, Tsis, p. :nr, (IS2S). 

Ceryle rudis. 

Alcedo riidis, Liiiiia)us, 8yst. Xat. i. p. 181 (176()). 
Oerj/Ie nidis, Sharpc, Monogr. Aleed. p. 61, pi. 19 (ISJl). 

The Pied Kingfisher. 

Hah. From Persia and Asia Minor to Palestine and E<i;yj)t, 
and thronghout Africa. 

759. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Egypt. S. S. 250(5. 

Presented hy Professor FUncer, F./'.S. 

Ceryle maxima. 

Alcedo maxima, Pallas, Spicil. Zool. fase. iv. p. 1-4 (17'>0). 
Ceryle maxima, Sharpe, Monogr. Alcecl. j). 07, pi. 20 (1809). 

The Great African Kingfisher. 

Hah. Africa. 

760. 8kull. Cape Colony. 0. C. U82b. 

Presented hy F. R. Snrlees. E.<'/. 

Ceryle alcyon *. 

Alcedo alcyon, Linnasus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 180 (1700). 
Ceryle alcyon, Sharpe, Monogr. Alced. p. 79, pi. 2'.> ( 1808). 

The Belted Kingfisher. 

/lull. North and Central America. 

761. Sternum. Presented hy the Snutlison'mn Tnstitulion. 

762. Sternum, with slioulder-gii'dle. From Jamaica. S. S. 

1240. Go6se Collection. 

* ('/. Sluileldt, Jijurii. Aiuit. iiiid I'liys. x\V\. p. .■'."'■•. 
TAKT III. N 



178 PICARIVE. 

Ceryle amazona. 

Alcedo amazona, Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 237 (1790). 

Ceryle amazona, Sharpo, Mouogr. Alced. p. 83, pi. 24 (1869). 

The Amazon Green Kingfisher. 

Hah. Central and South America. 

763. Skeleton. From Guatemala. [Cranium and sternum 

exhibited in separate series.] 

Presented hy Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S. 

764. Cranium of above specimen. S. S. 2133. 

Presented by Osbert Sedrin, Esq., F.B.S. 

765. Sternum of above specimen. S. S. 2134. 

Presented hy Oshert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus CEYX. 
Lacc-pede, Ml^ib. Tlnst. iii. p. 511 (1801). 

Ceyx solitaria. 

Cet/:c solitaria, Temminck, PI. Col. 595 ; Sharpe, Monogr. Alced. 
p. 115, pi. 38 (1868). 

The Solitary Kingfisher. 

Hah. Papuasia and the Moluccas. 

766. Skeleton. From New Ireland ; collected by Mr. Brazier. 

Presented hy P. L. Mater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus HALCYON. 
Swalnson, Zool. Illustr. i. pi. 27.(1820-21). 

Halcyon smyrnensis. 

Alcedo sm/t/rnevsis, Linnfieus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 181 (1766). 
Halcyon smyrnensis, Sharpe, Monogr. Alced. p. 161, pi. 59 
(1870). 

The White -breasted Kingfisher. 



ALCKDINIU.E. 179 

Hah. From Asia Minor to Iinliu ami Malaisia, extendiiicr to 
South China. 

767. Sternum of male, with slioulder-girJle, wan ting riglit sca- 
puhi. S.S.I 896. 

Pvei^eatedhij Dr. .1. Anderson, F.R.S. 



Halcyon macleayi. 

Hcdci/on raacleaj/ii, Jai'diiie et Solby, III. Orn. pi. KH. 

Halcijon macleayi, Sharpe, ^louogr. Alcod. p. 207, pi. 78 (1870). 

Macleay's Kingfisher. 

Hal). Austraha. 

768. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. From (Jlarence 
Eivor, N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1075. 

Presente.d by P. L. Sclafer, Esq., F.R.S. 



Halcyon saurophaga. 

Halcjion sauropluKjus, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1843, p. 103. 
Halcyon aVmdla, Sharpe, 3Ionogr. Alced. p. 107, pi. 73 
(1871, pt.). 

The White-and-Greex Kingfisher. 

Hah. Papuan Islands. 

769. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From New Ireland. 
S. S. 2557. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



Halcyon chloris. 

Akedo chlons, l5oddaert, Tal.l. PI. Enl. p. 49 (1783). 
Jlalcijon cldor'iA. Sharpe, :Monogr. Alced. p. 229, pi. 87 (1870). 

The White-collared Kingfisher. 

//((/'. Indo-Malayan Region and Austro-Malayan Islands. 

770. Steriinm, with slioulder-girdle. Xew Ireland. S. S. 2558. 
Presented hy l\ f.. Srhitf-r. K^q,, F.R.S. 

y 2 



180 pjc'Ai;i/i;. 

Halcyon sanctus. 

Halcyon sanctus^ Vig. et Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 206 
(1826) ; Sharpe, Monogr. Alced. p. 239, pi. 91 (1870). 

The Sacred Kingfisher. 

Hah. Australia and Austro-Malayan Islands. 

771. Skeleton. From Western Australia. 0. C. 1480 a. 

Govld Collection. 

112. Sternum, with slioulder-girdle. New Ireland. S. S. 2559. 
Presented hij P. L. Sc/ater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Geuus DACELO. 
Leach, Zool. Misc. ii. p. 125, pi. 100 (1815). 

Dacelo gigas. 

Alcedo gigas, Boddaert, Tabl. des PI. Enl. p. 40 (1783). 
Dacelo gigas, Sharpe, Monogr. Alced. p. 285, pi. 112 (1870). 

The Laughing Kingfisher. 

Hah. Australia. 

773. Skeleton of male. Presented by Mr. J. Ahrahaius. 

114:. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. (J. 1481. Hunterian. 

lib. Skull. 0. C. 1482. Presented hy Dr. George Bennett. 

lie. Cranium. 0. C. 1482 A. Presented hy C. E. Porter, Esq. 

111. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle (wanting left 
coracoid and scapula). Clarence Eiver, N. S. Wales {E. 
P. Ram.my). S. S. 920. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.E.S. 

Family MOMOTID^ *. 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

* (;/: tiarrnd, 1'. Z. 8. 1878, pp. 100-10i>. 



MOMOTIL)^.. 181 

C. Sternum with four ]lotcll(^s on posterior inurgin converted 

into foramina. 

D. Spinal feather-tract well defined on neck and not forked on 

u})per back. 

E. Hallux always present, and connected with the fiexor perfo- 

rans dig'dorum. 



Gcjius MOMOTUS *. 
Brisson, Orii. iv. 2>. -t'35 (17<JU). 

Momotus lessoni. 

Momotus lessoni. Lesson, llevue Zool. 1842, p. 174 ; Scl. & Salv. 
Xomencl. Av. p. 102 (l«73j. 

Lesson's Motmot. 

Hah. Central America. 

778. Skeleton. Guatemala. [Skull and sternum exhibited in 

separate series.] 

Presented hij Oshert Sulviii, Esq., F.R.S. 

779. Cranium of above specimen. S. S. 2124. 

1' resented Inj Oshert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S. 

780. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, of above specimen. S. S. 

2125. Presented hy Oshert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S. 

Gcmis EUMOMOTA. 
«clater, P. Z. S. lb.37, p. 257. 

Eumomota superciliaris. 

Priunitts ( Cr;fpticiis) siiptrcUiaris, Jurdiiie & Selby, lllustr. Orn. 

iv. pi. 18. 
Eiimotiiota super c'diuris, Scl. & Salv. Nomencl. A.v. p. 103 (1873). 

The Eyebrowed Motmot. 

Ilah. Central Aniei'ic". 

* Cf. Joytnii, Oslt'ol. Av. pi. Ii'. tig. li^ (palatiiiv boiio.-^ ui' M. hrasilicnsis). 



182 PICAEI^. 

Sumomota superciliaris. 

781. Skeleton. From Guatemala. [Sternum and pelvis ex- 

hibited in separate series.] 

Presented hy Oshert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S. 

782. Sternum of aLove specimen, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 

2116. Presented hy Oshert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S. 

783. Pelvis of above specimen. 

Presented hy Oshert Scdvin, Esq., F.R.S. 



Family TODID^ *. 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C. Sternum, with four notches on the posterior margin, open, 

and not converted into foramina. 

D. Hallux present and connected with the Jled'or jjerforans digi- 

toruni. 

E. Spinal feather-tract well defined on neck, and not forked on 

the back. 



(tciius TODUS. 

frisson, Orii. iv, p. 528 (1760). 

Todus viridis. 

Todm viridis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 178 (17GG) ; Eyton. Osteol. 
Av. pi. 5 B. fig. 1 ; Cory, Birds \Yest Indies, p. 164 (1889). 

The Green To«y. 

JIah. Jamaica. 

784. Sternum of male, witli >liouldcr-girdle. S. S. 14(j(i. 

Presented hy tlie Sniitlisonian Institution. 



« Muric, r. Z. S. Is7l'; vi>. liCl-CSO. pi. iv.; Fmbrs. P. Z. S. 1882, 
pp. -142-4.J0. 



CYPSELID^. 183 

Sul)onler 11. CO RACINE. 
[Cy. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 21.] 

Family CYPSELIDJ^ *. 

A. Palate aigitho^nathous. 

B. BasipterjgoiJ processes absent. 
C All foiu* toes directed forwards. 

D. Hallux present and connected \\itli the jiexor perj'orans di<ji- 

tonim. 

E. Spinal feather-tract well defined on the neck, but forked on 

the upper back. 

Genus CYPSELUS. 
lUigcr, rrodromus, p. 221) (1811). 

Cypselus apus. 

JJiriindo apus^ Liniuciih;, Syst. Xat. i. p. 344 (1766). 
Cypselus apus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 504 ; Eyton, Ostcol. Av. 
pi. A bis. 

The Common Swift. 

Hub. Europe and Western Asia, wintering in Africa. 

785. Skeleton. 0. C. 1517 a. Yurrell Coll. 

786. Natural skeleton : mounted (toes defective). 0. C. 1517. 

South Coll. 

787. Skeleton. O.C. 1517 b. Purchased. 

788. Skull. 0. C. 1818. I'urchased. 

789. Stcrnuiu. with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1252. 

Presented by Professor W. K. Parker, F.R.S. 

790. Hyoidean arch. 

* Cf. Sclater, P. Z. S. 1805, p. r,04 ; Forbes, Ibis, 1882, p. :J8U; Slmfeklt, 
P.Z. S. 1885, p. 880, 1880, p. 501 ; Lucas, Auk, jii. p. 444; Shufeldt, Auk, 
iii. p. 491, iv. p. 8 ; Stcjneger, Auk, iv. p. 170; Lucas, Auk, iv. p. 171, 
vi. p. 8 ; Parker, Zool. 1889, pp. 91 95. Cf. also Meyer, AbbiM. \'ogel- 
Skelet. i. Taf. xlvi. ( ('iillocnlin fitriphni/a). 



184 PK'AHi.i'. 

Geuus PANYPTILA. 
Cabanis, Arch. f. Xaturgosch. xiii. pt. 1, p. o4o (1847). 

Panyptila melanoleuca. 

Ci/pselus vieluHoleurvs, Baird, Proc. Philad. Acad. 1854, p. 118. 
Panyptila melanoleuca, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 607. 

The White-throated Swift. 

JIah. Western United States to Central America. 

791. Bones of rinlit and left pes {cf. Sclater, t. c. p. 51»6). 

Presented hij P. L. Sclater, Jl!.^(j., F.P.S. 

Geuus CH-fflTURA*. 

Stepheus, Geii. Zool. xiii. pt. 2, p. 76 (1825). 

Chsetura caudacuta. 

Hirutido caudacuta, Latham, lud. Orn., tSuppl. p. 57 (1801). 
Cha4ura caudacuta, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 103 (1865). 

The Spine-tailed Swift. 

Hall. E. Australia and Tasmania. 

792. Skeleton. From Australia. O.C. 1517 c. Goahl Coll. 

793. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. Ilichmond lliver, 

N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsay) . S. S. 1856. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus MACROPTERYXf. 

Kwainson, Zool. Illustr. ser. 2, p. 11, pi. xlvii. (1831). 

Macropteryx coronata. 

Hirimdo coronata, Tickell, J. A. S. Beng. ii. p. 580 (1833). 
Macropterijx coronata, Oates, cd. Hume's iS^ests and Eggs Ind. B. 
iii. p. 36 (1890). 

The Indian Crested Swift. 

IJah. India. 

794. Sternum of male, with slioulder-girdle. S. S. Ic^lH). 

Presented hy Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 

* Cf. Sclater, P.Z. S. 186.5, p. o9(). 

t Cy. Sclater, P.Z. S. 186-3, p. 595; Lucas, Auk, vi. p. 13 (1889). 



CAPHlMULGlIt^. 



185 



Family CAPRI MULGIDiE *. 

A. Palate .Tgitbognatlious, tlio vomer truncated heliind. 

B, Basipterygoid processes present. 

Fijr. 4;!. 
Tiipl.jo- pi hp(jf.p. p9 




^'eutral aspect of craniiiin (jf ('(iprimidijus eurojuciis (enlarged), to 
show vomer. Letters as before. 



C. Hallux present and connected with the jiexor pcrforans digi- 

tornm. 

D. Spinal feather-tract well detined on the neck, but forked on 

the U[)per back. 

Genus NYCTIBIUS. 
Vielliot, Analyse, pp. ;iS-70 (iSKi). 

Nyctibius jamaicensis. 

Caprimiil(/i(s jamaicensis, Gmelin, Syst. I^at. ii. p. 1029 (1788). 
Nyctibiwi jumaiceimis, Cory, Birds West Iiulios, p. VS^ (1889). 

The Jamaica Night-Hawk. 

Iiah. Jamaica. 

* Vf. ^clater, I'roe. Zool. Soc. \f<m, pj). ll'.-M4") ; Sliiifeldt, »p. rif. 1885, 
]). 835. 



186 PICAKI^. 

Nyctibius jamaicensis. 

795. Sternum, with sboulder-girdle. Jamaica. S. S. 1239. 

Gosse Collection.. 

796. Bones of digits of left foot {cf. Sclater, P. Z. S. 186(J, 

p. 125). 

Presented hij P. L. Sclater, Esq.^ F.R.S. 

Genus CAPRIMULGUS. 

Brisson, Oru. ii. p. 470 (1700). 

Caprimulgus europaeus. 

Caprimulgus europcms, Linnaeus, tSyst. Nat, i. p. 346 (1766) ; 
Dresser, Birds Eui-. iv. p. 261 (1875). 

The Common Nightjar. 

Hah. Europe, eastwards to Persia and Turkestan, wintering 
in South Africa. 

797. Skeleton. 0. C. 1524. South Coll. 

798. Skeleton. 0. C. 1524 a. Yarrell Coll. 

799. Skeleton. 0. (J. 1524 c. Stores, 18{)8. 

800. Skull. 0. C. 1524 B. Purchased. 

801. Skull (end of mandible wanting). 0. C. 1525. 

Hunterian. 

802. Skull of female. From Germany. Purchased. 

803. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1251. Purchased. 

Caprimulgus monticolus. 

Cajjrinndgus monticolus, Franklin, P. Z. S. 1830-31, p. 116 ; Jerd. 
B. Ind.Y p. 198(1862). 

Franklin's Nightjar. 

Hah. India to Burmah and Tenasserim. 

804. Sternum of female, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 

188o. I'rescnted hij Dr. J. Anderson, F.P.S. 



CAPKI.MULGID^-:. 187 

Genus ANTROSTOMUS. 

Nutiall, Man. Orn. U. S. ed. 2, Land Birds, p. 730 (Boston, 1840). 

Antrostomus vociferus. 

Caj3inmulgusvociferus,V^^ihon,Amcr. Orn. v. p. 71, pi. 41. figs. 

1-3 (1812). 
Antrostomus vociferus, Sclater, Proc. Zool. 8oc. 180(5, p. 137. 

The WHip-pooR-"VyiLL. 

Ilab. Central and Eastern United States to Central America. 

805. Bones of digits of foot {cf. Sclater, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 125). 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus CHORDEILES. 

Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am. (Birds), p. 496 (1831). 

Chordeiles texensis. 

Chordeiles texensis, Lawrence, Ann. Ljc. N. York, vi. p. 167 
(1856) ; A. 0. U. Cheek-list N. Amer. B. p. 221. 

The Texan Nightjar. 

Hah. Central America. 

806. Skeleton. From Guatemala. [Sternum exhibited in sepa- 

rate series.] Presented Inj Oshert Scdvin, Esq., F.R.S. 

807. Skeleton. From Guatemala. 

Presented hy Oshert Salrin, Esq., F.R.S. 

808. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, of above specimen. S. S. 

2122. Presented hy Oshert Salrin, Esq., F.R.S. 

809. Bones of foot. {Cf. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 134.) 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus NYCTIDROMUS. 

Gould, Icoiie.s Av. part 2 (1838). 

Nyctidromus albicollis. 

CaiirimiAhjus alhicoUis, Gmelin, Syst. Xat. i. p. 1030 (1788). 
Nyctidromv.s albicollis, Sclater & Salvin, Nomencl. Av. p. 97(1873). 

The AVuite-necked Nigutjau or Paranque. 



188 PICARI^. 

Nyctidromus albicollis. 

Hub. Central and iSouth America. 

810. Bones of foot. {Cf. Sclater, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 124.) 

Presented hy F. L. Sclater^ J^sg., F.R.S. 



Genus EUROSTOPODUS. 

Gould, P. Z. y. I«y7, p. 142. 

Eurostopodus maculatus. 

Caprimidgus alhogularis, Vigors & Horsfield, Trans, Linn. Soc. 

XV. p. i94 (1825). 
Eurostopodus cdbogidaris, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 96 (1865). 

The AVhite-throated Nightjar. 

llah. Australia. 

811. Skeleton (not quite perfect). 0. (*. 1525 a. 

Gould Collection. 



Genus .ffiGOTHELES. 

Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. yoc. xv. p. 194 (1826). 

.ffigotheles novae-hollandiae. 

Caprlmulgus novce-lwllandice, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. OS'S (1873). 
yEgotheles novce-Jiollandict', Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 79 
(1865). 

The Owlet Nightjar. 

Hah. S. Australia and Tasmania. 

812. Skeleton. From Tasmania. 0. C 1527. Ilantenan. 

813, Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1526. 

(jroald Collection. 



PODAIKilD.K. 



181» 



Family PODARGIDtE *. 
[_Cf. Seebohm, Classif. H. p. 21.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basiptervgoid processes absent. 

C. Hallux present and connected with the jie.vov •perforaus di<ji- 

tornm. 

Fig. 44. 



.^: 




Ventral aspect of skull of Podanjus dric/oidea (enlarged). Letters as before. 

D. Spinal feather-tract well defined on the neck, but forked on 

the upper back. 

E. Powder-down patches on each side of the rump. 



Genus PODARGUS. 
\ieillot, Nonv. Dirt. d'Kist. Nat. xxvii. p. 151 (1818). 



Podargus strigoides. 

Caprinmlgus strigoides, Latham, lud. Orn., Suppl. p. 58. 
Podargus strigoides, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 84 (1805). 

The Tawny-shouldered Podargus. 

* (f. Evton, Osteol. \\. pi. 1 li (skeleton ui I'uf/an/us /t/niirra/is). 



190 PICART^. 

Podargus strigoides. 

Ilah. New South Wales. 

814. Skeleton. 0. C. 1528 b. Gould CoUedion. 

815. Skull. 0. C. 1528 a. From Clarence River, N. S. Wales. 

Presented Jnj C. E. Povtei', Esq. 

816. Sternum. From New South Wales. 

Presented hij Dr. E. P.Ramsaij. 

Podargus cuvieri. 

Podargus cwi'i'er?, Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 200 ; 
Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 87 (18G5). 

Cuvier's Podargus. 

II(d>. Tasmania. 

817. Natural skeleton: mounted: with horny parts of mandible 
and tongue preserved. 0. C. 1528. Gould Collection. 

Podargus plumiferus. 

Podargus 2)lumifer us, Gould, P. Z. S. xiii. p. 104; Gould, Handb. 
B. Austr. i. p. 93 (1865). 

The Plumed Podargus. 

Hah. New South Wales. 

818. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula. From Clai-ence 

River, N. S. Wales. S. S. 1305. 

Presented hj Dr. E. P. P(irnsa)j. 



Family STEATORNITHID^ *. 

[C/. Seebobm, Classif. B. p. 21.] 

A. Palate desmognathous, the palatines meeting across the 
median line, each being folded upon itself behind the junc- 
tion. 

* Parker, P. Z. S. 1880. pp. ] (11 -100. pis. xvii.-xx. 



STEATOUNITHID^. 



191 



B. Basipterygoid processes present. 

C. Dorsal vertebroe opistlioeoelous. 

D. Sternum with two notches on the jiosterior maroin. 



«r" 




Ventral aspect of cranium of Steatornix c<iriepc>ms (enlarged). 
Letters as before. 

E. Hallux present and connected with the flexor pe)fora)is cllgi- 

torum. 

F. Spinal feather-tract well ilefined on the neck, l)nt forked on 

the upj)er hack. 

Genus STEATORNIS. 

Humholclt, Bull. Soc. Philomatique, Paris, 1817, p. 51 ; 
Garrod. P. Z. S. 1873, p. 526. 



Steatornis cariepensis. 

Steatornis cariepensis, Humboldt, Eull. Soc. Philom. 1817, p. 51 ; 
Sclater & Salvia, jSTomencl. Av. p. 97 (1873). 

The Oil-bird. 

Hah. Colombia, Venezuela, and Tiinidad, to Peru. 

819. Skull. 0. C. 1528 D. 

Presenfed h,j P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



192 PICARI^.. 

Family CORACIID.?^. 

A. Palate desmo^nathous ; the vomer externally attennated. 

B. Basipterygoid processes rudimentary. 

C. Sternum with four notches on llie ])Osterior margin, and 

having a pointed episternnl apophysis. 

D. Feet anisodactyl(\ 

E. Spinal feather-tract well defined on the neck Ijv lateral bare 

tracts, but dividing into two tracts on tlie up[)er buck. 

(lenus CORACIAS. 
Liiinreus, Syst. jS'at. i. p. 15i) (1760). 

Coracias garrulus. 

Corncias gnrridus, Liniiseus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 1.59 (1766); Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mas. xvii. p. 1-5. 

The Common Holler. 

JIah. Elurojte and Central Asia, wintering in Africa. 

820. Natural skeleton : mounted (ribs and toes defective). 0. C. 

1484. South Collect ioN. 

Coracias indicus. 

Coracias iudica, Limiivn^, Syst. Xat. i. p. 159 (1766); Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mas. xvii. p. 10 ; Eyton, Osteol. Av. pi. 2 b. 

The Indian Roller. 

JfdJj. Indian Peninsula, extending west to Asia Minor. 

821. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1485. 

South Collect /'oil. 

822. Sternum. S.S.I 889. 

Presented hif I >i\ J. Anderson, F./'.S. 

Genus EURYSTOMUS *. 

Vieillot, Analyse, pp. 'A7, 70 (1S16). 

Eurystomus australis. 

Eurystomus australis, Swainsou, An. in ^Iciing. p. 326 (1827) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mas. xvii. p. 36. 

* Cf. Eyton, Osteol. Av. pi. ?. B (skeleton of K orif^nfalis) ; Mever, ALbild. 
Ndnel-Skelet. i. Tnf. Ixxx. {E. afer). 



MERurinyi;. 



11)3 



The Australian Roller. 

Hah. Australia and the Molucca Islands. 

823. Natural skeleton : mounted (feet defective, and pollux of 

left wing wanting). 0. 0. 1483. Hiinterian. 

824. Sternum of female, with shoulder-oinllc From Clarence 

River, N. S. Wales. Presented />// Dr. K. P. Ramsay. 

825. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. Richmond River, 

N. S. W. [E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1358. 

Presented hij P. L. Sdafer, Esq., F.R.S. 

Eurystomus crassirostris. 

Eurystomus crassirostris, Sciater, Proc. Zool. Soe. 18'>9, p. 121. 

The Stout-billed Roller. 

Ila(>. Papuan Islands. 

825 a. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2437. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Ps<j., F.L'.S. 

Family MEROPIDJ^:. 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid i)roeesses absent. 

C. Episterna] process forked and perforated to receive the sternal 

ends of the coracoids. 

Fio-. 4(;. 




I>ateral view of sterna of Mcrops persicus and AnfJiacoceros convcrvs, to sliow 
the perforation or notch of the episterual process ; it lies immediatel}' in 
front (above in figure) of tlie groove for the coracoid. 

D. Sternum, with four notches on posterior margin. 

E. Hallux present and connected with the Jiexor perforans diyi- 

forum, and not with the /fi'-vor lonyus hallucis. 

F. Spinal feather-tract well dclin('(l on tlic neck, lint not forked 

on the back. 
I'AliT 111. o 



194 piparIvt:. 

Genus MEROPS*. 
Linuicus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 182 (1766). 

Merops persicus. 

Merops 2^ersici{s, Ptillas, Eeise E.uss. lleichs, ii. Aiih. p. 708 (1773) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xvii. p. 66 (1891). 

The Blue-cheeked Bee-eater. 

Hah. Africa, Ihrough Asia Minor and Persia to India. 

826. Skeleton, from Cairo (April 1874). A. 1483 b. 

Presented by Prof. Flower, F.R.S. 

827. ISternum (with coraeoids). Cairo. S. S. 2598. 

Presented hy Prof. Flower, F.R.S. 

Merops philippinus. 

Merops philippmus. Linua?us, Sjst. Nat. 13th edit. (Yindob.) i. 
p. 183 (1807) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xvii. p. 71 (1891). 

The Blue-tailed Bee-eater. 

Ilah. Indian Peninsula and Indo-Malayan region. 

828. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1901. 

Presented hij lh\ J. Anderson, F.R.S. 

Merops ornatus. 

Merops ornaivs, Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. xxxv (ISOl) ; 8harpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xvii. p. 74 (1891). 

The Australian Bee-eater. 

Jldh. Australia and the Moluccas. 

829. Skeleton, i'rom Western Australia. A. 1483 A. 

Gould Collection. 

830. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From New Britain. S. S. 
2562. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

* Cf. Eyton, 0.>teol. Av. pi. 12. fig. 7 (palatine bones of Merops bi- 
color) ; Meyer, Abbild. Voo-el-Skelet. i. Taf. v. (Meropor/on forstnii), 
Taf. Ixxxiv. (3/. roiffo/ejisis). 



BTTCRROTES. l!),") 

Merops viridis. 

Alerops viridis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. ]). 182 (1700) ; Shar;)(\ (";it. 
B. Brit. Mus. xvii. p. 78 (1891). 

Little GtReen Bee-ea.ter. 

Hah. Nortli Africa, through Persia to India and l>iii'ina. 

831. Skoleton. From Upper Eoypt. 0. C. A. 1483 c. 

Presented hy Prof. Flowe>', F.B.S. 

832. Sternum, with shoulder-oirdle. From Egypt. S. S. 2597. 

Presented h// Prof. Flower, F.R.S. 

833. Sfernuni, with shoulder-girdle. From India. S. S. 1902. 

Presented l>>j Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 



Snlmnh'r III. BUCEROTKS. 

A. Palate (h'smognathous. 

B, Basipterygoid processes present. 

(J. Sternum with two notches in posterior margin ; tlie e pi- 
sternal process perforated to receive the sternal ends of 
the coracoids. (See fig. 4G, p. 193.) 

U. Hallux })resent, and connected with the Jie.vor perforans 
digitornni instead of the fexor lon</us halluax. 

E. Spinal feather-tract not defined on the neck, whicli has no 
lateral bare tracts. 



(Unas BUCORVUS. 
Lesson, Traitt' d'Orn. \). 2.")0 (18.")1). 

Bucorvus abyssinicus. 

Bnceros alii/ssinicus-, Boddacrt, Tul)l. PL Eiihiin. no. 779 (178;^). 
Bucorvus ahyssinicus, Elliot, Monogr. Buccrot. \)]. i. (1877). 

The Abyssinian Ground-Hornbill. 

Tlah. N.E. Africa. 

834,835. Skulls of male and female. " Adda Gomba." 0. C. 
1504, 1505. Presented hij ILnrn Salt, Esq. 

o2 



196 picarite. 



Genus BUCEROS. 
Linntcus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 153 (1700). 

Buceros rhinoceros. 

Bnceros rJiinoceros, Linnsbxis, Sjst. Nat. i. p. 153 (17G6); Elliot, 
Monogr. Bucerot. pi. 4 (1877). 

The Rhinoceros Hornbill. 

IJah. Malay Peninsula ; Sumatra, Borneo. 

836. Skeleton, from Sumatra. 0. C, 1487 a. [Many of the 

bones mounted in the separate series.] 

Presented Inj Sir Stamford Raffles. 

837. Mandibles and casque, longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 

1492. Hunterlan. 

838. Skull, with top of casque removed. 0. ('. 1488. 

Hunterlan. 

839. Skull, with top of casque removed. 0. (J. 1489. 

Hiinterian. 

839 A. Sternum, with right clavicle, coracoid, and scapula. 
From Sumatra. S. S. 812 A. 

Presented hi/ Sir Stamford Ra,fles, Bart. 

840. Bill, with casque. 0. C. 1490. 

Presented hi/ the British J) fnsenm. 

841. Horny sheath of upper mandible. 0. C. 1491. 

Hiinterian. 

Buceros sylvestris. 

Buceros sylvestris^ Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. iv. p. 592 
(1816) ; Elliot, Monogr. Bucerot. pi. 5 (1877). 

The Javan Rhinoceros Hornbill. 

Hah. Java. 

842. Bones of trunk, from Java {Dr. Ploem) . 0. C. 1503 b. 

Presented hy the Zoological Societij. 



iu;cKi{OTKs. 197 

(knus DICHOCEROS. 

Glogcr, Hand- u. Ililfsb. p. J};^.') (1842). 

Dichoceros bicornis. 

Buceros hiconiis, Linnajus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 153 (1760). 
Dichoceros hiconiis, Elliot, Mouogr. Eucerot. pi. (1877). 

The HoRNBiLL. 

JIdh. Indo-Chinese countries. 

843. Cranium, with casque removed, to show reticuhited struc- 

ture of osseous platforms attaching it to u{)per mandible. 
0. C. 1501. PresenUd hj Sir William BUzard, FM.S. 

844. Skull, longitudinally hisected. 0. C. 1502. ITunterian. 

845. Skull, with cas(]ue. 0. C. 1499. Hiuitenan. 

846. Skull, with casque. 0. C. 1499 a. 

Presented hij E. JJickiua/i, Esq. 

847. Skull, with upper [»art of casque removed, wanting sheath 

of mandibles. 0. C. 1502 A. 

Genus HYDROCORAX. 

Brisson, Orn. iv. p. 506 (1761)). 

Hydrocorax hydrocorax. 

Buceros Jii/drocoraM, Linnaeus, Syst. jSTat. i. p. 153 (1706). 
Hydrocorax planicornis, Elliot, Monogr. Bucerot. pi. 7 (1877). 

The Elat-casqued Hornbill. 

Ilah. Philipjiine Islands. 

848. Mandibles and casque. 0. C. 150G. Ilunterian. 

Genus RHINOPLA.X. 

Glogcr, Hand- u. Hilfsb. p. 335 (1842). 

Rhinoplax vigil. 

Buceros vvjil, J. 11. Forstcr, Zoolog. liidica, p. 40 (1781). 
lihinoplax vvjil, Elliot, Mouogr. Eucerot. pi. 10 (1876). 

The Helmeted Hornbill. 

ll<d>. Malayan reiiinsula and Archipelago. 



198 ricARiiE. 

Rhinoplax vigil. 

849. Skull, longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1496. Ilanterian. 

850. Skull, with horny sheath of mandibles and casque. 0. C. 

1493. Presented hy Sir Stamford Rafles, F.R.S. 

851. Skull, longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1495, Hunterian. 

852. Mandibles, with casque. 0. C. 1494. Leverian Museum. 

853. Horny sheath of upper mandible. 0. C. 1497. 

Presented by Sir Joseph Panics, Part., F.P.S. 

854. Longitudinal section of u})per mandible. 0. C. 1498. 

Hunterian. 

Genus ANTHRACOCEROS. 

Reichenbacli, Avium Syst. pi. xlix. (1849). 

Anthracoceros coronatus. 

Buceros coronatus, Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Eulum. p. 53 (1783). 
Anthracoceros coronatus, Elliot, Monogr. Bucerot. pi. 11 (1877). 

The Crowned Hornbill. 

Hal). Indian Peninsula. 

855. Skull, with portion of casque removed. 0. C. 1486 A. 

Presented by Sir Stamford Raffles, Bart., F.R.S. 

Anthracoceros convexus. 

Buceros convexus, Temminck, PI. Col. ii. pi. 530 (1830). 
Anthracoceros convexus, Elliot, Monogr. Bncerot. pi. 12 (1880). 

Temminck's Pied Hornbill. 

Ilcd). Malayan Peninsula and Borneo. 

856. Skeleton, from Java (/>?•. P/om). O.C. 1503 c. 

Presented by the Zoologiccd Society. 

857. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1486. 

Prookes Collection. 

858. Articulated skeleton of female or young bird : mounted. 

With upper part of casque removed. 0. C. 1487. 

Langstaff Collection. 



BUCEROTES. 1L)1> 

859. Skull. 0. C. loOS. llunterian. 

860. Skull. (). (A \')V1. Lereriaii Museaui. 

861. Skull. 0. C. 1512 a. 

862. Sternum, with slioulder-girJIe. Nepal. S. S. Ic54y. 

Presented by B. II. Hodgson^ E.<:(j. 

Gtiuis CERATOGYMIVA. 

Bonaparte, Coiisp. 8yst. Orn. p. 2(5 (1854). 

Ceratogymna elata. 

Buceros elatus, Temmiuck, PI, Col. ii. pi. 521, fig. 1 (bill) (1830). 
Ceratogijmna data, EUiot, Monogr. Bucerot. pi. 22 (1878). 

The Yellow-casque Black Horneill. 

Ilah. Sierra Leone to Gaboon. 

863. Skeleton (without skull). 0. i). 1512 b. 

From the Zoological Soclelg. 

Ceratogymna atrata. 

Buceros atratus, Tcmm. PI. Col. ii. pi. 558 (1835). 
Ceratogymna (drain, Shelley, Ibis, 1888, p. 51. 
Sphagolohus atratus, EUiot, Monogr. Bucerot. pi. 21 (187<J). 

The Black Hornbill. 

Bab. West Africa. 

864. Skull, with c.isque. O. V. 1507. 

864 a. Sternum ot" female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. ^OiH. 

Fi'ODi tJie Zoological Socletg. 

Genus PHOLIDOPHALUS. 

Elliot, Monogr. Bucerot. pi. xxxiii. (1878). 

Pholidophalus sharpii. 

Buceros sJtarpii, Elliot, Ibis, p. 177 (1873). 

Pholidophalus sharjili, Elliot, Monogr. Bucerot. pi. 23 (1881). 

Sharpe's Horneill. 



200 I'lt'AUI.K. 

Pholidophalus sharpii. 

llah. West Africa, froin Angola to Gaboon. 

865. Skull (imperfect). 0. C. 1509. Congo Expedition, 1816. 

Genus RHYTIDOCEROS. 

Cabanis, Mus. Hein. ii. p. 172 (1860). 

Rhytidoceros plicatus. 

Bmeros plicatus, Forster, lad. Zool. p. 40 (1781). 
Rhytidoceros plicatus, Elliot, Monogr. Bucerot. pi. 37 (1878). 

The Papuan Wreathed Hornbill. 

Ilah. New Guinea. 

866. (Skull, with upper part of cranium removed. 0. C 1503 A. 

867. Skull (imperfect). 0. C. 1503. Brookes Collection. 

868. Horny sheath of mandibles. 0. C. 1503 A. Stores, 1868. 

Genus LOPHOCEROS. 

Hcmpr. et Elircubcrg, Symb. Pliys., Avcs, fol. Z (1833). 

Lophoceros birostris. 

Buceros hirostris, tScopoli, Delic. Flor. ct Faun. Insub. p. 87, 

sp. 31 (1786). 
Lophoceros hirostris, Elliot, Mouogr. Bucerot. pi. 48 (1878). 

The Gingi Hornbill. 

llah. Indian Peninsula. 

869. Skeleton. O.C.I 511 A. Purchased. 

870. Head. ( ). C. 1513 A. 



I'SEUDOGKYrill. 201 

Genus TOCKUS. 
Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 252 (lb31). 

Tockus fasciatus. 

Buceros fasciatus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. viii. p. 3G (1811). 
Tod-ns fasciatus, Elliot, Moiiogr. Bucerot. pi. 50 (1878). 

The Black-and-AYhite-tailed Hornbill. 

Ilah. West Africa, from Angola to Gaboon. 

871, 872. Two skulls (imperfect). 0. C. 1510, 1511. 

Com/o Eiicpedltion, 18U'». 



Order II. PSEUDOGUYPHI. 

[CATHAETES, Seebohm, Classif. E. p. 23*.] 

[X.B. I have recently (" Review of recent Classifications of Birds,' 

p. 47) expressed my dissent from the position assigned by Mr. Seebohm 
to the Condor and the other American Turkey Vultures. They are 
truly Accipitrine birds, but are doubtless very different from the other 
Birds of Prey, and merit the separate position first accorded to them by 
Professor Huxley (P. Z. S. 1867, p. 463, where many diagnostic cha- 
racters are given). Cf. also Beddard, F. E., " Xotes on the Anatomy 
of the Condor," P. Z. S. 1890, pp. 142-147.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Nostrils perforated ; maxillo-palatines situated far apart, 

and, though the distance is bridged over by an ossified 
nasal septum, the ossification does not prevent the nostrils 
being pierced. 
( ■. Basipterygoid processes present. 

D. Hallux connected with the flexor perfomns digitorum, and 

elevated above the level of the other toes. 

E. Si)inal feather-tract well defined on neck. 

* Vf. Sliufuldt, liei). U.S. Guul. Surv. xi. ]). 727; id. Auier. Xat. 1881, 
p. t)06. 



202 rsEUDOGRYPHI. 

Fuinily Uncertain. 

Genus LITHORNIS. 
Owen, Trans, Geol. Soc. (2) vi. p. 206, pi. xxi. figs. 5, G (1841). 

Lithornis vulturinus. 

Lithorius vulturums, Owen, Trans. Geol. Soc. (2) vi. p. 206 (1841) ; 
Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds, p. 35 (1891). 

873. Sterninn. From the London Clay (Lower Eocene) of the 

Isle of kSheppey. Type of species {cf. Lydekker, /. c). 

Genus CATHARTES. 

Illiger, Prodromus, p. 236 (1811). 

[Cf. Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. p. 33.] 

Cathartes papa. 

Vultur papa, Linnaeus, Syst. xSat. i. p. 122 (17(56). 

Cathartes papa (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. !Mus. i. p. 22 (1874). 

The King Vulture. 

Hah. Central America and the northern part of South 
America. 

874. Articulated skeleton. 0. C. 16^0. Brookes Collection. 

875. Skeleton. 0. C. 1G80 a. Hmiterian. 

[Several bones mounted in the separate series.] 

876. Skeleton. O.C. 1080 b. Hnntenan. 

877. Skeleton. O. C 1(380 C. Hiuderian. 

878. Ch'anium [of specimen 1(J80 a]. S. S. 180'J. llunterian. 

879. Sternum of male, Avith right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 

1469. Presented % P. L. Sclater, Es</., F.R.S. 

880. Right humerus [of s})ecimen KjSOa]. S. S. 1811. 

Ilitnterian. 

881. Right radius [of specimen 1(380 a]. S. S. 1812. 

H2inte7'ian. 

882. Right ulna [of sjR-cimen 1(380 a]. S. S. 1813. 

lliinlerian. 



I'SEUJxiCKYl'HI. 208 

883. Pelvis [of specimen 1680 b]. S. S. 1810. IJunlerian. 

884. Right femur [of specimen IGbO a]. ^S. 8. 181J:. 

Iluntenan. 

885. Kight tibia and fibula [of specimen 1(580 a]. 8. S. 1815. 

Ilu/iterian. 



Genus RHINOGRYPHUS. 

llidgway, B. N. Amer. p. 337 (1S7-1). 

Rhinogryphus aura. 

Vultur cmra, Linriieus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 122 (1766). 

(Enoj^s aura (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 25 (1874). 

The Turkey Vulture. 

llab. North America. 

886. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0, C. 1675. Purchased. 

887. vSkeleton. From Cape St. Lucas. 0. C. 1675 b. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 
[Some of the bones mounted in the separate series.] 

888. Sternum, wanting left coracoid and scapula. S. S. 1270. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

889. Right humerus [of specimen 1675 b]. S. S. 2108. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

890. Right radius [of specimen 1675 b]. S. S. 2109. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

891. Right ulna [of specimen 1675 b]. S. S. 2110. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

892. Right manus [of specimen 1675 b]. S. S. 2111. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

893. Right femur [of si)ecimen 1675 b]. S. S. 2112. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

894. Right tibia and fibula [of specimen 1675 b]. S. S. 2113. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

895. Right jies [of specimen 1675 b]. S. S. 2114. 

P resented hy the Smithsonian Institidion. 



204 ACCIPITKES. 

Rhinogryphus californiana. 

Valtur californianus, Shaw, Xat. Misc. ix. p. 1, pi. 301 (1797). 
(Enojis californiana (Shaw), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 28 
(1874). ■ 

The Californian Turkey-Vulture. 

Hah. Western side of North America; California and Oregon. 

896. Articulated skeleton: mounted, 0. C. 1()76. 

South CoUevtion. 



Subclass FALC0NIF0B3IES. 
Order 1. ACCIPITRES *. 

Suborder I. SERPENTARII f. 

A. Palate desmognatlious. 

B. Basipterygoid processes present. 

C. Hallux present and connected with the ficd-or loiujus haUucis, 

and not with the /lexor per/orans digitoriun. 

D. Spinal feather-tract well defined on the neck. 

Genus SERPENTARIUS. 

Cuvier, Tableau elemeutairc Hist. Nat. p. 254 (1798). 

Serpentarius secretarius. 

Otis secretarius, Scopoli, Belie. Faun, et Flor. lusubr. ii. p. 93 

(1786). 
Serpentarius secretarius (Scop.), Sharpe, Cut. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 45 

(1874). 

The Secretary Bird. 

Hah. Africa. 
897. Articulated skeleton : mounted. O.C. 1(!71. Purchased. 

* Cf. Ridgway, Bull. U,S. Geol. Surv. (2) i. p. 22o. 

t Cf. Huxley, P.Z.S. 18G7, p. 442, tig-. 24; Shufeldt in Ileydeii's 12th 
Ann. U.S. Geol. & Geogr. Surv. 1882, p. 761, cum tig'T. 



ACCIPIT15KS, 205 

898. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. I(i72. 

South Collection, 

899. Skeleton [some of the bones broken]. 0. C. 1671 A. 

From the Zoological Societij. 
[Several bones mounted in the separate series.] 

900. (Vanimn [of specimen 1671 a]. S. S. 2142. 

From the Zoological Societij. 

901. Skull. 0. C. 1671b. From the Zoological Societ//. 

902. Sternum (diseased) of male (with right coi*acoid and 

scapula). From the Zoological Society. 

903. Pelvis [of specimen 1671a]. S. S. 2143. 

From the Zoological Societij. 

904. llioht humerus [of specimen 1671a]. S. S. 2144. 

From the Zoological Society. 

905. Right manus [of specimen 1G71a]. S. S. 2145. 

From the Zoological Societ//. 



Suborder II. ACCIPITRFS*. 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

[Shufeldt has, however, recently demonsti-ated that Flanus 
has not a desmognathous palate (Ibis, 1891, p. 280).] 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C. Dorsal vertebrae heterocoelous. 

D. Hallux present and connected with the Jle.vor longus halluci.'<, 

and not with the Jlexor perforans cligitorum; the two tendons 
bound together by a fibrous vinculum. 

E. Spinal feather-tract well defined on the neck. 

* Cf. Huxley, P. Z. S. 18(57, p. 464 ; Shufeldt, Auk, iii. p. 133 (188G). 



200 ACCIPITRRS. 

Family YULTURID^. 

Genus VULTUR. 
Liniifeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 121 (176G). 

Vultur monachus *. 

Vultur monadius, Liniiasus, Sj^st. Nat. i. p. 122 (1766) ; Sharpc, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 3 (1874). 

The Cinereous Vulture. 

Hah. Southern Europe^ eastwards to CVntral Asia, Northern 
India, and Southern China. 

906. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. (J. 1677. Hnnterian. 

907. Skeleton of male (steruum diseased). 0. C. 1678 B. 

From the Zoological Society. 

908. Skeleton. 0. C. 1681 to 1697, 1697 a, 1697 b. 

Hunterian. 

909. Skull, with horny sheath of mandibles attached. 0. C. 

1678 A. 

910. Hyoidean arch [of specimen 1678 b]. 

From the ZooIogicoJ Societij. 

911. Sternum, with left coracoid and scapula. From Nepal. 

S. S. 1678. Presented hj B. IT. IJodgsou, E.^q. 



Genus GYPS+. 
Savigny, Syst. Ois. de I'Egypte, pp. 8, 11 (1810). 

Gyps fulvus. 

Vultur fnlinis, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 249 (1788). 

Gyps fuh'us (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 5 (1874). 

The Griffon Vulture. 

11 cd). Eui'ope. 

* Cf. Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mus. p. 32 (1801). 
t Cf. Shufeldt in Hayden's 12tli Ann. U.S. Geol. k (leogr. Survey Terr. 
1882, figg. c, <■'. y' ; Lydekker, Cat. Fo.s.s. B. p. 28. 



VULTFRTD^. 207 

912. Articulated skeleton : nioiinted. 0. (*. 1(579. 

South Collection. 

913. Left half of cranium. 0. C. IOTDa. .Sfom?, 18G7. 
[The other half of the mandible and many of the bones 

belonging to this skeleton mounted in the separate series.] 

914. Right half of cranium of the above specimen. S. S. 1599. 

Stores, 1867. 

915. Right mandil)le of abov(^ specimen. S. S. IGOO. 

Stores, 18G7. 

916. Sternum of above specimen. S. S. IGOl. Stores, l^Ql. 

917. Right humerus of above specimen. S. S. IGOo. 

Stores, 18G7. 

918. Right ulna of al)ove specimen. S. S. 1G04. Stores, 1867. 

919. Right radius of above specimen. S. S. 1605, Stores, 18(i7. 

920. Pelvis of above specimen. S. S. 1602. Stores, 1867. 

921. Right femur of above specimen. S. S. 1606. Stores, 1867. 

922. Right tibia of above specimen. S. S. 1607. Stores, ISGl. 

923. Right fibula of above specimen. S. S. 1608. 

Stores, 1867. 

924. Right pes of above specimen. S. S. 1609. Stores, 1867. 



Gyps fulvescens. 

Gyps fulvescens, Hume, Ibis, 18G9, p. 356 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus. i. p. 7 (1874). 

The Indian Griffon Vulture. 

ITali. Northern India. 

925. Skeleton. From Umbala. 0. C. 1677 b. 

Presented bij Capt. R. C. Beavan. 

926. Vertebrre from above specimen. 

Presented Inj Capt. J'. < '. Beavan. 



208 ACCIPITRES. 

Genus PSEUDOGYPS. 

Sharpe, Ann. & Mag. N. H. (4) xi. p. 133 (1873). 

Pseudogyps bengalensis. 

Vultur bengalensis, Gmelin, Sj-st. Nat. i. p. 245 (1788). 
Pseudogyps bengalensis (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mas. i. p. 1 1 
(1874). 

The Bengal Vulture. 

Hah. Indian Peninsula, eastwards to Burniali ; the Malayan 
Peninsula to Penang. 

927. Skeleton (imperfect). 0.0.1077 a. Stores, ISC^l. 



Genus NEOPHRON. 
Savigny, Syst. Ois. de I'Egypte, pp. 8, 15 (181 U). 

Neophron percnopterus. 

Vultur percnopterus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 123 (17nr)). 
JShophron percnopti'rus (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 17 

(1874). 

The Egyptian Vulture. 

Hub. Africa and Southern Europe. 

928. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. ( '. in7o. 

Soulh ColJectiov. 

929. Articulated skeleton ; mounted. 0. C. ir)7o A. From 

Upper Egypt. Presented hy Prof. Flower, F.R.S. 

930. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. From Upper 

Egypt. S. S. 2592. 

Presented hij Prof. Flower, F.R.S. 



FALCONID.E. 20tt 

Family Fi\LCONlD^. 

Subfaini ly P o L Y B o R I N iE. 

Genus POLYBORUS. 
Yieillot, Analyse, pp. 22, 70 (1816). 

Polyborus tharus. 

Falco tharus, Molina, Saggio 8t. Nat. Chil. p. 204 (1782). 
Poll/horns tharus (MoL), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 31 (1874). 

The Brazilian Caracara. 

Hah. South America generally. 

931. Sternum, with right coracoiJ and scapula. B'rom liaha- 

hoyo, Ecuador. S. S. 1011. Purchaml. 

Genus IBYCTER. 
Vieillot, Analyse, pp. 22, 70 (1816). 

Ibycter australis. 

Faho australis, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 2.39 (1788). 

Ibycter australis (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B.Brit, Mus. i. p. 38 (1874). 

The Falkland Islands Caracara. 

Ilab. Falkland Islands, and the extreme south of South 
America. 

932. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2161. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Sulifamily A cc IP I T lu N M. 

Genus CIRCUS*. 
Laccpede, Mem. de I'lnst. Paris, iii. p. ^iOG (1801). 

Circus cyaneus. 

Falco ci/aneus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 126 (1766). 

Circus cyaneus (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 52 (1874). 

The Hen-Harrier. 

* Cf. Shufeldt, R. W., " Osteology of Circus hudsonius,''' Jourii. Coinp. 
Med. 1889, art. x. ; also Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. p. 20 (ls!)l). 
PART HI. P 



210 ACCIPITRES. 

Circus cyaneus. 

Hob. Europe and Northern Asia. 

933. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1650. Purchased. 

934. Skeleton (toes defective^. 0. C. 1650 a. Yarrell Collection. 

935. SternuiTij with shoulder-girdle. 

936. Sternum of female, with right coracoid, scapula, and 

furcula. S. S. 815. Purchased. 

Circus assimilis. 

Circus assimilis, Jardine et Selby, 111. Orn. ser. 1, pi. 51 (1826) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 63 (1874). 

The Australian Harrier. 

Hah. Eastern Australia. 

937. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. From 

Clarence River, N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 917. 
Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Circus pygargus. 

Falco pygargus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 148 (1766). 

Circus pygargus (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 64 (1874). 

Montagu's Harrier. 

Hah. Europe. 

938. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1651 A. 

Circus seruginosus. 

Falco ceruginosus, Linnaeus, Syst, Nat. i. p. 130 (1766). 

Circus ceruginosus (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 69 (1874). 

The Marsh-Harrier. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia. 

939. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1648. Purchased. 

940. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

816. Purchased. 

941. Hyoidean arch. 0. C. 1651. Presented by Dr. Leach. 



FALCONIDiE. 211 

Genus ASTUR. 
Lacepude, Mem. de Flust. Paris, iii. p. 506 (1801). 

Astur palumbarius. 

Falco palumbcmus, Linnaeus, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 130 (1706). 
Astur palumbariics (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 95 
(1874). 

The Goshawk. 

Hab. Europe and Northern Asia. 

942. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1(338. Hunterian. 

943. Skull of male. From Germany. Pxirchased. 

944. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. S. S. 1870. 

Presented hy B. 11. Hodgson, Esq. 

Astur trivirgatus. 

Falco trivirgatus, Temminck, PI. Col. i. pi. 303 (1824). 

Astur trivirgatus (Temm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 105 

(1874). 

The Crested Goshawk. 

Hah. India and Ceylon. 

945. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. S. S. 1869. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Estj. 

Astur badius. 

Falco badius, VieiUot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. x. p. 318 (1817). 
Astur badius (Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 109 
(1874). 

The Indian Banded Goshawk. 

Hah. Indian Peninsula and Ceylon. 

946. Sternum of male, with right coracoid, scapula, and fnrcula. 

From Nepal. S. S. 1903. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Es<j. 
v2 



212 ACCIPITRES. 



Astur novse-hoUandise. 

Falco novce-Jiollandici', Gmeliu, Sjst. Nat. i. p. 264 (1788). 
Astur novce-hoUandice (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 118 
(1874). 

The White Goshawk. 

ITah. Australia. 

947. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. From Clarence 

Eiver, N. S. Wales. Presented by Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

948. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. From Clarence 

River {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1076. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Astur torquatus. 

Falco torquatus, Temminck, PI. Col. i. pi. 43 (1823). 
Astur torquatus (Temm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 125 
(1874). 

The Banded Goshawk. 

Hah. AustraHa and Timor. 

949. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. From Brook's 

(*reek, Australia. Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

950. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. From Clarence 

Eiver, N. S. Wales. Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

951. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. From Rich- 

mond River {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1350. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



Genus ACCIPITER. 

Brisson, Orn. i. p. 310 (1760). 

Accipiter nisus. 

Falco nisvs, Linnicus, Syst. Kat. i. p. 130 (1766). 

Accipiter nisus (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus, i. p. 132 (1874). 



FALCONID^. 213 

The Common Sparrow-Hawk. 

Hah. Europe and Xorthern Asia. 

952. Skeleton. 0. C. 1640. Brooks Collection. 

953. Skeleton. 0. C. 1641. South Collection. 

954. Skeleton. O. C. 1642. Purclm^ed. 

955. Skeleton. 0. (^ 1643. Presented hy Mr. W. Sibley. 

956. Skeleton of male. Presented hy F. S. Eve, Esq. 

957. Skeleton, disarticulated. 0. C. 1644 A. Purchased. 

958. Skull. 0. C. 1643. Purchased. 

959. Skull (imperfect). 0. C. 1644. Hunterian. 

960. Shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1645. Hunterian. 

961. 962. Sterna of male and female, with right scapula, coracoid, 

and furcnla. S. S. 820, 821. Purchased. 



Subfamily Buteonin^. 

Genus ERYTHROTRIORCHIS. 

Sharpe, Proc. Znol. Soc. l^lb, p. 327. 

Erythrotriorchis radiatus. 

Fcdco radiatus. Lath. Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii. p. 53, pi. 121 (1801). 
Erythrotriorchis radiatus (Lath.), Sharpe, ut siqyru. 

The Kufous Buzzard-Hawk. 

Hah. Australia. 

963. Sternum of male, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcnla. 
From Grafton, Clarence River, N. S. Wales, Sept. S. S. 
1689. Presented by Br. E. P. Ramsay. 



214 ACCIPITRES. 

Genus BUTEO *. 
Cuvier, Legons Anat. Comp. i. Tabl. Oiseaux (1800). 

Buteo buteo. 

Faho buteo, Linnaeus, Syet. Nat. i. p. 127 (1766). 
Buteo vulgaris, Leach, Syst. Cat. Mamm. & B. Brit. Mus. p. 10 
(1816) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 186 (1874). 

The Common Buzzard. 

Hab. Europe generally. 

964. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1646. 

South Collection. 

965. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. 0. 1647. Purchased. 

966. Skull of female. From Germany. Purchased. 

967. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and fnrcula. S. S. 

1012, Purchased of Mr. L. Fraser. 

Buteo borealis. 

Fidco horeaUs, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 266 (1788). 

Buteo borealis (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 188 (1874). 

The Red-tailed Buzzard. 

Hab. Eastern N. America, Cuba, Jamaica, and the West 
Indies. 

968. Sternum (Sm. no. 25). 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

Buteo lineatus. 

Falco lineatus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 268 (1788). 

Buteo lineatus (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 191 (1874). 

The Lineated Buzzard. 

Hab. North America. 

969. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

1272. Presented by the Smithsonian Institution. 

* Cf. Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. p. 21. 



FALCONIDiE. 215 

Genus ARCHIBUTEO. 

Brehm, Isis, 1828, p. 1269. 

Archibuteo lagopus. 

Falco lagopus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 260 (1874). 
Archibuteo lagopus (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 196 
(1874). 

The Rough-legged Buzzard. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia. 

970. iSternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 
1301. From the Zoological Society. 



Subfamily Aquiline. 

Genus GYPAETUS. 
Storr, Alpenreise, i. p. 69 (1784). 

Gypaetus barbatus. 

Vultur harhatus^ Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 123 (1766). 
Gypaetus barbatus (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 228 
(1874). 

The European Bearded Vulture. 

Hab. The mountains of Southern Europe to Central Asia and 
Northern India. 

971. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1674. 

Brookes Collection. 

972. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. From 

Simla {li. C. Beavan). S. S. 1552. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.P.S. 

973. Left humerus. 



21(3 ACCiriTRES. 

Genus UROAiiTUS. 
Kaup, Class. Sjiugeth. u. Vogel, p. 121 (1844). 

Uroaetus audax. 

Vultur audax, Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. 2 (1801). 
Uroaetus audax (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus, i. p. 231 
(1874). 

The Australian Eagle. 

Hah. Australia and Tasmania. 

974. Stei-num. From Tasmania. 0. 0. 1632. 

Presented hy Ronald Gnnn, Es<ji. 

Genus AQUILA *. 
Brisson, Orn. i. p. 419 (1760). 

Aquila chrysaetus. 

Fahv chri/saetHs, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 125 (1760). 
Aquila chrysaetus (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 235 
(1874). 

The Golden Eagle. 

' Hah. Euro})e and N. Asia, India and N. China ; N. America 
to Mexico. 

975. Skull. 0. C. 162.5. Presented hy Dr. Leach. 

976. Hyoidean arch. 0. C. 1630. Presented hy Dr. Leach. 

^Tl. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1629. 

Presented hy William CliJ't, Esq., F.E.S. 

Aquila heliaca. 

Aquila 7u'liaca, Savigny, Descr. Egyptc, p. 459, pi. 12 (1809); 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 238 (1874). 

The Imperial Eagle. 

Ilah. S.E. Europe to Northern India and China. 

978. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented hy B. II. I lodgson^ Esij. 

* Cf. Lydekkor, Cat. Fossil B. p. 24. 



FALCONID^:. 217 

979. Skull (inipcrfoct), wanting quadrate bone and pterygoids 

and left lachrymal bone. 0. C. 1631. Ilimterian. 

Aquila clanga. 

Aquila clanga, Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. i. p. 351 (1811); 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 248 (1874). 

The Larger Spotted Eagle. 

Hah. Southern Europe to Central Asia and India. 

980. Sternum, with left coracoid and scapula. From Nepal. 

Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus NISAETUS. 

Hodgson, Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, v. p. 228, pi. vii. (1836), 
et vi. pt. 1, p. 361 (1837). 

Nisaetus fasciatus. 

Aquila fasciata, Vieillot, Mem. Linn. Soc. Paris, p. 152 (1822). 
Nisaetus fasciatus (Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus, i. p. 250 
(1874). 

BoNELLi's Eagle. 

Hah. Southern Europe to India. 

981. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. S. S. 1871. 

Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus LOPHOAETUS. 

Lophaetus, Kaup, Isis, 1847, pp. 163, 165. 

Lophoaetus occipitalis. 

Falco occipitalis, Daudin, Traite, ii. p. 40 (ISoO). 
Loplioaetus occipitalis (Daud.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 275 
(1874). 

The Black Crested Eagle. 

Hah. Africa. 

982. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

2(>o3. From the Zoological Society. 



218 ACCIPITRES. 

Genus BUTASTUR. 
Hodgson, Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, xii. pt. 1, p. 311 (1843). 

Butastur teesa. 

Circus teesa, Franklin, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 115. 
Butastur teesa (Frankl.), Sliarpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 295 
(1874). 

The White-eyed Buzzard-Eagle. 

Hah. Indian Peninsula. 

983. Sternum of male, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

S. S. 1911. Presented hy Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 

Genus HELOTARSUS. 

Smith, South African Quarterly Journ. i. p. 110 (1830). 

Helotarsus ecaudatus. 

Falco ecaudatus, Daudin, Traite, ii. p. 54 (1800). 
Helotarsus ecaudatus (Daud.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 300 
(1874). 

The Bateleur Eagle. 

Hah. Africa. 

984. Right humerus. 

985. Left humerus. 

Genus HALIABTUS *. 

Savigny, Syst. Ois. d'Egypte, p. 254 (1809). 

Haliaetus albicilla. 

Vultur albicilla, Linnseus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 123 (1766). 
Haliaetus albicilla (L,), Sharpe, Cat. B, Brit. Mus. i. p. 302 (1874). 

The White-tailed Eagle. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia to Greenland. 

986. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1627. 

South Coll. 

* Cf. Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. p. 23. 



FALCONIDiE. 219 

987. Skeleton (imperfect). 0. C 1G27 a. Several bones 

mounted in separate series. Hunterian. 

988. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

1266. Hunterian. 

989. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle of female. 

From the Zoological Gardens. 

990. Right humerus of above specimen. S. S. 1795. 

991. Pelvis of above specimen. S. S. 1794. 

992. Right femur of above specimen. S. S. 1796. 

Haliaetus lencocephalus. 

Fdlco leucocephala, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 124 (1766). 
Haliaetus leueocephalus (L.), Sharps, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 304 

(1874). 

The White-headed Sea-Eagle. 

Hab. North America. 

993. Skull, with horny sheath of mandibles. 0. C. 1626. 

Hunterian. 

994. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

1275. Presented by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Haliaetus pelagicus. 

Aquila pelagica, Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso- As. i. p. 343, pi. 18 (1811). 
Haliaetus pelagicus (Pall.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 306 
(1874). 

Steller's Sea-Eagle. 

Hab. N.E. Siberia, N. China and Japan. 

995. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1626 A. 

Purchased. 

Haliaetus leucogaster. 

Palco leucogaster, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 257 (1788). 
Haliaetus leucogaster (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i, p. 307 
(1874). 

The White-bellied Sea-Eagle. 



220 ACCIPITRES. 

Haliaetus leucogaster. 

Hah. Australia and the Indo-Malayan Subregion. 

996. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

1072. From Clarence River, N. S. Wales {E. P.Ram- 
say). Presented % P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S, 

Haliaetus leucoryphus. 

Aqvila leucoryplm, Pallas, Eeis. Euss. Reichs, i. p. 454 (1771). 
Haliaetus leucoryphus (Pall.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mas. i. p. 308 

(1874). 

Pallas's Sea-Eagle. 

Hah. India. 

997. Sternum, with furcula, coracoids, and left scapula. From 

Nepal. Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

998. Pelvis. From Nepal. Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus GYPOHIERAX. 

Riippell, Neue Wirbelth., Vogel, p. 46, note (1835). 

Gypohierax angolensis. 

Falco angolensis, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. j). 252 (1788). 
Gypohierax angolensis (Gm.), Sharpe. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 312 
"(1874). 

The Aerican Sea-Eagle. 

Hah. Africa, 

999. Cranium, wanting left pteiygoid and quadrate. S. S. 

2181. From the Zoological Society. 

1000. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Society. 

1001. Sternum of male, with left coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

S. S. 182. From the Zoological Society. 

1002. Pelvis of the above specimen. S. S. 2183. 

From the Zoological Society. 

1003. Eight femur of above specimen. S. S. 2183 a. 

From the Zoological Society. 



FALCONin.E. 221 

Genus HALIASTUR. 
Selby, Cat. Gen. and 8ubgeu. Avcs, p. 3 (1840). 

Haliastur Indus. 

Falco indus, Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl. 25 (1783). 

Haliastur indus (Bodd.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 313 (1874). 

The Brahminy Kite. 

Hah. India and the Burmese countries. 

1004. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented J>y Dr. Anderson, F.K.S. 

1005. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. From 

Nepal. S. S. 1680. Presented hy B. 11. Hodgson, Esq. 

Haliastur sphenurus. 

Milvus sphenurus, Vicillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xx. p. 564 (1 818). 
Haliastur sphenurus (VieiU.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 316 
(1874). 

The Whistling Kite. 

Hah. Australia and N. Caledonia. 

1006. Skeleton. From Western Australia. 0. C. 1624 a. 

(rOuld Coll. 

1007. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. N. S. 

Wales {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1349. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esij., F.R.S. 

Genus ELANOIDES. 
Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxiv. p. 101 (1818). 

Elanoides furcatus. 

Falco furcatus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 129 (176G). 
Elanoides furcatus (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. ;U7 
(1874). 

The Swallow-tailed Kite. 

Hah. Central and Southern North America to Brazil. 

1008. Skull (imperfect). 0. C. 1649. Purchased. 



222 ACCIPITRES. 

Genus MILVUS. 
Cuvier, Leg. Anat. Comp. i. Table 2 (1800). 

Milvus milvus. 

Falco milvus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 126 (1766). 
Milvus ictinus, Savigny, Syst. Ois. d'Egypte, p. 259 (1809); 
Sharps, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 319 (1874). 

The Common Kite. 

Hob. Europe. 

1009. Various bones. 0. C. 1652 to 1670. Himterian. 

1010. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

814. Purchased. 

Milvus segyptius. 

Falco cegyptius, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 261 (1788). 

Milvus cegyptius (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 320 (1874). 

The Egyptian Kite. 

Hah. Africa. 

1011. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2043. 

From the Zoological Society/. 

Milvus melanotis. 

Milvus melanotis, Temminck et Schlegel, Faun. Jap., Aves, p. 14, 
pis. 5, 5 6 (? 1845) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 324 (1874). 

The Large Indian Kite. 

Hah. Japan and China to Formosa ; Indian Peninsula. 

1012. Skeleton. From Chefoo, China. 0. C. 1670 c. 

Presented by Consul Siohihoe. 

Milvus govinda. 

Milvus govinda, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 81 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus. i. p. 325 (1874). 

The Indian Kite. 

Hah. Indian Peninsula. 

1013. Sternum of female, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

S. S. 1904. Presented hj Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 



FALCONIDiE. 223 

Genua ELANUS. 
Savigny, Syst. Ois. de I'Egypte, pp. 9, 37 (1810). 

Elanus caeruleus. 

Falco coiruleus, Desfontaines, Mem. Acad. 11. des Sciences, 1787, 

p. 503, pi. 15. 
Elanus cceruleus (Desf.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 336 (1874). 

The Black-winged Kite. 

Hab. Southern Europe ; the whole of Africa ; Indian 
Peninsula and Ceylon. 

1014. Skeleton (imperfect). From Nepal. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

1015. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

1892. Presented hy Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S. 

Elanus axillaris. 

Falco axillaris, Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl. i. p. ix (1801). 
Elanm axillaris (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 338 
(1874). 

The Black-shouldered Kite. 

Hah. Australia. 

1016. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From New South Wales 

{E.P.Ramsay). S. S. 919. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



Subfamily Falconing. 

Genus BAZA. 
Hodgson, Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, v. pt. 2, p. 777 (1836). 

Baza subcristata. 

Lepidogenys suhcristatus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 140. 
Baza mhcristata (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 357 
(1874). 

The Australian Cuckoo-Palcon. 



224 ACCIPITRES. 

Baza subcristata. 

Ilah. N. Australia. 

1017. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. From Rich- 
mond Eiver, N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 135]. 
Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., P.R.S. 



Genus MICROHIERAX. 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 336 (1874). 

Microhierax caerulescens. 

Falco ccerulesccns, Linnajus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 126 (1766). 
Microhierax ccerulescens (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. p. 366 
(1874). 

The White-naped Ealconet. 

Ilab. Northern India. 

1018. Sternum. From Nepal. S. S. 1868. 

Presented by B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 



Genus FALCO. 
Linnasus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 124 (1766). 

Falco communis. 

Falco communis, GmeUn, Syst. Nat. i. p. 270 (1788) ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 376 (1874). 

The Peregrine Palcon. 

Hah. Europe, Northern Asia, and America. 

1019. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1G33. 

Presented hy James Ahernethy, Esq. 

1020. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1G33 a. 

Yarrell Collection. 

1021. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1634. 

Soutli Collection. 



FALCONID.E. 225 

1022. Sternum of male, with right coracold and scapula. From 

Scotland. S. S. 12G7. 

1023. Sternum of female. From Scotland. S. S. 1268. 



Falco babylonicus. 

Falco hahyhnicus, Gurncy, Ibis, 18G1, p. 218, pi. vii. ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p.387 (1874). 

The Eed-headed Falcon. 

Hob. Mesopotamia to Central Asia and Xorth-wostern India. 

1024. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented Inj B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Falco melanogenys. 

Falco melanogenys, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 139 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
Brit. :Mus. i. p. 385 (1874). 

The Australian Peregrine Falcon. 

Hah. Australia. 

1025. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. From Clarence 

River, N. S. Wales. Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

Falco feldeggii. 

Falco fddeggii, Schlegel, Ahhandl. Gob. Zool. p. 3, Taf. 10, 11 
(1841) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 389 (1874). 

The Lanner Falcon. 

Hah. South-eastern Europe to N.W. India. 

1026. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

2034. From the Zoological Society. 

Falco jugger. 

Falco jugrjer, J. E. Gray, 111. Ind. Orn. ii. pi. 26 (1833); Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 393 (1874). 

The Jugger Falcon. 

Hah. India. 
PART III. n 



226 ACCIPITRES. 

Falco jugger. 

1027. Sternum, with j^lionkler-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

1028. Sternum, with slioulJer-girdle, of male. 

From llie Zoological Society. 

Falco subbuteo. 

Falco svhhuteo, Liniioeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 127 (1766); Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Miis. i. p. 395 (1874). 

The Hobby. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia. 

1029. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. I(i36. 

South Collection. 

1030. Skull of female. From Germany. Purchased. 

Falco regulus. 

Falco regulus, Pallas, Eeis. Buss. Beichs, ii. Anhang, p. 707 
(1773) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 400 (1874). 

The Merlin. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia. 

1031. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 163,5 a. 

Yarrell Collection. 

1032. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1()35. 

South Collection. 

1033. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

818. Purchased. 

1034. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Falco columbarius. 

Falco columharius, Linn£eus, Sj'st. Nat. i. p. 128 (1766) ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 408 (1874). 

The Pigeon- Hawk. 

Hab. North America. 



FALCONID^. 227 

1035. Sternum, witli left coracoid, scjipnla, and furcula. S. S. 

14(35. I'resfinted by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus HIEROFALCO. 

Cuvier, llegne Animal, i. p. 312 (1817). 

Hierofalco islandus. 

Falco islandus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 271 (1788). 
Hierofalco islandus (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit, ilus. i. p. 414 
(1874). 

The Iceland Palcon. 

Hah. Iceland. 

1036. Articulated skeleton: mounted. 0. C. 1(533 b. 

Yarrell Collection. 

Genus HIERACIDEA. 

Strickland, Aun. & Mag. N. H. vi. p. 416 (1841). 

Hieracidea orientalis. 

Falco hericjora orientalis, Schlegel, Naum. 1855, p. 254. 
Hieracidea orientalis (iSchl.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 422 
(1874). 

The Berigora Hawk. 

Hah. Australia. 

1037. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. 0. 1639, 

Gould Collection. 

Genus CERCHNEIS *. 

Boic, Isis, 1820, p. 070. 

Cerchneis tinnunculus. 

Falco timumcidm, Linntuus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 127 (17()G). 
Cerchneis tinnunculus (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 425 
(1874). 

The Common Kestrel. 

* For skeleton of Cerchneis neietoni, cf. Milne-Edwards and Graiidid. Ois. 
Madag. i. jjIs. 14, 14 a. 

q2 



228 ACCIPITRES, 

Cerchneis tinnunculus. 

Hah. The whole of Europe and Northern Asia. Wintering 
in Africa and India. 

1038. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1^37. 

South Collection. 

1039. Skeleton of female {C. japonievs). From Chefoo, China. 

0. C. 1637 b. Presented by Consul R. Swinlioe. 

1040. Skeleton. Presented hy F, S. Eve, Esq. 

1041. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1637 a. 

1042. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

817. Purchased. 



Cerchneis cenehroides. 

F(dco cencliroides, Vigors ct Horsfield, Tr. Liiiu. Soc. xv. p. 183 

(1826). 
Cerclineis cencJiroides (Vig. et Horsf.), Sharpc, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 

i. p. 431 (1874). 

The Australian Kestrel. 

Hah. Australia. 

1043. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. From New 

South Wales. Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

Cerchneis sparveria. 

Falco sparverius, Linnseiis, Syst. Nat. i. p. ]2S (1766). 
Cerclineis sparveria (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 437 
(1874). 

The North- American Kestrel. 

Hah. N. America. 

1044. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1277. 

Presented hy the Smithsouian Tnstitntio/i. 



STRIGKS. 229 



Suborder III. PANDIONES. 

Genus PANDION. 
Saviguy, Syst. Ois. de I'Egypte, pp. 9, 35 (1810). 

Pandion haliaetus. 

Falco haliaetus, Liunoeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 12U (17CG). 
randion haliaetus (L.), Sharpc, Cat. B. lirit. Miis. i. p. 449 
(1874). 

The Osprey. 

Hall. All parts of the world. 

1045. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1622. 

Presented hi) Robert Keate, Esq. 

1046. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. N. 

America. S. S. 1271. 

Presented hjj the Smitltsoman Instdutiun. 

1047. Foot. Old Collection. 



Suborder IV. STRIGES*. 

\_Gf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 17 ; and Lydckkor, Cat. Fossil 
Birds, p. 12.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterjgoid processes present. 

C. Flexor longus hallucis leading to hallux ; jlexor perforans 

digitornm to second, third, and fourth digits. 

D. Spinal feather-tract well defined on the neck, 

E. Outer toe reversible. 



* Cy. Huxley, P. Z. S. 1S07, p. 4(32 ; Shufeldt, "Notes ou tlio Anatomy 
oi S/jeottjto cunicularia hypoyaa,^^ Journ. Morpli. iii. pp. llo-12o, pi. 7, also 
Bull. U. S. Geul. Surv. vi. p. 87; Sharpe, liuviow Classif. 15. p. 79 (1891). 



230 ACCIP[TRES. 

Family BUBONID^. 

Genus KETUPA*. 
Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 114 (1831). 

Ketupa flavipest. 

Cultninguis Jfavijyes, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. v. p. 364 (1836). 
Ketupa flavipes, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 5 (1875). 

The Himalayan Pish-Owl. 

Hah. Himalaya Mountains. 

1048. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. From 

Kepal. S. S. 1875. Presented hij B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus BUBO 1. 
Cuvier, Kc'gne Anim. i. p. 331 (1817). 

Bubo bubo. 

Strix bubo, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 138 (1766), 
Bubo iynavus, Forster, Syn. Cat. Brit. B. p. 3 ; Sharpo, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus. ii. p. 14 (1875). 

The Great Horned Owl. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia. 

1049. Skeleton (imperfect). 0. C. 1608 to 1621. Hunterian. 

1050. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1601. 

Brookes Collection. 

1051. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1602. 

South Collection. 
1051a. Skeleton (imperfect) . 0. (J. 1602 a. Himterian. 

1052. Skull. Janina, Albania. 0. C. 1601 A. 

Presented hy Major R. Stetcart. 

1052 a. vSternum of young male, with right coracoid, scapula, and 
furcula. S.'S. 822. 

* The sternum of Scotopct/a. Cf. Murie, Journ. Anat. & Phys. yi. p. 76. 
Cf. Eyton, Osteol. Av. pi. 4 a ; Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skelet. i. Taf. Ixxxix. 
{^K.javanensi'i). 

t Cf. Lydeliker, Cat. Fo.<sil B. p. l-j (1891, ri. u. Cdupa). 

I Vf. Lydekker, ibid. p. 14 (1891). 



BUBONID/E. 231 

Bubo virginianus. 

Strix virginiana, Gmelin, Syst. Xat. i. p. 484 (1788). 

Bubo viri/mianiis, Sharpo, Cat. B. Brit. ]\[us. ii. p. 19 (1875). 

The Virginian Horned Owl. 

II((I>. Tlie whole of N. America, south to Guatomala. 

1053. Stermim, with right coracoiJ, scapula, and fiircula. S. S. 

1261). Presented by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Bubo bengalensis. 

Oius bengalensis, FraukHn, i'roc. Zool. Son. 1831, p. 115. 
Biiho bengalensis, Sharpc, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 25 (1875). 

The Rock Horned Owl. 

Hah. Indian Peninsula. 

1054. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. From 

Nepal. S. S. 1677. Presented by B. II. Hodgson, Es<j. 

Bubo coromandus. 

Strlv coromanla, Latham, Ind. Oni. i. p. 53 (1790). 

Bubo coromandus, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. :Mus. ii. p. 35 (1875). 

The Dusky Horned Owl. 

Hah. India and Burmah. 

1055. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented hy B. II. IIodg.^on, Esq. 

1056. Pelvis. From Nepal. 

Presented hy B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

Bubo nipalensis. 

Bubo nipalensis, Hodgson, As. lies. xix. p. 172 (1830); Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 37 (1875). 

Hodgson's Eagle-Owl. 

ILd>. Himalaya Mountains to Tenasserim. 

1057. Skeleton. 0. C.li;()2r5. Ilanterian. 



232 ACCIPITKES. 

Genus CARINE. 
Kaup, Natiirl. Syst. p. 29 (lS2d). 

Carine noctua*. 

Strix nociua, Scopoli, Aim. i. p. 22 (1709). 

Carine noctua, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 133 (1875). 

The Little Owl. 

Ilab. Europe. 

1058. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1607 c. 

Yarrell Collection . 

1059. Skull of female. From Germany. Purchased. 

Carine brazna. 

Strix hrania, Tcmmiiick, PI. Col. ii. pi. 08 (1823). 

Carine hrama, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 138 (1875). 

The Spotted Owlet. 

Hah. Indian Peninsula, extending into Baluchistan. 

1060. tSternum of female, with shoulder-oirdk\ S. S. 1878. 

Presoded hy Dr. Jolui Anderson, P.P.S. 

Gcmis NINOXt. 
Hodgson, Maclr. Joiun. v. p. 23 (1837). 

NinoK boobook. 

Struv hoobook, Latham, Iiid. Orn., Suppl. p. xv (1801). 
Ninox hoohool\ Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 108 (1875). 

The Boobook Hawk-Owl. 

Hah. Australia. 

1061. Skull and imperfect skeleton. Western Anstralia. 0. C. 

1603 A. Gould Collection. 

* Cf. A. B. Meyer, Ahbild. Vogel-Skelet. i. Taf. xci. (skeleton). ' 
t For skeleton of Ninox mpcrciliiiris, cf. Milue-Edwards and Grandid. 
Ois. Madapr. i. pi. 30 a. 



BUBONID^. 233 

1062. Sternum ot female, with right coracoiM and scapula. 

S. S. IGDO. From Dol)rojde, N. S. Wales. 

Presented hy Dr. E. F. Ramsay. 

1063. Sternum of male^ with .^houlder-girdlc. 

Presented hy ])r. E. F. Ramsay. 

Ninox variegata. 

Noctua varie;/atu, Quoy & Gaim. Voj-. do FAstroL, Zool. i. p. 106, 

pi. i. fig. 2 (1833). 
Mnox varieyata, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. ISo (1875), 

The New-Ireland Owlet. 

Ilah. New Ireland and Xew Britain. 

1064. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula. [? From New 

Ireland*.] Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



Ninox novse-zealandiae. 

Str'uv novce-zeahmdice, Gmclin, Svst. Nat. i. p. 29G (1788). 
JS'ino.v novce-zealandice, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 173 
(1875). 

The New-Zealand Hawk-Owl. 

llah. New Zealand. 

1065. Skeleton. Presented hy Mr. J. Ahrahams. 

Ninox connivens. 

Falco connivens, Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. sii (ISOJ). 
Ninox connivens, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 175 (1875). 

The Large Hawk-Owl. 

Ilah. Australia. 

1066. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1003. 

* The specimen to which this sternum belongs is in the British Museum, 
and is the type of N. solomonis of Sbarjie (P. Z. S. 187G, p. G.37, pi. Ixii.). 
The probability is ihat it really came from New Ireland, and sulumunis 
is a misnomer. 



234 ACCIPITRES. 

Ninox connivens. 

1067. Sternum of female, with right coracoid and scapula. 

From Clarence River, N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsay). 
S. S. 947. Presented Inj P. L. Sdater, Es(/., F.R.S. 

Genus GLAUCIDIUM. 
Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 970. 

Glaucidium radiatum. 

Sfri.v radiata, Tickell, J. A. S. Bciig. ii. p. 372 (1833). 
Glaucidium radiatum, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. ^lus. ii. p. 217 
(1875). 

The Jungle Owlet. 

Ilah. Indian Peninsula. 

1068. Sternum. From ^S'^epal. 

Presented Jiy B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

1069. Pelvis. From Nepal. Presented hi) B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

Glaucidium cuculoides. 

Noctua cuculoides, Vigors, Proc. Zool. Sue. 1831, p. 8. 
Glaucidium cuculoides, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mas. ii. p, 219 
(1875). 

The Barred Owlet. 

Hah. Himalaya Mountains and the Indo-Chinese Subregion. 

1070. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. S. S. 1867. 

Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus ASIO*. 
Brisson, Orn. i. p. 28 (17(50). 

Asio otus. 

Sirix otus, Linua)us, Syst. Nat. i. p. 132 (1766). 
Asio otus, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 227 (1875). 

The Long-eared Owl. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia. 

* For skeleton oi Asio uuKhujascariensis, cf. Milno-Edwards and Graiidid. 
Ois. Madag-. i. pi. 38 a. 



BUBONIDiE. 235 

1071. Skeleton (wanting skull). 0. C. 1(504 a. 

1072. Skull. 0. C. 1604 b. Purchased. 

1073. Stei-nuni, with ribs and slioulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Society. 

1074. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 0. (J. 1G04. Ilunterian. 

1075. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 825. 

Furchaaed. 

Asio accipitrinus. 

Stri:v accipitrina. Pallas, lleis. lluss. licicbs, i. p. 4-55 (1771). 
Asio accipitrinus, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 234 (1875). 

The Short-eared Owl. 

IM). The temperate and tropical regions of both hemispheres. 

1076. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. 0. 1604 c. 

Yarrell Collection. 

1077. Natural skeleton: mounted. 0. C. 1604 D. 

1078. Skull. 0. C. 1604E. Furchased. 

1079. Vertebrre. Purchased . 

1080. Sternum, wanting left coracoid and scapula. S. S. 826. 

Furchased. 

1081. Sternum, without shoulder-girdles. S, S. 1293. 

Presented hij the Snilthsonian Institution. 

1082. Sternum. 0. C. 1604 f. Purchased. 

1083. lYdvis. Purchased. 

Asio grammicus. 

Epliialtes (jrammicus, Gosse, B. Jamaica, p. 19, pi. 4 (1847). 
Asio (/ramniicas, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 242 (18/5). 

The Jamaican Eared Owl. 

JIal). Jamaica. 

1084. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1443. 

Presented by the Smithsonian Institution. 



236 ACCIPITRES. 

Genus SYRNIUM. 
Savigny, Dcscr. dc I'Egypte, p. 298 (1S09). 

Syrnium aluco. 

Stricc aluco, Linnasus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 132 (1706). 

Syrnium aluco, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 247 (1875). 

The Tawny Owl. 

Ilab. Europe. 

1085. Skeleton. 0. C. 1605 a. Yarrell Collection. 

1086. Skeleton of female. 0. C. 1605 d. 

From the Zoological Society. 

1087. Sknll. Purchased. 

1088. Cranium. 0. C. 1605 c. Purchased. 

1089. Sternum, \vit]i riolit coracoid and scapula. S. S. 823. 

Purchased. 

Syrnium nebulosum. 

Strix nehidosa, Forster, Phil. Trans, xxii. p. 386 (1772). 
Syrnium nebulosion, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 257 (1875). 

The Baured Owl. 

Hab. Eastern region of the United States. 

1090. Sternum. S. S. 1278. 

Presented hij the Smithsonian Instittdlon. 

Genus NYCTALA *. 
Brehm, Isis, 1828, p. 1271. 

Nyctala tengmalmi. 

Sirix tencjmalmi, Gmeliu, Syst. Nat. i. p. 291 (1788). 

hhjctala tciKjmahni, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 284 (1875). 

Tengmalm's Owl. 

Ilah. jS". Europe to Siberia, and North America. 

* Cf. R. Collett, " On the; Asymmetry of the Skull in Strix tciKjmuhni,'" 
P. Z. S. 1871, pp. 7o9-74-"3, cum figg. 



STRIGlDvE. 237 

1091. Skeleton. 0. C. IfiOSu. 

Presented hij Dr. R. Boiodler Sharpe. 

Nyctala acadica. 

Strlv acadica, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 14!), pi. 5. fig. 2 (178S). 
Nyctala acadica, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. ilus. ii. p. 2S7 (1875). 

The Acadian Owl. 

Hah. N. America, ranoino- into Mexico. 

1092. Articulated skeleton : mount?J. 0. C. 1607 d. 

Yarrell Collection. 



Family STRIGID.E. 

Gemts STRIX. 

LiunoDus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 133 (1766). 

Strlx flammea. 

ofjn'a-yZrtwiHJt'rt, Linnasus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 133 (1766) ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 291 (1875). 

The Common Bahn-Owl. 

Hah. The greater part of both hemispheres. 
109-3. Skeleton. 0. C. 1607 a. Stores. 

1094. Skeleton (imperfect). 

1095. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. V,. 1606 a. 

Yarrell Collection. 

1096. Disarticulated skull. 0. 0. 1607. Purchased. 

1097. Skull. 0. C. 1605. 

Presented hy William CUft, Esq., F.R.S. 

1098. Skull. 0. C. 1606. Hunterian. 

1099. Left half of skull. 0. C. 1607 e. Purchased. 

1100. Skull. 0. C. 1607 F. Presented hy W. J. Bonner, Esq. 



238 PSITTACI. 

Strix flammea. 

1101. Sternum, with right coracoid and both scapultB. 

1102. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Nepal. 

Presented bi/ B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

1103. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 824. Purcliased. 

1104. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula, S. S. 1265. 

From Jamaica. Presented }>ii Mrs. Gosse. 

Strix delicatula. 

Strix delicatula, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 140. 

The Australian Barn-Owl. 

Hah. Australia. 

1105. Sternum of male, with right coracoid and scajuila. From 

Dobroyde, N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsay). S. S 91(5. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.P.8. 

Strix capensis. 

8trix capensis. Smith, 8.-Afr. Q. Jouru. 2nd scr. no. 4, pt. 1, 
p. 317; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 307 (1875). 

The African Grass-Owl. 

Hah. Southern Africa. 

1106. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Society. 



Order II. PSITTACI *. 

[C/. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 18.] 

A. Young hatched in a helpless condition, naked \_cf. Sharpe, 
'Review,' p. 83]. 

[N.B. — Mr. Seebohm allies the Parrots to the Birds of 
Prey on account of the downy condition of the young ; 

* Psittaciformes, Sharpe, Review Classif. B. p. 83. Cf. Garrod, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1874, pp. 586-598, pis. Ixx., Ixxi., 1876, pp. 691-602, 1877, p. 793 ; 
Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 21 ; Slmfeldt, Journ. Anat. xx. part iii. art. 4, pp. 407- 
425, pis. X., xi. (1886). 



psiTTAcr. 239 

but, as a matter of fact, the nestlino; ])liiniafTo is develoj)eJ 
in a totally ditiorent fashion in the Accipitres.] 

B. Hallux present and connected \yitli the f/exor loiigus hal/ucis, 

and not with the f/ed'or loitc/Ks d'njitonun. 

C. Palate desmognathous ; the upper mandible movable, loosely 

articulated to the skull. 

D. Dorsal vertebra^ opisthoccelous. 

E. Feet zyoodactyle. 

F. Spinal feather-tract well defined on neck and foi-ked on upper 

back. 

Genus NESTOR *. 
Wagler, Abhaudl. Ak. AVissensch. Munclien, i. p. oU3 (1829-30). 

Nestor h3rpopolius. 

Psittacus Jiypopolias, Forster, Draw. no. 50. 

JS^cstor hiipopolius, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. li. p. 548 (1865). 

The Ka-Ka Parrot. 

Hah. New Zealand. 

1107. Skeleton. 0. 0. 1443 a. Presented hi) Sir George Grey. 

1108. Upper mandible. 0. C. 1443. 

Presented hij John Goidd, Esq., F.P.S. 

Nestor notabilist. 

Nestor votahilis, Gould, P. Z. 8. 185G, p. 94 ; id. Handb. B. Austr. 
ii. p. 544 (1805) ; BuUer, B. New Zealand, 2ud cd. vol. i. p. 1G6 
(1888). 

The Mountain Ka-Ka. 
FTah. Middle Island, New Zealand. 

1109. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1443 B. 

P reijared from a specimen which died in the 
Zoological Gardens, 1872. 

1110. Skull. 0. C. 1443 c. Purchased. 

* (/. A. 13. Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skelet. i. Taf. xxiii. {N. mcn'dionalis). 
t Cy. Lorenz, Sitz. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Ixxxiv. Abtli. 1, p. 624. 



240 psiTTAcr. 

Genus EOS. 
Wagler, Abhandl. Ak. Wisscnsch. Mimchon, i. p. 4!Ji (1S32). 

Eos cardinalis. 

Lorius cardinalis, Graj', Gen. B. iii. App. p. 20 (1840), 
Eos cardinalis, Salvador!, Orn. Pap. i. p. 249 (ISSO). 

The Cahdinal Lory. 

Hah. Solomon Archipelago and Duke of York Island. 

1111. Sternum, with shoulder- girdle. From Duke of York Island. 

S. S. 2563. Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., P.E.S. 

1112. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From New Ireland. 

S. S. 2441. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Eos coccineus. 

Fsittacus coccineus, Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 89 (1790). 
Domicella coccinea, Finsch, Papag. ii. p. 800. 

The Sanghie, Lory. 

Hah. Sanghir Islands. 

1113. Natural skeleton of mal(>: mounted. 

Presented hy Mr. J. Ahrahams. 

Genus LORIUS*. 

Vigors, Zool. Journ. ii. p. 400 (1825), ex Erisson, Oraith. iv. 
p. 215 (1700). 

Lorius garrulus. 

Psiitacus garndus, Linnaeus, Mus. Ad. Fr. ii. p. 14 (1764). 
Lorius garrulus, Salvadori, Orn. Pap. i. p. 241 (1880). 

The Chattering Lory. 

Hah. The Moluccas. 

1114. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2148. 

From the Zoological Society. 

* Cf. A. B. Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Sltelet. i. Taf. Ixix. (Lorius lory) ; 
id. /. c. Taf. Ixviii. (Z. ciiaimvchen). 



P8ITTACI. 211 

Lorius chlorocercus. 

Loritts chlorocercus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 137 ; Salvador!, Orn. 
Pap. i. p. 239 ( 1880). 

The Green-tailed Lory. 

Hab. Solomon Islands. 

1115. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1821. 

From the Zoological Gardens. 

1115 A. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus TRICHOGLOSSUS *. 

Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 287 (1826). 

Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus. 

Psittacus chlorolepidotus, Kuhl, Consp. Psitt. in Nova Acta Aoad. 

C. L.-C. Nat. Cur. x. p. 48 (1820). 
TrichoglossKS cMorolepidotus, Gould, Handb. B. Ausfcr. ii. p. 96 

(1865). 

The Scaly-breasted Lorikeet. 
Hah. New South Wales. 

1116. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. From (Clarence 

River, N. S. Wales. Presented % Dr. K. P. Pamsaij. 

Trichoglossus multicolor. 

Psittacus midtkolor, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 328 (1788). 
Trichoglossus multicolor, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 93 (1865). 

The Blue-bellied Lorikeet. 

Hab. S. Australia. 

1117. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Dobroyde, N. S. 

Wales {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 988. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

* Cf. A. B. Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skelet. i. Taf. xxiv. ( T. 'mei/eri) ; id. 
f. r. Taf. Ixx. ('/'. oniatm). 

PART III. R 



242 PSITTACI. 

Genus GLOSSOPSITTACUS. 

(Glossopsitta) Bonaparte, Kev. Zool. ser. 2, vi. p. 157 (1854). 

Glossopsittacus australis. 

Psittacus australis, Latham, lud. Orn. i. p. 104 (1790). 
Olossopsitta australis, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 100 (1865). 

The Musky Lorikeet. 
Hob. Australia. 

1118. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1453. 

Gould Collection. 

1119. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Dobroyde, N. S. 

Wales. Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

Glossopsittacus porphyrocephalus. 

Trichoglossus porphyrocepTialus, Dietrichsen, Trans. Linn. See. xvii. 

p. 553, 
Olossopsitta porpJu/rocephalus, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 102 

(1865). 

The Porphyry-crowned Lorikeet. 

Hah. Australia. 

1120. Skeleton, from Western Australia. 0. C. 1453 a. 

Goidd Collection. 

Genus CALYPTORHYNCHUS*. 

Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 269 (1826). 

Calyptorhyncbus banksi. 

Psittacus banksii, Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 107 (1790). 
Calyptorliynchus banksii, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 13 
(1865).' 

The Banksi AN Cockatoo. 

Hah. New South Wales. 

1121. Skull. 0. C. 1446. Gould Collection. 

* On Micro,,los:>um, cf. Tarker, P. Z. S. 186.5, p. 2m. Cf. also A. B. 
Meyer, Abbild. \'ogel-Skelet. i. Taf. xliii. (skeleton). 



PSITTACI. 243 

Calyptorhynchus funereus. 

Psittama fancreiis, Shaw, Nafc. Misc. pi. 186. 

CalyptorhyncliHx fnnereus, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 20 (ISG.j). 

The Funereal Cockatoo. 

Hal>. New Sontli Wales. 

1122. Skeleton. 0. C. 1444 a. Gould Collection. 

1123. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula. From Palmer, 

N. 8. Wales {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 984. 

Presented hij P. L. Sclater, Es,j.^ F.P.S. 

Calyptorhynchus naso. 

CalyptorJu/nchus naso, Gould, Proc. Zool. 8oc. 183(), p. lOG ; id. 
Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 17 (1865). 

The Western Black Cockatoo. 

Hab. New South Wales. 

1124. Partly articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1445. 

Gould CoUectidK. 

Caljrptorhynchus leachii. 

Psittacus leachii, Kuhl, Conap. Psitt. in Xova Acta Acad. C. L.-C. 

Nat. Cur. x. p. 91, pi. 3 (1820). 
Calyptorhynchus leachii, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 18(18(55). 

Leach's Cockatoo. 

Hah. New South Wales and South Australia. 

1125. Skeleton. O. ( '. 1445 a. Gould Collection. 

Cal3^torhynchus baudinii. 

Calyptorhynchus liaudiuii, V^igors in Lear's 111. Psitt. pi. 6 ( 1832) ; 
Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 25 (1865). 

Baudin's Cockatoo. 

Hah. Western Australia. 

1126. Skull, longitudinally bisected. O. U. 1447. 

Gould Collection. 

1127. Skull, transversely bisected. 0. C. 1448. (nndd Collection. 

u2 



244 PSITTACI. 

Calyptorhynchus xanthonotus. 

CalyptorTiyncluis xanthonotus, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 151 ; 
id. Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 22 (1865). 

The Yellow-eared Black Cockatoo. 

Hah. Tasmania and S. Australia. 

1128. Articulated skeleton : mounted. O. C. 1444. 

Gould Collection. 

Genus CALLOCEPHALON. 

Lesson, Bougainville's Voy. 'Thetis," ii. p. 311, pis. xxxix., xl. 
(1837). 

Callocephalon galeatum. 

Psittacus galeatus, Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. xxiii (1801). 
Callocephalon (/aleafum, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 29 (1865). 

The Gang-Gang Cockatoo. 

Ilab. S. Australia and Tasmania. 

1129. Sternum of" female, with shoulder-girdle. 8. S. 2160. 

From the Zoological Society. 

1130. Sternum of n)ale. From Clarence River, N. S. Wales. 

S. S. 987 {F. P. Ramsay). 

Presented hyP. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus CACATUA *. 
Yieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Xat. xvii. p. 6 (1817). 

Cacatua hsematuropygia. 

Psittacus hcematuroiiijijia, P. L. S. Miiller, S. IS". Suppl. p. 77 (1776). 
Cacatua hrmaturojnpjia, Tweedd. Trans. Z. S. ix. p. 132 (1875). 

The Red-vented Cockatoo. 

Hub. Philippine Islands. 

1131. Skeleton. 0. C. 1440 C. Presented by Dr. Otto Finsch. 

* Cf. Meyer, Abbild Voorel-Skelpt. i. Taf. xviii. xix. (C. sulphur ea and 
C. cifrinocrixtr/ff/). 



PylTTACI. 245 

'Cacatua galerita. 

Psittacus f/aleritus, Latham, Iiid. Orn. i. p. 109 (1790). 
Cacatua galerita, Gould, Hanrlb. B. Austr. ii. p. 2 (1865). 

The Great Sulphur-crested Cockatoo. 

Ilab. Australia. 

1132. Articulated skeleton : luouiitcd. O. C. U40. 

Gould Collection. 

1133. Skull. From Clarence River, New South Wales. 0. C. 

1440 A. Presented by C, E. Porter, Esq. 

1134. Sternum of female, with shouldc r-oinlle, wanting left cora- 

coid and scapula. From Clarence River, New South 
Wales {E. P. Pamm>/). S. S. 984. 

Prese7ited by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.Ji.S. 

Cacatua sulphurea. 

Psittacus sulphureus, Gmeliu, Sjst. Xat. i. p. 330 (1788). 
Cacatua sulphurea, Walden, Trans. Z. S. viii. p. 30 (1872). 

The Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo. 

Ilab. Celehes. 

1135. Skeleton of male, from Celebes. 0. C. 144UB. 

Presented by Dr. Otto Fiiisch. 

Cacatua leadbeateri. 

Plyctoloplivs leadbeateri, Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1830, j). 61. 
Cacatua leadbeateri, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 5 (1865). 

Leadbeater's Cockatoo. 

Hob. Australia. 

1136. Articulated skeleton: mounted. O. C 1441. 

Gould Collection. 

1137. Natural skeleton : mounted. 

Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

1138. Skeleton of male. 0. C. 1440 1). 

Presented by Jjr. Otto Fin^ch. 



24(1 PSITTA CI, 

Cacatua dncorpsi. 

Cacatua dncorpsi, Jacquinot et Pucberan, Voy. Pole Sud, Zool. i. 
p. 108 ; Sharpe, in Gould's Birds New Guiuea, v. pi. 47 (1885). 

DucoRPs's Cockatoo. 

Hah. Solomon Islands. 

1139. Skull. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Cacatua roseicapilla. 

Cacatua ruseicapillM, Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xvii. p. 12 
(1817) ; Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 8 (1865). 

The Roseate Cockatoo. 

Hah. Australia. 

1140. Sternum of male, with shouldei'-girdie, wanting left 

scapula. From Clarence River, N. S. Wales. 

Presented b// Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

Geuus LICMETIS. 
Wagler, Abhaudl. Ak. Wissensch. Miincben, i. p. 5U5 (1832). 

Licmetis tenuirostris. 

Licmetis tenuirostris, Wagler, ut supra, i. pp. 505 & 695 : Gould, 
Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 11 (1865). 

The Long-billed Cockatoo. 

Hah. Victoria and South Australia. 

1141. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. V,. 1442. 

Gould Collection. 

Genus CALOPSITTACUS. 

Lesson, Illustr. Zool. pi. xlix. (1832). 

Calopsittacus novae hoUandise. 

Psiitacus nova' holkmdicv, Latham, lud. Orn, i. p. 102 (1790). 
Calopsitta novce hoUandia;, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 84 (1865). 

The Cockatoo Parhakeet. 

Hah. S. Australia. 



PSITTACI. 247 

1142. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Presented hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 

1143. Sternum of female, with coracoids and furcula. 

Presented hy Dr. Otto Finsch. 

1144. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left 

coracoid and scapula. S. S. 1818. 

From the Zoological ISociely. 

Genus NASITERNA *. 
Wagler, Monogr. Psitt. p. 498 (1832). 

Nasitema pusio. 

Nasiterm pmio, Sclater, P. Z. S. 18G5, p. 62U, pi. 35 ; {Salvad. 
Orn. Papuasia, i. p. 127 (1880). 

The Pigmy Spine-tailed Parrakeet. 

Hab. Duke of York and Solomon Islands. 

1145. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 2040. From the Zoological Society. 

Genus ARA. 
Brisson, Ornith. iv. p. 184 (1760). 

Ara ararauna. 

Psittacus ararauna, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 139 (1766). 
Ara ararauna, Scl. & Salv. Nomencl. Av. p. Ill (1873). 

The Bltje-and-Yellow Macaw. 

Hab. South America. 

1146. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1486. 

South Coll. 

1147. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1437. 

Donor unknoivn. 

1148. Articulated skeleton : mounted. O.C. 1437 c. 

Yarrell Collection. 

1149. Roof of cranium, with maxilla. 0. C. 1438. 

« Cf. Forbc., i'. Z. S. 1880, p. 77. 



248 PSITTACI. 

Ara ararauna. 

1150. Head. 0. C. 1439. 

1151. Sternum with slioukler-girdle. 0. C. 1437 A. 

1152. Pelvis. 

Ara maracana. 

Psittacus maracana, Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. ii. p. 260 

(1816). 
Ara maracana, Scl. & h^alv. Nomencl. Av. p. Ill (1873). 

Illiger's Macaw. 

Ilah. Brazil. 

1153. Skeleton of female. Presented hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 

1154. Skeleton (not quite perfect). 0. C. 1437 b. [Cranium 

exhibited in separate series.] Stores, 1868. 

1155. Cranium of above specimen. 

Genus CONURUS *. 
Kuhl, Consp. Psitt. p. 4 (1820). 

Conurus pertinax. 

Psittacus per tina a.', Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 142 (1766). 
Conurus pertinacc, ScL & Salv. NomencL Av. p. 112 (1873). 

The Guiana Conuee. 

Hah. Guiana. 

1156. Natural skeleton of male. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Conurus vittatus. 

Psittacus vittatus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. viii. p. 404 (18] 2). 
Conurus vittatus, Scl. & Salv. Nomencl. Av. p. 112 (1873). 

The Red-billed Conure. 

Ilab. S. Brazil. 

1157. Sternum of male, with shoulder-fvirdle. S. S. 2170 A. 

From the Zoological Gardens. 

* Cf. Sbufeldt on Ccl??w^^s rr/roZwfWiSvV, Journ. Anat. Apr. 1886, xx. pt. iii. 
pp. 407—425, pis. X., xi. ; id. Auk, iii. p, 479. 



PSITTACI. 249 

Conurus seruginosus. 

Psittacus arvginosiis, Liumcus, .Syst. Nat. i. p. 142 (17B(J). 
Conurns (eruginosus, Scl. & Salv. Nomencl. Av. p. 112 (1873). 

The Brown-throated Conure. 

Hah. Venezuela and Guiana. 

1158. Sternum, witli shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1549. 

Presented by P. L. Sclafer, Esq., P. U.S. 

Conurus nanus. 

Psittacara nana, Vigors, Zool. Jouru. v. p. 273 (1830). 
Conums nanus, Cory, Birds West Indies, p. 179 (1889). 

The Yellow-billed Conure. 

Hah. Jamaica. 

1159. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle, wanting right 

coracoid and scapula. S. S. 1444. 

Presented hij tJie Smithsonian Institution. 

Conurus jendaya. 

Psittacus jendaija, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 319 (1788). 

Conurus jendaya, Sclater «& Salvin, Nomencl. Av. p. 112 (1873). 

The Yellow-headed Conure. 
Hah. S.E. Brazil. 

1160. Skeleton of nuile. Presented hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 



Genus BROTOGERYS. 

Sclater, Proc. Zool. See. 1860, p. 287. 

Brotogerys virescens. 

Psittacus viresceus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 326 (1788). 
Brotogerys virescens, Sclater & Salvin, Nomencl. Av. p. 113 (1873). 

The Yellow-winged Parrakeet. 

Hah. Brazil. 
1161. Skeleton. O.C. 1456 b. Presented by ])r. Otto Finsch. 



250 PSITTACI. 

Genus CHRYSOTIS. 
SwainsoB, Classif. B. ii. p. :J00 (1837). 

Chrysotis collaria. 

Psittacus coUamis, Linnaeus, Sj'st. Nat. i. p. 149 (1766). 
Chrysotis collaria, Sclater & Salvin, Nomencl. Av. p. 113 (1873) ; 
Cory, Birds West Indies, p. 182 (1880). 

The Ued-throated Amazon. 

Hab. Jamaica. 

1162. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Chrysotis sestiva. 

Psittacus o'stivus, Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 121 (1790). 
Chri/sotis (estiva, Sclater & Salvin, Xomencl. Av. p. 114 (1873). 

The Blue -faced Amazon. 

Hab. South America. 

1163. Natural skeleton of male. Presented by Dr. Freeman. 

1164. Natural skeleton of female. 

Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

1165. Skull of male. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

1166. Skull. Purchased. 

1167. Larynx and trachea. Presented by JJr. Otto Finsch. 

1168. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented by Dr. Otto Finsch. 

1169. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

Chrysotis amazonica. 

Psittacus amazonicus, Linuanis, Syst. Xat. i. p. 147 (1766). 
Chrysotis amazonica, Sclater & Salvin, Nomencl. Av. p. 114 
(1873). 

The Orange-winged Amazon. 

Hab. Brazil, Guiana, Amazonia, and Colombia. 

1170. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1998. 

From the Zoological Society, 



PSITTACI. 251 

Chrysotis auripalliata. 

Fsittacus auripalliatus, Lesson, Rev. Zool. 1842, p. i;3o, 
Chrysotis auripalliatus, Sol. & Salv. Nomencl. Av. p. 114 (1873). 
Amlroglossa auripalliata, Meyer, AbbUd. Vogel-Skelet. i. Taf. Ixiv. 

(181J0). 

The Golden-naped Amazon. 

Hah. Central America. 

1171. Skeleton of male. Presented hy Mr. .J. Abrahams. 

Chrysotis agilis. 

Psittucus ar/iUs, Liumtus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 143 (1766). 
Chrysotis agilis, Sclater & Salvin, Nomencl. Av. p. 113(1873); 
Cory, Birds West Indies, p. 183 (1889). 

The Active Amazon. 

Hab. Jamaica. 

1172. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Stores. 

1173. Stenium of male, with coracoids and furcula. S. S. 1445. 

Presented by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Chrysotis ochrocephala. 

Fsittacus ochrocephalus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 339 (1788). 
Chrysotis ocliroeephala, Sclater & Salvin, Nomencl. Av. p. 114 
(1873). 

The Yellow-fronted Amazon. 

Hab. Guiana. 

1174. Natural skeleton of male. Presented by Mr. .J. Abrahams. 

Genus PIONUS. 
Wagler, Abhandl. Ak. Wissensch. Muiicben, i, p. 497 (1832). 

Pionus menstruus. 

Fsittacus menstruus, LinnaDus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 148 (1766). 
Pio7ms menstruus, Sclater & Salvin, Nomencl, Av, p. 114 (1873). 

The Red-vented Caique. 

Hab. Central and South America. 

1175. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1806. 

Presented by P. L. ScUdcr, Esq., F.R.S. 



252 PSITTACI. 

Pionus senilis. 

Psittacus senilis, Spix, Av, Bras. p. 42, pi. xxxi. fig. 1 (1840). 
Pionwi senilis, Sclater & Salvin, Nomencl, Av. p. 114 (1873). 

The White-headed Caique. 

Ilab. Mexico. 

1176. yternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2170. 

From the Zoological Society/. 

1177. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 1010. Purchased. 



Genus CAICA. 
Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 198 (1831). 

Caica melanocephala. 

Psittacus melanocephalus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 149 (1766). 
Caica melanocephala, Sclater ik Salvin, Nomencl. Av. p. 114 
(1873). 

The Black-headed Caique. 

Hah. Demerara. 

1178. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S, 2156. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Genus PSITTACUS. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 139 (1766). 

Psittacus erythacus. 

Psittacus erithacHs, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 144 (1766). 
Psittacus erythacus, Hartlaub, Orn. West-Afr. p. 166 (1857). 

The Grey Parrot. 

Hah. Africa. 

1179. Skeleton. 0. C. 1455. South Collection. 

1180. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1454. Hunterian. 



PSITTACI. 253 

1181. Natural skeleton of male. Presented hy Mr. J. Ahmhams. 

1182. ISkull. Purchased. 

1183. Left half of cranium. 0. C. 1458. Ilunterian. 

1184. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Stores. 

1185. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Stores. 

Genus ECLECTUS*. 
Wagler, Monogr. Psitt. p. 495 (1832). 

Eclectus grandis. 

Psittacus grandis, Gmeliu, Syst. Nat. i. p. 335 (1788). 
Eclectus grandis, Finsch, Die Papag. ii. p. 340 (1868). 

The Grand Lory. 

Hah. Moluccas. 

1186. Skeleton of male. From Halmahera (Gilolo). 0. V,. 

145 G c. Presented hy Dr. Otto Finsch. 

1187. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 204(j. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Genus PALffiORNIS. 

Vigors, Zool. Journ. ii. p. 46 (1825). 

Palseornis torquatus. 

Psittacus torquatus, Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 32 (1783). 
Palceornis torquatus, Jerdon, B. Ind. i. p. 257 (1862). 

The Eing-necked Parrakeet. 

Ilah. India. 

1188. Skeleton of male. Presented hy Mr. J. Ahrahams. 

1189. Skeleton. Presented hy Mr. J. Ahrahams. 

1190. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal (no. 701). 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

* Cf. Meyer, Abbild. Vugel-Skel. i. Taf. xx., xliv. {E. polychlorus). 



254 psiTTAcr. 

Palseornis torquatus. 

1191. Sternum, witli shoulder-girdle. From Nepal (no. 701). 

Presented b>/ B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

1192. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Society. 

1193. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle, wanting both 

seapulpe. S. S. 1912. 

Presented hij Dr. John Anderson, F.Ii.S. 

Palseornis fasciatus. 

Psittacus javaniciis, Osbeck, It. Ind. Orient, i. p. 101 (1757). 
Pidceornis fasciatus (P. L. S. ^Nriill.), Gates, ed. Hume's Nests & 
Eggs Ind. B. iii. p. 90 (1890). 

The Red-breasted Parrakeet. 

Hah. India, extending to the Malayan Peninsula and Java. 

1194. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2035. Stores. 

1195. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented hij li. 11. Hodgson, Ks(f. 

Palseornis eupatrius. 

Psittacus eupatrius, Linnaeus, Sjst. Nat. i. p. 141 (1706). 
Palceornis eupatrius, Gates, ed. Hume's Nests & Eggs Ind. B. iii. 
p. 82 (1890). 

The Rose-banded Parrakeet. 

Hab. India. 

1196. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal (no. (J74). 

Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Palseornis cyanocephalus. 

Psittacus cyanocephalus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 141 (17GG). 
Palceornis cyayiocephcdus, Horsf. & Moore, Cat. B. Mus. E.I. Co. 
ii. p. 610 (1858). 

The Eastern Rose-headed Parrakeet. 

llab, India and ( "liina. 



PSITTACI. 255 

1197. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, waiitinor left scapula. From 

Nepal (no. 273). Presented by B. IL Hodgson, Esq. 

1198. Pelvis. From Nepal. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Gemis POLYTELIS. 
Wagler, Abhandl. Ak. Wissensch. Miinchen, i. p. 123 (1832). 

Polytelis barrabandii. 

Psittacus barrabandii, Swainson, Zool. 111. 1st ser. pi. o9 (1821). 
Polytelis barrabandii, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 31 (1865). 

Barraband's Parrakeet. 

Hah. N. S. Wales and Victoria. 

1199. Sternum of young male, with shoulder-girdle. From 
New South Wales {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1G91. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Polytelis melanura. 

Palceornis melanura, Vigors, in Lear's 111. Psitt. pi. 28 (1832). 
Polytelis melanura, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 33 (1865). 

The Black-tailed Parrakeet. 

Hah. Southern and Western Australia. 

1200. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. 0. 1450. 

Gould Collect/' 071. 

Genus APROSMICTUS. 

Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 73. 

Aprosmictus cyanopygius. 

Psittacus cyanopygius, Vieillot, N". Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxv. p. 339 

(1817). 
Aprosmictus scapulatus, Gould, Handb. B. Austr, ii. p. 35 (1865). 

The King Parrakeet. 

Hah. Tlic greater part of Australia. 



256 PSITTACI. 

Aprosmictus cyanopygius. 

1201. Skull. New South Wales. 0. C. 1449 f. 

Presented hi/ C. E. Porter, Esq. 

1202. Sternum of young male, with shoulder-girdle. From 

Clarence River, N. S. Wales (E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 986. 
Presented hji P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Aprosmictus erythropterus. 

Pslitacus erythropterus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 343 (1788). 
Aprosmictus erythropterus, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 112. 

The E;ED-winged Parrakeet. 

Hab. Australia. 

1203. Skeleton. 0. 0. 1449 e. Gould Collection. 



Genus PYRRHULOPSIS. 

Reichenbach, Syst. Av. pi. Ixxxii. (18.50). 

Pyrrhulopsis personatus. 

Coracopsis i^) personatus,(jv?iY, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1818, p. 21, pi. iii' 
Platycercus p)ersonatus, Finsch & Hartl. Faun. Centralpol. p. 2L 
(1867). 

The Masked Parrakeet. 

Hah. Fiji Islands. 

1204. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2039. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Pyrrhulopsis splendens. 

Platycercus splendetis, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped. p. 127, pi. 34 
(1848) ; Finsch & Hartl. Faun. Centralpol. p. 20 (1867). 

The Shining Parrakeet. 

Hah. Fiji Islands. 

1205. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2433. 

From the Zooloffical Socieli/. 



rsiTTAOi. 257 

Genus AGAPORNIS. 
■Selby, in Jard. Nat. Libr., Ornith. vi. pp. 117, 118, pi. xi. (1836). 

Agapornis puUaria. 

PsHtacus pullarms, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 119 (176G). 
Agaporais puUaria, Hartlaub, Orn. West-Afr. p. 168 (18o7). 

The West- African Love-bird. 

TJa]). West Africa. 

1206. Natural skeleton: mounted, O. C 1456'a. 

Yarrell Collection. 

Agapornis cana. 

Psittacns cana, Gmeliu, Syst, Nat. i. p, 350 (1788). 
Psittaada madar/ascariensis, Milne-Edw. & Grandid. Hist. Xat. 
Madag., Ois. i. p. 17, pis. 7, 8 (1876). 

The Grey-headed Love-bird, 

Ifah, Madagascar. 

1207. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2147. 

From the Zooloqical S;>r/'efi/, 



Genus PLATyCERCUS. 

Vigors, Zool. Journ. i. p. 527, pi. ], suppL (1825). 

Platycercus pennantii. 

Psittacns pennantii, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii, p. 90 (1790), 
Plat;ifcercu!i pennantii, Gould, Handb. JB. Austr. ii. p. 44 (1865). 

Pennant's Parrakeet. 

I fill. Australia. 

1208. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Riehmoud River, 

New South "Wales. Preseided !>;/ Dr. K. 1\ Ramsoii. 

1209. Sternum of female. S. S. 2044. 

Fivtn the Zo(do<i'/ral Socirty. 
PAKT III. S 



258 PSITTACI. 

Platycercus adelaidse. 

Platycercus adelaidce, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1840, p. 161 ; id. 
B. Austr. V. pi. 22. 

The Adelaide Parrakeet. 

Hah. South Australia. 

1210. Sternum of female. Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

Platycercus icterotis. 

Psittacus icterotis, Temminck, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 120 (1822). 
Platycercus icterotis, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 58 (1865). 

The Yellow-eared Parrakeet. 

Hah. West Australia. 

1211. Skeleton. From Western Australia. 0. C. 1449 d. 

Gould Collection. 

1212. Skeleton of male. Presented hi/ Mr. J. Ahrahams. 

Platycercus eximius. 

Psittacus eximius, Shaw, Nat. Misc. pi. 96. 

Platycercus e.vimius, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 55 (1865). 

The Rose-hill Parrakeet. 
Hub. Australia and Tasmania. 

1213. Sternum of male. From Clarence River, N. S. Wales 

{E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 989. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Platycercus flaviventris. 

Psittacus flaviventris, Temminck, Traus. Linn. Soc. xiii. pp. 116- 

118(1822). 
Platycercus flaviventris, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 48 

(1865). 

The Yellow-bellied Parrakeet. 

Hah. Tasmania. 

1214. Skeleton. From Tasmania. 0. C. 1449 a. 

Gould Collection. 



PSITTACI, 259 

Platycercus zonarius. 

Psittaais zonarim^ Shaw's Nat. Misc. pi. 657. 

Platycercus zonarius, Gould, Haadb, B. Austr. ii. p. 43 (1805). 

Bauer's Parrakeet. 

Ifab. Australia. 

1215. Skeleton. From Western Australia. 0. C. 1449 B. 

Gould Collect /on. 

1216. Skeleton of male. Presented hj Mr. J. Ahrakaiiu. 



(Jenus PSEPHOTUS. 
Gould, B. Austr. v. pi. 30 (1845). 

Psephotas multicolor. 

PsitlacHS multicolor, Temminck, Trans. Linn. Soe. xiii. p. 119 

(1822). 
Psephotuft multicolor, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. u. p. 08 (1S(;.»). 

The Many-coloured Parrakeet. 

.,' Hah. Australia. 

1217. Skeleton. 0. C. 1449 c. Pr('!^<'nt(Hl h;i Dr. Otto Fiiixrh. 



Genus EUPHEMA. 
Wagler, Monogr. Psitt. p. 492 ( 1 832). 

Euphema pulchella. 

Psittacua imkh'llus, Shaw, Xat. Misc. pi. 90. 

Euphema imlchella, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 77 (1805). 

The Chestnut-shouldered Grass-Parrakeet. 

Hah. New South Wales. 

1218. Skeleton of female. Presented hy Mr. ./. Ahrahaim. 

1219. Skeleton. 0. ( - 1452 a. Prr.orNt^l hj/ Ih: Otto FiiiHch. 



260 PSITTACI. 

Euphema pulchella. 

1220. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Presented hj Mr. J. Abrahams. 

1221. Natural skeleton of female. 

Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

1222. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

, From the Zoological Society. 

1223. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Dobroyde, N. S. 

Wales (£". P. Ramsay). S. S. 991. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Euphema bourkii. 

Nanodes hoiirl-ii, Mitchell, Austr. Exped. i. p. xviii (1838). 
Euphema bourlii, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 80 (1865). 

Bourke's Grass-Parrakeet. 

Hub. Australia. 

1224. Sternum. From the Zoological Society. 

Euphema chrysostoma. 

Psittacus chrysostomus, Kuhl, Consp. Psitt. in Nova Acta Acad. 

C. L.-C. Nat. Cur. x. p. 50, pi. i. 
Euphema chrysostoma, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 71 (1865). 

The Blue-banded Grass-Parrakeet. 

I{ah. Australia. 

1225. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1452. 

Gould Collection. 

Genus CYANORHAMPHUS. 

Bonaparte, Rev. Zool. 1854, p. 153. 

Cyanorhamphus novse-zealandise. 

Psittacus novce-zeelandio', Sparrraan, llus. Carls, pi. 28 (1787). 
Platycercus novce-zealandice, Buller, B. New Zealand, 2nd ed. 
vol. i. p. 137 (1688). 

The E>ed-fronted Parrakeet. 



rsiTTAcr. 261 

Hah. New Zealand. 

1226. Sternum, with sbonlder-oirdle. S. S. 2&(j'd. 

Fresented hi) P. L. Sclater, Ls</., F.R.S. 

Genus MELOPSITTACUS. 

Gould, Birds of Austr. v. pi. 44 (1840). 

Melopsittacus undulatus. 

Psittacus undulatus, Shaw, Nat. Misc. pi. 673. 

Melopsittacus undulatus, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 81 (1865). 

The "Warbling Grass-Pakkakeet. 

Hah. Australia. 

1227. Skeleton of male. Presented hi/ 2Ir. J. Abrahams. 

1228. Natural skeleton : mounted. 

Presented hi/ Mr. J. Abrahams. 

1229. Natural skeleton of male : mounted. 

Presented bij Mr. J. Abrahams. 

1230. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. From Dobroyde, 

N. S. Wales (E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1022. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.P.S. 

Genus LATHAMUS. 
Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 205 (1831). 

Lathamus discolor*. 

Psittacus discolor, Shaw, AVhite's Voy. pi. to p. 263 (1790). 
Latluiuius discolor, Gould, Handb. 15. Austr. ii. p. 90 (18G5). 

The Swift Lorikeet. 

Hah. S. Australia and Tasmania. 

1231. Natural skeleton : mounted (ribs and vertebras defective). 

0. C. 14.51. Gould Collection. 

* Cf. Forbft^, 1'. Z. 8. 1879, pp. 160-174, pi. xvi. 



2(i'2 PSITTACI. 

Lathamus discolor. 

1232. Sternum, with shonlder-girdle. From Dobroyde, N. S. 

Wales (E. P. Ramsaij). S. S. 91'0. 

Presented hi/ P. L. Sclafer, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus PEZOPORUS *. 

Illiger, Prodromus, p. 201 (1811). 

Pezoporus formosus. 

Psittacus formonus, Latham, Ind. Oru. i. p. 103 (1790). 
Pezoporus formosus, Goiild, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 86(1865); 
Ejton, Osteol. Av. pi. ix. fig. 3, pi. s. fig. 3. 

The Ground-Pakeakeet. 

Jlah. S. Australia and Tasmania. 

1233. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented In/ Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

1234. Sternum, -with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 1695. From Richmond Hiver, N. S. 
Wales {E. P. Ramsay). 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus STRING OPS. 
Gray. (ieu. E. ii. p. 4'Ji) (1845). 

Stringops habroptilus f. 

Stringojis Jiabroptilas, Graj', Gen. B. ii. p. 427, pi. cv, : Gould, 
Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 539 (1865) ; Buller, B. New Zealand, 
2nd ed. i. pp. 176, 246, pi. (1888). 

The Owl-Parrot. 

Jlah. New Zealand. 

1235. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1458 A. 

Received in Exchange. 

1236. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2G70. Purchased. 

* Cf. 8temimi of GeopsiftacKS, Murie, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 1G3. 
t Cf. Lorenz, SB. Al<ad. Wien, Ixxxiv. Abth. i. p. 624 ; Meyer, Abbild. 
Vogel-81velet. i. Tal". xvii. : Lydekker, Cat. Toi^i^il B. p. 9 (IbOlj. 



STEGANOPODES. 26$ 



Subclass ANSERIFORMES. 

[Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 24.] 

A. Palate desmognatlious. 

B. Spinal feather-tract not defined on the neck (either coalesced 

with the ventral feather-tracts, or its place occupied by a 

spinal bare tract). 
C Flexor perforans difi'itornm never leading to hallux. 
D. Young always passing through a downy stage. 



Order I. STEGANOPODES*. 

[Cr/. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 26.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C. Sternum not perforated to receive the sternal ends of the 

coracoids. 

D. Mandible not produced and recurved behind its articulation 

with the quadrate. 



Suborder I. PHAETHONTES'{. 

[Sharpe, Keview, p. 76.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C. IVIandible not produced^ and recurved behind its articulation 

with the quadrate. 

D. Nasal apertures large. 

E. Palatines not coalesced. 

F. Plumage of neck continuous ; no bare tracts. 

G. Hallux united to second digit by a web. 

H. Flexor perforans digitorum not leading to hallux. 

* " Pelecani formes," Sharpe, Review, p. 76. Cf. Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. 
Brit. Mu9. p. m (1801). 
t Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist. Bird?, p. 181 ; Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 26. 



26^ 



STEGANOPODES. 



Genus PHAETHON. 
.Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 219 (1766). 

Phaethon setHereus. 

I'haethon cetJiereus, Linnaeus, ut supra ; Baird, Brewer, & Eidgway, 
Water-Birds N. Amer. ii. p. 189 (1884). 

The Red-billed Tropic-bird. 

Hob. Troj^ical areas of Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. 

1237. Skeleton. 0. C. 1188 c. From Christmas Island, May 
1835. Presented by F, D. Bennett, Esq. 



Suborder II. SUL^E. 
[Sharpe, Eeview, p. 77.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C. Mandible not produced and recurved behind its articulation 

with the quadrate. 

D. Clavicle not anchylosed to the sternum. 

E. Carotid arches present on cervical vertebrse. 

F. Dorsal vertebrse without ventral processes. 

Ct. Plumage on neck continuous : no bare tracts. 
H. Hallux united to the second digit by a web. 

Genus SULA *. 
Brisson, Orn. vi. p. 494 (1760). 

Sula bassana f. 

Felecanus hassarms, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 217 (1766). 
tSula hassana, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 643 (1885); Eyton, 
Osteol. Av.pl. 6l. 

The Gannet or Solan Goose. 

* C/, Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mas. p. 46 (1891) ; Meyer, Abbild. 
Vogel-Skelet. i, Taf. Ixxi. 

t Cf. Shufeldt, Pr. U.S. Nat. Mas. xi. pp. 287-309. 



SULiE. 265 

Hah. Northern portion of Europe and Eastern Xorth America, 
wanderinof south in winter. 

1238. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1185. 

South Collection. 

1239. Skeleton (hallux of right foot wanting). 0. C. 1184. 

Hunterian. 

1240. Skull. 0. C. 1186. 

Presented hy Sir Everard Home, BaH., F.R.S. 

1241. Cranium. S. S. 20G1. Stores. 

1242. Right half of skull (quadrate bone and pterygoid 

wanting). 0. C. 1102. 

Presented by Sir Richard Oiven, P.R.S. 

1243. Dried head. 0. C. 1187. Hunterian. 

1244. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 708. 

1245. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1188. Purchased. 



Sula australis. 

Sula australis, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 184U, p. 177 ; id. Handb. 
B. Austr. ii. p. 504 (1865). 

The Australian Gannet. 

Hah. Tasmania and South Australia. 

1246. Skeleton. 0. C. 118G a. Gould Collection. 

Sula, sp. 

1247. Skeleton. O.C. 1186 c. Stores, l^(^ii. 

1248. Skeleton. 0. C. 1186 b. Stores. 

1249. Skeleton. 0. C. 1186 d. 

Presented hy F. D. Bennett, Esq. 



266 STEGANOPODES. 

Suborder III. P II ALA CROC OR A CES *. 

[Cf. Sharpe, Eeview, p. 77.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Ba si pterygoid processes absent. 

C. Mandible not produced and recurved behind its articulation 

with the quadrate. 

D. Dorsal vertebrse opisthocoelous, with ventral processes. 

E. Plumage of neck continuous : no bare tracts. 

F. Hallux united to second digit by a web. 

G. Flexor perforans digitorum not leading to hallux. 



Family PHALACROCORACIDiE f. 

Genus PHALACROCORAX. 

Brisson, Orn. vi. p. 511 (1760). 

Phalacrocorax carbo. 

Pelecanus carho, Limiaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p, 216 (1766). 
Fhalacrocorax carbo, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 650 (1885). 

The Common Cormorant. 

Hah. Eastern North America and the whole of the Old 
World. 

1250. Skeleton. 0. C. 11«0. South Collection. 

1251. Skeleton. Presented by F. Bidwell, Esq. 

1252. Skull, with bony occipital style attached. 0. C. 1181. 

Ilunterian. 

1253. Skull, with bony occipital style attached. 0. C. 1182. 

Brookes Collection. 

1254. Sternum, wanting left coracoid and scapula. S. S. 864. 

Purchased. 

* Cf. Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist. Birds, p. 190 ; Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. 
Brit. Mus. p. 50 (1891). 

t Cf. Stejneger, L., & Lucas, F. A., " Contribution to the History of 
Pallas's Cormorant (Phalacrocorax jjerspicillafus)," Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus, xii. 
pp. 83-94; Shufeldt, ' Science,' ii. pp. 640, 821 ; id. Pr. U. S. Nat.Mus. xi. 
pp. 309, 310 ; Jeffries, ' Science, ii. p. 709 ; id. ' Auk,' i. p. 196 (1884) } id. 
'Science,' xiii. p. o9 : Shufeldt, t. r, p. 142; Ciill, t. c. p. 404. 



PHALACROCOHACID^. 267- 

Phalacrocorax urile. 

Felecanus urile, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. o7o (1788). 
Phalacrocorax urile, Eaird, Brewer, k, llidgw. Water-Birds of 
N. America, ii. p. 162 (1884). 

The Red-faced Cormorant. 

Halt. Prybilof and Aleutian Islands, and the coa;<t of Kamts- 
c'hatka. 

1255. Skeleton (imperfect). From S. Paul's Island, Alaska (//. 

W. Elliot : Sra. no. 12503). 0. C. 1182 c. 

Presented hy the Smithsonion Institution. 

Phalacrocorax graculus. 

Pelecanus graculus, Linuteus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 217 (176()). 
Phalacrocorax f/raculus, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 656 
(1885). 

The Common Shag. 

Hab. Europe. 

1256. Skeleton. 0. C. 1180 A. 

1257. 1257 A. Sacrum and thoracic vertebral segment. 0. C. 

1180 b, 1180 c. Purchased. 

Phalacrocorax magellanicus. 

PelecuiiKs mar/ellanicics, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. 576 (1788). 
Phalacrocorax magellanicus, Scl. & Salv. Nomencl. At. Neotrop. 
p. 124 (1873). 

The Chilian Cormorant. 

Hah. Chili, Straits of Magellan, and Falkland Islands. 

1258. Skull. From the Falkland Islands. 0. C. 1182 d. 

Presented hrj E. A. Ilolmstead, Esq. 

Phalacrocorax stictocephalus. 

Microcarho stictocepJuilns, Bonaparte, Consp. ii. p. 178 (1856). 
. Phalacrocorax stictocephalus, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 495 
(1865). 

The Little Black Cormorant. 

Ilah. Au:^trali;i. 



268 STEGANOPODES. 

Phalacrocorax stictocephalus. 

1259. Sternum of male, with shoulder-crirdle, wanting left cora- 

coid and scapula. From Clarence River, N. S. Wales. 
S. S. 1068. Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

Phalacrocorax pygmseus. 

Pelecanus pygmcens, Pallas, Itia. ii. A pp. p. 712 (1773). 
Phalacrocorax jyygmceus. Gates, ed. Hume's Nests & Eggs Iiid. B. 

iii. p. 273 (1890). 
Microcarho pygmceus, Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skelet. i. Taf. cxiii. 

The Little Cormorant, 

Bah. South-eastern Europe, Northern Africa, and Southern 
Asia as far as Java and Borneo. 

1260. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. Nepal. S. S. 1819. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Phalacrocorax, sp. 

1261. Skull (subfossil) found in Peruvian Guano-beds. 0. C. 

1182 b. Presented by Mrs. George Searson. 

Phalacrocorax, sp. 

1262. Skull. 0. C. 1183. Hunteman. 

Family PLOTID^ *. 

Genus PLOTUSt. 

Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 218 (1766). 

Plotus novse-hoUandiae. 

Plotds novce-hollandio', Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, p. 34 ; id. 
Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 496 (1865). 

The New-Holland Darter. 

Hah. Australia and south coast of New Guinea. 

1263. Skeleton (ribs defective). O. C. 11 79 a. 

Received in excJiange. 

1264. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

* Cf. Garrod, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 335; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 23. 
t (^f. Forbes on Plotus melanogaster, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 208. 



PELECANI. 269 

1265. Sternum of male, witli right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

From Clarence liiver (^E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 10G5. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Plotus anhinga. 

Plotus an7ihu/((, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 218 (1766); Baird, 
Brewer, and Kidgway, Water-Birds N. Am. ii. p. 166 (1884). 

The Amekican Anhinga or Snake-biiid. 

Hah. Tropical and Subtropical America. 

1266. Skeleton (some cervical vertebrse missing). 0. C 1179 b. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Suborder IV. PELECANI*. 
\_Cf. Sharpe, Eeview, p. 77 f-] 

A. Palate desmognatlious. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C. Mandible not produced and recurved behind its articulation 

with the quadrate. 

D. Clavicle anchylosed to sternum. 

E. Dorsal vertebrae heterocoelous. 

F. Plumage of neck continuous : no bare tracts. 

G. Hallux united to second digit by a web. 

H. Flexor perforans digitoriim not \e'^(\.mgio\\d}\\XK. 

Genus PELECANUS. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 215 (1766). 

Pelecanus onocrotalus. 

PelecanKS onocrotalus, Linnoeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 215 (1766); 
Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 193, pi. 393 (1879). 

The Eoseate Pelican. 

Ilah. Southern Europe, North Africa, and Asia. 

1267. Skeleton. 0. C. 1167. South Collection. 

1268. Skull. 0. C. 1168 a. Purchased. 

* Cf. Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mus. p. 37 (1891). 

t Cf. also Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist. Birds, p. 185 ; Seehohm, Classif. 
B. p."26; Mivart, Trans. Zool. Soc. x. p. OLo; ShutVldt, Tr. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. xi. pp. 310-31O ; Giebel, Zeitschr. ges. Nuturw. ]«i!r), p. i'.";0. 



270 STEGANOPODES. 

Pelecanus onocrotalus. 

1269. Skull (wantinu- right pterygoid). 0. C. 1172. 

Hunterian. 

1270. Skull (imperfect). O. C. 1173. Hunterian. 

1271. Cranium, from India. 0. C. 1169. 

Prescmted by Lieut. -Colo7\el Finch. 

1272. Mandible; left ramus bisected to show air-cavity. 0. 0. 

1174. Hunterian. 

1273. Right ramus of mandible. S. S. 772. 

Presented hy Dr. Leach. 

1274. Trunk, with the middle portion of sternum and anterior 

vertebrse missing. 0. C. 1106. 

Presented hy Sir Richard Owen, F.R.S. 

1275. Sternum, 0. C. 1108 d. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

1276. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 771. Stores. 

1277. Right coracoid, right and left humerus, and left meta- 

carpus (with the right humerus longitudinally bisected). 
0. C. 1175-1177, 1179. Hunterian. 

1278. Left coracoid, right metacarpus, and left phalanx of chief 

digit (with portions of bones removed to show cellular 
structure of iiiterior). 0. C. 1109, 1110, 1111. 

Hunterian. 

1279. Right humerus. S. S. 773. Presented hy Dr. Leach. 

1280. Right radius. S. S. 774. Presented hy Dr. Leach. 

1281. Right ulna. S. S. 775. Presented hy Dr. Leach. 

1282. Sacrum. S. S. 776 a. Presented hy Dr. Leach, 

1283. Right femur. S. S. 776 B. Presented hy Dr. L.each. 

Pelecanus conspicillatus. 

Pelecanus conspicillatus, Temminck, PI. Col. v. pi. 276 (1824) ; 
Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 486 (1865). 

The Australian Pelican. 



FREGATI. 271 

Hah. Australia and Tasmania. 

1284. Sternum, Avith riglit coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 
S. S. 1693. Presented by Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

Suborder V. FREGATI. 
[Sharpe, Review, p. 77.] 

A. Palate desraognathous. 

B. No basiptervgoid processes. 

C. Mandible not produced and recurved behind its articulation 

with the quadrate. 

D. Clavicle anchvlosed to the sternum. 

E. No complete carotid arches on cervical vertebrae. 

F. Plumage of neck continuous : no bare tracts. 

G. Hallux united to second digit by a web. 

H. Flexor j^erforans digitorum not leading to hallux. 
I. Tarsus abnormally short, feathered, as also the toes. 

Genus FREGATA. 

Brisson, Orn. vi. p. 506 (17(30) 

Fregata aquila. 

Pelecanus aquila, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 216 (1766). 
Fregata aquila, Salvador], Orn. Pap. iii. p. 400 (1882). 

The Great Frigate-bird. 

Hab. Tropical and Subtropical areas of the Atlantic, Indian, 
and Pacific Oceans. 

1285. Skeleton. 0. C. 1188 a. 

Presented by F. D. Bennett , Esq. 

1286. Sternum, with shoiilder-girdle. Jamaica. S. S. 2022. 

Gosse Collection. 

Fregata minor. 

Pelecanus minor, Gmelin, Syst. Xat. ii. p. 572 (1788). 
Fregata minor, Salvadori, Orn. Pap. iii. p. 404 (1882). 

The Little Frigate-bird. 

Hah. Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

1287. Skeleton. 0. ('. 1188 b. Presented hy F. D. Bennett, Esq. 



272 HERODIONES. 

Suborder VI. ODONTOPTERYGES. 

(Fossil.) 

[Cy. Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds, p. 57 (1891).] 

Genus ODONTOPTERYX. 

Owen, Journ. Geol. Soc. xxix. p. 511 (1873). 

Odontopter3rx toliapica. 

Odontopteryx toliapica, Owen, ut supra ; Lydekker, t. c. p. 57. 

The Toothed Cormorant (extinct). 

Hall. Lower Eocene, Isle of Sheppey. 
1287 a. Cast of head. Purchased. 

Order II. HERODIONES *. 

ICf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 27.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C. Sj)inal bare tract reaching far up the neck. 

D. Mandible not ])roduced and recurved behind its articulation 

with the quadrate. 

Suborder I. ARDEM f. 
\Cf. Sharpe, Review, p. 75.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C. Mandible not produced and recurved behind its articulation 

with the quadrate. 

D. Interclavicle projecting conspicuously within the angle of 

the fuKcula. 

E. Spinal bare tract reaching far up the neck : no lateral bare 

tract. 

F. A large jwwder-down patch on each side of the rump. 

* " Pelargifornies," Sharpe, Review, p. 7o. Cf. Reichenow, J. f, 0. 1877, 
p. 13 ; Ridgway, Bull. Survey Terr. iv. p. 219. 

t Cf. Shufeldt, Journ. Comp. Med. 1889, art. 15, pp. 1-2G ; id. t. c. art. 18, 
pp. 1-31 ; id. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus. x. p. 38-5. Cf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 27 ; 
Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mus. p. 60 (1891). 



ARDEJS. 273 

Genus ARDEA. 
Brisson, Orn. v. p. 391 (1760). 

Ardea cinerea. 

Ai'dea cinerea, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 236 (1766) ; Seebohra, 
Hist. Brit. B. ii. p. 408 (1884). 

The Common Heron. 

Hah. Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

1288. Articulated skeleton. 0. C. 1313. 

1289. Articulated skeleton. 0. C. 1313 b. 

1290. Skeleton. 0. C. 1313 a. Stores, 18^8. 

1291. Half of skull, longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1315 c. 

Purchased. 

1292. Skull, longitudinally bisected. O. C. 1315. Picrcha-ied. 
1293,1294. Skulls. 0. C. 1314, 1314 a. Purchai^ech 

1295. Skull. O. C. 1314 c. Purchased. 
1295 a. Skull. Purchased. 

1296. Sternum, witb shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. Leadenhall Market. S. S. 576. 

Presented hi/ Prof. Floioer, F.R.S. 

1297. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. O. C. 1313 c. 

1298. Half of pelvis. O.C. 1315 b. Purchased. 

Ardea purpurea* 

Ardea pitrjpurea, Linnajus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 326 (1766); Seebohm, 
Hist. Brit. B. ii. p. 473(1884); Meyer, Abbild. Vogol-Skelet. 
i. Taf. Ixxiii. (1890). 

The Purple Heron. 

Ilab. Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

1299. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 840. Purcha-wl. 

PART III. X 



274 HERODIONES. 

Ardea alba. 

Ardea alha, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat, i. p, 239 (1766) ; Seebohm, Hist. 
Brit. B. ii. p. 477 (1884). 

The Great White Hebon. 

Hah. Europe and the greater part of Asia. 

1300. Skull. 0. C. 1316. Hunterian. 

Ardea melanopus. 

Ardea melanopus, "Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. G60. 

Herodias melanopus, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 304 (1865). 

The Spotless Egret. 

Hah. Australia. 

1301. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left cora- 

coid and scapula. S. S. 910. From Clarence River, 
N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsay). 

Presented }>y P. L. Sdater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Ardea egretta. 

Ardea egretta, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. 629 (1788) ; A. 0. U. 
Check-1. N. Amer. B. p. 136 (1886). 

The American Egret. 

Hah. Temperate and Tropical America, and throughout Cen- 
tral and Southern America. 

1302. Sternum. S. S. 1287. 

Presented hy the Smithsoiiian Institution. 

1303. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

1286. Presented hy the Sniith.^onian Institution. 

Ardea plumifera. 

Herodias plumiferus, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, p. 221. 
Herodias egrettoides, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 303 (1865). 

The Plumed Egret. 

Hah. Australia. 



ARDK.E. 275 

1304. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. From Clarence 
River, N. S. Wales. 0. C. 1316 c. 

Presented hij Dr. E. P. Ramsaij. 

Ardea herodias. 

Ardea herodias, Linuaaus, !Syst. Nat. i. p. 237 (17G0) ; A. 0. U. 
Check-1. N. Amer. B. p. 135 (1886). 

The Great Bltje Heron. 

Ilah. North America south to the northern parts of South 
America, and the West Indies. 

1305. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 1285. 

Prei^ented hjj the SmitJisonian Instltulion. 

1306. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus DEMIEGRETTA. 

Blyth, J. A. 8, Beug. xv. p. 372 (1840). 

Demiegretta sacra. 

Ardm sacra, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. 641) (1788). 
Demiegretta sacra, Salvadori, Orn. Pap. iii. p. 34-5 (1882). 

The Eastern E/Eef-Hbron. 

Ilah. Indian and Australian regions. 

1307. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From the Solomon 
Islands. Presented by P. L. Sclater, E.oj., P./x'.S. 

Genus ARDETTA. 
Gray, List Gen. JJ. p, 13 (1842). 

Ardetta minuta. 

Ardea minuta, LiniUDUS, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 240 (1766). 
Botaurus minutits, tSeebohin, Hist. Brit. ]5. ii. p. 510 (1884). 

The Little Bittern. 

Ilah. Central and Southern Europe to Central Asia. 

T 2 



276 HERODIONES. 

Ardetta minuta. 

1308. Skeleton. 0. C. 1318 B. ParchaRed. 

1309. Skeleton. O.C. 1318 a. Yarrell Collection. 

1310. Skull. 0. C. 1318. Purchased. 

1311. Sternnm of female, with shoiilJer-girdle. S. S. 1471. 

Presented hi/ P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.P.S. 

Ardetta exilis. 

Ardea exilk, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. pt. 2, p. 645 (1788). 
Botaurus exilis, A. 0. U. Check-1. N. Amer. B. p. 134 (1886). 

The Least Bittern. 

JIah. Temperate North America to Brazil and the West 
Indies. 

1312. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. North America. S. S. 

1280. Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

Ardetta flavicollis. 

Ardea Jlavicollis, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 701 (1790). 
Butorides flavicollis, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 315 (1865). 

The Yellow-necked Mangroye-Bittern. 

Hah. Australia. 

1313. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. From Clarence 

River, N. S. Wales. 0. C. 1316 d. 

Presented hy Dr. E. P. Pant say. 

Genus BUBULCUS. 
Bp. Consp. Syst. Orn. p. 37 (1854). 

Bubulcus bubulcus. 

Ardea bubulcus, Audouin, Expl. Somm. Ois. de I'Egypte, i. p. 298, 
pi. 8. fig. 1 (1825) ; Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. ii. p. 492 (1884). 

The Buff-backed Heron. 

Hah. Southern Europe and Africa. 



AKDE^. 277 

1314. Skull. From Egypt. U. C. 1310 e. 

Presented hy Prof. Flower, F.R.S. 

1315. Steriiuin, with sliouklcr-oirJle. From Nepal. S. S. 1851. 

Presented (>i/ />. //. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genus BUTORIDES. 
Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. As. Soc. p. 2bl (lS4'J). 

Butorides virescens. 

Ardea virescens, Linnteus, ISyst, Xat. i. p. 238 (1766) ; A. 0. U. 
Check-1. N. Amer. B. p. 137 (1886). 

The Green Heron. 

Hab. North America to the northern partri of South America 
and the West Indies. 

1316. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1284. 

Presented b>/ the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus NYCTICORAX. 

Rafinesque, Analyse, p. 71 (1815). 

Nycticorax caledonicus. 

Ardea caledonica, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 679 (1790). 
Nyctkorax caledonicus, Gould, Handb. B. Ausfcr. ii. p. 311 (1865). 

The Nankeen Night-Heron. 

Hab. Australia. 

1317. Sternum of male, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

From ('larence River, N. S. Wales {E. P. Ranisai/) . S. S. 
915. Presented bij P. L. Sclater, Es</., F.Ii.S. 

Nycticorax nsevius. 

Ardea ncevia, Boddaert, Tabl. PL Enl. p. bij (1783). 
Nyctkorax ncvins, Baird, Brewer, & Ridgway, Water-Bu'ds N. 
Amer. i. p. 55 (1884). 

The Black-crowned Night-Heron. 



278 HERODIONES. 

Nycticorax nsevius. 

llah. ISTorthern und Central America. 

1318. Sternum of male, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

S. S. 14G4. Presented hijthe Smithsonian Institution. 

Nycticorax, sp, 

1319. [Skeleton. 0. C. 131b c. Stores, 1868. 



Genus BOTAURUS. 
Brisson, Orn. v. p. 444 (1760). 

Botauras stellaris. 

Ardea stellaris, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 1, p. 239 (1766), 
Botaurus stellaris, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. ii. p. 503 (1884). 

The Common Bittern. 

Hah. Europe and Northern A&iu. 

1320. Skeleton, 0. C, 1317. South Collection. 

1321. Cranium, 0. C. 1317 b. 

1322. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula, S. S. 1830. 

Ilunterian. 

1323. Sternum, with right scapula and furcula. 0. C. 1317 a. 

Botaurus lentiginosus. 

Ardea lentiginosa, Montagu, Orn. Diet. Suppl, (1813). 

Botaurus lentiginosus (Mont,), Baird, Brewer, & Eidgw. Water- 

Birds N, Amer. i. p, 67 (1884) ; A. 0. U.Check-1. N. Amor. B. 

p. 134 (1886). 

The American Bittern. 

Hah. Temperate North America to Central America and the 
West Indies. 

1324. Sternum. O. C. 1317 c. 

Presented l>ji the Smithsonian Institution. 



BALiENICIPITIDES. 279 

Genus CANCHROMA. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 233 (1766). 

Canchroma cochlearia. 

Canchroma coclilearia, Liimajus, t. c. p. 233 (1766) ; Sclater «& 
Salvin, Xomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 126 (1873). 

The Boat-bill. 

Hah. Central America and Tropical South America. 

1325. Skeleton. 0. C. 1311. South Collection. 

1326. Skull. 0. C. 1312. From the British JlHseiim. 

Suborder II. BALyENlCIPITIDES* . 

[Cy. Sharpe, Review, p. 75.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C. Mandible not produced beyond its articulation with i\w 

quadrate. 

D. Culmen grooved. 

E. Toes without basal membrane. 

F. Spinal bare tract reaching far up the neck. 

Geuus BAL.SNICEPS. 

Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 1, pi. xxxv. 

Balaeniceps rex. 

Balcmiceps rex; Gould, I. c. ; Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. 
p. 727 (1884). 

The Whale-headed Stokk. 

Ilah. Africa. 

1327. Articulated skeleton. O. ('. 1312 a. Prepared from a 
specimen brought by Mr. Petherick from the Upper Nile, 
which died in the Zoological Gardens in 1 ^^6 1 . Purchased. 

* Cf. Parker, P. Z. S. 1800, p. 324 ; Reinh. t. c. p. 877 ; Bartlett, P. Z. S. 
1801, p. 131 ; Parker, Trans. Z. S. iv. pp. 269-351, pis. 64-67 (1802) ; Stej- 
neger, Stand. Nat. Hist. Birds, p. 172; Beddard, P. Z. S. 1888, pp. 284-290. 



280 HERODIONES. 



Suborder III. SCOPl *. 
\0f. Sharpe^ Review, p. 75.] 

A. Piilate tlesniognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C. Mandible not produced and recurved behind its articulation 

with the quadrate. 

D. No interclavicular process within the angle of the furcula. 

E. Flexor inrfovan,^ digitorum not leading to hallux. 

F. Bare tracts on the neck well defined. 
(1. No powder-down patches. 

Geuus SCOPUS. 
Brisson, Orn. v. p. 292 (1760). 

Scopus umbretta. 

tScopus umbretta, Gmelin, 8yst. Xat. ii. p. 618 (1788) ; Sharpe, ed. 
Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 725 (1884) ; Holub & Pelz. Beitr. Orn. 
Siidafr. pp. 277-286, cum fig. 

The Hammer-head. 

IJah. Africa. 
1328. Skeleton. 0. C. 1313 a. Purchased. 



Suborder IV. CICOJSfllt 
\_Cf. Sharpe, Eeview, p. 75.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent. 

C. Mandible not produced and recurved behind its articulation 

with the quadrate. 

D. No interclavicular process within the angle of the furcula. 

E. Flexor perforans digitorum not leading to hallux. 

F. No lateral bare tracts on the neck. 

G. No powder-down patches. 

* Cf. Seebohni, Classif. B. p. 27 ; Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist, Birds, 
p. 170; Beddard, P. Z. S. 1884, pp. 543-oo3. 
t Cy". Secbohm, Classif. B. p. 27. 



CICONIID^. 281 

Family (aCONIID^. 

Geuus CICONIA. 
Brisson, Oru. v, p. ;ini (1760). 

Ciconia ciconia. 

Ardea ciconia, Linnseus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 235 (1766). 
Ciconia alba, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. ii. p. 525 (1884). 

The White Stork. 

IlaJi. Europe and Central Asia, wintering in Africa. 

1329. Articulated skeleton (atlas and axis wanting). 0. C. 1304. 

South Collection. 

1330. Skull. 0. C. 1305. Purchased. 

1331. Skull of nuile. Germany. Purchased. 

Genus LEPTOPTILUS. 

Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 583 (1831). 

Leptoptilus dubius. 

Ardea duhia, Gmelin, Syst. Xat. i. p. 024(1788). 
Leptoptilus anjala (Lath.), Gates, ed. Hume's Nests & Eggs Ind. 
B. iii. p. 261 (1890). 

The Indian Adjutant. 

JIah. India and the Burmese countries. 

1332. Articulated skeleton. 0. C. 1306. 

Presented by Vr. Henderson. 



1332 A. Skeleton. 0. C. 1309 A. Stores. 

1333. Skull. 0. C. 1307. 

Presented hxj Sir Everard Home, F.R.S. 

1334. Skull. O. C. 1308 a. Purchased. 

1335. Skull. 0. C. 1308 b. 

Presented hy Sir Everard Home, F.P.S. 

1336. Sternum, wanting left coracoid and scapula. S. S. 717. 



282 



HERODIONES. 



Leptoptilus dubius. 

1337. Sternum of female, with shoukler-girdle. 0. C. 1308 C. 

Presented hy Dr. John Anderson, F.R.S. 

1338. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Nepal. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

1339. Right and left metacarpals. 0. C. 1308. Hunterian. 

1340. Sacrum and pelvis, longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1306 a. 

1341. Femur, longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1307 a. 

1342. Right and left tibia and fibula. 0. C. 1307 b. (The right 

one mounted in separate series.) 

1343. Right and left humerus, coracoid, and metatarsus, the left 

humerus and coracoid longitudinally bisected. 0. C 
1107, 1108, 1108 a, 1108 b. Hunterian. 

1344. Various bones. From Nepal. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Leptoptilus crumeniferus. 

Ciconia crumenifira, Cuvier, Mus. Paris. 

Leptoptilus crumeidfera, Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 734 
(1884). 

The African Adjutant or Marabou. 

Hah. Africa. 

1345. Articulated skeleton. 0. C. 1309. Purchased. 



Genus MYCTERIA. 
Liuna3us, Syst. Nat. i. p. 232 (1700). 

Mycteria australis. 

Mycteria australis, Latham, Ind. Orn. Suppl, p. Ixiv (1801). 
Xenorhynclius australis, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 293 (I860). 

The Australian Jabiru. 



PLATALE^. 283 

Hah. Australia and south coast of New Guinea. 

1346. Mandibles, with horny sheath. 0. 0. 1310 a. 

1347. iSternum, with right coracoid and scapula. Clarence 

River, N. S. Wales {E. P. Eamscuj). S. S. 1070. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



Mycteria senegalensis. 

Myctena senegalensin, Shaw, Trans. Liun. Soc. v. p. 32 (1800) ; 
Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 731 (1884). 

The African Jabiru. 

Hab. Africa. 

1348. Skull, with hyoid arch. 0. 0. 1309 B. 

From the ZooUnjical Society. 

1349. Skull. 0. C. 1310 B. Stores, liHid. 



Suborder V. PLATALEJE*. 
[C/. Sharpe, Review, p. 75.] 

A. Pahite desmognathous. 

B. Basipter\-goid processes absent. 

C. Nasals schizorhinal. 

D. Posterior angle of mandible recurved. 

E. Occipital foramina present. 

F. Edge of cranium above orbits truncate, indicating the position 

of the nasal glands. 

G. Sternum with four posterior notches. 

H. Spinal feather-tract not defined on the back. 



* Cf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 28; Stejneger, Staud. Nat. Hist. Birds, 
p. 158. 



284 HEEODIOKES. 



Family PLATALEIDiE. 

Genus PLATALEA. 
Liunteus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 231 (1766). 

Platalea leucorodia. 

Platalea leucorodia, Linnaeus, t. c. ; Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. i, 
p. 514 (1 884). 

The Spoonbill. 

Hab. Locally distributed throughout Central and Southern 
Europe and Northern Asia. 

1350. Skeleton. 0. C. 1301. South Collection. 
1350 a. Skeleton. 0. C. 1302. Purchased. 

1351. Skeleton. 0. C. 1302 a. Hunterian. 

1362. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 841. 

Purchased. 

1353. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1301 a. 

Hunterian, 

1354. Sternum. Stores. 

Platalea regia. 

Platalea regia, Gould, Proc. Zool, Soc. 1837, p. 106 ; id. Handb. 
B. Austr. ii. p. 287 (1865). 

The Royal Spoonbill. 

Hah. Australia. 

1355. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1302 c. 

Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

1356. Sternum of female, with right coracoid and scapula. From 

(.'larence River, N. S. AYales {E. P. Pamsay) . S. S. 914. 
Presented hy P. L. Sdaicr, Esq., F.R.S. 



TANTALll)^. 285 



Platalea flavipes. 

PlataJea flavipes, Gould, Proc. Zool. 8oc. 1837, p. 100. 
Platihis flavijies, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 288 (1865). 

The Yellow-legged Spoonbill. 

Hah. Eastern and Southern Australia. 

1357. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1302 b. 
From Clarence River, N. S. Wales. 

Presented hy Dr. E. P. Pamsaij. 



Family TANTALID^. 

Genus TANTALUS. 
Linnceus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 240 (1766). 

TantaluS) sp. 
1358. Skull. 0. 0. 1303 a. Stores, 1868. 



Genus PSEUDOTANTALUS. 

Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Xat. Mus. v. p. 550 (1882). 

Pseudotantalus ibis. 

Tantalus ibis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 241 (1766); Heuglin, Orn. 
Xordost-Afr. iii. p. 1129 (1870). 

The African Wood-Ibis. 

Hah. Africa. 
1359. Skull. 0. V. 1303 Purchased, 



280 HERODIONES. 

Family IBIDID^. 

Genus GERONTICUS. 

Wagler, Tsis, 1832, p. 1232. 
Geronticus, sp. 

1360. Skeleton (described as J)fii,men.ius arcuatus, Cat. p. 242). 

0. C. 1293. South Collection. 

1361. Skull. 0. C. Io03 D. ' Stores, 1868. 

Genus CARPHIBIS. 
Reichenbach, Natiirl. Syst. Vog. p. xiv (18.52). 

Carphibis spinicoUis. 

Ibis spmicollis, Jameson, Ediab. New Phil. Journ. xxxvii. p. 213. 
Carphibis sjjinicollis, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 282 (1865). 

The Straw-necked Ibis. 

Ifah. Australia and South Coast of New Guinea. 

1368. Skull. New South Wales. O.C. 1303 c. [Longitudinally 
bisected ; one half exhibited in Separate Series.] 

Presented hi/ Dr. E. P. Pamsay. 

1363. Sternum of female, with right coracoid and scapula. 
Clarence River {E. P. Pamsay). S. S. 909. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus IBIS. 
Lacepede, Mem. I'lnst. iii. p. .518 (1801). 

Ibis strictipennis. 

ibis strictipennis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 106. 
Thresl-iornis strictipennis, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. ji. 284 
(1865). 

The Australian Sacred Ibis. 

II<xh. Australia. 



LAMELLIROSTRES. 287 

1364. Sternnm of male, with rioht coracoid, scapula, and fnrcnla. 

C^larcnce River [E. P. Bnmsaif). S. S, 1G<;)8. 

Presented h;i P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.P.S. 

Genus GUARA. 
Eeichenbach, Sj'st. Av. 1852, p. xiv. 

Guara rubra. 

Tantalus ruber, LinnD3us, Syst. Nat. i. p. 241 (1766). 
Guara rubra, A. 0. U. Check-1. N. Araer. B. p. 132 (1886). 

The Scarlet Ibis. 

Hub. Northern shores of South America, extending to Cen- 
tral America and the West Indies. 

1365. Mandibles, with horny sheath. 0. G. 1295. 

From the British Museum. 

Genus FALCINELLUS. 

Vieillot, Analyse, p. 47 (1816). 

Falcinellus falcinellus. 

Tantalus fahinellus, Linnasus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 241 (1766). 
Falcinellus ic/neiis, Gould, Handb, B. Austr. ii. p. 286 (1865). 

The Glossy Ibis. 

Hab. Australia. 

1366. Sternum of male, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

Port Denison, Queensland (^F. P.Pamsai/). S. S. 1687. 
Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



Order III. LAMELLIROSTEES. 

[C/. Scebohm, Classif. B. p. 20.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Young, when hatched, covered with down, and able to run 

in a few hours. 



288 LAMELLIROSTRES. 

Suborder I. PHCENICOPTERL 

iCf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 21 ; Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist, 
p. 153 ; Sharpe, Review, p. 76.] 

A. Palate desmognatlious. 

B. Basipterygoid processes absent or very rudimentary. 

C. Nasals holorhinal. 

D. Mandible much produced and recurved behind its articula- 

tion with the quadrate. 

E. Lachrymal nasal region elongated. Frontalia narrow, not 

covering the orbits above. 

F. Grrooves for orbital glands present. 

G. Cseca well developed. 

H. Bill with lamellae, like a Duck. 



Family PHCENICOPTERID^.. 

Genus PHCENICOPTERUS *. 

Brisson, Orn. vi. p. 532 (1760). 

Phoenicopterus roseus. 

Phoenicopterus roseus, Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-As. ii. p. 201 (1811); 
Dresser, B. Ear. vi. p. 343. pi. 410 (1879). 

The Common Elamingo. 

Hah. Southern Europe, the entire Continent of Africa down 
to Cape Colony, and Asia as far east as India. 

1367. Skeleton. 0. C. 1278 a. [Many of the bones exhibited 

in the Separate Series.] Presented hy Lord Lilford. 

1368. Skull. O.C. 1278 b. Purchased. 

1369. Cranium of specimen 1367. S. S. 2187. 

Presented by Lord Lilford. 

1370. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 994. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

* Cf. Eyton, Ostpol. Av. pi. 4 Z- (skeleton of P. ruber), pi. 29. fig. 2. 



AysKRANAl'Ili-E. 289 

Phoenicopterus ruber *. 

Phoenicopterus ruber, Linnceus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 230 (17^(1) ; I»;iinl, 
Brewer, & Ridgw. Water-B. X. Amer. i. p. 415 (188-t). 

The American "Flamingo. 

Hah. Atlantic coasts of Tropical and Subtropical America, 
from Florida Keys to Northern South America and the Bermudas. 

1371. Articulated skeleton. O. C. 1278. Purchased. 

1372. Skull. 0. C. 1279. Iluntenan. 

Suborder 11. AXSERES\. 

[Seebohm, Classif. B. p. .31 ; Sliarpe, Review, p. 7().] 

A. Palate desmocrnathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes on the rostrum of the basisphenoid 

articulating with the pterygoids as near the palatines as 
possible. 

C. Maxillo-palatines completely coalesced across the middle 

line. 

D. Mandible produced and r.'curved behind its articulation 

with the quadrate. 

E. Sternum with only one shallow notch on the posterior 

margin. 

Family AXSERAXATID.E. 

Genus ANSERANAS. 
Lesson, Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 418 (1^^28). 

Anseranas melanoleucus. 

Anaa melanoleuca, Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. Ixix (1801). 
Anseranas mdanoJeucus, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. ]>. 352 
(i860). 

The Semipalmatisd Goose. 
Ilal). Australia. 

* Cf. Shufeldt, Science, 1889, pp. 224, 225. 

t Cf. Eyton, * Monogi-aph of the Anatidte,' 1838; Ilolubandvon Pelzelii, 
Orn. tSiidafr. pp. 314-331, cum fig. (skulls of various Ducks and Geese) ; 
Shufeldt, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. xi. p. 215. 

TAirr HI. u 



200 LAMELLIROSTRKS. 

Anseranas melanoleucus. 

1373. ►Sternum of male, with right coracoiJ and scapula. From 
Clarence River, New South Wales {E. P. liamsaij). 
S. S. 1071. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.li.S. 



Family PLECTROPTERID^. 

Genus PLECTROPTERUS. 

Stephens, Gen. Zool. xii. pt. 2, p. G (1824). 

Plectropterus gambensis. 

Anas gamhensis, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 195 (1766). 
Plectropterus gamhensis, Finsch & Hartl. Yog. Ost-Afrika, p. 802 

(1S70) ; Holub & Pelz. Beitr. Oru. Siidafr. pp. 310-321, cum 

fig. 

The Spur-wixged Goose. 

Hal). Africa. 

1374. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2163. 

From the Zoological Socief/j. 



Family ANATID^E. 
Subfamily C E R E o P s i x ^. 

Genus CNEMIORNIS *. ; 

Owen, Trans. Zool. 8oc. v. p. 396 (18(J5). 

Cnrmtornt^ calfitrau^. 

Cnemiorms calcitrans, Owen, ut sujrrd ; Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. 
Brit. Mus, p. 99 (1S91). 

The New-Zealand Goose (extinct). 
Ilab. New Zealand. 

1375. Cast of leg-hones. 

* Cf. Lydekker, Cat. Fos.*il B. Rrit. ^Mus. p. 90 (1801). 



AXATID.E. 21»l 

Genus CERE0PSI3. 
Latham, Iiul. Orn., Suppl. p. Ixvii (ISOl). 

Cereopsis novse-hollandiae. 

Cereopsis noim-hoUandire, Latham, lud. Orn., Suppl. p. Ixvi 
(1801) ; Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 350 (18G5). 

The Cereopsis Goose. 

IlaJ). Tasmania, Victoria, and Soutli Australia. 

1376. Skeleton. 0. C. 12t;2. Gould Collerthnu 

1377. Articulated skeleton. Pin-cliaseil. 

1378. Sternum of female, with rio'lit coracoid, scapula, and furcula 

{f^J. P. Ramsa>j). S. S. 911. 

Presented hij P. />. Sclatcr, Esq., F.R.S. 

1379. Sternum, with shoulder-oirdle, of female. 

From llw Zoological Sorictij. 

Suhfamily A N s K R i x .e. 

Genus ANSER. 
Brisson, Orn. vi. p. 201 (17C()). 

Anser segetum. 

Anas segetum, Gmelin, Syst. Xat. i. p. 512 (1788). 

Anser segetum, Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 30)5, pi. 412 (1879). 

The Bean-Goose. 

JIah. Europe and Asia, mi^ratiii;j; r-outh in winter. 

1380. Sternum of male. From the Zoological Society. 

Anser cinereus *. 

A)iser cinereus, Meyer, Tasclienb. deutsch. Vogclk. ii, p. 552 
(1810); Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 355, pi. 411 (1878). 

The Grey-lag Goose. 

* (/. A. B. Meyer, .\hhikl. \'o;.rel-Skel. pi. oxvii. (skeleton). 

u 2 



292 LAMKLLIROSTRES. 

Anser cinereus. 

Hah. Throughout the Palfearctic Reoion, ranging south in 
\Yinter to North Africa and India. 

1381. Sterniun of male. From the Zoological Society. 

1382. Sternum of female, with right coracoid and scapula. 

S. S. 868. Purchased. 

Anser, sp. 

1383. Skeleton. O. C. 12<>0a. Ilunfer/'an. 

Anser domesticus. 

1384. Skull. Purchased. 

1385. Skull. From Germany. Purchased. 

1386. Skull of young, disarticulated. 0. C. 1260 b. Purchased. 

1387. Vertebral column and pelvis. 0. C. 1260 c. Purchased. 

1388. Hyoidean arch. 

Anser cygnoides *. 

Anas ojgnoides, Liauteus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 194 (1766), 

Anser ci/rfnoides, David & Oustalet, Ois. Chine, p. -493 (1877). 

The Chinese Goose. 

Hah. Eastern Siberia, China, Japan, and the Kurile Islands. 

1389. Skeleton of male, from Shanghai. 0. C. 1261 A. 

Presented hy Consul Simithoe, F.P.S. 

1390. Sternum of female, \vi th right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

S. S. 2049. Prom the Zoological Society. 

Gtnus BERNICLA. 
Brisson, Orn. vi. p. ,300 (1760). 

Bernicla, sp. 

1391. Skeleton. 0. C. 1260d. Stores. 

* Q' T'jton, ^tdiiogr. Anat. pi. td p. IC) (skelptoii). 



ANATID^-. 2\)o 

1392. Steriuiiii. O. C. 12(50 E. Stores. 

1393. Pelvis. 0. C. 12(;0 F. Stores. 



Bernicla antarctica. 

Alias aniarctka, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. o')5 (1788). 
Jicrnicla (intarctica, Scl. & Salv. Nomeucl. Av. Neotrop. p. 128 
(1873). 

The Antarctic Brent-Goose. 

Hah. Patagonia and the Falkland Islands. 

1394. Skeleton. 0. C.1260g. From the Falkland Islands. 

F resented hy E. A. Ilolmsted, Esq. 



Bernicla sandwichensis. 

Bernicla sandvicensis, A'igors, Proc. Zool. Hoc. 1834, p. 43. 
Cloephaga sandtvichensis, Eyton, Monogr. Anat. p. 81 (1838). 

The Sandwich-Island Goose. 

Hah. Sandwich Islands. 

1395. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2514. 

Purcliased. 



Genus CHLOEPHAGA*. 

Eyton, Monogr. Anat. pp. 13, 81 (1838). 

Chloephaga magellanica. 

Anas mwjtllaniat, Umt'lin, Syst. Xat. ii. p. o^Jh (1788). 
CJtloephaga maydlanica, Sclater & Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Nootr. 
p. 128 (1873). 

The Magellanic Goose. 

llab. (Jhili, Patagonia, and the Falkland islands. 
1396. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2;j15. J'nrcJiased. 
* Cf. Shufeldt, Pi-oc. U..S. Nat. Mas. 1687, p. 080 (iig. -jf skull). 



294 LAMELLIROSTRES. 

Genus CHENALOPEX. 

Dumont, Diet. Sci. Nat. viii, p. 393 (1S17). 

Chenalopex aegyptiaca *. 

Anas cegyptiaca, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 107 (1766). 
Chenalopece cegyptiacus, Shelley, B. Egypt, p. 279 (1872). 

The Egyptian Goose. 

Ilab. Egypt and Nubia. 
1397. Skeleton. 0. C. 12GI. Brookes Collection. 



Subfamily C Y G N I X M. 

Ueuus CYGNUS. 
Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb. Th. ii. p. -104 (1803). 

Cygnus musicus f. 

Cyr/nus musicus, Bechstein, Gemeiun. Naturg. Deutschl. iii. 
^p. 830 (1809); Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 441, pi. 419. fig. 4, 
head (1880). 

The Whooper S\van. 

]/ab. Europe and Asia. 

1398. Articulated skeleton, v/itli trachea in si fit. 0. C. 1241. 

JJj'ookes Collection. 

1399. Articulated skeleton (without trachea). 0. C. 1242. 

South Collection. 

1400. Skull. 0. C. 1243. Ilunterian. 

1401. Skull. 0. C 1242 a. 

1402. Bones of the trunk of a " Wild Swan " (rioht side of sternum 

removed to show the convoluted trachea). Ilunterian. 

* Cf. Eyton, Monogr. Anat. pi. to p. 22 (skeleton), 
t Cf. Eyton, ibid. pi. to p. 18 (skeleton). 



AN'ATIlt.K. 21)5 

1403. ^^t(n-nnin, with right coracoitl, scaj)ul;i, and i'liivula. S. S. 

2021. Stores. 

1404. Stcnmin, with sliouldcr-girdle ami tracliea. 0. 0. 12-18. 

1405. Sternum and shoulder-girdle, with traclu^i. 0. C. 1247. 

Brookea Collection . 

1406. Sternum. 0.0.1248 a. 



Cygnus olor. 

Anas olor, Gmclin, 8yst. Nat. ii. p. 5ul (ITSiS). 
Cijijwis olor, Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 410, pi. 418 (1880). 

The Mute Swan. 

Hub. Europe and Asia. 

1407. Skeleton. O.C. 1251b. Prfsenfed h>j Mr. G. Searson. 

1408. Articulated skeleton. 0. C. 1250. Ihu,ter'um. 

1409. Skull, longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1244. Ilunterian. 

1410. Skull. 0. C. 1245. Purchased. 

1411. Skull. 0. C. 1252. Ilunterian. 

1412. Skull. 0. C. 125H. Ilunterian. 

1413. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. 

1414. Left clavicle and part of loft ulna. (Sul)fossil.) 

1415. Pelvis of female. 0. (A 1245 A. 

1416. Left tarso-metatarsus, longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1259, 

Ilunterian. 

Cygnus bewickii. 

Ci/rpms hewiclii, Yarrell, Trans. Linn. Soc. xvi. p. 445 (1S33) ; 
Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 433, pi. 410. tig. 3, head (1880). 

Bewick's Sw^\n. 

I/ah. Northern Euroi)e and Asia to Ja[)an. 

1417. Sternum and shoulder-girdle, with trachea. O.C. 1249. 

Presented /"/ /fr. Leach. 



296 LAMELLIROSTKES, 

Cygnus bewickii. 

1418. ►sternum, with coracoids and furcula, a?; well as entire 
trachea. 0. C. 1249 c. 

1419,1420. Sterna, with part of trachea. 0. (J. 1249 a, 1249 b- 
(The keel removed, so as to show the convolution ot 
trachea.) 

1421. Sternum, with lower part of keel removed to show trachea. 

0. C 1112. Ilunteiiaa. 

1422. Sternum. 

Cygnus buccinator *. 

Cygnus buccmator, llichardson, Faun. Bor.-Amcr. ii. p. 4(54 (lb31). 
Olor buccmator, Baird, Brewer, & Kidgway, Water-Birds N. Amer. 
i. p. 430 (1884). 

The Trumpeter Swan. 

Jlah. Chiefly the interior of North America : accidental in 
England. 

1423. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle and trachea in situ. 0. C. 

1248 B. From t/ie Zoolooical Societi/. 

1424. Sternum (Sni. no. 6404). 

Presented Inj tlie Smitlisonian histitatioii. 

Cygnus atratus. 

Anas atrata, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. S34 (1790). 
Chenopis atrata, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 340 (1865). 

The Black Swan. 

llah. Australia and Tasmania. 

1425. Articulated skeleton, mounted. 0. C. 125.). Parchaifed. 

1426. Articulated skeleton, mounted. O. C. 125(5. 

Pruuhxa Colled loii. 

1427. Skeleton. 0. C. 1258 a. Stores. 
1427 a. Skeleton (imperfect). O.C. 1251a. Stores. 

* For sternum, rf. Murie, P. Z. tS. ISO", p. 12. 



AN'ATlD.t:. 297 

1428. Stcrnnni and shoulder-ojinlle. 0. C. 1258. 

Freseiitcd by Sir Everavd Home., Bart., F.R.S. 

1429. Skull. 0. C. 1257. Purchased. 

Genus DENDROCYGNA. 

Swainson, C'lassif. B. ii. p. 305 (1837). 

Dendrocygna eytoni. 

Leptotarsh f/ytoni, Gould, in Eyton's Mon. Anat. p. Ill (1838). 
Dendrocijfjna eytoni, Gould, Handb. B. Auetr. ii. p. 375 (1865). 

Eyton's Tree-Duck. 

Hah. Xearly the whole of Austnilia. 

1430. Sternum of nuile, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoohxjical Society. 

Dendrocygna fulva. 

Anasftdva, Gmclin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. 530 (1788). 
Dendrocygna fulva, Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Water-Birds N. 
Amer. i. p. 484 (1884). 

The Fulvous-bellied Tree-Duck. 

Hah. Southern borders of the United States, Central and 
South America. 

1431. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, of male. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Dendrocygna javanica. 

Anasjavanicn, Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soe. xiii. p. 199 (1822). 
Dendroajgna javanica, Gates, B. Brit. Burni. ii. p. 273 (1883). 

The Lesser Whistling Teal. 

Hah. Indian Peninsula and Ceylon, the Indo-Chinese countries, 
the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

1432. Matural skeleton of fcmah^ : mounted. 

Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 

1433. Skull of male. Presented by Mr. J. Abrahams. 



298 LAMELLIROSTKES. 

Dendrocygna arborea. 

Anas arhorea, Linnaius, Syst. Xat. i. p. 207 (1766). 
Bcndrociiyna arborea, Sclater & Salvin, Nomencl. Av, Neotr. 
p. 129^1873) ; Cory, Birds West Indies, p. 260 (1889). 

The Whistling Tree-Duck. 

Ilah. Antilles. 

1434. Sternum, with right coracoiJ, scapula, and furcula. From 
Jamaica. S. S. 2023. Gosse Collection. 



Genus CAIRINA. 
Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. p. 260 (1S22). 

Cairina moschata. 

Anas moschata, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 199 (1766). 
Cairina moschata, Sclater & Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Iv'eotr. p. 129 
(1873). 

The Muscovy Duck. 

Hah. South America. 

1435. Skeleton. O.T. 1265 a. JIunferlan. 

Genus TADORNA. 
Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. p. 260 (1822). 

Tadorna tadornoides. 

Anas tadornoides, Jardine & Selby, 111. Orn. ii. pi. 62 (c. 1830). 
Casarca tadornoides, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 361 (1865). 

The Chestnut-coloured Sheldrake. 

Ilah. New South Wales, Southern and Western Australia, 
and Tasmania. 

1436. Sternum of young male, with right coracoid, scapula, and 

furcula. From Clarence River, N. S. Wales {E. P. 
liamsaij). S. S. 1602. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



ANATID.E. 299 

Tadorna cornuta *. 

Anas cornuta, S. G. (jlmtlin, Kcise d. llussl. ii. p. iSo. pi. 18 

(1774). 
Tadorna cornuta, Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 451, pi. 420 (1878). 

The Common Sheldrake. 

Hah. Temperate and Southern jtortions of Enrope and 
Northern Asia. 

1437. Skeleton. 0. C. 12G5 B. Ilnnfenan. 

1438. Sternum^ with right coracoid, scapulaj and t'urcuhi. S. S. 

843. Fmrhai^ed. 

Geuns ANAS, 
Liunajus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 1!)4 (1706). 

Anas boscas t. 

Anas boscas, Liuus&us, .Syst. Xat. i. p. 205 (170(5) ; Dresser, B. 
Eur. vi. p. 469, pi. 422 (1873). 

The Mallard. 

Ilab. Euro}>e and North America. 

1439. Skeleton. 0. C. 1263. Stndh Collection. 

1440. Articulated skeleton of female. 

Presented l>i/ Mr. J. Alnxdiarns, 

a. Anas domcstica. 

1441. Skull of Domestic Duck. 0. C. 1263 e. 

deceived in excJuunje. 

1442. Cranium. 0. C. 1270. Presented Inj Dr. Leach. 

1443. 1444. Hyoidean arches. O. (\ 1271 b, 0. C. 1271 c. 

1445. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

84G. Pxirchased. 

1446. Skull, sternum, i>elvis, and hones of the right wing of a 

nestling. 0. C. 1263 f. Purchased. 

* C'f. Eyton, Monogr. Anat. pi. to p. 25 (skeleton). 

t Cf. Eyton, ibid. pi. to p. 45 (skeleton); A. B. Meyer, .Abbild. Vogel- 
Skelet. i. pi. cxv. (skeleton). 



300 LAMELLIEOSTRES. 

Anas boscas. 

1447. Bones ol" a iiuvvly htitcheJ iiestliiio;. O. C 1263 d. 

fnrcJiased. 

1448. Bones of trunk of '' Rouen Duck,"c? (weight 7 lb. 3oz.). 

Bred by Mr. C'rowburst of Canterbury. 0. C. 1263 C. 
Presented hij Sir Joseph Fayrer. 

Anas obscura. 

Anas ohscurd, Gmelin, Syst. Xat. ii. p. 541 (1788) ; Baird, Brewer, 
& Ridgway, Watcr-Birds X. Amer. i. p. 499 (1884). 

The Black Mallard or Dusky Duck. 

Hab. Eastern North America, west to Utah and Texas, north 
to Labrador. 

1449. Sternnni, with shoulder-girdle, of female. 

From the Zoological Society/. 



Genus QUERQUEDULA. 

Stephens, Gen. Zool. xii. pt. 2, p. 142 (1824). 

Querquedula crecca*. 

Anas crecca, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 204 (1766). 

Querquedula crecca, Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 507, pi. 426 (1871). 

The Common Teal. 

IJah. Europe and Northern Asia. 

1450. Skeleton (toes defective). 0. C. 1263 b. 

Yarrell Collection. 

1451. Sknll. O.C. 1270 b. Received in exchange. 

1452. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

2025. Stores. 

1453. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal (no. 618). 

Presented by B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

* Cf. Eyton, Monogr. Auat. pi. to p. 37 (.■•keletun) ; A. B. Meyer, Abbild. 
Vogel-Skelet. i. pi. txiv. 



ANATID.E. 301 

Querquedula falcata. 

Anas fed cata, Georgi, Reis. lluss. Reich, p. 167 '(1775). 
Querquedula falcata. Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 525, pi. 429 (1S71). 

The Ealcated Teal. 

TIah. Eastern Siberia and Ja[)an, migrating" southward in 
winter to ( 'hina. 

1454. Skeleton. From Shanghai. 0. C. 1271 k. 

Presenf&d hij Consul 7?. Sw'nihoc^ F.Ti.S. 



Querquedula carolinensis. 

Anas carolinensis, Gmelin, Syst. Xat. ii. p. 533 (1788). 
Nettion carolinensis, Baird, Brewer, & Ridgway, Water-Birds N. 
Amer. ii. p. 2 (1884). 

The American Green-winged Teal. 

Hah. Xorth America in general, migrating south as far as 
Honduras and Cuba. 

1455. Sternum of female. S. S. 1291, 

Presented hi/ the Sinitlisonian Institution. 



Genus CHAULELASMUS. 

Bonaparte, Comp. List B. Eur. & X. Amer. p. 56(1838). 

Chaulelasmus streperus. 

A7ias strepera, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 200 (1766). 
Chaulelasmus streperus, Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 487, pi. 424 (1873). 

The Gadwall. 

Ilidi. Europe, Northern Asia, and North America. 

1456. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

847. Purchased. 

1457. Sternum, -with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented loj 7?. 11. IIod<json, Esq. 



302 LAMELLIROSTRKS. 

Genus DAFILA. 
Stephens, Gen. Zool. xii. pt. 2, p. 12fi (1824). 

Dafila acuta. 

Alias acuta. Linnaeus, Sj-st. Xat. i. p. 202 (1700). 

Dnjlla acuta, Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 531, pis. 43o, 431 (1S73). 

The Pintail Duck. 

Hah. Palajarctic, Nearctic, and Indian Regions. 

1458. Skull of male. From Germany. Purchased. 

1459. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and lurcula. S. S. 

851. Pnrcliased. 

Dafila bahamensis *. 

Anas hahanunsis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 19i) (1700). 
Dafila bahamensis, Cory, Birds West Indies, p. 2(!3 (188!)). 

The Bahama Pintail Duck. 

/Ial>. Bahamas and Antilles. 

1460. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2157. 

Prom the Zoologicdl Socii'ti/. 



Genus MARECA. 
Stephens, Gen. Zool. xii. pt. 2, p. 130 (170(;). 

Mareca penelope. 

Anas penelojje, Linntcus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 202 (1700). 
Mareca penelope, Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 541, pi. 433 (1870). 

The Common Wigeon. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia ; North America. 

1461. Skeleton. Presented hy A. M. Pater son, Es(j. 

1462. Skulk O.C. 1270 a. Received in e.rduuKje. 
* Cf. A. li. Meyer, Ab))i]d. Vogel-Skelet. i. pi. cxvi. (s^keletou). 



anatid.t:. 



303 



1463. Skull. 0. C. 1271 a. Received In crelainge. 

146i. Sternum, with v\g\\\ coracoid, scapula, and f'urcula. S. S. 
^;"')(), J'inr/iaf<etl. 

Mareca americana. 

Alias americana, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. 520 (1788). 
Mareca americana, Baird, Brewer, & llidgway, Water-Birds X. 
Amer. i p. 520 (1884). 

The American Wigeon. 

Hah. North America, south to Guatemala ami Cuba. Acci- 
dental in Europe. 

1465. Sternum. Presented hy the Sm/thsoniaii I nst/hition. 

Genus SPATULA. 
Boie, Isis, 1 822, p. 504. 

Spatula clypeata. 

Anas clypeata, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 200 (1700). 
Spatula chjpeata. Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 497, pi. 425 (1873). 

The Common Shoveller. 

Hah. Europe and Asia, as well as North America. 

1466. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Es</. 

1467. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

852. Purchased. 

Spatula rhynchotis. 

Anas rJiyncJiotis, Latham, liid. Orn,, Suppl. p. Ixx (1801). 
Spahda rhynchotis, Gould, Haudb. li. Austr. ii. p. 308 (1805). 

The Australian Shoveller. 

Hah. Australia and Tasmania. 

1468. Sternum of male, with right coracoid, scapnla, and fur- 

cula. From Clarence liiver, N. S. Wales ( A\ P. Ramsay). 
S. S. ill 3. Presented hy P. L. Selatcr, Es</., F.R.S. 



30-i LAMELLIROSTRKS. 

Genus MALACORHYNCHUS. 

Ssvainson, Jonrn. Hoy. Inst. no. 4, p. 18 (1831). 

Malacorhynchus membranaceus. 

Anas membranacea, Latham, Ind. Orn., Buppl. p. Ixix (1801). 
Malacorhyncliits membranaceus, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii.p. .372 
(186.5)! 

The Pink-eyed Duck. 

Uab. Australia and Tasmania. 

1469. Sternum of male, with right coracoid, scapula, and fur- 

cula. From Clarence River, N. S. Wales (E. P. Ramm//). 
S. S. 912. Presented Inj P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus AIX. 
Boie, Isis, 1828, p. 329. 

Aix galericulata. 

Anas galericulata, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 200 (ITfiG). 
Aix galerlcutata, David & Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 501 (1877). 

The Mandarin Duck. 

Hah. Central and Southern ( *hina, niig-ratino- to Amoorland 
in summer. 

1470. Skeleton. 0. C. 1271 D. From ihr Zoolof/ical Gardens. 

1471. Sternum of female, with right coracoid, scapula, and 

furcula. S. S. 1009. Purchased. 

Aix sponsa. 

Anas sponsa, Linnttus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 207 (17GG). 
Ai.v sponsa, Baird, Brewer, & Ridgway, AVater-Birds N. Araer. 
ii.p. 11(1884). 

The Wood-Duck. 

Hah. The whole of Temperate North Ameiica. 

1472. Stermnn of male, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

S. S. 20;)8. Stores. 



ANATir>.?;. ^'*^ 

Genus FULIX. 
Suiidcvall. K. Vet. Akad. F.irhandl. Storkliolm, ISi'.G, \). 12!>. 

Fnlix cristata. 

Anas cristata. Leach, Syst. Cat. :M. .^ P.. Brit. Mus. p. ;^.n (1810). 
' Fulifjnla cristata. Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 57.3, pi. 437 (I87i>). 

The Tufted Duck. 

Hah. Europe and Nortlioni Asia, migrating southwards in 
winter. 

1473. Sternum. From Nepal. Pr^^sriif^rJ h>/ B. IL rhula-'^nn, Es>/. 

1474. Sternum, Avith slioulder-^^irdle. 0. C. 12G8 B. 

Fulix marila. 

Anas marila, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 196 (1766). 
Fulic marila, Baird, Brewer, & Bld-w. Water-Birds X. Amer. ii. 
p. 18 (1884). 

The Scaup Duck. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia. North America. 

1475. Skull of male. 0. C. 12G8 C. Eeceived in e.rehanf/r. 

1476. Sternum of female, with right coracoid, scapula, and fui-- 

cula. S. S. 849. J'urchiM'd. 

Fulix afl&nis. 

FuVajula ajjinis, Eytou, Mon. Anat. p. l')7 (1838). 
Fidix affinis, Baird, Brewer, & Eidgw. Water-Birds N. Amer. n. 
p. 22 (1884). 

The Lesser Scaup Duck. 

Hah. The whole of North America, south to Guatemala and 
the West Indies. 

1477. Sternimi of male. S. S. 1274. 

Pveseiilcd hi/ the Smithsonian Tnylll'ifion. 

PAUT 111. . ■^ 



300 LAMELLIKOSTEES. 

Fulix collaris. 

Anas collaris, Donovan, Brit. B. vi. pi. 147 (1809). 
Fulix collaris, Baird, Brewer, & Eidgw. Water-Birds N. Amer. ii. 
p. 25 (1884). 

The Ring-necked Scaup-Duck. 

Hah. North and Central America. 

1478. Sternum. Presented hy the Smithson/'an Institution. 

Genus NYROCA. 
Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. p. 2(50 (1822). 

Nyroca ferruginea *. 

Anas ferrnfjinca , Gmelin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. 528 (1788). 
Nyroca ferruginea. Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 581, pi. 438(1872). 

The White-eyed Duck. 

Hah. Europe and Asia. 

1479. Skull of female. From Prussia. Purchased. 

Nyroca australis. 

Kyroca australis, Gould, MS.; Eyton, Monogr. Anat. p. 160 
(1838) ; Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 377 (1805). 

The Australian White-eyed Duck. 

Hah. Australia and Tasmania. 

1480. Skeleton. 0. C. 1266. Gould Collection. 

Genus ^THYIA. 
Aythya, Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 5G4. 

.Sthyia ferina. 

Anas ferina, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 203 (1706). 
Fuligula ferina, Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 551, pi. 454 (1878). 

The Common Pochard. 

* Cf. Eyton, Monogv. Anat. pi. to p. 03. 



ANATID.'E. 307 

Hah. Euro])o ami Xcjrtlicni Asia. 

1481, 1482. Skulls of male and female. From Prussia. 

Pm'cluised. 

1483. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

848. Purchased. 

Genus HARELDA. 
Stephens, Gen. Zool. xii. pt. 2, p. 174 (1S24). 

Harelda glaclalis *, 

Anas r/lacuilis, Linnseus, 8yst. Xat. i. p. 203 (1760). 
Harelda r/lacialis, Dresser, B. Eur. vi, p. 617, pi. 444 (lS7o). 

The Long-tailed Duck. 

ITab. Northern Europe, Asia, and America. 

1484. Skull of male. From Prussia. Purchased. 

1485. Sternum. 8. S. 1273. 

Presented hi/ the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus SOMATERIA. 
Leach in Thorns. Ann. ot" Philosophy, xiii. p. 61 (1819). 

Somateria mollissima. 

Anas mollissima, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. IDS (1706). 
Somateria mollissima, Dresser, E. Eur. vi. p. 629, pl. 445 (1871). 

The Eider Duck. 

IlaJ). Xorth-western Europe. 

1486. Dried head of young. 0. C. 12G7. Hunterian. 

* Cf. Eyton, Monogr. Anat. pl. to p. 0."i (skeleton). 



x2 



308 LAMELLIROSTKES. 

Genus PELIONETTA. 

Xaup, Entw. Europ. Thierw. p. 107 (1829). 

Pelionetta perspicillata. 

Anas perspiciUata, Liiinajus, S^st. jN^at. i. p. 201 (17G6). 
Pelionetta perspicillata, Baird, Brewer, & llidgw. Water-Birds N. 
Amer. ii. p. 98 (1884). 

The Surf-Scoter. 

Ilah. North America. 

1487. Steruum. S. S. 1288. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

Genus CEDEMIA. 
Eleming, Bhil. Zool. ii. p. 200 (1822). 

CSdemia fusca. 

Anas fusca, Linnteus, Sj-st. Nat. i. p. 196 (1766). 
(Edemia fnsca. Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 657, pi. 448 (1877). 

The Velvet Scoter. 

Hah. Europe. 

1488. Skull (wanting pterygoids and quadrates). 0. C. 1208. 

Presented hy Dr. Leach, 

1489. Sternum, with right coraeoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

867. Pvrchased. 

Qldemia nigra. 

Anas nigra, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 196 (1766). 
(Edemia nigra. Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 663, pi. 449 (1877). 

The Common Scoter. 

JTah. Northern Europe and Asia. 
1480. Skull of male. From German v. Purchased. 



ANATII».E. 309 

1491. Stcrnuni. O. C. l2i}S A. 

1492. Sternuin, with right comeoid, scapula, and I'ureula. >S. >S. 

844. Furcliased. 

Genus BIZIURA. 
Steph. Gen. Zool. xii. pt. L^ p. 221 (L'524). 

Biziura lobata. 

Anfts lobatK, Shaw, Xat. Misc. pi. 2o5. 

Biziura lobaia, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 3S1 (16(55). 

The Musk-Duck. 

TIal. Southern and Western Australia to Tasmania. 

1493. Skeleton. 0. C. 12G4. Gould Collection. 

1494. Skeleton. 0.(5.1265. Gould Collection. 

1495. Sternum of female, with ri^ht coracoid, scapula, and 

furcula. From Clarence River, N. S. Wales {E. P. 
Mamsai/). S. S. 13(12. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, E-vj., F.R.S. 

Genus TACHYERES. 
Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. ix. p. 2-54 (1875). 

Tachyeres cinereus *. 

Anas ciiiereu, Gmelin, Syst. Xat. i. p. 500 (1788). 
Tachyeres cinereus, Scl. & Salv. Voy. ' Challenger,' ii. Birds, 
p. 107 (1880). 

The Steamer Duck. 

Hah. Falkland Ishmds and Patagonia. 

1496. Skeleton, from the Falkland Islands (the skull imperfect). 

0. C 12GG A. lluiderian, 

1497. Skeleton, from the Falkland Islands. 0. C. 12(56 B. 

lluiderian. 

* Cf. Ciiuuiui'liuni, Traus. Zuol. Soc. vii. ]ip. 19.3-001. 



310 LAMELLIROSTRES, 

Geiuis CLANGULA. 
Leach in Eoss' Voy. Expl. BafRu's Bay, App. p. xlviii (1819). 

Clangula glaucion. 

Anas glaucion, Linnseus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 201 (1760). 
Clangula glaucion, Dresser, B.Eur, vi. p. 595, j)!. 440 (1875). 

The Golden-eye. 

Hah. Northern Europe unJ North America, migrating south- 
ward in winter. 

1498. Sternum, with right coracoiJ, scapuhn, and fureuhi. S. S. 

845. . Furchasc'd. 

Clangula americana. 

Clangula americana, Bonaparte, Comp. List B. Eur. & N. Amer. 

p. 58 (1838). 
Clangula glaucion americana, Baird, Brewer, & Ridgway, Watcr- 

Birds N. Amer. ii. p. 44 (1S84). 

The American Golden-eye. 

Ilah. The whole of North America, south to Cuba in winter. 

1499. Sternum. S. S. 1290. 

Presented by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Clangnla albeola. 

Anas albeola, Liniucns, Syst. Nat. i. p. 109 (1706). 

Clangula albeola, Baird, Brewer, and llidgway, Water- Birds N. 

Amer. ii. p. 48 (1884). 

The Bupfle-headed Duck. 

Halt. North America, mioratino; south in winter to Cuba and 
Mexico. 

IfOO. Sternum. Presented hij tha Smithsowtn Institution. 



ANATID.E. 



311 



Genus MERGUS. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 1^07 (17()<))- 

Mergus merganser. 

Mergus merganser, Linnaeus, Syst, Nat. i. p. 2U8(1700) ; Dresser, 
B. Eur. vi. p. G85, pi. 452 (1875). 

The Goosander. 

JJah. Northern Europe and Asia ; North xinierica ; migrating 
southwards in winter. 

1501. Skeleton, mounted. 0. C. 1272. South CoUrdion. 

1502. Skeleton. 0. C. 1273a. Purchased. 

[Many of the bones exhibited in the Separate Series.] 

1503. Skulk 0. C. 1273. Ilunterlan. 

1504. Sternum. O.C. 1273 b. 

1505. Sternum. 0. C. 1273c (Sm. no. 12173). 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

1506. Sternum, with right eoracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

g^2 Purchased. 

1507. Sternum, with right eoracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

ygy^ Purchccsed. 

1508. Sternum of young male. 0. C. 1272 B (Sm. no. 6410). 

Presented by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Mergus serrator. 

Mergus serrator,Uxmsi\x&, Syst. Nat. i. p. 208 (1706); Dresser, 
B. Eur. vi. p. 693, pi. 453 (1874). 

The E/Ed-breasted Merganser. 

Hah. Northern Europe and Asia, and North America ; 
migrating south in winter. 

1509. Skeleton, mounted. O.C. 1272 a. Yarrell Collection. 

1510. llvoidean areh. 0. C. 1276. Presented t>y Ih: Leach. 



312 LA3IELL1K0«TKES. 

Mergus albellus^ 

Jlevf/us uViellus, Liunieus, ISyst. Nat. i. p. '2.()i) (1 TOi;) ; Dresser, B, 
Eur. vi. p. 699, pis. 454, 455 (1874). 

The Smew. 

Hah. Northern Europe and Asia ; migrating southward in 
winter. 

1511. Skull. 0. C. 1274. Presented ly Dr. Leach. 

1512. Hyoidean arch. 0. C. 1275. Presented hy Dr. Leacli. 

1513. Sternum, witli right sca})ula, coracoid, and furcula. S. S. 

866. Pui'cJiased. 



Suborder III. PALAMEDEjE. 

\_Cf. Scebohm, Classif. B. p. 32 ; Stejneger, Stand. Xat. Hist., Aves, 
p. 1'6'6 ; Sharpe, lieview, p. 76.] 

A. Palate desmognathous. 

B. Xo uncinate processes to the ribs. 

C. Cervical vertebras more than 18 in number. 

D. Plumage of upper parts with no spinal bare tract. 

Family PALAMEDEIDtE. 
Genus PALAMEDEA*. 

Linnfeus, Syst. 2s"at. i. p. 232 (1700), 

Palamedea cornuta. 

Palaiiiedca cornuta, Linnanis, Syst. Nat. i. p. 232 (1706); Scl. & 
Salv. Nomeucl. Av. Neotrop. p. 128 (1873). 

The Horned Screamer. 

Ilah. Guiana and Amazonia. 

1514. Skeleton (up})er })art of brain-case removed ), mounted. 

I'lirc/ia^cd. 

1515. l\adius^ ulna, carpus, metacai'pus, and })balanges of right 

wing. 0. C. 1287. British Museum. 

* (/. Garrod, V. Z. S. 1870, p. 189 {Chauna dcrhiana). 



Tl'BlNAUES. 



313 



Subclass GALLIF0B3IES. 

\_Cf. Scebolim, Classif. B. p. 33.] 

A. Yonno- when liatched thickly covered with (h)wn. 

B. Maxillo-paliitincs not united across the middle line. 

C. Keel of sternum well developed. 

D. Deep plantar tendon, if reacliing the hallux, proceeding 

from the/^.TO/' lonc/us hallucis, and not from the jie.vor per- 
forans digitorum. 

Older I. TUBINAllES *. 

rC/ Steincger, Stand. Nat. Hist., Aves, p. 84 ; Secbolim, Classif. E. 
^ ' ■ p. 34.] 

A. External nostrils produced into tubes. 
B Nasals holorhinal. 

C. Dorsal vertebrae heterocoelous. 

D. Hallux absent, or reduced to one phalanx, the other toes 

directed forward. 

E. Spinal feather-tract well-defined on the neck. 

F. Oil-oland tufted. 

Family DIOMEDEID^. 

A. Nasals tubes separated from each other. 

B. No basipterygoid processes. 

Genus DIOMEDEAt. 
Linnajus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 214 (1700). 

Diomedea exulans. 

DIomedea exuJam, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 214 (170(3) ; Sharpc, 
rhil. Trans, extra vol. 168, p. 45 (1879). 

The Wandering Albatros. 

Hah. Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

* Cf. Procellariiformes, Sharpe, Review, p. 71 ; Lydeklvcr, Cat. Fossil 
BirdsBrit.Mus. p. 184(1891). 

t Cf. Lvdekker, Cat. Fossil lairds Brit. Mus. p. 188 (1891) : also Sliufrl( t, 
rroc. U.S. N^at. Mus. 1888, pp. ^o-i-ZVo (" Fi<rures and Descriptions ot X<n th- 
Aiuerican Tubiiiures'"). 



314 TUBINARES. 

Diomedea exulans. 

1516. Articulated skeleton. O.C.I 180. Pvtrhased. 

1517. Bones of skeleton, many longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 

1199-1216 A. Ilunterian. 

1518. Skeleton. 0. C. 1217 d. Stores. 

1519. Skeleton. 0. C. 1217o. Slaves. 

1520. 1521. Skulls (one incomplete). 0. C. 1190, 1191. 

Hunteiian. 

1522. Skull. 0. C. 1191a. 

1523. Skull. 0. C. 1191 B. 

Presented hy the Managers of the lioijal Listitidio/i. 

1524. Skull (very large), wanting left pterygoid. 0. C. 1191 c. 

Presented hy Mi\ E. Ilornlhlow. 

1525. Dried head. 0. C. 1194. Presented hy W. BaUock, Es,/. 

1526. Dried head. O.C.I 194 a. Purchased. 

1527. Skull, vertically bisected. 0. C. 1191, 1192. 

Presented, hy Sir Rlcliard Owen, F.R.S. 

1528. Thorax and pelvis. 0. C. 1190. Ilunterian. 

1529. Sternum. 0. C. 119G a. 

1530. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

1819. Gouhl Collection. 

1531. Left foot with interdi<>ital membrane. 0. C. 1217. 



Diomedea^ .sp. 

1532. Skeleton. 0. C. 1217 c. 

1533. Skeleton (imperfect), pelvis and left wing missing. 0. C 

1217 k. 

1534. Skeleton. 0. C. 1217 L. 



DIOMEDEID/E. 315 

1535. Skeleton. 0. ('. 1217 m. 

1536. Skeleton. 0. C. 1217 n. 

1537. Ivight iind left railil and uln;t'. IlunterUin. 

Diomedea chlororhyncha. 

Diomedea chlororhi/ncJia, Latham, Iiid. Orn. ii. p. TOO (1790); 
Goidd, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 437 (1865). 

The Yellow-nosed Albatros. 

Hall. Soiithern Indian and South Pacitic Oceans. 

1538. Skull. 0. C. 1219 A. PurchaseiL 

1539. Skull. Stores. 



Diomedea derogata. 

Diomedea de7'or/ata, Swiiihoe, P. Z. 8. 1875, p. 786 ; David et 
Oustalet, Ois. Chine, p. 516 (1877). 

The Chinese Albatros. 

Ilah. Chinese Seas. 

1540. Skeleton of male. From Chefoo, China. 0. C. 1219 b. 

Presented hy R. Sicinhoe, Esq., PM.S. 



Diomedea melanophrys. 

Diomedea melanophrys, Tcmminck, PI. Col. v. pi. 45(5. livr. 77 
(1828); Sharpc, Phil. Trans, extra vol. 168, p. 46 (1879). 

The Black-eyebrowed Albatros or Molly 
Mawk. 

Hub. Southern Oceans generally, 

1541. Skeleton. O.C. 1217i. Gould Collection. 

1542. Skeleton, mounted. 0. C. 1219. Gould CnUcctioa. 



olG TUBINARES. 

Diomedea fuliginosa. 

Diomedea fuliginosa, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. oG8 (1788); Hharpe, 

Phil. Trans, extra vol. 168, p. 48 (1879). 
Phoehetria fuliginosa, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 441 (1865). 

The Sooty Albatros. 

Ilah. Temperate latitudes of tlie Southern Hemisphere. 

1543. Skeleton (imperfect). 0. C. 1217 d. Stores. 

1544. Skeleton. 0. C. 1217e. Stores. 

1545. Skeleton. 0. C. 1217 g. Stores. 

1546. 1547. Skulls. 0. C. 1191 d, llOl e. 

Presented hij Alfred Liiujat'd, Esq. 

Diomedea cauta. 

Diomedea cauta, Gould, P. Z. S. 1840, p. 177 ; id. Handb. B. Austr. 
ii. p. 434(1865). 

The Shy Albatros. 

JJab. South Australian seas. 

1548. Skeleton. 0. C. 1217h. Gould Collection. 

Family PliOCELLARlID^. 

A. Nostrils placed close together. 

B. Basipterygoid processes present. 

Genus OSSIFRAGA *. 

Hombron et Jacquinot, C. R. xviii. p. 356 (1844), 

Ossifraga gigantea. 

Procellaria gigantea, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. 563 (1788). 
Ossifraga gigantea (Gm.), Sharpe, Phil. Trans, extra vol. 168, 
p. 42 (1879). 

The Giant Petrel. 

I fab. Seas of Southern Hemisphere generally. 

1549. Skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1218. Gould CoUidion. 

* Cf. LydukliLT, Cat. Fos:^U Birds Brit. Mu-. p. 187 (18'J1). 



PROCELLARIID.E. 317 

1550. Skull (wantin;^ loft (inadrate bone). 0. C 1222. 

Ilimffrian. 

1551. Skull (wanting loft quadrate bone). 0. C. 1222 A. 

1552. Skull. O. C. 1222 B. Presented b;j F. Kievnan, Esq. 

Genus MAJAQUEUS. 
Reichcnbach, Xatiirl. 8yst. Vogel, ]). iv (1852). 

Majaqueus conspicillatus. 

Procellaria conspicillata, Gould, Ann. & 3Iag. N. H. xiii. p. 3G2 

(1844). 
Majaqueus consj^icilhdus, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 445 (1865). 

The Spectacled Petrel. 

Jfdh. South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

1553. Skull. ().(". 1221?.. Presented hij Jfr. Williams. 

Majaqueus aequinoctialis. 

Procellaria cvquinoctialis, LinnoDUS, Syst. Xat. i. p. 213 (1760). 
Miijanveus cequinoctialis (L.), Sharpe, Phil. Trans, extra vol. 1G8, 
p. 10 (1879). 

The Cape Hex. 

]Iah. Southern Seas. 

1554. Skeleton. 0. C. 1220 m. Gould Collection. 

1555. Skull. S. S. 1925. Stores. 

Genus THALASSOICA. 

Reichenbach, Xatiirl. Syst. Vogel, p. iv (1852). 

Thalassoica glacialoides. 

Procellaria glacialoides. Smith, III. Zool. S. Afr., Aves, pi. 51 

(1849). 
Thalassoica glacialoides, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 407 (1865). 

The Silvery-grey Petrel. 

JIab. AtLmtic and Pacific Oceans. 

1556. Skeleton. 0. C. 1220 i,. Gonld Collection. 



318 TUBINARES. 

Genus FULMARUS. 
Stephens, Gen. Zool. xiii. pt. 1, p. 233 (1826). 

Fulmarus rodgersi. 

Fuhnarus rodgersii, Cassin, Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. Pliil. 1862, p. 90. 
Fulmarus r/Jacialis rodgersii, A. 0. U. Check-list N. Am. B. p. 99 
(1886). ' 

KoDGERs' Fulmar Petrel. 

Hah. Bering Sea. 

1557. Skeleton of trunk. S. Paul's Island, Alaska (//. W. 

FJlioii : Sm. no. 12610). 0. C. 1223 a. 

Presented hy the Smltlisonian Tiistitntion. 

P-almarus glacialis. 

Procellaria (jlacialis, Liunaius, Syst. Nat. i. p. 213 (1766). 
Fulmarus glacialis. Dresser, B. Eur. viii. p. 535, pi. 617 (1878). 

The Eulmar Petrel. 

Hah. North Atlantic. 

1558. Dried head. 0. C. 1123. Ilvnterian. 



Genus PUFFINUS *. 
Brisson, Orn. vi. p. 131 (1760). 

Puffinus anglorum. 

Procellaria anglorum, Temminck, Man, d'Orn. ii. p. 807(1820). 
Puffinus anglonnn, Dressier, B. Eur. viii. p. 517, pi. iU5. fig. 1 
(1876). 

The Manx Shearwater. 

Ilah. North Atlantic Ocean. 

1559. Natural skeleton. 0. 0. 1161 c. 

From the Zoological Society. 

* (y. lAclcklvPr, Cat. Fossil Hirds Brit. [NIiis. p. 185 (1891). 



rROCELLARIlD-E. 319 

Puffinus brevicaudus. 

PvJJinus hrevicaudns, Brandt, Icon. Rossic. Av. tab. 6. fig. 17. 
Nectris brevicaudus, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 459 (18G5). 

The Short-tailed Petrel. 

Ilah. South Australian seas. 

1560. Skeleton (toes defective): mounted. 0. C. 1224. From 
Green Island, Bass's Straits. Gould Collection. 



Genus CZ:STRELATA. 

Bonaparte, Consp. Av. ii. p. 188 (185G). 

OBstrelata mollis. 

ProceUaria 7volUs, Gould, Ann. & Mag. N. H. xiii. p. 303 (1844). 
CEstrelata mollis, Gould, Haudb. B. Austr. ii. p. 453 (18G5). 

The Soft-plumaged Petrel. 

IIcd>. South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

1561. Skeleton. 0. C. 1220 n. Gould Collection. 

1562. Skeleton. 0. C. 1220Cx. Stores. 

1563. Skeleton. 0. ('. 1220 H. Stores. 

Genus DAPTION. 
Stephens, Gen. Zool. xiii. p. 239 (1825). 

Daption capensis *. 

ProceUaria capensis, Linna3us, kSy«t. Nat. i. p. 213 (1706). 
Daption capensis (L.), Sharpe, Phil. Trans, vol. 168, p. 18 (1879). 

The Cape Petrel. 

Hah. Oceans of the Southern Hemisphere, north to about 
latitude 25'^. 

1564. Skeleton. 

* Cf. Sliufeldt, Proc. U.S. Nat. :\r.i3. 1887, p. 380. 



o20 TUBINARES. 

Daption capensis. 

1565. Sk('l(;ton. 

1566. Skoleton: mounted. (3.(^1220. Brookes Col U'ctmn. 

1567. Skeleton. 0. C. 1220 c. 

1568. Skeleton. 0. C. 1220 d. GohU Collecfion. 

1569. Skeleton. 0. C. 1220 a. 

P re.^ented hij F. W. Beanoit, Esq. 

1570. Skeleton. 0. C. 1220 b. 

1571. Skull. 0. C. 1221a. 

Genus PRION. 
Lacepede, Me'ra. I'lust. Paris, iii. jx 513 (ISOl). 

Prion desolatus. 

ProceUaria desolata, Graelin, Syst. Xat. i. p. 502 (178S). 

Prion desolata (Gm.), Sharpe, Phil. Trans, vol. 168, p. 37 (1879). 

The Dove-like Petrel. 

llah. Southern Oceans. 

1572. Skeleton. 0. C. 1220 f. Stores. 

Prion vittatus. 

ProceUaria vittata, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 560 (1788). 

Prion vittatus (Gm.), Sharpe, Phil. Trans, vol. 168, p. 35 (1879). 

The Broad-billed Blue Petrel. 

Ilah. Southern Oceans. 

1573. Skeleton. 0. C.1220e. Gould CoJIeotJon. 

1574. Sterninn. S. S. 1820. Stores. 



IMPKNNKS. 



321 



Uemis THALASSIDROMA. 

Vi<?ors, Zool. Journ. ii. p. 405 (1825). 

Thalassidroma pelagica. 

Procellaria pelcKjica, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 212 (1706). 
Thalassidroma pelagica (L.), Dresser, B. Eur. viii. p. 401, pi. nVX 
fig. 1 (1874). 

The Stormy Petrel. 

Hah. Atlantic Ocean. 

1575. Natural skeleton. 0. C. 1224 a. Yarrell Collvrtion. 

Genus CYMOCHORHEA. 

Coues, Proc. Philad. Acad. 1804, p. 75. 

Cymochorhea leucorrhoa. 

ProceUaria Inicorrhoa, Yieill. N. Diet, xxiii. p. 422(1817). 
Ci/mochorea leucorrhoa {\ .), Baird, Brewer, & Rid,ij;\v. Water Birds 
^N.-Amer. ii. p. 407 (1884). 

Leach's Petrel. 

Hah. Atlantic Ocean. 

1576. Sternum, with right coraeold, scapula, an;! furcula. S. S. 

2037. 

Order II. IMPENNES *. 

[C/. Seebohm, Classif. B.p. 35. Bphenisciformes, Sharpe, Review,]). 71.] 

A. Palate schizognathous. 

B. Bones of the wing flattened. 

(J. Scapula very broad, not differino; very niucli in size from th(> 

keel of the sternum. 
D. First digit of the manus fused with the second in the adult 

bird. 

* Watson, Rep. Voy. ' Challenger,' vii. pp. 1-244, pis. i.-xix. (1883) ; 
Menzbier, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1887, pp. 483-587, pi. viii. ; Stejneger, Stand. 
Nat. Hist., Birds, p. 84 ; Lydekker, Cat. Fo.s.sil B. Brit. Mas. p. V.n (18U1). 
P.m;t 111. Y 



322 IMPENNES. 

E. Three metatarsal bones of the tarso-meta tarsus very short, 

and separated from each other throughout their whole 
length by deep grooves. 

F. Spinal feather-tract not defined on the neck. 

G. None of the wing-feathers differentiated into quills. 
H. Young hatched helpless, but covered with down. 



Genus SPHENISCUS. 

Brisson, Orn. vi. p. 07 (1760). 

Spheniscus magellanicus. 

Aptenoclytes maf/ellanica, Forster, Descript. Animal, p. 351 (1844). 
Spheniscus magellanicus, 8cl. & Hudson, Argent. Orn. ii. p. 206 
(1889). 

The Jackass Penguin. 

Ilah. Coasts of Antarctic America, and Falkland Islands. 

1577. Skull and atlas. From the Falkland Islands. 0. C. 

1142 b. Purchased from the Zoological Society. 

1578. Cranium (wanting quadrate and pterygoid bones). O. C. 

1142 C. Presented hy E. A. Ilolmstead, Esq. 

1579. Sternum. S. S. 2338. From the Falkland Islands [Le- 

conte). Purchased. 

Spheniscus demersus. 

Diomedea demersa, Linnaeus, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 214 (1766). 
Spheniscus demersus, Scl. &, Salv. Rep. Voy. H.M.S. ' Challenger,' 
ii. Birds, p. 124, pi. xxvii. (1880). 

The Cape Penguin. 

Ilah. The (Jape of Good Hope. 

1580. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1142. Hunterian. 

1581. Sternum. S. S. 1(575. Stores. 



IMPENNES. 



323 



Genus PYGOSCELIS. 

Waglcr, Lsis, 18:32, p. 2S1. 

Pygoscelis taeniata. 

Aptenodytes tceniata, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped. p. 204 (1848). 
Pygoscelis tceniata, Sharpe, Phil. Trans, vol. 168, p. 54 (187!)). 

The Gentoo Penguin. 

Ilah. Kerguelen and Falkland Islands. 

1583. Skeleton (imperfect) . 0. C. 1141 b. Falkland Islands. 

Presented Inj K. A. Ilolmstead, Esq. 

1583. Skull. West Island, Falkland Islands. 0. C. 1141c. 

Presented hji E. A. Ilolmstead, Esq. 

1584. Skull and some other bones : some mounted in the sepa- 

rate series. From the Falkland Islands {Leconie). 

From the Zoological Societi/. 

1585. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2339. From the 

Falkland Islands (Leconie). Purchased. 

1586. Eight humerus of above specimen. S. S. 201(5. 

1587. llight radius of above specimen. S. S. 2017. 

1588. Right ulna of above specimen. S. S. 2018. 

1589. Manus of above specimen. S. S. 2430. 

1590. Pelvis of above specimen. S. S. 2340. 

1591. Right femur of above specimen. S. S. 2341. 

1592. Right tibio-tarsus of above specimen. S. S. 2342. 

1593. Right pes of above specimen. S. S. 23G0. 



Yli 



'624: IMPENNES. 

Genus EUDYPTES*. 
Vieillot, Analyse, p. 67 (181G). 

Eudyptes chrysolophus. 

Catarhactes chrysoloplms, Brandt, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. ii. 

p. 315 (1837). 
Eudyptes chrysolophus (Brandt), Sharpe, Phil. Trans, vol. 1G8, 

p. 57, pi. viii. fig. 2 (1879). 

The Macaroni Penguin. 

Hah. Falkland Islands. 

1594. Skull. 0. (J. 1145. Presented hjj W. Bullock, Esq. 

1595. Skull, with horny sheath of both mandibles. 0. C. 1145 A. 

Stores, 18o8. 

Genus EUDYPTILAf. 

Bonaparte, Comj^tes Eendus, xlii. p. 775 (1856). 

Eudyptila minor. 

Aptenodytes minor, Forster, N. Comm. Gott. iii. p. 147 (1781). 
Eudyptula minor, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 518 (1865). 

The Little Penguin. 

Ilab. Tasmania and South Coast of Australia. 

1596. Articulated skeleton : mounted. O.C.I 144. Ilunterian. 

1597. Imperfect skeleton (sternum in the Separate Series). 0. C. 

1144 a. Gould Collection. 

1598. Sternum. S. S. 1827. Gould Collection. 

1599. Left wing, with the integuments removed so as to shovv 

the bones in situ. 0. C. 1143. Ilunterian. 

* Cf. Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. p. 195 (1891). 
t Cf. Lydekker, ibid. p. 196 (1891). Cf. also Shufeldt, Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. vii. p. 324 (18K4). 



IMPENNES. 325 

Genus APTENODYTES. 

Forstcr, N. Comm. Getting, iii. p. 133 (1781). 

Aptenodytes forsteri. 

Aptenodytes forsteri, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. xiii. p. 315 (1844) : 
Sclater, Ibis, ] 888, p. 327. 

The Emperor Penguin. 

Hah. Antarctic Seas. 

1600. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1118. 

Presented hy Dr. McConnlck. 

1601. Disarticulated skeleton ; imperfect (several vertebra? and 

other bones missing ; in several bones a longitudinal 
section has been made to show the texture). 0. C. 1120- 
1130, 1132-1141, 1130 A. Hunterian. 

1602. Distal end of tibia and tarsus of the right foot. O. 0. 

1117. Hunterian. 

1603. Skull, with sclerotic bones. 

Presented J>ij Sir Williani Blizard, F.R.S. 

Aptenodytes pennanti. 

Aptenodytes pennanti. Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. xiii. p. 315 (1844) ; 
Scl. Ibis, 1888, p. 326. 

The King Penguin. 

Hah. Southern Ocean. 

1604. Sternum. S. S. 2014. Stores. 



326 ' GALLO-GllALL.E. 



Older III. GALLO-GRALL^. 

[C/. Seebobm, Classif. B. p. ;36.] 

A. Palate not desmoonathous. 

B. Keel of sternum well developed. 

C. Youn^", when hatched, covered with down and able to run 

in a few hours. 

Suborder 1. GAVI^E. 
[Cf. Seebobm, Classif. B. p. 37.] 

A. Palate schizognathous. 

B. Basipterygoid jjrocesses absent. 

C. Dorsal vertebrffi more or less opisthocoelous. 

D. Spinal feather-tract forked on the back. 

E. Young, when hatched, covered with down and able to run in 

a few hours. 

Family ALCID^ *. 

[Alciformes, Sharpe, llcvicw, p. 7l?.] 

A. Palate schizognathous. 

B. Basii)terygoid processes absent. 
C Nasals schizorhinal. 

D. Lateral occipital fontanelles present. 

E. Feet webbed. 

Genus ALCAf. 
Linna3us, Syst. Nat. i. p. 210 (17G6), 

Alca impennis. 

AJca impennis, Linuseus, Sj'st. Nat. i. p. 210 {\1{M\). 
Plautus impennis, Eaird, Brewer, & Itidgway, Water-Birds 
N. Amcr. ii. p. 467 (18S4). 

The Geeat Auk. 

JI(tI>. Islands of the North Atlantic. 

* Cf. Shufeldt, Aiik, iv. p. 8], v. jip. .",28^331 ; id. Journ. Anat. & Phys. 
xxiii. pp. 1-30, xxiv. pp. 165-186, 400-429, 537-558, xxv. pp. 89-116, 169- 
187, 543-560, &c. ; Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mas. p. 193 (1891). 

+ Cf. Owen, Trans.*^Z. 8. v. p. 317, yh. ii., iii. ; id. P.Z. S. 1864, p. 258; 
Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus, p. 194 (1^91 ). 



ALCID^. 327 

1605. Artieuluted skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1151. 

Hunterian. 

1606. Skull (niutiliiteJ, evidently taken from a skin), with 

horny sheiith of mandibles. 0. C. 1150. 

From the British Museum. 

1607. Bony sclerotics, taken from above specimen. 0. C. 1150 a. 

1608. Anterior portion of sternum, from a kitchen-midden at 

Keiss, in Caithness. (See Proc. Soc. Antiquaries Scot- 
land, Jan. 13, 1879, p. 31.) 0. C. 1150 b. 

Presented hy George Busk, Esq., F.R.S. 

1609. Various bones : several mounted in the separate series. 

From Newfoundland. 0. C. 1160 A. Purchased. 

Alca torda. 

Alca torda, Linnteus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 210 (17GG) ; Baird, Brewer, 
& Kidgway, Water-Birds N. Amer. ii. p. 472 (1S8-1). 

The Razor-billed Auk. 

Hah. Coasts and Islands of the North Atlantic. 

1610. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1146. 

South Collection. 

1611. Natural skeleton : momited. 0. C. 114:6 c. 

From the Zoological Society. 

1612. 1613. Skulls of male and female. From Sussex. 

Purchased. 

1614. Skull (wanting right quadrate bone). 0. C. 1147. 

Presented hy W. Bullock, Esq. 

1615. Skull (wanting botli pterygoid bones). 0. C. 1147 a. 

1616. Dried head. 0. C. 1148. 

1617. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1146d. 

Hunterian. 

1618. Sternum, with right .•,,racuid, scajaila. and furcnla. 

S. S. S54. Purchased. 



328 GALLO-GEALL^:. 

Genus LOMVIA. 
Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Pctcrsb. ii. p. 345 (1837). 

Lomvia troile. 

Coli/rnhi!s troile, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 220 (1766). 
Lomvia troile, B. 0. U. List Brit. B. p. 206 (1883). 

The Common Guillemot. 

Hal). Western Europe and Western North America. 

1619. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1164. 

South Collection. 

1620. Natural skeleton. Purchased. 

1621. Sternum with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1164 c. 

1622. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

S. S. 850. Purchased. 

Iiomvia ringvia. 

Uria ringvia, Latham, Gen. Syu. Suppl. i. p. 205 (1787). 

The Ringed Guillemot. 

Hah. The same as that of the Common Guillemot. 

1623. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

S. S. 857. Ptirchased. 

Lomvia bruennichii. 

Uria hrunniclii, Sabine, Trans. Linn. Soc. xii. p. 538 (1818). 
Lomvia hruennichi, B. 0. F. List Brit. B. p. 207 (1883). 

Brunnich's Guillemot. 

Hah, Xf)r(]i(M-ii l'iiir(i|i(' ntnl .Vmerica, 



ALCIDJE. 329 

1624. Skeleton. O.C.lU'An. -S/oms 186«. 

1625. Skeleton of trunk ; iVoni St. runrs Island, Alaska (II. 

W. Elliott : Sm. no. 12655). 0. (J. 1104 d. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 



Genus URIA. 
Brisson, Orn. vi. p. 73 (1700). 

Uria grylle. 

Cohjmhns grylle, Liuuaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 220 (1760). 
Uria grylle, B. 0. U. List Brit. B. p. 207 (1883). 

The Black Guillemot. 

Hah. Arctic and Temperate portions of Europe and North 
America. 

1626. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1164 A. 

Yarrell Collection. 

Genus MERGULUS. 

Vieillot, Analyse, p. 07 (1816). 

Mergulus alle. 

Alca alle, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 211 (1766). 
Mergulm alle, B. 0. U. List Brit. B. p. 208 (1883). 

The Little Auk. 

Hah. Arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and America; migrating 
south in winter. 

1627. Skull. 0. C. 1149. Presented hy W. Bullock, Esq. 

1628. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

S. S. 855. Purchased. 



330 GALLO-GKALL^. 

Genus FRATERCULA. 

Brisson, Oru. vi. p. 81 (17(30). 

FratercTila arctica. 

Aha arctica, Linnicus, Syst. IS'at. i. p. 211 (1706). 
Fratercula arctica, Baird, Brewer, & llidgway, Water-Birds 
N. Amer. ii. p. 524 (1884). 

The Common Puffin. 

llah. Nortli-westeni Europe and Eastern Nortli America. 

1629. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1161. 

South Collection. 

1630. Skeleton. 0. C. llfil a. Hunterian. 

1631. Natural skeleton: mounted. From Ireland. 0. 0.1161 b. 

From the Zoological Society s Gardens, 1885. 

1632. Dried head. 0. C. 1162. Presented by W. Bullock, Esq. 

1633. Skull of young. 0. C. 1163. Hunterian. 

1634. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and f'urcula. 

S. S. 2026. 

Fratercula corniculata. 

Mormon corniculatum, Naiimann, Isis, 1821, p. 782, pi. 7. figs. 

3,4. 
Fratercula cornicidata, Baird, Brewer, & Bidgwaj, Watcr-Birds 

N. Amer. ii. p. 529 (1884). 

The Horned Puffin. 

Ilab. Coasts and Islands of the North Pacific. 

1635. Skeleton of trunk ; from St. Paul's Island, Alaska (H 

W. Elliott : Sm. no. 12581). 0. C. 1163 a. 

Presented l>y the Smithsonian Institution. 



ALC1D.E. 331 

Genus PHALERIS. 
Tcmminck, Manuel d'Orn. i. p. cxii (1820). 

Phaleris psittacula. 

Aha psittacula. Pallas, Spic. Zool. vol. i. fasc. v. p. 13, pi. 2 (17(>!>). 
Cydorhiinclms ^)stWacM/i<s, Baird, Brewer, &. llidgway, Water- 
Birds N. Amer. ii. p. 515 (1884). 

The Parrot Auk. 

Ilah. Coasts and Islands of the North Pacific. 

1636. Skeleton of trunk : from St. Paul's Island, Alaska (//. 
W. Elliott : Sm. no. 12G35). 0. C. 11G3 b. 

Presented hy the Smitlison'uvn Inditution. 



Genus SIMORHYNCHUS. 

Merrcm, Ersch u. Grubcr's Encjclop. ii. p. 4U5 (1819). 

Simorhynchus cristatellus. 

Alca cri^tateUa, Pallas, Spic. Zool. vol. i. fasc. v. p. 20, pi. 3 (1769). 
Simorhynchus cristatellus, Baird, Brewer, and Kidgway, Water- 
Birds N. Amer. ii. p. 512 (1884). 

The Crested Auk. 

Ilah. Coasts and Islands of the North Pacific, 

1637. Skeleton of trunk. From St. Paul's Island, Alaska (//, 

W. Elliott : Sm. no. 12(]2()). 0. C. llGo c. 

Presented hy tlie Smithsonian Institution. 

1638. Skeleton of trunk. From St. PanPs Island, Alaska {IL 

W.Elliott : Sm. no. 12404). 0. C. 11(53 d. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 



332 



GALLO-GKALL.E. 



Family STERCORARIID^. 

Genus STERCORARIUS. 

Brisson, Orn. vi. p. loU (1760). 

Stercorarius catarrhactes. 

Larus caiarractes, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 226(1766). 
Stercorarius catarrhactes. Dresser, B. Eur. viii. p. 457, j)!. 600 
(1875). 

The Common Skua. 

Hah. North-Avest Europe and North America. 
1639. Skull. 0. C. 1231. Ilunterkm. 



Genus LESTRIS. 
lUiger, Prodromus Syst. Mamm. ct Av. p. 272 (1811). 

Lestris crepidatus. 

Larus crepidatus. Banks in Hawkesworth's Voyage, ii. p. 15 

(1773). 
Stercorarius richardsoni, Swains. ; Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii.. 

p. 353 (1885). 

Uichardson's Skua. 

Hah. Northern Europe, N. Asia, and North America. 



1640. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 



From the Zoological Gardens. 



LARID^. 



333 



Family LARIBM*. 

Genus LARUS. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 224 (1700). 

Larus luarinus. 

Larus marinus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 225 (1706) ; Dresser, B. 
Eur. viii. p. 427, pi. 0U4 (1872). 

The GREA.TER Black-backed Gull. 

Hab. Northern Europe, Asia, and North-eastern America; 
migrating southward in winter. 

1641. Skeleton (toes of right foot defective) : mounted. 0. C. 

1220. South Collection. 

1641a. Skeleton. [Many of the bones mounted in the Separate 
Series.] 0. (!. 1229. Hunterian. 

1642. Skull. 0. i\ 1227. r resented hj W. Bulloch, Esq. 

1643. Skull. 0. (J. 1228. Ihuiterkm. 

1644. Skull, longitudinally l)isected. 0. C. 1229. ITunteriaa. 

1645. Cranium. S. S. 1756. ITunterian. 

1646. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Purchased. 

1647. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Purchased. 

1648. Sternum, with right coracoid, sca[)ula, and furcula. 

S. S. 1757. Hunterian. 

1649. Right humerus. S. S. 1759. Hunterian. 

1650. Right radius. S. S. 17(30. Hunterian. 

1651. Right ulna. S. S. 170 1. Hunterian. 

1652. Pelvis. S. S. 1758. Hunterian. 

1653. Right femur. S. S. 1762. Hunterian. 

1654. Right tihio-tarsus. S. S. 17G3. Hunterian. 

1655. Right tarso-metatarsus. S. S. 1764. Hunterian. 
* Cf. (iiUTod, r. Z. S. Is7;j, p. :)[. {\.r_ O; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. ;}, fijr. -2. 



334 



GALLO-GRALLiE. 



Larus glaucus. 

Laucus glaucus, Briinnich, Orn. Eor. p. 44(1764): Drosser, B, 
Eur. viii. p. 433, pi. 605 (1S77). 

The Glaucous Gull. 

Huh. Northern Europe, Asia, and America. 




Ventral aspect of skull of Larus (/laucus. (Letters as before.) 



1656. Skeleton (imperfect). St. Paul's Island, Alaska (IT. W. 

Elliott). 0. C. 1225 A. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

1656 a. Skeleton, probably of this species. 0. C. 1229 b. 

Ihinterian. 

Larus argentatus. 

Larus argentatus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 600 (1788); Secbohm, 
Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 326, pi. 51 (1885). 

The Herring-Gull. 

ITab. Europe and North America. 

1657. Articulated skeleton. 0. C. 1225. South Collection. 

1658. Natural skeleton. Presented hy II. W. Patei-son, Es^j. 
1658 a. Skull. O.C. 1230. Jliiaterian. 



LARID^. 335 

Larus pacificus. 

Larus pacifims, Latham, lud. Orii. Suppl. p. Ixviii (1801); 
Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 385 (18G5). 

The Pacific Gull. 

Hah. Coasts of Southern Australia, and Tasmania. 

1659. Skeleton. From Tasmania. 0. 0. 1230 A. 

Gould Collect/on. 

1660. Skull. From Tasmania. O.C 1230 b. 

Gould Collection. 

Larus fuscus. 

Larus fuscus, Linnaeus, Syst. iS^at. i. p. 225(17(10); Seebohm, 
Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 319 (1885). 

The Lesser Black-backed Gull. 

Hah. Northern and Western Euroj)e. 

1651. Sternum with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 
S. S. 870. Purchased. 

Larus crassirostris. 

Larus crassirostris, Vieiliot, ]S\ Diet. d'Hist. Xat. xxii. p. 508 
(1818); David et Oust. Ois. Chine, p. oDJ (1877). 

Temminck's Gull. 

Hah. Coasts of China and Jaj)an. 

1662. Skeleton. From Chefoo, China. 0. C. 1230e. 

Presented Inj Consul Swinhoe, F.R.S. 

1663. Skeleton. From Chefoo, China. 0. C. 1230 F. 

Presented hy Consul Swinhoe, F.R.S. 

Larus canus. 

Larus canus, Linnajus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 224 (170G) ; Dresser, B. 
Eur. viii. p. 381, pi. 600 (1873). 

The Common Gull. 

H((/i. Xoi'tlu'rii Europe and Asia. 



336 GALLO-GRALL.T:. 

Larus canus. 

1664. ^^kull. 0. C.1232. Ihntenan. 

1665. Cranium of male. 

1666. Hvoidean arch. 0. C. 1235 a. 

Larus jamesonii. 

Larus jamesoni, Wilson, 111. Zool. pi. xxiii. (1831). 

Briichigavia jamesonii^ Gould, Handb. B. Austr, ii. p. 387(18Gr)). 

The Silver Gull. 

Hah. Tasmania and Southern coasts of Australia to New 
(Jaledonia. 

1667. Skeleton of female. From E'linder's Island, Bass Straits. 

0. C. 1230 c. Gould Collection. 

Larus ridibundus. 

Larus ridibundus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 225 (1766) ; Dresser, 
B. Eur. iii. p. 357, pi. 597. fig. 1 (1878). 

The Black-headed Gull. 

Hah. Europe and Asia to Japan, ranging south in winter. 

1668. 1669. Skulls. 0. C. 1231 a, 1231 b. Purchased. 

1670. Skull. 0. 0. 1234. South Collection. 

1671. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

S. S. 1218. Purchased. 

1672. Sternum of female. From the Zoological Gardens. 

Genus RISSA. 
Stephens, Gen. Zool. xiii. p. 180 (1825). 

Rissa tridactyla. 

Larus tridactylus, LinniEUS, Syst. Nat. i. p. 224 (1766). 

Bissa tridactyla. Dresser, B. Eur. viii. p. 447, pis. 607, 608 (1878) 

The Kittiwake. 

Hah. Northern Europe, Asia, and America, ranging south in 
winter. 



LARID^. 337 

1673. Skeleton. 0. 0. 1233. (Ribs and toes defective.) 

South CoUedion. 

1674. Skeleton of trunk. From St. Paul's Island, Alaska ; 

collected by H. W. Elliott. 0. 0. 1233 a. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

1675. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

S. S. 1392. Purchased. 

Rissa brevirostris. 

Larus brevirostris, Bruch, J. f. O. 1853, p. 103. 

lUssa brevirostris, A. 0. U. Check-list N. Am. B, p. 107 (1886). 

The Red-legged Kittiwake. 

IIa/>. Coast and Islands of Bering Sea. 

1676. Skeleton. From St. Paul's Island, Alaska ; collected by 

H. W. Elliott (Sm. no. 12583). 0. C. 1233 b. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian institution. 



Subfamily S T E R N I N Ji. 

Genus STERNA. 
Brisson, Oni. vi. p. 202 (17G0). 

Sterna fluviatilis. 

Sterna hirundo, Liuiueus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 277 (17G6), 
Sterna fluviatilis, Xaumauu, Isis, 1819, p. 18-17; Sauuders, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 649. 

The Common Tern. 

Ilab. Northern Euro[)e, Asia, and America; migrating south 
to Africa and South America. 

1677. Skeleton. 0. C. 1239 a. Yarrell Collection. 

1678. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Society. 



I'ART III. 



338 GALLO-GRALLyt:, 



Sterna arctica. 

tSterna arctica, Tcmmiuck, Man. (rOni. ii. p. 742 (1820); 
Seebohra, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 284, pi. 4(5 (LS85). 

The Arctic Tern. 

Hah. North Earo[)e and North America, ranging s?outh in 
winter. 

1679. Sternum, with right coraeoid, acapnia, and furcula. 

S. S. 393. Purchased. 

Sterna maxima. 

Sterna maxima^ Boddacrt, Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 58 (1783) ; Cory, B. 
West Indies, p. 277 (1889). 

The Royal Tern. 

llah. Tropical America and Tem[»ei'ate North America. 

1680. Sternum, with right coraeoid, sca|)ula, and furcula. 
From Jamaica. S. S. 2014. Gosse Collection. 



Sterna bergii. 

Sterna bergii, Lichtensteiu, Verz. Doubl. p. 80 (1823) ; Saunders, 
Proe. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 657 ; Salvadori, Orn. Pap. iii. p. 432 

(1882). 

The Large Crested Tern. 

//ah. Indian and South Pacific Oceans. 

1681. Skeleton (toes defective). 0. C. 1238. Gould Colledion. 

1682. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From tJio Solomon 

Islands. Presented In/ P. L. Sclater, Esq., P.R.S. 

Sterna caspia. 

Sterna caspia, Pallas, Nov. Comm. Pctrop. xiv. p. 582 (1769) ; 
Dresser, B. Eur. viii. p. 289, pi. 584 (1877). 

The Caspian Tern. 

//((/'. Temperate and tropical coasts of the whole world. 

1683. Skeleton, mounted. 0. C. 1237. Ilunterian. 



LARIDJS. 339 

1684. Skeleton. From Launceston, Tasmania. 0. 0. 12;^)7a. 

1685. Sternum, with riglit coracoiJ, scapula, and furcula. 

S. S. 993. From Australia [E. P. Ramsay). 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus HYDROCHELIDON. 

Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 563. 

Hydrochelidon nigra. 

Sterna nigra, LimioBus, Syst. JS'at. i. p. 227 (1766). 
Ifi/drochclidon nir/ra. Dresser, B. Eur. viii, p. 327, pi. 592 (1876). 

The Black Tern. 

Ilah. Europe, Asia, and America, descending far south in 
winter. 

1686. Skull of male. Lake of Constance. Purchased. 

1687. Skull of female. Lake of (Jonstance. Purchased. 

Genus GYGIS. 
Wagler, Isis, 1832, p. 1223. 

Gygis Candida. 

Sterna Candida, Forster, Descr. Anim. p. 179 (1844). 

Gi/gis Candida (Forst.), Gould, Handb, B. Austr. ii. p. 405 (1805). 

The White Tern. 

Hub. Eastern Australia and Norfolk Island. 
1688. Skeleton. 0. C. 1238 d. Stores, 18G8. 

Genus ANOUS. 
Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool. pt. xiii. p. 139 (1826). 

Anous stolidus. 

Sterna stolida, Linn;cus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 227 (1706). 

Anous stolidus (L.), A. 0. U. Check-list N. Am. B. p. 90 (1886). 

The Noddy. 

z 2 



MO GALLO-GRALL^. 

Anous stolidus. 

Hab. Trojjical and Subtropical coasts of both liemispberes. 

1689. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. 

S. S. i)dS. Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus RHYNCHOPS*. 

LinuaBus, Syst. Xat. i. j). 22y (1706). 

Rhynchops flavirostris. 

lihijncJiojhS Jlavirostris, A'icillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. iii. p. 358 
(1816) : Heugliii, Orn. N.O.-Afr. iv. p. 1463 (1873). 

The Yellow-billed Skimmek. 

Hab. Africa and India. 

1690. Imperfect skull of young. Q. C. 4 A. Ilnnfermn. 

1691. Skull of adult. Purchased. 

Family CHIONIDID^ f- 

Genus CHIONIS. 

Forstcr, Encliiridiou Hist. Nat. p. 87 (1788). 

Chionis alba. 

Chionis (dha, Linn.; Sclater & Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 143 
(1873). 

The Sheathbill. 

Jlab. Falkland Islands and Straits of Magellan. 

1692. Skeleton. 0. (A 1347 A. Purchased. 

Chionis minor J. 

Chionis jnmor, Hartlaub, Rev. Zool. 1841, p. 5; [Sharpe, riiil. 
Trans, extra vol. 168, p. 2 (187!)). 

The Lesseii Sheathbill. 

Hab. Kerguelcn and ( Jrozette Islands. 

* Cf. Shufeldt, Journ. Auat. ."t Phys., Oct. LSUO (%. of .skuH). 

t Suborder Chionides, Sharpe, Eevie^v, p. 72. Cf. also Stejneger, Stand. 
Nat. Hist., Birds, ]>. 92. 

I Cf. Shufeldt, .louru. Anat. & Pliys., July 1871 (plates of the bones of 
skeleton, and dtscriptious). 



TniKOCORTD.E. 341 

1693. sternum, with shouldcr-oinllc. From tlio (*rozette 

Lsliinds. IS. S. 1718. 

Presented Inj l\ L. Sdafer, Esq., F.R.S. 

Family THINOCOKIDiK *. 

A. Palate .schizognathous. 

B. Nasals liolorliinal. 

(J. Basi{)tery(;oid processes absent. 

D, The vomer broad and anteriorly rounded. 

E. Spinal feather-tract forked on the upper back. 

Genus THINOCORUS. 

Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, Heft i. pi. ii. (ISoiiJ. 

Thinocorus rumicivorus. 

Thinocorus rumicivorus, Eschscholtz, ut suprti ; Sclater & Hudaou, 
Argent. Oru. ii. p. 176 (188i)). 

The Common Seed- Snipe. 

Hab. Western Peru to Chili and Argentina. 

1694. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1715. 

Presented hij P, L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Family GLAREOLIDiE f. 

Genus GLAREOLA. 
Brisson, Orn. v. p. 141 (17(50). 

Glareola pratincola. 

Ilirundo pratiiicola, LinuiBus, iSjst. xs\it. i. p. 345 (1766). 
Glareola firaiincola, Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 256(1888). 

The Collared Pratincole. 

Hid). C-entral and Southern Europe, to Africa and N.W.India. 

1695. Skeleton (toes defective). O.C.1o47a. Yar veil Collection. 

* Suborder Attayides, Sharpe, Review, p. 72. 
+ = Suborder Glareolce, Sharpe. Review, p. 73. 



342 GALLO-GRALL^. 



Family (EDICNEMID^ *. 

Genus CSDICNEMUS. 

Temminck, Man. d'Orn. p. 321 (1815). 

CEdicnemus oedicnemus. 

Chararlrms cedicnemu<i , Linnaeus, Syst. i^at. i. p. 255 (1768). 
(Edicnemus scohpax, B. 0. U. List Brit. B. p. 155 (1883). 

The Stone-Curlew or Thick-knee. 

Hob. Central and Southern Europe, North Africa, and Asia 
as far as India. 

1696. Skeleton. 0. C. 1347 g. Purchased. 



CTIdicnemus capensis. 

(Edicnemus capensis, Lichtenstcin, Vcrz. Doubl. p. G9 (1823) ; 
Seebohm, Geogr. Distrib. Charadr. p. 81 (1888). 

The South-Afeican Stone-Curlew. 

Hah. South and East Africa. 

1697. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 
1015. Purchased. 

Edicnemus grallarius. 

Charadrius grcdlarius, Latham, Ind. Orn., SuppL i. p. Ixvi (1801). 
(Edicnemus grallcmus (Lath.), Secbohm, Geogr. Distrib. Charadr. 

p. 83 (1888). 

The Australian Stone-Curlew. 

Hah. Australia. 



1698. Sternuui, with right coracoid, scapula, and fui'cula. S. S. 

Hiver, N. S. Wales. 
Presented hy Dr. E. P. Pamsay. 



182(). From Clarence liiver, N, S. AV^ales. 



* = Suborder (Edienemi, Sharpe, Review, p. 73. Cf. Forbes, Ibis, 1881, 
p. 4. 



J'ARrUDiE. 



343 



Sulumler II. LIMKOLM*. 

A. Palate scliizognatlious. 

B. Ba.siptorygoid processes present. 

C. Dorsal vertebrae opisthocffilous. 

D. Spinal feather -tract forked on the u]»j.er back. 




Ventral aspect of crauium of C/iaradrinx p/una/is:. (Letters a.s before.) 



Family PARRID.E. 

Genus PARRAt. 
Linnaeus, Sj'st. Xat. i. ]). 25!) (17GG). 

Parra jacana. 

Parra jitcana, Linneeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 252 (17GG) ; Sclatcr & 
Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Ncotrop. j). 142 (1S73). 

The Brazilian Jacana. 

Ilab. South America. 
1699. Skeleton. 0. (J. 1288. South Collection. 

Parra gallinacea. 

Parra fjaUinacen, Temminck, I'l. Cul. v. pL 4(54 (1828) ; Gould, 
Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 330 (1865). 

Tee Australian Jacana. 

Hah. Eastern Australia. 

* Cf. Charaflri(formes, Sharpe, Review, p. 72. Cf. Shufeldt, A uk, v. p. .330. 
t Cf. Forbes, P. Z. S. 1881, p. (J43. 



344 GALL0-GRALL2E. 

Parra gallinacea. 

1700. S'terniim of yonng male. S. S. 904. From Clarence 

River, N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsay). 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Family CHARADRIID^. 

Genus PLUVIANUS. 
Vieillot, Analyse, p. 55 (1816). 

Pluvianus aegyptius. 

Chnradr'ms cegyptius, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 254 (1766). 
Pluvianus cegyptius., Shelloy, B. Eg3-pt, p. 234 (1872). 

The Black-headed Plover. 

Hah. Eoypt and Nubia. 

1701. Sternum. From Egypt. 

Presented hy Prof. Floioer, F.R.S. 

1702. Sternum, with shoukler-girdle. S. S. 2595. 

Preseided hy Prof. Flo^oer, F.R.S. 

Genus CHARADRIUS. 

Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 253 (1766). 

Charadrius pluvialis. 

Charadrins plnvicdis, Linnaeus, iSyst. Nat. i. p. 254 (1766); 
Shelley, B. Egypt, p. 235 (1872) ; Seebolim, Hist. Brit. B. iii. 
p. 35 (1885). 

The Golden Plover. 

Hah. Europe, Western Siberia, and Africa. 

1703. Skeleton. 0. C. 1347 b. Yarrell Collection. 

1704. Skeleton. 0. C. 1347 b a. From tJie Zoological Society. 

1705. Skulk 0. 0.1347 F. Purchased. 

1706. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 21(i5. 

From the Zoological Society. 



CHAIJADRIID/E. 345 

Genus SQUATAROLA. 

Leach, Syst. Cat. Mamm, & Eirds, p. 29 (181 G). 

Squatarola helvetica. 

Tringa helvetica., Liniueus, Syst. Xul. i. p. 252 (170G). 
Charadrius helvdicus, Seebohm, Gcogr.Dist. Charadr. p. 102 (1888). 

The Grey Plover. 

Hah. The northern portions of both hemispheres, wintering 
in the south. 

1707. Sternum, with right coracoidj scapula, and t'urcula. S. S. 

^Q'l. Purchased. 

Genus OREOPHILUS. 

Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 537 (1844). 

Oreophilus totanirostris. 

Oreophilus totanirostris, Jardiue & Selby, 111. Orn. iii. pi. 151 

(1835). 
Charadrius totanii-ostris, 8eehohxa, Geogr. Distrib. Charadr. p. Ill 

(1888). 

The Slender-billed Dottrel. 

Ilab. South America. 

1708. Sternum, with shoulde-girdle. S. S. 1717. Purchased. 

Genus ERYTHROGONYS. 

Gould, Proc. Zool. See. 1837, p. 155. 

ESrythrogonys rufiventer. 

Erythrogonys cinctus (nee Less.), Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 155. 
Vanellus rufiventer. Less. Echo du Monde Savant, 1844, p. 207. 
Charadrius rufiventris, Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 108 
pL iii. (1888). 

The E/ED-heeled Dottrel. 

Hab. Austraha. 

1709. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. From Clarence 

River, N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsay). 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



346 GALLO-GRALL^. 

Genus ^GIALITIS. 
Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 558. 

^gialitis hiaticula. 

Charadrius Jiiaticida, Linneeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 253 (170(i); 
Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 20 (1885). 

The E/INged Plover. 

IJah. Europe, wintering- in Africa. 

1710. Skeleton. 0.0.1347 a. Yavrell ColU'ction. 

^gialitis wilsonia. 

Charadrius wilsonia, Ord ; Wilson, Urn. ix. p. 77, pi. 73. fig. 5 

(1814). 
^fjialitis tvilsonia, A. 0. U. Check-list N. Am. B. p. 103 (1886). 

Wilson's Plover. 

Ilah. North and South America. 

1711. Sternum. Presented hy the Smf'thson/'an Jnst/tnf/on. 

^gialitis vocifera. 

Charadrius vociferus, Linnccus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 253 (176G). 
^gialitis vociferus (L.), A. 0. U. Check-list N. Am. B. p. 101 (18S6). 

The Kildeer Plover. 

Hah. North America, migrating south in winter. 

1712. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Jamaica. 

Gosse Collection. 

1713. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1244. 

Presented hy the Smithsonian Institution. 

.Sgialitis nigrifrons. 

Charadrius nif/rlfro7is, Temm. PL Col. v. p]. 47. fig. 1 (1823, ex 
Cuvier) ; Sccbohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 138 (1888). 

The Black-fronted Plover. 

Ilah. Australia. 



CnAHADRIlD.T:. 347 

1714. St(M-niiin of male, with shoiildcr-^irdle. S. S.il37. From 
(Jlurence Uiver, N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsaij). 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



Genus LOBIVANELLUS. 

Strickland, Proc. Zool. Soc. iti-i'l, p. 33. 

Lobivanellus lobatus. 

Trinfjn lohaia, Latham, Iiul. Orn., Suppl. p. Ixv (IROl). 
Lobivanellus lohatus, Secbohm, Gcogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 100 
(1888). 

The Australian Wattled Lapwing. 

Hah. Australia. 

1715. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

921. Presented Inj P. L. Sclater, Es<j., F.R.S. 

Lobivanellus pectoralis. 

Cliaradrius pectoralis, Wagler, Syst. Av., Charadrius, sp. 8(1827). 
Lobivanellus pectoralis, Seebohm, Gcogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 200 
(1888). 

The Black-breasted Wattled Lapwing. 

Ilah. Australia. 

1716. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1364 {E. P. 

Ramsay). Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Lobivanellus indicus. 

Tringa indica, Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 50 (1873). 
Parra goensis, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. ii. p. 706 (1788). 
Lobivanellus indicus (Eodd.), Seebohm, Gcogr. Distr. Charadr. 
p. 184 (1888). 

The E-ed-wattled Lapwing. 

Hah. India. 

1717. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1856. From Nepal. 

Presented by B. 11. Hodgson, Esq. 



348 GALLO-GRALL^. 

Genus VANELLUS. 
Brisson, Oru. v. p. 04 (1700). 

Vanellus vanellus. 

Trinr/a vanellus, Liunaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 248 (17G6). 
Vanellus cristatus, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. -57 (1885). 

The Common Lapwing. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia. 

1718. Skull. 0. C. 1B47 e a. Purchased. 

1719. Skull. 0. C. 1347 e. Purcliased. 



Genus HOPLOPTERUS. 

Bonaparte, Saggio Distr. Met. p. 56 (1831). 

Hoplopterus spinosus. 

Charadmis spinosus, Linnteus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 256 (1766). 
Vanellus sjnnosits, Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 219 (1 

The Egyptian Spur-winged Plover. 

Hah. Africa, wandering occasionally into Southern Europe. 

1720. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2594. From 

■^SyP^* Presented hy Sir Victor Brooke, Bart. 

Hoplopterus ventralis. 

Charadrius ventralis, Wagler, Syst. Av., Charadrius, sp. 11 (1827). 
Vanellus ventralis, Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 227 

(1888). 

The Indian Spur-winged Plover. 

Hah. India and China. 

1721. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1855. From Nepal. 

V resented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 



CHARADRIID^. 349 

Genus STREPSILAS *. 

Illigcr, Prodroraus, p. "JO'S (ISll). 

Strepsilas interpres. 

lYiivja interpres, Linnasus, Sjst. Nat. i. p. 248 (176(3). 
Charadriiis interpres, Soebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 12 (1885). 

The Common Turnstone. 

Ildli. The shores of the southei'n })ortions of hoth hemispheres. 

1722. tSkeleton (toes wiioting;. 0. C. lo4(J B. 

Yarvell Collection. 

Genus H-ffiMATOPUS. 

Liniueus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 2.'37 (1700). 

Hsematopus ostralegus. 

Hatnatopas oatralegus, Liunieus, 8}st. Xat. i. p. 257 (1700); 
Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 4 (1885). 

The Common Oyster-catcher. 

Hah. Europe. 

1723. Skeleton. 0. C. 1344. South Collection. 

1724, 1725. Skeletons. 0. C. 1344 a, 1344 c. Iluntenan, 

1726. ►Skeleton (toes defective). 0.0. 1344 b. Yarrell Collection. 

1727. Skeleton (imperfect). 0. C 1344 D. Some of the bones 

mounted in the Separate Series. Ilunterian. 

1728. Skull, wanting (puulrate bones and pterygoids. 0. C. 1345. 

Ilunterian. 

1729. Skull. S. S. 1730. Stores. 

1730. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

•2032. Stores. 

1731. Pelvis. S. S. 1342. Stores. 

* Cf. Shul'eklt, Jouni. Mdiph. ii. pj). oll-MoiS, pi. l'o ('M))! tin; Allinitiea 
of Aphrizu viryata''). Cf. also Sliuleldt, Auli, vi. p. 185 ; Lucas, t. c. p. lUU. 



350 



GALLO-GRALL^. 



Haematopus palliatus. 

Hcemaiojms jKiUiatits, Temm. Man. d'Orn. ii. p, 532 (1S20). 

Hab. Temperate and tropical coasts of North America to 
South America. 

1732. Sternum of female (Sm. no. 6769). 

Presented hy the Smitlisonian Institution. 

Haematopus fuliginosus. 

Hcematojnts fidi(jinosus,(JiOiild, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 217 (1865). 

The Sooty OYSTEn-CATcnER. 

Ilab. Southern Australia and Tasmania. 

1733. Skeleton. 0. C. 1344 e. Gould Collection. 

1734. Dried head. 0. C. 1346. Ilunterian. 

1735. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Gardens. 

Family SCOLOPACID^. 

Genus RECURVIROSTRA. 

Linnteus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 250 (176G). 

Recurvirostra avocetta. 

liecurvirostra avocetta, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 256 (1766). 
Ilimantopas avocetta (L.), Secbohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 74(1885). 

The Common Avocet. 

Hah. Temperate and Tropical portions of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa. 

1736. Skeleton. South Collection. 

1737. 1738. Skulls, with horny sheaths to the mandibles. 0. C. 

1289 B, 1289 c. 

Recurvirostra rubricollis. 

Recurvirostra ri'.bricollis, Temmiuck, Man. d'Orn. ii, p. 592 (1820) ; 
Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 249 (1865). 

The Ued-necked Avocet. 

JIah. Southern Australia. 



SCOLOrACID.E. 351 

1739. Skeleton. From Western Australia. 0.(j. 1289 a. 

Gould Collection. 

1740. Sternum of female, with ri;iilit coracoid, scapula, and 

furcuhi. S. S. 1363. 

Presented h/ P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



Genus CLADORHYNCHUS. 

Gray, List Gen. liirds, p. GO (1S40). 

Cladorhynchus pectoralis. 

Lejiforhijnchus pectoralis, Dubus, Bull, Koy. Acad. Sci. Brux. ii. 

p. 4l^U, pi. 7 (183.5). 
Cladorhynchus pectomUs, Gould, Handb. B. Austr, ii. p. 248 (1865). 

The Banded Stilt. 

lied). Western and Southern portions of Australia. 
1741. Skeleton. 0. C. 1290 b. 



Genus HIMANTOPUS. 

Brisson, Urn. v. p. 33 (1700). 

Himantopus leucocephalus. 

I/iiiHiiitojms leucocephnlus, Gould, P. Z.S. 1837, p. "JC> ; id. Handb, 
B. Austr. ii, p. 246(1805), 

The White-headed Stilt. 

/led'. Australia. 

1743. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. From Clarence 
Kiver, Austi-alia. 0. C. 1290 A. 

Presented Inj Dr. E. P. Ramsay. 

1743. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdh;. S. S. 922. 
From Clarence River, N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsay). 

Presented by P. L. Sclafer, Esq., F.R.S. 



352 GALLO-GRALL^. 

Himantopus himantopus. 

' CTiaradrius himantojJiis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. j). !^55 (17()6). 
Himantopus melanopteriis, Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 277 

(188S). 

The Common Stilt. 

Hah. Southern Europe, Africa, Temperate and Tropical Asia. 

1744. Skeleton. 0. C. 121H). Brookes Collection. 

1745. Skeleton: mounted. O. C 12L>1. South Collection. 

1746. Skull. 0. C. 1291 a. 



Genus PHALAROPUS. 

Brisson, Orn. vi. p. 12(1766). 

Phalaropus hyperboreus. 

Tringa hyperhorea, Linnaius, 8yst. Xat. i. p. 249(1756), 
Phalaropus hi/perboreus (L.), Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 89 
(1885). 

The E-ed-necked Phalarope. 

Hah. Northern Europe, Northern Asia, and North America, 
wintering southward. 

1747. Skeleton (damaged;. O. C. A. 1300 a. Yarrell Collection. 



Phalaropus fulicarius. 

Tringa fulkaria, Linnajus, Syst. Nat, i. p. 249 (1766). 
Phalaropius fulicarius, Seebohm, Googr. Distr. Charadr. p. 339 

(1888). 

The Grey Phalarope. 

Hah. Northern Europe and North America, migrating south 
in winter. 

1748. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. lo97. Purcliased, 



SCOLOPACID.E. 353 

Genus SCOLOPAX. 
Brisson, Orn. v. p. 2U2 (1700). 

Scolopax rasticxila. 

Scclopax rusticula, Linnaeus, Syst. Zs^at. i. p. 243(1700); B. 0. U. 

List Brit. B. p. 105 (1883). 
Scolopax rusticola, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 231 (1885). 

The Common Woodcock. 

Hah. Europe and XortLern Asia, wintering to the southward. 

1749. Skeleton : mounted. O.C 1292 b. YarrM Collection. 

1750. Skull. 0. C. 1292G. Purchased. 

1751. Cranium. 0. 0. 1292 H. . Stores. 

1752, 1753. Sternum and sacrum. 0. C. 1292 c, 1292 d. 

Ihinterian. 

Genus PHILOHELA. 
Gray, List Gen. B. 1811, p. 9U. 

Philohela minor *. 

Scolopax minor, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. pt. 2, p. 001 (1788), 
Philohela minor (Gm,), A. 0. U. Check-list N. Am. B. p. 147 
(1880). 

The American Woodcock. 

Hab. North America. 

1754. Sternum. 0. C. 1292 x. 

Presented hjj the Smithsonian Tnstitution. 

1755. Sternum, with right and left coracoids and furcula. S. S. 

995. Presented hij P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

* Cf. Shufeldt, Journ. Anat. & Phvs., Oct. 1884 (description and figure 
of skull). 

FART III. 2 A 



354 GALLO-GRALL.E. 

Genus GALLINAGO. 
Leach, S^st. Cat. Mamm. & Birds Brit. Mus. p. 31 (181G). 

Gallinago gallinula. 

Scolopacc gallinula, Linua3us, Syst. Nat. i. p. 244 (176G) ; Seebohm, 
Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 247(1885). 

The Jack Snipe. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia, wintering to the sonth. 

1756. Skull of male. Germany. Pwchased. 

1757. Skull. 0. C. 1292 e. Purchased. 

Gallinago australis. 

ScoJopax australis, Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. Ixiv (1801), 
Gallmago australis, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 271 (1865). 

The New-Holland Snipe. 

Hah. Australia. 

1758. Skull. 0. C. 1292. From Tasmania. Gcndd Collection. 

1759. Sternum of female. From Clarence River, N. S. Wales. 

0. C. 1292 M. Presented hy Dr. E. P. Ramsaij. 

Gallinago delicata *. 

Scolopax delicata, Ord ; Wils. Am. Orn. ix. p. ccxviii (1825). 
Gallinago delicata (Ord), Cory, Birds West Indies, p. 232 (1889). 

Wilson's Snipe. 

Hah. North America, wintering in the West Indies and 
Northern South America. 

1760. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Jamaica. 0. C. 

1292 0. Gosse Coll. 

Gallinago gallinago. 

Scolopax (jallinago, Linnaeus, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 244 (176(3) ; See- 
bohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 241 (] 885). 

The Common Snipe. 

* Cf. Shufeldt, .loinn. Auat. cS: Phys., Oct. 1884 (description and figure 
.,fslniil). 



scoLOPACiD^-:. 355 

Hah. Nortliern Europe and NortluM-ii Asia, Avinteriiig sourli- 
ward ; occurring also in Greenland and tJie Bermudas. 

1761. Skeleton. 0. C. 121»2 f. Purchased. 

1762. Skeleton. 0. C. 1292. South Collection. 

1763. Sternum, with right and left coracoids and fureula. S. S. 

:»i»!>. Presented hy P. L. Sclufer, Esq., F.P.S. 

Gallinago megala. 

GalUnar/o megala, Swiiihoe, Ibis, ISGl, p. 340; David et Oust. 
Ois. Chin. p. 477(1877). 

Swinhoe's Snipe. 

Hah. South-east Siheria, wintering in ( "hina. 

1764. Skeleton of male. From Shanghai. 0. G. 1292 P. 

Presented l>y Consul Smnhoe, F.P.S. 

Genus RHYNCH-ffiA. 

Cuvier, Regne Animal, i. p. 487 (1S17). 

Rhynchsea capensis. 

Scolopax capensis, Linnwus, Syst. Js'at, i. p. 246 (1760). 
Eht/)icha;a capensis, Sharpc, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 679 (1884). 

The African Painted Snipe. 

Hal). Southern Asia. 
1765. Skeleton. O.G 1292 a. Yarrell Collection. 

Rh3nichsea australis. 

lihj/ncJiara australis, Guuld, I'roc. Zool. Soc, 1837, p. 155 ; See- 
bohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 459 (1888). 

The Australian Painted Snipe. 

Ifal>. Australia. 

1766. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 942. From 
Glareuce River, N. S. Wales (P. P. Ramsay). 

Presented l>y P. L. Sclater, Esq.. F.R.S. 

2 A 2 



356 GALLO-GRALL.K. 

Genus TRINGA. 
Brisson, Orn. v, p. 177 (17^50). 

Tringa crassirostris. 

Tringa crassirostris, Temminck & Schlegel, Faun. Japon,, Aves, 
p. 107, pi. 64 (1840-50) ; David et Oust. Ois. Chin. p. 468 
(1877). 

The Japanese Knot. 

ffab. Japan, China, and the Kurile Islands. 

1767. Skeleton of female. From Shanghai. 0. C. 1300 f. 

Presented by Consul Swinhoe, F.R.S. 

Tringa alpina. 

Tringa aTpina, Linntcus, Sj'st. Nat. i. p. 249 (1766) ; Seebohm, 
Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 185(1885). 

The Dunlin. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia and North America, winter- 
ing to the southward. 

1768. Skeleton. O.C.I 299 b. Tar veil Collection. 

1769. Skull. 0. C. 1300 e. Purchased. 

1770. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S, S. 2052. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Tringa canutus. 

Tringa canutus, Linnteus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 251 (1766); Seebohm, 
Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 174 (1885). 

The Knot. 

Hah. Arctic Regions of the Old and New Worlds, wintering in 
South America, Africa, and Australia. 

1771. Natural skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1300 c. 

From the Zoological Society's Gardens, 1885. 



scoLOPACiD/^i:. 357 

1772. Skull. 0. (I 1300 D. Purchased, 

1773. Stern uin_, with right coracoiJ, scapula, and furcula, S. S. 

1395. Purchased. 

Tringa maritima. 

Tringa nuiritima, Gmclin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 678 (1788) ; Seebohm, 
Hist. Erit. '^. iii. p. 192 (1885). 

The Purple Sandpiper. 

IJah. North America, Northern Europe, and Northern Asia. 

1774. Skeleton. O.C. 1299 a. Yarr ell Collection, 



Genus MACHETES. 
Cuvier, Regne Animal, i. p. 490 (1817). 

Machetes pugnax. 

Tringa puffaax, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat, i. p. 240 (1776). 
Totanus pugnax, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 113 (1885). 

The Ruff. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia, wintering in India and 
Africa. 

1775. Skeleton. " Reeve." 0. C. 1296 a.. Yarrell Collection. 

1776. Skeleton (toes defective). "Ruff." 0. C. 1226. 

South Collection, 

nil. Skeleton. 0. C. 1296 D. Purchased. 

1778, 1779. Skeletons (incomplete). 0. C. 1296 e. llunterian. 

1780, 1781. Skulls of male and female. 0. C. 1296 b, 1296 C. 

Received in exchange. 

1782. Sternum, viih shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1018. Purchased. 



358 GALLO-GRALL^. 

Genus CALIDRIS. 
Brisson, Orn. v. p. 226 (1885). 

Calidris arenarla. 

Trinya urcnar'ui, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 251 (1766). 
Calidris arenarla, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 221 (1885). 

The Sanderling. 

Hob. Arctic Kegions of the Old and New Worlds, wintering in 
the Southern Regions of both hemispheres. 

1783. Skeleton. 0. C. 1346 a. Tarvell Collection. 

1784. Sternum, with shoulder-oirdle. S. S. 139(i. Purchased. 



Genus TRINGOIDES. 

Bonaparte, Saggio Distr. Metod. Au. Vert. p. 58 (1831 j. 

Tringoides hypoleucus. 

Tringa hypoleucus, Linnaeus, Sxst. Nat. i. p. 250 (1766). 
Totanus hypoleucxis, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 117 (1885). 

The Common Sandpiper. 

IJah. Europe and Northern Asia, wintering southward in 
India, Africa, and Austraha. 

1785. Skeleton. O.C. 1300 a. Yarrell Collection. 

1786. Skeleton. 0. ('. 1300 b. Yarrell Collection. 

1787. Skull. 0. C. 1300. Presented by Dr. Leach. 

1788. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2422. 

Presented Inj P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



SCOLOPACIDvE. 359- 

Genus TOTANUS. 
Cuvier, Lecons Auat. Comp. i. table 2 (1800), 

Totanus canescens. 

Scolojuix canescens, Gmelin, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 688 (1788). 
Totanus glottis, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 149 (1885), 

The Greenshank, 

Ilab. Europe and Northern Asia, wintering south in Africa, 
India, and Austraha. 

1789. tSternuni, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left scapula. From 

Nepal. Presented hy B. 11. Hodgson, Esq. 

1790. Sternuni, with shoulder-girdle. S. S, 1853. From Nepal. 

Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Totanus glareola. 

Tringa glareola, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p, 149 (1766), 
Totanus glareola, Seebohm, Hist, Brit. B. iii. p. 132 (1885), 

The Wood-Sandpiper. 

ll(d>. Northern Europe and Northern Asia, wintering south 
in Africa, India, and Australia. 

1791. 1792, Skeletons (one with digits separately mounted J, 0, (J. 

1299 C, From Shanghai, 

Presented hy Consul Sicinhoe, F.P.S. 

Totanus calidris. 

Scolopax calidris, Linnaeus, Syst, Nat. i. p, 245 (1766). 
Totanus calidris, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 140 (1885), 

The Common Eedshank. 

Hah. Northern Europe and Northern Asia, wintering south- 
ward in India and the Indo-Malayan Islands, 

1793. Skull of male. From Germany, Purchased. 

1794. Sternum, witli right coracoid, scajjula, and furcnla. S, S. 

863. rnrchaml. 



360 GALLO-GRALL^. 

Genus LIMOS^. 
Erisson, Orn. v. p. 2(31 (1700). 

Limosa lapponica. 

/Scolo/icLv lapponica, Linnaeus, Sj'st. Nat. i. p. 246 (17(36). 
Limosa lapponica, B. 0. U. List Brit. B. p. 177 (1883). 

The Bar-tailed Godwit. 

[laL. Northern Europe, extending southwards in winter to 
Senegambia and North-western India. 

1795. Skeleton (toes defective). 0. C. 1297. South Colled /'on. 

1796. Skeleton. 0. C. 1297 b. Yarrell Collection. 

1797. Skull. 0. C. 1298. Purchased. 

1798. Skull. O.C.I 298 A. Purchased. 

Limosa uropygialis. 

Limosa urojrt/fjialis, Gould, Proc. Zool. 8oc. 1848, p. 38. 

Limosa rufa uropygialis, Seebohm, Geogr. Distr, Cbaradr. p. 387 

(1888). 

The Siberian Bar-tailed Godwit. 

Hah. Eastern Asia, wintering in the Malayan Archipelago 
and Australia. 

1799. 1800. Skeletons of females. 0. C. 1298 B, 1298 c. From 

Shanghai. Presented hy Consid Sicinhoe, P.E.S. 

Limosa segocephala. 

Scolopax (er/cccphala, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i, p. 246 (1766). 
Limosa o'f/ocephala (L.), B. 0. U. List Brit. B. p. 178 (1883). 

The Black-tailed Godwit. 

JIab. Europe, Asia, North Austraha, and Northern Africa. 

1801. Skeleton (toes defective). 0. C. 1297 A. 

Yarn'U Collection. 



SCOLorAClD/K. 3H] 

1802. Sternum, witli sliouUler-girdle. S. S. 1854. F'rom Nopal. 

Presented by B. II. Jlodr/son, Es<j. 

1803. St«u-nuni J with right coracoid, scapula, and fiircula. S. S. 

1394. Purchased. 

Genus NUMENIUS *. 
Urisson, Orn. v. p. 311 (17G0). 

Numenius phseopus. 

Scolopax phceoincs, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. jj. 243 (176(>). 
Numenius phceopus (L.), B. 0. U. List Brit. B. p. 179 (1883). 

The WhIxMBREL. 

Hah. Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

1804. Skeleton (ribs defective). 0. C. 1 294 A. YarreU Collection. 

1805. Skull. 0. C. 1294. Purchased. 

Numenius variegatus. 

'Tantalus iiariegatus, Scopoli, DeL Faun, et Flor. Insubr. ii. p. 92 

(1786). 
Numenius phceopus variegatus, Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. 

p. 330 (1888). 

The Eastern Whimbrel. 

Hah. Eastern Asia, wintering in India, the Malayan Archi- 
pelago, and Australia. 

1806. Skeleton of female. From Shanghai. 0. C. 1294 a a. 

Pi'esented by Consul Swinhoe, P.R.S. 

Numenius minutus. 

Numenius minutus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1840, p. 176 ; David ct Oust. 
Ois. Chin. p. 458 (1877). 

The Little Whimbrel. 

Hah. China and Japan. 

1807, 1808. Skeletons of male and female. From Shanghai. 0. C. 
1294 b, 1294 c. Presented by Consul Sicinhoe, F.R.S. 

* Cf. Shufcldt, .Tourn. Anat. vt I'liyt;. xix. p. ol [Xumcniui^ bnujirostrisX 



362 



GALLO-GKALL.f;. 



Numenius arcuatus. 



Scolopax arcuaia, Liuna3us, Sj'st. Xat. i. p. 242 (1766). 
Numenius arquata, B. 0. U. List Brit. B. p. 179 (1883). 

The Common Curlew. 

]fab. Euro})e, Asia, and Africa. 

1809, 1810. Skeletons. 0. C. 1293 a, 1293 c. Iluntenan. 

1811. Skull. O.C. 1293 b. Stores, U^^. 

1812, 1813. Skulls. 0. C. 1293 d, e. Purchased. 

1814. HyoiJeau arch. 

1815. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 0. (J. 1293 F. 

Stores, 1868. 

1816. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

1817. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented by B. 11. Hodgson, Esq. 

1818. Sternum, w'ith right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

1745. Stores. 

Genus IBIDORHYNCHUS. 

Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 174. 

Ibidorhynchus struthersi. 

Ibidorhynclius struthersi. Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 174. 

The Red-billed Curlew. 

Hah. Central Asia and China^ ranging to the Himalayas. 

1819. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1852. From Nepal. 

Presented by B. H. Tfodgson, Esq. 



(iKUID^:. 



363 



Suborder III. GRALLjE. 

[C/. Seebohm, Classif. E. p. 39.] 

A. Maxillo-palatines not coalesced with each other or with the 

vomer. 

B. Nasals schizorhinai. 

Vj. Dorsal vertebra? heterocoelous. 

D. Deep plantar tendon, if it reaches the hallux, proceediu"; from 

i\iQ flexor' longus hallucis and not from the flexor perforans 
dlgitorum. 

E. Young, when hatched, covered with down, and able to run 

in a few hours. 



Family GRUID^ *. 

Genus GRUS t. 
Pallas, Miscell Zool. p. (JG (176G). 

Grus cinerea. 

Gnis cinerea, Bechsteiu, Xaturg. Ueutschl. iv. p. 103 (1809) ; 
Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. ii. p. 570 (1884). 

The Common Crane. 

Hah. Europe and Northern Asia, migrating in winter to 
North Africa and Southern Asia. 

1820. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1290. 

South Collection. 

1821. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle and ribs (wanting left 

scapula), and with wall of sternum removed to show- 
trachea in situ. 0. C 1342. Purchased. 

1822. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle and trachea comj)lete, as 

well as the hyoidean arch. 0. C. 1334 A. 

From the Zoological Society. 

1823. Sternum and furcula. 0. C. 1322. Ihinterian. 



* —Grups, 8harpc, Review, p. 74. 

t Cf. Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mus. p. 160 (1801). 



364 GALLO-GRALL^. 

Grus antigone>' 

Ardea antigone, Linmeus, Syst. Nat. i. p, 235 (1766). 
Grus antigone (L.), Gates, B. Brit, Burm. ii. p. 354 (1883). 

The Sarus Crane. 

Ilah. The whole of India, the Indo-Burinese countries, Siam, 
and Cochin China. 

1824. Cranium. 0. C. 1321 a. 

1825. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle (the left side of keel re- 

moved, to show convolutions of trachea). 0. C. 1332. 

1826. Sternum, longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1334. 

Hunterian. 

1827. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle (wanting scapula), with 

lower part of trachea. 0. C. 1329 b. 

Presented by W. B. Tegetineier, Esq. 

1828. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle and part of trachea, of 

young bird. 0. C. 1330. 

Presented by Sir Everard Home, F.R.S. 

1829. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, and trachea In situ. S. S. 

1823. From the Zoological Society. 

1830. Sternum. 0. C. 1329 a. Stores, 1868. 

1831. Dorsal vertebras, sternum with shoulder-girdle, and pelvis. 

0. C. 1331. 

1832. Bones (various). 0. C. 1321-1329. Hunterian. 

Grus carunculata. 

Ardea carunctdata, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 6-i3 (1788). 
Grits caruncidata, Finscli & Hartl. Vcig. Ostafr. p. 670 (1870) ; 
Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 626 (1884). 

The Wattled Crane. 

Hab. Africa generally, 

1833. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle and with trachea in sit7i. 

From South Africa. O. C. 1342 a. 

From the Zoological Society^ 



GRUID.T:. 365 



Grus canadensis. 



Ardea canadensis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 234 (IT'JO). 

Grus canadensis (L.), A. O. U. Check-list Am. 13. p. V.V,) (ISSf!). 

The Little Brown Cra.ne. 

Hah. North America. 

1834. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle and trachea in situ. S. S. 

2434. From the Zoological Society. 

Genus TETRAPTERYX. 

Thunberg, Kongl, Yetensk. Ak. Haiidling-tir, Stockholm, 181S, p. 242. 

Tetrapteryx paradisea. 

Ardea paradisca, Lichtensteiu, Cat. Ker. jSat. llariss. Hamb. p. 28 

(1793). 
Grus 2:)aradisea (Licht.), Finsch & Hartl. Vog. Ostafr. p. G71 

(1870). 
Anthropoides paradisea (Licht.), Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. 8. Afr. 

p. 628 (1884). 

Stanley's Crane. 

Hah. Africa. 

1835. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle and with trachea, of female 

bird. 0. C. 1334 b. Purchased. 

1836. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle and part of trachea. 0. C. 

1334 C. Presented hy W. B. Tegetmeier, Esq. 

Genus ANTHROPOIDES. 

VieiUot, Analyse, p. 59 (1816). 

Anthropoides virgo. 

Ardea virgo, Linnteus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 234 (17G0). 
Grus virgo, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. ii. p. 575 (1884). 

The Demoiselle Crane. 

Hah. Southern Europe and Central Asia, wintering in India 
and Northern Africa. 

1837. Skull. 0. C. 1340. Presented hy Dr. heach. 



366 GALI.O-aitALL.T:. 

Genus BALEARICA. 
Brisson, Orn. v. p. 511 (ITGD). 

Balearica pavonina. 

Ardea ixivonina, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 23!) (176(j). 

Gr us pavonina^ Finsch & Hartl. Vcig. O.stafr. p. GG7 (1870). 

The Common Crowned Crane. 

Hah. Northern Africa. 

1838. Skeleton. 0. C. 1335 a. Stores, 1868. 

1839. Articulated skeleton (some ribs missing). 0. C. 1335. 

South Collection. 

1840. Skull. 0. C. 1336. Presented by Dr. Leach. 

1841. Dried bead. 0. ('. 1338. 

Presented hi/ ]V. Bullock, Esq. 

1842. Skull, longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1337. Purchased. 

1843. Skull. From the Upper Nile. 0. C. 1337 a. 

Presented hi/ Dr. Murie. 

1844. Sternum, with slioulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 992. 

Presented hij P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Balearica chrysopelargus. 

Ardea chri/sopelarr/iis, Lichtenstein, Cat. Rer. Nat. Rariss. Hamb. 

p. 29 (1793). 
Balearica chrysopehn/tts (Licht.), Sharpe, ed. La3ard's 13. 8. Afr. 

p. 629 (1884). 

The Southern Crowned Crane. 

Ilah. South Africa. 

1845. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 1308. From the Zoological Sociefij. 



RHINOCHETin.i-:. 3t) 



Family ARAMIDiE *. 

Genus ARAMUS. 
Yieillot, Analyse, p. oS (1810). 

Aramus scolopaceus +. 

Ardea scolopacea, Gmelin, Syst. Xat. i. p. 617 (1788). 
Aramus scolopaceus (Gm.), Scl. & Salv. Nomencl. Av. Xeotrop. 
p. 141 (1873). 

The South-American Limpkin. 

Hah. Guiana, Amazonia, and Brazil. 
1846. Stei'uum, with right coracoid. S. S. 1008. Purchased. 



Family RHINOCHETIDiE $. 

Genus RHINOCHETUS. 

Sclater, Ibis, 18G1, p. 137. 

Rhinochetus jubatus§. 

WiinocJietus jubatas, Vcrreaux & 0. Des !Murs, Kev. et Mag. de 
Zool. 1860, p. 440, t. 21 ; E. L. & L. C. Layard, Ibis, 1877, 
p. 362. 

The Kagu. 

Hab. New Caledonia 

1847. Skeleton. A. 1318 a. Presented h>/ Dr. G. Dennett. 

1848. Ilyoid arch. A. 1318 a. Presented hy Dr. G. Bennett. 

* =Arami, Sharpe, Review, p. 74. 

t ty. Garrod, P. Z. S. 1876, p 27o; Forbes, Ibia, 1881, p. 2-3. 
X = lihinochetides, Sharpe, Review, p. 74. 

§ Cf. Parker, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 70 : id. Trnns. Zool. Soc. vi. p..')01 : Forbes, 
P. Z.S. 18<:>, p. 271. 



368 GALL0-GRALL.1-',. 

^uhordevlY. If EMIPODJf*. 

[Cf. Sharpe, Review, p. 69.] 

A. Maxillo-palutines not coalesced with each other or with tlie 

vomer. 

B. Nasals sehizorhinal. 

C. Dorsal vertebrae heterocoelous. 

D. Sternum with a deep notch on either side of the posterior 

margin. 

E. Oil-gknd tufted. 

F. Spinal bare tract not reaching to the neck, though the three 

other tracts do so. 

G. A well-developed episternum, receiving the stm-nal ends of 

the coracoids, but not perforated. 

Genus TURNIX. 
Bonnaterre, Tabl. Encycl. Method, i. pp. Ixxxii, 5(1790). 

Turnix velox. 

Hemipodius veloa-, Gould, P. Z. 8. 1840, p. 150. 

Turnix velox, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 184 (1865). 

The Swift-flying Hemipode. 

Hah. Australia. 

1849. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. Palmer, N. S. 

Wales (E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 947. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Turnix maculatus. 

Turnix maculatus, Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxxv. p. 47 
(1819) ; David et Oust. Ois. Chin. p. 398 (1877). 

The Spotted Hemipode. 

Hah. China. 

1850. Skeleton. From (-hefoo. 0. C. 1423 a. 

Presented hy Consul Swinhoe, F.R.S. 

* Cf. Huxlej, Proc. Zool. See. 1868, p. 303; Parker, Trans. Zool. Soc. ix. 
1*. r,, pp. 289-352, pi. liv. Also Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 39. 



PTRKOCLETRS. 369 



Turnix varius. 



ITemipodius varius, Temminck, PI. Col. v. pi, 454, fig. 1 (1828). 
Turnix varius, Gould, Handb. li. Austr, ii. p. I7!J (1865). 

The Varied Hemipode. 

Ifuh. Australia and Tasmania. 

1851. Natural skeleton. 0. V. 1423. Gould Colled i,m. 

Genus PEDIONOMUS. 

Gould, P. Z. S. 184U, p. 114. 

Pedionomus torquatus. 

PecUonomus torquatus, Gould, Proc. Zool. See. 1840, )». 114; id. 
Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 187(1865). 

The Collared Plain-Wanderer. 

ITah. Southern Australia. 

1852, 1853. Skeletons. 0. C. A. 1355 a, b. Stores, 18(18. 



Suborder V. PTEROCLETES* . 
\Cf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 39.] 

A. Maxillo-palatines not coalesced with each other or with the 

vomer. 

B. Nasals schizorhinal. 

C. Dorsal vertebra} heterocoelous. 

D. Sternum with two notches on each side of the posterior 

margin. 



* =Pt€rochinorph(e, Iluxlej^, Proc. Zool. Soc. 18(58, p. 303. = Suborder 
Pterncletes, Sharpe, Review, p. 09(1891). C,'/". .also Stejneger, Stand. Nat. 
Hist., Birds, p. 23o. 

I'Ain- 111. 2 b 



370 GALLO-GRALL.f:. 

Genus SYRRHAPTES. 

Illiger, Prodromus, p. 243 (1811). 

Syrrhaptes paradoxus. 

Tetrao j^a^'^doxa, Pallas, Reise Russ. lleichs, ii. App. p. 712, 

tab. F (1773). 
Syrrhaptes paradoxus, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. ii. p. 419 (1884). 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse. 

Hah. Northern Europe and Central Asia. 

1854. Natural skeleton. 0. C, A. 1421 a. 

P urchased of Mr. Genrwd. 

1855. Natural skeleton. 0. C, B. 1421 a. 

1856. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. S. S. 1014. Purchased. 

Geiuis PTEROCLES. 
Teinminck, Pigeons et Galliu. iii. p. 712 (1815). 

Pterocles arenarius. 

Tetrao arenaria, Pallas, Nov. Comm. Petrop. xix. p. 418, pi. 8 

(1774). 
Pterocles arenarius (Pall.), Dresser, B. Eur. vii. p. 61, pi. 466 

(1874). 

The Black-bellied Sand-Grotjse. 

Plah. South-western Europe, Northern Africa, and Western 
Asia to India. 

1857. Natural skeleton (wanting head and left hind leg) of 

female. 0. C. 1422. Purchased. 

1858. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2152. 

From the Zoological Society/. 

N.B.— The skeleton of the "male,'' 0. C. 1421, is that of a 
species of Plover, probably an CEdicnetniis ! [Cf. Owen, Osteol. 
Cat. p. 273.] 



oTinrn^. 37I 

Pterocles lichtensteini. 

Pteroeles lichtensteini, Temminck, PI, Col. v. pis. 355,361 (^1825) ; 
Finsch & Hartl. Yiig. Ostafr. p. 504 (1870). 

Lichtenstein's Sand-Grouse. 

Hah. North-eastern Africa. 

1859. Sternuin of mule, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Sorlet//. 

1860. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting right coraeoid and 

scapula. S. S. 1550. 

Fref^enlpcl h;i P. L. Sdater, Esq., F.R.S. 



Suborder VI. FULICARI^*. 

ICf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 40.] 

A. Palate schizognathous. 

B. Nasals holorhinal. 

G. Dorsal vertebra} heterocoelous. 

D. Posterior processes of the ilia separated sufficiently to show 
a broad sacrum. 



Family OTIDID^ f. 

Genus OTIS. 
Brisson, Orn. v. p. 18 (1700). 

Otis tarda. 

Oti^ tarda, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 581 (1700); Seebohra, Hist. 
Brit. B. ii. p. 581 (1881). 

The Great Bustard. 

Hah. Europe and Asia. 

• Cf. Sharpe, Keview, p. 90; Lydekker, Cat. Fo.ssil Birds Brit. Mns. 
p. 143 (1891). 

t Suborder Otides, Sharpe, Review, p. 73. Vf. Lydekker, Cat. Fossil 
Bird.-^ Brit. Mus. p. 107 (1891). 

2 I! -1 



372 gallo-grall.t:. 

Otis tarda. 

1861. Articulated skeleton of male. 0. C. 1348. 

Soutli Collection. 

1862. Articulated skeleton of female. 0. C. 1349. Purchased. 

1863. Skeleton of female. From Chefoo, China. 0. 0. 1349 a. 

Presented hi/ Consul Sio/'nhoe, F.P.S. 

1864. Skull. 0. C. 1350. Hunterian. 

1865. Sternum, with shoulder-oirdle [of specimen 1867], 
wanting left coraeoid and scapula. S. S. 1245. 

Hunterian. 

1866,1867. Various bones. 0. C. 1351 and 1352 A. Hunterian. 
(Some of the bones mounted in the Separate Series.) 

Otis tetrax. 

Otis tetrax, Linnajus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 264 (1760) ; Seebohrn, Hist. 
Brit. B. ii. p. 5S7 (1884). 

The Little Bustard. 

Hah. Europe and Central Asia, ranging south to North Africa 
in winter. 

1868. Skeleton. O.C. 1354a. 

1869. Skeleton. 0. C. 1354. Soutlt Collection. 

1870. Sternum, wanting left coraeoid and scapula. S. S. 1698. 

From the Zoological Society/. 



Otis australiso 

Otis australis, Gray iu Griff. Anim. Kingd. vol. iii. p. 305 (1829). 
Choriotis cmstralis, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 208 (1865). 

The Australian Bustard. 

Hah. Australia. 

1871. Sternum, with right coraeoid, scapula, and fnrcula. Lake 
George, N. S. Wales. S. S. 1086. 

Presented hjj Dr. K. P. Ramsay. 



OTIDIDyl?. 373 

Genus EUPODOTIS. 
Lesson, Rev, Zool. ii. ]). 47 (183!)). 

Eupodotis edwardsi. 

Otis edwnrdsH, J. E. Gray, 111. Ind. Zool. i. pi. 59 (1832). 
Eupodotis edivardsi, Humo & Marshall, Game Birds of India, i. 
p. 7, pi. 3 (1878). 

The Great Indian Bustard. 

Ilah. India. 

1872. Skull. 0. v., A. 1348 a. Presented hj J. Mahohnson, Esq. 

Eupodotis, 8p. 

1873. Skeleton. 0. C, A. 1348 b. Stores, 1868. 

1874. Skull. S. S. 1759. Purchased. 



Genus SYPHEOTIDES. 

Lesson, Rev. Zool. ii. p. 47 (1839). 

Sypheotides aurita. 

Otis aurita, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. GGU (1790). 
Sypheotides aurita (Lath.), Hume & Marshall, Game Birds of 
India, i. p. 33, pi. G (1878). 

The Lesser Florican. 

II(d>. India. 

1875. Sternum. S. S. 1850. From Nepal. 

Presented hij B. IT. Hodgson, Es(j. 

1876. Pelvis. S.S. 1850 a. Parcltased. 



374 GALLO-GRALL.t:. 

Family OPISTHOCOMID^ *. 

[Cf. fSeebohm, Classif. B. p. 40.] 

A. Palate schizoonathou^. 

13, Nasals holorhinal. 

( *. Dorsal vertebra? lieterocoelous. 

D. Episternal process not ])erfbrated to receive the sternal ends 

of the coracoids. 

E. Posterior processes of" the ilia sufficiently separated to show a 

broad sacrum. 

F. Hallux large. 

G. Oil-gland tufted. 

Genus OPISTHOCOMUS. 

Uliger, Prodromus, p. 239 (1811). 

Opisthocomus cristatus. 

Phusianus cristatus, Gmeliii, Syst. J^at. ii. p. 741 (1788). 
Opisthocomus cristatus (Gm.), Sclater & Salvin, Nomencl. Av. 
N"eotrop. p. 139 (1873). 

The Hoatzin. 

Ilab. Guiana and Amazonia. 

1877. Skeleton (very much injured), 0, C. 1403 b. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

1878. Articulated skeleton. From Surinam. 0. C. 1405 a. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

1879. vSternum of spec. 1403b, with shoulder-girdle. S. S, 2()01. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

1880. Eight manus of spec, 1403 b. S. S. 2603, 

1881. Pelvis of spec. 1403 b. S. S. 2602. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

1882. Right i)es of spec. 1403 b. S. S, 2604. 

Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

* = Hiteronwrpha. Huxlt'V. I'. Z. S. 1868, p. oOo ; = Suborder Opi^^thi- 
romiformcs, Shar])o, IJL'\iew, p. 70. 



CAHIAMID^. — KALLll)^. 375 



Family CARIAMID^ *. 

[Cf. Seebohm, Classif. 13. p. 40.] 

A. Palate schizognathous. 

B. Nasals holorliinal. 

C/. Dorsal vertebrae beterocoelous. 

D. Episternal process not perforated to receive the sternal ends 

of the coracoids. 

E. Posterior process of the ilia separated sufficiently to show a 

broad sacrum. 

F. Sternum with one notch on each side of the posterior margin. 

G. No lateral bare tracts on neck. 
H. Oil-gland nude. 

Geuus CARIAMA. 
Brisson, Orn. v. p. 516 (1760). 

Cariama cristata f. 

Palamedea cristata, Linnteus, Syst. Xat. i. p, 232 (1768). 
Cariama cristata (L.), Shaqje, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 42 (1874). 

The Crested Cariama. 

Ilah. Campos of Brazil and Northern Paraguay. 

1883. Skeleton. O.C. 1343 a. 

Presented hy Professor Huxley, F.R.S. 

Family KALLIDiE |. 
[Cy. Seebobm, Classif. B. p. 40.] 

A. Palate schizognathous. 

B. Nasals holorhinal. 

C. Dorsal vertebrae beterocoelous, 

D. Episternal process not perforated to receive the sternal ends 

of the coracoids. 

* = Suborder Dii-ho/ojihi, Shar]it', Review, ]). 71. 

t Cf. (iadow, J. f. O. p. 44.>; Reiuh. Ibis, 1882, p. 021. 

I =:I{nVifonnes, Sbarpe, Review, p. 70. 



376 GALLO-GKALL^. 

E. Posterior process of the ilium sutticiently separated to sliow 

a broad sacrum. 

F. Sternum with one notch on each side of the posterior margin. 

G. Neck with long lateral bare tract. 
H. Oil-gland tufted. 

Genus PORPHYRIO. 
Brisson, Om. v. p. 522 (17(50). 

Porphyrio melanonotus. 

Forj>7ii/rto melanotus, Temminck, Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 701 (1820) ; 
Gould, Handb. B. Anstr. ii. p. 321 (1865). 

The Black-backed Gallinule. 

Ilal). Australia and Tasmania. 

1884. Skeleton. O.C. 1283 a. Gould Collection. 

Porphyrio pulverulentus. 

PorpTiyiio jmlveriilenhis, Temminck, PI. Col. pi. 405 (1826); 
Waiden, Trans. Zool. Soc. ix. p. 228 (1875). 

The Philippine Gallinule. 

Ilab. Philippines. 

1885. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1817. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Porphyrio alleni. 

rorphijno alleni, Thompson, Ann. & Mag. X. H. x. p. 204(1842); 
iSharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Africa, p. 621 (1884). 

Allen's Purple Gallinule. 

Ifah. Western Africa. 

1886. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1020. 

Purchased of Mr. L. Fraser. 

Porphyrio, sp. 

1887. Disected skull. 0. C. 1283 d. 

1888. Left foot. O.C. 1288 e. 



UALLID^. 377 

Genus NOTORNIS*. 
Owen, P. Z. S. 1848, p. 2. 

^otovnig mantclli. 

I^^otornis manicUi, Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. iii. p. 377, pi. Ivi. 
figs. 7-13(1848); Biiller, E. New Zeal. p. 18<J, pi. (1873); 
Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. p. 157 (1891). 

Mantell's Giant Gallinule. 

Hah. New Zealand. 

1889. Various bones. Subfossil. 

Genus FULICA. 
Brisson, Orn. vi. p. 23 (1760). 

Fulica atra. 

Fidica atra, Linnocus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 257 (1766); Scebohm, Hist. 
Brit. B. ii. p. 564 (1884). 

The Common Coot. 

Hah. Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

1890. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1282 b. 

Presented hy Richard Davu, Esq. 

1891. Skeleton (toes defective) . 0. C. 1282. South Collection. 

1892. Skeleton. 0. C. 1284. Brookes Collection. 

1893. Skull. O.C. 1283. Purchased. 

1894. Feet. Purchased. 

1895. Sternum, wanting left coracoid. S. S. 2U27. Stores. 

Fulica australis. 

Fulica australis, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 2 ; id. Handb. B. 
Austr. ii. p. 32'J (18G5). 

The Australian Coot. 

Hah. Australia. 
' C.y. MfVer, Abbild. \'cigel-Skel. i. Taf. xxxiv.-xxxvii. (.V. hochstetlcri) . 



378 GALLO-GRALL.E. 

Fulica australis. 

1896, Sternnm of male, with slioulder-girdle, but without left 

conicoid and scapula. From Clarence River, N. S. AVales 
{E.P.Ramsay). S. S. 1374. 

Premited by P. L. Sdater, Esq., F.R.S. 

Fulica americana. 

Fulica americana, Gmelin, 85"st. Xat. i. p. 704 (1788) ; Cory, B. 
West Indies, p. 258 (1889) ; A. 0. U. Check-list N. Am. U. 
p. 144 (1886). 

The American Coot. 

Hah. North America to Central America and the West 
Indies. 

1897. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1282 A. From 

Jamaica. Gosse Coll. 



Genus GALLINULA. 
Brisson, Oru. vi. p. 3 (1760). 

Gallinula chloropus. 

Fulica chloropus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 258 (17(56) ; Seebohm, 
Hist. Brit. B. ii. p. 557 (1884). 

The Common Water-hen. 

Ilab. Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

1898. Dried head. 0. C. 128.5. 

Presented hy W. Bullock, Esq. 

1899. Sternum. 0. C. 1284 a. Ilunterian. 

Gallinula tenebrosa. 

Gallinula tenehrosa, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1846, p. 20 ; id. 
Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 328 (1865). 

The Sombre Water-hen. 

Hah. Australia. 



KALLIDv*:. 379 

1900. SttM-num of miilo, Avitli slioulder-oinllc, wuntin^- Icl't coni- 
coici and scujmla. IS. IS. 181(j. 

From the Zoolor/ical Sociely. 

Genus TRIBONYX, 
Dubiis, Eull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Bruxelles, vii. pt. 1, p. 212 (1840). 

Tribonyx mortieri. 

Trihonyx mortleri,Ylx\hn^, t. c. p. 215, pi. (1840); Gould, Haiidb. 
B. Austr. ii. p. ^24 (18G5). 

Mortier's Water-hen. 

JJah. Southern Au.-<tralia and Tasniania. 

1901. Skeleton. U. (!. 1281. Gould CoUecLion. 

Tribonjrx ventralis. 

GaUinula ventralis, Gould, rroc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 85. 
Tribonyx ventralis, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 325 (1865). 

The Black-tailed Water-hen. 

llo.h. Southern Au<.tralia. 

1902. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 

scapula. Port Denison, Queensland {E. P. Ramsay). 
S. S. 1365. Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.lis. 

Genus PAREUDIASTES. 

Hartlaub & Finsch, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 25, pi. ii. 

Pareudiastes pacificus. 

Pareudiastes pacificus, Hartlaub & Pinsch, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 2o, 
pi. ii. 

The Pacific Water-hen. 

Ilah. Savai, South Pacific Islands. 

1903. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, wanting left coracoid and 
scapula. S. S. 2527. 

Preaentcd hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



380 GALLO-GRALL^. 

Genus OCYDROMUS *. 

Wag-ler, Nat. 8yst. Amph. Siiiig. u. Viigel, p. 98 (1830). 

Ocydromus sylvestris. 

Oci/di'omus sylvestris, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 18()9, p. 472, pi. 35 ; 
Ramsay, Tab. List Austr. E. p. 38 (1888); Meyer, Abbild. 
Vogel-Skel. i. Taf. xli. 

The Lord Howe Island Wood-hen. 

IlaJ). Lord Howe Island. 

1904. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2567. 

Presented hi/ P. L. Sclafer, Esq., P.P.S. 



Ocydromus lafresnayanus. 

Galliralivs lafresnai/anvs, Verreaux et O. Des Murs, llcv, et Mag. 
de Zool. 1860, p.'437 ; E. L. & L. C. Layard, Ibis, 1877, p. 3G3. 

Lafresnaye's Wood-hen. 
Ilab. New Caledonia. 

1905. Skeleton. O. C. 128U b. 

Presented bij Dv. Geortje Bennett. 



Ocydromus australis. 

Ralhis australis, Sparrman, Mus. Carls, pi. 14 (1786). 
Ocydromus australis, BuUer, B. New Zeal, p. 170 (1873). 

The South-Island Wood-hen. 

Hah. South Island, New Zealand. 

1906. Skeleton (detective). 0. C. 1280. Purchased. 

1907. Skeleton. 0. C. 1280 a. Purchased. 

1908. Sternum of male, without shoulder-girdle. S. S. 935. 

From the Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 

* Cf. Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skel. i. Taf. xl. (O.fascus). 



KALLID.E. 381 

Genua APTORNIS. 
Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. iii. p. ^547 (1848). 

Sptornis otittfonnig, 

Didornis otidifonnis, Owen, ut supra. 

Aptoi'nis otidifonnis, Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. p. 147 
(1891). 

The Bustard-like Wood-hen (extinct). 
Hah. New Zealand. 
1908 A. Shaft of right feiinir [rf. Cat. Fossil Mamni. & Aves, 
p. 366). F. C. 1591. 

1908 B. Right tibio-tarsus [cf. Cat. Fossil Mamm. & Aves, p. 366). 
F.C. 1592. 

Genus GALLICREX. 

Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. As. Sue. p. 283 (1849). 

Gallicrex cinerea. 

Falica cinerea, Gmelin, Syst. Xat. ii. p. 702 (1788). 
Gallicrex cinerea, David ct Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 484 (1877). 

The Water-cock. 

Hab. India to China, and the Malay Archipelago. 

1909. Skeleton of male. From Chefoo, China. 0. C. 1283 F. 

Presented hj Consul Switihoe, F.h'.S. 

Gcmis RALLUS. 
Linnieus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 2()1 (17<}(J). 

Rallus aquaticus. 

llallus aquaticus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 2Q2 (1700); Seebohm, 
Hist. Brit. B. ii. p. 552 (1884). 

The Common Water- Rail. 

Ilab. Europe and Western Asia. 

1910. Skeleton. 0. C. 1286 a. Yarrell Collection. 

1911. Skull. O.C. 1286 c. Purchased. 

1912. Stcrnuiu, witli slioiildcr-girdlc. S. S. 1247. Purchased. 



382 GALLO-GRALL^. 

Rallus philippensis. 

Ballus philippeiisis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 263 (17G6). 
HypoUenidla pliilippensis, Gould, Handb. E. Ausir. ii. p. 334 
\l865). 

The Pectoral Rail. 

Ilah. Anstralia and Papuan Islands to the Moluccas and 
Philippine Islands. 

1913. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. From Du- 

broyde, N. S. Wales. S. S. 932. 

Presented hy Dr. K. P. Ramsay. 

Rallus caHbbaeus. 

Jiallus lom/irosti'is, var. carihhcens, Ridgwaj', Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 

V. p. 140 (18.^0). 
Rallus lowjirostris carihbo'vs, Cory, B. West Indies, p. 254 (1889). 

The Jamaican Clapper-IIail. 

Hub. Antilles. 

1914. Sternum. 0. C. 128fiB. From Jamaica. 

(j-osse Collection. 



Genus GYMNOCREX. 
Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civic. Genov. vii. p. 678 (1875). 

Gymnocrex plumbeiventris . 

Rallus plumbeiventris, Gray, Proc. Zool. 8oc. 1861, pp. 432, 438. 
Gymnocrex plumbeiventris (Gray), Sharpe in Gould's B. New 
Guinea, v. pi. 71 (1888). 

The Grey-bellied Rail. 

Hah. New Guinea and Solomon Islands. 

1915. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. Solomon Islands. S. S. 
2443. Presented hy P. L. Svlufer, Esq., F.R.S. 



RALLIDtE. 



383 



Genus CREX. 
Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb. p. 336 (1803). 

Crex crex. 

Rallns crex, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 2G1 (1700). 

Crex pratensis, Seebohm, Hist, Brit. B. ii. p. 535 (1884). 

The Land-Rail or Corn-Crake. 

Hab. Europe and AVestern Asia, wintering in Africa. 

1916. Sternum, with shoulder-oirdle. From Stratford-on-Avon. 

S. S. 2028. Presented by Professor Flower, F.R.S. 

1917. Skull. Stratford-on-Avon. 0. C. 1285 B. 

Presented by Professor Flower, F.R.S. 

Genus ORTYGOMETRA *. 

Lcacli, Syst. Cut. Mamm. & Birds Brit. Mus. p. 3-1 (1816). 

Ortygometra porzana. 

Ballus porzana, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i, p. 262 (1766). 
Crex porzana, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. ii. p. 540 (1884), 

The Spotted Crake. 

Ilab. Europe. 

1918. Skull of female. From Germany. Purchased. 

Ortygometra pusilla. 

Rail us J) us ill us, Pallas, Eeis. Buss, lleichs, iii. App. p. 700 (1776). 
Porzana piisilla (PaU.), Ogilvie-Grant, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(6) V. pp. 80-82 (1890). 

Pallas's Crake. 

Hab. Eastern Asia. 

1919. Skeleton of male. From Cliefoo, China. 0. C. 1285 c. 

Presented by Consul Swinhoe, F.R.S. 
* (•/. Meyer, Abbil.l. \'..-f.l-Skel. i. Tiif. cviii. (0. niyra). 



384 GALLO-GRALL^. 

Ortygometra Carolina. 

Rallus caroliuus, Linna?us, S3'st. Nat. i. p. 263 (1766~). 
Porzana Carolina, A. 0. U. Check-list N. Am. B. p. 142 (188G). 

The Carolina Crake. 

Ilah. North America to the West Indies and Northern South 
America. 

1920. Sternum. S. S. 1299. 

Presented hi/ the Sriuthsonhin Institution. 

Ortygometra fluminea. 

Porzana flaminea, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 139 ; id. 
Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 339 (1865). 

The Spotted Water-Crake. 

Ilah. Southern Australia and Tasmania. 

1921. Sternum of male, with slioulder-girdle. From Palmer, 

N. S. Wales (7;;. P. Ramsay). S. S. 938. 

Presented h;j P. L. Sdater, Es(j., F.R.S, 



Family PSOPHIID^*. 

[Cf. Secbohm, Classif. B. p. 40 ; Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist., Birds, 

p. 123.] 

A. Palate schizoonathous. 

B. Nasals holorhiual. 

C. Dorsal vertebrae heterocoelous. 

D. Episternal process not perforated to receive the slernal ends 

of the coracoids. 

E. Posterior process of the ilia separated sufficiently to show a 

broad sacrum. 

F. Sternum without a notch on the posterior margin. 

G. Neck with long lateral bare tracts. 

* = Suborder Psoplnte, Sharpe, Review, p. 74. 



HESrEROKN'ITIIlDit;. 385 

Genus PSOPHIA *. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 203 (17G0). 

Psophia crepitans. 

Psophia crepitans, Linnseus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 2t)3 (17GG); Scl. *fc; 
Salv. Nomeucl. Av. Neotrop. p. 141 (187;i). 

The Common Trumpeter. 

llab. Guiana. 

1922. Skeleton. 0. C. loio. South Collection. 

1923. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Sociefi/. 

1924. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1470. 

Presented In/ P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



Suhord.T Vll. IIFSPERORXITHES. 
Family HESPERORXITHID.E. 

Genus HESPERORNIS. 

Marsh, Amer. Journ. Sci. (3) iii. p. 57 (1872). 

f^tsipcronit^ rfcjaltsi. 

Hesperornis regalis, Marsh, ut supra ; D'Arcy Tliorapson, Stud. 
Miis. Dundee,!, no. 10, pp. 1-15 (1890); Fiirbringer, MB. 
Deutsch. Yer. Schutz, 1890, pp. 488-513; Shufeldt, Nature, 
xUii. p. 176 ; Helm, t. c. p. 369 (1890) ; Lydekker, Cat. Fossil 
B. p. 205 (1891). 

The Toothed Diver. 

Hah. North America (fossil in the Cretaceous of Kansas). 

1925. Cast of portion of left mandible, retaining three teeth. 

Front the original in Yale College Museum. 

* ('/. P.,Ml(lanl, Proc. Zoul. Sic. 1890. pj). :12S)-:341. 
PART III. 2C 



38fi 



GALLO-GRALL^. 



1926. (Vist of part of right mandible, showing imperfect sockets. 



1927. Cast of axis or second vertebra. 

1928. Cast of fourth vertebra. 

1929. Cast of twelfth vertebra. 

1930. Cast of fifteenth vertebra. 

1931. Cast of sixteenth vertebra. 

1932. Cast of twentieth vertebra. 

1933. Cast of twenty-third vertebra. 

1934. Cast of pelvis. 

1935. Cast of caudal vertel)ra. 

1936. Cast of left femur. 

1937. ( ast of left tibio-tarsus. 

1938. Cast of left patella. 



From the same. 
From the same. 
From the same. 
From the same. 
From the same. 
From the same. 
From the same. 
From the same. 
From the same. 
From the same. 
From the same. 
From, the same. 
From the same. 



1939. Cast of left tarso-metatarsus, with phalanges. 

From the same. 



^fspfrornt'^ cr.is'^tpfg. 

Hesperornis crassipes, Marsh, Amer. Jouru. Sci. (3) xi. p. 509 
(1876); Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mus. p. 209 (1891). 

The Large-footed Toothed Diver. 

Jlati. North America (fossil). 

1940. Cast of ventral aspect of sternum. 

From the orhihial in Vale College Jfaseiim. 



Suhonlcr Vlll. PYGOPODES. 
\_Cf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 41.] 

A. Palate schizognatbous. 

B. Cnemial process of the iWn-A produced to a remarkable 

degree. 

C. Posterior process of tbe ibum approximated to sucb an extent 

tbat tbe sacrum is abiiost entirely concealed. 

D. Spinal featber-tract not defined on tbe neck. 

Family COLYMBIUiE *. 

A. Ho ancbylosed vertebra3 in front of tbe ancbylosed sacral 

vertebrae. 

B. Median xipbioid process of sternum projecting lidiind tbe 

lateral processes. 
C Cervical vertebra; 14 or 15 in numlier. 
D. Ambiens and femoro-caudal muscles present. 

(ienus COLYMBUS f. 
IJrisson, Orn. vi. \^. 34 (IT'JOj. 

Colyiubus glacialis. 

Colymhus gJacialis, Liniiasus, Sjst. Xat. i. p. 221 (170^) ; B. (). U. 
List Brit. B. p. 201 (1S83). 

The Great Northern Diver. 

ILih. Nortbern Europe, Asia, and America, nn'grating soutb 
in winter. 

1941. Skeleton. (). C. 11G5. South. Collection. 

1942. Skeleton. Purchased. 

1943. Skeleton. Presented by A. M. J'aterson, Es<]. 

1944. Sternum, witb rigbt coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

865. Purchased. 

* = Order Cohjmln formes, Sharpe, Review, p. 71; cf. Lydekker. Cat. 
Fossil B. Brit. :Mus. p. IHi (1S91) 

t Cf. Couos, Mem. I'.(i>r. S.,.-. i. p. l.'.l. ],1. •",. 

■1 c 2 



388 oallo-grall.t:. 



Colymbus septentrionalis. 

Colymhus septentrionalis, LinniBus. 8yst. iS^at. i. p. 220 (1706) ; 
B. 0. U. List Brit. B. p. 202 (1SS3). 

The Pved-throated Diver. 

Hah. Northern Europe, Asia, and America, ranging south in 
winter. 

1945. Skeleton. 0. C. 11G5a. 

1946. Skeleton of young. 0. C. UGG A. (Skull wanting.) 

Purchased. 

1947. Skeleton. Many of the bones mounted in the Separate 

Series. 0. C. 11()Gb. Hxinterian. 

1948. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

8r)o. Purc]iai<ed. 

1949. Pelvis and bones of right leg. 0. 0. 1 1()(k 

Ihvokcs Collection. 



Family PODICIPEDIDJC *. 

[Cf. Stejuoger, Stand. Xat. Hist., Birds, p. GO ; Seebohm, 
Classif. B. p. 41.] 

A. Palate schizognathous. 

B. Cnemial process of the tibia produced to a remarkable 

degree. 

C. Posterior process of ilium approximated to such an extent 

that the sacrum is almost entirely concealed. 
U. Cervical vertebrre 17 to 21 in number. 

E. Anchylosed sacral vertel)r<ie preceded by a free vertebra, in 

front of which are four anchylosed dorsal vertebrrTe. 

F. Median xiphioid process of sternum abruptly truncated, so 

that the lateral processes extend behind it. 

G. Spinal feather-tract not defined on the neck. 
H. Ambiens and femoro-caudal muscles absent. 

* = Order Fodidpiiliformex^ Shnrjie, lit'view, p. 71. 



rdUicirKDiD.K. 381) 

Genus PODICIPSS *. 
Lath. Gen. Syii. Siippl. p. 2V.) (1787). 

Podicipes griseigena, 

Coh/mbi(s rp'iselgena, Eoddacrt, Tabl. PI. Eiil, p. 55 (1783). 
Podiceps fjriseigena (Bodd.), E. 0. U. List Brit. B. p. 203 (1883). 

The Red-necked Grebe. 

Hal). Northern Europe uiid Northern America. 

1950. Skeleton. 0. C. IIGG c. J'irrchu.sed. 

1951. Skull of female. From Pi-u>>ia. I'uirhased. 

Podicipes cristatus. 

Colymbus cristatus, Linnasus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 222 (1766). 
Podiceps cristatus (L.), B. 0. U. List Brit. B. p. 202 (1883). 

The Great Crested Grebe. 

JIab. Temperate and Southern portions of Europe and Asia, 
extending to India, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. 

1952. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 116G D. 

1953. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furoula. 

S. S. 12G4. Fvesented hy Professor Floorer, F.R.S. 

Podicipes dominicus. 

Colymbus dominicus, Linnaeus, S} st. Xat. i. p. 223 (1766). 
Podice2:)S dominicus, Baird, Brewer, and liidgway, Water-Birds 

jST. Amer. ii. p. 438 (18S4) ; Cory, Birds West Indies, p. 283 

(1889). 

The Least American Grebe. 

Ilab. Tropical America and West Indies. 

1954. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

F resented Inj tlte Sinilhsonian Inslil ulion. 

* Cifncnilly wiktcii rodircpe. 



390 GALLO-GRALL.E. 

Genus PODILYMBUS. 

Lesson, Traite cVOrn. jx 5[)o (1S31). 

Podilymbus podiceps. 

Cohjmhus iwdiceps, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat, i. p. 223 (176G). 
Podili/mbusjJodiceps {L.), A. 0. TJ, Chcck-L N. Amer. E. p. 75 
(1886). 

The Pied-billed Grebe. 

JJab. Nearly the whole of America. 

1955. Sternum. S. S. 1289. 

Presented In/ the Smithsonian Instif idivn. 

Genus TACHYBAPTES. 

Eeichenbach, Syst. Av. p. 11 (1851). 

Tachybaptes fluviatilis. 

Cohjmhus jlaviatilis, Tunstall, Orn. Erit. p. 3 (1771). 
Taclujhaptes fluviatilis (Tunst.), E. 0. U. List Erit. E. p. 204 (1883). 

The Little Geebe. 

Ilah. Nearly tlie whole of the Old World. 

1956. Skull of male. From Germany. Purchased. 

1957. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1933. 

Prom the Zoological Societi/. 

Suborder IX. GALLINjE^. 

[Cf. Secbohm, Classif. E. p. 42.] 

A. Palate sehizoii'nathous. 

B. Basipterygoid processes articulating- with the pterygoids as 

near the palatines as possible. 
C Nasals holorhinal. 

* = Order 6'«//{/"oy»;(fvv. Sliai]it'. IJevIcw, ]). 6^ ; if. Ganod, I'ruc. Zool. 
Sue. 1870. pp. o.j4-.j80. 



niASIAXTD.E. :V.) I 

D. Episternal process perforated to receive the sternal ends of 

the coracoids. 

E. Young, when hatched, covered with (h)\vn, and able to run 

in a few hours. 



Family PHASIANID^ *. 

[Of. Seebohm, Classif. 13. p. 42.] 

A. Inner notch- of sternum more than half the len^^rh of tie 

whole sternum. 

B. Hallux raised above the level of the front toes, and its basal 

phalanx shorter than the hind toe. 

C. Oil-gland tufted, or absent. 

Genus PHASIANUS. 
Linnaeus, Syst. ^"at. i. p. 270 (17G6), 

Phasianus colchicus. 

PJuisicnius colcJiicus, Liuutcus, iSysfc. Nat. i. p. 271 (17GG) ; E. 0. U. 
List iJrit. B. p. 141 (1883). " 

The Common Pheasant. 

Bab. Europe and Western Asia. 

1958. Skeleton. Present ed hij IT. Uonrr, /isq. 

1959. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle, of inale " Bohenuan 

Pheasant. ' From the Zoolocikal Society. 

Phasianus versicolor, 

Phasianus v(rsicoloi\ Temminck, PI. Col. v. pis. 486, 4'J3 (1S3U) ; 
Elliot, MonogT. Plias, ii. pi. ix. (1872X 

The Japanese Pheasant. 

Ilah. Japan. 

* = Suborder Thasiani, Shiiriu-, Kovitw, p. 68: rf. Lvckkkcr, Cat. Fosm" 
Birds Brit. Mus^. p. 131 (1801). 



o92 GALLO-GltALLiE. 

Phasianus versicolor. 

1960. Sternum of female, with shoulder- oirdle. 

From the Zoological Society. 

1961. JSternum of male, with shoulder-oirdle. S. S. 1999. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Phasianus wallichii. 

Phasianus wallichii, Hardwicke, Trans. Liun. 8oc. xv. p. 166 
(1827) ; Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. pi. x. (1872). 

Wallich's Pheasant. 

Hah. Himalayas. 

1962. tSternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Phasianus scintillans. 

Phasianus scintillans, Gould, Ann. & Mag. N. H. (3) xvii. p. 150 

(1866). 
Phasianus svemmeriugi, var. scintillans, Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. 

pi. xiii. (1872). 

The Hondo Copper Pheasant. 

J Jab. Japan. 

1963. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Genus THAUMALEA. 
Wagler, Isis, 1832, p. 1227. 

Thaumalea picta. 

Phasianus inctus, Linnaeus, Syst. Kat. i. p. 272 (1766), 
Thaumalea picta (L,), Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. pi. 15 (1872). 

The Golden Pheasant. 

Hah. China. 

1964. Sternum of male. From the Zoological Society, 



rHASlAXlD.E. 393 

1965. Sternuni, Avith shonklcr-frirdle. U. C. 141.") A. 

1966. ►^terniun, with right conic old and scapula. k5. H. lOO-i. 

Purchased. 

Genus CROSSOPTILUM *. 

Hodgsou, J. A. S. Eeng. vii. p. ^04 (1838). 

Crossoptilum auritum. 

Phasinnus auritas, Pallas, Zoogr. llosso-Asiat. ii. p. 86 (1811). 
Crossoptilon auriium (Pall.), Elliot, Monogr. Phas. i. pi. 18 
(1872). 

Pallas's Eared Pheasant. 

JIah. Thibet to China. 

1967. Sternnm of female, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Society. 



Genus LOPHOPHORUS. 

Temminck, Pigeons et Gallin. ii. p. 355 (1818). 

Lophophorus impeyanus. 

Fhasianus impeyanus, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 632 (1790). 
Lophophorus impeijanus (Lath.), Elliot, Monogr. Phas. i. pL 19 
(1872). 

The Monaul. 

Hah. Himalayas. 

1968. Sternum of male, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 
2029. From the Zoological Society. 

• C/. Meyer, AbLild. Vogel-Skel. i. pi, xcviii. (C. manfchn-inim). 



394 GALLO-GRALL^. 

Genus EUPLOCOMUS. 

Temminck, PL Col. 507 (1830). 
Euplocomus prselatus. 

DiardiyaUas pra'latus, Bonaparte, Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 415 

(1S5G). 
Euplocamus pnelatus (Bp.), Elliot, Mouogr. Plias. ii. pi. 24 

(1872). 

The Siamese Fihe-back Pheasant. 

Hah. Siain. 

1969. Stei'uum of male, with slioiikler-girJle. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Euplocomus nycthemerus. 

Fhasianus nijdlieincrus, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 272 (1700). 
Eujplocamus nycthemerus (L.), Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. pi. 21 
(1872). 

The Silvek Pheasant. 

llab. China. 

1970. Skeleton. 0. C. 1415 d. Purchased. 

Euplocomus lineatus. 

Fhasianus lineatus. Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 24. 
Euplocamus lineatus (Vig.), Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. pi. 23 
(1872). 

The Lineated Pheasant. 

ILd). Burmese Countries. 

1971. Sternum of very young hird. 0. C. 1415 H. 

Euplocomus erythrophthalmus. 

Phasianus erytJirojihthahnus, Baffles, Trans. Linn, Soc. xiii. p. 321 

(1822). 
Euplocanms erythrophthalmus (Raffl.), Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. 

pi. 28 (1872). 

The lluFous-TAiLED Pheasant. 



PJIASIANID.E. 395 

Ilah. Sumatra and i\w IMalayan Peninsula. 

1972. Sternum of female, with left coracoiJ and scapula. S. S. 

2151). From the Zoolo(jical Society. 

Geuus GALLUS*. 
Brisson, Orii. i. p. lOG (1760). 

Gallus sonnerati. 

Gallns sonnerati, Tomminck, PI. Col. v. pis. 232, 2133 (1823) ; 
Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. pi. 34 (1872). 

Sonnerat's Jungle-Eowl. 

Hah. Central and Southern India. 

1973. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2151. 

I'l'Otii the Zooluyical Sociefi/. 

Gallus domesticus t. 

The Domestic Fowl. 

1974. Skeleton. 0. C. 1412. South Collection. 

1975. Skeleton of male Dorking cock. 0. C. 1412 G. 

Presented hy Mr. W. Pearson. 

1976. Skeleton of a tailless Bantam Cock (3 years old). 0. C. 

1412 F. Presented hy Edgar Floicer, Esq. 

1977. Skeleton (imperfect) of " Rumpkin Fowl." 0. C. 1412 A. 

lluntcrian, 

1978. Skull of Polish Fowl. 0. C. 1414. Ilunterian. 

1979. 1980. Skulls of Polish Fowl. O. C. 1414 A, 1414 b. [See 
Tegetmeier, P. Z. S. 1850, pp. 3G6-oG8.] 

Presented hy W. B. Teyetnieier, Esq. 

* Cf. Shufeldt, " Observations upon the Morphology of Gallus bankiva 
of India," Journ. Comp. Med. 1888 ; cf. also Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skel. i. 
pi. ix. (^r. liankiva). 

t Cf. Parker, W. K., "On the Structure and Development of the Wing in 
the Common Fowl," Phil. Trans, vol. 17il, pp. o8-j-3'J8, pis. 62-05 (1888) ; 
>leyur, Abbild. Vugel-bfkel. i. pis. .\.-xv., civ. 



396 GALLO-GRALL.E. 

Gallus domesticus. 

1981. 8kull. U. C. 1413. Hunterian. 

1982. Cranium. S. S. 17(J8. Stores. 

1983. ("nniiiim of young Fowl. 0. C. 1412 A. Purchased. 

1984. Sternum. Old Collection. 

1985. JSternum, with shoulder-girdle, of male. 

From tlie Zoological Society. 

1986. ^Sternum of a very young Fowl. 0. C. 1412 c. 

Purcliased. 

1987. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 17G9. Hunterian. 

1988. Left tarso-metatarsus, to show spurs of male. 

Old Collection. 

Genus CERIORNIS. 
ywainson, Classif. B. ii. p. 341 (1837). 

Ceriornis satyra. 

Mehagris satyra, Linnanis, Syst. Xat. i. p. 269 (1766). 
Ceriornis satyra (L.), Elliot, Monogr. Phas. i. pi. 23 (1872). 

The Horned Thagopan. 

Hah. Himalayas. 

1989. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1415 G. 

From the Zoological Soclefg. 

1990. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. From Nepal. 

Presented hy B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

1991. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and fureula. S. S. 

20o(). Stores. 

1992. Pelvis. ¥\om Nepal. Presented hj B. IL Hodgwn. Esq. 



PHASIAXID.E. 397 



Ceriornis temmincki. 

Satijra temmincki, (Jray, 111. Ind. Zool. i. pi. 5(). 

Ceriornis temminclci (Gray), Elliot, Monogr. Phas. i. pi. 25 (1872). 

Temminck's Tragopan. 

TIah. Eastern Himalayas and China. 

1993. Sternum of male, with shoulder-<4ir(lle. 

From the Zoological Society. 



Genus POLYPLECTRUM. 

Temminck, Pigeons et Gallin. ii. p. 3G3 (1813). 

Polyplectrum thibetanum. 

Pavo thibetanus, Gmeliu, Syst. Xat. ii. p. 731 (1788). 
Polyplectron thibetanus (Gm.), Elliot, Monogr. Phas. i. ])1. 
(1872). 

The Co3imon Peacock Pheasant. 

Hah. N.E. India and Southern China. 

1994. Sternum of male, -with shoulder-girdU^ (wanting; left 

scapula). From the Zoological Society. 

1995. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2031. 

Stores. 

Genus ARGUSIANUS. 

Eafinesque, Analyse, p. 67 (181 5j. 

Argusianus argus. 

Phasianus argus, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 272 (170G). 
Argusianus argv^ (L.), Gates, Birds Brit. Burm. ii. p. 313 (1883). 

The Argus Pheasant. 

Hall. Tenasserim, Siaui, and the ^falav Pcm'usula fo Sumaira. 



398 GALLO-GRALL.TJ. 

Argusianus argus. 

1996. Skeleton of male. 0. 0. 141.5 b. 

Presented by Sir Stamfonl Raffles. 

1997. Skeleton of female. 0. C. 1415 c. 

Presented hy Sir Stamford Raffi.cs. 

Genus PAVO. 
LinncEus, S}-st. Nat. i. p. 207 (1710). 

Pavo cristatus. 

Pavo cristatus, Liniifcus, ut supra ; Elliot, Moiiogr. Plias. i. jjI. 3 
(1872). 

The Common Peafoavl. 

Hah. India. 

1998. Skeleton. 0. (J. 1404. Siynth Collection. 

1999. Skeleton (imperfect). 0. C 1404 a. [Some of the bones 

mounted in the Separate Series.] Hunterian. 

2000. Skull (imperfect). 0. C. MO."^. Hunterian. 

2001. Slernum, with right coracoid and scai)ula. S. S. (375 b. 

Stores. 



Family TETRAONID^, 

Genus TETRAO*. 
Linna}us, 83'st. Nat. i. p. 273 (1706). 

Tetrao urogallus. 

Tetrao urogallus, Linnaeus, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 274 (1700) ; Dresser, 
Birds Ear. vii. p. 223, pi. 490 (1873) ; Meyer, Abbild. Vogel- 
Skel. i. pis. xvi., xlviii.. Hi. 

The Capercaillie. 

Ilah. Northern and (Central Europe. 

» Cf. ShufVldt, IJull. Geol. Survey, vi. p. JJO'.l 



TETKAONID.E. 399 

2002. Skeleton. 0. C. 1410'. South Collection. 

2003. Skull. O.C. 1416 a. Furchased. 

2004. Sternuin of male, with shoulder- <>ir(lle. S. S. 14(37. 

Pref<entnl bij P. L. Sclater, Entj.^ F.ll.S. 

2005. Hyoid arch. O.C. 1417. Presented by Dr. Leach. 

Tetrao tetrix. 

Tetrao tetrix, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 274 (17GG) ; Dresser, Birds 
Eur. vii. p. 205, pi. 487 (1873) ; Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skel. 
pis. xvi., cii. 

The Black Grouse. 

Hah. Europe, through Central Asia to China. 

2006. Skeleton (imperfect). 0. C. 1418 D. [Many of the 
bones exhibited in the Separate Series.] Ilunterian. 

2007. Skull. 0. C. 1418 f. Presented by Edgar Floicer. Esq. 



Genus LAGOPUS *. 
Brisson, Orn. p. 181 (1760). 

Lagopus scoticus. 

Tetrao scotinis, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 750 (1700). 
Lagopus scoticua (Lath.), Pressor, Birds Eur. vii. p. 1G5, pi. 479 
(1873). 

The Red Grouse. 

Hah. Moorlands of the British Islands, north of Derb^'shire. 

2008. Articulated skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1418 C. (Ribs 

defective.) Yarrell Collection. 

2009. Skeleton (imperfect). 0. C. 1418 A. Hunterian. 

2010. Skeleton. 0. C. 1418 E. Purchased. 

2011. Sternum. 0. C. 1418 B. From the Zoological Society. 

* Meyer. Abbild. Vogel-Skfl. i. id. ciii. {L. (itf/tix). 



400 OALLO-GRALL.?<:. 

Lagopus scoticus. 

2012. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Society. 

2013. Sternum, with left coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

1676. Stores, 

Lagopus mutus. 

Tetrao mutus, Montin, Phys. Salsk. Handl. p. 1.55 (1770). 
Laqoims mutus (Moutin), Dresser, Birds Eur. vii. p. 157, pi. 478 
(1874). 

The Common Ptarmigan. 

Jfah. Northern Europe and Central Asia. 

2014. Sk(4eton. 0. C. 1418. South Collection. 

2015. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

8o8. J-'un'hased. 



Genus BONASA. 
Stephens, Gen. Zool. xi. p. 298 (1819). 

Bonasa bonasia. 

Tetrao honasia, Linnseus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 275 (1766). 
Bonasia JyetuUna (Scop.), Dresser, Birds Eur. vii. p. 193, pi. 486 
(1871). 

The Hazel-Geouse. 

Ilah. Northern Europe, through Central Asia to China and 
Japan. 

2016. Skull of male. From Germany. J Purchased. 

2017. Skull of female. From Germany. Purchased. 



I'KHltlCID.K. 401 



Bonasa umbellus *. 



Tetrao umbellus, Linnasus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 275 (1766). 
Bonasa umbellus (L.), Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, N. Am. B. iii. 
p. 448 (1874). 

The Huffed Grouse. 

Jfah. North iVinerica. 
2018. Skull. 0. C. 14U». Hunteritw. 



Family PEKDICIDJ^. 

Geuus PERDIXt. 
Brissoii, Orn. i. p. 219 (1700). 



Perdix perdix. 

Tttrao perdix, Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 276 (1766). 

Perdix cinerea, Latham, Gen. Syn. Suppl. i. p. 290 (1787); 

B, 0. U. List Brit. B. p. 142 (1883) ; Meyer, Abbild. Yogel-SkeL, 

i. pi. c. 

The Common Partridge. 

Hub. Europe to Central Asia. 

2019. Natural skeleton (ribs and toes defective). 0. C. 1420 f. 

Yarrell Collection. 

2020. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 1161 a. 

Purchased. 

2021. Skull. Purchased. 

* Cf. Shufeldt, Bull. U.S. Geol. & Geogr. Surv. Terr. vi. no. 2, Washing- 
ton, Sept. 19, 1881 (description of skeleton, &c.). 

t Cf. Wood-Mason, J. A. S. Beng. (2) xliii. pt. 2, p. 254. 

PART 111. 2d 



402 GALLO-GRALL^. 

Genus CACCABIS. 
Kaiip, Natiirl. Syst. p. 183 (1829). 

Caccabis rufa. 

Tetrao rtifus, Linu.Tus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 27G (1766). 
Caccabis rufa (L.), Dresser, Birds Eur. vii. p. 103, pi. 471. fig. 1 
(1875). * 

The Red-legged Partridge. 

Hab. Eastern and Southern Europe. 

2022. Skeleton. 0. C. 1420. South Collection. 

Caccabis saxatilis. 

Perdix saxatilis, Meyer, Ycig. Deutschl. ])1. viii. (1805). 

Caccabis saxatilis (Meyer), Dresser, Birds Eur. vii. p. 93, pi. 470 

(1875). 

The Greek Partridge. 

Hah. Southern Europe. 

2023. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. S. S. 

1005. Purchased. 



Genus AMMOPERDIX. 

(Jould, B. Asia, vii. pi. i. (1851). 

Ammoperdix bonhami. 

Caccabis bonhami. Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1843, p. 372. 
Ammoperdix bonhami (Gray), Hume & Marshall, Game Birds of 
India, ii. p. 45, pi. 6 (1879). 

The See-See Partridge. 

Hah. India. 

2024. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 

From the Zoological Society. 



I'KUDICID.K. 403 

Genus FRANCOLINUS. 

Stephens, Gen. /ool. xi. pt. 2, p. :{!() (ISl'j). 

Francolinus sinensis. 

Tetrao cMnensh, Osbeck, A'oy. China, ii. p. ',\2Q (1771). 
FrancnJinus rliinniK'ni (Osh.), Gates, liirds Brit. Burma, ii. p. '.l2'-\ 
(1883). 

The Chinese Francolin. 

H<ih. Burmese countries to Southern China, Sjani, and Cochin 
China. 

2025-2027. Skeletons of males. From Ningpo, China. 0. C. 
1420 I, K, L. Presented by Consul Swlnhoe, F.R.S. 



Francolinus pictus. 

Perdix incta, Jardine & tSelby, lllustr. Oni. i. pi. .■)(.) (c. 1832). 
Framolinus pictus (J. & S.), Gates, ed. Hume's N^ests and Eggs 
Ind. B, iii. p. 430 (1890). 

The Painted Francolin. 

Hab. India. 

2028- Sternum of male, with right coracoid, scapula, and fur- 
cula. S. S. 1894. Presented by Dr. Anderson, F.R.S. 



Francolinus clamator. 

Perdix cZ«»na<or, Temminck, Pigeons ot Gall. iii. p. 298 (1815). 
Frnm-olinus clamator (Temm.), Sharpo, cd. Layard's B. S. Afr. 
p. 591 (1884). 

The Noisy Francolin. 

Ilab. South Africa. 

2029. Sternum, with right coracoid, scajiula, and furcula. S. S. 
lOOa. Purchased. 



2d2 



40 t GALLO-GRALL^. 



Genus COTURNIX. 
Bonnaterre, Tubl. Encycl. Method, i. p. 210 (1790). 

Coturnix coturnix. 

Tetrao coturnix, Linnseus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 278 (1766). 
Coturnico communis, Bonn. ; Dresser, Birds Eur. vii. p. 143, pi. 276 
(1878) ; B. 0. U. List Brit. B. p. 143 (1883). 

The Common Quail. 

Il((fi. Throuo-hout Europe, Asia, and Africa. 
2020. Skeleton. 0. C. 1420g. Purchased. 

2031. i^kehton (C.jajyonica). From Chefoo. 0. C. 1420 h. 

Presented hy Consul Sioinhoe, P.R.S. 

2032. Natural skeleton. 0. C. 1420 G. 

2033. 2034. Skulls. 0. C. 1420 G a, 1420 G 5. 

Presented hy Mr. J. Marie. 



Cxenus PERDICULA. 
Hodgson, Bengal Sporting Magazine, ix. p. 344 (1837). 

Perdicula asiatica. 

Perdix asiatica, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 649 (1790). 
Perdicula asiatica (Lath.), Gates, ed. Hume's Nests and Eggs Ind, 
B. iii. p. 440 (1890). 

The Jungle Bush-Quail. 

Jlnh. India. 

2035. Sternum of male, with slioulder-girdle. S. S. 2042. 

From the Zoological Society. 



PKKDiciD.f;. 405 

Genus EXCALFACTORIA. 

Bonaparte, Comptes llcndus, xlii. p. bbl (1^56). 

Excalfactoria australis. 

ExcaJfactoria australis, Gould, Handb. 13. Austr. ii. {>. 197(1805). 

The Least Swamp-Quail. 

Hah. Australia. 

2036. IStcrnuin, with sboulJer-girdle. From Pahuer, N. !S. 

Wales {E. P. Ramsmj). S. S. 1)33. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.P.S. 

Genus ORTYX. 
Stephens, Gen. Zool. xi. p. 37(5(181ii). 

Ortyx virginianus *, 

Tetrao virginianus, Linnaeus, iSyst. Nat. i. p. 277 (1766). 
Orti/x virginianus (L.), Baird, Brewer, and llidgway, N. Am. B. 
iii, p. 468 (1874). 

The Virginian Quail. 

Uab. North Auierica. 

2037. Sternum, with slioukUsr-oirdie. S. S. 127'J. 

Presented hy tlie iSniithsonian InsfJtnfioii. 

Genus EUPSYCHORTYX. 

Gould, Monogr. Udontopb. p. 15, pi. 10 (1844). 

Eupsychortyx cristata. 

Tetrao cristatus, Linnaius, ^yst. Nat. i. p. 277 (1706). 
J'Jujjsi/cJwrti/x cristata (L.), Gould, Monogr. Odontopborina:, ]A. [) 
(1850). " 

The Crested Partridge. 

Plah. Mexico. 

2038. Sternum, with shoulder-^^irdle. S. S. 1006. Pan-hawd, 

* Cf. Shufeldt, Bull. U.S. Geol. & Geogr. Surv. Tcmt. \\. no. 2 Washing- 
ton, Sept. 21, 1881 ("Description of Skeletons of North-American Penlicidcc"'). 



406 GALLO-GIIALL.E. 



Family NUMIDID^. 

Genus NUMIDA *. 

Linuaeus, 8yst. Nat. i. p. 273 (17(j()). 

Numida meleagris. 

Numida -melecajris, Linnaeus, t. c. p. 273 ; Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. 
pi. 39 (1882). 

The Common Guinea-Fowl. 

Hah. West Africa. 

2039. »Skeletoii. 0. C. 1401). So^ith Collection. 

2040. Bones of trunk with cervical vertebrae. 0. C. 1411. 

T'rcsenfed by Sir Jo-'^ejih Banks, F'.Ii.S. 

Numida cristata. 

Numida cristata, Pallas, Sj)ic. Zool. vol. i. fasc. iv. tab. ii. p. 15 
(1707) ; Elliot, Monogr. Phas. ii. pi. 45 (1882). 

The Chested Guinea-Fowl. 

Hah. "\\'est Africa. 

2041. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle, and tvncheii in sitii. 

S. P). 1246. Presented hj P. L. Sclatcr, Esq., F.R.S. 

Genus MELEAGRIS t. 

Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 2(38 (176G). 

Meleagris gallopavo. 

Meleai/ris r/alJojmvo, Linna3us, Syst. Nat. i. p. 268 (1766) ; Elliot, 
Monogr. Phas. i. pi. 31 (1882). 

The Common Turkey. 

Hah. N. America to Mexico. 

* f'f. -Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skel. i. ])1. xcix. (.Y. mitrata). 
t Cf. Sluifelrlt, Journ, Comp. Med. 1887. 



CKACIDiE. 407 

2042. Skeleton (iniperiect). 0. C. 1407 A. Ilaiderlan. 

2043. Skeleton. 0. C. UOG. Soxdh Collection. 

2044. Skeleton. 0. C. 1406 A. Purchased. 

2045. Skull. 0. C. 1407 v. Presented l>>j Mr. W. Ehhs. 

2046. Skull. Purchased. 

2047. Skull of younu- binl. 0. ('. 1J07 l>. Purchased. 

2048. Cranium (imperfect). 0. C. 1408. Uunterian. 

2049. Sternum of male, with slionlder-girelle. S, S. 2164. 

Fron tlie Zooloaical Sucicty. 

2050. Sternum of youno- hirtl. with shoulder-girdle (the hones 

separately articulated). 0. C 1407 c. Purchased. 

2051. Sternum of female " Hyhrid American Turkey." 

From the Zoological Society. 

2052. Ossiiied tendons of " Wild American Turkey," lying by 

the side of the right tarso-metatarsal bone. 0. C. 1407 E. 

Presented hy Dr. F>arUng. 



Family CRACIDiE *. 
ICf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 42.] 

A. Nasals holorhinal. 

B. Inner notch of sternum less than half the length of the whole 

sternum. 

C. Hallux on the same level as the other toes, and its basal 

phalanx as long as that of the third toe. 

D. Oil-gland tufted. 

# = Suborder Craccs, Sharpc, Review, p. 08. 



408 GALLO-GKALL/E. 

Genus CRAX. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 269 (176(5). 

Crax carunculata. 

Crax carunculata, Temminck, Pigeons et Gall. iii. ]). 44, t. 4. 
fig. 3 (1815); Scl. & Salv. Nomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 135 (1873). 

Yarrell's Curassow. 
Hob. Brazil. 

2053. Sternum of male, with right coracoid and scapula. vS. S. 

1002. ' Purchased. 

Crax alector. 

Crax alector, Linna3us, Syst. jS'at. i. p. 269 (1766) ; Scl. & Salv. 
Nomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 135 (1873). 

The Crested Curassow. 

Hcib. Gniana. 

2054. Skeleton. 0. C. 1399. South Collection. 

2055. Skeleton. 0. C. 1399 a. From the Zoological Society. 

2056. Dried head. 0. C. 1400. 

Presented h\j W. BiiUoch, Esq. 

2057. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1399 B. 

From lite Zoological Society. 

Genus PENELOPE. 
Merrem, Av. rar. leones et Descr. p. 3'J (1786), 

Penelope superciliaris. 

Penelope superciliaris, Temminck, Pigeons et Gall. iii. p. 72 
(1815) ; Sol. & Salv. Xomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 136 (1873). 

The White-eyebrowed Guan. 

Hah. Brazil. 

2058. Sternum of female, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 2516. 

From, the Zoological Society. 



CRACID^. 409 

Penelope greeyi. 

FeneloiH f/reet/i, Gray, Troc. Zool. Hot-. 1«66, p. 20G, pi. 22 ; Scl. & 
Salv. Nomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 13G (1873). 

Greey's Guan. 

Hah. Colombia. 

2059. Sternum of mule, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcnia. 

S. S. 1300. From the Zoological Society. 

Penelope pileata. 

Penelope pileata, Wagler, Isis, 1S30, p. 1110 ; 8cl. & Salv. Nomencl. 
Av. Neotr. p. 136 (1873). 

The Red-breasted Guan. 

Hah. Northern South America. 

2060. Sternum of female, with right coracoid, scapula, and fur- 

cula. S. S. 1553. From the Zooloc/ical Society. 

Penelope marail. 

Penelope marail, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. p. 731 (1788); Scl. & Salv. 
Nomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 136 (1873). 

The Marail Guan. 

Hah. Guiana. 

2061. Sternum. 0. C. 1403. Hinderian. 

Penelope cristata. 

Meleagris cristata, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 269 (1766). 
Penelope cristata (L.), Scl. & Salv. Nomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 136 
(1873). 

The E,ufous-vented Guan. 

Hah. Guiana, Colombia, Panama, and Costa Rica. 

2062. Skeleton. 0. C. 1402. South Collection. 

2063. Sternum of male, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 

2150. From the Zoological Society. 



410 GALLO-GRALL,E. 

Genus PIPILE. 
Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus, xlii. p. <S75 (1856). 

Pipile cumanensis. 

Crax cumanensis, Jacquin, Beytr. p. 25, tab. 19. 
Pipile cumanensis (Jacq.), Sol. & Salv. Nomcncl. Av. Neotr. p. 136 
(1873). 

The Piping Guan. 

Hab. Northern South America. 

2064. Sternum of male, with shoulder-oirdio. S. S. 2435. 

From the Zoohxjical Societ/j. 

Genus MITUA. 
Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 485 (1831). 

Mitua tuberosa. 

Crax tuberosa, Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. ii. p. 72, pi. Ixvii a. (1825), 
Mitua tuberosa, (Spix), Scl. & Salv. Nomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 135 
(1873). 

The Razok-billed Gurassow. 

Hah. Guiana, Upper Amazons, and Pern. 

2065. Skull of male. 0. C. 1400 a. 

Presented by the Zoological Society. 

Genus PAUXI. 
Temminck, Pigeons et Gallin. iii. p. 683 (1815). 

Pauxi galeata. 

Crax galeaia, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 624 (1790), 
Pauxi galeafa (Lath.), Scl. & Salv. Nomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 135 
(1873). 

The Helmeted Gurassow. 

flah. Guiana and Venezuela. 

2066. Skeleton. 0. (*. 140L Pnrcha.^cd. 



CRACID^. 411 

(ionus ORTALIS *. 
MeiTC'in, Av. rar. Icones et Doscr. ii. p. 40 (1786). 

Ortalis motmot. 

Phasianns m^tniot, Liunseus, Syst. Xat. i. p. 271 (1766). 
Ortafida motmot (L.), Scl. & Salv. Noraeiicl. Av. Neolr, p. 136 
(1873). 

The Little Guan. 

Hub. Guiiina. 

2067. .Stermiin of female, with sboulder-M-inlle. S. S. 2050. 

From the Zoological Society. 



Genus OREOPHASIS. 

Gray, Gen. 13. iii. p. 485 (1844). 

Oreophasis derbianus. 

OreopJwsis derbyanus. Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 485, pi. 121 (1844) ; 
Scl. & Salv. Nomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 137 (1873). 

Lord Derby's Mountain Curassow. 

11(d). Guatemala. 

2068. Skeleton : mounted. From Guatemala. 0. C. 1401 A. 

Presented bi/ Osbert Salvin^ Esq., F.R.S. 

2069. Sternum, with ri<;ht coracoid, scapula, and furcula. Volcan 

de Fuego, Guatemala. S. S. 1001. Purchased. 

* Often miscalled Ortrdida. Cf. II. T. Wharton, Ibis, 1879, p. 450. 



412 gallo-gralla:. 

Family MEGAPODIIDJ^ *. 
[Cy. Seebohm, Classif. li. p. 42.] 

A. Nasals holorhinal. 

B, Sternum more than twice the length of its inner notch. 

0. Hallux on the same level as the other toes, and its basal 

phalanx as long as that of the third toe, 
D. Oil-ffland nude. 



Genus TALEGALLUS. 

Lesson, Zool. Voy. Coqiiille, i. p. 715, pi. xxxviii. (lS2(j). 

Talegallus lathami. 

Alectura lathami, Graj', Zool. Misc. p. 4 (1831). 
Talegallus lathami (Gray), Gould, Haiidb. B. Austr. ii. p. 150 
(1865). 

The Wattled Brush-Turkey. 

Hah. Australia. 

2070. Skeleton. 0. ( '., A. lo99c. Gould Collection. 

2071. Skeleton (imperfect). 0. C, A. 1309 d. 

Gould Collection. 

2072. Sternum of male, with shoulder-girdle. From Richmond 

River, N. S. Wales {E. P. Ramsm/). S. S. 1848. 

Presented In/ P. L. Selatet; Esg., F.R.S. 



Genus MEGACEPHALUM t. 

Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 489, pi. 123 (1846). 

* = Suborder Megapodii, Sharpe, Review, p. 68. Cf. Oustalet, Bibl. 
Haut. Etudes, xxii. Art. 2, 1881, pis. 1, 2 (skeleton oi Megacephalon maleo), 
pi. 3 (skeleton of Megapodius duperreyi). 

t This name is generally credited to Teniniinck, but does not ap])ear to 
have been published by him. 



MEGAl'ODlIl).^':. 



413 



Megacephalum maleo. 

Macrocephalon maleo, S. Miiller, Arch. f. Naturg. 1846, p. 116. 
MecjacepJialon maleo (Temm.), Oustalet, Bibl. Haut. Etudes, xxii. 

Art. 2, p. 2 (1881) ; Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, pp. 629- 

631. 

The Celebean Brush-Turkey. 

riah. Celebes. 
2073. Skeleton. 0. C, A. 1399 e. From the Zoological Society. 



Genus LIPOA. 
Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1840, p. 126. 

Lipoa ocellata. 

Leipoa ocellata, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1840, p. 126 ; id. Haudb. 
Austr. B. ii. p. 155 (1865). 

The Ocellated Brush-Turkey. 

Hah. Australia. 

2074. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 1307. 

From the Zoological Society. 

Genus MEGAPODIUS. 

Quoy at Gaimard, Voy. ' Uranie ' et ' Phys.,' Zool. p. 124, 
pi. xxxii. (1824). 

Megapodius tumulus. 

Megapodius tumulus, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 20 ; id. 
Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 107 (1865). 

The Australian Megapode. 

Hah. Australia. 

2075. Sternum, with right coracoid, scapula, and furcula. From 

Port Denison {E. P. Ramsay). S. S. 1347. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



414 



GALLO-GRALL/E. 



^xxhon]erX. CEYPTUBI*. 

[Cf. Parker, Trans. Z. S. v. pt. 3, pp. 149-211 ; Htejiieger, Standard 
:N'at. Hist., Birds, p. 52 : Seebohm, CLassif. B. p. 43 (TSUO).] 

A, Keel of the sternum well develo|)e(l, the cartilage which con- 
nects the ilium with the ischium behind the acetabulum 
not ossified. 

Fig. 49. 

mpl.p. V. ]>l. pg hp<j.p 




Ventral view of cranium (^f Rh)/nchotus rufeseeiix. ( Letters as before.) 

B. Vomer coalesced with the maxillo-pahitines in front and with 

the pterygoids and j)alatines behind. 

C. Feather-tracts well differentiated from the bare tracts, both 

on the upper and under ] tarts. 



Genus RHYNCHOTUS. 

Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Brasil. ii. p. (iO, pi. 7')o (1825). 

Rhynchotus rufescens. 

Tinamus rufescens, Temminck, Pig. et Gall. iii. p. 552 (1815). 
RJu/nrJtotus rufescens, Scl. & Huds. Argent. Orn. ii. p. 209 (1889). 

The Great Tinamou. 

Hah. South Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. 

* Crtjpturiformes, Sliarpe, Pisview, p. 68. For Nothura major, cf. Alix, 
J. Zool. iii. pp. 1(>7, 2.')2; Lucas, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. lo7. 



STKUTIJIOXIFOUMES. 415 

2076. Skeleton. 0, ( -., A. 13i)9H. Sevenil of the bones mounted 

in the Separate Series. Furckased. 

2077. Skeleton of individual bred in the Zoological Gardens, 

one year old. From the Zoological Society. 

2078. Sternum of young, with shoulder-girdle. S. S. 1922. 

Fnrchased. 



Genus TINAMUS. 
Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. G3;i (lldO). 

Tinamus solitarius. 

Cryptunt solitarius, Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxxiv. p. 105 

(1819). 
Tinamus solitarius (V.), Scl. & Salv. Noraencl. Av. Neotrop. p. 152 

(1873). 

The Paraguayan Tinamou. 

Hab. Brazil and Paraguay. 

2079. Skeleton. 0. C, A. 1399 ba. 

From ilic Zoological Society. 



Subclass STB UTBIONIFOBIIES. 

[C/. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 44.] 

A. Keel of sternum obsolete. 

B. Basipterygoid processes very large, and placed on the basi- 

sphenoid rather than on its rostrum. 

C. Oil-gland absent. 

D. Plumaire of neck continuous. 



41() APTRRYGES, 

Order I. APTERYGES *. 

\_Cf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 45,] 

A. Keel of sternum obsolete. 

B. Basipteiygoid px-ocesses present. 

C. Hallux present. 

D. Cervical vertebrae not more than 10 in number. 

Geuus APTERYX. 
Shaw, Nat. Misc. xxiv. pi. 1057 (1813). 

Apteryx australis. 

Apteryx australis, Shaw, Xat. Misc. xxiv. pi. 1057 (1813) ; 
Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 568 (1865); Buller, B. New 
Zeal. p. 365 (1873). 

The South-Island Kiwi. 

ffab. New Zealand. 

2080. Natural skeleton. Presented hy Mr. J. Abrahams. 

2081. Skeleton. 0. C. 1355. 

Prese7ited hy the Rev. W. Cotton, 

2082. Sternum. S. S. 1766. 

Apteryx oweni. 

Apteryx oweni, Gould, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 94 : id. Handb. B. Austr. 
ii. p. 573 (1865) ; Buller, B. New Zeal. p. 368, pi. (1873) ; 
Meyer, Abbild. Vogel-Skel. i. pi. liv. 

The Little Grey Kiwi. 

Hah. South Island, New Zealand. 

2083. Skeleton. 0. C. 1355e. 

Presented hy Dr. George Bennett. 

* =Order Apteryi/ifonnes, Sharpe, Review, p. 67. 



RATIT.E. 417 

2084. Skeleton. 0. 0. 1355 f. 

Presented }>y Sir Julius von Iluasf. 

2085. Skull of above specimen, the cranium mounted in the 

Separate Series. Presented by Sir Julius von Uaast. 



Apteryx, sp. 

2086. Various bones. Subfossil. 

2087. Bones of trunk. 0. C. 1355 c. 

2088. Bones of trunk of young bird. 0. C. 1355 D. 



Order II. RATIT.E. 

[Cy. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 46.] 

A. Keel of sternum obsolete. 

B. Basipteryooid processes very laroje and placed on tlio basi- 

sjjhenoid rather than on its rostrum. 

C. Hallux generally absent. 



Suborder I. RIIE^*. 
{Cf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 47.] 

A. Keel of sternum obsolete. 

B. Length of humerus more than the combined length of six 

dorsal vertebrae. 
C Hallux absent ; second, third, and fourth digits present and 

directed forwards. 
D. Basipterygoid processes present, and articulating with the 

pterygoids as near the quadrates as possible. 

• =Rheifonnes, Sharps, Keviow, p. G7. 
PART III. 2 E 



418 RATITyE. 

Genus RHEA*. 

Brisson, Oriiith. v, p. 8 (1760). 

Rhea americana. 

lihea americana, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. GG5 (1790) ; Scl. & 
Huds. Argent. Orn. ii. p. 216 (1889). 

The Common Rhea. 

JIaJ). Pampas of S. America north of Rio Ncf^ro, Patag'onia. 

2089. Skeleton. 0. V. 1361. South Collection. 

2090. Skeleton of a young female. 0. C. 1361 E. 

2091. Skeleton of yomig. 0. C. 1361 c. 

Presented l>y JR. F. Gore, Esq. 

2092. Anchylosed parts of cranium of a nearly full-grown Lird. 

0. (J. 1363. Presented hy Sir Richard Owen, F.R.S. 

2093. Various bones. From Mendoza. 0. C. 1361 A. [Many 

of the bones exhibited in the Separate Series.] 

Stores, 1868. 

2094. Cranium of above specimen. S. S. 2056. Stores. 

2095. Cervical vertebne of spec. 2093. S. S. 1053. Stores. 

2096. Dorsal vertebne of spec. 2093. S. S. 1054. Stores. 

2097. Caudal vertebra? of spec. 2093. S. S. 1055. Stores. 

2098. Sternum of spec. 2093, with right coracoid and sca})ula. 

S. S. 1056. 

2099. Sternum, with shoulder-girdle. 0. C. 1361b. 

Presented hi/ ]>r. .T. Aiulerson, F.R.S. 

2100. Plight humerus of spec. 2093. S. S. 1058. Stores. 

2101. Right radius of si)ec. 2093. S. S. 1059. Stores. 

2102. Right ulna of spec. 2093. S. S. 1060. Stores. 

* Cf. Cumin-bam, T. Z. S. J 871, p. 105. 



STRUTIIION-RS. 419 

2103. Left manm of spec. 2093. S. S. lOGi. Slorcs. 

2104. Pelvis of s])(^e. 2O03. S. S. 1037. Slore.'^. 

2105. Kio-ht femur of spec. 2093. S. S. lOGl. Stores. 

2106. Right tihia and fibula of spac. 2093. S. S. 1002, 101)2 A. 

Stores. 

2107. Riglit pes of spec. 2093. S. S. 1063. Stores. 

2108. Femur, til)i«}, filjuhe, tarso-metatarsals, riglit, ami loi't 

maiius (nut quite perfect). 0. (J. 13(51 u, 13(51 i). 

Storeys, 1(S!J8. 

Rhea darwini. 

llhea darwini, Gould, Voy. JJcajjle, ii. p. 1 1,';^, pi. IS. 

Darwin's IIiiea. 

Jfufi. Patagonia. 

2103. >^kelet()n of a young female. 0. ('. 13(51 F. 

Frojii t/w ZooliKjicdl SocU'tjf, 



Suborder n. STRUTIITOX I^:S* . 
\_Cf. Seebohm, Cla^sif. H. f . 49.] 

A. Keel of sternum obsolete. 

B. S(!eond digit lost. 

0. Length of humerus more than the combined length of six 

dorsal vertebrae. 
D. Cervical vertebrto more than 19 in number. 



♦ \^=Struthiimifonnes, Sliarpe, Review, p. G7.] Cf. Mivavt, Trans. ZdoI. 
Soc. viii. pp. .385 -to:^; Woodward, (Jeol. Ma^'. 1885, p. 'M-i ; I'.irker, Piiil. 
Trans, vul. loO. pp. 11:3-183, pis. 7-lo (18G0). 



2 K 2 



420 RATIT.E. 

Genus STRUTHIO. 
Brisson, Oru. v. p. 3 (1763). 

Struthio camelus. 

SirutJiio camelus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 2G5 (176G) ; Finsch & 
Hartlaub, Vog. Ostafr. p. 597 (1870). 

The Ostrich. 

Ilab. Africa. 

2110. Skeleton. [Skull mounted in Separate Series.] 0. C. 

1362 c. Stores. 

2111. Skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1362. Hunterian. 

2112. Skeleton. 0. C. 1362 a. Stores. 

2113. Skeleton. 0. C. 1362 b. Stores. 

2114. Skull (longitudinally bisected). 0. C. 1365 b. [Half of 

the skull and most of the bones in the Separate Series.] 

Stores. 

2116. Skull, with the bones separately articulated. 0. C. 1364. 

Purchased. 

2116. Skull of vouno; Ijird. 0. C. 1365. Hunterian. 

2117. Skull (injured). 0. C. 1365 a. 

2118. Skull, disarticulated. 

2119. Cranium, mounted to show palatine bones. S. S. 2055. 

Stores. 

2120. Vertebral column and pelvis of a quite young bird. 

0. 0. 1366 A. 

2121. Cervical vertebra, longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1103. 

Hunterian. 

2122. Two cervical vertebrae of a young bird, one longitudinally 

bisected. O.C. 1104. 

Presented hy Professor Owen, F.R.S. 

2123. Two cervical vertebra?. 0. C. 1368. Hunterian. 



STKUTHIONES. 421 

2124. Dorsal vertebra^ lon^itiulinally bisected. 0. C. 1105. 

Iluntei'ian. 

2126. Fourth to the eighth dorsal vertebra?. 0. V. 1375-1377. 

Ilunterian. 

2126. Sternum, Avith sterno-eostal bones on left side. 0. 0. 

1369. Ilunterian. 

2127. ►Sternum of young individual, with sterno-costal bones 

and shoulder-girdle, 0. C. 1369 A. 

2128. Sternum and shoulder-girdle of an old individual. 0. V. 

1372 c. 

2129. Sternum of young bird. 0. C. 1369 B. 

2130. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 1320. 

Purchased. 

2131. Two ossitied moieties of the sternum of a young bird. 

0. C. 1369 c. 

2132. Shoulder-girdle. 0. C 1372. Ilunterian. 

2133. Shoulder-girdle of a young bird, showing the division 

between the coracoid and the scapula. 0. C. 1372 a. 

Stores, 1868. 

2134. Shoulder-girdle of an old bird, with completely ossitied 

scapula. 0. C. 1372 b. Stores, 1868. 

2135. Hib-bones. 0. C. 1378-1384. Ilunterian. 

2136. Third and sixth sterno-costal bones, right side. 0. C. 

1370, 1371. Ilunterian. 

2137. Bones of wings of a young bird. 0. C. 1367. Ilunterian. 

2138. Right humerus of spec. 2114. S. S. 1321. Stores. 

2139. Left humerus, longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1373. 

Huntenan. 

2140. Left ulna. 0. (J. 1374. Ilunterian. 

2141. Kiglit ulna of spec. 2114. S. S. 1322. Stores. 



422 RATIT^E. 

Struthio camelus. 

2142. Eight radius of spec. 2114. S. S. 1323. Stores. 

2143. Thorax and pelvis of a young hird. 0. C. 1366. 

Iluntevlan. 

2144. Pelvis of spec. 2114. S. S. 1319. Stores. 

2145. Sacral and caudal vertebra; of young bird. 0. C. 1385. 

Presented hy Sir Richard Oiceii, F.R.S. 

2146. Iliac bones of young bird. 0. C. 1386. 

Presented by Sir Richard Oioen^ F.R.S. 

2147. Various bones of the legs of adult and young Ostriches, 

some of them longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1391-1398. 

Iluvterian. 

2148. Right femora. 0. C. 1389, 1390. IJunterian. 

2149. Right femur of si)ec. 2114. S. S 1324. Stores. 

2150. Right tibia of spec. 2114. S. S. 1325. Stores. 

2151. Right tibula of spec. 2114. S. S. 1326. Stores. 

2152. Tibia and metatarsus, longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1113, 

1114. Ilunterian. 

2153. Metatarsus of young bird. 0. C. 1115. 

Presented by Professor Oicen, F.R.S. 

2154. Right pes of spec. 2114. S. S. 1327. Stores. 

2155. Bones of right leg of a young Ostrich : mounted. S. S. 

2053. Stores. 

2166. Tiliia, fibula, and pes of a young Ostrich. S. S. 2054. 

Stores. 



UiXORNlTHIDJ:. 423 

Sul.order 111. JF.PYORXirilTFORMES. 

[(y. I-ydekkcr, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. p. 211>.] 

Funiily .EPYORNITHID^. 

Geniis ^PYORNIS. 
Isidore Geoffrey St.-Hilaire, Ann. Sci. Xiit, (3) xiv. p. 209 (1850). 

SEpnornt'd ma)iimuS. 

jEjn/ornis maximus, Isidore Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, ut sajmi ; 
Lydekkcr, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. p. 213 (1891). 

The ^Epyornis. 

Hall. Madagascar. 

2157. Cast of left femur. (From the original in the Paris 

Museum.) P resented Inj the Paris Museum. 

2158. Cast of left tibio-tarsus. (From the original in the 

Paris Museum.) I* resented hy the Paris Museum. 

2159. Cast of distal end of right tarso-metatarsus. (From the 

original in the Paris Museum.) 

Presented hy the Paris Museum. 

2160. Cast of distal end of left tarso-metatarsus. (From the 

orifjinal in the Paris Museum.) 

Presented by the Paris Museum. 



Suhorder IV. />/ XOPXlTflES. 

Family DlXORNITHIDiE *. 

Genus DINORNIS t. 

Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. iii. p. 235 (1844). 

* C/. Owen's Memoirs in the ' Transactions ' of the Zoological Society, 
vols, iii.-xii. ; Lydekker, ('at. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. pp. 222-356. 
t €/. Lydekkor, ibid. p. 222 (1891). 



424 RATIT^. 

Dinornis novce-zealandia', Owen, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1843, p. 8. 
Dlnorms gigantetis, Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. iii. pi. xxvii. fig. 1 

(1844). 
Dinornis ingens, Owen, Trans. Zool. See. iii. p. 247 (1844). 

The Moa. 

Ilah. North Island, New Zealand ; but apparently repre- 
sented by a rather smaller race in the northern part of the 
South Island {Lydekker, t. c). 

2161. Skeleton : mounted. 

2162. Cranium. No Jiistonj. 

2163. Two cervical vertebrae. No Idstory. 

2164. Two dorsal vertebrae. No liistory. 

2165. Five dorsal vertebrae. From Poverty Bay, North Island, 

New Zealand. [Not recorded in ' Catalogue of Fossil 
Mammalia and Aves.'] 

Presented hy iJean Buckland, F.R.S. 

2166. Pelvis and sacrum. From Poverty Bay. [Numbered 

1558 A of Fossil ('atalogue, but not recorded therein. f] 
Presented by Dean Buckland, F.R.S. 

2167. Right femur. From Poverty Bay. F. C. 15(35 A. 

[No. 185SI2 of Lydekker's Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus.] 
Presented hy Dean Buckland, F.R.S. 

3168. Eight femur. From Opito, near Mercury Bay, East 
Coast of North Island. Found a few feet below the 
surface, close to an ancient cooking-place, wiih smaller 
bones of birds and fishes. 

* Cf. Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. p. 224 (1891). 

t It is to be noted that more than one of the original types of Binorjuthidcc, 
described in the old ' Catalogue of Fossil Mainnialia and Aves,' are no longer 
to be found in the Museum of the College, though casts of them exist in the 
British Museum, to which they were presented by the Council of the Royal 
College of Surgeons. {Cf. Ly dekker, t. c. pp. 225, 227.] Tossibly the 
substitution of " right " and " left'' in the figures may have occasioned some 
confusion in the identiticatiou of some of the specimens. 



DINORXITUIl>iE. 425 

2169. l{i<;ht fcMiuir. North Island. 

Presented l>ij the lie v. \V. Cotton. 

2170. Left tibio-tarsns of female. From Poverty Bay. F. C. 

1566. One of the t^-pes of 1). yiijantevs. ( Cf. Lydekker, 
Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. p. 225.) 

2171. Rio;ht tibio-tarsus of male. From Poverty Bay. Not in 

Catalofjue of Fossils. 

Presented hj Dean Buckland, F.R.S. 

2172. Tvight tibio-tarsus of male. Marked " Z^. ingens."" 

No liistorj. 

2173. Left tarso-metatarsus of female. 

Presented hy J. Ruthven, Esq. 

2174. Kight tarso-metatarsus of male. Marked " D. giganteus, 

foem. ? " iVo liidorg. 

Stnonu'si mavtmu:^. 

Dlnornis rohustus, Owen, pt. 
Dinornis giganteus, Owen, pt. 

Dinornis maximus, Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. p. 497(1808); 
Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. p. 229 (1891). 

The South Island Moa. 

Hub. South Island, New Zealand. 

2175. Imperfect cranium. No histviy. 

2176. Fragments of bill. No history. 

2177. Left femur. From Middle Island. 

Presented hg Mr. Sartor. 

2178. Left tibio-tarsus of female. 

Presented hg the Rev. R. Taylor. 

2179. Right tibio-tarsus of female. No history. 

2180. Left tibia of female (imperfect). 

Presented hy W. D. Napier, E.^'j. 

2181. Right tibia of female (imperfect). No hidory. 



42(i EATIT^. 

2182. Left tibio-tarsus of female (imperfect). From Middle 

Island. Presented hy Mr. Slwrtland. 

2183. Right tibio-tarsus of female (imperfect). No hutori/. 

2184. Distal end of right tibio-tarsus. No history. 

2185. Left tibio-tarsus of male. Marked " D. rohustus.'" 

No history. 

2186. Distal end of right tibio-tarsus of male. Marked " I). 

crassus.^^ No Idstory. 

2187. Distal end of right tibio-tarsus of male. 

Presented by ir. J). Najiier, Esq. 

2188. Distal end of left tibia of young specimen. 

2189. Left tarso-metatarsus of supposed female. 

2190. liight tarso-metatarsus of supposed male. 

2191. Eight metatarsus of supposed male. 

Prese)ded hy J. Puthren, Esq. 

2192. First phalanx of digit. No history. 

iBhiorniiS, sp. (? D. robustus, Owen *.) 

2193. Right tibio-tarsus. Marked " I), ingens." No Idstory. 

2194. Left tibio-tarsus. Presented hy W. D. Napier., Esq. 

2195. Left tibio-tarsus. Presented by W. D. Napier, Esq. 

2196. Upper end of left tibio-tarsus of young bird. 

Presented hy W. JJ. Napier, Es<p 

2197. Upper end of left tibio-tarsus of adult. Marked '' I). 

crassus."" No Idstory. 

2198. Right tarso-metatarsus. Marked " I), inyens.'" 

No lu story. 

2199. Left tarso-metatarsus. Marked " D. robustus.^'' 

Presented by J. Rntliven, Esq. 

2200. Left metatarsus of young bird. 

Presented hy J. Doiiyhcs, Esq. 

* Cy. Lydrkker, Cat. Fossil Birdt Brit. Mus. p 2.30 (180]). 



DINORNITIIIl"^. 427 



JDtnonus ^trutijtoitJfS *. 

Dinornis (Palapteri/x) stntthioides, Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. iii, 

p. 244(1844), 
Dinornis novcB zealandicn, Owen, pt. 
Dinornis strutJiioides, Lydekkcr, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. ^Nfus. p. 242 

(18U1). 

The Ostrich-like Moa. 

IJah. Both islands of New Zealand. 

2201. Posterior fragment of skull. F. C. 1552. 

2202. Kight femur. Marked " I), imjens:' F. C. 1569. 

No hi.ifori/. 

2203. Left femur. F. 0. 1571. Marked " Z>. stvnth'/oklesy 

No liistorii. 

2204. Left femur. Marked " T). striifhioides." No hiiftory. 

2205. Left tibio-tarsus. Marked " D. dromceoides." 

No liistory. 

2206. Left tibio-tarsus. F. C. 1576 a. Marked " I). drom(t>~ 

Oldest No hi dor If. 

2207. Left tibio-tarsus of immature bird. Marked " X>. im/f7iSy 

young." No history, 

2208. Right tarso-metatarsns. Marked '' D. dromceoides.'^ 

No liistorif. 

2209. Right tarso-metatarsus. No liixtory. 

2210. Left tarso-mctatarsus. F. C. 1574. Marked " 1). sfru- 

thioides.^'' 

2211. Left tarso-metatarsus. Marked " D. sfn/fhioides." 

Presented by Sir George Grey, 

2212. Left tarso-metatarsus. Marked " 1). dromceoides.'" 

No Id story, 

2213. Left tarso-metatarsus. Marked " 1). dromceoide.'^." 

JSo history. 

* The specimen.:f lierc catalogued belong' either to D. struthivi'tc/- oc 
J>. (irncilif. 



428 RATIT^. 



Genus MEGALAPTERYX. 

Haast, Trans. Zool. Soc. xii. p. 161 (1886). 

ilHrgalapttryv ]^fctori. 

Megalajyteryx hectori, Haast, xit sujn-d ; Lydekker, Cat, Fossil 
Birds Brit. Mus. p. 252 (1891). 

Hector's Moa. 

Ilab. South Island, New Zealand. 

2214. Cast of the bones of the left leg (left femur, left tibio- 
tarsus, and left tarso-nietatarsus). 

Presented by the Christchurch JIuseum. 



Genus ANOMALOPTERYX *. 

Eeichenbach, Nat. Sj'st. Vtig. p. xxx (1852). 

Snomalopttri)^- cajiuaniia t. 

Dinornis casuarinus, Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. iii. p. 322 (1846). 
Anomalopteryx casuarina (Owen), Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds 
Brit. Mus. p. 257 (1891). 

The Casuarine Moa. 

Hah. Both islands of New Zealand. 

2215. Six crania, more or less imperfect, mostly referable to 

this species. No history. 

2216. Mandible. No history. 
2211. Two mandibles and fragments of proemaxilla. No Jiistory. 

* Cf. Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. p. 2o4 (1891). 

t Although there is no doubt that there are a considerable number of 
species in this genus, the specific determination of isolated bones is almost 
impossible, the smaller individuals of the larger species merging into tho 
larger ones of the smaller, so far as the dimensions of the bones are con- 
cerned. 



DlNOIiNITHID^. 



429 



2218. Right femur.l 

Received in exchange from tlie Christchurch Museum. 

2219. Left fomur. iVo history. 

2220. Two rinht feinoni. Presented by J. Douglas, Esq. 

2221. Left femur. Presented by J. Dour/las, Esq. 

2222. Left femur. Presented by W. J). Napier, Esq. 

2223. Left femur. Miirkc^d " D. dromceoides.^^ No history. 

2224. Left femur. No history. 

2225. Left femur. Presented by J. Douglas, Esq. 

2226. Left femur. From Otago. Presented by Dr. Forbes. 

2227. Right femur. No history. 

2228. Riglit til)io-t:irsus. 

Received in exchange from the Christchurch Museum. 

2229. Right tibio-tursus. No history. 

2230. Right tibio-tarsus. Presented by W. D. Napier, Esq. 

2231. Right tibio-tarsus. Presented by \V. D. Napier, Esq. 

2232. 2233. Right tibio- tarsi. No history. 

2234. Right tibio-tarsus. 

Presented by Messrs. Barker and Lingen. 

2235. Right tibio-tarsus. Presented by W. D. Naqner, Esq. 

2236. Right tibio-tarsus of iuimature bird. 

Presented by W. D. Napier, Esq. 

2237. Left tibio-tarsus. 

Received in exchange from the Christcliurch Museum. 

2238. Left tibio-tarsus. No history. 

2239. Left til)io-tarsus. Presented by J. DouglcLS, Esq. 

2240. Left tibio-tarsus. No history. 



430 RATIT^. 

HnomaloptcrDv raguarina. 

2241. Left tibio-tarsus. Presented Inj Messrs. Barker and Limjen , 

2242. Right tarso-nietatarsus. Presented hy J. T)ou<iIas, Esq. 

2243. Riglit tai'so-metatarsus. 

Received hi exchange from the Christchurch Museum. 

2244. Right tai'so-metatarsus. No lustorij. 

2245. Right tarso-metatarsus. Marked " i). rA^^iVZt'5." 

Presented hy the Rev. \V. Cotton. 

2246. JJight tarso-metatarsus. Presented by the Pev. J. Taylor. 

2247. Left tarso-metatarsus. Presented />y J. Doiu/las, Esq. 

2248. Left tarso-metatarsus. Preserved J>y J. Colenso, Esq. 

2249. Left tarso-metatarsus. (Collected by the Rev. Ouvry. 

North.) 

Received in exchange from the Christchurch Museum. 

2250. Left tarso-uietatarsus. Marked''!), rheides.'' 

Presented hy the Rev. J. Taylor. 

2251. Left tarso-metatarsus. Marked '' T). rheides.'" JSfo history. 

2252. Left tarso-metatarsus. Marked " I), rheides." No history. 

2253. Left tarso-metatarsus. From Poverty Bay. F. C. 1588. 

Presented hy Dean BucJdand, F.R.S. 



Dinornis dromceoides, Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. iii. p. 25.3 (1844). 
Anomalo2Jteryx dronueoides, Lydekker, Cat. Fossil liirds Brit. 
Mus. p. 260 (1891). 

The Emu-like Moa. 

Hah. Both islands of New Zealand. 

2254. Left femur. Type specimen. From Poverty Bay, North 
Island. F. C. 1575. 

Presented hy Dean Duckktnd, F.R.S. 



DINORNITHID^. 431 

The following specimens approximate to this type : — 

2255. Right femur. -lYo history. 

2256. Hight femur. JSo hisfon/. 

2257. Right femur. No hidori/. 

2258. Right femur. Presented by Messrs. Barker and Lingen. 

2259. Right femur. No history. 

2260. Right femur. No history. 

2261. Right femur. No history. 

2262. Richt femur. Presented by Sir George Grey. 

2263. Left femur. No history. 

2264. Left femur. Presented by the Rev. J. Taylor. 

2265. Left femur. No history. 

The following specimens of tibio-tarsal bones agree in relative 
size with the foregoing femora, but some probably belong to 
A. didifurmis, if that species bq really distinct : — 

2266. Right tibio-tarsus. No history. 

2267. Two right tibio-tarsi. 

Received in exchange from the Christchnrch Museum. 

2268. Right tibio-tarsus. No history. 

2269. Right tibio-tarsus. F. C. L581. 

2270. Right tibio-tarsus. No history. 

2271. Right tibio-tarsus. No history. 

2272. Right tibio-tarsus. No history. 

2273. Right tibio-tarsus of imuuiture bird. From Otngo. 

Presented by II. A. L)e Latour, Esq. 

2274. Left tibio-tarsus. No history. 

2275. Left tibio-tarsus. (Collected by the Rev. Ouvry North.) 

Received in rxcltange from the Christchnrch Museum. 



432 RATIT.E. 

^nomaloptfrwv lirom.-fotKfS. 

Of the following specimens of the tarso-metatarsus, some 
probably belong to the next species : — 

2276. Right tarso-metatarsus. Marked " ./>. did//ormis." 

No history. 

2277. Right and left tarso-metatarsi. (Collected by the Rev. 

Ouvry North.) 

Received in exchange from the Christchurch Museum. 

2278. Three left tarso-metatarsi. Marked " D. didiformis.'' 

No history. 

2279. Left tarso-metatarsus. No history. 

2280. Left tarso-metatarsus. 

Presented by Messrs. Barker and Lingen. 

2281. Left tarso-metatarsus. Presented by II. D. Napier, Esq. 

Snomalopttrnj: UttJiformisi, 

Dinornis didiformis, Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. iii. p. 242 (1844). 
Anomalopteryx didiformis, Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. 
p. 275 (1891). 

The Didine Moa. 

Ilab. Both islands of New Zealand. 

2282. Skeleton: mounted. F.C.I 588 A. 

Presented by Sir Julius von Ilaast, F.R.S. 

2283. Two right femora. No history. 

2284. Right femur. Marked " B. rheides." No history. 

2285. Inner half of right femur, longitudinally bisected. F. C. 

1579. No history. 

2286. Right femur. Presented by W. D. Napier, Esq. 

2287. Left femur. F. C. 1578. Marked " Z>. didiformis.'' 

No history. 

2288. Three left femora. Marked " D. rheides," " D. didiformis;' 

" I). dromieoidi'K. juv." 



DIXORN'ITHIU.*:. 



433 



2289. Tlirec right tihio-tjirisi. Pi-PseiitM hy the Rew W. Cotton. 

2290. Right tibio-tarsus. Presented hj If. A. Latoar, Ei^q. 

2291. "Right and loft tibio-tarsi. 

Presented hij W. J). Napier, Esq. 

2292. Four left tibio-tiirsi. Marked " D. curtns, D. rJieides, and 

J), didiformis:' Presented Inj W. D. Xapier, Esq. 

2293. Left iibio-tarsus, F. C. 1583. 

2294. Left tibio-tarsus. Marked " D. curtns.'" 

Presented hy the Per. W. Cotton. 

229.5. Left tibio-tarsus. Marked " I), didifornus.'' 

Presented hy W. Brodie, Esq. 

2296. Left tiliio-tarsus of adult and two tibia? of young birds. 

Presented hy S/r (jreorge Grey. 

2297. Two ti])ia? of young birds. 

Presented l»i Sir Julius ]'on Ilaast, F.P.S. 

2298. Three right and two left tarso-meta tarsi. Marked " i>. 

gercuwides, D. curtus.'' ^^^ history. 

2299. Two left tarso-metatarsi. Presented hy the Rev. J. Taylor. 

2300. Right tarso-metatarsus : type of species. F. C. 1585. 

No history, 

2301. Right tarso-nietatarsus. Presented hy the Rev. W. Cotton. 

2302. Metatarsus of young bird. Marked " />. rheides.'' 

Presented hy Sir Geonje Grey. 



^Inomaloptn-yv cuvta. 
Dlnornis curia, Owen, Trans. Zool. 8oc. iii. p. :i25 (1846). 
Anomalopteriix curta, Lyrlckker, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. p. 281 
(1891). 

The Dwarf Mo a. 

JM). Both islands of New Zealand. 

2303. Two right and one left femora. Marked " IK rurtus." 

Presented hy the Rev. J. Taylor. 

P.\KT III. '^ ^ 



434 RATIT^. 

^nomaloptrrnv fiuta. 

2304. Right femur. F. 0. 1577. No history. 

2305. Left femur. Marked " D. cuHn.^.'' JVo liistonj. 

2306. Left tibio-tarsus. Marked " D. curtus.'" No lustonj. 

2307. Two right tarso-metatarsi. 

Presented In/ the Rev. .J. Taylor. 

2308. Left metatarsus. Presented hy the Rev. J. Taylor. 

^nomaloptcrpv (?) gcranoiKfS. 

Pdapteryx geranoides, Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc.iii. p. 346 (1848). 
Anomalopteryx (?) geranoides, Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. 
Mus. p. 288 (1891). 

The Crane-like Moa. 

Hah. Both islands of New Zeakmd. 

2309. Right and left tarso-metatarsi. Marked " 7>. didiformis 

and D. gercmoidesr No history. 

2310. Left tarso-metatarsus. Marked " D. didiformis:' 

Presented hy the Rev. W. Cotton. 

Genus EMEUS *. 
Eeichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vug. p. xxx (1852). ■ 

(irmtug grabiprs. 

Dinoryiis gravis, Owen, pt. 

Emeus gravipes, Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. p. 298 
(1891). 

The HEAVY-rooTED Moa. 

Hah. Routh Island, New Zealand. 

2311. Two left tibio-tarsi. (Collected by the Rev. Ouvry 
North.) 

Received in exchange from the Christchurch Museum. 

* Cf. Lydekker, Oat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. p. 297 (1891). 



DINORNITHID.E. 435 

2312. liiglit tarso-metatarsus. (Collected hy the Rev. Ouvrv 

Xurth.) 

Received in exchange from the Christ clairch Museum. 

2313. Right tarso-metatarsus. Presented by J. Douglas, Esq. 



Dlaornis crassus, Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. iii. p. 325 (184G). 
Emeus crassus, Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds Erit. Mus. p. 307 
(1891). 

The Stout Mo a. 

Hal). South Island, New Zealand. 

2314. Seventeen vertebrae. 

Received in exchange from the Christ church Mm^eum. 

2315. Pelvis. 

Received in exchange from the Christchurch Museum. 

2316. Right femnr. JSo liistory. 

2317. Right and left femora. Presented hy Sir George Grey. 

2318. Right and left femora. 

Received in exchange from the Cliristcliurcli Museum. 

2319. Right femur. Presented hy J. Shortland, Esq. 

2320. Right femur. Presented hy J. Douglas, Esq. 

2321. Right and left tibio-tarsi. 

Received in exchange from the Christchurch Museum. 

2322. Right tibio-tarsus. Presented hy W. D. Napier, Esq. 

2323. Left tibio-tarsus. " Found in peat swamp." Ko history. 

2324. Left tibio-tarsus. Marke<l '•/?. m«ucov?u/s." Ko history. 

2325. Tarso-meiatarsi, probably of this species. iVo history. 

2326. liight tarso-metatarsus. No history. 

2327. One right and three left turso-metatarsi. 

Presented In/ J. Douglas, Esq. 



436 KATIT.TC. 

Genus PACHYORNIS. 

Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Eirds Brit. Mus. p. ;il(5 (1891). 

iSadjuorms" flfpi)antopu^. 

Dinornis elepliantopus, Owen, Trans. Zool. Soe. iv. p. 149 (1853), 
Pachyornis elepliantopus, Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus. 
p. 321 (1891). 

The Elephant-footed Moa. 

Hah. South Island, New Zealand. 

2328. Pelvis. 

Received in excliange from the Cliristchurch Museum. 

2329. Right femur. No history. 

2330. Right femur. Presented hy W. I). Napier, Esq. 

2331. Left femora. Presented by W. D. Napier, Esq. 

2332. Left femora. Presented hy II. A. De Latour, Esq, 

2333. Left tibia. Presented hy W. D. Napier, Esq. 

i9ati)uonitiS, sp. 

2334. Fragment of cranium. No history. 

2335. Left tibio- tarsus. 

Received in excliange from the Christ church Museum. 

2336. Right tibio-tarsus. 

Received in excliange from the Cliristchurch Museum. 

2337. Left tarso-metatarsu>. 

Received in excliange from the Christchurch Museum. 

Bonks of a Species of Moa (undetermined). 

2338. Right half of os innnminatum. F. 0. 1550. 

2339. Pelvis. F. C. 156L 

2340. Pelvis longitudinally bisected. 0. C. 1388. 

Presented hy Archdeacon WH Hants. 



f'AsuAHiiD^:. 437 



Suborder V. CASUAEII*. 
[_Cf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 48.] 

A. Keel of sternum obsolete. 

B. Vomer coalesced with the niaxillu-palutines. 

C. Length of liuinerus less than the combined length of three 

dorsal vertebia?. 

D. Hallux absent. 

E. Second, third, and fourth dioits present and directed for- 

wards. 



Family CASUARIID^. 

Genus DROM.SUS. 
Vieillot, Analj-se, p. 54 (1^16). 

Dromseus novae-hollandiae. 

Casuarius noine h Uandio', Latham, Ind. Oru. ii. p. 665 (1790), 
Dromaius novce-JioIlaudice, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 200 
(1865). 

The Emu. 

Hah. Australia. 

2341. Skeleton. 0. C. 1358. South Collection. 

2342. Skeleton of an individual six weeks old. 0. C. 1358 a. 

Purchased. 

2343. Skeleton. O.C. 1358 a. Purchased. 

2344. Skeleton. 0. C. 1358 b. [Many of the bones mounted 

in the Separate Series.] Presented hy J. Busk, E.v^. 

2345. Skull, with horny sheath on left side of bill. 0. C. 1359. 

Presented hy Sir Everard Home, Bart., F.R.S. 

2346. Skull of a young bird, disarticulated and mounted. 0. C. 

1354 A. Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 

* =Cat<i(ariif'jriiic.<, Sharpe, Review, p. o7. 



438 RATn\E. 

Dromseus novae-hollandiae. 

2347. Skull of a young bird, disarticulated. 0. C. 13(50 B. 

Presented hy P. L. Sclater, Es(j., F.P.S. 

2348. Cranium of a young individual. 0. 0. 1360. 

2349. Bones of an unhatched chick. 0. C 13(30 a. 

2350. Sternum. 0. 0. 1358 c. Stores, 1868. 

2351. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. 1822. 

Gould Collection. 

2352. Pelvis. 0. C. 1358ca. Stores. 

2353. Sternum and metatarsus. 0. C. 1358 d, 1358 e. 

Stores, 1868. 

2354. Sacrum and pelvis of young bird, longitudinally bisected. 

0. C. 1387. Presented by Sir Richard Owen, F.P.S. 

2355. Section of upper part of femur. 0. C. 1358 f. Purchased. 

2356. Left foot of young bird. S. S. 2522. Stores. 

2357. Right and left femora. 0. C. 1358 d. Stores. 

2358. Rioht and left metatarsi. 0. C. 1358 D. Stores. 

2359. Left foot of vouno- bird. Stores. 



Genus CASUARIUS. 
J3risson, Oni. v. p. 10 (1700). 

Casuarius bennetti. 

Casufirius bemutti, Gould, Proc*. Zoo). Sue. 1857, p. ~(i\), pi. cxxix. ; 
Salvadori, Orn. Pap. iii. p. 501 (1882). 

The Mooe.uk. 

flab. New Britain. 
2360. Bones of trunk. 0. C. 1357 B. Purchased. 



CASUARIIDiK. 439 

Casuarius galeatus. 

Casunn'us gnleatus, Vieillot, N. Diet, d'Hist. Nat. v. p. 345, 
pi. Bii. fig. 1 (ISIG); Salvadori, Orn. Pap. iii. p. 479 (1882). 

The Common Cassowary. 

Hah. Moluccas. 

2361. Articulated skeleton : mounted. O.CM35G. Purchased. 

2362. Skeleton. [Many of the bones mounted in the Separates 

Series.] O. C. 1356 D. 

2363. Skull. S.S. (JGlA. Purchased. 

2364. Sternum, with right coracoid and scapula. S. S. G50. 

Stores. 

2365. Sternum and pelvis of young bird. 0. C. 1356 a, 1356 a a. 

2366. Sternum and pelvis. 0. C. 1356 c, 1356 c a. 

Stores, 1868. 

2367. Foot : mounted. S. S. 660. Stores. 

2368. Dried foot. Hunterian. 



Casuarius australis. 

Casuarius australis. Wall, Illustrated Sydney Herald, June 3 
(1854) ; Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 20G (1805). 

The Australian Cassowary. 

Hab. Northern Australia. 

2369. Skeleton (libukTe wanting). Queensland (Mr. Scott). 
0. C. 1357 A. Presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. 



440 RATIT.E. 



Family DR0M0RN1THID.E. 

Genus DROMORNIS. 
Owen, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872, p. 682. 

i9romorniiS ausitraltsi. 

Dromornis australis, Owen, ut supra ; Lj'dekker, Cat. Fossil Birds 
Brit. Mus. p. 355 (1891). 

The Dromornis. 

Hah. Eastern Australia. 

2370. Cast of right femur. 

Presented by the Australian Museum, Sydney. 



APPENDIX. 



The followino; spooiineu^;, Hunterian or IIunt(M'i;iii Substitutes, 
have been omittetl from the body of tlie ])resent work because 
the name assigned to them has been found to bo incorrect, and 
tlie species cannot now be exactly determined, or cslse the species 
is a conunon one and the specimen is in too imperfect or 
damaged a condition to warrant its incorporation in the general 
series of skeletons. 

2371. Skeleton of a Passerine Bird (pro])ably a species of Bower- 

Bird). 0. 0. 1597. Hunterian Suhsfitiiie. 

2372. Skeleton of a Passerine Bird (indeterminable). 0. C. 

1586. Hunterian Suhstitute. 

Psittacus, sp. 

2373. Skeleton. 0. C. 1456. Ihuiterian. 



Pteroglossus, sp. 

2374. Lower mandible (imperfect). O. C. 1466. Hunterian. 

Haliaetus, sp. 

2375. Skeleton : mounted. 0. C. 1624. Hunterian. 

Pelecanus, sp. 

2376. Imperfect skull. 0. 0. 1170. Htinterian. 

PART III. 2 G 



442 APPENDIX. 

Nycticorax, sp. 

2377. Skull [iJentified as Ficvs martivs, O. C. 1471]. 

Hunterian. 

Mycteria australis {vide ontea, p. 282). 

2378. Sknll (imperfect) with horny sheath of mandibles. 0. C. 

1310. Hunterian. 

Larus, sp. 

2379. Bones of trunk. 0. C. 1236. Hunterian. 

2380. Dorsal vertebrre of large bird (undetermined), 0. C. 

110.5 a. Hunterian. 



ERRATA. 

Page 69. Insert before riemis MELIORNIS :— 

Family MELIPHAGID^. 

Page 109. Insert before Lalage sykesii : — 

Genus LALAGE. 
Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 97-3. 

Page 122. Insert after Geuus HADROSTOMUS :— 

Cabanis, Mus. Hein. Th. ii. p. 84 (18.59). 

Page 186. Insert after Genus CHRYSOCOLAPTES : 

151ytL, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. xii. p. 1004 (1843). 

Page 188. For Eurostopodus maculatus read Eurostopodus albigu- 
laris. 



ALrHABETICAL INDEX. 



abyssinicus (Buceros), 

195. 
abvssinicus (Bucorvus), 

■]9o. 
acadica (Xyctala), 237. 
acadica (Strix), 237. 
Acanthis, 51. 
Acantbiza, 88. 
Acanthoclisera, 72. 
Acanthorhynchus, 74. 
Accentor, 98. 
Accipiter, 212. 
accipitrina (Strix), 235. 
accipitrimis (Asio), 235. 
Acred ula, 78. 
Acridotberes, 24. 
AcrocepbaUis, 88. 
acuta (Ana^\ 302. 
acuta (Dafila), 302. 
acuticauda (Munia), 40. 
acuticauda (Uroloucba), 

40. 
acutirostris (Neomor- 

pha), 25. 
acutirostris (Hetera- 

locba), 25. 
adelaidae (Platycercus), 

258. 
Adjutant, African. 282. 
Adjutiuir, Indian, 281. 
j^giabtis, 34f). 
.-Egitbina, 106. 
ffigocepbala (Limosa), 

360. 
ffigocepbala (Scolopax), 

3(10. 
,5]g()tlieles, 18S. 
aegyptiacii (Anas), 294. 
Eegvptiaca (Cbenalopex), 

294. 
fpgvptiacus (Cbenalopex), 

2<J4. 
regvptius (Charadrius), 

344. 
iEgyptius (Falco), 222. 
segyptius (Milvus), 222. 
a;gyptius (Pluvianus), 

344. 



^Iurcedu3, 19. 
fpnea (Ilypocbgera), 38. 
yEpyornis, 423. 
a'quinoetialis (Maja- 

queus), 317. 
icquinoctiabs (Procel- 

laria), 317. 
a;ruginosu3 (Circus), 

210. 
iEruginosus (Conurus), 

249. 
a?ruginosus (Falco), 210. 
arugiuosus (Psittacus), 

249. 
sestiva (Cbrysotis), 250._ 

iEstiva (Dendroeca), 65, 
66. 

testiva (Mntacilla), 65. 

a;stiva (Pyranga), 45._ 

sestivus (Psittacus), 250. 

retbereus (Pbaeton), 264. 

^tbvia, 306. 

affini's (Fubgulu). 305. 

aflinis (Fulix), 305. 

afflnis (Geococcyx), 172. 

affinis (Pardalotus), 69. 

afra (Cbalcopelia), 155. 

afra (Cobiniba), 155. 

afra (Loxia), 3.5. 

afra (^Pyromelana), 35, 
36. 

Agaporuis, 257. 

Agelffius, 32. 

a«iHs (Cbrysotis), 251. 

ngibs (Psittacus), 251. 

Aitburus, 127. 

Aix, ••504. 

Alauda, 61. 

alba (Ardea), 374. 

alba (Cbionis), 340. 

alba (Ciconia), 281. 

Albatrus, Bbick-eye- 
browed, 315. 

Albatrod, Ciiinese, 315. 

Albatro.s. Shy, 316. 

Albatrus, Sooty, 316. 

Albatros, Wandering, 
313. 



Albatros, Yellow-nosed, 

315. 
albelliLs(Mergus),312. 
albeola (Anas), 310. 
albeola (Clangula), 310. 
albicilla (Halcyon), 

179. 
albicilla (Haliatitus), 

218. 
albicilla (Vultur), 218. 
albicoUis (Capri niulgus), 

187. 
albicoUis (Nyctidromus), 

187, 188. 
albifrons (Acantbiza), 

98. 
albifrons (Epbtbianura), 

98. 
albifrons (Miro), 113. 
albifrons (Turdus), 113. 
albigularis (Loxia), 48. 
albigularis (Spermo- 

phila), 48. 
albiscapa (Rbipidura), 

114. 
albigularis (Capriniul- 

gus), 188. 
albogularis (Eurostopo- 

dus), 188. 
Alca, 326. 
Alcedo, 175. 
alcyon (Alcedo), 177. 
alcyon (Ceryle), 177. 
Alcvone, 17(). 
alet-tor (Crax), 408. 
alio (Alca), 329. 
alle (Mergulus), 329. _ 
alleni (Porphyrio), 376. 
alpestris (Otocorys), (SO. 
alpina (Tringa), 356. 
Alpine Pipit, 64. 
Alsponax, 110. 
aluco (Strix), 236. 
aluoo (Syrnium), 2.36. 
Amadina, 37. 
Aiuazjn, .Votive, 251. 
Amazon, 'Blue-faced, 
250. 



444 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Amazon, Gold en -raped, 

251. 
Amazon, Orange-winged, 

250. 
Amazon, Eed-tliroated, 

250. 
Amazon, Yellow-fronted, 

251. 
amazona (Alcedo), 178. 
amazona (Ceryle), 178. 
amazonica (Chr.ysotis), 

250. 
aniazonicus (PsittaLUis), 

250. 
American Eobin, 91. 
aniericana (Anas), 3(l3. 
americana (Clangula), 

310. 
americana (Fulica), 378. 
americana (Mareca), 

303. 
americana (Parula), 6(i. 
americana (Rhea), 418. 
americanus (Coccjzus), 

168. 
americanus (Cuculus), 

168. 
americanus (Parus), 66. 
Ammodromus, 59. 
Ammoperdix, 402. 
Ampelis, 86. 
Anas, 299. 
Anellobia, 73. 
anglorum (Procellaria), 

318. 
anglorum (Puffinus), 

318. 
angolensis (Falco), 220. 
angolensis (Qypohierax), 

220. 
angolensis (Merops), 

194. 
auhinga (Plotus), 269. 
ani (Crotophaga), 172. 
Anomalopteryx, 428. 
Anorthura, 97. 
Anous, 339. 
anoxautha (Loxigilla), 

48. 
anoxantha (Spermo- 

phila), 48. 
Anser, 291. 
Anseranas, 289. 
autaretica (Anas), 293. 
antarctica (Bernicla), 

293. 
antarctica (Columba), 

14(5. 
antarcticus (Lopliolai- 

nms), 146. 
Anihracoceros. 198. 
Anlhropoides, 365. 
Ant bus, 64. 



autigoue (Ardea), 364. 
anrigone (Grus), 364. 
Antrostomus, 187. 
Aphi-iza, 349. 
apuda (Paradise;)), 17. 
Apro.smictus, 255. 
Aptenodytes, .325. 
Apreryx, 4l(). 
Aptornis, 381. 
apus (Oypselus), 183. 
apus (Hirundo), 183. 
aquaticus (Cinclus), 97. 
aquaticus (Ilallu.i), 

381. 
Aquila, 216. 
aquila (Fregata), 271. 
aquila (Pelecanus), 271. 
Ara, 247. 
Aram us, 367. 
ararauna (Ai-a), 247, 

248. 
ararauna (Psittacus), 

247. 
arborea (Alauda), 61. 
arb>irea (Anas), 298. 
arborea (Dendrocygna), 

298. 
arborea (Lullula), 61. 
Arcbibuleo, 215. 
Arctic Willow-Warbler, 

87. 
arctica (Alca), 329. 
arctica (Erytbaca), 95. 
arctica (Fratercnla), 329, 

330. 
arctica (Sialia), 95. 
arctica (Sterna), 338. 
arcuatus (Numenius), 

362. 
Ardea, 273. 
Ardetta, 275. 
arenaria (Calidris), 

358. 
arenaria (Tetrao), 370. 
arenaria (Tringa), 358. 
arenariu.s (Pterocles), 

370. 
argala (Leptoptilus), 

281. 
argentatus (Larus), 

334. 
arcus (Argusianus), 

■397. 
argus (Pliasia)ius), 397. 
Argusianus, 397. 
argiita (Strepera), 82. 
ariel (Rjmmpbastos). 

40. 
arquata (Numenius), 

362. 
Artanuis, 26. 
arven&is (Alauda), 61. 
asiatica (Cyanops), 139. 



asiatica (Megalaema), 

139. 
asiatica (Perdicula), 404. 
asiaticus (Trogon), 139. 
Asio, 234. 

assimilis (Circus), 210. 
Astur, 211. 
ateralbus (Centropus), 

170. 
ateralbus (Nesoeentor), 

170. 
atra (Fulica), 377. 
atrata (Anas), 29(5. 
atrata (Ceratogymna), 

199. 
atrata (Cheuopis), 296. 
atratus (Buceros), 199. 
atratus (Cyguus), 2915. 
atratus (8pliagolobus), 

199. 
atricapilla (Motacilla), 

87. _ 
atricapilla (Sylvia), 87. 
Atrichia, 117. 
atrigula (Ploceus), 42. 
audax (I'roaetus), 216. 
audax (Vultur), 216. 
Auk, Crested, 331. 
Auk, Great, 326. 
Auk, Little, 329. 
Auk, Parrot, 3.30, 331. 
Auk, Razor-billed, .327. 
Aulacorhampbus, 142. 
aura (QSnops), 203. 
aura (Rbynogryphus), 

203. 
aura (Vultur), 203. 
aurantius (Bracby- 

pternus). 13.5. 
aurantius (Picus), 13-5. 
auricapilla (Motacilla), 

65. 
aurifrons (Cbloropsis), 

105. 
aurifrons (Pbyllornis), 

105. 
aurigaster (Pycaonotus), 

105. 
aurigaster (Turd us), 

105. 
auripalliata (Andro- 

glos-ia), 251 . 
auripalliata (Chrysotis), 

251. 
auripalliatus (Psittacus), 

251. 
aurita (Otis), 373. 
aurita (Sypbeotidos), 

373. 
aurituui (Crossoptilon), 

393. 
aurilus (Phasianus), 

393. 



ALrilABETICAL INDEX. 



445 



aiirocapillus (Seiurus), 

(>5. 
aust.ralasiana (Certbia), 

70. 
australaaiana (Liclimcra), 

70. 
australis (Acrocephalus), 

88. 
australis (Aptorvx), 

41U 
australis (Calanioherpe), 

88. 
australis (Casuarius), 

439. 
au.stralis fClioriotis), 

;!72. 
australi.s (Corone), 11. 
australis (Corvus), II. 
australis (Droiiiornis), 

440. 
australis (Eojjsaltria), 

8.^, 8(). 
australis (Eurystomus), 

102. 
australis (Excalfactoria), 

400. 
australis (Faico), 200. 
australis (Fulica), 377. 
australis (Gallinago), 

3o4. 
australis (Glossopsitta- 

cus), 242. 
australis (Ibycter), 209. 
australis (Motacilla), 

8.5. 
australis (Mvcteria), 

282, 442. 
australis (Nyroca), 30f). 
australis (Ocydromus), 

380. 
australis (Otis), 372. 
australis (Psittacus), 

242. 
australis (Eallus), 380. 
australis (RhyncLaa), 

35.->. 
australis (Scolopax), 3r)4. 
australis (Spliecothere.s), 

30. 
australis (Sula), 2(i5. 
australis (Xenorhyn- 

clius), 282. 
Avoeet, Comniou, 3r)0. 
Avocel, Red-necked, 

3:>o. 

avocetta (Ilimantopus), 

350. 
avocetta (Eecurvirostra), 

3:)0. 
axillaris (Elanus), 223. 
axillaris (Fal o), 223. 
azurea (Alccdo), 170. 
azurca (Alcyone), 170. 



Babbler. Jungle, 104. 
babylonicus (Falco), 

2'2r). 
barlius (Astur), 211. 
badius (Falco), 211. 
balianiensis (Anns), 

302. 
babainensis (Dafila), 

302. 
Balasniceps, 279. 
Balearica, 3()(). 
Banana-bird, 34. 
bankiva (Gallus), 39."). 
banksi (Calyptorhyn- 

chus), 242. 
banksii (Psittacus). 242. 
barbatus (Gypactus), 

21. -I. 
burbatus (Pvcnonotus), 

10(5. 
barbatus (Tardus), 

I0<i. 
barbatus (Yultur), 215. 
Barbet, Blue-faced, 

139. 
Barbet, Orimson-gor- 

geted, 139. 
Barbet, Hodgson's 

Lineated, 139. 
barbirostris (Blacieus), 

120. 
barbirostris (Tyrannula), 

120. 
Barn-Owl, Australian, 

238. 
Baru-Owl, Common, 

237. 
barrabandii (Polytelis), 

255. 
barrabandii (P.sittacus), 

255. 
bassana (Sula), 264. 
bassanus (Pelecanus), 

204. 
baudinii (Calyplorhyn- 

chus), 243. 
Baza, 223. 
Bee-eater, Australian, 

194. 
Bee-eater, Blue-cbeeked, 

194. 
Bee-eater, Blue-tailed, 

194. 
Beeeater, Green, 195. 
Bell-birl, 122. 
Bellona, 129. 
bengalensis (Alcedo), 

170 
bcngalensis (Bubo), 231. 
bcngaleusis (Oentropiis), 

i7o. 

bcTisalcnsis (Cuculus), 
170. 



bengalensis (Molpastes), 
100. 

bengalensis (Otus), 231. 

bengalensis (Pseudo- 
gyps), 208. 

ben-^alensis (Pycnonotus), 
100. 

bennetti (Casuarius), 
4.38. 

bergii (Sterna), .338. 

berigora (Falco), 227. 

Bernicla, 292. 

betulina (Bonasia), 40t). 

bewickii (Cygnus), 295, 
290. 

biarniicus (Panurus), 78. 

biarniicus (Parus), 78. 

bicolor (Grallina), 111. 

bicolor (Mcrops), 194. 

bicolor (Petroeca), HI, 
112. 

bicornis (Buceros), 197. 

bicornis (Dicboceros), 
197. 

Bird of Paradise, Lesser, 
18. 

birostris (Buceros), 200. 

birostris (Lophoceros), 
200. 

Bisbop-bird, Black-bel- 
lied, 30. 

Bisbop-bird, Red, 3.5. 

bispecularis (Garrulus), 
1.5. 

Bittern, American, 278. 

Bittern, Common, 278. 

Bittern, Least, 276. 

Bittern, Little, 275. 

Bittern, Yellow-necked 
Mangrove, 276. 

Biziura, 309. 

Blacieus, 120. 

Blackbird, 92. 

Blackbird, Red-winged, 
32. 

Blackbird. Ru.sty, 3;3. 

Blackcap Warbler, 87. 

Black Grouse, ,399. 

Blue-bird, Rocky Moun- 
tain, 95. 

Blue-crc>t, 129. 

Blue Petrel, Broad- 
tailed, .320. 

Blue Tanaircr, Red- 
tbroatcd, 4.3. 

Blue Warbler, Yellow- 
backed, 66. 

Boat-bill. 279. 

bonariensis (Molotbrus), 
.32. 

bonariensis (Tanagra), 
.3'' 

Bonasa, 4U0. 



446 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



bonasia (Bonasa), 400. 
bonasia (Tetrao), 400. 
bonliami (Ammoperdix), 

402. 
boobook (Ninox), 232. 
boobook (Strix), 232. 
borealis (Buteo\ 214. 
borealis (Faleo), 214. 
borealis (Motacilla), 63, 

64. 
borealis (Phyllopneuste), 

87. 
borealis (Phylloscopus), 

87. 
boscas (Anas), 299, 300. 
Botaiirus, 278. 
bourkii (Enplieiiia), 260. 
bourkii (Nanodes), 260. 
Bower bird. Large Sjiot- 

ted, 19. 
Bower-bird, Satin, 18. 
brachyptera (Spbenura), 

lUO. 
Brachypterniis, 135. 
brachyiira (Pitta), 122. 
brachyuriis (Corvus), 

122. 
brama (Carine), 232. 
brania (Strix), 232. 
Branibling, 50. 
brasilia (Tanagra), 45. 
brasiliensis (Emberiza), 

55. 
brasiliensis (Moinotu.s), 

181. 
brasiliensis (Sycalis). .35. 
brasilius (Rhanipho- 

coelus), 45. 
Brent Goose, Antarctic, 

293. 
brevicaudus (Nectris, 

319. 
brevicaudus (Puffmus), 

319. 
brevirostris (Larus), 

337. 
brevirostris (Psilojius), 

113. 
brevirostris (Rissa), 337. 
brevirostris (Smieroriiis), 

113. 
Bristle-bird, 100. 
britannieus (Pariis), 77. 
Broad-bill, Red and- 

Black, 125. 
Brotogerys, 249. 
bruennicbii (Lomvia), 

328. 
brunnicbi (Uria), 328. 
Brush-Turkey, Celebean, 

413. 
Brush-Turkey, Ocellated, 

413. 



Brush-Turkey, Wattled, 
412. 

Bubo, 230. 

bubo (Bubo), 230. 

bubo (Strix), 230. 

Bubulcus, 276. 

bubulcus (Ardea), 276. 

bubulcus (Bubulcus), 276. 

buccinator (Cygnus).296. 

buccinator (Olor), 296. 

Buceros, 196. 

Biichanga, 28. 

Bucorvus, 195. 

Bulbul, Bengal Red- 
vented, 106. 

Bulbul, Common Green, 
106. 

Bulbul, Gold - fronted 
Green, 105. 

Bulbul, Orange-bellied 
Green, 105. 

Bulbul, White-vented, 
106. 

Bulbul, Javan Yellow- 
vented, 105. 

Bullfinch, Common, 57. 

Bullfinch, Rosy, 55. 

Bullfinch, Russian, 56. 

Bullfinch, Trumpeter, 52. 

Bunting, Common, 58. 

Bunting, Indigo, 59. 

Bunting, Ortolan. 58. 

Bunting, Reed, 57. 

Bunting, Snow, 58. 

Bunting, Yellow, 57. 

Bush-Lark, Horsfield's, 
62. 

Bush-Quail, Jungle, 404. 

Bustard, Australian, 372. 

Bustard, Great, 371. 

Bustard, Great Indian, 
373. 

Bustard, Little, 372. 

Butastur, 218. 

Buteo, 214. 

buteo (Buteo), 214. 

buteo (Falco), 214. 

Butorides. 277. 

Buzzard, Common, 214. 

Buzzard- Eagle, White- 
eyed, 218. 

Buzzai-d-Hawk, Rufous, 
213. 

Buzzard, Lineated, 214. 

Buzzard, Red-tailed, 214. 

Buzzard, Rough-legged, 
215. 

Bycanetes, 62. 

Cacatua, 244. 
Caccabis, 402. 
Cacomanti.s, 167. 
Calebs (Fringilla), 49. 



ctErulescens (Falco), 224. 
ca^rulescens (Microbie- 

rax), 224. 
cseruleus (Elanus), 223. 
ereruleus (Falco), 223. 
ereruleus (Parus), 77. 
CBEsia (Sitta), 68. 
cafer (Ixos), 106. 
Caica, 252. 
Caique, Black-headed, 

252. 
Caique, Red-vented, 251. 
Caique, White-headed, 

252. 
Cairina, 298. 
ealcitrans (Cnemiornis), 

290. 
caledonica (Ardea), 277. 
caledouicus (Nycticorax), 

277. 
Calidris, 358. 
calidris (Scolopax), 359. 
calidris (Totanus), 359. 
califoruiana (CEnops), 

204. 
califoruiana (Rhino- 

gryphus), 204. 
calilornianus (Vultur), 

204. 
calliope (Erythacus), 93. 
calliope (Motacilla), 93. 
Calliste, 43. 
Callocephalon, 244. 
Caloenas, 158. 
Calopsittacus, 246. 
Calyptorhynchus, 242. 
camelus (Struthio), 420. 
canipestris (Anthus), 64. 
Cauipophaga, 108. 
Campophilus, 136. 
oana (Agapornis), 257. 
cana (Psittacus), 257 
cana (Tanagra), 44 
canadensis (Ardea), 
canadensis (Grus), 365. 
canaria (Fringilla), .54. 
canaria (Serinus), 54. 
Canary Finch, 54. 
Canchronia, 279. 
Candida (Gygis), 339. 
Candida (Sterna), 339. 
canesceiis (Scolopax), 

359. 
caneBcens (Totanus), 359. 
cannabina (Acanthis), 51. 
cannabina (Linota), 51. 
cannabina (Fringilla), 51. 
canorus (Crateropus), 

104. 
canorus (CucuUis), 167. 
canorus (Turd us), 104. 
canus (Gecinus), 132. 
canus (Larus), 335, 336. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



447 



canas (Pious), 132. 
canutus (Tringa), 35G. 
Cape Dove, loO. 
Cape Hen, 317. 
capensis (Culius), 173. 
capensis (Columba), l.")0. 
capensis (Daption), 3i'J. 

320. 
capensis (Orioliis), 42. 
capensis (CEdicnemus), 

342. 
capensis (CEna), 1.50. 
capensis (Procellaria), 

319. 
capeneis(Rhynchi)ea),.355. 
capensis (Scolopax), 3.5.'). 
capensis (Sitagra), 42. 
capensis (Strix), 2.38. 
Capercaillie, 398. 
capitata (Paroaria), 59. 
capitatus (Tachyphoniis), 

59. 
Capriraalgus, IBfi. 
Caraeara, Brazilian, 209. 
Caracara, Falkland Is- 
lands, 209. 
carbo (Pelecaniis), 2(i(5. 
carbo (Phalacrocorax), 

266. 
Cardinal, Red-crested, 60. 
Cardinal, Red-headed, 60. 
Cardinal, Virginian, 49. 
Cardinal, Yellow-billed, 

59. 
Cardinalis, 49. 
cardinalis (Cardinalis), 

49. 
cardinalis (Eos), 240. 
cardinalis (Loriiis), 240. 
cardinalis (Loxia), 49. 
Carduelis, 50. 
carduelis (Carduelis), 50. 
carduelis (Fringilla), 50. 
Cariama, Crested, 375. 
caribffla (Colutuba), 149, 
oaribseus (Rallus), 382. 
cariepensis (Steatornis), 

191. 
carinatus (Rbamphastos), 

141. 
Carine, 2.32. 
Carolina (Ortygometra), 

384. 
Carolina (Porzana), 384. 
caroJinensis (Anas), 301. 
carol inensis (Conurus), 

248. 
carolinensis (Galeoscop- 

tes), 96. 
carolinensis (Muscicapa), 

96. 
carolinensis (Nettion), 

301. 



carolinensis (Qucrque- 

dula), 301. 
carolinus (Melanerpes), 

134. 
carolinus (Pious), 1.34. 
carolinus (Rallus), 384. 
Carpliibis, 286. 
Carpodacus, .5.5. 
Carpopliaga, 144. 
carunculata (Acantlio- 

cluera), 7.3. 
earuuoulata (Ardea), 

.■i64. 
carunculata (Crax), 408. 
carunculata (Gracula), 

23. 
carunculata (Grus), 361. 
carunculatus (Dilophus), 

23. 
carunculatus (Merops), 

73. 
carvocatactes (Oorvus), 

12. 
caryocatactes (Nuci- 

fraga), 12. 
Cashew-bird, 45. 
caspia (Sterna), 338. 
Cassicus, 31. 
Cassowary, Australian, 

439. 
Cassowary, Conunon, 

439. 
castanotis (Amadina), 38. 
cistanotis (Estrelda), 38. 
castanotis (I'jeniopvgia), 

38. 
casuarina (Anomalo- 

pteryx), 428. 
casuariuus (Dinornis), 

428. 
Casuarius, 438. 
Cat-bird, American, 96. 
Cat-bird, Australian, 19. 
catarrhactes (Larus), 332. 
catarrhactes (Stercora- 

rius), 332. 
Cathartes, 202. 
caudacuta (Ilirundo), 

184. 
caudacuta (Chajtura), 

184. 
caudata (Acredula), 78. 
caudata (Pica), 13. 
caudalus (Parus), 78. 
caudil:isciutus(Pitangus), 

119. 
caudifasciatus (Tyran- 

nus), 119. 
cauta (Diomedea), 316. 
Cazique, Blue-throated, 

128. 
cenchroides (Cerehneis), 

228. 



cenchroides (Falco), 228. 

Centropus, 169. 

Ceralogynina, 199. 

Cerehneis, 227. 

Cereopsis, 291. 

Ceriornis, 396. 

Certhia, 66. 

Ceryle, 177. 

Ceyx, 178. 

Chictura, 184. 

Chaffinch, 49. 

Chalcopelia, 155. 

Chalcophaps, 155. 

chalcoptera (Columba), 
1.5il. 

chalcoptera (Phaps), 156. 

ChamiEpelia, 153. 

Charadrius, .'M4. 

Chasmorhynchus, 122. 

Chatterer, Waxen, 86. 

Chaulelasraus. 301. 

Chelidon, 115. 

Chenalopex, 294. 

Chibia, 27. 

chinensis (Cissa), 14. 

chiuensis (Coracias), 14. 

chinensis (Francolinus), 
403. 

chinensis (Tetrao), 403. 

Chionis, 340. 

Clilamydodera, 19. 

Chlocphaga, 293. 

Chloris, 47. 

chloris (Alcedo), 179. 

chloris (Chloris), 47. 

chloris (Halcyon), 179. 

chloris (Ligurinus), 47. 

chloris (Loxia), 47. 

chlorocercus (Lorius), 
241. 

chlorolepidotus (Psitta- 
cus), 241. 

chlorolepidotus (Tricho- 
glossus); 241. 

chhirolophus (Gecinus), 
133. 

chlorolophus (Picus), 133. 

Chloropsis, 106. 

chldi-opus (Fuliea), 378. 

chloropus (Gallinula), 
.378. 

chlororhyncha (Diome- 
dea), 31.5. 

Chordeiles, 187. 

Chough, White-winged, 
16. 

Ciiough, Red-billed, 15. 

chrysaetus (Aquila), 216. 

ciirysaetus (Falco), 21(J. 

chrysochlora (Chalco- 
phaps), 156. 

chrvsochlora (Columba), 
1.5(;. 



448 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Chrysocolaptes, 13G. 
chrysoloplms (Catar- 

rhactes), 323. 
chrysolophus (Eudvptes), 

324. 
Chrysoraitris, 51. 
chrysopelargus (Ardea), 

366. 
chrysopelargus . (Balea- 

rica), 366. 
Chrysopblegma, 133. 
chrvsopogou (Choto- 

riiea), 138. 
cbrysoptera (Sittella), 

68. 
chrysopyga (Crithagra), 

65. 
chrysostoraa (Eupbema), 

260. 
chrj'sostomus (Psittacus), 

260. 
Chrysotis, 250. 
Ciconia, 281. 
ciconia (Ardea), 281. 
ciconia (Ciconia), 281. 
Cicinnurus, 16. 
Cinclodes, 123. 
Cinclorbamplius, 104. 
Cinclosoma, 102. 
Cinclus, 97. 
cineta. (Amadina), 40. 
cincta (Poephila), 40. 
cinctus (Erytbrogonys), 

345. 
cinerea (Anas), 309. 
cinerea (Ardea), 273. 
cinerea (Estrilda), 41. 
cinerea (Fringilla), 41. 
cinerea (Fidica), 3S1. 
cinerea (Gallicre.x), 381. 
cinerea (Grus), 363. 
cinerea (Perdix), 401. 
cinerea (Strutbidea), 83. 
cinerea (Vanga), 83. 
cinereus (Anser), 291, 

292. 
cinereus (Cracticus), 83. 
cinereus (Tacbyeres), 

309. 
Circus, 210. 
Cissa, 14. 

citrina (Geocichla), 89. 
citrinella (Einberiza), 57. 
citrinocristata (Cacatua), 

244. 
citrinus (Turdus), 89. 
Cladorhyncbus, 351. 
glamator (Francolinus), 

403. 
clamator (Perdix), 403. 
clamosa (Atriebia), 117. 
clanga (Aquila), 217. 
Clangula, 310. 



Clapper-Pail, Janiaioan, 

282. 
cleiuenciiB (Copligena\ 

128. 
clemenciaj (Delattria), 

128. 
clemenciffi (Ornisraya), 

128. 
CI i ft'- Swallow, Indian, 

116. 
Climacteris, 69. 
clypeata (Anas), 303. 
clypeata (Spatula), 303. 
Cneniiornis, 290. 
Coach -whip Bird, 102. 
coceineus (Eos), 240. 
coccineus (Psittacus), 

240. 
Coccotbraustes, 46. 
coccotbraustes (Cocco- 
tbraustes), 46. 
coceothraustes (Loxia), 

46. 
cochlearia (Canchroma), 

279. 
Coccystes, 165. 
Co(!cyzus, 168. 
Cock, Water, 381. 
Cockatoo, Banksian, 

242. 
Cockatoo, Baudin's, 243. 
Cockatoo, Ducorps's, 

246. 
Cockatoo, Funereal, 

243. 
Cockatoo, Gang-Gang, 

244. 
Cockatoo, Great Sulphur- 
crested, 245. 
Cockatoo, Leach's, 243. 
Cockatoo, Leadbeater's, 

245. 
Cockatoo, Lesser Sul- 
phur-crested, 245. 
Cockatoo, Long-billed, 

246. 
Cockatoo, Red- vented, 

244. 
Cockatoo, Eoseate, 246. 
Cockatoo, Yellow-eared 

Black, 244. 
Cockatoo, Western Black, 

243. 
CoIkus, 9. 
Ca?ligena, 128. 
colchicus (Phasianu.^), 

391. 
colius (Colius). 174. 
colius (Loxia), 174. 
coUaria (Chrysotis), 250. 
fiollaris (Anas), 306. 
ooUaris (Fulix), 306. 
collar! us (Psittacus), 2.50. 



collyrio (Lanius), 81. 
Collyriocincla, 84. 
colubris (Trocbilus), 129. 
Coluinba, 147. 
columbariiis ( Falco), 226. 
Coly, Cape, 174. 
Colymbus, 387. 
communis (Coturnix), 

404. 
communis (Falco), 224. 
concinna (Myiagra), 114. 
conniveus (Falco), 233. 
connivens (Ninox), 23.3, 

234. 
conspicillata (Procel- 

laria), 317. 
c.mspicillatus (Maja- 

queus), 317. 
conspicillatus (Peleca- 

nus), 270. 
contra (Sturnopastor), 

22. 
contra (Stui-nus), 22. 
Conure, Guiana, 248. 
Conure, Eed-billed, 248. 
Conure, Yellow-billed, 

249. 
Conure, Yellow-headed, 

249. 
Conurus, 248. 
convexus (Anthraco- 

ceros), 198. 
convexus (Buceros), 198. 
Coot, American, .378. 
Coot, Australian, 377. 
Coot, Common, 377. 
Copper Pheasant, 

Hondo, 392. 
Copsychus. 94. 
Coracias, 192. 
corax (Corvus), 8. 
Corcorax, 16. 
Cormorant, Chihan, 2l)7. 
Cormorant, Common, 

266. 
Cormorant, Little, 268. 
Cormorant, Little Black, 

267. 
Cormorant, Red-faced, 

267. 
Cormorant, Toothed, 

272. 
Corn -Crake .383. 
corniculata (Fratercula), 

320. 
corniculatum (Mormon), 

330. 
corniculatus (Merops), 

73. ' 
corniculatus (Tropido- 

rhynclius), 73. 
cornix (Corone), 10. 
cornix (Corvus), 10. 



ALniAl'.KTlCAL INDEX, 



449 



cormita (Anas), 290. 
CDniiita (l'alaiiio(lca), 

.'512. 
coriiuta (Tadorna), 209. 
corotnaiula (Strix), 231. 
coruinamliis (Bubo), 231. 
coromandiis (Coceystcs), 

inc. 

conjiiiandus (Cuculus), 

1B(). 
foronata (Coluinba), ir)8. 
coronata (Ooiira), lo8. 
coronaUi (Ilirundo), 

184. 
coronata (Macroptcryx), 

184. 
coronatus (Anthraco- 

ceros), 198. 
coronatus (Buccros), 198. 
Corone, ID. 
corone (Corone), 10. 
corone (Corvus), 10. 
coronoides (Corvus), 9. 
Corvus, 8. 
cotta (Elainea), 118. 
Coturnix, 404. 
coturuix (Coturnix), 404. 
coturnix (Tetrao), 404. 
Coucal, Indian, 170. 
Coucal, Pheasant, 1G9. 
Coucal, Pied, 170. 
Cow-bird, Argentine, 

32. 
Cracticus, 83. 
Crake, Carolina, 384. 
Crake, Corn, 383. 
Crake, Pallas', 383. 
Crake, Spotted, 383. 
Crake, Spotted Water, 

384. 
Crane, Common, 3(i3. 
Crane, Common 

Crowned, 3t')(). 
Crane, Demoiselle, 3G5. 
Crane, Little Brown, 

305. 
Crane, Sarus, 364. 
Cnxne, Southern 

Crowned, 3<)t). 
Crane, Stanley's, 305. 
Crane, Wattled, 3r)4. 
crassipes (llespcrornis), 

386. 
crassirostris (Eurysto- 

mus), 193. 
crassirostris (Larus), 

335. 
crassirostris (Tringa), 

356. 
crassus (Diuornis), 

435. 
crassus (Emeus), 435. 
Craterojius, 104. 

PART III. 



Crax, 408. 

croeca (.Vnas), 300. 

crrcea (Querquedula), 

300. 
Creeper, Common, 67. 
Creeper, Spotted G rey, 

67. 
crejiidatus (Larus), 332. 
crepidatus (Lestris), 3."J2. 
crepitans (Museicapa), 

102. 
crepitans (Psophia), 385. 
crepitans (Psophodes), 

102. 
Crested Cuckoo, Red- 
winged, 166. 
Crested Lark, 62. 
Crested Swilt, Indian, 

184. 
Crex, 383. 
crex (Crex), 383. 
crex (Rallus), 383. 
crinigera (Pampusanna), 

157. 
crinigera (Phlogoeuas), 

1.57. 
cristata (Alauda), 62. 
cristata (Anas), 305. 
cristata (Bellona), 129. 
cristata (Cariama), 375. 
cristata (Columba), 154. 
cristata (Cyanoeitta), 

15. 
cristata (Eupsychortyx), 

405. 
cristata (Fuligula), 305. 
cristata (FuUx), 305. 
cristata (Galerita), 62. 
cristata (Geotrygon),]54. 
cristata (Meleagris), 409. 
cristata (Nuniida), 406. 
cristata (Oreoica), 84. 
cristata (Palaniedoa).375. 
cristata (Penelope), 4(l9. 
cristatella (Alca), 331. 
cristatelhis (Simorhyn- 

chus),331. 
cristatus (Colymbu.s), 

389. 
cristatus (Corvus), 15. 
cristatus (Lophophanes), 

77, 78. 
cristatus (Opistbocomus), 

374. 
cristatus (Orthorhyn- 

chus), 129. 
cristatus (Parus), 77. 
cristjitus (Pavo), 398. 
cristatus (Phasianus), 

374. 
cristatus (Podiceps), 389. 
cristatus (Podicipcs), 

389. 



cristatus (Roguhis), 79. 

crislalus (Tetrao). I<>.".. 

cristatus (Trochilus), 
129. 

cristatus (Tardus). 84. 

cristatus (Vanellus^, 
348. 

Crocop\ts, 147. 

Crossbill, Common, 
5(;. 

Crossoptilum, 393. 

Crotophaga, 172. 

Crow, Bruwn-eycd Aus- 
tralian, 11. 

Crow, Carrion, 10. 

Crow, Hooded, 10. 

Crow, Jamaican, 11. 

Crow, Malayan Slender- 
billed, 11. 

Crow, Royston, 10. 

Crowned Crane, Com- 
mon, 36(). 

Crowned Crane.Southcrn, 
36(). 

Crowned Pigeon, Com- 
mon, 158. 

Crow-Shrike, Black- 
throated, 83. 

Crow-Shrike, Cinereous, 
83. 

Crow-Shrike, Grey, 8.3. 

Crow-Shrike, Hill, 82. 

Crow-Shrike, Piwl, 82. 

Crow-Shrike, T;isinanian, 
82. 

crLunenifera (Ciconia), 
282. 

crumeniferus (Leptopti- 
lus), 282. 

cruralis (Cinclorham- 
phus), 104. 

cruralis (Mcgalurus), 
104. 

Crypturi, 414. 

Cuckoo, Australian, 
167. 

Cuckoo, Bronze, 168. 

Cuckoo, Channel, 169. 

Cuckoo, Common, 1(57. 

Cuckoo-Falcon, Austra- 
lian, 223. 

Cuckoo, Great Savana, 
172. 

Cuckoo, Great SiioMed, 
165. 

Cuckoo, Jamaica, 170. 

Cuckoo, Rain, 171. 

Cucko), Red-winged 
Crested, 166. 

Cuckoo-Shrike, Black- 
faccd, 107. 

Cuckoo-Shrike, Black- 
headed, 109. 

2h 



450 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Cuckoo-Slirik'^, Dark- 
grey 10!). 
Ciickoo-Shrikc, Small- 
billed, 107. 
Cuckoo-Shrike, Larger, 

108. 
Cuckoo-Shrike, New Ire- 
land, 108. 
Cuckoo Shrike, Varied, 

108. 
Cuckoo, Yellow-billed, 

108. 
cucullata (Loxia), 60. 
cucullata (Paro:iria), 00. 
cuculoides (Glaucidiuiu), 

234. 
cuculoides (Noctua), 

234. 
Cuculus, 106. 
ciimanensis (Crax), 

410. 
eunianensis (Pipile;, 

410, 
cumingi (Lepidograin- 

inus), 170. 
cuneita (Columba), 

1.51. 
cuneata (Geopelia), 

lal. 
cuniculuria (Speotjto), 

229. 
Oura.ssow, Crested, 408. 
Curassow, Derby's Moun- 
tain, 411. 
Curassow, Ilelmeted, 

410. 
Curassow, Razor-billed, 

410. 
Curassow, Yarrell's, 408. 
Curlew, Common. 362. 
Curlew, Eed-billed, 

302. 
curta (Anomalopteryx), 

433, 434. 
curta (Dinornis), 4.33. 
curvirostra (Loxia), .'iO. 
cuvieri (Podargus), 11)0. 
cuvieri (Rhamphastos), 

J41. 
cyanaucheu (Loriu.s), 

240. 
cyanea (Cyanospiza), .TO. 
cyanea (Motacilla), 114. 
c^'anea (Passerina), 59. 
cyanea (Tanagra), 59. 
cyaneus (Circus), 209, 

210. 
cyaneus (Falco), 209. 
cyaneus (Malurus), 114. 
cyanocephala (Columba), 
■ 158. 

cyanocephala (Eudyna- 
niis), 165, 168. 



cyanocephala (Starnce- 

nas), ].">8. 
cyanocephalus (Cuculus). 

168. 
cyanocephalus (Palaj- 

ornis), 254. 
cyanocephalus (Psitta- 

cus), 254. 
Cyanocitta, 15. 
cyanomelaina (Xantho- 

pygia), 113. 
cyanomelana (Musci- 

capa), 113. 
cyanonielanura (Cvano- 

ptila), 113. 
Cyanops, 138. 
cyanoptera (Tanagra), 

44. 
cyanopterus (Saltator), 
■ 44 
cyanopvgins (Aprosmic- 

tus),"255, 256. 
cyanopygius (Psittacus), 

255. 
Cyanorhamphns, 260. 
Cyanospiza, .59. 
cyanonotus (Geocichla), 

89. 
cyanota (Petrocincla), 
'89. 

cyanotis (Entomyza). 75. 
cyanotis (Gracula), 75. 
cyanotus (Turdus), 89. 
cygnoides (Anas), 292. 
cygnoides (Anser), 292. 
' 'ygnus, 294. 
Cymborliynchus, 125. 
Cymochorhea, 321. 
Cypselus, 183. 

Dacclo, 180. 
Dafila, 302. 
Daption, 319. 
Darter, New Holland, 

268. 
darwini (Rhea), 419. 
delicata (Gallinago), 

354. 
delicata (Scolopax),354. 
delicatula (Strix), 238. 
demersa (Diomedea), 

322. 
demersus (Spheniscus), 

322. 
Demiegretta, 275. 
Dendrocitta, 13. 
Dendrocopus, 1.34. 
Dendrocygna, 297. 
Dendroeca, 65. 
dentata (Petronia), 52. 
dentata (Xanthodira), 

52. 
derbiana (Chauua), 312. 



derbianns (Orcophasis), 

411. 
derbianus (Pitangus), 

119. 
derbianus (Saurophaga), 

119. 
derogata (Diomedea), 

315. 
desolata (Prion), ,320. 
desolata (Procellaria), 

320. 
desolatus (Prion), 320. 
Dhayal Bird, 94. 
Diamond-bird, Tasnia- 

nian, 09. 
Dichoceros, 197. 
Dicholophi, 375. 
Dicranostreptus, 29. 
didiformis (Anomalo- 
pteryx), 432. 
didiformis (Dinornis), 

432. 
Didunculus, 159. 
Didus, 1.59. 
diffusa (Pyrgita), 53. 
diifusus (Passer), 5.3. 
Dilophus, 23. 
Dinornis, 423. 
Diomedea, .313. 
Dipper, Common, 97. 
discolor (Lathamus), 

201,262. 
discolor (Psittacus), 201. 
discolorus (Rhamjihas- 

tos), 140. 
Diver, Great Northern, 

387. 
Diver, Large-footed 

Toothed, 380. 
Diver, Red-throated, 

388. 
Diver, Toothed, 385. 
Dodo, 1.59. 
Dolichonyx, 32. 
domestica (Anas), 299. 
domestiea (Fringilla), 

.52. 
doraesticus (Anser), 292. 
domesticus (Gallus), 395, 

390). 
domesticus (Pa.sser), .52. 
dominicana (Paroaria), 

60. 
dominieus (Colyiubus), 

389._ 
dominieus (Podiceps), 

389. 
dominieus (Podieipes), 

389. 
Dottrel, Red-heeled, 

345. 
Dottrel, Slender-billed, 
345. 



ALl'llAliETlCAL INDEX. 



451 



Dove, Barred, 151. 
Duve, Barred-sbouldered, 

151. 
Dove, Bronze-spotted, 

155. 
Dove, Cipe, 150. 
Dove, Green -winged, 156. 
Dove, Little Grreen- 

winged, 15('>. 
Dove, reacei'ul, 151. 
Dove, White-fronted, 

154. 
Dove, Wliite-winged, 153. 
Dove, Zenaida, 15;j. 
drouia-'oides (Anomalo- 

pteryx), 430, 432. 
droinjtoides (Dinornis), 

-^30. 
Dronianis, 437. 
Dromornis, 440. 
Drongo, ilair-crested, 

28. 
Drongo, Indian Ashy, 

28. 
Drongo, Long-tailed, 

29. 
dubia (Ardea), 281. 
dubius (Leptoptilus), 

281,282. 
Duck, Australian White- 
eyed, 30(). 
Duck, Baiiama Pintail, 

302. 
Duck, Biiffle-headed, 

310. 
Duck, Dusky, 300. 
Duck, Eider, 307- 
Duck, Lesser Scaup, 305. 
Duck, Long-tailed, 307. 
Duck, Mandarin, 304. 
Duck, Muscofv, 2'J8. 
Duck, IMusk, i09. 
Duck, Pink-eved, 304. 
Duck, Pintaif,302. 
Duck, Ring-necked 

Scaup, 30(i. 
Duck, Scaup, 305. 
Duck, Steamer, 309. 
Duck, Tutted, 305. 
Duck, White-eyed, 306. 
Duck, Wood, .304. 
dueorpsi. Cacatua, 246. 
Dunlin, 356. 
duperryi (Alegapodius), 

412. 
duvauceli (Ilarpactes), 
161. 

Eagle, Australian, 216. 
Eagle, Bateleur, 218. 
Eagle, Black-crested, 

217. 
Eagle, Bonclli's, 217. 



Engle, Golden, 216. 
Eagle, liiij)prial, 21(>. 
Eagle, Larger Spotted, 

217. 
Eagle-Owl, Hodgson's, 

Eagle, Wiiite-tailed, 218. 
Eared Pheasant, Pallas', 

393. 
Earth-bird, Smoky Black, 

123. 
ecaudatus (Falco), 218. 
ecaudatus (Helotarsus), 

218. 
Edectus, 2.53. 
Ectopistcs, 1.50. 
edwardsi (Eupodotis), 

373. 
edwardsi (Otis), 373. 
Egret, American, 274. 
Egret, Phimed, 274. 
E^ret, Spotless, 274. 
egretta (Ardea). 274. 
egrettoides (Herodias), 

274. 
Elainea, 118. 
Elanoidcs, 221. 
Elanus, 223. 
elaia (Ceratogynma), 

199. 
elatus (Buceros), 199. 
elegans (Carduelis), 50. 
elegans (Columbal, 157. 
elegans (Phaps), 157. 
elephantopus (Dinornis), 

436. 
elephantopus (Pachy- 

ornis), 4i:6. 
Emberiza, 57. 
Emeus, 434. 
Emu, 437. 
Emu- Wren, IGO. 
Entoinyzn, 75. 
Eopsaltria, 85. 
Eos, 240. 
Ephthianura, 98. 
epops (Upupa), 143, 144. 
erithacus (P.-ii'tacus), 252. 
Erythacus, 92. 
erythacus (Psittacu.s), 

252. 
erythrina (Loxia), .55. 
erythrinus (Carpodacus), 

65. 
erythrocephalus (Me- 

lanerpes), 1.33. 
erythrocephalus (Picus), 

133. 
Erythrogony.s, 345. 
erjthromelas ( Py ranga), 

erythrophthalmus (Fai- 
plocomus), 394. 



erythrophthalmus (Pha- 

sianus), 394. 
eryihrojiterus (Aprosmic- 

tus), 256. 
eryt hropterus (Psittaeus) 

256. 
erythrorhynchiis (Rliam- 

])hast()s), 141, 142. 
Erythrotriciri,-his, 213. 
Estrilda, 41. 
euehlorus (Auripasser), 

54. 
euehlorus fPasser), 54. 
Eudynamis, 168. 
Eudyptes, 324. 
EudVptila, 324. 
Eulabes, 23. 
Eumomota, 181. 
eupatriud (Pahtorni.s), 

254. 
eupatrius (Pstttacus), 

2.54. 
Eiiphenia, 2.59. 
Euphonia, 43. 
Euplocomus, 394. 
Eupodotis. 373. 
Eupsychortyx, 405. 
europtea (Pyrrhula), 

57. 
europcTus (Caprimulgus), 

185,186. " 

Eurostopodus, 188. 
Eurystomus, 192. 
Eustephanus, 128. 
Excaltactoria, 405. 
excubitor (Lanius), 81. 
exilis (Ardea), 276. 
esilis (Ardetta), 276. 
exilis (Bolaurus), 276. 
exiniius CPlatvcercus), 
258. ^ ^ ' 

exiniius (Psittaeus), 

258. 
exulans (Diomedea), 313, 

314. 
eytoni (Dendrocygna), 

eytoni (Leptotarsis), 
297. 

falcala (Anas), 301. 

falcata (Querquedula), 
301. 

Faleinellus, 287. 

falcinellus (Faleinellus), 
287. 

faleinellus (Tantalus), 
287. 

Falco, 224. 

falco (Jugger). 225. 

Falcon, Australian Pere- 
grine, 22;5. 

Falcon, Iceland, 227. 



452 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Falcon, Lanncr, 225. 
Falcou, Peregrine, 224. 
Falcon, Red-lieacled, 

225. 
Falconet, Wbite-naped, 

224. 
Falcunculiis, 70. 
familiariw (Certliia), G7. 
Fan tail. Black, 114. 
Fantail, White-shafted, 

114. 
fascinta (AiuadinaV. 37. 
fasciata (Aquila), 217. 
fasciata (Loxia), 37. 
f'asciatus (Bueeros), 201. 
fasciatus (Nisaetus), 217. 
fasciatus (Palajornis), 

2.54. 
fasciatus (Ptilonopus), 

146. 
fasciatus (Ptilopus). 14G. 
fasciatus (Tockus), 201. 
fascinans (Loxia), 110. 
fascinans (Micru?ca), 110. 
fastuosa (Calliste), 43, 

44. 
fastuosa (Tanagra), 43. 
feldeggii (Falco), 225. 
ferina (.Ethyia), 300. 
ferina (Anas), 30(). 
ferina (Fuligiila), 30f). 
fcrruginea (4nas), 306. 
fen-uginea (Nyroca), 306. 
ferrugineus (Oriolus), 

33. 
ferrugineus (Scoleco- 

phagus), 33. 
Fieldfare, 91. 
Fincii, Canary, 54. 
Finch, Serin, 54. 
Finch-Lark, White-eared, 

62. 
Fire-back Pheasant, 

Siamese, 3'J4. 
Fire-crown, Chilian, 

128. 
Finh-Owl, Himalayan, 

230. 
flabelliforniis (Caco- 

niantis), 167. 
flabeliiformis (Chalco- 

coceyx), KiS. 
flabelldbruii.s (Cueuliis), 

167. 
Flamingo, American, 

289. 
Flamingo, Common, 288. 
flammea (Strix), 237, 

238. 
Flat-bill, Black-billed, 

120. 
Flat-bil], Bufl'-wingcd, 

120. 



flava (Motacilla). 63. 
flavefila (Fringilla), 55. 
flaveola (Sycalis), r'5. 
flavic(jllis (Ardea), 276. 
flavicollis (.irdetta), 276. 
flavicoUis (Butorides), 

276. 
flavigula (PtU(itis), 71- 
llavinucha (Chryjo- 

phlcgma), 133. 
flavinucha (Picus), 133. 
flavipes (Cultrunguis), 

230. 
flavipes (Xetuim), 230. 
ilavipes (Plata'lea), 285. 
llavi])es (Platibis), 285. 
lla^ irostris (Rhynchops), 

340. 
flaviventris (Platycercus), 

258. 
flaviventris (Psittacus), 

258. 
Florican, Lesser, 373. 
Florisuga, 128. 
fluminea i^Ortygometra"*, 

384. 
fluminea (Porzana), 384. 
fluviatilis (Coljinbus), 

390. 
fluvi.itilis (Sterna), 337. 
fluviatilis (Tachybaptes), 

390. 
fluvicola (Hirundo), 116. 
fluvicola (Petrochelidon), 

IKJ. 
Flycatcher, Australian 

Brown, 110. 
Flycatcher, Blue-and- 

Black, 113 
Flycatcher, Pied Para- 
dise, 115 
Flvcatcher, Short-billed 

Dwarf, 113. 
Flycatcher, Southern 

Brown, 110. 
Flycatcher, Spotted, 1U9. 
formosa (Fringilla), 3(). 
Ibrmo.sa (Stictcspiza), .36. 
formosus (Oriolus), 29. 
foriiKisus (Pezoporus), 

262. 
formosus (Psittacus), 262. 
fursteni (Merojjogon), 

194. 
forsteri (Aptcnodytes), 

325. 
Fowl, Domestic. 395. 
Fowl, Jungle, .395. 
Francolin, Chinese, 403. 
Francolin, Noisy, 403. 
Francolin, Painted, 403. 
Francolin us, 403. 
Fratercuki, 329, 330. 



Fregata, 271. 

Frigate-bird, Great, 
271. 

Frigate-bird, Little, 
271. 

Fringilla, 49. 

I'rontalis (Loxia), 42. 

frontalis(S])oropipes), 42. 

frontatus (Falcunculus), 
79, 80. 

frontatus (Lanius), 79. 

frugilegus (Trypano- 
corax), 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

F"'ruit-Pigeon, Banded, 
147. 

Fruit-Pigeon, Black- 
headed, 146. 

Fruit-Pigeon, Magnifi- 
cent, 146. 

Fruit-Pigeon, New- 
Ireland, 144. 

fuciphaga (Collocalia), 
183. 

Fulica, 377. 

i'ulicaria (Tringa), 352. 

fulicarius (Phalaropus), 
352. 

fuliginosa (Diomedea), 
316. 

fuliginosa (Phccbetria), 
316. 

fuliginosu.s(IIa3matopus), 
350. 

Fulix, 305. 

Fulmar Petrel, 318. 

Fulmarus, 318. 

fulva (Anas), 297. 

fulva (Dendrocvgna), 
297. 

fulve^cens (Gyps), 207. 

fulvifrons (Certhia), 71. 

fulvifrons (Glyciphila), 
71. 

fiilvus (Gyps\ 20(5. 

fulvus (Vidtur), 206. 

funereus (Calyptorhyn- 
chus), 243. 

funereu.s (Psittacus), 
243. 

furcatus (Elanoides), 
221. 

furcatus (Falco), 221. 

lusea (Aiuis), 308. 

I'usca (G<;demia), 308. 

fusca (Meliphaga), 72. 

fusca (Ptilotis), 72. 

fuscus (Artanius), 26. 

fu.scus (liarus), 335. 

Gad wall, 301. 
galatea (Tanysiptera), 
174. 

Galhula, 130. 



ALI'IIAIIETICAL INDEX. 



453 



Saloat:i (C'rax), 410. 
galeata (Paiixil, 410. 
f^aleat iiiii(Calluceplialun'), 

L'44. 
galeatiis (Castiarius), 

4:]9. 

paleatus (Psittacus), 214. 
Galeoscoptes, ',)6. 
galcriciilata (Aix), 304. 
galoriciilata (Anas), 304. 
Galerita, (U. 
galerita (Cacatiia^, 245. 
galeridis (Eustejjhanus), 

128. 
galeritus (Psittacus), 245. 
galeritud (Trocliilus), 

128. 
Gallierex, ;5S1. 
galliiiac'ca (Parra), 343. 
Galliiingo, 3.'')4. 
gallinago (Gallinago), 

354. 
gallinago (Scolopas), 

354. 
Gallimila, 378. 
gallimila (Gallinago), 

354. 
gallimila (Scolopax), 

354. 
Gallinule, Allen's Purple, 

37(i. 
Gallinule, Black-backed, 

37(5. 
Gallinule, Mautell's 

Giant, 377. 
Gallinule, Philippine, 

37(). 
ga]lo|)avo (Meleagris), 

40(i. 
Gallus, 395. 
gainbensis (Anas), 290. 
gambensis (Piectro- 

ptcrus), 290. 
Gannet, 2(i4. 
G-ciiniet, Australian, 2G5. 
Garden-Warbler, 87. 
garrula (Myzautha), 70. 
Garrulax, 10.3. 
Garrulus, 14. 
garrulus (Ampelis), 8(). 
garrulus (Coraeias), 192. 
garrulus (Loriu.s), 240. 
garridus (Merops), 7(>. 
garrulus (Psittacus), 240. 
gaudicbaudi (Sauro- 

niarptis), 174. 
Gecinus, 1.31. 
genibarbis (Myiadectes), 

95. 
genibarbis (Myiadestcs), 

95. 
Gcociclila, 89. 
Geocuccvx, 172. 



Geopelia, l.'iO. 
Gcotrygon, 1.54. 
geranoidcs (Anontalo- 

ptcryx), 434. 
geranoides (Palajitervx). 

4.34. 
Geronticus. 280. 
gigantea (Ossifraga),3lG. 
gigantea (Proccllaria), 

310. 
giganteus (Dinoniis), 

424, 125. 
gigas (Alcedo), 180. 
gigas (Dacelo), 174, 

180.- 
gigas (Turacus), 103. 
gitliaginea (Eycanetes), 

52. 
gitliaginea (Erythro- 

spiza), 52. 
gitbaginea (Fringilla), 

52. 
glacialis (Anas), 307. 
glaeialis (Colymbus), 

387. 
glacialis (Fulmarus), 

318. 
glacialis (Ilarelda), 307. 
glacialoides (Proccllaria), 

317,318. 
glacialoides (Tbalassoica), 

317. 
glandarius (Coccystes), 

IC)."), 1(U). 
glandarius (Corvus), 14. 
glandarius (Cuculus), 

10.5. 
glandarius (Garrulus), 

14. 
Glareola, 341. 
glarcola (Totanu.s). 359. 
glareola (Tringa), 359. 
Glaucidiuiu, 234. 
glaucion (Anas), 310. 
glaucion (Clangula), 310. 
glaucus (Larus), 334. 
Glossiptila, 43. 
Glossopsittacus, 242. 
Glossy Ibis, 287. 
Glossy Starling, Purplc- 

lieaded, 2.5. 
Glvcipbila, 71. 
Godwit, Bar-tailed, 300. 
Godwit, Black-tailed, 

300. 
Godwit, Siberian Bar- 

lailed, 300. 
goensis (Parra), 347. 
Goldcrest, 79. 
Golden-eye, American, 

310. 
Guldeu-eye, Common, 

310. 



Golden Plieasant, 392. 
Golddncli, .50. 
Goosander, .311. 
Goose, Antarctic Brent, 

293. 
Goose, Bean, 291. 
Goose, Cereopsis, 291. 
Goo.se, Chinese, 292. 
Goose, Domestic, 292. 
Goose, Egyptian, 294. 
Goose. Grey -lag, 291. 
Goose, Magellanic. 293. 
Goose, New-Zealand, 

290. 
Goose, Sandwich-Island, 

293. 
Goose, Semipalmatcd, 

289. 
Goose, Solan, 204. 
Goose, Spur-winged, 290. 
Gosliawk, 211. 
Goshawk, Banded, 212. 
Gosliawk, Crested, 211. 
Goshawk, Indian Banded, 

211. 
Goshawk, White, 212. 
gouldi Clleteralocha), 

25. 
gouldi (Neomorpha), 

25. 
gouldia? (Amadina), 40. 
gouldiae (Pocphila), 40. 
Goura, 158. 
govinda (Milvus), 222. 
gracilis (Dinornis), 427. 
graculina (Strepera), 82. 
graculinus (Corvus), 82. 
Graculus, 15. 
gracuhis (Corvus), 15. 
graculus (Fregilus), 15. 
graculus (Graculus), 1.5. 
graculus (Pelecanus), 

207. 
graculus (Phalacrocorax), 

2()7. 
grallarius (Charadrius), 

342. 
grallarius (Qidicncmus), 

342. 
Grallina, 102. 
gramincus (Megalurus), 

99. 
gramineus (Sphnceacus), 

99. 
graiiiniicus (Asio), 235. 
graniinicus (Ephialtes), 

235. 
grandis (Edectus), 253. 
grandis (Psittacus), 253. 
Grass-bird, Little, 99. 
Grasshopper-Sparrow, 

.59. 
Grass-Owl. African, 238. 



454 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Grass-Parrakcet, Blue- 
banded, 2(30. 

Grass - Parrakeet, 
Eourke's, 2{)U. 

Grass-Parrakeet, Chest- 
nut-shouldered, 25'J. 

Grass-Parrakeet, Warb- 
ling, 261. 

Grauealus, 107. 

gravipes (Emeus), 434. 

gravis (Diuornis), 434. 

Grebe, Great Crested, 
38U. 

Grebe, Least American, 
389. 

Grebo, Little, 390. 

Grebe, Pied-billed, 390. 

Grebe, Red-necked, 390. 

Greenfinch, 47. 

Greenshank, 359. 

greeyi (Penelupe), 409. 

Grey Creeper, Spotted, 
67. 

Grey Wagtail, 63. 

griseigena (Colymbus), 
389. 

griseigena (Podiceps), 
389. 

griseigena (Pudicipes), 
389. 

griseogularis(Eopsaltria), 
86. 

griseus (Tyrannus), 121. 

grisola (Muscicapa), 
109. 

Grosbeak, Black, 48. 

Grosbeak, March's, 48. 

Grosbeak, Rose-breasted, 
47. 

Grosbeak, Spotted- 
• winged, 47. 

Grosbeak, W^hite- 
throated, 48. 

Grosbeak, Yellow- 
backed, 48. 

Ground-CuckoOjMexican, 
172. 

Ground-Love, Graceful, 
151. 

Ground-Dove, Passerine, 
153. 

Ground-Hornbill, Abys- 
sinian, 195. 

Ground-Thrush, Brown, 
104. 

Ground-Thrush, Orange- 
headed, 89. 

Ground-Thrush, South- 
Australian, 89. 

Ground-Thrush, Spine- 
tailed, 101. 

Ground-Thrush, Spotted, 
102. 



Ground-Thrush, White- 
throated, 89. 

Grouse, Black, 399. 

Grouse, Red, 399. 

Grouse, Rufled, 401. 

Grus, 363. 

grvlle (Colvmbus), 329. 

gr'ylle (Uria), 329. 

Guan, Greey's, 409. 

Guan, Little, 411. 

Guan, Marail, 409. 

Guan, Piping, 410. 

Guan, Red-breasted, 
409. 

Guan, Rufous-vented, 
409. 

Guan, White-eyebrowed, 
408. 

Guara, 287. 

Guillemot, Black, 329. 

Guillemot, Brlinnich's, 
328. 

Guillemot, Ringed, 328. 

Guillemot, Common, 
328. 

guinea (Columba), 149. 

Guinea-lowl, Common, 
406. 

Guinea-fowl, Crested, 
406. 

Gull, Black-headed, 
336. 

Gull, Common, 335. 

Gull, Glaucous, 334. 

Gull, Greater Black- 
backed, 333. 

Gull, Herring, 334. 

Gull, Lesser Black- 
backed, 335. 

Gull, Pacific, 335. 

Gull, Silver, 336. 

Gull, Temminck's, 335. 

guttacristatus (Picus), 
136. 

guttata (Chlamjdera), 
19. 

guttata (Chlamydodera), 
19. 

guttata (Estrilda), 37. 

guttata (Losia), 37. 

guttata (Steganopleura), 
37. 

guttaticristatus (Chryso- 
colaptes), 136. 

gutturalis (Falcunculus), 
84. 

gutturalis (Oreoica), 84. 

gutturalis (Pachyce- 
phala), 85. 

gutturalis (Tuixlus), 85. 

Uygis, 339. 

UyiQuocrex, 382. 

Gypaetus, 215. 



Gypohierax, 220. 
Gyps, 206. 

habroptilus (Stringops), 

262. 
Iladrostomus, 122. 
luemacepbala (Bucco), 

139. 
bffimacephala (Xantho- 

Ic-ema), 139, 140. 
Ilismatopus, 349. 
hwraaturopygia (Caca- 

tua), 244'. 
hicmaturopy^ia (Psit- 

tacus), 244. 
Halcyon, 178. 
Haliaetus, 218. 
haliaetus (Falco), 229. 
haliaetus (Pandion), 229. 
Haliastur, 221. 
Hammer-head, 280. 
Hang-nest, Brazilian, 

34. 
Hang-nest, Jet black, 

33. 
Hang-nest, Yellow, 31. 
hardwickii (Chloropsis), 

105. 
hardwickii (lyngipicus), 

135. 
hardwickii (Picus), 135. 
Harelda, 306, 307. 
Harrier, Australian, 210. 
Harrier, Hen, 209. 
Harrier, Marsh, 210. 
Harrier, Montagu's, 

210. 
Hawfinch, 46. 
Hawk, Berigora, 227. 
Hawk-Owl, Boobook, 

232. 
Hawk-Owl, Large, 233. 
Hawk-Owl, New Zealand, 

233. 
Hawk, Pigeon, 226. 
hectori (Megalapteryx), 

428. 
Hedge-Sparrow, 98. 
Herlymeles, 47. 
heliaca (Aquila), 216. 
Helotarsus, 218. 
helvetica (Squatarola), 

345. 
helvetica (Tringa), 345. 
lielveticus (Charadrius), 

345. 
Hemipode, Spotted, 368. 
Hemipode, Swift-flying, 

368. 
Hemipode, Varied, 369. 
herodias (Ardca), 275. 
Heron, Black-crowned 

Night, 277. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



455 



ITeron, BiifT-bapkcd, 270. 

Heron, Coinmoii, .'ST-i. 

Heron, Eastern Reef, 
275. 

Heron, Great Blue, 275. 

Heron, Great White, 
274. 

Heron, Green, 277. 

Heron, Nankeen Night, 
277. 

Heron, Purple, 373. 

Horring-Guil, 334. 

Hesperoriiis, 38."). 

ifcteraloehii, 25. 

hiatieula (Charadrius), 
346. 

hiatieula (iEgialitis), 
340. 

Hieraeidea, 227. 

Hierofalco, 227. 

hillii (Mimus), 00. 

Hill-Tit, Eed-billed, 99. 

himalayeiisis (Dendro- 
citta), 14. 

Himantopus, .351, .3.52. 

liiinantopus (Chara- 
drius), 352. 

Hirundo, 115. 

hirundo (Sterna), 337. 

Hoatziu, 374. 

Hobby, 226. 

hodgsoni (C^anops), 
139. 

hodgsoni (MegaltBma), 
1.39. 

holosericeus (Ptilono- 
rliynchus), iS. 

H(iney-eater, Black, 74. 

Honey-eater, Black- 
headed, 7.5. 

Honey-eater, Blood-red, 
74. 

Honey-eater, Blue-faced, 
75. 

Houey-eater, Fulvous- 
fronted, 71. 

Honey-eater, Fuscous, 
72. 

Honey-eater, Garrulous, 
76. 

Honey-eater, Graceful, 
72. 

Honey-eater, Least, 71 . 

Honey-eater, Long-billed, 

70. 
Honey-eater, Lunulatcd, 

73. 
Honey-eater, New-Hol- 
land, (59. 
Honey-eater, Strong- 
billed, 75. 
Honey-eater, Tasmanian, 
70. 



Honey-cater, Warty- 
faced, 72. 

Honey-eater, Wattled, 
73. 

Honey-eater, Wliite- 
browed, 74. 

Honey-eater, White- 
cheekod, 7U. 

Honey-eater, Yellow- 
throated, 71. 

Honey-Guide, Little, 
137. 

honorata (Eudynaniis). 
169. 

honoratus (Cuculus), 169. 

Hoopoe, 113. 

lloplopterus, 348. 

Hornbill, 197. 

Hornbill, Abyssinian 
Ground, 195. 

Hornbill, Blaek-and- 
White-tailed, 201. 

Hornbill, Crowned, 198. 

Hornbill, Flat-casqued, 
197. 

Hornbill, Gingi, 200. 

Hornbill, Helmet ed, 197. 

Hornbill, Javan Rhino- 
ceros, 196. 

Hornbill, Papuan 
Wreathed, 200. 

Hornbill, Rhinoceros, 
196. 

Hornbill, Sharpe's, 199. 

Hornbill, Teinminsk's 
Pied, 19S. 

Hornbill, Yellow-casqued 
Black, 199. 

Horned Lark, Prairie, 
60. 

horsfleldi (Mirafra), 62, 

Horsfield's Bush-Lark, 
62. 

hortensis (Motacilla), 87. 

hortensis (Sylvia), 87. 

hortidana (Emberiza), 58. 

hortulanus (Scrinus), 54. 

hottentotta (Chibia), 27. 

hoti entottus (Corvus), 27, 
28. 

Huia, 25, 

hunieralis (Agelreus), 32. 

humeralis (Coluniba), 
151. 

hinneralis (Geopelia), 
151. 

humeralis (Leistes), 32. 

humeralis (Podargus), 
189. 

Humming-bird, Long- 
tailed, 127. 

Humming-bird, Mango, 
127. 



Humming-bird, Ruby- 
throated, 129. 

Hydroclielidon, 339. 

Hydrocorax, 197. 

hydrocorax (Buceros), 
197. 

hydrocorax (Hydro- 
corax), 197. 

Hyetornis, 171. 

Hylactes, 123. 

hyperborea (Tringa), 
352. 

hyperboreus (Phala- 
rcjpus), ,3.52. 

HyiioeihTBra, 38. 

hypogiea (Speotyto), 229. 

hypoleucus (Totanus), 
358. 

hypoleucus (Tringa), 3.58. 

hypopolius (Nestor), 239. 

hvijopolius (Psittacus), 
' 239. 

Ibidorhynchus, 362. 

Ibis, 286. 

Ibis, Australian Sacred, 

286. 
Ibis, Glossy, 287. 
ibis (Pseudotantalus), 

285. 
Ibis, Scarlet, 287. 
Ibis, Straw-necked, 280. 
ibis (Tantalus), 285. 
Ibycter, 209. 
ictera (Fringilla), .55. 
icterotis (Platycerciis), 

258. 
icterotis (Psittacus), 2.58, 
Icterus, 34. 
icterus (Serinus), 55. 
ictiuus (Milvus), 221. 
ignavus (Bubo), 2.'iO. 
igneus (Falcinellus), 

287. 
iliacus (Turdus), 90. 
iinpennis (Alca), 326. 
impcnnis (Plautus), 32(J. 
impcyanus (Lopho- 

jihorus), ,393. 
impcyanus (Phasianus), 

;{93. 
Indian Field-Wagtail, 

63. 
indica (Chalcopliap.^), 

155, 1.56. 
indica (Columba), 155, 
indica (Tringa), .347. 
Indicator, 137. 
indicus (Coracias), 192. 
iudicus (Lobivanellus), 

347. 
indus (Falco), 221. 
Indus (Haliastur), 22. 



456 



ALrilABETlCAL INDEX. 



inoptus (Diflus), 150, 

ir>o. 

ingens (Dinoi-nisj, 424. 
inornata (Columba), 149, 

150. 
iiiterinoclia (Graciila), '23. 
intermedium (Eulabes), 

23. 
intermedins (Mainatus), 

23. 
interpres (Cliaradrius), 

349. 
interjires (Strcpsilas), 319. 
interpres (Tringa), 349. 
islandus (Falco), 227. 
islaudus (Ilierofalco), 

227. 
ispida (Alcedo), 175, 170. 
ispidoides (Alcedo), 175. 
lyngipicus, 135. 
lynx, 136. 

Jabiru, African, 283. 
Jabiru, Australian, 

282. 
Jacana, Australian, 343. 
Jacana, Brazilian, 343. 
jacana (Parra), 343. 
Jack Snipe, 354. 
Jackdaw, Common, 9. 
jamacai (Icterus), 34. 
jamacai (Oriolus), 34. 
Jamaica Thrush, 92. 
jamaicensis (Caprimul- 

gus), 185. 
jamaicensis (Columba), 

154. 
jamaicensis (Corvus), 11. 
jamaicensis (Engyptila), 

154. 
jamaicensis (Leptoptila), 

154. 
jamaicensis (Microcorax), 

11. 
jamaicensis (Nyctibius), 

185. 
jamaicensis (Turdus), 92. 
jamesonii (Bruchigavia), 

33(5. 
jamesonii (Larus), 336. 
javanensis (Ketupa), 230. 
javanica (Anas), 297. 
juvanica (Dendrocygna), 

297. 
javanicus (Psittacus), 

254. 
Jay, Blue, 15. 
Jay, Common, 14. 
Jay, nimalayan, 15. 
jendaya, Conurus, 249. 
jendaya (Psittacus), 249. 
jubatus (Khinochetus), 

367. 



jngger (Falco), 225, 226. 
Jungle-fowl, Sonnerat's, 
395. 

Kagu, 367. 

Ka-Ka, Mountain, 239. 

Ka-Ka Parrot, 239. 

kamtschatkensis (Calli- 
ope), 93. 

Kestrel, Australian. 228. 

Kestrel, Common, 227. 

Kestrel, North- American, 
228. 

Ketupa, 230. 

Kingfisher, Amazon 
Green, 178. 

Kingfisher, Azure, 176. 

Kingfisher, Belted, 177. 

Kinijfisher, Common, 
175. 

Kingfisher, Great African, 
177. 

Kingfisher, Laughing, 
180. 

Kingfisher, Little Indian, 
176. 

Kingfisher, Macleav's, 
179. 

Kingfisher, Pied, 177. 

Kingfisher Sacred, 180. 

Kingfisher, Solitary, 178. 

Kingfisher, Whife-and- 
Green, 179. 

Kingfisher, White- 
breasted, 178. 

Kingfisher, White- 
collared, 179. 

Kite, Black-shouldered, 
223. 

Kite, Black-winged, 223. 

Kite, Brahminy, 221. 

Kite, Common, 221. 

Kite, Egyptian, 222. 

Kite, Indian, 222. 

Kite, Large Indian, 222. 

Kite, Swallow-tailed, 221 . 

Kite, Whistling, 221. 

Kittiwake, 336. 

Kittiwake, Common, 336. 

Kittiwake, Red-legged, 
3.37. 

Kiwi, Little Grey, 416. 

Kiwi, South-Island, 416. 

Knot, 356. 

Knot, Japanese, 356. 

Koel, Australian, 168. 

Koel, Indian, 169. 

lafresnayanus (Oeydro- 

mus), 380. 
Lagopus, 399. 
lagopus (Archibuteo) 

215. 



lagopus (Falco), 215. 
Lampornis, 127. 
Lamprocolius, 2.5. 
I;aud-Rail, 383. 
Lanius, 80. 

lapponica (Limosa), 360. 
lap]ionica (Scolopax), 

3()0. 
Lapwing, Australian 

Wattled, 347. 
Lapwing, Black-breasted, 

347. 
Lapwing, Connnon, 348. 
Lapwing, Red-wattled, 

347. 
Lark, Crested, 62. 
Lark, Prairie Horned, 

60. 
Lark, Wood, 01. 
Larus, 333. 

larvata (Fringilla), 60. 
larvata (Paroaria), 60. 
lathami (Alectura), 412. 
lathami (Talegallus), 

412. 
Lathamus, 261. 
latirostris (Alseonax), 

110. 
latirostris (Muscicapa), 

110. 
Laughing-Thrush, Black- 

gorgoted, 104. 
Laughing-Thrush, Hima- 
layan White-crested, 

103. 
leachii (Calyptorhyn- 

chus), 243. 
leachii (Psittacus), 243. 
leadbeateri (Cacatua), 

245. 
leadbeatori (Plyctolo- 

phus), 245. 
leggii (Petroeca), 110. 
leutiginosa (Ardea), 278. 
lentiginosus (Botaurus\ 

278. 
Leptoptila, 154. 
Leptoptilus, 281. 
lessoni (Momotus), 181. 
Lestris, 332. 
leucocephala (Columba), 

149. 
leucocephala (Falco), 

219. 
leucocephalus (Ilaliae- 

tus), 219. 
leucocephalus (Himan- 

topus), 351. 
leiicogaster (Artamus), 

27. 
leucogaster (Falco), 219. 
leucogaster (Falcunculus), 

79. 



ALPIIABRTICAL IXHRX. 



457 



lcii"r)2;aRtov (Ilaliaot'isl, 

lil'.i. -J-Jl). 
k'iiC(jlo[)lius (Corvus), 

103. 
leiicoloplius (GaiTulax), 

103. 
Ituiconota (Gymnorhina), 

82. 
leueopliaja (Certhia), G'.). 
leucophiua (Cliiuacleris), 

(ii). 
leucoptera (Columba), 

153. 
leucoptera (Melopelia), 

1.^)3. 
leiiC()pteru3 (Oorcorax), 

16. 
leucopterv-K (Icteras), 

34. 
kMi';opterjx(PsarocoliiH'), 

34. 
leiieorodia (Platalea), 

284. 
leiieorrhoa (Cymo- 

C'horea), 321. 
leiicorrlioa (Procellai'ia), 

321. 
li'iicoryplia (Aqnila), 2'20. 
leiR'Oryplius (ilaliactus), 

221).' 
Ledcosarcia. 1 'u. 
leucotis (Loxia), (')2. 
leuootis CPviThulaucla), 

(".2. 
Linlimorn. 7'*. 
lielitenstcini (Pterocles), 

371. 
Licinetis, 246. 
Liiiiusa, 301). 
Liiujjkiii, South-xVinori- 

can, 3(>7. 
liuaria (.A.can(ln's), 51. 
Hnaria (Fringilla), 51. 
lineatiis (Biitco), 214. 
lineatus (Eiiplocomiis), 

394. 
lineatus (Falco), 214. 
lineatus (Phasianus), 

;!t)4. 
Linnet, Common, 51. 
Liothrix, 99. 
Lipoa, 413. 
Lithornis. 202. 
livia (Coliiiiibi), 148. 
lobita (Anas), 309. 
lobata (Bizura), :'.09. 
lobata (T ringa), 347. 
lobatus (Lobivanellns), 

347. 
Lobivant;llus, 347. 
LoMivi.i, .''.2S 
longifauda (OrlliiitDnius), 

1UI>. 
I'AUT 111. 



Ii)n<;icauilntu9 (Dicrurus), 

2S. 
lonijirostris (Moliornis), 

70. 
loagiro3tris (Mclipliaga), 

70. 
iDiigirostris (Xunicniiis), 

3(il. 
longirostris (Rillus), 

382. 
Lopiioaotus, 217. 
Lopiioc'oros, 20.). 
Lopiiolaiinus, l4(i. 
Ljphophanes, 77. 
Lopliopborus, 393. 
loi)liote.s (Oolunib.i), 155. 
lopliutes (OeyiihajH), 155. 
Lorikeut, IJlufl-bcUioil, 

241. 
Lorikeet, Musky, 242. 
Lorikeet, Porpliyry- 

crowiied, 242. 
Lorikeet, Scaly-breasted, 

241. 
Lorikeet, Swift, 281. 
Lorius, 240. 
Lorv, Cardnial, 210. 
Lory, Ciiatterin.:?, 240. 
Lory, Gr.md, 253. 
Lory, Greeu-tailed, 241. 
Lory, Sanghir, 240. 
lory (Lorius), 210. 
Love-bird, West-African, 

2.-}7. 
Lo.via, 5'). 
Loxigilla, 48. 
ludoviciana (Loxia). 47. 
ludovicianus (Hedy- 

meles), 47. 
lun'idiris (Oanipophatja), 

^109. 
lugubris (Ccblepvris), 

lOS. 
lugubris (Motacilla), 03. 
LuUula, (U. 

lunuhUa (Anellobia), 7.3. 
lunulata (Antliocii;i!ra), 

73. 
lunulata (Geociclda), 89. 
lunulata (Orcoi;iclila), 

89. 
lumilatus (Turdus), 89. 
luscinia (Kryt'iacu<). 92. 
lusciuia (.Motacilla), 92. 
lusi-inia (Philomela), 92. 
lutea (Liotlirix), 9J. 
lutca (Sylvia), 99. 
Lyre-bird, 117. 

Macaw, Blue-and- Yel- 
low, 247. 
Ma.Mw, lUiger's, 248. 
nincei (Picus), 135. 



Macliete3, .357. 

macii (Dendrocopus), 

1.35. 
macii (Graucalus), 1 IS 
macleayi (Halcyon), 179. 
Macropteryx, 184, 
Macropygia, 152. 
niacrorhyiichus (Cyui- 

burbyiicluis), 12'). 
macroriiyuclius (Todu-i), 

12.5. 
maeulatug (Eurostopo- 

dus), 188. 
maculatus (Turnix), 3^8. 
madagasjariensis (Psit- 

tacula), 257. 
niagoUanica (Anas), 293. 
magellanica (Apteno- 

dytes), 322. 
uMgoUanica (Chloc- 

phaga), 293. 
ni igellanicu.s (Peli'dinis), 

2117. 
magellanic'.is (Pli d u-.ro- 

00 rax), 2(J7. 
m igellanicus (Splu'-nis- 

cus). 322. 
magaa (Sturnella), 33. 
magriilici (Coluin')a), 

114. 
niagni fica (Mogalopre- 

pia). 144, 14(5. 
magnirostris (^Luiius), 

81, 
Magpie, Comuun, l.">. 
Magpie, Green. 14. 
niaja (Lo.'iia), 39. 
niaja (Munia), 39. 
Maja(iueus, 317. 
major (Uardiiolis), 50. 
luijor (Deiidrocopu-i), 

i34. 
major (Picus), 1.3t. 
ni.i jor (Notliura , 4i4. 
niajm" (P.irus), 70. 
miiachura (.Muscicajia), 

lOi). 
malicluirus (Stipiturus), 

100. 
Malacorhyuclius, 30 1. 
maleo (Microcep!ialon), 

413. 
maleo (Megacephalum), 

412,413. 
M illard, 299. 
Mallard, Black, 300. 
.Malurus. 114. 
mango (Lampornis), 127. 
mango (Trachilu.^), 127- 
Mangrove-Bittern, Yel- 
low-necked, 27<i. 
mantcluiricuni (U'osso- 

ptilon). 393. 

■2i 



458 



ALrnABETICAL INDEX. 



mantelli (Notornis), 377. 
Maiuicodia, KJ. 
Marabou, 282. 
maracaiia (Am), 248. 
maracana (Psittacus), 

248. 
marail ( Penelope), 409. 
Tnarcliii (Phoiiipara), 48. 
Mareca, 3U2. 
niarila (.\iias), 30.5. 
niariUi (Fiilix), 305. 
marinus (Larus). 333. 
maritima (Triiiga), 357. 
Marsh-Starling, Cuban, 

32. 
Martin, Common, 115. 
maxillaris (Spbecotheres), 

30. 
maxillaris (Turdus), 30. 
maxima (Alcedo), 177. 
maxima (Ceryle), 177. 
maxima (Sterna), 338. 
maximus (/Upvoruis), 

423. 
maximus (Dinoriiis),425, 

426. 
Meadow-Lark, Western , 

33. 
Meadow Pipit, G4. 
Megaeeplialum, 412. 
megala (Gallinago), 355. 
Megalnpteryx, 428. 
Megaloprepia, 144. 
Megahiriis, 91). 
Megapode, Australian, 

413. 
Megapodiiis, 413. 
megapodius (Hjlactes), 

123. 
megapodius (Pteropto- 

chus), 123. 
Megarbyncbus, 119. 
megarbyncbus (Dicrano- 

etreptusi, 29. 
megarhyocbus (Edolius), 

29. 
Melanerpes, 13.3. 
melanocepbala (Caioa), 

252. 
melanocepbala (Habia), 

4(). 
melanocepbala (Co- 

lumba), 146. 
melanocepbala (Mcli- 

tbreptus), 75. 
mclanocepbalus(Oriolus), 

29, 30. 
melarocepbalus (Psitta- 

ciis), 252. 
melanoeepbalus (Ptilo- 

]ws), 146. 
melanoeepbalus (Tro- 

gon), 162. 



melanogaster (Plotus), 

268. 
melanogenys (Falco), 

225. 
melanoleuca (Anas), 289. 
meliinoleuca (Columba), 

157. 
melanoleuca (Panvptila), 

114. 
melanoleucus (Ansera- 

nas), 289, 290. 
melanoleucus (Cypselus), 

184. 
melanonotus (Por2:)bvrio), 

37(). 
melanope (Motacilla), 

63. 
melanopbrys (Diomedea), 

315. 
nielanops (Corvus), 107. 
mebinops (Graucalus), 

107. 
nielanopterus (Iliman- 

topus). 352. 
mebiuupus (Ardea), 

374. 
melauopus (Herodias), 

274, 
melanorbampbus (Cora- 

cias), 16. 
melanoscbista (Cnmpo- 

pbaga), 108. 
melanoscl'istus (YoIto- 

civora), 108. 
melauotis (Milvus), 222. 
melanotus (Porpbyrio), 

376. 
nielanoxantba (Melea- 

gris), 396. 
melanoxantbus (Cocco- 

tbi-austes), 47. 
melanoxantbus (Mycero- 

bas), 47. 
melanura (PaliEornis), 

2."i5. 
melanura (Polytelis), 

255. 
Meleagris, 4C6. 
meleagris (Numida), 

406. 
melinus (Sericulus), 20. 
nielinus (Tuidus), 20. 
Meliornis, 69. 
Melitbreptus, 75. 
Melopelia, 153. 
Melopsittacus, 261. 
membranacea (Anas), 

304. 
membranaceus (Malaco- 

rbyncbus), 304. 
nienstruus (Pionus). 251. 
menstruus (Psittacus), 

251. 



mentalis (Graucalus), 

108. 
Menura, 116. 
nienzbieri (Sturnus), 22. 
merganser (.Mergus). 311. 
Merganser, Red-breasted, 

311. 
Mergulus, 329. 
Mergus, 311. 
meridionalis (Nestor) , 

239. 
Merlin, 226. 
Merops, 194. 
Merula, 92. 
uierula (Merula), 92. 
merula (Turdus), 92. 
mexicanus (Cinclus), 97. 
mexicanus (Trogou), 1()2. 
Microcorax, 11. 
Microeca, 110. 
Microbierax, 224. 
migratoria (Columba), 

150. 
migratorius (Ectopistes), 

150. 
migratorius (Turdus), 

91. 
Miliaria, 58. 
miliaria (Emberiza), 58. 
miliaria (Miliaria), 58. 
Milvulus, 121. 
Milvus, 221. 
milvus (Falco), 221. 
milvus (Milvus), 221, 

222. 
Mimeta, 30. 
Mimus, 96. 
minor (Aptenodyte.s), 

324. 
minor (Cbionis), 340. 
minor (Eudyptila), 324. 
minor (Fregata), 271. 
minor (Indicator), 137. 
minor (Lanius), 80. 
minor (Paradisea), 18. 
minor (Pelecanus), 271. 
minor (Pbilobela), 3.")3. 
minor (Scolopax), 3.53. 
minuta (Ardea), 275. 
minuta (Ardutta), 275, 

276. 
minutus (Botaurus), 275. 
minutus (Kuiuenius), 

361. 
Mirafra, 62. 
Miro, 113. 
Mis.sel-Tbrusb, 91. 
mitrata (Numida), 406. 
Mitua, 410. 
Mniotilta, 06. 
Moa, 424. 

Moa, Casuarine, 428. 
Moa, Crane-like, 434. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



459 



Moa, Didino, 432. 
Moa, Dwarf, 433. 
Moa, Elcpliant-footcd, 

436. 
Moa, Emu-like, 430. 
ISfoa, Heavv-footed, 434, 
Moa, Hector's. 428. 
Moa, Ostrich-like, 427. 
Moa, South-Island, 425. 
Moa, Slout, 43.5. 
Mocking-bird, Hill's, VG. 
Mockiiif^-bird, Jamaican, 

90. 
niodularis (Accentor), 

98. 
niodularis (Motacilla), 

98. 
mollis (CEstrelata),319. 
mollis (Procellaria), 219. 
molli.'sima (Anas), 307. 
niollissima (Somateria\ 

307. 
Molly Mawk. 315. 
MoloUirus, 32. 
Molpastes, 10(5. 
Momotus, ISl. 
nionachus (Vultur\ 20G. 
Monaul, 393. 
nionedula (Colwus), 9. 
monedula (Corvus), 9. 
montana (Columba), 1.54. 
montana (Fripgilla), 53. 
montana (Geotrvgon), 

154. 
montana (Passer), 53. 
nionticolus (Caprimul- 

gus), 18(). 
nioiitifringilla(Fringilla), 

50. 
Mooruk, 438. 
mortieri (Tribonvx), 379. 
mcschata (Anas), 298. 
moschata (Cairina), 298. 
Motacilla, G3. 
UiOtacilla (Seiurus). fi5. 
motacilla (Turdus), G5. 
motacilloides (8aulo- 

procta), 114. 
Motmot, Eyebrowed, 

181. 
Motmot, Lesson's. 181. 
motmot (Ortalida), 411. 
motmot (Ortalis), 411. 
motmot (Phasianus), 

411. 
multicolor (Pelroica), 

110. 
multicolor (Psephotus), 

259. 
multicolor (Psittacus), 

241.259. 
multicolor (Trichoglos- 

su.f), 241. 



Munia, 39. 
Muscicapa, 109. 
musicus (Turdus), 91. 
Musk-Duck, 309. 
Musoplla^r(a, 1(54. 
mutus (Lagopus), 400. 
mutus vTetrao), 400. 
Myeerobas, 47. 
Mjcteria, 282. 
Myiadectes, 95. 
Myiagra, 114. 
Myiarchus, 120. 
Myna, Common, 24. 
Myna, Elack-headcd, 

24. 
Myzantha, 70. 
Myzoniela, 74. 

nscvia (Ardeal, 277. 
uajvius (Nycticorav), 277, 

278. 
nana (Acanthiza), 88. 
nana (Psittacara), 249. 
nana (Pyrrhula), 30. 
nana (Spermestes), 30. 
nanus (Conurus), 249. 
Jsasiterna, 247. 
naso (Calvptorhvnchus), 

243. ' 
nebulosa (Strix), 236. 
nebulosum (Syrnium), 

236. 
neglecta (Sturnella), 33. 
Neochmia, 41. 
JS'eophron, 208. 
Nesopsar, 33. 
Nestor, 2.j9. 
newtoni (Cerclmeis), 

227. 
nicobarica (Calcenas), 

158. 
nicobarica (Columba), 

158. 
niger (Hadrostomus), 

122. 
niger (Lanius), 122. 
nigerrimws (Icterus), 33. 
nigerriuuis (Jsesopsar), 

33. 
Nighf.-TTawk, Jamaien, 

18.x 
Night-IIeron. Black- 
crowned, 277. 
Kiglit-IIcron, Nankeen, 

■.:77. 
Nightingale, 92. 
Ni'|htjar, Common, 186. 
Nightjar, Franklin's, 

l.S(5. 
Nigiiljar. Owlet, 188. 
Nigiit jar, Texan, 187. 
Nightjar, W'liite-necked, 

187. 



Night jar, White-throated, 

188. 
nigra (Anas), 308. 
nigra (Hvdrocl.elidon), 

339. 
nigra (Myzomela), 74. 
nigra ((Kdemia), 30.S. 
nigra (Ortygometra), 

383. 
nigra (Sterna), 339. 
nigricephala (Spindalis), 

45. 
nigricephala (Tanagra), 

45. 
nigricoUis (Colius), 174. 
nigrifrons (.Egialitis), 

34'). 
nigrifrons (Charadrius), 

34(5. 
nigrifumosa (LTpiiccr- 

thia), 123. 
nigrifuniosus (Ciuclodes), 

123. 
nigrigularis (Cracticus), 

83. 
nigrogularis (Vanga), 82. 
Ninox, 232. 
nipalensis (Bubo), 231. 
Nisaiitus, 217. 
nisus (Accipiter), 212. 
nisus (Falco), 212. 
nivalis (Emberiza), .">8. 
nivalis (Plectruphanes), 

58. 
nivalis (Plectrophena.x), 

58. 
noctua (Carine), 232. 
noctua (Strix), 232. 
Noddy, 339. 
notabilis (Nestor), 239. 
Notornis. 377- 
nova'-hollandiaj (-Ego- 

theles), 188. 
novK-hollandite (Astur), 

212. 
novjE-hollandia^ (Calo- 

psittacus), 246. 
nov;r-h()llandiae (Capri- 

mulgus), IS"^. 
nova-hciUandioe (Cereop- 

sis), 291. 
nova'-hoUandiiu (Cer- 

thia), 09, 70. 
uovaj-hollandiic (Cnenii- 

oriiis), 437. 
no\ic-hollandire (Dro- 

manis), J37, 438. 
novaj-hollaudia; (Falco), 

212. 
nov;i3-hollandijB (Meli- 

ornis), (59. 
no>a;-hollandia' (Plotus), 

208. 



460 



ALPIIABETICAL INDEX. 



ni)Viu-liollandii\? (Psitta- 

cus), liiB. 
novre-boUaiidiiv; (Scy- 

thiops), IG'J. 
iiov;\?-zealandite (Cjano- 

rhaniplius), 200. 
novio-zealandiaj (Din- 

oi'nis), 424, 427. 
iiovre-zcalaudiai(Merops), 

7<>. 
uovpc-zealandiK (Kino.x), 

233. 
nova-zealandiaj (Platy- 

fcrciis), 2(')(). 
novpc-zcalandia; (Prosthc- 

iiiadera), 7(>. 
nuva'-zealandiic (Psitta- 

eus), 2(i0. 
noTaj-zealandiic (Strix), 

233. 
Niicifraga, 12. 
iiudicollis (Ampclis), 

122. 
midicollis (Chasmorliyu- 

ehus), 122. 
Niiinenius, 361. 
Nil mid a, 400. 
Kiitcrac'ker, 12. 
Nutliatcb, Black-L-apped, 

(i8. 
Nuthatch, Coiiimtin, OS. 
Nuthatcli, Orange- 

wiu^ed, (iS. 
Nyctala, 236. 
Dycthcnieriis (Eiiploco- 

iiuis), M)4. 
iiyftlieinorus (Phasia- 

mis), 3U4. 
Nycticorax, 277. 
Nyctibius, 185, ISO. 
Nyc-tidrcmms, 187. 
Kyroca, 306. 

obscura (Anas), 300. 
occipitalis (Falco), 217. 
occipitalis (Gcciiuis), 132. 
occi))italis (Lopboaiitus), 

217. 
occ-pitalis (Picus), 132. 
ocellata (Lip(ja), 413. 
OLnrocepbala (C'ln-ysotis), 

i-iol. 
ocbrocepbalus (Psitta- 

eiis), 2.')1. 
Ocydiomus, 380. 
Oeypbaps, 155. 
Odoiitopteryx, 272. 
(Ederaia, 308. 
CEdicneiiius, 342. 
ccdifnemus (Cbaradriusi, 

342. 
adiciieimis (Qidicnemus). 

342. 



(En a, 150. 

cpuantbe (Motacilla), 04. 
cpnantbe (Saxicola), 94. 
cena.s (Coluiuba), 147, 

148. 
G':strelata, 319. 
Oil-bird, 191. 
olivacea (Pacbycepbala), 

85. 
olor (Anas), 29.5. 
(jlor (Oyffnus), 295. 
onocrotalus (Pelecaniis), 

269, 270. 
Opistboeomidac, 374. 
Oreocicbla, 89. 
Orcoica, 84. 
Oreopbasis, 411. 
Oreopbilus, 343. 
organicuDi (Gymno- 

rbina), 82. 
orieiitalis (Eurvstomus), 

192. 
orientalis (Falco), 227. 
orient alis (Ilieracidea). 

227. 
Orignia, 101. 
Oriole, liare-faced, 30. 
Oriole, Indian Black- 
beaded, 29. 
Oriob-.s, 29. 
oi-nata (Ptilotis), 72. 
ornata (Tanagra), 44. 
ornatus (Mero) s), 194. 
orpbeiis (Minius), 96. 
orpbcus (Tnrdu.s), 96. 
Ortalis, 411. 
Orthouyx, 101. 
Ortolan Bunting, 58. 
Ortvgometra, 383. 
Ortyx, 405. 
oryx (Eniberiza), 35. 
oryx (Pyroniclana), 35. 
oryzivora (Loxia), 39. 
oryzivora (Miuiia), 39. 
oryzivora (Padda), 39. 
Osprey, 229. 
Oesifraga, 316. 
ostralegus (Ha^niatopiis), 

349. 
Ostrich, 420, 422. 
otidifoi'niis (Aptornis), 

381. 
otidilbrmis (Dinoi-nis). 

381. 
Otis, 371. 
Otocorys, 60. 
otus (Asio), 234. 
otus (Stris), 234. 
oweni (Apteryx), 416. 
Owl, Acadian, 237. 
Owl. Barred, 236. 
Owl,Boobook,232. 
Owl, Duskv-borncd, 231 



Owl, Great Horned. 230. 
Owl, Hodgson's Eagle, 

231. 
Owl, Jamaican Eared, 

235. 
Owl, Little, '232. 
Owl, Long-eai-ed, 234. 
Owl-Parrot, 262. 
Owl, Rock Horned, 231. 
Owl, 8bort-eared, 235. 
Owl, Tawny, 236. 
Owl, Tenguialm's, 236. 
Owl, V^irginiaii Horned, 

231. 
Owlet, Barred, 2.34. 
Owlet, Jungle, 234. 
Owlet, New-lroland, 233. 
Owlet, Spotted, 232. 
Oystercatcber, American, 

'350. 
Ovstercatcber, Common, 

"349. 
Oystercatcber, Sooty, 350. 

Pacbycepbala, 85. 
Pacbyornis, 43('). 
paciflcus (Larus). 335. 
pacificus (Pareudiastes), 

379. 
pagodarum (^Temenu- 

cbus), 24. 
jiagodarum (Turd us), 24. 
Painted Snipe, African, 

3 "^■5. 
Painted Snipe, Au.stralian, 

355. 
Paljeornis, 253. 
Palanicdea, 312. 
palliatus (lla'matopus), 

350. 
pallida (Cohimba), 167. 
p.illidus (Blacicus),.120. 
pallidiis iCuculus). 167. 
pallidus (Myiobius), 120. 
palunibarius (.Astur), 211. 
)ialuiubarius (Falco), 21 1. 
Pandiou, 229. 
Panyptila, 184. 
Panurus, 78. 
]:apa (Catbr.rtes), 202. 
].:ipa(Vultur), 2t)2. 
Paradi.-.e-Plycatcber, 

Pied, 115. 
Paradisea, 18. 
paradis©a (Antbropoides), 

365. 
paradisea (Ardea), 36.5. 
paradisea (Emberiza), 35. 
]iaradisea (Grus), 365. 
paradisea (Steganura),35. 
paradisea (Tetrapteryx), 

paradisi (^Muscicapa),115. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



4G1 



pai-.idi.si (Tcrpsiplione), 

llo. 
paradosa (Tetrao), 370. 
paradoxa (Syrdiaptes), 

•270. 
I'araiiquc, Whitc-neeked, 

187. 
I'ardalotiis, CO. 
Pareudiastes, 379. 
I'aroaria, 5'J. 
Pan-a, 343. 

Parrakeet, Adelaide, 2.38. 
Parrakect, Uarraband's, 

■25o. 
Parrakeet, Bauer's, 250. 
Parrakeet, Black-tailed, 

255. 
Parrakeet, Cockatoo, 

24(). 
Parrakeet, Eastern Eose- 

lieaded, 254. 
Parrakeet, Gi'ound, 2()2. 
Parrakeet, King, 255. 
Parrakeet, Many- 
coloured, 250. 
Parrakeet, Masked, 250. 
Parrakeet, Pennant's, 

257. 
Parrakeet, Pigmy Spine- 
tailed, 247. 
Parrakeet, Eed-brea.sted, 

254. 
Parrakeet, Red-fronted, 

2C.0. 
I'arrakeet, Red-winged, 

25(). 
Parrakeet, Ring-neckod, 

253. 
Parrakeet, Rose-banded, 

254. 
Parrakeet, Rose-hill, 

258. 
Parrakeet, Shining, 256. 
Parrakeet, Yellow-billed, 

258. 
Parrakeet, Yellow-eared, 

258. 
Parrakeet, Yellow- 
winged, 240. 
Parrot Auk, 331. 
Parrot, Grev. 252. 
Parrot, Ka-Ka, 239. 
Parrot, Owl, 2(>2. 
Parson-bird, 7<"'. 
Partridge, Couinion, 401. 
Partridge, Green, 402. 
Partridge, Red-legged, 

402. 
Partridge, See-See, 402. 
Parula, (Ui. 
Parus, 7t). 

parvirostris (Grauculue). 
1117. 



Passer, 52. 

passerina (Chauirepelia), 

153. 
passerina (Columba), 153. 
Pastor, 22. 
Pauxi, 41U. 
Pavo, 308. 

pavouina (Ardea), 30(). 
pavouina (Balearica),3()(;. 
pavouina (Grus), 3(35. 
Peacock-Pheasant, Com- 
mon, 307. 
Peafowl, Common, 398. 
peetoralis (Charadrius), 

347. 
jjectoralis (Cladorhyn- 

cluis), 351. 
peetoralis (Garrulax), 

104. 
peetoralis (lanthocincla), 

104. 
peetoralis (Leptorhyn- 

chus), 351. 
peetoralis (Lobivauellus), 

347. 
peetoralis (Pedionomus), 

3()0. 
pelagica (Aquila), 210. 
pelagica (Procellaria), 

321. 
pelagica (Thalassidroma), 

321. 
jjelagicus (Ilaliaetus), 

210. 
Pelecanus, 269. 
Pelican, Australian, 270. 
Pelican, Roseate, 2()0. 
Peliouetta, 308. 
Penelope, 408. 
penelope (Anas), 302. 
])euelope (Mareca), 302. 
Penguin, Cape, 322. 
Penguin, Emperor, 325. 
Penguin, Gentoo, 323.- 
Penguin, Jackass, 322. 
Penguin, King, 325. 
Penguin, Little, 324. 
Penguin, Macaroni, 324. 
peiuianti (Aptenodytes), 

325. 
pennantii (Platycercus), 

257. 
percnopterus(Jfeophrou), 

208. 
percnopterus (Vultur), 

208. 
Perdicula, 404. 
Perdix, 401. 404. 
perdix (Perdix), 401. 
perdix (Tetrao), 401. 
persa (Cuculus), 164. 
pcrsa (Turacus), 164. 
persicus (Cassicus), 31. 



persicus (Merops), 103, 

104. 
persicus (Oriolus), 31. 
personatus (Arlamus), 

27. 
personatus (Coracopsis), 

256. 
personatus (Ocypterus), 

27. 
personatus (Platycercus), 

256. 
personatus (Pyrrhulop- 

sis), 256. 
perspicillata (Anas), 308. 
perspicillata (Peliouetta), 

308. 
pcrspicillatus (Phalacro- 

corax), 266. 
pertiuax (Conurus), 248. 
pcrtinax (Psittacus), 

248. 
Petcharr, Foolish, 121. 
Petchary, Grey, 121. 
Petchary, Red, 12U. 
Petrel, Broad-billed Blue, 

320. 
Petrel, Cape, 319. 
Petrel, Dove-like, 320. 
Petrel, Fulmar, 318. 
Petiel, Giant, 316. 
Petrel, Leach's, 321. 
Petrel, Rodgers' Fulmar, 

318. 
Petrel, Short-tailed, 319. 
Petrel, Silvery-Grey, 317. 
Petrel, Solt-plumaged, 

310. 
Petrel, Spectacled, 317. 
Petrel, Stormy, 321. 
Pctrochelidon, 115. 
Petroeca, 110. 
Pctronia, 52. 
Pezophaps, 160. 
Pczoporus, 2(>2. 
pluvopus (Numcnius), 

361. 
pl)£eopus (Scolopax), 

361. 
Phaeton, 264. 
phaiitoM (Fringilla), 41. 
pbaeton (Neochniia), 41. 
Phalacrocorax, 26<). 
Phalarope, Grey, 352. 
Phalaropc, Red-necked, 

352. 
Phalaropus, 352. 
Phaleris, 330, 331. 
Phaps, 156. 
phasianella (Columba), 

162. 
phasianella (.Macro- 

pygi.i), 152. 
Phasianus, 391. 



462 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



pbasianus (Centropiis), 

pbasianus (Ciiculiis), 169. 
Pheasant, Argus, 397. 
Pheasant, Common, 391. 
Pheasant, Golden, 392. 
Pheasant. Hondo Cop- 
per, 392. 
Pheasant, Japanese, 

391. 
Plieasant, Lineated, 

394. 
Pheasant, Pallas' Eared, 

393. 
Pheasant, Peacock, 397. 
Pheasant, Eul'ous- 

tjiiled, 394. 
Pheasant, Siamese Fire- 
backed, 394. 
Pheasant, Silver, 394. 
Pheasant, Wallich's, 

392. 
pbilippensis (Hypot;i3- 

nidia), 382. 
philippineusis (Rallus), 

382. 
pbilippinus (Merops), 

194. 
Pbilohela, 3.i3. 
Phlogoenas, 1.57. 
phcenieea (Petroeca), 111. 
phceniceus (Agela;us), 32. 
phceuiceus (Oriolus), 32. 
Phoenicopterus, 288. 
pboenicopterus (Co- 

lumba), 147. 
pboenicopterus (Croco- 

pus), 147. 
phoeuicurus (Motacilla), 

94. 
phoenicurus (Euticilla), 

94. 
Pholidopbalus, 199. 
Phonipara, 48. 
pbrvgia (Xantbouiyza), 

72. 
pbrygius (Merops), 72. 
Piiylloscopus, 87. 
Pica, 13. 

pica (Corvus), 13. 
pica (Pica), 13. 
picata (Columba), Ibl. 
picata (CTracula), 1U2. 
picata (Grallina), 1U2. 
picata (Leucosarcia), 157. 
picata (Perdix), 403. 
picta (Tbaumalea), 392. 
pictus (Fraucolinus), 

403. 
pictus (Pbasianus), 392. 
Pied Wagtail, (i3. 
Pigeon, IJartiett's, 157. 
Pigeon, IJcngalGreen, 147. 



Pigeon, Blue-beaded, 

158. 
Pigeon, Bronzed-winged, 

15(3. 
Pigeon, Brush Bronze- 
winged, 157. 
Pigeon, Common 

Crowned, 158. 
Pigeon, Crested. 1.55. 
Pigeon, Cuban, 149. 
Pigeon, Domestic, 148. 
Pigeon, Double-crested, 

146. 
Pigeon, Green Imperial, 

144. 
Pigeon-Hawk, 226. 
Pigeon, Nicobar, 1.58. 
Pigeon, Passenger, 

150. 
Pigeon, Pheasant-tailed, 

152. 
Pigeon, Eiug-tailed, 

149. 
Pigeon, Tooth-billed, 

1.59. 
Pigeon, Triangular- 
spotted, 149. 
Pigeon, White-crowned, 

149. 
Pigeon, Wonga-Wonga, 

157. 
pilaris (Tardus), 91. 
pileata (Penelope), 409. 
pileata (Sittelia), 68. 
Pinarolestes, 84. 
Piouus, 251. 
Pipile, 410. 
Pipit, Alpine. 64. 
Pipit, Meadow, 64. 
Pipit, Tawny, 64. 
pitangua (Lanius), 119. 
pitangua (Megarbyn- 

chus), 119. 120 
Pitangus, 119. 
Pitta, 122. 
Pitta, Bengal, 122. 
Pitta, Noisy, 123. 
plagosus (Cbalcococcyx), 

168. 
plagosus (Cuculus), 168. 
plagosus (Lamprococ- 

cyx). 168. 
Plain-Wanderer, Col- 
lared, 369. 
planicornis (Hydroco- 

ras), 197. 
Platalea, 284. 
Platycercus, 257. 
Plectrophenax, 58. 
Plcctropterus, 290. 
plicatus (Khytidoccros), 

200. 
Ploccus. 42. 



Plover, Black-fronted, 

34(3. 
Plover, Black-beaded, 

344. 
Plover, Egyptian Spur- 
winged. 348. 
Plover, Golden, 344. 
Plover, Grey, 345. 
Plover, Indian Spur- 
winged, 348. 
Plover, Kildeer, 346. 
Plover, Ringed, 34(i. 
Plover, Wilson's, 346. 
plumbeiventri-s (Gymno- 

crex), 382. 
plumbeiventris (Rallus), 

382. 
plumifera (Ardca), 274. 
pluniiferus (llerodias), 

274. 
plumif'erus (Podargus), 

190. 
pluvialis (Charadrius), 

344. 
pluvialis (Cuculus), 

171. 
pluvialis (Ilyetornis), 

171. 
Pluvianus, 344. 
Pooliard, Common, 

306. 
Podargus, 189. 
Podargus, Cuvier'.s, 

190. 
Podargus, Plumed, 

190. 
Podargus, Tawiiy- 

shouldered, 189. 
podiceps (Colymbus), 

o90. 
podiceps (Podilymbus), 

390. 
Podioipes, 389. 
Podilymbus, 390. 
Poepliila, 40. 
Polyborus, 209. 
polychlorus (Eclectus), 

253. 
Polyplectrum, 397. 
Polytelis, 255. 
jDolvtmus (Aitburus), 

127. 
polvtmus (Trochilus), 

127. 
Pomatorhinus, 103. 
Porpbyrio, 376. 
porphyrocephalus (Glos- 

sopsitta), 242. 
porjDliyrocepbalus (Glos- 

sop.sittacus), 242. 
porpiiyrocephalus (Tri- 

olioglossus), 242. 
porzaua (Crex), 383. 



ALrnABETICAL INDEX. 



403 



porzana (Ortygoinetra), 

883. 
porzana (Rallus), 3S.3. 
prailatus (Dianlk'alliis), 

3!)4. 
pnclatus (Euploeomns), 

.•i;»4. 

prasiiius (Aulacorliain- 

pliiis), 142. 
prasinus (rterofflossus), 

14i>. 
jiratensis (Anthus), fi4. 
pratensis (Crex), ;583. 
praticola (Otocorys), 00. 
rratinolo, Collared, 

341. 
Pratiiu-ola, 112. 
pratiiicola (Glareola), 

341. 
pratiiip()la(ninmclr)),341. 
principalis (Campo- 

pliiliH), 13().' 
principalis (Emberiza), 

35. 
principalis (Pious), 13G. 
principalis (Vidua), 35. 
Prion, 320. 
Proslheniadera, 70. 
Psephotus, 25U. 
Pseudogjps. 2U8. 
Pseudotantalus, 28"). 
psittacula (Aloa), 330. 
psittacula (Phaleris), 

330. 
psiftaculus (Cjclorlivn- 

chus), 330. 
Psittacus, 252. 
Psophia, Sa.l. 
Psophodes, 102. 
Ptarmigan, _ Common, 

40(». 
Pterocles. .'^70. 
Ptilonorlivnchus, 18. 
Ptilopus, '146. 
Ptilorhis, 17. 
Ptilotis, 71. 
puella (Trogon), 162. 
Puffui, Connuon, 329. 
Puffin, Horned, 330. 
Puffinus, 318. 
puguax (Machetes), 3.'>7. 
pugnax (Totanus), 357. 
pugnax (Tringa), 3.57. 
pulchella (Euplit-nia), 

259. 2H0. 
pulchellus (Psittacus), 

259. 
puUaria (Agapornis), 

257. 
pullarius (Psittacu.s), 

257. 
pulverulentus (Porpliy- 

rio), 370. 



punctat uni (Cinclosoma), 

102. 
pwnctatus(Turdus), 102. 
punctulata (Fringilla), 

39. 
punctulata (Munia), 39. 
l)urpurea (Ardea), 373. 
piir))urcu3 (Laniproco- 

lius), 25. 
purpureus (Turdus), 25. 
pusilla (Ortygometra), 

383. 
pusilla (Porzana), 383. 
pusilhis (Rallus), 383. 
pusio (Nasiterna), 247. 
Pycnonotus. 105. 
pyg;v!us (I.xos), 100. 
pygieus (Pycnonotus), 

100. 
pygargus (Circus), 210. 
pygargus (Faico), 210. 
pygniifua (Microcarbo), 

2(>8. 
pygnic-cus (Pelecanus), 

268. 
pygnianis (Pbalacroco- 

rax), 208). 
Pygoscelis, 323. 
Pyranga, 45. 
Pyroinelaua, 35. 
Pyrrhula, 56. 
pyrrhula (Fringilla), 57. 
])yrrluila (Loxia), 50. 
pyrrhula (Pyrrhula), 

.5(). 
Pyrrjiulauda, 62. 
Pyrrhulopsis, 250. 
pyrrliops (liuchanga), 

28. 
pyrrhops (Dicrurus), 

28. 

Quail, Common, 404. 
Quail, Jungle Bush, 

404. 
Quail, Least Swamp, 

405. 
Quail, Virginian, 405. 
Quelea, 30. 

quelea (Emberiza), 30. 
quelea (Quelea), 30. 
Querquedula, 300. 

radiata (Strix), 234. 
radiatum (Glaucidium), 

234. 
radiatus (Erythrotri- 

orclii.s), 213. 
radiatus (Falco), 213. 
Bail, Grey-bellied, 382. 
Rail, Jamaicim Claijper, 

382. 
Rail, Land, 383. 



Rail, Pectoral, 382. 

Rallus, 381. 
Raven, Connnon, 8. 
rcctirostris (Collyriu- 

cinda), 84. 
Recurviiostra, 350. 
Redbreast, 93. 
Red-breasted Tlirush, 

91. 
Red Grouse, 399. 
Redpoll, Mealy, 51. 
Redshank, Connnon, 

359. 
Redstart, Common, 94. 
Red Tanager, Brazilian, 

45. 
Redwing, 90. 
Reed-liunting, 57. 
Reed-Warbler, Au.stra- 

lian, 88. 
Reef-Heron, Eastern, 

275. 
regalis (Hesperornis), 

385, 3i80. 
Regent-bird, 20. 
regia(Platalea), 284. 
Regulus, 79. 
regulus (Falco), 220. 
remwardti (Harpactes), 

1()1. 
religiosa (Gracula), 23. 
religiosus (Eulabes), 23, 

24. 
religiosus (Maiuatus), 

23. 
rex (Eahvniceps), 279. 
Rham))hastos, 140. 
Rhamphoea4us, 45. 
Rhea, 418. 
Rhea, Connnon, 418. 
Rhea, Darwin's, 419. 
rhinoceros (Euceros), 

190. 
Rhinochetus, 307. 
Rhinogryphus, 203. 
Rhiuoplas, 197. 
Riiipidura, .114. 
Riiynciiiea, 3.55. 
Rhyncbops, 340. 
Rliynchotis, 414. 
riiynchotis (Anas), 303. 
rhvnehotis (Si^atiila), 

303. 
Rliytidoceros, 200. 
richardsoni (Stercora- 

rius), 332. 
ridibundus (Larus), 330. 
Rille-bird, Common, 

17. 
Ring-Dove, 148. 
ringvia (Lomvia), 328. 
ringvia (Uria), 328. 
Rissa, 330. 



4G4 



ALPHABETICAL I\DEX. 



Robin, American, OL 
Robin, Buff-sicied, 111?. 
Robin, Flame-breasted, 

in. 

Robin, Hooded, 111. 
R(jbin, Scarlet-breasted, 

110. 
Robin-Shrike, Grey- 

bre;isted, 80. 
Robin-Slirike, Yellow- 
breasted, 85. 
Robin, Siberian Rub}'- 

tbroated, 93. 
Robin, South-Island, 

113. 
robiistus (Dinornis), 42."), 

426. 
Rock-Pigeon, 148. 
Rock-Sparrow, Abyssi- 
nian, 52. 
ro:lgersi(Fulmaras). 318. 
Roller, Australian, 193. 
Roller, Common, 192. 
Roller, Indian. 192. 
Roller, Stout-billed, 193. 
Ro(jk, Common, 7- 
rosea (Petroeca\ 111. 
roseicapilla (Cacatua), 

24(5. 
roseus (Pastor), 22. 
roseus (Pboenicopterus), 

288, 289. 
roseus (Sturnus), 22. 
roseus (Turd us) 22. 
rubecula '^Erytbacus), 

93. 
rubecula (Motacilla), 

93. 
ruber (Phoenieopterus), 

288, 289. 
ruber (Tantalus), 287. 
rubetra (Motacilla). 112. 
rubetra (Pratincola), 

112. 
rubicilla (Pyrrbula), .">(). 
rubicola (Motacilla), 

112. 
rubicola (Pratincola), 

112. 
rubinea (Clytol;ema), 

127. 
rubra (Guara), 28". 
rubra (Muscicapa), 45. 
rubra (Pyranga), 45, 

4(5. 
rubra (Tanagra), 4(5. 
rubricata (Origma). 101. 
rubricata (Sylvia), 101. 
rubricera (Carpophaga), 

144. 
rubrieollis (Reeurviros- 

tra), 3.jl). 
rudi.s (Alcedo), 177. 



rudis (Ceryle), 177. 
rufa (Caecabis), 402. 
i-ufa (Dendrocitt.a), 13. 
rufa (Limosa), 3(i(J. 
rufescens (Rhynchotis), 

414. 
Ruff, 357. 
ruficollis (Glossiptila), 

4.3. 
ruficollis (Tanagra), 4.3. 
rufigaster (Pinarolestes), 

84. 
rufi venter (Erytliro- 

gonys), 345. 
rufiventer (V^anellus), 

345. 
rufiventris (Cliaradrius), 

345. 
rufiventris (Pinarolestes), 

84. 
ruf'ogaster (Colluri- 

ciuela), 84. 
rufus (Lanius), 13. 
rufus (Tetrao), 402. 
rumiciv(jrus (Thino- 

corifs), 341. 
rupicola (Columba), 152. 
rupicola (Turtur), 152. 
rustica (Ilirundo), 115, 

11(5. 
rustica (Pica), 13. 
rusticola (Scolopax), 

353. 
rusticula (Scolopax), 

353. 
Ruticilla, 94. 

sacra (Ardca), 275. 
sacra (Demiegretta), 

276. 
Sacred Ibis, Australian, 

28(5. 
Salpornis. G7. 
sanctus (Halcyon), 180. 
Sanderling, 357. 
Sand- Grouse, Black- 
bellied, 370. 
Sand-Grouse, Lichten- 

stein's, 371. 
Sand-Grouse, Pallas's, 

370. 
Sandpiper, Common, 

358. 
Sandpiper, Purple, 357. 
Sandpiper, Wood, 359. 
saudvicensis (Bernicla), 

293. 
sandwicliensis (Bernicla), 

293. 
sandwicliensis (Chloe- 

j)liaga), 293. 
sanghireusis (Cittura), 

174. 



sanguiuolenta (Certhia), 

74. 
sanguinolenta (Myzo- 

mela), 74. 
satyra (Ceriornis), 39G. 
saularis (Cot)sycbus), 

94. 
saularis (Gracula), 94. 
saurophaga (Halcyon), 

179. 
Saurothera, 170. 
sa^'annarum (Anuno- 

dromus), 59. 
savannaruin (Fringilla), 

59. 
saxatilis (Caecabis), 402. 
saxaliiis (Perdix), 402. 
Saxicola, 94. 
scapulatus (Aprosmic- 

tus), 25.5. 
Scarlet Ibis, 287. 
Scaup Duck, Ring- 
necked, 30(). 
Schlegelia, 1(5. 
schoenielus (Euiberiza), 

57. 
Scimitar-Babbler, Pale- 
fronted, 103. 
Scimitar-Babbler, White- 

eyebrowed, 103. 
scintillans (Phasianus), 

392. 
sclateri (Grancalus), 

KX. 
Scolecophagus, .33. 
scolopacea (Ardea), 307. 
scolopaceus (Arauius), 

367. 
Scolopax, 3.5.3. 
scolopax (Oulicnemns), 

342. 
Scopus, 280. 
Scoter, Common, 308. 
Scoter, Surf, 308. 
Scoter, Velvet, .".(J8. 
scoticus (Ligcpus), 399. 
scoticus (Tetrao), 399. 
Scotopelia, 230. 
Screamer, Horned, 312. 
Scrub-bird, Noisy, 117. 
Scytbi'ops, 1(59. 
Sea-Eagle, African, 220. 
Sea-Eagle, Pallas's, 220. 
Sea-Eagle, Steller's, 

219. 
Sea-Eagle, White-bellied, 

219. 
Sea-Eagle, White- 
headed, 219. 
secrctarius (Otis), 204. 
secret arius (Ser]ien- 

tarius), 204. 
Secretary Bird, 204.] 



AM'IIAMKTICAL INDKX. 



ICj 



Sced-oater, Brazilian, 

55. 
Seed-eater, Goldeu- 

rmiiped, 55. 
Seed-Snipe, Coniincjn, 

341. 
See-See Partridge, 4l)2. 
segetiini (Anas), 201. 
segctum (Anser), 2'Jl . 
Seiurus, f)5. 
selbii (Collyriocinela), 

84. 
senegalensis (Myeteria), 

2S3. 
senilis (Pionus), 251. 
senilis (Psittacus), 252. 
sejjtentrionalis (Colym- 

bus), .ms. 

serieea (Meliornis), 70. 

serieea (Meliphaga), 70. 

Serieulus, 20. 

Serin Fincb, 54. 

Serinus, 54. 

serinus (Fringilla), 54. 

serinus (Serinus), 54. 

Serpentarius, 204. 

seri-ator (Mergus), .311. 

Sliag, Common, 2l')7. 

sbarpii (Buceros), 1!19. 

sbarpii (Pholidoplialus), 
11)0, 200. 

Sliearwater, Manx, 318. 

Sheathbill, 34U. 

Siieathbill, Lesser, 340. 

Sheldrake, Chestnut- 
coloured, 298. 

Sheldrake, Common, 
299. 

Shoveller, Australian, 
3(j;5. 

Shoveller, Common, 
303. 

Shrike, Black, 122. 

Shrike, Great Grey, 81. 

Shrike, Large-billed, 81. 

Shrike, Lesser Grey, SO. 

Shrike, Red-backed, 81. 

Shrike-Thrush, Rusty- 
breasted, 84. 

Shrike-Thrush, Selby's, 
84. 

Shrike-Tit, Frontal, 79. 

Shrike-Tit. Whitc- 
beUied, 79. 

Sialia, 95. 

Siberian Ruby-throated 
Robin, 93. 

Simorhynchus, 3.31. 

sinensis (Cissa), 14. 

sinensis (Fraucolinus), 
403. 

sirkee (Centropus), 171. 

sirkee (Taccocua), 171. 

PART III. 



Sirkeer, Bengal, 171. 

Siskin, 51. 

Sitagra, 42. 

Sitta, ()8. 

Sittella, 08. 

Skimmer, Yellow-billed, 

340. 
Skua, Common, 332. 
Skua, Richardson's, 332. 
Sky-Lark, (il. 
Smew, 312. 
Smicrornis, 11.3. 
smyrni'usis (Aleodo), 

178. 
smyrnensis (IFaloyon), 

178. 
Snake-bird, American, 

2(i9. 
Snijie, African Painted, 

355. 
Snipe, Australian 

Painted, 3.55. 
Snipe, Common, 354. 
Snipe, Jack, .354. 
Snijie, New-Holland, 

354. 
Snipe, Swinhoe's, 355. 
Snipe, Wilson's, 354. 
Snow-Bunting, 58. 
sccmmerinpi (Phasi- 

anus), 392. 
Solitaire, KiO. 
Solitaire, Jamaican, 95. 
Solitaire, Swainson's, 

95. 
solitaria (Ceyx), 178. 
solitarius (Cryptura), 

415. 
solitarius (nidus), IGO. 
solitarius (Myiadectes), 

95. 
solitarius (Myiadestes). 

95. 
solitarius (Pezophaps), 

1 (■)(). 
solitarius (Tinaraus), 

41.5. 
sohjuionis (Ninox), 233. 
Somateria, 307. 
Song-Thrusii, 90. 
sonnorati (Gall us), .395. 
sordidus (.\rtamus), 27. 
sordidus (Tardus), 27. 
Sparrow, Abyssinian 

R.)ck, .52. 
Sparrow, Common, .5,3. 
Sparrow, Golden -headed, 

54. 
Sparrow, Grasshopper, 

.59. 
Sparrow-ITawk, Com- 
mon, 2 1."). 
Sparrow, Hedge, 98. 



Sparrow, trava, 'JO. 
Sparrow, Southern 

Grey-headed, .53. 
Sparrow, Tree, 53. 
nparveria (Cerchneis), 

228. 
sparverius (Falco), 228. 
Spatula, 3U3. 
Spcrmestcs, 30. 
S[)ermopliila, 48. 
Sphecotheres, 30. 
Si)heniseus, .322. 
Sphenura, KM), 
splienurus (Haliastur), 

221. 
splienurus (Milvus), 

221. 
Spliyropicus, 1.34. 
spilonota (Certhia), 07 
spilonota (Salporiiis), 

('.7. 
Spindalis, 45. 
spinicauda (Orthonvx), 

101. 
spinicolhs (Carphibis), 

280. 
spinicollis (Ibis), 280. 
spinosus (Charadrius), 

.348. 
spinus (Chrysomitris) 

51. 
sjiinus (Fringilla), 51. 
siiipoletta (Ahuida), 04. 
spipoletta (Anthus), ()4. 
splendens (Platvcercus), 

256. 
splendens (Pyrrhulopsis), 

256. 
sponsa (Aix), 304. 
sponsa (Anas), ;{()4. 
Spoonbill, Common, 

284. 
Spoonbill, Royal, 284. 
Spoonbill, Yellow-legired, 

285. 
Sporai'ginthns, 38. 
S)ioropipes, 42. 
Squatiirola, 345. 
Staganopleura, 37. 
Starling, Common, 21, 

22. 
Starling, Indian, 22. 
Starling, Pied, 22. 
Starling, Purple-I leaded 

Glossy, 25. 
Starling, Wattled, 23. 
Starncenas, 158. 
Steamer Duck, 309. 
Steatornis, 191. 
Stcgamn-a, .3.5. 
.stcllaris (Ardea), 278. 
slellaris (Botaurus), 278. 
Stercorarius. 3.'>2. 

2k 



4(5 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Sterna, 337. 
stictipennis (Ibis), 28(). 
stietipennis (Threski- 

ornis), 2SB. 
stictocepbalus (Micro- 
car bo), 2(57. 
stictocepbalus (Pbalacro- 

corax), 267, 268. 
Stictospiza, 36. 
Stigmatops, 71. 
Stilt, Banded, 351. 
Stilt, Common, 3,52. 
Stilt, White-beaded, 351. 
Stipituriis, 100. 
Stofk-Dove, 147. 
stolida (Sterna), 339. 
i^tolidus (Auous), 339. 
stolidus (Myiarcbus), 

121. 
stolidus (Mjiobius), 121. 
Stonecbat, 112. 
Stone-Curlew, 342. 
Stone-Curlew, Australian, 

342. 
Stone-Curlew, Soutb- 

African, 342. 
Stork, Wbale-beaded, 

279. 
Stork, White, 281. 
Strepera, 82. 
s-lrepera (Anas), 3(Jl. 
streperus(Chaulelasmus), 

301. 
.strepitans (Pitta), 123. 
Strepsilas, 349. 
striata (Coluiuba), 151. 
striata (Geopelia), 151. 
strigirostri.s(Didunculu8), 

159. 
strigiroetris (Gnathodon), 

159. 
strigoides (Caprimulgus), 

189. 
strigoides (Podargus), 

189, 190. 
Stringops, 262. 
Strix, 237. 
striithersi (Ibidorliyn- 

cbus), 362. 
Strutbidea, 83. 
Strut bio. 420. 
sirutbioides (Dinornit;), 

427. 
struthioides (Palapterjx), 

428. 
Sturnella, 33. 
Sturiiopastor, 22. 
Sturnus, 20. 
Bubbuteo (Falco), 226. 
suberistata (Baza), 223, 

224. 
subcristatus (Lepido- 

genj-s), 223. 



subflava (Friugilla), 38. 
subilavus (Sporoegiutbus), 

38. 
subocularis (Gljcipbila), 

71. 
subocularis (Stigmatops), 

71. 
Sula, 264. 
sulphurea (Cacatua), 244, 

245. 
sulpbureus (Psittacus), 

245. 
snmatranus (Corydon), 

12.5. 
suporba (Menura), 116. 
superciliaris (Crypticus), 

181. 
superciliaris(Eumomot,i), 

181, 182. 
sujjerciliaris (Penelope), 

408. 
superciliaris (Prionites). 

181. 
superciliosua (Acantbo- 

rhyncbus), 74. 
superciliosus (Phaetbor- 

nis), 127. 
superciliosus (Pomato- 

rhinus), 10.3. 
Surf- Scoter, 308. 
Sutoria, 100. 
sutoria (Motacilla), 100. 
sutoria (Ortbotomus), 

100. 
sut(jria (Sutoria), 100. 
swainsoui (Ptilonojjus), 

147. 
swainsoui (Ptilopus), 

147. 
Swallow, Conunon, 115. 
Swallow, Indian Clitf, 

116. 
Swallow-Shrike, Ashy, 

2(). 
Swallow-Shrike, Dusky, 

27. 
Swallow-Shi-ike, White- 
bellied, 27. 
S\v;;mp-Quail, Least, 405, 
Swan, Bewick's, 295. 
Swan, Black, 296. 
Swan, Mute, 295. 
Swan, Trumpeter, 296. 
Swan, Whooper, 294. 
Swift, Comniou, 183. 
Swift, Indian Crested, 

184. 
Swift, Spine-tailed, 184. 
Swift, White-throated, 

184. 
Sycalis, 5.5. 

svkesii (C'anipopbaga), 
■ 109. 



sykesii (Lalage). 109. 
sylvatica (Carpophaga), 

144. 
sylvatica (Columba), 144. 
sylvestris (Buceros), 196. 
sylvestris (Ocydromus), 

380. 
Sylvia, 87. 
Symorbyncbus, 331. 
Sypheotides, 373. 
Syrnium, 236. 
Syrrbaptes, 370. 

Taccocua, 171. 
'j'achybaptes. ,390. 
Tachyeres, 309. 
Tadorna, 298. 
tadornoides (Anas), 298. 
tadornoides (Casarca), 

298. 
tadornoides (Tadorna), 

298. 
tiBniata (Aptenodytes), 

323. 
toL'uiiita (Pygoscelis), 

323. 
Ticniopygia, 38. 
Tailor-bird, Indian, 100. 
Talegallus, 412. 
Talking Mvna, Malayan, 

23. 
Talking Myna, South- 
Indian, 23. 
Tanager, Archbishop, 

44. 
Tanager, Blue - 

shouldered, 44. 
Tanager, Brazilian Red, 

Tiinager, Red-throated 
Blue, 4,3. 

T'anager, Scarlet, 46. 

Tanager, Silvery Blue, 
44. 

Tanager, Superb, 43. 

Tanager, Violet, 43. 

Tanagra, 44. 

Tantalus, 285. 

tarda (Otis), 371. 

Tawny I'ipit, 64. 

Teal, American Green- 
winged, 301. 

Teal, Common, 300. 

Teal, Falcated. 301. 

Teal, Lesser WhistUng, 
297. 

teesa (Butastur), 218. 

tecsa (Circus), 218. 

Tcmeiniclius, 24. 

tcmuiiucki (Ccriornis), 

;;97. 

tcinmiui-ki (Sal vra), 
397. 



ALIMlAliKTirAL INKKX. 



4(i7 



tompoi-alis (Potnato- 

rliimis), 103. 
tcncbroaa (Gallinula), 

378. 
ten<;maliui (Nyctala), 

236. 
tenginalmi (Strix), 23(>. 
teniiirostris (Corone"), 1 1. 
teniiirostris (Corvits), 11. 
teuuirostris (Licmelis), 

24(). 
Tern. Arctic, 338. 
Tern, Black, 330. 
Tern, Caspian, 338. 
Tern, Common, 337. 
Tern. Large Crested, 

338. 
Tern. Royal, 338. 
Tern, White, 339. 
Ter))si|3hone, 115. 
torricolor (Malacocer- 

cus), 104. 
terricolor (Pastor), 10-4. 
Tetrao, 398. 
Tetrapteryx, 3().5. 
tetriix (Otis), 372. 
tetrix (Tetrao), 399. 
texensis (Chordeiles), 

187. 
Thalassidroraa, 321. 
thalassina (Cissa), 14. 
Tlialassoica, 317. 
tharus(Falco), 209. 
tliarus (Polyborus), 209. 
Thaunialea, 392. 
tliibetanum (Polyplec- 

trum), 397- 
thibetauus (Pavo), 397. 
Thickliead, Crested, 84. 
Thickhead, Olivaceous, 

85. 
Thickhead, White- 
throated, 85. 
Thick-knee, 342. 
Thinocorus, 341. 
Thrush, Jamaica, 92. 
Thrush, Missel, 91. 
Thrush, Orange-headed 

Ground, 89. 
Thrush, Pied Wagtail, 

102. ^ 

Thrush, Red-breasted, 

91. 
Thrush, Song, 90. 
Thrusli, South-Australian 

Ground, 89. 
Thrush, Spine-tailed 

Ground, 101. 
Tlirush, Spotted Ground, 

102. 
Thrush, White-throated 

Ground, 89. 
Tiuamou, Great, 414. 



Tinaniou, ParaguaviiU. 

41.5. 
Tinanius, 414. 
tinnunculus (Cerchueis), 

227, 228. 
tinnunculus (Falcu), 227. 
tiphia (lora), lOG. 
Titmouse, Bearded, 78. 
Titmouse, Blue, 77. 
Titmouse, British Coal, 

77. 
Titmouse, Crested, 78. 
Titmouse, Great, 76. 
Titmouse, Long-tailed, 

78. ^ 

tixicrus (Coturnicuhis), 

59. 
Tockus, 201. 

toco (Rhamphastos), 140. 
Tod us, 182. 
Tody, Green, 182. 
toliapica (Odontopteryx), 

torda (Alca), 327. 

torquatus (Astur), 212. 

torquatus (Faico), 212. 

torquatus (Palaiornis), 
253, 254. 

torquatus (Pedionomus), 
309. 

torquatus (Psittacus), 
253. 

torquilla (Tynx), 136. 

torquilla (Yunx), 136. 

totanirostris (Chara- 
drius), 345. 

totanirostris (Oreopiii- 
lus), 345. 

Toucan, Ariel, 140. 

Toucan, Cuvier's, 141. 

Toucan, Golden-Green 
Groove-billed, 142. 

Toucan, Red-billed, 141. 

Toucan, Sulphur- 
breasted, 141. 

Toucan, Toco, 140. 

Tour.ico, Green-crested, 
164. 

Touraco, Violet, 164. 

Tragopan, Horned, 396. 

Tragopan, Teinminck's, 
.597. 

tranquilla (Geopclia), 
l.JO. 

Tree-Duck, Ejton's, 297. 

Tree-Duck, Fulvous- 
bellied, 297. 

Tree- Duck, Whistling, 
298. 

Tree- Pie, Himalayan, 14. 

Tree-Pie, Indian, 13. 

Tree-Sparrow, 53. 

Tribonyx, 379. 



Trichoglossus, 241. 
tricolor (Musciea])a), 114. 
tricolor (Rliipidura), 

114. 
tridactyla (Rissji), 33C). 
tridactylus (Larus), 336. 
Tringa, 356. 
Tringoides, 358. 
tri.stis (Aeridotheres), 24. 
tristis (Paradisea), 24. 
trivirgatus (Astur), 211. 
trivirgatus (Falco), 211. 
Trocliilus, 129. 
trochilus (Motacilla), 88. 
trocliilus (Phylloscopus), 

88. 
troglodytes (Anorthura), 

97. 
troglodytes (Motacilla), 

97. 
Trogon, 162. 
Trogon, Mexican, 162. 
Trogon, Ray-tailed, 162. 
troile (Golyuibus), 328. 
troile (Lorn via), 328. 
Tropic-bird, Red-billed, 

264. 
Tropidorhynchus, 73. 
Trumpeter, Common, 

885. 
Trypanocorax, 7. 
tuberosa (Crax), 410. 
tuberosa (Mitua), 410. 
Tui, 76. 
tumulus (Megapodius), 

413. 
Turacus, 164. 
Turd us, 90. 
Turkey, Common, 406. 
Turkey- Vulture, 203. 
Turkey-Vulture, Cali- 

fornian, 204. 
Turnix, 368. 

Turnstone, Common, 349. 
Turtle-Dove, Asiatic, 1.52. 
Turtle-Dove, Common, 

152. 
Turtur, 152. 
turiur (Turtur), 152. 
typhia (.Egithiua), 10(1. 
typhia (Motacilla), 106. 
Tyrannus, 121. 
tyrannus (Milvulus), 

121. 
tyrannus (Muscicapa), 
' 121. 

Tyrant, Cuban, 119. 
Tyrant-bird, Earl of 

'Derby's, 119. 
Tyrant, 1 look-billed, 1 19. 
Tyrant, Jamaican Olive, 

118, 
Tyrant, Scissor-tail, 121. 



468 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



uinbellus (Bonasa), 401. 
umbelliis (Tetrao), 401. 
umbretta (Scopus), 280. 
undulatus (MelopsiUa- 

cus), 261. 
undiilatua (Psittacus), 

2G1. 
Upiipa, 143. 
Uranornis, 16. 
urbica (Chelidou), 11.5. 
urbica (Hirundo), 115. 
Uria, 329. 

urile (Pelecamis), 267. 
urile (Pbalacrocorax), 

267. 
Uroaiitus, 216. 
urogallus (Tetrao), 398. 
Uroloncba, 40. 
uropygialis (Limosa), 

360. 

validirostris (Hcematops) , 

75. 
validirostris (Melithrep- 

tus), 75. 
validus (Myiarchus), 120. 
Vanellus, 348. 
vanellus (Tringa), 348. 
vanellus (Vanellus), 348. 
varia (Mniotilta), 66. 
varia (Motacilla), 66. 
Tariegata (Ninox), 233. 
variegata (Noctua), 233. 
variegatus (Numenius), 

361. 
variegatus (Tantalus), 

361. 
varius (Hemipodius), 

3<')9. 
varius (Picus), 134. 
varius (Sphyropicus), 

134. 
varius (Turnix), 369. 
velox (Hemipodius), 368. 
velox (Tui-nix), 368. 
Velvet Scoter, 308. 
ventralis (Charadrius), 

348. 
ventralis (Hoplopteru.s), 

348. 
ventralis (Tribonyx), 379. 
ventralis (Vanellus), 348. 
versicolor (Phasiauus), 

391, .392. 
vcspertinus (Cocco- 

thraustes), 46. 
vetula (Cuculus), 170. 
vetula (Saurothera), 170. 
victoriiE (Goura), 158. 
Vidua, 35. 
vigil (Buceros), 197. 
vigil (Rbinoi)lax), 197, 

198. 



violacea (Euphonia), 43. 
violacea (Loxia), 48. 
violacea (Loxigilla), 48. 
violacea (Musopliaga), 

163, 164. 
violacea (Tanagra), 43. 
virescens (Ardea), 277. 
viresceus (Brotogerys), 

249. 
virescens (Butorides), 

277. 
virescens (Psittacus), 

'249. 
virgata (Apbriza;, 3*9. 
virginiaua (Strix), 231. 
virginianus (Bubo), 231. 
virginianus (Cardinalis), 

49. 
virginianus (Ortyx), 405. 
virginianus (Tetrao), 

405. 
virgo (Ardea), 365. 
virgo (Grus), 3(i5. 
viridis (^Elurcedus), 19. 
viridis (Gecinus), 131, 

132. 
viridis (Gracula), 19, 30. 
viridis (Merops), 195. 
viridis (Mimeta), 30. 
viridis (Oriolus), 30. 
viridis (Picus), 131. 
viridis (Todiis), 182. 
viscivorus (Turdus), 91. 
vittata (Muscicaiw), 112. 
vittata (Petroeca), 112. 
vittata (Procellai'ia), 

320. 
vittatus (Conurus), 248. 
vittatus (Prion), 320. 
vittatus (Psittacus), 248. 
vociferus (iEgialilis), 

346. 
vociferus (Antrostomus), 

187. 
vociferus (Capriuuilgus), 

187. 
vociferus (Cbai-adrius), 

346. 
vulgaris (Buteo), 214. 
vulgaris (Sturnus), 21. 
Vulture, 2U6. 
Vulture, Bengal, 208. 
Vulture, Califoruian 

Turkey, 204. 
Vulture, Cinereous, 206. 
Vulture, Egyptian, 2().S. 
Vulture, European 

Bearded, 215. 
Vulture, Griifon, 2()C.. 
Vulture, Indian Griffon, 

207. 
Vulture, King, 202. 
Vulture, Turkey, 203. 



vulturinus (Litbornis), 
202. 

V^^agtail, Grey, 6.3. 

Wagtail, Indian, (')3. 

Wagtail, Pied, 63. 

wallichii (Pbasianus), 
392. 

Warbler, Arctic Willow, 
87. 

Warbler, Austral ian Reed, 
88. 

Warbler, Black-and- 
Wliite, 66. 

Warbler, Blackcap. 87. 

Warbler, Garden. 87. 

Warbler, Golden-headed, 
(>5. 

Warbler, Little, f^S. 

Warbler, Eock, 101. 

Warbler, Superb, 1 1 4. 

Warbler, White-fronted, 
98. 

Warbler, Willow, 88. 

Warbler, Yellow-backed 
Blue, 66. 

Water-cock, 381. 

Water-hen , Black-tailed , 
379. 

Water-hen, Common, 
378. 

Water-hen, Mortier's, 
378. 

Water-hen, Pacific, 379. 

Water-hen, Sombre, 378. 

Water-Rail, Common, 
381. 

Water-Thrush, Louisi- 
ana. 65. 

Waxbill, Sanguineous, 
38. 

Waxwing, 86. 

Weaver-bird, Cape, 42. 

Weaver-bird, Indo-Ma- 
layan, 42. 

Weaver-Finch, Banded, 
40. 

Weaver-Fincli, Black, 
38. 

Weaver-Finch, Chestnut- 
eared, 38. 

Weaver-Finch, Crimson, 
41. 

Weaver-Finch, Cut- 
throat, 37- 

Weaver-Finch, Goidd's, 
40. 

W'eaverFiuch, Green. 
36. 

W'eaver-Fincli, Grey- 
headed, 36. 

Weaver Finch, Java, 
39. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



469 



Weaver-Finch, 


Eed- 


Woodcock, American, 


billed, 3(;. 




353. 


Weaver-Fiiicli, 


Rufous- 


Woodcock, Common, 


necked, 42. 




353. 


Weaver-Finch, 


Spottcd, 


Wood-Duck, :m. 


39. 




Wood-hen, Eustard-like, 


Weaver-Finch, 


Spotted- 


381. 


sided, 37. 




Wood-hen, Lafresnaye's, 


Weaver-Finch, 


Whitc- 


380. 


headed, 39. 




Wood-hen, Lord Howe 


Weaver-Finch, 


White- 


Island, 380. 


runiped, 4U. 




Wood-hen, South Island, 


Weaver-Finch, 


Whito- 


380. 


vented, 41. 




Wood-Ibis, African, 


Wheatear, Cummon, 94. 


285. 


Whimbrel, 3()1, 




Wood-Lark, 01. 


Whinibrel, Eastern, 3G1. 


Woodpecker, Black- 


Whimbrel, Little, 301. 


naped Green, 132. 


Whinchat, 112. 




Woodpecker, Fulvous- 


Whip-poor-VV^il 


[1, 187. 


breasted I'icd, 135. 


Whistling Teal, Lesser, 


Woodpecker, Golden- 


297. 




backed, 135. 


White-cared Finch-Lurk, 


^^'ood^)ccker, Great 


62. 




Sjiotted, 134. 


Whydah-bird, 


Broad- 


Woodpecker, Green, 


tailed, .'?.'). 




131. 


Whydah-bird, 


Long- 


Woodpecker, Grey- 


tailed, 35. 




headed, 132. 


Wigeon, American, 


Woodpecker, Ivory- 


3t»3. 




billed, 130. 


Wigeon, Common, 302. 


Woodpecker. Large Yel- 


wilsonia (/Fgia 


litis), 34n. 


l<i\v-naped. 133. 


wilsonius (Charadrius), 


Woodpecker, licsser Yel- 


34(5. 




low-naped, l;)3. 



Woodpecker, Red- 
bellied, 134. 

Woo<l pecker, Red- 
headed, 133. 

Woodpecker, Soutliern 
Golden-backed, 1.30. 

Woodpecker, Yellow- 
bellied, 1.34. 

Wood- Pigeon, 148. 

Woo(l-i{obin, Rose- 
bre:.sted, HI. 

Wood-Swallow, Masked, 
27. 

Wren, Common, 97. 

Wren. Emu, 100. 

Wryneck, Common, 130. 



XantholiTjma, 139. 
Xantliomyza, 72. 
xanthonotus (Calypto- 

rhynchus), 244. 
Xantliopygia, 113. 



Yellow Amnier, .57. 



Zenaida, 152. 
zenaida (Columba), 152. 
zenaida (Zenaida), 1.52. 
zonarius (Platycercus), 

259. 
zonarius (Psittacus), 259. 



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