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Full text of "Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History)"






J "i^-mitAkiviv 






CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

UNGULATE MAMMALS 

m THE 

BEITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY). 

Vol. IV. 
AKTLODACTYLA, 

FAMILIES CEEVIDiE (Deer), 

TEAGULIDiE (Chevrotains), 

CAMELIDiE (Camels and Llamas), 

SUIDvE (Pigs and Peccaries), and 

HIPP0P0TAMID7E (Hii^popotamuses). 



By R. LYDEKKER, F.R.S. 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM. 

SOLD BY 

Longmans, Green & Co., 39, Paternoster Row, London, E.G. 
B. QuARiTCH, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, London, W. 

DuLAU & Co., Ltd., 37, Soho Square, London, W. 
The Midland Educational Co., Ltd., Corporation Street, Birmingham, 

and at the 
British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W. 

1915. 

[All rights reserved.) 



i.omuj.n: 

I'HINTKD by Wll.MAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 
DIKE STREET, STAMFOKD SIUEKT, S.E., AND GREAT WINDMll.l, ^TRI:KT, «. 



/ 



U<^foo 



PREFACE 

The preparation of the fourth Volume of Ungulate Mammals 
was Rearing completion when its author was struck down 
by the illness that proved fatal. With his eharacteristiL- 
devotion to work, he hardly allowed this to make any 
difference, under circumstances when most men would have 
considered themselves luifit for mental effort. It would 
perhaps have been better if the patient had allowed himself 
to rest, but the correction of the proofs went on until the 
task was completed, only two or three days before the end 
came, on April 16th. 

Mr. Lydekker, although not a member of the permanent 
staff, had Ijeen officially connected with the Museum 
since 1884. < )nly those Avho have seen the work from the 
inside will be aljle to realise the extent and the value of his 
services to the Museum, where his colleagues liave tlie 
remembrance of a long and highl}' successful ])eriod of help 
unremittingly and ungrudgingly given. 

The present Volume includes the families Cervida', 
Tragulida', Oamelidas, Suidre and Hippopotamida^ thus 
completing the Artiodactyla. Like its predecessors, it has 
Ijeen prepared l)y Mv. Lydekker. 

It was hoped that the Catalogue would l)e completed 
shortly Ijy the publication of a fifth Volume, including the 
Perissodactyla, the Ilyracoidea, and the Proboscidea, together 
with addenda to the earlier volumes. It is not possible at 
present tn state whether this intention can be carried out. 

SIDNEY L. HAEMEK, 

Keeper of Zoology. 

British Muskum (Natukal HiSTOitv;, 
London, S.W. 

April mh, 1915. 



INTRODUCTION 

In the preparation of this volume I have not had the valuable 
assistance of Mr. Blaine, who, for the first portion of the 
period, was away on a hunting-trip in Africa, and during tlie 
remainder was serving his King and country in the war. 

As in the case of the previous volumes, I am greatly 
indebted to Mr. 0. Thomas for reading the proofs, and using 
his unrivalled knowledge of individual specimens and their 
localities to correct errors which had crept into the text. In 
the present volume my debt to him is still greater, for being 
myself incapacitated by illness from coming to London 
during the time the proofs were passing through the press, 
the drudgery of filling up omissions in the references to 
literature fell to his share. 

It may be added that I cannot but regret the appearance 
in the text of such ugly, ungrammatical, or absurd terms as 
"tunjuc," " Odocoileus,"- * and " Hippocamelus," f — terms 
which would never have been admitted by the past generation 
of naturalists, from whose instruction and writings I derived 
the basis of my zoological knowledge. According, however, 
to modern views on nomenclature — views largely attribut- 
able to the decline in the study of the classics characteristic 
of the present age — such usage is practically compulsory. 
In one case, however, namely, that of the Kashmir stag, I 
could not bring myself to replace a classically-formed name 
by one of these ill-sounding barbarisms. 

E. LYDEKKEE. 

March 10th, 191.5. 



* Applied to a subfossil deer's tooth, which, in the then state of 
knowledge, should have been described as Ccrviis. 

t Given on the supposition that the Chilian guemal was inter- 
mediate between a horse and a llama. 



IXTROPUCTIOX 



CONTENTS 



Order UNGULATA. 

SuBORDEii I. — Artiodactyla {confinued). 
Section A. — Pecora {continued). 
Family IV. — Cervid.i: ..... 
Subfamily i.— Moschin.i; .... 

I. Genus Moschus ..... 

MOSC'HUS MOSCHIFERUS .... 

A. — Moschus nioschifeius uioschiferus 
B. — Moschus moschiferus sifanicus' . 
C. — Mosclius moschiferus parvipes . 

Subfamily ii. — Cervin.e .... 

II. Genus Muntiacus .... 



I. Muntiacus muntjak 
A. — Muntiacus muntjak 
B. — Muntiacus nauntjak 
C. — Muntiacus muntjak 
D. — Muntiacus muntjak 
E, — Muntiacus muntjak 
F. — Muntiacus muntjak 
G. — Muntiacus muntjak 
H. — Muntiacus muntjak 
I. — Muntiacus muntjak 
,T. — Muntiacus muntjak 
K. — Muntiacus muntjak 
L. — Muntiacus muntjak 
M. — Muntiacus muntjak. 



muntjak 
iiioschatus . 
bancanus . 
pleiharicus . 
rubidus 
robinsoni 
peninsiThie . 
curvostyHs . 
grandicornis 
^aginalis 
aureus 
malabaricus 
, subsp. 



II. Muntiacus lacrymans . 
A. — Muntiacus laci'ymans lacrymans 
B. — Muntiacus lacrymans sclateri 
C, — Muntiacus lacrvmans teesdalei . 



10 

11 
11 
15 
15 
10 
16 
18 
18 
19 
-20 
•21 
24 
24 
25 

'25 
26 
26 
27 



vin 



CONTENTS 



III. MUNTIACDS REEVESI 

A. — Muntiacus reevesi reevesi . 

B. — Muntiacus reevesi pingshiangicus 

C. — Muntiacus reevesi micrurus 

IV. Muntiacus sinensis 

V. Muntiacus fe^ .... 
VI. Muntiacus crinifrons 

III. Genus Elaphodus .... 

Elaphodus cephalophus 

A. — Elaphodus cephalophus cephalophus 
B. — Elaphodus cephalophus inichianus 
C. — Elaphodus cephalophus fociensis 
D. — Elaphodus cephalophus ichangensis 

IV. Genus Dama 

I. Dama dama . 
II. Dama mesopotamica 

V. Genus Cervus . 

1. Subgenus Axis 

I. Cervus (Axis) axis 
A. — Cervus axis axis 
B. — Cervus axis ceylonensis 

2. Subgenus Hyelaphus 
II. Cervus (Hyelaphus) porcinus 

A. — Cervus porcinus porcinus . 
B. — Cervus porcinus annamiticus 

III. Cervus (Hyelaphus) calamianensis 

3. Subgenus Eusa .... 

IV. Cervus (Rusa[?]) kuhli 
V. Cervus (Rusa) alfredi 

VI. Cervus (Rusa) timoriensis . 
A. — Cervus timoriensis timoriensis . 
B. — Cervus tunoriensis moluccensis . 
C. — Cervus timoriensis tunjuc 

VII. Cervus (Rusa) tavistocki 

VIII. Cervus (Rusa) unicolor 
A. — Cervus unicolor unicolor 
B.- — Cervus unicolor equinus 
C. — Cervus unicolor brookei 
D. — Cervus unicolor swinhoei 
E. — Cervus unicolor dejeani 



CONTENTS 



IX 



F. — Cervus unicolor mariannus 
G. — Cervus unicolor philippinus 
H. — Cervus unicolor basilanensis 
I. — Cervus unicolor barandanus 
J. — Cervus unicolor francianus 
K. — Cervus unicolor nigricans . 
L. — Cervus unicolor nigellus 
M. — Cervus unicolor boninensis 
Other Names applied to Eusine Deer 

4. Subgenus Eucerv'us, 

IX. Cervus (Eucervus) duvauceli 
X. Cervus (Eucervus) schombuegki 
XI. Cervus (Eucervus) eldi 

X. — Cervus eldi eldi 

B. — Cervus eldi frontalis 

C. — Cervus eldi siamensis 

5. Subgenus Sika .... 
XII. Cervus (Sika) Nippon . 

A. — Cervus nippon nippon 

B. — Cervus nippon mantchuricus 

XIII. Cervus (Sika) taiouanus 

XIV. Cervus (Sika) hortulorum . 

A. — Cervus hortulorum hortulorum . 
B. — Cervus hortulorum kopschi 
Incertfe Sedis ..... 

6. Subgenus Cervus .... 
XV. Cervus elaphus .... 

A. — Cervus elaphus barbarus . 
B.— Cervus elaphus corsicanus, 
C. — Cervus elaphus hispanicus 
D. — Cervus elaphus elaphus 
E. — Cervus elaphus atlanticus . 
F. — Cervus elaphus scoticus 
G. — Cervus elaphus hippelaphus 
H. — Cervus elaphus, subsp. 
I. — Cervus elaphus maral 

XVI. Cervus canadensis 

A.— Cervus canadensis canadensis 
B. — Cervus canadensis occidentals . 
C. — Cervus canadensis merriami 
D. — Cervus canadensis nannodes 
E. — Cervus canadensis xanthopygus. 
F. — Cervus canadensis baicalensis . 



PACK 

83 
84 

8.5 
85 
85 
86 
87 
88 
88 

92 
93 
97 
100 
102 
104 
104 

105 
107 
108 
110 

110 
112 
114 
115 
116 

116 
117 
120 
121 
121 
122 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 

129 
131 
132 
182 
133 
133 
134 



CONTENTS 



l'\GK. 

G. — Cei'vus canadensis songaricus . . . 136 
H. — Cervus canadensis biedeimanui . . .137 

I. — Cervus canadensis wacliei . . . . 137 

J. — Cervus canadensis bactrianus . . . 138 

K. — Cervus canadensis wardi . . . 138 

XVII, Cervus yarkandensis .... 139 

XVIII. Cervus wallichi ..... 141 

A. — Cervus wallichi walliclii .... 142 

B. — Cervus walliclii affinis .... 142 

XIX. Cervus macneilli . . . . 145 

A. — Cervus macneilli inacneilli . . • 145 

B. — Cervus macneilli kansuensis . . . 146 

XX. Cervus c.\shiiiriensis ..... 146 

XXI. Cervus albirostrts ..... 149 

Incertse Sedis ....... 150 

VI. Genus Elaphurus ...... 151 

Elaphurus davidianus ...... 152 

\U. Genus Odocoileus . . . . .153 

I. Odocoileus virgimanls .... 155 

A. — Odocoileus virginianus \irginianus . . 159 

B. — Odocoilevis virginianus borealis . . . 160 
C. — Odocoileus virginianus macrovirus . .161 

D. — Odocoileus virginianus leucurus . . . 162 

E.^ — OdocoileiTS virginianvis louisianse . . 162 

F. — Odocoileus virginianus osceola . . . 162 

G. — Odocoileus Airgiuianus texanus . . . 168 

H. — Odocoileus virginianus couesi . . . 164 

I. — Odocoileus virginianus battyi . . . 164 
J. — Odocoileus virginianus mexicanus . .165 

K. — Odocoileus virginianus sinalote . . . 166 

L.^ — Odocoileus virginianus toltecus . . . 167 

M. — Odocoileus virginianus acapulcensis . . 167 

N. — Odocoileus virginianus nelsoni . . . 168 

O. — Odocoileus virginianus thomasi . . . 168 

P. — Odocoileus virginianus truei . . . 169 

Q. — Odocoileus virginianus costaricensis . . 170 

R. — Odocoileus virginianus nemoralis . . 170 

S. — Odocoileus virginianus rothschildi . . 171 

T. — Odocoileus virginianus chiriquensis . . 172 

U.— Odocoileus virginianus columbicus . . 172 
V. — Odocoileus virginianus lasiotis . . .172 

W. — Odocoileus virginianus gymnotis . . 17o 
X. — Odocoileus virginianus margaritse . .174 

Y.— Odocoileus virginianus spinosus . . . 174 

Z. — Odocoileus virginianus peruvianus . . 175 



00:N TENTS 



XI 



PAGK 

11. Odocoileus hemionus ..... 176 

A. — Odocoileus hemionus liemiouus . . . 17IS 

B. — Odocoileus hemionus virgultus . . . 179 

C. — Odocoileus hemionus californicus . . 179 

D. — Odocoileus hemionus' cerroseusis . . 180 

E. — Odocoileus hemionus eremicus . . . 180 

F. — Odocoileus hemionus peninsulap. . . 181 

G. — Odocoileus hemionus canus . . . 181 

III. Odocoileus columbianus .... 182 

A. — Odocoileus columbianus columbi:uius . 18;> 

B. — Odocoileus columbianus sitkensis . . 184 

C. — Odocoileus columbianus scaphiotiis . . 184 

D. — Odocoileus columbianus cvooki . . . 185 

Incertsp Sedis ....... 185 

\lll. Genus Bl.\stocerus ..... 180 

I. Blastocerus dichotomus .... 1S6 

II. Blastocerus bezoarticus .... 188 

IX. Genus Hippocamelus. ..... 192 

I. Hippocamelus bisulcus .... 198 

II. Hippocamelus antisensis .... 196 

X. Genus Mazama ....... 198 

I. Mazama Americana ..... 199 

A. — Mazama amevicana americana . . . 200 

B. — Mazama amevicana jucunda . . 202 

II. Mazama superciliaris .... 20o 

TII. Mazama zetta ...... 204 

IV. Mazama sheila ...... 205 

V. Mazama tema ...... 205 

A. — iNlazama tema tema ..... 206 

B.-^Mazama tema reperticia .... 207 

C. — Mazama tema cerasina . . . 207 

VI. Mazama bricenii ..... 207 

VII. Mazama rufina ...... 208 

VIII. Mazama simplicicornis .... 208 

A. — Mazama simplicicornis simplicicornis . 210 

B. — Mazama simplicicornis mexianae . 211 
C. — Mazama simplicicornis citus . . .212 

IX. Mazama tschudii ..... 212 

X. Mazama pandora ..... 213 

XI. Mazama n.\na 213 

Incertas Sedis ....... 214 



Xll 



CONTENTS 



XI. Genus Pudu 

1. Subgenus Pudu .... 

I. Pudu pudu ..... 

2. Subgenus Pudella .... 
II. Pudu (Pudella) mephistophiles . 

XII. Genus Capreolus .... 

I. Capreolus capreolus . 

A. — Capreolus capreolus capreolus , 

B. — Capreolus capreolus transsvylvanicus 

C. — Capreolus capreolus canus 

D. — Capreolus capreolus thotti 

II. Capreolus bedfordi . 
A. — Capreolus betlfordi bedfordi 
B. — Capreolus bedfordi inelanotis 

III. Capreolus pygargus . 

A. — Capreolus pygargus firghanicus . 

B. — Capreolus pygargus pygargus 

C. — Capreolus pygargus tianschanicus 

XIII. Genus Alces . 

Alces alces 

A. — Alces alces alces 
B. — Alces alces bedfordise 
C. — Alces alces americanus 
D. — Alces alces columbae. 
E. — Alces alces gigas 

XIV. Genus Rangifer 



Eangifer tarandus . 
A. — Rangifer tarandus 
B. — Rangifer tarandus 
C. — Rangifer tarandus 
D. — Eangifer tarandus 
E. — Rangifer tarandus 
F. — Rangifer tarandus 
G. — Rangifer tarandus 
H. — Rangifer tarandus 
I. • — R angifer tarandus 
J. — Rangifer tarandus 
K. — Rangifer tarandus 
L. — Rangifer tarandus 
M. — Rangifer tarandus 
N. — Rangifer tarandus 
O. — Rangifer tarandus 



tarandus 

fennicus 

platyrhynclius 

sibiricus 

pearsoni 

phylarchus 

caribou . 

sylvestris 

terraenovse 

niontanus 

dawsoni 

stonei . 

fortidens 

osborni 

granti . 



CONTENTS 



XI 11 



XV, 



P. — Rangifer tarandus excelsifrons 
Q. — Rangifer tarandus arcticus 
R.^ — Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus 
S. — Rangifer tarandus pearyi . 

Genus Hydropotes . 
Hydropotes inermis . 



Section B. — Tragulina 
Family Tragulid^e 

I. Genus Tragulus . 

I. Tragulus meminna 

II. Tragulus stanleyanus 
A. — Tragulus stanleyanus 
B. — Tragulus stanleyanus 
C. — Tragulus stanleyanus 
D. — Tragulus Stanley anu 

III. Tragulus javanicus 
A. — Tragulus javanicus 
B. — Tragulus javanicus 
C. — Tragulus javanicus 
D. — Tragulus javanicus 
E. — Tragulus javanicus 
F. — Tragulus javanicus 
G. — Tragulus javanicus 
H. — Tragulus javanicus 
I. — Ti'agulus javanicus 
J. — Tragulus javanicus 
K.— Tragulus javanicus 
L. — Tragulus javanicus 
M. — Tragulus javanicus 
N. — Tragulus javanicus 
O. — Tragulus javanicus 
P. — Trrgulus javanicus 
Q. — Tragulus javanicus 
R. — Tragulus javanicus 
S. — Tragulus javanicus 
T. — Tragulus javanicus 
tJ. — Tragulus javanicus 
V. — Tragulus javanicus 
W. — Tragulus javanicus 



stanleyanus 
perflavus 
rufulus 
formosus 



javanicus 

napu . 

canescens 

borneauus 

nigricans 

terutus 

i;nibrinus 

pretiosus 

pretiellus 

parallelus 

lutescens 

flavicollis 

bancanus 

nigricoUis 

nigrocinctvis 

sebucus 

billitonus 

anioenus 

jugularis 

annae . 

bunguranensis 

batuanus 

versicolor 



IV. Tragulus kanchil. 

A. — Tragulus kanchil kanchil . 
B. — Tragulus kanchil longij)es. 
C. — Tragulus kanchil luteicollis 



PAGK 

253 
254 
256 
256 

257 
257 

260 
260 
261 
262 

265 
265 
266 
267 
267 

268 
268 
269 
270 
270 
272 
272 
273 
273 
274 
274 
275 
275 
275 
276 
276 
277 
277 
278 
278 
279 
279 
279 
280 

280 

282 

282 
282 



CONTENTS 



TT. 



D.— Tra<^iilus 
E.— Tragulus 
F.- — Tragulns 
G. — Tragulus 
H. — Tragulus 
I. — Tragulus 
J. — Tragulus 
K. — Tragulus 
L. — Tragulns 
M. — Tragulus 
N. — Tragulus 
O.— Tragulus 
P.— Tragulus 
Q. — Tragulus 
K. — Tragulus 
S. — Tragulus 
T.— Tragulus 

Genus Dorcath 



kauchil 
kanchil 
kanclnl 
kanchil 
kanchil 
kanchil 
kanchil 
kanchil 
kanchil 
kanchil 
kauchil 
kanchil 
kauchil 
kanchil 
kanchil 
kanchil 
kanchil 

ERIUM 



subrufus 
rubeus . 
fulvicollis 
cariniatas 
brevipes . 
pallidus . 
fulviventer 
affinis 
ravulus , 
lancavensis 
lauipensis 
russeus . 
russulus . 
hosei 
everetti . 
pierrei . 
pelandoc 



DORCATHERIUM AQUATICUM , 

A. — Dorcatherium aquaticum aijuatii 
B. — Dorcatherium aquaticvnu batesi 
C. — Dorcatherirmi aquaticum cotton 

Section C. — Tylopoda 

Family CAjiELiDiE .... 

I. Genus Camelus . 

Camelus bactrianls . 

II. Genus Lama 

I. L.\MA GLAMA . 

A.— Lama glama huanacus 
B. — Lama glama cacsilensis 

II. Lama vicugna 

Section I). — Suina .... 

Family I. — Suid^ .... 

Subfamily i. — Suin^. . 

I. Genus Sus .... 

1. Subgenus Sus . 

I. Sus SCROFA . 

A. — Sus scrofa scrofa 
B. — Sus scrofa meridionalis 
C. — Sus scrofa castilianus 
I). — Sus scrofa bceticus . 
E. — Sus scrofa barbarus . 
F. — Sus scrofa sennaarensis 



/ 



CONTENTS 

G. — Sus scrofa lybicus 
H. — Sus scrofa attila 
I. —Sus scrofa nigripes . 
J. —Sus scrofa moupinensis . 

IL Sus CRISTATUS 

A. — Sus cristatus cristatus 
B. — Sus cristatus jubatus 
C. — Sus cristatus jubatulus 

III. Sus LEUCOMYSTAX . 

A.— Sus leucomj'stax leucomystax 
B. — Sus leuconivstax taivanus . 



IV 



Sus VITTATUS 

A, — Sus vittatus 
B. — Sus vittatus 
C. — Sus vittatus 
D. — Sus vittatus 
E. — Sus vittatus 
F. — Sus vittatus 
G. — Sus vittatus 
H. — Sus vittatus 
I. — Sus vittatus 
J. — Sus vittatus 
K.— Sus vittatus 
L.- — Sus vittatus 
M. — Sus vittatus 



vittatus. 
niilleri . 
floresianus 
andamanensis 
nicobaricus . 
peninsularis . 
i-hionis . 
andersoni 
uiadensis. 
babi 

natuneusis 
niimus . 
timoriensis 



V. Sus CELEBENSIS 

A. — Sus celebensis celebensis . 
B. — Svis celebensis nehringi 
C.—Sus celebensis philippensis 
J), — Sus celebensis minutus 
E. — Sus celebensis uiindauensis 
F, — Sus celebensis aniboinensis 
G.— Sus celebensis ceramicus . 
H. — Sus celebensis borneensis . 
IncertfE Sedis . . • • 

YI. Sus VERRUCOSUS . 
YII. Sus BARBATUS 

A. — Sus barbatus barbatus 
]i.— Sus barbatus gargantua . 
C. — Sus barbatus oi 
p. — Sus barbatus ahaenobarbus 
E. — Sus barbatus balabacensis . 
F.—Sus barbatus calamianensis 

2. Subgenus Porcula . 
VIII. Sus (Porcula) salvanius 



XV 

PAGE 

316 
316 
317 
317 

818 
319 
320 
320 

.321 
322 
322 

323 

325 

325 

325 

326 

327 

327 

327 

328 

328 

328 

329 

329 

329 

, 331 

, 332 

. 333 

. 333 

. 334 

. 334 

. 335 

. 335 

. 336 

. 336 

. 336 

. 338 

. 340 

. 341 

. 341 

. 342 

. 342 

. 343 

. 343 
. 343 



IV. 



XVI 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

II. Genus Babirussa 344 

Babirussa babyrussa. ..... 345 

A. — BabinTs.sa babyrussa babja'ussa . . . 345 

B. — Babirussa babyrussa celebensis . . . 346 

III. Genus PotamochO'^rus ..... 348 

I. POTAMOCHfERUS LARVATUS .... 349 

A. — Potaniochcerus larvatus larvatus . . 350 

B. — PotamochoE'rus larvatus hova . . . 350 

II. POTAMOCHCERUS CHCEROPOTAMUS . . . 350 

A. — Potaniochcerus choeropotanius choeropotamus 352 

B. — Potaraocboerus choeropotamus maschona . 353 

C. — Potamochoerus choeropotamus dfenionis . 354 

D. — Potamochoerus choeropotamiis nyasse . . 354 

E. — Potamochoerus choeropotamus johnstoni . 355 

F. — Potamochoerus choeropotamiis kenifp . . 356 

III. POTAMOCH(ERUS HASSAMA .... 357 

IV. POTAMOCH(EROS PORCUS .... 357 

A. — Potamochoerus porcus porcus . . . 358 

B. — Potamochoerus porcus pictus . . . 359 

C — Potamochoerus porcus ubangensis . . 360 

D. — Potamochoerus porcus albifrons . . . 361 

E. — Potamochftrus porcus congicus . . . 361 

V. Potamochoerus intermedius . . . 361 

lY. Genus Hylochosrus ...... 362 

Hylochcerus meinertzuagen'i .... 363 

A. — Hj'lochoerus meinertzhageni meinertzhageni 364 

B. — Hylochcerus memertzhageni rimatov . . 364 

Y. Genus Phacochcerus ...... 365 

Phacoch(erus .?ethiopicus ..... 366 

A.— Phacochoerus tethiopicus rethiopieus . . 367 

B. — Phacochoerus sethiopicus sundevalli . . 368 

C. — Phacochcerus rethiopicus massaicus . . 370 
D. — Phacochcerus aethiopicus delamerei . .371 

E. — Phacochoerus aethiopicus ffiliani . . . 371 

F. — Phacochoerus aethiopicus fossor . . . 372 

G. — Phacochcerus aethiopicus bufo . . . 372 

H. — Phacochoerus aethiopicus africanus . . 373 

Subfamily ii. — Dicotylin.t; ...... 374 

VI. Genus Dicotyles ...... 374 

1. Subgenus Dicotyles ..... 375 

I. Dicotyles pecari ..... 375 

A. — Dicotyles pecari pecari .... 376 

B. — Dicotyles pecari ringens .... 378 

C. — Dicotyles pecari spiradeus . . . 378 



CONTENTS 



xvn 



2. Subgenus Pecaki 

II. DiCOTYLES (PeOARI) TAJACU 

A. — Dicotyles tajacu tajacu 

" B. — Dicotyles tajacu torvus 

C. — Dicotyles tajacu niger 

III. Dicotyles (Pecari) angulatus 
A. — Dicotyles angulatus angulatus . 
B. — Dicotyles angulatus sonoriensis . 
C. — Dicotyles angulatus humeralis . 
D. — Dicotyles angulatus crassus 
E. — Dicotyles angulatus yucatanensis 
F. — Dicot3'les angulatus crusnigrum . 
G. — Dicotyles angulatus nanus 

Family II.— Hippopotamid.e .... 

I. Genus Hippopotamus .... 

Hippopotamus amphibius . 

A. — Hippopotamus ampliibius auiphibius 
B. — Hippopotamus ampliibius tschaclensis 
C. — Hippopotamus amphibius kiboko 
D. — Hippopotamus amphibias constvictus 
E. — Hippopotamus amphibius australis 

II. Genus Ch(eropsis .... 
Chceropsis liberiensis 



INDEX 



PAGE 

379 
379 
380 
382 

382 
383 
383 
384 
384 
385 
385 
385 
386 

386 
386 
387 
389 
390 
391 
391 
392 

392 

393 

395 



LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS 

PAGE 

Fig. 1. — Lower Front Teeth of Elk [Alces alces). (Froiu Miller, 

Cat, Mamin. Western Euro])e) . . . . , 2 

,, 2. — Skull of Musk-Deer {Moschus moschiferus) . . 6 

., 3. — Head of ludiau Muntjac {Muntiacus muntjak vagin- 
alis). (From a photograph lent by the Bombay 
Natural Historj' Society') ..... 13 

., -1. — Skull and Antlers of Muntjac {Muntiacus muntjak) . 14 

,, 5. — Skull and Antlers of Pieeves's Muntjac {Muntiacus 
rcevesi) and Bridgeman's Muntjac {M. sinensis). 
(From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910) ... 29 

6. — Head of Ningpo Tufted Deer {Elaplioclus cej^halophus 

michianus). (From Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876) 'So 

7. — Side View of Skull of Ningpo Tufted Deer {Elaphodtts 

cephalophus miclilanns). (Fro:u Lydekker, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. 1904) 37 

,, 8. — Front View of Skulls of Ningpo and Ichang Tufted 

Deer. (From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904) . 38 
,, 9. — Side View of Skull of Ichang Tufted Deer {Elapliodus 

ccj^halophus icltangensis), (From Lydekker, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. 1904) . 39 

,, 10. ^Palatal Aspect of Skull of Fallow Deer {Dama datna). 

(From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe) . . 41 

„ 11. — Lower Front Teeth of Fallow Deer {Dama dama). 

(From Miller, Cat. Mantm. Western Europe) . . 41 

,. 12. — Head of Persian Fallow Deer {Dama mesopotamica) . 46. 

,, 13. — Lower Front Teeth of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). 

(From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Eiirope) . . 47 

,, 14.— Skvall and x\ntlers of Chital {Cervus [Axis] axis) . 50 

,, 15. — Skull and Antlers of Hog-Deer {Cervus {Hyelax)hus] 

jwrcinus) ........ 55 

,, 16. — Frontlet and Antlers of Javan Eusa {Cervus [Busa] 

timoriensis tunjuc). (From a specimen in the 

collection of Sir E. G. Loder, Bart.) ... 68 
,, 17. — Skull and Antlers of Sambar {Cervus [Busa] unicolor) 72 
,, 18. — Head of Swamp -Deer {Cervus [Bucervus] duvauccli). 

(From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1899) ... 95 



XX LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

I'AGK 

Fig. 19. — Skull and Autiers of bchoiabiirgk's Deer {Cerviis 

[Rucervus] schomhurgJci). (From a photograph 

lent by Messrs. Rowland Ward, Ltd.) ... 98 
,, 20. — Head of Thamin {Cervus [Eiicervus] eldi) . . 101 

,, 21. — Head of Dybowski's Dear (Cervus [Sika] hortulorum). 

(From a photograph bj- the Duchess of Bedford) . llo 
,, 22. — Palatal Aspect of Skull of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). 

(Frona Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe) . .119 

,, ' 23. — Antlers of Eastern Red Deer, or Maral (Cervus elajphus 

viaral) ..... ... 127 

,, 24. — Head of Wapiti (Cervus canadensis) .... 130 

,, 25. — Skull and Antlers of Yarkand Stag (Cervus yarJiaiul- 

ensis) . . . . . . . .140 

,, 26. — Skull and Antlers of Sikhiiu Shou (Cervus wallichi 

affinis) . . . . . . .'- . 14o 

,, 27. — Head of Hangul (Cerciis cashmiriensis) . . . 148 

.. 28. — Head and Neck of Thorold's Deer (Cervus albirostris) 150 
,, 29. — Head of White-tailed Deer (Odocvileus virginianus). 

(From a photograph lent by Mr. E. S. Cameron) . 157 
, 30. — Pampas Deer (Blastocerus hezoartieus) . . . 190 

, 31. — Head of Chihan Giiemal (Hippocamelus bisidcus). 

(From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soe. 1899) . . 195 

, 32.— Skull of Pudu (Pudu pudu) 216 

, 33. — Palatal Aspect of Skull of Roe (Capreolus capreolus). 

(From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Etirope). . 220 

, 34. — Lower Front Teeth of Roe (Capreolus capreolus). 

(From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe) . . 220 

, 35. — Palatal Aspect of Skull of Elk (Alces alces). (From 

Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe) . . . 231 

, 36.— Side View of Head of American Elk, or Moose {Alces 

alces amcricanus). (From a specimen in the posses- 
sion of Mr. J. K. Paislej', of Ottawa) . . . 235 
, 37. — Muzzle of American Elk (Alces alces americamis) . 236 
, 38. — Muzzle of Ontario Elk (Alces alces coluinba-). (From 

the type specimen, in the collection of Capt. E. C. 

Hamilton) 237 

, 39. — Front View of Head of Alaskan Elk, or Moose (Alces 

alces gig as) ........ 238 

, 40. — Lower Front Teeth of Reindeer (liangifer tarajidus). 

(From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Eurojye) . . 240 

,. 41. — Side View of Skull and Antlers of Novaya Zemlyan 

Reindeer (Bangifer tarandus pearsoni) . . . 245 

,, 42. — Front View of Head of Woodland Caribou (Bangifer 

tarandus caribou), with the antlers in " velvet" . 247 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xxi 

PAGE 

Fig. 43. — Side View of Skull and Antlers of Mountain Caribou 
{Rangifey tarandus montanus). (From 1th Heport 
of New Yorh Zoological Society) .... 2.'')0 

„ 44. — Side View of Skull and Antlers of Barren-Ground 
Caribou (Bangifer tarandits arcticus). (From 7/// 
Be]}ort of Neiv Yorl- Zoological Society) . . 2.05 

.. 45. — Skull of Chinese Water-Deer (Hi/f^ropofes Mierwrn) . 259 

,, 46. — Skull of Indian Chevrotain (Tragulus vieminna) . 263 

,, 47. — Right Upper and Lower Cheek-Teeth of AVild Boar 
{Sns scrofa). (From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western 
Euroj^e) 309 

,, 48.— Transverse Sections of Lower Canines of Sns scrofa 

and S. vcrvHcostis. (From Stehlin) . . . 310 

.. 49. — Side View of Skull, with the lower jaw detached, of 
Wild Boar {Sns scrofa). (From Miller, Cat. Ma in ni . 
Western Enropc) . . . . . . .311 

.. 50. — Frontal and Palatal Aspects of Skull of Wild Boar 
(Sns scrofa). (From Miller, Cat. Ma mm. Western 
Europe) ........ 312 

., 51. — Skull of Babirusa {Bahirnssa booyrnssa cehbensis). 
(From Gray, Haiid-List of Tliick-sJcinned Mam- 
mals) ......... 347 

,. 52. — Skull of Southern Busli-I'ig {FotamocJioerns chrero- 
potamus). (From Gray, Hand-List of Tliicl- 
sl-inned Mammals) ...... 3.52 

,, 53.— Skull of Camerun Bush-Pig, or Red River-Hog 
{Potamochcerus forciispictus). (From Gray, Hand- 
List of Th id: -shinned Mammals) .... 359 

,, 54. — Head of Wart-Hog (Phacocliocrus cetJiiopicus) . . 367 

,, 55. — Palatal Aspect of Skull and Lower .Taw of Hippo- 
potamus {Hippop)ofa mas anipliihius) . . . 3HK 

.. 56. — Fore-feet of Pigmy Hippopotamus {Clioeropsis liheri- 
ensis) and Ordinary Hippopotamus {Hippopofamns 
ampJiihins). (From Pocock, TJie Field, 1918) • . 394 



CATALOGUE 



OF 



UNGULATE S 



VOL. lY. 



SUBOEDER ARTIODACTYLA {continued). 
Section A. — PECORA (continued). 

Family IV.— CERVID^. 

Pecora, iu which the cranial appendages — generally 
restricted to the males, and in a few cases absent even in 
that sex — take the form of (usually) branched, bony, solid, 
deciduous antlers, supported on permanent skin-covered 
pedicles arising from the frontal bones; upper canines 
generally present, very long in those genera which lack 
antlers in both sexes ; lower canines with simple, uncleft 
crowns (fig. 1) ; cheek-teeth generally low-crowned (brachyo- 
dont) ; lateral toes generally present, with the constituent 
bones fully developed ; lateral metacarpals wanting either 
upper or lower ends ; * gall-bladder nearly always wanting ; 
placenta with few cotyledons. 

In all cases, with the possible exception of Moschus, 
there are two pairs of teats, and inguinal glands are invari- 
ably wanting. Face-glands are nearly always present 
(absent in Cajyreolus) ; tarsal, metatarsal, and interdigital 

* The term plesiometacarpalian is applied to those genera in 
which the upper ends of the lateral metacarpals persist, and telemeta- 
carpalian to those in which the reverse condition obtains. 

IV. B 



2 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

glands ill the hind-feet may he present, and in the Virginian 
deer there are also interdigital glands in the fore-feet. 

In the Old World the range extends from the neighbour- 
hood of the Arctic Circle southwards to the Mediterranean 
islands, the extreme north-west of Africa, the Malay Archi- 
pelago, and the Philippines : in the New World it includes 
the entire mainland of North and South America. The precise 
eastern limits of the family in the Austro-Malay area cannot 




Fig. 1. — Lower Front Teeth of Elic {Alecs alces). 
From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Wegteni Europe. 

be defined, owing to the transportation by the Malays of 
species from one island to another. 

The family is divisible into the two following subfamily 
groups : — 

A. Liver with a gall-bladder ; a caudal gland in male ; no 

face-glands, foot-glands, or antlers Moscliinw. 

B. Liver without a gall-bladder ; no caudal gland ; face- 

glands,* foot-glands, t at least in hind-limbs, and 

antlers % usually present .*..... Cervince. 



* Wanting in Capreolics. 

t Wanting in Pudu. 

i Wanting in Hydropotes, 



CEKVID.E 



Subfamily i.— MOSCHINiC. 

Liver with a gall-bladder ; in skull the canal situated 
within margin of eye-sockets, and leading into nose-chamber, 
with only a single orifice ; no face-glands or lachrymal pits 
below eyes ; hemispheres of brain comparatively smooth, 
with few convolutions ; antlers wanting ; no foot-glands, 
but a large caudal and a preputial gland in males. 

The distribution extends from Gilgit over a large area in 
Central and North-eastern Asia, including Cochin China, 
Amurland, and Korea. Following Fitzinger, Pocock regards 
this group as of family rank (Moschidce), a view which has 
much to be said in its favour, as the single genus is in 
several respects intermediate between the Bovidcc and the 
typical Cervidce. 

I. Genus MOSCHUS. 

Moschus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 66, 1758, ed. 12, vol. i, 
p. 91, 1766 ; Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1875, p. 159 ; Garrod, ibid. 
1877, p. 287 ; Riltimeyer, Ahli. scliweiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 19, 
1881 ; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 551, 1891 ; 
Lydehher, Deer of All Lands, p. oil, 1898; PococJc, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1910, p. 937. 

Odontodorcas, Gistel, Natiirgcsch. Thierreichs, p. 82, 1848. 

Build stout and heavy, with the limbs, especially the 
hind-pair, long and thick, and the rump elevated ; hair 
coarse, thick, brittle, minutely waved, and in structure 
resembling pith ; ears large ; upper canines greatly developed 
in males, and projecting far below the level of the lips, in 
females much smaller ; no tarsal or metatarsal glands or 
tufts ; lateral metacarpals represented by their lower 
extremities ; main' hoofs narrow and pointed, lateral hoofs 
large and functional ; tail very short in males, terminating 
in a tuft and glandular, in the females evenly haired 
throughout ; naked portion of muzzle large and completely 
surrounding nostrils. 

Distribution co-extensive with that of subfamily. 



B 2 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



MOSCHUS MOSCHIFERUS. 

Moschus moschiferus, Linn. Syst. Nat. cd. 10, vol. i, p. 66, 1758, 
ed. 12, vol. i, p. 91, 1766; Pallas, Spicil. Zool. fasc. xiii, p. 29, 
pi. iv, 1780, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. p. 108, 1811; H. Smith, 
Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 61, vol. v, p. 307, 1827; 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 63, List Mamm. Brit. Mas. 
p. 172. 1843, Cat. Ungnlata Brit. Mus. p. 244, 1852, Cat. Btimi- 
nants Brit. Mns. p. 96, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. 
p. 166, 1873; Hittton, Joiirn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. vi, p. 935, 
1837 ; Hodgson, ibid. vol. xvi, p. 693, 1847, vol. xvii, pt. 2, p. 486, 
1848 ; Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 328 ; Schrenk, Reis. u. 
Forsch. Amurland, Siiugcth. p. 161, 1859 ; Raddc, Reis. Sild- 
Ost. Siher., Sdugeth. p. 274, 1862 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. 
Brit. Mns. p. 269, 1862 ; Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, p. 157, 1863 ; Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. 
ser. 4, vol. ii. p. 119, 1874, Rech. Mamm. p. 176, 1874 ; Jerdon, 
Mamm. India, p. 266, 1867 ; Kinloch, Large Game Shooting, 
p. 41, 1869 ; David, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vii. Bull. p. 75, 1871 ; 
Broohe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872, p. 522 ; Floiver, ibid. 1875, p. 159 ; 
Przewalsli, Reise Mongolia, pp. 1Y4 and 240, 1875 ; Garrod, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 287 ; Lydckker, Journ. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, vol. xlvi, pt. 2, p. 286, 1877, Horns and Hoofs, p. 330, 
1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 311, 1898, Great and Small Game of 
India, etc. p. 247, 1900, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. 
p. 268, 1901, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 266, 1907, Cat. 
Hume Bequest Brit. Mns. p. 40, 1913 ; Scully, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1881, p. 209; Forbes, ibid. 1882, p. 636; Flower and Garson, 
Cat. Osteol. Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 283, 1884 ; Sterndale, 
Mamm. India, p. 494, 1884 ; Biiehner, Melanges Biol. vol. xiii, 
p. 163, 1890 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 172, 
1891 ; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 552, 1891 ; 
Flower and. Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 314,1891 ; Pousar- 
gues, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. xi, p. 189, 1898 ; Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xix, p. 129, 1903 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. 
Field Mus. {Zool. Pub. Field Mus. vol. viii) p. 38, 1907 ; Ward, 
Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 114, 1910, ed. 7, p. 112. 1914; 
Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 937 ; Siilima, Nasa ochota, 
St. Pettrsb. vol. xlviii, p. 40, 1910 ; Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1911, p. 150 ; Cabrera, Cat. Met. Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 129, 
1912 ; Aoki, Annot. Zool. Japon. vol. viii, p. 344, 1913 ; Dods- 
worth, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxii, p. 748, 1914. 

Musk-Deer ; Kastura. 

Typical locality " Tatary, approaching China." 
Typically height at shoulder about 20 inches, at rump 
2 inches more. General colour some shade of rich dark 
brown, more or less mottled and speckled with light grey, 
the individual hairs being white for about three-quarters of 
their length, then with a white band, followed by a blackish 
tip ; under-parts and inner side of limbs paler ; chin, inner 



•CERVID^ 5 

border of ears, and inside of thighs whitish ; in some 
instances a white spot on each side of the throat. 

The following three forms have been recognised as 
distinct : — 

A. Size larger ; feet and hoofs large. 

a. Ears coloured like back M. m. moschiferus . 

b. Ears largely or wholly black externally M. m. sif aniens. 

B. Size smaller ; feet and hoofs small M. m. parvipes. 

A.— Moschus moschifepus moschiferus. 

Moschus sibiricus, Pallas, 8'picil. Zool. fasc. xiii, p. 29, 1780 ; Gray, 

Cat. TJngulata Brit. Mzis. p. 243, 1852 ; Gerrard. Cat. Bones 

Mamm. Brit. Mits. p. 269, 1862. 
Moschus altaicus, Eschsclwltz, Isis, 1830, p. 606. 
Moschus moschiferus altaicus, Brandt, Medicin. Zool. vol. ii, p. 347, 

1833. 
Moschus chrysogaster, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. viii, 

p. 203, 1839 ; Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 245, 1852, Cat. 

Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 97, 1872 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. 

Brit. Mus. p. 269, 1862. 
Moschus leucogaster, Hodgso)i, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. viii, 

p. 203, 1839; Gi-ay, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 245, 1852, 

Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 96, 1872. 
Moschus saturatus, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. viii, 

p. 203, 1839. 
Odontodorcas moschiferus, Gistel, Naturgesch. Thierreichs, p. 82, 

1848. 
Moschus moschiferus isificisitus, Milne-Edivards, Ann, Set. Nat., Zool. 

ser. 5, vol. ii, p. 119, 1864 ; Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. 

p. 96, 1872. 
Moschus moschiferus maculatus, Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. 

ser. 5, vol. ii, p. 120, 1864 ; Gray, Cat. Riiminants Brit. Mus. 

p. 96, 1872. 
Moschus moschiferus gotlco\ox, Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. 

ser. 5, vol. ii, p. 121, 1864 ; Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. 

p. 96, 1872. 

Typical locality " Tatary, approaching China." 
General characters those of the species ; ears relatively 
short, coloured externally like back. Even in the Himalayan 
area considerable individual or local variations in colour are 
noticeable ; some examples being paler than ordinary, while 
others tend to the development of a yellowish tinge, especially 
on the under-parts, and yet otliers to l;)lackish. 

The name M. m. chrysogaster is available for the Himalayan 
form, if, as is probable, this proves to be a distinct race. 
Allen suggested that the Siberian form might be known as 



6 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



M. sibiriem, presumably on the supposition that the 
Himalaya is the typical locality. 

42. 4. 29. 75 (677, a). Skin, mounted, and skull 
(42. 4. 29. 77). Siberia. 

Presented hy the St. Petersburg Aeademy, 1842. 

42. 4. 29. 75 (677, &)• Skin, mounted, and skull 
(42. 4. 27. 78). Siberia. Same history. 

43. 1. 12. 93. Skull and- skin. Nepal. Type of 
M. clirysogastcr. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1843. 

43.1.12.94(678,6). Skull. Nepal. Same history. 

678, c(. Skull. Nepal. Same history. 




Fig. 2. — Skull op Musk-Deer (Moschus moschifcnis) . 



43. 1. 12. 95. 
M. lencogaster. 

43. 1. 12. 97 (676, i). 
" M. cacharensis." 

43. 1. 12. 98 (676, y) 
M. saturatus. 

45. 1. 8. 327 



Skull and skin. 



Skull. 



Skull. 



Nepal. Type of 

S((me history. 

Kachar. Type of 

Sa me history. 

Nepal. Type of 

Same history. 



Skin, immature, mounted. Nepal, 

Same donor, 1845. 

45. 1. 8. 356 (676, a). Skull. Nepal. Same history. 

45. 1. 8. 357 (676, &). Skull. Nepal. Same history. 

45. 1. 12. 458 (676, f/). Skeleton. Nepal. Same history. 

45. 1. 12. 449 (676, c). Skeleton. Nepal. Same history. 

45. 1. 12. 555 (676, e). Skeleton. Nepal. Same history. 



CEllVIDiE 7 

48. 6. 11. 26 (676,/). Skull. Sikliim. 

Presented hij B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1848. 

55. 1. 20. 9. Skin, mounted. Nepal. 

Presented ly H.H. Maharaja Dhuleeii Singlt , 1855. 

56. 5. 6. 68 (676, h). Skull, immature. Kashmir ; col- 
lected by W. Theobald, Esq. 

Presented by Dr. T. Oldham, 1856. 
56. 10. 1. 3 (676,^). Skull. Himalaya. 

Purchased {Baker), 1856. 
676, 7t. Skull, female. Himalaya (?). No history. 

79. 11. 21. 254-5. Two skins. Locality unknown. 

Transferred from the India Museum, 1879. 
81. 3. 1. 4. Skin, young. Basal Gak, Gilgit ; collected 
by Lieut.-Col. J. Biddulph, July, 1879. 

Presented ly Dr. J. Scully, 1881. 
91. 8. 7. 221-2. Two skulls. Kashmir. 

Presented by A. 0. Hume, Esq., Cf.B., 1891. 

91. 8. 7. 223. Skull. Garhwal. Same history. 

91. 10. 7. 124. Skull. Sikhim; collected by L. Man- 

delli, Esq. Presented by Dr. W. T. Blanford, 1891. 

91. 10. 7. 125. Skull, female. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

96. 9. 9. 1. Skin, mounted. Amurland ; collected by 
Herr D5ries. Purchased ( Ward), 1896. 

97. 4. 3. 4. Skin, female, mounted. From an animal 
formerly living in the park at Woburn Aljbey. 

Presented by the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1907. 
8. 2. 29. 4. Skull and skin. Kishi Nala, Garhwal. 

Presented by Dr. F. G. Lonystaff, 1908. 

12. 10. 31. 97. Skull, Garhwal. In this specimen, 

which stands 7th in Ward's 1910 list, the length of the 

exposed portion of the upper canine is 3 inches ; the 

maximum recorded length being 4 inches. 

Bequeathed by A. 0. Hume, Esq., G.B., 1912. 
12. 10. 31. 98. Skull. Himalaya. Same history. 

B.— Moschus moschiferus sif aniens. 

Moschus sifanicus, Biichner, Melanges Biol. vol. xii, p. 162, 1890 ; 
Lydehker, Deer of All Lands, p. 315, 1898, Great and Small 
Game of Europe, etc., p. 269, 1901 ; Pousargues, Mem. Sac. Zool. 



8 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

France, vol. viii, p. 192, 1898 ; Allen, Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll. 
vol. xl, p. 205, 1912 ; Wallace, Big Game of Central and Western 
China, p. 146, 1913. 

Typical locality Southern Kan-su, Western China. 

Ears longer than in typical race, and, instead of being 
similar to the back in colour, more or less completely black, 
or black at the bases, with broad yellowish tips, and the 
margins of the upper half with a blackish or brownish 
band ; internally the margins covered with yellowish hair 
showing a more or less decided rufous tinge. Skull more 
massive, and longer in its auterior half; the nasals being 
narrower, longer, and articulating with only a small portion 
of the frontals. 

I. 3. 2. 6. Skull and skin, female. Ichang, Central 
China. May represent a distinct race. 

Presented ly F. W. Styan, Esq., 1901. 

3. 5. 15. 6. Skull and skin, immature. Sze-chuan, 

Western China. Same donor, 1903. 

II. 2. 1. 265. Skull and skin, female. KW. of Tan- 
chou, Kan-su ; collected by M. P. Anderson, Esq. Practically 
a topo-type. Presented hy the Duke of Bedford, ^.G^., 1911. 

11. 9. 8. 144. Skull and skin. Wen-chwan-hsien, Si-ho 
valley, western Sze-chuan ; same collector. Same history. 

C— Moschus moschiferus parvipes. 

Moschus parvipes, Hollisfrr, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xxiv, 
p. 1, 1911. 

Typical locality Korea. 

Smaller than preceding races, with more slender limbs 
and smaller hoofs; general colour rich and dark, and winter 
coat relatively short. 

97.10.3.58^ Body-skin. Korea; collected by Mr. 
J. Kalinowski. Purchased, 1897. 



Subfamily ii.— CERVIN^E. 

Liver without gall-bladder; in skull the canal situated 
within margin of eye-sockets, and leading into nose -chamber, 
with two orifices ; face-glands and lachrymal pits usually 



CERVID^ 9 

present ; * hemispheres of brain with numerous convo- 
lutions ; antlers present, except in Hydropotcs ; foot-glands 
usually present ; t no caudal or preputial glands. 

The following is a "key," mainly based on external 
characters, to genera here recognised : — 

A. Antlers absent in females ; muzzle with at least 
a small bare muffle. 

a. Upper canines tusk-like in males. 

rt'. Antlers wanting ; naviculo-cuboid and cunei- 
form bones of tarsus separate Hydroj^ofea. 

hK Antlers present, surmounting long pedicles 
and relatively small ; naviculo-cuboid and 
cuneiform bones of tarsus united. 
a^. Antler-pedicles continued downwards as 

prominent converging frontal ridges Mnntiacufi. 

h". Antler-pedicles divergent, not continued 

downwards as prominent frontal ridges FJapliodiis. 

b. Upper canines, when present, not tusk-like. 

&\ Lateral metacarpals represented by their upper 

extremities.^ 

b-. Antlers with a simple basal or sub-basal 

brow-tine, and at least two other tines ; 

tail short or medium. 

b^. Antlers markedly palmate ; upper canines 

wanting ; hoofs of hind-feet united only 

at " heels " § by a close fold of skin Da ma. 

c^. Antlers not markedly palmate ; upper 
canines generally present || ; hind-hoofs 
united nearly throughout their basal 

depth by a deep interungual web Cervus. 

c^. Antlers not forking till some distance above 
base, and the front tine again forked ; tail 

long Elaph urns. 

c' . Lateral metacarpals represented by their lower 
extremities, 
c^. Vomer not dividing posterior aperture of 
nostrils into two chambers, 
c*. Antlers diverging at an angle of about 40° 
to mid frontal suture, 3-tined ; face-glands 
wanting ; muzzle normal ; tail rudi- 
mentary Cajn-eolus. 

cP. Antlers diverging nearly at right angles 
to mid frontal suture ; many tined and 
often palmate ; face-glands present ; 
muzzle pendulous, with very small bare 
muffle ; tail short Alces. 



* Wanting in Capreolus and one species of Pud a. 

t Wanting in Pudu. 

X Occasionally wanting. 

§ See vol. i, p. 172. 

II Wanting in subgenus Hyelaphus, and occasionally Axis. 



10 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

cV Vomer dividing posterior aperture of nostrils 
into two distinct chambers. 
(T\ Naviculo-cuboid of tarsus free from cunei- 
form, 
(1\ Metatarsal glands normally present, 
tarsal glands always developed, 
ff'. Antlers normally complex, with sub- 
basal snag, and front-prong of main 
fork developed at expense of hind 

one Odocoilcus. 

e*. Metatarsal glands wanting. 

€■', Antlers dichotomously forking, with- 
out subbasal snag and with more 

than two tines Blastocerus. 

e". Antlers simply forked Hijyj^ocamelui 

e'. Antlers simple spikes Mazama. 

c-\ Naviculo-cuboid of tarsus fused with 
cuneiform. Antlers minute ; no meta- 
tarsal, tarsal, or pedal glands Piulit. 

1!. Antlers present in females ; muzzle completely 
hairj'. 
Lateral metacarpals and vomer as in Odocoilcus. . . . Rangifer. 



II. Genus MUNTIACUS. 

Mimtiacus, Bafinesque, Analyse de la Nature, p. 56, 1815. 

Cervulus, Blainville, Bull. Soc. Philom. 1816, p. 77 ; Broolr, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 898 ; Eiitinieyer, Ahh. scliweiz. pal. Ges. 

vol. viii, p. 23, 1881; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. 

p. 531, 1891; LydeJi-ker. Deer of all Lands, p. 203, 1898; 

PococJi-, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 952. 
Muntjaccus, Gray, Thomson's Ann. Philos. vol. xxvi, p. 342, 1825. 
Stylocerus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 319, 

1827. 
Prox, Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 135. 
Muntjacus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 173, 1843. 

Small, higli-rumped deer, with the lateral metacarpals 
represented by their upper extremities (plesiometacarpaliau 
type), tusk-like upper canines, and small simple antlers, 
consisting of a basal brow-tine and a beam, and surmounting 
long bony pedicles, continued downwards as prominent 
convergent ridges on the frontal region of the skull ; in 
females the pedicles represented by tufts of bristly hair and 
small bony prominences. Suborbital face -glands large, a pair 
of frontal glands of variable size on the inner sides of the 
frontal ridges, and glands forming deep clefts on front of 
hind-pasterns, but no tarsal or metatarsal glands or tufts ; 
face long, with a large bare muffle extending up between the 



CERVIDvE 11 

nostrils, where its upper border is slightly convex ; ears 
rather small ; tail, long, thin, and pointed ; lateral hoofs 
small, rudimentary, or wanting, and no bones of the lateral 
digits retained ; coat uniformly coloured in adult, spotted 
with white in young, at least in the more typical forms. In 
the skull the lachrymal pits very large and deep, and the 
unossified vacuities of moderate extent ; naviculo-culwid of 
tarsus fused with cuneiform. 

The group is distributed all over the Indo-Malay 
countries, as far east as Sumatra and Borneo, and the greater 
part of China proper ; occurring also in Formosa, Ijut not 
in Japan. 

The species are distinguishable as follows : — 

A. Upper surface of tail chestnut or fulvous ; frontal 

glands present. 
a. Generally no nuchal stripe ; frontal glands larger ; 
lachrymal pits smaller; backs of ears dusky or 
yellow. 
a'. Size larger ; colour redder, backs of ears dusky M. muntjal:. 
h' . Size smaller; colour more fulvous; backs of 

ears yellow, like forehead M. lacrymans. 

h. Generally' a nuchal stripe ; frontal glands smaller ; 
lachrymal pits larger ; backs of ears blackish. 
a". Size smaller ; colour redder ; lachrymal pits 

slightlj' smaller than orbits M. rcevcsi. 

b". Size larger; colour browner and darker; 
lachrymal pits as large as or ratlier larger 
than orbits M. sinensis. 

B. Upper surface of tail black or blackish ; no frontal 

glands. 

a. Head not tufted ; tail shorter; size smaller M. fex. 

h. Head tufted ; tail longer ; size larger M. crinifrons. 

I. MUNTIACUS MUNTJAK. 

Cervus muntjak, Zimmermann, Geogr. Qescliichte, vol. ii, p. 131, 
1780 ; Boddaert, Elenclms Anim. vol. i, p. 136, 1785; H. Smith, 
Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 144, 1827 ; F. Cuvier, 
Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. iv, pis. 418, 419, 1839. 

Cervus muntjac, Gmelin, Linn.'s Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 180, 1788; Kerr, 
Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 307, 1793 ; Horsfield, Zool. Besearch. 
Java, pt. vi, pi. xxxiii, 1823; -/. B. Fischer, Synojj. Mamm. 
p. 454, 1829; Syhes, Proc. Zool. Sac. 18Sl,:p.l04:; Ogilby, Boyle's 
Illustr. Bot. Himalaya, p. 72, 1839 ; Elliot, Madras Joiirn. vol. x, 
p. 221, 1839 ; Miiller and Schlegel, Verh. Nederland. Ges. vol. i, 
p. 225, 1840 ; Wagner, Schreber's Sdugthiere, Stipj^l. vol. v, 
p. 388, 1855. 



12 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Muntiacus muntjak, Bafinesque, Analyse de la Nature, p. 56, 1815. 
(?) Cervulus subcornutus, Blainville, Bull. Soc. Philom. 1816, p. 77. 

Cervus (Stylocerus) muntjak, H. Smith, GrifitWs Ani)iwl Kingdom, 

vol. V, p. 319, 1827. 
(?) Cervus (Stylocerus) subcornutus, H. Smith., op. cit. p. 320, 

1827. 
Stylocerus muntjak, Jardine, Naturalist's Lihr., Mamm. vol. iii, 

p. 185, 1835.' 
(?) Stylocerus subcornutus, Jardine, loc. cit. 1835. 
Prox moschatus, Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 136. 

Prox muntjac, Sundevall, K. SvensTca Vet.-Ah. Handl. 1844, p. 85 ; 
Fitzinger, Sitzher. k. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 362, 
1872, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 41, 1879. 

Cervulus muntjac, Broohc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 38, 1878, p. 899 ; 
Anderson, Zool. Results Yunnan Exped. p. 387, 1878 ; Stcrndale, 
Mamm. India, p. 500, 1884; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. 
Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 286, 1884; W. L. Sclater, Cat. 
Mamm. hid. Mus. pt. ii, p. 173, 1891 ; Blanford, Fauna. Brit. 
India, Mamm. p. 552, 1891 ; Floiver and Lydehher, Study of 
Mammals, p. 317, 1891 ; Lydehher, Horns and Hoofs, p. 314, 
1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 203, 1898, Great and Small Game of 
India, etc. p. 238, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 257, 1907, 
Cat. Hume Bequest, Brit. Mus. p. 40, 1913 ; Percy, Big Game 
Shootiyig {Badminton Lihr .) , \o\. n, p. 268, 1894; Jentinh and 
Biittihofer, Notes Leyden Mus. vol. xix, p. 63, 1897 ; Holding, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1899, p. 295; Finn, ibid. 1903, vol. ii, p. 2; 
Manners- Smith, Jotirn. Bombay Asiat. Soc. vol. xvii, p. 237, 
1906 ; Comber, ibid. vol. xviii, p. 490, 1908 ; Ward, Becords of 
Big Game, ed. 6, p. 80, 1910, ed. 7, p. 80, 1914 ; Pococh, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 952. 

Muntiacus muntjac, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field AIus. {Field Mus. Zool. 
Pub. vol. viii) p. 38, 1907 ; Thomas and Wroughton, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1909, p. 392; Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nation. Mus. vol. xl, p. 73, 
1911. 

Typical locality Java. 

The type species. 

Size relatively large, the shoulder-height ranging from 
about 20 to 22 inches ; ears narrow and pointed ; crown not 
tufted ; frontal glands large ; tail relatively short (about 
7 inches) ; colour ranging from chestnut-red (deep rufous) 
to orange-tawny, with a brown or black streak down the 
front of each antler-pedicle, and in a corresponding position 
in females, a pale crown-patch, and a grizzled nuchal area ; 
insides of ears, chin, upper part of throat, buttocks, inner 
sides of thighs, inner surfaces of fore-legs to knees, and 
under side of tail white ; lateral hoofs very small ; lachrymal 
pits occupying only lower half of lachrymal bone. 



CEKVID^ 13 

The range includes India, Burma, Lhe ]\Ialay Peninsula, 
Siam, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, etc. 




Fig. 3. — Head op Indian Muntjac {Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis). 
From a photograph leut by the Bombay Natural History Society. 

Our knowledge of several of the races is too imperfect to 
admit of the drawing up of a satisfactory and trustworthy "key." 



14 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



A.— Muntiacus muntjak muntjak. 

Muntjacus vaginalis, Horsfield, Zool. Bcscarch. Java, figs, a and 6, 

1824 ; nee Cervus vaginalis, Boddaert. 
Cervulus vaginalis. Gray, Proc. Zool. Sac. 1850, p. 234, Ann. Mag. 

Nat. Hisf. ser. 2, vol. v, p. 425, 1850, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. 

p. 217, 1852; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 263, 

1862 ; 7iec Cervus vaginalis, Boddaert. 
Cervulus muntjac tvpicus. Ward, Records of Big Game, eel. 6, p. 80, 

1910, ed. 7, p. 80, 1914. 

Muntjac ; Kakar ; Barking Deer ; Rib-faced Deer. 




Pig. 4. — Skull and Antlers of Muntjac (Muntiacus ymintjal;). 

Typical locality Java. 

Size large (length of hind-foot 11^ inches); general 
colour very dark rufous, without light rings to the hairs, 
so that there is no speckling; antlers larger than in any 
other race, the maximum recorded length heing lOf inches. 
Basal length of skull 8| inches, of female 7| inches. 



CERVID.E 15 

9. 1. 5. 854. Skill. raugandaiaii, Dirk do Vries Bay, 
Java ; collected by G. C. Shortridge, Esq. 

Presented hj W. E. Bahton, Esq., 1909. 

9, 1. 5. 855. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 1124. Frontlet and antlers, the latter very large. 
Same locality and collector. Sdine history. 

9. 1. 5. 1125. A similar specimen, l)ui with smaller 
antlers. Same locality and collector. Same history. 

10. 4. 6. 71. Frontlet and antlers. Kangean Island, east 
of Java; same collector. Presented by 0. Tho7nas, Esq., 1910. 

10. 4. 6. 72. A similar specimen. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

10. 4. 6. 73. Another similar specimen. Same locality 

and collector. Same history. 

B.— Muntiacus muntjak moschatus. 

Cervulus uioschatns, Blainville, Bull. Soc. Pliilom. 1816, p. 77. 
Muntiacus moschatus, Lyon, Proc. U.S. N'd. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 582, 
1907. 

Typical locality Sumatra. 

Type in Museum of Eoyal College of Surgeons. 

A very large race, based on an immature skull, still 
retaining the last two pairs of milk-molars (No. 1469, Mus. 
E. Coll. Surg.). The external ridge of the jugal arcade is 
stated to be thicker and more prominent than in M. m. 
vaginalis ; colour apparently much the same as in next race. 

No specimen in collection. 

C— Muntiacus muntjak bancanus. 

Cervulus muntjac, Jentinlc, Notes Leyden Mus. vol. xiii, p. 209, 1891 ; 

Willinli, Natuurh. Tijdsclir. Nederlandscti'Tndie, vol. xlv, p. 189, 

1905. 
Muntiacus bancanus, Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 582, 

1907, vol. xl, p. 72, 1911. 

Typical locality Banka Island ; also occurs on Billiton 
Island. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Closely allied to M. m. moschatus, but smaller ; skull 
similar to that of M. m. ruhidios (infra, p. 16), but the 



16 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

iuteipteiygoid space uarrower, and the laclirynio-maxillary 
suture longer. General colour rich rufous (between hazel 
and ferruginous), darker on middle line of liack and paler on 
flanks ; on neck and shoulders the ferruginous-hazel washed 
with blackish ; crown bright ferruginous hazel. 

In his second mention of this muntjac Lyon refers to it 
as a smaller race of ]\l. m. ruhidus. 

No specimen in collection. 

D.— Muntiacus muntjak pleiharicus. 

Cervulus pleiharicus, KoJilbrugge, NatuurJc. Tijdschr. Nederlandsch- 

Indie, vol. Iv, pt. 2, p. 192, pi. ii, fig. 1, 1896. 
Muntiacus pleiharicus, Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 583, 

1906, vol. xxxiii, p. 550, 1907, vol. xl, p. 71, 1911. 

Typical locality Pleihari, South-eastern Borneo. 

A relatively small yellowish or ochre-coloured form, with 
an indistinct dark brown dorsal stripe; antler-pedicles 
short ; basal length of skull from about 6f to 7i^g inches 
(171-178 mm.). 

No specimen in collection definitely referable to this 
race. 

E.— Muntiacus muntjak rubidus. 

Muntiacus rubidus, Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol, xl, p. 73, 1911. 

Typical locality Pamukang Bay, S.E. Borneo. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Larger than the preceding race, with the general colour 
deep shining rufous (hazel of Lyon), darkening on middle 
line of back and everywhere suftused with blackish ; whole 
frontal area between antler-pedicles (which are of normal 
length) showing a tendency to become black ; antlers 
relatively short ; females paler, with less darkening on 
middle line of back ; basal length of skull about 7^ inches 
(185 to 186 mm.). 

The skull, which is very similar in this respect to the 
somewhat smaller one of M. m. hancanus, differs from that 
of 3f. 1)1. pleiharicus by its superior size, longer and stouter 
antler-pedicles, and the presence of a distinct concavity in 
the profile at the base of the nasals. This muntjac is 
inferior in size to the Sumatran M. m, moschahis.. 



CEKVID.E 17 

According to Kolilbrugge, its disliiicLiie.ss I'runi J/, m. 
pleilw.ricus is recognised by the natives of Borneo. 

79. 5. 3. 21. Frontlet and antlers. Borneo; collected by 
A. H. Everett, Esq. Purchased, 1879. 

S7. 2. 10. o. Skull and antlers. Eejang Valley, North 
Borneo ; collected by H. B. Low, Esq. FurcJiascd, 1887. 

89. 1. 8. 8. Skull and skin, female. Baram, North 
Borneo ; collected by Dr. C. Hose. 

FurcJiascd (Ckrrard), 1889. 

92. 2. 7. 19. Skull and skin, female. Mount Dulit, 
North Borneo; same collector. FurcJiascd (Gerrard), 1892. 

93. o. 4. 10. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Spitang, 
North Borneo ; collected by A. H. Everett, Esq. The frontal 
area between tlie pedicles of the antlers is rufous. 

Furchased {Gerrard), 1893. 

94. 6. 12. 11. Skull, with antler-pedicles, and skin. 
Mount Mulu, Baram Valley, E. Sarawak, N. Borneo ; 
collected by Dr. Hose. Whole area between antler-pedicles 
black ; the black continuing down nape of neck. 

FurcJiascd {Gerrard), 1894. 

95. 5. 7. 5. Skull and skin, with antlers in latter, 
immature. Miri Valley, Sarawak, N. Borneo ; collected 
by Dr. Hose. Forehead and neck coloured as in last 
specimen. FurcJiascd {Gerrard), 1895. 

95. 5. 7. 6. Skeleton. Mount Skiwa, Sarawak ; same 
collector. Same Jiistonj. 

95. 12. 8. 1. Skull and skin, immature. Baram; same 
collector. Same Jiistonj. 

99. 12. 9. 83. Skull, with very small antlers, and skin. 
Mount Dulit ; same collector. The whole frontal area 
between the black pedicle-streaks is dusky, with a tinge of 
rufous. FurcJiascd {Gerrard), 1899, 

6. 2. 2. 11. Skull, imperfect, with milk-molars, and 
skin. Mount Dulit ; same collector. 

FurcJiascd {Gerrard), 1900 

8. 7. 17. 24. Skull, with cheek-teeth much worn, and 
skin, to which the minute antlers are attached. North 
Borneo. This specimen indicates that the antlers in this 
race are generally small. 

F resented hy tJic BritisJi j\'ortJi Borneo Coiiipany, 1908. 
IV. c 



18 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

* * * *. Skin, young in spotted coat. Miii, Sarawak ; 
collected by Dr. Hose. Purchased. 

F.— Muntiacus muntjak robinsoni, subsp. n. 

Typical locality Ehio Linga Archipelago. 

Of the approximate size of M. m. eurvostylis {Infra), but 
with very long and slender antler-pedicles ; basal skull-length 
7 inches, in female 6| inches ; length of upper tooth-row 
2 j'g inches, in female 2^q ; upper part of forehead and bases 
of ears in female dull dusky chestnut. 

9. 4. 1. 505. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Bintang 
Island, Ehio Linga Archipelago, Malaya ; collected by H. C. 
Eobinson, Esq. Basal length of skull 7 inches, length of 
upper series of cheek-teeth 2-j^ inches. 

Presented hy the Government of the Federated Malay 

States, 1909. 

9. -4. 1. 506. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 
collector. Type. Basal length of skull 6^ inches, length of 
upper series of cheek-teeth 2^^ inches. Samr, history. 

G. — Muntiacus muntjak peninsulae, subsp. n. 

Typical locality Pulu Pangkor, off ]\Ialay Peninsula. 

A very large race, with moderately stout antler-pedicles 
and antlers ; basal skull-length in type (female) 7^ inclies ; 
length of upper series of cheek-teeth about 2^ inclies ; * 
upper part of forehead and bases of ears (in female) Ijright 
chestnut. 

79. 11. 21. 256. Skull and skin, immature ; the former 
still retaining milk-teeth. Wellesley l*roviuce, Malay 
Peninsula ; collected by Dr. J. Cantor. 

Transferred from India Museum, 1879. 

3. 2. 6. 78. Skull, with antlers. Biserat, Malay 
Peninsula. The cheek-teeth are but little worn, and of 
approximately the same size as in the next specimen. 

Presented hy Messrs. H. C. Bohinson and 
N. Annandale, 1903. 

10. 10. 1. 106. Skull and skin, female. Pulu Pangkor, 

* This dimension varies considerably with age in all the races. 



GERYID.E 19 

off Malay Peninsula ; collected by H. C. Eobinson, Esq. 
Type. Basal skull-length 7^ inches, length of upper tooth- 
row 2^ inches. The contrast between this specimen, in which 
the teeth are much worn, and the type of M. ni. rohinsoni 
(9. 4. 1. 506) in the matter of size is very striking. 

Presented hy the Government of the Federated Malay 

States, 1910. 
0. 8. 4. 12. Prontlet and antlers, the latter very large. 
Singapore. This specimen, which represents an aged animal, 
would apparently agree well in size with the preceding. 

Presented by Dr. C. Hose, 1900. 

H,— Muntiacus muntjak curvostylis. 

Cervulus curvostylis, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 94, 1872, 

Hand-List Biiminants Brit. Mus. p. 165, 1873. 
Cervulus muntjac curvostylis, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 81, 1910, ed. 7, p. 80, 1914. 

Typical locality Siam. 

Founded on a deformed skull, in which the antler- 
pedicles are abnormally bent downwards, backwards, and 
outwards. Size medium (length of upper row of cheek-teeth 
in type 2^g inches) ; general colour orange-tawny, fading 
to huffish on neck and under-parts. 

61. 6. 1. 8 (1619, rt). Skull, with antler-pedicles 
(deformed) and bases of antlers. Pachebone, Siam ; collected 
by Monsieur Mouhot. Type. Purchased, 18G1. 

78. 6. 17. 17. Skull and skin, immature. Siam or 
Cambodia. Presented hy Monsieur Pierre, 1878. 

98. 10. 21. 7. Skin, immature female. Chantabori, 
Siam. Presented hy Capt. S. S. Flower, 1898. 

14. 6. 18. 36. Frontal portion of skull, with antlers. 
Mi-tau Forest, Eaheng, Siam ; collected by Karens. 

Presented hy C. S. Barton, Esq., 1914. 

14. 8. 22. 23. Body-skin. S. W. Siam. 

Presented, hy K. G. Gairdner, Esq., 1914. 



20 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

I. — Muntiacus muntjak grandicornis. 

Cervulus umntjac grandicornis, Lydc'k'ker, Field, vol. civ, p. 780, 1904, 
Game AtiimaJs of India, etc. p. 261, 1907; Ward, Records of 
Big Game, ed. 6, p. 80, 1910, ed. 7, p. 80, 1914. 

Muntiacus grandicornis, Lyon, Proc, U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, 
p. 583, 1907 ; Wroughton, M.S. 1914. 

Typical locality Amhcist district, Burma. 

A large race (basal length of skull about Ti iuches, length 
of upper row of chcek-teetli about 2^^ inches), with very 
large and massive antlers (length in type Gj inches, basal 
girth 4|^ iuches) ; general colour tiiwny ochery, with tlie 
grizzled nuchal area not extending l)e]iind tlie shoulders ; 
hairs dull pale brown at the liase, and the basal portion not 
paler than that above. The size is approximately as in the 
typical Javan race, and larger than in Indian muntjacs ; 
while the colour is much duller and browner than in the 
Bornean and Malay races, with more brown on the fronts of 
the legs than is usually present in the latter.. 

4. 9. 2.3. 1. Skull, imperfect at hind part of base, with 

antlers. Thouagyen Forest, Amherst district, Burma. Type. 

PrcscRicd hy D. H. Allen, Esq., 1904. 

79. 11. 21. 190. Skull, with antlers, which are small. 
The cheek-teeth are less worn than in the preceding specimen, 
but the length of the whole row is approximately the same, 
although the basi-cranial length is less (7 inches). 

Transferred from India Mnseum, 1879. 

94. 12. 19. 6-7. Two skulls, with antlers, provisionally 

identified with this race. Lower Chindwin Valley, Upper 

Burma. In the second specimen (7) the antlers are small, 

the pedicles very slender, and the molars but slightly worn. 

Presented lij C. F. Gilbert, Esq., 1894. 

96. 5. 6. 1. Fragmentary skull and skin, young. Thibau, 
western Shan States. Presented hy E. W. Oates, Esq., 1896. 

98. 2. 13. 1. Skin, mounted. Burma. 

Purchased (Gerrard), 1898. 

14. 12. 8. 239. Skull and skin. Tliaget, Little Tenasserim 
Eiver ; collected by G. C. Shortridge, Esq. 

Presented hy the Bomhay Natnrcd History Society, 1914. 

14. 12. 8. 240. Skull and skin. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 



CERVID.^ 21 

14. 12. 8. 241. Skull and skin, female. Same locality 

and collector. Same history. 

14. 12. 8. 242. Skull and skin, female. Same locality 

and collector. Same history. 

J. — Muntiacus muntjak vag-inalis. 

Cei'vus vaginalis, Boddaerf, Elenchus Anini. vol. i, p. 136, 1785. 
Cervus moschatus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, 

p. 147, 1827 ; nee Cervulus moschatus, Blainville. 
Cervus (Stylocerus) moschatus, H. Smith, Gri-ffith'' s Animal Kingdom , 

vol. V, p. 319, 1827. 
Cervus ratwa, Hodgson, Asiat. Researches, vol. xviii, pt. 2, p. 139, 1833, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 99; Ogilbij, BoijWs lUustr. Bot. 

Himalaya, p. Ixxiii, 1839; Schinz, Synop. Mamm. vol. ii, 

p. 549, 1844. 
Cervus melas, Ogilby, Boyle's Illustr. Bot. Himalaya, p. Ixxiii, 1839. 
Stylocerus ratwa, Hodgson, Jonrn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. x, 

p. 914, 1841. 
Muntjacus vaginalis. Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 173, 1843, 

Cat. Hodgson Collect, p. 31, 1846. 
(?) Cervus stylocerus, Schinz, Synoj]. Mamm. vol. ii, p. 549, 1844. 
Prox rafcva, Sundevall, K. Svenslca Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1844, p. 85, 1846 ; 

Fitzinger, Sitzher. h. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii. pt. 1, p. 362, 

1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 41, 1879. 
Prox albipes, Sundevall, lac. cit. 1846 ; Fitzinger, oj). cit. vol. Ixviii, 

p. 362, 1873, vol. Ixxix, p. 42, 1879. 
Prox stylocerus, Sundevall, loc. cit. 1846 ; Fitzitiger, loc. cit. 1873 

and 1879. 
Prox melas, Sundevall, loc. cit. 1846. 
Stylocerus nauntjacus, Kelaart, Podromus Faunce Zeylan. p. 85, 1852 ; 

nee Cervus muntjak, Zimmermann. 
Cervulus vaginalis, Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 536; Blyth, 

Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, p. 154, 1863 ; Swinhoe, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 652, 1870, p. 644. 
Styloceros muntjac, Cantor, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xv, 

p. 269, 1846; nee Cervus muntjak, Zimmermann. 
Cervulus moschatus. Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 65, 1850, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 234, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 218, 1852, 

Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 93, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants 

Brit. Mus. p. 163, 1873 ; Horsfield, Cat. Mamm. E. India Mus. 

p. 190, 1851 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 263, 1862 ; 

nee Blainville. 
Cervulus aureus, Jerdon, Mamm. India, p. 264, 1867; Blyth, Cat. 

Mamm. and Birds Btirma, p. 46, 1875 ; Sterndale, Mamm. 

India, p. 500, 1884 ; Percy, Big Game Shooting {Badminton 

Lihr.), vol. ii, p. 288, 1894 ; partim. 
Cervulus muntjac tamulicus, Ward, Records of Big Game, eil. 6, 

p. 81, 1910. 



2^ CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Muntiacus vaginalis, Wroughton, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
voL xxi, p. 825, 1912; Byley (Miss), ibid. vol. xxii, p. 512, 1913; 
Dodsrvorth, ibid. vol. xxii, p. 747, 1914. 

Cervulus muntjac vaginalis, LydckJccr, Ward's Eecords of Big Game, 
eel. 7, p. 80, 1914. 

Typical locality Bengal. 

No specimens from the typical locality are available, so 
that the identification of the sub-Himalayan ratwa (from 
which the definition is taken) with this race is provisional. 

Somewhat smaller than M. m. graiidicomis, with slighter 
antlers, and the general colour bright chestnut (cinnamon 
rufous), scarcely paler on flanks, but distinctly so on under- 
parts ; hairs pale at base ; length of upper series of cheek- 
teeth about 2\ inches ; basicranial length about 7j inches. 

Some of the specimens of which the locality is unknown 
may belong to one or other of the next two races. 

* * * *. Skin, female, mounted. India. No history. 
25, a. Skin, India. 

Bequeathed hy Gen. T. Hardioieke, 1835. 

* * * *. Skull, Mnth antlers, and skin. Nepal. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 
43. 1. 12. 123. Skin. Nepal. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1843. 

43. 1. 26. 13. Skull, with antlers. Nepal. Type of 

Cervulus ratwa. Same history. 

45. 1. 8. 189 (701, h). Skull, with minute antlers. Nepal. 

Same donor, 1845. 
45. 1. 8. 190 (701, g). Skull, with small antlers. Nepal. 

Same history. 
45. 1. 8. 191 (701, i). Skull, young. Nepal. 

Same history. 
45. 1. 8. 192 (701, h). Frontlet and antlers. Nepal. 

Senne history. 
45. 1. 8. 193 (701, y). Frontlet and antlers. Nepal. 

Same liistory. 

45. 1. 8. 336. Skin and skull (47. 4. 10. 6), immature 

female, skull imperfect. Nepal. Same history. 

701, d, r, s. Three skulls. Nepal. Same history. 

48. 6. 11. 24. Skull, immature. Sikliim. 

Same donor, 1848. 



CERVID.E 23 

48. 6. 11. 25. Skull, young. Sikhini. Same liistory. 

56. 5. 6. 6o. Skull, female. Darjiling ; collected by W. 
Theobald, Esq. Presented hy Dr. T. Oldham, 1856. 

56.5.6.64. Skull, immature female. Same locality and 
collector. Same Idstory. 

58. 6. 24. 11-13. Three skins, immature. Sikliim. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1858. 

58. 6. 24. 14. Skin. Sikliim. Same history. 

58. 6. 25. 15. Skull and skin, young. Sikhim. 

Same history. 

58. 6. 24. 182-184. Three skin-covered frontlets, with 
antlers. Sikhim. Same history. 

■ 79. 11. 21. 191. Skull, with antlers, and head-skin. 
Dehra Dun ; collected by Capt. J. Hutton. 

Transferred from India Museum, 1879. 

79. 11. 21. 192. Skull, imperfect, and head-skin, female. 
Same locality and collector. Same history. 

79. 11. 21. 193. Skin, young in spotted coat. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

91. 8, 7. 45. Skull, imperfect, with large antlers. Berar. 
Length of upper series of cheek-teeth 2;^ inches ; the antlers 
are smaller and their pedicles rather longer than in the type 
of M. m. grandicornis (4. 9. 23. 1). 

Presented hy A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1891. 

91. 8. 7. 46. Skull, with antlers. Mussurie. 

Same history. 

91. 8. 7. 47. Skull, with antlers. Craro Hills ; collected 
by G. P. Sanderson, Esq. Same history. 

91. 8. 7. 48. Skull, with antlers. Same locality and 
collector. Sanne history. 

0. 7. 4. 1. Skin, mounted, melanistic phase. Darjiling. 
Presented hy M. G. Jukes, Esq., 1900. 

12. 10. 31. 14. Skull, with antlers, which measure Qh inches 
in length, with a girth of 3, and a tip-to-tip interval of 
3| inches. Bequeatlied hy A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912. 

14. 11. 31. 3. Skull and skin. Twinywa, near Pyawbwe ; 
collected by F. E. W. Venning, Esq. 

Presented hy the Bomhay Natural History Society, 1914. 

The place of origin of the two following specimens is 
unknown, so that they cannot be definitely classed : — 



24 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

701, cm. Skull, with large antlers. From an old skin. 

No history. 
701,/. Skull, female. No historj/. 

K.— Muntiacus muntjak aureus. 

Cervus aureus, H. Smith, Griffitli's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, 
p. 148, 1827. 

Cervus (Stylocerus) aureus, H. Smith, op. cif. vol. v, p. 320, 1827 
(locality wrong). 

Stylocerus aureus, Jardinc. Naturalist's Lihr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 185, 
1835. 

Cervus albipes, Wagner, Sclireher's Sciugthiere, Suppl. vol. iv, p. 294, 
1844 ; Schinz, Synop. Mamm. vol. ii, p. 549, 1844. 

Cervulus aureus, Jerdon, Mamm. India, p. 264, 1867, partim. 

Cervulus tamulicus, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 94, 1872, 
Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 165, 1873. 

Muntiacus aureus, Wroughton, M.S. 1914. 

Typical locality not definitely known, l)ut some part of 
Southern India. 

Size medium ; general colour ocliery buff (clay-colour 
tinged with ochery), darker on middle of back, with the 
nuchal grizzled area extending behind the shoulders on 
to the back; under- parts paler; hairs greyish white at 
base. 

Typical locality of C. tamulicus Dekhan ; C. albipes was 
stated by its describer to be from " Bombay and Poena." 

701, h. Skull, with antlers in velvet. Dekhan. ^ Type of 
0. famvlicus. Presented hy Col. IV. H. Syhcs, abont 1842. 

L.— Muntiacus muntjak malabaricus, subsp. u. 

Muntiacus malabaricus, Wroughton, M.S. 1914. 

This race is to be attributed to Mr. Wroughton, by whose 
courtesy the publication of his description has been permitted 
here. 

Typical locality Nagarhol, Coorg, Southern India ; the 
range includes the Kanara and Malabar coast. 

" Generally similar to M. m. aureus, but the size larger 
than in either that race or M. m. vaginalis and the prevalent 
colour deep chestnut (l»etwoen raw sienna and tawny), witii 



CERVID.E 25 

the grizzling exteudiug all over the back and part of the 
flanks ; under-parts drah ; hairs white at base." — E. C. W. 

13. S. 22. 133. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Nagarhol, 

Coorg ; collected by G. C. Shortridge, Esq., Feb., 1913. Type. 

Pirsenfrjl hj the Bomhay Natural History Soclefi/, 1913. 

M. — Muntiacus muntjak, subsp. 

Typical locality Island of Hainan, China. 

The two following specimens indicate a large rufous 
muntjak apparently allied to the Bornean and Malay races 
of the present species : — 

70. 2. 10. 25-26. Two skins. Hainan; collected by 
Ti. Swinhoe, Esq. Purchased, 1870. 

ir. MUNTIACUS LACRYMANS. 

Cervulus lacrymans, Milne-Edwards, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vii, 
p. 93, 1871, Bech. Mamm. p. 348, pis. Ixiii and Ixiv, 1874; 
Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 40, 1878, p. 899; Andersoji, 
Zool. Results Yunnan Exped. p. 838, 1878; Lydeliker, Horns 
and Hoofs, p. 316, 1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 208, 1898,* Game 
Animals of India, etc. p. 263, 1907 ; HilzJieimer, Abh. Mus. 
Naturk. Magdeburg, vol. i, p. 66, 1906 ; Ward, Records of Big 
Game, ed. 6, p. 81, 1910, ed. 7, p. 81, 1914. 

Muntiacus lacrymans, Allen, Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll. vol. xl, 
p. 204, 1912. 

Typical locality Sze-chuan, Western China. 

Type in Paris Museum. 

Smaller (shoulder-height about 19 inches) and yellower 
than the preceding species, with the whole forehead (exclu- 
sive of the black pedicle-streaks), occiput, and backs of ears 
yellowish brown or yellow ; lower part of face varying from 
rufous to blackish ; no dark neck-stripe ; general body-colour 
bright speckled rufous brown, with a tinge of bluish ; lachry- 
mal pits of skull smaller than orbits, from which they are 
separated by a narrow bar, and not occupying entire surface 
of lachrymal bone; basal length of skull typically about 
7 inches,t length of upper series of cheek-teeth not recorded 
in typical race. Antlers always small. 

* C. lachrymans. 
t Teste Brooke. 



26 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

The following three races are apparently distinguish- 
able : — 

A. Head and neck less yellow ; size apparently larger M. 1. lacryiuans. 

B. Head and neck more yellow ; size, at least fre- 

quently, smaller. 
a. Lower part of face mostly rufous ; general 

colour lighter ; size larger M. I. sclatcri. 

h. Lower part of face blackish ; general colour 

darker ; size smaller M. I. tecsdalei. 



A.— Muntiacus lacrymans lacrymans. 

Typical locality Sze-chuau. 
Type in Paris Museum, 

Head and neck apparently less yellow than in next race 
and size larger. 

No specimen in collection, 

B.— Muntiacus lacrymans sclateri. 

Cervulus sclateri, Swinlioe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872, p. 814 ; Brooke, 
ibid. 1874, p. 40; Gray, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. 
p. 165, 1873; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, 
p, 173. 1891 ; Li/del-ker, Field, vol. ex, p. 677, 1907, Proc. Zool 
Soc. 1910, p. 989. 

Typical locality mountains near Ningpo, Southern China ; 
abundant in the hills of the An-hwei district. 

Apparently distinguished from the typical race by its 
smaller size and by the more strongly marked contrast 
between the yellow of the forehead and the rufous or olive 
of the neck ; lower part of face typically rufous ; basal 
length of skull probably about 61 inches ; length of upper 
series of cheek-teeth 2 inches. 

72. 9. 3. 1. Slvull, imperfect, and skin (formerly mounted). 
Ningpo, Southern China ; collected by E. Swinhoe, Esq. 
Type. Length of upper series of cheek-teeth 2 inches. 

Purchased, 1872. 

72. 9. 3. 3. Skin, formerly mounted, and skeleton, 
young. Same locality and collector. Same histonj. 

7. 9. 19. 1. Head, mounted, subadult. An-hwei (Ngan- 
hwei) district; Central China. 

Presented hj J. II. Tecsdale, Esq., 1907. 



CERVIDiE 27 

9. 6. 9. 1. Skin, mounted, immature. Same locality. 
The lower part of the face is darker than in the preceding 
specimen, perhaps a character of immaturity. 

Same donor, 1909, 
1. 3. 2. 8. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Ningpo. 

Presented ly F. W. Sfijan, Esq., 1901. 

1. o. 2. 9. Skin, with imperfect skull in scalp. Foochow, 
Fokien, South-eastern China. Same Jdstory. 

2. 6. 10. 61. Skull, with antlers, and skin, immature. 
Chung-yung, southern Hupei. The lower portion of the face 
is more dusky than in the type and the upper portion of the 
ears brown— features which may he due to immaturity ; the 
last two milk-molars are still in use. Collected January, 
1902. Same donor, 1902. 

2. 6. 10. (31. Skull, with antlers, and skin of a somewhat 
older individual. Same locality. The ears are mainly 
yellow. Sainc history. 

5. 10. 27. 1. Skull, imperfect, with antlers. Wan-shan- 
Chang, China. Presented by H. Brelich, Esq., 1905. 

5. 10. 27. 2. Skull, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 

C— Muntiacus lacrymans teesdalei, subsp. n. 

Typical locality Tatung, Yang-tsi Valley. A small dark- 
coloured form, retaining the wholly yellow ears, but with the 
entire lower part of the face blackish brown, nearly like 
the back ; basal length of skull 5 1 inches ; length of upper 
series of cheek-teeth 1| inches. 

May represent a distinct species. 

10. 6. 16. 1. Skull, with antlers, and skin, of a fully 
adult auimah Tatung, Yang-tsi Valley. Type. 

Presented by J. H. Teesdcde, Esq., 1910. 

10. 6. 16. 2. Skull, with antlers, of a somewhat younger 

individual. Same locality. Same history. 

in. MUNTIACUS EEEVESI. 

Cervus reevesii, Ogilhy, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1838, p. 105. 

Prox reevesii, SimdevaU, K. Svensl-a Vet.-Al'. Handl. 1844, p. 185, 

1846; Fitziuger, Sitzber. k. AJi. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, 

p. 362, 1872, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 60, 1879. 



28 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Cei'vulus reevesii,* Gray, Knowsleij Menagerie, p. 65, 1850, Cat. 
TJngulata Brit, Mus. p. 220, 1852, Cat. Buminants Brit. Has. 
p. 94, 1872, Hand-List Baminants Brit. Mus. p. 165, 1873; 
Swinlwe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 361; Brool-e, ibid. 1878, 
p. 899 ; Andei'son, Zool. Besults Yunnan Exjied. p. 388, 1878 ; 
W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 174, 1891; 
Lydekher, Horns and Hoofs, p. 316, 1893, Deer of All Lands, 
p. 208, 1898, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 989 ; PococJc, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1910, p. 954 ; Aohi, Annot. Zool. Jaiwn. vol. viii, p. 343, 
1913. 

Typical locality Canton, Eastern China. 

Smaller than the typical form of M. lacrymans, the 
shoulder-height being about 16 inches, the basal skull-length 
5f inches, and the length of the upper series of cheek-teeth 
1| to \\^ inches; skull shorter and widei^, with more divergent 
antlers, and larger lachrymal pits, which occupy the whole 
surface of the bone, and are larger than the orbits, with which 
they are in complete contact, not extending in advance of 
first line of anterior premolars ; nasals expanded laterally 
at junction with maxilla? ; nape usually with a distinct 
black stripe ; upper part of forehead cinnamon (pale rufous), 
and upper part of ears dusky ; general colour reddish 
chestnut, more or less full speckled with yellowish grey ; 
limbs blackish brown ; in females most of the backs of the 
ears and the greater part of the forehead blackish or black. 
The range includes Southern China and Formosa. 



A.~Muntiacus reevesi reevesi. 

Typical locality Canton, Eastern China. 
General characters those of the species ; forehead between 
black pedicle-streaks distinctly rufous; chin and throat 
white. 

50. 11. 22. 12. Skull, imperfect, and skin, female. China. 
Purchased {Zoological Society), 1850. 
53. 8. 29. 44. Skull and skin, female. Canton. 

Presented hi/ J. R. Reeves, Es(i., 1853. 
55. 12. 24. 283. Skull, imperfect, and skin. Canton. 
Type. Length of upper series of cheek-teeth 2 inches. 

Same history. 

* Or reevesi. 



CERVID/E 



29 



Gl. 1. 7. 1. Skull and skin, young. Anioy, China; 
collected by li. Swiulioe, Esq. The first molar is not yet 
in use. Purchased, 1861. 

72. 9. 3. 2. Skull and skin, female, in spotted coat. 
Ningpo ; same collector. Furchascd, 1872. 




A B 

Fig. 5. — Skull and Antlers of Reeves's Muntjac {Muntiacusreevesi), A, 

and Bridgeman's Muntjac (M. sinensis), B. 

From Lytlekker, Proc. Zool. Sue. 1910. 



72. 9. 3 
collector. 

1524, a. Skeleton. 



0. 7. 6. 2. Skull 
South-eastern China. 



8. Skeleton, subadult. Same locality and 

tSame liidory. 
Menagerie specimen. 

Purchased {Zoological Socictij). 
and skin, female. Foochow, Fokien, 
Presented hy C, B. Rickett, Esq, 1900. 



30 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

0. 7. 6. 3. Skull, with milk-molars and first molar in 
use, young female. Same locality. Same history. 

1. 3. 2. 7. Skin, female. Foochow. 

Presented hj F. W. Styan, Esq., 1901. 
1. 3. 2. 10. Skull, imperfect, with much worn cheek- 
teeth, and skin, female. Ningpo. Same history. 
1. 3. 2. 11. Skull, imperfect, and skin of a younger 
female. Same locality. Same history. 
1. 3. 2. 12. Skull, imperfect, with milk -molars, and skin, 
female. Same locality. Same history. 
4. 5, 7. 1. Skin, subadult, mounted. China. 

Presented hy the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1904, 

B.— Muntiacus reevesi pingcshiangicus. 

Cervnlus reevesi pingshiangicus, Hilzheimer, Abh. Mus. Naturk. 

Magdeburg, vol. i, p. 169, 1906. 
Cervulus reevesi, var. LydekJcer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 991. 

Typical locality Pingshiang, Central China. 

General colour similar to that of typical race, but the 
forehead between the black lines uniformly leather-brown 
without a rufous tinge ; backs of ears streaked with blackish, 
in females wholly blackish ; chin, throat, and under side of 
neck yellowish white ; under-parts brownish grey. 

10. 10. 22. 3. Skull and skin, female, provisionally 
referred to this race. Feng Luang Shan, An-hwei, Central 
China. Presented hy Commander the Hon. B. 0. B. 

Bridgeman, B.N., 1910. 

C— Muntiacus reevesi mierurus. 

Cervulus mierurus, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1875, p. 421, 1876, 
p. 696. 

Typical, and only, locality Formosa. 

Distinctly richer and darker in colour than either of the 
races from the Chinese mainland. The supposed shortness 
of the tail, which constituted the grounds for separating the 
island from the mainland form, turned out to be the result 
of an individual injury. 

62. 12. 24. 3. Skull and skin, subadult, female. Formosa ; 
collected by E. Swinhoe, Esq. Purchased, 1862, 



GEKVID.E 31 

70. 2. 10. 82, So, and 85. Three frontlets, with antlers. 
Formosa ; same collector. Purchased, 1870. 

93. 12. 5. 7. Skull and skm. Formosa; collected by- 
Mr. P. A. Hoist. A menagerie specimen. 

Presented hj H. SeeboJim, Esq., 1893. 

93. 12. 5. 8. Skull and skin, young. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

94. 11. 22. 7. Skull and skin, female. Tougapo, southern 
Formosa; same collector. Piir chased, 1^^ 4:. 

8. 4. 1. 55. Skull, imperfect, and skin. Central Formosa ; 
collected by Mr. A. Owston. Pnrchaseel. 

8. 4. 1. 57. Skull, imperfect posteriorly, with antlers, 
and skin. Banhora, central Formosa ; same collector. 

Same history. 

IV. MUNTIACUS SINENSIS. 

Cervulus sinensis, Hilzheimer, Zool. Anz. vol. xxix, p. 297, 1905, 
Ahh. Mus. NaturJc. Magdeburg, vol. i, p. 165, pi. ii, fig. 1, 1906, 

Cervulus bridgemani, Lydehher, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 989, Abstr. 
p. 38 ; Ward, Bccords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 82, 1910, ed. 7, p. 82, 
1914. 

Typical locality, probably the Hwai Mountains (Hwei- 
Yas Shan), An-hwei (Ngau-hwei) district of Central China ; 
the type specimen was a captive individual at Kiu-kiang, 
near Hankau, to the south of the Yang-tsi. 

Type in Magdeburg Museum. 

Allied to the preceding species, but larger and darker ; the 
shoulder- height being about 19 inches, and the general colour 
blackish brown mingled with yellow, owing to the presence 
of yellow subterminal rings to the otherwise dark hairs 
of the middle of the back and rump ; in females the annu- 
lated area includes the flanks ; whole forehead, occiput, and 
basal two-thirds of backs of ears leather-yellow in males, 
blackish in females ; black frontal streaks uniting into a 
patch behind ears and continued posteriorly as the nuchal 
stripe. Antler-pedicles, at least frequently, more divergent 
than in 31. rccvesi, and nasals without lateral expansion at 
first contact with maxilhe ; lachrymal pits as large as or 
rather larger than orljits, with which they are in contact 
only for a very small space, extending anteriorly some 



32 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

distance in advance of the line of the anterior upper molar ; 
basal lengtli of skull about 5^ inches (157 mm.), longer 
diameter of orbit 1| (32 mm.), of lachrymal pit 1^^ (30 mm.), 
lengtli of upper tooth-row 1 1 inches (48 • 5 mm.). 

This species (at all events as represented by M. hridgcmani) 
lives at high elevations, descending to lower levels only at 
periods of extreme cold in mid-winter. 

10. 5. 26. 2. Skull, with antlers, head-skin mounted, and 
body-skin. Hwai Mountains, An-hwei district. 

rrcsrntaJ hj Commander the Hon li. (>. J>. 
Bridf/rman, UN., lOlU. 

lU. 5. 26. 3. .Skin, mounted. S;ime locality. Type of 
C. hridgcmani. Same histori/, 

10. 10. 22. 2. Skull, female. Tai Kung Shan, An-hwei. 

Same history. 

V. MUNTIACUS YY.A:. 

Cervulus fese, Thomas and Doria, Ann. Miis. Gcnova, ser. 2, vol. A'ii, 
p. 92, 1889 ; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 534, 1891 ; 
Thomas, Atin. Miis. Geneva, vol. x, p. 945, pi. x, 1892 ; Lydekker, 
Horns and Hoofs, p. 315, 1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 209, 
pi. xvi, fig. 1, 1898, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 263, 1907; 
Gairdncr, J. Siam Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. i, p. 115, 1914. 

Typical locality mountains south-east of Muleyit, Tenas- 
seriin. 

Type in Genoa Museum. 

Differs from all the preceding species by the al)sence of 
frontal glands, the black middle line of upper surface of the 
tail, and the sepia-brown general colour; the tail being 
relatively short, the face-markings distinct, and the lower 
part of fronts of hind-legs with a white line. In both this 
and the next species the young are probably unspotted. 
Size approximately the same as in the Indian race of the 
type species. The following is an abbreviation of the 
original description : — 

General colour uniformly dark brown, with centre of 
crown, pedicles of antlers, occiput, and region round bases 
of the ears bright yellow ; a black line running up the inner 
side of each pedicle ; neck uniformly brown ; fore-legs brown 
superiorly, darkening to l)lack on the metacarpals, with the 



CEKYID^ 33 

terminal inch next the hoof white all round, and a line of 
scattered white hairs running up fronts to knees ; hind-legs 
similarly coloured, but with a distinct white line on fronts ; 
tail short, black above, white below and at sides, the two 
colours sharply contrasted ; under-parts brown, mixed with 
whitish on chin and inner surfaces of limbs. 

14. 8. 22. 32. Skin of rump and tail. Tenasserim border 
of Siam. The sole remnant of an animal killed by a leopard 
and eaten by coolies. 

Presented by K. G. Gairdner, Esq., 1914. 



VI. MUNTIACUS CRINIFEONS. 

Cervulus crinifrons, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1885, p. 1, pi. i ; Styan, 
ibid. 1886, p. 267 ; LydeTclcer, Horns and Hoofs, p. 317, 1893, 
Deer of All Lands, p. 210, pi. xvi, fig. 2, 1898; Wanl,Becords of 
Big Game, eel. 6, p. 82, 1910, ed. 7, p. 82, 1914. 

Typical locality near Ningpo, Eastern China. 

Distinguished from all other membfa-s of the group by its 
large size (shoulder-height from 24^ to, probably, 25 inches), 
and the tuft of long hairs on the forehead and crown of the 
head, which conceals the antler-pedicles and obsciu:es the 
markings of this area ; hair longer and coarser, ears shorter, 
more rounded, and more thickly haired on backs, tail much 
longer (9 inches), and lateral hoofs better developed than in 
any of the chestnut-coloured species. General colour dark 
sepia-brown, with a purple tinge, and the back finely 
speckled with rufous ; head-crest, ears, forehead, and cheeks 
bright orange-chestnut ; inner sides of thighs and sides and 
lower surface of tail white ; upper surface of tail and a 
stripe extending thence on to rump black. 

91. 3. 4. 1. Skin, mounted, and skeleton. Ningpo, 
Southern China ; collected by A. Michie, Esq., who presented 
the animal, when alive, to the Zoological Society. Type. 

Purchased., 1891. 



IV. 



34 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



III. Genus ELAPHODUS. 

Elaphodus, Milne-Edwards, Arch. Mas. Paris, vol. vii, p. 93, 1871, 
Eech. Mamm. p. 353, 1874; Gar rod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, 
p. 757; Brool-c,ibid. 1878, p. 899; Riltimeyer, Ahh. schiveiz.pal. 
Ges. vol. viii, p. 28, 1881 ; Lijdekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 212. 
1898 ; Pococlc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 955. 

Lophotragus, Stvinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 452. 

Nearly allied to Munfiacus, but the antlers so small that 
they scarcely project from the long tuft of hair on the crown 
of the head, and their long supporting pedicles diverging 
inferiorly, and not sending down long rib-like ridges on to 
frontals ; no frontal glands ; upper canines not everted at 
tips ; hair coarse and pithy ; ears broad, rounded, and thickly 
haired ; tail moderately long ; lateral hoofs present. The 
young are spotted along the middle line of the back. Tarsal 
bones as in Muntiacus. 

The genus, which is evidently less specialised than 
MnnHacAis, is restricted to China. 



ELAPHODUS CEPHALOPHUS. 

Elaphodus cephalophus, Milne-Edwards, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vii, 
p. 93, 1871, Eech. Mamm. p. 353, pis. Ixv-lxvii, 1874; Garrod, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 757; Brooke, ibid. 1878, p. 899; 
Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 313, 1893, Deer of All Lands, 
p. 213, 1898, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904, vol. ii, p. 166 ; Pocock, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 955 ; Allen, Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll. vol. xl, 
p. 203, 1912. 

The type and only species. 

Typical locality Sze-chuan, Western China. 

Type in Paris Museum. 

Size approximately the same as in the Indian Muntjac, 
the shoulder-height being from about 22 to 23 inches. 
General colour typically deep chocolate-brown, the hairs on 
head and neck having a narrow white ring near the tip 
whicli is wanting in those of the body behind the shoulder, 
hair of crest forming a nearly black horse-shoe on forehead, 
bordered by a grey line above each eye ; ears vvliitish 
internally, with a larger or smaller amount of pure white on 



CEltVlD/K 



35 



both suri'aces of the tips ; under surface and sides of tail, 
and inner sides of buttocks and thighs white. 
The races are distinguishable as follows : — 

A. Skull longer and naiTOwer. 

a. White area on ear-tips smaller. 

a'. Size larger; much white on tail E. c. cephalophms. 

h' . Size smaller ; less white on tail E. c. micliianus. 

1). White area on ear-tips larger E. c. fociensis. 

B. Skull shorter and broader, with difterently 

shaped lachrymal pits E. r. iclMiu/eiisis. 




.V/H/-Jf,"-!*.t«.f4'" 



Fig. G. — Head of Ningpo Tlfteu Deek 

(Elaphodiis cephalophus michianns). 

From Oaninl, I'roc. Xool. Soc. 1870. 



A.— Elaphodus cephalophus cephalophus. 

Typical locality Sze-chuan. 

Size large ; general colour chocolate-brown, with the tail 
mainly white al)Ove ; skull elongated, with long nasals, and 
the long axis of the lachrymal pits (which form irregular 
ovals) nearly coincident with that of orbits. Basicranial 
length in subadult male 7 inches, in adult female 7j inches ; 

I) 2 



o6 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

length of nasals in former 2^^ , in latter 2-'^^ inches ; length 
of upper tooth-row in former 2^, in latter '2\ inches. 

92, 7. 31. 1. Skull and skin, female. Eastern Tibet, 
near Sze-chuan border, at an elevation of 15,000 feet; 
collected by Dr. W. G. Thorold. The cheek-teeth are well 
worn ; the infraorbital bar of the skull is deep, as in fig. 7. 

Purchased, 1892. 

11. 9. 8. 44. Skull, with antlers, and skin, subadult. 
Wen-chwan-hsien, Si-ho Valley, western Sze-chuan; collected 
by M. P. Anderson, Esq. The milk-molars are still in 
use, and the last molar is not fully protruded. The 
infraorbital bar of the skidl is relatively narrow, thereby 
indicating that the relative depth of this element is of no 
taxonomic importance. 

Presented hy the Duke of Bedford, ICG., 1911. 

B. -Elaphodus cephalophus michianus. 

Lophofcragus michiauus, SwinJioc, Froc Zool. Sac. 1874. p. 452 ; 

Gar rod, ihid. 1876, p. 757, pi. Ixxvi. 
Elapliodus michianus, Brool-r. Froc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p, 900; Styaii, 

ibid. 1886. 268; LijdeUer. Horns and Hoofs, p, 813, 1893, Deer 

of All Lands, p, 214, pi. xvii, fig. 1, 1898, Froc. Zool. Soc. 1904, 

vol. ii, p. 166= 
Elapliodus cephalophus; michiauus, Fococh, Froc. Zool. Soc. 1910, 

p. 956, 

Type of Lojjhotragus. 

Typical locality near Ningpo, Che-kiang, Eastern China. 

Smaller than the last, and rather lighter in colour, with 
less white on the tail, of which nearly the whole upper 
surface is frequently dark ; skull (fig. 7) of the same general 
type, with somewhat shorter nasals, and the lachrymal pits 
forming narrower but large irregular ovals, in which the 
longer axis is not far removed from that of the orbits. Basal 
length of skull about 6^ inches ; length of nasals 2^ ; length 
of upper series of cheek-teeth 2| inches. 

This race inluibits reed-brakes in the water-courses of the 
Ningpo district, 

78. 11. 14. 3 (1699, a). Skeleton, mounted, Ningpo ; 
collected by A. H, Everett, Esq. Skull shown in fig, 7. 

Purchased {Gerrard), 1878, 



CERVID^^, 



37 



78. 11. 14. 4 (1699, b). «kull and skin (fonnerly 
mounted), immature. Same locality and collector. 

Sa7ne hisfor//. 

78. 11. 14. 5 (1699, 6'). Skeleton, mounted, and skin, 
female. Same locality and collector. Same history. 

86. 10. 28. 7. Skin, mounted. 100 miles S.W. of 
Ningpo ; collected by F. W. Styan. Esq. Purchased, 1886. 

86. 10. 28. 8. Skin, female, mounted. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

86. 10. 28. 9. Skin, young, mounted. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 







Fig. 7. — Side View op Skull op Ningpo Tufted Deer 
[Elaphodiis cephalophus michianus) ; 'pr. v. lachrymal pit. 

Fioin Lydekker, Proc. Zcol. Soc. 1904. 



1.3.2.13. Skull and skin, immature. Ningpo. Milk- 
molars still in use. Presented by F. W. Styan, Esq., 1901. 

1. 3. 2. 14. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 

1. 3. 2. 15. Skull, imperfect, and skin, immature female. 
Same locality. Same history. 

1. 3. 2. 16. Skull and skin, young. Same locality. 

Same history. 

2. 6. 10. 60. Skull and skin, immature. Che-kiang, 
China. The milk-molars are still in use, and the last upper 
molar is not yet protruded. Sahw donor, 1902. 



CATAIiOGtfE OF UNGULATES 




Fig. 8.— Front View of Skulls op Nixgpo (A), and Ichang Tuftkd 
Deer (B) {Elaphodus cej^halopJuis michianvs and E. c. ichangensis). 
/V. frontal ; ««. nasals. 

From Lydekker, /'roc. Zool. Soc. 1904. 



C— Elaphodus cephalophus fociensis. 

Elaphodus michianus fociensis, Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904, 
vol. iv, p. 169. 

Typical locality Fiug-ling, Fo-kien, South-east China. 

Eather larger than ^. c. micJiianus and apparently a little 
darker, with much more white on both sides of upper part of 
ears ; tail unknown ; skull (female) with less elevation of 
hind frontal region, and a greater expansion and flattening 
of the platform formed by the base of the lachrymal and the 
anterior zygomatic root. Basal skull-length 6f inches ; 



CERVIDiE 



39 



length of nasals 2^, length of upper series of cheek-teeth 
2-^g inches. 

98. 3. 7. 18. Skull and skin, female. Fing-ling, Fo-kien. 
Type. Presented hy C. B. Rickeit, Esq., 1898. 

D.— Elaphodus cephalophus ichang-ensis. 

Elaphodus ichangensis, LijdeJcker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904, vol. ii, p. 169 
Ahstr, P.Z.S. 1904, p. 10. 

Typical locality Ichang, Hu-pe, Central China. 
Apparently of the same approximate size as U. c. 
micM((nns, but with a shorter and broader type of skull, in 




Pig. 9. — Side View op Skull of Ichang Tufted Deeb {Elaphodus 

cephalopJms ichangensis) , pr . mx. premaxilla; pr. v. lachrymal pit. 

From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904. 



which the basal length is only 6| inches, against 7^ inches 
in the typical race ; nasals (fig. 8, b) relatively short, and the 
lachrymal pits (fig. 9) forming more regular, smaller, and 
deeper ovals, of which the longer axis is more oblique to that 
of the orbits than in any of the other races ; * general colour 
dark brown, passing into blackish on the limbs ; tail wholly 
white at tip, .with only the basal two-thirds of the upper 
surface dark. Length of nasals 2^ inches ; length of upper 
series of cheek-teeth 2-^g- inches. 

* Certain other cranial characters given in the original description 
appear to be dependent on age. 



40 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Although this form appears to he the most distinct of all 
the local forms from the typical E. cephalopJms, it is perhaps 
best regarded as a race rather than a species. Unlike E. e. 
michianus, it is a mountain animal. 

1. 3. 2. 17. Skull (fig. 8, b, and fig. 9), and skin. Ichang. 
Type. The molars are rather more worn than in E. c. 
ccp/ialophus, No. 11. 9. 8. 44, 

Presented hy F. W. Sh/an, Esq., 1901. 

IV. Genus DA MA. 

Dama, H. Smith, Orifflth's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 84, vol. v, 
p. 306, 1827 ; UjdeTcker, Deer of All Lands, p. 125, 1898 ; Fococl, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p, 950; 'Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Enrojje, 
p. 970, 1912. 

Platyceros, Wagner, Schrebcr''s Sdugfhiere, Sujypl. vol. iv, p. 347, 
1844. 

Dactyloceros, Wagner, op. cit. vol. v, p. 352, 1855. 

Machlis, Zittcl (ex Kaup'>), Handbuch Palaont. vol. iv, p. 402, 1893. 

Palmatus (= " Palmati," Giebel, Sdugethiere, ed. 2, p. 351, 1859). 
in LydcTiliefs Beer of All Lands, p. 125, 1828 ; Elliot, Cat. 
Mamm. Field Mus. (Zool. Pnb. Field Mns. vol. viii) p. 44, 1907. 

In this and the two following genera the structure of 
the remnant of the lateral metacarpals is the same as in 
3hintiacus and Elaphodus (plesiometacarpalian type), hut 
the antlers, which diverge from the middle line of the skull 
at angles of about 45 degrees, are large, with a true basal 
tine, and are supported on relatively short pedicles, which do 
not form ridges on the frontals, the upper canines of the 
stags, "svhen present, are not tusk-like, the lachrymal vacuities 
of the skull are larger than in the preceding group, the 
phalanges of the lateral digits are retained (instead of being 
aborted), and the outer cuneiform bone of the tarsus is not 
fused with the naviculo-cuboid, as it is in Muntiacus and 
Elaplwdus. Face-glands are present ; in the skull the vomer 
is low behind, and does not divide the posterior nostrils ; and 
there is a large muffle. Dama includes : Medium-sized 
deer, in which the antlers are normally without a second 
(bez) tine, but with a third (trez) tine, above which the beam 
is distinctly, although narrowly, palmated, with snags on the 
hind-border ; coat spotted in summer, uniformly coloured in 
winter, with a black-bordered white area on the buttocks, in 



CEKVID^ 



41 



the region of the rather long tail ; head short and broad, with 
somewhat small but deep face-glands, and the bare part of 
the muzzle much as in Cervus (infra) ; head short and 
broad ; hind-hoofs united only at the " heels " * by a close 
fold of skin, with the foot-gland forming a long and deep 
hair-lined interdigital cleft (as in Muntiaciis), and a 
moderately deep cleft on front of fore-pasterns ; upper 
canines wanting (fig. 10), cheek-teeth very short-crowned 





Fig. 10. — Palatal, Aspect of 
Skull of Fallow Deer (Dama 
dama). J nat size. 

From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western 
Euvo2)e. 



Fig. 11. — Lower Front Teeth op 
Fallow Deer {Dama dama). 
nat. size. 

From ^liller, Cat. Mamm. Western 
E^irope. 



and broad, and a marked difference in the size of the crowns 
of the three pairs of lower incisors (fig. 11) ; orbits relatively 
large ; young spotted. Other characters as in Cervus, 
infra, p. 40. 

The original distributional area appears to have Ijeen 
restricted to the Mediterranean countries and Persia ; but 
the typical species has been introduced into Western and 
Central Europe, where it exists in a semi-domesticated 



For explanation of this term see vol. ii, p. 172. 



42 OATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

condition as far north as the British Islands and the south of 
Sweden. 

Fallow deer were regarded by Garrod as near akin to the 
Sika group of Cennis ; but Pocock points out that they differ 
from all other deer, with the exception of the muntjak group, 
by the deep clefts between the hoofs, and are therefore 
entitled to form a generic group by themselves. 

I. DAMA DAMA. 

Cervus dama, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 67, 1758, ed. 12, vol. i, 
p. 93, 1766; Kerr, Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 298, 1793; 
F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. i, pis. 104-106, 1811; Cuvier, 
Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 2, vol. iv, p. 29, 1823; H. Smith, Griffith's 
Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 84, 1827; Fischer, Synop. Mamm. 
p. 448, 1829; Jenyns, Brit. Vert. Anim. p. 38, 1835; Bell, Brit. 
Quadrupeds, p. 402, 1837, ed. 2, p. 358, 1874 ; Keyserling and 
Blasius, Wirbelth. Euroi). p. 26, 1840; Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. 
Regne Anim., Mamm. p. 169, 1842; Oiven, Brit. Foss. Mamm. 
and Birds, p. 483, 1846 ; Blasius. Saugeth. Deutschl. p. 453, 
1857 ; Giehel, Sdugethiere, ed. 2, p. 351, 1859 ; Sclater, Nature, 
vol. xi, p. 71, 1874; Brooke, ibid. vol. xi,p. 210, 1875, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1878, p. 913 ; Dawhins, Nature, vol. xi, pp. 112 and 226, 
1875; Busk, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x, p. 114, 1877; Danfordand 
Alston, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 276, 1880, p, 54 ; Flower and 
Garson, Cat. Osteol. M^ts. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 299, 1884 ; 
Woodward and Sherborn, Cat. Brit. Foss. Vert. p. 330, 1890 ; 
Flower and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 323, 1891 ; Lydek- 
her. Horns and Hoofs, p. 311, 1893, British Mammals, p. 246, 
1895, Deer of All Lands, p. 127, 1898, Great and Small Game of 
Europe, etc. p. 241, 1901; Fowler, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1894, p. 485 ; 
Millais, Mamm. Gt. Britain, vol. iii, p. 137, 1906 ; Elliot, Cat. 
Mamm. Field Mtis. (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 44, 1907 ; 
Winge, Danmarks Fauna, Pattedyr, p. 173, 1908 ; Joleaud, Rev. 
Africaine, vol. iv, p. 16, 1913. 

Cervus platyceros, Cuvier, Tabl. Mem. Hist. Nat. p. 160, 1798. 

Cervus mauricus, F. Cuvier, Bull. Soc. Philom. 1816, p. 72 ; Blain- 
ville, Journ. Phys. vol. xciv, p. 261, 1822. 

Cervus daima, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. i, pis. 104-107, 1819. 

Cervus (Dama) dama, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, 
p. 306, 1827; Lydekker, Game Animals of Africa, p. 386, 1908; 
Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 54, 1910 ; Joleaud, Rev. 
Africaine, vol. iv, p. 3, 1913. 

Cervus dama, ;3. leucaethiops, J. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 448, 
1829. 

Cervus dama, y. maura, Fischer, loc. cit. 1829. 

Dama platyceros, Fitzinger, Beitr. Landesk. Osterreichs, vol. i, p. 317, 
1832, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixvii, pt. 1, p. 350, 1873, 
vol. Ixix, pt. 1, -\). 547, 1874 ; Reichenbach, Sdugethiere, vol. iii, 
p. 16, 1845. 



CERVID.K 43 

Dama vulgaris, Jafdinc, Naturalist's Libr., Maiuin. vol. iii, p. 152, 
pis. vii, 1835 ; Gray, List Manim. Brit. Miis. p. 181, 1843, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 229, Cat. Ungidata Brit. Mies. p. 200, 1852, 
Cat. Buminants Brit. Miis. p. 74, 1872, Hand-List Buminants 
Brit. Mus. p, 142, 1873 ; Oerrard, Cat. Bones Mamrn. Brit. Mus. 
p. 264, 1862 ; Loche, Exped. Algerie, Mamm. p. 64, 1867 ; Garrod, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 18; Sclater, List Aiiim. Zool. Gardens, 
p. 181, 1886; LydeMer, Ward's Bccords of Big Game. ed. 7, 
p. 74, 1914. 

Cervus (Platyceros) dama, Wagner, Sclirehers Sdiigthicrc. Siippl. 
vol. iv, p. 347, 1844. 

Cervus (Dactyloceros) dama, Wagner, op. cit. vol. v, p. 352, 1855. 

Dama platyceros, niger, Fitzinger, Sitzber. h. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 
vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 553, 1874. " 

Dama platyceros, varius, Fitzinger, oj). cit. p. 555. 1874. 

Dama platyceros, albus, Fitzinger, loc. cit. 1874. 

Dama dama, Lataste, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. xxxix, p. 288, 
1885; Trouessart, Faune Mamni. Eurojye, p. 229, 1910; Pocock, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 950; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Euro2^e, 
p. 970, 1912 ; Cabrera, Cat. Met. Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 130, 1912. 

Fallow Deer ; Daim. 

The type species. 

Typical locality Sweden (iutroduced). 

The locality" of C. mauricus, = maura, Fischer, = niger, 
Fitzinger, is unknown. The names leuccethiops, = albus, and 
rarius pertain to the introduced German breeds of the species. 

Height at shoulder from about 3 feet to 3 feet 2 inches ; 
antlers well palmated and directed largely upwards, with 
the brow- arid trez-tines simple, and the front edge normally 
devoid of snags, which are, however, numerous on the 
summit and hind margin of the palmated portion ; general 
colour in summer brilliant fawn, with large whitish spots 
irregularly distributed over the back, upper part of the 
sides, and haunches, this spotted region being bounded 
inferiorly on the sides and posteriorly on the haunches by 
undefined white lines; a blackish line running down the 
middle of the back and tail ; a white area, bordered above 
by black on the buttocks below the tail, and the under side 
of the tail, under-parts, inner surfaces of upper portions of 
limbs, and inner sides of ears white or whitish ; in winter 
the colour of the upper parts uniformly greyish fawn. 

Owing to long domestication, the fallow deer of the 
British parks frequently display great variation from this 
original type of coloration, and a uniformly dark brown 



44 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

breed has been long established, while white or whitish 
varieties are far from uncommon. 

Good antlers measure from 25 to 37 inches along the 
front outer curve, witli a basal girth of from 4 to 5j inches, 
and a tip-to-tip interval of from 12 to 30^ inclies. A bez-tine 
may occasionally be developed on the antlers, and another 
abnormality is the presence of an additional tine on the front 
edge immediately above the third tine. The antlers make 
their first appearance in the second year, when they are in 
the form of simple snags, the stags being then known as 
prickets. In the third year the brow- and Itez-tines show 
themselves, while th(^ extremity of the ]:)eam l)ecomes 
palmated. In the succeeding year the palmatiou increases, 
with strongly marked serrations on the hind border ; and in 
the fifth season the antlers have attained nearly their full 
dimensions, although the palmation and its posterior snags 
are not completely developed till the succeeding season. 
The antlers are. shed somewhat earlier in spring than tliose of 
red deer. 

The distributional area of the species is co-extensive with 
that of the genus, exclusive of Persia. Wild fallow deer 
inhabit a small area at the south-west end of the Sea of 
Marmora and the whole south coast of Asia Minor as far as 
Adana, inclusive of the Taurus range. In western-nortli 
Africa they are very rare and local. 

693, a, h, fl. Three frontlets, with antlers. England. 

No history. 

693, h. Skull, female. England. No histori/. 

43. 12. 29. 4. Skin, mounted. Italy. 

Fvrchased (Lefhbre), 1843. 

46. 10. 23. 11. Skin, mounted. England. 

Purchased (Baker), 1846. 

50. 2. 5. 1-46. Forty-six antlers. New Forest, Hamp- 
shire. Presented hy Mrs. 8mijth, 185U. 

50. 1 1. l:'). 15. Skin, with antlers. England. 

Purchased, 1850. 

* * * *. Skin, mounted. England. 

Pttrchased (Leadheater). 

67. 4. 12. 234-235. Two skulls, with antlers. Conti- 
nental. Lidth de Jeude Collection, purchased, 1867. 



GEKVID.E 45 

67. 4. 12. 236 and 241. Two skulls, female. Continental. 

Same history. 

88. 6. 12. 3. Frontlet and antlers. Nannan Park, 
Merionethshire. Presented hy J. E. Harting, Esq., 1888. 

96. 9. 24. 1. Skin, mounted. Woburn Abbey, Bedford- 
shire. Presented hy the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1896. 

98. 10. 18. 1. Skin, mounted. Tring Park, Hertford- 
shire. Presented hj the Hon. Walter Rothschild, 1898. 



11. I) AM A MESOPOTAMICA. 

Cervus (Dama) mesopotamieus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1875, p. 265, 
1876, p. 298; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 56, 1910. 

Dama mesopotamica, Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 18; Sclater, 
List Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 171, 1883; LydeM-er, Ward's 
Becords of Big Game, ed. 7, p. 76, 1914. 

Cervus mesopotamieus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 914 ; 
Fitzingcr, Sitzher. };. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 62, 
1879; Lydekkcr, Horns and Hoofs, p. 311, 1893, Deer of All 
Lands, p. 132, 1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. 
p. 244, 1901. 

Cervus dama mesopotamiae, Trouessart, Cans. Sci. Soc. Zool. France, 
vol. i, p. 405, 1905 ; Joleaiid, Bev. Africaine, vol. iv, p. 16, 1913. 

Persian Fallow Deer. 

Typical locality Luristan Province of Persia. 

Larger than D. dama; the colour much brighter (as 
bright as in the Indian chital), with the row of elongated 
whitish spots running on each side of the dark median line 
of the back in the former coalescing into a continuous band, 
and the black on the upper surface of the tail narrower and 
confined to the root ; antlers (fig. 12) of a totally different 
type, being somewhat expanded at the origin of the trez- 
tine, which is large and situated close to the very short 
brow-tine, but at the summit only somewhat flattened, and 
breaking up at the crown and summit of the hind border 
into four, five, or more snags. 

93. 10. 17. 5. Head, mounted (fig. 12), and body-skin. 
Luristan. Presented hy Mr. Heinicher, 1893. 

95. 4. 7. 1. Single antler. Shustu, Luristan. From 
Sir Victor Brooke's collection. Co-type. 

Presented hy Sir Douylas Brooke, Bart., 1895. 



46 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



97. 11. 11. 1-2. Skull and single antler. Khuzistan, 
Persia. Same collection. Co-type. Same donor, 1897. 




Fig. 12. — Hf.ah ov Vkksian i'Ai.i.' 



Dkkk [Ddina viesoimlamica). 



97. 
lector. 



11. 11. 



Single antler. Same 



locality and col- 
Saine history. 



V. Genus CERVUS. 

Cervus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 66, 1758. ed. 12, vol. i, 
p. 92, 1766 ; BrooTie, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 911 ; Blanford, 
Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 534, 1891; Lydellcr, Deer of All 
Lands, p. 61, 1898; Pococl; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 940; 
Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 963, 1912. 

The range of this, the typical, genus includes the north 
temperate zones of both hemispheres, extending westward in 
the Old World to the Atlantic coast of Norway, the British 
Islands, and north-western Africa. 



CEKVID.E 47 

Large or medium-sized, or small deer, with subcyliudrical 
or somewhat fattened antlers, furnished with a true brow- 
tine above the burr, and at least two other tines ; muzzle 
with a large bare muffle ; tail medium or short ; coat more 
or less uniformly coloured or spotted ; main hoofs long and 
pointed, the hind pair united almost throughout their l)asal 
length by a deep interungual membrane ; no specialised 
gland or deep interdigital cleft on front of fore-pasterns 
nor on hind-pasterns except in the subgenera Hyelaphus and 
Axis; skull, at least typically, longer and narrower than in 
Dama, with smaller orljits ; cheek-teeth moderately short- 
crowned and wide ; crowns of lower incisors varying some- 




PiG. 13. — Lower Front Teeth op Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). 
From Miller, Cat. Mamtn. Western Europe. 

what in size, at least in typical groups (tig. 13) ; upper 
canines usually present, young generally spotted. For other 
characters, common to the allied genera, see Dama (p. 40). 

Considerable diversity of view obtains with regard to the 
limits of the genus ; Brooke and Blanford included in it 
the sikine, rucervine, rusiiie, and axine groups, together with 
Dama, while Miller restricts it to the typical elaphine group. 
Pocock, on the other hand, includes the sikine and rucervine, 
but excludes the rusine and axine groups, as well as Dama. 
In the present volume all these groups, except Dama, are 
included. The genus, in this sense, has a range in the Old 
World nearly co-extensive with that of the family ; but in 
the New World does not descend south of Mexico. 



48 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

It may be divided into the following subgenera : — 

A. A specialised gland, forming a moderately deep cleft 

on front of hind -pasterns ; upper canines often 
wanting. Antlei's 3-tined ; tail long. 
a. Build taller and size larger; gland-cleft on hind- 
pasterns without long hairs ; upper canines present 

or absent; coat spotted at all seasons Axis. 

h. Build lower and size smaller ; gland-cleft on hind- 
pasterns lined with long hairs ; upper canines 
wanting; coat spotted only in summer, or uniform Hijclaj)lms. 

B. Typically no specialised gland or deep cleft on front of 

hind-pasterns ; up^ier canines usually present. 
a. Muffle extending some distance below nostrils ; 
antlers normally 3-tined ; tail relatively long and 
bushy ; coat usually uniform (spotted in C. 

alfredi) Busa. 

h. Muffle extending but slightly below nostrils. 
a'. Tail longer; coat fully spotted, at least in 

winter; antlers usually 4-tined, without a bez Siha. 
h' . Tail short; coat wholly or mainly unspotted. 
a!' . Antlers lacking bez and third tines, typically 
forked dichotomously, with at least 4 tines ; 

no light rump-patch Bucervus. 

h" . Antlers usually .'j-tined, including a bez; a 

light rump-patch or area on back of hams... Cervus. 



1. Subgenus AXIS. 

Axis, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 312, 1827 ; 

Gray, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 79, 1872; Biitivieycr, Ahh. 

schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 44, 1881 ; Pococh, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1910, pp. 948 and 971. 
Melanaxis, Heudc, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emji. Chinois, vol. ii, p. 47, 1888. 

Eepresented by a medium-sized species, with long, 
o-tined antlers, in which the brow-tine forms a right angle 
with the beam, and a gland on the front of the hind-pasterns 
contained in a moderately deep cleft, which is not lined with 
long hairs ; metatarsal gland bare and overlapped by a row 
of marginal hairs ; coat short and spotted at all seasons, not 
forming a mane on neck ; ears and face-glands moderate ; 
muffle extending some distance below nostrils ; tail long and 
slender ; upper canines generally wanting ; auditory bullae 
moderate. 

In the presence of a gland-bearing cleft on the front of 
the hind-pasterns (to say nothing of the spotted coat and the 
general absence of upper canines) this subgenus resembles 



CEltVID.E 49 

Dama, from which, however, it differs in the characters oi the 
antlers, the absence of clefts on the front-pasterns, and the 
fuller union of the liind-hoofs l)y means of an interuugual 
web. 

The range is restricted to I'eninsular India and Ceylon. 

I. CERVUS (AXIS) AXIS. 

Cervus axis, Erxlehen, Syst. Begn. Aiiim. p. 312, 1777; F. Cuvier, 
Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol, i, pis. 102 and 103, 1819 ; H. Smith, 
Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 117, 1827 ; J. B. Fischer, 
Synop. Mamm. p. 451, 1829; Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Begne Anim., 
Mamm. p. 172, 1842 ; Gar rod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17 ; Broohc, 
ibid. 1878, p. 906 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Miis. 
B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 203, 1884; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. 
Ind. Mils. pt. ii, p. 181, 1891 ; Blanford, Fauna, Brit. India, 
Mamm. p. 546, 1891 ; Lydelker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 289, 1893, 
Deer of All Lands, p. 179, pi. xiii, 1898, Great and Small Game 
of hidia, etc. p. 220, 1900, Game Animals of hidia, etc. p. 233, 
1907; Nitsche, Studien ilher Hirsche, p. 94, 1898; Benth.am, 
Asiat, Horns and Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 80, 1908 ; Ward, Becords 
of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 68, 1910. 

Cervus (Axis) axis, H. Smith, Griffitli's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, 
p. 312, 1827 ; Lydekker, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. Mus. p. 38, 
1913, Ward's Becords of Big Game, ed. 7, p. 70, 1914. 

Cervus nudipalpebra, Ogilhy, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 136. 

Axis maculatus,* Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, pp. vi 
and 167, t pi. xiii, 1835; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 178, 

1843, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 66, 1847, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, 
p. 233, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 212, 1852, Cat. Buminants 
Brit. Mus. p. 80, 1872, Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 152, 
1873 (maculata) ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. 
p. 262, 1862; Jer don, Mamm. India, p. 260, 1867; Fit zing er, 
Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixx, pt. i, p. 264, 1874; 
Stei-ndale, Mamm. India, p. 506, 1884 ; Percy, Big Game 
Shooting {Badminton Libr.), vol. ii, p. 264, 1894. 

Axis major and minor, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. x, 

p. 941, 1841. 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) axis, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vef.-Ak. Handl. 

1844, p. 180, 1846. 

Hyelaphus maculatus, Fifzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wieu, 

vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 259, 1874. 
Axis nudipalpebra, Fitzinger, op. cit. p. 270, 1874. 
Axis (Axis) axis, Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 948. 
Axis axis, Wroughton, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxi, 

p. 1193, 1912; Cabrera, Cat. Met. Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 130, 

1912 ; Dodsioortli, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxii, 

p. 748, 1914. 

* Or maculata. 

t Misprinted aculatus in text. 

IV. E 



50 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Chital or Chitra ; Spotted Deer. 

Typical locality the plains of Peninsular India, to which 
country and Ceylon the species is restricted. 

Size medium, the shoulder-height ranging from ahout 
36 to 38 inches ; build light and slender, with the legs long ; 




Fig. 14.— Skull and Antlers op Chital (Cervus [Axis] axis). 

general colour bright rufous fawn, spotted all over the body 
with white at all seasons ; a dark stripe from the nape to the 
extremity of the tail, bordered along the back by one or two 
rows of white spots ; the spots low down on the flanks some- 
times blending into a line; chin, upper portion of throat, 



CERVID.E 51 

iusides of ears, under-parts, inner surfaces of limbs, and under 
side of the tail white ; head uniformly brownish, darker on 
the face ; antlers (fig. 14) supported on short pedicles, long, 
slender, and moderately rugose ; the brow-tine long and 
making nearly a right angle with the beam ; the front, or 
outer, tine of the terminal fork much longer than the hind, or 
inner, one, and forming the continuation of the beam, from the 
inner side of which the hind-tine arises ; space enclosed by 
the two antlers more or less distinctly lyrate; irregular snags 
near the base of the l)row-tine frequently developed; ears 
moderate ; tail long, pointed, and evenly haired throughout ; 
face-glands not excessively large ; neck and throat smooth. 

A dark phase {C. nudipalpchra) is occasionally met with, 
and shows scarcely any indications of spotting, but it has no 
claim to rank as a subspecies. The largest individuals occur 
in northern and central India, where the height of the stags 
commonly reaches to between 36 and 38 inches ; in southern 
India the height is less, usually varying from 30 to 34 inches, 
although 36 has been recorded. It was to this small south 
Indian form that the name of Axis minor was applied. Fine 
antlers measure from 35 to 39 inches along the outer curve, 
with a basal girth of from 3^ to 4f inches, and a tip-to-tip 
interval of from 12f to 25^ inches. 

The following two races are recognised : — 

A. Antlers stouter; spots larger; forehead usually 

with dark chevron and a few white spots C. a. axis, 

B. Antlers lighter ; spots smaller ; forehead uniformly 

brown C, a. ceylonensis. 

A.— Cepvus axis axis. 

Typical locality Peninsular India. 

Characters as above. 

677, a. Skin, female, formerly mounted. India. 

No liistory. 

693, i. Head, melanistic, mounted. Ganges Khadir. 
From an animal formerly in the Tower Menagerie, and pre- 
sented by H.M. King William IV. to the Zoological Society. 
Type of Cervus nudipalpehra. Purchased (Zoological Society). 

697, a, h, c, j, k. Five frontlets, with antlers. Probably 
India. ^o Iddory. 

E 2 



52 CA'L'ALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

* * * *. I'air of antlers, yoimg. Probably India. 

No histuri/. 
45. 1. 8. 119 (697, f/). Skull and antlers. Nepal. 

rrescntcd hy B. 11. Hodgson, Esq., 1845. 

45. 1. 8. 120-121 (697, c and /). Two frontlets, with 

antlers. Nepal. ^cime histonj. 

45. 1. 8. 195. Skull, female. Nepal. Same histonj. 

48. 8. 14. 17. Skin, two-year-old buck. Sub-Himalayan 

Tarai near Mussurie. Purchased {Stevens), 1848. 

50. 1. 11. 20 (697, 0- Frontlet and antlers. Probably 
ludia. Purchased {Argent), 1850. 

51. 2. 17. 4. Skin, young, mounted. Probably from an 
animal bred in London. Purchased {Zoological Society), 1851. 

51. 11. 10. 7 (697, q). Skeleton. Menagerie specimen. 

Same history. 
55. 12. 26. 158. Skull, female. Proljably India. 

Transferred from the Zoological Society's Mitseuni, 1855. 
57. 2. 24. 11. Skeleton. Menagerie specimen. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1857. 
Skull and antlers. Sikhim. 

Presented ly B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1858. 
Skin, young. Sikhim. Same history. 

Skin, young, mounted. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1859. 

59. 9. 6. 104 (697, 0- Skull, immature. Probably India ; 

Dr. A. Giinther's collection. Purchased, 1859. 

67. 4. 12. 240 (697, y). Skull and antlers. Probably 

India. Lidth dc Jeude Collection, imrchascd, 1867. 

79. 11. 21. 242. Skin, young. Kumaon; collected by 

Gen. Sir P. Strachey, K.C.B. 

Transferred from India Mtiseum, 1879. 

79. 11. 21. 488 (697, u). Skull, with diseased antlers. 

Probably India. Same history. 

89. il. 20. 7-8 (697, w, x). Two frontlets, with antlers. 

Khatcote Jungle, Central Provinces. 

Presented by Col. J. Evans, 1889. 
91. 8. 7. 31-32. Two skulls and antlers. Dehra Dun. 

Presented by A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1891. 
91. 8. 7. 33-36. Four pairs of antlers. Same locality. 

Same history. 



58. 


0. 


24. 


16, 


58. 


6. 


24. 


18. 


59. 


2. 


3. ' 


7. 



CEKVID.E 53 

91. 8. 7. o7. Skull aud antlers. Bengal Sanderbaus. 

^ame histonj. 
91. 8. 7. 38-39. Two skulls, with antlers. Eohilkhand ; 
collected by Eoss Scott, Esq. Same history. 

98. 8. 8. 1. Skin, mounted. India. 

Presented hy the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1898. 

2. 9. 15. 1. Skin, albino female, mounted. Brinja, Oudh. 

Presented hy Mrs. Belleiv, 1902. 

3. 1. 10. 1. Skin, female. Near Klandapur, S. Kanara. 

Presented hy H. A. Latham, Esq., 1903. 

12. 10. 31. 11. Skull and antlers (fig. 13). Dehra Dun. 
Length of one antler 383-, of other 36f inches. 

Bequeathed hy A. 0. Hume, Eseq., C.B., 1912. 

12. 10. 31. 12. Skull and antlers. Basim district, Berar. 
Length of antlers 37^ inches, basal girth 4^, tip-to-tip 
interval 24| inches. Same history. 

12. 10. 31. 13. Frontlet aud antlers. Bulundshahr, 
Ganges Khadir, Eohilkhand ; collected by Mr. Hume. This 
specimen stands No. 14 in Ward's 1910 list; length of 
antlers 19^, girth 3|^, tip-to-tip 9 J inches. Sctmc history. 

B. -Cervus axis ceylonensis. 

Axis maculata ceylonensis, Fitzinger, Sitzher. Tx, Alt. Wiss. Wien, 

vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 269, lb74.* 
Cervus (Eusa) axis zeylanicus, LydekJcer, Field, vol. iv, p. 947, 1905, 

Ward's Bccords of Big Game, eel. 7, p. 70, 1914. 

Typical (and only) locality Ceylon ; typified by H. Smith's 
" Ceylon variety."* 

Antlers lighter and more slender than in typical race ; 
ground-colour yellower and purer fawn ; spots smaller, and 
absent on the uniformly brown forehead, which has no dark 
horseshoe-mark. 

5. 5. 18. 1. Head, mounted. Ceylon ; collected by 
Lieut.-Col. F. W. Begbie. Co-type of C. zeylanicus. 

Presented hy Walter Eeynolds, Escj^., 1905. 

5. 5. 19. 1. Body-skin. Ceylon. Co-type of C. zey- 
lanicus. Presented hy Lieut.-Col. F. W. Beghie, 1905. 

* Cervus axis ceylonensis, H. Smith, in the present writer's 
Deer of All Lands, p. 179, is a misquotation. 



54 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

2. Subgenus HYELAPHUS. 

Hyelaplius, Sumlcvall, K. Svenska Vet.- Ah. Hancll. 1844, p. 181, 
1846; Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mtis. p. 215, 1852, Cat. 
Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 79, 1872. 

Closely allied, at least in its typical form, to the preceding 
subgenus (Axis), but the build lower and stouter, the pedicles 
of the antlers longer, the face-glands shallower, and the walls 
of the glandular clefts on the fronts of the hind-pasterns 
clothed with long hairs, which project beyond the margins. 
Auditory bullae very large ; coat either spotted in summer or 
uniformly coloured at all seasons, darker, at least typically, 
on under-parts than on back. 

In the long antler-pedicles and large auditory bulke the 
group shows near affinity to the rusine C. kuhli. 

The range extends from India through Burma and 
Tenasserim to Siam, Annam, and the western Philippines. 

The species are distinguishable as follows : — 

A. Coat typically spotted in summer ; face longer... C. porciniis. 

B. Coat uniformly coloured at all seasons; face 

shorter C. calaiiiia ncnsis. 



II. CERVUS (HYELAPHUS) POECINUS. 

Cervus porcinus, Ziniinermann, S])cc. Zool. Geogr. p. 552, 1777 ; 

F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. iii, pis. 330-332, 1824; 

H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 197, 1827; 

J. B. Fischer, Synoj). Mamm. p. 454, 1829; Lesson, Nouv. Tahl. 

Begne Anim., Mamm. p. 172, 1842; Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1877, p. 17 ; Brooke, ibid. 1878, p. 902 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. 

Osteol. Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 290, 1884; Lydekker, Cat. 

Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt. ii, p. 104, 1885, Horns and Hoofs, 

p. 301, 1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 175, 1898, Great and Small 

Game of India, etc. p. 217, 1900, Game Animals of hidia, etc. 

p. 241, 1907; Flower and Lydekker, Sttidy of Mammals, p. 320, 

1901 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 178, 1891 ; 

Blanford, Fauna Brit, hidia, Mamm. p. 549, 1891 ; Ward, 

Becords of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 10, 1896; Evans, Journ. Bombay 

Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xiv, p. 810, 1902; Bentham, Asiatic Horns 

and Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 82, 1908. 
Cervus pumilio, H. Smith, Griffi,th's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 120, 

1827; J. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 621, 1829. 
Cervus (Axis) porcinus, H. Smith, op. cit. vol. v, p. 312, 1827. 
Cervus (Axis) pumilio, H. Smith, op. cit. p. 313, 1827. 
Axis porcinus, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 169, 

pi. xiv, 1835 ; Jerilon, Mamm. India, p. 262, 1867 ; Sterndale, 



GEKVID.E 



55 



Maniin. ludin, p. 508, 1884; Percy, Bi(j Game Shooting {Bad- 
minton Lib)-.), vol. ii, p. 261, 1894; Dodsworth, Journ. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxii, p. 748, 1914. 
Cervus (Hyelaphus) porcinus, SundevaU, K. Svensha Vet. -Ah. Handl. 
1844, p. 181, 1846 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 70, 
1910, ed. 7, p. 72, 1914; LydeMer, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. 
Mus. p. 38, 1913. 




Fig. 15. — Skull and Antlers of Hog-Deer 
{Cervus [Hyelai^htts] porcinus). 



Hvclaphus porcinus, Gray, List Osteol. Brit. Mas. p. 67, 1847, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 233, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 215, 1852, 
Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 72, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants 
Brit. Mus. p. 150. 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamvi. Brit. Mus. 
p. 262, 1862. 

Axis oryzus, Kelaart, Prodromus Fatm. Zcylan. p. 83, 1852. 

Hyelaphus porcinus pumilio, Fitzinger, Sitzhcr. k. Ah. Wiss. Wien, 
vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 258, 1874. 

Cervus minor, Sclater, List Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 169, 1883 ; nee 
Axis minor, Hodgson, 1841. 

Axis (Hyelaphus) porcinus, Pococh, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 950. 



56 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Paka ; Hog-Deer. 

Typical locality the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India. 

Height at shoulder ranging from about 25 to 29 inches ; 
build heavy and low, with the legs short ; face comparatively 
short ; hairs on the back not ringed, but with pale tips ; 
general colour in winter rufous or yellowish brown, with a, 
somewhat speckled appearance owing to the pale tips of the 
hairs, under-parts much darker than back ; in summer upper- 
parts typically paler and more or less spotted in the early 
part of the season with pale brown or white, the spots some- 
times limited to one or two rows on each side of a dark 
stripe down the middle of the back ; young fully spotted for 
about the first six months ; antlers (fig. 15) supported on 
long pedicles, with the hind, or inner, tine of the terminal 
fork the shorter, and the brow-tine relatively stout and long, 
being ccmsiderably longer than the head in fully adult 
individuals ; cars ratlier large, well haired externally, white 
internally; tail moderately long, well-haired, but not bushy, 
whitish Ijeneath ; face-glands small ; metatarsal tuft slightly 
lighter than rest of the leg. Skull moderately compressed 
in front of orbits, which are not prominent. Fine antlers 
measure from 20 to 23j inches in length along the outer 
curve, with a basal girth of from 3 to 4^ inches, and a tip- 
to-tip interval of from 6| to 22^ inches. 

The range extends from- India to Siani and Aunam, tlie 
two races here recognised being distinguished as follows : — 

A. Size smaller ; coat spotted in summer C. x>. i^orcin us. 

B. Size larger ; coat uniformly coloured at all 

seasons C. p. annamiticus, 

A.— Cepvus porcinus porcinus. 

Typical locality the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India. 

Size relatively small ; coat spotted in summer. 

The distributional area includes India, throughout the 
ludo-Gangetic plain from Sind and tlie Punjab to Assam, 
thence through Sylhet and Tenassenm to Burma. Although 
it has been reported from the highlands of Central India and 
Bombay, it is doubtful if the species ranges to any extent 
into Peninsular India, although it may be found some 



CKKVID.E 07 

distance ii}) tlio larger tributaries ui" the Gauges. It has 
been reported from Madras, but apparently from the name 
hog-deer having been misapplied to the chevrotain and 
muntjac. In Ceylon it has l)een introduced into certain 
districts. 

42. 5. 3. 7. I'air of antlers. Probably India. 

Fiiirlwscd {Tucker), 1842. 
4."). 1. 8. 124. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal. 

Presented Ivj B. H. Huelgson, Esq., 1845. 
45. 1. 8. 125. A similar specimen. Same locality. 

Same hisfory. 
45. 1. 8. 104. Skull, female. Same locality. 

t>ame hisfor)/. 
* * * *. Two irontlets, with antlers. Probably India. 

No historf/. 
<)n8, r. I'air of antlers. Prol)ably India. Purchased. 

t t t t- T\\-() pairs of antlers. Probably India. 

No history. 
X X X X- Skin, formerly mounted. Probably India. 

No history. 
0. 0. 0. 0. Skin. Ceylon. Purchased (Zoolor/ieal /Society). 
47. 5. 17. 21. Skin, formerly mounted. Probably India. 

Purchased {Bartlett), 1847. 
52. 2. 28. 6. Skull, with antlers. Probably India. 

Purchased (Baker), 1852. 
56. 5. 6. 62. Skull, with antlers. Darjiling, Sikhim ; 
collected by W. Theobald, Estj^. 

Presented by Dr. T. Oldham, 1856. 
58. 5. 4. 19. Skull, with antlers. Probably India. 

Transferred from the Zoological Society's Museum, 1858. 
58. 6. 24. 113. Skin, female. Sikhim. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1858. 
58. 12. 16. 2. Skeleton, female. Ceylon. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1858. 
65. 5. 0. 19. Skin, young, formerly mounted. Locality 
unknown. Purchased {Zoological Society), 1865. 

67. 5. 20. 7. Skull and antlers. Assam. 

Purchased (Cutter), 1867. 
79. 11. 21. 188. Skull and antlers. Burma. 

Transferred from India Museum, 1879. 



58 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

01. 8. 7. 40. Frontlet and antlers. Gauges Khadir, near 
Meerut. Presented hij A. 0. Hume, Usrj., C.B., 1891. 

91. 8. 7. 41. Frontlet and antlers. Ganges Khadir, near 
Bulundshahr, Eoliilkhand. Same history. 

91. 8. 7. 42. Skull and antlers. Garo Hills, Assam ; 
collected by G. 1*. Sanderson, Es(j[. Same histori/. 

91. 8. 7. 43-44. Two skulls, with antlers. Sub-Himalayan 
Tarai, near ]\laradabad ; collected by Eoss Scott, Esq. 

Savie history. 

1. 9. 7. 2. Skull and antlers, with the shed antlers of 
the six preceding years (1894-1899). Panichatta, Bengal. 

Presented hj E. Ic F. Davys, Usq., 1901. 

1. 9. 7. 3. Skull and antlers. Same locality. Length 
of antlers 21 1 inches, basal girth 3:^, tip-to-tip interval 
6| inches. This specimen (fig. 15) is third in "Ward's 1914 
list. Same history. 

1. 9. 28 1. Skin, mounted. Burma. 

Presented hy Major G. H. Emus, 1901. 

1. 9. 28. 2. Skull and antlers. Burma*. Same history. 

12. 10. 31. 13. Frontlet and antlers. Ganges Khadir, 
near Bulundshahr. Length of antlers 19^ inches, basal 
girth o^, tip-to-tip interval 9^ inches. 

Bequeathed hy A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912. 

B.— Cervus porcinus annamiticus. 

Hyelaphus annamiticus, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat, Emp. Chiuois, 

voL ii, p. 50, 1888. 
Cervus porcinus hecki, Lyclehher, Field, vol. cxi, p. 583, 1908 ; Ward, 

Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 70, 1910, ed. 7, p. 72, 1914. 

Typical locality Annam, but the range also including 
Si am. 

As represented by the Siamese form (typified by a stag 
living in the Berlin Zoological Gardens about 1899, and 
figured in Heck's Lehende Bilder cms dem Beiche der Ticre, 
pi. 69, 1899), this race is rather larger than the typical one, 
from which it also differs by the absence of spots in the 
summer coat — a feature which may be common to all hog- 
deer from the countries east of the Bay of Bengal. 

61. 4. 12. 19. Pair of antlers. Cambodia; coUecteil ]>y 
Monsieur Mouhot. Purchased, 1861. 



CEJIVID.E 59 



III. CERVUS (HYELAPHUS) CALAMIANENSIS. 

Hyelaphus calamianensis, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, 

vol. ii, p. 49, 1888. 
Cer\'us culionensis, Elliot, Fidel Mas. Zool. Pub. vol. i, p. 157, 1897 ; 

Lydehher, Deer of All Lands, p. 173, 1898; Ward, Records of 

Big Game, ed. 6, p. 70, 1910. 
Cervus (Hyelaphus) calamianensis, Lydehker, Field, vol. cv, p. 505, 

1905. 
Cervi;s calamianensis, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 70, 1910. 
Rusa culionensis, Hollister, Pliilippine doarn. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, 

p. 40, 1912. 
Rusa calamianensis, Hollister, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mas. vol. xlvi, p. 339, 

1913. 

Typical, and only, locality the island of Calaniianes, or 
Culion, on tlie western side of the Philippine gronp to the 
north of Palawan. 

As represented by the under-mentioned specimen, this 
species is clearly a Hyela'phus and not a Rusa ; and as the 
so-called C. cidioncnsis (which is considered by Hollister to 
be inseparable from the present species) has the large 
auditory bullae and long antler-pedicles of Hyelaphus, there 
is good reason for referring it to that subgenus. 

As represented by the under-mentioned specimen, this 
deer is distinguished from the type species by the shorter 
and more stunted face, shorter and more rounded ears, and 
the following details in colouring : — the white on the under 
side of the lower jaw, instead of being restricted to the chin, 
extends backwards to form a largish patch on the throat ; the 
fore part of this throat-patch being separated from the jaw- 
patch by a narrow bar of fawn ; there is a white moustache- 
mark, and more white on the insides of their ears and at 
their roots than in the typical hog-deer ; the legs are a 
darker brown, and the back is bright golden brown, passing 
into orange on the buttocks. 

Elliot described C. culionensis as a small deer with the 
hind-quarters elevated, the head slender, the nose rather long 
and pointed, the hair somewhat coarse and stiff, especially 
on the flanks, where it is longest, the ears relatively long, 
slightly rounded, and thickly haired externally, and the tail 
rather liushy. As the antlers of the type were in velvet 
and not fully developed, their characters could not be given. 



60 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

The general colour is uniform cigar-brown, with a tinge of 
ochery, hut a black stripe of about an inch in width runs 
from the shoulders to the root of the tail, the latter being 
brown above and white beneath ; tlic under lip and chin are 
yellowish white, the chest, shoulders, and much of the under- 
parts purplish brown, with long wliite liairs intermingled, 
but the abdomen and inside of the thiglis are white, and the 
legs lilackish brown, with a long narrowisli white stripe on 
the front of the hind-pair. 

The deer to which the under-mentioned head and skin 
pertained, wliile living in the Duke of Bedford's park at 
Woburn, was regarded as a hog-deer. It resembled the 
Indian hog-deer in the general character of the antlers 
(somewhat malformed), in the colour and nature of the coat, 
in the character of the tail, and in the structure of the skull, 
more especially in the comparative shallowness of the pits 
for the face-glands and the shape of the upper end of the 
nasal bones. Jn all these respects the specimen differs from 
the sambar group. 

5. 3. 19. 1. Head, mounted, l)()dy-skin, and skull, 
immature. Philippines, probably Calamianes. In the skull 
the milk-molars are still retained and canines are wanting. 
Prescnfnl Inj ihc Dalcr of Bedford, KG., 1905. 

3. Subgenus RUSA. 

Kusa, H. Smith, Griffith's AnimalKingdom, vol. iv, p. 108, 1827; 

G^-ay, Cat. Ung'ulata Brit. Mus. p. 205, 1852 ; BrooTce, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 900; Biltimeyer, Abk. schweiz. jml. Ges. 

vol. viii, p. 45, 1881 ; LydeMer, Deer of All Lands, p. 141, 1898 ; 

Pococh, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 946. 
Hippelaphus, Sundevall,K. Svenska Vet.-Ak.Handl. 1844, p. 176, 1846, 
Ussa {Oussa), He tide, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. CHnois, vol. ii, p. 20, 1888. 
Sambar, Heudc, op. cit. pp. 20 and 41, 1888. 

Large, medium-sized, or small deer, with rounded, 
normally three-tined antlers, in which the brow-tine forms 
an acute angle with the beam, and typically no glandular 
cleft on front of hind-pasterns ; coat generally uniformly 
coloured, shaggy, and forming a mane on neck and throat ; 
ears large ; face-glands completely evertile ; muffle extending 
some distance Ijelow nostrils ; tail relatively long and bushy ; 



CEltVID.E 61 

upper molars high-crowned, with small additional column on 
inner side. Young uniformly coloured or spotted. In old 
animals the nasals develop a plate at the upper expanded 
portion which tends to grow over the lachrymal vacuity of 
the same side; in some of the smaller forms — notably the 
Philippine — the vacuity is reduced to a mere slit. 

The distributional area includes the greater part of the 
Oriental region, extending northwards into Sze-chuan. 

The species here recognised may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

A. Antler-pedicles and auditory bullae normal. 
A'. Coat uniformly coloured. 

A". Antlers rounded and, normally, 3-tined. 
a. Size large to small ; dorsal hairs not 
annulated ; antlers stout and rugose, 
with the hind terminal tine, when it 
and its fellow are unequal, the longer 
and forming the continuation of the 
beam ; intercornual space V- or 

U -shaped C. (7?.) nnicolor. 

h. Size large to medium ; dorsal hairs 
annulated ; antlers thinner and less 
rugose, with the hind terminal tine 
the longer, and forming the continua- 
tion of the beam ; intercornual space 

lyrate C. (i?.) timoriensis. 

B" . Antlers flattened and many-tined. 

Size medium C. (R.) tavistocld* 

B . Coat spotted. 

Size medium C. (i?.) alfredi. 

B. Antler - pedicles longer and auditory bullie 

larger. 

Size small C. {B.) lultli. 



lY. CERYUS (EUSA[?]) KUHLI. 

Cervus kuhlii,t Milller and SclilegeJ, Verli. Nat. Geschied. Nederland. 

Zool. p. 223, 1844; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 902; 

Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 11, 1896; LydeMer, 

Deer of All Lands, p. 174, 1898. 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) kuhlii, Sundevall, K. Svensl-a Vct.-Al-. Handl. 

1844, p. 179, 1846. 
Eusa kuhlii.t Gray, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 68, 1847, Cat. 

Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 79, 1872, Hand-List Riirninants Brit. 



* Provisionally ranked as a species, 
t Modified by later writers to huhli. 



62 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Mils. p. 150, 1878; Fitzingcr, Sitzhcr. I: Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. 
Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 355, 1873, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 300, 1874; Garrod, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17 ; Lijon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xl, 
p. 70, 1911. 

Cervus (Hyelaphus) kuhli, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 71, 
1910, ed. 7, p. 73, 1914. 

Typical (and only) locality the Ba^•ian, or Baweau, Islands, 
between Borneo and Java. 

Type in Leydeu ]\Iuseum. 

A small deer, differing from all the following species by 
the longer antler-pedicles and the larger auditory bullre — 
characters affiliating it to Hyelaphus, with which it apparently 
agrees in the presence of a glandular cleft in the hind- 
pasterns. 

Height at shoulder about 27 inches ; build light and 
tall ; face comparatively short ; coat moderately coarse and 
long, with the hairs on the back ringed ; general colour 
uniform brown, witliout a dark stripe on the back, and 
the under-parts rather darker ; young uniformly coloured ; 
antlers not much longer than the head, supported on relatively 
long pedicles ; their general form similar to those of the 
Malay sambar, Ijut thinner and less rugose, with the brow- 
tine very short; ears small and pointed, thickly haired 
externally ; tail moderately long and bushy ; face-glands 
small ; metatarsal glands only slightly lighter than rest of 
legs ; no mane on neck. 

* * * *. Skin, mounted, and limb-bones. Bavian 
Islands. Co-type. By exchange with the Leyden Museum. 

46. 2. 16. 1. Skin, immature, formerly mounted. Java, 
probably imported from the Bavian Islands. 

Purcliasecl (Franks, hy whom this specimen ivas obtained 
from, the Leyden Museum), 1846. 

71. '1 3. 4. Skin, female. Bavian Islands. 

Purchased (Zooloyiccd Society), 1871. 



Y. CEEVUS (KUSA) ALFEEDI. 

Cervus alfredi, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 381 ; BrooJce, ibid. 

1877, p. 59, 1878, p. 902; Garrod, ibid. 1877, p. 4 ; Meyer, ibid. 

1879, p. 666; Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 172, 1898. 
Axis alfredi. Gray, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 80, 1872. 



TERVID.E 63 

Rusa alfredi, Garroil, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17 ; Hollisfer, 
Philippine Journ. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, p. 40, 1912. 

IMelanaxis alfredi, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emj). Chinois, vol. ii, 
p. 47, 1888. 

Typical, and only, locality Philippines ; the type specimen 
having been received from Manila. The distributional area 
is stated to include the islands of Cebu, Guimaras, Leyte, 
Masbate, Negros, Panay, and Samar, on the eastern side of 
the group. 

Size relatively small, the height at the shoulder being 
about 28 inches ; build long and low ; face rather long ; coat 
less coarse and shaggy than in any of the following forms ; 
general colour dark blackish brown, frequently with a deep 
black line along the middle of the back, and marked with 
a number of whitish spots, forming a regular row on each 
side of the back, but less regularly distributed elsewhere ; 
under-parts, chin, lower lip, inner surface of buttocks and 
of upper portion of legs, as well as fronts of thighs, white; 
young spotted. Antlers supported on short pedicles, 
apparently of the general type of those of the Malay sambar, 
but relatively smaller, and with a shorter brow-tine ; ears 
short and rounded, about one-third the length of the head, 
almost naked behind ; face-glands moderately large ; no mane 
on neck ; tail rather short and thinly haired, with some 
white on lower surface ; liind-pasterns apparently with a 
glandular cleft. 

76. 2. 30. 1. Skin, mounted, and skeleton (1681, a). 
Philippines. Type. Purchased {Zoological Society), 1876. 

76. 2. 30. 2. Skin, young. Born in London, Zoological 
Gardens; the offspring of Nos. 76. 2. 30. 1 and 79. 3. 20. 1. 

Same history. 

79. 3. 20. 1. Skin, female, mounted. Philippines. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1879. 

VI. CERVUS (RUSA) TIMOPJENSIS. 

Cervus timoriensis, BlainviUe, Journ. Pliys. 1822, p. 267 ; F. Cuvier, 

Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. iv, pi. 361, 1824; BrooJce, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. 1878, p. 903. 
Cervus peronii, Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles,-edi. 3, vol. iv, p. 46, 1825 ; 

H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 114, 1827; 

J. B. Fischer, Sijnop. Mamm. p. 453, 1829. 



64 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Cervus (Rusa) peronii, H. SiiiilJt, Gritfith's Aniiiud Kiiwdom, vol. v, 

p. 311, 1827. 
Axis peronii, Jardine, Natm-alist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 165, 

pi. xii, 1835. 
Cervus rnssa timoriensis, MilUer ami SMegrl, Verli. Nat. GeschirJ. 

Nederland. Zool. pp. 212 and 220, 1844. 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) peronii, Sundcvall, K. Svcnska Vcf.-Ak. 

Handl. 1844, p. 179, 1846. 
Rusa peronii, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 165, 

pi. xii, 1835 ; Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 63, 1850, Cat. 

Ungidata Brit. Mus. p. 211, 1852, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mas. 

p. 78, 1872, Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mas. p. 150, 1873; 

Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 261, 1862; Fitzingcr, 

Sitzher. h. Ak. Wiss. IVien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 355, 1873, 

vol. Ixx, pt, 1, 317, 1874 ; Garrod, Proc. Zool. Sac. 1877, p. 17. 
Hippelaphus timoriensis, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emj), Chinois, 

vol. iii, p. 51, 1896. 
Cervus hippelaphus timoriensis, Lydekl-cr, Deer of All Lands, 

p. 170, 1898. 

Rusa. 

Typical locality Timor. 

Type in Paris Museum. 

In its larger phase, a deer with the general form, coat, 
and colouring of a sambar, but the ears smaller, the tail thin, 
the hairs on the back banded with differently-coloured rings, 
and the sides of the upper lip, chin, under-parts, and inner 
sides of the thighs and buttocks more or less distinctly 
whitish ; size medium ; antlers comparatively slender and 
only moderately rugose, with the brow-tine of medium or 
short length, and making a large acute angle with the beam ; 
the hind, or inner tine of the terminal fork much longer 
than the front, or outer, one, and forming the continuation 
of the beam, from the front, or front-outer surface of which 
the front tine arises as an offshoot ; the two antlers enclosing 
a more or less distinctly lyrate space. Young uniformly 
coloured ; hind-pasterns apparently with a glandular cleft. 

The three recognised races may be distinguislied as 
follows :- — 

A, Size smaller. 

a. Neck distinctly maned C. f. timoriensis. 

h. Neck maneless C. t. moluccensis. 

B. Size larger C. t. tunjuc. 



UEKVID.E 65 



A.— Cervus timoriensis timoriensis. 

Cervus hippelaphus timoriensis, LydekJcer, Deer of All Lands, 
p. 170, 1898; Trouessart, Cat. Mamni. p. 878, 1899; Ward, 
Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p, 67, 1910, ed. 7, p. 67, 1914. 

Typical locality Timor; the range also including the 
islands of Semao and Kambing, which, with Timor, form the 
continuation of the Sumatra-Java line. 

Type in Paris Museum. 

A relatively small deer, of the same approximate size as 
the next race, but distinguished by the thicker hair on the 
neck, the more distinctly tufted tail, certain differences in 
coloration, especially on the face and rump, and the wider 
antlers ; forehead grey ; face, neck, upper part of flanks, and 
greater portion of the chest dark blackish brown, the brown 
of the chest forming a streak between the legs ; middle of 
back almost black ; under- parts, inner surfaces of thighs, 
and a band above the hoofs brownish or ochery yellow, 
passing into dirty white on the hind portion of the abdomen ; 
lips and inner surfaces of ears white, as are also the inner 
surfaces of the buttocks ; tail-tuft dark blackish brown ; in 
the males a whitish streak runs from above each eye across 
the cheek to the side of the neck ; antler-measurements are 
not recorded. 

67. 1. 30. 2. Skin, female, formerly mounted. Timor. 
From an animal presented to the Zoological Society by 
Capt. L. Brayley. FurcJidsed {Zoological Society), 1867. 

B.— Cervus timoriensis moluecensis. 

Cervus moluecensis, Qitoy and Gaimard, Voyage Astrolabe, Zool. 

vol. i, p. 183, pi. xxiv, 1830 ; Eydoux and Gervals, Mag. Zool. 

vol. vi, p. 26, 1836, Voyage Favorite, Mamm. p. 26, 1839 ; 

BrooJie, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 904 ; LydeMcer, Horns and 

Hoofs, p. 299, 1893; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 2, 

p. 12, 1896. 
Cervus russa moluecensis, Milller and Schlegel, Verh. Nat. Geschied. 

Nederland. Zool. pp. 212 and 220, 1844. 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) moluecensis, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet,-Al\ 

Handl. 1844, p. 179, 1846. 
Rusa moluecensis, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 62, 1850, Cat. 

Ungnlata Brit. Mils. p. 209, 1852, Cat. Buminants Brit, Mas. 

p. 77, 1872, Ha ml -List Buminants Brit. Mas. p. 149, 1873, 

IV. F 



66 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

partim ; FUziiiger, Sitzher. li. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, 

p. 354, 1873, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 320, 1874; Garrod, Proc. Zool 

Soc. 1877, p. 17. 
Hippelaphus moluccensis, Heitde, Men). Hist. Nat. EmjJ. Chinois, 

vol. iii, p. 94, 1896. 
Cervus hippelaphus moluccensis, LydcJcker, Deer of All Lands, 

p. 166, pi. xii, 1898; Trouessart, Cat. Mamm. p. 879, 1899; 

Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 67, 1910, ed. 7, p. 67, 1914, 

Typical locality the Molucca group (Amboina, Boru, and 
Batcliian) ; the range also including Celebes. 

Stated to differ from the Javan form of the next race by 
its inferior size, and especially the want of a distinct mane on 
the neck of the males, and the absence of a distinct terminal 
tuft to the tail ; as a rule, the antlers are relatively small, 
the build is low and stout, and the head large and thick. 
la two exceptionally fine pairs of antlers the dimensions are 
as follows: length along outer curve 36|^ and 27^ inches; 
basal girth 4-| and 4f inches; tip-to-tip interval 18^ and 
14:h inches. 

Like the preceding race, the Moluccan rusa may have 
been introduced into its present habitat by the Malays. 

697, Ic. Frontlet and antlers, provisionally referred to 
this race. Locality unknown. No history. 

61. 12. 11. 27. Skull (1427, rO, with antlers, and head- 
skin (61. 12. 11. 28). Batchian; collected by Dr. A. B. 
Wallace, O.M. Purchased, 1861. 

65. 12. 8. 30 (1427, c). Skeleton, immature. Probably 
from the Moluccas. Purchased {Zoological Society), 1861. 

67. 4. 12. 243. Skull, witli antlers, immature. Probably 
from the Moluccas. 

Ijidth clc Jeude Collection, jjurchased, 1867. 

84. 4. 24. 6. Skull, immature, with antlers. Amboina. 
Presented hy Dr. H. 0. Forbes, 1884. 

84. 4. 24. 7. Skull, young. Boru. Same history. 

97. 4. 3. 2. Skin, mounted. Moluccas. 

Presented ly the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1897. 

C— Cervus timoriensis tunjuc. 

Cervus hippelaphus, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. i, pi. 108, 
1819; Czivier, Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 2, vol. iv, p. 40, pi. v, figs. 
31-34, 1823 ; H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 105, 
1827; -/. B. Fischer, Synoj). Mamm. p. 451, 1829; Pucheran, 



CEUVIDiE 67 

Arch. Mas. Paris, vol. vi, p. 402, 1852 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1878, p. 905 ; Forbes, Naturalist's Wanderings in E. Archipelago, 
p. 31, 1885 ; Wallace, Malay Archipelago, ed. 3, p. 300, 1890; 
W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 179, 1891; 
Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 297, 1893, Deer of All Lands, 
p. 162, 1898 ; Bentham, Asiat. Horns and Antlers Ind. Mus. 
p. 78, 1908 ; nee Cervus elaphus hippelaphus, Kerr, 1792. 

Cervus (Rusa) hippelaphus, H. Smith, Grifith's Animal Kingdom, 
vol. V, p. 309, 1827. 

Cervus tunjuc, Vigors and Horsficld in Lady Raffles' s Memoir of Sir 
Stamford Raffles, p. 645, 1830; Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. 
Soc. Bengal, p. 151, 1863. 

Rusa hippelaphus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 179, 1843, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 231, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 209, 1852, 
Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 77, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants 
Brit. Mus. p. 148, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Afus. 
p. 261, 1862, partim ; Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17. 

Cervus russa, Miiller and Schlegel, Verh. Nat, Geschied. Nedcrland, 
Zool. p. 217, pi. xliv, 1844. 

Cervus (Hippelaphus) hippelaphus, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. 

Handl. 1844, p. 178, 1846. 
Rusa paradoxa, Brehm, Zool. Garten, 1864, p. 11. 
Cervus rufus, Blyth, quoted bv Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. 

p. 77, 1872. 
Cervus hippelaphus typicus, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 161, 

1898; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 67, 1910, ed. 7, 

p. 67, 1914. 
Cervus (Rusa) hippelaphus. Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 66, 1910, ed. 7, p. 66, 1914. 

Sqmatran and Javan Rusa. 

Typical locality Sumatra. 

Smaller than the Indian sambar, and of the approximate 
size of a red deer ; head of moderate length, with the facial 
profile nearly straight; throat and neck of males with a 
well-developed mane; ears broad, and less than lialf the 
length of the head; tail only slightly longer than ears, 
thinner than in the Malay sambar, and ending in a tuft of 
thick coarse hairs ; general colour in summer dark grizzled, 
ochery brown with a tinge of red, darker on the hind- 
quarters and thighs than elsewhere ; front of neck, chest, 
and under-parts varying from dirty white to brownish grey, 
and a dark reddish brown longitudinal streak on front of 
chest ; flanks shot with rusty brown, and frequently with a 
patch of that colour ; inner sides of legs, shanks, and inner 
sides of buttocks dirty whitish ; chin, lips, and under surface 

F 2 



68 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

of lower jaw whitish, with a brownish spot on the lower li[) 
at angle of mouth ; inner surfaces of ears whitisli ; tail 
yellowish brown above and dirty white beneath, at or near 
the tip uniformly blackish brown. In winter general colour 




Fig. IG. — Frontlet and Antlers op Javan Eusa 

(Cervtcs [Btisa] timoricnsis tunjuc). 

From a specimen iu the collection of Sir E. G. Loder, Bart. 

more greyish brown ; under-parts and inner surfaces of the 
upper portion of fore-legs, thighs, and buttocks dirty 
yellowish white ; tip of lower jaw, border of upper lip, and 
neighbourhood of nose white ; a blackish spot beneath the 
angle of the mouth, and often a brownish band round the 



GERVID.E 69 

muzzle. In Icmales the streaks on the chest and the tail 
are somewhat lighter-coloured. 

Fine antler.s measure from 33 to 37^ inches along the 
front curve, with a basal curve of from 4^ to 5|-, and a 
tip-to-tip interval of from IH to 25^ inches. 

Ccrvi'.s hijjjielaphns, of Cuvier, although generally stated 
to be a Javan form, is typified by antlei'S l^rought from 
Sumatra l)y Diard, and the types of C. tvnjnc are also 
Sumatran ; but U. russa is typically Javan, while Rvm. 
iwradoxa and C. rufus are leased on representatives of this 
deer introduced, respectively, into IMauritius and liodriguez. 
Deer of this type also occur in Borneo, where, however, 
according to Brooke, they have been introduced by the 
IMalays. 

If the Javan form be racially distinct from the 8uniatran 
it should be known as C. timoricnsU rusa.^ 

51. 9. 8. 10-11. Two skins, immature, formerly mounted. 
Sumatra. Co-types. Presented hij Sir T. Stamford Ea(ilcx, 

some time precious to 1830, 

* * * *, Skin, female, formerly mounted. Java. 

No history. 

697,0. Frontlet and antlers, provisionally referred to 
this race. Locality unknown. No histort/. 

76. 11. 17. 1. Single antler. Mauritius; introduced; 
collected by ]Mr. Le Soeuf. 

Frescntcd Inj Dr. J'. L. Sdatrr, 187(i. 

5. 3. 26. 1. Frontlet and antlers. Eodriguez Island, 
Mascareue group ; introduced. 

Presented Inj Col. H. JT. L. Hine, 1905. 

10. 4. 5. 158-159. Two frontlets, with antlers. Brontok, 
south central Borneo ; collected by G. C. Shortridge, Esq. 

Presented hj 0. Thomas, Esq., 1910. 

10. 4. 6. 74-75. Two upper halves of skulls, with 
antlers. Sapandjang Is., near Kaugean Is., Java Sea ; same 
collector. Same histori/. 

* Eusaa is an iucorrect rendeviug of the Malay name. 



70 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



A^II. CEKVUS (KUSA) TAAaSTOCKI. 

Cervus (Eusa) tavistocki, Lydekkcr, Aim. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, 

vol. vi, p. 205, 1900. 
Rusa tavistocki, HolUster, Philijijnjte Journ. Set., sect. D, vol. vii, 

p. 40, 1912. 

Typical locality not definitely known, l»ui probably one 
of the islands of the Philippine group. 

If this deer be a valid species, or race, and not a " sport " 
or hybrid, it may be the same as one of those named l)y 
Hende in the list on page 89. 

Apparently related to C. (B.) iimoricusis, but with 
Ihittened and somewhat palmated antlers, which, when fully 
developed, show at least six points on each side ; shoulder- 
lieight about 30 inches. 

As regards their special characters, the antlers are more 
or less flattened throughout and display a marked tendency 
to palmation. The brow-tine is much flattened, with a sharp 
posterior edge, and on the right side is distinctly bifurcate, 
although only imperfectly so on the left ; the outer tine of 
the terminal fork is likewise much flattened, sharp-edged 
behind, and trifurcate, but the inner tine on the right side is 
conical and simple, although showing a tendency to branch 
on the left side ; the number of points on each antler is 
thus six. 

0. 6. 8. 2. Skin, mounted. Type. The stag to which 
this skin belonged was living, together with two or three 
other similar deer, in the park at Woburn Abbey for about 
two years. Presented hy the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1900. 

VIII. CEEVUS (PtUSA) UNICOLOR. 

Cervus axis nnicolor, Kerr, Linn.'s Anim,. Kingdom, p. 306, 1792. 

Cervus axis major, Kerr, Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 306, 1792 ; based 
on Pennant's " Greater Axis." 

Cervus unicolor, Beclistein, Allgemein. Uebersicht vierfilss. TJiiere, 
vol. i, p. 112, 1799 ; H. Smith, Griffith's) Animal Kingdom, 
vol. iv, p. 108, 1827 ;'Lesson, Notiv. Tabl. Begne Anim., Mamin. 
p. 171, 1842 ; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 543, 1891 ; 
Lydel'ker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 293, 1893, Deer of All Lands, 
p. 144, pis. X and xi, 1898, Great and Small Game of India, etc. 
p. 206, 1900, Game Animals of India., etc. p. 223. 1907 ; Ward, 
Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 3, 1896 ; Aoki, Annot. Zool. 
Japan, vol. viii, p. 341, 1913, 



CERVID.E 71 

Cervus albicornis, Bcchstein, Allgemein. Uehcrsicht vicrfiiss. Thiere, 
vol. i, p. 112, 1799. 

Cervus niger, Blainville, Bull. Soc. Philom. 1816, p. 76, vide Blyth, 
Jonrn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xi, p. 449, 1842 ; /. B. Fischer, 
Sijnop. Mamui. p. 453, 1829. 

Cervus aristotelis, Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 3, vol. iv, p. 503, 
1825 ; H. Smitli, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 110, 
1827 ; J. B. Fischer, Sgjioj). Mnmm. p. 452, 1829 ; Lesson, Nouv. 
Tabl. Bcgne Anim., Mamm.-p. 171, 1842; Blyth, Joiirn. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, vol. xi, p. 449, 1842; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, 
p. 350, 1871 ; Broohe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 901 ; Flower and 
Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mas. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 289, 1884 ; 
Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt. ii, p. 103, 1885 ; 
W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mm. pt. ii, p. 176, 1891 ; 
Flower and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 320, 1891 ; Bentham, 
Asiat. Horns and Antlers Lid. Mus. p. 72, 1908. 

Cervus leschenaultii, Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 3, p. 506, 1825. 

Cervus hippelaphus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, 
p. 105, 1827 ; Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 169, 
pi. xi, 1835 ; Elliot, Madras Journ. vol. x, p. 220, 1839 ; Blyth, 
Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xi, p. 449, 1842, vol. xx, p. 174, 
1852, partim ; nee C. elaphus hippelaphus, Kerr, nee C. hippe- 
laphus, Cuvier. 

Cervus (Rusa) hippelaphus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 
vol. V, p. 809, 1827, partim ; Nitsche, Studicn ilber Hirsche, 
p. 32, 1898. 

Cervus (Rusa) unicolor, H. Smith, op. cit. p. 310, 1827; Ward, 
Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 59, 1910, ed. 7, p. 61, 1914 ; 
Lydekker, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. Mus. p. 36, 1913. 

Cervus (Rusa) aristotelis, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 
vol. V, p. 310, 1827. 

Cervus jarai, Hodgson, Gleanings in Science, vol. iii, p. 321, 1831. 

Cervus heterocerus, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. x, 
p. 721, 1841, iiomen nudum. 

Cervus jarya, nepalensis, and heterocerus, Hodgson, oj). cit. p. 914, 
1841, nomina nuda. 

Rusa aristotelis. Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 179, 1843, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 230, Cat. TJngulata Brit. Mus. p. 205, 1852, 
Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 76, 1872, Hand-List Buminants 
Brit. Mus. p. 145, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. 
p. 260, 1862 ; Jerdon, Mamm. India, p. 256, 1867 ; Fitzinger, 
Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 279, 1874; Garrod, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17 ; Sterndale, Mamm. India, p. 504, 
J.884 ; Percy, Big Game Shooting {Badminton Libr.), vol. ii, 
p. 257, 1894. 

Axis pennantii. Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 180, 1843. 

Rusa hippelaphus, Gray, Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 148, 
1873, partim. 

Cervus (Hippelaphus) aristotelis, Sundcvall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. 
Handl. 1844, p. 178, 1846. 

Cervus (Hippelaphus) niger, SundevaU, oj]. cit. p. 183, 1846. 

Cervus (Hippelaphus) leschenaulti, SundevaU, loc. cit. 1846. 

Cervus (Hippelaphus) unicolor, SundevaU, loc. cit. 1846. 



72 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

llusa aristotelis nigra, Filzingcr, Sitzhcr. A'. Ah. "IlV.s.v. U'/tv/. \o\. Ixx, 

pt. 1, p. 284, 1874. 
liusa aristotelis leschcnaulti, Fitziugcr. op. cit. p. 286, 1874. 
liusa aristotelis unicolor, Fitzhigcr, op. rif. p. 287. 1874. 




Fig. 17. — Skull and Antlers of Sambau {Ccrvus \_Rusa\ unicolor). 

Kusa aristotelis heteroceros, Fitzingcr, op. cil. p. 289, 1874. 

Rusa equina pennanfcii, Fitzinger, op. cit. p. 226, 1874. 

Eusa unicolor, Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 946; Wroitghton, 

Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxi, p. 1193, 1912 ; Dods- 

worth, ibid. vol. xxii, p. 748, 1914. 



CEKVID.E 73 

Sambar (Marathi and Dekhani) ; Jarao (Nepali) ; Rusa (Malay). 

Typical locality Ceylon. 

Size typically large ; hair coarse and shaggy, the hairs on 
tlie back not distinctly banded with differently coloured 
rings ; general colour some shade of dark umber-brown, with 
chestnut or whitish on the inner side of the buttocks, and 
often on the under-parts ; chin generally white ; young 
either more or less uniformly coloured, or faintly spotted on 
the hind-quarters ; antlers (fig. 17) large, stout, and rugose, 
with the Ijrow-tine generally long and making an acute angle 
with the beam, and the front, or outer tine of the terminal 
fork forming the continuation of the line of the beam when 
there is any inequality in the length of the two tines ; the 
space enclosed by the antlers of opposite sides more or less 
V- or U-shaped, but the tips of the antlers frequently 
inclined inwards ; pedicles of antlers short. 

Different views are entertained as to whether the various 
modifications of the sambar type indicate distinct species, or 
races of one variable species. All tlie forms in which the 
front, or outer, tine of the terminal fork of the antlers forms 
the continuation of the line of the beam, where there is any 
inequality in the length of the two, are here regarded 
as races of a single species ; but those in which the back, or 
inner, tine is situated in the direct line of the beam arc 
considered to represent a second species. Whether all the 
local modifications of the first type are truly indigenous, and 
therefore entitled to rank as subspecies, is doubtful. 

The distributional area includes the undulating, or hilly 
wooded districts of a large portion of the Oriental region, 
namely India, Ceylon, Assam, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, 
Borneo, Siam, Hainan, Formosa, and the Philippines, and 
extends northwards to Sze-chuan. 

The following is a provisional " key " to the better known 
local races of this variable species : — 

A. Face longer ; shanks dark. 

a. Size very large, shoulder-height -reaching 54 
inches ; terminal tines of antlers subequal, 
or front one the shorter C. ii. unicolor. 

h. Size nearly equal to that of preceding ; hind 

terminal tine the shorter C. u. eqiiiniis, 



74 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

B. Face shorter ; shanks light. 

a. Size nearly as large as in typical race C. u. dejcani. 

h. Size smaller ,. C. u. sivinhoei. 

c. Size still smaller ; shoulder-height not exceed- 
ing about 28 inches. 
a'. Size larger (28 inches) ; conspicuous mous- 
tache-markings ; chin white C. it. jjJiilipjnnus 

(and mariannus). 
b'. Size smaller, not exceeding 26 inches. 
a". Limbs and under-parts darker. 

(vK Shoulder-height 24 to 26 inches ; no 
moustache-markings ; skull and teeth 

larger C. it. nigricans. 

I)''. Shoulder-height about 25 inches ; con- 
spicuous moustache-markings ; skull 

and teeth smaller. C. it. nigellus. 

b". Limbs and under-parts lighter C, it. boninensis. 

A.— Cervus unicolor unicolor. 

Cervus unicolor typicus, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 146, pi. x, 
1898, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 224, 1907 ; Ward, Reeords 
of Big Game, ed. 6, p.' 60, 1910, ed. 7, p. 62, 1914. 

Cervus unicolor imicolor, LydeJcker, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. Mas. 
p. 37, 1913. 

Typical locality Ceylon ; the range including India, and 
prol)ably extending eastwards as far as the Assam valley, 
where this race may be separated Ijy the Bramaputra from 
the next, with wldch, however, it may locally intergrade. 
Ceylon sambar are smaller than the mainland form. 

Size very large, the height at the shoulder reaching at 
least 5 feet 4 inches ; antlers (fig. 17) long, with the two 
tines of the terminal fork generally of approximately equal 
length, but if unequal, the front one usually the shorter, and 
the hind one rising from the posterior surface of the l^eam 
and not forming the continuation of the axis of the latter ; 
general colour almost uniformly dark umber-brown, tending 
to grey or yellowish in some individuals ; under-parts little 
paler than the back, but chin, inner portion of buttocks, 
lower surface of tail, and inner sides of upper part of limbs 
more or less distinctly cliestnut ; females paler ; young 
reddish, apparently with a black tail and dorsal band, but 
spots wanting ; ears very broad, equal to about half the length 
of the head ; the latter relatively long, with a nearly straight 
profile ; tail moderately bushy, and longer than ear. Fine 



CERVID/E 75 

antlers measure from 43 to 50 inches along the outer curve, 
with a basal girth of from 5^ to 9|, and a tip-to-tip interval 
of from 8 to 49 inches. The presence of an additional 
(fourth) tine is very rare. 

699, a. Single antler. From a stag in the menagerie at 
Exeter Change. No hidorij. 

699*. Two single antlers. No history. 

697, g. Skull and antlers. Locality unknown. 

No hislori/. 
697, h. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown. 

No Mstorij. 
697, VI. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown. 

No liistori). 
697, u. Frontlet and antlers. Type of Pennant's " Greater 
Axis," G. axis major, and 0. alhicomis. Ceylon (?). 

No hisior//. 
697, y. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown. 

No hisfor/f. 
699, a. Skin, formerly mounted. Nepal. 

FrcsciUcd hy B. H. Hodg.ion, Esq. 

699, V. Frontlet and antlers. Outer Himalaya ; collected 

by the Eev. R. Everest (after whom Mount Everest is 

named). Purchased. 

43. 1. 26. 16. Skull and antlers. Nepal. 

Presented hj B. H. Hodgson, Bsej^., 1843. 
43. 1. 12. 107. Immature skull, female. Nepal. 

Same history. 

45. 1. 8. 106 (699, P). Skull and antlers. Nepal. Type 

of G. heterocerus ; figured by Hodgson, Jovrn. Asieit. Soc. 

Bengal, vol. x. Same donor, 1845. 

45. 1. 8. 107 (699, -x). Frontlet and antlers. Nepal. 

Same history. 
45. 1. 8. 109. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal. 

Same history. 
45. 1. 8. 110. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal. 

Same history. 
45. 1. 8. 111. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal. 

Srcmc history. 
45. 1. 8. 114. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal. 

Same history. 



70 CATALOGUE OF UNtiUI.ATES 

45. 1. 8. 113 (GOO, r). Skull and antlers. Nopal. 

Sftmc histori/. 
4~>. 1. 8. IIG. Frontlet ami antlers. Nepal. 

>^amc historji. 
45. 1. 8 117. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal. 

Same liistorij. 
45. 1. 8. 118. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal. 

Same his/ori/. 
45. 1. 8. 108 (600, /). Skull and antU'rs. Nepal. 

Same lustonj. 
45. 1. 8. 100 ((iOO, ///). Skull, female. Same hidorjj. 

45. 1. 8. 201. Frcuitlet and antlers, N'oung. Nepal. 

Same hislorjj. 
tiOO, //. Frontlet and antlers. No[)al. Saine donor. 

699, /-. Skeleton. Nepal. Sctme donor. 

* *. Single antler. Nepal. Same donor. 

GOO, )r. Single antler. Himalaya. Same history. 

45. 12. 27. 3. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown. 

J'vrchased (Ar</enf), 1845. 
47. 7. 2;j. ."iO (600, ni'). Skeleton and antlers. India ; 
collected by Mr. Bartlett. J'lirchasrd, 1847. 

690, Z-. Skeleton and antlers. India. 

I'll released {Zoological Society). 
52. 10. 5. 5. Skidl ami antlers. Locality unknown. 

I'lirchiised {Arijcnl), 1852. 
5;'.. 8. 22. I. Skin, mounted, and skull (5;5. 8. 22. 2 = 
600, ff). Ceylon. Tupo-type. 

Ihircliascd {Zooloyieal Society), 185;!. 
58. 6. 24. 10. Skin, immature. Sikliim. 

Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esij., 1858. 
58. 6. 24. 20. Skull, with antlers, and skin, immature. 
Sikhim. Same history. 

58. 6. 24. 21. Skull, immature female. Sikhim. 

Same history. 
58. 6, 24. 174. Frontlet and antlers. Sikhim. 

Same history. 
58. 6. 24. 175. Frontlet and single antler. Sikhim. 

Same history. 
609,/. Frontlet and antlers. India (?). 

Presented l>y Mrs. Wright. 



CEIIVID.K 77 

G99,/-. Frontlet and antlers. India (?). No liistory. 

699, h. Antlers. India (?). No liistory. 

* * * *. Skull and antlers. India (?). No history. 

* * * *. Six frontlets, with antlers. India (?). 

No history. 

* * * *. Tour shed antlers. India (?). No liistory. 
03. 5. 13. 6-7. Two pairs of shed antlers. India (?). 

Pttrcliased {Zoological Society), 1863. 

68. 12. 29. 8 (699, y-). Skeleton and antlers. India (?). 

Same liistory, 1868. 

79. 11. 21. 184. Skull and antlers. Nepal; collected by 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Transferred from India Museum, 1879. 

79. 11. 21. 443. Frontlet and antlers. India, probably 
the Saharunpur district; collected by Dr. Hugh Falconer, 
sometime Superintendent of the Saharunpur Botanical 
Gardens. Length of antlers 45^- inches. Same history. 

79. 11. 21. 444. Frontlet and antlers. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

79.11.21.446. Skull and antlers. Nepal; collected 
by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Same history. 

79. 11. 21. 448. Skull and antlers. India (?). 

Same history. 

79.11.21.449. Frontlet and antlers. Dekhan ; col- 
lected by Col. W. H. Sykes, about 1840. Same history. 

79. 11. 21. 451. Fair of antlers. Godaveri Valley. 

Same history. 

79.11.21.452. Antlers. India (?). Same history. 

79.11.21.452*. Antlers. India (0- Same history. 

88. ,3' 20. 26. Skull and antlers. India. 

Presented hy B. Lydekker, Estj., 1888. 

89. 11. 20. 3. Frontlet and antlers. Khatcote Jungle, 
near ]\Iho\v. Presented hy Col. J. Evans, 1889, 

89. 11. 20. 4-5. Two frontlets, with antlers. Ghats, 
west of Simrol. Same history. 

89. 11. 20. 6. Frontlet and antlers. Dehra Dun. 

Same history. 
91. 8. 7. 16. Frontlet and antlers. Dehra Dun. 

Presented hy A. 0. Hume, Esq., G.B., 1891. 

91. 8. 7. 17-18. Two frontlets, with antlers. Oudh 

Tarai. Sumc history. 



78 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

71. 8. 7. 19-24. Six shed autlers. Chanda, Central 
Provinces, India. Same history. 

2. 10. 2. 1. Skin, mounted. India. 

Presented hij the Dulcc of Bedford, K.G., 1902. 

7. 10. 27. 2. Skull and antlers. Central India. Length 
of antlers 44^ inches. 

Presented by Mrs. J. G. Anderson, 1907. 

7. 10. 27. 3. Skull and antlers. Same locality. Length 
of antlers 42i inches. Same history. 

12. 10. 31. 9. Skull and antlers (fig. 17). Chanda, 
Central Provinces. Length of antlers on outer curve 46^, 
girth 6|, tip-to-tip interval 24|, widest inside span 30| 
inches. Bequeathed hy A. 0. Haiae, Esq., C.B., 1912. 

B.— Cervus unicolor equinus. 

Cervus equinus, Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, ed, 2, vol. iv, p. 45, pi. v, 
figs. 37 and 38, 1823 ; H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 
vol. iv, p. 112, 1827 ; S. Miiller, Verh. Nat. Gescliied. Nederland. 
pis. xlii and xlv, 1840-44 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 901 ; 
Gilnther, ibid. 1880, p. 452 ; Floiver and Gar son, Cat. Osteol. 
Mus. B. Coll. Surg. p. ii, p. 290, 1884 ; Floivcr and Lijdehher, 
Study of Mammals, p. 320, 1891 ; LydeJcker, Horns and Hoofs, 
p. 297, 1893 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 7, 1896. 

Cervus raalaccensis, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. i, pi. x, 1824 ; 
J. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 451, 1829. 

Cervus (Rusa) equinus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, 
p. 311, 1827. 

Eusa equina, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 179, 1843, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1850, p. 231, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 210, 1852 (equinus), 
Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 77, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants 
Brit. Mus. p. 149, 1873 ; Gerrard. Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. 
p. 261, 1862 ; Jcrdon, Mamm. India, p. 260, 1867 ; Fitzinger, 
Sitzher. h. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 290, 1874 ; Garrod, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17. 

Cervus (Hippelaphus) equinus, Sundevall, K. Svcnsha Vet.-Alc.Handl. 
1844, p. 178, 1846. 

Cervulus cambojensis, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 138. 

Rucervus cambojensis. Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 76, 1872, 
Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 145, 1873, partim. 

Rusa equina malaccensis, Fitzinger, Sitzher. h. Ah. Wiss Wien, 
vol. Ixx, pt. i, p. 294, 1874. 

Russa equina, Jentink and Bilttihofer, Notes Leyden Mus. vol. xix, 
p. 63, 1897. 

Cervus unicolor equinus, Lydehher, Deer of All Lands, jj. 150, pi. xi, 
1898, Great and Small Game of hid ia, etc. p. 215, 1900, Game 



CERVID/E 79 

Animals of India, etc. p. 232, 1907, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. 
Mas. p. 38, 1913 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 68, 1910, 
ed. 7, p. 65, 1914; Gairdner, J. Siam, Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. i, 
p. 117, 1914. 
Rusa unicolor equinus, Allen, Bull. Ainer. Mns. Nat. Hist. vol. xxii, 
p. 467, 1906. 

Typical locality Sumatra. 

Co-types (figured by Cuvier, oj). cit) apparently not in 
Paris Museum. 

Nearly as large as Indian representatives of the typical 
race, but the antlers generally shorter and thicker, with the 
hind, or inner, tine of the terminal fork much shorter than 
the front or outer one, and rising as a spur from the inner 
hind margin of the beam, of which the hind tine forms the 
direct continuation, and the brow-tine in most cases rela- 
tively longer ; general colour darker, approaching black or 
slaty grey in old stags ; usually a light ring round the eye ; 
ears rather smaller, with distinct white margins ; legs 
frequently light-coloured ; tail more bushy ; face compara- 
tively long and straight ; new-born young, at least frequently, 
faintly spotted on hind-quarters, witli the general colour 
foxy red, and the tail and a line down the back blackish or 
black. Good antlers measure from about 16 to 30 inches 
along the outer curve, with a basal girth of from 4:\ to 7 
inches, and a tip-to-tip interval of from 5^ to 24^ inches. 

The range is provisionally taken to include most of the 
large sambar of all the Malay countries, with the exception 
of Java, and also to comprise those of Assam and Kachar, 
where these deer are known to produce spotted young, and 
also of Hainan. It is, however, quite probable that there 
may be a number of local races. If this prove to be the 
case, the name ritalaccensis is available for the Malay, and 
camhojensis for the Cambodian form. 

61. 4. 12. 18 (1463, g). Frontlet and antlers, immature. 
Cambodia ; collected by Monsieur Mouhot. Type of Cervulus 
camhojensis. Purchased, 1861. 

62. 8. 18. 22. Pair of antlers. Laos Mountains, Cam- 
bodia; same collector. Purchased, 1862. 

67. 5. 20. 3-4 (1781, (/-r). Two frontlets, with antlers. 

Assam. Purcliascd {Cutter), 1867. 

67. 5. 20. 6. Skull and antlers. Assam. Same history. 



80 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

67. 7. 8. 24 (1781, /;. Skull, with antlers, and skin. 
Locality nnknowu. Purchased {Zoological Sodety), 18G7. 

68. 3. 21. T). Skin. Locality unknown. 

tSame histori/, 18G8. 

70. 2. 10. 30. Skin, imperfect. Hainan; collected by 
Pt. Swinhoe, Esq. Purchased, 1870. 

70. 2. 10. 31. Skin, female, imperfect. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

81. 6. 30. 6. Pair of shed antlers. Cochin China; 
collected by Monsieur Boucard. Purchased, 1881. 

81. 6. 30. 7-8. Two frontlets, with antlers. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

84. 4. 14. 3. Skeleton, female. Garo Hills, Assam ; 
collected by G. P. Sanderson, Esq. Purchased, 1884. 

91. 8. 7. 25-30. Six frontlets, with antlers. Same 
locality and collector. Purchased, 1891. 

94. 9. 20. 1. Frontlet and antlers. Locality nnknown. 
I^resented by Capt. Stewetrt, 1894. 

12. 10. 31. 10. Skull and antlers. Garo Hills; collected 
1)V G. P. Sanderson, Esq. 

Bequeathed by A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912. 



C— Cervus unicolor brookei. 

Cervus brookei, Hose, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xii, p. 206, 

1893. 
Eusa brookei, Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nnt. Mas. vol. xxxi, p. .'JB4, 1906, 

vol. xxxiii, p. 550, 1907, vol. xl, p. 67, 1901. 

Typical locality Mount Dulit, Sarawak. 

According to Lyon, smaller than INIalay Sambar (appa- 
rently regarded as typical C. equinus). 

The range is taken to include Billiton, Pagi, and Nias 
Islands. 

79. 1. 27. 2. Skull, female. Sarawak, North Borneo ; 
collected by A. H. Everett, Esq. Purchased, 1879. 

79. 5. 3. 18-19. Two skulls, with antlers. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

79. 5. 3. 20. Frontlet and antlers. Same locality and 
collector. Same histury. 



CEKVID.E 81 

So. 0. IG. 1-3. Tliroe I'routlets, with uii tiers. Kejaiig 
Valley, North Borneo ; collected by H. B. Low, Esq. 

Purcliascd, 1880. 

80. 6. 16. 4 (3. Three similar specimens. Same locality 
and collector. Same histor//. 

80. 6. 16. 7-B. Two similar specimens. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

86. 12. 20. 0. Skull, with antlers. Sandakan, ]iritish 
North Borneo ; collected l)y W. B. I'lyer, Esq. 

Purvlui.scd, 1886. 

87. 2. 10. 9-11. Three irontlets, with antlers. Eajang 
Valley, North Borneo ; collected by H. B. Low, Esq. 

Piirchased, 1887. 

1)2. 9. 4. 3. Skin, young in spotted coat. Mount Dulit, 
eastern Sarawak. Type. J'ixsoikd hi/ Dr. C. Hose, 1892. 

95. 5. 7. 4. Skin, young in spotted coat. Miri Valley, 
Baram, northern Borneo. Noticed in Deer of all Lands, loc. 
cit. Same donor, 1895. 

1. 7. 29. 1. Abnornuil antlers. Sarawak. There are 
many more tines than usual, most of which are much 
palmated. Same donor, 1901. 

D. — Cervus unicolor swinhoeL 

Eusa svvinhoii, Sdatcr, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 152, Trans. Zool. 
Soc. vol. viii, p. 331, 1871 ; Stvinlioe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 644; 
Gray, Cat. Biiminants Brit. Mus. p. 77, 1872, Hand-List Buvii- 
nants Brit. Mas. p. 149, 1873 ; Fitzinger, Sitzber. h. Ah. Wiss. 
Wien, vol. Ixx, pt. 2, p. 298, 1874 (swinhoei) ; Garrod, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17. 

CcTvus swinhoii, Broolcc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 901 ; W. L. Sclatcr, 
Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 178, 1891 ; Flower and Lydeliher, 
Study of Mammals, p. 820, 1891 ; Ward, Becords of Big Game, 
ed. 2, p. 8, 1896 ; Aohi, Annot. Zool. Ja.jpon. vol. viii, p. 341, 1913. 

Cervus unicolor swinhoei, LydeMer, Deer of All Lands, p. 154, 1898, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. xv, p. 391, 1905 ; Ward, Becords 
of Big Game, ed. 5, p. 77, 1907, ed. 6, p. 64, 1910, ed. 7, p. 66, 
1914; Bentham, Asiat. Horns and Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 77, 1908. 

Cervus (Eusa) swinhoei, Nitsche, Studien iihev Hirschc, p. 32, 1898. 

Typical locality Formosa, to which island this race is 
restricted. 

Closely allied to the preceding race, from which it 
appears to be distinguished by its shorter head and concave 
profile, relatively longer legs, and the under-mentioned 
IV. ci 



82 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

dift'erences in colour, aud the somewhat smaller size. In 
winter general colour uniform reddish black-brown, with 
the head and ears reddish yellow-brown, and the upper 
surface of the nose having a V-shaped IJackish brown mark 
reaching to the eyes ; under surface nearly as dark as back, 
but inner sides of thighs and the entire shanks Itrownish or 
wliitish yellow, and the 1)ushy tail black all round. In 
summer the general colour light yellowish red-brown, darker 
in front than behind, and lightest on under surface. The 
antlers are of the type of those of the Malay race, but 
smaller; the skull is very similar to that of the Luzon race. 
(}ood antlers measure liom 16 to 19| inches in length, witli 
a girth of from 3^ to 4^ inches. 

* * * *. Skin, immature, mounted. Formosa ; col- 
lected by It. Swinhoe, Es(£., about 1860. Type, 

Purchased {Zoologiral Sucicfi/). 

63. 5. 13. 8. Shed antlers, first year. From an animal 
born in London, I'^amc histori/, 1863. 

68. 3. 21, 24. Skull, witli antlers (1414, r), and skin, 
Formosa; collected by E. Swinhoe, Esq, Same histov}/, 1868. 

70. 2, 10. 69 (1414, h). Skull. Same locality and 
collector. Pitrchascd, 1870. 

1414, c. Skull, young female. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

70. 2. 10. 70 (1414, h). Shed antlers. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

70. 2. 10. 78 (1414, i). Frontlet and antlers. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

70. 2. 10. 79-80 (1414, / and <j). Two frontlets, with 
antlers. Same locality and collector. Same history. 

76, 2. 4. 1. Skull and antlers, Formosa. 

Purehased {Zooloyical Society), 1876. 

E.— Cervus unicolop dejeani. 

Eusa dejeani, Pousargues, Bull. Mus. Paris, 1896, no. 1, p. 2, 
Cevvus dejeani, Ward, Bccords of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 22, 1896. 
Cervus unicolor dejeani, Lydehher, Deer of All Lands, p. 156, 1898 ; 
Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 65, 1910, ed. 7, p. 67, 1914. 

Typical locality Sze-chuan, Western China, about 30° 
north latitude. 



CEUVID^ 83 

Type in Paris Museum. 

Stated to be very similar in form and coloration to the 
Formosan race, but as large as the Indian sambar, from which 
it differs by the more sombre brown colour, and the longer 
and more bushy tail. In the type the antlers measure 
30^ along the outer curve, and 5^ inches in basal girth. 

No specimen in collection. 

F.— Cervus unicolor mariannus. 

Cervus mariannus, Desmarcst, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 436, 1822 ; 
Cuvier, Ossemens Fossilcs, ed. 2, vol. iv, p. 45, pi. v, fig. 30, 1823 ; 
H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 115, 1827 ; 
J. B. Fischer, Synoj). Mamm. p. 453, 1829; Gray, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1850, p. 232 ; Fraser, ibid. 1864, p. 369 ; Sclater, ibid. 1870, 
p. 279 ; Brooke, ibid. 1877, p. 53, 1878, p. 901 ; Ward, Records 
of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 1896 (marianus). 

Cervus (Rusa) mariannus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 

vol. V, p. 311, 1827. 
Cervus labipes, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. iv, pi. 420, 1832. 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) mariannus, Sundevall, K. SvensJca Vet.-Ak. 

Handl. 1844, p. 180, 1846. 

Busa mariannus, Gray, Cat, Ruminants Brit. Mas. p. 78, 1872, 
Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 150, 1873 (marianus), partim ; 
Fitzinger, Sitzbcr. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 355, 
1873, vol. Ixx, pt. I, p. 304, 1874 (marianna) ; Garrod, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17. 

Ussa marianus, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emj). Chinois, vol. ii, p. 40, 
1888. 

Typical locality Guam Island, Marianne, or Ladrone, 
Group. 

Type in Paris Museum. 

Closely allied to, and perhaps really inseparable from, the 
next race. Brooke was of opinion that the Marianne deer 
were originally imported from Luzon, but the evidence is 
by no means conclusive. The name mariannus antedates 
philipjnnus. 

655, h. Skull, with antlers. Presumably (like the fol- 
lowing specimens) from the Marianne group. Described, 
with figure of antlers by Brooke, op. cit. 1877, p. 56. Total 
length of skull 11| inches; length of antler along outer 
curve 18 inches, basal girth above burr 5 inches. No history, 

655, c. Skull and antlers. No history. 

G 2 



84 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

53. IG. 6. 2 (655, d). Skull and antlt-T.s. 

Purchased {Arycnt), 1853. 
655, c. Pair uf antlers. No history. 

64. 10. 1. 2 (655,/). Pair of antlers. 

I'arcluiHal {Cutter), 1864. 

G.— Cervus unicolor philippinus. 

Cervus philippinus, H. Smith, GriDUlis Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, 

p. 147, 1827; J. B. Fischer, Sijnop. Mamm. p. 622, 1829; 

Pucheran, Eev. Zool. Paris, 1855, p. 49, 1857, p. 481 ; Broohc, 

Proc. Zool Soc. 1877, p. 51, pi. viii, 1878, p. 901. 
Cervus (Stylocerus) philippinus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kin'jdont, 

vol. V, p. 319, 1827. 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) philippinus, Sandcvall, K. Svensl-a Vet.-Ak. 

Handl. 1844, p. 179, 1846. 
Rusa philippinus. Gray, Knowslcy Mcnayeric, p. 63, 1850, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. 1850, p. 232, Cat. JJnguluta Brit. Mus. p. 211, 1852; 

Fitzinrjer, Sitxhcr. h. Al<. Wiss. Wieu, vol. Ixvii, pt. 1, p. 355, 

1873, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 305, 1874 (philippina) ; Cabrera, Cat. Met. 

Mam. Mas. Madrid, p. 130, 1912; HoUister, Philipfinc dourn. 

Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, p. 40, 1912, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xlvi, 

p. 331, 1913. 
Cervus mariaunus, Frascr, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1866, p. 367. 
Eusa mariannus, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 78, 1872, 

Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 150, 1873 (marianna), 

partim. 
Cervus (Muntjac) philippinus. Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. 

p. 94, 1872. 
Cervus unicolor j)hilippinus, iyiie^-A-e?-, Deer of All Lands, p. 157, 

1898 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 64, 1910, ed. 7, 

p. 67, 1914. 

Typical locality Luzon, riiilippine group. 

Type in Paris Museum, 

Nearly allied to C. n. swinhoci, luit smaller; height at 
shoulder about 28 inches ; general build stout and massive, 
with the hind-quarters not specially elevated, and the form 
that of a small ]\Ialay sambar ; general colour rich ruddy 
brown, darkest on back and .lightest on the neck ; forehead 
and cheeks rufous fawn ; a blackish streak strarting from 
over each eye to form a median line down the face, which is 
separated l)y a pale liand of fawn from a narrow moustache- 
like mark on the muzzle ; chin white ; under-parts uniformly 
brown ; metatarsal gland forming a rufous spot much lighter 
than the rest of the leg ; ears moderate, covered externally 
with short close-set hairs; antlers very similar to those of 



CERVID.-E • 00 

the Malay race, massive, nearly straight, with a long brow- 
tine, and the inner tine of the terminal fork markedly 
shorter than the outer one. Skull rather elevated in the 
nasal region, and the lachrymal vacuities large and triangular. 

47. 3. 4. 22 (655, a). Pair of antlers, probably referable 
to this race. Philippines. 

Presented hi/ Admiral Sir Edward Belcher, K.G.B., 1847. 

2. 3. 19. 2. Head of female in winter coat, mounted. 
Siiows the white chin very distinctly. 

Presented hy the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1902 

H. — Cervus unicolor basilanensis. 

jNfelanaxis basilanensis, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emj). CJdnois, 

voL ii, p. 49, 1888. 
Rusa basilanensis, Hottister, Proc. ZLS. Nat. Mus. vol. xlvi, p. 332, 

1913. 

Typical (and only) locality Basilan Island, Philippines. 
Apparently nearly allied to, Itut (according to HoUister) 
distinct from, C. v. iihilippinus. 
No specimen in collection. 

I.— Cervus unicolor barandanus. 

Ussa barandanus, Heudc, Mem. Hist. Nat. Etnp. Ckiiwis, vol. ii, 

p. 22, 1888. 
Rusa barandanus, Hollister, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mas. vol. xlvi, p. 331, 

1913. 

Typical locality Mindoro Island, Philippines. 

Insufficiently described, but, according to Hollister, 
entitled to rank as a distinct form ; size approximately the 
same as in C. u. pMlippinus. 

No specimen in collection. 

J.— Cervus unicolor francianus. 

Ussa francianus, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii, 

p. 24, 1888. 
Rusa francianus, Hottister, Proc. U.S. Nat. Miis. vol. xlvi, p. 331, 

1918. 

Typical locality JMindauao Island, Philippines. 
Apparently nearly related to C. u. pliUippinvx, but at 



86 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

present insufficiently described. Considerable variation 
obtains in the size of the cheek-teeth. 
No specimen in collection. 

K.— Cervus unieolop nigricans. 

Cervus nigricans, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 57. 

Ussa nigricans, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emj^. Chinois, voL ii, pt. 1, 

p. 31, 1888. 
Cervus steerii, Elliot, Field Mus. Zool. Puh. vol. i, p. 72, 1896, 

p. 157, 1897. 
Cervus (Rusa) nigricans, Nitsche, Studien iiher Hirsche, p. 32, 1898. 
Cervus unicolor nigricans, Lydelther, Deer of All Lands, p. 158, 

1898 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 65, 1910, ed. 7, 

p. 65, 1914. 
Eusa nigi-icans, Hollister, Philippine Journ. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, 

p. 40, 1912, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xli, p. 889, 1913, 
Piusa steerei, Hollister, Philippine Journ. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, p. 40, 

1912. 

Typical locality " an unknown island in the Philippines," 
■which is Basilan, the typical locality of Cervus steerii. 

Smaller than C. u. jjhilippinus, the height at the shoulder 
being about 24 to 26 inches ; general build more slender, 
with the hind-quarters much higher than the withers ; 
general colour Idackish lirown, slightly tinged with rufous, 
becoming almost black on the face, neck, and shoulders ; 
no moustache-like markings on muzzle ; chin, under-parts, 
and inner surfaces of thighs varying from dirty white to 
whitish brown, the white showing most on the front of the 
thighs ; metatarsal gland generally indistinct ; ears oval, 
relatively small, and almost naked externally ; antlers 
moderately stout, somewhat curved forwards, with a short 
brow-tine, and the hind tine of the terminal fork not much 
shorter than the front one. Skull much depressed in the 
nasal region, with the nasal bones in fully adult individuals 
so expanded as almost or completely to obliterate the 
lachrymal vacuities. Basal length of skull in a Basilan 
specimen S^ inches ; length of antlers on outer curve 
13^ inches. 

This race was named on the evidence of the under- 
mentioned skull and skin of a female from an unknown 
island in the Philippines, in which the lower portions of the 
legs are perhaps rather lighter than in other examples, and 



CERVIDyE 87 

the metatarsal gland is indistinctly visil>le as a light patch. 
In 1890 the Museum received the Easilan specimen, 
No. 90. 7. 25. 3, which from the comparatively small size 
of the antlers, is probably immature ; and the only noticable 
difference between this specimen — which is undoubtedly the 
same as C. steerii — and the type is that in the former the 
front and outer side of the lower portion of the legs is 
slightly darker, and shows no distinct light gland-patch. 
As mounted, it measurer, 25^ inches at the shoulder, and 
27 inches at the rump. In its relatively high rump it 
accords with Brooke's " crouching aguti-like carriage" of the 
type ; and from comparison with, the latter, there can be 
little or no doubt that both belong to the same race, the 
nearly naked ears being a conspicuous feature in common. 

85. 4. 22. 1. Skull and skin, female. Philippines, 
probably Basilan. Type. The animal was living in the 
London Zoological Gardens in 1870 ; and on its death the 
present specimens passed into the collection of Sir Victor 
Brooke, Bart. Presented by Sir DcmgJas Brooke, Bart., 1885. 
85. 4. 22. 3. Skull and antlers. Basilan ; collected by 
A. H. Everett, Esq. FurcJiased, 1885. 

85. 4. 22. 4. A similar specimen. Same locality and 
collector. Same Idstory. 

15. 4. 22. 5. Another similar specimen. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

90. 7. 25. 3. Skin, subadult, mounted. Basilan ; col- 
lected by E. L. Mosely, Esq. Purchased, 1890. 

L.— Cervus unicolor nig-ellus. 

Rusa nigellus, HoUister, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xlvi, p. 332, 1913. 

Typical locality Mount Maliudang, at a height of 
8,000 feet, Mindanao Island, Philippines. 

Type in U.S. National Museum. 

Much smaller than the conmion Mindanao C. u. fran- 
cianus, and apparently nearly related to C. n. nigricans, but 
witli smaller skull and cheek-teeth and conspicuous face- 
markings. General colour dark blackish brown, with two 
transverse golden brown bands on face, one a little above 
mufHe and the other across forehead ; lower lip wliitish ; 



88 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

chin blackish ; nape and backs of ears black ; inner sides of 
ears buffish white ; iinder-parts nearly black in middle line, 
passing into ochery bufif between limbs ; fore-legs with a 
narrow ochery stripe down inner side. Antler-pedicles very 
long ; length of upper row of cheek-teeth 66 mm. 
No specimen in collection. 

M,— Cervus unicolor boninensis. 

Cervus (Rusa) unicolor boninensis, Lydekker, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 7, vol. xv, p. 392, 1905; Aoki, Annot. Zool. Japan, vol. viii, 
p. 341, 1913, as a synonym of C. unicolor. 

Typical locality Bonin Islands, lying about one degree to 
the east-south-east of the southern point of Japan, to which, 
according to Aoki, these deer were introduced by Perry 
about 1850. 

A provisional race of smaller size than 0. a. sunnhoei, 
and of the approximate dimensions of C. u. nigricans, from 
which it differs by the much lighter colour of the under- 
parts and limbs — the shanks being nearly white, and the 
rufous fawn of the flanks being sharply defined from the 
l)rown of the back — as well as by the tail being shorter and 
white beneath. Basal length of female skull 8f inches. 

96.2.28.4. Skull, female. Bonin Island. Type. Shows 
the proximally expanded nasals, deep lachrymal pits, and 
small auditory bulho characteristic of the sambar grou]). 
The skull and skin of a male specimen are in the Tring 
Museum. 

Presented hy the Executors of H. Seehohm, Esq., 1896. 

Other Names applied to Eusine Deer. 

The following is a list of names (compiled by Hollister, 
Philippine Journ. Sci. sect. I), vol. vii, pp. 41 et seq.) applied 
by Heude to Philippine deer, in addition to those quoted 
elsewhere in this volume. The specific names are arranged 
alphabetically, irrespective of the genera to which they were 
assigned liy their author. Hollister remarks that, although 
man)' of these names are undoubtedly synonyms, a few may 
prove valid when a sufficient numl)er of specimens from the 
typical localities nro availalde for comparison. 



CERVID-E 89 

Ussa ambrosianus, Heudc, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emj). Chinoif<, vol. ii, 
pt. 1, p. 27, 1888. 

Typical locality Nueva Ecija, Luzon. 
Ussa atheneensis, Heude, op. cit. vol. iv, pt. o, p. 138, 1889. 

Typical locality Luzon. 
Ussa barycerosj Heude, oj). cit. vol. iv, pt. 3, p. 139, 1899. 

Typical locality La Laguna and Batangas, Luzon. 

Ussa brachyceros, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1. p. 36. 1888. 

Typical locality Bataugas, Luzon. 
Melanaxis breviceps, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1. p. 48, 1888. 

Typical locality Masbate Island. 
Ussa chrysotrichos, Heude, oj). cit. vol. ii, pt. ], p. 39, 1888. 

Typical locality La Laguna and Bataugas, Luzon. 
Ussa cinereus, Heude, op. cit. vol. iv, pt. 3, p. 140, 1889. 

Typical locality Cel)U Island. 
Ussa corteanus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 37, 1888. 

Typical locality IMariveles, Luzon. 
Ussa crassicornis, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 23, 1888. 

Typical locality Cebu. 
Ussa flailliardianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 32, 1888. 

Typical locality Jala- Jala, Laguna, Luzon. 

Melanaxis (?) elegans, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 49, 1888. 

Typical locality Philippine Islands. 
Ussa eloi'zanus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 28, 1888. 

Typical locality Bataan Province, Luzon. 
Ussa gavcianus, Heude, op), cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 29. 1888. 

Typical locality Nueva Kcija, Luzon. 
Ussa gonzalinus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 35, 1888. 

Ty]»ical locality Pliilippiiu^s, probably Luzon. 



00 CATALOGUE OK UNGULATES 

Ussa gorrichanus, Hcude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 21, 1888. 
Typical locality Batangas, Luzon. 

Ussa guevaranus, Heudc, oj). cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 40, 1888. 
Typical locality Mariquina, Luzon. 

Ussa guidoteanns, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 29, 1888. 
Typical locality Batangas, Luzon. 

Ussa hipolitianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 39, 1888. 
Typical locality La Laguua and Batangas, Luzon. 

Ussa longicuspis, Hcude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 34, 1888. 
Typical locality Philippines, probal»ly Luzon. 

Ussa macarianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 28, 1888. 
Typical locality Nueva Ecija, Luzon. 

Ussa maraisianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 31, 1888. 
Typical locality Jala-Jala, Laguna de Bay, Luzon. 

Ussa marzaninus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 33, 1888. 
Typical locality Nueva Ecija and La Laguna, Luzon. 

Melanaxis masbatensis, Hetide, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 47, 1888. 
Typical locality Masbate Island. 

Ussa michaelinus, Heude, op. cit. vol. iv, pt. 3, p. 135, 1899. 

Typical locality San Miguel de Muicia, Tarlac, Luzon. 

Ussa microdontus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 34, 1888. 
Typical locality Batangas, Luzon. 

Ussa nublanus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 24, 1888. 
Typical locality, La Laguna, Luzon. 

Ussa ramosianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 26, 1888. 
Typical locality jSTueva Ecija, Luzon. 

Ussa rosarianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 30, 1888. 
Typical locality Nueva Ecija, Luzon. 



CERVID^ 91 

« 

Ussa roxasianus, Heicde, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 33, 1888. 
Typical locality Batangas, Luzon. 

Ussa rubiginosus, Heude, ojj. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 38, 1888. 
Typical locality Bataan and Nueva Ecija, Luzon. 

Sikelaphus soloensis, Heude, op, cit. vol. ii, pt. 3, p. 147, 1894. 

Typical locality Sulu. 
Ussa spatharius, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 25, 1888. 

Typical locality La Laguna, Luzon. 

Ussa telesforianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, p. 1, p. 36, 1888. 
Typical locality Batangas (?), Luzon. 

Ussa tuasoninus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, p. 1, p. 25, 1888. 
Typical locality Batangas, Luzon. 

Ussa verzosanus, Heude, ojy. cit. vol. ii, p. 1, p. 37, 1888, vol. iv, pt. 3, 
p. 134, 1894. 

Typical locality Nueva Ecija, Luzon. 

Ussa vidalinus, Heiide, ojh cit. vol. iv, pt. 3, p. 136, 1899. 

Typical locality San Miguel de Murcia, Tarlac, Luzon. 
Ussa villemerianus, Heude, op), cit. vol. iv, pt. 3, p. 136, 1899. 

Typical locality San Miguel de Murcia, Tarlac, Luzon. 

The following names liave been applied to members of 
the sambar-rusa group from countries other than the 
Philippines : — 

Sambav curvicornis, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nnt. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii, 
pt, 1, p. 42, 1888. Cochin-China. 

Sambar longicornis, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 42,1888. Cochin- 
Chiiia. 

Sambar outreyanus, Heude, op. cit.\o\. ii, pt. 1, p. 42, 1888. Cochiii- 
China. 

Sambar planidens, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 43, 1888. Cochin- 
China. 

Sambar colombertinus, Heude, op), cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 43, 1888. 
Cochin-China. 

Sambar combalbertinus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 43, 1888. 
Cochin-China. 



92 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Sambai- lignarins, Heudc, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1. p. 44, 1888. Cochin- 

China. 
Sambar lemeanus, Hcnde, op. cit. vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 44, 1888. Cochin- 

China. 
Sambar errardianus, Hemic, ojj. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 45, 1888. Cochin- 

China. 
Sambar joubertianus, H< inJc. op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 45, 1888. Cocliin- 

China. 
Sambar latidens, Hemic, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 45, 1888. Cochin- 

China. 
Sambar planiceps, Hcudc, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 45, 1888. Cochiii- 

China. 
Sambar officialis, Hemic, ojj. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 46, 1888. Cochin- 

China. 
Sambar simoninus, Hettde, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 46, 1888. Cochin- 

China. 
Sambar brachyrinus, Heudc, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 46. 1888. Cochin- 

Cbiiia. 
Sambar verutus, Hemic, op. cit. vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 46, 1888. Cochin- 

Chiua. 
Hippelaphus hamiltonianus. Hemic, op. cit. vol. iii, p. 49, 1896. 

Sandakan. 
Hippelaphus macassaricus, Heude, op), cit. vol. iii, p. 50, 1896. 

Macassar. 
Hippelaphus menadensis, Hemic, op. cit. vol. iii, ji. 50, 1896. 

Menado. 
Hippelaphus floresianus, Heudc, oj>. cit. vol. iii, p. 92, 1896. 

Flores. 
Hippelaphus buraensis, Heude, op. cit. vol. iii, p. 9o, 1896. Pmru. 
Hippelaphus noevellianus, Heudc, op. cit. vol. iii, p. 94, 1896. Burn. 



4. Subgenus RUCERVUS. 

Rucervus, Hodgson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 1, vol. i, p. 154, 1838 ; 

Brooke, Proa. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 905 ; Lydehker, Deer of All 

Lands, p. 188, 1898. 
Panolia, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 180, 1843. 
Recervus, Gray, List. Osteol. Brit. Mns. p. 65, 1847, errorim. 
Recurvus, Jdger and Bessels, Peferma7in^s Mittlieil. vol. xvi, p. 87, 

1870, errorim. 
Rucercus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm. p. 875, 1898, errorim. 

Large deer, with flattened or rounded antlers, in which 
hotli the bez (second) and third tines are wanting, the beam 
dicliotomously forked, and one orl)oth liranclies again foiked, 
so that the number of tines is typically at least four, and 
may he many mm-e, the l)row-tine forming either a right 
anti'lo or a continuous curve witli the beam; coat generally 



OERVID.E 93 

almost or quite uniformly coloured, without a light rump- 
patch ; neck maned ; ears large ; face long ; tail short ; bare 
area of muzzle ascending some distance above nostrils ; face- 
glands moderate, and not capable of complete eversiou ; 
metatarsal glands small or wanting ; hind-pasterns as in 
preceding subgenus ; upper canines small ; upper molars 
with a small additional column on the inner side ; young 
usually spotted ; skull relatively narrow, with the auditory 
bullte on under surface moderately inflated. 

The distributional area includes a large portion of the 
mainland of south-eastern Asia, together with tlie island of 
Hainan. 

Tlie species are distinguishaljle as follows : — 

A. Brow-tine of antlers more or less differentiated 

from beam. 

a. Beam of antlers undivided for a consider- 
able distance above origin of bi'ow-tinc, 
which is not forked C. (ii.) duvauccli. 

h. Beam of antlers dividing a short distance 
above origin of brow-tine, which is fre- 
quently forked C. (B.) schoi)ihuy(jhi. 

B. Brow-tine of antlers continuous with beam... C. {R.) eldi. 

• ^ IX. CERVUS (EUCEEVUS) UUA^AUCELI. 

Cervus duvaucelii,* Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 3, vol. iv, p. 505, 
1825 ; /. B. Fisclier, Synop. Mavim. p. 452, 1829 ; Anon, Journ. 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. v, p. 240, 1836; Sclater, Trans. Zool. 
Soc. vol. vii, p. 346, 1871 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 905 ; 
W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mks. pt. ii, p. 179, 1891 ; 
Flower and LydeM'er, Study of Mammals, p. 320, 1891 ; Blan- 
ford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 538, 1891 ; LydcTcTicr, Horns 
and Hoofs, p. 304, 1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 189, pi. xiv, 1898, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1899, p. 829, Great and Small Game of India, etc. 
p. 228, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 245, 1907 ; Ward, 
Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 13, 1896; Benthani, Asiat. Horns 
and Antlers Ind. Mns. p. 85, 1908. 

Cervus bahrinja, Hodgson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 99. 

Cervus elaphoides, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. iv, 
p. 648, 1835. 

Cervus (Rucervus) elaphoides, Hodgson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 1, 
vol. i, p. 154, 1838. 

Cervus dimorphe, Hodgson, Journ. /..siat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xii, p. 807, 
1843. 

Axis(?) duvaucellii, Gray, List Mamm. Brit Mus. p. 178, 1843. 



* Yariouslv rendered as duvauccli and duvaucelii. 



94 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Cervus (Hippelaphus) cluvaucelii, Siindevall, K. SvensTca Vet.-Ak. 
Handl. 1844, p. 178, 1846. 

Rucervus duvaucelii, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xvi, 
p. 689, 1847; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 230, Cat. Ungidata 
Brit. Mils. p. 203, 1852, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mas. p. 76, 1872, 
HandList Buminants Brit. Mas. p. 145, 1873 ; Blytli, Cat. 
Mamm. Miis. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, p. 150, 1863, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1867, p. 835 ; Anderson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxxvi, 
pt. 2, p. 185, note, 1868 ; Blanford, ibid. pp. 197 and 199, 1868 ; 
Jcrdon, Mamm. India, p. 254, 1867 ; Fitaingcr, Sitzhcr. k. Ak. 
Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 356, 1873, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 324, 
1874; Stcrndale, Mamm. India, p. 510, 1884; Percy, Big Game 
Shooting {Badminton Lihr.), vol. ii, p. 264, 1894. 

Eecervus duvauccllii. Gray, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 65, 1847 ; 
Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 259, 1862. 

Cervus ruceros. Gray, Knoivsley Menagerie, p. 40, 1850. 

Rusa dimorpha. Gray, Knoivsley Menagerie, p. 62, 1850; Fitzingrr, 
Sitzhcr. k. Ak. Wiss. vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 355, 1873. 

Cervus eucladoceros, Falconer's Pal. Mem. vol. i, p. 587, 1868. 

Cervus (Rucervus) duvauceli, Ward, Ilecords of Big Game, ed. 6, 
p. 79, 1910, cd. 7, p. 54, 1914 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, 
p. 493 ; Lydekkcr, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. Mus. p. 36, 1913. 

Barasingha ; Swamp-Dkek. 

Type of Eucervns. 

Typical locality plains of Peninsular India. 

Height at shoulder from 3 feet 8 inches to 3 feet 
lU inches ; build stout and tall ; coat moderately fine, aiid 
somewhat woolly; muzzle long and slender; antlers (fig. 18) 
smooth and flattened, with a long brow-tine usually rising 
almost at a right angle to beam ; above the brow-tine the 
beam remains undivided for about half its length, when it 
splits into a regular fork, of which each branch is usually 
again simply forked, although the outer branch may be much 
longer than the inner one, and bear three or more tines ; 
small snags frequently developed on upper surface of brow- 
tine, although " sports " at its junction with the beam seldom 
occur, and the brow-tine is never forked ; metatarsal gland 
and tuft wanting ; general colour in summer bright rufous 
brown, frequently, or usually, with a broad brown line down 
the middle of the back, Ijordered by a line of white spots on 
each side, and more or less faint traces of other spots ; 
throat, inner sides of thighs, and under-parts white or 
wliitish ; lower surface of the tail pure white ; in winter 
upper-parts yellowish brown, and under-parts paler ; in 



CEKVID.E 



95 



females colour lighter at all seasons ; young fully spotted with 
M'hite. The ears are filled internally with long white hairs ; 
and the naked portion of the muzzle is slaty. Good antlers 
measure from 34 to 41 inches alonij the outer curve, with a 




Fig. 18. — Head of Swamp-Deer {Cervus [Rucervus'] duvauceli). The 
nearly continuous sweep formed by the brow-tine and the beam is a 
feature in which this head approximates to the Thamin. 
From Lydekker, Proc. Znol. Soc. 1899. 

basal girth of from 4|^ to 6 j, and a tip-to-tip interval of from 
20 to 43 inches. 

The range is restricted to India, not extending eastward 
of the Bay of Bengal or to Ceylon. Along the foot of the 
Himalaya it embraces the tract fiom Upper Assam in the 
east to the Kyarda Dun west of the Jumna, Assam, a few 
localities in the Indo-Gangetic plain from the Eastern 



96 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Saudarbans to Baliawalpur, lioliri in Upper Sind, and parts 
of the extensive area lying between the Ganges and Godaveri 
valleys as far eastwards as Mandla. The species is abundant 
in portions of the upper Narbada Valley, as well as the 
neighbourhood of Bastar to the southward : in the Central 
Provinces its range corresponds with that of the red jungle- 
fowl, botli species being confined to the tracts covered with 
sal-forest. 

45. 1. 8. 128. Skull and antlers. Nepal. 

Frrsnitrd hj B. H. irodfison, Esq., 1845. 
45. 1.8. 1 20. 8kull and antlers. Same locality. 

Same historij. 
45. 1. 8. loO. Frontlet and antlers. Same locality. 

Same historij. 
45. 1. 8. l.')l. Frontlet and antlers. Same locality. 

Stdne hisforif. 
45. 1. 8. 200. Skin, immature female. Same locality. 

Same Jdskiri/. 

45. 1. 8. 271. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Nepal 

(sal-forest). Type of Ccrvus dimorphc. Same Idstorjj. 

50. 7. 9. 13. Skin, mounted, and skull (50. 8. 30. 4). 

India. An earlier skull (No. 694, d) has been put in the 

skin. Presented hy the Earl of Dcrhij, 1850. 

55. 12. 24. 399. Skin, female. India. 

Same donor, 1855. 
694, h. Skull and antlers. India. No historij. 

694, /. Skull, immature. India. (In Geological De- 
partment.) No history. 
63. 5. 28. o. Skull and antlers. Himalaya. 

Purchased (Zooloyical Society), 1863. 
63. 12. 3. 7. Skin, young, formerly mounted. Zoological 
Gardens. Same history. 

79. 11. 21. 38. Frontlet and horns. India. 

Transferred from India Mnscurn, 1879. 
79. 11. 21. 39. Frontlet and horns. India. 

Same history. 

79. 11. 21. 40. Frontlet and antlers. Upper India ; 

collected by Gen. T. Hardwicke. Same history. 

84. 4. 14. 1. Skeleton, female. Assam ; collected by 

G. P. Sanderson, Esq. Purchased, 1884. 



GERVID^ 97 

84. 4. 14. 2. Skeleton, female. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

694, h. Skeleton and antlers. India. 

Purcliascd {Zoological Society). 

87. 2. 9. 4. Frontlet and antlers. India ; collected by 
A. Grote, Esq. Presented hy Mrs. Stirling, 1887. 

* * * *. Frontlet and antlers. India. No history. 

88. 3. 20. 22. Skull and antlers. India. 

Presented hy B. Lydekker, Esq., 1888. 
91. 8. 7. 8. Skull and antlers. Kheri district, Oudh. 

Presented hy A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1891. 
91. 8. 7. 9. Skull and antlers. Bramaputra Valley, 
Gowhatti, Assam ; collected by Mr. E. Adam. Same history. 
91. 8. 7. 10. Frontlet and antlers. Gowhatti. 

Same history. 
91. 8. 7. 11. Skull and antlers, immature. Baraitch 
district, Oudh. Same history. 

5. 11. 30. 1. Skin, mounted. Central Provinces. 

Purchased, 1905. 
12. 10. 31. 5. Skull and antlers. Gowhatti. Neither 
this nor the following specimen has antlers sufficiently large 
to be included in Ward's list. 

Bequeathed hy A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912. 
12. 10. 31. 6. Skull and antlers. Kheri district. 

Same history. 
14, 3. 31. 2. Skull and antlers. Dehra Dun; collected 
by E. H. W. Dunlop, Esq., about 1860. Length of antlers 
34^, basal girth 6, tip-to-tip interval 33^ inches. 

Presented hy Major A. Wallace- Dunlop, 1914. 

^ X. CEEYUS (EUCEEVUS) SCHOMBUEGKI. 

Cervus (Rucervus) schomburgki, Bhjtli, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1863, p. 155, 
1867, p. 835 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, eel. 6, p. 75, 1910, 
ed. 7, p. 57, 1914. 

Cervus schomburgki, Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 349, 1871 ; 
Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 304, 1878, p. 905 ; Floivcr and 
LydeMer, Study of Mammals, p. 320, 1891 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. 
Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 180, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, 
p. 307, 1873, Deer of All Lands, p. 193, 1898, Great and Small 
Game of India, etc. p. 230, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc. 
p. 248, 1907 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 15, 1896 ; 
Benthain, Asiat. Horns and Antlers I)id. Mus. p. 88, 1908. 

IV. II 



98 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



Rucervus cainbojensis, Gray, Cat. EaminanU Brit. Mus. p. 76, 1872, 

Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mas. p. 145, 1873. 
Rucervus schomburgkii, Fitzinger, Sitzber. I: Ak. Wins. Wie7i, 

vol. Lxxix, pt. 1, p. 64, 1879. 

Typical locality Siain. 

Height at shoulder aljout 3 feet 5 inches ; coat in ^vmlel• 
rather long aiul coarse; general colour uniform l)ro\vii, 




Fig. 19. — Skull and Antlers ok Schombubgk's Dker 

(Ccrviis [Biicervus] schoviburgki) . 

From a photograph lent by IMessrs. Rowland Ward, Ltd. 

darkest on nose and the upper surface of tail, and lightest 
on cheeks and flanks ; under-parts, under surface of tail, and 
lower lip whitish ; a tinge of rufous on upper lip, back of 
head, and limbs ; hair on front of lower part of fore-legs 
elongated into a fringe ; metatarsal gland not described ; 
antlers (tig. 19) large, complex, smooth, and polished ; the 



CEIJVID.E 99 

lirow-liuo very long, I'retjueuLly forked, and arising nearly 
at a right angle to beam, the latter very short and more or 
less laterally compressed, then forking dichotomously, with 
each of the main branches about equally developed, and 
again forking in a similar manner, to terminate in long 
cylindrical tines ; in immature antlers hind branch of main 
fork less developed than front one. 

Good antlers measure from 27 to 33 inches in lenuth 
along the front curve, with a basal girth of from 4^ to 6, 
and a tip-to-tip interval of from 9^ to 28|^ inches. 

The range, according to W. L. Sclater and Bentham, 
includes Yun-nan. 

Ccrvuhis camhojcnsis, described from a frontlet and antlers, 
with part of the head-skin, from Cambodia, Avas identified 
]>y its descril)er (Gray) with this species, in his 1872 
Gataloijiic ; it really belongs to Ccrvus unicolor cquiuus, under 
which heading it is entered above (N"o. 61. 4. 12. 18). 

(j5. 11. 2. 3. Frontlet and antlers. Siam ; collected by 
Sir Iv. Schomburgk. Purchased (S/crcn.s), 1865. 

65. 11. 2. 4. Pair of antlers. Siam; same collector. 

Same liutory. 

67. 8. 20. 1. Pair of antlers. Siam; collected by E. 
Blyth, Esq. Purchased, 1867. 

67.8.20.2. Pair of antlers. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

67. 8. 20. 3. Pair of antlers. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

91. 12. 2. 1-2. Two pairs of antlers. Siam; presented 
to the Science and Art Department by the Siamese Embassy. 
Co-types; figured Proc. Zool. Soc, 1863. 

Transferred from the Science and Art Department, 1891. 

8. 3. 17. 5. Skull and antlers (fig. 19). Siam. The 
"record" specimen. Length of antlers on outside curve 33, 
basal girth 5f, tip-to-tip interval 17 j inches. 

Presented hy J. Bowland Ward, Esq., 1908. 



U<> CATALOCxUE, OF UNGULATES 



Xr. CEIiVUS (RUCEEVUS) ELDI. 

(?) Cervus smithi. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 45. 

Cervus eldii,* Giltltrie, Calcutta Jonrn. Nat. Hist. vol. ii, p. 417, 
1842; Bcavan, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 759; Blyth, ibid. 1867, 
p. 837 ; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 848, 1871 ; Brooke, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 906 ; Flotver and Lydehker, Study of 
Mammals, p. 320, 1891; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamvi. Ind. Mtis. 
\)t. ii, p. 180, 1891 ; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 541, 
1891; Lydekkcr, Horns' and Hoofs, p. 308, 1893, Deer of All 
Lands, p. 195, pi. xv, 1898, Great and Small Game of hulia, etc. 
p. '234, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 252, 1907; Evans, 
Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. ix, p. 326, 1895 ; Ward, 
Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 16, 1896; Bentham, Asiat. Horns 
and Antlers Ind. Mas. p. 90, 1908. 

Panolia acuticornis. Gray, List Mam,)n. Brit. Mus. p. 180, 1843 ; 
Cantor, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xv, p. 72, 1846. 

Cervus lyratus, Scliinz, Synoji. Mamm. vol. ii, p. 395, 1845. 

Dama acuticornis, Eeichenbach, SdugetJiiere, vol. iii, p. 16, 1845. 

Panolia eldi,t Gray, Cat. Hodgson Collect. Brit. Mus. p. 34, 1846, 
List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 66, 1847, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 229, 
Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 202, 1852, Cat. liiiminants Brit. 
Mus. p. 75, 1872, Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 144, 1873 ; 
Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 259, 1862; Blyth, 
Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxx, p. 193, 1862, vol. xxxi, 
p, 334, 1863, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, p. 149, 1863, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 835, Mamm. and Birds Burma, p. 45, 
1875 ; Beavan, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxxvi, pt. 2, 
p. 175, 1868 ; Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 652 ; Sterndale, 
Mamm. India, p. 511, 1884; Percy, Big Game Shooting {Bad- 
minton Lihr.), vol. ii, p. 268, 1894. 

Panolia frontalis, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, 
pt. 1, p. 352, 1873, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 592, 1874. 

Rucervus eldi, Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17 ; Percy, Big Game 
Shooting {Badminton Libr.), vol. ii, p. 268, 1894. 

Cervus (Rucervus) eldi. Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 77, 
1910, ed. 7, p. 58, 1914; Lydekker, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. 
Mus. p. 36, 1913. 

Cervus (Panolia) eldi, Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 944. 

Hthamin, Thamin, or Thameng (Burmese) ; Sangnai (Manipuri) 
Eld's Deer or Brow-antlered Deer. 

Type of Panolia. 

Typical locality Pegu, Lower Burma, 

Height at shoulder about 3 feet 9 inches; coat coarse 
shaggy in winter, and long and thickened about the neck in 
the males ; antlers (fig. 20) rounded and rugose, with a long 

* IModified by later writers to eldi. 

t Misprinted eedi in Gray's earlier lists. 



CERVID.¥. 



101 



curved l)row-tine, forming a continuation of the curve of 
the beam, which is set at right angles to the pedicle ; the 
beam unbranched for a considerable distance, curving back- 
wards, then outwards and finally forwards, after which it is 
dichotomously forked ; the outer branch of the terminal fork 
more complex than the inner one, the number of terminal 
points varying from two or three to at least eight or ten ; 
one or more prominent snags usually developed at the 
junction of the brow-tine witli tlie beam ; the curve of the 
two antlers usually more or less asymmetrical ; colour in 




Fig. 20. — Head of Tha:min [Ccrnis [Rticervtis'] eldi). 



winter typically dark l)rown above, and white below, some- 
times with a white mark above the eye ; in winter fawn- 
coloured above and pale brown beneath ; females paler rufous 
fawn ; new-born young generally spotted on the rump with 
white ; in a more rufous phase spots persist till a late period ; 
metatarsal gland represented by a tuft of hairs paler than 
those of the rest of the leg, and a patch of underlying 
glandular skin. 

Fine antlers measure from 34 to 42 inches along the 
outer curve, with a Ijasal girth of from 4 to G|, and a tip-to- 
tip interval of from 21^^ to olh inches. 



102 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

The range includes low alluvial tracts, from the valley 
of Manipur in the north, southwards through Burma and 
the Malay Peninsula, and eastwards to southern Siam, 
Cambodia, the island of Hainan, and Formosa. 

The tlu-ee following races have been named : — 

A. Antlers with the main termination not markedly 

flattened, few snags on hind edge, and the 
brow-tine long. 

a. Under surface of hind-pasterns hairy C. e. eldi, 

b. Under surface of hind-pasterns horny C. e. frontalis.] 

B. Antlers with the main termination markedly flat- 

tened, numerous snags en sharp hind edge, 

and the brow-tine short C. e. siammsis. 

•^ A.— Cervus eldi eldi. 

Cervus eldi typicus, LydeJihcr, Deer of All Lands, p. 200, 1898, Game 
Animals of India, etc. p. 253, 1907 ; Ward, Records of Big 
Game, ed. 6, p. 77, 1910, ed. 7, p. 58, 1914. 

Typical locality Pegu, Lower Burma, whence the range 
apparently extends southwards into the Malay Peninsula. 

General characters those of the species. 

Antlers from the Malay Peninsula and Mergui are stated 
l»y Blyth to be smaller than those from Manipur and Burma, 
frequently with two or three additional snags on the brow- 
tine, which may indicate the existence of a distinct race in 
tlie southern districts. 

According to a writer in The Indian Field* the Burmese 
recognise three distinct types of thamin stags, severally 
termed wet-thamin ( = pig-thamin), chywe-thamin ( = buffalo- 
thamin), and nwa-thamin ( = cow-thamin). In the first the 
colour is dark drab above, with a narrow dark spinal stripe, 
and an abundant throat-ruff; the second is a taller and more 
slender stag, without a throat-ruft'; while the third is still 
more slight and graceful in build, ligliter in colour and 
spotted, with a softer coat, and smaller antlers. These 
differences nre probably due mainly to age. 

4"). 1. 8. 12G. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown. 
Presented hy B. II. Hodgson, Esq., 184;"). 

4r). 1. 8. 127. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown. 

Same hisfort/. 
* Vol. xvii, p. 60, 1910. 



CERVID.E 103 

695, a. Frontlet ami antlers. Locality unknown. 

No hitfori/. 
G95,/, Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown. 

JVo liistory. 
695, g. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown. 

Purchased ( Warwiclc). 
695, v\ Frontlet and antlers (in Geological Department). 
Locality unknown. No history. 

46. 4. 29. 10. . Skull and antlers. Burma (?). 

Purchased, 1846. 
46. 4. 29. 11. Skull and antlers. Burma (?). 

Same history. 
66. 4. 25. 4. Skeleton, wanting skull. Probably Burma. 
Purchased {Zoological Society), 1866. 
68. 12. 29. 9. Skin. Probably Burma. 

Purchased (Zoologiccd Society), 1868. 

79. 11. 21. 36, a. Frontlet and antlers. Locality 

unknown. Transferred from India Museum, 1879. 

87. 2. 9. 5. Skull and antlers. Locality unknown ; 

collected by A. Grote, Esq. Presented hy Mrs. Stirling, 1887. 

87. 2. 9. 6. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown ; 

same collector. Same history. 

91. 8. 7. 12. Skull and antlers. Thatone, Tenasserim ; 

collected liy W. Davison, Esq. 

Presented hy A. 0. Hume, Escp, C.B., 1891. 

91. 8. 7. 15. Skull and antlers. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

94. 12. 19. 1-5. Five skulls, with antlers. Monywa 

district, lower Chindwin Valley, Upper Burma. 

Presented hy C. F. Gilbert, Fsrj., 1894. 
96. 6. 29. 2. Head, mounted. Burma. 

Purchased {Ward), 1896. 
0. 7. 23. 1. Skin, mounted. Burma. 

Presented hy Major H. G. Ecam, 1900. 
12. 10. 31. 8. Skull and antlers. Tliatone; collected 
by W. Davison, Esq. 

Bequeathed l>y A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912. 



104 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



B.— Cervus eldi frontalis. 

Cervus (Rusa) frontalis, McClelland, Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. 

vol. iii, p. 539, pis. xiii and xiv, 1843 ; Bhjth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. 

Bengal, vol. xxviii, p. 296, 1859. 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) frontalis, Swndevall, K. SvensJm Vct.-Al-. 

Handl. 1844, p. 320, 1846. 
Cervus eldi cornipes, Lydekker, Nature, vol. Ixiv, p. 257, 1901, Game 

Animals of India, etc. p. 254, 1907 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, 

ed. 6, p. 77, 1910, ed. 7, p. 58, 1914. 

Typical locality the Manipur Valley, which is practically 
one continuous swamp. 

Antlers apparently indistinguishable from those of typical 
race ; hind-pasterns longer, with the whole under surface 
horny (instead of hairy), and applied to the ground in 
walking. 

79.11.21.36. Frontlet and antlers. Manipur ; collected 
by Dr. J. McClelland. Co-type. 

Trant^f erred from India Museum, 1879. 

91. 8. 7. 18-14. Two skulls, with antlers. Manipur. 

Presented hy A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1891. 

1. 7. 18. 1. Hind-foot, mounted. Manipur. Type of 
C. cornipes. Presented hy Major C. S. Cumherland, 1901. 

12. 10. 31. 7. Skull and antlers. Manipur; collected 
by Mr. Hume. In this specimen, which stands No. 16 in 
Ward's 1910 list, the measurements of the antlers are as 
follows: length on outside curve 38^, girth 61, tip-to-tip 24, 
widest inside span 30| inches. 

Bequeathed hy A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912. 

C— Cervus eldi siamensis, nom. n. 

Panolia platyceros, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 181, 1843, Cat. 
Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 203, 1852 ; Blyth, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, 
p. 843, as a variety of P. eldi; nee Cervus platyceros, Cuvirr, 
1798. 

Panolia platycercus. Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 75, 1872, 
Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 144, 1873, errorim. 

Cervus eldi platyceros, Lydekher, Deer of All Lands, p. 200, 1898, 
Game Animals of Lidia, etc. p. 253, 1907 ; Ward, Records of 
Big Game, ed. 6, p. 77, 1910, ed. 7, p. 58, 1914 ; Gairdner, Journ. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. Siani, vol. i, p. 113, 1914. 

Panolia eldi platyceros, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xxii, 
p. 468, 1906, 



CERVID.E 105 

Typical locality (southern) Siam, the range including 
Cambodia, apparently Hainan, and perhaps Formosa. 

Antlers with the main termination much flattened, a 
number of small snags on the sharp hind edge, and the brow- 
tine relatively short ; general colour reddish at all seasons, 
with spots along middle of back, and in some cases also on sides. 

Although there is some doubt as to the place of origin 
of the type of Panolia ylatyceros (No. 695, h), it presents all 
the characteristics of Siamese antlers. 

695, li. Single antler. Siam (?). Type ; figured by 
Blyth, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1867, p. 841,' figs. 22 and 23. In 
Gray's Catalogue of Ungidata the locality was given as 
India, but in the Museum copy it is altered, in Gray's own 
handwriting, to Siam ; and in the Catalogue of Ruminants 
Siam appears as the place of origin. Purchased ( Warwick). 

65. 11. 2. 1. Skull and antlers. Siam. Figured by 
Blyth, op. cit. figs. 20 and 21. 

Presented hy Sir R. Schomburgh, 1865. 

65.11.2.2. Frontlet and antlers. Siam. Same history . 

8. 11. 1. 18. Skull and antlers. Nha Trang, Annam ; 
collected by Dr. J. Vassal. Purchased, 1908. 

The reference of the following specimens — more especially 
those from Formosa — to the present race is provisional. 

70. 2. 10. 27. Skin, young. Hainan ; collected by 

E. Swinhoe, Esq. Purchased, 1870, 

70. 2, 10. 28. Skin, young. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
70. 2. 10. 29. Skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
70. 2. 10. 32. Skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

70. 2. 10. 71-75. Five frontlets, with antlers. Formosa ; 

same collector. Same history. 

70.2.10.76. Single antler. Same locality and collector. 

Sam e history. 

t 

5. Subgenus SIKA. 

^iksi, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 115 ; Gill, Arrangement Fam. 
Mamm. p. 80, 1872; Heude Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, 
vol. ii, p. 17, 1888. , 



106 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Pseudaxis, Gray, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 70, 1872 ; Brooke, 
Proc. Zool. Sac. 1878, p. 907 ; Lydekl-er, Deer of All Lands, 
p. 110, 1898 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 943. 

Elaphoceros, Fitzinger, Sitzher. k. Ak. Wiss. Wicn, vol. Ixviii, pt. i, 
p. 602, 1873, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 596, 1874. 

Sikaillus, Hetide, Mem. Hist. Nat. EmjJ. Chiiwis, vol. iv, p. 98, 1898. 

Sikailus, Heude, op. cit. p. 110, 1898, errorim. 

Sica, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm. p. 878, 1898. 

Medium-sized or rather small deer, nearly related to tlie 
next (typical) subgenus, but with the antlers smaller and 
simpler than is usually the case in that group, more or less 
flattened, and generally 4-tined (occasionally 5-tined), with 
a third, but no bez-tine ; face-glands shallower ; coat of 
adult spotted with yellow or white, at least in summer, and 
a pure white area bordered with black in the region of the 
tail, which is also white and black, and considerably longer 
than in the typical subgenus ; young more or less distinctly 
white-spotted; metatarsal tuft generally whitish; throat 
maned ; head shorter than in preceding group ; ears 
moderate ; bared portion of muzzle larger than in preceding 
group, extending well on to the upper surface of the face, 
and being very wide between nostrils and upper lip ; hind- 
pasterns as in typical subgenus ; rudimentary upper canines 
present; upper molars of the general type of tliose of the 
typical group. In the growing antlers the " velvet " is deep 
red, passing into black at the tips of the tines, and matching 
the summer coat ; tlie white hairs in the neiglibourhood of 
tlie tail are erectile. 

At the present day the group is confined to the south- 
eastern portion of the Eastern Holarctic and some adjacent 
parts of the Oriental Eegion, but it was apparently 
represented in Europe during the Pliocene section of the 
Tertiary period. 

The tln-ee species are recognisable as follows : — 

A. Size smaller. 

a. Spots disappearing in winter ; metatarsal 

tuft white Ccrviis nipx>on. 

h. Spots persistent in winter ; metatarsal ^ 

tuft apparently not white Ccrvns tnonanns. 

B. Size larger, metatarsal gland, except in centre, 

coloured like rest of shank Crrviis iKnfiiloynm, 



CERVID.^i 107 



XII. CEEVUS (SIKA) NIPPON. 

Cervus nippon, Tcmminc'k, Fauna Japonica, Introduction, p. xxii, 
1837, teste Stejncger, Science, vol. xxii, p. 402, 1905. 

Cervus sika, Temminck, Fauna Japonica, p. 54, pi. xvii, 1845 ; Gray, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 228; Blytli, Joiirn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
vol. xxix, p. 92, 1860; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 377, 
Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 346, 1871 ; Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1877, p. 16; Brooke, ibid. 1878, p. 908; Powerscourt, ibid. 1884, 
p. 208; Heude, Bull. Soc. Pliilom. ser. 7, vol. vi, p. 183, 1882; 
W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 39, 1891 ; Flotver 
and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 321, 1891; Ward, Records 
of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 21, 1896; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, 
p. 204 ; Thomas, ibid. 1908, p. 54 ; Bentham, Asiat. Horns and 
Antlers Ind. Mus. p.' 68, 1908 ; Aoki, Annot. Zool. Japon. 
vol. viii, p. 341, 1913. 

Cervus (Hippelaplius) japonicus, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vct.-Ak. 
Handl. 1844, p. 177, 1846. 

Cervus syka, Pucheran, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi, p. 398, 1852. 

Rusa japonica. Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. vi, p. 218, 
1860, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 236; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1860, p. 365, 1862, p. 150 (javonica). 

Cervus (Sika) sika, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 115. 

Pseudaxis sika. Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 72, 1872, Hand- 
List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 142, J873; Cabrera, Cat. Met. 
Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 130, 1912. 

Elaphoceros sika, Fitzinger, Sitzher. k. Ak. Wiss. Wicn, vol. Ixviii, 
pt. 1, p. 352, 1873, vol. Ixix, pt. i, p. 602, 1874. 

Cervus euopis, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 151 ; Brooke, ibid. 

1878, p. 908. 

Axis sika, Riltimeyer, Abh. schwciz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 93, 1878. 

Cervus frinianus, p. 185, gracilis, p. 185, lacrymosus, p. 186, ignotus, 
p. 186, andreanus, p. 186, joretianus, p. 187, devilleanus, p. 187, 
cyclorhinus, p. 188, liyemalis, p. 188, Heude, Bull. Soc. Philom. 
ser. 7, vol. vi, p. 183, 1882. 

Cervus sica, Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 284, 1893, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1897, p. 39, Deer of All Lands, p. Ill, 1898, Great and 
Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 229, 1901. 

Sika porcorelianus, p. 149, brachyrhinus, p. 151, andreanus, p. 152, 
grilloanus, p. 154, dugenneanus, p. 156, joretianus, p. 157, oxycepli- 
alus, p. 158, frinianus, p. 159, cycloceros, p. 160, surdescens, 
p. 161, lacrymans, p. 162, arietinus, p. 162, yuanus, p. 162, Heude, 
Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii, 1894; scudaensis, p. 98, 
blakistonius, p. 98, dolichorhinus, p. 100, aplodonticus, p. 100, 
schizodonticus, p. 100, orthopodicus, p. 100, niitratus, p. 102, 
ellipticus, p. 103, elegans, p. 103, minoensis, p. 104, rutilus, 
p. 195, yesoensis, p. 105, Heude, op. cit. vol. iii, 1896. 

Sikaillus sika, infelix, daimius, rex, paschalis, regulus, aceros, sicarius, 
dejardinius, consobrinus, marmandianus, latidens, brachypus, 
Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. iv, pp. 98-111, 
pis. xiv-xix and xxii, 1898. 

Cervus (Pseudaxis) sica. Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 149, 
1910. 



108 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Cervus (Pseudaxis) sika, Pococl-, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 942. 
Cervus (Sika) nippon, Lydell-er, Wa)-(Vs Record? of Big Game, ed. 7, 
p. viii, 1914. 

Shika or Sika : Japanese Deer. 

Typical locality Japan. 

The type species ; also type of Sikcdllas, the other I'oriiis 
of which are from the Goto Islands, Japan. 

Size typically small, shoulder-height about 33 inches, 
but larger in the race inhabiting the Chinese mainland ; 
general colour bright rufous chestnut, spotted on the body 
with white in summer; uniformly coloured, or nearly so, in 
winter, when it is dark umber-brown, with the hairs 
annulated ; a light chestnut patch on tlie slioulder ; sides of 
upper and whole of loNver lip white; tail mainly white, 
frequently with a narrow black line on the upper surface 
and sometimes a dark terminal tuft ; metatarsal tuft large 
and white ; insides and part of base of outer surface of ears 
covered with white liairs. 

The range includes Japan, Northern China, and Man- 
churia. Whether all the forms named by Heude under the 
headings of Cervus and Sikaillus are identical with the 
present species is doubtful; the so-called C. dcvillir(nivs, for 
instance, may be Formosan. 

A. Size smaller C n. nipi^on. 

B. Size larger C. n. mantchuricus. 

A, -Cervus nippon nippon. 

Cervus sica typicus, LydeMer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 39, Deer of 
All Lands, p. 112, 1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. 
p. 231, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 50, 1910. 

Cervus nippon typicus. LydeJcker, Ward's Records of Big Game, 
ed. 7, p. viii, 1914. 

Typical locality Japan. 

Size small, the height at the shoulder ranging from about 
32 inches to 34 inches ; white area of caudal region large, 
extending on to the sides of the buttocks, and completely 
bordered with black above and at the sides. Fine antlers 
measure from 21 to 26i inches along the curve, with a basal 
girth of from 3i- to 5, and a tip-to-tip interval of from 12 to 
20:[ inches. 



CERVID^ 109 

The range, on the assumption that C. cuopis is absolutely 
identical with the Japanese form, includes a part of China. 
60. 12. 12, 1. Shed antlers. Japan. 

Purchased (Zoologieul Society), 1860. 

63. 5. 28. 1 . Shed antlers. Japan. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1860. 

64. 12. :J0. o. Skin, formerly mounted. Kanegawa, 
Japan ; from a stag presented to the Zoological Society by 
J. Wilks, Esq. Type of Rusa japonica. 

Purchased {Zoologiecd Society), 1864. 
83. 4. 14. 2. Skin, formerly mounted, and skeleton. 
Newchwang, Northern China. Type of C. euopis. 

J^urchased (Zoological Society), 1883. 

85. 2. 23. 1. Skull and antlers. Northern Japan ; 

collected by H. Pryer, Esq. Purchased, 1885. 

85. 2. 23. 2. Skull and antlers, immature. Same locality 

and collector. Same history. 

92. 12. 2. 3-4. Two frontlets, with antlers. Kobe, 
Japan. Presented by Dr. P. Rendcdl, 1892. 

93. 4. 17. 1-4. Eour frontlets, with antlers. From stags 
bred at Powerscourt, County Wicklow, Ireland. 

Presented hy Viscount Powerscourt, 1893. 
95. 5. 25. 1. Skull and antlers of hybrid between 
C. nippon and C. claphus. Bred at Powerscourt. 

Same donor, 1895. 
95. 5. 25. 2. Antlers of a similar hybrid. Same locality. 

Same history. 

98. 3. 10. 1. Skin, mounted. From a stag bred in 

England. Presented hy the Hon. R. Ward, 1898. 

5. 5. 30. 29. Skull and skin, female. Nara Ken, Hondo, 

Japan ; collected by M. P. Anderson, Esq. 

Presented hy the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1905. 
5. 11. 3. 44. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Yakushima 
Island, Soutliern Japan; collected by Alan Osvston, Esq. 

Same history. 

5. 11. 3. 45-46. Two skulls and skins, female. Same 

locality. Same history. 

5. 11. 3. 47. Skin, young. Same locality. Same history. 

5. 11. 3. 48. Skull and skin, young. Same locality. 

Same history. 



110 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

The following specimen may represent a distinct local 
race : — 

7. 2. 13. 1. Skin, mounted. Liu-Kiu Islands. 

Presented hij the Dalcc of Bedford, K.G., 1907. 

B.— Cepvus nippon mantchuricus. 

Ccrvus mantchuricus, Swinhoc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 169, 1865, 
p. 1 ; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 344, pis. xxxi and 
xxxii, 1871 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 908 ; MocUemlorff, 
Zool. Jalirh. vol. ii, p. 588, 1887 ; Lydekkcr, Horiif! and Hoofs, 
p. 287, 1898 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 21, 1896. 

I'scudaxis niautchurica, Gray, Cat. Riwiinanfs Brit. Mus. p. 72, 1872, 
Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 141, 1873. 

Elaphoceros mantchuricus, Fitzingcr, Sitzher. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 
vol. lix, pt. 1, p. 93, 1874. 

Axis mantschuricus, Riitimeycr, Ahh. schwciz. inil. Ges. vol. viii, 
p. 93, 1881. 

Cervus sica manchuricus, Lydekkcr, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 39, 
Deer of All Lands, p. 112, pi. vii, 1898, Great and Small Game 
of Europe, etc. p. 232, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 
p. 50, 1910. 

Cervus nippon manchuricus, Lydekkcr, Ward's Records of Big Game, 
ed. 7, p. viii, 1914. 

Typical locality Manchuria ; the type was obtained at 
Ying-tzu-kou (Nuchwang), the treaty-port. 

Larger than the last, the height at the shoulder reaching 
39 inches ; the white area in the region of the tail much 
smaller, so as scarcely to be apparent in a side-view, but 
completely bordered with black ; and spots and a tinge of 
red frequently retained on the hind-quarters of females in 
winter. No antlers exceeding in size the largest of the 
typical race have been recorded. 

99. 6. 1. 1. Skin, immature, in summer coat, mounted. 
Northern China. 

Presented hy the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1899. 

^ XIII. CERVUS (SIKA) TAIOUANUS. 

Cervus taiouanus, Blytli, Journ. Asiaf. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxix, p. 90, 

1860; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 376; Aoki, Annot. Zool. 

damn. vol. viii, p. 342, 1913. 
Cervus taiivanus, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 152, Trans. Zool. 

Soc. vol. vii. p. 345, 1871 ; Swinhoc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 362 ; 

Brooke, ibid. 1878, p. 909 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Lid. 



CEUVID.E 111 

Mils. pfc. ii, p. 45, 1891 ; LijdeJckcr, Horns and Hoofs, p. 288, 

1893, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 45, Deer of All Lands, p. 116, 

pi. viii, 1898 ; Ward, liecords of Big Game, cd. 2, p. 22, 1896 ; 

Bentham, Asiat. Horns and Antlers Ind. Mas. p. 70, 1908. 
Pseuda^is taivanus. Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 70, 1872, 

Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 141, 1873. 
Elaphoceros taevanus, Fitzinger, Sitzher. Ti. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 

vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 599, 1874. 
Axis taivanus, Riltiineyer, Ahli. schiveiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 93, 1881. 
Cervus taiorauus, Heude, Bull. Soc. Philom. ser. 7, vol. vi, p. 184, 

erroriin. 
Cervus (Pseudaxis) taiivanus. Ward, Records of Big Game, cd. 6, 

p. 51, 1910. 
Cervus (Sika) taevanus, Lydekker, Ward's Records of Big Game, 

cd. 7, p. viii, 1914. 

KWAKOKU : FORMOSAN SiKA. 

Typical, and only, locality Formosa. 

Typo of Pseudaxis and Elaphoceros. 

Type in Indian Muscnm, Calcutta. 

Nearly allied to the typical specie.s, but distinctly 
spotted in winter; size medium, slioulder-lieiglit about 
35 inches ; face shorter, muzzle more pointed, limbs shorter, 
and body longer than in Japanese sika ; general colour in 
summer light chestnut, with large white spots, and a deep 
red tinge on the hind part of the neck ; in winter the spots 
less numerous ; the black border to the white caudal area 
forming a more distinct bar superiorly, and the median black 
line on the tail broader than in the type species, and the 
dark line down the back more strongly marked. The 
metatarsal gland does not appear to be white. 

The largest recorded pair of antlers measure 19^ inches 
along the curve, with a basal girth of 3|, and a tip-to-tip 
interval of 13 inches. 

The retention of spots in the winter coat in this southern 
species is noteworthy. 

63. 5. 28. 2. Pair of shed antlers. Formosa. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1863. 

65.1.30.1. Shed antlers, menagerie specimen. Formosa. 
Presented hj Dr. P. L. Seleitcr, 1865. 

65. 12. 8. 22. Skin, mounted, and skeleton. Formosa. 
Purchased {Zoological Society), 1865. 

68. 3. 21, 3. Skin, young, mounted. Probably bred in 
Loudon, Purchased {Zoological Society), 1865. 



112 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

68. o. 21. 4. Skin, female, mounted. Formosa. 

Same history. 
68. 12. 29. 14. Skin, mounted. Formosa. Same hisfori/. 

XIV. CERVUS (SIKA) HORTULORUM. 

Cervus pseudaxis, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 236, pi. xxvii, ncc 

Eydoux and Soideyet, 1841-52. 
Cervus h.ox\i\\\ox\nn, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 169; LydeJcker, 

ibid. 1897, p. 42, Deer of All Lands, p. 117, pi. ix, 1898, Great 

and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 234, 1901. 
(?) Cervus mandarinus, Milne-Edwards, Eech. Mavivi. p. 174, 1871 ; 

Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 968; Lydekker, ibid. 1897, 

p. 44, Deer of All Lands, p. 121, 1898. 
Cervus dybowskii. Taczanotvski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 123, Brooke, 

ibid. 1878, p. 909 ; Noack, Humboldt, vol. viii, p. 4, fig. 1, 1889 ; 

Kohler, Zool. Garten, vol. xliii, p. 28, 1892 ; Lydekker, Horns 

and Hoofs, p. 287, 1893, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 40. 
(?) Cervus mantschuricus major, Noack, Humboldt, vol. viii, p. 5, 

fig. 4, 1889. 
Cervus dj^bowski, Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 22, 1896. 
Cervus (Pseudaxis) hortulorum. Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 52, 1910. 
Cervus (Sika) hortulorum, Lydekker, Ward's Becords of Big Game, 

ed. 7, p. viii, 1914. 

The type specimens were shot in the gardens of the 
Summer Palace, Pekin, after its sack on October 12th, 1860 ; 
the typical locality of dyloivshii is the Usuri district of 
Manchuria. 

Size large, the shoulder-height reaching 3 feet 7 inches ; 
coat profusely spotted with white at all seasons, although 
somewhat more fully in summer than in winter, when it is 
very long and shaggy ; in winter general colour of body in 
sub-adult males bright chestnut-brown ; neck without spots, 
bluish grey at base, then a blackish collar, followed by 
chestnut ; face bluish grey ; metatarsal tuft similar to the 
hair of rest of shanks in summer, but the centre greyish 
white ; thighs and fore-legs greyish brown ; under-parts 
greyish white ; tail rather sliort, white with a black median 
stripe, and often a dark band above the white on the 
buttocks ; in summer the spots more numerous and the 
general colour chocolate-brown. Adult bucks (of the 
so-called dyhowshii) in winter-coat are described by Noack 
as follows : — General colour vellowish umber-brown, tending 



CEKVIDiE 113 

more to yellow iu front and to umber behind, and becoming 
darker on the back ; head as far as the nose yellowish 
brown, forehead and neck reddish brown, nose greyish red, 
upper lip yellowish red, a moderately large dark spot on the 
greyish white lower lip ; ears thickly haired, dirty grey 




Fig. 21. — Head of Dybowski's Deek (Cervtis [Sika] hortulornm). 
From a photograph by the Duchess of Bedford. 

internally, rusty red externally; mane on head and neck 
long, shaggy, and whitish grey in colour ; chest nearly 
black ; under-parts whitish grey ; the white caudal patch 
bordered in front with black ; tail white with a black tip ; 
front-shanks yellowish red, hind-shanks umber-brown, each 
with a dark streak in front ; metatarsal tuft not light- 
coloured. Fine antlers (fig. 21) measure from 27 to 34| inches 
IV. I 



114 CATAL0C4UE OF UNGULATES 

along the curve, with a basal girth of from 4| to 5|, and 
a tip-to-tip interval of from 18^ to 34^ inches. The type 
specimen of the so-called C. mcmdarinus, from N. China, 
preserv^ed in the Museum At Paris, was described as very- 
large, with the coat spotted at all seasons, and very long 
and shaggy in winter ; colour darker than in the typical 
hortiilorum, and spots less abundant in the winter, when the 
neck and limbs are similar in tint to the ground-colour of 
the body ; under-parts dark ; metatarsal tuft apparently 
similar in colour to the rest of the leg ; tail comparatively 
long, mainly reddish, with little white. These alleged 
points of difference need not apparently be of more than 
seasonal or individual value ; the type specimen having 
perhaps been killed before the winter coat was fully 
developed. 

The two races appear to be distinguished as follows : — 

A. Dark dorsal stripe not fully developed ; spots 

more distinct on neck C. h. Jiorfuloritm . 

B. Dark dorsal stripe fully developed ; spots less 

distinct on neck C. It. kopschi. 

, A.— Cervus hortulorum hortulorum, 

Cervus hortulorum typicus, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 
p. 52, 1910, ed. 7,' p. 52, 1914. 

The true home of tin's race is the Usuri district of 
Manchuria. 

General characters those of the species, witli the dark 
dorsal stripe imperfectly developed, and the spotting on the 
neck very distinct. 

61. 6. 2. 1. Skin, mounted, immature. From an animal 
killed in the gardens of the Summer Palace, Pekin, October, 
1860 ; collected by Pi. Swinhoe, Esq. Type ; figured by 
Gray as C. j)seudaxis. 

Presented hi/ the Zoologlccd Socicf/j, 1861. 

61. 6. 2. 2. Skin, mounted, and skull, immature female. 
Obtained at the same time and place as the preceding 
specimen. Same history. 

61. 6. 2. 3. Skull, with antlers, and skin, immature. 
From the Summer Palace. Same hisfori/. 



CEKVID^ 115 

78. 5. 2:2. 1. Skiu, mounted. South Usuri district, 
Manchuria ; collectetl by ]\Ionsieur Taczanowski. Co-type 
of Cervus di/bowskii. Furchased, 1878. 

83, 8. 1. 1-2. Two skulls, female, one immature. Obser- 
vatory Island, Korea. 

Presented hy Cciijt. A. Carpenter, B.N., 1883. 

97. 12. 12, 1. Skin, female, in summer coat, mounted. 
Manchuria. Presented hy the Biike of Bedford, K.G., 1897. 

99. 8. 36. 4. Frontlet and antlers. Sutschan Valley, 
280 miles east of Vladivostock, north of Manchuria. 

Same donor, 1899. 

2. 10. 2. 2. Skin, in summer coat, mounted. Same 
locality. Same donor, 1902, 

B.— Cervus hortulorum kopschi. 

Cervus kopschi, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1873, p, 574; Brooke, 

ibid. 1878, p. 909; Heude, Bull Soc. Philom. ser. 7, vol, vi, 

p, 184, 1882, 
Cervus hortulorum kopschi, LydeJcker, Gre-it and Small Game of 

Eiiro2)e, etc. p, 239, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 52, 1914, ed. 7, p. 52, 1914. 

Typical locality Kien-chang, Kiang-si, south-western 
China. 

Dorsal stripe more fully developed, and spots less distinct 
on upper part of neck, and not extending so far over 
shoulder and thighs as in typical race. 

73. 6. 27. 1. Skin, immature, in winter coat, mounted, 
and skull. Kien-chang, Kiaug-si, near the border of Fo-kien, 
south-western China ; collected by E. Swinhoe, Esq. Type. 

Purchased, 1873. 

1. 3. 2, 18. Skin, with antlers, and leg-bones. Yang-tsi 
Valley. Noticed by present writer, op. cit., 1901. 

Presented hy F. W. Sty an, Esq., 1901. 

1, 3. 2. 19. Skin, female, in winter coat. Chin-teh, 
An-hwei, Yang-tsi Valley. Same history. 

1. 3. 2. 20. Body-skin, in summer coat. Same locality. 

Same history. 

10. 5. 26, 1. Skin, female, Tai-Kung-Shan, An-hwei, 
Presented hy Commander the Hon. P. 0. V. Bridgeman, 1910. 



I 2 



116 catalogue of ungulates 

Incert^ Sedis. 

Cervus pseudaxis, Eydoux and Souleyet, Voyage de " La Bonite," 
Zoology, voL i, p. 64, 1841-52 ; Broolr, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, 
p. 909; Lydehher,ihid. 1897, p. 38, Deer of All Lands, p. 1, 1898. 

Axis pseudaxis. Gray, Cat, Ungulata Brit. Mus. p, 214, 1852 ; 
Fitzinger, Sitzher. I: Ak. Wiss. Wien,\o\. lxix,pt. 1, p. 274, 1874. 

Sikelaphus pseudaxis, Hetcde, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emjo. Chinois, voL ii, 
p. 146, 1894. 

" The animal which has been figured under the name of 
Cervus pseudaxis," wrote Gray in 1852, " was obtained by 
MM. Eydoux and Souleyet in Java, but they did not believe 
that it was a native of that country. It lived several years 
in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, and hence a series of its 
horns was procured and figured ; and while there it bred 
with the common axis, and the mule produce was fertile. 
Some naturalists have given the Sooloo [SuluJ Islands, near 
the Philippines, as the habitat of this specimen, but I do not 
know on wdiat authority." Brooke observed that he 
hesitated to identify it with " any species of the subgenus. 
The type specimen is still preserved in the Museum 
d'Histoire Naturelle at Paris ; but though I have often 
carefully examined it, the absence of the skull, and the great 
uncertainty of the locality where it was procured, render it 
impossible to form a decided opinion." Sclater suggested 
that it is really the same as C. taiouaoitis, in which case that 
name would have to be superseded, pseudaxis being the 
earliest of all. 

6. Subgenus CERVUS. 

Elaphus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 307, 1827. 
Harana, Hodgson, Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. i, p. 154, 1838. 
Pscudocervus, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. x, p. 904, 

1841. 
Strongyloceros, Owen, Brit. Foss. Mamm. and Birds, p. 472, 1846. 
Eucervus, Aclogue, Faune France, Mamm. p. 71, 1899; nee Gray. 

Antlers usually with at least five tines inclusive of a bez 
(second), which may, however, be absent, and the lirow-tine 
forming an obtuse angle with the beam ; bare portion of 
muzzle (muffle) extending but slightly below nostrils ; hind- 
pasterns as in Busa ; metatarsal gland hairy ; tail short ; 



CERVID.E 117 

general colour uniform, typically with a large light rump- 
patch ; young spotted. 

The distributional area includes Europe, North Africa, 
Asia north of the outer range of the Himalaya, and'North 
America. 

The following is a " key " to the species : — 

A. Muzzle dark ; hair of withers not reversed. 

a. Light area of buttocks yellow, at least in 

region of tail. 
a' . Antlers with more than 5 tines, of which 

the terminal ones are arranged irregularly 

and often cupped ; tail longer ; under-parts 

not conspicuously darker than back C, elaphus. 

h'. Antlers generally with more than 5 tines, 

of which the 4th is the largest, and, with 

those above it, placed in a plane parallel 

to axis of head; tail shorter; under- parts 

conspicuously darker than back C. canadensis. 

c . Antlers usually 5-tined, with the 4th tine 

small and the two terminal ones forming 

a fork placed transversely to long axis of 

face ; tail medium C. yarTiandensis. 

b. Light area of buttocks white ; tail very short. 
a'. Muzzle mainly dark, lower lip and chin 

fawn or brown ; ears long and pointed, 

with sinuous upper margins. 

a". A larger or smaller white rump-patch ; 

antlers (5-tined) sharply angulated and 

bent forwards at 3rd tine, in such a 

manner that tips of the 5th are inclined 

inwards C. ivalliclii, 

b". White area restricted to hind aspect of 
hams ; a brownish patch on croup in 

advance of tail ; antlers wapiti-like C. macneilli. 

b' . Muzzle pale fawn, lower lip and chin 

white ; ears bluntly pointed, with straight 

upper margins ; antlers approximating to 

those of C. ivalliclii, but less bent for- 
wards ; white area of buttocks much as in 

C. macneilli C. cdslimiriensis. 

B. Muzzle white ; hair of withers reversed C. albirostris. 



XV. CEEVUS ELAPHUS. 

Cervus elaphus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 66, 1758, ed. 12, 
vol. i, p. 93, 1766 ; Kerr, Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 298, 1793 ; 
F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. i, pis, 93 and 94, 1820; 
Cuvier, Ossemeiis Fossiles, ed. 2, vol. iv, p. 24, 1823 ; H. Smith, 
Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. iv, p. 90, 1827 ; Jenyns, 



118 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Brit. Vest. Anim. p. 37, 1835 ; Bell, Brit. Quachnqjeds, p. 394, 
1837, ed. 2, p. 348, 1874 ; Keyserling and Blasius, Wirb'elth. 
Etirop. vol. iv, p. 26, 1840; Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Begne Anim., 
Mamm. p. 170, 1842; Owen, Bep. Brit. Assoc. 1843, p. 236, 1844; 
Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mas. p. 177, 1843, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. 
p. 64, 1847, Broc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 227, Cat. TJngulata Brit. 
Mus. p. 195, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 68, 1872, 
Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 139, 1873 ; Blasius, Fauna 
Dcutsclil. vol. i, p. 439, 1857; Gcrrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. 
Mus. p. 257, 1862 ; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 342, 1871 ; 
Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix, pt. i, p. 565, 1874 ; 
Danford and Alston, Froc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 276, 1880, p. 54; 
Brooke, ibid. 1878, p. 911 ; Floiver and Gar son. Cat. Osteol. 
Mus. E. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 293, 1884 ; Lydekker, Cat. Foss. 
Mamm. Brit. Miis. pt. ii, p. 94, 1885, Froc. Zool. Soc. 1890, 
p. 363, Horns and Hoofs, p. 271, 1893, British Mammals, p. 240, 
1896, Deer of All Lands, p. 64, 1898, Great and Small Game of 
Europe, etc. p. 209, 1901 ; Woodivard and Sherborn, Cat. Brit. 
Foss. Vert. p. 330, 1890; Nehring, Tundren und Steppen, p. 110, 
1910; Floiver and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 322, 1891; 
Sattinin, Zool. Jahrb., Syst. vol. ix, p. 309, 1896 ; Bilchner, 
Ann. Mus. Zool. St. Petersb. 1896, p. 387 ; Millais, Mamm. Gt. 
Britain, vol. iii, p. 91, 1906 ; Nitschc, Studien iiber Hirsche, 
pi. i, 1898 ; Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. iii, no. 9, p. 9, 1906 ; 
Winge, Danmarks Fauna, Pattedyr, p. 171, 1908; Trouessart, 
Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 228, 1910 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, 
ed. 6, p. 1910, ed. 7, p. 1, 1914; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. 
Europe, p. 968, 1912 ; Joleaud, Rev. Africaine, no. 287, p. 1, 1913 ; 
Lodcr, Froc. Zool. Soc. 1914, p. 488. 

Cervus (Elaphns) elaphus, H. Smith, GriffUli's Animal Kingdom, 
vol. V, p. 307, 1827. 

Cervus (Strongyloceros) elaphus, Owen, Brit. Foss. Mamm. and 
Birds, p. 472, 1846. 

Eucervus elaphus, Aclogue, Faune France, p. 71, 1899. 

Cervus vulgaris, Botezat, Morphol. Jahrb. vol. xxiii, p. 115, 1903. 

Cervus (Cervus) elaphus, Pococh, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 941. 

Bed Deer. 

The typical species. 

Typical locality southern Sweden ; the range includes 
the greater part of Europe (but not the Italian peninsula), 
and extends at least as far east as the Caucasus and the 
Caspian provinces of Persia. 

Size typically large, the shoulder-height reaching -l or 
4J feet. Antlers rounded, and, when fully developed with 
a bez-tiue and a total of more than five points, of which the 
terminal ones may form a cup, the fourth tine not specially 
large nor situated in the same fore-and-aft plane as those 
above ; ear longer than half the length of head ; tail moder- 



CERVID^ 



119 



ately short and pointed, and light rump-patch of moderate 
dimensions ; general colour reddish brown in summer, 
greyish brown in winter, typically with the under- parts 
lighter than back (which may have a l)lackish spinal stripe), 
and never strongly contrasted with the upper-parts ; mane not 




Fig. 22. — Palatal Aspect of Skull of Eed Deer 

(Cervus elaphus). J nat. size. 

From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe. 

darker than rest of coat ; no conspicuous whitish markings, 
except occasionally the rump-patch. 

The following is a tentative " key " to the races : — 



A. Size small or medium, under-parts lighter. 
a. Size small, bez-tine usually wanting. 

a' . Size smaller, colour darker C. e. corsicanus. 

h' . Size larger, colour lighter C. e. harharus. 

c'. Size smaller, colour greyer, skull narrower C. e. hispanicus. 



.120 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

b. Size larger, bez-tine usually present. 
b'. Size larger, colour redder, skull wider. 
h". Rump-patch not markedly lighter than 

flanks or black-bordered in front C. c. da/phus. 

c". Rump -patch markedly lighter than 

flanks, usually black-bordered in front .. C. e. liii^iyehtitluin. 
c . Size smaller, rump-patch black-bordered 
in front. 

c". Colour paler and greyer ( '. c. atlanticus. 

d". Colour darker and less grey C. c. ncoticns. 

B . Size large, under-parts darker C c. maral. 

J 

A.— Cervus elaphus barbarus. 

Cervus barbarus, Bennett, List Anlm. Gardens Zool. Soc. p. 31, 1887 ; 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 227, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mas. 
p. 197, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mas. p. 68, 1872, Hand-List 
Ruminants Brit. Mas. p. 140, 1873; Gervais, Hist. Nat. Mamm. 
vol. ii, p. 261, 1855 ; Sclatcr, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 344, 
1871 ; Fitzimjer, Sit;:ber. h. Ali. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, 
p. 577, 1874; Joleaud, Rev. Africainc, no, 287, p. 5, 1913. 

Cervus corsiniacus, Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 3, vol. x, p. 206, 
1848. • 

Cervus elaphus, Loclie, Cat. Mamm. Algerie, p, 26, 1858, Rev. Marit. 
et Coloniale, 1860, p. 151, Explor. Sci. Algerie, Mamm. p. 34, 
1887 ; Blanchard, Tunisic au XX"'" Siecle, Zool. p. 136, 1904. 

Cervus corsicanus, Latastc, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. xxxix, 
p. 286, 1885 ; nee Erxleben. 

Cervus elaphus barbarus, Latastc, Exjdor. Sci. Tunisic, Mamm. 
p. 34, 1887 ; Lydekkcr, Deer of All Lands, p. 65, 1898, Game 
Animals of Africa, p. 385, 1908 ; Drewitt, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904, 
vol. ii, p. 130 ; Trouessart, Cans. Sci. Soc. Zool. France, vol. i, 
p. 405, 1905 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 31, 1910, 
ed. 7, p. 31, 1914. 

Typical locality North Africa ; now found in certain 
parts of Algeria, Tunisia, and Senegambia, but apparently 
very scarce. 

Size considerably smaller than in typical race ; bez-tine 
of antlers at least generally wanting ; general colour dark 
brown, with a greyish brown dorsal stripe and irregular 
whitish spots on flanks and in some cases on back ; rump- 
patch much lighter than back, without dark anterior border, 
and including tail. Maximum antler-length 38| inches. 

53. 3. 7. 37. Skeleton, female. North Africa. 

Purchased (Zoological Society/), 1853. 

63. 5. 13. 3-5. Three shed antlers. Tunisia. 

rnrcJuiscd (Zoolof/leal Society), 1863. 



CERVID.E 121 

99. 10. l:;. 1. Head, mounted. North Africa. 

Presented hy the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1899. 

0. 12. 13. 1. Skiiij mounted, in winter coat. North 

Africa. Same donor, 1900. 



^ 



B.— Cervus elaphus corsicanus. 



Cervus corsicanus, Erxlehen, Syst. Bcgn. Anim. vol. i, p. 807, 1777 ; 

Jolcaud, Bcv. Africaine, no. 287, p. 5, 1913. 
Cervus elaphus corsicanus, Kerr, Linn.'s Anivi. Kingdom, p. 299, 

1793; LydekJcer, Deer of All Lauds, p. 74, 1898; Troucssayt, 

Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 229, 1910 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. 

Europe, p. 969, 1912. 
Cervus mediterraneus, Blainvillc, Journ. Phys. vol. xciv, p. 262, 1822. 
Cervus elaphus minor, Wagner, Sclireher's Sdugtliiere, Siippl. vol. v, 

p. 354, 1855 ; Fitzlnger, Sitzher. h. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix, 

pt. 1, p. 575, 1874. 

Typical locality Corsica, hut also found in Sardinia. 

Closely allied to the last, with which it apparently agrees 
in the general absence of the bez-tine of the antlers, but 
smaller, the size being approximately the same as in the 
next race, but general colour darker than in that or any 
other of the smaller continental forms, the general colour 
being dark brown in summer and blackish in winter. 

No specimen in collection. 

^' C— Cervus elaphus hispanieus. 

Cervus elaphus hispanieus, Hilzlieimcr, Archiv fiir Bassen- und 
Gesellscliafts-Biologie, 1909, p. 313 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. 
Europe, p. 969, 1912. 

(?) Cervus elaphus bolivari, Cabrera, Bol. Soc. Espaii. Hist. Nat. 
vol. xi, p. 559, 1911, Cat. Met. Mam.. Miis. Madrid, p. 129, 1912. 

Typical locality Spain, probably the south-western 
districts. 

Type in Stuttgart Museum ; type of holivari, which is 
from El Pardo, Madrid, in Madrid Museum. 

Apparently smaller than in the under-mentioned Scots 
race, with the colour more decidedly greyish, and the skull 
narrower, more especially in the interorbital region and the 
palate.* G. e. holivari is stated to be a larger form from 

* For cranial measurements of this and other races see Miller, 
op. cit. p. 982. 



122 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

cuutial and uortheru Spain, l)ut its liglit to recognition is 
more than donbtfnl. 

95. 9. 4, 14. Sknll, with antlers, and skin. Coto 
Donana, Huelva, Spain ; collected by A. Euiz. 

Prcmitcd hij thr Lord Lilford, 1895. 

95. 9. 4. 15. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

8. 3. 8. 14. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same locality. 

rrcscntcd hi/ Ahd Chapiaan, K^q., 1908. 

8. 3. 8. 15. Skull, with antlers. Same locality. 

Same hisforif. 

D.— Cervus elaphus elaphus. 

Cerviis elaphus tyTjiicns, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, ]). 65, 1898; 

Joleaud, Bev. Africaine, no. 287, p. 1, 1912, partim. 
Cervus elaphus elaphus, Miller, Cat. Mamvi. West. Europe, p. 967, 

1912. 

Typical locality southern Sweden. 

Size large ; rump-patch not markedly lighter than flanks, 
and without well-defined black Ijorder. 

According to Lonnberg, the range seems to have extended 
originally over the greater part of C4otaland, but at the 
present day red deer in Sweden are confined to southern 
Skania, where they are chiefly found on a few large estates, 
Hiickeberga, Ofvedskloster, Borringe, Sofdeborg, Snogeholm, 
Skabersjo, etc. Their number is small, perhaps not more 
than about 100 head. 

No specimen in collection. 

E.— Cervus elaphus atlanticus. 

Cervus elaphus atlanticus, Liinnherg, Arkiv Zool. vol. iii, no. 9, p. 9, 
1906 ; Collett, Bergcns Miis. Aarbog, 1909, no. 6 ; Trouessart, 
Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 228, 1910 ; Miller, Cat. Mavim. West. 
Europe, p. 967, 1912. 

Typical locality Hitteren Island, Trondhjem, Norway ; 
the range including the west coast of Norway from Stavanger 
Fjord north to about latitude 65''. 

Size smaller and colour paler than in typical i-ace, with 
a distinct blackish band on front border of rump-patch. 

No specimen in collection. 



CERVID.E 123 

"' F.— Cervus elaphus scoticus. 

Cervus elaphus scoticus, Lonnberg, ArTtiv Zool. vol. iii, no. 9, p. 11, 
1906 ; Trouessart, Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 228, 1910 ; Miller, 
Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 968, 1912. 

Typical locality Glenquoich Forest, Inverness ; the wild 
red deer of the west of England and Ireland are provisionally 
included in this race. 

Closely allied to the Norwegian race, but darker and less 
grey. According to Miller, the cranial characters given by 
Lonnberg as distinctive are inconstant. 

689, h. Frontlet and antlers. England. JVo hisfor//. 

46. 11. 20. 17. Frontlet and antlers. Eogland. 

Pvrchased {Leadbeatcr), 1846. 

47. 12. 11. 16. Skull, with antlers. England. 

rurclumd {Bahcr), 1847. 

49. 3. 5. 1. Frontlet and antlers. From a peat-])og, at 
a depth of about 20 feet, at Diglis, near Worcester, 1844. 
One of the specimens referred to on page 475 of Owen's 
British Fossil Mammals and Birds. 

Presented hy Jahcz Allies, Esq., 1849. 

50. 11. 22. 67. Skeleton. Probably British. 

Fiu'chased (Zoological Society), 1850. 
63. 11. 16. 5. Skin, mounted. Alnwick Chase, North- 
umberland. 

Presented hy the Duke of Northumherland, K.G., 1863. 

86. 6. 10. 1. Skull, without antlers. Loch Sunart, 

Argyll. Presented hy Gen. Hamilton, 1886. 

96. 12. 21. 1-5. Three skulls and two pairs of antlers. 
Isle of Jura. Presented hy H. Evans, Esq., 1896. 

97. 4. 3. 3. Skin, mounted. Woburn Park, Beds. 

Presented hy the Du'kc of Bedford, K.G., 1897. 
6. 2. 26. 1. Skull, female. Exmoor, Devonshire, 

Presented hy R. A. Saunders, Esq., 1906. 

8. 2. 10. 1. Skull and skin, female. Fort William. 

Presented hy W. Jones, Esq., 1908. 

9. 1. 15. 1. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Balmacaan, 
Inverness. Presented hy Bradley Martin, Esq., 1909. 

9. 1. 15. 2. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 



124 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

11. 2. 21. 1-2. Two frontlets and antlers. Jura, Ardgour, 
Argyllshire. Presented hj F. Hamilton- Leigh, Esq., 1911. 

14. 2. 22. 1. Skull and antlers. Exmoor, Devon. 

Presented h>/ Morland Grcig, Esq., 1914. 
3. 11. 6. 1. Skin. New Zealand; introduced. 

Presented hj St. George Littledcde, Esq., 1903. 

G.— Cervus elaphus hippelaphus. 

Cervus elaphus hippelaphus, Kerr, Linn.'s Anini. Kingdom, p. 298, 

1792. 
Cervus elaphus gennanicus,* Desmarcst, Mamnialogie, vol. ii, p. 434, 

1822; Lonnherg, ArUv Zool. vol. iii, no. 9, p. 14, 1906; 

Troucssart, Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 228, 1910; Miller, Cat. 

Mamm. West. Eurojje, p. 965, 1912. 
Cervus elaphus albus, Desmarcst, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 435, 1822 

(nomen nudum) ; Fitzinger, Sitzber. h. Ali. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix, 

pfc. 1, p. 575, 1874. 
Cervus elaphus albifrons, Reichenbach, Sdugeth. \ol. iii, pi. iii, a, 

1845. 
Cervus elaphus varius, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wie}i,\o\. Ixix, 

pt. 1, p. 574, 1874. 
Including : 
Cervus balticus, ^ 

Cervus albicus, I Matscliic, Wcidwerli in Wort u. Bild, vol. xvi, 

Cervus rhenanus, | p. 187, 1907. 

Cervus bajovaricus, j 
Cervus elaphus neglectus, Matschie, Deutsche Jdger-Zeitung, vol. Iviii, 

p. 688, 1912 (Posen). 
Cervus elaphus visurgensis \ Matschie, op. cit. p. 734, 1912 (Upper 
Cervus elaphus debilis / and Lower Rhineland). 

Cervus elaphus saxonicus, Matschie, op. cit, p. 737, 1912 (Saxony). 

Typical locality Germany, M'hence the range probably 
extends at least as far east as the western Carpathians. 

Equal in size to typical race, but with the rump-patch 
distinctly lighter than flanks and usually bordered in front 
with a well-marked black or blackish band. 

Of the above mentioned local forms named by Matschie, 
Cervus lalticus has the beam of the antlers evenly and 
gradually concave on the inner border and the points of all 
the tines directed inwards. Typical locality Liebemiihl, 
Ostpreussen. In cdhicus the beam is bent abruptly inwards 

* It seems doubtful whether the " Cervus germanicus " of Kerr, 
loc. cit., was intended for a species-name. 



CERVID^ 125 

at the level of the trez-tine, the points of the inner tines 
are directed inwards, and those of the outer prongs upwards. 
Typical locality Muskau, Oberlausitz, Silesia. In rhenanus 
the beam is bent abruptly inwards at the level of the trez- 
tine, and the points of all tines are directed upwards. 
Typical locality Yiernheim, Hessen-Darmstadt. In hajo- 
varicus the antlers resemble those of rhenanus, but have the 
inner tines directed inwards and backwards. Typical locality 
Rohner, Konigssee, Oberbayern. 

689, 'p. Pair of antlers. Germany. No history. 

43. 12. 29. 5. Skin, mounted, female. France. 

Purchased {Lefehvrc), 184:3. 
43. 12. 29. 14. Skin, mounted, young. Same locality. 

Same history. 
59. 9. 6. 103. Skull, female. Southern Germany ; col- 
lected by Dr. A. Giinther. Ptirchased, 1859. 
83. 6. 12. 1. Frontlet, without antlers. Gohrde, Hanover 
(H.I.M. Kaiser Wilhelm I.). 

Presented hy J. E. Harting, Esq., 1888. 
89. 11. 20. 1, 2. Two pairs of antlers. Bohemia. 

Presented ly Col. J. Evans, 1889. 
11. 9. 13. 16-18. Three frontlets and antlers. Bavaria. 
These should represent the so-called C. e. hajovaricus. 

Presented by F. A\ A. Fleischmann, Esq., 1911. 

H.— Cervus elaphus, subsp. 

Cervtis vulgaris campestris, Botezat, MorjjJtol. Jahrh. vol. xxxii, p. 154, 
1903 ; 7iec C. campestris, F. Cuvier. 

" Carpathian Deer," LydehJcer, Field, vol. cv, p. 326, 1905. 

" Short-faced Carpathian Eed Stag," Leigh, Field, vol. cv, p, 855, 
1905. 

Typical locality the Marmoros and Bukowina districts of 
the Hungarian and Galician Carpathians. 

As represented by a stag living in the Duke of Bedford's 
Park at Woburn in 1905, this large red deer may be in some 
degree intermediate between C. c. germanicus and C. e. maral, 
being apparently redder than the latter, but with less black 
on the under-parts, although more than in the former. The 
hinds have been stated to show the short face of the western 



126 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

races ; but, according to Loder,* while in skulls of Scotcli 
and German stags the proportion of the interorbital width to 
the length (from summit of occipital crest to tips of pre- 
maxillpe) is 1 to 3 "3, in Carpathian f and Caucasian stags it is 
1 to 3 • 6. The same writer adds that he could detect no 
difference between Carpathian and Caucasian skulls — a view 
which coincides with the experience of the present writer, 
although not with that of Miller. 

96. 10. 10. 1. Frontlet and antlers. Galician Carpathians. 

Presented hj H.H. Prince HcinricJi of Liechtenstein, 1906. 



A.- 



Cervus elaphus maral. 



Cei'\us m&vsil, Ogilhy, Eep. Council Zool. Soc. 1840, p. 22 ; Sclater, 
Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 336, pi. xxix, 1871 ; Grmj, Cat. 
Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 69, 1872 ; Fitzinger, Sitzher. h. Ah. 
Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 597, 1874; Blanford, Eastern 
Persia, vol. ii, p. 95, 1876 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 812 ; 
Eadde, Siiugeth. Talysch. p. 10, 1886; SatiDiin, Zool. Jahrb., 
Syst. vol. ix, p. 309, 1896 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, 
p. 30, 1876; Trouessart, Faune Mamm. Eurojye, p. 229, 1910. 

Cervus caspius, Radde, Siiugeth. Talysch. p. 10, 1886. 

Cervus elaphus maral, Lydekher, Deer of All Lands, p. 75, 1898, 
Great and, Small Game of Eurojie, etc. p, 217, 1901 ; Satunin, 
Mitt. Kauhas. Mus. vol. i> pp. 65 and 129, 1901, vol. ii, pp. 210 
and 357, 1906, vol. iii, p. 49, 1907, vol. vii, p. 20, 1912 ; Leigh, 
Field, vol. cv, p. 355, 1905 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 
p. 28, 1910, ed. 7, p. 28, 1914 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, 
p. 967, 1912 ; Loder, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1914, p. 489. 

(?) Cervus vulgaris montanus, Botezat, Zool. Jahrb., Syst. vol. xxxii, 
p. 155, 1903. 

Cervus (Cervus) maral, Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 940. 

Cervus caucasicus, Winans, Amer. Mus. Journ. vol. xiv, p. 67, 1914, 
nomen nudum. 

Maral (Persian), Ollen (Russian). 

" Polish Stag," Lydekher, Field, vol. cv, p. 326, 1905. 

Typical locality the Caspian provinces of Persia. 

Size larger and build heavier than in any other of the 
properly named local races, the shoulder-height reaching 
4^ feet ; the neck relatively thick, and the face, especially 
in females, longer and more pointed than in tlie western 
races, and the tail thicker. General colour in summer red, 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1914, p. 488. 

t As represented by stags from the Galician estate of the late 
Prince Heinrich from Liechtenstein. 



CEEVID.E 



127 



frequently marked with yellow spots ; in winter dai'k slaty 
grey, with the ljlack-l)ordered rump-patch a deeper yellow 
than in the more typical races, and the shoulders, thighs, and 
under-parts nearly black. Antlers large and less complex 
than those of the latter, the number of tines seldom exceeding 
8, and often only 6, although occasionally 10 or 12; the 
bez-tine, which may be wanting, frequently much shorter 




Fig. 23.— Antlers of Eastern Red Deee, ok Makal 
{Ccrvus elaphus niaral). 

than the brow-tine, which is long and much curved upwards, 
and the fourth tine generally more distinct from the crown ; 
maximum antler-length 48^ inches. 

Exclusive of the eastern Carpathians, to which this deer 
may be a recent immigrant, the range extends from the 
Caucasus through Galicia, the Caspian area, and the Crimea 
to northern Persia and Asia Minor, and may also include 
parts of Turkey and Greece. The so-called Polish stag of 
the Marmoros district of the Hungarian Carpathians is 
generally believed to be a dwarfed form of the maral which 
reached that area from Galicia ; possibly the small dark stag 
from the Galician Carpathians, which has been named 



128 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

C vulgaris montanus, may be the same. It is noteworthy 
that a smaller form of red deer occurs with the maral in the 
Ak-Dagh, Asia Minor.* Caucasian maral lands have rather 
shorter faces than those from farther east. 

54. 4. 26. 6. Single antler. Lake Xsm, Armenia. 

Presented hy Lord Arthur Hay, 1854. 

* * * *. Single antler. Crimea. Described and figured 
by the present writer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1890, p. 363, pi. xxx, 
fig. 2. No history. 

55.12.26.159. Skull, female. Persia; collected by 
Sir J. McNeill. Co-type ; figured in Knowsley Menagerie. 

TroMsf erred from Zoological Society's Museiwi, 1855. 

58.5.14.11. Antlers. Circassia; collected by the 
Lord Ducie. Figured by Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, 
pi. xxix. Purchased {Zoological Society), 1858. 

85. 8. 4. 2. Frontlet and antlers. Trebizond, Asia 
Minor. Presented hy Consul A. Biliotti, 1885. 

87. 12. 22. 4. Frontlet and antlers. Psebai Valley, 
N.W. Caucasus, 7,000 feet. 

Presented hy St. George Littlcdalc, Esq., 1887. 

89. 10. 6. 1. Single (right) antler. Jarpuz, Beinbighas 
Mountains, near Albistan, Asia Minor. Described and figured 
by the present writer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1890, p. 363, pi. xxx, 
fig. 1. Presented hy C. G. Danford, Esq., 1889. 

92. 3. 16. 3. Skeleton, with antlers. Western Caucasus. 
Presented hy St. George Littledale, Esq., 1892. 

92. 3. 16. 4. Skeleton, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 

2. 6. 2. 6. Skiu. Western Caucasus. 

Presented hy St. George Littledale, Esq., 1902. 

10. 11. 11. 1. Skin, mounted, in early summer coat, 
with antlers, freshly clean from velvet, of another individual. 
Caucasus. Length of antlers along outer curve 44^ inches ; 
basal girth 7 inches. 

Presented hy the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1910. 

10. 11. 11. 2. Skull and antlers of the preceding 
specimen. Same history. 

* Lydekker, Field, vol. cxx., p. 1122, 1912. 



CEEVID.E 129 



XVI. CERVUS CANADENSIS. 

Cervus elaphus canadensis, Erxlehen, Syst. Begn. Anim. vol. i, p. 305, 
1777 ; Kerr, Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 299, 1792. 

Cervus canadensis, Schreber, Sdugthiere, vol. v, pi. ccxlvi, A, 1783 ; 
F. Cuvicr, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. i, pis. 95 and 96, 1820 ; 
Desmarest, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 433, 1822 ; Cuvier, Ossemens 
Fossilcs, ed. 2, p. 27, 1823 ; H. Smith, Griffith's Aniinal Kingdom, 
vol. iv, p. 96, 1827 ; Jardine, Naturalisfs Lihr., Mamm. vol. iii, 
p. 156, pi. ix, 1835; Lesso)i, Nouv. Tahl. Regne Anim., Mamm. 
p. 171, 1842; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mas. p. 177, 1843, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 226, List Osteol. Brit. Mas. p. 65, 1847, Cat. 
Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 193, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. 
p. 68, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 257, 1873; 
F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. iv, pis. 345 and 346, 1848 ; 
Pucheran, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi, p. 386, 1852 ; Baird, N. 
Amer. Mamm. p. 638, 1857 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. 
Mus. p. 257, 1862 ; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 342, 
1872 ; Caton, Antelojpe and Deer of N. America, p. 77, 1877, ed. 2, 
p. 77, 1884; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 913; Merriam, 
Mammals of Adirondacls, p. 143, 1884; True, Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. vol. vii, p. 592, 1855 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. 
R. Coll. Surg. pfc. ii, p. 208, 1884; Flower and LydeliJcer, Study 
of Mammals, p. 322, 1891 ; MerricTi, Mamm. Minnesota, p. 278, 
1892; Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Philadelphia, 1897, p. 207; Nitsche, 
Studien ilber Hirsche, pi. vi, 1898 ; Lydvhher, Deer of All Lands, 
p. 94, pi. vi, 1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 51, 
1901 ; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. America {Field Mus. Zool. 
Pub. vol. ii), p. 34, 1901, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. {ibid. vol. viii) 
p. 43, 1907; Stone and Cram, American Mammals, p. 31, 1903; 
Holding, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904, vol. i, p. 131 ; Ward, Records of 
Big Game, ed. 6, p. 39, 1910, ed, 7, 39, 1914 ; Miller, List N. 
Amer. Mamm. p. 384, 1912 ; Cabrera, Cat. Met. Mam. Mus. 
Madrid, p. 130, 1912. 

Cervus wapiti, Barton, Journ. Med. and Phys. Philadelphia, vol. iii, 
p. 36, 1808 ; Leach, Journ. Phys. vol. Ixxxv, p. 67, 1818. 

Cervus major, Ord, Guthrie's Geography, p. 292, 1815. 

Cervus (Elaphus) canadensis, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 
vol. V, p. 308, 1827. 

Cervus strongyloceros,i?tc7(aiY7son, Fauna Bor. -Amer., Mamm. vol. i, 
p. 251, 1828 ; Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, pi. xxxvi, 1850. 

Elaphus canadensis, De Kay, Zool. New Yorh, vol. i, p. 118, 1842. 

Cervus (Strongyloceros) canadensis, Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. 
p. 193, 1852. 

Strongyloceros canadensis, Fltzinger, Sitzber. h. ATi. Wiss. Wien, 
vol. Ixvii, pt. 1, p. 350, 1873, vol. Ixix, pt. i, p. 556, 1874. 

Cerv'us maral canadensis, Severtzow, Turkestan. Jevotnie, 1873, p. 103, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xviii, p. 386, 1876. 

Wapiti : miscalled Elk in America. 

Typical locality Eastern Canada. 

Size very large, shoulder-height reaching 5 feet 4 inches, 

IV. K 



130 CATALOGUE OP UNGULATES 

Antlers very large, with more than five tines, curving back- 
wards, and much flattened in the upper half; bez-tine 
present, fourth tine longer than all the others, and with the' 
fifth, which is also long, forming a nearly symmetrical fork, 
the fourth, fifth, and sixth tines being situated nearly in the 




Fig. 24. — Head of Wapiti (Ccrvios canadensis). 

same plane as the portion of the beam immediately below 
them, so as more or less nearly to occlude one another when 
viewed from the front ; brow-tine rising close to the burr, 
and approximately equal in length to the bez ; crown 
normally not cupped ; rump-patch very large ; throat-fringe 
greatly developed ; tail very short ; ears about half the length 



CERVID^ 131 

of head ; face rather short ; general colour in summer 
yellowish brown, sometimes with a reddish tinge ; neck and 
under-parts varying from dark brown to blackish; and in 
winter contrasting sharply with the straw-colour of the 
bleached coat of tlie back ; limbs generally chestnut-brown. 

The distributional area includes North America and 
Central and North-eastern Asia. 

The following is a " key " to the American races : — 

A. Size larger. 

a. Smaller and lighter-coloured, with lighter 

antlers C. c. canadensis. 

h. Larger and darker, with heavier ajitlers C. c. occidentalis. 

c. Nose darker, and head and legs redder than in 
a, but not so dark as in b; skull moi-e 
massive than in either a or 6 C. c. mcrriaini, 

B. Size smaller C. c. nannodes. 

The Asiatic races are not sufficiently well known, as a 
whole, to admit of their being tabulated in this manner. 

^A.— Cervus canadensis canadensis. 

Cervus canadensis typicus, LydeJcker, Deer of All Lands, p. 96, 1898 ; 

Ward, Records of Big Game, ed, 6, p. 40, 1910, ed. 7, p. 40, 1914. 
Cervus canadensis canadensis, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm, p. 385, 

1912. 

Wapiti. 

Typical locality Eastern Canada. 
General characters those of the species. 
The range extends southwards and westwards to include 
the Eocky Mountains. 

690, b, c, (■}■, d. Four frontlets, with antlers. North 
America. No history. 

690, /. Single antler of an immature stag. Shed in 
Zoological Society's Gardens, May, 1863. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), ahout 1863. 
53. 8. 29. 43. Skin, young, mounted, from a stag born 
in London. Puixhased {Zoological Society), 1853. 

58. 6. 9. 19. Skull, with antlers. North America. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1858. 
76. 3. 15. 1. Skeleton, with antlers. Yellowstone Park. 

Purchased {H. Ward), 1876. 
K 2 



132 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

84. 5. 28. 1. Skin, mounted. Yellowstone. 

Purchased (H. Ward), 187G. 
11. 3. 28. 1. Body-sldn. Gros Ventre Basin, N.W. 
Wyoming. 

Presented hi) the Hon. L. V. Kaf/-Shuttleworth, 1911. 

'*' B.— Cepvus canadensis occidentalis. 

Cervus occidentalis, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, 
p. 101, vol. V, p. 308, 1827; Jardine, Naturalist's Lihr., Mamm. 
vol. iii, p. 139, 1835 ; Lesson, Nonv. Tahl. Begne Anim., Mamm. 
p. 171, 1842 ; Stone and Cram, American Mammals, p. 34, 1903. 

Elaphus occidentalis, Swainson, Classif. Quadrupeds, p. 292, 1835. 

Cervus canadensis occidentalis, Bhjth, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 618 ; 
Lydclker, Deer of All Lands, p. 101, 1898, Great and Small 
Game of Euroiw, etc. p. 56, 1901 ; Elliot, Zool. Pub. Field Mns. 
vol. i, p. 269, 1899, Synop. Mamm. N. Anier. {Zool. Pub. Field 
Mus. vol. ii) p. 34, 1901, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (op. cit. vol. viii) 
p. 44, 1907 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 44, 1910, 
ed. 7, p. 44, 1914 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 385, 1912. 

Strongyloceros occidentalis, Fitzinger, Sitzber. li. Alt-. Wiss. Wien, 
vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 563, 1874. 

Cervus roosevelti, -Me^Ttrtw, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xi, 
p. 271, 1897. 

Typical locality the Pacific coast of North America. 

Larger and darker-coloured than typical race, with 
heavier antlers. 

The distributional area includes the Coast Range of 
Washington, Oregon, and Northern California. 

G90, a. Frontlet and antlers. San Diego, California. 

■Presented by C. I'entland, Esq. 

98. 2. 26. 1. Skull, with antlers. Vancouver Island, 
British Columbia. Presented hy H. J. Eltoes, Esci, 1898. 

C— Cervus canadensis merriami. 

Cervus merriami, Nelson, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, p. 7, 
1902 ; Stone and Cram, American Mammals, p. 34, 1903 ; 
Elliot, Chech-List Mamm. N. Amer. {Zool. Pub. Field Mus. 
vol. vi) p. 42, 1905 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 385, 1912. 

Typical locality Black Eiver Valley, White Mountains, 
Arizona. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Nose darker and head and lim1)s redder tlian in typical 



CEUVID/E loo 

race, although not so dark as in occidcntalis ; tines of antlers 
less curved than in typical race ; nasals broader and flatter ; 
upper series of cheek-teeth stouter and more curved. 



V 



D.— Cervus canadensis nannodes. 



(?) Cervus maral califoruica, Sevcrfzow, Turhestan. Javotnie, 1873, 

p. 103, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xviii, p. 386, 1876. 
Cervus nannodes, Mcrriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. WasJiington, vol. xviii, 

p. 83, 1905; Elliot, Check-List Mamm. N. Amer. {Zool. Puh. 

Field Mus. vol. vi) p. 42, 1905 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamni. 

p. 385, 1912. 

Typical locality Buttonwillow, Kern County, California. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Size smaller and legs relatively shorter than in any of 
the preceding races ; general colour pale and rump-patch 
small in comparison with that of other races. There are also 
skull-differences. 

Tlie range appears to l)e mainly, if not entirely, restricted 
to the San Joaquin Valley, l^ut formerly included the higher 
ridges of the White and Mogollon Mountains of Arizona and 
New Mexico. 

No specimen in collection. 

^E.— Cervus canadensis xanthopygus. 

Cervus elaplius, Pallas, Zoogr. Bosso-Asiat. p. 216, 1811 ; SchrencJ,-, 
Beis. unil Forsch. im Amur-Lande, vol. i, p. 171, 1851 ; Baddc, 
Beise Siid-Ost-Siherien, pt. i, p. 284, 1862 ; nee Linn. 

Cervus xanthopygus, Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. ser. 5, 
vol. viii, p. 376, 1869, Bech. Mamm. p. 181, pi. xxi, 1870-74 ; 
Fitzinger, Sitzber. Ti. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 590, 
1874 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 68 ; Lydekker, Deer of 
All Lands, p. 81, pi. iii, 1898 ; Pousargues, Mem. Soc. Zool. 
France, vol. xi, p. 205, 1898; Allen and Andrews, Ball. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xxxii, p. 488, 1813. 

Cervus luhdorfi, Bolau, Abh. Ver. Hamburg, vol. vii, p. 33, pi. iv, 
1880 ; Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixxxiii, p. 373, 
1881 ; Pousargues, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. xi, p. 209, 1898 
(as a synonym of xanthopygus) . 

Cervus luehdorfi, Sclater, List. Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 263, 1883. 

Cervus isubra, Noack, Humboldt, vol. viii, p. 6, fig. 5, 1889. 

Cervus bedfordianus, Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1896, p. 932, pis. 
xxxviii and xxxix. Deer of All Lands, p. 101, 1898 (as a synonym 
of xanthopygus). 

Cervus canadensis luehdorfi, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 102, 
1898. , 



134 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Cervus manchuricus typicus. Pousargucs, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 

vol. xi, p. 209, 1898. 
Cervus canadensis xanthopygus, LydeJcker, Great and Small Game 

of Etcrojjc, etc. p. 70, 1901 ; Ward, Eecords of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 48, 1910, ed. 7, p. 48, 1914. 

ISUBRA. 

Typical locality Northern Manchuria, pro])ably the Usuri 
district. 

Type in Paris Museum. 

Antlers of a shorter and stouter type than in the Tien- 
shan race {infra), with the fourth tine relatively smaller 
in immature individuals, and the portion above it less 
developed at all ages ; the tips of the fourth and fifth tines 
in the 5-tined antlers of subadult stags curving towards one 
another like the " pincers " of a crab. General colour of 
immature and subadult individuals in summer bright reddish 
brown, in some cases without a distinct rump-patch, in older 
animals (luchdorji) browner ; in winter brownish grey, with 
the dark neck-mane and under-parts of typical wapiti. 

97. 12, 23. 1. Head, mounted, and body-skin. Man- 
churia. Type of C. hedfordianus. 

Presented hij the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1897. 

99. 2. 20. 1. Skin, mounted. Manchuria. 

Same donor, 1890. 

99. 8. 30. 1-3. Three frontlets, with antlers. Sutschan 
Valley, 280 miles east of Vladivostock, north of Manchuria. 
These represent the so-called C. luehdorfi. Same liistory. 

F.— Cervus canadensis baicalensis nom. n. 

Cervus maral var. sibirica, Severtzoiu, Turkestan. Jevotnic, 1873, 
p. 109, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xviii, p. 386, 1876 ; * 
nee Cervus sibiricus, Schrcher, 1784. 

Cervus canadensis asiaticus, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 102, 
pi. vi, 1898, partim, Great and Small Game of Eurojje, etc. p. 67, 



* Severtzow's classification is as follows : — 
Cervus fuaral (= C. wax>iti). 
A. Var. Americana. b. Var. Asiatica. 

a. canadensis. a. sibirica. 

b. calif ornica. b. songarica. 

Hitherto the writer has used the name asiaticus for the present 
race, but he is now of opinion that Severtzow did not intend 
" Americana " and " Asiatica " to be used as technical names. 



CERVID^E 135 

ICOl, Field, vol. cxi, p. 70, 1908 ; Elwes, Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. 

vol. xxiv, p. 39, 1899 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 47, 

1910 ; Mehely, Termt. Kdzl. Budapest, vol. xlii, p. 806, 1910. 
Cervus sibiricus, Matschie, Sitzber. Ges. nat. Freunde, 1907, p. 222. 
Cervus canadensis sibiricus, LydeM-er, Field, vol. cxi, p. 70, 1908, as 

an alternative name ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 7, p. 47, 

1914. 

Typical locality Sayansk and Baikal Mountains, west of 
Lake Baikal. 

Compared with those of the next race, the antlers, 
according to Matschie, are less stout and lighter in colour, 
and have the fourth tine inclining outwards instead of 
inwards, with only a slight bend at the tip, and the beam at 
this point curving gradually inwards and backwards, with 
the backward inclination less marked than in the Tien-Shan 
race. On the front surface of the upper half of the beam 
there is only one large tine (the fourth), the terminal portion 
forming a long-handled but short-tined fork. This terminal 
fork inclines inwards from the line of the summit of the 
fourth tine, and also somewhat inwards from that of the 
third tine, while between the third and fourth tines there is 
no sharp inward angulation of the beam.* 

The range apparently includes a portion of the Altai, as 
well as part of the district to the southward of Lake Teletsk, 
near the sources of the Yenisei (whence the stag figured in 
The Deer of All Lands probably came). Whether the some- 
what darker wapiti from the Krasnoyarsk district of the 
Upper Yenisei is identical with this race, is still uncertain. 

78. 11. 21. 24. Antlers. Salair, Altai; collected by 

Dr. 0. Finsch. By exchange with the 

Geographical Society of Bremen, 1878. 

97. 5. 18. 2. Head-skin. Chuja Steppe, Altai. 

Presented hy Major C. S. Cvmhcrland, 1897. 

* The above details (as in the case of several of the other races) 
are given solely on the authority of Matschie. A mounted specimen 
of the present race in the Tring Museum appeared to the writer very 
similar to the undermentioned example of the next race. As a rule, 
however, the mammals of the Altai are distinct from those of the 
Tien-Shan. 



136 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

i/ G.— Cervus canadensis songaricus. 

Cervus maral var. songavica, Severtzoiu, Turl-estan. Jevotnie, p. 109, 
1873, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xviii, p. 386, 1876. 

Cervus eustephanus, Blanford, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1875, p. 637, Scient. 
Besults Second Yarhand Mission, Mamm. p. 90, 1875 ; Broohe, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 912 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. 
Mus. pt. ii, p. 184, 1891 ; Poiisargues, Bull. Mus. Paris, 1895, 
p. 266; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 42, 1896; Gillett, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904, vol. ii, p. 179; Bentham, Cat. Asiat. 
Horns and Antlers hid. Mas. p. 66, 1908. 

Cervns canadensis eustephanus, Blanford, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1893, 
p. 447. 

Cervus canadensis asiaticus, LydcJikcr, Deer of All Lands, p. 108, 
1898, partim. 

Cervus xanthopygus eustephanus, Pousargucs, Mem. Soc. Zool. 
France, vol. xi, p. 211, 1898. 

Cervus canadensis songaricus, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of 
Europe, etc. p. 59, 1901, Field, vol. cxi, p. 70, 1908; Ward, 
Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 45, 1910, ed. 7, p. 45, 1914. 

Cervus songaricus, Matschie, Sitzber. Ges. nat. Freundc, 1907, p. 222. 

Typical locality the Zungarian Tien-Shan, probably in 
the neighbourhood of Kulja. 

Very similar to the typical American race, but apparently 
distinguished liy the narrower and more orange-coloured 
rump-patch, not including the middle line of the tail, which 
is coloured like the back ; the larger amount of black on the 
borders of the rump-patch, thighs, and flanks, the greyer 
general colour in summer, and the shorter and stouter fourth 
tine of the antlers. Compared with those of the other 
Asiatic races, the antlers are stated by Matschie to be 
distinguished by their stoutness and the length and massive- 
ness of their tines, as well as by their dark colour. From 
the trez-tine the beam inclines slightly inwards towards the 
root of the fourth tine, which is very large and strongly bent 
inwards ; at the root of the fourth tine the beam is markedly 
bent inwards and backwards, all the tines on its front 
surface being long, stout, parallel, and nearly at right angles 
to its axis. The upper portion of the antler in fully deve- 
loped specimens is 3-tined, and placed practically in the 
same place as the tip of the fourth, and nearly in that of the 
tip of the third tine. 

The range includes the Tarlmgatai district. 

79. 11. 21. 50-52. Three shed antlers. Tien-Shan; col- 



CERVID.E 137 

lected during the Second Yarkand Mission, under Sir Douglas 
Forsyth, K.C.S.T., 1873. Co-types of C. custephanics. 

Transferred from India Museum, 1879. 
2. 3. 9. 8. Skin, mounted. Eastern Tien-Shan. 

Presented hy St. George Littkdale, Esq., 1902. 
2. 3. 9. 9. Skull and antlers. Same locality. 

Same liistory. 
14. 9. 15. 8. Skin, imperfect. Chik Jirgalan Nulla, 
Tekkes Valley, Tien-Shan. 

Presented hy Col. J. W. Abbot Anderson, 1914. 

H.— Cervus canadensis biedermanni. 

Cervus asiaticus sibiricus, Elwes, Jonrn. Linn. Sac. 1899, p. 32; nee 

C. maral sibiriea, Severtzoiv. 
Cei'vus biedermanni, MatscJiie, Sltzher. Gcs. nut. Freundc, 1907, 

p. 223. 
Cervus canadensis biedermanni, LydcTiJcer, Field, vol. cxi, p. 70, 1908 ; 

Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 48, 1910, ed. 7, p. 48, 

1914. 

Typical locality Lake Teletzk, at the source of the Obi, 
and Barnaul, somewhat lower down the same valley. 

According to Matschie's description, the l)eam of the 
antlers is but slightly curved and forms an almost continuous 
lino witli the axis of the fourth tine, which is relatively 
small ; no inward bending occurs till the fourth tine, the tip 
forms a long-handled fork, and the maximum span occurs at 
the root of the fourth tine, as in the Sayansk race, but the 
terminal fork inclines only slightly inwards, so that in a 
front view it is concealed by the fourth tine, which in 
sibiricus inclines outwards. 

No specimen in collection. 

I. -Cervus canadensis wachei. 

Cervns wachei, iVoac^-, ^ooZ. An;:, vol. xxv, p. 145, 1902; Matschic, 

Sitzher. Gcs. nat. Freunde, 1907, p. 228. 
Cervus canadensis wachei, LydchJicr, Field, vol. cxi, p. 70, 1908. 

Typical locality Shingielt Valley, in the neighbourhood 
of the Black Irtish, Kobdo, Eastern Zungaria. 

Distinguished, according to Matschie, from the three 



138 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

preceding races by the very strong incurving of the upper 
portion of the stout beam of the antlers, in consequence of 
which the base of the terminal fork is situated in nearly the 
same plane as the root of the trez-tine ; the latter strongly 
bent upwards and inwards and separated by a shorter 
interval from the fourth tine than it is from the bez-tine ; 
while the fourth tine conceals the terminal fork, wliich 
consists of two sub-equal prongs mounted upon a relatively 
short shaft. 

No specimen in collection. 



y 



J.— Cervus canadensis bactrianus. 



Cervus bactrianus, LydckJcer, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. v, 

p. 196, 1900. 
Cervus hagenbecki, SJiitkotu, Zool. Jahrb., Syst. vol. xx, p. 91, 1905 ; 

= bactrianus, Satunin, Zanucoh. Kauhas. Oind. vol. xxv, p. 38, 

1905. 
Cervus canadensis bactrianus, Lydekkcr, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, 

vol. ii, p. 79 ; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 47, 1908, 

ed. 7, p. 47, 1914. 

Typical locality Russian Turkistan, probably Bokhara. 

In the under-mentioned specimen the whole margin of 
the upper lip is light-coloured, instead of only the front 
]3ortion and a patch beside the nostrils, as in the Tien-Shan 
and Canadian races ; and the dark patch on each side of the 
lower lip does not extend downwards to join a larger patch 
on the chin, as in those races, the whole chin being light- 
coloured. General colour light grey. 

2. 3. 19. 1. Head, mounted. Chenkend, Turkestan. 

Presented hj the Duke of Bedford, E.G., 1902. 

K.— Cervus canadensis wardi. 

Cervus canadensis wardi, Lydekl<er, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 987. 

Typical locality Sze-chuan border of Tibet. 

Known only by antlers, which are lighter and more 
slender than those of Sayansk and Tien-Shan wapiti, with 
the terminal fork narrower, and the fourth tine smaller. 
Not improbably this type of antler may prove to belong to 
C. macneilli {infra, p. 145). 



CEKVID.E 139 

10. 5. 14. 1. Two detached antlers. Sze-cliuan border 
of Tibet ; collected by the Rev. W. N. Fergusson. Type. 

Presented hij J. Rowland Ward, Esq., 1910. 

O/XVII. CERVUS YARKANDENSIS. 

Cervus cashmirianus yarkandensis, Blanford, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1892, 
p. 117 ; LydeJcJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 88, 1898. 

Cervus yarkandensis, Blanford, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1893, p. 447 ; 
Lydeli'ker, ibid. 1896, p. 933, Game Animals of India, etc.* 
p. 215, 1907, Cat. mime Bequest Brit. Mus. p. 34, 1913; 
Pousargues, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol, xi, p. 202, 1898, 
partim ; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 35, 1910, ed. 7, 
p. 47, 1914. 

Typical locality Maralbashi Forest, Eastern Turkestan ; 
the range includes the Tarim Valley. 

A rufous-fawn deer, with a large and well-defined orange 
rump-patch, which includes the tail, and usually five-tined 
antlers, which lack the lateral compression and large fourth 
tine of those of the canadensis group, and have the terminal 
fork placed at right angles to the middle line of the head, 
so as to look directly forw^ards, and the fifth tine a little 
inclined inwards, the beam not showing any marked angula- 
tion at the origin of the third tine. By the development of 
a third snag to the terminal fork (crown) the antlers may 
become 6-tined, as in fig. 25. 

79. 11. 21. 252. Skin, young. Yarkand. 

Transferred from India Museum, 1879. 

89. 6. 8. 3. Skull and antlers. Maralbashi Forest; 
collected by Rev. H. Lansdell. Purchased, 1889. 

91. 8. 7. 4. Skull and antlers. Same locality ; collected 
by Mr. A. Dalgliesh. Type ; figured by Blanford, loc. cit. 
Length of antlers along outer curve 35 and 34 inches ; basal 
girth 6| inches. Presented hy A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1891. 

91. 8. 7. 5. Frontlet and antlers. Same locality and 
collector. Same history., 

92. 3. 30. 1. Skin. Tarim Valley, Eastern Turkestan. 
INlentioned Ijy Blanford, loe. cit. 

Presented hy Major C. S. Cumherland, 1892. 

* Name spelt, intentionally, yarcandensis. 



140 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



92. 7. 17. 1. Frontlet and antlers. Maralbashi. Length 
of antlers 41^ inches, which is the maximum on record. 

Presented hy Sir H. A. H. F. Lennarcl, Bart, 1892. 




Fig. 25. — Skull and Antlkks of Yakkand Stag {Ccrciis yarkandcnsis). 

The development of a third tine in the terminal fork renders this 

specimen less typical than most examples. 

12. 10. :51. 3. Skull and antlers (fig. 25). Maralbashi; 
collected by ]\Ir. A. Dalgliesh. This specimen stands fourth 
in Ward's 1910 list. The measurements of the antlers are : — 
length on outer curve 39^, girth 6, tip-to-tip 24^, widest inside 
span 25 inches. Bequeathed hy A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912. 



CEUvii).i<; 141 

m 

XVIII. CERVUS WALLICHI. 

Cervus wallichi, Cuvier, Ossemcns Fossiles, 1812 (teste Pousargues), 
ed. 3, vol. iv, p. 504, 1825, ed. 4, vol. vi, p. 89, 1835 ; F. Cuvier, 
Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. ii, livr. xxxix, pi. 225 (356), 1823; 
H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 103, pi. ix, 1827 ; 
J. B. Fischer, Synop. MavDii. p. 452, 1829 ; Jardine, Naturalist's 
Libr., Matnm. vol. iii, p. 161, pi. x, 1835; Blyth, Journ. Asiat. 
Sac. Bengal, vol. x, pt. 2, p. 745, 1841, vol. xxi, p. 341, 1852; 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 227, partim ; Pousargues, Mem, 
Soc. Zool. France, vol. xi, p. 195, 1898, partim ; Pocock, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1912, p. 574 ; LydehTter, Field, vol, cxx, p. 86, 1912, 
Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. Mus. p. 32, 1913, Ward's Becords of 
Big Gam, ed. 7, p. 37, 1914. 
Cervus (Harana) wallichi, Hodgson, Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. i, p. 158, 1838, 
Cervus (Pseudocervus) wallichi, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 

vol. x, pt. 2, p. 914, 1841. 
Cervus tibetauus, Hodgson, op. cit. vol, xix, p, 460, 1850, 
Cervus nariyaiius, Hodgson, oj). cit. vol, xx, p, 392, pi, viii, 1851, 
Cervus affinis, TF, L. Sclater, Cat. Mamia. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 184, 
1891, partim; Lydekher, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1909, p, 599, fig. 182; 
nee Hodgson. 
Shou. 

Typical locality probably the wooded country to the south 
of the Mansarowar Lake, in the Ntiri-Khorsum district of 
Tibet, whence the stag to which the typical pair of antlers 
belonged appears to liave been brought to Maktinath, lying 
to the northward of Dwalagiri, central Nepal. 

Type a stag in the Vice-Eegal INIeuagerie at Barrakpur, 
near Calcutta ; now represented only by a pair of shed 
antlers in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 

Type of Harana and Fseudocervus. 

Somewhat inferior in size to a wapiti (shoulder-height 

about 4 feet 3 or 4 inches), with a very short tail, the 

(normally) o-tined antlers (fig. 20), strongly angulated at the 

origin of the third tine, and above this inclined markedly 

forwards and inwards so that the tips of the fifth tines 

(which are much larger than the fourth) are more or less 

closely approximated ; general colour speckled earthy or pale 

fawn brown, with a larger or smaller white rump-patch, 

including tail and extending downwards posteriorly on to 

back of hams ; * ears long and pointed ; muzzle and chin dark. 

* In Pocock's key to this gi-oup {Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, p, 574) 
the white on hind-quarters is stated to extend above root of tail in 
wallichi and affinis, but not to do so in cashmiriensis ilianglu), and 
yet further on affinis is stated to come closest to cashmirirnsis in 
this respect. i • 



142 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

ft 

The range apparently includes the Nari Khorsum district 
and the neighbourhood of Lhasa, Tibet, and the Chambi 
Valley and Bhutan. 

The two races are distinguishable as follows : — 

A. Rump-patch large, undivided by a dark median line C. 10. ivalUcM. 

B. Rump-patch smaller, divided more or less com- 

pletely by a dark median line C. w. affinis. 

/ A.— Cervus wallichi wallichi. 

Cervus wallichi wallichi, Lijdelikcr, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. Mas. 
p. 32, 1913. 

Typical locality probably the wooded country south of 
the Mansarowar Lake, Nari Khorsum, Western Tibet. 

General colour earthy brown ; rump-patch large and 
undivided by a median dark line. 

15. 5. 11. 1. Pair of antlers shed in 1913 by a stag, 
from the neighbourhood of the Mansarowar Lake, presented 
to the Zoological Society Ijy H.M. the King. This stag is 
the one described when young by the present writer, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1909, p. 599, and, when grown up, by Pocock, 
ihid. 1912, p. 574. Presented hy the Zoological Society, 1914. 

*^ B.— Cervus wallichi affinis. 

Cervus affinis, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. x, pt. 2, 
p. 721, 1841, vol. xix, pp. 466 and 518, 1850, vol. xx, p. 392, 
pi. vii, 1851 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 228, Cat. tfngulata 
Brit. Mus. p. 199, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 69, 1872, 
Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 140, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. 
Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 69, 1862; Jerdon, Mamm. India, 
p. 251, 1867 ; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 343, 1871 ; 
BrooJce, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 913 ; Sterndale, Mamm. India, 
p. 514, 1884; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, 
p. 184, 1891 ; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 537, 1891 ; 
LydeTiher, Deer of All Lands, p. 88, 1898, Game Animals of 
India, etc. p. 215, 1907 ; Bentliam, Cat. Asiat. Horns and Antlers 
Ind. Mus. p. 62, 1908 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 37, 
1910; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, p. 572, Field, vol. cxxiv, 
p. 613, 1914. 

Pseudocervus wallichi, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 180, 1843. 

Cervus wallichi, Pousargues, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. xi, p. 195, 
1898, partim. 

Cervus wallichi affinis, Lydekker, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. Mus. 
p. 32,^1913, Ward's Records of Big Game, ed. 7, p. 37, 1914. 



CERVID^ 



143 



Shou. 

Typical locality probably the Chambi Valley of Sikhim ; 
the range extends into Bhutan and the Tsari district of 
Tibet, and apparently also the neighliourhood of Lhasa. 

General colour pale fawn-ljrown, lighter on flanks ; rump- 
patch much smaller than in typical race, and more or less 




Fig. 26. — Skull and Antlers of Sikhiji Shou [Cervus loallichi affinis). 



completely divided by a median dark line continuous with 
the fawn-brown of the back, and extending on to tail ; in 
some cases a darker brown border to front edge of rump- 
patch. 

The finest known antlers are in the Museum collection, 
four specimens in which head Ward's 1910 list. 



144 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

45. 1. 8. 94. Skull and antlers. Probably the Chambi 
Valley, Sikliim. Type ; figured l)y Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. 
Soc. Bengal, vol. x, p. 722. 

Fresenfcd h/ B. N. ITodr/son, Esq., 1845. 

57. 12. 14. 2. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Probably 
Sikhini or Bhutan ; collected by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Transferred from Zoological Sociefj/s Miiscnni, 1857. 

57. 12. 14. 3. Pair of antlers. Chanild Valley ; collected 
by Dr. J. Campbell, Superintendent of Darjiling at the time 
of Hooker's Himalayan journeys. Same history. 

66. 8. 10. 5. Skull. Locality unknown ; collected by 
Dr. Hugh Falconer. Purchased, 1866. 

692,/. Frontlet and antlers (in Geological Department). 
Locality unknown. No liistory. 

79. 11. 21. 49. Skull and antlers. Locality unknown. 
Transferred from India Museum, 1879. 

79. 11. 21. 608. Head, mounted. Tibet (?); collected by 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Same liistory. 

91. 8. 7. 6. Skull and antlers. Northern Bhutan ; collected 
by L. Mandelli, Esq. 

Presented by A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1891. 

91.8. 7. 7. Skull and antlers. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

91. 10. 7. 172. Skin. Sikhim ; same collector. 

Presented by Dr. W. T. Blanford, 1891. 

91.10.7.173. Skull and skin, immature. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

12. 10. 31. 4. Skull and antlers (fig. 26). Northern 
Bhutan ; same collector. In this specimen, which stands 
No. 1 in Ward's 1910 list, the dimensions of the antlers are 
as follows : length on outer curve 55f , girth Oi, tip-to-tip I7:i, 
widest inside span 40 1 inches. 

Bequeathed hy A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912. 

14. 8. 29. 1. Skull, with antlers in velvet, and skin. 
Chosam, Tsari district, Tibet. Figured by Pocock, Field, 
vol. cxxiv, p. 613. Presented by Capt. F. M. Bailey, 1914. 



CEKVID.E 145 



XIX. CERVUS MACNEILLT. 

Cervus cashmirianus macneilli, Lydehlfe)', Proc. Zool. Soc. 1909, 

p. 588, pi. Ixix, 1910, p. 987. 
Cervus macneilli, Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, p. 571. 

Typical locality Sze-cliuau border of Tibet. 

Antlers (in C. m. kansuensis) 5-tined, but of a more wapiti- 
like type than in the preceding species, the two tines of the 
terminal fork being apparently in a fore-and-aft plane, or 
nearly so ; general colour ranging from light speckled grey 
to speckled brown, with the white of the hind-quarters 
restricted to back of hams, the middle line of tail dark, and 
a blackish brown patch on cronp, replacing the white one of 
C. wallichi affinis ; ears and muzzle of the same type as in 
latter. 

Whether the antlers described under the name of C. cana- 
densis wardi (swpra, p. 138) really belong to this species, 
remains to be proved. 

The distributional area extends l:rom the Szo-chuan 
border of Tibet to Kan-su and Yun-nan. 

The two races are distinguished as follows : — 

A. General colour grey, tail almost wholly black 

above C. in. macneilli. 

B. General colour brown, tail with a sinous black 

median line C. in. kansuensis. 



A.— Cervus macneilli macneilli. 

General colour pale speckled French grey, becoming 
somewhat darker on back and still more decidedly so on 
head, with the greater part of upper side of tail black. Male 
unknown . 

Typical locality Sze-chuan border of Tibet. 

9. 5. 31. 1. Skin, female, mounted. Sze-chuan border of 
Tibet.* Type. Presented hj Major M. Macneill, 1909. 

* In the original description the locality was given as Sze-chuan. 



IV. 



14G CATALOCJUE OF UNCIULATES 

B.— Cervus macneilli kansuensis. 

Cervus kansuensis, Pocock, Proc. ZooJ. Soc. 1912. p. 573 ; Wallace, 
Big Game of Central and Western China, pp, 195 and 296, 1913.* 
Cervus macneilli kansuensis, Lijdehher, Field, vol. cxx, p. 860, 1912. 

Typical locality Kau-su, China. 

General colour speckled brown ; tail with an irregular 
sinuous median dark line on upper surface. The finest pair 
of antlers recorded by Wallace measure 43| inches in length 
along the curve, with a basal girth of 5^, and a tip-to-tip 
interval of 37 inches. 

The range apparently includes Yunnan. 

12. 7. 26. 16. Skin, female. Thirty miles S.E. of 
Tao-chou, Kan-su, at a height of about 11,000 feet ; shot by 
Dr. J. A. C. Smith, March 23, 1911. Type. 

Purchased {Roscnhery), 1912. 



^ 



XX. CEIIVUS OASHMIlllENSIS. 



Cervus hanglu, Wagner, Schreber's Sdugfhiere, Supjil. vol. iv, p. 352, 

1844 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, p. 566. 
Cervus cashmerensis, Gray, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 65, 1847, 

nomen nudum. 
Cervus casperianus, Gray, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 147, 1847, Cat. 

Ungulata Brit. Mus. pi. xxvii, figs. 1-3, 1852, to replace 

cashmerensis. 
Cervus wallichi, Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 197, 1852 ; 

'Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 258, 1862 ; Jerdon, 

Mamm. India, p. 250, 1867; Kinloch, Large Game of Tibet, 

p. 44, 1869 ; nee Cuvier. 
Cervus cashmeriensis, Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 529; Lydekker, 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xlvi, pt. 2, p. 286, 1877. 
Cervus cashmeerianus. Falconer, M.S., in Falconer's Paheontological 

Memoirs, vol. i, p. 576, 1868 ; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, 

p, 339, pi. xxx, 1871; Gray, Cat, Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 68, 

1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 140, 1873 ; Brooke, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 912 ; Pousargnes, Mem. Soc. Zool. 

France, vol. xi, p. 199, 1898 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. 

Mus. pt. ii, p. 184, 1891 ; Benthavi, Cat. Asiat. Horns and Antlers 

hid. Mus. p. 60, 1908. 
Cervus cashmirianus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix, 

pt. 1, p. 586, 1874; Sterndale, Mamm. India, p. 512, 1884; 



* Of the figures of the Kan-su deer in this work the only ones of 
any value are those in the plate facing p. 206, which are from 
photographs ; the others appear to have been drawn from true wapiti. 



CEKVID.E 147 

Scully, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. xx, p. 388, 1887; 
Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 355, 1891 ; LydeMer, 
Deer of All Lands, p. 83, pi. iv, 1898, Game Animals of India, 
etc. p. 208, 1907, Cat. Hume Bequest, Brit. Mus. p. 33, 1913; 
Ward,Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 32, 1910, ed. 7, p. 32, 1914. 

Hangul or Hanglu. 

Typical locality Valley of Kashmir. 

Size approximately that of a red deer. Antlers, which, 
although normally 5-tined, may carry six or seven points on 
each side, approximating to those of C. u-aUiclii affinix, hut with 
the angle at origin of third tine and the forward inclination 
of upper part of beam less strongly marked ; white area on 
hind-quarters, which is bordered in front with black, restricted 
to hind part of hams, and upper side of tail mainly dark ; 
chin and lower lip white or whitish, and muzzle pale fawn, 
lighter than rest of face ; ears bluntly pointed, with straight 
upper border ; general colour speckled ashy brown, much as 
in C. wallichi affinis. Fine antlers measure from 44 to 
48 inches along the outer curve, with a girth of from 5| 
to 7f, and a tip-to-tip interval ranging from 13 to 35 inches. 

The range includes the Valley of Kashmir, part of the 
adjacent Kishen-Ganga Valley, and, to the eastward, the 
Kishtwar district. 

46. 8. 24. 1. Skull and antlers. Kashmir. Co-type of 
C. cashmccrianus, Falconer. 

Presented hj Dr. H. Falconer, 1846. 

46. 8. 24. 2. Skull, female. Pampur Valley, Kashmir. 

Same histori/. 

56. 9. 22. 1. Skin. Kashmir ; collected by Gen. Abbott. 

Purchased, 1856. 

63. 5. 8. 3. Pair of antlers. Kashmir. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1863. 

63. 5. 13. 1. Pair of antlers. Shed by a stag in the 
Zoological Society's Gardens. Same histori/. 

63. 5. 13. 2. Pair of antlers. Same histori/. 

63. 5. 13. 3. Pair of antlers. Same history. 

65. 7. 8. 3. Frontlet and antlers. Kashmir. 

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1865. 

* * * *_ Frontlet and antlers. From an old skin. 

Kashmir, iVo history. 

L 2 



148 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

66. 8. G. 12. Skeleton aud autlers. Kashmir. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1866. 
79. 11. 21. 47. Frontlet and horns. Kashmir; collected 
by Dr. Hugh Falconer. 

Transferred from India 3fvscum, 1879. 




"Fig. 27. — Head of Hangul {Cervus cashmiriensis). 

88. 3. 20. 21. Skull and antlers. Lidar Valley, Kashmir 
Presented hy R. Lydekker, Esq., 1888. 
91. 5. 7. 1. Skull and antlers. Sind Valley, Kashmir. 

Presented hy A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1891. 

91. 5. 7. 2. Skull and antlers. Maharaja's preserve, 

Kashmir. Same history. 



CERVID^ 149 

91. 5. 7. 3. vSkull and antlers. Sind Valley. 

Sa7nc history. 
94. 5. 31. 1. Skin, mounted. Warapash, Sind Valley ; 
collected by Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 

Furcliascd (Gcrrard), 1894. 
12. 10. 31. 1. Skull and antlers. Sind A^alley ; collected 
hy Mr. A. Dalgleish. This specimen is No. 24 in Ward's 
1910 list. The measurements of the antlers are as follows: 
length on outer curve 43, girth 6, tip-to-tip interval 20, 
widest inside span 35 inches. 

Bequeathed Inj A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912. 

12. 10. 31. 2. Skull and antlers. Same locality aud 

collector. Same history. 



^ XXI. CERVUS ALBIROSTPJS. 

Cervus albirostris, PrzewalsJci, Beise Tibet, pp. 73 and 76, 1884, Cat. 
Zool. Collect, p. 16, 1887 ; Pousargues, Bull. Mus. Paris, 1897, 
p. 284, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. xi. p. 215, 1898 ; LydeMer, 
Deer of All Lands, p. 91, pi. v, 1898, Game Animals of India, 
etc. p. 221, 1907 ; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 38, 1910, 
ed. 7, p. 38, 1914 ; Pococh, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, p. 574. 

Cervus sellatus, Przeivalshi, loc. cit. 1884. 

Cervus dybowskii, W. L. Sclater, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. Iviii, 

pt. 2, p. 186, pi. xi, 1889 ; Bentkam, Cat. Asiat. Horiis Ind. Mus. 

p. 64, 1908; nee TaczanoivsU, 1876. 
Cervus thoroldi, Blanford, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1893, p. 444, pi. xxxiv ; 

Lydehher, ibid. 1896, p. 930. 

Typical locality Nak-chan (Nan-chan), Tibet ; also found 
in forest to the north of Lhasa. 

Type in the Museum of the St. Petersburg (Petrograd) 
Academy of Sciences. 

Of the approximate size of C. eashmiriensis. Distinguished 
from all the other members of the subgenus by the reversal 
of the coarse hair of the withers, to form a kind of hump, 
and the white muzzle, chin, under surface of lower jaw, and 
inside of ears, as well by the low position and large size of 
the gland-tuft on the hind-shanks. Antlers much flattened, 
nearly white in colour, without a bez-tine, and bending 
suddenly backwards at origin of third tine, which is the 
longest. 



150 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



92. 16. 11. 1. Skin, mounted (fig. 28), and skull. Tibet ; 
collected by Dr. W. G. Thorold. Type of C. thoroldi. 

Purchased (Gerrard), 1892. 




Fig. 28. — Head and IMkck of Thorold's Deer 
(Cervvs albirostris). 



In^cert.e Sedis. 



1. Cervus lepidus, Sundevall, K. SvensJia Vet.-Ah. Handl. 1844, p. 180, 
1846 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 902. 

Rusa lepicla, Gray, Knoivsley Menagerie, p. 63, 1850, Cat. Ungulata 
Brit. Miis. p. 212, 1852 ; Fitzinger, Sitzber. l: Ah. Wiss. Wien, 
vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 302, 1874. 



CERVID.E 151 

Brooke stated that he saw the type iu the JVluseuin at 
Frankfort, and that it appeared closely to resemble Cirrus 
n'rppon. On a second visit it could not be found. 

2. Cervus caspicus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 47, 1878, p. 909; 
LydeUer, ibid. 1897, p. 38, Deer of All Lands, p. 186. 1898. 

This species was named on the evidence of a frontlet and 
antlers from the district south-west of the Caspian, which 
was figured in 1874 when in the collection of Sir Victor 
Brooke, where it could not be discovered at his death. The 
antlers measured 26 inches in length along the curve, and 
were three-tined. In his original description Brooke referred 
the species to the rusine group, comparing it to 0. vnicolor 
and C. timoricnsis, but in 1878 he placed it provisionally in 
the sika group ; the ground of this redetermination a]»parently 
resting on another antler from the Karun Valley, in the 
Luristan district of Persia, which may or may not have 
belonged to the same species as the type. 

VI. Genus ELAPHURUS. 

Elaphurus, Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 5, vol. x, p. 380, 
1866; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 906; Cameron, Field, 
1892, April 30, p. 265, Mav 14, p. 703, May 21, p. 741, June 11, 
p. 860; Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 233, 1898; Pocock, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 945, 1912, p. 777. 

Lateral metacarpals represented by their upper ends as 
in Cervus; no glands on front of pasterns; antlers lar^e, 
cylindrical, and dichotomously forking at a comparatively 
short distance above the burr, with the front prong of the 
main fork curving forwards and again dividing once or more, 
and the hind prong long, straight, simple, and projecting 
backwards ; muzzle with a large naked portion, deeper nnd 
broader below the nostrils than in the elaphine group, but 
extending only a little on to the front of the face, where its 
upper border is deeply concave ; ears small and narrow ; 
tail long, cylindrical, and bushy at the extremity ; neck 
raaned ; face long ; coat uniformly coloured, in young 
spotted ; no tarsal tuft ; metatarsal tuft continuous and 
situated in the upper third of the metatarsus ; gland-pits 
and face-glands large ; hoofs large and spreading ; lateral 
hoofs very large ; upper canines small ; upper molars 



152 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

moderately tall, with a small additional column on tlie 
inner side ; vomer not dividing aperture of posterior nostrils 
into two chambers. Size large ; build heavy, with the limbs 
stout. No foot-glands. 

Much difference of opinion has existed as to the systematic 
position of this genus, which was regarded by Milne-Edwards 
as a very distinct type ; the same view being maintained by 
Gray, who placed Ma'phurua between the roes and the 
American deer. On the other hand, Sclater and Brooke 
included Elaphurus in Cervus ; but Gordon Cameron, from 
the form of the antlers, reverted to the older view ; while 
Pocock, who regards the front prong of the antlers as 
representing the brow-tine of Ccrriis, sides with Sclater and 
Brooke, although maintaining Elaphurus as a distinct genus. 
Garrod confessed his inability to identify the tines of the 
antlers with those of other deer. 

The range is not definitely known, but seems to have 
included some part of Northern China and, it is said, Japan. 
The evidence in favour of the later country forming a part 
of the distributional area rests on a fragment of an alleged 
fossil antler described by Watase. 

ELAPHUEUS DAYIDIANUS. 

Elaphurus davidianus, Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 5, vol. v, 
p. 380, 1866, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. ii, p. 27, 1866 ; Gray, Cat. 
Ruminants Brit. Mus. p, 82, 1872, Hand-List Bundnants Brit. 
Mus. p. 154, 1873 ; Fitzinger, Sitzber. h. Alt. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixx, 
pt. 1, p. 329, 1874; Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 16; 
LydeMer, Deer of All Lands, p. 236, pi. xix, 1898, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1901, vol. ii, p. 472, 1904, vol. ii, p. 178 ; Ward, Records of 
Big Game, ed. 6, p. 101, 1910, ed. 7, p. 78, 1914; Pocock, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 945, 1912, p. 777 ; Watase, Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 
vol. XXV, p. 487, 1913. 

Cervus davidianus, Sclater, Travis. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 331, 1871 ; 
Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 906 ; Ward, Records of Big 
Game, ed. 2, p. 17, 1898; Flower and Lydekker, Study of 
Mammals, p. 320, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 309, 
1913. 

Mi-LU ; Pere David's Deeb. 

Tlie distribution is the same as that of the species, which 
is known only by the herd formerly kept in the gardens of 
the Summer Palace, Pekin, and their descendants. 



CEKVID.« 153 

Height at shoulder about 3 feet 9 inches, or about the 
size of a large red deer. Head large, with small eyes and 
ears, and a long, narrow muzzle ; limbs stout ; coat short and 
smooth, but longer on the middle line of chest and under- 
parts, and forming a mane on neck and throat ; general 
colour reddish tawny with a tinge of grey, passing through 
an ill-defined darker band on the sides to a more decided 
whitish grey on the under-parts ; neck, chest, and lower 
portion of throat dark brown ; a blackish brown longitudinal 
stripe on neck and fore part of back, and another on chest ; 
rump and inner sides of thighs yellowish white, passing 
gradually into the general colour of the body ; inner sides of 
legs and entire shanks whitish yellow-grey ; tail like back, 
except the terminal tuft, which is blackish brown ; face 
brownish, with a blackish brown ring round each eye. 
Female somewhat lighter coloured. Young reddish brown 
with a tinge of yellow, at first profusely spotted with white. 
Fine antlers measure from 28 to 35| inches along the outer 
curve, with a basal girth of from 4f to 7^ inches, and a 
tip-to-tip interval ranging from 13f to 27^ inches. In some 
cases, at any rate, the stags shed their antlers twice a year ; 
but this may be a result of semi-domestication. 

70. 6. 22. 14. Skin and skeleton (1538, &), female. From 
the herd in the gardens of the Summer Palace, Pekin. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1870. 

72. 12. 31. 3. Skin and skeleton, the latter (1538, a) 
mounted. Same locality. Same history. 

98. 2. 25. 2. Head, mounted, and body-skin. From the 
descendants of the same herd at Woburn Abbey. 

Presented by the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1848. 

99. 7. 20. 1. Skin, mounted. From the Woburn herd. 

Same donor, 1899. 



VII. Genus ODOCOILEUS. 

O^ocoWevi^, Bafinesque, Atlantic Jour n. vol. i, p. 109, 1832; Elliot, 
Synoj). Mamm. N. America {Field Mas. Zool. Pub. vol. ii), p. 38, 
1901 ; Pococh, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, p. 780 ; Miller, List N. Amer. 
Mamm. p. 385, 1912. 

Mazama, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol, v, p. 314, 1827 
nee Rafinesque, 1817. 



154 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Dorcelaplius, Gloger, Handbuch Naturgescli. p. 140, 1841; Lydehher, 

Deer of All Lands, p. 248, 1898; Pococh, Proc. Zooh Soc. 1910, 

p. 962. 
Cariacus, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Eegne Aniin., Mamin. p. 173, 1842; 

Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mas. p. 175, 1843, Cat. Ruminants 

Brit. Mus. p. 82, 1872 ; Brooke. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 918 ; 

Biltimeyer, AhJi. schiveiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 47, 1881. 
Keduucina, Wagner, Sclireher's Saugthiere, Snppl. vol. iv, p. 373, 

1844; Fitzinger, Sitzher. h. Ah. Wiss. Wicn, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, 

p. 357, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 312, 1879. 
Macrotis, Wagner, loc. cit. 1844 ; nee Dejaine, 1833. 
Eucervns, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. xviii, p. 338, 1866, 

Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 85, 1872; Pocock, Prcc. Zool. Soc. 

1910, p. 966. 
Otelaphus, Fitzinger, Sitzher. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, 

p. 356, 1873, to replace Macrotis. 
G^'ninotis, Fitzinger, op. cit. vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 343, 1879. 
Odocoelus, Allen, Amer. Nat. vol. xxxv, p. 449, 1901. 
Dama, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, p. 19, 1902; nee 

H. Smith, 1827. 
Odontocoelus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Ind. {Field Mus. 

Zool. Pub. vol. iv) p. 70, 1904, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. {ibid. 

vol. viii) p. 45, 1907, emendation of Odocoileus, as is also 

Odocwlus. 

Lateral metacarpals with only lower ends persisting ; 
vomer high and dividing aperture of posterior nostrils into 
two chambers ; antlers large, with the beam rising at a 
marked angle to plane of face, and (when fully developed) 
dichotomously forked, with a sub-basal snag, and the lower, 
or front, prong of main foi'k projected from anterior edge 
of beam and more or less developed at the expense of the 
upper, or hind one, and more or less secondary forking of one 
or both prongs ; face long and narrow ; muzzle with a large 
naked area ; ears variable ; tail long or moderate, hairy below ; 
coat nniformly coloured ; young spotted ; tarsal and usually 
metatarsal glands present, the latter variable in form and 
position ; gland-pits and face-glands very small ; main hoofs 
well developed; hind-pasterns with a pocket-like gland, 
which may also be developed in fore-feet ; upper canines 
wanting; naviculo- cuboid of tarsus free from cuneiform. 
Size medium or small. 

The deer included in the present genus are members of 
a large exclusively American group, the classification of 
which has given rise to much diversity of opinion ; some 
writers, like Brooke, inclining to include tlie whole group, 



CEKVID^ 155 

with the exception of the pudus, in a single genus, while 
others, like Gray, adopt several generic divisions. The 
former course has hitherto been followed by the present 
writer, but now^ tliat Hippocamclns is generally adopted for 
the guemals, this involves the use of that highly objection- 
able term, as being the earliest, for the wdiole group, a course 
he is not prepared to follow. Under these circumstances, 
the group is split up into six genera. 

The range of the present genus,* which is typified by an 
upper premolar tooth from a cavern-deposit descriLied as 
0. spclxKS, extends from Alaska to Peru, Bolivia, and northern 
Brazil. 

The species here recognised are distinguishalde as 
follows : — 

A. Metatarsal gland (wheu present) small and circu- 

lar ; tail long ; ears moderate O. Virginia nns. 

B. Metatarsal gland elongated ; tail shorter ; ears 

very large. 

a. Metatarsal gland very long ; tail small, 

black at tip all round 0. hemionus. 

b. Metatarsal gland shorter ; tail larger, black 

above, white below 0. cohtDibvantfi. 

I. ODOCOILEUS VIEGIXIANUS. 

" Cervus dama americanus," Erxleben, Syst. liegn. Anim. p. 312, 
1777; not a technical name, teste Allen, Anier. Nat. vol. xxxiv, 
p. 318, 1900, Osgood, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wasldngton, vol. xv, p. 87, 
1902, and Field Mas. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 48, 1912, and Thomas, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. xi, p. 585, 1913. 

Cervus virginianus, Boddaert, Elcnchiis Anim. vol. i, p. 136, 1785; 
Baird, Mamni. N. America, p. 649, 1857 ; H. Smith, Griffith's 
Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 127, 1827 ; Caton, Antelojye and 
Deer of America, p. 100, 1877. 

Cervus clavatus, H. Smith, Griffitli's Animal Kingdom, \ol. iv, p. 132, 
1827 ; Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1844, p. 183, 1846. 

Cervus (Mazama) virginianus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 
vol. V, p. 315, 1827. 

Cervus (Mazama) clavatus, H. Smith, loc. cit. 1827. 

Odocoileus spelseus, Bafinesque, Atlantic Journ. vol. 1, p. 109, 1832. 

Dorcelaphus virginianus, Gloger, Handbuch Naturgesch. p. 140, 1841. 

Mazama virginiana, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 176, 
1835. 

* As the name Odocoileus is etymologically bad, emendations 
have been proposed, and objections raised to its use in every form. 



156 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Cariacus virginiauus, Lesson, Noiiv. Tabl. RegneAnim., Mamm. p. 173, 
1842 ; aray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 175, 1843, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1850, p. 238, Cat. Ungiilata Brit. Mus. p. 228, 1852, Cat. Bumi- 
nants Brit. Mus. p, 83, 1872, Hand-List Rmninants Brit. Mus. 
p. 83, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 266, 1862 ; 
Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 18 ; Brool-e, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1878, p. 919 ; Alston, Biol. Ccntr. Amer., Mamm.. p. 115, 1879 ; 
Sclater, List Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 172, 1883; Merriam, 
Mammals of Adirondacks, p. 107, 1884 ; Flower and Garson, 
Cat. Osteol. Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p, 322, 1884 ; True, Proc. 
U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. vii, p. 592, 1885; Flower and Lydekker, 
Study of Mammals, p. 329, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, 
p. 346, 1893 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 55, 1896. 

EeduDcina virginiana, Fitzinqer, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, 
pt. 1, p. 357, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 313, 1B79. 

Cervus (Cariacus) virginianus, Herrick, Mamm. Minnesota, p. 281, 
1892. 

Cariacus americanus. Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. x, 
p. 25, 1896. 

Dorcelaphus americanus, Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Sci. Pliilad. 1897, p. 208 ; 

Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 962. 
Mazama americana, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 249, pi. xx, 1898. 
Odocoileus americanus, Miller, Bull. N. York State Mus. vol, vi, 

p. 299, 1899, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 386, 1912 ; Elliot, Srjnop. 

Mamm. N. Amer. {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 39, 1901 ; 

Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1913, p. 783. 
Mazama (Dorcelaphus) americana, Lydekker, Great and Small Game 

of Europe, etc. p. 339, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 103, 1910. 
Odocoileus virginianus. Stone and Cram, American Animals, p. 34, 

1903 ; Scharff, Origin of Life in America, p. 108, 1911 ; Gary, 

N. Amer. Fauna, no. 33, p. 55, 1911. 
Odontocoehis americanus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies 

(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 70, 1904, Cat. Mamm. Field 

Mus. {ibid. vol. viii) p. 46, 1907. 
Mazama (Odocoileus) virginianus. Lydekker, Ward's Records of Big 

Game, ed. 7, p. 101, 1914, 

White-tailed, or Virginian, Deer, 

Typical locality Virginia. 

Build liyht and graceful, with long body and limbs ; 
height variable, ranging from about 3 feet 1 inch to 26 inches 
at the shoulder ; antlers with a long sub-basal snag, above 
which the beam abruptly curves forwards, and soon after 
forks dichotomously, posterior prong of main fork upright 
and generally undivided, anterior, or lower, prong again 
forking, with its lower division also forked, the whole antler 
in advance of the sub-basal tine having the appearance of 
a horizontal beam with three nearly vertical tines arising 



GEKVID.E 157 

from the upper suiface ; ears relatively small and sparsely 
liaired externally ; tail long and pointed ; muzzle long and 
slender ; face-glands very small, and almost hidden by folds 
of skin ; metatarsal gland, when present, small, sub-circular, 




Fig. 29. — Head of White-tailed Deer {Odocoileus virginianus). 
From a pliotograph lent by Mr. E. S. Cameron. 

and usually situated in lower third of shank, its centre 
bare and black, surrounded by a marginal fringe of white 
hairs, followed by an outer ring of fawn ; tarsal gland 
variable ; both fore- and hind-pasterns with a pouch-like 
gland ; general colour in summer varying from bright rufous 
chestnut to yellowish fawn or grey, in winter some shade 



158 CxVTALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

of yellowish leaden grey, faintly speckled, and often with 
a tinge of rufous ; under-parts, inner sides of limbs and 
buttocks, lower surface of tail, chin, throat, lips, a ring 
round each eye, and a band round muzzle white ; young 
fully spotted. The case of the numerous forms allied to the 
true white-tailed deer is very similar to that of the sambar 
group, so that there is an equal difficulty in deciding whether 
they should be regarded as species or subspecies ; Brooke 
was inclined to take the latter view, which is adopted by 
rocock. In this extended sense the range of the species 
will reach from Ontario to Central and South America, with 
a gradual diminution in the size of the local races from 
north to south. 

The following is a provisional " key " to the best-known 
of these races : — 

A. Size large ; antlers large and complex. 

a. Skull of moderate length and sleuderucss. 
a'. Black on jaw and tail. 

a". Size smaller, colour bright rufous 0. v. virginianus. 

h" . Size larger, colour grey O. v. horcalis. 

h'. No black on face and tail. 

6". General colour (including tail) reddish 

brown O. v. macrourus. 

c". Closely allied to last O. v. leucurus. 

h. Skull larger and more slender, with longer 

row of cheek-teeth 0. v. louisiance, 

B. Size small, antlers miniatures of those of 

typical race. 
a. Colour (at all seasons) mingled dark and 

pale brown, tail dark reddish brown tipped 

with cinnamon 0. v. osceola. 

h. Colour pale reddish brown, tail black 0. v. texanus. 

c. Colour dull fawn, tail reddish brown ., O. v. couesi. 

(h Colour greyish brown, tail grizzled white and 

brown 0. v. haileyi. 

c. Colour speckled foxy red, tail foxy red 0. v. mexicanus. 

f. Colour brown, with fawn tips to hairs, tail 0. v. rothschilcli 

fawn with black tip and O. v. cJiiri- 

c. Size small, antlers slightly lyrate with straight ^ 
beam. 
a. Metatarsal gland present. 

a'. Colour bright chestnut, tail tawny O. v. truei. 

h' . Colour mixed black and buff, tail cinnamon O. v. costaricensis. 
c'. Colour yellowish brown and grey, tail 

dusky 0. V. nemoralis. 



CEltVlD.E 159 

h. Metatarsal gland generally wanting. 

h'. Colour chestnut-brown, tail brown 0. v. toltecas and 

O. V. acapiilcensis. 
c'. Colour buftish grey, coat coarse, ears hairy 0. v. lasiotis. 
(V. Colour yellowish brown, coat fine, ears 

sparsely haired, size larger 0. v. cjymnotis and 

0. V. columbicus. 
e' . Generally similar to last, but colour 

speckled grey and size smaller 0. v. margaritw. 

f. Also nearly allied, but colour dark greyish 
brown, and tarsal tuft rufous instead of 
like the leg 0, v. loeruvianus. 

D, Antlers inclined backwards in plane of face, 

with the tips curving inwards and forwards 
and a similarly directed spur from inner side 
of each burr ; colour bright fulvous O.v. thomaal. 

E. Antlers small subcylindrical spikes. 

a. Size smaller, colour brownish grey, darker 

on head and dorsal line, tail fulvous O. v. nelsoni. 

h.^ Size larger, colour yellowish grey-brown, tail 

bright rufous 0. v. sinalow. 

A.— Odocoileus virg-inianus virg-inianus. 

Mazama americana typica, Lydcl-Jccr, Deer of All Lands, p. 252, 1898 ; 

Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6. p. 103, 1910. 
Odocoileus americanus auiericanus, Miller, List N. Ainer. Manuit. 

p. 386, 1912. 

Typical locality Virginia. 

Size large, the height at the shoulder reaching to about 
3 feet 1 inch ; antlers large ; general colour in summer bright 
rufous chestnut, with black markings on face and tail; in 
winter speckled yellowish grey ; a transverse black band on 
the chin ; tail chestnut or grey above, white beneath, with 
more or less black at the tip on the upper surface ; meta- 
tarsal gland well developed, and situated low^ down on the 
shank ; tarsal tuft large and mingled black and white. 
Fine antlers attain a length of from 23 to 29 inches. 

The ranjje extends through eastern North America from 
the southern United States northward of Florida and 
Louisiana. 

The reference of some of the following specimens — 
especially in cases where the place of origin is unknown — 
to this race is provisional. 

47. 12. 28. 25. Skin, mounted. North America. 

Purchased (Bartldt), 18-17. 



160 CATALOGUE OF UISGULATES 

50. 11. 30. 2. Skin, mounted. North America. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1850. 

51. 7. 9. 4. Skin, young female, mounted. Probably 
from an animal born in London. Same liistorij, 1851. 

53. 8. 29. 46. Skin, immature female. North America. 

Same history, 1853. 
681, r. Skeleton and antlers, mounted. Wisconsin. 

No history. 
50. 11. 22. 25 (681, ej). Skeleton, immature. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1850. 
59. 9. 28. 5-6 (681, iv, ;»). Two skulls, with antlers. 
North America. Purchased {Cuming), 1859. 

681, m. Skull, with antlers. No history. 

74. 10. 6. 1. Frontlet and antlers. Fulton County, 
Ohio; collected by Mr. Sleight. Purchased, 1874. 

681. a. Frontlet and antlers, immature. North America. 

No history. 
681, h-d. Three frontlets, with antlers. No history. 

681, «\ Frontlet and antlers. North America. 

No history. 
681, n, 0, p, <£. Four frontlets, with antlers. North 
America. No history. 

681,/, g. Two single antlers. North America. 

No history. 

B.— Odocoileus virginianus borealis. 

Odocoileus americanus borealis, Miller, Bull. N. Yo7-k State Mas. 

vol. viii, p. 83, 1900, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 386, 1912. 
Odocoileus virginianus borealis, Stone and Cram, American Anim ah, 

p. 39, 1903. 
Mazama aiuericana borealis, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 104, 1910. 
Mazama virginiana borealis, Lydekker, Ward's Becords of Birj 

Game, ed. 7, p. 102, 1914. 

Typical locality Hancock County, Maine. 
Type in New York State Museum. 
Kather larger and greyer than the typical race. 
The range extends from the New England States and 
Canada to northern New York. 

45. 7. 4. 5. Skull and antlers. Hudson Bay. 

Presented hy the Hudson Pay Co., 1845, 



CERV1D.E 161 

45. 7. 4. 6. Skull, immature female. Same locality. 

Sa7ne history. 
2. * * *. Skin, mounted. Canada. 

Presented hy the Agricultural Department 
of Canada, 1902. 
2. t t t- Head, female, mounted. Canada. 

Saine history. 

C— Odocoileus virginianus macrourus. 

Cervus* macrourus, Bafinesque, Amer. Month.. Mag. vol. i, p. 436, 

1817 ; H. Smith, QriffitWs Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 134, 

1827. 
Cervus (Mazama) macrourus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 

vol. V, p. 316, 1827. 
Dorcelaphus macrurus, Ologer, Handbuch Natm-geschichtc, p. 40, 

1841. 
Dorcelaphus virginianus macrourus, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist. vol. vii, p. 257. 
Mazama americaua macrura, Lydeliker, Deer of All Lands, p. 257, 

1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 343, 1901. 

Odocoileus americanus macrourus, Miller and Behn, Proc. Boston 

Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxx, p. 14, 1901 ; Elliot, Synop. Mamin. N. 

America {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii), p. 39, 1902; Miller, List 

N. Amer. Mamm. p. 386, 1912. 
Odocoileus virginianus macrourus, Stone and Cram, American 

Animals, p. 39, 1903. 
Odontocoelus americanus macrourus, Elliot, Chech-List Mamm. N. 

Amer. etc. (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi) p. 44, 1905. 

Typical locality Plains of Kansas Valley, Upper Mis- 
sissippi. 

Smaller than typical race, and slightly different in colour, 
with no black on face and tail; antlers rather small and 
much bowed ; general colour in summer reddish brown, in 
winter bright greyish fawn with black speckling ; tail fawn- 
colour, passing into rusty brown, above ; tarsal gland 
yellowish brown. 

The range includes Kansas, Nebraska, the Dakotas, etc. 

JSTo specimen in collection. 

* Misprinted Corvus. 



IV. M 



162 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



D.— Odocoileus virginianus leucurus. 

Cervus leucurus, Douglas, Zool. Journ. voL iv, p. 330, 1829 ; Baird, 
Mamm. N. America, p. 649, 1857. 

Cariacus leucurus. Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anim., Mamm. p. 173, 
1842 ; Graij, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 230, 1852 ; Cat. Rumi- 
nants Brit. Mus. p. 83, 1872, Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. 
p. 155, 1873 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 919 ; Flower and 
Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 323, 1884. 

Cervus (Mazaina) leucurus, Sundevall, K. Svenslia Vet.-Alc. Handl. 
1844, p. 181, 1846. 

Reduncina leucura, Fitzinger, Sitzber. h. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, 
pt. 1, p. 357, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 323, 1879. 

Odocoileus leucurus, Seton-Thompson, Forest and Stream, vol. li, 
p. 286, 1898; Stone and Cram, American Animals, p. 33, 1903; 
Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 388, 1912. 

Typical locality Lower Columbia Valley, Oregon. 

Closely allied to the last, from which it was regarded as 
inseparable both by Caton and Elliot. 

The range extends from Washington to California. 

53. 8. 29. 52. Skin, mounted. Eocky Mountains, from 
an animal presented to the Zoological Society by the Eail 
of Derby. Pnrcliascd {Zoological Society), 1853. 

E.— Odocoileus virgrinianus louisianae. 

Odoccelus virginianus louisiana^, Allen, Amer. Nat. vol. xxxv, p. 449, 

1901. 
Odocoileus louisian;e, Stone and Cram, American Animals, p. 39, 

1903. 
Odontocoelus americanus louisianae, Elliot, ChecJc-List Mamm. N. 

Amer. etc. {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi) p. 44, 1905, 
Odocoileus americanus louisianae, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. 

p. 386, 1912. 

Typical locality Mer Eouge, Louisiana, to which State 
this race is restricted. 

Size relatively large and colour pale in winter, with tall 
and heavy antlers, a long and slender skull, and a long row 
of lower cheek-teeth. 

No specimen in collection. 

F.— Odocoileus virginianus osceola. 

Cariacus osceola, Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wasliington, vol. x, p. 26, 

1896. 
Mazama americana osceola, Lydeld-er, Deer of All Lands, p. 259, 

1898, Great and Small Game of Euroj^e, etc. p. 345, 1901. 



CEllVID^ 163 

Odocoileus osceola, Miller and Behn, Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Sac. 

vol. XXX, p. 17, 1901 ; Stone and Cram, American Animals, p. 39, 

1903; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 389, 1911. 
Odocoileus americanus osceola, Elliot, Synoi). Mamm. N. Amer. 

{Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 40, 1902. 
Odontocoelus americanus osceola, Elliot, Clicclx-List Mamm. N. Amer. 

etc. {Field Mas. Zool. Pah. vol. vi) p. 44, 19C5. 

Typical locality Citrus County, Florida. 

About one-third smaller than typical race, and much 
darker, general colour mixed dark and pale brown ; with 
little or no difference in colour between winter and summer 
coats, both of which are short and fine ; tail dark reddish 
brown tipped with cinnamon ; cheek-teeth relatively large, 
and certain differences in nasals and maxillaB from those of 
typical species. 

The range appears to be restricted to the Floridan 
Peninsula. 

iSTo specimen in collection. 

G.— Odocoileus virginianus texanus. 

Dorcelaphus texanus, Mcarns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xii, 
p. 23, 1898. 

Odocoileus texanus, Seton-Tliompson, Forest and Stream, vol. li, 
p. 286, 1898 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 889, 1912. 

Odocoileus texensis. Miller and Behn, Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vol. XXX, p. 17, 1901 ; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. {Field. 
Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 40, 1902 ; Stone and Cram, American 
Animals, p. 39, 1903. 

Mazama americana texana, Lydclcher, Great and Small Game of 
Europe, etc. p. 346, 1901. 

Odontocoelus americanus texensis, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and 
W. Indies {Field. Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv, p. 70, 1904), Check- 
List Mamm. N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 45, 1905, Cat. Mamm. 
Field Mus. {ibid. vol. viii) p. 47, 1907. 

Typical locality Fort Clark, Tinney County, Texas. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Size small ; antlers small, strongly incurved and of the 
same character as those of typical race ; general colour pale 
reddish, with margins and tips of the short ears and upper 
side of tail black ; clieek-teeth relatively large. In winter 
top of head black and sides grey, a black dorsal stripe, and 
general colour mingled yellowish white and grey, becoming 
dusky on chest. 

No specimen in collection. 

M 2 



164 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



H.— Odocoileus virginianus couesi. 

Cariacus virginianus, var. couesi, Coues and Yarroiv, Rejh Geogr. and 
Geol. W. of 100th Merid. vol. v, p. 72, 1875. 

Dorcelaphus couesi, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. vii, 

p. 200, 1895. 
Odocoileus couesi, Scton- Thompson, Forest and Stream, vol. li, 

p. 286, 1898 ; Stone and Cram, American Animals, p. 39, 1903 ; 

Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. {Field Mus. Zool. Pith. vol. ii) 

p. 40, 1901 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 387, 1912. 
Mazama americana couesi, Lydeliker, Great and Small Game o/ 

Europe, etc. p. 346, 1901. 
Odontocoelus americanus couesi, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. 

Indies {Field Mus. Zool. Puh. vol. iv), p. 70, 1904, Checlc-List 

Mamm. N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 45, 1905. 

Typical locality Critteudau Camp, Pima County, Arizona. 

A small desert-form, with antlers like those of typical 
race ; general colour in summer dull fawn, with a tinge of 
ochre, passing into mouse-gi'ey on back, and tawny or 
reddish brown on flanks and upper side of tail. 

The range includes Arizona and the Sonoran district of 
Mexico, extending as far south as the Gila Valley and the 
forest -tracts near Mexico City. 

No specimen in collection. 

I.— Odocoileus virgrinianus battyi. 

Odocoileus battyi, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xix, p. 591, 
1908; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 387, 1912. 

Odontocoelus battyi, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies {Field 
Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 71, 1904, Check-List Mamm. N. Amer. 
etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 45, 1905. 

Typical locality Eancho Santuario, State of Durango, 
Mexico. 

Type in American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. 

Generally similar to 0. v. concsi, but with antlers bent 
more sharply outwards, and, in skull, lachrymal vacuities 
smaller, nasals wider and less arched, basisphenoid more 
wedgelike, and cheek-teeth larger; general colour grey 
brown ; tail grizzled white and brown. 

No specimen in collection. 



CERVID.E 165 



J.- Odocoileus vipginianus mexicanus. 

Cervus mexicanus,* Lichtenstein, Darstellung. Thierc, pi. xviii, 

1827-34, ex Pennant's Mexican Deer. 
Cariacus mexicanus, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Begne Anim., Mamm. p. 173, 

1842 ; Crraij, Cat. B^imiuants Brit. Mus. p. 84, 1872, Hand-List 

Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 156, 1873; Brooke, Broc. Zool. Soc. 

1878, p. 919 ; Alston, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Mamm. pp. 82 and 113, 

1879 ; Sclater, List Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 173, 1883 ; Flower 

and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 323, 1884 ; 

Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 58, 1896, partim. 
Reduncina mexicana, Fitzinger, Sitzher. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. 

Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 357, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 328, 1879. 
Cariacus virginianus mexicanus, Blioads, Amer. Nat. vol. xxviii, 

p. 524, 1894. 
Mazama americana mexicana, Lydckker, Deer of All Lands, p. 261, 

1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 347, 1901. 
Dama lichtensteini, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, 

p. 20, 1902. 
Odocoileus mexicanus, Osgood, Broc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xv, 

p. 87, 1902; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 389, 1912. 
Odontoccelus lichtensteini, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies 

(Field Mus. Zool. Bub. vol. iv), p. 72, 1904, Check-List Mamm. 

N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 45, 1905. 
Mazama americana lichtensteini, Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 105, 1910. 
Mazama virginiana lichtensteini, Lydekker, Ward's Becords of Big 

Game, ed. 7, p. 103, 1914. 

Typical locality Valley of Mexico. 

Size small (slioiilder-heiglit about 33 inches) ; antlers 
resembling those of typical race, but smaller ; general colour 
in summer speckled foxy red, passing into speckled grey on 
head and ears, and into pure foxy red on tail, which is 
relatively short; chin, lower jaw, and throat (but not 
muzzle) white, like under-parts ; in winter greyish or ashy 
brown ; metatarsal tuft small, brownish bordered with white. 
Antlers ranging from IH to 13^ inches in length have been 
measured. 

The distributional area probably includes a considerable 
portion of Southern Mexico. 

681, c. Frontlet and antlers. Figured by Pennant, and 

* The use of this name has been regarded by Allen, Elliot, and 
others, as being barred by " C. mexicanus," Gmelin, 1788 ; but it is 
employed both by Osgood and Miller. 



166 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

also by Hamilton Smith, as Mexican Deei', and therefore the 

type of Cervus mexicanus. No history. 

58.6.2. 17 (1374, c). Skull and antlers. Oaxaca, 

Southern Mexico. Purchased {Salle), 1858. 

58. 6. 2. 18 (1374,(/)- Frontlet and antlers. Same 

locality. Same history. 

1374, A, i. Two frontlets with antlers. Same locality. 

Same history. 
1374, c',/. Six odd antlers. Same locality. Same history. 
681, r. Frontlet and antlers. Mexico. 

Purchased {Argent). 
51. 11. 10. 6 (681,?-^). Skeleton, provisionally referred 
to this race. Locality unknown. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1851. 
94. 11. 20. 1. Frontlet and antlers. Cerro Valijo, 
Jalisco, Southern ]\Iexico ; collected ])y Dr. A. C. Buller. 

Purchased, 1894. 

K.— Odocoileus virg-inianus sinaloae. 

Odocoileus sinaloae, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xix, 
p. 613, 1903 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 389, 1912. 

Odontocoelus sinalotB, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies 
(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 78, 1904, Chech-List Mamm. 
N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 47, 1905. 

Typical locality Esquinapa, State of Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Type in American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. 

Size relatively Inrgc ; antlers * simple spikes ; general 
colour (season not stated) yellowish grey-brown, with a 
black band above muzzle, and the sides of latter, spaces 
above dark band, and orbital rings grey, and chin and throat 
buff'y greyish white ; upper side of tail bright rufous. 

98. 3. 2. 148-149. Two skulls. Sinaloa ; collected by 
Mr. P. 0. Simons. Purchased, 1898. 

98. 3. 2. 150. Frontlet and antlers. Same locality. 

Same history. 
* Not fully adult in type. 



CEKVID.E 167 



L.— Odocoileus virg-inianus toltecus. 

Cervus toltecus, Saussttrc, Ecv. Mag. Zool. ser. 2, vol. xii, p. 247, 1860. 
Coassus toltecus, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 92, 1872. 
Cervus yucatensis. Hays, Ann. Lye. Neto York, vol. x, p. 218, 1874, 
Cariacus toltecus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 921 ; Alston, 

Biol. Centr.-Amer., Mamm. p. 117, 1879 ; Tme, Proc. U.S. Nat. 

Mus. vol. vii, p. 592, 1885. 
Mazama americana tolteca, Lydehher, Deer of All Lands, p. 263, 1898, 

Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 348, 1901. 
Odocoileus toltecus, Miller and Relin, Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc. 

vol. XXX, p. 117, 1901. 
Oclontoccelus toltecus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amcr. and W. Indies 

{Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 74, 1904, Check-List. Mamm. 

N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 46, 1905. 

Typical locality near Orizaba, State of Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, whence tliis race ranges into Mecantan, South- 
eastern Mexico. 

Size very small, about one-third less than that of typical 
race ; tail relatively long ; antlers short, upright, nearly 
straight, and semi-palmate, with little forward projection of 
the lower prong of the main fork, and the number of tines 
reduced ; metatarsal gland and tuft wanting ; general colour, 
at all seasons, dark chestnut-brown ; face blackish ; under- 
parts white ; tail, which is truncated at the tip, brown above. 

The aborted antlers and absence of metatarsal gland are 
degraded features, the former being only a degenerate 
modification of those of 0. v. 'iiiexicanus, while a transition 
to the loss of the metatarsal gland occurs in the case of 
0. V. nehoni and 0. v. nemoralis, in which it is rudimentary. 

56. 12. 14. 1-2 (1374, a-h). Two frontlets and antlers. 
Vera Cruz. Purchased {Salle), 1856. 

M.— Odocoileus virginianus acapulcensis. 

Cervus acapulcensis, Caton, Antclo2:)e and Deer of America, p. 117, 

1877. 
Odocoileus acapulcensis, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. WasJdnyton, 

vol. xii, p. 104, 1898 ; Miller, List N.Amer. Mamm. p. 386, 1912. 

Typical locality Acapulco, State of Guerrero, Mexico. 
Closely allied to the preceding race, with which it is 
identified by Elliot. 

No specimen in collection. 



168 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



N.— Odocoileus virg-inianus nelsoni. 

Odocoileus nelsoni, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wasliington, voL xii, 

p. 103, 1898 ; Miller, List N. Amcr. Mamm. p. 389, 1912. 
Mazama americana nelsoni, Lydckkci-, Great and Small Game of 

Europe, etc. p. 349, 1901. 
Odontoccelus nelsoni, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Anier. and W. Indies {Field 

Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 75, 1904, Cliecli-List Mamm. N. 

Amer. and W. Indies {op. cit. vol. vi), p. 47, 1905. 

Typical locality San Cristobal, highlands of the State of 
Chiapas, Mexico. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

A medium-sized race, allied to 0. v. toUecus, but with the 
antlers* in the form of simple spikes, and a small metatarsal 
gland half-way up the shank ; general colour (probably at 
all seasons) brownish grey, Ijecoming blackish on top of head 
and middle line of back, and grizzled grey on ears ; tail 
fulvous above. 

No specimen in collection. 

0.— Odocoileus virginianus thomasi. 

Odocoileus thomasi, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xii, 

p. 102, 1898 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 390, 1912. 
Mazama americana thomasi, LydeTxlier, Great and Small Game of 

Europe, etc. p. 350, 1901. 
Odontoccelus thomasi, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies 

{Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 75, 1904, Chech-List Mamm. 

N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 47, 1905. 

Typical locality Huehuetan, State of Chiapas, Mexico ; 
the range extending into Oaxaca. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Size relatively large ; antlers sloping backwards in plane 
of face, with tips curving inwards and forwards, and a small 
sub-basal snag on inner border; a small metatarsal gland 
half-way up the shank ; general colour bright fulvous, with 
a grizzled golden tint in winter, when the coat is longer ; 
forehead black or black and fulvous, and chin white, with 
the usual black lateral patches; tail l^right fulvous above. 
Skull and teeth similar to those of 0. v. truei (infra). 

No specimen in collection. 

* Not adult in type. 



CERVIDyE 169 



P.— Odocoileus virgrinianus truei. 

Cariacus clavatus, True, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xi, p. 417, 1888; 

nee Cervus clavatus, H. Smith, 1827. 
Cariacus truei, Trouessart, Oat. Mamm. vol. ii, p. 895, 1898. 
Odocoileus truei, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xii, 

p. 103, 1898 ; Miller, List N. Avier. Mamm. p. 390, 1912. 
Mazama americana truei, Lydehher, Great and Small Game of 

Europe, etc. p. 350, 1901. 
Odontocoelus truii, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies {Field 

Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 73, 1904, Check-List Mam^n. N. Amer. 

etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 46, 1905. 

Typical locality Segovia Valley, Eastern Honduras. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Size medium; general appearance and colour very 
similar to typical race, but antlers in the form of simple 
spikes directed backwards nearly in the plane of the face ; 
metatarsal gland small ; hoofs yellowish at tips ; general 
colour, at least in summer,* bright chestnut, greyer on head 
than on back, with a white spot on each side of muzzle, 
followed by a dusky brown band exteading to margin of lip, 
and continued by a spot on ] jorder of lower lip ; orbital rings 
whitish ; a dusky brown streak from nose to forehead, which 
is darker than face ; ears mostly grey, with a large white 
spot at base ; upper surface of tail tawny like back ; under 
surface of lower jaw and throat white, like under- parts. 

58. 6. 18. 5. Skin, referable either to this race or to 
0. V. ncriioraUs. Honduras. 

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1858. 

58. 6. 18. 8. Skin, female, racially identical with the 
preceding specimen. Honduras. Same liistory. 

9. 6. 11. 14. Skull and skin, young female, provisionally 
referred to this race. Polochic Valley, Guatemala ; col- 
lected by G. C. Shortridge, Esq. 

Presented hj the Zoological Society, 1909. 

* The speckled brownish grey skin regarded by True as showing 
the winter coat, is stated by Elliot (op. cit. 1905) to be in the summer 
dress, 



170 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Q. — Odocoileus virginianus costaricensis. 

Odocoileus costaricensis, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wasldngfon, vol. 

xiv, p. 35, 1901, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 386, 1912. 
Odontocoilus costaricensis, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies 

{Field Mils. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 73, 1904, Chech-List Mamm. 

N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 46, 1905. 

Typical locality Talamanca district, Eastern Costa Eica, 
between coast and Cordilleran foot-hills. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Larger and lighter-coloured than 0. v. truci ; general 
colour mingled huff and black — owing to annulation of 
liairs — darkest on top of head, neck, and fore-part of back ; 
ears dark brownish grey, white internally ; tail cinnamon 
above (like limbs), with dusky tip. * 

65. 5, 18. 36. Skin, female. Costa Eica ; collected by 
0. Salvin, Esq. Furchascd, 1865. 

65. 5. 18. 37. Skin. Same locality and collector. 

Smne history. 

67. 8. 23. 2 (1374, g). Frontlet and antlers. Costa Eica. 

Purchased (Carmiol), 1867. 

R.— Odocoileus virg-inianus nemoralis. 

CervTis nemoralis, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, 

p. 137, 1827 ; Pucheran, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi, p. 336, 1852. 
Cervus (Mazama) nemoralis, H. SmitJi, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 

vol. V, p. 317, 1827. 
Mazama nemoralis, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, 

p. 175, 1835. 
Cariacus nemoralis, Lcsso??, Nouv. Tahl. Begne Anim., Mamm. p. 173, 

1842 ; Gray, Cat. XJngidata Brit. Mus. p. 232, 1852 ; Matschie, 

Mitt, geogr. Ges. Lilbech, 1894, p. 130. 
Eeduncina nemoralis, Fitzinger, Sitzber. Ti. ATi. Wiss. Wien, vol. 

Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 357, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, p. 338, 1879. 
Mazama americana nemoralis, LydehTcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 264, 

1898; Great and Small Game of Eurox>e, etc. p. 349, 1901. 
Odontocoelus nemoralis, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies 

{Field Alios. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 74, 1904, Check-List Mamm. 

N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 46, 1905. 

Typical locality unknown ; the range extends from 
Honduras to Panama. 

Generally similar to 0. v. truci (lieight about 28 or 29 
inches) ; metatarsal gland very small (occasionally obsolete), 
situated about half-way up shank, with scarcely any white 



CERVID.E . 171 

marginal ring ; antlers small (about 7h inches in length), 
with the beam straight, a small upright sub-basal tine 
in front, and forked at summits ; general colour brownish 
grey tinged with yellow ; forehead and crown blackish ; 
upper lip and patch on lower lip black ; sides of muzzle, 
lower lip, and chin white; orbital rings fawn; tail dusky 
above ; legs ochery. 

No specimen in collection definitely referable to this 
race (see 0. r. trim, p. 167). 

S.— Odoeoileus virg-inianus rothschildi. 

Dama rothschildi, Thomas, Novit. Zool. vol. ix, p. 136, 1902. 
Odoeoileus rothschildi, Thomas, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washiyigton, vol. xv, 

p. 198, 1902. 
Odontocoelus rothschildi, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies 

{Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 72, 1904, Check-List Mamm. 

N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 46, 1905. 
Odoeoileus rothschildi rothschildi. Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. 

p. 389, 1912. 

Typical locality Coiba Island, west coast of Panama. 

Size very small ; antlers short, with two or three tines ; 
skull slight, with large lachrymal vacuities ; metatarsal 
gland wanting ; general colour brown, with fawn tips to 
hairs, and dorsal line darker ; a spot on each side of muzzle 
and others above and below each eye whitish ; chin, throat, 
and inner sides of upper part of legs white ; tarsal gland 
reddish brown ; tail fawn above with black terminal portion. 

2. 3. 5. 24. Skull, with rudiments of antlers, and skin, 
immature. Coiba Island ; collected by Mr. J. H. Batty. 

Presented ht/ the Hon. Walter Rothschild, 1902. 

2. 3. 5. 25. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

2. 3. 5. 26. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same locality 
and collector. Type. Same history. 

2. 3. 5. 7. Skull and skin in spotted coat, female. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

2. 3. 5. 8. A similar specimen. Same locality and col- 
lector. Same history. 

2. 3. 5. 9, Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 
collector. , Same history. 



172 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

T. — Odocoileus virginianus chiriquensis. 

Odocoileus rothschildi chiriquensis, Allen, Bull. Amer. Afite. Nat. 
Hist. vol. xxviii, p. 96, 1910; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. 
p. 389, 1912. 

Typical locality Chiriqui, Tauauia. 

The continental representative of the preceding race. 

No specimen in collection. 

U.— Odocoileus virg-inianus columbicus. 

Cervus, sj). Puchcran, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. \i, p. 335, pi. xxiii, 

fig. 1, 1852. 
Cervus columbicus, Fitzingcr, Sitzhcr. 1-. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixxix, 

pt. 1, p. 66, 1879. 
Odocoileus columbicus, Osgood, P'lcld Mas. Zoul. Pah. vol. x, p. 139, 

1914. 

Type in Paris IMuseum. 

Typified by a skull and antlers, stated to be from Bogota, 
Colombia, but which, according to Osgood, not improbably 
came from the savannas of the Orinoco. The antlers appear 
to be unlike those of 0. v. gymnotis, with which this form 
has been identified. The undermentioned specimen has 
well-haired ears, externally blackish, like the face, no 
metatarsal gland, and short rufous brown coat. 

9. 7. 17. 39. Skull and skin, female. La Maria, Dagua 
Valley, Western Colombia. Provisionally referred to this 
race. Purchased (Eosenherg), 1909. 

v.— Odocoileus virg-inianus lasiotis. 

Odocoileus lasiotis, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 136, 1914. 

Typical locality Paramo de los (Jonejos, Sierra de Merida^ 
Venezuela. 

Type in Field IMuseum, Chicago. 

A medium-sized mountain-race, with lung, dense coat of 
a general huffish grey colour, variegated hj blackish brown 
markings, the individual hairs having subterminal huffish 
rings and dusky tips, thickly haired and comparatively short 
ears, broad, heavy tail, and short, wide hoofs ; metatarsal 
sland wanting. 



CEKVID^ 173 

10. 12. 3. 6. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Merida, 
Venezuela ; collected by Mr. S. Briceno. 

Presented hy S. V. Dcdton, Esq., 1910. 

10. 12. 3. 7. Skull and skin, female. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

W.— Odocoileus virg-inianus g-ymnotis. 

Cervus gj'muotis, Wiegmann, Isis, 1833, p. 965 ; Goeldi, Mem. Mus. 

Goeldi, pt. iii, p. 32, 1902. 
Cervus goudotii, Gay and Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 3, 

vol. V, p. 94, 1846; Fltzinger, Sitzher. It. Ale. Wiss. Wien, 

vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 67, 1879. 
Cariacns gymnotus, Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 267, 

1862, partim. 
Cariacus gymnotis, BrooTce, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 921 ; Sclater, 

List Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 173, 1883 ; LydeJcher, Horns and 

Hoofs, p. 341, 1893; Matschie, Mitt, geogr. Ges. Lilhecl', 1894, 

p. 130. 
Gymnotis wiegmanni, Fitzinger, Sitzher. Tc. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. 

Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 344, 1879. 
Mazama americana gymnotis, LydeMer, Peer of All Lands, p. 265, 

1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 351, 1901. 
Odocoileus gj-mnotis, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 24, 1910, 

p. 138, 1914. 

Typical locality the Savanna area of the lower Orinoco, 
Venezuela (teste Osgood, on whose authority the synonomy 
of this and the next race is given). 

Type in Berlin Museum. 

A short-haired lowland-race, with broad, sparsely haired 
ears, long narrow hoofs, and no metatarsal gland ; general 
colour, at all seasons, yellowish brown speckled with grey, 
the individual hairs being grey at the base, then brown and 
ochery, with black tips ; a dark streak from the crown of 
the head along the neck ; a greyish white ring round eye ; 
yellowish white and brown spots on forehead, a darker spot 
on nose, and a patch on upper lip, followed by a white 
streak reaching angle of mouth ; chin white, with a dark 
streak extending to lower lip, and thence to angle of mouth ; 
tail pale reddish brown above. The antlers of the type 
measure just short of 7 inches. 

According to Goeldi, this race has of late years immigrated 
into Brazil. 



17-1 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

8. 3. 7. 53. Skull and skin, female Coast district, 
Demerara, British Guiana. 

Presented ly F. V. McConncll, Esq., 1908. 

8. 3. 7. 54. Skull and skin of a rather larger and older 
female. Same locality. Same liistory. 

X.— Odocoileus virgrinianus margaritae. 

Odocoileus margaritse, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Piih. vol. x, p. 24, 
1910, pis. ii and iii. 

Typical (and only) locality Margarita Island, Venezuela. 

Type in Field Museum, Chicago. 

An insular representative of 0. v. gyiniiotis distinguished 
hy its smaller size, and the proportionately small skull and 
teeth, the former of which is characterised hy the abruptly 
elevated brain-case. 

No specimen in collection. 

Y.— Odocoileus virginianus spinosus. 

Cervus spinosus, Oay and Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 3, 

vol. V, p. 93, 1846. 
Cervus savannarum, Cabanis and Sclionihurglc, Bcisen Brit. Guiana, 

vol. iii, p. 785, 1848. 
Cariacus (?) spinosus. Gray, Cat. Ungtdata Brit. Mus. p. 236, 1852. 
Eeduncina savannaruixi, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. AJc. Wiss. Wien, vol. 

Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 358, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, p. 242, 1879. 
Cariacus savannarum, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 920 ; Matschie, 

Mitt. Geogr. Ges. Liibech, 1894, p. 130. 
Mazama americana savannarum, Lydehker, Deer of All Lands, 

p. 266, 1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 352, 1901. 
Mazama spinosa, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 280, 1898. 
(?) Dorcelaphus americanus savannarum, Pocock, Proc, Zool. Soc. 

1910, p. 962. 
Odocoileus spinosus, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 138, 

1914 ; cited as Cervus spinosus, but included under the heading 

Odocoileus. 

Typical locality Cayenne, French Guiana. 

Type (a single antler) in Paris Museum. 

According to Osgood, the Guianan representative of 0. v. 
gyrtinotis, but generally stated to have well-haired ears and 
a metatarsal gland,* the general colour being clear greyish 

* Vide Pocock, op. cit. ; whether his specimen be rightly identified 
or no, his recognition that it is merely a race of the whitetail agrees 
with the views of the present writer. 



CERVID^, 175 

brown speckled with white, and the lower lip having a single 
dark spot on each side. 

The range probably inclndes most of Guiana and part of 
Venezuela. 

92. 12. 2. 1-2. Two frontlets, with antlers. Nortli- 
ATestern British Guiana. 

By exchange ivith Dr. P. Hendall, 1892. 
10. 5. 4. 60. Skull and skin, immature female. Supinaam 
Valley, British Guiana. 

Presented hij F. V. McConnell, Esq., 1910. 
10. 5. 4. 61. A similar specimen. Same locality. 

Same history. 
14. 9. 2. 1. Skull and skin, female, provisionally referred 
to this race. Northern Venezuela ; collected by A. Pani, Esq. 
Noticed by Pocock, op. eit. 

Presented hy the Zoologiecd Society, 1914, 

Z.— Odocoileus virgrinianus peruvianus. 

Cervus (Coassus) peruvianus, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, 

vol. xii, p. 332, 1874. 
Cariacus peruvianus, BrooJie, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 920 ; LydeliJcer, 

Horns and Hoofs, p. 340, 1893; Matschie, Mitt. Geogr. Ges. 

Liibcck, 1894, p. 129. 
(?) Cervus brachyceros, Philippi, An. Mus. Chile, 1894, p. 10, pi. ii ; 

nee Gervais and Ameghino, 1880. 
(?) Cariacus, sj). Nehring, Sitzher. Ges. Nat. Freunde, 1895, p. 12. 
Mazama americana peruviana, LydeTiTcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 267, 

1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 352, 1901. 
(?) Mazama (Dorcelaphus), fip. LydeJcker, Deer of All Lands, 

p. 281, 1898. 
Odocoileus peruvianus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suj^pl. p. 706, 1904 ; 

Anerhacli, Zool. Anz. vol. xxxix, p. 310, 1912; Goeldi, Mitt. 

Nat. Ges. Bern, 1912, p. 12 ; Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. 

vol. X, p: 152, 1914. 
(?) Odocoileus philippii, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl. p. 706, 1904 ; 

Goeldi, Mitt. Nat. Ges. Bern. 1912, p. 14. 

Typical locality Peru. 

Another nearly related small race without the meta- 
tarsal gland ; general colour dark greyish brown, with 
whitish speckling, the individual hairs dark isabelline grey 
at base and ringed with white below the black tips ; chin and 
lower lip white, with a brown patch on former ; tarsal tuft 
small, short, and deep rusty red in colour. 



176 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

The range includes Bolivia, and, if 0. philippii be a 
synonym, the Andes of the Cajamarca district of Chile. 
58. 5. 4. 21 (1375, a). Skull and antlers. Peru (?). 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1858. 
73. 6. 27. 3 (1375, h). Skull, female. Peru. 

Purchased (Whitehj), 1873 
74 3. 27. 2 (1375, c). Skin, immature female, mounted, 
and skull. Ceachupati, Peru. Co-type. 

Purchased (Whitehj), 1874. 
85. 4. 22. 2. Skin, immature female. Same locality ; 
from collection of Sir Victor Brooke, Bart. Co-type. 

Purchased ( Whitely), 1885. 

94. 11. 20. 2. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Maraynioc, 

Peru ; collected hj Mr. J. Kalinowski. Purchased, 1894. 

94. 11. 20. 3. A similar specimen. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

0. 3. 1. 100. Skull and skin ; immature female. 

Yataujual, Cajamarca, Peru ; collected by Mr. P. 0. Simons. 

Presented hy 0. Thomas, Esq., 1900. 



II. ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS. 

Ceniis heniionus, Rafinesque, Amer. Month. Mag. vol. i, p. 436, 1817. 
Cervus auritus, Ward, Descrip. Etatsunis, voL v, p. 540, 1820 ; 

Desmarest, Mainmalogie, vol. ii, p. 443, 1822. 
Cervus macrotis, Saij, Long's Exped. RocJcy Mountains, vol. ii, p. 83, 

1823 ; H. Smith, Griffith' s Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 133, 1827 ; 

Caton, Antelope and Deer of America, p. 93, 1877. 
Cervus (Mazama) macrotis, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 

vol. V, p. 316, 1827. 
Mazama macrotis, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 17.'5, 

1885. 
Dorcelaphus macrotis, Gloger, Handbuch Naturgeschic7ite,T[). 140, 1841. 
Cariacus macrotis, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Begne Anim., Mamm. p. 173, 

1842 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 239, Cat. Ungulata Brit. 

Mils. p. 234, 1852 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 921 ; Alston, 

Biol. Centr. Amer., Mamm. p. 114, 1879; Sclater, List Anim. 

Zool, Gardens, p. 173, 1883; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. 

Mus. E. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 324, 1884; Trtte, Proc. U.S. Nat. 

Mus. vol. vii, p. 502, 1885 ; Flower and LydeTcJcer, Study of 

Mammals, p. 329, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 342, 1893 ; 

Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 60, 1896. 
Eucervus macrotis, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. xviii, 

p. 339, 1866, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 86, 1872, Hand-List 

Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 157, 1873. 



CERVID.E 177 

Otelaphus macrotis, Fitzingcr, Sitzber. k. Jk. Whs. Wien, vol. Ixviii, 
pt. 1, p. 356, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 303, 1879. 

Dorcelaphus hemionus, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. vol. vii, p. 257, 1895, 

Odocoilexis hemionus, Merriam,Proc. Biol. Soc. Wasliington, vol. xii, 
p. 100, 1897 ; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amcr. {Field Mus. Zool. 
Pub. vol. ii) p. 40, 1901 ; Stone and Cram, Avierican Animals, 
p. 39, 1903; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, p. 783; Scharff, 
Origin of Life in America, p. 107, 1911 ; Gary, N. Amcr. Fauna, 
no. 33, p. 56, 1911 ; Miller, List N. Amcr. Mamm. p. 388, 1912. 

Mazania hemionus, LydekJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 269, pi. xxi, 1898. 

Mazama (Dorcelaphus) hemionus, Lydekker, Great and Small Game 
of Eitrope, etc. p. 354, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 
p. 106, 1910, ed. 7, p. 104, 1914. 

Odontoccelus hemionus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amcr. and, W. Indies 
(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 76, 1904, Check-List Mamm. 
N. Amer. etc. (ibid. vol. vi) p. 48, 1905, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. 
(ibid, vol. viii) p. 49, 1907. 

Eucervus hemionus, Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 966. 

Mule-Deer. 

Typical locality Sioux Valley, South Dakota. 

Type of Eucervus. 

Build heavier and coarser than in typical race of 0. vir- 
ginianus; size somewhat greater than in latter, the shoulder- 
height being from about 3 feet to 3 feet 6 inches ; antlers 
with very short sub-basal snag, above which the beam is 
directed outwards for a short distance and then curves 
upw^ards to form a dichotomous fork, of wliich both prongs 
are normally nearly equal, and again divide, the normal 
number of ])oints being five on each side ; ears very large 
and thickly haired ; tail moderately long, terminating in a 
brush-like tuft of hair, naked on under surface at base ; 
muzzle relatively short ; face-glands rather large ; meta- 
tarsal gland and tuft long and straight, occupying whole of 
one side of upper half of shank, its hair nearly of the same 
cinnamon tint as that of legs, as is that of tarsal gland ; 
general colour typically reddish or yellowish tawny in summer, 
dark brownish or rufous grey, speckled with whitish, darkest 
on withers in winter; forehead usually with a dark brown 
patch, extending nearly to eyes, and a brown patch on each 
side of nose, rest of face and throat white ; front border of 
ears black ; inner sides of buttocks and legs, abdomen, and 
most of inner surface of ears white or whitish, rest of under- 
parts blackish brown ; tail short, black at tip, typically 
IV. N 



178 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

elsewhere white both above and below. On first assumption 
of winter coat tlie colour becomes fur a short time almost 
black. 

The large hairy ears, elongated metatarsal glands, short, 
black-tipped tail, with its lower surface naked at base, and 
the shape of the antlers, form the leading characteristics of 
this species, the range of which includes the greater part of 
North America westward of the Missouri Kiver, from Fort 
George to Texas. 

The named races are distinguishable as follows : — 

A. Antlers of the fully developed type, normally 

with 5 points on each size ; size large. 

a. Colour * tawny or grey, tail white with black 

tip. 
d' . Colour tawny, tail tapering, antlers larger 0. h. liemionus. 
h' . Colour grey, tail not tapering, antlers 

smaller 0. h. virgnJtiis. 

b. Colour pale tawny ; tail with dark dorsal line 

connecting black tip with dark area of back 0. h. californicus. 

c. Colour fulvous, tail whitish with black tip O. h. eremiciis. 

d. Colour drab-grey, tail dark at base and white 

in middle, with black tip O. h. canus. 

B. Antlers simpler, with only a single branch from 

main tine ; size rather smaller 0. h. ccrrosensis. 

c. Antlers simple spikes ; size smaller 0. h. peninsula:. 

A.— Odocoileus hemionus hemionus. 

Cervus macrotis montanus, Caton, Antelope and Deer of America, 

ed. 2, p. 94, 1881. 
Mazama hemionus typica, Li/dekher, Deer of All Lands, p. 275, 1898. 
Odocoileus hemionus hemionus. Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. 

p. 388, 1912, 

Typical locality Sioux Valley, South Dakota. 
General coloration that of species, of a full dark type ; 
tail without a dark dorsal line. 

1619, rt. Skull and antlers. North America. No liistory. 

1619, &. Skeleton, mounted. Yellowstone Park, Montana. 

Purchased {Ward, Rochester, U.S.A.). 

58. 6. 18. 4 (1619, c). Skull and antlers. North America. 

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1858. 

* In summer, both in this and following races. 



CEKV1DJ-: 179 

63. 2. 24. 41. Skin, female, mounted. Fort Colville, 
British Columbia. Presented hy J. K. Lord, Esq., 1863. 

72. 12. 12. 3. Skin, mounted. Yellowstone Park. 

Purchased ( Ward, Rochester, U.S.A.), 1872. 
72. 12. 12. 4. Skin, mounted, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 
12. 5. 15. 1. Skin, in winter coat, mounted. La 
Eochelle Creek, British Columbia. 

Presented Ivj the Government of British Cohimhia, 1912. 

B.— Odocoileus hemionus virg^ultus. 

Cariacus virgultus, Hallock, Forest and Stream, vol. iii, p. 404, 1899. 
Odocoileus virgultus,* Miller and Behn, Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc. 

vol. xxxi, p. 69, 1903 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 390, 1912. 
OdontoccElus hemionus virgultus, Elliot, Chech-List Mamm. N. Amcr. 

etc. (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi) p. 49, 1905. 

Typical locality north-western Minnesota, whence the 
range extends into the adjoining British territory. 

Distinguished from typical race by smaller antlers, and 
uniform calibre of short tail ; general colour dark grey, with 
long black and white hairs. 

No specimen in collection. 

C— Odocoileus hemionus californicus. 

Cervus macrotis, vat: californicus, Caton, Amer. Nat. vol. x, p. 464, 

1876, vol. xix, p. 811, 1885. 
Mazania hemionus californica, Lydehker, Deer of All Lands, p. 276, 

1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 350, 1901. 
Odocoileus hemionus californicus, Setoii-TJiompson, Forest and 

Stream, vol. li, p. 286, 1898 ; Elliot, Synoj). Mamm. N. Amcr. 

{Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 43, 1901 ; Stone and Cram, 

American Animals, p. 41, 1912; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. 

p. 388, 1912. 
Odontoccelus henaionus californicus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and 

W. Indies {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 77, 1904, Cliech-List 

Mamm. N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 49, 1905. 

Typical locality Gaviota Pass, Coast Kange, forty miles 
from Santa Barbara, California. 

Ears smaller than in typical race ; tail with a dark dorsal 

* Misprinted virgultis in first quotation. 



180 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

line conuGcting the black tip with the dark of the hack; 
general colour often brighter. 

The rano-e extends south of San Francisco into Lower 
California. 

No specimen in collection. 

D. — Odocoileus hemionus cerrosensis. 

Odocoileiis cerrosensis, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. WasJiington, vol. xii, 

p. 101, 1898; Stone and Cram, American Animals, p. 41, 1903; 

Miller, List N. Anier. Mamm. p. 387, 1912. 
Mazama hemionus cerrosensis, LycleTxTier, Great and Small Game of 

Europe, etc. p. 359, 1901. 
Odontocoelus cerrosensis, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies 

{Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 76, 1904, Chech-List Mamm. 

N. Amcr. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 47, 1905.' 

Typical locality Cerros, or Cedros, Island, Lower California. 

Considerably smaller than last, with smaller and simpler 
antlers, which are bowed outwards at first and incurved at 
tips, with only a single branch projecting upwards and 
inwards from upper third of main tine of each side ; general 
colour grizzled grey, with a blackish dorsal stripe, and a spot 
on top of nose and one on each side of nostrils dusky ; tail 
with dark band above, basal two-thirds whitish, and 
remainder black ; row of cheek-teeth short. 

No specimen in collection. 

E.— Odocoileus hemionus eremicus. 

Dorcelaphus hemionus eremicus, Mcarns, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
vol. XX, p. 470, 1897. 

Mazama hemionus eremica, LijdelcJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 277, 
1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 360, 1901. 

Odocoileus hemionus eremicus, Seton-Thompson, Forest and Stream, 
vol. li, p. 286, 1898 ; Storie aiul Cram, American Animals, p. 41, 
1903 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 388, 1912. 

Odontocoelus hemionus eremicus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and 
W. hidies {Field Mas. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 77, 1904, Check- 
List Mamm. N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 49, 1905. 

Typical locality Sierra Seri, near the Gulf of California, 
Sonora, Mexico; the range including a portion of Lower 
California, and at least much of Sonora. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 



CEliVID^ 181 

A pale desert-race of the species, the geuei'a\ colour 
being pale drab-grey, with a darker dorsal stripe, which 
foriQs a blackish spot at the base of the tail, with a slight 
extension along the upper surface of the same. 

No specimen in collection. 

F. — Odocoileus hemionus peninsulae. 

Mazama hemionus peniusulte, LydckTier, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 900, 
Deer of All Lands, p. 276, 1898, Great and Small Game of 
Europe, etc. p. 359, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 
p. 107, 1910, ed. 7, p. 104, 1914. 

Odocoileus hemionus peninsute. Miller and EeJin, Proc. Boston Nat. 
Hist. Soc. vol. XXX, p. 16, 1901 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamin. 
p. 358, 1912. 

Odontoccelus hemionus peninsulte, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and 
W. Indies {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 78, 1904, Check- 
List Mamm. N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 50, 1905. 

Typical locality Sierra Laguna, La Paz, Lower California. 

Smaller than and more Ijriglitly coloured than 0. h. 
calif ornicus, with the antlers in the form of simple spikes and 
a basal snag ; general colour in winter dark speckled iron- 
grey, with an irregular black band along middle of back, 
expanding towards hind-quarters, and continued on to 
upper surface of the tail, where it may be connected by a 
narrow line with the black tip, or separated by a l)road ring 
of pale straw-coloured hair; legs bright chestnut, and a 
patch of same colour on flanks, separating the dark speckled 
grey of the back from the uniform blackish brown of the 
under-parts. 

98. 3. 1. 171. Skin, immature. Sierra Laguna, La Paz; 
collected by Mr. D. Coolidge. Type. Purchased, 1898. 

98. 3. 1. 172. A similar specimen. Same locality and 
collector. Sa7nc history. 

G.— Odocoileus hemionus eanus. 

Odocoileus hemionus canus, Merriam, Proc. Washington Acad. 
vol. iii, p. 560, 1901 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 388, 1912. 

Odontoccelus hemionus canus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and 
W. Indies {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 78, 1904, C heck- 
List Mamm. N. Amer. etc. {op. cit. vol. vi) p. 50, 1905. 

Typical locality Sierra en Media, State of Cbihualiua, 
Mexico. 



182 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Smaller aud paler than typical race, with lighter and 
more slender antlers ; general colour pale grey ; top of head 
and face pale brown ; chin white ; breast black ; basal half 
of upper side of tail partially or wholly dark. 

No specimen in collection. 

III. ODOCOILEUS COLUMBIANUS. 

Cervus macrotis, var. columbianus, Bicliardson, Fauna Bor.-Amer. 

p. 257, 1829. 
Cervus lewisii, Peale, Mamm. U.S. Explor. Exped. p. 39, 1848, 
Cervus richardsonii, Audubon and Bachman, Quadrupeds N. America, 

voL ii, p. 211, 1853. 
Cariacus jjunctulatus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 239. 
Cervus columbianus, Baird, N. Amer. Mamm. p. 659, 1857; Caton, 

Antclo2)e and Deer of America, p. 96, 1877. 
Eucervus columbianus. Gray, Ami. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. xviii, 

p. 388, 1866, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 86, 1872, Hand-List 

Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 157, 1873. 
Eucervus pusillus. Gray, Hand-List Bitiiiinauts Brit. Mus. p. 157, 

1873. 
Otelaphus richardsonii, Fit^sinyer, Sitzher. A-. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 

vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 357, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 308, 1879. 
Eeduncina punctulata, Fitzinger, ojh cit. vol. Ixviii, pt. 1. p. 357, 

1873. 
Cariacus columbianus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 921 ; True, 

Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. vii, p. 592, 1885. 
Otelaphus punctulatus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. l\ Ak. Wiss. Wien, 

vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 307, 1879. 
Cariacus macrotis columbianus, Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 2, 

p. 60, 1896. 
Dorcelaphus columbianus, Mcarns, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mns. vol. xx, 

p. 468, 1897. 
Odocoileus columbianus, Merriavi, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wasliington, 

vol. xii, p. 100, 1898; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. {Field 

Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 71, 1901 ; Stone and Cram, American 

Animals, p. 42, 1903 ; Scharff, Origin of Life in America, p. 108, 

1911 ; Miller, List N. Amer.' Mamm. p." 387", 1912. 
i\Iazama columbiana, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 278, 1898. 
Mazama pusilla, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 281, 1898. 
Mazama (Dorcelaphus) columbianus, Lydekker, Great and Small 

Game of Europe, etc. p. 360, 1901 ; Ward, Becords of Big Game, 

ed. 6, p. 109, 1910. 
Odontocoelus columbianus, Elliot, Check- List Mamm.. N. Amer. etc. 

{Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi) p. 48, 1905. 

Black-tailed Deer. 

Typical locality near mouth of Columbia Elver, Oregon, 
Smaller than the mule-deer, with relatively shorter ears 



c'ERViri.i'i 18B 

and finer hair, sliorter metatarsal gland, which occupies a 
considerable portion of upper half of shank, and also by 
relatively large tail being black above and white below ; 
general colour in winter speckled tawny brownish grey, the 
individual hairs being dark brown for the greater part of 
their length, but near the extremities ringed with yellowish 
brown, and terminating in black tips ; hind portion of 
under-parts and region of base of tail, as well as upper part 
of throat and chin, white ; face grey, darker on forehead ; 
legs dark cinnamon, without admixture of white hairs ; 
tarsal and metatarsal tufts a shade lighter than adjacent 
portions of legs, no bare portion of gland visible in 
metatarsal tuft ; in summer general colour reddish yellow ; 
face-glands rather small ; antlers of the general type of 
those of mule-deer, but smaller. The distinctive features of 
this species are the black upper side of the tail and the 
medium length of the metatarsal gland and tuft, which are 
situated entirely above the middle of the shank. 

The range includes western North America from Alaska 
and British Columbia, througli Washington and Oregon west 
of the Cascade Mountains, to California as well as the coast- 
districts of Vancouver Island. 

The races are distinguishable as follows : — 

A. Colour yellower ; tail wholly white below. 

a. Ears larger. 

a'. Colour deeper O, c. columhiamis. 

b'. Colour paler O. c. scajjhiotus. 

b. Ears smaller 0. c. sifkenns. 

B. Colour redder; tail dark below at tip 0. c. crooM. 

A.— Odocoileus columbianus columbianus. 

Odocoileus columbianus columbianus, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamin. 
p. 387, 1912. 

Typical locality near moutli of Columbia Itiver. 
General characters those of the species. 
45. 7. 4. 3 (681, i). Skull and antlers. Valley of 
Columbia Eiver. Frescntcd hi/ the Hudson Bay Go., 1845. 

45. 7. 4. 4 (G81,/). Skull, female. Same locality. 

Same liistory. 



184 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

68.2.13.2. Young skull. British Columbia (?). Type 
of Eucervus xjysiltv>i. Prcficnkd Inj Dr. R. Broion, 1868. 

71. 4. 8. 1 (681, /.;). Frontlet and antlers. British 
Columbia (?). Purchased {Bhjth), 1871. 

6. 6. 12. 1-2. Head, mounted, and body-skin, female. 
British Columbia. Presented hij W. K. Tliompson, Esq., 1906. 

B. — Odocoileus columbianus sitkensis. 

Odocoileus cclunibianiis sitkensis, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. WasJi- 

inqton, vol. xii, j). 100, 1898; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. 

{Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 42, 1901 ; Stone and Cram, 

American Animals, p. 43, 1903 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. 

p. 387, 1912. 
Mazama columbiana sitkensis, LydeliJcer, Great and Small Game of 

Euro])e, etc. p. 361, 1901; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 109, 1910, ed. 7, p. 107, 1914. 
Odontocoelus columbianus sitkensis, Elliot, Check-List Mamm. 

N. Amer. etc. {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi) p. 48, 1905. 

Typical locality Sitka, Alaska. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 
• Distinguished from typical race by its inferior size and 
smaller ears ; general colour in summer fulvous ; face 
grizzled grey, with a dusky patch extending from eyes 
midway to nose; metatarsal tuft bordered with black. 

No specimen in collection. 

C— Odocoileus columbianus scaphiotus, 

Odocoileus columbianus scaphiotus, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. WasJi- 

inqton, vol. xii, p. 101, 1898 ; Elliot, Synoj}. Mamm. N. Amer. 

{Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 42, 1901 ; Stone and Cram, 

American Mammals, p. 43, 1903; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. 

p. 387, 1912. 
Mazama columbiana scaphiotus, Lydehher, Great and Small Game 

of Europe, etc. p. 362, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 109, 1910. 
Odontoccelus columbianus scaphiotus, Elliot, ChecTi-List Mamm. 

N. Amer. etc. {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi) p. 48, 1905. 

Typical locality Gabilan Eange, Eiverside County, Cali- 
fornia. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 
A large-eared and pale-coloured mountain-race. 
No specimen in collection. 



CERVID.K . 18S 

D.— Odocoileus columbianus crooki. 

Dorcelaphus crooki, Mearns, Proc. U.S. Naf. Mus. vol. xx, p. 468, 

1897. 
Odocoileus crooki, Seton-Thompson, Forest and Stream, vol. li, 

p. 286, 1898 ; Elliot, Syiioj). Mamm. N. Amcr. {Field Mus. Zool. 

Puh. vol. ii) p. 41, 1901 ; Stone and Cram, American Mammals, 

p. 41, 1903 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 387, 1912. 
Mazama crooki, Lydelihcr, Deer of All Lands, p. 268, 1898. 
Mazama columbiana crooki, LydcJcJier, Gi'cat and Small Game of 

Euroxic, etc. p. 362, 1901. 
Odontoccelus crooki, Elliot, CliecJc-List Mamm. N. Amer. etc. {Field 

Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi) p. 47, 1905. 

Typical locality Dog Mountains, Grant County, New 
Mexico. 

Type in U.S. N"ational IMuseum, Washington. 

General colour (female) in summer recldisli-fawn, darker 
on back, with the neck greyish drab, flanks greyish cinnamon, 
and legs creamy ; black of upper side of tail extending on to 
lower side of tip ; hairs of metatarsal tuft sooty with white tips. 

No specimen in collection. 

IncerTtE Sedis. 

1. Cervus affinis, Pucheran, C.B. Ac. Sci. Paris, vol. xxix, p. 777, 

1849 ; nee Hodgson, 1841. 
Cervus similis, Puclieran, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi, p. 357, 1852. 
Reduncina similis, Fitzinger, Sitzher. Jc. AJc. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, 

pt. i, p. 357, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. i, p. 321, vol. Ixxix, pt. i, p. 62, 

1879. 
Cariacus similis, BrooTce, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 920. 
Mazama similis, LydeTiher, Deer of All Lands, p. 281, 1898. 

Founded on a male specimen in the Paris Museum, of 
which the exact locality is unknown, but which probably 
came from the Southern United States. In general colora- 
tion this is very similar to the typical race of the white- 
tailed deer in summer, but the upper half of the tarsal tuft is 
rusty red, and only the lower half white. 

2. Cariacus leptocephalus. Gray, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 85, 

1872, Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 157, pi. xxxvii, 1873. 
Mazama leptocephala, LydeJcker, Deer of All Lands, p. 281, 1898. 

52. 12. 26. IGO. Skull and antlers. Locality unknown. 
Type. 

Transferred from the Zoological Society s Museum, 1852. 



tS6 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATE!^ 



VIII. Genus BLASTOCERUS. 

Blastocerus, Sundevall, K. SvensJ:a Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1844, p. 182, 

1846; Gray, Cat. Uvgulata Brit. Mas. p. 223, 1852, Cat. 

Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 87, 1872; Brool-e, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1878, p. 922 ; Biltimeyer, Abh. schwciz. J5rt7. Gcs. vol. viii, p. 49, 

1881 ; Pococh, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 966. 
Blastoeeros, Fitzinger, Sitzher. k. Ak. Wiss. Wicn, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, 

p. 358, 1873 ; Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 282, 1898. 
Paraceros, Ameghino, Mamm. Foss. Bepnb. Argent, p. 605, 1889 ; 

Lydekker, An. Mus. La Plata, Pal. Argent, vol. ii, p. 80, 1893. 
Antifer, Ameghino, op. cit. p. 610, 1889 ; Lydekker, op. cit. p. 81, 1893. 
Epieuryceros, Ameghino, op. cit. p. 613, 1889 ; Lydekker, ojy. cit. 

p. 81, 1893. 
Ozotoceros, Ameghino, Bev. Argent. Hist. Nat. vol. i, p. 243, 1891, to 

replace Blastocerus, Sundevall, supposed to be preoccupied by 

Blastocei-a, Gerstein, 1856. 
Ozelaphus, Knottncrus-Meyer, Arch. Naturgesch. vol. Ixxiii, p. 98, 

1907. 

Antlers large and complex, without sub-basal snag, 
forking in a regularly dichotomous manner, with tlie upper, 
or posterior prong moic or less exceeding the lower, or 
anterior, one in size ; metatarsal gland and tvift absent ; tail 
short ; face moderately long ; face-glands well developed, 
and gland-pits in skull rather large and deep ; foot-glands 
not definitely known ; upper canines generally present in 
adult males; size large or rather small; young uniformly 
coloured or spotted. The absence of the metatarsal gland 
and of a sub-basal snag to tlie regularly dichotomous antlers 
are the most easily recognised features of this genus, which 
in most other respects resembles Odocoilcus, although the 
nature of the foot-glands and their presence or absence in 
the fore-limbs does not appear to be definitely known. . 

The two species are distinguishable as follows : — 

A. Size large, antlers complex, hair on withers directed 

backwards, colour deep rufous B. dichotomus. 

B. Size smaller, antlers simpler, hair on withers 

directed forwards, colour yellowish -brown B. bezoarticns. 

I. BLASTOCEEUS DICHOTOMUS. 

Cer\*us dichotomus, Illiger, Abh. Ak. Sci. Berlin, 1811, pp. 108 and 
117, 1815 ; separate copies said to have been issued in 1811 ; based 
on Azara's guazupuco. 

Cervus paludosus, Desmarest, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 443, 1822 ; 
H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 134. 1827; 



Burmcister, Dcscri])t. Pliys. Bepuh. Argent, vol. iii, p. 480, 1879 ; 

Goeldi, Mammiferos do Brasil, p. 106, 1893, Mem. Mas. Goeldi, 

pt. iii, p. 5, 1902. 
Cervus palustris. Desmoidins, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat. vol. iii, p. 379, 

1823. 
Cervus (Mazama) paludosus, H. Smith, Griffitlis Animal Kingdom, 

vol. v, p. 316, 1827. 
Mazama paludosa, Jardine, NaturalisVsLihr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 178, 

1835. 
Dorcelaphus paludosus, Glogcr, Handbuch Naturgeschichte, p. 140, 

1841. 
Cariacus paludosus, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Eegne Anim., Mamm.Tp. 173, 

1842; Brool-e, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 922; Flower and 

LydeM-er, Study of Mammals, p. 329, 1891 ; Lydekher, Horns 

and Hoofs, p. 343, 1893, An. Mus. La Plata, Pal. Argent, vol. ii, 

p. 80, 1893; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 57, 1896. 
(?) Mazama furcata. Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 176, 1843. 
Cervus (Elaphus Blastocerus) paludosus, Wagner, Schrebers Sdug- 

tliiere, Sux>]}l. vol. iv, p. 367, 1844. 
Cervus (Blastocerus) paludosus, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ah. 

Handl. 1844, p. 182, 1846 ; Hiering, Mammiferos de Sao Paulo, 

p. 14, 1894. 
Blastoceros paludosus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 237, Cat. 

Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 224, 1852, Cat. Buminanfs Brit. Mus. 

p. 87, 1872, Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 157, 1873; 

Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mas. p. 266, 1862 ; Fitzinger, 

Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 359, 1873, 

vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 350, 1879. 
Cariacus palustris, Lydekker, Boyal Nat. Hist. vol. ii, p. 387, 1894. 
Mazama dichotoma, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 283, 1898. 
Mazama (Blastoceros) dichotoma, Lydekker, Great and Small Game 

of Euroj^e, etc. p. 363, 1901 ; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 110, 1910, ed. 7, p. 108, 1914. 
Blastocerus dichotomus, Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 966. 

Marsh-Deer ; Veado Galheiro Grande ; Guazupuco. 

Type of geuus. 

Typical locality Brazil. 

Largest of South American deer, the size being approxi- 
mately that of a red deer, but the build more slender ; antlers 
large and rugose, with both prongs of main fork dividing 
more than once, and upper prong usually larger than lower 
one ; muzzle bluntly pointed ; ears large, and filled internally 
with woolly white Imir ; tail bushy ; coat long and coarse, 
without radiating whorls on back and neck ; general colour 
in summer bright rufous chestnut, in winter brownish red, 
becoming lighter on flanks, neck, and chest ; legs black from 



188 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

knees and hocks downwards, and tarsal tuft also black ; 
abdomen, inside of thighs, throat, chin, and insides and bases 
of backs of ears white or yellowish white ; a whitish line 
above, or a ring round, eyes, most marked in females ; a 
black band on muzzle and upper lip, joining a median dark 
streak on nose, and black markings on under lip ; tail 
yellowish rusty red above and black beneath ; in immature 
females limbs less black, showing fawn on sides below hocks 
and knees, in advance of which the extremities are white, 
and black streak on nose wanting ; young not spotted. Fine 
antlers attain a length of from 21 to 24^ inches. 

The range includes suitable localities throughout Brazil, 
and perhaps part of Guiana, through Paraguay, Entre Rios, 
and Uruguay to the Chaco, or wooded internal districts of 
Argentina. 

687, a. Frontlet and antlers. South America. No liistory. 

65. 7. 8. 2 (687, h). Frontlet and antlers. South 
America. Purchased {Bartlett), 1865. 

71. 6. 20. 2 (687, c) Antlers. South America. 

Purcliascd {Cutter), 1871. 

72. 11. 4. 1. Frontlet and antlers. South America. 

Purchased (Gerrard), 1872. 

94. 6. 25. 1. Skull, with antlers. Paraguay; collected 

by Dr. J. Bohls. Purchased, 1894. 

98. 10. 11. 1. Skin, mounted. Brazil. Purchased, 1898. 

6. 10. 18. 1. Head, mounted, with abnormal antlers. 

Northern Argentina. 

Presented ly A. F. Vans Agneiv, Esq., 1906. 
11. 10. 27. 4. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Alto 
Paraguay, Bolivia ; collected by Mr. C. H. B. Grant. 

Presented lij G. W. Tudor, Esq., 1911. 



11. BLASTOCEEUS BEZOARTICUS. 

Cervus bezoarticus, Linn. Syst, Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 175, ed. 12, 
vol. i, p. 67, 1766. 

Cervus campestris, F. Cuvicr, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. vii, p. 484, 1817 
H. Smith, Griffitli's Animat Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 136, 1827 
Biirmcister, Descript. Pliys. Bep^ib. Argent, vol. iii, p. 463, 1879 
Goctdi, Mammifcros do Brasit, p. 107, 1893. 

Cervus leucogaster, Sclvrchcr, Sdiigthiere, vol. v, p. 1127, 1817. 



CERVID.E 189 

Cervus (Mazama) campestris, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdo^n, 

vol. V, p. 317, 1827; Gocldi, Mem. Mus. Gocldi, pt. iii, p. 23, 

1902. 
Cervus azaroe, Wiegmann, Isis, 1833, p. 954. 
Mazama campestris, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm.. vol. iii, 

p. 174, 1835 ; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 176, 1843. 
Dorcelaphus campestris, Glogcr, Handbuch Nattirgcschichtc, p. 140, 

1841. 
Cariacus campestris. Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Begne Anim., Mamm. p. 173, 

1842 ; Broohe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 923 ; Sclatcr, List Anim. 

Zool. Gardens, p. 174, 1883 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Ostcol. 

Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 324, 1884 ; Flotver and LydcTcTier, 

Study of Mammals, p. 329, 1891; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, 

p. 345, 1893; Aplin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1894, p. 313; Ward, 

Becords of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 59, 1896. 
Cervus (Elaphus Blastocetus) campestris, Wagner, Schreber's Sdug- 

thiere, Suppl. vol. iv, p. 369, 1844. 
Cervus (Elaphus Blastocerus) comosus, Wagner, op. cit, p. 368, 1844. 
Furcifer campestris, Gray, Knoiusley Menagerie, p. 68, 1850. 
Blastocerus campestris. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 237, Cat. 

Ungulata Brit. Mas. p. 224, 1852, Cat. Bmninanfs Brit. Mas. 

p. 87, 1872, Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 158, 1873; 

Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm, Brit. Mus. p. 265, 1862; Fitzingcr, 

Sitzher. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 359, 1873, vol. 

Ixxviii, p. 1, p. 364, 1879. 
(?) Cariacus sylvestris, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xii, 

p. 427, 1873. 
Blastoceros comosus, Fitzinger, Sitzher. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien. vol. 

Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 359, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 356, 1879. 
Blastoceros azarse, Fitzinger, op. cit. vol. Ixxviii, p. 359, 1879, 
Cervus comosus, Burmeister, Descrvpt. Phys. Bepuh. Argent, vol. iii, 

p. 465, 1879. 
Ozctoceros campestris, Amcghino, Bev, Arg. Hist. Nat, vol. i, p. 243, 

1891. 
Cervus (Blastoceros) campestris, Ihcriug, Mammiferos de Sao Paulo, 

p. 15, 1894. 
Mazama bezoartica, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 287, pi. xxii, 

1898. 
Mazama (Blastoceros) bezoartica, Lydekkci-, Great and Small Game 

of Europe, etc. p. 365, 1901 ; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 112, 1910, ed. 7, p. 110, 1914. 
Odontocoelus bezoarticus, Elliot, Cat. Mamm, Field Mus, {Field Mus. 

Zool. Pub, vol. viii) p. 50, 1907. 
Ozelaplius bezoarticus, Knottnerus-Meyer, Arch. Naturgesch. vol. 

Ixxiii, p. 98, 1907. 
Blastoceros bezoarticus, Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 966. 

Pampas Deer; Veado Branco ; Guazuti. 

Type of Ozotoceros and Ozelaplius. 

Typical locality Brazil. 

Much smaller than the last, and of the approximate size 



190 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



of a roebvick, but more delicately and slenderly built ; antlers 
of moderate size, with the lower, or front, prong of the main 
fork simple, and the upper, or posterior, prong divided and 
more complex, usual numl)er of tines three; muzzle rather 
pointed ; ears moderately large and filled with white hair ; 
tail somewhat bushy ; coat short and smooth, with a whorl 




Fig. 30. — Pampas Deeb {Blastoccnis bczoarticus). 

on middle of back, and a second at base of the neck, so that 
the hairs on withers are directed forwards ; general colour 
light reddish l)ro\vn, with the hairs of the back light grey at 
base, then darker grey followed by a ring of reddish brown, 
and black at tips ; face darker, and occasionally a black 
patch on crown of head, extending backwards as a line to 
level of ears ; tarsal tuft, a patch at base of backs of ears, a 



CEKVID.E 191 

ring round pedicles of antlers, another round each eye, lips, 
throat, chest, under-parts, fronts and inner sides of thighs, 
and inner sides of buttocks and upper part of fore-legs 
wliitish ; flanks, outer sides of limbs, and middle of throat 
lighter than back ; tail dark blackish brown above and white 
below ; upper canines generally present in males ; young 
lighter coloured, with a row of white spots on each side of 
back, and a second from shoulder to thigh. 

The range includes the campos of Brazil, Paraguay and 
Uruguay and the pampas of Argentina and northern Pata- 
gonia, also extending into the wooded Chaco country of 
Argentina in the neighbourhood of Santa Fe. If, as has been 
suggested, the Pampas form is distinct from the typical 
Brazilian camjjcstris, it should bear the name azarcc. 

686, k. Skeleton, female. South America. iVo history. 

686. Ix}. Antlers. South America. No liistory. 

37. 3. 15. 43 (142, a). Skull, with antlers, and skin. 
Northern Patagonia. 

Presented hy 3L:ssrs. Burnett and Fitzroy, 1837. 

37. 3. 15. 44 (142, I). Skin, young. Same locality. 

Same history. 

37. 3. 15. 44* (142, c). Skin, young. Same locality. 

Same history. 

42. 12. 9. 25 (686, a). Frontlet and antlers. Northern 
Patagonia ; collected by Admiral Fitzroy during the voyage 
of H.M.S. " Beagle." 

Presented hy the Governors of Haslar Hospital, 1842. 

45. '9. 19. 5. Skin, mounted. Bahia Blanca, Argentina; 
collected by C. P. Darwin, Esq., during the voyage of H.M.S 
"Beagle." Purehased {Zoological Society), 1845. 

46. 7. 28. 40. Skin, young, mounted. Bolivia ; collected 
by Mr. T. Bridges. Purchased, 1846, 

52. 2. 26. 1. Skull and antlers, imperfect. South 
America ; collected by Mr. Parzudaki. Purchased, 1852. 

54. 8. 16. 1 (686, c). Skeleton. La Plata; collected by 
Dr. Bravard. Purchased, 1854. 

54. 8. 16. 2-3-6 (686, d, c, h). Three skulls, with antlers 
Same locality and collector. Same history 

54. 8. 19. 4. Frontlet and antlers. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 



192 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

54. 8. 16. 5 and 7 (68(3, g and i). Two skulls. Same 
locality and collector. Same Mstory. 

60. 8. 31. 4. Skin. South America. 

Purdiascd {Zoological Sociefg), 1860. 

61. 11. 15. 2 (086,;). Skeleton. South America. 

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1861. 

84. 2. 8. 33. Skull, with antlers. Taquara, Eio Grande 

do Sul ; collected by Dr. H. von Ihering. Purchased, 1884. 

72. 2. 11. 1. Imperfect skull, with antlers, provisionally 

referred to this species. Brazil (?) ; collected by Sir J. 

Hudson. Type of Cariacas sylvestris. 

Presented ly Rev. G. J. Hudson, 1872. 
98. 2. 25. 1. Skin. Santa Fe, Argentina. 

Presented hy the Duhc of Bedford, K.G., 1898. 
9.12.1.58. Skin, mounted (fig. 30). Ajo, Tuyu, Buenos 
Aires ; collected by Mr. C. H. B. Grant. 

Presented ly E. Gibson, Esq., 1909. 
9. 12. 1. 59. Skull and skin, young. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

9. 12. 1. 60. Skull. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

9. 12. 1. 61. Skull, witli antlers, and scalp-skin. Los 

Yngleses, Buenos Aires ; same collector. Same history. 

9. 12. 1. 62. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

9. 12. 1. 63. Slvull and skin, female. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

14. 11. 9. 1. Slvull, with antlers, and skin. Conceifao, 

Eio Araguaya, Northern Brazil. 

Presented hy the Para Museum, 1914. 

IX. Genus H I P PO C AME LUS. 

Hippocamelus, LeucJcart, Dissert. Inaug. de Equo hisidco Molince, 
p. 24, 1816 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mas. {Field Mies. Zool. 
Pub. vol. viii) p. 50, 1907, partim ; Pococh, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, 
p. 966. 

Cervequus, Lesson, No7iv. Tahl. Begn. Anim., Mamm. p. 173, 1842. 

Fxircifer, Wagner, Schreber's Sdiigthiere, Suppl. vol. iv, p. 384, 
1844 ; Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.- Alt. Handl. 1844, p. 183, 1846 ; 
Gray, Cat. Ungulata. Brit. Mas. p. 226, 1852, Cat. Biiminants 
Brit. Mus. p. 88, 1872 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 923 ; 



CERVID^ , 193 

Riitimeyer, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 49, 1881 ; nee 
Fitzinger, 1843. 

Xenelaphus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 498, Cat. Buminants 

Brit. Mils. p. 89, 1872; Lydehher, Deer of All Lands, p. 293, 

1898. 
Anomalocera, Gray, Scientific Opinion, 1869, p. 384; Philippi, Wieg- 

mann's Archiv 1870, p. 46 ; nee Templcr, 1837. 
Huamela, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4. vol. xi, p. 217, 1873, 

Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 159, 1873. 
Creagroeeros, Fitzinger, Sitzher. h. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, 

p. 358, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 369, 1879. 

Antlers (fig. 31) small and simple, forming a single 
dichotomous fork, of which the front prong is the smaller, 
and curves upwards and backwards towards the hind one ; 
metatarsal gland and tuft absent ; tail short and rather 
bushy ; face moderately long ; face-glands large and exposed, 
and gland-pits in skull deep and triangular, although not 
very large ; upper canines present in both sexes, but not 
projecting beyond lips ; coat coarse and brittle ; size medium ; 
young uniformly coloured. Other characters much as in 
two preceding genera. The genus is distinguished by the 
simply forked antlers, coarse, brittle coat, and absence of 
metatarsal glands. 

The range includes the western and southern parts of 
South America. 

The two species appear distinguishable as follows : — 

A. Size larger, a dark Y-shaped face-stripe, antlers 

usually forking some distance above burr H. hisiilcus, 

B. Size smaller, face without distinct dark stripe, 

antlers forking close to burr H, antisensis. 



I. HIPPOCAMELUS BISULCUS. 

Equus bisulcus, Molina, Saggio Storia Nat. Chili, p. 320, 1782. 
Hippocamelus dubius, Leuckart, Dissert. Inaug. de Equo hisulco 

Molinx, p. 24, 1816. 
Auchenia huamel, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, 

p. 764, 1827. 
Cervequus andicus. Lesson, Nouv. Tahl. Begn. Anim., Mamm. p. 173, 

1842. 
Cervus chilensis, Gaii and Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 3, 

vol. viii, p. 91, 1846; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 45; 

Burmeister, Descript. Phys. Bepuh. Argent, vol. iii, p. 462, 1879 ; 

Philippi, An. Mus. Chile, Zool. 1892, p. 7, 1894, p. 8. 

IV. O 



194 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Capreolus leucotis, Crray, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1849, p. 64. 

Furcifer huamel, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 236, Cat. JJngulata 

Brit. Mus. p. 227, 1852 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mtis. 

p. 266, 1862. 
Furcifer antisiensis, Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 226, 1852, 

Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 88, 1872 ; nee cVOrhigny. 
Huamela leucotis. Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, ser, 4, vol. x, p. 445, 

1872, vol. xi, p. 219, 1873, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. 

p. 160, 1873. 
Creagroceros chilensis, Fitzingcr, Sitzber. h. jik. Wiss. Wien, 

vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 358, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 372, 1879. 
Cariacus chilensis, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 923 ; Flower and 

Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 329, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns 

and Hoofs, p. 346, 1893. 
Furcifer chilensis, Sclater, List Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 178, 1883 ; 

Nehring, Sitzber. Ges. nat. Freunde, 1895, p. 12. 
Cervus antisiensis, Schdff, Zool. Garten, vol. xxxi, p. 228, 1890 ; nee 

d'Orbigny. 
Mazama bisulca, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 296, 1898, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. 1899, p. 917, pi. Ixi ; Berg, Commun. Miis. B. Aires, 

vol. i, p. 261, 1900. 
Hippocanielus bisulcus, Thomas, Proc, Zool. Soc. 1898, p. 212 ; 

Pocock, ibid. 1910, p. 966; Wolfsohn, Rev. CJiil. Hist. Nat. 

vol. xiv, p. 227, 1910. 

Mazama (Xenelaphus) bisulca, Lydekker, Great and S)nall Game of 
Europe, etc. p. 368, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 
p. 113, 1910, ed. 7, p. Ill, 1914. 

Xenelaphus bisulcus, Prichard, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, vol. i, p. 272, 
Through the Heart of Patagonia, p. 248, 1902. 

(?) Odocoileus dickii, Goeldi, Mitt. nat. Ges. Bern, 1912, p. 12. 

GUEMAL or HUEMUL. 

Size large, shoulder-height about 39^ inches ; general 
colour Lright greyish yellow, speckled with black, this 
including buttocks, greater portion of under-parts, and limbs, 
in winter apparently greyer ; a broad black band up middle 
line of face terminating in a fork between eyes ; sides of 
muzzle brown and tip of chin white ; tail coloured like back 
above, white below; tarsal tuft like back; antlers (fig. 31) 
forking at a considerable distance above burr. 

The range includes the Andes of southern Chile and the 
whole of Patagonia. Odocoileus dickii was founded on a 
skull and antlers from Santa Fe, probably referable to the 
present species, the antlers being evidently abnormal. 

50. 8. 2. 1. Skin. Valparaiso, Chile. 

.i Fresented hj the Earl of Derby, LS.'jO. 



CEKVID^-: 



195 



79 11 1 1 (1584 ft). Skull, with antlers, and skin. 
West"^Coast of Patagonia ; collected by Dr. E^ Simpson. 

Purchased, xV^ll. 




Fig. 31.-HEAD of Chilian Guemal {Hippocamelus bisulcus). 
From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1899. 

72. 11. 1. 2 (1584, h). Skull and skin. Same locality 
1 \i ' Same hist or v. 

and collector. 

o 2 



196 CATALO(WE OK UNGULATES 

98. 2. 4. 14-15. Two frontlets, with antlers. Chubut, 
Patagonia; collected by H. Dnrnford, Esq. Furehased, 1898. 

99. 2. 22. 14. Skin, mounted. Patagonia. 

Presented hy the Director of the La Plata Museum, 1899. 

99. 8. 31. 1. Head, in summer coat, mounted. Ultima 
Esperanza, Patat^onia. Presented hy Scnor Masentli, 1899. 

2. 3. 15. 1. Skull and antlers. Pdo de los Antiguos, 
Patagonia. Presented hy H. Heskcth Prichard, Esq., 1902, 

2. 3. 15. 2. Skin. Same locality. Same history. 

2. 3. 15. 3. Skin. Same locality. Same history. 

II. HIPPOCAMELUS ANTISENSIS. 

Cerf d'Antis, Pitchrmn, Diet. Univ. Hist. NaL vol. iii, p. 328. 
Cervus antisensis, (VOrhigny, Ann. Mus. Paris, vol. iii, p. 91, 1834, 

Voyage Amer. Merid. vol. iv, pt. 2, p. 28, pi. xx, 1847 ; Philipiyi, 

An. Mus. Chile, Zool. 1892, p. 7, 1894, p. 6. 
Cervus (Elaphus Furcifer) antisiensis, Wagner, Schreber's Sdugthiere, 

Su2)pl. vol. iv, p. 384, 1844. 
Cervus (Furcifer) antisiensis, SundcvaU, K. SvensJca Vct.-Ak. Handl. 

1844, p. 183, 1846. 
Cervus antisiensis, Tschudi, Fauna Peruv. vol. i, p. 241, pi. xviii, 

1844; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Sac. 1875, p. 46; Matschie, Sitzher. 

Ges. nat. Freunde, 1894, p. 63. 
Anomalocera huamel, Gray, Scientific Opinion, 1869, p. 384, 
Xeuelaphus huamel, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 497. 
Xenelaphus leucotis, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 89, 1872. 
Xenelaphus anomalocera, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. x, 

p. 445, 1872. 
Xenelaphus chilensis, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, ser, 4, vol. xii, 

p, 61, 1873, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. -p. 159, 1873. 
Creagoceros antisiensis, Fitzinger, Sitzher. h. Ah. Wiss. Wien, 

vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 358, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 369, 1879, 
Furcifer chilensis, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, ser, 4, vol, xiii, p, 332, 

1874. 
Cariacus antisiensis, Broohe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p, 924 ; Scliiiff, 

Zool. Garten, vol. xxxi, p. 226, 1890 ; Flower and LydeJcker, Study 

of Mammals, p. 329, 1891 ; LydcMer, Horns and Hoofs, p. 346, 

1903. 
Furcifer antisensis, Nehring, Sitzher. Ges. nat. Freunde, 1895, p. 9. 
Mazama antisiensis, Lydchlier, Deer of All Lands, p. 295, pi. xxiii, 

1898, 
Mazama (Xenelaphus) antisiensis, p, 367, 1901 ; Ward, Records of 

Big Game, ed. 6, p. 112, 1916, ed. 7, p. 110, 1914. 
Hippooamelus antisiensis, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. [Field 

Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 52, 1907 ; Pococh, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1910. p. 966; Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 153, 1914. 



CEKVID.E 197 

Odocoileus antisensis, Dabbenc, An. Mks. B. Aires, ser. 3, vol. xiv, 
p. 293, 1911. 

Peruvian Guemal. 

Typical locality Peruvian Andes. 

Smaller than preceding species, the shoukler-licight being 
about 34 inclies ; general colour much the same as in latter, 
but under-parts markedly lighter than back, and a patch on 
rump and basal portion of upper side of tail brown ; tarsal 
tuft blackish brown ; antlers forking nearer burr. 

The range includes the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, 
and northern Chili, usually at heights of between 14,000 
and 16,000 feet above the sea-level, but probably ranging 
down to 11,000 feet, and also part of northern Argentina. 
In Ecuador this species is almndant on Chimborazo, Pichincha, 
and Cotopaxi. 

69. 10. 15. 1. Skull, with autlers, and skin, formerly 
mounted. Tinta, southern Peru; collected by Mr. H. 
Whiteley. Type oi A'endajihvs anoinaloccin. Fid'chascd, 1869. 

69. 10. 15. 2 (1525, a). Skull aud skin, female. Same 
locality and collector. Some history. 

69. 10. 15. 3 (1525, c). Skull and skin, young. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

69. 10. 15. 4 (1525, d). Skull and skin, young. Same 
locality and collector. Sumc liistory. 

69. 10. 15. 5 (1525, /•). Skull, female. Same locality 
and collector. Same liistory. 

* * * *. Skull and antleis. Locality unknown. 

No history. 

74.3.27.1. Skin, mounted. Ceachupati, Peru ; collected 
by Mr. H. Whitely. Purchased, 1872. 

94. 11. 20. 4. Skull and skin, female. Incapirca, Junin, 
Peru ; collected by Mr. J. Kalinowski. Fnrehetsed, 1894. 

97. 11. 11. 4-5. Two skulls. Tinta, Peru; collected 
by j\Ir. H. Whitely ; formerly in collection of Sir Victor 
Brooke, Bart. Presented hy Sir Douglas Broolr, Bart, 1897. 



198 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



X. Genus MAZAMA. 

Mazama, Rafinesque, A»ier. Month. Mag. vol. i, p. 44, 1817 ; 

Merriam, Science, ser. 2, vol. i, p. 208, 1895 ; Lydekker, Deer of 

All Lands, pp. 243 (partim) and 298, 1898 ; Elliot, Mamm. Mid. 

Amer. and W. Indies {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 79, 1904 ; 

Pococh, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 264 ; Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. 

Hist. ser. 8, vol. xi, p. 58.5, 1913. 
Subulo, H. S)7iit]i, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 318, 1827; 

Fitzinger, Sitzher. h. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 7, 

1879 ; nee Subula, Schumacher, 1817. 
Passalites, Gloger, Handhucli Naturgeschichtc, p. 140, 1841. 
Subula, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anim., Mamm. p. 173, 1842 ; nee 

Scliumacher, 1817. 
Coassus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 174, 1843, Cat. Ungulata 

Brit. Mus. p. 238, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 91, 1872 ; 

Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 924 ; Biitimeyer, Abh. schweiz. 

pal. Ges. \o\. viii, p. 31, 1881. 
Homelaphus, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 90, 1872. 
Nanelaphus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, 

p. 360, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 31, 1879. 
Dorvceros, Fitzinger, op. cit. vol. Ixviii. p. 360, 1873, vol. Ixxix, p. 23, 
'1879. 

Small deer nearly allied to the three preceding genera, 
but distinguished by the following characters : — 

Antlers in the form of simple unbranched spikes ; meta- 
tarsal gland and tuft absent, and tarsal gland in some species 
rudimentary or perhaps obsolete ; tail very short ; face 
elongated ; face-glands small and exposed, and gland-pits 
deep and triangular ; crown of head tufted, and hair of face 
radiating from two whorls, one on crown and the other 
below line of eyes, the hair of forehead being directed 
upwards towards antlers, and that of nose downwards towards 
muzzle ; upper canines occasionally present in old males ; 
coat fine and smooth ; build clumsy, with the back much 
arched, and profile of face convex ; young spotted with 
white. Ears of medium length ; upper lip with a pair of 
white spots on each side of nose, and lower lip with a larger 
VT^hite spot in middle line. 

The range includes Central and Tropical South America. 

The following is a " key " to the species : — 

A. Laehrymal pits in skull deeper. 

a. Size larger M. rufina. 

b. Size smaller M.hricenii. 



CERVID.E 199 

B. Lachrymal pits shallower. 

a. Colour rufous, white below. 
a' . Hair of withers reversed. 

a" . Preniaxill:T» articulating with nasals ; 
skull longer. 
a?. Face not markedly dark, without 

eyebrow-streak M. amcricana. 

¥. Face markedlj' dark, with eyebrow- 
streak M. siqjerciliaris. 

b". Premaxillae not articulating with nasals ; 

skull shorter M. zetta. 

b'. Hair of withers not reversed M. sheila. 

c'. Hair of withers either normal or reversed, 
size small, face and limbs shaded with 
bluish black M. tenia. 

b. Colour brown to whitish grey. 

b' . Colour pale pepper-and-salt brown to 

whitish grey, size larger M. simplicicornis. 

c' . Colour dark brown tinged with rufous, 

size very small M. nana. 

c. Colour drab-brown, tail fulvous M. pandora. 

I. MAZAMA AMEEICANA. 

Moschus americanus, Erxleben, Syst. Begn. Anim. vol. i, p. 324, 1777. 
Cervus rufus, Illiger. Abh. Al: Sci. Berlin, 1811, p. 108, 1815 ; * 

Desrnarest, Mainmalogie, vol. ii, p. 245, 1822 ; H. Smith, 

Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 140, 1827 ; Tschudi, 

Fauna Peruv. vol. i, p. 236, 1844; F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. 

vol. vii, p. 127, 1817 ; Bwrmeister, Descrijjt. Phys. Bepub. 

Argent, vol. iii, p. 465, 1879. 
Mazama pita, Bafincsque, Amer. Month. Mag. vol. i, p. 863, 1817. 
Cevvus (Subulo) rufus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, 

p. 318, 1827 ; Goeldi, Mammiferos do Brasil, p. 108, 1893. 
Subulo rufus, Jardine, Naturalist' s Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 178, 1835. 
(?) Subulo apura, Swainson, Classif. Quadrupeds, p. 295, 1835. 
Coassus rufus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 174, 1843, Knowsley 

Menagerie, p. 69, pi. xlvii, 1850, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 238, 

1852, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 92, 1872, Hand-List Bumi- 

nants Brit. Mus. p. 161, 1873 ; Quelch, Zoologist, ser. 3, vol. xvii, 

p. 19, 1893. 
Cervus (Subulo) dolichurus, Wagner, Schreber's Sdugthiere, Suppl. 

vol. iv, p. 389, 1844. 
Homelaphus inornatus, Gray, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mils. p. 90, 1872. 
Coassus inornatus. Gray, Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 162, 

1873. 
Subulo dolichurus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, 

pt. 1, p. 359, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 11, 1879. 



Separate copies stated to have been issued in 1811, 



200 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Subulo rufus, Fitzingcr, op. cit. vol. Ixviii, p. 360, 1873, vol. Lxxix, 

p. 11, 1879. 
Cariacus rufus, -Bj'ooAt, Proc. Zool, Soc. 1878, p. 925; Sclater, List 

Mamm, Zool. Gardens, p. 174, 1883 ; Lydehker, Horns and Hoofs, 

p. 348, 1893.- 
Cervus (Coassus) rufus, Ihering, Mammifcros dc Sao Paulo, p. 15, 

1894. 
Mazama rufa, Lydehker, Deer of All Lands, p. 300, 1898, Great and 

Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 370, 1901. 
Mazama inornata, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 306, 1898. 
Mazama amei-icana, Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, voL xi, 

p. 585, 1913; Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1914, p. 15; 

Lydekker, Ward's Becords of Big Game, ed. 7, p. Ill, 1914. 

Bed Brocket ; Veado Pardo or Veado Mateiro. 

The type species. Also type of Homelaphus. 

Typical locality Guiana. 

Size relatively large, and build heavy ; height at shoulder 
about 27 inches ; hair of middle line of nape generally 
reversed ; general colour shining brownish red (rufous), 
sometimes with minute dark tips to the hairs ; sides of neck 
and flanks reddish grey ; throat, under surface of upper part 
of neck, and inner sides of thighs whitish grey ; tail 
brownish red above, white below and at tip ; a small whitish 
streak on rump ; a large spot on front (tf lower lip and a 
smaller one on each side of upper lip below nose white ; 
antlers yellowish white ; lachrymal pits relatively shallow ; 
premaxilla3 usually articulating with nasals. 

The range extends from Guiana to Paraguay and \\\o 
Grande do 8ul. 

The two local races are distinguishable as follows : — 

A. Size larger; skull longer (205 to 210 mm.) M. a. amcricana. 

B. Size smaller; skull shorter (202 mm.) M. a. jucunda, 

A.— Mazama americana americana. 

Typical locality Guiana. 

General characters those of the species ; skull relatively 
long. 

The range includes Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, and 
Paraguay. 

684, ft. Skeleton, mounted. Soutli America. 

Pitrehascd {Brandt). 

1037, a. Skujl, with antlers. Bahia, Brazil. No history. 



CERVID.E 201 

41. 594. Skull and skin, female. South America ; 
collected by Parreys. Purchased. 

41. 595. Skin, mounted. South America ; same 
collector. Purchased. 

45. 8. 509 (684, h). Skull. Para, Amazonia. 

Presented lij J. P. G. Smith, Psq., 1845. 

46. 4. 21. 7 (684, c). Skeleton, immature. 

Purchased (Brandt), 1846. 

51. 8. 29. 7. Skin, female, formerly mounted. South 

America. Type of Homeluplius inornatus ; referred to by 

Gray as a male, a statement copied by the present writer in 

Beer of All Lands. Purchased {Zoological Society), 1851. 

66. 3. 28. 14. Skin. Upper Ucayali Valley, Peru ; 

collected by Mr. C. Bartlett. Purchased, 1866. 

SO. 5. 6. 38. Skin. Sarayacu, Ecuador ; collected by 

Mr. C. Buckley. • Purchased, 1880. 

80. 5. 6. 39. Skin, young. Same locality and collector. 

Same -hist or ij. 
82. 9. 30. 24. Skull and antlers. Taquara, Eio Grande 
do Sal, Brazil; collected by Dr. H. von Ihering. 

Purchased, 1882. 
82. 9. 30. 25. Skull, female. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

1. 11. 3. 91. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Ptio Jordao, 

Minas Geraes ; collected by Mr. A. Robert. Purchased, 1901. 

1. 11. 3. 92. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

2. 1. 1. 114. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Charuplaya, 
Bolivia ; collected by Mr. P. 0. Simons. 

Presented hj 0. Thomas, Esq., 1902. 

3. 7. 7. 129. Skull and skin, young in spotted coat. 
Serra de Chapada, Matto Grosso, Brazil ; collected by 
Mr. A. Eobert. Presented hy 3Trs. Percy Sladen. 

3. 7. 7. 130. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

4. 7. 4. 88. Skull and skin, female. Igarape Assu, 
Para, Amazonia ; collected by Mr. A. Ilobert. 

Presented hy 0. Thomas, Esq., 1904. 

4. 7. 4. 89. Skull and skin, immature female. Same 

locality and collector. Sajiie history. 



202 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

8. 5. 9. 27. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Hnmaytlia 
Valley, Madeira, Amazonia ; collected by Mr. W. Hoffmanns. 

Purchased, 1908. 

10. 5. 4. 58. Skull and skin, young in short, dark, 

spotted coat. Supinaam Valley, British Guiana; collected 

by Mr. Cozier. This and the following specimens from the 

same district are topo- types of the species. 

Presented hj F. V. MeCunnell, Esq., 1910. 

10. 5. 4. 59. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

11. 12. 15. 17. Skull and skin, female. Same locality 
atid collector. Same donor, 1911. 

11. 12. 15. 18. Skull and skin, young in dark, spotted 
coat. Same locality and collector. Same history. 

11. 12. 15. 19, Skull and skin, female. Same locality 
and collector. . Same history. 

13. 5. 28. 11. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Bonasica, 
Essequibo Valley, British Guiana ; same, locality and 
collector. Same donor, 1913. 

14. 11. 9. 2. Skull, with antlers and skin. Conceigao, 
Eio Araguaya, northern Brazil. 

Presented hy the Para Museum., 1914. 

B.— Mazama americana jucunda. 

Mazama americana jucunda, Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, 
vol. xi, p. 587, 1913. 

Typical locality Eopa Nova, Serra do Mar, Parana, 
southern Brazil. 

Distinguished from typical race by inferior size and 
shorter skull, of which the basal length is about 202 mm., 
against from 205 to 210 mm. in former ; coat of medium 
length ; general colour bright rufous faAvn ; limbs brown 
above, rufous on pasterns ; tail dark rufous above. 

3. 7. 1. 103. Skull and skin, immature female. Eoca 
Nova, Serra do Mar, Parana; collected, Sept. 9, 1901, 
by Mr. A. Ptobert. Type. 

Presented hy Mrs. Percy Sladen, 1903. 

3. 7. 1. 200. Skull and antlers. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 



CERVIDyE 203 

The folloiving specimens prohahly re'prcsent this or a nearly 
allied brocket {? M. sujperciliaris) : — 

46. 6. 1. 23 (684,</). Skull, with antlers, and skin. 
Santa Catherina, Brazil (between Parana and Eio Grande do 
Sul) ; collected by Parzudaki. Purchased, 1846. 

46. 6. 1. 24. Skin, female. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

46. 6. 1. 25 (684,/). Skull, young, and skin, old female. 
Same locality and collector. Same history. 

II. MAZAMA SUPERCILIAEIS. 

Coassus superciliaris, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 242, pi. xxv, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, vol. ix, p. 432, 1852, Cat. TJngulata 
Brit. Mus. p. 239, 1852, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mm. p. 92, 1872, 
Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 160, 1873. 

Cervus (Subulo) superciliaris, Wagner, Schreher's Sdugthiere, Suppl. 
vol. V, p. 386, 1855. 

Subulo superciliaris, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, 
pt. 1, p. 360, 1873, vol.'lxxix, pt. 1, p. 3 8, 1879. 

Cariacus superciliaris, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 926. 

Mazama superciliaris, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 301, 1898, 
Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 371, 1901. 

Typical locality Brazil (? Santa Catherina). 

Closely allied to the last, of which it is not improbably 
merely a local variety or colour-phase ; general colour 
shining brownish red ; neck, chest, hocks, and fronts of 
fore-legs whitish grey ; forehead blackish, with a distinct 
streak over each eye. 

49. 1. 12. 35. Skull, with antlers, and skin, immature. 
South America (? Santa Catherina, Brazil) ; collected by 
Hultze. Type. If from Santa Catherina, this and the 
following specimen are not even racially separable from the 
foregoing specimens from the same locality. 

Purchased, 1849. 

49. 9. 3. 1-2. Skin and skull. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 



20-i CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



III. MAZAMA ZETTA. 

Mazama zetta, Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. xi, p. 586, 
1913. 

Typical locality Medellin, Autioquia, Colombia. 

Generally similar to 3f. americana, but build rather 
stouter, and general colour browner and less rufous (rufous 
brown), especially on bead, ears, and neck, the head having 
indistinct rufous markings ; skull shorter and stouter (basal 
length 187-190 mm.), with shorter premaxilke, which but 
rarely reach nasals. The question whether this brocket 
might not be preferably regarded as a local race of 
M. americana is reserved. 

78. 8. 31. 1. Skin. Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia; 
collected by ]\Ir. J. K. Salmon. Purchased, 1878. 

78. 8. 31. 2. Skin, formerly mounted, and skull, female. 
Same locality and collector. Same histor//. 

78. 8. 31. 3. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 
collector. Type. Same histori/. 

78. 8. 31. 3*. Skin, young. Same locality and collector. 

Same histori/. 

78. 8. 31. 13 (1700, ft). Skeleton, female. Same locality 
and collector. Same histori/. 

78. 8. 31. 14 (1700, ?0. Skull, with antlers. Same 
locality and collector. Same histori/. 

85. 4. 22. 6-7. Two skulls, with antlers. Same locality 
and collector. Purchased, 1885. 

85. 4. 22. 8. Skull, female. Same locality and collector. 

Same historij. 

14. 5. 28. 25. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Ccndoto, 
Chaco, Colombia. Presented hij Dr. H. G. F. SpurreU, 1914. 

14. 5. 28. 26. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Same historij. 

The foUoiving s])eeimcns appear to indicate a broelet nearly 
related to this race : — 

14. 4. 25. 80. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Gualaquiza. 
Ecuador ; collected by Mr. G. Hammond. 

Presented hy 0. Thomas, Esij., 1914, 



CERViD.4<: 205 

14. 4. 25. 81. Skull and skin, female. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

14. 4. 25. 82. Skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same Idstorij. 
14. 4. 25. B;]. Skull, female. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

IV. MAZAMA SHEILA. 

Mazama sheila, Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. sev. 8, vol. xi, p. 587, 
1913. 

Typical locality near Merida, Venezuela. 

A lowland-form distinguished from the three preceding 
species by its inferior size (basal length of skull about 
177 mm.), the normal direction of the hair of the nape, and 
the pale bright rufous general colour ; skull of the short type 
of that of M. zetta, with the premaxilkr, not reaching nasals. 

13, 4, 24. 4. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Montana de 
Limones, Merida ; collected by the Messrs. Briceiio, October, 
1910. Type. Purchased {Rmnherg), 1913. 



V, MAZAMA TEMA, 

Mazama tema, Bafinesque, Amer. Month. Mag. vol. i, p, 44, 1817 ; 
LydeTihcr, Deer of All Lands, p. 302, 1898, Great and Small 
Game of Europe, etc. p. 379, 1901, partim ; Miller, List N. Amer. 
Mamm. p, 390, 1912; Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, ser, 8, 
vol, i, p, 349, 1908, vol. xi, p, 586, 1913. 

Cervus liunibokltii, Wiegmann, Isis, 1833, p. 954, nomen nudum, 

Cervus sartorii, Saussure, Bev. Mag. Zool. ser. 2, vol, xii, p, 252, 1860 

Subulo sartorii, Fitzinger, Sitzher. k. AJi\ Wiss. Wien, vol, Ixxix 
pt. 1, p. 20, 1879. 

Cariacus tema, Alston, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Mamm. p. 118, 1879 
Bhoads, Amer. Nat. vol. xxviii, p. 526, 1894. 

Cariacus rufinus, Alston, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Mamm. p. 118, 1879 
True, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol, vii, p. .592, 1885; uec Cervus 
rufinus, Bnclieran. 

Mazama sartorii, LydekJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 303, pi. xxiv, fig. 2, 
1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 372, 1901 ; Elliot, 
Mamm. Mid. Amer, and W. Indies {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. 
vol. iv), p. 80, 1904, 

Hippocamelus sartori, Elliot, Check-List Mamm. N. Amer. etc. 
(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol, vi) p, 50, 1905, Cat. Mamm. Field 
Mus. (ibid. vol. viii) p. 51, 1907. 



206 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Typical locality Mexico, probably the State of Vera Cruz. 

Smaller than M. americmia, the shoulder-height rauging 
from 25^ to 20^ inches ; hair of withers either normal or 
reversed ; general colour bright shining brownish red ; neck, 
throat, and chest fawn ; abdomen white ; outer sides of 
hind-shanks, fronts of fore-legs, and lower part of face 
shaded with bluish black ; tail like back above, white below ; 
the usual white spots on lips ; antlers whitish horn-colour, 
and less rugose than those of M. americana. 

The distinctive features of this species are the small size, 
the dark shading of the face and limbs, and the blackish red 
(instead of whitish) throat. 

The range includes southern Mexico and Central America. 

The three races are distinguished as follows : — 

A. Size smaller, colour brighter and more rufescent... M. t. tcma. 

B. Size larger, colour duller and less rufescent M. t. rcperticia, 

c. Colour darker and redder than in either of the 

preceding M. t. cerasina. 

A. — Mazama tema tema. 

Mazama tema tema, Goldman, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol. Ix, 
no. 22, p. 2, 1913. 

Typical locality southern Mexico. 

Size relatively small ; colour bright and strongly rufescent. 

88. 8. 8. 5. Skull, with antlers, and scalp-skin. Atoyac, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico ; collected by Mr. H. H. Smith. 

Presented hy Messrs. Salvin and Godman, 1888. 

91.3.24.2(1700,^). Skull, with antlers, and skin, 
formerly mounted. Guatemala ; collected by Boucard. 

Purchased, 1891. 

91. 3. 24. 3 (1700, c). Skull and skin, immature female. 
Same locality and collector. Same history. 

91. 3. 24. 4. Skin, young. Same locality and collector. 

Same histwy. 

93. 2. 5. 23. Skull and skin, the latter in the young 
spotted coat. Sierra de Rosario, Jalisco, Mexico ; collected 
by Dr. A. G. Buller. Purchased, 1893. 



CERVIDiE 207 

B.— Mazama tema reperticia. 

Mazarna tema reperticia, Goldman, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol, Ix, 
no. 22, p. 2, 1913. 

Typical locality Gatun, Panama. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Somewhat larger than typical race, and duller and much 
less rufescent in colour. Similar in size to 31. pandora 
{infra) but darker and with diflerences in skull ; larger 
than M. hriccnii (infra), with shorter coat, especially on 
neck, less rich rufescent colour, and a smaller dark area on 
face. 

78. 7. 6. 4 (1700, c)- Skull and skin, immature female. 
Costa Eica ; collected by Mr. Eogers. 

Presented hj F. du Cane Godman, Esq., 1878. 

C— Mazama tema cerasina. 

Mazama tema cerasina, Hollister, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
vol. xxvii, p. 209, 1914. 

Typical locality Talamanca, Costa Eica. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Distinguished from both the typical Mexican and the 
Panama races by the darker and distinctly more reddish 
general colour. 

No specimen in collection. 



VI. MAZAMA BEICENII. 

Mazama bricenii, Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. i, p. 349, 
1908; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 964; Osgood, Field 
Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. X, p. 45, 1912 ; Lonnberg, Arhiv Zool. 
vol. viii, no. 16, p. 34, 1913. 

Typical locality Paramo de la Culata, Merida, Venezuela. 

In general appearance and colour very like M. tema, but 
size smaller (basal length of skull about 143 mm.), and 
lachrymal pits of skull deeper, the whole skull being also 
slighter with proportionately smaller orbits and the pre- 
maxillai articulating extensively with nasals ; general colour 
rich chestnut-rufous, with the head, ears, nape, fore-limbs, 



208 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

and hind-shanks dark brown ; nnder-parts somewhat lighter ; 
tail brown above, with a few rufous hairs, 

5. 7. 5. 18. Skull and skin, young female. Merida ; 
collected by Senor S. Biieeno. Pvrehased (JRoscnberg), 1905. 

8, 6. 24. 5. Skull and skin, female. Paramo de la 
Culata, Mexico (August, 1907 ) ; same collector. 

Purchased (Ilosenhcrg), 1908. 

8. 6. 24. 6. Skull and skin, very young. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

13. 4. 24. 3. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Merida ; 
same collector. Purchased {Rosenberg), 1913. 

Vir. MAZAMA PtUriNA. 

Cervus rufinns, Puclieran, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi, p. 491, 1852. 
Coassus rufinus, Gray, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 162, 1873. 
Subulo rufinus, Fitzinger, Sitzher. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, 

pt. 1, p. 162, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 17, 1879, 
Cai-iacus rufinus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1875, p. 925. 
Mazama rufina,* Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist. ser. 8, vol. i, p. 349, 

1908, vol. xi, p. 586, 1913. 

Typical locality Ecuador, at an elevation of about 11,000 
feet. 

Type in Paris Museum. 

A mountain-form allied to, but larger than (shoulder- 
height about 25^ inches), 31. hricenii. 

77. 4. 3. 1. Skin, immature, Jima, Ecuador ; collected 
by C. Buckley, Esq. Purchased, 1877. 

96. 1. 28. 5*. Skull, probably referable to this species, 
Ecuador ; figured by De Winton, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1896, 
p. 510, as Pudna mephistophiles, see Thomas, ojp. cit. 1908, 
p. 350. Presented hij L. Soderstrom, Esq., 1896. 

YIII. MAZAMA SIMPLICICORNIS. 

Cervus simplicicornis, Illiger, Abh. Ak. Sci. Berlin, 1811, p. 107, 1815 f ; 
Wied, Naturgesch. Brasil, vol. ii, p. 596, 1827 ; H. Smith, 
Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p, 141, 1827 ; Burmeister, 
Descript. Phys. Eepub. Argent, vol. iii, p. 466, 1879 ; Goeldi, 
Mammiferos do Brasil, p. 108, 1893. 



M, rufinus in first passage. f See note, p, 199. 



CERViDJ-: 209 

Mazama Lira, Bafinesque, Amer. Month. Mag. vol. i, p. 368, 1817. 
Cervus nemorivagus, F. Cuvier, Diet. Set. Nat. vol. vii, p. 485, 1817; 

H. Smith. Gi-iffitlis Ayiinial Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 142, 1827. 
Cervus (Subulo) nemorivagus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 

vol. V, 319, 1827. 
Cervus (Subulo) simplicicornis, H. Smith, oj). cit. vol. v, p. 381, 1827. 
Passalites nemorivagus, Gloger, Handhuch Naturgeschichtc , p. 140, 

1841. 

Coassus nemorivagus, Gray, Cat, Ungulata Brit. Mns. p. 288, 1852, 
Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 91, 1872, Hand-List Buminants 
Brit. Mus. p. 160, 1873 ; Quelch, Zoologist, ser. 3, vol. xvii, 
p. 19, 1893 ; Bendall, ibid. ser. 4, vol. i, p. 345, 1897. 

Coassus simplicornis, Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 238, 1852, 
Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 91, 1872, Hand-List Buminants 
Brit. Mus. p. 160, 1873; Quelch, Zoologist, ser. 3, vol. xvii, 
p. 19, 1893. 

Doryceros nemorivagus, Fitzinger, Sitzher. Tx. Al\ Wiss. Wien, vol. 

Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 360, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 23, 1879. 
Cariacus simplicornis, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 925 ; 

LydeJi'Jcer, Horns and Hoofs, p. 348, 1893. 
Cariacus nemorivagus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 925 ; Sclater, 

List Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 174, 1883 ; Lydekkcr, Horns and 

Hoofs, p. 394, 1893. 
Cervus (Coassus) simplicicornis, Ihering, Mammiferos de S. Paulo, 

p. 15, 1894. 

Mazama nemorivaga, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 303, 1898, 
Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 372, 1901 ; Ward, 
Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 113, 1910, ed. 7, p. Ill, 1914; 
Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 962.* 

Mazama americana, Osgood, Field. Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 43, 1912 ; 
nee Cervus americanus, Erxleben. 

Hippocamelus nemorivagus, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. [Field 
Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 52, 1907. 

Mazama americana, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 43, 1912 ; 
nee Moschus americanus, Erxleben, 1777. 

Mazama simplicicornis, Hagmann, Arcliiv Bassen- und Gesell.-Biol. 
vol. V, p. 14, 1908; Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, 
vol. xi, p. 585, 1912. 

Type of Doryceros. 

Typical locality Brazil. 

Build light and slender, and size small, the shoulder- 
height being about 19 inches ; general colour varying from 
pale pepper-and-salt brown to greyish or whitish, usually 
with a distinct streak on the forehead before the front of the 
eyes ; never any sign of reddish at any season ; hairs of back 
ringed with yellowish red below the tip; under-parts huffish ; 

* M. nemorivagus. 
IV. P 



210 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

tarsal gland and tuft small ; * antlers short, fine, and dirty 
white in colour. 

Eange co-extensive with that of" M. aiacnccma, but also 
including Trinidad. 

A.— Mazama simplicicornis simplicieornis. 

Typical locality Brazil. 

General characters those of species. 

1-41, a. Skull and skin, female. Locality unknown. 

JVo history. 

41. 593. Skull and skin, female. Brazil ; collected by 
Parreys. Purchased. 

44. 9. 11. 107. Skin, formerly mounted. British Guiana ; 
collected by Sir 1{. Schomburgk. Purchased, 1844. 

46. 2. 13. 3 (46. 4. 10. 6-685, h). Skull and skin. Brazil. 

Purchased (Brandt), 1846. 

47. 11. 22. 21. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Santa 
Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia ; collected by Mr. T. Bridges. 

Purchased, 1847. 

47. 11. 22. 21*. Skin, immature. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

58. 6. 18. 7. Skin, female. Locality unknown. 

Purchased {Zooloyical Society), 1858. 

59. 9. 6. 106 (1037, h). Skull, young. Surinam, Dutch 
Guiana ; Ur. A, Giinther's collection. Purchased, 1859. 

80. 5. 6. 40. Skin, female. Sarayacu, Ecuador ; collected 

by C. Buckley, Esq. Purchased, 1880. 

80.5.6.41. Skin, immature. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
82. 9. 30. 26. Skull, with antlers. Taquara, Rio Grande 
do Sul, Brazil ; collected by Dr. H. von Ihering. 

Purchased, 1882. 
82. 9. 30. 27. Skull, female. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
92. 11. 2. 3. Skin, young. Trinidad. 

Presented hy H. Carracciolo, Esq., 1892. 
97. 1. 5. 20. Skin. Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia ; 

* Fitzinger founded Doratoceros on account of the supposed 
absence of the tarsal gland, which is stated by Pocock to be present. 



CERVID.E 211 

collected by Mr. J. K. Salmon ; formerly in collection of Sir 
Victor Brooke, Bart. 

Presented hy Sir Douglas Brooke, Bart., 1897. 

3. 4. 6. 8. Skull and skin, young. Eupuuuui, southern 
British Guiana; collected by Dr. J. J. Quelch. 

Presented hy F. V. McConnell, Esq., 1903. 

4. 7. 4. 85. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Igarape, Assu, 
Para, Amazonia ; collected by Mr. A. Eobert. 

Presented hy 0. Thomas, Esq., 1904. 

4. 7. 4. 86. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same locality 

and collector. Same history. 

4. 7. 4. 87. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same locality 

and collector. Same history. 

8. 3. 7. 55. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Coast-region, 
Demerara, British Guiana. 

Presented hy F. V. McConnell, Esq., 1908. 

9. 4. 20. 3-4. Two young skulls and skins, the latter in 
the dark, white-spotted coat. Mazaruni Valley, British 
Guiana. Same donor, 1909. 

12. 12. 19. 11. Skull and skin, female. Bonasica, Esse- 
quibo Valley, British Guiana ; collected by Mr. Cozier. 

Same donor, 1912. 

12. 12. 19. 12. Skull and skin, female. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

13.5.23.12. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same locality 
and collector. Same donor, 1913. 

13. 12. 18. 4. Skull and skin, female. Gumunda, Lower 
Amazonia. Presented hy the Goeldi Museum, Para, 1913. 

13. 12. 18. 5. Skull and skin, young female. Same 
locality. Same history. 

13. 12. 18. 6. Skull and skin. Ceara, Amazonia. 

Same history. 

B.— Mazama simplicicornis mexianae. 

Coassus simplicicornis, var, mexianae, Hagmann, Archiv Eassen- 
und Gesell. Biol. vol. v, p. 14, pi. i, 1908. 

Typical (and only) locality Mexiana Island, mouth of the 
Amazon. 

Smaller than typical race, the skull having a basal length 

p 2 



212 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

of from 150 to 163 mm., against from 173 to 181 mm. in 
the latter ; antlers and their pedicles less inclined backwards 
than in typical race, and a marked difference in the shape of 
the lachrymal. 

No specimen in collection. 

C— Mazama simplicicornis citus. 

Mazama americana citus, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, 
p. 43, 1912. 

Typical locality Lake Maracailjo, Venezuela. 
Type in Field Museum, Chicago. 

Similar to typical race, but slightly larger, with especially 
large cheek-teeth, and the colour greyer and paler. 
No specimen in collection. 



IX. MAZAMA TSCHUDII. 

Cervus (Subiilo) tschudii, Wagner, Schrcher's Sdugthiere, Sujij^l. 

vol. V, p. 386, 1855. 
Cervvis (Subulo) simplicornis major, Wagner, lac. cit. 1855. 
Doryceros tschudii, Fitzingei\ Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wicn, \o\. Ixviii, 

"^pt. 1, p. 360, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 30, 1879. 
Coassus whitelyi. Gray, Anji. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xii, p. 163, 

1873, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 162, pi. xxxii, 1873. 
Cariacus whitelyi, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 926. 
Mazama tschudii, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 305, 1898, Great 

and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 373, 1901. 

Typical locality Peru, at elevations of 16,000 feet above 
the sea-level on the western slopes of the coast Cordillera, in 
the same districts inhabited by Hippocamclus antisensis. 

Closely allied to M. simplicicornis, from which it is 
distinguished by its somewhat inferior size, nearly smooth 
antlers, and certain details of coloration ; back darker than 
in M. simplicicornis, and under-parts and inner sides of limbs 
white, instead of huffish white ; liairs of back without sub- 
terminal yellowish red rings. 

73. 6. 27. 2 (1618, a). Skull, immature female. Cosni- 
pata, Peru ; collected by ]\Ir. H. Whitely. Type of Cariacus 
ivliitclyi. Purchased, 1873. 



CEKVID^ 213 



X. MAZAMA PANDOEA. 

Mazama pandora, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xiv, 
p. 105, 1901 ; Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Ainer. and W. Indies {Field 
Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 80, 1904; Miller, List N. Amer. 
Mamm. p. 390, 1912. 

Hippocamelus pandora, Elliot, Check-List Mamm. N. Amer. and 
W. Indies (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi), p. 51, 1905; Allen, 
Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll. vol. 2, p. 108, 1906. 

Typical locality Yucatan. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Size and ears much the same as in M. amcrkana ; general 
colour greyish or dral) brown ; ears with a white line or 
margin near basal aperture ; tail dull fulvous above. 

No specimen in collection. 



XL MAZAMA NANA. 

Cariacus nanus, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Peg ne Anim., Mamm. p. 173, 1842. 
Cervus (Subulo) nanus, ^Yagner, Sclireher's Sdugthiere, Suppl. 

vol. V, p. 386, 1855. 
Nanelaphus namby, Fitzinger, Sitzber. A-. Al'. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, 

pt. 1, p. 361, i873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 32, 1879. 
Nanelaplius nambi, Goeldi, Mammiferos do Brasil, p. 108, 1893. 
Cervus (Coassus) nanus, Ihering, Mammiferos de Sao Paido, p. 16, 

1894. 
Mazama nana, Lydekher, Deer of All Lands, p. 305, 1898, Great and 

Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 373, 1901. 

Type of Nandaplius. 

Typical locality Matto Grosso district, Brazil. 

Imperfectly known ; size very small, inferior to that of 
M. simplicicornis, from which this species is stated to be dis- 
tinguished by the larger face-glands ; tail terminating in a 
tuft of longish hairs ; coat rough and thick ; ears thickly 
haired externally, short-haired internally ; general colour 
uniformly dark lirown with a tinge of reddish ; under-parts 
lighter ; tail coloured like back above, white below and at 
tip ; a small white spot beneath each eye ; lips white, the 
upper one dirty white near muzzle ; ears externally dark 
brown, internally bluish white ; tarsal tuft white. 

No specimen in collection. 



214 catalogue of ungulates 

Incert^ Sedis. 

1. Coassus auritus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 242, Ann. Mag. Nat. 

Hist. ser. 2, vol. ix, p. 432, 1852, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mm. 
p. 239, 1852, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 92, 1872; nee 
Cervus auritus, Desmarest. 

Cervus (Subulo) auritus, Wagner, Schrcher's Saugthiere, Suppl. 
vol, V, p. 336, 1855. 

Subulo auritus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. Ji. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, 
pt. 1, p. 360, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 19, 1879. 

Mazama aurita, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 306, 1898. 

Named from a Brazilian (?) skin, now lost ; possibly the 
female of M. americcma. 

2. Mazama rondoni, Eibeiro, Comin. Linhas Telegr. de Matto Orosso 

ao Amazonias, Annex 5, Hist. Nat., Mammiferos {Rio de Janeiro), 
p. 33, 1914. 

Typified by a male skin and female skeleton from 
Poaya, Amazonia, in the Museum at Eio de Janeiro. 
Dimensions are given, and the colour is said to be dark, but 
the description is otherwise insufficient. 



XL Genus PUDU. 

Pudu, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 242, Cat. Buminants Brit. 
Mus. p. 92, 1872 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 967. 

Nanelaphus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, 
p. 360, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 31, 1879, partim. 

Pudua, Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 18; Brooke, ibid. 1878, 
p. 296; de Winton, ibid. 1896, p. 508; Lydekker, Deer of All 
Lands, p. 307, 1898. 

Skull and metacarpals generally as in Mazama; size 
very small ; coat coarse and l)rittle ; antlers in the form of 
short, simple spikes ; cannon-bones very short ; tail short or 
wanting ; hair of forehead either reversed or directed uni- 
formly backwards from muzzle to crown ; ears large and 
rounded ; face-glands present or absent ; naked portion of 
muzzle variable ; tarsal, metatarsal and interdigital glands 
absent ; upper canines wanting ; external cuneiform of tarsus 
united with naviculo-cuboid. 

The genus includes two species — one from the highlands 
of Chile and the other from those of Ecuador — severally 



CERVID.^^ 215 

representing subgeneric groups, distinguished from one 
another as follows : — 

A. Well developed face-glands and lachrymal pits ; first 

lower incisor not markedly larger than second Piidn. 

B. Face -glands and lachrymal pits wanting ; first lower 

incisor much larger than second Fnildla. 



1. Subgenus PUDU. 

Face-glands and lachrymal pits (fig. 32) well developed ; 
first lower incisor not markedly larger than second ; pre- 
maxillte not reaching nasals ; muffle small ; hoofs normal. 

I. PUDU PUDU. 

Capra piidu, Molina, Saggia Storia Nat. Cliili, p. 310, 1782. 

Cei'vus hmnilis, Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 27. 

Cervus (Pudu) hmnilis, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. IB^O, p. 242. 

Pudu humilis. Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mas. p. 240, 1852, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 105, Cat. Ruminams Brit. Mus. p. 93, 1872, 

Hand-List Bmninants Brit. Mus. p. 163, 1873. 
Pudu chilensis. Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. pi. xxxvi, 1852. 
Cervus pudu, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1871, p. 238. 
Nanelaphus pudu, Fitzinger, Sitzher. k. Ak. Wiss. Wieji, vol. Ixviii, 

pt. 1, p. 361, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 34, 1879. 
Pudua humilis, Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 18 ; BrooJce, ibid. 

1878, p. 927 ; dc Winton, ibid. 1896, p. 510; Sclater, List Anim. 

Zool. Gardens, p. 174, 1883 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Ostcol. 

Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 325, 1884 ; Floiocr and Lydekher, 

Study of Mammals, p. 330, 1891. 
Coassus humilis, Biltimeycr, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 31, 

1881. 
Pudua pudu, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 307, 1898, Great and 

Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 373, 1901. 
Pudu pudu, I'ocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 967 ; Thomas, Ann. 

Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. xi, p. 588, 1913. 

Pudu. 

Typical locality Chilian Andes. 

Size very small — shoulder-height about 13i inches ; hair 
reversed from a line running transversely across forehead in 
front of ears ; tail short and bushy ; general colour speckled 
grey-fawn, passing into bright chestnut on hinder two-thirds 
of back ; ears, lips, a patch above each eye, two areas of 
variable size on foreliead, fronts of fore-legs from knees 



216 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



(lowuwards, and greater part of Iiiud-legs bright chestnut; 
imder-parts rufous yellow. 

The range includes the Chilian Andes and thence south- 
wards to the Chiloe Archipelago. 

50. 11. 29. 5-6 (972, b). Skull and skin, female. Chile. 
Purchased {Zoological Society), 1856. 

54. 12. 6. 6. Skin, mounted, female. Chile. 

Same history, 1854. 

55. 12. 24. 284. Skin, female. Chile. Type. 

Same history, 1855. 




Fig. 32. — Skull of Tcdu [I'lulu pmlii). 

75. 4. 10. 3-4 (972, h). Skin and mounted skeleton. 
Chile. Same history, 1875. 

1. 9. 25. 2. Skull and skin, female. Belind, Constitucion, 
Chile. Presented by J. A. Wolffsohn, Esq., 1901. 

1. 11. .■^»(). 1. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Concepcion. 
Presented by S. H. H. Henn, Esq., 1901. 

3. 11. 16. 1. Skin, immature, mounted. Chilian Andes. 
Presented by the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1903. 

5. 2. 4. 20. Skull and skin, female. Temuco, southern 
Chile ; collected by Mr. D. S. Bullock. Purchased, 1905. 

10. 8. 11. 12. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same 
locality and collect(n\ Purchased, 1910. 



CERVID^ 217 

2. Subgenus PUDELLA. 
riulella, Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. xi, p. 588, 1913. 

Face-glands and lachrymal pits wanting ; first lower 
incisors nmcli larger than second ; premaxillfe reaching nasals ; 
muffle large, extending backwards in middle line a con- 
siderable distance l)ehind nostrils. 

11. PUDU (PUDELLA) MEPHLSTOPHILES. 

Pudua mephistophiles, de Winton, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1896, p. 508, 
pi. xix, partim; Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 308, pi. xxiv, 
fig. 1, Great and. Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 374, 1901 ; 
Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. i, p. 350, 1908; 
Lonnberg, Arldv Zool. vol. viii, no. 16, p. 33, 1913. 

Pudella mephistophiles, Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. xi, 
p. 588, 1913. 

Typical locality Paramo of Papallacta, Ecuador, 

Size probably rather larger than in P. jpiidu — shoulder- 
height about 14 or 15 inches; coat long and coarse, with 
basal portion of hairs brittle and pith-like, the terminal 
halves black with ferruginous tips, producing a rich brown 
colour ; bade darker than flanks, owing to the hairs having 
broader black bands with correspondingly reduced coloured 
tips, on neck the tips paler and longer, the black being 
reduced, producing a tawny appearance, but towards the 
head the black increasing, till the shorter hairs of ears, face, 
and chin are almost black ; ears very short, partially con- 
cealed by rough hairs, thickly haired inside and out, the 
hairs on the inside broadly tipped with white; feet black, 
with most of the hairs minutely tipped with buff; inner 
sides of legs and abdomen clothed with long yellowish hairs 
of a finer type. 

For skull, vide Thomas, op. cif., 1908. 

9G. 1. 28. ."). Skin, immature female. Paramo of Papal- 
lacta, Ecuador. Type. 

Presented hy L. Sodcrstrom, Esq., 189(3. 

99. 2. 18. 20-21. Two skulls and skins. Ecuador. 

Same donor, 1899. 



218 CATALOGUE OP UNGULATES 



XII. Genus CAPREOLUS. 

Capreolus, Oray, Med. Bepos. vol. xv, p. 307, 1821 ; H. Sfnith, 

Griffith's Animal Kingdom, voL v, p. 313, 1827 ; Brooke, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 917 ; Biltimeyer, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. 

vol. viii, p. 41, 1881 ; Lijdehker, Deer of All Lands, p. 223, 1898; 

Pococh, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 957; Miller, Cat. Mamm. 

West. Europe, p. 972, 1912. 
Caprea, OgilhTj, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 135. 

Lateral metacarpals as in Odocoileus ; vomer not dividing 
aperture of posterior nares ; a pouch-like gland opening by a 
narrow orifice on front of hind-pasterns ; antlers comparatively 
small, rising close together and almost vertically from the 
crown of the head, with the beam dichotomously forking at a 
point about two-thirds of the total length, and the posterior, 
or upper prong of this fork, which is the larger, again 
dividing, the normal number of tines being three ; muzzle 
with a large naked portion, extending between the nostrils, 
the upper border of which is straight, while the part below 
the nostrils is narrow ; ears large ; tail rudimentary ; face 
short, with the muzzle blunt; coat uniformly coloured, 
typically with a white patch in the region of the tail in 
winter ; a metatarsal gland on the upper half of the meta- 
tarsus ; lachrymal pits small and shallow and the face-glands 
obsolete ; lateral hoofs well developed ; upper canines usually 
wanting ; upper molars tall-crowned, without a distinct 
additional column on iuner side. Young spotted. Size 
medium or rather small ; build tall. On the under surface 
of the skull the auditory bulloe are not markedly inflated, 
and the unossified vacuities near the lachrymal-pits form 
narrow slits. 

The range includes Central and Southern Europe from 
Great Britain and Scandinavia eastwards, and thence across 
Asia north of the Himalaya to the Pacific coast. 

The species are distinguishable by the following 
characters : — 

A. Size smaller ; ears narrow, pointed, and thinly 
haired ; antlers moderately thick and rugose. 
a. Size smaller ; summer and winter coats markedl.y 
diiferent in colour ; dark moustache -marks on 
lips ; ears red or grey externally ; teeth short- 
crowned C. cajjreolus. 



CERVID^ 219 

b. Size rather larger ; summer and winter coats less 
different in colour ; no dark marks on lips ; ears 
blackish or black externally ; teeth tall-crowned. C. hedfordi. 

B. Size larger ; ears broad, blunt, and thickly haired ; 

antlers very thick and rugose C. pygargus. 



I. CAPEEOLUS CAPEEOLUS. 

Cervus capreolus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 68, 1758, ed. 12, 
vol. i, p. 94, 1766 ; Schreber, Sdugthiere, pis. 212, A and B, 1781 ; 
Kerr, Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 302, 1792 ; Cuvier, Ossemens 
Fossiles, ed. 2, vol. iv, p. 47, 1823 ; F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. 
vol. ii. pis. 226-228, 1823; H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 
vol. iv, p. 124, 1827 ; /. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 450, 1829 ; 
Jenyns, Brit. Vert. Anim. p. 35, 1835 ; Bell, Brit. Quadrupeds, 
p. 407, 1837 ; Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Begne Anim., Mamm. p. 172, 
1842; Oiven, Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1843, p. 238, 1844, Brit. Foss. 
Mamm. and Birds, p. 487, 1846 ; Kolliker, Wiirzburg. Naturwiss. 
Zeitschr. vol. vi, p. 82 ; 1866 ; Badde, Sdugeth. Talysch. p. 10, 
1866 ; Wingc, Danmarks Fauna, Pattedyr, p. 169, 1908. 

Cervus capreolus albus, Kerr, Linn.\ Anim. Kingdom, p. 302, 1792. 

Cervus (Capreolus) capreolus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 
vol. V, p. 314, 1827 ; Matschie, Bevoff. Inst. Jagdkunde, vol. ii, 
p. 141, 1913. 

Capreolus dorcas, Burnett, Quart. Journ. Sci. Lit. and Art, 1829, 
p. 353, nom. nudum ; Jardine, Naturalist'' s Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, 
p. 171, pi. XV, 1835. 

Capreolus fossilis, Meyer, Palceologica, p. 95, 1832, 

Capreolus vulgaris, Fitzinger, Beitr. Landesk. Osterreichs, vol. i, 
p. 317, 1832, Wissench.-pop. Naturgesch. Sdugeth. vol. iv, p. 192, 
1860, Sitzber. Jc. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 353, 1873, 
vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 239, 1874 ; Menetries, Cat. raison..Zool. Caucus. 
p. 1, 1887 ; Lydehker, Deer of All Lands, p. 224, pi. xviii, 1898, 
Great and Small Game of Europe, p. 247, 1901. 

Capreolus capraea. Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 176, 1843, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 235, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 222, 1852, 
Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 81, 1872, Hand-List Euminants 
Brit. Mus. p. 153, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. 
p. 265, 1862 ; Blanford, Eastern Persia, vol. ii, p. 96, 1876 ; 
Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 917; Danford jxnd Alston, 
ibid. 1880, p. 55; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind.' Mus. pt. ii, 
p. 187, 1891 ; Satunin, Mitt. Kaukas, Mus. vol. i, p. 62, 1901. 

Cervus capreolus plumbeus, Reichenbach, Sdugethiere, vol. iii, pi. iii 
bis, 1845. 

Capreolus europaeus, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1844, 
p. 184, 1846. 

Capreolus capreolus, Blasius, Sdugeth. Dcutschlands, p. 457, 1857 ; 
Nitsche, Studien iiber Hirsche, pi. iv, 1898 ; Satunin, Mitt. 
Kaukas. Mus. vol. ii, pp. 211 and 359, 1906; Millais, Mamm. 
Gt. Britain, vol. iii, p. 137, 1906; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, 
p. 957 ; Trouessart, Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 233, 1910 ; Miller, 
Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 974, 1912. 



220 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



Capreolus vulgaris niger et C. v. varius, Fitzingcr, Sitzhcr. l\ Ak. 
Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 247, 1874. 

Capreolus caprea, Bell, Brit. Qitadrujicds, ed. 2, p. 262, 1874 ; Flower 
and GaTson, Cat. Osteol. Miis. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 318, 
1884 ; Floiver and Lydelker, Study of Mammals, p. 327, 1891 ; 
Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 325, 1893, Brit. Mamm. p. 249, 
1895 ; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 53, 1896, ed. 6, 
p. 92, 1910, ed. 7, p. 92, 1914 ; Satwnin, Zool. Jalirh., Syst. 
vol. ix, p. 310, 1896 ; Hennickc, Zool. Garten, vol. xli, p. 379, 
1900; Keibel, Verh. Anat. Ges. vol. xvii, p. 184, 1901 ; Zimmer- 
mann, Zool. Jalirh., Syst. vol. xxii, p. 1, 1905. 

Cervulus capreolus, Satiinin, Mitt. Kaukas. Mus. vol. vii, pp. 20 and 
41, 1912, errorim. 

Roe, or Roebuck. 

Typical locality Sweden. 

Size small (shoulder-height 26 to 27 inches, basal length 
of skull from about 6 to Q\ inches) ; ears narrow, uniformly 





Fig. 33. — Palatal Aspect of 
Skull of ^o-&{Capreoluscapreolus). 

J nat. size. 
From Miller, Cat. Mamm. M'estern Europe. 



Fig. 84. — Lower Fkont Teeth 

OP Roe (Capreolus capreolus). 

nat. size. 

From 5liller,Co^ Mamm. ]]'ester7i Europe. 



greyish externally ; antlers moderately thick and rugose ; 
cheek-teeth short-crowned ; summer and winter coats differing 
markedly in colour, the former foxy red, the latter olive-grey 
or grey with a conspicuous white rump-patcli ; lips and sides 
of muzzle with a black moustache-mark, but front of muzzle, 
on each side of mutHe, and chin white. 

The distributional area extends from the British Islands 
to the Caucasus and some part of Western Asia, and from 
Scotland and Sweden southwards to Spain and other countries 



CERVID.E 221 

Oil the noiili side of the Mediterranean. Fine antlers 
measure from about 11 to 13 inches, with a basal girth of 
from 3 to 7 inches, and a tip-to-tip interval of from 4^ to 
14^ inches. 

The races may be distinguished as follows : — 

A. General colour of face darker than that of 

body C. c. tliotti. 

B. General colour of face not darker than that 

of body. 
a. Light throat-patch and neck-patch whitish 

and sharply defined in winter C.c. transsijlvanicus. 

h. Light throat-patch and neck-patch yel- 
lowish or greyish and ill-defined in 
winter. 
a' . General colour in winter with a distinct 

yellowish tinge C. c. capreolus. 

h' . General colour in winter coarsely griz- 
zled grey, without a yellowish tinge ... C.c. canus, 

^ A. -Capreolus capreolus eapreolus. 

Capreolus capreolus capreolus, Miller, Cat. Mavmi. West. Europe, 
p. 274, 1912. 

Including : — 

Capreolus rhenanus, Weidwerh in Wort u. Bild, vol. xix, p. 263, 1900, 
warthse (Warthe Valley), Deutsch. Jdger-Zeitung, vol. Iviii, 
p. 801, 1912, Matschie. 

Cervus (Capreolus) capreolus balticus (Baltic Provinces), Bcricht 
aclitzen. Deutsche Geiveili-AusteUung, 1912, p. 861, [c.l cistauni- 
cus (North of Taunus Eange), p. 141, c. transvosagicus (Up. 
Mosel Valley); p. 142, c. albicus (Silesia), p. 144, Beroff Inst. 
Jagdliuncle, vol. ii, 1913, Matschie. 

Typical locality Sweden ; the range is taken to include 
all Europe except the areas occupied by the under-mentioned 
races. 

Light throat-patch indistinct ; general colour in winter 
distinctly tinged with yellow. 

* * * *. Skin, mounted. France. No history. 

59. 9. 6. 107-109. Three skulls, with antlers. South 
Germany ; collected l;)y Dr. A. Gtinther. Purchased, 1859. 

67.4.12.225-231. Seven skulls, with antlers. Localities 
imknown. Lidth de Jeude Collection, purchased, 1867. 

76. 5, 4. 1, Skin, melajiistic, mounted. Westphalia. 

riircliasrd (Gcrrard), 1876. 



222 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

76. 5. 4. 2. Skin, female. Westphalia. Same liistory. 
76. 5. 4. 3. Skull and antlers. Westphalia. 

Same history. 
98. 10. 12. 1. Head, mounted. Austria.* 

Presented hij Lieiit.-Col. R. W. Shipway, 1898. 

10. 10. 18. 1. Skull and skin, female. Skabersjo, 

Sweden. J^rescutcd hy Dr. Einar Ldnnhery, 1910. 

10. 11. 17. 1. Skull and skin. Ferrieres, Seine-et-Marne, 
France. Presented by the Hon. N. C. Rothschild, 1910. 

11. 11. 18. 1. Skull and skin. Same locality. 

Same donor, 1911. 

12. 1. 17. 1. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Same donor, 1912. 

11. 12. 5. 1. Skull and skin. Armandvilliers, Seine-et- 
Marne. Same donor, 1911. 

11. 9. lo. 1-15. Fifteen pairs of antlers, on frontlets. 
Bavaria. Presented hy F. N. A. Fleischmann, Esq., 1911. 

B.— Capreolus capreolus transsylvanicus. 

Capreoliis transsylvanicus, Matschie, Weidwerk in Wort it. Bild, 
vol. xvi, p. 224, 1907. 

Capreolus capreolus transsvlvanicus, Miller, Cat. Mamni. West. 
Europe, p. 975, 1912. 

Typical locality, Bana, Kumania. 

Light throat-patch distinct ; general colour in winter 
clear grizzled grey. 

The distributional area extends from eastern Europe, and 
perhaps Asia Minor, to the Italian Alps. 

9. 1. 18. 3-4. Two skulls and skins, female. Padola, 
Cadore, Venetian Alps. 

By exchange loith the Turin Museum, 1909. 

10. 12. 4. 1. Two skulls and skins, female. Csehtelek, 
Bihar Comitat, Hungary. 

Presented hy the Hon. Mrs. N. C. Rothschild, 1910. 

* May belong to C. c. transsylvanicus. 



CERVID.'E 223 

C— Capreolus capreolus canus. 

Capreolus capreolus canus, Miller, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. vi, 
p. 460, 1910, Cat. Mamm. West. Eurojje, p. 975, 1912 ; Cabrera, 
Cat. Met. Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 130, 1912. 

Typical locality Quintanar de la Sierra, Burgos, Spain, to 
which country and l*ortugal this race is restricted. 

Light throat-patcli as in typical race, but general colour 
coarsely grizzled grey, without a yellowish tinge. 

8. 7. 7. 27-29. Three skulls, with antlers, and skins. 
Pinares de Quintanar de la Sierra ; collected by Senores S. 
and N. Gonzalez. No. 8. 7. 7. 28 is the type of the sub- 
species. PiLvchascd, 1908. 

8. 7. 7. 30-31. Two skulls and skin, females. Same 
locality and collectors. Same history. 

D.— Capreolus capreolus thotti. 

Capreolus capreolus thotti, Lonnherg, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, 
vol. vi, p. 297, 1910 ; Miller, Cat. Ma,;im. West. Europe, p. 957, 
1912. 

Differs from typical race by darker general colour, 
especially on the face, which is darker than the body. 

Typical locality Morayshire, Scotland ; the subspecies is 
restricted to the British Isles. 

60, Jc. Skin, mounted. Scotland. 

Presented hy the Earl of Derby, about 1844. 
688, a and b. Two frontlets, with antlers. Scotland. 

JVo history. 
688, d. Frontlet and antlers. Scotland. 

Bequeathed by Gen. T. Hardwiclce, 1835. 
85. 10. 6. 1. Skeleton. Nairn, Scotland. 

Presented by Earl Cavjdor, 1885. 
85. 10. 6. 2. Skull, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 
93. 1. 8. 1. Head, mounted. Same locality. 

Same donor, 1893. 
97. 8. 21. 1. Skin, mounted. Whatcombe, Blandford, 
Dorsetshire. Presented by J. C. Mansel-Pleydell, Esq., 1897. 
97. 12. 11. 2. Skin, mounted. England. 

Purchased ( Ward), 1897. 



22-4 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

7. 6. G. 1. Head, mounted. Poltallocli, Argyllshire. 

Presented hij Col. E. D. Malcolm, 1907. 

7. 6. 6. 2. Head, female, mounted. Same locality. 

Same Mstory. 

8. 8. 18. 1. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Nairn. 

Presented hy Earl Caicdor, 1908. 
8. 8. 18. 2. Skull and skin, female. Nairn. 

Same liistory. 
8. 11. 22. 1. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Arndilly, 
Craig Ellachie, Morayshire. Type. 

Presented hy W. S. Menzies, Esq., 1908. 
8. 11. 22. 2. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 
11. 2. 22. 1. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Thornhill, 
Dumfriesshire. Presented hy H. S. Gladstone, Esq., 1911. 

11. 2. 22. 2. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 
13. ]. 8. 1. Skull, with antlers, and head-skin. Fortrose, 
lioss-shire, Scotland. 

Presented hy IT. P. Ogilclc-Grant, Esq., 1913. 

II. CAPEEOLUS BEDFOPtDI. 

Cervus pygargus mantschuricus, Noach, Humboldt, vol. viii, p. 9, 
fig. 12, 1889, nee Cervus mantchuricus, Sivinhoe, 1864 ; Allen 
and Andrews, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. voL xxxii, p. 488, 
1913. 

Capreolus manchuricus, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 231, 1898, 
Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p, 255, 1901. 

Capreolus bedfordi, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1908, p. 645, pi. xxxii, 
Abstr. P.Z.S. 1908, p. 32; Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
vol. xxiv, p. 231, 1911. 

Typical locality Manchuria. 

Size slightly larger than in typical species ; antlers 
relatively small ; cheek-teeth comparatively high-crowned, 
and skull rather larger than in G. eapreolus ; summer and 
winter coats not so markedly different in colour as in the 
latter, the general tint in winter being huffish clay-colour ; 
no moustache-marks on upper lips ; ears blackish grey or 
black externally. 

The range includes Shan-si, Kan-su, and Korea. 



CERVIDi4i 225 

The two races are distinguishable as follows : — 

A. General colour in summer not markedly reddish; 

backs of ears blackish C. h. hedfordi. 

B. General colour in summer more distinctly red ; 

backs of ear black C. h. melanotis. 



A.— Capreolus bedfordi bedfordi. 

General colour in summer uot markedly reddish, and 
backs of ears blackish, not contrasting strongly with general 
colour. 

Typical locality Manchuria ; the range includes Sliau-si. 

97. 10. 3. 57. Skin, female. Korea ; collected by Mr. 
J. Kalinowski. Purchased, 1897. 

99. 1. 7. 1. Head, immature, mounted. Manchuria. 

Presented hj the Duke of Bedford, E.G., 1899. 

8. 8. 7. 97-98. Two skulls, with antlers. One hundred 
miles north-west of Tai-Yuen-Fu, Shan-si, N.E. China ; 
collected by M. P. Anderson, Esq., November, 1907. Noticed 
by Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1908, p. 645, Sa7ne donor, 1908. 

8. 8. 7. 99. . Skull and skin, female in winter coat. Same 
locality and collector. Type of species ; figured by Thomas, 
op. cit., pi. xxxii. Same history. 

10. 5. 1. 92. Skin, female. Khiughan Mountains, 
Manchuria. Purchased, 1910. 

10. 5. 1. 93. Skull and skin, young female. Same 
locality. Same hisfori/. 

10. 5. 1. 94. Skull, with antlers, and skin, immature. 
Same locality. Same history. 

B.— Capreolus bedfordi melanotis. 

Capreolus melanotis, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wasliingtou, vol. xxiv, 
p. 231, 1911. 

Typical locality Kan-su, western China. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washingion. 

General colour (of female) in summer more distinctly 
reddish than in typical race, and backs of ears deep black, 
contrasting strongly with general colour. Males in winter 
are grizzled grey, with more or less pronounced black tips to 
the ears. 

IV. Q 



226 r'ATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

11. 2. 1. 259-261. Three skulls, with autlers, and skins 
(in winter coat). S.E. of Min-chou, Kau-su ; collected by 
M. P. Anderson, Esq. 

Presented hj the DuJcc of Bedford, ^.G^., 1911. 

11. 2. 1. 262-264 Three skulls and skins (in winter 
coat), female. Same locality and collector. Sdine ludory. 

11. 6. 1. 61. Skin, female (winter). Feng-hasang-fu, 
Shen-si ; same collector. Same history. 

11 6. 1. 65. Skin (winter). Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

11. 6. 1. (jij. Skull and skin (winter), female. Same 
locality and collector. Setme history. 

v^ in. CArEEOLUS PYGAEGUS. 

Cervus pygargus, Pallas, Ileise Biissl. vol. i, p. 97, 1777 ; Schreber, 
Sdugthicre, vol. iv, p. 1118, pi. 253, 1784 ; H. Smith, Griffith's 
Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 122, 1827; NoacJ{, Humbolclt, 
vol, viii, p. 7, 1889. 

Cervus ahu, Gmelin, lieise Riissl. vol. iii, p. 496, 1780, 

Cervus (Capreolus) pygargus, H. Smith, Griffith'' s Animal Kingdom, 
vol, v, p. 314, 1827, 

Capreolus pygargus. Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 1, vol. v, p, 224, 
1837, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 176, 1843, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, 
p. 236, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 223, 1852, Cat. Bnminants 
Brit. Mus. p. 82, 1872, Hand-List Bnminants Brit. Mus. p. 154, 
1873 ; Gloger, Handbuch Naturgesch. p. 141, 1841 ; Fitzinger, 
Sitzber. h. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 353, 1873, vol, Ixx, 
pt. 1, p. 248, 1874 ; BrooJcc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 917 ; Li/dekker, 
Horns and Hoofs, p. 325, 1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 227, 1898, 
Great and Small Game of Euro2)e, etc. p. 256, 1901 ; Satunin, 
Zool. Jahrb., Si/st. vol, ix, p, 310, 1896, Mitt. Kaukas. Mies. 
vol, iii, p. 49, 1907 ; Rascivig, Semja ochotn. 1908, p. 509 ; Ben- 
tham, Asiat. Horns and Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 96, 1908 ; Thomas, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1908, p. 645 ; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, 
p. 94, 1910, ed. 7, p. 92, 1914 ; Alien and Andrews, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xxxii, p. 488, 1913 : Hollister, Proc. U.S. 
Nat. Mus. vol, xlv, p, 525, 1913. 

Ahu (Persian) ; Siberian Koe. 

T)'pical locality the Semiretsliinsk Altai. 

Size considerably larger than in the typical species, the 
shoulder-height ranging irom al>out 28 to 34 inches ; ears 
relatively shorter, wider, less pointed, and more thickly 
haired, both externally and internally ; antlers larger, more 
divergent, and more rugose on the inner border, where they 



CEUVin.'E 227 

form a series of small irregular, uodular suags ; winter coat 
thicker and rougher, being shaggy on the sides and lower 
portion of the head, chest, and under-parts ; back, which is 
coloured a mixture of yellowish and greyish brown, more 
distinctly speckled with blackish, and the white rump-patch 
extending in a short V on to the flanks ; in summer the coat 
a brighter and lighter rufous, with the hairs lying more 
smoothly, when first donned showing little or no signs of 
a light rump-patch, but a yellowish white disk gradually 
developing in this region as the season advances, apparently 
by fading ; face-markings generally similar to those of the 
European species. 

The range extends, in suitable localities, from the 
mountains of Russian Turkestan and the Altai to Siberia ; 
and probably includes the mountains of the Caspian provinces 
of Persia ; in Siberia not extending so far north as the range 
of some species' of Ccrvvs, the northern limit being about the 
53rd or 54th parallel of latitude, and not ranging so far as 
the mouth of the Amur river. During winter the species 
migrate south into Manchuria, and apparently Korea. 

A complete " key " to the races cannot yet be given. 

A.— Capreolus pygargus fipghanicus. 

Capreolus pygargus firghanicus, Basewig, Semja ochofn. 1909, p. 160. 

Typical locality Ferghana district of Eussian Turkestan. 
The original description not accessible to writer. 
No specimen in collection. 

B.— Capreolus pygargus pygargus. 

Typical locality the Semiretshinsk Altai. 
General characters those of the species ; antlers com- 
paratively simple, \vith a maximum recorded length of 
15k inches. 

42. 3. 13. 1. Skin, formerly mounted. Siberia. 

Purchased {Brandt), 1842. 
42. 3. 13. 2. Skin, female, originally mounted. Siberia. 

Same history. 
Q 2 



228 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

78. 12. 21. 28 (1701, a). Pair of autlers. Salair, Altai; 

collected by Dr. 0. Finsch. Bi/ exehanrje with the 

Geof/rapJiical Society of Bremen, 1878. 

78. 12. 21. 29 (1701, h). Pair of antlers, in velvet. 

Same locality and collector. Savie histori/. 

87. 6. 3. 1. Frontlet and antlers. Southern Mancliuria. 

Presented hj H. E. M. James, Esq., 1887. 

95. o. 12. 1. Skull, immature female. Amurland. 

Presented hi/ J. Rowland Ward, Esf[., 1895. 

98. 12. 15. 2-3. Two frontlets, with antlers. Semiret- 

shinsk, Altai. Presented h// H. J. Elwes, Esq., 1898. 

0. 3. 26, 4-5. Two skulls, with antlers, and skins. Altai. 

Presented hy the Hon. Walter RothseMd, 1900. 

0. G. 9. 1. Skin (in winter coat), mounted. Altai. 

Purchased, 1910. 

^ C— Capreolus pyg-arg-us tianschanicus. 

Capreohis tianschanicus, Satunin, Zool. J>i;j, vol. xxx, p. 527, 1906. 
Capreolus pygargus tianshanicus, Ward. Becords of Big Game, ed. 6. 
p. 94, 1910, ed. 7, p. 94, 1914. 

Typical locality Tien-shan. 

Antlers more massive and more branched than those of 
the typical race, from which they also differ somewhat in 
shape ; in one phase they diverge widely, and carry four 
or five tines on each side, l)ut in a second the degree of 
divergence and the number of tines are less. The maximum 
recorded length of antler is 17| inches. 

5. 3. 21. 2. Skull, with antlers, and scalp-skin. Khan 
Tenffri, Tien-shan. 

Presented by Lord Edward Beauclcrl:, 1905. 

13. 2. 6. 3. Body-skin. Kulja, Tien-shan. 

Presented by Col. J. IT. Abbot Anderson, 1913. 



XIII. Genus ALCES. 

Aloes, Oray, Med. Bepos. vol. xv, p. 307, 1821, List Mamm. Brit. 
Mas. p. 182, 1843 ; BrooJie, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 915 ; Biiti- 
meyer, Ahli. schwciz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 54, 1381 ; Lydehher, 
Deer of All Lands, p. 49, 1898; Miller. Cat. Mamm. West. 
Europe, p. 977. 1912. 



GERVID^ 229 

Alee, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 72, vol. \ , 
p. 303, 1827; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Sot: 1910, p. 958; Miller, 
Proc. Boston Soc. vol. xxviii, p. 40, 1897 ; nee Blumenbach,* 
1799. 

Alcelaphus, Glogcr, Handbuch Naturgcschichtr, p. 143, 1841 ; nee 
Blainville, 1816. 

Paralces, Allen, Bull. Amcr. Mns. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, p. 160, 1902. 

The geographical rauge includes the afforested northern 
portions of both eastern and western hemispheres, extending 
in the Old World westwards to Norw^ay, soiitli wards to 
Eastern Germany, and eastwards to Central Kussia and Easteru 
Siberia. 

Lateral metacarpals as in Mazama ; vomer not dividing 
aperture of posterior nostrils ; hind-pasterns with a relatively 
small glandular invagination, situated as in Capreolus ; antlers 
(fig. 36) present only in males (as in all the preceding genera), 
situated low down on the skull, from which they arise at 
right-angles to the median longitudinal line, extending at 
first directly outwards in the plane of the forehead, and, in 
their fullest development, expanding into a broad palmation 
margined with snags, in structure essentially dichotomous, 
with the upper main branch mucli superior in size to the 
lower ; muzzle broad, long, and overhanging, with a very 
small triangular naked area between the lower angles of the 
nostrils ; head and limbs long ; neck and body short ; tail 
very short ; main hoofs narrow, long, and pointed, lateral 
hoofs large ; usually small metatarsal glands situated high 
up on the shanks ; tarsal glands and face-glands present ; 
coat uniformly coloured at all ages and all seasons, long 
and coarse ; males provided with a pear-shaped pendulous 
expansion of skin covered with long hairs on the throat. 
In the skull (fig. oi)) the nasals very short, and the nasal 
aperture consequently of great extent; gland-pits and 
vacuities between the bones of the face moderate. Upper 
molar teeth broad, low-crowned and approximating to those 
of giraffes ; upper canines wanting or rudimentary. Size 
very large, and build heavy. 

The lower front teeth are shown in fig. 1, p. 2. 

* Handbuch Naturgesch. ed. G, p. 697; typified by the extmct 
Cerviis megaceros or Megaceros hibcrnicns. 



230 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



ALCES ALCES. 

Cervus alces, Linn., Syst. Naf. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 66, 1758, ed. 12, 
vol. }, p. 92, 1766 ; Schreber, Sdugthicre, pi. 246, 1783 ; F. Cuvier, 
Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. ii, pi. 222, 1823; H. Smith, Ch-iffitli's 
Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 72, 1827; Lesson, Nouv. Tab!. 
Begnc Anim., Mamm. p. 169, 1829; Cafon, Antelope and Deer of 
America, p. 69, 1877; Nehring, Tundrcn und Stejrpoi, p. 107, 
1890; Nitsche, Zool. Anz. vol. xiv, p. 181, 1891; Wolley, Big 
Game Shooting {Badminton Libr.), vol. i, p. 396, 1894. 

Cervus alee, Boddacrt, Elenchus Anim. vol. i, p. 135, 1785. 

Cervus coronatus. Lesson, Man. l^Iflmni. p. 356, 1827; H. Smith, 
Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 95, 1827. 

Cervus (Alee) alces, H. Smith, Griffitli's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, 
p. 303, 1827. 

Cervus (Alee) coronatus, H. Smith, op. cit. p. 304, 1827. 

(?) Alces europjeus, Burnett, Quart. Jotirn. Sei. Lit. and Art, 1829, 
p. 393. 

Alces machlis, Ogilbij, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 135 ; Gray, ibid. 
1850, p. 224; Broohe, ibid. 1878, p. 916; Flower and Garson, 
Cat. Osteol. Mas. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 316, 1884 ; Lydel-Jcer, 
Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mas. pt. ii, p. 78, 1885, Horns and Hoofs, 
p. 319, 1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 52, pi. ii, 1898, Great and 
Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 42, 1901 ; True, Froc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. vol. vii, p. 592, 1885; Flower and Lydehher, Study of 
Mammals, p. 326, 1891 ; Greve, Zool. Garten, vol. xxxv, p. 267, 
1895 ; Leverhus-LeverJiUseti, Verh. Ver, Blieinland, vol. Iviii, 
p. 11, 1902; Newton, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. lix, p. 80, 
1903; Grant, Seventh Bep. Forest, Fish, and Game Commission, 
p. 226, 1903; Millais, British Mammals, vol. iil, p. 8, 1906; 
Winge, DanmarV s Fauna, Pattedyr, p. 177, 1908 ; Ward, Becords 
of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 96, 1910, ed. 7, p. 96, 1914. 

Alcelaphus alee, Gloger, Handbuch NaturgescJiichte, p. 143, 1841. 

Alces antiquorum, Biljyjiell, VerzeicJiniss Mus. Sencli-enberg, vol. iii, 
p. 183, 1842. 

Alces palmatus, Graif, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 182, 1843; Blasius, 
Sdugeth. Dcutschl. p. 434, 1857. 

Alces alces, Sundevall, K. Svensl-a Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1844, p. 176, 
1846; Lonnberg, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, vol. ii, p. 352, Zool. Anz. 
vol. xxviii, p. 448, 1905, Zool. Studier, vol. i, p 237, 1907 ; 
Tronessart, Faune Mamm. Europ)e, p. 270, 1910; Kaponcn, 
Luonnon Ystavd, vol. xv, p. 206, 1911 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. 
West. Europe, p. 978, 1912. 

Alces malchis. Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 56, 1850, Cat. Ungulata 
Brit. Mus. p. 186, 1852, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 66, 1872, 
Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 136, 1873 ; Gerrarcl, Cat. 
Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 255, 1862. 

Alces jubata, Fitzinger, Naturgesch. Sdugethiere, vol. iv, p. 86, 1860, 
Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 521, 1875. 

Alee alces, Gilpin, Mamm. Nova Scotia, p. 119, 1871 ; Pocock, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 958. 



CEKVID.E 231 

Alces lobata coroiiata, Fitzingcr, Sitzher. J>. Ah. Wisa Wien 

vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 528, 1874. 

Paralces alces, Allen, Bull. Amcr. Mas. Naf. vol. xvi, p. 160, 1902. 




Fig. 35.— Palatal Aspect of Skull op Elk {Alces alces). J nat. size. 
From >riller, Cat. Mamm. Wrsfern Euro2)e. 



232 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Elk ; Moose. 

The distriljiitiou of this, the only species here recognised, 
is co-extensive with that of the genus. 

Largest of living deer, the height at the withers ranging 
from about 5| to 6£ feet. Antlers (fig. '^Q) with a short beam 
and the palmation frequently so developed as to obliterate 
almost all traces of the primitive form, with the exception 
of a remnant of the cleft of the first fork, in other cases the 
palmation comparatively slight or wanting ; coat long, coarse, 
and rather brittle, longest about the neck ; general colour 
varying from yellowish grey to deep blackish brown, with 
the shanks whitish, the forehead dark chestnut, and the face 
below the eyes nearly black, Init reddish grey near the 
muzzle. 

In winter the coat is darker than in summer, especially 
when first assumed, the colour gradually fading till the 
spring-change ; it is only in animals of the second or third 
year that the winter coat attains its deepest sable, as it 
becomes gradually lighter each succeeding year, till in old 
males it is more or less grizzly. 

The races may be provisionally distinguished as follows : — 

A. Antlers either palmated or forked. 

a. Shanks light A. a. (dees. 

b. Shanks apparently dark ; palmation of antlers 

somewhat different A. a. hedfordiw. 

B. Antlers apparently always palmated. 

a. Size smaller ; coloiu' duller. 

a'. Muffle triangular A. a. americanits. 

b'. Muffle T-shaped A. a. columbce. 

b. Size larger ; colour richer A a. glgas. 

A.— Alces alces alces. 

Aloes machlis typicus, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 99, 
1910, ed, 7, p. 99, 1914. 

Including : — 

Alces machlis uralensis, Matschie, Berof. Instituts JagdJcunde, 
vol. ii, p. 155, 1913 (South Urals). 

Alces machlis meridionalis, Matschie, op. cil. p. 156, 1913 (Govern- 
ment of Samara, Russia). 

Elk. 

Typical locality Sweden. 

Unless one or both of the two forms named by Matschie 



CEKVID/E 23o 

are entitled to distinction, tlie range will include all northern 
Europe and extend some way into northern Asia. 

The antlers may be either broadly palmated, or simply 
forked. 

703, c. Head, mounted. Eussia. 

Presented hij E. Caley, Esq. 
703, d. Single antler. Udoholm, Sweden. 

Presented hy tlie Earl of Selkirk. 
703, e. Antlers. Sweden. From a specimen formerly 
in the Leverian Museum {3Ius. Lev. pi. viii, 1792) ; mentioned 
in Gray's 1843 list. 

Presented hy the Covneil of the Royal College of Surgeons. 
5S. 5. 4. 17. Skull, immature, female. Eussia. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1858. 
82. 5. 25. 1. Skin, mounted. Swenigorod, near Moscow. 

Purchased {Hoist), 1882. 
82. 5. 25. 2. Skin, female, mounted. Same locality. 

Same history. 
3. 11. 21. 1-5. Five frontlets, showing the palmated 
type of antlers at different ages. Sweden. 

Purchased, 1903. 

3. 11. 2J. G"7. Two frontlets with antlers of the forked 

type. Sweden. Purchased, 1903. 

Of the following specimens the localities^ are unknown, 
and their racial determination has consequently licen found 
impracticahle : — 

703, a. Five antlers. No history. 

703, b. Single antler. No history. 

703, 0. Antlers, young and deformed. 

Presented hy the Earl of Enniskillen. 

50. 11. 22. 72 (703, h). Skeleton. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1850. 

51. 11. 10. 3 (703, i). Skeleton, female. 

Same history, 1851. 
51. 11. 10. 4 (703, q). Skull and antlers. Same history. 
51. 11. 10. 5 (703, r). Skull and antlers. Sa.me history. 



234 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



B.— Alces alees bedfordise. 

Alces bedfordife, Ljjdel-ker, Proc. Zoo}. Soc. 1902, vol. i, p. 109; 

Rothschild, ihicl. voL ii, p. 317 ; Lonnhcrg, ibid. p. 353 ; Elwca, 

ibid. 1903, vol. i, p. 147 ; Millais, Field, vol. cxviii, p. 113, 1911. 
Alces macblis bedfordife, iT/fZeA-Arr, A Trip to Pilawin,\). 85, 1908; 

Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 100, 1910, ed. 7, p. 100, 1914 ; 

Millais, Field, vol. cx\dii, p. 113, 1911. 
(?) Alces machlis yakutskensis, Millais, Field, vol. cxviii. p. 113, 1911. 

Typical locality Eastern (?) Siberia. 

Typified by a specimen in which the antlers are of the 
forked, non-palmate type. In other specimens they are 
fully palniated, but apparently differ semewliat in form from 
those of European elk. The Yakutsk elk has the head and 
neck rich dark brown, and, in some instances at any rate, 
dark brown shanks. 

2.3.11.1. Frontlet and antlers. East(?) Siberia. 
Type. Presented l»j J. Roivland Ward, Ese[., 1902. 

* * * *. Frontlet and antlers. East Siberia. No history. 

C— Alces alces americanus. 

Cervus auiericamis, Clinton, Letters on Nat. Hist. etc. p. 193, 1822; 

nee Errleben, 1777, vide supra, p. 155. 
Alces americanus. .Tardive, Natiiralisfs Libr., Mannn. vol. iii, p. 125, 

pi. V, 1835; Merricl; Mamm. Minnesota, p. 270, 1892; Elliot, 

Sijnop. Mamm. N. Amer. (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 38, 1901 ; 

Osgood, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xv, p. 87, 1902; 

Grant, 7th Rep. Forest, Fish, and Game Commission, p. 226, 

1903; Stone and Cram, American Mammals, p. 43, 1903; 

Brool-s,Rep. New York Zool. Soc. vol. x, p. 201, 1906; Miller, 

List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 391, 1912. 
Cervus lobatus, Agassiz, Proc. Boston Soc. vol. ii, p. 188, 1846. 
Alces muswa, Richardson, Zool. Herald, Mamm. p. 66, 1852. 
Alces lobata, Fitzinger, Sitzber. Ti. AI-. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, 

p. 348, 1873, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 528, 1874. 
Alee americanus, Merriam, Mammals of Adirondachs, p. 138, 1884, 

N. Amer. Fauna, no. 5, p. 79. 189i ; Miller, Proc. Boston Soc. 

vol. xxviii, p. 40, 1897. 
Alces machlis americanus, LydeJiker, Great and Small Game of 

Europe, etc. p. 46, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 97, 1910, ed. 7, p. 97, 1914. 
Paralces americanus, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mas. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, 

p. 160, 1902. 

Moose. 

Typical locality eastern North America. 

Stated to be larger and darker than the typical European 



CE1IVID^<; ^60 



elk, with somewhat more complex antlers, which are 
apparently always of the palmated type. 




Fig. 36. — Side View of Head of American Elk, or Moose 

{Alces alces americanus). 

From a specimen in the possession of Mr. .J. K. Paisley, of Ottawa. 

703, a. Skin, female, mounted. North America. 

Presented by the Earl of Derby, ahout 1845. 
o2. G. 2."). 1 and 3. Antlers. St. John's, Newfoundland. 

Purcliased {Argent), 1852. 



236 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



70. 1. 27. I. Skill, mounted. Labrador. 

Purchased [Gcrrard), 1879. 

89. :!. 4. 1. Skeleton, with antlers, mounted. North 

America. l^urchascd {Gcrrard, who acquired it from 

H. Ward of Rochester, U.S.A.), 1889. 




Fig. 37. — Muzzle of American Elk (Alecs alecs americanus), 
showing triangular muffle. 

6. 10. 'lo. 1. Head, mounted. Canada. 

Presented % Frank Hutt, Esq., 19UG. 
9. 11. 10. 1. Skull and antlers. North America. 

Presented hij Rev. E. J. May, 1909. 



D.— Alces alces columbae. 

Alecs columbiB, Lydckker, Fidel, vol. cix, p. 182, 1907, Zuol. Becord, 
vol. xllv, Mavim. p. 69, 1907; Miller, List. N. Anier. Mamm. 
p. 391, 1912. 

Typical locality Ontario (not, as stated in original 
description, British Columbia). 

Type in the collection of Oapt. K. C. Hamilton. 



CERVID/E 237 

A provisional race, characterised by the muffle being 
T-shaped (fig. ?>8), in place of triangular (fig. 37). 
No specimen in collection. 




Fig. 3S. — Mvzzi.b op Ontario Elk (Alces alces colwnbiv), 

sshowing T-shaped muffle. 

From the type specimen, in the coUeotiou of Capt. E. C. IlamiUon. 



E.— Alces alces grig-as. 

Alces gigas, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washinqton, vol. xiii, p. 57, 1899, 

List N. Amcr. Mamm. p. 391, 1912. 
Alces machlis gigas, LydeJchcr, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc, 

p. 49, 1901 ; Ward, Eecords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 97, 1910, 

ed. 7, p. 97, 1914. 
Paralces gigas, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mits. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, p. 160, 1902. 

Typical locality Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, "Washington. 

Larger and more richly coloured than A. a. amerieanus, 
M'ith the occipital region of the skull narrower, the palate 
wider, and tlie lower ja^^' stouter. General colour grizzled 
l)lack and wood-brown, darker on spine, clear black on chest, 
flanks, and buttocks, and hair-brown on middle line of 
under surface ; head more finely grizzled than back ; ears 
broccoli-] )rown externally, yellowish white internally; limbs 
hair-brown or liroccoli-brown, with darker shading. 



238 CATALOnUR OF UNOULATr.S 

3. 12. 28. 1. Head, mounted. Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. 
Presented h/ D. Davics, Esq., 1903. 
7. 1. IC). 1. Skin, mounted. Alaska. 

I'n'scntcd hj the Hon. Widter BothscJnld, 1907. 




Fig. 39. — Front View of Head of Alaskan Elk, or Moose 
(Alces alecs gigos). 



XIV. Genus RANGIFER. 

Bangifer, H. Smith, Grifith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 8, vol. v, 
p. 304, 1827 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 927 ; Biltimeyer, 
Ahli. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. vii, p. 51, 1881 ; Lydekkcr, Deer of 
All Lands, p. 33, 1898 ; Grant, Itli Bej). N. Yorl- Zool. Soc. 
p. 1, 1902; Pococl; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 961 ; Miller, Cat. 
Manim. West. Eiiro2>e, p. 979, 1912. 

Tarandus, Billhcrg, Synoj). Faunce Scandinav. vol. i, p. 22. 1827 ; 
0^7/%, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 134. 

Procerus, M. de Serres, Cavernes el Ossements, eel. 3, p. 143, 1838. 

Procervus, Blainville, C. E. Ac. Sci. Paris, vol. xi, p. 392, 1840. 

Achlis, Eeichenbach, Siiugethiere, vol. iii, p. 12, 1845. 

The range includes the northern forests and tundra of 
both eastern and western hemispheres, extending in the 
former as far north as Spitsbergen and perhaps Novaya 
Zemlya, and southwards to central Eussia. In America as 



rEnviD.^5 239 

far south as northern Cohunbia, north side of Lake Superior, 
and New Brunswick. 

Lateral metacarpals and vomer as in Odocoileus ; a 
pocket-like gland on front of hind-pasterns only ; antlers 
large, complex, and situated high up on skull, usually 
present in both sexes, generally with some of the tines 
palmated, often unsymmetrically, and an " elbow " near the 
middle of the beam, behind which is a back-tine, those of 
females simpler and generally smaller ; coat unspotted at all 
ages ; ears and tail short ; throat fringed ; main hoofs short 
and rounded, lateral hoofs large ; large face-glands and tarsal 
glands, ])ut no metatarsal glands. In the skull (in addition 
to the high vomer) the gland-pits shallow and ill-defined, the 
lachrymal vacuities relatively large, the nasals well developed 
and expanded superiorly ; upper canines present in both 
sexes ; lower incisors (fig. 40) small and forming a nearly 
even and equal-sized series ; cheek-teeth small and low- 
crowned, with the hind (third) lobe of the last lower molars 
aborted. Size medium or large. 

EANGIFER TARANDUS. 

Cervus tarandus, Linii,. Sijst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 67, 1758, ed. 12, 

vol. i, p. 93, 1766; F. Ciivier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. ii, pis. 223, 

224, 1821 ; H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdoin, vol. iv, p. 83, 

1827; Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Begne Anim., Mamm. p. 169, 1829; 

Caton, Antelope and Deer of America, p. 86, 1877 ; Nehring, 

Tundren and Stejypen, p. 108, 1890. 
Cervus tarandus, a rangifer, Gmelin, Liun.'s Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 177, 

1789. 
Cervus guettardi, Desmarest, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 447, 1822. 
Tarandus lapponuni, Billherg, Synop. Faiinw Scandinav. vol. i, 

p. 20, 1827. 
Cervus (Rangifer) tarandus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 

vol. V, p. 304, 1827. 
Cervus tarandus schottingi, Sternberg, Isis, 1828, p. 482. 
Tarandus rangifer, Ogilhy, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 134 ; Gray, ibid. 

1850, p. 225, Cat. Ungiilata Brit. Mus. p. 189, 1852, Cat. 

Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 66, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. 

Mus. p. 137, 1873; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. 

p. 255, 1862; Fitzinger- Sitzbcr. I: Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix. 

pt. 1, p. 534, 1874. 
Tarandus borealis, Rilppell, Verzeichniss Mxis. SencKenberg. vol. iii. 

p. 183, 1842. 
Rangifer tarandus, Jardine, Naturalises Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 133, 

pi. vi, 1885 ; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 181, 1843 ; Brooke, 



240 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 928 ; Flower and Garsoti, Cat. Osteol. 
Mus. B. Coll. Sur(]. pt. ii, p. 312, 1884 ; Flower and LydeMer, 
Stiuh/ of Mammals, p. 325, 1891 ; Lydeklwr, Horns and Hoofs, 
p. 326, 1893, British Mammals, p\ 253, 1935, Deer of All 
Lands, p. 33, pi. i. 1898, Gi-caf and Small Game of Europe, ete. 
p. 24, 1901; ScJiarff, Proc. B. Irish Ac. ser. 3^ voL iv, 473, 
1897, Euro])ean Animals, p. 110, 1907 ; Grant, 1th Bep. Neiu 
Yorh Zool. Soc. p. 4, 1902 ; Allen, Bull. Amcr. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
vol. xix, p. 125, 1903; Wincfc, Danmarlis Fauna, Pattedyr, 
p. 179, 1908 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 960 ; Troucssart, 
Fanne Mamin. Etirojpe, p. 231, 1910; Ward, Becords of Biq 
Game, ed. 6, p. 83, 1910, ed. 7, p. 83, 1914; Miller, Cat. Mamm. 
West. Europe, p. 980, 1912. 
Tarandus furcifer, Baird, Bep. Conim. Patents, 1851, vol. ii. Agric. 
p. 109. 1852. 

Reindekr ; Caribou. 

Typical locality inountaius of Swedish Lapland. 
A variable and widely-spread species, of which most of 
the characters are the same as those of the genus. Coat 




Fig. 40. — Lower Front Teeth of Reindeer 

{Rangifcr tarandus). 

From Miller, Cat. Mamui. Western Europe. 

dense and compact ; general colour varying from clo^e- 
brown, with more or less white or whitish grey on under- 
parts, inner surfaces of limbs, above the hoofs, and on the 
muzzle, and in some cases whitish rings round the eyes, to 
nearly white on the one hand and to blackish brown on the 
other ; typically a white area in the region of the tail, which 
includes the sides but not the upper surface of the latter, 
and the tarsal tuft generally white. The antlers are smooth, 
and brownish wliite in colour, but the hoofs are jet black. 
A height of 4 feet 10 inches at the shoulder has been 
recorded in the Newfoundland race. 

Tlie range is co-extensive with that of the genus. 



CEKVIDiE 241 

It is not at present possible to give a trustworthy " key " 
to the various races. The European and West Asiatic 
(exclusive of Novaya Zemlyan) races are distinguishable 
as follows : — 

A, Size smaller, upper length of skull less than 

Scinches (225 mm.) B. t. lyJaturlnjnchus. 

B, Size larger, upper length of skull ranging 

from about 10| (270 mm.) to llf inches 
(300 mm.). 

a. Upper length of skull from about lOf to 

llf inches R. t. tarandtis, 

b. Upper length of skxill about 11^ inches B. t. fennicus. 

East Asiatic (including Novaya Zemlyan) and American 
races fall into two groups, in the first of which (a) the 
antlers are short with no tineless interval on the beam, and 
most of the tines much palmated, while in the second (b) the 
antlers are of great length, with a long tineless interval on 
the beam, and the tines themselves not greatly palmated 
Intermediate forms tend to connect the extreme types. 

A. Woodland (h'oup. 
B,. t. sihiricus. B. f. tenrenovif. 

B. t. pearsoni. B. t. montaniis. 

B. t. phyllarchii.s. B. t. dawsoni. 

B. t. caribou. B. t. stonei* 

B. t. sylvestris. (■?) B. t. forfidens.* 

B. — Barren-Group Group. 
B. t. osborni. B. t. arcticus. 

B. t. granti. B. t. grocnJandiciis. 

B. t. excelsifrons. B. t. pearri. 

A.— Rang-ifep tarandus tapandus. 

Rangifer tarandus typicus, LydcMer, Deer of All Lands, p. 33, 1898 ; 

Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 84, 1910, ed. 7, p. 84, 

1914. 
Rangifer tarandus i^rtr. cylindricornis, Camcrano, Mem. B. Ace. Sci. 

Torino, aer. 2. vol. li, p. 167, 1902. 

Reindeer. 

Typical locality the mountains of Swedish Lapland. 
Size relatively small, with subcylindrical antlers of an 

* Intermediate types. 
IV. H 



242 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

elongated type, with both basal-tines frequently palmated 
and nearly symmetrical, and a small back-tine ; those of 
females small ; general colour greyish or drab l)rown, passing 
into huffish white on muzzle and under-parts ; a longitudinal 
darker area on sides of body ; tail liuffish white with a dark 
median line. 

The distribution formerly included the whole of the 
mountainous tract of the Scandinavian Peninsula, but is 
now restricted in the wild state to two widely separated 
districts in Norway, namely, west Finmark in the north, 
and the main high mountain region in the south. The race 
is domesticated throughout Scandinavian Lapland and parts 
of Russia. 

44. 9, 26. 1. Skin, young, mounted. From an animal 
bred in England : provisionally referred to this race. 

Presen/cd hy Sir J. M. Wilson, 1844. 

46. 6. 10. 1 (702, a). Skeleton, with antlers. Locality 
unknown; reference provisional. Same donor, 184:Q. 

68. 12. 29. 11 (702, c-). Skeleton, with antlers, mounted. 
Xorthern Europe. Purchased (Zoological Society), 1868. 

75. 10. 30. 1 (702, d'). Skull and skin, female. EiUefjeld, 
Norway. Presented hy J. C. Ingram, Esq., 187o. 

70. 10. 9. 1 (702, g^). Skin, mounted, and skeleton. 
Same locality. Same donor, 1879. 

81. 9. 28. 1 (702, i^). Skeleton and antlers. Same 
locality. Presented hy Sir W. J. Ingram, Bart., 1881. 

81. 9. 28. 2 (702, j^). Skin, mounted, and skeleton. 
Same locality. Same history. 

83. 7. 28. 1 (702, l^). Skull, with antlers, and skin, 
female. Norvfay. Presented hy J. C. Ingram, Esq., 1883. 

83*. 7. 28. 2 (702, P). Skull and skin, young female. 
Norway. Same Idstory. 

87. 9. 20. 1. Skin, mounted. Loerdal Mountains, Sogne 
Fjord, Norway. Presented hy Sir W. J. Ingram, Bart., 1887. 

87. 9. 20. 2. Antlers, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 

87. 9. 20. 3. Antlers. Same locality. Same history. 



CERVID.T. 243 



B.— Rangcifer tarandus fennicus. 

Eangifer tarandus fennicus, Lb7inherg, Arkiv Zool. vol. vi, no. 4, 
p. 10, 1909; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 84, 1910, 
ed. 7, p. 84, 1914. 

Eangifer fennicus, Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 981, 1912. 

Typical locality Tornea, Lappmark, Finland. 

The range is probably now restricted to the wooded 
portions of Finland, eastward to the Kola Peninsula, but 
seems to have formerly extended westwards into the wooded 
portion of northern Sweden where this race may be repre- 
sented by the large woodland breed of tame reindeer found 
in certain districts. 

Type in the Eoyal Swedish Museum of Natural History. 

Size larger than in R. t. tarandus ; skull with the nasal 
bones narrow and highly arched, and the teeth relatively 
small, the length of the upper series of cheek-teeth being 
about 3|- inches (85 mm.), and that of the lower series 
about 3y^g inches (90 mm.). 

No specimen in collection. 

C— Rang-ifer tarandus platyrhynchus. 

Cervus (Tarandus) platyrhynchus, VroliJc, Niewwe Vcrhandl. Krou. 

Nederl. Inst., Eerste Klasse, pt. 2, p. 160, 1829. 
Cervus tarandus, forma spetsbergensis, Andersen, Ofvers. Vet.-Ah. 

Forhandl. vol. xix, p. 457, 1862 ; Nitsche, Jahresb. Ver. nat. 

Wiirtt. 1893, p. 111. 
[Rangifer arcticus] , var. spitzbergensis, Murray, Geogr. Distrib. 

Mamm. p. 154, 1866. 

Rangifer tarandus spetzbergensis, Z/i/^^^^"^'^'"' Deer of All Lands, p. 41, 

1898. 
Rangifer spitzbergensis, Camerano, Mcni. Ace. Set. Torino, ser. 2, 

vol. li, p. 159, 1902; Grant, 1th Rep. Neto Yorh Zool. Soc. 

p. 1902 ; Trouessart, Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 232, 1910. 
Rangifer platyrhynchus. Miller, Cat. Mamnu West. Europe, p. 985, 

1912. 

Typical locality Spitsbergen, to which island this race is 
confined. 

Size considerably less than in the typical race ; nasal 
bones of skull with the profile little arched, and the two 
extremities expanded and the middle portion constricted ; 
cheek-teeth relatively as large as in the typical race. 

It 2 



244 CATALOGUR OF UNGULATES 

90. 12. 4. 3. Autlers, female. Spitsbergen. 

Presented hj Dr. B. McCormick, 1890. 
90. 12. 4. 8. Antlers. Spitsbergen. Same history. 

96. 9. 23. 1. Sknll and antler.s. Spitsbergen. Noticed 
in Deer of All Lands, p. 41. 

Presented hj Dr. J. W. Gregory, 1890. 

D.— Rangrifer tarandus sibiricus. 

Cervus sibiricus, ScJireber, Sdugthiere, pi. 248, C, 1784. 

[Rangifer arcticns] , var. sibiricus, Murray, Geogr. Distrib. Mamm. 

p. 153, 1866. 
Rangifer tarandus sibiricus, LydeMer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, vol. ii, 

p. 361 ; Lonnherg, ArTciv Zool. vol. vi, no. 4, p. 17, 1909 ; Ward, 

Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 84, 1910, ed. 7, p. 84, 1914; 

Hollister, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol. Ivi, no. 35. 

Typical locality Siberia. 

Antlers approximating to those of Jr. t. caribou (infra), 
but with less palmation of the basal tines ; much smaller 
than B. t. lohyllarchvs. 

702, h. Frontlet and antlers. Probably Siberian. 

No history. 
52. 1 2. 9. 4. Skull and antlers. Probably Siberian. 

Purchased {Brandt), 1852. 

78. 12. 21. 30. Antlers, in velvet. Salair, Altai; 

collected by Dr. 0. Finsch. By exchange ivith the 

Geographical Society of Bremen, 1878. 

E.— Rang-ifer tarandus pearsoni. 

Rangifer tarandus pearsoni, LydekJcer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, vol. ii, 
p. 361 ; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 84, 1910, ed. 7, 
p. 84, 1914. 

Typical (and only) locality Novaya Zemlya. 

Type in possession of H. J. Pearson, Esq., Bramcote, 
Nottinghamshire. 

Distinguished from other Old World races l)y the 
symmetry of the antlers (fig. 40), and the excessive palmation 
of the basal and second tines and summits ; the whole antler 
approximating to the B. t. carihou type. 

No specimen in collection. 



CEKVID^ 



245 




Fig. 41. — Side View op Skull and Antlers op Novaya Zemlyan 
Reindeer [Rangifcr tarandus pearsoni). 



F.— Rangrifep tarandus phylarchus. 

Rangifer phylarchus, Hollister, SviitJisoii. Misc. Collect, vol. Ivi, 
no. 35, p. 6, 1912. 

Typical locality Kamchatka. 
Type in U.S. National Museum. 

Described from a skull (without antlers), measuring 
15;^ inches (387 mm.), against 14^ inches (357 mm.) in a 



24() CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

skull of B. t. fennicus, and thus iudicating a race larger than 
of the other Old World forms, and probably related to the 
American It. t. caribou. 

No specimen in collection. 

G.— Rang-ifer tarandus caribou. 

Cervus tarandus caribou, Gmelin, Linn.'s Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 177, 1788. 

Cervus hastalis, Agassig, SilUma/ri's Journ. 1847, p. 436. 

Eangifer caribou, Audubon and Bacliman, Quadrupeds N. Amer. 
vol. iii, p. Ill, 1853; Baird, N. Amer. Mamm. p. 633, 1857; 
J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. viii, p. 234, 1896 ; 
Miller, Proc. Boston Sac. vol. xxviii, p. 40, 1897 ; Elliot, Synop. 
Mamm. N. Amer. {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 35, 1901, 
Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (op. cit. vol. viii, p. 40, 1907); Grant, 
1th Bep. New York Zool. Soc. p. 5, 1902; Stone and Cram, 
American Animals, p. 47, 1903. 

Tarandus hastalis, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, 

pt. 1, p. 349, 1873, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 542, 1874. 
Eangifer tarandus caribou. True, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. vli, 

p. 592, 1885 ; Lydekkcr, Deer of All Lands, p. 42, 1898, Great 

and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 29, 1901 ; Pocock, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 960 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, 

p. 84, 1910, ed. 7, p. 84, 1914. 

Eangifer caribou caribou, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 392, 
1912. 

Caribou, or Woodland Caribou. 

Typical locality Eastern Canada. 

A large-sized race, with the antlers stout, flattened, much 
palmated, and not of excessive length, one of the brow-tines 
being much expanded, while the other is simple; the bez- 
tine is also more palmated than in the Scandinavian reindeer, 
and the l)ack-tine well developed. f'emale antleis are 
proportionately smaller than in the typical race. General 
colour much darker than in the Newfoundland race (p. 248), 
the dark area extending over the anterior half of the lower 
surface of the body; and, except the extremity of the 
upper lip, the muzzle as dark as the face, no light ring 
round the eye; on the limbs the white restricted to a 
sharply-defined band of about half-an-inch in width above 
the hoofs, but ascending behind to enclose the lateral hoofs ; 
lower incisors diminishing gradually in size from middle to 
outer pair. 



CERVID.E 247 

7U2, h. Head, mounted, with the autlers in velvet 
(tig-. 42). Arctic America. 

Ftrscntcd hij the Hudson Bay Co., ahovt 1850. 




Fig. 42. — Front Vikw of Hkad of Woodland Gakibou (Rangifer 
tarandus caribou), wilh the antlers iu "velvet." 

702, 6\ .Skull and autlers. North America ; collected 
by Sir John Franklin, Purchased (?). 



248 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

702,/. Antlers, female. Xortli America ; same collector. 

Same histonj. 
702, cl. Skull and antlers. North America. No Mstor//. 
46. 3. 13. 1. Hkull and antlers. North America. 

Piirclmscd (Argent), 1846. 

46. 8. 19. 7. Front of skull and antlers. Green Pond, 

Nova Scotia ; collected by Mr. J. Florence ; figured in Deer 

of All Landi^, p. 4;!. Furchascd, 1846. 

65. 10. 24. 6 (702, ;//). Skull and antlers, female. North 

America. rresnited hy A. Mvrray, E^(p, 1865. 

65. 10. 24. 8 (702, a-). Skull and antlers. North 

America. Saiiic history. 

3. 2. 15. 2. Skin, mounted. Canada. 

l^rcscnted hy tlir Doniinion Goccrniiirnt, 1003. 

H.— Rangifer tarandus sylvestris. 

Cevvus tarauclus, vav. svlvestris, liicharrlson, Fauna Ijur.Ainn-. 

p. 251, 1829. 
Ivangifer caribou sj-lvestris, Hollister, Smithson. Misc. Collect, voL 

Ivi. no. 35, p. 4. 1912; Miller, List N. Amer. Maiiim. p. 392. 

1912. 

Typical locality south-west shore of Hudson Ba}-. 

Closely allied to last, but regarded by Hollister as 
entitled to distinction, the skull being longer and more 
slender, with a narrower rostrum, longer nasals, and larger 
cheek-teeth ; neck, especially the sides, and head darker, 
and the ears much darker, with the hairs, like those of the 
sides of the neck, brown to the roots. 

No specimen in collection. 

I.— Rangifer tarandus terraenovae. 

Eaugifer terraenovae, Bangs, Descrijjt. Ncwfoandland Caribou, 1896; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Miis. Nat. Hist. vol. viii, p. 2.S3, 1896; 
Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. (Zool. Pub. Field Mas. vol. ii) 
p. 36, 1901, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. {op. cit. vol. viii) p. 40, 
1907; Grant, 1th Bej). Neiu York Zool. Soc. p. 5, 1902; Stone 
and Cram, American Animals, p. 51, 1908 ; Miller, List N. Amer. 
Matmn. p. 393,1912; Dugmore, The Newfoundland Caribou, 
p. 120, 1913. 

Rangifer tarandus terraenovae, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mas. Nat. Hist. 
vol. viii, p. 235, 1896 ; LydeJckcr, Deer of All Lands, p. 45, 
1898, Great and Small Game of Enrojje, etc. p. 31, 1901 ; 
Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 85, 1910, vol. xiv, p. 85. 
1914. 



CERVID^ 249 

Typical (and only) locality NewfoundlaiKl 
Nearly allied to B. t. caribou, the bodily size being large, 
and the antlers massive and much palmated, with numerous 
points on all the branches and especially on the hind border 
of the beam. General colour in autumn greyish brown, 
becoming lighter on the flanks, and passing into nearly pure 
white on the luider surface ; neck dirty white, somewhat 
purer in front; a broad, ill-defined light ring round each 
eye, and muzzle and lower portion of the face, as well as 
extremity of lower jaw, greyisli white ; rest of head like 
l)ack ; edges and lower surface of tail and buttocks wliite ; 
front and outer surfaces of liml)S Ijrownish grey ; feet and 
terminal third of shanks white, passing gradually into the 
general colour of the limbs above. Females show rather 
less white ; and the young are still darker, with a dusky 
line on the flanks, and a blackish streak runniug down the 
l)ack and expanding over the shoulders. 

99. 2. 1. 1. Head, mounted. West Newfoundland. 

Presented hj Lieut. W. G. P. Graves, B.N., 1899. 

7. o. 11. 2. Skin, mounted. Newfoundland. 

Presented hy F. 0. Sclou><, Esq., 1907. 

8. 1. 19. 1. Skull and antlers. Newfoundland. 

Presented hj St. George Littledale, Esq., 1908. 

J.— Rangifep tarandus montanus. 

Rangifer montanus, Seton-Tliompson, Ottawa Naturalist, vol. xiii, 

p. 129, 1899 ; Elliot, Synoj}. Mamm. N. Amer. {Field Mtis. Zool. 

Pub. vol. ii) p. 36, 1901, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (oj). cit. 

vol. viii) p. 40, 1907 ; Grant, 1th Bep. New York Zool. Soc. p. 5, 

1902; Sfonc and Cram, American Animals, p. 51, 1903; Miller, 

List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 393, 1912. 
Rangifer tarandus montanus, LydekJcer, Great and Small Game of 

Europe, etc. p. 83, 1901, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, vol. ii, p. 361 ; 

Wa7'd, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 85, 1910, ed. 7, p. 85, 

1914. 

Typical locality Selkirk Eange, British Columbia. 

Antlers (fig. 43) of the general type of those of the wood- 
land race, but in their relative shortness and much branched 
character recalling those of E. t. ferrrcnovcr, althougli lighter 
and more slender ; the most distinctive feature of this 
race is the dark colour of the autumn coat, which is 



250 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

blackish brown all over the body and limbs, passing in some 
individuals into glossy black on the middle of the back from 
the withers to the rump, the shoulders, flanks, and under- 




FiG. 43. — Side View of Skull and Antlers of Mountain Caribou 

(Rangifer taranchis montanus), to show " Woodland" type of antlers. 

From Ith Rep. X. York Zool. Sue. 

parts being lighter and the neck grey. Females are much 
darker than males, especially on the neck and shoulders, 
but have the light ring above the hoofs, the nose and the 
edges of the lips pure white instead of grey, This race may 



CERVID/E 251 

be diagnosed as a black caribou of the woodland type, with 
the neck and shoulders, especially in males, much lighter 
than the body and limbs. In general form it comes 
very close to B. t. stonei, in which, however, the antlers 
apj)roach the Barren-Ground type, while the colour is different. 
No specimen in collection. 

K.— Rangifer tarandus dawsoni. 

Rangifer dawsoni, Seton-Thom/pson, Ottawa Naturalist, vol. xiii, 
p. 260, 1900 ; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. {Field Mus. Zool. 
Pub. vol. ii) p. 86, 1901 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 392, 
1912. 

Typical locality Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Group. 
Size smaller ; colour relatively dark, but lighter than in 
R. t. montanus, the general tint being mouse-colour. 
No specimen in collection. 

L.— Rangrifer tarandus stonei. 

Rangifer stonei, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xiv, p. 143, 
1901 ; Grant, 7th Bep. Netv York Zool. Soc. p. 5, 1902 ; Stone 
and Cram, American Animals, Tp. 51, 1903 ; Miller, List N. Amer. 
Mamm. p. 393, 1912. 

Rangifer tarandus stonei, Lydehher, Great and Small Game of 
Europe, etc. p. 36, 190f, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, vol. ii, p. 361 ; 
Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 85, 1910, ed. 7, p. 85, 
1914. 

Typical locality Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. 

Type in American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. 

As dark as H. t. montanus, but with a heavy white 
throat-fringe ; size large ; antlers somewhat larger than 
those of other members of the Woodland Group, and thus 
approaching those of the Barren-Ground Group. 

4. 5. 27. 1. Head, mounted. Alaska. Eeference to this 
race provisional. Purchased, 1904. 

M.— Rangifer tarandus fortidens. 

Rangifer fortidens, HolUster, Smithsvn. Misc. Collect, vol. Ivi, no, 35, 
p. 3, 1912 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 392, 1912. 

Typical locality Alberta, Canada. 
Type in U.S. National Museum, 



252 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

The largest of tlie caribou, exceeding in point of size the 
biggest examples of it. t. montanvs and R. f. osborni; general 
colour, inclusive of under-parts, very dark ; lower incisors 
of the type of those of R. t. caribou ; cheek-teeth larger 
than in any other American race ; antlers stout and broadly 
palmated, shorter and thicker than in B. t. osborni, with the 
beam nearly straight ; females usually without antlers. 

No specimen in collection. 

N.— Rangifer tarandus osborni. 

EaDgifer osborni, Allen, Bull. Ainer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, p. 149, 
1992 ; Grant, 1th Bep. New York Zool. Soc. p. 5, 1902 ; Miller, 
List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 393, 1912. 

Rangifer tarandus osborni. Ward, Becords of Big Game, eel. 6, p. 85, 
1910, ed. 7, p. 85, 1914. 

Typical locality Cassiar Mountains, British Columbia. 

Type in American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. 

This and the next race are dark-coloured mountain 
caribou, with antlers of the Barren-Ground type, but the 
bodily size much greater than in R. t. arcticns. 

The present race is characterised by the brown colour of 
the autumn coat and the large amount of white on the rump 
and the hind half of the under surface of the body ; the 
whole neck and shoulders, as well as the back and limbs, 
being much lighter than in the Selkirk race. As the antlers 
correspond in form and proportion with those of the Barren- 
Ground caribou, they serve to connect the Selkirk race with 
the latter. 

5. 1. 16. 2. Skull and antlers, Ogilvie Mountains, 
Alaska. Presented by F. G. Selous, Esq., 1905. 

6. 10. 10. 1. Head, mounted, with abnormal palmation 
of tips of antlers. Dease Lake, British Columbia. 

Presented bij G. M. Norris, Esq., 1906. 

7. 3. 11. 1. Skin, mounted. Yukon. 

Presented by F. C. jScIous, Esq., 1907. 



CEHVID.'^] 253 



0. — Rangrifer tarandus grranti. 

Rangifei- granti, Allen, Bull. Avier. Miis. Nat Hist. vol. xvi, p. 192, 
1902; Orcait, 1th Bep. N. Yorh Zool. Soc. p. 5. 1902 ; Stone and 
Gram, American Animals, p. 54, 1903; HolUster, Smithson. 
Misc. Collect, vol. Ivi, no. 35, p. 7, 1912 ; Miller, List N. Amcr. 
Mamm. p. 392, 1912. 

Rangifer tarandus granti. Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6. p. 85, 
1910, ed. 7, p. 85, 1914. 

Western end of Alaskan Peninsula, opposite Popoff 
Island. 

Type in American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. 

Nearly related to the preceding race, but distinguislied 
by details of colouring, and apparently by the markedly 
hypsodont cheek-teeth. From R. t. stonci it differs not only 
by its longer antlers and inferior bodily size, but also in 
coloration and the characters of the skull. General colour 
dark brown, varying somewhat according to season, with a 
large white rump-patch and white tail, through the middle 
line of the upper surface of which runs a dark streak ; this 
white rump-patch serving at once to distinguish R. t. granti 
from R. t. stonei, in which the whole of the hind-quarters 
are dark-coloured. This caribou apparently inhabits an 
isolated area formed by the treeless districts of the Alaskan 
Peninsula and some of the adjacent islands, from at least 
one of which it has been exterminated. 

No specimen in collection. 



P.— Rang-ifer tarandus excelsifrons. 

Rangifer excelsifrons, HolUster, Smithson. Misc. Gollect. vol. Ivi, 
no. 35, p. 5, 1912 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 392, 1912. 

Typical locality Meade Valley, near Point Barrow, 
Alaska. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Described from the skull, which is characterised by its 
shortness and breadth, with the brain-case much elevated, 
and the hollow between the orbits deep and rounded ; teeth 
of the general type of those of R. t. arcticus. A some- 



254 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

what similar elevation of the frontal region is exhibited in 
the sknll of B. t. grcenlavdicus, which is, however, of a 
naiTow type. 

No specimen in collection. 

Q.— Rang-ifer tarandus arcticus. 

Cervus tarandus arcticus, Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Amer. p. 23, 1829. 

Tarandus arcticus, Baird, Bep. Comm. Patents, 1851, vol. ii, Agric. 
p. 105, 1852. 

Rangifer arcticus, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. viii, p. 234, 
1896 ; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. 
vol. ii) p. 37, 1901, Cat. Mamm. Field Miis. {op. cit. vol. viii) 
p. 41, 1907; Grant, 1th Rep. New York Zool. Soc. p. 5, 1902; 
Stone and Cram, American Animals, p. 53, 1903 ; Hollister, 
S77iithson. Misc. Collect, vol. Ivi, no. 35, pi. i, 1912 ; Miller, List 
N. Amer. Mamm. p. 891, 1912. 

Rangifer tarandus arcticus, Lydehher, Deer of All Lands, p. 47, 1898, 
Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 38, 1901 ; Ward, 
Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 84, 1910, ed. 7, p. 84. 1914. 

Barren-Ground Caribou. 

Typical locality Fort Enterprise, Macken;^ie district, 
Canada. 

Size relatively small. Antlers (fig. 44) very long, slender, 
and rounded, with few points on the expanded portion of the 
beam, which is separated by a long interval from the third 
tine; the latter, which is but slightly palmated, generally 
with one of the basal tines more or less expanded ; back- 
tine usually, if not always, wanting; female-antlers mucli 
smaller, simpler, and scarcely curved at all. Gfeneral colour 
in summer clove-brown, mingled with reddish and yellowish 
brown, under-parts white ; in winter entire coat dirty white ; 
lower incisors diminishing suddenly in size from the middle 
to the outer paii-, which are very small. 

51. 10. 24. 1. Skull and antlers. Arctic America. 

Purchased {Argent), 1851. 

55. 5. 14. 2 (702, iv). Skeleton and antlers. Arctic 
America; collected by Dr. J. Eae. Purchased, 1855. 

7. 9. 4. 7. Skull and antlers. Baffinland. 

Presented hy Craivford Noble, Esq., 1907. 



OEllVID-E 



255 




Fig. 44 — Side View of Skull and Antlers op Barren-Ground Caribou 

(Rangifer tarandus ardicus), to show " Barren-Ground" type of antlers. 

From 7 th Rep. K. York Zool. Soc. 



256 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

R.— Rang-ifer tarandus groenlandicus. 

Cervus tarandus groelandicias, G-melin, Linn.'s Sysf. Nat, vol. i, p. 177, 

1788. 
Rangifer groenlandicus, Baird, N. Amer. Mamm. p. 634, 1857 ; Caton, 

Deer and Antelope of N. America, p. 105, 1877 ; Allen, Bull. 

Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. viii, p. 234, 1896 ; Elliot, Synop. 

Mamm. N. Amer. {Field Mus. Zooh Pub. vol. ii) p. 37, 1901 ; 

Grant, 1th Rep. New York Zool. Soc. p. 5, 1902; Stone and 

Cram, American Animals, p. 54, 1903 ; Hollister, Smithson. 

Misc. Collect, vol. Ivi, no. 35, p. 5, 1912 ; Miller, List N. Amer. 

Mamm. p. 393, 1912. 
Rangifer tarandus gi-oenlandicus. Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 47, 

1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 37, 1901 ; Ward. 

Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 85, 1910, ed. 7, p. 85, 1914. 

Typical locality Greenland. 

Closely allied to E. t. ardicus, with a broad sharply 
defined white ring ronnd each eye, and distinct broad white 
bands above the hoofs ; skull with an elevated frontal region 
comparable to that of R. t. cxceldfrons, Ijiit markedly narrower. 

10. 1. 20. 1. Skull and antlers. Greenland. 

Presented hy Sir Robert Harvey, Bart., 1910. 

S.— Rangifer tarandus pearyi. 

Rangifer pearyi, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, p. 409, 
1902; Grant, 1th Rep. New York Zool. Soc. p. 5, 1902; Miller, 
List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 893, 1912. 

Typical locality EUesmereland, Lat. 79° N. 

Type in American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. 

Wholly white at all seasons, with the exception of a 
large slaty grey area, larger in females than in males, on 
the middle and hind part of the back ; the long and thick 
coat softer and finer than in the Greenland race, which is 
much darker. 

No specimen in collection. 

The following specimens are not racially determined : — 

46. 4. 25. 23. Frontlet and antlers. North America. 

Purchased {Argent), 1846. 

65. 10. 34. 5 (702, x). Skull and antlers. North 

America. Presented by A. Murray, Esq., 1865.. 



CERVIDiE 257 



XV. Genus HYDROPOTES. 

Hydropotes, Swinlioe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 89 ; Brooke, ibid. 
1872, p. 522, 1878, p. 916 ; Garrocl, ibid. 1877, p. 780 ; Biitimeyer, 
Abli. schweiz, pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 21, 1881 ; PococTc. Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1910, p. 956 ; nee Hydropota, Rondanl, 1861. 

Hydrelaphus, LydeMer, Deer of All Lands, p. 219, 1898 ; Trouessart, 
Cat. Mamm., Siippl. p. 691, 1905; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field 
Mus. {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 37, 1907. 

Lateral metacarpals as in Odocoilciis, that is to say, repre- 
sented by their lower extremities ; antlers wanting ; muzzle 
with a large naked area surrounding nostrils ; ears moderate, 
narrow, and pointed ; tail very short ; face rather long ; coat 
uniformly coloured in adult, spotted in young ; no metatarsal 
or tarsal glands ; lachrymal pits of skull small but deep ; face- 
glands small ; hind-pasterns with a gland forming a deep 
interdigital cleft, as in Dama, and hoofs united at heels by 
a fold of skin, no distinct gland in fore-feet ; lateral hoofs of 
moderate size ; upper canines forming long, curved, and 
slightly convergent tusks (fig. 45), which grow from semi- 
persistent pulps, those of females smaller ; cheek-teeth 
tall-crowned. Size small. In old animals the pulp-cavity 
of the upper canines obliterates. The auditory bullae are 
greatly inflated, and the hind angle of the lower jaw is much 
produced backwards, forming a compressed semicircular 
process projecting behind the level of the condyle ; the 
vomer does not divide the aperture of the posterior nostrils. 

The distribution is restricted to China and Korea. 



HYDEOPOTES INEEMIS. 

Hydropotes inermis, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 89 ; Hamilton, 
ibid. 1871, p. 258, 1873, p. 473 ; Brooke, ibid. 1872, p. 522, 1878, 
p. 916; Gray, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 95, 1872, Hand- 
List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 166, 1873 ; Garrod, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1877, p. 789 ; Forbes, ibid. 1882, p. 636 ; Flower and Garson, 
Cat. Ostcol. Mus. E. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 321, 1884 ; Flower and 
Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p, 32S, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns 
and Hoofs, p. 322, 1893 ; Hilzheimcr, Abh. Mus. Naturkunde 
Magdeburg, vol. i, p. 171, 1906 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, 
p. 956. 

Hydropotes affmis, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872, p. 524 ; Hilzheimer, 
Abh. Mus. Naturkunde Magdeburg, vol. i, p. 171, 1906. 

IV. S 



258 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

(?) Hydropotes argyropus, Heudc, C. B. Ac. Set. Paris, vol. xcviii, 

p. 1017, 1884 ; Hilzheimer, Ahh. Mus. Naturkunde Magdeburg, 

vol. i, p. 171, 1906. 
Hydrelaphus inermis, Lydeliker, Deer of All Lands, p. 221, pi. xvii, 

fig. 2, 1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 266, 1901 ; 

Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl. p. 691, 1905; Elliot, Cat. 

Mamm. Field Mus. {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 89, 1907 ; 

Allen, Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll. vol. xl, p. 204, 1912. 
Hydropotes kreyenbergi, Hilzheimer, Zool. Anz. vol. xxix, p. 298, 

1905, Abh. Mus. Naturkunde Magdeburg, vol. i, p. 171, pi. ii, 

1906 ; Allen, Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll. vol. xl, p. 205, 1912. 

Chinese Watek-Deer. 

Typical locality Chin-kiang, China. 

Height at shoulder about 20 inches ; hairs coarse and 
thick, longest on neck and rump, on back and sides flattened 
and undulated from side to side ; general colour light rufous 
chestnut, stippled with blackish, the rufous most marked on 
head and backs of ears ; the individual hairs greyish white 
from the base for the greater part of theii" length, then 
blackish brown, and finally light chestnut, the dark rings 
giving the stippled appearance to the coat ; neck paler than 
back ; shoulders, limbs, and tail 1)rownish chestnut ; under- 
parts, front of thighs, chin, throat, a narrow band on muzzle, 
a mark above each eye, and inner surfaces of ears white or 
whitish ; young sparsely and indistinctly marked with white 
spots running in longitudinal lines, especially on hind- 
quarters, and the haii- of back softer than in adults, and 
uniformly chestnut, without annulations. 

The range extends from the Yang-tsi-kiang Valley to 
Korea {II. argyropus). 

70. 7. 18. 15 (1551, a). Skull and skin. Island in 
Yang-tsi-kiang, near Chin-kiang; purchased in Shanghai 
market,^ November, 1868, by E. Swinhoe, Esq. Type. 

Purchased, 1870. 

72. 9. 3. 4 (1551, V). Skull and skin. Same locality and 
collector. Furcliascd, 1872. 

72. 9. 3. 5 (1551, c). Skull and skin. Shanghai (? mar- 
ket) ; same collector. Same history. 

72. 9. 3. 6 (1551, <^). Skull and head-skin, immature. 
Same locality and collector. Same history. 

72. 9. 3. 7 (1551, e). Skeleton, mounted, and head-skin. 
Same locality and collector. Same history. 



CEKVID.K 259 

76. 4. 4. 1 (1551,/). Skeleton and impeifect skin, albino. 
Locality unknown. Purchased {Bartldt), 1876. 

77. 7. 6. 1. Uterus, with five foetuses, in spirit. Yaug- 
tsi Valley. Presented hy Dr. G. K. Barton, 1877. 

80. 3. 30. 6-7. Two skulls. Wuku, near Iviu-kiang, 
Hankau district ; collected by C. Maries, Esq. This is the 
typical locality (misprinted Kinkian in Hilzheimer's 1906 
description) of H. Irei/cnhcrgi, and is much too near Cliin- 
kiang to admit of its water-deer being even racially distinct 
from the typical form of the species. Purchased, 1880. 

88. 11. 31. 2-3. Two foetuses, in spirit, Kiu-kiang; 
collected by F. W. Styan, Esq. Purchased, 1888. 




Fig. 45. — Skull of Chinese Water-Deer [Hydropotes incrmis). 

0. 6. 27. 5. Skin, young. Pao-chi, Shen-si. 

Presented hy Father Hvyh, 1900. 

0. 10. 30. 1. Skin, female, mounted. Island in the 
Yang-tsi-kiang. Presented hy the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1900. 

1. 3. 2. 22. Skull and skin. Ka-shing, Yijng-tsi Valley. 

Presented hy F. W. Styan, Esq., 1901. 
6. 5. 14. 3. Skull and head-skin, female, Chin-kiang. 

Presented hy J. dc La Touche, Esq., 1906. 

6. 12. 5. 14-15. Two skulls. Chin-kiang. Same history. 

7. 7. 3. 32. Skull. North China. 

Presented hy E. B. Hoivell, Esq., 1907. 

8. 7. 25. 43. Skin. Kun-tun, north-western Fo-kien. 

Presented hy J. de La Touche, Esq., 1908. 

s 2 



260 CATALOflUE OF UNGULATES 

8. 11. 14. 8-12. Five skulls, of wliich at least two are 
female. Shanghai. Presented h/ F. W. Siyan, Esq., 1908. 

13. 9. 13. 19. Skull and skin. Hwong-ti-tsze, Hupei ; 

collected by Mr. W. E. Zappey. By exchange loitli 

Museum of Harvard College, U.S.A., 1913. 



Section B.— TRAGULINA. 

Chevrotaiiis, or Mouse-Deer, as the members of this 
group ai'e commonly termed, are small artiodactyle ungulates 
resembling the Pecora (vol. i, p. 8) in the absence of upper 
incisors and in the possession of the power of ruminating, 
l)ut differing in that the stomach has only three (in place of 
four) chambers, and by the complete development of the 
lateral metacarpals. Horns or antlers are invariably lacking ; 
and the main metacarpals and metatarsals may either remain 
separate or may be respectively fused into cannon-bones ; the 
fibula of the hind-leg is complete ; and the navicular, cuboid, 
and ectocuneiform elements of the tarsus are united into a 
single bone. Four teats ; placenta diffuse. Face-glands, 
together with lachrymal pits and vacuities in the skull, 
invariably wanting, as are also tarsal and metatarsal glands. 
The feet are of a primitive type, the web on the hind aspect 
of the pasterns consisting of a fold of skin which stops short 
midway between the lateral hoofs and the heels ; the back of 
the pasterns being open in its lower half, while the front 
shows a long triangular depression, with its apex reaching the 
line of the lateral hoofs. Upper canines in males long and 
tusk-like (fig. 46). 

The range includes the tropical and subtropical forest- 
tracts of south-eastern Asia and the African equatorial forest- 
zone. 

Family TRAGULID^. 

As this is the only family of the section, its characters 
may be taken to be the same as those of the latter. Tt is 
divisible into the foUow^ing two generic groups : — 



TRAGULTD.^^. 261 

Main metacarpals and metatarsals fused, respec- 
tively, into cannon-bones, feet relatively long and 
slender, with the lateral toes small Tracjuhts. 

Main metacarpals and metatarsals * separate, feet 
shorter and stouter, with the lateral toes larger... Dorcafheriiim. 



I. Genus TRAGULUS. 

Tragulus, Pallas, Spicil. Zool. fasc. xiii, p. 27, 1779 ; Milne-Edwards, 
Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. ser. v, vol. ii, p. 49, 1864 ; Blanford, Fauna 
Brit. India, Mamm. p. 554, 1891 ; Merriam, Science, ser. 2, 
vol. i, p. 375, 1895 ; Stone and Belin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. 
1902, p. 128; Bonhote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol xi, 
p. 296, 1903 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 979. 

Memina, Gray, Med. Eejws. vol. xv, p. 307, 1821 ; nee G. Fischer, 
1814. 

Meminna, Agassiz, Nomenclator Zool., Mamm. p. 20, 1842 ; Gray, 
List. Mamm. Brit. Mus. pp. xxvii and 172, 1843. 

Size small ; main metacarpals and metatarsals fused, 
respectively, into cannon-bones ; feet relatively long and 
slender ; muzzle with a large bare muffle ; coat fine and 
close ; with characteristic light markings on throat and chest ; 
skull elongated and compressed anteriorly, with premaxilla3 
reaching nasals; dentition: i. -9-, c. \, p. 3, m. ?,, the molars 
selenodont and short-crowned, and the premolars in appo- 
sition with one another and their crowns triangular in 
profile ; tail short or medium. 

Restricted to the forest-tracts of south-eastern Asia. 

The typical forms of the four species here recognised are 
respectively characterised as follows : — 

A. Upper-parts spotted with white ; chin and throat 

fully haired T. meminna. 

B. Upper-parts not spotted ; skin of area between 

branches of lower jaw bare and glandular. 

a. General colour tending to dark smoky grey, at 

least on flanks, size larger, length of hind-foot 

about 5a to 6 inches T. javanicits. 

b. General colour, at least on flanks and edges of 

belly, rufous. 

h' . General colour bright rufous ; nape not darker 

than back ; size medium T. Stanley anus. 

c' . Back greyish, brightening to rufous on flanks ; 
a dark, sometimes black, nuchal stripe ; size 
smaller ; length of hind-foot about 4 k to 5 
inches T. kanchil. 

* These may more or less completely fuse in old age. 



262 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

In referring all tlie unspotted chevrotaius (with a possible 
reservation in the case of one or two forms) to three specific 
types or groups, the writer follows the lead of Bonhote, who 
in 1903 stated that he could not agree with those who, while 
using trinomials for continental races, refuse to allow them 
for insular races, on the plea that, as intermediate forms do 
not exist, they must be regarded as separate species. On the 
contrary, it is in every way much simpler and easier to look 
upon island forms, which are extraordinarily numerous, in 
the light of local races, or incipient species, referable to a few 
variable specific types. When these races are very numerous, 
this renders it practically impossible to give a full definition 
of the species, or a " key " to its local forms ; and in such 
cases the only course is to give the leading characteristics of 
the typical form under the specific heading, and the local 
variations from this type under the headings of the \arious 
races. Even size cannot be taken as a definite specific 
character, since one of the island forms included under the 
heading of the larger T. javaniciis is scarcely superior in 
stature to the smaller T. kaoicJdl. 

I. TEAGULUS MEMIXNA. 

]\roschus meniiuna, Erxleben, Syst. Begn. Anim. p. 322, 1777 ; Si/Jces, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 104 ; Elliot, Madras Joiirn. voL x, 
p. 220, 1839; Ticl'dl, Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. vol. i, p. 420, 
1841; Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, voL xi, p. 96, 1842 ; 
Tenncnt, Nat. Hist. Ceylon, p. 58, 1861. 

Meminna indica, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 63, List Mamin. 
Brit. Mus. p. 172, 1843, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 246, 1852, 
Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 97, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants 
Brit. Mus. p. 167, 1873; Kelaart, Prodromus Fauna} Zeylan. 
p. 81, 1852; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 269, 
1862 ; Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, p. 155, 1863 ; 
Jerdon, Mamm. India, p. 269, 1867; McMastcr, Notes on jcrdon, 
p. 98, 1870; Sterndale, Mamm. Lidia, p. 516, 1884. 

Tragulus mimenoides, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. x, 
p. 914, 1841. 

Meminna malaccensis, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 172, 1843. 

Tragulus meminna,* Milnc-Eddvards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 5, 
vol. ii, p. 160, pi. X, 1864 ; Blyth, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 483 ; 
W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 189, 1891 ; 
Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 385 ; Blanford, Fauna Brit. 
India, Mamm. p. 555, 1891 ; Floiver and Lydehker, Study of 

* Frequently spelt memminna . 



TRAGULIDiE 263 

Mammals, p, 306, 1893 ; Merriam, Science, ser. 2, vol. i, p. 375, 
1895 ; Lydekker, Great and Small Game of India, etc. p. 253, 
1900, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 272, 1907; Bonliote, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. xi, p. 296, 1903 ; Hauxwell, Journ. 
Bomhaij Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xviii, p. 902, 1908. 

Indian Chevrotain, or Mouse-Deer : Memminna. 

Typical locality probably southern India ; the range 
includes the larger forests of Peninsular India and Ceylon, 
and, according to Hauxwell, Burma. 

The type species (vide Merriam, op. cit.). 

Size relatively large, shoulder-height 10 to 12 inches, 
basal skull-length about 3|^ inches (97 mm.) ; no naked 



Fig. 46. — Skull of Indian Chevrotain (Tragnlics meminna). 

glandular area on under side of chin and throat ; tarsus hairy 
all round, except behind, close to the hocks ; tail short ; 
general colour brown, darker or paler, minutely speckled 
with yellow ; the individual hairs brown at base, black 
towards end, with a yellow ring a short distance from tip ; 
sides spotted with white or buff on a brown ground, the spots 
elongate and passing into longitudinal bands ; under-parts 
white ; throat with three wliite stripes, one in the middle 
pointed in front, and an oblique one on each side. 
50, a. Skin, young. Madras. 

Presented hi/ Sir Walter Elliot. 



264 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

38. 3. 13. 47. Skin, young, formerly mounted. Northern 
Circars ; collected by Mr. J. Turner. Purchased, 1838. 

42. 5. 26. 19. Skin, formerly mounted. Locality 
iTnknown ; collected by J. Gould, Esq. Type of M. 
malacccnsis. Purchased, 1842. 

45. 8. 12. 9 (679, a). I Skull and skin (formerly mounted), 

46. 4. 10. 10. I immature female. Eastern Ghats. 
Skull figured in Gray's Catalogue of Ungidata, 1852. 

Purchased (Bartlett), 1845. 

47. 4. 10. 3. Skin, female, formerly mounted. India. 

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1847. 
67. 4. 12. 431. Spirit-specimen. Locality unknown. 

- Lidth de Jcudc Collection, imrchased, 1867. 

76.5. 30. 5. Skull and skin. Peradenya, Ceylon; 

collected by E. Boate, Esq. Purchased, 1876. 

77. 3. 14. 1. Skull and skin, female. Kandy, Ceylon; 

collected by A. Whyte, Esq. Purchased, 1877. 

77. 11. 1. 8. Skin, young. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
79.11.21.588. Skin, immature. Dekhan ; collected 
by Col. T. Sykes. Transferred from India Museum, 1879. 
79. 11. 21. 657. Skin. Same locality and collector. 

Sarae history. 
91. 6. 8. 1. Spirit specimen. No locality. 

Presented hy Sir W. J. Ingram, Bart., 1891. 
94. 10. 21. 6. Skin, young. Trivandrum, Travancore. 

Presented hy II. S. Ferguson, Esq., 1894. 
1. * * *. Skull. India. 

Presented hy It. Lydekker, Esq., 1901. 
4. 1. 12. 1. Skin, female, mounted. Ceylon. 

Purchased (Gerrard), 1904. 
12. 11. 28. 124. Skin, mounted, and skull. Hulekal, 
near Sirsi, Kanara ; collected by G. C. Shortridge, Esq. 

Presented hy the Bombay Natural 
History Society, 1912. 

12. 11. 28. 125. Skull and skin, female. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

13. 8. 22. 88. Skull and skin, female. Chamarajnagar, 
south Mysore ; same collector. 

Presented hy E. Van Ingen, Esq., 1913. 



TEAGULID.E 265 

13. 8. 22. 89. Skull and skin, female. Wokkoli, south 
Coorg ; same collector. 

Presented hy the Boiiibay Natural History Society, 1913. 



II. TRAGULUS STANLEYANUS. 

Moschus (Tragulus) stanleyanus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 65. 

Tragulus stanlej-anus, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, pi. xxxiii, 1850, 
Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mas. p. 249, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. 
Mus. p. 98, 1872, Hand-List Bicminants Brit. Mus. p. 168, 1873, 
partim; Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 5, vol. ii, 
p. 160, 1864 ; Blyth, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 483 ; Flower and 
Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 327, 1884; 
W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mtis. })t. ii, pp. 188 and 191, 
1891, partim; Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 385, Jouru. 
Malay Mus. vol. ii, p. 106, 1908; Bonhote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 7, vol. xi, p. 296, 1903. 

Typical locality not definitely known, Init probably some 
part of the Malay Peninsula. 

Size medium ; a bare glandular area on under side of 
chin and upper part of throat; general colour typically 
bright rufous, not darker on neck than on back. 

The distribution is probably restricted to the Malay 
Peninsula and adjacent islands. 

The races are distinguished as follows : — 

A. General colour rufous. 

a. Size larger T. s. Stanley amis. 

h. Size smaller T. s. rufulus. 

B. General colour yellower T. s. perflavus. 

€. General colour orange T. s. formosus. 

A.— Trag-ulus stanleyanus stanleyanus. 

Typical locality as above. 
Size and colouring as under heading of species. 
-48. 10. 11. 6. i Skull and skin. Locality unknown. 

48. 12. 12. 1 (827, a). \ Type. Skull figured in Gray's 
Catalogue of Ungulata, 1852. 

Presented hy the Earl of Derby, 1848. 
53. 8. 29. 38. Skin, mounted ; collected by Mrs. Walk- 
ingshaw. Locality unknown. 

Purehased (Zoological Society), 1853. 



266 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



53. 8. 29. 40. Skin, three days' old fawn. From an 
animal born in London. Same history. 

67. 4. 12. 293. Skull, immature female, referable to this 
or one of the allied races. Locality unknown. 

Lidth de Jcvdc Collection, 'pvrcliascd, 1867. 



B.— Tragulus stanleyanus perflavus. 

Tragulus perflavus, Miller, Proc. IT.S. Nat. Mus. voL xxxi, p. 251, 
1906; Lyoii, ibid. p. 653, 1907, vol. xxxvi, p. 481, 1909. 

Tragulus stanleyanus perflavus, Thomas and Wrougliton, Journ, 
Malay Mus. vol. iv, p. 128, 1909. 

Typical locality Batam Island, Ehio Linga Group. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Colour a yellower rufous than in preceding races ; area 

of white throat-markings small. For dimensions see p. 294. 

9. 4. 1. 488. Skull and skin. Tanjong Turut, Batam 

Island ; collected by H. C. Eobinson, Es(|. Presented hy 

the Government of the Federated Malay States, 1 909. 

9.4.1.489. Skull and skin. Same locality and collector 

Same history. 
Same locality and collector. 
Same history. 
Same locality and collector. 
Same history. 
Same locality and collector. 
Same history. 
Same locality and collector. 
Same history. 
Same locality and 
Same Itistoi^y. 
495. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 

Same history. 

Same locality and 

Same history. 

Same locality and 

Same history. 

Same locality and 

Same history. 

Same locality and 

Same history. 



9. 4. 1. 490. Skull and skin. 

9. 4. 1. 491. Skull and skin. 

9. 4. 1. 492. Skull and skin. 

9.4.1.493. Skull and skin. 

9. 4. 1. 494. Skull and skin, female, 
collector. 

9. 4. 1 
collector. 

9.4. 1 
collector. 

9. 4. 1. 497. 
collector. 

9. 4. 1. 498. 
collector. 

9. 4. 1. 499. 
collector. 



496. Skull and skin, female. 



Skull and skin, female. 
Skull and skin, female. 
Skull and skin, female. 



TRAGULID/E 267' 



C— Tpagfulus stanleyanus rufulus. 

Tragulus rufulus, Miller, Proc. Washington Ac. Sci. vol. ii, p. 227, 
1900 ; Thomas, Jonrn. Malay Mus. vol. ii, p. 106, 1908. 

Tragulus javanicus rufulus, Bonliote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, 

vol. xi, p. 296, 1903. 
Tragulus stanleyanus rufulus, Thomas and Wronghton, Journ. Malay 

Mus. vol. iv, p. 129, 1909. 

Typical locality I'ulo Tioman, off Johore. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Similar to typical T. stanleyanus in colour, but considerably 
smaller in size. 

8. 1. 25. 24. Skull. Juara Bay, Pulo Tioman. 

Presented hi/ H. C. Robinson, Esq., 1908. 

8. 2. 25. 22. Skull and skin. Tulo Tioman ; collected 

by H. C. Robinson, Esq. Presented hy 

the Government of the Federated Malay States, 1908. 

8. 1. 25. 23. Skull and skin, femde. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 



D.— Trag^ulus stanleyanus formosus. 

Tragulus formosus, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xvi, 
p. 34, 1903, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 251, 1906. 

Tragulus javanicus formosus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Stij^jil. p. 688, 
1904, 

Tragulus stanleyanus formosus. Thomas and Wrough ion, Jonrn. Malay 
Mus. vol. iv, p. 129, 1909. 

Typical locality Pulo Bintang, Ehio Linga Group. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

General colour bright orange ochery, darkening to ochery 
rufous on neck and limbs, and lightening to orange-buff on 
flanks ; hairs drab with black tips ; crown, middle line of 
nape, and back black, much mingled with ochery rufous, 
which renders nuchal stripe inconspicuous ; under-parts 
tinged with yellowish drab. For dimensions see p. 294. 

9. 4. 1. 484. Skull and skin. Pulo Bintang ; collected 

by H. C. Eobinson, Esq. Presented hy 

the Government of the Federated Malay States, 1909. 



268 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

9. 4. 1. 486. Skull and skin. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

9. 4. 1. 487. Skull and skin. Sungei Biru, Pulo 

Bintang; same collector. Same Msfor]/. 



111. TRAGULUS JAVANICUS. 

Cervus javanicus, OsbecJi, Reisc Ostind. tind China, p. 367, 1765. 
Moschus javanicus, Baffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xiii, p. 262, 1822; 

Graij, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 64 ; nee Gmelin, 1788. 
Tragulus javanicus, Gray, List Manim. Brit. Mies. p. 173, 1843, Cat, 

Ungulata Brit. Miis. p. 249, 1852, Cat. Raminants Brit. Mns. 

p. 98, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mns. p. 168, 1873; 

Cantor, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xv, p. 269, 1846; Blyth, 

ibid. vol. xxvii, p. 277, 1859, Cat. Mamm. Mns. Asiat. Soc. 

Bengal, p. 155, 1863 ; Bonhote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, 

vol. xi, p. 296, 1903. 
Tragulus fuscatus, BJytJi. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxvii, p. 278, 

1859. 
Tragulus napu, Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 5, vol. ii, 

p. 158, 1864, and most later writers. 

Typical locality Java. 

Size typically large, shoulder-height about 13 inches; 
a naked tract on throat ; tarsus naked behind ; tail relatively 
long ; general colour typically yellowish or rufous brown, 
passing into smoky grey on sides ; hairs of back black- 
tipped, but without pale subterminal ring ; forehead and 
nape blacker ; under-parts white ; throat and fore part of 
neck brown, with five more or less distinct white stripes, a 
median stripe on the chest, and two oblique white lines on 
each side of front of throat, which may coalesce ; rump 
rufous ; tail brown above, white below. 

The distributional area extends from Sumatra, Borneo, 
and Java, together with the neighbouring isles (such as those 
of the lihio Linga Group), through the Malay I'eninsula and 
adjacent islands, to southern Tenasserim, as well as to 
Annam. 

A.— Tragrulus javanicus javanicus. 

Typical locality Java. 

General characters those given under head of species. 

No specimen in collection. 



TRAGULID.E 269 



B.— Tragrulus javanicus napu. 

Moschus napu, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. iii, livr. 37, pi. 329, 
1822. 

Tragulus napu, Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 7, vol. ii, 
pp. 106 and 158, 1864 ; Blytli, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 483 ; 
Blanford, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xlvii, pt. 2, p. 166, 1879, 
Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 557, 1901 ; Floivcr and Garson, 
Cat. Osteol. Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 328, 1884 ; Jentinl; Notes 
Leyden Mus. vol. xi, p. 25, 1889 ; Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1886, 
p. 71, 1891, p. 585 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, 
p. 190, 1891 ; Lydekker, Great and Small Game of India, etc. 
p. 256, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 275, 1907 ; Stone 
and Belm, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. PJiiladeJjphia, 1902, p. 27 ; Miller, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xiii, p. 186, 1900, Proc. U.S. 
Nat. Mus. vol. xxvi, p. 439, 1908, vol. xxxvii, p. 6, pi. i, 1909 ; 
Schneider, Zool. Jahrb., Syst. vol. xxiii, p. 133, 1905; Lyon, 
Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 628, 1908. 

Tragulus javanicus napu, Bonhote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, 
vol. xi, p. 296, 1903. 

Typical locality Sumatra. 

Very similar to typical race ; general colour orauge-buff, 
faintly washed with blackish ; sides and under-parts greyish ; 
a moderately distinct dark nuchal stripe, throat-markings 
normal, the outer dark pair similar in colour to rest of neck ; 
total length about 22;^ inches (572 mm.). 

51,/>. 8kin, female. Sumatra; collected by Sir J. Stamford 

Eaftles. Presented hy Lady Baffles. 

51, e. Skull and skin, immature. Same locality and 

collector. Same Idstory. 

79. 11. 21. 243. Skin. Purlis, Malay Peninsula; 

collected by Dr. J. Cantor. 

Transferred from India Ihtscum, 1879. 
85. 8. 1. 351. Skin. Bankasun, Tenasserim ; collected 
by W. Davison, Esq. 

Presented by A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1885. 
85. 8. 1. 352, Skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

85. 8. 1. 353. Skin, female. Probably same locality ; 

same collector. Same Idstory. 

85. 8. 1. 354. Skin, young. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
91. 11. 6. 4. Skin, young. Same locality and collector. 
Presented hy Dr. W. T. Blanford, 1891. 



270 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

99. 6. 12. 4. Skin, immature female. Deli, Sumatra. 

Presented by Theodore Barclay, Esq., 1899. 

13. 5. 26. 1. Skin, albino, of this or one of the allied 
races. Eawang, Malay Peninsula, 

Presented hi/ Muncjo Park, Esq., 1913. 

14. 12. 8. 225. Skull and skin. Bankachon, southern 
Tenasserim. Presented hy the 

Boinbay Natitral History Society, 1914. 
14, 12. 8. 226. Skull and skin. Same locality. 

Same history. 
14. 12. 8. 227. Skull and skin. Same locality. 

Same history. 
14. 12. 8. 228. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 
14. 12. 8. 229. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 
14. 12. 8. 230. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 

C— Tragulus javanicus canescens. 

Tragulus canescens, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xiii, 
p. 185, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxvii, p. 5, foot-note, 
1909; Tliomas and Wroughton, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, 
vol. iv, p. 536, 1909. 

Tragulus javanicus canescens, Bonhote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, 
vol. xi, p. 296, 1903, Fasciculx Malay, vol. i, p. 41, 1903. 

Typical locality Trong, Lower Siam, whence the range 
extends into the Malay Peninsula. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Differs very slightly, if at all, from the Sumatran T. j. 
napu ; in the original description comparison was made with 
one of the Pthio Liuga races, instead of the true na^yn. 

No specimen in collection. 

D.— Tragulus javanicus borneanus. 

Tragulus borneanus, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wasliington, vol. xv, 
p. 174, 1902 ; Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 550, 1907. 

Tragulus javanicus borneanus, Bonliotc, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, 
vol. xi, p. 296, 1903. 

Tragulus napu borneanus, Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xl, p. 64, 
1911. 



TRAGULID.E 271 

Typical locality British North Borneo. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Closely allied to T. j. ncqni, but slightly smaller, with 
the throat-markings a little darker, and the light gorget 
rather wider. Specimens from the neighbouring Pulo Laut 
are slightly inferior in size to those from the mainland. 

90. 12. 15. 3 (1980, h). Skull and skin, female. Sarawak, 
N. Borneo. Presented In/ Dr. G. D. Haviland, 1890. 

92. 2. 8. 6. Skin. Baram, Sarawak ; collected by A. H. 
Everett, Esq. Purchased, 1892. 

94. 6. 8. 3. Skin, female. Bongou, N. Borneo; same 
collector. Purchased, 1894. 

0. 8. 4. 1. Skull and skin, young. Baram. 

Presented hy Dr. C. Hose, 1900. 

10. 4. 5. 119. Skull and skin; the latter mounted. 
Poeroek Jihoe, Barito Valley, S. Central Borneo ; * collected 
by G. C. Shortridge, Esq. Presented hj 0. Thomas, Esq., 1910. 

10. 4. 5. 120. Skull and skin. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

10. 4. 5. 121. Skull and skin. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

10. 4. 5. 122. Skull and skin, female. Same locality 
and collector. Senne history. 

10. 4. 5. 123. Skull and skin. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

10. 4. 5. 124. Skull and skin, female. Same locality 
and collector. Sevme history. 

10. 4. 5. 125. Skull and skin, female. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

10. 4. 5. 126. Skull and skin, young female. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

10. 4. 5. 127. Skull and skin, young female. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

10. 4. 5. 129. Skull and skin. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

10. 4. 5. 130. Skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

* The reference of the specimens from this locality to the present 
race is provisional. 



272 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



E.— Tragulus javanicus nigricans. 

Tragulus nigricans, Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. ix, 
p. 254, 1892 ; Nehring, Sitzber. Ges. nat. Freunde, 1894, p. 223 ; 
Hollister, Pliilipiiinc Journ. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, p. 39, 1912. 

Tragulus javanicus nigricans, Bonhote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, 

vol. xi, p. 296, 1903. 
Muntiacus nigricans, Allen, Bull. Amer. Miis. Nat. Hist. vol. xxviii, 

p. 13, 1916, errorim. 

Typical locality Balabac, riiilippines. 
Size and colour-plan very similar to T.j. napu, but upper- 
parts strongly washed with black, the hairs being white at 
base, orange in middle, and black at tip ; white throat- 
stripes, when present, very narrow and sharply defined, with 
an arrangement recalling that obtaining in T. stanlcyanus, 
there bein" a dark area between them and the white on the 
under side of the lower jaw. 

Typical (and only) locality Balabac Island, Philippines. 
91. 11. 28. 2. Skull and skin, young. Balabac ; collected 
by the Steere Expedition, 1887-88. Type. Purchased, 1891. 
94. 2. 1. 16. Skull and skin. Balabac. 

Purchased, 1894. 
94. 6. 8. 4. Skull and skin. Balabac; collected by 
A. H. Everett, Esq. The throat-markings are obsolete. 

Purchased, 1894. 
94. 7. 2. 45. Skin, young. Balabac ; same collector. 

Same history. 

F.— Tragfulus javanicus terutus. 

Tragulus canescens terutus, Thomas and Wroughton, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist. ser. 8, vol. iv, p. 536, 1909. 

Typical locality Terutau Island, Straits of Malacca. 

Smaller than, but otherwise similar to, T. j. canescens ; 
the dark on tlie nape distinctive of T. j. umbrinus is 
wanting. 

9. 11. 1. 159. Skull and skin. Terutau Island ; collected 

by H. C. Eobinson, Esq. Type. Presented hy the 

Government of the Federated Malay States, 1909. 

9. 11. 1. 160. Skull and .skin, immature. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 



TRAGULID.E 273 

9. 11. 1. 161. Skull and skin. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

9. 11. 1. 162. Skull and skin, immature. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

9. 11, 1. 163. Skull and skin of a rather younger animal 
than the last. Same locality and collector. Same history. 

9. 11. 1. 164. Skull and skin, subadult female. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

9. 11. 1. 165. Skull and skin, immature female. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

G.— Tragulus javanicus umbrinus. 

Tragulus umbrinus, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xiii, 

p. 191, 1900. 
Tragulus javanicus umbrinus, Bonliotc, Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist. ser. 7, 

vol. xi, p. 296, 1903. 

Typical locality Pulo Lankawi, Straits of Malacca. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Generally similar to T. j. canescens, but smaller and much 
darker, with the throat-stripes blackish brown and almost 
devoid of pale speckling, and the under-parts strongly 
tinged with fulvous grey. General colour deeper and brighter 
orange-buff than in T. j. canescens, and the blackish clouding 
much in excess of buff; sides and flanks darker than in the 
latter owing to the greater admixture of brown ; entire nape 
and sides of neck blackish seal-brown ; lateral dark throat- 
stripes of the latter colour, with scarcely any buff speckling. 

9. 11. 1. 166. Skull and skin, female. Lankawi Island; 

collected by H. C. Eobinson, Esq. Presented by the 

Government of the Federated Malay States, 1909. 

H.— Tragulus javanicus pretiosus. 

Tragulus pretiosus, Miller, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. PhiladeljjMa, 1902, 
p. 144, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 253, 1906, vol. xxxvii, 
p. 6, pi. ii, fig. 1, 1909. 

Tragulus javanicus pretiosus, Bonhote, Ann, Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, 
vol. xi, p. 296, 1903. 

Typical (and only) locality Linga Island, Ehio linga 
Group. 

lY. T 



274 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Colour richer and yellower than in T. j. napu ; black 
clouding on back slightly in excess of ground-colour ; a 
weli-detined narrow blackish nuchal stripe ; dark throat- 
markings a mixture of black and dull ochery rufous, white 
ones normal ; total length about 22-| inches (56G mm.). For 
other dimensions, see p. 294. 

No specimen in collection. 

I.— Tragulus javanicus pretiellus. 

Tragulus pretiellus, Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 253, 

1906, vol. xxxvii, p. 6, 1909. 
Tragulus pretiellus pretiellus, Miller, Proc, Biol. Soc. Wasldngton, 

vol. xxiv, p. 165, 1911. 

Typical (and only) locality Pulo Bakong, Rliio Linga 
Group. 

Type in U.S. National Museum. 

Smaller than T. j. 'pretiosus, with relatively larger cheek- 
teeth ; otherwise similar ; brighter coloured than T. j. lutcscens 
(infra) ; total length about 20 inches (501 mm.). For other 
dimensions, see p. 294. 

No specimen in collection. 

J.— Trag'ulus javanicus parallelus. 

Tragulus pretiellus parallelus. Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wmlnngton, 
vol. xxiv, p. 165, 1911. 

Typical locality Pulo Sebang, Ehio Linga Group. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Very close to T. j. pretiellus, but with less suffusion of 
black on upper-parts, and less tinge of huffish on middle 
portion of under-parts, where there is no greyish grizzle, 
owing to absence of black tips to hairs. 

No specimen in collection. 

Here it may be mentioned that Tragulus formosus and 
T. perjlavus, from the Ehio Linga Group, were originally 
reo-arded as members of the present species, more or less 
nearly related to T. j. p)retiosus, but are now classed as races 
of T. stanleyanus (supra, pp. 266-67). 



TRAGULID-E 27^ 



K.— Tragulus javanicus lutescens. 

Tragulus lutescens, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xvi, 
p. 32, 1903, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 251, 1906, 
vol. xxxvii, p. 6. 1909. 

Tragulus javanicus lutescens, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl. p. 688, 
1904. 

Pulo Sugi Bawa, Eliio Linga Group ; also occurs in 
Pulo Jan. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

About the size of T. j. pretiellus, with well-defined black 
nuchal stripe ; general colour paler than in preceding races, 
on back orange-buff clouded with blackish brown, the latter 
not in excess of former tint; on flanks the buff fading, 
through straw-yellow to cream; dark throat-markings heavily 
shaded with black. For dimensions, see p. 294. 

No specimen in collection. 

L. — Tragrulus javanicus flavicollis. 

Tragulus flavicollis. Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xvi, 
p. 33, 1903, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 251, 1906, 
vol. xxxvii, p. 7, 1909. 

Tragulus javanicus flavicollis, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Siipj^l. p, 688, 
1904. 

Typical (and only) locality Pulo Sugi, Ehio Linga Group. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Closely related to preceding race, but yellower, without 
a dark nuchal stripe, and the dark throat-markings only 
faintly shaded with black ; general colour essentially as in 
T. j. lutescens, but the tawny element more decidedly yellow, 
especially on cheeks and neck ; size proljably larger. 

No specimen in collection. 



M.— Tragrulus javanicus bancanus. 

Tragulus bancanus Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mas. vol. xxxi, p. 576, 
1906. 

Typical locality Banka Island, east of Sumatra. 
Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

T 2 



27G CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Closely related to T. j. nrqm, hut liriglitcr in colour, 
with a rather smaller skull. 
No specimen in collection. 

N.— Tragulus javanicus nig-ricollis. 

Tragulus nigricollis, Miller, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philadclpliia, 1902, 
p. 145, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 253, 1906, voL xxxvii, 
p. 7, pi. iii, fig. 1, 1909. 

Tragulus javanicus nigricollis, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Siq^pl. 
p. 688, 1904. 

Typical (and only) locality Pulo Sinkep, rJiio Linga 
Group. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Generally similar to T. j. pretiosns, hut slightly larger, 
and ground-colour more clouded with l:)lack ; flanks light 
huff, as in T. j. lute.scrns ; throat-markings normal, the dark 
ones black, faintly speckled with brown, like sides of neck; 
total length about 22:^ inches (5G6 mm.). For other 
dimensions, see p. 294. 

No specimen in collection. 

0— Tragfulus javanicus nigroeinctus. 

Tragulus nigrocinctus. Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat, Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 250, 
1906, vol. xxxvii, pi. 7, pi. iii, fig. 2, 1909. 

Typical locality Pulu Kuudur, Ehio Linga Group ; also 
occurs on Pulu Karimon. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

General colour much as in T. j. 23retiosus, but the black 
clouding — due to the hair-tips — so strongly developed as 
almost completely to obscure the ground-colour on back ; 
neck and throat black, the latter without markings ; no 
white on under-parts ; tail, unlike that of all the other Ivhio 
Linga races, yellow below ; total length about 19| inches 
(502 mm.). This race differs from T. j. anncc (p. 279) by 
the shorter ears (length about 30 mm. against 37 to 38 mm.), 
the marked contrast in colour between neck and back, and 
the presence of a faint eyebrow-stripe in the lighter-coloured 
individuals. 



TKAGULIDJ^. 



277 



9. -i. 1. 476. Skull and skin. Piilo Karimou, Ehio 

Linga Group ; collected by H. C. Eobinson, Esq. Presented 

hy the Government of the Federated Malay States, 1909. 

9. 4. 1. 477. Skull and skin. Same locality and 



collector. 

9. 4. 1. 478. 
collector. 

9. 4. 1. 479. 
collector. 

9. 4. 1. 480. 
collector. 

9. 4. 1. 481. 
collector. 

9. 4. 1. 482. 
and collector. 

9. 4. 1. 483. 
and collector. 



Same history. 
Skull and skin. Pulo Kundur; same 

Same history. 
Skull and skin. Same locality and 

Same history. 
Skull and skin. Same locality and 

Same history. 
Skull and skin. Same locality and 

Same history. 
Skull and skin, female. Same locality 

Same history. 
Skull and skin, female. Same locality 

Same history. 



P.— Tragrulus javanicus sebucus. 

Tragulus sebucus, Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xl, p. 64, 1911. 

Typical locality I'ulo Sebuko, off south-eastern Borneo. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Similar in size and general colouring to T. j. preticllus, 
but blacker above, and the hindmost pair of dark throat- 
markings almost clear blackish, instead of mingled blackish 
and ochery. Compared with T. j. nigricans (p. 271) the 
present race is smaller, with a less distinct nuchal stripe, 
and a considerable difference in the throat-markings. Basal 
length of skull 90 to 94 mm. 

No specimen in collection. 



Q.— Trag-ulus javanicus billitonus. 

Tragulus napu, melanistic variety, Jentinh, Notes Leyden Mies. 

vol. xiii, p. 209, 1891; Willink, Naturh. Tijdschr. Ncd.-Ind. 

vol. xlv, p. 198, 1905. 
Tragulus billitonus, Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 578, 1906, 

Typical locality Billiton Island, east of Sumatra. 

Nearly related to T. j. pretiellus and T. J. mnhrinics, but 



278 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

darker and duller in colour than former, and lacking the 
bright tint on flanks, neck, and head, and less dark than 
latter, with a well-defined nuchal stripe instead of a diffused 
dark colour all over neck. 
No specimen in collection. 

R.— Tragfulus javanicus amoenus. 

Tragulus amoenus, Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxvi, p. 439, 1903, 
Tragulus javanicus amoenus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Supj^l. p. 689, 
1904. 

Typical locality Pulo Mansalar, off Sumatra. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, "Washington. 

A yellowish, dark-necked race, approximating to T. j. 
nigi'icollis, but smaller and more richly coloured, with 
normal throat-markings, in which the dark stripes are 
blackish. General colour orange ochery, darkening towards 
ochery rufous on legs, and fading to yellow-buff on flanks, 
with a black suffusion produced by black hair-tips. Basal 
length of skull 101 to 108 mm. 

No specimen in collection. 

S.— Trag-ulus javanicus jug:ularis. 

Tragulus jugularis, Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxvi, p. 440, 1903. 
Tragulus javanicus jugixlaris, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Su])]}l. p. 689, 
1904. 

Typical locality Tulo Mansalar, off Sumatra. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Size much the same as in T. j. amoynus ; no white 
anywhere, that portion of the chin which is white in other 
races being coloured like the cheeks, while the light throat - 
stripes are indicated only l)y a stronger grizzling of tawny 
ochery amid the black; in other respects the general 
colouring, except on under-parts, inner sides of legs, and 
lower surface of tail, very nearly as in T. j. amcenus, \mt 
the neck less speckled with tawny ochery, and cheeks and 
eyebrow-stripes rather more suffused with black, 

No specimen in collection 



TUAGULID.E 270 

T.— Trag-ulus javanicus annae. 

Tragulus aunse, Matschie, Sitzber. Ges. nat. Freunde, 1897, p. 157 ; 

Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 250, 1906. 
Tragulus javanicus annse, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Su2)2}l' p. 689, 1904. 

Typical locality uuknovvn. 

Type in Berlin Museum. 

A small race, with dark cliestnut-Lrowu upper-parts, 
suffused with l)lackish, due to the hlack-tipped hairs ; neck 
deep blackish brown, without light bands on fore part, or on 
anterior part of breast ; flanks dirty light brown ; under- 
parts rusty grey, with a narrow blackish brown median 
stripe. 

No specimen in collection. 

U.— Tragulus javanicus bunguranensis. 

Tragulus bunguranensis, Miller, Proc. WasJdngton Ac. Sci. vol. iii, 

p. 113, 1901. 
Tragulus javanicus bunguranensis, Bonhote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 

ser. 7, vol. xi, p. 296, 1903. 

Typical locality Bunguran Island, China Sea. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Colour-pattern essentially as in T. j. nigricans, but size 
greater and equal that of T. j. canesccns ; general colour 
uniform ochery, fading to buff on flanks, with the bases of 
the hairs grey, and both back and flanks distinctly but not 
excessively darkened by the black hair-tips ; throat-markings 
as in T. J. nigricans, but white stripes apparently even more 
restricted.* Teeth uniformly larger than those of last- 
named race. 

No specimen in collection. 

V.—Tragulus javanicus batuanus. 

Tragulus batuanus. Miller, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol. xlv, p. 2, 1903. 
Tragulus javanicus ratuanus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Stippl. p. 689, 
1904, errorim. 

Typical locality Batu Island, off Sumatra. 
Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

* For further details reference may be made to original description. 



280 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

A large race (Ijasicranial length 102-105 mm.), with 
wholly black neck and throat-stripes, and the black of the 
neck extending forwards over the face and cheeks to a 
greater degree than in any races, except T. j. annce, T. j. 
jufjularis, and T. j. hungurancnsis, from all of which the 
present form is distinguished by the normal pattern of the 
throat -markings ; general colour ochery with a deep shading 
due to the black hair-tips, neither colour distinctly in excess ; 
on flanks the ochery fading to buff, and the black suffusion 
rather less pronounced than on back. 

No specimen in collection. 

W.— Trag-ulus javanicus versicolor. 

Tragulus versicolor, Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. v, 
p. 535, 1910. 

Typical locality Nhatrang, Annam. 

A medium-sized chevrotain distinguishable from other 
members of the genus by the marked contrast between the 
colouring of the fore and hind halves of the body, the former 
being fulvous and the latter grey. Although much smaller 
than is usual in T. javanicus, it seems to be a member of the 
present group since it has the coarse coat of T. j. najyit, and 
cheek-teeth of nearly the same size. In point of size tliis 
chevrotain exceeds but little the members of the T. kanchil 
group, which is represented in Annam by T. h. affinis 
(p. 286). Boasal length of skull 95 mm. 

6.11.6.38. Skull and skin. Nhatrang, Annam; 
collected by Dr. J. Vassal. Type. Purchased, 1906. 

6.11.6.39. Skull and skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
10. 3. 10. 6-7. Two skins. Same locality and collector. 

Furchasccl, 1910. 

IV. TRAGULUS KANCHIL. 

Moschus javanicus, Gmelin, Linii.'s Sysf. Nat. vol. i, p. 174, 1788 ; 

nee Oshech, 1765. 
Moscbus kanchil, Baffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xiii, p. 262, 1822 ; 

Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 64 ; Jentink, Notes Leyclen Mus. 

vol. V, p. 181, 1883. 



TEAGULWJE 281 

Tragulus kanchil, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 173, 1843; 
Cantor, Journ. Asiat. 8oc. Bengal, vol. xv, p. 268, 1846 ; Blyth, 
ibid. vol. xxvii, p. 276, 1859, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, p. 15, 1863, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 483, Mamm. and 
Birds Burma, p. 44, 1875 ; Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., 
Zool. ser. 5, vol. ii, pp. Ill and 159, pi. ix, 1864 ; Thomas, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1886, pp. 72 and 79 ; Jentink and Bilttikofer, Notes 
Leyden Mus. vol, xix, p. 64, 1897; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. 
Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 189, 1891 ; Bonliote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 7, vol. xi, p. 296, 1902 ; Stone and Eehn, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
PJiiladeljjJiia, 1902, p. 128 ; Schneider, Zool. Jahrb., Syst. 
vol. xxiii, p. 133, 1905 ; Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxvi, 
p. 442, 1903, vol. xxxi,p. 56, 1906; Ltjon, ibid. vol. xxxiv, p. 628, 
1908. 

Tragulus pygmaeus (ex Moschus pygmteus, Erxleben), Gray, Cat. 
Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 250, 1852, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. 
p. 99, 1872 (kanchil). 

Tragulus javanicus, Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 5, 
vol. ii, pp. 103 and 157, pi. ii, fig. 1, 1864 ; Blyth, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1864, p. 483 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. B. Coll. 
Surg. pt. ii, p. 326, 1884 ; Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 385 ; 
Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 556, 1891 ; Flower and 
Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 305, 1891 ; Thomas and Hartert, 
Novit. Zool. vol. ii, p. 492, 1895 ; Lydekker, Great and Small 
Game of India, etc. p. 257, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc. 
p. 276, 1907 ; Miller, Proc. 'Washington Ac. Sci. vol. iii, p. 115, 
1901. 

Typical locality Sumatra. 

Size relatively small, basal skull-length about 3|- inches 
(85 mm.) ; a naked glandular area on lower surface of chin 
and upper part of throat; tarsus bare behind, and carpus 
almost so ; tail relatively long ; typically the general colour 
brown, tending more or less to rufous ; back in old individuals 
nearly black, but always more or less mixed with rufous or 
yellow, from some of the hairs having a yellow ring near the 
end ; sides paler ; nape and upper surface of neck almost or 
quite black, contrasting with the light brown of sides ; 
under-parts white, variously mixed with light rufous and 
usually with a median narrow brown or rufous line through- 
out the breast, in front of this a brown cross-band and on 
fore part of neck an arrowhead-like brown mark, sometimes 
incomplete, with three white stripes, one median, within the 
arrow-head, the other two diverging, one on each side, 
outside of it, the last two joining on throat ; rump rufous, 
insides of thighs and intermediate space white ; tail rufous- 
brown above, white below. 



282 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Distribution very similar to that of the preceding species, 
but including Cambodia and Cochin China. 



A.—Tragrulus kanchil kanchil. 

Tragulus kanchil kanchil, Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mas. vol. xxxiv, 
p. 628, 1908. 

Typical locality Sumatra. 

General characters those of the species. 

1361, a. Skeleton, female, mounted. Sumatra. 

Purchased ( Warwiclc). 

79. 6. 28. 19. Two skins. Pajo, Sumatra ; collected by 

Herr Karl Bock. Purchased, 1879. 



B.— Tragrulus kanchil longfipes. 

Tragulus kanchil longipes, Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiv, 
p. 628, 1908, vol. xl, p. 66, 1911. 

Typical locality, Little Siak Valley, eastern Sumatra. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Distinguished from typical race by greater length of 
hind-foot, which ranges from 131 to 145 mm. against from 
114 to 128 mm. in the former. 

Whether such slight differences as distinguish this and 
the next form from the typical race are worthy of recognition, 
is very questionable. 

No specimen in collection. 



C— Tragulus kanchil luteicollis. 

Tragulus kanchil, Jcntinlc, Notes Lei/den Mus. vol. xiii, p. 209, 1891. 
Tragulus luteicollis, Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 579, 
1906. 

Typical locality Banka Island, east of Sumatra. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Distinguished from typical race by slightly larger size 
(basal skull-length 85-91 mm., against 84-83 mm.), generally 
duller colour, especially on sides of head and neck, and less 
black on upper-parts. General colour mixed dull ochery or 



TRAGULIDyE 283 

orange-buff and black, but nuchal stripe almost wholly black 
flanks with less black, and the ochery buff paler. 
No specimen in collection. 

D.— Tragulus kanchil subrufus. 

Tragulus subrufus, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xvi, 
p. 39, 1893, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 254, 1906. 

Tragulus kanchil subrufus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Sujypl. p. 690, 
1904. 

Typical locality Sinkep Island, Ehio Linga Group ; also 
found on Linga Island. 

Very similar to typical race, but general colour slightly 
more yellow, and under-parts much more strongly suffused 
with fulvous ; ground colour orange-buff, slightly more 
yellow than that of T. l:. Icanchil, but less bright than in 
T. k. natuncc. 

For dimensions, see p. 294. 

No specimen in collection. 

E,— Tragulus kanchil rubeus. 

Tragulus rubeus, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xvi, p. 40, 
1903, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 254, 1906. 

Tragulus kanchil rubeus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Sujjpl. p. 690, 
1904 ; Thomas and Wroughton, Journ. Malay Mus. vol. iv, p. 128; 
1910. 

Typical locality Pulo Bintang, Ehio Linga Group. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Similar to T. h. suhrufus, Ijut brighter coloured, and with 
rather larger skull and cheek-teeth. 

For dimensions, see p. 294. 

9. 4. 1. 502. Skull and skin, female. Pulo Bintanjr ; 

collected by H. C. Eobinson, Esq. Fresented hy 

the Government of the Federated Malay States, 1909. 

9. 4. 1. 503. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

9. 4. 1. 504. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 
collector, Same history. 



284 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



F.— Tragulus kanchil fulvicoUis. 

Tragulus fulvicollis, Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Miis. vol. xxxiv, p. 650, 
1908. 

Typical locality Pulo Bengkalis, otf Sumatra. 
Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 
Distinguished from typical T. Icanchil by its larger size 
and lighter colour. 

No specimen in collection. 



G.— Tragulus kanchil carimatse. 

Tragulus carimatse, Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 55, 
1906 ; Lyon, ibid. vol. xl, p. 67, 1911. 

Typical locality Karimata Island, between Borneo and 
Billiton ; the range also including Pulo Panebangan. 

Distinguished from typical race by the slightly larger and 
broader skull, and the distinctly stouter cheek-teeth. There 
is a tendency to a stronger suffusion of buff on the under- 
parts and to the more pronounced development of the nuchal 
stripe. 

No specimen in collection. 



H,— Tragulus kanchil brevipes. 

Tragulus brevipes. Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mas. vol. xxvi, p. 443, 

1903. 
Tragulus kanchil brevipes, Troucssart, Cat. Mamin., SujjjjI. p. 689, 

1904. 

Typical locality Pulo Bangkaru, near Sumatra. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Differs from typical race by the much shorter ears and 
feet, the paler colouring, and the slender muzzle of skull ; 
general colour a fine grizzle of black and light orange-buff, 
with the former tint somewhat predominating ; flanks buflfish 
yellow slightly suffused with black ; outer sides of legs 
bright orange-buff; nuchal stripe clear black, contrasting 
with the slightly grizzled dull orange-buff of sides of neck ; 



TEAGULID^ 285 

throat-markings normal, the brown stripes strongly grizzled, 
darker than sides of neck, and confluent in front. The 
small feet and pale colouring approximate to T. k. imllidus, 
which is, however, still paler, with a short and stout muzzle 
to skull. 

No specimen in collection. 



I.— Tragrulus kanchil pallidus. 

Tragulus pallidus, Miller, Proc. Washington Ac. Set. vol. iii, p. 116, 
1901. 

Tragulus kanchil pallidus, Bonliote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, 
vol. xi, p. 296, 1903. 

Typical locality Pulo Laut, S. China Sea. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Smaller and paler than typical race, with the black 
clouding of upper-parts inconspicuous, but the dark nuchal 
stripe well defined ; general colour light ochery buff, faintly 
clouded by the black hair-tips, and more strongly so on mid- 
dorsal line and across loins. 

No specimen in collection. 



J.— Tragulus kanchil fulviventer. 

Tragulu3 fulviventer. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 65, Cat. Rumi- 
nants Brit. Mas. p. 98, 1872 (partim), Hand-List Ruminants 
Brit, Mus. p. 168, 1873 (partim) ; Stone and Relm, Proc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelpliia, 1902, p. 131; Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. vol. xxvi, p. 445, 1903. 

Tragulus kanchil fulviventer, Bonliote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7. 
vol. xi, pp. 292 and 296, 1903; Thomas and Wroughtoji, Journ. 
Malay Mus. vol. iv, p. 128, 1810. 

Typical locality apparently Singapore. 

Much smaller than typical race, with the under- parts 
suffused with fulvous ochery, the brown throat-markings 
relatively deep in colour, with a rufous transverse stripe 
under the throat at the apex of the triangular patterned area, 
connecting the colour at either side of neck, and the white 
stripes strongly developed ; skull intermediate between that 
of T. I'. Iiosei and that of T. k. affinis. 



286 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

52, a. Skull and skin. Singapore (?).* 

Bequeathed hj Gen. T. Hardwickc , 1835. 

53, a. Skull and skin. Singapore (?).* Type. 

Barne history. 
53, h. Skin, immature. Singapore (?).* Same history. 
85. 8. 1. 363. Skin, female, mounted. Singapore ; 
collected by W. Davison, Esq. 

Presented hy A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1885. 
85. 8. 1. 364. Skin, young. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

9. 4. 1. 500. Skull and skin. Changi, Singapore ; collected 

by H. C. Eobinson, Esq. Trcscnted, hy 

the Government of the Federated Malay States, 1909. 

9. 4. 1. 501. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

K.— Tragrulus kanchil affinis. 

Tragulus affinis, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, see also Hand-List 
Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 169, 1873, where this form is included 
under the heading of T. fulvivcnter. 

(?) Tragulus ravus, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, voh xv, 
p. 163, 1902, vol. xvi, p. 41, 1903. 

Tragulus kanchil affinis, Bonhote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. xi, 
pp. 293 and 296, 1903, Fascic. Malay, vol. i, p. 42, 1903 ; Thomas, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. v, p. 536, 1910.' 

Typical locality probably the northern part of the Malay 
Peninsula or Tenasserim (not, as stated by Gray, Singapore). 

T. ravus, from Trong, Lower Siam, was identified with 
tlus race l)y Bonhote, who stated that specimens from the 
Malay Peninsula were inseparable from the type of T. a finis. 
Thomas has, however, suggested that the latter may be a 
more southern type, in which case ravus will have to stand 
for the northern form. 

Slightly smaller and paler than T. h. fulvivcnter, without 
the transverse rufous stripe ; skull with the auditory bulke 
smaller and less inflated than in T. k. liosci (p. 298), in 
which the whole skull is smaller. 

38. 7. 13. 2 (853, c). Skin, immature. Malay Peninsula (?). 

Purchased (Stevens), 1838. 

* Not Java, as originally stated. 



TRAGULID^ 287 

38. 8. 1. 13 (853, 0- Skin, female. Malay Peninsula. 

Type. Purchased (Sotherhy), 1838. 

79. 11. 21. 244. Skin, female. Malay Peninsula ; collected 

by Dr. J. Cantor. Transferred from India Museum, 1879. 

85. 8. 1. 355. Skull and skin. Bankaclion, southern 

Tenasserim ; collected by W. Davison, Esq. 

Presented hj A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1885. 
85. 8. 1. 35G. Skull and skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
85. 8. 1. 357. Skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
85, 8. 1. 358. Skull and skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

85. 8. 1. 361. Skull and skin. Salanga Island, off Malay 

Peninsula ; same collector. Sa7ne history. 

85. 8. 1. 362. Skull and skin. Taroa, Malay Peninsula; 

same collector. Sa7ne history. 

3. 2. 6. 79. Skull and skin, female. Biserak, Jalor, 

Malay Peninsula. Presented by If. C. Eohinson, Esq., 1903, 

3. 2. 6. 80. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 

4. 4. 7. 7. Skull and skin. Siracha, Siam. Practically 
a topo-type of T. ravus. Presented hy T. H. Lyle, Esq., 1904. 

6. 10. 4. 44. Skull and skin, female. Kuala Tembeling, 

Pahang, Malay Peninsula ; collected by H. C. Robinson, Esq. 

Presented hy the Government of the Federated 

Malay States, 1906, 
6.11.6.40. Skull and skin. Nhatrang, Annam ; collected 
by Dr. J. Vassal. Purchased, 1906. 

8. 3. 9. 22. Skin. Near Moulmeiu, Tenasserim. 

Presented hy Mrs. W. T. Blanford, 1908. 

14. 12. 8. 231. Skull and skin. Bankaclion, southern 

Tenasserim. Presented hy 

the Bombay Natural History Society, 1914. 

14. 12. 8. 232. Skull and skin. Same locality. 

Same history. 
14. 12. 8. 233. Skull and skin. Same locality. 

Same history. 
14, 12, 8, 234. Skull and skin. Same locality. 

Same history. 



288 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

14. 12. 8. 235. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 
14. 12. 8. 236. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 
14. 12. 8. 237. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Same Jiistory. 

L.— Tragulus kanchil ravulus. 

Tragulus ravulus, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wasldngton, vol. xvi,p. 41, 

1903. 
Tragulus kanchil ravulus, Troucssarf, Cat. Mamm., Sitj^pl. p. 689, 

1904. 

Typical locality Pulo Adang, Butang Group, off Malay 
Peninsula. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Similar to T. k. affinis (ravus), but smaller, with the neck 
paler and the nuchal stripe less pronounced. 

No specimen in collection. 

M.— Tragfulus kanchil lancavensis. 

Tragulus lancavensis, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xvi, 

p. 41, 1903. 
Tragulus kanchil lancavensis, Troucssarf, Cat. Mamm., 8upiil.\). 690, 

1904. 

Typical locality Pulo Langkawi, Straits of Maladoa. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Similar to T. k. affinis (ravus), but general colour slightly 
more yellow, and under-parts strongly suffused with orange- 
buff ; upper-parts bright ocliery buff, with a yellow tinge. 

9. 11. 1. 167. Skull and skin. Pulo Langkawi ; collected 

by H. C. Eobinson, Esq. Frescntcd hy 

the Government of the Federated Malay States, 1909. 

9. 11. 1. 168. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

9. 11. 1. 169. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

N.—Tragrulus kanchil lampensis. 

Tragulus lampensis, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xvi, 

p. 42, 1903. 
Tragulus kanchil lampensis, Trotiessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl. p. 690, 

1904. 



TKAGULID.K 289 

Typical locality Pulo Lampi, Mergui Archipelago. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Similar to T. Jc. lancavensis, but general colour much 
more yellow, and under-parts strongly suffused with bright 
orange-buff. 

No specimen in collection. 

0. — Tragfulus kanchil russeus. 

Tragulus russeus, Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xvi, p. 444, 1903. 
Tragulus kanchil russeus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Su]}])l. p. 689, 1904. 

Typical locality Pulo Tuangku, Banjak Group, oft' N.W. 
Sumatra. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Generally similar, both in size and colouring to T. k. 
fulviventcr, but the brown throat-stripes less dark, and the 
light ones frequently nearly obsolete, and in some cases 
wanting ; general colour orange-ochery. somewhat paler on 
flanks, and darkening to raw-sienna on neck and outer sides 
of legs ; back with a black suffusion (due to hair-tips), 
predominating over the ochery, and deepening on shoulders 
into a clear black nuchal stripe ; on neck and flanks the 
suffusion much less and disappearing on lower part of latter, 
where the colour passes into the raw sienna of the legs and 
the pale orange-ochery suffusing the under-parts ; region 
usually occupied by white throat-stripes with a peculiar 
mottled appearance due to the white being mostly replaced 
by clear orange-ochery, not contrasting strongly with gorget 
and dark stripes, both of which are distinctly grizzled, like 
sides of neck. 

No specimen in collection, 

P.— Tragulus kanchil russulus. 

Tragulus russulus, Miller, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol. xlv, p. 3, 

1903. 
Tragulus kanchil russulus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Supiol. p. 689 

1904. 

Typical locality Batu Island, near Sumatra. 
Near akin to T. k. russeus, but the general colour less 
dark, a less extensive yellowish suffusion on under-parts, 
IV. u 



290 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

and throat-markings invariably normal in pattern ; skull 
and teeth rather smaller than in T. k. russeus ; general colour 
rather dark orange-ochery ; neck and limbs brighter than 
body, dark clouding on back only slightly developed, but 
deepening anteriorly into a faintly grizzled black nuchal stripe. 
No specimen in collection. 

Q.— Tragfulus kanchil hosei. 

Tragulus kanchil hosei, Bonhotc, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. xi, 

p. 29B, 1903. 
Tragulus virgicollis, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xvi, 

p. 37, 1903. 
Tragulus kanchil virgicollis, Trouessart,S^at. Mamm., Siqjjjl. p. 690, 

1904. 
Tragulus hosei, Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 549, 1907. 

Typical locality Baram Valley, Sarawak, Borneo. 

Distinguished from T. k. fulvivcntci' by its superior size, 
rather paler colouring, and absence of orange throat-band ; 
general colour black strongly grizzled with rufous, which 
becomes yellower and predominant on flanks ; skull (basal 
length 86 mm.) with very large and much inflated auditory 
bullae, but otherwise very similar to that of T. k. affinis, 
although larger. 

79. 5. 23. 3. Skull and skin. Sarawak ; collected by 
A. H. Everett, Esq. Purchased {Gcrrard), 1879. 

79. 5. 23. 7. Skeleton, female, mounted. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

79. 5. 23. 8. Skeleton, female. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

0. 8. 4. 10. Skull and skin, female. Baram Valley. 
Type. Presented ly Dr. C. Hose, 1900. 

8. 7. 17. 21. Skull and skin, female. Borneo ; collected 
by Dr. C. Hose. 

Presented ty the British North Borneo Co., 1908. 

8.7.17.22. Skull and skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

8. 7. 17. 23. Skull and skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

10. 4. 5. 128. Skull and skin. Moera Island, Barito 
Elver, south-central Borneo; collected by G. C. Shortridge, 
Esq. Presented by 0. Thomas, Esq., 1910. 



THAGULULE 291 

R.— Tragulus kanchil everetti. 

Tragulus kanchil everetti, Bonhote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. xi, 

p. 295, 1903. 
Tragulus natunse, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xvi, p. 38, 

1903. 
Tragulus kanchil natunte, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Sujipl.]). 690, 1904. 

Typical locality Buuguran Island, Natiina Group. 

Generally similar to T. /j. hosei, but rather smaller, and 
richer in colour, the flanks being rufous instead of deep 
l)uff ; skull rather smaller (basal length 83 mm.), with larger 
cheek-teeth, much smaller auditory bulhe, and the pre- 
maxilUe continuing of the same width for some distance in 
advance of nasals, and then bending sharply downwards, 
instead of sloping gradually downwards as in T. k. affinis, 
or narrowing abruptly as in T. k. hosei. 

Miller described his T. natunce as similar to typical race 
but smaller and yellower, the ground-colour of the back 
being bright tawny ochre instead of yellowish buff, and the 
black clouding not in excess of the ligliter colour. 

94. 9. 28. 21. Skull and skin, female. Bunguran Island ; 
collected (October) by A. II. Everett, Esq. Type. 

Purchased, 1894. 

S.— Tragrulus kanchil pierrei. 

Tragulus kanchil pierrei, Bonhote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, ser, 7, 
vol. xi, p. 293, 1903. 

Typical locality Bien Hoa, lower Cochin China. 

Nearly related to T. k. affinis, with which it agrees in 
size, but general colour of a uniform dull yellowish brown, 
without any admixture of black ; this sufficing to distinguish 
it from all other races described up to April, 1903. Basal 
length of skull 76 mm. 

61.4.12.6. Young skin, mounted. Cambodia ; collected 
by Monsieur Mohot, 1859. Purchased, 1861. 

61. 4. 12. 7. Skin, mounted. Same locality and collector. 

Same hist or y. 

61. 4. 12. 20 (853,/). Skull Pachebone, Cambodia; 
same collector. Same history. 

78. 6. 17. 18. Skull and skin. Bien Hoa, lower Cochin 
China. Type. Presented hij Monsieur Pierre, 1878. 

U 2 



292 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



T.— Tragrulus kanchil pelandoc. 

Moschus javanicus, Gmelin, Linn.'s Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 174, 1788 ; 

71CC Cerviis javanicns, Osbeck. 
Moschus pelandoc, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, 

p. 66, 1827. 
Tragulus pelandoc, Blijtli, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxvii, 

p. 277, 1858 ; Stone and Eehn, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

1902, p. 131 ; Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xvi, 

p. 37, 1905. 
Tragulus kanchil pelandoc, Bonhote, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, 

vol. xi, p. 296, 1903. 
Tragulus focalinus. Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xvi, 

p. 35, 1905. 
Tragulus kanchil focalinus, Troioessart, Cat. Mavim., Siippl. p. 690, 

1904. 

Typical locality Java. 

Miller has stated that Hamilton Smith's Moschvs pelandoc 
cannot be definitely identified, but that it appears to be 
nearly allied to the typical Sumatran T. kanchil; and he 
accordingly proposed a new name for such specimens of 
Javau kanchils as came under his observation. Until, how- 
ever, the so-called T. focalinus can be definitely proved to 
be distinct from T. k. pelandoc, it may be regarded as 
inseparable therefrom. 

A grey-necked race specially characterised by the great 
width and distinctiveness of the tawny eyebrow-stripes and 
the contrast between the grizzled grey of the neck and the 
tawny head and body ; no dark nuchal stripe ; throat- 
markings normal. General colour raw-sienna, gradually 
paling, through bufl', to creamy buff on flanks ; hairs drab 
with black tips, the latter producing a faint dark clouding 
on back but not on flanks ; neck coarsely grizzled grey, the 
hairs black with a huffish terminal or subterminal ring; 
crown blackish, its hair with inconspicuous tawny annula- 
tions ; skull with a shorter muzzle and narrower auditory 
bullae than in typical race. 

Bonhote remarked that one specimen which came under 
his notice resembled the type of the present race on the 
throat and the typical kanchil on the nape. 

51 a, 52. Two skins of fawns. Java ; collected by 
Dr. T. Horsfield. Presented hy the Hon. East India Co. 



TRAGULID.E 



293 



9. 1. 5. 834. 
Vries Bay, Java 

9. 1. 5. 837. 

9. 1. 5. 838. 

9. 1. 5. 839. 



9. 1. 5. 840. 
collector. 

9. 1. 5. 841. 
collector. 

9. 1. 5. 842. 
collector. 

9. 1. 5. 843. 
collector. 



Skull and skin. Pangandaran, Dirk-de- 
collected by G. C. Shortridge, Esq. 

Presented hij W. E. Bahton, Esq., 1909. 
Skull and skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same liistory. 
Skull and skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same histori/. 
Skull and skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
Skull and skin, female. 



Skull and skin, female. 
Skin, female, mounted. 
Skull and skin, female. 



Same locality and 

Same history. 

Same locality and 

Same history. 

Same locality and 

Same history. 

Same locality and 

Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 844. Skull and skin, very young female. Same 

locality and collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 845. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 847. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 848. Skull and skin, very young female. Same 

locality and collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 850. Skull and skin. Batavia, Java ; same 



collector. 

9. 1. 5. 851. Skull and skin, female. 
Preanger, Java ; same collector. 

9. 1. 5. 852. Skull and skin, female, 
same collector. 

9. 1. 5. 853. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 
collector. Sam.e history. 



Same history. 

Tassik-malaja, 

Same history. 

Tjilatjap, Java ; 

Same history. 



llAciALLY Undetermined Specimens, of which 
THE Localities are unknown. 

45. 11. 24. 2. Skin. Purchased {Thomas), 1845. 

47. 4. 30. 3. I Skin, mounted, and imperfect 

47. 4. 30. 9 (679, I). \ skeleton, immature female. 

Purchased (Zooloyical Society),- 1847. 



294 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATE!^ 



48. 11. 5. 2 (853, h). Skull, female. No Mdory. 

50. 11. 22. 28 (853, a). Skull, immature. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1850. 
53. 8. 29. 39. Skin, five-days'-old fawn. 

Purchased {Zoological i^oeiety), 1853. 
5G. 5. 6. 67. Skull. Prcsentedhy W. Theobald, Esc/., 185G. 
GO. 3. 18. 29 (853, h). Skeleton, female, mounted. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 18G0. 
G7. 4. 12. 294-6-7. Three skulls, immature. 

TAdth de Jeude Collection, /purchased, 1867. 
68. 12. 29. 36 (853, g). Skeleton, mounted. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1886. 



Measurements, in Millimetres, of Adult Rhio-Linga Cheveotains. 

(From Miller.) 

















Hind 


Name. 


Locality. 


Sex. 


Total 
length. 


Head 
and 
body. 


Tail. 


Hind 

foot. 


foot 
with- 
out 
hoofs. 


T. stanleyanitg fonnostis . 


Pulo Bintang 


Male 


620 


540 


80 


142 


129 


,, „ 


,j 




600 


530 


70 


137 


124 


1) 




Female 


C50 


570 


SO 


143 


129 




, 


,, 


C93 


593 


100 


145 


131 


T. jar aniens I utcscens 


Pulo Sugi Bawa 


,, 


600 


510 


90 


131 


117 


,, ,, 


„ 


Male 


563 


488 


75 


131 


117 


>> 


Pulo Jau 


Female 


592 


505 


87 


129 


115 


)' J) 




Male 


575 


503 


72 


ISO 


118 


T. .yfatileyanus perflavns. 


Pulo Batam 


Female 


620 


535 


85 


135 


122 


T. jaranicux jiretiosrts 


Linga 


Male 


625 


545 


80 


135 


120 


■ I I 




I'emale 


628 


548 


80 


138 


124 




,j 




675 


565 


90 


140 


125 


T. ianinieiix 2n-etiellus . 


Pulo Bakong 




605 


515 


90 


122 


108 




. 




575 


500 


75 


123 


107 


ij 


j^ 


Male 


533 


473 


00 


119 


105 


>! J> 


Pulo Sebaug 




615 


535 


80 


135 


119 


>1 II 


,j 




610 


525 


85 


138 


123 


T. jaraniciis nigrocitictus 


Pulo Kundur 


,^ 


575 


480 


85 


137 


122 


,, ,, 


,, 


,, 


625 


525 


100 


142 


128 


ji )j 


,, 


Female 




537 




137 


120 


11 .1 






598 


613 


85 


140 


126 


T. ja mnicus tiigricolUs . 


Sinkep 


Male 


620 


540 


80 


138 


123 


11 1) 


,, 


,, 


655 


570 


85 


143 


130 


II 11 


,, 


Female 


645 


560 


85 


143 


128 


I I 


J 




670 


590 


80 


147 


133 


T. knnchil rvbevs . 


Pulo Bintaug 


Male 


540 


465 


75 


119 


106 




J, 




612 


547 


05 


118 


105 


ii I! • • 


^' 


Female 


543 


478 


65 


125 


113 


T. kanchil .svbrufvs 


Sinkep 




540 


470 


70 


125 


113 


11 11 . • 




Male 


528 


450 


78 


118 


108 


■1 . . 


Linga 




500 


450 


50 


119 


105 


,1 • • 




Female 


500 


450 


50 


118 


105 



These measurements, which are (JUly a few of those given )iy ililler, will serve as a standard 
in cases when other races are contrasted with the above in the matter of size. 



TRAGULID.7^. 295 



II. Genus DORC ATHERIUM. 

Dorcatherium, Kaui), Oss. Foss. Darmstadt, pt. 5, p. 92, 1836 
bu Biltimeyer, Ahli. schtueiz. pal. Ges. vol. x, pt. 2, p. 72, 1883 

LydeMer, Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mas. pt. ii, p. 153, 1885 

Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 885. 
Hyemosclius, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 1, vol. xvi, p. 350 

1845, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 96, 1872. 
Hyomoschus, Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 682 ; Flower and 

Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 329, 1884, 
HycEmoschus, Biitimeyer, Abh. schtueiz. 2)al. Ges. vol. x, pt. 2, p. 78, 

1883. 

Size larger than in Tragulus ; main metacarpals and 
metatarsals separate, or the latter alone uniting partially or 
wholly into a cannon-hone in old age ; feet shorter and 
stouter with larger lateral toes ; skull relatively short, with 
premaxilloe not reaching nasals ; dentition : i. §, c. \, p. 3^5, 
m. I ; tail medium. 

Typified hy D. navi (Kaup, op. cit. 1836j from the Upper 
Tertiary of Eppelsheim, Hesse-Darmstadt, which difi'ers from 
the existing species hy the presence (at any rate in many 
cases) of the first lower premolar. 

At the present day the genus is restricted to the equa- 
torial forest-zone of Africa. 



DOECATHEEIUM AQUATICUM. 

Moschus aquaticus, Ogilhy, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1840, p. 35, 1841, p. 68; 
Given, Anat. Vertebrates, vol. ii, p. 487, 1866. 

Hyemosclius aquaticus. Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 1, vol. xvi, 
p. 350, 1845, Kno'wsley Menagerie, p. 42, pi. xxxi, 1850, Cat. 
Ungulala Brit. Mus. p. 248, 1852, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mas. 
p. 99, 1872, Hand-List Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 169, 1873; 
Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 269, 1862 ; Milne- 
Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 5, vol. ii, p. 133, 1864. 

Hyomoschus aquaticus, Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 682 ; 
Floivcr and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 329, 
1884 ; JentinTt, Notes Leydeyi Mus. vol. x, p. 26, 1887 ; Pousargues, 
Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 7, vol. iv, p. 87, 1897. 

Hyoemoschus aquaticus, Biitimeyer, Abh. sclnveiz. j5«Z. Ges. vol. x, 
pt. 2, p. 78, 1883. 

Dorcatherium aquaticum, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 385 ; 
Floivcr and Lydelher, Study of Mammals, p. 306, 1891 ; Lydeklcer, 
Great and Small Game of Africa, p. 515, 1899, Game Animals 
of Africa, p. 386, 1908. 



296 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



Water-Chevrotain. 



Typical locality Sierra Leone, West Africa. 

The only existing species ; type of Hycmosclms. 

Shoulder-height about 13 to 14 inches; three pairs of 
lower premolars ; tail rather bushy ; general colour olive to 
chestnut-brown, profusely spotted and striped on the body 
with white or yellow, the thick and irregular stripes being 
longitudinal and for the most part restricted to the Hanks ; 
throat and upper part of chest with light and dark markings 
comparable with those of Tragulns ; tail white below. 

Distribution, at the present day, co-extensive with that 
of genus. 

The following races liave been named : — 

A. General colour dark olive, with very little 

speckling except on neck ; light markings on 

back white and distinct D. a- aquaiicmn. 

B. General colour more rufous, heavily speckled all 

over upper-parts ; light markings on back straw- 
coloured and indistinct. 

a. General colour darker rufouS; with light mark- 

ings extending on to shoulders, and face 

with distinct dark chevron D. a. hatesi. 

b. General colour lighter rufous, with light mark- 

ings stopping short of shoulders, and face 

without distinct dark chevron D. a. cottoni. 

A.— Dorcatherium aquaticum aquaticum. 

Dorcatherium aquaticum typicum, LydcHer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1906, 
vol. i, p. 113. 

Typical locality Sierra Leone. 

General colour dark olive, without any distinct speck- 
ling except on neck ; light markings on back white, distinct, 
and numerous; face dark in middle line, elsewhere olive- 
brown with a tinge of rufous, a distinct white flank-band 
running from shoulders along flanks to join transverse loin- 
band, and two flank-bands below this ; spots on back forming 
distinct and continuous transverse bands ; tail with much 
lirown above. 

44. 8. 22. 1. I Skin, mounted, and skull, imma- 

44. 9. 5. 1 (680, a). I ture female. Sierra Leone ; col- 
lected.by Mr. J. Whitfield. Presented hy the Earl ofDcrhy, 1844- 



TRAGULID.'E 297 

44. 9. 7. 1. I Skin, mounted, skull, and scapula. 

46. 2. 28. 1 (680, h). ) Same locality and collector. Type. 

Scwie Jiistory. 

46. 11. 2. 1 (680, d). Skull and limb-bones. Gambia; 

same collector. Same liistorij. 

46. 11. 2. 3 (680, g). Skull and skin, young. Same 

locality and collector. Same history. 

46. 11. 19. 10 (680, c). Skeleton, immature. Sierra 

Leone ; same collector. Same history. 

680, e. Skeleton. Gambia. 

Purchased (Zoologieal Society), 1854. 
58. 5. 4. 452 (680,/). Skeleton. Gambia. 

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1858. 

14. 1. 19. 3. Skin, mounted, and skull, female. Ashanti. 

Presented hy the Zoological Society, 1914. 

13. 11. 21. 16. Body-skin. Mount Barclay, Liberia; 

collected by E. H. Bunting, Esq. Purchased, 1913. 



B.— Dorcatherium aquaticum batesi. 

Dorcatherium aquaticum batesi, Lydehher, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1906, 
vol. i, p. 113. 

Typical locality Caraeruns, General colour rufous brown, 
heavily speckled all over upper-parts; light markings on 
upper surface yellowish and indistinct ; face with a blackish 
chevron running from muzzle to eyes ; a distinct yellowish 
flank-band joining transverse rump-band ; tail brown at base 
with little white at tip. 

5. 5. 23. 26. Skull and skin. Efulen, Cameruns ; col- 
lected by G. L. Bates, Esq. Type. Ptirchased, 1905. 

6. 4. 4. 1. Skin. Afikpo, Cross Ptiver, Southern Nigeria. 

Presented by J. C. Cotton, Esq., 1906. 

7.11.19.4. Skin (scalp • separate). Oban, 40 miles 

from Calabar, Southern Nigeria ; collected by P. A. Talbot, 

Esq. Presented hy Mrs. P. A. Talbot, 1907. 

8. 6. 28. 3. Skin. Same locality and collector. 

Purchased, 1908. 

12. 10. 28. 57. Skull and skin, young female. Same 

locality and collector. Purchased, 1912. 



298 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

12. 10. 28. 74. Skull. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
14. 2. 20. 1. Body-skiu. Little Otomi Bush, Ikon 
district, Southern Nigeria, north of Cameruns frontier. 

Presented hi N. W. Thomas, Esq., 1914. 

C— Dorcatherium aquaticum cottoni. 

Dorcatherium aquaticum cottoni, Lydckker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1906, 
vol. i, p. 113, Great and Small Game of Africa, p. 387, 1908; 
Alexander, From Niger to Nile, vol. ii, p. 393, 1907. 

Typical locality Ituri Valley. 

General colour still more rufous than in last, with light 
markings on back and flanks less distinct, less numerous, 
and not extending on to shoulders ; face without distinct 
dark chevron ; flank-band yellowish and almost disappearing 
nddway between fore and hind limbs, no lateral bands l^elow 
it ; tail with much white and apparently more 1)usliy. 
G. G. 2. 3. Skull and skin. Ituri Valley. Type. 

Presented hy Major P. H. G. Poivcll-Cotton, 1906. 
7. 4. 23. 2. Skin. Ituri Valley. 

Presented hy R. >S'. Peid, Esq., 1907. 
7. 7. 8. 229-230. Two skulls and skins. Bima, Welle 
Valley ; collected by Capt. G. B. Gosling. 

Presented hy Capt. Alexander Gosling, 1907. 



Section C— TYLOPODA. 

In this section three pairs of upper incisors are present in 
the young, the outermost of which persists throughout life, 
the lower canines are differentiated from the spatulate, 
forwardly directed lower incisors, and the anterior pair of 
premolars, when present, separated from the other cheek- 
teeth, whicli are tall-crowned and selenodont ; only the two 
main toes (3rd and 4th) are developed in each foot, the 
terminal segments of which carry nails instead of lioofs, and 
have a broad fleshy pad inferiorly on which the animal walks ; 
the metacarpals and metatarsals are severally fused into 
cannon-bones for the greater part of their length, but their 
lower extremities (vol. i, p. 2, fig. 1, c) are divergent and 



CAMELID^? 299 

lack the pulley-like ridges and grooves on their articular 
surfaces found in the two preceding sections ; in the tarsus 
the navicular and cuboid remain distinct. The skull is 
devoid of either horns or antlers. The stomach has no distinct 
third compartment (maniplies), and the interior of the first 
(])aunch or rumen) lacks the villi of the Pecora, while both 
the first and second chamber are furnished with large cells 
in which water can be stored ; the placenta is diffuse, and 
the female has either four or two teats. With regard to the 
structure of the feet in this group, Pocock remarks that, with 
the exception of Orcotragus, all ruminating artiodactyles 
" walk upon the cutaneous pad forming the sole and heel of 
the hoof, and upon more or less of the inferior edge and apex 
of the nail in front. The camels [and llamas] form no 
exception to this rule, the only difference being that the 
small nail does not invade the area of the sole to anything 
like the same extent, and that the sole and the heel are 
continued further backwards." 

At the present day the group has a remarkably discon- 
tinuous distribution, the camels being restricted to the Old 
World, and the llamas to South America ; in the Tertiary 
period it was, however, abundantly represented in North 
America, as it also was in Eastern Europe. 



Family CAMELID^E. 

As this is the only existing family of the section, its 

characters may be regarded as the same as those of the latter. 

The two existing genera are distinguishable as follows : — 

A. Size very large, back with one or two l!eshy humps, ears 

small Camehis. 

B. Size much smaller, back without hump, ears larger Lama. 



I. Genus CAM EL US. 

Camelus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 65, 1758, ed. 12, vol. i, 
p. 90, 1776 ; H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 297, 
1827 ; Gratj, Cat. Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 100, 1872 ; Lydelher, 
Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt. ii, p. 139, 1885; Blanford, 
Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 558, 1891 ; Pococl-, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1910, p. 972. 



300 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Typical locality probably Arabia. 

Size very large, back with one or two large fleshy humps 
in median line ; dentition of adult : i. ^, c. \, p. §, m. |= 34 ; 
anterior premolar placed nearly midway between second 
tooth of that series and canine ; lower incisors somewhat 
proclivous, with outer pair the largest ; skull elongated, with 
overhanging occiput, orbits encircled by bone, and premaxillai 
not articulating with arched and rather long nasals; ears 
relatively short and rounded ; feet broad, with toes imper- 
fectly separated ; tail of medium length, tufted ; hair nearly 
straight, not woolly ; teats four. No face-glands, but a pair 
of occipital glands. 

Eestricted at the present day to Asia and Africa, but 
known in a wild state only in the neighbourhood of the Gobi 
Desert of Central Asia. 

The genus is typified by the single-luimped Camclus 
dromedarius, but as this species is unknown in the wild 
state, it does not come within the purview of this Catalogue. 

CAMELUS BACTEIAmiS. 

Camelus bactrianus, Linn., Syst. Nat. etl. 10, vol. i, p. 65, 1758, 
ed. 12, voL i, p. 90, 1766 ; H. SmitJt, Griffitli's Animal Kingdom, 
vol.-v, p. 297, 1827; Hution, Jotirn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, voL xv, 
p. 162, 1846 ; Gray, Cat. Ungulafa Brit. Mus. p. 253, 1852, Cat. 
Biiminants Brit. Mus. p. 100, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. 
Mus. p. 170, 1873; Radde, Reisen Ost-Siherien, p. 238, 1861; 
Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 271, 1862 ; Scvcrtzow, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xviii, p. 170, 1876 ; Finscli, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 696 ; Przewalshi, Peters}}. Mitt. Erzh. 
voL xii, p. 17, 1876 ; Blanford, Eastern Persia, vol. ii, p. 97, 
1876, Fauna Brit, hidia, Mamm. p. 558, 1891; Flower and 
Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 330, 1884 ; 
W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Lid. Mus. pt. ii, p. 191, 1891; 
Flower and Lydellier, Study of Mammals, p. 296, 1891 ; Little- 
dale, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1894, p. 446; Lcshre, Arcli. Mus. Lyon, 
vol. viii, p. 1, 1903 ; Pococl-, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 973. 

Typical locality Eastern Europe or Western Asia. 

Larger and more clumsily built than the typical species, 
with two dorsal humps, a thicker coat, shorter limbs, and 
feet more callous and better adapted for hard and rocky 
ground. 

Camels occur wild in the neighbourhood of the Tarim 
Valley and other parts of Chinese Turkestan, but it is 



CAMELID.K 301 

probable that these are the descendants of domesticated 
herds. The same may be the case with some of the wild 
camels in the vicinity of Lob Nor and on the fringes of the 
Gobi, although it seems quite likely that others — like the 
horses of the same area — may be truly wild. 

94. 2. 8. 1. Skin, mounted, of a wild or feral individual. 
East of Lob ISTor, Chinese Turkestan. 

Presented hj St. George Littlcdale, Esq., 1894. 



IL Genus LAMA. 

Lama, Cuvicr, Lecons Anat. Comj)., Tableau gen. 1800; Desmarest, 
Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat. vol. xxiv, Table, p. 31, 1804; G. Fischer, 
Zoognosia, vol. iii, p. 351, 1814 ; Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, 
p. 386. 

Lacma, Tiedemann, Zoologie, vol. i, p. 428, 1804. 

Auchenia, Illigcr, Froclr. Syst. Mamm. p. 103, 1811 ; Cnvier, Begiie 

Animal, vol. i, p. 25, 1817 ; H. Smith, Griffith'' s Animal Kingdom, 

vol. V, p. 298, 1827 ; Floiver and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mas. B, Coll. 

Surg. pt. ii, p. 338, 1884 ; nee Thunberg, 1789. 
Dromedarius, Wagler, Nat. Syst. Amjjhib. j). 31, 1830. 
Auchenias, Wagner, Wiegmann's Archiv Naturgesch. vol. i, p. 349, 

1843. 
Llama, Ch-ay, Cat. Ungulata Brit, Mas. p. 254, 1852, Cat. Biiminants 

Brit. Mas. p. 101 J 1872. 
Neoauchenia, Ameghino. Bev. Argent. Hist. Nat. vol. i, p. 242, 1891. 

Size much smaller than in Caiaelus, and back without 
hump ; adult dentition normally : i. }^, c. \, j). |, m. | = 32, 
but anterior premolars sometimes wanting ; upper premolars 
small ; lower incisors long and procumbent, with the outer 
pair smallest ; skull with less prominent ridges and relatively 
larger brain-chamber than in typical genus, and premaxillse 
articulating with relatively short and broad nasals ; ears 
rather long and pointed ; feet narrower, with the toes, each 
of which has a distinct plantar pad, more separated than in 
Camelus ; tail short ; coat long and woolly ; teats two. 

Eestricted at present day to western and southern South 
America. 

The two species (as represented by wild forms) are 
distinguishable as follows : — 

A. Size larger, callosities on limbs L. glania. 

B. Size smaller, no callosities on limbs L. vicugna. 



302 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



I. LAMA GLAMA. 

Camelus glama, Linn. Sijsf. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 65, 1758, ed, 12, 

voL i, p. 91, 1766. 
Lama glama, Cuvier, Lcrons Anat. Comp., Tableau gen. 1800; Thomas, 

Proc. Zool'Soc. 1891, p. 387. 
Lacma peruana, Tiedemann, Zoologie, vol. i, p. 428, 1804. 
Auchenia lama, lUiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm. p. 103, 1811. 
Auchenia glama, H. Smith, Qri-ffith's Animal Kingdom, \o\.\ , p. 299, 

1827. 
Camelus lama, Blainville, Osteographie, Camelus, pi. ii. 
Llama glama. Gray, Cat. TJngulata Brit. Mus. p. 260, 1852, Cat. 

Biiminanfs Brit. Mus. p. 101, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. 

Mus. p. 172, 1878. 
Neoauchenia glama, Ameghino, Bev. Argent. Hist. Nat. vol. i, p. 242, 

1891. 

Llama (domesticated), Guanaco or Huanaco (wild). 

Typical locality Peruvian Andes. 

The type species ; first known in Europe by the domesti- 
cated llama (L. glama glama), and likewise including the 
long-woolled alpaca (L. g. pacos). 

As represented by the wild guanaco, the species is dis- 
tinguished by its relatively large size (typically about 3 feet 
7 inches at shoulder), stout build, long head, darkish fawn- 
brown colour, blackish face, and the presence of bare callo- 
sities on the limbs. 

The two wild races are distinguished as follows : — 

A. Size larger; basicranial length 11^ to 11§ inches. L. g. huanacus. 

B. Size smaller; basicranial length 9| inches L. g. cacsilensis. 

A.— Lama grlama huanacus. 

Camelus huanacus, Molina, Saggio Storia Nat. Chile, vol. i, p. 817, 

1782; Gmelin, Linn.'s Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 170, 1788; H. Smith, 

Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 55, 1827. 
Auchenia huanacus, Illiger, Abh. Ak. Sci. Berlin, 1811, pp. 108 

and 111, 1815.* 
Auchenia huauaca, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, 

p. 299, 1827. 
Auchenia guanaco, Meyer, Nova Acta Ac. Cms. Leojj.-Car. vol. xvi, 

p. 552, 1833 ; Schreber, Sdugthiere, vol. v, pp. 1803 and 1806, 

1889. 
Auchenia llama, Waterhouse, Zool. Beagle, Mamm. p. 26, 1839, 



Separate copies are stated to have been issued in 1811, 



CAMELID-i: 303 

Auchenia lama, Brandt, Mem. Ac. Sci. St. Petersh. vol. iv, p. 1, 1845 ; 
Burmeister, Descript. Phys. Rep. Argent, vol. iii, p. 457, 1879. 

Lama guanaco, Gay, Hist. Chile, Zool. vol. i, p. 153, 1847. 

Llama guauacus, Gray, Cat. TJngnlata Brit. Mus. p. 257, 1852, Cat. 
Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 101, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. 
Mns. p. 171, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. 
p. 272, 1862. 

Llama pacos (fera). Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 260, 1852. 

Auchenia hnanacus, Floiuer and Ly del-Jeer, Study of Mammals, 
p. 300, 1891. 

Lama huanachus, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 387 ; Lahille, 
Ensayo Mam. Repub. Argent, p. 31, 1900; Prichard, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1902, vol. ii, p. 275, Through the Heart o/ Patagonia, p. 253, 
1902 ; Scharff, Origin of Life in America, p. 406, 1911 ; Lonnberg, 
Arkiv Zool. vol. viii, no. 19, p. 1, 1913. 

Lama huanacos, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 669. 

Lama huanacus, Matschie, Sdugeth. in Ergebnissc Hamburg. Magal- 
haen. Sammelreise, vol. iii, p. 19, 1898 ; Berg, Comuii. Mas. 
Buerios Aires, vol. i, p. 260, 1900 ; Lydekker, Great and Small 
Game of Europe, etc. p. 375, 1901. 

Lama huanacha, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. {Field Mus. Zool, 
Pub. vol. viii) p. 36, 1907. 

Guanaco or Huanaco ; "Wild Llama, 

Typical locality probably the Chilian Andes, whence the 

range extends southwards to Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. 

Size relatively large ; shoulder-height about 3 feet 

7 inches; basal length of skull 11^ to llf inches (291- 

295 mm.). 

37. 3. 15. 46 (78, h). Skin, mounted. Southern Tierra- 
del-Fuego ; collected during the voyage of H.M.S. " Beagle." 
Presented hy Admiral Sir B. Fitzroy, K.C.B., 1837. 
674, a. Skeleton, immature. Chile. 

Purchased {Zoological Society). 
674, /. Skull. From an old skin collected in Patagonia 
or Tierra-del-Fuego during the voyage of H.M.S. " Beagle." 

Presented hy C. it. Darwin, Esq. 

44. 10. 7. 34 (674, l). Skull. Chile ; collected by Mr. 

T. Bridges. Figured in Gray's Catalogue of Ungulata, 

pi. xxiv, 1852. Purchased, 1844. 

46. 1. 22. 4. Skin, young, mounted. Locality unknown. 

Purchased ( Warwick), 1846. 
54. 5, 11, 2, Skin, young, mounted. Locality unknown. 

P'urchased {Baker), 1854. 



304 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

55. 7. 3. 1. Skin, young. Locality unknown. 

PurcluiHcd {Zooloykul Society), 1855. 
90. 2. 20. 15. Skull. Fox Point, Falkland Islands; 
collected during the voyage of H.M.S. " Challenger." 

Presented hy the Government, 1890. 

99. 2. 22. 12. Skin, female. Province of Buenos Aires. 

Presented hy the La Plata Museum, 1899. 

2.1.1.111. Head-skin, female. Choquecaraati, Bolivia ; 

collected hy Mr. P. 0. Simons. 

Presented hy 0. Thomas, Esq., 1902. 
2. 10. 16. 1. Skin, mounted. Patagonia. 

Presented hy the Zooloyieal Society, 1902. 

B. — Lama glama cacsilensis. 

Lama huanachus cacsilensis, Lonnhcrg, Arhiv Zool. vol. viii, no. 19, 
p. 8, 1913. 

Typical locality Cacsile, Nuiioa, Peru. 
Type in Eoyal Swedish Museum of Natural History. 
Considerahly smaller than preceding race, the basicranial 
length being 9| inches (244 mm.) in the type specimen. 
No example in collection. 

II. LAMA VICUGNA. 

Cauaelus vicugna, Molina, Saggio Storia Nat, Chile, p. 313, 1782 ; 

H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 58, 1827. 
Auchenia vicugna, Illiger, Ahli. Ak. Sci. Berlin, 1811, p. 108, 1815 ; 

H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 300, 1827 ; 

Floivcr and Garson, Cat. Osteal. Mas. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, 

p. 334, 1884 ; Floiver and LydeTcher, Stiidy of Maynmals, p. 300, 

1901. 
Llama vicugna, Gray, Cat. TJngulata Brit. Mus. p. 256, 1852, Cat. 

Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 101, 1872, Hand-List Buminants Brit. 

Mus. p. 170, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus, 

p. 272, 1862. 
Lama vicugna, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 387 ; LydeJcker, 

Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 378, 1901 ; Elliot, Cat. 

Mamm. Field Mus. {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 37, 1907 ; 

Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. viii, no. 19, p. 3, 1913. 

Vicugna. 

Typical locality probably Peru, whence the range extends 
to southern Ecuador and central Bolivia. 

Size about one-fourth less than that of L. y. huanacus 



CAMELID.K 305 

(slioulder-heiglit about 2 feet 9 inches ; basicrauial length 
about 81^ inches = 220 mm.) ; build more slender ; liead 
shorter ; colour lighter, without black on face ; no bare 
callosities on limbs. 

46. 7. 28. 20 (675, h). Skin, mounted, and skin, female. 
Bolivia ; collected by Mi'. T. Bridges. FiLrchat^cd, 1846. 

46. 10. 16. 16. Skull. Same locality and collector. 

Same liistory. 

61. 1. 18. 3. Skeleton, immature. Locality unknown. 
Furchased (Zoological Society), 1861. 

96. 10. 7. 29. Skin, mounted. Catamarca, Argentina. 

Presented hy the La Plata Museum, 1896. 

97. 10. 3. 18. Skin. Junin, Peru ; collected by Mr. J. 
Kalinowski. Purchased, 1897. 

2. 1. 1. 112-113. Two skins, female. Choquecamate, 
Bolivia ; collected by Mr. P. 0. Simons. 

Presented hij 0. Thomas, Esq^., 1902. 



Section D.— SUINA. 

Large or medium-sized Artiodactyla, with neobunodont * 
molars, al)sence of complete fusion of third and fourth meta- 
carpals and metatarsals to form cannon-bones, and the skin 
either covered with sparse bristly hairs, or more or less 
nearly naked ; no cranial appendages. 

The distribution includes the greater part of the world, 
exclusive of Australia and New Zealand ; but to what extent 
the Suina now inhabiting south-eastern Asia liave been 
introduced by human agency is uncertain. 

The existing members of the section are divisible into 
the two following families t : — 

A. Head with an elongated mobile snout, terminating 

in an expanded, truncated, nearly naked, flat, 

oval disc in which the nostrils are pierced Siiidce, 

B. Head with a broad and rounded bristly muzzle... Hippopotamidce. 



* Stehlin, Ahli. schtveiz. pal. Ges. vol. xxviT p. 124, 1899 ; a term 
denoting a type of tubercular (bunodont) dentition with traces of a 
selenodont structure ; whether this is a distinct modification or a 
derivative from decadent selenodontism is still uncertain. 

t The writer follows Trouessart and Max Weber in regarding the 
peccaris as a subfamily of Suuhf instead of a separate famil3'. 

IV. X 



son CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



Family I.— SUIDiE. 

Head terminating in an elongated mobile snont, the tip 
of which forms an expanded, truncated, nearly naked, flat, 
oval disc containing the nostrils, and supported by a 
preuasal bone ; feet narrow, with four toes in front pair, the 
hoofs of the two middle ones in each pair with their adjacent 
surfaces flattened, and those of the lateral ones not applied 
to the ground in walking ; teeth typically forty-four, but the 
number frequently reduced by suppression of one or more 
pairs ; incisors rooted ; molars elongated, with the outer and 
inner pair of tubercles connected by intermediate ones, and 
not forming distinct trefoils ; no descending flange to 
mandible. 

Distribution co-extensive with that of section. 

The family is divisible into the two following sub- 
families : — 

A. Four toes to both fore- and hind-limbs ; upper 

canines curving more or less upwards or outwards ; 
stomach simple, except for a larger or smaller 
cardiac pouch ; no dorsal gland ; at least 4 teats Stiinn', 

B. Hind-feet with only three functional toes ; upper 

canines directed downwards ; stomach complex ; a 

dorsal gland ; 2 teats Dicotijlime. 



Subfamily i. — SUINiE. 

Four complete toes to each foot ; teeth typically forty- 
four, but often reduced by the suppression of one or more 
pairs ; upper canines curving more or less outwards or 
upwards ; stomach simple, except for a more or less 
developed cardiac pouch ; no dorsal gland ; .at least four 
teats ; tail well developed ; third and fourth metacarpals 
and metatarsals completely free. 

The distribution is limited to the Old World, extending 
at the present day so far eastward as New Guinea, although 
there is very strong probability that the Papuan forms were 
introduced by human agency. 

The subfamily is divisilile into the following generic 
groups : — 



SUIDiE 307 

A. Summits of upper canines of males completely 

abraded by attrition of lower pair. 

a. No osseous tuberosities on or above sheaths 

of upper canines ; ears not distinctly tufted Sus. 

h. Two pairs of osseous tuberosities on and 

above sheaths of upper canines Potamoclicerus. 

B. A facet worn on lower surface of upper canines 

by attrition of lower pair, leaving the summits 
more or less nearly entire. 

a. Last molar in each jaw brachyodont and 

normal Hylochoerus. 

b. Last molar in each jaw hypsodont and 

abnormally complex Phacoclmrus. 

c. No abrasion of upper canines (which are very long 

and slender) by lower pair Babirussa, 



I. Genus SUS. 

Sus, Li7in. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 49, 1758, ed. 12, vol. 1, p. 102, 

1766 ; Blasius, Sdugeth. DeutscJilands, p. 508, 1857 ; Gray, Cat. 

Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mas. p. 326, 1869 ; Stelilin, Abh. schioeiz. 

pal. Oes. vol. xxvi, passim, 1899 ; Floiver and Lydekker, Study 

of Mammals, p. 281, 1891 ; Miller, Cat. Mamvi. West. Europe, 

p. 956, 1912. 
Aper, Pallas, Misc. Zool. p. 16, 1766 ; Bafinesque, Analyse de Nature, 

p. 56, 1815. 
Centuriosus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 17, 1868, p. 40, Cat. 

Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mas. p. 347, 1869, Hand-List Thick- 
skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 66, 1873. 
Scrofa, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 38, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. 

Mus. p. 345, 1869. 
Euhys, Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 339, 1869,. 4/;u. Mag. 

Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. x, p. 435, 1873, Hand-List Thick-skimied 

Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 57, 1873. 
Aulacochoerus, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xi, p. 435, 

1873, Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 58, 1873. 
Dasychcerus, Gray, A7in. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xi, p. 435, 1873, 

Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 58, 1873. 

Dentition : i. f , c. -J-, p. |, m. | = 44 ; outer upper incisors 
and first upper and lower premolars not infrequently 
wanting in adults ; summits of upper canines completely 
abraded by wearing against tbe lower pair ; molars brachyo- 
dont and of the normal neobunodont type ; skull long, high, 
and narrow, without osseous tuberosities above or on sheaths 
of upper canines ; ears not distinctly tufted. Young usually 
striped longitudinally. 

The distribution is co-extensive with that of the sub- 

X 2 



fi08 CATALOGUE -OF UNGULATES 

family, except that, with the exception of the occurrence of 
one species in the Eastern Sudan, it does not include 
Ethiopian Africa. 

The genus is divisible into the two following subgeneric 
groups : — 

A. Size large or medium ; tail usually of moderate length ; 

6 pairs of teats Sus. 

B. Size small ; tail very short ; .'3 pairs of teats Porcnla, 

1. Subgenus SUS. 

Size large or medium ; tail usually of moderate length ; 
six pairs of teats.* Distribution co-extensive with that of 
genus. 

The species here recognised f are distinguishable as 
follows : — 

A. Young striped ; no warts on face. 

a. Lower canine with hind surface wider than outer 
one. 
a' . Face typically not banded ; last molars 
complex. 

a". Nuchal crest moderate S. scrofa. 

b". Nuchal crest taller S. cristatus. 

h' . Face typically banded; last molars simpler. 

c'. A brownish streak on muzzle S. vittatus. 

(V . A whitish streak on muzzle S. leucomystax. 

h. Lower canine with hind surface narrower than 
outer one. 
h' . Size medium ; head moderate ; tail-tuft small (S*. celehensis. 
c . Size large ; head very long ; tail-tuft large ... S.barhatus. 

B. Young uniformly coloured ; face with warts S. verrucosus. 

T. SUS SCEOFA. 

Sus scrofa, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 49, 1758, ed. 12, vol. i, 
p. 103, 1776 ; Dcsmarcsf, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 389, 1822 
Griffith, Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 287, 1827 ; Jenyns, Brit 
Vert. Anim. p. 39, 1835 ; Bell, British Quadrupeds, p. 358, 1837 
Owen, Brit. Foss. Mamvi. and Birds, p. 426, 1846; Gray, Proc 
Zool. Sac. 1856, p. 158, 1860, pp. 183 and 448, 1868, p. 30 
Cat. Carnivora etc. Brit. Ahis. p. 337, 1869, Hand-List Thicl- 
sMnned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 60, 1873 ; Blasius, Sdngetli 

* So far as recorded. 

t The views of Major are in the main followed on this subject. 



SUID.E 



500 



Deittsclilands, vol. i, 517, 1857; Severtzow, Ami. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 4, vol. xviii, p. 387, 1876 ; Blanford, Eastern Persia, vol. ii, 



^N' 



z^- 



FiG. 47. — Right Upper (A) and Lower (B) Cheek-Teeth of 
Wild Boar (Sits scrofa). nat. size. 
From Iililler, Cat. Manun. Western Eiwope. 

p. 86, 1876 ; Danford and Alston, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 275 ; 
Harting, Extinct Brit. Anim. p. 76, 1880 ; Thomas, Trans. Linn. 
Soc. ser. 2, vol. v, p. 195, 1889, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1911, p. 140, 



310 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

1912, p. 392 ; Tristram, Fauna Palestine, p. 3, 1884 ; Flower 
and Garson, Cat. Ostcol. Mus. E. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 348, 1884 ; 
Lataste, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. xxxix, p. 163, 1885 ; 
Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt. ii, p. 260, 1885, 
Horns and Hoofs, p. 353, 1893, Brit. Mamm. p. 255, 1895, Great 
and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 278, 1901, Great and Small 
Game of Africa, p. 388, 1908; Eadde, Zool. JaJirb. vol. iv, 
p. 1068, 1889; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, 
p. 195, 1891 ; Flower and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 283, 
1891 ; Stehlin, Ahli. schweiz. pal. Gcs. vol. xxvi, 1899, vol. xxvii, 
1900, passim ; Anderson and de Winton, Mamm. Egypt, p. 354, 
1902; Millais, Mamm. Gt. Britain, vol. iii, p. 63, 1906; Scharff, 
European Animals, p. 44, 1907 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. 
' {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 31, 1907; Ward, Records 
of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 453, 1910, ed. 7, p. 452, 1914; Trouessart, 
Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 225, 1910 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. 
Eurojje, p. 957, 1912. 

Siis setosus, Boddaert, Elenchtts Anim. vol. i, p. 157, 1785. 

Sus setosus, var. a. aper, Boddaert, loc. cit. 1785. 





A B 



Fig. 49. — Transverse Sections of Lower Canines of Sus scrofa (A) 

AND Sus vermcosiis (B). i, inner, /;, hind, o, outer surface. 

From Stehlin. 

Sus europaeus, Pallas, Zoogr. Bosso-Asiat. vol. i, p. 265, 1811. 

Sus sci'opha, Jardine, Naturalist^ s Libr., Mamm. vol. v, p. 205, 1836. 

Sus fasciatus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 184, 1843. 

Sus scrofa fasciatus, Wagner, Schreber's Sdugthiere, Suppl. vol. iv, 

p. 322, 1844. 
Sus scrofa, var. celtica, Strobel, Atti. Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. vol. xxv, 

p. 79, 1882. 

Wild Boar or Wild Swine. 

Typical locality Germany. 

Size moderately or very large ; face without warts ; 
muzzle relatively short ; lower canine (fig. 48) with outer 
surface markedly less in width than hind one, which is 
oblique and next in width to the inner surface — the widest 
of the three ; last upper molar typically large, with a 
distinct third ridge (fig. 47) ; general colour brown, with an 



SUID.E 



311 



individual tendency to blackish, greyish, or rut'ous ; face, 
cheeks, and throat with a grizzling of whitish hairs, which 
does not, however, form definite markings ; bristles of nape 
long, but not forming a conspicuous crest ; under-fur 
(occasionally wantiug) thick and woolly ; young brown with 
blackish stripes. 

The range formerly included the whole of the afforested 
districts of temperate Europe, from Ireland and Scandinavia 




Fig. 49. — Side View of Skull, with the Lower Jaw detached, of 
Wild Boar {Sus scrofa). ^ nat. size. 
From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe. 

eastwards, but is now limited to the countries south of the 
Baltic ; eastwards it appears to include all temperate Asia 
north of the line of the Himalaya. 

The better-known races are distinguishable as follows : — 

A. Colour dark, without marked contrast between 
body and limbs. 

a. Size very large ; upper skull-length 

171 inches *S'. s. attila. 

h. Size smaller; skull-length 15 to 16J inches 8. s. scrofa. 



312 CATAL0C4UE OF UNGULATES 

c. Size smaller ; * skull-length 14^ inches... S. s. hjhicus. 

d. Size smaller; skull-length 13| inches S. s. castilianiis. 

c. Size smaller ; skull-length 11-^ inches ; 

face banded >S". s. ineridionalis. 

f. Size slightly smaller; skull-length 11 J 

inches ; face not banded ; no under-fur S. s. boeticus. 

B. Colour lighter, with a distinct contrast between 

body and limbs (which are black) S. s. iiigripes. 





A B 

Pig. 50. — Frontal (A) and Palatal (B) Aspects of Skull of 
Wild Boar {Stis scrofa). J nat. size. 
From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe. 



S. s. harharus, S. s. mowpincnsis, and S. s. scnnaarcnsis 
(the last two of which are only provisionally included under 
the present specific heading) are too imperfectly known to be 
definitely classified. 

* One specimen only. 



SUIDyE 313 

A.— Sus scFofa scrofa. 

Sus scrofa ferus, Gmelin, Linn.'s Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 207, 1788; 

Gi-ay, Froc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 13 ; Ncliring, Sitzber. Ges. nat. 

Freunde, 1890, p. 9. 
Sus scrofa scrofa, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, p. 392. 

Typical locality Germany. 

Size relatively large, upper skull-length ranging from 
about 15 to 16^ inches (380-410 mm.); woolly under-fur 
developed ; third ridge of last upper molar distinct (fig. 47). 
58, a. Skin, young. Europe (?). Ty])e o^ S. fasciat us. 

No liistory. 
713, y». Skeleton. Germany. 

Transferred from Zoological Society s Museum. 
43. 12. 29. 12. Skin, young. France. 

Purchased (Lefehre), 1843. 
58.5.4.38(713,/). Skull, immature female. Europe.* 
Purchased (Zoological Society), 1858. 
58. 5. 4. 42 (713,/.'). Skull, young. Europe. 

Same Idstory. 

59.9.6.100(713,7). Skull. Wiirtemberg; collected 

by Dr. A. Giintlier. Purchased, 1859. 

62. 3. 20. 6. Skull. Germany. Purchased, 1862. 

92. 8. 3. 1. Skin. Waldleiningen, Baden. Presented 

by H.P.H. the Grand Duhe Louis of Hesse, 1892. 

13. 2. 22. 1. Skull and skin, young. Valescure, Var, 

France. Presented hy W. E. de Winton, Esej^., 1913. 

B.— Sus scrofa meridionalis. 

Sus scrofa meridionalis, Major, Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. vol. iii, 
P.V. p. 119, 1881, vol. vi, p. 346, 1883, Zool. Anz. vol. vi, p. 295, 
1883 ; StcliUn, Ahh. schweiz. fal. Oes. vol. xxvi, p. 68, 1899. 

Sus scrofa var. sardous, Strobcl, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. vol. xxv, 
' p. 221, 1882 ; Troucssart, Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 226, 1910 ; 
Deliaut, Hist. Zool. Pal. Corse et Sardaigne, fasc. 4, p. 64, 
pis. i, ii, 1912. 

Sus meridionalis. Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 960, 1912. 

Typical locality Sardinia ; the range may include Corsica 
{vide Dehaut, op. cit.). 

* Specimens of which the locality is uncertain may belong to 
other races. 



314 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Smaller than typical race, the upper skull-length about 
11|- inches (oOO mm.); talon of thu'd upper molar obsolete: 
colour generally similar, but a light band on each side of the 
face, which unites with its fellow on under surface of the 
muzzle to form a chevron. Major and Dehaut regard this 
race as nearly related to the Malay S. vittatus, between which 
and S. scrofa it is stated by the former writer to be almost 
exactly intermediate ; probably no under-fur. 

No specimen in collection. 

C— Sus scrofa castilianus. 

Sus scrofa castilianus, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, pp. 391 and 
392 (Abs. P.Z.S. 1912, p. 13) ; Miller, Cat.Mamm. West. Europe, 
p. 960, 1912 ; Cabrera, Cat. Met. Mamm. Mas. Madrid, p. 133, 
1912. 

Typical locality Burgos, Northern Spain. 

Intermediate in point of size between typical race and 
the undermentioned S. s. hcetious : length of upper surface of 
skull about 13f inches (353 mm.) ; under-fur present. 

11. 10. 5. 3. Skull and skin. Quintanar de la Sierra, 
near Burgos ; collected by Eev. S. Gonzales. Type. 

Presented hj the Hon. N. C. liothschild, 1911. 

8. 7. 7. 32, 33. Two skulls and skins, female. Same 
locality ; collected by Srs. S. and N. Gonzales. 

Purchased, 1908. 

D.— Sus scrofa boBticus. 

Sus scrofa boeticus, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, pp. 391 and 393 
{Abs. P.Z.S. 1912, p. 14); Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, 
p. 960, 1912. 

Typical locality Coto Donana, Huelva, Southern Spain. 
Smaller than preceding race — length of upper surface of 
skull about 11 f inches (324 mm.), without under-fur. 

95. 9. 4. 16. Skull and skin, female. Almonte, Seville. 
Presented hy the Lord^ Lilford, 1895. 
8. 3. 8. 12. Skull and skin. Coto Donana. Type. 

Presented hj Abel Chapman, Psq., 1908. 
8. 3. 8. 13. Skull, Same locality. Same history. 



SUID.E 315 

E.— Sus scrofa barbarus. 

Sus scrofa, var. barbarus, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 43. 
Sus scrofa barbarus, Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 338, 
1869; LydeH-er, Game Animals of Africa, p. 389, 1908. 

Typical locality Morocco. 

Imperfectly known, but stated to have a shorter and less 
abundant coat than French wild boars, from which it also 
frequently differs by its rather darker colour. From 33 to 
35 inches is the probable shoulder-height, although a still 
taller stature has been suggested. 

* * * *. Skin, immature, mounted. jMorocco ; collected 
by E. W. A. Drummond, Esq. Purchased {Zoological Society). 

62. 12. 26. 1 (713, v). Skin and skeleton. Barbary. 
Type(?). Purchased {Zoological Societg), 1862. 

64. 12. 4. 1. Skeleton. Barbary. 

Presented hy H. Christy, Esq., 1864. 

12. 10. 17. 1. Skull and skin, immature. Morocco; 
collected by Major H. F. Brooke. 

Presented hy the Zoologiced Society, 1912. 

F.— Sus scrofa sennaarensis. 

Sus sennaarensis, Fitzinger, Sitzher. h. Ah. Wiss. Wien. vol. xix, 
p. 365, 1864; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 32, Cat. Carni- 
vora, etc. Brit. Mtis. p. 338, 1869; Hartmann, Zeits. Erdkunde, 
vol. iii, p. 349, 1868. 

Sus vittatus sennaariensis, Major, Zool. Anz. vol. vi, p. 296, 1883. 

Sus scrofa, Anderson and de Winton, Mamm. Egypt, p. 354, pi. Ixiii, 
1902. 

Sus scrofa sennarensis, Lydekker, Game Animals of Africa, p. 390, 
1908. 

Typical locality Sennar ; the range also including Kor- 
dofan and neighbouring districts. 

Imperfectly known, coat stated to be very dense and 
bristly, and dull olive-black variegated with yellow in colour. 
Eeference to present species provisional. 

Xo specimen in collection. 



)16 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



G. -Sus scrofa lybicus. 

Sus lybicus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 31, Cat. Carnivora, etc. 
Brit. Mas. p. 338, 1869, Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamin. Brit. 
Mas. p. 65, 1872. 

Typical locality Xauthus, Asia jMiiior ; tlie range may 
include Syria. 

Described on the evidence of tlie undermentioned skull, 
which measures 14^ inches in length, and is stated to differ 
from all skulls of German wild boars. 

44. 7. 13. 7 (713, a). Skull, female. Xanthus, Asia 
Minor. Type. Presented hy Sir Charles Felloivs, 1844. 

14. 4. 17. 1. Skull and skin. Karajasi, Tiflis, Asia 

Minor. Presented hy the 

Tifiis Muscuiii {through Col. Kaznahoiv), 1914. 

14. 4. 17. 2. Skull and skin, female. Same locality. 

Suriic history. 

H.— Sus scrofa attila. 

Sus attila, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, pp. 391 and 393 {Ahs. 

P.Z.S. 1912, p. 13) ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Euroi)c, p. 960, 

1912. 
Sus scrofa attila, Lydekker, Ward's Records of Big Game, ed. 7, 

p. 452, 1914. 

Typical locality Kolozsvar (or Klausenburg), Transyl- 
vania ; limits of range to eastward not yet ascertained. 

Considerably larger than typical race, upper skull-length 
about 17f inches (452 mm.) ; woolly under-fur present ; 
general colour apparently rather lighter than in typical race. 
This eastern representative of the wild boar bears almost 
exactly the same relation to the typical German animal as is 
presented by the maral or eastern red deer (supi^a, p. 126) to 
the red deer of Western Europe ; and if the maral be regarded 
as a subspecies rather than a full species, the same view 
must be held in the case of the eastern wild boar. 

3. 3. 12. 1. Skin, mounted. Volhynia, Russian Poland, 
Presented hy Count Josef Potocki, 1903. 

12. 1. 23. 1. Skull and skin. Kolozsvar, Transylvania; 
collected December, 1911. Type. 

Presented hy Friiulcin Sctrolta con Wertheimstein, 1912. 



SUIDiE 317 

14. 3. 19. 1. Skull and skin. SoLorin, Comitad Arad, 
Hungary. Same donor, 1914. 

The following specimens are provisionally referred to 
this race : — 

87. 12. 22. 2. Skull, female. Northern slope of Western 
Caucasus. Presented hy St. George Littledale, Esq., 1887. 

91. 8. 10. 1. Head, mounted. N.W. Amurland. 

Prescnicd lij the Hon. Wcdter Bothschild, 1891. 

92. 3. IG. 10. Skull. Northern side of Western Cau- 
casus. Presented hy St. Georeje Littledede, Esq., 1892. 

I. Sus scrofa nigripes. 

Sus scrofa, var. nigripes, Blanford, Journ, Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
vol. xliv, pt. ii, p. 112, 1875, Zool. Second Yarl-and Mission, 
Mamm. p. 79, 1879 ; W. L. Sclafer, Cat. Mamm. hid. Mus. 
pt. ii, p. 195, 1891 ; J. H. Miller, Field, vol. cxx, p. 284 (fig.), 1912. 

Sus scrofa nigripes, LydekA-er, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. 
p. 279, 1901. 

Typical locality Tien Shan, in the Kashgar district. 

Co-types in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Size large ; general colour light dull brown, without 
admixture of ])lack hairs ; feet and much of the rest of the 
legs black ; a pale hair-brown woolly under-fur present ; ears 
darker than head and back, and a black ring round each eye ; 
occipital plane forming a more obtuse angle with Ijase of 
skull than in Hungarian race. 

12. 7. 27. 1. Skull. Tien Slian ; collected by J. H. 
Miller, Esq. Purehascd, 1912, 

J.— Sus scrofa moupinensis. 

Sus moupinensis, Milne-Edwards, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vii, Bull. 

p. 93, 1872, Rech. Mamm. p. 377, pis. Ixxx and Ixxxi, 1874; 

Lydctiker, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 288, 1907 ; Allen, 

Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll. vol. liv, p. 205, 1912. 
Sus vittatus moupinensis. Major, Zool. Anz. vol. vi, p. 296, 1883. 
Sus cristatus moupinensis, Lydehlcer, Great and S)nall Game of 

India, etc. p. 266, 1900. 

Typical locality Moupin, Sze-chuan, Western China. 
T3'pe in Paris Museum. 



318 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Said to lie in a considerable degree intermediate between 
aS^. scrofa and f>. I'ittatn^. 

9G. 11. 4. 4. Skull and skin. Sze-cbuan ; collected by 
Berezowski. r>y exc.lidwic irifli Trim/ Afi/smm,, 1896. 

II. SU8 CEISTATUS. 

Sus scrofa, Syhes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831 ; Elliot, Madras Journ. 
voL X, p. 219, 1839 ; McCleland, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 150 ; 
Adams, ibid. 1858, p. 531 ; Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, p. 139, 1863 ; Blanford, Journ. Asiat. Bengal, vol. xxxvi, 
p. 197, 1868; Anderson, Journ. Linyi. Soc. vol. xxi, p. 341, 1889; 
nee Linn. 

Sus cristatus, Wagner, MiincJi. Gelehrt. Anz. vol. ix, p. 535 (misprint 
for 435), 1839; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 27, Cat. Carnivora, 
etc. Brit. Mus. p. 333, 1869, Hand-List Thich-sMnned Mamm. 
Brit. Mus. p. 62, 1873 ; Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
vol. xliv, pi. ii, 1875, Mamm. and Birds Burma, p. 43, 1875 ; 
Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mas. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, 
p. 345, 1884 ; Mtirray, Zool. ofSind, p. 54, 1884 ; W. L. Sclater, 
Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 193, 1891 ; Blanford, Fauna 
Brit. India, Mamm. p. 560, 1891 ; Flower and. LydeTiher, Study 
of Mammals, p. 283, 1891; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 354, 
1893, Great and Small Game of Lidia, p. 258, 1900, Game 
Animals of Lidia, p. 277, 1907 ; Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1900, 
p. 375 ; Wroug1ito7i, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxi, 
p. 1194, 1912 ; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 454, 1910, 
ed. 7, p. 453, 1914. 

Sus indicus. Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 185, 1843 ; Hutton and 
Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xv, p. 135, 1846 ; Cantor, 
ibid. p. 261, 1846; Kelaart, Prodr. Faunce Zeylan. p. 78, 1852; 
Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxix, p. 105, 1857 ; 
Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 277, 1862; Jerdon, 
Mamm. India, p. 241, 1867 ; MacMaster, Notes on Jerdon, 
p. 59, 1870; Stolizcka, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xli, 
pt. ii, p. 228, 1873; Lydekker, ibid. vol. xlvi, p. 287, 1876; 
Sterndale, Mamm. India, p. 416, 1884. 

Sus aper, vars, alponius et isonotus, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc, 
Bengal, vol. x, p. 911, 1842. 

Sus affinis. Gray, Cat. Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 71, 1847. 

Sus zeylonensis, Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xx, p. 173, 
1852, vol. xxi, p. 351, 1853, vol. xxix, p. 105, 1860. 

Sus bengalensis, Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxix, p. 105, 
1860. 

Sus vittatus ci'istatus, Major, Zool. Anz. vol. vi, p. 296, 1883. 

Typical locality probably the Malabar coast. 

Size typically large, the shoulder-height ranging from 
28 to 36 inches ; distinguished from typical 8. scrofa by the 
greater development of the nuchal crest, or mane, and llie 



sriD.E 319 

larger size and greater complexity of the last, or third, molar 
in each jaw, as well as by the taller build and the scantier 
coat, under-fur being absent. The trans-Gangetic form was 
separated as S. hengalensis on account of the supposed less 
development of the parietal constriction of the skull. 

The distributional area includes India — to a considerable 
height in the Himalaya — Ceylon, Burma, Tenasserim, Siam, 
part of the Malay Peninsula, and some of the adjacent islands. 
The Tenasserim representative of the species is small. 

A.— Sus cpistatus cristatus. 

Sus cristatus typicus, Lydel-ker, Oreat and Small Game of India, 
p. 261, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 279, 1907. 

Typical locality probably the Malabar coast. 
General character those of the species. 
716, h. Skull. India. 

Bequeathed hj Gen. T. Hardivicke, about 1835. 
716, ^. Skull, young. Nepal. 

Presented hi/ B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 
716, 0. Skull, wanting tusks. India. 

Presented hj Sir John Boilecm. 
38. 3. 13. 48 (716, v). Skull. Nilgirl Hills, Travancore. 
Type of S. afinis. Purcheised (Turner), 1838. 

38. 3. 13. 49 (716,;.'). Skull. Malabar. 

Purchased {Turner), 1838. 

45. 1. 8. 86 (716,/). SkulL Nepal. 

Presented hi/ B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 
45. 1. 8. 87 (716, e). Skull. Nepal. Seime history. 

45. 1. 8. 88 (716, el). Skull. Nepal. Same history. 

45. 1. 8. 89 (716, e). Skull, immature. Nepal. 

Same history. 
45. 1. 8. 91 (716, i). Skull, with milk-teeth. Nepal. 

Same history. 

45. 1. 8. 92 (716, y). A similar specimen. Nepal. 

Same history. 

52. 11. 12. 1 (716, j?). Skull. India. Purchased, 1852. 

56. 5. 6. 57 (716, /). Skull. Nepal Tarai ; collected by 
W. Theobald, Esq. Presented hy Dr. T. Oldham, 1856. 

'^Q. 5. 6. 58 (716, m). Skull, immature female. Same 
locality and collector. ■ Same history. 



320 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

56. 5. 6. 50 (716, n). Skull, female. Same locality and 
collector. Scnne histonj. 

58. 6. 24. 123 (716, w). Skull. Sikhim. 

Presented hy B. H. Hodgson, Escj^., 1858. 
58. 6. 24. 124 (716, .s). Skull. Same locality. 

Same Idstory. 
58. 6. 24. 125 (716, t). Skull. Same locality. 

Scime history. 
86. 2. 1. 6. Skull. Siiid. 

By exchetnge loith the Karachi Museum, 1886. 
1. 6. 20. 2. -Skin, uiouuted, and skull. From a herd 
kept by H.M. (^ueen Victoria in Windsor Forest. 

Fresented hy H.M. King Edimrd VII., 1901. 

1. 6. 20. 3. Skull and skin, female. From the Windsor 

herd. Same history. 

3. 2. 6. 76. Skull and head-skin, immature. Jalor, 

Malay Peninsula. Presented hy Messrs. H. C. Bohinson einel 

N. Annemdale, 1903. 
6. 5. 28. 1. Skin, mounted, and skull. Central Provinces. 

Purchased {Wetrd), 1906. 
12. 11. 17. 1. Skin, mounted. Wardha district, Central 
Provinces. A very large old grey boar. 

Presented hy F. C. Anderson, Escj^., 1912. 

B.— Sus cristatus jubatus. 

Sus jubatus, Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxx, p. 745, 1906. 
Sus cristatus jubatus, Lydeliher, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 283, 
1907. 

Typical locality Trong, Lower Siam. 
Type in U.S. ISTational Museum, Washington. 
Smaller than typical race, with proportionately smaller 
and nearly l^are ears. 

No specimen in collection. 

C— Sus cristatus jubatulus. 

Sus jubatulus, Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxx, p. 746, 1906. 
Sus cristatus jubatulus, LyclcM-er, Game Animals of India, etc. 
p. 283, 1907. 

Typical locality Pulo Terutau, off the Malay Peninsula. 
Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 



SUID.-K 321 

Similar to preceding race, but smaller. 
9. 11. 1. 152. Skull. Pulo Langkawi, off the Malay 
Peninsula ; collected by H. C. Robinson, Esq. Presented hy 
the Government of the Federated Malay States, 1909. 
9. 11. 1. 153. Skull. Pulo Terutau ; same collector. 

Same history. 
9. 11. 1. 154. Skull, female. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
9. 11. 1. 155. Skull, female. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
9.11.1.156. Skull, female. Same locality and collector. 

Sa7ne history. 

9. 11. 1. 157. Skull, young female, imperfect. Same 

locality and collector. Same history. 

9.11.1.158. Skull, female. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

III. SUS LEUCOMYSTAX. 

Sus leucomystax, TemmincTc, SieholcVs Fauna Japon., Mamm. p, 6, 
pi. XX, 1842; SwinJwe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 466, 1870, 
p. 640 ; Gray, ibid. 1868, p. 26, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. 
p. 333, 1869, Hand-List Tliich- shinned Mamm. Brit. AIus. p. 61, 
1873 ; Nehring. Sitzher. Ges. nat. Freuyide, 1885, p. 142, Zool. 
<?rtr^e?z, vol. xxvi, p. 325, 1885; Stehlin, Ahh. scluveiz. pal. Ges. 
vol. xxvi, p. 69, 1899 ; Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1905, vol. ii, 
p. 357 ; Aoki, Annot. Zool. Japan, vol. viii, p. 339, 1913. 

Sus vittatus leucomystax, Major, Zool. Anz. vol. vi, p. 296, 1883. 

Sus vittatus japonica, Nehring, Zool. Garten, vol. xxvi, p. 336, 1885. 

Typical locality Japan, including the Islands of Hondo, 
Shikoku, and Kiushiu. 

Apparently allied to >S'. vittatus, but provisionally allowed 
to rank as a separate species, as the fauna of Japan is in 
general markedly distinct from that of Malaya. 

General colour blackish brown, with a streak from angles 
of mouth to lower jaw and under-parts white ; ears densely 
haired ; skull relatively wider than in S. scrofa with a higher 
lachrymal. The white muzzle-streak is stated by Nehring 
to occur occasionally in 8. scrofa. 

The range includes Formosa ; the two races usually 
recognised being distinguished as follows : — 

A. Size larger, ears larger S. I. leucomystax. 

B. Size smaller, ears smaller «S'. I. taivanus. 

IV. Y 



322 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



A.— Sus leucomystax leucomystax. 

Typical (and only) locality Japan. 
Size large, with relatively big ears. 

67. 7. 8. 22. Skeleton, young, provisionally referred to 
this race. Pvrchasecl {Zoological Society), 1867. 

70. 20. 10. .38 (1595, a, b). Skull and skin ; collected at 

Shanghai by 11. Swinhoe, Esq. Purchased, 1870. 

80. 3. 20. 29. Skull. Japan ; collected by H. Pryer, Esq. 

Purchased (Janson), 1880. 
5. 5. 30. 28. Skull and skin, female. Washikaguchi, 
Hondo ; collected by M. P. Anderson, Esq. 

Presented hj the LvM of Bedford, K.G., 1905. 

B.— Sus leucomystax taivanus. 

Porcula taivana, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 360. 

Sus taivanus, Sivinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 383, 1870, p. 641 ; 
Gray, ibid. 1867, p. 240, 1868, p. 26, Hand-List Thick-skinned 
Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 61, 1873 ; Aoki, Annot. Zool. Japon. 
vol. viii, p. 340, 1913. 

Sus vittatus taivanus, Major, Zool. Anz. vol. vi, p. 296, 1883. 

Typical locality Formosa. 

Smaller than typical race, with proportionately smaller 
ears. 

The under-mentioned specimens represent the type of 
the race. 

68. 10. 9. 1 (1594, /, rn). Skull, without lower jaw, 
immature, and lower jaw of a second and older animal. 
S. W. Formosa. Presented hj B. T. Collingiuood, Esq., 1868. 

70. 2. 10. 39. Skin. Formosa ; collected by E. Swin- 
hoe, Esq. Purchased, 1870. 

70. 2. 10. 40. Skin, immature. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

70. 2. 10. 41 (1594, 1). Skin, youug. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

70. 2. 10. 42 (1594, c). Skin, young. Same locality and 

collector. Satne history. 

70. 2. 10. 43 (1594, /). Skin. Same locality and 

collector. • Same history. 



suiD.i: 323 

70. 2. 10. 84 (1504,;). Skull, female. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

70. 2. 10. 85 (1594, h). Skull. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

70. 2. 10. 86 (1594, />:). Skull, young female. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

70. 2. 10. 87 (1594, i). Skull, female. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

70. 2. 10. 88 (1594, a). Skull and skin, immature female. 
Same locality and collector. Same history. 

96. 5. 2. 1-2. Two skins. Formosa ; collected by P. A. 
Hoist, Esq. Purchased {Danfelt), 1896. 

9. 4. 1. 507. Skull and skin, Palo Bintang, Ehio 
Linga Archipelago ; collected by H. C. Eol)inson, Esq. 

Presented ly the Government of the 
Federated Malay States, 1909. 

In addition to the above, the following name has been 
proposed for a wild swine from Yladivostock, regarded by 
its describer as a continental race of the present species : — 

Sus leucomystax var. continentalis, Nehring, Sitzber. Ges. Nat. 
Freunde, 1889, p. 141. 

IV. sus VITTATUS. 

Sus vittatus, Mailer and Schlegel, Verh. Zoogd. Ind. ArcJiip. vol. i, 
p. 172, pi. xxix, 1842 ; Graij, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 442, 1868, 
p. 25, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 331, 1869; Gerrard, 
Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 277, 1862; Major, Zool. 
Anz. vol. vi, p. 296, 1883 ; Jentink, Notes Leyden Mus. vol. xiii, 
p. 89, 1891, vol. xxvi, p. 175, 1905 ; Lydelcker, Horns and Hoofs, 
p. 359, 1893, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 284, 1907 ; Miller, 
Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxvi, p. 446, 1903, vol. xxx, p. 748, 
1906 ; Stehlin, Abh. schiveiz. pal. Ges. vol. xxvi, p. 69, 1899 ; 
Volz. Zool, Jalirb., Syst. vol. xx, p. 513, 1904 ; Steele, Rev. Suisse 
Zool. vol. xiv, p. 33, 1907; Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. 
xxxiv, p. 628, 1908 ; Bauschhe, Arch. Naturgesch. 1911, p. 1. 

Sus scrofa, var. Giebel, Sdugethiere, p. 225, 1855. 

Aulacochcerus vittatus. Gray, Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamm. Brit. 
Mus. p. 58, 1873. 

Type of Aulacochcerus. 
Typical locality Sumatra. 
Type in Leyden Museum. 

General colour dark brown variegated with reddish brown, 

Y 2 • 



324 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

with a black spinal stripe, rising into a crest on the neck, 
where the bristles are tipped with rufous ; typically a broad 
reddish brown band along middle of muzzle, broadening at 
angles of mouth and on sides of upper lip, whence it extends 
backwards to disappear on sides of neck, in old animals 
frequently obsolete ; no warts or tufts on face; ears moderate ; 
tail-tuft small and flattened ; young striped with alternating 
black and reddisli brown bands ; canines as in S. scrofa 
(p. 310); skull of moderate length and slenderness, but of 
unusual height, owing to the depth of the lower jaw, with 
a short muzzle, in which the anterior upper premolar is 
approximated to the canine, while the interval between the 
first and second lower premolars, like that between the 
canine and outermost lower incisor, is also unusually short ; 
last molar in each jaw short and simple. 

The range includes Sumatra, Java, Flores, the Malay 
Peninsula, etc. 

The following " key " to the local races (with the exception 
of the third and last) is modified from one given by Miller. 

A. Upper skull-length less than 11^ inches (290 

mm.).* 

a. Length of upper tooth-row about Sy^ inches 

(83 mm.) S. v. andamanensis. 

b. Length of upper tooth-row about 3f inches 

(95 mm.). 

6'. Palate wider S. v. nicobaricus. 

c\ Palate narrower, the width not greater 

than maximum width of m. 3 S. v. mimus. 

B, Upper skull-length exceeding 11^ inches (290 

mm.). 

a. Upper molars larger -S'. v. niadensis. 

b. Upper molars smaller. 

b^. "Width of palate (last molars included) 

less than half the length of upper tooth - 

row to point of tusk, 
b". Width of parietal constriction greater. 

b^. General colour yellower S. v. miller i. 

c^. General coloiir redder S. v, vittatus. 

C-. Width of parietal constriction less. 

c^ Colour greyer, teeth smaller S. v. andersoni. 

d^. Colour redder, teeth larger S. v. rhionis. 



S. V. floresianus should come in this group. 



8UID.E 325 

c'. Width of palate (last molars included) 
equal to or greater than half the length 
of upper tooth-row to front of tusk, 
r^ Skull-length about 13i inches (342 

mm.) S. V. pen insular is. 

d". Skull-length about 12| inches (310 
mm.). 

(l^. A small diastema behind tusk S. v. hahi. 

e^. No diastema behind tusk' S. v. natunensis. 

A.— Sus vittatus vittatus. 

Typical locality Sumatra. 

Bristles of head and body subtermiiially ringed with 
reddish brown, which communicates a rufous tinge to the 
entire coat. 

43. 12. 27. 1 (1362. a). Skin, mounted. Locality 
unknown, and reference provisional. 

Furchascd (Franks), 1843. 

B.— Sus vittatus milleri. 

Sus milleri, Jcntink, Notes Leyden Mus. vol. xxvi, p. 176, 1905. 

Typical locality Java. 

Type in Leyden Museum. 

Yellower and lighter than typical race, with the light 
band on the muzzle yellowish brown ; bristles on head and 
body more sparse, with the subterminal ring yellowish 
brown. 

55. 4. 14. 1 (1362, h). Skull. Java ; collected by Dr. A. li. 
Wallace, O.M. Noticed by Major, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 6, vol. xix, p. 532. Purchased, 1855. 

C— Sus vittatus floresianus. 

Sus floresianus, Jentinh, Notes Leyden Mas. vol. xxvi, p. 178, 1905. 

Typical locality Flores. 

Type in Leyden Museum. 

Described from the skull, which, although smaller than 
in the typical race— upper length 10^ inches (260 mm.), 
against 13 inches (330 mm.)— is very thick, massive, short, 
and wide, with a bony maxillary protuberance below the 



326 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

infra-orbital foramen, and the premaxilla; terminating 
abruptly in front of the incisors instead of being prolonged 
some distance in advance. 
No specimen in collection. 

D.— Sus vittatus andamanensis. 

Sus andamanensis, Bhjth, Journ. Asiaf. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxvii, 

p. 267, 1858, vol. xxviii, p. 271, 1859, vol. xxix, p. 103, 1860, Cat. 

Mamm. Mus. Asiaf. Soc. Bengal, p. 141, 1863 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. 1868, p. 29, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 336, 1869, 

Hand-List ThicJi-sMnned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 64, 1873; 

W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 195, 1891; 

Blanford, Farina Brit. India, Mamm. p. 562, 1891 ; Lydekker, 

Horns and Hoofs, p. 358, 1893 ; Stehlin, Abh. schiveiz. pal. Ges. 

vol. xxvi, p. 69, 1899; Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxiv, 

p. 752, 1902, vol. XXX, p. 754, 1906. 
Sus cristatus andamanensis, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of 

India, etc. p. 265, 1900. 

Sus vittatus andamanensis, Major, Zool. Anz. vol. vi, p. 296, 1883 ; 
Lydekker, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 284, 1907. 

Typical locality Port Blair, S. Andaman Island. 

Type in Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

A small race, standing about 20 inches at the shoulder, 
and externally very similar to a dwarf *S'. cristatus, but 
distinguished from that species by the simpler structure of 
the last molar, which in the upper jaw normally carries only 
two transverse ridges and a talon ; general colour blackish, 
with a brown tinge on the mane. 

Miller, although regarding it as a member of the 
>S^. vittatus group, emphasises the affinity of this race to the 
Tenasserim form of >S'. cristatus. 

67. 6. 18. 1 (1497, a). Skull, wanting lower jaw. 
Andaman Islands. A lower jaw (1497, /) sent with this 
specimen represents another individual. 

Presented hy W. Theobald, Esq., 1867. 

67. 9. 28. 6 (1497, h). Skull, female, wanting tusks. 
Same locality. Same history. 

68. 3. 21. 78 (1479, c). Skin and skeleton. Andamans ; 
collected by Capt. Frain. 

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1868. 

67. 10. 5. 22. Skin, very young, mounted. Zoological 

Gardens. Purchased (Zoological Society), 1867. 



suiD^ 32 / 

70. 8. 17. 2 (1497, d). Skull, female. Andamans. 

Presented ly Surgeon-General F. Day, 1870. 

88. 3. 20. 3. Skull. Andamans; collected by Dr. F. 

Stoliczka. Presented hy B. Lydekker, Esq., 1888. 

E.— Sus vittatus nicobaricus. 

Sus nicobaricus, Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mas. vol. xxiv, p. 755, 1902, 

vol. XXX, p. 754, 1906. 
Sus vittatus nicobaricus, LydekJcer, Game Animals of India, etc. 

p. 284, 1907. 

Typical locality Great Nicobar Island. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Eather larger than >S^. v. andamanends, with markedly 
larger cheek-teeth ; colour wholly black ; tail with a sparse, 
nearly uniform growth of long black hairs. 

No specimen in collection. 

F.— Sus vittatus peninsularis. 

Sub peninsularis. Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxx, p. 749, 1906. 
Sus vittatus peninsularis, LydeJcker, Game Animals of India, etc. 
p. 284, 1907. 

Typical locality Johore, Malay Peninsula. 
Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 
The largest of all the races, the upper skull-length being 
about 13^ inches (342 mm.). 
No specimen in collection. 

G,— Sus vittatus rhionis. 

Sus rhionis, Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxx, p. 749, 1906, 
vol. xxxi, p. 256, 1906 ; Thomas and Wroiighton, Journ. Fed. 
Malay Mus. vol. i, p. 127, 1910. 

Typical locality Karimon Island, Ithio Linga Archipelago. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Skull narrower than in typical race, with the interparietal 
constriction so strongly developed that its width is less than 
that of the nasals at their base. 

0. 4. 1. 508. Skull and skin. Karimon Island, Ehio 
lAnga Group ; collected by H. C. Robinson, Esq. 
Presented hythe Government of the Federated Malay States, 1909. 



328 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

H.— Sus vittatus andersoni. 

Sus andersoni, Thomas and Wroughton, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, 
vol. iii, p. 441, 1909, Journ. Fed. Malay Mus. vol. iv, p. 127, 
1910. 

Typical locality Balam Island, Eliio Linga Archipelago ; 
the range also includes Bintang and Karimon Islands. 

Differs from ^S*. v. rhionis by the greyer colour of the 
adult and the redder tint of the young, as well as by the 
smaller teeth, especially the second upper incisor and 
the premolars. 

9. 4. 1. 509. Skull and skin, female. Bintang Island, 
Ehio Linga Archipelago ; collected by Mr. E. Seimund. 
Presented hijthe Government of the Federated Malay States, 1909. 

9. 4. 1. 510. Skull and skin, female. Batam Island, 
Ehio Linga Group ; same collector. Same history. 

9. 4. 1. 511. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 
collector. Type. Same history. 

9. 4. 1. 512. Skull and skin, female. Karimon Island, 
Ehio Linga Group. Same history. 

I.— Sus vittatus niadensis. 

Sus niadensis. Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxx, p. 751, 1906. 

Typical locality Nias Island. 
Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 
Like typical race, but with larger second and third 
molais. 

No specimen in collection. 

J.— Sus vittatus babi. 

Sus babi, Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxx, p. 752, 1906. 

Typical locality Pulo Babi, off western Sumatra. 
Type in L''.S. National Museum, Washington. 
Similar in size to typical race, but colour much darker 
and skull wider. 

No specimen in collection. 



suiD.E 320 

K.— Sus vittatus natunensis. 

Sus, sj)., TJwnias and Hartert, Novit. Zool. vol. i, p. 660, 1894, 

vol. ii, p. 492, 1895. 
Sus natunensis. Miller, Proc. Washington Ac. Sci. vol. iii, p. 117, 

1901, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mas. vol. xxx, p. 753, 1906. 

Typical locality Pulo Laut, uortliern jSTatima Islands. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Like S. V. haU, but colour lighter, and rostral portion of 
skull shorter and wider. In general appearance very similar 
to the small Tenasserim form of the typical race of 
S. cristatus, but smaller ; general colour brownish, con- 
trasting strongly with the black feet and legs. 

No specimen in collection. 

L.— Sus vittatus mimus. 

Sus mimus. Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Alas. vol. xxx, p. 753, 1906. 

Typical locality Simalur Island, off western Sumatra. 
Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 
Similar in colour and skull-characters to S. v. hahi, but 
much smaller. 

No specimen in collection. 

M.— Sus vittatus timoriensis. 

Sus timoriensis, Miiller and Schlegel, Verli. Zoogd. Ind. Archip. 

vol. i, pp. 42, 173 and 178, pi. xxxi, figs. 1-3, 1842; Jcntinh, 

Notes Leyden Mas. vol. xiii, p. 95, 1891, vol. xxvi, p. 180, 1905. 
Sus scrofa, var. Giebel, Sdiigethiere, p. 225, 1855. 
Sus timorensis, Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mas. p. 278, 1862; 

Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 28, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. 

Mas. p. 335, 1869, Hand-List Thick-sMnned Mamm. Brit. Mus. 

p. 60, 1873. 

Typical locality Timor ; the range also includes Eottia, 
but not Macassar or Ternate, which are inhabited respectively 
by S. celcbensis and " S. niger." 

Probably a hybrid form, crossed with semi-domesticated 
breeds ; the skull, according to Jentink, being markedly 
different from that of the pure-bred S. v. florcsianus. 

No specimen in collection. 



330 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

The Papuan swine described under the following names 
are regarded by Stehlin (Ahh. schweiz. jmI- Ges. vol. xxvi, 
p. 292, 1899) and Bauschke {Arch. Naturgesch. vol. Ixxvii, 
p. 1, 1911) as the descendants of domesticated or semi- 
domesticated animals introduced by human agency ; the latter 
writer considering that they are all derivatives from the 
S. vittatus stock. In the Bismarck and Caroline groups 
more or less pure-bred S. riftatvs occurs in a feral condition. 

Sus papuensis, Lesson and Garnof, Bull. Sci. Nat. vol. vii, pp. 80 
and 96, 1826, Voyage "Coquille," voL i, p. 171, pi. viii, 1826; 
Gray, List Maimn. Brit. Mus. p. 135, 1843, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1858, p. 107, 1868, p. 33, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 339, 
1869, Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 60, 1873 ; 
Peters and Doria, Ann. Mus. Genova, vol. xvi, pp. 666 and 698, 
1881 ; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 165 ; Flower and. Garson, 
Cat. Osteol. Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 347, 1884; Finsch, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1886, p. 218; Jentink, Notes Lcyden Mus. 
vol. xiii, p. 97, 1891, vol. xxvi, p. 188, 1905; Meyer, Ahh. Zool. 
Mus. Dresden, vol. vi, p. 18, 1897 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field 
Mus. {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 31, 1907; Bauschke, 
Arch. Naturgesch. 1911, p. 1 ; Dehaut, Zool. et Pal. Corse et 
Sardaigne, p. 64, pi. iv, 1912. 

Sus ternatensis, Meyer, Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, vol. i, p. 276, 1877. 

Sus aruensis, Bosenherg, Malay Archip. p. 862, 1878. 

Sus araniensis, Rosenberg, op. cit. p. 368, 1878. 

Sus niger, Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1886, p. 217 ; Jentink, Notes 
Leyden Mus. vol. xiii, p. 100, 1891, vol. xxvi, p. 190, 1905; 
Meyer, Abh. Zool. Mus. Dresden, vol. vi, p. 18, 1896. 

Typical locality New Guinea ; also recorded from the 
Admiralty and Bismarck groups, Jappen, Waigiou, Misul, 
Ternate, Salawatti, Tidore, Ceram, Batanta, and the Key, 
Aru, Yule, and Louisiade groups. 

Type in Paris Museum. 

949, a. Skin, female, mounted. Xew Guinea. 

Presented hi/ the Earl of Derby, 1843. 

50. 7. 20. 134 (50. 9. 6. 15—949, h). Skin, mounted, and 

skull, immature. Teuton Island, south coast of New Guinea. 

Presented hy Capt. Owen Stanley, 1850. 

60. 8. 27. 8 (1501, a). Skull, immature, provisionally 
referred to the present group. Locality unknown (? Ternate) ; 
collected by Dr. A. Pt. Wallace, O.M. 

Purchased {Stevens), 1860. 

61. 12. 11. 25 (1501, h). Skull. Ternate; same collector. 
Entered in Gray's Hand-List as S. timorcnsis ; referred by 



SUID.E 331 

Major, Aim. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xix, p. 534, to a 
species akin to B. vittatus. Purchased, 18G1. 

66. 12. 30. 4 (1501, d). Skin and skeleton. Dampier 
Straits, north-west New Guinea ; collected by E. Swinhoe, 
Esq. Purchased {Zoological Society), 1866. 

90. 2. 20. 11-13. Three skulls. Wild Island, Admiralty 
group ; collected in 1875 during the cruise of H.M.S. 
"Challenger." Presented hy the Government, 1890. 

13. 6. 18. 113-115. Three skulls and skins. Letakusa 
Valley, New Guinea ; collected by C. B. Kloss, Esq. 

Presented hy the Wollaston Expedition, 1913. 

13. 6. 18. 116-118. Three skulls. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

V. SUS CELEBENSIS. 

Sus celebensis, Midler and Schlegel, Verh. Zoogd. Ind, Archip. 

pi. xxviii bis, fig. 1, 1842 ; Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. 

p. 331, 1869; Nehring, Sitzher. Gee. nat. Freunde, 1888, p. 9, 

Abh. Zool. Mus. Dresden, 1889, p. 11, pis. i and ii, Zool. Anz. 

vol. xiv, p. 45, 1891 ; Jentink, Notes Leyden Mus. vol. xiii, 

p. '96, 1891, vol. xxvi, p. 182, 1905; Meyer, Abh. Zool. Mus. 

Dresden, vol. vi, p. 27, 1896 ; Stehlin, Abh. schweiz. jjal. Ges. 

vol. xxvi, p. 70, pi. X, 1899; Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl. 

p. 662, 1904 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. {Field Mus. Zool. 

Pub. vol. viii) p. 82, 1907. 
Dasychcerus celebensis, Gray, Hand-List Thick-sTiinned Mamm. 

Brit. Mus. p. 59, 1873. 
Sus verrucosus celebensis, Major, Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist. ser. 6, vol. 

xix, p. 537, 1897 ; Trouessart, Cat. Mamm. p. 895, 1898. 

Typical locality Northern Celebes. 

Type in Leyden Museum. 

According to Jentink, the wild swine of Celebes is to a 
considerable degree intermediate between aS'. vittatus and 
>S^. verrucosus, having the facial markings and striped young 
of the former and lower canines like those of the latter. 

Typically a distinct tuft of light-coloured bristles on 
hind portion of each cheek ; in half -grown individuals a 
broad yellowish or brownish band on the sides of the muzzle, 
and thence towards under surface of neck, this band being 
more or less visible in adults ; a pair of small warts on 
muzzle above angles of mouth ; a crest of long black bristles 
between ears, continued along nape ; young striped ; skull 



332 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

short and high ; lower canines of the type of those of 
S. verrucosus (infra) ; enamel of molars thick. 

In addition to Celebes, the range includes Menado, 
Gorontalo, Saleyer, Batjan, Morotai, and Macassar, and the 
Philippines. 

The races are distinguishable as follows . — 

A. Size medium ; premolars low. 

a. Skull medium. 

a'. Cheek-teeth larger S. c. cclebcnsis. 

v. Cheek-teeth smaller S. c. nehringi. 

b. Skull longer and lower S. c. pliilippinus. 

c. Skull still longer and lower S. c. mindanensis. 

d. Skull very narrow and relatively low S. c. ceramicus. 

e. Skull broader. 

e'. Skull higher S. c. aviboinensis. 

e" . Skull lower S. c. horneensis. 

B. Size small ; premolars tall S. c. minutus. 

A. Sus celebensis celebensis. 

Typical locality Northern Celebes. 

General characters those of the species. 

In addition to Northern Celebes, the range is taken to 
include Menado, Gorontalo, Batjan, Morotai, and Macassar. 

43. 12. 27. 2 (1596, h). Skin, mounted, immature. 
Celebes. By exchange loith the Lryden Museum, 1843. 

47. 5. 10. 2 (1596, a). Skin, mounted, and skull. 
Celebes. Same history, 1847. 

59. 4. 6. 4 (1501, c). Skull, immature. Macassar; 
collected l>y Dr. A. E. Wallace, 0. M. Entered as 
S. timorensis in Gray's Hand- List, but referred to present 
species by Major, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xix, 
p. 522. Purchased {Franks), 1859. 

61. 12. 11. 26 (1362,70. Skull. Batjan (Batchian); 
collected by Dr. A. E. Wallace, O.M. Entered in Gray's 
Hand-List as Atdochcerus vittatus. Purchased, 1861. 

72. 3. 5. 4. Skin, young. Macassar; collected by 
Dr. A. B. Meyer. Pitrchased, 1872. 



siJiD.E 333 



B.— Sus celebensis nehringi. 

Sus nehringii, Jentinh, Notes Leyden Mas. vol. xxvi, p. 186, 1905. 
(?) Sus weberi, Jentinh, ojy. cit. p. 187, 1905. 

Typical locality Southern Celebes. 

Type in Leyden Museum. 

Closely allied to typical race, but the cheek-teeth, 
especially the molars, decidedly smaller. S. weberi, from the 
adjacent island of Saleyer, was only provisionally separated 
by Jentink. 

No specimen in collection. 

C— Sus celebensis philippensis. 

Sus celebensis, var. philippensis, Nehring, Sitzher. Ges. nat. Freunde, 

1886, p. 83. 1890, p. 9, 1894, p. 220, Abh. Zool. Ahis. Dresden, 

1889, pp. 14 and 24, pis. i and ii, 
Sus marchei, Huet, Le Naturaliste, vol. ii, p. 6, 1888, partim. 
Sus arietinus, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Cliinois. vol. ii, p. 114, 

pi. XX, fig. 1, 1892. 
Sus microtis, Heude, o^'). cit. p. 115, pi. xx, b, fig. 6, 1892. 
Sus frenatus, Heude, op. cit. p. 114, pi. xxvii, figs. 1-3, 1892. 
Sus verrucosus philippensis, Major, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 

vol. xix, p. 527, 1897. 
Sus philippensis, Thomas, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. xiv, p. 411, 1898; 

Hollister, Philijjpine Journ. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, p. 39, 1912 ; 

Cabrera, Cat. Met. Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 133, 1912. 
Sus verrucosus philippinensis, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm. p. 825, 1899. 
Sus celebensis philippinensis, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm,, Siijijd. p. 662, 

1904. 

Typical locality Luzon, Philippines ; also recorded from 
Basilan, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Panay, Saniar, etc. 

Type in Berlin Museum. 

Skull lower and more elongated than in typical race, 
with a narrower muzzle, and a thinner and lower bony crest 
above the upper canine ; molars of average size and 
complexity, and premolars not abnormally tall. 

54. 3. 11. 7. Young skin of this or one of the other 
Philippine races. Philippines ; collected by H. Cuming, Esq. 

F}(rc]iasecl, 1854. 

97. 8. 4. 1. Skull and skin. Cap Ingano, North Luzon. 
Presented hy J. Whitehead, Esq., 1897. 



334 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

D.— Sus celebensis minutus. 

Sus minutus, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii, p. 114, 
pi. XX, B, fig. 1, 1892, vol. iv, p. 127, 1899 ; Major, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xix, p. 528, 1897 ; Hollister, Philippine 
Journ. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, p. 39, 1912. 

Typical locality Luzon. 

Smaller than the preceding and following races, with 
relatively small and simple molars, and large tall premolars. 
No example in collection. 

E.— Sus celebensis mindanensis. 

Sus incoustans, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii, p. 67, 

1892, description insufficient; Hollister, Philippine Journ. Sci. 

sect. D, vol. vii, p. 39, 1912. 
Sus verrucosus mindanensis. Major, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 

vol. xix, p. 527, 1897. 
Sus celebensis mindanensis, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm. Suppl. p. 662, 

1904. 
Sus mindanensis, Hollister, Philippine Journ. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, 

p. 39, 1912. 

Typical (and only) locality Mindanao, Philippines. 

Skull still longer, lower, and narrower than in S. c. philip- 
pensis, and the muzzle more elongated. In the Luzon race 
the relative maximum width of skull is from 51*2 to 52 mm., 
and the length of the muzzle from 23-8 to 24*7 mm., 
whereas in the present race these dimensions are respectively 
48*3 and 26-4 mm. 

Major remarks that the characters by which S. c. philip- 
pensLs and S. c. mindanensis differ from S. v. celebensis tend 
to approximate the two former to S. verrucosus. 

91. 11. 28. 3. Skull and skin. Ayala, Mindanao; 
collected by the Steere Expedition. Type. Purchased, 1891. 

7. 2. 2. 15. Skull and skin. Mount Apo, Mindanao ; 
collected by M. P. Anderson, Esq. 

Presented hj the Duke of Bedford, E.G., 1907. 

7. 2. 2. 16. Skull, wanting nasals. Same locality and 
collector. 8ame history. 

7. 2. 2. 17. Skull, wanting nasals, and skin, immature. 
Same locality and collector. 8ame history. 

7. 2. 2. 18. Skull and skin, immature. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 



suiD^ 335 



F.— Sus eelebensis amboinensis. 

Aulochoerus vittatus, Gray, Hand-List Thich-sTcinned Mamm. Brit. 

Mas. p. 58, pi. xxiv, fig. 3, 1873 ; nee Milller and Sclilegel. 
Sus verrucosus, Bolleston, Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, vol. i, p. 271, 

1877 ; nee Milller and Sclilegel. 
Su3 verrueosus amboinensis, Major, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 

vol. xix, p. 527, 1897. 
Sus eelebensis amboinensis, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Siip2)l. p. 662, 

1904. 
Sus amboinensis, Jentink, Notes Ley den Mus. vol. xxvi, p. 193, 1905. 

Typical locality Amboina, west of Ceram. 

Skull higher and broader than in >S'. c. pliilippensis, and 
thus still more so than in >S'. c. mindancnsis, with a relatively 
long postorbital region ; in length of muzzle nearly inter- 
mediate between >S'. verrucosus and >S^. c. ccramicu.s. 

59. 4. 6. 5* (1362, f?). Skull. Amboina; collected by 
Pr. A. E. Wallace, CM. Co-type. Figured by Gray, loc. cit. 

Piircliased, 1859. 

59. 4. 6. 6 (1362, c). Skull. Same locality and collector. 
Co-type. ^ Same history. 

G.— Sus eelebensis ceramicus. 

Sus verrueosus var. ceramicus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 24, 

Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mns. p. 330, 1869 ; Meyer, Ahli. Zool. 

Mus. Dresden, vol. vi, p. 18, 1896. 
Dasychoerus vernicosi;s, Gray, Hand-List Tliiclx-sl-inned Mamm. 

Brit. Mus. p. 59, 1873. 
Sus verrueosus, Bolleston, Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, vol. i, p. 271, 

1874. 
Sus verrucosus ceramicus. Major, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 

vol. xix, p. 533, 1897. 
Sus eelebensis ceramicus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suj^j^l. p. 662, 

1904. 
Sus ceramicus, Jentinli, Notes Ley den Mus. vol. xxvi, p. 193, 1905. 

Typical locality Ceram. 

Skull with very slender muzzle, narrower across zygomatic 
arches than that of any other member of the group, and in 
relative height inferior to all except S. c. mindanensis ; nasal 
region extremely narrow, and crest above canine small and 

* Major gave the number of this and the next specimen as 
59. 6. 4. 5 and 59. 6. 4. 6. 



336 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

weak ; last molar long and simple, resembling in the former 
character S. verrucosus and in the latter the typical 
S. c. celebensis and >S'. c. mnboinensis. 

55. 4. 14. 2 {112, d). Skull. Cerara ; collected by 
Dr. A. E. Wallace, O.M. Type. Purchased, 1855. 

H.— Sus celebensis borneensis. 

Sus vittatus, Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 277, 1862 ; 

nee Milller and Schlegel. 
Sus verrucosus, Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit, Mus. p. 330, 1867. 
Dasychoerus verrucosus, Gray, Hand List TJdck-sMnned Mamm. 

Brit. Mus. p. 59, 1873. 
Sus verrucosus borneensis. Major, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 

vol. xix, p. 534, 1897. 
Sus celebensis borneensis, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suj>pl. p. 662, 

1904. 
Sus borneensis, Jcntinh, Notes Leyden Mus. vol. xxvi, p. 193, 1905. 

Typical locality Borneo. 

Skull short and broad, of the type of that of S. c. ccleljensis 
and 8. c. amhoincnds (and thus altogether different from that 
of S. c. ceraniicus), but less elevated, and with a shorter 
incisor-area; crests above upper canines moderate, as in 
S. verrucosus. 

59. 8. 16. 5 (1362, «*). Skull. P.orneo ; collected by 
Dr. A. i:. Wallace, O.M. Type. Purchased, 1859. 

Incert.(E Sedis. 

Neosus cebifrons, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. CJdnois, vol. ii, 
p. 106, 1892. 

Sus cebifrons. Major, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xix, p. 527, 
1897 ; HoUister, Philijjpine Journ. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, p. 38, 
1912, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xlvi, p. 338, 1913. 

Typical locality Masbate or Cebu, Philippines. 
Eegarded by Major as probably a cross between a wild 
and a domesticated pig. 

No specimen in collection. 

VI. SUS VERRUCOSUS. 

Sus verrucosus, Milller and Schlegel, Verh. Zoogd. Ind. Archip. 
vol. i, p. 107, pis. xxviii and xxxii, 1842 ; Gray, Cat. Carnivora, 
etc. Brit. Mus. p. 330, 1869; JentinTi, Notes Leyden Mus. 

* Misprinted 136, a in Gray's Hand-List. 



suiD.E 337 

vol. xiii, p. 93, 1891, vol. xxv, p. 168, 1905; LydeTcker, Horns 
and Hoofs, p. 360, 1893, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 283, 
1907 ; Major, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xix, p. 521, 1897 ; 
Stehlin, Ahli. scMveiz. pal. Ges. vol. xxvi, p. 70, 1899; Steele, 
Bev. Zool. Suisse, vol. xiv, p. 33, 1907. 

Sus scrofa, var. Giehel, Sdugetliiere, p. 225, 1855. 

Dasyclioerus verrucosus. Gray, Hand-List TJnck-slcinned Mamm. 
Brit. Mus. p. 59, 1873. 

Sus mj'staceus. Gray, op. cit. p. 62, pi. xxv, 1873. 

Type of Dasycliierus. 

Typical locality Java. 

Type in Leyden Museum. 

Head elongated, with three pairs of warty protuberances, 
surmounted with bristles, one situated above the upper 
canines, the second and larger under each eye, and the third 
and largest a little below the ears ; a nuchal and dorsal 
crest, gradually diminishing in height towards the tail ; ears 
relatively large and wide, with the basal portion forming a 
closed cylinder ; tail without distinct terminal tuft ; general 
colour black, Ijut certain bands on head and the whole 
under-parts rufous ; young uniformly coloured ; muzzle bare 
and flesh-coloured ; last molars very large and complex ; 
lower canines (fig. 48, p. 310), with the hind surface 
horizontal, and narrower than the outer one, which is the 
broadest of the three ; skull of medium length and height, 
with two infra-orbital foramina. 

55. 4. 2. 2-3 (712, c). Skull, wanting upper canines. 
Java. Purchased (Stevens), 1855. 

62. 1. 22. 2 (712, c). Skin, mounted, and skeleton, 
immature (? semi-domesticated). Java. Type of S. mysteieeus. 

Purcluised {Zoological Society), 1862. 

67. 4. 12. 211 (712,/). Skull. Java(?). 

Lidth de Jeude Collection, imrchased, 1867. 

67. 4. 12. 212 (712, i). Skull. Java(?). Same history. 

67. 4. 12. 213 (1362, g). Skull, immature. Java(?); 
entered in Gray's Hand-List as S. vittatus ; referred to the 
present species by Major, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 
vol. xix, p. 539 (on p. 532 it is apparently referred to S. v. 
celebensis). Same history. 

67. 4. 12. 214 (712, h). Skull, wanting several teeth. 
Java (?). Same history. 

IV. z 



338 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

67. 4. 12. 215 (712, g). Skull. Java (?). Same history. 

67. 4. 12. 218 (1362,/). Skull, immature female. Java (?). 
Entered in - Gray's Hand-List as S. vittatus ; referred to 
present species by Major, op. cit. Same histonj. 

9. 1. 5. 814-5. Two skulls and skins, young. Pan- 
gandaran, Dirk de Vries Bay, Java; collected by CI. C. 
Shortridge, Esq. Presented hy W. E. Balston, Esq., 1909. 

9. 1. 5. 816. Skull and skiu(?), female. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 817. Skvill, wanting part of lower jaw, and skin. 
Same locality and collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 818. Skull and skin, immature. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 819-20. Two skulls and skins, very young. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 821. Skull and skin, immature. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 822. Skull and skin. Tjilatjap, Java ; same 
collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 827. Skull and skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 828-9. Two skulls and skins, very young. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 831. Skull and skin, young. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 0. 832. Skull and skin. Kalipoetjang, Tji-Tandoei 
Valley, Java ; same collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 833. Skull, imperfect, and skin, immature. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5, 1120. Skull, imperfect, female. Western Java ; 
same collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 1121. Skull, immature. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

9. 1. 5. 1222-3. Two skulls, without lower jaws, immature. 
Same locality and collector. Same history. 

VII. SUS BAKBATUS. 

Sus barbatus, Milller, Tijdschr. Gescli. Phijsiol. vol. v, p. 149, 1839, 
Verh. Zoogd. Ind. Arcliij). vol. i, pp. 42, 173 and 179, pi. xxx 
and xxxi, 1842 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 278, 



suiD^ 339 

1862 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 32, Cat. Carnivora, etc. 
Brit. Mus. p. 339, 1869; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. 
B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 347, 1884 ; Nehring, Sitzber. Ges. nat. 
Freitnde, 1886, p. 82 ; Jentinh, Notes Leyden Mus. vol. xiii, 
p. 94, 1891, vol. xxvi, p. 161, 1905 ; Lydekher, Horns xnd Hoofs, 
p. 360, 1893 ; Hose, Manim. Borneo, p. 69, 1893 ; Jentink and 
Bilttikofer, Notes Leyden Mus. vol. xix, p. 65, 1897 ; Stehlin, 
Ahh. scliweiz. xml. Ges. vol. xxvi, p. 70, 1899 ; Volz, Zool.Jahrb., 
S7jst. vol, XX, p. 518, pi. xviii, 1904; Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. vol. XXX, p. 739, 1906 ; Lyon, ibid. vol. xxxiii, p. 550, 1907, 
vol. xl, p. 74, 1911. 

Euhys barbatus, G)'ay, Hand-List TJiick- skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. 
p. 57, 1873. 

Sus longirostris, Nehring, Zool. Anz. vol. viii, p. 347, 1885, Sitzber. 
Ges. nat. Freunde, 1886, p. 80, Abh. Zool. Mus. Dresden, 1889, 
p. 18 ; Spillner, Ber. Physiol. Lab. Halle, 1894, p. 81 ; Miller, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xv, p. 51, 1902; Volz, Zool. 
Jalirb., Syst. vol. xx, pp. 511 and 516, 1904 {= barbatus). 

Type of Euhys. 

Typical locality Banjermassin, Borneo. 

Type in Leyden Museum. 

Size large ; head very long, low, and narrow, with the tip 
of the muzzle bare, and tufts of long, curved, reddish brown 
bristles on cheeks ; ears small, slit to the base ; tail with a 
large black terminal tuft ; general colour varialile, ranging 
from uniformly brownish yellow to black ; young striped ; 
canines as in S. verrucosus {^. 310); skull long and low, with 
a very slender muzzle, the tip of the premaxilla3 extending a 
short distance in advance of the incisors, instead of ending 
abruptly with them, and a single infra-orbital foramen on 
each side. The strongly developed tufts on the cheeks, the 
bare flesh-coloured muzzle, small, oval ears, and large tail-tuft 
are characteristic. 

The range includes Borneo, Sumatra, and the Philippines. 

The races are distinguishable as follows: — 

A. Upper skull-length from 18^ to 20J inches 

(460 to 510 mm.). 

a. Size larger. 

a'. Last lower molar complex (3 ridges) S. b. barbatus. 

b' . Last lower molar simple (2 ridges) S.b. oi. 

b. Size smaller. 

b'. Skull short and wide S.b. ahcenobarbus. 

c' . Skull still wider S. b. calamianensis. 

d'. Skull longer and narrower S. b. balabacensis. 

B. Upper skull-length 22§ inches (570 mm.) S.b. gargantua. 

Z 2 



340 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

A.— Sus barbatus barbatus. 

Typical locality Banjermassiu, Borueo. 
Size large ; last lower molar complex, with three complete 
transverse ridges and a talon. 

The range includes several small islands near Borneo. 
47. 5. 11. 1 (712, h). Skull, immature. Borneo. 

Presented hy Capt. Sir Edward Belcher, R.N., 1847. 
55. 12. 26. 153 (1982, a = 712, a). Skull, wanting some 

of the anterior teeth. Borneo. 

Presented hj Raja >Sir James Brooke, 1855. 
90. 6. 25. 10. Skull. Baram, N.W. Borneo; collected 
by A. H. Everett, Esq. Purchased, 1890. 

92. 9. 4. 15. Skull. Baram ; collected by Dr. C. Hose. 

Purchased, 1892. 
92. 9. 4. 16. Skull. Nish, Baram ; same collector. 

Same liistorij. 
95. 11. 5. 8. Skeleton. Baram ; same collector. 

Purchased, 1895. 

97. 6. 2. 1. Skull and scalp-skin, female. Kuching, 

Sarawak ; collected by Mr. E. Bartlett. Purchased, 1897. 

97. 6. 2. 2. Skull, female. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

97. 6. 25. 1. Skin, mounted, and skull. Baram ; collected 

by Dr. C. Hose. Purchased {Gerrard), 1897. 

0. 3. 30. 10. Skeleton. Marudi, Sarawak ; same collector. 

A very large boar. Purchased {Gerrard), 1900. 

0. 3. 30. 11. Skull. Baram, Sarawak; same collector. 

Same history. 

0. 3. 30. 12. Skull. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

0. 3. 30. 13. Skull, female. Sarawak ; same collector. 

Same history. 

0. 3. 30. 14. Skull, female. Baram ; same collector. 

Same history. 

0. 3. 30. 15. Skull, female. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

0. 3. 30. 16. Skull, female. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

0. 3. 30. 17. Skull, female. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 



SUID.K 341 

10. 4. 5. 132. Skull, immature. Barito Valley, south- 
central Borneo ; collected by G-. C. Shortridge, Esq. 

Presented ly 0. Thomas, Esq., 1910. 
10. 4. 5. 133. Skull of a rather older individual. Same 
locality and collector. Same history. 

10. 4. 5. 158. Skull. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 

B.— Sus barbatus g-argrantua. 

Sus barbatus, Nehrmg, Zool. Anz. vol. viii, p, 347, 1885 ; Volz, Zool. 

Jahrb., Sijst. vol. xx, p. 518, 1904. 
Sus gargantua, Miller, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxx, p. 743, 1906. 

Typical locality S.E. Borneo. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Skull longer — upper length 22^ inches (570 mm.) — and 
lower than in typical race, with marked overhanging of the 
occipital surface. 

No specimen in collection, nnl^^ss Nos. 10. 4. 5. 132-3 
and 10. 4. 5. 158, entered under the heading of the preceding 
race, should belong to the present one. 

C— Sus barbatus oi, 

Sus oi, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wasliington, vol. xv, p. 51, 1902, 
Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxx, p. 791, pis. xl, etc. 1906, vol. xxxi, 
p. 255, 1906; LydeJcker, Field, vol. civ, p. 327, 1904; Jentinh, 
Notes Leyden Mus. vol. xxvi, p. 155, pis. iii and iv, 1905 ; Kloss, 
Journ. Straits Asiat. Soc. vol. xlv, p. 5, 1906; Lyon, Proc. U.S. 
Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 626, 1908; Thomas and Wroughton, 
Journ. Fed. Malay Mus. vol. i, p. 127, 1910. 

Sus barbatus, Volz, Zool. Jahrb., Sysf. vol. xx, p. 518, 1902 ; Trouessart, 
Cat. Mamm., Supj^l. p. 662, 1904 ; Schneider, Zool. Jahrb., Syst. 
vol. xxiii, p. 128, 1905. 

Typical locality Indragiri Valley, eastern Sumatra : also 
occurs on Pulo Kundur, Pulo Batam (opposite Singapore), 
and other islands in the Rhio Linga Archipelago. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Stated to differ from typical Bornean race by the 
shortness of the last lower molar, which has two transverse 
ridges and a talon (which may be so large as to simulate 
a third ridge) ; and by the rather larger bodily size. 

No specimen in collection. 



342 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

D.— Sus barbatus ahsenobarbus. 

Sus ahsenobarbus, Huet, Le Naturaliste, vol. ii, p. 5, 1888, partim ; 

Nehring, Sitzher. Ges. nat. Freuncle, 1894, p. 190 ; Major, Ann. 

Mag. Nat. Hist. sev. 6, vol. xix, p. 535. 1897 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. 

Field Mus. {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 32, 1907 ; Hollister, 

Philippine Jottrn. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, p. 38, 1912, Proc. U.S. 

Nat. Mus. vol. xlvi, p. 338, 1913 ; Deliaut, Zool. et Pal. Corse et 

Sardaigne, p. 64, pi. iv, A, 1912. 
Sus barbatus var. palavensis, Nehring, Ahh. Zool. Mus. Dresden, 1889, 

pp. 22 and 32, Sitzher. Ges. nat. Freunde, 1890, p. 11 ; Major, 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xix, p. 535, 1907. 
Sus barbatus ahsenobarbus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm. p. 894, 1899, 

Supjil. p. 662, 1904. 
Sus barbatus palavensis, Hollister, Philippine Journ. Sci. sect. D, 

vol. vii, p. 38, 1912, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xlvi, p. 338, 1913. 

Typical locality Palawan, betw^een Borneo and Mindoro, 
Philippines. 

A dwarf race of the species, with a relatively short and 
wide skull, measuring 12 inches (304 mm.) in length, by 
5^ inches (145 mm.) in breadth. 

The skull figured by Huet as that of the present race 
really belongs to his S. inarclici ( = S. e. p]hilip2'>cnsis), and 
vice versa. 

No specimen in collection. 

E.— Sus barbatus balabacensis. 

Sus barbatus balabacensis. Major, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 
vol. xix, p. 534, 1897 ; Hollister, Philippine Joiirn. Sci. sect. D, 
vol. vii, p. 38, 1912, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xlvi, p. 338, 1913. 

Typical locality Balabac, between Borneo and Palawan, 
Philippines. 

Skull longer and narrower than that of S. h. alicendbarhus, 
the length being 12:j inches (313 mm.), and the width 
5 inches (126 mm.). 

94. 6. 8. 7. Skull, aged female. Balabac ; collected by 
A. H. Everett, Esq. Purchased, 1894. 

94. 6. 8. 8. Skull. Same locality and collector. Type. 

Same history. 

94. 6. 8. 9. Skull, old female. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

94. 6. 8. 10. Skull, immature female. Same locality 
and collector. • Same Idstory. 



suiD.E 343 

F.— Sus barbatus calamianensis. 

Sus calamianensis, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii, 

p. 114, pi. XX B, fig. 2, 1892 ; Hollistcr, Pliilippine Journ. Sci. 

sect. D, vol. vii, p. 38, 1912. 
Sus barbatus var. calamianensis, Nehring, Sitzber. Ges. nat. Freundc, 

vol. xxxvi, p. 191, 1894, Zool. Garten, p. 46, 1895 ; Major, Ann. 

Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xix, p. 535, 1897. 
Sus barbatus calamianensis, Trouessart, Cat. Mamvi. p. 825, 1899. 

Typical locality Calamianes, Philippines ; also occurs on 
Gallon Island, in the Calamianes group. 

Skull broader than in S. h. ahcvnoharbus, the length being 
12| inches (315 mm.), and the width 6 inches (146 mm.). 

No specimen in collection. 



2. Subgenus PORCULA. 

Porcula, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xvi, p. 423, 1847 ; 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 33. 

Size very small ; tail short ; three pairs of teats, 
liestricted to the forest-tract at the foot of the Eastern 
Himalaya. 

YIII. SUS (POECULA) SALVANIUS. 

Porcula salvania, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xvi, 
pp. 423 and 503, pis. xii and xiii, 1847, vol. xvii, pt. 2, p. 48, 
pi. xxvii, 1848, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, p. 115 ; Horsfield, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1853, p. 192, pi. xxxvii ; Gray, ibid. 1868, p. 33, Cat. 
Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mas. p. 340, 1869, Hand-List TliicTi-sTiinne^ 
Mamm. Brit. Mzos. p. 65, 1873 ; Jerdon, Mamm. India, p. 244, 
1867 ; Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 470 ; Sclatcr, ibid. 
1882, p. 546, pi. xxxvi ; Sterndale, Mamm. India, p. 421, 1884 ; 
W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm.. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 195, 1891; 
Stehlin, Abli. schweiz. x>al. Ges. vol. xxvi, p. 28, pi. xvii, 1899 ; 
Beddard, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1909, p. 170. 

Sus salvanius, Garson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1883, p. 413 ; Blanford, 
Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 363, 1891 ; Flower and Lydel-};er, 
Study of Mammals, p. 285, 1891 ; Lydehker, Great and Small 
Game of India, etc. p. 266, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc. 
p. 285, 1907. 

Sus salvianus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm. p. 827, 1898, errorim. 

Sus (Porcula) salvianus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl. p. 663, 1904. 

Typical locality the Sikhim Tarai ; * the range also 
includes that of Nepal and Bhutan. 

* The moist forest- tract at the base of the eastern Himalaj-a. 



344 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Size very small, shoulder-height about 11 j inches; no 
distinct spinal crest ; ears small and bare ; tail very short 
(1:} inches); no woolly under-fur; general colour brown or 
blackish brown ; young striped ; last upper molar in jaw 
very short, its length being considerably less than that of 
the two teeth immediately in front. 

53. 8. 1(3. 16 (54. 6. 3. 7 [1077, o]). Skull, foot-bones, and 
mounted skin. Sikhim Tarai. 

Presented hi/ B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1853. 

53. 8. 16. 17. Young skull and skin. Same locality. 

Same history. 

1077, l>. Skull. Same locality. Same donor. 

58. 6. 24. 71 (1077, ^0- ^1^"^1 ^^f^ s^'"b the latter 
mounted. Same locality. Same donor, 1858. 

58. 6. 24. 72 (1077, c). Skeleton. Same locality. Type; 
skull figured liy Hodgson, Jonrn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xvi, 
pi. xxiii. Same history. 

79. 11. 21. 066 (1077,/). Skin, mounted, and skull. 
Same locality ; collected by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Transferred from India Museum, 1879. 

79. 11. 21. 667. Skin, young, mounted. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

II. Genus BABIRUSSA. 

Babirussa, Bafinesqiic, Analyse tie Nature, p. 56, 1815 ; Lesson, Man. 

Mamm. p. 337, 1827 ; Gray, Hand-List TJiick-sMnned Mamm. 

Brit. Mils. p. 67, 1873. 
Babiroussus, Gray, Med. Bepos. vol. xv, p. 306, 1821. 
Babiroussa, F. Cuvier, Dents Mamm. p. 257, 1825. 
Babyrussa, Burnett, Quart. Journ. Sci. Lit. vob xxviii, -p. 352, 1830. 
Porcns, Wagler, Nat. Syst. Amjiliih. p. 17, 1830 ; Stehlin, Ahh. schwciz. 

X>al. Gcs. vol. xxvii. Appendix, 1900. 
Babirusa, Lesson,' Nouv. Tabl. Begne Anim., Mamm. p. 162, 1842; 

Deningcr, Ber. nat. Ges. Freiburg, vol. xviii, p. 1, 1910. 

Dentition : i. §, c. \, j). §, m. | = 34 ; molars, especially 
the last, simpler than in Siis; canines (fig. 51) long, slender, 
recurved, growing from persistent pulps, and destitute of 
enamel, those of the upper jaw piercing the skin of the face 
some distance in advance of the eyes, and not wearing 
against the lower pair ; in female canines quite small. 



suiDiE 345 

Young probably without stripes. The genus is regarded by 
Stehliu as related to Sus vcrrucosiis. 

The range is restricted to the islands of Boru and Celebes. 

Deninger, who adopts Stehliu's theory of the " neobuno- 
dontism " of the molar teeth of the Suina {supra, p. 305), is 
of opinion that Bahirussa is nearly related to the selenodont 
genus Mcrycopotamus, of the Indian Siwaliks ; both genera 
agreeing in the parallelism of the two lines of cheek-teeth, 
the general contour and small size of these teeth, the form 
and direction of the tusks, and certain other features. 

BABIRUSSA BABYRUSSA. 

Sus babvrussa, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 50, 1758, ecL 12, 
vol.'i, p. 104, 1766 ; Erxlehen, Syst. Begn. Anim. p. 188, 1777 ; 
Dcsmarest, Maiiimalogie, vol. ii, p. 391, 1822 ; Griffith, Animal 
Kingdom, \o\. iii, p. 408, 1827 ; Schinz, Nafuges. Sdugeth. p. 247, 
1824, Synoj). Mamm. p. 352, 1845. 

Aper orientalis, Brisson, Begn. Anim, p. 76, 1762. 

Babirussa alfurns. Lesson, Nouv. Tahh Begne Aniin., Mamm. p. 162, 
1849. 

Babii'usa babirusa, Deninger, Ber. nat. Ges. Freiburg, vol. xviii, p. 4, 
1910. 

Babirusa orientalis. Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 461, 1910. 

Babirusa. 

Size relatively small and build slender ; ears small and 
pointed ; skin rugose and nearly bare, or smooth and hairy. 
Typical locality Boru. 
The two races are distinguished as follows : — 

A. Skin smoother, skull shorter and broader B. b. babyrussa. 

B. Skin rougher, skull longer and narrower B.b. celebensis. 

A.— Babirussa babyrussa babyrussa. 

Typical locality Boru (between Celebes and Ceram). 

Skin comparatively smooth, clothed with short bristly 
hairs, thickest at root of tail ; general colour whitish grey, 
tinged, especially on head, with yellow, female and young 
darker ; skull short and broad, with tips of nasals not 
narrowed to a point between roots of canines. 

60. 8. 27. 6 (718, /). Skull. Collected by Dr. A. E. 
Wallace, O.M. ; entered in Gray's Hand-List as having been 



346 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

oLtained in Borneo, but probably the specimen mentioned 
in Wallace's Malay Archcpclago, small ed. p. 299, as having 
been collected in Born. Ptorchased, 1860. 



B.— Babirussa babyrussa celebensis. 

Sus babirussa, Quotj and Gaimard, Voyage Astrolabe, Zool. vol. i, 
p. 125, pis. xxii and xviii, 1830; F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. 
vol. iv, pis. 300-302, 1842 ; nee Sus babirussa, Linn. 

Sus babiiousa, Jardine, Naturalist's Lihr., Mamm. vol. v, p. 216, 
pi. xxiii, 1836. 

Porcus babyrussa, Wagner, Schreber's Saagthiere, Su2)pl. vol. iv, 
p. 301, 1844, vol. V, p. 509, 1855; SteliUn, Ahh. scliweiz. pal. Gcs. 
vol. xxvii. Appendix, 1900. 

Sus babyrussa, Schinz, Synop. Mamm. p. 352, 1845; nee Linn. 

Babirussa alfurus, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 443, pi. Ixxxiii ; 

Gray, ibid. 1868, p. 42, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 349, 

1869, Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p, 67, 1873 ; 

Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteal. Mus. E. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 356, 

1884 ; nee Lesson. 
Sus babirusa, Gnillemard, Cruise of " Marchesa,'" ed. 2, p. 326, 

1889. 

Babirusa alfurus. Flower and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 287, 
1891 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 364, 1893 ; Meyer, Abli. 
Zool. Mus. Dresden, vol. vi. p. 15. 1897 ; Sarasin, Celebes, vol. iii, 
p. 108, 1901, vol. V, p. 37, 1905 ; Beddard, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1909, 
J). 172 ; nee Lesson. 

Babirusa celebensis, Dcningcr. Ber. Gcs. nat. Freiburg, vol. xviii, p. 7, 
1910 ; Lydekker, Ward's Records of Big Game, ed. 7, p. 460, 1914. 

Typical locality Celebes ; the range includes some of the 
neighbouring islands. 

Skin furrowed and wrinkled, nearly bare in adult ; 
general colour brownish grey ; skull narrow, with the tips of 
the nasals forming a sharp point between the liases of the 
canines. 

60. 8. 27. 7 (718, w). Skull, immature. Collected l)y 
Dr. A. R. Wallace, O.M., probably in ('elebes. 

Purchased, 1860. 

71. 5. 19. 7. Skin, mounted. Celebes. 

Purchased (Zooloe/ical Society), 1871. 

96. 6. 24. 2. Skin, mounted. Lipopang, Celebes ; col- 
lected by Dr. C. Hose. Purchased (Gerrard), 1896. 

0, 3. 30. 18. Skull. Same locality and collector. 

Purchased {Gerrard), 1900. 



suiD.E 347 

Skull. Same locality and collector. 

Same histonj. 
Skull. Monano, Minahassa, Northern 
Presented hy N. Samivcll, Usq., 1901. 
Skull. Soemalta, northern coast of Celebes. 
Presented hy A. S. Williams, Esq., 1909. 
9. 11. 30. 2. Skull, wanting tusks. Same locality. 

Same history. 



0. 


3. 30. 


19. 


1. 


10. 


o 
O. 


1. 


Celebes. 






9. 


11. 


30, 


. 1. 




Fig. 51. — Skull of iiABiiiusA {Uabirussa hahyrussa celebensis) . 
From Gray, Uand-List of Thick-skinned Mammal.^. 

Of the following specimens the localities are not definitely 
known, so that they may possibly include representatives of 
the preceding as well as of the present race : — 

718, a. Skull. No history. 

71S,j. Skull. No history. 

718, i. Skeleton. Purchased (Zoological Society). 

38. 4. 16. 32 (718, h). Skull. Purchased (Stevens), 1838. 
46. 3. 13. 3 (718, fO. Skull (fig. 51). Figured in Gray's 
Hand-List, pi. xxvii, fig. 2 Purchased (Argent), 1846. 

48. 12. 6. 1 (718, c). Skull. Purchased (Stevens), 1848. 
51.10.23.1(718,^). Skull 

Presenteel hy G. Daniels, Esq., 1851. 



348 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

58. 5. 4. 43 (718, 70- Skull. 

Purchased (Zoolor/ical Society), 1858. 

59. 8. 16. 4 (718, /.■). Skull. " Borneo " = (?) Boru. 

Purchased {Wright), 1859. 
67. 4. 12. 209. Skull, young. Figured in Gray's Hand- 
Lid, pi. xxvii, fig. 1. 

Lidth de Jcnde Collection, purchased, 1867. 
67. 4. 12. 221 (718, o). Skull. Sccme history. 

67. 4. 12. 222 (718, jj). Skull. Same history. 

67. 4. 12. 223 (718, q). Skull. Figured in Seba's The- 
saurus, vol. i, pi. ii, fig. 3, 1734. Same history. 



III. Genus POTAMOCHCERUS. 

Koiropotamus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Miis. p. xxvii, 1843, nomen 
nudum. 

Choiropotamus, Gray, List. Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 185, 1843, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, vol. x, p. 282, 1852 ; vcc Choeropotamus, 
Cuvier, 1822. 

Potamochcerus, Gray, Proc. Zoot. Soc. 1852, p. 129, 1854, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist. ser. 2, vol. xv, p. 65, 1855, ser. 4, vol. xi, p. 434, 1873, 
Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 340, 1869, Hand List Tliicl-- 
shinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 56, 1873; Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1897, p. 359 ; SfeJilin, Al>h. schwciz. 2^at. Ges. vol. xxvi, p. 70, 
1899; ir. L. Sctater, Fauna S. Africa, Mamm. vol. i, p. 273, 
1900. 

Nyctochoerus, Heugtin, Nova Acta Ac. d.es. Leop.-Car. vol. xxx, 
Nachtrag 2, p. 7, 1863. 

Dentition : i. |, c. -]-, p. 4, m. |- = 42 ; teeth of the same 
general character as in Sus, but the canines (the summits of 
the upper pair of which are completely abraded by the lower 
ones) smaller and the molars of a relatively simple type, 
with thick enamel ; in adult male skulls (fig. 52) a bony 
tuberosity or ridge above the root of the upper canine and a 
second on the sheath of the same, the upper ridge in aged 
individuals developing a horny capsule ; ears with terminal 
tufts of long hairs ; coat more abundant, less bristly, and 
frequently much more brightly coloured than in Sus. Young 
striped. 

The thickness of the enamel of the molars, coupled with 
their simple structure, suggests affinity with Sus celehensis 
and >S'. verrucosus. 



suiD.E 349 

At the present day the genus is restricted to Ethiopian 
Africa and Madagascar, but Stehlin is of opinion that certain 
large swine from the lower Pliocene of Attica and India, 
originally described as Sus erymanthius, S. gigantens, and 
>S'. titan, really belong to PotamocJicerus. 

The following is a " key " to the species : — 

A. Coat long, sparse, and more or less dark in 

adult ; dorsal crest long and mainly black ; 
facial tuberosities strongly developed. 

a. Parietal region of upper surface of skull 

shorter. 

a'. Muzzle more slender (?) P. larvafus. 

V . Muzzle less slender (?) P. chcerojpotamus. 

b. Parietal region of upper surface of skull longer P. Jiassama. 

B. Coat and facial tuberosities as in a ; colour and 

colour-pattern as in b P. intermedins. 

c. Coat shorter, denser, and more or less rufous ; 
dorsal crest short and white ; facial tuber- 
osities less developed than in a P. porcus. 

I. P0TAM0CH(EEU8 LARVATUS. 

Sus larvatus, F. Cuvier, Mem. Mus. Paris, vol. viii, p. 447, pi. xxii, 

1822. 
Phascochoerus larvatus, Jardinc, NaturalisVs Libr., Mamm. vol. v, 

p. 232, 1836, partim. 
Choiropotamus africanus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 185, 1843, 

partim. 
Potamochoerus africanus. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. 131, 1854, 

1868, p. 34, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mas. p. 341, 1869, Ha?id- 

List Tliick-sTiinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 56, 1873, partim. 
Potamochoerus madagascariensis, Grandidier, Rev. Mag. Zool. 1867, 

p. 85. 
Potamochoerus edwardsi, Grandidier, Rev. Mag. Zool. 1867, p. 318; 

Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xv, p. 45, 1875 ; Sclater, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1894, p. 92. 
Potamochoerus larvatus. Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 363, 

pis. XXV and xxvi, fig. 2 ; Stehlin, Abh. scliweiz. jidt. Ges. 

vol. xxvi, p. 17, pi. X, 1899 ; Rothschild, Powell-Cotton's Abys- 

siyiia, p. 481, 1902, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1906, p. 632; Lonnberg, 

ArJciv Zool. vol. vii, no. 6, p. 28, 1910. 
Macrocephalus larvatus, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field AIus. {Field Mus. 

Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 34, 1907. 

Typical locality Western Madagascar; the range also 
including the eastern districts of that island. 

Chiefly distinguished from the next, and typical, species 
by its smaller size, and, it is said, the more slender muzzle. 



350 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

The alleged absence of flattening and lateral angulation in 
the nasal region, and the massiveness and simple character 
of the premolars, do not appear to be constant characters. 
Coloration almost indistinguishable from that of some of 
the eastern representatives of the next species. 

As the name larvatus antedates cheer oiwtamus, the former 
must stand if the insular and continental forms are regarded 
as specifically inseparable. 

The two Malagasy races are chiefly distinguished by size. 

A.— Potamochoerus larvatus larvatus. 

Typical (and only) locality Western Madagascar. 
Size relatively small, with the flat portion of parietal 
region of skull narrow (16 mm.). 
No specimen in tlie collection. 

B.— Potamochoerus larvatus hova. 

Potamochoerus larvatus hova, Lonnbcrg, Arkiv Zool. vol. vii, no. 6, 
p. 32, 1910. 

Typical (and only) locality Eastern Madagascar. 

Larger than typical race, with the facial profile still 
straighter, and the parietal region wider (26 to 40 mm.). 

74. 3. 11. 1 (1659, a). Skin, mounted, and skull, young. 
Ambodiagne, west of Antananarivo ; collected l»y Mr. E. 
Bartlett. Purchased, 1874. 

74. 10. 9. 1 (1659, h). Skull. Tamatave Forest ; collected 
by Mr. A. Crossley. Figured by Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, 
op. cit. pi. iv. .Purchased, 1874. 

97. 9. 1. 162, Skull and skin. Ampitambe, Eastern 
Madagascar ; collected by Dr. C. J. Forsyth Major. Type. 

Piirchmed, 1897. 

8. 3. 25. 1. Skin, mounted. Madagascar. 

Purchased, 1908, 

II. POTAMOCH(EEUS CHCEKOPOTAMUS. 

Sus africanus, Gmelin, Linn's Syst. Nat. vol. i, p, 220, 1788 ; 
Schreber, SdugtJdere, vol. i, p, 327, 1791 ; Thunherg, Mem. Ac. 
Sci. St. Petersb. vol. iii, p. 320, 1811 ; Blainville, Osteographie, 
Siis, pi. viii, fig. 1, partim ; Floiver and LydeJiker, Study of 



SUIDyE 351 

Mammals, p. 286, 1891 ; Lydehker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 362, 

1893. 
Sus koiropotamus, Desnioulins, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat. vol. xvii, 

p. 139, pi. cxxxix, fig. 2, 1831. 
Phascochoerus chocropotamus, Lesson, Noiiv. Tahl. JRegne Anim., 

Mamm. p. 162, 1842. 
Potamochoerus africanus. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. 131, 1854, 

1858, p. 58, pi. lix, 1860, p. 443, 1868, p. 34, Cat. Carnivora, etc. 

Brit. Mas. p. 341, 1869, Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamm. Brit. 

Mas. p. 56, 1873 ; Floivcr and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. B. Coll. 

Surg. pt. ii, p. 355, 1884 ; Bocage, Jowrn. Sci. Lishoa, 1890, 

p. 29 ; Matschie, Saageth. Dewtsch-Ost-Afrika, p. 101, 1895. 
Sus capeusis, Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit, Mus. p. 277, 1862, 

nomen nudum. 
Potamochoerus chceropotamus, Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 366; 

W. L. Sclater, Fauna S. Africa, Mamm. vol. i, p. 274, 1900; 

Bothschild, Poivell-Cotton's Abyssinia, p. 481, 1902, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. 1906, p. 632 ; Lydekker, Game Animals of Africa, p. 391, 

1908 ; Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. vii, no. 6, p. 14, 1910; Cabrera, 

Cat. Met. Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 133, 1912; Ward, Records of 

Big Game, ed. 6, p. 456, ed. 7, p. 455, 1914. 
Sus chceropotamus, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of Africa, 

p. 523, 1899. 
Sus larvatus, Nicolls and Eglington, Sjportsman in S. Africa, p. 78, 

1892.. 
Potamochoerus capensis, Bothschild, Po2vell-Cotton''s Abyssinia, 

p. 481, 1902. 
Potamochoerus koiropotamus, Allen, Bull. Amcr, Mus. Nat. Hist. 

vol. xxxiii, p. 339, 1914. 

Bosch-Vark; Bush-Pig. 

Typical locality probuljly South Africa. 

The type species. 

Larger than F. larvatus, to which it is in other respects 
very similar; typically the coat long, and intermingled with 
elongated bristles, between which the skin is frequently 
visible ; dorsal crest strongly developed, often extending 
forward to ears, its constituent bristles dark brown or 
blackish, with more or less conspicuous white tips ; ears, 
inclusive of margins and tufts, black externally ; forehead 
generally grey ; a broad blackish ring on muzzle in advance 
of the tuberosities ; general colour variable, but frequently 
dark grey or blackish ; in old males the facial tuberosities 
strongly developed (fig. 52), the upper ones forming a pair 
of convex crests elevated considerably above the nasal plane, 
and the second pair reaching that plane ; postorbital portion 
of skull relatively short. 



352 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

The range includes Southern, Central, and Eastern Africa 
as far north as Kenia, British East Africa. 




Fig. 52.— Skull of Southern Bush-Pig 

{Potamoclioirus cheer opotamus). 
From Gray, Hand-List of Thick-skinned Mammals. 

The following is a provisional " key " to the species : — 

A. Eyes not ringed with black. 

a. Parietal region of skull broad (39 to 44 mm. 
or more). 

a' . Muzzle with a black ring P. c. char opotamus. 

V . Muzzle wholly black P. c. jolinstoni. 

h. Parietal region of medium width (24 to 

26 mm.) P. c. maschona. 

c. Parietal region very narrow (15 to 18 mm.), 
c'. Colour very dark, largely black, black 

and rufous when immature P. c. dctmonls. 

d'. Colour less dark, mingled black and 

rufous, mainly rufous when immature... P. c, nyasce. 

B. Eyes with black rings P. c. Jienia'. 



A.— PotamochcBPUs choeropotamus choBropotamus. 

Sus choeropotamus typicus, Lydehker, Great and Small Game of 
Africa, p. 52.3, 1899. 

Typical locality South (?) Africa. 

Colour variable, hut very generally dark grey ; parietal 
region of skull relatively broad, the width in adults reaching 
as much as 42 or even 47 mm, 

38. 4. 16. 81 (715, a). Skull, female. Damaraland ; 



sviDM 353 

collected by Capt. Sir J. E. Alexander. Type of " Sus 
capensis." Purchased, 1838. 

40. 6. 24. 5. Skin, mounted. Cape (Jolony. 

Purchased {Dr. Krauss), 1840. 
40. G. 24. 6. A similar specimen. Same locality. 

Same history. 
40. 6. 24. 7. Skin, young, mounted. Same locality. 

Same history. 
43. 12. 7. 20. Skin, young. Cape Colony. 

Purchased (Verreaux), 1843. 
51. 5. 5. 3 (1364, a). Skull (fig. 52). South Africa. 
Figured in Gray's Hand-List, pi. xxiii, fig. 2. 

Purchased {Argent), 1851. 

62. 3. 30. 3 (1364, h). Skeleton (diseased). Probably 

South Africa. Purchased {Zooloyiccd Society), 1862. 

67. 4. 12. 220 (1364, c). Skull. Probably South Africa. 

Noticed by Lonnberg, op. cit. p. 16. 

Lidth dc Jeude Collection, purchased, 1867. 
10. 6. 17. 3. Skull. South Africa. 

Presented hy 0. Thomas, Esq., 1910. 

B.— Potamochcerus chcBropotamus maschona. 

Potamoclicerus chceropotamns maschona, Lonnberg, Arhiv Zool. 
vol. vii, no. 6, p. 20, 1910; Lydelker, Game Animals of Africa, 
Sujppl. p. 21, 1911. 

Typical locality Coguno, Mashonaland (west of Lake 
Nyasa) ; the range includes Portuguese East Africa. 

General colour as dark as in typical race, being frequently 
rufous brown, more or less intermixed with blackish or black, 
but parietal region of skull narrower (24 to 26 mm.) ; dorsal 
crest strongly tipped with white. 

3. 6. 4. 2. Skull. Mazoe, Mashonaland, K E. Ehodesia. 
Noticed by Lonnberg, op. cit. p. 16. 

Presented hy J. ff. Darliny, Esq., 1903. 

6. 11. 8. 135. Skull, imperfect, and skin, Coguno, 
Inhambane, Mashonaland. Noticed by Lonnberg, op. cit. 
p. 21 ; may be regarded as the type ; collected by Mr. C. H. B. 
Grant. Presented hy C. D. Rudd, Esq., 1906. 

9. 12. 4. 91. Skull, imperfect, and skin, immature 

IV. 2 A 



354 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

female. Mperokosa, Northern Ehodesia; collected by S. A. 

Neave, Esq. Noticed by Lonnberg, loc. cit. Fiirchased, 1909. 

7. 10. 25. 3. Skull, very old boar. Portuguese East 

Africa, probably Beira. Noticed by Lonnberg, oj). cU. p. IG. 

Presented hy F. V. Kirhy, Esq., 1907. 

C— Potamochoerus choeropotamus daemonis. 

Potaniochcei'us chceropotamus daemonis, Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, 
p. 367, pis. XXV, fig. 1, and xxvi, fig. 3; Rothscliild, ibid. 1906, 
p. 632 ; Lydekker, Game Animals of Africa, p. 397, 1908 ; 
Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. vii, no. 6, p. 26, 1910. 

Potamochoerus daemonis, Botliscliild, Powell-Cotton's Abyssinia, 
p. 481, 1902. 

Potamochoerus koiropotamus daemonis, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. vol. xxxiii, p. 339, 1914. 

Typical locality Kilimanjaro, East Africa. 

Smaller than the last, and darker than any of the other 
races, adults being deep black, and immature individuals 
mingled black and rufous, the rufous predominating on the 
back and forehead, and black on sides of neck, chest, and 
limbs; flat portion of parietal region narrow (about 18 mm.). 

94. 4. 24. 4. Skull and skin, female. Kilimanjaro ; 
collected by Eev. W. Morris. Type. Noticed by Lonnberg, 
op. cit. p. IG, where a Berlin specimen is stated to be the 
type. PurcJiascd, 1892. 

D.— Potamochoerus choeropotamus nyasae. 

Potamochoerus choeropotamus nyasae. Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, 
p. 367, pis. xxv, fig. 3, and xxvi, fig. 1 ; Thomas, ibid. p. 938 ; 
Lydekker, Game Animals of Africa, p. 392, 1908; Lonnberg, 
Arkiv Zool. vol. vii, no. 6, p. 24, 1910 ; Ward, Records of Big 
Game, ed. 6, p. 456, 1910. 

Sus choeropotamus nyasaj, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of 
Africa, p. 523, 1899. 

Potamochoerus nyasae, Botliscliild, Powell-Cotton'' s Abyssinia, p. 481, 
1902. 

Typical locality Nyasaland. 

General colour of adult very dark ; muzzle and fore part 
of neck wholly black ; forehead dirty grey mixed with black, 
and a black eyebrow-stripe ; dorsal crest commencing behind 
ears, where it is much mingled with white ; back and sides 
mingled rufous and black, the rufous predominating on the 



suiD^ 355 

former; tail huffish grey, with black tuft. In immature 
individuals the rufous much more predominant. Flat portion 
of parietal region of skull very narrow (about 15 mm.). 

93. 5. 2. 43-44. Two skins, young. Zoraba, Nyasaland ; 

collected l)y A. Whyte, Esq. rresentcd hy 

Sir II. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.G.B., 1893. 

93. 5. G. 4. Skin, mounted, and skull. Same locality 
and collector. Same histor//. 

93. 7. 25. 12. Skull", female. Near Lake Mweru, N. E. 
Ehodesia ; same collector. ScDiie liistory. 

94. 3. 8. 19. Skull. Same locality ; collected by Sir A. 
Sharpe, K.C.M.G., C.B. This and the preceding specimen 
are provisionally identified by Major, op. cit. p. 3GG, with the 
race represented by the undermentioned skins ; the present 
skull being figured in pis. xxv, fig. 4, and xxvi, fig. 4 
(wrongly numbered 94. 3. 18. 9). Both skulls are also 
noticed by Lonnberg, op. cit. p. IG, under different racial 
headings ; no. 94. 3. 8. 19 being regarded as the type of the 
present race, which, according to Major's somewhat confused 
account, it is certainly not. Same donor, 1894. 

94. 6. 7. 9-10. Two skins, one immature. Zomba and 
Mpimbi; collected by A. Whyte, Esq. These and one of 
the preceding Nyasa skins must be regarded as the co-types. 

Same liistory. 

97. 1. 12. 4. Skin, female, mounted. Nyasaland ; same 
collector. Same donor, 1907. 

97. 10. 1. 2G0-2G2. Three skins. Zomba ; same collector. 

Same history. 

98. G. 23. 1. Skull. Zomba. Noticed by Lonnberg, 
op. fit. p. IG. rresentcd hy Sir Alfred Sharpe, 

K.C.M.G., G.B., 1898. 
7. 9. 17. 7. Skin, mounted. Southern Nyasaland, 

By cxehanye, 1907. 

E. — Potamochoerus choeropotamus johnstoni. 

Potamochcerus johnstoni, Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 367, pis. 
xxv, fig. 3, and xxvi, fig. 1 ; Rotliscliilcl, Powell-Cotton's Abys- 
sinia, p. 481, 1902, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1906, p. 632; LydekLer, 
Game Animals' of Africa, p. 395, 1908. 

Potamochoerus choeropotomus johnstoni, Lonnberg, ArJciv Zool. vol. vii, 
no. 6, p. 22, 1910 ; Lydekker, Game Animals of Africa, Suppl. 
p. 21, 1911. 

2 A 2 



?>oG CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Typical locality Ngaravi Valley, N. W. Nyasaland. 

Size rather larger than in P. c. nyasw; general colour 
very similar to that of typical race, but the muzzle, except 
for a whitish spot on each side, wholly black, as are the 
limbs, tail-tuft, and a patch on the cheeks ; back, on each side 
of the white-tipped dorsal crest, yellowish brown, darkening, 
through brown, to black on flanks; parietal region of skull 
very broad (44 mm.). 

91. f). 9. 5. Skull, female. Ngaravi Valley, N. W. 
Nyasaland. Type. Noticed by Lounberg, op. cit. p. 16. 
^ Presented ly Sir H. H. Johnston, G.O.M.G., K.C.B., 1891. 

7. 2. 14. 1. Skull and mounted skin, referred to this 
race by Lonnbei'g {op. cit. pp. 16 and 22). Fort Manning, 
K E. Ehodesia. Purcliased (Ward), 1907. 

F.— Potamochcerus choeropotamus keniae. 

Potaniochoerus cha>ropotamus keniifi, Lonnherg, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist. ser. 8, vol. ix, p. 66, 1912, K. Svenslia Vet.-Ah. Handt. 
voL xlviii, no. 5, p. 132, 1912. 

Typical locality forests near iSTairobi, B. E. Africa. 

Type in Eoyal Swedish Museum, Stockholm. 

Eace white, with the ears, a patch round eyes, and a 
streak above whiskers black ; dorsal crest from liehind ears 
to middle of back black with long white tips, and similar 
bristles on loins ; sides of back rich rufous mingled with 
black ; flanks, sides of neck, under-parts, and limbs black. 

4. 11. 5. 17. Skull, imperfect, and wanting lower jaw. 
Kenia district, B. E. Africa. Presented by 

Ceipt. Pi. Meincrtzhafjen, 1904. 

12. 7. 2. 9. Skull and skin, female. Kidori, Tana Valley, 
B. E. Africa. Presented hy G. Blaine, Esq., 1912. 

12. 7. 28. 1. Skin. Mau Forest, above Njoro, B. E. 
Africa. Presented hy C. W. Woodhouse, Esq., 1912. 

13. 3. 19. 11. Skeleton and skin, old boar. Umbagasi 
Valley, B. E. Africa. Presented hy the East Afriea and 

Uyanda Naturcd History Society, 1913. 



suiD.E 357 



III. POTAMOCHCEEUS HASSAMA. 

Nyctochoerus hassama, Heuglin, Nova Acta. Ac. Ca's. Leojj.-Car. 
vol. XXX, Nachtrag 2, p. 7, 1863, Beise Nord-Ost Afriha, pp. 97 
and 277, 1877 ; Nchring, Zool. Garten, vol. xxxvi, p. 50, 1895. 

Potamochoerus hassama, Major, Proc. Zoc. Soc. 1897, p. 368 ; Botli- 
scliild, Powell-Cotton'' s Abyssinia, p. 481, 1902; Lydekker, Game 
Animals of Africa, p. 395, 1908 ; Ldnnbcrg, Arkiv Zool. vol. vii, 
no. 6, p. 37, 1910. 

Sus choeropotamus hassama, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of 
Africa, p. 523, 1899. 

ASSAMI. 

Type of N/fdochcBri's. 

Typical locality Abyssinia. 

Type in Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt-am-Maiu. 

Apparently allied in external characters, as well as in 
the development of the facial tuberosities, to P. cluvropotamus, 
but the parietal region — of which the flat portion is com- 
paratively narrow, although rather less so than in P. c. 
nyasaj — much longer, both actually, and relatively to tlie 
rest of the skull. 

No specimen in collection. 

lY. POTAMOCHCEEUS POECUS. 

Sus porcus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 50, 1759, ed. 12, 
vol. i, p, 108, 1766; Floiucr and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, 
p. 286, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 363, 1893 ; Bryden, 
Great and Small Game of Africa, p. 531, 1899. 

Sus penicillatus, Scliinz, Monogr. Sdugetli. pt. x, p. 12, 1848, Bev. 
Zool. 1848, p. 152. 

Potamochojnis penicillatus. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. 131, 
pi. xxxiv, 1854, 1858, p. 58 ; Sclater, ibid. 1861, p. 62, pi. xii ; 
Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mas. p. 279, 1862 ; Noack, 
Zool. Jalirb., Syst. vol. ii, p. 197, 1887 ; Pousargues, Ann. Sci. 
Nat., Zool. vol. iv, p. 90, 1896; SteliUn, Abh. scliiveiz. pal. Ges. 
vol. xxvi, p. 71, 1899. 

Potamochffirus porcus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 36, Cat. 
Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 349, 1869, Hand-List Thick- 
skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 56, 1897, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 4, vol. xv, p. 45, 1875 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. 
Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 356, 1884 ; Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1897, pp. 363 and 369 ; Stehlin, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. xxvii, 
pi. X, fig. 7, 1900 ; Lydekker, Game Animals of Africa, p. 396, 
1908 ; Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. vii, no. 6, p. 3, 1910 ; Ward, 
Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 456, 1910, ed. 7, p. 455, 1914. 

Sus choeropotamus porcus, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of 
Africa, p. 523, 1899. 



358 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Eed Eiver-Hog. 

Typical locality West Africa. 

Compared with P. cheer opotamus, the coat is shorter and 
denser, so that no portion of the skin is visible ; dorsal crest 
short, white, and conspicuous, commencing, as a rule, a little 
behind the ears ; general colour typically reddish brown or 
rufous, but in adults the upper portion of the forehead, 
between the eyes and ears, black, whitish in one race ; ears 
black with more or less of the upper portion of the margins 
of part of the tufts whitish ; in immature individuals the 
forehead, except for the admixture of black hairs, coloured 
like body ; facial tuberosities generally much less developed 
than in typical species, the upper pair not projecting above 
nasal plane (fig. 53). 

The range extends from the Gabun, Cameruns, and 
adjacent districts to the Belgian Congo. 

The following is a tentative " key " to the local races : — 

A. Facial tuberosities of skull, when known, not 

projecting above nasal plane. 
a. Forehead and muzzle black. 

a'. Parietal region narrower (42-47 mm.) F. j}- pofcus. 

h'. Parietal region wilder (49-58 mm.) P. p. pictus. 

h. Either muzzle or forehead whitish. 

b'. Size smaller, muzzle whitish P. p. ahangensis. 

c'. Size larger, forehead whitish P. _^j. alhifrona. 

M. Facial tuberosities of skull projecting slightly 
above nasal plane, and upper one of each side 
connected with the lower one by a bony arch... P. p. covgicits* 

A.— Potamochoerus porcus popcus. 

Typical locality Upper Guinea. 

General characters those of tlie species ; flat portion of 
parietal region moderately wide (about 42-47 mm.) ; muzzle 
black. 

64. 7. 16. 2 (715, h). Skull, female. West Africa; 
collected by j\[r. Dalton. Purchased, 1864. 

65. 5. 3. 3 (715, c). Skull. Niger Valley ; collected by 
Dr. W. B. Baikie. Noticed by Lonnberg, op. cit. p. 8. 

Purchased, 1865. 

* Possibly identical with alhifron^. 



SUID.E 



:^b^ 



65. 5. 3. 4 (715, d). Skull. Same locality and collector. 
Noticed by Lonnberg, loc. cif. Same history. 

71. 5. 27. 6 (1363, c). Skull and skin. Gabuu. Noticed 
by Lonnberg, loc. cit. Presented 'by 

Monsieur P. B. da Chaillu, 1871. 

71. 5. 27. 6* (1363, /). Skull and skin, immature. 
Same locality. Sa7ne history. 

12. 6. 20. 12. Skull and skin, very young. Bibianaha, 
Gold Coast. Presented by Dr. H. G. F. Spwrrcll, 1912. 

B.— Potamochoerus porcus pictus. 

Choiropotamus pictus, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, vol. x, 

p. 281, 1852. 
Potamochoerus porcus pictus, Lonnberg, Arhiv Zool. vol. vii, no. 6, 

p, 7, 1910 ; LydeJcker, Game Animals of Africa, Suppl. p. 2, 

1911. 




Fig. 53. — Skull op Camerun Bush-Pig, ok Red River-Hog 
[Potamochoirus porcus pictus). 

From Gray, Hand-Lht of Thick-skinned Mammals. 



Typical locality Cameruns, W. Africa. 

Flat portion oi" parietal region wider than in typical race 
(49-58 mm.) ; muzzle black. 

56. 12. 30. 7. Skin, young. From an animal born in 
London Zoological Gardens. 

Purchased (Zooloyical Society), 1856. 



360 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

57. 3. 5. 2. Skin, young. This and the next specimen 
were from the offspring of the animals represented by 
numbers 60. 7. 22. 9 and 61. 1. 18. 7. 

Purchased {Bartldt), 1857. 
57. 8. 3. 1. Skin, young. Vide Xo. 57. 3. 5. 2. 

Purchased {Zoologicid Society), 1857. 

60. 7. 22. 9-10 (1363, a). Skin, mounted, and skeleton. 
Cameruns. Type. Skull (tig. 53) ligured in Gray's Hand- 
List, pi. xxiii, tig. 1 . The animal lived in the London 
Zoological Gardens from 1852 to 1860. 

Purchased {ZuoUujical Society), 1860. 

61. 1. 18. 7. Skeleton, female. Cameruns. 

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1861. 
67. 10. 5. 2. Skin, young, mounted. Menagerie-born. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1867. 
94. 7. 25. 1-2. Two skulls. Benin, Nigeria. 

Presented hy R. Millson, Esq., 1894. 
4. 10. 12. 9. Skin, immature, mounted. Cameruns. 

Purchased, 1904. 

6. 5. 25. 1. Skin, immature, mounted. Cameruns. 

Purchased ( Ward), 1906. 

12. 10. 22. 76. Skull, immature. Oban district, Southern 

Nigeria. Presented hy P. A. Tedbot, Esq., 1912. 

C— Potamochoerus porcus ubang-ensis. 

Potamochcerus porcus, Alexander, From Niger to Nile, vol. ii, 

p. 394, 1907. 
Potamochcerus porcus ubangensis, Lonnbcrg, ArJciv Zool. vol. vii, 

no. 6, p. 10, 1910 ; Lydekker, Game Animals of Africa, Suppl. 

p. 21, 1911. 

Typical locality Ubangui Valley, northern Belgian Congo. 

Smaller than the other races, with the flat portion of the 
parietal region of the skull much narrower (26 mm.), and 
the whole muzzle whitish. 

7. 7. 8. 258. Skull and head-skin. Ubangui Valley. 
Type. Presented hy the Alexander -Gosling Expedition, 1907. 



suID.^<; 361 

D.— Potamochoerus porcus albifrons. 

Potamochoerus albifrons, clu Chaillu, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist. 1860, 
p. 301, Adventures in Equatorial Africa, p. 422, pi. Ixii, 1861. 

Potamochoerus porcus albifrons, Lbnnherg, Arkiv Zool. vol. vii, 
no. 6, p. 11, 1910. 

Typical locality near Cape Lopez, western French Congo. 

Type probably in the Boston Museum, U.S.A. 

Larger than the pi'eceding race, with the muzzle Ijlack ; 
forehead mainly white, except for a triangular black area 
between the ears ending in a point about three inches below 
the line of the eyes ; skull-characters unknown. 

No specimen in collection. 

E.— Potamochoerus porcus congricus. 

Potamochoerus porcus congicus, Lonnherg, Arhiv Zool. vol. vii, 
no. 6, p. 14, 1910. 

Typical locality Lower Congo. 

Type in Eoyal Swedish Museum of Natural History, 
Stockholm. 

A provisional race, founded on the skull, which is much 
larger than that of P. p. iibangcnsis, with the flat portion of 
the parietal area narrow (31 '5 mm.), and the facial tuber- 
osities more developed than in any other race, the upper 
ones projecting slightly above the nasal plane, and being 
connected in old males by a bony arch on each side with 
the lower pair ; nasal region wider than in P. p. jnctits. 

Whether this type of skull is really distinct from that of 
P. p. albifrons has still to be proved. 

No specimen in collection. 

V. POTAMOCHCERUS INTERMEDIUS. 

Potamochoerus intermedius, Lonnherg, ArJciv Zool. vol. vii, pt. 6, 
p. 38, 1910; Lydekker, Game Animals of Africa, Sicppl. p. 21, 
1911 ; ScJionteden, Bcv. Zool. Africaine, vol. ii, p. 138, 1912. 

Typical locality Euwenzori district, Upper "White Nile, 
Uganda. 

Intermediate in general characters between P. cliceropo- 
tamus and P. p)orcus, and therefore suggestive that all the 
forms of bush-pig are no more than local races of the Mala- 
gasy P. larvatus, Schouteden considers this bush-pig to be 



362 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

much nearer to P. chc&ropotamus than to P. porcus. Coat long 
and coarse and dorsal crest long and parti-coloured, as in the 
former, but general colour and colour-pattern like those of 
the latter. 

6. 7. 1. 188. Skull, immature, referred by Lonnberg, 
op. cit. p. 1 6, to this species. Eastern Kuwenzori ; collected 
by E. E. Dent, Esq. 

Presented Inj the Ruwciizori Expedition, 1906. 

6. 7. 1. 189. Skull, half-grown female. Same locality 
and collector. Same history. 

6. 12. 4. 71. Skull, old boar. Same locality; noticed 
by Lonnberg, op. cit. Same history. 

7. 12. 18. 1. Skin. Upper Wliite Nile, Uganda, 4000 
feet; collected by E. J. Cuninghame, Esq. Purchased, 1907. 



IV. Genus HYLOCHCERUS. 

Hylochoerus, Thomas, Nature, vol. Ixx, p. 577, 1904, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1904, vol. ii, p. 193. 

To a considerable extent intermediate between Potamo- 
choirus and Phaeoclieerus, the molars lieing of the brachyodont 
type of those of the former, while the upper canines are 
abraded in the fashion characteristic of the latter, and there 
is but one pair of upper incisors; the skull conforms in 
general features to the Sus and Pota7aocho3rvs type, although 
in its depressed form and the markedly lower occipital region 
it foreshadows that of Phacochcerns. 

Dentition : i. 2^, c. \, p. |, m. | = 32 or 34 ; outer lower 
incisors frequently shed early, and in some instances perhaps 
never developed ; npper canines of males very large and 
thick, with facets worn on their lower surfaces by the attrition 
of the lower pair, so that their summits remain more or less 
nearly entire ; last molars in each jaw brachyodont and 
normal in structure ; face with a pair of large fungus-like 
warty growths below the eyes ; ears relatively small and not 
distinctly tufted ; terminal disc of muzzle relatively large ; 
coat very coarse, sparse, and uniformly dark-coloured ; 
prenasal ossicle welded to nasals ; occipital surface of skull 
broader and lower than in PotamocliKrus ; forehead wide and 



suiD.E 363 

concave, and sides of nasal region sloping evenly outwards, 
as in the next, without the sharp lateral angulation of the 
nasals found in FotamGchccrus and Sus. Coloration of young 
apparently vmknown. 

The distributional area is probably co-extensive with the 
great forest-tract of equatorial Africa, in which it is known 
to extend from the Cameruns in the west, to the Ituri and 
Semliki A^alleys in the east, while nortliwards it reaches 
southern Abyssinia. 



HYLOCHCEEUS MEINERTZHAGE^^I. 

Hylochcerus meinertzhageui, Thomas, Nature, vol. Ixx, p. 577, 1904, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904, vol. ii, p. 193 ; Eothsdiild, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1906, p. 632; M. Bothscliild ami Neitville, Bull. Soc. Philom. 
ser. 9, vol. viii, p. 141, pis. i-xi, 1906; Lydehkcr, Game Animals 
of Africa, p. 396, 1908, SupjA. p. 22, 1911, Field, vol. cxxi, 
p. 488, 1913 ; Allen, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xxiii, 
p. 49, 1909 ; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 457, 1910, 
ed. 7, p. 456, 1914 ; Lonnherg, E. SvensJui Vct.-Ah. Handl. 
vol. xlviii, no. 5, p. 136, 1912. 

(?) Hylocha'TOS ituriensis, Matschie, Ann. Mus. Congo, Zool. ser. 5, 
vol. i, p. 9, pis. i-v, 1906. 

(?) Hylochcerus nieinertzhageni ituriensis, Lydekker, Game Animals 
of Africa, p. 398, 1908, ,S'»^j^;?. p. 24, 1911 ; Allen, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Washington, vol. xxiii, p. 49, 1909. 

(?) Hylochrerus gigliolii, Balducci, Puhl. B. Prim. Stud. Sujjcr. 
Firenze, 1909, p. 1. 

Typical locality the Kenia district of British East Africa : 
the range co-extensive with that of the genus. 

Size very large, build heavy, and limbs relatively long ; 
coat long, coarse, and wholly black, becoming sparse in old 
age ; skin Ijlackish grey. 

The external characters by which IT. ituriensis, from the 
Ituri A^alley (with which i/". (jigliolii, from the Upper Congo, 
is almost certainly inseparable), is stated to be distinguished 
appear to be mainly features of immaturity ; the under- 
mentioned skull from the Semliki does not appear to be 
racially separable from that of the type. 

The two races here recognised are distinguishable as 
follows : — 

A. Molars broad, with much cement H. ni. meinertzJiageni. 

B. Molars narrower, with less cement H. ni. rimator. 



364 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

A.— HylochcBPus meinertzhag-eni meinertzhageni. 

Typical locality the Keuia district of British East Africa : 
the range extends northwards to Abyssinia. 

Cheek-teeth broad and heavy, with a large development 
of cement in the valleys. 

4. 11. 5. 14. Sknll and portion of skin. Nandi Forest, 

B. E. Africa. Type. 

Presented hy Capt. 11. Meinertzhagen, 1904, 

4. 11. 5. 15. Hind half of skull, wanting lower jaw, 
female. Same locality. Same history. 

5. 5. 16. 1. Skeleton and skin, immature female. Nyeri, 
B. E. Africa. Presented hy C. W. Haywood, Esq., 1905. 

5. 10. 21. 1. Skull, Semliki Forest. Probably represents 
H. ituricnsis. Presented hy Litut.-Col. J. J. Harrison, 1905. 

5. 10. 21. 2. Skull. Same locality. Same history. 

7. 1. 12. 1. Skull, immature, wanting lower jaw. B. E, 
Africa. Presented hy C. W. Hayicood, Esq., 1905.- 

12. 7. 28. 9-10. Two skins. Mau Forest, above Njoro, 
B. E. Africa. Presented hy C. W. Woodhouse, Esq., 1912. 

12. 7. 28. 11. Skull, imperfect, and skin, female. Same 
locality. Same history. 

12. 7. 28. 12. Skin. Laikipia Escarpment, L. E. Africa. 

Same history. 

12, 7. 28. 13-14. Two skulls and skins, young. Same 
locality. Same history. 

12. 7. 28. 15. Skin, mounted, and skull. Mau Forest. 

Same history. 

13. 3. 2. G. Fore part of skull. Salle Forest, Mount 
Gore, Abyssinia. Presented hy S. C. G. Clarke, Esq., 1913, 

B.— Hylochoerus meinertzhagreni rimator. 

Hylochoerus rimator, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1906, p. 2 {Abs. 

P.Z.S. 1906, p. 1) ; Matscliic, Ann. Mas. Congo, Zool. ser. 5, 

voL i, p. 8, 1906; Allen, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xxiii, 

p. 49, 1909. 
Hylochoerus lueinertzhageni rimator, Lydchher, Game Animals of 

Africa, p. 398, 1908. 

Typical locality Ja Valley, Cameruns. 

Generally similar to typical race,* but cheek-teeth, 

* Vide Allen, op. cit. 



suiD.E 365 

especially the last molar in each jaw, markedly narrower, 
with less cement in the valleys. 

6. 2. 21. 1. Skull, female. Ja Valley, Cameruns ; col- 
lected by G. L. Bates, Esq. Type. Fnrchased, 1906. 

8. 6. 23. 13. Skull and skin, immature. Cameruns ; 
same collector. Finrha.scd, 1908. 

14. 4. 16. 1. Skin, mounted. Cameruns. 

Presented hy the Bowland Wurd Trustees, 1914. 



V. Genus PHACOCH(ERUS. 

Phacochoerus, Cuvier, Begnc Animal, vol. i, p. 236, 1817; Owen, 
Phil. Trans. 1850, p. 481 ; Graij, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. 
p. 359, 1869, Hand-List Thich-shinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 69, 
1873; W. L. Sclater, Fauna 8. Africa, Mamm. vol. i, p. 276, 
1960 ; Stelilin, Abh. schweiz. jml. Ges. vol. xxvii, p. 376, 1900. 

Phascochcerus, F. Cuvier, Mem. Mus. Paris, vol. viii, p. 451, 1817. 

Eureoclon, Fischer, Mem. Soc. Moscou, vol. v, p. 373, 1817. 

Phocochorvis, Voigt, XJcliersicht Naturges'-h. p. 422, 1819. 

Phascochaeres, Cretzschmar, Atlas to Biijjpells Beisc nordl. Afriha, 
p. 61, 1826; Jardine, Naturalisfs Libr,, Mamm. vol. v, p. 219, 
1836. 

Phascochaerns, Griffitli, Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 289, 1827. 

Phacocherus, Smnts, Enum. Mamm. Cap. p. 60, 1832. 

Phacellochoei-us and Phacellochgerus, Hemj^rich nnd Ehrentierg, 
Symbol. Phys., Mamm. vol. ii, pi. xx, 1832. 

Dinochcerus, Gloger, Handbuch Naturgesch. vol. i, pp. xxxii and 
131, 1841. 

Macrocephalus, Elliot (ex Frisch, 1775), Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. 
{Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 32, 1907. 

Dentition : /. ^, c. \, p. i>, m. § = 34 ; outer incisors and 
anterior premolars lost early, and in some cases all the teeth 
except the canines and last molars wanting; upper canines, 
which are devoid of enamel except at the tips, very large, 
massive, and longer than lower pair, the attrition of the 
latter forming merely a facet on the lower surface of the 
former and not touching their summits ; last molars in both 
jaws, very large, hypsodont, and formed of a closely packed 
series of small parallel and vertical subcylindrical denticules ; 
canines of females relatively large ; face much flattened, with 
a very wide muzzle, and two pairs of triangular warty 
tubercles, the upper and larger pair situated immediately 



366 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

below the eyes (fig. 54) ; ears small and triangular ; coat 
sparse and bristly, almost completely shed in adults, with 
the exception of a mane on the neck and a terminal tail-tuft ; 
skull wide and long, much depressed, with a deeply concave 
profile, a very short postorbital portion, and no lateral 
angulation of the nasal region ; prenasal ossicle separate from 
nasals. Young uniformly coloured. 

The range embraces suitable localities throughout Ethio- 
pian Africa. 

PHACOCH(ERUS /ETHIOPICUS. 

Aper aethiopicus, Pallas, Spicil. Zool. fasc. ii, p. 2, 1767. 

Sus rethiopicus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed, 12, voL i, p. 223, 1768 ; Erxle- 
hen, Sysf. Befju. Anim. vol. i, p. 187, 1777 ; Griffith, Animal 
Kingdom, vol. iii, p. 333, 1827. 

Phacochoerus itthiopicus, Cuvier, Regne Animal, vol. i, p. 1817 ; 
F. Cuvier, Dent. Mamni. p. 217, pi. xxviii, 1822 ; J. B. Fischer, 
Synop. Mamm. p, 424, 1829 ; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 
p. 185, 1843, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 48, Cat. Carnivora, etc. 
Brit. Mas. p. 353, 1869, Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamm. Brit. 
Mus. p. 69, 1873 ; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 78, pi. xvii, 
1860, p. 443 ; Gicbcl, Saugethiere, p. 236, 1855 ; Gerrard, Cat. 
Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 279, 1862; Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. 
Wiss. Wien, vol, xix, pt. 1, p. 39, 1864 ; Floiver and Garson, Cat. 
Osteol. Mils. P. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 363, 1884 ; W. L. Sclater, 
Cat. Mamm. Lid. Mus. pt. ii, p. 197, 1891, Fauna S. Africa, 
Mamm. vol. i, p. 277, 1900; Flower and, Lydekkcr, Study of 
Mammals, p. 289, 1891 ; Nicolls and. Eglington, Spiortsman in 
S. Africa, p. 77, 1892 ; Lydekkcr, Horns 'and Hoofs, p. 370, 1893, 
Great and Small Game of Africa, p. 517, 1899, Game Animals of 
Africa, p. 399, 1908, Sujipl. p. 23, 1911 ; Stehlin, Abh. schiveiz. 
pal. Ges. vol. xxvi, p. 276, 1899 ; Rothschild, Powell-Cotton's 
Abyssinia, p. 482, 1902, Alexander, From Niger to Nile, vol. ii, 
p. 394, 1907; Drake-Brockman, Mamm. Somali, p. 100, 1910; 
Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 458, 1910, ed. 7, p. 457, 
1914. 

Phascochoevus fethiopicus, F. Cuvier, Mem. Mus. Paris, vol. viii, 
p. 450, pi. xxiii, 1817. 

Phacochoerus barbatus, Temminck, Mon. Mamm. vol. i, p. 29, 1827. 

Phascochoenis edentatus, I. Geoffroy, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat. vol. xiii, 
p. 320, 1828. 

Phacochoerus typicus, A. Smith, S. African Quart. Jouru. vol. ii, 
p. 90, 1834. 

Phacochoerus pallasi, Van der Hoeven, Nova Acta Ac. Cxs. Leop.-Car. 
vol. xix, p. 171, 1839 ; Owen, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 63, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, vol. xi, p. 246, 1853. 

Phacochoerus aper aethiopicus, Reichcnbach, Pachyderm, p. 35, 1846. 



SUID.E 367 

Wart-Hog. 

Typical locality South Africa ; range co-extensive with 
that of the genus. 

Shoulder-height reaching about 30 inches ; general colour 
of the sparse coat brownish gi'ey, with a more or less distinct 



%■ 










Fig. 54. — Head op Wart-Hog [Phacoclicenis n'tliiopicus). 

rufous tinge ; very large upper tusks measure as much as 
from 25 to 27 inches along the convexity, but the length of 
lower ones seldom exceeds 6 inches. 

The local races, according to a scheme by Lonnberg, are 
distinguished as follows : — 

A. Posfcorbital portion of skull very shorb and wide, 

its length and breadth percentages to skull- 
length being 10 and 13.^ ; interorbital width 
large, 36 • 5 % B. x. nthiopicus. 

B. Postorbital region less wide, 10"9-10"5andll"9- 

11-5 % ; interorbital width less, 34-7-33% P. /p. delamcrei. 

0. Postorbital region of medium length and width 
13 "4 and 13'1%; interorbital width less than 
in any other race, 30% P. k. africanus. 

D. Postorbital region much the same as in last, 

14 and 14 % ; interorbital width considerably 

greater, 38-8 % P. sc. massaicns. 

E. Postorbital region of medium length but narrow, 

13-7 and 11%; interorbital width relatively 

small, 32-3% P. x. sundevalli. 

F. Postorbital region very long and very narrow, 

15-4 and 6"3 % ; interorbital width as in last, 

32-3% P. X. xliani. 

A.— Phacochoerus sethiopicus sethiopicus. 

Phacochcerus aethiopicus typicus, Kirbij, Great and Small Game of 
Africa, p. 527, 1809. 

Typical locality South Africa. 

Size medium ; some of the lower anterior teeth usually 



368 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

retained in old age ; postorbital portion of skull very short 
and wide, the respective percentages to the skull-length being 
10 • 3 X 13 • 3 ; interorbital width also great, 36 • 5 per cent. 

74, a (719, /). Skull, from a stuifed specimen. South 
Africa. rrcsented hy Dr. IV. J. Burchdl, 1817. 

719, a. Skull, female. South Africa. 

Presented hy J. C. Taunton, Esq., 1836. 

50. 8. 24. 24-30. Nine imperfect skulls and upper jaws. 
South Africa. Purchased {Argent), 1850. 

6. 1. 22. 5 (765, h). Skeleton, female, provisionally 
referred to this race. Locality unknown. 

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1862. 

62. 9. 26. 1. Left upper tusk, from a stuffed skin, pro- 
visionally referred to this race. Locality unknown. Length 
along outer curve 15| inches. 

Presented hy H. Merry weather, Esq., 1862. 

71. 7. 3. 4 (719, o). Skull, young. Port Elizabeth, Capo 
Colony. Purchased {Gernird), )S7i.. 

81. 5. 11. 2 (719, r). Skull. South Africa. 

Presented hy 11. G. Brealces, Esq., 1881. 

B.—Phacochoerus sethiopicus sundevalli. 

Phacoclicerus sundevallii, Lonnherg, Sjostedt's Kilimandjaro-Meru 
Exped., Mamm. p. 54, 1908, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1908, p. 937. 

Phacochoerus jethiopicus sundevalli, Lydchkcr, Game Animals of 
Africa, Sup])!, p. 23, 1911. 

Typical locality Natal ; the range probably includes at 
least a portion of the Transvaal, and may extend still further 
north. 

Type in Eoyal Swedish Museum of Natural History, 
Stockholm. 

Postorbital region of skull moderately elongated but 
narrow, 13-7x11 per cent.; interorbital width relatively 
small, 32*3 per cent. ; the one upper and one or two pairs of 
lower incisors persistent. 

46. 6. 2. 75 (719, a^). Skull, female, provisionally referred 
to this race. Transvaal ; collected by J. Wahlberg. 

By exchange with the Stockholm 3fuseum, 1846. 

83. 7. 28. 11. Skin, female, probably belonging to this or 



SUID.E 369 

a nearly allied race. Umfiile Valley, Mashonaland ; collected 
by F. C. Selous, Esq. Purchased, 1883. 

86. 5. 5. 5. Skin, mounted, racially identical with the 
preceding specimen. Sarna ^'^alley, Mashonaland ; same 
collector. Purchased, 1886. 

The following specimens, according to Lonnherg, represent 
a race allied to, and yet distinct from, P. te. sundevalli, the 
intcrorhital region being still narroicer : — 

91.9.5.3(719,16^). Skull. Ukanga, Nyasaland. Noticed 
by Lonnberg, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1908, p. 939. 

Presented bij Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 1891. 

91. 9. 5. 4 (719, x). Skull, female. Same locality. 

Same history. 

93. 7. 2. 29-30. Two skulls. Shiri Highlands, Nyasaland ; 
collected by A. Whyte, Esq. Same donor, 1893. 

93. 7. 25. 11. Skull. Near Lake Mweru, N. W. Ehodesia ; 
collected by E. Crawshay, Esq. Same history. 

94.3.8.17. Skull. Same locality and collector. Noticed 
l)y Lonnberg, op. cit. p. 938. Same donor, 1894. 

94. 3. 8. 17. Skull, immature. Same locality and collector. 
Noticed, loc. cit. Same history. 

8.2.14.1. Skull. Angouiland, South Uganda. Noticed, 

02J. cit. p. 937. Presented by 0. B. Storey, Esq., 1908. 

8. 2. 14. 2. Skull, young. Same locality. Noticed, loc. 

cit. Same history. 

The folloiving specimens accord ivith this race in the relative 
narrowness of the intcrorbital region : — 

8. 1. 31. 6. Skull and skin, immature female. Athi 
Valley, British East Africa. 

Presented by the Master of Belhaven, 1908. 
12. 7. 28. 2. Skull and skin, immature. Mau Forest, 
above Njoro, British East Africa. 

Presented by 0. W. Woodhouse, Esq., 1912. 
12. 7. 28. 3. Skull and skin, immature. Same locality. 

Same history. 
12. 7. 28. 4. Skull, immature. Same locaHty. 

Same history. 

IV. 2 B 



370 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

12. 7. 28. 5. Skull, immature. Same locality. 

Same liiMory. 

12. 7. 28. G. Skull, old boar. Same locality. luterorbital 

width 4.L inclies. Same history. 

12. 7. 28. 7. Skull, old l)oar. Same locality. Interorbital 

width 4^ inches. Same liidory. 

12. 7. 28. 8. Skull, immature. Same locality. 

Sa,me Iddory. 

C— Phacoehcerus sethiopicus massaicus. 

Phacochoerus massaicus, Lonnherg, Sjostedt's Kilimandjaro-Meru 
Exped., Mamm. p. 54, 1908, Proe. Zooh Soc. 1908, p. 937, 
K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. vol. xlviii, no. 5, p. 142, 1912. 

Phacochoerus sethiopicus massaicus, Lydekker, Game Animals of 
Africa, Suppl. p. 23, 1911. 

Typical locality Masailand ( Kilimanjaro-Meru district), 
German East Africa. 

Type in Eoyal Swedish Museum of Natural History, 
Stockholm. 

Postorbital region of medium length and width, 14 x 
14 per cent.; interorbital width relatively great, 38-8 per 
cent. 

95. 4. 3. 42. Skull, immature, provisionally associated by 
Lonnherg, Froc. Zool. Soe. 1908, p. 938, with this race. 
Uganda. The relative shortness of the postorbital region 
may be a feature of immaturity. 

The following specimens accord ivith this race in the great 
relaiive width of the i^iterorhital region, tvhich is considerably 
greater than in the British Fast African specimens entered 
under the heading of the p)receding race : — ■ 

1. 8. 9. 54. Skull and skin, immature. Malo, Uganda. 
Presented hy Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 1901. 
1. 8. 9. 55. Skull and skin, immature female. Same 
locality. >SVf7?ie history. 

1. 8. 9. 56. Skull and skin, immature. Same locality. 

Saine history. 
5. 4. 3. 41. Skull, female. S. W. Ankoli, Uganda. 
Interorbital width h\ inclies. 

Presented hy Lieut.-Col. C. Dclme-Piadcliffe, 1905. 



SUIDiE 371 

5. 4. 3. 42. Skull, female. Same locality. Interorbital 
width Hi inches. Same liistory. 

5. 4. 3. 43. Skull, female. Same locality. Same historij. 

D.— Phacochoerus sethiopicus delamerei. 

Phacochcerus delamerei, Lonnherg, Proc. Zool, Soc. 1908, p. 240, 
K. Svensha Vet.-Ak. Handl. vol. xlviii, no. 5, p. 140, 1912. 

Phacochoerus sethiopicus delamerei, LydeM-er, Game Animals o 
Africa, Suj)])!. p. 23, 1911. 

Typical locality Northern Somaliland. 

I'roportions of postorLital region of skull much the same 
as in typical race, although the width is rather less, 10*9- 
10 • 5 X 11 •9-11' 5 per cent.; interorl)ital width relatively 
great, 34 • 7-33 per cent. 

There has been some doubt with regard to the locality 
where this race is found, but it is practically certain that one 
or other of the undermentioned skulls presented by Lord 
Delamere wag taken from the north Somali animal of which 
the head is figured on page 401 of Game Animals of Africa. 

0. 3. 27. 16. Skull. Somaliland. Co-type. Except for 
some vestiges in the mandible, both upper and lower incisors 
have been worn away. Frcsented hi/ the Lord Delamere, 1900. 

0. 3. 27. 17. Skull. Same locality. Co-type. Two 
pairs of lower incisors are retained. Same history. 

6. 5, 4. 12. Skull and skin, female, provisionally referred 
to this race. S.W. of Berbera, Somaliland. 

Presented hy Dr. R. E. Drake- Br ockman, 190G. 

E.— Phacochoerus aethiopicus aeliani. 

Phascochoeres seliani, Cretzschmar, Atlas to liiippeU's Reise nordl. 
Afrika, p. 61, pis. xxv and. xxvi, 1826 ; Javdine, Naturalist's 
Libr., Mamm. vol. v, p. 219, pi. xxiv, 1836. 

Phacochcerus edentatus, I. Geoffroy, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat. vol. xiii, 
p. 320, 1828. 

Phacelochoerus haroja, Hemprich and Ehrenherg, Symbol. Phys. 
pi. XX, 1836. 

Phacochoerus seliani. Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mas. p. 185, 1848 ; 
Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p, 280, 1862 ; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 276, pi. xx, 1871, p. 236; Blanford, 
Zool. Abyssinia, p. 241, 1870 ; Stehlin, Abh. schrveiz. pal. Ges. 
vol. xxvii, pi. X, fig. 6, 1900 ; Lomiberg, SjostedVs Kilimandjaro- 
Merii Exped. p. 53, 1908, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1908, p. 937. 

2 B 2 



3'72 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Phacochoerus sclateri, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol, vi, 
pp. 189 and 263, 1870 ; Sclater, ibid. p. 404, 1870. 

Phacochoerus haroia, Lonnberg, SjostedVs Kilimandjaro-Meru Exped. 
p. 53, 1908. 

Typical locality Abyssinia. 

The upper incisors shed and the lower ones usually worn 
down to the roots in aged animals, which may retain only 
the canines and last molars ; postorbital region very long and 
very narrow, 15-4 x 6 '3 per cent.; interorbital width as in 
P. ce. sundevalli, 32 • 3 per cent. 

719, V. Skeleton and skin. Abyssinia ; collected by Dr. 
Eiippell. Co-type. Purchased. 

69. 2. 2. 12 (765, c). Skeleton, mounted. Annesley Bay, 
Abyssinia ; collected by W. Jesse, Esq., during the Abyssinian 
Expedition, under Lord ISTapier of Magdala. 

Presented hy the Viceroy and Council of India, 1869. 

69. 10. 24. 47 (719, q). Skull. Zulla, Abyssinia; 
collected by Dr. W. T. Blanford during the above-mentioned 
expedition. Noticed by Lonnberg, with measurements, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1908, p. 937. Same history. 

F.— Phacochoerus sethiopicus fossor. 

Phacochoerus sethiopicus fossor, Schivarz, Ann, Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 8, vol. xi, p. 266, 1913. 

Typical locality Ketekma, Bagirmi, N.W. Central Africa. 

Type in Senckenbcrg Museum, Frankfurt-am-Main. 

Skull heavier than in P. a;, cdiani, with the profile less 
concave in the frontal but more so in the nasal region, the 
occiput lower and wider, the jugal deeper and placed less 
nearly vertically, and the lower canines more procumbent, 
but directed more backwards at tips. 

7. 7. 8. 257. Skull and skin, immature female, pro- 
visionally referred to this race. Yo, Lake Chad district. 

Presented hy the Alexander-Gosling Expedition, 1907. 

G.— Phacochoerus sethiopicus bufo. 

Phacochoerus africanus b\ifo, Heller, Sniitlison. Misc. Collect, vol. Ixi, 
no. 22, p. 2, 1914 ; Allen. Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll. vol. Iviii, 
p. 324, 1914. 



suiD.E 373 

Typical locality Lado Enclave. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Difiers from P. ce. mliani by the greater breadth and 
length of the postorbital portion of the skull, the more 
nearly flat interorbital region, and the greater extension of 
the premaxillai beyond the sockets of the tusks, as well as 
by the lack of elevation in tlie parietal and occipital crests, 
and the smaller auditory bulliTe. Incisors are retained in the 
adults. 

9. 7. 15. 2. Skull. Lado Enclave. 

Purchased (Giza Zoological Gardens), 1909. 

H.— Phacochoerus aethiopicus africanus. 

Sus africanus, Gmelin, Linn.'s Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 222, 1778 ; Griffith, 
Animal Kingdom, vol. iii, p. 332, 1827. 

Phascochcei'us africanus, F. Cuvier, Mem. Mus. Paris, vol. viii, 
p. 452, pi. xxiii, 1817 ; Desmarcst, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 593, 
1822; A. Smith, Cat. S. African Mus., Mamm. p. 16, 1826; 
Lesson, Man. Mamm. p. 341, 1827. 

Phacochoerus africanus, F. Cuvier, Debits Mamm. p. 213, pi. Ixxxvii, 
1825 ; /. B. Fischer, Synoj). Mamm. p. 424, 1829 ; Peters, Reise 
Mossamh. vol. i, 181, 1852; Giebel, Saugethiere, p. 237, 1855; 
Kirk, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 656; Floiuer and Garson, Cat. 
Osteol. Mus. R. Coll Surg. pt. ii, p. 360, 1884; W. L. Sclater, 
Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 197, 1891 ; Flower and 
LyddxTxcr, Study of Mammals, p. 289, 1891 ; LydeTiker, Horns and, 
Hoofs, p. 370, 1893, Great and Small Game of Africa, p. 517, 
1899 ; Matschie, Sdugeth. Deutsch-Ost-Afrika, p. 100, 1895 ; 
Elliot, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. i, p. 109, 1897; Lonnherg, 
Sjostcdfs Kilimandjaro-Meru Exped., Mamm. p. 53, 1908, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1908, p. 936 ; Cabrera, Cat. Met. Mam. Mus. Madrid, 
p. 133, 1912 ; Newberry, Klio, vol. xii, p. 397, 1912. 

Phascochaerus africanus, Griffith, Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 289, 
18l7,2yartim. 

Phacochoerus aethiopicus africanus, Inverarity, Great and Small 
Game of Africa, p. 521, 1899 ; Lydekker, Game Animals of 
Africa, p. 400, 1907, Suppl. p. 73, 1911, Ward's Records of Big 
Game, ed. 7, p. 458, 1914. 

Macrocephalus africanus, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. {Field 
Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 83, 1907. 

Typical locality Cape Verd, Senegambia. 

Size very large, probably greater than in any other race, 
the upper skull-length being l7f inches (445 mm.) ; post- 
orbital region relatively long and wide, 59 X 58 mm. = 
13*4 X 13 'l per cent. ; interorbital region relatively narrow, 
30 per cent, 



374 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

46. 8. 7. 24 (719, h). Skull. Cape Verd. Topo-type. 

Presented hj T. Tatum, Esq., 1836. 

Tlie reference of the following sjjecimen to this race is 
^provisional : — 

65. 5. 3. 5 (719, u). Skull. Nigeria; collected by Dr. 
AV. B. Baikie. Purchased (Stevens), 1865. 



Subfamily ii.— DICOTYLINiE. 

Fore-feet with four and hind-feet with three complete 
toes ; 32 teeth, the dental formula being i. f , c. -\, i^. -|, m. f ; 
upper canines comparatively short, straight, and directed 
downwards ; stomach complex ; a dorsal gland ; 2 teats ; 
tail rudimentary ; upper ends of third and fourth metacarpals 
and metatarsals united. 

The distribution is restricted to the New World, where 
peccaris range from Arkansas and Texas to the Eio Negro 
of Patagonia. 

VI. Genus DICOTYLES. 

Tayassu, Fischer, Zoognonia, vol. iii, p. 284, 1814 ; Miller, List 
N, Amer. Mamm. p. 384, 1912; recommended for siqypression in 
favour of Dicotyles by '■'■ fiat''' of International Commission of 
Zootogical Nomenclature, 1914, vide Zool. Anz. vol. xliv, p. 285. 

Dicotyles, Cuvicr, Regne Animal, vol. i, p. 237, 1817 ; GriffifJi, 
Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 289, 1827 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1868, p. 58, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 351, 1869 ; Elliot, 
Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. {Field Mus. Zool. Pub.) vol. ii, p. 33, 
1901 ; Loomis, Amer. J. Sci. vol. xxx, p. 383, 1910; Houv, Anat. 
Eefte Wiesbaden, Abt. 1, vol. xl, p. 717, 1910. 

Notophorus, Fischer, Mem. Soc. Moscon, vol. v, p. 373, 1817. 

Dicotylus, Bowdich, Anal. Nal. Classif. Mamm. p. 71, 1821. 

Adenonotus, Broolces, Cat. Mus. p. 11, 1828. 

Dycoteles, Jardinc, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. v, p. 234 (1836) ; 
Blytli, Cuvicr's Anim. Kingdom, p. 131, 1840. 

Dicotyle, Gervais and Ameejltino, Mamm. Foss. Amer. Sud. p. 110, 
1880. 

Dycotyles, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. viii, p. 54, 1896. 

Olidosus, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xiv, p. 120, 1901. 

Tagassu, Elliot (ex Frisch), Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies 
(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 66, 1904. 

Tayassus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Sujjpl. p. 658, 1904. 



suiD.E 375 

Small, tailless, pig-like animals, with thick bristly coats, 
small, ovate, erect ears, and a large glandular area rather 
behind the middle of the back, which secretes a strongly- 
smelling musky oleaginous substance. 

The subfamily is divisible into the two following sub- 
genera (genera of many naturalists) : — 

A. Mane and dorsal crest long, and reaching rump ; nasals 

and sides of cranial rostrum flattened; palate broad.... Dicotyles. 

B. Mane and dorsal crest shorter and not reaching rump ; 

nasals and sides of cx'anial rostrum not flattened ; 

palate narrow Pecari. 

1. Subgenus DICOTYLES. 

Mane and dorsal crest long- and exteudincr backwards to 
rump ; upper surface of nasals and sides of cranial rostrum 
flattened, the latter not divided by zygomatic ridge, which 
rises abruptly to top of skull, where it dies out above second 
premolar ; palate broad and flat, without ridge between 
anterior premolar and inner surface of canine ; no depression 
on preorbital portion of zygomatic root. 

The distributional area extends from Mexico to Paraguay. 

I. DICOTYLES I'ECArj. 

Tayassu pecari, Fisher, Zoognosia, vol. iii, p. 285, 1814; Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, p. 165, 1902 ; Miller, List 
N. Amer. Mamm. p. 384, 1912. 

Sus albirostris, Uliger, Ahli. AI-. Sci. Berlin, 1811, p. 115, 1815 (separate 
copies are stated to have been issued in 1811). 

Dicotyles labiatus, Ciivier, Regne Animal, vol. i, p. 237, 1817 ; 
Desmarest, Mammalogie, vol. ii, pp. 394 and 620, 1822; Griffith. 
Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 290, 1827 ; Bengger, Sdugeth. 
Paragiiaij, p. 322, 1830; Tschudi, Fauna Peruv. p. 217, 1844; 
Frantzius, Arch. Naturgesch. vol. i, p. 296, 1855 ; Burmeister, 
Sgst. Uebersicht, vol. i, p. 325, 1855, Deserip. Phys. Bepuh. 
Argent, vol. iii, p. 472, 1879; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 45, 
Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 352, 1869, Hand-List ThicTc- 
skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 54, 1873; Alston, Biol. Centr.- 
Anier., Mamm. p. 108, pi. x, 1882 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Ostcol. 
Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 343, 1884 ; LydeJcJccr, Cat. Foss. 
Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt, ii, p. 251, 1885, Great and Small Game 
of Europe, etc. p. 383, 1901 ; Flower and Lydehher, Study of 
Mammals, p. 290, 1891 ; Stehlin, Ahh. schiveiz. pal. Ges. vol. xxvi, 
p. 209, 1899 ; Weber, Sdugethiere, p. 652, 1904. 

Notophorus pecari, Fischer, Mem. Soc. Moscou, vol. v, p. 373, 1817. 



.■•76 CATALOGUE OF UNGUl-ATES 

Adenonotus labiatus, BrooJccs, Cat. Mus. p. 11, 1828. 

Dycoteles labiatus, Jardiue, Naturalises Libr., Mamm. vol. v, p. 236, 

pi. xxvii, 1836. 
Dicotyles albirostris, Wagner, Schrebc7''s Sdugtldere, Skj)])^. vol. iv, 

p. 306, 1844. 
Siis labiatus, Gerrard, Cat. Bones Manint. Brit. Mus. p. 281, 1862. 
Tagassu pecari, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies {Field 

Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 66, 1904, ChecJc-List Mamm.N. Amer. 

etc. (ibid. vol. vi) p. 35, 1905. Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (ibid. 

vol, viii) p. 35, 1907. 
Tayassu albirostris, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xiv, 

" p. 120, 1901 ; Goldman, ibid. vol. xxv, p. 189, 1912. 
Tayassus albirostris, Trouessart, Cat. Mnmm., Siqypl. p. 659, 1904. 

White-lipped Peocari ; Wari. 

The type species. 

Typical locality Paraguay. 

Size relatively large (length of head and body about 
40 to 46 inches) ; general colour typically dark reddish brown 
and black, passing into rufous on face and crown, with the 
upper lips, top of nose, chin, throat, breast, and under-parts 
white. 

The folloM'ing three races are recognised : — 

A. Breast and under-parts white D. j). ;pccari, 

B. Breast and uuder-parts gi-izzled black and fulvous. 
(/. White face-markings more extensive than in 

typical race D. ^j. ringens. 

b. White face-markings still more extensive D. j}' spiradens. 



A.— Dicotyles pecari pecari. 

Tayassu pecari pecari. Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 884, 1912. 
Tayassus albirostris albirostris, Goldman, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washing- 
ton, vol. xxv, p. 189, 1912. 

Typical locality Paraguay. 

Face-markings of moderate extent ; under-parts white. 

152, h. Skin, young (?). Brazil. Purchased, 1835. 

42. 8. 17. 1. Skin, mounted. Brazil. 

Fnrcliascd (Clavsen), 1842. 

43. 2. 20. 6 (721, b). Skull, immature. Brazil. 

Purchased (Sf evens), 1843. 
43. 9. 27. 24. Skin, female. Bahia, Brazil. 

Purchased (Brand/), 1843. 



suiD/E 377 

45. 2. 13. 4(721, a). Skull, immature (from an old skin). 
Brazil. Purchased (Cross), 1845. 

46. 6. 1. 27. Skin. Santa Catherina, Brazil. 

Purchased {Parzudald), 1846. 

47. 4. 6. 8 (721, d). Skeleton, female. Brazil. 

Purchased (Barker), 1847. 
47. 4. 6. 9 (721, c). Skeleton. Brazil. Same history. 

51. 8. 27. 76 (721, c). Skull. Para, Brazil. 

Purchased (Stevens), 1851. 

61. 4. 8. 2 (721,/). Skeleton. Brazil. 

Purchased (Zoologiad Society), 1861. 

62. 12. 15. 112-113. Two young specimens, in alcohol. 
British Guiana. Purchased (Leaclbeater), 1862. 

84. 2. 8. 17. Skull. Taquara, Eio Grande do Sul, 
Brazil ; collected hy Dr. H. von Ihering. Purchased, 1884. 
84. 2. 8. 18. Skull. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
99. 2. 22. 10. Skull and skin. Entre Rios. 

Presented hy tlie La Plata Museum, 1899. 
3. 7. 7. 121. Skull and skin, female. Chapada, Matto 
Grosso, Brazil ; collected by Mr. A. Robert. 

Presented hy Mrs. Percy Sladen, 1913. 

3. 7. 7. 122-123. Two young skulls. Same locality and 

collector. Same history. 

The folloiciny s2Kcimens from British Guiana arc pro- 
visionally referred to this race : — 

10. 5. 4. 67. Skull and skin, very young. Rio Supinaam 
Valley, British Guiana. 

Presented hy F. V. McConncU, Esc^., 1910. 
10. 6. 12. 1. Skull. Lama Creek, British Guiana. 

Presented hy B. Howell Jones, Escf, 1910. 

10. 9. 29. 32. Skull and skin. Supinaam A^alley. 

Presented hy F. V. McCoimcll, Esq., 1910. 

11. 6. 7. 49. Skull and skin, very young. Moon 
Mountains, southern British Guiana. Same donor, 1911. 

11. 12. 15. 5. Skull, young. Bartica Grove, Essequibo 
Valley, British Guiana. Same history. 

12. 12. 19. 13. Skull and skin. Bonasica Creek, 
British Guiana. Same donor, 1912. 



378 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

12. 12. 10. 14. Skull aud skin. Same locality. 

Same liistory. 

12. 12. 19. 15. Skull and skin. Same locality. 

Same hist or if. 

13.6.8.14. Skull aud skin. Manarica Creek, Essequibo 

A'alley. Same donor, 1913. 

13. 12. 12. 4. Skull and skin, very young. Supinaam 
Valley. Same liistory. 

B. -Dicotyles pecari ringens. 

Tayassu albirosti-is ringens, Mcrriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 

vol. xiv, p. 121, 1901. 
Tayassu pecari ringens, Allen, Bull. Anier. Mus, Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, 

p. 166, 1902 ; Miller, List Mamm. N. Amer. p. 384, 1912. 
Tagassu pecari ringens, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies 

{Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 66, 1904, Check-List Mamm. 

N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 37, 1905. 

Typical locality Apazote, State of Campeche, Mexico. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Similar in general characters to typical race, but with a 
greater extension of whitish face-markings — the light area 
including the whole muzzle from tip to midway between 
nose and eyes, and extending backwards along sides of lower 
jaw to below ears — the presence of an ill-defined white band 
above each pair of hind-hoofs, and the grizzled black and 
fulvous under-parts. 

No specimen in collection. 

C— Dicotyles pecari spiradens. 

Tayassu albirostris sjDiradens, Goldman, Proc. Biol. Soc, Washington, 
vol. XXV, p. 189, 1912. 

Typical locality Talamanca, Costa Rica. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Eesembles D. p. ringens in size and colour, but still more 
white on face, sometimes extending to eyes; molars wider 
and first lower premolar smaller. Distinguished from T. p. 
pecari by more convex profile of brain-case, the narrower 
front portion of lower premolars, and more evenly tapering 
lower cheek-teeth row. 

No specimen in collection. 



suiD^E 379 



2. Subgenus PECARI. 

Pecari, Beichenbach, Bildergal. Thierwelt, pt. vi, p. 1, 1835 ; Miller, 
List N. Amcr. Mamm. p. 383, 1912. 

Mane and dorsal crest shorter than in typical subgenus 
and not covering rump ; upper surface of nasals and sides of 
cranial rostrum not flattened, the latter divided by a more 
or less pronounced zygomatic ridge ; palate long and narrow, 
with a more or less distinct anterior median ridge, and a 
depression in preorbital portion of zygomatic root above 
premolars. 

Eange co-extensive with that of genus. 

The two species are distinguished as follows : — 

A. Skull ■with slight basal angulation of nasals, 

palatal ridge, and preorbital depression D. (P.) tajacu. 

V,. Skull with strongly marked basal angulation 
of nasals, prominent palatal ridge, and deep 
preorbital depression in anterior zygomatic 
root jD. (P.) angulat as. 



II. DICOTYLES (PECAEI) TAJACU. 

Sus tajacu, Linn. SijsL Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 50, 1758, ed. 12, vol. i, 
p. 103, 1766. 

Sus tajassu, Erxleben, Sijst. Regn. Anim. p. 188, 1777. 

Dicotyles torquatus, Cuvier, Begne Animal, vol. i, p. 237, 1817 ; 
Desmarest, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 393, 1822 ; Griffith, Animal 
Kingdom, vol. v, p. 289, 1827 ; Bengger, Sdngeth. Paraguay, 
p. 322, 1830; Tschiuli, Fauna Peru, p. 216, 1844; Frantzius, 
Arch. Naturgcsch. vol. i, p. 296, 1855 ; Burmcister, Syst. Ueber- 
sicht, vol. i, p. 327, 1855, Descrij). Phys. Bepub. Argent, vol, iii, 
p. 473, 1879 ; Baird, Mamm. N. Amer. p. 627, 1857 ; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 206 ; Tomes, ibid. 1861, p. 287 ; Stehlin, 
Abh. schiveiz. pal. Ges. vol. xxvi, p. 208, 1899. 

Adenonotus tajacu, Brookes, Cat. Mus. p. 11, 1828. 

Dycoteles torquatus, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. v, 
p. 234, pi. xxvi, 1836. 

Dicotyles tajacu, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 186, 1843 ; Gerrard, 
Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 280, 1862 ; Sclater, List Anim. 
Zool. Gardens, p. 19, 1862 ; Alston, Biol. Centr.-Anier., Mamm. 
p. 102, 1882 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. B. Coll. Surg. 
pt. ii, p. 344, 1884 ; Lydelker, Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt. ii, 
p. 252, 1885, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 371, 1901 ; 
IF. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. 'Mus. pt. ii, p. 196, 1891 ; 
Flower and Lydckker, Study of Mammals, p. 290, 1891 ; Elliot, 
Synof. N. Amer. Mamni. (Field. Mus. Zool Pub. vol. ii) p. 33, 
1901 ; Weber, SdugetUere, p. 652, 1904. 



380 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

Notophorus torqtiatus, Gray, Proe. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 44, Cat. 

Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 351, 1871 ; Hand-List Thick- 

sHnned Mamm. Brit Mus. p. 53, 1873. 
Tayassu tayassu. Stone and Cram, American Animals, pi. facing 

p. 30, 1903. 

Pecari Tajacu. 

Typical locality Brazil. 

Smaller than I), pcmri, the average length of the head 
and body being about 36 inches ; general colour dark blackish 
grey, with a white or whitish band passing across the chest 
from shoulder to shoulder. 

The following races are recognised : — 

A. General colour grizzled grey or tawny. 

a. Skull relatively large, long, naiTOw, and vaulted.... D. t. tajacu. 
h. Skull smaller, shorter, wider and depressed D. t. torvus. 

B. General colour almost uniform black D. t. niger. 

A.— Dicotyles tajacu tajacu. 

Typical locality southern Brazil. 

Skull relatively large, long, narrow, and vaulted ; general 
colour grizzled grey or tawny. 

720, i. Skull. Locality unknown.* No Ivldory. 

38. 4. 16. 86. Skull. Locality unknown. 

Purchased (Stevens), 1838. 

41. 12. 20. 1 (35, h). Skin, mounted. Locality unknown. 

Frcscntcd Ivj B. Cross, Esq., 1841. 

55, li. Skin, immature, mounted. No history. 

43. 5. 16. 8 (720, a). Skull. Organ Mountains, Brazil ; 
collected by Dr. Gardner. Purchased, 1843. 

44. 2. 7. 11. Skin, young. Locality unknown. 

Purchased (Leadheater), 1844. 
50. 11. 22. 49 (720, c). Skull. Locality unknown. 

Purchased (Zooloyiccd Society), 1850 

55. 12. 26. 154 (720, d), Skull. Locality unknown. 

Same history, 1855. 

56. 12. 30. 2 (720, e). Skeleton. Locality unknown. 

S((mc history, 1856. 

* The reference to this race of specimens of unknown locality is 
provisional. 



SUID.'E 381 

58. 5. 4. 44 (720,/). Skull. Locality unknown. 

Same history, 1858. 

58. 5. 4. IIG (720, g). Skeleton, mounted, Locality 

unknown. Same history. 

60.2.11.15. Skin, young, mounted. Locality unknown. 

Pnrchased (Venravx), 1860. 
67. 4. 12. 207. Skin. Locality unknown. 

Presented by Capt. Milncr, 1867. 
84. 2, 8. 19. Skull, immature female. Taquara, Eio 
Grande do Sul ; collected by Dr. H. von Iliering. 

Purchased, 1884. 

97. 10. o. 17. Skull. Chanchamayo, Peru; collected 

by Mr. J. Kalinowski. Purchased, 1897. 

1. 2. 7. 53. Skull and skin, young. Pereque, Sao Paulo, 

Brazil; collected by Mr. A. Robert. Purchased {Beckett), 1901. 

I. 6. 6. 80. Skull and skin, somevvliat older. S. 
Francisco, Sao Paulo ; same collector. Same history. 

3. 7. 7. 126. Skull and skin. Cliapada, Matto Grosso, 

Brazil; same collector. Presented by Mrs. Percy Sladen, 1903. 

3. 7. 7. 127. Skull and skin. Same locality and collector. 

Same history. 
3. 7. 7. 128. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and 
collector. Same history. 

8. 8. 19. 1. Skull and skin. Villa Rica, Paraguay. 

Presented by the Hon. W. H. Hugcsscn, 1908. 
8. 8. 19. 2. Skull, imperfect, and skin. Same locality. 

Same history. 

10. 5. 4. 56. Skull and skin. Rio Supinaam, British 

Guiana. Presented by F. V. McConnell, Esc[., 1910. 

10. 11. 10. 10. Skull and skin. Bartica Grove, Essequibo 
Valley, British Guiana. Same history. 

II. 12. 15. 3. Skull and skin. Same locality. 

Same donor, 1911. 

11. 12. 15. 4. Skull and skin. Same locality. 

Same history. 

12. 6. 5. 31. Skull and skin. Bonasica Creek, British 
Guiana. Same donor, 1912 

12. 12. 19. 10. Skull and skin. Bonasica Creek, 
British Guiana. Same history. 

5. 11. 1. 20. Skull and skin, young. Georgetown, 
Demerara; collected by S. B. Warren, Esq. Purchased, 1905. 



382 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



B.— Dicotyles tajacu topvus. 

Tayassu tor\ns, Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. WasJiinqton, vol. xii, p. 164, 
1898. '■ 

Dicotyles tajacu iovxus, LydeJcker, Great and Small Game of Europe, 

etc. p. 382, 1901. 
Tagassu torvus, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mas. {Field Mas. Zool. 

Pub. vol. viii) p. 35, 1907. 
Tayassu torvum, Osgood, Field Mas. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 46, 1912. 

Typical locality Santa Marta district, Colombia. 
Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 
Skull relatively small, short, wide, and depressed. 

The reference of the follovd));! ^^pecimem io fin's r((ce /.s- 
jyrovisional : — 

97. 11. 7. 5G. Skull and skin, young. Cachavi, Ecuador ; 
collected by Mr. W. F. H. Eosenberg. PurcJmsed, 1897. 

99. 10. 3. 65. Skull and skin, young. Near Bogota, 
Colombia ; collected by Mr. G. D. Child. 

Presented hy 0. Thomas, Esq., 1899. 
14. 11. G. 2. Skull and skin. Eio Cesar Valley, 
Colombia ; collected by W. K. Pomeroy, Esq. 

Presenied h>/ the Zoological Society, 1914. 



C— Dicotyles tajacu niger. 

Dicotyles torquatus, Tomes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 262 ; nee Cuvier. 
Tayassu niger, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xxxii, p. 476, 
1913. 

Typical locality Esnieraldas, Ecuador. 

Type in American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. 

Differs from both the preceding races liy the general 
colour being nearly uniform black instead of grizzled grey 
or tawny. 

97. 11. 7. 56. Skin, young female, provisionally referred 
to this race. Cachavi, Ecuador. 

Presented h/ 0. Thomas, Esq., 1897 



suiD.^ 383 



III. DICOTYLES (PECAPJ) ANGULATUS. 

Dicotyles angulatus, Cope, Amer. Nat. vol. xxiii, p. 147, 1889 ; Weber,' 

Sdugethiere, p. 652, 1904. 
Tayassu angulatus, Bangs, Proc. Biol, Soc. Washington, vol. xii, 

p. 165, 1898 ; Merriam, ibid. vol. xiv, p. 120, 1901 ; Stone and 

Cram, American Animals, p. 30, 1903 (angulatum). 
Dicotyles tajacu angulatus, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of 

Europe, etc. p. 381, 1901. 
Tagassu angulatum, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies {Field 

Mtis. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 63, 1904, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. 

{ibid. vol. viii) p. 34, 1907. 
Pecari angulatus. Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 383, 1912. 

Typical locality Guadeliipe Valley, Texas. 

General characters those of D. tajacu, but palate with 
sharp ridge reaching from first premolars to bases of sockets 
of canines ; nasal bones more augulated in median line ; last 
upper premolar quadrangular, with four main tubercles and 
intermediate tubercles ; molars wrinkled ; sides of cranial 
rostrum deeply excavated above premolars. When only one 
form of peccari with this type of skull and dentition was 
known, the writer regarded it as a race of D. tajacu, now 
that a number are recognised, it is convenient to allow 
specific rank to this type, of which the local races are 
distinguishable as follows : — 

A. Size larger. 

a. Shoulder- stripe white ; sides of body black 

and white D. a. angulatus. 

b. Shoulder-stripe yellowish ochery, narrow ; 

sides greyer D. a. humeralis. 

c. Shoulder-stripe broad ; sides whitish D. a. yucatanensis. 

d. Shoulder-stripe indistinct, very narrow ; sides 

grizzled grey D. a. crassus. 

e. Shoulder-stripe indistinct; sides mixed greyish 

and brownish black D. a. sonoriensis. 

f. Shoulder-stripe wide and tawny D. a. crusnigruvt. 

B. Size smaller; sides grizzled black and buff D. a. nanus. 

A.— Dicotyles angulatus angulatus. 

Pecari angulatus angulatus. Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 383, 
1912. 

Typical locality Guadelupe Valley, Texas. 
General colour black and white, shoulder-stripe white. 
The range includes Texas and north-eastern Mexico. 
No specimen in collection. 



384 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



B. — Dicotyles angulatus sonoriensis. 

Dicotyles angulatus sonoriensis, Mearns, Proc. U.S. Nat. Miis., 
vol. XX, p. 469, 1897. 

Dicotyles tajacu sonoriensis, LydeTcli-cr, Great and Small Game of 
^Hro;;r,V/r. p. 382, 1901. 

Tayassu angulatus sonoriensis, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
vol. xiv. p. 120, 1901. 

Tagassu angulatum sonoriense, Elliot, Mamvi. Mid. Amer. and 
W. Indies (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 64, 1904. 

Pecari angulatus sonoriensis, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamni. p. 383, 
1912. 

Typical locality San Bernadino Valley, Sonora, Mexico. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, "Washington. 

Larger and paler than typical race, with bigger ears and 
feet, and smaller and simpler molars ; general colour greyish 
and brownish black, with a sharply contrasting black dorsal 
stripe, and the light shoulder-stripe indistinct ; young pale 
reddish brown, with a black dorsal stripe. 

12. 7. 3. 1. Skin, mounted. Sonora. 

PycxcnUd hy I. N. Dracopoli, Esq., 1912. 

C- Dicotyles angulatus humeralis. 

Tayassu angulatus humeralis, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
vol. xiv, p. 122, 1901. 

Tagassu angulatum liumerale, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. 
Indies {Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 63, Check-List Mamm. 
N. Amer. etc. {ibid. vol. vi) p. 35, 1905, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. 
(ibid. vol. viii) p. 34, 1907. 

Pecari angulatus humeralis, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 383, 
1912. 

Typical locality America, State of Colima, Mexico. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

GTcnerally similar to typical race, but flanks greyer, head 
yellower, dorsal stripe more pronounced, and shoulder-stripe 
yellowish ochery ; skull of female larger, with longer row of 
cheek-teeth. 

The range extends from Colima to Tehuantepec. 

98. 3. 2. 151. Skull and skin. Sinaloa, Southern 
Mexico ; collected by Mr. P. 0. Simons. 

Purchased (Price), 1898. 



suiD.E 385 



D.— Dicotyles angulatus crassus. 

Tayassu angulatus crassus, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 

" vol. xiv, p. 124, 1901. 
Tagassu angulatum crassuni, Elliot, Manun. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies 
[Field Mils. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 64, 1904. 

Pecavi angulatus crassus, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 383, 1912. 

Typical locality Metlaltoyuca, State of Puebla, Mexico. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Size larger and coat coarser than in typical race ; general 
colour grizzled grey, with a black dorsal stripe ; shoulder- 
stripe very narrow and indistinct. 

No specimen in collection. 

E.— Dicotyles angulatus yucatanensis. 

Taj'assu angvilatus yucatanensis, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washiny- 
ton, vol. xiv, p. 123, 1901. 

Tagassu angulatum yucatanense, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Anicr. and 
W. Indies {Field Miis. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 63, 1904. 

Pecari angulatus yucatanensis. Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 383, 
1912. 

Typical locility Tunkas, Yucatan. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

General colour much wdiiter than in typical race, with 
the shoulder-stripe very wide and conspicuous ; female not 
larger than male ; nasals more acute and shorter than in 
D. a. angulatus. 

F.— Dicotyles angulatus crusnigrum. 

Tayassu crusnigrum. Bangs, Ball. Mas. Harvard Coll. vol. xxxix, 
p. 20, 1902. 

Tagassu crusnigrum, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies 
{Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 65, 1904. 

Pecari crusnigrum, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 383, 1912. 

Typical locality Boquete, Chiriqui, Panama. 
Type in Harvard College Museum. 

Specially distinguished by the width and tawny colour of 
the shoulder-stripe. 

No specimen in collection. 
IV. 2 c 



386 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

G.— Dicotyles angulatus nanus. 

Tayassu nanus, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xiv, 
p. 102, 1901. 

Tagassu nanus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Anier. and W. Indies {Field 
Mas. Zool. Puh. vol. iv), p. 62, 1904. 

Pecari nanus, Miller, List N. Amcr. Mamm. p. 384, 1912. 

Typical locality Cozumel Island, off Yucatan. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

A dwarf island-race, characterised by its grizzled black 
and buff general colour, dark dorsal stripe, and wide huffish 
shoulder-stripe. 

No specimen in collection. 



Family IL— HIPPOPOTAMIDJ^. 

Head terminating in a broad, rounded muzzle, at the 
summit of which are the nostrils ; feet four-toed, with the 
middle pair, at least, connected by membrane, and all four 
touching the ground in the ordinary standing posture ; 
incisors and canines growing from persistent pulps, the 
upper curved and directed downwards, the lower incisors 
straight and procumbent, and the canines curved and directed 
upwards ; molars with trefoil-shaped dentine islands (fig. 55) ; 
a descending flange to hind part of mandible, and lateral 
aspect of gape S-shaped. 

Restricted at the present day to Ethiopian Africa, but in 
the Pleistocene and Pliocene spread over a large part of the 
Old World, including England. 



I. Genus HIPPOPOTAMUS. 

Hippopotamus, Liint. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 74, 1758, ed. 12, 
vol. i, p. 101, 1766 ; Giehel, Sdugethiere, p. 217, 1855 ; Gray, Cat. 
Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 356, 1869 ; Lydehher, Pal. Indica 
(Mem. Geol. Surv. India), ser. 10, vol. iii, p. 47, 1884, Cat. Foss. 
Mamm. Brit. Mks. pt. ii, p. 277, 1885, Game Animals of Africa, 
p. 403, 1908; W. L. Sclater, Fauna S. Africa, Mamm. vol. i, 
p. 269, 1900; Anderson and dc Winton, Mamm. Fyypt, p. 856, 
1902. 



HIPPOPOTAMID.^. 387 

Tetrapi'otodou, Falconer and Caittley, Asiatic Besearches, vol. xix, 
p. 51, 1836; Oiven, Odontography, p. 566, 1840-45. 

Tetraproctodon, Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mas. p. 356, 1869, 
errorim. 

Dentition : i. f^f, c \, p. |, m. f = 42 or 44 ; size, at least 
in the existing species, very large, and the head dispro- 
portionately big, with an extremely broad muzzle, very 
prominent eyes, and small rounded ears ; body elongated ; 
tail and limbs short, the latter with the digits closely 
approximated, connected up to the hoofs by membrane, and 
thus almost incapable of lateral expansion. 

Distribution co-extensive with that of the family. The 
Pliocene subgenus Hexap^otodon, as typified by H. sivalensis, 
has three pairs of subequal incisors in each jaw. 



HIPPOPOTAMUS AMPHIBIUS. 

Hippopotamus amphibius, Linn. Syst. Nat. «d. 10, vol. i, p. 75, 1758, 
ed. 12, vol. i, p. 101, 1769; Schreber, Sdugthiere, pi. cccviii, 
1791; A. Smith, Illustr. Zool. S. Africa, vol. i, pi. vi, 1838: 
Gray, List Mamm. Brit. AIus. p. 188, 1843, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, 
p. 491, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 356, 1869, Hand-List 
Thich-skinned. Mamm. p. 71, 1873; Peters, Sdugeth. Mossamhigue, 
p. 180, 1852, Monatsher. Ah. Berlin, 1854, p. 367 ; Wolf, Zool. 
Sketches, vol. i, pi. xxvii, 1861 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. 
p. 284, 1862; Garrod, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. xi, p. 11, 1880; 
Lydekher, Pal. Indica {Mem. Geol. Surv. India), ser. 10, vol. iii, 
p. 47, 1884, Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt. ii, p. 277, 1885, 
Great and Small Game of Africa, p. 532, 1899, Game Animals 
of Africa, p. 403, 1908; Floiucr and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. 
B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 365, 1884 ; Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1887, 
" p. 619 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Lid. Mus. pt. ii, p. 197, 
1891, Fauna S. Africa, Mamm. vol. i, p. 269, 1900; Nicolls and 
Eglington, Sportsman in S. Africa, p. 65, 1892; Matschie, 
Sdugeth. Deutsch-Ost-Africa, p. 98, 1895 ; Selous, Great and 
Small Game of Africa, p. 533, 1899; Bothschild, Powell-Cotton's 
Abyssinia, p. 480, 1902 ; Anderson and de Winton, Mamm, 
Egypt, p. 356, 1902 ; Boussac, Rev. Scient. ser. 5, vol. i, p. 425, 
1904 ; Wolf, Ber. Senckenb. Ges. vol. xli, p. 7, 1910 ; Beddard, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 270, Cambridge Nat. Hist., Mamm. 
p. 273, 1902; Miller, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol. Ixiv, no. 7, 
p. 3, 1910 ; Maurer, Anat. Anz. vol. xxxviii, p. 145, 1911 ; 
Lonjiberg, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. vol. xlviii, no. 5, p. 136, 
1912 ; Allen, Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll. vol. Iviii, p. 323, 1914. 

Hippopotamus abyssinicus, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Begne Anim., Mamm. 
p. 158, 1842 ; nomen nudum. 

Hippopotamus typus, Diivcrnoy, C. B. Ac. Sci. Paris, vol. xiv, p. 33, 
1846. 

2 c 2 



388 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



Hippopotamus (Tetraprotodon) aniphibius, Falconer. Journ. Ac. Sci. 
Pliilad. ser. 2, voL i, p. 237, 1849, Pal. Mem. vol. ii, p. 405, 1868. 

Hippopotamus senegalensis, Falconer, Journ. Ac. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, 
vol. i, p. 237, 1849 ; Gratj, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 357, 
1869 : quoted — but not recognised as a species, as if from 
Desmoulins, Journ. Physiol, vol. v, p. 354, 1825, where, however, 
according to Miller (1910), no such name was given. 

Typical locality Nile Valley. 

Size very large — length of head and body about 14 feet ; 
two pairs of incisors in each jaw, the inner pair in lower jaw 




Fig. 55. — Palatal Aspect of Skull and Lower Jaw of Hippopotamus 
{Hippopotamus amphihius). 

much larger than the outer ; neck very short and line of 
back but little arched ; skin, with the exception of bristles 
on the muzzle and tail, nearly naked, and forming heavy 
folds on neck, shoulders, and sides of chest. 

The distriljutional area formerly included suitable locali- 



HIPPOPOTAMID^E 3<S9 

ties over the greater part of Ethiopian Africa, exclusive of 
the forest-tract, and in the Pleistocene eml)raced a large 
part of Europe. 

The five following races are recognised : — 

A. Width of orbit not exceeding height. 

a. Skull with moderate preorbital constriction 

and convex upper surface H. a. amphibms. 

a'. Size larger, colour darker. 

a~. Orbits less prominent H. a. amphihius. 

b'^. Orbits more prominent H. a. tschadensis. 

h' . Size smaller, colour lighter H. a. kohoko. 

b. Skull with deeper preorbital constriction and 

flatter upper surface H. a. constrictus. 

B. Width of orbit exceeding height, and flattening 

of skull still greater than in 6 H. a. australis. 



A.— Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius. 

Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius, Scliwarz, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 8, vol. xiii, p. 31, 1914. 

Typical locality Nile Valley. 

Skull with moderate preorbital constriction, convex upper 
surface, long mandibular symphysis, and relatively large 
cheek-teeth. 

The reference to this race of the undermentioned Gambiau 
specimens, and also of those of which the locality is unknown, 
is provisional. 

726, h. Fore part of lower jaw, with canines and incisors. 
Locality unknown. JVo history. 

726, d. Skull. Gambia, West Africa. 

Presented ly the Earl of Derhy, about 1848. 

726, J. Skeleton, imperfect. West Africa (?), Gambia ; 
collected by Mr. Dalton. Same history. 

41. 1. 14. 45 (726, c). Lower canine, immature. Locality 
unknown ; collected by Dr. G. Mantell. Purchased, 1841. 

46. 3. 19. 1 (726, c). Lower canine. Locality unknown ; 
collected by Mr. Harnett. Purchased, 1846. 

51. 11. 10. 12 (726, b). Skull, young. Locality unknown. 
Purchased {Zoological Society), 1851. 

68. 2. 12. 1. Skull, female. Locality unknown. 

Presented by Executors of Dr. H. Falconer, 1868. 



390 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 

74. 6. 4 2. Skull. White Nile. 

rrcsentcd hy Sir Samuel Baker, 1874. 
83. 12. 20. 1. Skiu, mounted. Nile, from an animal 
presented to the Zoological Society by the Pasha of Egypt. 

Furchased (Zoological Society), 1883. 
87. 12. 29. 1. Skull. Kilwa Kisi-wani, south of Zan- 
zibar. Presented hy Lieut. W. C. Reid, B.N., 1887. 
87. 12. 29. 2. Skull, female. Same locality. 

Same history, 

* * * *. Foetus in alcohol. Figured Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1868, p. 491, and Cat. Carnivora, etc., p. 357. Pnrchased. 

5. 8. 25. 1. Skin, mounted. Lower Zambesi. Miller, 

op. cit. refers the Zambesi hippopotamus to the present, and 

not to the southern race. 

Presented hy J. Rowland Ward, Esq., 1905. 
7. 10. 25. 2. Skull. Portuguese East Africa (? Beira). 
Presented hy F. Van glean Kirhy, Fsq., 1907. 

7. 11. 17. 2. Skull, immature. Pangani Valley, Por- 
tuguese East Africa. 

Presented hy Rear-Admiral R. Montgomerie, C.B., 1907. 

8. 4. 3. 8-9. Two skulls. Luenta Valley, Portuguese 
Zambesia. Presented hy Mr. G. H. B. Grant, 1908. 

12. 12. 8. 1, Skull, with damaged 1)rain-case. Inham- 
bane, Portuguese East Africa. 

Presented hy T. Thompsori, Fsq., 191 2. 
12. 12 8. 2. Skull, in very similar condition to the last. 

Same history. 

726, h. Eront of lower jaw, with canines and incisors. 

Locality unknown. No history. 

41. 1. 14. 45 (726, c). Lower canine, immature. Locality 

unknown ; collected by Dr. G. Mantell. Purchased, 1841. 

46. 3. 19. 1 (726, c). Abnormally elongated lower canine, 

from an aged animal. Locality unknown. 

Furchased (Harnett), 1846. 

B.— Hippopotamus amphibius tschadensis. 

Hippopotamus amphibius tschadensis, Scliwarz, Ann, Mag, Nat, 
Hist, ser. 8, vol. xiii, p. 31, 1914. 

Typical locality Katuna, Bornu, N.W. Africa. 
Type in Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt-am-Main. 



HIPPOPOTAMIP.E 391 

Nearly allied to typical race, but with the orbits more 
prominent; distinguished from H. a. aiistrcdis (infra) by the 
much shorter and wider facial region and the more forward 
direction of the orbits. 

10. 9. 30. 1. Skull, provisionally referred to this race. 
Lagos, Southern Nigeria. 

Presented hy J. B. Norvnem, Esq., 1910. 

15. 2. 3. 1. Skull, very large, j^rovisionally referred to 
this race. Zaria Province, Nigeria ; collected by Capt. G. F. 
Abadie. Presented hy Mcijor-Gen. H. R. Abadie, C.B., 1915. 

C— Hippopotamus amphibius kiboko. 

Hippopotamus amphibius kiboko, Heller, Smithson. Misc. Collect. 
vol. Ixi, no. 22, p. 1, 1914. 

Typical locality Lake Naivasha, British E. Africa. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Size smaller than in typical race, colour lighter, and ears 
and tail-tip more thickly haired th?n in H. a. emstrcdis ; 
skull with very broad nasals, relatively small rostral con- 
striction, and great elevation of orbits and occipital crest 
above the deeply hollowed interorbital region. The orbits 
are more nearly circular than in //. a. austrcdis, and more 
prominent than in H. a. constrictus, which also differs by the 
greater rostral constriction and shorter maudiluilar symphysis. 

14. 1. 7. 1-2. Two skulls, provisionally referred to this 
race. Lower Baringo Valley, B. E. Africa. 

Presented ly G. Blaine, Esq., 1914. 

D.— Hippopotamus amphibius constrictus. 

Hippopotamus constrictus, Miller, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol. liv, 

no. 7, p. 1, 1910. 
Hippopotamus amphibius constvictns, Heller, Smithson. Misc. Collect. 

vol. Ixi, no. 22, p. 1, 1914. 

Typical locality Angola. 

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Skull lighter than in typical race, with the preorbital 
constriction deeper, the upper surface more flattened, the 
muzzle less expanded, the mandibular symphysis shorter, 
and the cheek-teeth smaller. 

No specimen in collection. 



392 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



E.— Hippopotamus amphibius australis. 

Hippopotamus australis, Duvernoy, C. E. Ac. Set. Paris, voL xiv, 
p. 333, 1846 ; Miller, Smitlison. Misc. Collect, vol. liv, no. 7, p. 3, 
1910. 

Hippopotamus capensis. Falconer, Journ. Ac. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, 
vol. i, p. 237, 1849 ; Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
p. 142, 1863 ; Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mas. p. 3,57, 1869 ; 
quoted — although not recognised as a species— as from Des- 
moiilins, Journ. Physiol, vol. v, p. 354, 1825, where, however, 
according to Miller (1910), no such name was given. 

Hippopotamus amphibius capensis, Heller, Smithson. Misc. Collect. 
vol. Ixi, no. 22, p. 1, 1914. 

Hippopotamus amphibius australis, Schwarz, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 8, vol. xlii, p. 32, 1914. 

Typical locality Cape Colony. 

Skull apparently still more flattened than in H. a. 
tschadensis, so that the width of the orbit is greater than the 
height. 

726, «. Skull. South Africa. JVo hutonj. 

51. 12. 23. 4. Skull, young. South Africa. 

Purchased (Stevens), 1851. 

63. 11. 12. 51. Skull. Cape Colony. Formerly in 

Museum of Linnean Society. Purclutsed (Stevens), 1863. 

69. 8. 13. 2. Skull. Natal ; collected by Mr. B. Isaacson. 

Purchased, 1869. 
13. 1. 31. 1. Pair of lower tusks. South Africa. 

Presented hj J. C. Lyell, Esq., 1913. 



II. Genus CHCEROPSIS. 

Diprotodon, Duvernoy, C. B. Ac. Sci. Paris, vol. xxix, p. 277, 1849 ; 
nee Oiven, 1838. 

Choerodes, Leidy, Proc. Ac. Sci. Philad. 1852, p. 52 ; nee White, 1846. 

Choeropsis, Leidy, Journ. Ac. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. ii, p. 213, 1853 ; 
Gratiolet, Recherches Anat. Hij)poj)otame, p. 202, 1867 ; Milne- 
Edwards, EecJi. Mamm. p. 77, 1868; Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. 
Brit. Mus. p. 357, 1869 ; Macalister, Proc. B. Irish Ac. ser. 2, 
vol. i, p. 494, 1873 ; Peters, Monatsher. Ah. Berlin, 1873, p. 445 ; 
Chapman, Proc. Ac. Sci. Philad. 1893, p. 185 ; Beaux, Zool. 
Anz. vol. xl, p. 227, 1912 ; Pocock, Field, vol. cxxi, p. 336, 1913. 

Ditomeadon, Gratiolet, Gervais' Zool.et Pal. Gen.sev. 1, p. 250, 1860, 
Becherches Anat. Hippopotame, p. 202, 1867. 

Diproctodon, Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 357, 1869, 
errorim. 



IIIPPOPOTAMID.^^ 393 

Dentition : /. f , c. \, jx |, wi. ^ = 38 ; build comparatively 
light ; bodily size and head relatively small ; eyes not markedly 
prominent ; limbs proportionately much longer than in 
typical genus, with the feet (fig. 56) approximating in 
general characters to those of pigs, tlie lateral digits, 
although touching the ground, free from webbing, and the 
two middle toes, in spite of a basal web, subspatulate, and 
capable of a considerable amount of lateral spreading. 

Eestricted at the present day to West Africa. 

CH.CEEOPSLS LIBEEIENSIS. 

Hippopotamus minor, Morton, Proc. Ac. Sci. PJiilad. 1844, p. 14; uec 
Desmarest, 1882, 

Hippopotamus liberiensis, ilfor^o/i, Journ. Ac. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. i, 
p. 232, 1849 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. B. Coll. 
Surg. -pt. ii, -p. 365, 1884 ; Lydekher, Pal. hid. {Mem. Gcol. Siirv. 
India), ser. 10, vol. iii, p. 47, 1884, Great and Small Game of 
Africa, p. 532, 1999, Game Animals of Africa, p. 412, 1908 ; 
Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1887, p. 612; Flower and LydeMer, 
Study of Mammals, p. 280, 1891 ; liendall. Great and Small 
Game of Africa, p. 543, 1899 ; Weher, Sdugethiere, p. 646, 1904. 

Diprotodon liberiensis, Duvernoy, C. R. Ac. Sci. Paris, vol. xxix, 
p. 277, 1849. 

Hippopotamus (Tetraprotodon) liberiensis. Falconer, Journ. Ac. Sci. 
Philad. ser. 2, vol. 1, p. 237, 1849, PaL Mem. vol. ii,p. 405, 1868. 

Choerodes liberiensis, Leidy, Proc. Ac. Sci. Philad. 1852, p. 52. 

Choeropsis liberiensis, Leidy, Journ. Ac. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. ii, 
p. 213, 1853; Milne- Edwards, Rech. Mamvi. p. 77, 1868; Gray, 
Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 357, 1869, Hand-List Thick- 
shinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 79, 1873 ; Macalister, Proc. B. 
Irish Ac. ser. 2, vol. i, p. 494, ]873; Peters, Monatsher. Ak. 
Berlin, 1873, p. 445 ; Jentink, Notes Leyden Mus. vol. x, p. 29, 
1885; Chapman, Proc. Ac. Sci. Philad. 1893, p. 185; Beaux, 
Zool. Anz. vol. xl, p. 227, 1912. 

Ditomeadon liberiensis, Gratiolet, Gervais' Zool. et Pal, Gen. ser. 1, 
p. 250, 1860, Becherches Anat. Hi^ypopotame, p. 202, 1867. 

Hippopotamus (Tetraprotodon) liberianus, Gerrard, Cat. Bones 
Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 284, 1862, errorim. 

Tetraproctodon liberiensis. Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. 
p. 357, 1869, misquotation of Falconer's Hippopotamus (Tetra- 
protodon) liberiensis. 

Hippopotamus (Choeropsis*) liberiensis, Lydekker, Ward's Becords 
of Big Game, ed. 7, p. 451, 1914. 

Typical locality St. Paul's Eiver, Liberia. 

Type in Museum of Philadelphia Academy of Natural 

Science. 

* Errorim, Choeropotamus. 



394 



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES 



Size approximately that of a large wild boar ; body 
shorter than in Eippopotamu><, with the line of the back 
much arched, and the croup sloping away behind ; skin 
much as in typical genus. 

Distribution, at the present day, co-extensive with that of 
the genus. 

50. 7. 5. 1 (1312, a). Cast of type skull. Original from 
St. Paul's River, Liberia. 

Presented hy Dr. S. G. Morton, 1850. 




Fig. 56. — Fore-feet of Pigmy Hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis), A, 

AND OUDINARY HIPPOPOTAMUS (Hippopofamus amphibius) , B. 

From Pocock, The Field, 1913. 



87. 9. 15. 1 (1312, h). Skin and skeleton, mounted. Du 
Queah Eiver, Liberia ; collected by Dr. J. Biittikofer. 
Noticed by Flower, Proc. Zool. Sac. 1887, p. 612. 

Purchased, 1887. 

8. 10. 22. 1. Skin, immature, mounted. Liberian frontier 

of Sierra Leone. Presented Ijj J. Roivland Ward, Esq., 1908. 

14. 6. 21. 1. Skull and skin, old and large female. Moa 

Valley, Daru, Sierra Leone ; collected by E. M. S. Baynes, 

Esq. Purchased, 1914. 



INDEX 

OF GENERA AND SPECIES 



abyssinicus, Hippopotamus, 387 

acapulcensis, Cervus, 167 

acapulcensis, Odocoilei;s, 167 

acapulcensis, Odocoileus vii-gini- 
anus, 167 

aceros, Sikaillus, 107 

Achlis, 238 

acuticornis, Dama, 100 

acuticornis, Panolia, 100 

Adenouotus, 374 

Adenonotus labiatus, 376 

Adenouotus tajacu, 379 

feliani, Phacochoerus, 371 

ieliani, Phacochoerus tethiopicus, 
371 

aeliani, Phascoch ceres, 371 

aethiopicus ajliani, Phacochoerus, 
371 

aethiopicus aethiopicus, Phaco- 
choerus, 367 

aethiopicus africanus, Phaco- 
choerus, 373 

aethiopicus, Aper, 366 

aethiopicus bufo, Phacochoerus, 
372 

aethiopicus delamerei, Pliaco- 
choerus, 371 

aethiopicus fossor, Phacochoerus, 
372 

aethiopicus massaicus, Phaco- 
choerus, 370 

aethiopicus, Phacochoerus, 366 

aethiopicus, Phacochoerus aethio- 
picus, 367 

aethiopicus, Phacochterus aper, 
366 

aethiopicus, Phascochoerus, 366 

aethiopicus sundevalli, Phaco- 
choerus, 368 

aethiopicus, Sus, 366 

aethiopicus typicus, Phacochoerus, 
367 

affinis, Cervus, 141, 142, 185 

afl&nis, Cervus walliclii, 142 

aflfinis, Hydropotes, 257 



afl&nis, Sus, 318 
affinis, Tragulus, 286 
affinis, Tragukis kanchil, 286 
africanus bufo, Phacochoerus, 372 
africanus, Choiropotamus, 349 
africanus, Macrocephalus, 373 
africanus, Phacochoerus, 373 
africanus, Phacochoerus aethiopi- 
cus, 373 
africanus, Phascochaerus, 373 
africanus, Phascochoerus, 373 
africanus, Potamochoerus, 349, 

351 
africanus, Sus, 350, 373 
ahaeiiObarbus, Sus, 342 
ahasnobarbus, Sus barbatus, 342 
Ahu, 226 
ahu, Cervus, 226 
albicornis, Cervus, 71 
albicus, Cervus, 124, 221 
albifrons, Cervus elaphus, 124 
albifrons, Potamochoerus, 331 
albifrons, Potamochoerus porcus, 

361 
albipes, Cervus, 24 
albipes, Prox, 21 
albirostris albirostris, Tavassus, 

376 
albirostris, Cervus, 149 
albirostris, Dicotyles, 376 
albirostris ringens, Tayassu, 378 
albirostris spiradens, Tayassu, 

378 
albirostris, Sus, 375 
albirostris, Tayassu, 376 
albirostris, Taj'assus, 376 
albii'ostris, Taj^assus albirostris, 

376 
albus, Cervus capreolus, 219 
albus, Cervus elaphus, 124 
Alee, 229 

alee, Alcelaphus, 230 
Alee alces, 230 
(Alee) alces, Cervus, 230 
Alee americanus, 234 



396 



INDEX 



alee, Cervus, 230 
(Alee) coronatus, Cervus, 230 
Alcelaphus, 229 
Alcelaphus alee, 230 
Alees, 228 
alces. Alee, 230 
Alces alces, 230 
alees, Alees, 230 
Alces alces alces, 232 
alces, Alees alces, 232 
Alces alces americanus, 234 
Alces alees bedfordise, 234 
Alces alces columbfle, 236 
Alces alces gigas, 237 
Alees americanus, 234 
alees americanus, Alces, 234 
Alees antiquorum, 230 
Alces bedfordiae, 234 
alces bedfordiae, Alces, 234 
alces, Cervus, 230 
alces, Cervus (Alee), 230 
Alces columbae, 236 
alees columbae, Alces, 230 
Alees europaeus, 230 
Alees gigas, 237 
alees gigas, Alees, 237 
Alees jubata, 230 
Alces lobata, 234 
Alces lobata coronata, 231 
Alces maehlis, 230 
Alces maehlis americanus, 234 
Alces maehlis bedfordiae, 234 
Alces maehlis gigas, 237 
Alees maehlis meridionalis, 232 
Alces maehlis typieus, 232 
Alees maehlis uralensis, 232 
Alces maehlis yakutskensis, 234 
Alees malchis, 230 
Alces muswa, 234 
Alees palmatus, 230 
alees, Paralees, 231 
alfredi, Axis, 62 
alfredi, Cervus, 62 
alfredi, Cervus (Rusa), 62 
alfredi, Melanaxis, 63 
alfredi, Eusa, 63 
alfurus, Babirusa, 346 
alfurus, Babirussa, 345, 346 
altaicus, Mosehus, 5 
altaieus, Mosehus mosehiferus, 5 
amboinensis, Sus, 335 
amboinensis, Sus celebensis, 335 
amboinensis, Sus verrucosus, 335 
ambrosianus, Ussa, 89 
amerieana amerieana, Mazama, 
200 



ainericana borealis, Mazama, 160 
amerieana eitus, Mazama, 212 
amerieana couesi, Mazama, 164 
amerieana gymnotis. INIazama, 173 
amerieana jucunda, Mazama, 202 
amerieana lichtensteini, Mazama, 

165 
amerieana macrourus, Mazama, 

161 
amerieana, Mazama, 156, 199,200, 

209 
amerieana, Mazama amerieana, 

200 
amerieana, Mazama (Dorcela- 

phus), 156 
amerieana mexicana, Mazama, 

165 
amerieana nelsoni, Mazama, 168 
amerieana nemoralis, Mazama, 

170 
amerieana oseeola, Mazama, 162 
amerieana peruviana, Mazama, 

175 
amerieana savannarum, Mazama, 

174 
amerieana texana, Mazama, 163 
amerieana thomasi, Mazama, 168 
amerieana tolteea, Mazama, 167 
amerieana truei, Mazama, 169 
amerieana typica, Mazama, 159 
americanus. Alee, 234 
americanus, Alces, 234 
americanus, Alees alees, 234 
americanus, Alces maehlis, 234 
americanus americanus, Odocoil- 

eus, 159 
americanus borealis, Odocoileus, 

160 
americanus, Cariaeus, 156 
americanus, Cervus, 234 
americanus, Cervus dama, 155 
americanus couesi, Odontoeoelus, 

164 
americanus, Dorcelaphus, 156 
americanus louisianae, Odocoileus, 

162 
americanus louisianae, Odontoeoel- 
us, 162 
americanus macrourus, Odocoil- 
eus, 161 
americanus macrourus, Odonto- 
eoelus, 161 
americanus, Mosehus, 199 
americanus, Odocoileus, 156 
americanus, Odocoileus america- 
nus, 159 



INDEX 



397 



americanus, Odontoccelus, 156 

americanus osceola, Odocoileus, 
163 

americanus osceola, Odontoccblus, 
163 

americanus, Paralces, 234 

americanus savannarum, Dorcela- 
phus, 174 

americanus texensis, Odontoccelus. 
163 

amcenus, Tragulus, 278 

amcenus, Tragulus javanicus, 278 

amphibius amphibius, Hippopota- 
mus, 889 

amphibius australis, Hippopota- 
mus, 392 

amphibius capensis. Hippopota- 
mus, 392 

amphibius constrictus, Hippo- 
potamus, 391 

amphibius. Hippopotamus, 387 

amphibius, Hippopotamus am- 
phibius, 389 

amphibius, Hippopotamus (Te- 
traprotodon), 388 

amphibius kiboko. Hippopota- 
mus, 391 

amphibius tschadensis. Hippo- 
potamus, 390 

andamanensis, Sus, 326 

andamanensis, Sus cristatus, 326 

andamanensis, Sus vittatus, 326 

andersoni, Sus, 328 

andersoni, Sus vittatus, 328 

andicus, Cervequus, 193 

andreanus, Cervus, 107 

andreanus, Sika, 107 

angulatum crassum, Tagassu, 385 

angulatum humerale, Tagassu, 
384 

angulatum sonoriense, Tagassu, 
384 

angulatum, Tagassu, 383 

angulatum yucatanense, Tagassu, 
385 

angulatus angulatus, Dicotyles, 
383 

angulatus angulatus, Pecari, 383 

angulatus crassus, Dicotyles, 385 

angulatus crassus, Pecari, 385 

angulatus crassus, Tayassu, 385 

angulatus crusnigrum, Dicotyles, 
385 

angulatus, Dicotyles, 383 

angulatus, Dicotyles angulatus, 
383 



angulatus, Dicotyles (Pecari), 383 

angulatus, Dicotyles tajacu, 383 

angulatus humeralis, -Dicotyles, 
384 

angulatus humeralis, Pecari, 384 

angulatus humeralis, Tayassu, 
384 

angulatus nanus, Dicotyles, 386 

angulatus, Pecari, 383 

angulatus, Pecari angulatus, 383 

angulatus sonoriensis, Dicotyles, 
384 

angulatus sonoriensis, Pecari, 384 

angulatiis sonoriensis, Tavassu, 
384 

angulatus, Tayassu, 383 

angulatus yucatanensis, Dicotyles, 
385 

angulatus yucatenensis, Pecari, 
385 

angulatus yucatanensis, Tayassu, 
385 

ann<B, Tragulus, 279 

annte, Tragulus javanicus, 279 

annamiticus, Cervus porcinus, 58 

annamiticus, Hyelaphus, 58 

Anomalocera, 193 

Anomalocera huamel, 196 

anomalocera, Xenelaphus, 196 

Antifer, 186 

antiquorum, Alces, 230 

antisensis, Cervus, 196 

antisensis, Furcifer, 196 

antisensis, Hippocamelus, 196 

antisiensis, Cariacus, 196 

antisiensis, Cervus, 194, 196 

antisiensis, Cervus (Elaphus Fur- 
cifer), 196 

antisiensis, Cervus (Furcifer), 196 

antisiensis, Creagoceros, 196 

antisiensis, Furcifer, 194 

antisiensis, Mazama, 196 

antisiensis, Mazama (Xenela- 
phus), 196 

antisiensis, Odocoileus, 197 

Aper, 307 

Aper sethiopicus, 366 

aper, aethiopicus, Phacochoerus, 
366 

aper, vars. alpomus et isonotus, 
Sus, 318 

Aper orientalis, 345 

aplodonticus, Sika, 107 

apura, Subulo, 199 

aquaticum aquaticum, Dorcather- 
ium, 296 



398 



INDEX 



aquaticum batesi, Dorcatherium, 
297 

aquaticiim cottoni, Dorcatherium, 
298 

aquaticum, Dorcatherium, 295 
aquaticum, Dorcatherium aqua- 
ticum, 296 

aquaticum typicum, Dorcather- 
ium, 296 

aquaticus, Hyemoschus, 295 

aquaticus, Hyoemoschus, 295 

aquaticus, Hyomoschus, 295 

aquaticus, Moschus, 295 

aramensis, Sus, 330 

arcticus, Cervus tarandus, 254 

arcticus, Rangifer, 254 

arcticus, liaugifer, var. sibiricus, 
244 

arcticus, Rangifer, var. spitz- 
bergensis, 243 

arcticus, Rangifer tarandus, 254 

arcticus, Tarandus, 254 

argyropus, Hydropotes, 258 

arietinus, Sika, 107 

arietinus, Sus, 333 

aristotelis, Cervus, 71 

aristotelis, Cervus (Hippelaphus), 
71 

aristotelis, Cervus (Rusa), 71 

aristotelis heteroceros, Rusa, 72 

aristotelis leschenaulti, Rusa, 72 

aristotelis nigra, Rusa, 72 

aristotelis, Rusa, 71 

aristotelis unicolor, Rusa, 72 

aruensis, Sus, 330 

asiaticus, Cervus canadensis, 136 

asiaticus sibiricus, Cervus, 137 

Assami, 357 

atheneensis, Ussa, 89 

atlanticus, Cervus elaphus, 122 

attila, Sus, 316 

attila, Sus scrbfa, 316 

Auchenia, 301 

Auchenia glama, 302 

Auchenia guanaco, 302 

Auchenia huamel, 193 

Auchenia huanaca, 302 

Auchenia huanacus, 302, 303 

Auchenia lama, 302, 303 

Auchenia llama, 302 

Auchenia vicugna, 304 

Auchenias, 301 

Aulacochoerus, 307 

AulacochoeruB vittatus, 323 

Aulochcierus vittatus, 335 

aureus, Cervulus, 21, 24 



aureus, Cervus, 24 

aureus, Cervus (Stylocerus), 24 

aureus, Muntiacus, 24 

aureus, Muntiacus muntjak, 24 

aureus, Stylocerus, 24 

aurita, Mazama, 214 

auritus, Cervus, 176 

auritus, Cervus (Subulo), 214 

auritus, Coassus, 214 

auritus, Subulo, 214 

australis. Hippopotamus, 392 

australis. Hippopotamus amphi- 

bius, 392 
Axis, 48 
Axis alfredi, 62 
Axis axis, 49 
axis, Axis, 49 
Axis (Axis) axis, 49 
(Axis) axis. Axis, 49 
axis. Axis (Axis), 49 
(Axis) axis, Cervus, 49 
axis, Cervus, 49 
axis, Cervus (Axis), 49 
axis, Cervus (Hippelaphus), 49 
axis ceylonensis, Cervus, 53 
Axis duvaucellii, 93 
Axis (Hyelaphus) porcinus, 55 
Axis maculata ceylonensis, 53 
Axis maculatus, 49 
Axis major, 49 
axis major, Cervus, 70 
Axis mantschuricus, 110 
Axis minor, 49 
Axis nudipalpebra, 49 
Axis oryzus, 55 
Axis pennantii, 71 
Axis peronii, 64 
Axis porcinus, 54 
(Axis) porcinus, Cervus, 54 
Axis pseudaxis, 116 
(Axis) pumilio, Cervus, 54 
Axis sika, 107 
Axis taivanus, 111 
axis unicolor, Cervus, 70 
axis zeylanicus, Cervus (Rusa), 53 
azarae, Blastoceros, 189 
azarse, Cervus, 189 

babi, Sus, 328 
babi, Sus vittatus, 328 
babirousa, Sus, 346 
Babiroussa, 344 
Babiroussus, 344 
Babirusa, 344, 345 
Babirusa alfurus, 346 
Babirusa babirusa, 345 



INDEX 



599 



babirusa, Babirusa, 345 
Babirusa celebensis, 346 
Babirusa ovientalis, 345 
babirusa, Sus, 346 
Babirussa, 344 
Babirussa alfurus, 345, 346 
Babirussa babyrussa, 345 
Babirussa babyrussa babyrussa, 

345 
Babirussa babyrussa celebensis, 

346 
babirussa, Sus, 346 
Babyrussa, 344 
babyrussa, Babirussa, 345 
babyrussa, Babirussa babyrussa, 

345 
babyrussa babyrussa, Babirussa, 

345 
babyrussa celebensis, Babirussa, 

346 
babyrussa, Porcus, 346 
babyrussa, Sus, 345, 346 
bactriauus, Camelus, 300 
bactriauus, Cervus, 138 
bactrianus, Cervus canadensis, 138 
bahrinja, Cervus, 93 
baicalensis, Cervus canadensis, 

134 
bajovaricus, Cervus, 124 
balabacensis, Sus barbatus, 342 
balticus, Cervus, 124 
balticus, Cervus (Capreolus) capre- 

olus, 221 
bancanus, Muntiacus, 15 
bancanus, Muntiacus muntjak, 15 
bancanus, Tragulus, 275 
barandanus, Cervus unicolor, 85 
barandanus, Rusa, 85 
barandanus, Ussa, 85 
Barasingba, 94 
barbarus, Cervus, 120 
barbarus, Cervus elajohus, 120 
barbarus, Sus scrofa, 315 
barbatus abaenobarbus, Sus, 342 
barbatus balabacensis, Sus, 342 
barbatus barbatus, Sus, 340 
barbatus calamianensis, Sus, 343 
barbatus, var. calamianensis, Sus, 

343 
barbatus, Euhys, 339 
barbatus gargantua, Sus, 341 
barbatus oi, Sus, 341 
barbatus palavensis, Sus, 342 
barbatus, var. palavensis, Sus, 342 
barbatus, Phacochoerus, 366 
barbatus, Sus, 338, 341 



barbatus, Sus barbatus, 340 
Barking Deer, 14 
Barren-Ground Caribou, 254 
baryceros, Ussa, 89 
basilanensis, Cervus unicolor, 85 
basilanensis, Melanaxis, 85 
basilanensis, Rusa, 85 
batesi, Dorcatherium aquaticuni, 

297 
battyi, Odocoileus, 164 
battyi, Odocoileus virginianus, 164 
battyi, Odontoccelus, 164 
batuanus, Tragulus, 279 
batuanus, Tragulus, javanicus, 

279 
bedfordi bedfordi, Capreolus, 225 
bedfordi, Capreolus, 224 
bedfordi, Capreolus bedfordi, 225 
bedfordi melanotis, Capreolus, 225 
bedfordise, Alces, 234 
bedfordise, Alces alces, 234 
bedfordiae, Alces machlis, 234 
bedfordianus, Cervus, 133 
bengalensis, Sus, 318 
bezoarticus, Mazama, 189 
bezoarticus, Mazama (Blasto- 

ceros), 189 
bezoarticus, Blastocerus, 188, 189 
bezoarticus, Cervus, 188 
bezoarticus, Odontoccelus, 189 
bezoarticus, Ozelapbus, 189 
biedermanni, Cervus, 137 
biedermanni, Cervus canadensis, 

137 
billitonus, Tragulus, 277 
billitonus, Tragulus javanicus, 277 
bira, Mazama, 209 
bisulca, Mazama, 194 
bisulca, Mazama (Xenelaphus), 

194 
bisulcus, Equus, 193 
bisulcus, Hippocamelus, 193, 194 
bisulcus, Xenelaphus, 194 
Black-tailed Deer, 182 
blakistonius, Sika, 107 
Blastoceros, 186 
Blastoceros azarse, 189 
(Blastoceros) bezoartica, Mazama, 

189 
(Blastoceros) campestris, Cervus, 

189 
Blastoceros comosus, 189 
(Blastoceros) dichotoma, Mazama, 

187 
Blastoceros dichotomus, 186, 187 
Blastoceros paludosus, 187 



400 



INDEX 



Blastocerus, 186 

Blastocerus bezoarticus, 188, 189 
Blastocerus campestris, 189 
(Blastocerus) paluclosns, Cervus, 

187 
bceticus, Sus scrofa, 314 
bolivari, Cervus elaphus, 121 
boninensis, Cervus (Rusa), uni- 

color, 88 
boninensis. Cervus unicolor, 88 
borealis, Mazama americaua, 160 
borealis, Mazama virginiana, 160 
borealis, Odocoileus americanus, 

160 
borealis, Odocoileus virginianus, 

160 
borealis, Tarandus, 239 
borneanus, Tragulus, 270 
borneanus, Tragulus javauieus, 

270 
borneanus, Tragulus napu, 270 
borneensis, Sus, 336 
borneensis, Sus celebensis, 336 
borneensis, Sus celebensis, 336 
borneensis, Sus verrucosus, 336 
Bosch-Vark, 351 
brachyceros, Cervus, 175 
brachyceros, Ussa, 89 
bi'achypus, Sikaillus. 107 
brachyrhinus, Sika, 107 
bracliyrinus, Sambar, 92 
breviceps, Melanaxis, 89 
brevipes, Tragulus, 284 
brevipes, Tragulus kanchil, 284 
bricenii, Mazama, 207 
bridgemani, Cervulus, 31 
brookei, Cervus, 80 
brookei, Cervus unicolor, 80 
brookei, Rusa, 80 
Brow-antlered Deer, 100 
bufo, Phacochcerus aethiopicus, 

372 
bufo, Phacochcerus africanus, 372 
bungurauensis, Tragulus, 279 
bunguranensis, Tragulus javan- 

icus, 279 
buruensis, Hippelaphus, 92 
Bush-Pig, 351 

cacsilensis. Lama glama, 304 
cacsilensis, Lama huanachus, 304 
calamianensis, Cervus, 59 
calamianensis, Cervus (Hyela- 

phus), 59 
calamianensis, Hyelaphus, 59 
calamianensis, Rusa, 59 



calamianensis, Sus, 343 
calamianensis, Sus barbatus, 343 
californica, Cervus maral, 133 
californica, Mazama hemionus, 

179 
calif ornicus, Odocoileus hemionus, 

179 
californicus, Odontocoelus hemi- 
onus, 179 
cambojensis, Cervulus, 78 
cambojensis, Rucervus, 78, 98 
Camelus, 299 
Camelus bactrianus, 300 
Camelus glama, 302 
Camehis liuanacus, 302 
Camelus lama, 302 
Camelus vicugna, 304 
campestris, Blastocerus, 189 
campestris, Cariacus, 189 
campestris, Cervus, 188 
campestris, Cervus (Blastoceros), 

189 
campestris, Cervus (Elaphus Blas- 
tocerus), 189 
campestris, Cervus (Mazama), 189 
campestris, Cervus vulgaris, 125 
campestris, Dorcelaphus, 189 
campestris, Furcifer, 189 
campestris, Mazama, 189 
campestris, Ozotoceros, 189 
canadensis asiaticus, Cervus, 136 
canadensis bactrianus, Cervus, 

138 
canadensis baicalensis, Cervus, 

134 
canadensis biedermanni, Cervus, 

137 
canadensis canadensis, Cervus, 

131 
canadensis, Cervus, 129 
canadensis, Cervus canadensis, 

131 
canadensis, Cervus (Elaphus), 129 
canadensis, Cervus elaphus, 129 
canadensis, Cervus maral, 129 
canadensis, Cervus (Strongylo- 

ceros), 129 
canadensis, Elaphus, 129 
canadensis eustephanus, Cervus, 

136 
canadensis luehdorfi, Cervus, 133 
canadensis merriami, Cervus, 132 
canadensis naunodes, Cervus, 133 
canadensis occidentalis, Cervus, 

132 
canadensis sibiricus, Cervus, 135 



INDEX 



401 



canadensis songaricus, Cervus, 136 
canadensis, Strongyloceros, 129 
canadensis typicus, Cervus, 131 
canadensis wachei, Cervus, 137 
canadensis wardi, Cervus, 138 
canadensis xanthopygus, Cervus, 

134 
canescens terutus, Tragulus, 272 
canescens, Tragulus, 270 
canescens, Tragulus javanicus, 270 
canus, Capreolus capreolus, 223 
canus, Odocoileus hemionus, 181 
canus, Odontocoelus hemionus, 

181 
capeusis, Hippopotamus, 392 
capensis, Hippopotamus amphi- 

bius, 392 
capensis, Potamoclioerus, 351 
capensis, Sus, 351 
Capra pudu, 215 
capraea, Capreolus, 219 
Caprea, 218 
caprea, Capreolus, 220 
Capreolus, 218 
capreolus albus, Cervus, 219 
capreolus balticus, Cervus (Capre- 
olus), 221 
Capreolus bedfordi, 224 
Capreolus bedfordi bedfordi, 225 
Capreolus bedfordi melanotis, 225 
capreolus canus, Capreolus, 223 
Capreolus capraea, 219 
Capreolus caprea, 220 
Capreolus capreolus, 219 
capreolus, Capreolus, 219 
(Capreolus) capreolus balticus. 

Cervus, 221 
Capreolus capreolus canus, 223 
Capreolus capreolus capreolus, 

221 
capreolus capreolus, Capreolus, 

221 
(Capreolus) capreolus, Cervus, 219 
Capreolus capreolus thotti, 223 
Capreolus capreolus transsylva- 

nicus, 222 
capreolus, Cervulus, 220 
capreolus, Cervus, 219 
capreolus, Cervus (Capreolus), 219 
Capreolus dorcas, 219 
Capreolus europaeus, 219 
Capreolus fossilis, 219 
Capreolus leucotis, 194 
Capreolus manchuricus, 224 
Capreolus melanotis, 225 
capreolus plumbeus, Cervus, 219 

IV. 



Capreolus pygargus, 226 
(Capreolus) pygargus, Cervus, 226 
Capreolus pygargus firghanicus, 

227 
Capreolus pygargus pygargus, 227 
Capreolus pygargus tianschanicus, 

228 
Capreolus rhenanus, 221 
capreolus thotti, Capreolus, 223 
Capreolus tianschanicus, 228 
Capreolus transsylvanicus, 222 
capreolus transsylvanicus, Capre- 
olus, 222 
Capreolus vulgaris, 219 
Capreolus vulgaris niger, 220 
Capreolus vulgaris varius, 220 
Cariacus, 154, 175 
Cariacus americanus, 156 
Cariacus antisiensis, 196 
Cariacus campestris, 189 
Cariacus chilensis, 194 
Cariacus clavatus, 169 
Cariacus columbianus, 182 
Cariacus gymnotis, 173 
Cariacus gymnotus, 173 
Cariacus leptocephalus, 185 
Cariacus leucurus, 162 
Cariacus macrotis, 176 
Cariacus macrotis columbianus, 

182 
Cariacus mexicanus, 165 
Cariacus nanus, 213 
Cariacus nemoralis, 170 
Cariacus nemorivagus, 209 
Cariacus osceola, 162 
Cariacus paludosus, 187 
Cariacus palustris, 187 
Cariacus peruvianus, 175 
Cariacus punctulatus, 182 
Cariacus rufinus, 205, 208 
Cariacus rufus, 200 
Cariacus savannarum, 174 
Cariacus similis, 185 
Cariacus simplicornis, 209 
Cariacus spinosus, 174 
Cariacus superciliaris, 203 
Cariacus sylvestris, 189 
Cariacus tema, 205 
Cariacus toltecus, 167 
Cariacus truei, 169 
Cariacus vu-ginianus, 156 
(Cariacus) virginianus, Cervus, 156 
Cariacus virginianus, var. couesi, 

164 
Cariacus virginianus mexicana, 
165 

2 D 



402 



INDEX 



Cariacus virgultus, 179 
Cariacus whitelyi, 212 
Caribou, 240, 246 
caribou caribou, Kangifer, 246 
caribou, Cervus tarandus, 246 
caribou, Raugifer, 246 
caribou, Raugifer tarandus, 246 
caribou sylvestris, Raugifer, 248 
carimatae, Tragulus, 284 
carimatae, Tragulus kancbil, 284 
Carpathian Deer, 125 
cashineerianus, Cervus, 146 
cashmerensis, Cervus, 146 
cashmeriensis, Cervus, 146 
cashmirianus, Cervus, 146 
cashmiriauus macneilli, Cervus, 

145 
cashmirianus yarkandensis, Cer- 
vus, 139 
cashmiriensis, Cervus, 146 
casperianus, Cervus, 146 
caspicus, Cervus, 151 
caspius, Cervus, 126 
castilianus, Sus scrofa, 314 
caucasicus, Cervus, 126 
cebifrous, Neosus, 336 
cebifrons, Sus, 336 
celebensis amboinensis, Sus, 335 
celebeusis, Babirusa, 346 
celebensis, Babirussa babyrussa, 

346 
celebensis borneensis, Sus, 336 
celebensis celebensis, Sus, 332 
celebensis ceramicus, Sus, 335 
celebensis, Dasychcerus, 331 
celebensis mindanensis, Sus, 334 
celebensis minutus, Sus, 334 
celebensis nehringi, Sus, 333 
celebensis philippensis, Sus, 333 
celebensis, var. philippensis, Sus, 

333 
celebensis philippinensis, Sus, 

333 
celebensis, Sus, 331 
celebensis, Sus celebensis, 332 
celebensis, Sus verrucosus, 331 
Centuriosus, 307 
cephalophus cephalophus, Ela- 

phodus, 35 
cephalophus, Elaphodus, 34 
cephalophus, Elaphodus cephalo- 
phus, 35 
cephalophus fociensis, Elaphodus, 

38 
cephalophus ichangensis, Elapho- 
dus, 39 



cephalophus michianus, Elapho- 
dus, 36 

ceramicus, Sus, 335 

ceramicus, Sus celebensis, 335 

ceramicus, Sus verrucosus, 335 

cerasina, Mazama tenia, 207 

Cerf d'Antis, 196 

cerroseusis, Mazama hemionus, 
180 

cerrosensis, Odocoileus, 180 

cerrosensis, Odocoileus hemionus, 
180 

cerrosensis, Odontocoelus, 180 

Cervequus, 192 

Cervequus andicus, 193 

Cervulus, 10 

Cervulus aureus, 21, 24 

Cervulus bridgemani, 31 

Cervulus cambojensis, 78 

Cervulus capreolus, 220 

Cervulus crinifrons, 33 

Cervulus feae, 32 

Cervulus lacrymans, 25 

Cervulus micrurus, 30 

Cervulus moschatus, 15, 21 

Cei-vulus muntjac, 12, 15 

Cervulus muntjac grandicornis, 20 

Cervulus muntjac tami;licus, 21 

Cervulus muntjac typicus, 14 

Cervulus muntjac vaginalis, 22 

Cervulus pleiharicus, 16 

Cervulus reevesii, 28 

Cervulus sclateri, 26 

Cervulus sinensis, 31 

Cervulus subcornutus, 12 

Cervulus tamulicus, 24 

Cervulus vaginalis, 14, 21 

Cervus, 46, 116, 172 

Cervus acapulcensis, 167 

Cervus affinis, 141, 142, 185 

Cervus ahu, 226 

Cervus albicornis, 71 

Cervus albicus, 124, 221 

Cervus albipes, 24 

Cervus albirostris, 149 

Cervus alee, 230 

Cervus (Alee) alces, 230 

Cervus (Alee) coronatus, 230 

Cervus alces, 230 

Cervus alfredi, 62 

Cervus americanus, 234 . 

Cervus andreanus, 107 

Cervus antisensis, 196 

Cervus antisiensis, 194, 196 

Cervus aristotelis, 71 

Cervus asiaticus sibiricus, 137 



INDEX 



403 



Cervus aureus, 24 

Cervus auritus, 176 

Cervus axis, 49 

Cervus (Axis) axis, 49 

Cervus axis ceylonensis, 53 

Cervus axis major, 70 

Cervus (Axis) porcinus, 54 

Cervus (Axis) pumilio, 54 

Cervus axis unicolor, 70 

Cervus azarae, 189 

Cervus bactrianus, 138 

Cervus bahrinja, 93 

Cervus bajovaricus, 124 

Cervus balticus, 124 

Cervus barbarus, 120 

Cervus bedfordianus, 133 

Cervus bezoarticus, 188 

Cervus biedermanni, 137 

Cervus (Blastoceros) campestris, 

189 
Cervus (Blastocerus) paludosus, 

187 
Cervus bracliyceros, 175 
Cervus brookei, 80 
Cervus calamianensis, 59 
Cervus campestris, 188 
Cervus canadensis, 129 
Cervus canadensis asiaticus, 136 
Cervus canadensis bactrianus, 138 
Cervus canadensis baicalensis, 

134 
Cervus canadensis biedermanni, 

137 
Cervus canadensis canadensis, 131 
Cervug canadensis eustephanus, 

136 
Cervus canadensis luehdorfi, 133 
Cervus canadensis merriami, 132 
Cervus canadensis nannodes, 133 
Cervus canadensis occidentalis, 

132 
Cervus canadensis sibiricus, 135 
Cervus canadensis songaricus, 136 
Cervus canadensis typicus, 131 
Cervus canadensis wachei, 137 
Cervus canadensis wardi, 138 
Cervus canadensis xanthopygus, 

133, 134 
Cervus capreolus, 219 
Cervus capreolus albus, 219 
Cervus (Capreolus) capreolus, 219 
Cervus (Capreolus) capreolus bal- 
ticus, 221 
Cervus capreolus plumbeus, 219 
Cervus (Capreolus) pygargus, 226 
Cervus (Cariacus) virginianus, 156 



Cervus cashmeerianus, 146 
Cervus cashmerensis, 146 
Cervus cashmeriensis, 146 
Cervus cashmiriauus, 146 
Cervus cashmiriauus niacneilli, 

145 
Cervus cashmiriauus yarkanden- 

sis, 139 
Cervus cashmiriensis, 146 
Cervus casperianus, 146 
Cervus caspicus, 151 
Cervus caspius, 126 
Cervus caucasicus, 126 
Cervus (Cervus) elaphus, 118 
Cervus (Cervus) maral, 128 
Cervus chilensis, 193 
[Cervus] cistaunicus, 221 
Cervus clavatus, 155 
Cervus (Coassus) nanus, 213 
Cervus (Coassus) peruvianus, 175 
Cervus (Coassus) rufus, 200 
Cervus (Coassus) simplicicornis, 

209 
Cervus columbianus, 182 
Cervus columbicus, 172 
Cervus comosus, 189 
Cervus eoronatvis, 230 
Cervus corsicanus, 120, 121 
Cervus corsiniacus, 120 
Cervus culionensis, 59 
Cervus cyclorhinus, 107 
Cervus (Dactyloceros) dama, 43 
Cervus daima, 42 
Cervus dama, 42 
Cervus dama americanus, 155 
Cervus (Dama) dama, 42 
Cervus dama, leucaethiops, 42 
Cervus dama, maura, 42 
Cervus dama mesopotamise, 45 
Cervus (Dama) mesopotamicus, 

45 
Cervus davidianus, 152 
Cervus dejeani, 82 
Cervus devilleanus, 107 
Cervus dichotomus, 186 
Cervus dimorphe, 93 
Cervus duvaucelii, 93 
Cervus dybowski, 112 
Cervus dybowskii, 112, 149 
Cervus elaphoides, 93 
Cervus elaphus, 117, 120, 125, 

133 
Cervus elaphus albifrons, 124 
Cervus elaphus albus, 124 
Cervus elaphus atlanticus, 122 
Cervus elaphus barbarus, 120 
2 I) 2 



404 



INDEX 



Cevvus (Elaphus Blastocerus) 

campestris, 189 
Cervus (Elaphus Blastocerus' 

comosus, 189 
Cervus (Elaphus Blastocerus'. 

paludosus, 187 
Cervus elaphus bolivari, 121 
Cervus (Elaphus) canadensis, 129 
Cervus elaphus canadensis, 129 
(Cervus) elaphus, Cervus, 118 
Cervus elaphus corsicanus, 121 
Cervus elaphus debilis, 124 
Cervus elaphus elaphus, 122 
Cervus (Elaphus) elaphus, 118 
Cervus (Elaphus Furcifer) anti- 

siensis, 196 
Cervus elaphus germauicus, 124 
Cervus elaphus hippelaphus, 124 
Cervus elaphus hispanicus, 121 
Cervus elaphus inaral, 126 
Cervus elaphus minor, 121 
Cervus elaphus ueglectus, 124 
Cervus elaphus saxonicus, 124 
Cervus elaphus scoticus, 123 
Cervus elaphus tjpicus, 122 
Cervus elaphus \arius, 124 
Cervus elaphus visui-gensis, 124 
Cervus eldi comipes, 104 
Cervus eldi eldi, 102 
Cervus eldi frontalis, 104 
Cervus eldi platyceros, 104 
Cervus eldi siamensis, 104 
Cervus eldi tvpicus, 102 
Cervus eldii,'lOO 
Cervus equmus, 78 
Cervus eucladoceros, 94 
Cervus euopis, 107 
Cervus eustephanus, 136 
Cervus frinianus, 107 
Cervus (Furcifer) autisiensis, 196 
Cervus goudotii, 173 
Cervus gracilis, 107 
Cervus guettardi, 239 
Cervus gymnotis, 173 
Cervus hagenbecki, 138 
Cervus hanglu, 146 
Cervus (Harana) wallichi, 141 
Cervus hastalis, 246 
Cervus hemionus, 176 
Cervus heterocerus, 71 
Cervus hippelaphus, 66, 71 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) aristotelis, 

71 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) axis, 49 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) duvaucelli, 

94 



Cervus (Hippelaphus) equinus, 78 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) frontalis, 

104 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) hippela- 
phus, 67 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) japonicus, 

107 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) kuhlii, 61 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) leschen- 

aulti, 71 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) mariannus, 

83 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) moluccen- 

sis, 65 
Cervus hippelaphus nioluccensis, 

66 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) niger, 71 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) peronii, 64 
Cervus (Hippelaphiis) philippinus, 

84 
Cervus hippelaphus timoriensis, 

64, 65 
Cervus hippelaphus typicus, 67 
Cervus (Hippelaphus) unicolor, 71 
Cervus hortulorum, 112 
Cervus hortulorum hortulorum, 

114 
Cervus hortulorum kopschi, 115 
Cervus hortulorum typicus, 114 
Cervus humboldtii, 205 
Cervus humilis, 215 
Cervus (Hyelaphus) calamianen- 

sis, 59 
Cervus (Hyelaphus) kuhli, 62 
Cervus (Hyelaphus) porcinus, 54, 

55 
Cervus hyemalis, 107 
Cervus ignotus, 107 
Cervus isubra, 133 
Cervus jarai, 71 
Cervus jarya, heterocerus, 71 
Cervus jarya, nepalensis, 71 
Ceryus javanicus, 268 
Cervus joretianus, 10'' 
Cervus kansuensis, 14 
Cervus kopschi, 115 
Cervus kuhlii, 61 
Cervus labipes, 83 
Cervus lacrymosus, 10 
Cervus lepidus, 150 
Cervus leschenaultii, 71 
Cei-\'us leucogaster, 188 
Cervus leucurus, 162 
Cervus lewisii, 182 
Cervus lobatus, 234 
Cervus luehdorfi, 133 



INDFA* 



405 



Cervus liilidorii, 133 

Cervus lyratus, 100 

Cervus macneilli, 145 

Cervus macneilli kansuensis, 146 

Cervus macneilli macneilli, 145 

Cervus macrotis, 176 

Cervus macrotis, var. californi- 

cus, 179 
Cervus macrotis, var. columbi- 

auus, 182 
Cervus macrotis montanus, 178 
Cervus macrourus, 161 
Cervus major, 129 
Cervus malaccensis, 78 
Cervus manchuricus tj'picus, 134 
Cervus mandarinus, 112 
Cervus mantchuricus, 110 
Cervus mantschuricus major, 112 
Cervus maral, 126 
Cervus maral californica, 133 
Cervus maral canadensis, 129 
(Cervus) maral, Cervus, 126 
Cervus niaral, var. sibirica, 134 
Cervus maral, var. songarica, 136 
Corvus mariannus, 83, 84 
Cervus mauricus, 42 
Cervus (Mazama) campestris, 189 
Cervus (Mazama) clavatus, 155 
Cervus (Mazama) leucurus, 162 
Cervus (Mazama) macrotis, 176 
Cervus (Mazama) macrourus, 161 
Cervus (Mazama) nemoralis, 170 
Cervus (Mazama) paludosus, 187 
Cervus (Mazama) virginianus, 155 
Cervus mediterraneus, 121 
Cervus melas, 21 
Cervus iiaei-riami, 132 
Cervus mesopotamicus, 45 
Cervus mexicanus, 165 
Cervus minor, 55 
Cervus moluccensis, 65 
Cervus moschatus, 21 
Cervus muntjae, 11 
Cervus (Muntjae) philippinus, 84 
Cervus muntjak, 11 
Cervus nannodes, 133 
Cervus nariyanus, 141 
Cervus nemoralis, 170 
Cervus nemorivagus, 209 
Cervus niger, 71 
Cervus nigricans, 86 
Cervus nippon, 107 
Cervus nippon manchuricus, 110 
Cervus nippon mantchuricus, 110 
Cervus nippon nippon, 108 
Cervus nippon typicus, 108 



Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 

112 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 

141 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 

224 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 

94 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 

97 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 
Cervus 



nudipalpebra, 49 
occidentalis, 132 
paludosus, 186 
palustris, 187 
(Panolia) eldi, 100 
peronii, 63 
philippinus, 84 
platyceros, 42 
(Platyceros) dama, 43 
porcinus, 54 

poi'cinus annamiticus, 58 
porcinus hecki, 58 
porcinus porcinus, 56 
pseudaxis, 112, 116 
(Pseudaxis) hortulorum, 

(Pseudaxis) sica, 107 
(Pseudaxis) sika, 108 
(Pseudaxis) taevanus. 111 
(Pseudocervus) wallichi, 

pudu, 215 

(Pudu) humilis, 215 
pumilio, 54 
pygargus, 226 
P3'gargus mantschuricus, 

(Eangifer) tarandus, 239 
ratwa, 21 
reevesii, 27 
rhenanus, 124 
richardsonii, 182 
roosevelti, 132 
ruceros, 94 
(Rucervus) duvauceli, 93, 

(Rucervus) elaphoides, 93 
(Rucervus) eldi, 100 
(Rucervus) schomburgki, 

rufinus, 208 
rufus, 67, 199 
(Rusa) alfredi, 62 
(Rusa) aristotelis, 71 
(Rusa) axis ze.ylanicus, 53 
(Rusa) equinus, 78 
(Rusa) frontalis, 104 
(Rusa) hippelaphus, 67, 71 
(Rusa) kuhli, 61 
(Rusa) mariannus, 83 
(Rusa) nigricans, 86 
(Rusa) peronii, 64 
(Rusa) swinhoei, 81 
(Rusa) tavistocki, 70 
(Rusa) timoriensis, 63 
(Rusa) unicolor, 70, 71 



406 



INDFA' 



Cervus (Eiisa) unicolov bonin- 

ensis, 88 
Cervus russa, 67 
Cervus russa moluccensis, 65 
Cervus russa timoriensis, 64 
Cervus sartorii, 205 
Cervus savannarum, 174 
Cervus schomburgki, 97 
Cervus sellatus, 149 
Cervus sibiricus, 135, 244 
Cervus sica, 107 
Cervus sica inancbvu-icus, 110 
Cervus sica typicus, 108 
Cervus sika, 107 
Cervus (Sika) hortulorum, 112 
Cervus (Sika) nippon, 107, 108 
Cervus (Sika) sika, 107 
Cervus (Sika) taevanus, 111 
Cei'vus (Sika) taiouanus, 110 
Cervus similis, 185 
Cervus sin:plicicornis, 208 
Cervus smithi, 100 
Cervus songaricus, 136 
Cervus spinosus, 174 
Cervus steerii, 86 
Cervus strongj'loceros, 129 
Cervus (Strongyloceros) canad- 
ensis, 129 
Cervus (Strongvloceros) elaphus, 

118 
Cervus stylocerus, 21 
Cervus (Stylocerus) aureus, 24 
Cervus (Stylocerus) moscbatus, 21 
Cervus (Stylocerus) miintjak, 12 
Cervus (Stylocerus) pbilippinus, 

84 
Cervus (Stylocerus) subcornutns, 

12 
Cervus (Subulo) auritus, 214 
Cervus (Subulo) dolichurus, 199 
Cervus (Subulo) nanus, 213 
Cervus (Subulo) nemorivagus, 209 
Cervus (Subulo) rufus, 199 
Cervus (Subulo) simplicicornis, 

209 
Cervus (Subulo) siuQplicornis 

major, 212 
Cervus (Subulo) superciliaris, 203 
Cervus (Subulo) tschudii, 212 
Cervus swinlioii, 81 
Cervus syka, 107 
Cervus taevanus, 110 
Cervus taioranus. 111 
Cervus taiouanus, 110 
Cervus tarandus, 239, 243 
Cervus tarandus arcticus, 254 



Cervus tarandus caribou, 240 
Cervus tarandus groenlandicus, 256 
Cervus (Tarandus) platyrhynchus, 

243 
Cervus tarandus schottingi, 239 
Cervus tarandus, var. svlvestris, 

248 
Cervus thoroldi, 149 
Cervus tibetanus, 141 
Cervus timoriensis, 63 
Cervus timoriensis moluccensis, 

65 
Cervus timoriensis timoriensis, 

65 
Cervus timoriensis tunjuc, 66 
Cervus toltecus, 167 
Cervus transvosagicus, 221 
Cervus tunjuc, 67 
Cervus imicolor, 70 
Cervus unicolor barandanus, 85 
Cervus unicolor basilanensis, 85 
Cervus unicolor boninensis, 88 
Cervus unicolor brookei, 80 
Cervus unicolor dejeani, 82 
Cervus unicolor equinus, 78 
Cervus unicolor francianus, 85 
Cervus unicolor niariannus, 83 
Cervus unicolor nigellus, 87 
Cervus unicolor nigricans, 86 
Cervus unicolor pbilippinus, 84 
Cervus tmicolor swinhoei, 81 
Cervus unicolor typicus, 74 
Cervus unicolor unicolor, 74 
Cervus vaginalis, 21 
Cervus virginianus, 155 
Cervus vulgaris, 118 
Cervus vulgaris campestris, 125 
Cervus vulgaris montanus, 126 
Cervus wachei, 137 
Cervus wallichi, 141, 142, 146 
Cervus wallicbi affinis, 142 
Cervus wallichi wallichi, 142 
Cervus wapiti, 129 
Cervus xanthopygus, 133 
Cervus xanthopvgus eustephanus, 

136 
Cervus yarkandensis, 139 
Cervus yucatensis, 167 
ceylonensis. Axis raaculata, 53 
ceylonensis, Cervus axis, 53 
Chevrotain, Indian, 263 
chilensis, Cariacus, 194 
chilensis, Cervus, 193 
chilensis, Creagroceros, 194 
chilensis, Furcifer, 194, 196 
Chinese Water-Deer, 258 



INDEX 



407 



chiviquensis, Odocoileus roth- 
schildi, 172 

chii'iquensis, Odocoileus virgini- 
anus, 172 

chilensis, Pudu, 215 

chilensis, Xenelaphiis, 196 

Chital, 50 

Chitra, 50 

Choerodes, 392 

Chcerodes liberiensis, 393 

choeropotamus choeropotainus, 
Potamochoerus, 352 

choeropotamus daemonis, Potamo- 
choerus, 354 

choeropotamus hassama, Sus, 357 

choeropotamus johnstoni, Potamo- 
choerus, 355 

choeropotamus keniae, Potamo- 
choerus, 356 

choeropotamus mashona, Potamo- 
choerus, 353 

choeropotamus nyasse, Potamo- 
choerus, 354 

choeropotamus nyasae, Svis, 354 

choeropotamus, Phascochoerus, 
351 

choeropotamus porcus, Sus, 357 

choeropotamus, Potamochoerus, 
350 

choeropotamus, Potamochoerus 
choeropotamus, 352 

choeropotamus, Sus, 351 

Chceropsis, 392 

Chceropsis liberiensis, 393 

(Choeropsis) Hberiensis, Hippo- 
potamus, 393 

Choiropotamus, 348 

Chohopotamus africanus, 349 

Choiropotaixius pictus, 359 

chrysogaster, Moschus, 5 

chrysotrichos, Ussa, 89 

cinereus, Ussa, 89 

cistaunicus [Cervus] , 221 

citus, Mazama americana, 212 

citus, Mazama simplicicornis, 
212 

clavatus, Cariacus, 169 

clavatus, Cervus, 155 

clavatus, Cervus (Mazama), 155 

Coassus, 198 

Coassus auritus, 214 

Coassus humilis, 215 

Coassus inornatus, 199 

(Coassus) nanus, Cervus, 213 

Coassus nemorivagus, 209 

(Coassus) peruvianus, Cervus, 175 



Coassus rufinus, 208 

Coassus rufus, 199 

(Coassus) rufus, Cervus, 200 

Coassus simplicicornis, 211 

Coassus superciliaris, 203 

Coassus toltecus, 167 

(Coassus) simplicicornis, Cervus, 

209 
Coassus simplicornis, 209 
Coassus whitelyi, 212 
colombertinus, Sambar, 91 
columbsB, Alces, 236 
columbse, Alces alces, 236 
Columbiana crooki, Mazanaa, 185 
Columbiana, Mazama, 182 
Columbiana scaphiotus, Mazama, 

184 
Columbiana sitkeusis, Mazama, 

184 
columbianus, Cariacus, 182 
columbianus, Cariacus macrotis, 

182 
columbianus, Cervus, 182 
columbianus columbianus, Odo- 
coileus, 183 
columbianus crooki, Odocoileus, 

185 
columbianus, Dorcelaphus, 182 
columbianus, Eucervus, 182 
columbianus, Mazama (Dorcela- 

phus), 182 
columbianus, Odocoileus, 182 
columbianus, Odocoileus colunabi- 

anus, 183 
columbianus, Odontocoelus, 182 
columbianus scaphiotus, Odocoil- 
eus, 184 
columbianus scaphiotus, Odonto- 
coelus, 184 
columbianus sitkensis, Odocoil- 
eus, 184 
columbianus sitkensis, Odonto- 
coelus, 184 
columbicus, Cervus, 172 
columbicus, Odocoileus, 172 
columbicus, Odocoileus virgini- 

anus, 172 
combalbertinus, Sambar, 91 
comosus, Blastoceros, 189 
comosus, Cervus, 189 
comosus, Cervus (Elaphus Blasto- 

cerus), 189 
concolor, Moschus moschiferus, 5 
congicus, Potamochoerus porcus, 

361 
consobrinus, Sikaillus, 107 



408 



INDEX 



constrictus, Hippopotamus, 391 
constrictus, Hippopotamxis am- 

phibins, 391 
cornipes, Cervus elcli, 104 
coronata, Alces lobata, 231 
coronatus, Cervus, 230 
coronatus, Cervus (Alee), 230 
corsicanus, Cervus, 120, 121 
corsicanus, Cervus elaphus, 121 
corsiniacus, Cervus, 120 
corteanus, Ussa, 89 
costaricensis, Odocoileus, 170 
costaricensis, Odocoileus, virgiui- 

anus, 170 
costaricensis, Odontocoelus, 170 
cottoni, Dorcatherium aquaticum, 

298 
couesi, Dorcelaphus, 164 
couesi, Mazaina americana, 164 
couesi, Odocoileus, 164 
couesi, Odocoileus virginianus, 

164 
couesi, Odoutocoelus americanus, 

164 
crassicornis, Ussa. 89 
crassum, Tagassu angulatum, 385 
crassus, Dicotyles angulatus, 385 
crassus, Pecari crassus, 385 
crassus, Tayassu angulatus, 385 
Creagroceros. 193 
Creagroceros antisiensis, 196 
Creagroceros chilensis, 194 
crinifrons, Cervulus, 33 
criuifrons, Miuitiacus, 33 
cristatus andamanensis, Sus, 326 
cristatus cristatus, Sus, 319 
cristatus jubatulus, Sus, 320 
cristatus jubatus, Sus, 320 
cristatus moupinensis, Sus. 317 
cristatus, Sus, 318 
cristatus, Sus cristatus, 319 
cristatus, Sus vittatus, 318 
cristatus typicus, Sus, 319 
crooki, Dorcelaphus, 185 
crooki, Mazaina, 185 
crooki, Mazama Columbiana. 185 
crooki, Odocoileus, 185 
crooki, Odocoileus columbianus, 

185 
crooki, Odontocoelus, 185 
crusnigrum, Dicotyles angulatus, 

385 
crusnigrum, Pecari, 385 
crusnigrum, Tagassu, 385 
crusnigrum, Tayassu, 385 
culioueusis, Cervua, 59 



culionensis, Eusa, 59 
curvicornis, Sambar, 91 
curvostylis, Muntiacus nauntjak, 

19 
cycloceros, Sika, 107 
cyclorhinus, Cervus, 107 

Dactyloceros, 40 
(Dactyloceros) dama, Cervus, 43 
dasmonis, Potamocboerus, 354 
dsemonis, Potamocboerus choero- 

potamus, 354 
dsemonis, Potamocboerus koiro- 

potamus, 354 
dailliardianus, Ussa, 89 
Daim, 43 
daima, Cervus, 42 
daimius, Sikaillus, 107 
Dama, 40, 154 
Dama acuticornis, 100 
dama americanus, Cervus, 155 
dama, Cervus, 42 
dama, Cervus (Dactyloceros), 43 
dama, Cervus (Dama), 42 
dama, Cervus (Platyceros), 43 
Dama dama, 42, 43 
dama, Dama, 42, 43 
(Dama) dama, Cervus, 42 
dama, leiicastbiops, Cervus, 42 
Dama lichtensteiui, 165 
dama maura, Cervus, 42 
dama mesopotamine, Cervus, 45 
Dama mesopotamica, 45 
(Dama) mesopotamicus, Cervus, 

45 
Dama platyceros, 42 
Dama platyceros, albus, 43 
Dama platyceros, niger, 43 
Dama platyceros, varius, 43 
Dama rothschildi, 171 
Dama vulgaris, 43 
d'Antis, Cerf, 196 
Dasycboerus, 807 
Dasycho'rus celebensis, 331 
Dasycboerus verrucosus, 333, 336, 

337 
davidianus, Cervus, 152 
davidianus, Elapburus, 152 
dawsoni, Eangifer, 251 
dawsoni, Rangifer tarandus, 251 
debilis, Cervus elaphus, 124 
dejardinius, Sikaillus, 107 
dejeani, Cervus, 82 
dejeani, Cervus unicolor, 82 
dejeani, Rusa, 82 
delamerei, Pbacochcerus, 371 



INDEX 



409 



delamerei, Pliacochcerus a?thiopi- 

cus, 371 
devilleanus, Cervus, 107 
dichotoma,, Mazania, 187 
dicliotoma, Mazama (Blastoceros), 

187 
dichotomus, Blastocerus, 186, 187 
dichotomus, Cervus, 186 
dickii, Odocoileus, 194 
Dicotyle, 374 
Dicotyles, 374 
Dicotyles albirostris, 376 
IXcotyles angulatus, 383 
Dicotyles angulatus angulatus, 

383 
Dicotyles angulatus crassus, 385 
Dicotyles angulatus crusnigrum, 

385 
Dicotyles angulatus humeralis, 

384 
Dicotyles angulatus nanus, 386 
Dicotyles angulatus sonoriensis, 

384 
Dicotyles angulatus yucatanensis, 

385 
Dicotj'les labiatus, 375 
Dicotyles pecari, 375 
Dicotyles (Pecari) angulatus, 383 
Dicotyles pecari pecari, 376 
Dicotj'les pecari ringens, 878 
Dicotjdes pecari spiradens, 378 
Dicotyles (Pecari) tajacu, 379 
Dicotyles tajacu, 379 
Dicotyles tajacu angulatus, 383 
Dicotyles tajacu niger, 382 
Dicotyles tajacu sonoriensis, 384 
Dicotyles tajacu tajacu, 380 
Dicotyles tajacu torvus, 382 
Dicotyles torquatus, 379, 382 
Dicotj'lus, 374 
diraorpha, Lasa, 94 
dimorpbe, Cervus, 93 
Dinochoerus, 365 
Diproctodon, 392 
Diprotodon, 392 
Diprotodon liberiensis, 393 
Ditomeadon, 392 
Ditomeadon liberiensis, 393 
dolichorhinus, Sika, 107 
dolichurus, Cervus (Subulo), 199 
dolichurus, Subulo, 199 
dorcas, Capreolus, 219 
Dorcatberium, 295 
Dorcatberiuni aquaticum, 295 
Dorcatberium aquaticum aqiiati- 

cum, 296 



Doreatheriinri aquaticmii batesi, 
297 

Dorcatberium aquaticum cottoni, 
298 

Dorcatberium aquaticum typi- 
cum, 296 

Dorcelaphus, 154 

(Dorcelaphus) americana, Maza- 
ma, 156 

Dorcelapbus americanus, 156 

Dorcelaphus americanus savan- 
narum, 174 

Dorcelaphus campestris, 189 

Dorcelaphus columbianus, 182 

(Dorcelaphus) columbianus, Ma- 
zama, 182 

Dorcelaphus couesi, 164 

Dorcelapbus crooki, 185 

Dorcelapbus hemionus, 177 

Dorcelaphus hemionus eremicus, 
180 

(Dorcelaphus) hemionus, Maza- 
ma, 177 

Dorcelaphus macrotis, 176 

Dorcelaphus macrurus, 161 

(Dorceiaphus), Mazama, 175 

Dorcelaphus paludosus, 187 

Dorcelaphus texanus, 163 

Dorcelaphus virginianus, 155 

Dorcelaphus virginianus macrou- 
rus, 161 

Doryceros, 198 

Doi-yceros nemorivagus, 209 

Doryceros tschudii, 212 

Dromedarius, 301 

dubius, Hippocamelus, 193 

dugenneanus, Sika, 107 

duvauceli, Cervus (Rucervus), 93, 
94 

duvaucellii. Axis, 93 

duvaucellii, Cervus, 93 

duvaucelii, Cervus (Hippelaphus), 
94 

duvaucellii, Recervus, 94 

duvaucellii, Rucervus, 94 

dybowski, Cervus, 112 

dybowskii, Cervus, 112 

Dycoteles, 374 

Dycoteles labiatus, 376 

D^'coteles torquatus, 379 

Dycotyles, 374 

edentatus, Phacochoerus, 371 
edentatus, Phascochoerus, 366 
edwardsi, Potamochcerus, 349 
Elaphoceros, 106 



410 



INDEX 



Elaphoceros mantchuricus, 110 
Elaphoceros sika, 107 
Elaphoceros taevanns, 111 
Elaphodus, 34 
Elaphodus cephalophus, 34 
Elaphodus cephalophus cepha- 
lophus, 35 
Elaphodus cephalophus fociensis, 

38 
Elaphodus cephalophus ichan- 

gensis, 39 
Elaphodus cephalophus raichi- 

anus, 36 
Elaphodus ichangensis, 39 
Elaphodus michianus, 36 
Elaphodus michianus fociensis, 

38 
elaphoides, Cervus, 93 
elaphoides, Cervus (Eucervus), 93 
Elaphurus, 151 
Elaphurus davidianus, 152 
Elaphus, 116 

elaphus albifrons, Cervus, 124 
elaphus albus, Cervus, 124 
elaphus atlanticus, Cervus, 122 
elaphus barbarus, Cervus, 120 
(Elaphus Blastocerus) campes- 

tris, Cervus, 189 
(Elaphus Blastocerus) comosus, 

Cervus, 189 
(Elaphus Blastocerus) paludosus, 

Cervus, 187 
elaphus bolivari, Cervus, 121 
Elaphus canadensis, 129 
(Elaphus) canadensis, Cervus, 129 
elaphus canadensis, Cervus, 129 
elaphus, Cervus, 117, 120, 125, 

133 
elaphus, Cervus (Cervus), 118 
elaphus, Cervus (Elaphus), 118 
elaphus, Cervus elaphus, 122 
elaphus, Cervus (Strongyloceros), 

118 
elaphus corsicanus, Cervus, 121 
elaphus debilis, Cervus, 124 
(Elaphus) elaphus, Cervus, 118 
elaphus elaphus, Cervus, 122 
elaphus, Eucervus, 118 
(Elaphus Furcifer) antisiensis, 

Cervus, 196 
elaphus germanicus, Cervus, 124 
elaphus hippelaphus, Cervus, 124 
elaphus hispanicus, Cervus, 121 
elaphus maral, Cervus, 126 
elaphus minor, Cervus, 121 
elaphus neglectus, Cervus, 124 



Elaphus occidentalis, 132 

elaphus saxonicus, Cervus, 124 

elaphus scoticus, Cervus, 123 

elaphus typicus, Cervus, 122 

elaphus varius, Cervus, 124 

elaphus visurgensis, Cervus, 124 

Eld's Deer, 100 

eldi, Cervus eldi, 102 

eldi, Cervus (Panolia), 100 

eldi, Cervus (Eucervus), 100 

eldi coruipes, Cervus, 104 

eldi eldi, Cervus, 102 

eldi frontalis, Cervus, 104 

eldi, Panolia, 100 

eldi platyceros, Cervus, 104 

eldi platyceros, Panolia, 104 

eldi, Eucervus, 100 

eldi siameusis, Cervus, 104 

eldi typicus, Cervus, 102 

eldii, Cervus, 100 

elegans, Melanaxis, 89 

elegans, Sika, 107 

Elk, 232 

ellipticus, Sika, 107 

elorzanus, Ussa, 89 

Epieuryceros, 186 

equina malaccensis, Eusa, 78 

equina pennantii, Eusa, 72 

equina, Eusa, 78 

equina, Eussa, 78 

equinus, Cervus, 78 

equinus, Cervus (Hippelaphus), 

78 
equinus, Cervus (Eusa), 78 
equinus, Cervus unicolor, 78 
equinus, Eusa unicolor, 79 
Equus bisulcus, 193 
eremica, Mazama hemionus, 180 
eremicus, Dorcelaphus hemionus, 

180 
eremicus, Odocoileus hemionus, 

180 
eremicus, Odontocoelus hemionus, 

180 
errardianus, Sambar, 92 
Eucervus, 116, 154 
Eucervus columbianus, 182 
Eucervus elaphus, 118 
Eucervus hemionus, 177 
Eucervus macrotis, 176 
Eucervus pusillus, 182 
eucladoceros, Cervus, 94 
Euhys, 307 
Euhys barbatus, 339 
euopis, Cervus, 107 
Eureodon, 365 



INDEX 



411 



curopaeus, Alces, 230 
europaeus, Capreolus, 219 
europseus, Sus, 310 
eustephanus, Cervus, 136 
eustephanus, Cervus canadensis, 

136 
eustephanus, Cervus xanthopvgus. 

136 
everetti, Traguius kancliil, 291 
excelsifrous, Rangifer, 253 
excelsifrons, Eangifer tarandus, 

258 

Fallow Deer, 43 
Fallow Deer, Persian, 45 
fasciatus, Moschus moscliiferus, 5 
fasciatus, Sus, 310 
fasciatus, Sus scrofa, 310 
feae, Cervulus, 32 
feoe, Muntiacus, 32 
fennicus, Eangifer, 243 
fennicus, Eangifer tarandus, 243 
(fera), Llania paces, 303 
ferus, Sus scrofa, 313 
firghanicus, Capreolus pvgargus, 

227 
flavicoUis, Traguius, 275 
flavicollis, Traguius javanicus, 275 
floresianus, Hippelaplius. 92 
floresianus, Sus, 325 
floresianus, Sus vittatus, 325 
focalinus, Traguius, 292 
focalinus, Traguius kanchil, 292 
fociensis, Elaphodus cephalophus, 

38 
Formosan Sika, 111 
formosus, Traguius, 267, 274 
formosus, Traguius javanicus, 267 
formosus, Traguius stanleyanus, 

267 
fortideus, Eangifer, 251 
fortidens, Eangifer tarandus, 251 
fossilis, Capreolus, 219 
fossor, Phacochoerus tethiopicus, 

372 
francianus, Cervus unicolor, 85 
francianus, Eusa, 85 
francianus, Ussa, 85 
frenatus, Sus, 333 
frinianus, Cervus, 107 
frinianus, Sika, 107 
frontalis, Cervus eldi, 104 
frontalis, Cervus (Hippelaplius), 

104 
frontalis, Cervus (Eusa), 104 
frontalis, Panolia, 100 



fiih'icollis, Traguius, 284 
fulvicollis, Traguius kanchil, 284 
fulviventer, Traguius, 285 
fulviventer, Traguius kanchil, 285 
furcata, Mazama, 187 
Furcifer, 192 
Furcifer antisensis, 196 
Furcifer antisiensis, 194 
(Furcifer) antisiensis, Cervus, 196 
Furcifer campestris, 189 
Furcifer chilensis, 194, 196 
Fiu'cifer huamel, 194 
furcifer, Tarandus, 240 
fuscatus, Traguius, 268 

garcianus, Ussa, 89 
gargantua, Sus, 341 
gargantua, Sus barbatus, 341 
germanicus, Cervus elaphus, 124 
gigas, Alces, 237 
gigas, Alces alces, 237 
gigas, Alces niachlis, 237 
gigas, Paralces, 237 
gigUolii, Hylochoerus, 363 
glama, Auchenia, 302 
glania cacsilensis. Lama, 304 
glama, Camelus, 302 
glama huanacus. Lama, 302 
glama. Lama, 302 
glama. Llama, 302 
glama, Neoauchenia, 302 
gonzalinus, Ussa, 89 
gorrichanus, Ussa, 90 
goudotii, Cervus, 173 
gracilis, Cervus, 107 
grandicornis. Cervulus muntjac, 

20 
grandicornis, Muntiacus, 20 
grandicornis, Muntiacus muntjak, 

20 
granti, Eangifer, 253 
granti, Eangifer tarandus, 253 
grilloanus, Sika, 107 
groenlandicus, Cervus tarandus, 

256 
groenlandicus, Eangifer, 256 
groenlandicus, Eangifer tarandus, 

256 
Guanaco, 302, 303 
guanaco, Auchenia, 302 
guanaco. Lama, 303 
guanacus. Llama, 303 
Gruazupuco, 187 
Guazuti, 189 
Guemal, 194 
Guemal, Peruvian, 197 



■4:12 



lNt)F.K 



guettardi, Cervus, 239 
guevaranus, Ussa, 90 
guidoteaiius, Ussa, 90 
Gymuotis, 154 
gymnotis, Cariacus, 173 
gymnotis, Cervus, 173 
gymnotis, Mazama aniericana, 

173 
gymnotis, Odocoileus, 173 
gymnotis, Odocoileus virginianus, 

173 
Gymnotis wiegmanni, 173 
gymnotus, Cariacus, 173 

hagenbecki, Cervus, 138 
hamiltonianus, Hippelaphus, 92 
Hanglu, 147 
hauglu, Cervus, 146 
Hangul, 147 
Harana, 116 

(Haraua) wallichi, Cervus, 141 
haroia, Phacochoerus, 372 
haroja, Phacelochoerus, 371 
hassama, Nyctochoerus, 357 
hassama, Potamochoerus, 357 
hassama, Sus chceropotamus, 357 
hastalis, Cervus, 246 
hastalis, Taraudus, 246 
hecki, Cervus porcinus, 58 
hemiouus californica, Mazama, 

179 
hemionus californicus, Odocoil- 
eus, 179 
hemionus californicus, Odonto- 

coelus, 179 
hemionus canus, Odocoileus, 181 
hemionus canus, Odontocoelus, 181 
heinionus cerrosensis, Mazama, 

180 
hemionus cerrosensis, Odocoileus, 

180 
hemionus, Cervus, 176 
hemionus, Dorcelaphus, 177 
hemionus eremica, Mazama, 180 
hemionus eremicus, Dorcelaphus, 

180 
hemionus eremicus, Odocoileus, 

180 
hemionus eremicus, Odontocoelus, 

180 
hemionus, Eucervus, 177 
hemionus hemionus, Odocoileus, 

178 
hemionus, Mazama, 177 
hemionus, Mazama (Dorcela- 
phus), 177 



hemionus, Odocoileus, 176, 177 
hemionus, Odocoileus hemionus, 

178 
hemionus, Odontocoelus, 177 
hemionus peninsulae, Mazama, 

181 
hemionus peninsulae, Odocoileus, 

181 
hemionus peuinsulse, Odontocoel- 
us, 181 
hemionus typica, Mazama, 178 
hemionus virgultus, Odocoileus, 

179 
heteroceros, Rusa aristotelis, 72 
heterocerus, Cervus, 71 
heterocerus, Cervus jarya, 71 
hipolitianus, Ussa, 90 
Hippelaphus, 60 
(Hippelaphus) aristotelis, Cervus, 

71 
(Hippelaphus) axis, Cervus, 49 
Hippelaphus buruensis, 92 
hippelaphus, Cervus, 66, 71 
hippelaphus, Cervus elaphus, 124 
hippelaphus, Cervus (Hippela- 
phus), 67 
hippelaphus, Cervus (Eusa), 67, 71 
(Hippelaphus) duvaucelii, Cervus, 

94 
(Hippelaphus) equinus, Cervus, 78 
(Hippelaphus) frontalis, Cervus, 

104 
Hippelaphus hamiltonianus, 92 
(Hippelaphus) hippelaphus, Cer- 
vus, 67 
(Hippelaphus) japonicus, Cervus, 

107 
(Hippelaphus) kuhlii, Cervus, 61 
(Hippelaphus) leschenaulti, Cer- 
vus, 71 
Hippelaphus macassaricus, 92 
(Hippelaphus) mariannus, Cervus, 

83 
Hippelaphus menadensis, 92 
Hippelaphus moluccensis, 66 
(Hippelaphus) nioluccensis, Cer- 
vus, 65 
hippelaphus moluccensis, Cervus, 

66 
(Hippelaphus) niger, Cervus, 71 
Hippelaphus uoevellianus, 92 
(Hippelaphus) perouii, Cervus, 64 
(Hippelaphus) philippinus, Cer- 
vus, 84 
hippelaphus, Rusa, 67, 71 
Hippelaphus timoriensis, 64 



INDEX 



413 



hippelaphus timorieusis, Cervus, 

64, 65 
hippelaphus typicus, Cervus, 67 
(Hippelaphus) unicolor, Cervus, 

71 
Hippocamelus, 192 
Hippocamelus antisensis, 196 
Hippocamelus bisulcus, 193, 194 
Hippocamelus clubius, 193 
Hippocamelus nemorivagus, 209 
Hippocamelus pandora, 213 
Hippocamelus sartori, 205 
Hippopotamus, 386 
Hippopotamus abyssinicus, 387 
Hippopotamus amphibius, 387 
Hippopotamus amphibius am- 
phibius, 389 
Hippopotamus amphibius aus- 

trahs, 392 
Hippopotamus amphibius capeu- 

sis, 392 
Hippopotamus amphibius cou- 

strictus, 391 
Hippopotamus amphibius kiboko, 

391 
Hippopotamus amphibius tschad- 

ensis, 390 
Hippopotamus australis, 392 
Hippopotamus capensis, 392 
Hippopotamus (Clireropsis) liberi- 

ensis, 393 
Hippopotamus constrictus, 391 
Hippopotamus liberiensis. 393 
Hippopotamus minor, 393 
Hippopotamus senegalensis, 388 
Hippopotamus (Tetraprotodon) 

amphibius, 388 
Hippopotamus (Tetraprotodon) 

liberianus, 393 
Hippopotamus (Tetraprotodon) 

liberiensis, 393 
Hippopotamus typus, 387 
hispanicus, Cervus elaphus, 121 
Hog-Deer, 56 
Homelaphus, 198 
Homelaphus inornatus, 199 
hortulorum, Cervus, 112 
hortulorum, Cervus hortulorum, 

114 
hortulorum, Cervus (Sika), 112 
hortulorum hortulorum, Cervus, 

114 
hortulorum kopschi, Cervus, 115 
hortulorum typicus, Cervus, 114 
hosei, Tragulus, 290 
hosei, Tragulus kanchil, 290 



hova, Potamochoerus larvatus, 350 

Hthamin, 100 

huamel, Auomalocera, 196 

huamel, Auchenia, 193 

huamel, Furcifer, 194 

huamel, Xeuelaphus, 196 

Huamela, 193 

Hi;amela leucotis, 194 

huanaca, Auchenia, 302 

huanacha, Lama, 303 

huanachus cacsilensis, Lama, 304 

huanachus. Lama, 303 

Huanaco, 302, 303 

huanacos. Lama, 303 

huanacus, Auchenia, 302, 303 

huanacus, Camelus, 302 

huanacus, Lama, 303 

huanacus, Lama glama, 302 

Huemul, 194 

humboldtii, Cervus, 205 

humerale, Tagassuaugulatum, 384 

humeralis, Dicotvles angulatus, 
384 

humeralis, Pecari angulatus, 384 

humeraUs, Tayassu angulatus, 384 

humilij, Cervus, 215 

humilis, Cervus (Pudu), 215 

humilis, Coassus, 215 

humilis, Pudu, 215 

humilis, Pudua, 215 

Hydrelaphus, 257 

Hydr elaphus inermis, 258 

Hydropotes, 257 

Hydropotes affinis, 257 

Hydropotes argyropus, 258 

Hj'dropotes inermis, 257 

Hydropotes kreyenbergi, 258 

Hyelaphus, 54 

Hyelaphus annamiticus, 58 

Hyelaphus calamianensis, 59 

(Hyelaphus) calamianensis, Cer- 
vus, 59 

(Hyelaphus) kuhli, Cervus, 62 

Hyelaphus macula tus, 49 

Hyelaphiis porcinus, 55 

(Hyelaphus) porcinus. Axis, 55 

(Hyelaphus) porcinus, Cervus, 
54, 55 

Hyelaphus porcinus pumilio, 55 

hyemalis, Cervus, 107 

Hyemoschus, 295 

Hyemoschus aquaticus, 295 

Hylochoerus, 362 

Hylochoerus gigliolii, 363 

Hylochoerus ituriensis, 363 

Hylochoerus meinertzhageni, 363 



414 



INDEX 



Hylochcerus meinertzhageni ituri- 
ensis, 363 

Hylochcerus meiuertzliageni mei- 
nertzhageni, 364 

Hylochcerus meinertzhageni ri- 
mator, 364 

Hylochcerus rimator, 364 

Hyoemoschus, 295 

Hyoemoschus aquaticus, 295 

Hyomoschus, 295 

Hyomoschus aquaticus, 295 

ichangensis, Elaphodus, 39 

ichangensis, Elaphodus cepha- 
lophus, 39 

ignotus, Cervus, 107 

inconstans, Sus, 334 

Indian Chrevrotain, 263 

indica, Meminna, 262 

indicus, Sus, 318 

inermis, Hydrelaphus, 258 

inerrais, Hj-dropotes, 257 

infelix, Sikaillus, 107 

inornata, Mazama, 200 

inomatus, Homelaphus, 199 

intermedius, Potamochcerus, 361 

Isubra, 134 

isubra, Cervus, 133 

ituriensis, Hylochcerus, 363 

itmiensis, Hylochcerus meinertz- 
hageni, 363 

japonica, Eusa, 107 
japonica, Sus vittatus, 321 
japonicus, Cervus (Hippelaphus), 

107 
jarai, Cervus, 71 
Jarao, 73 

jarya, hetei-ocei'us, Cervus, 71 
jarya, nepalensis, Cervus, 71 
Javan Rusa, 67 

javanicus amcenus, Tragulus, 278 
javanicus annie, Tragulus, 279 
javanicus bancanus, Tragulus, 275 
javanicus batuanus, Tragulus, 279 
javanicus billitonus, Tragulus. 277 
javanicus borneanus, Tragulus, 

270 
javanicus bunguraneusis, Tragu- 
lus, 279 
javanicus canescens, Tragulus, 270 
javanicus, Cervus, 268 
javanicus flavicollis, Tragulus, 275 
javanicus formosus, Tragulus, 267 
javanicus javanicus, Tragulus, 
268 



javanicus jugularis, Tragulus, 278 
javanicus lutescens, Tragulus, 

275, 294 

javanicus, Moschus, 268, 280, 292 
javanicus napu, Tragulus, 268, 

269 
javanicus nigricans, Tragulus, 

272 
javanicus nigricoUis," Tragulus, 

276, 294 

javanicus nigrocinctus, Tragulus, 

276, 294 
javanicus parallelus, Tragulus, 

274 
javanicus pretiellus, Tragulus, 

274 
javanicus pretiosus, Tragulus, 273, 

294 
javanicus ratuanus, Tragulus, 279 
javanicus rufulus, Tragulus, 267, 

283 
javanicus sebucus, Tragulus, 277 
javanicus terutus, Tragulus, 272 
javanicus, Tragulus, 268, 281 
javanicus, Tragulus javanicus, 268 
javanicus umbrinus, Tragulus, 273 
javanicus versicolor, Tragulus, 280 
johnstoni, Potamochcerus, 355 
johnstoni, Potamochcerus chcero- 

potamus, 355 
joretianus, Cervus, 107 
joretianus, Sika, 107 
joubertianus, Sambar, 92 
jubata, Alces, 230 
jubatulus, Sus, 320 
jubatulus, Sus cristatus, 320 
jubatus, Sus, 320 
jubatus, Sus cristatus, 320 
jucunda, Mazama americana, 202 
jugulai'is, Tragulus, 278 
jugularis, Tragulus javanicus, 278 

Kakar, 14 

kanchil affinis, Tragulus, 286 
kanchil brevipes, Tragulus, 284 
kanchil carimatae, Tragulus, 284 
kanchil everetti, Tragulus, 291 
kanchil focalinus, Tragulus, 292 
kanchil fulvicoUis, Tragulus, 283 
kanchil fulviventer, Tragulus, 285 
kanchil hosei, Tragulus, 290 
kanchil kanchil, Tragulus, 282 
kanchil lampensis, Tragulus, 288 
kanchil lancavensis, Tragulus, 288 
kanchil longipes, Tragulus, 282 
kanchil luteicollis, Tragulus, 282 



INDEX 



415 



kanchil, Moschus, 280 
kanchil natunfe, Tragulus, 291 
kanchil pallidus, Tragulus, 285 
kanchil pelandoc, Tragulus, 292 
kanchil pierrei, Tragulus, 291 
kanchil ravulus, Tragulus, 288 
kanchil rubeus, Tragulus, 283 
kanchil rufulus, Tragulus, 283 
kanchil russeus, Tragulus, 289 
kanchil russulus, Tragulus, 289 
kanchil subrufus, Tragulus, 283 
kanchil, Tragulus, 280 
kanchil, Tragulus kanchil, 282 
kanchil virgicollis, Tragulus, 290 
kansuensis, Cervus, 146 
kansuensis, Cervus macneilli, 146 
Kastura, 4 
keniae, Potamochoerus choeropo- 

tamus, 356 
kiboko. Hippopotamus amphi- 

bius, 391 
Koiropotamus, 348 
koiropotanaus daemonis, Potamo- 
choerus, 354 
koiropotamus, Potamochoerus, 351 
koiropotamus, Sus, 351 
kopschi, Cervus, 115 
kopschi, Cervus hortulorum, 115 
kreyenbergi, Hydropotes, 258 
kuhli, Cervus (Hyelaphus), 62 
kuhli, Cervus (Rusa), 61 
kuhlii, Cervus, 61 
kuhlii, Cervus (Hippelaphus), 61 
kuhlii, Rusa, 61 
Kwaroku, 111 

labiatus, Adenonotus, 376 
labiatus, Dicotj-les, 375 
labiatus, Dycotyles, 376 
labiatus, Sus, 376 
labipes, Cervus, 83 
Lacma, 301 
Lacma peruana, 302 
lacrymans, Cervulus, 25 
lacrymans lacrymans, Muntiacus, 

26 
lacrymans, Muntiacus, 25 
lacrymans, Muntiacus lacrymans, 

26 
lacrymans sclateri, Muntiacus, 26 
laci-ymans, Sika, 107 
lacrj'mans teesdalei, Muntiacus, 

27 
lachrymosus, Cervus, 107 
Lama, 301 
lama, Aucheuia, 302, 303 



lama, Camelus, 302 

Lama glama, 302 

Lama glama cacsilensis, 304 

Lama glama huanacus, 302 

Lama guanaco, 803 

Lama huanacha, 303 

Lama huanachus, 303 

Lama huanachus cacsilensis, 304 

Lama huanacos, 303 

Lama huanacus, 303 

Lama vicugna, 304 

lampensis, Tragulus, 288 

lampensis, Tragulus kanchil, 288 

lancavensis, Tragulus, 288 

lancavensis, Tragulus kanchil, 288 

lapponum, Tarandus, 239 

larvatus hova, Potamochoerus, 

350 
larvatus larvatus, Potamochoerus, 

350 
larvatus, Macrocephalus, 349 
larvatus, Phascochcerus, 349 
larvatus, Potamochoerus, 349 
larvatus, Potamochoerus larvatus, 

350 
larvatus, Sus, 349, 351 
lasiotis, Odocoileus, 172 
lasiotis, Odocoileus virginianus, 

172 
latidens, Sambar, 92 
latidens, Sikaillus, 107 
lemeanus, Sambar, 92 
lepida, Rusa, 150 
lepidus, Cervus, 150 
leptocephala, Mazama, 185 
leptocephalus, Cariacus, 185 
leschenaulti, Cervus (Hipp- 
elaphus), 71 
leschenaulti, Rusa aristotelis, 72 
leschenaultii, Cer\Tis, 71 
leucaethiops, Cervus dama, 42 
leucogaster, Cervus, 188 
leucogaster, Moschus, 5 
leucomystax, var. continentalis, 

Sus, 323 
leucomystax leucomystax, Sus, 

322 
leucomystax, Sus, 821 
leucomj'stax, Sus leucomvstax, 

322 
leucomystax, Sus vittatus, 321 
leucomystax taivanus, Sus, 322 
leucotis, Capreolus, 194 
leucotis, Huamela, 194 
leucotis, Xenelaphus, 196 
leucura, Reduucina, 162 



416 



INDEX 



leucurus, Cariacus, 162 

leucurus, Cervus, 162 

leucurus, Cervus (Mazama), 162 

leucurus, Odocoileus, 162 

leucurus, Odocoileus virginianus, 
162 

lewisii, Cervus, 182 

liberianus. Hippopotamus (Tetra- 
protodon), 393 

liberiensis, Choerodes, 393 

liberiensis, Choeropsis, 393 

liberiensis, Diprotodon, 393 

liberiensis, Ditomeadon, 393 

liberiensis, Hippopotamus, 393 

liberiensis, Hippopotamus (Choer- 
opsis), 393 

liberiensis. Hippopotamus (Tetra- 
protodon), 393 

liberiensis, Tetraproctodon, 393 

lichtensteini, Dama, 165 

lichtensteini, Mazama americana, 
165 

lichtensteini, Mazama virginiaua, 
165 

lichtensteini, Odontoccelus, 165 

lignarius, Sambar, 92 

Llama, 301, 302 

llama, Auchenia, 302 

Llama glama, 302 

Llama guanacus, 303 

Llama pacos (fera), 803 

Llama vicugna, 304 

lobata, Alces, 234 

lobata coronata, Alces, 231 

lobatus, Cervus, 234 

longicornis, Sambar, 91 

longicuspis, Ussa, 90 

longipes, Tragulus kanchil, 282 

longirostris, Sus, 339 

Lophotragus, 34 

Lophotragus michianus, 36 

louisianae, Odocoelus virginianus, 
162 

louisianiE, Odocoileus, 162 

louisianae, Odocoileus americanus, 
162 

louisianae, Odocoileus virginianus, 
162 

louisianae, Odontoccelus americ- 
anus, 162 

luehdorfi, Cervus, 133 

luehdorfi, Cervus canadensis, 133 

liihdorfi, Cervus, 133 

luteicollis, Tragulus, 282 

luteicollis, Tragulus kanchil, 282 

lutescens, Tragulus, 275 



lutescens, Tragulus javanicus 

275 
lybicus, Sus, 316 
lybicus, Sus scrota, 316 
lyratus, Cervus, 100 

macariauus, LTssa, 90 

macassaricus, Hippelaphus, 92 

Machlis, 40 

machlis, Alces, 230 

machlis americanus, Alces, 234 

machlis bedfordiae, Alces, 234 

machlis gigas, Alces, 237 

machlis meridioualis, iVlces, 232 

machlis typicus, Alces, 232 

machlis uralensis, Alces, 232 

machlis yakutskensis, Alces, 234 

macneilli, Cervus, 145 

macneilli, Cervus cashmirianus, 
145 

macneilli, Cervus macneilli, 145 

macneilli kansuensis, Cervus, 146 

macneilli macneilli, Cervus, 145 

Macrocephalus, 365 

Macrocephalus africanus, 373 

Macrocephalus larvatus, 349 

Macrotis, 154 

macrotis, var. californicus, Cer- 
vus, 179 

macrotis, Cariacus, 176 

macrotis, Cervus, 176 

macrotis, Cervus (Mazama), 176 

macrotis columbiauus, Cariacus, 
182 

macrotis, var. columbiauus, Cer- 
vus, 182 

macrotis, Dorcelaphus, 176 

macrotis, Eucervus, 176 

macrotis, Mazama, 176 

macrotis montanus, Cervus, 178 

macrotis, Otelaphus, 177 

macrourus, Cervus, 161 

macrourus, Cervus (Mazama), 161 

macrourus, Dorcelaphus virgin- 
ianus, 161 

macrourus, Odocoileus america- 
nus, 161 

macrourus, Odocoileus virgin- 
ianus, 161 

macrourus, Odontoccelus ameri- 
canus, 161 

macrura, Mazama americana, 161 

macrurus, Dorcelaphus, 161 

maculata ceyloneusis. Axis, 53 

maculatus. Axis, 49 

maculatus, Hyelaphus, 49 



INDEX 



417 



maculatus, Moschus moscliifer- 

us, 5 
madagascariensis, Potamochoerus, 

349 
major, Axis, 49 
major, Cervus, 129 
major, Cervus axis, 70 
major, Cervus mantschuricus, 112 
major, Cervus (Subulo) simpli- 

cornis, 212 
malabaricus, Muntiacus, 24 
malabaricus, Muntiacus muntjak, 

24 
malaccensis, Cervus, 78 
malaccensis, Meminna, 262 
malacceusis, Rusa equina, 78 
malchis, Alces, 230 
manchuricus, Capreolus, 224 
manchuricus, Cervus nippon, 110 
manchuricus, Cervus sica, 110 
manchuricus typicus, Cervus, 134 
mandarinus, Cervus, 112 
mantchurica, Pseudaxis, 110 
mautchuricus, Cervus, 110 
mantchuricus, Cervus nippon, 110 
mautchuricus, Elaphoceros, 110 
mantschuricus. Axis, 110 
mantschuricus, Cervus pygargus, 

224 
mantschuricus major, Cervus, 112 
maraisianus, Ussa, 90 
Maral, 126 

maral californica, Cervus, 133 
maral canadensis, Cervus, 129 
maral, Cervus, 126 
maral, Cervus (Cervus), 126 
maral, Cervus elaphus, 126 
maral, var. sibirica, Cervus, 134 
maral, var. songarica, Cervus, 136 
marchei, Sus, 333 
margaritae, Odocoileus, 174 
margaritae, Odocoileus virginia- 

nus, 174 
mariannus, Cervus, 83, 84 
mariannus, Cervus (Hippelaphus), 

83 
mariannus, Cervus (Rusa), 83 
mariannus, Cervus unicolor, 83 
mariannus, Rusa, 83, 84 
marianus, Ussa, 83 
marmandiauus, Sikaillus, 107 
Marsh-Deer, 187 
marzaninus, Ussa, 90 
masbatensis, Melanaxis, 90 
maschona, Potamochoerus choero- 
potamus, 353 

IV. 



massaicus, Phacochoerus, 370 
massaicus, Phacochoerus aethiopi- 

cus, 370 
maura, Cervus dama, 42 
mauricus, Cervus, 42 
Mazama, 153, 198 
Mazama americana, 156, 199, 200, 

209 
Mazama americana americana, 

200 
Mazama americana borealis, 160 
Mazama americana citus, 212 
Mazama americana couesi, 164 
IMazania americana gymnotis, 173 
Mazama americana jucunda, 202 
]\Iazama americana lichtensteini, 

165 
Mazama americana macrura, 161 
Mazama americana mexicana, 

165 
Mazama americana nelsoni, 168 
Mazama americana nemoralis, 

170 
Mazama americana osceola, 162 
Mazani'i americana peruviana, 

175 
Mazama americana savannarum, 

174 
Mazama americana texana, 163 
Mazama americana thomasi, 168 
Mazama americana tolteca, 167 
Mazama americana truei, 169 
Mazama americana typica, 159 
Mazama antisiensis, 196 
Mazama amita, 214 
Mazama bezoartica, 189 
Mazama bira, 209 
Mazama bisulca, 194 
Mazama (Blastoceros) bezoartica, 

189 
Mazama (Blastoceros) dichotoma, 

187 
Mazama bricenii, 207 
Mazama campestris, 189 
(Mazama) campestris, Cervus, 189 
(Mazama) clavatus, Cervus, 155 
Mazama columbiana, 182 
Mazama columbiana crooki, 185 
Mazama columbiana scaphiotus, 

184 
Mazama columbiana sitkensis, 

184 
Mazama crooki, 185 
Mazama dichotoma, 187 
Mazama (Dorcelaphus) ameri- 
cana, 156 

2 E 



418 



INDEX 



INIazama (Dorcelaplius) colnmbia- 

nus, 182 
Mazama (Dorcelaphus) hemionus, 

177 
Mazama furcata, 187 
Mazama liemioniis, 177 
Mazama hemionus californica, 

179 
Mazama liemiouus cerrosensis, 

ISO 
Mazama hemionus eremica, 180 
Mazama hemionus peninsulte, 181 
Mazama hemionus t,ypica, 178 
Mazama inornata, 200 
Mazama leptocephala, 185 
(Mazama) leucurus, Cervus, 162 
Mazama macrotis, 176 
(Mazama) macrotis, Cervus, 176 
(Mazama) macrourus, Cervus, 161 
Mazama nana, 213 
Mazama nemoraUs, 170 
(Mazama) nemorahs, Cervus, 170 
Mazama nemorivaga, 209 
Mazama (Odocoileus) virginianus. 

156 
Mazama paludosa, 187 
(Mazama) paludosus, Cervus, 187 
Mazama pandora, 213 
Mazama pita, 199 
Mazama pusilla, 182 
Mazama rondoni, 214 
Mazama rufa, 200 
Mazama rufina, 208 
Mazama sartorii, 205 
Mazama sheila, 205 
Mazama similis, 185 
Mazama simpHcicornis, 208, 209 
Mazama simplicicornis citus, 212 
Mazama simplicicornis mexianse, 

211 
Mazama simplicicornis simplici- 
cornis, 210 
Mazama spinosa, 174 
Mazama superciliaris, 203 
Mazama tenia, 205 
Mazama tema cei'asina, 207 
Mazama tema reperticia, 207 
Mazama tema tema, 206 
Mazama tschudii, 212 
Mazama virginiana, 155 
Mazama virginiana borealis, 160 
Mazaixia virginiana lichtensteini, 

165 
(Mazama) vii'ginianus, Cervus, 155 
Mazama (Xenelaphus) antisiensis, 

196 



Mazama (Xenelaphi;s) bisulca, 

194 
Mazama zetta, 204 
mediterraneus, Cervus, 121 
meinertzhageni, Hylochoerus, 363 
meinertzhageni, Hylochierus 

meinertzhageni, 364 
meinertzhageni ituriensis, Hylo- 

chcerus, 363 
meinertzhageni meinertzhageni, 

Hylochoerus, 364 
meinertzhageni rimator. H3'lo- 

chcerus, 364 
Melanaxis, 48 
Melanaxis alfredi, 63 
Melanaxis basilanensis, 85 
Melanaxis breviceps, 89 
Melanaxis elegans, 89 
Melanaxis masbatensis, 90 
melanotis, Capreolus, 225 
melanotis, Capreolus bedfordi, 225 
melas, Cervus, 21 
melas, Prox, 21 
Memina, 261 
Meminna, 261 
Meminna indica, 262 
Meminna malaccensis, 262 
meminna, iMoschus, 262 
meminna, Ti-agulus, 262 
Memminna, 263 
menadensis, Hippelaphus, 92 
mephistophiles, Pudella, 217 
mephistophiles, Pudu (Pudella), 

217 
mephistophiles, Pudua, 217 
meridionalis, Alces machlis, 232 
ineridionalis, Sus, 313 
meridionalis, Sus scrofa, 313 
merriami, Cervus, 132 
merriami, Cervus canadensis, 132 
mesopotamiiE, Cervus dama, 45 
mesopotamica, Dama, 45 
niesopotamicus, Cervus, 45 
mesopotamicus, Cervus (Dama), 

45 
mexianse, Mazama simplicicornis, 

211 
mexicana, Mazama americana, 165 
mexicana, Eeduncina, 165 
mexicanus, Cariacus, 165 
mexicanus, Cariacus virginianus, 

165 
mexicanus, Cervus, 165 
mexicanus, Odocoileus, 165 
mexicanus, Odocoileus virgini- 
anus, 165 



INDEX 



419 



michaelinus, Ussa, 90 
michianus, Elaphodus, 36 
michianus, Elaphodus cephalo- 

phus, 36 
michianus focieusis, Elaphodus, 

38 
michianus, Lophotragus, 36 
microdontus, Ussa, 90 
microtis, Sus, 333 
micrurus, Cervulus, 30 
micrurus, Muntiacus reevesi, 30 
milleri, S\;s, 325 
milleri, Sus vittatus, 325 
Mi-lu, 152 

mimenoides, Tragulus, 262 
mimus, Svis, 329 
mimus, Sus vittatus, 329 
mindanensis, Sus, 334 
mindanensis, Sus celebensis, 334 
mindanensis, Sus verrucosus, 334 
minoensis, Sika, 107 
minor. Axis, 49 
minor, Cervus, 55 
minor, Cervus elaphus, 121 
minor. Hippopotamus, 393 
minutus, Sus, 334 
minutus, Sus celebensis, 334 
mitratus, Sika, 107 
moluccensis, Cervus, 65 
moluccensis, Cervus hippelaphus, 

66 
moluccensis, Cervus (Hippela- 
phus), 65 
moluccensis, Cervus russa, 65 
moluccensis, Cervus timoriensis, 

65 
moluccensis, Hippelaphus, 66 
moluccensis, Rusa, 65 
montanus, Cervus macrotis, 178 
montanus, Cervus vulgaris, 126 
montanus, Rangifer, 249 
montanus, Rangifer tarandus, 249 
Moose, 232, 234 
moschatus, Cervulus, 15, 21 
moschatus, Cervus, 21 
moschatus, Cervus (Stylocerus), 

21 
moschatus, Muntiacus, 15 
moschatus, Muntiacus moschatus, 

15 
moschatus, Prox, 12 
moschiferus altaicus, Moschus, 5 
moschiferus concolor, Moschus, 5 
moschiferus fasciatus, Moschus, 5 
moschiferus maculatus, Moschus, 

5 



moschiferus moschiferus, Mos- 
chus, 5 

moschiferus, Moschus, 4 

moschiferus, Moschus moschi- 
ferus, 5 

moschiferus, Odontodorcas, 5 

moschiferus parvipes, Moschus, 8 

moschiferus sifanicus, Moschus, 7 

Moschus, 3 

Moschus altaicus, 5 

Moschus americanus, 199 

Moschus aquaticus, 295 

Moschus chrysogaster, 5 

Moschus javanicus, 268, 280, 292 

Moschus kanchil, 280 

Moschus leucogaster, 5 

Moschus meminna, 262 

Moschus moschiferus, 4 

Moschus moschiferus altaicus, 5 

Moschus moschiferus concolor, 5 

Moschus moschiferus fasciatus, 5 

Moschus moschiferus maculatus, 
5 

Moschus moschiferus moschiferus, 
5 

Moschns moschiferus parvipes, 8 

Moschus moschiferus sifanicus, 7 

Moschus napu, 269 

Moschus parvipes, 8 

Moschus pelandoc, 292 

Moschus pygmaeus, 281 

Moschus saturatus, 5 

Moschus sibiricus, 5 

Moschus sifanicus, 7 

Moschus (Tragulus) stanleyanus, 
265 

moupinensis, Sus, 317 

moupinensis, Sus cristatus, 317 

moupinensis, Sus scrofa, 317 

moupinensis, Sus vittatus, 317 

Mouse-Deer, 263 

Mule-Deer, 177 

Muntiacus, 10 

Muntiacus aureus, 24 

Muntiacus bancanus, 15 

Muntiacus crinifrons, 33 

Muntiacus feae, 32 

Muntiacus grandicoruis, 20 

Muntiacus lacrymans, 25 

Muntiacus lacrymans lacrymans, 
26 

Muntiacus lacrymans sclateri, 26 

Muntiacus lacrymans teesdalei, 
27 

Muntiacus malabaricus, 24 

Muntiacus moschatus, 15 

2 E 2 



420 



INDEX 



Muntiacus niuntjac, 12 
Muntiacus muntjak, 12, 25 
Muntiacus muntjak aureus, 24 
Muntiacus muntjak bancanus, IT) 
Muntiacus inuntjak curvostvlis, 

19 
Muntiacus muntjak grandicornis, 

20 
Muntiacus muntjak malabaricus, 

24 
Muntiacus muntjak moschatus. 

15 
Muntiacus muntjak muntjak, 14 
Muntiacus muntjak peninsulae, 18 
Muntiacus muntjak pleiharicus, 

16 
Muntiacus muntjak robinsoni, 18 
Muntiacus muntjak rubidus, 16 
Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis, 21 
Muntiacus nigricans, 272 
Muntiacus pleiharicus, 16 
Muntiacus reevesi, 27 
Muntiacus reevesi micrurus, 30 
Muntiacus reevesi pingshiangicus, 

30 
Muntiacus reevesi reevesi, 28 
Muntiacus rubidus, 16 
Muntiacus sinensis, 31 
Muntiacus vaginalis, 22 
Muntjac, 14 

muutjac, Cervulus, 12, 15 
muntjac, Cervus, 11 
muntjac grandicornis, Cervulus, 

20 
muntjac, Muntiacus, 12 
(Muntjac) philipi:)inus, Cervus, 84 
muntjac, Prox, 12 
muntjac, Styloceros, 21 
muntjac tamulicus, Cervulus, 21 
muntjac typicus, Cervulus, 14 
muntjac vaginalis, Cervulus, 22 
Muntjaccus, 10 
Muntjacus, 10 
muntjacus, Stylocerus, 21 
Muntjacus vaginalis, 14, 21 
muntjak aureus, Muntiacus, 24 
muntjak bancanus, Muntiacus, 

15 
muntjak, Cervus, 11 
muntjak, Cervus (Stylocerus), 12 
muntjak curvostylis, Muntiacus, 

19 
muntjak grandicornis, Muntiacus, 

20 
muntjak malabaricus, Muntiacus, 

24 



muntjak moschatus, Muntiacus, 

15 
muntjak, Muntiacus, 12, 25 
muntjak, Muntiacus muntjak, 14 
mvmtjak muntjak, Muntiacus, 14 
muntjak peninsulae, Muntiacus, 

18 
muntjak pleiharicus, ^Muntiacus, 

16 
muntjak robinsoni, Muntiacvis, 18 
muntjak rubidus, Muntiacus, 16 
muntjak, Stylocerus, 12 
muntjak vaginalis, ^Muntiacus, 21 
Musk -Deer, 4 
muswa, Alces, 284 
mystaceus, Sus, 337 

nambi, Nanelaphus, 213 
uamb^', Nanelaphus, 213 
nana, Mazama, 213 
Nanelaphus, 198, 214 
Nanelaphus nambi, 213 
Nanelaphus namby, 213 
Nanelaphus pudu, 215 
naunodes, Cervus, 133 
nannodes, Cervus canadensis, 133 
nanus, Cariacus, 213 
nanus, Cervus (Coassus). 213 
nanus, Cervus (Siabulo), 213 
nanus, Dicotyles angulatus, 386 
nanus, Pecari, 386 
nanus, Tagassu, 386 
nanus, Tayassu, 386 
napu boi'neanus, Tragulus, 270 
napu, Moschus, 269 
napu, Tragulus, 269, 277 
napu, Tragulus jav aniens, 268 
nariyanus, Cervus,. 141 
uatunse, Tragulus, 291 
natunse, Tragulus kanchil, 291 
natunensis, Sus, 329 
natunensis, Sus vittatus, 329 
neglectus, Cervus elaphus, 124 
nehringi, Sus celebensis, 333 
nehringii, Sus, 333 
nelsoni, Mazama americana, 168 
nelsoni, Odocoileus, 168 
nelsoni, Odocoileus virginianus, 

168 
nelsoni, Odontocoelus, 168 
nemoralis, Cariacus, 170 
nemoralis, CerA"us, 170 
nemoralis, Cervus (Mazama), 170 
nemoralis, Mazama, 170 
nemoralis, Mazama americana, 

170 



INDEX 



421 



nemovalis, Odocoileus virginianus, 

170 
nemoralis, Odontoccelus, 170 
nemoralis, Eedimcina, 170 
neniorivaga, Mazama, 209 
iieinorivagus, Cariacus, 209 
uemorivagus, Cervvis, 209 
nemorivagus, Cervus (Subv;lo), 209 
nemorivagus, Coassus, 209 
nemorivagus, Doryceros, 209 
uemorivagus, Hippocamelus, 209 
nemorivagus, Passalites, 209 
Neoauchenia, 301 
Neoauclienia glama, 302 
Neosus cebifrons, 336 
nepalensis, Cervus jarya, 71 
niadensis, Sus, 328 
uiadensis, Sus vittatus, 328 
nicobaricus, Sus, 327 
nicobaricus, Sus vittatus, 327 
nigellus, Cervus unicolor, 87 
nigellus, Eusa, 87 
niger, Capreolus vulgaris, 220 
uiger, Cervus, 71 
niger, Cervus (Hippelaphus), 71 
niger, Dama platyceros, 43 
niger, Dicotyles tajacu, 382 
niger, Sus, 330 
niger, Tayassu, 382 
nigra, Rusa aristotelis, 72 
nigricans, Cervus, 86 
nigricans, Cervus (Eusa), 86 
nigricans, Cervus unicolor, 86 
nigricans, Muntiacus, 272 
nigricans, Rusa, 86 
nigricans, Tragulus, 272 
nigricans, Tragulus javanicus, 

272 
nigricans, Ussa, 86 
nigricollis, Tragulus, 276 
nigricollis, Tragulus javanicus, 

276 
nigripes, Sus scrofa, 317 
nigrocinctus, Tragulus, 276 
nigrocinctus, Tragulus javanicus, 

276 
nippon, Cervus, 107 
nippon, Cervus nippon, 108 
nippon, Cervus (Sika), 107 
nippon manchuricus, Cervus, 110 
nippon mantchuricus, Cervus, 110 
nippon nippon, Cervus, 108 
nippon typicus, Cervus, 108 
noevellianus, Hippelaphus, 92 
Notophorus, 374 
Notophorus pecari, 375 



Notophorus torquatus, 380 
nublanus, Ussa, 90 
nudipalpebra, Axis, 49 
uudipalpebra, Cervus, 49 
nyasae, Potamochoerus,-354 
nyasse, Potamochcerus cha'ropo- 

tamus, 354 
nyasse, Sus choeropotamus, 354 
Nyctochoerus, 348 
Nyctochoerus hassama, 357 

occidentals, Cervus, 132 
occidentalis, Cervus canadensis, 

132 
occidentalis, Elaphus, 132 
occidentalis, Strongyloceros, 132 
Odocoelus, 154 
Odocoelu-s virginianus louisianie, 

162 
Odocoileus, 153 
Odocoileus acapulcensis, 167 
Odocoileus americaous, 156 
Odocoileus americanus ameri- 

canus, 159 
Odocoileus americanus borealis, 

160 
Odocoileus americanus louisiame, 

162 
Odocoileus americanus macrou- 

rus, 161 
Odocoileus americanus osceola, 

163 
Odocoileus antisensis, 197 
Odocoileus battyi, 164 
Odocoileus cerrosensis, 180 
Odocoileus columbianus, 182 
Odocoileus columbianus colum- 
bianus, 183 
Odocoileus columbianus crooki, 

185 
Odocoileus columbianus scaphio- 

tus, 184 
Odocoileus columbianus sitkensis, 

184 
Odocoileus columbicus, 172 
Odocoileus costaricensis, 170 
Odocoileus couesi, 164 
Odocoileus crooki, 185 
Odocoileus dickii, 194 
Odocoileus gymnotis, 173 
Odocoileus hemionus, 176, 177 
Odocoileus hemionus californicus, 

179 
Odocoileus hemionus canus, 181 
Odocoileus hemionus cerrosensis, 

180 



422 



INDEX 



Odocoileus heiuionus eremicus, 

180 
Odocoileus hemiouus hemionus, 

178 
Odocoileus hemionus peninsulae, 

181 
Odocoileus hemionus virgultus, 

179 
Odocoileus lasiotis, 172 
Odocoileus leucurus, 162 
Odocoileus louisiantE, 162 
Odocoileus margaritie, 174 
Odocoileus mexicanus, 165 
Odocoileus nelsoni, 168 
Odocoileus osceola, 163 
Odocoileus pei'uvianus, 175 
Odocoileus philippii, 175 
Odocoileus rothschildi, 171 
Odocoileus rothschildi chiriquen- 

sis, 172 
Odocoileus rothschildi rothschildi, 

171 
Odocoileus sinaloee, 166 
Odocoileus spelaeus, 155 
Odocoileus spinosus, 174 
Odocoileus texanus, 163 
Odocoileus texensis, 163 
Odocoileus thomasi, 168 
Odocoileus toltecus, 167 
Odocoileus truei, 169 
Odocoileus virginianus, 155, 156 
Odocoileus virginianus acapul- 

censis, 167 
Odocoileus virginianus battyi, 164 
Odocoileus vnginianus borealis, 

160 
Odocoileus virginianus chiriquen- 

sis, 172 
Odocoileus virginianus columbi- 

cus, 172 
Odocoileus virginianus costari- 

censis, 170 
Odocoileus virginianus couesi, 

164 
Odocoileus virginianus gymnotis, 

173 
Odocoileus virginianus lasiotis, 

172 
Odocoileus virginianus leucurus, 

162 
Odocoileus virginianus louisianae, 

162 
Odocoileus virginianus macrourus, 

161 
Odocoileus virginianus margaritie, 
174 



(Odocoileus) virginianus, Mazama, 

156 
Odocoileus virginianus mexicanus, 

165 
Odocoileus virginianus nelsoni, 

168 
Odocoileus virginianus nemoralis, 

170 
Odocoileus virginianus osceola, 

162 
Odocoileus virginianus peruvi- 

anus, 175 
Odocoileus virginianus roth- 
schildi, 171 
Odocoileus virginianus sinalose, 

166 
Odocoileus virginianus spinosus, 

174 
Odocoileus virginianus texanus, 

163 
Odocoileus virginianus thomasi, 

168 
Odocoileus virginianus toltecus, 

167 
Odocoileus virginianus truei, 169 
Odocoileus virginianus virgini- 
anus, 159 
Odocoileus virgultus, 179 
Odontocoelus, 154 
Odontoccelus americanus, 156 
Odontocoelus americanus couesi, 

164 
Odontoccelus americanus louisi- 

anse, 162 
Odontocoelus americanus macr- 

ourus, 161 
Odontocoelus americanus osceola, 

163 
Odontocoelus americanus texensis, 

163 
Odontoccelus battyi, 164 
Odontocoelus bezoarticus, 189 
Odontocoelus cerrosensis, 180 
Odontocoelus columbianus, 182 
Odontocoelus columbianus scaph- 

iotus, 184 
Odontocoelus columbianus sitken- 

sis, 184 
Odontocoelus costaricensis, 170 
Odontocoelus crooki, 185 
Odontocoelus hemionus, 177 
Odontocoelus hemionus californi- 

cus, 179 
Odontocoelus hemionus canus, 181 
Odontocoelus hemionus eremicus, 
180 



INDEX 



423 



Odontoccelus hemiouus penin- 

sulfp, 181 
Odontoccelus lichtensteiiii, 165 
Odontoccelus nelsoni, 168 
Odontoccelus nemoralis, 170 
Odontoccelus rothschildi, 171 
Odontoccelus sinaloae, 166 
Odontoccelus thomasi, 168 
Odontoccelus toltecus, 167 
Odontoccelus truii, 169 
Odoutodorcas, 3 
Odontodorcas moschiferus, 5 
officialis, Sambav, 92 
oi, Sus, 341 
oi, Sus barbatus, 341 
Olidosus, 374 
Ollen, 126 

orientalis, Aper, 345 
orientalis, Babirusa, 345 
orthopodicus, Sika, 107 
oryzus, Axis, 55 
osbomi, Eangifer, 252 
osborni, liangifer taraudus, 252 
osceola, Cariacus, 162 
osceola, Mazama aniei-icaua, 162 
osceola, Odocoileus, 163 
osceola, Odocoileus americanus, 

163 
osceola, Odocoileus virgiuianus, 

162 
osceola, Odontoccelus americanus, 

163 
Otelaphus, 154 
Otelaphus macrotis, 177 
Otelaphus punctulatus, 182 
Otelaphus richardsonii, 182 
(Oussa) Ussa, 60 
outreyanus, Sambav, 91 
oxycephalus, Sika, 107 
Ozelaphus, 186 
Ozelaphus bezoarticus, 189 
Ozotoceros, 186 
Ozotoceros campestris, 189 

pacos (fera), Llama, 303 
palavensis, Sus barbatus, 342 
pallasi, Phacochoerus, 366 
pallidus, Tragulus, 285 
pallidus, Tragulus kanchil, 285 
Palmati, 40 
Palmatus, 40 
palmatus, Alces, 230 
paludosa, Mazama, 187 
paludosus, Blastoceros, 187 
paludosus, Cariacus, 187 
paludosus, Cervus, 186 



paludosus, Cervus (Blastocerus), 

187 
paludosus, Cervus (Elaphus 

Blastocerus), 187 
paludosus, Cervus (Mazama), 187 
paludosus, Dorcelaphus, 187 
palustris, Cariacus, 187 
palustris, Cervus, 187 
Pampas Deer, 189 
pandora, Hippocamelus, 213 
pandora, Mazama, 213 
Panolia, 92 

Panolia acuticornis, 100 
PauoHa eldi, 100 
(Panolia) eldi, Cervus, 100 
Panolia eldi platyceros, 104 
Panolia frontalis, 100 
Panolia platycercus, 104 
Panolia platyceros, 104 
papuensis, Sus, 330 
Para, 56 
Paraceros, 186 
paradoxa, Rusa. 67 
Paralces, 229 
Paralnes alces, 231 
Paralces americanus, 234 
Paralces gigas, 237 
parallelus, Ti'agulus javanicus, 

274 
parallelus, Tragulus pretiellus, 

274 
parvipes, Moschus, 8 
parvipes, Moschus moschiferus, 8 
paschalis, Sikaillus, 107 
Passalites, 198 
Passalites nemorivagus, 209 
pearsoni, Eangifer tarandus, 244 
pearyi, Eangifer, 256 
pearvi, Eangifer tarandus, 256 
Pecari, 379 
Pecari angulatus, 383 
Pecari angulatus angulatus, 383 
Pecari angulatus crassus, 385 
(Pecari) angulatus, Dicotyles, 383 
Pecari angulatus humeralis, 384 
Pecari angulatus sonoriensis, 384 
Pecari angulatus yucatanensis, 

385 
Pecari crusnigrum, 385 
pecari, Dicotyles, 375 
pecari, Dicotyles pecari, 376 
Pecari nanus, 386 
pecari, Notophorus, 375 
pecari pecari, Dicotyles, 376 
pecari pecari, Tayassu, 376 
pecari ringens, Dicotyles, 378 



424 



INDEX 



pecari ringens, Tagassu, 378 
pecari ringens, Tayassu, 378 
pecari spiradens, Dicotyles, 378 
pecari, Tagassu, 376 
(Pecari) tajacu, Dicotyles, 379 
pecari, Tayassu, 375 
pecari, Tayassu pecari, 376 
Peccari, 376 
Peccari Tajacu, 380 
pelandoc, Moschus, 292 
pelandoc, Tragulus, 292 
pelandoc, Tragulus kanchil, 292 
penicillatus, Potamocha'rus, 357 
penicillatus, Sus, 357 
peniusulit, Mazama hemionus, 

181 
peninsulte, Muntiacus niuntjak, 

18 
peninsulie, Odocoileus hemionus, 

181 
peninsula?, Odontoccelus hemi- 
onus, 181 
peninsularis, Sus, 327 
peuinsularis, Sus vittatus, 327 
pennantii, Axis, 71 
pennantii, Eusa equina. 72 
Pere David's Deer, 152 
perflavus, Tragulus, 266, 275 
perflavus, Tragulus stanleyanus, 

266 
peronii. Axis, 64 
peronii, Cervus, 63 
peronii, Cervus (Hippelaphus), 64 
peronii, Cervus (Rusa), 64 
peronii, Rusa, 64 
Persian Fallow Deer, 45 
peruana, Lacma, 302 
Peruvian Guemal, 197 
peruviana, Mazama americana. 

175 
peruvianus, Cariacus, 175 
peruvianus, Cervus (Coassus), 175 
peruvianuSj'Odocoileus, 175 
peruvianus,! Odocoileus virgini- 

anus, 175 
Phacellochserus, 365 
Phacellochotrus, 365 
Phacelochcierus haroja, 371 
Phacocherus, 365 
Phacochcerus, 365 
Phacochcerus seliani, 371 
Phacochoerus aethiopicus, 366 
Phacochoerus sethiopicus feliani, 

371 
Phacochoerus n'thiopicus sthiopi- 

cus, 367 



Phacochoerus aethiopicus afri- 

canus, 373 
Phacochoerus aethiopicus bufo, 372 
Phacochoerus aethiopicus dela- 

merei, 371 
Phacochoerus aethiopicus fossor, 

372 
Phacochoerus aethiopicus massa- 

icus, 370 
Phacochoerus aethiopicus sunde- 

valli, 368 
Phacochoerus *thiopicus tvpicus, 

367 
Phacochoerus africanus, 373 
Phacochoerus africanus bufo, 372 
Phacochoerus aper aethiopicus, 

366 
Phacochoerus barbatus, 366 
Phacochoerus delamerei, 371 
Phacochoerus edentatus, 371 
Phacochcerus haroia, 372 
Phacochoerus massaicus, 370 
Phacochoerus pallasi, 366 
Phacochoerus sclateri, 372 
Phacochoerus sundevallii, 368 
Phacochoerus typicus, 366 
Phascochaeres, 365 
Phascochaerus, 365 
Phascochaerus africanus, 373 
Phascochoeres aeliani, 371 
Phascochoerus, 365 
Phascocluerus tethiopicus, 366 
Phascochoerus africanus, 373 
Phascochoerus chooropotamus, 

351 
Phascochoerus edentatus, 366 
Phascochoerus larvatus, 349 
philippensis, Sus, 333 
philippensis, Sus celebeusis, 333 
philippensis, Sus verrucosus, 383 
philippii, Odocoileus, 175 
philippinensis, Sus celebensis, 333 
philippinensis, Sus verrucosus, 

333 
philippinus, Cervus, 84 
philippinus, Cervus (Hippel- 
aphus), 84 
philippinus, Cervus (Muntjac), 84 
philippinus, Cervus (Stylocerus), 

84 
philippinus, Cervus unicolor, 84 
philippinus, Rusa, 84 
Phocochorus, 365 
phylarchus, Rangifer, 245 
phvlarchus. Rangifer tarandus, 

245 



INDEK 



425 



pictns, Choiropotamus, 359 
pictus, Potamochcerus povcus, 

359 
pierrei, Tragulus kanchil, 291 
pingshiaagicus, Muntiacus reev- 

esi, 30 
pita, Mazama, 199 
planiceps, Sanibav. 92 
planidens, Sambar, 91 
platycercus, Panolia, 104 
Platyceros, 40 
platyceros, albus, Dama, 43 
platyceros, Cervus, 42 
platyceros, Ceivus eldi, 104 
platyceros, Dama, 42 
(Platyceros) dama, Cervus, 43 
platyceros, niger, Dama, 43 
platyceros, Pauolia, 104 
platyceros, Panolia eldi, 104 
platyceros varius, Dama, 43 
platyrliynclius, Cer\us (Taran- 

dus), 243 
platyrhynchus, Piangifer, 243 
platvrhj'nchus, Rangifer tarandus, 

243 
pleiharicus, Cervulus, 16 
pleiharicus, Muntiacus, 16 
pleiharicus, Muntiacus muntjak, 

16 
plumbeus, Cervus capreolus, 219 
Polish Stag, 126 

porcinus annamiticus, Cervus, 58 
porcinus. Axis, 54 
porcinus. Axis (Hyelaphus), 55 
porcinus, Cervus, 54 
porcinus, Cervus (Axis), 54 
porcinus, Cervus (Hj'elaphus), 54, 

55 
porcinus, Cervus porcinus, 56 
porcinus hecki, Cervus, 58 
porcinus, Hyelaphus, 55 
porcinus porcinus, Cervus, 56 
porcinus pumilio, Hyelaphus, 55 
porcorelianus, Sika, 107 
Porcula, 343 
Porcula salvania, 343 
(Porcula) salvanius, Sus, 343 
Porcula taivana, 322 
Porcus, 344 
porcus albifrons, Potamochcerus, 

361 
Porcus babyrussa, 346 
porcus congicus, Potamochcerus, 

361 
porcus pictus, Potamochcerus, 359 
porcus porcus, Potamochcerus, 358 



porcus, Potamochcsrus, 357, 360 
porcus, Potamochcerus porcus, 

358 
porcus, Sus, 357 
porcus, Sus chceropotamus, 357 
porcus ubangensis, Potamo- 
chcerus, 360 
Potamochcerus, 348 
Potaujochoerus africanus, 342,349, 

351 
Potamochcerus albifrons, 361 
Potamochcerus capensis, 351 
PotamochcErus chceropotamus, 

350 
Potamochcerus chceropotamus 

chceropotamus, 352 
Potamochcerus chceropotamus 

daemonis, 354 
Potamochcerus chceropotamus 

johnstoni, 355 
Potamochcerus chceropotamus 

kenise, 356 
Potamochcerus chceropotamus 

inaschona, 353 
Potamochcerus chceropotamus 

uyasce, 354 
Potamochcerus daemonis, 354 
Potamochcerus edwardsi, 349 
Potamochcerus hassama, 357 
Potamochcerus intermedins, 361 
Potamochcerus johnstoni, 355 
Potamochcerus koiropotamus, 351 
Potamochcerus koiropotamus die- 

monis, 354 
Potamochcerus larvatus, 349 
Potamochcerus larvatus hova, 350 
Potamochcerus larvatus larvatus, 

350 
Potamochcerus madagascariensis, 

349 
Potamochcerus nyasae, 354 
Potamochcerus pencillatus, 357 
Potamochcerus porcus, 357, 360 
Potamochcerus porcus albifrons, 

361 
Potamochcerus porcus congicus, 

361 
Potamochcerus porcus pictus, 359 
Potamochcerus porcus porcus, 358 
Potamochcerus porcus ubangensis, 

360 
pretiellus parallelus, Tragulus, 

274 
pretiellus pretiellus, Tragulus, 

274 
pretiellus, Tragulus, 274 



426 



INDEX 



pretiellus, Tragulus javanicus, 274 

pretiellus, Tragulus pretiellus, 274 

pretiosus, Tragulus javanicus, 273 

Procerus, 238 

Procervus, 238 

Prox, 10 

Prox albipes, 21 

Prox melas, 21 

Prox moschatus, 12 

Prox muntjac, 12 

Prox ratva, 21 

Prox reevesii, 27 

Prox stylocerus, 21 

Pseudaxis, 106 

pseudaxis, Axis, 116 

pseudaxis, Cervus, 112, 116 

(Pseudaxis) hortulorum, Cervus, 

112 
Pseudaxis mantchurica, 110 
(Pseudaxis) sica, Cervus, 107 
Pseudaxis sika, 107 
(Pseudaxis) sika, Cervus, 108 
pseudaxis. Srkelaphus, 116 
(Pseudaxis) taevanus, Cervus, 111 
Pseudaxis taivanus, 111 
Pseudocervus, 116 
Pseudocervus wallichi, 142 
(Pseudocervus) wallichi, Cervus, 

141 
Pudella, 217 

Pudella mephistophiles, 217 
(Pudella) mephistophiles, Pudu. 

217 
Pudu, 214, 215 
pudu, Capra, 215 
pudu, Cervus, 215 
Pudu chilensis, 215 
Pudu huinilis, 215 
(Pudu) humilis, Cervus, 215 
pudu, Nanelaphus, 215 
Pudu (Pudella) mephistophiles, 

217 
Pudu pudu, 215 
pudu, Pudua, 215 
Pudua, 214 
Pudua humilis, 215 
Pudua mephistophiles, 217 
Pudua pudu, 215 
pumilio, Cervus, 54 
pumilio, Cervus (Axis), 54 
pumilio, Hyelaphus porcinus, 55 
punctulata, Reduncina, 182 
punctulatus, Cariacus, 182 
punctulatus, Otelaphus, 182 
pusilla, Mazama, 182 
pusillus, Eucervus, 182 



pj-gargus, Capreolus, 226 

pygargus, Capreolus pygargus, 227 

pygargus, Cervus, 226 

pygargus, Cervus (Capreolus), 226 

pygargus firghanicus, Capreolus, 
227 

pygargus mantschuricus, Cervus, 
224 

pygargus pygargus, Capreolus, 227 

pygargus tianschanicus, Capre- 
olus, 228 

pygmseus, Moschus, 281 

pygmaeus, Tragulus, 281 

ramosianus, Ussa, 90 
Rangifer, 288 
Ptangifer arcticus, 254 
[Rangifer arcticus] var, sibiricus, 

244 
[Rangifer arcticus] var. spitzber- 

gensis, 243 
Rangifer caribou, 246 
Rangifer caribou caribou, 246 
Rangifer caribou sylvestris, 248 
Rangifer dawsoni, 251 
Rangifer excelsifrons, 253 
Rangifer fennicus, 243 
Rangifer fortidens, 251 
Rangifer granti, 253 
Rangifer groenlandicus, 256 
Rangifer montanus, 249 
Rangifer osborni, 252 
Rangifer pearyi, 256 
Rangifer phylarchus, 245 
Rangifer platyrhynchus, 243 
Rangifer spitzbergensis, 243 
Rangifer stonei, 251 
Rangifer tarandus, 239 
rangifer, Tarandus, 239 
Rangifer tarandiis arcticus, 254 
Rangifer tarandus caribou, 246 
(Rangifer) tarandus, Cervus, 239 
Rangifer tarandus, var. cylindri- 

cornis, 241 
Rangifer tarandus dawsoni, 251 
Rangifer tarandus excelsifrons, 

253 
Rangifer tarandus fennicus, 243 
Rangifer tarandus fortidens, 251 
Rangifer tarandus granti, 253 
Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus, 

256 
Rangifer tarandus montanus, 249 
Rangifer tarandus osborni, 252 
Rangifer tarandus pearsoni, 244 
Rangifer tarandus pearyi, 256 



INDEX 



427 



Eangifer tarandus phylarclius, 
245 

Eangifer tarandus platyrhynclius, 
243 

Rangifer tarandus sibiricus, 244 

Eangifer tarandus spetzbergensis, 
243 

Eangifer tarandus stonei, 251 

Eangifer tarandus sylvestris, 246 

Eangifer tarandus tarandus, 241 

Eangifer tarandus terrasnovse, 248 

Eangifer tarandus typicus, 241 

Rangifer terraenovae, 248 

ratuanus, Tragulus javanicus, 279 

ratva, Prox, 21 

ratwa, Cervus, 21 

ratwa, Stylocerus, 21 

ravulus, Tragulus, 288 

ravulus, Tragulus kanchil, 288 

ravus, Tragulus, 286 

Eecervus, 92 

Eecervus duvaucellii, 94 

Eecurvus, 92 

Eed Brocket, 200 

Eed Deer, 118 

Eed River-Hog, 359 

Reduncina, 154 

Reduncina leucura, 162 

Reduncina mexicana, 165 

Reduncina nemoralis, 170 

Eeduncina puuctulata, 182 

Eeduncina savannarum, 174 

Eeduncina similis, 185 

Eeduncina virginiana, 156 

reevesi, Cervulus, 30 

reevesi micrurus, Muntiacus, 30 

reevesi, Muntiacus, 27 

reevesi, Muntiacus reevesi, 28 

reevesi pingshiangicus, Muntia- 
cus, 30 

reevesi reevesi, Muntiacus, 28 

reevesii, Cervulus, 28 

reevesii, Cervus, 27 

reevesii, Prox, 27 

regulus, Sikaillus, 107 

Eeindeer, 240, 241 

reperticia, Mazama tema, 207 

rex, Sikaillus, 107 

rhenanus, Capreolus, 221 

rhenanus, Cervus, 124 

rhionis, Sus, 327 

rhionis, Sus vittatus, 327 

Eib-faced Deer, 14 

richardsonii, Cervus, 182 

richardsonii, Otelaphus, 182 

riraator, Hylochoerus, 364 



rimator, Hylochoerus meinertz- 
hageni, 364 

ringens, Dicotyles pecari, 378 

ringens, Tagassu pecari, 378 

ringens, Tayassu albii'ostris, 378 

ringens, Tayassu pecari, 378 

Eiver-Hog, Eed, 358 

robinsoni, Muntiacus muntjak, 
18 

Roe, 220 

Eoebuck, 220 

rondoni, Mazama, 214 

roosevelti, Cervus, 132 

rosarianus, Ussa, 90 

rothschildi chiriquensis, Odocoil- 
eus, 172 

rothschildi, Danaa, 171 

rothschildi, Odocoileus, 171 

rothschildi, Odocoileus roth- 
schildi, 171 

rothschildi, Odocoileus virgini- 
anus, 171 

rothschildi, Odontocoelus, 171 

rothschildi i-othschildi, Odocoil- 
eus. 171 

roxasianus, Ussa, 91 

rubeus, Tragulus, 283 

rubeus, Tragulus kanchil, 283, 
294 

rubidus, Muntiacus, 16 

rubidus, Muntiacus muntjak, 16 

rubiginosus, Ussa, 91 

ruceros, Cervus, 94 

Eucercus, 92 

Eucervus, 92 

Eucervus carabojensis, 78, 98 

(Eucervus) duvauceli, Cervus, 94 

Eucervus duvaucelii, 94 

(Eucervus) elaphoides, Cervus, 93 

Eucervus eldi, 100 

(Eucervus) eldi, Cervus, 100 

(Eucervus) schomburgki, Cervus, 
97 

Eucervvis schomburgkii, 98 

rufa, Mazama, 200 

rufina, Mazama, 208 

rufinus, Cariacus, 205, 208 

rufinus, Cervus, 208 

rufinus, Coassus, 208 

rufinus, Subulo, 208 

rufulus, Tragulus, 267, 283 

rufulus, Tragulus javanicus, 267, 
283 

rufulus, Tragulus kanchil, 283 

rufulus, Tragulus stanlevanus. 
267 



428 



INDEX 



rufus, Cariaeus, 200 
rufus, Cervus, 67, 199 
rufus, Oervus (Coassus), 200 
rufus, Cervus (Subulo), 199 
rafus, Coassus, 199 
rufus, Subulo, 199 
Rusa, 60, 64, 73 
Rusa alfrecli, 63 
(Rusa) alfredi, Cervus, 62 
Rusa aristotelis, 71 
(Rusa) aristotelis, Cervus, 71 
Rusa aristotelis heteroceros, 72 
Rusa aristotelis leschenaulti, 72 
Rusa aristotelis nigra, 72 
Rusa aristotelis unicolor, 72 
(Rusa) axis zeylanicus, Cervus, 53 
Rusa barandanus, 85 
Rusa basilaneusis, 85 
Rusa brookei, 80 
Rusa calaiiiiaueusis, 59 
Rusa culionensis, 59 
Rusa dejeani, 82 
Rusa dimorpha, 94 
Rusa equina, 78 
Rusa equina inalaccensis, 78 
Rusa equina penuantii, 72 
(Rusa) equinus, Cervus, 78 
Rusa fraucianus, 85 
(Rusa) frontalis, Cervus, 104 
Rusa hippelaplius, 67, 71 
(Rusa) hippelaphus, Cervus, 67, 71 
Rusa japonica, 107 
(Rusa) kuhli, Cervus, 61 
Rusa kuhlii, 61 
Rusa lepida, 150 
Rusa mariannus, 83, 84 
(Rusa) mariannus, Cervus, 83 
Rusa moluccensis, 65 
Rusa uigellus, 87 
Rusa nigricans, 86 
(Rusa) nigricans, Cervus, 86 
Rusa paradoxa, 67 
Rusa peronii, 64 
(Rusa) peronii, Cervus, 64 
Rusa philippinus, 84 
Rusa steerei, 86 
(Rusa) swinhoei, Cervus, 81 
Rusa swinhoii, 81 
Rusa tavistocki, 70 
(Rusa) tavistocki, Cervus, 70 
(Rusa) timoriensis, Cervus, 63 
Rusa unicolor, 72 
(Rusa) unicolor boninensis, Cer- 
vus, 88 
(Rusa) unicolor, Cervus, 70, 71 
Rusa unicolor equinus, 79 



russa, Cervus, 67 
Russa equina, 78 
russa moluccensis, Cervus, 65 
russa timoriensis, Cervus, 64 
russeus, Tragulus, 289 
russeus, Tragulus kancliil, 289 
russulus, Tragulus, 289 
russulus, Tragulus kanchil, 289 
rutilus, Sika. 107 

salvania, I'orcula, 343 
salvanius, Sus, 343 
salvanius, Sus (Porcula), 343 
salvianus, Sus, 343 
Sambar, 60, 73 
Sambar brachyrinus, 92 
Sambar colombertinus, 91 
Sambar combalbertinus, 91 
Sambar curvicornis, 91 
Sambar errardianus, 92 
Sambar joubertianus, 92 
Sambar latideus, 92 
Sambar lemeanus, 92 
Sambar lignarius, 92 
Sambar longicornis, 91 
Sambar officialis, 92 
Sambar outreyanus, 91 
Sambar planiceps, 92 
Sambar planidens, 91 
Sambar simoninus, 92 
Sambar verutus, 92 
Sangnai, 100 

sartori, Hippocamelus, 205 
sartorii, Cervus, 205 
sartorii, Mazama, 205 
sartorii, Siibulo, 205 
saturatus, Mosclius, 5 
savannarum, Cariaeus, 174 
savannarum, Cervus, 174 
savannarum, Dorcelaphus ameri- 

canus, 174 
savannariun, Mazama spinosa, 

174 
savannarum, Reduncina, 174 
saxonicus, Cervus elaphus, 124 
scapliiotus, Mazama columbiana, 

184 
scapliiotus, Odocoileus columbia- 

nus, 184 
scaphiotus, Odontocoelus colum- 

bianus, 184 
schizodonticus, Sika, 107 
schomburgki, Cervus, 97 
schomburgki, Cervus (Rucervus), 

97 
schomburgkii, Rucervus, 98 



INDEX 



429 



schottingi, Cervus tarandus, 239 
sclateri, Cervulus, 26 
sclateri, Muntiacus lacrymans, 26 
sclateri, Phacochcerus, 372 
scoticus, Cerviis claphus, 123 
Scrofa, 307 
scvofa attila, Sus, 316 
scrofa barbarvis, Sus, 315 
scrofa, var. bafbarus, Sus, 315 
scrofa boeticvis, Sns, 314 
scrofa castilianus, Sus, 314 
scrofa, var. celtica, Sus, 310 
scrofa fasciatus, Sus, 310 
scrofa ferus, Sus, 313 
scrofa lybicus, Sus, 316 
scrofa mericlioualis, Sus, 313 
scrofa luoupinensis, Sus, 317 
scrofa nigripes, Sus, 317 
scrofa, var. nigripes, Sus, 317 
scrofa, var. sardous, Sus, 313 
sci'ofa scrofa, Sus, 313 
scrofa sennaareusis, Sus, 315 
scrofa sennarensis, Sus, 315 
scrofa, Sus, 308 
scrofa, Sus scrofa, 313 
scropha, Sus, 310 
scudaensis, Sika, 107 
sebucus, Tragulus, 277 
sebucus, Tragulus javanieus, 277 
sellatus, Cervus, 149 
selosus, var. aper, Sus, 310 
senegalensis, Hippopotamus, 388 
seunaarensis, Sus, 315 
sennaarensis, Sus scrofa, 315 
sennaariensis, Sus vittatus, 315 
sennarensis, Sus scrofa, 315 
setosus, Sus, 310 
sheila, Mazama, 205 
Shika, 108 
Short-faced Carpathian Red Stag, 

125 
Shou, 141, 143 
siamensis, Cervus eldi, 104 
Siberian Roe, 226 
sibiricus, Cervus, 135, 244 
sibiricus, Cervus asiaticus, 137 
sibiricus, Cervus canadensis, 134 
sibiricus, Moschus, 5 
sibiricus, Rangifer tarandus. 244 
Sica, 106 
sica, Cervus, 107 
sica, Cervus (Pseudaxis), 107 
sica manchuricus, Cervus, 110 
sica typicus, Cervus, 108 
sicarius, Sikaillus, 107 
sifanicus, Moschus, 7 



sifanicus, Moschus nioschiferus, 7 

Sika, 105, 108 

Sika andreanus, 107 

Sika aplodonticus, 107 

Sika arietinus, 107 

sika, Axis, 107 

Sika blakistonius, 107 

Sika brachyrhinus, 107 

sika, Cervus, 107 

sika, Cervus (Sika), 107 

sika, Cervus (Pseudaxis), 108 

Sika cycloceros, 107 

Sika dolichorhiuus, 107 

Sika dugenneanus, 107 

sika, Elaphoceros, 107 

Sika elegans, 107 

Sika ellipticus, 107 

Sika frinianus, 107 

Sika grilloanus, 107 

(Sika) hortulorum, Cervus, 112 

Sika joretianus, 107 

Sika lacrymans, 107 

Sika minoensis, 107 

Sika mitratus, 107 

(Sika) nippon, Cervus. 107, 108 

Sika crthopodicus, 107 

Sika oxycephalus, 107 

Sika porcoreliauus, 107 

sika, Pseudaxis, 107 

Sika rutilus, 107 

Sika schizodonticus, 107 

Sika scudaensis, 107 

(Sika) sika, Cervus, 107 

sika, Sikaillus, 107 

Sika surdescens, 107 

(Sikaj taevanus, Cervus, 111 

(Sika) taiouanus, Cervus, 110 

Sika yesoensis, 107 

Sika yuanus. 107 

Sikaillus, 106 

Sikaillus aceros, 107 

Sikaillus brachypus, 107 

Sikaillus consobrinus, 107 

Sikaillus daimius, 107 

Sikaillus dejardinius, 107 

Sikaillus infelix, 107 

Sikaillus latideus, 107 

Sikaillus marmandianus. 107 

Sikaillus paschalis, 107 

Sikaillus regulus, 107 

Sikaillus rex, 107 

Sikaillus sicarius, 107 

Sikaillus sika, 107 

Sikailus, 106 

Sikelaphus pseudaxis, 116 

Sikelaphus soloensis, 91 



430 



INDEX 



silkensis, Mazama columbiana, 

. 184 

similis, Cariacus, 185 

similis, Cervus, 185 

similis, Mazama, 185 

similis, Redunciua, 185 

simoninus, Sambar, 92 

simplicicox-nis, Cervus, 208 

simplicicornis, Cervus (Coassus), 
209 

simplicicornis, Cervus (Subulo), 
209 

simplicicornis citus, Mazama, 212 

simplicicornis, Coassus, 211 

simplicicornis, IMazama, 208, 209 

simplicicornis, Mazama simplici- 
cornis, 210 

simplicicornis mexianae, Mazamia, 
211 

simplicicornis simplicicornis, Ma- 
zama, 210 

simplicornis, Cariacus, 209 

simplicornis, Coassus, 209 

simplicornis major, Cervus (Sub- 
ulo), 212 

sinalose, Odocoileus, 166 

sinaloae, Odocoileus virginiauus, 
166 

sinalose, Odontoccelus, 166 

sinensis, Cervulus, 31 

sinensis, Muntiacus, 31 

sitkensis, Odocoileus columbi- 
anus, 184 

sitkensis, Odontoccelus colmubi- 
anus, 184 

sinithi, Cervus, 100 

soloensis, Sikelaphus, 91 

songaricus, Cervus, 136 

songaricus, Cervus canadensis, 
136 

sonoriense, Tagassu anguiatum, 
384 

sonoriensis, Dicotyles angulatus, 
384 

sonoriensis, Dicotyles tajacu, 384 

sonoriensis, Pecari angulatus, 384 

sonoriensis, Tavassu angulatus, 
384 

spatharius, Ussa, 91 

spelseus, Odocoileus, 155 

spetzbergensis, Eangifer taran- 
dus, 243 

spinosa, Mazama, 174 

spinosus, Cariacus, 174 

spinosus, Cervus, 174 

spinosus, Odocoileus, 174 



spinosus, Odocoileus virginianus, 
174 

spiradens, Dicotyles pecari, 378 

spiradens, Tayassu albirostris, 
378 

spitzbergensis, Eangifer, 243 

Spotted Deer, 50 

stanleyanus formosus, Tragulus, 
267, 294 

stanlevanus, Moschus (Tragulus), 
265' 

stanleyanus perflavus, Tragulus, 
266,' 294 

stanleyanus rufulus, Tragulus, 
267 

stanleyanus stanleyanus, Tragu- 
lus, 265 

stanleyanus, Tragulus, 265 

stanleyanus, Tragulus stanley- 
anus, 265 

steerei, Rusa, 86 

steerii, Cervus, 86 

stonei, Eangifer, 251 

stonei, Eangifer tarandus, 251 

Strongyloceros, 116 

Strongyloceros canadensis, 129 

(Strongyloceros) canadensis, Cer- 
vus, 129 

strongyloceros, Cervus, 129 

(Strongyloceros) elaphus, Cervus, 
118 

Strongyloceros occidentalis, 132 

Styloceros muntjac, 21 

Stylocerus, 10 

Stylocerus aureus, 24 

(Stylocerus) aureus, Cervus, 24 

stylocerus, Cervus, 21 

(Stylocerus) moschatus, Cervus, 
21 

Stylocerus muntjacus, 21 

Stylocerus muntjak, 12 

(Stylocerus) muntjak, Cervus, 12 

(Stylocerus) philippinus, Cervus, 
84 

stylocerus, Prox, 21 

Stylocerus ratwa, 21 

Stylocerus subcornutus, 12 

(Stylocerus) subcornutus, Cervus, 
12 

subcornutus, Cervulus, 12 

subcornutus, Cervus (Stylocerus), 
12 

subcornutus, Stylocerus, 12 

subrufus, Tragulus, 283 

subrufus, Tragulus kanchil, 283 

Subula, 198 



INDEX 



431 



Subulo, 198 

Subulo apura, 199 

Subulo aiu'itus, 214 

(Subulo) auritus, Cervus, 214 

Subulo dolichurus, 199 

(Subulo) dolichurus, Cervus, 199 

(Subulo) nanus, Cervus, 213 

(Subulo) nemorivagus, Cervus, 209 

Subulo rufinus, 208 

Subulo rufus, 199 j 

(Subulo) rufus, Cervus, 199 : 

Subulo sartorii, 205 

(Subulo) simplicicornis, Cervus, 

209 1 

(Subulo) simplicornis major, : 

Cervus, 212 i 

Subulo superciliaris, 203 j 

(Subulo) superciliaris, Cervus, 203 ' 
(Subulo) tscliudii, Cervus, 212 ' 
Sumairan Rusa 67 
sundevalli, Phacochoerus fetbiopi- 

cus, 368 
sundevallii, Pliacoclioerus, 368 
superciliaris, Cariacus, 203 
superciliaris, Cervus (Subulo) ^ 203 
superciliaris, Coassus, 203 
supei'ciliaris, Mazama, 203 
superciliaris, Subulo, 203 
surdescens, Sika, 107 
Sus, 307, 329 
Sus fethiopicus, 366 
Sus affinis, 318 
Sus africanus, 350, 373 
Sus ahsenobarbus, 342 
Sus albirostris, 375 
Sus amboinensis, 335 
Sus andamanensis, 326 
Sus andersoni, 328 
Sus aper, vars. alpomus et isono- 

tus, 318 
Sus aramensis, 330 
Sus arietinus, 333 
Sus aruensis, 330 
Sus attila, 316 
Sus babi, 328 
Sus babirousa, 346 
Sus babirusa, 346 
Sus babirussa, 346_ 
Sus babyrussa, 345, 346 
Sus barbatus, 338, 341 
Sus barbatus abaenobarbus, 342 
Sus barbatus balabacensis, 342 
Sus barbatus barbatus, 340 
Sus barbatus calamianensis, 343 
Sus barbatus, var. calamianensis, 

843 



Sus barbatus gargautua, 341 
Sus barbatus oi, 341 
Sus barbatus palavensis, 342 
Sus barbatiis, var. palavensis, 

342 
Sus bengalensis, 318 
Sus borneensis, 336 
Sias calamianensis, 343 
Sus capensis, 351 
Sus cebifrons, 336 
Sus celebensis, 331 
Sus celebensis amboinensis, 335 
Sus celebensis borneensis, 336 
Sus celebensis celebensis, 332 
Sus celebensis ceraniicus, 335 
Sus celebensis mindanensis, 334 
Sus celebensis minutus, 334 
Sus celebensis nebringi, 333 
Sus celebensis philippensis, 333 
Sus celebensis, var. phUippensis, 

333 
Sus celebensis philippinensis, 

333 
Sus ceraiuicus, 335 
Sus cboeropotamus, 351 
Sus chieropotamus liassama, 357 
Siis cbffiropotamus nj'asae, 354 
Sus cboeropotamus porcus, 357 
Sus cristatus, 318 
Sus cristatus andamanensis, 326 
Sus cristatus cristatus, 319 
Sus cristatus jubatulus, 320 
Sus cristatus jnbatus, 320 
Sus cristatus moupinensis, 317 
Sus cristatus typici:s, 319 
Sus europteus, 310 
Sus fasciatus, 310 
Sus floresianus, 325 
Sus frenatus, 333 
Svis gargantua, 341 
Sus inconstans, 334 
Sus indicus, 318 
Sus jubatulus, 320 
Sus jubatus, 320 
Sus koiropotamus, 351 
Sus labiatus, 376 
Sus larvatus, 349, 351 
Sus leucomystax, 321 
Sus leucomystax, var. continent- 

alis, 323 
Sus leucomystax leucomystax, 

322 
Sus leucomystax taivanus, 322 
Sus longirostris, 339 
Sus lybicus, 316 
Sus marchei, 333 



432 



INDEX 



Sus meridionalis, 313 

Sus microtis, 333 

Sus milleri, 325 

Sus mimus, 329 

Sus mindauensis, 334 

Sus minutus, 334 

Sus moupinensis, 317 

Sus mystaceus, 337 

Sus natunensis, 329 

Sus nehringii, 333 

Sus niadeusis, 328 

Sus nicobaricus, 327 

Sus niger, 330 

Sus oi, 341 

Sus papuensis, 330 

Sus penicillatus, 357 

Sus peninsularis, 327 

Sus philippensis, 333 

Sus (Porcula) salvanius, 343 

Sus porcus, 357 

Sus rhionis, 327 

Sus salvanius, 343 

Sus salvianus, 343 

Sus scrofa, 306 

Sus scrofa attila, 316 

Sus scrofa barbarus, 315 

Sus scrofa, var. barbarus, 315 

Sus scrofa boeticus, 314 

Sus scrofa castilianus, 314 

Sus scrofa, var. celtica, 310 

Sus scrofa fasciatus, 310 

Sus scrofa ferus, 313 

Sus scrofa lybicus, 316 

Sus scrofa meridionalis, 313 

Sus scrofa moupinensis, 317 

Sus scrofa nigripes, 317 

Sus scrofa, var. nigripes, 317 

Sus scrofa, var. sardous. 313 

Sus scrofa scrofa, 313 

Sus scrofa sennaarensis, 315 

Sus scrofa sennarensis, 315 

Sus scropha, 310 

Sus sennaarensis, 315 

Sus setosus, 310 

Sus setosus, var. aper, 310 

Sus taivauus, 322 

Sus tajacu, 379 

Sus tajassu, 379 

Sus teruateusis, 330 

Sus timoreusis, 329 

Sus timoriensis, 329 

Sus verrucosus, 335, 336 

Sus verrucosus amboinensis, 335 

Sus verrucosus borneeusis, 336 

Sus verrucosus celebeusis, 331 

Sus verrucosus ceramicus, 335 



Sus verrucosus, var. ceramicus, 

335 
Sus verrucosus mindanensis, 334 
Sus verrucosus philippensis, 333 
Sus verrucosus philippinensis, 

333 
Sus vlttatus, 323, 336 
Sus vittatus andamaneusis, 326 
Sus vittatus andersoni, 328 
Sus vittatus babi, 328 
Sus vittatus cristatus, 318 
Sus vittatus floresianus, 325 
Sus vittatus japonica, 321 
Sus vittatus leucomystax, 321 
Sus A'ittatus milleri, 325 
Sus vittatus mimus, 329 
Sus vittatus moupinensis, 317 
Sus vittatus natunensis, 329 
Sus vittatus niadeusis, 328 
Sus vittatus nicobaricus, 327 
Sus vittatus peninsularis, 327 
Sus vittatus rhionis, 327 
Sus vittatus sennaariensis, 315 
Sus vittatus taivanus, 322 
Sus vittatus timoriensis, 329 
Sus vittatus vittatus, 325 
Sus weberi, 333 
Sus zeylonensis, 318 
Swamp-Deer, 94 
swinhoei, Cervus (Rusa), 81 
swinhoei, Cervus unicolor, 81 
swinhoii, Cervus, 81 
swinhoii, Rusa, 81 
syka, Cervus, 107 
sylvestris, Cariacus, 189 
sylvestris, Rangifer caribou, 248 
sylvestris, Rangifer tarandus, 248 

taevanus, Cervus, 110 
taevanus, Cervus (Pseudaxis), 111 
taevanus, Cervus (Sika), 111 
taevanus, Elaphoceros, 111 
Tagassu, 374 
Tagassu angulatum, 383 
Tagassu angulatum crassum, 385 
Tagassu angulatum humei-ale, 384 
Tagassu angulatum sonoriense, 

384 
Tagassu angulatum yucatanense, 

385 
Tagassu crusuigrum, 385 
Tagassu nanus, 386 
Tagassu pecari, 376 
Tagassu pecari ringens, 378 
Tagassu torvus, 382 
taioranus, Cervus, 111 



INDEX 



433 



taiouanus, Cervus, 110 
taiouanus, Cervus (Sika), 110 
taivana, Porcula, 322 
taivanus, Axis, 111 
taivanus, Pseudaxis, 111 
taivanus, Sus, 322 
taivanus, Sus leucomystax, 322 
taivanus, Sus vittatus, 322 
tajacu, Adenonotus, 379 
tajacu angulatus, Dicotyles, 383 
tajacu, Dicotyles, 379 
tajacu, Dicotyles tajacu, 380 
tajacu niger, Dicotyles, 382 
tajacu sonoriensis, Dicotyles, 384 
tajacu, Sus, 379 
tajacu tajacu, Dicotyles, 380 
tajacu torvus, Dicotyles, 382 
tajassu, Sus, 379 
taniulicus, Cervulus, 24 
taniulicus, Cervulus muntjac, 21 
Tarandus, 238 
Tarandus arcticus, 254 
tarandus arcticus, Cervus, 254 
tarandus arcticus, Rangifer, 254 
Tarandus borealis, 239 
tarandus caribou, Cervus, 246 
tarandus caribou, llangifer, 246 
tarandus, Cervus, 239, 243 
tarandus, Cervus (Rangifer), 239 
tarandus, var. cylindricornis, Ran- 
gifer, 241 
tarandus dawsoni, Rangifer, 251 
tarandus excelsifrons, Rangifer, 

253 
tarandus fennicus, Rangifer, 243 
tarandus fortidens, Rangifer, 251 
Tarandus furcifer, 240 
tarandus granti, Rangifer, 253 
tarandus groenlandicus, Cervus, 

256 
tarandus groenlandicus, Rangifer, 

256 
Tarandus hastalis, 246 
Tarandus lapponum, 239 
tarandus montanus, Rangifer, 249 
tarandus osborni, Rangifer, 252 
tarandus pearsoni, Rangifer, 244 
tarandus pearyi, Rangifer, 256 
tarandus phylarchus, Rangifer, 

245 
(Tarandus) platyrhynchus, Cer- 
vus, 243 
tarandus platyrhynchus, Rangifer, 

243 
Tarandus rangifer, 239 
tarandus, Rangifer, 239 

IV. 



tarandus, Rangifer tarandus, 241 
tarandus schottingi, Cervus, 239 
tarandus sibiricus, Rangifer, 244 
tarandus spetzbergensis, Rangifer, 

243 
tarandus stonei, Rangifer, 251 
tarandus, var. sylvestris, Cervus, 

248 
tarandus sylvestris, Rangifer, 248 
tarandus tarandus, Rangifer, 241 
tarandus terrDenovae, Rangifer, 248 
tarandus typicus, Rangifer, 241 
tavistocki, Cervus (Rusa), 70 
tavistocki, Rusa, 70 
Tayassu, 374 
Tayassu albirostris, 376 
Tayassu albirostris ringens, 278 
Tayassu albirostris spiradens, 378 
Tayassu angulatus, 383 
Tayassu angulatus crassus, 385 
Tayassu angulatus humeralis, 384 
Tayassu angulatus sonoriensis, 

384 
Tayassu angulatus yucatanensis, 

385 
Tayassu crusnigrum, i385 
Tayassu nanus, 386 
Tayassu niger, 382 
Tayassu pecari pecari, 376 
Tayassu pecari ringens, 378 
Taj'assu peccari, 375 
Tayassu tayassu, 380 
tayassu, Tayassu, 380 
Tayassu torvum, 382 
Tayassu torvus, 382 
Tayassus, 374 
Tayassus albirostris, 376 
Tayassus albirostris albirostris, 

376 
teesdalei, Muntiacus lacrymans, 

27 
telesforianus, Ussa, 91 
tema, Cariacus, 205 
tema cerasina, Mazama, 207 
tema, Mazama, 205 
tema, Mazama tema, 206 
tema reperticia, Mazama, 207 
tema tema, Mazama, 206 
ternatensis, Sus, 330 
terrDenovae, Rangifer, 248 
terraenovae, Rangifer tarandus, 248 
terutus, Tragulus canescens, 272 
terutus, Tragulus javanicus, 272 
Tetraproctodon, 387 
Tetraproctodon liberiensis, 398 
Tetraprotodon, 387 

2 F 



434 



INDEX 



(Tetraprotodon) amphibius, Hip- 
popotamus, 388 

(Tetraprotodon) liberiauus, Hip- 
popotamus, 393 

(Tetraprotodon) liberiensis, Hip- 
popotamus, 393 

texana, Mazania americana, 163 

texanus, Doreelaphus, 163 

texanus, Odocoileus, 163 

texanus, Odocoileus virginianus, 
163 

texensis, Odocoileus, 163 

texensis, Odontocoelus ameri- 
cauus, 163 

Thameng, 100 

Thamin, 100 

thomasi, Mazama americana, 168 

thomasi, Odocoileus, 168 

thomasi, Odocoileus virginianus, 
168 

thomasi, Odontoccelus, 16S 

thoroldi, Cervus, 149 

thotti. Capreolus capreolus, 223 

tianschanicus, Capreolus, 228 

tianschanicus, Capreolus pygar- 
gus, 228 

tibetanus, Cervus. 141 

timorensis, Sus, 329 

timoriensis, Cervus, 63 

timoriensis, Cervus hippelaphus, 
64, 65 

timoriensis, Cervus (Rusa), 63 

timoriensis, Cervxis russa, 64 

timoriensis, Cervus timoriensis, 65 

timoriensis, Hippelaphus, 64 

timoriensis moluccensis, Cervus, 
65 

timoriensis, Sus, 329 

timoriensis, Sus vittatus, 329 

timoriensis timoriensis, Cervus, 65 

timoriensis tunjuc, Cervus, 66 

tolteca, Mazama americana, 167 

toltecus, Cariacus, 167 

toltecus, Cervus, 167 

toltecus, Coassus, 167 

toltecus, Odocoileus, 167 

toltecus. Odocoileus virginianus, 
167 

toltecus, Odontoccelus, 167 

torquatus, Dicotyles, 379, 382 

torquatxxs, Dycoteles, 379 

torquatus, Notophorus, 380 

torvum, Tayassu, 382 

torvus, Dicotyles tajacu, 382 

torvus, Tagassu, 382 

torvus, Tayassu, 382 



Tragulus, 261 
Tragulus affinis, 286 
Tragulus amoenus, 278 
Tragulus annae, 279 
Tragulus bancanus, 275 
Tragulus batuanus, 279 
Tragulus billitonus, 277 
Tragulus borneanus, 270 
Tragulus brevipes, 284 
Tragulus bunguraneusis, 279 
Tragulus canescens, 270 
Tragulus canescens terutxxs, 272 
Tragulus carimatae, 284 
Tragulus flavicollis, 275 
Tragulus focalinus, 202 
Tragulus formosus, 267 
Tragulus fulvicollis, 284 
Tragulus fulviveuter, 285 
Tragulus fuscatus, 268 
Tragulus hosei, 290 
Tragulus javanicus, 268 
Tragulus javanicus amoenus, 278 
Tragulus javanicus annae, 279 
Tragulus javanicus bucanus, 275 
Tragulus javanicus batuanus, 279 
Tragulus javanicus billitonus, 277 
Tragulus javanicus borneanus, 

270 
Tragulus javanicus bimguranen- 

sis, 279 
Tragulus javanicus canescens, 270 
Tragulus javanicus flavicollis, 275 
Tragulus javanicus formosus, 267 
Tragulus javanicus javanicus, 268 
Tragulus javanicus jugularis, 278 
Tragulus javanicus lutescens, 275. 

294 
Tragulus javanicus napu, 268 
Tragulus javanicus nigricans, 272 
Tragulus javanicus nigricollis, 

276 
Tragulus javanicus nigrociuctus, 

276 
Tragulus javanicus parallelus, 274 
Tragulus javanicus pretiellus, 274 
Tragulus javanicus pretiosus, 273 
Tragulus javanicus ratuanus, 279 
Tragulus javanicus rufulus, 267 
Tragulus javanicus sebiicus, 277 
Tragulus javanicus terutus, 272 
Tragulus javanicus umbrinus, 273 
Tragulus javanicus versicolor, 280 
Tragulus jugularis, 278 
Tragulus kanchil, 280 
Tragulus kanchil affinis, 286 
Tragulus kanchil brevipes, 284 



INDEX 



435 



Traguluslkanchil carimatae, 284 
Tragulus kanchil everetti, 291 
Tragulus kanchil focalinus, 292 
Tragulus kanchil fulvicollis, 283 
Tragulus kanchil fulviventer, 285 
Tragulus kanchil hosei, 290 
Tragulus kanchil kanchil, 282 
Tragulus kanchil lampensis, 288 
Tragulus kanchil lancavensis, 288 
Tragulus kanchil longipes, 282 
Tragulus kanchil luteicoUis, 282 
Tragulus kanchil uatunte, 291 
Tragulus kanchil pallidus, 285 
Tragulus kanchil pelantloc, 292 
Tragulus kanchil pierrei, 291 
Tragulus kanchil ravulus, 288 
Tragulus kanchil rubeus, 283 
Tragulus kanchil rufulus, 283 
Tragulus kanchil russeus, 289 
Tragulus kanchil russulus, 289 
Tragulus kanchil subrufus, 283 
Tragulus kanchil virgicoUis, 290 
Tragulus lampensis, 288 
Tragulus lancavensis, 288 
Tragulus luteicollis, 282 
Tragulus lutescens, 275 
Tragulus memiuna, 262 
Tragulus mimenoides, 262 
Tragulus napu, 269 
Tragulus napu borneanus, 270 
Tragulus natunae, 291 
Tragulus nigricans, 272 
Tragiilus nigricollis, 276 
Tragulus nigrocinctus, 276 
Tragulus pallidus, 285 
Tragulus pelandoc, 292 
Tragulus perflavus, 266 
Tragulus pretiellus, 274 
Tragulus pretiellus parallelus, 274 
Tragulus pretiellus pretiellus. 274 
Tragulus pretiosus, 273 
Tragulus pyginieus, 281 
Tragulus ravulus, 288 
Tragulus ravus, 286 
Tragulus rubeus, 283 
Tragulus rufulus, 267, 283 
Tragulus russeus, 289 
Tragulus russulus, 289 
Tragulus sebucus, 277 
Tragulus stanleyauus, 265 
Tragulus stanleyanus formosus, 

267, 294 
(Tragulus) stanleyanus, Moschus, 

265 
Tragulus stanleyanus perflavus, 

266, 294 



Tragulus stanleyanus rufulus, 267 
Tragulus stanleyanus stanley- 
anus, 265 
Tragulus subrufus, 283 
Tragulus umbrinus, 273 
Tragulus versicolor, 280 
Tragulus virgicollis, 290 
transsj'lvanicus, Capreolus, 222 
transsylvanicus, Capreolus capre- 
olus, 222 
transvosagicus, Cervus, 221 
truei, Cariacus, 169 
truei, Mazama aniericana, 169 
truei, Odocoileus, 169 
truei, Odocoileus virginianus, 169 
truii, Odontocoelus, 169 
tschadensis. Hippopotamus am- 

phibius, 390 
tschudii, Cervus (Subulo), 212 
tschudii, Doryceros, 212 
tschudii, Mazama, 212 
tuasoninus, Ussa, 91 
tunjuc, Cervus, 67 
tunjuc, Cervus timoriensis, 66 
typica, Mazama americana, 159 
typioa, Mazama hemionus, 178 
typicum, Dorcatherium aquati- 

cum, 296 
typicus, Alces machlis, 232 
typicus, Cervulus muntjac, 14 
typicus, Cervus canadensis, 131 
typicus, Cervus elaphus, 122 
typicus, Cervus eldi, 102 
typicus, Cervus hippelaphus, 67 
typicus, Cervus hortulorum, 114 
typicus, Cervus nianchuricus, 134 
typicus, Cervus nippon, 108 
typicus, Cervus sica, 108 
typicus, Cervus unicolor, 74 
typicus, Phacochoerus, 366 
typicus, Phacochoerus sethiopicus, 
' 367 

typicus, Rangifer tarandus, 241 
typicus, Sus cristatus, 319 
typus, Hippopotamus, 387 

ubangensis, Potamochoerus por- 
ous, 360 
umbrinus, Tragulus, 273 
umbrinus, Tragulus javanicus, 

273 
unicolor barandanus, Cervus, 85 
i;nicolor basilanensis, Cervus, 85 
unicolor boninensis, Cervus, 88 
unicolor boninensis, Cervus 
(Rusa), 88 



436 



INDFA' 



unicolor brookei, Cervus, 80 

uuicolor, Cervns, 70 

unicolor, Cervus axis, 70 

imicolor, Cervus (Hippelaphus), 71 

unicolor, Cervus (Eusa), 70, 71 

unicolor, Cervvis unicolor, 74 

unicolor dejeani, Cervus, 82 

unicolor equinus, Cervus, 78 

unicolor equinus, Rusa, 79 

unicolor francianus, Cervus, 85 

unicolor niariannus, Cervus, 83 

unicolor nigellus, Cervus, 87 

unicolor nigricans, Cervus, 86 

unicolor philippinus, Cervus, 84 

unicolor, Rusa, 72 

unicolor, Rusa aristotelis, 72 

unicolor swinhoei, Cervus, 81 

unicolor typicus, Cervus, 74 

unicolor luaicolor, Cervus, 74 

uralensis, Alces machlis, 232 

Ussa anibrosianus, 89 

Ussa atheneensis, 89 

Ussa barandanus, 85 

Ussa baryceros, 89 

Ussa bracliyceros, 89 

Ussa chrysotrichos, 89 

Ussa cinereus, 89 

Ussa corteanus, 89 

Ussa crassicornis, 89 

Ussa dailliardianus, 89 

Ussa elorzanus, 89 

Ussa francianus, 85 

Ussa garcianus, 89 

Ussa gonzalinus, 89 

Ussa gorriclianus, 90 

Ussa guevaranus, 90 

Ussa guidoteanus, 90 

Ussa hipolitianus, 90 

Ussa longicuspis, 90 

Ussa macarianus, 90 

Ussa maraisianus, 90 

Ussa marianus, 83 

Ussa marzaniuus, 90 

Ussa micliaelinus, 90 

Ussa microdontus, 90 

Ussa nigricans, 86 

Ussa nublanus, 90 

Ussa (Oussa), 60 

Ussa ramosianiis, 90 

Ussa rosarianus, 90 

Ussa roxasianus, 91 

Ussa rubiginosus, 91 

Ussa spatharius, 91 

Ussa telesforianus, 91 

Ussa tuasoninus, 91 

Ussa verzosanuR, 91 



Ussa vidalinus, 91 
Ussa villemerianus, 91 



vaginalis, Cervulus, 14, 21 
vaginalis, Cervulus muutjac, 22 
vaginalis, Cervus, 21 
vaginalis, Muntiaeus, 22 
vaginalis, Miuitiacus muntjak, 21 
vaginalis, Muntjacus, 14, 21 
varius, Capreolus vulgaris, 220 
varius, Cervus elaphus, 124 
varius, Dama platyceros, 43 
Veado Branco, 189 
Veado Galheiro Grande, 187 
Yeado Mateiro, 200 
Veado Pardo, 200 
verrucosus amboinensis, Sus, 335 
verrucosus borneensis, Sus, 336 
verrucosus celebensis, Sus, 331 
verrucosus ceramicus, Sus, 335 
verrucosus, vai'. ceramicus, Sus, 

335 
verrucosus, Dasychcerus, 335 
verrucosus mindanensis, Sus, 334 
verrucosus philippensis, Sus, 333 
verrucosus philippinensis, Siis. 

333 
verrucosus, Sus, 335, 336 
versicolor, Tragulus, 280 
versicolor, Tragulus javanicus, 

280 
verutus, Sambar, 92 
verzosanus, Ussa, 91 
Vicugna, 304 
vicugna, Auchenia, 304 
vicugna, Camelus, 304 
vicugna. Lama, 304 
vicugna. Llama, 304 
vidalinus, Ussa, 91 
villemerianus, Ussa, 91 
virgicollis, Tragulus, 290 
virgicollis, Tragulus kanchil, 290 
Virginian Deer, 156 
virginiana borealis, Mazama, 160 
virginiana lichtensteini, Mazama. 

165 
virginiana, Mazama, 155 
virginiana, Reduncina, 156 
virginianus acapulcensis, Odo- 

coileiis, 167 
virginianus battyi, Odocoileus, 164 
virginianus borealis, Odocoileus, 

160 
virginianus, Cariacus, 156 
virginianus, Cervus, 155 



INDEX 



437 



vii'ginianus. Cervns (Caviacus), 
156 

virginianus. Cervus (Mazauia), 
155 

virginianus chiviquensis, Odocoil- 
eus, 172 

A'irginianus columbicns, Odocoil- 
eus, 172 

virginianus costaricensis, Odocoil- 
eus, 170 

virginianus, var. couesi, Cariacus, 
164 

virginianus couesi, Odocoileus, 
164 

virginianus, Dorcelaphus, 155 

virginianus gvmnotis, Odocoileus, 
173 

virginianus lasiotis, Odocoileus, 
172 

virginianus leucurus, Odocoileus, 
162 

virginianus louisiaua', Odocoelus, 
162 

virginianus louisianae, Odocoileus. 
162 

virginianus niacrourus, Dorcela- 
phus, 161 

virginianus niacrourus, Odocoil- 
eus, 161 

virginianus margaritae, Odocoil- 
eus, 174 

virginianus, Mazama (Odocoil- 
eus), 156 

virginianus niexicanus, Cariacus, 
165 

A'irginianus niexicanus, Odocoil- 
eus, 165 

virginianus nelsoni, Odocoileus, 
168 

virginianus nemoralis, Odocoileus, 
170 

virginianus, Odocoileus, 155, 156 

virginianus, Odocoileus virginia- 
nus, 159 

virginianus, osceola, Odocoileus, 
162 

virginianus peruvianus, Odocoil- 
eus, 175 

virginianus rothschildi, Odocoil- 
eus, 171 

virginianus sinaloaj, Odocoileus. 
166 

virginianus spinosus, Odocoileus. 
174 

virginianus texanus, Odocoileus, 
163 



virginianus tliouiasi, Odocoileus, 

168 
virginianus toltecus, Odocoileus, 

167 
virginianus truei, Odocoileus, 

169 
virginianus virginianus, Odocoil- 
eus, 159 
virgultus, Cariacus, 179 
virgultus, Odocoileus, 179 
virgultus, Odocoileus hemionus, 

179 
visurgensis, Cervus elaphus, 124 
vittatus andamanensis, Sus, 326 
vittatus andersoni, Sus, 328 
vittatus, AulacoclKierus, 323 
vittatus, Aulochcerus, 335 
vittatus babi, Sus, 328 
vittatus cristatus, Sus, 318 
vittatus floresianus, Sus, 325 
vittatus japonica, Sus, 321 
vittatus leucomystax, Sus, 321 
vittatus niilleri, Sus, 325 
vittatus niimus, Sus, 329 
vittatus nioupinensis, Sus, 317 
vittatas natunensis, Sus, 329 
vittatus niadensis, Sus, 328 
vittatus nicobaricus, Sus, 327 
vittatus peninsularis, Sus, 327 
vittatus rhionis, Sus, 327 
vittatus sennaariensis, Sus, 315 
vittatus, Sus, 323, 336 
vittatus, Sus vittatus, 325 
vittatus taivanvis, Sus, 322 
vittatus tinioriensis, Sus, 329 
vittatus vittatus, Sus, 325 
vulgaris campestris, Cervus, 125 
vulgaris, Capreolus, 219 
vulgaris, Cervus, 118 
vulgaris, Dama, 43 
vulgaris montanus, Cervus, 126 
vulgaris niger, Capreolus, 220 
vulgaris varius, Capreolus, 220 

wacliei, Cervus, 137 
wacliei, Cervus canadensis, 137 
walliclii affinis, Cervus, 142 
wallichi, Cervus, 141. 142, 146 
walliclii, Cervus (Harana), 141 
walliclii, Cervus (Pseudocervus), 

141 
walliclii, Cervus wallichi, 142 
wallichi, Pseudocervus, 142 
wallichi wallichi, Cervus. 142 
Wapiti, 129, 131 
wapiti, Cervus. 129 



438 



INDEX 



wardi, Cervus canadensis. 138 
Wari, 376 
Wart-Hog, 367 
Water-Che^Totain, 296 
Water-Deer, Chinese. 25H 
webei'i, Sus, 333 
Wliite-lipped Peccari, 376 
White-tailed Deer, 156 
whitelyi, Cariacus, 212 
whitelyi, Coassns. 212 
wiegmauni, Gymnotis. 173 
Wild Boar, 310 
Wild Llama, 303 
Wild Swuie, 310 
Woodland Caribou, 246 

xanthopygus, Cervns, 133 

xanthopygus, Cervns canadensis. 
133, 134 

xanthopygus enstephanus. Cer- 
vus. 136 

Xenelaphus, 193 

Xenelaphus anomalocera, 196 

(Xenelaphus) antisiensis, ^VFa- 
zama, 196 

(Xenelaphus) bisulca, Mazama, 
194 



Xenelaphus bisulcus, 194 
Xenelaphus chilensis, 196 
Xenelaphus huamel, 196 
Xenelaphus leucotis, 196 



yakutskensis, Alces machlis, 234 
yarkandensis, Cervus, 139 
yarkandensis. Cervus cashmiri- 

anus, 139 
yesoensis, Sika, 107 
yuanus, Sika, 107 
vucatanense. Tagassii angulatuni. 

385 
yucatenensis, Dicotjdes angula- 

tus, 385 
yucatanensis, Pecari angulatus, 

385 
yucatanensis, Tayassu angulatus, 

385 
vucatensis. Cervus. 167 



zetta, Mazama, 204 

zeylanicus, Cervus (Rusa) axis, 

53 
zeylonensis, Sus, 318 



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