(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900 : subject index"

CATALOGUE 

OF 

SCIENTIFIC PAPERS 

1800-1900 



SUBJECT INDEX 
VOLUME III 

PHYSICS 

PART II 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

FETTEE LANE, B.C. 
C. F. CLAY, MANAGER. 




) : 100, PRINCES STREET 
Ettlm: A. ASHER AND CO. 
ILeipjtfl: F. A. BROCKHAUS 
ri gorft: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 
fiombag anto Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD. 
Toronto: J. M. DENT AND SONS, LTD. 
THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA 



All rights reserved 



KOYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 
CATALOGUE 

OF 

SCIENTIFIC PAPERS 
1800-1900 



SUBJECT INDEX 
VOLUME III ,,,5, 

R , PHYSICS 

PART II 
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 



CAMBRIDGE : 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
1914 



ARRANGED FOR A COMMITTEE OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY 
UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF 

HERBERT M C LEOD, LL.D, F.R.S. 

DIRECTOR OP THE CATALOGUE 
with the assistance of 

ALICE EVERETT, M.A., R. HARGREAVES, M.A., 
AND W. MARSHALL WATTS, D.Sc. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE LIBRARY 



PREFACE 

Part, which completes the Subject Index on Physics, deals with 
~ Electricity and Magnetism under the Registration Numbers 4900 to 
6850 ; it contains 23,300 entries, thus making in all 56,644 entries for the 
subject Physics for the years 1800 to 1900 inclusive. 

Miss Alice Everett co-operated in sorting for the Press the slips of the 
sections on Electrostatics and Magnetism and of a portion of that on the 
Electric Current ; Mr Hargreaves undertook the sections on Electromagnetic 
Waves, Influence of Electric and Magnetic Fields on Light, and Electric 
Discharge ; the slips for the remainder of the volume were sorted by 
Dr W. Marshall Watts. 

February, 1914. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

LIST OF SERIALS, ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO LIST IN PART I ... vi 

SCHEDULE OP CLASSIFICATION ... ... ... ... ... vii 

SUBJECT INDEX ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 551-928 

INDEX TO HEADINGS end 



Jena Sb. 
J. PI. ... 



SUBJECT INDEX OF PHYSICS 

LIST OF SERIAL PUBLICATIONS 

ADDITIONS TO THE LIST IN PAET I, pp. xi-lxxxix. 

Bll Ntlista. Siena . Bollettino del Naturalista Collettore, Allevatore, Coltivatore. Siena. 

1881-88. [Continued as: Eivista Italiana di Scienze Natural!, 
1889] N.H.M. 

Bone Ac. Hip. Bll B.M. 

(g^ Int. Hyg. C. R B.M. 

D Arch. XI. Md Deutsches Archiv fiir Klinische Medicin. Leipzig. 

1866 Camb.U.; Oxon.E.; E.C.Surg. 

D. Nf. Tbi E.S.i. 

Fr. S. Ag. Mm P.O.i. 

Helsingf. Acta P.O.i.; E.C.Surg. 

Helsingf. Ofv P.O.i. 

I. Egypt. Bll B.M. 

I. Mn. MtL T Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London. 

London. 

1892 B.M.; Camb.U.i.; Geol.M.;.; Geol.S.; Glasg.U.i.; N.H.M.; 
P.O.; E.S.i.; S.K. 

E.C.Surg. 

The Journal of Physiology. Cambridge, London. 

1878 B.M.; Camb.P.S.i. ; Camb.U.; Edinb.U.; Glasg.U. ; 
N.H.M.i.; Oxon.B.; Oxon.E.; E.C.Surg.; E.S. ; S.K. ; U.C.L. 

N.H.M. 

E.S.i. 

P.O.i. 

N.H.M. 

P.O. 

E.S. 

See Far. S. Bl. Mm. 

Annales du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris. 

180213. [Continued as: Me'moires du Museum..., 181532.] 
B.M.; Camb.U.; Dub.T.C.i.; Edinb.E.S.i. ; Edinb.U.; Geol.M.i.; 
Geol.S.; Glasg.U.; Linn.S.; N.H.M.; Oxon.B.; Oxon.E. ; E.S. ; 
S.K.; U.C.L. 

See Par. S. Pnlm. X*. Bll. 

Rpm. Met & Wild Rpm. Met. 

Sarthe 8. Bll. B.M.i. 

Tel. J The Telegraphic Journal. A weekly Eecord of Electrical Progress. 

London. 

1864. B.M.; Oxon.B.i. ; P.O.; U.C.L.i. 

IT. S. Ol. Sv. Bll P.O.i. 

U. S. Sig. Serv. Pp. 188185. Complete at E.A.S. ; E.Geogr.S. 

Westf. Vr. Jbr Linn.S.i. 

COEEECTIONS TO ENTEIES IN PAET I 



Magdeb.m.Vr.Jbr.u.Ab. 

Mil. Effem 

N. Mg. Ntvd 

Wt 

W. Y. Ms. Bll. 

Obs 

Par. Mm. S. Bl 

Par. Ms. H. Nt. A. .. 



Far. N. Bll. 8. Fnlm. 



Am. Ntlist 

Angers S. Be. Bll 

Arch. Ot 

As. HTr 

Belfast NH. S. F 

Bologna Bd 

Danzig Schr 

Iowa Ac. Sc. P 

J. Sc 

Idsb. J. Sc. Mth 

Lux. I. Pb 

Majoccni A. Pis. C 

Mcr. 8. J 

Mon. Sc 

N. S. W. B.8. T 

IT. Z. Col. Ms. Ol. Sv. Bp. 

Plym. I. T 

Schweigger J 

St. Pet. Mn. Gs. Vh 

Z. Angew. Mkr 



Complete at Linn.S. 

Incomplete at B.M. 

.Vot at B.M. 

Incomplete at E.S. 

Not at E.A.S. 

Complete at N.H.M. 

Complete at B.S. 

Incomplete at P.O. 

Complete at E.C.Surg. 

Incomplete at Geol.S., E.A.S., and E.S. 

Complete at E.S. 

Incomplete at E.S. 

Complete at E.S. 

Incomplete at B.M. 

Incomplete at P.O. 

For 187073 read 187093. 

Incomplete at E.S. 

Complete at E.S. 

Incomplete at B.M. 

Not at P.O. 



VI 



PHYSICS 
SCHEDULE OF CLASSIFICATION 

ADAPTED FEOM SCHEDULE OF THE INTERNATIONAL 
CATALOGUE OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 



ELECTEICITY AND MAGNETISM. 

4900 General. (See also 6410.) 551-552 

Electricity 551-552 

Experiments ... 551-552 

Theories 552 

Electricity and Magnetism 552 

General Dynamical Theory and 
Relations. Units. 

4940 Equations of the Electro- 
dynamic Field. (See also 
6410, 6420.) ... 553-554 

4960 Electrons. Moving Media... 554 
4970 Tubes and Lines of Force ... 555 
4980 Transfer of Energy, Momen- 
tum, etc. ... ... 555 

5000 U nits, Electric and Magnetic 555-559 
Dimensions ... ... 556 

Electric Units ... 557-558 

Electrostatic and Electro- 
magnetic Units ... 558 

Ratio (v) 558 

Magnetic Units ... ... 559 

Electrostatics. 

5200 General 559-560 

5210 Electrification by Contact 
or Friction. Various 
Sources of Electrifica- 
tion 560-565 

Contact Electricity 560-561 

Electric Separation 561-562 

Theories of Electricity 561-562 

Electrification by Friction 562-564 

Steam 563 

Various Sources of Electri- 
fication ... ... ... 564 

5220 Electric Charge and Distribu- 
tion; Quantity; Density; 
Induction ; Condensers. 
(For Lichtenberg and 
similiar figures see 6800.) 565-576 
Charge and Distribution 565-569 
A ttraction and Repulsion 565 



Attraction 

Repulsion 

Distribution 



PAGE 
565 
565 

566-567 
566-567 
Electric Force ... 567-568 

Law of Force 568 

Potential ... 568-569 

Condensers. (.For Discharge 

see also 6820.) 569-574 

. Capacity 570 

Leyden Battery . . . 571-572 

, Leyden Jar ... 572-573 

Discharge 572 

. Residual Charge ... 573 

Density ... ... ... 574 

Electric Field 574 

Induction 574-576 

Bound and Free Elec- 
tricity ... ... ... 575 

Theory of Induction ... 576 
5240 Potential Difference. (See also 

5695, 6005, 6210.)... 576-577 

5250 Theory of the Dielectric. 

Stress ; Energy, etc. 577-581 
Dielectric Properties of 

Various Bodies ... 577 

Dielectric Strength ... 577 

Dielectrics 577-579 

Polarisation of Dielec- 
trics ... "... 578-579 

Energy 579-580 

Insulators 580-581 

. Various Insulators 580-581 

Stress. (See also 5253.) ... 581 

5252 Measurement of Dielectric 

Constants. Dielectric 
Hysteresis. (See also 
Chemistry 7280.) 581-585 

Dielectric Constants 581-584 

Measurement ... 582-583 

. . Dielectric Constants of 

Various Substances 583-584 
Dielectric Hysteresis 584-585 

5253 Electrostriction. (See also 

5250.) ... 585 



Schedule of Classification 



5260 Pyro- and Piezo-Electricity. 
Other Sources. (See also 
Mineralogy 340.) 586-587 

Pyro- and Piezo-Electricity 586-587 
Piezo-Electricity ... 586 

Pyro- Electricity 586-587 

Minerals 587 

Other Sources 587 

5270 Atmospheric Electricity. (See 

also Meteorology 1600.) 587-591 

Lightning 589-590 

Lightning Conductors 589-590 
Theory 591 

Magnetism. 

5400 General 591-593 

Experiments 592 

Light 592-593 

5410 Natural and Artificial Mag- 
nets. (See also 6030.) 593-598 
Artificial Magnets 593-597 

Magnetisation ... 594-595 

Magnetisation of Various 

Bodies ... 594-595 

Iron 594 

Steel 595 

Magnetisation by Elec- 
tricity 595 

Magnets, Various Kinds 595-596 
Permanent Magnets ... 596 

Poles 597 

Natural Magnets . . . 597-598 

5420 Theory of the Magnetic 

Field. Magnetic Circuit 598-604 
Theory of the Magnetic 

Field 598-604 

Action at a Distance ... 598 
Laws of Magnets and 
Electromagnets of 
Various Forms 599-600 

Lines of Magnetic Force 600 
Magnetic Distribution 600-601 

Magnetic Field 601 

Magnetic Field produced 
by Currents. (See also 

6420.) 601-603 

Magnetisation 603 

Mutual Action of Mag- 
nets .'.. 603 

Magnetic Circuit 604 

5430 Theory of Magnetic Induc- 
tion and Hysteresis 604-608 
Theory of Magnetic Induc- 
tion 604-607 

Induced Magnetism . . . 605 
Magnetic Screening 605-606 

Magnetisation 606 

Hysteresis 607-608 

5435 Magnetic Testing. Instru- 
ments ... ... 608-610 

Magnetic Testing 608 



5440 



5450 



5460 



5462 



5466 



5467 



PAGE 

Instruments. (See also 

Meteorology 3012.) 608-610 

Magnetometers 609 

Measurement of Magnetic 
Force, Susceptibility, In- 
duction, etc. ... 610-617 

Magnetic Force 610 

Measurement of Magnetic 

Force 610-612 

Magnetic Fields ... 611 
Universality of Magne- 
tism ' 611-612 

Measurement of Magnetic 

Induction ... ... 612 

Measurement of Magnetic 

Susceptibility ' 612-617 
Magnetic Permeability... 613 
Magnetic Properties of 

Various Substances 613-614 

Iron 613-614 

Magnetisation ... ... 614 

Magnetisation of Various 

Substances . . . 614-615 

Iron 614-615 

Susceptibility of Various 

Substances ... 616-617 

Torsion 617 

Measurement of Hysteresis. 

Energy Losses ... 617-619 

Measurement of Hysteresis 617-618 
Energy Losses ... 618-619 

Relations between Thermal, 
Elastic, and Magnetic 
Properties of Bodies. 
Effect of Temperature 619-622 
Relations between Elastic 
and Magnetic Properties 

of Bodies 619 

Relations between Thermal 
and Magnetic Pro- 
perties of Bodies 619-620 
Heat due to Magnetisa- 
tion 620 

Effect of Temperature 620-622 

Low Temperature Effect 621 

Magnetostriction .. ' 622-624 

Length Change .. 622-623 

Sound Production . . . 623 

Stress, Magnetic 623 

Torsion 623-624 

Volume Change 624 

Magnetic Properties of Alloys 
of Iron and of other 
Ferromagnetic Sub- 

624 



624 



625 
625 



Magnetic Properties of 
Ferromagnetic Substan ces 
not Alloys of Iron 
Magnetic Properties of Salts 
and Solutions ... 

Magnetic Properties of Salts 



Schedule of Classification 



Magnetic Properties of So- 
lutions 625 

5470 Diamagnetism ... 625-627 
Diamagnetic Polarity ... 625 
Diamagnetism and Mag- 
netism 625 

Diamagnetism of Various 

Substances ... 625-626 

Theories of Diamagnetism 627 
5480 Physical Theories of the ' 

Nature of Magnetism 627-628 

Ampere's Theory 627 

5490 Theories concerning the 

Terrestrial Magnetic Field 628-629 

The Electric Current and Conduction. 

5600 General 629-633 

Currents 629-632 

Effect of Current on 
Physical Properties of 
Conductors ... 629-630 

Experiments 630 

Opposite Currents, Co- 
existence in same Wire 630-631 
Production of Currents 631 
Velocity of Electricity 63 1 -632 
Voltaic and Static Elec- 
tricity 632 

5610 Theory and Construction of 

Primary Cells ... 633-654 

Chronological List of some 

Cells 633-634 

Construction ... 634-644 

Bichromate Cells ... 635 

Carbon- Consuming Cells 35-636 
Constant Cells ... 636-637 

Copper Oxide Cells ... 637 
Dry Cells ... 638-639 

Zamboni Pile 638-639 

Experiments ... 639-640 

Gas Batteries. (See also 

5620.) 640 

Improvements ... ... 640 

Leclanche Cells . . . 640-641 

2-Liquid Cells ... 641-643 

Bunsen Cells ... 641-642 

Daniell Cells 642 

Grove Cells 643 

Currents 644-645 

Currents, Quantity ... 645 
Electromotive Force. (See 

also 6210.) ... 645-647 

History 647 

Internal Resistance ... 647 

Phenomena ... ... 647 

Polarisation ... 647-648 

Depolarisers ... 647-648 

Mechanical Depolarisa- 

tion 648 

Uses 648-649 



Theory of Primary Cells 649-654 

Electromotive Force ... 650 

SeatofKM.F. ... 650 

Chemical Theory 652-653 

Contact Theory. (See 

alsob-210.)... 653-654 

Volta's Fundamental 

Experiment . . . 654 

5620 Theory and Construction of 

Secondary Cells 654-659 

Cells 654-658 

Charge 655 

Electromotive Fbrce ... 656 
Gas Cells. (See also 

5610.) 656-657 

Plante Cells ... ... 657 

Plates of Cells 658 

Theory of Secondary Cells 658-659 
5630 Ohm's Law. Divided Cur- 
rents and Networks of 
Linear Conductors 659-663 
Ohm's Law ... 659-662 

Coupling of Battery Cells 659-660 
Current Distribution ... 660 
Resistance. (See also 

5640.) ... 661-662 

Wheatstone's Bridge... 661 

Divided Currents 662 . 

Kirchho/'s Formulae ... 662 
Networks of Linear Con- 
ductors ... 662-663 
Current Distribution in 

Networks 
5640 Methods of Comparison of 

Resistances 
Apparatus for Measuring 

Resistance ... 663-665 

Bridges 663-664 

Wheatstone's Bridge. (See 

also 5630.) ... 663-664 

Telephone. ( Use in Mea- 
surement of Resistance.) 665 
Measurement of Resistance 665-668 

Cables 665 

Cells, Internal Resistance 666 
5650 Standards of Resistance. Ab- 
solute Determination 668-671 
Standards of Resistance 668-669 
British Association 

Standards 668 

Ohm 669 

Siemens's Mercury Stan- 
dard 669 

Standard Resistance Coils 669 
Absolute Determination 670-671 
British Association Unit 670 
Ohm Determination . . . 670 
Siemens's Mercury Unit 671 

5660 Specific Resistance. Relations 
to Temperature, Torsion, 
Magnetism, Light, etc. 671-681 



Schedule of Classification 



5675 



5680 



5685 



PAGE 

Specific Resistance 671-677 

Alloys 671-672 

Carbon 672 

Liquids ... ... ... 673 

Metals 673-676 

Copper ... ... 674 

Mercury ... ... 675 

Wires 675-676 

Relations to Temperature, 
Torsion, Magnetism, 
Light, etc. ... 677-681 

Light and Resistance, Re- 
lations ... 677-678 
Selenium ... 677-678 
Magnetism and Resis- 
tance, Relations 678-679 

Bismuth 678 

Strain and Resistance, 

Relations 679 

Temperature, Magnetism 
and Resistance, Rela- 
tions 679 

Temperature and Resis- 
tance, Relations 679-681 
Metals ... 680-681 

Nature of Metallic Conduc- 
duction. Electronic 

Theory 681-682 

Electronic Theory ... 682 
Conduction in Continuous 
Media of Two and Three 
Dimensions ... 682-684 
Conduction in Continuous 
Media of Two Dimen- 
sions 682-683 

Sheets 682-683 

Conduction in Continuous 
Media of Three Di- 
mensions 



683 
684 



685 
685 



_ linaers 

Equipotential Lines 
Conduction in Gases and 

Vapours. (See also 6805.) 685-690 
Conduction in Oases in 

Normal State 

Determination of Charge 

carried by Ion ... 
Discharge in Rarefied Gases, 

Resistance of so-called 

Vacuum. (See. also 6840.) 685-686 
Electric Arc. (See also 

6830.) 686 

Magnetic Field 686 

Properties of Gases in Con- 
ducting State . . . 686-688 

Flames 687 

Hot Gases 687 

Ratio of Charge to Mass ... 688 
Spark Discharge. (See also 

6820.) ... 688-689 

Spark Potential ... 689 



PAGE 

Theory of Conduction 

through Ionised Gases 689-690 
5695 Measurement of Electro- 
motive Force ... 690-693 

Cells 690-692 

Standard Cells ... 691-692 

Clark Cell ... 691-692 

Weston Cell 692 

5700 Measurement of Continuous 
Currents (Strength, Con- 
sumption of Energy, etc.). 
(See also 6010.) ... 693-694 
Consumption of Energy . . . 693 
Measurement of Current 

Strength 693-694 

5705 Measurements of Alternating 
Currents (Periodicity, 
Amplitude,Consumption 
of Energy, Work, etc.). 
(See also 6015.) ... 694-696 

Curves 694-695 

Energy Measurement ... 695 
Polyphase Currents ... 696 
5707 Measurement of Transient 

Currents 696-697 

5710 Thermoelectricity. Peltier 

and Thomson Effects 697-704 

Thermoelectricity ... 697-704 

Experiments ... ... 698 

Phenomena 698 

Thermocouples 699 

Thermoelectric Currents 699-700 
Thermoelectric Series ... 700 
Thermoelectricity of 

Various Substances 700-702 
Metals (in general) ... 701 
Thermoelectromotive Force 702 
Thermopiles ... 703-704 
Peltier and Thomson Ef- 
fects 704 

Peltier Effect 704 

Thomson Effect 704 

5720 Measurements relating to 
Energy of the Current. 
Heating Effect ... 705-707 

Measurements relating to 

Energy of the Current... 705 

Heating Effect ... 705-707 

Conductors ... 705-706 

Wires 706 

5740 Measurement of Capacity. 

(See also 6005.) 707-708 

Cables 707 

Condensers ... 707-708 

Methods of Measurement 708 
5770 Insulation Resistance, De- 
termination. Location 
of Faults in Conductors 708-710 
Insulation Resistance, De- 
termination ... 708-709 
Cables . 708-709 



Schedule of Classification 



PAGE 

Insulators 709 

Location of Faults in Con- 
ductors ... 709-710 
Cables ... ... 709-710 

5900 Physiological Electricity. 
(See also Physiology 4500- 
4580.) 710-711 

Electrical Instruments and Apparatus. 

6000 General ... 711-720 

Alarms 711-712 

Applications of Electricity 712-713 
Blasting by Electricity... 712 
Railways ... ... 713 

Electric Traction ... 714-715 

Railways ... 714-715 

Tramways ... ... 715 

Electric Transmission of 

Energy ... 715-718 

Distribution of Energy 717 

Long Distance Trans- 
mission ... 717-718 
6005 Electrometers and Electro- 
scopes. (See also 5740.) 720-724 
Electrometers . . . 720-723 
Absolute Electro meters ... 721 
Capillary Electrometers 721-722 
Quadrant Electrometers 722-723 
Electroscopes ... 723-724 
6010 Galvanometers, Resistance 
Comparators, Voltmeters, 
Wattmeters, etc. Re- 
gistering Instruments. 
(See also 5700.) 724-738 
Ammeters ... ... ... 725 

Ammeters and Voltmeters 725 

Balance, Electric ... 725-726 

Electric Meters ... 726-727 

Electrodynamometers . . . 727 

Galvanometers ... 728-734 

Ballistic Galvanometers 729 

Mirror Galvanometers ... 731 

Tangent Galvanometers 733 

Registering Insti-uraents... 735 

Rheostats 735-736 

Voltameters ... 736-737 

Voltmeters 737 

Wattmeters ... 737-738 

6015 Variable Currents, Apparatus 
for Determining the Cha- 
racter of. (See also 5705.) 738-739 
6020 Apparatus for Starting . and 

Regulating Currents 739-741 
Commutators ... ... 739 

Regulators... ... ... 740 

Relays. (See also 6480.)... 740 
6025 Frictional Electrostatic 

Machines ... 741-742 

Plate Machines 742 

6027 Induction Electrostatic 

Machines 742-745 



6030 



6040 



6043 



6045 



6047 



6050 
6060 



6070 



PAGE 

Electrophorus 743 

Holtz Machine 744 

Wimshurst Machine ... 745 
Electromagnets. (See also 

5410.) 745-750 

Attractive Power ... ... 746 

Forms of Electromagnets 747-748 
Magnetism ... ... ... 749 

Solenoids 749-750 

Induction Coils. Trans- 
formers. Interrupters 750-756 
Induction Coils ... 750-752 

Ruhmkorf Coils. . . 751-752 

Transformers ... 752-755 

Alternate Current Trans- 
formers ... ... 752 

Distribution by Trans- 
formers ... ... 753 

Losses ... ... ... 754 

Interrupters ... 755-756 

Mercury Interrupters ... 756 
Wehnelt Interrupter ... 756 
Wireless Telegraph Appa- 
ratus. Coherers, (See 
also 6615.) ... 757-758 

Coherers 757-758 

Alternators. (See also 6460.) 758-759 
Coupling ... ... ... 758 

Parallel Coupling ... 758 
Forms of Alternators ... 759 
Converters and Rectifiers 759-760 
Converters ... 759-760 

Transformation of Alter- 
nating Currents into Con- 



tinuous Currents 



760 



6080 



Magneto-Electric Machines 760-762 

Dynamos 762-771 

A rmatures 763-764 

Reaction 763-764 

Efficiency 765-766 

Forms of Dynamos 766-768 

Gramme Machine . . . 767 

Power 769-770 

Theory 770-771 

Motors 771-776 

Alternating Current Motors 771-773 
Asynchronous Motors 771-772 
Polyphase Motors ... 772 
Revolving Field Motors 772-773 
Synchronous Motors ... 773 
Continuous Current Motors 773-774 

Efficiency 774 

Electricity as a Motive 

Power 774 

Electromagnetic Motors 774-775 
Electromagnetism as a 

Motive Power 775 

Electric Lamps. (See also 

3090, 4202 and 6830.) 776-782 
Arc Lamps ... 776-778 

. Arc Lamps, Carbons for ... 778 



Schedule of Classification 



PAGE 

778-779 
779-780 
780-782 
782 

782 

782-783 
782-783 
782-783 
783 
. 783 



Electric Light ... 
Electric Lighting ... 
Incandescent Lamps 
Incandescent Lighting 
Safety Lamps for Use 

Mines ... 
6090 Electric Furnaces and Heat- 

ing ...... 

Electric Furnaces... 

Applications ... 
Electric Heating 
Electric Welding 

Electrolysis. 
6200 General. (See also Physical 

Chemistry, 7255, etc.) 784-790 
Alternate Current Electro- 

lysis ......... 784 

Apparatus. (For Volta- 

meters see 6010.) 784-785 

Calorific and Luminous 
Phenomena in Electro- 
lysis ......... 785 

Corrosion ...... 785-786 

Electrolysis of Various Sub- 

stances ... 787-788 

Water, Electrolysis 787-788 

Electrolytes ...... 788 

Magnetic Field, Effects ... 789 
6210 Electrochemical Series and 
Equivalents. Voltaic Po- 
tential Differences 790-796 

Electrochemical Series ... 790 
Electrochemical Equiva- 

lents ...... 790-791 

Faraday's Law ... ... 791 

Silver ......... 791 

Voltaic Potential Differ- 

ences ...... 791-796 

Electrochemical Action 792-793 
Electrodes ...... 793 

Dropping Electrodes... 793 
Electromotive Force of 

Contact ... 793-796 

Electromotive Force at 
Contact of Electro- 
lytes... ...... 794 

Electromotive Force at 

Contact of Metals 794-795 
Electromotive Force at 
Contact of Metals 
and Electrolytes 795-796 
Yalta's Contact Force, 

Modern Views ... 796 
Minimum Electromotive 

Force of Electrolysis ... 796 
6220 Mixed Electrolytes and 

Secondary Actions 796-797 

Mixed Electrolytes ... 796-797 
Conductivity. (See also 
6240.) ...... 796 



PAGE 

Secondary Actions ... 797 

6230 Polarisation and Passivity 797-802 
Polarisation. (See also 

5610.) ...... 797-802 

Capacity ... ... 798 

Cells ......... 798 

Currents ...... 798-799 

Depolarisation ... ... 799 

Electrodes ...... 799 

Electromotive Force of 

Polarisation ...... 80O 

Polarisation of Metals 800-801 
Polarisation of Various 

Substances ... 801-802 

Passivity ......... 802 

Iron ......... 802 

6235 Electrocapillary Phenomena. 

(See also 6245. ) . . . 803-804 

Capillary Electrometer. 

(See also 6005.) ...... 803 

Surface Tension ... ... 804 

Liquids under Electrifi- 

cation ..... : ... 804 

Mercury ......... 804 

6240 Conductivity. Migration of 

the Ions ...... 805-810 

Conductivity. (See also 

6220.) ...... 805-809 

Conduction ...... 805 

Conductivity of Various 

Substances... 805-808 

Solutions ... 805-807 

Conductivity and Vis- 

cosity, Relations ... 808 
Effect of Temperature 808-809 
Measurement of Conduc- 

tivity 

Migration of the Ions 
Transport Numbers 
Velocities of Ions 
6242 Electrolytic Deposits, Pro- 

perties of ... 810-812 

Electrolytic Figures 811-812 

Guebhards Figures ... 811 
Nobilts Rings ... 811-812 

6245 Electrical Osmose. Dia- 
phragm Current. (See 
also 6235.) ... 812-813 

Electrical Osmose ...... 812 

Diaphragm Current 812-813 

6250 Theories of Electrolysis. Dis- 

sociation of Electrolytes 813-816 
Theories of Electrolysis 813-814 
Dissociation of Electro- 

lytes ...... 814-816 

Theory of Solutions ... 816 
6255 Concentration Cells. Theories 

relating to Diffusion 816-818 
Concentration Cells 816-817 

Theories relating to Diffu- 

sion 817-818 



809-810 
810 
810 



Schedule of Classification 



Electrodynamics, Special Phenomena. 

6400 General 818-820 

Electricity and Magnetism 818 
6410 Theories of Electrodynamics. 

(See also 4940. ) . . . 820-824 

Analogies 820-821 

Hydrodynamic A nal- 

ogies 820-821 

Edlund's Ether Theory ... 821 

Equations 821-822 

Maxwell's Equations ... 822 

Induction 822-823 

Laws 823 

Maxwell's Theory ... 823-824 

Pointing's Theory 824 

6420 Mutual Actions of Steady 
Currents, and of Cur- 
rents and Magnets 824-831 
Electromagnetic Rotations 825-826 
Mutual Action of Cur- 
rents 826-829 

Ampere's Apparatus 826-827 
Ampere's Experiments ... 827 
Ampere's Formula ... 827 

Ampere's Law 827 

Ampere's Theory ... 827 
Clausius's Law... 827-828 

Helmholtz's Potential 

Law 828 

Neumann's Theory ... 828 
Riemann's Theory ... 828 
Weber's Law ._.. 828-829 

Mutual Action of Currents 

and Magnets... 829-831 

Action of Currents on 

Magnets ... 829-830 

Action of Magnets on 

Currents ... 830-831 

Oersted's Experiments ... 831 
Unipolar Induction ... 831 
6430 Special Dynamical Theories 

of Electric Currents 831-832 

6435 Electric Convection. Row- 
land Effect ... 832-833 
Electric Convection 832-833 

Rowland Efi'ect 833 

6440 Self-Induction and Mutual 
Induction. Eddy Cur- 
rents. Coefficients of In- 
duction. Measurement 
of Induction ... 833-842 

Self-induction. (See also 

6450.) ... 833-834 

Extra Currents. (For 
Nebenstrome see 5220, 

6820.) 834 

Measurement of Self- 
induction 834 

Mutual Induction 834-838 

Induced Currents 835-836 



PAGE 

Production of Currents B"" 

by Magnets ... 837-838 
Eddy Currents ... 838-840 
" Magnetism by Rota- 
tion" or Currents In- 
duced by Rotation ... 839 
Repulsion of Metal Ring 
by Alternating Cur- 
rents ... 839-840 
Coefficients of Induction 840-841 
Measurement of Coeffi- 
cients of Induction 840 
Mutual Induction Co- 
efficients 840 

Self-induction Coeffi- 
cients ... 840-841 
Measurement of Self- 
induction Coeffi- 
cients 841 

Measurement of Induc- 
tion 841-842 

6450 Effects of Induction and Ca- 
pacity on Electric Flow 842-846 

Capacity 842-843 

Capacity and Self-in- 
duction ... ... 842 

Circuits 842-843 

Condensers 843 

Currents 843-844 

Alternating Currents 843-844 

Induction 844-845 

Self-induction. (See also 

6440.) 845 

6455 Effects of a Magnetic Field on 

Electric Flow. Hall Effect 846-847 
Hall Effect ... 846-847 

6460 Alternating and Polyphase 
Currents in Wires. (See 
also 5705.) ... 847-850 

Alternating Currents 847-849 
Polyphase Currents ... 849 
Rotating Magnetic Fields 849 
6470 Currents of High Frequency 850 
6480 Telegraphy. (For Wireless 

Telegraphy see 6615.) 850-865 

Cables. (See also 6450.) 852-854 

Submarine Cables 852-853 

Conductivity of tlie Earth 854 

Diplex Telegraphy 854-855 

Effect of Various Agents... 855 

Forms of Telegraphs 855-857 

Induction Telegraph ... 856 

Printing Telegraph 856-857 

Writing Telegraph ... 857 

Induction 857-858 

Messages in the Same Wire 
in Opposite Directions. 
(See also 5600, Opposite 
Currents, Co-existence 
in Same Wire.) 858-860 

Duplex Telegraphy 858-859 



Schedule of Classification 



PAGE 

Quadruplet Telegraphy 859 
Multiplex Telegraphy 859-860 
Multiple Telegraphy ... 860 
Photographic Telegraphy 

(Telephotography) ... 860 

Recorders 861 

Relays. (See also 6020. ) . . . 861 
Simultaneous Telegraphy 

and Telephony 862 

Submarine Telegraphy ... 862 

Telegraph Lines ... 862-864 

Subterranean Lines ... 864 

6485 Telephony 865-873 

Applications of Telephone 866 
Calling -up Apparatus ... 866 
Experiments ... 867-868 

Forms of Telephones 868-869 

Induction 869 

Long Distance Telephony 869 
Microphones ... 869-870 
Microphones and Tele- 
phones 870-871 

Receivers ... ... ... 871 

Simultaneous Telegraphy 

and Telephony 871 

Telephone Lines ... 872-873 

Theory 873 

Transmitters 873 

6490 Energy in Special Electro- 
dynamic Phenomena ... 873 

Electromagnetic Waves. General 
Electromagnetic Theory of Light. 

6600 General 873-875 

The Ether 874 

6610 Production and Properties 
of Electromagnetic 

Waves. (See also 6620.) 875-881 
Electromagnetic Waves 875-880 
Hertz's Experiments 876-877 

Interference 877 

Propagation 878 

Velocity 878 

Standing (or Stationary) 

Waves 879 

Waves in Wires ... 880 

Resonance 880-881 

Resonators ... ... 881 

Vibrators ... ... ... 881 

6615 Wireless Telegraphy and 

Telephony ... 881-883 
Wireless Telegraphy 881-883 
Marconi's System ... 882 
Wireless Telephony ... 883 
6620 General Theory of Electro- 
magnetic Radiations. 
(See also 6610.)... 883-885 
Electromagnetic Radia- 
tions 883 

Electromagnetic Theory of 

Light ' 883-884 



PAOE 

Maxwell's Theory ... -884 
Light and Electricity, Rela- 
tions 884 

6625 Transparent Media in the 
Electromagnetic Theory of 
Light ... ... 885-886 

6627 Metallic Media in the Electro- 
magnetic Theory of Light 886 

6630 Aberration and Moving 

Media. (See also 3420.)... 886 

Influence of Electric and Magnetic 
Fields on Light. 

6635 General 886-887 

6640 Double Refraction due to 
Electro- and Magneto- 
striction 887 

Electric Double Refraction 887 
6650 Magnetic Action on Polarised 
Light. (See also 4040; 
and Chemistry, 7285.) 887-890 
Faraday Effect (Magnetic 
Rotation of Plane of 
Polarisation) 887-889 

Theory ... 889 

Kerr Effect (Reflection from 

Magnetic Pole) . . . 889-890 

Kundt Effect (Rotation of 
Plane of Polarisation by 
thin Metallic Films) ... 890 
6655 Magnetic Rotation of Special 
Substances. (See also 
4050 ; and Chemistry, 

7285.) 890-891 

Perkin's Determinations . . . 891 
6660 Influence of Magnetism on 
the Emission and Ab- 
sorption of Light. (See 
also 4208.) ... 891-892 

Zeeman Effect (Radiation 

in Magnetic Field) 891-892 

Electric Discharge. 

6800 General 892-895 

Discharge in Various Media 893 

Electric Figures ... 893-894 

Lichtenberg's Figures 893-894 
Photographic Plates, 

Figures 071 894 

Electric Shadows 894 

6805 lonisation of Gases. (See also 

5685.) 895-899 

lonisation by Chemical 

Action 895 

lonisation by Electric Dis- 
charge 895-896 

lonisation by Flame . . . 896 
Conductivity of Flame 896 

lonisation by Incandescent 

Bodies . 896-897 



Schedule of Classification 



PAGE 

lonisation by Radioactive 

Bodies. (See also 4275.) 897 
lonisation by Rontgen 
Rays, Cathode Rays, 

etc 897-898 

Rontgen Rays ... 897-898 

lonisation by Splashing of 

Drops, etc 898 

lonisation by Ultra-violet 

Light 898 

Passage of Electricity 

through Gases ... 898 
Physical Properties of Ga- 
seous Ions 899 

6810 Convective Loss. Points. 

Leakage 899-902 

Convective Loss ... 899-900 

Glow Discharge (or Silent 

Discharge] 900 

Leakage 900-901 

Points 901-902 

Brush Discharge ... 901 
Discharge from Points... 901 
6820 Disruptive Discharge. The 
Electric Spark. Oscil- 
latory Discharge. (See 
also 5220. For Lightning, 
see 5270.) ... 902-911 

Disruptive Discharge 902-903 
Electric Spark ... 903-908 

Ignition by Spark 904-905 

Induction Spark ... 905 
Potential ... 906-907 

Sparking Distance ... 907 
Oscillatory Discharge 908-911 
Electric Oscillations ... 908 
Ley den Jar Discharge 909-910 
Nebenstrome (Induced 
Currents Produced 
by Discharge of Con- 
densers}. (See also 
6440.) 910 



6825 



6830 



6840 



6845 



6850 



Battery 
Mechanical Action 



Leyden 



910 



of the 
Discharge (Disintegration 



911-912 



also 



of Metals, etc.) 
The Voltaic Arc. (Se 

6080.) 912-914 

Alternating Current Arc... 912 
Electromotive Force ... 913 
Counter E.M.F. ... 913 

Discharge in Rarefied Gases. 

(See also 4240.)... 914-921 

Air 915 

Luminous Phenomena ... 916 
Magnetism, Action 916-917 

Potential Gradient ... 917 
Stratification .. ... 918 
Vacua (so-called) .. 918-919 

Conductivity .. 918-919 

Vacuum Tubes .. 919-921 

Grooves' s Tubes.. ... 920 
Cathode, Becquerel and other 
Projected Discharges 
(Velocity, Charge, Effect 
of Magnetism, etc.). (See 
also 4240.) ... 921-925 

Becquerel Rays ... 921-922 

Cathode Rays ... 922-924 

Deflection 923 

Cathode and Rontgen 

Rays 924-925 

Photoelectric Action 925-928 

A ction of Light on Selenium. 
(^orEftect on Resistance 

see 5660.) 925 

Pliotoelectric Cells ... 925 

Photoelectric Discharge 

(and Charge} 926-928 
Rontgen Rays, Effect 926-927 
Ultra-violet Light, Effect 927-928 
Various Influences on Dis- 
charge 928 



INDEX TO SCIENTIFIC PAPERS FOR 
THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 

PHYSICS 

PART II 

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 



ELECTRICITY AND 
MAGNETISM. 

4900 General. 



Franklin, 
356-. 



ELECTRICITY. 
Am. Md. Ph. Eeg. 2 (1811) 



Walker, E*. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 42 (1813) 161-. 
Singer, G. J. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 43 (1814) 20-. 
Ronalds, (Sir) F. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 44 (1814) 

442-. 

MacVicar, J. G. B. A. Ep. (1833) 390-. 
Zantedeschi, F. G. Arcad. 78 (1839) 103-. 
Menici, G. Pisa Misc. Md. Chir. (1843) 45-. 
Marie-Davy, . Mntp. Ac. Sc. Mm. (1847- 

50) 13- ; 2 (1851-54) 147-. 
Du Moncel, T. [A. L.] (vn) Caen Mm. Ac. 

(1862) 31-. 
Applications. Siemens, E. W. Mon. Sc. 22 

(1880) 276-. 

. Colson, A . [1898] Leic. S. T. 5 (1901) 93-. 
Electric action, view. Laming, R. (vi Adds.) 

Electr. S. P. (1837-40) 195-. 

fluid, "negative," analysis. Ruspini, G. 
Polli A. 20 (1855) 149-. 

, small quantities, effect. Terninck, . 
Arras Mm. S. B. (1828) 223-. 

fluids. Anon, (vi 594) G. Arcad. 46 (1830) 

Electricity and heat, analogies. Chevallier, T. 
B. A. Ep. (1855) (pt. 2) 10. 

; 1-fluid theory of electricity; con- 
duction and induction. Haughton, G. C. 
B. A. Ep. (1847) (pt. 2) 27-. 



Electrified bo,dies, cooling. Wartmann, E. 

Arch, de 1'Electr. 3 (1843) 429-. 
Energetics. Ostwald, W. Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 

43 (1891) 271- ; 44 (1892) 211-. 
The ether as seat of electric and magnetic 

forces. Richarz, N.-Vorp. Mt. 31 (1900) 

xxi-. 

Experiments. 

Vinall, J. [1790] Bost. Mm. Am. Ac. 2 (1793) 

144-. 
Gersdor/, A. T. von. Berl. Gs. Nt. Fr. N. 

Schr. 2 (1799) 247-. 
Arnim, L. A. von. Gilbert A. 5 (1800) 33-; 

6 (1800) 116-. 
Gersdor ff, A. T. von. Lausitz. Mschr. 1 (1800) 

103 . 
Marum, M. van. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 8 (1800) 

193-, 313-. 
(Lichtenberg's figures, dance of spheres, etc.) 

Remer, W. Gilbert A. 8 (1801) 323-. 
( , , .) (Eemer.) Wolff, . 

Gilbert A. 12 (1803) 608-. 
( , , .) Remer, W. Gilbert A. 

17 (1804) 15-. 
[Nelis, de non] Anon. J. de Ps. 61 (1805) 45-, 

192-, 271- ; 62 (1806) 150- ; 63 (1806) 147-, 

378-; 64 (1807) 371- ; 65 (1807) 75-; 66 

(1808) 336, 376-; 67 (1808) 74-, 422-; 68 

(1809) 411- ; 70 (1810) 208- ; 71 (1810) 468-; 
74 (1812) 224-, 435-; 77 (1813) 462-; 82 
(1816) 405- ; 84 (1817) 193- ; 85 (1817) 158-. 

Behrens, G. B. Gilbert A. 23 (1806) 1-. 
Gilbert, L. W. Gilbert A. 24 (1806) 310-. 
(De Nelis.) Crosse, A., < Singer, . Tilloch 

Ph. Mg. 46 (1815) 161-. 
Gazzaniga, C. L. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 7 (1837) 

215-. 



VOL. III. 



551 



4900 Theories 

Perego, A. Brescia Cm. (1844) 89-. 

Felici, R. N. Cim. 19 (*1863) 345-; 20 (*1864) 

73-; 21-22 (*1865-66) 380-. 
Perrot, A. C. E. 62 (1866) 450-. 
Cantoni, G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 2 (1869) 436-, 

581-, 648-, 724-, 846-. 
Daniel, L. Les Mondes 19 (1869) 537-. 
Rossetti, F. (xn) Padova S. Sc. At. 1 (1872) 

64-, 178-. 

Strehlke, F. A. Ps. C. 146 (1872) 496. 
Waha, M. de. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1877) 15-. 

Modern views. Lodge, 0. Nt. 36 (1887) 532-, 

559-, 582- ; 37 (1888) 8-, 105-, 322-, 344-, 

366-; 38 (1888) 389-, 416-, 590- ; 39 (1889) 

10-, 319-. 
Nature, of electricity. Wolcott, T. Elect. 19 

(1887) 208-, 458-. 
. Phillips, S. E. Elect. 19 (1887) 

228-. 
Non-caloricity of electricity, experiments. 

Wartmann, E. [1842] Laus. Bll. S. Yd. 1 

(1842-45) 112-. 
Origin of electricity. Akin, (Dr.) C. K. [1863] 

(vn) Camb. Ph. S. T. 11 (pt. 1) (1866) 6-. 
Phenomena. Tr emery, J. L. Par. S. Phlm. 

Bll. 1 (1808) 339-. 
. Alden, T. [1812] Bost. Mm. Am. Ac. 3 

(1815) (pt. 2) 333-. 
. Murray, (Dr.) J. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 43 (1814) 

270- ; 45 (1815) 38-. 
. Marsh, J. [1841] Sturgeon A. Electr. 8 

(1842) 124-. 

. Perego, A. Yen. At. 5 (1846) 662-. 
. Smyth, C. P. Am. J. Sc. 38 (1864) 423-. 
. Marianini, S. Yen. At. 10 (1864-65) 

615-. 
. Cantoni, P. (xn) Ev. Sc.-Ind. 5 (1873) 

183-. 
. Waha, M. de. [1873] (xi) Lux. I. Pb. 

14 (1874) 24-, 29-, 65-. 
. Kericuff, H. de. (xn) Finist. S. Sc. Bll. 

3 (Fasc. 1) (1881) 152. 
, anomalous. Poggendorff", J. C. Berl. Mb. 

(1869) 55-. 
, causes. Peltier, A. [1844] Brux. Mm. 

Cour. 4, 19 (1845-46) 69 pp. 
of mud of hot baths at Dax. Barthe de 

Sandfort, (Dr.) . As. Fr. C. E. 12 (1883) 

318-. 
Problems, solution. Eandi,F.A. [1792] Turin 

Mm. Ac. 6 (1792-1800) 1-. 
, , geometrical. Pickering, E. C. Franklin 

I. J. 66 (1873) 13-. 
Propagation of electricity. Ratti, F. Em. 

Cor. Sc. 6 (1863) 357, 503-. 
Theorem. Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 1 

(1877) 145-. 

Theories. 

Le Bouvier-Desmortiers, U. R. T. J. Med. 

Chir. Phm. 26 (1813) 298-. 
Marum, M. van. A. Gen. Sc. Ps. 3 (1820) 72-. 
A., L. S. M. A. das Sc. 14 (1821) 69-; 15 

(1822) 119-. 
Clibborn, E. [1838] (vi Adds.) Electr. S. P. 

(1837-40) 147. 
Riess, P. Epm. Ps. 2 (1838) 1-. 



Electricity and Magnetism 4900 

Bertrand, J. Liouv. J. Mth. 4 (1839) 495-. 
Kennedy, C. J. [1840] Sturgeon A. Electr. 6 

(1841) 235-. 

Riess, P. Epm. Ps. 6 (1842) 109-. 
Maas, A. J. Brux. Ac. Bll. 14 (1847) (pte. 2) 

10-. 

Osann, G. Wiirzb. Vh. 4 (1854) 71-, 232-. 
CMllis, J. Ph. Mg. 20 (1860) 280-, 431-. 
elementary. Waha, M. de. [1880-81] Lux. 

I. Pb. 18 (1881) 1-; Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 

110-, 135-, 153-, 170-. 
and experiments. Sturgeon, W. [1837-43] 

Sturgeon A. Electr. 2 (1838) 401- ; 4 (1839- 

40) 33-, 137-, 161- ; 5 (1840) 121-, 293- ; 6 

(1841) 293-; 8(1842) 81-, 473-; 10(1843)70-. 
fluid theory. Maas, A. J. Brux. Ac. Bll. 16 

(1849) 167-. 

, impossibility. Lerch, M. Prag Sb. 
(1890) (1) (Mth.-Nt.) 172-. 

mathematical. Bertrand, J. Lum. Elect. 22 
(1886) 289-, 387-, 438-, 484-, 536-, 592-. 

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 

connection. Helmholtz, H. Smiths. Bp. 

(1873) 246-. 
electric and magnetic fields. Franklin, W. S. 

[1896] Ps. Ev. 4 (1897) 388-. 
, general property. Vaschy, . 

C. E. 116 (1893) 1437-. 

induction. Beer, A. Pogg. A. 98 
(1856) 137-. 

and galvanism. Ritter, J. W. Voigt Mg. 11 

(1806) 254-. 

. Limes, . J. de Ps. 66 (1808) 393-. 

galvanism and magnetism, connection. Gum- 
ming, J. [1821] Camb. Ph. S. T. 1 (1822) 

269-. 
and induced magnetism. Moser, L. 

Epm. Ps. 2 (1838) 100-. 
and heat, connection. Dana, J. D. Silliman 

J. 6 (1823) 163-. 
, . Wartmann, E. [1846] Laus. Bll. 

S. Yd. 2 (1846-48) 49-. 
and light. Kastner, K. W. G. Kastner 

Arch. Ntl. 1 (1824) 68-; 2 (1824) 230-. 
, connection. Franke, H. [1890] 

Mt. Ostld. 5 (1892) 17-. 
identity. Yelin, J. C. von. Gilbert A. 62 (1819) 

93-. 
influence of sunlight on phenomena. Bar- 

locci, S. G. Arcad. 41 (1829) 145-. 
kinetic hypothesis. Svttovidov, S. N. Es. Ps.- 

C. S. J. 22 (Ps.) (1890) 106- ; Fschr. Ps. 

(1890) (Ab. 2) 408-. 
magnetic attraction and repulsion, and electric 

action. Fox, R. W. Ph. Mg. 5 (1834) 1-. 
non-identity. Simon, J. P. Sturgeon A. Electr. 

2 (1838) 50-. 
theory, essay. Green, G. [1828] Crelle J. 

39 (1850) 73-; 44 (1852) 356-; 47 (1854) 

161-. 
, (Green). Ettingshausen, A. von. Wien 

SB. 1 (1848) 282-. 
and thermo-electricity, etc., identity, supposed. 

Donovan, M. Ir. Ac. P. 3 (1847) 372-, 402-, 

427-, 467-; Ph. Mg. 3 (1852) 117-, 198-, 

290-, 335-, 445- ; 4 (1852) 33-, 130-, 210-. 



552 



4940 



Equations of the Electrodynamic Field 



GENERAL DYNAMICAL THEORY 
AND RELATIONS. UNITS. 

4940 Equations of the Electro- 
dynamic Field. 

(See also 6410, 6420.) 

Elastic forces, general formulae for representa- 
tion of field of force by. Somigliana, C. 
Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 23 (1890) 874-. 

medium, comparison of electromagnetic 
field. Silberstein, L. [1893] Krk. Ak. (Mt. - 
Prz.) Bz. 8 (1895) 44-; Crc. Ac. Sc. Bll. 
(1893) 291-. 

Elasticity, electrodynamic and magnetic po- 
tentials in. Elie, B. J. de Ps. 2 (1883) 489-. 

, interpretation of Maxwell's formulae. 
Beltrami,E. Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 7 (1886) 3-. 

laws in medium following law of inverse 
squares. Brillouin, M. Par. EC. Norm. A. 
4 (1887) 201-. 

Electric action, general principles. Weber, 
W, E. Leip. Ab. Jablon. Gs. (1846) 209- ; 
A. Ps. C. 136 (1869) 485-. 

field, properties, illustration by tubes of 
electrostatic induction. Thomson, J. J. Ph. 
Mg. 31 (1891) 149-. 

flow, differential equations. Blakesley, T. 
H. L. Ps. S. P. 12 (1894) 217- ; Ph. Mg. 35 
(1893) 419-. 

and magnetic fields produced by electric 
charge concentrated at a point and having 
any given motion. Lienard, A. Eclair. 
Elect. 16 (1898) 5-, 53-, 106- . 

Electricity and light, Maxwell's theory. Gar- 
basso, A. Ev. Mt. 3 (1893) 149-. 
, Maxwell's theory. Boltzmann, L. D. Nf. 

Vh. (1891) (Th. 2) 29-. 
, motion, general equations. Ledeboer, P. H. 

Lum. Elect. 33 (1889) 157-, 204-, 273-, 417-, 

504-, 615-. 
, , Maxwell's theory. Lorentz, . Amst. 

Ak. Vs. M. 8 (1891) 323-. 
Electrodynamic equations for bodies in motion. 

Hertz, H. A. Ps. C. 41 (1890) 369-. 
(Hertz's). Volterra, V. N. 

Cim. 29 (1891) 53-. 
. Cohn, E. Arch. Neerl. 5 

(1900) 516-, 679. 
at rest. Helmholtz, H. Crelle J. 

72 (1870) 57-. 
(Helmholtz). Donati, L. 

(ix) N. Cim. 5 & 6 (1871) 58-. 
( ). Neumann, C. Leip. B. 

23 (1871) 450-. 
. Hertz, H. Gott. Nr. (1890) 

106-. 
, Helmholtz's, possibility of 

reduction to Hertzian form. Levi-Civita, T. 

N. Cim. 6 (1897) 93-. 
, Hertz's. Volterra, V. N. 

Cim. 29 (1891) 53-. 
, fundamental. Volterra, V. N. Cim. 29 

(1891) 147- ; Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 7 (1891) 

(Seni. 1) 177-. 



4940 



Electrodynamic equations, Hertz's, in field of 

rectilinear vibrator. Watson, H. W. Nt. 

39 (1889) 486, 558 ; 40 (1889) 11. 
, , . Lodge, 0. J. Nt. 

39 (1889) 583. 
, Maxwell's, extension. Cesaro, E. Em. 

E. Ac. Line. Ed. 5 (1889) (Sem. 1) 199-. 

, , general solution. Birkeland, K. 
Christiania F. (1895) (Overs.) 6-; C. E. 120 
(1895) 1046- ; Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 34 (1895) 
5-. 

, , and Hamiltonian principle. Mebius, 

C. A. Stockh. Ofv. (1898) 477-. 
, _, validity. Wedell-Wedellsborg , P. S. 

Z. Ps. C. 24 (1897) 367-. 

formulae, fundamental. Stefan, J. Wien 
Sb. 59 (1869) (Ab. 2) 693-. 

, (Stefan's). Margules, M. [1878] 

Wien Ak. Sb. 78 (1879) (Ab. 2) 779-. 
, . Lorentz, H. A. Amst. Ak. Vs. M. 

17 (1882) 144- ; Arch. Neerl. 17 (1882) 

83-. 
, , on hypothesis of single fluid. Eenard, 

N. A. C. E. 60 (1865) 110. 

law of induction, Weber's. Poincare, H. 
C. E. 110 (1890) 825-. 

wave-equations, Maxwell's, antecedents. 
Tait, . [1894] Edinb. E. S. P. 20 (1895) 
213-. 

Electrodynamics, mathematical theory. Ber- 

trand, J. C. E. 73 (1871) 965-. 
Electromagnetic equations, Maxwell's, for iso- 

tropic medium, general solution. Heaviside, 

0. Ph. Mg. 27 (1889) 29-. 
, , medium whose mechanical properties 

lead to. Boltzmann, L. [1892] Munch. Ak. 

Sb. 22 (1893) 279-. 

field, dynamical theory. Maxwell, J. C. 
[1864] Phil. Trans. 155 (1865) 459-. 

, energy. Vaschy, . C. E. 123 (1896) 

1261-. 
, equations. Gosiewski, W. Prace Mt.- 

Fiz. 6(1895)139-; 7(1896) 1-. 
, , general. Glazebrook, E. T. [1884] 

Camb. Ph. S. P. 5 (1886) 142-. 
,_, Maxwell's. Grinwis, C. H. C. [1883] 

Amst. Ak. Vs. M. 19 (*1884) 44-; (x) Arch. 

Neerl. 18 (1883) 225-. 

, , , comparison with those of Helm- 
holtz and Lorentz. Glazebrook, E. T. [1884] 

Camb. Ph. S. P. 5 (1886) 120-. 
, _, _, solution. FitzGerald, G. F. 

B. A. Ep. (1890) 755-. 
, _, _, _. Mebius, C. A. Stockh. Ofv. 

(1897) 399-. 
, forces, stresses and fluxes of energy in. 

Heaviside, 0. [1891] Phil. Trans. (A) 183 

(1893) 423-. 

force, equations. Lamprecht, E. A. Ps. C. 
43 (1891) 835-. 

theory, Maxwell's, and application to moving 
bodies. Lorentz, H. A. Arch. Neerl. 25 (1892) 
363-. 

Electrostatic field, effect on variable current. 

Vaschy, . C. E. 104 (1887) 1609-. 
force, velocity of propagation. Gibbs, J. W. 

Nt. 53 (1895-96) 509. 



553 



A2 



4960 Electrons 

Field of vector, theory. Vaschy, A. A. Tel. 

21 (1894) 97-. 
, Vaschy's theorem, new proof. Forney, 

J. B. A. Tel. 23 (1896-97) 187-. 
Gravitational and electromagnetic analogy. 

Heaviside, 0. Elect. 31 (1893) 281-, 359. 
. Lodge, 0. J., & Larden, W. 

Elect. 31 (1893) 347 etc. 

Green's formula applied to electric field. La- 
rose, H. A. Tel. 22 (1895) 460-. 
function for circular disc, and electrostatic 

applications. Hobson, E. W. Camb. Ph. S. 

T. 18 (1900) 277-. 
Magnetic energy according to Maxwell and 

Hertz. Poincare,H. Eclair. Elect. 18 (1899) 

361-. 
Ponderomotor forces. Grassmann, H. Pogg. 

A. 64 (1845) 1-. 
Clausius, R. [1876] Crelle J. Mth. 82 

(1877) 85-. 
. Grassmann, H. G. Crelle J. Mth. 83 

(1877) 57- 
(Grassmann's law). Clausius, R. Crelle 

J. Mth. 83 (1877) 262-. 
(general theory). Korteweg, D. J. [1878] 

Amst. Ak. Vh. 20 (1880) 56 pp. ; Crelle J. 

Mth. 90 (1881) 49-. 
( , Korteweg). Waals, J. D. van der. 

Amst. Ak. Vh. 20 (1880) (No. 1) 12 pp. 
Potential in electrodynamics and electro- 
magnetism. Mace de Lepinay, J. J. de Ps. 

7 (1878) 414-. 
, theory. Beltrami, E. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 

16 (1883) 725-. 



4960 Electrons. Moving Media. 

Atomic structure of electricity. Bose, E. Z. 

Ps. C. 34 (1900) 701-. 
Electric atom. Crookes, W. Ev. Sc. 49 (1892) 

80-. 

elementary charges, magnitude. Budde, E. 
A. Ps. C. 25 (1885) 562-. 

particle, motion in homogeneous magnetic 
field. Riecke, C. V. E. Gott. Nr. (1881) 

Electricity, Faraday's conception, modern de- 
velopment. Helmholtz, H. L. F. von. C. S. 
J. 39 (1881) 277-. 

Electron or atom of electricity. Stoney, G. J. 
Ph. Mg. 38 (1894) 418-. ' 

Electrons, amplitude of vibrations. Kaufmann, 
W. Arch. Neerl. 5 (1900) 148-. 

or ions, dynamics of system. Larmor, J. 
Camb. Ph. S. T. 18 (1900) 380-. 

, moving, and electric charges, theory. 

Morton, W. B. L. Ps. S. P. 14 (1896) 180- ; 

Ph. Mg. 41 (1896) 488-. 
1 , , . Larmor, J. L. Ps. S. P. 

14 (1896) 303- ; Ph. Mg. 42 (1896) 201-. 
, theory. Orr, W. McF. Ph. Mg. 50 (1900) 

269-. 
, weight. Lieben, R. von. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 

Gas spectra, cause of double lines, etc., in. 
Stoney, G. J. [1891] Dubl. S. Sc. T. 4 
(1888-92) 563-. 



Moving- Media 4960 

lonisation and electrons, investigations of 

J. J. Thomson. Perkins, C. A. Science 12 

(1900) 368-. 
Luminiferous and electric medium, dynamical 

theory. Larmor, J. [1893] Phil. Trans. (A) 

185 (1895) 719-. 
, . (Electrons, theory.) 

Larmor, J. [1895] Phil. Trans. (A) 186 

(1896) 695-. 
, -. (Eelations with material 

media.) Larmor, J. [1897] Phil. Trans. 

(A) 190 (1898) 205-. 
. , . (Electrodynamic equations 

of moving material medium, and electro- 

striction.) Larmor, J. E. S. P. 63 (1898) 

365-. 
Molecular electricity. Poynting, J. H. Elect. 

35 (1895) 644-, 668-, 708-, 741-. 
Moving electricity, potential. Loschmidt, J. 

Wien Sb. 58 (1868) (^6. 2) 7-. 



MOVING MEDIA. 

Clausius's law and Earth's motion. Budde, E. 

A. Ps. C. 10 (1880) 553-; 12 (1881) 644-. 
. Frohlich, J. [1880] A. Ps. 

C. 12 (1881) 121-. 
. Budde, E. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. 

(1888) 10-. 
Doppler's principle and Weber's electrodynamic 

fundamental law. Mewes, R. Dingier 315 

(1900) 295-. 
Electric fluid, mass. Aime, G. A. C. 62 (1836) 

419-. 
Electricity, elastic fluid theory. Foeppl, A. 

A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 306-. 

and the ether. Pinto, L. Nap. Ac. Pont. 
At. 24 (1894) No. 6, 23 pp. 

, fundamental laws. Planck, M. [1886] 
Schl.-Holst. Nt. Vr. Schr. 7 (Heft 1) (1888) 
26-. 

and matter, relations. Badoitreau, A. Ev. 
Sc. 48 (1891) 434-. 

, nature. Wiechert, . Konigsb. Schr. 38 

(1897) [3]-. 
, theory. Vaschy, A. Eclair. Elect. 7 (1896) 

25-, 110-. 
Moving systems, simplified theory of electrical 

and optical phenomena in. Lorentz, H. A. 

Amst. Ak. Vs. 7 (1899) 507- ; Amst. Ak. P. 

1 (1899) 427-. 
Eotating electric field. Korda, D. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Ed. 1 (1892) (Sem. 2) 431-. 
(Korda). Arnb, R. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 2 (1893) (Sem. 1) 179-. 
, energy dissipation in dielectric bodies 

in. Arnb, R. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 2 (1893) 

(Sem. 2) 260-. 
, , and electrostatic hysteresis. 

Arnb, R. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 2 (1893) 

(Sem. 1) 341-. 

, experiments, condenser. Arno, R. 
Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 3 (1894) (Sem. 1) 
272-. 

, and rotations due to electrostatic 
hysteresis. Arnb, R. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 1 
(1892) (Sem. 2) 284-. 



554 



4970 Tubes and Lines of Force Units, Electric and Magnetic 5000 



4970 Tubes and Lines of Force. 

Field of force, electrostatic, modification by 
conducting wall. Adler, G. [1888-89] Wien 
Az. 25 (1889) 158- ; Wien Ak. Sb. 99 (1891) 
(Ab. 2a) 61-. 

LINES OF FOECE. 

Christiansen, C. (xn) Ts. Mth. 3 (1867) 169-. 
conception. Baumgardt, L. M. Elekttech. Z. 

12 (1891) 420. 
and current, refraction. Bezold, W. von. 

Munch. Ak. Sb. 13 (1883) 456-. 

curves of level, conjugate system in magnetic 
field. Moutier,J. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 3 (1879) 
182-. 

due to 2 lines or points, construction for. 
Roever, W. H. [1896] St. Louis Ac. T. 7 
(1894-97) 201-. 

plane and line or plane and point. 
Roever, W. H. [1896] St. Louis Ac. T. 7 
(1894-97) 273-. 

electric, in air, method of showing. Boudreaux, 

E. C. R. 128 (1899) 882-. 
, and equipotential curves and surfaces. 

Adams, W. G. R. S. P. 23 (1875) 280-. 
in electromagnetic field, movement. Wien, W. 

A. Ps. C. 47 (1892) 327-. 

electrostatic. Rogers, F.J. Ps.Ev. 11 (1900)56-. 
, dust figures. Robertson, D. [1898-1900] 

Edinb. R. S. P. 22 (1900) 361- ; Elect. Rv. 

47 (1900) 370-. 
in electrostatic field, simple method of material 

representation. Boccara,V. N. Cim. 8 (1898) 

406-. 
equations. Rhodes, W. G. Elect. 35 (1895) 

483-. 
and equipotential surfaces in nature. Stanoie"- 

vitch, G. M. C. R. 126 (1898) 640-. 
Faraday's. Maxicell, J. C. [1855-56] Camb. 

Ph. S. T. 10 (1864) 27-. 

(Maxwell). Boltzmann, L. [1897] Nt. 57 
(1897-98) 77-. 

, drawn without calculation. Maxwell, J. C. 

B. A. Rp. (1856) (pt. 2) 12. 

, name, suggested. Johnson, A. [1891] Cn. 

R. S. P. & T. 9 (1892) (Sect. 3) 59-. 
, use in teaching electricity. Schmidt, K. E. F. 

Z. Nw. 66 (1893) 301-. 
proof of theorem of equivalent equipotential 

surfaces by. De La Rive, L. C. R. 114 

(1892) 740-. 
symmetrical around an axis. Stefan, J. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 85 (1882) (Ab. 2) 987-. 



Physical constants, law connecting. Whiting, 

H. Science 3 (1884) 373. 
fields. Dolbear, A. E. Science 14 (1889) 

442-; 15 (1890) 98. 
. Perry, N. W. Science 15 (1890) 63-, 

147-. 

. Hazen, H. A. Science 15 (1890) 97- 

Theory of electricity, principles. Julius, W. H. 

Arch. Neerl. 5 (1900) 497-. 
Tubes of electrostatic induction, properties of 

electric field illustrated by. Thomson, J. J. 

Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 149-. 



4980 Transfer of Energy, 
Momentum, etc. 

Electric and magnetic phenomena, theory. 
Ebert, H. A. Ps. C. 51 (1894) 268-. 

theories. Thomson, J. J. B. A. Rp. (1885) 
97-. 

Electromagnetism, theory, mathematical. Me 

Aulay, A. [1892] Phil. Trans. (A) 183 (1893) 

685-. 
Energy, electric, transformation of mechanical 

energy into. Vaschy, . C. R. 118 (1894) 

1249-. 
, electromagnetic, radiation in space. Birke- 

land, K. A. Ps. C. 52 (1894) 357-. 

emitted and absorbed by ion executing elliptic 
oscillations. Planck, M. Arch. Neerl. 5 (1900) 
164-. 

of mass in motion, distribution in space. 
Schwedoff, T. Par. S. Ps. 86. (1891) 187-. 

, mechanical, flow, for motion of bodies 
under Newtonian attraction. Volterra, V. 
Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 34 (1898) 238- or 366-, 601- 
or 805- ; N. Cim. 10 (1899) 337-. 

, propagation through ether. Helm, G. A. 
Ps. C. 47 (1892) 743-. 

storable in the ether. Preston, S. T. Elect. 
27 (1891) 154-. 

, transfer, in electromagnetic field. Poyn- 

ting, J. H. [1884] Phil. Trans. 175 (1885) 

343-. 
, , (Poynting). Lodge, 0. Ph. 

Mg. 19 (1885) 482-. 
, , . Birkeland, K. Ts. Ps. C. 33 

(1894) 353-; Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 33 (1895) 

297-. 
, -, . Mie, G. D. Nf. Vh. (1896) 

(Th. 2, Hdlfte 1) 38- ; (1898) (Th. 2, Hdlfte 1) 

78-. 
, , , Poynting' s theorem. Lorentz, 

H. A. Amst. Ak. Vs. 4 (1896) 176- ; Fschr. 

Mth. (1896) 731. 
, , , . Wedell-Wedellsborg, 

P. S. Z. Ps. C. 22 (1897) 222-. 
, , , . Mie, G. Z. Ps. C. 34 

(1900) 522-. 

, -, , (Mie). Wedell-Wedells- 
borg, P. S. Z. Ps. C. 35 (1900) 604-. 
, , , , applications. Birke- 
land, K. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 30 (1893) 186-. 
, , and fields of force. Broca, A. As. Fr. 

C. R. (1899) (Pt. 1) 224-. 
, , graphical representation. Reignier, C. 

Lum. Elect. 23 (1887) 352-. 
, , outline of general theory. Mie, G. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 107 (1898) (Ab. 2a) 1113-. 



5000 Units, Electric and 
Magnetic. 

Clausius, R. Bonn NH. Vr. Vh. 39 (1882) 107- ; 

A. Ps. C. 17 (1882) 713-. 
Vaschy, A., & Mercadier, E. J. P. A. Tel. 10 

(1883) 5-. 



555 



Units, Electric and Magnetic Dimensions 5000 



5000 

Blakesley, T. H. L. Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 55-; 

Ph. Mg. 27 (1889) 178-. 
Madden, W. M. Tel. J. 25 (1889) 635-. 
Pionchon, J. Bordeaux S. Sc. Mm. 2 (1891) 

Mom, W. Elect. Ev. 45 (1899) 736-, 861-. 
Somigliana, C. Mil. L Lomb. Ed. 33 (1900) 

119-. 
Absolute measurements, progress, 1872-97. 

Gray, A. Elect. Ev. 41 (1897) 656-. 
units. Moon, W. Tel. J. 28 (1891) 549-; 



of electromagnetic units. FitzGerald, G. F. L. 
Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 95 ; Ph. Mg. 27 (1889) 323-. 

E.M.F. and of potential. Meslin, . J. de 
Ps. 4 (1885) 225-, 289-. 

magnetic pole, electrostatic. Everett, J. D. 
Ph. Mg. 13 (1882) 376-, 431-. 

, . Thomson, J.J. Ph. Mg. 13 (1882) 

427-. 
, . Larmor, J. Ph. Mg. 13 (1882) 



429-. 
530-. 



225-. 



48-; (1896) 80-. 
, international. Kaiser, L. [1894-95] - , 

Nass. Vr. Jb. 48 (1895) 35-. 
, reduction to units of time and length. 

Sahulka, J. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 459-. 
system, application to electricity. Speit- 

kamp, H. Westf. Vr. Jbr. (1891) (Th. 2) 

105-. 
, and electric units. Geraldy, F. 

Lum. Elect. 5 (1881) 181-, 216-. 
, _, new. Ferrini, R. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 

32 (1899) 1304-. 
t systems. Helmholtz, H. L. F. von. 

A. Ps. C. 17 (1882) 42-. 
, . Szarvady.G. Lum. Elect. 14 (1884) 

321-, 375-, 413-. 
, _. Boulanger, J. Lum. Elect. 16 (1885) 



Wead, C. K. Ph. Mg. 13 (1882) 
Thomson, J. J. Ph. Mg. 14 (1882) 
Lodge, 0. J. Ph. Mg. 14 (1882) 



. 

, , and physical laws. Clavenad, . 

[1891] Gen. Civ. 19 (1891) 62-, 74-, 90-, 

105-, 428-; 20 (1891-92) 41-, 59-. 
C. G. S. system, fundamental units. Stok, 

van der. Batav. Ntk. Ts. 47 (1887) 588-. 
Change of units, cost. Swinburne, J. Elect. 

14 (1885) 351-. 
Definitions adopted by International Congress, 

1889. Mascart, . C. E. 109 (1889) 



DIMENSIONS. 

of electric and magnetic quantities. Borgmann, 

J. J. de Ps. 2 (1883) 551-. 
. Mercadier,E. C. E. 116 (1893) 

800-, 872-, 974-. 
(Mercadier). Riicker, A. W. 

Nt. 49 (1893-94) 387-. 
. Joubin, P. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1896) 188- ; J. de Ps. 6 (1897) 57-. 
quantities, and kinetic theory of gases. 

Juppont, . Toul. Ac. Sc. Bll. 2 (1899) 

, physical significance. Lippmann, G. 

C. E. 105 (1887) 638-. 
, . Schwartze, T. Exner Epm. 

27 (1891) 234-. 
, theory. Goldhammer, D. Kazan 

TJn. Mm. (1894) (Pt. 4) 159- ; Fschr. Ps. 

(1894) (Ab. 2) 441-. 
units. Malapert, (Lt.) E. [1881] Ev. 

Mar. et Col. 73 (1882) 590- ; 74 (1882) 103-, 

285-. 
electromagnetic unit of potential. Chvolson, 

0. Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 20 (Ps.) (1888) 34-; 

Exner Epm. 24 (1888) 294-. 



357-. 

-- , . Sargant, E. B. Ph. Mg. 14 

(1882) 395-. 
--- , in various systems. Hertz, H. A. 

Ps. C. 24 (1885) 114-. 
-- quantities in electrostatic system. Volk- 

mann, P. A. Ps. C. 21 (1884) 518-, 712. 

physical quantities. Winter, W. Exner 
Epm. 21 (1885) 775-. 

--- . Raverot, E. Lum. Elect. 23 (1887) 

101- ; 36(1890) 601-. 
--- . M.,W. M. Elect. 29 (1892) 275-, 

314-. 
--- . Riicker, A. W. (et alii). Elect. 29 

(1892) 338- etc. 

, hypotheses of absolute systems. 
Raverot, E. Eclair. Elect. 5 (1895) 481-. 

, relation to directions in space. 
Williams, W. L. Ps. S. P. 11 (1892) 357-; 
Ph. Mg. 34 (1892) 234-. 

--- , suppressed. Riicker, A. W. L. Ps. 
S. P. 10 (1890) 37-; Ph. Mg. 27 (1889) 104-. 

Electric and magnetic quantities, nature, and 
density and elasticity of the ether. Fessenden, 
R. A. Am. As. P. (1899) 115- ; Ps. Ev. 10 
(1900) 1-, 83-. 

measurements, elementary relations be- 
tween. Jenkin, F., & Maxwell, J. C. Ph. 
Mg. 29 (1865) 436-, 507-. 

measures in use. Witkowski, A. W. (xn) 
Kosmos (Lw.) 6 (1881) 435-. 

quantities and their absolute measure 
Blavier, E. E. A. Tel. 1 (1874) 9-, 164- 
287-; 2 (1875) 149-, 256-; 3 (1876) 117- 
4 (1877) 121- ; 5 (1878) 20-, 247-, 579- 
6 (1879) 222-, 321-, 515- ; 7 (1880) 49- 
144-, 209-. 

-- , practical measurements. Preece, W. H. 
Tel. J. 9 (1881) 465-, 481-, 505-. 

and resistance, standards, suggestions 
for. Bright, (Sir) C., <& Clark, L. Elect. 1 
(1862) 3-. 

-- , theory. Clavenad, . Lum. Elect. 48 

(1893) 467. 

standards. Hospitalier, E. Lum. Elect. 3 
(1881) 149-. 

-- . (Eeports.) Brit. Ass. Comm. B. A. Ep. 
(1884)29-; (1885)31-; (1886)145-; (1887) 
206- ; (1888) 55-; (1889) 41-; (1890) 95-; 
(1891) 152- ; (1892) 132- ; (1893) 127- ; (1894) 
117- ; (1895) 195- ; (1896) 150- ; (1897) 206- ; 
(1898) 145- ; (1899) 240- ; (1900) 53-. 



556 



5000 



Electric Units 



5000 



Electric standards. (Eeport to International 

Electrical Congress.) Pellat, . Lum. 

Elect. 33 (1889) 378-. 
(Brit. Ass. Comm.). Lodge, 0. J. Nt. 46 

(1892) 334-, 368. 
( ). Lodge, 0. J. (et alii). Elect. 

29 (1892) 433 etc. 
, national, need for. Fleming, J. A. Tel. 

E. J. 14 (1885) 488-. 
terminology. Amaduzzi, L. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 

31 (1899) 233-. 
, reforms. Hospitalier, E. Lum. Elect. 

3 (*1881) 11-. 



ELECTEIC UNITS. 

Hospitalier, E. Lum. Elect. 1 (*1879) 126- ; 

2 (*1880) 291. 

Frolich, 0. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1810) 341-. 
(Frolich.) Hospitalier, E. Lum. Elect. 2 

(*1880) 343. 
(Hospitalier.) Frolich, 0. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 

402-. 

Hospitalier, E. Gen. Civ. 1 (*1880-81) 258-. 
Levy, M. [1881] Gen. Civ. 1 (*1880-81) 555-, 

582-; 2(*1881-82) 4-. 

Lippmann, G. [1881] Ev. Sc. 2 (1882) 680-! 
Rothen, T. J; Tel. 5 (1881) 81-, 101-, 125-. 
Bertrand, J. J. Sav. (1882) 621-. 
Levy, M. A. C. 26 (1882) 85-. 
Witz, A. Ev. Quest. Sc. 11 (*1882) 445-. 
Frohlich, L (xn) Mth. Term. Ets. 1 (1883) 

273-. 
Rothen, T. Bern Mt. (1883) (Heft 1) (Ab.) 

15-. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. Nt. 28 (1883) 91-. 
Machai, Y. A. C. 1 (1884) 412-. 
Bertrand, J. Acta Mth. 8 (1886) 387-. 
Wallentin, J. G. Humb. 6 (1887) 89-, 129-. 
Hospitalier, E. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1888) 283-. 
(Eeport.) Int. Congress of Elect. [1893] Ps. 

Ev. 1 (1894) 227-. 

Campbell, A. Elect. 32 (1894) 410-. 
Mendenhall, T. C. U. S. Coast Geod. Sv. Bll. 

No. 30 (1894) 99-. 
Epstein, J. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1896-97) 

Momber, A. [1898] Danzig Schr. 10 (1899- 

1902) (Heft 1) xxvii-. 
Schreber, K. A. Ps. C. 68 (1899) 607-. 
Richarz, . N.-Vorp. Mt. 31 (1900) xvi-. 
absolute. Cooke, J. P. Franklin I. J. 60 

(1870) 138-, 199-, 267-, 344-, 411-. 
, of International Congress. Pellat, H. J. 

de Ps. 1 (1882) 255-. 
and technical. Oberbeck, . N.-Vorp. Mt. 

26 (1895) xi-. 
apparatus to explain. Weber, L. [1895] Schl.- 

Holst. Nt. Vr. Schr. 11 (1898) 2-. 
British Association. Preece, W. H. Ph. Mg. 

33 (1867) 397-. 

and other systems. Koivalski, E. Bor- 
deaux S. Sc. Mm. 4 (1882) 417-. 
changes proposed. Fleming, J. A. Elect. 44 

(1900) 324-, 366-, 402-. 
choice. Brit. Ass. Comm. (Everett, J. D.). 

B. A. Ep. 43 (1873) 222-. 



coulomb and kilowatt. Epstein, J. Frkf. a. 

M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1896-97) 45-. 
current, alternating, nomenclature of charac- 
teristic magnitudes. Feldmann, C. P. 

Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 698-. 
of current and potential, absolute. Deguisne, 

C. [1898] Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1898- 

99) 46-. 
resistance, general. Jacobi, M. H. 

[1857] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 16 (1858) 

81-. 
definition. Cornu, A. Par. Bur. Long. An. 

(1893) B, 75 pp. 

and definitions. Basso, G. It. S. Met. An. 

5 (1890) 131-. 
English. Borgman, I. I. (xii) Es. C. Ps. S. 

J. 9 (Ps.) (1877) [Ft. 2] 48-. 

(Borgman). Stolyetov, A. G. (xn) Es. C. 
Ps. S. J. 10 (Ps.) (1878) [(Pt. 1)] 38-. 

of force, absolute, choice. Lippmann, G. C. 
E. 92 (1881) 183-. 

induction, practical. Ayrton, W. E. Lum. 
Elect. 34 (1889) 107-. 

international. Borgman, I. I. (xii) Es. Ps.- 
C. S. J. 13 (Ps.) (1881) [_Pt. 1] 349-. 

. Violle, J. [1896] A. Tel. 23 (1896-97) 
45. 

. Negreanu, D. Bucarest Ac. Eom. A. 20 
(Pt. admin.) (1898) 37-. 

Conference, Paris. Rbiti, A. N. Cim. 16 
(1884) 5-. 

, . Siemens, W. Elekttech. Z. 5 (1884) 

244-. 
, Paris Congress. Helmholtz, H. L. F. von. 

(xii) Elekttech. Z. 2 (1881) 482-. 
kilowatt. Preece, W. H. Elect. 23 (1889) 

456. 
legal, in U.S.A. Mendenhall, T. C. U. S. 

Coast Geod. Sv. Bll. No. 31 (1894) 105-. 
, and United Kingdom. Menden- 
hall, T. C. Science 1 (1895) 9-. 
legalising. Anon. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 

245-. 
. Dolivo-Dobrou-olsky , M. von. Elekttech. 

Z. 14 (1893) 295-. 
. Wachsmuth, R. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 

353-. 
and mechanical units. Mercadier, E. Lum. 

Elect. 8 (*1883) 6-, 44-, 70-, 114-. 
. Vaschy, A. A. Tel. 10 (1883) 

179-. 
. Perrin, A. Eclair. Elect. 5 (1895) 

201-, 260-, 355-. 
, nomenclature. Stroud, W. B. A. 

Ep. (1891) 577. 
, relation. Barnes, H. T. Cn. E. S. 

P. & T. 6 (1900) (Sect. 3) 71-. 
"mho." Teichmiiller, J. Elekttech. Z. 15 

(1894) 177-. 

names, history. Mendenhall, T. C. Smiths. 

Ep. (1894) 141-. 
ohm, volt and ampere. Epstein, J. Frkf. a. 

M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1896-97) 45. 
, of the future. Carhart, H. S. 

Science 21 (1893) 86-. 
of resistance. Anon. [1869-70] (xi 37) J. 

Tel. 1 (1869-71) 2-, 15-, 27-. 



557 



5000 



Electrostatic and Electromagnetic Units, Ratio 



5000 



of resistance. Cicognani, E. (xn) Ev. Sc.- 

Ind. 8 (1876) 123-. 
resistance coils, standard, values. Glazebrook, 

E. T., d- Fitzpatrick, T. C. B. A. Ep. (1886) 

147-. 
-- , _, . Glazebrook, E. T. B. A. Ep. 

(1890) 98- ; (1892) 150-. 
of resistance and E.M.F. Raoult, F. M. C. 

E. 58 (1864) 105-. 
resistance as velocity. Dobson, S. T. Elect. 

12 (1884) 376, 448. 
--- . Nipher, F. E. [1884] St. Louis 

Ac. T. 4 (1886) 535-. 
. Swinburne, J., & Evershed, S. 

Elect. 16 (1886) 291 etc. 
Siemens's, reduction to absolute measure. 

Dorn, E. A. Ps. C. 17 (1882) 773-. 
simplification. Blondel, A. As. Fr. C. E. 

(1899) (Pt. 2) 304-. 
systems, different. Vaschy, . Lum. Elect. 

8 (*1883) 46-. 

Electrodynamic units. Cazin, A. C. E. 56 

(1863) 949-. 
Electrodynamics. Nystrom, J. W. Franklin 

I. J. 118 (1884) 24-. 
Electromagnetic mechanism. Fessenden, R. A. 

Franklin I. J. 149 (1900) 459- ; 150 (1900) 

62-, 106-. 

units, 4ir in. Lodge, 0. J. Nt. 46 (1892) 
292. 

-- , -- . Heaviside, 0. Nt. 46 (1892) 

292-. 
-- , ampere-centimetre. Hering, C. Frank- 

lin I. J. 134 (1892) 69-; Elect. 29 (1892) 

263-. 
-- , practical. Perry, J. Elect. 27 (1891) 

355. 
-- , and absolute. Dieudonne, E. Lum. 

Elect. 19 (1886) 577- ; 20 (1886) 129-. 

of resistance and E.M.F., absolute. 
Foster, G. C. Tel. J. 2 (1874) 317-. 

Electrostatic and electrodynamic units, relation 
on vibration theory. Mewes, R. Elekttech. 
Z. 15 (1894) 712-. 

ELECTROSTATIC AND ELECTRO- 
MAGNETIC UNITS. 

Mercadier, E. J. P., & Vaschy, A. C. E. 96 

(1883) 118-, 250-, 334-. 
(Theory and experiments of Mercadier and 

Vaschy.) Levy, M. C. E. 96 (1883) 248-, 

Ratio (v). 
Kohlrausch, R., <& Weber, W. [1856] Leip. 

Ps - 3 (1857) 219 ~ ; Pogg> A> " 



Maxwell, J. C. Phil. Trans. 158 (1868) 643-. 
(Sir W. Thomson's experiments.) King, W. F. 

B. A. Ep. 39 (1869) 434-. 
Maxu-ell, J. C. B. A. Ep. 39 (1869) 436-. 
M'Kichan, D. Phil. Trans. 163 (1873) 409- 
(Kohlrausch, E., & Weber, W.) Kohlrausch 

F. A. Ps. C. 157 (1876) 641-. 
Ayrton, W. E. Nt. 18 (1878) 470-. 



Perry, J., & Ayrton, W. E. B. A. Ep. (1878) 

487-. 

Hockin, C. B. A. Ep. (1879) 285-. 
Perry, J., ( Ayrton, W.E. Tel.E. J. 8 (1879) 

Shida, 'R. Ph. Mg. 10 (1880) 431- ; 11 (1881) 

473- ; 12 (1881) 154, 300-. 
(Shida.) Wright, C. R. A. Ph. Mg. 12 (1881) 

76-, 224-. 
( and Wright.) Gray, A. Ph. Mg. 12 (1881) 

301. 

Klemencic, I. Wien Sb. 83 (1881) (Ab. 2) 603-. 
Stoletov, A. G. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1881) 193-. 
Exner, F. [1882] Wien Ak. Sb. 86 (1883) 

(Ab. 2) 106- 
Thomson, J. J. [1883] Phil. Trans. 174 

(1884) 707-. 
Klemencic, I. Wien Ak. Sb. 89 (1884) (Ab. 2) 

298- ; 93 (1886) (Ab. 2) 470-. 
Himstedt, F. A. Ps. C. 29 (1886) 560-. 
(Electrodynamic vibrations.) Goldhammer, 

D. A. [1888] Kazan S. Nt. (Ps.-Mth.) P. 7 

(1889) 115-. 

Himstedt, F. A. Ps. C. 33 (1888) 1-. 
(Electrometric determination.) Thomson, (Sir) 

W., Ayrton, , <& Perry, . Elect. 21 

(1888) 681. 
(Determination by electric oscillations.) Lodge, 

0. J., d Glazebrook, R. T. B. A. Ep. (1889) 

497. 
Rowland, H. A., Hall, E. H., & Fletcher, L. B. 

Am. J. Sc. 38 (1889) 289-. 
Rosa, E. B. Am. J. Sc. 38 (1889) 298-. 
Thomson, J. J., d Searle, G. F. C. [1890] 

Phil. Trans. (A) 181 (1891) 583-. 
Pellat, H. C. E. 112 (1891) 783-; Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1891) 145-. 
Webster, A. G. B. A. Ep. (1891) 580-. 
Abraham, H. C. E. 114 (1892) 1355- ; A. C. 

27 (1893) 433- ; 28 (1893) 432. 
Hurmuzescu, D. C. E. 121 (1895) 815- ; A. C. 

10 (1897) 433-. 
Lodge, O. J., & Glazebrook, R. T. Camb. Ph. 

S. T. 18 (1900) 136-. 

table for conversion of. Stoney, G. J. B. A. 
Ep. (1891) 577-. 



Electrotechnical nomenclature. Rilhlmann, R. 
Elekttech. Z. 7 (1886) 360-. 

notations, abbreviations and symbols. 
Hospitalier, E. [1891] Elect. 28 (1892) 
275-. 

Homogeneity in physical formulae. Bertrand, 

J. C. E. 86 (1878) 916-. 
. Clavenad, . Gen. Civ. 21 

(1892) 264. 

quantities, especially electric and 
magnetic. Clavenad, . Gen. Civ. 23 

(1893) 176-. 

principle in electricity. Carvallo, E. 
Lum. Elect. 46 (1892) 164-, 319-, 666-. 

. Clavenad, . Lum. Elect. 46 

(1892) 215-, 661-. 
Magnetic,parameters, definitions. Reignier, C. 

Lum. Elect. 25 (1887) 564-. 

symbols. Hospitalier, E. Elect. 35 (1895) 
395-. 



558 



5000 Magnetic Units Electrostatics 



General 5200 



MAGNETIC UNITS. 

Heaviside, 0. Elect. 35 (1895) 511-. 
Thompson, S. P. (et alii). Elect. 35 (1895) 

558- etc. ; 36 (1896) 19. 
Blondel, A. As. Fr. C. E. (1896) (Ft. 2) 193-. 
(Report.) Hospitalier, . Eclair. Elect. 8 

(1896)337-. , 
Brylinsky, E. Eclair. Elect. 12 (1897) 529-, 

591-. 

choice. Thompson, S. P. B. A. Ep. (1895)637-. 
fundamental. Allen, H. N. Elect. 36 (1896) 

849-. 
and photometric units. Hanappe, S. Ev. 

Un. Mines 36 (1896) 245-. 
practical. Blondel, A. Eclair. Elect. 8 (1896) 

529- 



Mechanical units, measurement of electricity 

in. Branly, E. C. E. 77 (1873) 1420-. 
, magnetism in. Cazin, A. C. E. 

72 (1871) 682-. _ 
Notation for physical units. Macfarlane, . 

Cn. I. P. 3 (1886) 81-. 
Physical constants, numerical value in different 

systems. Malagoli, K. Ev. Sc. Ind. 29 

(1897) 269-. 
Eational units. P., W. A, Elect. Ev. 46 

(1900) 202-. 
Similitude, laws, in electricity. Vaschy, . 

A. Tel. [19] (1892) 189-. 
System of units, proposed. Fessenden, R. A. 

Elect. 44 (1900) 860-. 
Theory. Szarvady, G. Lum. Elect. 23 (1887) 

401-. 
Thermo-electro-photo-baric unit. Chase, P. E. 

Am. Ph. S. P. 22 (1885) 377-. 
Time, absolute unit by electrical standards. 

Lippmann, . C. E. 104 (1887) 1070-. 
Units of Coulomb, Laplace and Ampere, rela- 
tions. Amagat, E. H. C. E. 117 (1893) 

86-, 150-. 
and their ratios. Terquem, A. J. de Ps. 1 

(1872) 49-, 118-, 281-, 383-. 

ELECTROSTATICS. 
5200 General. 

Marie-Davy, . C. E. 31 (1850) 863-. 
Delia Casa, L. Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 6 (1866) 

315. 

Govi, G. Tor. At. Ac. Sc. 1 (1866) 206-, 221-. 
Right, A. (xi) N. Cim. 9 (1873) 141-. 
Beltrami, E. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 10 (1877) 

171-. 
Quincke, G. H. A. Ps. C. 10 (1880) 161-, 

374-, 513-. 
Beltrami, E. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 4 (1895) 

(Sem. 2) 177-. 
Candle between 2 oppositely electrified balls 

heats negative ball only. Cuthbertson, J. 

Nicholson J. 3 (1802) 188. 
Concentration of solutions, influence of mag- 
netic and electric forces. Tiurin, V. Es. 

Ps.-C. S. J. 23 (Ps.) (1891) 101- ; Fschr. Ps. 

(1891) (Ab. 2) 440-. 



Concepts and experiments. Volpicelli, P. Em. 

At. N. Line. 19 (1866) 312- ; 20 (1867) 

191-. 
, fundamental, mass, potential, capacity, etc. 

Mach, E. Lotos 33 (1884) 90- 
Definite integral in electrostatics. Volpicelli, 

P. Em. At. 15 (1861-62) 383-; C. E. 55 

(1862) 928- ; Em. At. 15 (1861-62) 443-. 
Distillation under influence of static electricity. 

Gernez, D. C. E. 89 (1879) 303-, 348-. 
Electrified bodies, motion. Cellerier, C. [1888] 

Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 19 (1888) 486- ; Gen. S. 

Ps. Mm. 30 (1888-90) No. 5, 71 pp. 

body, motion as fast as, or faster than, 
light. Heaviside, 0. Elect. 40 (1898) 
379-. 

conductors, system, and other physical 
theories involving homogeneous quadratic 
functions. Maxwell, J. C. L. Mth. S. P. 
4 (1871-73) 334-. 

heavy particles, motion of a system of 2. 
Levy, M. C. E. 95 (1882) 986-. 

Electrostatics not founded on Coulomb's laws. 

Pellat, H. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1896) 89-, 

293-. 
Energy, electric, varieties. (De Heen's theory 

of electrostatics.) Heen, P. de. Brux. Ac. 

Bll. 32 (1896) 712-. 
Experiments. Peyre, J. M. M. An. Met. Fr. 

(1849) 245-. 
. Volpicelli, P. Em. At. 7 (1853-54) 109, 

145. 
. Perrot, A. Presse Sc. 1 (1862) 255-; 

C. E. 62 (1866) 232-. 
. Cantoni, G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 6 (1873) 

27-. 
. Angot, A. Par. EC. Norm. A. 3 (1874) 

253-. 
. Baudrimont, A. [1874] Bordeaux S. Sc. 

Mm. 1 (1876) iii-. 

. Gripon, E. J. de Ps. 6 (1877) 126. 
. Agostini, G. J. (xn) Ev. Sc.-Ind. 13 

(1881) 104-. 
, interpretation. Felici, R. N. Cim. 4 

(1856) 266-. 
Heat capacity, Black's law for, applied to 

electricity. Pollock, T. (vi Adds.) Electr. 

S. P. (1837-40) 200, 204-. 

and electricity, phenomena, analogies. 
Gezechus [Hesehus] ,N.A. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 
29 (Ps.) (1897) 261- ; Fschr. Mth. (1897) 
769. 

Mathematical analysis, application to theories 

of electricity and magnetism. Green, G. 

[1828] Crelle J. 39 (1850) 73-; 44 (1852) 

356- ; 47 (1854) 161-. 
Phenomena. Provenzali, P. F. S. Tortolini 

A. 3 (1852) 344-. 
, explanation by one simple law. Erman, P. 

(vi Adds.) Berl. Ab. (1812-13) (Ps.) 155-. 
, fundamental. Raynaud, J. A. Tel. 3 

(1876) 579-. 
Principle of Gauss, application. Moutier, J. 

Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 4 (1880) 100-. 
Problem. Maggi, G. A. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 

13 (1880) 384-. 
.general. Stolyetov, A. G. [1869] (xn) Eec. 

Mth. (Moscou) 4 (1869-70) (Pt. 1) 1-. 



559 



Electrification by Contact or Friction 



5210 

Problem, geometrical. Malagoli, E. Bv. Sc. 

Ind. 29 (1897) 175-, 260-. 
Problems. Righi, A. (xn) Kv. Sc.-Ind. 5 

(1873) 277-. 
, approximate solution. Niven, W. D. 

QJ. Mth. 18 (1882) 266-. 
Resistance, variation, in electrostatic field. 

Schaufelberger, W, Ziir. Ps. Gs. Jbr. (1899 

& 1900) 14-. 
Eings, electric. Willigen, V. S. M. van der. 

Amst. Vs. Ak. 13 (1862) 250- ; 15 (1868) 

229-. 
Rotations, electrostatic, produced by alternate 

difference of potential. Arno, E. Em. E. 

Ac. Line. Ed. 8 (1899) (Son. 2) 167-. 
, , in rarefied gases. Arno, E. Tor. Ac. 

Sc. At. 29 (1894) 635-. 
Solar rays, electrical influence. Musset, C. 

C. E. 57 (1863) 101-, 325-. 
Teaching electrostatics in schools. Morrison, 

J. T. Edinb. Mth. S. P. 8 (1890) 89-. 
Theorem. Betti, E. [1865] Tor. At. Ac. Sc. 

1 (1866) 24-. 

. Hollo, A. G. Mt. 19 (1881) 373-. 
Theorems, 2, demonstration. Saurel, P. J. 

Ps. C. 3 (1899) 232-. 
, general. Bertrand, J. J. de Ps. 3 (1874) 

73-. 

Theory. Moutier, J. C. E. 63 (1866) 299-. 
. Moret, F. Les Mondes 18 (1868) 348-. 
. Cantoni, G. (rx) N. Cim. 2 (1869) 369-. 
. Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 3 (1879) 

157-. 
., Eotvos, (baro) L. (xn) Mag. Tud. Ak. 

Ets. 14 (No. 1) (1880) 4-. 
. Eesal, H. A. Liouv. J. Mth. 8 (1882) 

217-. 
. Moutier, J. Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 135-, 

170-, 234-, 271-. 
. Vaschy, . C. E. 116 (1893) 1286- ; A. 

Tel. 20 (1893) 205-. 
, mathematical. Thomson, (Sir) W. Liouv. 

J. Mth. 10 (1845) 209- ; Camb. and Dubl. 

Mth. J. 1 (1846) 75- ; 3 (1848) 131-, 266- ; 

5 (1850) 1- ; Ph. Mg. 8 (1854) 42-. 
, . Clausius, E. A. Gen. Civ. 6 (1867) 

741-. 
, . Blavier, E. E. A. Tel. 7 (1880) 

383-. 
, surfaces of 2 nd degree in. Delsaulx, (le 



[1857] Essex I. P. 2 



5210 

(1862) 



pere) J. (xn) Brux. S. Sc. A. 3 (1879) 
(Ft. 1) 80- ; (Ft. 2) 213-. 
Vortex analogue of static electricity. Hicks, 
W. M. B. A. Rp. (1888) 577-. " 



5210 Electrification by Contact 
or Friction. Various Sources 
of Electrification. 

Dessaignes, J. P. J. de Ps. 78 (1811) 230-, 

418-. 

Walcker, A. Pogg. A. 4 (1825) 301-, 443-. 
Becquerel, A. C. [1831-32] Par. Mm. de PI. 

11 (1832) 317- ; 12 (1833) 333- ; 13 (1835) 



Batchelder, J. 

161-. 

Spring, W. Brux. Ac. Bll. 41 (1876) 1024-. 
Epstein, J. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1892-93) 

34. 
Conservation of electricity. Ayrton, W. E., 

& Perry, J. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 266. 
, and conservation of mass. Gouy, . 

J. de Ps. 8 (1889) 227 
, principle. Lippmann, G. [1880-81] 

Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 5 (1881) 82-; C. E. 92 

(1881) 1049-, 1149- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1881) 

149- ; A. C. 24 (1881) 145-. 
, , consequences. Corbino, 0. M. 

N. Cim. 11 (1900) 136-. 
, and thermodynamics. Gouy, . 

C. E. 107 (1888) 329-. 

CONTACT ELECTEICITY. 

Davy, (Sir) H. [1806] Phil. Trans. (1807) 32-. 
Orsted, H. C. Schweigger J. 20 (1817) 205-. 
Egen, P. N. C. Gilbert A. 69 (1821) 385-. 
Pianciani, G. B. G. Arcad. 40 (1828) 3-, 375-. 
Munck af Eosenschold, P. S. Pogg. A. 35 (1835) 

46-. 

Peltier, A. C. E. 1 (1835) 360-. 
Peclet, E. C. E. 7 (1838) 930- ; Pogg. A. 46 

(1839) 346-. 

Becquerel, A. C. C. E. 8 (1839) 424-. 
Bottger, E. Pogg. A. 5,0 (1840) 41-. 
Peclet, E. Arch, de PElectr. 1 (1841) 621-. 
(Peclet.) Zamboni, G. [1844] Ven. Mm. I. 2 

(1845) 239-. 
Stolyetov, A. G. (xn) Mosc. S. Sc. Bll. 41 

(No. 1) (1881) 28-. 

Gerland, E. A. Ps. C. 18 (1883) 357-. 
in air. Holtz, W. Gott. Nr. (1882) 449-. 
and gases. Bottomley, J. T. B. A. Ep. 

(1885) 901-. 
. Spiers, F. S. [1899] L. Ps. S. P. 

17 (1901) 39-; Ph. Mg. 49 (1900) 70-. 
of air and water. Holmgren, K. A. [1894] 

Lund. Un. Acta 31 (1895) (S. Psgr., No. n, 



51 pp.). 
imal 



animal and metallic. Molin, E. [1871] (x) 

Wien Vr. Nw. Kennt. Schr. 12 (1872) 19-. 
of animal and vegetable substances with 

each other and with salts. Ktimtz, L. F. 

Schweigger J. 55 ( = Jb. 25) (1829) 1-. 
changes of energy in. Pellat, , & Sacerdote, 

. J. de Ps. 7 (1898) 24-. 
and E.M.F. Doppler, C. Wien Jb. Pol. I. 18 

(1834) 290-. 
E.M.F. of contact. Hart, S. L. Ph. Mg. 12 

(1881) 324-. 

--- . Gouy, . J. de Ps. 7 (1888) 205-. 
, due to geometrical difference of 

surfaces. Erman, P. Berl. Ab. (1816-17) 

219-. 
--- , metallic. Paschen, F. A. Ps. C. 41 

(1890) 186-. 
--- , , measurement of true. Pellat, H. 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1887) 128-, 138. 
--- of metals with copper. Sundell, A . F. 

Stockh. Ofv. 29 (No. 3) (1872) 5-; A. Ps. C. 

149 (1873) 144-. 

560 



5210 Theory of Contact Electricity Theories of Electricity 5210 



in gases. Righi, A. Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 10 

(1889) 351-. 
of gases with glowing wires. Elster, J., <& 

Geitel, H. [1888] Wien Ak. Sb. 97 (1889) 

(Ab. 2a) 1175- ; A. Ps. C. 37 (1889) 315-. 
liquids. Enright, J. Nt. 36 (1887) 

365-, 460; L. Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 293-; 

Ph. Mg. 29 (1890) 56-. 
illustration by multicellular electrometer. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. B. A. Bp. (1890) 728-. 
measurement, method. Thomson, (Sir) W. 

B. A. Ep. (1880) 494-. 

of metals. Wilson, W. Nicholson J. 10 (1805) 

42-. 
(Wilson). Cuthbertson, J. Nicholson J. 

11 (1805) 56-. 

(metal filings sifted through metal). 
Wilson, W. Nicholson J. 11 (1805) 110-. 

. Bischof, G., ( MUnchow, . Pogg. A. 

1 (1824) 279-. 
(series of metals). Peltier, A. C. E. 1 

(1835) 470-. 
. Pellat, H. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 8 (1884) 

165-. 
. Kelvin, (Lord). [1897-98] E. I. P. 15 

(1899) 521-. 
. Murray, J. E. E. S. P. 63 (1898) 

113-. 
between non-conductors. Thomson, J. J. 

[1876] E. S. P. 25 (1877) 169-. 
origin. Christiansen, C. Kjtfb. Ov. (1895) 360- ; 

(1896) 37-; (1897) 489-; (1899) 153- ; A. Ps. 

C. 56 (1895) 644-; 57 (1896) 682-; 62 (1897) 
545-; 69 (1899) 661- ; N. Ts. Fs. K. 1 (1896) 
19- 

(Christiansen). Wesendonck, K. A. Ps. C. 
58 (1896) 411-. 

( ). Pellat, H. Eclair. Elect. 8 (1896) 
577. 

phenomenon of Libes. La Metherie, J. C. de. 

J. de Ps. 59 (1804) 154. 
. Volpicelli, P. Em. At. 12 (1858-59) 

375-. 
polarity of needle of zinc-silver alloy. Knoch, 

A. V. Gehlen J. 6 (1808) 186-. 
problem. Nernst, W. [1896] Z. Elektch. 

(1896-97) 209-. 

Theory. 

Ayrton, W. E., <& Perry, J. E. S. P. 27 (1878) 

196- ; Phil. Trans. 171 (1880) 15-. 
Exner, F. [1879] Wien Ak. Sb. 80 (1880) 

(Ab. 2) 307-. 
(Exner.) Stolyetov, A. G. (xn) Es. Ps.-C. 

S. J. 13 (Ps.) (1881) [(Pt. 1)] 135-. 
( .) Sokolov, A. P. (xn) Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 

13 (Ps.) (1881) [(Pt. 1)] 147- ; (xi) A. Ps. C. 

Beibl. 6 (1882) 251-. 
Exner, F. [1882] Wien Ak. Sb. 86 (1883) 

(Ab. 2) 551-. 

Potier, A. J. de Ps. 4 (1885) 220-. 
Exner, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 95 (1887) (Ab. 2) 

595-. 
(Exner.) Uljanin, W. von. A. Ps. C. 30 (1887) 



Exner, F. A. Ps. C. 32 (1887) 515-. 
(Exner.) Uljanin, W. von. A. Ps. C. 33 (1888) 

238. 
Majorana, Q. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 8 (1899) 

(Sem. 1) 188-, 255-, 302-. 
and Leyden jar. Marianini, S. (mi) Mm. 

Fis. Sperim. 2 (1838) 67-. 



( .) Hallwachs, W. 



A. Ps. C. 32 (1887) 



Contact and frictional electricity, similarity 
of sources. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 114 (1860) 
257-. 

Diselectrification of air. Kelvin, (Lord), Mac- 
lean, M., <& Gait, A. E. S. P. 57 (1895) 
436-. 

Electric action on colliding water drops. Ray- 
leigh, (Lord). E. S. P. 28 (1879) 406-. 

flames. Neyreneuf, V. C. E. 76 
(1873) 1000-. 

, liquids and powders. Neyreneuf, 

V. C. E. 76 (1873) 1351-. 
water of sea and lakes. Pistolesi, F. 

Tortolini A. 6 (1855) 324-. 

energy, source. Morris, C. J. Sc. 3 (1881) 
377-, 461-, 514-. 

and magnetic matter, combination. Mellin, 
A. Mosc. S. Nt. Mm. 3 (1812) 187-. 

ELECTRIC SEPARATION. 

Opposite electricities, reciprocal action. Er- 
man, P. (vi Adds.) Berl. Ab. (1818-19) (Ps.) 
351-. 

Positive and negative electricity. Hohlfeld, . 
Kastner Arch. Ntl. 2 (1824) 203-. 

. Broek, J. K. van den. (vn) 
Arnhem Ntk. 5 (1848) 146-. 

, difference between force. Voort, 

G. A. van der. Sturgeon A. Electr. 3 (1838- 

39) 492-. 

, differences. Reitlinger, E. [1861] 

(vin) Wien Schr. 1 (1862) 149-. 
, . Doubrava, S., & Mach, E. 

[1879] Wien Ak. Sb. 80 (1880) (Ab. 2) 

331-. 
, . Wachter, F. Wien Az. 23 

(1886) 5-. 
, . Decharme, C. Lum. Elect. 

31 (1889) 401-, 473-, 566-; 32(1889) 70-, 

115-, 171-, 213-, 315-, 366-, 421-, 475-, 

513-, 563-. 
, different effects. Neyreneuf, V. 

[1873] Par. 8e". S. Ps. 1 (1873-74) 30-. 

Theories of Electricity. 

1-fluid theory (Franklin's). Woods, S. [1802] 

Tilloch Ph. Mg. 17 (1803) 97-. 
(_) (experiment). Pictet, J. P. Bb. 

Brit. 51 (1812) 393-. 
( ). Marum, M. van. Thomson A. Ph. 

16 (1820) 440-. 

(experiments of de Nelis, see 4900). 
Becquet de Megille, . A. Gen. Sc. Ps. 8 
(1821) 111-. 

. Bigeon, J. M. H. [1826] A. C. 38 

(1828) 150-. 



561 



5210 



Electrification by Friction 



5210 



l-fluid theory (Franklin's) and 2-fluid theory 

(Symmer's). Eacagni, G. M. [1813-17] 

Mil. Mm. I. Lomb. Yen. 5 (1838) 187-. 
(_) (Dufay's). Hare, E. Philad. 

J. Ac. Nt. Sc. 6 (1823) 98-. 
(_) - (_). Levering, J. [1851] 

Am. Ac. P. 2 (1848-52) 251- 
and 2-fluid theory. Kotteritzsch, T. 

[1872] Z. Mth. Ps. 18 (1873) 218-. 
(Franklin's) and 2-fluid theory (Dufay's) 

and Ampere's theory. Hare, R. Franklin 

I. J. 15 (1848) 188-, 264-. 
2-fluid theory. Ekmark,L. Stockh. Ak. Hndl. 

21 (1800) 139- ; Gilbert A. 23 (1806) 431-. 
(phenomena disagreeing with). Tremery, 

J. L. J. de Ps. 54 (1802) 357-. 
. La Metherie, J. C. de. J. de Ps. 65 

(1807) 314-. 

. Terninck, . Arras Mm. S. E. (1826) 
100-. 

fundamental principles, attempt to reconcile 
two. Prevost, P. Bb. Un. 21 (1822) 178-. 

inadequacy. Donovan, H. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 44 
(1814) 334-, 401-. 

(Donovan). De Luc, J. A. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 
45 (1815) 97-. 

(De Luc). Donovan, M. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 

45 (1815) 200-. 

(Donovan). Howldy, T. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 

46 (1815) 401- ; 47 (1816) 285-. 



Electrification of air. Thomson, J. J. Nt. 50 

(1894) 296. 
by steam. Kelvin, (Lord), Maclean, 

M., <& Gait, A. Nt. 54 (1896) 622-. 

, steam, and other gases. Kelvin, 
(Lord), Maclean, M., & Gait, A. [1897] 
Phil. Trans. (A) 191 (1898) 187-. 

by approach or recession of bodies. Palagi, 
A. N. A. Sc. Nt. 8 (1853) 365-. 

. Palmieri, L. Nap. Ed. 

2 (1853) 146-. 
(Palagi). Secchi, A. 

Moigno Cosmos 3 (1853) 544-. 
( ). Volpicelli, P. Em. 

At. 5 (1851-52) 469-; C. E. 36 (1853) 1042. 

ELECTEIFICATION BY FEICTION. 

Maycock, J. D. Nicholson J. 31 (1812) 304-. 
Marx, C. M. Erdm. J. Pr. C. 3 (1834) 239-. 
Peclet, E. A. C. 57 (1834) 337-. 
Phillips, Reub. Ph. Mg. 3 (1852) 36-. 
Anon, (vi 1385) Ziva 2 (1854) 97-. 
Becquerel, E. C. E. 42 (1856) 46-. 
Kobell, F. von. Munch. Sb. 1 (1863) 51-. 
Pacinotti, A. N. Cim. 12 (1874) 268- ; 13 (1875) 

5-; 14(1875) 128-, 137-. 
Abnormal excitation. Sturgeon, W. Sturgeon 

A. Electr. 2 (1838) 350-. 
in dry atmosphere. Looms, E. B. A. 

Ep. (1857) (pt. 2) 32-. 
. Schneider, J. Pogg. A. 101 

(1857) 309-. 
. Loomis, E. Am. As. P. (1858) 

33-. 



Barometers, electric discharges in. Cossali, P. 

Mod. Mm. S. It. 15 (1811) 76-. 
Burst bladder experiment, electric discharge in. 

Duprez, J. Brux. Ac. Bll. 12 (1845) (pte. 2) 

142-. 
Cat, positive and negative electricity. Chladni, 

E. F. F. Voigt Mg. 1 (1798) (Heft 3) 79-. 
Chemical action, influence. Peclet, E. C. E. 

7 (1838) 522-. 
Chocolate. BUnger,K. Gilbert A. 23(1806)230. 

(on solidification). Weidinger, G. C. Cb. 
10 (1865) 109-. 

Cooling metals in liquids. Henrici, F. C. 

Pogg. A. 79 (1850) 170-, 473-. 
Driving belts (leather). Drury, T. (vi Adds.) 

Ph. Mg. 14 (1839) 126-. 
( ). Batchelder, J. M. Silliman J. 3 

(1847) 250-. 

. Loir, [C. non] A. A. Tel. 6 (1863) 281-. 

. Loir, G. A. Tel. 7 (1864) 359-. 

. Joulin, L. C. E. 76 (1873) 1299-, 

1478- ; A. C. 2 (1874) 5-. 

. Bahr, H. Giving. 30 (1884) 67-. 

Drops (lecture experiment). Elster, J., d* Geitel, 

H. A. Ps. C. 32 (1887) 74- ; Braunschw. Vr. 

Nt. Jbr. (5) (1887) 28-. 
. Holz, A. L. A. Ps. C. 50 (1893) 147-. 
. Thomson, J. J. Ph. Mg. 37 (1894) 341-. 
Experiments. Perego,A. At. Sc. It. (1842) 429-. 
. Phillips, Reub. Chemist 6 (1845) 71-. 
. Hagenbach, E. Carl Epm. 8 (1872) 65-. 
Glass (pyroelectricity) . Muncke, G. W. Pogg. 

A. 20 (1830) 417-. 

( ) (Muncke). Lenz, E. Pogg. A. 25 (1832) 
241-. 

( ) (Lenz). Muncke, G. W. Pogg. A. 29 
(1833) 381-. 

( ) (Muncke). Lenz, E. Pogg. A. 35 (1835) 
72-. 

(peculiar condition detected by electroscope). 
Heintz, W. Pogg. A. 59 (1843) 305-. 

(state of rods passed through flame) . Heintz , 
W. Halle Jbr. NW. Vr. 5 (1852) 39-. 

, friction with catskin. Resti-Ferrari, G. 

A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 4 (1834) 148. 
, wool. Schiff, J. Bresl. Schl. Gs. 

Jbr. (1889) 129- ; (1890) (Ab. 2) 20-. 
Gun-cotton. Bowman, J. E. (vi Adds.) Ph. 

Mg. 29 (1846) 500-. 

and pyroxiline-paper. Johnston, J. Am. J. 
Sc. 37 (1864) 115 ; 39 (1865) 348-. 

Ice, friction with water. Sohncke, L. A. Ps. 
C. 28 (1886) 550-. 

Liquid air, experiments. Ebert, H., & Hoff- 
mann, B. [1900] Munch. Ak. Sb. 30 (1901) 
107-. 

and solid, friction between. Rossi, A. G. 
Yen. I. At. (1891-92) 1675-. 

Luminous phenomena. Marx, C. M. Pogg. A. 

83 (1851) 600. 
Mechanical effects. Colladon, D. Bb. Un. 1 

(1836) 362-. 
Mechanism of frictional electricity. Weyde, 

J. F. Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 269-. 
Mercury, by filtration. Per ego, A. (vi Adds.) 

Majocchi A. Fis. C. 3 (1841) 127-. 
, . Dechant, J. Exner Epm. 20 (1884) 

313-. 



562 



5210 



Electrification by Friction 



Steam 5210 



Mercury jet, shock against dielectric. Lauri, 
L. (vi Addg.) N. A. Sc. Nt. 2 (1844) 
103-. 

Metals. Haiiy, E. J. Par. Ms. H. Nt. A. 3 

(1804) 309-. 

(Haiiy). Cuthbertson, J. Nicholson J. 11 

(1805) 56-. 

. Becquerel, A. C. A. C. 38 (1828) 113-. 
, electric series. Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 59 

(1864) 493-; A. C. 6 (1865) 25-. 
, . Macfarlane, A. Edinb. E. S. P. 12 

(1884) 412-. 
, friction of dustless gas on, impossibility of 

electrification by. Wesendonck, . Nt. 45 

(1892) 305-. 
, gas on. Wesendonck, K. A. Ps. C. 

47 (1892) 529-. 

and other substances, by friction and 
pressure. Perego, A. Brescia Cm. (1842) 
68-. 

Paper. Walsh, P. Thomson A. Ph. 3 (1814) 



Gilbert A. 75 (1823) 
Silliman J. 1 (1846) 
Pogg. A. 68 (1846) 



. Yelin, J. C. von. 

197-. 
. Divight, H. G. 0. 

427-. 
. Schonbein, C. F. 

159-. 

. Poppe, A. Dingier 103 (1847) 353-. 
. Biasoletto, B.A. (vi Adds.) Em. Cor. Sc. 

1 (1848) 353-. 
. Dufourcet, E. (xn) Dax S. Borda Bll. 6 

(1881) 171-. 
. Surdi, D. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 16 (1884) 95-. 

layers. Armellini, T. N. Cim. 5 (1857) 
174-. 

manufacture. Hankel, W. G. Pogg. A. 55 
(1842) 477-. 

. Armstrong, W. G. Walker Electr. Mg. 

1 (1845) 459-. 

. Napier, J. Walker Electr. Mg. 1 (1845) 

499-. 
. Walker, C. V. Walker Electr. Mg. 2 

(1846) 120-. 
Permanence of frictional electricity. Haiiy, 

R. J. J. de Ps. 89 (1819) 455-. 
Polarity, electrostatic. Volpicelli, P. Tortolini 

A. 5 (1854) 59-; C. E. 38 (1854) 351, 877-; 

Tortolini A. 5 (1854) 224-. 
. (Volpicelli). Delarive,A. Bb.Un. Arch. 

28 (1855) 265-. 
, ( ). Ratti, F. [1855] (vm) Em. At. 

N. Line. 9 (1855-56) 14- ; (v) N. Cim. 2 (1855) 

, (Eatti). Fabri, E. N. Cim. 2 (1855) 

250-. 
, . Volpicelli, P. Em. At. 11 (1857-58) 

143- ; 12 (1858-59) 143- ; 15 (1861-62) 46-; 

C. E. 53 (1861) 347- ; 54 (1862) 1083-. 
, , new experiment. Armellini, T. (viAdds.) 

Em. Cor. Sc. 5 (1859) 33-. 
Powders. Gersdorff, A. T. von. Lausitz. Mschr. 

2 (1805) 1-. 

. Eval'd, T. T. [1874] (xn) Es. C. Ps. S. 

J. 7 (Ps.) (1875) (Pt. 1) 23-. 
Quartz. Hodgkinson, A. Manch. Lt. Ph. S. 

Mm. & P. 1 (1888) 15-. 



Eotation due to frictional electricity. August, 

E. F. Pogg. A. 81 (1850) 315-. 
Sand and resin, particles, electrification in 

producing Chladni's figures. Sellier, . 

C. E. 6 (1838) 48. 
Selenium, friction with platinum. Blondlot, R. 

C. E. 91 (1880) 882-. 
Sliding friction. Riess, P. T. Berl. Ak. Mb. 

(1876) 301-. 
. Riecke, E. Gott. Nr. (1890) 456-; A. 

Ps. C. 42 (1891) 465-. 
Solids, electrification by friction, pressure and 

percussion. Perego, A. Brescia Cm. (1842) 

77-; (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. C. 12 

(1843) 68-. 

Source of frictional electricity. Phillips, Reub. 

Chemist 3 (1842) 336. 
, experiments. Christiansen, C. 

Kjtfb. Ov. (1894) 189- ; A. Ps. C. 53 (1894) 

STEAM. 

Patterson, . Am. Ph. S. P. 1 (1840) 321-. 
Henry, J. Am. Ph. S. P. 1 (*1840) 322-. 
Schafhdutl, C. E. Ph. Mg. 17 (1840) 449-. 
Pattinson, H. L. Ph. Mg. 17 (1840) 457-. 
Condie, . Sturgeon A. Electr. 6 (1841) 

311-. 

Williams, J. Ph. Mg. 18 (1841) 93-. 
Schafhdutl, C. E. Ph. Mg. 18 (1841) 95-, 265-. 
Rowell, G. A. Edinb. N. Ph. J. 37 (1844) 

347-. 
Phillips, Reub. Ph. Mg. 35 (1849) 490- ; 36 

(1850) 503-. 
and expanding air. Armstrong, W. G. (vi 

Adds.) Ph. Mg. 18 (1841) 133-. 
at high pressure. Pattinson, H. L. Ph. Mg. 

17 (1840) 375-. 
. Pfaff, C. H. Pogg. A. 53 (1841) 

313. 
. Peltier, A. Par. S. Phlm. PV. 

(1844) 58-. 

jet of steam. Peltier, A. A. C. 75 (1840) 

328- ; Brux. Ac. Bll. 10 (1843) 318-. 
. Phillips, Reub. Chemist 1 (1854) 

3. 
. Helmholtz, R. von. A. Ps. C. 32 

(1887) 1-. 
. Bidwell, S. L. Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 

325- ; Ph. Mg. 29 (1890) 158-. 
from boiler-valve. Stguier, A. C. 

E. 13 (1841) 628-. 
from locomotives. Peltier, A. Brux. Ac. Bll. 

11 (1844) (pte. 2) 34-. 

Substances (homogeneous and heterogeneous). 

Delezenne, . Lille Se. Pbl. 4 (1811) 11-. 
, various. Elice, F. Cattaneo Bb. Farm. 

17 (1842) 254-. 
, , electrification by friction and pressure. 

Fritsch, H. A. Ps. C. 5 (1878) 143-. 
Sulphur sifting. Anon, (vi 199) Bb. It. 95 

(1839) 250-. 
Theory. Riecke, C. V. E. Gott. Nr. (1877) 

701-. 
, mathematical. Schering, K. D. Nf. Tbl. 

(*1878) 239. 
Water. Bressy, J. Gilbert A. 1 (1799) 377-. 



563 



5210 



Various Sources of Electrification 



Water and steam, friction against other bodies. 

Faraday, M. Phil. Trans. (1843) 17-. _ 
Waterfalls (negative electricity). Belli, G. 

Bb. It. 83 (1836) 32-. 
_ Holmgren, K. A. Stockh. Ofv. (1886) 

239-; Fschr. Ps. (1886) (Ab. 3) 674. 

. Lenard, P. A. Ps. C. 46 (1892) 584-. 

. Elster, J., & Geitel, H. A. Ps. C. 47 



5210 

A. Ps. 



K. 



A. Ps. C. 51 (1894) 
Nicholson J. 4 



053 

Wood shavings. Wilson, 

(1803) 49-. 
Woods, electric series. Fechner, G. T. Kastner 

Arch. Ntl. 9 (1826) 284-. 
Wool and hair, spinning. Bright, E. B. Tel. 

E. J. 10 (1881) 121-. 



Electrification by increase of temperature. 
Leroux, F. P. C. R. 37 (1853) 500-. 

, influence of pressure of air. Dessaignes, 
J. P. J. de Ps. 78 (1814) 207-. 

, temperature and moisture. Des- 
saignes, J. P. J. de Ps. 82 (1816) 360-, 
413- ; A. C. 2 (1816) 59- ; J. de Ps. 83 
(1816) 194-. 

_, personal. Shufeldt, B. W. Science 9 
(1887) 159-, 296. 

, . Mendenhall, T. C. Science 9 (1887) 
213-, 316-. 

by separating adherent bodies. Joulin, L. 
C. B. 67 (1868) 1244-. 

stripping and cleavage. Herschel, A. S. 

[1900] Nt. 63 (1900-01) 179-. 
Electrified liquid currents, properties. Elster, 

J., <& Geitel, H. Braunschw. Vr. Nt. Jbr. 

(4) (1887) 27-. 

liquids, evaporation. Henderson, W. C. Ph. 
Mg. 50 (1900) 489-. 

, vapour from. Schwalbe, G. A. Ps. C. 

58 (1896) 500- ; 60 (1897) 192. 
Experiments. Marum, M. van. Gilbert A. 1 

(1799) 112-, 242-, 256-. 
. Nicholson, W. Nicholson J. 2 (1799) 

438-. 
. Reich, F. Leip. Ab. Jablon. Gs. (1846) 

197-. 
Idioelectric bodies. Gorno, P. Brescia Cm. 

Aten. (1827) 55-. 

VAEIOUS SOURCES OF ELECTRI- 
FICATION. 

Charge of gas electrolytically or chemically 

prepared. Brown, J. Ph. Mg. 30 (1890) 

21-. 
prepared. Rosters, W. A. Ps. 

C. 69 (1899) 12-. 
Combustion. Palmieri, L. Nap. Rd. 24 

(1885) 266-. 
Condensation and evaporation. Grotthus, T. 

von. Gehlen J. 9 (1810) 221-. 
. Palmieri, L. Nap. Rd. 26 (1887) 

195-. 

(partial) of vapour. Schafhdutl, C. E. A. 
C. 2 (1841) 37-. 



Condensation of vapour. Kalischer, 8. 

C. 20 (1883) 614- ; Nt. 29 (1884) 227. 
(Kalischer). Palmieri, L. Nap. Rd. 

24 (1885) 26-, 194-, 318-. 

(Palmieri). Kalischer, S. A. Ps. C. 

29 (1886) 407-. 
_. Magrini, F. Yen. I. At. (1885-86) 

1607- ; Rv. Sc.-Ind. 18 (1886) 330-. 
. Larroque, F. Lum. Elect. 23 (1887) 

22-, 70-. 
(Larroque). Palmieri, L. Nap. Rd. 

26 (1887) 24-. 
. RoveUi, C. Rv. Sc.-Ind. 19 (1887) 

2-. 
. Semmola, E. Nap. Ac. Pont. At. 

18 (1888) 1-. 

, condenser to observe electrifica- 
tion by. Palmieri, L. Nap. Rd. 25 (1886) 
245-. 

Dissolving of salts. Wiillner, A. Pogg. A. 106 

(1859) 454-. 
Evaporation. W., W. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 13 

(1802) 231-. 

. Peltier, A. C. R. 11 (1840) 908-. 
. Majocchi, G. A. (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. 

Fis. C. 5 (1842) 74-. 
. Munck af Rosenschdld, P. S. Sk. Nf. F. 

3 (1842) 439-. 

. Schimbein, C. F. Basel B. 5 (1843) 3. 
. Mouuvn, A. [1846] Zur. Mt. 1 (1847) 

1-. 

. Buff , H. Lieb. A. 89 (1854) 203-. 
. Anon, (vi 242) Bb. Un. Arch. 26 (1854) 

240-. 
. Freeman, S. H. Am. J. Sc. 23 (1882) 

428-. 
. Palmieri, L. Nap. Rd. 24 (1885) 198- ; 

25 (1886) 17- ; 27 (1888) 398-. 

. (The question of volatile conducting 
liquids.) Bartoli, A. Catania Ac. Gioen. 
Bll. 8 (1889) 10-. 

. (- .) Pettinelli, P. N. 

Cim. 2 (1895) 36-. 

of aqueous solutions. Gaugain, J. M. C. 
R. 39 (1854) 231-. 

and effervescence. Tait, P. G., & Wanklyn, 
J. A. Edinb. R. S. P. 4 (1862) 544-. 

of salt water. Gaugain, J. M. C. R. 38 
(1854) 1012-. 

sodium. Henderson, W. C. R. S. P. 

66 (1900) 183-. 
Evolution of gas. Hankel, W. G. Leip. Mth. 

Ps. Ab. 12 (1883) 597-. 
Flame (blow-pipe), electricity. Grove, W. R. 

Ph. Mg. 7 (1854) 47-. 
Flames. Kelvin, (Lord), & Maclean, M. 

[1897] Edinb. R. S. P. 22 (1900) 38-. 

and burning charcoal, properties of fumes. 
Kelvin, (Lord), & Maclean, M. Edinb. R. 
S. P. 21 (1897) 313-. 

, electric properties. Holtz, . N.-Vorp. 

Mt. 23 (1892) xv. 
Glowing platinum wire. Nahrwold, R. A. Ps. 

C. 35 (1888) 107-. 
Passage of hydrogen through heated metals. 

Kendall, J. A. R. S. P. 36 (1884) 208-. 



564 



5220 



Electric Charge and Distribution 



5220 



movements of magnetic needle due to electricity. 
Sartorius, G. C. Voigt Mg. 9 (1805) 524-; 



Waters, mineral, electricity. Paolini, M. 

Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 5 (1865) 385-. 

, (especially of Bagneres-de-Luchon and 10 (1805) 137-. 

Bagneres-de-Bigorre), electricity. Garrigou, Voith, I. von. Voigt 

F. Toul. Ac. Sc. Mm. 6 (1894) 451-. Mg. 11 (1806) 46-, 274-. 

, sulphurous, Bagneres-de-Luchon, elec- of suspended particles in fluids; electric figures, 

tricity. Lambron, E. C. B. 60 (1865) etc. Holtz t W. A. Ps. C. (Erganz.) 1 (1876) 

238-. 490-. 



5220 Electric Charge and Dis- 
tribution ; Quantity ; Density ; 
Induction; Condensers. 
(For Lichtenberg and similar 
figures see 6800.) 

CHAEGE AND DISTRIBUTION. 
Harris, (Sir) W. S. Ph. Mg. 14 (1857) 81-, 
176-. 

ATTRACTION AND REPULSION. 

(Theory.) Miller, G. [1799] Ir. Ac. T. 7 

(1800) 139-. 

Anon, (vi 690) J. de Ps. 63 (1806) 378-. 
Veau-de-Launay, P. L. A. Par. Tr. S. Amat. 

2 (1808) 106-. 
Sabine, R. Tel. J. 1 (1872-73) 262-. 

Attraction. 

Harris, (Sir) W. S. B. A. Bp. (1835) (pt. 2) 

17-. 
Zannotti, M. Nap. At. I. Inc. 12 (1864) 

243-. 
of conducting and non-conducting electrified 

bodies. Thomson, (Sir) W. [Signed P. Q. E.] 

Camb. Mth. J. 3 (1843) 275-. 
on conductor in electrostatic field. Adler, G. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 96 (1888) (Ab. 2) 1036-, 

1305-. 
effect on form of liquid surface in presence of 

electrified body. Sella, A. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Ed. 9 (1900) (Sem. 2) 80-. 
between electrified conductors. Strehlke, F. 

Pogg. A. 12 (1828) 478-. 
of electrified conductors, theorem. Duhem, P. 

Bordeaux S. Sc. PV. (1898-99) 33-. 
by electrified sphere, effect on arrangement of 

electrified cylinders. Monckman, J. [1888] 

Camb. Ph. S. P. 6 (1889) 179-. 
electrostatic, cause of dust on electric light 

wires. Sivinton, A. A. C. Nt. 61 (1899- 

1900) 612. 

, between electrodes immersed in electro- 
lytes. Gouy, . C. E. 106 (1888) 540-. 
, in electrolytes. Gouy, . C. E. 106 

(1888) 930-. 
, liquids. Ayrton, W. E. Tel. J. 22 

(1888) 278-. 
experiments. Howldy, T. Nicholson J. 36 

(1813) 198-. 
homogeneous. Griffin, C. [1838] Sturgeon 

A. Electr. 3 (1838-39) 36-. 
laws. Harris, (Sir) W. S. B. A. Ep. (1847) 

(pt. 2) 23-. 



Attraction and repulsion of collodion balloons. 
Moennich, . Meckl. Vr. Nt. Arch. (1887) i. 

electrified bodies. Moutier, J. 
A. C. 16 (1869) 108-. 

, homogeneous, of particles of electric 

fluid, 2 theories. Pollock, T. [1839] (vi 
Adds.) Electr. S. P. (1837-40) 161. 

, mutual, between 2 electrified spherical 

conductors. Thomson, (Sir) W. Ph. Mg. 5 
(1853) 287- ; 6 (1853) 114-. 

Conductor, electrified, action of uniform electric 
field. Julius, V. A. Arch. Neerl. 5 (1900) 17-. 

Electrification of water in which an areo- 
meter was floating, effect. Giovambatista da 
S. Martino, . Verona Mm; S. It. 6 (1792) 
120-. 

Experiment of Mahomet's coffin. Stoney, G. J. 
Ph. Mg. 36 (1868) 188-. 

Magnets and electrified bodies, mutual action. 
Levat, L. A. Ev. Sc. 10 (1898) 531-. 

, , possibility. Vaschy, . 
C. E. 114 (1892) 1474-. 

Repulsion. 

Phillips, Reub. Chemist 5 (1844) 49-. 
apparent, due to attracting forces. Fechner, 

G. T. Kastner Arch. Ntl. 9 (1826) 257-. 
cause. Griffin, C. [1838-39] Sturgeon A. 

Electr. 3 (1838-39) 126- ; 8 (1842) 1-. 
at a distance. Mayer, J. T. Gott. Cm. 5 

(1819-22) 91-. 
experiments. Simon, P. L. Gilbert A. 27 

(1807) 325-. 
homogeneous, arguments for. Walker, C. V. 

[1839] Electr. S. P. (1837-40) 167-. 
laws. Simon, P. L. Gilbert A. 28 (1808) 277-. 

(Simon's (Volta's) new law.) Orsted, H. C. 
Gehlen J. 7 (1808) 374-. 

. Egen, P. N. C. Pogg. A. 5 (1825) 199-, 

281- ; 12 (1828) 595-. 
of negatively electrified balls. Walker, C. V. 

[1838] Electr. S, P. (1837-40) 141-. 
phenomena. Harris, (Sir) W. S. B. A. Ep. 

(1836) (pt. 2) 19-. 

. Charault, L. R. A. C. 32 (1851) 216-. 
in rarefied air. Belli, G. (vi Adds.) Opusc. 

Mt. Fis. 1 (1832) 376-. 
supposed. W. . Tilloch Ph. Mg. 49 (1817) 



Charge on 2 conducting spheres of known 
radius, ratio. Volpicelli, P. Em. At. 16 
(1862-63) 76- ; C. E. 56 (1863) 1158-. 

, deposition of smoke by. Cauderay, H. 
Laus. Bll. S. Vd. 9 (1866-68) 658-. 

of dielectrics, and application to theory of 
condensers, etc. Righi, A. Bologna Ac. 
Sc. Mm. 6 (1875) 87-. 



565 



5220 

Charge, effects on metal cylinders. Nelis, 

de. J. de Ps. 74 (1812) 224-, 435-. 
f (de Nelis). Singer, G. J. 

Tilloch Ph. Mg. 46 (1815) 259-. 
_, soap bubbles. Cauderay, H. Laus. 

Bll. S. Vd. 9 (1866-68) 655-. 
, modifications. Prechtl, J. J. Gilbert A. 

35 (1810) 28-. 
, nature. Avogadro, A. J. de Ps. 63 (1806) 

450- ; 65 (1807) 130-. 
_, _ (Avogadro). Prechtl, J. J. Gehlen J. 

6 (1808 84-. 
, . Avogadro, A. Arch, de 1'Electr. 2 

(1842) 102-. 
, phenomena. Pohl, G. F. Kastner Arch. 

Ntl. 6 (1825) 385-. 
Conservation of electricity and of mass. Gouy, 

_. J. de Ps. 8 (1889) 227-. 
, thermodynamics. Gouy, . 

C. B. 107 (1888) 329-. 
Creeping of electricity over surface of insulator. 

Gaugain, J. M. C. B. 47 (1858) 735-, 869-. 
Distance, electrical law. Laming, R. Elect. 

2 (1862) 171-. 

DISTRIBUTION. 

Coulomb, C. A. A. C. 2 (1789) 1- ; 7 (1790) 

112-. 
Poisson, S. D. Par. Mm. de PI. (1811) 1-, 

(Pt. 2) 163-. 
(on 2 spheres, Poisson.) Bowditch, N. Am. 

Ac. Mm. 4 (1818) 307-. 
Pfaff, C. H. Pogg. A. 44 (1838) 332-. 
Belli, G. [1839] Mod. Mm. S. It. 22 (1841) 

111-. 

Riess, P. Berl. Ab. (1844) 1-. 
Henry, J. [1845] Am. Ph. S. P. 4 (*1847) 

208-. 

Lipschitz, R. Crelle J. 58 (1861) 1-. 
Kotteritzsch, T. Z. Mth. Ps. 13 (1868) 121- ; 

14* (1869) 290-. 

Volpicelli, P. A. Mt. 3 (1869-70) 249-. 
Potier, A. J. de Ps. 1 (1872) 145-, 217-. 
Moutier, J. N. A. Mth. 13 (1874) 51-, 65- ; 

Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 3 (1879) 163-. 
Foeppl, A. A. Ps. C. 29 (1886) 591-. 
air as dielectric. Dellmann, F. Pogg. A. 112 

(1861) 627-. 
on bowl. Ferrers, N. M. [1881] QJ. Mth. 18 

(1882) 97-. 
centrobaric distribution of masses. Grinwis, 

C.H.C. [1879] Amst. Ak. Vs. M. 15 (1880) 

38- ; Arch. Neerl. 15 (1880) 135-. 
on closed convex surface. Robin, G. C. B. 

104 (1887) 1834-. 
and open conductors. Robin, G. Par. 

EC. Norm. A. 3 (1886) (Suppl.) 58 pp. 
conductor bounded by 2 spherical caps. 

Mehler, F. G. Crelle J. 68 (1868) 134-. 
. Godt, J. W. P. Mth. 

A. 4 (1871) 245-. 
3 spherical surfaces. Neumann, E. 



Electric Charge and Distribution 



5220 



on and in conductors, and action in same. 
Schobl, E. Pogg. A. 84 (1851) 267-. 

conductors, and binding of electricity in 
same. Mohr, C. F. Pogg. A. 36 (1835) 
221-. 

in infinite dielectric. Bobuilev, D. K. 

(xn) Bs. C. Ps. S. J. 7 (Ps.) (1875) [Pt. 1] 64-. 
in conductors, laws. Riemann, G. F. B. (vi 

Adds.) D. Nf. Vsm. B. 31 (1854) 42-. 
on disc and bowl. Gallop, E. G. QJ. Mth. 

21 (1886) 229-. 
"distribution-rod." Krebs, G. Carl Bpm. 15 

(1879) 329-. 
between electrified conducting sphere and 

dielectric sphere, both in another dielectric. 

Rosen, A. Lund. Un. Acta 23 (1887-88) 

(Mth.) No. 1, 13 pp. 
on ellipsoid. Biot, J. B. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 

3 (1801) 21-. 
. Galli, . Tortolini A. 2 !(1850) 

249-. 

(under influence of electrified body). 
Beer, A. Pogg. A. 94 (1855) 192-. 

. Neumann, C. Pogg. A. 113 (1861) 

506-. 

. Boussinesq, J. C. E. 87 (1878) 978-. 

. Svedov, N. Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 27 (Ps.) 

(1895) 25- ; Fschr. Ps. (1896) (Ab. 2) 377. 
, and action on external point. Urbanski, 

W. Par. T. Nauk Sc. Pam. 12 (*1882) 

Art. 6, 12 pp. 
of energy, influence of conductors. Grinwis, 

C. H. C. Amst. Ak. Vs. M. 2 (1886) 1- ; 

Arch. Neerl. 21 (1887) 251-. 
equilibrium surface distribution. Liouville, J. 

Camb. and Dubl. Mth. J. 1 (1846) 279-. 
(Liouville). Tliomson, (Sir) W. 

Camb. and Dubl. Mth. J. 1 (1846) 281-. 
equivalent electric systems. Bouty, E. J. de 

Ps. 2 (1873) 297-. 
experiment with insulated room. Webb, F. C. 

Ph. Mg. 44 (1872) 170-. 
function akin to spherical and cylindrical 

functions applied to. Mehler, F. G. Mth. 

A. 18 (1881) 161-. 
functions, Mehler's, and their application. 

Neumann, C. G. Mth. A. 18 (1881) 195-. 
Gauss's theorem in electrostatics. Croullebois, 

M. C. B. 94 (1882) 74-. 
in good and bad conductors. Govi, G. Tor. 

At. Ac. Sc. 6 (1870-71) 265-. 
on heterogeneous conductors. Bobuilev, D. K. 

(xn) Bs. C. Ps. S. J. 8 (Ps.) (1876) [Pt. 1] 

412- ; 9 (Ps.) (1877) [Pt. 1] 61-, 103- ; (ix) 

Mth. A. 13 (1878) 183-. 
, and potential difference. Bobuilev, 

D. K. [1873] (xn) Bs. C. Ps. S. J. 6 (Ps.) 

(1874) [Pt. 1] 37-. 
hollow conductors in electrolytes. Tribe, A. 

Ph. Mg. 16 (1883) 384-. 

Images. 
Thomson, (Sir) W. B. A. Ep. (1847) (pt. 2) 



Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 48 (1896) 634- ; Crelle J. 

Mth. 120 (1899) 60-, 277-. 6-. 

2 spherical surfaces cutting at any electric and magnetic images of multiple point 

angle. Macdonald, H. M. L. Mth. S. P. in sphere. Gallop, E. G. Mess. Mth. 26 



26 (1895) 156-. 



(1897) 39-. 



566 



5220 Images Electric Charge and Distribution Electric Force 5220 



theory, application. Thomson, (Sir) W. Liouv. 

J. Mth. 10 (1845) 364-. 
, . Lipschitz, E. Crelle J. 61 (1863) 

, and application to 2 charged spheres. 

Niven, W. D. [1876] L. Mth. S. P. 8 

(1876-77) 64-. 
and zonal harmonics. Frost, P. QJ. Mth. 

13 (1875) 184-. 

induced on convex surface by fixed charges. 
Robin, G. C. E. 106 (1888) 413-. 

disc in any field of force. Macdonald, 

H. M. L. Mth. S. P. 26 (1895) 257-. 

ellipsoid, application of Lame's coordi- 
nates. Niven, W. D. Mess. Mth. 10 (1881) 
119-. 

elliptic cylinder. Besser, R. Z. Mth. Ps. 

30 (1885) 257-, 305-. 

(Besser). Haentzschel, . Z. Mth. 

Ps. 31 (1886) 54-. 

in infinite cylinder by symmetrical system. 
Levi-Civita, T. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 4 

(1895) (Sem. 2) 332-; 5 (1896) (Sem. 1) 
34-. 

on infinite plane disc with circular hole. 
Macdonald, H. M. [1895] L. Mth. S. P. 27 

(1896) 68. 

on 2 infinite parallel plane conductors subject 
to induction of point between them. Maggi, 
G. A. Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 7 (1880) 
273-. 

and magnetic and galvanic distribution, me- 
chanical values. Thomson, (Sir) W. Glasg. 
Ph. S. P. 3 (1848-53) 281- ; Ph. Mg. 7 (1854) 
192-. 

on 3 metallic spheres. Volpicelli, P. Em. E. 
Ac. Line. At. 2 (1875) liii-. 

metals, influence of direction of lines of 
force. Tribe, A. Ph. Mg. 16 (1883) 269-. 

moving conductors. Hertz, H. R. A. Ps. 
C. 13 (1881) 266-. 

in non-conductors. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 119 

(1861) 53-. 
proof ball. Moutier, J. [1880] Par. S. Phlm. 

Bll. 5 (1881) 15-. 

plane. Volpicelli, P. C. E. 74 (1872) 860- ; 
Em. At. E. Ac. 24 (1870-71) 398-. 

. Moutier, J. J. de Ps. 1 (1872) 397-. 

, theory. Bouty, E. C. E. 82 (1876) 
836-. 

and propagation, relation of theories. Gaugain, 

J. M. A. C. 64 (1862) 174-. 
liiemann's theorem. Croullebois, M. C. E. 93 

(1881) 719-. 

, lecture experiment. Bartoli, A. N. 
Cim. 13 (*1883) 209-. 

on ring (tore). Bulgakov, N. A. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 

29 (Ps.) (1891) 131- ; Fschr. Ps. (1897) (Ab. 2) 

374; Eclair. Elect. 12 (1897) 255-, 402-, 458-, 

499-. 
ring functions, theory. Bulgakov, N. Es. 

Ps.-C. S. J. 30 (Ps.) (1898) 1-; Fschr. Mth. 

(1899) 772. 
on segment of sphere. Lipschitz, R. Crelle J. 

58 (1861) 152-. 
thin spherical shell. Liouville, J. 

Liouv. J. Mth. 12 (1847) 265-. 

VOL. in. 56' 



in sphere (hollow). Poisson, S. D. Par. S. 

Phlm. Bll. (1823) 49-. 
( ) on inner surface, and on included 

sphere. Plana, G. [1854] Tor. Mm. Ac. 

16 (1857) 57-. 
on 2 spheres. Plana, G. Tor. Mm. Ac. 7 (1845) 

spheres. Roche, E. Mntp. Ac. Sc. Mm. 2 
(1851-54) 115-. 

. Lobeck, G. Schlomilch Z. 3 (1858) 

89-. 
. Cayley, A. Ph. Mg. 18 (1859) 119-, 

193-. 

2 spheres. Kirchhoff,G. Crelle J. 59 (1861) 
89-. 

. Cayley, A. Ph. Mg. 5 (1878) 

- . Seydler, A. J. Prag Sb. (1879) 

331. 
. Urbanski, W. Par. T. Nauk &c. 

Pam. 12 (*1882) Art. 5, 16 pp. 
. Kirchho/, G. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1885) 

1007-. 

spheres. (Potential and tension.) Pinto, 
L. Nap. Ac. Pont. At. 16 (Pt. 1) (1885) 
139. 

spherical cap. Neumann, C. G. [1880] 
Leip. Mth. Ps. Ab. 12 (1883) 399-. 

surface-. Van-der-Vliet, P. P. (xn) Es. Ps.- 

C. S. J. 14 (Ps.) (1882) [(Pt. 1)] 240-. 
on surface of bodies. Terquem, A. J. de Ps. 

1 (1872) 29-. 
theorems, errors. Machai, Y. C. E. 95 (1882) 

210-. 
theory. Avogadro,A. [1842] Mod. Mm. S. It. 

23 (1844) 156-. 

. Mehler, F. G. Mth. A. 18 (1881) 469-. 
, 1-fluid. Renard, N. A. Nancy Mm. Ac. 

Stanislas (1858) 108- ; C. E. 47 (1858) 414- ; 

Nancy Mm. Ac. Stanislas (1861) 293-. 
, mechanical. Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. 

Bll. 11 (1874) 11-. 
on thin plate. Clausius, R. Pogg. A. 86 (1852) 

161-. 
unique. Volpicelli, P. C. E. 68 (1869) 976-. 

Electric diagrams. Bouty, E. J. de Ps. 7 (1878) 
264-. 

exploration. Cantoni, G. Em. At. E. Ac. 
26 (1873) 23-. 

ELECTRIC FORCE. 

Harris, (Sir) W. S. [1856-64] E. S. P. 
8 (1856-57) 166- ; B. A. Ep. (1860)'(t. 2) 
28-; E. S. P. 13 (1864) 364-. 

Cazin, A. Ev. Cours. Sc. 6 (1869) 337-. 

change by insertion of conducting plane be- 
tween the charged bodies. Adler, G. [1888- 
89] Wien Az. 25 (1889) 158- ; Wien Ak. Sb. 
99 (1891) (Ab. 2a) 61-. 

and current, analogies and differences. Curtius 
B. D. Leijd. A. Ac. (1822-23) 53 pp. 

direction and propagation, etc. Knox, G. J. 
[1841] Ir. Ac. T. 19 (1843) 257-. 

in discharge between 2 spheres. Boggio Lera, 
E. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 7 (1891) (Sem. 2) 
385-. 



5220 Law of Force Electric Charge and Distribution Potential 5220 



Law of Force. 

action at a distance. Orsted, H. C. Kiob. Ov. 

(1814-15) 6. 
. Parrot, G. F. Gilbert A. 60 

(1819) 22-. 
. Brandes, H. IV. Schweigger J. 

35 (=J7>. 5) (1822) 45-. 
. Crahay, J. G. Brux. Ac. Bll. 15 

(1848) 283-. 
actions, law. Bertrand, J. J. de Ps. 2 (1873) 

418-. 

following law of inverse square (Cavendish's 
proof). Poynting, J. H. B. A. Ep. (1886) 
523-. 

. Vaschy, . As. Fr. C. B. 

(1894) (Ft. 2) 141-. 
, mutual, at finite distance, theory. Vmov, 

N. A. (xn) Eec. Mth. (Moscou) 6 (1872- 

73) (Pt. \\ 361-. 
electric and magnetic force. Harris, (Sir) 

W. S. B. A. Up. (1856) (pt. 2) 11. 
force at a distance, opinions of Fresnel, Fara- 
day and others. Kirwan, C. de. Bv. Quest. 

Sc. 39 (1896) 450-. 
forces acting according to Newton's law, theory, 

application to statical electricity. Betti, E. 

(vi Adds.) N. Cim. 18 (1863) 385-; 19 

(*1863) 59-, 77-, 149-, 357-; 20 (*1864) 

19-, 121-. 

measurement by electric fly. Kaempfer, I). 

A. Ps. C. 20 (1883) 601-. 
motion. Maas, A. J. Brux. Ac. Bll. 14 (1847) 

(pte. 2)41-; 15(1848)469-. 
primary. Laming, R. Ph. Mg. 12 (1838) 486-; 

13 (1838) 44-, 333-. 
on unit surface. Pomey, J. B. Eclair. Elect. 

25 (1900) 311-. 

Electric motion on conducting surfaces. Umov, 

N. A. [1878] (xn) Eec. Mth. (Moscou) 9 

(1878-81) (Pt. 1) 121-. 
in spherical conductor by electric or 

magnetic operations outside it. Lamb, H. 

[1883] Phil. Trans. 174 (1884) 519-. 

pressure. Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 
2 (1878) 120-. 

.value. Pellat,H. [1880] Par. S. Phlm. 

Bll. 5 (1881) 39-. 
Electrification of conductors, use of dipolar 

coordinates. Frost, P. QJ. Mth. 26 (1893) 

258-. 
Electrified conductors, systems. Beltrami, E. 

Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 15 (1882) 400-. 

spheres, reciprocal action. Bobuilev [Boby- 
lewl D. K. (xn) Es. C. Ps. S. J. 6 (Ps.) 
(1874) [Pt. 1] 89- ; (vn) Mth. A. 7 (1874) 396-. 

, (Bobylew's theorem generalised). 

Neumann, C. G. Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 32 (1880) 

, . Mascart, . C. E. 98 (1884) 

222-. 
Equilibrium, electric, on conductors, and Pois- 

son's theorem. Van-der-Vliet, P. P. (xn) 

Es. C. Ps. S. J. 9 (Ps.) (1877) [(Pt. 1)] 135- ; 

10 (Ps.) (1878) [(Pt. lj] 35-. 



Equilibrium, electric, between conductors. 

Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 3 (1879) 

148-. 
, , on disc and ellipsoid. Stefan. J. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 101 (1892) (Ab. 2a) 1583-. 
, , disturbance. Roberts, M. J. L. Electr. 

S. P. (1843) 532-. 
, , dynamic. Smaasen, W. Pogg. A. 69 

1846) 161- ; 72 (1847) 435-. 
, , possibility. Levy, L. C. E. 93 (1881) 

706-. 
, and thermal, in body bounded by 2 non- 

concentric spherical surfaces. Neumann, C. 

[1862] Crelle J. 62 (1863) 36-. 
, , work in electric systems. Adler, G. 

[1888] Wien Ak. Sb. 97 (1889) (Ab. 2a) 

90-. 

of fluids analogous to electric fluid. Green, 
G. [1832] Camb. Ph. S. T. 5 (1835) 1-. 

liquid conducting masses electrified. 
Rayleigh, (Lord). Ph. Mg. 14 (1882) 184-. 

Layers, double electric. Pellat, H. Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1883) 30-. 

, , of Helmholtz, and molecular in- 
terval. Lippmann, G. C. E. 95 (1882) 

686. 
, electric surface-. Helmholtz, H. L. F. von. 

A. Ps. C. 7 (1879) 337-. 
Mechanical stress on surface of conductor. 

Adler, G. Mh. Mth. Ps. 2 (1891) 155-. 
Phenomena of Canton's balls. Righi, A. 

Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 10 (1879) 389-. 
, electrostatic. Lepel, von. N.-Vorp. 

Mt. 23 (1892) x-. 



POTENTIAL. 

Breguet, A. Ev. Sc. 19 (1880) 442-. 
absolute scale, and conservation of electricity. 

Thompson, S. P. Ph. Mg. 12 (1881) 13-. 
and capacity of system of conductors. Dahl- 

ander, G. R. Stockh. Ofv. 39 (1882) No. 9, 

9-; A. Ps. C. Beibl. 7 (*1883) 706-. 
of charged conductors and electrified dielectrics. 

Betti, E. N. Cim. 2 (1877) 249-. 
,2 spherical. Frost, P. QJ. Mth. 

17 (1881) 164-. 
distribution near cathode. Righi, A. Em. E. 

Ac. Line. Ed. 1 (1892) (Sem. 2) 109-. 
of the Earth. Senesi, C. Bll. Ntlista. Siena 8 

(1888) 116-, 129-, 161- ; Ev. It. Sc. Nt. 

Siena 9 (1889) 10-. 

electrified spherical bowl. Basset, A. B. 
L. Mth. S. P. 16 (1884-85) 286-. 

surface. Andrade, J. C. E. 120 (1895) 

605-. 
electrostatic, calculation. Robin, G. C. E. 

104- (1887) 1834-. 

, . Stekloff, W. C. E. 125 (1897) 1026-. 
, , Eobin's method. Neumann, E. Gott. 

Nr. (1899) 291-. 

and magnetic, theorems. Neumann, C. 
Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 42 (1890) 88-. 

standard. Crova, A.,dh Garbe, P. [1883-84] 

Mntp. Ac. Mm. 10 (1884) 553-. 
of elliptic layer of electricity. Moutier, J. Par. 

S. Phlm. Bll. 4 (1880) 185-. 



568 



5220 Potential Electric Charge and Distribution Condensers 5220 



equipotential lines. Donnini, P. (xn) Bv. 

Sc.-Ind. 4 (1872) 169-. 
.construction. Czermak,P. [1890] Wien 

Ak. Sb. 99 (1891) (Ab. 2a) 511-. 

surfaces. P&mey, J. B. A. Tel. 23 (1896- 
97) 165-. 

, cylindrical, class. Pomey, J. B. A. Tel. 

21 (1894) 460- ; 24 (1898) 150-. 
of electrified body. Moutier, J. Par. 

S. Phlm. Bll. 1 (1877) 76-. 
ellipsoid of revolution. Moutier, J. 

Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 4 (1880) 177-. 
in field of electrified ring. Bulgakov, N. 

Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 30 (Ps.) (1898) 103- ; J. de 

Ps. 9 (1900) 50-. 

for 2 masses, graphical construction. 
Malagoli, E. Bv. Sc. Ind. 29 (1897) 81-. 

high, measurement (absolute). Waitz, K. A. 

Ps. C. 37 (1889) 330-. 
, . Heydiveiller, A. Elekttech. Z. 14 

(1893) 29-. 
, . Abraham, H., & Lemoine, J. C. E. 

120 (1895) 726-; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1895) 97-; 

Eclair. Elect. 3 (1895) 433-. 
, by quadrant electrometer. Voller, A. 

Hamb. Nt. Vr. Ab. 10 (1887) No. 6, 26 pp. 
laboratory method of obtaining any given 

potential. Trouton, F. T. [1888] Dubl. 

S. Sc. P. 6 (1888-90) 110. 
and lines of force. Atkins, (Eev.) E. (xn) 

Leic. S. T. (1882-83) 49. 
logarithmic, of non-insulated elliptic plate. 

Haubner, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 87 (1883) (Ab. 2) 

412-. 
in mathematical theory of electricity. Kiel, 

A. Arch. Mth. Ps. 67 (1882) 113-. 
at points and edges. FitzGerald, D. G. Elect. 

13 (1884) 127. 
of points in relation to electrified sphere. 

Weilenmann, A. ZUr. Vjschr. 35 (1890) 316-. 
potential function in electric field. Nieuwen- 

huyzen Kruseman, J. Amst. Ak. Vs. M. 2 

(1886) 265- ; Ph. Mg. 24 (1887) 38-. 
and temperature, analogy. Domalip, K. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 71 (1875) (Ab. 2) 236-. 
property. Dahlander, G. E. Stockh. Ofv. 

(1884) No. 9, 5- ; Fschr. Ps. (1885) (Ab. 2) 

545-. 
and surface tension, dimensions. Gezechus 

[Hesehus], N. A. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 32 (Ps.) 

(1900) 115- ; Fschr. Ps. (1900) (Ab. 2) 361. 

tension. Eees, E. van. Amst. Vs. Ak. 1 
(1866) (Ntk.) 194-. 

. Pinto, L. (xn) Nap. Ac. Pont. At. 

15 (1883) (Ft. 2) 3-. 
theorem, proof. Mayer, A.M. Am. J. Sc. 39 

(1890) 334-. 
theory. Cornu, A. J. de Ps. 1 (1872) 7-, 87-, 

241-. 
. Benin, A. A. C. 28 (1873) 554-. 

(elementary). Abria, 0. Bordeaux S. Sc. 
Mm. 1 (1876) 413-. 

. Beltrami, E. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 16 (1883) 
725- ; Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 6 (1884) 401-. 

. Haentzschel, . Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1893) 
6-. 

, elementary demonstration. Vanni, G. Ev. 
Sc.-Ind. 16 (1884) 263-. 



theory, experiments. Palmieri, L. Nap. Ed. 

22 (1883) 57-. 
, problem of 2 non-intersecting spheres. 

HasenShrl, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 108 (1899) 

(Ab. 2a) 1667-. 
and velocity between parallel planes. Hicks, 

W. M. QJ. Mth. 15 (1878) 274-. 

Problem, electrostatic. Volterra, V. Em. E. 

Ac. Line. T. 8 (1884) 315- ; N. Cim. 16 (1884) 

49-. 
, , gamma function applied to. Jude, 

E. H. Ph. Mg. 46 (1898) 254-. 
, , general, solution. Kotteritzsch, T. Z. 

Mth. Ps. 16 (1871) 125-. 
Screening, electric and magnetic. Thomson, 

(Sir) W. [1891] B. I. P. 13 (1893) 345- ; 

E. S. P. 49 (1891) 418-. 
, electrodynamic, and electric shadows. 

Ebert, H., <& Wiedemann, E. A. Ps. C. 49 

(1893) 32-. 
, electrostatic, by nets of conducting metal. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. E. S. P. 49 (1891) 

405-. 
Screens, electric, theorem. Pellat, H. Par. 

S. Phlm. Bll. 5 (1881) 130-. 
Theories, electric. Leslie, John. Edinb. Ph. 

J. 11 (1824) 1-. 
Theory of electricity, mechanical, fundamental 

proposition. Thomson, (Sir) W. Camb. 

Mth. J. 4 (1845) 223-. 

Condensation, electric. Neyreneuf, V. C. E. 

77 (1873) 201-, 351-. 
, . Moutier, J. A. C. 9 (1876) 409- ; 

Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 2 (1878) 121-. 
, , and condensing force. Pina Vidal, 

A. A. de. Lisb. J. Sc. Mth. 6 (1878) 281-. 
, , phenomena. Neyreneuf, V. C. E. 70 

(1870) 1416-. 
, , theory. Neyreneuf, V. [1871] (x) 

Caen S. L. Bll. 6 (1872) 149-. 
Condensations, electric, successive. Billet, . 

Dijon Ac. Mm. 1 (1851) 66-. 

CONDENSEES. 
(For Discharge see also 6820.) 

Peclet, E. A. C. 2 (1841) 100-. 

Buff, H. Lieb. A. 41 (1842) 129-. 

Cantoni, G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 5 (1872) 613-. 

(Cantoni.) Eccher Dall' Eco, A. de. (xn) Ev. 
Sc.-Ind. 4 (1872) 337-. 

(Beccaria's observations, 1769.) Cantoni, G. 
Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 6 (1873) 112-. 

Garay, F. Tel. E. J. 8 (1879) 357-. 

Eothen, T. J. Tel. 5 (1881) 48-, 71-. 

Waha, de. Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 412-. 

Heinke, C. A. Ps. C. 54 (1895) 577-. 

Kleiner, A. Sch. Nf. Gs. Vh. (1896) 67-. 

adhesion between collecting plate and glass. 
Laroque, F. Toul. Mm. Ac. 5 (1873) 278-. 

of jEpinus, experiments. Neyreneuf, V. J. 
de Ps. 1 (1872) 62-. 

air-, Brit. Ass. Glazebrook, E. T. B. A. Ep. 
(1890) 102-. 

(Leyden) , and measurement of small capaci- 
ties. Kelvin, (Lord). E. S. P. 52 



569 



B 2 



5220 Capacity 



Condensers 



for alternating currents. Swinburne, J. [1890] 
L. Ps. S. P. 11 (1892) 49-; Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 
102-. 

benzene as insulator. Hertz, H. R. A. Ps. C. 
20 (1883) 279-. 

CAPACITY. 

Adler, G. Mh. Mth. Ps. 2 (1891) 413-. 

as affected by external electric conditions. 

Guye, C. E. C. B. 130 (1900) 711-. 
of bad conductors. Borgman, 1. 1. , d- Petrovski, 

A. A. C. B. 128 (1899) 1153-. 
calculation. Mascart, E. E. N. J. de Ps. 6 

(1877) 169- . 
combination of condensers to obtain any desired 

capacity. Sabine, R, [1872] Tel. E. J. 1 

(1872-73) 245-. 
of 2 concentric cylinders. Blavier, E. E. J. 

de Ps. 3 (1874) 115-, 151-. 
condenser of great capacity, behaviour. Tobler, 

A. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 639-. 
, slow oscillations produced on dis- 
charging. Gray, J. H. B. A. Bp. (1892) 

642-. 
variable capacity. Boys, C. V. L. Ps. 

S. P. 3 (1880) 17-; Ph. Mg. 7 (1879) 108. 
. Briggs, L. J. Ps. Bv. 11 (1900) 

14-. 
. Ercolini, G. N. Cim. 12 (1900) 

279-. 
of cylinder and disk. Maxwell, J. C. L. Mth. 

S. P. 9 (1877-78) 94-. 
energy relationships. Potier,A. Eclair. Elect. 

11 (1897) 250-. 
of 2 intersecting spheres. Niven, W. D. [1880] 

L. Mth. S. P. 12 (1880-81) 27-. 
. Macdonald, H. M. L. Mth. S. P. 

26 (1895) 156-. 
. Niven, W. D. L. Mth. S. P. 28 

(1897) 205-. 
(Niven). Macdonald, H. M. L. 

Mth. S. P. 28 (1897) 214-. 

Leyden jars, method of increasing. Wing- 
field, J. Nicholson J. 27 (1810) 209-. 

under magnetic stress. Kimball, A. S. Am. 

Ac. P. 21 (1886) 193-. 
of different metals. Peltier, A. C. B. 7 (1838) 

965-. 

,2 non-coaxial cylinders. Lori, F. Lum. 
Elect. 51 (1894) 589-. 

parallel cylinders. Blavier, E. E. A. Tel. 
8 (1881) 291- ; 9 (1882) 185-. 

plane condenser. Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. 
Bll. 1 (1877) 64-. 

and spherical and cylindrical condensers. 

Petrovskij, A. C. B. 130 (1900) 112- ; 

Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 32 (Ps.) (1900) 1-, 248-; 

Fschr. Ps. (1900) (Ab. 2) 358-. 
(Petrovskij). Ignatovskij, 

V. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 32 (Ps.) (1900) 137-, 251. 
Biemann's theorem, new proof. Croullebois, 

M. C. B. 93 (1881) 719-. 
of system of several conductors. Dahlander, 

G. R. Stockh. Ofv. 39 (1882) #0. 9, 9- ; A. Ps. 

C.Beibl. 7 (*1883) 706- ; Stockh. Ofv. (1884) 

No. 9, 5-; Fschr. Ps. (1885) (Ab. 2) 545-. 



of system of conductors. Potier, A. J. de 
Ps. 6 (1897) 238-. 

telegraph wire. Thomson, (Sir) W. B. S. 
P. 7 (1854-55) 382-. 

charge. Cantoni, P. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 30 
(1897) 674-. 

and discharge through resistance. Cailho, 
, (& Nerville, F. de. A. Tel. 9 (1882) 
5-. 

of insulating plate. Neyreneuf, V. J. de 
Ps. 4 (1875) 307-. 

, limiting. Gaugain, J. M. C. B. 55 (1862) 

436-. 
charges, feeble, combination to detect. Volpi- 

celli, P. Em. At. 6 (1852-53) 245-, 388- ; 

C. B. 42 (1856) 402-. 

, inversion. Provenzali, F. S. (xi) N. 

Cim. 1 (1869) 259-. 
, . Volpicelli, P. Bm. At. N. Line. 22 

(1869) 188- ; C. B. 69 (1869) 193-. 
charging, change of volume on. Korteweg, 

D. J. [1881] (xii) Mbl. Nt. 10 (1882) 
81-. 

, mode. Peirce, B. 0., & Willson, R. W. 

Am. Ac. P. 24 (1889) 146-. 
, oscillatory. Robb, W. L. Ph. Mg. 34 

(1892) 389-. 
, . Setter, U. A. Ps. C. 61 (1897) 

30-. 
condensing-tubes battery. Jedlik, A. Carl 

Bpm. 18 (1882) 33-. 
construction. Nutt, C. Am. Ac. P. 25 (1890) 

244-. 
. Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 44 (1892) 

251-. 
coupled in series. P. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 

500. 
cylindrical, theory. Gaugain, J. M. C. B. 

52 (1861) 308-, 872-. 
deformation. Cantone, M. Bm. B. Ac. Line. 

Bd. 4 (1888) (Sean. 1) 344-, 471-. 
. Cantone, M., & Sozzani, F. Mil. I. 

Lomb. Ed. 33 (1900) 1059-. 
dielectric. Preece, W. H. B. A. Bp. (1892) 

654-. 
, behaviour. Bezold, W. von. A. Ps. C. 

137 (1869) 223-. 
, (von Bezold). Clausius, R. [1869] 

A. Ps. C. 139 (1870) 276-. 
dielectrics, heterogeneous. Hess, A. Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1892) 393-. 

discharge, circumstances influencing magneti- 
sation produced by. Marianini, A. N. 

Cim. 28 (1890) 156-. 
, derived. Swyngedauw, R. Lille Tr. Mm. 

6 (1898) Mem. 19, 32 pp. 
, , quantity of electricity. Swyngedauw, 

R. C. B. 126 (1898) 1788-. 
, experiments. Garbasso, A. Tor. Ac. Sc. 

At. 33 (1897) 436- or 638-. 
, internal. Villari, E. Bologna Ac. Sc. 

Mm. 2 (1880) 101- ; C. B. 92 (1881) 

872-. 
, and external. Villari, E. [1884] 

Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 5 (1883) 683-. 
, measurement of small intervals of time by. 

Sabine, R. Ph. Mg. 1 (1876) 337-. 



570 



5220 



Condensers 



5220 



discharge, path with 2 alternative routes. 

Garbasso, A. N. Cim. 6 (1897) 15-. 
, production of rapidly alternating currents 

by. Tuma, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 102 (1893) 

(Ab. 2o) 1352-. 
, resistance of circuits to. Villari, E. Nap. 

Ac. At. 3 (1889) No. 5, 16 pp. 
, reversal of electric sign after. Maas, A. J. 

Brux. Ac. Bll. 15 (1848) 9-. 
, . Crahay, J. G. Brux. Ac. 

Bll. 15 (1848) 58-. 
, (Leyden jar). Maas, A. J. 

Brux. Ac. Bll. 15 (1848) 277-. 

by spark. Sceglajev, V. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 
32 (Ps.) (1900) 141- ; Fschr. Ps. (1900) (Ab. 
2) 446. 

(Sceglajev). Lebedev, P. Ks. Ps.-C. 

S. J. 32 (Ps.) (1900) 243-. 
, theory. Swyngedauw, R. C. E. 119 

(1894) 221-. 
2 discharges derived from. Roiti, A. Em. 

E. Ac. Line. Ed. 8 (1899) (Sem. 1) 12-. 
with double armature. Moutier, J. Par. S. 

Phlm. Bll. 3 (1879) 155-, 162-. 
and doubler, compound instrument. Wilson, 

W. Nicholson J. 9 (1804) 19-. 
in duplex telegraphy. Gattino, . J. Te"l. 

9 (1885) 152-. 
electrolytic, of great capacity. Pollak, C. C. 

E. 124 (1897) 1443-. 
experiments. Cantoni, G. (xn) Ev. Sc.-Ind. 

5 (1873) 42-. 
. Leblanc, M. Elect. 27 (1891) 383. 

on electric adherence. Cantoni, P. Mil. I. 
Lomb. Ed. 6 (1873) 480-, 524-. 

form. Cuthbertson, J. Nicholson J. 2 (1802) 

281-. 

. Peclet, E. C. E. 7 (1838) 486-. 
formulae, correction. Volpicelli, P. C. E. 60 

(1865) 1335- ; Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 2 

(1878) 811-. 
and Geissler's tubes. Wilson, W. P. Am. Ac. 

P. 11 (1876) 228-. 
glass-, and electric breath experiment. Weber, 

. Gilbert A. 11 (1802) 344-. 

plates coated with tin foil instead of jars. 
Dana, J. F. Silliman J. 1 (1818) 292-. 

guard-ring, and absolute electrometers. Curie, 

P. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1892) 377-. 
heating, under disruptive charging. Borgman, 

I. I. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 18 (Ps.) (1886) 1- ; 

Ph. Mg. 23 (1887) 472. 
, electric. Houllevigue, L. J. de Ps. 6 

(1897) 120-. 
high voltage. Lombardi, L. [1899-1900] 

Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 120 ; 4 (1901) 93. 
and other instruments for accumulating elec- 
tricity. Gilbert, L. W. Gilbert A. 9 (1801) 

121-. 
intensified electricity. Hohlfeld, . Kastner 

Arch. Ntl. 2 (1824) 200-. 
laws of electric accumulation. Harris, (Sir) 

W. S. E. I. J. 1 (1831) 380-. 



LEYDEN BATTERY. 



2 batteries discharging simultaneously. Knock- 

enhauer, K. W. Wien SB. 25 (1857) 71-. 
charge and discharge. Oettingen, A. von. 

Pogg. A. 118 (1863) 369-. 
charging in cascade. Dove, H. W. Berl. B. 

(1847) 176-, 237-; Pogg. A. 72 (1847) 

406-. 
. Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 2 

(1878) 243-. 

, and voltaic pile. Delezenne, . 
Lille Mm. S. (1829-30) 1-. 

current. Dove, H. W. Berl. B. (1844) 354-. 

. Knochenhauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 69 
(1846) 77- ; 71 (1847) 343-. 

with electromotor apparatus. Volta, A. 
Gilbert A. 13 (1803) 257-. 

currents. Tyndall, J. [1855] E. I. P. 2 

(1854-58) 132-. 
, extra. Riess, P. A. C. 74 (1840) 158- ; 

Pogg. A. 50 (1840) 1- ; 51 (1840) 351-. 
, . Knochenhauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 64 

(1845) 64-, 284- ; 66 (1845) 235- ; 70 (1847) 

106 -, 255-. 
, . Riess, P. T. A. Ps. C. 121 (1864) 

613- ; Berl. Mb. (1866) 117-. 
, . Knochenhauer, K. W. A. Ps. C. 

(Erganz.) 5 (1871) 146-, 470- ; 6 (1874) 302-, 

607-. 
, , action on primary current and on each 

other. Riess, P. T. Berl. Mb. (1871) 95-. 
, , in branches of electric circuit. Riess, 

P. Berl. Mb. (1859) 1-. 
, , charging of condenser by. Riess, P. T. 

Berl. Mb. (1865) 397-. 
, , deflection of magnetic needle by. 

Riess, P. Pogg. A. 120 (1863) 513- ; 124 

(1865) 252-. 
, , and division of current, relation. 

Knochenliauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 79 (1850) 

255-. 
, , influence of valve. Knochenhauer, 

K. W. A. Ps. C. 129 (1866) 78-. 
, , reaction on primary current. Riess, 

P. T. Berl. Mb. (1872) 38-. 
, , use of air thermometer for measure- 
ment. Knochenhauer, K. W. [1859-61] 

Wien Sb. 39 (1860) 701- ; 43 (Ab. 2) (1861) 

27-; 44 (Ab. 2) (1862)259-; 45 (Ab. 2) (1862 

229-. 

of higher orders. Riess, P. Pogg. A. 83 
(1851) 309-. 

, induced. Neyreneuf, V. C. E. 79 (1874) 
1071-. 

, mutual action of two. Knochenhauer, 
K. W. Wien Sb. 18 (1855) 143-. 

, testing. Riess, P. Berl. Mb. (1860) 5-. 

discharge. (Determination, without air-ther- 
mometer, of compensated lengths of wire.) 
Knochenhauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 67 (1846) 
327 

, direction and nature. Paalzow, A. Berl. 
Mb. (1860) 497- ; (1861) 880- ; (1862) 152-. 

, effect. Valerius, H. Brux. Ac. Bll. 44 
(1877) 102-. 



571 



5220 Leyden Battery 



Condensers 



Discharge 5220 



discharge, maximum action of secondary wire. 

Riess, P. Pogg. A. 51 (1840) 177-. 
-.theory. Lane, J. H. Silliman J. 7 (1849) 

418-. 
, time. Riess, P. T. Pogg. A. 69 (1846) 

426-; Berl. Mb. (1872) 341- ; A. Ps. C. 11 

(1880) 176. 
discharging current, effect of second Leyden 

in wire. Knochenhauer, K. W. Wien SB. 

(1848) 317-. 
divided. Knochenhauer, K. W. Wien SB. 27 

(1857) 207-. 

external circuit, branched, current distribution 

in. Knochenhauer, K. W. D. Nf. Vsm. B. 

(1845) 93-. 
, currents. Knochenhauer, K. W. 

Pogg. A. 61 (1844) 55-; 62 (1844) 353-. 
, efficiency of equivalent length. Knoch- 
enhauer, K. W. A. Ps. C. 127 (1866) 

593-. 

, free tension distribution in. Knochen- 
hauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 67 (1846) 468-. 
, heating in. Riess, P. A. C. 69 (1838) 

113- ; Pogg. A. 43 {1838) 47-. 
, . Vorsselman-de-Heer, P. 0. C. 

Pogg. A. 48 (1839) 292-. 
, (Vorsselman-de-Heer). Riess, P. 

Pogg. A. 48 (1839) 320-. 
(branched), heating in. Riess, P. Pogg. 

A. 63 (1844) 481-. 
, interruption by condenser. Riess, P. 

Berl. B. (1853) 607-. 
, resistance. Knochenhauer, K. W. A. 

Ps. C. 127 (1866) 443-. 
heating power and retarding force, electric. 

Riess, P. Pogg. A. 45 (1838) 1-. 
improvements. Cuthbertson, J. Sturgeon A. 

Electr. 9 (1842) 322-. 
inner coating, attraction of earthed body by. 

Knochenhauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 65 (1845) 

569-. 
jars, unequal, correction for. Knochenhauer, 

K. W. Pogg. A. 79 (1850) 354-. 
large, description. Marum, M. van. Gilbert 

A. 1 (1799) 68-. 
magnetic effects. Hankel, W. G. Pogg. A. 

65 (1845) 537- ; 69 (1846) 321-. 
and heating effects. Riess, P. Pogg. A. 

47 (1839) 55-. 
measurement of strength during charging. 

Haldane, H. Nicholson J. 1 (1797) 156-. 
retardation experienced by electric discharge 

in closed circuits placed near connecting 

wire. Riess, P. C. E. 10 (1840) 41 7-. 
secondary, current. Knochenhauer, K. W. 

Wien SB. 22 (1856) 331-; 33 (1858) 163- ; 

34 (1859) 77-. 
, , extra. Blaserna, P. Wien SB. 33 

(1858) 25- ; 36 (1859) 209-. 

, discharge and induction. Blaserna, P., 
[Mach, E., <& Peterin, J.~\ Wien SB. 37 

(1859) 477-. 

, . Odstrgil, J., d" Studnicka, F. 

Wien SB. 41 (1860) 302-. 
.experiments. Knochenhauer, K.W. Grunert 

Arch. 19 (1852) 53-, 97-. 
, induced charge. Knochenhauer, K. W. 

Wien SB. 10 (1853) 219- ; 15 (1855) 113-. 



secondary, induction experiments with. Knoch- 
enJiauer, K. W. Grunert Arch. 20 (1853) 
113-. 

, singing. Knochenhauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 
90 (1853) 189-. 

LEYDEN JAR. 

Clibborn, E. Ir. Ac. P. 2 (1844) 34-. 
behaviour of magnetic needle towards. Nest- 

mann, C. H. Kastner Arch. Ntl. 14 (1828) 

388- ; 17 (1829) 184-. 
charge, analytical determination. Delsaulx, 

J. Les Mondes 44 (1877) 582-. 
charged by simple contact. Marianini, S. 

(vra) Mm. Fis. Sperim. 2 (1838) 67-. 
for constant induction. Volpicelli, P. Em. 

E. Ac. Line. At. 3 (1876) (Pt. 2) 179- ; 

Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 1 (1877) 65-. 
containing liquids, experiments. Duter, E. 

C. E. 87 (1878) 828- ; 88 (1879) 1260-. 
, (Duter). Govi, G. C. E. 87 (1878) 

857-. 
, (Govi). Duter, E. C. E. 87 (1878) 

960-, 1036. 
, (Duter). Fitzgerald, G. F. [1879] 

Dubl. S. Sc. P. 2 (1880) 177-. 
, ( ). Korteweg, D. J. C. E. 88 

(1879) 338-. 

Discharge. 
(vi Adds.) II Cim. 3 (1845) 



Riess, P. Pogg. A. 69 



Matteucci, C. 

137-. 
Knochenhauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 69 (1846) 

421-. 
(Knochenhauer.) 

(1846) 480. 
Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. Mb. (1867) 712-. 
Lodge, 0. E. I. P. 12 (1889) 413-. 
damping of electrical oscillations. Brooks, H. 

Cn. E. S. P. & T. 5 (1899) (Sect. 3) 13-. 
distribution in divided channel. Kelvin, (Lord), 

d- Gait, A. B. A. Ep. (1894) 555-. 
experiments. Lodge, 0. J. [1891] E. S. P. 

50 (1892) 2-. 
induced, laws. Felici, R. N. Cim. 3 (1856) 

208-. 
induction. Zantedeschi, F. Ven. At. 3 (1844) 

100-. 
inductive and magnetising actions of currents 

produced by. Cattaneo, F. Mil. G. I. 

Lomb. 2 (1842) 212-. 
of jar connected with induction coil, nature 

and duration. Rood, 0. N. Am. J. Sc. 48 

(1869) 153- ; 2 (1871 160- ; 4 (1872) 249-, 

371-. 

dynamics. Henry, J. Am. As. P. (1850) 377-. 
electric resonance in. Egorov, N. G. Es. 

Ps.-C. S. J. 22 (Ps.) (1890) 160-. 
Franklin's theory. Howldy, T. Tilloch Ph. 

Mg. 46 (1815) 401-. 
heating of glass of, by charging. Siemens, 

W. Berl. Mb. (1864) 614-. 
induction of current. Matteucci, C. Bb. Un. 

29 (1840) 122- ; Arch, de 1'Electr. 1 (1841) 

136-. 



572 



5220 



Condensers 



Residual Charge 5220 



induction phenomena. Felici, R. Tortolini 

A. 4 (1853) 237-. 
observations, reduction. Perry, J., & Ayrton, 

W. E. B. S. P. 30 (1880) 411-. 
spiral. Gnthrie, Fred. Ph. Mg. 42 (1871) 

447. 
theory. Knochenhauer, K. W. A. Ps. C. 138 

(1869) 11-, 214-. 

liquid. Korda, D. [1892] Mth. Terrnt. Ets. 
11 (1893) 45-. 

cells as. (Platinum-water cell, quantity of 
electricity for full charge.) Henvig, H. 
A. Ps. C. 4 (1878) 465-. 

. Herwig, H. A. Ps. C. 6 (1879) 305-. 

, effect of temperature on charge. 
Herwig, H. A. Ps. C. 11 (1880) 661-. 

measurements with Holtz machine. Rossetti, 

F. (xi) N. Cim. 5 & 6 (1871) 407- ; 7 & 8 

(1872) 22-. 
mica. Bouty, E. C. B. 110 (1890) 846-, 

923 ; Par. S. Ps. 86. (1890) 137-. 
model. Karpen, V. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1900) 

49*-. 
multiplying. Svanberg, A. F. B. A. Kp. 

(1846) (pt. 2) 31-. 
oscillations. Schiller, N. N. A. Ps. C. 152 

(1874) 535-; (xn) Bee. Mth. (Moscou) 7 

(1874-75) (Pt. 1) 319-, 418a. 
. Oberbeck, A. A. Ps. C. 17 (1882) 816-, 

1040- ; 19 (1883) 213-. 
. Tallqvist, H. A. Ps. C. 60 (1897) 248-; 

Helsingf . Acta 23 (1897) No. 4, 110 + LXX pp. ; 

24 (1899) No. 3, 34 + XL pp. ; 26 (1900) No. 

3, 33 + Lv pp. 
, bibliography. Tallqvist, H. Helsingf. 

Acta 23 (1897) No. 4, 105-. 
, measurements of quantities involved. 

Ekstrom, A. Ziir. Ps. Gs. Jbr. (1898) 11-. 
, period. Webster, A. G. Ps. Bv. 6 (1898) 

297-. 
, and phenomena of polarisation produced 

by them. Oberbeck, A. A. Ps. C. 19 (1883) 

625-. 
paraffin, effect of time on charge. Kleiner, A. 

Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 6 (1898) 377-. 
, form. Kleiner, A. Ziir.Vjschr. 41 (1896) 

(Festschr., Th. 2) 115-. 
plane, theory. Gaugain, J. M. C. B. 52 

(1861) 1272-. 
plates, attraction. Lefevre, J. C. B. 114 

(1892) 834-. 
and polarisation, electrostatic. Brusotti, F. 

Mil. I. Lomb. Bd. 5 (1872) 1161-. 
, . Cantoni, P. Mil. I. Lomb. Bd. 5 

(1872) 1168-. 
problem, map of the complex ^-function. 

Michell, J. H. Mess. Mth. 23 (1894) 72-. 
as reservoirs of electricity. Guillemin, C. M. 

(x) Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 6 (1869) 22-. 

RESIDUAL CHARGE. 

Harris, (Sir) W. S. [1861] B. S. P. 11 

(1860-62) 247-. 

Gaugain, J. M. C. B. 58 (1864) 828-. 
Wullner, F. H. A. A. A. Ps. C. 153 (1874) 

22-. 



Arons, L. A. Ps. C. 35 (1888) 291-. 
Bouty, E. C. B. 110 (1890) 1362-. 
Muraoka, H. A. Ps. C. 40 (1890) 329-. 
Dessau, B. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 2 (1893) 

(Sem. 2) 86-. 
Hmillevigue, L. Lyon Un. A. [32] (1897) 

41pp. 
and capacity, effects of temperature and time. 

Hopkinson, J., & Wilson, E. Phil. Trans. 

(A) 189 (1897) 109-. 
conduction in paraffin and sulphur. 

Hasenohrl, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 107 (1898) 

(Ab. 2a) 1035-. 
dynamic phenomena due to. Borel, C. C. 

B. 116 (1893) 1192- ; Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 30 
(1893) 45-. 

effects of temperature. Bedell, F., & Kinsley , 

C. Ps. Bv. 2 (1895) 170-. 
experiments. Nowak, J. , d- Romich, . [1874] 

Wien Ak. Sb. 70 (1875) (Ab. 2) 380-. 
and induction. Wiillner, A. A. Ps. C. 32 

(1887) 19-. 
of Leyden battery. Oettingen, A. von. Fogg* 

A. 115 (1862) 513-. 
, effect of dielectric. Oettingen, A. J, 

von. A. Ps. C. 2 (1877) 305-. 
jar (theory). Kohlrausch, R. Pogg. A. 

91 (1854) 56-, 179-. 
. Hopkinson, J. [1876-77] Phil. 

Trans. 166 (1877) 489- ; 167 (1878) 599-. 

jars. Belli, G. Bb. It. 85 (1837) 417-. 

with constant potential difference of 

coatings. Giese, W. A. Ps. C. 9 (1880) 

161-. 
mechanical model illustrating. Poynting, J. H. 

[1888] Birm. Ph. S. P. 6 (1887-89) 314-. 
and oscillations. Wulf, T. Wien Ak. Sb. 

105 (1896) (Ab. 2a) 667-. 
in paraffin. Dieterici, C. A. Ps. C. 25 (1885) 

545- ; Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1885) 47-. 
and resistance of liquid dielectrics at different 

temperatures. Naccari, A. N. Cim. 8 

(1898) 259-; Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 34 (1898) 

820- or 1088-. 
simple demonstration. Stenger, F. A. Ps. C. 

28 (1886) 365. 
. Kroutil, J. Casopis 18 (1889) 69-; 

Fschr. Ps. (1888) (Ab. 2) 466. 

rheostatic machine. Plante, G. C. B. 85 
(1877) 794-; 86 (1878) 761- ; 89 (1879), 76-. 

, Planters. Du Moncel, T. Lum. Elect. 

4 (*1881) 161-, 193-. 

, . Samuel, P. Lum. Elect. 32 (1889) 

ring form. Eotvos, (bard) L. (xn) Mag. Tud. 

Ak. Ets. 14 (No. 8) (1880) 157-. 
seat of electricity in. Kleiner, A. Ziir. Vjschr. 

39 (1894) 122- ; A. Ps. C. 52 (1894) 728-. 
silk as dielectric. Lombardi, L. Tor. Ac. Sc. 

Mm. 44 (1894) 405-. 
spherical. Gaugain, J. M. C. B. 53 (1861) 

589-. 
, energy. Grinwis, C. H. C. Amst. Ak. 

Vs. M. 5 (1889) 349-; Fschr. Ps. (1889) 

(Ab. 2) 358-. 
standard , (Antwerp Exhibition). Palaz, A. 

Lum. Elect. 25 (1887) 568-. 



573 



5220 Density 

Abraham, H. 



Electric Charge and Distribution 

C. B. 114 (1892) 



Induction 5220 



Pogg. 



standard. 

, of the Polytechnicum, etc. Schneebeli, H. 
Ziir. Vjschr. 26 (1881) 160- ; 27 (1882) 176-. 

storage of electricity. Rothen, T. J. Tel. 5 

(1881) 21-. 
-- frictional electricity. Riess, P. 

A. 40 (1837) 321-. 
for strengthening contact electricity. Svanberg , 

A. F. Stockh. Ofv. 3 (1846) 100-. 
submarine cables as. Gaugain, J. M. C. B. 

52 (1861) 159-. 
talc. Nicholson, W. Nicholson J. 5 (1803) 

216-. 
theory. Weiss, A. Grunert Arch. 13 (1849) 

315-. 

. Clausius, R. Pogg. A. 86 (1852) 161-. 

. Riess, P. Pogg. A. 92 (1854) 189-. 

. Bezold, W. von. Pogg. A. 114 (1861) 
404-. 

. Knochenhauer, K. W. Wien SB. 46 (Ab. 
2) (1863) 138-. 

. Terquem, A. J. de Ps. 4 (1875) 358-. 

. Aron, H. A. Ps. C. 159 (1876) 587-. 

. Clausius, R. A. Ps. C. 1 (1877) 493-. 

. Kirchhoff, G. Berl. Ak. Mb. (1877) 144-. 

. Betti, E. N. Cim. 5 (1879) 119-. 

(Clausius). Legebeke, G. J. A. Ps. C. 10 
(1880) 154-. 

. Pionchon, J. J. de Ps. 9 (1890) 231-. 
with variable tension, theory. Gaugain, J. M. 

C. B. 59 (1864) 135- ; A. C. 4 (1865) 214-. 
varnishing. Dvorak, V. A. Ps. C. 19 (1883) 

323-. 
Volta's. Volpicelli, P. C. B. 71 (1870) 54-. 

, form. Arsonval, A. d\ C. B. 90 (1880) 
166-. 



Condensing force, expression. Moutier, J. 
Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 12 (1875) 21-. 

power. Angot, A. J. de Ps. 5 (1876) 
58. 

systems, electric vibrations in. Larmor, J. 
[1894] L. Mth. S. P. 26 (1895) 119-. 

Conductibility, superficial, of crystallised 
bodies. Senarmont, H. de. C. B. 29 (1849) 
750- ; A. 0.28(1850)257-. 

, , . Wiedemann, G. C. B. 30 

(1850) 110-. 



DENSITY. 

determination. Beltrami, E. Bm. B. Ac. 

Line. Mm. 1 (1877) 491-. 
by torsion balance. Riess, P. Pogg. A. 71 

(1847) 359-. 
on insulated ellipsoidal conductor. Armanini, 

E. N. Cim. 7 (1898) 377-. 
at any point of ellipsoid, expression. Paci, P. 

N. Cim. 15 (1876) 168-. 
near vertex of right cone, Green's formula for. 

Macdonald, H. M. Camb. Ph. S. T. 18 

(1900) 292-. 



ELECTRIC FIELD. 

external, of discharge tube. Schicht, F. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 108 (1899) (Ab. 2o) 814-. 
and magnetic field, lecture experiments. 

Rimington, E. C., < Smith, W. [1892] L. 

Ps. S. P. 12 (1894) 3-; Ph. Mg. 35 (1893) 

68-. 
, symmetry. Curie, P. Par. S. Ps. 

Se. (1894) 53-; Eclair. Elect. 1 (1894) 627-. 
practical conception. Gray, J. Tel. J. 23 

(1888) 430-, 482-, 513-. 
rotating. Korda, D. Bm. B. Ac. Line. Bd. 

1 (1892) (Sem. 2) 431-. 
simple representation. Schneider, E. M. Innsb. 

Nt. Md. B. 20 (1892) 58-. 



Electricity, laws, elementary. Harris, (Sir) 
W. S. Phil. Trans. (1834) 213- ; (1836) 
417- ; (1839) 215-. 

INDUCTION. 

Singer, G. J. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 42 (1813) 36-, 

261-. 

Walker, Ez. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 42 (1813) 215-. 
Murphy, R. Ph. Mg. 2 (1833) 350-. 
Breguet, L., & Masson, A. [1841] A. C. 4 

(1842) 129-. 
Wartmann, E. Brux. Ac. Bll. 10 (1843) (pte. 2) 

4-. 
Casa, L. della. [1854] Bologna Mm. Ac. 10 

(1859) 461-. 

Delarive, A. Bb. Un. Arch. 26 (1854) 323. 
Riess, P. Pogg. A. 93 (1854) 626-. 
Nobile, A. Tortolini A. 6 (1855) 425. 
Volpicelli, P. C. B. 40 (1855) 246- ; 41 (1855) 

553-. 

Regnani, F. Bm. Cor. Sc. 4 (1856) 203-. 
Volpicelli, P. C. E. 43 (1856) 719-. 
Belli, G. N. Cim. 5 (1857) 153- ; 7 (1858) 

97-. 

Delarive, A. Tortolini A. 8 (1857) 168. 
Nobile, A. Nap. Ac. Sc. Mm. 2 (1855-57) 

374-. 
Volpicelli, P. Bm. At. 10 (1856-57) 280- ; C. 

B. 44 (1857) 917-. 

Fabri, R. Em. At. 11 (1857-58) 405-. 
Volpicelli, P. Bm. At. 11 (1857-58) 411- ; C. 

E. 47 (1858) 623-, 664-. 
Belli, G. (vf Adds.) Em. Cor. Sc. 5 (1859) 

9-. 
Casa, L. della. [1859] Bologna Mm. Ac. 11 

(1861) 139-. 
Volpicelli, P. C. B. 48 (1859) 1162- ; Em. At. 

16 (1862-63) 484-, 643-, 874-, 1092-. 
Delia Casa, L. Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 4 (1864) 

35-. 
Volpicelli, P. C. E. 59 (1864) 962-; Bm. At. 

N. Line. 17 (1864) 249-; 18 (1865) 59-; C. 

B. 61 (1865) 548-; Em. At. N. Line. 19 
(1866) 11-; 22 (1869) 25-, 203- ; 23 (1869) 
1-, 245-; Sch. Nf. Gs. Vh. 55 (1872) 224-; 

C. B. 76 (1873) 169-. 

Keller, F. N. Cim. 12 (1874) 79-, 166-, 238-; 
13 (1875) 155-. 



574 



5220 



Induction 



5220 



Volpicelli, P. C. K. 79 (1874) 1120-. 
(Volpicelli.) Blavier, E. E. C. E. 79 (1874) 

Govi, G'. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1875) 92-. 
[Marco, F. non] Felice, M. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 

11 (1876) 957-. 
(Govi.) Volpicelli, P. Em. E. Ac. Line. At. 

3 (1876) (Pt. 2) 582-. 
( .) Michel, B. F. Les Mondes 44 (1877) 

160-, 198-. 

Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 2 (1878) 116-. 
Serpieri, A. Em. N. Line. At. 32 (1879) 

305. 

Gulstad, K. Tel. J. 28 (1891) 647-. 
Taylor, J. E. Tel. J. 29 (1891) 134-, 156-. 
Apparatus, form. Tiegel, E. [1885] Brain 

8 (1886) 380-. 
Bipolar electric conduction of material particles 

suspended in water. Weyl, T. Arch. An. 

PI. (1876) 712-. 

Bound and Free Electricity. 

Munck af Eosenschbld, P. S. Stockh. Ak. Hndl. 

(1845) 361- ; Pogg. A. 69 (1846) 44-, 223-. 
Bound electricity. Ohm, G. S. Schweigger 

J. 65 (=r-Jb. 5) (1832) 129-. 

. Biess, P. Pogg. A. 37 (1836) 642-. 

. Knochenhauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 47 

(1839) 444-. 

. Liebig, J. von. Lieb. A. 36 (1840) 145-. 

. Knochenhauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 58 

(1843) 31-, 211-, 391-. 

. Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 59 (1864) 729, 

1097-. 
, electromagnetic action. Bomershausen, 

E. Dingier 124 (1852) 416-. 
, propagation. Biess, P. Pogg. A. 44 

(1838) 624-. 

, theory. Serpieri, A. Mil. I. Lomb. 
Ed. 12 (1879) 312-. 

Free electricity. Hare, B. Silliman J. 3 (1847) 
334-. 

Coefficients. Bauschinger, J. Pogg. A. 104 
(1858) 58-. 

of 2 electrified spheres. Greenhill, A. G. 
L. Mth. S. P. 10 (1878-79) 48-. 

Currents, induced. Fechner, G. T. Pogg. A. 

51 (1840) 321-. 
, . [Marco, F. non] Felice, M. (ix) N. 

Cim. 3 (1870) 369-. 
Dissimulation principle. Nobile,A. G. Arcad. 

8 (1858) 58-. 
Division in differential inductometer and elec- 

trophorus. Moser, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 83 (1881) 

(Ab. 2) 955-. 
Electric atmospheres. Beccaria, G. Sturgeon 

A. Electr. 6 (1841) 415-, 425-. 

state of insulated conductor under action of 
electrified body. Pfaff, C. H. Schweigger 
J. 61 (=Jb. 1) (1831) 393-. 

Electricity does not act through an uninsulated 
conductor. Petrina, F. A. Pogg. A. 61 

(1844) 116-. 
. Volpicelli, P. [1874] 

C. E. 78 (1874) 901- ; Em. E. Ac. Line. At. 
2 (1875) 609-. 



Electrification and chemical action, effect on 
steam-jet. Thomson, J. J. Ph. Mg. 36 
(1893) 313-. 

Electrified liquid currents, properties. Elster, 
J., <& Geitel, H. [1886] Braunschw. Vr. 
Nt. Jbr. (4) (1887) 27-. 

Electrodes, flame- and dropping-, measure- 
ments. Schweidler, E. (Bitter) von. Wien 
Ak. Sb. 107 (1898) (Ab. 2a) 225-. 

Electrographic images, production. Volpicelli, 
P. N. Cim. 5 (1857) 176-. 

Equalisers of potential (influence of surrounding 
dielectric). Goure de Villemontee, G. J. de 
Ps. 10 (1891) 76-, 596. 

(by flow of liquids). Goure de Ville- 
montee, G. C. E. 116 (1893) 140-. 

( mercury) . Goure de Ville- 
montee, G. C. E. 116 (1893) 1506-. 

((1) by moveable ball, (2) by flow of 

liquids, etc.). Goure de Villemontee, G. J. 
de Ps. 3 (1894) 120-. 

Experiments. Crahay, J. G. Brux. Ac. Bll. 
6 (1839) 269-. 

. Matteucci, C. (vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 26 
(1845) 320-. 

. Volpicelli, P. Mil. G. I. Lomb. 5 (1853) 
146-. 

. Seguin, J. M. C. E. 41 (1855) 1150- ; 
44 (1857) 1315-. 

. Biess, P. Pogg. A. 105 (1858) 486-. 

. Pisati, G. Spet. It. Mm. 5 (1876) (App.) 

. ' Volpicelli, P. Em. E. Ac. Line. T. 1 

(1877) 190-. 
. Cantoni, G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 11 (1878) 

235-. 

(Cantoni). Volpicelli, P. Mil. I. Lomb. 
Ed. 11 (1878) 562-. 

Illumination of rarefied gases. Leroux, F. P. 
C. E. 68 (1869) 1104-, 1265-. 

Induction of circular disc and spherical seg- 
ment. Lipschiltz [al. Lipschitz], B. (vi 
Adds.) D. Nf. Vsm. B. 35 (1860) 114-. 

in conductors bounded by infinite planes 
under action of symmetrical charges. Maggi, 
G. A. Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 9 (1881) 423-. 

, and discharge of Leyden jar. Matteucci, 

C. C. E. 21 (1845) 246-; (vi Adds.) II 

Cim. 3 (1845) 141-, 298-. 
, electrostatic and electromagnetic, and 

signalling. Preece, W. H. Ev. Sc. 52 

(1893) 620-. 
, or magnetic, and diamagnetism. Niko- 

laieve, W. de. Eclair. Elect. 20 (1899) 10-, 

53-. 

by high potential discharges. Thomson, E. 
Elect. Ev. 30 (1892) 348-. 

on internal spherical and plane conducting 
surfaces. 'Thomson, (Sir) W. Camb. and 
Dubl. Mth. J. 4 (1849) 276-. 

liquids. Wullner, F. H. A. A. Munch. 

Ak. Sb. 5 (1875) 147-. 
, mutual, and theory of electrophorus 

machines. Riest, P. T. Berl. Mb. (1867) 

183-. 

and polarity, electrostatic. Volpicelli, P. 
C. E. 59 (1864) 570-. 



575 



5220 Induction 



Electric Distribution 



5240 



Induction of spheres. Cailler, . Arch. Sc. 
Ps. Nt. 30 (1893) 175-. 

in telegraph lines. Gansauge, . J. Tel. 
17 (1893) 73-, 101-. 

and terrestrial magnetism. [Marco, F. non] 
Felice, M. (rx) N. Cim. 3 (1870) 369-. 

theory of condensers. Biess, P. Berl. 

B. (1847) 465-; Pogg. A. 73 (1848) 367-. 

in thick plates. Abria, . C. E. 53 (1861) 
964- ; A. C. 65 (1862) 257-. 

Method of increasing effects. Grove, W. E. 

Ph. Mg. 9 (1855) 1-. 
Moving inductor, effect. Decharme, C. C. B. 

103 (1886) 1045; Lum. Elect. 22 (1886) 

433-. 
Oscillations, electrostatic, and induction. 

Heen, P. de. Brux. Ac. Bll. (1900) 260- ; 

C. K. 130 (1900) 1071-. 

, , transparency of liquids for. Heen, 

P. de. . C. E. 130 (1900) 1460- ; Brux. Ac. 

Bll. (1900) 380-. 
Palagi's principle. Zantedeschi, F. Em. Cor. 

Sc. 2 (1853) 391 ; Brux. Ac. Bll. 21 (1854) 

79-. 
Phenomena. Volpicelli, P. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

At. 3 (1876) (Pt. 1) 62-, (Ft. 2) 280-. 
. Leray, (le rev. pere) . Brux. S. Sc. A. 

21 (1897) (Pt. 1) 16-. 

in dielectrics. Eovelli, C. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 20 
(1888) 176-. 

due to Euhmkorff's coil. Bichat, E. C. 
E. 78 (1874) 1686-. 

Problems. Liebenthal, E. [1884] Hamb. 

Mth. Gs. Mt. 1 (1889) 100. 
Sensitive water jets. Croft, W. B. Nt. 45 



Shadows, electric. Bicco, A. (xn) Ev. Sc.- 
Ind. 14 (1882) 286-. 

Sonorous properties. Adams, A. J. S. Tel. 
E. J. 6 (1877) 476-, 484-. 

Theorem, fundamental. Nobile, A. G. Arcad. 
141 (1855) 153-. 

, . Begnani, F. Ven. At. (1855-56) 
410-. 

, and origin of electrification by friction. 
Buchanan, J. E. S. P. 40 (1886) 416-. 

Theorems. Adler, G. Wien Ak. Sb. 98 (1890) 
(Ab. 2a) 779-. 

THEOBY OF INDUCTION. 

(Induction and specific inductive capacity.) 
Faraday, M. [1837-38] Phil. Trans. (1838) 
1-, 79-, 83-, 125-. 

Hare, B. Silliman J. 38 (1840) 1-. 

108^-. 
(Faraday.) Hare, B. Silliman J. 41 (1841) 

Faraday, M. Ph. Mg. 22 (1843) 200-. 
Melloni, M. Nap. Ac. Sc. Mm. 1 (1852-54) 

327-; C. E. 39 (1854) 177-. 
Faraday, M. E. I. P. 2 (1854-58) 470-. 
Fabri, B. Em. At. 14 (1860-61) 325-. 
Gaugain, J. M. Les Mondes 5 (1864) 542-. 
Volpicelli, P. Nt. 13 (1876) 437-, 475-. 
(Volpicelli.) Maxwell, J. C. Nt. 14 (1876) 



(Maxwell.) Volpicelli, P. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

At. 3 (1876) (Pt. 2) 896-. 
Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 3 (1879) 150-. 
Bakker, G. Arch. Neerl. 5 (1900) 312-. 
Faraday's. Mossotti, 0. F. Bb. Un. Arch. 6 

(1847) 193-. 
, Maxwell's treatment. Seydler,A.J. Prag 

Sb. (1882) 456- ; A. Ps. C. Beibl. 7 (1883) 

551-. 
on 1-fluid hypothesis. Thenard, P. Nancy 

Mm. Ac. Stanislas (1860) (pte. 2) 206-. 
mechanical, and application of laws. Thomp- 
son, J. B. B. A. Ep. 34 (1864) (Sect.) 15. 
Melloni's. Begnani, F. [1855] (vin) Em. 

At. N. Line. 9 (1855-56) 2-. 
. Volpicelli, P. [1855] (vra) Em. At. 

N. Line. 9 (1855-56) 5-, 13-, 18. 
. Begnani, F. Em. Cor. Sc. 4 (1856) 

163-. 

. Fabri, B. Em. At. 10 (1856-57) 331-. 
. Volpicelli, P. [1874] Em. E. Ac. Line. 

At. 2 (1875) xi. 

(Volpicelli). Govi, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. 
At. 2 (1875) xiv-. 

Bighi, A. Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 6 (1875) 
153-. 

(Govi). Volpicelli, P. Em. E. Ac. Line. 
At. 2 (1875) 303- , 841-. 

(Eighi). Paparazzi, F. Em. E. Ac. Line. 
At. 3 (1876) (Pt. 2) 557-. 

. Cantoni, G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 10 (1877) 

93-. 
. Volpicelli, P. Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 1 

(1877) 129-, 481-. 

and Volpicelli's. Cantoni, G. Mil. I. 
Lomb. Ed. 8 (1875) 586-, 678-. 

. Michel, B. F. Les Mondes 39 

(1876) 622-. 
(Cantoni). Michel, B. F. Les Mondes 

40 (1876) 114-. 
( ). Volpicelli, P. [1876] Em. E. 

Ac. Line. Mm. 1 (1877) 1201-. 
old. Michel, B. F. Les Mondes 36 (1875) 

520-, 573-. 
, defence. Pisati, G. Spet. It. Mm. 4 (1875) 

(App.) 21-. 
, (Pisati). Volpicelli, P. [1876] Em. 

E. Ac. Line. Mm. 1 (1877) 1005-. 



Intensity and tension, use of terms. Harris, 
(Sir) W. S. (VH) Ph. Mg. 26 (1863) 504-. 

Quantitative electrostatic measurement, and 
electric force. Harris, (Sir) W. S. [1856] 
E. S. P. 8 (1856-57) 166-. 



Kurz, A. 



. 20 (1884) 457-, 858. 



5240 Potential Difference. 
(See also 5695, 6005, 6210.) 

Condenser, fallibility of experiments, and 
Volta's fundamental experiments. Dyck- 
hoff, . Gilbert A. 19 (1805) 355-. 

Electromotive forces, origin, single. Gaugain, 
J.M. A. C. 6 (1865) 41-. 



576 



5240 Potential Difference 

Potential difference and E.M.F., distinction. 

Pettat, . Par. S. Ps. Se. (1889) 180-. 
-- -- , . Amaduzzi, L. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 

32 (1900) 9-. 
-- of flames and metals. Becquerel, A. C. 

A. C. 27 (1824) 5-; 36 (1827) 328-. 
--- metals, etc. Bellingeri, C. F. Tor. 

Mm. Ac. 23 (1818) 143-. 
--- platinum, etc., in gases. Becquerel, 

E. C. E. 22 (1846) 677-. 

-- , results of series of researches. Schulze- 

Berge, F. Wien Az. 17 (1880) 238-. 
-- of solid salt and its solution. Campetti, 

A. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 9 (1900) (Sem. 2) 
27-. 

, electrostatic and voltaic. Palmieri, L. 
Nap. Ed. 23 (1884) 118-. 

, fall, historical notes. Strieker, S. Md. 
Jb. 1 (1886) 185-. 

, , and prevalence hypothesis. Strieker, 
S. Md. Jb. 1 (1886) 20-. 

of hydrogen and some metals. Neumann, 

B. Z. Ps. C. 14 (1894) 193-. 

, rapid changes, measurement by Lippmann's 
capillary electrometer. Einthoven, W. Mbl. 
Nt. (1893-94) 109- ; Pfliig. Arch. PI. 56 
(1894) 528-. 

transition between gas and liquid. Kenrick, 

F. B. Z. Ps. C. 19 (1896) 625-. 
Tension, electric, causes determining. Walcker, 

A. Pogg. A. 4 (1825) 89-. 

, , measurement, sources of error. Peltier, 
A. A. C. 62 (1836) 422-. 



, , property. Doppler, C. Baumgartner 
Z. 5 (1837) 34 



42-. 



of Zamboni's pile, influence of different 
flames on. Parrot, G. F. (vm) Pander 
Btr. Ntk. 1 (1820) 128-. 



5250 Theory of the Dielectric. 
Stress; Energy, etc. 

Conduction, electric, continuity. Hopkinson, 

J. B. A. Ep. (1886) 309. 
Dielectric capacity, coexistence with electrolytic 

conductivity. Bouty, E. C. E. 114 (1892) 

533-, 1421- ; A. C. 27 (1892) 62-; Par. S. 

Phlm. Bll. 4 (1892) 153-. 
, (priority claim). Cohn, E. 

C. E. 115 (1892) 472. 
, (Cohn). Bouty, E. C. E. 

115 (1892) 554-. 
, (Bouty). Cohn, E. C. E. 

115 (1892) 802-. 
, (Cohn). Bouty, E. C. E. 

115 (1892) 804. 
, . Pagliani, S. [1893] Ven. 

I. At. (1893-94) 121-. 

DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF 
VARIOUS BODIES. 

Air. Oberbeck, . N.-Vorp. Mt. 27 (1896) x-. 
, moist. Marangoni, C. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 17 
(1885) 346-. 



Dielectrics 5250 

Air, moist and dry. Marangoni, C. (xn) Ev. 

Sc.-Ind. 13 (1881) 10-. 
, , insulating power. Guglielmo, G. Tor. 

Ac. Sc. At. 22 (1886-87) 727-. 
Bees' wax and lead chloride. Perry, J., <& 

Ayrton, W. E. B. A. Ep. (1878) 497-. 
Ice. Abegg, R. A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 229-, 

923-. 
Liquid mixtures, especially dilute solutions. 

Philip, J. C. Z. Ps. C. 24 (1897) 18-. 
Mica at high temperatures. Schultze, W. H. 

A. Ps. C. 36 (1889) 655-. 

Dielectric resistance. Bates, , & Barnes, 
. [1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 71. 

, meaning. Drude, P. A. Ps. C. 57 

(1896) 223-. 

DIELECTRIC STRENGTH. 

Chrystal, G. Edinb. E. S. P. 11 (1882) 487-. 
of air, high voltage discharge. Steinmetz, 
C. P. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 28. 

gaseous mixtures. Olearski, C. [1885] 
Camb. Ph. S. P. 5 (1886) 325-. 

gases, effect of pressure and temperature. 
Thomson, J. J. Camb. Ph. S. P. 6 (1889) 
325-. 

insulators. Gray, T. Ps. Ev. 7 (1898) 
199-. 

oils. Northrup, E. F., & Pierce, G. W. 
[1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 16. 

. Steinmetz, C. P. [1897] Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 16-. 

. Gray, T. Am. As. P. (1899) 122-. 

, under alternating potentials. Thomson, 

E. Elect. 36 (1896) 591-. 

solids, liquids and gases. Macfarlane, A., 
<& Pierce, G. W. Ps. Ev. 1 (1894) 161-. 

and thickness. Bibbins, J. R. [1900] Sc. 
Abs. 4 (1901) 504-. 



DIELECTRICS. 

Knochenhauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 51 (1840) 125-. 
Brongersma, H. A. Ps. C. 152 (1874) 200-. 
Lefevre, J. A. Tel. 20 (1893) 403-, 493-; J. 

de Ps. 2 (1893) 561- ; Lum. Elect. 52 (1894) 

251-. 
Benischke, . Innsb. Nt. Md. B. 22 (1896) 

in-, 
absorbed electricity, recovery. Bailie, J. B. 

As. Fr. C. E. 9 (1880) 362-. 
absorption, electric (theory). Roioland, H. A. 

Am. J. Mth. 1 (1878) 53-. 
, (of crystals). Nichols, E. L., & Row- 
land, H. A. L. Ps. S. P. 4 (1881) 215- ; Ph. 

Mg. 11 (1881) 414-. 
, , in condensers. Rowland, H. A., & 

Penniman, T. D. J. H. Un. Cir. [17 (1897- 

98)] 52-. 
, , . Potts, L. M. J. H. Un. Cir. 

[18 (1898-99)] 59-; [19 (1899-1900)] 62-. 
action of alternating currents on. Addenbrooke, 

G. L. Elect. Ev. 35 (1894) 315, 376, 400-. 
at a distance in. Burbury, S. H. Ph. Mg. 

4 (1877) 62-. , 



577 



5250 



Dielectrics 



5250 



actions in (polarisation, penetration of charge, 
etc.). Rovdli, C. Ev. Sc. Ind. 29 (1897) 
160-. 

electrostatic field. Felici, R. [1870-74] 



induction on. Riess, P. Pogg. A. 92 (1854) 

337-. 
(Eiess). Faraday, M. Ph. Mg. 11 

(1856) 1-. 



:) (Mod.) S. ft. Mm. 2 (1876) 249-; J. ti - - (Faraday). Riess, P. Ph. Mg. 11 (1856) 



(1874) 329-. 

behaviour towards electric oscillations. Min- 

chin, G. M. [1894] L. Ps. S. P. 13 (1895) 

170-. 
charge. Right t A.,<& Villari, E. [1881] Em. 

E. Ac. Line. T. 6 (1882) 47-. 
. Curie, J. Lum. Elect. 28 (1888) 580- ; 

29 (1888) 13-. 

and conduction. Bezold, W. von. A. Ps. 
C. 23 (1884) 426-. 

, law. Coehn, A. A. Ps. C. 66 (1898) 

1191-. 
, penetration. Right, A. Bologna Ac. Sc. 

Mm. 6 (1875) 87-. 
of condensers. Preece, W. H. B. A. Ep. 

(1892) 654-. 
conduction through thin layers. Leick, W. 

A. Ps. C. 66 (1898) 1107-. , 
conductivity. Curie, J. Lum. Elect. 29 (1888) 

221-, 255-, 318-. 

of metallic wires in different dielectrics. 
Sanford, F. Ps. Ev. 3 (1896) 161 -. 

displacement currents, and induced currents in 

metallic circuits. Nicolaleff, W. de. C. E. 

119 (1894) 469-; Eclair. Elect. 7 (1896) 256-. 
electric force at boundary of two. Pellat, H. 

C. E. 119 (1894) 675-; A. C. 5 (1895) 5-; 

Eclair. Elect. 2 (1895) 289-, 481-. 
, apparent. Anderson, A. 

[1897] Camb. Ph. S. P. 9 (1898) 292-. 
traversing interposed media. Knox, G. J. 

[1839] Ph. Mg. 16 (1840) 185-. 
electrically strained, double refraction in. 

Blondlot, R. Nancy S. Sc. Bll. (1887) xxv; 

C. E. 106 (1888) 349-. 
electrification, method. Giordano, C. Mil. I. 

Lomb. Ed. 5 (1872) 916-. 
experiments. Pierucci, F. (xi) N. Cim. 10 

(1873) 121-, 153-. 
fluid, attraction and repulsion of electrified 

conductors in. Gouy, . C. E. 121 (1895) 

53-; J. de Ps. 5 (1896) 154-. 
, equilibrium in electric field. Poincare, H. 

C. E. 112 (1891) 555-. 
flux of conduction and flux of displacement in, 

equivalence. Duhem, P. Eclair. Elect. 8 

(1896) 110-. 
gaseous. Bouty, E. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 

601. 
, pressure in electric field. Zukovskij, N. E. 

[1893] Mosc. S. Sc. Bll. 83 (No. 2) (1894) 

3-; Fschr. Ps. (1893) (Ab. 2) 504-. 
heterogeneous. Hess, A. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1892) 393-. 
high voltage test. Skinner, C. E. Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 263-. 
testing. Appleyard, R. L. Ps. S. P. 13 

(1895) 155- ; Ph. Mg. 38 (1894) 396-. 
of modern dielectrics. Wright, J. 

Elect. Ev. 47 (1900) 653-. 
and induction. Knochenhauer, K. W. Pogg. 

A. 93 (1854) 407-. 



10-. 

. Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. Mb. (1869) 

598-. 
. Meissner, G. [1871] Gott. Ab. 16 

(1872) 109 pp. 

of dielectric upon itself. Riess, P. T. Berl. 
Mb. (1867) 486-; A. Ps. C. (Jubelbd.) (1874) 
375-. 

phenomena in. Rovelli, C. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 20 
(1888) 176-. 

influence on electric distribution at surface of 
several bodies therein. Mossotti, 0. F. 
[1846] Mod. S. It. Mm. 24 (1850) 49-. 

of ether-impulses on electric distribution in. 
Hem, de. D. Nf. Vh. (1900) (Th. 2, 
Halfte 1) 32-. 

medium on mutual action of electrified 

bodies. Stepanov, A. S. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 

20 (Ps.) (1888) 241- ; J. de Ps. 8 (1889) 

543. 
' ' infra- and ultra-electric ' ' radiation in. Heen, 

P. de. Brux. Ac. Bll. 35 (1898) 191-. 
liquid, abnormal phenomena. Quincke, G. A. 

Ps. C. 32 (1887) 529-. 
, electrostatic rotations. Artom, A. Tor. 

Ac. Sc. At. 35 (1900) 496- or 722-. 
, forces between electrified conductors in. 

Bobuilev, D. K. (xn) Es. C. Ps. S. J. 7 

(Ps.) (1875) [Pt. 1] 122-. 
.maintenance of dielectric condition. Korn, 

A. [1898] Munch. Ak. Sb. 28 (1899) 135-. 
, passage of current through. Naccari, A. 

N. Cim. 8 (1898) 259-; Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 34 

(1898) 820- or 1088-. 
, . Schweidler, E. (Ritter) von. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 109 (1900) (Ab. 2a) 964-. 
and magnetic media, pressures within. Duhem, 

P. C. E. 112 (1891) 657-; Am. J. Mth. 17 

(1895) 117-. 

magnets, pressures within. Lienard, A. 
Lum. Elect. 52 (1894) 7-, 67-. 

motion of electrified body in. Silberstein, L. 
A. Ps. C. 48 (1893) 262-; 49 (1893) 760. 

in uniform field. Graetz, . D. Nf. Vh. 
(1893) (Th. 2, Halfte 1) 66. 

. Graetz, L., <& Fomm, L. [1893] 

Munch. Ak. Sb. 23 (1894) 275-. 
non-electrified, forces on. Pellat, H. C. E. 

121 (1895) 938-; 123 (1896) 691- ; Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1896) 89-, 293-. 
physics. Hoor, M. Mth. Termt. Ets. 18 

(1900) 268-. 

Polarisation of Dielectrics. 

Brusotti, F. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 5 

1161-. 
Cantoni, P. 

1168-. 
Cantoni, G. 

845-. 

Thayer, A. S. Am. J. Sc. 8 (1874) 208- 
Root, E. A. Ps. C. 158 (1876) 1-, 425-. 



(1872) 

Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 5 (1872) 
Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 6 (1873) 812-, 



578 



5250 Polarisation of Dielectrics 

Bezold, W. von. Munch. Ak. Sb. 13 (1883) 456-. 
(Von Bezold.) Lohnstein, T. A. Ps. C. 44 

(1891) 164-. 
Pellat, H. A. C. 18 (1899) 150-, 571- ; J. de 

Ps. 9 (1900) 313-. 
and "bound" electricity. Magrini, L. Mil. 

G. I. Lomb. 2 (1850) 231-. 
in electric field. Pellat, H. C. E. 128 (1899) 

1312-. 
(Pellat). Lienard, . C. E. 128 

(1899) 1568-. 
experiments. Ferrini, E. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 

5 (1872) 535-. 

(Ferrini). Eccher DalV Eco, A. de. (xn) 
Ev. Sc.-Ind. 4 (1872) 305-. 

. Cantoni, G. [1882] Em. E. Ac. Line. 
Mm. 14 (1883) 46-. 

formula, Clausius-Mossotti (experimental test). 
Millikan, R. A. Ps. C. 60 (1897) 376-. 

formulas, Clausius-Mossotti and Betti. Beau- 
lard, F. C. E. 129 (1899) 149-. 

heat due to. Bellati, M., <& Naccari, A. Tor. 
Ac. Sc. At. 17 (1881) 451-. 

. Kleiner, A. Ziir. Vjschr. 37 (1892) 

322-. 

. . Benischke, G. Wien Ak. Sb. 102 

(1893) (Ab. 2a) 1345-. 

. Kleiner, A. A. Ps. C. 50 (1893) 

138- ; Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 30 (1893) 354-. 
. Diiggelin, E. Ziir. Vjschr. 40 

(1895) 121-. 
and hysteresis. Schaufelberger, W. A. Ps. C. 

67 (1899) 307-. 
influence of magnetism. Aubel, E. van. Brux. 

Ac. Bll. 12 (1886) 280-. 
internal pressures due to. Blondin, J. Lum. 

Elect. 49 (1893) 551-. 
lag. Arno, E. Em. E.' Ac. Line. Ed. 3 

(1894) (Stan. 2) 294-. 

liquids. Silov [Zilov], P . A . [1875-78] A. Ps. 

C. 156 (1875) 389-; 158 (1876) 306- ; (xn) 

Eec. Mth. (Moscou) 9 (1878-81) (Ft. 1) 5-. 
. Stankewitsch, B. W. [1894] Munch. 

Ak. Sb. 24 (1895) 63-. 
and magnetic polarisation, analogy. Cantoni, 

G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 5 (1872) 708-, 737- ; 

6 (1873) 243-. 

, forces. Helmholtz, H. L. F. von. 

Berl. Ak. Mb. (1881) 191-. 
, relations. Cantoni, G. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Mm. 15 (1883) 481-. 

refractive index, influence of magnetism. 
Aubel, E. van. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 5 (1898) 
142-. 

repeated, increase of insulating power of 

paraffin by. Kleiner, A. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 

32 (1894) 282-. 
theory. Soret, C. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 28 (1892) 

347-. 
, case of failure. Pellat, H. C. E. 128 

(1899) 1218-. 

properties. Golicyn, (Prince) B. Mosc. Un. 
Mm. (Ps.-Mth.) 10 (1893) 174 pp. ; Fschr. 
Ps. (1893) (Ab. 2) 403-. 

(Golicyn). Sokolov, A. P., & Stoletov, A. G. 
Mosc. Un. Mm. (Ps.-Mth.) 11 (1894) 69 pp.; 
Fschr. Ps. (1893) (Ab. 2) 405-. 



Energy in Dielectrics 5250 

properties (Golicyn). Nekrasov, P. A. Mosc. 

Un. Mm. (Ps.-Mth.) 11 (1894) 48 pp. ; Fschr. 

Ps. (1894) (Ab. 2) 439, 440-. 
( ). Schiller, N. N. Fschr. Ps. (1894) 

(At. 2) 439-. 
. Ktmig, W. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. 

(1894-95) 25. 
, change with temperature. Appleyard, E. 

L. Ps. S. P. 14 (1896) 255-; Ph. Mg. 42 

(1896) 148-. 
solid, charge in. Beccaria, G. Sturgeon A. 

Electr. 4 (1839-40) 379. 
, conductivity. Curie, P. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1892) 261-, 277-. 
, discharge in. Holtz, W. Berl. Ak. Mb. 

(1876) 486-. 
, induction on. Wiillner, F. H. A. A. Munch. 

Ak. Sb. 7 (1877) 1-. 
, spark-length modified by. Humphreys, 

W. J. Ps. Ev. 11 (1900) 79-. 
, structure, and residual charge. Price, 

W. A. Elect. 28 (1892) 355-. 
theory. Provenzali, F. S. Em. At. N. Line. 

26 (1873) 181-, 412-. 
. Eiecke, E. (vm) A. Ps. C. (Jubelbd.) 

(1874) 321-. 
. Lampa, A. Wien Ak. Sb. 104 (1895) 

(Ab. 2a) 681-. 
, electrolytic. Chattock, A. P. Ph. Mg. 34 

(1892) 461- ; 35 (1893) 76-. 
, Maxwell's, elementary demonstration. 
Blondlot, E. J. de Ps. 6 (1887) 507-. 
time required to return to natural state after 

removal of inducing forces. Felici, E. (ix) 

N. Cim. 10 (1873) 84-. 



Elastic medium method for electrostatic 
theorems. Bragg, W. H. Aust. As. Ep. 
(1891) 57-; Ph. Mg. 34 (1892) 18-.. 

Electric expansion. Quincke, G. H. A. Ps. 
C. 10 (1880) 161-, 374-, 513-. 

field of point, phenomena. Myskin, N. 
Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 31 (Ps.) (1899) 159-; Fschr. 
Ps. (1899) (Ab. 2) 483-. 

ENEEGY. 

absorbed by condensers, with alternating charge. 
Pellat, H.,<& Beaulard, F. C. E. 130 (1900) 
1457-. 

of charge. Grinwis, C. H. C. [1871] Amst. 
Vs. Ak. 6 (1872) 140-.| 

dissipated in condensers, calorimetric deter- 
mination. Eosa, E. B., & Smith, A. W. 
Am. As. P. (1898) 120- ; Ph. Mg. 47 (1899) 
222-. 

, and their efficiency. (Eesonance 
method.) Eosa, E. B., & Smith, A. W. 
Am. As. P. (1898) 119- ; Ph. Mg. 47 (1899) 
19-. 

dielectrics. Gasnier, P. [1895] Elect. 

36 (1896) 7-. 
, in feeble electric fields. Arno, E. 

Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 3 (1894) (Sem. 1) 585-. 
electric, conversion in dielectrics. Threlfall, 

E. Ps. Ev. 4 (1897) 457-; 5 (1897) 21-, 

65-. 



579 



5250 Energy in Dielectrics 

electric, and pressure of electricity. Blavier, 

E. E. J. de Ps. 4 (1875) 161-. , 
of electrified system. Potier,A. Eclair. Elect. 

11 (1897) 250-. 

, regarded as distributed in the dielec- 
tric. Pellat, H. t d- Sacerdote, P. C. B. 126 

(1898) 817- . 
electrostatic. Golicyn, (Prince) B. B. Bee. 

Mth. (Moscou) 17 (1895) 598-; Fschr. Ps. 

(1894) (Ab. 2) 438-. 
. Schiller, N. N. Eec. Mth. (Moscou) 18 

(1896) 137- ; Fschr. Mth. (1895) 998. 
, forces due to change of. Schiller, N. A. 

Ps. C. 53 (1894) 432-. 

and equilibrium of system of polarised dielec- 
trics. Adler, G. Wien Ak. Sb. 95 (1887) 
. (Ab. 2) 180- ; Exner Epm. 24 (1888) 733-. 
Maxwell's displacement currents, nature. 

Vaschy, . C. E. 120 (1895) 255-. 
movements in medium separating electrified or 

gravitating particles. Allen, H. N. L. Ps. 

S. P. 13 (1895) 392-; Ph. Mg. 39 (1895) 

357-. 
and stress in electrostatic field. Adler, G. 

[1884] Wien Ak. Sb. 89 (1884) (Ab. 2) 594-; 

90 (1885) (Ab. 2) 1076-. 
work in condensers. Adler, G. Wien Ak. 

Sb. 95 (1887) (Ab. 2) 50-. 



Heating of condensers, under disruptive charg- 
ing. Bargman, I. I. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 18 
(Ps.) (1886) 1-; Ph. Mg. 23 (1887) 472. 

, electric. Houllevigue, L. J. de Ps. 

6 (1897) 120-. 

glass of Leyden jar by charging. Sie- 
mens, W. Berl. Mb. (1864) 614-. 

Induction, suggestions as to mechanism of, and 
induction through crystals in different direc- 
tions. Faraday, M. Phil. Trans. (1838) 
265-. 

Insulation and conduction. Fessenden, B. A. 
Elect. 41 (1898) 524-. 

of conductors. Foucaut,A. Ev. Mar. et Col. 
44 (1875) 157-. 

, good, of conductors, conditions. Du 
Moncel, T. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 397-. 

of wires covered with cotton or silk. Luquer, 
. A. Tel. 20 (1893) 370-. 



INSULATORS. 

Marechaux, P. L. Gilbert A. 20 (1805) 

354-. 
Schwedoff, T. A. Ps. C. 135 (1868) 418-, 495- ; 

137 (1869) 559-. 

Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 44 (1892) 601- 
Hess, A. Lum. Elect. 46 (1892) 401- , 

507-. 
Phisterer, F. W. [1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

Bell, A. T. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 511. 
conductivity at high temperatures. Beetz, W. 

Pogg. A. 92 (1854) 452-. 
in contact with conductors. Neyreneuf, V 

A. C. 5 (1875) 356-. 



Various Insulators 5250 

Coulomb's law of length. Gauguin, J. M. C. 

E. 60 (1865) 673-. 
dielectric action. Bobuilev, D. K. [1876] (xn) 

Es. C. Ps. S. J. 10 (Ps.) (1878) [Pt. 1] 

5-. 
electric penetration into. Holtz, W. A. Ps. 

C. 13 (1881) 207. 

properties. Matteucci, C. C. E. 48 (1859) 
780- ; N. Cim. 9 (1859) 105-. 

resistance and electrification at pressures 
up to 300 atm. Siemens, C. W. B. A. Ep. 
(1863) 688-. 

shadows in, duration. Quincke, G. Berl. 
Ak. Sb. (1895) 525-. 

under high potential difference. Bourne, 

H. B., (& Bourne, W. F. Elect. 28 

512-. 
for high tension. Haskin, J. E. Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 96-. 
insulating supports. Hascart, E. E. N. Par. 

S. Ps. 86. (1878) 88-. 

surfaces, centres of action. Lion, . C. 

B. 52 (1861) 693-; A. C. 63 (1861) 450-. 
liquid. Eeitlinger, E. Wien SB. 35 (1859) 

73-. 
solid, behaviour. Bezold, W. von. Munch. 

Sb. (1863) 563-. 
, electric propagation in. Matteucci, C. A. 

C. 27 (1849) 133-. 

, electrified, electric absorption by moist 
bodies from. Marianini, S. [1853] Mod. 
S. It. Mm. 25 (1855) (pte. 2) 214-. 

and gaseous, electric propagation in. Mat- 
teucci, C. A. C. 28 (1850) 385-. 

state of insulating bodies. Avogadro, A. J. 
de Ps. 63 (1806) 450- ; 65 (1807) 130-. 

. Matteucci, C. C. E. 23 (1846) 

458-. 

in contact with charged conductors. 

Matteucci, C. C. E. 25 (1847) 344-. 

interposed between charged con- 
ductors or in presence of electric discharge. 
Matteucci, C. (vi Adds.) II Cim. 4 (1846) 
153. 

Various Insulators. 

Ambroine. Bohlendorff, . Elekttech. Z. 19 

(1898) 429-. 
. Montpellier, J. A. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

Caoutchouc, electric properties. Rutter, J. 0. N. 

Dingier 50 (1833) 45-. 
, peculiar properties. Gezekhus, N. A. (xn) 

Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 15 (Ps., Pt. 1) (1883) 

103. 
Dielectrine (a mixture of paraffin and sulphur) . 

Hurmuzescu, . Par. S. Ps. Se". (1894) 

53. 
Glass, conduction by. Poggendorff,J.C. Berl. 

Mb. (1868) 184-. 
, electric experiments. Anon, (vi 691) J. 

de Ps. 64 (1807) 371- 
, penetration. Doubrava, S., & Mach, 

E. [1878] Wien Ak. Sb. 78 (1879) (Ab. 2) 

729-. 
, . Waltenhofen, A. von. Wien Ak. 

Sb. 79 (1879) (Ab. 2) 336-. 



580 



5250 



Dielectrics Dielectric Constants 5252 



Glass, electric permeability. Wood,W. Tilloch 

Ph. Mg. 2 (1798) 147-. 
, . Anon, (vi 1258) V. Mons J. C. 

2 (1802) 54-. 
, . Anon, (vi 692) J. de Ps. 65 (1807) 

75-. 
and porcelain, relative merits. Fleury, A. 

Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 560. 
, properties. Guillaume, C. E. Lum. Elect. 

32 (1889) 501-. 
Gutta-percha. Faraday, M. Ph. Mg. 32 (1848) 

165- ; Fogg. A. 74 (1849) 154-. 
. Serullas, E. Lum. Elect. 38 (1890) 351-, 

406-, 462-, 524-, 570-, 612-. 
. Lagarde, . A. Tel. 18 (1891) 5-. 
. Brasse, L. Lum. Elect. 46 (1892) 51-, 

109-, 160-. 
. Lagarde,, A. Tel. [19] (1892) 513- ; 

20 (1893) 88-, 421-. 
. Montpellier, J. A. A. Tel. [19] (1892) 

521-. 
, electrification. Brylinski,E. Lum. Elect. 

47 (1893) 601-. 
, production. Jungfieisch, E. 

(1892) 381-. 
, sources. Seligmann-Lui, G 

(1886) 283-. 
, surface-changes in. Eies 

91 (1854) 489-. 
Ice. (Discovery of non-conducting power.) 

Bache, A. D. Franklin I. J. 17 (1836) 

182-. 
Oil as insulator for high voltage currents. 

Brooks, D. Franklin I. J. 131 (1891) 491-. 
Oils employed in electricity. Eigaut,A. Lum. 

Elect. 44 (1892) 218-. 
Paraffin, potential difference required to pierce. 

Monti, . Nt. 48 (1893) 620. 



A. Tel. [19] 

A. Tel. 13 

P. Pogg. A. 



Potential, distribution in heterogeneous me- 
dium. Petrovskij, A. Rs. Ps.-C. S. J. 32 
(Ps.) (1900) 1-, 248-; Fschr. Ps. (1900) 
(Ab. 2) 358-; C. R. 130 (1900) 112-. 

, (Petrovskij). Ignatovskij, V. 

Rs. Ps.-C. S. J. 32 (Ps.) (1900) 137-, 
251. 

Rotations in electric field. Quincke, G. [1894- 
96] A. Ps. C. 59 (1896) 417- ; D. Nf. Vh. 

(1896) (Th. 2, Halfte 1) 48-. 
. Boltzmann, L. A. Ps. C. 60 

(1897) 399-. 



(Addendum to Hopkinson's paper.) 

[1886] R. S. P. 41 (1887) 458-. 



. Heydweiller, A. Berl. Ps. Gs. Hopkinson, J. [1886] 

Vh. (1897) 32-. 453-. 

, Quincke's experiments. Schaufel- 

berger, W. Ziir. Ps. Gs. Jbr. (1899 & 1900) 

, . Graetz, L. A. Ps. 1 

(1900) 530-. 

, electrostatic, produced by alternate differ- 
ences of potential. Arno, E. Rm. R. Ac. 
Line. Rd. 8 (1899) (Sem. 2) 167-. 



STRESS. 
(See also 5253.) 

electric. Rucker, A. W. R. I. P. 12 (1889) 

406-. 

, behaviour of pure sulphur under. Thr 'el- 
fall, E., & Brearley, J. H. D. [1894] Phil. 

Trans. (A) 187 (1897) 57-. 
electrostatic. Adler, . Exner Rpm. 21 

(1885) 500-. 
, along lines of force in dielectrics. Delsaulx, 

(le rev. pere) J. Brux. S. Sc. A. 12 (1888) 

(Pt. 2) 97-. 
, theory. Seydler, A. J. Prag Sb. (1883) 

(Mth. Vortr.) 434-. 
, . De la Rive, L. [1891] C. R. 113 

(1891) 429-; Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 26 (1891) 

416- ; 27 (1892) 285-. 
in insulator. Vaschy, A. C. R. 103 (1886) 

1186- ; 104 (1887)51-. 
mechanical, in excited dielectrics, theory of 

electrodynamics as affected by nature of. 

Larmor, J. [1892] R. S. P. 52 (1893) 55-. 
in resin, due to electrification. Swan, J. W. 

[1897] R. S. P. 62 (1898) 38-. 
"tension," electric. Volpicelli, P. [1874] 

Rm. R. Ac. Line. At. 2 (1875) xi. 
, (Volpicelli). Govi, G. Rm. R. Ac. 

Lino. At. 2 (1875) xiv-. 
, (Govi). Volpicelli, P. Rm. R. Ac. 

Line. At. 2 (1875) 303-. 
transmission by isotropic elastic media* and 

action at a distance. Chree, C. Edinb. 

Mth. S. P. 11 (1893) 107-. 



5252 Measurement of Dielectric 
Constants. Dielectric Hys- 
teresis. 
(See also Chemistry 7280.) 

DIELECTRIC CONSTANTS. 

Eossetti, F. (xi) Ven. I. At. 2 (1872-73) 

1887-. 
Neyreneuf, F. V. C. R. 85 (1877) 547-; 86 

(1878) 1542- ; (xn) Caen Ac. Mm. (1877) 

63-; (1879) 106-. 
Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 3 (1879) 151- 



[1887] 



R. S. P. 41 (1887) 
Quincke, 
R. S.'P. 43 (1888) 



G. 

Hopkinson, J. 

156-. 
(Charge of dielectrics.) Curie, J. Lum. Elect. 

28 (1888) 580- ; 29 (1888) 13-. 
(Electric conductivity of dielectrics.) Curie, 

J. Lum. Elect. 29 (1888) 221-, 255-, 318-. 
and absorption. Trowbridge, J. Am. J. Sc. 

38 (1889) 217-. 
for alternating currents. Benischke, G. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 102 (1893) (Ab. 2a) 530-. 



581 



5252 



Measurement of Dielectric Constants 



5252 



apparatus to show laws. Strehl, K. Cztg. 

Opt. 18 (1897) 181-. 
and chemical constitution, relation. Thwing, 

C. B. [1894] Ps. Ev. 2 (1895) 35-. 

conductivity. Cohn, E., & Arons, L. A. 
Ps. C. 28 (1886) 454-; 33 (1888) 31-. 

. Curie, J. C. E. 103 (1886) 928-. 

density. Negreanu, D. C. B. 128 (1899) 
814- ; Bucarest Ac. Eom. A. 22 (Pt. admin.) 



of the ether. Houston, E. J. , d Kennelly, 

A. E. Elect. 32 (1894) 606-. 
dispersion. Paschen, F. A. Ps. C. 54 

(1895) 668-. 
experiment. Rudge, W. A. [1889] Nt. 41 

(1890) 10-. 

. Lodge, O. J. [1889] Nt. 41 (1890) 30. 
, lecture-. Garbasso, A. N. Cim. 3 (1896) 

203-. 
history and researches. Palaz, A. [1886] 

Laus. S. Vd. Bll. 22 (1887) 1-. 
and latent heat of vaporisation, probable rela- 
tionship. Obach, E. Ph. Mg. 32 (1891) 

113-. 

MEASUREMENT. 

Faraday, M. [1837] Phil. Trans. (1838) 1-. 
Harris, (Sir) W. S. Phil. Trans. (1842) 165-. 
Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 56 (1863) 799-; A. C. 

2 (1864) 264-. 
Barclay, T., <& Gibson, J. C. Phil. Trans. 161 

(1871) 573-. 
Boltzmann, L. Wien Sb. 66 (1872) (Ab. 2) 

256-; 67 (1873) {Ab. 2) 17-; 68 (1873) (Ab. 

2) 81-. 
Thomson, (Sir) W. Tel. E. J. 1 (1872-73) 

394-. 
Boltzmann, L. [1874] A. Ps. C. 153 (1874) 

525-; Wien Ak. Sb. 70 (1875) (Ab. 2) 307-. 
Romich, , & Fajdiga, . [1874] Wien Ak. 

Sb. 70 (1875) (Ab. 2) 367-. 
Gordon, J. E. H. [1878] Phil. Trans. 170 

(1879) 417-. 

Weber, R. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 23 (1890) 489-. 
(Lecture experiment.) Guillaume, C. E. Arch. 

Sc. Ps. Nt. 24 (1890) 347-. 
Weber, R. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 24 (1890) 649-. 
Lefevre, J. C. E. 113 (1891) 688-, 786. 
(Attraction between charged plates separated 

by dielectric.) Lefevre, J. C. E. 114 (1892) 

Perot, A. C. E. 115 (1892) 165-. 

(Lefevre.) (Analogy between electric and 

optical phenomena.) Tolomei, G. Ev. Sc.- 

Ind. [24 (1892)] 17-. 
Weber, R. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 28 (1892) 361- 

Neuch. S. Sc. Bll. 21 (1893) 3- ; Arch. Sc. 

Ps. Nt. 29 (1893) 571-. 
Guillaume, C. E. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 30 (1893) 

Weber, R. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 30 (1893) 145-. 
Bichat, . Nancy S. Sc. Bll. (1895) xix. 
Lefevre, J. A. Tel. 22 (1895) 178-. 
apparatus. ( Pellat , H. C. E. 120 (1895) 773- ; 

Eclair. Elect. 5 (1895) 145- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1895) 142-. 



by differential inductor. Werner, 0. A. Ps. 

C. 47 (1892) 613-. 
and electric absorption, by rapid oscillations. 

Drude, P. Z. Ps. C. 23 (1897) 267-. 
in electric fields slowly and rapidly changing. 

Ferry, E. S. Ph. Mg. 44 (1897) 404-. 
and electric refraction. Perot, A. C. E. 113 

(1891) 415- ; As. Fr. C. B. (1891) (Pt. 2) 

317-. 
by electrodynamometer. Donle, W. A. Ps. 

C. 40 (1890) 307-. 
(Donle). Winkelmann, A. A. Ps. C. 40 

(1890) 732-. 

electromagnetic oscillations. Perot, A. C. 
E. 114 (1892) 1528- ; 115 (1892) 38-. 

electrometer (Thomson's). Terquem,A. J. 
de Ps. 4 (1875) 143-. 

, modification. Smale, J. F. A. Ps. C. 

57 (1896) 215-. 
and examination of rapid electric vibrations, 

by bolometer. Sceglajev, V. S. Es. Ps.-C. 

S. J. 22 (Ps.) (1890) 115- ; J. dePs. 10(1891) 

428. 
for forces very rapidly alternating. Thomson, 

J. J. [1889] E. S. P. 46 (1890) 292-. 
by formation of drops in an electric or magnetic 

field. Umov, N. A. Mosc. S. Sc. Bll. 92 

(No. 2) (1896) 1-; Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 2 (1896) 

524-. 

Hertzian waves. Lecher, E. Wien Ak. 
Sb. 99 (1891) (Ab. 2a) 480-. 

in heterogeneous media. Petrovsky, A. A. C. 

E. 130 (1900) 164-. 
by inductometer. Hearder, J. N. Cornwall 

Pol. S. T. (1860) 58-. 
instruments for. Gordon, J. E. H. B. A. 

Ep. (1879) 249. 
at low temperatures. Abegg, R. A. Ps. C. 60 

(1897) 54- ; 62 (1897) 249-. 
method. Elsas, A. A. Ps. C. 44 (1891) 

654-. 
. Trouton, F. T., & Lilly, W. E. Ph. Mg. 

33 (1892) 529-. 
. Nernst, W. Gott. Nr. (1893) 762-; Z. 

Ps. C. 14 (1894) 622-; A. Ps. C. 57 (1896) 

209-. 
and mutual action of 2 circular currents. 

Erskine, J. A. A. Ps. C. 66 (1898) 269-. 

potential differences. Polarisation in uni- 
form electrostatic field. Lombardi, L. Ziir. 
Ps. Gs. Jbr. (1895) 22-; Tor. Ac. Sc. Mm. 
45 (1896) 171-. 

by rapid oscillations. Campetti, A. Em. E. 
Ac. Line. Ed. 3 (1894) (Sem. 2) 16-. 

telephone. Winkelmann, A. A. Ps. C. 38 
(1889) 161-. 

. Heydweiller, A. A. Ps. C. 57 (1896) 

694-. 
telephone in null methods. Winkelmann, A. 

A. Ps. C. 46 (1892) 666-. 
(Winkelmann). Cohn, E. A. Ps. 

C. 47 (1892) 752-. 
(Cohn). Winkelmann, A. A. Ps. 

C. 48 (1893) 384-. 
, Winkelmann-Sc'eglajev method. 

Sokolov, A. P. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 24 (Ps.) 

(1892) 179- ; Fschr. Ps. (1892) (Ab. 2) 426. 



582 



5252 



Dielectric Constants of Various Substances 



5252 



by Winkelmann-Gordon method. Cohn, E. 
A. Ps. C. 46 (1892) 135-. 

and molecular heat, relation. Runolfsson, . 
C. E. 115 (1892) 1066-. 

permeability, mathematical relations. Mer- 
cadier, E. C. E. 116 (1893) 800-. 

refractive index, relation. Hopkinson, J. 
L. Ps. S. P. 5 (1884) 38- ; Ph. Mg. 13 (1882) 
242-. 

, . Drude, P. Gott. Nr. (1893) 

82-. 
, . Pagliani, S. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 2 (1893) (Sent. 2) 48-; Catania Ac. Gioen. 

At. 7 (1894) Mem. 2, 19 pp. 
variation with temperature. Cassie, W. [1889] 

Phil. Trans. (A) 181 (1891) 1-. 
. Pellat, H., d- Sacerdote, P. C. E. 

127 (1898) 544- ; J. de Ps. 8 (1899) 17-. 
traction. Dessau, B. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Bd. 3 (1894) (Sem. 1) 488-. 
. Corbino, 0. M. Ev. Sc. Ind. 29 

(1897) 242-. 
. Panichi, U. N. Cim. 8 (1898) 89-. 



DIELECTRIC CONSTANTS OF VARIOUS 
SUBSTANCES. 

Aeolotropic substance. Lampa,A. WienAk. 

Sb. 104 (1895) (Ab. 2a) 1179-. 
Air, rarefied, dielectric constants and con- 
ductivity. Moser, J. C. E. 110 (1890) 

635-. 
Alcohols, to lowest temperatures. Abegg, R., 

& Seitz, W. Z. Ps. C. 29 (1899) 242-. 
Caoutchouc, variation with traction. Corbino, 

0. M., (& Cannizzo, F. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 7 (1898) (Sem. 2) 286-. 
Crystals. Tegetmeier, F., & Warburg, E. A. 

Ps. C. 32 (1887) 442-. 

. Curie, J. [1888] A. C. 17 (1889) 385-. 
, behaviour, electric. Wiedemann, G. Pogg. 

A. 76 (1849) 404- ; 77 (1849) 534-. 
, between electric poles. Knoblauch, H. 

Berl. B. (1851) 271-. 
, biaxial. Borel, C. C. E. 116 (1893) 1509- ; 

Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 30 (1893) 131-, 219-, 327-, 

422-. 
, sulphur, constants along different axes. 

Boltzmann, L. Wien Ak. Sb. 70 (1874) (Ab. 

2) 342-. 
Electrolytes. Rosa, E. B. [1890-92] Ph. 

Mg. 31 (1891) 188- ; 34 (1892) 344-. 
at low temperatures. Fleming, J. A., & 

Dewar, J. E. S. P. 61 (1897) 299-, 380-. 
Gases. Boltzmann, L. Wien Ak. Sb. 69 (1874) 

(Ab. 2) 795-. 
. Perry, J., & Ayrton, W. E. Jap. As. S. 

T. 5 (1877) (Pt. 1) 116-. 
, and their chemical valency. Lang, R. A. 

Ps. C. 56 (1895) 534-. 
-vacuum. (Eeport.) Brit. Ass. Comm. B. 

A. Ep. (1880) 197-. 
vapours. Klemencic, I. Wien Ak. Sb. 

91 (1885) (Ab. 2) 712-. 
Glass. Beaulard, F. C. E. 119 (1894) 268-; 

J. de Ps. 4 (1895) 552-. 



Glass, determination of constant by very rapid 
electric oscillations. Blondlot, R. C. E. 
112 (1891) 1058- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1891 
114-. 

and liquids. Hopkinson, J. [1877-80] 
Phil. Trans. 169 (1879) 17-; 172 (1882) 
355. 

, fesistivity and dielectric constant of various 
kinds. Gray, A., & Dobbie, J. J. [1898- 
1900] E. S. P. 63 (1898) 38-; 67 (1901) 
197-. 

, secular changes. Gordon, J. E. H. B. A. 
Ep. (1879) 250-. 

and other substances. Mazzotto, D. Em. 
E. Ac. Line. Ed. 4 (1895) (Sem. 1) 240-. 

, variation with mechanical traction. Erco- 

lini, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 7 

(Sem. 2) 172-, 183-. 
, (Ercolini). Corbino, 0. M. 

Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 8 (1899) (Sem. 2) 

238-. 
, (Corbino). Ercolini, G. N. 

Cim. 12 (1900) 77-. 
Hydrogen peroxide. Calvert, H. T. A. Ps. 

1 (1900) 483-. 

Ice. Blondlot, R. C. E. 119 (1894) 595-. 
. Perot, A. C. E. 119 (1894) 601. 
. Guillaume, C. E. A. Tel. 23 (1896-97) 

382-. 

and alcohol at low temperatures. Dewar, 
J., & Fleming, J. A. E. S. P. 61 (1897) 
2-. 

, glycerin, nitrobenzene, and ethylene di- 
bromide at low temperatures. Fleming, 
J. A., <& Dewar, J. B. S. P. 61 (1897 
316-. 

Insulators, electric actions under influence of 
electrified body. Felici, R. [1870-74] (ix) 
(Mod.) S. It. Mm. 2 (1876) 249-; J. de Ps. 3 
(1874) 329-. 

, properties. Matteucci, C. C. E. 48 
(1859) 780- ; N. Cim. 9 (1859) 105-. 

Liquefied gases; and the Mossotti-Clausius 
formula. Linde, F. A. Ps. C. 56 (1895) 
546-. 

Liquid ammonia, dielectric constant and con- 
ductivity. Goodwin, H. M., <6 Thompson, 
M. de K. Am. As. P. (1898) 125- ; Ps. Ev. 
8 (1899) 38-. 

crystal. Abegg, R., <& Seitz, W. Z. Ps. C. 
29 (1899) 491-. 

mixtures. Linebarger, C. E. Z. Ps. C. 20 
(1896) 131-. 

nitrous oxide and oxygen, coefficients. 
Hasenoehrl, F. [1899] Amst. Ak. Vs. 8 
(1900) 137- ; Amst. Ak. P. 2 (1900) 211-. 

oxygen and liquid air. Fleming, J. A., 
<& Dewar, J. [1896] E. S. P. 60 (1897) 
358-. 

Liquids. Silov [Zllov}, P. A. [1875-78] A. 
Ps. C. 156 (1875) 389-; 158 (1876) 306- ; 
(xn) Eec. Mth. (Moscou) 9 (1878-81) (Pt. 

. Quincke, G. H. A. Ps. C. 19 (1883) 

705-. 
. Palaz, A. J. de Ps. 5 (1886) 370- ; Par. 

S. Ps. Se. (1887) 37-. 



VOL. III. 



583 



5252 



Dielectric Constants of Various Substances 



5252 



Liquids. Negreanu, . C. E. 104 (1887) 423-; 

Par. S. Ps. 86. (1888) 83-. 
. Tomaszewski, F. Krk. Ak. (Mt.-Prz.) 
Pam. 14 (1888) 101- ; A. Ps. C. 33 (1888) 

33-. 
, conducting. Colm, . D. Nf. Tbl. (1887) 

233 
_, _'. Cohn, E., d- Arms, L. A. Ps. C. 33 

(1888) 13-. 
, . Sceglajev, V. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 23 

(Ps.) (1891) 170- ; Ph. Mg. 34 (1892) 388. 
, , null method for. Heerwagen, F. A. 

Ps. C. 48 (1893) 35-. 
, dielectric constants, dissociating power and 

molecular properties, relation. Euler, H. 

Stockh. Ofv. (1898) 689-. 
, and temperature coefficients, by 

commutator. Heinke, C. Elekttech. Z. 17 

(1896) 483-, 499-. 
, method for. Guglielmo, G. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Ed. 2 (1893) (Sem. 2) 78-. 
, methods for. Perot, A. J. de Ps. 10 

(1891) 149-. 
, organic. Tereschin, S. A. Ps. C. 36 

1889) 792-. 
, pure. Turner, B. B. Z. Ps. C. 35 (1900) 

385-. 
, variation with temperature. Fuchs, V. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 98 (1890) (Ab. 2a) 1240-. 
, . Negreanu, D. C. E. 114 (1892) 

345-; [Bucarest S. Sc. Bl. 1 (1892)] 212; 

[2 (1893)] 22-. 
, , and Mossotti-Clausius formula. 

Franke, A. A. Ps. C. 50 (1893) 163-. 
, , . Hasenoehrl, F. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 105 (1896) (Ab. 2a) 460-. 
, pressure. Eatz, F. Z. Ps. C. 

19 (1896) 94-. 
Masses, small, constants by electric waves 

method. Drude, P. Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 48 

(1896) 583-. 
Metallic oxides suspended in ice. Dewar, J., 

& Fleming, J. A. R. S. P. 61 (1897) 368-. 
Mica. Klementti, I. Wien Ak. Sb. 96 (1888) 

(Ab. 2) 807-. 
. Bouty, E. C. E. 112 (1891) 931- ; A. C. 

24 (1891) 394-. 

at high temperatures. Bouty, E. C. E. 
112 (1891) 1310-. 

Mixtures of ether with chloroform and of 
alcohol with water, dielectric constants and 
surface tensions. Gezechus [Hesehus], N. A. 
Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 32 (Ps.) (1900) 97-; Fschr. 
Ps. (1900) (Ab. 2) 405. 

and solutions. Silberstein, L. A. Ps. C. 
56 (1895) 661-. 

Oils. Salvioni, E. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 4 
(1888) (Sem. 1) 136-. 

. Clark, A. L. Ps. Ev. 6 (1898) 120-. 

, variation with temperature; relation be- 
tween dielectric constants, refractive indices 
and density of substances. Negreanu, D. 
Bucarest Ac. Eom. A. 16 (Pt. admin.) 
(1894) 109-. 

Organic bodies and electrolytes at low tem- 
peratures. Dewar, J., <& Fleming, J. A. 
[1897] E. S. P. 62 (1898) 250-. 



Organic bodies at low temperatures. Dewar, 
J., <& Fleming, J. A. E. S. P. 61 (1897) 
358-. 

Paraffin and glass, for varying fields. 
Northrup, E. F. Ph. Mg. 39 (1895) 78-. 

iron, dielectric-magnetic media. 
Boccara, V., <& Pandolfi, M. N. Cim. 9 

(1899) 254-. 

Petrol, dielectric constant and refractive index. 

Negreanu, D. [Bucarest s. Sc. Bl. 2 (1893)] 

22-. 
Quartz. Warburg, E., & Tegetmeier, F. Gott. 

Nr. (1888) 210-. 
Eock salt. Braun, F. A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 

855-; 32 (1887) 700. 
Salt solutions (electrometric method). Smale, 

F. J. A. Ps. C. 60 (1897) 625-. 
Salts, solid, dielectric constants, and refractive 

indices of fused salts. Arons, L. A. Ps. C. 

53 (1894) 95-. 
Selenium. Madsen, T. P. V. Aust. As. Ep. 

(1900) 196. 

Solids, method for. Northrup, E. F. J. H. 

Un. Cir. [13 (1893-94)] 77-; Ph. Mg. 39 

(1895) 78-. 
, . Starke, H. [1896-97] A. Ps. C. 

60 (1897) 629- ; 61 (1897) 804-. 
, propagation of electricity in. Matteucci, C. 

A. C. 27 (1849) 133-. 
, variation with temperature. Hasenoehrl, F. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 106 (1897) (Ab. 2a) 69-. 
Sulphur. Cardani, P. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 

1 (1892) (Sem. 2) 48-, 91-. 
, pure. Threlfall, E., & Brearley, J. H. D. 

[1894] Phil. Trans. (A) 187 (1897) 57-. 
Vapours ; and Mossotti-Clausius theory of 

dielectric. Lebedew, P. A. Ps. C. 44 (1891) 

288-. 
Water. Cohn, E. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1889) 405- ; 

A ; Ps. C. 38 (1889) 42-. 

(Sceglajev's method). Smirnov, L.V. Es. 
Ps.-C. S. J. 24 (Ps.) (1892) 191- ; Fschr. Ps. 
(1892) (Ab. 2) 426. 

, alcohol, etc. Fessenden, E. A. Ph. Mg. 

38 (1894) 567-. 
, , . Hopkinson, J. Ph. Mg. 39 (1895) 

134-. 

and alcohol, effect of pressure. Eontgen, 
W. C. Wiirzb. Ps. Md. Sb. (1894) 57-, 65-. 

, variation with temperature. Heerwagen, F. 
A. Ps. C. 49 (1893) 272-. 

DIELECTRIC HYSTEEESIS. 

Steinmetz, C. P. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 227-. 
Borel, C. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 29 (1893) 317-. 
Hess, A. Eclair. Elect. 4 (1895) 205-. 
Porter, A. W., <& Morris, D. K. E. S. P. 57 

(1895) 469-. 

Weber, H. F. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 2 (1896) 519. 
and alternate-current condensers. Bedell, F., 

Ballantyne, N. F., & Williamson, E. B. 

[1893] Ps. Ev. 1 (1894) 81-. 
conversion of electric energy in dielectrics. 

Threlfall, E. Ps. Ev. 4 (1897) 457- ; 5 (1897) 

21-, 65-. 
and dielectric polarisation. Schaufelberger, W. 

A. Ps. C. 67 (1899) 307-. 



584 



5252 Dielectric Hysteresis 

and dielectric viscosity. Beaulard, F. C. K. 
130 (1900) 1182- ; J. de Ps. 9 (1900) 422-. 

of mica, analogy. Janet, P. C. B. 
116 (1893) 373-. 

dissipation of energy in rotating electric 
field. Arno, R. Rm. B. Ac. Line. Bd. 2 
(1893) (Sem. 1) 341-. 

electric absorption, methods of measure- 
ment. Potts, L. M. Am. J. Sc. 10 (1900) 
91-. 

resonance. Eosa, E.B.,& Smith, A, W. 

Am. As. P. (1897) 128-. 
electrostatic induction, retardation of current. 

Siemens, W. Pogg. A. 102 (1857) 66-. 
experiments. Romich, , <& Nowak, J. [1874] 

Wien Ak. Sb. 70 (1875) (Ab. 2) 380-. 
rotations due to, and rotating electric field. 

Arno, R. Bm. B. Ac. Line. Bd. 1 (1892) 

(Sem. 2) 284-. 
slow electric oscillations, effect. Ebert, H. 

A. Ps. C. 53 (1894) 144-. 
viscous. Arno, R. Bm. R. Ac. Line. Bd. 5 
(Sem. 1) 262-. 



Viscosity of dielectrics. Perry, J,, & Ayrton, 

W. E. [1877] B. S. P. 27 (1878) 238-. 
, apparent. Hess, A. Eclair. Elect. 7 

(1896) 450-. 
insulating liquids in electric field. 

Quincke, G. A. Ps. C. 62 (1897) 1-. 
(Quincke). Schaufel- 

berger, W. A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 635-. 
polarised dielectrics. Duff, A. W. Ps. 

Bv. 4 (1897) 23-. 



5253 Electrostriction. 
(See also 5250.) 

Lorberg, H. A. Ps. C. 21 (1884) 300-. 
Golicyn, (Prince) B. Mosc. Un. Mm. (Ps.-Mth.) 

10 (1893) 174 + 34 pp.; Fschr. Ps. (1893) 

(Ab. 2) 403-. 
(Golicyn.) Sokolov, A. P., & Stoletov, A. G. 

Mosc. Un. Mm. (Ps.-Mth.) 11 (1894) 69 pp. ; 

Fschr. Ps. (1893) (Ab. 2) 405-. 
( .) Schiller, N. N. Fschr. Ps. (1894) (Ab. 2) 

439-. 
Umov, N. A. [1894] Bee. Mth. (Moscou) 17 

(1895) 797-; Fschr. Ps. (1894) (Ab. 2) 450-. 
Compression, without variation of heat, pro- 
duced by instantaneous charges. Moutier, J. 

(x) Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 10 (1873) 95-. 
Contraction of liquid dielectrics. Govi, G. 

N. Cim. 21-22 (*1865-66) 18-. 
Deformation of elastic bodies under magnetic 

or dielectric polarisation. Kirchhoff, G. 

Berl. Ak. Sb. (1884) 137-, 1155-. 
, electric, of crystals (hemihedral) . Curie, J. , 

<& Curie, P. C. B. 93 (1881) 1137-. 
, , (piezo-electric). Curie, J., & 

Curie, P. Lum. Elect. 30 (1888) 465-. 
, , . Duhem, P. Par. EC. Norm. A. 

9 (1892) 167-. 



Electrostriction 5253 

Deformation, electric, of dielectrics. Curie, J. 

Lum. Elect. 30 (1888) 423-. 
, , (solid). Sacerdote, P. C. B. 126 

(1898) 1019-. 
, , ( isotropic). Sacerdote, P. 

C. B. 129 (1899) 282-; A. C. 20 (1900) 289-. 
, , (polarised). Duhem, P. J. de 

Ps. 9 (1900) 28-. 
, , , and change of volume. 

Korteweg, D. J. A. Ps. C. 9 (1880) 48-. 
, - , , . Rontgen, W. C. 

[1880] Giessen Oberh. Gs. B. 20 (1881) 1-. 
, , and piezo-electricity of crystal cylinder. 

Somigliana, C. A. Mt. 20 (1892-93) 61-. 
, , of quartz. Curie, J., <& Curie, P. C. 

B. 95 (1882) 914-. 

Electric and magnetic pressure forces. Quincke, 
G. [1884] Heidi, tit. Md. Vh. 3 (1886) 
259-. 

pressure on solids. Quincke, G. H. A. Ps. 

C. 19 (1883) 545-, 705-. 
Electrostriction of crystals without centre of 

symmetry. Voigt, W. Gott. Nr. (1894) 
343-; N. Cim. 2 (1895) 159-, 327-. 

and electric energy. Schiller, N. Bs. Ps.-C. 
S. J. 26 (Ps.) (1894) 203- ; A. Ps. C. 53 
(1894) 432-. 

by free ions. Drude, P., & Nernst, W. Z. 
Ps. C. 15 (1894) 79-. 

and magnetostriction. Pockels, F. Arch. 
Mth. Ps. 12 (1894) 57-. 

Elongation, supposed, of dielectric in electro- 
static field. More, L. T. Ph. Mg. 50 (1900) 
198-. 

Expansion of dielectrics on electrification. 
Quincke, . D. Nf. Tbl. (*1879) 181-. 

. Righi, A. Bologna Ac. Sc. 

Mm. 10 (1879) 407- ; C. E. 88 (1879) 1262-. 

, electric. Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 
4 (1880) 182-. 

, . Quincke, G. H. A. Ps. C. 10 (1880) 
161-, 374-, 513-. 

, , of glass and caoutchouc. Julius, V. A., 
d- Korteweg, D. J. Wien Ak. Sb. 83 (1881) 
(Ab. 2)29-. 

, , and piezo-electricity of quartz. Curie, 
J., & Curie, P. [1888] J. de Ps. 8 (1889) 

, , of quartz. Curie, J., & Curie, P. 

Lum. Elect. 30 (1888) 521-, 575-; 31 (1889) 

66. 
, , theory. Boltzmann, L. [1880] Wien 

Ak. Sb. 82 (1881) (Ab. 2) 826-, 1157-. 
Volume change in dielectrics. Bos, D. [1890] 

Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 146-. 

gases, under strong electromotive 
forces. Mache, H. Wien Ak. Sb. 107 (1898) 
(Ab. 2a) 708-. 

liquid dielectrics under electric force. 

Oddone, E. Bm. B. Ac. Line. Bd. 6 (1890) 
(Sem. 1) 452-. 

of electrified bodies. Moutier, J. [1878] 
Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 3 (1879) 88-. 



585 



c 2 



5260 



Pyro- and Piezo -Electricity 



5260 Pyro- and Piezo -Electricity. 

Other Sources. 
(See also Mineralogy 340.) 

PYEO- AND PIEZO-ELECTBICITY. 

(Molecular theory.) Riecke, E. Gott. Nr. 

(1891) 191- ; Gott. Ab. 38 (1892) (Mth.) 

52 pp. 
(Theory.) Voigt, W. D. Nf. Vh. (1891) 

(Th. 2) 35-. 
and actino-electricity of crystals, method of 

investigation. Kundt, A. A. Ps. C. 20 

(1883) 592-. 
quartz. Hankel,W.G. [1881] Leip. 

Mth. Ps. Ab. 12 (1883) 457-. 
. Rontgen, W. C. Giessen Oberh. 

Gs. B. 22 (1883) 181-. 
of crystals (various). Hankel, W. G., d- 

Lindenberg, H. [1892-94] Leip. Mth. Ps. 

Ab. 18 (1893) 359-; 21 (1895) 9-. 
(_). Hankel, W. G. Leip. Mth. Ps. 

Ab. 24 (1898) 469-. 
without centre of symmetry. Voigt, W. 

Gott. Nr. (1894) 343-; N. Cim. 2 (1895) 

159-, 327-. 
, relation. Voigt, W. Gott. Nr. (1898) 

166-. 
, theory. Eiecke, E. D. Nf. Vh. (1891) 

(Th. 2) 40-. 
, . Kelvin, (Lord). C. E. 117 (1893) 

463-. 
, , general. Voigt, W. Gott. Ab. 36 

(1890) (Mth.) 99 pp. 
phenomena, nature. Curie, J., <& Curie, P. 

Lum. Elect. 31 (1889) 66-. 

PIEZO-ELECTEICITY. 

(Experiments and laws.) Becquerel, A. C. 

A. C. 22 (1823) 5-; Par. Mm. de PI. 12 

(1833) 551-. 

Crystal cylinder, piezo-electricity and de- 
formation. Somigliana, C. A. Mt. 20 

(1892-93) 61-. 
Crystals, hemihedral. Curie, J., d: Curie, P. 

C. B. 91 (1880) 294-, 383-. 
, (Curie & Curie). Thenard, (baron) A. 

P. E. C. E. 91 (1880) 387. 
, . Curie, J. , d' Curie, P. C. E. 93 (1881) 

204- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1882) 20-. 
, hemimorphous. Hankel, W. G. Leip. Mth. 

Ps. B. 32 (1880) 144-. 
, piezo-electric, electric deformation. Curie, 

J., d- Curie, P. Lum. Elect. 30 (1888) 

465-. 
Currents due to deformation. Brawn, F. Berl. 

Ak. Sb. (1888) 895-, 959-; (1889) 507- ; 

A. Ps. C. 38 (1889) 53-. 

(Braun). Bachmetjew, P. Fschr. 

Ps. (1889) (Ab. 2) 407. 
( ). Zehnder, L. A. Ps. C. 38 

(1889) 496. 

. Zehnder, L. Wiirzb. Ps. Md. Sb. 

'" 118-. 



5260 



Currents due to deformation. Braun, F. 

A. Ps. C. 39 (1890) 159-. 
Electrification by pressure and cleavage of 

crystals. Becquerel, A. C. A. C. 36 (1827) 

265-. 

expansion. (Eeport by Biot.) 
Becquerel, A. C. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. (1820) 
149-. 

Gelatin plates, doubly refracting. Ambronn,H. 

Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 43 (1891) 394-. 
Minerals. Hatty, R. J. Par. Ms. H. Nt. Mm. 

3 (1817) 223-. 
Molecular theory. Voigt, W. Gott. Nr. (1893) 

649-. 
Piezo-electric moment, proportional to applied 

pressure. Nachtikal, F. Gott. Nr. (1899) 

109-. 

pile. Kelvin, (Lord). B. A. Ep. (1893) 
691-. 

Quartz. Kelvin, (Lord). Ph. Mg. 36 (1893) 

331- ; Elect. 31 (1893) 664. 
, piezo-electric, as measuring instrument. 

Curie, J. Lum. Elect. 29 (1888) 62-. 
, piezo-electricity and electric expansion. 

Curie, J., d- Curie, P. [1888] J. de Ps. 8 

(1889) 149-. 

and tourmaline, piezo-electric constants. 
Riecke, E., d- Voigt, W. Gott. Nr. (1891) 
247-; A. Ps. C. 45 (1892) 523-. 

Tourmaline. Curie, J., & Curie, P. C. E. 92 
(1881) 186-. 

PYRO-ELECTRICITY. 

(Theory.) Duhem, P. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1887) 

59-. 
Acids, dextro-racemic and laevo-racemic. 

Matteucci, C. N. Cim. 9 (1859) 68-. 
Cause of pyro-electricity. Delarive, A. Bb. 

Un. Arch. 24 (1853) 162-. 
Crystallised bodies. Wiedemann, G. Pogg. A. 

76 (1849) 404- ; 77 (1849) 534-. 
Crystals. Pianciani, G. B. G. Arcad. 66 

(1836) 38-. 
. Hankel, W. G. Pogg. A. 49 (1840) 493-; 

50 (1840) 237-, 471-, 605- ; 61 (1844) 281-. 
. Brewster, (Sir) D. [1845] Edinb. E. S. 

T. 16 (1849) 11-. 
. Hankel, W. G. Dresden Sb. Isis (1868) 

129- ; Halle Z. Nw. 6 (1872) 296-. 
. Kundt, A., <& Blasius, E. A. Ps. C. 28 

(1886) 145-, 
, electric polarisation, class. Tegetmeier, F., 

<& Warburg, E. A. Ps. C. 32 (1887) 442-. 
, good conductors. Friedel, C. L'l. 28 

(I860) 420; A. C. 17 (1869) 79-. 
, hemihedral, and tourmaline. Curie, J., 

d Curie, P. C. E. 92 (1881) 350-. 
, law of pyro-electricity. Hankel, W. G. 

[1872] Leip. Ab. Mth. Ps. 10 (1873) 343-. 
, pyro-electric and doubly refracting. 

Chambers, (Miss) J. M. Elect. 17 (1886) 

193 -. 
Currents, pyro-electric, production. Becquerel, 

A. C. C. E. 38 (1854) 905-. 
Electricity, direct transformation of radiant 

heat into. Hankel, W. G. Leip. Mth. Ps. 

B. 32 (1880) 65-. 



586 



5260 



Pyro- and Piezo-Electricity 



5270 



Equality of positive and negative pyro- 
electricity. Dorn, E. A. Ps. C. 26 (1885) 
328-. 

Experiments, two fundamental. Riecke, E. 
Gott. Nr. (1887) 151-. 

Glass. Muncke, G. W. Pogg. A. 20 (1830) 

- (Muncke). Lenz, E. Pogg. A. 25 (1832) 
241-. 

(Lenz). Muncke, G. W. Pogg. A. 29 (1833) 
381-. 

(Muncke). Lenz,E. Pogg. A. 35 (1835) 72-. 
, pyro-electricity, and electro-rotatory points. 

Reade, J. Ph. Mg. 25 (1844) 344-. 
Methods, thermodynamics applied to. Duhem, 
P. Par. EC. Norm. A. 2 (1885) 405-; 3 
(1886) 263-. 

Minerals. 

Brewster, (Sir) D. Edinb. J. Sc. 1 (1824) 
.. 208-. 
Orsted, H. C. (vi Adds.) Froriep Not. 10 

(1825) 209-. 

Riess, P., (& Rose, G. Berl. Ab. (1843) 59-. 
Apatite, brucite, celestine, prehnite, natrolite, 

skolesite, datolite and axinite. Hankel, 

W. G. [1878] Leip. Mth. Ps. Ab. 12 

(1883) 1-. 
Aragonite. Hankel, W. G. [1872] Leip. Ab. 

Mth. Ps. 10 (1873) 343-. 
Boracite. Hankel, W. G. Leip. Ab. Mth. Ps. 

4 (1859) 149-. 

. Mack, K. Z. Kr. 8 (1884) 503-. 
, calcareous. Haily, R. J. A. C. 9 (1791) 

59-. 
, influence of form and temperature. 

Hankel, W. G. Pogg. A. 56 (1842) 58-. 

and pitchblende, etc. Curie, J., & 
Friedel, C. C. E. 97 (1883) 61-. 

titanite. Hankel, W. G. Pogg. A. 74 

(1848) 231-. 
Calcspar, beryl, idocrase, and apophyllite. 

Hankel, W. G. [1874] Leip. Mth. Ps. Ab. 

11 (1878) 201-. 

Fluorspar, photo- and pyro-electricity. Hankel, 

W. G. [1879] Leip. Mth. Ps. Ab. 12 (1883) 

201-. 
Gypsum, diopside, orthoclase, albite and peri- 

cline. Hankel, W. G. [1875] Leip. Mth. 

Ps. Ab. 11 (1878) 477-. 
Heavy-spar. Hankel, W. G. [1872] Leip. 

Ab. Mth. Ps. 10 (1873) 271-. 
Helvin, mellite, pyromorphite, mimetesite, 

phenakite, pennin, dioptase, strontianite, 

witherite, cerusite, euclase and titanite. 

Hankel, W. G. [1881] Leip. Mth. Ps. Ab. 

12 (1883) 549-. 

Potassium tartrate (neutral), pyro-electricity 

and crystalline form. Hankel, W. G. Pogg. 

A. 53 (1841) 620-. 
Quartz. Hankel, W. G. [1866] Leip. Ab. 

Mth. Ps. 8 (1868) 321-. 
. Friedel, C., & Curie, J. C. E. 96 (1883) 

1262-, 1389-. h 

(actino- and pyro-electricity) (Friedel and 
Curie). Hankel, W. G. Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 
35 (1883) 35-. 



Quartz (pyro-electricity and crystallographic 
system) (von Kolenko's researches). Groth, 
P. [1884] Munch. Ak Sb. 14 (1885) 1-. 

( ). Kolenko, B. von. Z. Kr. 9 

(1884) 1-. 

. Wul/, G. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 16 (Ps.) (1884) 
140-. 

(von Kolenko). Hankel, W. A. Ps. C. 26 

(1885) 150-. 

(Hankel). Kolenko, B. von, A. Ps. C. 29 

(1886) 416-. 

. Hankel, W. A. Ps. C. 32 (1887) 91-. 
. Czermak, P. Wien Ak. Sb. 96 (1888) 

(Ab. 2) 1217- ; 97 (1889) (Ab. 2a) 301-. 
. Rontgen, W. C. A. Ps. C. 39 (1890) 16-. 

and boracite crystals. Hankel, W. G. [1887] 
Leip. Mth. Ps. Ab. 14 (1888) 269-. 

Topaz. Hankel, W. G. [1842-70] Pogg. A. 

56 (1842) 37-; D. Nf. Tbl. (*1868) 95; Leip. 
Ab. Mth. Ps. 9 (1871) 357-. 

, pyro-electricity and optics, observations. 

Mack, K. A. Ps. C. 28 (1886) 153-. 
Tourmaline, etc. Becquerel, A. C. A. C. 37 

(1828) 5-, 355-. 
, . Forbes, J. D. [1832] Ph. Mg. 5 

(1834) 133-. 
. Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 42 (1856) 1264- ; 

43 (1856) 916-, 1122- ; 44 (1857) 628-; A. C. 

57 (1859) 5-. 

. Hoppe, E. Gott. Nr. (1877) 474-. 

. Riecke, E. Gott. Nr. (1885) 405- ; (1890) 
188- ; A. Ps. C. 40 (1890) 264-. 

, boracite and zinc silicate, relation of 
crystalline form to electric polarity due to 
temperature change. Kohler, F. Pogg. A. 
17 (1829) 146-. 

, marekanite and Brazilian topaz. Erman, P. 
Berl. Ab. (1829) 41-. 

, pyro-electricity, and mechanical theory of 
muscular contraction. Riecke, E. Gott. Nr. 
(1893) 19-. 

, specific electric moment, attempt to de- 
termine. Voigt, W. Gott. Nr. (1896) 207-. 

, surface connected with pyro-electricity of. 
Riecke, E. Gott. Nr. (1891) 223-. 

OTHEE SOUECES. 

Heating of spongy platinum by hydrogen. 

Michelotti, V., & Giobert, G. A. Tor. Mm. 

Ac. 30 (1826) 189-. 
Photoelectricity of fluor spar. Hankel, W. G. 

Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 29 (1877) 71-. 
silver bromide and chloride. Luggin, H. 

[1897-99] Stockh. Ak. Hndl. Bh. 23 (Afd. 1) 

(1898) No. 6, 82 pp.; 25 (1900) (Afd. 1) 

No. 1, 31 pp. 



5270 Atmospheric Electricity. 
(See also Meteorology 1600.) 

Matteucci, C. Bb. Un. 59 (1835) 38-; Spongia 

Cm. Md. 1 (1836) 516-. 
Thomson, (Sir) W. E. I. P. 3 (1858-62) 277- ; 

Ph. Mg. 20 (1860) 360- ; Manch. Ph. S. P. 2 

(1860-62) 204-. 



587 



5270 



Volpicelli, P. Rm. At. N. Line. 17 (1864) 

249-; 18 (1865) 59-; Sch. Nf. Gs. Vh. 55 

(1872) 221-. 
Tail, P. G. [1874-75] Edinb. R. S. P. 8 

(1875) 349-, 623. 
Palmieri, L. [1877] Nap. Ac. At. 7 (1878) 

No. 12, 20pp. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. A. C. 11 (1877) 86-. 
(Palmieri.) Volpicelli, P. [1877] Rm. R. Ac. 

Line. T. 2 (1878) 37-. 
Le Goarant de Tromelin, (It.) G. Rv. Mar. et 

Col. 79 (1883) 546-. 
Trowbridge, J. Science 4 (1884) 164-. 
Nahrwold, R. A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 448-; 33 

(1888) 712. 
Elster, J. , d- Geitel, H. Exner Rpm. 24 (1888) 

486-. 
Exner, F. [1888] Wien Ak. Sb. 97 (1889) 

(Ab. 2a) 277-. 

Marcet, W. Met. S. QJ. 14 (1888) 197-'. 
Elster, J., & Geitel, H. [1893] Braunschw. 

Vr. Nt. Jbr. (8) (1900) 33-. 
Jordan, K. F. Met. Z. 10 (1893) 34-. 
Gbtz, H. Augsb. Nt. Vr. B. (1894) 301-. 
Schuster, A. [1895] R. I. P. 14 (1896) 460-. 
Elster, J., <& Geitel, H. [1899] Braunschw. 

Vr. Nt. Jbr. (12) (1902) 41-. 
Wilson, C. T. E. Nt. 62 (1900) 149-. 
Aitken, J. Nt. 62 (1900) 366-. 
Air, electrification. Kelvin, (Lord), & Maclean, 

M. R. S. P. 56 (1894) 84-; 57 (1895) xxxn. 
, . Kelvin, (Lord). Glasg. Ph. S. P. 26 

(1895) 233-. 
, by combustion. Maclean, M., <6 Goto, 

M. [1889] Glasg. Ph. S. P. 21 (1890) 22-. 
, compression or expansion. Foote, 

(Mrs.) E. Am. As. P. (1857) 123-. 
, flame. Thomson, (Sir) W. [1889] 

Edinb. R. S. P. 16 (1890) 262-. 
, subtraction of water, test for. 

Kelvin, (Lord), Maclean, M., & Gait, A. 

B. A. Rp. (1894) 554-. 
, water-jet. Maclean, M., & Goto, M. 

Ph. Mg. 30 (1890) 148-. 
and other gases, electrification. Kelvin, 

(Lord), Maclean, M., & Gait, A. [1897] 

Phil. Trans. (A) 191 (1898) 187-. 

, by bubbling through liquids. 

Kelvin, (Lord), Maclean, M., & Gait, A. R. 

S. P. 57 (1895) 335-. 
, and diselectrification. Kelvin, 

(Lord), Maclean, M., <& Gait, A. B. A. Rp. 

(1895) 630-. 

, transmission of electricity through, experi- 
ments. Borgman, I. Rs. Ps.-C. S. J. 18 

(Ps.) (1886) 216- ; 19 (Ps.) (1887) 297-; 

Lum. Elect. 22 (1886) 193-, 246-; 27 (1888) 

70-, 126-, 182-. 
Aurora and atmospheric electricity. Edlund, 

E. [1878] Stockh. Ak. Hndl. 16 (1879) 

iVo. 1, 36 pp. 
, theory. Forster, W. Berl. Gs. Erdk. Vh. 

6 (1879) 35-. 
, , atmospheric, confirmation. Stassano, E. 

Rm. R. Ac. Line. Rd. 5 (1889) (Sem. 1) 210-. 
Cloud and atmospheric electricity, problems. 

Linss, . Met. Z. 4 (1887) 345-, xvi. 



Atmospheric Electricity 



5270 



Cloud electricity. Colladon, D. A. C. 33(1826) 

62-. 
, cause. Pellat, H. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1884) 181-. 
, . Elster, J., d- Geitel, H. [1886] 

Braunschw. Vr. Nt. Jbr. (4) (1887) 40-. 
, . Pellat, H. Par. S. Phlm. Mm. 

Cent. (1888) 91-. 

, occurrence. Elster, J., & Geitel, H. 
A. Ps. C, 25 (1885) 116-. 

Clouds, simultaneous observations within and 

without the clouds. Palmieri, L. Nap. Rd. 

28 (1889) 167-. 
Collector for atmospheric electricity to draw 

sparks from clear sky. Palmieri, L. Nap. 

Ac. Pont. At. 22 (1892) 205-. 
Condensation (partial) of vapour, electricity. 

Schafhtiutl [Pellisov], C. E. A. C. 2 (1841) 

of vapour, electricity. Kalischer, S. A. Ps. 
C. 20 (1883) 614-. 

, (Kalischer). Palmieri, L. Nap. 

Rd. 24 (1885) 26-, 194-, 318-. 
, (Palmieri). Kalischer, S. A. Ps. 

C. 29 (1886) 407- . 

,. Magrini, F. Ven. I. At. 
(1885-86)1607- ; Rv. Sc.-Ind. 18 (1886) 330-. 

, . Larroque, F. Lum. Elect. 23 

(1887) 22-, 70-. 
, (Larroque). Palmieri, L. Nap. 

Rd. 26 (1887) 24-. 
, . Rovelli, C. Rv. Sc.-Ind. 19 

(1887) 2-. 
, . Semmola, E. Nap. Ac. Pont. 

At. 18 (1888) 1-. 
, , condenser to observe. Palmieri, 

L. Nap. Rd. 25 (1886) 245-. 
by spark. Villari, E. Nap. Rd. 36 

(1897) 108-. 
Conductor, movable, apparatus with. Palmieri, 

L. [1865-78] (xn) Nap. Ac. Pont. At. 

9 (1871) 159- ; 12 (1878) 131-. 
Earth, electric state. Delarive, A. C. R. 64 

(1867) 1175-. 

electricity, condenser formulae for. Volpi- 
celli, P. Rm. At. N. Line. 17 (1864) 164-. 

, discharge. Smyth, C. P. Nt. 24 (1881) 

212-. 
Electric changes of bodies, due to separation or 

approach. Palmieri, L. Nap. Rd. 2 (1853) 

146-. 

kite, caution. Sturgeon, W. Ph. Mg. 5 
(1834) 317-. 

Electricity as a cosmic force. Holmgren, K. A. 

[1869-73] Stockh. Ak. Hndl. 8 (1869) 

(No. 10) 47 pp. ; 9 (1870) (No. 15) 12 pp. ; 11 

(*1873-75) No. 8, 43 pp. 
Evaporation and condensation, electricity. 

Grotthus, T. von. Gehlen J. 9 (1810) 221- . 

, , conditions for manifestation. 
Palmieri, L. Nap. Rd. 26 (1887) 195- . 

, diselectrification by. Pellat, H. Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1899) 14-. 
, electricity, experiments. W., W. Tilloch 

Ph. Mg. 13 (1802) 231-. 
,,. Palmieri, L. Nap. Rd. 24 (1885) 

198- ; 25 (1886) 17-; 27 (1888) 398-. 



588 



5270 Lightning 

Evaporation, electrification by. Peltier, A. 

C. E. 11 (1840) 908-. 
, . Majocchi, G. A. (vi Adds.) 

Majocchi A. Pis. C. 5 (1842) 74-. 
, . Schonbein, C. F. Basel B. 5 

(1843) 3. 
, . Mousson, A. [1846] Ziir. Mt. 1 

(1847) 1-. 

, . Buff, H. Lieb. A. 89 (1854) 203-. 

, . Anon, (vi 242) Bb. Un. Arch. 26 

(1854) 240-. 
, . Freeman, S. H. Am. J. Sc. 23 

(1882) 428-. 
Experiment bearing on molecular physics. 

Given, E. Am. Met. J. 6 (1889-90) 397-. 
Experimental conducting rod, automatic dis- 
charger. Serra-Carpi, G. C. E. 83 (1876) 

Experiments. Volpicelli, P. Em. At. 13 
(1859-60) 330- ; 14 (1860-61) 270-, 357-; 
16 (1862-63) 93; C. E. 51 (1860) 94-; 52 
(1861) 875-; 53 (1861) 236. 

. Weber, L. Bresl. Schl. Gs. Jbr. (1888) 

. 'McAdie, A. [1892-93] Harv. As. Obs. 

A. 40 (1896) 53-, 120-. 
Friction of ice, electrification by. Ebert, H., & 

Hoffmann, B. Met. Z. 17 (1900) 317-. 
Hail formation, relation of electricity to. 

Govi, G. Nap. Ed. 26 (1887) 73-. 



LIGHTNING. 

arresters. Wurts, A. J. Franklin I. J. 139 

(1895) 439-. 

. R. B. R. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 441. 
and arresters. Raymond, H. E. Sc. Abs. 2 

(1899) 865. 

ball-. Plante, G. Lum. Elect. 13 (1884) 286-. 
. Gezechus [Hesehus], N. Fschr. Ps. (1900) 

(.46. 2) 444-. 

, analogous phenomenon produced by in- 
duction. Mancini, E. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 1 (1892) (Sem. 2) 308-. 
, and electric flame. Gezechus [Hesehus], 

N. A. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 32 (Ps.) (1900) 127- ; 

Fschr. Ps. (1900) (Ab. 2) 445. 
and damp spark-tubes. Lepel, F. von. N.- 

Vorp. Mt. 21 (1890) 30-. 
discharge. Preston, S. T. Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 

443-. 
, apparent current strength. Pockets, F. 

Dresden Isis Sb. (1898) 8. 

and aurora borealis, oscillations. Trow- 
bridge, J. Am. J. Sc. 46 (1893) 195-. 

through telephone and lighting fittings. 
Elwell, J. B. Elect. 15 (1885) 434-. 

and discharge in vacuo. Monckman, J. [1896] 

Camb. Ph. S. P. 9 (1898) 216-. 
dischargers. Anon. Tel. J. 1 (*1864) 169-. 
effect on dynamo magnet. Traill, A. B. A. 

Ep. (1888) 615. 
and electric spark. Bidwell, S. Nt. 42 (1890) 

151-. 
figures. Tomlinson, C. Edinb. N. Ph. J. 14 

(1861) 254-; 15 (1862) 46-. 
. Zenger, C. V. C. E. 109 (1889) 294-. 



Lightning Conductors 5270 

flashes, duration. Trouvelot, E. L. C. E. 

108 (1889) 1246-. 
, identity with spark of induction machine. 

Trouvelot, E. L. C. E. Ill (1890) 483-. 
, intermittent. Hoffert f H. H. L. Ps. S. P. 

10 (1890) 176- ; Ph. Mg. 28 (1889) 106-. 
, and Leyden discharge, difference. Walker, 

C. V. L. Electr. S. P. (1843) 465-. 

Lightning Conductors. 
Kernot,W.C. [1886] Viet. E. S. T. 23 (1887) 

Bertelli, T. Moncalieri Oss. Bll. 7 (1887) 

129-. 

Rothen, . J. Tel. 13 (1889) 21-, 45-, 65-. 
Pierard, E. Ev. Un. Mines 9 (1890) 214-. 
Thirion, J., <& Tricht, V. van. Ev. Quest. Sc. 

29 (1891) 52-. 

Gruner, 0. Giving. 38 (1892) 405-. 
Speitkamp, H. [1892] Westf. Vr. Jbr. (1892- 

93) 78-. 
Canestrini, E. Padova S. Sc. At. 1 (1894) 

428-. 
Roos, J. D. C. M. de. [1894] 's Gravenh. I. 

Ing. Ts. (1894-95) (Vh.) 64-. 
Lorentz, H. A. Amst. Ak. Vs. 4 (1896) 158-. 
Waals, J. D. van der, Lorentz, H. A., & 

Kamerlingh Onnes, . Amst. Ak. Vs. 5 

(1897) 196-. 

Aliamet, M. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 358-. 
action. Naccari, A. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 24 

(1889) 137-. 

of points. LeConte, J. Science 4 (1884) 
413. 

and knobs. Porter, A. B. Science 4 

(1884) 223. 

carbon. Ulbricht, F. R. Elekttech. Z. 6 

(1885) 343-. 

construction. Weber, H. F., Billwiller, R., & 

Dufour, H. J. Tel. 9 (1885) 11-. 
factor of safety. Thompson, S. P. L. Ps. S. 

P. 9 (1888) 122- ; Ph. Mg. 25 (1888) 170-. 
fixing to gas and water pipes. Gruner, O. 

Giving. 38 (1892) 349-. 
form. Maey, E. Konigsb. Schr. 38 (1897) 

[66]-. 

of point of terminal rod. Priess, F. Brem. 
Ab. 14 (1898) 129-. 

for high current installations. Searing, L. 

Dingier 286 (1892) 47. 
installation. Hasler, G. Bern Mt. (1887) 

72-. 
. Naturf. Ges. in Bern, Komm. Bern Mt. 

(1887) 111-. 
Melsens's system. Tumlirz, 0. Lotos 34 

(1885) 199-. 
modern point of view. Lodge, O. J. Science 

16 (1890) 45-. 
plan, execution and estimate. Ritgen, 0. von. 

Dingier 265 (1887) 145- , 209-, 255-, 430 ; 

269 (1888) 207-, 254-. 
symmetric. Zenger, C. W. C. E. 75 (1872) 

.868-; B. A. Ep. 43 (1873) (Sect.) 41. 
testing. Jamieson, A. Tel. J. 14 (1884) 59-. 
-. Vyle, S. Tel. J. 14 (1884) 231-. 
theory. Lodge, 0. J. Ph. Mg. 26 (1888) 

217-. 



589 



5270 

theory and experiments. Murani, 0. Mil. At. 
Cagnola 11 (1893) 110 pp. 

protection. Musicus. Tel. J. 14 (1884) 25-. 
. Eowland, . Science 4 (1884) 316. 
. Lodge, O. Nt. 47 (1892-93) 536. 
. McAdie, A. [1893] Ciel et Terre 14 
(1893-94) 315-. 

of buildings from. Hedges, K. Br. Archt. 
J. 7 (1900) 285-, 476-. 

, and storm phenomena. Weber, L. Bresl. 

Schl. Gs. Jbr. (1887) 138-. 
return shock. Heller, T. E. Gilbert A. 2 

(1799) 223-. 

. Vincent, F. As. Fr. C. K. (1876) 
240-. 

Courtoy, E. Ciel et Terre 11 
Jl) 598-. 
stream-, experiment to explain. Croft, W. B. 

Nt. 42 (1890) 126. 
strokes and conductors, modern views. Lahm, 

. Giessen Oberh. Gs. B. 26 (1889) 98-. 
which struck the Eiffel Tower. Mascart, . 

C. E. 109 (1889) 355-. 
theory. Dolbear, A. E. Science 17 (1891) 

245. 



Atmospheric Electricity 



5270 



(i 



Measurement. Hankel, W. G. Leip. B. (1852) 

74-. 
, absolute. Hankel, W. G. Leip. Ab. Mth. 

Ps. 3 (1857) 379-. 
, . Zollner, J. C. F. As. Nr. 88 (1876) 

369-. 
, . Palmieri, L. Nap. Ed. 26 (1887) 

193-. 
of atmospheric potential, behaviour of 

different electrodes. Tufts, F. L. [1900] 

Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 385. 

, combustion apparatus. Pellat, H. 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1899) 53*. 
: E.M.F. of combustion. Pellat, H. 

C. R. 100 (1885) 735-; A. Tel. 12 (1885) 

559-. 
gradient. Elster, J., <& Geitel, H. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 98 (1890) (Ab. 2a) 909-. 
, and ultra-violet light. Elster, 

J., <f Geitel, H. Wien Ak. Sb. 101 (1892) 

(Ab. 2a) 703-. 
, instruments. Gelcich, E. Cztg. Opt. 9 

(1888) 170-, 181-, 193-. 
, and protection from lightning. McAdie, 

A. G. U. S. Weath. Bur. Bll. 26 (1899) 

9-. 
, self-recording apparatus. Giuliani, E. 

[1876] Nap. I. Inc. At. 14 (1877) 83-. 
Moisture in air, influence on atmospheric 

electricity. Exner, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 96 

(1888) (Ab. 2) 419-. 
Neutrality of vapour from electrified water. 

Blake, L. J. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1882) 635-. 
, and electricity of evaporation. 

Blake, L. J. A. Ps. C. 19 (1883) 518-. 
Observations from balloon. Tuma, J. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 101 (1892) (Ab. 2a) 1556-. 
. Bdrnstein, E. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. 

(1894) 35-. 
Bezold, von. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. 

(1894) 46-. 



Observations from balloon. Schiotz, O. E. 

Christiania Skr. (Mth.-Nt. Kl.) (1898) No. 8, 

13 pp. ; Fschr. Ps. (1898) (Ab. 2) 457. 
Eiffel Tower. Chauveau, . Par. S. Ps. 

Se. (1895) 122-. 
, electro-atmospheric and electro-telluric. 

Volpicelli, P. C. B. 57 (1863) 915-. 
, Florence. Ebiti, A., & Pasqualini, L. 

Firenze B. I. Pb.[ll] (1884) 10pp. ; [13] (1886) 

10 pp. 
, . Magrini, F. Firenze R. I. Pb. [14] 

(1888) 15 pp. 
, instruments and methods for. Thomson, 

(Sir) W. Glasg. Ph. S. P. 4 (1860) 274-. 
, of precision and methods. Chauveau, 

A. B. [1893] U. S. Weath. Bur. Bll. 11 

(1894) 569-. 
, simultaneous, necessity for. Perry, J., & 

Ayrton, W. E. Jap. As. S. T. 5 (1877) 

(Pt. 1) 131-. 
, , , and incessant recording. TJioin- 

son, (Sir) W. B. A. Ep. (1859) (pt. 2) 

27-. 
, Sonnblick. Elster, J., & Geitel, H. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 99 (1891) (Ab. 2a) 1008- ; 102 (1893) 

(Ab. 2a) 1295- ; 104 (1895) (Ab. 2a) 37-. 
Origin. Barlocci, S. G. Arcad. 46 (1830) 

253-; Poligrafo 6 (1831) 35-; 7 (1831) 345-. 
. Matteucci, C. Arch, de 1'Electr. 1 (1841) 

568-. 
. Giordano, C. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 5 (1872) 

759-. 
. Luvini, G. Wien Met. Z. 20 (1885) 

512-. 
. Sohncke, . Jena. Sb. (1885) 89-. , 

and phenomena. Larroque, F. Lum. Elect. 
23 (1887) 22-, 70-; 28 (1888) 207-. 

, variations and perturbations. Brillouin, M. 

As. Fr. C. E. (1897) (Pt. 2) 257-. 
Phenomena. Matteucci, C. Bb. Un. 56 (1834) 

328-. 
. Ladame, H. Neuch. Bll. 2 (1846-47) 

52-. 
Precipitation, atmospheric, electric nature. 

Elster, J., & Geitel, H. Wien Ak. Sb. 99 

(1891) (Ab. 2a) 421-. 
Eain formation, electrification by. Elster, J., 

& Geitel, H. A. Ps. C. 25 (1885) 121-. 
, hail and snow, and atmospheric electricity. 

Palmieri, L. Nap. Ed. 27 (1888) 436-. 
, negative electricity of. Palmieri, L. Nap. 

Ed. 26 (1887) 88-. 
Soil, electricity, experiments. Palmieri, L. 

Nap. Ed. 28 (1889) 225-. 
, , inductive or induced. Palmieri, L. 

Nap. Ed. 25 (1886) 74-. 
Solar influence. Zollner, F. Leip. B. 24 

(1872) 116-. 

. Holtz, W. Gott. Nr. (1883) 363-. 

. Nodon, A. C. R. 109 (1889) 219-. 
Static and dynamic electricity. Palmieri, L. 

Nap. Rd. 25 (1886) 114-. 
Steam, electricity from. Henry, J. Am. Ph. 

S. P. 1 (*1840) 322-. 
Storm and atmospheric electricity. Hoppe, E. 

Met. Z. 2 (1885) 1-, 100-. 

electricity, origin. Gerland,E. Elekttech. 
Z. 5 (1884) 292-. 



590 



5270 Theory 



Magnetism, General 



5400 



Storm electricity, origin, theory. Linss, . 

Met. Z. 1 (1884) 464-. 
, , . Less, . Met. Z. 6 (1889) 

275-. 

THEORY. 

Prechtl, J. J. Gehlen J. 8 (1809) 297-. 
(Prechtl's.) Confiqliachi, P. Schweigger J. 2 

(1811) 69-. 

Sohncke, L. Wien Met. Z. 20 (1885) 505. 
Exner, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 93 (1886) (Ab. 2) 

(Various theories.) Luvini, J. Lum. Elect. 

25 (1887) 74-, 122-, 300; 28 (1888) 115-, 

164-, 301-. 
(Induction, unipolar.) (Luvini.) Edlund, E. 

Lum. Elect. 25 (1887) 501-. 
(Exner's.) Palmieri, L. Nap. Ed. 26 (1887) 

224-. 
( .) Schidtz, O. E. Christiania F. (1887) 

No. 10, 24 pp. 
Edlund, E. [1888] Stockh. Ak. Hndl. 22 

(1886-90) No. 11, 16 pp. 
Sohncke, L. [1888] Munch. Ak. Sb. 18 (1889) 

21-. 
(Sohncke's.) Exner, F. Exner Kpm. 25 (1889) 

Palmieri, L. Bm. S. It. Mm. 9 (1893) No. 2, 

25pp. 
Trabert, W. Wien Ak. Sb. 103 (1894) (Ab. 2a) 

1023- ; Met. Z. 16 (1899) 377-; 17 (1900) 

129-. 
(Exner's.) Sehwalbe, G. A. Ps. 1 (1900) 

294-. 



Transport of metals by electricity. Bobierre, 

A. C. R. 67 (1868) 321-. 
Vapours, electricity, Volta's law. Canali, L. 

[1795] Turin Mm. Ac. 6 (1792-1800) (pte. 2) 

61-. 
Vulcano, ^Eolian Isles, eruptive phase, 1888-90, 

electric, thermal and luminous phenomena. 

Silvestri, O. Rm. Uff. Centr. Met. A. 10 

(Pt. 4) (1891) 214-; 
X rays and atmospheric electricity, cause of 

production, and nature of electricity. Been, 

P. de. Brux. Ac. Bll. 31 (1896) 458-. 



MAGNETISM. 
5400 General. 

Coulomb, C. A. A. C. 12 (1792) 27-. 
Kirwan, E. [1796] Ir. Ac. T. 6 (1797) 177-. 
Schelling, F. W. J. Schelling Z. Spec. Ps. 1 

(1800) (Heft 2) 142-. 

Coulomb, C. A. J. de Ps. 54 (1802) 367-. 
(Coulomb.) Carradori, G. J. de Ps. 55 (1802) 

456-. 

Hansteen, C. J. de Ps. 75 (1812) 419-. 
Schweigger, J. S. C. Schweigger J. 7 (1813) 

Harles, J. C. F. Hufeland J. Arzn. 44 (1817) 
(Heft 3) 87-; 45 (1817) (Heft 3) 3-; 46 
(1818) (Heft 1) 46-, (Heft 4) 79-. 



Horn, A. Thomson A. Ph. 9 (1817) 137-. 
Buccio, D. C. Brescia Cm. (1820) 89-. 
Studer, J. G. Brosche Z. 2 (1821) 145-. 
Swinden, J. H. van. Bb. Un. 24 (1823) 259-. 
Nobili, L. A. Sc. Lomb. Ven. 4 (1834) 167-. 
Gors, . Rouen Tr. Ac. (1836) 10-. 
Ennemoser, J. Munch. Gelehrte Az. 14 

(1842) 713-. 
Ellis, E. L. Camb. Mth. J. 4 (1845) 91-, 

139-. 
Eeichenbach, C. (Frhr. von) . Lieb. A. 55 (1845) 

Pluc'ker, J. B. A. Rp. (1853) (pt. 2) 7-. 
Laroque, F. Toul. Mm. Ac. 4 (1854) 423-. 
Faraday, M. [1855] R. I. P. 2 (1854-58) 6- ; 

Ph. Mg. 9 (1855) 81-, (vi Adds.) 253-. 
Eoch,G. SchlomilchZ. 4 (1859)415-; 6(1861) 

182-. 

Volpicelli, P. Rm. At. 14 (1860-61) 228-. 
Wiedemann,G. Pogg. A. 117 (1862) 193- ; Sch. 

Gs. Vh. 46 (1862) 106-. 
Desains.P., & Charault, E. (vi Adds.) Par. 

A. Obs. 7 (1863) 237-. 
Chase, P. E. [1864-68] Am. Ph. S. P. 9 (1865) 

367-; 10 (1869) 368-. 
Treve, (capit.) A. C. R. 68 (1869) 258-; 75 

(1872) 765-, 1508-, 1708- ; 77 (1873) 1296. 
Gaugain, J. M. C. R. 76 (1873) 86-, 1582- ; 

77 (1873) 587-, 702-, 1074-, 1465-. 
Du Moncel, T. [A. L.] C. R. 76 (1873) 280- ; 

77 (1873) 113-. 
Gaugain, J. M. C. R. 78 (1874) 246-, 798-, 

1536-, 1689- ; 79 (1874) 606-, 749-, 1299- ; 

80 (1875) 297-. 

Jamin, J. C. C. ,R. 78 (1874) 305-. 
Bouty, E. Par. EC. Norm. A. 4 (1875) 9-. 
Treve, (capit.) A. E. S. C. R. 80 (1875) 310- ; 

Rv. Mar. et Col. 45 (1875) 512-. 
Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. C. R. 80 (1875) 

532-. 

Gaugain, J.M. A. C. 8 (1876) 289-. 
Jamin, J. C. J. de Ps. 5 (1876) 41-, 73-. 
Wiedetnann, G. H. A. Ps. C. 157 (1876) 

257-. 

Thompson, S. P. [1878] Nt. 19 (1879) 79-. 
Eothen, T. Bern Mt. (1879) (Ab.) 3-. 
Hughes, D. E. Elect. 17 (1886) 197. 
Smith, W. Tel. J. 18 (1886) 8-, 31-, 47-. 
Baur, C. Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 128-, 151 -, 

185-. 
Wiedemann, G. Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 41 (1889) 

57-. 

Eicing, J. A. I. CE. P. 138 (1899) 289-. 
Atomic volume and magnetic properties, rela- 
tion. Vanderweyde, P. H. Am. As. P. 17 

(1868) 125-. 
weight and magnetism. Errera, L. Brux. 

Ac. Bll. 1 (1881) 313-. 
, periodicity. Errera, L. Brux. 

Ac. Bll. (1900) 152-. 
Attraction. Barlow, P. Edinb. Ph. J. 5 

(1821) 261-. 
. Christie, S. H. Edinb. Ph. J. 5 (1821) 

289-. 
, experiments. Ader, . C. R. 90 (1880) 

864-. 
, . Piazzoli, E. [1880] Catania Ac. 

Gioen. At. 15 (1881) 143-. 



591 



5400 Experiments Magnetism, General 



Light 5400 



Attraction of iron oxides. Lane, T. Phil. 

Trans. (1805) 281-. 
-, law, proposed. G., K. Tel. J. 17 (1885) 

507. 
, laws. Fox, R. W. Ph. Mg. 7 (1835) 439-. 

between magnet and iron, effect of induced 
magnetism. Marianini, P. D. (x) Mod. 
Ac. Sc. Mm. 10 (1869) 41-. 

and repulsion at different distances. Ma- 
grini, L. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 6 (1836) 273-. 

. Cramer, . Pogg. A. 52 

(1841) 298-. 
- . Mayer, A. M. Am. J. Sc. 

50 (1870) 195- ; Franklin I. J. 60 (1870) 

403-. 

, increase with strength of electro- 
magnet. Pliicker, J. Pogg. A. 75 (1848) 
413-. 

, law. Ritchie, W. Ph. Mg. 8 (1836) 

242-. 
, mutual, of simultaneously swinging 

magnets. Frdhlich, I. [1891] Mag. Tud. 

Ak. Etk. (Mth.) 14 (1892) No. 5, 46 pp. ; 

Mth. Nt. B. Ung. 9 (1892) 90-. 
, phenomena. Haldat du Lys, C. N. 

A. de. Nancy Mm. S. Sc. (1839) 42-. 
, theory. Rmcland, H. A. Ph. Mg. 11 

(1881) 254-. 
Chemical action, influence of magnetism. 

Remsen,!. [1881-82] Am. C. J. 3 (1881-82) 

157- ; Science 1 (*1883) 36-. 
, . Rowland, H. A. Nt. 36 

(1887) 547. 
, . Squier, G. 0. Ph. Mg. 35 

(1893) 473-. 

actions, influence on magnetism. Decharme, 
C. Lum. Elect. 27 (1888) 473-, 514-. 

Discoveries, priority claims. Lefranc, (le cure) 

. J. de Ps. 85 (1817) 160-. 
Diselectrification produced by magnetism. 

Phillips, C. E. S. [1899] E. S. P. 65 (1900) 

320. 
Electromagnetism, theory. Farkas, G. Mth. 

Termt. Ets. 16 (1898) 321- ; Mth. Nt. B. Ung. 

16 (1899) 111-. 

EXPERIMENTS. 

Rittenhouse, D. [1781] Am. Ph. S. T. 2 (1786) 

178. 
Madison, J. [1798] Am. Ph. S. T. 4 (1799) 

323-. 

Ritter, J. W. J. de Ps. 57 (1803) 406-. 
Gerhard, W. Oken Isis (1822) 410-. 
Kretschmar, . Schweigger J. 35 ( = Jb. 5) 

(1822) 465-. 
(Kretschmar.) Kries, F. Schweigger J. 36 

(=Jb. 6) (1822) 452-. 

Pianciani, G. B. G. Arcad. 61 (1833) 107-. 
Arndtsen, A. A. C. 56 (1859) 246-. 
Fincke, B. Elect. 2 (1862) 68-. 
Kiilp, L. Arch. Mth. Ps. 52 (1871) 448-; 53 

(1871) 66-. 
Pisati, G., & Scichilone, S. Spet. It. Mm. 5 

(1876) (App.) 5-. 
Eiving, J. A. [1885] Phil. Trans. 176 (1886) 

523-. 



Fromme, C. A. Ps. C. 53 (1894) 236-. 

on magnets. Robineau-Beaulieu, de. Aix 

Ac. Mm. 1819) 228-. 
. Prechtl, J. J. Gilbert A. 68 (1821) 

104-. 

Field in buildings, intensity. Witz, A. J. de 
Ps. 6 (1887) 43-. 

Groningen Laboratory. Wind, C. H. 
Amst. Ak. Vs. [1] (1893) 140-. 

Jefferson Laboratory. Willson, R. W. 

Am. J. Sc. 39 (1890) 87-, 456-. 
Fields, alternating. Ebert, H. [1896] Schl.- 

Holst. Nt. Vr. Schr. 11 (1898) 10-. 
Heat due to rapidly alternating magnetisation. 

Emo, A. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 22 (1890) 1-, 63-, 

159-, 235-. 
History, 1872-97. Jamieson, A. Elect. Ev. 

41 (1897) 680-. 
Law, Newton's, proof. Kurz, A. Carl Epm. 18 

(1882) 566. 
Laws. Tyndall, J. Ph. Mg. 1 (1851) 266-. 

LIGHT. 

action, magnetic. Draper, J. W. Franklin I. 
J. 15 (1835) 79-, 155-. 

on magnetism. Bidwell, S. E. S. P. 45 

453-. 



. Hart, J. H. Am. J. Sc. 10 (1900) 

' . Melander, G. Helsingf. Acta 26 

(1900) No. 8, 27 pp. 
apparatus for experiments. Morichini, D. G. 

Arcad. 18 (1823) 133-. 
magnetic rays, new experiments. Cassola, F. 

Bb. It. 59 (1830) 129-. 
magnetisation of iron by. Baumgartner, A . von. 

Baumgartner Z. 1 (1826) 263-. 
and magnetism, connection. Gibbs, G. Silli- 

man J. 1 (1818) 89-, 207. 
solar rays, magnetic influence. Christie, S. H. 

Phil. Trans. (1826) 219- ; (1828) 379-. 
-, (Christie). Baumgartner, A. von. 

Baumgartner Z. 3 (1827) 96-. 
, . Smith, R. B. Calc. J. NH. 3 

(1843) 240-, 368-. 

, phenomena due to. Barlocci, S. 
G. Arcad. 41 (1829) 145- ; 43 (1829) 12-. 

, magnetising power. Moser, L., t& Riess, 

P. Pogg. A. 16 (1829) 563-. 
and shadow, oscillations of magnet in. 

Baumgartner, A. von. Baumgartner Z. 3 

(1827) 157-. 
, variations of magnets due to. Zante- 

deschi, F. Bb. Un. 42 (1829) 193-. 
violet rays, action, magnetic polarity excited 

by. Ridolfi, C. Pistoja At. Ac. (1816) 79-. 

, magnetising power. Morichini, D. 
[1812] Brugnatelli G. 6 (1813) 274-. 

, . Schonberg, A. von. Schweigger 

J. 6 (1812) 327-. 
, . Configliachi, P. J. de Ps. 77 

(1813) 212-. 
, . Morichini, D. J. de Ps. 77 

(1813) 293-. 
, (Morichini). Grotthus, T. (Frhr.) 

von. Schweigger J. 9 (1813) 335-. 



592 



5400 Magnetism, General Natural and Artificial Magnets 5410 



violet rays, magnetising power (Morichini). 

Moscati, P. Gilbert A. 45 (1813) 338-. 
, . Ridolft, (marchese) C. Brugna- 

telli G. 9 (1816) 333-; Bb. Un. 5 (1817) 

,' (Morichini). Playfair, J. G. 

Bb. Un. 6 (1817) 81-. 
, . Hombres-Firmas, L. A. d\ J. 

de Ps. 88 (1819) 459-. 
, . Murray, (Mr.) J. Tilloch Ph. 

Mg. 53 (1819) 268-. 
, . Zantedeschi, F. Bb. Un. 41 

(1829) 64-. 

and other more refrangible rays, magnetising 
power. Somerville, M. Phil. Trans. (1826) 
(pt. 2) 132-. 

, . Knox, G. J., d- 

Knox, T. Ir. Ac. P. 1 (1841) 393-. 

Lightning, magnetisation of bricks by. Gamba, 
P. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 8 (1899) (Sem. 2) 
316-. 

Magnetic action and affections. Faraday, M. 
[1856] E. I. P. 2 (1854-58) 196-. 

through various bodies. Gintl, W. 
Baumgartner Z. 7 (1840) 1-. 

on various bodies. Wartmann, E. Bb. 

Un. Arch. 8 (1848) 45-. 
brass wire. Muncke, G. W. Pogg. 

A. 6 (1826) 361-. 

(Muncke). Poggendorff, J. C. 

Pogg. A. 6 (1826) 367-. 

human organism. Kennelly, , <& 
Peterson, . Ev. Sc. 51 (1893) 411. 
photographic plates. Braham, P. 

B. A. Ep. (1889) 519-. 

condition of flame and of elastic fluids. 
Melloni, M. Nap. Ed. 7 (1848) 172-. 

matter. Faraday, M. B. A. Ep. 

(1847) (pt. 2) 20-. 

forces on small spheres, and diamagnetic 
phenomena. TJwmson, (Sir) W. Camb. and 
Dubl. Mth. J. 2 (1847) 230-. 

and voltaic action on iron and steel structures. 
Cresson, C. M. Franklin I. J. 70 (1875) 
340-. 

Magnetism and its electric derivation. Prechtl, 
J. J. Gilbert A. 67 (1821) 81-. 

of elements and Mendelejeffs periodic law. 
Carnelley, T. Berl. B. 12 (1879) 1958-. 

gases. Scarpellini, C. Em. Cor. Sc. 2 

(1853) 205-. 
. Chautard, J. C. E. 64 (1867) 

1141-. 
. Efitnov, A. Es. Ps.-C. S. r J. 20 

(Ps.) (1888) 115-, 252- ; J. de Ps. 7 (1888) 

(Efimov). Goldhammer, D. A. Es. 

Ps.-C. S. J. 21 (Ps.) (1889) 129-. 
iron wires (thin). Gough, J. Nicholson 

J. 13 (1806) 96-. 

liquids. Quet, . C. E. 38 (1854) 562-. 

steam. Phillips, Reub. Ph. Mg. 34 

(1849) 502- ; 37 (1850) 283-. 
Mathematical analysis, application to theories 

of electricity and magnetism. Green, G. 

[1828] Crelle J. 39 (1850) 73-; 44 (1852) 

356-; 47 (1854) 161-. 



Mechanical work, conversion into magnetism. 

Liancenko, M. S. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 20 (Ps.) 

(1888) 208. 
Mirrors of magnetism. Thompson, S. P. B. 

A. Ep. (1894) 574-. 
. Thompson, S. P., d- Walker, M. 

[1894] L. Ps. S. P. 13 (1895) 310- ; Ph. 

Mg. 39 (1895) 213-. 
, images. Jaeger, H. A. Ps. C. 63 

(1897) 137-. 
Needle, declination. Easton, N. W. Jb. Mijnw. 

Ned. Ind. 24 (1895) [Pt. 2] 5 (bis)-. 
Needles, freely-suspended, magnetic or not, 

sympathetic movements. Lagrange, . 

[1895] Nt. .53 (1895-96) 183. 
Phenomena. Stratico, S. [1816] Mil. Mm. 

I. Lomb. Yen. 3 (1816-17) 115-. 
. Waltenhofen,A.von. Z. Mth. Ps. 9 (1864) 

221-. 

. Porter, E. C. N. 21 (1870) 164-. 
. Bidwell.S. [1890] E. I. P. 13 (1893) 50-. 

of fluid whirls analogous to magnetic whirls. 
Weyher, C. C. E. 127 (1898) 811-. 

magnetisation. Nairac, de. Bb. Un. 

55 (1834) 15-. 

Principles. Morris, C. J. Sc. 4(1882)23-, 68-. 
Problem. Plateau, J. A. F. Brux. Ac. Sc. 

Mm. 34 (1864) 37 pp. 
Source, new, of magnetism. Tommasi, D. C. 

E. 80 (1875) 1007. 
,, (Tommasi). Maumene, E. J. C. 

E. 80 (1875) 1138. 
Vibrations, electric, and iron. Klemencic, I. 

Steierm. Mt. (1895) Ixvii. 

due to magnetisation. Delarive, A. A. C. 
16 (1846) 93- ; C. E. 20 (1845) 1287-. 



5410 Natural and Artificial 
Magnets. (See also 6030.) 

AETIFICIAL MAGNETS. 

Woestyn, A. C. A. C. 26 (1849) 520-. 
Brewster, (Sir) D. B. A. Ep. (1850) (pt. 2) 4. 
Jamin, J. Mon. Sc. 7 (1865) 163-. 
Treve, (capit.) A. C. E. 75 (1872) 478-. 
Logeman, W. M. Les Mondes 31 (1873) 13-. 
Blondlot, E. C. E. 82 (1876) 454-. 
Willigen, V. S. M. van der. Haarl. Ms. Teyl. 

Arch. 4 (1878) 133-. 
Battery, magnetic, experiments. Lildicke, M. 

A. F. Gilbert A. 9 (1801) 375-. 
Best form. Lamont, J. Pogg. A. 113 (1861) 

239-. 
Brass, magnetised. Rankin, (Rev.) T. B. A. 

Ep. (1849) (pt. 2) 29. 
Breaking of magnets. Bouty, E. C. E. 78 

(1874) 280-. 
Centre, magnetic. Jung, G. Mil. I. Lomb. 

Ed. 15 (1882) 407-. 
, , of soft iron. Heller, T. E. Gilbert A. 

4 (1800) 477-. 
Constants. Kohlrausch, F. Tel. E . J. 13 (1884) 

482-. 
Constitution, internal. Jamin, J. C. C. E. 

82 (1876) 19-. 



593 



5410 Magnets 



Magnetisation of Various Bodies 5410 



Construction, conditions. Trouve, G. C. B. 

93 (1881) 311-. 
, method. Cunningluim, J. B. A. Bp. (1837) 

(pt. 2) 38. 
, , best. Bottger, R. (vi Adds.) Majocchi 

A. Fis. C. 1 (1841) 109-. 
Deposits formed in magnetic field, properties. 

Maurain, C. C. B. 131 (1900) 410-, 880-. 
Electric qualities of magnetised iron. Thomson , 

(Sir) W. B. A. Ep. (1855) (pt. 2) 19-. 
Energy, circumstances affecting. Scoresby, 

(Rev.) W. B. A. Ep. (1843) (pt. 2) 13-. 
Experiments. Steege, J. van der. Batav. Gn. 

Vh. 1 (1779) 75-. 
Force and size, relation between. Keil, . 

Quetelet Cor. Mth. 7 (1832) 316-. 
Forces, demagnetising, in iron cylinders. 

Ascoli, M., & Lori, F. Em. B. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 3 (1894) (Sem. 2) 190-. 
, and bundles. Ascoli, M. Em. 

E. Ac. Line. Ed. 6 (1897) (Sem. 2) 129-. 
Iron ore, magnetic concentration. Birkinbine, 

J. [1890] Am. I. Mn. E. T. 19 (1891) 

656-. 
, . Ho/man, W. H. (et alii). [1891] 

Am. I. Mn. E. T. 20 (1892) 575-. 
, . Langdon, N. M. [1891] Am. 

I. Mn. E. T. 20 (1892) 599-. 
, . Hoffman, W. H. [1891] Am. I. 

Mn. E. T. 20 (1892) 602-. 
, . Landis, E. K. [1891] Am. I. 

Mn. E. T. 20 (1892) 609-, 611-. 
, . Phillips, W. B. [1895] Am. I. 

Mn. E. T. 25 (1896) 399-. 
, separation. Ball,C.M. [1895] Am. 

I. Mn. E. T. 25 (1896) 533-. 
Loss of magnetism. Jamin,J. C. B. 77 (1873) 

1445-. 
, gradual. Lamont, J. Pogg. A. 82 

(1851) 440-. 
in steel bars. Sturgeon, W. B. S. P. 

5 (1845) 562-. 

MAGNETISATION. 

Savary, F. [1826] A. C. 34 (1827) 5-, 220-. 
Nickles,J. C. B. 39 (1854) 635- ; A. C. 2 (1864) 

230-. 
abnormal. Jamin, J. C. C. B. 80 (1875) 

841-. 

coefficients, for bodies of various forms. Mas- 
cart, E. E. N. C. B. 102 (1886) 991-. 
, (Mascart). Love, E. F. J. 

Ph. Mg. 22 (1886) 46-. 
electric condition of magnets during. Gross, 

T. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1887) 73-. 
by induction. Babinet, J. C. E. 22 (1846) 

191-. 
, thermal and chemical effects. Duhem, 

P. C. B. 105 (1887) 1113-, 1240-. 
method. Aime, G. A. C. 57 (1834) 442-. 
. Scoresby, (Rev.) W. B. A. Bp. (1846) 

(pt. 2) 35. 
. Svanberg, A. F. Stockh. Ofv. 4 (1847) 

60-. 
. Walker, W. Franklin I. J. 15 (1848) 



method. Hamann, E. F. Pogg. A. 85 (1852) 
464-. 

of double touch. Gaugain, J. M. C. B. 81 
(1875) 1091-. 

, improvement. Coulomb, C. A. 
Nicholson J. 2 (1799) 80-. 

separate touch, experiments. Decharme, 

C. C. E. 110 (1890) 1069- ; Lum. Elect. 36 

(1890) 507-. 
normal. Petruschevsky , T. A. Ps. C. 160 

(1877) 388-, 537-. 
superposed. Decliarme, C. C. E. 112 (1891) 

523- ; Lum. Elect. 40 (1891) 251-. 
transverse, of conductors. Janet, P. C. B. 

105 (1887) 934- ; 110 (1890) 453- ; J. de Ps. 

9 (1890) 497-; 10 (1891) 20-. 
, by magnets, experiments. Decharme, C. 

C. E. Ill (1890) 340- ; Lum. Elect. 38 (1890) 

151-, 215-. 
, undulatory. Decharme, C. C. E. 110 

(1890) 1000- ; Lum. Elect. 36 (1890) 351-. 

MAGNETISATION OF VARIOUS 
BODIES. 

Iron. 

abnormal magnetisation. Waltenhofen, A. von. 

Wien SB. 48 (Ab. 2) (1863) 564-. 
bars, temporary magnetisation. Donati, L., & 

Poloni, G. N. Cim. 13 (1875) 83-, 226-. 
cast iron and steel bars , new process. Scoresby , 

(Rev.) W. B. A. Bp. (1844) (pt. 2) 12. 
cylinders. Ascoli, M. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 

3 (1894) (Sem. 1) 314-. 

. Grotrian, 0. A. Ps. C. 52 (1894) 735-. 
. Ascoli, M. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 4 (1895) 

(Sem. 1) 341-. 

. Grotrian, 0. A. Ps. C. 54 (1895) 452-. 
, hollow and solid. Grotrian, 0. A Ps. C. 

50 (1893) 705-. 
, . Du Bois, H. A. Ps. C. 51 (1894) 

529-. 
ore. Jones, C. [1890] Am. I. Mn. E. T. 19 

(1891) 289-. 

reciprocal effects of magnetisation at right 

angles in. Janet, P. C. E. 108 (1889) 

398-. 
rings. Ettingshausen, A. von. Wien Az. 16 

(1879) 184-. 
, hollow and solid. Kirstadter, F. [1896-98] 

A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 72-. 
, slit radially. Lehmann, H. A. Ps. C. 48 

(1893) 406-. 
soft, elliptic and rectangular plates. La Roche, 

C. A. Ps. C. 35 (1888) 168-. 
and steel, ellipsoids. Holz, A. L. A. Ps. C. 

(Ergdnz.) 8 (1878) 353-. 
, transverse magnetisation. Villari, E. 

(xi) A. Ps. C. 137 (1869) 569-. 
tubes and spirals, intensity of magnetisation. 

Gerosa, G. G. Em. B. Ac. Line. Ed. 7 

(1891) (Sem. 2) 151-. 

Magnetite, artificial magnetisation. Pacinotti, 
A. N. Cim. 16 (1884) 275-. 



594 



5410 



Natural and Artificial Magnets 



5410 



Metals, phenomena. Ward, W. S. E. S. P. 

5 (1849) 855-. 
Minerals. Phipson, T. L. Par. Bll. S. C. 7 

(1867) 322. 
Needles, effect of length. Morin, P. Par. S. 

Ps. S6. (1898) 31-. 
Pyrrhotite, plane magnetisation. Weiss, P. 

C. E. 126 (1898) 1099- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1899) 

87-. 
Eing, magnetisation by partial winding. Sauter, 

J. A. Ps. C. 62 (1897) 85-. 

Steel. 

Quetelet, L. A. J. A. C. 53 (1833) 248-. 

Bouty, E. C. E. 78 (1874) 842-. 

Gray, A. Elect. 25 (1890) 594. 

bars. Elias, P. Pogg. A. 62 (1844) 249-. 

. Wiedemann, G. Pogg. A. 100 (1857) 

235-. 
. Frankenheim, M. L. A. Ps. C. 123 (1864) 

49-. 
. Fronnne, C. Gott. Nr. (1875) 297-; A. 

Ps. C. (Erganz.) 1 (1876) 390-. 
, by circular touch. Sjosten, C. J. Stockh. 

Ak. Hndl. 23 (1802) 191- ; Gilbert A. 17 

(1804) 325-. 
, 2, end to end in solenoid. Cunningham, P. 

Froriep Not. 46 (1835) 113-. 

and plates. Coulomb, C. A. Par. Mm. de 
PI. 6 (1806) 399-. 

soft iron. Fromuie, C. [1877-82] A. 

Ps. C. 4 (1878) 76- ; 5 (1878) 345- ; Giessen 

Oberh. Gs. B. 22 (1883) 65-. 
, by stroking. Schmitt, A. Pogg. A. 106 

(1859) 646-. 
temporary magnetisation. Bouty, E. C. E. 

81 (1875) 88-. 
thin plates. Bottger, JR. Pogg. A. 67 (1846) 

112-. 
(Bottger). Elias, P. Pogg. A. 67 (1846) 

356-. 

, transverse magnetisation. Donle, W. 
A. Ps. C. 41 (1890) 288-. 

tubes. Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 85 (1877) 615-, 
1014- ; 87 (1878) 649-. 

MAGNETISATION BY ELECTRICITY. 

by frictional electricity. Bockmann, C. W. 

Bb. Un. 17 (1821) 125-. 
. Beek, A. van. Bb. Un. 18 (1821) 

184-. 
. Hill, C. J. D. [1822] Schweigger 

J. 34 (=J6. 4) (1822) 290- ; (vi Adds.) Lund 

Phys. Sallsk. Arsb. (1823) 44-. 
- and voltaic electricity, experiments. 
Negro, S. dal. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 1 (1831) 
278-, 434- ; 2 (1832) 273-. 

, of needle in helix. Beek, A. van. 

Bb. Un. 17 (1821) 21-, 195-. 

induction coil current, through rarefied gas 
in glass helix. Treves, M. C. E. 75 (1872) 
1624. 

Leyden jar through helix. Moll, G. Edinb. 
Ph. J. 6 (1822) 83-, 220- ; Hall Bij. 2 (1826) 
372-. 



by Leyden jar and pile and magnet. Maria- 
nini, S. (vm) Mod. Eelazione (1843) 7- ; 
(vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. C. 14 (1844) 3-. 

momentary currents. Volpicelli, P. Pa- 
lomba Eac. 5 (1849) 142. 

oscillating discharges. Veillon, H. Arch. 
Sc. Ps. Nt. 34 (1895) 364-; 1 (1896) 305-, 
409-. 

voltaic electricity. Arago, D. F. J. A. C. 
15 (1820) 93-. 

. Biot, J. B. J. Sav. (1821) 221-. 

. Bockmann. C. W. Gilbert A. 68 

(1821) 1-. 
. Lehot, C. J. Gilbert A. 68 (1821) 

306-. 

. Moll, G. Pogg. A. 29 (1833) 468-. 

i . Smith, J. L. Silliman J. 36 (1839) 

335-. 

. Abria, . A. C. 1 (1841) 385-. 

. Fechner, G. T. Pogg. A. 55 (1842) 

189-. 

. [Marianini non] Mariannini, S. 
(vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. C. 5 (1842) 
37-. 

. MUller, (Dr.) J. Pogg. A. 79 (1850) 

337-; 85 (1852) 157-. 
. joule, J. P. E. S. P. 7 (1854-55) 

488-. 
. Bouty, E. J. de Ps. 4 (1875) 367- ; 

Par. EC. Norm. A. 5 (1876) 123-. 
(abnormal magnetisation) . Alessandri, 

G., <& Bartoli, A. N. Cim. 8 (1880) 

16-. 
. Abt, A. Orv.-Termt. Ets. (Termt. 

Szak) (1896) 52-, (Rv.) 17-. 
, comparative experiments. Decharme, 

C. Lum. Elect. 43 (1892) 155-. 
, laws. Seebeck, T. J. Schweigger J. 

32( = J6. 2) (1821)27-. 
, . Jamin, J. C. E. 77 (1873) 



in plane spiral. Pfaff, J. W. Gilbert 

A. 69 (1821) 84-. 

MAGNETS, VARIOUS KINDS. 

ancient. Bernackij, V. A. Vars. S. Nt. Tr. 

(1899) (C. R., Ps. C.) No. 2, 21 pp. 
armed, and some methods of magnetisation. 

Marianini, P. D. N. Cim. 4 (1856) 231-. 
bar, crossed, properties. Tippler, A. J. I. Berl. 

Ak. Sb. (1883) 925-. 

, hollow. Nobili,L. Pogg. A. 34 (1835) 270- . 
and horseshoe, ratio of lifting power. 

Hacker, P. W. D. Nf. Vsm. B. (1845) 123-. 
, influence of currents and pulling. Villari, 

E. Berl. Mb. (1865) 380- ; A. Ps. C. 126 

(1866) 87-. 
, length on attractive power. Nickles, 

J. C. E. 36 (1853) 490-. , 
, properties. Quillet, V. Eclair. Elect. 18 

(1899) 441-. 
cast iron. Crahay, J. G. Brux. Ac. Bll. 20 

(1853) (pte. 2) 400-. 
, case-hardening and tempering. Rundell, 

W. W. Cornwall Pol. S. T. (1850) 29-. 
chilled cast iron. Florimond, . Brux. Ac. 

Bll. 7 (1859) 368-. 



595 



5410 



Permanent Magnets 



5410 



of compressed powder. Jamin, J. C. C.B. 81 

(1875) 205- . 
elliptic. Tremery, J. L. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 1 

(1797) 44-. 
. [Tremery, J. L. non] Vassalli-Eandi,A.M. 

J. Mines 6 (1796-97) 547-. 
horseshoe, magnetisation. Wittmann, F. 

Termt. Kozl. 22 (1890) (Suppl.) 46-. 
, powerful, making by stroking. Mohr, C. F. 

Pogg. A. 36 (1835) 542-. 
laminated. Jamin, J. C. C. E. 78 (1874) 

1383-. 
, Jamin's. Ascoli, M. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 6 (1897) (San. 2) 61-. 
, , lifting power. Sandoz, A. C. E. 80 

(1875) 1605-. 
, , and natural magnet. Abt, A. Orv.- 

Termt. Ets. (Termt. Szak) (1889) 1-, 87-. 

Permanent Magnets. 

Bosanquet, R. H. M. Ph. Mg. 18 (1884) 142-. 
Thompson, S. P. Elect. 27 (1891) 240-, 274-, 

355-. 
Chistoni, C., & Vecchi, G. G. de. Mod. Ac. Sc. 

Mm. 1 (1898) 37- ; 2 (1900) 125-. 
cast iron for. Hearder, J. N. Cornwall Pol. 

S. T. (1850) 16-, 24-. 
constancy. Klemencic, L Wien Ak. Sb. 109 

(1900) (Ab. 2a) 242-. 
, influence of tempering. Bams, C., d; 

Strouhal, V. A. Ps. C. 20 (1883) 662-. 
form. Paget, F. A. Ph. Mg. 37 (1869) 18-. 
limiting specific magnetism. Andreas, E. 

Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 485-, 497-. 
loss of magnetisation. Bosanquet, R. H. M. 

Ph. Mg. 19 (1885) 57-; 22 (1886) 500-. 
. Klemencic, I. Wien Ak. Sb. 109 

(1900) (Ab. 2o) 827-. 
with pieced armatures. Fossati, E. N. dim. 

15 (1884) 158-, 232-. 
powerful. Silliman, B. (jun.) Am. As. P. 4 

(1850) 227-. 
quality of steel for. Preece, W. H. Elect. 25 

(1890) 546-. 
. Osmond, F. C. E. 128 (1899) 

1513-. 

theory. Neumann, C. Mth. A. 6 (1873) 330-. 
of tungsten steel. Klemencic, I. Wien Ak. 

Sb. 105 (1896) (Ab. 2a) 635-. 

polymagnet. Tyndall, J. Ph. Mg. 9 (1855) 

425-. 
steel. Brown, W. [1888] Ph. Mg. 27 (1889) 

270-. 
, connected, experiments. Liidicke, M.A.F. 

Gilbert A. 11 (1802) 114-. 
.hardening. Holborn,L. Z. Instk. 11 (1891) 

113-. 
, hollow and solid, comparison. Holtz, W. 

A. Ps. C. 10 (1880) 694-. 
, magnetic moments, effects of percussion. 

Brown, W. [1886] Glasg. Ph. S. P. 18 

(1887)41-. 
, , and annealing. Brown, W. 

Ph. Mg. 23 (1887) 420-. 
, magnetisation. Hoffer, J. Baumgartner 

Z. 2 (1833) 197-, 360- ; 3 (1835) 193-. 



steel, magnetisation and making. Cameron, P. 

B. A. Ep. (1855) (pt. 2) 10. 
, making. Steinhauser, J. G. Schweigger 

J. 33 (=Jb. 3) (1821)31-. 
, self -hardening. Peirce, B. 0. Am. J. 

Sc. 5 (1898) 334-. 
temporary. Napoli, R. (vr Adds.) Nap. Bll. 

Ac. Asp. (1861) 29-. 
, effect of magnetising force on strength. 

Quintus-Icilius, G. von. A. Ps. C. 121 

(1864) 125-. 

Mechanical actions produced by magnets and 

terrestrial magnetism. Le Cordier, P. C. 

E. 96 (1883) 1123-. 
Metals, magnetic. Gaiffe, A. C. E. 93 (1881) 

461-. 
Moment, magnetic, of bundles of iron wire. 

Bakhmet'ev, P. (xn) Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 15 

(Ps., Pt. 1) (1883) 142- ; J. de Ps. 3 (1884) 

463-. 
, , change by shaking, scraping, &G. Kriise, 

K. Wien Ak. Sb. 109 (1900) (Ab. 2a) 195-. 
, , and temperature coefficient, relation. 

Prodinger, M. Wien Ak. Sb. 109 (1900) 

(Ab. 2a) 383-. 
Needle of cobalt. Seebeck, T. J. Gehlen J. 7 

(1808) 208-. 
, improvement. Eaton, A. Silliman J. 12 

(1827) 14-. 
, . Francceur, L. B. Par. Bll. S. Encour. 

26 (1827) 249-. 

and magnet. Giordano, C. Les Mondes 5 
(1883) 205-. 

with several poles. Hdllstrbm, G. G. Mg. 
Ntvd. 6 (1825) 231-. 

, preservation from oxidation. Christie, S. 

H. B. A. Ep. (1841) (pt. 2) 41-. 
, rotation, new case. Augustinis, E. de. (xu) 

Nap. Ac. Asp. A. 3 (1846) 95-. 
, symmetrical. Spaczynsky, E. K. Fschr. 

Ps. (1889) (Ab. 2) 611-. 
, theories. Spindler, J. Gilbert A. 33 (1809) 

470-. 
Permanent magnetism. Bosanquet, R. H. M. 

Ph. Mg. 15 (1883) 257-, 309-. 
. Osmond, M. F. L. Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 

382- ; Ph. Mg. 29 (1890) 511-. 
of s teel. Hacker, P. W. D. Nf. Vsm. 

B. (1845) 122. 

. Bouty, E. C. E. 78 (1874) 559-. 

and nickel. Abt, A. Orv.-Termt. 

Ets. (Termt. Szak) (1890) 181-, 243- ; Cztg. 

Opt. 11 (1890) 229-. 
_ steels. Osmond, F. Gen. Civ. 7 

(1885) 148-. 
, variation. Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 86 

(1878) 536-. 

and temporary magnetism. Glisenti,C. (xn) 
Brescia At. Cm. (1870-73) 204-, 297- ; (1874) 

Polar distance of bar magnets, and strength. 

Pouillet, C. S. M. C. E. 67 (1868) 853-. 
, (Pouillet). Radau, R. 

C. E. 67 (1868) 1002. 

, induction- and temperature-coefficient of 

magnet. Kohlrausch, F. Gott. Nr. (1883) 
396-. 



596 



5410 Poles 

Polar distance of magnets, determination. 

Benoit, R. C. E. 84 (1877) 76-. 
, . Borgen, C. A. der Hydrog. 

19 (1891) 49-, 93-. 
Polarity. Delia Casa, L. Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 

7 (1867) 113-. 

, inverse permanent, of magnetic steel. 
Righi, A. (xn) Kv. Sc.-Ind. 12 (1880) 364-. 

in metals. Sturgeon, W. Ph. Mg. 11 (1832) 
270-, 324- ; 1 (1832) 31-. 

and neutrality. Hughes, D. E. B. S. P. 
36 (1884) 405-. 

, permanent, in various substances. Lodge, 
O. Nt. 33 (1886) 484-. 

of rifles. Spitter, J. C. N. 15 (1867) 
15-. 

POLES. 

of bar magnet. Riecke, E. [1872] Gott. Nr. 

(1872) 251- ; A. Ps. C. 149 (1873) 62-. 
, theory. Riecke, C. V. E. A. Ps. C. 

8 (1879) 299-. 

consequent. Tomlinson, C. C. N. 21 (1870) 

193-. 
counter-, in magnetisation, and destruction of 

terminal poles. Duchemin, E. Mon. Sc. 15 

(1873) 508-. 

and neutral points. Berlin, A. A. C. 16 

(1869) 74-. 
, relative position. Bertin,A. Strasb. 

S. H. Nt. Mm. 5 (Livr. 2 & B) (1862) 28 pp. 
number at the surface of magnetic body. 

Stieltjes, . C. B. 102 (1886) 805. 
position. Schiirr, C. J. de Ps. 7 (1898) 

282-. 

in bar magnet. Volpicelli, P. C. E. 64 
(1867) 1197-. 

, and absolute measure of magnetic 

forces. Pouillet, C. S. M. C. E. 62 (1866) 
257-. 
, simple method of finding. Matter, 

F. C. G. A. Ps. C. 154 (1875) 474-. 

, determination. Petruschevsky, T. A. Ps. 

C. 152 (1874) 42-. 
, . Mascart, E. E. N. C. E. 104 (1887) 

635-. 

in long magnets. Bouty, E. J. de Ps. 4 
(1875) 367-. 

, and strength of magnet. Cazin, A. (ix) 
Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 7 (1871) 178-. 

, thin magnets. Bouty, E. C. E. 

80 (1875) 879-. 

Power determination, etc. Scoresby, (Rev.) W. 

B. A. Ep. (1842) (pt. 2) 19. 

, lost, restoration. Muncke, G. W. Pogg. 
A. 50 (1840) 221-. 

of magnet, effect of currents induced by 
magnet. Wheatstone, (Sir) C. E. S. P. 15 
(1867) 369-. 

in terms of power of component parts. 

Lenz, E. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Mm. 3 (1838) 

(Bll. Sc.) i-. 
, means of increasing. Scoresby, (Rev.) W. 

G. E. 6 (1838) 310-. 

, , and theory of magnets. Jamin, J. 

C. E. 76 (1873) 789-. 



Natural Magnets 5410 

Separation, magnetic, of non-magnetic material. 
Wilkens, H. A. J., <& Nitze, H. B. 0. [1896] 
Am. I. Mn. E. T. 26 (1897) 351-, 1089-. 

of magnetic from non-magnetic material, 
apparatus for. Syo, E. de. Dingier 288 
(1893) 203- ; 289 (1893) 227-. 

Separator, magnetic (Wenstrom). Cook, R. A. 

Am. I. Mn. E. T. 17 (1839) 599-. 
, , of ore (Bald-Norton). Bald, C. M. 

[1890] Am. I. Mn. E. T. 19 (1891) 187-. 
, , (Chase). Chase, H. S. [1892] 

Am. I. Mn. E. T. 21 (1893) 503-. 
, , (Wetherill process). Borchers, W. 

Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 377-. 
, , for zinc iron ores. Ferrares, E. [1894] 

Z. Elekttech. Elektch. (1894-95) 363-. 
Separators, magnetic, forms. McNeill, H. C. 

I. & S. I. J. (1899) (No. 2) 18-. 
Static electricity, influence. Canestrini, E. 

Ev. Sc.-Ind. 17 (1885) 1-, 33-. 
Tempering of magnets. Clemandot, . Par. 

S. Ps. 86. (1885) 62-. 
Temporary magnetism. Negro, S. dal. A. Sc. 

Lomb. Yen. 5 (1835) 165-. 
. Gazzaniga, C. L. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 

6 (1836) 287-. 
. Auerbach, F. A. Ps. C. 11 (1880) 

353-. 
Uses of magnets. Keil, . QJ. Sc. (1829) 

(Pt. 2) 396-. 
Vibrations, effect on temporary and residual 

magnetism. Berson, G. Toul. Ac. Sc. Mm. 

6 (1894) 226-. 
, simultaneous, of 2 magnets. Obermann, J. 

Arch. Mth. Ps. 60 (1877) 1-. 

NATUEAL MAGNETS. 

Baked earths. Gherardi, S. (vi Adds.) N. 
Cim. 18 (1863) 108- ; (vn) Bologna Ed. (1864) 

and bricks. Gherardi, S. Bologna Mm. 

Ac. Sc. 3 (1863) 151-. 
and minerals, etc. Gherardi, S. 

Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 5 (1865) 399-. 
Basalt, columnar. Barrett, W. F. [1889] 

Dubl. S. Sc. P. 6 (1888-90) 382-. 
Basaltic rocks. Pockels, F. A. Ps. C. 63 

(1897) 195-. 
Building brick. Gage, O.A.,<& Lawrence, H. E. 

Ps. Ev. 9 (1899) 304-. 
Experiments. Elias, P. [1851] Amst. Ts. 

Ws. Nt. Wet. 5 (1852) 134-. 
Haematite. Phipson, T. L. Par. Bll. S. C. 7 

(1867) 321-. 
, residual magnetism. Abt, A. Orv.-Termt. 

Ets. (Termt. Szak) (1898) 152-, (Rv.) 80-. 
Iron ore from deposit near Moravitza. Abt, A. 

Mth. Termt. Ets. 14 (1896) 33-; Mth. Nt. B. 

Ung. 14 (1898) 75-. 

ores. Greiss, C. B. Pogg. A. 98 (1856) 
478- ; (vi Adds.) Nass. Jb. 11 (1856) 127-. 

. Abt, A. Orv.-Termt. Ets. (Termt. 
Szak) (1900) 58-, (Rv.) 7-. 

Lava and similar rocks. Magnetisation of lava 
by heat. Melloni, M. Em. At. 5 (1851-52) 
666-; Nap. Ac. Sc. Mm. 1 (1852-54) 121-. 



597 



5410 



Lava and similar rocks. Magnetisation of lava 
by heat. (Report on Melloni's memoir.) 
[Palmieri, L., & Nobile, A. non] Melloni, M. 



Theory of the Magnetic Field 



5420 



Nap. Ed. 2 (1853) 187- ; C. E. 37 (1853) 
966-. 
____ . _____ . Volpicelli, P. 

Em. At. 7 '(1853-54) 145. 
Loadstones, large. Deuchar,J. [1821] Edmb. 

Wern. S. Mm 4 (1821-23) 386-. 
Magnetite, crystallised, magnetisation. Weiss, 

P. C. E. 122 (1896) 1405- ; Eclair. Elect. 7 

(1896) 487-; 8 (1896) 56-, 105-. 
_, _ , (Weiss). Voigt, W. Gott. Nr. (1900) 

331-. 

from Moravitza, and steel, magnetism com- 
pared. Abt, A. Orv.-Termt. Ets. (Termt. 
Szak) (1891) 209-, 339-. 

_ _ _ , , in strong fields. Abt, A. 

Orv.-Termt. Ets. (Termt. Szak) (1893) 133-, 

173-. 
Powerful magnet. Crichton, J. Thomson EC. 

3 (1836) 272-. 
Pyrrhotite. Abt, A. Orv.-Termt. Ets. (Termt. 

Szak) (1895) 20-, 89-. 
Eocks. Durocher, J. C. E. 28 (1849) 589-. 

, Eocca di Papa. Keller, F. Em. E. Ac. 
Line. Ed. 2 (1886) (5m. 1) 428-. 

near Eome. Keller, F. Em. E. Ac. Line. 
Ed. 5 (1889) (Sem. 1) 519-. 

in- situ, variation of intensity. Oddone, E. 
N. Cim. 33 (1893) 115-. 

Stones and cast iron tubes. Deicke, . Bonn 
Cor.-Bl. NH. Vr. (1864) 79-. 



5420 Theory of the Magnetic 
Field. Magnetic Circuit. 

THEOEY OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD. 
ACTION AT A DISTANCE. 

Weber, W. E. Pogg. A. 55 (1842) 33-. 
calculation. Kohlrausch, F. [1887] Munch. 

Ak. Sb. 17 (1888) 23-. 
, for bar magnet. Gauss, C. F. Gauss 

Eesultate (1841) 26-. 
duration of propagation. Herwig, H. A. Ps. 

C. 153 (1874) 250-. 
at a great distance, on magnetised molecule. 

Lang, V. von. J. de Ps. 1 (1872) 103-. 
law of inverse squares. Gauss, C. F. Gauss 

Eesultate (1840) 1-. 
of magnet pole. Matter, Joh. A. Ps. C. 136 

(1869) 154-. 

Action, external, of magnetised ellipsoids. 

Nagaoka, H. A. Ps. C. 57 (1896) 275-. 
of iron mass on attractive force of magnet. 

Harris, (Sir) W. S. Phil. Trans. 

501-. 



, law. Ritchie, W. Ph. Mg. 8 (1836) 55-. 
- between magnets and charged bodies. 
Vaschy, . C. E. 114 (1892) 1474-. 



Action of plate or system of plates of varying 
diameters on magnet. Abria, O. Bordeaux 
Mm. S. Sc. 3 (cah. 2) (1865) 471. 

rotating bodies on magnets. Colladon ,D., 

& Prevost, . Bb. Un. 29 (1825) 316-. 

thin iron sheets on magnet. Christiani, 

A. (xn) Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. 1 (1882) 7 

transverse upon ordinary magnetism in 
iron and steel. Villari, E. Bologna Ac. Sc. 
Mm. 2 (1891) 443-; 3 (1892) 153-. 
, velocity. Haldat du Lys, C. N. A. de. 

Nancy Mm. S. Sc. (1837) 93-. 
of weak magnetising forces on hard steel 
magnets. Dorn, E. A. Ps. C. 35 (1888) 275-. 
Changes, magnetic, under influence of electric 
distribution. Benedikt, M. Wien SB. 23 
(1857) 148-. 
Condensation, magnetic. Du Moncel, T. Lum. 

Elect. 7 (*1882) 145-. 
, , analogous to electric. Jamin, J. C. E. 

68 (1869) 1502-. 

, , in soft iron. Lallemand, A. C. E. 79 
(1874) 893-. 

, , (Lallemand). Du Moncel, 

(comte) T. A. L. C. E. 80 (1875) 19-. 
Condenser, magnetic. Jamin, J. C. E. 76 

(1873) 65-. 

Conductivity, magnetic, and free magnetism, 
possibility of existence. Curie, P. Par. S. 
Ps. Se. (1894) 76-. 
, , mechanical view. Moutier, J. Par. S. 

Phlm. Bll. 11 (1874) 4-. 
Currents, magnetic. Forbes, G. [1886] Tel. 

E. J. 15 (1887) 638-. 
, . Foppl, A. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 

203-. 

, . Braun, F. Gott. Nr. (1896) 177-. 
Curve, magnetic. Smith, (Rev.) F. J. B. A. 

Ep. (1892) 659. 
, , geometry, and instrument for description. 

Roget, P. M. E. I. J. 1 (1831) 311-. 
Curves, electromagnetic, equipotential. Wass- 

muth, A. Arch. Mth. Ps. 62 (1878) 374-. 
, , isogonic. Decharme, C. Lum. Elect. 

41 (1891) 51-. 

, magnetic, applications to heat, electricity 
and fluid motion. Thomson, (Sir) W. B. 
A. Ep. (1852) (pt. 2) 18. 

, , isoclinic. Decharme, C. C. E. 105 
(1887) 667-; Lum. Elect. 26 (1887) 277-. 
, , isodynamic. Decharme, C. Lum. Elect. 

29 (1888) 19-. 

, , isogonic. Decharme, C. C. E. 104 
(1887) 1163- ; Lum. Elect. 24 (1887) 311-, 
366-. 

, , and position of equilibrium of magnetic 
needle. Dienger, J. Grunert Arch. 12 (1849) 
307-. 
, , system. Thomson, (Sir) W. Camb. 

and Dubl. Mth. J. 2 (1847) 240. 
Demagnetising forces in iron cylinders. Ascoli, 
M., & Lori, F. Em. B. Ac. Line. Ed. 3 
(1894) (Sem. 2) 190- . 

(1831) and bundles. Ascoli, M. Em. 

E. Ac. Line. Ed. 6 (1897) (Sem. 2) 129-. 



Equilibrium of elongated ferromagnetic masses 
in fields of force. Thomson, (Sir) W. B. A. 
Ep. (1852) (pt. 2) 18-. 



598 



5420 Magnetic Field 

Equilibrium of magnetic bodies under terrestrial 
magnetic force. Thomson, (Sir) W. B. A. 



Bp. (1848) (pt. 2) 8-. 
figures. Haldat . 



Figures. Haldat du Lys, C. N. A. de. Nancy 
Mm. S. Sc. (1851) 64-. 

. Fischer, E. Dresden Sb. Isis (1865) 90. 

(equation). Zech, P. Z. Mth. Ps. 12 
(1867) 277-. 



. Thompson, S. P. B. A. Ep. (1878) 450- ; 

; Ph. 
129-. 



. , . . . . . 

L. Ps. S. P. 3 (1880) 98-; Ph. Mg. 8 (1879) 



. 

. Decharme, C. Lum. Elect. 20 (1886) 
440-, 487-, 538-, 589-; 21 (1886) 18-, 149-, 
255-, 308-, 498-, 581- ; 22 (1886) 164-, 207-, 
494-, 556-; 23 (1887) 260-, 564-. 

, and application to theory of motors. 
Thompson, S. P. [1900] Ps. Z. 2 (1901) 
68-. 

, fixing. Nickles, J. C. E. 49 (1859) 854-. 

, and forming. Hopkins, G. M. Tel. J. 
19 (1886) 229-. 

, -- photographing. Mayer, A. M. Am. 
J. Sc. 1 (1871) 263-. 

, historical researches. Wartmann, E. [1842] 
Laus. Bll. S. Yd. 1 (1842-45) 45-. 

illustrating electrodynamic relations. 
Thompson, S. P. L. Ps. S. P. 2 (1879) 333-; 
Ph. Mg. 6 (1878) 348-. 

Floating magnetic sphere on mercury. Stein- 
hauser, J. G. Voigt Mg. 8 (1804) 508- ; 10 
(1805) 69-. 

magnets. Mayer, A. M. Am. J. Sc. 15 
(1878) 276-, 477- ; 16 (1878) 247-. 

-- . Thomson, (Sir) W. Nt. 18 (1878) 

13-. 

-- . Mayer, A. M. Nt. 18 (1878) 258-. 
-- . Pierce [Peirce?], C. S. Nt. 18 (1878) 

381. 
-- . Shipley, W. P., d- Warder, E. B. Am. 

J. Sc. 20 (1880) 285-. 
-- , equilibrium figures. Wood, E. W. Ph. 

Mg. 46 (1898) 162-. 
Flux in dynamo air-gaps. Goldsborough, W. E. 

[1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 399. 

propagation, disturbing phenomenon. 

Pisati, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 6 (1890) 

(Sem. 1) 487-. 
-- , experiments. Pisati, G. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Ed. 6 (1890) (Sem. 1) 168-. 
Force, directive, of magnets and coils, on small 

magnets. Airy, (Sir) G. B. Phil. Trans. 

162 (1872) 485-. 

, , -- , for soft iron. Dumoncel, T. [A. 
L.] C. E. 50 (1860) 495-. 

, magnetic. Corsepius, M. Elekttech. Z. 12 
(1891) 333-. 

, , reciprocating motion due to. Henry, J. 
Silliman J. 20 (1831) 340-. 

, , theory, elementary demonstrations. 
Thomson, (Sir) W. Ph. Mg. 9 (1855) 241-. 

, magnetomotive. Bosanquet, R. H. M. 
Ph. Mg. 15 (1883) 205-. 

, . Hall, E. H. Science 1 (*1883) 391-. 

, , of " non-magnetic ' ' metals. Yelin, J. C. 
von. Gilbert A. 73 (1823) 361-. 

Forces bringing needles back to meridian. 
Coulomb, C. A. [1799] Par. Mm. de I'l. 3 
(1800) 176-. 



Special Forms of Magnets 5420 

Inclination, magnetic, in first centuries B.C. 

and A.D., deduced from magnetism of vases 

of Arezzo and Pompei. Folgheraiter , G. 

Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 8 (1899) (Sem. 1) 121-. 
, , deduced from magnetism of ancient 

Greek vases. Folgheraiter, G. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Ed. 8 (1899) (Sem. 1) 176-, 269-. 
, , terra cottas. Boni, G. 

Br. Archt. J. 4 (1897) 382-. 
, , in Etruscan epoch, deduced from 

magnetism of vases. Folgheraiter, G. Em. 

E. Ac. Line. Ed. 5 (1896) (Sem. 2) 293-; 6 

(1897) (Sem. 2) 368-; 8 (1899) (Sem. 1) 69-. 
Incoercibility of magnetic fluid. Haldat du 

Lys, C. N. A. de. [1830] A. C. 52 (1833) 303-. 
Iron filings near magnet. Eees, E. van. Utr. 

Aant. Prv. Gn. (1846) 6-. 
on vibrating plate, under action of 

magnetic pole. Tait, P. G. [1865] Edinb. 

E. S. P. 5 (1866) 444. 
Laminae, magnetic, and currents. Vaschy, . 

Lum. Elect. 24 (1887) 56-. 

LAWS OF MAGNETS AND ELECTEO- 
MAGNETS OF VAEIOUS FOEMS. 

Mutter, (Dr.) J. Lieb. A. 75 (1850) 247-. 
(Dub's laws.) Wiedemann, G. Pogg. A. 117 

(1862) 218-. 
Application to explanation of phenomena. 

Sturgeon, W. Sturgeon A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 

266-. 
Deformation of elastic bodies under magnetic 

or dielectric polarisation. Kirchhoff, G. 

Berl. Ak. Sb. (1884) 137-, 1155-. 
Ellipsoid, action of distant pole on. Pliicker, 

J. [1857] Phil. Trans. (1858) 554-. 
, hollow, induced magnetism. Greenhill, 

A. G. J. de Ps. 10 (1881) 294-. 
, steady motion. Searle, G. F. C. L. Ps. S. 

P. 15 (1897) 264-; Ph. Mg. 44 (1897) 329-. 
Energy of electromagnetic field, methods of 

calculation. Vaschy, . C. E. 123 (1896) 

1261-. 
Forces acting on interior of magnetically or 

dielectrically polarised bodies. Helmholtz, 

H. L. F. von. Berl. Ak. Mb. (1881) 191-. 
, magnetic, theory. Stefan, J. Wien Ak. 

Sb. 69 (1874) (Ab. 2) 165-. 
Fundamental laws. Zantedeschi, F. At. Sc. 

It. (1839) 9-. 

- . Garbe, P. J. de Ps. 6 (1887) 426-. 
Induction, magnetic, of crystals. Pliicker, J. 

[1857] Phil. Trans. (1858) 543-. 

of magnetism by electric currents. Joule, 
J. P. [1855] Phil. Trans. (1856) 287-. 

Lifting power of magnets, law. Jamin, J. C. 

J. de Ps. 5 (1876) 92-. 
Poles of bar magnet. Eiecke, E. Gott. Nr. 

(1872) 251-. 

magnets, position. Volpicelli, P. 
C. E. 64 (1867) 1197-. 

Potential, electrostatic and magnetic, theorems. 

Neumann, C. Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 42 (1890) 

88-. 
Sphere, solid conducting, effect on induction. 

Whitehead, C. S. L. Ps. S. P. 16 (1899) 

474-; Ph. Mg. 48 (1899) 165-. 



599 



5420 Lines of Magnetic Force 

Theorem. Kirchhoff, G. Crelle J. 48 (1854) 
348-. 

of Kirchhoff's, validity. Culmann, P. A. 
Ps. C. 48 (1893) 380-. 

Theory of magnetism. Poisson, S. D. Par. 

Ac. Sc. Mm. 5 (1821-22) 247-, 488-. 
, mathematical. Thomson, (Sir) W. 

[1849-50] Phil. Trans. (1851) 243-. 
, . Beltrami, E. Bologna Ac. Sc. 

Mm. 1 (1890) 409- ; 2 (1891) 313-. 
in motion. Poisson, S. D. Par. Mm. 

Ac. Sc. 6 (1823) 441-. 

LINES OF MAGNETIC FORCE. 

Faraday, M. [1851-52] Phil. Trans. (1852) 

25-; B. I. P. 1 (1851-54) 105-. 
Shettle, E. C. B. S. P. 29 (1879) 102-. 
Krieg, . Magdeb. Nt. Vr. Jbr. u. Ab. (1887) 

Ste^gall, J. E. A. Edinb. Mth. S. P. 10 (1892) 

P., E. R. Nt. 60 (1899) 412. 

axial character, deduction from Hall effect. 

Koldiek, F. Prag Sb. (1894) (Mth.-Nt.) 

No. 17, 4 pp. 
construction for direction. Vincent, J. H. 

[1898] Nt. 59 (1898-99) 32. 

. Gray, A. [1898] Nt. 59 (1898-99) 

32. 

distribution in magnetic systems. Kahle, K. 

Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 466-, 527-. 
and equipotential lines. Lommel, E. von. 

[1893] Munch. Ak. Sb. 23 (1894) 103-, 

129-, 217-. 
, relations. Boltzmann, L. [1893] 

Munch. Ak. Sb. 23 (1894) 119-. 
illustration. Spicyn, A. A. Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 

27 (Ps.) (1895) 56-; J. de Ps. 5 (1896) 468-. 
physical. Faraday, M. Ph. Mg. 3 (1852) 

ray-vibrations. Faraday, M. Ph. Mg. 28 

(1846) 345-. 
repulsion, supposed, between. Bosanquet, R. 

H. M. Ph. Mg. 18 (1884) 494-. 
Bontgen ray photographs. Leick, W. Fschr. 

Bontgenstr. 2 (1898-99) 165-. 
of rotating field. Jullig, M. Wien Ak. Sb. 

103 (1894) (Ab. 2a) 691-. 
magnet. Lecher, E. [1894] Nt. 51 

(1894-95) 84. 

small magnet. Buchanan, J. Nt. 21 (1880) 
370-. 

theory. Rees, R. van. Amst. Vh. 1 (1854) 
24 pp. ; Pogg. A. 90 (1853) 415-. 

, and Ampere's hypothesis. Anon. Cztg. 
Opt. 4 (*1883) 152-. 

tracing. Colardeau, E. 3. de Ps. 6 (1887) 83-. 

MAGNETIC DISTRIBUTION. 

Reet, R. van. [1847] Amst. N. Vh. 13 (1848) 

163- ; Pogg. A. 74 (1849) 213-. 
Jamin, J. C. E. 75 (1872) 1572-, 1672-. 
Gariel, C. M. C. E. 75 (1872) 1761-. 
Rowland, H. A. Am. J. Sc. 10 (1875) 325-, 

451- ; 11 (1876) 17-, 103-. 
analysis. Jamin, J. C. C. E. 82 (1876) 783-. 



Magnetic Distribution 5420 

on armatures. Whiting, H. Am. Ac. P. 11 

(1876) 293-. 

in bars. Kup/er, A. T. A. C. 36 (1827) 50-. 
(cylindrical). Bouty, E. C. E. 82 (1876) 

1050-. 
. Agostini, G. J. (xn) Ev. Sc.-Ind. 11 

(1879) 350-. 
. Wiedemann, G. Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 41 

(1889) 57-. 
curves, relationship of poles to. Most, R. A. 

Ps. C. 136 (1868) 137-. 
equipotential, in steel cylinders. Schaper, W. 

A. Ps. C. 9 (1880) 418-. 
of free magnetism, determination. Alt, A. 

Orv.-Termt. Ets. (Tennt. Szak) (1894) 304-, 

353-. 
in plates under perpendicular fields. 

Butorka, S. Orv.-Termt. Ets. (Termt. Szak) 

(1885) 161-. 

and galvanic distribution, equivalence. Bel- 
trami, E. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 16 (1883) 

431-. 
in interior of magnets. Treve, (capit.) A. R. S. , 

<& Durassier, L. C. E. 81 (1875) 1123-, 

1202, 1246-. 

laminated magnets. Jamin, J. C. C. E. 
78 (1874) 1331-. 

of finite length. Jamin, J. C. C. E. 

81 (1875) 177-. 
infinite length. Jamin, J. C. C. 

E. 81 (1875) 11-. 
longitudinal, of free magnetism, law. Dub, J. 

Pogg. A. 106 (1859) 83-. 
perpendicular distributions, two, mutual action. 

Schultze, H. A. Ps. C. 24 (1885) 643-. 
in soft iron (theory). Amsler, J. Sch. Gs. 

N. D. 10 (1849) 26 pp. 

. Jamin, J. C. C. E. 78 (1874) 95-. 

. Sears, D. Am. J. Sc. 8 (1874) 21-. 

(Jamin). Jacques, W. W. Am. Ac. 

P. 10 (1875) 445-. 
(Jamin, Sears and Jacques). Rowland, 

H. A. [1875] Am. Ac. P. 11 (1876) 191-. 
bars (prismatic). Weihrich, G. A. Ps. 

C. 125 (1865) 276-. 

steel bars, etc. Lamont, J. Pogg. A. 83 
(1851) 354-, 364-. 

(cylindrical). Rothlauf, K. Pogg. 

A. 116 (1862) 592-. 
, law. Lamont, J. Lamont A. Met. 

4 (1842) 206-. 

magnetised by method of separate 
touch. Gouillaud, H. J. (xii) Doubs S. 
Mm. 8 (1864) 165-. 

magnets. Rees, R. van. Utr. Aant. 
Prv. Gn. (1845) 22-. 

and electromagnets. Rees, R. van. 
Amst. N. Vh. 12 (1846) 94-; Pogg. A. 70 
(1847) 1-. 

plates (circular or elliptic). Duter, E. 

C. E. 81 (18^5) 1099- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1875) 
129- ; Par. EC. Norm. A. 5 (1876) 217-. 

wires. Becquerel, A. C. A. C. 22 (1823) 

113-. 

on surface of magnetised bodies. Haldat du 
Lys, C. N. A. de. Nancy Mm. S. Sc. (1838) 
153- ; (1843) 1-; C. E. 18 (1844) 843-; 
Nancy Mm. S. Sc. (1844) 1-. 



600 



SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE LIBRA**, 



5420 magnetic Field 



Magnetic Field Produced by Currents 5420 



on surface of magnets. Treve, (capit.) A. R. S., 

d- Durassier, L. C. E. 83 (1876) 814-. 
theory. Morin, P. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1898) 

31-. 
in thin, very long plate. Jamin, J. C. C. E. 

80 (1875) 1553 -. 
transverse. Mousson, A. Zur. Vjschr. 11 

(1866) 182-. 

MAGNETIC FIELD. 

Baur, C. A. Ps. C. 11 (1880) 394-. 
Gronberg, . Kiga Cor.-Bl. 27 (1884) 36-. 
Beltrami, E. Palermo Cir. Mt. Ed. 3 (1889) 

67-. 
near bar magnet. Blakesley, T. H. [1890] 

L. Ps. S. P. 11 (1892) 56-; Ph. Mg. 31 

(1891) 281-. 
of bar magnet, Earth's influence. Griffith, W. 

W. Terr. Mag. 4 (1899) 199-. 
change due to rotation of perforated metal disc. 

Carhart, H. S. Science 2 (*1883) 392-. 
diagrams. Lindeck, S. Z. Instk. 9 (1889) 

352-. 
effect of deformation of magnet. Dolbear, A. E. 

Am. Ac. P. 25 (1890) 271-. 
and electric field, symmetry. Curie, P. Par. 

S. Ps. Se. (1894) 53- ; Eclair. Elect. 1 (1894) 

627-. 
electrolytic figures in. Sceglajev, V. S. Es. 

Ps.-C. S. J. 17 (Ps.) (1885) 1- ; J. de Ps. 5 

(1885) 89. 
energy. Pellat, H. C. E. 127 (1898) 507- ; 

J. de Ps. 7 (1898) 702-. 
examination. Tyndall, J. Ph. Mg. 2 (1851) 

333-. 
experimental demonstration. Zuchristian, J. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 103 (1894) (Ab. 2a) 943-. 
study. Sarcia, J,, (& Sartiaux, E. Lum. 

Elect. 24 (1887) 23-, 65-, 319-, 369-. 
exploration by dynamometers. Du Moncel, T, 

Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 229-. 
vacuum tubes. Witz, A. C. E. 110 

(1890) 1002-. 
external, of helically magnetised rings. Mordey, 

W. M. Ph. Mg. 44 (1897) 513. 
fluids in. Jager, G. Wien Ak. Sb. 108 (1899) 

(Ab. 2a) 1499-. 
force on steel ball in. Wood, R. W. Nt. 55 

(1896-97) 620-. 
. Anderson, A. Nt. 56 (1897) 

31. 
(Wood). Austin, L. W. Nt. 

57 (1897-98) 536-. 
. Wood, R. W. Ps. Ev. 7 (1898) 

119-. 
geometric constitution. Saussure, R. de. J. 

H. Un. Cir. [17 (1897-98)] 47-. 
geometry of, and motion in plane or on sphere 

with 2 degrees of freedom. Saussure, R. de. 

C. E. 126 (1898) 325-. 
graphic representation. Houston, E. J. 

Franklin I. J. 134 (1892) 75-, 240-. 
lines of induction in. Hele-Sliaw, H. S., & 

Hay, A. [1900] Phil. Trans. (A) 195 (1901) 

303-. 
luminosity, alleged. Barrett, W. F. Ph. Mg. 

15 (1883) 270-. 



and magnetism. Jones, J. V. Card. Nt. S. T. 16 

(1885) 3-. 
permanent. Hibbert, W. [1891] L. Ps. S. P. 

11 (1892) 306- ; Ph. Mg. 33 (1892) 307-. 
photographic mapping. Thwing, C. B. Am. 

J. Sc. 44 (1892) 374-. 
rotation of metal plates by. Fonvielle, W. de. 

C. E. 110 (1890) 944-. 
stress in, Maxwell's theory. Borgman, I. I. 

(xn) Es. C. Ps. S. J. 9 (Ps.) (1877) [Pt. 1] 

340-. 
surface forces on iron in. Adler, G. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 101 (1892) (Ab. 2a) 1537-. 
uniform, action on magnetic body. Kusminski- 

Ledochowski, L. J. de Ps. 8 (1889) 319-. 

, direction determined from orientation of 
induced magnetism. Folgheraiter, G. Em. 
E. Ac. Line. Ed. 5 (1896) (Sem. 2) 127-, 
199-, 242-. 

, ellipsoid in, and deduction of magnetic in- 
duction constants. Dronke, A. Pogg. A. 
117 (1862) 437-. 



MAGNETIC FIELD PRODUCED BY 
CURRENTS. 

(See also 6420.) 

Ettingshausen, A. von. Wien SB. 1 (1848) 

266-. 
Christiansen, C. [1876] Kjob. Dn. Vd. Selsk. 

Skr. 11 (1880) 277-; A. Ps.C. Beibl. 1 (1877) 

406-. 
Action at a distance (currents). Weyr,Em. Z. 

Mth. Ps. 13 (1868) 414-. 
(solenoids and equivalents). Weyr, 

Em. Prag Sb. (1871) 25-. 
Circular currents. Bravais, A. A. C. 38 (1853) 

301-. 
. Feilitzsch, F. C. 0. von. N.-Vorp. 

Mt. 1 (1869) 100-. 
. Minchin, G. M. L. Ps. S. P. 12 (1894) 

204- ; Ph. Mg. 35 (1893) 354-. 
. Rimington, E. C. Elect. Ev. 34 (1894) 

370-. 
, electromagnetic potential. Gegenbauer, 

L. Mh. Mth. Ps. 4 (1893) 399-. 

, mathematical formulae. Plana, G. 
Palomba Eac. 3 (1847) 17-, 33-, 53-, 68-. 

, (Plana). Piandani, G. B. Pa- 
lomba Eac. 3 (1847) 81-. 

, . Hayes, H. V. Am. Ac. P. 21 

(1886) 348-. 

, normal intensity of field. Feilitzsch, 

F. C. 0. von. (vn) A. Ps. C. (Jubelbd.) 
(1874) 107-. 

magnetisations accompanying axial and 
sectional currents along iron tubes. Knott, 
C. G. [1892] Edinb. E. S. T. 37 (1895) 7-. 

Conductors of 3 dimensions, field in. Joubin, 

P. C. E. 110 (1890) 231-. 
Cylindrical currents. Minchin, G. M. [1893] 

L. Ps. S. P. 12 (1894) 502- ; Ph. Mg. 37 

(1894) 204-. 

. Lori, F. Lum. Elect. 53 (1894) 60-. 

. Everett, W. H. [1895] L. Ps. S. P. 14 

(1896) 103- ; Ph. Mg. 41 (1896) 367-. 



601 



D2 



5420 



Magnetic Field Produced by Currents 



South London, field near. 
<& Riicker, . Elect. 27 



Electric Bailwa 
Ayrton, W. j 
(1891) 521. 

tramway at Munich, disturbances due to. 
Fischer, K. T. Dingier 315 (1900) 656-. 

tramways, field produced by. Riicker , A. 
W. [1900] L. Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 609-. 

Electrodynamic experiments. Bravais,A. C. 

B. 36 (1853) 193-. 

measurements. Weber, W, E. Leip. Ab. 
Jablon. Gs. (1846) 209-. 

Electromagnet, Faraday's, field. Leduc, A. 

Par. S. Ps. 86. (1886) 195- ; Lum. Elect. 28 

(1888) 512-, 560-. 
Electromagnetic field, forces on bodies in. 

Vaschy, . A. Tel. 20 (1893) 379-. 
Electromagnetism, elementary law. Raveau, 

C. C. E. 130 (1900) 31-; Par. S. Ps. 86. 
(1900) 44-. 

Elliptic currents. Jones, J. V. L. Ps. S. P. 
14 (1896) 250- ; Ph. Mg. 42 (1896) 107-. 

spiral currents, action on magnet of finite 
dimensions with its centre on axis. Costa, 
G. Nap. Ed. 32 (1893) 105-. 

Energy required for production of field. Witz, 

A. C. B. 106 (1888) 60-. 
Equivalence of currents and magnets. Riecke, 

E. Gott. Nr. (1870) 103- ; A. Ps. C. 145 

(1872) 218-. 
----- . Lippmann, G. J. de Ps. 8 

(1879) 371-. 
----- . Duhem, P. Par. EC. Norm. 

A. 6 (1889) 297-. 
----- . Leon, G. J. de Ps. 8 (1889) 

184-. 
Field of vector, theory. Vaschy, A. A. T61. 

21 (1894) 97-. 
--- , Vaschy 's theorem , new proof. Pomey , 

J. B. A. Tel. 23 (1896-97) 187-. 
Force, magnetising, of coil, calculation. Vliet, 

P. van der. Fschr. Ps. (1889) (Ab. 2) 626. 
Galvanic cell, magnetism. Seebeck, T. J. 

Berl. Ab. (1820-21) 289-. 
-- , (Seebeck). Hansteen, C. Gilbert A. 

70 (1822) 175-. 
Galvanometer coils, method of comparing. 

Skinner, J. J. Am. As. P. (1887) 85-. 

, differential, comparison of moment of 
rotation by. Bosscha, J. Fogg. A. 93 (1854) 



, tangent, Gaugain's, construction. Trow- 
bridge, J. Am. J. Sc. 9 (1875) 383-. 

-, , , theory. Pierre, V. Wien Sb. 13 
(1854) 527-. 

, , theory. Oberbeck, A. Arch. Mth. Ps. 
56 (1874) 387-. 

Hollow cylinder carrying current, field inside. 

Nikolaieve, W. de. C. E. 129 (1899) 202-. 
Laws of attraction and repulsion. Gauss, C. F. 

Gauss Eesultate (1840) 1- ; Liouv. J. Mth. 7 

(1842) 273-. 
Linear partial differential equations, theory. 

Lipschitz, R. Crelle J. Mth. 69 (1868) 109-. 
Magnetic force at centre of coil. Mor eland, 

S. T. Am. J. Sc. 45 (1893) 392-. 
-- in plane of circuit. Russell, A. [18951 

Elect. 36 (1896) 50-, 133. 



5420 



Magnetic force in plane of circuit. Everett, 
W. H. [1895] Elect. 36 (1896) 96. 

forces, theory. Stefan, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 
69 (1874) (Ab. 2) 165-. 

mass, small, attraction of coil on. Stuart, 
J. Phil. Trans. 162 (1872) 493-. 

moment of electrodynamic coil. Bongio- 
vanni, G. Ev. Sc. Ind. 29 (1897) 12-, 
62-. 

potential of closed circuit of any form. 
Thomson, (Sir) W. Camb. and Dubl. Mth. 
J. 5 (1850) 142-. 

linear currents, determination. 
Frdhlich, I. (xn) Mag. Tud. Ak. Ets. 10 
(No. 8) (1876) 114-. 

due to system of coils. Lippmann, G. 

C. B. 100 (1885) 1533-. 
Magnetism of ellipsoid, application of series of 

Laplace's function <"'. Neumann, F. E. 

Crelle J. 37 (1848) 21-. 
Measurement of long coils. Heydweiller, A. 

A. Ps. C. 41 (1890) 876-. 
winding of coil. Kohlrausch, F. Gott. 

Nr. (1882) 654-. 
. Himstedt, F. A. Ps. C. 18 

(1883) 433-. 
Bectangular currents. Minchin, G. M. Elect. 

35 (1895) 603-, 706-. 
. Colard, O. (et alii). Elect. 35 (1895) 

694, etc. ; 36 (1896) 19, etc. 

Elect. 36 (1896) 



. Minchin, G. M. 

48-. 
Eheometry, electric, experiments. Secchi, A. 

Palomba Eac. 3 (1847) 385- ; Tortolini A. 

1 (1850) 167- ; 3 (1852) 278-. 
Schweigger's multiplicator, law. Kamtz, L. F. 

Schweigger J. 38 ( = Jb. 8) (1823) 100-. 
Solenoids, calculation of field in. Sayers, W. 

B. Elect. 12 (1884) 465-. 
, currents in. Everett, W. H. B. A. Ep. 

(1895) 620. 
, and magnetic particles in axis of coil. 

Haedenkamp, H. Pogg. A. 78 (1849) 58-. 
magnets, law of action. Lenz,E. [1832] 

St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Mm. 2 (1833) 427-. 
, powerful, electrodeposition of iron in field. 

Jacobi, H. [1872] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 18 

(1873) 11-. 
, theorem. Frost, P. QJ. Mth. 11 (1871) 

77-. 
, theory, Ampere's. Frost, P. QJ. Mth. 11 

(1871) 47-, 134-. 
Transverse magnetic poles. Muncke, G. W. 

Gilbert A. 70 (1822) 141- ; 71 (1822) 20-, 

(Muncke). Raschig, . Gilbert A. 

71 (1822) 39-. 

( ). Kries, F. Gilbert A. 71 (1822) 

'() Gilbert, L. W. Gilbert A. 71 

(1822) 64-. 

surfaces, theory. Weyr, Em. Wien Ak. 

Sb. 56 (1867) (Ab. 2) 669-. 
Truncated cone coil. Houllevigue, L. J. de 

Ps. 7 (1898) 466-. 
Vibrations, electric, in coil. Lecher, E. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 104 (1895) (Ab. 2a) 807-. 

602 



5420 Magnetisation 

Wire carrying current, field near surface. 

Minchin, G. M. L. Ps. S. P. 12 (1894) 379- ; 

Ph. Mg. 36 (1893) 201-. 
, magnetism in, law. Zantedeschi, F. 

Yen. At. 2 (1843) 427-. 
parallel to iron cylinder, currents in. Searle, 

G. F. C. Elect. 40 (1898) 453-, 510-. 



MAGNETISATION. 

equations for ring, general solution. Schiitz, I. 

Crelle J. Mth. 113 (1894) 161-. 
function of iron bodies. Stoletov, A. G. [1873] 

(xi) Mosc. S. Nt. Bll. 46 (1874) (Pi. 2) 

197-. 
rings. Hofe, G. vom. A. Ps. C. 37 

(1889) 482-. 
nickel. Meyer, H. A. Ps. C. 18 (1883) 

233-. 
soft iron. Stoletmv, A. A. Ps. C. 146 

(1872) 439-. 
sphere. Riecke, E. [1870-72] A. 

Ps. C. 149 (1873) 433-. 
. Fromme, C. Gott. Nr. (1874) 

165-. 
steel (tempered). Bouty, E. C. B. 80 

(1875) 650-. 

. Meyer, H. A. Ps. C. 18 (1883) 

233-. 
(Meyer). Waltenhofen, A. von. A. 

Ps. C. 20 (*1883) 835-. 
(von Waltenhofen). Meyer, H. A. 

Ps. C. 22 (1884) 286-. 
, relation to its hardness. Meyer, H. 

A. Ps. C. 19 (1883) 849-. 
of steel with armatures. Jamin, J. C. C. B. 

80 (1875) 357-. 

Magnetism. Mascart, . A. C. 18 (1889) 

. Hopkinson, J. [1890] I. Elect. E. J. 19 

(1891) 10-, 43-. 
, dissimulated. Marianini, S. [1844] Mod. 

S. It. Mm. 23 (1846) 201-. 
, . Ragona-Scina, D. Palomba Bac. 1 

(1845) 153-. 
, . Jamin, J. C. B. 75 (1872) 1796-. 

of motion. Fusinieri, A. A. Sc. Lomb. 
Yen. 2 (1832) 189- 

, statical. Resal, H. A. Liouv. J. Mth. 9 

(1883) 195-. 
, theory. Neumann, C. Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 

45 (1893) 429-. 
, transverse, and electromagnetic phenomena. 

Prechtl, J. J. Schweigger J. 36 (-Jb. 6) 

(1822) 399-. 
, , of iron and steel. Villari, E. N. Cim. 

27 (*1868) 329-. 
, , theory. Prechtl, J. J. Kastner Arch. 

Ntl. 2 (1824) 151-. 

in wires conveying current, law. Zante- 
deschi, F. Yen. At. 2 (1843) 427-. 

Magnets, effect of mean section, polar surfaces 
and armatures. Jamin, J. C. C. B. 78 
(1874) 1497-. 

, static and dynamic effects. Dumoncel, T. 
[A. L.} Cherb. Mm. S. Sc. 1 (1852) 152-. 



Mutual Action of Magnets 5420 

Magnets, theory. Prechtl, J. J. Gilbert A. 68 

(1821) 187-. 
Moment of bar magnet, decrease. Hansteen, 

C. Lament A. Met. 1 (1842) 188-. 
Moments of bar magnets, permanent, and 

Haecker's formula T=p^/Q + ^l. Kiilp, L. 

A. Ps. C. 155 (1875) 314-. 
, magnetic. Roch, G. Schlomilch Z. 4 

(1859) 371-. 



MUTUAL ACTION OF MAGNETS. 

Gauss, C. F. A. C. 57 (1834) 5-. 

Fusinieri, A. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 9 (1839) 79-. 

(Formulae of Gauss.) Abria, . [1861] Bor- 
deaux S. Sc. Mm. 2 (1861-63) 59-. 

Chwolson, O. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Mm. 31 (1883) 
(No. 10) 20 pp. 

Stanecki, Z. Kosmos (Lw.) 13 (1888) 307-. 

action of fixed magnet on free magnet 
turning on vertical axis. Chistoni, G. Spet. 
It. Mm. 19 (1891) 228-; 20 (1892) 15-, 41-, 
57-; 22 (1894) 138- ; N. Cim. 30 (1891) 
97-. 

revolving magnet on magnetic needle. 

Plateau, J.A.F. Quetelet Cor. Mth. 6 (1830) 
70. 

and of electrified dielectrics. Levat, L. A. 
Bv. Sc. 10 (1898) 531-. 

magnets and iron. Hacker, P. W. D. 
Nf. Vsm. B. (1845) 122-. 

needles in liquids. Obalski, . C. B. 90 
(1880) 1126. 

and metals. Pohl, G. F. Pogg. A. 8 
(1826) 369-. 

permanent magnets. Weihrauch, K. Mosc. 

N. Mm. 14 (1879-83) 205-. 
, and best relative position in observatory. 

Lloyd, H. [1839-41] Ir. Ac. T. 19 (1843) 

159-, 249-. 

Permeability, bridge method for finding. San- 

tarelli, G. Bv. Sc.-Ind. 31 (1899) 196. 
Physical fields. Dolbear, A. E. Science 14 

(1889) 442-; 15(1890)98. 
. Perry, N. W. Science 15 (1890) 63-, 

147-. 
Plates, circular, magnetism, isodynamic lines 

being concentric circles. Duter, E. C. B. 

85 (1877) 222-; Par. S. Ps. 86. (1877) 

136-. 
Poisson-Mosotti theory, consequence. Adler, 

G. [1890] Wien Ak. Sb. 99 (1891) (Ab. 2a) 

1044-. 
Pole, magnetic, experimental and theoretical 

study. Domalip, K. Prag Ceske Ak. Fr. 

Jos. Bz. (Tfida 2) 3 (1894) Art. 10, 11 pp. 
Potential of mass distribution, theorem of W. 

Thomson, and applications. Beltrami, E. 

Mil. I. Lomb. Bd. 16 (1883) 725-. 
Propagation, magnetic. Thomson, E.,d- Wight- 

mann, M. J. Tel. J. 23 (1888) 453-. 
Beaction, magnetic, of platinum. Gobel, F. 

Schweigger J. 60 (=Jb. 30) (1830) 415. 
, , theory. Rainey, G. (vi Adds.) Ph. 

Mg. 9 (1836) 220-. 



603 



5420 Magnetic Circuit 

Reaction, magnetic, theory, Eainey's. Ritchie, 

W. Ph. Mg. 9 (1836) 287-. 
Eeactions, magnetic. Du Moncel, T. Lum. 

Elect. 1 (*1879) 228-. 
) t on non-magnetised bodies. Dumoncel, 

T. [A. L.] C. B. 36 (1853) 385-. 
Eing-systems, magnetic. Du Bois, H. E. J. G. 

Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1890) 81-. 
Rotating magnetic stream. Jaumann,G. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 108 (1899) (Ab. 2a) 1529-. 
Systems, magnetic, equivalent. Bouty, E. J. 

de Ps. 2 (1873) 297-. 
, , suspended, period. Brillouin, . J. 

de Ps. 3 (1884) 167-. 
Theorem of Gauss ( SFa - 4ir x (quantity of north 

magnetism inside)). Dickson, J. D. H. 

Elect. 27 (1891) 594. 
F. Neumann. Neumann, C. [1891] D. 

Mth. Vr. Jbr. 1 (1892) 26-. 

MAGNETIC CIRCUIT. 

Steinmetz, C. P. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 1-, 

13-, 573- ; 13 (1892) 203-, 365-. 
Corsepius, M. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 243-, 

414-. 
Analogy with electric circuit. Carter, E. T. 

Elect. 25 (1890) 231-. 
electrostatic circuit. Taylor, J. E. 

Elect. Ev. 36 (1895) 375-. 
Armature and intensity. Marianini, P. D. (x) 

Mod. Ac. Sc. Mm. 10 (1869) (Arti) 37-. 
Armatures, effect of adding to magnets. Jamin, 

J. [C.] C. E. 77 (1873) 305- ; 80 (1875) 

212-. 
Circuit in dynamos. Wedding, W. Elekttech. 

Z. 13 (1892) 67-, 83-. 

electric machines. Rothert, A. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 19 (1898) 321-. 
Circuits and their measurements. Du Bois, 

H. E. J. G. Elect. 27 (1891) 634-. 
Closed magnets. Schiller, N. N. Berl. Ak. 

Mb. (1875) 416-. 
Demagnetisation, theory. Houston, E. J., & 

Kennelly, A. E. Elect. 35 (1895) 160-. 
Energy function. Steinmetz, C. P. Science 20 

(1892) 258-. 
Forces acting in circuits, approximate method 

of finding. Threlfall, R. N. S. W. E. S. J. 

27 (1893) 197-. 
Joints in circuits. Eicing, J. A. Ph. Mg. 34 

(1892) 320-. 
Law. Heinke, C. Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 

509-. 
Leaky circuits. Du Bois, H. E. J. G. Elect. 

29 (1892) 450-. 
Lifting power of magnets, formulae. Thompson, 

S. P. L. Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 304- ; Ph. Mg. 

26 (1888) 70-. 
Magnetic observations in the Britannia and 

Conway Tubular Iron Bridges. Airy, (Sir) 

G. B. [1872] Phil. Trans. 163 (1873) 

Magnetisation, mutual, of bars. Ostrogradsky , 
M. A. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 5 (1839) 346-. 

Ohm's law as a fundamental in electromag- 
netism. Lang, R. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 
473-, 485-, 495-, 510-, 522-. 



Magnetic Induction 5430 

Permanent circuits. Hookham, G. [1888] 

Birm. Ph. S. P. 6 (1887-89) 208-. 
Potential, magnetic. Beltrami, E. A. Mt. 10 

(1880-82) 241-. 

, . Bedell, F. Ps. Ev. 2 (1895) 298-. 
, vector-, and solid harmonics. Niveu, C. 

Mess. Mth. 9 (1880) 178-. 
Problems, graphic solution. Hanauer, E. 

Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 527-. 
Eeluctance. Grassi, G. Nap. Ed. 31 (1892) 

67. 
Eesistance and conductivity, magnetic, apparent. 

Steinmetz, C. Elect. 29 (1892) 580-. 
, magnetic. Hospitaller, E. (et alii). Tel. 

J. 22 (1888) 245-, etc. 
, . Sivinburne, J. Tel. J. 22 (1888) 

284-. 
Shell, iron, deflections produced in needle by. 

Barlow, P. Phil. Trans. (1827) 276-. 
, spherical, potential. Elliott, A. C. Edinb. 

Mth. S. P. 6 (1888) 12-. 
Shells, electromagnetic. Beltrami, E. Acta 

Mth. 3 (1883) 141-. 
, plane, production. Duter, . C. E. 99 

(1884) 128-. 
, theory. Beltrami, E. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 

16 (1883) 208-. 
Steel in electric machines, use. ParsJiall, H. 

F. Franklin I. J. 137 (1894) 93-. 

keepers, transverse magnetisation. Fechner, 

G. T. Schweigger J. 67 ( = Jb. 7) (1833) 
99-. 

Theory. Pisati, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 6 

(1890) (Sem. 1) 82-. 
. Ferrini, R. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 6 

(1890) (Sem. 1) 209-. 



5430 Theory of Magnetic In- 
duction and Hysteresis. 

THEOEY OF MAGNETIC INDUCTION. 

Stefan, J. Wien Sb. 64 (1871) (Ab. 2) 789-. 
Wand, T. Carl Epm. 13 (1877) 233-. 
Weber, L. Arch. Mth. Ps. 61 (1877) 286-. 
Riecke, C. V. E. A. Ps. C. 13 (1881) 465-. 
Watson, H. W. Nt. 35 (1887) 296. 
Ewing, J. A. Nt. 46 (1892) 552-. 
Dufour, H. As. Fr. C. E. (1893) (Pt. 1) 189-. 
Nikolaieve, W. de. Eclair. Elect. 20 (1899) 

10-, 53-. 
Artificially formed body illustrating analogy 

between electric and magnetic induction. 

Holtz, W. A. Ps. C. 12 (1881) 477-. 
Course, temporary, of induction. Holborn, L. 

Berl. Ak. Sb. (1896) 173-. 
Damped magnets, aperiodic motion. Du Bois- 

Reymond, E. Berl. Mb. (1869) 807- ; (1870) 

537-; (1873) 748-. 
Damping, magnetic, theory. Chwolson, O. 

[1880] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Mm. 28 (1881) (No. 

3) 120 pp. 
Demonstration of induction. Voort, G. A. van 

der. [1857] Utr. Aant. Prv. Gn. (1857-58) 

9-. 



604 



5430 Induced Magnetism 

Distribution of induction round nucleus of 

iron. Stefcmini, A. N. Cim. 9 (1899) 

417-. 
Electric current and non-magnetised needle, 

mutual action. Glossener,M. QueteletCor. 

Mth. 6 (1830) 391-. 
Electromagnetism,Weber'shypothesis. Villari, 

E. A. Ps. C. 133 (1868) 322-. 
Experiment, lecture-. Ascoli,M. Bv. Sc.-Ind. 

26 (1894) 11-. 
Experiments. Kiilp, L. Arch. Mth. Ps. 61 

(1877) 427-. 

with alternating currents. Ettingshausen, 
A. von. Steierm. Mt. (1892) Ixvii-. 

iron balls. Barloiv, P. Edinb. Ph. J. 

1 (1819) 344-. 
(Barlow). Anon. (vi589) Gilbert 

A. 73 (1823) 341-. 
masses (Barlow's laws). Homer, J. 

K. Gilbert A. 73 (1823) 5-. 
( ). Schmidt, G. G. Gilbert 

A. 74 (1823) 225-. 
Forces on inductively magnetised ferromagnetic 

or diamagnetic non-crystalline substances. 

Thomson, (Sir) -W. Ph. Mg. 37 (1850) 

241-. 
Helmholtz's formulae for magnetic and voltaic 

induction. Neumann, Carl. Mth. A. 6 

(1873) 342-. 

INDUCED MAGNETISM. 

distribution. Ascoli, M. N. Cim. 1 (1895) 5-, 
108-, 279-. 

in cylinders. Holborn, L. Berl. Ak. Sb. 
(1898) 159-. 

iron. Ascoli, M. Bm. B. Ac. Line. Bd. 

3 (1894) (Sem. 1) 176-, 377-. 
. Ascoli, M., & Lori, F. Bm. B. Ac. 

Line. Ed. 3 (1894) (Sem. 2) 157-. 
in ellipsoid (hollow). Greenhill, A. G. J. de 

Ps. 10 (1881) 294-. 

iron cylinder (infinite). Kirchhoff, G. 
Crelle J. 48 (1854) 348-. 

, theory. Kirchhoff, G. A. Ps. C. (Erganz.) 

5 (1871) 1-. 
Maxwell's equations. Bouty, E. J. de Ps. 10 

(1881) 284-. 
in plate. Thomson, (Sir) W. Camb. and 

Dubl. Mth. J. 1 (1846) 34-. 
reaction on inducing field. Ascoli, M. Bm. 

E. Ac. Line. Bd. 3 (1894) (Sem. 1) 279-. 

in steel magnets. Dorn, E. A. Ps. C. 35 

(1888) 270-. 
temporary, of soft iron, by Earth. Fusini'eri, 

A. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 5 (1835) 306-. 

Induction in bars of unequal hardness. Kiilp, 

L. A. Ps. C. 153 (1874) 315-. 
crystalline and non-crystalline substances. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. Ph. Mg. 1 (1851) 177-. 
substances. Thomson, (Sir) W. B. 

A. Bp. (1850) (pt. 2) 23. 
discs rotating in Earth's field. Martens, 

F. F. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1896) 65-; A. Ps. 
C. 60 (1897) 61-. 

ellipsoid (hollow). Lang, V. von. 
Wien Az. 25 (1889) 240. 



Magnetic Screening 5430 

Induction in iron, and currents of electric 

displacement. Nicolaieve, W. de. Eclair. 

Elect. 7 (1896) 289-. 
2 spheres. Khvol'son [Chwolson], 0. D. 

[1877-78] (xn) Bs. C. Ps. S. J. 10 (Ps.) 

(1878) [(Pt. 1)] 71-, 89- ; (ix) Berl. Ak. Mb. 

(1878) 269- ; Z. Mth. Ps. 24 (1879) 40-. 
"Induction top," effect of magnet on revolving 

body. La Fresnaye, H. de. As. (1888) 

270-. 
Iron cylinders, magnetism. Ascoli, M. Bm. 

B. Ac. Line. Bd. 4 (1895) (Sem. 1) 341-. 
, magnetism, mathematical theory. Du Bois, 

H. E. J. G. A. Ps. C. 46 (1892) 485-. 
, soft, magnetic action on. Colding, L. A. 

Kjob. Dn. Vd. Selsk. Skr. 2 (1851) 147 
spheres in homogeneous field. Grotrian, 0. 

A. Ps. C. 57 (1896) 751-. 
.unmagnetised, and telluric polarity, relation. 

Erman, P. [1814] Berl. Ab. (1814-15) (Ps.) 

134-. 
, wrought, in dynamos. Inihoff, C. L. 

Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 444-. 
Laws of induction. Christie, S. H. [1820-28] 

Camb. Ph. S. T. 1 (1822) 147- ; Phil. Trans. 

(1828) 325-. 
. Jamin, J. C. C. B. 81 (1875) 

1150-. 
and of electricity, mechanical theory 

and application. Thompson, J. B. B. A. 

Bp. 34 (1864) (Sect.) 15. 
and phenomena. Scoresby, (Rev.) W. Edinb. 

N. Ph. J. 13 (1832) 257- 
Liquids, magnetic, equilibrium. Mortara, E. 

Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 29 (1894) 325-. 



MAGNETIC SCREENING. 

Harris, (Sir) W. S. Phil. Trans. (1831) 497-. 

Breguet, A. A. C. 16 (1879) 7-. 

Smith, F. J. Nt. 47 (1892-93) 439. 

Ascoli, M. A. Ps. C. 54 (1895) 381-. 

Du Bois, H. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1897) 180- ; 

A. Ps. C. 63 (1897) 348- ; 65(1898)1-; Elect. 

40 (1898) 218-, 316-, 511-, 652-, 814- ; 41 

(1898) 108-. 
Maurain, C. Eclair. Elect. 16 (1898) 221-, 

280-. 
Du Bois, H., & Wills, A. P. A. Ps. 2 (1900) 

78-. 
of electric conductors. Wilson, E. Elect. 40 

(1898) 252-. 
and electric screening. Thomson, (Sir) W. 

[1891] B. I. P. 13 (1893) 345-; E. S. P. 49 

(1891) 418-. 
electromagnetic, application to galvanometer. 

Du Bois, H. Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 379-. 
by iron. Jamin, J. C. C. B. 88 (1879) 

1099-. 
. Stefan, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 85 (1882) 

(Ab. 2) 613-. 
iron case to annul action of iron on needle. 

Wleugel, P. J. Kiob. Ov. (1816-17) 4-. 
by iron cylinder (hollow). Perry, J. L. Ps. 

S. P. 13 (1895) 227-; Ph. Mg. 38 (1894) 

270-. 



605 



5430 



Magnetisation 



5430 



by iron, of magnetic field, electromagnetic 
results. Russell, J. Elect. 40 (1898) 69-. 

of iron tube (long), on internal magnetic pole, 
equations for calculating. FitzGerald, G. F. 

B. A. Kp. (1893) 698. 

by iron tubes. Feldmann, G., & Herzog, J. 
Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 861-. 

different metals. Erskine,J.A. [1895] N. 
Z. I. T. 28 (1896) 178-. 

screens in motion, effect in induction. Lipp- 

mann, G. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1879) 12-. 
of shells (concentric spherical). Riicker, A. W. 

[1893] L. Ps. S. P. 12 (1894) 462- ; Ph. Mg. 

37 (1894) 95-. 
(tri-lamellar). Wills, A. P. Ps. Ev. 9 

(1899) 193-. 
tangential, supposed. Du Bois, H. A. Ps. C. 

65 (1898) 403-, 952. 

MAGNETISATION. 

anomalous. Fromme, C. A. Ps. C. 33 (1888) 

236-. 
, by discharge of condenser. Claverie, C. 

C. E. 101 (1885) 947-. 

, . Fossati, E. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 18 

(1886) 177-. 
, explanation. Peukert, W. Wien Ak. Sb. 

95 (1887) (Ab. 2) 832-. 
in 2 dimensions, and hysteresis in rotating 

field. Grau, A., & Hiecke, R. Wien Ak. 

Sb. 105 (1896) (Ab. 2a) 933-. 
by Earth. Vacca, L. J. de Ps. 65 (1807) 

83-. 

, and Clarke's machine. Moutier, J. 
Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 2 (1878) 158-. 

energy, in iron. Rayleiyh, (Lord). Ph. Mg. 22 

(1886) 175-. 
formula, investigations. Reignier, C. Lum. 

Elect. 26 (1887) 319-. 
homogeneous, of bar, test. Hoppe,E. Hamb. 

Mth. Gs. Mt. 2 (1890) (Festschr., Tl. 2) 

105-. 
by induction. Duhern, P. C. E. 105 (1887) 

749-, 798-; Toul. Fac. Sc. A. 2 (1888) L, 

138 pp. 
, history. Duhem, P. Toul. Fac. Sc. A. 

2 (1888) 40 pp. 
of iron. Scoresby, (Rev.) W. Edinb. Ph. J. 

11 (1824) 355-. 
bar held in direction of dip. (Lecture 

experiment.) Carhart, H. S. Science 1 

(*1883) 250. 
, effect of electric currents in iron on. 

Hopkinson,J. [1895] E. I. P. 14 (1896) 539-. 
by high frequency discharges. Ruther- 
ford, E. [1894] N. Z. I. T. 27 (1895) 481-. 
, law. Frolich, 0. Elekttech. Z. 15 

(1894) 368-. 
, . Cidmann, P. Elekttech. Z. 15 

(1894) 453-. 
, mechanical. Ponitz, D. Gilbert A. 67 

(1821) 319-. 

in different positions. Powell, B. Thom- 
son A. Ph. 3 (1822) 92-; Gilbert A. 73 (1823) 

and steel, effects of retentivity. Warburg, 

E. Ph. Mg. 15 (1883) 246-. 



of iron and steel, by percussion. Scoresby, 

(Rev.) W. Phil. Trans. (1822) 241- ; (1824) 

197-. 
tubes and rails, measurement. Franz, . 

Konigsb. Schr. 26 (1886) (Sb.) 32-. 
longitudinal and circular, in iron and nickel, 

mutual influence. Knott, C. G. [1891] 

Edinb. E. S. P. 18 (1892) 124-. 
, , . Honda, K. Tok. 

Coll. Sc. J. 11 (1898-99) 283-. 
mechanical. Hachette, J. N. P. Quetelet 

Cor. Mth. 7 (1832) 200-. 
and mechanical theory of heat. Wassmuth, A. 

[1882] Wien Ak. Sb. 86 (1883) (Ab. 2) 

539-. 
residual, of nickel bar, effect of shock. Berson, 

G. C. B. 108 (1889) 94-; Toul. Fac. Sc. A. 

3 (1889) G, 11 pp. 
of soft iron, by galvanic current, theory. 

Lamont, J. Lament Jb. Sternw. Munch. 

(1854) 27-. 
, law. Joubin, P. C. E. 118 (1894) 

67-, 138-. 

steel bars, effect of shock. Berson, G. C. 
B, 106 (1888) 592-; A. C. 14 (1888) 404-. 

and nickel, effect of vibration. Berson, 

G. Toul. Ac. Sc. Mm. 6 (1894) 226-. 
, theory. Righi, A . Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 

1 (1880) 433-. 
theory. Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 80 (1875) 761-, 

1003- ; 81 (1875) 40-, 337-, 613-. 
. Wassmuth, . Innsb. Nt. Md. B. 20 

(1892) xliv-. 
transverse, theory. Weyr, Em. Wien Sb. 56 

(1867) (Ab. 2) 669-. 

Magnetism. Mascart, . A. C. 18 (1889) 
5-. 

acts equally through air and dielectrics. 
Faraday, M. Phil. Trans. (1838) 265-. 

, causation. Towler, G. B. A. Ep. (1846) 

(pt. 2) 33. 
, changes due to alternating currents. Ober- 

beck, A. Elekttech. Z. 5 (1884) 195-. 

of ellipsoid, Neumann's law, proof. Riecke, 
E. Gott. Nr. (1870) 396-. 

Mechanism of induction. Khvol'son[Chicolson~\, 
O. D. (xn) Es. C. Ps. S. J. 7 (Ps.) (1875) 
[(Pt. 1)] 179 [189]-, 275-; (rx) A. Ps. C. 
(Ergcinz.) 7 (1876) 53-, 535-. 

(Khvol'son). Bobuilev, D. K. (xn) 

Es. C. Ps. S. J. 8 (Ps.) (1876) [Pt. 1] 92-. 

, magnetisation function (K). Khvol'- 
son, O. D. (xn) Es. C. Ps. S. J. 9 (Ps.) 
(1877) [(Pt. 1)] 149-. 

Molecular magnetic movement. Treve, (capit.) 
A. Les Mondes 32 (1873) 636-. 

process. Swing, J. A. [1890-91] E. S. P. 
48 (1891) 342- ; B. A. Ep. (1890) 740- ; E. I. 
P. 13 (1893) 387-. 

Motion of inductor, effect. Decharme, C. C. 

E. 103 (1886) 1045 ; Lum. Elect. 22 (1886) 

433-. 
Oscillation of inductively magnetised bodies. 

Rowland, H. A. Am. J. Sc. 9 (1875) 357-. 
Paradox, magnetic. (Apparent repulsion of 

iron by magnet.) Varley, S. A. B. A. Ep. 

40 (1870) (Sect.) 27. 



606 



5430 



Poisson's theory. Beltrami, E. 

Sc. Mm. 5 (1883) 551-. 
Polarisation, electric and magnetic, relations. 

Cantoni, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 15 (1883) 

481-. 
, magnetic and dielectric. Adler, G. Exner 

Epm. 24 (1888) 733-. 
Potential, magnetic, evaluation. Wassmuth, A. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 102 (1893) (Ab. 2a) 65-. 
Problems. Giuliani, G. N. Cim. 11 (1882) 

139-. 
Propagation of induced magnetism in iron, rate. 

Trouton, F. T. [1891] Nt. 45 (1892) 42-. 
magnetic induction in soft iron. Ober- 

beck, A. A. Ps. C. Beibl. 2 (1878) 288-. 
waves in soft iron. Whiting, H. Am. 

Ac. P. 16 (1881) 322-. 
magnetisation in iron. Hopkinson, J., 

d- Wilson, E. [1895] I. Elect. E. J. 24 

(1896) 194-. 
, rate. Trouton, F. T. Elect. 

27 (1891) 520-. 
, . FitzGerald, . Nt. 46 

(1892) 385. 
magnetism and heat, analogy. Decharme, 

C. Lum. Elect. 39 (1891) 51-. 
in iron. Julius, V. A. Nt. 46 (1892) 

392. 
. Peukert, W. Elekttech. Z. 16 

(1895) 611-. 
Wave-propagation of magnetism. Trouton, F. 

T. Nt. 46 (1892) 56. 
. Trowbridge,J. Ph. Mg. 33 (1892) 

374-. 

HYSTEEESIS. 

Plilcker, J. Pogg. A. 94 (1855) 28-. 
Warburg, E. A. Ps. C. 13 (1881) 141-. 
(Warburg.) Fromme, C. Gott. Nr. (1881) 

119-. 

Forbes, G. B. A. Ep. (1886) 550-. 
Blakesley, T. H. L. Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 286- ; 

Ph. Mg. 26 (1888) 34-. 
Domalip, K. Prag Cesk Ak. Fr. Jos. Ez. 

(Tfida 2) 2 (1893) Art. 11, 45 pp. 
Ewing, J. A. [1896] E. I. P. 15 (1899) 227-. 
after effect. Auerbach, F. A. Ps. C. 14 (1881) 

308-. 
(Auerbach). Waltenhofen, A. von. A. 

Ps. C. 15 (1882) 171-. 
. Klemencic, I. Wien Ak. Sb. 106 (1897) 

(Ab. 2a) 236- ; A. Ps. C. 63 (1897) 61-. 
. Fromme, C. [1897] A. Ps. C. 65 

(1898) 41-. 
Mazzotto, D. [1899] N. Cim. 11 (1900) 

81-. 
in iron bar. Huffel, N. G. van. [1897] 

Amst. Ak. Vs. 6 (1898) 312-. 
, course. Laird, L. R. A. Ps. 

1 (1900) 207-. 
, for varying strength of field. Klemencic, 

I. Wien Ak. Sb. 106 (1897) (Ab. 2a) 676-. 
, Wai tenhof en's phenomenon, and de- 
magnetisation of iron. Auerbach, F. A. 

Ps. C. 16 (1882) 554-. 
and alternating currents. Finzi,G. Elect. 26 

(1891) 672-. 



Magnetic Hysteresis 

Bologna Ac. 



5430 



and alternating currents, graphic treatment. 

Whitwell, A. Elect. Ev. 34 (1894) 543-. 
in body or rotating field. Dina, A. Mil. I. 

Lomb. Ed. 33 (1900) 382-, 430-. 
and composition of steels, relation. Treve, 

(capit.) A. R. S.,(& Durassier, L. C. E. 80 

(1875) 799-. 
of Etruscan vases. Folgheraiter, G. Em. E. 

Ac. Line. Ed. 6 (1897) (Sem. 1) 64-. 

iron (pure). Matthiessen, Aug. Ph. Mg. 
15 (1858) 80. 

. Kato, Y. [1897] Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 9 

(1895-98) 295-. 

cores, effect of periodic magnetising 
forces. Dechant, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 102 
(1893) (Ab. 2a) 1334-. 

, and molecular magnet theory. Sheldon, 

S. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 556-. 
in revolving field. Fleming, J.A. Elect. 

37 (1896) 189. 
iron and steel, objective projection of hysteresis 

curves for. Angstrom, K. Stockh. 6fv. 

(1899) 251-. 
of iron (sheet), testing. Ewing, . [1895] 

I. Elect. E. J. 24 (1896) 398-. 

irons and steels. Greiss, C. B. (vi Adds.) 

D. Nf. Vsm. B. 33 (1857) 178-. 

law. Steinmetz,C. [1890-95] Elect. 26 (1891) 
261- ; Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 62- ; 13 
(1892) 136-, 519-, 531-, 545-, 563-, 575-, 
587-, 599- ; 16 (1895) 623-, 652-, 666-. 

. Friese, R. M. Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 
669. 

. Guilbert, F. Eclair. Elect. 6 (1896) 337-, 
390-. 

losses. Drouin, F. [1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 
102-. 

of magnetic metals, influence of shock. Ber- 
son, G. Toul. Ac. Sc. Mm. 1 (1889) 407-. 

magnetite and steel. Holz, A. L. A. Ps. 
C. 5 (1878) 169-. 

magnets, and magnetic figures. Haldat du 
Lys, C. N. A. de. A. C. 42 (1829) 33-. 

and permanent deformations. Duhem, P. C. 

E. 118 (1894) 974-. 

polarity of gases. Pliicker, J. Pogg. A. 83 
(1851) 299-. 

magnets. Haldat du Lys, G. N. A. 

de. Nancy Mm. S. Sc. (1836) 73-. 
residual magnetism in iron. Waltenhofen, A. 

von. Pogg. A. 120 (1863) 650-. 
rock crystal. Tumlirz, O. t & Luggin, 

H. Wien Az. 23 (1886) 93-. 
; steel (ruptured). Abt, A. Orv.-Termt. 

Ets. (Termt. Szak) (1895) 105-, 233-. 
, theory. Khvol'son, O. D. (xn) Es. C. 

Ps. S. J. 6 (Ps.) (1874) l(Pt. 1)] 136-. 
, . Foppl, A. A. Ps. C. 48 (1893) 

252-. 
, (Foppl). Beck, P. A. Ps. C. 57 

(1896) 464-. 
viscosity. Rutherford, E. [1895] N. Z. I. T. 

28 (1896) 182-. 
. Duhem, P. [1899] Bordeaux S. Sc. Mm. 

5 (1901) 1-. 
watch, non-magnetic. Libert, . Finist. S. 

Sc. Bll. 9 (1887) 41. 



607 



5435 Magnetic Testing 

watches, demagnetisation. Deprez, M. C. B. 

97 (1883) 41-. 
, . Hopkins, G. M. Tel. J. 19 (1886) 

403-. 
, magnetisation. Luys, J. Bv. Sc. 36 (1885) 

478-. 
, . Libert, . Finist. S. Sc. Bll. 8 

(Fasc. 2) (1886) 11- ; 10 (1890) 12-. 
, and demagnetisation. Gintl, W. Baum- 

gartner Z. 5 (1837) 529-. 
, magnetised. Lewis, W. T. [1896] Franklin 

I. J. 143 (1897) 60-. 
, Paillard palladium alloys in. Houston, E. 

J. Am. Ph. S. P. 25 (1888) 129-. 



5435 Magnetic Testing. 
Instruments. 

MAGNETIC TESTING. 

Swing, J. A. Elect. 38 (1897) 110-. 
Ballistic galvanometer, d'Arsonval's, tests by. 

Sheldon, S., & Cocks, T. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

715-. 
, measurements with. Gray, T. Science 

1 (1895) 533-. 
Diamagnetometer, Weber's, experiments with. 

Arndtsen, A. (vn) Ps. Mdd. (1858) 23-; 

(i) Pogg. A. 104 (1858) 587-. 
Iron. Saxby, S. M. Nv. Archt. T. 9 (1868) 

61-. 

(Saxby's method). Paget, F. A. Dingier 
187 (1868) 43-. 

. Sivinburne, J., <& Bourne, W. F. Elect. 

25 (1890) 648-. 
, criticism of methods of testing. Armagnat, 

H. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 556. 
, magnetic detection. Duane, W. A. Ps. C. 

62 (1897) 543-. 

masses, disturbing action. Christiani, A. 
(xn) Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. 1 (1882) 1-. 

and steel. Ewing, J. A. I. CE. P. 126 
(1896) 185-. 

Magnetometer, sine, measurement of deviations 
with, in east and west positions of deviation 
magnet. Chistoni, C, Bm. Uff. Centr. Met. 
A. 10 (Ft. 4) (1891) 283-. 

Magnetometric arrangements free from external 
disturbance. Du Bois, H. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. 

(1896) 102-. 

Observations, magnetic, in geological mapping. 
Smyth, H. L. [1896] Am. I. Mn. E. T. 26 

(1897) 640-. 

, , theory. Plana, G, Tor. Mm. Ac. 6 

(1844) 125-. 
Oscillation period of bar magnets, method of 

determination. Hansemann, G. A. Ps. C. 

28 (1886) 245-. 
Oscillations, magnetic, duration. Kupffer,A.T. 

A. C. 35 (1827) 225-. 
, , reduction to vacuum. Lamont, J. 

Pogg. A. 71 (1847) 124-. 

Values, magnetic, instantaneous, direct deter- 
mination. Kaufmann, W. D. Ps. Gs. Vh. 

(1899) 42-. 



Instruments 5435 

INSTEUMENTS. 
(See also Meteorology 3012.) 

Lamont, J. Munch. Gelehrte Az. 13 (1841) 

993-. 
Wild, H. I. [1872] (xi) Wild Bpm. Met. 3 

(1874) No. 2, 10 pp. 
Treat, E. B., & Esterline, J. W. [1897] Sc. 

Abs. 1 (1898) 78. 
balance. Herapath, W. Thomson A. Ph. 2 

(1821) 291. 
. Tiberg, E. [1882] Berg- Hm. Ztg. 42 

(1883) 512-. 

. Hughes, D. E. [1883] E. S. P. 36 (1884) 

167-. 

. Tiberg, E. Jern- Kont. A. 39 (1884) 29-. 
. Du Bois, H. E. J. G. Elekttech. Z. 13 

(1892) 579- ; Elect. 29 (1892) 448-. 
. Guglielmo, G. Arch. Neerl. 5 (1900) 

175-. 

or bridge for measuring conductivity. 
Edison, T. A. Am. As. P. (1887) 92-. 

, Du Bois's. Ebeling, A., & Schmidt, E. 

Z. Instk. 16 (1896) 353-. 
, Hughes's. Hoffmann, G. Elekttech. Z. 5 

(1884) 327-. 

, Lloyd's, modified, for vertical intensity 
variations. Solander, E. Ups. S. Sc. N. 
Acta 14 (1891) No. 10, 15 pp. 

for measuring intensity of magnetic field. 
Angstrom, K. [1888] Stockh. Ak. Hndl. Bh. 
14 (Afd. 1) (1889) No. 11, 7 pp. 

of precision. Du Bois, H. A. Ps. 2 (1900) 
317- ; Z. Instk. 20 (1900) 113-, 129-. 

for testing of permeability. Ewing, J. A. 
[1898] I. Elect. E. J. 27 (1899) 526-. 

comparison. Chree, C. [1897] E. S. P. 62 

(1898) 155-. 
correcting plates for compasses, etc. Barlow, 

P. Edinb. J. Sc. 5 (1826) 214-. 
curve tracer. Ewing, J. A. B. A. Ep. (1892) 

653- ; Elect. 29 (1892) 543 ; 31 (1893) 99-. 
, continuous and alternating current mag- 
netic. Moore, J. E. Ph. Mg. 41 (1896) 

106-. 
deflector, de Kollong's. Krylov, A. N. Es. 

Ps.-C. S. J. 20 (Ps.) (1888) 211-. 
detector of electric waves, and applications. 

Rutherford, E. [1896] B. A. Ep. (1896) 

724 ; Phil. Trans. (A) 189 (1897) 1-. 
direct-reading, for measuring magnetic pro- 
perties of iron. Koepsel, A. Berl. Ps. Gs. 

Vh. (1894) 30-; Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 214-. 
, (Koepsel). Orlich, E. 

Z. Instk. 18 (1898) 39-. 
hysteresis tester, Blondel-Carpentier. Ar- 

magnat, . [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 300. 
induction-inclinatorium. Wild, H. Met. Z. 

12 (1895) 41-. 
influence of " vagabond " electric currents on. 

Edler, J. D. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1899) 174-. 
local influences on measuring instruments, 

avoidance. Dorn, . Elekttech. Z. 5 

(1884) 403-. 



608 



5435 



Magnetometers 



5435 



magnet, vibrating, elimination of effects of 
vibration. Lloyd, H. [1841] Ir. Ac. P. 2 
(1840-44) 115-. 

magnetic field tester, portable. Ayrton, W. E., 
<& Mather, T. Elect. 35 (1895) 674-. 

meter, Miller's portable. Blyth,J. B. A.Ep. 
(1886) 556. 

MA GNETOMETERS. 

Scoresby, (Rev.) W. [1821] Edinb. E. S. T. 9 

(1823) 243-. 

Meyerstein, M. D. Nf. Vsm. B. (1846) 181-. 
Cushman, H. Science 2 (1895) 758-. 
balance-magnetometer. Lampadius, W. A. 

Schweigger J. 10 (1814) 171-. 

, and its temperature correction. Bris- 
bane, T. M. [1845] Edinb. B. S. T. 16 
(1849) 67-. 

bifilar. Bravais, A. Par. S. Phlm. PV. (1848) 

22-. 
. Volpicelli, P. Bm. At. N. Line. 17 (1864) 

331- ; 18 (1865) 1-, 279- ; C. B. 61 (1865) 

418-. 
, arrangement and use. Weber, W. E. 

Gauss Eesultate (1838) 20-. 
, correcting apparatus. Schering, K. Gott. 

Nr. (1887) 643-. 
, corrections. Broun, J. A. Edinb. B. S. T. 

22 (1861) 467-. 
, deflector-, for vertical component of Earth's 

magnetism. Schering, K. Gott. Nr. (1886) 

185-. 
, determination of constants of. Gauss, C. F. 

Gauss Besultate (1841) 1-. 
, temperature compensation. Brawn, C. 

A. Ps. C. 127 (1866) 433-. 
, theory. Wild, H. I. St. P6t. Ac. Sc. Bll. 

26 (1880) 69-. 
, threads. Abels, H. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Mm. 

(Rs.) 63 (1890) 173- ; Bpm. Met. 13 (1890) 

(Kl.Mt.)8-. 
, variations of magnetism in. Weber, W. E. 

Gauss Besultate (1841) 35-. 
compound, for testing magnetic properties of 

iron and steel. Searle, G. F. C. Camb. Ph. 

S. P. 7 (1892) 330-. 
of constant deflection. Edelmann, M. T. Carl 

Bpm. 10 (1874) 413-. 
for determination of pole strength. Smith, F. 

J. Tel. J. 11 (1882) 103-. 
differential, Eickemeyer's. Steinmetz, C. 

Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 381-. 
Gauss's. Wenckebach, W. Mulder Arch. 4 

(1836) 123-. 
on Gauss's principle, calculation of constants 

for. Chistoni, C. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 24 (1889) 

310-. 
inductor. Weber, W. E. Gauss Besultate 

(1839) 86-. 
Kew, additions. Thorpe, T. E., <& Rilcker, 

A.W. L. Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 361- ; Ph. Mg. 

26 (1888) 122-. 
and magnetic torsion-balance. Smith, (Rev.) 

F. J. Ph. Mg. 14 (1882) 227-. 
mirror-, for teaching purposes. Parragh, G. 

Termt. Kozl. 20 (1888) (Stippl.) 78-; Mth. 

Nt. B. Ung. 6 (1889) 405-. 



simple. Guillet, A. C. B. 128 (1899) 48-. 
small, for local magnetic perturbations. 

Palazzo, L. Em. Uff. Centr. Met. A. 15 

(Pt. 1) (1894) 313-. 
temperature correction. Broun, J. A. B. A. 

Bp. (1850) (Pt. 2) 9-. 
theodolite-. Lloyd, H. Ir. Ac. P. 2 (1840-44) 

608- ; 7 (1857-61) 8-. 
unifilar, sine. Chistoni, C. Mod. Ac. Sc. Mm. 

9 (1893) 125-. 
Weber's. Weber, W. E. Gauss Besultate 

(1839) 68-. 

. Kohlrausch, F. A. Ps. C. 142 (1871) 547-. 
, alteration. Salcher, . A. Ps. C. Beibl. 

7 (1883) 310-. 
, and its earth-inductor. Meyerstein, M. 

Carl Epm. 15 (1879) 735-. 
Weber-Kohlrausch. Strouhal, V. Carl Bpm. 

17 (1881) 344-. 
. Hellmann, G. Carl Epm. 17 (1881) 

759- ; Wild Bpm. Met. 7 (1881) No. 1, 39 pp. 

for measuring horizontal component of Earth's 
magnetism. Lermantov, V. V. Es. Ps.-C. 
S. J. 18 (Ps.) (1886) 366. 

intensity of magnetic field. Gordon, 
J. E. H. Tel. E. J. 12 (1883) 547-. 

. Cotton, A. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1900) 148- ; Eclair. Elect. 24 (1900) 257-. 
magnetic properties of iron. Koepsel, A. 

Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1890) 115-. 

. Behn-Eschenburg, . 
Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 330-. 

resistance. Kennelly,A.E. Elekttech. 

Z. 14 (1893) 727-. 
permeability. Leconte, F. Brux. S. Sc. 

A. 16 (1892) (Pt. 1) 15-. 
needle for measurements. Schneider, Ernest. 

Oestr. Z. Brgw. 25 (1877) 465-, 473-, 483-, 

501-, 510-. 

and metallic pointers, etc. , increasing rigidity 
of. Douglas, J. C. Ph. Mg. 42 (1871) 67-. 

, reduction of period for infinitesimal oscilla- 
tions. Hansteen, C. Brux. Ac. Bll. 7 (1859) 

356-. 
, use in examining iron and steel. Tetmajer, 

C. Oestr. Z. Brgw. 31 (1883) 619-. 
, exploring for iron ore. Brough, B. H. 

I. & S. I. J. (1887) (No. 1) 289-. 
, . Nordenstrom, G. Bv. 

Un. Mines 41 (1898) 226-. 
, magnetic iron ore. Smock, J. C. 

Am. I. Mn. E. T. 4 (*1875-76) 353-. 
portable, for measuring intensity of magnetic 

field. Edser, E., & Stansfield, H. L. Ps. 

S. P. 11 (1892) 338-; Ph. Mg. 34 (1892) 

186-. 
potentiometer, magnetic. Chattock, A. P. 

L. Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 23- ; Ph. Mg. 24 (1887) 

94-. 
proof plane. Roivland, H. A. Am. J. Sc. 10 

(1875) 14-. 
sine-galvanometer adapted for measuring 

declination and intensity. Becker, C. (vn) 

Arnhem Ntk. 3 (1846) 144-. 
for testing magnetic properties of iron tubes. 

Waltenhofen, A. von. Wien Sb. 62 (1870) 

(Ab. 2) 438-. 



609 



5440 Measurement of Magnetic Force, Susceptibility, Induction 5440 

theodolite, Lament's, determination of con- Magnetism of bars. Schneebeli, H. A. Ps. C. 

stants with. Solander, E. [1890] Ups. S. 

Sc. N. Acta 14 (1891) No. 11, 32 pp. 
, , portable. Carl, P. Carl Epm. 9 (1873) 

40-. 
, magnetic. Wild, H. L (xi) Wild Epm. 

Met. 1 (1870) 264-. 
for magnetic surveys. Wild, H. Ziir. 



Vjschr. 41 (1896) (Festschr., Th. 2) 149- ; 44 
(1899) 246-. 

, universal. Schneider, Ernest. Carl Kpm. 14 
1878) 158-. 



5440 Measurement of Magnetic 
Force, Susceptibility, Induction, 
etc. 

MAGNETIC FORCE. 

Fox, R. W. Ph. Mg. 8 (1836) 108-. 

Action, magnetic. Faraday, M. [1845-46] 
Phil. Trans. (1846) 21-, 41-. 

, mutual, of magnetised and non-magnetised 
bodies. Arago,D.F.J. A. C. 28 (1825) 325. 

, , several magnets, and terrestrial mag- 
netism. Fusinieri, A. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 
5 (1835) 197-. 

Adhesion of tubes, bars and cylinders to 
magnet. Lydiatt, E. Nicholson J. 29 (1811) 

Changes of temporary and permanent mag- 
netism. Holz, A. L. A. Ps. C. (Erganz.) 
8 (1878) 353-. 

Dynamomagnetic phenomenon. Treve, (capit.) 
A. R. S., & Durassier, L. C. K. 83 (1876) 
857-. 

Electromagnetic formulae, generalisation. 
Vaschy, . C. E. 124 (1897) 226-. 

Energy. Cazin, A. C. B. 75 (1872) 1265- ; 
(ix) Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 9 (1872) 171-. 

Image of fracture in magnet. Lloyd, C. O. 
Elect. 34 (1895) 104-. 

. Burnie, W. B. Elect. 34 

(1895) 165-. 

Induced and other forces. Harris, (Sir) W. S. 

E. S. P. 6 (1851) 87-. 
Iron, soft, constants. Frolich, O. Elekttech. 

Z. 15 (1894) 517-. 
, specific magnetism. Chase, P. E. [1867] 

Ph. Mg. 35 (1868) 384-. 

and steel, constants. Parshall, H. F. L 
CE. P. 126 (1896) 220-. 

, magnetic homogeneity tested by 
electric conductivity. Ebeling, A. Z. Instk. 
16 (1896) 87-. 

, inequalities and annealing. 
Ebeling, A., & Schmidt, E. Z. Instk. 16 

(1896) 77-. 

, method of distinguishing. Torelli de 

Narci, P. J. Mines 13 (1802-03) 355-. 
Laws. Bella, J. A. dalla. Lisb. Mm. Ac. Sc. 

1 (1797) 85-, 116- ; Pogg. A. 15 (1829) 83-. 
. Harris, (Sir) W. S. [1828] Edinb. E. S. 

T. 11 (1831) 277-. 
Magnetism of bars. Holz, A. L. A. Ps. C. 

151 (1874) 69- ; 154 (1875) 67-. 



Magnetism of bars. Schneebeli, H. 

(Erganz.) 6 (1874) 141-. 
, laws (lifting power, oscillation period, etc.). 

Hacker, P. W. [1852] Niirnb. Ab. 1 (1858) 

Magnets, horseshoe, lifting power (Haecker's 
formula). Kiilp, L. A. Ps. C. 155 (1875) 
314-. 

, , . Willigen, V. S. M. van der. C. 

E. 83 (1876) 1017-. 

, , , influence of shape of armature. 

Svanberg, A. F. Stockh. 6'fv. 3 (1846) 12-. 
, , , and vibration period of bar 

magnets. Hacker, P. W. Pogg. A. 57 (1842) 

321- ; 62 (1844) 366- ; 72 (1847) 63- ; 74 

(1849) 394-. 
, , weight, relation. Burckhardt, 

F. A. Ps. C. 136 (1869) 634-. 

, lifting power. Dub, J. Pogg. A. 105 (1858) 

49-. 
, . Jamin, J. [C.] C. E. 76 (1873) 

1153- ; 81 (1875) 1227-. 
, . Stefan, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 81 (1880) 

(Ab. 2) 89-. 
, , formulas. Thompson, S. P. L. Ps. 

S. P. 9 (1888) 304- ; Ph. Mg. 26 (1888) 70-. 
Pendulum, magnetic, motion. Kinkelin, H. 

Grunert Arch. 28 (1857) 456-. 



MEASUEEMENT OF MAGNETIC FOECE. 

Haldat du Lys, C. N. A. de. Nancy Mm. S. 

Sc. (1845) 193- ; C. E. 22 (1846) 873-. 
Pliicker, J. Pogg. A. 74 (1849) 321-. 
Faraday, M. [1853] E. I. P. 1 (1851-54) 229-. 
Absolute measurement, methods. Gray, A. 

Lum. Elect. 19 (1886) 193-, 295-, 385-, 583-; 

20 (1886) 59-, 106-, 151-, 248-, 298-. 
Compensation-method, magnetic. Kiilp, L. 

A. Ps. C. 133 (1868) 317- ; 135 (1868) 148-, 

151-, 395-, 410-. 
Damping, aperiodic : application to galva- 

nometry and viscosity measurement. Riecke, 

E. A. Ps. C. 51 (1894) 156-. 
Dynamometer, measurement by. Nicotra, L. 

N. Cim. 14 (*1883) 52-. 
Earth currents, theory of disturbance by, 

application. Glazebrook, R. T. [1900] L. 

Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 619-. 
Earth's field, electromagnetic measurement of 

constants. Tanakadate , A . Glasg. Ph. S. P. 

20 (1889) 155-. 

influence, method of freeing bar magnet 
from. Trowbridge, J. Am. J. Sc. 7 (1874) 
490-. 

magnetism, absolute measurement. Gauss, 
C. F. Gott. Cm. 8 (1832-37) 3- ; Mil. 
Effem. As. (1838) 3- (Suppl.). 

, influence of torsion of thread on de- 
flection experiments. Solander, E. [1889] 
Ups. S. Sc. N. Acta 14 (1891) No. 8, 10 pp. 

, Lament's method 'of deflections, error 
in. Palazzo, L. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 1 
(1885) 610-, 640-, 664-. 

in Silesia, and magnetic action of moun- 
tains. Meyer, 0. E. Bresl. Schl. Gs. Jbr. 
(1888) 49-. 



610 



5440 



Magnetic Fields 



5440 



H, calculation of, and galvanometers. Volpi- 
celli, P. C. E. 65 (1867) 296-. 

and g, measurement, influence of non- 
uniform density of bodies. Morghen, A. 
Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 2 (1886) (Sem. 2) 87-. 

, measurement. Kohlrausch, F, A. Ps. C. 

138 (1869) 1-. 
, by bifilar galvanometer. Kohlrausch, F. 

A. Ps. C. 17 (1882) 750-. 
, , galvanometric method. Lehfeldt, R. A. 

Ph. Mg. 33 (1892) 78-. 
Hydrostatic pressure, measurement by. 

Quincke, G. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1884) 17-, 641 ; 

A. Ps. C. 24 (1885) 347-. 
Induced current as test and measure. Faraday, 

M. [1851] Phil. Trans. (1852) 137-. 
Iron bars, soft, influence of length on intensity 

of magnetisation. Tanakadate, A. Ph. Mg. 

26 (1888) 450-. 
, intensity of magnetisation by alternating 

currents. Gerosa, G. G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 

24 (1891) 1196-. 
, . Gerosa, G. G., & 

Finzi, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 7 (1891) 

(Sem. 2) 253-. 

tubes and spirals, intensity of magnetisa- 
tion. Gerosa, G. G. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 
7 (1891) (Sem. 2) 151-. 

MAGNETIC FIELDS. 

action on flow of liquids. Dufour, H. [1887] 

Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 17 (1887) 173- ; Par. S. Ps. 

Se. (1887) 6-; Laus. S. Vd. Bll. 23 (1888) xi-. 
comparison. Luggin, H. Wien Ak. Sb. 95 

(1887) (Ab. 2) 646-. 
or electric field, formation of drops in. Umov, 

N. A. Mosc. S. Sc. Bll. 92 (No. 2) (1896) 1-; 

Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 2 (1896) 524-. 
of high frequency, measurement. Arsonval, 

A. d>. C. E. 117 (1893) 34- ; Par. S. Bl. Mm. 

45 (1893) (C. R.) 466-. 
measurement. Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 

21 (1886) 342-. 
. Leduc, A. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1886) 40-; 

J. de Ps. 6 (1887) 184-. 
. (New methods.) Leduc, A. Lum. Elect. 

28 (1888) 364-, 422-. 
. Epstein, J. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. 

(1892-93) 37. 

. Russell, A. Elect. 31 (1893) 282-. 
. Bouty, E. C. E. 126 (1898) 238- ; Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1898) 14- ; Eclair. Elect. 15 (1898) 

89-, 400-, 441-. 
, absolute, by mercury magnetometer. 

Leduc, A. C. E. 99 (1884) 186-. 

by bismuth wire. Lenard, P., & Howard, 
J. L. Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 340-, 380. 

diamagnetic bifilar apparatus. Joubin, 
P. C. E. 106 (1888) 735-. 

of Earth's field. Kohlrausch, F., & Kohl- 
rausch, W. Wiirzb. Ps. Md. Sb. (1884) 41- ; 
A. Ps. C. 27 (1886) 1-. 

, and Gramme machine. Ledeboer, P. H. 
Lum. Elect. 21 (1886) 385-. 

of vertical intensity. Kriiger, R. A. Ps. C. 
28 (1886) 613- ; Gott. Nr. (1886) 199-. 



and moment and current, absolute measure- 
ment. Lippich, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 97 (1890) 
(Ab. 2a) 188-. 

strong, absolute measurement. Gray, A. Ph. 
Mg. 16 (1883) 144-. 

, production. Stefan, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 97 
(1889) (Ab. 2a) 176-. 

uniform, absolute measurement. Stenger, F. 
A. Ps. C. 33 (1888) 312-. 

, measurement of direction and magnitude 
of force. Sebuev, G. N. Kazan S. Nt. 
(Ps.-Mth.) P. 7 (1889) 159- ; Fschr. Ps. 
(1889) (Ab. 2) 608- . 

, from orientation of induced mag- 
netism. Folgheraiter, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. 
Ed. 5 (1896) (Sem. 2) 127-, 199-, 242-. 

, by transverse pressure, and demagneti- 
sation constants of manganese steel. Meyer, 
P. Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 582-. 

variable, study by cathode rays. Hess, A. 
C. E. 119 (1894) 57-. 

weak, behaviour of bodies in. Manzetti, R., & 
Bella, A. Catania Ac. Gioen. At. 13 (1900) 
Mem. 1, 29 pp. 

Magnetic moment. Bailie, J. B. A. C. 5 

(1885) 289-. 
, absolute measurement. Gray, T. Ph. 

Mg. 6 (1878) 321-. 
, and current, measurement by balance. 

Koepsel, A. A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 250-. 
, , . Helmholtz, H. von. 

Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1887) 34. 
, measurement by balance. Helmholtz, 

H. L. F. von. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1883) 405-. 
of small needles. Bouty, E. C. E. 78 

(1874) 189-. 

poles, and quantity of free magnetism at 
poles, absolute measurement. Kuczynski, 
S. L. (xn) Krk. Ak. (Mt.-Prz.) Ez. & Sp. 2 

(1875) v-. 

Oscillations, etc., of astatic needle, measure- 
ment. Kurz,A. Exner Epm. 19 (1883) 560-. 

of needle, disturbance by neighbouring 
bodies. Baumgartner, A. von. Baumgartner 
Z. 2 (1827) 419-. 

Pole strength of magnet. Cazin, A. A. C. 28 

(1873) 145-. 
. Blondlot, R. C. E. 80 (1875) 

653-. 
Temperature coefficient of magnets (steel), 

measurement. Wild, H. I. [1873] (xi) St. 

Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 19 (1874) 1-. 
, measurement. Chistoni, C. Mod. 

Ac. Sc. Mm. 9 (1893) 299-; Mod. S. Nt. At. 

12 (1893) 209-. 



UNIVERSALITY OF MAGNETISM. 

Coulomb, C. A. J. de Ps. 54 (1802) 367-, 
454-; Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 3 (1802) 114-. 

Becquerel, A. C. [1827] Par. Mm. de I'l. 11 
(1832) 45-. 

Haldat du Lys, C. N. A. de. [1840-41] Nancy 
Mm. S. Sc. (1840) 70-; A. C. 19 (1847) 113-. 

Becquerel, E. C. E. 20 (1845) 1708-. 



611 



5440 Measurement of Magnetic Induction 

[1845-46] Phil. Trans. (1846) 
Nancy Mm. S. 



Susceptibility 5440 



Faraday, M. 

21-, 41-. 
Haldat du Lys, C. N. A. de. 

Sc. (1845) 155-. 
Becquerel, E. C. R. 22 (1846) 952-; 28 (1849) 

623-. 

(History.) Moigno, F. Rv. Sc. 2 (1848) 216-. 
( .) Haldat du Lys, C. N. A. de. Nancy Mm. 

S. Sc. (1849) 183-. 
Becquerel, E. C. E. 31 (1850) 198- ; A. C. 28 

(1850) 283-; 32(1851) 68-. 
Delarive, A. Bb. Un. Arch. 13 (1850) 107-. 
Schonfeldt, J. E. E. Mosc. S. Nt. Bll. 48 

(1874) (Ft. 2) 310- ; 49 (1875) (No. 1) 50-, 

(No. 2) 1-. 
application in engineering and mining. 

Scoresby, (Rev.) W. R. S. P. 3 (1831) 67- ; 

Edinb. N. Ph. J. 12 (1832) 319- ; 13 (1832) 

97-. 
and magnetic attraction. Haldat du Lys, C. 

N. A. de. Nancy Mm. S. Sc. (1846) 226-. 
of metals. Seebeck, T. J. Berl. Ab. (1825) 

71-. 



MEASUREMENT OF MAGNETIC 
INDUCTION. 

Coefficients of induction of magnets. Whipple, 
G. M. [1877] R. S. P. 26 (1878) 218-. 

(steel). Peirce, B. O. Am. J. 

Sc. 2 (1896) 347-. 

( ) in Earth's field, determina- 
tion. Wild, H. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Mm. 34 

(1886) No. 7, 32 pp. 

(bars), Lament's method for. 

Palazzo, L. Rm. R. Ac. Line. Rd. 2 (1886) 
(Sem. 1) 434-, 602-. 

, Lament's method for. Chistoni, 

C. Mod. Ac. Sc. Mm. 9 (1893) 159-. 
in varying fields. Sack, H. A. 

Ps. C. 29 (1886) 58-. 
Curves, representation. Kath, H. Elekttech. 

Z. 19 (1898) 407-. 
Electric and magnetic induction. Beer, A. 

Pogg. A. 98 (1856) 137-. 
Flux, magnetic. Cabanellas, G. As. Fr. C. R. 

(1887) (Pt. 1) 197-. 

, , in armature cores. Goldsborough, W. 

E. [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 220-. 
, , distribution in permanent magnets. 

Gasnier, P. [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 79. 
, , in meters and other electrical instru- 
ments. Campbell, A. [1898] L. Ps. S. P. 

16 (1899) 258-; Ph. Mg. 47 (1899) 1-. 
, , propagation, experiments. Pisati, G. 

Rm.. R. Ac. Line. Rd. 6 (1890) (Sem. 1) 

168-. 
Iron. Reignier, C. Lum. Elect. 29 (1888) 

509- ; 31 (1889) 170-. 

bars, distribution in. Gill, J. L. W. Ph. 
Mg. 46 (1898) 478-. 

, long, distribution in. Lamb, C. G. 
L. Ps. S. P. 16 (1899) 509- ; Ph. Mg. 48 (1899) 
262-. 

, deviation of magnetisation from propor- 
tionality to current, method of measurement. 
Koosen, J. H. Pogg. A. 85 (1852) 159-. 



Iron, distribution in. Ascoli, M. Rm. R. Ac. 

Line. Rd. 3 (1894) (Sem. 1) 176-, 377-. 
, . Aseoli, M. , d Lori, F. Rm. R. Ac. 

Line. Rd. 3 (1894) (Sem. 2) 157-. 
, nickel and cobalt. Becquerel, H. C. R. 

88 (1879) 111- ; A. C. 16 (1879) 227-. 
, , effect of induction on physical 

properties. Tomlimon, H. [1889] Phil. 

Trans. (A) 182 (1892) 341-. 
, soft. Holden, H. [1886] Manch. Lt. Ph. 

S. P. 26 (1887) 9-. 
, , movability of magnetism. Weber, W. 

E. Gauss Resultate (1839) 118-. 
and steel, various kinds, relation. Dove, 

H. W. Berl. B. (1839) 72-. 
Magnet, quantity of magnetism lost by contact 

with iron. Jamin, J. C. C. R. 81 (1875) 

1227-. 
Magnetism induced by feeble magnetic forces. 

Culmann, P. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 345. 
Molecular electromagnetic induction. Hughes, 

D. E. R. S. P. 31 (1881) 525- ; Lum. Elect. 

3 (*1881) 265-, 278-, 296-. 
Nickel tubes. Knott, C. G., <& Shand, A. 

[1894] Edinb. R. S. P. 20 (1895) 290- . 
Series of small magnets (magnetic chain), 

properties of members. Hessel, J. F. C. 

Marb. Schr. 5 (1844) 1-. 
Steel bars. Treves, M. C. R. 67 (1868) 321. 



MEASUREMENT OF MAGNETIC 
SUSCEPTIBILITY. 

Eicing, J. A. [1885] Phil. Trans. 176 (1886) 

523-. 

Du Bois, H. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 399-. 
Koenigsberger, J. A. Ps. 1 (1900) 175-. 
Meyer, S. Wien Ak. Sb. 109 (1900) (Ab. 2a) 

400-. 
Atmospheric magnetism. Faraday, M. [1850- 

51] Phil. Trans. (1851) 42- ; R. I. P. 1 

(1851-54) 56-. 
Atomic magnetism and susceptibility. Jager, 

G., d- Meyer, S. A. Ps. C. 63 (1897 

83-. 

Coefficient, magnetometric, experiments. Chis- 
toni, C. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 35 (1900) 395- or 

581-. 
Coercive force, effects. Warburg, E. A. Ps. C. 

13 (1881) 141-. 
Conductivity, experiments. Faraday, M. 

[1850] Phil. Trans. (1851) 29-. 
Demagnetisation factor for iron cylinders. 

Ascoli, M., d- Lori, F. Rm. R. Ac. Line. 

Rd. 3 (1894) (Sem. 2) 190-. 
and bundles. Ascoli, M. Rm. 

R. Ac. Line. Rd. 6 (1897) (Sem. 2) 129-. 

factors for cylindrical rods. Mann, C. R. 
Ps. Rv. 3 (1896) 359-. 

of iron by feeble magnet. Marianini, S. 
[1843] Mod. S. It. Mm. 23 (1844) 215-. 

, retardation due to induced currents. 

Stracciati, E. N. Cim. 13 (*1883) 35-. 

and magnetisation of iron and steel, rate. 
Deprez, M. C. R. 80 (1875) 1353-. 

soft iron, time. Quet, . C. R. 

35 (1852) 749-. 

612 



5440 Magnetic Permeability 

Demagnetisation of soft iron, time. Hodgkins, 
W. C., & Jennings, J. H. Am. Ac. P. 10 
(1875) 387-. 

Electric and magnetic research at low tem- 
peratures. Fleming, J. A. [1896] E. I. P. 
15 (1899) 239-. 

Energy and susceptibility. Gouy, . C. E. 
109 (1889) 935-. 

Inertia, magnetic. Krogh, K., & Eikli, H. 
Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 1083-. 

M A GNETIC PEEMEA BILITY. 

Eeignier, C., & Bary, P. Lum. Elect. 26 (1887) 

558-. 
Melotte, F., & Henrard, G. Lum. Elect. 32 

(1889) 415-. 

bridge, Ewing's. Anon. Elect. 37 (1896) 41-. 
, . Chattock, A. P., & Clulow, P. T. 

Elect. 37 (1896) 94-, etc. 

method for finding. Santarelli, G. Bv. 
Sc.-Ind. 31 (1899) 196. 

under cross-magnetising forces. Everett, W. H. 

Elect. Ev. 43 (1898) 439. 
of iron (soft). Holden, H. [1886] Manch. Lt. 

Ph. S. P. 26 (1887) 9-. 
bar, influence of section. Eiving, J. A., 

<& Low, W. Elect. 19 (1887) 439- ; Ph. Mg. 

26 (1888) 274-. 
(cast), influence of silicon. Caldwell, 

F. C. Am. As. P. (1898) 133-. 
under oscillatory discharges. Marchant, 

E. W. Nt. 62 (1900) 413. 
at right angles to magnetisation direc- 
tion. Kennelly, A. E. Elect. 25 (1890) 

111-, 141-. 
. Evershed, S., & 

Vignoles, E. B. Elect. 25 (1890) 158-. 
and steel. Bosanquet, E. H. M. Ph. 

Mg. 19 (1885) 73-. 
. Osterberg, M. Sch. Mines Q. 

N. Y. 17 (1896) 118-. 
and nickel, and their saturation. 

Eowland, H. A. Ph. Mg. 46 (1873) 140- . 

liquid oxygen and liquid air. Fleming, J. 
A., d Dewar, J. [1896] E. S. P. 60 (1897) 
283-. 

liquids. Borgman, I. I. (xn) Es. C. Ps. S. 
J. 10 (Ps.) (1878) [Pt. 1] 155-. 

nickel and cobalt, and their saturation. 
Eowland, H. A. Ph. Mg. 48 (1874) 321-. 

steel. Kernot, W. N. Aust. As. Ep. (1900) 
195-. 

and susceptibility, measurement, method. 

Warren, T. T. P. B. C. N. 56 (1887) 15. 
value for rapid electric oscillations. St. John, 

C. E. Ph. Mg. 39 (1896) 297-. 
variable, induction phenomena in, media. 

Eeignier, C., & Bary, P. Lum. Elect. 32 

(1889) 15-. 

MAGNETIC PEOPEETIES OF VAEIOUS 
SUBSTANCES. 

Asbestos. Bleekrode, L. A. Ps. C. 55 (1895) 

398-. 
Chemical compounds. Wiedemann, G. H. 

[1876] Ph. Mg. 4 (1877) 161-, 276-. 



Iron 5440 

Gases. Plilcker, J. Pogg. A. 83 (1851) 87- ; 

84 (1851) 161- ; C. E. 33 (1851) 301-. 
. Quincke, G. B. A. Ep. (1887) 608 ; A. Ps. 

C. 34 (1888) 401-. 
. Toepler, A., d- Hennig, E. Berl. Ak. Sb. 

(1888) 373-. 
. Quincke, G. [1889] Heidi. Nt. Md. Vh. 

4 (1892) 288-. 
and liquids, magnetic action on. Plilcker, 

J. Pogg. A. 73 (1848) 549-. 
Iridium. Brackett, S. H. Ps. Ev. 2 (1895) 

219-. 

Iron. 

Thalen, T. E. [1862] Tips. N. Acta S. Sc. 4 

(1863) 43 pp. 
Haubner, J. [1880] Wien Ak. Sb. 82 (1881) 

(Ab. 2) 771-. 
Ewing, J. A., d Klaassen, (Miss) H. G. [1893] 

Phil. Trans. (A) 184 (1894) 985-. 
annealed, New Zealand. Wilson, E. Elect. 

39 (1897) 672-. 
carbides, electric and magnetic properties. 

Barus, C., d~ Stroulial, V. U. S. Gl. Sv. 

Bll. No. 14 (1885) 238 pp. 
cast, malleable. Obermayer, A. von. Exner 

Epm. 22 (1886) 236-. 
cylinders, hollow. Kalischer, S. Elekttech. 

Z. 15 (1894) 548. 
electrolytic. Beetz, W. A. Ps. C. 155 (1875) 

472-. 
at high temperatures, magnetic and other 

physical properties. Hopkinson, J. E. S. 

P. 45 (1889) 318- ; Phil. Trans. (A) 180 

(1890) 443- ; E. S. P. 61 (1897) 490-. 
measurement of properties. Gray, T. [1892] 

Phil. Trans. (A) 184 (1894) 531-. 
. Deguisne, C. [1898] Frkf. a. M. 

Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1898-99) 45-. 
and other metals. Ewing, J. A. Elect. 24 

(1890) 161-, 211-, 259-, 312-, 340-, 390-, 

415-, 441-, 467-, 491-, 518, 544-, 567-, 

591-, 615-, 642-; 25 (1890) 30-, 57-, 83-, 

168-, 196-, 222-, 250-, 307-, 339-, 372-, 

401-, 429-, 455-, 482-, 577-, 635-, 670-, 

732- ; 26 (1891) 6-, 75-, 99-, 164-, 228-, 

291- ; 27 (1891) 6-, 124-, 153-, 181-, 266-, 

323-, 379-, 407, 495-, 517-, 546-, 584-, 

601-, 663-, 683- ; 28 (1892) 5-. 
newer kinds, and Steinmetz's coefficients of 

hysteresis. Ebeling, A., & Schmidt, E. 

Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 276-. 
and nickel and cobalt, electrolytic. Leick, 

W. A. Ps. C. 58 (1896) 691- ; 59 (1896) 

750-. 
powder. Waltenhofen, A. von. Wien Ak. Sb. 

79 (1879) (Ab. 2) 268-. 
of various densities. Haubner, J. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 83 (1881) (Ab. 2) 1167- ; Exner 

Epm. 22 (1886) 71-. 
pure. Lydall, F., & Pocklington, A. W. S. 

[1892] E. S. P. 52 (1893) 228-. 
almost pure. Wilson, E. E. S. P. 62 (1898) 

369-. 
sheet-. Eohr, W. Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 

712-. 
soft. Watkins, F. Phil. Trans. (1833) 333-. 



613 



5440 Magnetic Properties of Substances 



Magnetisation 5440 



and steel. Kingdon,J.A. Elect. Bv. 38 (1896) 

8-. 
. Fleming, J. A. [1897] Elect. 39 (1897) 

860- ; 40 (1898) 19-, 49-, 82-. 
testing. Kapp, G. [1894] I. Elect. E. J. 23 

(1895) 199-. 
. Franklin, W. S. Ps. Bv. 2 (1895) 466-. 

Metals, magnetic relations. Faraday, M. Ph. 

Mg. 8 (1836) 177- ; (vi Adds.) 14 (1839) 161- ; 

(n) 27 (1845) 1-. 
, , relationship. Barrett, W. F. Ph. Mg. 

46 (1873) 478-. 

wire telephone applied to study. 

Chrystal, G. Edinb. E. S. P. 10 (1880) 

707- ; Nt. 22 (1880) 303-. 
Nickel. Wild, H. I. [1877] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. 

Bll. 24 (1878) 1-. 
. Swing, J. A., & Cowan, G. C. [1888] 

Phil. Trans. (A) 179 (1889) 325-. 
. Swing, J. A. [1888] Phil. Trans. (A) 

179 (1889) 333-. 

and cobalt. Sage, B. G. J. de Ps. 54 
(1802) 355-. 

-. Seebeck, T. J. Gehlen J. 7 (1808) 

208-. 
. Dobereiner, J. W. Gilbert A. 67 

(1821) 223-. 
. Hankel, W. G. Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 

27 (1875) 189-. 
, impure. Hopkinson, J. B. S. P. 44 (1888) 

317-. 

tetracarbonyl, magnetic and electric pro- 
perties. Apt,E. Schl. -Hoist. Nt.Vr.Schr. 
11 (1898) 242-. 

Oxygen. Faraday, M. [1850] Phil. Trans. 

(1851) 20-. 
. (Numerical comparison of magnetism of 

oxygen and iron.) Plilcker, J. Pogg. A. 

83 (1851) 108-. 
. Walker, (Prof.) E. [1851] Ashmol. S. 

P. 2 (1843-52) 285-. 

. Zantedeschi, F. Yen. At. 2 (1851) 205-. 
. Provenzali, F. S. Em. N. Line. Mm. 8 

(1892) 109-. 
, liquid, action of magnet on. Dewar, J. 

[1891] B. S. P. 50 (1892) 247. 
, , properties and absorption spectrum. 

Dewar, . [1897] B. I. P. 15 (1899) 

555. 

and nitrogen. Faraday, M. [1851] B. I. P. 
1 (1851-54) 1-. 

Ozone. Becquerel, H. C. E. 92 (1881) 348-. 
Steel. Vollmer, . Oken Isis (1836) 203-. 
. Petrie, W. B. A. Ep. (1846) (pt. 2) 33-. 
. Tongel, E. van. C. Ztg. 21 (1897) 586. 

bars. Fromme, C. Gott. Nr. (1875) 297- ; 
A. Ps. C. (Ergdnz.) 7 (1876) 390-. 

, and its magnetic permanence. Pictet, E. 

Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 6 (1881) 113-. 
, tempered. Curie, (Mme.) M. Sklodowska-. 

[1897-98] C. E. 125 (1897) 1165- ; Elect. Bv. 

44 (1899) 40-, 75-, 112-. 



MAGNETISATION. 



Mazzotto, D. [1899] N. Cim. 11 (1900) 81-. 
alternating, variations in magnetism of bar 

due to. Marianini, P. D. (x) Mod. Ac. Sc. 

Mm. 11 (1870) 101-. 
circular and axial, simultaneous. Klemencic, 

I. Wien Ak. Sb. 104 (1895) (Ab. 2a) 86-. 
longitudinal, interaction. Knott, C. G. 

[1890] Edinb. B. S. P. 17 (1891) 401-. 
constant of. Oberbeck, A. A. Ps. C. 135 (1868) 

74-. 

and inconstant. Gumlich, E., & Schmidt, E. 
Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 233-. 

by currents. Berzelius, J. J. Stockh. Ac. 
Hndl. (1820) 193- ; Gilbert A. 68 (1821) 
167- ; A. C. 16 (1821) 113-. 

. Marianini, S. [1838] A. C. 13 (1845) 

237-. 

(momentary). Marianini, S. [1840-46] 

A. C. 16 (1846) 436-, 448- ; B. A. Bp. (1842) 
(pt. 2) 27- ; At. Sc. It. (1846) 307-. 

(alternating). Wien, M. A. Ps. C. 66 

(1898) 859-. 

, effect of size of battery cells. Lipkens, 

, & Quetelet, . Quetelet Cor. Mth. 7 
(1832) 54-. 

currents, strong, effect on all bodies. Bec- 
querel, A. C. A. C. 25 (1824) 269-; 36 
(1827) 337-. 

curves, treatment. Baumgardt, L. M. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 11 (1890) 670-. 

experiments. Ascoli, M. N. Cim. 3 (1896) 

phenomena. Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. Mt. Gs. 
Nf . 3 (1838) 25- ; Pogg. A. 45 (1838) 353-. 

Tence of reversals. Bosanquet, JR. H. M. 
Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 19- ; Ph. Mg. 24 (1887) 
60-. 
temporary. Bornstein, R. D. Nf . Tbl. (*1874) 

120-. 
, ratio to magnetising force. Bornstein, E. 

Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 26 (1874) 93-. 
work done in. Grassi, G. Nap. Ed. 37 (1898) 
344-. 

, measurement. Wassmuth, A., & 
Schilling, G. A. Wien Ak. Sb. 94 (1887) 
(Ab. 2) 280-. 

, . Marburg, E. Wien Ak. Sb. 96 

(1888) (Ab. 2) 1256-. 
, , direct. Peukert, W. [1897] 

Braunschw. Vr. Nt. Jbr. (11) (1899) 223-. 



MAGNETISATION OF VAEIOUS 
SUBSTANCES. 



cobalt, effect of pressure. Chree, C. 
Phil. Trans. (A) 181 (1891) 329-. 

Iron. 



Bidwell, S. E. S. P. 40 (1886) 486-. 
Magrini, F. Em. B. Ac. Line. Ed. 4 (1888) 

(Sem. 1) 734-. 
bar, magnetisation by current, work in. Wasz- 

muth, A. Wien Sb. 63 (1871) (Ab. 2) 6-. 



614 



5440 Iron Magnetisation of Various Substances 



bars, effect of narrow crevasses at right angles 

to their length. Thomson, J. J., <& Newall, 

H. F. [1887] Camb. Ph. S. P. 6 (1889) 84-. 
after cessation of inducing field. Felici, E. 

N. Cim. 13 (1875) 266-. 
cores, hollow. Foppl, A. Elekttech. Z. 15 

(1894) 209-. 
by current, rate. Hearder, J. N. Devon. As. 

T. 5 (1866) 137-. 
curve of magnetisation, normal. Franklin, 

W. S., & Clark, S. S. Ps. Ev. 8 (1899) 304-. 
curves of magnetisation. Hopkinson, J. 

[1885] Phil. Trans. 176 (1886) 455-. 
cylinders. Mascart, . J. de Ps. 5 (1886) 

293-. 
. Ascoli, M. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 3 (1894) 

(Sem. 1) 314-. 
, in various directions. Herwig, H. A. Ps. 

C. 156 (1875) 430- 
by high-frequency discharges. Rutherford, E. 

[1894] N. Z. I. T. 27 (1895) 481-. 
influence of form. Magrini, L. A. Sc. Lomb. 

Yen. 5 (1835) 100-, 220-. 

- metal casings. [Marianini non] 

Mariannini, S. (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. 

Fis. C. 6 (1842) 113-. 

intensity of magnetisation by alternating cur- 
rents, cyclical variations. Gerosa, G. G., 

(& Mai, E. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 24 (1891) 951-. 
mass, causes weakening magnetisation by 

Ley den jar discharge. [Marianini non] 

Mariannini, S. (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. 

Fis. C. 9 (1843) 134- , 251-. 
and other metals in strong fields. Swing, J. 

A., & Low, W. [1888] Phil. Trans. (A) 180 

(1890) 221-. 
- nickel and cobalt, effect of stress on. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. [1878] Phil. Trans. 170 

(1880) 55- ; E. I. P. 8 (1879) 591-. 
, films, curves for. Beattie, J. C. 

[1896] Edinb. E. S. T. 38 (1897) 757-. 

, interaction of longitudinal and circular 

magnetisation. Knott, C. G. [1891] Edinb. 

E. S. P. 18 (1892) 124-. 
, . Honda, K. Tok. 

Coll. Sc. J. 11 (1898-99) 283-. 
, by rapid electric oscillations. Klemencic, 

I. WienAk. Sb. 103 (1894) (Ab. 2a) 205-. 
propagation of magnetisation affected by cur- 
rents in iron. Hopkinson, J., & Wilson, E. 

[1894] Phil. Trans. (A) 186 (1896) 93-. 
by very small forces. Schmidt, W. [1894] 

A. Ps. C. 54 (1895) 655-. 
and by very great forces. Eoessler, 

G. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 97-, 114-, 133-, 

149-, 161-, 220. 

(Eoessler). Du Bois, 

H. E. J. G. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 208. 
soft, law. Rober, A. A. Ps. C. 133 (1868) 53-. 
, magnetisation function. Stoletow, A. A. 

Ps. C. 146 (1872) 439-. 
and steel. Gemmell, J. W. [1885] E. S. P. 39 

(1886) 374-. 
, magnetisation function. Ibraileanu, H. 

A. [Bucarest S. Sc. Bl. 7 (1898)] 232-. 
rods, effect of pressure. Bachmetjev, P. 

Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 16 (Ps.) (1884) 374-, 427- ; 

Fschr. Ps. (1884) (Ab. 2) 838-. 



5440 



and steel rods, effect of pressure. Ibraileanu, 
H. A. Wien Az. 21 (1884) 185-. 

, by small magnetic forces. Rayleigh, 
(Lord). Ph. Mg. 23 (1887) 225-. 

, . Holborn, L. A. Ps. C. 61 

(1897) 281-. 
in strong fields. Ewing, J. A., & Low, W. 

E. S. P. 42 (1887) 200- ; B. A. Ep. (1887) 

586-. 

. Bidwell, S. Ph. Mg. 29 (1890) 440. 
temporary magnetisation. Stamkart, F. J. 

Amst. Vs. Ak. 11 (1861) 392-. 
in very weak fields. Culmann, P. A. Ps. C. 

56 (1895) 602-. 
wires, circular magnetisation. Klementic, I. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 103 (1894) (Ab. 2a) 891-. 
, effect of strain on. Ascoli, M. Em. E. 

Ac. Line. Ed. 2 (1893) (Sem. 2) 30-. 
, . Lori, F. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Mm. 2 (1895) 324-. 
, twisted, and partially demagnetised steel, 

anomalous magnetisation. Wiedemann, G. 

Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 41 (1889) 57-. 
work of magnetisation in. Peukert, W. 

Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 529-. 
iron, etc. Adler, G. Wien Ak. Sb. 

100 (1891) (Ab. 2a) 469-. 

iso tropic bodies, magnetisation coefficient, 

method of determining. Martinotti, G. 

Ev. Sc.-Ind. 20 (1888) 165-. 
liquids. Townsend, J. S. [1896] Phil. Trans. 

(A) 187 (1897) 533-. 
nickel, effect of length of bars. Berson, G. 

Toul. Fac. Sc. A. 6 (1892) K, 10 pp. 
, strain on. Banti, A. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Mm. 7 (1891) 62-. 
non-ferruginous vertical substances. Hdll- 

strom, G. G. Stockh. Ak. Hndl. (1835) 294-. 
(Hallstrom). Hansteen, C. Stockh. 

Ak. Hndl. (1835) 302-. 
steel, insusceptible. Sordet, . Cztg. Opt. 7 

(1886) 138-. 
, temporary magnetisation. Bouty, E. C. 

E. 81 (1875) 88-. 
temporary magnetisation. Harris, (Sir) W. S. 

[1830] Phil. Trans. (1831) 67-. 

Magnetism, depth in iron. Stefanini, A. N. 

Cim. 7 (1898) 170-. 

, . Ascoli, M. N. Cim. 8 (1898) 32-. 

_, steel. Jamin, J. C. C. E. 78 (1874) 

1241-. 
, , and superposition of magnetised 

layers. Jamin, J. C. C. E. 80 (1875) 41 7-. 

of " non-magnetic " metals. Dove, H. W. 
Pogg. A. 54 (1841) 325-. 

rotation ellipsoid, Neumann's law, ex- 
periments. Riecke, E. Gott. Nr. (1870) 396-. 

, terrestrial, and susceptibility, measurement 
by magnetising action of earth. Bongiovanni, 
G. [1899] N. Cim. 11 (1900) 15-. 

Magnets, temporary, dependence of strength 
on greatness of magnetising force. Quintus- 
Icilius, G. von. A. Ps. C. 121 (1864) 125-. 

Moment, magnetic, influence of rate of dimi- 
nution of magnetising force on magnitude. 
Fromme, C. A. Ps. C. 44 (1891) 138-. 



VOL. III. 



615 



5440 Susceptibility 

Moment, permanent, action of weak and great 
magnetising forces in producing. Fromme, 
C. A. Ps. C. 43 (1891) 181-, 256-. 
Permanence of magnetism in steel bars. 

Christie, S. H. B. I. J. 1 (1831) 243-. 
Permanent magnetism, different conditions. 
Fromme, C. A. Ps. C. 45 (1892) 798-. 

penetrative magnets. Gazzaniga, C. L. 

A. Sc. Lomb. Ven. 8 (1838) 263- ; 9 (1839) 
26-, 66-. 
Pressures, magnetic and electric. Quincke, G. 

[1884] Heidi. Nt. Md. Vh. 3 (1886) 259-. 
, of solids. Quincke, G. D. Nf. Tbl. 

(1889) 209-. 

Eesistance, magnetic. Swinburne, J., & 
Hospitalier, E. Elect. 20 (1888) 412-, etc. 
Saturation point. Fromme, C. A. Ps. C. 33 
(1888) 234-. 

in diamagnetic and feebly paramagnetic 

bodies. Eaton, H. W. A. Ps. C. 15 (1882) 
225-. 

iron (soft). Feilitzsch, F. C. O. von. 

Pogg. A. 80 (1850) 321-. 

. Joule, J. P. Ph. Mg. 2 (1851) 

306-, 447-. 

(soft). Fromme, C. Gott. Nr. 

(1875) 500-. 

. Wilde, H. E. S. P. 61 (1897) 

291-. 

and steel. Waltenhofen, A. von. 

Wien Sb. 59 (1869) (Ab. 2) 770-. 

magnet. Dub, J. Berl. Tel. Vr. Z. 

5 (1858) 161-. 

and susceptibility, absolute measurement. 
Shida, R. [1882] B. S. P. 34 (1883) 285- ; 
35 (1883) 404-. 

Sideroscope, construction and use. Le Baillif, 

. Ferussac Bll. Sc. Mth. 8 (1827) 87-. 
Strain of iron, effect on magneto-electric in- 
duction. Gore, G. Ph. Mg. 36 (1868) 446-. 
Stress, effects on induced magnetism in soft 

iron. Thomson, (Sir) W. B. S. P. 23 (1875) 

473-. 
, magnetisation. Thomson, (Sir) W. 

[1875-78] Phil. Trans. 166 (1877) 693- ; 

170 (1880) 55- ; B. I. P. 8 (1879) 591-. 
, magnetism and thermo-electricity. 

Meyer, G. S. A. Ps. C. 59 (1896) 134-. 

and strain, effect on magnetic induction. 
Tomlinson, H. B. S. P. 42 (1887) 224-. 

Structure, influence on susceptibility. Baum- 
gartner, A. von. Baumgartner Z. 3 (1835) 
66-. 

Substances feebly magnetic. Zllov [Sttov], P. 
A. (xn) Bee. Mth. (Moscou) 9 (1878-81) 
(Ft. 1) 585- ; (xi) A. Ps. C. 1 (1877) 481- ; 
Mosc. S. Nt. Bll. 53 (1878) (Pi. 2) 398- ; 
A. Ps. C. 11 (1880) 324-; J. de Ps. 6 (1877) 
329- ; 9 (1880) 85-. 

and diamagnetic. Silov, P. A. A. 

Ps. C. 16 (1882) 247-. 

. (Determination of suscepti- 
bility in absolute measure.) Thomson, (Sir) 
W. *B. A. Bp. (1890)745-. 

. Lombardi, L. [1896] Tor. 

Ac. Sc. Mm. 47 (1897) 1-. 

. Wills, A. P. B. A. Bp. (1897) 

586- ; Ph. Mg. 45 (1898) 432- ; 47 (1899) 164. 



5440 



Substances feebly magnetic and diamagnetic 

(Wills). Quincke, G. Ph. Mg. 46 (1898) 572. 
, magnetic. Lyon, D. Ph. Mg. 5 (1834) 

415-. 
magnetically soft and magnetically hard. 

Kohn, A. A. Ps. C. 58 (1896) 527-. 
(Kohn). Beck, P. A. Ps. C. 

59 (1896) 84-. 

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF VARIOUS 
SUBSTANCES. 

Agate. Dove, H. W. Berl. Mb. (1871) 148-. 
Australian basalts. Riicker, A. W. N. S. W 

B. S. J. 28 (1894) 51-. 

Calcspar. Stenger, F. A. Ps. C. 20 (1883) 

304- ; 28 (1886) 368. 
Compounds, inorganic. Meyer, S. Wien Ak. 

Sb. 108 (1899) (Ab. 2a) 861- ; Mh. C. (1899) 

797. 
Iron ; description of compound compass needle. 

Scoresby, (Rev.) W. B. A. Bp. (1836) (pt. 2) 

28-. 
, effect of crystalline texture. Schrotter, A. 

Wien SB. 23 (1857) 472-. 
, hot- and cold-rolled. Airy, (Sir) G. B. 

Phil. Trans. (1862) 273- ; (vi Adds.) Nv. 

Archt. T. 3 (1862) 63-. 

, measurement of susceptibility by trans- 
verse magnetisation. Janet, P. C. B. 106 

(1888) 200-. 

and nickel, relation between susceptibility 
and conductivity. Kohlrausch, W. A. Ps. 

C. 33 (1888) 42-. 

, polarity and magnetism. Blesson, L. 

Hermbstadt Ms. 5 (1815) 279-. 
, soft, and steel, and their retentivity. 

Swing, J. A. B. A. Bp. (1883) 402-. 

and steel. Negbaur, W. Elekttech. Z. 10 

(1889) 348-. 

, susceptibility, increase caused by 
passage of current through bar in mag- 
netising helix. Troicbridge, J. Am. J. Sc 
8 (1874) 18-. 

, variations. [Marianini non] Mariannini, 
S. (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. C. 4 
(1841) 3- ; 10 (1843) 230- ; 11 (1843) 17-. 

Lava and similar rocks. Magnetisation of 
lava by heat. Melloni, M. Bm. At. 5 
(1851-52) 666- ; Nap. Ac. Sc. Mm. 1 (1852- 
54) 121-. 

. . [Palmieri, L., & 

Nobile, A. non] Melloni, M. Nap. Ed. 2 
(1853) 141-. 

. . Melloni, M. 

Nap. Ed. 2 (1853) 187- ; C. E. 37 (1853) 
966. 

. . Volpicelli, P. 

Bm. At. 7 (1853-54) 145. 

Liquids. Wahner, T. Wien Ak. Sb. 96 (1888) 
(Ab. 2) 85-. 

and gases, constants, absolute measure- 
ment. Schuhmeister, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 83 
(1881) (Ab. 2) 45-. 

, magnetic action on. Moreland [non More- 
head], S. T. Am. J. Sc. 34 (1887) 227. 

, coefficient. Gerosa, G. G., & Finzi, G. 
Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 6 (1890) (Sem. 1) 494-. 



616 



5440 Torsion 

Liquids and solids. Koenigsberger , J. A. Ps. 

C. 66 (1898) 698-. 
. susceptibility and magnetic rotation. Dw 

Bois, H. E. J. G. A. Ps. C. 35 (1888) 137-. 
, temperature coefficient. Jdger, G., 

<& Meyer, S. Wien Ak. Sb. 106 (1897) 

(Ab. 2a) 594-, 623- ; 107 (1898) (Ab. 2a) 5-. 
Metals. Prechtl, J. J. Gilbert A. 67 (1821) 

221-. 

. Seckelson, E. A. Ps. C. 67 (1899) 37-. 
, alloys and oxides. Seebeck, T. J. Berl. 

Ab. (1827) 147-. 

Oxygen. Hennig,R. A. Ps. C. 50 (1893) 485-. 
, liquid. Fleming, J. A., <& Dewar, J. R. 

S. P. 63 (1898) 3il-. 
Kocks. Rilcker, A. W., d- White, W. H. R. 

S. P. 63 (1898) 460-. 
Solids, by balance. Adler, G. Wien Ak. Sb. 

100 (1891) (Ab. 2a) 897-. 
Steel, hardening and annealing, effect on 

magnetism. Jamin, J. C. R. 77 (1873) 89-. 
, hardness, electromagnetic measurement. 

Waltenhofen, A. von. Dingier 217 (1875) 

357- ; 232 (1879) 141- . 
, and magnetisation. Fromme, C. Gott. 

Nr. (1876) 157-. 
, . Ruths, C. Arch. Mth. Ps. 59 

(1876) 113- ; A. Ps. C. Beibl. 1 (1877) 65-. 
, . Barus, C., & Strouhal, V. A. 

Ps. C. 20 (1883) 621-. 
and iron, hardness and magnetisation. 

Cheesman, L. M. A. Ps. C. 15 (1882) 204-. 
, magnetisation during hardening. Holtz, 

W. N.-Vorp. Mt. 10 (1878) 203- ; A. Ps. C. 



7 (1879) 71-. 
, nearly 



non-magnetic. Bottomley, J. T. 

Elect. 15 (1885) 378-. 
, . Barrett, W. F. Elect. 19 (1887) 

544-. 
Water. Jdger, G., & Meyer, S. Wien Ak. Sb. 

108 (1899) (Ab. 2a) 261- ; A. Ps. C. 67 (1899) 

427-, 707-. 
- and alcohol, vapours, electromagnetic 

action on. Bancalari, M. A. (vi Adds.) 

Rm. Cor. Sc. 1 (1848) 81. 
, , . Zantedeschi, F. Rm. 

Cor. Sc. 1 (1848) 157-. 

TORSION. 

currents due to twist in iron and steel con- 
ductors (magnetised). Ewing, J. A. [1881 
82] R. S. P. 33 (1882) 21- ; 36 (1884) 117-. 

and nickel wires. 

Nagaoka, H. Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 3 (1890) 235-. 

effect in magnetisation. Wertheim, G. C. R. 
40 (1855) 1234-. 

. Nagaoka, H. Ph. Mg. 27 (1889) 

206-. 

on magnetism of nickel. Cantone, M. N. 
Cim. 5 (1897) 110-, 267-. 

of iron wire, effect on susceptibility. Hughes, 
D. E. R. S. P. 31 (1881) 525-. 

magnetic lagging and priming in twisted iron 
and nickel wires. Knott, C. G. [1889] Tok. 
Coll. Sc. J. 3 (1890) 173-. 

magnetisation of twisted iron wire by passing 
current through it. Wiedemann, G. Berl. 
Mb. (1860) 744-. 



Measurement of Hysteresis 5450 

magnetism due to. Grass, C. B. A. Ps. C. 

123 (1864) 176-. 
and magnetism. Wiedemann, G. A. Ps. C. 27 

(1886) 376-. 
induced in laminated iron. Perard, L. 

Brux. Ac. Bll. 42 (1876) 894-. 

in iron and nickel wires, relations. 
Nagaoka, H., & Honda, K. [1900] Tok. 
Coll. Sc. J. 13 (1900-01) 263-. 

stress, effect on magnetisation of nickel. 
Nagaoka, H. [1888-89] Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 2 
(1889) 283-; 3 (1890) 189-. 

(longitudinal) , effect on magnetisation of 

nickel. Bottomley, J. T.,<& Tanakadate, A. 

Ph. Mg. 27 (1889) 133-. 
, effect on magnetisation of nickel wire 

and on its retentiveness. Nagaoka, H. 

[1888] Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 2 (1889) 304-. 

tension, effect on magnetic moment of iron 
and nickel wires. Zehnder, L. A. Ps. C. 
41 (1890) '210-. 

, magnetisation of nickel wire. 
Nagaoka, H. A. Ps. C. 53 (1894) 481-. 

Vibrations, influence in magnetism. Sabatucci, 
P. Rm. N. Line. At. 40 (1887) 160. 

, sound, influence on magnetic energy. 
Guidi, F. Rm. N. Line. At. 40 (1887) 181-. 

, , magnetism of iron. Warburg, E. 

Berl. Mb. (1869) 857-. 



5450 Measurement of Hysteresis. 
Energy Losses. 

MEASUREMENT OF HYSTERESIS. 
Blakesley, T. H. Elect. 20 (1888) 482. 
Fleming, J. A. Elect. 21 (1888) 585-. 
Holden, F. Elect. 35 (1895) 327-. 
Ewing, J. A. [1896] R. I. P. 15 (1899) 227-. 
Alternating cycles, hysteresis in. Lyle, T. R. 

Elect. 43 (1899) 570-. 
Apparatus (Blondel-Carpentier). Blondel, A. 

C. R. 127 (1898) 957-. 
. Deprez, M. C. R. 128 (1899) 61-. 
Cathode ray tube, Braun's, use in electric 

measurements. Kallir, L. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 

544. 
Cobalt. Fleming, J. A., Ashton, A. W., (& 

Tomlinson, H. J. L. Ps. S. P. 16 

519- ; Ph. Mg. 48 (1899) 271-. 
Coefficients, and relation to molecular state of 

magnets. Serra-Carpi, G. Rm. At. N. 

Line. 17 (1864) 325-. 
, Steinmetz's ; and magnetic properties of 

newer kinds of iron. Ebeling, A., & Schmidt, 

E. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 276-. 
Compensation for hysteresis. Vignoles, E. B. 

Elect. 32 (1894) 11-, 166-. 
. Abdank-Abakanowicz, B. Elect. 32 

(1894) 93-. 
. Field, A. B., d- Walker, M. Elect. 

32 (1894) 186-. 
Curves, method of determining. Holden, F. 

Elect. Rv. 36 (1895) 9-. 
Errors in measuring instruments. Stine, W. 

M. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 458. 



617 



5450 Measurement of Hysteresis 

Experiments, Kiilp, L. Carl Epm. 16 (1880) 
45-, 461-, 725-. 

(retentivity of iron). Kiilp, L. Exner 
Bpm. 23 (1887) 562- ; 24 (1888) 1-, 408-. 

( , powdered and solid). Kiilp, L. 

Exner Epm. 25 (1889) 135-. 

( rods and tubes). Kiilp, L. Exner 

Epm. 25 (1889) 485-. 

_. Niethammer, F. A. Ps. C. 66 (1898) 29-. 
Fatigue, magnetic, supposed. Campbell, A., d~ 

Lovell, E. P. Elect. 34 (1895) 762. 
Iron, in alternating field. Baily, F. G. [1895] 

Elect. 36 (1896) 116-. 

cores, work done upon. Blakesley, T. H. 
[1890] Nt. 43 (1891) 116. 

cylinder, time of hysteresis in. Smith, F. 
J. Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 64-. 

diaphragms, behaviour in periodic magnetic 
field. Kalischer, S. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 
59-. 

, magnetic qualities. Ewing, J. A., & 

Klaassen, (Miss) H. G. [1893] Phil. 

Trans. (A) 184 (1894) 985-. 
, magnetisation. Magrini, F. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Ed. 4 (1888) (Seat. 1) 734-. 
, . Ewing, J. A. [1889] E. S. P. 46 

(1890) 269-. 

, by alternating currents, cyclical varia- 
tion of intensity. Gerosa, G. G., & Mai, E. 

Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 24 (1891) 951-. 
, , intensity. Gerosa, G. G., 

& Finzi, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 7 (1891) 

(Sem. 2) 253-. 
, primary and secondary currents, 

intensity. Gerosa, G. G. Mil. I. Lomb. 

Ed. 24 (1891) 1196-. 
, , curves. Eesidual magnetism. Hopkin- 

son, J. [1885] Phil. Trans. 176 (1886) 455-. 
, , effect of electric currents in iron. 

Hopkinson, J. [1895] E. I. P. 14 (1896) 

, nickel and cobalt, effect of magnetic induc- 
tion on physical properties. Tomlinson, H. 

[1889-91] Phil. Trans. (A) 182 (1892) 341-. 
, sheet-, magnetic examination. Eohr, W. 

Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 712-. 
, slow changes in permeability. Mordey, 

W. M. E. S. P. 57 (1895) 224-. 
, soft, fall in magnetisation. Lagrange, 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1898) 54*. 
and steel, magnetisation, effect of retentivity. 

Ewing, J. A. [1882] E. S. P. 34 (1883) 39-. 
, and hysteresis. Du Bois, H., 

& Jones, E. T. Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 

543-. 
Magnetic metals. Gerosa, G. G., <& Finzi, G. 

Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 24 (1891) 677-. 
Eesidual magnetism of iron. Holitscher, P. 

A. Ps. 3 (1900) 683-. 
, phenomena. Bakhmet'ev [Bachmetjev], 

P. (xii) . Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 15 (Ps., Pt. 1) 

(1883) 173- ; J. de Ps. 3 (1884) 464; Exner 

Epm. 27 (1891) 147-. 
of steel. Abt, A. Orv.-Termt. Ets. 

(Termt. Szak) (1895) 319-, 353-. 
and magnetite and nickel. Abt, A. 

Orv.-Termt. Ets. (Termt. Szak) (1897) 229-, 

(Ev.) 199-. 



Energy Losses 5450 

Eeversal of current, increase of magnetism in 

soft iron bar on. Burnham, W. A. Am. J. 

Sc. 8 (1874) 202-. 
Eeversals, frequent, effect on magnetic quality 

of iron. Ewing, . Elect. 34 (1895) 297-. 
, sequences. Bosanquet, E. H. M. L. Ps. S. 

P. 9 (1888) 19-; Ph. Mg. 24 (1887) 60-. 
Eotating magnetic field, hysteresis in. Beattie, 

E., & Clinker, E. C. Elect. 37 (1896) 723-. 
, iron and steel in. Baily, F. G. 

[1894-96] B. A. Ep. (1894) 576-; Phil. 

Trans. (A) 187 (1897) 715-. 
Steels (various kinds). Waltenhofen, A. von. 

A. Ps. C. 121 (1864) 431-. 
, coercive force rendered permanent by com- 
pression. Clemandot, L. C. 11. 95 (1882) 

587-. 
Temperature, relation of hysteresis to. Kunz, 

W. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 245 ; 15 (1894) 

194-. 
, . Laws, F.A.,(& Warren, H. E . 

Am. Ac. P. 30 (1895) 490-. 
Temperatures, low and ordinary, hysteresis of 

iron and steel at. Thiessen, A. Am. As. P. 

(1898) 115- ; Ps. Ev. 8 (1899) 65-. 
Time interval between application of force and 

production of effect. Decharme, C. Lum. 

Elect. 34 (1889) 55-, 123-, 162-. 
Viscosity, magnetic. Hopkinson, J. , (& Hopkin- 
son, B. Elect. 29 (1892) 510-. 
, . Evershed, S. Elect. 29 (1892) 543. 
, . Eutherford, E. [1895] N. Z. I. T. 28 

(1896) 182-. 
, . Duhem, P. [1899] Bordeaux S. Sc. 

Mm. 5 (1901) 1-. 

ENEEGY LOSSES. 

heat due to hysteresis in iron in alternating 
fields. Weihe,F.A. A. Ps. C. 61 (1897) 578-. 

transformer, measurement. 
Ewing, J. A. Elect. 27 (1891) 631-. 

by hysteresis, dependent on intensity of mag- 
netisation. Steinmetz, C. P. Elekttech. Z. 
13 (1892) 43-, 55-. 

in dynamo. Corsepius, M. Elekttech. 
Z. 13 (1892) 443-. 

armature. Steinmetz, C. P. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 13 (1892) 550. 

and eddy currents. Grau, A. Wien Ak. 

Sb. 107 (1898) (Ab. 2a) 495-. 

. Niethammer, F. Elekttech. Z. 

19 (1898) 669-, 688-. 

, measurement, Eowland's 
method. Potts, L. M. Am. J. Sc. 10 (1900) 
91-; J. H. tin. Cir. [19 (1899-1900)] 63. 

, in transformers. Evershed, S., 

<& Vignoles, E. B. Elect. 27 (1891) 664-; 
29 (1892) 583-, 605-. 

in feebly magnetic and diamagnetic 
substances. Threlfall, , & Martin, F. 
Aust. As. Ep. (1898) 176. 

, in iron. Gill, J. L. W. Elect. 39 (1897) 

718-. 
, . Webb, H. S. Ps. Ev. 8 (1899) 

310-. 

, at low temperatures. Ford, A. H. 
Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 851. 



618 



5460 Relations between Thermal, Elastic, and Magnetic Properties 5460 



by hysteresis, measurement. Spencer, T. Tel. 

J. 29 (1891) 617-. 
, . Searle, G. F. C. [1895] Camb. 

Ph. S. P. 9 (1898) 2-. 

, . Gill, G. L. W. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 213. 

, in nickel, measurement. Kennelly, A. E. 

Elect. 28 (1892) 666-. 

, straight iron strips, measurement. 
Fleming, J. A. L. Ps. S. P. 15 (1897) 202- ; 
Ph. Mg. 44 (1897) 262-. 

, time increase. Ford, A. H. Sc. Abs. 3 

(1900) 557-. 

in iron under alternation, magnetic measure- 
ment. Moore, J. E. Elect. 30 (1893) 382-. 

, in transformers, owing to higher har- 
monics. Burnie, W. B. Elect. 39 (1897) 
581-. 

, , separation. Peukert, W. Elekt- 

tech. Z. 20 (1899) 674-. 

, , and shape of E.M.F. curve. 

Feldmann, C. P. Elect. 35 (1895) 809-. 

magnetisation. Maurain, . C. E. 122 

(1896) 228-. 

. Weiss, P. Eclair. Elect. 8 (1896) 436-. 

. Maurain, C. J. de Ps. 7 (1898) 461- ; 

Eclair. Elect. 15 (1898) 409-. 

, geometrical demonstration. Busquet, 
R. [1898] Lyon S. Ag. A. 6 (1899) xxxix-. 

by oscillatory condenser discharge. 
Klemencic, I. Wien Ak. Sb. 104 (1895) 
(Ab. 2a) 724-; 107 (1898) (Ab. 2a) 330-. 

5460 Relations between Thermal, 
Elastic, and Magnetic Properties 
of Bodies. Effect of Tempera- 
ture. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. QJ. Mth. 1 (1857) 57-; 

Ph. Mg. 5 (1878) 4-. 

Wiedemann, G. Pogg. A. 103 (1858) 563-. 
Metcalf, W. Am. I. Mn. E. T. 9 (*1881) 385-. 
Bachmetjev, P. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 18 (Ps.) (1886) 

31-; Fschr. Ps. (1886) (Ab. 2) 677. 
Decharme, C. Lum. Elect. 28 (1888) 60-, 

216-. 
Christiansen, C. [1896] N. Ts. Fs. K. 2 

(1897) 1-. , 

Maurain, C. Eclair. Elect. 22 (1900) 201-. 

EELATIONS BETWEEN ELASTIC AND 
MAGNETIC PEOPEETIES OF BODIES. 

Matteucci, C. Bb. Un. Arch. 1 (1858) 184-. 
Reignier, C. Lum. Elect. 23 (1887) 158-. 
Arbor Dianse, effect of magnetism in formation. 

Keyser, J. Sk. Nf. F. 4 (1844) 145-. 
Cohesion of liquids, effect of magnetism. 

Brunner von Wattenwyll, G. Bern Mt. 

(1849) 106-. 
Crystals, ferromagnetic. Voigt, W. Gott. Nr. 

(1900) 331-. 
, liquid, structure and magnetic properties. 

Lehmann, . Karlsruhe Nt. Vr. Vh. 13 

(1900) (Ab.) 619-. 
, magnetic action on axes. PlUcker, J. 

Moigno Cosmos 7 (1855) 391-. 



Crystals, magnetic induction. Plucker, J. 

[1857] Phil. Trans. (1858) 543-. 
, investigations. Konig, W. A. Ps. C. 

31 (1887) 273-; 32 (1887) 222-. 
, relations of axes. Plucker, J. Pogg. 

A. 77 (1849) 447-. 
, magnetism, laws. Stenger, F. A. Ps. C. 

35 (1888) 331-. 
, uniaxial, magnetic orientation. Lang, V. 

von. Wien Ak. Sb. 108 (1899) (Ab. 2a) 557-. 
Elasticity of metals, effect of electricity and 

magnetism on. Wertheim, G. Arch, de 

1'Electr. 4 (1844) 487-. 
, magnetisation. Tomlinson, H. 

[1886] Phil. Trans. (A) 179 (1889) 1-. 

modulus, effect of magnetisation. Stevens, 
J. S. Ps. Ev. 11 (1900) 95-. 

, Young's, effect of magnetisation. Tangl, 

K. Mth. Termt. Ets. 18 (1900) 49- ; Mth. 
Nt. B. Ung. 18 (1903) 7-. 

of rods, effect of magnetisation. Stevens, 
J. S., & Dorsey, H. G. Ps. Ev. 9 (1899) 116-. 

, . Stevens, J. S. Ps. Ev. 10 

(1900) 161-. 

soft iron, change. Guillemin, C. M. 
C. E. 22 (*1846) 264-. 

, . Wertheim, G. C. E. 22 

(1846) 336-. 

, (Wertheim). Delarive, A. 

Bb. Un. Arch. 1 (1846) 170-. 

, ( ). Guillemin, C. M. C. E. 

22 (*1846) 432-. 

Magnecrystallic action, Poisson's theoretic an- 
ticipation. Tyndall, J. B. A. Ep. (1852) 
(pt. 2) 20-. 

phenomena. Thomson, (Sir) W. N. Cim. 
4 (1856) 192-. 

Eigidity and viscosity of iron and steel, effect 
of magnetisation. Barus, C. Am. J. Sc. 34 
(1887) 175-. 

of wires, effect of magnetisation. Day, H. D. 
Am. J. Sc. 3 (1897) 449-. 

Structure of iron, influence on magnetic pro- 
perties. Leroux,F.P. C. E. 45 (1857) 477-. 

Tenacity of iron, effect of magnetisation. 
Piazzoli, E. Catania Ac. Gioen. At. 14 
(1879) 165-. 

Texture of iron, effect on magnetisation. 
Kiilp, L. A. Ps. C. 155 (1875) 320-. 

Vibrations of tuning fork, variations in mag- 
netic field. Maurain, . C. B. 121 (1895) 
248-; Eclair. Elect. 4 (1895) 452-. 

EELATIONS BETWEEN THEEMAL AND 
MAGNETIC PEOPEETIES OF BODIES. 

Murray, (Mr.) J. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 61 (1823) 

207; 63 (1824) 130-. 
Marshall, D. H. Edinb. E. S. P. 7 (1872) 

603-. 

Tommasi, D. Les Mpndes 1 (1881) 621-. 
Fossati, E. N. Cim. 24 (1888) 51-. 
"Ageing" of iron cores. Clinker, R. C. 

Elect. 38 (1897) 621. 
Galvanic and thermal properties of bismuth-tin 

alloys in magnetic field. Ettingshausen, A. 

von, <& Nernst, W. Wien Ak. Sb. 96 (1888) 

(Ab. 2) 787-. 



619 



5460 Heat due to Magnetisation 

Heat conductivity, effect of magnetism. Pen- 
rose, C. B., d- Trowbridge, J. Am. Ac. P. 
18 (1883) 210-. 

, , in iron (soft). Maggi, P. G. 

Bb. Un. Arch. 14 (1850) 132- 

j , Holmgren, K. A. 

Stockh. Ofv. 19 (1862) 163-. 
. Bellati, M., & Naccari, 

A. '[1876] Yen. I. At. 3 (1877) 83-. 
, , Battelli, A. Tor. Ac. 

Sc. At. 21 (1885) 799-. 

, _, . Fossati, E. Bv. Sc.- 
Ind. 21 (1889) 6-, 17-, 42-. 

, _, . Korda, D. [1899] 

Mth. Termt. Ets. 17 (1899) 169- ; Mth. Nt. 

B. Ung. 17 (1901) 313- ; C. E. 128 (1899) 
418-, 575. 

f , . Schweitzer, A. Ziir. 

Ps. Gs. Jbr. (1899 & 1900) 13. 
, , and steel. Tomlinson, 

H. B. S. P. 27 (1878) 109-. 

and electricity and magnetism in iron. 
Ritchie, W. QJ. Sc. 1 (1828) 288-. 

HEAT DUE TO MAGNETISATION. 

Grove, W. R. E. S. P. 5 (1849) 826-. 

Moutier, J. C. E. 75 (1872) 1619-. 

Cazin, A. C. E. 79 (1874) 290- ; A. C. 6 

(1875) 493- ; Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 11 (1874) 25-. 
Pilleux, L. C. E. 94 (1882) 946. 
(Specific heat of magnetised iron.) Wassmuth, 

A. Wien Ak. Sb. 85 (1882) (Ab. 2) 997-. 
(Treatment by mechanical theory of heat.) 

Wassmuth, A. [1882] Wien Ak. Sb. 86 

(1883) (Ab. 2) 539-; 87 (1883) (Ab. 2) 82-. 
Bachmetjev, P. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 16 (Ps.) (1884) 

81-; Fschr. Ps. (1884) (Ab. 2) 836-. 
Wassmuth, A. Wien Ak. Sb. 89 (1884) (Ab. 2) 

104-. 
Martinotti, G. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 20 (1888) 65-, 

106-, 131-. 
in annular electro-magnet. Bachmetjev, P. 

Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 16 (Ps.) (1884) 257-; Fschr. 

Ps. (1884) (Ab. 2) 837. 
heating of core of multipolar electromagnet 

by rapid reversal of current. Cazin, A. 

C. E. 78 (1874) 845-. 

by reversals of magnetisation. Hill, W. N., 
<& Trowbridge, J. [1878-83] Am. Ac. P. 14 
(1879) 114- ; 18 (1883) 197-. 

. Emo, A. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 22 

(1890) 1-, 63-, 159-, 235-. 
in iron. Honig, L.,d- Warburg, 

E. A. Ps. C. 20 (1883) 814-. 
and steel. Penrose, C. B. , 

& Trowbridge, J. Am. Ac. P. 18 (1883) 

205-. 
soft iron. Tanakadate, A. 

Ph. Mg. 28 (1889) 207-. 
influence of hysteresis. Pilleux, L. Les 

Mondes 1 (1881) 505. 
of iron. Borgman, I. I. (xn) Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 

14 (Ps.) (1882) [Pt. 1] 67-, 204 ; (ix) A. Ps. 

C. Beibl. 7 (1883) 721-. 
and nickel wires (stretched). Bachmetjev, 

P. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 24 (Ps.) (1892) 1- ; J. de 

Ps. 1 (1892) 438. 



Effect of Temperature 5460 

variations. Zantedeschi, F. Zantedeschi A. 
Fis. (1849-50) 25-. 

Isotherms, deviation in bismuth on magnetisa- 
tion. Ettingshausen, A. von. Wien Az. 24 

(1887) 237 (bis)-. 

Magnet, deflection by hot or cold bodies. 

Despretz, C. C. E. 29 (1849) 225-. 
Magnetic state and eutectic point in iron and 

steel. Le Chatelier, H. C. E. 129 (1899) 

279-. 
Magnetisation of iron while casting. Chernoff, 

E. Tel. E. J. 8 (1879) 148-. 
Motors, thermo-niagnetic. Houston, E. J., 

<& Thomson, E. Franklin I. J. 77 (1879 

39-. 
, . Schwedoff, T. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1886) 

124-. 
, . Schilling, G. A. Exner Epm. 26 (1890) 

312-. 
, , based on non-magnetic state of red hot 

iron. McGee, C. K. Science 3 (1884) 274-. 
, , pyromagnetic machines. Wallentin, 

J. G. Humb. 9 (1890) 257-. 
Phenomena, thermo-magnetic. Moreau, G. 

Eclair. Elect. 25 (1900) 456-; J. de Ps. 9 

(1900) 497-. 
Properties, thermo-magnetic, of iron and nickel. 

Tomlinson, H. Elect. 20 (1888) 383-. 
Eecalescence. Shand, E. Tel. J. 26 (1890) 

247. 
, investigation methods. Smith, F. J. Ph. 

Mg. 31 (1891) 433-. 

of iron. Tomlinson, H. L. Ps. S. P. 9 

(1888) 107- ; Ph. Mg. 25 (1888) 103-. 
. Thomson, E. Tel. J. 24 (1889) 

471. 

and steel. Newall, H. F. Ph. Mg. 

24 (1887) 435-. 

and magnetism. Hopkinson, J. [1890] E. 
S. P. 48 (1891) 442-. 

of steel. Neivall, H. F. Ph. Mg. 25 (1888) 
510-. 

. Thomson, E. Tel. J. 24 (1889) 

616-. 
Tempering of steel by compression. Clemandot, 

L. C. E. 94 (1882) 703-. 
. (Clemandot). Carnot, A. A. 

Tel. 11 (1884) 306-. 
Theory of thermomagnetic effects. Voigt, W. 

Gott. Nr. (1899) 302-. 

EFFECT OF TEMPEEATUEE. 

Murray, (Mr.) J. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 62 (1823) 

74. 
Kupffer, A. T. Kastner Arch. Ntl. 6 (1825) 

185-. 
Moser, L., & Riess, P. Pogg. A. 17 (1829) 

403-. 

Matteucci, C. Bb. Un. 47 (1831) 377-. 
Mayer, F., & Zantedeschi, F. Poligrafo 7 

(1831) 173-. 
(Magnetism and diamagnetism.) Pliicker, J. 

Pogg. A. 75 (1848) 177-. 
Holmgren, K. A. Ups. N. Acta S. Sc. 1 (1851) 

309-. 
Mauritius, . Pogg. A. 120 (1863) 385-. 



620 



5460 Effect of Temperature 

Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 82 (1876) 144-, 685-, 

1422- ; 83 (1876) 661-, 896-. 
Fave, (gen.) L. C. E. 82 (1876) 276-. 
Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 85 (1877) 219-. 
Person, G. A. C. 8 (1886) 433-; J. de Ps. 5 

(1886) 437-. 
Curie, P. C. E. 115 (1892) 805- ; 116 (1893) 

136- ; 118 (1894) 1134- ; A. C. 5 (1895) 289-; 

J. de Ps. 4 (1895) 197-, 263-. 
Absolute magnetic force of bodies. Faraday, 

M. [1855] Phil. Trans. (1856) 159-. 
Critical temperatures of iron. Ledeboer, P. H, 

Lum. Elect. 27 (1888) 3-. 
, 2, of iron. Reis, . Humb. 7 (1888) 

59-. 
of nickel. Villari, E. A. Ps. C. 126 

(1865) 87-. 
(Villari's). Heydweiller, A. Wiirzb. 

Ps. Md. Sb. (1893) 65-; A. Ps. C. 52 (1894) 

462-. 
and iron (Villari's). Tomlinson, H. 

L. Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 367-, 445-; Ph. Mg. 

29 (1890) 394-; 30 (1890) 145-. 
Distribution of magnetism, effect of tempera- 
ture change on. Loomis, H. B. Wise. Ac. 

T. 8 (1892) 273-. 

in permanent magnet. Poloni, G. 
Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 13 (1880) 245-. 

Ferruginous bodies, magnetism, peculiarities. 

[Sturgeon, W. non] Clare, P. [1842-43] 

Manch. Ph. S. Mm. 7 (1846) 205-. 
Iron, cast, absence of magnetism when in 

fusion. Fox, R. W. B. A. Ep. (1835) 

(pt. 2) 33. 

not magnetic at red heat, electromagnetic 
apparatus to show. Semmola, E. Nap. I. 
Inc. At. 11 (1898) No. 12, 3 pp. 

, nickel, and alloys of platinum. Becquerel, 
E. Par. S. Phlm. Mm. Cent. (1888) 85-. 

and nickel, temporary magnetism. Grane, 
N. Lund. Un. Acta 30 (1893-94) (S. Psgr., 
No. iv, 6 pp.). 

, red hot, effect on magnetic needle. Barloio, 

P. As. Nr. 1 (1823) 193-. 
, , (experiments of Barlow 

and Bonnycastle). Seebeck, T. J. Berl. Ab. 

(1827) 129-. 
, re-magnetism. Larroque, F. Lum. Elect. 

32 (1889) 369-. 

and steel. Wiedemann, G. A. Ps. C. 122 
(1864) 346-. 

nearly white hot. Barlow, P. Phil. Trans. 
(1822) 117-. 

. Bellani, A. Brugnatelli G. 5 

(1822) 395-. 
Loss of magnetism through heating, mechanical 

equivalent. Wassmuth, A. Wien Ak. Sb. 85 

(1882) (Ab. 2) 997-. 
of nickel through heating. Tomlinson, 

H. L. Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 181- ; Ph. Mg. 25 

(1888) 372-; Elect. 20 (1888) 520-. 
. Prytz, K. Ts. Ps. 

C. 30 (1891) 245-; Fschr. Ps. (1891) (Ab. 2) 

619. 

and iron through heating. 
Tomlinson, H. L. Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 265-; 
Ph. Mg. 26 (1888) 18-. 



Low Temperature Effect 5460 



LOW TEMPERATURE EFFECT. 

Trmvbridge, J. Am. J. Sc. 21 (1881) 316-. 

Austin, L. W. Ps. Ev. 1 (1894) 381-. 

cooled glass between magnet poles. Pliicker, 

J. Pogg. A. 75 (1848) 108-. 
iron and steel at temperature of liquid air. 

Dewar, J., <& Fleming, J. A. [1896] E. S. 

P. 60 (1897) 57-. 
on magnetic needle. Ellis, F. Tilloch Ph. 

Mg. 60 (1822) 340-. 

magnetisation of steel. Dufour, L, Bb. 
Un. Arch. 1 (1858) 11-. 

magnetism of iron. Claude, G. C. E. 129 
(1899) 409-. 

permanent magnets. Perrine, F. A. B. 
Elect. 17 (1886) 455-. 

permeability and hysteresis of iron. Fleming, 
J.A.,(& Dewar,J. [1896] E. S. P. 60 (1897) 
81-. 

physical phenomena. Geersdaele, J. van. 
Ev. Quest. Sc. 38 (1895) 522-. 

tractive force of permanent magnets. Pictet, 
R. C. B. 120 (1895) 263-. 

Magnecrystals, etc. Faraday, M. [1855] Phil. 

Trans. (1856) 159-. 
Magnet, effect of heating one pole. Knott, 

C. G., & Marshall, D. H. Edinb. E. S. P. 

8 (1873) 97-. 

poles. Sturgeon, W. [1838] Electr. S. P. 
(1837-40) 158-. 

Magnetic needle, deviation. Murray, (Mr.) J. 

Tilloch Ph. Mg. 63 (1824) 130-. 
Magnetisation, circular, and temperature, 

effects on longitudinally magnetised iron 

wire. Pitcher, F. H. Ph. Mg. 47 (1899) 

421-. 

of iron. Ledeboer, P. Par. S. Ps. Se. 
(1888) 29- ; Lum. Elect. 27 (1888) 61-. 

. (Phenomena occurring at red heat.) 

Brit. Ass. Comm. B. A. Ep. (1890) 145-. 

1 etc. Wilde, H. [1891-94] B. S. P. 

50 (1892) 109- ; Manch. Lt. Ph. S. Mm.&P. 

9 (1895) 2-. 

steel bar. Gaugain, J. M. J. de Ps. 7 

(1878) 186-. 

in strong fields. Du Bois, H. E. J. G. 
Ph. Mg. 29 (1890) 293-. 

Magnets, bar, strength. Kupffer, A. T. [1842] 
St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 1 (1843) 168-. 

, permanent, relation of temperature coeffi- 
cient to dimensions. Klemencic, I. Wien 
Ak. Sb. 108 (1899) (Ab. 2a) 491-, 989-. 

, steel, effect of small temperature change. 
Gordon, J. E. H., <& Newall, W. Ph. Mg. 
42 (1871) 335-. 

, , temperature cycles, hardness and 

annealing. Frank, H. A. Ps. 2 (1900) 
338-. 

, , temperature coefficients. Durward, 
A. Am. J. Sc. 5 (1898) 245-. 

, , , determination. Wild, H. I. 

[1873] (xi) St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 19 (1874) 
1-. 

, , , . Chistoni,C. Mod. Ac.Sc.Mm. 

9 (1893) 299- ; Mod. S. Nt. At. 12 (1893) 209-. 



621 



5460 Effect of Temperature 

Magnets, steel, with zero temperature coefficient. 

Ashworth, J. E. [1897] B. S. P. 62 (1898) 

210-. 
, strength. Dufour, L. Pogg. A. 99 (1856) 

476-. 
, , causes of change. Haldat du Lys, C. 

N. A. de. Nancy Mm. S. Sc. (1843) 11-; 

C. E. 18 (1844) 911-. 
, , effect of temperature over 100. Dufour, 

L. Bb. Un. Arch. 34 (1857) 295-. 
, temperature coefficients. Cancani,A. Bm. 

B. Ac. Line. Ed. 3 (1887) (Sem. 1) 501- ; 

4 (1888) (Sem. 1) 334-. 
, correction. Whipple, G. M. [1877] 

E. S. P. 26 (1878) 218-. 
Molecular movements and magnetic changes 

in iron, etc. Gore, G. Ph. Mg. 40 (1870) 

170-. 
Permeability of iron. Ledeboer, P. C. E. 106 

(1888) 129-. 
and cobalt. Trmcbridge, J. , & McRae, 

A. L. Am. Ac. P. 20 (1885) 462- 



Magnetostriction 5462 
5462 Magnetostriction. 

Nagaoka, H., & Honda, K. Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 

9 (1895-98) 353-; Ph. Mg. 46 (1898) 261-. 
Nagaoka, H. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 404. 
Deformation of bismuth. Grimaldi, G. P. 

Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 4 (1888) (Sem. 1) 

353-. 
nickel. Cantone, M. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 6 (1890) (Sem. 1) 252-. 
. Jones, E. T. E. S. P. 63 (1898) 

44-. 
soft iron. Cantone, M. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Mm. 6 (1889) 487-. 
Dimensions change. Barrett, W. F. B. A. 

Ep. (1882) 476-. 

. Gray, A. Nt. 26 (1882) 625-. 

of iron rings. Bidwell, S. E. S. P. 

56 (1894) 94-. 
and rods, etc. Bidwell, S. 

[1888] Phil. Trans. (A) 179 (1889) 205-. 



magnetite. Barton, E. H. [1892-96] wires . Bidwell, S. E. S. P. 

B. A. Bp. (1892) 657-; Edinb. B. S. T. 38 55 (1994) 228- 
(1897) 567-. 



; nickel. Perkins, C. A. Am. J. Sc. 30 

(1885) 218-. 
Properties of iron. Hopkinson, J. E. S. P. 

45 (1889) 318- ; Phil. Trans. (A) 180 (1890) 

443-; B. S. P. 61 (1897) 490-. 
. Curie, P. C. B. 118 (1894) 796-, 

859-. 

. Pitcher, F. H. B. A. Bp. (1897) 763-. 

and alloys of iron. Wills, E. L. Ph. 

Mg. 50 (1900) 1-. 
, effect of prolonged heating. Eoget, 

S. R. [1898] E. S. P. 63 (1898) 258-; 

64 (1899) 150-. 
nickel-steels. Dumas, L. C. E. 129 

(1899) 42-. 
oxygen. Curie, P. C. E. 115 (1892) 

1292-. 
Shaking and heating, effect. Fromme, C. A. 

Ps. C. 61 (1897) 55-; 63 (1897) 314-. 
Specific heat and magnetism of metals. Her- 
mann, E. Mosc. S. Nt. fill. 7 (1834) 315-. 
Steel bars. Weber, W. E. Gauss Besultate 

(1838) 38-. 
. Dufour, L. Laus. Bll. S. Vd. 5 (1857) 

351-. 
, permanent magnetism. Poloni, G. N. 

Cim. 4 (1878) 206- ; Em. B. Ac. Line. Mm. 

12 (1882) 475-; Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 19 (1886) 

336-, 446- ; N. Cim. 19 (1886) 225-. 
Susceptibility of crystals in different directions, 

temperature change. Lutteroth, A. A. Ps. 

C. 66 (1898) 1081-. 
iron (soft). Amory, H., & Minot, F. 

Am. Ac. P. 10 (1875) 308-. 
. Wassmuth, A. [1880-81] Wien 

Ak. Sb. 82 (1881) (Ab. 2) 217- ; 83 (1881) 

(Ab. 2) 332-. 
manganese steel, increase by heating. 

Barrett, W. F. [1888] Dubl. S. Sc. P. 6 

(1888-90) 107-. 
nickel, lecture experiment. Bidwell, S. 

[1889] L. Ps. S. P. 11 (1892) 47-; Ph. Mg. 

31 (1891) 136-. 



and steel bars. Joule, J. P. Ph. 

Mg. 30 (1847) 76-, 225-. 
. Mayer, A.M. C. N. 30 

(1874) 58-, 70-, 104-, 139-. 
and bismuth bars. Mayer, 

A. M. Am. J. Sc. 5 (1873) 170- ; 6 (1873) 

80-. 

nickel tubes, effect of 

longitudinal with circular magnetisation. 

Honda, K. [1900] Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 13 

(1900-01) 77-. 
Electric and luminiferous medium, dynamic 

theory. Larmor, J. [1897] Phil. Trans. 

(A) 190 (1898) 298-. 
' Electrostriction and magnetostriction. Pockels, 

F. Arch. Mth. Ps. 12 (1894) 57-. 
of elastic solids. Kirchhoff, G. Berl. 

Ak. Sb. (1884) 137-, 1155-. 

LENGTH CHANGE. 

Tyndall, J. [1864] E. I. P. 4 (1866) 317-. 
Eighi, A. [1879] Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 1 



(1880) 99-. 
of bis 



aismuth bar. Aubel, E. van. Par. S. Ps. 

Se. (1892) 366-. 
iron (soft). Lochner, S. J. Ph. Mg. 36 

(1893) 498-. 
in alternating magnetic field. Austin, 

L. W. Science 10 (1899) 694- ; Ps. Ev. 10 

(1900) 180-. 
bar, tasimeter applied to detect. Gray, 

A.,(Gray,T. Nt. 18 (1878) 329. 
bars, ratio of lateral contraction to. Bock, 

A. A. Ps. C. 54 (1895) 442-. 
(sheet), effect of fibrous structure. 

Ehoads, E. J. H. Un. Cir. [17 (1897-98)] 

60; Ps. Ev. 7 (1898) 65-. 
and nickel and cobalt ovoids. Nagaoka, 

H. A. Ps. C. 53 (1894) 487-. 
wires, under tension. Bidwell, 

S. B. S. P. 47 (1890) 469-. 
, hysteresis attending. Nagaoka, 

H. Ph. Mg. 37 (1894) 131-. 



622 



5462 Sound Production 

of iron and nickel and steel rods. Bidwell, S. 

[1885] K. S. P. 40 (1886) 109-. 
steel. Klingenberg, . Nt. 56 (1897) 

279. 
wires. Rozing, B. Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 26 

(Ps.) (1894) 253-; Ph. Mg. 39 (1895) 226-. 

. More, L. T. Ph. Mg. 40 (1895) 345-. 

and bars. Chree, C. Nt. 53 (1895- 

96) 269-. 
carrying current. Bidwell, S. B. S. P. 

51 (1892) 495-. 
, distribution. Bachmetjev, P. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 104 (1895) (Ab. 2a) 71-. 
, effects of tension. Bidwell, S. B. 

S. P. 40 (1886) 257-. 
, and quality of metal. 

Brackett, B. B. J. H. Un. Cir. [16 (1896-97)] 

46-; Ps. Bv. 5 (1897) 257-. 
and magnetic-twist cycles. Knott, C. G. Ph. 

Mg. 37 (1894) 141-. 
of metals, studied by interference methods. 

Stevens, J. S. Ps. Ev. 7 (1898) 19-. 



Mechanical effects due to current on magnetic 
core. Ader, . C. E. 90 (1880) 1553-. 

. Du Moncel, T. A. L. 

Lum. Elect. 2 (1880) 264-. 

of , magnetisation. Tangl, K. Mth. 
Termt. Ets. 18 (1900) 181- ; Mth. Nt. B. 
Ung. 18 (1903) 35-. 

, physical and chemical effects of magneti- 
sation. Hurmuzescu, D. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 
4 (1897) 431-, 540- ; 5 (1898) 27-; Eclair. 
Elect. 13 (1897) 357-; 14 (1898) 279-. 

Molecular changes of iron. Barrett, W. F. 
[1873] (ix) Phm. J. 4 (1874) 127-. 

. Brit. Ass. Comm. B. A. Ep. 

(1889) 33-. 

. Osmond, . B. A. Ep. (1890) 

157-. 

and nickel and cobalt. Barrett, 

W. F. [1873] Ph. Mg. 47 (1874) 51-. 

vibrations due to alternating currents in 
magnetic metals. Ader, . C. E. 88 (1879) 
641. 

Physical modifications due to magnetisation. 
Hurmuzescu, D. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 
401-. 

SOUND PRODUCTION. 

(Disturbance of molecular forces by magnetism.) 

Page, C. G. Silliman J. 33 (1838) 118-. 
Delezenne, . Bb. Un. 16 (1838) 406- ; Lille 

Mm. S. (1838) 49-. 

Marrian, J. P. Ph. Mg. ,25 (1844) 382-. 
Beatson, W. Arch, de 1'Electr. 5 (1845) 197- ; 

Walker Electr. Mg. 2 (1,846) 294-. 
Delarive, A. Arch, de 1'Electr. 5 (1845) 200- ; 

C. E. 20 (1845) 1287-. 
Matteucci, C. (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. C. 

17 (1845) 225-. 
Wartmann, &. [1846] Brux. Ac. Bll. 13 

(1846) 320- ; Laus. Bll. S. Yd. 2 (1846-48) 

6-, 10-. 

Wertheim, G. C. E. 22 (1846) 336-. 
(Wertheim.) Delarive, A. C.E. 22 (1846) 428-. 



Stress, Magnetic 5462 

Wartmann, E. Laus. Bll. S. Vd. 2 (1846-48) 

353-; Brux. Ac. Bll. 15 (1848) (pte. 2) 46-. 
Wertheim, G. C. E. 26 (1848) 505- ; A. C. 23 

(1848) 302-. 
(Wertheim.) Delarive, A. Bb. Un. Arch. 9 

(1848) 193-. 
Delarive, A. Bb. Un. Arch. 9 (1848) 265-; 

A. C. 26 (1849) 158-. 
Schweigger, J. S. C. Halle Ab. Nf. Gs. 3 

(1855) 145-. 

Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. B. (1856) 133-. 
Legat, von. Berl. Tel. Vr. Z. 9 (1862) 125-. 
Buff, H. A. Ps. C. 124 (1865) 78-. 
Hughes, D. E. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 98. 
Bachmetjev, P. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 17 (Ps.) 

(1885) 65-; Fschr. Ps. (1885) (Ab. 2) 743-; 

Exner Epm. 26 (1890) 137-. 
in air, telephonic reproduction. Larroque, F. 

Lum. Elect. 14 (1884) 259-. 

telephone. Kalischer, S. A. Ps. C. 41 
(1890) 484-; Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1890) 96-. 

STRESS, MAGNETIC. 

Bidwell, S. Nt. 38 (1888) 224-. 

action on liquids, studied by interference bands. 

Bailie, J. B. C. E. 107 (1888) 731-. 
and deformation in nickel, relation. Jones, 

E. T. Phil. Trans. (A) 189 (1897) 189-. 
in dielectric or magnetic media. Duhem, P. 

C. E. 112 (1891) 657-. 
. Lienard, A. Lum. Elect. 52 

(1894) 7-, 67-. 

. Duhem, P. Am. J. Mth. 17 

(1895) 117-. 

effects in magnetostriction. Nagaoka, H., & 

Jones, E. T. Ph. Mg. 41 (1896) 454-. 
in iron. Kimball,A.S. Am. J.Sc. 18(1879)99-. 
and steel and nickel and cobalt tubes. 

Knott, C. G. [1898] Edinb. E. S. T. 39 

(1900) 457-. 
tubes. Knott, C. G. [1896] 

Edinb. E. S. T. 38 (1897) 527-. 

magnetised iron. Ewing, J. A. Nt. 53 
(1895-96) 316-. 

. j oneSt E. T. Nt. 53 (1895-96) 317. 

. chree, C. Nt. 53 (1895-96) 365. 

. Wilberforce, L. R. Nt. 53 (1895- 

96) 462. 

. chree, C. Nt. 53 (1895-96) 533-. 

volume change under. Quincke, G. Berl. Ak. 

Sb. (1900) 391-. 

TORSION. 

Gore, G. [1873] (x) Phil. Trans. 164 (1874) 

529-. 
(Gore.) Thomson, (Sir) W. Phil. Trans. 164 

(1874) 560-. 

Schreber, K. [1900] Ps. Z. 2 (1901) 18-. 
and flexure, experiments. Wiedemann, G. Lum. 

Elect. 6 (*1882) 41-, 63-, 90-. 
magnetic, cycles, in soft iron. Moreau, G. 

C. E. 126 (1898) 463-. 
, , (Moreau). Bouasse, H. C.E. 

126 (1898) 585. 
, , steel wire. Moreau, G. C. E. 126 

(1898) 1264-. 



623 



5462 Volume Change 

magnetic, of iron and nickel wires. Bid-well, 

S. Ph. Mg. 22 (1886) 251-. 

, steel. Moreau, G. J. de Ps. 7 

1898) 125-. 
, nickel tubes. Knott, C. G. [1899] 

Edinb. E. S. P. 22 (1900) 586-. 
5 soft iron wires. Moreau, G. C. E. 122 

(1896) 1192-. 
and magnetism, relations. Wiedemann,G. Pogg. 

A. 103 (1858) 563-; 106 (1859) 161- ; Basel 

Vh. 2 (1860) 168-. 

, _. Drude, P. A. Ps. C. 63 (1897) 9-. 

, , in iron and nickel. Knott, C. G. 

[1883-88] Edinb. E. S. T. 32 (*1887) 193- ; 

35 (1890) 377-. 
, _, _ and cobalt. Knott, C. 

G. [1891] Edinb. E. S. T. 36 (1892) 485-. 
, , wires. Nagaoka, H., & 

Honda, K. [1900] Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 13 

(1900-01) 263-. 

permanent, of nickel wire, effect of magnetisa- 
tion. Nagaoka, H. Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 4 

(1891) 323-. 

, steel, effect of magnetisation, and tem- 
perature of recalescence of steel wire. 

Moreau, G. C. E. 128 (1899) 292-. 

torsional set, effects of magnetisation on 
rods of iron, nickel and other metals with. 
Smith, F. J. Ph. Mg. 32 (1891) 383-. 

in strong transverse fields. Barus, C. Am. J. 
Sc. 10 (1900) 407-. 

VOLUME CHANGE. 

Knott, C. G. B. A. Ep. (1892) 659-. 

Knott, C. G., & Shand, A. [1892] Edinb. E. 

S. P. 19 (1893) 85-, 249-. 
of iron. Berget, A. C. E. 115 (1892) 722-; 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1892) 371-. 
and nickel and steel ovoids, and length 

change. Nagaoka, H., d Honda, K. [1900] 

Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 13 (1900-01) 57- ; Ph. Mg. 

49 (1900) 329-. 

- tubes. Knott, C. G. [1891] 

Edinb. E. S. P. 18 (1892) 315-. 

. Knott, C. G., & Shand, A. 

Edinb. E. S. P. 20 (1895) 334-. 

nickel tubes. Knott, C. G. B. A. Ep. 
(1894) 576. 

. Knott, C. G., d- Shand, A. [1894] 

Edinb. E. S. P. 20 (1895) 295-. 



Volume of iron, constancy in strong magnetic 
fields. Whitman, F. P. Am. As. P. (1892) 88. 



5466 Magnetic Properties of Alloys 
of Iron and of other Ferro- 
magnetic Substances. 

MAGNETIC PEOPEETIES OF ALLOYS 
OF IEON. 

Electric conductivity and magnetic permea- 
bility. Barrett, W. F., Brown, W., d Had- 
Jield, R. A. [1899] Dubl. S. Sc. T. 7 (1902) 
67-. 



Magnetic Properties of Alloys 5466 

Ferromagnetic amalgams. Nagaoka, H. A. 

Ps. C. 59 (1896) 66-. 
Iron and aluminium. Richardson, S. W. [1899] 

L. Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 1-; Ph. Mg. 49 (1900) 

121-. 

amalgam, electric and magnetic properties. 
Zamboni, A. N. Cim. 2 (1895) 26-. 

and antimony. Weiss. P. Eclair. Elect. 8 
(1896) 248-, 306-. 

carbon. Kobylin, N., d- TereSin, S. 

Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 18 (Ps.) (1886) 107-; J. de 
Ps. 7 (1888) 219-. 

filings and ferro-manganese filings. Wilson, 
E. Elect. 45 (1900) 894-. 

and nickel. Becquerel, H. C. E. 93 (1881) 
794-. 

. Hopkinson, J. [1889-90] E. S. P. 

47(1890) 23-; 48(1891) 1-. 
alloys, natural and artificial. Vogel, 

0. [1895] Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 396-. 

, irreversible properties. Houllevigue, 
L. J. de Ps. 8 (1899) 89-. 

Manganese steel. Anon. A. der Hydrog. 17 

(1889) 177-. 
, effect of oxidation. O'Shea, L. T. B. 

A. Ep. (1890) 753. 
- , magnetic and other physical constants. 

Barrett, W. F. [1889] Dubl. S. Sc. P. 6 

(1888-90) 460-. 
, magnetisation in strong fields. String, 

J. A., d- Low, W. B. A. Ep. (1887) 587-. 
Nickel steel (armour plate of "Odin"). Tollert, 

. A. der Hydrog. 23 (1895) 354-. 

steels. Guillaume, C. E. C. E. 124 (1897) 
1515- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1897) 120-. 

. Duhem, P. Bordeaux S. Sc. Mm. 4 

(1898) 443-. 

. Dumont, E. C. E. 126 (1898) 741- ; 

' Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 5 (1898) 331-, 426-. 
. Guillaume, C. E. C. E. 129 (1899) 

155- ; J. de Ps. 8 (1899) 94-. 
, anomalies. Guillaume, C. E. Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1898) 73*-. 

MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF FERRO- 
MAGNETIC SUBSTANCES NOT 
ALLOYS OF IRON. 

Enamel due to action of heat on minerals. 

Bianchi, A., d Laroque, F. A. C. 1 (1864) 

241-. 
Ferruginous bodies. Saigey, J. F. F^russac 

Bll. Sc. Mth. 9 (1828) 89-, 167-, 239-. 
Ilmenite (titanic ironstone), magnetisation. 

Phipson, T. L. C. N. 32 (1875) 162-. 
Metals, alloys and metallic salts. Sturgeon, 

W. Manch. Ph. S. Mm. 7 (1846) 625-. 
Nickel, Fleitman's, magnetic moment. Bullard, 

J. E. [1880] Am. Ac. P. 16 (1881) 46-. 

tetracarbonyl, magnetic and electric proper- 
ties. Apt, R. Schl.-Holst. Nt. Vr. Schr. 
11 (1898) 242-. 

tungsten alloys. Trowbridge, J., d Sheldon, 
S. Am. Ac. P. 24 (1889) 181-. 

Non-metallic substances. Arnim, L. A. von. 
Gilbert A. 5 (1800) 384-. 



624 



5467 Magnetic Properties of Salts 



5467 Magnetic Properties of Salts 
and Solutions. 

MAGNETIC PEOPEETIES OF SALTS. 

Iron, nickel and cobalt, cyanogen compounds. 

Wiesner, J. Wien Sb. 46 (Ab. 2) (1863) 175-. 
Salts of the iron group, molecular suscepti- 
bility. Liebknecht, O., d- Wills, A. P. 

[1899-1900] A. Ps. 1 (1900) 178-. 
magnetic metals. Wiedemann, G. A. 

Ps. C. 126 (1865) 1-. 
, metallic, and metals and alloys. Sturgeon, 

W. Manch. Ph. S. Mm. 7 (1846) 625-. 
of rare earths, molecular susceptibility. 

Du Bois, H., & Liebknecht, O. D. Ps. Gs. 

Vh. (1899) 236-. 
, (Du Bois and Liebknecht). 

Meyer, S. D. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1899) 275-. 
, (Meyer). Du Bois, H., & 

Liebknecht, O. D. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1900) 19-. 

MAGNETIC PEOPEETIES OF SOLUTIONS. 

Concentration of magnetic solution at pole of 

magnet. Righi, A. Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 

8 (1877) 647-. 
solutions, effect of magnetic and electric 

forces on. Tiurin, V. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 23 

(Ps.) (1891) 101- ; Fschr. Ps. (1891) (Ab. 2) 

440-. 
Equilibrium of magnetic liquids. Mortara, E. 

Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 29 (1894) 325-. 
Salt, magnetic, solution. Duhem, P. Par. 
. EC. Norm. A. 7 (1890) 289-. 
Susceptibility, magnetic, of liquids, and their 

magnetic rotation. Du Bois, H. E. J. G. 

A. Ps. C. 35 (1888) 137-. 
, , .measurement. Wdhner,T. [1887] 

Wien Ak. Sb. 96 (1888) (Ab. 2) 85-. 
, , , and temperature coefficient. 

Jager, G., <& Meyer, S. Wien Ak. Sb. 106 

(1897) (Ab. 2o) 594-, 623-; 107 (1898) 

(Ab. 2a) 5-. 
, , water and aqueous solutions. Du 

Bois, H. E. J. G. A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 38-. 



5470 Diamagnetism. 

Faraday, M. [1845] Phil. Trans. (1846) 21-, 

Orsted, H. C. Kiob. Ov. (1848) 49- ; A. C. 24 

(1848) 424-. 

PlUcker, J. (vm) Ph. Mg. 33 (1848) 48-. 
Orsted, H. C. Kiob. Ov. (1849) 2-. 
Marbach, H. Bresl. Schl. Gs. Ubs. (1852) 

26. 

Reich, F. Leip. B. 7 (1855) 80-. 
Boltzmann, L. [1879] Wien Ak. Sb. 80 (1880) 

(Ab. 2) 687-. 
Constants, formulae. Boltzmann, L. Wien Ak. 

Sb. 83 (1881) (Ab. 2) 576-. 



Diamagnetism 5470 

Diamagnetic bodies. Duhem, P. [1889] C. E. 

108 (1889) 1042- ; Lille Tr. Mm. 1 (1889-91) 

Mem. 2, 71 pp. 
and magnetic bodies, distinction. Fei- 

litzsch, F. C. 0. von. Ph. Mg. 1 (1851) 

46-. 
, residual magnetism in. Eiving, J. A. 

Nt. 33 (1886) 512-. 
particles, reciprocal action. Thomson, (Sir) 

W. (vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 11 (1856) 66-. 

DIAMAGNETIC POLARITY. 

Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. B. (1847) 485- ; Pogg. 

A. 73 (1848) 475-. 
(Polar or other condition of diamagnetie 

bodies.) Faraday, M. [1849] Phil. Trans. 

(1850) 171-. 
Tyndall, J. [1854-55] Bb. Un. Arch. 27 

(1854) 215- ; Phil. Trans. (1856) 237-. 
Franz, R. Ac. Nt. C. N. Acta 40 (1878) 

231-. 
of bismuth. Quintus-Icilius, G. von. Pogg. 

A. 96 (1855) 81-. 
, and magnetic field. Tyndall, J. Ph. 

Mg. 2 (1851) 333-. 
crystalline, of bismuth, etc., and magnetic 

force. Faraday, M. [1848] Phil. Trans. 

(1849) 1-. 
experiments. Tyndall, J. B. A. Ep. (1855) 

(pt. 2) 22-; N. Cim. 2 (1855) 362-; Bb. Un. 

Arch. 31 (1856) 46-. 
and magnecrystallic action. Tyndall, J. Ph. 

Mg. 11 (1856) 125-. 
permanent, of various substances. Lodge, O. 

Nt. 33 (1886) 484-. 

residual, in bismuth, production. Quintus- 
Icilius, G. von. Gott. Nr. (1860) 296-. 

DIAMAGNETISM AND MAGNETISM. 

PlUcker, J. [1849] C. E. 28 (1849) 504; 

Zantedeschi A. Fis. (1849-50) 165-. 
Faraday, M. [1850] Phil. Trans. (1851) 7-. 
experiments, electromagnetic and diamagnetie. 

Magrini, L. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 2 (1865) 

129-. 

to illustrate. Guthrie, Fred. Ph. Mg. 41 
(1871) 15-. 

laws. Matteucci, C. B. A. Ep. (1852) (pt. 2) 

6-. 
phenomena. Pierre, V. Wien SB. (1850) 

phenomenon, Pliicker's. Marangoni, C. Ev. 

Sc.-Ind. 17 (1885) 385-. 
relation. PlUcker, J. Pogg. A. 72 (1847) 

343-. 

to colour of bodies. Adie, R. (vi Adds.) 
Ph. Mg. 4 (1852) 451-. 

DIAMAGNETISM OF VARIOUS 
SUBSTANCES. 

Bismuth and antimony. Becquerel, A. C. 
Pogg. A. 10 (1827) 292-. 

calcspar, constants, absolute measure. 
Rowland, H. A. Am. J. Sc. 18 (1879) 
360-. 



625 



5470 Diamagnetism of Various Substances Diamagnetism 5470 



Bismuth and calcspar, constants, absolute mea- 
sure. Jacques, W. W. Am. J. Sc. 18 (1879) 

368-. 
, constants, absolute measure. Ettingshau- 

sen, A. von. Wien Ak. Sb. 85 (1882) (Ab. 2) 

37-. 
, crystallised, magnetism of rotation in. 

Matteucci, C. A. C. 39 (1853) 134-. 
, , repulsions, measurement by torsion- 
balance. Hankel, W. G. Leip. B. (1851) 

99-. 

, galvanomagnetic and thermomagnetic phe- 
nomena. Everdingen, E. van (jun.). Amst. 

Ak. Vs. 7 (1899) 95-, 484-, 535-; Amst. Ak. 

P. 1 (1899) 72-, 404-, 473-. 
, heat conductivity in magnetic field. Right, 

A. Em. R. Ac. Line. Rd. 3 (1887) (Sem. 1) 

481-, (Sem. 2) 6 ; C. R. 105 (1887) 168- ; 

Rm. R. Ac. Line. Mm. 4 (1887) 433-. 
, . Leduc, . Par. S. Ps. 

Se. (1888) 209-. 
, , variation. Ettingshausen, 

A. von. Wien Az. 24 (1887) 233 (bis)-. 
, , . Leduc, A. Lum. 

Elect. 25 (1887) 65- ; 26 (1887) 427-. , 
, , . Righi,A. Lum. Elect. 

25 (1887) 174-. 
, magnetic strain in. Bidwell, S. Nt. 60 

(1899) 222. 
, . Knott, C. G. Nt. 60 (1899) 

222. 
, magnetisation. Gerosa, G. G., & Mai, E. 

Mil. I. Lomb. Rd. 24 (1891) 236-. 
Carbon dioxide, solid. Thirion, (le rev. pere) 

, d- Greeff, (le rev. pere) de. Brux. S. Sc. 

A. 17 (1893) (Pt. 1) 87-. 
Copper, etc. Nobili, L. Bb. Un. 31 (1826) 

45-. 
Coral. Foe, G. [1884] Padova S. Sc. At. 9 

(1885) 132-. 
Crystals, positive and negative, action of 

magnet on. Pliicker, J. Pogg. A. 78 (1849) 

421-. 
Eyeball, contents. Mooser, J. [1899] Ps. Z. 

1 (1900) 75. 
Flame. Zantedeschi, F. Ph. Mg. 31 (1847) 

421-. 
and gases. Faraday, M. Ph. Mg. 31 (1847) 

401-. 
Gases. Zantedeschi, F. Yen. At. 2 (1851) 

205-. 
. Scarpellini, C. Rm. Cor. Sc. 2 (1853) 

205-. 

. Chaiitard, J. C. R. 64 (1867) 1141-. 
Hydrogen. Blondlot, R. C. R. 85 (1877) 

68-. 
Ice. Brunner von Wattenwyll, C. Bern Mt. 

(1848) 45-. 
Liquids in motion, action of magnetic field. 

Dufour, H. [1887] Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 17 

(1887) 173- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1887) 6-; 

Laus. S. Vd. Bll. 23 (1888) xi-. 
, paramagnetic and diamagnetic, motion, 

exhibition. Ricco, A. Rv. Sc.-Ind. 19 

(1887) 84. 
Organic bodies, water as cause of diamag- 

netism in. Haas, A. J. (x) Brux. Ac. 

Bll. 16 (1863) 486-. 



Oxygen. Walker, (Prof.) R. [1851] Ashmol. 

S. P. 2 (1843-52) 285-. 
Rock crystal in magnetic field. Tumlirz, 0. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 92 (1886) (Ab. 2) 301-. 



Duration of diamagnetic effects. Villari, E. 

Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 43 (1872) 105-. 
Energy of magnetically polarised bodies. Adler , 

G. [1885] Wien Ak. Sb. 92 (1886) (Ab. 2) 

1439-. 
Equilibrium figures, and motions of liquids 

and gases. Matteucci, C. C. R. 36 (1853) 

917-. 
Experiments. Poggendorff, J. C., & Weber, 

W. Berl. B. (1848) 319-. 
. Reich, F. Erdm. J. Pr. C. 49 (1850) 

193-. 
. Matteucci, C. C. R. 44 (1857) 242-, 331-, 

625-. 
. Christie, H. Pogg. A. 103 (1858) 577- ; 

N. Mg. Ntvd. 10 (1859) 139-. 
. Matteucci, C. N. Cim. 8 (1858) 161-, 

241-. 
, Faraday's. Orsted, H. C. Kiob. Ov. 

(1847) 47-. 
Explanation. Braun, F. Gott. Nr. (1887) 

462-. 

by Ampere's theory. Feilitzsch, F. C. 0. 
von. Pogg. A. 87 (1852) 206-, 427-; 92 
(1854) 366-, 530-. 

based on electrodynamic induction theory. 
Felici, R. N. Cim. 9 (1859) 16-. 

Force, diamagnetic. Tyndall, J. B. A. Rp. 

(1854) (pt. 2) 14-. 

, and magnetic, measurement of inten- 
sity. Pliicker, J. Pogg. A. 74 (1849) 321-. 

, disposition in paramagnetic and diamag- 
netic bodies. Tyndall, J. [1856] R. I. P. 
2 (1854-58) 159-. 

, magnetic, on small spheres, and diamag- 
netic phenomena. Thomson, (Sir) W. Camb. 
and Dubl. Mth. J. 2 (1847) 230 -. 

, repulsive or attractive, of magnet, influence 
of surroundings. Pliicker, J. Pogg. A. 77 
(1849) 578-. 

, , of magnet, nature. Tyndall, J. [1855] 
R. I. P. 2 (1854-58) 13-; Phil. Trans. 

(1855) 1-. 

, , , on non-magnetic bodies. Reich, 

F. [1846] Leip. B. 1 (1846-47) 251-. 

Gravity and diamagnetism. Magrini, L. Mil. 
I. Lomb. Rd. 3 (1866) 275-. 

Heat, compression, crystalline form, etc., effect 
on diamagnetism. Matteucci, C. C. R. 36 
(1853) 741- ; Bb. Un. Arch. 23 (1853) 24-. 

of fusion, and diamagnetism, relation. 
Bachmetjev, P. Rs. Ps.-C. S. J. 16 (Ps.) 
(1884) 519-. 

Induced currents, laws applied to diamag- 
netism. Weber, W. E. [1846] Leip. B. 1 
(1846-47) 346-. 

Induction currents, diamagnetoelectric. Et- 
tingshausen, A. von, & Topler, A. A. Ps. C. 
160 (1877) 1-. 

, diamagnetic. Stefan, J. Wien Sb. 64 
(1871) (Ab. 2) 789-. 



626 



5470 Theories of Diamagnetism 

Induction, electrostatic or magnetic, and dia- 
magnetism. Nikolaieve, W. de. Eclair. 
Elect. 20 (1899) 10-, 53-. 

, law, in paramagnetic and diamagnetic 
substances. Plilcker, J. Pogg. A. 91 (1854) 

, reciprocal molecular. Tyndall, J. Ph. 

Mg. 10 (1855) 422-. 
Lantern attachment, diamagnetic. Rowland, 

H. A. Am. J. Sc. 9 (1875) 357-. 
Magnecrystallic action and diamagnetism. Tyn- 
dall, J. Ph. Mg. 2 (1851) 165- ; Pogg. A. 

83 (1851) 384-. 
Magnetokinetic top. Du Bois, H. Arch. Ne^rl. 

5 (1900) 242-. 
Measurements, absolute. Ettingshausen, A. 

von. Exner Epm. 24 (1888) 252-; Wien 

Ak. Sb. 96 (1888) (Ab. 2) 777-. 
by electric induction. Topler, A. J.I. Wien 

Az. 12 (1875) 13-. 
, electrodynamic. Weber, W. E. Leip. Ab. 

Mth. Ps. 1 (1852) 483-. 
Oscillating bodies, diamagnetism, increase. 

Plilcker, J. Pogg. A. 73 (1848) 613-. 
Oscillations of non-crystalline needles of feeble 

inductive diamagnetic or paramagnetic 

power. Thomson, (Sir) W. C. E. 38 (1854) 

632-. 
Phenomena. Matteucci, C. A. C. 28 (1850) 

493-. 
. Ward, W. S. [1850] W. Yorks. P. Gl. S. 

3 (1849-59) 114-. 
Eotation. Forbes, G. [1876] Edinb. E. S. P. 

9 (1878) 85-. 
, magnetism of. Matteucci, C. Bb. Un. 

Arch. 23 (1853) 39-; C. E. 45 (1857) 

353. 

, - , and diamagnetic polarity, experi- 
ments. Matteucci, C. C. E. 37 (1853) 

303-. 
, , in masses of small insulated metal 

particles. Matteucci, C. A. C. 39 (1853) 

136-. 

THEORIES OF DIAMAGNETISM. 

Hankel, W. G. Pogg. A. 75 (1848) 110-. 
Feilitzsch, F. C. 0. von. Pogg. A. 82 (1851) 

90-. 

Milller, (Dr.) J. Pogg. A. 83 (1851) 115-. 
Plilcker, J. Pogg. A. 86 (1852) 1-. 
Weber, W. E. Ph. Mg. 10 (1855) 407-. 
(Weber.) Tyndall, J. Ph. Mg. 10 (1855) 409-. 
Blondlot, R. C. E. 106 (1888) 1347-. 
(Blondlot.) Mascart, . C. E. 106 (1888) 

1381-. 
impossibility of diamagnetism. Duhem, P. 

[1889] C. E. 108 (1889) 1042- ; Lille Tr. 

Mm. 1 (1889-91) Mem. 2, 71 pp. 
. Parker, J. Ph. Mg. 32 (1891) 192-, 

253-. 
(Parker). FitzGerald, G. F. Ph. 

Mg. 32 (1891) 318-. 
(Duhem). Siertsema, L. H. [1896] 

Amst. Ak. Vh. (Sect. 1) 5 (1897) No. 4, 

29 pp. ; Fschr. Ps. (1896) (Ab. 2) 689-. 
mathematical theory. Duhem, P. C. E. 106 

(1888) 736-. 



Ampere's Theory 5480 

and theory of magnetism and electricity, re- 
lation. Weber, W. E. Pogg. A. 87 (1852) 
145-. 

Weberian theory. Chambers, (Miss) J. M. 
Elect. 17 (1886) 27-. 



5480 Physical Theories of the 
Nature of Magnetism. 

Arnim, L. A. von. Gilbert A. 3 (1800) 48- ; 

8 (1801) 84-. 
Poisson, S. D. Par. Ac. Sc. Mm. 5 (1821-22) 

247-, 488- ; A. C. 25 (1824) 113-, 221- ; 28 

(1825) 5-. 

Goodman, J. B. A. Ep. (1842) (pt. 2) 17-. 
Faraday, M. E. I. P. 1 (1851-54) 457-. 
Plana, G. As. Nr. 39 (1855) 225-, 305- ; 42 

(1856) 1-. 
Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 

111-, 188-, 217-, 231-, 250-, 392-, 415-. 
Hughes, D. E. [1883-84] E. S. P. 35 (1883) 

19-, 178- ; E. I. P. 11 (1887) 1-. 
Siemens, W. Berl. Ak. Ab. (1884) 965-. 
Duhem, P. P. C. E. 105 (1887) 932-. 
Provenzali, F. S. Em. N. Line. Mm. 7 (1891) 

273-. 
Du Bois, H. [1898] D. Mth. Vr. Jbr. 7 (1899) 

(Heft 1) 90-. 

AMPERE'S THEORY. 

Fresnel, A. [1821] C. E. 99 (1884) 97-, 101-. 
Pollock, T. [1839] (vi Adds.) Electr. S. P. 

(1837-40) 178. 
Mayer, A. M. Am. J. Sc. 50 (1870) 195- ; 

Franklin I. J. 60 (1870) 403-. 
Ayrton, W. E. Tel. J. 1 (1872-73) 47-. 
Treve, (capit.) A. R. S. C. E. 89 (1879) 

301-, 302-, 350- ; Ev. Mar. et Col. 63 (1879) 

640-. 

Provenzali, F. S. Em. N. Line. At. 39 (1886) 9-. 
application. Treve, (capit.) A. R. S. C. E. 

90 (1880) 35-. 
discrepancies. Stefan, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 79 

(1879) (Ab. 2) 659-. 
experiment. Orsted, H. C. Oken Isis (1831) 

865. 

. Le Cordier, P. C. E. 71 (1870) 533-. 
experiments against. Schmidt, G. G. Gilbert 

A. 74 (1823) 260-. 
laws. Knochenhauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 34 

(1835) 481-. 
mechanical effects due to magnets and to 

terrestrial magnetism. Le Cordier, P. [1883] 

C. E. 96 (1883) 1123- ; Liouv. J. Mth. 10 

(*1884) 113-, 281-. 
relation of Laplace-Biot law to. Beer, A. 

Pogg. A. 94 (1855) 177-. 



Cause of magnetism in metals. Hughes, D. E. 

Tel. E. J. 12 (1883) 374-. 
Cohesion, viscosity and magnetism, experiment 

to prove common nature. Haughton, G. C. 

Ph. Mg. 30 (1847) 437-, 502-. 
Drawings and models. Mailer, . Met. Z. 

9 (1892) 297-. 



627 



5480 Physical Theories of Magnetism Terrestrial Magnetic Field 5490 



Dynamic magnetism. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] 

C. B. 35 (1852) 54-. 

and static theories, experiments. Dumoncel, 

T [A. .L.I C. B. 34 (1852) 553-; Cherb. 
Mm. S. Sc. 1 (1852) 1-; C. B. 35 (1852) 
354-. 

theory of magnetism of iron. Rozing, B. 

Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 28 (Ps.) (1896) 59-; J. de Ps. 
6 (1897) 605. 

Electromagnetic motions, and theory of mag- 
netism. -Faraday, M. QJ. Sc. 12 (1822) 
74- ; A. C. 18 (1821) 337-. 

phenomena, and Weber's hypothesis. Vil- 
lari, E. A. Ps. C. 133 (1868) 322-. 

Ewing's theory. Crete, H. Franklin I. J. 

132 (1891) 148-. 

. Hoopes, A. Elect. 27 (1891) 99-. 

Fluid, magnetic. Drury, O'B. Ir. Ac. T. 2 

(1788) 119-. 
, . Ferrier, . Mntp. A. Clin. 4 (1819) 

201-. 
, magneto-electric. Luca, F. de. II Pro- 

gresso 3 (1832) 31-. 
Fluids, magnetic, and molecular currents, 

theories, comparison. Le Cordier, P. C. B. 

97 (1883) 478-. 
Forces, magnetic. Kries, F. Haarl. Ntk. 

Vh. Mtsch. 13 (1824) 123-. 
, . Delarive, A. Bb. Un. Arch. 25 

(*1854) 105-. 
, (Delarive's theory). Feilitzsch, F. C. 

0. von, Pogg. A. 93 (1854) 248-. 
, . Challis, J. Ph. Mg. 21 (1861) 65-, 92-. 
, . Stefan, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 69 (1874) 

(Ab. 2) 165-. 
, , of atoms. Lang, R. A. Ps. 2 (1900) 

483-. 
, , conduction. Jamin, J. C. C. B. 78 

(1874) 19-. 
, , experiments. Pianciani, G. B. [1840] 

Mod. S. It. Mm. 21 (1841) 210-. 
Graphic representation. Allen, H. N. Ps. 

Bv. 3 (1896) 470-. 
Hughes's theory. Shettle, E. C., & Huglies, 

D. E. Elect. 12 (1884) 561-, 608-, etc. 
Hydrodynamic theory. CMllis, J. Ph. Mg. 

38 (1869) 42-; 43 (1872) 401-. 
, attractive and repulsive forces. Challis, 

J. Ph. Mg. 44 (1872) 189-. 
Kinetic theory of electricity and magnetism. 

Svetovidov, S. Fschr. Mth. (1890) 1137. 
Magnetism in motion. Poisson, S. D. Par. 

Mm. Ac. Sc. 6 (1823) 441-. 
. GrimaUi, G. [1827] Lucca At. 

Ac. 5 (1829) 1-. 
Mathematical theory. Thomson, (Sir) W. 

[1849-50] Phil. Trans. (1851) 243-. 
. Lamont, J. Munch. Sb. (1862) (Bd. 2) 

103-. 
. Beltrami, E. Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 1 

(1890) 409-. 
Mechanical theory. Hughes,. Nt. 29 (1884) 

459. 

of electric and magnetic polarity. 
Doppler, C. [1848] Wien D. 1 (1850) 157- 

electricity and magnetism, and mole- 
cular physics. Subic,S. [1862] Wien SB. 
46 (^6. 2) (1863) 46-. 



Mechanics of electric phenomena. Griinicald, 
A. K. Bohm. Gs. Ws. Jbr. (1894) 68 pp. 

. Weyde, J. F. Elekttech. Z. 18 

(1897) 526-, 538-. 

magnetisation, theory. Chabot, J. J. T. 
Ph. Mg. 48 (1899) 319-. 

Medium, magnetic. Williamson, A. W. B. S. 

P. 7 (1854-55) 306-. 
, . Hirst, T. A. E. S. P. 7 (1854-55) 

448-. 
, , and effects of compression. Thomson, 

(Sir) W. Ph. Mg. 9 (1855) 290-. 
, , in space. Tyndall, J. Ph. Mg. 9 
. (1855) 205-. 
Minimum function in magnetic field. Siert- 

sema, L. H. [1896] Amst. Ak. Vh. (Sect. 1) 

5 (1897) No. 4, 29 pp.; Fschr. Ps. (1896) 

(Ab. 2) 689-. 
Molecular magnetism. Hughes, D. E. B. S. 

P. 31 (1881) 525-; 32 (1881) 25-, 213-. 
(Hughes). Wiedemann, G. H. Ph. Mg. 

12 (1881) 223-. 
. Richarz, . Bonn Niedr. Gs. Sb. 

(1893) 90-. 
and atomic magnetism. Meyer, S. A. 

Ps. 1 (1900) 668-. 

magnets, heat due to rotation. Herwig, H. 
A. Ps. C. 4 (1878) 177-. 

physics, experiment. Owen, R. Am. Met. 
J. 6 (1889-90)' 397-. 

theory. Lantschenko, M. Fschr. Ps. (1889) 
(Ab. 2) 605. 

. Gallop, E. G. Mess. Mth. 27 (1898) 

6-. 

Motion of magnetic field, hypothesis of par- 
ticipation of matter in. Rosing, B. Ph. 

Mg. 42 (1896) 314-. 
, magnetic, of matter. Rozing, B. Bs. Ps.- 

C. S. J. 24 (Ps.) (1892) 105- ; Fschr. Ps. 

(1892) (Ab. 2) 626-. 
Nature of magnets, and magnetic investigation. 

Zantedeschi, F. Bb. It. 86 (1837) 134-. 
Phenomena. Guidi, F. Bm. N. Line. At. 30 

(1877) 458-. 
Processes, internal, of magnetisation. Beetz, 

W. Pogg. A. Ill (1860) 107-. 
Botation, molecular, and magnetism. Kelvin, 

(Lord). [1899] Edinb. B. S. P. 22 (1900) 

631-. 
, , - . Kelvin, (Lord) (et alii). 

Elect. 43 (1899) 411, etc. 
Botations, magnetic. Voice, E. L. Tel. J. 

14 (1884) 480. 
Sound vibrations, effect on magnetic energy. 

Guidi, F. Bm. N. Line. At. 40 (1887) 

181-. 



5490 Theories concerning the 
Terrestrial Magnetic Field. 

Orsted, H. C. Schweigger J. 32 ( = Jb. 2) 

(1821) 199-. 
Speyert van der EyJ:, S. Bb. Un. 20 (1822) 

247-. 
Messerschmitt, J. B. Ziir. Ps. Gs. Jbr. (1892) 



628 



5490 Terrestrial Field The Electric Current and Conduction 5600 



Cotterell, A. E. Elect. Rv. 43 (1898) 370-, 

400-. 
Altitude, influence on terrestrial magnetism. 

Rijckevorsel, E. van. Utr. Prv. Gn. Aant. 

(1898) 6-. 
Atmospheric magnetism. Faraday, M. 

[1850-51] Phil. Trans. (1851) 42-, 85-; 

E. I. P. 1 (1851-54) 56-. 

Deflecting vector systems, terrestrial magnetic, 
computation method, with tables. Bigelcnv, 

F. H. U. S. Weath. Bur. Bll. 21 (1898) 
13-. 

Distribution of terrestrial magnetism, Gilbert's 
hypothesis, and mutual action of 2 magnetic 
elements. Pinto, L. [1892] Nap. Ac. At. 
5 (1893) No. 4, 11 pp. 

Electrogeographical polarity, permanent elec- 
tric charge, and rnagnetochemical actions. 
Erman, P. Gilbert A. 26 (1807) 1-, 121-. 

Hydrodynamic theory of origin of terrestrial 
magnetism. Korn, A. [1898] Miinch. Ak. 
Sb. 28 (1899) 129-. 

Induction, terrestrial, and magnetism of vol- 
canic rocks. Folgheraiter, G. Km. R. Ac. 
Line. Rd. 4 (1895) (-Sew. 1) 203-. 

Needle, magnetic, declination, is it independent 
of its moment? Lagrange, C. [1895] Brux. 
Ac. Mm. 53 (1895-98) (No. 2) 40 pp. 

, , direction, secular changes, cause and 
period. Littlehales, G. W. [1893] U. S. 
Weath. Bur. Bll. 11 (1894) 174-. 

Needles, magnetic, polarisation by fluid cur- 
rents. Chase, P. E. [1865] Am. Ph. S. P. 
10 (1869) 151-. 

Observations, magnetic, method of discussion, 
and application to deflecting fields. Bigelmv, 
F. H. U. S. Weath. Bur. Bll. 2 (1892) 
40 pp. 

, , at Zacopane. Witkowski, A. Prace 
Mt.-Fiz. 10 (1899-1900) 101-. 

Precession, magnetic. Schuster, A. [1900] 

L. Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 644-. 
Single electric fluid theory, and theory of ter- 
restrial magnetism. Renard, N. A. (vni) 
Nancy Mm. Ac. Stanislas (1863) 25-. 
Solar and terrestrial magnetism in relation to 
meteorology. Bigelow, F. H. U. S. Weath. 
Bur. Bll. 21 (1898) 176 pp. 

and planetary magnetism. Lagrange, 

C. As. (1890) 129-. 



THE ELECTRIC CURRENT AND 
CONDUCTION. 

5600 General. 

CURRENTS. 

Gautherot, N. A. C. 39 (1801) 203-. 

Volta, A. A. C. 40 (1801) 225- ; Gilbert A. 12 

(1803) 497- ; 14 (1803) 257-. 
Graperon, . Nauche J. du Galvan. 1 (1803) 

197-. 
E., B. (vi Adds.) Tilloch Ph. Mg. 18 (1804) 

170-. 



Wilkinson, C. H. Nicholson J. 8 (1804) 70-. 
I. R. I. (vi Adds.) Nicholson J. 8 (1804) 

84-. 

Thicknesse, R. Nicholson J. 9 (1804) 120-. 
Wilkinson, C. H. Nicholson J. 10 (1805) 56-. 
Sylvester, C. Nicholson J. 10 (1805) 106-. 
Ritter, J. W. Gehlen J. 1 (1806) 353-. 
Anon, (vi 1212) Tilloch Ph. Mg. 24 (1806) 

203-. 
Vorsselman de Heer, P. 0. C. Miquel Bll. 

(1839) 320- ; (1840) 105-. 
Petrina, F. A. Baumgartner Z. 6 (1840) 165-, 

242-. 

Sturgeon, W. Silliman J. 39 (1840) 28-. 
Gremelli, G. [1845] Bologna N. Cm. 10 

(1849) 1-. 
Gruel, C. A. (vi Adds.) Berl. Pol. Gs. Vh. 

16 (1855) 43-. 

Stroumbo, S. Les Mondes 36 (1875) 477-. 
Delarge, F. Cuyper Rv. Un. 12 (1882) 660-. 
Thirion, J. Rv. Quest. Sc. 35 (1894) 41-. 
action on gases. Giobert, G. A. [1803] 

Turin Mm. Ac. (1804-05) 196-. 
analogy with elasticity. Ulbricht, R. Civing. 

34 (1888) 177-. 
flow of liquids. Secchi, A. Rm. At. N. 

Line. 17 (1864) 219-. 
, . Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. 

Elect. 6 (*1882) 361-. 
. Schmidt, K. E. F. [18911 

Z. Nw. 64 (1892) 409-. 

water. Schmidt, G. [1882] Wien 

Ak. Sb. 86 (1883) (Ab. 2) 194-. 
applications. Sturgeon, W. Sturgeon A. 

Electr. 4 (1839-40) 279-. 
, practical. Fischer, N. W. Erdm. J. Tech. 

C. 7 (1830) 52-. 
charge and discharge, conditions. Du Moncel, 

T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 9 (*1883)' 1-. 
of deformation. Campetti, A. N. Cim. 28 

(1890) 54-. 

distribution, various systems, for lighting and 
power. Miller, 0. von. Elekttech. Z. 12 

(1891) 613-. 

Earth as conductor and generator. Bain, A. 
Walker Electr. Mg. 1 (1845) 50-. 



of Current on Physical Properties of 
Conductors. 



change in conducting wires, due to long use. 
Peltier, A. Arch, de 1'Electr. 5 (1845) 182-. 

of conductivity. Quintus-Icilim, G. Pogg. 
A. 101 (1857) 69-. 

elasticity. Wertheim,G. C. R. 19(1844) 

229-; A. C. 12 (1844) 385-, 581-. 

and length of wire. Streintz, H. 
Wien Sb. 67 (1873) (Ab. 2) 323-. 

of metals. Mebius, C. A. Stockh. 

Ofv. (1887) 681- ; Fschr. Ps. (1887) (Ab. 1) 

452-. 
electric and mechanical properties in 

cables. Rheins, G. C. R. 131 (1900) 505-. 
volume of solids. Edlund, E. Stockh. 

Ofv. 24 (1867) 19-; A. Ps. C. 131 (1867) 

337-. 



629 



5600 



The Electric Current and Conduction 



5600 



deteriorating effect. Bartlett, A.T.,& Yeaman, 

C. H. Elect. 22 (1889) 440, etc. 
disintegration of electrode and other mechanical 

effects. Fusinieri, A. A. Sc. Lomb. Ven. 

14 (1845) 183-. 
glowing metals. Berliner, A. A. Ps. C. 

33 (1888) 289-. 
electric tension, peculiar property. Doppler, C. 

Baumgartner Z. 5 (1837) 342-. 
elongation of wire, due to heating only. 

Blondlot, R. C. E. 87 (1878) 206- ; Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1879) 59-. 
wires. Basso, G. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 14 

(1878) 349-. 
expansion. Edlund,E. Stockh. Ofv. 33 (1876) 

No I, 5-; A. Ps. C. 158 (1876) 148-. 
. Exner, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 75 (1877) (Ab. 2) 

373-. 
. Righi, A. [1879] Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 

1 (1880) 113-. 
of wires. Edlund, E. Stockh. Ofv. 23 

(1866) 37-; A. Ps. C. 129 (1866) 15-. 
_. Exner, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 71 (1875) 

(Ab. 2) 761-. 
fall in pitch of strained wires. Stone, W. H. 

L. Ps. S. P. 1 (1876) 20-; Ph. Mg. 48 (1874) 

115. 
permanent molecular torsion of wires. Hughes, 

D. E. B. S. P. 32 (1881) 25-. 

tenacity of wires. Dufour, L. [1854] Laus. 

Bll. S. Vd. 4 (1854-55) 103-. 
(iron). Hoffmann, G. H. (xn) Elekt- 

tech. Z. 1 (1880) 155-. 
unilateral conductivity. Schuster, A. Ph. Mg. 

48 (1874) 251-. 

and electric discharge, comparison. Edlund, 

E. Stockh. Ofv. 29 (No. 6) (1872) 3-. 
electric series of exciters and conductors. 

Schweigger, J. S. C. Schweigger J. 52 (= Jb. 

22) (1828) 236-. 
energy conservation in. Bouty, E. J. de Ps. 

4 (1875) 45-. 
, measurement and utilisation. Rigg, (Rev.) 

A. Tel. J. 1 (1872-73) 265-. 

Experiments. 

Anon, (vi 1202) Tilloch Ph. Mg. 9 (1801) 

352-. 
Aldini, G. W. (vi Adds.) Nicholson J. 3 

(1802) 298-. 
Graperon, . Nauche J. du Galvan. 1 (1803) 

101-. 
Michelotti, F., Rossi, , & Vassalli-Eandi,. 

[1805] Turin Mm. Ac. (1805-08) 160-. 
Gehlen, A. F. A. C. 65 (1808) 327-; 66 (1808) 

92-, 191-. 
Sturgeon, W. Sturgeon A. Electr. 6 (1841) 

407-. 
to discover whether galvanic fluid carries putrid 

miasmas with it. Giulio, G. C., <& Rossi, . 

(vi Adds.) Nauche J. du Galvan. 1 (1803) 

248-. 
electromagnetic, and repetition of Volta's 

fundamental experiments. Schmidt, G. G. 

Gilbert A. 70 (1822) 229-. 



and phenomena. Murray, (Mr.) J. Tilloch 

Ph. Mg. 60 (1822) 358-. 
proposed by Napoleon. Brugnatelli, L. V. 

(vi Adds.) V. Mons J. C. 1 (1802) 323-. 

explanation. Weber, J. Gilbert A. 51 (1815) 

353-. 
and Faraday currents. Gherardi, S. Bologna 

N. Cm. 2 (1836) 111-. 
fracture of copper due to. Nebel, B. Exner 

Bpm. 24 (1888) 586-. 
and heat, theory. Riecke, E. A. Ps. C. 66 

(1898) 353-, 545-, 1199-. 
, (Biecke). Kohlrausch, F. A. Ps. C. 

67 (1899) 630-. 
, ( ). Lamotte, M. Eclair. Elect. 

18 (1899) 204-, 290-, 412-, 452-, 491-. 
history. Bostock, J. Nicholson J. 2 (1802) 

296-; 3 (1802) 3-. 
Kastner, K. W. G. Kastner Arch. Ntl. 6 

(1825) 442-. 
, and chemical aspects. Trommsdorff, J. B. 

Trommsdorff J. Phrn. 9 (1801) (St. 2) 121-. 
of induction, and voltaic currents, combined 

action. Delarive, A. [1844] Gen. Mm. S. 

Ps. 11 (1846) 225-. 
for laboratory, most convenient source. Elbs, 

K. C. Ztg. 17 (1893) 66, 97-. 
laws. Laming, R. Elect. 3 (1863) 204-, 215-, 

228-. 

. Raynaud, J. J. de Ps. 1 (1872) 305-. 
. Sprague, J. T. Elect. 26 (1891) 513-, 

543-, 576-, 608-, 670-, 697-, 729-. 
mechanical and electromotive forces, applica- 
tion of principle of energy. Seydler, A. J. 

Prag Sb. (1883) (Mth. Vortr.) 235-. 
nature ("electric acid"). Brugnatelli, L. V. 

Gilbert A. 8 (1801) 284-. 
. Ampere, A. M., & Becquerel, . A. C. 

27 (1824) 29-. 

. Nobili, L. Bb. Un. 37 (1828) 118-, 180-. 
. Faraday, M. Phil. Trans. (1838) 156-. 
. Mugna, G. (xn) Bv. Sc.-Ind. 12 (1880) 

72-. 
. Poynting, J. H. [1900] I. Mn. E. T. 20 

(1902) 89-. 
, modern views. Rowland, H. A. Elect. 

23 (1889) 173-, 197-. 
non-interference. Wartmann, E. Laus. Bll. 

S. Vd. 1 (1842-45) 369-, 381-. 

Opposite Currents, Co-existence in same Wire. 



[1828] A. C. 42 (1829) 131-. 
Idinb. J. Nt. Gg. Sc. 1 (1830) 



Marianini, S. 
Kemp, K. T. 

91-. 
(Action.) Zantedeschi, F. Bb. Un. 24 (1839) 

384-. 
Kirchhoff, G. Pogg. A. 64 (1845) 497-; 67 

(1846) 344-; 75 (1848) 189- ; 78 (1849) 

Masson, A. C. B. 37 (1853) 849-. 
Zantedeschi, F. Aten. It. 3 (1854) 56- ; Em. 

Cor. Sc. 3 (1855) 339-. 
Belli, G. N. Cim. 2 (1855) 401- ; 6 (1857) 

81. 

(Action. ) Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 40 (1855) 358-. 
Magrini, L. Mil. G. I. Lomb. 7 (1855) 1-. 



630 



5600 Production of Currents 

Serpieri, A. Em. Cor. Sc. 3 (1855) 373-. 
Ciampi, P. F. (vi Adds.) Em. Cor. Sc. 3 

(1855) 393-. 
Serpieri, A. Em. Cor. Sc. 3 (1855) 396-, 411-, 

413-. 

Soret, J. L. Bb. Un. Arch. 29 (1855) 51-. 
(Serpieri.) Zantedeschi, F. Em. Cor. Sc. 3 

(1855) 411. 
Zantedeschi, F. C. E. 41 (1855) 194-, 324-; 

Wien SB. 17 (1855) 257-. 
Matteucci, C. N. Cim. 3 (1856) 194-. 
Petrina, F. A. Pogg. A. 98 (1856) 99-. 
(Belli, Matteucci and Petrina.) Zantedeschi, 

F. Wien SB. 27 (1857) 431-. 

phenomena. Volta, A. J. de Ps. 53 (1801) 
309-. 

(Volta). Nicholson, W. (vi Adds.) Nichol- 
son J. 1 (1802) 142-. 

. Wurzer, F. (vi Adds.) V. Mons J. C. 

1 (1802) 330-. 

. De Luc, J. A. (vi Adds.) Nicholson J. 

32 (1812) 271-. 
. Thomson, T. Thomson A. Ph. 5 (1815) 

431-. 
power, experiments. Anon, (vi 864) Nicholson 

J. 5 (1802) 41-. 
, . Sylvester, C. Nicholson J. 9 (1804) 

179-. 
processes in. Poggendorjf, J. C. Pogg. A. 73 

(1848) 337-. 

Production of Currents. 

Adie, Rich. Edinb. N. Ph. J. 57 (1854) 84-. 
Quincke, G. Berl. Mb. (1858) 515-. 
by absorption of gases in liquid. Peltier, A. 
C. E. 16 (1843) 1006-. 

bending of metal. Volpicelli, P. C. E. 
74 (1872) 44-; Em. At. E. Ac. 25 (1872) 18-. 

bismuth in magnetic field. Grimaldi, G. P. 
Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 5 (1889) (Sem. 1) 
28-. 

chemico-electric currents, by chemical change 
in solution. Gore, G. Birm. Ph. S. P. 4 
(1883-85) 414- . 

by copper-ore in mines, Cornwall. Bennetts, 
J. (vi. Adds.) Ph. Mg. 3 (1833) 17-. 

friction. Peltier, A. C. E. 4 (1837) 172- . 
between conductors. Blyth, J. Edinb. 

E. S. P. 10 (1880) 548-. 

, experiments. Perego, A. At. Sc. It. 
(1844) 47-. 

, . Schering, K. Gott. Nr. (1878) 88- ; 

A. Ps. C. 3 (1878) 465-. 
. of metals. Gherardi, S. N. A. Sc. Nt. 

2 (1838) 134-. 

. Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 36 (1853) 

541-. 

frictional machine, passed through galvano- 
meter. Haughton, (Sir) G. C. (vi Adds.) 
Ph. Mg. 22 (1843) 208-, 435-. 

, (Haughton). Joule, J. P. 

Ph. Mg. 22 (1843) 265-. 
influence of friction. Bidwell, S. L. Ps. S. 

P. 4 (1881) 1-; Ph. Mg. 9 (1880) 374-. 
leading currents. Spitzer, O. Sc. Abs. 2 

(1899) 764-. 



Velocity of Electricity 5600 

by mechanical means. Bouty, E. J. de Ps. 

4 (1875) 135-. 
pressure. Siljestrom, P. A. Stockh. 

Ofv. (1888) 27-; J. de Ps. 7 (1888) 264-. 

oxidation of points in metal wires. Peltier, 
A. C. E. 3 (1836) 176. 

solar rays. De Luc, J. A. Nicholson J. 36 
(1813) 307-. 

torsion of nickel wires, influence of high 
temperatures. Campetti, A. Tor. Ac. Sc. 
At. 26 (1891) 827-. 

vibration of wires and metal rods. Sullivan, 
W. K. Ph. Mg. 27 (1845) 261-. 

wind power. Blyth, J. [1892] Sc. S. 
Arts T. 13 (1894) 173-. 

propagation. Orsted, H. C. J. de Ps. 62 

(1806) 369-. 
. Renard, N. A. Nancy Mm. Ac. Stanislas 

1 (1859) 1-. 
. Guillemin, C. M., <& Burnouf, E. Nancy 

Mm. Ac. Stanislas 1 (1859) 414-. 

in conductors with imperfect insulation. 
Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 51 (1860) 932-. 

, duration with variation of electric tension, 
law. Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 50 (1860) 395-. 

through solutions and metals. Reiff, R. 
A. Ps. C. 56 (1895) 42-. 

water (static and galvanic electricity). 
Lagrave, . J. de Ps. 56 (1802) 361-. 

(asymmetric) in secondary, with Wehnelt in- 
terrupter in primary. Corbino, 0. M. Em. 
E. Ac. Line. Ed. 8 (1899) (Sem. 2) 359-. 

in secondary, with Wehnelt interrupter in 
primary. Corbino, 0. M. Em. E. Ac. Line. 
Ed. 9 (1900) (Sem. 1) 102-. 

theory, dynamic. Bacinskij, A. I. [1900] 
Mosc. S. Sc. Bll. 96 (No. 2) (1901) 12-; 
Fschr. Ps. (1900) (Ab. 2) 369. 

, mechanical. Mohr, C. F. [1867] Bonn 
SB. Niedr. Gs. (1868) 2-. 

, (Mohr). Wullner, A. [1867-68] Bonn 
SB. Niedr. Gs. (1868) 4-, 36-. 

_, _ (Wullner). Mohr, C. F. [1867-68] 
Bonn SB. Niedr. Gs. (1868) 9-, 33-. 

of origin and continuance. Simkov, A. P. 
Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 22 (Ps.) (1890) 102- ; Fschr. 
Ps. (1890) (Ab. 2) 408. 

, thermic. Hoorweg, J. L. A. Ps. C. 9 
(1880) 552-; 11 (1880) 133- ; 12 (1881) 75-. 

transport of matter by. Quincke, G. A. Ps. C. 
131 (1867) 150. 

voltaic and induction currents. 

Daniel, L. C. E. 64 (1867) 599-. 

variable period. Stefanini, A. N. Cim. 30 
(1891) 275-. 

Velocity of Electricity. 

Vassalli-Eandi, A. M. Nauche J. du Galvan. 

1 (1803) 145-. 

Talbot, W. H. F. Ph. Mg. 3 (1833) 81-. 
Schwabe, H. Anhalt Vh. Nt. Vr. 8 (1849) 11. 
Steinheil, C. A. von. As. Nr. 29 (1849) 97-. 
Fizeau, H. L. , <& Gounelle, E. C. E. 30 (1850) 

437-; Pogg. A. 80 (1850) 150-, 287-. 
Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] Presse Sc. 1 (1860) 

206-, 370-. 



VOL. III. 



631 



5600 Velocity 

Marie-Davy, . C. B. 52 (1861) 958-. 

Eees, R. van. Utr. Aant. Prv. Gn. (1862) 26-. 

(Subterranean and aerial conductors.) Albrecht, 

T. As. Nr. 93 (1878) 257-. 
( conductors.) (Albrecht.) Frolich, O. As. 

Nr. 94 (1879) 133- ; 95 (1879) 17-. 
(Frolich.) Albrecht, T. As. Nr. 94 (1879) 

189-. 

Poussin, A. Les Mondes 4 (1883) 463-. 
absolute. Foppl, A. A. Ps. C. 27 (1886) 410-. 
in cables. Davidson, G. As. S. M. Not. 29 

(1869) 271. 
and capacity and self induction, relation. 

Clavenad, C. C. B. 115 (1892) 470- ; Lum. 

Elect. 46 (1892) 215-, 661-. 
in conductors. Eitter, J. W. Schweigger J. 

2 (1811) 231-. 
. Hirsch, A. [1861] Neuch. Bll. 6 

(1861-63) 82-. 
, method of measuring. Eepman, A. K. 

[1872] (xn) Mosc. S. Sc. Bll. 39 \_(No. 2)] 

(1880) 115-. 
and duration of spark. Felici, E. (vi Adds.) 

N. Cim. 15 (1862) 339- ; 17 (1863) 28- ; (vn) 

Pisa A. Un. Tosc. 8 (1866) 5-. 
equality of velocity of currents of different 

tension in same metallic conductor. Mel- 

lani, M. Tortolini A. 5 (1854) 319-. 
experiments. Mitchel, 0. M. As. Nr. 30 



(1850) 325-. 
-I Niei 



Nichols, E. L., & Franklin, W. S. [1888] 
Am. J. Sc. 37 (1889) 103-. 
measurement. Wheatstone, (Sir) C. Phil. 
Trans. (1834) 583-. 

( Wheatstone 's). Ettrick, W. [1837] Stur- 
geon A. Electr. 2 (1838) 39-. 

( ). Flesch, J. Grunert Arch. 2 (1842) 
439-. 

. Lovering, J. Am. As. P. (1875) (Pt. 1) 35-. 
. Boltzmann, L. Wien Az. 17 (1880) 11-. 

(Boltzmann's method). Hall, E. H. Am. 
J. Sc. 20 (1880) 52-. 

. Eautenfeld, H. von. Biga Cor.-Bl. 28 
(1885) 1-. 

(Wheatstone' s). Stefan, J. Wien Az. 28 
(1891) 106-. 

, chronographic. Holtmann, B. Cztg. Opt. 

5 (1884) 15-. 
, instrument for. Silbermann, H. Par. S. 

Phlm. PV. (1847) 41-. 
in metal circuit. Mitchel, 0. M. Ph. Mg. 36 

(1850) 284-. 

straight wires. Vaschy, . Par. S. Ps. 
Se. (1886) 130-. 

suspended wires. Siemens, E. W. von. 
Berl. Ak. Mb. (1875) 774-. 

telegraph wires. Hagenbach-Bischoff, E. 
[1884-90] J. Tel. 9 (1885) 6-; Arch. Sc. 
Ps. Nt. 14 (1885) 223- ; Basel Vh. 8 (1890) 
165-. 

Voltaic and Static Electricity. 

Gmelin, F. G. von. Crell C. A. 1 (1803) 140-, 

224-, 278-. 

Wilkinson, C. H. Nicholson J. 9 (1804) 175-. 
(Wilkinson.) Thicknesse, E. Nicholson J. 

10 (1805) 30-. 



Voltaic and Static Electricity 5600 

Mons, J. B. van. Brugnatelli G. 2 (1809) 

123-. 
aphorisms. Westrumb, J. F. Crell C. A. 2 

(1802) 455-. 
comparison. Hauch, A. W. Nord. Arch. 2 

(1801) (pte. 2) 3-. 

. Peltier, A. C. B. 6 (1838) 816-. 
. Walker, C. V. [1838] Sturgeon A. Electr. 
3 (1838-39) 464-. 

Eiess, P. Pogg. A. 69 (1846) 151-. 
conversion of static into galvanic electricity. 

Bichat, E. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1874) 97-. 
. Govi, G. Nap. Ed. 21 

(1882) 108-. 

correlation. Cornu, A. Par. Bur. Long. An. 

(1893) B, 75 pp. 
dissimilarity. Hare, E. Ph. Mg. 9 (1836) 

212-. 
. Goodman, J. B. A. Bp. (1842) (pt. 2) 

18. 
. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] C. B. 39 (1854) 

927-. 

of laws. Lagrave, . J. de Ps. 56 (1802) 
233-. 

phenomena, cause. Goodman, J. Ph. 

Mg. 24 (1843) 174-. 
distinction, important, between. Cuthbertson, 

J. Nicholson J. 8 (1804) 97-, 205-. 
identity. Chenevix, E. A. C. 41 (1801) 194-. 
. Volta, A. (vi Adds.) V. Mons J. C. 1 

(1802) 167-. 

. Gerard, F., & Mons, J. B. van. (vi Adds.) 

V. Mons J. C. 1 (1802) 191-. 
. Brugnatelli, L. V. (vi Adds.) V. Mons 

J. C. 1 (1802) 216-. 
. Anon, (vi 865) Nicholson J. 5 (1802) 

174-. 
. Anon, (vi 694) J. de Ps. 66 (1808) 

376-. 

. Zantedeschi, F. Brescia Cm. (1834) 65-. 
. Goodman, J. [1840] Sturgeon A. Electr. 

6 (1841) 1-, 97-. 
, and relation by measure. Faraday, M. 

Phil. Trans. (1833) 23-. 
relation. Waterston, J. J. Ph. Mg. 17 (1859) 

345-. 
. Sprague, J. T. V. Nost. Eng. Mg. 29 

(1883) 513-. 

by measure. Sturgeon, W. [1836] Stur- 
geon A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 52-. 

theory. Walker, Alex. Thomson A. Ph. 8 
(1816) 182-. 



Detonation, use in mines, etc. Grenier, M., 

Champion, P., <& Pellet, H. A. C. 5 (1875) 

28-. 
, , particularly submarine. Caba- 

nellas, G. Cherb. S. Sc. Nt. Mm. 21 (1877) 

272-. 
Disturbances from use of ' ' earth ' ' in electric 

lighting. Preece, W. H. [1889] I. Elect. 

E. J. 18 (1890) 314-. 
Electricity at work. Vyle, S. Tim. 2 (1888) 

443-. 
Energy, electric, direct transformation of heat 

into. Deprez, M. C. B. 125 (1897) 511-. 



632 



5610 Theory and Construction of Primary Cells 5610 

Je/ery, J. [1838] Electr. S. T. (1837-40) 



Energy, electric, source. Morris, C. J. Sc. 

3 (1881) 377-, 461-, 514-. 
Ether suggested by Newton, compared with 

principle of galvanism. Pownall, . Til- 
loch Ph. Mg. 18 (]04) 155-. 
Flow, electric, differential equations. Blakes- 

ley, T. H. L. Ps. S. P. 12 (1894) 217- ; Ph. 

Mg. 35 (1893) 419-. 
Fluid, electric. Vassalli-Eandi, A . M. Mod. 

S. It. Mm. 10 (1803) 733-. 
, , circulation. Delezenne, . J. de Ps. 

82 (1816) 449-. 
, , effects. Bitter, J. W. A. C. 41 (1801) 

208-. 
, , experiments. Robertson, . A. C. 37 

(1800) 132-. 

, , motion. Biot, J. B. J. de Ps. 53 

(1801) 264-. 

, , nature. Vassalli-Eandi, A. M. Turin 

Mm. Ac. (1803-04) 144-. 
Illumination and heating by electricity. Gesse, 

. Lum. Elect. 1 (*1879) 3-, 51-, 73-, 

92-, 131-. 

Installations near powder magazines, precau- 
tions. Violle, J. C. B. 124 (1897) 1211-. 
Interference in liquid film. Colson, R. C. B. 

116 (1893) 1052-. 
Measurements, electric. Anthony, W. A. 

Franklin I. J. 125 (1888) 56-. 
Phenomena, electrotonic, in wires of zinc, 

platinum, etc., and moist threads. Eccher, 

. N. Cim. 28 (*1868) 171-. 
Steel, hard and annealed, electric properties. 

Barns, C., & Strouhal, V. A. Ps. C. 11 

(1880) 930-. 
Supply, electric, leakage from. Cardew, (Maj.) 

, (& Bagnold, (Maj.) . B. S. P. 56 

(1894) 252-. 



5610 Theory and Construction 
of Primary Cells. 

Cruickshank, W. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 7 (1800) 

337-; Nicholson J. 4 (1801) 254-. 
.Hachette, J. N. P. [1801] Par. EC. Pol. J. 

(11 cah.) (1801-02) 284-. 
Orsted, H. C. Nord. Arch. 2 (1801) (Heft 2) 

60-. 

Davy, (Sir) H. E. I. J. 1 (1802) 49-. 
Le Gallois, C. J. J. Nauche J. du Galvan. 1 

(1803) 49-, 97-. 
Ritter, J. W. [1803] Nicholson J. 7 (1804) 

288-. 

Parrot, G. F. Gilbert A. 21 (1805) 192-. 
Sage, B. G. J. de Ps. 66 (1808) 207-. 
Sylvester, C. Nicholson J. 26 (1810) 72-. 
Robinson, T. R. Ir. Ac. T. 13 (1818) 121-. 
Delezenne, . Lille Se. Pbl. 5 (1819) 10-. 
Delarive, A. [1834] A. C. 62 (1836) 147-. 
Liebig, J. von. Lieb. A. 16 (1835) 113-. 
Delarive, A. A. C. 61 (1836) 38-. 
Del/s, W. Pogg. A. 38 (1836) 464- ; 44 (1838) 

78-. 

Petrina, F. A. Baumgartner Z. 5 (1837) 511-. 
Binks, C. Ph. Mg. 13 (1838) 54-, 135-, 171-, 

276-. 



(Work and opinions of the Germans.) Wart- 

mann, E. Arch, de 1'Electr. 1 (1841) 31-. 
( .) (Wartmann.) Delarive, 

A. Arch, de 1'Electr. 1 (1841) 67-. 
Ledeau, . (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. C. 

28 (1847) 41-. 
Bouchotte, Emilien. Metz Mm. Ac. 40 (1858-59) 

451-. 
Callaud, A. [1859] (xn) Lille S. Mm. 6 

(1860) 381-, LII-. 

Steinert, . Dingier 160 (1861) 117-. 
Anon. [1865] (xi) Smiths. Ep. (1867) 313-. 
Bradley, L. Am. As. P. 15 (1866) 23-. 
Zaliwski-Mirorski, . C. E. 62 (1866) 827-. 
Krause, C. Briinn Vh. 6 (1867) (Sb.) 19- 
Hough, G. W. [1868] Alb. I. T. 6 (1870) 

136. 

Savary, . C. E. 68 (1869) 966-. 
Casamajor, P. Am. C. 2 (1872) 241- ; 3 (1873) 

4-. 

Highton, H. [1872] Phm. J. 3 (1873) 505-. 
Vlacovieh, N. Trieste Bll. 1 (1875) 129-. 
Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 

71-, 89-. 
Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 17 (1885) 115-, 

209-, 537-. 

Walter, J. J. Pr. C. 31 (1885) 527-. 
Walker, S. F. Elect. 18 (1887) 243-, 264-. 
Hankel, W. G. Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 41 (1889) 

378-. 
Meissen, E. Cztg. Opt. 12 (1891) 149-, 162-, 

172-. 

Goodwin, H. M, Z. Ps. C. 13 (1894) 577-. 
Voisenat, J. A. Tel. 23 (1896-97) 209-. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF SOME 
CELLS. 

Volta. (Pile and couronne des tasses.) Phil. 

Trans. (1800) 403-. (See Construction.) 
Marechaux. Gilbert A. 22 (1806) 318-. (See 

Dry Cells.) 
De Luc. Nicholson J. 26 (1810) 113-, 241-. 

(See Dry Cells.) 
Zamboni. Brugnatelli G. 5 (1812) 424-; 7 

(1814) 220-, 444-. (See Dry Cells.) 
Jager. Gilbert A. 50 (1815) 214- ; 52 (1816) 

81-. (See Dry Cells.) 
Hare. (Calorimotor.) Silliman J. 3 (1821) 

105-. (See Construction.) 
Hare. (Deflagrator.) Silliman J. 4 (1822) 201-. 

(See Construction.) 

Pepys. QJ. Sc. 15 (1823) 143. (See Con- 
struction.) 

Eunge. Pogg. A. 16 (1829) 129-. (See Con- 
struction.) 
Callan. (1 -Liquid.) Ph. Mg. 9 (1836) 472-. 

(See Construction.) 
Daniell. Phil. Trans. (1836) 107-, 125-. (See 

2-Liquid Cells.) 
Mullins. E. S. P. 3 (1836) 410. (See Constant 

Cells.) 
Grove. Ph. Mg. 15 (1839) 287-. (-See 2-Liquid 

Cells.) 



633 



5610 



Construction of Primary Cells 



5610 



Smee. Ph. Mg. 16 (1840) 315-. (See Con- 
struction.) 

Sturgeon. Sturgeon A. Electr. 5 (1840) 66-. 
(See Construction.) 

Bunsen. Lieb. A. 38 (1841) 311-. (See 
2-Liquid Cells.) 

Gassiot. (Water battery.) Phil. Trans. (1844) 
39-. (See Construction.) 

Callan. (2-Liquid.) Ir. Ac. P. 4 (1850) 152-. 
(See 2-Liquid Cells.) 

Pulvermacher's chain. (Walenn, W. H.) B. 
A. Ep. (1851) (pt. 2) 52-. (See Construc- 
tion.) 

Callan. Ph. Mg. 9 (1855) 260-. (See Con- 
struction.) 

Meidinger. Heidi. Vh. Nt. Md. (1857-59) 136-. 
(See Constant Cells.) 

Secchi. N. Cim. 9 (1859) 316-. (See Constant 
Cells.) 

Minotto. (Brugo, P.) Polli A. 38 (1864) 378-. 
(See Constant Cells.) 

De la Bue and Miiller. C. S. J. 6 (1868) 488-. 
(See Constant Cells.) 

Leclanche. (Patent, 1868.) (See Construc- 
tion.) 

Thomson, Sir W. (Tray battery.) B. S. P. 
19 (1871) 253-. (See Daniell Cells.) 

Trouve. C. E. 77 (1873) 1551. (See Daniell 
Cells.) 

Lalande. (Lalande, F. de, & Chaperon, G.) 
C. B. 97 (1883) 164-. (See Copper Oxide 
Cells.) 

Badiguet. (Valette, H.) Les Mondes 7 (1884) 
577-. (See Constant Cells.) 

Pollak's (regenerative). (Anon.) Tel. J. 19 
(1886) 105-. (See Construction.) 

Mond-Langer. B. S. P. 46 (1890) 296-. (See 
Gas Batteries.) 

CONSTBUCTION. 

(Pile.) Volta, A. J. de Ps. 51 (1800) 344-. 

( and couronne des lasses, physiological ex- 
periments.) Volta, A. Phil. Trans. (1800) 
403-. 

(Volta's pile.) Nicholson, W. [1800] Nichol- 
son J. 4 (1801) 179-. 

(Pile of 600 pairs, experiments.) Miiller, Rein. 
Gilbert A. 7 (1801) 134-; 10 (1802) 372-. 

( , action and sparks.) Gilbert, L. W. Gil- 
bert A. 7 (1801) 157-. 

( .) Arnim, L. A. von. Gilbert A. 8 (1801) 
163-, 257-. 

(Piles with different metals and solutions.) 
Einhof, H. Gilbert A. 8 (1801) 316-. 

Vassalli-Eandi, A. M. [1801] Turin Mm. Ac. 
(1802-03) 123-. 

(Pile.) Wolff, . Gilbert A. 8 (1801) 498-. 

( , economical.) Lildicke, M. A. F. Gilbert 
A. 9 (1801) 119-. 

(Galvanic combinations composed of animal 
substances.) Davy, (Sir) H. B. I. J. 1 
(1802) 284-. 

(Air instead of moist substances between plates.) 
Dyckhoff, . Voigt Mg. 4 (1802) 791- . 

(Pile with zinc and molybdenum sulphide.) 
Marechaux, P. L. Gilbert A. 10 (1802) 378; 
11 (1802) 123-. 



(Pile with 495 pairs.) Grimm, J. K. P. Gilbert 

A. 11 (1802) 222-. 
( NaCl or NH 4 C1.) Volta, A. (vi Adds.) 

V. Mons J. C. 1 (1802) 129-. 
Brugnatelli, L. V. (vi Adds.) V. Mons J. C. 

1 (1802) 323-. 
(Pile.) Westrumb, J. F. Crell C. A. 2 (1802) 

306-. 
( with NaCl or NH 4 C1 and porcelain rings 

round Zn.) Alizeau, . J. de Ps. 57 

(1803) 75-. 

(60 pairs of Zn and Cu plates with thin layer 
of NaCl solution between them in trough.) 
Erdmann, J. F. von. Gilbert A. 12 (1803 
458-. 

Hauff, J. K. F. Gilbert A. 15 (1803) 77-. 

(Pile, charge at each pair measured by electro- 
meter.) Negro, S. dal. Mod. Mm. S. It. 11 

(1804) 623-. 

( , Zn.Fe, Ag.) Hildebrandt, G. F. Gilbert 

A. 30 (1808) 67-. 
(Piles.) Forster, B. M. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 47 

(1816) 265-. 
(Immersing plates simultaneously.) Pepys, W. 

H. QJ. Sc. 1 (1816) 193-. 
(Cell with 2 zinc plates of different sizes and 

conditions.) Orsted, H. C. Schweigger J. 

33(=J6. 3) (1821) 163-. 
(Coiled copper and zinc plates 50 feet by 2 

feet.) Pepys, W. H. QJ. Sc. 15 (1823) 

143. 
(Zn - acid [or salt] - Cu in U tubes.) Castellet, 

de. Aix Mm. Ac. (1827) 275-. 
Greenhow, R. QJ. Sc. (1829) (Pt. 2) 71-. 
(1 metal and no liquid. 60 to 80 plates of Zn 

polished on one side, polished sides turned 

in one direction. Electroscope shows oppo- 
site charges at the ends.) Watkins, F. Gill 

Tech. Mcr. Bep. 6 (1830) 154. 
Negro, S. dal. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 2 (1832) 

109-. 
Pfaff, C. H. Pfaff Mt. (1836) (Hft. 9 & 10) 

53-. 
Shillibeer, J. Sturgeon A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 

224-. 
(Influence of interposed pairs.) Buff, H. Lieb. 

A. 32 (1839) 7-. , 

(Method of holding plates in trough.) Hoskinx, 

S.E. [1839] Sturgeon A. Electr. 4 (1839-40) 

64-. 
(5 cells of a form of Grove.) Schimbein, C. F. 

Pogg. A. 49 (1840) 511-, 589-. 
(Method of strengthening pile by graphite.) 

Muncke, G. W. Pogg. A. 53 (1841) 276. 
Milnch, . Fr. Cg. Sc. (1842) 95-. 
Delarive, A. Arch, de 1'Electr. 3 (1843) 

112-. 
Matteucci, C. Pisa Misc. Md. Chir. (1843) 

(pte. 2) 18-. 

Schimbein, C. F. Basel B. 5 (1843) 90-. 
Leuchtenberg, M. (Herzog) von. St. Pet. Ac. 

Sc. Bll. 4 (1845) 69-. 
(Zn - acid - coil of platinised silver wire. Coil 

of copper wire in porous pot and another 

outside, when sulphuric acid soaks through, 

a current is produced.) Pring, J. H. Walker 

Electr. Mg. 1 (1845) 441-. 
Majocchi, G. A. At. Sc. It. (1846) 288-. 



634 



5610 Bichromate Cells 

(Zn coated with Hg and Pb - H 2 S0 4 + FeS0 4 - 

cast iron plate.) Walenn, W. H. B. A. Ep. 

(1849) (pt. 2) 45-. 
Wright, T. Edinb. M. J. Md. Sc. 9 (1849) 

22-. 
Schafer, J. H. (vm) Arnhem Ntk. 6 (1850) 

149-. 
Thury, [J. M. A.] Gen. I. Nt. Bll. 1 (1853) 

32-. 
Magrini, L. Mil. At. I. Lomb. 1 (1858) 390- ; 

Em. Cor. Sc. 6 (1863) 123-. 
(Fe - H 2 S0 4 - C ; Zn - FeS0 4 - C ; Zn - 

(NH 4 ) CO S -C.) Monthiers, . C. E. 63 



(Comparison of different forms.) Coffin, W. 

H. C. N. 24 (1871) 231-. 
(Forms for telegraphy.) Bennett, A. E. Tel. 

E. J. 4 (1875) 175-. 
Olszewski, K. (xn) Krk. Ak. (Mt.-Prz.) Ez. 

& Sp. 2 (1875) 42-, XL-. 
Partz, A. Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 168-. 
Eothen, . J. Tel. 9 (1885) 21-, 45-. 
Pabut, C. Humb. 5 (1886) 466-. 
Friedrichs, F. A. Ps. C. 32 (1887) 191-. 
Grehant, N. Par. S. Bl. Mm. 40 (1888) (C. E.) 

697-. 
Spaczynsky, . Fschr. Ps. (1889) (Ab. 2) 

459. 
Dudley, C. B., & Pease, F. N. Eailroad & 

Eng. J. 64 (1890) 361-. 
Henrichsen, S. N. Ts. Fs. K. 2 (1897) 180-. 
Petersen, E. [1898] Z. Elektch. (1898-99) 

261-. 
Action, destructive, on pasteboard. Brugna- 

telli, L. V. Brugnatelli G. 1 (1808) 146. 
Alkaline battery. Fabri, E., & Eavaglia, G. 

Lum. Elect. 13 (1884) 8-. 
. Eovelli, C. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 21 

223-. 

copper battery. Eovelli, C. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 

22 (1890) 126-. 

Aluminium cell. Fossati, E. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 

23 (1891) 241-. 

sulphate battery. Zegers, L. L. Santiago 
de Chile Un. A. 67 (1885) 5-. 

Arrangement for rapidly filling and emptying 

cells. Almeida, J. C. d'. C. E. 71 (1870) 

774-. 
Automatic battery,improvements. Marinovitch, 

B. Lum. Elect. 26 (1887) 351-. 
, O'Keenan's. Marinovitch, B. Lum. 

Elect. 23 (1887) 314-. 

system of feeding, Larochelle's. Mareschal, 
G. Les Mondes 7 (1884) 575-. 

BICHEOMATE CELLS. 

(Exciting liquid introduced drop by drop and 
waste liquid passing away continuously.) 
Eussell, H. C. Ph. Mg. 5 (1878) 201-. 

(Zn - H 2 S0 4 + K 2 Cr,0 7 - C.) Du Moncel, T. A. 
L. Lum. Elect/3 (*1881) 193-. 

Wetter, W. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 694. 

and cells with automatic immersion of zinc. 
Thiry, . Brux. S. Sc. A. 20 (1896) (Pt. 1) 
27. 

experiments. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. 
Elect. 6 (*1882) 433-. 



Carbon-Consuming Cells 5610 

modification for electric lighting. Trouve, G. 
C. E. 96 (1883) 787-, 1048. 

, Trouve' s. Hospitaller, E. Par. 

S. Ps. Se. (1883) 99-. 

pneumatic, liquid brought in contact with 
plates by air pressure when required. Fillet, 
. As. Fr. C. E. (1886) (Pt. 1) 98. 

sodium bichromate (compared with potassium 
dichromate in 1- and 2-liquid cells). Hard- 
ing, S. L. Am. J. Sc. 33 (1887) 61-. 

. Fortin, . Ev. Sc.-Ind. 20 (1888) 

282. 

. Kazankin, N. P. Kazan S. Nt. (Ps.- 

Mth.) P. 7 (1889) 403-. 

Borchers's cell (Zn[or Sn] - NaOH + NaN0 3 + 

NaCl-Fe). Anon. Dingier 263 (1887) 

32-. 
Bremser's battery for the apparently dead. 

Erdmann, J. F. von. Gilbert A. 12 (1803) 

450-. 
Byrne's pneumatic battery (Zn-H 2 S0 4 + 

K 2 Cr 2 7 -Pt; air pumped in). Preece, W. 

H. Tel. E. J. 7 (1878) 382-. 
Callan's battery (Zn - acid - Cu. Large plates 

and mode of connecting them). Callan, 

N. J. Ph. Mg. 9 (1836) 472-. 
(Zn - H 2 S0 4 - cast iron cell). Callan, 

N. J. Ph. Mg. 9 (1855) 260-. 
Calorimotor (Zn - acid - Cu [very large plates]). 

Hare, E. Silliman J. 1 (1818) 413- ; 3 

(1821) 105-. 
Carbon battery (Zn - H 2 S0 4 - bituminous coal) . 

Gibbs, 0. W. Sturgeon A. Electr. 5 (1840) 

395-. 

boron battery (Zn and carbon prepared in 
some way with boron). Warren, H. N. C. 
N. 71 (1895) 2. 

cylinders, preparation. M'Culloch, J. B. 
Walker Electr. Mg. 1 (1845) 360-. 

, gas-, use. Sauvage, H. A. Tel. 2 (1875) 

345-. 
, 2 kinds, and 1 liquid. Griffiths, T. QJ. 

Sc. 17 (1824) 174-. 

plate, negative, effect of carbon powder. 
Du Moncel, T. [A. L.] C. E. 75 (1872) 
876-. 

, platinised, exposed to air - NaCl | NaCl - C 

in PbOo. Tommasi, D., & Eadiguet, . 

C. E. 99 (1884) 129- ; A. Tel. 12 (1885) 

453-. 
, use. Cooper, J. T. (vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 

16 (1840) 35-. 



CARBON-CONSUMING CELLS. 

Schenck, E. Z. Nw. 67 (1894) 364-. 

Vogel, F. Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 556. 

Krieger, . Giving. 42 (1896) 3-. 

Reed, . [1896] Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 121-. 

Blount, B. Elect. 38 (1897) 121-. 

Case, W. E. Elect. 39 (1897) 688-. 

Weber, C. L. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 112-. 

Tommasi, D. Elect. Ev. 44 (1899) 793-. 

carbon in fused nitrates. Brard, (Dr.) . 

As. Fr. C. E. 11 (1882) 244- ; C. E. 95 (1882) 

890-, 1158-. 



635 



5610 Carbon -Consuming Cells 

carbon in fused nitre. Jablochkof, P. C. 

E. 85 (1877) 1052-. 
, oxidation by chlorine peroxide. Anon. 

Tel. J. 21 (1887) 283. 
, in the cold. Bartoli, A., & Papasogli, 

G. N. Cim. 12 (1882) 141- ; Gz. C. It. 14 

(1885) 85-. 
coal, electricity direct from (Short's cell). 

Reed, C. J. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 343. 
_, . Bamber, E. F. Nt. 62 (1900) 

437. 

Jacques's. Anon. Elect. 36 (1896) 768-. 
. Reed, C. J. [1897-98] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

340, 341, 342, 343, 419-, 421, 422. 
. Case, W. E. [1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

340-. 
. Anthony, W. A. [1897-98] Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 341, 342, 343, 419, 420, 421-. 
. Thomson, E. [1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

420. 
. Langley, J. W. Franklin I. J. 146 

(1898) 224-. 

. Ostwald, W. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 420-. 
. Skinner, S. B. A. Ep. (1898) 804. 
. Thomsen, J. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 422. 
possibilities. Cooper, W. R. [1898] Sc. Abs. 

3 (1900) 329. 
thermochemical. Korda, D. Mth. Termt. 

Ets. 13 (1895) 203- ; C. E. 120 (1895) 615- ; 

Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 272. 
and voltaic action. Reed, C. J. [1899] Sc. 

Abs. 3 (1900) 91. 

Cast iron battery (Zn amalgamated - H 2 S0 4 - 
cast iron cylinder) . Sturgeon, W. Sturgeon 

A. Electr. 5 (1840) 66-. 

, Maynooth, modification. Symons, W. 

B. A. Ep. (1856) (pt. 2) 16-. 

Cell with circulating liquid. Fiorina, G. Ev. 

Sc.-Ind. 22(1890)247-. 
Cells depending on atmospheric oxidation 

(Cu-NH 4 OH-Pt in air). Wright, C. R. 

A., & Thompson, C. E. S. P. 42 (1887) 

212- ; 44 (1888) 182-. 
neutralisation. Wright, C. R. A., & 

Thompson, C. E. S. P. 43 (1888) 489-. 
with fused electrolytes. Poincare, L. C. 

E. 110 (1890) 339-. 
(historical note). Becquerel, H. 

C. E. 110 (1890) 444-. 

. Brown, J. [1892] E. S. P. 52 

(1893) 75-. 
, and gaseous depolariser. Swan, 

J. W. E. S. P. 56 (1894) 56-. 
solid electrolytes (Ag-CuS + S - Cu ; 

Ag-AgS + CuS-Cu). Bidwell, S. Nt. 32 

(1885) 345. 
Charging, apparatus for rapid. Lachinov, D. 

A. (xn) Es. C. Ps. S. J. 5 (Pt. 1) (1873) 

115. 

Chemico-mechanical battery (Zn - acid - platin- 
ised platinum, coke or silver), and galvanic 

properties of elementary bodies. Smee, A. 

Ph. Mg. 16 (1840) 315-. 
Chlorine battery, Upward's (Zn - H 2 O | ZnCl. 2 - 

C plates and crushed. Cl passed through). 

Anon. Tel. J. 18 (1886) 569, 592-. 
, . Dierman, W. Tel. J. 19 (1886) 51. 



Constant Cells 5610 

Circulating battery, Erhard's. Feuerlein, O. 
[1886] Tel. E. J. 16 (1888) 162. 



CONSTANT CELLS. 

(HN0 3 - KOH in tube filled with clay.) Bec- 

quereL A. C. C. E. 4 (1837) 35-. 
(Zn-H 2 S0 4 | K 2 Cr 2 7 - Cu.) Walker, C. V. 

[1842] L. Electr. S. P. (1843) 204-. 
(Zn - NaCl | CuS0 4 - Cu, and chemical effects.) 

Pinaud, A. Toul. Mm. Ac. 2 (1846) 169-. 
(Zn - hydrogen potassium tartrate | CuSO 4 - Cu.) 

Eisenlohr, W. Pogg. A. 78 (1849) 65-. 
(Zn amalgamated - ZnS0 4 - Zn.) Osann, G. 

Wiirzb. Vh. 2 (1852) 62-. 
(Liquids kept of constant composition.) Bou- 

chotte, Emilien. Metz Mm. Ac. 39 (1857- 

58) 557-. 
(Prevention of deposition of copper on zinc.) 

Secchi, A. N. Cim. 9 (1859) 316-. 
Siemens, W. Tel. Vr. Z. 6 (1859) 53-. 
Figuier, . (vn) Mm. Md. Mil. 8 (1862) 

464-. 
(Flask of CuS0 4 inverted in cell.) Houdin, R. 

Les Mondes 11 (1866) 184-. 
(Zn - NH 4 C1 - Hg.^Lj.) Heraud, A. C. E. 88 

(1879) 124- ; A. C. 17 (1879) 512-. 
Mocenigo, (conte) G. (xn) Ev. Sc.-Ind. 13 

(1881) 122-, 236-. 
(Zn-H 2 SO 4 + K 2 Cr 2 7 liquid flowing through 

cell.) Carpentier, J. C. E. 100 (1885) 849-. 
(C - fused NaOH - Pt coated with sodium plati- 

nate.) Fabingi [? Fabinyi], , < Farkas, 

. C. E. 106 (1888) 1597-. 
Bagration's (Zn - Cu - in earth saturated with 

NH 4 C1). Jacobi, M. H. [1843] St. Pet. 

Ac. Sc. Bll. 2 (1844) 188-. 
Callaud's. Bolton, W. [1895] Z. Elektch. 

(1895-96) 5-. 
, with copper sulphate and copper chloride. 

Cailleret, H. A. Tel. 4 (1877) 306-. 

and Mari6-Davy's. Bouquilliard, C. A. 
Tel. 4 (1877) 300-. 

and Leclanche's, comparison. Gael, 

E. A. Tel. 6 (1879) 10-. 
constant acid battery. Walker, C. V. [1841] 

L. Electr. S. P. (1843) 26-. 
copper carbon (Cu - H 2 S0 4 1 K 2 Cr 2 7 + H 2 S0 4 - 

C). Thomsen, J. Pogg. A. Ill (I860") 192. 

and cast iron (Fe - NaCl | CuS0 4 - Cu). 
Ryhiner, H. Dingier 110 (1848) 418-. 

diaphragm-, and new form of negative element 
(Cu deposited on copper wire gauze). Walker, 
C. V. [1841] L. Electr. S. P. (1843) 114-. 

economical (Zn - NaCl in brown paper - CuS0 4 
-Cu). Mackrell, G. (vi Adds.) Electr. S. 
P. (1837-40) 194-, 201-. 

(Zn amalgam - H 2 S0 4 - silvered and plati- 
nised muslin). Page, C. G. Silliman J. 
13 (1852) 257-. 

effects, electrical. Zantedeschi, F. Ven. At. 
3 (1844) 311-. 

of temperature. Crosse, A. [1838] Electr. 
S. T. (1837-40) 47-. 

for electric telegraphy, use of different exci- 
tants. Zantedeschi, . Zantedeschi A. Fis. 
(*1849-50) 315. 



636 



5610 Constant Cells 

experiments, and comparison of various types. 

Louyet, P. Brux. Ac. Bll. 16 (1849) 613-. 
with high E.M.F. (Zn-NaOH | K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + 

H S0 4 -C). Morisot, . C. R. 121 (1895) 

251-. 

improvement. Clarke, E. S. [1838] Stur- 
geon A. Electr. 3 (1838-39) 85-, 314-. 
Meidinger's. Meidinger, H. Heidi. Vh. Nt. 

Md. (1857-59) 136- ; Pogg. A. 108 (1859) 

602-. 
, improvement. Pincus, (Dr.) . Berl. 

Tel.-Vr. Z. 14 (*1867) 218-. 
, of different types. Krakau, A. A. Rs. 

Ps.-C. S. J. 24 (C.) (1892) 325-; C. S. J. 

64 (1893) (Abs., Pt. 2) 355. 
method of rendering cell constant. Magrini, 

L. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 7 (1837) 99-. 
Minotto's. Bruno, P. Polli A. 38 (1864) 

378-. 
Mullins's (Zn - H 2 SO 4 + HN0 3 1 CuS0 4 - Cu). 

Mullins, F. W. R. S. P. 3 (1836) 410 ; Stur- 
geon A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 205-. 

(Zn~NH 4 Cl | CuS0 4 -Cu). Sturgeon, W. 
Sturgeon A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 107-. 

with nitric acid and potassium bichromate. 

Desruelles, L. A. Tel. 12 (1885) 174-. 
permanganate, with high E.M.F. Vohwinkel, 

E. Dingier 256 (1885) 218-. 
portable (dipped in excitant and exposed to 

air). Pulvermacher, J. L. C. R. 45 (1857) 

1047-. 
powerful. Poggendorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 51 

(1840) 384-. 

(Zn - H 2 S0 4 + FeS0 4 + Na 2 S0 4 + K Cr 2 7 
- C). Delaurier, . Les Mondes 24 (1871) 
69-. 

(Zn - H 2 S0 4 1 HN0 3 - C with liquids flowing 
through "cells). Obach, E. Carl Rpm. 18 
(1882) 633-. 

principles. Majocchi, G. A. (vi Adds.) Ma- 

jocchi A. Fis. C. 9 (1843) 269-. 
Radiguet's (Zn -H 2 S0 4 | K 2 Cr 2 7 + H 2 S0 4 - C) . 

Valette, H. Les Mondes 7 (1884) 577-. 
silver chloride (Zn -NaCl- AgCl - Ag). De- 
La-Rue, W., d- Miiller, H. C. S. J. 6 (1868) 

488- ; C. R. 67 (1868) 794-. 
. Pincus, (Dr.) . A. Ps. C. 135 (1868) 

167-. 
(priority claim). Pincus, (Dr.) . C. 

R. 67 (*1868) 1076-. 
( , Pincus's). De-La-Rue, W. C. 

R. 67 (1868) 1186-. 
(3240 cells). De la Rue, W., & Miiller, 

H. W. C. R. 81 (1875) 686-. 
. Muirhead, A. Tel. E. J. 7 (1878) 53-. 

, De la Rue's. Clark, L. Tel. E. J. 7 

(1878) 54-. 

- , , modification. (2KC1, ZnCl 2 instead of 

ZnCl 2 .) Jahn, H. A. Ps. C. 63 fl897) 44-. 
dry cell. Wollaston, . [1894] Z. 

Elektch. (1895-96) 31. 

, Pincus's. Abt, A. (xn) Kolozsvar 
Orv. Term. T^rs. Ets. [1] (1876) (Term. 
Szak) [19-]; Mag. Tud. Ak. Ets. 10 (No. 
11) (1876) 145-. 

sodium nitrate compared with other salts for. 
Mackrell, G. [1842] L. Electr. S. P. (1841- 
43) 232-. 



Copper Oxide Cells 5610 

Wollaston's battery rendered constant. Ro- 
berts, M. J. (vi Adds.) Electr. S. P. 
(1837-40) 197-. 

Zantedeschi's compared with Eisenlohr's (Zn - 
KN0 3 |CuS0 4 -Cu). Zantedeschi, F. Zan- 
tedeschi A. Fis. (1849-50) 395-. 

zinc carbon mercuric sulphate. Boettcher, E. 
Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 350-. 

in magnesium sulphate. Morisot, . Bor- 
deaux S. Sc. Mm. 5 (1890) xliv-. 

COPPER OXIDE CELLS. 

(Zn-H 2 SO 4 | H 2 SO 4 -Cu + CuO.) Denys, E. 
Nancy Mm. Ac. Stanislas (1862) 23-. 

(Zn - KOH - CuO.) Lalande, F. de, & qhap- 
eron, G. C. R. 97 (1883) 164- ; Lum. Elect. 

12 (1884) 260-. 

(Zn- KOH -CuO in form of plate agglomer- 
ated with clay or tar and heated.) Lalande, 
F. de. C. R. 112 (1891) 1253- ; Tel. J. 28 
(1891) 772-. 

Boettcher, E. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 205- ; 
14 (1893) 636. 

Boettcher's. Dts Coudres, T. Elekttech. Z. 

13 (1892) 316. 

consumption of zinc. Lalande, F. de, <& Chap- 
eron, G. Tel. J. 16 (1885) 327-. 

of Lalande and Chaperon. Ven, E. van der. 
[1884] Haarl. Ms. Teyl. Arch. 2 (1886) 36-. 

Lalande's. Nebel, B. Exner Rpm. 22 (1886) 
711-. 

system. Anon. Cztg. Opt. 7 (1886) 30-. 
. Nansouty, M. de. Gen. Civ. 19 (1891) 

111-. 

zinc - caustic soda - copper oxide. Stebbins, J. 
H. (jun.) Am. C. S. J. 7 (1885) 195-. 

Copper sulphate battery. Fyfe, A. Ph. Mg. 

11 (1837) 145-. 
, effects. De La Rue, W. Ph. Mg. 9 

(1836) 484- ; 10 (1837) 244-. 
Cruickshank's battery, Klinger's form (ZnAg 

soldered together, glass trough). Grimm, 

J. K. P. Gilbert A. 8 (1801) 133-. 
Cupric chloride battery. Lourme, V. A. Tel. 

5 (1878) 148-. 
Deflagrator. Hare, R. Silliman J. 4 (1822) 

201-. 

(Hare's). Silliman, B. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 
59 (1822) 113-. 

-. Stratingh, S. Hall Bij. 7 (1832) 192-. 

and calorimotor, comparative effects, and 
experiments with improved deflagrator. 
Hare, R. Silliman J. 5 (1822) 97-, 105-. 

, relations, and relation to battery. 
Silliman, B. Silliman J. 6 (1823) 337-. 

common battery, incompatibility when 
used in connection. Hare, R. Silliman J. 
5 (1822) 94-. 

, Silliman, B. 

Silliman J. 5 (1822) 102-. 

of great power. /., I. R. Nicholson J. 7 
(1804) 269- ; 8 (1804) 79-. 

, improved. Hare, R. Silliman J. 7 (1824) 
347- ; 8 (1824) 99- ; 32 (1837) 285-. 

De Meritens's cell (Zn - H 2 S0 4 - Pb platinised). 
Anon. Rv. Sc.-Ind. 23 (1891) 77-. 



637 



5610 Dry Cells 

Donati's cell of high electromotive force and 
giving current of great quantity (Zn- 
H 2 S0 4 -Pb0 2 ). Donati, L. Bologna Ac. 
Sc. Mm. 8 (1887) 357-. 

DRY CELLS. 

(Pile ceases to work in dried air.) Marechaux, 

P. L. Gilbert A. 22 (1806) 318-. 
Configliachi, P. Brugnatelli G. 8 (1815) 69-. 
Pfaff, C. H. Gilbert A. 51 (1815) 436-. 
Gay-Lussac, L. J. A. C. 2 (1816) 76-. 
Pfaff, C. H. Gilbert A. 52 (1816) 108-. 
Buff, H. Lieb. A. 34 (1840) 1-. 
Epstein, J. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1894-95) 

41-. 
conversion of liquid cells into. Onimus, . 

C. B. 98 (1884) 1577-. 
Dalle Molle's, modification. Guzzanti, C. 

Moncalieri Oss. Bll. 19 (1899) 20-. 
De Luc's. De Luc, J. A. Nicholson J. 26 

(1810) 113-, 241-. 

. Forster, B. M. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 37 

(1811) 197-. 

. La Metherie, J. G. de. J. de Ps. 79 

(1814) 456-. 

. Gilbert, L. W. Gilbert A. 49 (1815) 35-, 

183-. 

, effect of atmosphere. Forster, T. Nichol- 
son J. 28 (1811) 293-. 
, . Tatum, J. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 47 

(1816) 47-. 
, portable form, and experiments. Forster, 

B. M. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 35 (1810) 205-. 
^-, Zamboni's form. Hare, E. Franklin I. J. 

12 (1833) 2-. 
duration. Epstein, . [1895] Z. Elektch. 

(1895-96) 176-. 
effect of meteorological phenomena. Donne, 

A. Froriep Not. 25 (1829) 97-. 
experiments. Marechaux, P. L. A. C. 57 

(1806) 61-; Gilbert A. 23 (1806) 220-. 
. Bohnenberger, G. C. Tiibinger Bl. 2 

(1815) 67- ; Gilbert A. 53 (1816) 346-. 

. Delezenne, . Lille Mm. S. (1843) 

207-. 
, comparative. Krehbiel, H. Elekttech. Z. 

11 (1890) 422-. 

of Hachette and Desormes. Davy, (Sir) H. 
K. I. J. 1 (1802) 288-. 

. Bitter, J. W. B. I. J. 1 

(1802) 290-. 
field of. Liidicke, M. A. F. Gilbert A. 50 

(1815) 447-. 
Gassner's, tests. Cottrell, W. H. Elect. 28 

(1892) 643-. 
Gimp's. Nansouty, M. de. Gen. Civ. 9 (1886) 

350-. 
Hellesen's. Bidwell, S. Elect. 27 (1891) 37. 

and E.C.C., comparison. Jamieson, A. 
Glasg. Ph. S. P. 24 (1893) 89-. 

Lessing's, tests. Walmsley, R. M. Elect. 36 

(1896) 589-. 
modification to avoid dispersion, and to give 

constant polar tensions. Palmieri, L. Nap. 

Bd. 21 (1882) 30-. 
origin. Abramczyk, M. Cztg. Opt. 15 (1894) 



Zamboni Pile 5610 

Palmieri's. Marcillac, P. Lum. Elect. 18 

(1885) 69-. 

paper-. Jager, . Gilbert A. 62 (1819) 227-. 
portable. Northnip, E. F. Franklin I. J. 135 

(1893) 223-, 318-, 396-. 
regenerative, Wolff's, use for telephones, etc. 

Voller, A. Elekttech. Z. 5 (1884) 361-. 
small, with iodine as depolariser. Anon. 

[1894] Z. Elekttech. Elektch. (1894-95) 

93. 
theory. Jager, . [1815] Gilbert A. 50 

(1815) 214- ; 52 (1816) 81-. 

(Jager). Pfaff, G. H. Gilbert A. 68 (1821) 
291-. 

( ). Munck of Rosenschold, P. S. Pogg. 
A. 43 (1838) 193-, 440-. 

and tourmaline, comparison. Jager, . Gil- 
bert A. 55 (1817) 369-. 

use of cellulose. Meylan, E. [1890] Gen. 
Civ. 18 (1890-91) 74-. 

"cofferdam." Reynier, A. [1886] A. 

Tel. 14 (1887) 85-. 

for measurements. Beetz, W. von. [1885] 
Munch. Ak. Sb. 15 (1886) 242-. 

variations in, and remedy. Palmieri, L. Nap. 
Bd. 26 (1887) 28-. 

of zinc and silver discs (20,000), affected elec- 
troscope and charged Leyden jar. Singer, 
G. J. Nicholson J. 35 (1813) 84-. 

, effect of humidity. Howldy, 

T. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 43 (1814) 241-, 363-. 

Zamboni Pile. 

Zamboni, G. Brugnatelli G. 5 (1812) 424-; 

7 (1814) 220-, 444-. 
Gilbert, L. W. Gilbert A. 49 (1815) 35-, 

183-. 

Schtibler, G. Schweigger J. 15 (1815) 111-. 
Heinrich, P. Schweigger J. 15 (1815) 113-. 
Schweigger, J. S. C. Schweigger J. 15 (1815) 

132-. 

Milller, Hein. Gilbert A. 53 (1816) 337-. 
Schilbler, G. Schweigger J. 16 (1816) 111-. 
Parrot, G. F. Gilbert A. 55 (1817) 165-. 
appearances on. Lockey, F. [1839] (vi 

Adds.) Electr. S. P. (1837-40) 169. 
construction. Bechstein, W. Gilbert A. 58 

(1818) 342-. 
, new and improved. Riatti, V. (xn) Bv. 

Sc.-Ind. 4 (1872) 154-. 

and use. Zamboni, G. Bb. Brit. 58 (1815) 
111-. 

and other dry piles. Jager, . [1814] Gil- 
bert A. 49 (1815) 47-. 

duration of tension. Zamboni, G. Majocchi 
A. Fis. C. 8 (1842) 14-. 

and electric clock. Zamboni, G. Poligrafo 5 
(1831) 87-. 

electro-chemical theory. Fusinieri, A. A. 
Sc. Lomb. Yen. 6 (1836) 293-; 7 (1837) 
3-. 

experiments. Liidicke, M. A. F., d- Mon- 
tanus, . Gilbert A. 50 (1815) 87-. 

experiments. Jager, , Bohnenberger, , 
<& Zamboni, . Gilbert A. 51 (1815) 182-. 

. Gassiot, J. P. [1839] (vi Adds.) Electr. 
S. P. (1837-40) 183-. 



638 



5610 Construction 

improvements. Zamboni, G. Brugnatelli G. 

9 (1816) 289-. 
measurement of quantity of electricity yielded. 

Riecke, C. V. E. Gott. Nr. (1883) 141-. 
theory. Zamboni, G. Mod. S. It. Mm. 21 

(1837) 368-. 

Earth battery. Majocchi, G. A. (vi Adds.) 
Majocchi A. Fis. C. 22 (1846) 148-. 

(Zn and Cu plates in earth). Loomis, E. 

Am. As. P. (1849) 196- ; Bb. Un. Arch. 13 
(1850) 265-. 

( ). Wolf,R. BernMt. 

(1855) 127-, 189-. 

Earthenware cells, Pukall's and others, com- 
parison. Haeussermann, C., & Fein, E. Z. 
Angew. C. (1894) 9-. 

Economical cell (Zn - NH 4 C1 1 NH 4 N0 3 + H 2 S0 4 
- Pt. Thin boxwood charred at both sides 
may replace Pt). De Moleyns, F. W. Stur- 
geon A. Electr. 9 (1842) 464-. 

(Zn-NH 4 Cl-Pb in red lead). Gaiffe, 

A. C. B. 75 (1872) 120-. 

- (Fe-HN0 3 + HCl-C; Fe - K 2 Cr 2 7 + 
HCl-C[or Pb]). Aymonnet, . Par. S. 
Ps. Se. (1881) 229-. 

(Zn - KOH | KOH - iron turnings) . Ben- 
nett, A. E. Glasg. Ph. S. P. 13 (1882) 401-. 

Edison-Lalande cell. U. Elekttech. Z. 11 
(1890) 377. 

Electrodes, necessary size. Leithead, W. Stur- 
geon A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 216-. 

, negative, new form, lithanode (dense Pb(X>). 
Fitz-Gerald, D. G. Elect. 17 (1886) 362~r 

Electrolytic battery (Zn amalgamated - H 2 SO 4 
-Fe). Maiche, L. Les Mondes 33 (1874) 

Electromagnetic experiments, apparatus for. 

Pepys, W. H. Phil. Trans. (1823) 187-. 
, and large apparatus with copper galvanic 

trough. Bardi, G. Bb. Un. 16 (1821) 296-. 
Examination, practical. Sosnowski, K. Lum. 

Elect. 28 (1888) 401-, 459-. 
Exhibition in Munich. Guerout, A. Lum. 

Elect. 10 (*1883) 139-. 
Paris. Dieudonne, E. Lum. Elect. 35 

(1890) 58-, 107-. 
Philadelphia. Duche, G. Lum. Elect. 

15 (1885) 314-. 
Vienna. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 11 

(1884) 479-. 

EXPERIMENTS. 

Moyes, H. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 7 (1800) 347-. 
Nicholson, W. [1800] Nicholson J. 4 (1801) 

Ritter., J. W. Voigt Mg. 2 (1800) 356-, 492-; 

4 (1801) 575- ; 6 (1803) 181-. 
Friedldnder, . J. de Ps. 52 (1801) 101-. 
Grimm, J. K. P. Gilbert A. 7 (1801) 348-. 
Haldane, H. Nicholson J. 4 (1801) 241-, 313-. 
Davy, (Sir) H. Nicholson J. 4 1801) 275-, 

326-, 337-, 380-, 394-, 527. 
Hellwig, , Leyteny, , d- Tihavsky, . 

Scherer J. C. 7 (1801) 617-. 
Kortum, G. von. Voigt Mg. 3 (1801) 654-. 
Marum, M. van. A. C. 40 (1801) 289-. 



Experiments 5610 

Moyes, H. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 9 (1801) 217-. 
Pfaff, G. H. Nord. Arch. 2 (1801) 152-. 
Gahn, J. G. Nord. Arch. 2 (1801) 167-. 
Ritter, J. W. Gilbert A. 7 (1801) 431- ; 8 

(1801) 385-; 9 (1801) 212-, 265-. 
(3 voltaic piles.) Bourguet, . Gilbert A. 7 

(1801) 485-. 

Bockmann, C. W. Gilbert A. 8 (1801) 137-. 

Gruner, W. Gilbert A. 8 (1801) 216-. 

(Gruner.) Pfaff, C. H. Gilbert A. 8 (1801) 
228-. 

Liidicke, M. A. F. Gilbert A. 9 (1801) 375-. 

Simon, P. L. Gilbert A. 9 (1801) 393-. 

Davy, (Sir) H. B. I. J. 1 (1802) 165-, 209-. 

Heidmann, J. A. Gilbert A. 10 (1802) 50-. 

(Voltaic piles ; magnetic battery of small mag- 
nets.) Liidicke, M. A. F. Gilbert A. 11 

(1802) 114-. 

Bockmann, G. W. Gilbert A. 11 (1802) 230-. 

Lagrave, . J. de Ps. 56 (1802) 292-; Gilbert 
A. 18 (1804) 343-. 

Priestley, J. N. Y. Md. Eep. 5 (1802) 153-. 

(With 175 pairs.) Reinhold, J. C. L. Gilbert 
A. 11 (1802) 375-. 

Ritter, J. W. Voigt Mg. 4 (1802) 575-. 

Basse, F. H. Gilbert A. 14 (1803) 26-. 

Ritter, J. W. J. de Ps. 57 (1803) 401- ; Nich- 
olson J. 6 (1803) 221- ; Voigt Mg. 6 (1803) 
97-, 181-. 

(Bitter.) Marum, M. van. J. de Ps. 57 (1803) 

Berzelius, J. J., & Hisinger, W. A. C. 51 

(1804) 167-. 

Ritter, J. W. Gilbert A. 16 (1804) 293- ; 19 

(1805) 1-; (vi Adds.) V. Mons J. C. 6 
(1804) 233-. 

Marum, M. van. Gilbert A. 19 (1805) 488-. 
Zanotti, L. Bologna Mm. S. Md. 1 (1807) 

Despreiz, C. Par. S. Phlm. fill. (1822) 104-. 

Maschmann, H. H. Mg. Ntvd. 2 (1823) 36-. 

Negro, S. dal. A. Sc. Lomb. Ven. 3 (1833) 
120-, 228-; 4 (1834) 324-. 

Porrett, R. Sturgeon A. Electr. 3 (1838-39) 
493-. 

Petrina, F. A. Baumgartner Z. 6 (1840) 38-. 

Pohl, G. F. Pogg. A. 50 (1840) 497-. 

Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. B. (1842) 142-. 

Marie-Davy, . A. C. 19 (1847) 401- ; 22 
(1848) 257-. 

(Different forms of batteries.) Freyss, , <& 
Schlagdenhauffen, . C. B. 45 (1857) 868-; 
A. C. 53 (1858) 209-. 

Arsonval, A. d'. C. E. 91 (1880) 284-; Lum. 
Elect. 3 (*1881) 246-, 300- ; 4 (*1881) 115-, 
136-, 188- 196-, 235-, 264-, 412-; 5(*1881) 
121-, 438-, 454-; 9 (*1888) 533-. 

with carbon plates and arc from carbon points. 
Despretz, C. C. B. 30 (1850) 367-. 

comparative, with Sosnowski, Bunsen and bi- 
chromate cells. Meylan, E. Lum. Elect. 
22 (1886) 543-. 

, Teylerian electrical apparatus and Volta's 
pile. (Charging Leyden battery by pile. Pile 
has less action in vacua.) Marum, M. van, 
& Pfaff, . (vi Adds.) V. Mons J. C. 1 
(1802) 286-. 



639 



5610 Gas Batteries 



Construction Leclanche Cells 5610 



electrochemical, with salts. Berzelius, J. J., 

<6 Hisinger, W. Hisinger Afh. 1 (1806) 1-; 

Gilbert A. 27 (1807) 269-. 
electromagnetic and galvanic. Hare,R, Philad. 

J. Ac. Nt. Sc. 8 (1824) 142-. 
electrometric. Jager, . [1802] Gilbert A. 

12 (1803) 123-. 

, effect of current on magnetic needle de- 
pending on number and condition of plates. 

Marianini, S. [1825] A. C. 33 (1826) 

118-. 
with ice, and electric attraction of pile. 

Bouvier, S. P. Gilbert A. 13 (1803) 434-. 
large battery. Children, J. G. Phil. 

Trans. (1815) 363-. 
physical. Reil, J. C. (vi Adds.) V. Mons 

J. C. 2 (1802) 104-. 
on physical and chemical phenomena with pile. 

Desormes, C. B. A. C. 37 (1800) 284-. 
physico-chemical. Bellani, A. Brugnatelli G. 

7 (1824) 294-. 
pseudogalvanic. Ritter, J. W. Gehlen J. 6 

(1808) 431-. 

GAS BATTERIES. 
(See also 5620.) 

(Hydrogen and air.) Symons, W. [1855] 

Phm. J. 15 (1856) 208-. 
Gladstone, J. H., <& Tribe, A. B. S. P. 21 

(1873) 247-. 
Figuier, A. [1886-89] Bordeaux S. Sc. Mm. 

2 (1886) 91-; 5 (1890) xiv-. 
Mond, L., <- Langer, C. [1889] E. S. P. 46 

(1890) 296-. 
Wright, C. R. A., & Thompson, C. [1889] E. 

S. P. 46 (1890) 372-. 
Schuster, A. B. A. Ep. (1892) 638. 
(Carbon monoxide and cuprous chloride.) Bor- 
chers, W. Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 639-. 
Smale, F. J. Z. Ps. C. 14 (1894) 577-; 16 

(1895) 562-. 
(Borchers's.) Barnes, H. H. (jun.), & Veesen- 

meyer, E. Z. Angew. C. (1895) 101-, 192. 
( Experiments of Barnes and Veesenmeyer.) 

Borchers, W. Z. Angew. C. (1895) 191-. 
( .) Reed, C. J. Elect. 34 (1895) 278. 
( .) Mond, R. (et alii). Elect. 34 (1895) 

309, etc. 
(Coal-gas cell.) Borchers, . [1897] Z. 

Elektch. (1897-98) 42-. 
Case, W. E. Elect. 39 (1897) 688-. 
(Borchers's.) Reed, C. J. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

343. 

Gendron's battery. Dieudonne, E. Lum. 

Elect. 33 (1889) 27-. 
Glue battery (Zn coated with glue containing 

a salt of Zn, Cu coated with glue containing 

CuS0 4 . Current produced on warming). 

Joule, J. P. [1875] Manch. Lt. Ph. S. P. 

15 (1876) 1-. 
Harrison's cell (Zn containing Zn amalgam - 

H 2 SO 4 -Pb in compressed Pb0 2 ). Darling, 

J. D. Franklin I. J. 148 (1899) 55-. 
Hydrogen palladium cell. Fame, P. A. C. 

E. 71 (1870) 214-. 



IMPROVEMENTS. 

Volta, A. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 20 (1801) 48. 
Parrot, G. F. Voigt Mg. 4 (1802) 75-, 117-. 
Voigt, J. H. Voigt Mg. 4 (1802) 89-. 
Voigt, F. W. Trommsdorff J. Phm. 11 (1803) 

(St. 2) 41-. 

Wilkinson, C. H. Nicholson J. 8 (1804) 1-. 
Hart, J. [1825] Edinb. J. Sc. 5 (1826) 19-. 
Faraday, M. Phil. Trans. (1835) 263-. 
Geiseler, T. (xn) Arch. Phm. 59 (1837) 14-. 
O'Shaughnessy, W. B. Calc. QJ. 1 (1837) 

484-. 

Young, James. Ph. Mg. 10 (1837) 241-. 
Boon Mesch, A.H. van der. Miquel Bll. (1839) 

420-. 

Knox, G. J. Ir. Ac. P. 2 (1844) 25-. 
Magrini, L. Mil. At. Aten. 3 (17) (1862) 81-. 
Delaurier, . Les Mondes 22 (1870) 193- . 
Onimus, E. N. J. C. E. 82 (1876) 1192-. 
Reynier, E. Lum. Elect. 6 (*1882) 304- . 
(Eeynier's.) Arsonval, A. d\ Lum. Elect. 6 

(*1882) 355. 

Insulation. Lacoine, E. A. Tel. 8 (1881) 430-. 
Iodine battery (Zn-I in KI-Cu). Laurie, 

A. P. [1881] Edinb. E. S. P. 11 (1882) 

230-. 
Iron as active element. Beadle, A. A. S. C. 

In. J. 18 (1899) 332-. 
. Waterhouse, (Col.) J. S. C. In. 

J. 18 (1899) 559-. 

amalgam, behaviour in cell. Miinnich, J. J. 
Pogg. A. 67 (1846) 361-. 

carbon cell, experiments. Schmitz, G. 

Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 145. 
, iron chloride, carbon cell. Pauling, H. 

Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 332-. 
, , . Kuster, F. W. Z. Elektch. 

(1896-97) 383-. 

turnings cell, and influence of points. 
Worthington, A. M. [1883] (xn) Bristol 
Nt. S. P. 4 (1885) 1-. 

Jedlik's battery compared with more usual 

forms. Sztoczek, J. Ung. NW. Vr. Jb. 

(1858) 174-. 
Large battery presented by Napoleon to the 

Ecole Polytechnique. (Zn - acid - Cu.) Ha- 

chette, J. N. P. [1808] Gilbert A. 32 

(1809) 45-. 

. (Zn-H 2 S0 4 + NaCl 

-Cu.) Gay-Lussac, L. J., (& Thenard,. 

Gilbert A. 38 (1811) 121-. 
(Gay-Lussac and 

Thenard). Berthollet, C. L. J. Mines 30 

(1811) 5-. 
Lead batteries (Pb-HN0 3 -C), lighting by. 

Fitz-Gerald, D. G. Elect. 12 (1884) 349-. 

LECLANCHE CELLS. 

(C and Mn0 2 mixed with resin and pressed into 
solid block.) Leclanche, G. O.K. 83(1876) 
54-; A. C. 10 (1877) 420-. 

behaviour of zinc electrode in. Miiller, . 
Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 294-. 



640 



5610 2 -Liquid Cells 

comparison with Gassner's dry cell. Car- 
penter, W. L. Elect. 21 (1888) 703-. 
E.M.F., fall in 104 days, and final composition 

of oxide. Obach, E. Tel. J. 28 (1891) 624. 
form. Schafer, , <& Montanus, . Elekt- 

tech. Z. 11 (1890) 137-. 
. Elschner, C. C. Ztg. 15 (1891) 883. 
, Samson's. Anon. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 284. 
improvement (agglomerated mass pressed on 

carbon plate). Leclanche, G. C. B. 87 

(1878) 329-. 

. Wolff, . Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 123-. 
. Anon. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 32 (1900) 117-. 
, and new interrupter. Sinsteden, W. A. 

Ps. C. 137 (1869) 296-. 
modification, experiments. Bared, (le rev. 

pere) . Brux. S. Sc. A. 20 (1896) (Pt. 1) 

24-, 72-. 
to obviate polarisation, etc. Battocchi, G. 

B. Bll. V. It. 17 (1890) 89-. 
phenomena occurring in. Ditte, A. A. C. 1 

(1894) 115-. 



2-LIQUID CELLS. 

Hertz, A. A. Ps. C. 160 (1877) 496. 

bichromate caustic soda battery (Zn-NaOH 
strong | NaOH weak | K Cr 2 7 + H 2 S0 4 - C) . 
Mongol, . As. Fr. C. E. (1895) (Pt. 2) 
379-. 

Callan's (Zn-acid | HN0 3 + H 2 S0 4 - Pb plati- 
nised). Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. B. (1847) 
399. 

(Zn - H 2 S0 4 | H,S0 4 + HN0 3 + KN0 3 - cast 
iron). Callan, N. J. Ir. Ac. P. 4 (1850) 
152-. 

carbon battery (Zn - H 2 SO 4 1 HN0 3 - plumbago). 
Silliman, B. (jun.) Silliman J. 44 (1843) 
180-. 

. C inside porous cell and C outside. 

Inside HaO + H,S0 4 + K 2 Cr 2 7 [or HN0 3 ], j 
outside Na^C0 3 + Na,S0 4 "+ ZnS0 4 + Na 2 S 2 3 l 
and others. Ferrero, E. Ev. Sc. 33 (1884) 
702- 

with current nearly constant (Zn - MgS0 4 1 pow- 
dered pumice | H 2 S0 4 + K 2 Cr 2 7 - C) . Mori- 
sot, . Bordeaux S. Sc. Mm. 2 (1891) 
xxxviii-. 

diffusion in. Anon. Tel. J. 24 (1889) 293-. 

Dolbear's (Zn - NH 4 C1 | H 2 S0 4 + K 2 Cr 2 7 - C) . 
Dolbear, A. E. Am. As. P. (1885) 84. 

with 4 elements (tubular cells with Zn at 
bottom Cu at top in different liquids one 
floating on other). Draper, J. W. Franklin 
I. J. 14 (1834) 289-. 

filled and emptied by atmospheric pressure. 
Olszewski, K. (xn) Krk. Ak. (Mt.-Prz.) 
Bz. & Sp. 3 (1876) 111-, xvii-. 

filling and emptying, method. Zaliwski-Miror- 
ski, . C. E. 63 (1866) 511-. 

Hertel's arrangement. Hertel, . [1894] Z. 
Elekttech. Elektch. (1894-95) 171. 

Imseneckij's (Zn - Na^O,, | H 2 Cr0 4 - graphite, 
graphite mixed with paraffin and compressed 
on metallic cloth). ImSeneckij, A. M. Bs. 
Ps.-C. S. J. 22 (Ps.) (1890) 132- ; J. de Ps. 
10 (1891) 432. 



Bunsen Cells 5610 

Imseneckij's. Eubanovitch, E. Lum. Elect. 

35 (1890) 164-. 
iron turnings (Fe-H 2 O | Fe 2 Cl 6 + HC1 + HNO 3 

-C). Gerardin,A. C. E. 62 (1866) 700. 
Maiche's(Fe-dil. HN0 3 |HN0 3 - C). Calla, . 

Les Mondes 5 (1864) 339-. 
manganese (ferromanganese H^SC^HNOj [or 

permanganate] -C). Eousse, J. C. E. 93 

(1881) 546- ; Les Mondes 1 (1881) 358-. 
Maquay's (Zn alloyed with tin, lead and mer- 
cury - H 2 S0 4 [or NaCl] i K,Cr 2 7 + H 2 SO 

HN0 3 -C[orPt]). Anon. Tel. J. 

106-. 

. Walker, S. F. Tel. J. 19 (1886) 107-. 
with 1 metal (Pt - Cl | H 2 - Pt). Schonbein, C. 

F. Basel B. 4 (1840) 62-. 
1 metal with different liquids on opposite sides. 

Davy, (Sir) H. Phil. Trans. (1801) 397-. 
without metals (C in H 2 0, C in HNO 3 , current 

produced on connecting liquids). Davy, (Sir) 

H. E. I. J. 1 (1802) 79-. 
(oxidisable) (Pt - HN0 3 | K 2 S - Pt) . Ar- 

rott, A. E. [1842] C. S. Mm. 1 (1841-43) 

142-. 
(by contact of different liquids in cloth 

disks). Foucault, L. C. E. 37 (1853) 

580-. 
nitric acid replaced by hydrogen peroxide. 

Konig, A. A. Ps. C. 17 (1882) 347-. 
oxygen cell (Pt-KOH | HNO s -Pt). Bec- 
querel, A. C. C. E. 1 (1835) 455-. 
, Becquerel's. Jacobi, M. H. Pogg. A. 

40 (1837) 67-. 
potash, Dun's (Zn - KOH | K 2 Mn 2 8 - C). 

Krebs, G. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1885-86) 

11, 13-. 
, . Schafer, , & Montanus, . Cztg. 

Opt. 7 (1886) 117-. 
power nearly as great as Grove's (Zn - H 2 S0 4 | 

HNO 3 -Fe). Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. B. 

(1841) 168-. 
and properties of porous bodies. Oliveira-Pi- 

mentel, J. M. de. Lisb. Act. 2 (1850) 30-. 
Spaczynsky's form (Zn - NH 4 C1 | red lead - Fe ; 

Zn - NaCl | K 2 Mn 2 O 8 - C). Spaczynsky, . 

Fschr. Ps. (1889) (Ab. 2) 460; (1890) (Ab. 2) 

516-. 
Wohler's (Fe-H 2 SO 4 | HN0 3 -Fe). Wdhler, 

F. Lieb. A. 38 (1841) 307-. 
. Walchner, F. A. Lieb. A. 40 (1841) 

121-. 
zinc copper and zinc platinum, comparison 

(Zn-H 2 S0 4 | CuSO 4 -Cu and Zn-H 2 S0 4 | 

HN0 3 - Pt). Jacobi, M. H. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. 

Bll. 6 (1840) 369-. 
, (Jacobi). Becquerel, . 

C. E. 12 (*1841) 20-. 
, (Becquerel). Jacobi, H. 

(vm) St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 8 (1841) 261-. 

Bunsen Cells. 

Bunsen, E. W. Lieb. A. 38 (1841) 311- ; Pogg. 

A. 54 (1841) 417-. 
Wolf, G. Bohm. Gs. Ab. 2 (1843) (Sect. B. 

1841) 25-. 
(Carbon instead of platinum in Grove's cell.) 

Bunsen, E. W. Pogg. A. 55 (1842) 265-. 



641 



5610 Bunsen Cells 

(Carbon instead of platinum in Grove's cell.) 

Silliman, B. (jun.) Silliman J. 43 (1842) 

393. 
(Zn-H 2 S0 4 I HN0 3 -coke.) Wenchebact, E. 

Sturgeon A. Elec'tr. 8 (1842) 253-. 
Reiset, J. A. C. 7 (1843) 355-. 
(Keiset.) Becquerel, A. C. A. C. 7 (1843) 

358-. 

Eeiset, J. A. C. 8 (1843) 28-. 
(Use of gas carbon.) Dresser, C. L. B. S. P. 

5 (1850) 928. 
( .) Wheeler, J. L., <& Wheeler, L. 

C. S. J. 9 1857) 198-. 
Fromme, C. Gott. Nr. (1879) 135-. 
absorbing cover for. Pacinotti, A. (x) N. Cim. 

10 (1873) 115-. 
and Grove cells, management. Dumoncel, T. 

\_A. L.] C. B. 37 (1853) 713-. 
heated manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid 

in. Leroux, F. P. C. E. 37 (1853) 355-. 
improvement. Osann, G. Wiirzb. Vh. 7 

(1857) 165-, 270-. 

. Laschino/, (Dr.) . Carl Epm. 6 (1870) 

manufacture of carbon elements. Young, J. 

C. N. 1 (1860) 135-. 
modification (coarse coke powder instead of 

carbon plate). Reinsch, H. (vm) Epm. 

Phm. 1 (1848) 30-. 

. Thomas, . J. Phm. 36 (1859) 404-. 
. Morisot, . Bordeaux Mm. S. Sc. 4 

(cah. 2) (1866) 1-. 

. Le Blanc, F. A. C. 25 (1872) 289-. 
. Schrotter, V. Mosc. S. Sc. Bll. 78 

(No. 2) (1893) 65-; Fschr. Ps. (1893) (Ab. 2) 

581. 
, effects. Le Blanc, F. C. E. 73 (1871) 

904- ; A. C. 25 (1872) 323-. 
, (LeBlanc). Becquerel, E. A. C. 26 

(1872) 138-. 
, Faure's. Becker, G. B. A. Ep. 40 (1870) 

(Sect.) 24. 
nitric acid replaced by chromic acid. Swan, J. 

W. Elect. 23 (1889) 652-. 
manganese peroxide and hydro- 
chloric acid. Leroux, F. P. C. E. 37 (1853) 

588-. 

potassium bichromate. Fournez, 

. (vn) Mm. Md. Mil. 4 (1860) 275-. 
and nitric acid. Sharpies, 

S. P. Am. J. Sc. 1 (1871) 247-. 
self-emptying. Gawalovski, A. A. Ps. C. 153 

(1874) 626-. 
suppression of fumes, and improvements 

(HNO. } + K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ' or H 2 S0 4 + NaNO 3 + 
r 2 7 ). Dupre, A. C. E. 100 (1885) 



, (HN0 3 + K 2 Cr 2 Ov suggested by 

Euhmkorff) (Dupre). Arsonval,A. d\ C.E. 
100 (1885) 1165-. 

Daniell Cells. 

Daniell, J. F. Phil. Trans. (1836) 107-, 

125-. 
(Zn - NaCl - bladder diaphragm - CuS0 4 - Cu.) 

Bachhoffner, G. H. (vi Adds.) Sturgeon 

A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 213-. 



Daniell Cells 5610 

Daniell, J. F. Phil. Trans. (1837) 141- ; 

(1838) 41- ; (1839) 89-. 

(Zn - H 2 S0 4 - skin diaphragm - CuS0 4 - Cu.) 

Peclet, E. C. E. 8 (1839) 632-. 
(Millboard diaphragm.) Sturgeon, W. Stur- 
geon A. Electr. 3 (1838-39) 495. 
(Priority claim for his father.) Becquerel, E. 

A. C. 3 (1841) 436-. 

Daniell, J. F. Phil. Trans. (1842) 137-. 
(Becquerel.) Daniell, J. F. Ph. Mg. 20 (1842) 

294-. 
(Daniell.) Becquerel, E. A. C. 5 (1842) 412- ; 

Sturgeon A. Electr. 9 (1842) 534-. 
(_.) Grove, W. R. Ph. Mg. 21 (1842) 333-. 
(Grove.) Daniell, J. F. Ph. Mg. 21 (*1842) 

421-. 
(Daniell.) Mullins, F. W. Sturgeon A. Electr. 

8 (1842) 465-. 

( .) Grove, W. R. Ph. Mg. 22 (1843) 32-. 
Osann, G. Wiirzb. Vh. 8 (1858) 177-. 
action of light on. Pellat, H. C. E. 89 (1879) 

227-. 
cellular (Zn - AmCl - bladder - CuS0 4 - Cu 

horizontal), use. Jacobi, M. H. Pogg. A. 

43 (1838) 328-. 
experiments (brown paper diaphragm). Walker, 

C. V. [1838-39] Electr. S. .T. (1837-40 

57-, 97-. 

(Walker's). Moore, J. V. [1839] (vi 
Adds.) Electr. S. P. (1837-40) 166-. 

, current from modified Daniell. Jacobi, M. 

H. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 2 (1837) 60-. 
form, Gaiffe's (avoidance of deposition of Cu 

on Zn). Gaiffe, A. Les Mondes 56 (1881) 

299-. 
, with iron instead of zinc. Coleman, J. J. 

Elect. 15 (1885) 410. 
, McDonald's (Zn - NaCl | CuS0 4 - Cu). 

Anon. [1894] Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 30-. 
, portable. Edelmann, M. T. Exner Epm. 

23 (1887) 331-. 
, Trouve's (liquids on porous paper, for 

physiological purposes). Trouve, . C. E. 

77 (1873) 1551. 
gravity-, of very small internal resistance. 

Bottomley, J. T. E. S. P. 37 (1884) 173-. 
modification. Grove, W. R. (vi Adds.) Ph. 

Mg. 13 (1838) 430-. 

(Zn - NH 4 C1 | CuS0 4 - Cu, wood cylinder for 
diaphragm). Mullins, F. W. Ph. Mg. 15 

(1839) 37-. 

. Secchi, A. As. Nr. 51 (1859) 181-. 
. Carre, F. C. E. 66 (1868) 612-. 

(Zn - wet sawdust CuS0 4 - Cu cartridge case, 
for military telegraph). Cauderay,H. [1872] 
Laus. Bll. S. Vd. 11 (1873) 370. 

. Elschner, C. C. Ztg. 14 (1890) 1768. 
porous cell, cause of copper precipitate on. 
Place, F. Pogg. A. 100 (1857) 590-. 

, effect of incrustations. Dumoncel, T. 
[A. L.] C. E. 50 (1860) 687-. 

restoration. Tolomei, G. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 26 

(1894) 79-. 
tray-battery. Thomson, (Sir) W. E. S. P. 19 

(1871) 253-. 
for siphon recorder. Thomson, (Sir) W. 

Tel. E. J. 1 (1872-73) 403-. 



642 



5610 Grove Cells 



Grove Cells. 

Grove, W. E. Ph. Mg. 15 (1839) 287-. 
Orsted, H. C. Kiob. Ov. (1841) 21-. 
Wigner, G. W. Ph. Mg. 35 (1868) 448-. 
Fromme, C. Gott. Nr. (1879) 135-. 
arrangement. Stoney, G. J. B. A. Bp. (1857) 

(pt. 2) 20-. 
experiments. Delarive, A. Arch, de 1'Electr. 

1 (1841) 262-. 
. Melly, E. Arch, de 1'Electr. 1 (1841) 

297-. 

with 100 pairs. Morse, S. F. B. Silliman 
J. 45 (1843) 390-. 

improved fluid for (dilute H 2 SO 4 saturated with 

Na 2 S0 4 ). Dewey, C. Silliman J. 5 (1848) 

126. 
improvement. Grilel, C. A. Pogg. A. 51 

(1840) 381-. 

. Poggendor/, J. C. Berl. Mb. (1868) 347-. 
modification. Louyet, P. Par. S. Phlm. PV. 

(1845) 44-. 
phenomena. Petrina, F. A. D. Nf. Vsm. B. 

(1843) 232-. 
with platinised or gilded lead instead of platinum . 

CdUan, N. J. Ir. Ac. P. 3 (1847) 471-. 

platinum plates of various sizes. Osann, G. 
Erdm. J. Pr. C. 39 (1846) 284-. 

small, of extraordinary energy. Grove, W. E. 

B. A. Ep. (1839) (pt. 2) 36- ; C. B. 8 (1839) 

567-. 
substitute for nitric acid in (H 2 S0 4 + H 2 + KN0 3 

or H 2 S0 4 + HN0 3 + KNO 3 platinised lead or 

cast iron instead of platinum). Callan, N. 

J. (vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 31 (1847) 81-. 



Construction 5610 

Modification. Napoli, E. Em. Cor. Sc. 6 

(1863) 109-. 
Modifications. Warren, H. N. C. N. 62 

(1890) 4. 

, and substitute for Grove's battery. Anon. 

(vi 798) Majocchi A. Fis. C. 6 (1842) 

79-. 
Ortelli's battery. Eovelli, C. Bv. Sc.-Ind. 23 

(1891) 1-. 

Papst cell (Fe - Fe 2 Cl 6 - C prepared with Fe 2 3 , 

for telegraphy). Anon. Cztg. Opt. 7 (1886) 

222. 

Plant-roots, batteries with positively and nega- 
tively electrified. Euhland, E. L. Gehlen 

J. 9 (1810) 383-. 
Plates, comparison of a few large plates with 

many small ones. Children, J. G. [1808] 

Phil. Trans. (1809) 32-. 
, Zn and Cu, effects of varying relative sizes, 

and experiments. Sinks, C. Ph. Mg. 11 

(1837) 68-. 
Pollak's regenerative cell (Zn-NH 4 Cl-C and 

Cu). Anon. Tel. J. 19 (1886) 105-. 
Portable pile, correction. Brugnatelli, L. 

V. (vi Adds.) V. Mons J. C. 1 (1802) 

327-. 
Potassium battery (K amalgam - H 2 S0 4 - Pt) . 

Goodman, J. [1846] Manch. Ph. S. Mm. 

8 (1848) 265-. 

sulphide cell, Faraday's, and E.M.F. 
Kohlrausch, E. Pogg. A. 88 (1853) 464-. 

"Precipitation-cells." Lorenz,E. Z.Elektch. 

(1897-98) 305-. 
Pulvermacher's chain. Pulvertnacher, J. L. 

C. B. 93 (1881) 1020-. 

, construction, principles and effects. 
Walenn, W. H. B. A. Ep. (1851) (pt. 2) 



3-Liquid cell. Clarke, F. W. Science 1 (*1883) 
485. 



Eevivification of elements, principle. Doat, V. 

(vi Adds.) Em. Cor. Sc. 4 (1856) 336. 

Liquid, exciting, new (FeS0 4 + H 2 S0 4 + HN0 3 ) . Sand batteries. Secchi, A. Em. At. N. Line. 
Delaurier, . C. B. 67 (1868) 529. 17 (1864) 232-. 

(Na 2 SO. 
T. [A. 

Dingier 207" (1873)483-. 
Magnesium cells. Bultinck, . C. E. 



and mercury-salt battery. Menna-Apparicio, 



on a 24 an mercury-sa aery. 

K,Cr ? 7 + H 2 Sp 4 ). Du Moncel, T. [A. L.] J. de. A. Tel. 7 (1864) 756-. 



61 

(1865) 585-. 
. Heim, C. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 472-, 

517-. 

. Warren, H. N. C. N. 70 (1894) 179. 
, Ayrton's, and transmission of gold 

through mercury. Obach, E., & Ayrton, 

W. E. Elect. 30 (1893) 172, etc. 
Magnesium-silver cells. Kahl, E. Z. Mth. 

Ps. 11 (1866) 172-. 
Malignani's cell. Anon. Ev. Sc.-Ind. [24 

(1892)] 135-. 
Marie-Davy battery, modifications by use of 

carbon. Lagarde, J. A. Tel. 3 (1876) 

167-. 
Metallic cell. Ayrton, W. E., d Perry, J. 

B. S. P. 27 (1878) 219- 
, Ayrton and Perry's. Goossens, B. J. 

A. Ps. C. 16 (1882) 551-. 
Modification. Crahay, J. G. Brux. Ac. Bll. 

8 (1841) 237-. 
. Majocchi, G. A. (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. 

Fis. C. 6 (1842) 171-. 



Silico - carbon battery and electric lamp 
(Zn - NH 4 C1 - silico- carbon), Coxeter's. 
Anon. Mcr. S. J. 6 (1886) 131-. 

Sodium amalgam, behaviour in cell. Henrici, 
F. C. Pogg. A. 58 (1843) 232-. 

battery (Na between plates of C in air). 
Jablochkoff, P. B. S. P. 37 (1884) 141-. 

, , Jablochkotf' s. Geraldy, F. Lum. 
Elect. 14 (1884) 140-. 

Sulphides, capability of forming negative pole. 

Skey, W. N. Z. I. T. 3 (1870) 222-. 
Sulphur battery, Walker's (S in place of Mn0 2 ). 

Anon. Tel. J. 20 (1887) 30-. 

, use (Zn - NaCl + S - Pb covered with Cu). 
Matteucci, C. N. Cim. 19 (*1863) 390- ; 
C. B. 60 (1865) 656-. 

Thimble battery. Wollaston, W. H. Thom- 

son A. Ph. 6 (1815) 209- ; Gilbert A. 54 

(1816) 1-. 
Tinchromic chloride cell (Sn [or SnHg]- 

Cr.Cle-Pt). Skinner, S. L. Ps. S. P. 

13 (1895) 477- ; Ph. Mg. 39 (1895) 444-. 
Triple contact pile. Selmi, F. N. Cim. 4 

(1856) 81-. 



643 



5610 



Construction 



Currents 5610 



Trough. Orsted, H. C., & Esmark, . Kiob. 
Ov. (1816-17) 7-. 

and other forms. Kemp, K. T. Edinb. N. 
Ph. J. 6 (1829) 70-. 

, improved. Wilkinson, C. H. Tilloch Ph. 

Mg. 29 (1807) 243-. 
, Wilkinson's. Prechtl, J. J. Gilbert A. 44 

(1813) 108-. 
, Wollaston's. Gilbert, L. W. Gilbert A. 

54 (1816) 11-. 
Tubular chlorochromic battery (Zn-Cr0 3 + 

HC1 - Ag plated with Pt by rolling) . Renard, 

(comm.) . Par. S. Ps. Se. (1888) 218-. 
Vogt's battery, tests. Leconte, F. Brux. S. 

Sc. A. 19 (1895) (Pt. 1) 122-. 
Walker- Wilkins battery. Cooper, W. R. Elect. 

34 (1895) 389. 
, tests (Zn - KOH - C in special form of 

cell). Jamieson, A. Elect. Kv. 36 (1895) 

66-. 
Water battery (3520 cells). Gassiot,J.P. Phil. 

Trans. (1844) 39-. 
. Austin, L.W.,(& Thwing, C. B. Ps. 

Ev. 3 (1896) 309-. 

(Zn-H 2 0-Cu, 1600 pairs), experi- 
ments. Crosse, A. Electr. S. T. (1837-40) 

117-. 

, experiments. Noad, H. M. [1841] L. 

Electr. S. P. (1843) 150-. 
, properties. Noad, H. M. [1841] L. 

Electr. S. P. (1843) 168-. 
Zinc amalgam and cadmium amalgam cells. 

Robb, W. L. A. Ps. C. 20 (1883) 798-. 
cell compared with Daniell and Bunsen 

cells. Fortin, (Vabbe) . Les Mondes 18 

(1868) 422-. 

, internal and external resistance. 

Fortin, (Vabbe) . Les Mondes 18 (1868) 

597-; 19 (1869) 142-. 
, amalgamated, and its attack by acids. 

Almeida, J. C. d\ C. B. 68 (1869) 

442-. 
, for cells. Kemp, K. T. Sturgeon A. 

Electr. 1 (1836-37) 81-. 
, , of constant batteries. Nickles, J. J. 

Phm. 21 (1852) 266-. 
, , inaction in acidulated water. Grove, 

W. R. Ph. Mg. 15 (1839) 81-; C. E. 8 (1839) 

1023-. 
, amalgamation. Demance, E. C. E. 65 

(1867) 1086-. 

, . Waltenhofen, A. von. Dingier 188 

(1868) 282-. 

, for Faraday cells. Liebig, J. von. Lieb. 

A. 29 (1839) 111-. 

, , formula of liquid for. Berjot, . C. 

B. 47 (1858) 273-. 

carbon battery. Racchetti, A. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 
17 (1885) 54-. 

, improvement. Cauderay, J. Laus. 

S. Vd. Bll. 16 (1880) 551-. 

with sea as exciting fluid. Duchemin, 

E. Mon. Sc. 10 (1868) 43-. 

, sound produced when plates touch. 

Cauderay, J. [1869] Laus. Bll. S. Vd. 10 
(1868-70) 142-. 

charcoal cell, improvement. Bergeat, C. 
Berl. Tel. Vr. Z. 3 (1856) 257-. 



Zinc charcoal pile, experiments. Hellwig, 
(Major) . (vi Adds.) Gilbert A. 11 (1802) 
396. 

copper battery, constant. Rollett, A. (xn) 
Graz I. PI. Us. 3 (1873) 295-. 

, effect of temperature. Kuhn, C. 
Dingier 144 (1857) 29-. 

, Stepanow's. Latchinov, D. Gen. 
Civ. 9 (1886) 14-. 

with copper bent round it, in trough with- 
out divisions. Melnen, J. A. van. [1841] 
L. Electr. S. P. (1843) 184-. 

and copper carbonate (Zn - NH 4 C1 1 CuCO, 
native). Ney, J. C. E. 67 (1868) 727. 

, large semicircular plates mounted so 

that they can be immersed in dilute nitric 
acid by rotating support. De Butts, E. 
Silliman J. 8 (1824) 271-. 

copper pile of 600 pairs. Ritter, J. W. 
Gilbert A. 13 (1803) 1-, 265-. 

and copper, platinised. Joule, J. P. [1842] 
L. Electr. S. P. (1843) 260-. 

spirals. Michelotti, V. Tor. Mm. 

Ac. 26 (1821) 433-. 
sulphate cell. Geubel, H. K. (xn) 

Arch. Phm. 117 (1851) 147-. 

cylinder with cloth bag containing gas car- 
bon, dilute sulphuric acid drops into outer 
cell, filters through cloth and is discharged 
at bottom (Zn- H 2 S0 4 -C). Fabre de La- 
grange, . C. B. 34 (1852) 533-. 

, economy in cells. Vlacovich, N. (xi) N. 
Cim. 4 (1870) 5-. 

and iron in alkaline solution (Zn - KOH - Fe). 
Runge, F. F. Pogg. A. 16 (1829) 129-. 

(Eunge). Kastner, K. W. G. 

Kastner Arch. C. 2 (1830) 243-. 

(Eunge's, more active in sun- 
shine than at night). Dobereiner, J. W. 
Lieb. A. 2 (1832) 343-. 

iron cell. Dellmann, F. Z. Mth. Ps. 10 
(1865) 86. 

more powerful than zinc copper cell. 
Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. B. (1840) 81-. 

(Poggendorff). Roberts, 

M. J. Ph. Mg. 19 (1841) 106-. 

( ). Suckow, G. 

Erdm. J. Pr. C. 26 (1842) 126-. 

and zinc copper cells. Petrina, F. A. 
Baumgartner Z. 6 (1840) 289-. 

and mercury (Zn-HgCl 2 -Hg). Schmid, 
W. [1868] Z. C. 5 (1869) 81. 

, protection. Reynier, E. Par. S. Ps. Se\ 
(1885) 145-. 

with vegetable earth. Racchetti, A. Ev. 
Sc.-Ind. 18 (1886) 322-. 



CURRENTS. 

action on mercury alone and when under other 

liquids. Marx, C. M. Schweigger J. 54 

(=Jb. 24) (1828) 205-. 
water. Huth, G. Gilbert A. 10 (1802) 

43-; Berl. Gs. Nt. Fr. N. Schr. 4 (1803) 

161-. 
from batteries, and thermoelectric currents. 

Adie, Rich. Edinb. N. Ph. J. 35 (1843) 

346- ; 36 (1844) 90-. 



644 



5610 Currents 

chemical action, regularities. Poggendorff, J. 

C. Pogg. A. 47 (1839) 123-. 
continuous, with open circuit, Wheatstone's 

experiments. Magrini, L. Mil. At. I. 

Lomb. 1 (1858) 250-. 



Electromotive Force 5610 

influence of size of plates. Negro, S. dal. 

A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 3 (1833) 228-. 
, etc. Caxari, L. Bb. Un. 3 

(1836) 162- ; Baumgartner Z. 4 (1837) 185-, 



discharge of pile by running water. Erman, , their distance apart and their 



P. Gilbert A. 14 (1803) 385-. 
effect, total. Jedlik, S. A. (xn) Mag. Ak. 

Ets. (1859) (Suppl., Mth. Term.) 291-. 
effects. Mason, T. [1839] (vi Adds.) Electr. 

S. P. (1837-40) 173-. 
, metals ignited in acidulated solutions. 

Mackrell, G. [1841] L. Electr. S. P. 

(1841-43) 6-. 
heating effects, laws. Botto, G. D. [1845] 

Tor. Mm. Ac. 8 (1846) 275-. 
on wires. Tyrtov, N. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. 

Bll. 5 (1847) 94-. 
igniting power, experiments. Singer, G. J. 

Nicholson J. 29 (1811) 29-. 
from insulated pile, intensity. Fechner, G. T. 

Pogg. A. 44 (1838) 44-. 

of maximum intensity, time required to pro- 
duce. Mathiot, G. (vi Adds.) U. S. Coast 

Sv. Ep. (1855) 366-. 
in open circuit. Guillemin, C. M. C. E. 29 

(1849) 521-. 
from pile, chemical and electrometric action, 

etc. Bischof, G. Kastner Arch. Ntl. 4 

(1825) 13-. 
immersed in water (current as from one 

pair). Lagrave, . J. de Ps. 56 (1802) 

472-; 57 (1803) 140-. 
, physiological effects. Steinhduser, J. G. 

Gilbert A. 14 (1803) 124-. 
, suspected periodicity. Erman, P. Gil- 
bert A. 25 (1807) 1-. 
polarity, reversal. Schweigger, J. S. C. 

Schweigger J. 20 (1817) 96-; Munch. D. 

(1818-20) 155-. 
, . Fechner, G. T. Schweigger J. 53 

( = Jb. 23) (1828) 61-, 131-. 
? , apparent, in pile. Pfaff, C. H. 

Schweigger J. 3 (1811) 367-. 
poles, names. Arnim, L. A. von. Gilbert A. 

9 (1801) 494-. 
and plates, names. Gassiot, J. P. [1842] 

L. Electr. S. P. (1843) 442-. 
produced by metals in alkalis, acids and salts. 

Yelin, J. C. von. Bb. Un. 23 (1823) 38-. 
variable, from cells. Fechner, G. T. Schweig- 
ger J. 63 ( = Jb. 3) (1831) 249-. 
, pile. De Luc, J. A. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 

44 (1814) 248-. 
, , experiments. Singer, G. J. Tilloch 

Ph. Mg. 43 (1814) 414-. 
, , . Ronalds, (Sir) F. Sturgeon 

A. Electr. 9 (1842) 305-. 
variation, rapid. Gherardi, S. [1843] Bo- 
logna Mm. Ac. Sc. 1 (1850) 123-. 

Currents, Quantity. 

influence of agitation of cell. Walker, E. 0. 

Tel. E. J. 12 (1883) 164-. 
size of plates (electric arc under water 

and other liquids). Davy, (Sir) H. Bb. 

Brit. 20 (1802) 384-. 



cleanliness. Green, J., & Rogers, J. B. 

Silliman J. 28 (1835) 33-. 
or intensity, Grove's battery connected for. 

Osann, G. Wiirzb. Vh. 2 (1852) 202-. 
variations. Joule, J. P. Ph. Mg. 24 (1844) 

106-. 

with depth of immersion of plates. Henry, 
J. [1835] Am. Ph. S. T. 5 (1837) 217-. 

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE. 

(See also 6210.) 
Negro, S. dal. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 3 (1833) 

105-. 
Marie-Davy, [H.] G. E. 53 (1861) 787-; 64 

(1867) 755-. 

Potier, . Par. S. Ps. Se. (1884) 179-. 
Bernstein, A. Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 52-. 
Brackett, C. F. Am. As. P. (1886) 87-. 
Blochmann, R. Konigsb. Schr. 30 (1890) (Sb.) 

32-. 
Oberbeck, A., <& Edler, J. N.-Vorp. Mt. 22 

(1891) 79-. 
Kazankin, N. Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 27 (Ps.) (1895) 

276- ; J. de Ps. 5 (1896) 474. 
Mauri, A. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 28 (1895) 631-. 
of amalgams in Daniell cell. Cattaneo, C. N. 

Cim. 22 (1887) 114- ; 23 (1888) 117-. 
attraction and repulsion of voltaic pile. Ritter, 

J. W. J. de Ps. 53 (1801) 152-. 
attractive power of pile measured by electro- 
micrometer. Marechaux, P. L. Gilbert A. 

19 (1805) 476-. 
of batteries with many cells (100 cells gave 

spark before contact of terminals). Gassiot, 

J. P. B. A. Up. (1846) (pt. 2) 47-. 

cells with aluminium plate as one electrode. 
Laurie, A. P. Ph. Mg. 22 (1886) 213-. 

amalgamated plates. Gaugain, J. M. 

C. E. 42 (1856) 430-. 
badly-conducting liquid. Righi, A. 

Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 8 (1887) 749-. 

consisting of chemical elements only 
(various metals- Br[or I]-C). Exner, F. 
[1881] Wien Ak. Sb. 84 (1882) (Ab. 2) 511-. 

ostensibly of elements. Braun, F. 

A. Ps. C. 17 (1882) 593-. 
with mercury and copper salts. Mauri, 

A. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 30 (1897) 507-. 
nitric acid, platinum and other metals. 

Burch, G. J., <& Veley, V. H. [1890] Phil. . 

Trans. (A) 182 (1892) 319-. 
and chemical work. Swinburne, J. L. Ps. S. 

P. 11 (1892) 130- ; Ph. Mg. 32 (1891) 1-. 
of closed cell. Fechner, G. T. Schweigger J. 

60 (=Jb. 30) (1830) 17-. 
comparison of various cells. Jacobi, M. H. 

C. B. 11 (1840) 1058-. 
. Waltenhofen, A. von. Dingier 

183 (1867) 204-. 
of constant cells. Milller, Joh. Freiburg B. 

5 (1870) (Heft 1) 87-. 



645 



5610 



Electromotive Force 



5610 



and currents from various cells. Petruschefsky, 

F. [1852-56] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. fill. 11 (1853) 
342- ; 15 (1857) 337-. 

of Darnell's cell. Svanberg, A. F. Sk. Nf. F. 

5 (1847) 270- ; Pogg. A. 73 (1848) 290-. 
. Kittler, E. Munch. Ak. Sb. 12 

(1882) 467-. 
_ _ _. Eeynier, E. Tel. E. J. 13 (1884) 

475. 
Boat's and other cells. Regnauld, J. C. 

E. 43 (1856) 47-. 
effect of chlorine. Gore, G. B. S. P. 44 

(1888) 151-. 
concentration of liquids. Baumgartner, 

G. Carl Epm. 15 (1879) 105-. 
(Grove, Bunsen and Daniell 

cells). Fromme, C. A. Ps. C. 8 (1879) 

326-. 
(Daniell's cell). Hepperger, 

J. von. [1880] Wien Ak. Sb. 82 (1881) 

(Ab. 2) 326-. 
. Gore, G. E. S. P. 44 (1888) 

296- ; Ph. Mg. 30 (1890) 483-. 
heat. Bosscha, J. [1864] Amst. Vs. 

Ak. 17 (1865) (Ntk.) 410-. 

. crova, A. C. E. 68 (1869) 440-. 

1 etc. Eaoult, F. M. C. E. 68 (1869) 

643-. 

. Delarive, A. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 42 

. (1871)402-. 

. Voller, A. A. Ps. C. 149 (1873) 

394-. 
. Stepanov, A. S. (xn) Es. C. Ps. 

S. J. 7 (Ps.) (1875) [(Pt. 1)] 154-. 
. Lippmann, G. C. E. 99 (1884) 

895-. 

Gore, G. E. S. P. 44 



Barus, C. Am. Ac. P. 25 



positive 

(1888) 368-. 
pressure 

(1890) 259-. 

varying positive and negative elements, 

and of polarisation. Fromme, C. [1881-83] 
Giessen Oberh. Gs. B. 21 (1882) 1- ; A. Ps. 
C. 18 (1883) 552- ; 19 (1883) 86-, 300-. 

and energy. Pellat, H. Ev. Sc. 18 (1880) 
1035-. 

of gas batteries. Markovsky, G. A. Ps. C. 44 

(1891) 457-. 

Grove cell. Eiecke, C. V. E. [1877-78] 
A. Ps. C. 3 (1878) 36- ; 4 (1878) 226-. 

and heating effect in cells. Edlund, E. [1876] 

Stockh. Ak. Hndl. 14 (1878) No. 9, 24 pp. 
high, cell of. Morisot, . Bordeaux S. Sc. 

PV. (1894-95) 66-. 
, cells of. Figuier, . Bordeaux S. Sc 

PV. (1894-95) 68-. 
, . Feussner, . Elekttech. Z. 20 

(1899) 632-. 
, experimental battery of (Cu coated with 

Zn amalgam - H 2 SO 4 - Cu). Longden, A. C. 

Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 709. 
of inconstant cells. Guglielmo, G., & Naccari, 

A. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 16 (1880) 302-. 

initial current of batteries. Figuier, . 
Bordeaux S. Sc. PV. (1894-95) 70-. 

and intensity of copper zinc in sea water, 
variations. Cattaneo, C. N. Cim. 16 (1884) 
189-. 



intensity, general law. Pouillet, C. S. M. C. 

E. 4 (1837) 267-. 
loss when circuit is closed (running down). 

Marianini, S. Brugnatelli G. 10 (1827) 

299-. 
of metallic couples in salt solutions. Damien, 

B. C. A. C. 6 (1885) 289-. 

metals in chromic acid. Naccari, A., & 

Bellati, M. [1873] (x) N. Cim. 11 (1874) 

120-. 
and fused salts. Poincare, L. C. E. 

110 (1890) 339-. 
in fused salts. Buscemi, V. Catania 

Ac. Gioen. At. 12 (1899) Mem. 11, 15 pp. 
method of maintaining constant. Schurr, J. 

C. E. 118 (1894) 464-. 

minimum point of change. Gore, G. E. S. P. 

44 (1888) 294-. 
and resistance. Haug, H. Am. J. Sc. 42 

(1866) 381- ; 43 (1867) 43-. 
. Mazzotto, D. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 16 

(1880) 103-. 
of batteries with magnesium instead of 

zinc. Laptev, T. P. Kazan S. Nt. (Ps.- 

Mth.) P. 7 (1889) 323-; Fschr. Ps. (1889) 

(Ab. 2) 460-. 
, effects of temperature. Preece, W. H. 

E. S. P. 35 (1883) 48-, 250-. 
and heat development, graphic represen- 
tation. Crova, A. J. de Ps. 3 (1874) 278-. 
of Leclanche cell. Miiller, Joh. A. Ps. 

C. 140 (1870) 308-. 
. Tobler, A. [1879] J. Tel. 4 

(1878-80) 346-. 
, method of investigating. Orth, L. von. 

Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 344-, 375-. 

, variations. Dumoncel, T. [_A. L.] 
Cherb. Mm. S. Sc. 8 (1861) 209- ; C. E. 52 
(1861) 450- ; 53 (1861) 553-. 

, . Mazzotto, D. Ven. I. At. 7 (1880- 

81) 309- . 
, . Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 

6 (*1882) 121-. 
- temperature of chromic chloride cell 

(Sn-Cr 2 Cl,.-Pt). Case, W. E. E. S. P. 

40 (1886) 345-. 

coefficient of silver-mercury cell (Hg 
Hg 2 S0 4 + Ag 2 S0 4 -Ag). Streintz,F. Wien 
Ak. Sb. 98 (1890) (Ab. 2a) 564-. 

of tin cells. Herroun. E. F. L. Ps. S. P. 7 
(1886) 275- ; Ph. Mg. 21 (1886) 13-. 

variation, causes. Delarive, A. Gen. Mm. S. 
Ps. 7 (1836) 497-. 

, . Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 38 (1854) 628-. 

in copper oxide battery. Ven, E. van der. 
[1885] Haarl. Ms. Teyl. Arch. 2 (1886) 97-. 

Leclanche cell. Saunder, S. A. Nt. 12 

(1875) 564-. 
1-liquid batteries. Damien, B. C. [1886] 

Lille S. Mm. 15 (1888) 205-. 

with pressure. Gilbault, H. C. E. 113 
(1891) 465- ; Toul. Fac. Se. A. 5 (1891) A, 
62pp. 

temperature, seat. Gockel, A. A. Ps. 

C. 40 (1890) 450-. 

in Zamboni pile. Eberhardt, B. Orv.- 
Termt. Ets. (Termt. Szak) (1894) 307- ; 
Cztg. Opt. 17 (1896) 45-, 66-, 74-. 



646 



5610 Internal Resistance Primary Cells 



Polarisation 5610 



of zinc carbon cell (Zn - H S0 4 - C) . Berthelot, 
M. C. R. 95 (1882) 11-. 

, sulphuric acid, and metal M cells, effect 

of varying metal M. Fromme, C. [1880] 
Giessen Oberh. Gs. B. 20 (1881) 23-. 

HISTORY. 

Arago, D. F. J. Par. Bur. Long. An. (1834) 

311-. 
Delavaud, C. [1874] Arch. Md. Nv. 23 (1875) 

1-, 115-. 

Tietze, G. Yen. Aten. 2 (1899) 108-. 
progress, 1872-97. Gatehouse, T. E. Elect. 

Rv. 41 (1897) 688-. 
, origin and present state. Donovan, M. 

Tilloch Ph. Mg. 45 (1815) 222-, 308- ; J. 

de Ps. 84 (1817) 296-, 384-. 

INTERNAL RESISTANCE. 

Poggendor/, J. C. Pogg. A. 52 (1841) 497-. 
(Poggendorff.) Delarive, A. Arch, de 1'Electr. 

1 (1841) 533-. 

Bergeat, C. Berl. Tel. Vr. Z. 4 (1857) 265-. 
Favre, P. A. C. R. 47 (1858) 599-. 
Graves, J. (x) Tel. E. J. 2 (1873) 130-. 
Waltenhofen, A. von. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 

243-. 
(Waltenhofen.) Uppenborn, F. Elekttech. Z. 

12 (1891) 244. 
Streintz, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 104 (1895) (Ab. 2a) 

834-. 

Haagn, E. Z. Ps. C. 23 (1897) 97-. 
Moore, B. E., & Carpenter, H. V. Ps. Rv. 4 

(1897) 329-. 
cell of nigh resistance, use of crushed coke in. 

Gaiffe, A. C. R. 67 (1868) 459. 
low resistance. Varley, C. F. Tel. E. 

J. 10 (1881) 452-. 

. Higgins, F. Tel. E. J. 11 (1882) 

159-. 

(Callaud) of low resistance. Ter quern, A. 
Par. S. Ps. Se. (1882) 153-. 

of low resistance. Hellesen, . [1893] Z. 
Elektch. (1895-96) 193-. 

cells with large plates. Petrina, F. A. D. Nf. 

Vsm. B. (1843) 201-. 
connection between magnitude of surfaces of 

single cell and magnetism evolved. Spils- 

bury, F. G. [1822] Camb. Ph. S. T. 2 

(1827) 76-. 
effect of altering distance of plates. Kemp, 

K. T. Edinb. J. Nt. Gg. Sc. 1 (1830) 13-. 

external resistance. Gore, G. Binn. 
Ph. S. P. 4 (*1883-85) 417-. 

pair of small plates in battery with 

larger ones. Halse, W. H. Sturgeon A. 

Electr. 4 (1839-40) 410-. 
plates in various positions, etc. [Bigeon, 

J. M. H. non] Bigiou, . R. I. J. 2 (1831) 

181. 
electrodes, best arrangement. Du Moncel, T. 

[A. L.] C. R. 73 (1871) 906-, 1166-. 
, effect of dimensions. DM Moncel, T. [A. L.] 

C. R. 73 (1871) 436-. 
methods of diminishing, etc. Viollet, J. B. 

C. R. 57 (1863) 103-. 



of polarised cells. Cohn, E. A. Ps. C. 13 

(1881) 665-. 
reversibility of cells. Moore, T. S. L. Ps. S. 

P. 17 (1901) 139- ; Ph. Mg. 49 (1900) 491-. 
variation with current. Carhart, H. S. Ps. 

Rv. 2 (1895) 392-. 

PHENOMENA. 

Curtet, . J. de Ps. 55 (1802) 54-. 
Brugnatelli, L. V. Nauche J. du Galvan. 2 

(1803) 55- ; BrugnateUi G. 1 (1808) 139-. 
Parrot, G. F. A. C. 42 (1829) 45-. 
Miinch, . C. R. 17 (1843) 88-. 
electroscopic. Erman, P. Gilbert A. 8 (1801) 

197- ; J. de Ps. 53 (1801) 121- ; Gilbert A. 

10 (1802) 1-. 

(Erman). Haiiy, R. J. Gilbert A. 24 
(1806) 407-. 

, of closed circuit. Kohlrausch, R. Pogg. 

A. 78 (1849) 1-. 
, in couples and piles. Jfiger, . [1802] 

Gilbert A. 13 (1803) 399-. 
, theory. Ohm, G. S. Pogg. A. 6 (1826) 

459-; 7 (1826) 45-, 117-. 
electrostatic. Bischof, G. Schweigger J. 35 

( = Jb. 5) (1822) 251-. 
. Branly, E. Par. EC. Norm. A. 2 (1873) 

201 -. 

. Angot, A. C. R. 78 (1874) 1846-. 
poles, heating. Zantedeschi, F. Zantedeschi 

A. Fis. (1849-50) 71-. 
, luminous phenomena. Zantedeschi, F. 

Zantedeschi A. Fis. (1849-50) 57-. 
in Wollaston's trough. Lenz, E. St. Pe"t. Ac. 

Sc. Bll. 5 (1839) 78-. 

POLARISATION. 

Hallock, W. A. Ps. C. 16 (1882) 56-. 

Eden, A. Tel. E. J. 12 (1883) 419-. 

battery current and cause of diminishing 
strength. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 45 (1843) 
137-. 

benefit of fresh immersion. Page, C. G. Sil- 
liman J. 36 (1839) 137-. 

of platinum plates by cell not capable of decom- 
posing water. Figuier, . [1884] Bordeaux 
S. Sc. Mm. 2 (1886) xxv-. 

zinc-sulphuric acid cell. Anthony, W. A. 
Am. As. P. (1898) 138-. 

Depolarisers. 

(MnO 2 + H 2 S0 4 instead of HNO 3 . ) Guignet, E. 

C. R. 37 (1853) 174-. 
(Zn - NaCl | HNO 3 + MnO 2 - alloys of Sb.) Kuk- 

la, . B. A. Rp. (1853) (pt. 2) 44-. 
(AgCl, PbS0 4 and PbCLj.) Marie-Davy, . 

C. R. 49 (1859) 1004-. 
(HN0 3 + H 2 S0 4 ; KNO 3 [or NaNOJ + HC1.) 

Kahl, E. Z. Mth. Ps. 9 (1864) 292-. 
air. (Zn in KOH [or H 2 S0 4 ] in porous cell, 

strips of silver or platinum wound round cell 

and exposed to air.) Pulvermacher, J. L. 

C. R. 87 (1878) 22-. 
, warm. Rufz de Lavison, de. [1897] 

Z. Elektch. (1897-98) 276-. 



VOL. III. 



647 



5610 Depolarisers 

bromine. Kugel, M. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 

116-. 
chloride of lime. Monselise, G. (xn) Bv. 

Sc.-Ind. 4 (1872) 78-. 
. Niaudet-Breguet, A. C. B. 89 

(1879) 703- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1879) 206-. 
chromic acid. Warington, R. [1841] C. S. 

Mm. 1 (1841-43) 61-. 
. Poggendorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 57 (1842) 

101-. 

or chlorous acids. Wright, T. [1849] 
Edinb. E. S. P. 2 (1844-50) 223-. 

cupric chloride. Biasoletto, B. Trieste Bll. 8 

(1883) 302-. 
ferric chloride. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 92 (1854) 

117-. 
. Eccher, A. von. A. Ps. C. 129 (1866) 

93-. 
(Fe-FeCl 2 |Fe 2 Cl 6 -C). Pond, L. Ven. 

I. At. 2 (1875-76) 435-. 
and ferric oxide. Monselise, G. II Polit. 

20 (1872) 29-. 

, modification (Fe 2 Cl 6 + KClO 3 + HCl). 
Moore, T. C. N. 56 (1887) 64. 

hydrogen-peroxide instead of nitric acid. 

Kimig, A. A. Ps. C. 17 (1882) 347-. 
lead dioxide. Munck af Rosenschdld, P. S. 

Pogg. A. 35 (1835) 46- ; Lund Phys. Sallsk. 

Ts. 1 (1837) 15-. 

sulphate, etc. Becquerel, A. C. C. B. 50 
(1860) 660-. 

. Becquerel,E. C. B. 50 (1860) 685-. 
Oppermann's (Molybdan Salpetersaure [a pa- 
tent]). Anon. Cztg. Opt. 15 (1894) 235-. 

peroxides. Schonbein, C. F. C. B. 6 (1838) 

421-. 

. Beetz, W. A. Ps. C. 150 (1873) 535-. 
picric acid. Duchemin, E. C. B. 64 (1867) 760. 
potassium manganate. Nadezdin, A. I. [1885] 

Kiev S. Nt. Mm. 8 (1) (1886) 1-. 

permanganate. Koosen, J. H. A. Ps. C. 
144 (1872) 627-. 

Mechanical Depolarisation. 

Becquerel, A. C. C. B. 38 (1854) 238-. 
Bablon, V. [1884] Tel. E. J. 14 (1885) 64. 
gas carbon, platinised or coated witn deposit of 

silver or carbon. Figuier, . J. Phm. 11 

(1870) 280-. 
platinised graphite. Walker, C. V. B. S. P. 

9 (1857-59) 628-. 

platinum or platinised silver. Smee, A. 
Ph. Mg. 16 (1840) 315-. 

silver plate with square apertures. Mathiot, 
G. (vi Adds.) U.S. Coast Sv. Bp. (1854 
193*-. 

rotating metallic disks. Roberts, M. J. [1839] 
Edinb. B. S. P. 1 (1845) 248-. 

USES. 

Becquerel, E. (vn) Par. A. Cons. 1 (1861) 257-. 
[Naccari non] Nacari, A. Ven. At. 2 (1872- 

73) 75-, 193-, (x) 537-. 
Astrophysical work. Gothard, E. von. Cztg. 

Opt. 6 (1885) 49-. 
Balloons, etc. Anon. Aer. (1888) 169-. 



Uses 5610 

Comparison of costs. Ward, W. S. B. A. Bp. 

(1849) (pt. 2) 47. 
Connection of cells, method. Harper, . 

B. A. Bp. (1847) (pt. 2) 27. 
Derivation, theory, applied to construction and 

arrangement of cells. Martorey, F. A. Tel. 

1 (1856) 158-. 
Dynamos and batteries, comparison. Deprez, 

M. Lum. Elect. 6 (*1882) 250-. 
Economy of battery, and applications of elec- 

trotyping. Minotto, G. (vin) Bb. It. 2 

(1841) 121-. 
Experiments on animals and with pile of 1050 

pairs. Buntzen,T. Gilbert A. 15 (1803) 340-. 
Firing mines at Seaford Cliff. Ward, E. W. 

B. E. Pp. 1 (1851) 79-. 
Fluid of pile. Vassalli-Eandi, A. M. [1801] 

Turin Mm. Ac. (1802-03) 123-. 
Lighting. Gesse, . Lum. Elect. 1 (*1879) 

3-, 51-, 73-, 92-, 131-. 

. Reynier, E. Lum. Elect. 1 (*1879) 112-. 

. Ross, 0. G. D. (et alii). Elect. 12 (1884) 
81, etc. 

. Probert, I. Elect. 13 (1884) 161-, 183-. 

. Vohwinkel, E. Dingier 255 (1885) 431- ; 
256 (1885) 23-. 

. Lindemann, O. Elekttech. Z. 7 (1886) 
385-. 

. Ross, O.C.D. (et alii). Elect. 20 (1888) 
15-, etc.; 22 (1889) 263, etc. 

by Germain's generators. R., J. A. Tel. 
12 (1885) 446-. 

and power. Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 3 
(*1881) 375-. 

Management, practical. Dehms, F. Berl. Z. 

Tel. 14 (1867) 118-. 
Maximum dynamic effect. Highton, H. G. 

N. 23 (1871) 137. 

magnetic power. Highton, H. C. N. 22 
(1870) 205-. 

work obtainable from batteries. Hospitalier, 
E. Lum. Elect. 1 (*1879) 189-. 

Medical purposes, conditions of activity of 

battery and continuous current for. Hiffels- 

heim, . Par. S. Bl. Mm. 5 (1858) 253-. 
Oxy-hydrogen limelight, new. Stratingh, S. 

Mulder Arch. 6 (1838) 259-; Miquel Bll. 

(1839) 414-. 
Pile as motive power ; balls oscillating between 

poles of pile. Singer, G. J. Tilloch Ph. 

Mg. 45 (1815) 359-. 
Telegraph line, practical formulae for calculating 

number of cells required for. Lacoine, E. 



(x) Tel. J. 2 (1873-74) 332-. 
el 



Telegraphy. Phillips, S. E. Elect. 4 (1863) 
106-. 

. Dehms, F. J. Tel. 1 (1869-71) 61-, 73-, 
88-, 112-, 125-. 

. Graves, J. Tel. J. 1 (1872-73) 41-. 

. Sivewright, J. Tel. E. J. 4 (1875) 120-. 
Tests. Thomson, (Sir) W. Tel. E. J. 1 (1872- 

73) 399-. 

. Leclanche, G. C. B. 83 (1876) 1236^ 

. Becker, , & Pierard, . Lum. Elect. 
24 (1887) 460-. 

. Kennedy, R. Elect. Bv. 41 (1897) 883-, 
924-. 



648 



5610 



Tests for nitric acid by sulphate of indigo, in 
sulphuric acid employed. Walker, G. V. 
[1841] L. Electr. S.- P. (1843) 112-. 

THEORY OF PEIMARY CELLS. 

Lehot, C. J. J. de Ps. 52 (1801) 135-. 
Cuvier, G. J. de Ps. 52 (1801) 318-. 
Bostock, J. Nicholson J. 3 (1802) 69-. 
Gautherot, N. J. de Ps. 56 (1802) 429-. 
Pfaff, C. H. Gilbert A. 10 (1802) 219-. 
Reinhold, J. C. L. Gilbert A. 10 (1802) 301-. 
Parrot, G. F. [1802] Gilbert A. 12 (1803) 

49-. 
Vassalli-Eandi, A. M. Mod. S. It. Mm. 10 

(1803) 802-. 

Anon, (vi 873) Nicholson J. 8 (1804) 171-. 
Berzelius, J. J. Hisinger Afh. Fys. 2 (1807) 

14-; Gehlen J. 3 (1807) 177-. 
Schweigger, J. S. C. [1809] Erlang. Ab. 1 

(1810) 269-. 

Berzelius, J. J. Gilbert A. 35 (1810) 269-. 
Dessaignes, J. P. J. de Ps. 73 (1811) 230-, 

418-. 
Henry, W. Manch. Ph. S. Mm. 2 (1813) 

293-. 
(Henry.) De Luc, J. A. Nicholson J. 36 

(1813) 97-. 
La Metherie, J. G. de. J. de Ps. 76 (1813) 

460- ; 77 (1813) 36-; 78 (1814) 160-. 
Bostock, J. Thomson A. Ph. 3 (1814) 32-, 85-. 
(Various theories.) Pfaff, C. H. Schweigger 

J. 10 (1814) 179-. 

Donovan, M. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 45 (1815) 154-. 
Dessaignes, J. P. J. de Ps. 83 (1816) 415-. 
Parrett, E. Thomson A. Ph. 8 (1816) 74-. 
(Experiments and observations with calori- 

motor.) Hare, R. Silliman J. 1 (1818) 413-. 
Hare, R. Silliman J. 3 (1821) 105-. 
Motte, J. B. Louvain A. Ac. 3 (1822) 38 pp. 
Pohl, G. F. Oken Isis (1822) 390-. 
Becquerel, A. C. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. (1823) 

72-. 

Pfaff, J. W. Kastner Arch. Ntl. 11 (1827) 273-. 
Pohl, G. F. Kastner Arch. Ntl. 12 (1827) 

257-. 

Delarive, A. Gen. Mm. S. Ps. 4 (1828) 285-. 
Marianini, S. (vm) Mod. Mm. S. It. 20 (Fis. 

2) (1828) 347-. 
Fechner, G. T. Schweigger J. 57 (=Jb. 27) 

(1829) 1-, 291-. 

Pianciani, G. B. G. Arcad. 43 (1829) 273-. 
Delezenne, . Lille Mm. S. (1829-30) 1-. 
Matteucci, C. A. C. 45 (1830) 106-. 
Ohm, G. S. Schweigger J. 58 ( = Jb. 28) (1830) 

393-. 
Delarive, A. Gen. Mm. S. Ps. 6 (1833) 149- ; 

7 (1836) 457-. 
Fechner, G. T. Schweigger J. 67 ( = Jb. 7) 

(1833) 127-. 
Ohm, G. S. Schweigger J. 67 ( = Jb. 7) (1833) 

341-. 

Prideaux, J. Ph. Mg. 2 (1833) 210-, 251-. 
Delarive, A. L'l. 2 (1834) 246-. 
Nobili, L. Pogg. A. 33 (1834) 537-. 
Delarive, A. Bb. Un. 4 (1836) 152-. 
Lenz, E. St. Pei. Ac. Sc. Bll. 1 (1836) 169-. 
Marianini, S. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 6 (1836) 13-. 



Theory of Primary Cells 



5610 



Orsted, H. C. Kiob. Ov. (1835-36) 26-. 
Pohl, G. F. Bresl. Schl. Gs. libs. (1836) 38-. 
Mullins, F. W. Ph. Mg. 10 (1837) 281-. 
Peltier, A. C. R. 4 (1837) 64-; A. C. 67 

(1838) 422-; Par. S. Phlm. PV. (1837) 103-. 
Fechner, G. T. Pogg. A. 43 (1838) 433-; 44 

(1838) 37-. 

Schdnbein, C. F. Bb. Un. 14 (1838) 395-. 
Graham, T. B. A. Rp. (1839) (pt. 2) 29-. 
Pohl, G. F. Pogg. A. 46 (1839) 595-. 
Belli, G. Bb. It. 100 (1840) 186-. 
(De la Rive.) Vorsselman de Heer, P. 0. C. 

Pogg. A. 49 (1840) 109-. 
Martens, M. Brux. Ac. Bll. 8 (1841) (pte. 2) 

305- ; 9 (1842) 192-. 

Milne, J. Sturgeon A. Electr. 9 (1842) 312-. 
Poggendor/, J. C. Pogg. A. 55 (1842) 158-. 
Smee, A. Ph. Mg. 21 (1842) 248-. 
Bonaparte, L. C. [Napoleon III]. C. R. 16 

(1843) 1180-. 
(Ohm's.) Matteucci, C. Pisa Misc. Md. Chir. 

(1843) (pte. 2) 88-. 

Gassiot, J. P. Phil. Trans. (1844) 39-. 
Majocchi, G. A. (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. 

C. 20 (1845) 243-. 
Poggendor ff, J. C. Majocchi A. Fis. C. 25 

(1847) 234-. 

Pallet, . Amiens Mm. Ac. (1847) 189-. 
Osann, G. Wiirzb. Vh. 2 (1852) 272-. 
Becquerel, E. A. C. 48 (1856) 200-. 
Marie-Davy, . A. Tel. 2 (1859) 420-. 
Martens, M. Brux. Ac. Bll. 13 (1862) 36-. 
Thomson, (Sir) W. Manch. Ph. S. P. 2 (*1860- 

62) 176-. 

Ghiji, (I'abbe) . Les Mondes 17 (1868) 413-. 
Mohr, C. F. D. Nf. Tbl. (*1868) 200.. 
Bridgman, W. K. Ph. Mg. 38 (1869) 377-. 
Brown, J. Ph. Mg. 6 (1878) 142- ; 7 (1879) 

109- ; 11 (1881) 212-. 
Cantoni, G. Rm. R. Ac. Line. Mm. 3 (1879) 

301- ; 7 (1880) 255-. 
Exner, F. [1880] Wien Ak. Sb. 82 (1881) 

(Ab. 2) 376-. 

Brown, J. B. A. Rp. (1881) 562-. 
(Exner's.) Sokolov, A. (xn) Rs. Ps.-C. S. 

J. 13 (Ps.) (1881) [(Pt. 1)] 147- ; (xi) A. 

Ps. C. Beibl. 6 (1882) 251-. 
Witkowski, A. W. A. Ps. C. 19 (1883) 844-. 
Malavasi, L. Mod. Ac. Sc. Mm. 3 (1885) 

183- ; 6 (1888) 173-. 
Sohneke, L. [1888] Munch. Ak. Sb. 18 (1889) 

371-. 
Warburg, E. A. Ps. C. 38 (1889) 321- ; D. 

Nf. Tbl. (1889) 203-. 
Analysis (dry pile). De Luc, J. A. Nicholson 

J. 26 (1810) 113-, 241-. 
Application of Carnot's principle. Raveau, C. 

Eclair. Elect. 11 (1897) 97-, 251-. 
Cell with 2 acids. Fuchs, F. A. Ps. C. 159 

(1876) 486-. 
concentrated sulphuric acid, properties. 

Andrews, T. Ir. Ac. T. 18 (1838) 149-. 
Cells with acids and alkalies separated by porous 

bodies. Martens, M. Brux. Ac. Bll. 18 

(1851) (pte. 2) 14-. 
liquids only. Mutter, J. W. A. Ps. C. 

140 (1870) 114-, 380-. 



649 



G 2 



5610 Theory of Primary Cells 

Cells with 2 liquids in contact. Poggendorff, 
J. C. Berl. B. (1841) 151-. 

and 1 metal. Matteiicci, C. 

C. K. 33 (1851) 663-; A. C. 34 (1852) 
281-. 

2 metals not in contact. Pog- 
gendorff, J. C. Berl. B. (1839) 201- ; Pogg. 
A. 49 (1840) 31-. 

without metals (C- moist cloth - schist) . 
Gautherot, N. J. Med. Chir. Phm. 5 (1803) 
91-. 

Chemical action, quantity, relation to quantity 
of heat and electricity and light produced. 
Matteucci, C. Bb. Un. Arch. 4 (1847) 375-. 

and contact theories. Anon, (vu 739) Lieb. 
A. 24 (1837) 157-. 

. Faraday, M. Arch, de 1'Electr. 

3 (1843) 623-. 
. P., W. A. Elect. Ev. 45 (1899) 

1031-. 
electric theories. Ritchie, W. Phil. 

Trans. (1829) 361-. 

reactions, study by heat absorbed. Favre, 
P. A. C. B. 63 (1866) 369-. 

Conductors, liquid, polar activity. Pohl, G. 

F. Kastner Arch. Ntl. 2 (1824) 168- ; 3 

(1824) 1-, 257-; 6 (1825) 425-; Pogg. A. 16 

(1829) 101-. 
, and solid. Heidmann, J. A. Gilbert 

A. 21 (1805) 85-. 

_, (Heidmann). Pfaff, C. H. Gil- 
bert A. 23 (1806) 52-. 
, , behaviour, Bitter's electric system 

of bodies. Pfaff, C. H. Gehlen J. 5 (1808) 

82-. 
Contacl^and electric theories, connection. Buff , 

H. D. Nf. Vsm. B. (1842) 60-. 
oxidation, influence on development and 

duration of currents. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 

34 (1840) 137-. 

Derivation, application to construction and dis- 
position of cells. Mar tor ey, F. A. Tel. 1 

(1856) 158-. 
Dynamics. Williamson, A. W. (vin) Ph. 

Mg. 26 (1863) 452-; 27 (1864) 353-. 
. Napier, J. [1863] (vm) Ph. Mg. 27 

(1864) 52-. 
Efficiency, calculation. Fitz-Gerald, D. G. 

Elect. 12 (1884) 248-, 275. 
, relation of Peltier effect to. Gockel, A. 

A. Ps. C. 24 (1885) 618-. 

and work. Zacharias, J. Z. Elektch. 
(1895-96) 584-. 

Electric combinations. Schweigger, J. S. C. 

Gehlen J. 7 (1808) 537-. 
. Ritter, J. W. Gehlen J. 7 (1808) 544-, 

552-. 
. Schweigger, J. S. C. Gehlen J. 9 

(1810) 316-, 701-. 

condition of batteries, theory. Munck af 
RosenschSld, P. S. Pogg. A. 43 (1838) 193-, 
440-. 

Electrochemical and voltaic theories, recon- 
ciliation. Zamboni, G. Yen. At. 5 (1846) 
429-. 



E.M.F. Seat of E.M.F. 5610 



ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE. 

Pagliani, S. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 25 (1890) 739-. 
analysis. Moser, J. Wien Az. 24 (1887) 

232-; Mh. C. (1887) 508-. 
. Loschmidt, J. Wien Az. 24 (1887) 254. 
calculated and observed, cause of discrepancies 

between. Chaperon, G. C. B. 98 (1884) 

729-. 
calculation. Tommasi, D. Les Mondes 9 

(1884) 522-, 745-; A. Tel. 12 (1885) 259-. 
. Chroustchoff, P., & Sitnikoff, A. C. B. 

108 (1889) 937-. 

. Vaschy, . A. Tel. 16 (1889) 461-. 
from thermal constants. Tommasi, D. 

Elect. Bv. 45 (1899) 1063-. 
of different contacts of Daniell's cell. Goure 

de Villemontee, G. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1890) 

185-. 
and Faraday's sulphide of potassium cell. 

Kohlrausch, R. Pogg. A. 88 (1853) 464-. 
laws of variation. Crova, A. [1864] A. C. 

4 (1865) 28-. 
between 2 liquids. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 35 

(1840) 1-. 

. Pohl, G. F. Pogg. A. 54 (1841) 

515-. 
(Pohl). Poggendorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 

54 (1841) 590-. 
origin in Grove's cell. Kohlrausch, R. Pogg. 

A. 82 (1851) 407-. 



Seat of E. M. F. 

Helmholtz, H. Taylor Sc. Mm. (Nt. Ph.) 

(1853) 138- ; C. S. J. 39 (1881) 277-. 
Lodge, 0. J. B. A. Bp. (1884) 464-. 
Hoorweg, J. L. Utr. Prv. Gn. Aant. (1885) 

16-; Fschr. Ps. (1886) (Ab. 2) 613-. 
Lodge, 0. J. Ph. Mg. 19 (1885) 153, 190, 

254-, 340- ; Tel. E. J. 14 (1885) 186-, 224-. 
(Elactric energy in voltaic circuits.) Lodge, 

O. J. Ph. Mg. 19 (1885) 487-. 
Hopkinson, J. Ph. Mg. 20 (1885) 336-. 
(Theories of Wiedemann and Helmholtz.) 

Lodge, O. J. Ph. Mg. 20 (1885) 372-. 
(Lodge.) Ayrton, W. E., <& Perry, J. Ph. 

Mg. 21 (1886) 51-. 
(Ayrton & Perry.) Lodge, 0. J. Ph. Mg. 21 

(1886) 263-. 
Ostwald, W. [1886-95] Ph. Mg. 22 (1886) 

70-; Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 123-. 
Lodge, O. J. Elect. 37 (1896) 755. 
Swinburne, J. Elect. 37 (1896) 807. 
and impressed force and potential in condenser 

circuit. Heaviside, 0. Tel. E. J. 14 (1885) 



Electromotors, velocity of electricity in. Biot, 

J. B. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. (1816) 102-. 
Energy developed by Gray's and other batteries. 

Proctor, H. R. S. C. In. J. 2 (1883) 450-. 
, thermal study. Favre, P. A. C. B. 73 

(1871) 890-, 936-. 
transformation. Campetti, A. Tor. Ac. 

Sc. At. 27 (1892) 613-. 



650 



Theory of Primary Cells 



5610 



Experiments. Heidmann, J. A. [1806] A. 

C. 61 (1807) 70-. 

. Pollock, T. Electr. S. T. (1837-40) 111-. 
. Zantedeschi, F. A. Sc. Lomb. Ven. 11 

(1841) 278-. 
. Majocchi, G. A. (vi Adds.) Majocchi 

A. Fis. C. 19 (1845) 166- ; 24 (1846) 3-, 
243-. 

(Majocchi). Nicotra, L. N. Cim. 9 (1881) 
264-. 

Explanation of action. Pollock, T. Tilloch 

Ph. Mg. 64 (1824) 129-. 
Heat distribution. Murray, (Mr.) J. Edinb. 

Ph. J. 14 (1826) 57-. 

generated in cells, source. Maclean, M. 

B. A. Kp. (1892) 640-. 

, secondary. Jahn, H. A. Ps. C. 50 (1893) 

189-. 
History. Duhem, P. C. E. 113 (1891) 536- ; 

Lum. Elect. 42 (1891) 207-. 

and theory. Gay, J. J. de Ps. 8 (1889) 
527-. 

Hydrogen peroxide, autoxidation and the gas 

battery. Haber, F. [1900] Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 

419- ; 2 (1901) 130-. 
Inconstant cells. Exner, F. [1879] Wien 

Ak. Sb. 80 (1880) (Ab. 2) 1055-. 
. Sluguinov, N. P. Carl Rpm. 16 (1880) 

589-. 
Intensity and direction of current. Delarive, 

A. A. C. 37 (1828) 225-. 

Internal current, demonstration, experiments. 

[Marco, F. non] Felice, M. N. Cim. 10 

(1881) 257-. 
Irregularity in cells, cause. Hayes, H. V., 

& Trowbridge, J. Am. J. Sc. 30 (1885) 

Laws of the battery. Ritchie, W. Phil. 
Trans. (1832) 279-. 

. Marie-Davy,, (vi Adds.) Ma- 
jocchi A. Fis. C. 27 (1847) 166-. 

. Schmedding, G. J. D. Nf. Vsm. 

B. (1847) 365-. 

, experiments. Rogers, H. D., & 

Rogers, W. B. Silliman J. 27 (1835) 39-. 

Liquid in galvanic machines, use. Mulder, 
G. J. Mulder Arch. 1 (1833) 105-, 321- ; 

2 (1834) 243-. 

Magnetic reactions of currents according to 
nature of pile and composition of circuit, 
experiments. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] Cherb. 
Mm. S. Sc. 1 (1852) 168- ; C. B. 36 (1853) 
788-. 

Mathematical theory. Osann, G. Wiirzb. Vh. 

3 (1852) 11-. 

Mechanical theory. Chaperon, G. Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1886) 187-. 
Nature of the pile. Reinhold, J. G. L. Gilbert 

A. 10 (1802) 450- ; 12 (1803) 34-. 
Osmotic theory. Goodwin, H. M. Ps. Rv. 

4 (1897) 242-. 

. Couette, M. J. de Ps. 9 (1900) 200-, 

269-. 
Oxidation- and reduction-cells. Luther, R. 

[1900] Z. Elektch. (1900-01) 19-. 
, and influence of complex ions on 

E.M.F. Peters, R. Z. Ps. C. 26 

193-. 



5610 



Oxygen cells." Wolff, W. Exner Bpm. 24 



Phases in theory. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. 

Elect. 10 (1883) 1-, 69-, 97-, 129-, 162-, 

225-, 257-, 289-, 353-. 
Phenomena of galvanic charge, explanation 

according to unitary theory. Nystrom, G. A. 

[1878] J. Tel. 4 (1878-80) 243-. 
, normal and abnormal. Henrici, F. C. 

Pogg. A. 55 (1842) 253-, 455-; 58 (1843) 

61-, 375-. 
Pile in air, oxygen absorbed. Biot, J. B., <& 

Cuvier, . A. C. 39 (1801) 242-. 

and couronne des tosses. Volta, A. Phil. 
Trans. (1800) 403-. 

in different gases, oxygen absorbed. Pepys, 
W. H. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 10 (1801) 38-. 

Plates, effect of pair of small plates in battery 
with larger ones. Halse, W. H. Sturgeon 

A. Electr. 4 (1839-40) 410-. 

, excitement. De Luc, J. A. Nicholson J. 

26 (1810) 69-. 
, (De Luc). Maycock, J. D. Tilloch Ph. 

Mg. 48 (1816) 165-, 255-. 
, large and small metallic, in acid, relation. 

Vliet, A. F. van der. Mulder Arch. 3 (1835) 

19-. 
, , relation. Kiilp, L. Arch. Mth. 

Ps. 58 (1876) 448 ; 59 (1876) 108-. 
, , zinc, in acid, relation. Hoax- 
man, P. J.,<& Vliet, A. [F. non] T. van der. 

Mulder Arch. 1 (1833) 298-. 
, metallic, effect of dimensions. Negro, S. 

dal. A. Sc. Lomb. Ven. 8 (1838) 194-. 
Power, source. Faraday, M. [1839] Phil. 

Trans. (1840) 61-, 93-. 
, (Faraday). Poulsen, C. M. Sk. Nf. 

F. 3 (1842) 399-. 
Processes in carbon fused alkali-metal cell. 

Liebenow, C., <& Strasser, L. Z. Elektch. 

(1896-97) 353-. 

of the cell. Pohl, G. F. Pogg. A. 3 (1825) 
183-. 

Production of current, paradox (more electricity 
obtained from small plates than from large). 
Delaurier, . Les Mondes 23 (1870) 536-. 

Beplacement of electropositive by electronega- 
tive metal. Gladstone, J. H., & Tribe, A. 
[1875] B. S. P. 24 (1876) 47-. 

. Skey, W. N. Z. I. T. 8 
(1876) 343-. 

Beturn current. Delarive, A. Gen. Mm. S. 
Ps. 7 (1836) 491-. 

(Delarive). Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. 

B. (1842) 151-. 

(Poggendorff). Delarive, A. Arch, de 

1'Electr. 2 (1842) 481-. 
. Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. B. (1843) 

275-. 
Reversible cells. Nernst, W. Berl. Ak. Sb. 

(1889) 83-. 
Solution of metals. Nernst, . [1894] Z. 

Elekttech. Elektch. (1894-95) 243-. 
Theory and practice. Cooper, W. R. Elect. 

31 (1893) 636-, 674-, 692-; 32 (1894) 7-. 
Thermal study. Favre, P. A. G. B. 67 

(1868) 1012- ; 68 (1869) 1300-, 1306-, 1520- ; 

69 (1869) 34-. 



651 



5610 



Chemical Theory of Primary Cells 



5610 



Thermodynamics. Duhem, P. C. K. 99 (1884) Becquerel's battery. Henrici, F. C. Pogg. A. 



1113-. 

Love E. F. J. Aust. As. Ep. (1898) 71-. 
. Carhart, H. S. Ps. Ev. 11 (1900) 1-. 
Variance of cell. Bancroft, W. D. J. Ps. C. 
2 (1898) 427-. 

CHEMICAL THEORY. 

L., . Crell C. A. 1 (1802) 78-. 

Biot, J. B. A. C. 47 (1803) 5-. 

Lehot, C. J. Bb. Brit. 50 (1812) 76-. 

Becquerel, A. C. A. C. 26 (1824) 176-. 

Davy, (Sir) H. Phil. Trans. (1826) (pt. 3) 
383- 

Delarive, A. Gen. Mm. S. Ps. 4 (1828) 285-. 

Marianini, S. A. C. 45 (1830) 28-, 113-. 

(Marianini.) Parrot, G. F. A. C. 46 (1831) 
361-. 

(Source, quantity, intensity, and general cha- 
racters of electricity.) Faraday, M. Phil. 
Trans. (1834) 425-. 

Delarive, A. C. E. 1 (1835) 311-. 

Marianini, S. [1836] Mod. Mm. S. It. 21 

(1837) (Fit.) 205-. 

Schdnbein, C. F. Pogg. A. 39 (1836) 351-. 
Marianini, S. (vm) Mm. Fis. Sperim. 2 

(1838) 3-. 

Osann, G. Erdm. J. Pr. C. 14 (1838) 479-. 
Schdnbein, C. F. Pogg. A. 43 (1838) 229-. 
Poggendorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 44 (1838) 642-. 
Pfaff, C. H. Pogg. A. 51 (1840) 110-, 197-. 
Poggendorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 54 (1841) 353- ; 

Berl. B. (1842) 275-. 
Matteucci, C. A. C. 10 (1844) 78- ; (vi Adds.) 

H Cim. 3 (1845) 3-. 
Poggendorff, J. C. Majocchi A. Fis. C. 26 

(1847) 37-. 

Schonbein, C. F. Sch. Gs. Vh. (1849) 98-. 
Delarive, A. Bb. Un. Arch. 30 (1855) 185-. 
Bosscha, J. (vi Adds.) Utr. Aant. Prv. Gn. 

(1859) 7-. 

Henrici, F. C. Pogg. A. Ill (1860) 136-. 
(Henrici.) Wiillner, A. Pogg. A. Ill (1860) 

630-. 
Cooke, J. P. Franklin I. J. 62 (1871) 329-, 

406- ; 63 (1872) 131- ; 64 (1872) 61-. 
Rheineck, H. Dingier 203 (1872) 41-. 
Levay, E. Orv.-Termt. Ets. (Termt.-Szak) 

(1890) 15-, 337-. 
Andreas, E. [1896] Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 

188-. 

Weyde, J. F. Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 363-, 382-. 
Action of acid on alkali. Becquerel, A. C. 

C. E. 1 (1835) 455-. 
between metals and fused sulphur or salts 

at high temperatures, experiments. Kemp, 

K. T. Edinb. J. Nt. Gg. Sc. 1 (1830) 183-. 
Ammonia, production in nitric acid batteries. 

Levison, W. Franklin I. J. 65 (1873) 303-. 
Becquerel's battery. Mohr, C. F. Pogg. A. 

39 (1836) 129-. 
. Pfaff, C. H. [1837-38] Pogg. A. 40 

(1837) 443- ; 44 (1838) 542- ; Sturgeon A. 

Electr. 3 (1838-39) 52-. 

. Mohr, C. F. Pogg. A. 42 (1837) 76-. 

. Fechner, G. T. Pogg. A. 48 (1839) 1-, 

225-. 



48 (1839) 372-. 
. Liebig, J. von. Lieb. A. 36 (1840) 

161-. 
Chemical action and calorific effects. Favre, 

P. A. C. E. 36 (1853) 342-. 
, connection of galvanism and magnetism 

with. Pfaff, C. H. Gilbert A. 68 (1821) 

298-. 

and effect produced by current, rela- 
tion. Clausius, R. Bb. Un. Arch. 36 (1857) 

119-. 
, (Clausius). Soret, J. 

L. Bb. Un. Arch. 36 (1857) 123-. 
electricity, equivalence. Braun, F. 

A. Ps. C. 5 (1878) 182- ; 16 (1882) 561-. 
external effects of currents. Despretz, 

C. C. E. 31 (1850) 418-. 

, identity in simple galvanic cell and 
voltaic pile. Pfaff, C. H. Schweigger J. 
64 ( = Jb. 4) (1832) 1-, 129-. 

of 2-liquid cells. Despretz, C. C. E. 

33 (1851) 185- ; 34 (1852) 737-, 781- ; 35 
(1852) 449-; 38 (1854) 897-. 

single couple, and means of in- 
creasing power. Delarive, A. C. E. 16 
(1843) 772-; Walker Electr. Mg. 1 (1845) 
77-. 

Combination of acids and bases ; and con- 
ductivity of acids. Matteucci, C. C. E. 29 
(1849) 806- ; Majocchi A. Fis. C. 4 (1850) 
46-, 113-. 

Currents produced by chemical change in solu- 
tion, electrodes not attacked. Gore, G. 
Birm. Ph. S. P. 4 (1883-85) 414-. 

Daniell's battery. Kohlrausch, R. Pogg. A. 
79 (1850) 177-. 

. Tyrtov, N. [1852-59] St. Pet. Ac. 

Sc. Bll. 11 (1853) 56-; Bb. Un. Arch. 4 
(1859) 185. 

Electric tension without metallic contact. Gas- 
siot, J. P. Ph. Mg. 25 (1844) 283-. 

Electricity produced by oxidation. Chemical 
action of current from pile and electric 
machine. Wollaston, W. H. Phil. Trans. 
(1801) 427-. 

Electrochemical theory. Zamboni, G. A. 
Sc. Lomb. Yen. 4 (1834) 128- ; 6 (1836) 
24-. 

(Zamboni). Fusinieri, A. A. Sc. 

Lomb. Yen. 4 (1834) 132- ; 6 (1836) 31-. 

. Zamboni, G. Bb. Un. 8 (1837) 
189-. 

, difficulties in. Fechner, G. T. Schweig- 
ger J. 52 (= Jb. 22) (1828) 27-. 

, objections. Delaurier, . Les Mondes 

22 (1870) 309-. 

Electrogalvanic action between metallic sur- 
faces and liquids, variable strength. Buff, 
H. Lieb. A. 34 (1840) 241-. 

Energy, chemical and electric. Jahn, H. A. 
Ps. C. 28 (1886) 21-, 491-. 

, , measurements. Toscani, C. N. Cim. 
18 (1885) 183-. 

, , transformation into electric. Braun, F. 
Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 673-. 

, , . Miller, L. Z. Ps. C. 10 

1892) 459-. 



652 



5610 Chemical Theory 



Contact Theory of Primary Cells 5610 



Energy, chemical, transformation into electric 

(Braun). Vogel,F. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 

23-. 
, , . Le Blanc, . Dresden Isis 

Sb. (1896) 14-. 
Experiments. Parrot, G. F. [1837] St. Pet. 

Ac. Sc. Mm. 3 (1838) 487-. 
. Wiillner, A. Pogg. A. 109 (1860) 94-. 
. Malavasi, L. Mod. Ac. Sc. Mm. 19 

(1879) 145-. 
Leclanche cell. Divers, E. C. N. 46 (1882) 

259-. 

and similar cells, reactions in. Ditte, A. 
C. E. 116 (1893) 812-, 984-. 

- , , (Ditte). Renault, A. Lum. 

Elect. 48 (1893) 351-, 412-. 
Nitric acid in Grove's cell, reduction. Eoyer, 

E. C. E. 70 (1870) 158-. 

Nitrous acid in Grove's cell. Ihle, . [1895] 

Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 174-. 
Oxidation of platinum, and chemical theory. 

Delarive, A. C. B. 7 (1838) 1061-. 
Oxygen, free, action. Beetz, W. Pogg. A. 74 

(1849) 381-. 
Peculiar voltaic arrangements. Schonbein, C. 

F. Ph. Mg. 15 (1839) 136-. 
Performance of mechanical work, influence on 

running down of batteries. Lodge, O. Tel. 
J. 18 (1886) 136-. 

Pile, chemical effects on atmosphere. Nauche, 
J. Nauche J. du Galvan. 2 (1803) 49-. 

with 500 pairs, electroscopic, magnetic, 
chemical and physiological effects. Gassiot, 
J. P. [1839] (vi Adds.) Electr. S. P. 
(1837-40) 170-. 

Source of electricity, S and P in solution of 

KOH. Gray, J. St. C. C. N. 24 (1871) 

63-. 
Sulphides, formation at high temperature. H. 

(vi Adds.) Schweigger J. 3 (1811) 268. 
Sulphur cells. Bidwell, S. C. N. 52 (1885) 

219- ; L. Ps. S. P. 7 (1886) 256- ; Ph. Mg. 

20 (1885) 328-. 
Thermoxygenic theory, objections. Brugna- 

telli, L. V. Brugnatelli G. 1 (1808) 28-. 
Water- and hydrogen peroxide batteries. Adie, 

Rich. [1847-49] C. S. Mm. 3 (1845-48) 

380- ; C. S. J. 1 (1849) 12- ; 2 (1850) 97-. 
Zinc, influence of composition. Mulder, G. J. 

Mulder Arch. 2 (1834) 440-. 

on open circuit, effects of local action of. 
Reynier, E. [1883] Tel. E. J. 13 (*1884) 

, solution in dilute sulphuric acid in in- 
sulating and non-insulating vessels. Vlvet, 
A. F. van der. Mulder Arch. 4 (1836) 205- ; 
Miquel Bll. (1838) 7-. 

CONTACT THEORY. 
(See also 5210.) 

Volta, A. [1794-1800] N. Cim. 15 (1862) 184- ; 
Phil. Trans. ' '"" 



Erman, P. Gilbert A. 11 (1802) 89-. 
Volta, A. Bb. Brit. 19 (1802) 274-, 339-. 
(Difficulties.) Jager, . Gilbert A. 23 (1806) 
59. 



Gilbert, L. W. Gilbert A. 28 (1808) 203-. 
Ohm, G. S. Schweigger J. 46 (= Jb. 16) (1826) 

(Delarive's objections.) Pfaff, C. H. A. C. 

41 (1829) 236-. 

Karsten, C. J. B. Berl. B. (1836) 9-. 
Fechner, G. T. Pogg. A. 42 (1837) 481-. 
Marianini, S. (vin) Mm. Fis. Sperim. 2 

(1838) 67-. 
(Fechner.) Schonbein, C. F. Ph. Mg. 13 

(1838) 161- ; Pogg. A. 44 (1838) 59-. 
Becquerel, A. C. C. E. 8 (1839) 424-. 
Liebig, J. von. Lieb. A. 36 (1840) 153-. 
Peclet, E. Arch, de 1'Electr. 1 (1841) 621-. 
Henrici, F. C. Pogg. A. 64 (1845) 345-. 
Buff, H. Lieb. A. 83 (1852) 249-. 
(Confirmation.) Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 51 

(1860) 461-. 
Fleming, J. A. L. Ps. S. P. 1 (1876) 1- ; Ph. 

Mg. 47 (1874) 401-. 
Righi, A. J. de Ps. 3 (1874) 19-. 
Clifton, R. B. [1877] E. S. P. 26 (1878) 

299-. 
Perry, J., <& Ayrton, W. E. [1878] Phil. 

Trans. 171 (1880) 15-. 
Exner, F. [1879] Wien Ak. Sb. 80 (1880) 

(Ab. 2) 307-. 
(Exner.) Perry, J., & Ayrton, W. E. [1880] 

L. Ps. S. P. 4 (1881) 81- ; Ph. Mg. 11 (1881) 

43. 
Provenzali, F. S. Em. N. Line. At. 33 (1880) 

317-. 

Hart, S. L. Ph. Mg. 12 (1881) 324-. 
(Exner.) Stolyetov, A. G. (xn) Es. Ps.-C. S. 

J. 13 (Ps.) (1881) \_(Pt. 1)] 135-. 
( .) Sokolov, A. P. (xn) Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 

13 (Ps.) (1881) [(Pt. 1)] 147- ; (xi) A. Ps. C. 

Beibl. 6 (1882) 251-. 
Exner, F. [1882] Wien Ak. Sb. 86 (1883) 

(Ab. 2) 551- . 

Potier, A. J. de Ps. 4 (1885) 220-. 
Exner, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 95 (1887) (Ab. 2) 

595-. 
(Exner.) Uljanin, W. von. A. Ps. C. 30 

(1887) 699-. 

( .) Hallwachs, W. A. Ps. C. 32 (1887) 64-. 
Exner, F. A. Ps. C. 32 (1887) 515-. 
(Exner.) Uljanin, W. von. A. Ps. C. 33 

(1888) 238. 

Martini, T. Ven. Aten. (1890) 160-, 325-, 

546-; 1 (1891) 80-. 

Parker, J. Camb. Ph. S. P. 7 (1892) 269-. 
Experiments. Pellat, H. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1880) 176-. 
. Exner, F. [1882] Wien Ak. Sb. 86 (1883) 

(Ab. 2) 551-. 
Experimentum crucis. Pfaff, C. H. Pogg. A. 

53 (1841) 303-. 
(Pfaff). Berzelius, J. J. Sturgeon A. 

Electr. 8 (1842) 80-. 
Gases and glowing matter. Elster, J., & 

Geitel, H. A. Ps. C. 19 (1883) 588-. 
metals. Schulze-Berge, F. A. Ps. C. 

12 (1881) 293-. 
Good conductors. Peclet, E. C. E. 7 (1838) 

930- ; Pogg. A. 46 (1839) 346-. 
Metals and liquids. Becquerel, A. C. A. C. 25 

(1824) 405- ; 27 (1824) 5-. 



653 



Theory and Construction of Secondary Cells 



5620 



Metals and liquids. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 42 
(1842) 1-, 5-. 

in water. Gerland, E. A. Ps. C. 133 
(1868) 513- ; 137 (1869) 552-. 

Yalta's Fundamental Experiment. 

Biot, J. B. [1801] Par. Mm. de I'l. 5 (1804) 

(Hist.) 195-. 

Fourcroy, A. F. de. A. C. 41 (1801) 3-. 
Pfaff, C. H. Gilbert A. 9 (1801) 419- ; 68 

(1821) 275-; Schweigger J. 46 (=Jb. 16) 

(1826) 129-. 
Fechner, G. T. Schweigger J. 53 (=Jb. 23) 

(1828) 429-; 56 (=Jb. 26) (1829) 223-. 
Dellmann, F. Pogg. A. 58 (1843) 49-. 
Zahn, W. von. Leip. Nf. Gs. Sb. 2 (1875) 

59-. 
Mttller, H. W., & De la Rue, W. [1876] E. 

S. P. 25 (1877) 258-. 
apparatus for. Fechner, G. T. Pogg. A. 41 

(1837) 225-. 
contact in vacuo. Zahn, W. von. D. Nf. Tbl. 

(*1879) 178. 
experiments apparently opposed to Volta's 

theory. Schweigger, J. S. C. Gilbert A. 

22 (1806) 407- ; 23 (1806) 114-. 
theory. Exner, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 81 (1880) 

(Ab. 2) 1220-. 

(Exner). Schulze-Berge, F. A. Ps. C. 12 
(1881) 319- ; 15 (1882) 440-. 

( ). Julius, V. A. A. Ps. C. 13 (1881) 
276. 



5620 Theory and Construction 
of Secondary Cells. 

CELLS. 

(Charging pile (pile secondaire) of copper and 

moist cardboard disks charged by voltaic 

pile.) Eitter, J. W. J. de Ps. 57 (1803) 

345-. 
( , Bitter's, non-existence.) Brugnatelli, 

L. V. Gilbert A. 19 (1805) 490-. 
( , .) Marianini, S. Brugnatelli G. 9 

(1826) 253-, 346-. 
( , phenomena.) Pfaff, C. H. Pogg. A. 

49 (1840) 461-. 
Kempe, H. B. [1872] Tel. E. J. 1 (1872-73) 

86. 
Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 

2. 

Munro, J. Pop. Sc. Bv. 20 (1881) 320-. 
Bousse, J. C. B. 93 (1881) 545-. 
Sutton, H. [1881] B. S. P. 33 (1882) 187-, 

257-. 
Swan, J. W. [1881] Newcastle C. S. T. 5 

(1883) 122-. 
Thomson, (Sir) W. Nt. 24 (1881) 137, 156, 

157. 
Barker, G. F. [1882] Am. As. P. 31 (1883) 

207-. 

Allard, E. A. Pon. Chauss. 6 (1883) 417-. 
Gtraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 426-. 
Kingzett, C. T. S. C. In. J. 2 (1883) 194-. 



Ettinqshausen, 
xlvi-. 



5620 



A. von. Steierm. Mt. (1884) 



Holthof, F. Humb. 3 (1884) 404-. 

Lodge, O. Elect. 12 (1884) 15-, 43- ; Nt. 30 

(1884) 585-. 

Metz, . [1884] Offenb. Vr. Nt. B. 24 & 25 

(1885) 64-. 

Preece, W. H. Science 4 (1884) 315. 
Reynier, E. Par. Ing. Civ. Mm. (1884) (Pt. 2) 

43-. 

Schubring, . Z. Nw. 57 (1884) 345-. 
Kalischer, . Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1885) 19-. 
Reckenzaun, A. (etalii). Elect. 15 (1885) 119, 

etc. 
Schenek, S., & Farbaky, S. Dingier 257 

(1885) 357-, 458-. 
Sellon, J. S. (et alii). Tel. J. 16 (1885) 40-, 

etc. ; 17 (1885) 18-, etc. 
Donati, L. Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 7 (1886) 

209-. 
Drake, B., <& Gorham, J. M. Elect. 17 (1886) 

384-. 

Hedges, K. Elect. 19 (1887) 485-. 
Preece, W. H. Elect. 22 (1889) 734-. 
Clas, F., & Weyde, J. F. Elekttech. Z. 11 

(1890) 275-. 

Kohlrausch, W. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 657-. 
Salom, P. G. Am. I. Mn. E. T. 18 (1890) 

348-. 
Meissen, E. Cztg. Opt. 12 (1891) 149-, 162-, 

172-. 
Robertson, G. H. Elect. 28 (1892) 121-, 144-, 

176-. 
Salom, P. G. Franklin I. J. 136 (1893) 

321-. 
Callsen, . [1894] Schl.-Holst. Nt. Vr. Schr. 

10 (1895) 314-. 

Lenz, K. S. C. In. J. 13 (1894) 158-. 
Earle, H. A. Elect. 35 (1895) 685-. 
Epstein, J. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1894-95) 

43-. 
Kowalski, von. [1895] Z. Elektch. (1895- 

96) 171-. 
Gleue, . [1897] Liineb. Nt. Vr. Jh. 14 

(1898) xxxii-. 

Moore, B. E. Ps. Bv. 4 (1897) 353-. 
Strasser, . Z. Angew. C. (1897) 583-. 
Schmidt, K. [1897] Z. Angew. C. (1898) 27. 
Tommasi, D. Par. S. C. Bll. 17 (1897) 211-. 
Anon. A. Cond. Pon. Chauss. 42 (1898) 56-, 

230-. 

Bomtrager, H. Z. Elektch. (1898-99) 324. 
Mugdan, M. [1899] Z. Elektch. (1899-1900) 

309-. 
Wade, E. J. I. Elect. E. J. 29 (1900) 460-, 

524-. 
absorption of electrolytic gas by porous metals. 

Cailletet, L., & Collardeau, E. C. B. 119 

(1894) 830-. 

action. Osann, G. Wiirzb. Vh. 4 (1854) 22-. 
. Kohlrausch, W. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 

228-. 
, local. Gladstone, J. H. B. A. Bp. (1882) 

447-. 

alkaline. E., P. B. Tel. J. 24 (1889) 57- 
. Greville, A. E. (et alii). Elect. 22 (1889) 

350, etc. 
. Rovelli, C. Bv. Sc.-Ind. 21 (1889) 223-. 






654 



5620 



Secondary Cells 



5620 



alkaline and carbon. Stine, W. M. Am. As. 

P. (1891) 144-. 
, Desmazures. Reynier, E. [1887] Elect. 

20 (1888) 13. 
in America. Wetzler, J. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

567. 
ammonium -chloride, with carbon plates. Stine, 

W. M. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 61. 
application. Aron, H. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 

3 (1882) 222-. 

. Montillot, . Ev. Sc. 45 (1890) 690-. 
back current through diffusing gases. Danneel, 

H. [1897] Z. Elektch. (1897-98) 211-, 

227-. 
instead of batteries in post-office, Paris. Be- 

lugou, V. A. Tel. 2Q (1893) 303-. 
Boese's. Reyval, J. Eclair. Elect. 7 (1896) 

308-. 
Brush, experiments with. Cross, C. R. Elect. 

12 (1884) 294-. 
calculations. Schroder, L. Elekttech. Z. 12 

(1891) 585-; 13 (1892) 566-. 
capacity. Bandsept, A. Les Mondes 7 (1884) 

452-. 
, constancy. Muirhead, A. B. A. Ep. 

(1879) 283-. 

, dependence on strength of discharge cur- 
rent. Peukert, W. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 

287-. 
, influence of density of acid. Heim, C. 

Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 88-. , 
, . Jumau, L. Eclair. Elect. 

18 (1899) 201-. 
, mode of discharge. Reyval, J. 

Eclair. Elect. 15 (1898) 143-. 
, and quantity of acid required in. Fitz- 

Gerald, D. G. [1896] I. Elect. E. J. 25 

(1897) 78-. 
, with variable current strength, calculation. 

Liebenoiv, . [1897] Z. Elektch. (1897- 

98) 58-. 
with carbon electrodes. Sauvage, H. A. Tel. 

7 (1880) 110-. 
. Tommasi, D. Les Mondes 3 (1882) 

528-. 
and oxide of manganese electrodes and 

electrolyte containing chlorine. Heil, . 

[1896] Z. Elektch. (1897-98) 142. 



CHARGE. 

automatic registration. Crova, A., & Garbe, 

P. C. E. 100 (1885) 1340-. 
at constant potential. Heim, C. Elekttech. 

Z. 21 (1900) 269-, 288-, 309-, 329-, 347-, 

391-, 416-, 438-, 463-, 487-, 504-. 
and at constant current. Cahen, A. A., 

& Donaldson, J. M. Elect. 41 (1898) 674-, 

710-. 
and discharge indicator. Anon. Tel. J. 18 

(1886) 205-. 
, measurement of resistances during. 

Boccali, C. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 51-. 
equalising. Salomons, (Sir) D. Elect. 15 



licator. Roux, . Tel. E. J. 20 (1892) 

258-. 



indicator. Bellati, M. Padova Ac. At. e Mm. 

15 (1899) 249-. 
quick charge accumulators. Blanchon, . 

Elect. 39 (1897) 551-. 
from source of lower E.M.F. Bablon, V. 

Tel. E. J. 13 (1884) 621. 

charging. Preece, W. H. E. S. P. 38 (1885) 
348-. 

by alternating currents. Pollak, . [1895] 
Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 133-. 

, apparatus for. Behrend, O. 
Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 211-. 

and discharging. Crova, , & Garbe, . 
C. E. 101 (1885) 240-. 

, evolution of gas in. Briiggemann, C. 
Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 341-. 

by wind power. Karsten, G. [1893] Schl.- 
Holst. Nt. Vr. Schr. 10 (1895) 61-. 

and water power. Karsten, G. [1893] 

Schl. -Hoist. Nt. Vr. Schr. 10 (1895) 62-. 
chemistry. Frankland, E. E. S. P. 35 (1883) 

67-. 
. Lodzinskij, . Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 19 (C.) 

(1887) 542-; C. S. J. 54 (1888) (Abs.) 1141-. 
. Frankland, E. [1889] E. S. P. 46 (1890) 

304-. 
. Ayrton, W. E., Lamb, C. G., & Smith, 

E. W. [1890] I. Elect. E. J. 19 (1891) 
660-, 690-, 724-. 

. Gladstone, J. H., & Hibbert, W. L. Ps. 

S. P. 10 (1890) 448-; 11 (1892) 44-; Ph. Mg. 

30 (1890) 162- ; 31 (1891) 42-. 
. Robertson, G. H. Elect. 27 (1891) 165-, 

256. 

. Hibbert, W. Elect. 27 (1891) 229-. 
. Cantor, M. A. Ps. C. 47 (1892) 424-. 
. Darrieus, G. [1892-94] Elect. 29 (1892) 

359; Nt. 51(1894-95)37-. 
. Cooper, W. R. Elect. 35 (1895) 290-. 
. Elbs, K., <& Schdnherr, 0. Z. Elekttech. 

Elektch. (1894-95) 473-. 
chloride. Lloyd, H. Franklin I. J. 136 (1893) 

306-. 
. Franklin Inst. Comm. Franklin I. J. 138 

(1894) 240-. 

of lead. Andreoli, E. Elect. Ev. 33 (1893) 
494; 34 (1894) 508, 592; 35 (1894) 117-. 

combined primary and secondary, with 3 elec- 
trodes. Jablochkoff; . C. E. 100 (1885) 
1214-. 

comparison of various types, experiments. 
Martini, T. Ven. I. At. (1887-88) 581-. 

conduction and accumulation, principles. Webb, 

F. C. Elect. 1 (1862) 110-, 122-, 135-, 160-, 
171_, 184-, 195-, 208-, 220-, 231-, 243-, 
269-, 292-, 295-; 2 (1862) 3-, 16-, 27-, 40-, 
51-, 64-, 75-, 87-, 98-, 109-, 122-, 146-, 
158-, 169-, 182-, 197-, 207-, 231-, 242-, 
266-, 278-, 290-, 302- ; 3 (1863) 132-. 

constant, regenerated by electrolysis. Reynier, 

E. C. E. 90 (1880) 1550-. 
construction and action. Schenek, I. [1890] 

Mag. Tud. Ak. Etk. (Termt.) 20 (1891) No. 1, 

30 pp. ; Mth. Nt. B. Ung. 8 (1891) 1-. 
effectiveness. Bandsept, A. Elect. 12 

(1884) 85-. 



655 



5620 Electromotive Force Secondary Cells 



Gas Cells 5620 



construction of Eussian accumulators. Savickij, 
N. N. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 18 (Ps.) (1886) 52. 

and use and management. Reckenzaun, A. 
Tel. J. 19 (1886) 512-, 583-, 608- ; 20 (1887) 
46-, 98-, 218-, 250-, 303-, 319-, 347-, 423-, 
589-; 21 (1887) 79-; 22 (1888) 7-, 665-; 23 
(1888) 7, 36-, 120-, 201, 508-. 

r. Finot, . [1887] A. Tel. 15 (1888) 



- alkali. Rovelli, C. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 22 (1890) 
126-. 

oxide, Boettcher's. Des Coudres, T. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 13 (1892) 316. 

currents. Orsted, H. C. Gilbert A. 19 (1805) 

488-. 

. Matteucci, C. Bb. Un. 17 (1838) 378-. 
. Schimbein, C. F. C. B. 7 (1838) 741. 
and currents. Parnell, J. Ph. Mg. 39 (1870) 

52-. 
currents, applications. Plante, G. C. E. 66 

(1868) 1255- ; A. C. 15 (1868) 5-; C. E. 77 

(1873) 466-. 
, effects. Tricht, V. van. Ev. Quest. Sc. 6 

(*1879) 83-. 
, experiments. Matteucci, C. C. E. 11 

(1840) 240-. 

obtained from pairs of polarised platinum 
plates. Poggendorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 61 
(1844) 408-. 

used to accumulate or transform effects of 
voltaic pile. Plante, G. C. E. 74 (1872) 
592- ; Les Mondes 27 (1872) 425-, 469-. 

discharge. Frankland, E. Elect. 13 (1884) 
471-. 

. Michalke, C. Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 
149-. 

dry. Elster, J., & Geitel, H. A. Ps. C. 19 
(1883) 489-. 

efficiency. Eeynier, E. C. E. 92 (1881) 
1093-. 

, calculation. Aron, H. (xn) Elekttech. 
Z. 4 (1883) 342-. 

, (Aron). Hallwachs, W. (xn) Elekt- 
tech. Z. 4 (1883) 504-. 

and electric magnitudes, relations. Haber- 
lein, W. A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 393-. 

, working-. Ayrton, W. E., Lamb, C. G., 
Smith, E. W., & Woods, M. W. [1890] I. 
Elect. E. J. 19 (1891) 539-. 

of the Electrical Power Storage Company. 
Ruhlmann, R. Elekttech. Z. 7 (1886) 401-. 

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE. 

and efficiency, dependence on concentration of 

acid. Dolezalek, F. Z. Elektch. (1897-98) 

349-. 
and resistance. Hallwachs, W. (xn) 

Elekttech. Z. 4 (1883) 200-, 301-. 
of gas-batteries. Peirce, B. 0. A. Ps. C. 8 

(1879) 98-. 
high pressure accumulator. Smith, F. J. Ph. 

Mg. 15 (1883) 203-. 

tension batteries. Zehnder, L. A. Ps. C. 
60 (1897) 47-. 

. Schoop, M. U. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 
(1901) 89. 



of lead peroxide deposits. Guebhard, A. As. 
Fr. C. E. 12 (1883) 311-. 

palladium in gas-batteries. Villari, E. 
Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 2 (1869) 1085-. 

reversible cell, dependence on pressure 
exerted on fluid of cell. Niemoller, F. A. 
Ps. C. 18 (1883) 429-. 

temperature coefficient. Meyer, G. A. Ps. C. 

33 (1888) 265-. 
time of potential decrease. Hopfelt, R. [1895] 

Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 194-. 
variations. Reynier, E. C. B. 98 (1884) 

224-. 
, cause. Gladstone, J. H., & Hibbert, W. 

[1892] I. Elect. E. J. 21 (1893) 412-, 

443-. 

at Exhibition, Frankfurt, 1891. Epstein, J. 
Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1891-92) 45. 

, Munich International. Guerout, A. 
Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 139-. 

, Philadelphia. Duche, G. Lum. Elect. 

15 (1885) 314-. 
, Vienna. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 11 

(1884) 479-. 
experiments. Laurie, A. P. Edinb. B. S. P. 

11 (1882) 724-. 
. Swinburne, J. [1886] Tel. E. J. 15 

(1887) 595-, 628-. 
. Kohlrausch, W., & Heim, C. Elekttech. 

Z. 10 (1889) 303-, 327-. 
. Pflaum, H. Eiga Cor.-Bl. 37 (1894) 78-. 

with different types of accumulators. 
Schwartze, T. Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 274-. 

(Schwartze). Waltenhofen, 

von. Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 308. 
Faure's (theory). Koyl, C. H. [1881] (xn) 

J. H. Un. Cir. [1] (1882) 163. 
. Reynier, E. C. B. 92 (1881) 951-. 
. Witkowski, A. W. (xn) Kosmos (Lw.) 

7 (1882) 250-. 
, experiments. Kirkland, J. B. [1881] 

Viet. E. S. T. 18 (1882) 57-. 
, . Allard, E. (et alii). C. E. 94 (1882) 

600- . 
, . Perry, J., <& Ayrton, W. E. L. 

Ps. S. P. 5 (1884) 104- ; Ph. Mg. 14 (1882) 

41-. 
, lighting by. Thomson, (Sir) W. B. A. Ep. 

(1881) 526. 

form, experimental. Herschel, A. S. Nt. 25 

(1882) 362-. 

, perpetual. Herschel, A. S. Nt. 25 (1882) 
527-. 

galvano-electric primary and secondary, oppo- 
sition between. Pohl, G. F. Pogg. A. 14 
(1828) 71-. 

GAS CELLS. 
(See also 5610.) 

Peltier, A. C. E. 7 (1838) 763. 
(Combination of gases by platinum.) Grove, 

W. R. Ph. Mg. 14 (1839) 127-. 
(Experiments.) Osann, G. Wiirzb. Vh. 1 

(1850) 46-. 
Schuster, A. B. A. Ep. (1892) 638. 



656 



5620 Gas Cells 



Secondary Cells 



Plants Cells 5620 



action. Osann, G. Wiirzb. Vh. 2 (1852) 

329-. 
form. Eayleigh, (Lord). [1882] Camb. Ph. 

S. P. 4 (1883) 198. 
Grove's. Grove, W. R. Ph. Mg. 21 (1842) 

417- ; Phil. Trans. (1843) 91-. 
. Delarive, A. Arch, de 1'Electr. 3 (1843) 

525-. 
. Sch&nbein, C. F. Pogg. A. 58 (1843) 

361-. 

. Gaugain, J. M. C. R. 64 (1867) 364-. 
. Morley, H. F. L. Ps. S. P. 2 (1879) 

212- ; Ph. Mg. 5 (1878) 272-. 
, action of oxygen in. Schdnbein, C. F. 

Pogg. A. 62 (1844) 220-. 
, form. (Hydrogen and air.) Symons, W. 

[1855] Phm. J. 15 (1856) 208-. , 
, future of. Magunna, . Lum. Elect. 20 

(1886) 23-. 
, theory. Schdnbein, C. F. (vi Adds.) Ph. 

Mg. 22 (1843) 165-. 
, and its theory. Malone, T. A. Ph. Mg. 

27 (1864) 54-. 
re-absorption of gases in voltameter. Jacobi, 

M. H. [1846] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 7 

(1849) 161-. 

gas polarisation in. Nernst, W., & Dolezalek, 

F. Z. Elektch. (1899-1900) 549-. 

. Strasser, , & Gahl, . [1900] 

Z. Elektch. (1900-01) 11-. 
gelatinous electrolytes for. Schoop, P. Elect. 

25 (1890) 253-. 
. Kohlrausch, W. [1890] Elect. 26 

(1891) 46-. 
glycerin in. Anon. [1893] Z. Elektch. (1895- 

96) 31. 
. Anon. [1894] Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 

285-. 

Giilcher. Anon. Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 675-. 
. Peukert, W. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 156-. 
Hagen. Sieg, E. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 

298-. 
history. Andreoli, E. Lum. Elect. 38 (1890) 

369-, 423-, 516-, 558- ; 39 (1891) 221-, 277-, 

316-, 360-, 413-, 604-. 
Huber's. Weber, R. Neuch. S. Sc. Bll. 17 

(1889) 56-. 
immersion-. Donati, L. N. Cim. 25 (1888) 

56-. 
improvements. Reynier, E. Lum. Elect. 6 

(*1882) 304-. 

. Bowman, F. H. Science 22 (1893) 258-. 
. Zacharias, J. Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 

499-. 

. Foerster, F. S. C. In. J. 17 (1898) 251-. 
indicators. Kent, H. A., & Elwell, P. J3. 

Elect. 16 (1886) 351-, etc. 
industrial value. Bandsept, A. Les Mondes 

6 (1883) 484-. 
influence of manganese compounds. Knorre, 

G. von. Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 362-. 
Jarriant. Noaillon, A. H. Lum. Elect. 11 

(1884) 279-. 
Julien, tests. Prescott, G. B. (jun.) [1887] 

Elect. 20 (1888) 192-. 
of large surface. Peyrusson, E. Par. S. Ps. 

Se. (1893) 96-. 



-without lead. Darrieus,. [1894] Z. Elektch. 

(1895-96) 84-. 
. Plainer, . [1895] Z. Elektch. 

(1895-96) 104. 
lead compounds, organic, for. Heinze, . 

[1894] Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 31. 

sulphate, behaviour. Lodge, 0. J. Nt. 26 
(1882) 596-. 

, removal of, in manufacture. Borntrdger, 

H. Z. Elektch. (1898-99) 325. 

in, swelling. Reynier, E. Par. S. Ps. Se. 
(1885) 43-. 

light. Pescetto, F. [1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

223. 
light and power produced by. Geraldy, F. 

Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 375-. 
lighting by. Kohlrausch, . Hann. Archt.-Vr. 

Z. 36 (1890) 367-. 
. Epstein, J. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. 

(1895-96) 45-. 
with liquid metallic electrodes. Poincare, L. 

C. R. 120 (1895) 611- ; Eclair. Elect. 3 

(1895) 241-. 
long distance transmission at Hartford. 

Robb, W. L. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 795-. 
multitubular. Tommasi, D. C. R. 113 (1891) 

466-; J. de Ps. 2 (1893) 130. 
on open circuit, discharge. Roux, G. Elect. 

25 (1890) 754. 
persulphuric acid formation in. Schoop, P. 

[1895] Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 273-. 
in, significance. Elbs, K., & Schonherr, 

0. Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 471-. 



PLANTS CELLS. 

Plante, G. C. R. 50 (1860) 640-. 
Aldrich, N. B. Science 15 (1890) 209. 
chemistry. Robertson, G. H. [1891] R. S. 

P. 50 (1892) 105-. 
. Armstrong, H. E., <& Robertson, G. H. 

[1891] R. S. P. 50 (1892) 108. 
and Faure's, chemistry. Gladstone, J. H., <& 

Tribe, A. Nt. 25 (1882) 221-, 461- ; 26 (1882) 

251-, 602- ; 27 (1883) 583-. 
and Grove's. Adams, W. G. C. N. 45 

(1882) 1-. 
with horizontal lead plates. Samuel, P. Lum. 

Elect. 13 (1884) 89-. 
modification. Pollak, C. C. R. 110 (1890) 

569-. 
, experiments. Martini, T. Rv. Sc.-Ind. 

17 (1885) 81-. 

polarisation- (apparatus for producing con- 
tinuous currents of high tension from simple 

cell). Thomsen,J. Kjob. Ov. (1864) 159- ; 

Carl Rpm. 1 (1866) 171-. 
. Thomsen, J. A. Ps. C. 125 (1865) 163-. 
. Sluginov, N. P. (xn) Rs. C. Ps. S. J. 

10 (Ps.) (1878) [(Pt. 1)] 33-. 
, application. Lermantov, V. V. (xn) Rs. 

C. Ps. S. J. 7 (Ps.) (1875) [(P. 1)] 57-. 



657 



5620 Plates of Cells 



PLATES OF CELLS. 

Pike, C. W. Franklin I. J. 131 (1891) 305-. 
Zoeharios, J. [1895] Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 

190-. 
actual surface, determination. Norden, K. 

Z. Elektch. (1899-1900) 397-. 
anomalous sulphatation. Eremin, F. A. Rs. 

Ps.-C. S. J. 31 (C.) (1899) 156- ; C. Ztg. 23 

(1899) 336. 
discharged, analyses. Jackson, A. H. Aust. 

As. Ep. (1892) 280-. 
formation. Plante, G. C. K. 95 (1882) 418- ; 

Lum. Elect. 11 (1884) 70-. 
. Luckow, C. Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 422-. 
of lead peroxide, and specific gravity. 

Weyde, J. F. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 657. 
, shortening process for. Bandsept, A. Les 

Mondes 7 (1884) 613-. 
, variation of capacity and resistance. Carro 

Coo, G. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 90. 
lead, porous. Schoop, P. Z. Elekttech. 

Elektch. (1894-95) 412-. 
lithanode for. Kingsland, W. Tel. J. 20 

(1887) 343-. 
manufacture. Pollak,. [1892] Z. Elekttech. 

Elektch. (1894-95) 137-. 
negative, lithanode for. Fitz-Gerald, D. G. 

Elect. 17 (1886) 362-. 

, spontaneous discharge. Kugel, M. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 13 (1892) 8-, 19-. 
, sulphatation. Jumau, L. Eclair. Elect. 

16 (1898) 133-. 
"Omega." Weber, P. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 

(1901) 197-. 
peroxide-, reactions at. Z., J. [1894] Z. 

Elekttech. Elektch. (1894-95) 203-. 
with porous metallic filling. Pollak,. [1897] 

Z. Elektch. (1897-98) 293-. 
positive, deterioration. Peters, F. [1900] S. 

C. In. J. 19 (1900) 542; Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 614- 
, role of diffusion in action. Jumau, L. 

Eclair. Elect. 16 (1898) 413-. 
tests of capacities. Schoop, M. U. Sc. Abs. 

3 (1900) 500-. 

portable. Miiller, W. A. T. [1900] Sc. Abs. 

4 (1901) 197. 

, charged from dry pile. Configliachi, P. 

Brugnatelli G. 8 (1815) 69-. 
potassium zincate for, electro-chemical pre- 
paration. Schoop, P. [1894] Z. Elekttech. 

Elektch. (1894-95) 205-, 247-. 
preparation of solution for. Sayers, H. M. 

Elect. 33 (1894) 426-. 
processes in. Liebenow,. [1896] Z. Elektch. 

(1896-97) 71-. 
progress. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 6 (*1882) 

584-. 

. Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 46 (1892) 201-. 
. Barnett, M. Franklin I. J. 141 (1896) 

296-. 
. Deguisne, C. [1897] Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. 

Jbr. (1897-98) 48-. 
, 25 years', 1872-97. Epstein, L. Elect. 

Rv. 41 (1897) 632-. 



Theory of Secondary Cells 5620 

proper moment for connecting dynamo to. 

Melhuish, T. W. W. Elect. 20 (1888) 

451-. 
Quaglia type. Anon. Rv. Sc.-Ind. [24 (1892)] 

141-. 
resistance. Schoop, P. [1895] Z. Elektch. 

(1895-96) 42-. 
reversal of current produced by. Figuier, . 

As. Fr. C. R. (1885) (Pt. 1) 115. 
reversible. Fitz-Gerald, D. G. [1887] Tel. 

E. J. 16 (1888) 168-, 192-. 
size, estimation. Suchy, E. [1900] Sc. Abs. 

4 (1901) 324. 
small, battery of, for high tension. Weber, C. 

L. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 425-. 
with solid electrolyte. Thompson, S. P. Nt. 

32 (1885) 366. 
supplementary electrode, use in investigations. 

Jumau, L. Eclair. Elect. 24 (1900) 59-. 
of various systems, measurements. Kopp, E. 

Ziir. Ps. Gs. Jbr. (1889) 9-. 
temperature coefficient. Dolezalek, F. Z. 

Elektch. (1899-1900) 517-. 
tests. Schoop, M. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 633-. 
, commercial. Hospitaller, E. Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 441. 
thermodynamics. Streintz, F. Mh. C. (1894) 

285-; Wien Ak. Sb. 103 (1894) (Ab. 2a) 

327-. 
with tin lead alloy. Riguelle, . [1895] Z. 

Elektch. (1895-96) 11-. 
versus transformers in electric lighting. Cromp- 

ton, E. E. [1888] Tel. E. J. 17 (1889) 349-, 

388-, 423-, 507-. 
Tribbelhorn. Bickel, . [1898] Aarau Mt. 

9 (1901) xl-. 
Tudor, application. Uppenborn, F. Elekttech. 

Z. 11 (1890) 175-. 
use in laboratory. Kohlrausch, W. A. Ps. C. 

34 (1888) 583-. 
telegraphy. Preece, W. H. Elect. 13 

(1884) 498-. 
Wehrlin. Wehrlin, H. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 

(1901) 89-. 
weight, for electric vehicles. Eosset, J. [1899] 

Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 159-. 
white lead for, processes for manufacture. 

Walter, J. Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 449-. 

THEORY OF SECONDARY CELLS. 

B.,J. (vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 14 (1839) 446-. 
Swinburne, J. (et alii). Elect. 18 (1887) 481-, 

etc. ; 19 (1887) 7, etc. 
Streintz, F. A. Ps. C. 38 (1889) 344-. 
Schoop, P. Elect. 24 (1890) 44-. 
Streintz, F., & Neumann, G. A. Ps. C. 41 

(1890) 97-. 
Streintz, F. A. Ps. C. 43 (1891) 241-; 46 (1892) 

449-, 680; 49 (1893) 564-. 
Lob, W. Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 405-. 
Liebenow, C. Z. Elektch. (1895-96) 420-, 

653-. 

Elbs, . [1896] Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 70-. 
Lob, W. [1896] Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 100-. 
Foerster, F. Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 525-. 
Ehodin, J. G. A. Stockh. 6'fv. (1898) 397-. 



658 



5630 Ohm's Law 

Dolezalek, F. Z. Elektch. (1898-99) 533-; 

(1899-1900 557. 
Elbs, . [1899] Z. Elektch. (1899-1900) 

46-. 
chemical. Reynier, E. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1884) 

85-. 
. Drzeiviecki, . Lum. Elect. 33 (1889) 

481. 
. Strecker, H. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 

435-, 513-, 524-. 
. Darrieus, G. Elect. 29 (1892) 359. 

(Darrieus's). Geraldy,F. Lum. Elect. 44 
(1892) 513-, 634. 

( ). Schoop, P. [1894] Z. Elekttech. 
Elektch. (1894-95) 293-. 

. Wade, E. J. Elect. 33 (1894) 603-, 625-, 

657-, 688-, 722-; 34 (1895) 16-. 
. Fitzgerald, D. G. Elect. Ev. 39 (1896) 

132-. 

. Dolezalek, F. A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 894-. 
and experiments. Aron, H. [1882] (xn) 

Elekttech. Z. 4 (1883) 58-, 100-. 
Plante's work "Eesearches on Electricity." 

Becquerel, E. C. E. 88 (1879), 359. , 
reversible cells. Darrieus, G. Eclair. Elect. 

14 (1898) 141-, 229-, 370-, 498-, 555-. 



Coupling of Battery Cells 5630 

Conductors, bad, Ohm's law for. Thomson, 

J. J., (& Newall, H, F. B. S. P. 42 (1887) 

410-. 
, , propagation of electricity in. Gaugain, 

J. M. A. C. 59 (1860) 5-; 60 (1860) 326-; 

63 (1861) 201- ; C. E. 58 (1864) 244-. 
, calculation. Muyden, A. van. Lum. Elect. 

19 (1886) 61-. 
, cylindrical, E.M.F. required to produce 

variable current in. Brylinski, E. A. Tel. 

17 (1890) 232-, 352-, 425-; 22 (1895) 446-. 
, E.M.F. at any point. Becquerel, A. C. 

[1825] A. C. 32 (1826) 420-. 
, mutual independence, general rules. Ul- 

bricht, R. Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 270-, 373-. 

COUPLING OF BATTERY CELLS. 



Clarke, E. M. Sturgeon A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 

499-. 
Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. Les Mondes 54 

(1881) 633-. 

Ferrini, R. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 19 (1886) 693-. 
Auerbach, F. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 66-. 
Weinhold, A. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 124-. 
Milller, H. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 153. 
Vogel, F. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 822. 
apparatus for. Bohn, C. A. Ps. C. (Ergdnz.) 
5 (1871) 636-. 

rapidly changing cell arrangement of 
large batteries. Cole, A. D. Denison Un. 
Sc. Lb. Bll. 5 (1890) 16-. 
arrangement according to external resistance. 
Raynaud, J. A. Tel. 5 (1878) 485-. 

(large). Morisot, . Bordeaux 

(Contact electricity, conduction.) Ohm, G. S. S. Sc. Mm. 4 (1888) xviii-. 

Pogg. A. 4 (1825) 79-; Schweigger J. 46 battery, common, used for several circuits. 
( = Jb. 16) (1826) 137-. 



5630 Ohm's Law. Divided 

Currents and Networks 

of Linear Conductors. 

OHM'S LAW. 



(Experiments.) Ohm, G. S. Schweigger J. 49 

(=Jb. 19) (1827) 1-. 
(Galvanic circuit investigated mathematically.) 

Ohm, G. S. [1827-28] Taylor Sc. Mm. 2 

(1841) 401-, 437-; Kastner Arch. Ntl. 14 

(1828) 475-. 

( , electric condition.) Ohm,G.S. Schweig- 
ger J. 63 (=Jb. 3) (1831) 1-, 159-. 
( , peculiarities.) Ohm, G. S. Schweigger 

J. 63 ( = Jb. 3) (1831) 385-; 64 (=Jb. 4) 

(1832) 20-, 138-, 257-. 
Lane, J. H. Silliman J. 1 (1846) 230-. 
Pliicker, J. Crelle J. 35 (1847) 93-. 
Laming, R. Elect. 2 (1862) 148-. 
Elliott, E. B. Am. As. P. 20 (1871) 164-. 
Schuster, A. B. A. Ep. (1874) (Sect.) 30. 
Secchi, A. Em. Bll. Met. 17 (*1878) 9-. 
Heinke, C. Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 509-. 
Lister, J. [1898] Nt. 59 (1898-99) 201. 
Sundell, A. F. Helsingf. 6'fv. 42 (1900) 298-. 
Application, practical. Schaw, H. Elect. 3 

(1862) 19-. 
Circuit, insulated. Webb, F. C. Ph. Mg. 33 

(1867) 321-. 
Circuits, inductive, in electrostatics. Webb, F. 

C. Ph. Mg. 35 (1868) 325-. 
Conducting systems, similar, electric actions 

in. Deprez, M. C. E. 94 (1882) 431-. 
Conduction, economic formula for. Grassi, 

G. Nap. I. Inc. At. 8 (1895) No. 12, 2 pp. 



Militzer, H. Wien Sb. 54 (1866) (Ab. 2) 

352-. 
current and single cell current, relation. 

Kiilp, L. Arch. Mth. Ps. 59 (1876) 106-. 
, division, practical method. Kovacevic, F. 

[1878] J. Tel. 4 (1878-80) 68-. 
best method. Daniell, J. F. Phil. Trans. 

(1842) 137-. 

. Lottner, C. L. E. Schlomilch Z. 2 

(1857) 317-. 
. Novikov, P. M. [1883] (xn) Es. Ps.- 

C. S. J. 16 (Ps., Pt. 1) (1884) 65-; Fschr. Ps. 

(1884) (Ab. 2) 604-. 
. Cetlin, Z. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 20 (Ps.) 

(1888) 29-; Fschr. Ps. (1888) (Ab. 2) 482. 
for telephonic purposes. Dejongh, A. 

Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 156-. 
connections for 2 equal currents. Discher, H. 

Berl. Z. Tel. 14 (1867) 1-. 
in ' ' echelle d ' Amsterdam . ' ' Barbarat , A. A. 

Tel. 15 (1888) 123-. 
geometric solution of problem. Grawinkel, C. 

Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 333-. 
joint effect of battery cells when differently 

combined. Merrell, J. P. Franklin I. J. 

68 (1874) 426-. 
maximum current, conditions for. Vorssel- 

man-de-Heer, P. O. C. Pogg. A. 46 (1839) 

517-. 
, . Pogg&ndorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 47 

(1839) 123-. 



659 



5630 Current Distribution Ohm's Law 



5630 



maximum current, conditions for. Jacobi, M. 

H. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 6 (1840) 369-. 
, . Poggendor/, J. C. Pogg. A. 55 

(1842) 46-. 

intensity of given number of cells. 
Gaugain, J. M. A. Tel. 4 (1861) 39-. 

number of combinations. Sluginov, N. Kazan 

S. Ps.-Mth. Bll. 1 (1891) 257-; Fschr. Ps. 

(1891) (Ab. 2) 474. 
in parallel. Peirce, B. O. Am. Ac. P. 30 

(1895) 194-. 
, unequal cells. Stepanov, A. S. (xn) 

Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 12 (Ps.) (1880) \_(Pt.l)~\ 38-. 

series. Dumoncel, T. \_A. L.] C. R. 50 
(1860) 1031-, 1180- ; 69 (1869) 665-. 

(heterogeneous). Dumoncel, T. \_A. L.] 

C. E. 51 (1860) 291-. 
simultaneous action of 2 batteries joined by 

like or unlike poles. Moigno, F. Moigno 

Cosmos 4 (1854) 213-. 
system for current strength in batteries. Lenz, 

E. [1844] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 3 (1845) 67-. 
tachytrope. Bothe, F. Pogg. A. 109 (1860) 

383-. 
. Carl, P. Carl Epm. 2 (1867) 27-, 243-. 

CURRENT DISTRIBUTION. 

Delezenne, . J. de Ps. 82 (1816) 269-. 
(International Exhibition.) Deprez, H. Lum. 

Elect. 5 (*1881) 23-. 
Forbes, G. Elect. 15 (1885) 414-, 440-, 457-, 

475-, 486-; 16 (1886) 296-, 315-. 
alternating currents in Wheatstone's bridge. 

Rice, M. E. Kan. Un. Q. 7 (1898) 31-. 
apparatus for regulating. Neesen, F. Humb. 

5 (1886) 81-. 
calculation for continuous currents. Rodet, J., 

i& Busquet, R. [1893] Lyon S. Ag. A. 1 

(1894) 377-, Ixxix, Ixxxvii-, c, ci-. 

of cross-section of electric leads. Miillen- 
dorff, E. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 48-. 

in Chelsea, use of accumulators. Webber, (Maj. 

Gen.) . Elect. 23 (1889) 577-, 597-. 
circuit, badly insulated. Volta, A. Mil. I. 

Lomb. Ed. 20 (1887) 805-. 
in circuits (independent). Chikolev, V. N. 

[1875] (xn) Mosc. S. Sc. Bll. 39 [No. 2] 

(1880) 153-. 
conductor section, and safe current strength, 

relation. Forbes, G. Tel. E. J. 13 (1884) 

232-. 
, , . Blakesley, T. H. Tel. 

E. J. 13 (1884) 295-. 

, , . Jamieson, A. Tel. 

E. J. 13 (1884) 326-. 

conductors for, calculation. Snell, W. H. Tel. 
E. J. 14 (1885) 398-. 

, calculation, for lighting. Forbes, G. Ding- 
ier 252 (1884) 511-. 

, economy in. Ayrton, W. E. , <& Perry, J. 
[1886] Tel. E. J. 15 (1887) 120-. 

, size, most economical. Hooper, W. L. 
Tel. J. 14 (1884) 435-. 

, , for incandescent lamp lighting. Leonard 
H. W. Tel. J. 19 (1886) 157-. 

danger in certain apparatus for. Hopkinson, 
J. Ph. Mg. 20 (1885) 292-. 



difficulty in. Perry, J., & Ayrton, W. E. Tel. 

E. J. 12 (1883) 161-. 
formulae. Gueroult, G. Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 

389-. 

for calculation of wires, return loop system. 
Keiiler, E. R. Franklin I. J. 140 (1895) 
455-. 

grouping system for. Snell, W. H. Elect. 15 

(1885) 196-, 211-. 
momentary currents. Brillouin, M. J. de Ps. 

10 (1881) 24-, 101-. 
and potential of electricity, laws. Ohm, G. S. 

Kastner Arch. Ntl. 17 (1829) 1-, 452-. 
problems, analytical treatment. Milllendorff, 

E. Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 67-. 
theorem. Blakesley, T. H. L. Ps. S. P. 13 

(1895) 65-; Ph. Mg. 37 (1894) 448-. 
theorems. Ferraris, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Mm. 4 (1879) 163-. 

theory, mathematical, experimental verifica- 
tion. Poloni, G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 15 

(1882) 535-. 

Current intensity, influence of circuit on, ex- 
periments. Pacinotti, L. Pisa Misc. Md. 
Chir. (1843) (pte. 2) 129-. 

, length on. Magrini, L. A. Sc. 

Lomb. Yen. 8 (1838) 68-. 

, maximum. Wassmuth, A. Carl Epm. 
14 (1878) 536-. 

, , theory. Kiilp, L. Arch. Mth. Ps. 

59 (1876) 111-. 
and quantity. Pollock, T. [1837] Electr. 

S. T. (1837-40) 1-. 

. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 32 (1839) 1-. 

. Jones, H. B. Ph. Mg. 5 (1853) 

363-. 
. Clark, L. [1861] E. I. P. 3 

(1858-62) 337-. 

, definition. Peltier, A. A. C. 63 

(1836) 245-; C. E. 2 (1836) 475-. 
Currents, induced. Kraiewitsch, K. Exner 

Epm. 25 (1889) 685-. 
, , and derived circuits. Phillips, S. E. 

(jun.) Tel. J. 2 (1873-74) 350-. 
Deflection of needle by current at various 

distances and by wires of different length 

and thickness at same distance. Barlow, P. 

Edinb. Ph. J. 12 (1825) 105-. 
Deviations from Ohm's law in metallic con- 
ductors. Braun, F. Leip. Nf. Gs. Sb. 3 

(1876) 49-. 
Electrochemical processes. Nahnsen,G. [1894] 

Z. Elekttech. Elektch. (1894-95) 198-. 
Electrolytes, Ohm's law for. Beetz, W. Pogg. 

A. 117 (1862) 1-; 125 (1865) 126-. 
, - . Kohlrausch, F. Gott. Nr. (1869) 

14-. 
, . Kohlrausch, F. & Nippoldt, W. 

A. A. Ps. C. 138 (1869) 280-, 370-. 

, . Cohn, E. A. Ps. C. 21 (1884) 

646-. 
, . FitzGerald, G. F., <& Trouton, F. 

B. A. Ep. (1886) 312- ; (1887) 345-; (1888) 
341. 

, , in circuit with alternating cur- 
rents. Fiske, W.E,,& Collins, W. D. Am. 
J. Sc. 5 (1898) 59-. 



660 



5630 Ohm's Law 



Resistance. Wheatstone's Bridge 5630 



Experimental proof. Mayer, A. Am. J. Sc. 

40 (1890) 42-. 
testing. Brit. Ass. Comm. (Maxwell, J. C., 

Everett, J. D., <& Schuster, A.) B. A. Bp. 

(1876) 36-. 

. Chrystal, G. B. A. Kp. (1876) 38-. 

. Wolff, F. A. Am. As. P. (1899) 114. 

verification. Pouillet, C. S. M. C. B. 4 
(1837) 267-. 

Experiments opposed to Ohm's law. Gaugain, 

J. M. C. B. 49 (1859) 1006-. 
Extension. Milnnich, J. J. Utr. Aant. Prv. 

Gn. (1847) 56-. 
Galvanic batteries. Hankel, W. G. Leip. Mth. 

Ps. B. 41 (1889) 378-. 
Graphic representation. Webb, F. C. Elect. 

4 (1863) 50-, 62-. 

. Trowbridge.J. Am. J. Sc. 4 (1872) 115-. 

, MiMer, Joh. Freiburg B. 6 (1873) 

(Reft 2) 104-. 
. Foster, G. C. B. A. Bp. (1874) (Sect.) 

28-. 

solution of problems. Foster, G. C. [1874] 
L. Ps. S. P. 1 (1876) 101- ; Ph. Mg. 49 (1875) 
368-. 

treatment of formulae. Gariel, C. M. Par. 
S. Ps. Se. (1881) 282-. 

Illustration by air currents, school apparatus 

for. Holier, M. Braunschw. Vr. Nt. Jbr. 

(11) (1899) 221-. 
Interpretation. Mewes, R. Dingier 315 (1900) 

501-, 520-. 

Maxima and minima, problems, in electro- 
technics. Vanni, G. Nap. S. Nt. Bll. 4 

(1890) 89-. 
Misconceptions. Williams, E. A. (et alii). 

Elect. 15 (1885) 61, etc. 
Modification, necessary. Sanford, F. Ph. 

Mg. 35 (1893) 65-. 
Objections to Ohm's law. Jeanneret, . Arch. 

Sc. Ps. Nt. 8 (1899) 376-. 
Potential difference of galvanic cell. Kohl- 

rausch, R. Pogg. A. 75 (1848) 88-, 220- ; 

78 (1849) 1-. 
, fall, electroscopic phenomena of galvanic 

circuit. Erman, P. Gilbert A. 8 (1801) 

197-; J. de Ps. 53 (1801) 121-. 
, , . Ritter, J. W. Gilbert 

A. 8 (1801) 385-. 
, , . Erman, P. Gilbert 

A. 10 (1802) 1-. 
, , . Jdger, . [1802] 

Gilbert A. 13 (1803) 411-. 
, , . Brugnatelli, L. V., & 

Configliachi, . Brugnatelli G. 1 (1808) 340-. 
, , . Prechtl, J. J. Gilbert 

A. 35 (1810) 30-. 
, , . Ohm, G. S. Pogg. A. 

6 (1826) 459-; 7 (1826) 45-, 117-. 
, , mechanical calculator. Browne, W. H. 

Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 491. 
Proving Ohm's law. Chrystal, G. B. A. Bp. 

(1890) 141-. 
. Thompson, S. P., & Lodge, 0. J. 

Elect. 25 (1890) 325, etc. 
Quantity of electricity passing cross section of 

cells. Kohlrausch, R., <& Weber, W. Pogg. 

A. 99 (1856) 10-. 



Belation to dynamic fundamental equation. 
Heinke, C. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 615-. 

RESISTANCE. 
(See also 5640.) 

of battery, method of measurement. Uppen- 

born, F. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 157-. 
circuits to steady currents. Villari, E. 

Bologna Bd. (1886-87) 66-; Nap. Ac. At. 3 

(1889) No. 5, 16 pp. 
combined. Kempe, H. R. Tel. J. 2 (1873-74) 

361-. 
, of conductors in parallel. Anon. Elect. 

28 (1892) 166-. 
, . Boult, W. S. Elect. 28 (1892) 

235. 
compensated. Forbes, . Tel. E. J. 13 (1884) 

185-. 
dependence on current strength. Dorn, E. 

A. Ps. C. 160 (1877) 56-. 

and duration. Benedikt, M. Wien 

SB. 25 (1857) 589-. 
motion of conductor, experimental proof. 

Edlund, E. [1875] Stockh. Ak. Hndl. Bh. 

3 (1876) No. 11, 27 pp. 

, (Edlund). Helm, G. A. 

Ps. C. 157 (1876) 645-; 1 (1877) 319-. 
measurement, instrument for. Christie, S. H. 

Phil. Trans. (1833) 133-. 
nature. Edlund, E. Stockh. 6'fv. 29 (No. 7) 

(1872) 3-; A. Ps. C. 148 (1873) 421-. 
. Winter, G. K. Tel. J. 4 (1876) 266-. 



Wheatstone's Bridge. 

Wheatstone, (Sir) C. Phil. Trans. (1843) 323-. 
Svanberg, A. F. Stockh. Ak. Hndl. (1849) 

109- ; Pogg. A. 84 (1851) 411-. 
best arrangement. Schwendler, L. Ph. Mg. 

31 (1866) 364-; 33 (1867) 29-. 

. Heaviside, 0. Ph. Mg. 45 (1873) 114-. 

. Gray, T. Ph. Mg. 12 (1881) 283-. 

. Weber, H. A. Ps. C. 30 (1887) 638-. 
improvement. Foster, G. C. [1872-85] Tel. 

E. J. 1 (1872-73) 196- ; A. Ps. C. 26 (1885) 

239-. 
improvements. Slotte, K. F. A. Ps. C. 15 

(1882) 176. 
method, Mance's. Mance, H. E. S. P. 19 

(1871) 248-. 
, . Lodge, 0. J. Ph. Mg. 3 (1877) 515- ; 

L. Ps. S. P. 2 (1879) 145-. 
, Thomson's. Thomson, (Sir) W. [1861] 

B. S. P. 11 (1860-62) 313-. 
for periodic currents. Rayleigh, (Lord). B. 

S. P. 49 (1891) 203-. 

wire-resistance, paradox. Girault, P. [1899] 

Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 56. 
of wires, lecture experiments. Obach, E. Carl 

Bpm. 18 (1882) 651-. 
, relation to length and cross section. 

Petrie, W. Ph. Mg. 19 (1841) 374-. 
, dimensions. Davy, (Sir) H. 

Phil. Trans. (1821) 425-. 



661 



5630 Divided Currents 



Networks of Linear Conductors 5630 



of wires, relation to length and dimensions. 
Barlow, P. Edinb. Ph. J. 12 (1825) 105-. 

Tension, electric, at different points of circuit, 

measurement. Niaudet-Breguet, A. J. de 

Ps. 1 (1872) 367- 
Theorem. Thevenin, L. C. B. 97 (1883) 

159-. 
, Thevenin's. Cailho, . A. Tel. 16 (1889) 

320-. 
, , demonstration. Pomey, J. B. Eclair. 

Elect. 18 (1899) 121-. 
Theory, mathematical. Most, R. A. Ps. C. 

122 (1864) 79-. 
Thin films, Ohm's law for. Reinold, A. W., & 

Rucker, A. W. [1881] Phil. Trans. 172 

(1882) 447-. 

DIVIDED CUBBENTS. 

Henrici, F. C. Pogg. A. 53 (1841) 277-. 
Poggendorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 54 (1841) 175-. 
Crusell, G. [1844] St Pet. Bll. Ac. Sc. 3 

(1845) 65-. 

Kirchhoff, G. Pogg. A. 64 (1845) 512-. 
Knochenhauer, K. W. Wien SB. 22 (1856) 

327-; 36 (1859) 427-; 43 (Ab. 2) (1861) 48-; 

A. Ps. C. 133 (1868) 447-, 655-. 
Aguilera, C. J. Tel. 9 (1885) 81-, 102-. 
Milllendorff, E. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 401-. 
in branches of electric circuit. (Secondary 

current.) Riess, P. Berl. Mb. (1859) 1-. 

combined cells. Waszmuth, A. Wien Sb. 
57 (1868) (Ab. 2) 47-. 

, direction. Waltenhofen, A. von. 
[1860] Wien SB. 42 (1861) 439-. 

connecting wire. (Induced current.) Kno- 
chenhauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 60 (1843) 70-, 
235-. 

. Knochenhauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 61 

(1844) 55-. 
, diminution. Knochenhauer, K. W. 

Pogg. A. 62 (1844) 353-. 
electric lamps, division of current. Nipher, F. 

E. [1879] Am. J. Sc. 19 (1880) 141. 
in series and in parallel. Clemenceau, 

P. Lum. Elect. 12 (1884) 10-. 
experiments. Nystrim, C. A. Stockh. Ofv. 

19 (1862) 173-. 

KIRCHHOFF' S FORMULAE. 

Kirchhoff, G. Pogg. A. 78 (1849) 506-. 
Raoult, F. M. Les Mondes 5 (1864) 40-. 
Raynaud, J. J. de Ps. 2 (1873) 86-. 
Borgman, 1. 1. Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 18 (Ps.) (1886) 

8- ; J. de Ps. 7 (1888) 218. 
Sluginov, N. Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 18 (Ps.) (1886) 

177- ; J. dePs. 7 (1888) 222. 
Chvolson, 0. Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 20 (Ps.) (1888) 

31-; J. de Ps. 8 (1889) 536-. 
application to solution of geometrical problem. 

Maxwell, J. C. B. A. Bp. (1874) (Sect). 

18-. 

currents, distribution, linear, solution of equa- 
tions. Kirchhoff, G. Pogg. A. 72 (1847) 497-. 
, , , . Raynaud, J. J. de Ps. 

2 (1873) 161- . 



currents, distribution in solid conductors. 

Helmholtz, H. Pogg. A. 89 (1853) 211-, 

353-. 
, propagation in conductors. Kirchhoff, G. 

Pogg. A. 102 (1857) 529-. 
for networks. Rimington, E. C. Tel. J. 22 

(1888) 222-, 253-, 285-, 308-, 340-, 361-, 
388-. 

Ahrens, W. Mth. A. 49 (1897) 311-. 
and Ohm's law, applications and demonstra- 
tion. Wrobel, . Meckl. Vr. Nt. Arch. 
(1893) i-. 

laws. Sluginov, N. P. [1881] (xn) Es. Ps.- 
C. S. J. 14 (Ps.) (1882) [(Pt. 1)] 1-; (xi) A. 
Ps. C. Beibl. 6 (1882) 590. 

linear, system, equations. Delarive, L. Bb. 
Un. Arch. 17 (1863) 105-. 

phenomenon. Poggendorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 
55 (1842) 511-. 

problem. Poggendorff, J.C. Berl. B. (1846) 3-. 

theorem, applicability to decomposable con- 
ductors. Lenz, R. [1876] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. 
Bll. 22 (1877) 440-. 

NETWOBKS OF LINEAB CONDUCTOBS. 
CURRENT DISTRIBUTION IN 

NETWORKS. 

Brillouin, M. J. de Ps. 10 (1881) 257-. 
Larmor, J. L. Mth. S. P. 16 (1884-85) 262-. 
Herzog, J., & Stark, L. Elekttech. Z. 11 

(1890) 221-, 445-. 

Milllendorff, E. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 159-. 
Vaschy, . C. E. 115 (1892) 1280-. 
Engelmann, T. W. Arch. Neerl. 26 (1893) 423-. 
Herzog, J. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 10-. 
Coltri, C. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 425-. 
Teichmiiller, J. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 537-. 
Vaschy, . A. Tel. 20 (1893) 5-. 
Dmati, L. Bologna Ed. 4 (1900) 29-. 
application of equations to partially non-linear 

systems. Kirchhoff, G. Pogg. A. 75 (1848) 

189-. 
calculation. Grassi, G. Nap. I. Inc. At. 2 

(1889) No. 9, 42 pp. ; 4 (1891) No. 2, 23 pp. 

by determinants. Pilcz, . J. Tel. 8 

(1884) 177-. 

in electricity, importance. Du Moncel, T. 
A. L. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 317-, 356. 

, graphical methods. Dihlmann, C. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 10 (1889) 148-. 

and theory. Kalischer, S. A. Ps. C. 46 
(1892) 113- ; Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 215-. 

in circuits. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 

3 (*1881) 241-. 
current due to 2 or more E.M. F.s, method of 

finding. Rimington, E. C. Tel. J. 18 (1886) 

371-. 

strength in 3-pointed star systems. Kennelly, 
A. E. [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 58. 

secondary circuits of battery. Erman, 
A. Erman Arch. Bs. 15 (1856) 137-. 
currents, constant, in electric light installa- 
tions. Salomons, (Sir) D. Tel. E. J. 14 

(1885) 117-. 

, , theory. Rosen, A. Stockh. Ofv. (1887) 
197-. 



662 



5630 Networks 



Methods of Comparison of Resistances 5640 



currents, divided. Bosscha, J. Pogg. A. 104 

(1858) 460- ; Amst. Vs. Ak. 9 (1859) 53-. 
, (Bosscha). Raynaud, J. J. de Ps. 2 

(1873) 233-. 
' ' earth ' ' on electric railway circuits. Stein- 

metz, C. P. Elect. 29 (1892) 165. 
earthing middle wire. Chamen, W. A. (et alii). 

Elect. 30 (1893) 135-, etc. 
Knight's tour, illustrating electrical problem. 

Brunei, . Bordeaux S. Sc. Mm. 2 (1891) 

xxxiv-. 
in lamps. Ferrini, E. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 16 

(1883) 853-. 

parallel. Jehl, F. Elect. 30 (1893) 655-, 677-. 
problem. Bosscha, J. Arch. Neerl. 26 (1893) 

459-. 
problems. Fleming, J. A. L. Ps. S. P. 7 (1886) 

215- ; Ph. Mg. 20 (1885) 221-. 
. Milllendorff, E. Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 

236-. 
, graphical methods of solving. Guerout, A. 

Lum. Elect. 9 (1883) 113-. 
resistance, calculation. Guillaume, C. E. C. 

E. 112 (1891) 223-. 
of circuit in Edison lighting. Gueroult, G. 

C. E. 97 (1883) 1363-. 
Eiffel Tower. Terquem, A. C. E. 109 

(1889) 859-. 
theorems, easy proof. Gray, A. Ph. Mg. 24 

(1887) 278-. 

Diagrams. Remmert, (It.) A. de. Ev. Mar. et 

Col. 136 (1898) 502-. 

Double and triple conductor systems, experi- 
ments. Beuriger, J. Bonn Niedr. Gs. Sb. 

(1899) 43-. 
Equivalence of triangles and stars. Kennelly, 

A. E. [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 58-. 
Formula for parallel circuits. Samuel, P. 

Lum. Elect. 30 (1888) 605-. 
(Samuel). Cailho,M. Lum. Elect. 

31 (1889) 97. 

telegraphic circuits. Du Moncel, T. A. 

L. Lum. Elect. 9 (1883) 385-. 
Horse-power, total, calculation method. Gor- 
don, J. E. H. Tel. E. J. 12 (1883) 551-. 
Laws for battery discharge. Knoclienliauer , K. 

W. Pogg. A. 68 (1846) 136-. 
Low voltage network, mode of feeding. Cromp- 

ton, R. E. [1891] I. Elect. E. J. 20 (1892) 

426-, 462-. 
Main systems, multiple. Snell, W. H. Elect. 

14 (1885) 412-. 
, . Flicker, G. C. Elect. 14 (1885) 

453. 
Mains for electric lighting. Preece, W. H. 

[1891] I. Elect. E. J. 20 (1892) 408-, 445, 

Networks of conductors of finite dimensions. 
Pomey, J. B. Eclair. Elect. 19 (1899) 169-. 

Potential distribution, theorem and applica- 
tions. Donati, L. Bologna Kd. 4 (1900) 
65-. 

Significance of networks in theory of electricity. 
Holtz, W. A. Ps. C. 157 (1876) 322-. 



5640 Methods of Comparison of 
Resistances. 

APPARATUS FOR MEASURING 
RESISTANCE. 

Jacobi, M. H. Pogg. A. 54 (1841) 335-. 
Raynaud, J. J. de Ps. 2 (1873) 210-. 
Kohlrausch, F. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1883) 465-. 
Deries, A., & Bayol, P. A. Tel. 15 (1888) 16-. 
Willymmg, E. G. Franklin I. J. 135 (1893) 

140-. 
Anthistometer. Bradley, L. Am. As. P. 15 

(1866) 15-. 

Bridges. 

and accurate rheostats, construction. Edel- 
mann, M. T. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 807-. 

Callendar-Griffiths. Anon. Elect. Ev. 44 
(1899) 441-. 

percentage-, and applications. Parker, H. C. 
Am. As. P. (1900) 74-. 

plug arrangement. Schone, 0. Z. Instk. 18 
(1898) 133-. 

telephone-, improved. Nippoldt, W. A. D. 
Nf. Vh. (1896) (Th. 2, Halfte 1) 78-. 

Thomson (Kelvin), adjustment for low resist- 
ances. Appleyard, R. L. Ps. S. P. 14 (1896) 
243-; Ph. Mg. 41 (1896) 506-. 

( ), modification for very low resistances. 
Laffargue, J. [1884] Tel. E. J. 14 (1885) 

( ), for telegraph wires. Mutel, . A. 
Tel. 22 (1895) 433-. 

Thomson- Varley (Kelvin- Varley). Tobler, A. 

Lum. Elect. 9 (*1883) 495-; 10 (1883) 32; 
'J. Tel. 22 (1898) 4-. 
universal, Carey-Foster. Drysdale, C. V. 

Elect. 45 (1900) 883-. 
, portable. Edelmann, M. T. Exner Epm. 

23 (1887) 327-. 
Varley, improvements. Tobler, A. Lum. Elect. 

10 (*1883) 549-. 



Wheatstone's Bridge. 
(See also 5630- ) 

Wheatstone, (Sir) C. Phil. Trans. (1843) 303-. 
Brough, R. S. Ph. Mg. 47 (1874) 22-. 
(Brough.) Heaviside, 0. Ph. Mg. 47 (1874) 

93-. 

Slotte, K. F. A. Ps. C. 15 (1882) 176. 
Discher, H. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 4 (1883) 460-. 
Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 22 (1886) 200-, 

251-. 

Lacoine, E. J. Tfl. 20 (1896) 33-. 
Pomey, J. B. A. Tel. 23 (1896-97) 266-. 
accurate measurements by. Weber, R. Neuch. 

S. Sc. Bll. 27 (1899) 66-. 
adaptation for measurement of resistances with 

disturbing E.M.F.s. Appleyard, R. Tel. 

J. 29 (1891) 8, 711-. 



VOL. III. 



663 



H 



5640 



Wheatstone's Bridge 



5640 



addition to, for low resistances. Reeves, J. H. 

L. Ps. S. P. 14 (1896) 166- ; Ph. Mg. 41 

(1896) 414-. 
for alternating current, as telemeter. Bacle, 

L. [1897] Gen. Civ. 32 (1897-98) 117-. 
alternating currents in. Rice, H. E. Kan. 

Un. Q. 7 (1898) 31-. 
and alternating currents of high frequency. 

Abraham, H. C. E. 118 (1894) 1251- ; Par. 

S. Ps. Se. (1894) 213-. 
best arrangement in given case. Heaviside, 0. 

Ph. Mg. 45 (1873) 114-. 
. Gray, T. Ph. Mg. 12 (1881) 

283-. 
commutator to interchange resistances. Shaw, 

W. N. L. Ps. S. P. 6 (1885) 71- ; Ph. Mg. 

17 (1884) 398-. 
and continuous current problems, graphical 

methods applied to. Forney, J. B. A. Tel. 

22 (1895) 416-. 
direct-reading. Trotter, A. P. Elect. 37 (1896) 

691-. 
E.M.F., elimination. Broca, A As. Fr. C. E. 

(1895) (Ft. 2) 363-. 
with E.M.F. harmonic, currents in branches. 

Crehore, A. C., & Squier, (Lt.) G. 0. Ph. 

Mg. 43 (1897) 161- 
E.M.F. in side-branch. S., R. Tel. J. 2 

(*1864) 242-. 

form. Giltay, J. W. Z. Instk. 5 (1885) 158-. 
. Marinovitch, B. Lum. Elect. 24 (1887) 

553-. 
, most general. Weber, H. Braunschw. 

Vr. Nt. Jbr. (5) (1887) 19-. 
, , properties. Frolich, O. Elekttech. 

Z. 9 (1888) 137-. 
and galvanometer. Murphy, W. J. Elect. 41 

(1898) 590-. 

, forms. Toller, A. J. Tel. 18 (1894) 6-. 

galvanometer resistance to be employed. 

Schwendler, L. Ph. Mg. 31 (1866) 364- ; 33 

(1867) 29-. 
generalisation. Frolich, 0. Elekttech. Z. 7 

(1886) 483- ; A. Ps. C. 30 (1887) 156-. 
. Guglielmo, G. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 19 (1887) 

119-. 
, Frolich's. Rosn, A. Stockh. Ofv. (1887) 

203-. 

of principle. Frolich, . Berl. Ps. Gs. 
Vh. (1884) 18. 

. Vanni, G. Nap. S. Nt. Bll. 5 (1891) 

97-. 

hydraulic illustration. Hallock, W. Science 
8 (1898) 206-. 

for very low resistances. Abt, A. Orv.-Termt. 
Ets. (Termt. Szak) (1889) 106-. 

modification. Dehms, F. Berl. Z. Tel. 13 
(1866) 259-. 

. Lehfeldt, R. A. Ph. Mg. 32 (1891) 60-. 

, and measurement of low resistances. Fos- 
ter, G. C. Tel. E. J. 1 (1872-73) 196- ; A. 
Ps. C. 26 (1885) 239-. 

for resistance of galvanometer. Thomson, 
(Sir) W. E. S. P. 19 (1871) 253. 

modifications. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. 

Elect. 9 (*1883) 257-. 
property. Dufour, M. J. de Ps. 8 (1899) 165-. 



resistance. Paul, T. Tel. J. 17 (1885) 371-. 

balance for standard coils. Fleming, J. A. 

[1879] L. Ps. S. P. 3 (1880) 174- ; Ph. Mg. 

9 (1880) 109- . 

, modified. Thompson, S. P. 

L. Ps. S. P. 6 (1885) 121- ; Ph. Mg. 17 (1884) 
507-. 

reversible. Edelmann, M. T. Elekttech. Z. 
21 (1900) 979-. 

most sensitive arrangement, and bolometer. 
Child, C. D., (& Stewart, 0. M. Ps. Ev. 4 
(1897) 502-. 

sensitiveness of bridge method in its applica- 
tion to periodic electric currents. Rayleigh, 
(Lord). B. S. P. 49 (1891) 203-. 

, conditions for. Thevenin, L. A. Tel. 10 

(1883) 225-, 552-. 

short method for finding currents. WJiitwell, 

A. Elect. Ev. 31 (1892) 661. 
theory. Weber, H. A. Ps. C. 30 (1887) 638-. 
. Vedel, P. Ts. Ps. C. 27 (1888) 289-. 
, geometric proof. Guillaume, C. ft. Arch. 

So. Ps. Nt. 8 (1882) 253-. 
universal, portable, Chauvin and Arnoux's. 

Dubreuil, G. A. Tel. 25 (1899) 481-. 
use of electrometer with. Perry, J., <& Ayrton, 

W. E. Tel. J. 5 (1877) 288-. 
Engelmann's rheostat with. Zwaarde- 

maker, H. Mbl. Nt. (1889) 61-. 
rapid electric vibrations with. Nernst, 

W. A. Ps. C. 60 (1897) 600-. 
Wheatstone-Kirchhoff. Kohlrausch, F. A. 

Ps. C. 56 (1895) 177-. 
, modification. Meyer, H. A. Ps. C. 22 

(1884) 460-. 

Comparison of nearly equal resistances. Nalder, 

F. H. B. A. Ep. (1893) 702-. 
Conductivity of metal cylinders, determination 

by damping. Mayrhofer, G. Z. Instk. 11 

(1891) 50-, 148. 
, test by Wollaston's voltaic apparatus. 

Macaire-Prinsep, J. Bb. Un. 43 (1830) 146-. 
, tests. Willyoung, E. G., & Harth, H. P. 

[1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 74-. 
Constants of voltaic circuit. Wheatstone, (Sir) 

C. Phil. Trans. (1843) 303-. 
(Wheatstone). Delarive,A. Arch. 

de 1'Electr. 4 (1844) 143-. 
( ). Ragona-Scina, D. Nap. 

Ed. 4 (1845) 57-. 
Diagometer. Rousseau, . J. Phm. 9 (1823) 

587-; A. C. 25 (1824) 373-. 
. Palmieri, L. Nap. Ed. 9 (1870) 106- ; 

10 (1871) 203-. 

, Palmieri's, modification. Palmieri, L. (xn) 

Nap. Ac. Pont. At. 14 (1881) 101-. 
Errors due to thermoelectric forces. Strecker, 

K. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 575. 
Galvanometer, differential. Discher, H. (xn) 

Elekttech. Z. 4 (1883) 116-. 
, , for low resistances. Heaviside, 0. 

Ph. Mg. 45 (1873) 245-. 
, , . Forney, J. B. Eclair. Elect. 

18 (1899) 247-. 
, proportional. Ulbricht, R. Dresden Isis 

Sb. (1885) 53-. 



664 



5640 By Telephone Measurement of Resistance. 

Galvanometers for high resistances. Threlfall, 

R. Aust. As. Rp. (1888) 109-. 
Inductor, differential. Elsas, A. A. Ps. C. 

35 (1888) 828-; 42 (1891) 165-. 
Mercury volt'agometer. Jacobi, M. H. [1848] 

St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 8 (1850) 1-. 
Ohm meter. Mauri, A. N. Cim. 35 (1894) 

235-. 
Portable apparatus for rapid measurement of 

insulation. Foris, G. Gen. Civ. 23 (1893) 

185-. 
Resistance box. Griffiths, E. H. Nt. 54 (1896) 

567. 
( substitute for. Waters, A. W. Manch. 

Lt. Ph. S. P. 23 (1884) 43-. 
Eheostat for high resistances. Becquerel, E. 

(vn) Par. A. Cons. 1 (1861) 733-. 
, Wheatstone's, with mercury contacts. Bo- 

dynski, J. A. Ps. C. 22 (1884) 463-. 
Rheostats, water-. Hanchett, G. T. Elect. 37 

(1896) 833-. 

Shunts, application to electrometric and tele- 
graphic purposes. Preece, W. H. Tel. E. 

J. 6 (1877) 27-. 
, use. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 3 

(*1881) 49-. 
Siemens's resistance measurer. Siemens, C. W. 

B. A. Rp. 37 (1867) 479-. 
, modification. Jenkin, F. B. A. Rp. 

37 (1867) 481-. 



Cables 5640 



Telephone. (Use in Measurement of 
Resistance.) 

Hospitalier, E. Lum. Elect. 1 (*1879) 110-. 

Niemoller, F. A. Ps. C. 8 (1879) 656-. 

Chaperon, G. Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 85-. 

Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 9 (*1883) 49-. 

Pringsheim, E. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1886) 8Q(bis)-. 

Prytz, K. Ts. Ps. C. 27 (1888) 171-. 

Elsas, A. A. Ps. C. 44 (1891) 666-. 

Wien, M. A. Ps. C. 47 (1892) 626-. 

and alternating currents. Colson, R. C. R. 
119 (1894) 1261-. 

differential telephone for clinical measure- 
ments. Bergonie, J. As. Fr. C. R. (1896) 
(Pt. 2) 187-. 

electrolytes. Federico, R. N. Cim. 

6 (1897) 161-. 

Kohlrausch's method applied to liquids. 
Reicher, L. T. Mbl. Nt. (1888) 115. 

and microphone. Nebel, B. Exner Rpm. 24 
(1888) 490-. 

Thermometer. Sabine, R. Tel. E. J. 1 (1872- 

73) 414-. 
Universal compensator. Beetz, W. A. Ps. C. 

3 (1878) 1-. 
resistance measurer. Kohlrausch, F. Tel. 

J. 14 (1884) 24-. 
Wires, instrument for. Gassiot, J. P. Walker 

Electr. Mg. 1 (1845) 53-. 
, voltmeter for. Lermantov, V. V. Rs. Ps.- 

C. S. J. 24 (Ps.) (1892) 71-. 



MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE. 

(Use of galvanic differential thermometer.) 

Svanberg, A. F. Stockh. Ak. Hndl. (1849) 

109- ; Pogg. A. 84 (1851) 411-. 
Kolk, H. W. Schroder van der. Pogg. A. 

110 (1860) 452-. 

Varley, C. F. B. A. Rp. 36 (1866) (Sect.) 14-. 
Sirks, J. L. A. Ps. C. 137 (1869) 156-. 
Mayer, A. M. Am. J. Sc. 50 (1870) 307-. 
Warren, T. P. B. Ph. Mg. 40 (1870) 441-. 
Kempe, H. R. [1873-75] (x) Tel. J. 2 (1873- 

74) 8-, 31-, 49-, 65-, 86-, 105-, 118-, 148-, 

168-, 214-, 241-, 266-, 324-, 352-, 394-; 

3 (1874-75) 115-, 152-, 158-, 222-. 
Raynaud, J. J. de Ps. 2 (1873) 288-. 
Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 1 (*1879) 

133-, 152-. 

Kirchhoff, G. Berl. Ak. Mb. (1880) 601-. 
Kempe, H. R. Tel. J. 10 (1882) 6-, 17-, 37, 

96-, 135, 244-, 395-. 
Waghorn, J. W. W. L. Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 

96-; Ph. Mg. 27 (1889) 322-. 
Schuster, A. Ph. Mg. 39 (1895) 175-. 
Alloys. Hockin, G., <& Matthiessen, A. Lb. 1 

(1867) 343-, 391-, 423-. 
, by damping. Weber, R. H. A. Ps. C. 68 

(1899) 705-. 

Cables. 

copper resistance, by false-zero method. Ray- 
mond-Barker, E. Tel. J. 17 (1885) 311-, 
329-. 

, . Rimington, E. C. Tel. J. 

17 (1885) 392-. 

, . Raymond-Barker, E. Tel. 

J. 17 (1885) 490-. 

by differential galvanometer. Canter, 0. (xn) 
Elekttech. Z. 2 (1881) 16-. 

for electric lighting. Heap, A. C. Elect. Rv. 
47 (1900) 537-. 

false-zero method. Sumpner, W. E. Elect. 
20 (1888) 359-. 

old, absolute resistance. Haggers, J. A. Tel. 
8 (1865) 437-. 

submarine, conductor resistance, leakage cor- 
rection. Murphy, W. J. Elect. 41 (1898) 
519-. 

, copper resistance. Phillips, S. E. Tel. J. 
1 (1872-73) 44-. 

_, Baines, A. E. Elect. 16 (1886) 

188-. 

, insulated wire, testing short lengths. Jen- 
kin, H. C. F. (x) Tel. E. J. 2 (1873) 169-. 

Calibration, accurate, of bridges. Edelmann, 
M. T. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 912-. 

of bridge-wire. Griffiths, E. H. Camb. 
Ph. S. P. 8 (1895) 269-. 

correction of wires. Leman, A. Berl. Ps. 
Reichsanst. Ab. 2 (1895) 357-. 

corrections. Ascoli, . Rm. R. Ac. Line. 
Rd. 1 (1885) 465-, 538-. 

of plug rheostats. Chwolson, 0. A. Ps. C. 
24 (1885) 45-. 



665 



H2 



5640 



Voltaic Cells, Internal Resistance 



5640 



Calibration of resistance wire. Aubel, E. van. 

Par. S. Ps. 86. (1893) 251-. 
-wires. Giese, W. A. Ps. C. 11 (1880) 

11. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 

166-. 
. Ascoli, Bm. B. Ac. Line. Bd. 

1 (1885) 197-. 
. _. Heerwagen, F. Z. Instk. 9 (1889) 

165-. 

Cells, Internal Resistance. 

Jacobi,M.H. Pogg. A. 57 (1842) 85-. 

DM Moncel, T. [A. L.] [1863] (vn) A. Tel. 

7 (1864) 147-. 

Eaynaud'j. C. B. 65 (1867) 170-. 
fraltenhofen, A. van. Wien Az. 4 (1867) 115- ; 

A. Ps. C. 134 (1868) 218-. 
Militzer, H. Wien Ak. Sb. 59 (1869) (Ab. 2) 

472-. 

Hodges, N. D. C. Am. J. Sc. 5 (1873) 375-. 
Lacoine, E. [1873] J. Tel. 2 (1872-74) 196-. 
Frolich, 0. A. Ps. C. (Jubelbd.) (1874) 448-. 
Naccari, A. Yen. I. At. 3 (1873-74) 631-. 
Fahie, J. J. Tel. J. 3 (1875) 249-. 
Hawkins, F. Tel. E. J. 4 (1875) 258-. 
Discher, H. J. Tel. 3 (1877) 554-. 
Fleischl [von Markow], E. Wien Ak. Sb. 75 

(1877) (Ab. 2) 329-. 
(Besistance of 2 cells.) Peirce, B. 0. Am. 

Ac. P. 12 (1877) 137-. 
Peirce, B. 0. Am. Ac. P. 12 (1877) 140-. 
Discher, H. Z. Mth. Ps. 23 (1878) 138-. 
Guglielmo, G. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 18 (1882) 

485-. 

Samuel, P. Brux. Ac. Bll. 3 (1882) 499-. 
Minet, A. Lum. Elect. 11 (1884) 269-. 
Peirce, B. O., & Willson, R. W. Am. J. Sc. 

38 (1889) 465-. 

Tumlirz, 0. A. Ps. C. 37 (1889) 527. 
(Tumlirz.) Uppenborn, F. A. Ps. C. 41 (1890) 



Pagliani, S. Gz. C. It. 21 (1891) (Pt. 1) 449-. 
Uppenborn, F. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 157-. 
Frolich, O. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 370-. 
Smith, E. W. L. Ps. S. P. 11 (1892) 342-; 

Ph. Mg. 34 (1892) 173-. 
Nernst, W., & Haagn, E. Z. Elektch. (1895- 

96) 493-. 
Moore, T. S. L. Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 139- ; 

Ph. Mg. 49 (1900) 491-. 
Negreanu, D. Bucarest Ac. Bom. A. 22 (Pt. 

admin.) (1900) 526-. 
and accumulators. Haagn, E. Z. Elektch. 

(1896-97) 421-. 
accumulators. Rimington, E. C. Elect. Bv. 

45 (1899) 623-. 
cells with low polarisation capacity. Haagn, 

E. Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 470-. 
resistance. Kempe, H. R. Tel. J. Weston cell. 

11 (1882) 233-. 848-. 

Clark cell. Klemencic, I. Innsb. Nt. Md. B. 

23 (1897) 90-. 
compensation method. Beetz, W. Munch. Sb. 

(1871) 3-. 
for unpolarisable cells. Fuchs,F. A. Ps. 

C. 21 (1884) 274-, 712. 



direct method. Siemens, W. Tel. E. J. 1 

(1872-73) 407-. 
between electrodes. Cabanellas, G. C. B. 97 

(1883) 575-. 
electrolytic cells. Sankey, (Capt.) H. R. B. 

S. P. 45 (1889) 541-. 

. Guthe, K. E. Ps. Bv. 7 (1898) 193-. 

electromotors. Mauri, A. N. Cim. 1 (1895) 

299-, 386. 
by galvanometer (differential). Canter, 0. 

Dingier 222 (1876) 437-; Elekttech. Z. 8 

(1887) 358-. 
adjusted to zero. Mance, H. B. S. P. 

19 (1871) 252. 
very low resistance. Grassi, G. Nap. Bd. 32 

(1893) 59-. 
(accumulators). Grassi, G. Nap.Bd. 

34 (1895) 64-. 
Mance's method (battery or conductor). Mance, 

H. B. S. P. 19 (1871) 248-. 
. Kempe, H. R. Tel. J. 11 (1882) 276-. 
(constant and variable cells). Zolotarev, 

D. A. [1882] (xn) Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 16 

(Ps., Pt. 1) (1884) 142- ; Fschr. Ps. (1884) 

(Ab. 2) 682-. 

. Hillyer, C. E. Elect. 12 (1884) 470-. 

. Moorsom, W. M. Elect. 12 (1884) 495. 

, application of Thevenin's theorem. 

Pomey, J. B. Eclair. Elect. 18 (1899) 121-. 
improvements. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 

3 (*1881) 70-. 
, influence of extra- current. Guglielmo, G. 

Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 20 (1885) 319-. 
, for low resistances of cells and accumu- 
lators. Perrin, A. Lum. Elect. 51 (1894) 

311-. 
, modification. Lodge, 0. J. Ph. Mg. 3 

(1877) 515- ; L. Ps. S. P. 2 (1879) 145-. 
, . Pirani,F.J. [1881] Vict.B.S. T. 

18 (1882) 3-. 

, . Austin, L. W. Ps. Bv. 11 (1900) 117. 

Ohm's method. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] C. B. 

52 (1861) 242-. 
polarisable cells. Rimington, E. C. Elect. 31 

(1893) 262-, 295-. 
rapid method. Mouton, L. J. de Ps. 5 (1876) 

144-. 
and resistance of liquid conductors. Kohl- 

rausch, F. Tel. J. 14 (1884) 24-. 
tangent-galvanometers, experimental 

method. Kilty, L. Arch. Mth. Ps. 58 

(1876) 444-. 
standard cells. Klemencic, I. A. Ps. C. 65 

(1898) 917-. 

. Cohen, E. Z. Ps. C. 28 (1899) 723-. 

by telephone. Less, E. A. Ps. C. 15 (1882) 80-. 
. Rimington, E. C. Tel. J. 21 (1887) 

185-. 
Thomson's method. Negreanu, D. Bucarest 

Ac. Bom. A. 22 (Pt. admin.) (1900) 531-. 

Klemencic, I. A. Ps. 2 (1900) 



by Wheatstone's bridge. Paalzow, A. A. Ps. 
C. 135 (1868) 326-. 

Circuit containing earth inductor and galvano- 
meter, absolute resistance. Kohlrausch, F. 
[1883] Munch. Ak. Sb. 13 (1884) 315-. 



666 



5640 



Measurement of Resistance 



5640 



Circuits, metallic, different resistance to con- 
denser discharge and to battery current. 

Villari, E. Bologna Bd. (1886-87) 66-; 

Nap. Ac. At. 3 (1889) No. 5, 16 pp. 
Coil, windings. Himstedt, F. [1882] A. Ps. 

C. 18 (1883) 433-. 
, . Kohlrausch, F. Gott. Nr. (1882) 

654-; A. Ps. C. 18 (1883) 513-. 
Compensation principle of Du Bois-Beymond. 

Kovacevic, F. Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 190-. 
Conductors, bad. Domalip, K. Wien Ak. Sb. 

75 (1877) (Ab. 2) 620-. 
, lightning, earth resistance. Wiechert, E. 

Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 726-. 
, , . Nowotny, R. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 

640. 
, , testing. Brasack, . Magdeb. Nt. 

Vr. Jbr. u. Ab. (1889) 40-. 
, solid, calculation of resistance. Oberbeck, 

A. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 4 (1883) 216-. 
Cotton in silk, detection by electrometer. Pal- 

mieri, L. Nap. Ed. 8 (1869) 154. 
Current, constant, measurement by. Bidwell, 

S. L. Ps. S. P. 5 (1884) 195- ; Ph. Mg. 15 

(1883) 316-. 

Currents, alternating, measurements by. Kohl- 
rausch, F. A. Ps. C. 49 (1893) 225-. 
, induced, measurements by. Kohlrausch, F. 

A. Ps. C. 142 (1871) 418-. 
'Earths.' Canter, 0. J. Tel. 4 (1880) 827-. 
Electric discharges in copper and in iron. 

Cardani, P. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 4 (1895) 

(Sem. 2) 242-. 
Electrostatic method. Biermann, 0., <& Gruss, 

G. Wien Ak. Sb. 77 (1878) (Ab. 2) 463-. 
Galvanometer and battery resistance test. 

Barker, E. E. Elect. 13 (1884) 247-. 

resistance. Henrici, F. C. Pogg. A. 63 
(1844) 344-. 

. Svanberg, A. F. Stockh. Ofv. 4 (1847) 

.' Fahie, J. J. Tel. J. 2 (1874) 313. 

. Day, W. S. Ps. Ev. 11 (1900) 251-. 

. Negreanu, D. Bucarest Ac. Bom. A. 
22 (Pt. admin.) (1900) 523-. 

Glow-lamps. Apt, R., <& Hoffmann, M. W. 

Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 122-. 
High resistances. Hopkinson, J. Ph. Mg. 7 

(1879) 162-. 
. Threlfall, R. L. Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 

252-; Ph. Mg. 28 (1889) 452-. 
. Kazankin, N. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 28 (Ps.) 

(1896) 15-; J. de Ps. 6 (1897) 603. 
. Negreanu, D. Bucarest Ac. Eom. A. 

19 (Pt. admin.) (1897) 376-; Bucarest S. Sc. 

Bl. 6 (1897) 506-. 
. Schilrr, J. J. de Ps. 7 (1898) 598-. 

, differential electrostatic method for. 
Cardew, (Maj.) . E. S. P. 50 (1892) 340-. 

, obtaining ratios for. Kohlrausch, F. 

[1887] Munch. Ak. Sb. 17 (1888) 11-. 
Insulators. Foussereau, G. C. E. 97 (1883) 

996-; A. C. 5 (1885) 241-, 317-. 
, experiments. Rood, 0. N. Am. J. Sc. 10 

(1900) 285-. 
Lacoine's method, application. Negreanu, D. 

Bucarest Ac. Eom. A. 19 (Pt. admin.) (1897) 

378-; J. de Ps. 7 (1898) 424-. 



Lamps, while incandescing. Kempe, H. R. 

Tel. J. 10 (1882) 475-. 

Liquids. Kohlrausch, F. Gott. Nr. (1868)415-. 
. Oberbeck, A. A. Ps. C. 155 (1875) 595-. 
, by alternating currents. Chaperon, G. Par. 

S. Ps. Se. (1890) 149-. 

in capillary tubes. Becquerel, E. (vn) Par. 
A. Cons. 1 (1861) 733-. 

hitherto considered insulators. Sald-Ejfendi, 

. C. E. 68 (1869) 1565-. 
. Warren, T. P. B. Ph. Mg. 38 

(1869) 470. 
, dielectric. Koch, K. R. A. Ps. C. 50 

(1893) 482-. 

in thin layers. Bryan, G. B. Ph. Mg. 45 
(1898) 253-. 

and wires. Kiilp, L. Arch. Mth. Ps. 54 
(1872) 80. 

Low resistances. Thomson, (Sir) W. [1861] 

E. S. P. 11 (1860-62) 313-. 
. Glazebrook, R. T. L. Ps. S. P. 4 

(1881) 190- ; Ph. Mg. 11 (1881) 291-. 
. Cardew, (Lt.) P. Tel. E. J. 11 (1882) 

. Dieterici, C. A. Ps. C. 16 (1882) 234-. 

. Uppenborn, F. Lum. Elect. 14 (1884) 

336-. 
. Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 17 

(1885) 3-. 
. Maiche, . Tel. E. J. 14 (1885) 

354. 
(very low). Olearski, K. [1891] Krk. 

A.k.(Mt.-Prz.)Rz. 4(1893)260-; Crc. Ac.Sc. 

Bll. (1891) 258-. 
. Pasqualini, . [1894] Nt. 51 (1894- 

95) 158. 
(very low). Sheldon, S. Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 413-. 
, bridge method for. Callendar, H. L. 

Elect. 41 (1898) 354. 
, . Fisher, W. C. (et alii). Elect. 

41 (1898) 395-, etc. 
Metals. Marianini, S. (vra) Bb. It. 2 (1841) 

287-. 

. Kulp, L. Arch. Mth. Ps. 59 (1876) 109-. 
, fused. Vicentini, G., & Cattaneo, C. Em. 

E. Ac. Line. Ed. 1 (1892) (Sem. 1) 419-. 
, easily fusible. Vicentini, G., & Omodei, 

D. Bv. Sc.-Ind. 22 (1890) 193-. 
, by induction balance. Oberbeck, A., <& 

Bergmann, J. A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 792-. 
Ohm's method. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] C. E. 52 

(1861) 242-. 
Eesistance between 2 neighbouring points on 

conductor. Rayleigh, (Lord). [1884] Camb. 

Ph. S. P. 5 (1886) 133-. 
opposite sides of certain quadrilateral. 

Lees, C. H. [1899] Manch. Lt. Ph. S. 

Mm. & P. 44 (1900) No. 1, 3 pp. 
Siemens's method. Siemens, C. W. CE. I. 

P. 21 (1861-62) 515-. 
. Sabine, R. B. A. Ep. 35 (1865) (Sect.) 

16-. 
Thomson's method, application to fused metals. 

Delarive, L. C. E. 57 (1863) 698-. 
Wires. Thevenin, L. A. Tel. 10 (1883) 167-. 
. Mialaret,. [1887] Tel. E. J. 16 (1888) 



667 



5650 Standards of Resistance British Association Standards 5650 

Wires carrying current. Locoine, E. J. Tel. 

12 (1888) 12-. 
, , fall of pitch. Stone, W. H. L. 

Ps. S. P. 1 (1876) 20-; Ph. Mg. 48 (1874) 

115. 
, telegraph, by differential galvanometer. 

Dehms, (Dr.) . [1879] J. Tel. 4 (1880) 

269-, 289-, 317-. 



5650 Standards of Resistance. 
Absolute Determination. 

STANDABDS OF EESISTANCE. 

Siemens, W. Pogg. A. 113 (1861) 91-. 
(Siemens.) Matthiessen, Aug. Ph. Mg. 22 

(1861) 195-. 
(Proposed introduction of a standard.) Weber, 

W. E. Gott. Nr. (1861) 263-. 
Kirchho/, G. Elect. 4 (1863) 51. 
Gaugain, J. M. Les Mondes 20 (1869) 140-. 
Klemencic, I. Wien Ak. Sb. 99 (1891) (Ab. 2a) 

780-. 
alloy. Matthiessen, Aug. Ph. Mg. 21 (1861) 

107-. 
alloys. Feussner, K., & Lindeck, S. Z. Instk. 

9 (1889) 233-. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION STANDARDS. 

Brit. Ass. Comm. (vi Adds.) B. A. Bp. 
(1863) 111-; (vn) 34 (1864) 345-; 35 (1865) 
308- ; 37 (1867) 474-; 39 (1869) 434-. 

(Experimental- measurement for Brit. Ass. 
Comm.) Maxwell, J. ., <& Jenkin, F. B. 

A. Bp. 34 (1864) 350-. 

(Beproduction of standards by chemical means.) 
Matthiessen, A., <& Hockin, C. B. A. Bp. 
34 (1864) 352-. 

Jenkin, F. B. S. P. 14 (1865) 154-. 

(Ohm, copies.) Matthiessen, A.,& Hockin, C. 

B. A. Bp. 35 (1865) 311-. 

(Comparison of various units, Kew.) Hockin, 

C. B. A. Ep. 37 (1867) 483. 

( .) Chrystal, G., <& Saunder, S. A. 

B. A. Bp. (1876) 13-. 
(Construction and issuing practical standards.) 

Brit. Ass. Comm. B. A. Bp. (1881) 423-; 

(1882) 70-; (1883) 41-; (1884) 29-; (1885) 

31-; (1886)145-; (1887)206-; (1888)55-; 

(1889)41-; (1890)95-; (1891)152-; 1892 

132-. 
(Values of some coils.) Glazebrook, R. T., & 

Fitzpatrick, T. C. B. A. Bp. (1886) 147-. 
(Permanence of original B.A. standards and 

other standard coils.) Glazebrook, R. T.,<& 

Fitzpatrick, T. C. B. A. Ep. (1888) 56-. 
(Values of certain coils.) Glazebrook, R. T. 

B. A. Bp. (1890) 98-; (1892) 150-. 
(Wire standards.) Lindeck, S. B.A. Ep. (1892) 

139. 
(Certain resistance coils.) Glazebrook, R. T. 

B. A. Bp. (1892) 152-. 

(Comparison with Berlin standards.) Glaze- 
brook, R. T. B. A. Ep. (1892) 154-. 



(Construction, improvement, experiments.) 

Brit. Ass. Comm. B. A. Bp. (1893) 127- ; 

(1894) 117- ; (1895) 195- ; (1896) 150- ; 

(1897 206- ; (1898) 145- ; (1899) 240- ; 

(1900) 53-. 
(Effects of heating due to testing-currents.) 

Glazebrook, R. T. B. A. Bp. (1893) 136-. 
(Low resistance.) Jones, J. V. B. A. Ep. 

(1893) 137-. 
(Comparison with standards used by Prof. 

Jones.) Glazebrook, R. T. B. A. Bp. (1894) 

128-. 
( of ohm standards of the Board of Trade.) 

Rennie, J. B. A. Bp. (1894) 130. 
(Indian Government standards compared with 

standard at Muirhead's Laboratory.) Walker, 

E. O. B. A. Ep. (1894) 131. 
(Comparison with standards used by Jones and 

Ayrton in determination of absolute resist- 
ance of mercury.) Glazebrook, R. T. B. 

A. Ep. (1898) 147-. 
(Determination of temperature coefficients of 

10-ohm coils.) Solomon, M. B. A. Bp. 

(1898) 151-. 

(Improved coil.) Whipple, R. S. B. A. Ep. 

(1900) 55-. 
and mercury standard, comparison. Hutchin- 

son, C. T., & Wilkes, G. 'J. H. Un. Cir. 8 

(1888-89) 74-. 
, . Salvioni, E. Bm. E. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 6 (1890) (Sem. 2) 321-. 

standards of Benoit and Strecker, 
comparison. Glazebrook, R. T. L. Ps. 
S. P. 7 (1886) 201- ; Ph. Mg. 20 (1885) 
343-. 

standards of Physikalisch-Technische Eeichs- 
anstalt, comparison. Lindeck, S. Z. Instk. 
16 (1896) 272-. 

Bureau of Adjustment. Nerville, F. de. A. 

Tel. 11 (1884) 359-. 
carbon and copper. Nichols, . Nt. 38 (1888) 

231-. 
construction. Crova, A. J. de Ps. 3 (1874) 

54-. 

. Lindeck, . D. Nf. Tbl. (1889) 726-. 
. Morris, D. K. Elect. 33 (1894) 605-, 

627-, 667-. 

and adjustment. Dehms, F. Berl. Z. Tel. 
14 (1867) 4-. 

. Willyoung, E. G. Franklin I. J. 

133 (1892) 309-. 

, improvements. Levy, M. Elekttech. Z. 
20 (1899) 677-. 
copper sulphate baths as. Leconte, F. Brux. 

S. Sc. A. 17 (1893) (Pt. 1) 24. 
design for. Fleming, J. A. L. Ps. S. P. 10 

(1890) 12-; Ph. Mg. 27 (1889) 24-. 
dial-, of Siemens and Halske. Raps, A. Z. 

Instk. 16 (1896) 24-. 
German-silver and platinoid wires, failure. 

Appleyard, R. [1897] L. Ps. S. P. 16 

(1899) 17-; Ph. Mg. 45 (1898) 157-. 

with heating apparatus, Queen <fe Co.'s. Anon. 

[1894] Z. Elekttech. Elektch. (1894-95) 

135-. 
high resistance, construction. Phillips, S. E. 

Ph. Mg. 40 (1870) 41. 



668 



5650 The Ohm 

high resistances. Fawcett, F. B. Ph. Mg. 46 

(1898) 500-. 
at International Congress. Pellat, . Lum. 

Elect. 33 (1889) 378-. 
low resistance. Stine, W. M. Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 264. 

resistances. Wolff, 0. Z. Instk. 18 (1898) 
19-. 

manganin, constancy. Jaeger, W., d- Lindeck, 

S. Z. Instk. 18 (1898) 97-. 
megohm. Davids, E. W. Franklin I. J. 131 

(1891) 311-. 

, carbon, for high voltages. Mordey, W. M. 

Ph. Mg. 42 (1896) 450-. 

, inexpensive. Jona, E. Nt. 48 (1893) 155. 
new metals for. Guillaume, C. E. A. Tel. 20 

(1893) 97-. 
non-inductive, construction. Ayrton, W. E., 

& Mather, T. [1891] L. Ps. S. P. 11 (1892) 

269-; Ph. Mg. 33 (1892) 186-. 

OHM. 

comparison of various types. Salvioni, E. 

Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 5 (1889) (Son. 2) 145-. 
construction of copies. Benoit, J. E. C. E. 

99 (1884) 864-; A. Tel. 11 (1884) 379-; Par. 

S. Ps. Se. (1884) 255-. 
of the future. Guillaume, C. E. Elect. 29 

(1892) 594. 

at International Conference. Helmholtz, 

von. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1884} 26-. 
legal. Guillaume, C. E. Lum. Elect. 24 (1887) 

451-. 
, construction. Salvioni, E. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Mm. 6 (1889) 267-. 
and legal ohm, relation. Glazebrook, R. T., & 

Crawley, C. W. S. Elect. 27 (1891) 615-. 

mechanical equivalent of heat, relation. 
Fletcher, L. B. Ph. Mg. 10 (1880) 436-. 

mercury, of Physikalisch-Technische Eeichsan- 
stalt. Jaeger, W. Berl. Ps. Eeichsanst. Ab. 
2 (1895) 379-. 

, . Jaeger, W., & Kahle, K. 

Berl. Ps. Eeichsanst. Ab. 3 (1900) 95-. 

and Siemens's unit, relation. Siemens, H. 
A. Ps. C. 148 (1873) 155-. 

value, probable. Dorn, E. Berl. Ps. Eeichs- 
anst. Ab. 2 (1895) 257-. 

, theoretical. Leduc, A. C. E. 118 (1894) 
1246-. 

of Physikalisch-Technische Eeichsanstalt (mer- 
cury standard). Kreichgauer, D., <& Jaeger, 
W. A. Ps. C. 47 (1892) 513-. 

. Feussner, K., & Lindeck, S. 
Berl. Ps. Eeichsanst. Ab. 2 (1895) 501- ; Z. 
Instk. 15 (1895) 394-, 425-. , 

. Lamotte, M. Eclair. Elect. 7 

(1896) 245-. 
. Jaeger, W., & Kahle, K. A. Ps. 

C. 64 (1898) 456-. 
, construction. Feussner, K. Z. 

Instk. 10 (1890) 6-, 425-. 
platino-silicon. Eodt, V. Elekttech. Z. 21 

(1900) 847-. 
platinum-iridium wires, etc. KlemenciS, I. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 97 (1889) (^6. 2a) 838-. 



Standard Resistance Coils 5650 



SIEMENS'S MERCURY STANDARD. 

(Proposed reproducible standard.) Siemens, W. 

Pogg. A. 110 (1860) 1-. 
Siemens, W. A. Ps. C. 127 (1866) 327-. 
(Siemens.) Matthiessen, A. Ph. Mg. 31 (1866) 

376-. 

( .) Jenkin, F. Ph. Mg. 32 (1866) 161-. 
Kohlrausch, F. Gott. Nr. (1882) 654-. 
construction. Lindeck, S. Z. Instk. 11 (1891) 

171-. 
reconstruction. Dehms, F. A. Ps. C. 136 

(1869) 260-, 373-. 
. Siemens, E. W. von, <& Halske, J. G. 

(xn) Elekttech. Z. 3 (1882) 408-. 
. Strecker, K. [1884-85] Wiirzb. Ps. Md. 

Sb. (1884) 73- ; Munch. Ak. Ab. 15 (1886) 

367. 
. Passavant, H. A. Ps. C. 40 (1890) 505- ; 

46 (1892) 336. 
of Siemens and Halske. Raps, A. Z. Instk. 

16 (1896) 22-. 
value of some standards. Glazebrook, R. T. 

L. Ps. S. P. 11 (1892) 159- ; Ph. Mg. 32 

(1891) 70-. 



STANDARD RESISTANCE COILS. 

adjustment. Thompson, S. P. L. Ps. S. P. 

6 (1885) 47-; Ph. Mg. 17 (1884) 265-. 
bare wire for. Burstall, F. W. L. Ps. S. P. 

14 (1896) 286- ; Ph. Mg. 42 (1896) 209-. 
Carpentier. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 12 

(1884) 166-. 

for large currents. Snell, W. H. Elect. 14 

(1885) 240-. 

manganin for. Milthaler, . A. Ps. C. 46 

(1892) 297-. 
(Milthaler). Lindeck, S. A. Ps. C. 46 

(1892) 515-. 
(_). Wiechert, E. A. Ps. C. 52 (1894) 

67-. 

. Walker, E. O. Elect. 35 (1895) 773. 
permanency. Ayrton, W. E. Elect. 40 (1898) 

39-. 

. Crawley, C. W. S. Elect. 40 (1898) 132-. 
self-induction and capacity in, influence on 

magnetic phenomena. Fromme, C. Gott. 

Nr. (1894) 154-. 
small. Germain, P. As. Fr. C. E. 5 (1876) 

296-. 

winding of coils for measurements with alter- 
nating currents. Chaperon, G. C. E. 108 

(1889) 799-. 
, theory. Chaperon, G. Par. S. Ps. Se\ 

(1889) 92-. 
wires, effect of coiling and uncoiling. Hopps, 

J. L. Ps. S. P. 6 (1885) 235- ; Ph. Mg. 18 

(1884) 433-. 

for technical purposes. Kahl, E. Z. Mth. 

Ps. 9 (1864) 70-. 
value of a resistance. Ayrton, W. E. Elect. 

40 (1898) 149-. 
(low). Housman, R. H. Elect. 

40 (1898) 300-. 



669 



5650 Absolute Determination 



ABSOLUTE DETERMINATION. 

Weber, W. E. Pogg. A. 82 (1851) 337-. 
Rowland, H. A. Am. J. Sc. 15 (1878) 281-, 

325-, 430-. 
(Wires.) Roiti, A. [1884] Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 

19 (1883) 643-. 
Himstedt, F. A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 617- ; 

Giessen Oberh. Gs. B. 30 (1895) 177-. 
Jones, J. V. [18951 B. I. P. 14 (1896) 601-. 
Glazebrook, R. T. L. Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 329- ; 

Ph. Mg. 50 (1900) 410-. 

ampere, redetermination in terms of electro- 
chemical equivalent of silver. Carhart, H. S. 

Am. As. P. (1898) 101-. 
application of principle of mechanical effect. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. Ph. Mg. 2 (1851) 551-. 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION UNIT. 

application of Lorenz's method. Rayleigh, 
(Lord), (& Sidgwick, E. M. (Mrs. H.) [1882] 
Phil. Trans. 174 (1884) 295-. 

. Duncan, L., Wilkes, G., <& 
Hutchinson, C. T. Am. J. Sc. 38 (1889) 
230-. 

experiments. Rayleigh, (Lord). [1882] Phil. 
Trans. 173 (1883) 661-. 

. Glazebrook, R. T., <& Dodds, J. M. [1882] 
Phil. Trans. 174 (*1884) 223-. 

. Glazebrook, R. T., <& Sargant, E. B. 
[1882] Phil. Trans. 174 (1884) 252-. 

final value as determined by American Com- 
mittee. Rowland, H. A. Nt. 36 (1887) 549. 

in terms of dynamical equivalent of heat. 
Fletcher, L. B. Am. J. Sc. 30 (1885) 22-. 

comparison of methods. Rayleigh, (Lord). 

Ph. Mg. 14 (1882) 329-. 
electrodynamic measurements. Weber, W. E. 

Leip. Ab. Mth. Ps. 1 (1852) 197-. 
experiments. Foster, G. C. B. A. Bp. (1881) 

426-. 

influence of variation in damping of galvano- 
meter. Kohlrausch, F. A. Ps. C. 26 (1885) 

424-. 
instrument for. Thomson, (Sir) W. [1862] 

Glasg. Ph. S. P. 5 (1864) 167-. 
kilohm. Guillet, A. Eclair. Elect. 20 (1899) 

161-, 212-, 288-, 328-, 376-; J. de Ps. 8 

(1899) 471-. 

OHM DETERMINATION. 

Lippmann, G. C. B. 93 (1881) 713-. 
(Lippmann.) Brillouin, M. C. E. 93 (1881) 

845-, 1069-. 
(Brillouin.) Lippmann, G. C. B. 93 (1881) 

955- ; 94 (1882) 36-. 
Perry, J., & Ayrton, W. E. A. Tel. 8 (1881) 

209-. 
Rayleigh, (Lord), & Schuster, A. B. S. P. 32 

(1881) 104-. 

Joubert, J. C. E. 94 (1882) 1519-. 
Lippmann, G. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1882) 121-. 
Lor em, L. J. de Ps. 1 (1882) 477-. 



Ohm Determination 5650 

Roiti, A. [1882] Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 17 (1881) 

588-. 

Wiedemann, G. H. A. Tel. 9 (1882) 393-. 
Blavier, E. E. A. Tel. 9 (1882) 560- ; 10 

1883) 59-. 
Brillouin, M. C. E. 96 (1883) 190- ; J. de Ps. 

2 (1883) 149-. 
Himstedt, F. [1884] Freiburg B. 8 (1885) 

258-. 
Mengarini, G. Em. B. Ac. Line. T. 8 (1884) 

318-. 

Giese, W. Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 48-. 
Himstedt, F. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1885) 753-; 

Freiburg B. 1 (1886) 1-. 
(Himstedt.) Rayleigh, (Lord). Ph. Mg. 21 

(1886) 10-. 
(Eayleigh.) Himstedt, F. A. Ps. C. 28 (1886) 

338-. 
Dorn, E. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1888) 731- ; A. Ps. 

C. 36 (1889) 22-, 398-. 
Jones, J. V. Elect. 25 (1890) 552-. 
Wiedemann, G. A. Ps. C. 42 (1891) 227-, 

425-. 

Fessenden, R. A. Nt. 59 (1898-99) 605-. 
by damping. Bailie, J. B. A. Tel. 11 (1884) 

89-, 224-. 
. Mascart, E. E. N. C. B. 100 (1885) 

309-, 701 ; J. de Ps. 4 (1885) 101-. 
. Rayleigh, (Lord). A. Ps. C. 24 (1885) 

214-. 
dynamometric method. Frohlich, I. (xn) 

Mth. Term. Ets. 1 (1883) 92-; Mth. Nt. B. 

Ung. 1 (1882-83) 91-. 
electrodynamic method. Lippmann, G. C. 

E. 95 (1882) 1348-. 

(Lippmann). Wuilleumier, H. C. R. 

106 (1888) 1590- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1889) 

168-. 
international ohm. Jones, J. V. B. A. Ep. 

(1894) 123- 
by Lorenz's apparatus, Montreal. Ayrton, 

W. E., & Jones, J. V. B. A. Bp. (1897) 

212-. 
mercury, experiments. Mascart, E., Nerville, 

F. de, & Benolt, R. C. B. 98 (1884) 1034- ; 
Lum. Elect. 12 (1884) 316-, 357-, 396-, 431-, 
476-, 509- ; 13 (1884) 33-, 69-, 110- ; Par. 
S. Ps. Se. (1884) 123- ; A. C. 6 (1885) 5-. 

, and Siemens's unit (International Confer- 
ence of Electricians). Weber, H. F. Lum. 
Elect. 13 (1884) 150-, 191-, 231-, 273-, 310-, 
351-. 

method founded on induction by displacement 
of magnet. Lippmann, G. C. E. 95 (1882) 
1154-. 

relation of self-induction to. Rayleigh, (Lord). 
Nt. 32 (1885) 7. 

by rotating coil. Wiedemann, G. Berl. Ak. 
Ab. (1884) No. B, 75 pp. 

thermoscopic method. Lippmann, G. C. B. 
95 (1882) 634-. 

Wiedemann's measurement, recalculation. 
Peter, A. Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 46 (1894) 138-. 



670 



5650 Mercury Unit 



SIEMENS' S MERCURY UNIT. 

Sabine, R. Ph. Mg. 25 (1863) 161-. 
Dehms, F. Berl. Z. Tel. 15 (1868) 13-. 
Kohlrausch, F. [1870] A. Ps. C. (Ergdnz.) 

6 (1874) 1-. 
Lorenz, L. Kjob. Ov. (1873) 67- ; A. Ps. C. 149 

(1873) 251-. 
(Kohlrausch.) Rowland, H. A. Ph. Mg. 50 

(1875) 161-. 
( .) Stolyetov, A. G. (xn) Es. C. Ps. S. J. 

7(Ps.)(1875) [(P*. 1)] 266-; (xi) Ph. Mg. 

50 (1875) 404-. 

Dorn, E. A. Ps. C. 17 (1882) 773-. 
Kohlrausch, F. [1888] Munch. Ak. Sb. 18 

(1889) 3-; Munch. Ak. Ab. 16 (1888) 627-. 
Glazebrook, R. T. Elect. 25 (1890) 543-. 
Jones, J. V. [1890] Phil. Trans. (A) 182 

(1892)1-. 

Guillaume, C. E. Par. S. Ps.,Se. (1891) 54-. 
calculation. Guillaume, C. E. Lum. Elect. 

27 (1888) 323-. 
. Weinstein, . Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 

25-. 
electromagnetic measure. Weber, H. F. Ziir. 

Vjschr. 22 (1877) 273-. 
. Wild, H. [1883] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. 

Mm. 32 (*1885) No. 2, 122 pp. 
(Wild). Kohlrausch, F. A. Ps. C. 23 

(1884) 344-. 

. Wild, H. A. Ps. C. 23 (1884) 665- ; 

Lum. Elect. 13 (1884) 390-, 430-, 472-, 

514- ; 14 (1884) 34-, 73-, 112-, 153-, 192-, 

233-, 272-, 313-, 355-. 
. Lorenz, L. [1885] Kjtfb. Dn. Vd. Selsk. 

Skr. 2 (1881-86) 309- ; Lum. Elect. 16 (1885) 

437-, 486-, 534-. 
(Kohlrausch). Wild, H. A. Ps. C. 24 

(1885) 209-. 



5660 Specific Resistance. Rela- 
tions to Temperature, Torsion, 
Magnetism, Light, etc. 

SPECIFIC RESISTANCE. 

Peltier, A. C. R. 1 (1835) 203-. 

Jaeobi, M. H. St. Pc$t. Ac. Sc. Bll. (1843) 

129-. 

Matteucci, C. A. C. 15 (1845) 498-. 
Marie-Davy,. (viAdds.) Majocchi A. Fis. 

C. 26 (1847) 227-. 

Delarive, A . Moigno Cosmos 8 (1856) 417-. 
Hearder, J. N. Ph. Mg. 19 (1860) 14-. 
Laming, R. Elect. 3 (1863) 143-, 167-, 180-. 
Waterston, J. J. Ph. Mg. 31 (1866) 83-. 
Hall, W. C. N. 17 (1868) 143-. 
Herwig, H. A. Ps. C. 153 (1874) 411-. 
Bucknill, (Capt.) J. T. Tel. E. J. 7 (1878) 

327-. 
Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 1 (*1879) 

61-. 
(Cyclic variation.) Schumann, 0. A. Ps. C. 

38 (1889) 256-. 



Resistance of Alloys 5660 

(Variations.) Fessenden, R. A. Science 21 

(1893) 150. 
Alcohol. Foussereau, G. C. E. 101 (1885) 

243-; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1885) 175-. 
, absolute. Pf offer, E. [1885] Munch. Ak. 

Sb. 15 (1886) 227-. 

ether mixtures. Pfeiffer, W. R. A. Ps. C. 
26 (1885) 226-. 

ALLOYS. 

Matthiessen, Aug. [1859-60] Phil. Trans. 

(1860) 161- ; Pogg. A. 110 (1860) 190-. 
Elsdsser, E. A. Ps. C. 8 (1879) 455-. 
Aubel, E. van. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1894) 197-. 
Rayleigh, (Lord). Nt. 54 (1896) 154-. 
McMillan, W., & Housman, R. H. Nt. 54 

(1896) 171-. 

Liebenow, C. Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 28-, 62. 
amalgam of bismuth and lead. Englisch, E. 

A. Ps. C. 45 (1892) 591-. 
amalgams. Battelli, A. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Mm. 4 (1887) 206-. 
. Weber, C. L. A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 243-. 

of bismuth. Vicentini, G., <& Cattaneo, G. 
Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 7 (1891) (Sem. 2) 95-. 

, liquid, mixed. Gerosa, G. G. Em. E. Ac. 
Line. Ed. 2 (1886) (Sem. 2) 344- ; Em. E. 
Ac. Line. Mm. 4 (1887) 118-. 

of potassium and sodium. Grimaldi, G. P. 
Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 4 (1887) 46-, 624. 

, resistance and thermoelectromotive force, 
and molecular change. Weber, G. L. A. 
Ps. C. 23 (1884) 447-. 

of tin. Vicentini, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. 
Ed. 7 (1891) (Sem. 1) 258-. 

copper with antimony. Kamensky, G. L. Ps. 

S. P. 6 (1885) 53- ; Ph. Mg. 17 (1884) 270-. 
magnesium. Lagarde, . A. Tel. 16 

(1889) 124-. 
nickel. Feussner, K. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. 

(1891) 109-. 
tin. Lodge, 0. J. Ph. Mg. 8 (1879) 

554- ; L. Ps. S. P. 3 (1880) 158-. 
ferromanganese with copper. Nichols, E. L. 

Am. J. Sc. 39 (1890) 471-. 
fused. Rosing, B. [1886] S.C.In.J. 6 (1887)48. 
fusible. Weber, C.L. A. Ps. C. 27 (1886) 145-. 
, in liquid state. Cattaneo, C. Tor. Ac. Sc. 

At. 27 (1892) 691-. 
German silver in different dielectrics, Sanford's 

phenomenon. Drago, E. Catania Ac. 

Gioen. At. 12 (1899) Mem. 16, 16 pp. 
media. Sala, M. N. Cim. 35 

(1894) 251-. 
iron. Barrett, W. F., Brown, W., d~ Hadfield, 

R. A. [1899] Dubl. S. Sc. T. 7 (1902) 67-. 
of lead and of cadmium. Vicentini, G., & 

Cattaneo, C. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 1 (1892) 

(Sem. 1) 343-. 
manganese. Lindeck, . D. Nf. Tbl. 

726-. 
with copper. Heusler, . Bonn Niedr. 

Gs. Sb. (1891) 50-. 
nickel steel. Guillaume, C. E. C. E. 125 

(1897) 235-, 342. 
, reostene. Harker, J. A., <& Davidson, 

A. B. A. Ep. (1896) 714. 



671 



5660 Alloys. Carbon Specific Resistances 



nickel steel, reostene. Aubel, E. van. Par. 

S. Ps. Se. (1897) 133-. 
platinoid. Bottomley, J. T. B. S. P. 38 

(1885) 340-. 
platinum. Barus, C. Am. J. Sc. 36 (1888) 

427-; U. S. Gl. Sv. Bll. No. 54 (1889) 126-. 
for resistance coils. Feussner, K., & Lindeck, 

S. Tel. J. 28 (1891) 742-. 

. Lindeck, S. Elect. 30 (1893) 119-. 

and solid sulphides. Gladstone, J. H., d 

Hibbert, W. B. A. Bp. (1888) 347-. 

thermoelectromotive force and Hall effect. 
Beattie, J. C. Edinb. B. S. P. 20 (1895) 
481-. 

tin with bismuth, effect of time. Backlin, G. 

Stockh. Ofv. (1885) No. 7, 107- ; Fschr. Ps. 

(1885) (Ab. 2) 638. 

and tin with lead. Vicentini, G., & 

Cattaneo, C. Em. B. Ac. Line. Ed. 1 (1892) 

(Sem. 1) 419-. 
of zinc and of antimony. Vicentini, G., & 

Cattaneo, C. Em. B. Ac. Line. Ed. 1 (1892) 

(Sem. 1) 383-. 

Ammonia, liquid. Goodwin, H. M., & 
Thompson, M. de K. (jun.) Am. As. P. 
(1898) 125- ; Ps. Ev. 8 (1899) 38-. 

Black diamonds. Wallmark, L. J. Sk. Nf. 
F. 6 (1851) 115-. 

Cables. Eheins, G. C. E. 131 (1900) 505-. 

CARBON. 

(Various forms.) Bauerman, H. L. Ps. S. P. 

1 (1876) 157- ; Ph. Mg. 50 (1875) 24-. 
Ferrini, R. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 12 (1879) 359-, 

382-. 

Cellier, L. A. Ps. C. 61 (1897) 511-. 
chemical composition and resistance of carbon 

of various kinds. Bartoli, A. N. Cim. 15 

(1884) 203-. 
compounds, solid. Bartoli, A. Bm. B. Ac. 

Line. T. 8 (1884) 334-; Bm. B. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 1 (1885) 569-. 

contacts. Bidwell, S. B. S. P. 35 (1883) 1-. 
disc of Edison's tasimeter, effect of time. 

Mendenhall, T. C. Am. J. Sc. 24 (1882) 43-. 
elasticity and resistance. Beetz, W. [1880] 

Munch. Ak. Sb. 11 (1881) 10-. 
in electrical engineering. Barber, C. M. Am. 

S. CE. T. 29 (1893) 680-. 
gas-. Auerbach, F. Gott. Nr. (1879) 269-. 
, determination by Schrader. Riecke, C. V. E. 

Gott. Nr. (1875) 325-. 
and graphite, effect of occluded gases on 

thermoelectric properties and resistance. 

Monckman, J. B. S. P. 44 (1888) 220-. 
in large arcs. Lucas, F. C. B. 98 (1884) 

800-. 
and manganese dioxide. Beetz, W. Munch. 

Ak. Sb. 6 (1876) 26-. 

metallic oxides. Beetz, W. Pogg. A. Ill 
(1860) 619-. 

Cement and reinforced concrete. Lindeck, S. 

Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 180-. 
Change of state and resistance. Grunmach, L. 

A. Ps. C. 35 (1888) 764-. 



5660 



Chemical actions, velocity, determination by 
electric conductivity. Negreanu, . C. B. 
106 (1888) 1665-. 

Conductors. Marie-Davy, . L'l. 15 (1847) 
197-. 

. Jacob, F. Tel. J. 4 (1876) 263-. 

. Preece, W. H. I. CE. P. 75 (1884) 63-. 

, liquid. Pierre, V. Prag Sb. (1861) 17-. 

, , motions in. Herschel, (Sir) J. F. W. 
Phil. Trans. (1824) 162-. 

, poor. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. C. E. 
79 (1874) 295-, 356-, 591-, 753-, 945- ; 81 
(1875) 312-, 390-, 425-, 514-, 649-, 766-, 
864-; 82 (1876) 39-, 793-; Fr. S. Met. N. 
Met. 7 (*1874) (Pt. 1) 71-; Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1875) 5-; A. C. 10 (1877) 194-, 459-. 

, , effects of electricity in. Du Moncel, 

(comte) T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 

449-, 469-. 

, rise in resistance when transmitting cur- 
rent. Griffiths, E. H., d- Clark, G. M. 

[1892] Camb. Ph. S. P. 8 (1895) 20-. 
, table for. Geipel, W. Elect. 12 (1884) 

523. 
Constant resistance material. Heraeus, W. C. 

[1899] Z. Elektch. (1899-1900) 43-. 
(Heraeus). Haber, F. [1900] Z. 

Elektch. (1900-01) 269-. 
Contact resistance. Mousson, A. Sch. Gs. 

N. D. 14 (*1855) No. 8, 90 pp. 
, effect of atmospheric gases. Vicentini, 

G. Yen. I. At. (1891-92) 1855-. 
, experiments. Norton, W. A. Am. J. 

Sc. 11 (1876) 442-. 
Contacts, bad, resistance across, measurements. 

Bellati, M., d- Lussana, S. Yen. I. At. 

(1887-88) 1137-. 
Coral, experiments. Foe, G. [1884] Padova 

S. Sc. At. 9 ([1885]) 132-. 
Crystals. Backstrom, H. Stockh. Ofv. (1887) 

343-; N. Jb. Mn. (1889) (Bd. 2, Ref.) 242. 
Dielectrics. Schneebeli, H. J. Tel. 4 (1878- 

80) 588-, 678-, 722-. 

. Frolich, O. J. Tel. 4 (1880) 660-, 699-. 
. Schulze-Berge, F. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. 

(1885) 90-. 
. Koller, H. [1889] Wien Ak. Sb. 98 (1890) 

(Ab. 2a) 201- ; Exner Epm. 26 (1890) 1-, 

69-. 
, liquid. Naccari, A. N. Cim. 8 (1898) 

259- ; Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 34 (1898) 820- or 1088-. 
Earth. Du Moncel, T. [A. L.] Les Mondes 

25 (1871) 552-; C. B. 82 (1876) 1366- ; 83 

(1876) 17-, 182-, 307-, 501-. 

. Ulbricht, R. Dresden Isis Sb. (1889) 30-. 
. Appleyard, R. Tel. J. 30 (1892) 316-. 
. McKissick, A. F. Science 21 (1893) 327. 
, electric transmission through, by aid of 

trees. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. C. B. 

85 (1877) 55-. 
, New Zealand, comparatively bad conductor. 

Wright, F. E. N. Z. I. T. 2 (1869) 226-. 
Expansion coefficient and resistance. Mewes, 

R. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 325-. 
Fabrics. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 

7 (*1882) 431-. 
Gases, liquified. Kemp, K. T. Edinb. J. Nt. 

Gg. Sc. 3 (1830) 26-. 



672 



5660 



Specific Resistances Liquids. Metals 5660 



Glass. Bischof, G. Schweigger J. 35 (= Jb. 5) 

(1822) 251-. 

. Basevi, E. Amici G. Tosc. 1 (1840) 273-. 
. Perego,A. Brescia Cm. (1841) 158-. 
, effect of tempering. Foussereau, G. C. 

E. 96 (1883) 785-. 

, electric qualities and chemical composition. 
Gray, T., Gray, A., d- Dobbie, J. J. B. S. 
P. 36 (1884) 488-. 

, various kinds, resistivity and dielectric con- 
stant. Gray, A., & Dobbie, J. J. [1898- 
1900] E. S. P. 63 (1898) 38- ; 67 (1901) 197-. 
Graphite, Ceylon. Piesch, B. Wien Ak. Sb. 

102 (1893) (Ab. 2a) 768-. 
Guttapercha. Seligmann-Lui, G. G^n. Civ. 

7 (1885) 245-, 264-, 281-, 294-, 326-. 
Heat and electricity, conducting power for. 
Hockin, C. Ph. Mg. 35 (1868) 299-. 

, of alloys for. Wiedemann, G. 

Pogg. A. 108 (1859) 393-. 

, . Aubel, E. van, & 

Paillot, R. J. de Ps. 4 (1895) 522-. 

, glass for. Beetz, W. (vn) 

Pogg. A. (Jubelbd.) (1874) 23-. 

, for, and heat capacity and 

thermoelectric power of certain metals. 
Jaeger, W., <& Diesselhorst, H. Berl. Ak. 
Sb. (1899) 719- ; Berl. Ps. Eeichsanst. Ab. 
3 (1900) 269-. 

, of metals for. Weber, H. F. 

Berl. Ak. Mb. (1880) 457-. 

, . Berget, A. C. E. 

110 (1890) 76-; J. de Ps. 9 (1890) 135- ; 
Lum. Elect. 36 (1890) 605-. 

, . Riecke, E. A. Ps. 

2 (1900) 835-; Gott. Nr. (1900) 250-. 

, , application of electron 

theory. Reinganum, M. A. Ps. 2 (1900) 398-. 

, phosphor-copper and arsen- 

copper for. Rietzsch, A. A. Ps. 3 (1900) 403-. 
Heterogeneous mixtures, tubes for. Monti, 

M. M. (xn) Ev. Sc.-Ind. 11 (1879) 93-. 
Ice. Bouvier, S. P. [1803] Nicholson J. 7 

(1804) 303-. 

. Dellmann, F. A. Ps. C. 122 (1864) 334-. 
. Foussereau, G. C. E. 99 (1884) 80-. 
India-rubber. Johnson, W. R. Philad. Ac. 

Nt. Sc. J. 6 (1829) 244-. 
, substitutes for. Terry, H. L. Elect. 39 

(1897) 484-. 
in telegraphy. Warren, T. T. P. B. Tel. 

J. 5 (1877) 133-, 146-, 171-, 185-, 202-. 
Insulators. Gaugain, J. M. [1863] (vn) A. 

C. 2 (1864) 264-. 

. Abel, F. A. Tel. E. J. 6 (1877) 3-. 
. Branly, E. C. E. 112 (1891) 90-; J. de 

Ps. 1 (1892) 459-. 
, effect of varying electric conditions. Branly, 

E. Lum. Elect. 40 (1891) 301-, 506-. 
, ethics. Wright, J. Elect. Ev. 47 (1900) 

454-. 
, liquid and fused. Augustinovic, R. N. 

Es. S. Nt. Mm. (Mth.) 2 (*1879). 
, solid. Bezold, W. von. Munch. Sb. (1863) 

563-. 

Iodine. Inglis, J. (vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 9 
(1836) 450-. 



Iodine and bromine. Exner, F. [1881] Wien 

Ak. Sb. 84 (1882) (Ab. 2) 511-. 
and chlorine. Solly, E. Ph. Mg. 

8 (1836) 130-, 400-. 
Joints, electrolysis of iron water mains. Blake, 

L. I. [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 293. 
Lead chloride and bees' wax. Ayrton, W. E. 

Ph. Mg. 6 (1878) 132- ; L. Ps. S. P. 2 (1879) 

297-. 
peroxide. Weyde, J. F. Elekttech. Z. 13 

(1892) 315-. 
, cause of change. Sundorph, T. A. Ps. 

C. 69 (1899) 319-. 

LIQUIDS. 

Foucault, L. C. E. 37 (1853) 580-. 

Breda, J. G. S. van, & Logeman, W. M. Ph. 

Mg. 8 (1854) 465-. 
Foucault, L. Bb. Un. Arch. 25 (1854) 180- ; 

26 (1854) 126-. 

Paalzow, A. Berl. Mb. (1868) 486-. 
badly conducting, new phenomenon. Leh- 

mann, O. A. Ps. C. 52 (1894) 455-. 
, rate of leakage through. Thomson, J. J., 

& Newall, H. F. E. S. P. 42 (1887) 410-. 
without electrolysis. Fame, P. A. C. E. 73 

(1871) 1463-. 
non-metallic, metallic conduction in. Leh- 

mann, O. Z. Kr. 12 (1887) 410. 
passage of strong induction currents through. 

Herwig, H. A. Ps. C. 159 (1876) 61-. 
viscosity and resistance. Grotrian, 0. A. 

Ps. C. 8 (1879) 529-; 9 (1880) 680. 
. Stephan, C. A. Ps. C. 17 (1882) 

673-. 

Marekanite. Hankel, W. G. Leip. B. (1851) 
118-. 

METALS. 

Becquerel, A. C. [1824-25] Par. S. Phlm. 

Bll. (1824) 179- ; A. C. 32 (1826) 420-. 
(Various metals, relative powers.) Harris, 

(Sir) W. S. [1826] Phil. Trans. (1827) 18-. 
Ohm, G. S. Schweigger J. 46 ( = Jb. 16) (1826) 

137-. 

Pouillet, C. S. M. Pogg. A. 15 (1829) 91-. 
Elice, F. Cattaneo Bb. Farm. 20 (1843) 177-. 
Mousson, A. Bb. Un. Arch. 31 (1856) 111-. 
Matthiessen, Aug. Phil. Trans. (1858) 383- ; 

A. Ps. C. 125 (1865) 497-. 
Moutier, J. (x) Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 10 (1873) 

Kirchhoff, (?., <& Hansemann, G. A. Ps. C. 13 

(1881) 406-. 
Lorenz, L. [1881] K#b. Dn. Vd. Selsk. Skr. 

2 (*1881-86) 35-; A. Ps. C. 13 (1881) 422-, 

582-. 

Le Chatelier, H. Z. Ps. C. 8 (1891) 183-. 
Abel, (Sir) F. I. & S. I. J. (1892) (No. 2) 

Ostw'ald, W. Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 44 (1892) 

531-. 
Liebenow, C. [1897] Z. Elektch. (1897-98) 

201-, 217-. 
Aubel, E. van. D. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1900) 3-. 



673 



5660 



Specific Resistances of Metals 



5660 



(Van Aubel.) Jdger, W., <& Diesselhorst, H. 

D. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1900) 39-. 
(Jager & Diesselhorst.) Aubel, E. van. D. 

Ps. Gs. Vh. (1900) 77-. 
alkaline. Matthiessen, Aug. Ph. Mg. 12 (1856) 

199; 13 (1857)81-. 
, in methylamine. Kraus, C. A. J. H. Un. 

Cir. [19 (1899-1900)] 62. 
and alloys. Weiler, L. V. Nost. Eng. Mg. 33 

(1885) 288-. 
for high resistance. Mordey, W. M. 

Elect. 20 (1888) 564-. 
aluminium. Riess, P. Pogg. A. 73 (1848) 

618-. 

. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 102 (1857) 265- 
. Kershaw, J. B. C. Elect. 39 (1897) 584. 
. Richards, J. W., & Thomson, J. A. 

Franklin I. J. 143 (1897) 195-. 
. Northrup, E. F. Elect. Bv. 44 (1899) 

43-. 

wires for overhead lines. Russell, 8. A. 
Elect. Kv. 42 (1898) 534-. 

atomic weight and conductivity, relation. 

Seleznev, V. (xn) Ks. C. S. J. 4 (1872) 

304-. 
bismuth. Aubel, E. van. C. B. 108 (1889) 

1102- ; A. C. 18 (1889) 433-; L. Ps. S. P. 

10 (1890) 211- ; Ph. Mg. 28 (1889) 332-. 
. Sadovskij, A. I. Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 24 

(Ps.) (1892) 162. 
. Aubel, E. van. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 4 (1897) 

329-. 

and antimony coils. Wachsmuth, R., <& 
Bamberger, C. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 127-. 

and mercury. Lenz, E. St. Pe"t. Ac. 

Sc. Bll. 3 (1838) 321-. 
, crystallised. Matteucci, C. N. Cim. 1 

(1855) 26-, 187- ; C. E. 40 (1855) 541-, 913-. 
, , apparatus to measure conductivity. 

Matteucci, C. C. B. 42 (1856) 1133-. 
, resistance to alternating and continuous 

currents. Zahn, G. H. A. Ps. C. 42 (1891) 

351-. 
, current. Sadovskij, A. I. Bs. 

Ps.-C. S. J. 26 (Ps.) (1894) 81-; J. de Ps. 4 

(1895) 186-. 
coined. Bergmann, J. Bresl. Schl. Gs. Jbr. 

(1891) (Ab. 2) 20-. 
contact resistance of two. Branly, E. C. B. 

120 (1895) 869-, 953. 
discs of same metal. Branly, E. 

C. B. 127 (1898) 219- ; J. de Ps. 8 (1899) 

21-. 

Copper. 

Pazienti, A. [1857] Ven. At. (1857-58) 59-. 
Prescott, G. B. Tel. J. 22 (1888) 698. 
Fitzpatrick, T. C. B. A. Bp. (1890) 120-. 
Teichmilller, J. Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 314-. 
and its alloys. Matthiessen, Aug. B. S. P. 11 
(1860-62) 126-. 

aluminium. Hunt, A. E. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 
225-. 

and iron, relative cost. Kershaw, J. B. C. 

Elect. Bv. 43 (1898) 331. 

bronze wires, etc. Lagarde, . A. Te"l. 
15 (1888) 409-. 



commercial. Thomson, (Sir) W. E. S. P. 8 

(1856-57) 550-. 

. Meylan, E. S. C. In. J. 12 (1893) 697. 
effect of surrounding medium. Car hart, H. S. 

Ps. Bv. 1 (1894) 321- ; 2 (1895) 65-. 
(Carhart). Sanford, F. [1894] 

Ps. Ev. 2 (1895) 61-, 67. 
and iron and other metals. Eggertz,V. Jern- 

Kont. A. 38 (1883) 80-. 

pure. Glover, W. T. Elect. 21 (1888) 702-. 
, effect of metals and metalloids. Matthiessen, 

Aug., d- Holzmann, M. Phil. Trans. (I860) 

85-. 
, wires. Lagarde, . A. T41. 20 (1893) 

234-. 
, , difference of resistance in. Thomson, 

(Sir) W. B. S. P. 10 (1859-60) 300-. 
and silver. Fitzpatrick, (Rev.) T. C. B. A. 

Ep. (1894) 131-. 
selenides. Bellati, M., & Lussana, S. 

[1887] Ven. I. At. (1887-88) 189-. 
wires. Preece, W. H. J. T<1. 11 (1887) 222-. 
, effect of surrounding dielectric. Merrill, 

J. F. J. H. Un. Cir. [17 (1897-98)] 58- ; Ps. 

Ev. 8 (1899) 112-. 

in different dielectrics. Grimaldi, G. P., d 

Platania, G. [1894] Catania Ac. Gioen. 

At. 8 (1895) Mem. 6, 42 pp. 
filings. Cauderay, H. [1866-67] Laus. Bll. 

S. Vd. 9 (1866-68) 199-, 630. 
. Calzecchi-Onesti, T. N. Cim. 16 (1884) 

58-; 17 (1885)38-. 

mixed with dielectrics. Lhuillier, G. T. 
C. B. 121 (1895) 345-. 

, variation. Tommasina, T. Arch. Sc. Ps. 

Nt. 7 (1899) 277-. 
easily fused. Vicentini, G., & Omodei, D. 

[1889-90] Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 25 (1890) 30-; 

Bv. Sc.-Ind. 22 (1890) 193-. 
gold. Matthiessen, Aug. Pogg. A. 109 (1860) 

526-. 

iron. Auerbach, F. A. Ps. C. 5 (1878) 289-. 
, commercial. Preece, W. H. Elect. 19 

(1887) 438-. 
, effect of carbon. Strouhal, V., & Barus, C. 

Prag Ab. 12 (1885) (Mth.) No. 15, 25 pp. 
, repeated heating and cooling. Tomlin- 

son, H. L. Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 317- ; Ph. 

Mg. 29 (1890) 77-. 
, soft. Hall, E. H. [1900] Am. Ac. P. 36 

(1901) 119-. 

and steel. Le Chatelier, . Par. S. C. 
Bll. 3 (1890) 242. 

rods. Herwig, H. A. Ps. C. 153 

(1874) 115-. 
wires. Lagarde, . A. Tel. 16 

(1889) 124-. 

wire. Knochenhauer, K. W. Wien SB. 
(1853) 275-. 

, increased resistance to alternating 
currents. Hopps, B. Elect. 45 (1900) 920. 

, minute structure and resistance, relation. 

Wedding, H. Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 172-. 
manganese steel. Barrett, W. F. [1886] 

Dubl. S. Sc. P. 5 (1886-87) 360-. 
wire, Hadfield's non-magnetic. Fleming, 

J. A. Elect. 20 (1888) 470-. 



674 



5660 Mercury 



Specific Resistance 



Mercury, 



Eayleigh, (Lord), <& Sidgwick, E. M. (Mrs. H.) 
[1882] Phil. Trans. 174 (1884) 173-. 

Glazebrook, R.T.,(& Fitzpatrick, T. C. [1888] 
Phil. Trans. (A) 179 (1889) 351-. 

Kohlrausch, F. A. Ps. C. 35 (1888) 700-. 

Guillaume, C. E. Par. Poids et Mes. PV. 

(1890) 32-; (1891) 183-. 

and amalgams, viscosity and resistivity. 

Schweidler, E. (Eitter) von. Wien Ak. Sb. 

104 (1895) (.46. 2a) 273-. 
constitution. Liebenow, C. Z. Elektch. (1897- 

98) 515-. 
effect of air. Laas, M. Z. Instk. 12 (1892) 

267- 
traces of foreign metals. Matthiessen, 

Aug. [( Vogt, <7.] Ph. Mg. 23 (1862) 171-. 
(Matthiessen and Vogt). 

Saline, R. Ph. Mg. 23 (1862) 457-. 
(Sabine). Matthiessen, Aug., 

< Vogt, C. Pogg. A. 116 (1862) 369-. 
solid. Weber, C. L. A. Ps. C. 36 (1889) 

587-. 
. Grunmach, L. A. Ps. C. 37 (1889) 508-. 

(Grunmach). Weber, C. L. A. Ps. C. 38 
(1889) 227-. 

, and temperature coefficients. Weber, C. L. 

A. Ps. C. 25 (1885) 245-. 
vapour. Herwig, H. A. Ps. C. 151 (1874) 

350- ; 9 (1880) 77-. 

metallic and liquid resistances by which induc- 
tion currents become alternating. Magnus, 
G. Berl. Mb. (1861) 872-. 

molecular structure and resistance. Ave-Lalle- 
mant, G. M. F. (xn) Arg. S. Ci. A. 6 
(1878) 163- ; 7 (1879) 48. 

. Le Chatelier, H. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1891) 36-. 

nickel. Arndtsen, A. (vn) Ps. Mdd. (1858) 

67-. 
. Smith, C.M.,<& MacGregor, J. G. [1876] 

Edinb. E. S. P. 9 (1878) 120-. 
, electrolytic. Fleming, J. A. [1899] E. 

S. P. 66 (1900) 50-. 
, with hydrogen occluded. Bellati, M., & 

Lussana, S. Yen. I. At. (1887-88) 1567-. 

steel. Hopkinson, J. E. S. P. 47 (1890) 
138-. 

. Guillaume, C. E. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1897) 120-. 
palladium, hydrogenised. Knott, C. G. [1883- 

86] Edinb. E. S. P. 12 (1884) 181- ; Edinb. 

E. S. T. 33 (1888) 171-. 
, . Brucchietti, G. Elect. 32 (1894) 91. 
platinum foil, experimental determination. 

Obermayer, A. von. Wien Sb. 60 (1870) 

(Ab. 2) 245-. 
powders. Auerbach, F. A. Ps. C. 28 (1886) 

604-. 
, effect of varying electric conditions. 

Branly, E. C. E. Ill (1890) 785-, 934; 

Lum. Elect. 40 (1891) 301-, 506-. 
, variation, cause. Sundorph, T. A. Ps. 

C. 68 (1899) 594-. 



Wires 5660 



pure. Aubel,E.van. Arch. Neerl. 5(1900) 49-. 
silicon bronze. Vivarez, . Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1884) 14. 

silver. Langsdorf, W. D. Nf. Vsm. B. (1852) 

91- ; Lieb. A. 85 (1853) 155-. 
, allotropic. Oberbeck, A. [1891] A. Ps. 

C. 46 (1892) 265-; 47 (1892) 353-. 
, colloidal. Barus, C., & Schneider, E. A. 

A. Ps. C. 48 (1893) 327-. 
, . Oberbeck, A. A. Ps. C. 48 (1893) 

modifications. Liidtke, H. [1893] A. Ps. 
C. 50 (1893) 678-; N.-Vorp. Mt. 25 (1894) 1-. 

steel, effect of tempering. Eydberg, C. F. 

Stockh. Ak. Hndl. Bh. 13 (Afd. 1) (1888) 

No. 6, 25 pp.; Fschr. Ps. (1887) (Ab. 1) 

465-. 
, . Le Chatelier, H. C. E. 112 

(1891) 40- ; 126 (1898) 1782-. 
, hard and annealed. Strouhal, V., <& Barus, 

C. A. Ps. C. 11 (1880) 930-. 
, hardening and conductivity. Barus, C. A. 

Ps. C. 7 (1879) 383-. 
, , electrical properties of silver alloys. 

Strouhal, V., <& Barus, C. Prag Ab. 12 

(1885) (Mth.) No. 14, 27 pp. 

knife edges. Mendenhall, . Science 6 

(1897) 819-. 

spheres, contact resistance between. Auer- 
bach, F. A. Ps. C. 66 (1898) 760-. 

, . Meyer, A. Stockh. Ofv. 

(1898) 199-. 

, tempered, density and resistance in. Barus, 
C., & Strouhal, V. U. S. Gl. Sv. Bll. No. 
27 (1886) 30-. 

wire, chemical composition and resistance, 
relation. Johnson, W. H. Manch. Lt. Ph. 
S. P. 20 (1881) 125-. 

steels. Le Chatelier, H. C. E. 126 (1898) 

1709-. 
tables. Scott, K. Elect. Ev. 43 (1898) 71-, 

107-, 187-. 

thallium. Delarive, L. C. E. 56 (1863) 588-. 
, expansion and resistance. Steele, W. H. 

Viet. E. S. P. 5 (1893) 193-. 

Wires.' 

Barlow, P. Ph. Mg. 11 (1837) 1-. 
Eitchie, W. E. S. P. 3 (1837) 482. 
Dresser, C. L. Ph. Mg. 2 (1851) 198-. 
calculation of cross-section. Isaachsen, D. 

Arch. Mth. Ntvd. 12 (1888) 118-. 
changes in resistance, application of theorem 

relating to systems affected by hysteresis. 

Duhem, P. Bordeaux S. Sc. PV. (1898-99) 

68-. 
and molecular structure. Gerosa, G. 

N. Cim. 14 (*1883) 222-; 15 (1884) 33-. 
, permanent modifications. Cheval- 

lier, H. Bordeaux S. Sc. PV. (1898-99) 64-; 

C. E. 130 (1900) 120-, 1612- ; 131 (1900 

1192-. 

, produced by passage of strong 
current. Weber, L. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 
4 (1883) 519-. 

in different dielectrics. Sanford, F. Ps. Ev. 
3 (1896) 161-. 



675 



5660 Wires 



Specific Resistances 



5660 



effect of coiling and uncoiling. Hopps, J. L. 

Ps. S. P. 6 (1885) 235-; Ph. Mg. 18 (1884) 

433-. 
current. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. 

Elect. 3 (*1881) 289-. 
intensity. Gotz, H. Exner Epm. 22 

(1886) 629-. 
vibrations. Murani, 0. Mil. I. Lomb. 

Ed. 28 (1895) 821-. 
. Poulsen, V. N. Ts. Fs. K. 1 (1896) 

340- ; Fschr. Ps. (1897) (Ab. 2) 576. 
elasticity and conductivity. Poloni, G. Mil. 

I. Lomb. Bd. 17 (1884) 549-. 
hard drawn, after-effects in. Cohn, P. A. Ps. 

C. 41 (1890) 71-. 
, effect of annealing. Chwolsan, 0. St. Pet. 

Ac. Sc. Bll. 23 (1877) 465-. 
immersed in liquid dielectrics, changes in 

resistance. Pettintlli, P. Ev. Sc. Ind. 29 

(1897) 96-. 
law. Draper, J. W. Arch, de 1'Electr. 4 

(1844) 329-. 
steady and vibrating. Emo, A. (xn) Ev. 

Sc.-Ind. 15 (1883) 21 1-. 
vertically suspended. Bidivell, S. L. Ps. S. 

P. 9 (1888) 3-; Ph. Mg. 23 (1887) 499-. 

Microphone contacts. Bidwell, S. Tel. E. J. 

12 (1883) 173-. 

. Boekmann, 0. A. Ps. C. 23 (1884) 

651-. 
, effect of current strength on. Nebel, B. 

Exner Epm. 25 (1889) 358-. 
: Mousson's work on contact resistance. 

Eilefli, J. Bern Mt. (1891) xi-. 
Minerals. Pelletier, J. [1812] Gilbert A. 46 

(1814) 198-. 
. Wartinann, E. [1851] Gen. Mm. S. Ps. 

13 (1854) 199-. 

. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. Par. S. Ps. 

Se. (1875) 126- ; Lum. Elect. 7 (*1882) 73-, 

97-. 
. Beijerinck, F. Jb. Mijnw. Ned. Ind. 28 

(1899) (Ft. 1) 40-. 
Molecular structure and resistance, relations. 

Pollock, T. [1838] (vi Adds.) Electr. S. P. 

(1837-40) 145-. 

Neutralisation of acids, application of conduc- 
tivity measurements to. Berthelot, D. J. 

de Ps. 10 (1891) 458-. 
Nickel tetracarbonyl. Apt, E. Schl.-Holst. 

Nt. Vr. Schr. 11 (1898) 242-. 
Oil. Hughes, D. E. [1892] I. Elect. E. J. 21 

(1893) 244-, 267-. 

. Smith, F. J. Elect. 28 (1892) 553. 
in thin films, and temperature coefficient. 

Wadsworth, F. L. O. Ps. Ev. 5 (1897) 75-. 
, for underground wires. Frempt, H. C. 

Elect. 17 (1886) 16. 
Oils, fixed and volatile. Warren, T. P. B. 

Br. Phm. Conf. P. (1867) 30-. 
Okonite. Anon. Tel. J. 22 (1888) 616-. 
Organic mixtures. Bartoli, A. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Ed. 1 (1885) 550-. 
Oxidised and other substances. Skey, W. N. 

Z. I. T. 29 (1897) 581-. 
Phenomena. Sawelje/ [Saweliew], A. [1853] 

St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 12 (1854) 200-. 



Plumbago and clay mixtures. Fleming, J. A. 

Elect. 43 (1899) 492-. 
Potassium nitrate. Kramers, J. C. H. Arch. 

Neerl. 1 (1898) 455-. 

and sodium. Lamy, A. C. E. 43 (1856) 
693-; A. C.51 (1857) 305-. 

, sodium, lithium, magnesium, etc. Kirclihoff, 

G. Pogg. A. 100 (1857) 178-. 
Precipitated membranes. Tammann, G. Gott. 

Nr. (1891) 112-. 
Proximity of mass, influence. Gore, G. Ph. 

Mg. 49 (1900) 558-. 
Psilomelane. Meyer, H. A. Ps. C. 19 (1883) 

70-. 

Pyrites. Dufet, H. C. E. 81 (1875) 628-. 
Quartz. Boys, C. V. L. Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 

128- ; Ph. Mg. 28 (1889) 14-. 
Eesins. Bartoli, A. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 1 

(1885) 586-. 
Eock magmas in liquid and solid states. 

Barm, C., <& Iddings, J. P. Am. J. Sc. 44 

(1892) 242-. 
Salts, haloid. Lenz, E. [1876] St. Pet. Ac. 

Sc. Bll. 23 (1877) 250-. 
, , of lead. Wiedemann, E. E. G. Leip. 

Mth. Ps. B. 26 (1874) 112-. 
, , silver. Kohlrausch, W. F. A. Ps. 

C. 17 (1882) 642-. 
, solid anhydrous. Foussereau, . C. E. 

98 (1884) 1325-. 

Selenium, iodine, retinite, beryllium, and alu- 
minium. Eiess, P. Pogg. A. 64 (1845) 

49-. 
Serpentine. Wiechert, E. A. Ps. C. 26 (1885) 

336. 
Silicon, crystallised. Le Eoy, F. C. E. 126 

(1898) 244-. 
Silver sulphide. Hittorf, W. Pogg. A. 84 

(1851) 1-. 
Slate, marble, etc. Shields, T. Glasg. Ph. 

S. P. 19 (1888) 365-. 
Sodium silicates in solution, effect of time. 

Kohlrausch, F. Gott. Nr. (1892) 461-. 
Solids. Munck af Eosenschold, P. S. Pogg. 

A. 34 (1835) 437-. 
. Becquerel, E. C. E. 22 (1846) 416- ; A. 

C. 17 (1846) 242-; 20 (1847) 53-. 

(Becquerel). Marie-Davy, . L'l. 15 
(1847) 197. 

, organic. Bartoli, A. Gz. C. It. 15 (1885) 

400-. 
Stones. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. Tel. J. 

4 (1876) 268-, 279-. 
Substances, finely divided. Du Moncel, T.A.L. 

Lum. Elect. 7 (*1882) 217-. 
, variety in regard to resistance. Erman, P. 

Gilbert A. 22 (1806) 14-. 
Sulphides. Karsten, G. Pogg. A. 71 (1847) 

239-. 
, metal-. Braun, F. A. Ps. C. 153 (1874) 

556-. 
Sulphur, boiling. Duter, E. C. E. 106 (1888) 

836-. 
, impure. Threlfall, E., & Pollock, A. L. 

Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 271- ; Ph. Mg. 28 (1889) 

469-. 
, pure. Threlfall, E., & Brearley, J. H. D. 

[1894] Phil. Trans. (A) 187 (1897) 57-. 



676 



5660 Specific Resistance 

Sulphur, resistivity and other properties. 
Monckman, J. [1888] E. S. P. 46 (1890) 
136-. 

Telephonic apparatus. Mercadier, , & Cha- 
peron, . Par. S. Ps. Se\ (1890) 166-. 

Tellurium, density and resistance. Lenher, V., 
d- Morgan, J. L. R. Am. C. S. J. 22 (1900) 
28-. 

Tourmaline. Thompson, S. P. B. A. Bp. 
(1881) 531-. 

crystals. Fitzgerald, G. F. Dubl. S. Sc. 
P. 2 (1880) 370-. 

Trees. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. C. E. 85 

(1877) 186-. 
, resistance to lightning. Schmidt, K. E. F. 

Z. Nw. 66 (1893) 183-. 
Water, does current pass through it without 

decomposition? Delarive, A. Bb. Un. Arch. 

32 (1856) 38-. 
, ? Breda, J. G. S. 

van, & Logeman, W. M. Bb. Un. Arch. 33 

(1856) 14-. 
, ? Despretz, C. C. E. 

42 (1856) 707-. 
Wood. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. C. E. 

79 (1874) 41-, 110-, 154- ; Tel. J. 2 (1874) 

261-, 275-. 
, conductivity in different directions. Ma- 

grini, L. Mil. G. I. Lomb. 6 (1854) 187-. 
, . Villari, E. [1867] Nap. At. 

Ac. Sc. 3 (1866-68) (No. 22) 15-. 
, (Villari). Magrini, L. Mil. I. 

Lomb. Ed. 4 (1867) 351-. 
, pine-. Mazzotto, D. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 

6 (1897) (Sem. 2) 134-. 

and other poor conductors. Du Moncel, 
(comte) T. A. L. C. E. 79 (1874) 295-, 
356-, 591-, 753-, 945-; 81 (1875) 312-, 390-, 
425-, 514-, 649-, 766-, 864-; 82 (1876) 39-, 
793-. 

stone. Peirce, B. 0. Am. Ac. P. 30 

(1895) 390-. 



EELATIONS TO TEMPEEATUEE, TOE- 
SION, MAGNETISM, LIGHT, ETC. 

Electric and acoustic waves, effect. Auerbach, 
F. A. Ps. C. 64 (1898) 611-. 

radiation, effect. Aschkinass, E. A. Ps. 
C. 57 (1896) 408-. 

, on contact resistance of conductors. 

Lang, V. von. Wien Ak. Sb. 104 (1895) 

(Ab. 2a) 600-. 
, . Bose, J. C. E. S. 

P. 66 (1900) 450-. 

waves, effect on metals. Aschkinass, E. 
Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1894) 103-. 

, microphone contacts. Gulik, D. 

van. Amst. Ak. Vs. 4 (1896) 216-. 
, tin-foil. Child, C. D. Ps. Ev. 3 

(1896) 387-. 
Electrostatic field, effect. Schaufelberger, W. 

Zur. Ps. Gs. Jbr. (1899 & 1900) 14-. 



Relations to Light 5660 



LIGHT AND RESISTANCE, RELATIONS. 

Apparatus, proposed, for enabling the ( blind to 
read. Turine, V. de. Eclair. Elect. 16 
(1898) 237-. 

Metals. Bornstein, R. Ph. Mg. 3 (1877) 481-. 

. Hansemann, G. Berl. Ak. Mb. (1877) 
326-. 

(Bornstein). Hansemann, G. A. Ps. C. 2 
(1877) 561-. 

( ). Weber, H. F. Ziir. Vjschr. 22 (1877) 
335-. 

. Bostwick, A. E. Am. J. Sc. 28 (1884) 

133-. 
Eadiophonic substances, silver sulphides. 

Chaperon, . Par. S. Ps. Se. (1890) 158. 

Selenium. 

Smith, Willoughby. (xi) Tel. E. J. 2 (1873) 31-. 
Sale, (Lt.) . E. S. P. 21 (1873) 283-. 
Draper, H. N., <& Moss, R. J. [1873-76] (ix) 

Ir. Ac. P. 1 (1873-74) 529-; Ir. Ac. T. 26 

(1879) 231-. 
Rosse, L. Parsons (Earl of). Ph. Mg. 47 (1874) 

161. 
Siemens, (Sir) C. W. [1876] E. I. P. 8 (1879) 

68-. 
Smith, Willoughby. [1876-77] Tel. E. J. 5 

(1877) 183- ; 6 (1877) 423-. 
Forssman, L. A. Stockh. Ofv. 34 (1877) No. 6, 

3-; A. Ps. C. 2 (1877) 513-. 
Hospitalier, E. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 368-. 
Fonseca Benevides, F. da. Lisb. J. Sc. Mth. 8 

(1881) 73-. 
Sirks, J. L. [1881] (xn) Mbl. Nt. 10 (1882) 

110-. 

Sklarek, W. Lpldina. 17 (1881) 37-. 
Gezekhus \_Hesehus], N. A. (xn) Es. Ps.-C. S. 

J. 15 (Ps.,Pt. 1) (1883) 123-, 149-, 201- ; 17 

(Ps.) (1885) 215- ; Exner Epm. 20 (1884) 

490-, 565-, 631- ; J. de Ps. 6 (1887) 199. 
Kalischer, S. A. Ps. C. 32 (1887) 108-. 
Korda, D. Mth. Tennt. Ets. 7 (1889) 151- ; 

Mth. Nt. B. Ung. 7 (1890) 100-. 
Bidwell, S. L. Ps. S. P. 13 (1895) 552-; Ph. 

Mg. 40 (1895) 233-. 
Majorana, Q. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 5 (1896) 

(Sem. 1) 45-. 
automatic impression of telephotic messages. 

Martin de Brettes, J. B. C. E. 96 (1883) 

1856-. 
cell, form. Blyth, J. [1881] Edinb. E. S. 

P. 11 (1882) 119-. 
, . Fritts, C. E. Am. J. Sc. 26 (1883) 

465-. 
cells. Bidwell, S. [1882] L. Ps. S. P. 5 

(1884) 167- ; Ph. Mg. 15 (1883) 31-. 
. Fritts, C. E. Am. As. P. (1884) 97-. 
. Walker, E. 0. [1893] I. Elect. E. J. 22 

(1894) 143-. 

as automatic lamp-lighters. Bidwell, S. 
Nt. 43 (1891) 395-. 

, experiments. Bidwell, S. [1890] L. Ps. 

S. P. 11 (1892) 61-; Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 250-. 
, microphonic action. Moser, J. L. Ps. S. 

P. 4 (1881) 348-; Ph. Mg. 12 (1881) 212-. 



677 



5660 Relations to Light Relations to Magnetism Bismuth 5660 

conducting wire, transmission of variations of 

light intensity by. Dussaud, . C. E. 126 

(1898) 1132-. 
construction of photophonic receivers with. 

Mercadier, E. C. R. 92 (1881) 789-. 
crystalline. Siemens, E. W. von. Berl. Ak. 

Mb. (1875) 280-. 

_. SaUne, R. Ph. Mg. 5 (1878) 401-. 
, effect of electric waves. Agostini, B. N. 

Cim. 8 (1898) 81-. 
effect of heat and light. Siemens, E. W. von. 

Berl. Ak. Mb. (1876) 95-; (1877) 299-. 
photoelectric phenomena. Majorana, Q. Rm. 

R. Ac. Line. Rd. 3 (1894) (Sem. 1) 183-. 
regulator. Valette, H. Les Mondes 5 

(1883) 329- 
photometer. Boistel, E. Lum. Elect. 7 (*1882) 

38-, 120. 
plate, sensitive. Edlund, E. Tel. J. 21 (1887) 

36. 
and sulphur. Bidwell, S. C. N. 52 (1885) 

191- ; L. Ps. S. P. 7 (1886) 129- ; Ph. Mg. 

20 (1885) 178-. 
variation of resistance, rate. Bellati, M., & 

Romance, R. Yen. I. At. 7 (1880-81) 1355-. 



Silver. BiJrnstein, R. Carl Rpm. 17 (1881) 

164-. 
haloid salts. Arrhenius, S. Wien Ak. Sb. 

96 (1888) (Ab. 2) 831-. 
. Griveaux, F. C. R. 107 (1888) 837-. 



MAGNETISM AND RESISTANCE, 
RELATIONS. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. Phil. Trans. (1856) 649-. 
Antimony and cobalt. Foe, G. [1886] Yen. 

I. At. (1886-87) 201-. 
nickel and tellurium. Beattie, J. C. 

Edinb. R. S. P. 20 (1895) 493-. 

Bismuth. 

Hurion, . C. R. 100 (1885) 348-; J. de Ps. 

4 (1885) 171-. 

Boltzmann, L. Wien Az. 23 (1886) 77-. 
Leduc, A. C. R. 102 (1886) 358-; J. de Ps. 5 

(1886) 116-. 
Grimaldi, G. P. Rm. R. Ac. Line. Rd. 4 

(1888) (Sem. 1) 353-. 

Tomlinson, H. L. Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 139- ; 

Ph. Mg. (1888) 285-. 
Grimaldi, G. P. Rm. R. Ac. Line. Mm. 6 

(1889) 162-. 

Leduc, A. C. R. Ill (1890) 737-; Par. S. Ps. 

Se. (1890) 227-. 
Henderson, J. B. Ph. Mg. 38 (1894) 488-; 39 

(1895) 143. 
Everdingen, E. van (jun.) Arch. Neerl. 5 

(1900) 453-. 
and antimony and tellurium. Ettingshausen, 

A. von. Wien Ak. Sb. 95 (1887) (Ab. 2) 

crystals within and without the magnetic field, 
and Hall effect. Everdingen, E. van (jun.) 
[1900] Amst. Ak. Vs. 9 (1901) 277-, 448-; 
Amst. Ak. P. 3 (1901) 316-, 407-. 



and Hall effect, relation. Everdingen, E. van 

(jun.) [1897] Amst. Ak. Vs. 5 (1897) 492-; 

6 (1898) 68-. 
peculiarity in strong magnetic field. Griffiths, 

A. Ph. Mg. 39 (1895) 229-. 
(Griffiths) . Sadovskij.A. Rs. 

Ps.-C. S. J. 27 (Ps.) (1895) 52-; J. de Ps. 5 

(1896) 468. 

resistance to alternating and continuous cur- 
rents. Lenard, P. A. Ps. C. 39 (1890) 619-. 
current. Sadovskij, A. I. Rs. Ps.- 

C. S. J. 25 (Ps.) (1893) 295-. 
in variable magnetic field. Eichhorn, W. 

[1899-1900] Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 81-; A. Ps. 3 

(1900) 20-. 
variation, relation to rotatory and transverse 

effect. Beattie, J. C. [1894-95] Edinb. R. 

S. T. 38 (1897) 241- ; Wien Ak. Sb. 104 

(1895) (Ab. 2a) 653-. 

Conductors. Sceglajev, V. Mosc. S. Sc. Bll. 

65 (No. 2) (1890) 4-; Fschr. Ps. (1890) (Ab. 

2) 568-. 
. Garibaldi, P. M. Geneva S. Lig. At. 4 

(1893) 64-. 
, solid. Fae, G. Ven. I. At. (1886-87) 

1405-. 
Copper wire. Stewart, B., & Schuster, A. R. 

S. P. 22 (1874) 311- ; A. Ps. C. 153 (1874) 

205-. 
Ferrous sulphate. Neesen, . Berl. Ps. Gs. 

Vh. (1884) 43. 
Gelatinous mixture. Griffiths, A. [1896] 

Manch. Lt. Ph. S. Mm. & P. 41 (1897) xi. 
Iron. Lucchi, G. de. Ven. I. At. 8 (1881-82) 

1475- . 
. Gray, A., d- Jones, E. T. [1900] R. S. 

P. 67 (1901) 208-. 

bars, effect of magnetisation on length and 
resistance. Beetz, W. A. Ps. C. 128 (1866) 
193-. 

and cobalt and nickel films, in variable 
magnetic fields. Beattie, J. C. Ph. Mg. 45 
(1898) 243-. 

, effect of circular magnetisation. Tomlinson, 

H. Elect. 25 (1890) 374-, 416-. 
, strength of magnetic field. Wyss, G. 

H. von. A. Ps. C. 36 (1889) 447-. 
, magnetised. Fischer, J. W. Kastner 

Arch. Ntl. 3 (1824) 421-. 
, . Edlund, E. Stockh. Ofv. 10 (1853) 

243-; Pogg. A. 93 (1854) 315-. 

and nickel. Garbasso, A. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 
26 (1891) 839-. 

. Cantone, M. Rm. R. Ac. Line. 
Rd. 1 (1892) (Sem. 1) 424-. 

alloys and manganese steel, elasticity, 

magnetism, and resistance, relations. Tom- 
linson, H. R. S. P. 56 (1894) 103-. 

, longitudinally magnetised, influence 

of transverse magnetism. Cantone, M. Rm. 
R. Ac. Line. Rd. 1 (1892) (Sem. 2) 277-. 

steel. Villari, E. Mil. I. Lomb. Rd. 1 

(1868) 853-. 

. Adams, W. G. R. S. P. 23 (1875) 

533-. 

Mercury, apparent alteration of resistance. 
Des Coudres, T. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1891) 50-. 



678 



5660 Specific Resistance Relation to Strain, etc. 



5660 



Metals. Goldhammer, D. A. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 
19 (Ps.) (1887) 145- ; A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 
360- ; 36 (1889) 804- ; Mosc. Un. Mm. (Ps.- 
Mth.) 8 (1889) 158 pp. ; Fschr. Ps. (1888) 
(Ab. 2) 575-; Kazan S. Nt. (Pt.-Mth.) P. 8 
(1890) 57-; Fschr. Ps. (1890) (Ab. 2) 567-. 

Nickel. Cantone, M. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 1 
(1892) (Sem. 2) 119-. 

Phenomena. Abraham, . Pogg. A. 1 (1824) 
357-. 

Bontgen rays, effect on paraffin. Kelvin, 
(Lord), Beattie, , & Smoluchowski, . 
Elect. 38 (1897) 401. 

, selenium. Perreau, . C. E. 

129 (1899) 956-. 

STRAIN AND RESISTANCE, 
RELATIONS. 

Witkowski, A. W. [1881] (xn) Krk. Ak. (Mt.- 

Prz.) Ez. & Sp. 9 (1882) 156-, vn-; (xi) A. 

Ps. C. 16 (1882) 161- ; Edinb. E. S. T. 30 

(1883) 413-. 

Tammann, G. A. Ps. C. 69 (1899) 767-. 
bismuth. Aubel, E. van. J. de Ps. 2 (1893) 

407-. 
carbon. Naccari, A., & Pagliani, S. Yen. I. 

At. 6 (1879-80) 273-. 
. Thompson, S. P. Am. J. Sc. 24 (1882) 

433-; L. Ps. S. P. 5 (1884) 83-; Ph. Mg. 13 

(1882) 262-. 
. Mendenhall, T. C. Am. As. P. (1884) 

130- ; Am. J. Sc. 32 (1886) 218-. 
. Tomlinson, H. Ph. Mg. 22 (1886) 442-. 
, gas-. Nosworthy, W. F. Tel. J. 10 (1882) 

358-. 

under variable pressure. Munck of Rosen- 
schold, P. S. Pogg. A. 34 (1835) 437-. 

, Munck's claim. Tanner, A. M. 

Tel. J. 27 (1890) 249-. 

carbon-dioxide solutions under varying pres- 
sures. Pfeiffer, E. [1884] Munch. Ak. Sb. 

14 (1885) '293-. 
cobalt, magnesium, steel and platinum-iridium. 

Tomlinson, H. [1884] E. S. P. 39 (1886) 

503-. 
contacts, bad. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. 

C. E. 87 (1878) 131-, 189-. 
copper, elasticity and resistance. Ascoli, M. 

Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 1 (1892) (Sem. 1) 

10-. 
German silver and crude nickel. Cantone, M. 

Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 6 (1897) (Sem. 1) 175-. 
glass. Barus, C. Am. J. Sc. 37 (1889) 339-; 

38 (1889) 193. 

. Guillaume, C. E. J. de Ps. 10 (1891) 39-. 
and magnetism. Tomlinson, H. [1881] Phil. 

Trans. 174 (1884) 1-. 
mercury. Palmer, A. de F. (jun.) Am. J. Sc. 

4 (1897) 1-. 
metals. Gray, J. H., & Henderson, J. B. 

[1893] E. S. P. 54 (1894) 283-. 
. Lussana, S. N. Cim. 10 (1899) 73-. 

and alloys, effect of torsion. Szily, C. de. 
C. E. 128 (1899) 927-. 

, elasticity and resistance. Ascoli, M. Em. 
E. Ac. Line. Mm. 4 (1887) 406-. 



powders, platinum black, carbon. Streintz, F. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 109 (1900) (Ab. 2a) 221- ; Mh. 

C. (1900) 461-. 
salts, solid. Graetz, L. [1886] Munch. Ak. 

Sb. 16 (1887) 88-. 
silver, elasticity and resistance. Ascoli, M. 

Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 6 (1890) (Sem. 1) 502-. 
wires. Wartmann, E. E. S. P. 9 (1857-59) 

615-. 

. Pine, G. S. Am. Ac. P. 11 (1876) 303-. 
. Tomlinson, H. [1876] E. S. P. 25 (1877) 

451- ; 26 (1878) 401-. 
. Chwolson, O. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 27 

(1881) 187-. 
. Gotz, H., (& Kurz, A. Exner Epm. 20 

(1884) 739-; 21 (1885) 87-, 683-. 
, copper and brass. Chwolson, 0. [1881] 

St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 28 (1883) 134-. 
, effect of permanent stretching. Gray, T. 

[1880] Edinb. E. S. T. 30 (1883) 369-. 
, stretching and vibration. De-Marchi, 

L. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 13 (1880) 676-. 
, torsion. Szily, C. von (jun.) Mth. 

Nt. B. Ung. 16 (1899) 298-. 
, German silver. Angelini, S. L. Ev. Sc.- 

Ind. 16 (1884) 241-. 
, iron and steel. Johnson, W. H. Manch. 

Lt. Ph. S. P. 21 (1882) 187-. 
, . Tomlinson, H. Elect. 13 (1884) 

85. 
, , resistance, strain, and other 

mechanical properties. Johnson, W. H. 

Manch. Lt. Ph. S. P. 19 (1880) 147-. 
, silver. MacGregor, J. G. [1876] Edinb. 

E. S. P. 9 (1878) 79-. 



TEMPERATURE, MAGNETISM AND 
RESISTANCE, RELATIONS. 

bismuth. Righi, A. Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 

19 (1884) 545- ; J. de Ps. 3 (1884) 355-. 
. Leduc, A. C. E. 110 (1890) 130-. 
. Henderson, J. B. A. Ps. C. 53 (1894) 

912-. 
and its alloys. Aubel, E. van. [1887] 

Brux. Ac. Bll. 15 (1888) 198-. 
, at very low temperatures. Everdingen, 

E.van (jun.) [1899-1900] Amst. Ak. Vs. 

8 (1900) 218-, 380- ; 9 (1901) 181- ; Amst. 

Ak. P. 2 (1900) 229-, 348- ; 3 (1901) 177-. 
metals, effect of heat and light and magnetism. 

Deguisne, C. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. 

(1897-98) 54-. 



TEMPERATURE AND RESISTANCE, 
RELATIONS. 

Davy, (Sir) H. Phil. Trans. (1821) 425-. 
MUUer, J. (zu Halle). Pogg. A. 73 (1848) 

434-. 
Tait, P. G. [1872] (xi) Edinb. E. S. P. 8 

(1875) 32. 
Marshall, D. H. [1872] Edinb. E. S. P. 8 

(1875) 33-. 
Alloys. Matthiessen, Aug. Elect. 4 (1863) 

285-, 296. 



VOL. III. 



679 



5660 Temperature and Resistance, Relations 



of Metals 5660 



Alloys. Matthiessen, Aug., & Vogt, C. [1863] 

Phil. Trans. (1864) 167-. 
. MacGregor, J. G., <& Knott, C. G. Edinb. 

E. S. T. 29 (1880) 599-. 
, copper-zinc, temperature coefficient. Haas, 

R. A. Ps. C. 52 (1894) 673- ; Elekttech. Z. 

16 (1895) 272-. 

at melting point. Eainy, H., & Clarkson, 
E. D. Edinb. E. S. P. 13 (1886) 686-. 

. Weber, C. L. A. Ps. C. 34 (1888) 

576-. 
Amalgams. Willows, R. S. Ph. Mg. 48 (1899) 

433-. 
. Larsen, A. A. Ps. 1 (1900) 123-. 

of lead at low temperatures. Gressman, G. 
W. Ps. Ev. 9 (1899) 20-. 

Carbon. Bergman, I. I. (xn) Es. C. Ps. S. 

J. 9 (Ps.) (1877) [Ft. 1] 163-. 
. Siemens, E. W. von. Berl. Ak. Mb. 

(1880) 1-. 

(Siemens). Eorgmann, J. A. Ps. C. 11 
(1880) 1041-. 

, burning. Kemp, K. T. Edinb. N. Ph. J. 
6 (1829) 340-. 

filaments, incandescent, resistance measure- 
ment. Voller, A. Elekttech. Z. 5 (1884) 
258-. 

, transition between conducting and non- 
conducting state. Brion, G. A. Ps. C. 59 
(1896) 715-. 

Conditions of aggregation, relations to. Trenti- 
naglia, A. (Ritter) von. Innsb. Nt. Md. B. 
5 (1875) 145-. 

Conductors. Siemens, C. W. B. S. P. 19 
(1871) 443-; Tel. E. J. 3 (1873) 326-. 

Critical point, various compounds near. Bartoli, 

A. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 28 (1895) 246-. 
, conductivity at. Bartoli, A. Em. E. 

Ac. Line. Ed. 2 (1886) (Sem. 2) 129-. 
Earth-nut oil, sensibility to heat when elec- 
trified. Warren, T. T. P. B. C. N. 58 

(1888) 259. 
Electrolytes, solid. Rosenthal, J. A. Ps. C. 

43 (1891) 700-. 
Fuses, high-tension, change at moment of 

firing. Malcolm, (Maj.) E. D. Tel. E. J. 3 

(1874) 259-. 

Glass. Perry, J. E. S. P. 23 (1875) 468-. 
. Gray, T. Ph. Mg. 10 (1880) 226-. 
. Cherrill, N. K. Elect. 20 (1888) 78-. 
, conductivity due to moisture. Cardani, 

P. N. Cim. 20 (1886) 85-, 115-. 
, , temperature, density and composition, 

relation. Gray, T. [1881-82] B. S. P. 

33 (1882) 256- ; 34 (1883) 199-. 
, heated. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 90 (1854) 

at low temperatures. Foussereau, G. C. 

B. 95 (1882) 216- ; Par. S. Ps. Be". (1883) 
86-. 

and salts at melting point. Andrews, T. 
[1885] Edinb. E. S. P. 13 (1886) 275-. 

Gutta percha, temperature coefficients. Weaver, 

A. C. M. Elect. 27 (1891) 669. 
India-rubber, vulcanised, effects of heat. Maver, 

W. (jun.) Elect. 27 (1891) 463. 
Insulators at high temperatures. Roller, H. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 98 (1890) (Ab. 2o) 894-. 



Insulators, temperature coefficients. Warren, 
T. T. P. B. Ph. Mg. 4 (1877) 272- ; Tel. 
J. 5 (1877) 228-. 

Low temperatures. Fleming, J. A. [1896] E. 
I. P. 15 (1899) 239-. 

Metals. 

Lenz, E. St. P6t. Ac. Sc. Mm. 2 (1833) 631-. 
Arndtsen, A. Pogg. A. 104 (1858) 1-; 105 

(1858) 148-. 

Clausius, R. Pogg. A. 104 (1858) 650-. 
Siemens, W. Pogg. A. 113 (1861) 91-. 
(Siemens.) Matthiessen, Aug. Ph. Mg. 22 

(1861) 195-. 
Matthiessen, Aug., & Base, M. von. Phil. 

Trans. (1862) 1-. 

Stewart, B. Edinb. E. S. P. 4 (1862) 168-. 
Benoit, R. As. Fr. C. E. 1 (1872) 273-; C. E. 

76 (1873) 342- ; Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 51 (1874) 

284-. 

Le Oiatelier, H. C. E. Ill (1890) 454-. 
Guillaume, C. E. Elect. 29 (1892) 699. 
(Simultaneous determination of thermal and 

electrical conductivities at different temper- 

atures.) Straneo, P. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 

7 (1898) (Sem. 1) 197-, 310-. 
and alloys, experimental determination of 

coefficient a for. Dubreuil, G. A. Tel. 24 

(1898) 162-. 



Ph. 



at temperatures approaching absolute 
zero. Dewar, J., & Fleming, J. A. 



Mg. 36 (1893) 271-. 
bismuth and alloys. Leduc, A. J. de Ps. 3 
(1884) 362-. 

, at temperature of liquid air. Dewar, J., 
d- Fleming, J. A. [1896] E. S. P. 60 (1897) 
72-. 

, --- solid air. Dewar, J., <& Fleming, 
J. A. Ph. Mg. 40 (1895) 303-. 

cobalt at high temperatures. Knott, C. G. 

[1891] Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 4 (1891) 287-; 

Edinb. E. S. P. 18 (1892) 303-. 
copper at low temperatures. Wroblewski, S. 

von. [1885] C. E. 101 (1885) 160- ; Wien 

Ak. Sb. 92 (1886) (Ab. 2) 311-. 

, measurements of variation. Kennelly, A.E., 
<& Fessenden, R. A. [1893] Ps. Ev. 1 (1894) 
260-. 

, pure, measurements of absolute specific 
resistance. Swan, J. W., & Rhodin, J. 
E. S. P. 56 (1894) 64-. 

German silver wire, Siemens's. Lenz, R. 

St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 23 (1877) 565-. 
gold, lead and tin. Lenz, E. [1836] St. Pet. 

Ac. Sc. Mm. 3 (1838) (pte. 1) 439-. 
at high temperatures. Bottomley, J. T. B. 

A. Ep. (1886) 548-. 
--- . (Use of induction balance.) Berg- 

mann, J. A. Ps. C. 36 (1889) 783-. 
iron. Morris, D. K. L. Ps. S. P. 15 (1897) 

134- ; Ph. Mg. 44 (1897) 213- ; Nt. 57 

(1897-98) 232-. 

and its alloys at high temperatures. Le 
Cfiatelier, H. C. E. 110 (1890) 283-. 

at high temperatures. Smith, C. M., 
Knott, C. G., <& Macfarlane, A. Edinb. E. 
S. P. 8 (1875) 629-. 



680 



5660 of Metals 



Nature of Metallic Conduction 5675 



iron at high temperatures. Hopkimon, J. E. 

S. P. 45 (1889) 457-. 
, incandescent. Miiller, (Dr.) J. Freiburg 

B. 2 (1862) 396-. 

and steel, temperature coefficient. Strouhal, 
V., <& Barus, C. A. Ps. C. 20 (1883) 525-. 

thallium. Matthiessen, Aug., & Vogt, 

C. Phil. Trans. (1863) 369-. 

wire. Poloni, G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 14 
(1881) 475-. 

magnetite. Thompson, S. P. B. A. Ep. (1886) 

314-. 
at melting point (various metals). Vassura, G. 

N. Cim. 31 (1892) 25-. 
mercury. Eink, H. J. Amst. Ak. Vs. M. 11 

(1877) 259- ; A. Ps. C. Beibl. 2 (1878) 273-. 
. Guillaume, C. E. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1893) 

70-. 
, pure, at temperature of liquid air. Dewar, 

J., & Fleming, J. A. E. S. P. 60 (1897) 

76-. 
, temperature coefficient. Guillaume, C. E. 

C. E. 115 (1892) 414- ; 116 (1893) 51-; A. 
Tel. [19] (1892) 545-; B. A. Ep. (1892) 
138. 

, . Kreichgauer, D., d- Jaeger, W. A. 

Ps. C. 47 (1892) 513-. 
nickel. Battelli, A. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 23 

(1887-88) 231-. 

at high temperatures. Knott, C. G. [1886] 
Edinb. E. S. T. 33 (1888) 187-. 

platinum, incandescent. Nichols, E. L. Am. 

As. P. (1881) 24-. 
pure, and alloys, and non-metals at boiling 

point of oxygen. Dewar, J., & Fleming, 

J. A. Ph. Mg. 34 (1892) 326-. 
, mercury, at low temperatures. Cailletet, 

L., d- Bouty, E. C. E. 100 (1885) 1188- ; 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1885) 97-. 
solid. Emo, A. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 16 (1884) 

10-, 28-, 76-, 96-, 267-, 325-, 345-, 374-; 

17 (1885) 68-, 115-, 135-, 219-. 
solid, temperature coefficients. Auerbach, . 

D. Nf. Tbl. (*1879) 181. 

tellurium. Exner, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 73 (1876) 

(Ab. 2) 285-. 
wires. Robinson, T. R. [1848] Ir. Ac. T. 22 

(1855) 1-. 

. Emo, A. Yen. I. At. (1883-84) 1153-. 
, effect of heat. Provenzali, P. F. S. 

Tortolini A. 4 (1853) 74-. 
, electrically heated. Tumlirz, 0., & Krug, 

A. Wien Ak. Sb. 95 (1887) (Ab. 2) 1014-. 

Nitrogen peroxide. Boguski, J. J. Kosmos 

(Lw.) 14 (1889) 134- ; C. E. 109 (1889) 804- ; 

Z. Ps. C. 5 (1890) 69-. 
Oxides at high temperatures. Sohlman, J. 

Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 675-. 
Paraffin and resin oil, temperature coefficient. 

Gaze, H. P. Elect. 36 (1896) 473-. 
Passage of current from liquid into metal, 

effect of heat. Delarive, A. Bb. Un. 7 

(1837) 388-. 
Eed heat, conductivity at. Tail, P. G. [1872] 

(xi) Edinb. E. S. P. 8 (1875) 32. 
Eocks at high temperatures. Rivot, L. E., 

& Phillips, E. A. Mines 14 (1848) 57-. 



Selenium. Bidwell, S. Ph. Mg. 11 (1881) 302. 
Solid mixtures at high temperatures. Nernst, 

W., & Reynolds, H. Gcitt. Nr. (1900) 328-. 
Solids. Mulder, G. J. Hall Bij. 5 (1830) 1-. 
. Fae, G. Ven. I. At. (1888-89) 279-. 
Specific heat and specific resistance, relations. 

Auerbach, F. A. Ps. C. 8 (1879) 479-. 
Sulphur and carbon mixtures. Bidwell, S. 

L. Ps. S. P. 5 (1884) 90-; Ph. Mg. 13 (1882) 

Sulphuric acid. Henrichsen, S. Christiania 

F. (1878) No. 13, 10 pp. 
Swan lamps, temperature coefficients. Uppen- 

born, F. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 228. 
Temperature coefficients, method of measuring. 

Towe, M. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 218-. 



5675 Nature of Metallic Con- 
duction. Electronic Theory. 

Lorenz, L. [1872-81] Kjtfb. Ov. (1872) 1-; 

A. Ps. C. 147 (1872) 429- ; Kjtfb. Dn. Vd. 

Selsk. Skr. 2 (*1881-86) 35- ; A. Ps. C. 13 

(1881) 422-, 582-. 
Hertz, H. Bonn NH. Vr. Cor.-Bl. (1890) 

33-. 

Vaschy, . C. E. 118 (1894) 1324-. 
Strecker, K. A. Ps. C. 54 (1895) 434-. 
Conduction explained by aid of general me- 
chanical considerations. Pilleux, L. Les 

Mondes 56 (1881) 392-, 421-, 641- ; 1 (1881) 

66- ; 2 (1882) 210-. 

Current in conductors, representation by dis- 
continuous medium. Silberstein, L. J. de 

Ps. 6 (1897) 378. 
Electricity and heat, theory. Riecke, E. A. 

Ps. C. 66 (1898) 353-, 545-, 1199-. , 
, (Eiecke). Lamotte, M. Eclair. 

Elect. 18 (1899) 204-, 290- , 412-, 452-, 

491-. 
Irreciprocal conduction. Fromme, C. Ph. Mg. 

27 (1889) 282-. 
Mechanism of conduction. Burton, C. V. 

L. Ps. S. P. 13 (1895) 103- ; Ph. Mg. 38 

(1894) 55-. 
Motion of electricity in molecular bodies. 

Weber, W. E. A. Ps. C. 156 (1875) 1-. 
Propagation of electricity along wires. Som- 

merfeld, A. A. Ps. C. 67 (1899) 233-. 
, skin currents. Potier, A. J. 

de Ps. 3 (1894) 107-. 

Eesistance of galvanic conductor, is it a func- 
tion of its surface ? Petrina, F. A. Bohm. 

Gs. Ab. 9 (1857) 20-. 
to passage of electricity. Gaugain, J. M. 

C. E. 48 (1859) 998-. 
Self-induction of wires. Heaviside, 0. Ph. 

Mg. 22 (1886) 118-, 273-, 332-, 419- ; 23 

(1887) 10-, 173- ; 24 (1887) 63-. 
Theory. Poynting, J. H. [1885] Birm. Ph. 

S. P. 5 (1885-87) 68-. 
Unipolar conduction. Braun, F. A. Ps. C. 

4 (1878) 476-. 
in solids. Braun, F. A. Ps. C. 19 

(1883) 340-. 



681 



I 2 



5675 Electronic Theory 



ELECTRONIC THEOBY. 

Atom and charge of electricity carried by it, 

relations. Thomson, J. J. Ph. Mg. 40 

(1895) 511- ; 41 (1896) 151. 
Atoms, structure, J. J. Thomson's experiments. 

Perkins, C. A. Science 12 (1900) 368-. 
Electric inertia, and inertia of electric con- 
vection. Schuster, A. [1900] L. Ps. S. P. 

17 (1901) 631-. 
Electron theory of metals. Drude, P. A. Ps. 

1 (1900) 566- ; 3 (1900) 369-. 
and relation between thermal and 

electric conductivities. Reinganum, M. A. 

Ps. 2 (1900) 398-. 
Electrons, theory. Orr, W. HcF. Ph. Mg. 

50 (1900) 269-. 
Ionic theory. Herwig, H. A. Ps. C. 153 

(1874) 411- . 
Ostwald, W. Leip. Mth. Ps. B. 44 

(1892) 531-. 

. Reiff, R. A. Ps. C. 56 (1895) 42-. 

. Drude, P. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 161-. 



Unitary theory. 
(1889) 576-. 



Giese, W. A. Ps. C. 37 



5680 Conduction in Continuous 
Media of Two and Three 
Dimensions. 

Schweigger, J. S. C. Schweigger J. 19 (1817) 

85-. 

Ritchie, W. Phil. Trans. (1828) 373-. 
Faraday, M. Phil. Trans. (1833) 507-. 
Laming, R. Ph. Mg. 27 (1845) 420-. 
Exley, T. B. A. Bp. (1848) (pt. 2) 52-. 
Bolzani, J. F. (xn) Kazan Un. Mm. (1854) 

(Bk. 3) 1-; (i) Erman Arch. Bs. 16 (1857) 

45-. 
Faraday, M. [1855] E. I. P. 2 (1854-58) 

123- . 
Guillemin, C. M. [1864-65] A. Tel. 7 (1864) 

465-; Par. Mm. S. Bl. 2 (1866) (C.R.) 35-. 
Weingarten, J. Crelle J. 63 (1864) 145-. 
Poloni, G. N. Cim. 11 (1874) 271- ; 12 (1874)9-. 
Onimus, . Par. S. Bl. Mm. 34 (*1882) (C.R.) 

53. 
Strecker, K. A. Ps. C. 54 (1895) 434-. 

CONDUCTION IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA 
OF TWO DIMENSIONS. 

Configliachi, , & Brugnatelli, L. V. Brug- 

natelli G. 1 (1808) 147-, 338-. 
Smith, W. R. [1870] Edinb. E. S. P. 7 (1872) 

79-. 

Campetti, A. G. Mt. 26 (1888) 377-. 
Sauer, R. Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 351-. 
Crystals, surface conductivity for electricity of 

high tension. Senarmont, H. de. C. B. 29 

(1849) 750- ; A. C. 28 (1850) 257-. 
Curved surfaces. Boltzmann, L. Wien Sb. 

52 (1866) (^6. 2) 214-. 
. Haubner, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 87 (1883) 



Conduction in Sheets and Solids 5680 

Curved surfaces, steady currents in. Kirchhoff, 

G. Berl. Ak. Mb. (1875) 487-. 
, . Neumann, C. G. Mth. A. 10 

(1876) 569-. 
, , theory. Topler, A. J. I. A. 

Ps. C. 160 (1877) 375-. 
Cylindrical and spherical surfaces. Allen, 

(Rev.) A.J.C. B. A. Bp. (1879) 261 ; QJ. 

Mth. 17 (1881) 65-. 

Disc, resistance with various positions of elec- 
trodes. Domalip, K. Wien Sb. 68 (1873) 

(Ab. 2) 303-. 
Electrode surfaces. Norden, K. [1900] Z. 

Elektch. (1900-01) 309-. 
Fluid rectangle, potential distribution in. Ap- 

pell, , & Chervet, . C. E. 98 (1884) 

358-. 
Oriented surface-conduction , attempt at proving. 

Braun, F. Gott. Nr. (1896) 157-. 
Plane. Kirchhoff, G. Pogg. A. 64 (1845) 497- ; 

67 (1846) 344-. 
. Foster, G. C.,& Lodge, 0. J. L. Ps. S. 

P. 1 (1876) 113-, 193- ; Ph. Mg. 49 (1875) 

385-, 453-; 50 (1875) 475-. 
. Lodge, 0. J. Ph. Mg. 1 (1876) 373-; 

2 (1876) 37-; L. Ps. S. P. 2 (1879) 

24-. 
, conduction in, and logarithmic potential, 

problems. Jochmann, E. Z. Mth. Ps. 10 

(1865) 48-, 89-. 
ring. Ditscheiner, L. A. Ps. C. 5 (1878) 



(Ab. 2) 412-. 



SHEETS. 

Pfaff, J. W. Kastner Arch. Ntl. 14 (1828) 440-. 
Maxwell, J. C. [1855-56] Camb. Ph. S. T. 

10 (1864) 27-. 
Obermayer,A. von. Wien Sb. 60 (1870) (Ab. 2) 

245-. 
Khvol'son [Chwolsori], 0. D. (xn) Es. C. Ps. 

S. J. 6 (Ps.) (1874) [(Pt. 1)] 108- ; (ix) Z. 

Mth. Ps. 23 (1878) 47-. 

Schwedqff, T. A. Ps. C. (Ergfinz.) 6 (1874) 85-. 
Adams, W. G. B. S. P. 23 (1875) 280-. 
Rucker, A. W. B. A. Ep. (1881) 554-. 
circular, equations. Peirce, B. 0. Am. Ac. 

P. 26 (1891) 218-. 
conformal representation on one sheet of any 

continuous closed surface. Kelvin, (Lord). 

Elect. 29 (1892) 633-. 
current-, electromagnetic trails of images in. 

Bryan, G. H. B. A. Bp. (1893) 706. 
, ellipsoidal. Lamb, H. [1887] Phil. 

Trans. (A) 178 (1888) 131-. 
, especially ellipsoids and anchor-rings. 

Mayall, R. H. D. [1894] Camb. Ph. S. 

P. 8 (1895) 156-. 
, finite. Jeans, J. H. L. Mth. S. P. 31 

(1900) 151-. 
, spherical. HOI, M. J. M. QJ. Mth. 16 

(1879) 306-. 
experiments, lecture-. Mach, E. Carl Bpm. 

6 (1870) 11-. 
H form. Dieterici, C. A. Ps. C. 16 (1882) 

234-. 
heterogeneous. Haubner, J. Mh. Mth. Ps. 1 

(1890) 247-, 357-. 



682 



5680 



Conduction in Sheets and Solids Cylinders 5680 



infinite, stream lines in, with electrodes in two 

parallel areas. Bennecke, F. Ac. Nt. C. N. 

Acta 51 (1887) 253-. 

metal. Quincke, G. Fogg. A. 97 (1856) 382-. 
, thin. KrUger, E. A. Ps. C. 32 (1887) 

572-; Gott. Nr. (1887) 301-. 
, . Branly, E. C. B. 122 (1896) 230-. 
rectangular. Betti, E. (ix) N. Cim. 3 (1870) 

91-. 
, with arbitrary positions of electrodes. 

Chervet, A. C. B. 99 (1884) 78-. 
, electrodynamic problem. Mathieu, E. As. 

Fr. C. B. (1886) (Pt. 1) 79. 
, traversed by steady current. Chervet, A, 

C. B. 98 (1884) 795-. 
, . Mathieu, E, As. Fr. C. B. 

(1886) (Pt. 2) 1-. 
silver, thin. Vincent, G. C. B. 126 (1898) 

820-, 930. 
steady currents in. Heine, H. E. Crelle J. 

Mth. 79 (1875) 1-. 
. Weber, H. Gott. Nr. (1889) 93-. 

, with rectilinear electrodes. Mar- 
gules, M. Wien Ak. Sb. 75 (1877) (Ab. 2) 
833-. 

thin films. Stone, I. Ps. Bv. 6 (1898) 1-. 

of metal deposited by cathode discharge. 

Longden, A. C. [1900] Am. J. Sc. 9 (1900) 
407- ; N. Y. Ac. A. 13 (1900-01) 465-; Ps. 
Bv. 11 (1900) 40-, 84-. 

Solution of problems. Greenhill, A. G. QJ. 

Mth. 17 (1881) 284-. 
Steady currents. Auerbach, F. A. Ps. C. 3 

(1878) 498-. 
. Haubner, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 85 (1882) 

(Ab. 2) 77-. 

surface currents. Neumann, C. Leip. Mth. 
Ps. B. 43 (1891) 571-. 

Surface of ellipsoid. Weber, H. D. Nf. Vh. 

(1890) (Th. 2) 9. 
Surfaces of revolution. Fleischmann, L. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 104 (1895) (Ab. 2a) 227-. 

CONDUCTION IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA 
OF THBEE DIMENSIONS. 

Erman, P. J. de Ps. 64 (1807) 121-. 
Nobili, L. Bb. Un. 59 (1835) 263-, 416-. 
Matteucci, C. A. C. 28 (1850) 385-. 
Helmholtz, H. Pogg. A. 89 (1853) 211-, 353-. 
Lipschitz, E. Crelle J. 58 (1861) 1-. 
Buff, H. A. Ps. C. 130 (1867) 337-. 
Joubin, P. C. B. 110 (1890) 37-. 
Cones and frustra. Siemens, W. Pogg. A. 

110 (1860) 19-. 
Crystalline substances. Curie, J. A. C. 17 

(1889) 385-; 18 (1889) 203-. 
Crystals, tourmaline, unilateral conductivity. 

Lodge, O.J.,(& Thompson, S.P. [1878] Ph. 

Mg. 8 (1879) 18-. 

CYLINDERS. 

Wand, T. Carl Bpm. 12 (1876) 469-. 
Kirchhoff, G. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1883) 519-. 
or ellipsoidal or circular conductors, potential. 
Palmieri, L. Nap. Bd. 22 (1883) 190-. 



ends of conductor. Shrader, W. A. Ps. C. 44 

(1891) 222-. 
liquids in tubes. Edlund, E. Sk. Nf. F. 5 

(1847) 334-. 

mercury tubes of varying section. Weinstein, 

B. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1887) 122-. 
steady currents. Weber, H. Crelle J. 76 

(1873) 1-. 
wire, free electricity on surface. Moutier, J. 

[1879] Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 4 (1880) 5-. 
wires. Kirchhoff, G. Pogg. A. 100 (1857) 

193-, 251-. 
, Barlow's experiment. Schiveigger, J. S. C. 

Schweigger J. 44 (= Jb. 14) (1825) 118-. 

of various lengths and diameters, law. Lenz , 
E. [1834] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Mm. 3 (1838) 
(pte. 1) 187-. 

Electric, hydrodynamic and thermic analogies. 

Decharme, C. [1886] Amiens Ac. Mm. 33 

(1888) 50-. 
Extended material media, variable currrents 

in. Helmholtz, H. [1870] Heidi. Vh. Nt. 

Md. 5 (J871) 84-. 
Heterogeneous media, conductivities of certain, 

for steady flux with potential. Lees, C. H. 

[1899] L. Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 68-; Ph. Mg. 

49 (1900) 221-. 
Homogeneous solid conductor. Thomson, (Sir) 

W. B. A. Bp. (1888) 570-. 
Induction. Wartmann, E. Brux. Ac. Bll. 15 

(1848) (Pt. 1) 268-; Bb. Un. Arch. 13 (1850) 
35. 

Interior of conductors, theory. Popoff, A. 

Erman Arch. Bs. 13 (1854) 461-. 
Liquid determinate masses, potential in. Cher- 

vet, A. C. B. 97 (1883) 709- ; A. C. 1 (1884) 

Liquids. Matteucci, C. Bb. Un. 22 (1839) 
166-. t 

Marie-Davy, . Arch, de 1'Electr. 5 
(1845) 35-. 

Poggendorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 64 (1845) 
54. 

. Macaluso, D. Ph. Mg. 42 (1871) 389-. 
, conduction, when cross section differs from 

area of electrodes. Lenz, E. [1851] St. 

Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 10 (1852) 129-. 

(unlimited), dependence of resistance on 
magnitude of poles. Meidinger, H. Heidi. 
Vh. Nt. Md. (1857-59) 218-. 

Long conductors. Schaw, H. Elect. 3 (1863) 

229-. 
, electricity in, and transformation into 

other forms of energy. Grawinkel, . Frkf . 

a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1885-86) 22-. 
Metals. Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. B. (1841) 

149-. 
Parallelepiped, distribution and stream lines of 

electricity on. Niebour, H. Arch. Mth. Ps. 

4 (1886) 337-. 

Besistance between cylindrical surfaces. Pog- 
gendorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 55 (1842) 47- 

(foot note). 
. Saweljeff [Saweliew], A . Erman 

Arch. Bs. 15 (1856) 58-. 

of space between cylindrical surfaces. 
Blavier, E. E. J. de Ps. 3 (1874) 115-, 151-. 



683 



5680 



Conduction Equipotentlal Lines 5680 



^Resistance of space between parallel cylinders. 

Blavier, E. E. A. TeU. 8 (1881) 291- ; 

9 (1882) 186-. 
Sphere (interior). Felici, E. Tortolini A. 1 

(1850) 312- ; 5 (1854) 270-. 
with given electrodes. Hicks, W. M. Mess. 

Mth. 12 (1883) 183-. 
, segment. Wolf, W. Arch. Mth. Ps. 60 

(1877) 225-. 
Spheres, discs, and ellipsoids. Oberbeck, A. 

(xn) Elekttech. Z. 4 (1883) 216-. 
, voltaic tension and electric potential. 

Palmieri, L. Nap. Ed. 22 (1883) 114- . 
Wood. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 4 

(*1881) 33-. 



Connecting wires, phenomena. Marianini, S. 

A. Sc. Lomb. Ven. 1 (1831) 281-. 
Current, real path. Houston, E. J., & Ken- 
nelly, A. E. Am. Ph. S. P. 36 (1897) 144-. 
Currents, dependence on form of connectors. 

Eiess, P. Berl. Mb. (1862) 343-. 
, steady. Heine, H. E. Berl. Ak. Mb. 

(1874) 186-. 
, , distribution, theory. Budde, E. [1875] 

Bern Mt. (1876) (Ab.) 39-. 
, , , . Ferraris, G. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Mm. 4 (1879) 163-. 
, , potential of conductors conveying. 

Eicci, G. Ven. I. At. 8 (1881-82) 1025-. 
, , problem. Beltrami, E. Mil. I. Lomb. 

Ed. 17 (1884) 538-. 
, , theory. Henvegen, A. Arch. Mth. Ps. 

63 (1879) 62-. 
,,. Frohlich, I. [1880] (xn) Mag. 

Tud. Ak. Etk. (Mth.) 7 (1881) (No. 20) 24pp. ; 

(rx) A. Ps. C. Beibl. 5 (1881) 310-. 
, , . Farkas, G. Orv.-Termt. Ets. 

(Termt. Szak) (1892) 165-. 
, superposition, principle; earth resistance 

in telegraphy. Smaasen, W. Pogg. A. 69 

(1846) 161- ; 72 (1847) 435-. 

and temperature, reciprocity. Volterra, V. 
N. Cim. 11 (1882) 188-. 

, (Volterra). Poloni, G. N. Cim. 

12 (1882) 58-. 

of different tension in same metallic con- 
ductor. Melloni, M. Nap. Ac. Sc. Mm. 1 
(1852-54) 319-. 

Earth currents, theory. Glazebrook, R. T. 
[1900] L. Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 619-. 

Electric inertia and inertia of electric convec- 
tion. Schuster, A. [1900] L. Ps. S. P. 17 
(1901) 631-. 

mass of conductors. Marie-Davy, H. C. 
E. 64 (1867) 964-. 

Electrodynamic principle. Mathieu, E. C. E. 
105 (1887) 659-. 

EQUIPOTENTIAL LINES. 

in anisotropic media and twisted cylinder. 
Elie, B. Lum. Elect. 23 (1887) 201-. 

conducting sheets. Haubner, J. Wien Ak. 
Sb. 93 (1886) (Ab. 2) 46-. 

surfaces, experimental determination. 
Guebhard, A. C. E. 90 (1880) 984-. 



in conductors of 2 and 3 dimensions. Chervet, 
A. J. de Ps. 3 (1884) 292-. 

electrochemical tracing. Guebhard, A. Par. 
S. Ps. Se. (1881) 292-; (1882) 182- ; C. E. 
94 (1882) 437-; 96 (1883) 1424-. 

, theory. Guebhard, A. C. E. 95 (1882) 

29-. 

electrochemically shown. Guebhard, A. C. 
E. 93 (1881) 403-. 

and hydraulic analogies of Decharme. Gueb- 
hard, A. C. E. 94 (1882) 851-. 

law of Nobili's rings. Guebhard, A. C. E. 
93 (1881) 582-. 

and lines of flow in plane anisotropic con- 
ductor. Elie, B. Lum. Elect. 23 (1887) 
51. 

, measurement by telephone. 

Kristensen, K. S. Ts. Ps. C. 33 (1894) 177- ; 
Fschr. Ps. (1894) (Ab. 2) 596-. 

, reversibility of electrochemical 
method for. Guebhard, A. C. E. 93 (1881) 
792-. 

magnetic force. Lommel, E. von. 

[1893] Munch. Ak. Sb. 23 (1894) 103-, 
129-, 217-. 

, relations. Boltzmann, L. 
[1893] Munch. Ak. Sb. 23 (1894) 119-. 

made visible by electric current sheets. Lommel, 

E. von. [1893] D. Mth. Vr. Jbr. 3 (1894) 

87-. 
measurement of lateral diffusion of current by. 

Gordon, J. E. H. Ph. Mg. 42 (1871) 444-. 
in non-homogeneous medium. Chvolson, 0. 

Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 31 (Ps.) (1899) 1-; J. de Ps. 

9 (1900) 57-. 
of plane of unequally conducting halves. 

Guebhard, A. C. E. 90 (1880) 1124-. 



Heat and electricity, conduction, comparison. 
Decharme, C. Lum. Elect. 13 (1884) 241-. 

, Fourier's formulae for, extension to pro- 
pagation of electricity. Cornu,A. C. E. 86 
(1878) 1120-. 

, motion, and its connection with the mathe- 
matical theory of electricity. Thomson, (Sir) 
W. Camb. Mth. J. 3 (1843) 71-. 

Magnetic precession. Schuster, A. [1900] L. 
Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 644-. 

Networks, theorem. Thevenin, L. C. E. 97 
(1883) 159-. 

Potential distribution. Delarive, A. [1823] 
Gen. Mm. S. Ps. 3 (1825) 109-. 

. Eoch, G. Crelle J. 61 (1863) 283-. 

Problems. Allen, (Eev.) A.J.C. [1879] QJ. 
Mth. 17 (1881) 65-. 

Eefraction of electricity. Tribe, A. E. S. P. 
32 (1881) 435-. 

Eesistance of galvanic conductor, is it a func- 
tion of its surface ? Petrina, F. A. Bohm. 
Gs. Ab. 9 (1857) 20-. 

Space, conduction in. Ditsclieiner , L. [1878] 
Wien Ak. Sb. 78 (1879) (Ab. 2) 93-. 

Theory. Lorberg, H. Crelle J. 71 (1870) 53-. 

. Mascart, E. E. N. C. E. 86 (1878) 965-. 

. Blondin, J. Lum. Elect. 51 (1894) 401-. 

, mathematical. Potier, A. C. E. 118 
(1894) 227-. 



684 



5685 Conduction in Gases 



5685 Conduction in Gases and 
Vapours. 

(See also 6805.) 

Luvini, G. G. B. 103 (1886) 495- ; Bv. Sc.- 

Ind. 18 (1886) 247-. 

Rovelli, C. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 18 (1886) 309-. 
Luvini, G. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 19 (1887) 94- ; Lum. 

Elect. 37 (1890) 256-. 

CONDUCTION IN GASES IN NORMAL 
STATE. 

Grotthus, T. (Frhr.) von. Schweigger J. 9 

(1813) 327-. 
Matteucci, C. C. E. 28 (1849) 508- ; A. C. 28 

(1850) 385-. 
Narr, F. A. Ps. C. 22 (1884) 550- ; 33 (1888) 

295-, 702-. 
(Narr.) Nahrwold, R. A. Ps. C. 34 (1888) 

170-. 

Branly, E. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1892) 215-. 
Atmospheric electricity. Nahrwold, R. [1876- 

88] A. Ps. C. 5 (1878) 460- ; 31 (1887) 448-; 

33 (1888) 712. 
Dissipation of electricity. Warburg, E. A. 

Ps. C. 145 (1872) 578-. 

. Narr, F. A. Ps. C. 44 (1891) 133-. 

in air. Elster, J., <& Geitel, H. A. 

Ps. 2 (1900) 425-. 
Experiments. Aldini, G. Gilbert A. 4 (1800) 

419-. 
Moist air, probable conduction through. Page, 

C. G. Silliman J. 2 (1846) 204-. 
Quartz as insulator. Boys, C. V. L. Ps. S. 

P. 10 (1890) 128- ; Ph. Mg. 28 (1889) 14-. 
Steam. Rees, R. van. Utr. Aant. Prv. Gn. 

(1848) 5-. 

DETERMINATION OF CHARGE 
CARRIED BY ION. 

Atom and charge of electricity carried by it, 
relation. Thomson, J. J. Ph. Mg. 40 (1895) 
511- ; 41 (1896) 151. 

Condensation of water vapour in dust-free gases. 
Wilson, C. T. R. Phil. Trans. (A) 189 
(1897) 265-. 

Discharge in rarefied gases. Wien, W. A. Ps. 
C. 65 (1898) 440-. 

Electrodynamic properties of conducting gases. 
Kaufmann, W. A. Ps. 2 (1900) 158-. 

Ions in gases at low pressure, masses. Thom- 
son, J. J. Ph. Mg. 48 (1899) 547-. 

, positively and negatively charged, com- 
parative efficiency as condensation nuclei. 
Wilson, C. T. R. [1899] Phil. Trans. (A) 
193 (1900) 289-. 

produced by Bontgen rays. Thomson, J. J. 
Ph. Mg. 46 (1898) 528-. 

, velocity. Zeleny, J. [1898- 

1900] Ph. Mg. 46 (1898) 120- ; Phil. Trans. 
(A) 195 (1901) 193-. 

Eays, canal-. Wehnelt. A. A. Ps. C. 67 (1899) 
421-. 



Charge on Ions 5685 

Bays, cathode. Thomson, J. J. [1897] Camb. 

Ph. S. P. 9 (1898) 243-; Ph. Mg. 44 (1897) 

293-. 
, . Wiechert,. Konigsb. Schr. 38 (1897) 

[12]-. 
, , behaviour in electric field. Lenard, F. 

Mth. Termt. Ets. 16 (1898) 266-; Mth. Nt. 

B. Ung. 16 (1899) 194-. 
, , electrostatic properties. Lenard, P. 

A. Ps. C. 64 (1898) 279-. 
, , influence of magnetic vibrations. Des 

Coudres, T. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1895) 85-. 
, , magnetic deviation. Kaufmann, W. 

A. Ps. C. 61 (1897) 544- ; 62 (1897) 596-. 
, , and velocity, experiments. Wie- 
chert, E. A. Ps. C. 69 (1899) 739-. 
, , and electrostatic deviation. Kauf- 
mann, W. A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 431-. 
, , mass, relation of charge to. Simon, S. 

A. Ps. C. 69 (1899) 589-. 
, , production by ultra-violet light. Lenard, 

P. Wien Ak. Sb. 108 (1899) (Ab. 2a) 1649-. 
, radium, magnetically deviable. Curie, P., 

<& Curie, (Mme.) M. C. E. 130 (1900) 647-. 
, uranium, effect on condensation of water 

vapours. Wilson, C. T. R. [1897] Camb. 

Ph. S. P. 9 (1898) 333-. 



DISCHARGE IN RAREFIED GAS, 
RESISTANCE OF SO-CALLED VACUUM. 

(See also 6840.) 

Morren, [A. non] C. C. E. 54 (1862) 735-; 

Les Mondes 5 (1864) 209- ; A. C. 4 (1865) 

325-. 
Narr, F. A. Ps. C. 5 (1878) 145- ; 8 (1879) 

266-; 11 (1880) 155- ; 16 (1882) 558-. 
Hittorf, W. A. Ps. C. 7 (1879) 553-, 671; 

20 (1883) 705- ; 21 (1884) 90-. 
Edlund, E. [1881-83] Stockh. Ak. Hndl. 19 

(1884) No. 2, 18 pp. ; Stockh. Ofv. 40 (1883) 
No. 2, 5- ; Exner Epm. 20 (1884) 586-. 

Krajevitsch, K. Exner Epm. 19 (1883) 118-. 
Goldstein, E. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1884) 63-. 
(Edlund.) Worthington, A. M. Ph. Mg. 19 

(1885) 218-. 

(Worthington.) Edlund, E. [1886] Stockh. 

Ak. Hndl. Bh. 12 (Afd. 1) (1887) No. 1, 

10 pp. 

Foeppl, A. A. Ps. C. 33 (1888) 492-. 
(Foeppl.) Edlund, E. Stockh. Ofv. (1888) 

219-. 

Wesendonck, K. A. Ps. C. 35 (1888) 450-. 
(Edlund.) Foeppl, A. A. Ps. C. 35 (1888) 

834-. 
Moser, J. [1890] Wien Ak. Sb. 99 (1891) 

(Ab. 2a) 7-. 

Schuster, A. E. S. P. 47 (1890) 526-. 
Thomson, J. J. [1890-94] Nt. 42 (1890) 295, 

614 ; E. I. P. 14 (1896) 239-. 
Trowbridge, J. Am. J. Sc. 3 (1897) 343, 387-. 
Stark, J. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 439-. 
Cathode dark space, origin. Ebert, H. A. Ps. 

C. 69 (1899) 200-. 
, disintegration in rarefied air. Granqvist, 

G. Stockh. Ofv. (1898) 709-. 



685 



5685 Rarefied Gas 



Electric Arc 



5685 



Cathode potential fall. Gapstick, J. W. B. 

S. P. 63 (1898) 356-. 
, sodium in Geissler tubes. Warburg, 

E. A. Ps. C. 40 (1890) 1-. 
Conductivity and specific inductive capacity of 

rarefied air. Moser, J. C. E. 110 (1890) 

635-. 
Crookes's layer, experiment to show polarisation 

of gas in. Fitzgerald, G. F. Dubl. S. Sc. 

P. 1 (1878) 117-. 
Discharge through argon and helium. Strutt, 

(Hon.) R. J. Ph. Mg. 49 (1900) 293-. 
Electric evaporation. Crookes, W. [1891] B. 

S. P. 50 (1892) 88-. 

intensity and conductivity, variation along 
discharge. Wilson, H. A. Ph. Mg. 49 (1900) 
505-. 

Electro-chemical polarity of gases, including 

striae in discharges. Grove, W. E. Phil. 

Trans. (1852) 87-. 
Electrode radiant matter. Puluj, J. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 81 (1880) (Ab. 2) 864-; 83 (1881) 

(Ab. 2) 402-, 696-; 85 (1882) (Ab. 2) 871-. 
Experiments. Schuster, A. Elect. 19 (1887) 

352-; Nt. 42 (1890) 591-. 
Glow discharge, anode potential fall. Skinner, 

C.A. A. Ps. C. 68 (1899) 752-. 
, cathode potential fall. Warburg, E. A. 

Ps. C. 31 (1887) 545-. 
from high frequency currents. Ebert, 

H. A. Ps. C. 69 (1899) 372-. 

, positive part, potential gradient in. 
Herz, A. A. Ps. C. 54 (1895) 244-. 

Molecules, lines of pressure and trajectory. 

Crookes, W. [1878] Phil. Trans. 170 (1879) 

135- ; C. B. 88 (1879) 174-. 
Potential fall at anode in Geissler tubes. 

Skinner, C. A. Am. As. P. (1899) 112-. 

gradient in dark space of vacuum tubes. 
Skinner, C. A. Ph. Mg. 50 (1900) 563-. 

Geissler tubes. Graham, W. P. A. 

Ps. C. 64 (1898) 49-. 
, least value to produce spark in some gases. 

Strutt, (Hon.) E. J. [1899] Phil. Trans. 

(A) 193 (1900) 377-. 
Pressure at which electric strength of gas is 

minimum. Thomson, J. J. Camb. Ph. S. 

P. 7 (1892) 330. 

ELECTRIC ABC. 
(See also 6830.) 

Luggin, H. [1889] Wien Ak. Sb. 98 (1890) 

(Ab. 2a) 1192-. 
(Luggin.) Uppenborn,. F. Exner Bpm. 27 

(1891) 99-. 
Ayrton, (Mrs.) H. Elect. 34 (1895) 335-, 364-, 

399-, 471-, 541-, 610- ; 35 (1895) 418-, 635-, 

743- ; 36 (1896) 36-, 225-, 539-. 
alternate current. Blondel, A. C. B. 127 

(1898) 1016-. 
, between different electrodes, apparent 

continuous currents in. Eichberg, F., < 

Kallir, L. Wien Ak. Sb. 107 (1898) (Ab. 

2a) 657-. 
, metals and carbon. Blondel, A. C. 

B. 128 (1899) 727-. 



alternate current, oscillograph study. Duddell, 
W., (& Mar chant, E. W. I. Elect. E. J. 28 
(1899) 1-, 450-, 455-. 

carbon, electric properties of vapour from. 
Merritt, E., & Stewart, 0. M. Ps. Ev. 7 

(1898) 129-. 

discharge between electrodes at different tem- 
peratures in air and in high vacua. Fleming, 
J.A. B. S. P. 47 (1890) 118-. 

effect of metals on arc discharge in gases. 
Wurts, A. J. Lum. Elect. 45 (1892) 79-. 

between electrodes of mercury, amalgams and 
alloys. Arons, L. A. Ps. C. 58 (1896) 73-. 

E.M.F., inverse. Cross, C. E., & Shepard, 
W. E. Am. Ac. P. 22 (1887) 227-. 

, . Duncan, L., Rowland, A. J., & Todd, 

B. J. Elect. 31 (1893) 360-. 

, measurement. Lang, V. von. Wien Ak. 
Sb. 91 (1885) (Ab. 2) 844- ; 95 (1887) (Ab. 2) 

, new, in. Edlund, E. Stockh. Ofv. 25 

(1868) 3-; Ph. Mg. 36 (1868) 352-. 
experimental proof that electric spark is an 

electromotor. Edlund, E. Stockh. Ofv. 

25 (1868) 327-; Ph. Mg. 37 (1869) 41-. 
experiments. Luggin, H. Wien Ak. Sb. 96 

(1888) (Ab. 2) 759-. 
hissing. Ayrton, (Mrs.) H. I. Elect. E. J. 28 

(1899) 400-, 438-. 

resistance. Frolich, 0. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 

4 (1883) 150-. 
rotation. Trotter, A. P. B. S. P. 56 (1894) 

262-. 
and spark, E.M.F. in. Lecher, E. A. Ps. C. 

33 (1888) 609-. 
temperature. Violle, J. C. B. 115 (1892) 

1273-. 
, effect of gas pressure. Wilson, W. E. B. 

S. P. 58 (1895) 174-. 
, . Wilson, W. E., & FitzGerald, 

G.F. [1896] B. S. P. 60 (1897) 377- 

MAGNETIC FIELD. 

discharge of electricity through gases in. 

Schuster, A. E. S. P. 47 (1890) 526-. 
electric conduction of flames in. Marx, E. 

Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 374-. 
motion of charged ion in. Thomson, J. J. 

[1899] Camb. Ph. S. P. 10 (1900) 49-. 
resistance of gases in. Witz, A. J. de Ps. 10 

(1891) 68-. 

PROPERTIES OF GASES IN CON- 
DUCTING STATE. 

Hittorf, W. A. Ps. C. 136 (1869) 1-, 197- ; 

(Jubelbd.) (1874) 430-. 
Action of partial heating of a gas carryingj a 

current. Stark, J. A. Ps. 3 (1900) 221-. 
Air. Gaugain, J. M. C. B. 41 (1855) 152-. 
, atmospheric. Heydweiller, A. A. Ps. C. 

69 (1899) 531-. 
Discharge in air, certain forms. Wright, A. W. 

Am. J. Sc. 1 (1871) 437-. 
gases. Wiedemann, E. E. G. A. Ps. 

C. 20 (1883) 756- ; Ph. Mg. 18 (1884) 35-, 
85-. 



5685 Electricity of Flames 

Discharge in gases. Goldhammer,M. Es. Ps.-C. 
S. J. 16 (Ps.) (1884) 325-; J. de Ps. 4 (1885) 
596-. 

, action on glowing platinum strip. 
Wesendonck, K. A. Ps. C. 26 (1885) 81-. 

and flames. Wiedemann, E., & Ebert, 

H. A. Ps. C. 35 (1888) 209-. 

rays, gases exposed to. Thomson, J. J. 
[1899] Camb. Ph. S. P. 10 (1900) 74-. 

Electric inertia and inertia of electric con- 
vection. Schuster, A. [1900] L. Ps. S. P. 
17 (1901) 631-. 

Electrolytic conduction in gases at critical 
point. Hagenbach, A. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 481-. 



Flames. 

Eiess, P. Pogg. A. 71 (1847) 568- ; 73 (1848) 

307- ; 74 (1848) 580-. 
Hankel, W. G. Pogg. A. 81 (1850) 213-. 
Buff, H. Lieb. A. 80 (1851) 1- ; 90 (1854) 1-. 
Matteucci, C. Ph. Mg. 8 (1854) 399-. 
Grove, W. E. Ph. Mg. 8 (1854) 403-. 
Trowbridge, J. Am. J. Sc. 4 (1872) 4-. 
Hoppe, E. A. Ps. C. 2 (1877) 83-. 
Herwig, H. A. Ps. C. 4 (1878) 460-. 
Holtz, W. Carl Kpm. 17 (1881) 269-, 333. 
Elster, J., (& Geitel, H. A. Ps. C. 16 (1882) 

193-, 711. 

Kollert, J. A. Ps. C. 21 (1884) 244-. 
(Kollert.) Elster, J., d- Geitel, H. A. Ps. C. 

22 (1884) 123-. 
(Elster and Geitel.) Kollert, J. A. Ps. C. 22 

(1884) 456-. 
Maclean, M., & Goto, M. Ph. Mg. 30 (1890) 

188-. 

Olearski, K. Kosmos (Lw.) 17 (1892) 391-. 
Pettinelli, P. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 5 (1896) 

(Sem. 1) 118-. 
action on electricity. Petrina, F. A. Pogg. 

A. 56 (1842) 459-. 
of alcohol. Hankel, W. G. [1859] Leip. Ab. 

Mth. Ps. 5 (1861) 1-. 
and bones and vacuum. Erman, P. Gilbert 

A. 11 (1802) 143-. 
containing salt vapours. Wilson, H. A. Phil. 

Trans. (A) 192 (1899) 499-. 

, conductivity and luminosity. 
Smithells, A., Dawson, H. M., & Wilson, 
H. A. [1899] Phil. Trans. (A) 193 (1900) 
89-. 

discharge by. Bonny castle, C. QJ. Sc. (1829) 

(Pt. 1) 134-. 
. Worthington, A. M. B. A. Ep. (1889) 

225-. 

. Villari, E. Nap. Ed. 35 (1896) 234-. 

electric conduction between a point and a 

flame. Asperen, K. Stockh. Ak. Hndl. 

Bh. 13 (Afd. 1) (1888) No. 11, 22 pp. 
and gases. Grove, W. B. E. I. P. 1 (1851- 

54) 359-; B. A. Ep. (1853) (Pt. 2) 42. 
. Hemptinne, A. de. Z. Ps. C. 12 (1893) 

244-. 

heated air. Andrews, T. Ph. Mg. 9 
(1836) 176-. 

phenomena. Holtz, W. A. Ps. C. 12 (1881) 
661-. 



Electricity of Hot Gases 5685 

phenomena accompanying combustion. Gau- 

gain, J. M. C. E. 38 (1854) 731-. 
unipolar conduction. Schweigger, J. S. C. 

Schweigger J. 12 (1814) 77-. 

. Braun, F. A. Ps. C. 3 (1878) 436-. 

, actual and so-called. Herwig, H. A. 

Ps. C. 1 (1877) 516-. 
volta-convection by. Thomson, (Sir) W. B. 

A. Ep. 37 (1867) (Sect.) 17-. 

Hot Gases. 

Becquerel, E. C. B. 37 (1853) 20- ; A. C. 39 

(1853) 355-. 

Blondlot, R. C. E. 92 (1881) 870-. 
Buchanan, J. Ph. Mg. 24 (1887) 297-. 
Thomson, J. J. Ph. Mg. 29 (1890) 358-, 441- ; 

31 (1891) 135-. 

Arrhenius, S. Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 415-. 
Thomson, J. J. Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 515. 
Pringsheim, E. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1895) 331- ; 

A. Ps. C. 55 (1895) 507-. 
Pettinelli, P., <& Marolli, G. B. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Ed. 5 (1896) (Sem. 2) 136-. 
air. Blondlot, R. As. Fr. C. E. (1886) (Pt. 1) 

102 ; Nancy S. Sc. Bll. (1886) (Fate. 20) 

xm ; J. de Ps. 6 (1887) 109-. 
. Cardani, P. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 4 

(1888) (Sem. 1) 44-. 
. Chessin, M. S. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 31 (Ps.) 

(1899) 6-; J. de Ps. 9 (1900) 58-. 

from arc and from incandescent metals. 

McClelland, J. A. [1899] Camb. Ph. S. P. 

10 (1900) 241-. 
flame gases. Giese, W. A. Ps. C. 17 (1882) 

1-, 236-, 519- ; 38 (1889) 403-. 
. McClelland, J. A. Ph. Mg. 46 (1898) 

29-. 
Wesendonck, K. A. Ps. C. 66 (1898) 

121-. 

, polarisation phenomena in. Auren, 
T. E. Stockh. Ofv. (1899) 583-. 

, potential fall and dissociation in. 
Marx, E. Gott. Nr. (1900) 34-; A. Ps. 2 

(1900) 768-. 

incandescent. Becquerel, E. C. E. 65 (1867) 

1097-. 
salt vapours. Arrhenius, S. [1890] Stockh. 

Ak. Hndl. Bh. 16 (Afd. 1) (1891) No. 9, 58 pp. 
in Bunsen flame. Arrhenius, S. [1890- 

91] \Vien Ak. Sb. 99 (1891) (Ab. 2a) 734- ; 

Lum. Elect. 39 (1891) 501-. 
surrounding wire heated to red heat by current. 

Vicentini, G. N. Cim. 34 (1893) 226-. 

. Vicentini, G., & 

Cinelli, M. N. Cim. 36 (1894) 297-. 

unipolar conduction. Elster, J., & Geitel, H. 
A. Ps. C. 26 (1885) 1-. 

Ions produced in gases by Eontgen rays, velocity 
and rate of recombination. Rutherford, E. 
Ph. Mg. 44 (1897) 422-. 

by radio-active substances, ultra-violet 

light and point discharge, diffusion. Towns- 
end, J. S. [1900] Phil. Trans. (A) 195 

(1901) 259-. 

, velocity and mass, in electric wind in air. 
Cliattock, A. P. Ph. Mg. 48 (1899) 401-. 



687 



5685 Ratio of Ionic Charge to Mass 



Spark Discharge 5685 



Nitrogen peroxide. Hempel, C. E. 62 
(1866) 58. 

Ozonised air, conduction, and ozone formation 
by hot platinum. Elster, J., & Geitel, H. 
A. Ps. C. 39 (1890) 321-. 

Photoelectric phenomena. Schweidler, E. 
(Bitter) von. Wien Ak. Sb. 107 (1898) 
(Ab. 2o) 881- ; 108 (1899) (Ab. 2o) 273-. 

Eontgen rays. Thomson, J. J. Nt. 53 (1895- 
96) 581-. 

, convection currents and electrode poten- 
tial fall in conduction produced by. Zeleny, 
J. [1898] Camb. Ph. S. P. 10 (1900) 14-. 

, discharge, potential gradient at metal 

electrodes during. Child, C. D. A. Ps. C. 
65 (1898) 152-. 

, electrification of gases exposed to, and 

absorption of Eontgen radiation by gases 
and vapours. Rutherford, E. Ph. Mg. 43 
(1897) 241-. 

, passage of electricity through gases 
exposed to. Thomson, J. J., & Rutherford, 
E. Ph. Mg. 42 (1896) 392-. 

Uranium rays, conduction produced by. 
Rutherford, E. Ph. Mg. 47 (1899) 109-. 

RATIO OF CHARGE TO MASS. 

Canal rays. Wehnelt, A. A. Ps. C. 67 (1899) 

421-. 
Cathode rays. Simon, S. A. Ps. C. 69 (1899) 

589-. 
, behaviour in electric field. Lenard, F. 

Mth. Termt. Ets. 16 (1898) 266- ; Mth. Nt. 

B. Ung. 16 (1899) 194-. 
, electrostatic properties. Lenard, P. A. 

Ps. C. 64 (1898) 279-. 

, magnetic deviation. Kaufmann, W. 
A. Ps. C. 61 (1897) 544- ; 62 (1897) 596-. 

, and velocity, experiments. 
Wiechert, E. A. Ps. C. 69 (1899) 739-. 

, and electrostatic deviation. Kauf- 
mann, W. A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 431-. 

, production by ultra-violet rays. Lenard, 

P. Wien Ak. Sb. 108 (1899) (Ab. 2a) 1649-. 

Discharge in gases. Schuster, A. A. Ps. C. 
24 (1885) 74- ; E. S. P. 42 1887) 371- ; 47 
(1890) 526-. 

rarefied gases. Wien, W. A. Ps. C. 65 

(1898) 440-. 

. Finnegan, J. Belfast NH. S. 

Ep. & P. (1898-99) 68-. 

Electrolytic conduction. Hagenbach, A. Arch. 
Sc. Ps. Nt. 10 (1900) 449-. 

Ions in gases at low pressure , masses. Thomson, 
J. J. Ph. Mg. 48 (1899) 547-. 

SPARK DISCHARGE. 
(See also 6820.) 

Tdpler, A. A. Ps. C. 131 (1867) 33-, 180- ; 

134 (1868) 194-. 

Meissner, G. [1871] Gott. Ab. 16 (1872) 98-. 
Hittorf, W. A. Ps. C. 7 (1879) 553-, 671 ; 20 

(1883) 705- ; 21 (1884) 90-. 
Natterer, K. Wien Ak. Sb. 98 (1890) (Ab. 2a) 

990- ; Mh. C. (1889)605-. 



Schuster, A. Ph. Mg. 29 (1890) 182-. 
Mohler, J. F. Asps. J. 4 (1896) 175-. 
Exner, F., & Haschek, E. Wien Ak. Sb. 106 

(1897) (Ab. 2a) 1127-. 
Heydweiller, A. A. Ps. C. 61 (1897) 541-. 
Humphreys, W. J. Asps. J. 6 (1897) 169-. 
action of light. Wiedemann, E., <& Ebert, H. 

Erlang. Ps. Md. S. Sb. [19] (1888) 39-; 

A. Ps. C. 33 (1888) 241-. 
. Warburg, E. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1896) 

223-. 
rapid potential changes. Jaumann, G. 

[1888] Wien Ak. Sb. 97 (1889) (Ab. 2a) 765-. 

ultra-violet light. Hertz, H. Berl. Ak. 
Sb. (1887) 487- ; A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 983-. 

water-vapour. Thomson, J. J. Ph. Mg. 

36 (1893) 313-. 
in argon and helium. Collie, J. N., & Ramsay, 

W. E. S. P. 59 (1896) 257-. 
brush discharge. Harvey, W. H., & Hird, F. 

Ph. Mg. 36 (1893) 45-. 

, experiments. Cook, E. H. Ph. Mg. 
47 (1899) 40-. 

of condenser in air. Heydweiller, A. A. Ps. 

C. 43 (1891) 310-. 
, heat evolved. Villari, E. Bologna Ed. 

(1879) 143-. 
, . Kaufmann, W. A. Ps. C. 60 

(1897) 653-. 
dielectric strength of gases. Chrystal, G. 

Edinb. E. S. P. 11 (1882) 487-. 
difference between positive and negative elec- 
tricity. Wesendonck, K. A. Ps. C. 38 

(1889) 222-. 
electric strength of gases, effect of pressure 

and temperature. Thomson, J. J. Camb. 

Ph. S. P. 6 (1889) 325-. 
through hydrogen and other gases. Villari, E. 

Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 5 (1889) (Sem. 1) 730-. 
induction apparatus, phenomena in. Johnson, 

K. R. A. Ps. 3 (1900) 438-, 744-. 
. spark, thermal phenomena. Poggendorff, 

J. C. Berl. B. (1855) 127-. 
, . Naccari, A. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 

17 (1881) 343-. 
in insulators. Rontgen, W. C. Gott. Nr. 

(1878) 390-. 
internal discharge of condensers. Villari, E. 

Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 2 (1880) 101- ; C. E. 

92 (1881) 872-. 
latent period. Warburg, E. Berl. Ak. Sb. 

(1897) 128-. 

laws, thermal and electric. Villari, E. Bo- 
logna Ac. Sc. Mm. 10 (1879) 147- ; C. E. 

88 (1879) 706-. 
magnetic behaviour of discharges in air. 

Precht, J. A. Ps. C. 66 (1898) 676-. 
phenomena. Hertz, H. R. A. Ps. C. 19 (1883) 

78-. 
point discharge. Sieveking, H. A. Ps. 1 (1900) 

299-. 
, absolute measurement. Precht, J. A. 

Ps. C. 49 (1893) 150-. 
in different gases at varying pressures. 

Obermayer, A. von. Wien Ak. Sb. 100 (1891) 

(Ab. 2a) 127-. 
of high frequency currents. Himstedt, F. 

A. Ps. C. 68 (1899) 294-. 



5685 Spark Potential 



Theory of Conduction in Gases 5685 



point discharge, rate of production. Warburg, 

E. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1898) 236-; A. Ps. C. 

67 (1899) 69- ; A. Ps. 2 (1900) 295-. 
through rarefied gases, heating effect. Bellati, 

M., (& Naccari, A. Yen. I. At. 4 (1878) 

1227-. 
relation between atom and charge of electricity 

carried by it. Thomson, J. J. Ph. Mg. 40 

(1895) 537-. 
Bontgen rays and other agents, condensation 

nuclei produced in gases by. Wilson, C. T. R. 

[1898] Phil. Trans. (A) 192 (1899) 439-. 
with silver chloride battery, experiments. De 

la Rue, W., & Milller, H. W. [1877-80] 

Phil. Trans. 169 (1878) 55- ; C. B. 85 (1877) 

791- ; Phil. Trans. 169 (1878) 155- ; C. B. 

86 (1878) 1072- ; E. S. P. 29 (1879) 281- ; 

30 (1880) 563-; Phil. Trans. 171 (1880) 65-; 

C. E. 89 (1879) 637-. 
spark, constitution. Schuster, A., <& Hemsalech, 

G. [1899] Phil. Trans. (A) 193 (1900) 189-. 
length of condenser. Villari, E. Em. E. 

Ac. Line. Mm. 13 (1882) 274-; C. E. 94 

(1882) 1350-. 
, origin. Walter, B. A. Ps. C. 66 (1898) 

636- ; 68 (1899) 776-. 



Spark Potential. 

Orgler, A. A. Ps. 1 (1900) 159-. 

in air, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Paschen, 

F. A. Ps. C. 37 (1889) 69-. 
critical. Bouty, . C. E. 131 (1900) 443-, 

469-, 503-. 
, in air and other gases. Liebig, G. A. Ph. 

Mg. 24 (1887) 106-. 
for given lengths. Bailie, J. B. C. E. 94 

(1882) 38- ; A. C. 25 (1882) 486-. 
inconstancy. Jaumann, G. Wien Ak. Sb. 

104 (1895) (Ab. 2a) 7-. 
or constancy. Johnson, K. R. A. Ps. 3 

(1900) 461-. 
least value in some gases. Strutt, (Hon.) R. J. 

[1899] Phil. Trans. (A) 193 (1900) 377-. 
between plates in air. Thomson, (Sir) W. E. 

S. P. 10 (1859-60) 326-. 
. Peace, J. B. E. S. P. 52 (1892) 

99-. 

spark, pressure in. Haschek, E., & Mache, H. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 107 (1898) (Ab. 2a) 1253-. 
, temperature. Paalzow, A. [1865] A. Ps. 

C. 127 (1866) 126-. 
, . Dewar, J. Edinb. E. S. P. 7 (1872) 

699. 
Tesla currents, experiments. Himstedt, F. 

[1894] Giessen Oberh. Gs. B. 30 (1895) 

tube of fused rock caused by lightning flash. 

Rollmann, W. A. Ps. C. 134 (1868) 605-. 
velocity and mass of ions in electric wind in 

air. Chattock, A. P. Ph. Mg. 48 (1899) 

401-. 



THEORY OF CONDUCTION THROUGH 
IONISED GASES. 

Riihlmann, R., & Wiedemann, G. Leip. B. 23 

(1871) 333-. 
Schuster, A. [1877] Camb. Ph. S. P. 3 (1880) 

Edlund, E. [1881] Stockh. Ak. Hndl. Bh. 6 

(1882) No. 7, 16 pp. 
Stenger, F. A. Ps. C. 25 (1885) 31-. 
Edlund, E. Stockh. Ofv. (1886) 303- ; Lum. 

Elect. 23 (1887) 551-. 
Home-n, T. Helsingf. Acta 16 (1888) 107- ; 

17 (1891) 15-. 

Narr, F. A. Ps. C. 33 (1888) 295-. 
(Narr.) Nahrwold, R. A. Ps. C. 34 (1888) 

170-. 

Schuster, A. B. A. Ep. (1889) 510. 
Lehmann, 0. Z. Ps. C. 18 (1895) 97- ; Z. 

Elektch. (1895-96) 463-, 477-. 
Paalzow, H., & Neesen, F. A. Ps. C. 56 (1895) 

276-, 700-. 

Thomson, J. J. Ph. Mg. 47 (1899) 253-. 
Kaufmann, W. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 348-. 
Stark, J. [1900] Ps. Z. 2 (1901) 4-. 
Air. Waha, M. de. [1880] Lux. I. Pb. 18 

(1881) 15-. 
, experiments. Borgman, I. Es. Ps.-C. S. 

J. 18 (Ps.) (1886) 216- ; 19 (Ps.) (1887) 297-; 

Lum. Elect. 22 (1886) 193-, 246- ; 27 (1888) 

70-, 126-, 182-. 
Compressed gases. Villari, E. Mil. I. Lomb. 

Ed. 3 (1870) 594-. 
Continuous conduction. Braun, F. Z. Ps. 

C. 13 (1894) 155-. 
Current, steady, change of conductivity by. 

Stark, J. A. Ps. 2 (1900) 62-. 
Currents, crossed, investigation of conductivity 

by. Stark, J. A. Ps. 3 (1900) 492- ; Ps. Z. 

1 (1900) 432-. 
, induction- , passage through gases. Edlund, 

E. Stockh. Ofv. 26 (1869) 691- ; Arch. Sc. 

Ps. Nt. 39 (1870) 5-. 
Discharge. Lehmann, 0. A. Ps. C. 11 (1880) 

686- ; D. Nf. B. (1883) 59- ; A. Ps. C. 22 

(1884) 305-. 

. Thomson, J. J. Ph. Mg. 15 (1883) 427-. 
. Schuster, A. E. S. P. 37 (1884) 317-, 

495. 

. Foeppl, A. A. Ps. C. 34 (1888) 222-. 
. Wdchter, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 99 (1891) 

(Ab. 2a) 230-. 

in air. Toepler, M. A. Ps. 2 (1900) 560-. 
and gases, nature. Trowbridge, J. 

Am. Ac. P. 33 (1898) 433-. 
, connection with chemical combination. 

Thomson, J. J. B. A. Ep. (1894) 482-. 
, electrodynamic theory. Kaufmann, W. 

Gott. Nr. (1899) 243-. 

with high frequency alternating currents. 
Ebert, H. A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 761-. 

, invisible phenomena. Ebert, H. [1898] 

Munch. Ak. Sb. 28 (1899) 497-. 
, potential fall in gases during. Heydweiller, 

A. Wiirzb. Ps. Md. Sb. (1889)152-; A. Ps. 

C. 40 (1890) 464-; 48 (1893) 213-. 



689 



5695 



Measurement of Electromotive Force Cells 5695 



Discharge in rarefied gases. Pflaum, H. Riga 

Cor.-Bl. 39 (1896) 54-. 
Electrolytic conduction in rarefied gases. 

Bouty, E. C. E. 129 (1899) 152-. 
Laws. Wiedemann, G. H. Leip. Mth. Ps. 

B. 28 (1876) 1-; Ph. Mg. 3 (1877) 161-. 

. Comakion, F. M. Kazan S. Nt. T. 13 

(No. 1) (1884) 106 pp. ; Fschr. Ps. (1884) 

(Ab. 2) 811-. 
Luminosity of gases. Stark, J. Ps. Z. 1 

(1900) 396-. 
Unipolar conduction. Branly, E. C. R. 114 

(1892) 831-, 1531- ; 115 (1892) 76. 
(Branly). Elster, J., & Geitel, H. A. 

Ps. C. 48 (1893) 738-. 
in gaseous strata. Braun, F. A. Ps. 

C. 154 (1875) 481-. 

rarefied gases. Elster, J., & Geitel, 

H. A. Ps. C. 38 (1889) 27-, 676. 

discharge. Schweidler, E. (Eitter) von. 
Wien Ak. Sb. 108 (1899) (Ab. 2a) 899-. 



5695 Measurement of Electro- 
motive Force. 

Buff, H. Pogg. A. 73 (1848) 497-. 
Regnauld, J. C. R. 38 (1854) 38-. 
Bosscha, J. Pogg. A. 94 (1855) 172-. 
Begnauld, J. A. C. 44 (1855) 453-. 
Hankel, W. G. Leip. B. 13 (1861) 1- ; (vi 

Adds.) Leip. Ab. Mth. Ps. 6 (1864) 1- ; (vn) 

Leip. B. 16 (1864) 32- ; Leip. Ab. Mth. Ps. 

7 (1865) 585-. 

Hoorweg, J. L. A. Ps. C. 127 (1866) 140-. 
Barker, G. F. Am. Ph. S. P. 20 (1883) 

649-. 

Cabanellas, G. C. R. 97 (1883) 575-. 
Beynier, E. C. R. 97 (1883),1056-. 
Dohndnyi, F. Orv.-Termt. Ets. (Termt. Szak) 

(1888) 271-, 289- 

Rothen, . J. Tel. 13 (1889) 269-. 
Pagliani, S. Gz. C. It. 21 (1891) (Pt. 1) 

449-. 
Richards, T. W., & Lewis, G. N. Am. Ac. 

P. 34 (1899) 85-. 
Absolute electrostatic measurement. Minchin, 

G. M. Nt. 25 (1882) 278-. 

measurement. Weber, H. F. Ziir. Vjschr. 
22 (1877) 273-. 

, direct method. Limb, C. C. R. 118 

(1894) 1198- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1895) 189- ; 
A. C. 8 (1896) 145-. 

, voltametric method. Dobrzynski, F. 
(xn) Krk. Ak. (Mt.-Prz.) Rz. & Sp. 10 
(1883) 198-. 

CELLS. 

Jacobi, M. H. Pogg. A. 57 (1842) 85-. 
Poggendor/, J. C. Berl. B. (1846) 242-. 
Singer, H. Wien SB. (1851) (Ab. 2) 411-. 
Raynaud, J. C. R. 65 (1867) 170-. 
Militzer, H. Wien Ak. Sb. 59 (1869) (Ab. 2) 

472-. 
Lacoine, E. [1873] J. Tel. 2 (1872-74) 196-. 



Naccari, A. Yen. I. At. 3 (1873-74) 631-. 
Fahie, J. J. Tel. J. 3 (1875) 249-. 
Kulp, L. Arch. Mth. Ps. 59 (1876) 103-. 
Bailie, J. B. C. R. 92 (1881) 32-. 
(Fuchs's method.) Guglielmo, G. (xn) Rv. 

Sc.-Ind. 13 (1881) 282-. 
Guglielmo, G. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 18 (1882) 

485-. 

Minet, A. Lum. Elect. 11 (1884) 269-. 
Bernstein, A. Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 52-. 
Speyers, C. L. Am. As. P. (1890) 164. 
Hittorf, W. Z. Ps. C. 10 (1892) 593-. 
Negreanu, D. [Bucarest S. Sc. Bl. 5 (1896)] 

111-, 
absolute measurement of E.M.F. Crova, A. 

C. R. 78 (1874) 965-. 
. Bailie, J. B. As. Fr. C. R. 9 

(1880) 351-. 
with ammonium amalgam. Pocklington, 

H. C. Elect. 41 (1898) 457-. 
application of deci-ampere or centi-ampere 

balance. Thomson, (Sir) W. Ph. Mg. 24 

(1887)514-; 25(1888) 164. 
Ohm's method. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] 

C. R. 52 (1861) 242-. 
torsion balance. Bailie, J. B. A. C. 

23 (1881) 269-. 
comparison of E.M.F. of two batteries. Peirce, 

B. 0. Am. Ac. P. 12 (1877) 137-. 
copper-zinc. Fuchs, F. A. Ps. C. 11 (1880) 

795-. 
, variation with temperature. Roberts, 

M. J. [1838] (vi Adds.) Electr. S. P. 

(1837-40) 138-. 
Daniell's. Thomson, (Sir) W. R. S. P. 10 

(1859-60) 319-. 
. Goure de Villemontee, G. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1890) 185-. 
, absolute measurement of E.M.F. Walten- 

hofen, A. von, A. Ps. C. 133 (1868) 462-. 
galvanometric measurement of E.M.F. Minet, 

A. Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 182-. 
of gold and of platinum. Herroun, E. F. L. 

Ps. S. P. 11 (1892) 332-; Ph. Mg. 33 (1892) 

516-. 
gravitation-, Colley's. Des Coudres, T. A. Ps. 

C. 57 (1896) 232-. 

Grove's, E.M.F. in units of Siemens and 
Weber. Riecke, C. V. E. A. Ps. C. 8 (1879) 
183-. 

inconstant. Poggendor/, J. C. Pogg. A. 54 
(1841) 161-. 

Braun, F. A. Ps. C. 44 (1891) 510-. 
liquid. Paalzow, C. A. A. Ps. C. (Jubelbd.) 

(1874) 643-. 

with different liquids. Leithead, W. [1838] 
(vi Adds.) Electr. S. P. (1837-40) 140-. 

1 metal and 2 liquids. Rees, R. van. Amst. 
Ts. Ws. Nt. Wet. 4 (1851) 270-. 

and of metals in contact. Pellat, H. Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1880) 18-. 
of metals, platinum, and nitric acid. Burch, 

G. J., d- Veley, V. H. [1890] Phil. Trans. 

(A) 182 (1892) 319-. 
method of increasing E.M.F. Poggendorff, 

J. C. Berl. B. (1843) 291-. 
with moving plates. Laurie, A. P. Ph. Mg. 

21 (1886) 409-. 



690 



5695 Standard Cells 

oxidation- and reduction-, influence of com- 
plex ions. Peters, R. Z. Ps. C. 26 (1898) 
193-. 

polarisable. Noaillon, A. H. Lum. Elect. 11 
(1884) 186-. 

with solid dry electrolytes. Negbaur, W. A. 
Ps. C. 47 (1892) 27-. 

Standard Cells. 

Brit. Ass. Comm. B. A. Ep. (1881) 423-; 

(1882) 70- ; (1883) 41-. 
Reynier, E. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1883) 186-. 
Krebs, G. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1885-86) 

Minet, A. Lum. Elect. 22 (1886) 12-, 100-, 
160-, 203-. 

Gouy, . J. de Ps. 7 (1888) 532-. 

Pellat, . Lum. Elect. 33 (1889) 381-. 

Bailie, , & Fery, . J. de Ps. 9 (1890) 
234-. 

Limb, C. C. E. 121 (1895) 199-. 

Fisher, W. C. Elect. 39 (1897) 705-. 

Mclntosh, D. J. Ps. C. 2 (1898) 185-. 

Jaeger, W. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 805. 

automatic temperature compensation. Camp- 
bell, A. [1895-97] Elect. 35 (1895) 601- ; 
L. Ps. S. P. 16 (1899) 34- ; Ph. Mg. 45 (1898) 

comparison of Berlin standards with B. A. 

standards. Glazebrook, E. T. B. A. Ep. 

(1892) 154-. 
Daniell's. Lodge, 0. J. Ph. Mg. 5 (1878) 1- ; 

L. Ps. S. P. 2 (1879) 195-. 
. Fleming, J. A. L. Ps. S. P. 7 (1886) 

161- ; Ph. Mg. 20 (1885) 126-. 
. Burton, C. I. [1887] Edinb. E. S. P. 

14 (1888) 356-. 
, E.M.F. and concentration in. Carhart, 

H. S. Am. J. Sc. 28 (1884) 374-. 
, . Streintz, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 

103 (1894) (Ab. 2a) 98-. 
, form. Bering, C. Franklin I. J. 131 

(1891) 394-. 
, , simple. Grotrian, 0. Elekttech. Z. 

19 (1898) 561-. 
, temperature coefficient. Meyer, G. A. 

Ps. C. 33 (1888) 265-. 
Fleming's. Weber, C. L. Elekttech. Z. 12 

(1891) 181-. 

. Lindeck, S. Z. Instk. 12 (1892) 17-. 
mercury-zinc and mercury-cadmium. Jaeger, 

W., <& Kahle, K. Z. Instk. 18 (1898) 161-. 
and normal electrodes, practical form. Bose, 

E. Z. Elektch. (1899-1900) 457-. 
for small E.M.F. Negbaur, W. A. Ps. C. 44 

(1891) 767-. 
thermodynamics. Cohen, E. [1900] Amst. 

Ak. Vs. 8 (1900) 719- ; 9 (1901) 36-, 116- ; 

Amst. Ak. P. 2 (1900) 610- ; 3 (1901) 91-, 

208-. 
thermoelectric. Bagard, H. C. E. 113 (1891) 

849-. 

1-volt cell. Gaiffe, A. C. E. 101 (1885) 431-. 
. Carhart, H. S. Am. J. Sc. 46 (1893) 

60-. 
. Hibbert, W. Elect. 37 (1896) 320. 



Standard Cells: Clark Cell 5695 

zinc-alkali-copper. Van Dyck, F. C. Science 
5 (1885) 494. 

Standard Cells: Clark Cell. 

Clark, L. [1871-73] B. A. Ep. 41 (1871) 

(Sect.) 47-; E. S. P. 20 (1872) 444-; (ix) 

Phil. Trans. 164 (1874) 1-. 
Eayleigh, (Lord). B. A. Ep. (1884) 651- ; 

Phil. Trans. 176 (1886) 781-. 
Hoffert, H. H. Elect. 24 (1890) 327- 
Carhart, H. S. Elect. 24 (1890) 643. 
Glazebrook, R. T. B. A. Ep. (1892) 152-. 
Glazebrook, R. T., <& Skinner, S. [1892] 

Phil. Trans. (A) 183 (1893) 567-. 
Lindeck, S. Z. Instk. 12 (1892) 12-. 
Kahle, K. Z. Instk. 12 (1892) 117- ; 13 (1893) 

293-. 
Rogovskij, E. A. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 27 (Ps.) 

(1895) 261-. 

Dearlove, A. Elect. 40 (1.898) 386-. 
Carhart, H. S. Am. As. P. (1900) 71-. 
Guthe, K. E. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 235-. 
absolute E.M.F. Rayleigh, (Lord). B. S. P. 

36 (1884) 448-. 
. Rayleigh, (Lord), & Sidgwick, (Mrs.) 

H. [1884] Phil. Trans. 175 (1885) 411-. 
measurement of E.M.F. Carhart, H. S., <& 

Guthe, K. E. Ps. Ev. 9 (1899) 283-. 
. Mendenhall, T. C. Am. As. P. 

(1899) 91. 
application of electrodynamometer. Kahle, 

K. A. Ps. C. 59 (1896) 532-. 
and cadmium cell, comparison of E.M.F. 

Taylor, S. N. Ps. Ev. 7 (1898) 149-. 
closed. Wulf, T. . Wien Ak. Sb. 106 (1897) 

(Ab. 2a) 562-. 
construction. Muirhead, A. Elect. 17 (1886) 

490-. 
. Kahle, K. [1893] A. Ps. C. 51 (1894) 

203-. 
E.M.F. in terms of international volt. Perot, 

A.,(& Fabry, C. Mars. Fac. Sc. A. 8 (1898) 

201-. 
form. Negbaur, W. A. Ps. C. 44 (1891) 

765-. 

. Carhart, H. S. B. A. Ep. (1892) 138-. 
, Board of Trade, modification. Callendar, 

H. L., & Barnes, H. T. Elect. 39 (1897) 

638-. 
hermetically sealed type. Barnes, H. T. Ps. 

Ev. 10 (1900) 268-. 
with low temperature coefficient. Carhart, 

H. S. Am. J. Sc. 38 (1889) 402-. 
(Carhart). Rayleigh, (Lord). 

Elect. 24 (1890) 285. 
modification for electrometric measurements. 

Beetz, W. von. [1884] Munch. Ak. Sb. 14 

(1885 207-. 
portable. Carhart, H. S. Elect. 35 (1895) 

844. 
when producing current. Skinner, S. L. 

Ps. S. P. 13 (1895) 218- ; Ph. Mg. 38 

(1894) 271-. 
. Threlfall, R. Ph. Mg. 39 (1895) 

295-. 
. Skinner, S. Ph. Mg. 39 (1895) 

375-. 



691 



5695 Weston Standard Cell Measurement of Electromotive Force 5695 

pure mercurous sulphate for. Iwata, T. Tel. 



E. J. 10 (1881) 462-. 

as source of small constant currents. Threl- 

fall, E., & Pollock, A. L. Ps. S. P. 10 

(1890) 231- ; Ph. Mg. 28 (1889) 353-. 
standard currents. Threlfall, R. 

Aust. As. Kp. (1888) 110-. 
temperature coefficient. Dearlove, A. Tel. 

J. 19 (1886) 560-, 61 1-. 
thermodynamics. Helmholtz, H. L. F. von. 

Berl. Ak. Sb. (1882) 825-. 
transition of zinc sulphate in. Jaeger, W. A. 

Ps. C. 63 (1897) 354-. 
variation, causes. Swinburne, J. Elect. 27 

(1891) 500-. 

with temperature. Ayrton, W. E., & 

Cooper, W. E. [1895] E. S. P. 59 (1896) 

368-. 
. Spiers, F. S., Twyman, F., < 

Waters, W. L. [1897] L. Ps. S. P. 16 

(1899) 38- ; Ph. Mg. 45 (1898) 285-. 
and concentration. Callendar, H, L., 

<& Barnes, H. T. E. S. P. 62 (1898) 117-. 
(Callendar & Barnes). Kahle, 

K. A. Ps. C. 64 (1898) 92-. 
variations, minor. Trotter, A. P. L. Ps. S. 

P. 16 (1899) 496-. 
and Weston cell. Marek, W. A. Ps. 1 (1900) 

617-. 
zinc-mercury. Gouy, . C. E. 104 (1887) 

781-. 

Standard Cells: Weston Cell. 

Jaeger, W., & Wachsmuth, E. Elekttech. Z. 

15 (1894) 507- ; A. Ps. C. 59 (1896) 575-. 
Jaeger, W. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 647-, 

702. 

Henderson, J. Ph. Mg. 48 (1899) 152-. 
Barnes, H. T. J. Ps. C. 4 (1900) 339-. 
Cohen, E. [1900] Amst. Ak. Vs. 9 (1901) 

363- ; Amst. Ak. P. 3 (1901) 380-. 
Marek, W. A. Ps. 1 (1900) 617-. 
(Marek.) Cohen, E. A. Ps. 2 (1900) 863-. 
(Cohen.) Jaeger, W., & Lindeck, S. A. Ps. 

3 (1900) 366-. 
irregularities, near 0. Jaeger, W. Z. Instk. 

20 (1900) 317-. 
, cause. Cohen, E. Amst. Ak. Vs. 6 (1898) 

252. 
metastability, and unsuitability as standard. 

Cohen, E. [1900] Amst. Ak. Vs. 9 (1901) 

125- ; Amst. Ak. P. 3 (1901) 217-. 
physico-chemical studies. Kohnstamm, P., & 

Cohen, E. A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 344-. 
temperature coefficient. Dearlove, A. Elect. 

31 (1893) 645-. 

Chronographic, photographic records. Trow- 

bridge, J., <t Hayes, H. V. Am. J. Sc. 29 

(1885) 374-. 
Circuit. Haug,H. Am. J. Sc. 42 (1866) 381- ; 

43 (1867) 43-. 
Clark's method. Adams, W. G. Tel. E. J. 3 

(1874) 86-. 
Contact E.M.F.s, application of Eontgen rays 

to measurement. Perrin, J. C. E. 124 

(1897) 496-. 



Contact, two metals in. Pellat, H. C. E. 90 
(1880) 990-. 

, , measurement of E.M.F. by Peltier 

effect. Pellat, H. J. de Ps. 9 (1880) 122-. 

Decomposition of electrolyte, E.M.F. Ledeboer, 
P. H. Lum. Elect. 23 (1887) 356-. 

Decompositions, chemical, E.M.F. Cohen, E. 
Z. Ps. C. 14 (1894) 53-. 

Dynamo- and motor-capacities, relative, cal- 
culation. Adams, A. D. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 
572. 

Electrometer, Lippmann's, use. Morgan, 
J. L. E. Am. C. S. J. 22 (1900) 202-. 

Electrometric tension, and E.M.F. Kohlrausch, 
E. Pogg. A. 75 (1848) 220-. 

Electrostatic measurement. Thomson, (Sir) 
W. E. I. P. 12 (1889) 561-. 

Frictional and galvanic electricity, quantitative 
comparison in regard to tension. Nystrom, 
C. A. Stockh. Ofv. 33 (1876) No. 6, 61-; A. 
Ps. C. Beibl. 1 (1877) 139-. 

Galvanometer method. Kohlrausch, W. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 7 (1886) 273-. 

Graphic method of determination of E.M.F. 
from tension curve. Fleischmann, L. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 18 (1897) 35. 

High E.M.F. Leake, H. C., Leventhorpe, E., 
& Whitehead, C. S. [1895] E. S. P. 59 

(1896) 155-. 

. Peukert, W. Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 

657-. 

, measurement by low potential instru- 
ments. Barnett, S. J. Elect. Ev. 44 (1899) 
9-. 

, , rapid. Arnoux, E. Tel. E. J. 13 

(1884) 476-. 
Low E.M.F. Becquerel, E. C. E. 70 (1870) 

74-. 
Mechanical effect, applications of principle. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. Ph. Mg. 2 (1851) 551-. 
Mercury, abnormal E.M.F. Brandenburg, H. 

Z. Ps. C. 11 (1893) 552-. 

and electrolytes. Blondlot, E., & Bichat, 
E. Z. Ps. C. 2 (1888) 98-. 

Metals. Schuller, A. Mth. Nt. B. Ung. 18 

(1903) 1-. 
Null method. Larsen, A. N. Ts. Fs. K. 2 

(1897) 354-. 

Oscillations, instrument for measuring E.M.F. 

in. Graetz, L., & Fomm, L. [1893] Munch. 

Ak. Sb. 23 (1894) 245-. 
Periodic E.M.F., instantaneous value. Mershon, 

R. D. Elect. 27 (1891) 561. 
Poggendorff's method. Guerout,A. Lum. Elect. 

5 (*1881) 407-, 428. 

Potentiometer and electrometer methods, com- 
parison. Uljanin, W. von. A. Ps. C. 27 

(1886) 657-. 
, new, and model of standard cell. Mauri, A. 

Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 30 (1897) 439-. 
Salts, insoluble and complex. Zengelis, K. 

Z. Ps. C. 12 (1893) 298-. 
Secondary wire, use to measure relative tension. 

Draper, J. W. Ph. Mg. 15 (1839) 266-, 

339-. 
Substances, various, experiments. Cito, M. 

Palomba Eac. 1 (1845) 321-. 



692 



5700 



Measurements of Continuous Currents 



5700 



Telephonic measurements. Barus, C. Ph. 

Mg. 38 (1894) 558-; Am. J. Sc. 48 (1894) 

346. 
Wheatstone's bridge, use. Paalzow, A. A. 

Ps. C. 135 (1868) 326-. 



5700 Measurements of Continuous 
Currents (Strength, Consump- 
tion of Energy, etc.). 

(See also 6010.) 

Nobili, L. A. C. 43 (1830) 146-. 

Pinaud, A. [1839] Toul. Mm. Ac. 6 (1843) 

4-. 

Bellavitis, G. Yen. At. 9 (1864) 773-, 807-. 
Preece, W. H. Tel. E. J. 6 (1877) 448-. 
Kittler, E. Lum. Elect. 7 (*1882) 395-. 
Rayleigh, (Lord). [1883] Camb. Ph. S. P. 5 

(1886) 50-. 

Kittler, E. A. Ps. C. 24 (1885) 593-. 
Gleue, . [1900] Liineb. Nt. Vr. Jh. 15 (1901) 

xxxviii-. 
Absolute electromagnetic measurement. Searle, 

G. F. C. Elect. 27 (1891) 524-, 553-, 574-, 

627-, 689-, 714- ; 28 (1892) 33-, 56, 117-, 

139-, 191-, 250-, 272-, 300-, 347-, 403-, 

481-, 543, 607-, 681- ; 29 (1892) 111-. 
measurement. Feilitzsch, F. C. 0. von. 

Pogg. A. 78 (1849) 21-. 
. Eayleigh, (Lord). B. A. Bp. (1882) 

445-. 
by electrolysis. Mascart, E. E. N. C. 

E. 93 (1881) 50-. 
rotation of polarised beam. Becquerel, 

H. C. E. 98 (1884) 1253-. 
weighing. Blyth, J. Edinb. E. S. P. 

13 (1886) 650-. 
Activity and work in batteries. Eeynier, E. 

Lum. Elect. 33 (1889) 481. 
Bolometric principle, application. Paalzow, A. , 

d Rubens, H. A. Ps. C. 37 (1889) 529-; 38 

(1889) 676. 
Circuits, inductive and conductive. Sprague, 

J. T. V. Nost. Eng. Mg. 28 (1883) 201-. 
Conductor conveying current, remarkable po- 
tential difference in. Teege, H. Elekttech. 

Z. 20 (1899) 856-. 
Conductors, best diameter for. Upton, F. E. 

V. Nost. Eng. Mg. 26 (1882) 407-. 
, power distribution. Gray, T. Ph. 

Mg. 16 (1883) 187-. 
, economy of metal in. Thomson, (Sir) W. 

B. A. Ep. (1881) 526-. 
, , and limitations of Kelvin's 

law. Anthony, W. A. Elect. Ev. 35 (1894) 

611-. 
, -, . Ferrini, R. 

Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 28 (1895) 194-. 



CONSUMPTION OF ENEEGY. 

Cables, energy absorbed, resistances, etc. 

Beckingsale, E. W. Tel. J. 13 (1883) 46-, 

218-. 
, Ferranti, electric tensions in. Behn- 

Eschenburg, . Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 

604-. 
Conservation of energy in electricity. Cabanellas, 

G. C. E. 97 (1883) 666-. 
Economy in electric generation. Robinson, 

S. W. V. Nost. Eng. Mg. 23 (1880) 204-. 
Electricity and heat as source of mechanical 

power, comparison. Brown, J. G. [1875] 

Lpool. Lt. Ph. S. P. 30 (1876) 93-. 
Energy in electric apparatus. Potier, A. J. 

de Ps. 10 (1881) 445-. 
International Exhibition ( of Electricity, Munich. 

Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 9 (*1883) 328-, 

359-; 10 (*1883) 46-, 81-. 
Transmission of energy by continuous currents. 

Vaschy, . C. E. 120 (1895) 80-. 
. Hecht, J. S. Elect. 38 

(1897) 683-. 



Currents, dynamic equivalent of, and fixed 
scale for E.M.F. in galvanometry. Petrie, 
W. Edinb. N. Ph. J. 50 (1851) 64-. 

and potentials. Thomson, (Sir) W. Glasg. 
Ph. S. P. 15 (1884) 96-. 

tension. Ranter, G. Z. Angew. C. 
(1898) 553-. 

Electric system, conditions of maximum 

efficiency. Vaschy, . C. E. 102 (1886) 

1457-. 
Electrolytic deposition of copper, measurement 

by. Jacobi, M. H. [1850] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. 

Bll. 9 (1851) 333-. 
, . Gray, T. Ph. Mg. 25 

(1888) 179-. 
, . Meikle, A. W. Glasg. Ph. 

S. P. 19 (1888) 291-. 
Electromagnetic rotation of polarisation plane, 

measurement of constant and variable currents 

by. Kopp, R. Ziir. Ps. Gs. Jbr. (1896 & 

1897) 11-. 
Expansion of wire, application. Hankel, W. G. 

Pogg. A. 75 (1848) 206-. 
Galvanometers, two, application. Cabanellas, 

G. C. E. 92 (1881) 1409- ; Lum. Elect. 3 

(*1881) 444-. 
Magnetism, application. Gumming, J. [1821] 

Camb. Ph. S. T. 1 (1822) 281-. 

MEASUREMENT OF CURRENT 
STRENGTH. 

Basso, G. [1884] Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 19 (1883) 

288-. 
Blakesley, T. H. L. Ps. S. P. 11 (1892) 106- ; 

Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 346-. 
absolute measurement by balance. Koepsel, A. 

A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 250-. 
. Helmholtz, H. von. Berl. Ps. 

Gs. Vh. (1887) 34. 
of strong currents. Weber, W. E. Gauss 

Eesultate (1841) 83-. 



693 



5700 Measurement of Continuous Currents of Alternating Currents 5705 

absolute measurement of strong currents by 

tangent galvanometer. Kohlrausch,F. Elekt- 

tech. Z. 5 (1884) 13-, 96. 
electrochemical measurement. Potier, A. C. 

B. 108 (1889) 396-; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1889) 



by electrometer. Branly, E. C. E. 75 (1872) 

431-. 
expression in figures. Elias, P. Utr. Aant. 

Prv. Gn. (1852) 23-. 
by galvanometer. Melloni, M. Bb. Un. 55 

(1834) 9-. 
(mirror-). Kohlrausch, W. Elekttech. 

Z. 7 (1886) 273-. 
in galvanometers. Matzka, W. Grunert Arch. 

34 (1860) 33-. 
and motive power. Haldat du Lys, C. N. A. de. 

Nancy Mm. S. Sc. (1842) 1-. 
problems of maxima and minima in electro- 
technics. Vanni, G. Nap. S. Nt. Bll. 4 

(1890) 89-. 

ratios. Melloni, M. L'l. 2 (1834) 43-. 
small currents, detection. Orioli, F. (vm) 

Bologna Opusc. Sc. N. Col. (1824) 157-. 
strong currents. Mathiot, G. (vi Adds.) U. S. 

Coast Sv. Ep. (1855) 370-. 
. Trowbridge, J. [1878] Am. Ac. P. 14 

(1879) 122-. 
. Frolich,0. (xu) Elekttech. Z. 1 (1880) 

197-. 

. Cardew, P. Tel. E. J. 11 (1882) 301-. 

. Trowbridge, J. Am. J. Sc. 29 (1885) 

236-. 

. Himstedt, F. A. Ps. C. 41 (1890) 871-. 

, by constant shunt method. Pike, C. W. 

Franklin I. J. 133 (1892) 476-. 
, mirror galvanometer. Oberbeck, A. 

A. Ps. C. 42 (1891) 502-. 
use of double circuit. Cooke, I. B. Ph. Mg. 

30 (1847) 385-. 
of 2 voltaic batteries. Poggendorff, J. C. Pogg. 

A. 55 (1842) 43-. 



Measurement and regulation. Siemens, (Sir) 

C. W. E. S. P. 28 (1879) 292-. 
Multiple - conductor systems, arrangement. 

Franke, A. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 335. 
Multiplication- and reversal-methods. Dorn, E. 

A. Ps. C. 17 (1882) 654-. 
Becording, electrostatic and electrolytic. Grutz- 

ner, P. A. Ps. 1 (1900) 738-. 
, (Griitzner). Konig, W. A. Ps. 2 

(1900) 860-. 
Kectified currents. Hospitaller, E. C. E. 100 

(1885) 1456-. 
Supply of electricity. Hamon, A. Les Mondes 

56 (1881) 556-, 635-; 1 (1882) 184-, 399-, 

641-. 
Telephone, optical, application. Wien, M. A. 

Ps. C. 42 (1891) 593- ; 44 (1891) 681-. 
Three-wire system, arrangement. Matter, H. 

Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 56-. 
Voltametric measurement. Meidinger, H. Lieb. 

A. 88 (1853) 57-. 
. Vanni, G. Nap. S. Nt. Bll. 5 (1891) 



5705 Measurements of Alternating 
Currents (Periodicity, Ampli- 
tude, Consumption of Energy, 
Work, etc.). 

(See also 6015.) 

Joubert, J. C. E. 91 (1880) 161-. 
Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 13 (1884) 321-. 
Fleming, J. A. Tel. J. 2,0 (1887) 494-. 
Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 31 (1889) 466-, 

528-; 35 (1890) 17-, 118-, 218-, 373-. 
Fleming, J. A. Elect. 31 (1893) 447-, 476-, 

505 -, 533-. 

(Very large and very small currents.) Camp- 
bell, A. L. Ps. S. P. 14 (1896) 279-; Ph. 

Mg. 42 (1896) 271-. 
Advantages of alternating currents. Thompson, 

S. P. Elect. 33 (1894) 481-. 
Analysis, direct method. Des Coudres, T. 

Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 752-, 770-. 
, harmonic. Pupin, M. I. Am. J. Sc. 48 

(1894) 379-, 473-. 
Arc, analytic study. Fleming, J. A., & Petavel, 

J. E. L. Ps. S. P. 14 (1896) 115- ; Ph. Mg. 

41 (1896) 315-. 
Cables, concentric, phenomena in. Neustadt, 

L. Lum. Elect. 48 (1893) 119-. 
Circuits. Ulbricht, R. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 

147-. 
, current rush in. Wilke, A. [1894] Z. 

Elekttech. Elektch. (1894-95) 262-, 328-, 

391. 
, long, vector diagram for. Breisig, F. 

Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 383-, 400-, 417-. 
, power factor in. Bowie, A. J. (jun.) [1899] 

Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 324-. 
, self-induction and capacity in. Feldmann, 

C. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 86-, 95-, 107-. 
Commutation, spark prevention in. Teege, H. 

Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 639-, 654-. 
Currents and voltages. Campbell, A. [1900] 

L. Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 608-. 

CURVES. 

Lewis, W. B. [1891] Elect. 28 (1892) 90-. 
of alternators, influence of form on efficiency 

of motor. Kolben, E. Elekttech. Z. 15 

(1894) 698. 
current and potential, photography by 

Braun's tube. Wehnelt, A., < Donath, B. 

A. Ps. C. 69 (1899) 861-. 
deformation. Deguisne, C. Frkf. a. M. Ps. 

Vr. Jbr. (1898-99) 51. 
. Goldschmidt, R. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 

840-. 
demonstration and photography. Zenneck, J. 

A. Ps. C. 69 (1899) 838-. 
' ' form factor. ' ' Fleming, J. A . Elect. 36 (1896) 

338. 
. Benischke, G. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 

674-, 765-. 
. Richter, R. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 

746. 



694 



5705 Energy Measurement of Alternating Currents 



5705 



irregularities. Bedell, F., Miller, K. B., & 

Wagner, G. F. [1893] Ps. Bv. 1 (1894) 218-. 
oscillographic method. Blondel, A. Lum. 

Elect. 51 (1894) 172-. 
periodic, analysis. Boucherot, P. Lum. Elect. 

49 (1893) 251-. 
, measurement and photography. Blondel, A . 

Lum. Elect. 41 (1891) 401-, 507- ; Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1892) 166. 
polar diagram, use for inductive resistances. 

Steinmetz, G. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 394-, 

405-. 
recording, automatic. Drexler, F. Elekttech. 

Z. 17 (1896) 378-. 
, direct. Blondel, A. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 

(1901) 512-. 
, experimental, of periodic processes in physics. 

Franke, R. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 802-. 
, phonographic. Rollefson, C. J. Ps. Bv. 

2 (1895) 141-. 
, point by point. Niethammer, F. Elekttech. 

Z. 21 (1900) 300. 
short-circuit curve of alternators. Rothert, A. 

Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 619-, 637-, 657-, 

893. 
. Goldschmidt, R. Elekttech. Z. 

20(1899)670; 21(1900)30. 
. Ziehl,E. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 

724-. 

Divided currents greater in both branches than 
in main. Rayleigh, (Lord). Elect. 17 (1886) 
412-. 

Electrodynamometer, use for mean value. 
Maneuvrier, G., <& L.edeboer, P. C. B. 106 
(1888) 352-; Lum. Elect. 27 (1888) 251-. 

, in shunt. Wien, M. A. Ps. C. 63 (1897) 
390-. 

ENERGY MEASUREMENT. 



Ledeboer, P. H. 
Ayrton, W. E., 



Galvanometer needle, obliquely situated, use. 

Rayleigh, (Lord). Ph. Mg. 43 (1897) 343-. 
Geometric representation of currents. Geraldy, 

F. Lum. Elect. 43 (1892) 351-. 
Graphic method of studying. Heyland, A. 

Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 618-, 632-. 
. Hanappe, S. Bv. Un. Mines 44 

(1898) 127- ; 45 (1899) 73-, 137- ; 46 (1899) 

243-. 
. Wagner, R. Ziir. Ps. Gs. Jbr. 

(1899 & 1900) 8. 

methods of finding mean square values. 
Russell, A. Elect. 35 (1895) 115-. 

representation of alternating potential. 
Gorges, H. Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 164-. 

Lag between 2 alternating currents. Holz, 0. 

Elect. Bv. 30 (1892) 532-. 
Optical method of studying. Pionchon, J. C. 

B. 120 (1895) 872-. 
. Abraham, H., (& Buisson, H. C. 

B. 125 (1897) 92-. 
Oscillations, electric, on cylindrical conductors. 

Thomson, J. J. L. Mth. S. P. 17 (1887) 310- ; 

19 (1889) 520-. 

Parallel- and series-working with alternating 
currents. Roessler, G. Elekttech. Z. 19 

(1898) 595-. 

Period. Meyer, G. W. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 
47-. 

. Konig, W, Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 415-. 

. Samojloff, A. A. Ps. 3 (1900) 353-. 

, best, for installations. Kolben, E. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 15 (1894) 77-. 

, exact control. Zenneck, J. Elekttech. Z. 

20 (1899) 592-. 

of sinusoidal currents, tripling. Korda, D. 

Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 355. 
Periodic currents. Heinke, C. A. Ps. C. 69 

(1899) 612-. 

, optical method of studying. Wittmann, 

F. Mth. Termt. Ets. 9 (1891) 293-; Mth. 
Nt. B. Ung. 9 (1892) 363-. 

Winkel- 



Lum. Elect. 30 (1888) 255-. 
Sumpner, W. E. L. Ps. S. Phase change due to polarisation. 



P. 11 (1892) 172- ; Ph. Mg. 32 (1891) 204-. 
Zickermann, F. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 509-. 
Bering, C. Elect. Bv. 30 (1892) 60-, 92-. 
Guilbert, F. Eclair. Elect. 8 (1896) 193-. 
Campbell, A. [1900] L. Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 

608. 

Perot, A. Eclair. Elect. 22 (1900) 5-. . . 
Potier, A. Eclair. Elect. 22 (1900) 81-. 
and alteration of phase. D&guisne, C. Frkf. 

a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1897-98) 53-. 
effect of harmonics on alternating current 

power transmission. Rowland, H. A. [1892] 

Elect. 30 (1893) 192-. 
of sinusoidal currents of high frequency. Guye, 

C. E. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 6 (1898) 446-. 
wave current. Heinke, C. D. Nf. Vh. (1899) 

(Th. 2, Halfte 1) 48-. 

Forced vibration, 3 problems. Franklin, W. S. 

Ps. Bv. 1 (1894) 442-. 
Frequency. Wulf, T. Wien Ak. Sb. 104 (1895) 

(Ab. 2a) 823-. 
. Kinsley, C. Am. As. P. (1898) 245-; Ph. 

Mg. 45 (1898) 339-; Elect. 43 (1899) 258-; 

Ps. Bv. 8 (1899) 244-. 

VOL. in. 695 



mann, A. A. A. Ps. C. 20 (1883) 91-. 

difference. Blakesley, T. H. L. Ps. S. P. 
9 (1888) 165- ; Ph. Mg. 25 (1888) 295-. 

. Rossi, A. G. [1897] Mil. At. Cagnola 

15 (1898) 200 pp. 
. Martienssen, H. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

494-. 
, and doubling of period-number. Korda, 

D. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 329-. 
E. M. F. in inductive circuits. Puluj, 

J. Wien Ak. Sb. 102 (1893) (Ab. 2a) 

361-. 
self-induction. Puluj, J. Wien Ak. 

Sb. 102 (1893) (Ab. 2a) 356-. 
of 2 sinusoidal currents. Rossi, A. G. 

N. Cim. 6 (1897) 401- ; Eclair. Elect. 15 

(1898) 133-, 322-, 353-. 

, methods and apparatus. 

Hess, A. Lum. Elect. 51 (1894) 451-, 
509-. 

; , . Engelmeyer, P. C. 

de. Lum. Elect. 52 (1894) 360-. 
of same period. Hess, A. C. 

B. 118 (1894) 467-. 



5705 Polyphase Currents Measurement of Transient Currents 5707 



Phase displacement, great, methods of obtain- 
ing. Gdrner, J. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 
750-. 

Polarisation, effect on alternating currents. 
Kohlrausch, F. (vm) A. Ps. C. (Jubelbd.) 
(1874) 290-. 

POLYPHASE CURRENTS. 

Gorges, H. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 213-. 
applications, etc. Potier, A. [1900] Sc. Abs. 

4 (1901) 540-. 
calculation. Blondel, A. C. B. 118 (1894) 

404-. 

lie method for studying. Hanappe, S. 
Iv. Un. Mines 51 (1900) 42-. 
installations, calculation. Fischer, L. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 16 (1895) 80-, 100-. 
measurement of power. Blondel, A. C. B. 

116 (1893) 54-. 
. Frolich, 0. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 

574-. 
system. Kratzert, H. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 

269-. 
, distributing, of Metropolitan Street Bailway 

Company of New York City. Woodbridge, 

J. E. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 833-. 
theory. Kollert, J. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 

171-, 191-. 
transmission by, and aluminium wires. Perrine, 

F. A. C., & Baum, F. G. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 

910-. 
, current intensity. Vogel, F. Eclair. 

Elect. 12 (1897) 289-. 
triphase, apparatus and methods for measuring. 

Arno, R. Eclair. Elect. 22 (1900) 379-. 
, measurement of power. Behn-Eschenburg, 

. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 73-. 
, . Aliamet, M. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

554-. 
and uniphase currents, comparison. Gorges, H. 

Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 46-. 
wave form. Bragstad, 0. S. Elekttech. Z. 21 

(1900) 252-. 
. Ryan, H. J. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 72. 



Principles of measurement. Harrison, H. E. 
Elect. 28 (1892) 170-, 196-, 223-, 245-. 

Recording, electrochemical, of currents. Janet, 
P. C. B. 118 (1894) 862-, 946 ; 119 (1894) 
58-, 217-. 

, , Blondel, A. C. B. 119 (1894) 

399-. 

, , . Janet, P. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1894) 

192-, 284- ; Eclair. Elect. 2 (1895) 241-. 

, photographic, of currents. Becker, H., 
Larmayer, G., <& Picard, G. D. Lum. 
Elect. 31 (1889) 16-. 

rapidly varying E.M.F.s and currents, in- 
strument for. Duddell, W. D. B. Elect. 
39 (1897) 636-. 

Besonance. Heinke, C. [1896-97] Elekttech. 
Z. 18 (1897) 57-. 

Botary transformers and storage with long- 
distance transmission at Hartford. Robb, 
W. L. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 795-. 



Sine E.M.F., production. Hanchett, G. T. 
[1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 64-. 

Sinusoidal currents, elimination of higher har- 
monics in. Hess, A. Lum. Elect. 48 (1893) 
501-. 

Telephone, optical, use. Wien, M. A. Ps. C. 
42 (1891) 593-; 44 (1891) 681-. 

Variable currents, propagation in conductors. 
Lamotte, M. Eclair. Elect. 2 (1895) 433-. 

Vector properties of alternating currents and 
other periodic quantities. Sumpner, W. E. 
B. S. P. 61 (1897) 465-. 

Voltametric measurement. Kennelly, A. E. 
Am. J. Sc. 36 (1888) 453-. 

Voltmeters, 3, use. Niethammer, F. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 20 (1899) 701-. 

Wave currents. Heinke, C. [1899] Elekttech. 
Z. 20 (1899) 510-, 527- ; Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 8-. 

forms, optical determination. Seefehlner, 
E. E. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 403. 

, recording. Barr, J. M., Burnie, W. B., 

<& Rodgers, C. Elect. 35 (1895) 719-. 

Waves and doubly-periodic vector-products, 
symbolic representation. Steinmetz, C. P. 
Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 882-, 900-. 

, E.M.F., method of analysing into con- 
stituent harmonics. Fry, D. H. Sc. Abs. 
3 (1900) 877. 



5707 



Measurement of Transient 
Currents. 



Conductor surface, effect. Guillemin, C. M. 

J. de Ps. 1 (1872) 129-. 
Currents due to twisting magnetised iron, steel 

and nickel wires. Nagaoka, H. Tok. Coll. 

Sc. J. 3 (1890) 235-. 

from inconstant cells, intensity. Guillemin, 
C. M. [1870] (x) Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 
(1871) 171-. 

in open circuits. Nicolale/, W. de. C. B. 
119 (1894) 469-; Eclair. Elect. 7 (1896) 
256-. 

Discharge currents of condensers, chemical 

method. Cardani, P. N. Cim. 7 (1898) 

105-. 
, maximum, determination by their 

netic action. Pockels, F. A. Ps. C. 

(1898) 458-. 
Discharges, electromagnetic. Kempe, H. R. 

Tel. J. 7 (1879) 295. 
Duration of period of variable state. Dubois, 

P. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 6 (1898) 374-. 
Formulae. Ayrton, W. E., <& Taylor, J. F. 

L. Ps. S. P. 11 (1892) 114- ; Ph. Mg. 31 

(1891) 354-. 
Galvano-hysteresis. Thompson, S. P. B. S. 

P. 49 (1891) 439-. 
Galvanometer, shunted, error in measurement 

by. Clark, L. (ix) Tel. E. J. 2 (1873) 16-. 
Induced currents. Bigelow, F. H. Tel. J. 1 

(1872-73) 219. 
-, duration. Nyland, A. Arch. N<erl. 5 

(1870) 292-. 



696 



5710 



Induced currents, duration. Coulon, E. Lum. 

Elect. 2 (*1880) 256-, 324-, 384-; 3 (*1881) 

58_, 71-, 186-, 198- ; 4 (*1881) 170-, 198-. 
, electromagnetically induced, time-in- 
tegral. Thomson, (Sir) W. Ph. Mg. 29 

(1890) 276-. 
, experimental method of studying. Gos- 

selin, (capit.) . A. C. 22 (1891) 52-. 
Intensity. Pouillet, C. S. M. C. E. 19 (1844) 

1384-. 
Intermittent currents. Berlin, A. [1866] 

Strasb. Mm. S. Sc. 6 (1866-70) (livr. 1) 

No. 4, 5-. 
. Cazin, A. A. C. 17 (1869) 385-; C. 

B. 77 (1873) 1095-. 
, laws. Cazin, A. C. E. 59 (1864) 564- ; 

60 (1865) 738-. 
Oscillations, electric, decrement in charging 

condensers. Sundell, A, F. Helsingf. Acta 

24 (1899) No. 11, 25 pp. 
, , experiments. Bergmann, J. Bresl. 

Schl. Gs. Jbr. (1894) (Ab. 2a) 115-. 
Bate of rise of currents. Bernstein, J. 

Ak. Sb. (1890) 153-. 
Wehnelt interrupter currents. Hanchett, G. T. 

Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 719-. 



Thermoelectricity 



5710 



5710 Thermoelectricity. Peltier 
and Thomson Effects. 

THEEMOELECTEICITY. 

J. de Ps. 73 (1812) 



Schiveigger, J. S. C. 

462-. 
(Magnetic polarisation of metals and ores by 

temperature difference.) Seebeck, T. J. 

[1821] Berl. Ab. (1822-23) 265-. 
Gumming, J. [1823] Camb. Ph. S. T. 2 (1827) 

47-. 

Seebeck, T. J. Kiob. Ov. (1822-23) 9-. 
Becquerel, A. C. A. C. 31 (1826) 371-. 
Muncke, G. W. Pogg. A. 20 (1830) 417-. 
Gumming, J. B. A. Ep. (1831-32) 301-. 
Emmet, J. P. Silliman J. 26 (1834) 311-. 
Watkins, F. (vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 11 (1837) 

304-. 

Zantedeschi, F. G. Arcad. 78 (1839) 41-. 
Draper, J. W. Ph. Mg. 16 (1840) 451-. 
Muncke, G. W. Pogg. A. 52 (1841) 314. 
Thomson, (Sir) W. [1854] E. S. P. 7 (1854- 

55) 49-. 
Tail, P. G. B. A. Ep. 41 (1871) (Sect.) 48 ; 

Edinb. E. S. P. 7 (1872) 390- ; Nt. 8 (1873) 

86-, 122-. 
Tidblom, A. V. Lund Acta Un. 9 (1872) 

(Mth.) No. 6, 26 pp. ; 10 (1873) (Mth.) No. 3, 

19 pp. ; A. Ps. C. Beibl. 1 (1877) 151-. 
Budde, E. A. C. 3 (1874) 208-. 
Kohlmusch, F. Gott. Nr. (1874) 65-. 
(Kohlrausch.) Clausius, E. A. Ps. C. 160 

(1877) 420-. 
Trowbridge, J., & Penrose, C. B. Am. Ac. P. 

18 (1883) 214-. 
(Kohlrausch.) Battelli, A. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 1 (1885) 117-. 



Bachmetjev, P. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 18 (Ps.) 

(1886) 47-; Fschr. Ps. (1886) (Ab. 2) 646-; 

Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 21 (Ps.) (1889) 264- ; Exner 

Epm. 26 (1890) 705-. 
(Bachmetjev.) SpaSinskij, E. K, Es. Ps.-C. 

S. J. 22 (Ps.) (1890) 163- ; J. de Ps. 9 (1890) 
v 540. 
(Spaclnskij.) Bachmetjev, P. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 

23 (Ps.) (1891) 220- ; J. de Ps. 1 (1892) 

260. 

Englisch, E. A. Ps. C. 50 (1893) 88-. 
Apparatus. Gumming, J. Thomson A. Ph. 

7 (1824) 46-. 
, construction. Svanberg, A. F. Pogg. A. 

56 (1842) 422-. 
Application. Abt. A. (xn) Orv.-Term. Ets. 

6 (1881) (Nep. Eldad.) 109-. 

to measurement of high temperatures. 
Becquerel, A. C. A. C. 31 (1826) 371-. 

temperature. Boutan, A, C. E. 

47 (1858) 74-. 

Berl. . Chassagny, , & Abraham, 

H. C. E. Ill (1890) 477-, 513. 

of mechanical theory of heat. Clausius, E. 
Pogg. A. 90 (1853) 513-. 

. Lorentz, H. A. Amst. Ak. 

Vs. M. 1 (1885) 327; Arch. Neerl. 20 

(1886) 129-. 
, practical. Fischer, F. Dingier 246 (1882) 

324-. 

to testing purity of platinum. Seebeck, 
T. J. Schweigger J. 46 ( = Jb. 16) (1826) 
101-. 

of thermodynamics. Duhem, P. Par. EC. 
Norm. A. 2 (1885) 405- ; 3 (1886) 263-. 

Causes. Wrede, F. J. Pogg. A. 55 (18421 

175-. 
. Svanberg, A. F. Pogg. A. (Erg dm.) 

(1853) 621-. 

. Neumann, C. Leip. B. 24 (1872) 49-. 
Conductor, bimetallic, linear, temperature. 

Straneo, P. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 7 (1898) 

(Sem. 1) 346-, (Sem. 2) 206-. 
, , verification of principle of thermo- 

dynamic equivalence. Straneo, P. Em. E. 

Ac. Line. Ed. 8 (1899) (Sem. 1) 196-, 309- . 
Conductors, good and bad, thermoelectricity at 

contact. Friedel, C. As. Fr. C. E. 5 (1876) 



, thermo-electric, bipolar and unipolar. 

Zantedeschi, F. Brux. Ac. Bll. 9 (1842) 

431-. 

Constants of voltaic circuit, methods and in- 
struments for. Wheatstone, ($ir) C. Phil. 

Trans. (1843) 303-. 
Contact- and thermo-electricity, identity of 

origin. Avenarius, [(Prof.) M.] Pogg. A. 

119 (1863) 406-, 637-. 
, theory. Parker, J. [1891] Camb. 

Ph. S. P. 7 (1892) 269-. 
Crystalline form and thermoelectric properties, 

relation. Friedel, C. As. Fr. C. E. 2 (1873) 

215-. 
Decomposition, thermoelectric. Poggendorff', 

J. C. Berl. B. (1847) 119-. 
of water by thermoelectricity. Watkins, F. 

Ph. Mg. 12 (1838) 541. 

697 K2 



5710 Experiments 



Thermoelectricity 



Phenomena 5710 



Diagram, first approximation. Tait, P. G. 
Edinb. E. S. T. 27 (1873) 125-. 

Diagrams, for some pure metals. Steele, W. 
H. Aust. As. Bp. (1893) 302- ; Ph. Mg. 37 
(1894) 218-. 

Electric and magnetic research at low tem- 
peratures. Fleming, J. A. [1896] R. I. P. 
15 (1899) 239-. 



EXPERIMENTS. 

Barlow, P. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 62 (1823) 321-. 
Fourier, J. B. J., & Oersted, . A. C. 22 

(1823) 375-. 
(Fourier and Oersted.) Orsted, H. C. Orsted 

Ts. 3 (1824) 145-, 148-. 
Sturgeon, W. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 63 (1824) 95-. 
Gherardi, S. [1836] Bologna N. Cm. 4 (1840) 

85-. 

Bleekrode, S. [1837] Miquel Bll. (1838) 70-. 
Adie, Rich. Edinb. N. Ph. J. 37 (1844) 298- ; 

38 (1845) 97- ; 39 (1845) 327- ; (vi Adds.) 

Ph. Mg. 3 (1852) 185-. 
Thomson, (Sir) W. B. A. Ep. (1854) (pt. 2) 

Tait, 'P. G. Edinb. E. S. P. 7 (1872) 308-, 

597-. 
fundamental. Loewenherz, L. Berl. B. 10 

(1877) 469-, 647. 
and laws. Zantedeschi, F. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 

12 (1842) 13-, 65-. 

Formula, Joule's, generalisation and mechani- 
cal demonstration. Ledieu, A. C. E. 98 
(1884) 69-. 

Galvanic and thermoelectric actions, compari- 
son. Reed, C. J. Franklin I. J. 146 (1898) 
424-. 

Heat and electricity, mutual relations, thermo- 
dynamics of. Voigt, W. Gcitt. Nr. (1898) 
113- ; A. Ps. C. 67 (1899) 717-. 

, evolution by thermoelectricity. Watkins, 
F. Ph. Mg. 14 (1839) 82-. 

, transformation into electricity. Baum- 
gartner, A. von. Wien SB. 22 (1856) 513- ; 
32 (1858) 157-. 

, . Peukert, W. Elect. 17 (1886) 

140. 

, . Reed, . [1896] Z. Elektch. 

(1896-97) 144-. 

Heating of point of contact of conductors, 
one carrying current, E.M.F. developed. 
Borgman, I. I. (xn) Es. C. Ps. S. J. 9 
(Ps.) (1877) [Pt. 1] 314-. 

Induction and polarisation, thermoelectric, ex- 
periments. Zantedeschi, F. Bb. It. 89 (1838) 
123-. 

Magnetism of pewter coils. Phillips, Reub. 
Ph. Mg. 2 (1851) 230-. 

Nodes, thermoelectric, of voltaic apparatus. 
Zantedeschi, F. Ven. At. 1 (1841) 194-. 

, , (Zantedeschi). Bellavitis, G. 

Ven. At. 2 (1843) 48-. 



PHENOMENA. 



La Borne, de. A. C. 22 (1823) 432-. 
Matteucci, C. Bb. Un. 18 (1838) 353-. 
Mowson, A. Ziir. Mt. 1 (1847) 113-. 
Parker, J. Ph. Mg. 26 (1888) 353- ; 27 (1889) 

72-. 
Barrett, W. F. [1899] Dubl. S. Sc. T. 7 

(1902) 127-., 
Moreau, G. Eclair. Elect. 25 (1900) 456-; 

J. de Ps. 9 (1900) 497-. 
anomaly. Matteucci, C. C. E. 5 (1837) 

706-. 
and electrochemical phenomena. Matteucci, C. 

Bb. Un. 28 (1840) 410-. 
influence of friction. Erman, P. B. A. Ep. 

(1845) 102-. 
magnetism. Houllevigue, L. A. C. 7 

(1896) 495-. 
and mechanical actions. Battelli, A. 

Ven. I. At. (1892-93) 1452-, 1581-, 1637-, 

1676-, 1745-. 
measurement. Straneo, P. N. Cim. 10 (1899) 

269-. 
mechanical illustration. Lodge, 0. J. Ph. 

Mg. 2 (1876) 524-; L. Ps. S. P. 2 (1879) 

118-. 
(Lodge). Avenarius, (Prof.) M. Ph. 

Mg. 3 (1877) 156-. 
(Avenarius). Lodge, 0. J. Ph. Mg. 3 

(1877) 349-. 

Physical import. Braun, F. A. Ps. C. 50 

(1893) 111-. 
Eecalescence of iron. Gore, G. E. S. P. 17 

(1869) 260-. 
. Barrett, W. F. Ph. Mg. 46 (1873) 

472-. 
. Tomlinson, H. L. Ps. S. P. 9 

(1888) 107- ; Ph. Mg. 25 (1888) 103-. 
steel. Newall, H. F. Ph. Mg. 25 

(1888) 510-. 
Eelations, thermoelectric. Barus, C. Am. J. 

Sc. 47 (1894) 366-. 
Spark, thermoelectric. Wheatstone, (Sir) C. 

Ph. Mg. 10 (1837) 414-. 

, , and thermo-electromagnet, and thermo- 
electricity in general. Alexander, H. Pogg. 

A. 42 (1837) 624-. 
Surface energy and thermoelectricity, relation. 

Penrose, C. B. Am. Ac. P. 20 (1885) 417-. 
Theory. Delaurier, . Les Mondes 22 (1870) 

413-. 
. Boltzmann, L. Wien Ak. Sb. 96 (1888) 

(Ab. 2) 1258-. 
. Lorentz,H.A. A. Ps. C. 36 (1889) 593-; 

Arch. Neerl. 23 (1889) 115-. 
. Blondin, J. Lum. Elect. 42 (1891) 104-. 
. Wiedeburg, O. A. Ps. 1 (1900) 758-. 
, convection-. Kohlrausch, F. A. Ps. C. 23 

(1884) 477-. 
and experiments. Prideaux, J. Ph. Mg. 

3 (1833) 205-, 262-. 



5710 Thermocouples 



THEEMOCO UPLES. 

Moll, G. Edinb. Ph. J. 9 (1823) 167-. 
Knott, C. G. [1879] Edinb. B. S. T. 30 

(1883) 271-. 
Chassagny, , & Abraham, H. Par S. Ps 

Se. (1890) 220-. 

Niemoller, . Osnab. Jbr. (1889-90) 10-. 
of bismuth, antimony and palladium. Adie, 

Rich. C. S. J. 8 (1856) 36-. 
and copper, influence of magnetism. 

Grimaldi, G. P. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed 4 

(1888) (Sem. 1) 132-. 
with bismuth joint. Adie, Rich. C. S. J. 8 

(1856) 33-. 
calibration for high temperature measurements. 

Nichols, E. L. Arch. Neerl. 5 (1900) 339-. 
of compressed and uncompressed mercury. Des 

Coudres, T. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1890) 18. 
effect of hysteresis. Bachmetjev, P. Es. Ps.-C. 

S. J. 29 (Ps.) (1897) 108- ; J. de Ps. 7 (1898) 

671. 
of electrolytes and amalgams. Hagenbach, A. 

A. Ps. C. 58 (1896) 21-. 
unpolarisable electrodes. Gockel, A. 

A. Ps. C. 50 (1893) 696-. 
electrolytic. Duane, W. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1896) 

967-; A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 374-. 
E.M.F. Moutier, J. Lum. Elect. 27 (1888) 

451-. 
, high. Stefan, J. Wien Sb. 51 (1865) (Ab. 

2) 260-. ' 
, variation with temperature, and application 

to thermometry. Le Chatelier, H. C. E 

102 (1886) 819-. 
experiments. Adie, Rich. Edinb. N. Ph. J. 

41 (1846) 252-. 
gaseous. Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 37 (1853) 

82-, 653-. 
, new class. Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 37 

(1853) 584-. 
improvements. Glanwnd, , & Carpentier, J. 

C. E. 100 (1885) 985-. 
iron-constantan, temperature measurement by. 

Aubel, E. van. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 6 (1898) 

169-. 

iron-copper, effect of magnetisation. Chas- 
sagny, . C. B. 116 (1893) 977-. 
irregularities at high temperatures. Le Cha- 

telier, . Par. S. Ps. Se. (1890) 221-. 
with 1 metal. Becquerel, A. C. A. C. 23 

(1823) 135-. 
. Zantedeschi, F. A. Sc. Lomb. Ven. 

13 (1844) 191-. 
(homogeneous). Henrici, F. C. Pogg. 

A. 80 (1850) 167-. 
. Jenkin, F. B. A. Ep. (1861) (pt. 2) 

39-; (1862) 173-. 
. Durham, W. Edinb. E. S. P. 7 

(1872) 788-. 
. Overbeck, R. A. Ps. C. 22 (1884) 

344-. 
. Trouton, F. T. [1886] Dubl. S. 

Sc. P. 5 (1886-87) 171-. 
. Steele, W. H. [1893] Viet. E. S. 

P. 6 (1894) 120- ; Science 22 (1893) 256. 



Thermoelectric Currents 5710 

with 1 metal. Turnbull, W. R. Science 23 

(1894) 91-. 

(homogeneous). Bachmetjev, P., <& 

Stamboliev, G. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 27 (Ps.) 

(1895) 1- ; J. de Ps. 5 (1896) 467. 
. Razing, B. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 30 

(Ps.) (1898) 151- ; J. de Ps. 9 (1900) 55. 
metallic, electric diathermancy. Wartmann, 

E. [1840] Gen. Mm. S. Ps. 9 (1841) 119-. 
of metals and fused salts. Andrews, T. Ph. 

Mg. 10 (1837) 433-. 
. Andrews, T. [1886-96] Edinb. 

E. S. P. 13 (1886) 947- ; Z. Elektch. (1896- 

97) 117-. 
salt solutions. Ebeling, A. A. Ps. 

C. 30 (1887) 530-. 
. Hagenbach, A. A. Ps. C. 53 

(1894) 447-. 
neutral point. Partz, A. Tel. E. J. 10 (1881) 

173-. 
, measurement. Abt, A. A. Ps. 3 (1900) 

320-. 
resistance, internal. Rolland, L. C. E. 84 

(1877) 1026-. 
strain in iron, measurement by. Turner, . 

Gen. Civ. 32 (1897-98) 413-. 
use. Chassagny, , <& Abraham, H. A. C. 

27 (1892) 355-. 
of zinc in zinc sulphate solution. Hermann, L. 

PfMg. Arch. PL 14 (1877) 485-. 



THERMOELECTRIC CURRENTS. 

Franz, R. Pogg. A. 83 (1851) 374-; 85 (1852) 

388. 

Magnus, G. Berl. Ab. (1851) (Ps.) 1-. 
Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 36 (1853) 612-, 645- ; 

A. C. 65 (1862) 5-. 

Pacinotti, A. N. Cim. 19 (*1863) 234-. 
Moutier, J. Lum. Elect. 19 (1886) 97-. 
Egg-Sieberg, H. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 619-. 
chemical action. Botto, G. D. Cattaneo G. 

Farm. 17 (1833) 335-. 
in crystals. Liebisch, T. Gott. Nr. (1889) 

531-. 
demonstration-experiment. Guillaume, C. E. 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1894) 258. 
and deviation of magnetic needle. Norremberg, 

. Baumgartner Z. 6 (1829) 435-. 
direction. Zantedeschi, F. Brescia Cm. (1838) 

61-. 
, and point in thermodynamics. Lodge, 0. J. 

Ph. Mg. 19 (1885) 448-. 
and dynamical theory of heat. Thomson, (Sir) 

W. [1854] Edinb. E. S. T. 21 (1857) 123-. 
fused salts as conductors and exciters. Bottger, 

R. Pogg. A. 50 (1840) 35-. 
and galvanic currents, calorific coefficients. 

Raoult, F. M. C. E. 73 (1871) 949-. 
, experiments. Adie, Rich. Edinb. N. 

Ph. J. 35 (1843) 346-; 36 (1844) 90-. 
in homogeneous circuit. Mousson, A. Arch. 

de 1'Electr. 4 (1844) 5-. 
wire. Pettinelli, P. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 31 



hydrothermoelectric currents. Nobili, L. Bb. 
Un. 37 (1828) 174-. 



699 



5710 Thermoelectric Series Thermoelectricity 



5710 



and laws of tension in electrolytes. Wild, H. 

Fogg. A. 103 (1858) 353-. 
of mercury. Peltier , A. C. B. 6 (1838) 303-. 

(Peltier). Matteucci, C. Bb. Un. 15 
(1838) 187-. 

_. Mazzoli, A. N. A. Sc. Nt. 8 (1842) 
349-. 

. Gherardi, S. N. A. Sc. Nt. 8 (1842) 

in metal cross. Adie, Rich. Ph. Mg. 6 (1853) 

46-. 
between metals, strength. Hankel, W. G. Pogg. 

A. 62 (1844) 479-. 
passage through liquids. Zantedeschi, F. A. 

Sc. Lomb. Ven. 4 (1834) 31-. 
production by cooling of fused metals. Bach- 
metjev, P., & Stamboliev, G. Es. Ps.-C. S. 

J. 27 (Ps.) (1895) 65-; J. de Ps. 5 (1896) 

469-. 
, influence of surrounding temperature. 

Bachmetjev, P., Christodulos, C., & Georgiev, 

C. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 29 (Ps.) (1897) 14-; 

Fschr. Ps. (1897) (Ab. 2) 700. 
evaporation of water and condensation of 

water-vapour. Mickle, J. (vra) Ph. Mg. 

26 (1863) 435-. 
heat action of light. Pacinotti, A. N. 

Cim. 18 (1863) 373-. 
percussion. Rood, 0. N. Am. J. Sc. 42 

(1866) 12-. 
Eitterian, etc. Akin, C. K. E. S. P. 12 (1862- 

63) 565-. 
temporary, in iron. Trouton, F. T. Nt. 37 

(1888) 321. 
theory. Avenarius, (Prof.) M. A. Ps. C. 149 

(1873) 372-. 

(Avenarius). Clausius, R. A. Ps. C. 150 
(1873) 645-. 

. Lorberg, H. A. Ps. C. 34 (1888) 662-, 

736. 
thermodynamics of. Pazienti, A. Ven. I. Mm. 

18 (1874) 313-. 

in unequally-heated conductors, effects. Thom- 
son, (Sir) W. C. E. 39 (1854) 116-. 
weak, magnetisation by. Brouwer, S. Mulder 

Arch. 3 (1835) 147-. 



THERMOELECTRIC SERIES. 

(And instruments for exhibiting thermoelectric 

rotation.) Gumming, J. Thomson A. Ph. 

6 (1823) 177-. 
(Anomalies.) Gumming, J. Thomson A. Ph. 

6 (1823) 321-. 
Rollmann, W. Halle Jbr. NW. Vr. 3 (1850) 

188-. 
Matthiessen, Aug. [1857] Phil. Trans. (1858) 

369-. 

Kirchhoff, G. Pogg. A. 103 (1858) 412-. 
Alloys and amalgams. Rollmann, W. Pogg. 

A. 83 (1851) 77-; 84 (1851) 275-; 89 (1853) 

90-. 
of antimony and bismuth. Hutching, C. C. 

Am. J. Sc. 48 (1894) 226-. 
Aluminium. Thomson, (Sir) W. B. A. Ep. 

(1855) (pt. 2) 20-. 
. Gore, G. Chemist 3 (1856) 556-. 



Amalgams. Weber, C. L. A. Ps. C. 23 (1884) 

447-. 
Cobalt and bismuth. Knott, C. G. [1891] 

Edinb. E. S. P. 18 (1892) 310- . 
Iron and steel, effect of magnetism. Strouhal, 

V., (& Barus, C. A. Ps. C. 14 (1881) 54-. 
Metals. Becquerel, A. C. [1829] Par. Mm. 

de PI. 10 (1831) 237-. 
. Marchand, R. F. Erdm. J. Pr. C. 29 

(1843) 494-. 
Platinoid. Bottomley,J. T., & Tanakadate, A. 

[1889] E. S. P. 46 (1890) 286-. 
Sodium. Gore, G. [1856] Phm. J. 16 (1857) 

321-. 

Thallium, expansion, resistance and thermo- 
electric position. Steele.W.H. [1892] Viet. 

E. S. P. 5 (1893) 193-. 



THERMOELECTRICITY OF VARIOUS 
SUBSTANCES. 

Alloys. Battelli, A. Tor. Ac. Sc. Mm. 36 
(1885) 487-; Ven. I. At. (1886-87) 1137-. 

. Kleiner, A. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 32 (1894) 
280-. 

Steinmann, E. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 7 (1899) 
281; C. E. 130 (1900) 1300- ; 131 (1900) 34; 
Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 9 (1900) 413- ; 10 (1900) 
25. 

and charcoal. Knott, C. G., <& MacGregor, 
J. G. [1878] Edinb. E. S. T. 28 (1879) 
321-. 

, effect of composition and temperature. 

Naccari, A., & Bellati, M. [1877] A. Ps. 

C. Beibl. 2 (1878) 102-. 
, nickel-iron, and manganese steel, effect of 

stress and magnetism. Tomlinson, H. E. 

S. P. 56 (1894) 103-. 

Aluminium. Violle, J. C. E. 71 (1870) 270- . 
Amalgams. Battelli, A. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 3 (1887) (Sem. 2) 37-. 
. Bachmetjev, P. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 23 (Ps.) 

(1891) 370- ; J. de Ps. 1 (1892) 402-. 

(Bachmetjev). Chpatchinsky, . Lum. 
Elect. 39 (1891) 313-. 

Antimony, experiments. Beek, A. van. J. de 

Ps. 96 (1823) 53-. 
Birch-bark. Planat, F. Fr. Cg. Sc. 44 (1878) 

(2) 317-. 
Bismuth and alloys, thermoelectricity and Hall 

effect in. Beattie, J. C. [1896] Edinb. E. 

S. P. 21 (1897) 146-. 

antimony. Svanberg, A. F. Stockh. 
Ofv. 7 (1850) 93-; C. E. 31 (1850) 250-. 

. Adie, Rich. C. S. J. 10 (1858) 

77-. 
, effect of magnetism. Grimaldi, G. P. 

Palermo G. Sc. Nt. 18 (1887) 361- ; Em. E. 

Ac. Line. Ed. 3 (1887) (Sem. 1) 134-. 
, . Righi, A. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 3 (1887) (Sem. 1) 481-, (Sem. 2) 6-; C. 

E. 105 (1887) 168- ; Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 

4 (1887) 433-. 
, . Grimaldi, G. P. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Ed. 4 (1888) (Sem. 1) 353-. 
, . Tomlinson, H. L. Ps. S. P. 9 

(1888) 139- ; Ph. Mg. 25 (1888) 285-. 



700 



5710 



Thermoelectricity of Various Substances 



5710 



Bismuth (and alloys), effect of magnetism. 

Spodavecchia, G. N. Cim. 9 (1899) 432-; 10 

(1899) 161-. 
, effect of tempering. Grimaldi, G. P. Tor. 

Ac. Sc. At. 23 (1887-88) 574-. 
Carbon and graphite, effect of occluded gases. 

Monckman, J. E. S. P. 44 (1888) 220-. 
Cobalt. Knott, G. G., MacGregor, J. G., & 

Smith, C. M. [1876] Edinb. E. S. P. 9 

(1878) 421-. 
Copper and nickel below zero. Penrose, C. B. 

[1881] Am. Ac. P. 17 (1882) 47-. 
Crystalline substances. Marbach, H. C. E. 

40 (1855) 793-; 45 (1857) 705-. 
Crystals. Perrot, F. L. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 7 

(1899) 149-. 

Electrolytes. Bagard, H. C. E. 114 (1892) 

980- ; 116 (1893) 27-. 

. Lussana, S. Yen. I. At. (1892-93) 477-. 
, solid. Lussana, S. Yen. I. At. (1892-93) 

1489-. 
Elements, properties, and the periodic law. 

Rubanovitch, E. Lum. Elect. 35 (1890) 

214-. 
Iron. Tait, . [1888] Edinb. E. S. P. 15 

(1889) 127-. 
, effects of stress in. Knott, G. G., <& 

Kimura, S. Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 4 (1891) 

341-. 
, (longitudinal) in. Tsuruta, K. 

[1895] Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 9 (1895-98) 27-. 
, and magnetisation. Ewing, J. A, 

[1886] Phil. Trans. 177 (1887) 361-. 
, twist. Tsuruta, K. Ph. Mg. 50 

(1900) 223-. 

and nickel, effect of magnetism. Bach- 
metjev, P. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 23 (Ps.) (1891) 
301- ; A. Ps. C. 43 (1891) 723-. 

platinum in vacuo. Young, C. A. Am. 

J. Sc. 20 (1880) 358. 

steel at bright red heat, peculiarities. 
Newall, H. F. Ph. Mg. 24 (1887) 435-. 

, effect of carbon. Strouhal, F., <& 

Barus, C. Prag Ab. 12 (1885) (Mth.) No. 15, 

25pp. 
, strained, at red heat. Tomlinson, H. L. 

Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 100- ; Ph. Mg. 25 (1888) 

45-. 
Liquids. Gore, G. E. S. P. 27 (1878) 272-, 

513-. 
Mercury. Matteucci, C. Bb. Un. 12 (1837) 

211-. 

(Matteucci). Delarive,A. Bb. Un. 13 (1838) 
199-. 

. Vorsselman-de-Heer, P. O. C. Miquel Bll. 
(1838) 124- ; Pogg. A. 49 (1840) 114-. 

(Vorsselman de Heer). Matteucci, G. Arch, 
de PElectr. 2 (1842) 227-. 

. Matteucci, C. Arch, de PElectr. 3 (1843) 

666-. 
. Felici, R. (vi Adds.) II Cim. 4 (1846) 

165-. 
. Battelli, A. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 3 (1887) 

(Sem. 2) 6-. 

and amalgams. Des Coudres, T. A. Ps. C. 
43 (1891) 673-. 

, solid and liquid. Peddie, W., (& Shand, 
A. B. [1900] Edinb. E. S. P. 23 (1902) 15. 



Metals (in general). 



Thomson, (Sir) W. Phil. Trans. (1856) 649-. 
(Thomson.) Verdet, E. A. C. 54 (1858) 120-. 
Avenarius, (Prof.) M. A. Ps. C. 122 (1864) 

193-. 
Tait, P. G. [1872-74] (xi) Edinb. E. S. P. 8 

(1875) 32-, 350, 362. 
Abt, A. (xn) Orv.-Term. Ets. 7 (1882) (Term. 

Szak) 113- ; Cztg. Opt. 8 (1887) 182-. 
Holborn, L., & Day, A. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1899) 

691-. 
and alloys between boiling-points of water and 

liquid air. Detoar, J. t & Fleming, J. A. Ph. 

Mg. 40 (1895) 95-. 
effects of longitudinal tension in. Tsuruta, K. 

[1895] Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 9 (1895-98) 53-. 
strain. Thomson, (Sir) W. B. A. Ep. 

(1855) (pt. 2) 17-. 
. Maclean, M. E. S. P. 64 (1899) 

322-; 66 (1900) 165-. 
stress. Eioing, J. A. E. S. P. 32 (1881) 

399-. 
ferruginous. Joule, J. P. E. S. P. 8 (1856- 

57) 355-. 

fused. Braun, F. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1885) 289-. 
homogeneous. Franz, R. Pogg. A. 97 (1856) 

34-. 
laminated, experiments with. Pilleur, L., <& 

Jannettaz, E. J. de Ps. 5 (1886) 172-. 
magnetised. Battelli, A. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 2 (1893) (Sem. 2) 162-. 
on melting. Obermayer, A. von. Wien Sb. 66 

(1872) (Ab. 2) 63-. 

and solidifying. Minarelli, A. von F.-G. 

Wien Ak. Sb. 71 (1875) (Ab. 2) 694-. 
and minerals. Hankel, W. G. Pogg. A. 62 

(1844) 197- 
theory. Planck, M. A. Ps. C. 36 (1889) 624-, 

936. 
wires, effect of linear compression. Bachmetjev, 

P. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 23 (Ps.) (1891) 430- ; 

Exner Epm. 27 (1891) 442-, 625-. 
, strain. Tunzelmann, G. W. von. L. 

Ps. S. P. 2 (1879) 236-; Ph. Mg. 5 (1878) 

339-. 
, stretched. Gohn, E. A. Ps. C. 6 (1879) 

385-. 

Minerals. Dana, E. S., & Schrauf, A. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 69 (1874) (Ab. 1) 142- 
Nickel, pure. Tait, P. G. Edinb. E. S. P. 8 

(1873) 182. 

f relation to variation of resistance with 

temperature. Battelli, A. Tor. Ac. Se. At. 

23 (1887-88) 231-. 
Palladium. Bachmetjev, P. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 

25 (Ps.) (1893) 256-; J. de Ps. 3 (1894) 

570-. 
Platinoid and manganine. Peirce, B. 0. Am. 

J. Sc. 48 (1894) 302-. 
Platinum - iridium and platinum - rhodium. 

Barus, G. Ph. Mg. 34 (1892) 376-. 
Potassium. Naccari, A., <& Bellati, M. Yen. 

I. At. 2 (1876) 875-. 
Pyrites. Marbach, . D. Nf. Tbl. (*1869) 

142. 



701 



5710 



Thermoelectromotive Force 



5710 



Pyroxylin. Zantedeschi, F. Yen. At. 6 (1847) 

64-. 
Quartz, polar thermoelectricity. Naumann, C. 

N. Jb. Mn. (1866) 201-. 
Silver alloys, relation of properties to tempering 

of steel. Strouhal, F., <& Barus, C. Prag 

Ab. 12 (1885) (Mth.) No. 14, 27 pp. 

iodide. Le Chatelier, H. G. E. 102 (1886) 
917-. 

and zinc. Adie, Rich. C. S. J. 7 (1855) 
309-. 

Sodium. Naccari, A., & Bellati, M. Yen. I. 
At. 2 (1876) 599-. 

and potassium. Naccari, A., & Bellati, M. 
A. Ps. C. Beibl. 1 (1877) 59-. 

Solutions, aqueous, with mercury electrodes. 

Gore, G. E. S. P. 29 (1879) 472-. 
, , platinum electrodes. Gore, G. [1880] 

E. S. P. 31 (1881) 244-. 
, saline. Emery, G. F. E. S. P. 55 (1894) 

356-. 

Steel. Barus, G. A. Ps. C. 7 (1879) 383-. 
. Belloc, G. C. E. 131 (1900) 336-. 
, hard and annealed. Strouhal, F., & Barus, 

C. A. Ps. C. 11 (1880) 930-. 
Tin at melting point. Campbell, A. [1888] 

Edinb. E. S P. 15 (1889) 125-. 

THERMOELECTROMOTIVE FORCE. 

Kohlrausch, F. Berl. Z. Tel. 16 (1869) 177-. 
Chaperon, G. C. E. 102 (1886) 860-. 
Chassagny, , & Abraham, H. C. E. Ill 

(1890) 602-, 732-; 112 (1891) 1198- 
of alloys, relation to resistivity and Hall effect. 

Beattie, J. C. Edinb. B. S. P. 20 (1895) 

481-. 

bismuth (crystalline). Perrot, L. C. E. 
126 (1898) 1194- ; Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 6 (1898) 
105, 229-. 

carbon. Buchanan, J. L. Ps. S. P. 7 (1886) 
185- ; Ph. Mg. 20 (1885) 117-. 

at contact of liquid and metal. Bouty, E. C. 
E. 90 (1880) 917- ; J. de Ps. 9 (1880) 229-, 
306-. 

2 portions of same metal. Stroud, H. 

Elect. 23 (1889) 519-. 

similar metals at different tempera- 
tures. Bidwell, S. Elect. 23 (1889) 546-. 

. Tomlinson, H. Elect. 

23 (1889) 569-. 

of electrolytes. Donle, W. A. Ps. C. 28 (1886) 
574-. 

hydrogenised iron. Kimura, S. [1893] 
Edinb. E. S. P. 20 (1895) 203-. 

palladium, relation to resistivity. Knott, 

C. G. [1886] Edinb. E. S. T. 33 (1888) 

-, . Brucchietti, G. Elect. 32 

(1894) 91. 
and magnetisation. Bachmetjev, P. Exner 

Epm. 27 (1891) 607-. 
. Houllevigue, L. J. de Ps. 5 (1896) 

53-. 
of metal oxides and sulphides with each other 

and with metals. Abt, A. [1899] Mth. 

Termt. Ets. 18 (1900) 25-; Mth. Nt. B. 

Ung. 17 (1901) 293-. 



between metal and its salts. Rilliet, A., & 

Borel, . Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 26 (1891) 192. 
of metals. Wullner, A. A. Ps. C. 145 (1872) 

636-. 
(pure). Noll, K. A. Ps. C. 53 (1894) 

874-. 
(liquid). Burnie, W. B. L. Ps. S. P. 15 

(1897) 76-; Ph. Mg. 43 (1897) 397-. 
and liquids. Gore, G. E. S. P. 19 (1871) 

324-. 
, relation to conducting power for heat and 

electricity and to heat capacity. Jaeger, W., 

<& Diesselhorst, H. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1899) 719- ; 

Berl. Ps. Eeichsanst. Ab. 3 (1900) 269-. 

, thermodynamic calculation. Liebenow, 
C. D. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1899) 74-, 82-. 

minerals. Flight, W. A. C. Phm. 135 
(1865) 319-. 

in primary cells containing fused electrolytes. 

Poincare, L. C. E. 110 (1890) 339-. 
Tait's formula. Tory, H. M. B. A. Ep. (1897) 

588-. 
temperature of inversion at iron-copper contact. 

Le Roux, F. P. C. E. 99 (1884) 842-. 
theory. Pilleux, L. Les Mondes 54 (1881) 

116. 
. Budde, E. A. Ps. C. 21 (1884) 277-; 25 

(1885) 564-. 
of Wood's metal, change at melting point. 

Campbell, A. [1889] Edinb. E. S. P. 16 

(1890) 83-. 
between zinc amalgam and zinc sulphate. 

Brander, K. A. A. Ps. C. 37 (1889) 457-. 

Thermomagnetic experiments (Seebeck's). Do- 

bereiner, J. W. Gilbert A. 73 (1823) 111-. 
( ). Raschig, . Gilbert A. 73 (1823) 

339-. 
. Seebeck, T. J. Gilbert A. 73 (1823) 

430-. 
. Traill, T. S. Thomson A. Ph. 6 

(1823) 449-. 
(Seebeck's). Orsted, H. C. Orsted Ts. 

3 (1824) 142-. 

. Traill, T. S. [1827] Gen. Mm. S. Ps. 

4 (1828) 94-. 

and electric experiments. Sturgeon, W. 

Tilloch Ph. Mg. 63 (1824) 266-. 

and galvanomagnetic effects. Kaz, P. C. 
Mbl. Nt. (1888) 44-. 

rotation. Gumming, J. Thomson A. Ph. 
6 (1823) 436. 

rotative experiment. Sturgeon, W. Tilloch 
Ph. Mg. 63 (1824) 269-. 

Thermomagnetism. Traill, T. S. Edinb. Ph. 
J. 11 (1824) 258-. 

of homogeneous bodies. Sturgeon, W. Ph. 
Mg. 10 (1831) 1-, 116-. 

metals. Yelin, J. C. von. Gilbert A. 73 

(1823) 415-. 
single pieces of metal. Sturgeon, W. Ph. 

Mg. 3 (1833) 392-. 
Thermometer, electric, modification. Mascart, 

E. [1873] Par. Se. S. Ps. 1 (1873-74) 62-. 
Thermomicrophone. Ochorowicz, J. J. Tel. 

9 (1885) 54-. 
Thermomultiplier. Nobili, L. Bb. Un. 44 

(1830) 225-. 



702 



5710 



Thermopiles 



5710 



Thermomultiplier, Nobili and Melloni's. La 
Provostaye, F. H. de. C. E. 46 (1858) 768-; 
A. C. 54 (1858) 129-. 

THERMOPILES. 

NoUli, L. Bb. Un. 57 (1834) 1-. 
Muncke, G. W. Pogg. A. 67 (1839) 451-. 
Poggendorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 50 (1840) 250. 
Rollmann, W. Dingier 139 (1856) 422-. 
Halske, J. G. (vi Adds.) Berl. Pol. Gs. Vh. 

24 (1863) 373-. 

Marcus, S. Wien Sb. 51 (1865) (Ab. 2) 280-. 
Kahl, E. Z. Mth. Ps. 11 (1866) 174-. 
Zenger, C. W. [1870] Prag Ab. 4 (1871) 

21pp. 

Clamond, C. C. E. 78 (1874) 1120-. 
Kayser, H. A. Ps. C. 26 (1885) 9-. 
Guillaume, C. E. Lum. Elect. 28 (1888) 7-, 

68-. 
Reed, C. J. [1897-98] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 340, 

341, 343, 419-, 421, 422. 
Anthony, W. A. [1897-98] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

341, 342, 343, 419, 420, 421-. 
Thomson, E. [1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 420. 
Ostwald, W. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 420-. 
Rubens, H. Z. Instk. 18 (1898) 65-, 137. 
(Eubens.) Czermak, P. Z. Instk. 18 (1898) 

135-. 

Thomsen, J. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 422. 
Reed, C. J. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 123-. 
as accumulators. Waltenhofen, A. von. Elekt- 

tech. Z. 11 (1890) 555-. 
activity. Kollert, J. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 

333-. 
of antimony and bismuth, experiments. Brou- 

wer, S. Miquel fill. (1838) 71-. 
applications, two. Vidovich, B. [1883] Tel. 

E. J. 13 (*1884) 140. 
arc light produced by. Waltenhofen, A. von. 

Prag Sb. (1872) (pt. 2) 6-. 
behaviour of galvanometer when used with. 

Merritt, E. Am. As. P. (1890) 104. 
Carpentier's. La Touanne, G. de. A. Tel. 12 

(1885) 303-. 

Chaudron's. Anon. Tel. J. 20 (1887) 122. 
chemical, regenerative. Powell, L. S. Tel. J. 

20 (1887) 2-. 
Clamond's. Logeman, W. M. Les Mondes 36 

(1875) 604-. 

. Clark, L. Tel. E. J. 5 (1876) 321-. 
. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 1 

(*1879) 21-. 
for constant currents. Dove, H. W. Pogg. A. 

44 (1838) 592-. 
construction. Knoblauch, H. Halle Sb. Nf. 

Gs. (1856) 5-. 
. Rosse, L. (Earl of). B. S. P. 18 (1870) 

553-. 
, simple. Hessler, F. D. Nf. Vsm. B. 

(1843) 230-. 
with copper sulphide. Becquerel, E. C. E. 

61 (1865) 146-. 
cylindrical. Feilitzsch, F. C. 0. von. N.- 

Vorp. Mt. 13 (1882) 22-. 
differential. Beaulieu-Marconnay , K. (Frhr.) 

von. Humb. 5 (1886) 224-. 



E.M.F. Kohlrausch, R. Pogg. A. 82 (1851) 

and resistance. Beetz, W. Munch. Ak. 
Sb. 7 (1877) 292-. 

generator. Snowdon, R. Elect. 20 (1888) 
327-. 

, Cox's. Anon. Elect. Ev. 39 (1896) 240-. 

Giilcher's. Langbein, G. Z. Angew. C. (1890) 
548-. 

. Uppenborn, F. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 
187-. 

. Kunath, . [1892] Danzig Schr. 8 
(1892-94) (Hefte B & 4) ix-. 

, measurements with. Uppenborn, F. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 11 (1890) 434-. 

, . Bruggemann, C. Elekttech. Z. 15 

(1894) 649-. " 

and Pintsch's. Anon. Berg- Hm. Ztg. 49 
(1890) 85-. 

, use in laboratory. Schmidt, A. Z. Angew. 

C. (1895) 219-. 
of high efficiency. Bunsen, R. W. A. Ps. C. 

123 (1864) 505-. 
. Waltenhofen, A. von. A. Ps. C. 143 

(1871) 113-. 
inverse properties of iron and cast-iron in. 

Thenard, A. C. E. 62 (1866) 953-. 
Kendall's. Anon. Tel. J. 20 (1887) 4. 
lead sulphide. Mure, , <& Clamond, . C. 

E. 68 (1869) 1255-. 

, Mure and Clamond's. Becquerel, E. 
C. E. 68 (1869) 1256-. 

for measurement of small E.M.F.s. Gore, 

G. [1884] Birm. Ph. S. P. 4 (*1883-85) 

130-. 
metallic. Palmieri, L. Nap. Ed. 9 (1850) 

73-. 
with metallic sulphides. Becquerel, E. C. E. 

60 (1865) 313-. 
monothermic, experiment. Tyndall, J. B. A. 

Ep. (1851) (pt. 2) 18-. 
Noe's, form. Waltenhofen, A. von. A. Ps. C. 

146 (1872) 617-. 
, . Streintz, F. Carl Epm. 13 (1877) 

4-. 
, management. Christiani, A. A. Ps. C. 

(Erganz.) 8 (1878) 579-. 

and Mure and Clamond's. Abt, A. (xn) 
Kolozsvar Orv.-Term. Tars. Ets. [2] (1877) 
(Term. Szak) 1-. 

Noe-Eebiceck's, measurements with. Kayser, 
H. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1885) 1. 

potential regulator for. Danneel, H. [1896] 
Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 81-. 

Eaub's. Betz, G. Tel. J. 22 (1888) 332. 

resistance, measurement. Beetz, W. A. Ps. 
C. 129 (1866) 520-. 

sources of error. Peltier, A. A. C. 71 (1839) 
225-. 

for strong currents. Kollert, J. [1890] Chem- 
nitz B. (1889-92) 3-. 

thermodynamic efficiency. Rayleigh, (Lord). 
Ph. Mg. 20 (1885) 361-. 

and thermoelectric powers of bodies. Bec- 
querel, E. A. C. 8 (1866) 389-; C. E. 62 
(1866) 966-. 

unsymmetrical, experiment with. Waltenhofen, 
A. von. A. Ps. C. 21 (1884) 360-. 



703 



5710 



Peltier and Thomson Effects 



5710 



wanning and cooling due to radiation, time 
relation. Christiani, A. Arch. An. PI. (PL 
Ab.) (1878) 334-. 

Thermoscopes, electric. Holtz, . N.-Vorp. 
Mt. 23 (1892) xi-. 

PELTIEE AND THOMSON EFFECTS. 

Lyublmov, N. A. (xn) Kec. Mth. (Moscou) 2 
(1867) (Ft. 1) 255-. 

Penrose, C. B. [1881] Am. Ac. P. 17 (1882) 
39-. 

Battelli, A. Bm. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 5 (1888) 
632- ; N. Cim. 27 (1890) 111-. 

Experiments and theory. Leroux, F. P. C. 
K. 63 (1866) 324-; A. C. 10 (1867) 201-. 

Extension of thermodynamic formulae. Corn- 
bet, . As. Fr. C. B. (1896) (Pt. 2) 181-. 



PELTIER EFFECT. 

(Experiments.) Peltier, A. A. C. 56 (1834) 

371-. 

Gmelin, L. Pogg. A. 44 (1838) 33-. 
Lenz, E. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 3 (1838) 321-. 
Bottger, R. Pogg. A. 50 (1840) 35-. 
Pianciani, G. B. Arch, de 1'Electr. 1 (1841) 

579-. 
Pacinotti, L. (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. C. 

7 (1842) 153- ; 13 (1844) 47-. 
Wartmann, E. Brux. Ac. Bll. 10 (1843) 72-. 
Tyndall, J. Ph. Mg. 4 (1852) 419-. 
Edlund, E. Stockh. 6'fv. 26 (1869) 457- ; A. 

Ps. C. 137 (1869) 474-. 
(Edlund.) Clausius, R. A. Ps. C. 139 (1870) 

276-. 

Willlner, A. A. Ps. C. 145 (1872) 636-. 
Buff, H. A. Ps. C. 155 (1875) 96-. 
Waltenhofen, A. von. Wien Ak. Sb. 75 (1877) 

(Ab. 2) 245-. 
Ascoli, M. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 7 (1891) 

(Sem. 1) 397-. 
apparatus to show. Anon. N.-Vorp. Mt. 22 

(1891) xx. 
at contact of 2 conductors. Frankenheim, M. 

L. Pogg. A. 91 (1854) 161-. 
heterogeneous conductors. Jahn, H. 

[1888] Wien Ak. Sb. 97 (1889) (Ab. 2a) 

546, 
2 heterogeneous metals. Quintus- 

Icilius, G. von. Pogg. A. 89 (1853) 377-. 
metal and liquid. Gill, J. A. Ps. C. 

40 (1890) 115-. 
its solution. Bouty, E. C. E. 

90 (1880) 987-. 
effect of magnetism. Houllevigue, L. C. E. 

118 (1894) 629-. 

. Pochettino, A. Em. B. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 8 (1899) (Sem. 2) 50-. 
and E.M.F. of contact. Lodge, 0. J. Nt. 41 

(1890) 224-. 
inversion for electrolytes. Bagard, H. C. E. 

116 (1893) 1126-. 
in iron-zinc couple. Bellati, M. Yen. I. At. 

5 (1879) 573-. 



in liquids. Naccari, A., & Battelli, A. Tor. 

Ac. Sc. At. 20 (1885) 1039-, 1202- ; 21 (1885) 

821-. 
measurement. Campbell, A. [1887] Edinb. 

E. S. P. 14 (1888) 387-. 
modification of E.M.F. by heat. Edlund, E. 

Stockh. Ak. Hndl. 9 (1870) No. 14, 44 pp. ; 

C. E. 73 (1871) 1043-. 
neutral point of some alloys. Battelli, A. 

Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 3 (1887) (Sem. 1) 

404-. 
phenomenon analogous to. Bouty, E. C. E. 

89 (1879) 146-. 
relation to efficiency of voltaic cells. Gockel, 

A. A. Ps. C. 24 (1885) 618-. 
potential difference of 2 metals in contact. 

Duhem, P. C. E. 104 (1887) 1606- ; A. C. 

12 (1887) 433-. 
at different temperatures. Naccari, A., & 

Bellati, M. [1877] Ven. I. At. 4 (1878) 23-. 
. Campbell, A. [1882-83] Edinb. 

E. S. P. 11 (1882) 807- ; 12 (1884) 293-. 
. Gore, G. [1886] Birm. Ph. S. P. 

5 (1885-87) 53-. 
. Skobelcyn, V., A Cinzerling, D. 

Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 19 (Ps.) (1887) 121- ; J. de 

Ps. 7 (1888) 275-. 

. Battelli, A. Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 
5 (1888) 632- ; N. Cim. 27 (1890) 111-. 

thermoelectric apparatus, Schumann's. K. 

Humb. 5 (1886) 304. 
and thermoelectric order of metals. Emmet, 

J. P. Silliman J. 26 (1834) 311-. 

phenomena, thermodynamic analogy. 
Bouty, E. J. de Ps. 1 (1882) 267-. 

in voltaic pile. Duhem, P. C. E. 104 (1887) 

1697-. 
(Duhem). Gockel, A. A. Ps. C. 33 

(1888) 710- ; 34 (1888) 1048. 

THOMSON EFFECT. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. Phil. Trans. (1856) 649-. 
Trowbridge, J., & Penrose, C. B. Am. J. Sc. 

24 (1882) 379-. 
Battelli, A. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 22 (1886-87) 

48-, 539-. 

Haga, H. Amst. Ak. Vs. M. 2 (1886) 377-. 
Houllevigue, L. C. E. 117 (1893) 516-. 
in binary electrolyte. Donnan, F. G. Ph. Mg. 

45 (1898) 529-. 

copper, absolute measurement. King, R. 0. 
Am. Ac. P. 33 (1898) 351-. 

Joule-Thomson effect, and thermodynamic scale 
of temperature. Love, E. F. J. L. Ps. S. 
P. 16 (1899) 454- ; Ph. Mg. 48 (1899) 106-. 

in lead. Battelli, A. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 3 
(1887) (Sem. 1) 212-. 

nickel. Battelli, A. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 
3 (1887) (Sem. 2) 105-. 

and other physical properties of metals, relation. 

Bidwell, S. E. S. P. 37 (1884) 25-. 
theory and experiments. Haga, H. Delft EC. 

Pol. A. 1 (1885) 145- ; 3 (1887) 43-. 
. Budde, E. A. Ps. C. 30 (1887) 

664-. 
(Budde). Haga, H. A. Ps. C. 32 

(1887) 131-. 



704 



5720 Energy of Current 



5720 Measurements relating- to 
Energy of the Current. Heat- 
ing Effect. 

MEASUEEMENTS EELATING TO 
ENEEGY OF THE CUEEENT. 

Bernardi, E. Yen. At. 15 (1869-70) 1257-. 
Colley, R. (xn) Es. C. Ps. S. J. 7 (Ps.) 

(1875) [Ft. 1] 333- ; 8 (Ps.) (1876) [Pt. 1] 

182- ; (ix) A. Ps. C. 157 (1876) 370-, 

624-. 
Heaviside, 0. Elect. 12 (1884) 55-, 127-, 199-, 

270- , 367-, 463-. 
Ayrton, W. E., & Sumpner, W. E. E. S. P. 



49 (1891) 424-. 
uti, G. Em. N. Line. At. 44 



Buti, G. Em. N. Line. At. 44 (1891) 252-. 
Pionchon, . Bordeaux S. Sc. Mm. 5 

315-. 
Accumulators, measurement of power, etc. 

Schoop, P. [1894] Z. Elekttech. Elektch. 

(1894-95) 234-. 
Calculation of electric work. Sluginov, N, P. 

Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 17 (Ps., Pt. 1) (1885) 43. 
Energy, electric, in mining, limitations. Hale, 

I. [1892] Colo. Sc. S. P. 4 (1891-93) 

123-. 
, kinetic, upper limits. Hertz, H. R. A. 

Ps. C. 10 (1880) 414- ; 14 (1881) 581-. 
, principle of, application to work done by 

current. Seydler, A. Casopis 14 (1885) 

129- ; Fschr. Ps. (1885) (Ab. 2) 755-. 

transformation in circuit. Abt, A. (xn) 
Kolozsvar Orv.-Term. Tars. Ets. [2] (1877) 
(Term. Estel.) 33 [37]-. 

traversing circuit. Deprez, M. C. E. 90 
(1880) 590-. 

Induced and galvanic currents, combined 

action. Delarive, A. [1844] Gen. Mm. S. 

Ps. 11 (1846) 225-. 

, (Delarive). Wartmann, E. 

Bb. Un. Arch. 1 (1846) 424-. 
Installations, electric, minimum waste and 

maximum economy in. Ayrton, W. E., & 

Perry, J. Tel. J. 18 (1886) 325. 

HEATING EFFECT. 

Tatum, J. Nicholson J. 17 (1807) 149-. 

Delarive, A. A. C. 40 (1829) 371-. 

Harris, (Sir) W. S. [1831] Edinb. E. S. T. 

12 (1834) 206-. 

Joule, J. P. E. S. P. 4 (1840) 280-. 
Delarive, A. Arch, de 1'Electr. 2 (1842) 501-. 
Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. B. (1847) 440-. 
Pliicker, J. (vra) C. E. 26 (1848) 227-. 
Grove, W. R. [1852] E. I. P. 1 (1851-54) 

119-. 
Ward, (Capt.) H. [E. W.] (vm) E. E. Pp. 4 

(1855) 113-. 

Weber, H. F. Ziir. Vjschr. 22 (1877) 273-. 
Preece, W. H. E. S. P. 30 (1880) 408-. 
Bazzi, E. Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 13 (1882) 

537-. 



Heating Effect 5720 

Bottomley, J. T. Elect. 12 (1884) 541-. 
Preece, W. H. E. S. P. 36 (1884) 464-; 43 

(1888) 280- ; 44 (1888) 109-. 
Haase, F. H. Dingier 295 (1895) 15-. 
Applications. H., D. Sav. S. H. Nt. Bll. 1 

(1887) 17 r . 
Augmentation. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. 

Tel. J. 2 (1874) 225-. 
Calorimeter applied to study of currents. 

Minet, A. Lum. Elect. 12 (1884) 121-, 

207-, 483- ; 13 (1884) 125-, 297-, 413- ; 14 

(1884) 22-, 125-. 
Carbonisation of filaments. Powell, L, S. 

Elect. Ev. 42 (1898) 646-. 
Circuit, galvanic, heating effects in different 

parts. Favre, P. A. A. C. 40 (1854) 293- ; 

C. E. 39 (1854) 1212- ; 45 (1857) 56-: 46 

(1858) 658-. ' 
, , (Favre). Bosscha, J. 

[1858] (vi Adds.) Utr. Aant. Prv. Gn. 

(1858-59) 20-. 
Circuits, galvanic, heat distribution in, laws. 

Anon, (vi 379) Elect. 4 (1863) 25-. 

CONDUCTORS. 

Clausius, R. Pogg. A. 87 (1852) 415-. 
Marinovitch, B. Lum. Elect. 14 (1884) 252-. 
La Touanne, G. de. A. Tel. 12 (1885) 5-. 
Grassi, G. Nap. I. Inc. At. 2 (1889) No. 7, 

6 pp. 
Kennelly, A. E. Tel. J. 25 (1889) 640-, 692-, 

725- ; 26 (1890) 19-. 
Human, H. Elect. 24 (1890) 199-. 
Ram, G. S. Tel. J. 26 (1890) 28. 
aerial. White, J. G. Tel. J. 19 (1886) 185-, 

379-, 493-. 
cylindrical, heating of different points. Colard, 

0. Lum. Elect. 52 (1894) 201-. 
and electric distribution in heated conductors. 

McCowan, J. Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 259-. 
incandescent, Joule's law in case of. Garbe, 

P. C. E. 98 (1884) 360-. 
inequality of heating effect at entry and exit. 

Adie, R. (vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 4 (1852) 

224-. 
joints, heating and cooling effects of currents 

on. Adie, Rich. Ph. Mg. 5 (1853) 46-, 

193-. 
metallic ; and heat evolved in battery cells 

during electrolysis. Joule, J. P. Ph. Mg. 

19 (1841) 260-. 
liquid. Ritchie, W. E. S. P. 3 (1837) 

482. 

resistance, and thermal phenomena of dis- 
charges in derived circuits. Cardani, P. 

N. Cim. 2 (1895) 69-, 199-, 271- ; 3 (1896) 

257- ; 4 (1896) 65-. 
for strong currents. Perenyi, A. Elekttech. 

Z. 5 (1884) 24-, 70-. 

system, heat disengaged by current traversing. 
. Perot, A. J. de Ps. 9 (1890) 508-. 
temperature, and heat emission. Perenyi, A. 

Elekttech. Z. 5 (1884) 321-. 
, internal and external thermal con- 
ductivity. Ascoli, M. N. Cim. 7 (1898) 

249-. 



705 



5720 Wires 



Heating Effect 



5720 



temperature, stability. Kohlrausch, F. A. Ps. 

1 (1900) 132-. 
, . Diesselhorst, H. A. Ps. 1 (1900) 

312-. 
, . Wimperis, H. E. Elect. 45 (1900) 

929-. 

Wires. 

La Provostaye, F. H. de, & Desains, P. C. B. 

37 (1853) 749-. ' 

Delarive, A. Bb. Un. Arch. 27 (1854) 265-. 
Viard, . C. E. 39 (1854) 904- ; A. C. 43 

(1855) 304-. 
connecting-wire of battery. Breda, J. G. S. 

van. C. B. 21 (1845) 961-. 
, development of heat and mechani- 
cal force. Koosen, J. H. Pogg. A. 91 (1854) 

427-, 525-. 
constants in formula. Quintus-Icilius , G. von. 

Pogg. A. 101 (1857) 69-. 
. Schultz, F. [1873] Kiel Schr. 20 

(1874) (Ph. 1) 14 pp. 
copper. Barbieri, U. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 

30. 
current-carrying capacity. Fleming, J. A. 

Elect. 13 (1884) 178-. 
emissivity. Sala, M. N. Cim. 4 (1896) 81- ; 

6 (1897) 333-. 

and temperature. Cardani, P. N. Cim. 27 
(1890) 245- ; 28 (1890) 10- ; 30 (1891) 33-. 

fusion by current or by sudden discharge. 

Maurain, . I. Elect. E. J. 25 (1897) 

240. 

of galvanic circuit, heating effect indicating sur- 
face distribution. Water ston, J. J. Ph. Mg. 

30 (1865) 191-. 
glow produced in. Ohm, G. S. Kastner Arch. 

Ntl. 16 (1829) 1-. 
. Miiller, Joh. Freiburg B. 6 (1873) 

(Heft 2) 97-. 
. Waltenhofen, A. von. Prag Sb. 

(1874) 79-. 
heating and melting. Riess, P. Berl. Ab. 

(1845) 89-. 
ignition. Hurray, (Mr.) J. Edinb. Ph. J. 

& (1828) 88-. 
and lamp filaments. Ram, G. S. Tel. J. 25 

(1889) 638-, 668-. 
temperature. Streintz, H. A. Ps. C. 160 

(1877) 409-. 

and heat conductivity. TereSin, S. Bs. 
Ps.-C. S. J. 25 (Ps.) (1893) 97-, 193- ; J. de 
Ps. 3 U894) 235-, 567. 

traversed by alternating currents, expansion 
and current strength. Cranz, C. Z. Mth. 
Ps. 34 (1889) 92-. 

, temperature. Cranz, C. 

Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 426-. 

strong current, rise in temperature. 
Oelschldger, E. Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 93-. 

Discharge, heat produced. Edlund, E. Stockh. 
Ofv. 30 (1873) (No. 6) 3-; A. Ps. C. (Ju- 
belbd.) (1874) 261-. 

Eddy currents in iron plate exposed to alter- 
nating field. Thomson, J. J. Elect. 28 
(1892) 599-. 



Electrocalorimeter, experiments. Roiti, A. 

Tor. Ac. Sc. Mm. 37 (1886) 367-. 
Electrothermometer, lecture apparatus. Par- 

ragh, G. Termt. Kozl. 20 (1888) (Suppl.) 

78- ; Mth. Nt. B. Ung. 6 (1889) 407-. 
Expansion of metal spiral. Jacquez, E. A. 

Tel. 7 (1880) 320-. 

External work and intensity of current, rela- 
tions. Soret, J. L. C. B. 45 (1857) 301-, 

380- ; 48 (1859) 187- ; Gen. Mm. S. Ps. 14 

(1858) 331- ; 15 (I860) 202-. 
Heat, force and chemical change, relations, 

and economy of electrodynamic engines. 

Highton, H. QJ. Sc. 1 (1871) 77-. 
, , ; E.M.F. Highton, H. C. 

N. 23 (1871) 8. 
, , ; overthrow of the science 

of electrodynamics. Hopkinson, (Dr.) J. 

Manch. Lt. Ph. S. P. 10 (1871) 121-. 
, , ; performance of electro- 
magnetic engine. Joule, J. P. Manch. Lt. 

Ph. S. P. 10 (1871) 152-. 
, , ; . Highton, H. 

Manch. Lt. Ph. S. P. 10 (1871) 188-. 
, internal, of cells, relation to chemical 

energy in external circuit. Tommasi, D. 

Elect. Ev. 44 (1899) 541-. 
, total, in cell, and thermal effect of current, 

cause of difference. Raoult, F. M. [1868] 

(xn) Isere S. Bll. 2 (1870) 2, 21-. 
Heating and luminous action of 2 simultaneous 

currents. Masson, A. C. B. 38 (1854) 15-. 
Igniting power. Smith, R. B. Beng. J. As. 

S. 9 (1840) 1149-. 
. Weyde, P. H. van der. Am. I. T. 

(1860-61) 547-. 
Ignition at a distance. Waltenhofen, A. von. 

[1876] Prag Ab. 8 (1877) (Mth.) 74 pp. 

of gas flames. Wilson, A. Dingier 158 
(1860) 25-. 

, voltaic, cooling effect of different gases. 

Belloc, . As. Fr. C. B. (1894) (Pt. 1) 

118. 
, , hydrogen and its compounds. 

Grove, W. JR. B. A. Bp. (1848) (pt. 2) 54. 
, , effect of surrounding media. Grove, 

W. R. [1848] Phil. Trans. (1849) 49-. 
, , (Grove). Clausius, R. 

Pogg. A. 87 (1852) 501-. 
, , of gunpowder. Howldy, T. Tilloch 

Ph. Mg. 68 (1826) 173-. 
, , . Ward, [(Capt.) E. W.} B. A. 

Ep. (1854) (pt. 2) 18-. 
Intermittent currents. Jamin, J., & Roger, G. 

C. B. 68 (1869) 682-, 1017-. 
. Villari, E. (xi) Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 

4 (1873) 157-. 
Laws. Wilkinson, C. H. Nicholson J. 7 

(1804) 206-. 
. Wilkinson, C. t & Harrison, T. Nicholson 

J. 9 (1804) 240-. 
. Lenz, E. [1842] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 1 

(1843) 209- ; 2 (1844) 161-. 
. Becquerel, E. C. E. 16 (1843) 724- ; A. 

C. 9 (1843) 21-. 

Botto, G. D. [1845] Tor. Mm. Ac. 8 
(1846) 275-. 

. Leroux, F. P. A. C. 6 (1865) 86-. 



706 



5740 Cables 



Laws. Kempe, H. R. Tel. J. 1 (1872-73) 171-. 
Leyden jars and cells, currents from. Kno- 

chenhauer, K. W. Pogg. A. 62 (1844) 207-. 
Magneto-electric currents. Jamin, J., & 

Roger, G. C. B. 66 (1868) 1250- ; 67 

(1868) 33-. 
Measurement. Edlund, E. Stockh. Ofv. 37 

(1880) No. 8, 3-. 
by Breguet's thermometer. Gumming, J. 

B. A. fip. (1833) 418. 
Mechanical equivalent and heating effect. 

Joule, J. P. Ph. Mg. 23 (1843) 263-. 347-, 

435-. 
. Clausius, E. Pogg. A. 86 

(1852) 337-. 
Modifications of heat in voltaic apparatus. 

Pictet, M. A. Bb. Un. 16 (1821) 176-, 

286-. 
Offerhaus's cell. Moll, G. Edinb. Ph. J. 5 

(1821) 352-. 
Origin of voltaic heat. Helmholtz, H. L. F. 

von. Berl. Ak. Mb. (1877) 713- ; Berl. Ak. 

Sb. (1882) 22-, 825- ; (1883) 647-. 
(Helmholtz). Moutier, J. Lum. 

Elect. 13 (1884) 281-, 331-. 
Eotation of metallic tubes and spheres. Gore, 

G. Ph. Mg. 15 (1858) 519- ; 18 (1859) 94-. 
. Leroux, F. P. C. E. 48 

(1859) 579-. 
Sources of heat. Thomson, (Sir) W. B. A. 

Ep. (1852) (pt. 2) 16-. 
Volts and calories. Phillips, S. E. Elect. 18 

(1887) 546 ; 19 (1887) 35. 



5740 Measurement of Capacity. 
(See also 6005.) 

Blavier, E. E. A. Tel. 8 (1881) 291- ; 9 (1882) 

185. 
Sumpner, W. E. [1887] Tel. E. J. 16 (1888) 

Absolute values. Young, J. E. I. Elect. E. J. 
29 (1900) 941-. 

CABLES. 

coiled, ballistic measurement. Dearlove, A. 

Elect. 40 (1898) 783-. 
and condensers. Gott, J. Tel. E. J. 10 (1881) 

278-. 

long. Dearlove, A. Elect. 39 (1897) 601. 
. Murphy, W. J. Elect. 40 (1898) 55-. 
, submarine. Dearlove, A. Elect. 26 (1891) 

537-, 741. 
, . Ansell, H.W., (& Young, J. E. Elect. 

26 (1891) 652-. 

, . W., F. Elect. 28 (1892) 361. 
, . Young, J. E. I. Elect. E. J. 28 (1899) 

475-, 495-. 
looped. Kempe, H. R. Elect. Ev. 31 (1892) 

. Appleyard, R. Elect. Ev. 34 (1894) 140-. 
telephone-. Jacques, W. W. Tel. J. 27 (1890) 

452-. 
tests. Dearlove, A. Elect. 27 (1891) 268. 



Measurement of Capacity Condensers 5740 



2-wire. Patterson, G. W. (jun.) Ps. Ev. 5 
(1897) 309-. 

Capacity and energy of charge. Nipher, F. E 

[1895] St. Louis Ac. T. 7 (1894-97) 109-. 
(Nipher). Thompson, S. P. 

Elect. 34 (1895) 601-. 
Comparison of capacities. Rimington, E C 

L. Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 60- ; Ph. Mg. 24 (1887) 

238. 
(very unequal). Ayr ton, W. E., & 

Perry, J. Tel. J. 23 (1888) 82-. 
( ) Fison, H. [1888] L. Ps. S. 

P. 10 (1890) 65-. 
of 2 condensers. Glazebrook, R. T 

L. Ps. S. P. 4 (1881) 207- ; Ph. Mg. 11 (1881) 

370-. 
1 use of Saunders's key. Muirhead A 

Elect. 25 (1890) 487-. 



CONDENSERS. 
Bohnenberger, G. C. Tiibinger Bl. 2 (1815) 

Adler, G. Mh. Mth. Ps. 2 (1891) 413-. 
absolute measurement. Rbiti, A. [1884-871 

Yen. I. At. (1883-84) 1663- ; Tor. Ac. Sc 

Mm. 38 (1888) 57-. 
, Thomson's. Moutier, J. Par. S Phlm 

Bll. 7 (1883) 65-. 
annular. Bulgakov, N. A. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 

29 (Ps.) (1897) 266-; Eclair. Elect. 14 

(1898) 67-. 
apparent capacity for short-charge periods. 

Carpenter, H. V. Ps. Ev. 4 (1897) 238-. 
charging. Hay, A. Elect. 35 (1895) 840-. 
effects of self-induction of galvanometer 

M'Connel, J. C. [1884] Camb. Ph. S. P 

5 (1886) 211-. 
electrolytic. Sheldon, S., Leitch, H. W., & 

Shaw, A. N. Ps. Ev. 2 (1895) 401-. 
experiments. Wilberforce, L. R. [18841 

Camb. Ph. S. P. 5 (1886) 175-. 
. Lori, F. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 7 (1898) 

(Sem.. 1) 150-, (Sem. 2) 55-. 
guard-ring-, absolute electromagnetic capacity. 

Himstedt, F. A. Ps. C. 35 (1888) 126- ; 36 

(1889) 759-. 
measurement by alternating currents. Sahulka, 

J. Wien Ak. Sb. 102 (1893) (Ab. 2a) 773-. 
balance. Lang, V. von. Wien Ak. Sb 

106 (1897) (Ab. 2a) 290-. 
. Heymann, L. [1899] Ziir. Ps. Gs. 



Jbr. (1899 & 1900) 11-. 
ball' 



llistic galvanometer. Womack, F. 

[1894] L. Ps. S. P. 13 (1895) 323-; Ph. 

Mg. 39 (1895) 172-. 
plate-. Klemencic, I. [1882] Wien Ak. Sb. 

86 (1883) (Ab. 2) 1190-. 
relation to dielectric resistance. Siemens, (Sir) 

C. W. [1861] (xi) A. Tel. 4 (1877) 33-. 
standard-, at Antwerp Exhibition. Palaz, A. 

Lum. Elect. 25 (1887) 568-. 
and value of V. Hockin, C. B. A. Ep. (1879) 

285-. 
variation with frequency of alternating currents. 

Hanauer, J. A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 789-. 



707 



5740 Measurement of Capacity 

variation, lecture apparatus to show. Borg- 
man, I. I. (xii) Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 13 (Ps.) 
(1881) [Pt. 1] 117-. 

with rigid insulation. Henvig, H. A. Ps. 
C. 13 (1881) 164-. 



Conductors. Brylinski, E. A. Tel. 15 (1888) 

97-. 
, annular. Bulgakov, N. A., & Smirnov, N, 

A. Ks. Ps.-C. S. J. 30 (Ps.) (1898) 126- ; J. 

de Ps. 9 (1900) 50-. 
, bad. Borgman, I. I., <& Petrovskij, A. A. 

C. B. 128 (1899) 1153- ; Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 31 

(Ps.) (1899) 229- ; Fschr. Ps. (1899) (Ab. 2) 

, calculation of capacity. Holden,H. Manch. 

Lt. Ph. S. Mm. & P. 1 (1888) 112-. 
-, system. Potier, A. J. de Ps. 6 (1897) 

238-. 
Dielectrics, effects of temperature and time on 

capacity and residual charge. Hopkinson, J. , 

& Wilson, E. Phil. Trans. (A) 189 (1897) 

109-. 
Electrometer, capillary. Kazankin, N. Bs. 

Ps.-C. S. J. 28 (Ps.) (1896) 15-; J. de Ps. 

6 (1897) 603. 
Experiments. Jenkin, F. B. A. Bp. 37 

(1867) 483-. 
K B law. Moon, W. Elect. Bv. 44 (1899) 

352-, 438-. 

. Anon. Elect. Bv. 44 (1899) 404. 

Leyden-jar. Thomson, (Sir) W. Ph. Mg. 9 

(1855) 531-. 
Metals. Gerard, F. (yi Adds.) V. Mons J. C. 

2 (1802) 30-. 
. Hitter, J. W. Gilbert A. 15 (1803) 106-. 



METHODS OF MEASUREMENT. 

Waghorn, J. W. W. [1888] L. Ps. S. P. 10 
(1890) 50- ; Ph. Mg. 27 (1889) 69-. 

Borgman, I. I., & Petrovskij, A. A. C. E. 
128 (1899) 420-. 

by air leyden (small capacities) . Kelvin, (Lord) . 
[1892] B. S. P. 52 (1893) 6-. 

alternating currents. Rowland, H. A. Am. 
J. Sc. 4 (1897) 429-. 

. Weber, H. F. A. Ps. C. 63 (1897) 

366-. 
. Rowland, H. A., & Penniman, T. D. 

J. H. Un. Cir. [17 (1897-98)] 51-; Am. J. 

Sc. 8 (1899) 35-. 

balance. Peukert, W. Elekttech. Z. 19 
(1898) 50-. 

compensation - methods. Bjerken, P. af. 

Stockh. Ofv. (1900) 57-. 
by Geissler's tube (small capacities). Borgman, 

I. I., & Petrovskij, A. A. Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 

31 (Ps.) (1899) 229- ; Fschr. Ps. (1899) (Ab. 

2) 462-. 

phase difference in branch circuits. Wachs- 
muth, R., & Bergwitz, K. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 7-. 

sensitiveness of skin. Bordier, H. C. B. 
121 (1895) 56-. 

Thomson's electrometer. Terquem, A. J. 
de Ps. 4 (1875) 143-. 



Insulation Resistance 5770 

by tuning-fork. Glazebrook, R. T. L. Ps. S. 
P. 6 (1885) 204- ; Ph. Mg. 18 (1884) 98-. 

Eings. Bulgakov, N. A. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 30 

(Ps.) (1898) 45- ; J. de Ps. 9 (1900) 50-. 
Bubber, effect of heat on capacity and resist- 
ance. Haver, W. (jun.) Elect. 27 (1891) 

463. 
Sphere inside spherical shell. Kempe, H. R. 

Tel. J. 2 (1873-74) 95. 
Spheres, 2 electrified. Greenhill, A. G. L. 

Mth. S. P. 10 (1878-79) 48-. 
Standards. Brit. Ass. Comm. B. A. Ep. (1881) 

423- ; (1882) 70- ; (1883) 41-. 
. Pellat, . Lum. Elect. 33 (1889) 383-. 
Wires. Moon, W. Elect. Bv. 43 (1898) 478-. 
, overhead. Heaviside, 0. Tel. E. J. 9 

(1880) 115- ; Elect. 15 (1885) 375. 
, . Masrin, E. A. Tel. 17 (1890) 499- ; 

18 (1891) 338-; C. E. 113 (1891) 68-; Par. 

S. Ps. Se. (1891) 204; A. Tel. 20 (1893) 

315-. 
, 2 parallel, calculation of capacity. Pomey, 

J. B. N. A. Mth. 8 (1889) 564-; Eclair. 

Elect. 19 (1899) 131-. 
, subterranean. Massin, E. A. Tel. [19] 

(1892) 517-. 
traversed by current. Vaschy, . C. B. 

119 (1894) 1198-. 



5770 Insulation Eesistance, De- 
termination. Location of Faults 
in Conductors. 

INSULATION BESISTANCE, DETEE- 
MINATION. 

Patterson, G. W. (jun.) Tel. J. 28 (1891) 752-. 
Froelich, 0. Elect. 30 (1893) 412-, 440-, 

474-. 

Campbell, A. Elect. 34 (1895) 7-. 
Apparatus, portable, for rapid measurement. 

Ducretet, E., & Lejeune, L. Par. S. Ps. 

Sc. (1893) 242-. 

CABLES. 

concentric, rupture of insulation in. Hanappe, 

S. Eclair. Elect. 25 (1900) 492-. 
copper resistance, by false-zero method. Ray- 
mond-Barker, E. Tel. J. 17 (1885) 311-, 

329-. 
, . Rimington, E. C. Tel. J. 

17 (1885) 392-. 
, . Raymond-Barker, E. Tel. 

J. 17 (1885) 490-. 
faults in manufacture. Wright, J. Elect. Ev. 

47 (1900) 605-. 
gutta-percha, electric properties. Behn-Eschen- 

burg, H. Ziir. Ps. Gs. Jbr. (1891) 9-. 
india-rubber, effect of heat. Maver, W. (jun.) 

Elect. 27 (1891) 463. 
joints, testing. Raymond- Barker, E. Elect. 

Bv. 42 (1898) 610. 
, . Constable, A. D. Elect. Ev. 43 (1898) 

37-. 



708 



5770 Insulation Resistance Location of Faults in Conductors 5770 

paper-insulated, tests. Hale, G. D. Elect. 

Ev. 40 (1897) 625. 
submarine, leakage correction. Murphy, W.J. 

Elect. 41 (1898) 519-. 
, testing copper resistance. Phillips, S. E. 

Tel. J. 1 (1872-73) 44-. 
, short lengths of wire in. Jenkin, H. C. 

F. (x) Tel. E. J. 2 (1873) 169-. 
testing, false-zero method. Sumpner, W, E. 

Elect. 20 (1888) 359-. 
underground. Graivinkel, C. Elect. 25 (1890) 

354-. 



Conductors of high potential currents, pre- 
cautions. S,, M. [1894] Z. Elekttech. 
Elektch. (1894-95) 196-. 

Electric light installations. Bathurst, F. Sc. 
Abs. 1 (1898) 508-. 

, insulation resistance standard. Ja- 

mieson, A. [1889] I. Elect. E. J. 18 (1890) 
45-, 89-. 

, . McWhirter, W. [1889] I. 

Elect. E. J. 18 (1890) 121-. 

, . Beckingsale, E. W. [1889] 

I. Elect. E. J. 18 (1890) 122-. 

, . Bright, C. [1889] I. 

Elect. E. J. 18 (1890) 123-. 

, . Jamieson, . [1889] I, 

Elect. E. J. 18 (1890) 125-. 

, . Nicholson, F. B. [1889] 

I. Elect. E. J. 18 (1890) 324-. 

, New Court Theatre, Vienna. Walten- 

hofen, A. von. Elect. 22 (1889) 428-. 

wires. Blake, L.,(& Radcliffe, H. [1889] 

Kan. Ac. Sc. T, 12 (1890) 44-. 

. Preece, W. H. [1891-92] I. Elect. 

E. J. 20 (1892) 605- ; 21 (1893) 185-, 191-, 
219-. 

Insulating sheet pierced by lightning, micro- 
scopic examination. Prinz, . [1884] 
Brux. S. Big. Mcr. Bll. 10 (1885) 152-. 

Insulation resistance and leakage currents. 
Russell, A. Elect. 41 (1898) 206-. 



INSULATORS. 

Ebonite, action of light on. McLeod, H. Nt. 

14 (1876) 525. 
Glass, insulation and chemical composition, 

relation. Ekman, F. L. [1869] Stockh. 

Ofv. 26 (1870) 805- ; Ph. Mg. 39 (1870) 

437-. 
Gutta-percha. Jenkin, F. B. S. P. 10 (1859- 

60) 409-. 
, insulation, variation with temperature. 

Jenkin, F. B. A. Ep. (1859) (pt. 2) 

248-. 
, , . Anon. Lum. Elect. 48 

(1893) 225-. 
, , and length of electrification. 

Zielinski, H. Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 25-, 

36-, 64-, 90-. 
India-rubber, effect of absorption of water. 

Miller, W. A. Elect. 1 (1862) 102-. 
'Limit of resistance. Cantoni, G. Mil. I. Lomb. 

Ed. 7 (1874) 263-. 



Variation with temperature. Sever, F. , Monell, 
A., (& Perry, C. L. Elect. 37 (1896) 

Storage batteries. Jacob, E. S. Elect. 35 

(1895) 855. 
Telegraph lines, old, absolute resistance. Hag- 

gers, J. A. Tel. 8 (1865) 437-. 
, resistance, measurement by differential 

filvanometer. Canter, 0. (xn) Elekttech. 
. 2 (1881) 16-. 
, testing. Heaviside, 0. Ph. Mg. 6 

(1878) 436-. 
, . Seligmann-Lui, , & Tongas, . 

A. Tel. 8 (1881) 216-, 273-. 
, . Preece, W. H. [1895] I. Elect. E. 

J. 24 (1896) 546-. 
and telephone lines, insulation. Wideman, 

C. C. E. 97 (1883) 852-. 
Tension, effect on insulation (especially in 

cables). Heim, C. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 

469-, 485-, 493-. 
Testing. Jamieson, A., <& Melhuish, T. W. W. 

Elect. 22 (1889) 467-, etc. 
, Price's guard-wire for. Ayrton, W. E., & 

Mather, T. L. Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 99- ; Ph. 

Mg. 49 (1900) 343-. 



LOCATION OF FAULTS IN CON- 
DUCTOES. 

Froelich, O. Elect. 30 (1893) 412-, 440-, 

474-. 
Armatures. Tinsley, H. Elect. 37 (1896) 

822-. 

CABLES. 

aerial or subterranean. Loir, . A. Tel. 13 

(1886) 481-. 
Blavier's test, formulae. Kennelly, A. E. 

Elect. 16 (1886) 267-. 
core, tests. Appleyard, R. [1900] L. Ps. S. 

P. 17 (1901) 104-. 

fault determination from one end only. Kings- 
ford, H. Tel. E. J. 14 (1885) 534-. 
with both ends available. Kingsford, H. 

Tel. E. J. 9 (1880) 459-. 
when 2 exist. Hockin, C. Tel. E. J. 9 

(1880) 206-. 
graphic method for, and elimination of effect 

of earth currents and polarisation. Winter, 

G. K., d- Winter, G. B. [1893] I. Elect.E. 

J. 22 (1894) 348-. 
high voltage, ' ' breaking down ' ' a fault. Anon. 

Elect. 37 (1896) 831. 
imperfectly insulated. Ditscheiner, L. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 83 (1881) (Ab. 2) 1084-. 
leakage estimated by galvanometer discharge 

deflections. Kempe, H. R. Tel. J. 23 

(1888) 515. 
and lightning conductors, Mance's method in 

testing. Tobler, A. Lum. Elect. 17 (1885) 

433-. 
partial earth in, localising without return wire. 

Anderson, J., <& Kennelly, A. E. Elect. 15 

(1885) 177-. 



709 



5770 Cables, Location of Faults Physiological Electricity 5900 



partial earth in, localising without return wire. 

Jamieson, A. Elect. 15 (1885) 195. 
submarine. Fahie, J. J. Tel. E. J. 3 (1874) 

372-. 

. Lacoine, E. Tel. E. J. 4 (1875) 97-. 
. Kempe, H. R. Tel. J. 4 (1876) 98-. 

(Kempe). Hockin, C. Tel. J. 4 (1876) 
220- , 233-. 

-. Deries, A. A. Tel. 12 (1885) 73-; 14 

(1887) 236-. 

. Cann, H. E. Elect. Bv. 39 (1896) 785-. 
, by Blavier- Jordan method. Dresing, P. C. 

Tel. J. 25 (1889) 550. 
, bridge measurement to instrument zero. 

Kennelly, A. E. Elect. 19 (1887) 480-, 

499-. 
, null-method. Schaefer, C. W. Elect. 

40 (1898) 17-. 
> earth overlap method. Kennelly, A . E. 

[1887] Tel. E. J. 16 (1888) 581-. 
, fault determination from 1 end only. Ry- 

mer-Jones, J. Elect. Bv. 40 (1897) 4-. 
, resistance. Kennelly, A. E. [1887] 

Tel. E. J. 16 (1888) 219-, 456-. 
, . Bright, C. [1887] Tel. E. J. 16 

(1888) 457-. 

, (Kennelly 's rule). Jamieson, A. 

Elect. 18 (1887) 567-. 
, leakage. Kempe, A. B. Tel. E. J. 4 (1875) 

90-. 
, partial disconnection. Kempe, H. R. Tel. 

J. 6 (1878) 70-. 
, earth in, potential fall test. Ansell, 

H. W., & Young, J. E. Elect. 22 (1889) 

530-. 
, potential fall test. Rymer- Jones, J. Elect. 

Ev. 35 (1894) 280-. 
, total breaks. Schaefer, G. W. Elect. 39 

(1897) 811-. 
subterranean, rapid determination by Bar- 

barat's method. Garraud, J. A. Tel. 25 

(1899) 289-. 
theory. Heaviside, O. Ph. Mg. 8 (1879) 60-, 

163-. 
used in electric power transmission, leakage. 

Sartiaux, A. C. B. 101 (1885) 1251-. 

Coils wound on bobbins. Campbell, A. Elect. 

33 (1894) 203-. 
Contact of 2 line wires. Cardarelli, F. Tel. 

E. J. 8 (1879) 443-. 
Contacts and earth-leakages, determination by 

measurements of resistance. Frohbose, C. 

Berl. Tel. Vr. Z. 10 (1863) 163-. 
Electric light circuits, earth faults. Pigg, J. 

Elect. 35 (1895) 576-. 
Fault common to 2 conductors. Wunschen- 

dorff, E. Lum. Elect. 32 (1889) 57-. 

localiser, direct-reading. Raphael, F. C. 
Elect. 38 (1897) 653-. 

resistance, measurement by voltmeter. 
Russell, S. A. Elect. Bv. 42 (1898) 251-. 

, variation. Winter, G. K. Elect. 19 

(1887) 145. 

testing apparatus, Mance's. Anon. Tel. J. 
16 (1885) 350-. 

Insulated wires. Warren, T. T. P. B. Ph. 
Mg. 47 (1874) 416-. 



Kennelly's method. Cann, H. E. Elect. Bv. 

37 (1895) 413-. 
Loop test. La Touanne, G. de. A. Tel. 13 

(1886) 357-. 
, application. Rymer-Jones, J. Elect. 

Bv. 39 (1896) 519. 
Networks, high tension. Raphael, F. C. Elect. 

34 (1895) 128-. 
, parallel. Hiecke, R. Elekttech. Z. 13 

(1892) 534-. 
Partial-earth test, duplex. Ayrton, W. E., & 

Perry, J. Tel. J. 5 (1877) 262-. 
Polarisation and earth currents, elimination. 

Mance, H. C. Tel. E. J. 13 (1884) 328-. 
Possibility of determination when more than 

1 fault exists. Brix, W. Berl. Z. Tel. 13 

(1866) 145-. 
Beturn circuits, testing. Nissley, L. Sc. Abs. 

3 (1900) 769-. 
Telegraph lines. Varley, C. F. B. A. Bp. 

(1859) (pt. 2) 252-. 

. Wach,J. Berl. Tel. Vr. Z. 10 (1863) 50-. 

. Brix, W. Berl. Tel. Vr.Z. 10(1863)65-. 

. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 

315-. 
, aerial, periodical testing. Blavier, E. E. 

A. Tel. 11 (1884) 412-, 492-. 
, by telephone. Sesemann, H. Elekttech. 

Z. 9 (1888) 161-. 
Underground mains. Quin, R. C. Elect. 39 

(1897) 437-. 



5900 Physiological Electricity. 
(See also Physiology 45004580.) 

Arsonval, A. d\ Lum. Elect. 33 (1889) 439-. 
Animal electricity. Volta, A. A. C. 23 (1797) 

276-. 
. Stirling, W. Manch. Mcr. S. T. (1888) 

xxiv-. 
, instruments for studying. Arsonval, 

A. d'. Lum. Elect. 24 (1887) 158-, 206- ; 

Bv. Sc. 48 (1891) 1-. 
Apparatus. Boudet de Paris, M. Par. S. Ps. 

Se. (1885) 60-. 
Autoconduction, or new method of electrifying 

living beings. Arsonval, A. d'. C. B. 117 

(1893) 34-. 
Bridge, differential induction-. Boudet de 

Paris, M. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1882) 11-. 
Common area principle. Engelmann, T. W. 

Utr. Oz. 2 (1893) 148-. 
Curative electricity. Lawrence, H. N. Elect. 

Bv. 31 (1892) 208-, 239, 262-, 282-, 330-, 

350-. 
Currents, alternating, means of diminishing 

danger. Claude, G. Elect. 32 (1894) 297-. 
, continuous, influence of direction. Onimus, 

E. N. J. [1878] Par. S. Bl. Mm. 5 (1880 

(C. R.) 147-. 
, induced, excitation at make. Courtade, D, 

Arch, de PI. 4 (1892) 369-. 
, , and break. Piotrowski, G. 

Arch, de PI. 5 (1893) 351-. 



710 



5900 Physiological Electricity Electrical Instruments Alarms 6000 



Currents, induced, of unequal physiological 
action but equal galvanometric effect. Dove, 
H. W. Pogg. A. 49 (1840) 72-. 

Dangerous pressures on electric railways (three- 
phase system). Rung, W. Nt. 62 (1900) 
399-. 

Dangers of electricity. Sprague, J. T. (et alii), 
Elect. 14 (1885) 150-, etc. 

. Perry, N. W. Tel. J. 27 (1890) 

234-, 263-. 

and uses of electricity. Lawrence, H. N., & 
Harries, A. Elect. 26 (1891) 582-. 

Death by electricity. Hedley, W. 8. Elect. 

Ev. 42 (1898) 207-. 
, cause. Hedley, W. S. Elect. Bv. 

46 (1900) 39-. 
Effects of allowing zinc and silver to touch in 

mouth. Hombres-Firmas, L. A. d\ Gard 

Not. Tr. Ac. (1809) 147-. 

alternating currents and variable state. 
Arsonval, A. d\ Par. S. Ps. 86. (1892) 
183-. 

current at make. Dubois, . C. B. 125 

(1897) 94-. 
. Hoorweg, J. L. Arch, de PI. 

10 (1898) 269-. 

high frequency alternating currents. 
Thomson, E. Tel. J. 28 (1891) 357-. 

. Arsonval, A. d\ Arch, de 

PI. 5 (1893) 401-. 
currents. Arsonval, A. d\ Arch. 

de PL 5 (1893) 789-. 

and high potential currents. 
Turner, D. [1893] Sc. S. Arts T. 13 
(1894) 335-. 

sinusoidal currents. Arsonval, A. d\ 

Arch, de PI. 4 (1892) 69-; 5 (1893) 387-. 

Electricity and life. Hahn, G. Ev. Quest. 
Sc. 39 (1896) 391-. 

, production by living beings. Arsonval, 
A. d\ Ev. Sc. 48 (1891) 1-; Lum. Elect. 
44 (1892) 160-, 207-. 

Human body, capacity, role in alternating cur- 
rent circuit. Metz, G. de. Fschr. Ps. (1899) 
(Ab. 2) 463. 

, electric conditions. Stone, W. H. Elect. 

16 (1886) 451-, 478-, 501-. 

, resistance. Lenz, E. [1840] St. P4t. 

Ac. Sc. Bll. 10 (*1842) 184-. 

, _. stone, W. H. Nt. 29 (1884) 528- ; 

30 (1884) 269-. 

, . (Delany's safety device for line- 
men.) Crawley, C. W. S., & Nalder, H. 
Elect. 21 (1888) 209-. 

, . Hoorweg, J. L. Utr. Prv. Gn. 

Aant. (1892) 7-. 

, . Mergier, . Par. S. Ps. S6. (1893) 

239-. 

, to induced currents, adjustment. 
Zwaardemaker, . Utr. Prv. Gn. Aant. 
(1890) 14-. 

, , influence of high temperature. 
Stone, W. H. Nt. 28 (1883) 151-, 463-. 

Medical applications of static electricity. 

Moeller, . Ev. Quest. Sc. 13 (*1883) 

78-. 
Medicine, electricity in. Allen, H. [1884] 

Franklin I. J. 119 (1885) 310-. 



Muscular electricity. Wright, J. Elect. Rv. 

41 (1897) 501-, 552-, 596-, 748-. 
Nerve currents, E.M.F. and direction. Men- 
delssohn, . Par. S. Ps. Se\ (1885) 90. 
Nerves, excitation by alternating currents, 

theory. Hermann, L. Pfliig. Arch. PI. 83 

(1901) 353-. 
Nervo-muscular reaction and form of electric 

excitation, relations. Arsonval, A. d\ Lum. 

Elect. 30 (1888) 563-. 
Pendulum contact clock, new form. Brodie, 

T. G. [1900] J. PI. 26 (1900-01) xi-. 
Shocks are due to intermittent currents, proof 

of theory. Pollock, T. [1838] (vi Adds.) 

Electr. S. P. (1837-40) 156-. 
Unipolar faradisation of nerves. Charpentier, 

A. Arch, de PI. 5 (1893) 699-. 
(motor nerves). Charpentier, A. 

Arch, de PI. 6 (1894) 294-. 
as physiological excitant. Charpentier, 

A. Arch, de PI. 5 (1893) 526-. 



ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS AND 
APPARATUS. 

6000 General. 

Page, C. G. Silliman J. 26 (1834) 110-. 
Belli, G. (vi Adds.) D. Nf. Vsm. B. 34 

(1858) 157. 
Bertin, A. [1866] Strasb. Mm. S. Sc. 6 

(1866-70) (livr. 1) [Mem. 4] 45-. 
Burckhardt, G. Carl Epm. 6 (1870) 282-. 
Lepaute, H. As. Fr. C. E. (1895) (Pt. 1) 

220-. 

ALARMS. 

Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] Cherb. Mm. S. Sc. 1 

(1852) 237. 

Digeon, L. A. Tel. 15 (1888) 348-. 
burglar-, Taussig's. Kohlfurst, L. Elekttech. 

Z. 7 (1886) 300-. 
for deleterious gases. Carpene, R. Conegliano 

Scuola Vit. En. A. 2 (1893) 39- ; Conegliano 

Scuola Vit. En. Ev. 1 (1895) 279-. 
fire-. Houdin, R. Les Mondes 11 (1866) 185. 
. Joly, A., (& Barbier, P. C. B. 78 (1874) 

425-. 
. Del Giudice, F. [1876] Nap. I. Inc. At. 

14 (1877) 51-. 
. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 2 

(*1880) 249-, 297-. 

. Nelius, . Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 214-. 
. Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 289-, 

313-. 
. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 4 

(*1881) 401-. 
. Bright, C. T. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 

285-. 

. Bright, E. B. Tel. E. J. 13 (1884) 51-. 
. Treuenfeld, R. von Fischer. [1888] Tel. 

E. J. 17 (1889) 258-. 
, Bartelous's. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 6 

(*1882) 341-. 



711 



6000 Blasting 



Applications of Electricity 



6000 



fire-, Ericson's system. Nystrom, C. A. Lum. 

Elect. 6 ("1882) 82-. 
, Piau's. Bleunard, A. Angers S. Sc. Bll. 

(1886) 83-. 
heat-. Goffin, J. Ev. Un. Mines 24 (1893) 

230-. 
low-water, for boilers. Brown, . Sc. Abs. 

1 (1898) 442. 
for railways. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.} Cherb. 

Mm. S. Sc. 4 (1856) 259-. 
self- interrupting, for continuous currents. 

Canter, 0. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 4 (1883) 

18. 

Alternating plants, secondary circuits in, de- 
sign. Thayer, G. L. Sc. Abs. 2 



Anti-vibration support. Julius, W. H. [1895- 

97] Amst. Ak. Vs. 4 (1896) 31- ; A. Ps. C. 

56 (1895) 151- ; J. de Ps. 6 (1897) 18-. 
. Einthoven, W. [1895] Amst. Ak. Vs. 

4 (1896) 38- ; A. Ps. C. 56 (1895) 161-. 
Apparatus, International Exhibition, Paris, 

1881. Pacinotti, A. N. dim. 15 (1884) 

266-. 
, , Vienna. Buti, G. Em. N. Line. 

At. 37 (1884) 169-. 
, Philadelphia Exhibition. Duche, G. Lum. 

Elect. 15 (1885) 314-. 
, Eio de Janeiro Observatory. Du Moncel, 

T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 481-. 
, U.S. battleships. Roller, F. W. [1898] 

Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 476. 

APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRICITY. 

Dumas, J. B. Par. Bll. S. Encour. 57 (1858) 

285-. 
Bright, (Sir) C. (vi Adds.) Lane. T. Hist. 

S. 3 (1862-63) 223-. 
Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. A. Ge"n. Civ. 4 

(1875) 407-. 

Deprez, M. A. Tel. 7 (1880) 269-. 
Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 3 (1881) 

65-, 81-, 129-, 145-. 
Cabanellas, . Par. Ing. Civ. Mm. (1887) 

(Pt. 1) 34-. 
(Theory and practice.) Siemens, A. [1893] 

E. I. P. 14 (1896) 27-. 
to agriculture. Caselli, G. Firenze Ac. Georg. 

At. 11 (1888) 347-. 
arts of precision. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. 

L. A. Gen. Civ. 6 (1877) 585-. 

Blasting by Electricity. 
Hare, R. [1832] Franklin I. J. 12 (1833) 

Merkes, . Miquel Bll. (1838) 130-. 

Roberts, M. J. [1838] Electr. S. T. (1837-40) 
77-. 

Morgan, H. K. G. Silliman J. 38 (1840) 33-. 

Roberts, M. J. [1843] W. Yorks. P. Gl. S. 
2 (1842-48) 126- ; L. Electr. S. P. (1843) 
356-. 

(Conducting power of water as applied to sub- 
marine explosions.) Hutchinson, G. R. B. 
E. Pp. 7 (1845) 33-. 



Limborch, G. F. van, Meersch, van der, & 

Schafer, J. H. (vm) Arnhem Ntk. 3 (1846) 

1-, 33-, 97-, 129-, 279-. 
Schmidhnber, H. Freiburg Jb. Berg- Hm. 

(1846) 1-. 

Castel, . A. Mines 2 (1852) 199-. 
(New system.) Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] C. B. 

37 (1853) 953-. 
Gdtzschmann, M. F. [1853] Giving. 1 (1854) 

42-. 

Verdu, G. Madrid Ev. 3 (1853) 159-. 
Savare, . Moigno Cosmos 4 (1854) 492-. 
Ebner, . Wien SB. 21 (1856) 85-. 
Anon, (vi 784) Madrid Ev. 6 (1856) 20-. 
Kuhn, C. Dingier 145 (1857) 186-, 270-, 346-, 

401- ; 146 (1857) 34-, 94-, 195- ; Munch. 

Gelehrte Az. 45 (1857) 217-. 
Abel, F. A., <& Wheatstone, C. (vn) E. E. 

Pp. 10 (1861) 89-. 
Parr an, A. A. Mines 4 (1863) 455-. 
Codazza, G. II Polit. 1 (1866) (Tech.) 489-; 

Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 3 (1866) 176 -. 
Guchez, F. Cuyper Ev. Un. 29 (1871) 239-. 
Kopp, C. Neuch. Bll. 9 (1871) 22-. 
Stotherd, (Major) . [1872] Tel. E. J. 1 

(1872-73) 209-. 

Abel, F. A. Tel. E. J. 3 (1874) 268-. 
Stotherd, (Lt.-Col.) R. H. Tel. E. J. 4 (1875) 

410-. 

Andre, G. G. [1878] Eng. S. T. (1879) 123-. 
Abel, F.A. C. N. 47 (1883) 205-. 
Richard, G. Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 371-, 

400-, 421-. 
E. A. Tel. 15 (1888) 255-. 

to determination of weight. Decharme, C. 

Lum. Elect. 19 (1886) 15-. 
in the dwelling. Macdonald, J. H. A. [1895] 

Sc. S. Arts T. 14 (1898) 93-. 
to engineering tools. Rowan, F. J. Glasg. '. 

Eng. T. 31 (1888) 181- ; 40 (1897) 159-. 

gunnery. Michaelis, 0. E. Franklin I. 
122 (1886) 17-, 81-. 

hoisting machinery. Bolton, R. Eng. S 
T. (1892) 79-. 

. Ritchie, J. [1892] Sc. S. Arts T 

13 (1894) 207-. 

industry. Davreux, P., <& Evrard, F 
Cuyper Ev. Un. 8 (1880) 415-. 

, Antwerp Exhibition, 1885. Libert, J 

Brux. A. Tr. Pbl. 44 (1886) 1-. 

large church organs. Du Moncel, T. A. L 
Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 2-. 

lighting of country houses. Drake, B. M 
[1898] Br. Archt. J. 6 (1899) 81-, 97-. 

and heating and motion. Fleury, A. L 

Franklin I. J. 42 (1861) 416. 
of towns and to metallurgy. Libert, J 

Brux. A. Tr. Pbl. 45 (1887) 1-. 

locomotion and metallurgy and horticulture 
Siemens, (Sir) C. W. Tel. E. J. 9 (1880 
278-. 

mechanics. Grove, W. R. (vi Adds. 
Majocchi A. Fis. C. 15 (1844) 233-. 

mining. Connolly, T. Manch. Gl. S. T 
18 (1886) 479-, 530-. 

. Chalon, . St. Et. Bll. S. In. Mn 

3 (1889) 711-. 



712 



6000 Applications of Electricity 

to mining. Chansselle, J. St. Et. Bll. S. In. 

Mn. 3 (1889) 727-. 
and metallurgy. Masson, E. Bv. Un. 

Mines 17 (1892) 121-. 

, Bocky Mountains. Hale, I. [18961 
Am. I. Mn. E. T. 26 (1897) 402-, 1071-. 

and smelting. Poech, F. J. Wien 
Berg- Hm. Jb. 32 (1884) 94-. 

naval and military purposes. Abel, F. A. 
' B. I. P. 5 (1869) 479-. 

navigation. Ledieu, A. C. H. C. B. 92 
(1881) 1318-. 

(aerial). Tissandier, G. Lum.Elect.il 

(1884) 84-. 
. Bennett, A. R. [1890] Sc. S. Arts T. 

12 (1891) 330-. 
. Deadman, H. E. I. ME. P. (1892) 

256-. 
. Essberger,. Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 

298-. 

practical. Solly, E. Phm. J. (1847) vi. 
. Bosanquet, R. H. M. Ph. Mg. 14 (1882) 

241-. 

. Preece, W. H. B. A. Bp. (1888) 781-. 
. Burstall, H. R. J. [1898] Br. Archt. J. 

6 (1899) 90-, 97-. 
to printing. Damon, G. A. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 

437-. 

pumping and haulage. Browning, E. A. 
[1892] Sc. S. Arts T. 13 (1894) 206-. 



Railways. 

Baillehache, E. de. As. Fr. C. B. (1891) (Pt. 2) 
Villa, A. Bv. Sc.-Ind. 16 



Electrical Devices 6000 

to study of phenomena of very rapid 
motion. Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 



10 



104- ; 4 (*1881) 58-, 267, 282-, 293. 

surgery. Tripier, A. Lum. Elect. 
(*1883) 531-. 

testing deflection of iron bridges. Marqfor, 
. Par. A. Pon. Chauss. 18 (1859) 74-. 

warfare. Fiske, B. A. Franklin I. J. 121 
(1886) 61-, 81-. 

. Perry, J. Nt. 61 (1899-1900) 541-. 



brake for trains. 

(1884) 295-. 
carriages, electric communication between. 

Cauderay, H. [1866] Laus. Bll. S. Vd. 9 

(1866-68) 329-. 
electric automatic application of vacuum brake , Adt's. Zetzsche, E. Elekttech. 

on locomotives. Kohlfiirst, L. Elekttech. Z. 7 (1886) 335-. 

Z. 6 (1885) 22-. , Napoli's. 



Balancing of engines. Whitcher, J. Sc. Abs. 

1 (1898) 443. 
Bell with counter-signal. Giltay, J. W. Mbl. 

Nt. (1882-84) 30-. 
, magnetic, for signalling in collieries. 

Corlett, G. S. Manch. Gl. S. T. 20 (1890) 

567-. 
Bells, automatic replacement indicator for. 

Stephen, J. [1886] Sc. S. Arts T. 12 

(1891) 33-. 

.trembling. Cauderay, H. [1867-69] Laus. 

Bll. S. Vd. 9 (1866-68) 348- ; 10 (1868-70) 

328. 
, , new system. Wennman, M. Tel. J. 20 

(1887) 27-. 
Block-apparatus, Winter's. Tobler, A. 

Elekttech. Z. 7 (1886) 31-. 
Bolting-machine. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. 

Elect. 5 (*1881) 129-. 
Calculating machine in electric computations. 

Warren, T. P. B. [1872] Tel. E. J. 1 

(1872-73) 141-. 
Census-taker. Cheysson, E. A. Tel. [19] 

(1892) 338-. 

Coils, double-wire. CJiaperon, G. Par. S. Ps. 

Se. (1890) 151-. 
Control apparatus for night watchmen. 

Cauderay, H. [1869-74] Laus. Bll. S. 

Vd. 10 (1868-70) 503- ; 13 (1874-75) 276-. 



protection of trains. Deguisne, C. Frkf. a. 

M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1898-99) 51-. 
signals. Treutler, G. A. Dingier 99 (1846) 

84-. 

-. Verite, . Moigno Cosmos 4 (1854) 20-. 
. Couche, C. A. Mines 7 (1855) 565-. 
. Walker, C. V. B. S. P. 8 (1856-57) 

418-. 
. Regnault, V. Par. Bll. S. Encour. 57 

(1858) 782-. 

-. Frischen, C. Berl. Tel. Vr. Z. 9 (1862) 

. 'Vincenzi, E. N. Cim. 15 (1862) 30-. 

. Hattemer, H., & Kohlfiirst, L. (xn) 

Elekttech. Z. 1 (1880) 309-. 
. Bellati, M. (et alii). Ven. I. At. (1891-92) 

369-. 
, and fog-signals. Kohlfiirst, L. Elekttech. 

Z. 6 (1885) 245-. 
, marine signals. Rudall, J. T. [1882] 

Viet. B. S. T. 19 (1883) 124-. 

to riveting. Kodolitsch, F. von. Nv. Archt. T. 
40 (1898) 16-. 



Kohlfiirst, L. 

Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 72-. 
Cranes, port of Le Havre. Delachanal, E. 

Par. Ing. Civ. Mm. (1895) (Pt. 1) 520-. 
Diaphragm apparatus. Quincke, G. Pogg. A. 

108 (1859) 507. 
Distributing systems, earthing certain portions. 

Wordingham, C. H. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 983-. 
Dynamic electricity. Marks, W. D. [1885] 

N. Y. Ac. T. 5 (1885-86) 89-. 
, apparatus for. Billet, [F.] A. C. 42 

(1854) 168-. 
Edison central station, Berlin. Miller, 0. von. 

Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 325-, 510-. 
Electric installations (leads). G. Elekttech. 

Z. 9 (1888) 12-, 84-. 
. Bochet, A. Eclair. Elect. 10 (1897) 

385-, 437-, 484-. 
in Blanzy mines. Goichot, . St. Et. 

Bll. S. In. Mn. 13 (1899) 179-. 
on the Bouvines. Prat, (It.) E. Bv. 

Mar. et Col. 127 (1895) 475-. 
Bugeaud. Cloarec, (It.) P. Bv. 

Mar. et Col. 131 (1896) 237-. 

713 L 2 



6000 



Electric Traction 



Railways 6000 



Electric installations, loss of electricity. Ep- 

stein, J. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1892-93) 

34-. 
__ , -- potential. Deguisne, C. [1897] 

Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1897-98) 49. 
__ t , measurement. Lecomte, F. 

Brux. S. Sc. A. 21 (1897) (Pt. 1) 24-. 
__ of refrigerating plant. Anon. Sc. Abs. 

2 (1899) 486. 
__ (light) at St. Etienne. Gidel, . A. 

Tel. 14 (1887) 402-. 
-- in Tyrol, etc. Klemencic, . Innsb. Nt. 

Md. B. 24 (1899) xx-. 
-- on war ships. Grove, C. E. I. Elect. 

E. J. 29 (1900) 530-. 

ELECTRIC TRACTION. 

Ayrton, W. E. Tel. J. 12 (1883) 158-, 226-. 
Jones, M. E. Tasm. E. S. P. (1891) 72-. 
Smith, M. H. [1891] Sc. S. Arts T. 13 (1894) 

257-. 

Dierman, . A. Tel. 20 (1893) 129-. 
Bamber, E. F. Nt. 49 (1893-94) 567-. 
Baylor, A. K. [1897] I. Elect. E. J. 26 

(1898) 344-, 395-. 
Gerard, E. [1897] Bv. Quest. Sc. 43 (1898) 

107-. 

Walckenaer, C. A. Mines 11 (1897) 379-. 
Carus-Wilson, C. A. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 

266-. 

Parshall, H. F. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 417. 
Liegeois, E. A. Cond. Pon. Chauss. 44 (1900) 

420-. 

Luxenberg, . [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 274-. 
Monmerque, A. As. Fr. C. E. (1900) (Pt. 2) 

336-. 
automobile batteries. Sieg, E. [1900] Sc. 

Abs. 4 (1901) 210-. 
boats. Thompson, S. P. Nt. 26 (1882) 554-. 

, Aire and La Deule canals, France. 
Genard, H., <6 Chenu, E. Brux. A. Tr. 
Pbl. 5 (1900) 231-. 

, Bourgogne canal, France. Mailliet, V., 
& Dufourny, A. Brux. A. Tr. Pbl. 1 (1896) 
561-. 

on canals. Bovet, A. de. Par. Ing. Civ. 
Mm. (1895) (Pt. 1) 40-. 

--- . Witz, A. Ev. Quest. Sc. 42 (1897) 

101-. 
--- . Van der Wallen, . [1898] Sc. 

Abs. 2 (1899) 258-. 

, Finow canal, Germany. Chenu, E., 
& Lambin, A. Brux. A. Tr. Pbl. 4 (1899) 
919- ; 5 (1900) 415-. 

, submarine torpedo. Tuck, . Ev. Mar. 
et Col. 83 (1884) 568-. 

buffer batteries for. Gebhard, L. [1899] Sc. 

Abs. 3 (1900) 154-. 

cableways. Lamb, R. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 525. 
calculation of distributing systems. Sayers, 

H. M. I. Elect. E. J. 29 (1900) 692-. 
carriages. Zacharias, J. Elekttech. Z. 7 

(1886) 
current 

8 (1895) No. 16, 33 pp. 
Forth and Tay bridges. Mais, H. C. [1886] 

S. Aust. E. S. T. 9 (1887) 228-. 



-. 

t supply. Villani, F. Nap. I. Inc. At. 
895) No. 16, 



at high speed. Crosby, . Ev. Sc. 48 (1891) 

high-tension direct-current. Blondel, A. Sc. 

Abs. 1 (1898) 303-. 
launches. Reckenzaun, A. V. Nost Eng Mg 

30 (1884) 360-. 
locomotives. Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 2 

(*1880) 410-, 453-, 473. 
. Heilmann, J. J. Par. Ing. Civ. Mm. 

(1893) (Pt. 1) 45-. 
. MacMahon, P. V. I. Elect. E. J. 28 

(1899) 508-, 609-. 
, Heilmann system. Drouin, F. Par. Ing 

Civ. Mm. (1896) (Pt. 1) 807-. 
in mines. Libert, J. Brux. A. Tr. Pbl. 48 

(1891) 385-; 51 (1894) (Mem.) 131-. 
polyphase motors in. Steinmetz, C. P. Sc 

Abs. 1 (1898) 300. 
problems. Bell, L. Elect. 23 (1889) 223-, 

250-. 
progress, 1872-97. Dawson, P. Elect. Ev. 

41 (1897) 676-. 



Siemens, A. J. Tel. 5 (1881) 113- ; Tel. E. J. 

10 (1881) 360-. 
Ayrton, W. E. [1882] E. I. P. 10 (1884) 

Rodary, F. A. Tel. 12 (1885) 481- ; 13 (1886) 

113-, 209-. 
Meyer, 0. E. Bresl. Schl. Gs. Jbr. (1893) 

(Ab. 2a) 52-. 

Jacquemier, R. G&u. Civ. 26 (1894-95) 405-. 
Epstein, J. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1895-96) 

48, 48-. 
Marchena, E. de. Par. Ing. Civ. Mm. (1896) 

(Pt. 2) 201-. 
Meyer, G. W. [1897-98] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

Lanino, P. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 631-. 
Armstrong, J. H. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 134. 
Kdndo, K. von. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 209- 
Berlin. Hospitalier, E. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880 

46-, 231-. 
"booster" system. Woodbridge, J. L 

Franklin I. J. 145 (1898) 374-. 
electropneumatic. Jobard, . J. Gen. Civ 

14 (1846) 136-. 
Florence to Fiesole. Sheibner, C. P. I. CE . P 

106 (1891) 248-. 
Lichterfelde. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 

(*1881) 85-. 
metropolitan. Dawson, P. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899 

415-. 
Metropolitan Eailway. Evershed, S. Elect 

21 (1888) 439-, 499-, 553-. 
motors, rating, and temperature rise. Lundie 

J. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 136-. 
mountain-. Medebielle, P. As. Fr. C. E 

(1900) (Pt. 2) 297-. 
multiple unit system for. Sprague, F. J 

[1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 156. 
return feeders for. Bohm-Raffay, B. Sc. Abs 

2 (1899) 805-. 
telpher and electric, Edinburgh Exhibition 

Manville, E., & Statter, J. G. [1890] Sc 

S. Arts T. 12 (1891) 341-. 



714 



6000 Tramways 



Electric Transmission of Energy 6000 



use of dynamos. Siemens, E. W. von. (xn) 

Elekttech. Z. 1 (1880) 47-. 
. Cardew, (Lt.) P. Tel. E. J. 10 

(1881) 111-. 

secondary batteries for. Fitzgerald, D. G. 

Elect. Bv. 38 (1896) 365-, 436-, 462-, 587-, 

682-. 
speed limits. Sabine, R. Tel. J. 12 (1883) 

497-. 
steam engines for. Hague, C. A. [1899] Sc. 

Abs. 3 (1900) 108. 

street cars. Martin, T. C. [1886] Rail- 
road & Eng. J. 61 (1887) 111-. 
surface contact system. Walker, M. I. Elect. 

E. J. 28 (1899) 240-. 
, Demeuse. Pierard, E. Sc. Abs. 

1 (1898) 176-. 

Tramways. 

Blanchart, C. Rv. Un. Mines 19 (1886) 371-, 

520- ; 20 (1886) 379-, 559-. 
Bast, 0. de. Rv. Un. Mines 33 (1896) 241- ; 

35 (1896) 144-. 
Cardew, (Maj.) P. [1898] I. Elect. E. J. 27 

(1899) 460-. 
Deguisne, C. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. 

(1898-99) 47-. 
with conductors at level of earth. Lordereau, 

. [1896] Lyon S. Ag. A. 4 (1897) 

xlviii-. 
distribution systems for. Van Vloten, . 

[1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 461-. 
earth returns for. Parshall, H. F. [1898] I. 

Elect. E. J. 27 (1899) 440-, 464-. 
generation of energy for. Eaworth, J. S. 

[1897] I. Elect. E. J. 26 (1898) 432-, 470-. 
Lausanne. Gonin, L. Brux. A. Tr. Pbl. 2 

(1897) 373-. 
load diagrams. Reckenzaun, A. [1892] I. 

Elect. E. J. 21 (1893) 293-, 322-. 
Lyons Exhibition. Busquet, R. [1894] Lyon 

S. Ag. A. 2 (1895) liv-. 
Northfleet. Anon. Nt. 40 (1889) 39-. 
resistance to motion, and power of electric 

machinery. Guillemin, . Laus. S. Vd. 

fill. 30 (1894) xxxiv-. 
return feeders for. Trotter, A. P. [1898] I. 

Elect. E. J. 27 (1899) 457-, 464-. 
Thomson-Houston system. Violi, A. Rv. 

Sc.-Ind. 25 (1893) 3-. 
Zurich to Hirslanden, Tudor accumulators in. 

Anon. Rv. Sc.-Ind. 26 (1894) 161-. 

triphase. Scott, E. K. I. Elect. E. J. 28 

(1899) 108-. 
.Neuchatel. Ritter,R.B. [1897] Sc. Abs. 

1 (1898) 234-. 
, Zermatt. Honig, W. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

461-. 
use of accumulators. Volta, A. Rv. Sc.-Ind. 

25 (1893) 215-. 
. Zerner, R. Gen. Civ. 33 (1898) 

158-, 174-. 



ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION OF 
ENERGY. 

Brooke, C. R. S. P. 15 (1867) 408-. 
Boulard, J. Rv. Sc. 17 (1879) 457-. 
Thomson, E., & Houston, E. J. Franklin I. J. 

77 (1879) 36-. 
Rossigneux, . St. Et. Bll. S. In. Mn. 10 

(1881) 853-. 

Siemens, A. J. Tel. 5 (1881) 113-. 
Cabanellas, G. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1882) 204-. 
Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 7 (*1882) 424-, 

448-. 
Gibbs, G., <& Gibbs, W. E. V. Nost. Eng. Mg. 

27 (1882) 247-. 

Levy, M. A. Pon. Chauss. 3 (1882) 225-. 
Allard, E. A. Pon. Chauss. 6 (1883) 417-. 
Bertrand, J. A. Tel. 10 (1883) 89-. 
Cabanellas, G. Par. Ing. Civ. Mm. (1883) (1) 

179-, 485-. 
Boistel, G. Par. Ing. Civ. Mm. (1883) (1) 

330- . 
Comberousse, H. de. As. Fr. C. R. 12 (1883) 

1101-. 
Deprez, M. C. R. 96 (1883) 1574- ; Lum. Elect. 

8 (*1883) 5. 
Frolich, 0. Tel. J. 12 (1883) 217-, 240-, 

8 (*1883). 

Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 361-. 
Moser, J. C. R. 96 (1883) 779-. 
Vanderpol, A. [1883-84] Lyon S. Ag. A. 6 

(*1884) 141- ; 7 (1885) xxii-. 
Cabanellas, G. Les Mondes 7 (1884) 332-, 

381- ; 8 (1884) 98-. 

Clausius, R. A. Ps. C. 21 (1884) 385-, 712. 
Deprez, M. Rv. Sc. 33 (1884) 161-. 
Nipher, F. E. Science 4 (1884) 315. 
Deprez, M. C. R. 101 (1885) 791-, 1248- ; 

Lum. Elect. 18 (1885) 3-, 55-, 99-, 155-, 

199-. 
Greenhill, J. H. Belfast NH. S. Rp. & P. 

(1884-85) 22-. 
Juppont, P. [1885] Gen. Civ. 8 (1885-86) 

91-. 

Luce, R. V. Nost. Eng. Mg. 32 (1885) 154-. 
Manceron, . C. R. 101 (1885) 1483-. 
Deprez, M. Sch. Nf. Gs. Vh. (1885-86) 44-. 
Fontaine, H. Par. S. Ps. S^. (1886) 192-. 
Levy, M. C. R. 103 (1886) 314-. 
Amsler-La/on, J., & Brown, C. E. L. [1887] 

Tel. E. J. 17 (1889) 80-. 
RUhlmann, R. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 229-. 
Ayrton, . Elect. 21 (1888) 598-. 
Borgman, I. Rs. Ps.-C. S. J. 20 (Ps.) (1888) 

245. 
Rothwell, R. P. [1888] Am. I. Mn. E. T. 17 

(1889) 555-. 
RUhlmann, C. M. Hann. Archt.-Vr. Z. 34 

(1888) 350-. 
Weinberg, J. [1888] Mosc. S. Nt. Bll. 3 (1890) 

436-. 

Deprez, M. C. R. 109 (1889) 394, 455-. 
Saltzmann, W. Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 66-. 
Lahmeyer, W. Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 79- ; 

Hann. Archt.-Vr. Z. 35 (1889) 234-. 



715 



6000 



Electric Transmission of Energy 



6000 



Sprague, F. J. Franklin I. J. 127 (1889) 161-, 

254-. 
Kampeling, de. As. Fr. C. B. (1890) (Ft. 2) 

228-. 
Buron, 0. Par. Ing. Civ. Mm. (1891) (Ft. I) 

633-. 

Ettingshausen, A. von. Steierm. Mt. (1891) 1-. 
Kapp, G. Elect. 27 (1891) 277-, 308-, 363-, 

393-, 416-, 445-, 477-. 
Steavenson, A. L. [1891] N. Eng. I. Mn. E. 

T. 40 (1892) 93- ; 41 (1893) 162-. 
Griffin, E. Franklin I. J. 134 (1892) 169-. 
Gronberg, T. Riga Cor.-Bl. 35 (1892) 51-. 
Morris, A. S. Eailroad & Eng. J. 66 (1892) 

217-. 
(East Howie colliery.) Palmer, H. [1892] 

N. Eng. I. Mn. E. T. 41 (1893) 51-; 42 

(1893) 5-. 
Garnett, W. [1892] N. Eng. I. Mn. E. T. 41 

(1893) 282-. 

Eis, . Bern Mt. (1892) xv- 
Mordey, W. M. Fed. I. Mn. E. T. 5 (1893) 

420-. 
Zollikofer, . [1893] St. Gal. B. (1893-94) 

91-. 
Siemens, A. [1894] N. Eng. I. Mn. E. T. 44 

(1895) 205-. 
Dumont, G., d- Baigneres, G. G6n. Civ. 30 

(1896-97) 133-, 149-, 162-, 181-, 196-, 

211-, 229-, 245-, 259-, 274-, 292-, 306-, 

324-, 339-, 358-. 

Seller, C. Am. Ph. S. P. 38 (1899) 49-. 
by alternating currents. Forbes, G. [1883] 

Edinb. B. S. P. 12 (1884) 141-. 
. Leblanc, M. C. E. 109 (1889) 

172-. 
. Hutin, M., & Leblanc, M. Lum. 

Elect. 40 (1891) 201-, 257-, 311-, 372-, 

418-, 463- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1891) 184-. 
, calculations. Behn-Eschenburg, H. 

Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 535-, 558-. 
, compensation of drop. Berg, E. J. 

Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 436. 

of different phase. Dolivo- 
Dobrowolsky, M. von. Elekttech. Z. 12 
(1891) 149-, 161-. 

, difficulties. Du Bois-Eeymond, A. 
Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 1-, 60. 

, effect of harmonics. Eowland, H. A. 

[1892] Elect. 30 (1893) 192-. 
, line-effects. Raymond, H. E. [1897] 

Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 230-. 
, maximum efficiency. Blakesley, 

T. H. L. Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 85- ; Ph. Mg. 

25 (1888) 30-. 
analogy with thermal transmission. Schmidt, 

G. [1882] Wien Ak. Sb. 86 (1883) (Ab. 2) 

194. 
in Belgium. Leconte, F. A. Tel. 22 (1895) 

of , cataracts. Prompt, . [1894-97] I. 

Egypt. Bll. 5 (1895) 415- ; 8 (1898) 129-. 
versus compressed air. Bayet, . Ev. Un 

Mines 13 (1891) 166-. 
. Gerard, E. Ev. Un. Mines 13 

(1891) 185-. 
. Kristensen, K. S. Ts. Ps. C. 30 

(1891) 65-, 97-. 



versus compressed air and water. Weissenbruch, 

L. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 18 (1886) 197. 
continuous versus alternating currents. 

EiiMmann, E. Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 

397-. 
. Oberbeck, . N.-Vorp. Mt. 24 

(1892) xi-. 
by continuous and alternating currents, copper 

saving. Bedell, F. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 982. 
currents. Egger, E. Elekttech. Z. 13 

(1892) 137-. 

. Vaschy, . C. E. 120 (1895) 80-. 

. Hecht, J. S. Elect. 38 (1897) 683-. 

. Cuenod, H., d- Thury, E. Sc. Abs. 

3 (1900) 508-. 
, Thury system. Wieshofer, C. Sc. 

Abs. 1 (1898) 455. 
Deprez's experiments. Cornu, A. C. E. 96 

(1883) 992-. 
(Cornu). Cabanellas, G. C. E. 96 

(1883) 1363-. 

. Boulanger, [J.] C. E. 97 (1883) 628-, 

749- ; Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 321-. 
. Herz, C. Lum. Elect. 8 (*1883) 161-, 

271-. 
. Bertrand, J. Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 

194-. 
. Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 11 (1884) 

46-. 
. Vanderpol, A. Lyon S. Ag. A. 6 

(1884) 169-. 

and distribution. Siemens, (Sir) C. W. L. 

Ps. S. P. 3 (1880) 52-; Ph. Mg. 7 (1879) 

352-. 
. Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 

309- ; A. C. 25 (1882) 289-. 
. Frdlich, 0. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 3 

(1882) 69-, 113-. 
. Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 11 (1884) 

(by transformers). Piazzoli, E. Ev. 

Sc.-Ind. 17 (1885) 321-, 366-. 
(Lauffen to Frankfort). Hospitaller, E. 

[1891] A. Tel. [19] (1892) 40-. 
. Kennedy, E. Glasg. I. Eng. T. 35 

(1892) 221-. 

(by polyphase currents). Eeckenzaun, 

A. Elect. Ev. 30 (1892) 552-, 599-, 789-; 

31 (1892) 784-. 
. Goichot, L. [1893] I. Elect. E. J. 22 

(1894) 445-. 
(Lauffen to Heilbronn, by polyphase 

currents). Jacquin, C. Lum. Elect. 48 

(1893) 301-, 370-. 

. Duncan, L. Smiths. Ep. (1896) 207-. 

. Dumont, G., & Baigneres, G. Par. 

Ing. Civ. Mm. (1897) (Ft. 2) 437-. 

, (by alternating currents). Leblanc, M. 
Eclair. Elect. 17 (1898) 425-, 473-, 509-, 
547-; 18 (1899) 123-, 161-, 249-, 376-, 
488- ; 20 (1899) 171-, 205-, 253-, 292-, 
404-, 447-, 498-. 



716 



6000 Distribution of Energy Long Distance Transmission 6000 

regulation. Marie, G. A. Mines 13 (1888) 5-. 
system of Gaulard and Gibbs. Geraldy, F. 

Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 496-. 
, new. Kennedy, R. Tel. J. 28 (1891) 236-, 

264-, 305-, 361-, 393-, 454-, 523-. 
use of condensers. Jablochkoff, P. C. E. 85 

(1877) 1098-. 



Distribution of Energy. 

Deprez, M. C. B. 93 (1881) 892-, 952-. 
Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 253-, 279-. 
Sprague, F. J. B. A. Bp. (1882) 448-. 
Cabanellas, G. As. Fr. C. B. (1884) (Pt. 2) 

115-. 
Ayrton, W. E., & Perry, J. [1886] Tel. E. J. 

15 (1887) 142-, 352-. 
Reignier, C. Lum. Elect. 29 (1888) 55-. 
Leblanc, M. Lum. Elect. 33 (1889) 101-, 166-, 

220-, 263-, 287-, 358 7 . 
Anney, J. P. Lum. Elect. 48 (1893) 101- , 

323-, 472-, 570-. 

Ellinger, H. 0. G. Ts. Ps. C. 32 (1893) 161-. 
Deguisne, C. [1897] Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. 

(1897-98) 49-. 

Hoopes, M. [1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 106. 
Kennedy, R. Elect. Bv. 41 (1897) 712-. 
Ayrton, W. E. Nt. 62 (1900) 296-. 
by alternating currents. Smith, T. C. Elect. 

20 (1888) 546-. 

. Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 40 

(1891) 608-. 
. Snell, A. T. [1893] I. Elect. E. J. 

22 (1894) 280-, 320-. 
. Imhoff, C. L. Elekttech. Z. 15 

(1894) 638-. 
. Ferraris, G., <& Anib, R. Eclair. 

Elect. 8 (1896) 18-. 
. Swing, S. E. T. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 

(1899) 330. 
, "dewatted" current in. Blondel, 

A. Eclair. Elect. 8 (1896) 400-. 
continuous versus alternating currents. 

Leonard, H. W. Elect. 20 (1888) 604-. 
by continuous currents. Bernstein, A. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 10 (1889) 506-. 
. Wilking, F. Elekttech. Z. 11 

(1890) 8-, 28-, 41-, 286-. 

cost. Crompton, R. E. B. I. CE. P. 106 

(1891) 2-. 

. Hammond, R. [1898] I. Elect. E. J. 27 

(1899) 246-, 396-. 
by electricity, water and gas. Segundo, 

E. C. de. Eng. S. T. (1894) 143-. 
Germany. Laffargue, J. A. Tel. 25 (1899) 

557-. 

graphic calculation. Dihlmann, C. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 10 (1889) 148-. 
laws, graphic representation. Henry, L. d'. 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1888) 285-. 
in mines. SneU, A. T. [1890] Fed. I. Mn. 

E. T. 1 (1892) 141- ; 2 (1892) 94-, 149-. 
. Bennett, A. W. [1893] Fed. I. Mn. 

E. T. 6 (1894) 366-. 
Niagara. Epstein, J. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. 

Jbr. (1895-96) 47-. 
Paris. La/argue, J. I. Elect. E. J. 24 

(1896) 651-. 

by 3-phase currents. Montmollin, A. de. 

Neuch. S. Sc. Bll. 23 (1895) 198-. 
polyphase currents. Kennedy, R. Elect. 

Bv. 31 (1892) 308-. 
. Routin, J. L. Eclair. Elect. 11 

(1897) 439-. 



efficiency. Cabanellas, G. Les Mondes 2 

(1882) 458-, 530-. 
. Sohncke, L. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 4 (1883) 

159-. 
and limit. Levy, M. C. E. 93 (1881) 

709-. 
. Cabanellas, G. Les Mondes 2 

(1882) 376-, 418-. 
and electric lighting, systems of wires for. 

Pelletier, H. A. Tel. 16 (1889) 262-. 
electrolytic hydrogen method. Fonti, L. Bm. 

N. Line. Mm. 5 (1889) 97-. 
equations. Deprez, M. C. B. 96 (1883) 777-. 
in factories. Siemens, A. Am. Eng. & Bail- 
road J. 68 (1894) 164-. 
. Aldrich, W. S. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 

982-. 
by high tension currents. Cabanellas, G. 

Les Mondes 5 (1883) 9-. 
. Poech, F. Oestr. Z. Brgw. 39 

(1891) 246-. 

. (Long distance transmission.) 

Behn-Eschenberg, . Elekttech. Z. 15 

(1894) 261-. 
. Sckulz, E. Elekttech. Z. 15 

(1894) 278-. 
, Colorado. Scott, F. [1898] Sc. 

Abs. 2 (1899) 330-. 
.St.Croix. Floy,H. [1900] Sc. 

Abs. 4 (1901) 330-. 
for lighting. Siemens, (Sir) C. W. [1882] Nt. 

27 (1883) 67-. 



Long Distance Transmission. 

Achard, A. [1878] A. Mines 15 (1879) 54-. 
Cadiat, . Par. S. Ps. Se. (1878) 70-. 
MacDonnell, A. [1878] Dubl. S. Sc. P. 2 

(1880) 1-. 

Tresca, H. E. C. E. 88 (1879) 1061-. 
Witz, A. Bv. Quest. Sc. 8 (*1880) 353-. 
Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 179-, 246-; 

C. E. 94 (1882) 434. 
Levy, M. C. B. 94 (1882) 517-. 
Sarcia, J. Lum. Elect. 7 (*1882) 22-. 
Delaurier, E. Les Mondes 4 (1883) 511-. 
Gueroult, G. Ev. Sc. 5 (1883) 240-. 
Guillemin, . [1885] Laus. S. Vd. Bll. 22 

(1887) iii. 
Mallie, (capit.) A. Bv. Mar. et Col. 89 (1886) 

374-. 
Friese, R. M. [1891] Offenb. Vr. Nt. B. 

29-32 (1892) 175-. 
Chavannes, R. Neuch. S. Sc. Bll. 22 (1894) 

33-. 
Dumant, G., Baigneres, G., < Lencauchez, A. 

Par. Ing. Civ. Mm. (1894) (Pt. 2) 762-. 
(12 miles.) Leggett, T. H. [1894] Am. I. 

Mn. E. T. 24 (1895) 315-, 853-. 



717 



6000 



Electric Transmission of Energy 



Souter, . [1896] I. Egypt. Bll. 7 (1897) 

255-. 
Forbes, G. [1898-1900] Elect. 42 (1899) 233- ; 

I. Elect. E. J. 29 (1900) 629-. 
by alternating currents. Esson, W. B. Elect. 

38 (1897) 751-, 796-. 
Chambly to Montreal. Archibald, E. M. Sc. 

Abs. 3 (1900) 440-. 
Heilbronn to Frankfort-a.-M. May, 0. A. 

Tel. 18 (1891) 431-. 
Kriegstetten to Solothurn. Weber, H. F. Ziir. 

Vjschr. 32 (1887) 289-. 
. Hagenbach-Bischoff, E. Sch. Nf. 

Gs. Vh. (1887-88) 46-. 
Lauffen to Frankfort. Braun, . [1891] 

Wiirtb. Jh. 48 (1892) Ixviii-. 
. Piining, . Westf. Vr. Jbr. (1891) 

(Th. 2) 113-. 
Paris to Creil. Marinovitch, B. Lum. Elect. 

18 (1885) 241-, 296-, 344-, 387-, 432. 

(Deprez's experiments). Levy, M. 
A. Pon. Chauss. 12 (1886) 597-. 

. Eiihlmann, R. Elekttech. Z. 7 

(1886) 380-. 
regulation. Cory, C. L. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 

981. 
. Perrine, F. A. C. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 981-. 

of pressure. Berg, E. J. [1898] Sc. Abs. 
2 (1899) 74. 

by telegraph wires. Deprez, M. C. R. 95 

(1882) 633- 
, Deprez's experiments. Du Moncel, 

T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 7 (*1882) 337-. 
, . Hospitaller, E. Tel. J. 11 

(1882) 367, 414, 495 ; 12 (1883) 106-. 
, . Levy, M. C. E. 95 (1882) 

1220-. 
, . DM Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. 

Elect. 8 (*1883) 129-. 
, . Tresca, H. E. C. E. 96 

(1883) 457-, 530-. 

, limits. Hospitalier, E. Par. S. Ps. 

Se. (1883) 110-. 
Tivoli to Eome. Marcillac, P. Lum. Elect. 

50 (1893) 7-, 156-, 209-. 

in marine engineering and shipbuilding. 

Kodolitscli, F. von. Nv. Archt. T. 38 

(1897) 297-. . 
versus mechanical methods. Beringer, A. 

(xn) Elekttech. Z. 4 (1883) 513-. 
in mines. Bague, , <& Charousset, . St. 

Et. Bll. S. In. Mn. 11 (1882) 5-. 
. GraiUot, . St. Et. Bll. S. In. Mn. 

11 (1882) 89-. 
. Poech, F. Oestr. Z. Brgw. 31 (1883) 

141-, 161-, 174-. 
. Schulz, W. S. [1884] Tel. E. J. 14 

(1885) 163-. 
. Demaret, L. Ev. Un. Mines 14 (1891) 

50-. 
. Faivelay, . St. Et. Bll. S. In. Mn. 

5 (1891) 485- ; 7 (1893) 487-. 
- . Bigge, D. S. [1892] N. Eng. I. Mn. 

E. T. 41 (1893) 58- ; 42 (1893) 5-. 
. Forgie, J. T. Fed. I. Mn. E. T. 7 

(1894) 121-, 344-, 584-; 8 (1895) 201-. 



6000 

Fed. I. Mn. E. 



in mines. Mountain, W. C. 

T. 9 (1895) 14-, 465. 

. Esson, W. B. I. CE. P. 135 (1899) 54-. 

minimum E.M.F. Carhart, H. S. [1885] 

Elect. 16 (1886) 113-. 
in navigation. Wallace, W. C. Glasg. I. Eng. 

T. 38 (1895) 181-. 
past and future. Cabanellas, G. Les Mondes 

6 (1883) 453-. 
by polyphase currents. Scott, C. F. Elect. 

32 (1894) 640-. 
. Boucherot, P. I. Elect. E. J. 24 

(1896) 215-. 

, in mining. Fenn, E. J. N. Z. Pp. 

& Ep. (Mn.) (1899) C 3, 178-. 
progress, 1872-97. Kennedy, R. Elect. Ev. 

41 (1897) 652-. 
regulation. Bovet, de. A. Mines 15 (1889) 

. Chaize, , & Chaize, . As. Fr. C. E. 

(1897) (Pt. 2) 241-. 

of dynamo. Deprez, M. C. E. 108 (1889) 
645-; Lum. Elect. 32 (1889) 51-. 

by rotating magnetic fields. Start, T. 
Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 309-. 

series-dynamos. Fontaine, H. C. E. 103 
(1886) 727-, 870-. 

. Deprez, M. C. E. 103 (1886) 788-. 
in shops. Dimick, H. G. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

173. 
versus steam and water. Emery, C. E. 

Franklin I. J. 142 (1896) 165-. 
and storage of power. Siemens, (Sir) C. W. 

Nt. 27 (1883) 518-. 
by telegraph wires. Rothen, T. Bern Mt. 

(1877) (Ab.) 71-. 
transformation, etc. Cabanellas, G. C. E. 93 

(1881) 210-. 



Electricity in America. Leflaive, J. Bv. 
Mar. et Col. 122 (1894) 481- ; 123 (1894) 
339-. 

for auxiliaries on board ship. Greene, S. D. 
Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 326-. 

, use at Ackton Hall colliery. Durnford, 
H. St. J., & Holiday, R. [1897] Fed. I. 
Mn. E. T. 13 (1898) 232- ; 14 (1898) 74. 

Electro-dynamic apparatus (capstan) for agri- 
cultural purposes. Chizzolini, G. St. Sp. 
Ag. It. 17 (1889) 547-. 

Electromagnetic apparatus. Delarive, A. A. 
[1821] (ix) Meisner Az. 5 (1823) 25-. 

. Joslin, B. F. Silliman J. 21 (1832) 86-. 

. Gloesener, M. Liege Mm. S. Sc. 1 

(1843) 194-. 

. DuBois,H. Berl.Ps.Gs.Vh.(1898)97-. 

counter. Wartmann, E. Bb. Un. Arch. 12 
(1861) 28. 

indicator. Qnekett, J. Sturgeon A. Electr. 
3 (1838-39) 486-. 

machinery. Aldrich, W. S. Franklin I. J. 
133 (1892) 130-, 214-. 

peal of bells. Gruel, C. A. Pogg. A. 
(1846) 293-. 

pointer. Noel, G. C. E. 93 (1881) 544- 



718 



Electrical Instruments and Apparatus, General 6000 



6000 



Electromagnetic safety coupling, Siemens and 
Halske's. Eichter, E. Elekttech. Z. 12 
(1891) 49-. 

speed-indicator. Claude, G. Sc. Abs. 1 
(1898) 97-. 

target. Jacobi, M. H. St. Pe"t. Ac. Sc. Bll. 
6 (1863) 327-. 

Electrostatic apparatus. Boudreaux, . Par 

S. Ps. 86. (1891) 122-. 

Elongations, small, 3 methods for measure- 
ment. Ercolini, G. N. Cim. 10 (1899) 

241-. 
Fire damp and coal dust, danger of explosion 

by use of electricity in mines. Heise, F., 

& Thiem, . Bv. Un. Mines 43 (1898) 

63-. 
indicators. Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 2 

(*1880) 458-. 
-. Guerout, A., & Magneville, de. 

Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 87-, 101-, 133-. 
. Emmott, W., & Ackroyd, W. L. 

Ps. S. P. 8 (1887) 69- ; Ph. Mg. 22 (1886) 

145-. 
Future development of appliances. Perry, J. 

Nt. 24 (1881) 19-. 
Gas-regulators. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. 

Elect. 1 (*1879) 181-. 
Gauge for small screws. Brit. Ass. Comm. B. 

A. Rp. (1882) 311-. 
Governors. Napoli, D. Lum. Elect. 2 

(*1880) 476-. 
. Milller, H. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 603-. 

for hydraulic motors. Rieter, E. H. Sc. 
Abs. 1 (1898) 361. 

Gyroscopes. Trouve, G. Lum. Elect. 37 

(1890) 428-. 
. C heron, (It.) J. Bv. Mar. et Col. 127 

(1895) 5-. 

Ignition, electric. Wenderoth, E. Z. Berg- 

H.- Salw. 45 (1897) (Ab.) 245-. 
Induction apparatus, distribution of heat and 

work in. Leroux, F. P. C. B. 68 (1869) 

1211-. 

explorer, Hughes's surgical. Du Moncel, 
T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 219-. 

Industrial developments. Oberbeck, . N.- 

Vorp. Mt. 22 (1891) xxi-. 
Insulated wire, mean radius of coils. Rayleigh, 

(Lord). Camb. Ph. S. P. 4 (1883) 32i-. 
Insulating support. Thompson, S. P. [1883] 

L. Ps. S. P. 5 (1884) 352-; Ph. Mg. 17 

(*1884) 134-. 
Insulation, wire-, new method. Geoffroy, H. 

C. B. 95 (1882) 331-. 
Insulators, Brooks's. Gaugain, J. M. A. 

Tel. 2 (1875) 48-, 383-; 3 (1876) 565-. 
Joule's apparatus, examination. Ghorlton, 

J. D. E. S. P. 59 (1896) 345-. 
Key for electric conductors. Beetz, W. 

Munch. Ak. Sb. 10 (1880) 457-. 
Laboratory apparatus. Kollert, J. Elekttech. 

Z. 19 (1898) 141-. 
Levers for electric apparatus, form. Isely, M. 

Neuch. Bll. 5 (1859-61) 535-. 
Machinery for mines. Kennedy, R. [1895] 

Fed. I. Mn. E. T. 10 (1896) 98-, 457- ; 11 

(1896) 125-, 228-. 



Machinery, U.S. navy. Woodward, J. J. 

[1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 276-., 
Machines, comparison. Mascart, E. C. R. 76 

(1873) 1011-. 
, . Rossetti, F. Yen. I. At. 1 (1874-75) 

615-. 
, graphic method of calculation. Schaefer, 0. 

Dingier 315 (1900) 175-. 
Magneto-electric and electromagnetic apparatus 

and experiments. Page, C. G. Silliman J. 

35 (1839) 252-. 
. Abbot, J. H. Silliman J. 

40 (1841) 104-. 

experiments, apparatus for. Gherardi, S. 
Bologna N. Cm. 2 (1836) 294-. 

Magneto-electricity for lighthouses. Holmes, 

F. H. Elect. 4 (1863) 66-, 81-, 92-. 
Manufacture, 1872-97. Price, W. A. Elect. 

Ev. 41 (1897) 634-. 
Motion indicator. Gamier, . Lum. Elect. 

5 (*1881) 224-. 
Niagara Falls plant (aluminium cables). 

Dunlap, 0. E. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 734. 

power system, development. Woodbridge, 
J. E. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 444-. 

Oscillating systems, elementary notions. 

Armagnat, H. Eclair. Elect. 7 (1896) 395-, 

446-. 
Pendulum applied to electric measurements. 

Prytz, X. Kjtfb. Ov. (1896) 362-. 

with several threads, application to gravity, 
electrometer and galvanometer measure- 
ments. Guglielmo, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. 
Ed. 4 (1895) (Sem. 2) 163-. 

Phase-turning apparatus for use with electro- 
static voltmeters. Campbell, A. [1900] L. 
Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 607-. 

Propeller, apparatus for counting and deter- 
mining direction of rotations of. Cadiou, L. 
Ev. Mar. et Col. 136 (1898) 91-. 

Pump, Lambrecht. Barry, , & Baudot, P. 
St. Et. Bll. S. In. Mn. 11 (1897) 599-. 

Bail bonds, voltmeter tests. Norris, H. H. 
[1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 158. 

Eepeating melograph. Carpentier, J. Lum. 
Elect. 5 (*1881) 202- ; Par. S. Ps. 86. (1882) 
161-. 

Safety apparatus for steam-boilers, Schwartz- 
kopff's. Kohlfilrst, L. Elekttech. Z. 7 
(1886) 123-. 

signals for steam-engines, Siemens and 
Halske's. Anon. Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 
49-. 

Screens, transparent, conducting, for sensitive 
indicators. Ayrton, W. E., & Mather, T. 
[1894] I. Elect. E. J. 23 (1895) 376-, 

Siderophore, galvanic trough apparatus. Pohl, 

G. F. Kastner Arch. Ntl. 14 (1828) 273-. 
Signalling apparatus. Frischen, . Elekttech. 

Z. 8 (1887) 53-. 

, Castelli's. Kohlfurst, L. Elekttech. 

Z. 5 (1884) 494-. 

for gas-engines. Kohlrausch, W. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 8 (1887) 191-. 

Silk-loom. Faraday, M. [1860] E. I. P. 3 
(1858-62) 271-. 



719 



6000 Electrical Appliances Electrometers and Electroscopes 6005 



Speed of motion of writing, measurement. 
Binet, A., & Courtier, . Par. S. Bl. Mm. 
45 (1893) (C. R.) 219-. 

regulators for electric instruments. Du 
Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 8 (1883) 
460-, 497- ; 9 (*1883) 33-, 65-, 97-. 

and torque of motor, apparatus for measure- 
ment. Boucherot, . [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 
(1899) 314-. 

Standardisation of electrical engineering plant. 

Sellon, R. P. I. Elect. E. J. 29 (1900) 291-, 

315-. 
Steam indicator. Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 4 

(*1881) 12-. 
Steering gear. Richard, G. Lum. Elect. 19 

(1886) 601-. 

. Pfatischer, M. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 158-. 
Storage system. Houston, E. J., & Thomson, 

E. Franklin I. J. 78 (1879) 388-. 
Synchronism. Deprez, M. C. E. 90 (1880) 

915- ; Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 238- ; Par. S. 

Ps. Se\ (1880) 48- ; C. E. 97 (1883) 1193-. 
Thermopile apparatus for detecting approach 

of objects at sea. Herberts, H. [1898] Sc. 

Abs. 2 (1899) 137. 
Time ball, Lisbon. E., C. Elekttech. Z. 7 

(1886) 423-, 456-. 

indicator, electromagnetic. Sturrock, W. 
[1892] Sc. S. Arts T. 13 (1894) 163-. 

measurement, dead-beat apparatus for. 
Christiani, A. A. Ps. C. (Erganz.) 8 (1878) 
556-. 

regulation, Osnaghi system. Kareis, . 
Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 445-. 

signals. Carhart, H. S. Science 3 (1884) 
401. 

, distribution. Hell, P. H. (jun.) 
Science 2 (*1883) 823. 

, . M. Science 3 (1884) 59. 

, . Sesemann, H. Elekttech. Z. 14 

(1893) 212. 

on German coasts. Foerster, W. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 8 (1887) 272-. 

Triphase machinery. Venable, W. M. Sc. 
Abs. 1 (1898) 442-. 

Tuning-fork with adjustable note. Neesen, F. 
fieri. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1886) 115- ; Elekttech. Z. 
8 (1887) 188-. 

Uniting phosphorbronze wires in the cold, 

r posed method. Milller, . Elekttech. 
9 (1888) 114-. 
Valve. Riess, P. T. Berl. Mb. (1868) 503-. 

for steam, gas and water pipes. Berg, E. 
Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 647-. 

Volt-ampere and horse-power, relation. 

Rothen, . J. Tel. 8 (1884) 161-. 
Volta-faradaic apparatus. Redslob, . C. E. 

67 (1868) 530-. 
Vote recorder. Daville, Saint- A. A. Tel. 8 

(1881) 230-. 
Water-level indicators. Du Moncel, T. A. L. 

Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 181-, 201- ; 3 (*1881) 

257- ; 5 (*1881) 113-, 149-, 245-. 

. Fein, W. E. Carl Epm. 17 (1881) 

183-. 
. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 

384-. 



Water-level indicators. Hefner -Alteneck, F. von. 

(xn) Elekttech. Z. 2 (1881) 84-; 3 (1882) 

102- ; 4 (1883) 495-. 
. Schdffler, 0. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 

2 (1881) 179-. 

. Magneville, de. Lum. Elect. 6 

(*1882) 124-. 

. Otto, . As. Fr. C. E. (1891) 

(Pt. 1) 180-. 
. Anon. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 

134-. 
Water-power electric plants in United States. 

Washington, B. C. (jun.) Franklin I. J. 

148 (1899) 161-. 
Wave indicator for ships. Anon. Elekttech. 

Z. 14 (1893) 331-. 

measurer. Grawinkel, C., <& Strecker, K. 
Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 6-. 

Weighing and recording machine. McGarvey, 

E. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 5. 
Wind power, production of electric currents by. 

Blyth, J. [1892] Sc. S. Arts T. 13 (1894) 

173-. 



6005 Electrometers and 
Electroscopes. 

(See also 5740.) 

Bifilar balance. Harris, (Sir) W. S. B. A. 
Ep. (1835) {pt. 2) 17; Phil. Trans. (1836) 

Electroareometer. Michelson, V. A. Es. Ps.-C. 
S. J. 20 (Ps.) (1888) 50- ; A. Ps. C. 34 (1888) 
1038-. 

ELECTEOMETEES. 

Priestley, J. [1772] Sturgeon A. Electr. 7 

(1841) 333-. 

Cadet de Gassicourt, C. L. A. C. 37 (1800) 68-. 
Lawson, H. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 11 (1801) 251-. 
Negro, S. dal. Mod. Mm. S. It. 11 (1804) 

623-. 

Behrens, G. B. Gilbert A. 23 (1806) 24-. 
Hare, R. Silliman J. 7 (1824) 347-; 8 (1824) 

99-. 
Harris, (Sir) W. S. [1831] Edinb. E. S. T. 12 

(1834) 206-. 

Peltier, A. A. C. 62 (1836) 422-. 
Orsted, H. C. Kiob. Ov. (1840) 24 ; Pogg. A. 

53 (1841) 612-. 

Romershausen, E. Pogg. A. 69 (1846) 71-. 
Volpicelli, P. Em. At. 11 (1857-58) 37-, 114-, 

253-, 311-, 423-. 
Thomson, (Sir) W. B. A. Ep. 37 (1867) 

489-. 

Clark, L. (ix) Tel. E. J. 2 (1873) 20-. 
Brown, J. B. A. Ep. (1881) 562-. 
Rudanowsky, A. P. Fschr. Ps. (1890) (Ab. 2) 

471-. 
Christiansen, C. Kitfb. Ov. (1893) 101- ; A. Ps. 

C. 48 (1893) 726-. 
Armagnat, H. Eclair. Elect. 8 (1896) 591-. 



720 



6005 Absolute Electrometers 



ABSOLUTE ELECTROMETERS. 

Lippmann, . C. E. 102 (1886) 666-. 
Bichat, E., & Blondlot, R. C. E. 102 (1886) 

753-; 103 (1886) 245-; Nancy S. Sc. Bll. 

(1886) (Fasc. 20) 25-. 

Pinto, L. Nap. Ac. Pont. At. 17 (1887) 147-. 
Cardani, P. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 7 (1891) 

(Sem. 2) 259-. 
Bichat, E., & Blondlot, R. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 

28 (1892) 40-. 
(Shvedov's.) Geric, A. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 26 (Ps.) 

(1894) 249- ; J. de Ps. 4 (1895) 581-. 
bifilar. Jaumann, G. D. Nf. Vh. (1891) 

(Th. 2) 44-; Wien Ak. Sb. 101 (1892) (Ab. 2a) 

83-. 
. Borgesius, A. H. Z. Instk. 14 (1894) 

438-. 
construction, simple. Guglielmo, G. Em. E. 

Ac. Line. Ed. 2 (1893) (Sem. 2) 78-. 
and guard-ring condensers. Curie, P. C. E. 

115 (1892) 1068- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1892) 377-. 
for high potentials. Kollert, J. Elekttech. Z. 

9 (1888) 241-. 
. Abraham, H., & Lemoine, J. C. E. 

120 (1895) 726- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1895) 97- ; 

Eclair. Elect. 3 (1895) 433-. 

lecture purposes. Braun, F. Nt. 46 (1892) 
150. 

sine-. Minchin, G. M. B. A. Ep. (1881) 

558. 
for small potential differences. Perot, A., & 

Fabry, C. G. E. 124 (1897) 180- ; Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1897) 57- ; J. de Ps. 7 (1898) 317- ; 

A. C. 13 (1898) 404-. 
theory. Pionchon, J. Bordeaux S. Sc. Mm. 

5 (1890) Ixxix-; J. de Ps. 9 (1890) 231-. 

air-. Coward, B. W. Sturgeon A. Electr. 4 

(1839-40) 402-. 
bifilar. Battaglini, G. Nap. Ed. 5 (1866) 

265-. 
, and bifilar curve. Volpicelli, P. Em. At. 

N. Line. 17 (1864) 331- ; 18 (1865) 1-, 279-; 

C. E. 61 (1865) 418-. 

induction-. Palmieri, L. [1863-64] Nap. 
Ed. 2 (1863) 290- ; (x) Nap. Ac. At. 2 (1865) 
No. 6, 6 pp. 

, Palmieri's, Cantoni's modification. Grassi, 

G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 9 (1876) 147-. 
, , . Palmieri, L. Nap. Ed. 15 

(1876) 177-. 
, , (Palmieri). Volpicelli, P. [1876] 

Em. E. Ac. Line. T. 1 (1877) 14-. 
, , Volpicelli's modification. Palmieri, L. 

Nap. Ed. 7 (1868) 121-. 
calibration. Shea, D. W. Am. J. Sc. 35 (1888) 

204-. 

CAPILLARY ELECTROMETERS. 

Lippmann, G. A. C. 5 (1875) 494-. 

Gore, G. [1879-80] E. S. P. 30 (1880) 32- ; 

31 (1881) 295- ; 32 (1881) 85-. 
Debrun, E. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1880) 63-. 
Hepperger, J. von. [1880] Wien Ak. Sb. 82 

(1881) (Ab. 2) 840-. 



Capillary Electrometers 6005 

Chervet, A. C. E. 97 (1883) 669-; A. C. 1 

(1884) 256-. 
Navrdtil, B. Casopis 20 (1891) 177- ; Fschr. 

Ps. (1891) (Ab. 2) 460. 
Zorawski, M. Kosmos (Lw.) 18 (1893) 45-. 
Gouy, . J. de Ps. 3 (1894) 264-. 
Burch, G. J. Elect. 37 (1896) 380-, 401-, 

435-, 472-, 514-, 532-. 

Hermann, L. Pfliig. Arch. PL 63 (1896) 440-. 
(Hermann.) Burch, G. J. [1896] E. S. P. 

60 (1897) 329-. 
Burgess, C. F. [1898] Elect. Ev. 43 (1898) 

336 ; Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 40-. 
Vanni, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 7 (1898) 

(Sem. 1) 309-. 
calibration. Burch, G. J. [1895] E. S. P. 

59 (1896) 18-. 
capacity. Bouty,E. C. E. 118 (1894) 1196- ; 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1894) 236-. 
. Kazankin, N. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 28 (Ps.) 

(1896) 15- ; J. de Ps. 6 (1897) 603. 
disturbances. Martius, F. [1883] (xn) Berl. 

Ps. Gs. Vh. 2 (1884) 47-. 
and dropping electrodes. Moser, J. C. E. 108 

(1889) 231-. 
. Meyer, G. A. Ps. C. 53 (1894) 

845-. 

, location of potential difference in. 

Meyer, S. Wien Ak. Sb. 105 (1896) (Ab. 2a) 

139-. 
effect of alternating E.M.F. Brunhes, B. C. E. 

120 (1895) 613-. 
experiments. Pratt, J. H. (jun.) Am. J. Sc. 

35 (1888) 143-. 
horizontal. Claverie, C. Bordeaux S. Sc. 

Mm. 5 (1883) 387-. 

. Chervet, A. J. de Ps. 3 (1884) 258-. 
for lecture experiments. Lachlnov, D. A. 

(xn) Es. C. Ps. S. J. 9 (Ps.) (1877) [_(Pt. 1)] 

53-. 
Lippmann's. Hoorweg, J. L. (xn) Mbl. Nt. 

6 (1876) 85-, 124- ; 7 (1877) 86-. 
. Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 4 (1880) 

202-. 
, influence of conductivity on indications. 

Einthoven, W. Mbl. Nt. (1894-95) 61-; 

Pfliig. Arch. PI. 60 (1895) 91-. 
, measurement of rapid potential variations 

by. Burch, G. J. [1890] E. S. P. 48 (1891) 

89-. 
, . Einthoven, W. Mbl. 

Nt. (1893-94) 109- ; Pfliig. Arch. PL 56 

(1894) 528-. 
, portable model. Berget, A. Lum. Elect. 

37 (1890) 63- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1891) 56-. 
, registration of movements. Einthoven, W. 

Pfliig. Arch. PL 79 (1900) 26-. 
, theory. Einthoven, W. [1899] Amst. Ak. 

Vs. 8 (1900) 177-, 256; Amst. Ak. P. 2 

(1900) 108-. 
method of increasing range. Whitmore, J. 

Am. J. Sc. 44 (1892) 64-. 
phenomena. Behn, U. A. Ps. C. 61 (1897) 

748-. 
portable. Westien, H. Z. Instk. 17 (1897) 

137-. 
response to induction shocks. Samojloff, A. 

Pliste. Es. 1 (1898-99) 123-. 



721 



6005 Electrometers 

theory. Meyer, G. A. Ps. C. 45 (1892) 508-. 
Schreber, K. A. Ps. C. 53 (1894) 109-. 
time-relations of excursions. Burch, G. J. 
[1891] Phil. Trans. (A) 183 (1893) 81-. 

commutators for. Borgman, I. I. (xn) Rs. 

Ps.-C. S. J. 13 (Ps.) (1881) [Ft. 1] 123-. 
compensation-. Ostwald, W. Z. Ps. C. 1 

(1887) 403-. 
construction. Hankel, W. G. Leip. B. (1850) 

dead-beat form. Carpentier, J. C. R. 104 

(1887) 1694-. 
Dellmann's. Kohlrausch, R. Pogg. A. 72 

(1847) 353- ; 74 (1848) 499-. 
. Dellmann, F. Pogg. A. 86 (1852) 524-. 
, condenser in connection with. Kohlrausch, 

E. Pogg. A. 75 (1848) 88-. 
, scale value. Nipher, F. E. St. Louis Ac. 

T. 5 (1892) 303-. 
, theory. Rober, J. A. W. Pogg. A. 89 

(1853) 283-. 
depending on electric strains in quartz. Curie, 

J., <& Curie, P. C. R. 106 (1888) 1287-. 
disc-. Edelmann, M. T. Carl Rpm. 16 (1880) 

466-. 
discharge-. Piltschikow, N. D. Fschr. Ps. 

(1899) (Ab. 2) 546. 

dry pile. Mousson, A. Bb. Un. 7 (1837) 402-. 
Ebert and Hoffmann's, for high potentials. 

Bdumler, C. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 1015-. 
guard-ring-. Fitzgerald, G. F. Dubl. S. Sc. 

P. 2 (1880) 372. 
. Jaumann, G. Wien Ak. Sb. 95 (1887) 

(Ab. 2) 651-. 
highly sensitive. Margchaux, P. L. Gilbert 

A. 15 (1803) 98-. 
. . Bohnenberger, G. C. Tiibinger Bl. 1 

(1815) 380-. 
history. Pellissier, G. Lum. Elect. 33 (1889) 

16-, 73-, 111-, 178-. 

idiostatic. Barus, C. Ps. Rv. 4 (1897) 400-. 
. Anon. Elect. Rv. 46 (1900) 334. 
, sensitive. Righi, A. Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 

4 (1894) 99-. 

improved gold leaf. Nicholson, W. Nichol- 
son J. 1 (1797) 270-. 
induction-. Righi, A. (xi) N. Cim. 7 & 8 

(1872) 123-. 
magnet-. Morrison, . B. A. Rp. (1838) 

(pt. 2) 74. 
, Morrison's. Bachhoffner , G. H. [1838] 

(vi Adds.) Electr. S. P. (1837-40) 142. 
, . Woods, R. C. Sturgeon A. Electr. 2 



, . Moore, J. V. Sturgeon A. Electr. 2 

(1838) 374-. 
, . Anon. [1838] (vi 763) Electr. S. P. 

(1837-40) 143-. 
Mascart's. Maggi, G. A., <& Ascoli, M. Mil. 

I. Lomb. Rd. 12 (1879) 607-. 
, application to measurement of energy of 

variable currents. Stankiewitsch, B. W. 

Fschr. Ps. (1894) (Ab. 2) 536. 
, modification for atmospheric electricity 

observations. Roiti, A., & Pasqualini, L. 

Firenze R. I. Pb. [11] (1884) 10 pp. ; [13] 

(1886) 10 pp. 



Quadrant Electrometers 6005 

mirror-, for high potentials. Heydweiller, A. 
Z. Instk. 12 (1892) 377-. 

modification of single leaf. Hare, R. Frank- 
lin I. J. 12 (1833) 2-. 

Oersted's. Dellmann, F. Pogg. A. 55 (1842) 
301-. 

optical, for high potentials. Pockels, F. D. 
Nf. Vh. (1897) (Th. 2, Hdlfte 1) 56-. 

Peltier's. Casa, L. della. Bologna Rd. (1851- 
52) 69-. 

pendulum-, experiments. Mayer, A.M. Am. 
J. Sc. 39 (1890) 327-. 

QUADRANT ELECTROMETERS. 

Munro, J. (x) Tel. E. J. 2 (1873) 339-. 
Hopkinson, J. L. Ps. S. P. 7 (1886) 7- ; Ph. 

Mg. 19 (1885) 291-. 
Donati, L. Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 8 (1887) 

327-. 

Ryan, H. J. Am. As. P. (1889) 132. 
Ayrton, W. E., Perry, J., <& Sumpner, W. E. 

[1891] Phil. Trans. (A) 182 (1892) 519-. 
Dolezalek, F., <& Nernst, W. [1896] Z. 

Elektch. (1896-97) 1-. 
aperiodic. Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 22 

(1886) 17-, 57-, 145-. 

, without magnet and after-effect. Hall- 
' wachs, W. Gott. Nr. (1895) 122-. 
ballistic. Gouy, . C. R. 110 (1890) 1125-. 
5-cellar. Haga, H. [1898] Amst. Ak. Vs. 7 

(1899) 79- ; Amst. Ak. P. 1 (1899) 56-. 
of constant sensitiveness. Hartwich, A. A. 

Ps. C. 35 (1888) 772-. 
correction. Mendenlw.ll, T. C. Am. As. P. 

(1888) 86. 
cylinder-. Edelmann, M. T. Carl Rpm. 15 

(1879) 461-. 
, Edelmann's. Anon. Tel. J. 14 (1884) 

45-. 
damper for. Haga, H. Fschr. Ps. (1895) 

(Ab. 2) 540. 
experiments. Hallwachs, W. A. Ps. C. 29 

(1886) 1-. 

for high potentials. Voller, A. D. Nf. Tbl. 

(1887) 233; Hamb. Nt. Vr. Ab. 10 (1887) 
No. 6, 26 pp. ; A. Ps. C. 34 (1888) 286-. 

highly sensitive. Guglielmo, G. Rm. R. Ac. 

Line. Rd. 6 (1890) (Sem. 2 228-. 

. . Dolezalek, F. Z. Instk. 17 (1897) 65-. 
limiting deviation. Chauveau, A. B. J. de 

Ps. 9 (1900) 524-. 
modification. Guglielmo, G. Rv. Sc.-Ind. 19 

(1887) 122-. 
. Elster, J., d- Geitel, H. A. Ps. C. 64 



tests. Gouy, . J. de Ps. 7 (1888) 97-. 
Thomson's. Benoit, R. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1877) 25-. 
, modifications. Villari, E. Nap. I. Inc. 

At. 5 (1892) No. 4, 11 pp. 
, . Himstedt, F. A. Ps. C. 50 (1893) 

752-. 
, as wattmeter and voltmeter. Wilson, E. 

R. S. P. 62 (1898) 356-. 
use with alternating currents. Ledeboer, P. H., 

& Maneuvrier, G. Lum. Elect. 26 (1887) 

151-. 



g. A. 96 (1855) 513-. 
ingier 150 (1858) 202-. 
Carl Epm. 14 (1878) 708-. 
Ph. Mg. 21 (1861) 452-. 
Blondlot, R. Nancy S. Sc. 



6005 Electrometers 

use as differential instrument. Arno,R. Em. 

E. Ac. Line. Ed. 3 (1894) (Sem. 2) 152-. 
---- -. Eisler, H. Elekttech. Z. 16 

(1895) 255-. 

and graduation. Ledeboer, P., < Man- 
euvrier, G. C. E. 105 (1887) 571- ; Par. S. 
Ps. Se. (1887) 222-. 

-- (Ledeboer and Maneuvrier). Hall- 
wachs, W. C. E. 106 (1888) 598. 

for measuring horse-power given to any part 
of circuit by intermittent light. Perry, J. 
[1881] Nt. 25 (1882) 198. 

sine-. Kohlrausch, E. Pogg. A. 88 (1853) 
497-. 

. Riess, P. Po 

. Heidner, G. 

. Schneider, E. 
siphon-. Tate, T. 
for small charges. 

Bll. (1885) xxxvi. 
spring-balance, for lecture experiments. Mayer, 

A. M. Am. J. Sc. 39 (1890) 513-. 
standard, for land and marine telegraphy. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. [1866] Glasg. Ph. S. 

P. 6 (1868) 64-. 

tangent-. Carl, P. Carl Epm. 10 (1874) 68-. 
theory. Mascart, E. E. N. J. de Ps. 6 (1877) 

169-. 

, and use as wattmeters, voltmeters, etc. 
Morelli, E. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 24 (1889) 22-. 

Thomson's. Angot, A. J. de Ps. 4 (1875) 
297-, 324-. 

. Holmgren, K. A. A. Ps. C. 154 (1875) 
630- . 

portable. Gerland, E. Carl Epm. 6 (1870) 
13. 

torsion-, Kohlrausch's. Gerland, E. Bonn 

SB. Niedr. Gs. (1868) 71-. 
use. Parrot, G. F. Gilbert A. 61 (1819) 

263-. 

to determine direction in which spark passes 
in conductor. Marianini, S. (vin) N. A. 
Sc. Nt. 9 (1843) 353-. 

as indicator in titrating acids and bases. 
B&ttger, W. Z. Ps. C. 24 (1897) 253-. 

to measure current, polarisation and re- 
sistance. Fuchs, F. A. Ps. C. 156 (1875) 
156-. 

with voltaic cells. Guglielmo, G. Tor. Ac. 
Sc. At. 16 (1880) 337-. 

as wattmeters. Blondlot, R., & Curie, P. 
C. E. 107 (1888) 864-; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1888) 
358-. 

-- (Blondlot and Curie's electrometer). 
Atkinson, L.B.,& Wilberforce, L. R. Elect. 
22 (1889) 261, etc. 

--- . Swinburne, J. L. Ps. S. P. 11 
(1892) 122- ; Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 504-. 



Electrometric and electroscopic observations. 

Volpicelli, P. G. Arcad. 6 (1857) 2- ; C. E. 

46 (1858) 533- ; 48 (1859) 954-. 
experiments. Vassalli-Eandi,A. M. [1790] 

Turin Mm. Ac. (1790-91) 57-. 
. Gotz, H., <& Kurz, A. Exner Epm. 

23 (1887) 313-. 



Electroscopes 6005 

Electrometric formulae. Volpicelli, P. C. E. 
49 (1859) 645-. 

measurements. Branly, E. J. de Ps. 5 
(1876) 19-. 

, potential magnifier for. Hallwachs, W. 

A. Ps. C. 29 (1886) 300-. 
, source of error in. Dellmann, F. Pogg. 

A. 106 (1859) 329-. 

Electrometry. Clark, L. Tel. J. 2 (*1864) 

39-. 
. Ave-Lallemant, G. M. F. (xn) Arg. S. 

Ci. A. 13 (1882) 193-. 
, high insulation key for. Brit. Ass. Comm. 

B. A. Ep. (1880) 29-. 

, null method. Muras, T. H. Elect. Ev. 31 

(1892) 418. 
Electromicrometer (microelectrometer). Mare- 

chaux, P. L. Gilbert A. 16 (1804) 115-. 

( ). Veau de Launay, P. L. A. J. de Ps. 
61 (1805) 48-. 

Electromicrometric (microelectrometric) in- 
vestigations. Mynster, 0. J. [1807] Kiob. 
Dn. Vd. Selsk. Skr. 5 (1807-08) 71-. 

E.M.F., measurement in electromagnetic units. 
Limb, C. C. E. 118 (1894) 1198- ; Par. S. 
Ps. Se. (1895) 189- ; A. C. 8 (1896) 145-. 



ELECTEOSCOPES. 

Nicholson, W. Nicholson J. 3 (1802) 121-. 
Majocchi, G. A. (vi Adds.) Majocchi A.Fis. 

C. 2 (1841) 45-. 

Perego, A. Brescia Cm. (1842) 77-. 
Gorno, P. Brescia Cm. Aten. (1843) 37-. 
Melloni, M. Nap. Ac. Sc. Mm. 1 (1852-54) 

335-; C. E. 39 (1854) 1113- ; Nap. Ed. 3 

(1854) 82-. 

Symons, W. Chemist 2 (1855) 647-. 
Zantedeschi, F. Wien SB. 17 (1855) 171-. 
Guerout, A. J. de Ps. 8 (1879) 315-. 
aerial, and electric column. De Luc, J. A. 

Nicholson J. 27 (1810) 81-, 161-, 241- ; 

(vi Adds.) 33 (1812) 81-. 
Bohnenberger's, sensitive and constant form. 

Palmieri, L. Nap. Ed. 22 (1883) 22. 
doubly-condensing. Gaugain, J. M. A. C. 48 

(1856) 170-. 
dynamic atmospheric. Zantedeschi, F. Ven. 

At. 7 (1861-62) 705-. 

universal. Zamboni, G. Brescia Cm. 
(1832) 36-. 

effect of conductors arranged symmetrically 
around. Zenger, C. W. C. E. 75 (1872) 
868-, 1765; B. A. Ep. 43 (1873) (Sect.) 41. 

experiments. Berzelius, J. J. Hisinger Afh. 
1 (1806) 50-. 

, cause of error. Wheatstone, (Sir) C. E. 
S. P. 18 (1870) 330-. 

" Gemsbart." Kobell, F. von. Munch. Sb. 1 
(1863) 51-. 

gold leaf. Andriessen, A. Pogg. A. 62 (1804) 
493-. 

. Koldcek, F. A. Ps. C. 28 (1886) 525-. 

. Stefanini, A. N. Cim. 28 (1890) 63-. 

. Ashworth, J. R. Nt. 51 (1894-95) 343. 

, anomalous indications. Beetz, W. 
Munch. Ak. Sb. 6 (1876) 20-. 



723 



6005 Electroscopes 

gold leaf, with divergence for zero potential. 

Lodge, 0. J. Nt. 51 (1894-95) 320. 
, experiment. Forster, (Prof.) A. Bern 

Mt. (1871) 180-. 
, (Forster). Hoffmann, G. Dresden 

Sb. Isis (1871) 166-. 
, inaccuracy in theory. Hdbler, T. A. 

Ps. C. 25 (1885) 680. 
, modification. Moutier, J. Par. S. 

Phlm. Bll. 4 (1880) 194-. 
with 3 gold leaves. Benoist, L. C. E. 123 

(1896) 171- ; Par. S. Ps. Se\ (1896) 281-. 
modification. Bernardi, E. N. Cim. 11 (1874) 

61-. 
Nestle's ring-. Oppel, J. J. (xn) Frkf. a. M. 

Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1863-64) 61-. 
Peclet's. Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 5 

(1881) 49-. 
pendulum-. Eameaux, J. F. Nancy S. Sc. 

Bll. 3 (10 Ann.) (1877) 30-. 
. Sluginow, N. Fschr. Ps. (1893) (Ab. 2) 

531. 
rheostatic. Plante, G. Lum. Elect. 10 

(*1883) 489-. 
sensitive dry-pile. Eighi, A. J. de Ps. 4 

(1875) 275-. 
use of radiometer as. Eameaux, J. F. Nancy 

S. Sc. Bll. 3 (10 Ann.) (1877) 55-. 
vacuum-. Pflaum, H. A. Ps. 1 (1900) 290-. 



Electroscopic action of Geissler tubes. Eiess, 

P. Pogg. A. 104 (1858) 321-. 
Electroscopy. Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. Mb. 

(1867) 125- ; A. Ps. C. 154 (1875) 643-. 
Electrostatic measurement. Thomson, (Sir) W. 

E. I. P. 12 (1889) 561-. 
researches. TJwmson, (Sir) W. N. Cim. 

8 (1858) 115-. 
Faradmeter for measuring capacities. Pupin, 

M. I. [1900] N. Y. Ac. A. 13 (1900-01) 

476. 
Instruments for measuring electric attraction. 

Harris, (Sir) W. S. B. A. Ep. (1833) 386-. 
high potentials. Marie-Davy, . C.E. 

30 (1850) 323-. 
potentials and capacities. Thomson, 

(Sir) W. B. A. Ep. (1855) (pt. 2) 22. . 
small electric forces. Bary, E. A. 

C. 39 (1828) 37-. 
quantities of electricity. Kleefeld, 

J. G. Gilbert A. 34 (1810) 203-. 
statical electricity. Marie-Davy, . 

Mntp. Ac. Mm. 1 (1847-50) 315-. 
Proof-plane, small, non-condensing. Volpicelli, 

P. Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 1 (1877) 174-. 
Eeactions, electric, anomaly. Haas, A. J. 

Brux. Ac. Bll. 15 (1848) (pte. 1) 605-. 
, , . Crahay, J. G. Brux. Ac. Bll. 15 

(1848) (pte. 2) 118-. 
Tangent-balance and electrostatic comparator. 

Pacinotti, A. (x) N. Cim. 9 (1873) 114-. 
Torsion balance. Coulomb, C. A. A. C. 2 

(1789) 1- ; 7 (1790) 112-. 
, Coulomb's. Dellmann, F. Pogg. A. 53 

(1841) 606-. 
, . Volpicelli, P. C. E. 76 (1873) 

1296-. 



Galvanometers, etc. 6010 

Torsion balance, Coulomb's, modification. 

Gieseler, . Bonn Niedr. Gs. Sb. (1891) 83. 
and proof plane, use. Harris, (Sir) W. S. 

B. A. Ep. (1835) (pt. 2) 18. 
of variable sensibility. Villari, E. [1895] 

Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 5 (1895-96) 401-. 
Unit jar. Griffin, C. Sturgeon A. Electr. 3 

(1838-39) 409-. 



6010 Galvanometers, Resistance 
Comparators, Voltmeters, 
Wattmeters, etc. Registering 
Instruments. 

(See also 5700.) 

(Frog's replaced by grasshopper's legs.) Bailey, 

J. W. Silliman J. 31 (1837) 292. 
Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. B. (1840) 163-. 
(Various systems.) Plagnol, . Fr. Cg. Sc. 

(1844) (pte. 2) 102-. 
Marie-Davy, . C. E. 23 (1846) 599-. 
Stahelin, C. Basel B. 8 (1849) 14-. 
Bradley, L. Am. As. P. 21 (1872) 35-. 
Him, G. A. C. E. 89 (1879) 933-. 
Hospitalier, E. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 52-, 

66-. 
(International Exhibition.) Guerout,A. Lum. 

Elect. 4 (1881) 279-. 
( .) Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 

188. 

Kohlrausch, F. A. Ps. C. 15 (1882) 550-. 
(Solenoid galvanometer and voltmeter. Electro- 
lytic coulomb meter.) Blyth, . [1883] 

So. S. Arts T. 11 (*1887) 60-. 
(Vienna Exhibition.) Guerout, A. Lum. 

Elect. 11 (1884) 288-, 323-, 365-. 
Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 11 (1884) 461- ; 12 

(1884) 3-. 
(Kohlrausch's.) Uppenborn, F. Lum. Elect. 

12 (1884) 368-, 450- ; 13 (1884) 9-; 14 

(1884) 170- ; 16 (1885) 263-. 
(Carpentier's.) La Touanne, G. de. A. Tel. 

12 (1885) 308-. 

Frolich, . Elekttech. Z. 7 (1886) 195-. 
Swinburne, J. Tel. J. 20 (1887) 395-, 414-, 

462-, 492-, 513-, 535-, 562-, 597-; 21 

(1887) 8-, 34-, 55-, 80-, 103-, 135-, 163-, 

180-, 215-, 232-, 279, 580-, 603-, 628-, 

657-. 
Thomson, (Sir) W. [1887-88] Lum. Elect. 

24 (1887) 501- ; Tel. E. J. 17 (1889) 540-. 
Holtz, . N.-Vorp. Mt. 22 (1891) xx. 
Swinburne, J. I. CE. P. 110 (1892) 1-. 
Quincke, G. A. Ps. C. 48 (1893) 25-. 
(Paris Exhibition.) Aliaviet, M. [1900] Sc. 

Abs. 4 (1901) 237-. 
(Universal.) Miller, W. L., < Kenrick, F. B. 

Cn. E. S. P. & T. 6 (1900) (Sect. 3) 97-. 
Stevens, J. F. Franklin I. J. 150 (1900) 44-. 
Air thermometer. Eiess, P. Pogg. A. 52 

(1841) 315-. 
. Knochenhauer, K. IF. [1859] Wien 

SB. 39 (1860) 701-. 



724 



6010 Ammeters and Voltmeters 



AMMETERS. 

Borel, F. Neueh. S. Sc. fill. 18 (1890) 105-. 
Bongiovanni, G. Ev. Sc. Ind. 29 (1897) 12-, 

62-. 
absolute. Pellat, . Par. S. Ps. 56. (1886) 

205-. 
, Pellat's. Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 

23 (1887) 151-. 
alternating, hot-wire shunt instruments as. 

Wagner, E. A. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 550. 
3-ammeter method of measuring power. 

Bedell, F., & Crehore, A. C. Ps. Ev. 1 

(1894) 59-. 
based on Peltier's effect. Gezechus [Hesehus], 

N. Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 16 (Ps.) (1884) 452- ; 

Exner Epm. 21 (1885) 151-. 
calibration, practical. Hospitaller, . Tel. 

J. 17 (1885) 168-. 
direct-reading electrolytic. Joly, J. Dubl. S. 

Sc. P. 7 (1891-92) 559-. 
hot-wire, lecture-. Mayen^on, P. J. de Ps. 

3 (1884) 393-. 
without inertia. Simon, H. T. [1900] Frkf. 

a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1900-01) 31-. 
for lamp-testing, etc. Murray, R. M. [1896] 

Sc. S. Arts T. 14 (1898) 170-. 
thermic mercury. Camichel, C. C. B. 125 

(1897) 20- ; 126 (1898) 240-, 1028- ; Eclair. 

Elect. 12 (1897) 385-. 
Sir, W. Thomson's new. Richard, G. Lum. 

Elect. 18 (1885) 14-. 
voltametric control. Lacinov, D. Es. Ps.-C. 

S. J. 19 (Ps.) (1887) 227- ; J. de Ps. 7 (1888) 



AMMETERS AND VOLTMETERS. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. B. A. Ep. (1885) 905- ; 

Glasg. Ph. S. P. 18 (1887) 249-. 
Anon. Tel. J. 17 (1885) 218-. 
Tobler, A. J. Tel. 24 (1900) 241-, 269-. 
with adjustable magnetic field. Menges, . 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1900) 66*-. 
for alternating currents. Vogel, F. Elekttech. 

Z. 7 (1886) 428-. 
. Ruhlmann, R. Elekttech. Z. 7 

(1886) 429-. 
. Heap, A. (7. Elect. Ev. 43 (1898) 

439-. 
aperiodic. Arnoux, R. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1895) 

155-. 
calibration. Booth, J. [1886] Viet. E. S. T. 

23 (1887) 269-. 
calorimetric. Arsonval, A. d'. Lum. Elect. 

14 (1884) 81-. 
. Sesemann, H. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 

175-. 
Kapp's. Beringer, A. Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 

145-. 
lecture-room. Baily, F. G. B. A. Ep. (1900) 

643. 
with long scale. Davies, B. L. Ps. S. P. 16 

(1899) 425- ; Ph. Mg. 48 (1899) 204-. 
without permanent magnets. Lalande, F. de. 

C. E. 101 (1885) 742-. 



Electric Balance 6010 

Siemens and Halske's. Kath, H. Elekttech. 

Z. 19 (1898) 411- ; Z. Instk. 18 (1898) 33-. 
solenoid-. Jilllig, M. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 

35-. 
standard. Sankey, (Capt.) H. R., d; Andersen, 

F. V. [1891] I. Elect. E. J. 20 (1892) 

516-, 541-. 

testing. Kahle, K. Z. Instk. 11 (1891) 239-. 
thermic. Dujon, D. Eclair. Elect. 10 (1897) 

254-. 
mercury. Camichel, C. C. E. 126 (1898) 

1028-. 



Ampere manometer. Bredig, G. [1900] Z. 
Elektch. (1900-01) 259-. 

standard of Laboratoire Central d'Electricite. 
Mascart, , & Janet, P. [1896] Elect. 38 

(1897) 287-. 

, volt and ohm, direct measurement. Kessler, 
J. Tel. J. 16 (1885) 321-. 

Ampere-volt-wattmeter, hot-wire combined. 
Field, M. B. Elect. Ev. 43 (1898) 767-, 
811-. 

BALANCE, ELECTRIC. 

ampere. Pellat, H. Par. S. Ps. S6". (1887) 
226-. 

. Ayrton, W. E., & Jones, J. V, B. A. Ep 

(1898) 157-. 

composite, electric. Thomson, (Sir) W. Glasg. 

Ph. S. P. 19 (1888) 273-. 
current-. Blyth, J. B. A. Ep. (1886) 521-. 

. Heydweiller, . Wiirzb. Ps. Md. Sb. 
(1887) 33-. 

. Blyth, J. Elect. 23 (1889) 549. 
electrodynamic. Helmholtz, H. L. F. von. 

E. S. P. 32 (1881) 39-. 

. Debrun, E. As. Fr. C. E. 11 (1882) 
219-. 

. Guinand, E. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 
282-. 

torsion-. Lallemand, A. A. C. 32 (1851) 
432- ; J. de Ps. 3 (1874) 347-. 

electromagnetic. Becker, C., d- Stratingh, S. 
(xn) Arch. Phm. 57 (1836) 225-. 

. Becquerel, A. C. C. E. 4 (1837) 35-. 
galvanometric, for lectures. Royer, E. Bor- 

deaux S. Sc. Mm. 1 (1876) xlvi-. 
induction-. Hughes, D. E. E. S. P. 29 (1879) 
56-. 

. Bergmann, J. Bresl. Schl. Gs. Jbr. 
(1890) (Ab. 2) 24-. 

, Hughes's. Hospitalier, E. Lum. Elect. 
1 (*1879) 54-. 

, . Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 1 
(*1879) 107-. 

_, _. Bertin, A. A. C. 19 (1880) 561-. 

, . Ettingshausen, A. von. Steierm. Mt. 
(1885) xlv-. 

, , application to discovery of metallic 
bodies in human frame. Steiger, . St. 
Gal. B. (1892-93) 92-. 

, , graduation (sonometer). Poynting, 
J. H. [1879] L. Ps. S. P. 3 (1880) 169- ; 
Ph. Mg. 9 (1880) 59-. 

, interferential. Barus, C. Am. J. Sc. 3 
(1897) 107-. 



725 



6010 Electric Measuring Instruments 



Electric Meters 6010 



induction-, new form. Wien, M. A. Ps. C. 49 Dynamometer, exploring, for magnetic fields, 



(1893) 306-. 
rheometric torsion-. Busoni, D. Ven. At. 

Aten. 2 (1865) 607-. 
spring, for feeble currents, Kohlrausch's. 

Strecker, K. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 160-. 
voltaic, uses. Gore, G. Elect. 23 (1889) 

171-. 



Bridge, differential induction-. Boudet de 

Paris, M. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1882) 11-. 
wire, calibration. Strouhal, V., & Barus, C. 

A. Ps. C. 10 (1880) 326-. 
Calorimeter, ammetric. Edelmann, M. T. 

Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 98. 
Chronometer for measuring rapidity of nervous 

impressions. Arsonval, A. d j . Lum. Elect. 

24 (1887) 605-. 
Classification of instruments. Minet,A. Lum. 

Elect. 16 (1885) 562-. 
Commercial instruments. Shoults, E. S. [1899] 

Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 806-. 
Compensation of instruments. Swinburne, J. 

Elect. 19 (1887) 405-. 
Compensator for determining E.M.F. Wils- 

more, N. T. M. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 

997-. 
measurements of potential and current. 

Franke, E. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 318-. 
Condenser, electrodynamic. Nobili, L. [1832] 

Pogg. A. 27 (1833) 436-. 
Coulomb meter. Deprez , M . C. K. 102 (1886) 

664-. 
, Borel and Paccaud's. Palaz, A. Lum. 

Elect. 26 (1887) 175-. 

Current and continuous heat, measuring instru- 
ment for. Smith, F. J. Ph. Mg. 27 (1889) 

28-. 
E.M.F. , measurement. Gaiffe, A. C. B. 

86 (1878) 774-. 
, . Crompton, E. E., <& Kapp, G. 

Tel. E. J. 13 (1884) 74-. 
Currents of high intensity, measurement. 

Grassi, G. Nap. I. Inc. At. 2 (1889) No. 6, 

7pp. 

, instantaneous and not instantaneous, in- 
strument for measuring. Marianini, S. 

(vra) Mm. Fis. Sperim. 1 (1837) 21-. 
, instrument for observing. Weber, W. E. 

D. Nf. Vsm. B. (1841) 154-. 
Damped movements, calculation, reduced equa- 
tions for. Curie, P. Lum. Elect. 41 (1891) 

201-, 270-, 307-, 356-. 
Damping of instruments, experiments. Frolich, 

0. Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 77-. 
, liquid, for ballistic apparatus. Bazzi, E. 

N. Cim. 19 (1886) 270-. 
Direct reading instruments. Ayrton, W. E., 

<& Perry, J. L. Ps. S. P. 6 (1885) 59- ; Ph. 

Mg. 17 (1884) 304-. 

. Bruger, T. Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 

331. 
Dynamometer for alternating currents. Stone, 

W. H. Nt. 26 (1882) 201-, 268. 
, Edison's. Brackett, C. F., <& Young, C.A. 

Am. J. Sc. 19 (1880) 475-. 



Napoli's. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect 
5 (*1881) 229-. 

of small resistance and self-induction. 
Hertz, H. E. (xn) Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. 1 
(1882) 102-. 

, transmission-. Goldsborough, W. E. Sc. 

Abs. 3 (1900) 748-. 
Dynamometry. Schroter, M. Lum. Elect. 7 

(*1882) 401-. 
. Blakesley, T. H. L. Ps. S. P. 11 (1892) 

106- ; Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 346-. 

(Blakesley's formulae). Ayrton, W. E., & 
Taylor, J. F. L. Ps. S. P. 11 (1892) 114- ; 
Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 354-. 

ELECTRIC METERS. 

Boys, C. V. [1882-83] B. A. Ep. (1882) 464-; 

B. I. P. 10 (1884) 235-. 
Cauderay, J. C. B. 97 (1883) 147-. 
Aron, H. Elekttech. Z. 5 (1884) 480-. 
Forbes, G. B. A. Ep. (1887) 564- ; Franklin 

I. J. 124 (1887) 449-. 

Fuchs, K. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 74-, 150. 
(Fuchs.) Weber, L. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 

149-. 
Batault, . [1888] Gen. S. Ps. Mm. 30 

(1888-90) Ixxv-. 

Bornstein, E. Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 178-. 
Hospitalier, E. A. Tel. 15 (1888) 360-. 
Arsonval, A. d'. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1889) 83. 
Blondlot, E. A. Tel. 17 (1890) 289-. 
Hospitalier, E. Gen. Civ. 19 (1891) 150- ; 

Par. S. Ps. Se~. (1891) 46-. 
Montillot, L. Bv. Sc. 47 (1891) 715-. 
Roux, P. G. Par. Ing. Civ. Mm. (1892) (Pt. 1) 

454-. 
Wordingham, C. H. I. CE. P. 108 (1892) 

358-. 

Routin, J. L. Lum. Elect. 49 (1893) 108-. 
Montpellier, J. A. Gen. Civ. 26 (1894-95) 

313-. 
Ricks, G. W. D. [1896] I. Elect. E. J. 25 

(1897) 57-. 
Arnot, W. [1898] Glasg. I. Eng. T. 42 (1899) 

146-. 
Blondlot, R. C. E. 126 (1898) 1691- ; J. de 

Ps. 7 (1898) 569-. 

Camichel, C. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1898) 61-. 
Gibbings, A. H. [1898] I. Elect. E. J. 27 

(1899) 547-. 

Haskins, C. D. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 116-. 
Deguisne, C. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1898-99) 

53-. 

O'Keenan, E. [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 218-. 
for accumulator installations. Aron, H. 

Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 559-. 

alternating currents. Meylan, E. Lum. 
Elect. 29 (1888) 51-. 

. Campbell, A. L. Ps. S. P. 14 

(1896) 267- ; Ph. Mg. 42 (1896) 159-. 

. Aliamet, M. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 324. 

. Benischke, G. Cztg. Opt. 21 (1900) 

153-, 161-. 

, Duncan's. Guilbert, F. Lum. Elect. 

50 (1893) 271-. 



726 



6010 Electric Meters 

for alternating currents, Duncan's. Resor, 

W. S. Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 549-. 
Aron, tests. Kapp, G. Elect. 24 (1890) 351-. 
Aubert. Marinovitch, B. Lum. Elect. 23 

(1887) 506-. 
Brilli<'s. Napoli, D. Lum. Elect. 29 (1888) 

301-. 

. Anon. A. Tel. 17 (1890) 299-. 
Cauderay system. Anon. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 18 

(1886) 195-. 
. Meylan, E. Lum. Elect. 26 (1887) 

661-. 
for central stations. Siemens, W. Elekttech. 

Z. 8 (1887) 269- . 
Clerc system. Dieudonne, E. Lum. Elect. 

33 (1889) 155-. 
Desruelles-Chauvin. Dieudonne, E. Lum. 

Elect. 39 (1891) 164-. 
. Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 42 (1891) 

368-, 465-. 
differential rate-. Reed, L. C. Sc. Abs. 2 

(1899) 695-. 

Edison (at International Exhibition). Du 
Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 261-. 

. Jenks, W. J. Tel. J. 24 (1889) 45-, 90-, 
118- , 144-. 

and electrodynamometers. La Valette, H. de. 
Gen. Civ. 27 (1895) 413-. 

Ferranti's. Ruhlmann, R. Elekttech. Z. 7 

(1886) 65-. 

, evolution, etc. Ferranti, S. Z. de. [1895] 

Sc. S. Arts T. 14 (1898) 52-. 
Forbes's. Houston, E. J. Franklin I. J. 124 

(1887) 435-. 

frictionless. Evershed, S. I. Elect. E. J. 29 

(1900) 743-. 

Grassot, for continuous currents. Perrin, A. 

A. Tel. 21 (1894) 243-. 
, . Reyval, J. Eclair. Elect. 3 

(1895) 122-. 
Harlacher's. Blum, R. [1881] I. CE. P. 67 

(1882) 358-. 
Holden. Garfield, A. S., & Montpellier, J. A. 

Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 902. 
improved. Aron, H. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 

372-. 
improvements. Ferranti, S. Z. de. Dingier 

293 (1894) 247-. 
Lord Kelvin's. Meikle, A. W. [1892] Glasg. 

Ph. S. P. 24 (1893) 170-. 
Leupold's. Weber, L. Elekttech. Z. 7 (1886) 

303-. 
mercury. Lippmann, G. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1885) 6-. 
, Lippmann's. Mareschal, G. Lum. Elect. 

15 (1885) 193-. 
Meylan-Eechniewski. U. Elekttech. Z. 12 

(1891) 165-. 
multiple rate-. Oxley, E. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

187-. 
for polyphase currents. Aron, H. Elekttech. 

Z. 13 (1892) 193. 
. Mdllinger, J. A. Elekttech. Z. 21 

(1900) 573-, 597-. 

Eaab's. Anon. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 656-. 
Siemens. Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 11 (1884) 

223-. 

VOL. III. 



Electrodynamometers 6010 

Siemens. Anon. Tel. J. 14 (1884) 3-. 

and Halske. Raps, . Elekttech. Z. 19 

(1898) 148-. 
storage battery. Aldrich, W. S. Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 507. 
testing. Sahulka, J. [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 

(1900) 59-. 
Elihu Thomson. Abdank-Abakanowicz, B. 

Elect. 26 (1891) 332-. 
, effect of vibrations. O'Keenan, E. Sc. 

Abs. 1 (1898) 159-. 
, temperature coefficients. Hooper, W. L. 

Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 355-. 
for weak currents. Kohlrausch, F. Wiirzb. 

Ps. Md. Sb. (1885) 105-. 
with zero torque. Edmondson, J. [1895] I. 

Elect. E. J. 24 (1896) 542-. 

ELECTRODYNAMOMETERS. 

Chaperon, G. As. Fr. C. E. (1884) (Pt. 2) 

112-. 

Bellati, M. Yen. I. At. (1884-85) [1555]-. 
Giltay, J. W. A. Ps. C. 25 (1885) 325-. 
Bornstein, R. A. Ps. C. 34 (1888) 398-. 
Rubens, H., & Hirsch, E. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. 

(1891) 23. 

absolute. Pellat, H. C. E. 103 (1886) 1189-. 
. Deprez, M. C. E. 126 (1898) 1608- ; 

J. de Ps. 7 (1898) 697-. 
, Helmholtz's. Kahle, K. A. Ps. C. 59 

(1896) 532- ; Z. Instk. 17 (1897) 97-. 
, for strong currents. Heydweiller, A. A. 

Ps. C. 44 (1891) 533-. 
for alternating currents (weak). Bellati, M. 

Yen. I. At. 1 (1883) 563-. 
. Pirani, E. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 

235-. 
calibrated. Giltay, J. W. A. Ps. C. 50 (1893) 

756-. 
determination of constant. Chattock, A. P. 

[1883] L. Ps. S. P. 5 (1884) 332- ; Ph. Mg. 

17 (*1884) 111-, 
effect of adjacent closed circuits. Brew, W. 

Elect. 28 (1892) 600-. 
induction-. Mooser, J. Ziir. Ps. Gs. Jbr. 

(1890) 11-. 
instruments for measuring E. M. F. and power. 

Fleming, J. A. t & Gimingham, C. H. [1887] 

Tel. E. J. 16 (1888) 522-, 569-, 609-. 
mercury. Lippmann, G. C. E. 98 (1884) 

1534-. 
with mirror-reading. Kollert, J. Elekttech. 

Z. 21 (1900) 788-, 856. 

spherical. Frolich,0. A. Ps.C. 143 (1871)643-. 
. Frohlich, J. A. Ps. C. 8 (1879) 563-. 
for strong currents. Hill, W. N. [1879] Am. 

J. Sc. 19 (1880) 10-. 
theory. Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 32 

(1889) 64-. 
torsion-. Zickler, . Z. Nw. 67 (1894) 363-. 



Electrolysis of copper sulphate, standardising 

instruments by. Meikle, A. W. Elect. 20 

(1888) 571-. 
Electromagnetic apparatus for determination 

of longitude. Lcewy, M. Lum. Elect. 12 

(1884) 441-, 481- ; 13 (1884) 3-. 



727 



6010 



Galvanometers 



6010 



Electromagnetic apparatus for equalising 

motion for telegraphic and other purposes. 

Page, C. G. Am. Pol. J. 1 (1853) 83. 
instruments, electrostatic errors. Ayrton, 

W. E. Elect. 32 (1894) 697-. 
Electrophant. Weber, J. Gilbert A. 55 (1817) 

326-. 
Ergometers. Smith, F. J. [1883-84] Ph. 

Mg. 15 (1883) 87- ; Bristol Nt. S. P. 4 (1885) 

143-. 
Errors resulting from want of exact timing in 

impulses. Chwolson, O. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. 

Bll. 27 (1881) 265-. 
Faraday currents, measurement, and com- 

r'son with voltaic. Gherardi, S. N. A. 
Nt. 1 (1838) 305- ; Bologna N. Cm. 3 
(1839) 115-. 

Faradimeter for measuring alternating currents 
for therapeutics. Sloan, S. Glasg. Ph. S. 
P. 29 (1898) 230-. 

Force, magnetic, use in measuring electric 
force. Schweigger, J. S. C. Gehlen J. 7 
(1808) 206-. 

GALVANOMETERS. 

(Modification of gold leaf electroscope.) Pepys, 

W. H. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 10 (1801) 38-. 
Graperon, . Nauche J. du Galvan. 1 (1803) 

149-. 

Delarive, G. Bb. Brit. 46 (1811) 199-. 
Schweigger, J. S. C. Schweigger J. 2 (1811) 

424-. 
(Voltimeter.) Avogadro, A. [1822] Tor. Mm. 

Ac. 27 (1823) 43-. 
Marianini, S. Ven. Aten. Esercit. 1 (1827) 

313-. 

Nobili, L. Mod. S. It. Mm. 20 (1829) 173-. 
Gumming, J. B. A. Bp. (1833) 418. 
Zamboni, G. A. Sc. Lomb. Ven. 3 (1833) 

290-. 

Locke, J. Silliman J. 26 (1834) 103-. 
Hare, B. Silliman J. 26 (1834) 352-. 
Anon, (vi 1163) [1836] Sturgeon A. Electr. 

1 (1836-37) 1-. 

Peclet, E. C. E. 8 (1839) 298-. 
Joule, J. P. B. A. Bp. (1843) (pt. 2) 14. 
Ward, W. S. [1847] W. Yorks. P. Gl. S. 2 

(1842-48) 417-. 

Mohr, C. F. Pogg. A. 99 (1856) 102-. 
Joule, J. P. Ph. Mg. 15 (1858) 432-. 
Jack, W. Manch. Lt. Ph. S. P. 6 (1867) 147- 

158-, 177. 

Trowbridge, J. Am. J. Sc. 2 (1871) 118-. 
.Candida, (I'abbe) J. Les Mondes 33 (1874) 

325-. 

Meyerstein, M. A. Ps. C. 3 (1878) 319-. 
(Meyerstein.) Herwig, H. A. Ps. C. 4 (1878) 

175-. 

Vaschy, A. A. Tel. 6 (1879) 123-. 
Gostynski, L. C. R. 90 (1880) 1534-. 
Eep'ev, I. L (xn) Rs. Ps.-C. S. J. 12 (Ps.) 

(1880) [(Pt. 1)] 182-. 
Deprez, M. C. R. 97 (1883) 1193-. 
Ferrini, E. Mil. I. Lomb. Rd. 16 (1883) 

Blyth, 'j. Edinb. R. S. P. 12 (1884) 594-. 
Eosenthal, J. A. Ps. C. 23 (1884) 677-. 



Blyth, J. B. A. Rp. (1885) 939-. 
Mauri, A. Rv. Sc.-Ind. 17 (1885) 49-. 
Minet, A. Lum. Elect. 17 (1885) 254-, 407-, 

487-, 595-; 18 (1885) 214-, 596-; 19 (1886) 

110-. 

FitzGerald, . Nt. 33 (1886) 455. 
Kollert, J. A. Ps. C. 29 (1886) 491-. 
Ayrton, W. E., Mather, T., & Sumpner, W. E. 

L. Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 393-; Ph. Mg. 30 

(1890) 58-. 

Leconte, F. Lum. Elect. 38 (1890) 321-. 
Du Bois, H., & Eubens, H. Elekttech. Z. 15 

(1894) 321-. 
Armagnat, H. Eclair. Elect. 8 (1896) 454-, 

506-, 546-. 
Ayrton, W. E., <& Mather, T. Ph. Mg. 42 

(1896) 442-. 
Kleiner, A. Ziir. Vjschr. 41 (1896) (Festschr., 

Th. 2) 115-. 
Ayrton, W. E., & Mather, T. L. Ps. S. P. 16 

(1899) 169- ; Ph. Mg. 46 (1898) 349-. 
absolute. Edelmann, T. Carl Rpm. 8 (1872) 

80-. 
. Guthrie, Fred. L. Ps. S. P. 1 (1876) 28- ; 

Ph. Mg. 48 (1874) 296-, 526. 
. Hodges, N. D. C. Am. J. Sc. 17 (1879) 

475-. 
, mathematical theory. Eoos, J. D. C. M. 

de. 's Gravenh. I. Ing. Ts. (1891-92) (Vh.) 

237-; Fschr. Ps. (1892) (Ab. 2) 517. 
, portable, for strong currents, and trans- 
mission dynamometer. Ayrton, W. E., < 

Perry, J. Tel. E. J. 10 (1881) 156-. 
action when circuit is broken. Gourjon, . 

C. R. 3 (1836) 148. 
. Peltier, A. C. R. 3 (1836) 

148-. 
and ammeters, graduation. Biervliet, van. 

Brux. S. Sc. A. 11 (1887) (Pt. 1) 66-. 
with angular deviations proportional to inten- 
sities. Gaiffe, A. C. R. 93 (1881) 561-. 
aperiodic. Deprez, M., & Arsonval, A. d'. 

C. R. 94 (1882) 1347-. 
. Le Goarant de Tromelin, (It.) G. C. R. 

97 (1883) 995-. 
, Deprez-d' Arsonval. Deprez, M. Lum. 

Elect. 6 (*1882) 439-. 
, . Eechniewski, W. C. Lum. Elect. 

17 (1885) 393-. 
, . Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 20 

(1886) 577-. 
, , applications. Barbier, P. Lum. 

Elect. 13 (1884) 370-. 
, very sensitive. Arsonval, d'. Par. S. 

Ps. 86. (1886) 30-, 77-. 
, telescopic. Edelmann, M. T. Exner Rpm. 

23 (1887) 248-. 
, universal. Arsonval, A. d\ Par. S. Ps. 

86. (1888) 372-; Lum. Elect. 31 (1889) 

13-. 
, , for high pressure or current. Ducretet, 

E. C. R. 97 (1883) 254-. 
arrangements. Arsonval, A. d'. Lum. Elect. 

15 (1885) 461-. 
. Decharme, C. Lum. Elect. 31 (1889) 70-, 

127-. 
. Meylan, E. Lum. Elect. 32 (1889) 268-. 



728 



6010 



Ballistic Galvanometers 



6010 



arrangements. Love, E. F. J. Aust. As. Ep. 
(1890) 371. 

formerly in use. Carl, P. Carl Kpm. 3 
(1867) 136-, 245-. 

d'Arsonval, recent improvements. Genung, N. 

H. Franklin I. J. 135 (1893) 63-. 
, use of high resistances with. Smith, F. J. 

Ph. Mg. 35 (1893) 210-. 
astatic. Page, C. G. Sturgeon A. Electr. 2 

(1838) 286-. 
. Menges, C. L. R. E. Lum. Elect. 15 

(1885) 543-. 

, Deprez-d'Arsonval. Deprez,M. Lum. Elect. 

4 (*1881) 309-. 
, with interchangeable coils. Murray, E. M. 

[1893] Sc. S. Arts T. 13 (1894) 384. 

method. Dieterici, C. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. 

(1886) 119-. 

to eliminate variation of Earth's magnetic 

field. Wassmuth, A. Wien Az. 22 (1885) 

148-. 
, modified. Du Bois, H. E. J. G., & Rubens, 

H. A. Ps. C. 48 (1893) 236-. 
, with needles in same horizontal plane. 

Ducretet, E. C. E. 99 (1884) 605. 
, portable. Edelmann, . Tel. E. J. 14 

(1885) 178. 
, very sensitive. Broca, A. C. E. 123 (1896) 

101- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1896) 249-. 
, sensitiveness, new method of varying at 

will. Melloni, H. Bb. Un. Arch. 1 (1841) 

656-; C. E. 14(1842)52-. 
, with single spiral needle. Andrews, L. W. 

[1887] Iowa Ac. Sc. P. 1 (Pt. 2) (1892) 75. 
attributes. Anon, (vi 1164) Sturgeon A. Electr. 

1 (1836-37) 42-, 380-. 
axial. Page, C. G. Silliman J. 49 (1845) 

136- ; 1 (1846) 242-. 
Ayrton-Perry. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 12 

(1884) 498-. 
balance-, results. Blair, G. Ph. Mg. 21 (1861) 

311-. 

BALLISTIC GALVANOMETERS. 

Willyoung, E. G. Franklin I. J. 134 (1892) 

474-. 
d'Arsonval, magnetic tests by. Sheldon, S., 

& Cocks, T. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 715-. 
calibration. Wien, M. A. Ps. C. 62 (1897) 

702-. 
with counter-twisted torsion system. Barus, C. 

Ps. Ev. 7 (1898) 10-. 
observations. Rimington, E. C. Elect. 21 (1888) 

741. 
, reduction to absolute measure. Kennelly, 

A. E. Elect. 21 (1888) 694-. 
theory and applications. Freedman, W. H. 

Sch. Mines Q. N. Y. 19 (1898) 392-. 
use. Fry, L. H. Elect. Ev. 42 (1898) 285-. 

of dead-beat instrument as. Ledeboer, . 
C. E. 102 (1886) 504-. 

in magnetic measurements. Gray, T. 
Science 1 (1895) 533-. 

with non-instantaneous impulse. Weiss, P. 
J. de Ps. 4 (1895) 420-. 

, possible source of error in. Seattle, R. 
Ph. Mg. 50 (1900) 575-. 



use of shunt with. Cabanellas, G. C. E. 105 

(1887) 109-. 
. Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 25 

(1887) 208-. 
. Rimington, E. C. Elect. 19 (1887) 

calculation of current strength in. Matzka, W. 

Grunert Arch. 34 (1860) 33-. 
calibration. Mather, T. L. Ps. S. P. 7 (1886) 

285-; Ph. Mg. 21 (1886) 29-. 
chemical and magnetic. Jacobi, M. H. St. 

Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 5 (1839) 353-. 
with circular coils. Page, C. G. Silliman J. 

35 (1839) 259-. 
classification. FitzGerald, G. F. Elect. 38 

(1897) 715-. 
coil, windings, determination. Himstedt, F. 

[1884] Freiburg B. 8 (1885) 211-. 
coils, best proportions. Moon, W. Tel. J. 14 

(1884) 209-. 
, formula. Raynaud, J. A. Tel. 4 (1877) 

200-. 
, method of comparing. Skinner, J. J. Am. 

As. P. (1887) 85-. 
, resistance. Ayrton, W. E., & Perry, J. 

Tel. E. J. (1878) 297-. 
compensated, of constant sensitiveness. Grassi, 

G. Nap. Ed. 30 (1891) 151-, 233-. 
, with single coil. Grassi, G. Nap. Ed. 33 

(1894) 121-. 
compensation-, for absolute measurements. 

Edelmann, T. Carl Epm. 8 (1872) 26-. 
constant deviation-. Decharme, C. Lum. Elect. 

27 (1888) 66-. 
constants, method of measuring. Wassmuth, A., 

& Schilling, G. A. Wien Ak. Sb. 96 (1888) 

(Ab. 2) 19-. 
construction. Edlund, E. Stockh. Ofv. 25 

(1868) 457-; A. Ps. C. 136 (1869) 337-. 
. Koderle, . D. Nf. Tbl. (*1869) 142-. 
for continuous currents. Zenger, C. W. Wien 

SB. 18 (1855) 274-. 
copper disc-, for alternating currents. Fleming, 

J. A. Elect. 18 (1887) 561. 
with crossed threads, improvements. Maria- 

nini, S. (vm) Mm. Fis. Sperim. 1 (1837) 3-. 

current acting on one pole of magnet. 
Granqvist, G. [1891] Lund. Un. Acta 28 
(1891-92) (S. Psgr., No. i, 16pp.). 

in which current measures itself. Lo Cicero, G. 

Em. Cor. Sc. 5 (1859) 225-. 
cylindrical. Nervander, J. J. A. C. 54 (1833) 

156-. 
damping. Edelmann, T. Carl Epm. 8 (1872) 

357-. 
, aperiodic, theory. Riecke, C. V. E. Gott. 

Ab. 30 (1883) (Mth.) 45 pp. ; A. Ps. C. 51 

(1894) 156-. 

.theory. Lemke,H. A. Ps. C. 67 (1899) 828-. 
for demonstrating current in cell. Cooke, C.W. 

B. A. Ep. (1879) 280-. 

detecting weak currents. Varley, F. H. 
B. A. Ep. 38 (1868) (Sect.) 20-. 

differential. Hankel,W.G. Pogg. A. 69 (1846) 

255-. 
. Schwendler, L. Beng. J. As. S. 41 (pt. 2) 

(1872) 144- ; 42 (1873) 1-. 



729 



M 2 



6010 



Galvanometers 



6010 



differential. Heaviside, 0. Ph. Mg. 46 (1873) 

469-. 

. Voller, A. Elekttech. Z. 5 (1884) 258-. 
, application. Levy, M. [1892] A. Ps. C. 

49 (1893) 196-. 
best resistance of coils. Schwendler, L. 

Beng. As. S. P. (1872) 51. 
, principle. Bosscha, J. Pogg. A. 93 (1854) 

392-. 
} use for small resistances. Heaviside, O. 

Ph. Mg. 45 (1873) 245-. 
diffraction fringes in reading deviations. Weiss, 

P. C. E. 128 (1899) 876-. 
and dynamometer combined. Moon, W. Tel. 

J. 13 (1883) 261. 
effect of electric tramways. Krieger, . K6- 

nigsb. Schr. 34 (1893) [18]-. 
. Chevallier, H. Bordeaux S. Sc. 

PV. (1899-1900) 52-. 
external magnetic disturbances on Weston 

instruments. Pike, C. W. Franklin I. J. 134 

(1892) 66-. 
variation of magnetic dip. Trotter, A. P. 

[1898] Nt. 59 (1898-99) 102. 
electro-. Meyerstein, M. Pogg. A. 114 (1861) 

132-. 
electromagnetic. Raschig, . Gilbert A. 67 

(1821) 427-. 
. Schweigger, J. S. C. Schweigger J. 31 

(=Jb. 1) (1821) 35-. 
_. Nobili, L. Brugnatelli G. 8 (1825) 278-, 

336-. 
, Nobili's. Orsted, H. C. Kiob. Ov. (1825- 

26) 16-. 
, Schweigger's. Orsted, H. C. Thomson A. 

Ph. 5 (1823) 436-. 
_, . Ohm, G. S. Schweigger J. 56 (= Jb. 

26) (1829) 1-. 
, , improvement. Brouwer, S. Mulder 

Arch. 3 (1835) 147-. 
_, _, law. Kdmtz, L. F. Schweigger J. 38 

(s=J&.ffl (1823) 100-. 
for E.M.F. and current. Gaiffe, A. Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1878) 86-. 
experiments. Bigeon,J.M.H. A. C. 46 (1831) 

80-. 
. Adami, , & Halboth, . D. Nf. Vh. 

(1899) (Th. 2, Halfte 1) 276-. 
, electromagnetic. Locke, J. Silliman J. 26 

(1834) 378-. 
, method of exhibiting to large audience. 

Du Bois-Reymond, E, Pogg. A. 95 (1855) 

607-. 
form of winding. Gaiffe, A. C. B. 100 (1885) 

794. 
graduation. Blaserna, P. C. E. 69 (1869) 

1349-. 
. Naccari, A. (xn) Padova S. Sc. At. 3 

(1874) 155-. 
. Aymonnnet, . Par. S. Ps. Se. (1878) 

201-. 

Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 329-. 
. Canestrelli, I. Em. E. Ac. Line. T. 6 

(1882) 260-. 
. Edelmann, M. T. Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 

194-. 
. Grassi, G. Nap. Ed. 26 (1887) 101-. 



graduation. Grotrian, O. A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 

624-. 
. Minet, A. Lum. Elect. 29 (1888) 132-. 

as ammeters and voltmeters. Gray, A. 
Nt. 27 (1883) 32-, 105-, 319-, 339-. 

Helmholtz's, uniformity of field. Ellis, R., 

Clarkson, R. D., & Rainy, H. Edinb. E. S. 

P. 13 (1886) 523-. 
for high resistance measurements. Threlfall, R. 

Aust. As. Ep. (1888) 109-. 
hydrostatic. Iremonger, R. J. [1841-42] L. 

Electr. S. P. (1843) 175-, 201-. 
imperfection as test of evanescence of transient 

current. Rayleigh, (Lord). B. A. Ep. (1883) 

444-. 
improvements, etc. Donovan, M. [1848] Ir. 

Ac. T. 22 (1855) 233-. 
. Lloyd, H. [1848] Ir. Ac. P. 4 (1847-50) 

171-. 
. Ward, W. S. [1848] W. Yorks. P. Gl. S. 

3 (1849-59) 38-. 
with indications proportional to intensities. 

Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 14 (1884) 401- ; 

27 (1888) 569-. 
induced currents in wires of. Zamboni, G. 

Majocchi A. Fis. C. 16 (1844) 250. 
industrial. Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 

309-. 
iodine-. Osann, G. D. Nf. Vsm. B. (1840) 

87. 
lantern-, new form. Mayer, A. M. Am. J. Sc. 

3 (1872) 414-. 
large. Hare, R. [1836] Sturgeon A. Electr. 1 

(1836-37) 10-. 
with lateral displacement. Decharme, C. Lum. 

Elect. 28 (1888) 274-. 
laws, general. Poggendorff, <7. C. Pogg. A. 57 

(1842) 609- ; 61 (1844) 50-. 
, verification. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. 

Elect. 9 (*1883) 449-. 
lecture-. Thompson, S. P. Nt. 18 (1878) 

264. 
. Fossati, E. N. Cim. 10 (1881) 232-. 

Campbell, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 13 
(1882) 124-. 

, Beetz's. Edelmann, M. T. Elekttech. Z. 

12 (1891) 27. 
long-coil, advantages. Fechner, G. T. Pogg. 

A. 45 (1838) 232-. 
low resistance, for strong currents. Terquem, 

A., & Damien, B. C. C. E. 94 (1882) 523-. 
magnetism of wires. Nobili, L. Bb. Un. 38 

(1828) 79-. 
magnets, dead-beat motion. DM Bois-Reymond, 

E. Berl. Mb. (1869) 807- ; (1870) 537-; 

(1873) 748-. 
, new arrangement. Schering, K. Gott. Nr. 

(1880) 455-. 
, method of photographic registration. 

Schering, K., & Zeissig, C. Gott. Nr. (1894) 

237-. 
marine. Loesche, (Dr.) . Dresden Sb. Isis 

(1868) 91-. 
mathematical study. Perard,L. Ev.Un. Mines 

16 (1884) 556-. 
Maxwell-Jolin dynamo-. Anon. Tel. J. 21 

(1887) 77-. 



730 



6010 Mirror 



Galvanometers 



6010 



mercury. Lippmann, G. C. E. 98 (1884) 1256- ; 

Par. S. Ps. 86. (1884) 157-. 
, Lippmann's. Abdank-Abakanowicz, B. 

Lum. Elect. 12 (1884) 401-. 
, . Carpentier, J. C. E. 98 (1884) 

1376-. 
, . Achard, A. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 14 (1885) 

71-. 
micro-, Eosenthal's. Edelmann, M. T. Elekt- 

tech. Z. 12 (1891) 64-, 96. 

MIRROR GALVANOMETERS. 

Exner, F. Carl Epm. 5 (1869) 6-. 
Raynaitd, J. J. de Ps. 2 (1873) 394-, 419-. 
Trowbridge, J. Am. Ac. P. 11 (1876) 208-. 
Magneville, de. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 

413-. 

Carpentier, J. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1884) 39-. 
Uppenborn, F. Lum. Elect. 17 (1885) 358-. 
Bruger, T. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1888-89) 

55-. 
Des Coudres, T. Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 417-, 

441-, 465-, 489-, 513-. 
for absolute measurements. Obermayer, A. 

von. Exner Epm. 21 (1885) 425-. 
adjustment. Carl, P. Carl Epm. 3 (1867) 15-. 
astatic, Thomson's, very sensitive. Paschen, F. 

Z. Instk. 13 (1893) 13-. 
damping. Edelmann, T. Carl Epm. 8 (1872) 

367-. 
. Christiani, A. Arch. An. PI. (PL Ab.) 

(1879) 177-. 
with damping variable. Lang, V. von. Wien 

Sb. 67 (1873) (Ab. 2) 101-. 
differential, fault in construction. Stearns, 

J. B. Tel. E. J. 9 (1880) 83-. 
hotwire. Friese,R.M. Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 

726-. 
, Friese's. Szapiro, B. Elekttech. Z. 16 

(1895) 784. 
, . Herkt, W. Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 

812. 
improved scale for. Jacob, F. Nt. 23 (1881) 

527. 
method of reading. Willson, R. W. Am. J. 

Sc. 36 (1888) 50-. 
by reflection. Drouin, F. Par. S. Ps. 

Se\ (1888) 306-. 
Poggendorff's, use of concave mirrors in. 

Matter, Joh. A. Ps. C. 143 (1871) 495-. 
portable. Edelmann, M. T. Exner Epm. 23 

(1887) 246-. 
, with ocular-scale. Weinhold, A. Elekttech. 

Z. 6 (1885) 513-. 
, Weinhold's. T., G. A. Tel. 13 (1886) 

516-. 
protection from earth-currents. Classen, . 

Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 674-. 
registering apparatus for. Samuel, P. Brux. 

Ac. Bll. 1 (1881) 620-. 
and scale. Gott, J. Tel. E. J. 11 (1882) 

624-. 
very sensitive. Gray, T., & Gray, A. E. S. P. 

36 (1884) 287-. 
use of iron guard-ring. Uppenborn, F. Exner 

Epm. 22 (1886) 596-. 



Wiedemann's. Schreber, . Meckl. Vr. Nt. 
Arch. (1892) viii-. 

with movable coil. Arsonval, d\ Par. S. 

Ps. Se\ (1889) 82-. 
, improved construction. Obach, E. 

L. Ps. S. P. 5 (1884) 289-; Ph. Mg. 16 (1883) 

multireflector for use with. Ayrton, W. E., & 

Perry, J. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 38-. 
needle, waste space round. Holman, S. W. 

Ph. Mg. 40 (1895) 494-; 43 (1897) 315-. 
, . Gray, A. Ph. Mg. 43 (1897) 

36-. 
needles, astatic magnetic. Minding, E. F. A. 

Pogg. A. 40 (1837) 151-. 
, , and experiments. Schmidt, G. G. 

Gilbert A. 70 (1822) 243-. 
, pair. Du Bois-Reymond, E. Pogg. A. 

112 (1861) 1-. 
, . Levoir, L. C. A. Ps. C. 123 (1864) 

384. 
, . Gruel, C. A. A..Ps. C. 126 (1865) 

640-. 
, damping. Solomon, M. L. Ps. S. P. 17 

(1901) 181- ; Ph. Mg. 49 (1900) 559-. 
, device for projecting deflections on screen. 

Mayer, A. M. Am. J. Sc. 5 (1873) 270-. 
, new method of magnetising and as- 

taticising. Wadsivorth, F. L. O. Ph. Mg. 

38 (1894) 482-. 

with 2 needles, and frog-, sensitiveness com- 
pared. Nobili, L. Bb. Un. 37 (1828) 10- 
Nervander's. Lemstrom, S. Helsingf . Acta 17 

(1891) 69-. 
Obach's. Schwartze, T. Humb. 3 (1884) 

256-. 
observation, methods (theory). Witting, A. 

Dresden Isis Sb. (1888) 37-. 
for Oersted ' s fundamental experiment. Romers- 

hausen, E. Dingier 117 (1850) 321-. 
oscillations. Merritt, E. Am. J. Sc. 41 (1891) 

417-. 
for physiological use. Lodge, 0., <& Nalder, 

F. H. B. A. Ep. (1893) 703. 
platinoid versus copper for. Crawley, C. W. S. 

(et alii). Elect. 28 (1892) 129, etc. 
pocket-. Tanakadate, A. Tok. Coll. Sc. J. 1 

(1887) 275-. 
with 3-pole magnets. Ferrini, R. Mil. I. 

Lomb. Ed. 4 (1867) 119-. 
portable. Arnoux, R. As. Fr. C. E. (1894) 

(Pt. 1) 123-. 
horizontal. Litideck, S. Z. Instk. 11 (1891) 

444-. 
potential difference measured by. Thevenin, L. 

C. E. 97 (1883) 453-. 
projection-. Duboscq, J. Par. S. Ps. 8e". (1876) 

9-. 
proportional, Deprez's. Uppenborn, . Tel. 

E. J. 14 (1885) 448-. 
with proportional deviations. Deprez, M. 

Lum. Elect. 6 (*1882) 110-. 
proportional, for resistance measurements. 

Carpentier, J. C. E. 93 (1881) 639-. 
, . Ulbricht, R. Dresden Isis Sb. 

(1885) 53-. 



731 



6010 



Galvanometers 



6010 



reading, method. Rice, C. B. Am. J. Sc. 2 

(1896) 276-. 
readings, reduction. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 45 

(1843) 128-. 
resistance. Heaviside, 0. Tel. E. J. 9 (1880) 

202-. 

, conditions of maximum. Du Moncel, T. 
[A. L.] C. E. 76 (1873) 368-. 

, --- (Du Moncel). Raynaud, J. C. B. 
76 (1873) 1014-. 



shunt box for. Stine, W. M. Am. J. Sc. 5 

(1898) 124-. 
shunts, adjustment. Kempe, H. R. Tel. J. 7 

(1879) 246. 
Siemens. Stepanov, A. S. [1873] (xn) Bs. 

C. Ps. S. J. 6 (Ps.) (1874) [(Pt. 1)] 26-. 
, at International Exhibition. Guerout, A. 

Lum. Elect. 7 (*1882) 82-. 
universal. Siemens, W. Berl. Z. Tel. 15 

(1868) 1-. 



, (Eaynaud). Du Moncel, T. [A. L.] . Boistel, E. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 



C. B. 76 (1873) 12O1-. 

, --- (Du Moncel). Raynaud, J. C. B. 
76 (1873) 1303-. 

, --- (Raynaud). DuMoncel,T. [A.L.] 
C. B. 76 (1873) 1403-. 

and graduation. Grassi, G. Mil. I. Lomb. 
Bd. 10 (1877) 816-. 

, new method of measuring. Negreanu, D. 
Bucarest Ac. Bom. A. 22 (Pt. admin.) (1900) 
523-. 

rotary. Anon, (vi 377) Elect. 2 (1862) 229-, 

241. 
screened. Du Bots, H,, & Rubens, H. A. Ps. 

2 (1900) 84-; Z. Instk. 20 (1900) 65-. 
sensitive. Gray, A. Ph. Mg. 29 (1890) 

208-. 

. Threlfall, R. Ph. Mg. 29 (1890) 508-. 

. Weiss, P. C. B. 120 (1895) 728- ; Eclair. 
Elect. 5 (1895) 110- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1895) 
102-. 

, best resistance for. Laws, F. A. Ps. Bv. 
5 (1897) 300-. 

.construction. Schuster, A. Elect. 33 (1894) 
484-. 

, . Langley, S. P. Smiths. I. Asps. Obs. 
A. 1 (1900) 244-. 

, with measurable reduction factor. Willson, 
R. W. A. Ps. C. 26 (1885) 44-. 

, protection from external magnetic influences. 
Raps, A., & Franke, A. Elekttech. Z. 17 
(1896) 591. 

, of small resistance. Homen, T. Helsingf . 
Ofv. 40 (1898) 27-; Fschr. Ps. (1898) (Ab. 2) 
536. 

, with variable damping. Feussner,K. Berl. 
Ps. Gs. Vh. (1891) 19-. 

sensitiveness of different forms. Gockel, A. 
Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 659-. 

, maximum. Edelmann, M. T. Carl Bpm. 
16 (1880) 670-. 

, , angle. Kempe, H. R. Tel. J. 5 (1877) 
145-. 

, , conditions. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. 
L. [1876-78] J. Tel. 3 (1877) 300- ; (xn) 
Caen Ac. Mm. (1878) 3-. 

, especially of tangent galvanometers. Schtifer, 
J. H. (vm) Arnhem Ntk. 6 (1850) 3-. 

shipboard. Clark, T. (et alii). Elect. 35 (1895) 

335, etc. 
shunt box for. Kempe, H. R. Tel. J. 6 (1878) 

375-. 
--- . Jones, J. R. Tel. J. 7 (1879) 

128-. 

-- . Ayrton, W. E., dc Mather, T. 
[1894] I. Elect. E. J. 23 (1895) 314-, 



399-. 

silk versus wire suspensions, or the "ghost " in. 

Bosanquet, R. H. M. Ph. Mg. 22 (1886) 

540; 23 (1887) 149-. 
, and rigidity of silk fibre. Gray, 

T. Ph. Mg. 23 (1887) 46-. 
simple forms. Grassi, G. Nap. I. Inc. At. 7 

(1894) No. 10, 6 pp. 
sine-. Boltshauser, G. A. Catania At. Ac. 

Gioen. 8 (1873) 151-. 

, adapted for measuring declination and in- 
tensity. Becker, C. (vn) Arnhem Ntk. 3 

(1846) 144-. 
, new standard. Gray, T. Ph. Mg. 22 

(1886) 368-. 
and tangent-, Pouillet's. Ducretet, E. As. 

Fr. C. B. 8 (1879) 390- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1880) 78-. 

, of Siemens and Halske. Meyer, W. 

Berl. Tel. Vr. Z. 7 (1860) 107-. 
, use. Viollet, J. B. Par. Bll. S. 

Encour. 61 (1862) 364-. 
, theory. Matzka, W. Pogg. A. 107 (1859) 

510-. 
, . Pierre, V. Pogg. A. 109 (1860) 

191-. 
, . Matzka, W. Pogg. A. 109 (1860) 

657-. 

, . Stefanini, A. N. Cim. 26 (1889) 97-. 
, use in French telegraph service. Triger, 

E. A. Tel. 2 (1859) 39-. 
solenoid. Poynting, J. H. [1888] Birm. Ph. 

S. P. 6 (1887-89) 162-. 
, Blyth's. Jamieson,A. Tel. E. J. 12 (1883) 

240-. 
, endless, and voltmeter. Blyth, J. Glasg. 

Ph. S. P. 15 (1884) 187-. 
spring-, for technical purposes. Kohlrausch, F. 

Elekttech. Z. 5 (1884) 13-, 96. 
, . Anon. Elekttech. Z. 5 (1884) 

228-. 
standard, use of Clark cell to construct. 

Threlfall, R. L. Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 247- ; 

Ph. Mg. 28 (1889) 416-. 
standardising. Ducretet, E. C. E. 97 (1883) 

1477. 
for strong currents. Iremonger, R. J. [1838] 

Electr. S. T. (1837-40) 45-. 
. Brackett, C. F. Am. J. Sc. 21 

(1881) 395-. 

and subdivision of battery-current. Knochen- 
hauer, K. W. A. Ps. C. 126 (1865) 228-. 

Sullivan. Jaulin, C. A. Tel. 24 (1898) 
266-. 

suspended coil, sensitiveness. Abraham, H. 
C. B. 122 (1896) 882-. 



732 



6010 Tangent 



Galvanometers 



6010 



suspended coil, sensitiveness. Fery, C. C. B. 

128 (1899) 663-. 
with suspended system in liquid, use. Petti- 

nelli, P. N. Cim. 3 (1896) 117-. 
tables for use with. Peltier, A. A. C. 71 

(1839) 225-. 



TANGENT GALVANOMETEES. 

Sadebeck, M. Bresl. Schl. Gs. Ubs. (1845) 

92-. 
Haedenkamp, H. Grunert Arch. 23 (1854) 

217-. 
Zenger, C. W. Wien SB. 17 (1855) 361- ; Ph. 

Mg. 22 (1861) 529-. 
Joule, J. P. Manch. Lt. Ph. S. P. 6 (1867) 

135-, 151-. 
Eiecke, C. V. E. [1877-78] A. Ps. C. 3 (1878) 

36-; 4 (1878) 226-; D. Nf. Tbl. (*1878) 

231-. 

Mascart, E. E. N. J. de Ps. 1 (1882) 222-. 
constants, determination. Vanni, G. Nap. 

S. Nt. Bll. 5 (1891) 31-. 
construction, new principle. Vianisi,L. Nap. 

I. Inc. At. 16 (1879) 305-. 
Gaugain's (new principle). Gaugain, J. M. 

C. B. 36 (1853) 191-. 

. Blavier, E. E. A. Tel. 3 (1860) 256-. 

, construction. Trowbridge, J. Am. J. Sc. 
9 (1875) 383-. 

, theory. Pierre, V. Wien SB. 13 (1854) 
527-. 

Joule's, new form. Thomson, (Sir) W. Tel. 

E. J. 1 (1872-73) 392-. 
lecture-. Buff, H. A. Ps. C. 3 (1878) 494-. 

. Poynting, J. H. Manch. Lt. Ph. S. P. 
18 (1879) 85-. 

with long wire. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 86 (1853) 



Stoney, G. J. Ph. Mg. 
Stoney, G. J. Ph. 



needle, adjustment. 
15 (1858) 135-. 

, correction for length. 
Mg. 23 (1862) 345-. 

, --- . Moon, W. Tel. J. 22 (1888) 
127. 

, --- . Elliott, A. C. Tel. J. 22 (1888) 
215. 

reduction factor. Waszmuth, A. Wien Ak. 

Sb. 61 (1870) (Ab. 2) 55-. 
and rheochord. Miiller, F. C. G. A. Ps. C. 

150 (1873) 93-. 
scale for. Preece, W. H., <& Kempe, H. E. B. 

S. P. 40 (1886) 496-; Elect. 17 (1886) 

431-. 
for strong currents. Obach, E. Carl Bpm. 14 

(1878) 507-. 
--- . Kohlrausch, F. Elekttech. Z. 5 

(1884) 13-, 96. 
--- . Schilling, G. A. Wien Ak. Sb. 92 

(1886) (Ab. 2) 1079-. 
theory. Oberbeck, A. Arch. Mth. Ps. 56 

(1874) 387-. 
with thick and thin wires. Becker, C. (vrt) 

Arnhem Ntk. 3 (1846) 65-. 



technical. 
119-. 



Mutter, F. C. G. Z. Instk. 4 (1884) 



technical universal. Meidinger, H. [1864] 

Heidi. Vh. Nt. Md. 3 (1865) 161-. 
for telegraphic purposes. Ayrton, W. E. 

Beng. As. S. P. (1871) 217-. 
tension-, standard. Bosanquet , E. H. M . Ph. 

Mg. 17 (1884) 27-. 
theory. Weber, H. A. Ps. C. 154 (1875) 239- ; 

157 (1876) 555-. 
thermal. Page, C. G. Am. Pol. J. 1 (1853) 

. Carter, E. T. Elect. 30 (1893) 680- . 
and thermopile combined. Forbes, G. B. S. 

P. 40 (1886) 217- ; Elect. 17 (1886) 427-. 
thermoscopic, large and very sensitive. Locke, 

J. Silliman J. 33 (1838) 365-. 
Thomson's. Gaiffe, A. C. B. 90 (1880) 94-. 
. Eothen, T. J. Tel. 4 (1878-80) 658-. 

(graded). Gray, A. Nt. 26 (1882) 506-. 
. Eouilliard, A. Lum. Elect. 13 (1884) 

165-. 

. Sciama, G. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1884) 110-. 
. La Touanne, G. de. A. Tel. 12 (1885) 

318-. 
, very sensitive form. Wadsworth, F. L. 0. 

Ph. Mg. 38 (1894) 553-. 
with Toepler's pneumatic damper. Lermantov, 

V. V. (xn) Bs. C. Ps. S. J. 9 (Ps.) (1877 

[(Pt. 1)] 336-. 

torsion-. Eitchie, W. B. I. J. 1 (1831) 29-. 
. Edelmann, M. T. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 

687-. 
, Siemens and Halske. Frolich, 0. [1883] 

(xn) Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. 2 (1884) 27-. 
, , calibration. Kopsel, A. Berl. 

Ps. Gs. Vh. (1890) 53-. 
, , corrections in use. Eichter, C. 

Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 517-, 576. 
uni- and bi-lateral deflection. Chrystal, G. Ph. 

Mg. 2 (1876) 401-. 
universal, of variable force. Majocchi, G. A. 

A. Sc. Lomb. Ven. 8 (1838) 61-; (vi Adds.) 

Majocchi A. Fis. C. 13 (1844) 267-. 
use. Poggendorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 56 (1842) 

324-. 

as ammeter or voltmeter. Hulin, L. J. de 
Ps. 9 (1890) 510. 

, best conditions for. Du Moncel, (comte) T. 

A. L. C. B. 85 (1877) 377-, 481-. 

, (Du Moncel). Eaynaud, J. C. 

B. 85 (1877) 480-. 

in electrostatics. Cantoni,G. Mil. I. Lomb. 
Ed. 2 (1869) 304-. 

vertical. Bourbouze, . C. E. 70 (1870) 

616-. 
, Bourbouze's, theory. Lissajous, J. J. de 

Ps. 1 (1872) 190- ; Dingier 207 (1873) 195-. 

lantern. Barker, G. F. [1875] Am. Ph. 
S. P. 14 (1876) 440-. 

, tangent scale for. Lisser, , & Beneke, . 

Humb. 5 (1886) 103. 
vibration-. Eubens, H. A. Ps. C. 56 (1895) 

27-. 
for weak currents. Becquerel, A. C. A. C. 24 

(1823) 337-. 
and strong currents. Lamont, J. Pogg. 

A. 88 (1853) 230-. 
and Wheatstone bridge, new forms. Tobler, A. 

J. Tel. 18 (1894) 6-. 



733 



6010 



Electric Measuring Instruments 



6010 



Wiedemann's, new form. Edelmann, M. T. 

Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 669. 
with 20 wires. Rayleigh, (Lord). B. A. Rp. 

(1884) 633. 



Galvanometry. Henrici, F. C. Pogg. A. 53 
(1841) 277-. 

(Henrici). Buff, H. Pogg. A. 54 (1841) 

. Petrina, F. A. Pogg. A. 57 (1842) 111-. 

. Jacobi, M. H. C. R. 33 (1851) 277-. 

. Weber, W. E. Gott. Ab. 10 (Mth.) (1861- 

62) 3-. 

. T&pler, . D. Nf. Tbl. (*1878) 140. 
, analytical. Treca, C. Fr. Cg. Sc. 20 

(1853) 328-. 
, method of velocity of deflection in. Fery, 

. C. R. 128 (1899) 1392-. 

of rapid, sudden discharges. Witting, A. 
A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 621-. 

, titration method. Salomon, . [1897] Z. 

Elektch. (1897-98) 71-. 
Galvanoscope. Gumming, J. Thomson A. Ph. 

6 (1823) 288-. 
, application to detection of failure of water 

in steam boilers. Page, C. G. Silliman J. 

36 (1839) 141-. 
, capillary. Siemens, E. W. von. Berl. Ak. 

Mb. (1874) 157-. 
.differential. Stepanov, A. S. (xn) Rs. Ps.- 

C. S. J. 14 (Ps.) (1882) [(Pt. 1)] 7-. 
, very sensitive. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 90 (1854) 

, . Weber, Heinr. A. Ps. C. 137 (1869) 

121-. 
, use of telephone as. Arsonval, A. d\ C. 

R. 86 (1878) 832-. 
Hysteresis errors. Stine, W. M. Sc. Abs. 2 

(1899) 458. 

Indications of instruments. Hospitalier, E. 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1885) 113-. 
Indicator, electrolytic. Anon. Rv. Sc.-Ind. 32 

(1900) 91. 

, magneto-electric. Lo Cicero, G. Rm. Cor. 

Sc. 5 (1859) 173-. 
, maximum demand-. Halsey, E. S. Sc. 

Abs. 2 (1899) 695. 
, . Steele, L. J. Elect. Rv. 46 (1900) 

, power-factor. Bowie, A. J. (jun.) [1900] 

Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 56. 
, reversed current-. Dick, E. Elekttech. Z. 

15 (1894) 620. 
, rotating field-. Arldt,C. Elekttech. Z. 18 

(1897) 487-. 

of torsion and angular velocity, telephonic. 
Resio, C. C. R. 94 (1882) 854- ; Lum. Elect. 
6 (*1882) 399-. 

Integrating machine. Boys, C. V. L. Ps. S. 

P. 4 (1881) 199- ; Ph. Mg. 11 (1881) 342-. 
Integrators, etc. , for forces. Boys, C. V. [1881] 

L. Ps. S. P. 5 (1884) 8-; Ph. Mg. 13 (1882) 

77-. 
, Sir W. Thomson's. Richard, G. Lum. 

Elect. 11 (1884) 171-. 
Lamp and scale, Edelmann's. Terquem, A. 

J. de Ps. 9 (1880) 124-. 



Least error in measuring given quantity, best 

reading for. Baum, F. G. Ps. Rv. 8 (1899) 

181-. 
Lecture-apparatus. Miiller, . Berl. Ps. Gs. 

Vh. (1884) 1-. 
Lighting, measuring instruments. Sabine, R. 

B. A. Rp. (1882) 667-. 

and power transmission, instruments for. 
Ayrton, W. E., & Perry, J. Tel. E. J. 11 
(1882) 254-. 

Magnetic field, variations, instrument for 
measuring. Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 6 
(*1882) 270-. 

Magnetism of magnetic circle, method of cal- 
culating. Moon, W. Ph. Mg. 15 (1883) 
389-. 

Magnetometric measurements free from dis- 
turbance. Du Bois, H. Elekttech. Z. 17 

(1896) 800-. 

Medical machine. Debedat, . As. Fr. C. 

R. (1895) (Pt. 1) 222. 
Microphonic apparatus for medical use. Mag- 

neville, de. Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 389-. 
Mirror reading, apparatus for illuminating 

scales. Kamerlingh Onnes, H. Amst. Ak. 

Vs. 4 (1896) 311- ; Arch. Neerl. 1 (1898) 

405-. 

, modification. Edelmann, M. T. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 12 (1891) 37. 
, objective, measuring instrument with. 

Quincke, G. D. Nf. Vh. (1891) (Th. 2) 

28-. 
Moving coils, aluminium for. Obach, E. Nt. 

26 (1882) 245. 
for instruments, shape. Mather, T. L. 

Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 376- ; Ph. Mg. 29 (1890) 

434-. 
Ohm meter. Mauri, A. N. Cim. 35 (1894) 

235-. 
Oscillometer, ballistic, for measurement of 

electric energy and quantity with continuous 

current. Guillet, A., & Guillet, V. C. R. 

130 (1900) 1549-. 
Potentiometer. Feussner, K. Z. Instk. 10 

(1890) 113-. 
. Raps, A. Z. Instk. 15 (1895) 215-. 

for alternating currents. Swinburne, J. 
[1893] L. Ps. S. P. 12 (1894) 514- ; Ph. 
Mg. 37 (1894) 201-. 

, Crompton. Fisher, W. C. Elect. 36 (1896) 
158-, 192-, 370-, 440-, 647- ; 37 (1896) 5-, 
269-; 38(1897) 154-. 

, direct-reading. Anon. Elect. Rv. 40 (1897) 
806-. 

for measuring E.M.F. Mauri, A. Mil. I. 
Lomb. Rd. 30 (1897) 439-. 

polarisations. Haber, F. [1900] Z. 

Elektch. (1900-01) 13-. 
, wide range. Fry, L. H. Elect. Rv. 41 

(1897) 234-. 

, winch. Edelmann, M. T. Elekttech. Z. 

21 (1900) 1067. 
Power measurement, apparatus. Raveau, C. 

Lum. Elect. 42 (1891) 251-, 323-, 375-. 

in inductive circuit. Fleming, J. A. 
Elect. 27 (1891) 9-. 

polyphase systems. Bmcie, A. J. 
(jun.) [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 121. 



734 



6010 Registering Instruments 

Kadio-micrometer. Boys, C. V. [1887-88] E. 

S. P. 42 (1887) 189- ; Phil. Trans. (A) 180 

(1890) 159-. 
Beading of apparatus. Armagnat, H. Eclair. 

Elect. 8 (1896) 153-. 



EEGISTEKING INSTEUMENTS. 

Schfiffler, 0. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 1 (1880) 

97-. 
(International Exhibition.) DuMoncel,T.A.L. 

Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 321-. 
Richard, F. M. [1889] A. Tel. 17 (1890) 

32-. 
anemometrograph. DuMoncel, T. A. L. Lum. 

Elect. 9 (*1883) 161-. 

and udometer, Palmieri's. Marcillac, P. 
Lum. Elect. 18 (1885) 255-. 

for atmospheric electricity and terrestrial mag- 
netism. Mascart, E. E. N. Par. S. Ps. Se\ 

(1881) 66-. 
balance. Sprung, A. Lum. Elect. 43 (1892) 

170-. 
barometer registering at a distance. Dieudonne, 

E. Lum. Elect. 38 (1890) 311-. 
barometrograph, Eccard's. Guerout, A. Lum. 

Elect. 5 (*1881) 117-. 

for continuous registration of power transmis- 
sion. Ferrini, R. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 17 

(1884) 710-. 
current recorder. Shida, E. [1885-86] Jap. 

Seism. S. T. 9 (1886) (pt. 1) 23- ; Ph. Mg. 

22 (1886) 96-. 
dynamometer. Kohn, M. Dingier 268 (1888) 

537-. 
at Eiffel Tower. Fonvielle, W. de. Lum. 

Elect. 33 (1889) 422-. 
electromagnetic. Deprez, M. J. de Ps. 5 

(1876) 1-. 
electrophotographic. Gerard, E. Brux. Ac. 

Bll. 16 (1888) 323-. 
hy drome trograph. Ravaglia, J. Lum. Elect. 

17 (1885) 67-. 
induction-rheograph , Abraham - Carpentier. 

Abraham, H. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1897) 45-. 
meteorograph, Eysselberghe's. Geraldy, F. 

Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 323-. 
, Theorell's. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. 

Elect. 4 (M881) 369-. 
meteorological. Bergholz, . D. Nf. Vh. 

(1897) (Th. 2, Hfilfte 1) 115-. 
for motion of projectiles. Sebert, L. Lum. 

Elect. 2 (*1880) 347-, 431-. 

musical improvisation. Du Moncel, T. A. L. 
Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 337-. 

speech recorder, Gentilli's. Guerout, A. Lum. 

Elect. 3 (*1881) 359-. 
for speed of trains. Waldorp, H. Lum. Elect. 

8 (*1883) 84-. 
. Frischen, C. Elekttech. Z. 7 

(1886) 159-. 
telemareograph, Gime. Marinovitch, B. Lum. 

Elect. 24 (1887) 62-, 509-. 
telemeter. Le Goarant de Tromelin, G. Lum. 

Elect. 2 (*1880) 6-. 



Resistances 6010 

telemeter. Lacoine, E. Lum. Elect. 18 (1885) 

533-. 
, Clarke. K...e. Lum. Elect. 24 (1887) 

351-. 
, Fiske. Brylinski, E. A. Tel. 18 (1891) 

235-. 
, Le Goarant de Tromelin's. Guerout, A. 

Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 154-. 
, Siemens. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 7 

(*1882) 173-. 
thermo- and barometrographs. Dieudonne, E. 

Lum. Elect. 30 (1888) 601-. 
transference apparatus. Schuller, A. Mth. 

Termt. Ets. 10 (1892) 209- ; Mth. Nt. B. 

Ung. 11 (1894) 271-. 

for water-level and gas-pressure. Anon. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 15 (1894) 26-. 



Eesistance, artificial, for measurements with 
dynamos. Vollbrecht, W. Elekttech. Z. 5 
(1884) 416-. 

boxes, new forms. Feussner, . Elekttech. 
Z. 20 (1899) 611-. 

coils, polarisation. Dearlove, A. Tel. J. 
20 (1887) 269-. 

for strong currents, new form. Kopsel, A. 
Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1890) 55-. 

Eheochord, convenient form. Carl, P. Carl 

Epm. 3 (1867) 379-. 
Eheo-electrometer. Marianini, S. [1838-45] 

A. C. 10 (1844) 491- ; 13 (1845) 245-. 
, Marianini's, application to atmospheric 

electricity. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 9 

(*1883) 7-. 
, Melsens's. Herve-Mangon, C. F. A. Tel. 

3 (1876) 351-. 
Eheolyser. Wartmann, E. F. [1877-84] Arch. 

So. Ps. Nt. 7 (1882) 475- ; 13 (1885) 52-. 
Eheometer for earth-currents, experiments. 

Palmieri, L. Nap. Ac. Pont. At. 21 (1891) 

103-. 
, magnetic, Mariani's. Anon. Tel. J. 1 

(1864) 99. 

, thermo-. Jamin, J. C. E. 67 (1868) 35-. 
, , Jamin's. Gaiffe, A. C. E. 67 (1868) 

345-. 
, universal. Zenger, C. W. Wien SB. 45 

(Ab. 2) (1862) 414-. 

Eheometric apparatus with maximum devia- 
tion. Basso, G. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 17 (1881) 

675-. 

compass. Basso, G. Tor. Mm. Ac. 26 
(1871) 283-. 

, use for momentary currents. Basso, G. 

Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 13 (1877) 615-. 
Eheophore, new. Cazin, A. (ix) Par. S. 

Phlm. Bll. 7 (1871) 182-. 



RHEOSTATS. 

Osann, G. Wiirzb. Vh. 3 (1852) 226-, 313-. 
Cauderay, H. [1866] Laus. Bll. S. Vd. 

(1866-68) 198-. 

Minotto, G. Ven. At. 13 (1867-68) 1014-. 
Crova, A. J. de Ps. 3 (1874) 124-. 
Engelmann, T. W. Utr. Oz. 10 (1887) 169-. 



735 



6010 Rheostats 

Hess, A. Lum. Elect. 37(1890) 19-; 38 (1890) 

604-. 

Cance, . Par. S. Ps. Se. (1893) 137-. 
arrangement. Kohlrausch, F. [1887] Miinch. 

Ak. Sb. 17 (1888) 11-. 

automatic. Gouy, . J. de Ps. 7 (1888) 479-. 
, Ferrand. Aliamet, M. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

728-. 

band-. Grosse, A. A. Ps. C. 29 (1886) 674-. 
circular. Strecker, K. Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 

98-. 
cylindrical, Gander's. Guerout, A. Lum. 

Elect. 5 (*1881) 255-. 
improved form. Gee, W. W. H. Manch. Lt. 

Ph. S. P. 26 (1887) 4. 
for medical utilisation of lighting-currents. 

Foveau de Courmelles, . As. Fr. C. B. 

(1896) (Pt. 1) 148. 
mercury, Jacobi's. Chwolson, O. [1876] St. 

Pet. Ac. Sc. fill. 22 (1877) 409-. 
mercury-carbon-. Nebel, B. Exner Bpm. 25 

(1889) 128-. 

plug-. Dorn, E. A. Ps. C. 22 (1884) 558-. 
, for high tensions. Edelmann, M. T. 

Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 95-. 
plugs. Kohlrausch, F. A. Ps. C. 60 (1897) 

333-. 
of resistance rhythmically variable. Bergonie, 

. As. Fr. C. B. (1895) (Pt. 1) 223. 
screw-. Engelmann, T. W. Arch. Neerl. 22 

(1888) 145-. 
universal lamp-. Heim, C. Elekttech. Z. 15 

(1894) 50-. 
use in electrotherapy. Bergonie, . As. Fr. 

C. B. (1900) (Pt. 1) 304. 
Wheatstone's, improved by Sir W. Thomson. 

Bottomley, J. T. B. A. Bp. (1886) 547-. 
, modification. Bid-well, S. L. Ps. S. P. 8 

(1887) 50- ; Ph. Mg. 22 (1886) 29-. 



Sensitiveness of instruments. Picou, B. V. 

[1882] Gen. Civ. 3 (*1882-83) 12-. 
Shunt, universal. Rymer-Jones, J. Elect. Bv. 

42 (1898) 717-. 

Silk fibres, apparatus for manipulating. Edel- 
mann, M. T. Exner Epm. 23 (1887) 477-. 
Spiral springs. Ayrton, W. E., & Perry, J. 

B. S. P. 36 (1884) 297-. 

. Kohlrausch, W. Elekttech. Z. 7 (1886) 

323. 
Synchronisation of slightly damped oscillation. 

Cornu, A. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1887) 150-. 
Tachometer. Horn, T. Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 

393. 
. Picou, E. V. Lum. Elect. 29 (1888) 

416-. 
. Fessenden, E. A. [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 

Telephone , use for electric and galvanic measure- 
ments. Wietlisbach, V. Berl. Ak Mb 
(1879) 278-. 

Thermomultiplier and rothrioscope, sensi- 
tiveness compared. Nobili, L. \ 18321 Pogg. 
A. 27 (1833) 455-. 

Thermopile for measurement of small E.M.F. 
Gore, G. [1884] Birm. Ph. S. P. 4 (1883- 
85) 130-. 



Voltameters 6010 

Sir W. Thomson's apparatus. Richard, G. 

Lum. Elect. 12 (1884) 403-. 

. Anon. Tel. J. 17 (1885) 249-. 

. Hiibschmann, H. Elekttech. Z. 

8 (1887) 429-. 
. Eichard, G. Lum. Elect. 26 

(1887) 251-. 

. Anon. Tel. J. 20 (1887) 537-. 

. Anon. Tel. J. 25 (1889) 718-. 

(Lord Kelvin's). Aylmer, J. A. 

Tel. 22 (1895) 5-. 
( ). Eennie, J. Elect. 37 

(1896) 238-. 
Volt measurement, graphic methods. Breglia, 

E. Nap. I. Inc. At. 1 (1899) No. 2, 

41 pp. 
Volt-ampere and horse-power, relation. Rothen, 

. J. Tel. 8 (1884) 161-. 



VOLTAMETERS. 

(Volta-electrometer.) Faraday, M. Phil. 

Trans. (1834) 91-. 
(Priority claim.) Electricus [Pseud.]. Sturgeon 

A. Electr. 1 (*1836-37) 505-. 
(Volta-electrometer, Faraday's, originality.) 

Higgim, W. [1837] (vi Adds.) Electr. S. P. 

(1837-40) 135-. 
Eoberts, M. J. [1839-40] Edinb. B. S. P. 1 

(1845) 248-; Sturgeon A. Electr. 4 (1839-40) 

401-. 
Bertin, A. [1862-66] Strasb. S. H. Nt. Mm. 

5 (Livr. 2 & 3) (1862) [No. 2] 18- ; Strasb. 

Mm. S. Sc. 6 (1866-70) (livr. 1) [No. 4] 

31-. 

Muencke, E. C. Ztg. 12 (1888) 458. 
Wolff, C. H. Z. Angew. C. (1888) 296-. 
Caldwell, G. C. Am. C. S. J. 13 (1891) 

207-. 
Naber, . [1893] Z. Elekttech. Elektch. 

(1894-95) 210-. 
copper. Hammerl, H. [1883] Wien Ak. Sb. 

88 (1884) (Ab. 2) 278-. 
. Anderson, (Lt.) G. L. Tel. J. 23 (1888) 

432-. 
. Foerster, F. Z. Elektch. (1896-97) 479-, 

493-. 
, accuracy. Blount, B. Elect. 31 (1893) 

59-. 
, influence of electrodes. Perrot, A. C. B. 

49 (1859) 37-. 
, polarisation and resistance. Moore, B. E. 

Am. As. P. (1899) 112 ; Ps. Ev. 10 (1900) 

34-. 
of copper wires and dilute acid, phenomenon 

observed with. Plante, G. (vm) Arch. Sc. 

Ps. Nt. 7 (1860) 332-. 

effect of alternating current traversing it with- 
out electrolysis. Malagoli, R. Catania Ac. 

Gioen. At. 6 (1893) Mem. 3, 11 pp. 
hydrogen. Briiggemann, C. Z. Instk. 13 (1893) 

417-. 
improved. Jacobi, M. H. Pogg. A. 59 (1843) 

, for separate collection of constituents of 
water. Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. B. (1842) 
56-. 



736 



6010 Voltmeters 

included in galvanic circuit, nature of resist- 
ance. Petrina, F. A. Pose. A. 64 (1845) 
356-. 

iodine, for small currents. Herroun, E. F. 
L. Ps. S. P. 13 (1898) 517- ; Ph. Mg. 40 
(1895) 91-. 

large. Gassiot, J. P. [1841] L. Electr. S. P. 
(1843) 3-. 

andLeyden jars, etc., reduction of observations. 
Perry, J., & Ayrton, W. E. E. S. P. 30 
(1880) 411-. 

mercury. Jacobi, M. H. Pogg. A. 77 (1849) 

. Lenz, E. A. Ps. C. Beibl. 1 (1877) 298-. 
. Pfeiffer, P. Orv.-Termt. Ets. (Termt. Szak) 

(1886) 141-. 
. Gurwitsch, L. Z. Elektch. (1898-99) 

319-. 
, for alternating currents. Lowrie-Hall, , 

(& Higgins, F. Elect. 21 (1888) 157, etc. 
Minet's, for graduation of electric measuring 

instruments. Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 

25 (1887) 177-. 
recording. Eegnard, P. Par. S. Bl. Mm. 40 

(1888) (C. R.) 835-. 
silver. Novak, V. Prag <5eske Ak. Fr. Jos. 

Ez. (Tfida 2) 1 (1892) Art. 21, 48 pp. 
, effect of dissolved gases. Myers, J. E, 

A. Ps. C. 55 (1895) 288-. 
, temperature, etc. Merrill, J. F. 

J. H. Un. Cir. [18 (1898-99)] 57- ; Ps. Ev. 

10 (1900) 167-. 
, use as standard. Kahle, K. Z. Instk. 18 

(1898) 229-, 267-. 
sonorous. Edison, T. A. Am. J. Sc. 16 (1878) 

379-. 
standard. Minet, A. Lum. Elect. 22 (1886) 

49- ; 24 (1887) 463-, 614-. 
thermal researches. Eaoult, F. M. C. E. 59 

(1864) 521- ; A. C. 4 (1865) 392-. 
use of cupric nitrate. Beach, F. E. Am. J. 

Sc. 46 (1893) 81-, 490. 
, practical. Crusell, G. [1846] St. Pet. 

Bll. Ac. Sc. 5 (1847) 267-. 
and voltastat. Guthrie, Fred. Ph. Mg. 35 

(1868) 334-. 
water-, for absolute measurement of strong 

currents. Kohlrausch, F, Elekttech. Z. 6 

(1885) 190-, 320. 
weight-. Ledingham, L. N. Tel. J. 14 (1884) 

153-. 



VOLTMETEES. 

Cardew, (Capt.) . Elect. 13 (1884) 431-. 

for alternating currents, compensation. Swin- 
burne, J. Elect. 25 (1890) 674. 

potential differences. Ayrton, W. E., <& 

Perry, J. [1887] Tel. E. J. 16 (1888) 539-, 
609-. 

armature for. Gravier, A. Lum. Elect. 17 
(1885) 17-. 

astatic. Ayrton, W. E., & Mather, T. [1894] 
I. Elect. E. J. 23 (1895) 380-. 

for effective alternating pressures. Ebert, H., 
<& Hoffmann, M. W. Z. Instk. 18 (1898) 



Wattmeters 6010 

electrostatic. Braun, F. Elekttech. Z. 12 

(1891) 645-. 
. Perot, A., & Fabry, C. J. de Ps. 7 (1898) 

650-. 
. Svilokossitch, . [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 

(1899) 43. 
, Ayrton and Mather's. Anon. Elect. Ev. 

32 (1893) 686-. 
, . Tobler, A. J. Tel. 20 (1896) 

49-. 
, phase-turning apparatus for use with. 

Campbell, A. [1900] L. Ps. S. P. 17 (1901) 

, precautions. Thomson, (Sir) W. Tel. J. 

25 (1889) 4-. 
, Sir W. Thomson's. Meikle, A. W. [1889] 

Elect. 24 (1890) 6-, 30-, 59-, 91. 
independent of temperature. Kahle, K. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 11 (1890) 270-. 
photographic registering. Eaps, A. Z. Instk. 

14 (1894) 1-. 
platinum. Callendar, H. L. B. A. Ep. (1898) 

788-. 
recording. Moler, G. S. Ps. Ev. 1 (1894) 

214-. 
reflecting, of wide range. Thiermann, W. 

Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 211-. 
standard. Cardew, (Capt.) . Elect. 20 

(1888) 81-. 
thermic mercury. Camichel, C. C. E. 125 

(1897) 90-. 

twisted strip. Perry, J. Elect. 24 (1890) 
647-. 

vertical scale, induction error in Sir W. Thom- 
son's. Gray, T. Tel. J. 22 (1888) 58-. 

3- voltmeter method of power measurement, 
errors in. Eussell, A. Elect. 30 (1893) 
241-. 

Weston. Anon. Tel. J. 24 (1889) 204-. 

winding. Ayrton, W. E., & Perry, J. L. Ps. 
S. P. 7 (1886) 334-; Ph. Mg. 21 (1886) 
100-. 

WATTMETEES. 

Deprez, M. C. E. 90 (1880) 812-; Lum. Elect. 

2 (*1880) 133, 170-. 
for alternating currents. Perry, J. Elect. 35 

(1895) 773. 
. Behn-Eschenburg, H. [1897] Sc. 

Abs. 1 (1898) 713. 
compensation of self-induction. Danielson, E. 

Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 703-. 
correction factors. Aliamet, M. Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 713. 

. Loppe, F. Eclair. Elect. 16 (1898) 

525-. 
differential. Mather, T. Elect. 30 (1893) 

340. 
, for alternating currents. Kennelly, A. E. 

Elect. 30 (1893) 300-. 
electrodynamic, correction of phase-difference. 

Des Coudres, T. [1899] Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 

76-. 
, error. Blondel, A. As. Fr. C. E. (1899) 

(Pt. 1) 227. 
electrostatic. Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 

30 (1888) 506-. 



737 



6015 



Apparatus for Variable Currents 



Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 



electrostatic. Guye, C. E. 

4 (1897) 589. 
, for high potential alternating currents. 

Arno, R. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 33 (1897) 593- or 

827-. 
errors in measurements. Gray, T. Am. As. 

P. (1899) 123-. 

Ganz. Blathy, 0. T. Elect. 20 (1888) 612-. 
. Fleming, J. A. Elect. 20 (1888) 670-. 
improved, Peloux's. Mohlenbruck, H. Laus. 

S. Vd. fill. 35 (1899) xx-. 
and maximum demand indicator, combination 

integrating. Barker, T. Elect. 45 (1900) 

862-. 
with mirror-reading. Friese, E. M. Elekt- 

tech. Z. 14 (1893) 209-, 221-, 244. 
percentage accuracy. Wilberforce,L.R. Elect. 

20 (1888) 580-. 
2, by Siemens and Halske. Kbpsel, A. Berl. 

Ps. Gs. Vh. (1888) 45-., 
universal. Guilbert, F. Eclair. Elect. 7 (1896) 

391-. 
Walker's. Anon. Tel. J. 17 (1885) 142. 



6015 Variable Currents, Appa- 
ratus for Determining the 
Character of. 



(See also 5705.) 



Elect. 



(1898) 



Crawley, C. W. S., <& Hawes, F. B. 0. 

15 (1885) 46-, 63-. 
Braun, F. A. Ps. C. 60 (1897) 552-. 
Benischke, G. D. Nf. Vh. (1900) (Th. 2, 

Halfte 1) 36-. 
Analyser. Hicks, W. M. Elect. 34 (1895) 

698-. 
, harmonic. Des Coudres, T. Berl. Ps. Gs. 

Vh. (1898) 129-. 
, . LeConte, J. N. Ps. Ev. 7 

27-. 

Currents and E.M.F.s, rapidly varying, instru- 
ment for recording. Duddell, W. D. B. 

Elect. 39 (1897) 636-. 

of high frequency, apparatus for measure- 
ment. Gaiff'e, G., & Meylan, E. C. E. 122 
(1896) 990-. 

and low frequencies, apparatus for 

measurement. Arsonval, d\ Par. S. Bl. 

Mm. 47 (1895) (C. R.) 502-. 
, sinusoidal, special system of 2 coils traversed 

by. Rossi, A. G. N. Cim. 8 (1898) 5-, 

353-. 
, transient, study by electrodynamometer. 

FitzGerald, G. F. Dubl. S. Sc. P. 4 (1885) 

341-. 
, triphase, measurement. Arno, R. Eclair. 

Elect. 22 (1900) 379-. 
Curve indicator. Lutoslawski, M. Elekttech. 

Z. 17 (1896) 211-. 

recorder (cycle-curve). Callendar, H. L. 
Elect. 41 (1898) 582-. 

tracer. Rosa, E. B. B. A. Ep. (1897) 
571- ; Ps. Ev. 6 (1898) 17-; Elect. 40 (1898) 
126-, 221-, 3l8-. 



6010 



Curve tracer. Townsend, F. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 
554-. 

Curves of 2 currents, apparatus for photo- 
graphing simultaneously. Hotchkiss, H. J. 
Ps. Ev. 8 (1899) 152-. 

, delineation. Fleming, J. A. Elect. 34 

(1895) 460-, 507-. 

, determination. Frolich, 0. Elect. 28 

(1892) 59-. 

, galvanometer for photographing. Hotch- 
kiss, H. J., & Millis,F. E. Ps. Ev. 3 (1896) 
49-. 

, method of recording. Switzer, J. A. Ps. 
Ev. 7 (1898) 83-. 

, projection apparatus. Peukert, W. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 20 (1899) 622-. 

, vibration-, of telephone, alternators, etc., 
optical projection. Frolich, 0. Berl. Ps. 
Gs. Vh. (1889) 31- ; Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 
65-, 345-, 369-. 

Frequency, apparatus for determining. Moler, 
G. S. Ps. Ev. 4 (1897) 411-. 

indicator. Campbell, A. Elect. 37 (1896) 
437-. 

. Yundt, G. J. [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 

71. 
, measurement by vibrating wire. Carpenter, 

H. V. Elect. 43 (1899) 629-. 

meters. Campbell, A. L. Ps. S. P. 14 

(1896) 267- ; Ph. Mg. 42 (1896) 159-. 

. Aliamet, M. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 72. 

Galvanometer, measurement by. Cheesman, 

L. M. Berl. Ak. Sb. (1882) 741-. 
Oscillographs. Blondel, A. [1893-1900] C. E. 

116 (1893) 502- ; Eclair. Elect. 11 (1897) 

158- ; As. Fr. C. E. (1898) (Pt. 2) 191- ; 

Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 675-; 3 (1900) 63-; 4 

(1901) 512-. 
, induction-. Abraham, H. C. E. 124 (1897) 

758- ; Eclair. Elect. 11 (1897) 145-. 
Period-counter. Stdckhardt, E. Elekttech. Z. 

20 (1899) 873-. 

Phase difference in alternate-current electro- 
lysis. Cooper, W. R. Elect. 35 (1895) 541-. 
between current and E.M.F., instrument 

for measuring. Cardew, (Maj.) P. E. S. P. 

56 (1894) 250-. 

, electrodynamometer for measuring. 
Rossi, A. G. N. Cim. 7 (1898) 319-. 

and electric wave indicator. Thomson, E. 
Tel. J. 22 (1888) 108-. 

indicator. Puluj, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 102 

(1893) (Ab. 2a) 815- . 

and synchroniser, optical. Moler, G. S., 

& Bedell, F. Elect. 33 (1894) 210. 

meter. Trowbridge, J. Am. J. Sc. 43 
(1892) 232-. 

. Derr, L. Elect. Ev. 37 (1895) 24-. 

. Tuma, J. D. Nf. Vh. (1897) (Th. 2, 

Halfte 1) 49-; Wien Ak. Sb. 106 (1897) 

(Ab. 2a) 442-, 521-. 
. Armagnut, . [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 

(1901) 509-. 
, direct-acting. Bruger, T. Elekttech. 

Z. 19 (1898) 476-. 
, tangent. Arno, R. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 32 

(1896) 353- or 533- ; 33 (1897) 499- or 729-. 



738 



6020 Commutators 

Phase meter, theory and use. Teichmiiller, J. 
Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 569-, 581-, 616-, 
648-, 663-. 

, Trowbridge's, for dynamos. Anon. 
Elect. Ev. 30 (1892) 351-. 

retardation, visualisation. Wilberforce, 
L. R. Elect. 20 (1888) 553. 

Production of sine E.M.P. Hanchett, G. T. 

[1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 64-. 
Wave form synthesis. Barr, J. M., Beeton, 

S., <& Taylor, C. P. Elect. 35 (1895) 257-, 

286-. 
. Fleming, J. A. (et alii). Elect. 35 

(1895) 304, etc. 



6020 Apparatus for Starting and 
Regulating Currents. 

Arc prevention by subdivided break. Wurts, 
A. J. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 487. 

Circuits, broken, Schuckert indicator for. 
Aliamet, M. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 160-. 

, low pressure, grounding. Emmet, W. L. R. 
[1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 284-. 

, , protection from high pressure cur- 
rents. Reed, W. B., & Reed, L. C. [1899] 
Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 124. 

COMMUTATORS. 

Jacobi, M. H. Pogg. A. 36 (1835) 366-. 
Dujardin, . (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. 

C. 12 (1843) 271-. 
Glaesener, M. Liege Mm. S. Sc. 2 (1845-46) 

489-. 

Fauconpret, F. de. A. C. 36 (1852) 155-. 
Dumoncel, T. [A. .] C. B. 36 (1853) 548-. 
Reuscli, F. E. Pogg. A. 92 (1854) 651-. 
Hormann, A. A. Ps. C. 127 (1866) 638-. 
Carl, P. A. Ps. C. 127 (1866) 640- ; Carl 

Bpm. 4 (1868) 342-. 
Fonseca Benevides, F. da. (rx) Lisb. J. Sc. 

Mth. 4 (1873) 143. 

Crova, A. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1882) 117-. 
(Kittler switch.) Edelmann, M. T. Lum. 

Elect. 16 (1885) 157-. 
for batteries. Rollett, A. (xn) Graz I. PI. 

Us. 2 (1871) 194-. 

. Mercadier, E. A. Tel. 3 (1876) 556-. 

board, multiple. Anizan, J. J. Tel. 24 (1900) 

169-, 198-, 239-. 
, telephonic. Anizan, J. J. Tel. 24 (1900) 

97-. 
for connecting many elements in series. 

Leconte, F. Brux. S. Sc. A. 18 (1894) 

(Pt. 1) 56-. 
design. Adams, A. D. [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 

(1900) 279. 
electromagnetic. Le Goaziou, P. J. Tel. 5 

(1881) 181-. 
gyrotrope. Pohl, G. F. Kastner Arch. Ntl. 

13 (1828) 49 
with hermetically closed mercury contact. 

Fischer, K. Lpldina. 24 (1888) 70-. 
mercury. Giltay, J. W. A. Ps. C. 3 (1878) 



Contact-makers, etc. 6020 

mercury, automatic. Villari, E. (xi) Bologna 

Ac. Sc. Mm. 4 (1873) 463-. 
, of constant resistance. Jones, J. V. Elect. 

15 (1885) 370-. 
multiple, of large capacity. Sieur, . A. Te"l. 

20 (1893) 524-. 
Be's, for primary and secondary batteries. 

Anon. Bv. Sc.-Ind. 27 (1895) 88-. 
Buhmkorff's, modification. Trusevic, A. A. 

Vars. S. Nt. Tr. (1897) (C. R., Ps. C.) Fasc. 

3, Mem. 7, 4 pp. 
for telephone exchanges. Mandroux, . A. 

Tel. 18 (1891) 220-, 312-. 
. Zetzsche, E. J. T61. 15 (1891) 49-, 

73-, 101-. 
universal. Fick, A. Wiirzb. Ps. Md. Sb. 

(1895) 51-. 



Compensator to maintain^ constant intensity of 
battery. Wartmann, E. Bb. Un. Arch. 1 
(1858) 26-. 

Contact apparatus for electric signalling. 
Schumann, F. Z. Psychol. 17 (1898) 253-. 

maker. Shaw, H. S. H. Nt. 26 (1882) 
490-, 501. 

. Bedell, , Miller, , <& Wagner, . 

[1893] Nt. 49 (1893-94) 37. 
for electric clocks. Spellier, L. H. 

Franklin I. J. 121 (1886) 223-. 

, instantaneous. Haralson, J. (jun.) 
Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 849. 

, non-oxidising. Schuller, A. Mth. 
Termt. Eta. 3 (1885) 74- ; Mth. Nt. B. Ung. 
3 (1884-85) 159-. 

working in hydrogen. Budde, E. A. 

Ps. C. 20 (1883) 167-. 

pressure, effect on current. Treve, (capit.) 
A. R. S. C. B. 87 (1878) 405. 

vibrator (double contact). T., G. A. Te"l. 
15 (1888) 313. 

Control of electric cars. Hale, I. Colo. Sc. 

S. P. 4 (1891-93) 294-. 
Cut-outs, fusible. Glover, B. H. [1899] Sc. 

Abs. 3 (1900) 340. 
, magnetic. Aliamet, M. [1897] Sc. Abs. 

1 (1898) 160. 
Discharge key. Jones, J. R. Tel. J. 7 (1879) 

283-. 
for capacity determinations. Heim, C. 

Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 556-. 

, Morse, to obtain reversals with. 
Heaviside, 0. Tel. J. 3 (1875) 102-. 

Electrepeter. Clarke, E. M. [1836] Stur- 
geon A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 65-. 

and electrotome, magnetic. Page, C. G. 
Silliman J. 35 (1839) 112-. 

Electromagnetic apparatus. Jacobi, M. H. 

Pogg. A. 54 (1841) 335-. 
Fuses for explosives. Ris, P. C. B. 82 (1876) 

977-. 
. Scola, , (& Ruggieri, . Par. S. 

Ps. 86. (1886) 188-. 
, apparatus for testing. Ducretet, E. 

C. E. 102 (1886) 1158-. 
, sensitiveness. Sebert, . Par. S. 

Ps. 86. (1885) 143-. 

(See Safety fuses.) 



739 



6020 Regulators Relays 

Governor, Bain's. Walker, C. V. [1843] 

Walker Electr. Mg. 1 (1845) 112-. 
Pachytrope. Waszmuth, A. A. Ps. C. 133 

(1868) 677-. 
, universal. Daurer, F. Exner Bpm. 21 

(1885) 281-. 
Potential, apparatus for variation within wide 

limits. MoehlenbrUck, H. [1895] Laus. 

S. Vd. Bll. 32 (1896) v. 

REGULATORS. 

Starr, J. W. Walker Electr. Mg. 2 (1846) 301-. 
Hipp, M. [1862] Neuch. Bll. 6 (1861-63) 

115-. 
Mascart, E. [1873] Par. Se. S. Ps. 1 (1873- 

74) 59-. , 

Hospitaller, E. Lum. Elect. 1 (*1879) 36-. 
Richard, G. Lum. Elect. 18 (1885) 337-. 
for alternating currents. Allard, E. (et alii). 

C. B. 95 (1882) 806-. 
automatic. Kohlrausch, F. W. G. (xn) Frkf. 

a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1864-65) 75- ; (1865-66) 

32- ; (vm) A. Ps. C. 132 (1867) 266-. 
. Hospitalier, E. C. B. 87 (1878) 920-. 
. Boettcher, E. Tel. E. J. 13 (1884) 481-. 
. Miron, F. Lum. Elect. 42 (1891) 410-. 
, for lighting stations. Henges, C. L. R. E. 

Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 171-. 
, new principle. Kiilp, L. Carl Bpm. 18 

(1882) 229-. 
, Thury. Meylan, E. Lum. Elect. 31 

(1889) 274-. 
for batteries. Dupont, M. Par. S. Phlm. 

Bll. 3 (1879) 200-. 

continuous currents. Allard, E. (et alii). 
C. B. 95 (1882) 747-. 

electric light. Fernet, E. C. B. 66 (1868) 
609-. 

_. Carre, F. C. B. 66 (1868) 612-. 

. Lacoine, E. Lum. Elect. 15 (1885) 

356-. 

feeble currents. Gore, G. Birm. Ph. S. 
P. 4 (1883-85) 422-. 

galvanic coils. Gore, G. Ph. Mg. 6 (1853) 
309-. 

multiplier and regulator combined. Gallois, 

F. L. von. Pogg. A. 106 (1859) 136-. 
Solignac's. Guerout,A. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 

190-. 
voltage-, for 3-phase circuits. Zweifel, G. Sc. 

Abs. 3 (1900) 823. 
, Thury. Leconte, F. Brux. S. Sc. A. 18 

(1894) (Pt. 1) 103. 



RELAYS. 
(See also 6480.) 

Arlincourt, L. d'. Par. EC. Norm. A. 2 (1873) 

121-. 

Edison, T. A. Tel. J. 2 (1874) 319-. 
Tommasi, D. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1877) 86-. 
Willot, . A. Tel. 18 (1891) 63-. 
Cerebotani, L. Em. N. Line. At. 53 (1900) 

190-. 



Regulating Apparatus 6020 

best resistance for. Ayrton, W. E. Tel. E. J. 

4 (1875) 83-. 
Claude's. Pomey, J. B. A. Tel. 18 (1891) 

differential, Barker's. Gramaccini, . A. 

Tel. 20 (1893) 101-. 
electrocapillary. Debrun, E. J. de Ps. 2 

(1883) 169-. 
microphone. Houston, E. J., & Thomson, E. 

Franklin I. J. 76 (1878) 60-. 
polarised, method of working. Edison, T. A. 

Tel. J. 2 (1874) 361. 
telephonic. Rood, O. N. Am. J. Sc. 16 (1878) 

59-. 
theory and construction. Militzer, H. Berl. 

Tel. Vr. Z. 8 (1861) 219-. 



Bepeater, electromagnetic. Callan, N. J. 

Sturgeon A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 229-. 
Besistance with spiral coils. Joel, H. F. Tel. 

J. 12 (1883) 388-. 
Besistances, liquid. Dan/, G. Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 672-. 
Bheometer, compressed-air-bell. Scardona, E. 

(xn) Bv. Sc.-Ind. 13 (1881) 354-. 
Bheostat, oscillating, for producing current 

waves. Leduc, S. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 881. 
Bheotome, aluminium. Gael, E. A. Te"l. 5 

(1878) 64-. 
, liquid, of constant direction, founded on 

new property of aluminium. Ducretet, E. 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1875) 17-. 
Safety fuse metals, inherent defects. Harring- 
ton, W. E. Franklin I. J. 141 (1896) 464-. 
wires for air-lines. Mattausch, J. Sc. 

Abs. 2 (1899) 866. 

fuses. Feldmann, C. P. Elect. 29 (1892) 
87-. 

, accurate and reliable. Downes, L. W. 

[1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 96. 
, behaviour of various metals used for. 

Cockburn, A. C. [1887-88] Tel. E. J. 16 

(1888) 650- ; 17 (1889) 34-. 
and circuit breakers. Stine,W.M. [1897] 

Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 95. 
. Henshaw, F. V. [1897] Sc. 

Abs. 1 (1898) 95. 
. Cutler, H. H. Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 450. 
, enclosed. Cartwright, D. J. Sc. Abs. 

1 (1898) 223-. 

, . Sachs, J. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 588. 

, lead-wire, laws. Feldmann, C. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 13 (1892) 423-. 
Separator and shunt for alternating currents of 

high tension. Spottiswoode, W. Ph. Mg. 

13 (1882) 353-. 

for weak alternating currents. Pettinelli, P. 
Bv. Sc.-Ind. 31 (1899) 1-. 

Switch, automatic, for accumulators. Ebert, 

H. A. Ps. C. 47 (1892) 349. 
, , , Kent's. Nevile, R. H. C. Elect. 

18 (1887) 523. 
, , charging accumulators. Hospitalier, 

E. Par. S. Ps. 86. (1881) 190-. 
, pneumatic, for charging accumulators. 

Petersen, E. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 317-. 



740 



6025 



Frictional Electrostatic Machines 



6025 



Switch, combined regulating, starting, and 

safety, for motors. Wilson, A. [1899] Sc. 

S. Arts T. 15 (1903) 52-. 
, dividing, for joint telephone and telegraph 

systems. Zetzsche, E. Elekttech. Z. 5 

(1884) 211-. 
, , open and closed circuits. Sack, J. 

Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 371-. 
, mercury. Janet, P. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

440-. 
, safety, for accumulators. Trumpy, J. 

Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 177-. 
, , electric circuits. Bowand, L. G. 

Franklin I. J. 143 (1897) 357-. 
Switchboard for accumulators in laboratories. 

Wilke, A. [1894] Z. Elekttech. Elektch. 

(1894-95) 317-. 

, telephone-, origin and development. Kings- 
bury, J. E. [1895] I. Elect. E. J. 24 (1896) 

36-. 
Tuning forks, use for distributing electric 

currents. Mercadier, E. A. Tel. 5 (1878) 

290-. 
, time measurement, interrupters, 

etc. Schuller, A. Mth. Termt. Ets. 12 

(1894) 263-; Mth. Nt. B. Ung. 12 (1895) 

133. 
Valve. Gaugain, J, M. C. B. 40 (1855) 640-. 

(Gaugain). Riess, P. Berl. B. (1855) 
393-. 

(Biess). Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 42 (1856) 
17-. 



6025 Frictional Electrostatic 
Machines. 

Pearson, [Rev.] W. Nicholson J. 1 (1797) 

506- . 

Grimm, J. K. P. Gilbert A. 4 (1800) 359-. 
Wolfram, . Gilbert A. 74 (1823) 53-. 
Belli, G. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 1 (1831) 111-. 
Nott, J. B. A. Bp. (1843) (pt. 2) 16-. 
Roberts, M. J. [1844] Walker Electr. Mg. 1 

(1845) 358-. 

Gherardi, S. Nap. Ed. 8 (1849) 73-. 
Palmieri, L. Majocchi A. Fis. C. 1 (1850) 

153-. 
Giordano, C. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 2 (1869) 

911-. 
Cantoni, G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 2 (1869) 917-, 

973-. 
(Machines of the 18th century.) Pellissier, G. 

Lum. Elect. 22 (1886) 68-, 106-. 
Amalgam. Bdttger, JR. J. Pr. C. 107 (1869) 

and mosaic gold, coating for electric rubbers. 

Fischer, W. R. [1836] (vi Adds.) Maryland 

Ac. T. 1 (1837) 156-. 
Ancient and modern machines. Pellat, H. 

Ev. Sc. 37 (1886) 353-. 
Circulation of electricity. Gaugain, J. M. C. 

E. 48 (1859) 744-. 
Collector. Emsmann, H. A. Ps. C. 145 (1872) 

332-. 
, simple condensing. Roberts, S. Ph. Mg. 

47 (1874) 49-. 



Cylinder machine, double exciting. Eaton, R. 

Sturgeon A. Electr. 7 (1841) 81-. 
with 2 rubbers. Goodman, J. Sturgeon 

A. Electr. 7 (1841) 212-. 

machines. Gregorio, A. de. Palermo Ac. 
At. 3 (1895) (Sc. Nt.) 61 (bit)-. 

Earth connection unnecessary. Hare, R. 

Franklin I. J. 11 (1833) 296-. 
Efficiency. Cantoni, G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 2 

(1869) 1205-. 
Experiments (effects of friction between bodies). 

De-Luc, J. A. (vi Adds.) Nicholson J. 28 

(1811) 1- ; 33 (1812) 196-. 
. Pfister, F. Baumgartner Z. 3 (1827) 

439. 

with machine with connected conductors. 
Gazzaniga, C. L. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 3 
(1833) 311- ; 6 (1836) 79-. 

Friction, losses due to. Dettmar, G. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 20 (1899) 380-, 397-. 

Frictional electricity, arrangement for continu- 
ous development. Reinsch, H. D. Nf. Vsm 

B. (1845) 118-. 

, discharger for. Plettner, F. Fogg. A. 

117 (1862) 485-. 
, transmission of energy by. Beaulieu- 

Marconnay, von. Humb. 3 (1884) 343. 

and induction machine. Carre, F. C. E. 
67 (1868) 1341. 

Generation of electricity. Rains, G. W. Silli- 

man J. 49 (1845) 93-. 
Hydro-electric machine. Armstrong, W. G. 

Ph. Mg. 17 (1840) 452- ; 18 (1841) 50- ; 19 

(1841) 25-; 20 (1842) 5-; 23 (1843) 194-; 

Arch, de 1'Electr. 1 (1841) 145-, 478-; A. 

C. 7 (1843) 401- ; B. A. Ep. (1845) (pt. 2) 

, Armstrong's. Walker, C. V. [1843] 

Walker Electr. Mg. (1845) 122-. 
, , existence of both kinds of electricity 

in same jet of steam. Zantedeschi, F. Yen. 

At. 4 (1845) 117-. 
, , phenomena. Zantedeschi, F. [1846] 

Yen. Mm. I. 4 (1852) 45-. 
, steam boiler for. Matteucci, C. Pisa 

Misc. Md. Chir. (1843) (pte. 2) 26-. 
Improvements. Wolff, . Gilbert A. 12 

(1803) 597-. 
. Singer, G. J. Nicholson J. 12 (1805) 

103-. 
. Cuthbertson, J. Nicholson J. 26 (1810) 

9-. 
. Gazzaniga, C. L. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 2 

(1832) 359-. 
. Crahay, J. G. Arch, de 1'Electr. 4 (1844) 

162-. 
. Vincenot, . Metz Mm. Ac. 30 (1848- 

49) 402-. 
Insulation. Cantoni, G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 

4 (1867) 126-. 
Method of working in all kinds of weather. 

Miinch, . C. E. 30 (1850) 47-. 
Modification. Kundt, A. A. Ps. C. 135 (1868) 

484-. 
, Gherardi's. Palmieri, L. Nap. Ed. 2 

(1843) 96-. 
Nairne's machine, modification. Perard, L. 

Brux. Ac. Bll. 28 (1869) 567-. 



741 



6025 Plate 



Electrostatic Machines 



Induction 6027 



PLATE MACHINES. 

(Van Marum's machine.) Nicholson, W. 

Nicholson J. 1 (1797) 83-. 
( , experiments.) Eitter, J. W. Voigt 

Mg. 9 (1805) 158-. 

Hare, E. Am. Ph. S. T. 5 (1837) 365-. 
(Van Marum's machine, modification.) Crahay, 

J. G. Brux. Ac. Bll. 10 (1843) (pte. 2) 287-. 
Dujardin, . (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. C. 

12 (1843) 186-. 
comparison with cylinder machines. Nicholson, 

W. Nicholson J. 1 (1797) 83-. 
. Cuthbertson, J., & Singer, G. J. 

Nicholson J. 26 (1810) 218-. 
. Hearder, J. N. (x) Plym. I. T. 

(1857-58) 10-. 
with glass plate. Tarelli, E. N. Cim. 8 (1858) 

360-. 

2 glass plates. Eeitlinger, E. Wien SB. 
38 (1859) 360-. 

horizontal plate. Hare, E. Tilloch Ph. 
Mg. 62 (1823) 8-. 

improvement. Metzger, . Bb. Un. 24 (1823) 

187-. 
phenomena. Ducts,, (vi Adds.) C. E. 34 

(1852) 208-. 

powerful, new and economical method of con- 
structing. Magrini, L. Mil. Mm. I. Lomb. 

7 (1859) 249-. 
producing positive and negative electricity. 

Zantedeschi,F. [1843] Ven. Mm. I. 2 (1845) 

171-. 
with sulphur plate. Richer, . Ph. Mg. 29 

(1865) 551. 

Pocket ribband-machine for charging small 
Leyden jar. Till, J. Nicholson J. 3 (1800) 

Power of machines (Cuthbertson's experiments). 

Nicholson, W. Nicholson J. 2 (1799) 215-. 
, means of increasing. Grotthus, T. von. 

Schweigger J. 29 (1820) 74-. 
Eamsden's machine, improvements. Monti, 

M. M. (xn) Ev. Sc.-Ind. 7 (1875) 4-. 
Eesistance, variation with velocity. Lacoine, 

E. C. E. 93 (1881) 958-. 
Silk band machines (Eouland's and Walckier's). 

Nicholson, W. Nicholson J. 2 (1799) 420-. 
Transformation. Holtz, W. Gott. Nr. (1876) 

494-. 

Water-cushion. Walker, C. V. [1838] Stur- 
geon A. Electr. 3 (1838-39) 62-. 



6027 Induction Electrostatic 
Machines. 

(Production of intense currents.) Topler, A. 

A. Ps. C. 125 (1865) 469-. 
Cantoni, G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 4 (1867) 328-. 
Bertin, A. A. C. 15 (1868) 169-. 
Carl, P. Carl Epm. 4 (1868) 106-, 141-, 

422-. 
(Two old machines in a new form.) Poggen- 

dorff, J. C. A. Ps. C. 136 (1869) 171-. 



Provenzali, F. S. Em. At. N. Line. 24 (1871) 

271- ; 25 (1872) 371-. 
Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. Ak. Mb. (1874) 

51. 
Geneix-Martin, (I'abbe) . As. Fr. C. E. 6 

(1877) 342-. 

Gai/e, A. C. E. 86 (1878) 1263. 
Topler, A. J. I. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 1 (1880) 

56-. 
Valette, H. Les Mondes 56 (1881) 395-, 

513- ; 1 (1881) 57-. 
Topler, A. J. I. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 3 (1882) 

366-. 
Fuchs, F. Z. Instk. 4 (1884) 225-, 296; 5 

(1885) 163. 

Schtytz, 0. E. N. Mg. Ntvd. 28 (1884) 67-. 
Hempel, W. A. Ps. C. 25 (1885) 487-. 
(Simple form.) Elster, J., & Geitel, H. A. 

Ps. C. 25 (1885) 493-. 
Hillairet, . J. de Ps. 5 (1886) 208-. 
Lewandowski, E. Cztg. Opt. 9 (1888) 184-, 

196-. 

Bergmann, J. N.-Vorp. Mt. 21 (1890) 35-. 
Taylor, J. E. Elect. Ev. 31 (1892) 427-, 457-, 

499-. 
Pidgeon, W. E. L. Ps. S. P. 12 (1894) 406- ; 

Ph. Mg. 36 (1893) 267-. 
Anders, T. Eiga Cor.-Bl. 37 (1894) 85-. 
Bonetti, . Par. S. Ps. Se. (1894) 96. 
Gellio, G. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 27 (1895) 233-. 
Mooser, J. St. Gal. B. (1894-95) 91-. 
Negreanu, D. Bucarest Ac. Eom. A. 19 (Pt. 

admin.) (1897) 380- ; Bucarest S. Sc. Bl. 6 

(1897) 509-. 
Lykke, P. S. N. Ts. Fs. K. 3 (1898) 29- ; 

Fschr. Ps. (1898) (Ab. 2) 435. 
Pidgeon, W. E. L. Ps. S. P. 16 (1899) 253- ; 

Ph. Mg. 46 (1898) 564-. 
Action, decrease. Forster, (Prof.) A. Bern 

Mt. (1871) xvii-. 
with and without metallic inductors. 

Topler, A. A. Ps. C. 127 (1866) 177-. 
, variability. Carl, P. Carl Epm. 5 (1869) 

279-, 375-. 
Alternators, electrostatic. Muras, T. H. Elect. 

Ev. 30 (1892) 764- ; 31 (1892) 593-. 
, . Scha/ers, V. Brux. Ac. Bll. 34 (1897) 

885-. 
Ancient and modern machines. Pellat, H. 

Ev. Sc. 37 (1886) 353-. 
Comparison with dynamos. Thompson, S. P. 

L. Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 260-. 
Conductors, diametral, new properties. Pog- 
gendorff, J. C. Berl. Mb. (1870) 275-. 
Construction. Doubrava, S. Tel. J. 13 (1883) 

Currents. Eossetti, F. N. Cim. 12 (1874) 89-, 

177-. 
Di-electric machine. Carre, F. C. E. 67 (1868) 

1341. 
. Cecchi, (padre) F. (xn) Ev. Sc.-Ind. 

4 (1872) 180-, 212-. 
, Carry's, improvements. Adamson, D. B. 

(xn) S. Aust. E. S. T. 6 (1883) 27-. 
Double machine. Carl, P. Carl Epm. 6 (1870) 

129-. 
. Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. Mb. (1870) 

275-. 



742 



6027 Induction Machines 

Double machine, Poggendorff's, reversal of 

current. Rossetti, F. N. Cim. 11 (1874) 5-. 
, theory. Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. Mb. 

(1871) 534-. 
Doubler. Nicholson, W. Nicholson J. 1 

(1797) 16-. 

. Read, J. A. C. 24 (1797) 327-. 
, Belli's. Volpicelli, P. [1874-76] Em. K. 

Ac. Line. At. 1 (1875) xxviii- ; 3 (1876) 

(Pt. 2) 617-. 
, , and Kelvin's replenisher. Murani, 0. 

Mil. I. Lomb. Kd. 28 (1895) 313-. 
, Bennet's. Desormes, C. B., & Hachette, 

. A. C. 49 (1804) 45-. 
, and Nicholson's, and Cavallo's multi- 
plier. Bohnenberger, G. C. Gilbert A. 9 

(1801) 158-. 
, improved. Munck of Rosenschold, P. S. 

Stockh. Ofv. 3 (1846) 298-. 
, Nicholson's, theory. Volpicelli, P. C. E. 

75 (1872) 257-. 
, pendulum-. Ronalds, (Sir) F. Edinb. Ph. 

J. 9 (1823) 322-. 
, revolving. Nicholson, W. Nicholson J. 4 

(1801) 95-. 
, sensitive. Elster, J., & Geitel, H. A. Ps. 

C. 25 (1885) 114-. 
Ebonite disc machine, experiments. Bleekrode, 

L. A. Ps. C. 156 (1875) 278- ; Amst. Ak. 

Vs. M. 9 (1876) 312-. 
, supposed superiority. Holtz, W. A. Ps. 

C. 157 (1876) 486-. 
, (Holtz). Schlosser, J. [S. ?] C. A. 

Ps. C. 158 (1876) 656-. 
, (Schlosser). Holtz, W. A. Ps. C. 

159 (1876) 473-. 
Electro-motor, static. Zipernowski, C. 

I. Elect. E. J. 18 (1890) 701-. 



ELECTROPHORUS. 

Winter, K. Haidinger B. 2 (1846-47) 449-. 
Pazienti, A. Yen. At. 9 (1864) 1047-. 
Bezold, W. von. Miinch. Sb. (1870) (2) 134- ; 

A. Ps. C. 143 (1871) 52-. 
Fuller, G. L. Ps. S. P. 2 (1879) 83-; Ph. 

Mg. 2 (1876) 108-. 
charge on disc. Douliot, E. C. B. 82 (1876) 

1262- . 
comparison with other machines. Riess, P. T. 

Berl. Mb. (1869) 861-. 
complete cycle with. Garnett, W. Mess. 

Mth. 4 (1875) 28-. 
continuous. Bertsch, . C. E. 63 (1866) 

771-. 

(Bertsch). Parville, H. de. C. E. 63 

(1866) 881-. 

(Parville). Bertseh, . C. E. 63 (*1866) 
910-. 

(priority question). Piche, A. C. E. 64 

(1867) 260-. 

. Volpicelli, P. Em. At. N. Line. 21 (1868) 

239- ; C. E. 67 (1868) 843-. 
, multiplying. Parville, H. de. C. E. 64 

(1867) 40-. 
double, glass. Weber, J. Gilbert A. 49 (1815) 

299-. 

VOL. III. 



Electrophorus 6027 

double, glass and resin. Weber, J. Gilbert 

A. 51 (1815) 198-. 
ebonite, double excitation. Schlosser, J. [S. ?] 

C. A. Ps. C. 160 (1877) 335-. 
and electric fish. Nicholson, W. Nicholson 

J. 1 (1797) 355-. 

electrostatic induction. Cantoni, G. Mil. 
I. Lomb. Ed. 2 (1869) 26-, 109-. 

(Cantoni). Eccher, A. de. (rx) N. 

Cim. 7 & 8 (1872) 205-. 
experiments. Cantoni, G. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 

7 (1874) 522-, 860-. 

. Stroumbo, S. Les Mondes 38 (1875) 31-. 
fulminating pane as. Laborde, . Les 

Mondes 39 (1876) 24-. 
phenomena, and Franklin's theory. Woods, 

S. [1803] Tilloch Ph. Mg. 21 (1805) 289-. 
plate of, and powders, experiments. Eynard, 

J. Bb. Un. 22 (1823) 18-. 
reciprocal, Varley's. Thomson, (Sir) W. Ph. 

Mg. 35 (1868) 287-. 
rotatory. Demoget, A. Les Mondes 19 (1869) 

358-. 
. Piche, A. As. Fr. C. B. (1892) (Pt. 2) 

254-. 
theory. Buff, H. Lieb. A. 41 (1842) 129-. 

(Buff). Zamboni, G. [1844] Yen. Mm. I. 
2 (1845) 251-. 

. Petrina, F. A. Bohm. Gs. Ab. 4 (1845- 

46) 525-. 

. Bezold, W. von. Munch. Sb. (1871) 18-. 
. Cantoni, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. At. 3 

(1876) (Pte. 2) 233-. 
. Govi, G. Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 9 (1881) 

72-. 
. Villari,E. N. Cim. 10 (1881) 69-; 11 

(1882) 50-. 
. Rimington, E. C. Tel. J. 22 (1888) 9-. 

and description. Hermite, (capit.) . C. E. 
39 (1854) 1200-. 

phenomena. Hummel, C. Baumgartner 

Z. 2 (1833) 213-. 
Volta's, modification. Phillips, J. Ph. Mg. 

2 (1833) 363-. 
work in lifting plate. Brusotti, F. Em. At. 

E. Ac. 25 (1872) 357-. 



Electrophorus machine. Pierucci, F. (xn) 

Ev. Sc.-Ind. 10 (1878) 259-. 
for charging batteries. Riess, P. T. A. 

Ps. C. 140 (1870) 168-. 

, construction and action. Topler, A. 
A. Ps. C. 130 (1867) 518-. 

machines. Riess, P. T. A. Ps. C. 145 
(1872) 333-. 

, theory of newest. Riess, P. T. Berl. 

Mb. (1870) 1-. 
, use. Riess, P. T. Berl. Ak. Mb. (1874) 

196-. 
, _, and induction. Riess, P. T. Berl. 

Mb. (1873) 765-. 
Excitation, new method. Musaeus, W. A. 

Ps. C. 143 (1871) 282-. 
, spontaneous. Scha/ers, (le rev. pere) V. 

Brux. S. Sc. A. 21 (1897) (Pt. 1) 77-; Ev. 

Quest. Sc. 41 (1897) 562-. 
Experiments. Much, E. Wien Az. 20 (1883) 

59-. 



743 



6027 Holtz Induction Electrostatic Machines 

Cztg. Opt. 



6027 



Experiments. Scharfhausen, R. 

6 (1885) 174-. 
Flames, behaviour near machines. Bottomley, 

J. T. Elect. 24 (1890) 174. 
, . Johnstone, J. Elect. 24 (1890) 

200, 227. 
Gases, effect of chemical nature and pressure 

on generation of electricity. Hernpel, W. 

Berl. B. 17 (1884) 145-. 

HOLTZ MACHINE. 

Holtz, W. A. Ps. C. 126 (1865) 157- ; 127 

(1866) 320-. 
[Anon, non] Holtz, W. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 25 

(1866) 121-. 

Kahl, E. Z. Mth. Ps. 11 (1866) 168-. 
Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. Mb. (1867) 90. 
Forster, (Prof.) A. Bern Mt. (1870) x-. 
Willigen, V. S. M. van der. Arch. Ne"erl. 5 

(1870) 242- ; Amst. Vs. Ak. 4 (1870) (Ntk.) 

348-. 
Musaeus, W. A. Ps. C. 143 (1871) 285- ; 146 

(1872) 288-. 
Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. Mb. (1872) 817- ; A. 

Ps. C. 152 (1874) 512. 
Schmidt, K. E. F., & Rilhlmann, H. A. Ps. 

C. 56 (1895) 167-. 

action. Dubois, E. J. de Ps. 3 (1884) 260-. 
aphoristic observations. Poggendorff, J. C. 

Berl. Mb. (1867) 89. 
application. Gossin, H. Les Mondes 20 (1869) 

10-. 
armatures and fixed disc, experiments. Labor de, 

. C, E. 71 (1870) 347-. 
charging, method. M'Cay, W. S. [1879] 

Dubl. S. Sc. P. 2 (1880) 209-. 
conductors, auxiliary, of simple and compound 

machines. Holtz, W. Berl. Ak. Mb. (1876) 

501-. 
, position, effect on discharge. Maze, 

(I' abbe) . C. E. 99 (1884) 653-. 
constants. Roiti, A. Yen. I. At. 4 (1877-78) 

1007-. 
construction. Holtz, W. A. Ps. C. 130 (1867) 

128-, 168-, 287-. 
. Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. Mb. (1867) 

. 'Holtz, W. N.-Vorp. Mt. 11 (1879) 72-. 
, special. Righi, A. Bologna Ac. Sc. Mm. 

10 (1879) 393-. 
cylinder-. Thomson, E. Franklin I. J. 73 

(1877) 207-. 
direction of electricity, experiments. Neyrenenf, 

V. C. E. 77 (1873) 1184. 
distribution of electricity on discs, and improved 

arrangement. Schwedoff, T. A. Ps. C. 144 

(1872) 597-. 
experiments. Borlinetto, (Dr.) . Les Mondes 

17 (1868) 159-. 
. Volpicelli, P. Em. At. N. Line. 21 (1868) 

239- ; C. E. 67 (1868) 843-. 
. Schumacher, E. A. Ps. C. 137 (1869) 

493-. 
. Hocevar, F. Wien Ak. Sb. 83 (1881) 

(Ab. 2) 709-. 
and observations. Grilel, C. A. A. Ps. C. 

156 (1875) 482-. 



A. Ps. C. 19 

A. 



form and use. Holtz, W. A. Ps. C. (Erganz ) 

8 (1878) 431-. 
improvements. Holtz, W. [1875-76] A. Ps. 

C. 156 (1875) 627-; (Ergcinz.) 8 (1878) 

manipulation, etc. Antolik, K. 

(1883) 542-. 
maximum speed of rotation. Holtz, W. 

Ps. C. (Erganz.) 7 (1876) 332-. 
modification. Smith, H. L. Franklin I. J. 

57 (1869) 335-. 
. Bernardi, E. Yen. At. 15 (1869-70) 

1293-. 
. Saint-Loup, L. (xn) Strasb. S. Sc. Bll. 

3 (1870) 63-. 
. Canton*, P. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 5 (1872) 

766-. 

. Pierucci, F. N. Cim. 2, (1877) 117-. 
. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 

180-. 
motion of plates between poles. Doubrava, S. 

[1879] Wien Ak. Sb. 80 (1880) (Ab. 2 

98-. 
neutral combs. Riess, P. T. Berl. Ak. Mb. 

(1876) 234-. 
reversal of current. Ferrini, R. Mil. I. Lomb. 

Ed. 6 (1873) 286-, 326- ; 7 (1874) 192-. 
. Rossetti, F. N. Cim. 11 (1874) 

. Pierucci, F. N. Cim. 16 (1876) 

131-, 185-. 
rotation phenomenon. Poggendorff, J. C. 

Berl. Mb. (1869) 754-. 
simplification. Poggendorff, J. C. Berl. Mb. 

(1869) 322-. 

and efficiency. Bouchotte, E. C. E. 70 

(1870) 249-, 993-. 

spark adjuster for. Minot, J. J. Am. J. Sc. 7 

(1874) 494-. 
suppression of fixed disc. Bernardi, E. (rx) 

N. Cim. 4 (1870) 337-. 
theory. Repman, A. K. [1873] (xn) Mosc. 

S. Sc. Bll. 39 [(No. 2)] (1880) 122-. 
. Stroumbo, S. Les Mondes 39 (1876) 

194-. 
. Veltmann, W. Arch. Mth. Ps. 58 (1876) 

353-. 
. Holtz, W. N.-Vorp. Mt. 9 (1877) 125- ; 

A. Ps. C. 54 (1895) 181-. 

(Holtz). Wimshurst, J. Elect. 35 (1895) 
382-. 

, experiments. Holtz, W. A. Ps. C. 13 

(1881) 623-. 
tufted discharge. Gaiffe, A. C. E. 67 (1868) 

1004. 
with unipolar excitation. Holtz, W. CarlEpm. 

17 (1881) 612-. 
use. Holtz, W. Z. Nw. 5 (1880) 124-. 

of batteries. Holtz, W. A. Ps. C. (Erganz.) 
7 (1876) 497-. 

useful work. Rossetti, F. N. Cim. 12 (1874) 
205-. 



Holtz principle. Leyser, H. A. Ps. C. 149 

(1873) 587-. 
Improvements. T'opler, A. J. I. Berl. Ak. 

Mb. (1879) 950-. 



744 



6027 Induction Electrostatic Machines 



Electromagnets 6030 



Improvements. Agostini, G. J. (xn) Bv. 

Sc.-Ind. 13 (1881) 394-. 
Induction and convection, machine founded 

on. Thomson, (Sir) W. [1867] Ph. Mg. 

35 (1868) 66-. 
Kineto-electric machine. Leblanc, M. Lum. 

Elect. 4 (*1881) 72-. 

Lisser's "Parva" machine. W., A. Ev. Sc.- 
Ind. 21 (1889) 253-. 

.. Dammer, 0. Humb. 9 (1890) 33-. 

Machine with 8 discs. Villari, E. Bologna 

Ac. Sc. Mm. 8 (1887) 245-. 
Management of machines. Beaulieu-Marcon- 

nay, K. (Frhr.) von. Humb. 6 (1887) 38-. 
Modification. Lommel, E. A. Ps. C. 25 (1885) 

678-. 
Moisture, effect. Kriiger, R. A. Ps. C. 22 

(1884) 252-. 
Multiple-plate machine, experiments. Toepler, 

. D. Nf. Vh. (1894) (Th. 2, Halfte 1) 

84. 
Multiplier. Cavallo, . Nicholson J. 1 (1797) 

394-. 
. Upington, H. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 52 (1818) 

47-. 
Polarity, determination. Mund, 0. A. Ps. 

C. 31 (1887) 138. 
, . Bauer, K. L. Exner Epm. 24 (1888) 

8-. 
, . LeonJiardt, G. A. Ps. C. 44 (1891) 

786-. 
( . Negreanu, D. Bucarest Ac. Bom. A. 

23 (Pt. admin.) (1900) 14. 
Progress, 17881888. Thompson, S. P. [1888] 

Tel. E. J. 17 (1889) 569-. 
Quantity of electricity produced. Kohlrausch, 

F. A. Ps. C. 135 (1868) 120-. 
. Abraham, H. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1892) 278- 
, and dependence on moisture. 

Riecke, C. V. E. Gott. Nr. (1881) 22-. 
. , means of increasing. Robinson, 

T. R. [1866] E. S. P. 15 (1867) 171-. 
Eeaction of 2 machines on each other. Pog- 

gendor/, J. C. A. Ps. C. 131 (1867) 495-, 

655-. 
Eeplenisher. Thomson, (Sir) W. [1867] Ph. 

Mg. 35 (1868) 66-. 
, Kelvin's. Murani, O. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 

28 (1895) 313-. 
Screening,electrostatic,andinductionmachines. 

Taylor, J. E. Elect. Ev. 31 (1892) 757. 
Self-exciting machine, so-called. Riess, P. T. 

A. Ps. C. 13 (1881) 543-. 
Siemens andHalske's machines. Waltenhofen, 

A. von. [1875] Carl Kpm. 12 (1876) 7-. 
Spark length as modified by neighbouring 

spark. Humphreys, W. J. Ps. Ev. 10 (1900) 

311-. 
Sparks in glass. Holtz, W. A. Ps. C. 130 

(1867) 118-. 
Theory. Veltmann, W. A. Ps. C. 151 (1874) 

513-. 
. Poggendor/, J. C. Berl. Ak. Mb. (1875) 

53-. 
(Poggendorff). Veltmann, W. A. Ps. C. 

156 (1875) 172-. 
. Gray, J. Elect. 29 (1892) 428-. 



Theory. Schaffers, V. Brux. S. Sc. A. 22 

(1898) (Pt. 2) 1-. 
Topler machines at International Exhibition. 

Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 98-. 
Topler-Holtz machine. Eaton, H. W. Science 

3 (1884) 753-. 
Voss machine. Nebel, B. Exner Epm. 23 

(1887) 322-. 

Water dropping machine. Thomson, (Sir) W, 

[1867] E. S. P. 16 (1868) 67-. 
. Thompson, S. P. L. Ps. S. P. 9 

(1888) 137- ; Ph. Mg. 25 (1888) 283-. 
. Fuller, G. L. Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 

132- ; Ph. Mg. 28 (1889) 42-. 

WIMSHURST MACHINE. 

Borns, . Elekttech. Z. 5 (1884) 329-. 
Hillairet, A. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1885) 163-. 
Anon. Tel. J. 16 (1885) 68-. 
Dieudonne, E. Lum. Elect. 29 (1888) 613-. 
Wimshurst, J. [1888] E. I. P. 12 (1889) 

300-. 

Pellissier, G. Lum. Elect. 42 (1891) 54-. 
Wimshurst, J. L. Ps. S. P. 12 (1894) 403- ; 

Ph. Mg. 36 (1893) 264-. 
Negreanu, D. Bucarest Ac. Eom. A. 18 (Pt. 

admin.) (1896) 405- ; [Bucarest S. Sc. Bl. 5 

(1896)] 250-. 
Keenan, S. M.. [1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

70. 

action. Buckton, G. B. Nt. 32 (1885) 51-. 
alternating. Wimshurst, J. L. Ps. S. P. 11 

(1892) 125- ; Ph. Mg. 31 (1891) 507-. 
. Thirion, J. Brux. S. Sc. A. 16 (1892) 

(Pt. 2) 257-. 
theory. Pellissier, G. J. de Ps. 10 (1891) 

414- ; Lum. Elect. 43 (1892) 104-. 
. Schaffers, V. C. E. 119 (1894) 535- ; A. 

C. 5 (1895) 132-. 



6030 Electromagnets. 
(See also 5410.) 

(Magnetism of voltaic pile.) Hachette, J. N. P. 

[1805] Par. EC. Pol. Cor. 1 (1804-08) 

151-. 
(Magnetic phenomena produced by electricity.) 

Davy, (Sir) H. [1820-21] Phil. Trans. 

(1821) 7-, 425-. 
(Magneto-voltaic experiments.) Conftgliachi, 

P. Bb. Un. 16 (1821) 72-. 
(Galvanism and magnetism.) Lehot, C. J. 

Eouen Tr. Ac. (1821) 19-. 
(Galvano-magnetic condenser.) Poggendorff, 

J. C. Edinb. Ph. J. 5 (1821) 112-. 
(Magnetism of voltaic pile, physico-chemical 

investigations.) Poggendorff, J. C. Oken 

Isis (1821) 687-. 
(Construction of magnet by galvanic current.) 

Rtuchig, . Gilbert A. 69 (1821) 206-. 
(Magneto-voltaic experiment.) Ridolft, C. Bb. 

Un. 16 (1821) 75-. 
(Electromagnetic excitation.) Pohl, G. F. 

Gilbert A. 73 (1823) 252-. 



745 



6030 



Electromagnets Attractive Power 6030 



(Electromagnetic current.) Faraday, M. QJ. 

Sc. 19 (1825) 338. 

Webster, J. W. Silliman J. 20 (1831) 143-. 
Antinori, V., & Nobili, L. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 

2 (1832) 169-. 

Majocchi, G. A. Bb. It. 67 (1832) 184-. 
Peschel, C. F. Dresden Ausz. Protokol. (1832) 

46-. 

Sturgeon, W. Ph. Mg. 11 (1832) 194-. 
Jacobi, M. H. Pogg. A. 31 (1834) 367-. 
Zabriskie, J. B. Silliman J. 32 (1837) 308-. 
Barral, J. A. C. E. 25 (1847) 757-. 
Tre'ca, C. Fr. Cg. Sc. 20 (1853) 328-. 
Cecchi, F. N. Cim. 1 (1855) 433- ; (vi Adds.) 

Km. Cor. Sc. 4 (1856) 93-, 126-. 
Dumoncel, T. [A. L.} C. E. 45 (1857) 382-. 
Bradley, L. Am. As. P. 15 (1866) 21-. 
Deprez, M. C. B. 78 (1874) 1427-, 1562- ; 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1874) 93-. 
Deleuil, . C. B. 79 (1874) 960-. 
Bisson, E. C. E. 86 (1878) 1548-. 
Heaviside, 0. Tel. E. J. 7 (1878) 303- ; 8 (1879) 

59. 

Bosanquet, R. H. M. Ph. Mg. 17 (1884) 531-. 
Flicker, G. C. (et alii). Elect. 14 (1885) 206, 

etc. 
Thompson, S. P. Elect. 25 (1890) 525-, 560-, 

590-, 621-, 652-, 682-, 716-, 747-; 26 (1891) 

1 7 _ ( 4 7 _, 109-, 151-, 177-, 200-, 238-, 269-, 

293-. 
Palaz, A. Lum. Elect. 39 (1891) 401-, 457-, 

512-, 565-, 618- ; 40 (1891) 69-, 104-. 
Eoos, J. D. C. M. de. [1897] 's Gravenh. I. 

Ing. Ts. (1897-98) (Vh.) 1-. 
Fery, . As. Fr. C. E. (1898) (Pt. 2) 201-. 
Action outside spirals. Resti-Ferrari,G. Brescia 

Cm. (1834) 51-. 
Application of electromagnets of iron wire to 

electromagnetic engine. Joule, J. P. [1839] 

Sturgeon A. Electr. 4 (1839-40) 58-. 
galvanic multiplier principle. Henry, J. 

Silliman J. 19 (1831) 400-. 
to manufacturing purposes. Mallet, E. B. 

A. Ep. (1835) (pt. 2) 18-. 
reading angles of a distant instrument. 

Pacinotti, A. (x) N. Cim. 9 (1873) 206-. 
telegraphy. Schneebeli, H. Neuch. S. 

Sc. Bll. 10 (1876) (App.) 16 pp. 
. Fessenden, E. A. Franklin I. J. 

149 (1900) 459- ; 150 (1900) 62-, 106-. 
transformation of energy. Mercadier, E. 

Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 185-, 224-, 280-, 

322-, 362-, 409-, 434-, 497-. 
wheels on railroads. Nickles, J. Silli- 
man J. 16 (1853) 337-. 
working of signals, etc. Timmis, I. A. 

I. ME. P. (1884) 444- ; Tel. E. J. 14 (1885) 

82-. 
Armatures. Dub, J. Pogg. A. 74 (1849) 

465-; Berl. Tel. Vr. Z. 5 (1858) 227-, 

298-. 
, action on electromagnets and steel magnets. 

Magnus, G. Pogg. A. 38 (1836) 417-. 
, magnetic state. Peirce, B. O., & 

Lefavour, E. B. Am. Ac. P. 10 (1875) 

385-. 
, force exerted on. Hopkinson, J. Elect. 

33 (1894) 100. 



Armatures, thin iron plates as. Trowbridge, J. 

Am. Ac. P. 11 (1876) 202-. 
, use. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] C. B. 39 

(1854) 854-. 
Arrangements, various. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] 

Cherb. Mm. S. Sc. 2 (1854) 259-. 

ATTRACTIVE POWER. 

Jacobi, M. H., <& Lenz, E. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. 

Bll. 5 (1839) 257-. 
Dub, J. Pogg. A. 80 (1850) 494- ; 81 (1850) 

46-. 

Nickles, J. C. E. 38 (1854) 266-, 397-. 
Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 

107- , 129-. 
Klupathy, J. Termt. Kozl. 22 (1890) (Suppl.) 

92- ; Mth. Nt. B. Ung. 8 (1891) 457. 
Weber, M. A. Ps. C. 54 (1895) 30-. 
calculation. Vogelsang, M. Elekttech. Z. 18 

(1897) 502-. 
compared with that of steel magnet. Lovering, 

J. [1848] Am. Ac. P. 2 (1848-52) 105-. 
dynamo-magnetometer for measuring. Negro, 

S. dal. Mod. S. It. Mm. 21 (1837) 323-. 
formula}. Soubbotine, W. W. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 

(1901)516-. 
influence of shape of poles. Dumoncel, T. 

[A. L.] L'l. 30 (1862) 225-. 
time of closed circuit. Du Moncel, 

T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 102-. 
laws. Dub, J. Pogg. A. 90 (1853) 248-, 

436-. 
, for horse-shoe electromagnets. Dub, J. 

Pogg. A. 86 (1852) 542-. 
loss. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.~\ C. E. 36 (1853) 

387-. 
, sudden. Alexander, . Pogg. A. 56 

(1842) 455- ; (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. 

C. 18 (1845) 282-. 
method of increasing. Du Moncel, T. A. L. 

Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 161-. 
relation to weight of coils. . Menzzer, (Dr.) . 

A. Ps. C. 126 (1865) 172-. 
for soft iron, compared with that of permanent 

magnet. Ritchie, W. Ph. Mg. 9 (1836) 

81-. 
, steel magnet. Rainey, 

G. (vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 9 (1836) 220-. 
, (Bainey). Ritchie, 

W. Ph. Mg. 10 (1837) 57-. 



Calorimotor, Hare's, magnetic effects. Bowen, 
G. T. Silliman J. 5 (1822) 357-. 

Classification. Nickles, J. C. E. 51 (1860) 
665-. 

Coil, increase of absorbent power when sur- 
rounded by iron tube. Marianini, P. D. 
N. Cim. 4 (1856) 208-. 

Coils. Pfaff, J. W. Munch. Ab. (1829-30) 
1-. 

connected in multiple arc, advantages. 
Higgins, F. [1893] I. Elect. E. J. 22 (1894) 
362. 

, construction, in telegraphic apparatus. 
Lemoyne, C. A. Tel. 2 (1859) 251-. 



746 



6030 



Electromagnets 



Forms 6030 



Coils, experimental survey. Walker, C. V. 

Electr. S. T. (1837-40) 123-. 
, formula. Raynaud, J. A. Tel. 4 (1877) 

200-. 
, maximum resistance. Du Moncel, T. 

[A.L.-] C. E. 77 (1873) 347-. 
, modification. Vicentini, G. N. Cim. 14 

(*1883) 97-. 
Concentrating process, Wetherill's. Nitze, 

H. B. C. Franklin I. J. 143 (1897) 279-. 
Construction. Orsted, H. C. Kiob. Ov. (1828- 

29) 12-. 
. Zabriskie, J. B. Silliman J. 36 (1839) 

124-. 
. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. Cherb. S. 

Sc. Nt. Mm. 18 (1874) 265- ; Lum. Elect. 3 

(*1881) 305 -, 321-, 366-, 441-. 
_. Higgs, R. W. H. P. I. CE. P. 66 (1881) 

246-. 
, best. Du Moncel, T. [A. L.] C. B. 72 

(1871) 738-. 
, . Kraevich, K. D. [1874] (xn) Es. C. 

Ps. S. J. 7 (Ps.) (1875) [(Pt. 1)] 8-. 
, , and advantages. Callan, N. J. Sturgeon 

A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 295- ; 4 (1839-40) 

333-. 
, improved. Schefczik, A. Wien Jb. Gl. 8 

(1857) 292-. 

of strong electromagnets. Osann, G. Erdm. 
J. Pr. C. 18 (1839) 486-. 

Core, determination of thickness. Jacobi, 

M. H. C. E. 33 (1851) 297-. 
, diameter. Dub, J. Berl. Tel. Vr. Z. 4 

(1857) 217-. 
, , and length, relation. Du Moncel, 

(comte) T. A. L. C. E. 85 (1877) 652-. 
, , thickness of helix, relation. Du 

Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. C. E. 85 (1877) 

466-. 
, part played by central portion. Dumoncel, 

T.[A.L.] C. E. 54 (1862) 1231-. 
Currents, effect on soft iron. Sturgeon, W. 

Sturgeon A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 470-. 
, . Haedenkamp, H. Crelle J. 

44 (1852) 83-. 
, electromagnetic intensity, measurement. 

Fox, R. W. Cornwall Pol. S. Ep. (1842) 

25-. 

, equal, difference in action on electro- 
magnets. Hipp, M. Bern Mt. (1855) 190-. 

of different tensions and directions, effect. 
Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] Cherb. Mm. S. Sc. 1 
(1852) 121-. 

Demagnetisation. Willson, R. W. Am. J. Sc. 

3 (1872) 346-. 
Design, conditions. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. 

L. C. E. 85 (1877) 497-, 743-. 
, formulse. Soubbotine, W. W. [1900] Sc. 

Abs. 4 (1901) 516-. 
Dimensions, best. Du Moncel, T. [A. .] C. 

E. 77 (1873) 1017- ; Tel. J. 2 (1874) 23-, 

59-. 

, . Moon, W. Tel. J. 14 (1884) 82-. 
: length. Dub, J. Pogg. A. 102 (1857)- 

199- ; Berl. Tel. Vr. Z. 5 (1858) 2-. 
, relation of intensity to. Dub, J. Pogg. A. 

104 (1858) 234-; 118 (1863) 516-. 



Dimensions, relation of intensity to. Abria, 0. 

Les Mondes 5 (1864) 224-. 
Electromagnetism. Schulthess,R. [1833] Taylor 

Sc. Mm. 1 (1837) 534-. 

. Milller, (Dr.) J. Pogg. A. 105 (1858) 547-. 
. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] L'l. 28 (I860) 102-. 
, experiments and discovery. Anon, (vi 931) 

Palermo Effem. 3 (1832) 12-. 
, history. Zetzsche, E. Z. Mth. Ps. 15 

(1870) 66-, 136-. 
, laws. Dub, J. Berl. Tel. Vr. Z. 4 (1857) 

21-, 45-, 120-, 195-. 
, . Domalip, K. Prag Sb. (1871) (pt. 2) 

and magnetism. Joule, J. P. [1839] 

Sturgeon A. Electr. 4 (1839-40) 131-. 
Experiments. Ricco, A. Z. Instk. 4 (1884) 

405-. 
. McMahon, P. V. Elect. 35 (1895) 291-, 

348-, 494-, 584-, 604-. 
Extra-current sparking, suppression. Dujardin, 

(Dr.) . Les Mondes 12 (1866) 26-. 
Faraday's electromagnet, variable period of 

current in circuit of. Leduc, A. Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1887) 74-. 
Field -magnet-windings. J., A. Elekttech. Z. 

11 (1890) 310-. 
Forces, electromagnetic. Joule, J. P. Sturgeon 

A. Electr. 4 (1839-40) 474- ; 5 (1840) 187-, 

470-. 

FORMS OF ELECTROMAGNETS. 

Roberts, R. Sturgeon A. Electr. 6 (1841) 166-. 
Joule, J. P. Sturgeon A. Electr. 6 (1841) 

431-. 

Page, C. G. Franklin I. J. 3 (1842) 166-. 
Nickles, J. Par. S. Phlm. PV. (1852) 83-; 

(vi Adds.) D. Nf. Vsm. B. 34 (1858) 154-. 
Giudice, F. del. Nap. At. I. Inc. 9 (1872) 37-. 
Cance, . Les Mondes 42 (1877) 495-. 
Chambrier, . C. E. 90 (1880) 363. 
Arzberger, F. (xn) Z. Instk. 2 (1882) 6-. 
Ricco, A. [1883-84] Palermo G. Sc. Nt. (Bll.) 

16 (1884) 236-; Z. Instk. 4 (1884) 204-. 
alternate current, design and winding. Thomp- 
son, S. P., <& Walker, M. L. Ps. S. P. 13 

(1895) 133- ; Ph. Mg. 37 (1894) 564-. 
with bare wire. Du Moncel, T. [A. L.] A. 

Tel. 8 (1865) 203- ; C. E. 60 (1865) 49-, 

125-, 231-. 
cast iron, charcoal iron, and malleable cast 

iron. Bosanquet, R. H. M. Ph. Mg. 20 

(1885) 318-. 
for chemical use. Gherardi, S. Bologna N. 

Cm. 3 (1839) 39-. 
circular. Nickles, J. Par. Bll. S. Encour. 52 

(1853) 252-, 312-. 
closed, phenomena. Poggendorff, J. C. [1851] 

Pogg. A. 85 (1852) 147-. 
with concentric iron tubes. Camacho, A. C. 

E. 80 (1875) 382-. 
, Camacho's. Culley, R. S. Ph. 

Mg. 49 (1875) 332. 
cylindrical, pole strength. Cazin, A. (rx) Par. 

S. Phlm. Bll. 8 (1872) 87-. 
double. Page, C. G. Silliman J. 35 (1839) 

261-. 



747 



6030 Forms 



Electromagnets 



6030 



for experimental purposes. Edelmann, M. T. 

Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 794. 
Faulkner's, principle. Reynolds, 0. [1875] 

Manch. Lt. Ph. S. P. 15 (1876) 17-. 
with flat coils. Serrin, V. C. B. 82 (1876) 

1054-. 
half-ring Du Bois, H. Z. Instk. 19 (1899) 

357-. 
hollow. Parrot, F. St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 1 

(1836) 121-. 
, apparatus to demonstrate action. Berlin, A. 

A. C. 16 (1869) 70-. 
, compared with solid. Pfaff, C. H. Pogg. 

A. 50 (1840) 636-. 
horse-shoe, experiments. Moll, G. Bb. Un. 

45 (1830) 19-; Hall Bij. 6 (1831) 349-; 

Silliman J. 19 (1831) 329-; Hall Bij. 7 

(1832) 241- ; Bb. Un. 53 (1833) 228-. 

, . Pfaff, G. H. Schweigger J. 58 ( = Jb. 

28) (1830) 273-. 
, . Phi-mu (<./*.). (vi Adds.) Edinb. N. 

Ph. J. 16 (1834) 71-. 
, with only one helix. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] 

C. K. 45 (1857) 67-. 
, large and very small, powers. Pfaff, C. H. 

Pogg. A. 52 (1841) 303-. 
Hughes's, and applications. Lartigue, H. J. 

de Ps. 4 (1875) 170-. 
for industrial use. Guenee, A. [1900] Sc. 

Abs. 4 (1901) 96-. 
with iron shields. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. 

C. E. 84 (1877) 1434- ; Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 

129-. 
iron and steel. Bosanquet, R. H. M. Ph. Mg. 

19 (1885) 333-. 

large. Feilitzsch, F. C. 0. von, <& Holtz, W. 

N.-Vorp. Mt. 12 (1880) 51-. 
, experiments. Joule, J. P. B. A. Ep. (1855) 

(pt. 2) 12. 
, for Yale College. Henry, J. Silliman J. 

20 (*1831) 201-. 

with magnetised armatures, theorem. Deprez, 

M. Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 341-. 
magneto-electric. Dove, H. W. Pogg. A. 29 

(1833) 461-. 

powerful. Hare,R. [1836] Sturgeon A. Electr. 

1 (1836-37) 10~. 

. Orsted, H. C. Sk. Nf. F. 5 (1847) 82-. 
, experiments. Joule, J. P. Ph. Mg. 3 (1852) 

32-. 
, (Joule's). [Bashforth non] Bashhforth, 

(Rev.) J. (vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 4 (1852) 

120-. 
for production of field of 30,000 units. Weiss, 

P. Eclair. Elect. 15 (1898) 481-. 
intense fields. Du Bois, H. A. Ps. 

C. 51 (1894) 537-. 
. Sagnac, G. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1898) 37*-. 
ring-shaped. Hammerl, H. Elekttech. Z. 6 

(1885) 378-, 474-. 
with rounded poles, magnetic scattering in. 

Weber, M. Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 598. 
scroll. Ricco, A. Mod. Ac. Sc. Mm. 4 (1886) 

27-. 
simplified. Reinsch, H. (vm) Epm. Phm. 1 

(1848) 1-. 



subdivided. Germain, P. A. Tel. 5 (1878) 

315-. 
telegraphic. Lacoine, E. I. CE. P. 49 (1877) 

388-. 
, resistance. Ferrini, R. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 

11 (1878) 34-. 
, . Heaviside,0. Ph. Mg. 6 (1878) 177- ; 

7 (1879) 143. 
tubular, with multiple cores. Du Moncel, 

(comte) T. A. L. C. E. 80 (1875) 1572- ; 

81 (1875) 17-. 
Turchini's. Cecchi, F. (vi Adds.) Firenze 

At. Ac. Georg. 2 (1855) 54-. 



Formulae. Krieg, M. Elekttech. Z. 7 (1886) 

102-, 202-. 
. Waltenhofen, A. von. [1886-87] Tel. E. 

J. 15 (1887) 382-; A. Ps. C. 27 (1886) 630- ; 

32 (1887) 133-. 
Helix, attraction on bar of soft iron. Saint 

Loup, L. Par. EC. Norm. A. 7 (1870) 181-. 
, new plate- (or quantity-). Page, C. G. 

Franklin I. J. 3 (1842) 167-. 
Induction phenomena. Dove, H. W. Beii. B. 

(1841) 296-; A. C. 4 (1842) 336-. 

in short soft iron magnets. Enrich, H. 0. 
Elect. Ev. 41 (1897) 177-. 

Law of similar electromagnets; saturation, etc. 

Bosanquet, R. H. M. Ph. Mg. 22 (1886) 

298-. 
Laws. Lenz, E., & Jacobi, M. H. St. Pet. 

Ac. Sc. Bll. 4 (1838) 337-; 2 (1844) 65-. 
. Lenz, E. [1838] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 5 

(1839) 18-. 
. Jacobi, M. H. [1843] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. 

Bll. 2 (1844) 108-. 
. Cazin, A. (ix) Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 8 

(1872) 57-. 
. Thompson, S. P. [1885-86] L. Ps. S. P. 

7 (1886) 265- ; 8 (1887) 76- ; Ph. Mg. 21 

(1886) 1-; 22 (1886) 288-. 
. Bosanquet, R. H. M. Elect. 16 (1886) 

247. 

. Frolich, 0. Elekttech. Z. 7 (1886) 163-. 
. Bosanquet, R. H. M. Ph. Mg. 23 (1887) 

338-. 
, experimental verification. Du Moncel, T. 

A. L. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 292-, 307-. 
, Lenz and Jacobi's, limits of applicability. 

Waltenhofen, A. von. Wien Ak. Sb. 61 

(1870) (Ab. 2) 791-. 
Magnetic field t at centre of cylindrical coil. 

Fabry, C. Eclair. Elect. 17 (1898) 133-. 
exploration. Leduc, A. C. E. 103 (1886) 

926-. 
of Faraday electromagnet. Leduc, A. 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1886) 195- ; Lum. Elect. 28 

(1888) 512-, 560-. 

Euhmkorff electromagnet, measure- 
ments. Czermak, P., < Hausmaninger, V. 
Wien Ak. Sb. 98 (1890) (Ab. 2a) 1142-. 

and self-induction. Ledeboer, . C. E. 

102 (1886) 1375-. 

fluid, action of linear electric rings. Haeden- 
kamp, H. Grunert Arch. 14 (1850) 204-. 

friction for railway wheels. Weber, W. E. 
D. Nf. Vsm. B. (1841) 158-. 



748 



6030 Magnetism 



Electromagnets 



Solenoids 6030 



Magnetisation, comparative, by electric current. 
Decharme, C, Lum. Elect. 43 (1892) 155-. 

and demagnetisation. Schneebeli, H. [1877] 
Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 63 (1878) 51-. 

of iron bars by electric current. Moll, G. 
Quetelet Cor. Mth. 6 (1830) 327-. 

_ . Buff, H., & Zamminer, 

. Lieb. A. 75 (1850) 83-. 
by electric current. Pouillet, C. S. M. 

Quetelet Cor. Mth. 7 (1832) 317-. 
steel by electricity. Frick, J. Pogg. A. 

77 (1849) 537-. 
Magnetising action of instantaneous electric 

currents. Marianini, S. [1846-52] Mod. 

S. It. Mm. 24 (1850) 24-, 113-, 149- ; 25 

(1855) 97-. 

MAGNETISM. 

distribution. Dove, H. W. Pogg. A. 106 (1859) 

159-. 

. Gaugain, J. M. A. C. 11 (1877) 5-. 
, laws. Dub, J. Pogg. A. 115 (1862) 198-. 
, (Dub). Wiedemann, G. Pogg. A. 117 

(1862) 218-. 
effect of quantity of iron. Pfaff, C. H. Pogg. 

A. 53 (1841) 309-. 
of electric current. Orsted, H. C. Oken Isis 

22 (1829) 260-. 

. Matteucci, C. C. E. 24 (1847) 301-. 

spirals. Feilitzsch, F. C. O. von. Pogg. 

A. 79 (1850) 564-. 
induction by electric currents. Joule, J. P. 

[1855] Phil. Trans. (1856) 287-. 
of iron wires partially surrounded by mag- 
netising coil. Bachmetjev, P. Es. Ps.-C. 

S. J. 16 (Ps.) (1884) 213- ; Fschr. Ps. (1884) 

(Ab. 2) 851-. 
and oscillations of battery current, relation. 

Knochenhauer, K. W. [1863] (vra) Wien 

Sb. 49 (1864) (Ab. 2) 249-. 
power of retaining, after battery has been re- 
moved. Ritchie, W. Ph. Mg. 3 (1833) 122-. 
quantity. Cazin, A. C. E. 74 (1872) 733-; 

75 (1872) 261-. 
residual. Marianini, P. D. [1850] Mod. S. 

It. Mm. 25 (1852) 237-. 
, of closed electromagnets. Poggendorff, J. C. 

Berl. B. (1851) 670-. 
rise and fall. Beetz, W. Pogg. A. 105 (1858) 

497-. 
transversal, produced by electric currents. 

Fusinieri, A. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 9 (1839) 

19-, 82-. 



Maximum effect. Du Moncel, T. [4. L.] C. 
E. 69 (1869) 819-, 886-. 

, conditions. Eaynaud, J. C. E. 76 
(1873) 1303-. 

, influence of battery and wire resistances. 

Winter, G. K. Ph. Mg. 44 (1872) 414-. 
, position of steel bar for. Dippe, M. C. 

Grunert Arch. 7 (1846) 190-. 

, size of wire for. Winter, G. K. Ph. 
Mg. 39 (1870) 109-. 

, . Brough, R. S. Beng. As. 

S. P. (1877) 134-. 



Modifications. Hequet, . A. Tel. 2 (1875) 

423-, 579-. 
Morse apparatus, choice of windings for. 

Nystrom, C. A. Berl. Z. Tel. 15 (1868) 

172-. 
Motor-induction machine. Voice, E. L Tel 

J. 14 (1884) 43-, 80. 
Polarity, permanent, of steel, opposite to that 

of magnetising helix producing it. Righi, 

A. Bologna Ed. (1880) 78-; C. E. 90 (1880) 

688. 
Poles, effect of iron soles applied to. Du 

Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 

305-. 

and neutral points. Bertin, A. A. C. 16 
(1869) 74-. 

Portative strength. Orsted, H. C. Kiob. Ov. 

(1847) 99-. 

. Dub, J. Pogg. A. 85 (1852) 239-. 

. Robinson, T. R. [1852-57] Ir. Ac. T. 

22 (1855) 291-, 499-; 23 (1859) 501-. 
. Todd, J. H. NH. Ev. 5 (1858) (P.) 

. Waltenhofen, A. von. Wien Ak. Sb. 

61 (1870) (Ab. 2) 739-. 

. Bidwell, S. E. S. P. 40 (1886) 486-. 

. Keiter, A. Wien Ak. Sb. 104 (1895) 

(Ab. 2a) 1216-. 
. Boy de la Tour, . Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 

486-. 
, formula. Adler, G. Wien Az. 30 (1893) 

67-. 

, and magnetisation of iron. Scharf- 
hausen, R. Cztg. Opt. 7 (1886) 245-. 

of ring-shaped electromagnets. Wass- 
muth, A. Wien Ak. Sb. 85 (1882) (Ab. 2) 
327-. 

Properties. Ritchie, W. Phil. Trans. (1833) 

313-. 
. Du Moncel, T. [A. L.} Tel. J. 1 (1872- 

73) 287-. 
, curious, of common and electro-magnets. 

Ritchie, W. Ph. Mg. 3 (1833) 124-. 
Saturation. Dub, J. A. Ps. C. 133 (1868) 56-. 

point. Milller, (Dr.) J. Pogg. A. 82 (1851) 
181-. 

Sensibility, limits. Zantedeschi, F. [1857] 

Yen. At. 3 (1857-58) 53-. 
Separator (for ores, etc.). Du Moncel, T. A. L. 

Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 197-. 

(Ball-Norton). Ball, C. M. [1890] Am. I. 
Mn. E. T. 19 (1891) 187-. 

Shape. Dub, J. Berl. Tel. Vr. Z. 5 (1858) 
79-. 

and properties. Hughes, D. E. A. Tel. 7 
(1864) 572-. 

SOLENOIDS. 

Warren, H. N. C. N. 76 (1897) 39-. 

under action of angular current, properties. 

Delsaux, (le pere) J. (xn) Brux. S. Sc. A. 

5 (1881) (Ft. 1) 71-, (Pt. 2) 184-. 
action on contained magnet, experiments. 

Stohrer, E. Pogg. A. 69 (1846) 81-. 
attraction on cores. Hankel, W. G. Leip. B. 

(1850) 78-. 
_ .. Dub,J. Pogg. A. 94 (1855) 573-. 



749 



6030 Solenoids 



Electromagnets Induction Coils 6040 



attraction on cores. Waltenhofen, A. von. 

[1870] Prag Ab. 4 (1871) 14 pp. 
(cylindrical and biconical). Bottcher, 

E. Tel. E. J. 13 (1884) 612-. 
. Krizik, . Tel. E. J. 14 (1885) 

448. 
of various shapes. Bmger, T. Elekt- 

tech. Z. 7 (1886) 199-, 245-. 
, laws. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 

8 (*1883) 225-. 
between parallel currents. Petrina, F. A. 

Wien SB. (1853) 129- ; (1854) 332-. 
calculation, general theorem. Waltenhofen, A. 

von. Wien Sb. 67 (1873) (Ab. 2) 417-. 
case of equilibrium under current and Earth's 

field. Basso, G. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 17 (1881) 

358-. 
2-coil, variable action. Aldrich, W. S. Franklin 

I. J. 133 (1892) 317-. 
design. Lenz, E. [1832] St. P^t. Ac. Sc. 

Mm. 2 (1833) 427-. 
dimensions and magnetic field, relation. Wasz- 

muth, A. Wien Sb. 57 (1868) (Ab. 2) 443-. 
force, relation. Brix, W. Berl. Z. 

Tel. 12 (1865) 283-. 
electromotive effect. Eoiti, A. N. Cim. 11 

(1874) 35-; 13 (1875) 170-. 
equipotential lines. Farr, C. C. Aust. As. 

Kp. (1893) 243-. 
and equivalents, action. Weyr, Em. Prag Sb. 

(1871) 25-. 
insulation of wires. Dub, J. A. Ps. C. 127 

(1866) 237-. 

magnetism. Gore, G. Ph. Mg. 40 (1870) 264-. 
radial and axial components of magnetic force 

in. Farr, C. C. [1898] E. S. P. 64 (1899) 

192-. 
theory. Moutier, J. Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 12 

(1875) 29 bit-. 

. Wallentin, I. G. Wien Ak. Sb. 75 (1877) 

(Ab. 2) 135-, 627-. 
, mathematical. Beltrami, E. (is) N. Cim. 

7 & 8 (1872) 285-. 



Steel, electromagnetic behaviour. Waltenhofen, 

A. von. Wien SB. 48 (Ab. 2) (1863) 518-. 
Tension of lines of force. Bosanquet, R. H. M. 

Ph. Mg. 22 (1886) 535-. 
Theory. Frolich, O. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1893) 

23-; Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 365-, 387-, 

401-. 
Thomson's theorem. Dub, J. Pogg. A. 120 

(1863) 539-. 
Time interval between making or breaking 

circuit and action of magnet. Schneebeli, H. 

A. Ps. C. 155 (1875) 156-, 615-. 
Use as receiving telephone. Lloyd, F. G. Nt. 

18 (1878) 488. 

Vibrations, longitudinal, effect on electro- 
magnets. Carney, E. L. Am. J. Sc. 8 

(1874) 203-. 
Watches, effect of electromagnets on. Le 

Goarant de Tromelin, G. Lum. Elect. 3 

(*1881) 312-, 326-, 367. 
Winding. Breguet, A. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1879) 

104-. 



Winding. Ayrton, W. E., & Perry, J. [1882] 

L. Ps. S. P. 5 (1884) 230- ; Ph. Mg. 15 (1883) 

397-. 
, best conditions. Du Moncel, T. A. L. 

Lum. Elect. 9 (*1883) 353-. 
, computations. Slingo, W., & Brooker, A. 

Elect. Kv. 38 (1896) 714-, 750. 
Work-value when enclosed in iron. Walker, 

C. V. [1876] Tel. E. J. 5 (1877) 153-. 



6040 Induction Coils. Trans- 
formers. Interrupters. 

INDUCTION COELS. 

Callan, N. J. Sturgeon A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 

491-. 
Nesbit, J. C. Sturgeon A. Electr. 2 (1838) 

203-. 
Bachhoffner, G. H. Sturgeon A. Electr. 2 

(1838) 207-. 
Clarke, U. [1838] Sturgeon A. Electr. 3 

(1838-39) 12-. 
Henley, W. (vi Adds.) [1839] Electr. S. 

P. (1837-40) 183. 
Hessler, F. Bohm. Gs. Ab. (1837-40) (Sect. 

B.) 24-. 

Wright, T. Sturgeon A. Electr. 5 (1840) 32-. 
Clarke, U. Sturgeon A. Electr. 5 (1840) 33-. 
Wright, T. Sturgeon A. Electr. 5 (1840) 108-. 
Clarke, U. Sturgeon A. Electr. 5 (1840) 304-. 
Wright, T. Sturgeon A. Electr. 5 (1840) 349-. 
Majocchi, G. A. (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. 

C. 1 (1841) 285-. 
Hassan, A., <& Breguet, L. [1841] A. C. 4 

(1842) 129-. 
Stripe, G. H. Sturgeon A. Electr. 7 (1841) 

211-. 
Broek, J. K. van den. (vn) Arnhem Ntk. 2 

(1845) 1-. 
Cecchi, F. (vi Adds.) Em. Cor. Sc. 3 (1855) 

313-. 

Poggendor/, J. C. Berl. B. (1855) 12-. 
Hearder,J.N. Ph. Mg. 12 (1856) 443-; 13 

(1857) 324-. 
Callan, N. J. B. A. Ep. (1857) (pt. 2) 11- ; 

Ph. Mg. 14 (1857) 323- ; 17 (1859) 332-. 
Hearder, J. N. Elect. 3 (1862) 41-. 
Callan, N. J. Ph. Mg. 25 (1863) 413-. 
Tfwmpson, J. B. B. A. Ep. 34 (1864) (Sect.) 

15. 

Jamin, J. C. E. 68 (1869) 1293-. 
(Jamin.) Leroux, F. P. C. E. 68 (1869) 

Trmcbri'dge, J. Am. Ac. P. 10 (1875) 381-. 

Spottiswoode, W. Ph. Mg. 3 (1877) 30-. 

Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 

65- ; 7 (*1882) 623-. 
Higgs, G. B. A. Ep. (1887) 616-. 
Hopkinson, J. E. S. P. 42 (1887) 164-. 
Pfaundler, . D. Nf. Tbl. (1887) 83-. 
Moon, W. Tel. J. 27 (1890) 709-. 
Thomson, E. Franklin I. J. 132 (1891) 81-, 

240. 
Brune, . Ev. Sc.-Ind. 32 (1900) 213-. 



750 



6040 



Induction Coils Ruhmkorff Colls 6040 



action. Poggendorff, J. C. Pogg. A. 94 (1855) 
289-. 

(Poggendorff). Gaugain, J. M. C. B. 41 

(1855) 405-. 

apparatus for obtaining continuous current in 
one direction. Anon. Tel. J. 1 (*1864) 235. 
Callan's. Lennon, F. Elect. 26 (1891) 554. 

, sparks from. Clibborn, E. [1863] Ir. Ac. 
P. 8 (1864) 334-. 

condenser, application to primary. Fizeau, 
H. L. C. E. 36 (1853) 418-. 

, secondary, an important adjunct. 
Morton, H. C. N. 16 (1867) 149. 

, function. Fleming, J. A. Elect. 23 (1889) 
84-. 

. Boys, C. V. Elect. 23 (1889) 126-. 

. Lodge, O. Elect. 23 (1889) 139-. 

. Dubois, P. A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 86-. 

. Mizuno, T. Ph. Mg. 45 (1898) 447-. 

. Walter, B. Ph. Mg. 46 (1898) 172. 

, theory. Johnson, K. E. Ph. Mg. 49 
(1900) 216-. 

, , . Walter, B. Ph. Mg. 49 (1900) 416. 
construction. Ferguson, R. M. [1866] Edinb. 

Sc. S. Arts T. 7 (1868) 186-. 
with core of iron wires. Page, C. G. Silliman 

J. 35 (1839) 252-. 
distribution of magnetic induction round 

nucleus of iron. Stefanini, A. N. Cim. 9 

(1899) 417-. 
double, for physiological experiments. Preyer, 

W. Jena. Sb. (*1883) 95-; Z. Instk. 4 

(1884) 9-. 
driving, new method. Norton, C. L., <& 

Lawrence, E. E. Science 5 (1897) 335-. 
Duchenne's. Cardona, F. (vi Adds.) Em. 

Cor. Sc. 3 (1853) 415-. 
effects. Hearder, J. N. Cornwall Pol. S. T. 

(1856) 8-. 

when used with De Meritens alternator. 
Spottiswoode, W. E. S. P. 30 (1880) 173-. 

electro-electric. Danckwerth, L. [1867] St. 

Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 12 (1868) 57-. 
with electrolytic break, effect of heat on dis- 

charge. Jervis-Smith, F. J. Ph. Mg. 48 

(1899) 477-. 
electro-medical apparatus, portable. Trouve, 

G. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1878) 121-. 
E.M.F. Oberbeck, A. A. Ps. C. 62 (1897) 



109- ; 64 (1898) 193- ; 67 (1899) 592-. 
excitation, method. Spottiswoode, W. 



Ph. 



Mg. 8 (1879) 390-. 
experiments. Pepper, J. H. [1869] E. S. P. 
18 (1870) 65-. 

. Spottiswoode, W. [1877] E. I. P. 8 
(1879) 359-. 

. Duncan, L., Hutchinson, C. T., <& 
Wilkes, G. Tel. J. 22 (1888) 471-, 642-. 

. Hess, W. A. Ps. C. 66 (1898) 980-. 
graphic treatment. Kapp, G. Elect. 18 (1887) 

502-, 524-, 568-. 
Hessler's, results of use. Loschner, J. Prag 

Vjschr. (1844) 61-. 
high frequency. Boynton, W. P. Ph. Mg. 46 

(1898) 312-. 
improved. Sinsteden, . Pogg. A. 96 (1855) 

353-. 

. Stohrer, E. Pogg. A. 98 (1856) 104-. 



improved. Ladd, W. B. A. Ep. (1858) (pt. 2) 

26-. 
, for spectroscopy. Warren, H. N. C. N. 

65 (1892) 87-. 

improvements. Witzschel, B. von. Schlomilch 

Z. 1 (1856) 226-. 
. Walter, B. [1900] Fschr. Eontgenstr. 

4 (1900-01) 46-. 
induced currents. Smith, W. Elect. 1 (1862) 

179-. 

, changes caused by use of different 
resistances. Magnus, G. Berl. Mb. (1861) 
553-, 872-. 

, extra currents of. Poggendorff, J. C. 

Berl. Mb. (1863) 502-. 

from fine- and coarse-wired coils, experi- 
ments. Weil, C. D. Arch. Kl. Md. 48 
(1891) 122-. 

, magnetising and electrolytic action. 
Sinsteden, . Pogg. A. 101 (1857) 1-. 

, new method of strengthening. Poggen- 
dorff, J. C. Berl. B. (1855) 208-. 
, properties. Eijke, P. L. Ph. Mg. 24 

(1862) 249-. 
, self-registering apparatus. Klobukow, 

N. von. Dingier 268 (1888) 216-. 
with mechanical interrupter. Abbot, J. H. 

Silliman J. 40 (1841) 104-. 
for medical use. Osann, G. [1854] Wurzb. 

Vh. 5 (1855) 406-. 

. Morin, J. C. E. 115 (1892) 389-. 

modification. Hearder, J. N. Cornwall Pol. 

S. T. (1856) 1-. 
multiple. Armstrong, (Lord). [1892] B. S.P. 

52 (1893) 176-. 
open, nature of electricity in. Sinsteden, . 

Pogg. A. 85 (1852) 465-. 
pause-phenomenon in. Eiess, P. Pogg. A. 99 

(1856) 636-. 
phenomena. Baumgartner, A. von. Baum- 

gartner Z. 1 (1832) 74-. 
. Poggendorff, J. C. A. Ps. C. 123 (1864) 

448-. 
_. Walter, B. A. Ps. C. 62 (1897) 300- ; 

66 (1898) 623-. 

. Johnson, K. E. A. Ps. 3 (1900) 438-, 744-. 
for physiological use. Clarke, E. M. Sturgeon 
A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 499-. 

producing electricity of high tension. 
M'Gauley, J. W. B. A. Ep. (1837) (pt. 2) 
24-. 

progress. Armagnat, H. Eclair. Elect. 19 

(1899) 41-, 134-, 157-. 
with regulator. Wright, T. Edinb. M. J. Md. 

Sc. 10 (1850) 127-. 
resistance. Jamin, J., & Roger, G. C. E. 67 

(1868) 33-. 

(Jamin and Eoger). Codazza, G. Mil. I. 
Lomb. Ed. 2 (1869) 475-. 

for reversed currents. Tliomson, E. , < Houston, 
E. J. Franklin I. J. 77 (1879) 40-. 

EUHMKOEFF COILS. 

Petrina, F. A. [1854] Bohm. Gs. Ab. 9 

(1856) 1-. 

Faraday, M. [1855] E. I. P. 2 (1854-58) 139-. 
Gassiot, J. P. Ph. Mg. 15 (*1858) 466-. 



751 



6040 Ruhmkorff Coils 

Poschl, J. Gratz Mt. NW. Vr. Steierm. (1863) 

31-. 
experiment. Grove, (Sir) W. E. Ph. Mg. 35 

(1868) 184-. 
, Grove's. Maxicell, J. C. Ph. Mg. 35 

(1868) 360-. 
experiments. Maclean, M. [1892] Glasg. Ph. 

S. P. 24 (1893) 1-. 
. Maclean, M., <& Gait, A. B. A. Kp. 

(1892) 639. 
. Lebedinskij, V. K. Bs. Ps.-C. S. J. 27 

(Ps.) (1895) 61-. 
improvements. Bentley, C. A. (vi Adds.) 

Ph. Mg. 12 (1856) 519-. 
. Laborde, (abbe) . Moigno Cosmos 8 

(1856) 536-. 

modification. Ritchie, E. S. Silliman J. 24 

(1857) 45-. 

(Ritchie's). Rogers, W. B. B. A. Ep. 
(1857) (pt. 2) 15-. 

. Scarpa, G. , <& Baldo, L. Yen. I. At. 7 

(1881) 189-. 
phenomena. Magrini, L. [1860] Mil. Mm. 

I. Lomb. 8 (1862) 131-. 
polarity. Broca, A. As. Fr. C. E. (1895) 

(Pt. 2) 389-. 
potential fall in wire. Nikolaieve, W. de. J. 

de Ps. 4 (1895) 471-. 
power, means of increasing. Miozzi, (rev.- 

pere). Les Mondes 13 (1867) 56-. 
static induction produced by. Bichat, E. C. 

E. 78 (1874) 1686-. 
striking distance. Bijke, P. L. Pogg. A. 97 

(1856) 67-. 
substitute for. Tuma, J. D. Nf. Vh. (1896) 

(Th. 2, Halfte 1) 53. 
theory. Bornstein, R. A. Ps. C. 147 (1872) 

481-. 
. Colley, R. [1890] C. E. 110 (1890) 

700- ; Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 23 (Ps.) (1891) 7- ; 

A. Ps. C. 44 (1891) 109-. 

spark, duration at break. Hilnlich, C. A. 
Ps. C. 30 (1887) 343-. 

length. Beattie, R. Ph. Mg. 50 (1900) 
139-. 

for spectrum analysis. Browning, J. B. A. 

Ep. 40 (1870) (Sect.) 25. 
theory. Berlin, A. A. C. 22 ,(1871) 486-. 
. Armagnat, H. Eclair. Elect. 15 (1898) 

52- ; 22 (1900) 121-. 
and tuning forks, driving. Lebedew, P. A. 

Ps. C. 58 (1896) 408-. 
use. Foucault, L. C. E. 43 (1856) 44-. 
, and effects of multiple machines. Foucault, 

L. C. E. 42 (1856) 215-. 
voltameter experiments with. Jones, H. L. 

Elect. 30 (1893) 368-. 

TEANSFOEMEES. 

Anon. Tel. J. 15 (1884) 63-. 
Hopkinson, J. Elect. 14 (1885) 493. 
Rothen, . J. Tel. 9 (1885) 193-. 
Riihlmann, R. Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 249-, 

290-, 386-. 
Zipernoivski, C., Deri, M., & Bldthy, 0. T. 

Tel. J. 17 (1885) 465-. 



Transformers 6040 



DM Bois-Reymond, A. Elekttech. Z. 9 

553-. 

Snell, A. T. Elect. 20 (1888) 107-. 
Picou, . Lum. Elect. 33 (1889) 389-. 
Perry, J. Ph. Mg. 32 (1891) 168- ; E. S. P. 

51 (1892) 455-. 
Lehmann, E. W. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. 

(1896-97) 57. 
Deguisne, C. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1897- 

98) 52-. 

Rochefort, O. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1898) 164-. 
Thomsen, J. Kjtfb. Ov. (1898) 97- ; Fschr. 

Ps. (1898) (Ab. 2) 567. 
Hammerl, . Innsb. Nt. Md. B. 24 (1899) 

xm-. 
Klingelfuss, F. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 8 (1899) 

380-. 

Pichelmayer, K. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 697-. 
versus accumulators, in electric lighting. 

Crompton, R. E. [1888] Tel. E. J. 17 (1889) 

349-, 388-, 423-, 507-. 

ALTERNATE CURRENT TRANS- 
FORMERS. 

Kapp, G. [1888] Tel. E. J. 17 (1889) 96-, 

157-, 193-. 

Manville, E. (et alii). Elect. 20 (1888) 552, etc. 
Fleming, J. A. [1892-96] I. Elect. E. J. 21 

(1893) 594-, 694-, 727- ; 22 (1894) 2-, 78- ; 
Elect. Ev. 39 (1896) 91-, 122-, 154-, 185-, 
216-. 

Steinmetz, C. P. Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 78-. 
White, W. F. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 72. 
with condenser in secondary circuit. Grassi, 

G. Nap. Ac. At. 8 (1897) No. 10, 13 pp. 
efficiency. Duncan, L., & Hasson, W. F. C. 

Elect. 24 (1890) 593-. 
. Russell, A. Elect. 40 (1898) 720-. 
experiments. Ryan, H. J. Elect. 25 (1890) 

312-. 
geometric study. Palaz, A. Lum. Elect. 

38 (1890) 301-. 
and hysteresis. Whitwell, A. Elect. Ev. 34 

(1894) 543-. 

influence of period on action. Steinmetz, C. P. 

Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 57-. 
magnetic leakage in. Russell, A. Elect. 42 

(1899) 567-, 603-, 788-, 823-. 

application to electric lighting. Borns, . 
Elekttech. Z. 5 (1884) 77-. 

of imaginary quantities in graphical con- 
structions of intensities of currents. Pomey, 
J. B. Eclair. Elect. 15 (1898) 16-. 

new experimental method of determining 

phase difference. Vogelsang, M. Elekttech. 
Z. 13 (1892) 469-. 

(Vogelsang). 

Cahen, H. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 542. 

to telephony. Wietlisbach, . J. Tel. 
20 (1896) 25-, 53-. 

behaviour with alternating currents of various 
periods. Roessler, G. Elekttech. Z. 16 

(1895) 488-. 

critical frequency. Rimington, E. C. 
L. Ps. S. P. 13 (1895) 1-; Ph. Mg. 37 
(1894) 394-. 



752 



6040 



Transformers 



6040 



behaviour, initial. Hay, A. Elect. Ev. 43 

(1898) 326-, 333-. 
" booster," use in electric railways. Vail, 

J. H.,& Wynkoop, S. H. [1894] Elect. 

34 (1895) 41-. 
' ' boosting " with alternating currents. Russell, 

A. Elect. 38 (1897) 73-. 
calculation, graphic method. Heyland, A. 

Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 561-. 
of Carborundum Company. Peck, J. S. Sc. 

Abs. 2 (1899) 403-. 
characteristics. Jacquin, C. Lum. Elect. 34 

(1889) 201-, 300. 
with closed magnetic circuit, theory. Korda, 

D. C. E. 118 (1894) 864-. 
coefficients of induction. Reignier, C., <& Bary, 

P. Lum. Elect. 28 (1888) 521-. 
, and theory. Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. 

Elect. 30 (1888) 60-. 

with condenser in secondary circuit, mathe- 
matical theory. Korda, D. C. B. 115 (1892) 

331-, 411-. 
condensers and idle currents in. Perry, , 

& Walker, M. Elect. 31 (1893) 359-. 
connection of phase difference and current 

strength with various loads. Puluj, J. 

Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 557. 
construction. Rechniewski, W. C. Lum. Elect. 

26 (1887) 65-, 120-, 272- ; 27 (1888) 573-. 
core-ageing tests. Goldsborough, W. E. [1900] 

Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 110. 
coupled in series, regulation. Pirani, . 

Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 400. 
current-rushes into. Clinker, R. C. Elect. 

45 (1900) 282-. 
currents, asymmetric, in secondary, with 

Wehnelt interrupter in primary. Corbino, 

0. M. Em. E. Ac. Line. Ed. 8 (1899) 

(Son. 2) 359-. 
in secondary, with Wehnelt interrupter in 

primary. Corbino, 0. M. Em. E. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 9 (1900) (Son. 1) 102-. 
curves, analysis. Rhodes, W. G. Elect. Ev. 

39 (1896) 196. 
design. Swinburne, J. Elect. 23 (1889) 492-, 

523-. 
. Adams, G. Elect. Ev. 37 (1895) 86-, 95, 

124-, 698-. 
. Wirt, H. C. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 

328. 
, principles. Still, A. Elect. 34 (1895) 34-, 

65-, 93-. 
diagram. Baum, F. G. Ps. Ev. 8 (1899) 95-. 

DISTRIBUTION BY TRANSFORMERS. 

(Gaulard and Gibbs's system.) Geraldy, F. 

Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 496-. 
Esson, W. B. Tel. J. 17 (1885) 157-. 
Gibbs, J. D. Eng. S. T. (1885) 49-. 
Piazzoli, E. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 17 (1885) 321-, 

366-. 

Wolffen, F. de. Tel. J. 17 (1885) 158. 
Zipernowsky, C. B. A. Ep. (1886) 816-. 
Biggs, C. H. W., & Snell, W. H. B. A. Ep. 

(1887) 878. 
Kennedy, R. Tel. J. 20 (1887) 247-, 278-, 

298-, 320-, 346-, 369-. 



Gutmann, L. Tel. J. 23 (1888) 456-. 
Mackenzie, J. K. D. [1888] Tel. E. J. 17 

(1889) 120-, 157-, 193-. 
Fleming, J. A. Elect. 25 (1890) 229-, 258-, 

276-, 315-, 351-, 379-, 408-, 603-, 646-, 

677-, 710- ; 26 (1891) 13-, 42-, 132-, 196-, 

255-, 300-, 364-. 
Swinburne, J. [1891] I. Elect. E. J. 20 (1892) 

163-, 197-, 218-. 
Kennedy, R. Elect. Ev. 30 (1892) 506-, 568-, 

631-, 661- ; 33 (1893) 444-, 465-, 524-, 580-, 

608-, 635-, 661-. 

effect of capacity in secondary. (Ferranti's 
phenomenon.) Sahulka, J. Wien Ak. Sb. 
102 (1893) (Ab. 2a) 793-. 

efficiency. Spencer, T. Elect. 23 (1889) 295-. 

. Dolivo-Dobrowolsky , M. von. Elect. 29 
(1892) 369-, 387-. 

, determination, methods. Korda, D. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 16 (1895) 813-. 

, and distribution. Picou,. [1892] Elect. 
30 (1893) 191. 

at different frequencies. Ayrton, W. E., <& 
Sumpner, W. E. Elect. 29 (1892) 615-. 

and insulation. Cottrell, H. E. P. [1899] 
Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 163-. 

, maximum. Scattergood, B. P. Elect. 37 
(1896) 152-. 

, . Baum, F. G. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 830. 

, testing. (Gaulard and Gibbs transformer.) 
Cardew, (Capt.) P. Elect. 19 (1887) 185-. 

, . Sumpner, W. E. Elect. 29 (1892) 
223-. 

E. M. F. , potentiometer method of measuring. 
Scattergood, B. P. Elect. 31 (1893) 643-, 
665-. 

, secondary. Whitehead, J. B. (jun.) J. 
H. Un. Cir. [19 (1899-1900)] 64. 

experiments. Gaulard, L., & Gibbs, E. D. 
Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 429-, 496-. 

(Gaulard and Gibbs). Zipernowsky, C., 
Deri, M., <& Bldthy, 0. T. Elekttech. Z. 6 



(1885) 495-. 
ll 



fall of potential. Behn-Eschenburg, . Elekt- 

tech. Z. 13 (1892) 651-. 
Ferraris-Arno type, theory and experiments. 

Lombardi, L. Em. E. Ac. Line. Mm. 2 

(1895) 342-. 
formulae. Forbes, G. [1888] Tel. E J. 17 

(1889) 153-. 

. Russell, A. Elect. 38 (1897) 725-. 

. Sumpner, W. E. (et alii). Elect. 38(1897) 
768, etc. ; 39 (1897) 23. 

Gaulard and Gibbs's. Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 

14 (1884) 41-. 
--- . Colombo, (?. Lum. Elect. 14 (1884) 

43-. 
--- (theory and experiments). Ferraris, 

G. [1885] Tor. Ac. Sc. Mm. 37 (1886) 

97-. 

___ . Rothen, . J. Tel. 9 (1885) 65-. 
geometric study. Steinmetz, C. Elekttech. Z. 

11 (1890) 185-, 205-, 225-, 233-, 345-. 
heat produced by eddy currents. Thomson, 

J. J. Elect. 28 (1892) 599-. 
high potential, with electric valve. Villard, 

P. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1900) 197-. 



753 



6040 Losses 



Transformers 



6040 



high potential, oil free. Elster, J. [1895-96] 

Braunschw. Vr. Nt. Jbr. (10) (1897) 42-; 

Z. Instk. 16 (1896) 293-. 
history. Wilking, F. Elekttech. Z. 10 (1889) 

201-. 
and induction. Bichat, E. A. C. 6 (1875) 

391-. 
(Bichat). Neyreneuf, V. A. C. 7 (1876) 

572-. 

iron for. Swing, J. A. Elect. 31 (1893) 623-. 
Klingelfuss's. Veillon, H. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 

6 (1898) 313-. 
laboratory apparatus for production of currents 

of high potential. Strasser, L. Elekttech. 

Z. 20 (1899) 498-. 
lag. Ayrton, W. E., <& Perry, J. Elect. 20 

(1888) 509. 
, magnetic. Blakesley, T. H. L. Ps. S. P. 

9 (1888) 286- ; Ph. Mg. 26 (1888) 34-. 



LOSSES. 

calculation. Kapp, G. Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 

244-. 
control. Whitcher, J. Elect. Ev. 37 (1895) 

523-, 557-, 600-, 631-. 
core-. Ewing, J. A., & Klaassen, H. G. [1891] 

Elect. 28 (1892) 111. 

. Wilson, E. Elect. 34 (1895) 462-, 497-. 
. Hubley, G. W. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 791. 
, and tests. Goldsborough, W. E. Sc. Abs. 

2 (1899) 790. 
eddy current. Townsend, F. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 

760. 
effect of form of E.M.F. Feldmann, C. P. 

Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 478-. 
wave form. Duncan, L., Hodges, W, L., 

Keidel, F. B., db Frank, E. J. H. Un. Cir. 

[17 (1897-98)] 53-. 
hysteresis and eddy. Evershed, S., & Vignoles, 

E. B. Elect. 27 (1891) 664-; 29 (1892 

583-, 605-. 
. Ferraris, G. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 27 

(1892) 34-. 
, influence of form of potential-curve. 

Fleischmann, L. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 

288-. 

iron, hysteresis and eddy, separation. Feld- 
mann, C. P. Elect. 32 (1894) 581-. 
, , . Carhart, H. S. Elect. Ev. 

42 (1898) 391-. 
, influence of shape of applied P.D. wave. 

Beeton, S., Taylor, C. P., & Barr, J. M. 

[1896] I. Elect. E. J. 25 (1897) 474-. 
, separation. Peukert, W. Elekttech. Z. 

20 (1899) 674-. 
open circuit-, increase. Partridge, G. W. 

Elect. 34 (1895) 160-. 
, (Partridge). Eiving, J. A. Elect. 

34 (1895) 161. 
, . Fleming, J. A. Elect. 34 (1895) 

190-. 

and phase difference in currents. Ferraris, G. 
Tor. Ac. Sc. Mm. 38 (1888) 415-. 

magnetic screening, eddy currents and hys- 
teresis. Eiving, . Elect. 28 (1892) 631-. 



oil-, experiments. Thomson, E. Elect. 30 

(1893) 309-. 

open circuit, current variation in primary con- 
ductor. Shand, E. Elect. 26 (1891) 674-. 

, (Shand). Stanley, W. 

(jim.) Elect. 26 (1891) 726-. 

versus closed magnetic circuits. Evershed, 
S. Elect. 26 (1891) 477-, 508-, 534-, 597-, 
634-, 662-, 690-, 724-, 755-, 784-. 

- (Evershed' s experiments). 

Palaz, A. Lum. Elect. 40 (1891) 519-, 567-; 

41 (1891) 423-, 464-. 
. Ayrton, W. E., <& Sumpner, 

W. E. Elect. 30 (1893) 87-. 
with open secondary circuit, analysis of current 

wave in. Pupin, H. I., < Townsend, S. G. F. 

[1899] N. Y. Ac. A. 12 (1899-1900) 658. 
Patin's. Guilbert, F. Lum. Elect. 46 (1892) 

373-. 
and periodic currents. Pomey, J. B. A. Tel. 

23 (1896-97) 563-. 

phase-, stationary, and applications. Meyer, 

G. W. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 452-. 
phasing. Bradley, C. S. [1895] Elect. 36 

(1896) 43-. 
plates, geometrical form. Adams, G. Elect. 

Ev. 37 (1895) 787-. 
, most efficient thickness. Bedell, F., Klein, 

R. M., <& Thompson, T. P. Ps. Ev. 7 (1898) 

242-. 
polymorphic. Hospitaller, E. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1894) 203-. 

power, Blakesley's method of measuring. Perry, 
J. L. Ps. S. P. 11 (1892) 164- ; Ph. Mg. 32 
(1891) 185-. 

supplied to. Rimington, E. C. L. Ps. S. 
P. 9 (1888) 215- ; Ph. Mg. 25 (1888) 482-. 

predetermination of drop in. Kennelly, A. E. 

[1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 136-. 
regulation. Bedell, F., Chandler, R. E., 

<& Sherwood, R. H. Am. As. P. (1897) 126. 
processes. Gorges, H. Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 

514-. 
. Heinke, C. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 175-, 

191- , 205-. 
progress, 1872-97. Swinburne, J. Elect. Ev. 

41 (1897) 647-. 
rate determination, new method. Korda, D. 

Mth. Termt. Ets. 13 (1895) 473-. 
and rectifier combined, for polyphase currents. 

Sahulka, J. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 

197-. 
regulation. Meyer, G. W. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

679. 

. Everest, A. R. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 733. 
, formula*. Bedell, F. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 

(1899) 140. 
, Elihu Thomson's method. Anon. Tel. J. 

24 (1889) 474-. 

resonance in circuits. Bedell, F., & Crehore, 

A. C. Ps. Ev. 2 (1895) 442-. 
shunt-. Smith, E. W. L. Ps. S. P. 10 (1890) 

169- ; Ph. Mg. 28 (1889) 132-. 
static. Thomson, (Sir) W. B. A. Ep. 

907. 
step-down. Pflaum, H. Eiga Cor.-Bl. 

(1896) 89, 92-. 



754 



6040 



Tesla's, polar-differences. Vicentini,G. Padova 

Ac. At. e Mm. 13 (1897) 265-. 
testing, differential method. Johannesen, S. E. 

[1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 60-. 
theory. Reignier, C., < Bary, P. Lum. Elect. 

28 (1888) 19-. 
. Roivland, H. A. J. H. Un. Cir. [11 

(1891-92)] 104-. 
. Kapp, G. Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 621-, 

643-, 655-. 

of condenser working through. Korda, D. 
Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 69-. 

, geometric. Rechniewski, W. C. Lum. 

Elect. 25 (1887) 610-. 
, Steinmetz's. Guilbert, F. Eclair. Elect. 7 

(1896) 97-. 

transformation in. Kennedy, R. Tel. J. 12 
(1883) 506. 

ratio, determination. Bibbins,J.R. [1899] 
Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 54-. 

1250 watt. Carhart, H. S. Elect. Ev. 41 

(1897) 495-. 

Westinghouse. Pirani, . Elekttech. Z. 9 

(1888) 45-. 
, 6500 watt, tests. Hopkinson, J. Elect. 29 

(1892) 196-, 225-. 
Zipernowsky-Deri. Anon. Tel. J. 17 (1885) 

92-, 114-. 
Zipernowsky, Deri and Blathy. Picou, . 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1887) 106-. 
, , experiments. Ferraris, G. Lum. 

Elect. 17 (1885) 145-. 



INTEEKUPTEKS. 

Sturgeon, W. [1838] Sturgeon A. Electr. 3 

(1838-39) 31-. 
Callan, N. J. (vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 14 (1857) 

255-. 
Ferguson, R. M. [1866] Edinb. Sc. S. Arts 

T. 7 (1868) 193-. 
Hart, W. D. [1867] Edinb. Sc. S. Arts T. 7 

(1868) 310-. 
Cazin, A. (ix) Par. S. Phlm. Bll. 10 (1873) 

82. 

Felici, R. N. dim. 12 (1874) 115-. 
Niemoller, F. A. Ps. C. 6 (1879) 302-. 
Deprez, M. Par. S. Ps. Se, (1881) 34- ; C. E. 

92 (1881) 1283-. 
Lecoultre, . [1886] Laus. S. Vd. Bll. 23 

(1888) iv. 
Grimaldi, G. P., & Platania, G. Catania Ac. 

Gioen. Bll. 47 (1897) 7-. 
Cremieu, V. C. E. 126 (1898) 523-. 
Izarn, . J. de Ps. 7 (1898) 342-. 
Rochefort, 0. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1898) 164-. 
Dessauer, F. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 220-. 
Pflaum, H. Eiga Cor.-Bl. 42 (1899) 185-. 
Grimsehl, E. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 491-. 
action. Heinke, C. A. Ps. 1 (1900) 326-, 441-. 
automatic. Cazin, A. (rx) Par. S. Phlm. 

Bll. 10 (1873) 72-. 
. Himstedt, F. [1884] Freiburg B. 8 

(1885) 252-. 

. Elsas, A. A. Ps. C. 37 (1889) 675-. 
. Dvorak, V. Z. Instk. 11 (1891) 423-; 

12 (1892) 197-. 



Interrupters 6040 

automatic, improved. Sayen, H. L., & Will- 
young, E. G. Franklin I. J. 143 (1897) 231-. 
, and induction experiment. Berlin, A. 

[1866] Strasb. Mm. S. Sc. 6 (1866-70) 

(livr. 1) No. 4, 1-. 
, theory. Dvorak, V. A. Ps. C. 44 (1891) 

344-. 
best. Walter, . Fschr. Eontgenstr. 3 (1899- 

1900) 115. 
. Albers-Schonberg, . Fschr. Eontgenstr. 

3 (1899-1900) 116-. 
CaldwelPs, change of level of liquid. Trouton, 

F. T. Elect. 43 (1899) 596-. 
constant period. Bartoli, A. Em. E. Ac. 

Line. Mm. 12 (1882) 414- . 
double-acting. Laborde, (abbe) . Moigno 

Cosmos 8 (1856) 536-. 
Dueretet's, for Tesla currents. Fonvielle, W. 

de. Lum. Elect. 44 (1892) 122. 
for dynamic multiplier. Page, C. G. Silliman 

J. 32 (1837) 354-. 
effect of self induction. Dvorak, V. Wien 

Ak. Sb. 98 (1890) (Ab. 2a) 55-. 
. Ruhmer, E. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 

166-, 211-. 
electrolytic. Arsonval, A. d'. C. E. 128 

(1899) 529-. 

. Ernecke, F. Cztg. Opt. 20 (1899) 151-. 
. Bailey, B. F. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 872-. 
, effect of change of pressure. Le Roy, A. 

C. B. 128 (1899) 925. 
, for weak currents. Rzeivuski, A. von. A. 

Ps. 1 (1900) 614-. 
electromagnetic hammer. Gruel, C. A. Dingier 

89 (1843) 274-. 
, mercury. Villard, P. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1898) 67*-. 
, string. Arms, L. A. Ps. C. 66 (1898) 

1177- ; 67 (1899) 682. 
electrotome. Wright, T. Sturgeon A. Electr. 

5 (1840) 30-. 
invariable. Barnard, F. A. P. Am. As. P. 

(1859) 208-. 
for laboratories. Dessauer, F. Z. Elektch. 

(1898-99) 357-. 

large coils. Wadsworth, F. L. 0. Am. J. 
Sc. 48 (1894) 496-; Z. Instk. 15 (1895) 
248-. 

currents. Webster, A. G. Am. J. Sc. 3 

(1897) 383-. 
Lecoultre's. Roux, F. Laus. S. Vd. Bll. 24 

(1888) 164-. 
liquid. Simon, H. T. A. Ps. C. 68 (1899) 

860-. 

(Simon). Ziegler, W. A. Ps. C. 69 (1899) 
718-. 

, frequency. Ruhmer, E. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 
345-; Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 824-. 

, improved form. Swinton, A. A. C. Nt. 
60 (1899) 226-. 

magnetic. Bird, G. Ph. Mg. 12 (1838) 18-. 

. Brunnow, F. (rx) Briinnow As. Not. 
(No. 19) (1860) 145-. 



755 



6040 Mercury Interrupters 



MERCURY INTERRUPTERS. 

Foucault, L. C. B. 43 (1856) 44-. 

Leconte, F. Brux. S. Sc. A. 17 (1893) (Pt. 1) 

97-. 

Hofmeister, F. A. Ps. C. 62 (1897) 379-. 
Levy, M. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 717-. 
Caldwell, E. W. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 803. 
in atmosphere of hydrogen. Menges, C. L. R. 

E. A. Ps. C. 23 (1884) 156-. 
to avoid oxidation. Kirn, C. A. Ps. C. 22 

(1884) 135-. 
centrifugal. Hirschmann, W. A. Fschr. Bont- 

genstr. 2 (1898-99) 187-. 
improvement of Hofmeister's. Hauswaldt, H. 

A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 479-. 
for large Buhmkorff coils. Ducretet, E., & 

Lejeune, L. C. B. 124 (1897) 1342- ; Par. 

S. Ps. Se. (1897) 147-. 
mercury jet. Kintner, S. M. Nt. 61 (1899- 

1900) 590. 
rapid. Lucas, J. D. Brux. S. Big. As. Bll. 2 

(1896-97) 119-. 
with separate motor. Marie, . Toul. Ac. 

Sc. Bll. 2 (1899) 209-. 

modification. Felici, R. N. dim. 13 (1875) 

266-. 
Neeff's wheel. Neeflf], . Pogg. A. 36 

(1835) 352-. 

, modification for Buhmkorff coils. 
Ducretet, E. C. B. 92 (1881) 1228. 

pendulum-. Helmholtz, H. [1869] Heidi. 

Vh. Nt. Md. 5 (1871) 27-. 
, Helmholtz's. Edelmann, M. T. A. Ps. 3 

(1900) 274-. 
rapid. Margot, C. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 3 (1897) 

554- ; A. Tel. 24 (1898) 185-. 

vibrator. Guilloz, . Par. S. Ps. Se\ 
(1898) 72*-. 

theory and construction. Dvorak, V. Z. Instk. 
10 (1890) 43-. 



WEHNELT INTERRUPTER. 

Wehnelt, A. [1899] Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 

76-; Erlang. Ps. Md. S. Sb. 31 (1900) 

92-. 
Federico, R., <& Baccei, P. Em. B. Ac. Line. 

Ed. 8 (1899) (Son. 2) 347-. 
Corbino, 0. M. Bm. B. Ac. Line. Ed. 8 

(1899) (Sem. 2) 352-. 
Humphreys, W. J. Ps. Bv. 9 (1899) 30-. 
Lucas, (rev. pere) . Brux. S. Sc. A. 23 

(1899) (Pt. 1) 74-. 

Lungo, C. del. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 31 (1899) 89-. 
Amaduzzi, L. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 31 (1899) 121-. 
McClenahan, H. Science 9 (1899) 753. 
Pellat, H. C. E. 128 (1899) 815-. 
RicJiarz, . [1899] N.-Vorp. Mt. 31 (1900) 

xrx-. 
Rossi, A. G. [1899] Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 34 

(1898) 508- or 666-. 



. 

, . [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 398. 
er, E. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 324-. 



Wehnelt Interrupter 6040 

Rothe, E. C. E. 129 (1899) 675-; Par. S. Ps. 

Se\ (1899) 175-. 
Spies, P., & Wehnelt, A. D. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1899) 

53-. 
Swinton, A. A. C. I. Elect. E. J. 28 (1899) 

317- ; Nt. 59 (1898-99)394. 
Macintyre, J. Nt. 59 (1898-99) 438-. 
Strutt, R. J. Nt. 59 (1898-99) 510. 
Thompson, S. P. (et alii). Elect. 42 (1899) 

731, etc.; 43 (1899) 277. 
Thomson, E. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 528- ; Elect. 

42 (1899) 870-. 

Trqje, . Konigsb. Schr. 40 (1899) [41]. 
Villard, P. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1899) 28*-. 
Webster, W. Nt. 59 (1898-99) 510. 
Lampa, A. Wien Ak. Sb. 109 (1900) (Ab. 2a) 

891-. 

Meller, . 
Ruhmer 
action. Simon, H. T. Gott. Nr. (1899) 171- ; 

A. Ps. C. 68 (1899) 273-. 

. Voller, A., & Walter, B. A. Ps. C. 68 
(1899) 526-. 

, irregularity. Ruhmer, E. Elekttech. Z. 
21 (1900) 331-. 

adjustable. Price, W. A. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 

549. 
on alternate current circuits. Hanchett, G. T. 

Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 802-. 
and Caldwell's. La-matte, M. Eclair. Elect. 

21 (1899) 42-, 127-, 180-, 250-. 
circuits, measurements of currents, etc. Han- 

chett, G. T. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 719-. 
comparison of various forms. Turpain, A. 

Bordeaux S. Sc. PV. (1899-1900) 8- ; C. E. 

130 (1900) 409-. 
experiments. Konig, W. [1899] Frkf. a. M. 

Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1899-1900) 71-. 

. Lecher, E. Wien Ak. Sb. 108 (1899) (Ab. 
2a) 677-. 

. Macintyre, J. Nt. 60 (1899) 8. 

. Pacher, G. Yen. I. At. (1898-99) (Pt. 2) 

improvements. Carpentier, J. C. E. 128 

(1899) 987-. 
increase of mean current by inclusion of 

primary circuit. Pellat, H. C. B. 128 

(1899) 732-. 
modification. Simon, H. T. Elekttech. Z. 20 

(1899) 440-. 

. Pallich, J. von. Wien Az. 37 (1900) 
119-. 

resistance. Ruhmer, E. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 303-. 

. Heinke, C. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 334-, 
spectroscopic observations. Hoppe, E. Elekt- 

tech. Z. 21 (1900) 507-. 
temperature variation of period. Abt, A. 

Orv.-Termt. Ets. (Termt. Szak) (1899) 73-, 

(Rev.) 12-. 
theory. Blondel, A. C. B. 128 (1899) 877-. 

. Bary, P. C. B. 128 (1899) 925-. 

. Armagnat, H. C. E. 128 (1899) 988-. 

. Ruhmer, E. Elekttech. Z. 20 
456-. 

use for X-rays. Neumann, . [1899] Danzig 
Schr. 10 (1899-1902) (Hefte 2 & 3) xxv-. 



756 



6043 



Wireless Telegraph Apparatus. Coherers 



6043 



6043 Wireless Telegraph 
Apparatus. Coherers. 

(See also 6615.) 
COHEKEKS. 

(Metallic powders, effect of varying electrical 

conditions.) Branly, E. C. E. Ill (1890) 

785-, 934 ; Lum. Elect. 40 (1891) 301-, 506-; 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1891) 135-. 
(Insulators, variation of resistance by electric 

waves.) Branly, ^. C. E. 112 (1891) 90-; 

J. de Ps. 1 (1892) 459-. 
(Metallic powders, resistance.) Turner, D. B. 

A. Ep. (1892) 637; Sc. S. Arts T. 13 (1894) 

429-. 

( , action of electric waves on films con- 
taining.) Minchin, G. M. [1893] L. Ps. S. 

P. 12 (1894) 455-; Ph. Mg. 37 (1894) 90-. 
Lodge, 0. J. [1893] L. Ps. S. P. 12 (1894) 

461- ; Ph. Mg. 37 (1894) 94-. 
(Tubes of filings, use in studying interference 

of electric waves.) Branly, E. J. de Ps. 4 

(1895) 273-. 
(Electric vibrations, detection and registration.) 

Popov, A. S. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 28 (Ps.) (1896) 

1-; Elect. Ev. 47 (1900) 845-, 882-. 
Dorn, E. A. Ps. C. 66 (1898) 146-. 
Rovelli, C. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 333-. 
Dell, A. G. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 758. 
Lodge, 0. [1899] E. I. P. 16 (1902) 72-. 
Campanile, F., <& Ciomme, G. Ps. Z. 1 (1900) 

356-. 

Lamotte, M. Eclair. Elect. 22 (1900) 481-. 
Tissot, C. C. E. 130 (1900) 902-. 
Trowbridge, A. [1900] Nt. 63 (1900-01) 156-. 
action. Hull, G. F. Asps. J. 6 (1897) 141-. 
. Gulik, D. van. A. Ps. C. 66 (1898) 136-. 
. Lockwood, M. H., & Wheeler, E. B. 

Science 9 (1899) 624-. 
. Malagoli, R. N. Cim. 10 (1899) 279-. 
. Harden, J. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 272-. 
. Mizuno, T. Ph. Mg. 50 (1900) 445-. 
of electric waves. Eicharz, . [1898] N.- 

Yorp. Mt. 30 (1899) xii-. 
low potential currents. Marcucci, S, N. 

Cim. 11 (1900) 173-. 
sound waves. Drago, E. Catania Ac. 

Gioen. At. 13 (1900) Mem. 18, 16 pp. 
waves. Leppin, 0. A. Ps. C. 65 (1898) 

885- 
applications, practical. Brown, A. C. Elect. 

40 (1898) 91-. 
of carbon. Jer vis- Smith, F. J. Elect. 40 (1898) 

84-. 
carbon in. Tommasina, T. C. E. 130 (1900) 

904-. 
circuit effected by means of ultra-violet rays. 

Anon. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 739. 
conductivity. Branly, E. Ev. Quest. Sc. 43 

(1898) 353-. 
, alteration by electric influences. Fromme, 

C. A. Ps. C. 58 (1896) 96-. 



conductivity of discontinuous sul 

Branly, E. C. E. 118 (1894) 348-; 125 

(1897) 939-, 1163-. 

contact resistance and radiation. Wilsing, J., 
& Scheiner, J. A. Ps. C. 59 (1896) 782-. 

experiments. Blondel, . As. Fr. C. E. (1898) 
(Pt. 2) 216-. 

. Veillon, H. [1898] Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 5 

(1898) 416- ; Basel Vh. 12 (1900) 126-. 

. Rovida, . Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 6 (1898) 

657-. 
formed by polarised electrodes. Tissot, C. C. 

E. 130 (1900) 1386-, 1494. 
of gold and platinum filings. Branly, E. C. 

E. 127 (1898) 1206-. 
for Hertzian waves. Swinton, A. A. C.(et alii). 

Elect. 40 (1898) 133, etc. 
history. Lodge, 0. Elect. 40 (1898) 87-. 
increase of resistance due to electric waves. 

Branly, E. C. E. 130 (1900) 1068-. 
liquid, and mobile conductors. Appleyard, R. 

L. Ps. S. P. 15 (1897) 72-; Ph. Mg. 43 (1897) 

, phenomena. Tommasina, T. C. E. 128 

(1899) 1092-. 

with magnetic action, simple arrangement. Tur- 

pain, A. As. Fr. C. E. (1900) (Pt. 2) 416-. 
magnetic breaking of chains of filings. Tom- 
masina, T. G. E. 128 (1899) 1225-. 
with metallic balls. Branly, E. C. E. 128 

(1899) 1089-. 
metallic contacts, moist, action of electric waves 

on. Aschkinass, E. A. Ps. C. 67 (1899) 

842-. 
with metallic discs. Branly, E. J. de Ps. 8 

(1899) 274-. 
metallic powders, action of electric waves. 

Popov, A. S. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 27 (Ps.) (1895) 

259-. 
, . Vicentini, G. Yen. I. At. 

(1895-96) 228-. 
, . Malagoli, R. N. Cim. 8 

(1898) 109-. 
, cause of variation of conductivity. Sun- 

dorph, T. A. Ps. C. 68 (1899) 594-. 
microscopic observation. Arons, L. A. Ps. C. 

65 (1898) 567-. 
model. Vassura, G. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 32 (1900) 

17-. 
phenomena of adhesion under electric current. 

Tommasina, T. C. E. 127 (1898) 1014-. 
priority question. Calzecchi, T. N. Cim. 6 

(1897) 214-. 

quantitative investigation. Trowbridge, A. 

Am. As. P. (1899) 103-. 
self -recovering. Lawrence, A. E. Science 8 

(1898) 836. 

. Bose, J. C. [1899] E. S. P. 65 (1900) 

166-. 
sensitive form. Tommasina, T. C. E. 128 

(1899) 666-. 

sensitiveness. Blondel, A., & Dobkevitch, G. 

C. E. 130 (1900) 1123-, 1220. 
telephone-. Tommasina, T. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 

840. 
theory. Blochmann, R. D. Nf. Vh. 

(Th. 2, Halfte 1) 75. 
. Tommasina, T. C. E. 129 (1899) 40-. 



757 



6045 



Alternators 

Ps. 



6045 

Potter, A. Eclair. Elect. 



theory Guthe, K. E., & Trowbridge, A. Ps. Armature reaction. 

Evil (1900) 22-. 24(1900)133-. 

and experiments. Aschkinass, E. A. Ps. -- of unipolar alternators. Kando, K. von. 

C. 66 (1898) 284-. Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 759-. 
use in wave-length measurement. Drude, P. 

D. Nf. Vh. (1898) (Th. 2, Halfte 1) 80. COUPLING. 

Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 43 (1892) 551-. 
Blondel, A. Lum. Elect. 47 (1893) 34-, 85-. 
Perot, A. C. B. 131 (1900) 377-. 



Hertzian waves, apparatus for. Ducretet, E. 

Par. S. Ps. Se. (1897) 65*-. 
Localisation of dispatches, apparatus for. 

Jegou, P. C. B. 131 (1900) 882-. 
Magnetic detector of electric waves, and appli- 
cations. Rutherford, E. [1896] Phil. Trans. 

(A) 189 (1897) 1-. 
Polyphase signalling apparatus for vessels. 

Querengdsser, F. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 

602-. 
Eeceiver for Hertzian waves. Jervis- Smith, F. 

J. Nt. 60 (1899) 436. 
, Marconi, history. Tolomei, G. Ev. Sc. 

Ind. 29 (1897) 232-. 
, simplification. Eupp, H. Elekttech. Z. 

19 (1898) 237-. 
Eelay, Guarini. Anon. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 32 

(1900) 2-. 
, , defects. Guarini, E., <& Poncelet, F. 

C. E. 131 (1900) 581-. 

Eepeater, Guarini. Anon. Elect. Ev. 45 (1899) 

749-. 
, , use. Guarini, E. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 32 

(1900) 233-. 

6045 Alternators. 
(See also 6460.) 

Allard, E. (et alii). C. E. 95 (1882) 806-. 
Kennedy, E. Tel. J. 22 (1888) 596-, 618-, 644-, 

701-. 

Kapp, G. I. CE. P. 97 (1889) 1-. 
Meyer, 0. E. Bresl. Schl. Gs. Jbr. (1892) (Ab. 

2) 18-. 
Hopkinson, J., & Wilson, E. [1895] Phil. 

Trans. (A) 187 (1897) 229 ~- 
Picou, E. V. Eclair. Elect. 3 (1895) 506-. 
Goldsborough, W. E. Ps. Ev. 3 (1896) 477-. 
Alternating currents, commutation. Jackson, 

D. C. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 71. 
from Gramme armature. Patten, F. J. 

Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 787-. 

, induction dynamos as generators or 
receivers of. Leblanc, M. C. E. 127 (1898) 
813-. 

, laboratory experiments and commercial 

tests. Townsend, F. [1900] Sch. Mines 

Q. N. Y. 22 (1901) 16-. 
, theory, in re 2 machines connected to 

same circuit. Hopkinson, J. Tel. E. J. 13 

(1884)496-; 14(1885) 184. 
Armature current, effect on wave form. Baum, 

F. G. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 263. 

processes. Friese, E. M. Elekttech. Z. 15 
(1894) 89-, 101-, 134-, 153-. 

reaction. Blondel, A. C. E. 129 (1899) 
586-. 

(Blondel). Potier, A. C. E. 129 (1899) 

637-. 



Parallel Coupling. 

Stern, G. Tel. J. 22 (1888) 287-. 
Mordey,W.M. [1893] I. Elect. E. J. 22 (1894) 

442-. 

Kapp, G. Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 488-. 
Mordey, W. M. [1894] I. Elect. E. J. 23 

(1895) 260-, 293-. 

Vietze, H. Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 439. 
Michalke, C. Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 573-. 
Meyer, G. W. [1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 167. 
Sahulka, J. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 445-. 
Frisch, G. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 676. 
Gorges, H. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 188-. 
Stott, H. G. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 980. 
at constant potential. Chevrier, G. Eclair. 

Elect. 22 (1900) 401-. 
diagrams. Guilbert, C. F. Eclair. Elect. 20 

(1899) 321-. 
effect of governors. Wilson, L. I. Elect. E. 

J. 28 (1899) 389-. 
equations. Guilbert, F. Lum. Elect. 46 (1892) 

175-. 
graphic treatment. Eiinington, E. C. Elect. 

Ev. 34 (1894) 422-. 
pendular motions. Boucherot, P. Eclair. 

Elect. 21 (1899) 121-. 
. Kapp, G. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 

134-. 
and series. Whitwell, A. Elect. Ev. 33 (1893) 

498-. 
. Leblanc, M. Eclair. Elect. 21 (1899) 

328-. 

synchronisation. Blondel, A. Lum. Elect. 45 

(1892) 351-, 415-, 465-, 557-, 615- ; 46 

(1892) 151-, 308-, 360-, 409-, 456-. 
. Gardner, M. E., <& Howgrave-Graham, E. 

P. I. Elect. E. J. 28 (1899) 658-. 
, Hutin and Leblanc method. Guilbert, F. 

Lum. Elect. 46 (1892) 601-. 
, . . Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 

46 (1892) 651-. 
, moment of inertia in. Boucherot, P. Lum. 

Elect. 46 (1892) 512-. 
theory. Boucherot, P. Lum. Elect. 45 (1892) 

201-, 260-, 501-. 



Curve, current-, influence of load. Foppl, A. 

Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 85. 
, influence of form on efficiency of motor. 

Kolben, E. Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 698. 
, short circuit. Eothert, A. Elekttech. Z. 

20 (1899) 619-, 637-, 657-, 893. 
, . Goldgchmidt, E. Elekttech. Z. 20 

(1899) 670 ; 21 (1900) 30. 



758 



6045 Alternators 

Curve, short circuit. Ziehl, E. Elekttech. 

Z. 20 (1899) 724-. 
Curves, potential- and current-. Rnssler, G., & 

Wedding, W. Elect. 33 (1894) 523-, 539-. 
Design. Behn-Eschenburg, H. Elect. 35 (1895) 

424-. 
Diabase currents, installation. Hanappe, S. 

Eclair. Elect. 12 (1897) 340- ; 13 (1897) 65-, 

489-, 539-, 590-. 
, properties and applications. Rossi, A. 

G. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 33 (1897) 445- or 647-. 

generators, advantages. Girgensohn, H. 
[1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 280. 

Distribution by alternators. Biggs, C. H. W., 
<& Snell, W. H. B. A. Up. (1887) 878. 

. Kennedy, R. Tel. J. 20 (1887) 247-, 

278-, 298-, 320-, 346-, 369-; Elect. Ev. 30 
(1892) 506-, 568-, 631-, 661- ; 33 (1893) 444-, 
465-, 524-, 580-, 608-, 635-, 661-. 

. Crocker, F. B. Sch. Mines Q. N. 

Y. 21 (1900) 93-. 

E.M.F. of alternators on open circuit. Haw- 
kins, C. C. Elect. Ev. 47 (1900) 655-, 691-, 
857-. 

waves, shape. Herdt, L. A., <& Archibald, 
E. M. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 106. 

FORMS OF ALTERNATORS. 

with 10,000 to 20,000 alternations per second. 
Tesla, . Par. S. Ps. Se. (1892) 58-. 

asynchronous. Benischke, G. Elekttech. Z. 
16 (1895) 368-. 

compensated revolving field, automatic adjust- 
ment of potentials. Reist, H. G. [1899] Sc. 
Abs. 3 (1900) 278. 

constant voltage, compound winding. Leblanc, 
M. C. B. 127 (1898) 716-. 

Henrion's. Anon. A. Cond. Pon. Chauss. 41 

(1897) 660-. 

inductor-, calculation of iron-losses. Behn- 
Eschenburg, H. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 21-. 

, magnetic leakage. Guilbert, C. F. Sc. 
Abs. 3 (1900) 756. 

Jablochkoffs. Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 3 
(*1881) 348-. 

large, design. Kennedy, R. Elect. Ev. 35 
(1894) 371. 

, . Heyland, A. Elect. Ev. 47 (1900) 
895-, 931-, 971-. 

rapid. Salomons, (Sir) D. [1892] I. Elect. 
E. J. 21 (1893) 709-. 

self-exciting, theory. Brillouin, M. Eclair. 
Elect. 11 (1897) 49-. 

, unipolar. Routin, J. L. Eclair. Elect. 14 

(1898) 19-. 

without self-induction. Guilbert, F. Lum. 
Elect. 49 (1893) 51-. 

sine curve. Steinmetz, C. P. (et alii). Elect. 
33 (1894) 497-, etc. 

with stationary windings. Arnold, E. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 16 (1895) 136-. 

vibrating wire-. Honda, K., <& Shimizu, S. 
Am. J. Sc. 10 (1900) 64-. 

Wilde, analysis of curves. Frith, J. Manch. 
Lt. Ph. S. Mm. & P. 8 (1894) 151-. 



Converters and Rectifiers 6047 

Frequency, exact control. Zenneck, J. A. 

Ps. C. 68 (1899) 365-. ' 
, method of doubling. Weaver, W. D. Elect. 

Ev. 33 (1893) 228-. 
, standard. Stilwell, L. B. I. Elect. E. J. 

28 (1899) 364-. 
Magnetic flux, variations. Rechniewski, W. C. 

Lum. Elect. 31 (1889) 101-. 
Multiphase dynamos , armature reaction. Korda, 

D. [1894-95] Mth. Termt. Ets. 13 (1895) 

16- ; Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 499-. 
, . Behrend, B. Elekttech. Z. 16 

(1895) 556. 
electric power transmission. Dixon, W. [1897] 

Fed. I. Mn. E. T. 14 (1898) 328-. 
Oscillations. Blondel, A. Eclair. Elect. 21 

(1899) 215-. 
Phase regulation. Imhoff, C. L. Elekttech. 

Z. 15 (1894) 519-, 611- . 
. Dolivo-Dobrowolsky, M. von. Elekttech. 

Z. 15 (1894) 555-. 

. Arnold, E. Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 579-. 
Photograph, synchronous. Anon. Elect. Ev. 

35 (1894) 192-. 

, . Kennedy, R. Elect. Ev. 35 (1894) 220- . 
Potential fall. Behn-Eschenburg, H. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 13 (1892) 651-. 
. Behrend, B. A. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 

837-. 

. Arnold, E. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 893-. 

. Heyland, . Elekttech. Z. 20 



, influence on calculations. Fischer- 
Hinnen, J. Eclair. Elect. 13 (1897) 156. 

Sinusoidal currents, elimination of higher 

harmonics in. Hess, A. Lum. Elect. 48 

(1893) 501-. 
Sinusoids, deformation. Boucherot, P. Lum. 

Elect. 47 (1893) 551-. 
, influence of iron on. Boucherot, P. Lum. 

Elect. 48 (1893) 206-. 
Testing. Parshall, H. F. I. CE. P. 130 (1897) 

247-. 

and working. Mordey, W. M. [1893] I. 
Elect. E. J. 22 (1894) 116-, 164-. 

Theory. Joubert,J. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1880) 167-. 
. Hopkinson, J. E. S. P. 42 (1887) 167-. 

and experiments. Domallp, K. Prag Ceske 
Ak. Fr. Jos. Ez. (Trida 2) 1 (1892) Art. 35, 
30pp. 

formulae. Lucas, F. C.B.98(1884) 670-. 

Triphase current installation. Hanappe, S. 
Eclair. Elect. 11 (1897) 193-, 256-, 298-. 

generators, theory. Whitwell, A. Elect. Bv. 
36 (1895) 768-, 797. 



6047 Converters and Rectifiers. 

CONVEETEES. 

Nipkow, P. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 538-. 
Sellon, R. P. Elect. 20 (1888) 623-, 733-; 

21 (1888) 107-. 
Thompson, S. P. L. Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 366-; 

Ph. Mg. 26 (1888) 157- ; Lum. Elect. 33 

(1889) 479-. 



VOL. III. 



759 



6047 Converters and Rectifiers Magneto -Electric Machines 6050 

(5000 watts.) Hanappe, S. Eclair. Elect. 

(1896) 97-. , 
Routin, J. L. Eclair. Elect. 11 (1897) 531-. 



Janet, P. C. B. 127 (1898) 351- 

Thompson, S. P. [1898] I. Elect. E. J. 27 

(1899) 651-, 694-. 
Woodbridge, J. E., & Child, C. T. Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 102, 295-. 

Child, C. T. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 732-. 
Eborall, A. C. Elect. Bv. 45 (1899) 828-, 

871-, 951-, 993-. 

Volta, . Gen. Civ. 34 (1898-99) 297-. 
Wilson, E. I. Elect. E. J. 28 (1899) 367-. 
action. Aliamet, . Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 576. 
constant-potential. Davies, F. W. Elect. Bv. 

47 (1900) 614-. 
demonstration of varying currents in. Cald- 

well, F. C. Am. As. P. (1899) 93. 
diphase, and regulation of converters. Wilson, 

E. I. Elect. E. J. 29 (1900) 409-. 
effect of armature reactions. Owens, R. B., 

Hawksworth, D. W., <& Doubrava, H. W. 

[1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 101-. 
efficiency. Duncan, L. Tel. J. 26 (1890) 18. 
experiments. Grier, A. G., <& Hyde, J. C. 

[1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 109-. 
high tension, interrupters for. Rochefort, 0. 

Par. Ing. Civ. Mm. (1898) (Ft. 3) 496-. 
voltage, with electric valve. Villard, P. 

Par. S. Ps. S6. (1900) 197-. 
mathematical discussion. Marchena, E. de. 

[1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899), 109. 
polymorphic. Hospitalier, E. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1894) 203-. 
Schuckert. Hanappe, S. Eclair. Elect. 8 

J.896) 145-. 
storage with long-distance transmission at 
Hartford. Robb, W. L. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 
795-. 
table of values. Steinmetz, C. P. [1898] Sc. 

Abs. 2 (1899) 325. 
as tramway generators. Pio, C. Sc. Abs. 2 

(1899) 704. 

for tramway sub-stations. Eborall, A. C. Sc. 

Abs. 3 (1900) 828-. 
use. Rechniewski, W. C. Elect. 28 (1892) 

482-. 

Bectification of discharge of coils by Crookes's 
tube. Villard, P. C. B. 128 (1899) 994-. 

Bectifiers, electrolytic. Pollak, C. C. B. 124 
(1897) 1443-. 

, , and electric valves. Blondin, J. Eclair. 
Elect. 14 (1898) 293-. 

TRANSFORMATION OF ALTERNATING 

CURRENTS INTO CONTINUOUS 

CURRENTS. 

(and vice versa.) Perrin, A. Lum. Elect. 39 

(1891) 109-. . 

Ulbricht, . Giving. 38 (1892) 35- 
Pollak, C. C. B. 116 (1893) 1512-. 
Thomson, J. H. Elect. 32 (1894) 172-. 
Franke, R. D. Nf. Vh. (1897) (Th. 2, Halfte 1) 

66. 

(and vice versa.) Child, C. T. Sc. Abs. 1 
518-. 



Janet, P. C. B. 126 (1898) 1785-. 
Kallir, L. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 483-. 
(and vice versa.) Dgguisne, C. Frkf. a. M. 

Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1898-99) 49-. 
Grossmann, G. Ziir. Ps. Gs. Jbr. (1899 & 1900) 

Hutin and Leblanc method. Guilbert,F. Lum. 

Elect. 47 (1893) 51-. 
Pollak system. Jacquin, C. Lum. Elect. 50 

(1893) 54-. 
use of aluminium. Graetz,L. [1897] Munch. 

Ak. Sb. 27 (1898) 223-; Z. Elektch. (1897- 

98) 67-. 
. Campetti, A. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 34 

(1898) 90- or 174-. 
. Dina, A. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 31 

(1898) 642-. 
. Strzalkovskij, V. [1899] Kazan 

S. Ps.-Mth. Bll. 9 (1900) (Prot.) 40-. 
(Gratz's method). Mayrhofer, G. 

Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 913-, 926-, 989. 
(Mayrhofer). Wehnelt, A. Elekttech. 

Z. 21 (1900) 989. 
chromium cell. Morgan, J. L. R., <& 

Duff, W. A. Am. C. S. J. 22 (1900) 331-. 



Transformation of alternating currents into 
double frequency. Zenneck, J. A. Ps. C. 
69 (1899) 858-. 

continuous currents into alternating. 
Carhart,H. S. [1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 105. 

by continuous current dynamo. 

Trowbridge, J., d Hayes, H. V. Am. J. Sc. 

29 (1885) 377. 

- currents of low frequency, 

apparatus for. Patten, (Lt.) F. J. Nt. 49 

(1893-94) 253-. 
, . Swing, 

J. A. Nt. 49 (1893-94) 317. 

low voltage currents into high voltage. 
Holtz, W. A. Ps. C. 155 (1875) 639-. 

monophase currents into triphase. Korda, 

D. G. B. 119 (1894) 61-. 

triphase currents into diphase. Wat- 
mough, P. G. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 792. 

monophase. Lefevre, J. Sc. 

Abs. 1 (1898) 103-. 



6050 Magneto-Electric Machines. 

Pixii, . A. C. 50 (1832) 322-. 

(Pixii's experiment.) Ampere, A. M. A. C. 

51 (1832) 76-. 
(Magnetic galvanism, new mode of developing.) 

Emmet, J. P. Silliman J. 24 (1833) 78-; 

25 (1834) 269-. 
(Pixii's machine.) Jackson, C. T. Silliman 

J. 24 (1833) 146-. 

Negro, S. dal. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 4 (1834) 67-. 
(Bevolving keeper magnet for producing electric 

currents.) Sax ton, J. Franklin I. J. 13 

(1834) 155-. 
(Saxton's machine, experiments.) Green, J. 

Franklin I. J. 13 (1834) 219-. 
Saxton, J. (vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 9 (1836) 360-. 



760 



6050 Magneto-Electric Machines 

Sturgeon A. Electr. 1 (1836- 
D. Nf. Vsm. B. (1837) 



6050 



Clarke, E. M. 

37) 145-. 
Ettingshausen, A. von. 

227-. 

Clarke, E. M. Silliman J. 33 (1838) 213-. 
Page, C. G. Silliman J. 34 (1838) 163-, 364- ; 

35 (1839) 252-; 37 (1839) 275-. 
Gibbs, 0. W. Sturgeon A. Electr. 5 (1840) 

395-. 
Scoresby, (Rev.) W. B. A. Bp. (1845) (pt. 2) 

Jacobi, M. H. [1846] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. fill. 5 

(1847) 97-. 
Leroux, F. P. C. K. 43 (1856) 802- ; A. C. 50 

(1857) 463-. 
Wilde, H. [1866] Phil. Trans. 157 (1867) 

89-. 

Ladd, W. E. S. P. 15 (1867) 404-. 
Jamin, J., <& Roger, G. C. B. 66 (1868) 1100- ; 

A. C. 17 (1869) 276-. 

Treve, (capit.) A. Bv. Mar. 23 (1868) 951-. 
RomiUy, de. C. B. 73 (1871) 726-. 
Gay, H. J. de Ps. 2 (1873) 390-. 
Mascart, E. E. N. J. de Ps. 6 (1877) 203-, 

297-. 

Demoget, A. Lum. Elect. 1 (*1879) 75-. 
Deprez, M. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1879) 92-. 
(International Exhibition.) Guerout, A. Lum. 

Elect. 4 (*1881) 229-. 
Heaviside, 0. Tel. E. J. 10 (1881) 271-. 
Joubert, J. Par. EC. Norm. A. 10 (1881) 

131-. 
Meidinger, J. H. (xn) Karlsruhe Nt. Vr. 

Vh. 8 (1881) 337-. 
Hospitalier, E. Bv. Sc. 3 (1882) 280-. 
Armature and break, new form. Ferguson, 

R. M. [1871] Edinb. B. S. P. 7 (1872) 

488-. 

for production of magneto-electric sparks. 
BSttger, R. Pogg. A. 34 (1835) 497-. 

, revolving, modification. Page, C. G. Silli- 
man J 36 (1839) 350-. 

rotations, power of current to control and 
synchronise. Wilde, H. [1868] Manch. 
Lt. Ph. S. P. 8 (1869) 62-. 

Circuits, magnetic. Elphinstone, W. B. F. 

(Lord), <& Vincent, G. W. E. S. P. 29 (1879) 

292-; 30(1880)287-. 
Clarke machine, commutator, modification. 

Barthelemy, A. C. B. 78 (1874) 1639-. 
Comparison with voltaic batteries. Sturgeon, 

W. [1836] B. S. P. 3 (1837) 412-. 
Construction. Stohrer, E. Pogg. A. 61 (1844) 

417-. 

. Petrina, F. A. Pogg. A. 64 (1845) 58-. 
, new. Siemens, W. Pogg. A. 101 (1857) 

271-. 
Continuous current machine. Lontin, D. Les 

Mondes 36 (1875) 530-. - 
. Niaudet-Breguet, A. Carl Bpm. 12 

(1876) 145-. 
Currents, continuity and strength. Sinsteden, 

- . Pogg. A. 92 (1854) 1-, 220-. 
, electromagnetic, interference. Delarive, 

A. B. A. Bp. (1837) (pt. 2) 27-. 
, induced. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.} Cherb. 

Mm. S. Sc. 8 (1861) 1-. , 



Currents, induced, influence of speed. Lenz, E. 

847-57] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. fill. 7 (1849) 
7-; 12 (1854) 46-; 16 (1858) 177-. 

, , produced by application of armatures to 
horse-shoe magnets, and newform of magneto- 
electric machine. Morse, W. R. Am. J. Sc. 
9 (1875) 386-. 

, magneto-electric. Peltier, A. Par. S. 
Phlm. PV. (1837) 94-. 

, . Dove, H. W. Berl. B. (1839) 163-. 

, . Majocchi, G. A. (n Adds.) Majocchi 
A. Fis. C. 9 (1843) 177-. 

, , chemical action. Marianini, S. A. 
Sc. Lomb. Ven. 2 (1832) 144-. 

: produced by action of magnets on coils and 
revolving plates, cause. Emmet, J. P. Silli- 
man J. 26 (1834) 23-. 

, rules for direction. Waltenhofen, A. von. 
Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 310-. 

Pouble action, machine with. Petrina, F. A. 
Baumgartner Z. 7 (1840) 65-. 

Effects, physiological, physical and chemical. 
Dove, H. W. Berl. B. (1838) 21-, 95-. 

Efficiency. Weber, W. E. Pogg. A. 61 (1844) 
431. 

Electromagnetic and magneto-electric ma- 
chines. Leroux, F. P. C. B. 45 (1857) 
414- ; (vni) Par. A. Cons. 1 (1861) 582-. 

, physical theory. Zantedeschi, F. 

A. Sc. Lomb. Ven. 14 (1845) 231-. 

E.M. F. and external resistance, relation. 
Deprez, M. C. E. 94 (1882) 1586- ; Lum. 
Elect. 6 (*1882) 557-. 

Experiments. Sturgeon, W. Ph. Mg. 5 (1834) 
376-. 

(Sturgeon). Watkins, F. Ph. Mg. 6 (*1835) 
239. 

(Watkins). Sturgeon, W. Ph. Mg. 7 (1835) 
231-. 

. Clarke, E. M. [1838] Electr. S. T. 

(1837-40) 73-. 
. Mascart, , <& Angot, A. J. de Ps. 7 

(1878) 79-, 363-. 
. Porter, A. J. de Ps. 2 (1883) 11-. 

with revolving magnet. Pacinotti, L. (vi 
Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. C. 8 (1842) 3-. 

Form, improved. Stratingh, S. Mulder Arch. 
4 (1836) 1-. 

with transverse electromagnetic armature. 
Pacinotti, A. N. Cim. 10 (1881) 198-. 

Improvements. Ritchie, W. Ph. Mg. 9 (1836) 
222-. 

Induction apparatus for producing light for 
reading theodolites in mines. Steinmetzer, 
J. Oestr. Z. Brgw. 36 (1888) 571-. 

phenomena produced by motion of magnetic 
or non -magnetic metals. Verdet, E. C. E. 
31 (1850) 267-; A. C. 31 (1851) 187-. 

Law. Joubert, J. C. B. 91 (1880) 468-, 

493-. 
Magneto-electric apparatus for chemical use. 

Pohl, G. F. Pogg. A. 34 (1835) 185-, 500-. 
production of induced currents of 

equal intensity in separate wires. Dove, 

H. W. Pogg. A. 43 (1838) 511-. 

exploder. Treve, (capit.) A. R. S. C. B. 
79 (1874) 1125-. 



761 



6050 Magneto-Electric Machines 

Magneto-electric exploder. Deprez, M. Lum. 

Elect. 5 (*1881) 417-. 
pile. Pacinotti, L. Amici G. Tosc. 1 (1840) 

506-. 

Magneto-electricity and electromagnetic ma- 
chines. Locke, J. Silliman J. 34 (1838) 

125-. 
electromagnetism, experiments. M., P. 

( vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 3 (1833) 18-. 
, new phenomenon. Clarke, E. M. (vi 

Adds.) Ph. Mg. 6 (1835) 169-. 
Magneto-electro-telluric battery. Palmieri, L. 

(vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. C. 17 (1845) 

21-. 
Zantedeschi, F. A. Sc. Lomb. Ven. 

14 (1845) 45-. 
, experiments. Palmieri, L. (vi Adds.) 

Majocchi A. Fis. C. 5 (1842) 145- ; 18 (1845) 

113-. 
Motor-induction machine. Voice, E. L. Tel. 

J. 14 (1884) 43-, 80. 
Multipolar machine. Desroziers, E. Par. S. 

Ps. Se. (1888) 222-. 

Newman's machine, modifications. Zante- 
deschi, F. A. Sc. Lomb. Ven. 12 (1842) 

73-. 
Power. Elias, P. Amst. Vs. Ak. 11 (1861) 



Besistance when in motion. 
C. B. 90 (1880) 1346-. 



Cabanellas, G. 



Dynamos 6060 

Transformation of motion. Bichat, E., & 
Brillouin, M. Nancy S. Sc. Bll. 6 (14 e Ann., 
1881) (1882) 33-. 

Use of electromagnetic coil. Pacinotti, A. N. 
Cim. 12 (1874) 140-. 

for electro-plating. Hamel, (Dr.) J. Erdm. 
J. Pr. C. 41 (1847) 244-. 

lighthouses. Holmes, F. H. Elect. 4 

(1863) 66-, 81-, 92-. 
. Lucas, F. A. Pon. Chauss. 10 

(1885) 47-. 
lighting. Berlioz, A. A. Tel. 5 (1862) 

505-. 
. Jamin, J., <& Roger, G. C. E. 66 

(1868) 37-. 
. Achard, A. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 64 

(1878) 332-. 

of steel magnet wound with wire. Sin- 
steden, W. A. Ps. C. 137 (1869) 289-. 



6060 Dynamos. 

(With ring armature, made in 1860.) Pacinotti, 

A. (x) N. Cim. 19 (1863) 378-. 
(Dynamo-magnetic machine.) Ladd, H'. B. 

A. Ep. 37 (1867) (Sect.) 13-. 
(Conversion of dynamical into electric force 

without permanent magnets.) Siemens, W. 

Berl. Mb. (1867) 55-. 



Eeversible machine. Delaurier,E. LesMondes / 1 1 \ Siemens, C. W. 



5 (1883) 290-. 
Sine inductor. Kohlrausch, F. (vm) A. Ps. 

C. (Jubelbd.) (1874) 290-. 
, Kohlrausch's, modification. Pfeiffer, E. 

A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 127-. 
Testing. Upton, F. E. Am. As. P. (1879) 

178-. 
Tests. Pickering, E. C., <& Strange, D. P. 

Am. Ac. P. 10 (1875) 432-. 
Theory. Jacobi, M. H. Pogg. A. 51 (1840) 

358-. 
. Lenz, H. F. E. [1841] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. 

Bll. 9 (*1842) 78-. 
. Jacobi, M. H. [1850] St. Pet. Ac. Sc. 

Bll. 9 (1851) 289-. 

(Saxton's machine). Koosen, J. H. Pogg. 
A. 87 (1852) 386-. 

(Wilde, Wheatstone and Siemens machines). 
Varley, C. F. E. S. P. 15 (1867) 403-. 

. Holt, C. V. [1868] Sk. Nf. F. 10 (1869) 
278-. 

(Jacobi). 
88-. 



Highton, H. C. N. 23 (1871) 
. Chavannes, E. Laus. S. Vd. Bll. 17 (1881) 



. Anon. [Lodge, 0. J.] Elect. 8 (*1882) 
57-, 73-, 89-, 117-, 133-, 148-, 169-, 204-, 
218-, 249-, 289-, 321- ; 9 (*1882) 5-, 53, 89, 
175-, 437- ; 10 (*1888) 5-, 30-, 78-, 245 ; 11 
(*1883) 366-, 390-, 462-; 14 (1885) 366-, 
410- ; 15 (1885) 210- ; 16 (1886) 333-. 

. Vaschy, . A. Tel. 12 (1885) 218-, 421- ; 
13 (1886) 35-, 225-, 401-. 

, attempt to deduce from principle of con- 
servation of energy. Ven, E. van der. Lum. 
Elect. 10 (*1883) 516-. 



E. S. P. 15 (1867) 367-. 

(Increase of power of magnet by action of 
currents induced by magnet itself.) Wheat- 
stone, (Sir) C. E. S. P. 15 (1867) 369-. 

(Theory of maintenance of electric currents by 
mechanical work without permanent mag- 
nets.) Maxwell, J. C. E. S. P. 15 (1867) 
397-. 

(Siemens's dynamo-electric machines, improve- 
ment.) Gaiffe, A. C. E. 67 (1868) 626. 

(Dynamo-magneto-electric machine.) Ladd, 
W. B. A. Ep. 38 (1868) (Sect.) 19-. 

(Dynamo-electric machines.) Schellen, H. 
Carl Epm. 4 (1868) 65-. 

(Wheatstone's dynamo-magnetic machine.) 
Secchi, A. Em. At. N. Line. 21 (1868) 
73-. 

(Dynamo-magneto-electric machines.) Co- 
dazza, G. Tor. At. Ac. Sc. 4 (1868-69) 
729-. 

(Dynamo-electric machine.) Pacinotti, A. (x) 
N. Cim. 3 (1870) 127-. 

(Gramme principle.) Pacinotti, A. C. E. 73 
(1871) 543-. 

(Dynamo-magnetic machine.) Provenzali, F. 
S. Em. At. N. Line. 25 (1872) 131-. 

Lontin, D. Les Mondes 36 (1875) 530-. 

Mascart, E. E. N. J. de Ps. 6 (1877) 203-, 
297-. 

Siemens, E. W. von. Berl. Ak. Mb. (1880) 
949-. 

Frolich, O. I. CE. P. 67 (1882) 530-. 

Hospitalier, E. Ev. Sc. 3 (1882) 280-. 

Potier, A. J. de Ps. 1 (1882) 389-. 

Thompson, S. P. [1882] V. Nost. Eng. Mg. 
28 (1883) 211-, 265-, 404-. 



762 



6060 Armatures 



Dynamos Armature Reaction 6060 



Abt, A. (xn) Orv.-Term. Ets. 8 (1883) (Nep. 

Eload.) 1-. 

Forbes, G. Franklin I. J. 118 (1884) 401-. 
Thompson, S. P. [1884] Bristol Nt. S. P. 4 

(1885) 151-. 

Rautenfeld, von. Eiga Cor.-Bl. 28 (1885) 

13. 
Rechniewski, W. C. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1885) 

197- ; Lum. Elect. 18 (1885) 481- ; 19 (1886 

12-, 99-, 187; 20 (1886) 391- ; 24 (1887) 

359-, 513-. 
Hopkinson, J., & Hopkinson, E. [1886] B. 

S. P. 40 (1886) 326-; Phil. Trans. 177 (1887) 

331-. 

Kapp, G. I. CE. P. 83 (1886) 123-. 
Stern, G. Elekttech. Z. 7 (1886) 14-. 
Gaisberg, S. (Frhr.) von. Elekttech. Z. 7 

(1886) 67-, 144. 

Guinand, . Elekttech. Z. 7 (1886) 409- ; 8 

(1887) 355-; 9 (1888) 347-. 

Hummel, . Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 353-. 
Reignier, C. Lum. Elect. 26 (1887) 51-, 104-. 
Rojas y Caballero Infante, F. de P. Madrid 

Ac. Ci. Mm. 12 (1887) xxi + 310pp. 
Denzler, A. Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 180-. 
Auerbach, F. Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 201-. 
Vogel, F. D. Nf. Tbl. (1888) 3-. 
Hillairet, . Lum. Elect. 33 (1889) 430-. 
Guilbert, F. Lum. Elect. 46 (1892) 373-. 
Hopkinson, J., <& Wilson, E. B. S. P. 51 

(1892) 49-. 
Engelmeyer, P. C. von. Dingier 292 (1894) 

10-. 

Richard, G. Eclair. Elect. 1 (1894) 299-. 
Bayers, W. B. Glasg. Ph. S. P. 25 (1894) 

196-. 

Boistel, E. Eclair. Elect. 4 (1895) 211-. 
De Grave, L. W. Fed. I. Mn. E. T. 9 (1895) 

195- ; 10 (1896) 434-. 
Mordey, W. M. [1897] I. Elect. E. J. 26 

(1898) 532-, 574-. 
Florio, F. N. dim. 10 (1899) 43-. 
Cornu, A. Par. Bur. Long. An. (1900) A, 

89pp. 
Action. Sinsteden, W. A. Ps. C. (Erganz.) 5 

(1871) 648-. 
. Hospitaller, E. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 

171-, 190-. 
. Achard, A. Arch. Sc. Ps. Nt. 9 (1883) 

450-. 

. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 8 (*1883) 28-. 
. Rechniewski, W. C. Lum. Elect. 32 (1889) 

101-. 
Actions, prejudicial. Mordey, W. M. Tel. E. 

J. 13 (1884) 160-. 
Analysis and synthesis. Cabanellas, G. As. 

Fr. C. E. (1886) (Pt. 2) 253-. 
Angle of lag, determination. Clark, A. L. 

Ph. Mg. 41 (1896) 369-. 

ARMATURES. 

Demoget, A. C. E. 70 (1870) 333-. 

Esson, W. B. Tel. J. 17 (1885) 347-, 406-, 

429. 
bolts, insulation. Boucherot, P. Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 626. 



bolts, non-insulation. Fischer- Hinnen, J. Sc. 

Abs. 1 (1898) 516. 
calculation. Isenthal, A. Elekttech. Z. 11 

(1890) 83-, 128. 
. Grassi, G. Nap. Ed. 37 (1898) 154-, 195-, 

354-; 39 (1900)81-. 
connections. Rice, A. L. Sc. Abs. 1 



*-, involutes for. Girault, P. [1899] Sc. 

Abs. 3 (1900) 220. 
drum-, windings. Weymouth, F. M. Elect. 

26 (1891) 8-, 37-, 72-, 100-, 134-, 165-, 

199-. 
, . Rice, A. L. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 

69-, 139. 
, , generation of current and E.M.F. in. 

Weymouth, F. M. Elect. 23 (1889) 273-. 
electric processes in. Frolich, 0. Elekttech. 

Z. 9 (1888) 497-, 509-, 534-. 
Gramme, action. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. 

Elect. 10 (*1883) 449-, 513-. 
, as inductor. Gravier, A. Lum. Elect. 

14 (1884) 21-. 
, best ratio of iron and copper. Kapp, G. 

[1883] Tel. E. J. 13 (*1884) 149-. 
, "dead wire." Hering, C. Tel. J. 20 

(1887) 464-. 
, (Bering). E., W. B. Tel. J. 20 

(1887) 490. 
, influence of quantity of iron. Gravier, A. 

Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 89-. 
, theory. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 

9 (*1883) 513-. 
, . Wolffers, F. de (jun.) let alii). Tel. 

J. 14 (1884) 35-, etc. 
, . E. (et alii). Tel. J. 14 (1884) 100, 

etc. 
, winding and arrangement of brushes. 

Hammerl, H. [1884] Wien Ak. Sb. 90 

(1885) (Ab. 2) 48-. 
irregular induction. Vogel, F. Elekttech. Z. 

11 (1890) 681-. 
and magnet coils, formulae. Hill, C. W. Elect. 

Ev. 37 (1895) 226-, 252-. 
multipolar, windings. Rice, A. L. Sc. Abs. 1 

(1898) 445. 
Pacinotti. Govi, G. Tel. E. J. 10 (1881) 

372-. 
Pacinotti-Gramme, induction. Isenbeck, A. 

(xn) Elekttech. Z. 4 (1883) 337-, 361-. 
polyphase, windings. Stone, J. P. [1898] Sc. 

Abs. 1 (1898) 291- ; 2(1899) 196. 

Reaction. 

Hanappe, S. Eclair. Elect. 3 (1895) 385-. 
Rothert, A. Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 575-. 
Kando, K. von. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 44. 
Picou, R. V. [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 129-. 
(Picou.) Potier, A. Eclair. Elect. 19 (1899) 

242-. 
and commutation. Hawkins, C. C. Elect. 

39 (1897) 13-, 39-, 79-, 113-, 135-, 176-, 

212-. 
compounding dynamos for. Thomson, E. Elect. 

35 (1895) 516-. 
of eddy currents. WestpJial, C. Elekttech. Z. 

18 (1897) 146-. 



763 



6060 Armatures 



Dynamos 



6060 



experiments. Betsey, C. A. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

571-. 
on field strength. Behrend, H. Elekttech. Z. 

13 (1892) 591-. 
. Bauch, E. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 

644-. 

magnetic field. Fischer- Hinnen, J. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 14 (1893) 53-, 104. 

prevention. Ryan, H. J., & Thompson, M. E. 

Elect. 34 (1895) 765-. 
theory. Swinburne, J. [1890] I. Elect. E. J. 

19 (1891) 90-, 170-, 218-, 243-. 

resistance, increase. Lissner, J. A. Elekttech. 
Z. 8 (1887) 388-. 

reversible regenerative. Sayers, W. B. [1895] 
I. Elect. E. J. 24 (1896) 122-, 163-. 

ring-, dimensions. Fricker, G. C. Elect. 16 
(1886) 449-, 472. 

, for multi polar high-tension machines. 
Baumgardt, L. Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 
331. 

self-exciting. Sayers, W. B. Elect. 31 (1893) 
563-. 

short-circuit, current distribution and energy- 
absorption. Roessler, G. Elekttech. Z. 19 
(1898) 750-, 766-. 

Siemens's. Pellerin, A. C. R. 77 (1873) 561-. 

, experiments. Feuerlein, 0. Elekttech. Z. 
6 (1885) 4-. 

, improvements. Trouve, G. C. R. 91 
(1880) 48-. 

, winding. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 13 
(1884) 81- ; 16 (1885) 116-. 

slotted. Dolivo-Dobrowolsky, M. von. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 18 (1897) 429-. 

(Dolivo-Dobrowolsky). Du Bois, H. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 18 (1897) 502. 

, apparent increase of air-gap due to. 

Guilbert, C. F. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 

99- 
, calculation of air-gap ampere-turns for. 

Sander, W. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 201-. 
, iron-losses. Breslauer, M. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 18 (1897) 80-. 
, dimensions. Baumgardt, L. Elekttech. 

Z. 14 (1893) 497-, 544; 

, distribution of lines of force in. Niet- 
hammer, F. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 766-. 
, . Dettmar, G. Elekttech. 

Z. 21 (1900) 944-. 
, mechanical stresses in. Heldt, P. M. Sc. 

Abs. 2 (1899) 699-. 
, reluctance of teeth in. Hird, W. B. I. 

Elect. E. J. 29 (1900) 933-. 
testing. Hall, W. H. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 641-. 
total loss of effect. Grau, A. Elekttech. Z. 

15 (1894) 594-; 16 (1895) 133-, 311-. 
(Grau). Lenz, K. Elekttech. Z. 

16 (1895) 97-, 311. 

tunnel-, magnetic field in. Baily, F. G. Elect. 

39 (1897) 810-. 
, . Du Bois, H. (et alii). Elect. 39 

(1897) 868 ; 40 (1898) 97-, etc. 
winding, new method. Abdank-Abakanowicz, 

B. Krk. Ak. (Mt.-Prz.) Rz. 12 (1884) 332-; 

Lum. Elect. 13 (1884) 41-. 



windings. Arnold, E. Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 

62-, 83-, 104-. 
. Hanchett, G. T. [1897] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

36-. 

Balancing and boosting systems. Wightman, 

R. Elect. Rv. 46 (1900) 339-. 
Boosters, direct current. Hill, C. W. Elect. 

Rv. 47 (1900) 35-. 
Calculations. Dietrich, W. Elekttech. Z. 8 

(1887) 100-. 
. Geist, E. H. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 

603-. 

. Behrend, H. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 63-. 
. Bedell, C. H. Franklin I. J. 133 (1892) 

497-. 

. Behrend, H. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 603-. 
. Blanchart, C. Rv. Un. Mines 34 (1896) 

113-, 241- ; 35 (1896) 1-. 
. Dick, E. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 344-. 
. Gorges, H. D. Mth. Vr. Jbr. 7 (1899) 

(Heft 1) 97-. 
and construction. Picou, R. V. Eclair. 

Elect. 3 (1895) 97-, 202-, 255-. 
design for single, polyphase, and con- 
tinuous currents. Arnold, E. Elekttech. Z. 

17 (1896) 730-, 774-. 

, formulas. Ferrini, R. Mil. I. Lomb. Rd. 

21 (1888) 671- ; 30 (1897) 754-. 
Carbon brush-holders. Scott, E. K. Elect. 

Rv. 42 (1898) 562-, 603-. 
Characteristics. Bosanquet, R. H. M. Elect. 

18 (1887) 37-. 

, calculation. Kapp, G. [1886] Tel. E. J. 

15 (1887) 518-, 551-, 581-. 
, , Kapp 's method. Fricker, G. C. [1886] 

Tel. E. J. 15 (1887) 655-. 
, , . Nipher, F. E. [1886] St. 

Louis Ac. T. 5 (1892) v-. 
, modification with iron gap. Brunswick, 

E. J. Eclair. Elect. 4 (1895) 411 -. 
Choice. Anney, J. P. Lum. Elect. 45 (1892) 

108-, 321-. 
Circuit, magnetic. Elphinstone, W. B. F. 

(Lord), (& Vincent, C. W. R. S. P. 29 

(1879) 292-; 30 (1880) 287-. 
, . Ayrton, W. E., & Perry, J. L. Ps. 

S. P. 9 (1888) 220- ; Ph. Mg. 25 (1888) 496-. 
, . Wedding, W. Elekttech. Z. 13 (1892) 

67-, 83-. 
Commutation. Kingdon, J. A. Elect. 32 

(1894) 137-. 

. Girault, P. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 731. 
, experiments. Everett, W. H., d' Peake, 

A. H. Elect. 40 (1898) 861- ; 42 (1899) 328-. 
Commutators. Weymouth, F. M. Elect. 29 

(1892) 245-, 307-, 333-, 357-. 
. Ritter, R. B. Eclair. Elect. 18 (1899) 
' 20-, 48-. 
, design. Matthews, F. J. A. Elect. Rv. 

43 (1898) 584-. 
, position. Stern, G. A. Ps. C. 26 (1885) 

607-. 
Comparison. Minet, A. Lum. Elect. 35 (1890) 

151-. 
.with batteries. Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 

6 (*1882) 250-. 



764 



6060 Dynamos 

Comparison of different forms of inductors. 
Picou, R. V. Lum. Elect. 33 (1889) 7-. 

with influence machines. Thompson, S. P. 
L. Ps. S. P. 9 (1888) 260-. 

motors. Baumgardt, L. Elekttech. Z 

15 (1894) 79-. 

Conceptions, fundamental. Beck, T. Civing. 
32 (1886) 191-. 

Conductors, bimetallic lamellar, in electro- 
magnetic field, advantages. Reignier, C., <& 
Parrot, G. C. R. 115 (1892) 310-. 

, shielded. Price, W. A. Elect. Ev. 42 
(1898) 61-, 68-. 

Construction. Richard, G. Lum. Elect. 14 
(1884) 205-, 245- ; 16 (1885) 11-, 64-, 132-, 
211-, 259- ; 19 (1886) 52-, 402- ; 20 (1886) 
145- ; 21 (1886) 241- ; 23 (1887) 206- ; 25 
(1887) 22-; 26 (1887) 156- ; 27 (1888) 8-, 
278- ; 28 (1888) 263-, 307-, 574- ; 29 (1888 
167-, 463-; 30 (1888) 316-, 611- ; 31 (1889) 
120-, 314-, 601- ; 32 (1889) 521- ; 33 (1889) 
519- ; 34 (1889) 167-, 468-; 35 (1890) 101-, 
454-; 36 (1890) 407-, 551-; 37 (1890) 313- ; 
38 (1890) 117-, 157- ; 39 (1891) 205-, 269-, 
306- ; 40 (1891) 163-, 218-, 562- ; 41 (1891 
159-, 601- ; 42 (1891) 305-, 560- ; 43 (1892) 
162-, 465-, 557-, 604- ; 44 (1892) 165-, 210-, 
263-; 45 (1892) 12-, 267-; 46 (1892) 14-, 
262-, 518- ; 47 (1893) 107-, 412- ; 48 (1893) 
58-, 405- ; 49 (1893) 162-, 508- ; 50 (1893) 
306- ; 51 (1894) 15-, 60-, 501-, 562-; 52 
(1894) 216-, 462-; 53 (1894) 155-. 

. Thompson, S. P. Science 4 (1884) 315. 

. Pardoe, T. (et alii). Elect. 14 (1885) 
224, etc. 

, calculations and graphic methods. Baum- 
gardt, L. M. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 80-. 

, remarkable. Steinmetz, C. Elekttech. Z. 
11 (1890) 37-. 

and use, magnetic effects in. Egger, E. 
Elekttech. Z. 14 (1893) 5- 80, 151-/370. 

, . Corsepius, M. Elekttech. 

Z. 14 (1893) 41-, 270-. 
Coupling, special mode. Mengcs, C. L. R. E. 

Elektteeh. Z. 5 (1884) 367-, 420. 
, (Menges). Siemens, , & Halske, 

. Elekttech. Z. 5 (1884) 368-. 
Currents, constant high potential, automatic 

arrangement for maintaining. Threlfall, R. 

[1885] Camb. Ph. S. P. 5 (1886) 226-. 
, , method of maintaining. Edmunds, H. 

[1888] Tel. E. J. 17 (1889) 688-, 771-. 
, , (Edmunds's). Bate, D. C. (et 

alii). Elect. 22 (1889) 319, etc. 
, , production with varying E.M.F. 

Trotter, A. P. Elect. 19 (1887) 374-. 
, dynamo-electric, and applications. Siemens, 

(Sir) C. W. [1880] R. I. P. 9 (1882) 334-. 
, , means of improving steadiness. 

Siemens, (Sir) C. W. [1880] Phil. Trans. 

171 (1881) 1071-. 
, , production. Auerbach, F. A. Ps. C. 

34 (1888) 172-. 
, Foucault. Desombre, P. Eclair. Elect. 10 

(1897) 343-. 
, high potential. Roos, J. D. C. M. de. 

[1893] 's Gravenh. I. Ing. Ts. (1893-94) 

(Vh.) 29-. 



Efficiency 6060 

Currents, high potential, protection from. 

Roo, J. D. C. M. de. [1894] 's Gravenh. I. 

Ing. Ts. (1894-95) (Vh.) 64-. 
, induced, in mass of ring. Lorberg, H. A. 

Ps. C. 30 (1887) 389-. 
, , (Lorberg). Clausiux, R. 

A. Ps. C. 31 (1887) 302-. 
, (Clausius). Lorberg, H. 

A. Ps. C. 32 (1887) 521-. 
, , nature. Du Moncel, (comte) T. A. L. 

Tel. J. 10 (1882) 375-. 
, , in rotating coil, measurement. Vocdsek, 

J. Casopis 14 (1885) 72- ; Fschr. Ps. (1885) 

(Ab. 2) 773-. 
, strong, production. Siemens, W. D. Nf. 

Tbl. (*1879) 182-. 
Curves, characteristic. Hodgson, L. G. Tel. 

J. 20 (1887) 149-. 
, Frolich's current-. Stern, G. Elekttech. 

Z. 7 (1886) 283-. 
, magnetic. Hanappe, S. Eclair. Elect. 6 

(1896) 5-. 
, speed- voltage. Griffiths, J. A. Elect. 36 

(1896) 250-. 
Dead turns. Thompson, S. P. Elect. 17 (1886) 

175-. 
Design. Fricker, G. C. Elect. 18 (1887) 

412-, 434-, 477-, 518- ; 19 (1887) 27-, 

116-, 137-, 200-, 289-, 339-, 434-, 494-. 
. Jamieson, A. Glasg. I. Eng. T. 32 (1889) 

143-. 
. Etsm, W. B. [1890] I. Elect. E. J. 19 

(1891) 118-, 170-, 218-, 243-. 
. Dunn, G. S. Franklin I. J. 139 (1895) 

384-. 
. Poole, C. P. [1898] So. Abs. 2 (1899) 

260. 
, best winding. Frolich, 0. Elekttech. Z. 

6 (1885) 370-, 417-. 

and construction. Kapp, G. Elect. 14 
(1885) 259, 307-, 346-, 390-, 431-, 511- ; 
15 (1885) 23-, 190-, 250- ; 16 (1886) 7-, 
406-. 

, formula. Sumec, J. K. [1898] Sc. Abs. 
. 2 (1899) 69. 

of large tramway generators. Parshall, H. 
F. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 101. 

, magnetic attraction in. Behrend, B. A. 
[1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 201. 

and use, conditions. Cabanellas, G. Les 
Mondes 2 (1882) 564-. 

, use of iron. Ledeboer, P. H. Lum. Elect. 

22 (1886) 398-, 448-, 533-, 603-. 
Dimensions, weight and price. Wilson, E. 

[1897] I. Elect. E. J. 26 (1898) 160-. 
Distribution of lines of force, law. Westphal, 

C. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 747-, 878-. 
, 3-wire, from single dynamo. Bretch, E. 

Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 433. 

EFFICIENCY. 

Charousset, . St. Et. Bll. S. In. Mn. 12 

(1883) 197-. 
Rechniewski, C. Lum. Elect. 23 (1887) 311- 

414-. 
Arnoux, R. Lum. Elect. 31 (1889) 501-. 



765 



6060 



Duncan, L. Tel. J. 26 (1890) 18. 
Claude, G. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 99. 
coefficient, determination. Guzzi, P. Mil. I. 

Lomb. Ed. 22 (1889) 796-. 
, variation. Minet, A. Lum. Elect. 10 

(*1883) 306-. 
dependent on air-space and form of pole-pieces. 

Ryan, H. J. Elekttech. Z. 13/1892) 34-. 
determination. Boutin, J. L. Eclair. Elect. 

9 (1896) 169-. 
factors. Houston, E.J.,d' Thomson, E. [1878] 

Am. Ph. S. P. 18 (1880) 58-. 
maximum quantity of useful work, conditions. 

Vaschy, . C. K. 102 (1886) 1235-. 
measurement. Bouquet, R. P. Gen. Civ. 23 

(1893) 416-. 
. Dupuy, P. Eclair. Elect. 14 (1898) 

162-. 
for power transmission. Shoolbred,J.N. Par. 

S. Ps. Se. (1881) 255-. 



Electrical systems, internal resistance, etc. 

Cabanellas, G. C. E. 96 (1883) 1651- ; 97 

(1883) 311-. 
Electricity supply, prevention of interruptions. 

Andrews, L. [1898] I. Elect. E. J. 27 

(1899) 487-. 
E . M. F . of dynamos excited by constant current. 

Esson, W. B. Tel. J. 14 (1884) 303-. 

and internal resistance. Cabanellas, G. 
C. E. 94 (1882) 77-. 

rotation velocity, relation. Levy, M. 
C. E. 95 (1882) 832-. 

, (Le"vy). Deprez, M. C. E. 96 

(1883) 192-. 

Ergometer. Lachlnov, D. A. (xn) Es. Ps.- 

C. S. J. 12 (Ps.) (1880) [(Pt. 1)] 133-. 
Evolution. Sprague, J. T. Elect. 12 (1884) 

8-, 31-, 57-, 176-, 223-. 
Excitation and automatic control, methods. 

Higgs, P. Lum. Elect. 7 (*1882) 324-. 
, self-. Thompson, S. P. L. Ps. S. P. 10 

(1890) 1-; Ph. Mg. 26 (1888) 469-. 
Exhibition, International. Guerout, A. Lum. 

Elect. 4 (*1881) 229-. 
, Munich. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 9 

(*1883) 426-. 
.Paris. Rasch.G. D. Nf. Vh. (1900) (Th. 2, 

Halfte 1) 57-. 
, Philadelphia. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 

15 (1885) 342-, 398-, 440-, 484-., 
, Vienna. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 11 

(1884) 393-, 436-. 

, . Kobald, E. Oestr. Z. Brgw. 32 (1884) 

47-, 57-, 73-. 
Experiments. Allard, E. (et alii). C. E. 95 

(1882) 747-. 
. Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 6 (*1882) 364-; 

7 (*1882) 114-, 160-, 219-, 580-, 599-; 8 

(*1883) 101-. 

. Pollard, J. C. E. 96 (1883) 1046-. 
. Potier, A. J. de Ps. 2 (1883) 11-. 
. Auerbach, F. Bresl. Schl. Gs. Jbr. (1887) 

183-. 
. Oberbeck, A. [1891] N.-Vorp. Mt. 23 

(1892) 157-. 



Dynamos Forms 6060 

Experiments at Chatham. Guerout, A. Lum. 

Elect. 3 (*1881) 281-. 
, Siemens and Halske's. Frolich, 0. Berl. 

Ak. Mb. (1880) 962-. 
Faults. Thompson, S. P. [1887] Elect. 20 

(1888) 82-. 

. Statter, J. G. Elect. 20 (1888) 142. 
. Baur, C. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 57-. 
. Dolinar, S. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 

186-. 

. Anon. Elect. Ev. 39 (1896) 356-. 
Field-magnet circuit, direct and derived. Moon, 

W. Tel. J. 12 (1883) 471- ; 13 (1883) 38. 
Flux, magnetic, in air-gaps. Goldsborough, 

W. E. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 399. 
, , armature cores. Goldsborough, 

W. E. [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 220-. 
, , field-magnets. Ledeboer, P. H. C. 

E. 104 (1887) 1267- ; Lum. Elect. 24 (1887) 

301-, 400. 
, , utilisation. Reignier, C. Lum. Elect. 

25 (1887) 221-. 



FORMS OF DYNAMOS. 

Tisley, S. C. E. S. P. 23 (1875) 496-. 
Chaperon, G. As. Fr. C. K. 8 (1879) 417-. 
Hefner -Alteneck, F. von. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 

2 (1881) 163-. 
Fein, W. E. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 2 (1881) 

197- ; 3 (1882) 300-. 
Meylan, E. Lum. Elect. 28 (1888) 104-. 
Arago. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 

219-. 
bipolar, drum-, designs. Kennedy, R. Elect. 

Ev. 39 (1896) 485, 755-. 
Brush system. Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 4 

(*1881) 6-. 
without brushes. Campbell, A. Elect. Ev. 44 

(1899) 581-. 

Burgin. Hospitalier,E. Lum.Elect.2 (*1880) 

209-. 
Cance. Hospitalier, E. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 

388-. 
without collectors. Boucherot,P. Lum. Elect. 

49 (1893) 26-. 

commutators. Heath, H. E. Sc. Abs. 3 

(1900) 503. 

compensated. Ferrini, R. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 

23 (1890) 663-. 
compound. Krebs, G. Humb. 3 (1884) 298-. 

Moutier, J. Lum. Elect. 24 (1887) 355-, 
619. 

(Brush versus Crompton). Varley, S. A. 
Tel. J. 21 (1887) 583-, 613-, 630-, 655-. 

. Hoho, P. C. E. 116 (1893) 744-. 

, for constant potential. Bell,L. Elekttech. 

Z. 12 (1891) 139-. 
, equalising connections. Keller, E. R. 

Franklin I. J. 143 (1897) 200-. 
, parallel operation. Hanchett, G. T. Sc. 

Abs. 1 (1898) 290. 
, self-regulation. Rilcker, A. W. L. Ps. S. 

P. 7 (1886) 92- ; Ph. Mg. 19, (1885) 462-. 
, . Reignier, C. Lum. Elect. 24 (1887) 

201-, 266-, 524-. 



766 



6060 



Gramme Machine 



6060 



compound, series windings for. Fry, L. H. 

Elect. Bv. 41 (1897) 540-. 
with concentric helices. Berthier,A. Eclair. 

Elect. 7 (1896) 156-, 250-. 

constant potential, compensating spiral for. 
Ferrini, E. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 22 (1889) 
565-. 

for continuous and alternating currents . Edler, 
. N.-Vorp. Mt. 25 (1894) xxvi-. , 

De Ferranti. Richard, G. Lum. Elect. 13 
(1884) 409-. 

disc-. Desroziers, E. Elect. 21 (1888) 762-. 

. Reignier, C. Lum. Elect. 28 (1888) 151-, 
221-, 481-, 619-. 

(Desroziers's). Meylan, E. Lum. Elect. 
29 (1888) 401-. 

. Polesko, A. I. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 22 IPs.) 
(1890) 135- ; J. de Ps. 10 (1891) 425. 

(Polesko's). Besson, A. Lum. Elect. 35 
(1890) 610-. 

Edison. Brackett, C. F., & Young, C. A. Am. 

J. Sc. 19 (1880) 475-. 

. Nelius, . Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 205-. 
for electro-metallurgy. Forbes, G. B. A. Ep. 

(1886) 815-. 
English. Zu-eifel, G. Elekttech. Z. 7 (1886) 

73-. 
on Faraday disc principle. F., E. D. Elect. 

19 (1887) 94-. 

. Anon. Elect. 19 (1887) 221-. 

Fein, measurements. Dietrich, . Elekttech. 

Z. 5 (1884) 173. 
Glouchov. Lermantov, V. V. Es. Ps.-C. S. 

J. 19 (Ps.) (1887) 139-. 
Gordon. Du Moncel, T. A, L. Lum. Elect. 

7 (*1882) 455-. 

Gramme Machine. 

(Magneto-electric machine producing continu- 
ous currents.) Gramme, . C. E. 73 (1871) 

175-. 
Niaudet-Breguet, A. (x) Carl Epm. 9 (1873) 

152- ; 11 (1875) 85-. 
Gramme, Z. T. C. E. 79 (1874) 1178-. 
Andrews, T. (xn) Belfast NH. S. P. (1874- 

75) 91-. 

Anthony, W. A. Am. J. Sc. 12 (1876) 251-. 
Hagenbach-Bischoff, E. A. Ps. C. 158 (1876) 

599-. 

Phillips, S. E. Tel. J. 4 (1876) 322-. 
Thomson, (Sir) W. J. de Ps. 6 (1877) 240-. 
Zegers, L. L. Santiago de Chile Un. A. 55 

(*1879) 217-. 

Hospitaller, E. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 87-. 
Clemenceau, P. Lum. Elect. 11 (1884) 271-. 
compared with Wilde's and Siemens's. Trow- 

bridge, J. [1878] Am. Ac. P. 14 (1879) 

122-. 
cross section of armature. Jackson, D. Elect. 

19 (1887) 190-. 
currents. Meyer, 0. E., & Auerbach, F. A. 

Ps. C. 8 (1879) 494-; 9 (1880) 676-. 
, development. Herwig, H. A. Ps. C. 7 

(1879) 193-. 
, induction-. Gaugain, J. M. C. E. 75 

(1872) 138-, 627-, 828-; A. C. 28 (1873) 324-. 



currents produced by, experiments. Niaudet- 
Breguet, A. B. A. Ep. (1874) (Sect.) 33-. 
determination of work performed by. Tresca, 

H. E. C. E. 82 (1876) 299-. 
displacement of brushes. Breguet, A. Par. 

S. Ps. Se. (1878) 180-. 
E.M.F. at various speeds. Tait, P. G. [1879] 

Edinb. E. S. P. 10 (1880) 52-, 90-. 
experiments. Hospitalier, E. Lum. Elect. 1 

(*1879) 114-. 
. Pilleux.L. Les Mondes 52 (1880) 392-; 

53 (1880) 33-. 
modifications. Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 5 

(*1881) 336-. 
and Pacinotti machine. Ferrini, R. E. D. T. 

(xn) Ev. Sc.-Ind. 4 (1872) 198-. 
resistance and induction with varying current. 

Cabanellas, G. C. E. 99 (1884) 911-. 
self-induction. Ledeboer, . C. E. 102 (1886) 

1549-. 
theory. Breguet, A. C. E. 87 (1878) 746-; 

A. C. 16 (1879) 7-; 17 (1879) 282-. 
. Koldcek, F. Prag Sb. (1884) (Mth.-Nt.) 

29-. 

. Mascart, . Par. S. Ps. Se". (1885) 105-. 
, physical. FitzGerald, D. G. (et alii). 

Elect. 12 (1884) 178-, etc. 
use. Gramme, Z. T. C. E. 84 (1877) 1386-. 

for lighting. Malezieux, E. A. Pon. 
Chauss. 12 (1876) 119-. 

and electrotypy. Gramme, . C. 

E. 75 (1872) 1497-. 
railway stations. Sartiaux, A. C. 

E. 82 (1876) 842-. 

Hefner- Alteneck. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 3 

(*1881) 431-. 
Henrion's. Anon. A. Cond. Pon. Chauss. 41 

(1897) 660-. 
high potential. Crocker, F. B. Elect. 31 

(1893) 703-. 

, for laboratory use. Hurmuzescu, D. 
Eclair. Elect. 6 (1896) 211-. 

Hopkinson-Muirhead. Guerout, A. Lum. 

Elect. 5 (*1881) 51-. 
Hutin and Leblanc. Guilbert, F. Lum. Elect. 

50 (1893) 375-. 
with 2 independent windings, experiments. 

Sengel, A. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 525-, 

548-, 614. 
without iron. Lachlnov, D. A. (xn) Es. 

Ps.-C. S. J. 13 (Ps.) (1881) [(Ft. 1)] 176- ; 

Lum. Elect. 3 (*1881) 360-. 
. Pietzker, . Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 

704-. 
Jedlik, constructed in 1852-54. Klupathy, J. 

Termt. Kozl. 22 (1890) 606; Mth. Nt. B. 

Ung. 9 (1892) 410-. 
Jones and Stirling. Richard, G. Lum. Elect. 

17 (1885) 303-. 
Jurgensen and Lorenz. Guerout, A. Lum. 

Elect. 6 (*1882) 31-. 
for laboratory and experimental use. Fein, 

W. E. Exner Epm. 20 (1884) 85-. 
Lachausse'e-Lambotte. Guerout, A. Lum. 

Elect. 4 (*1881) 387-. 



767 



6060 



Dynamos 



6060 



Lahmeyer. Meylan,E. Lum. Elect. 24 (1887) 

555-. 
Lanhoffer. Brunswick, E. J., < Aliamet, M. 

[1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 99. , 
Maquaire. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 7 (*1882) 

635-. 
Maxim. Hospitalier,E. Lum. Elect. 2 (1880) 

412-. 
De Meritens. Hospitaller, E. Lum. Elect. 2 

(1880) 135-. 
. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 5 (*1881) 175- ; 

7 (*1882) 54-. 
De Meritens-Pacinotti. Geraldy, F. Lum. 

Elect. 5 (1881) 434-. 



shunt-, construction, geometrical, giving waste 

and useful work. Lodge, O. J. Nt. 26 (1882) 

311. 
, , graphic method. Riccia, della. 

[1898] So. Abs. 2 (1899) 318. 
, regulation. Truchot, C., & Colardeau, E. 

Lum. Elect. 22 (1886) 491-. 
and series- compared. Weinhold, A. Elekt- 

tech. Z. 6 (1885) 516- ; 7 (1886) 57-, 128-. 
(Weinhold). Frolich, 0. Elekt- 

tech. Z. 7 (1886) 63-, 165-. 
and compound, winding. Hering, C. 

Tel. J. 18 (1886) 228-, 248-, 341-, 411-, 

436-, 488-, 514-, 540-. 



metergon." Luvini, G. Lum. Elect. 39 Siemens. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 

(1891) 158- ; Bv. Sc.-Ind. 23 (1891) 149-. 
multiple current. Kennedy, R. Elect. Bv. 36 

(1895) 805-. 
multipolar. Desroziers, E. Elect. 21 (1888) 

762- ; Par. S. Ps. Se. (1888) 222-. 
. Esson, W. B. [1891] I. Elect. E. J. 20 

(1892) 265-, 295-, 310-. 

multi-voltage system. Rushmore, S. W. Sc. 

Abs. 1 (1898) 228. 

, Bushmore, tests. Murphy, E. J. (jun.), 

& Saun, P. E. van. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 

(1899) 260-. 
non-polar, Forbes's. Snowdon, R. (et alii). 

Elect. 19 (1887) 159, etc. 
non-sparking. FitzGerald, G. F. Dubl. S. 

Sc. P. 4 (1885) 343-. 
Pacinotti- Gramme, direction of currents. 



I (*1879) 25-. 

Siemens-Alteneck. Petrushevskil, T. T. (xn) 

Bs. C. Ps. S. J. 9 (Ps.) (1877) [(Pt. 1)] 

254-. 
Siemens-Halske. Hefner- Alteneck, F. von. 

Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 154-. 
simple. Smith, F. J. [1888] Nt. 39 (1889) 

80-. 
with solenoid inductor. Plucker, J. F. Brux. 

Ac. Bll. 3 (1882) 107- ; 4 (1882) 526-. 
steam-turbine. T., G. A. Tel. 15 (1888) 

88-. 
Thomson (Elihu). Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 

12 (1884) 452-. 
Thomson (Sir W.). Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 

II (1884) 307-. 

( ). Anon. Tel. J. 14 (1884) 6-. 



Szarvady, G. Lum. Elect. 18 (1885) 145-, Thomson-Houston. Anon. A. Cond. Pon. 



240. 

and Kravogl, and improvements. 
Pfaundler, L. Wien Ak. Sb. 87 (1883) (Ab. 
2) 640-. 

2-pole versus multipolar. Schulz, E. Elekt- 

tech. Z. 13 (1892) 455-. 
polymorphic. Hospitalier, E. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1894) 203-. 

pyromagnetic. Edison, T. A. Am. As. P. 
(1887) 94-. 

(Edison's). Bering, G. Franklin I. J. 124 
(1887) 278-. 

( ). Reis, . Humb. 7 (1888) 59-. 

. Wallentin, J. G. Humb. 9 (1890) 257-. 
reducing loss of work by heating of armature. 

Damoiseau, A., <& Petitpont, G. C. B. 98 

(1884) 1425-. 
Beignier and Parrot, theory. Chappuis, J. 

Gen. Civ. 21 (1892) 205-. 
self-regulating. Bosanquet, R. H. M. Ph. 

Mg. 15 (1883) 275-. 
series-. Kinsley, C. St. Louis Ac. T. 8 (1898) 

107-. 

, best conditions. Schmoller, 0. H. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 10 (1889) 34-. 
, inversion of polarity. Witz, A. C. B. 

108 (1889) 1243- ; J. de Ps. 8 (1889) 

shunt-. Minet, A. Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 

427-, 454-, 491-, 552-. 
, calculation. Hanappe, S. Eclair. Elect. 3 

(1895) 481-. 

, characteristics. B., E. J. Eclair. Elect. 
2 (1895) 582-. 



Chauss. 41 (1897) 298-. 
Thury. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 12 (1884) 

211-. 
unipolar. Munro, J. M. M. Elect. 13 (1884) 

550-. 
. Hummel, . Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 196- ; 

7 (1886) 20-. 
, Ball's. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 8 (*1883) 

542-. 
, for electrolysis. Ferrari's, E. Lum. Elect. 

10 (*1883) 311-. 
, Forbes's. Hummel, . Elekttech. Z. 7 

(1886) 111-. 
, Siemens's. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 7 

(*1882) 321-. 
of 20-35 watts, experiments. Hanappe, S. 

Eclair. Elect. (1895) 433-. 
Wenstrom. Marinovitch, B. Lum. Elect. 20 

(1886) 20-, 129. 
Westinghouse, variation of E. M. F. Searing, 

L., <& Hoffman, S. V. Franklin I. J. 128 

(1889) 93-. 
Weston. Magneville, de. Lum. Elect. 1 

(*1879) 172-. 
. Soulages, C. C. Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 

311-. 
, galvanoplastic. Guerout, A. Lum. Elect. 

7 (*1882) 339-. 
without winding. Sayers, W. B. [1893] I. 

Elect. E. J. 22 (1894) 377-, 408-, 435-. 

Functions of machines, similitude in. Car- 
vallo, E. A. Tel. [19] (1892) 21-. 

Gas-engines for production of electricity. 
Ayrton, W. E. Nt. 25 (1882) 280-. 



768 



6060 



Dynamos 



Power 6060 



Governor, Porte-Danville. Anon. Tel. J. 19 Losses by armature currents, etc., graphic 

(1886) 183-. . analysis. Housman, R. H. Elect. 26 (1891) 

Heating. Picon, E. V. Lum. Elect. 29 (1888) 700-. 

201-. , flux-, variation. Hanappe, S. Eclair. 

. Wilson, E. Elect. 35 (1895) 784-. Elect. 5 (1895) 433-, 499-, 583-. 

, causes. PoleSko, A. I. Rs. Ps.-C. S. J. _ hysteresis, frictional and eddy current. 

18 (Pi.) (1886) 125-. Adams, G. Elect. 35 (1895) 319-. 

Historical note. Zetzsche, K. E. Dingier 216 t t t separation. Kapp, G. 



(1875) 491-. 



Elect. 26 (1891) 699-. 



. Waltenhofen, A. von. Prag Sb. (1882) _, _ f _, _. Dettmar, G. Elekt- 



tech. Z. 20 (1899) 203-, 218-. 



102-. 

. Whitmell, C. T. Elect. 28 (1892) 48. _, iron-,"totai."i)ttoiori G.' Elekttech. Z. 19 

. Rittershaus, . Giving. 39 (1893) 

349-. 
Improvements. Wilde, H. Manch. Lt. Ph. S. 

P. 12 (1873) 129-. 
. Higgs, R. W. H. P., & Brittle, J. R. I. 

CE. P. 52 (1878) 36-. 
. Ladd, W. B. A. Rp. (1879) 258. 



98) 252-. 
, load. Mordey, W. M. Elect. 37 

446-. 
, nature of cause. Cabanellas, G. C. R. 98 

(1884) 1045-. 

Magnetic field. Gravier, A. Lum. Elect. 28 
18 



. . (1888) 372-. 

. Gerland, E. Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 438-, ,3 components. Cabanellas, G. C. R. 99 

521- ; 7 (1886) 36-, 107- ; 8 (1887) 395-, Q884) 126-. 

427-, 524- ; 9 (1888) 245- ; 11 (1890) 95-, , exploration. Bering, C. Tel. J. 21 

118-, 133-, 146- , 159-, 178-, 189-, 206-, (1887) 186-, 205-. 



, injurious, experimental determination. 

. Guilbert, F. Lum. Elect. 49 (1893) 301-. Baumgardt, L. Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 344-, 

Induction, air-gap. Hawkins, C, G., <& 

Wightman, R. I. Elect. E. J. 29 (1900) 436-. 
, and interpolar. Carter, F. W. I. Elect. 

E. J. 29 (1900) 925-. 
, electromagnetic. Larroque, F. Lum. 

Elect. 34 (1889) 401-. 
, , application of phenomena. Le Goarant 

de Tromelin, (It.) G. C. R. 95 (1882) 439-; 

A. C. 28 (1883) 217-. 
generator tests. McKissick, A. F. [1898] 

Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 71. 
, ( secondary phenomena. Reignier, C. Lum 



374. 

, intensity, components. Deprez, M. C. 

R. 103 (1886) 712-. 

, moving, use, etc., of currents induced 
by. Worms de Romilly, . Les Mondes 25 
(1871) 465-. 

of 2-pole dynamo. Hess, H. Elekttech. 

Z. 19 (1898) 769-. 

leakage. Ivei, A. S. [1891] Elect. Rv. 30 
(1892) 109-, 124-. 

Measurements. Frolich, O. [1883] (xn) Berl. 
Ps. Gs. Vh. 2 (1884) 27-. 



Elect. 32 (1889) 401-, 464- ; 33 (1889) 605-. Motor-induction machine. Voice, E. L. Tel. 
Inversion, reciprocity, reversibility. Decharme, J. 14 (1884) 43-, 80. 



C. Lum. Elect. 42 (1891) 201-, 268-. 
Iron core, function. Deprez, M. C. R. 122 
(1896) 1027-. 

, (Deprez). Potter, A. C. R. 122 

(1896) 1085. ' 

, (Potier). Deprez, M. C. R. 122 
(1896) 1159-. 

, (Deprez). Potier, A. C. R. 122 

(1896) 1239-. 

, (Potier). Deprez, M. C. R. 122 absorbed or produced by dynamo, rapid 

method of determination. Picard, P. C. 
R. 97 (1883) 1063- 
diagram, Hefner-Alteneck's. Ferrini, R. Mil. 

I. Lomb. Rd. 26 (1893) 724-. 
mechanical, conversion into electricity. Guig- 



Novelties. Imhoff, C. L. Elekttech. Z. 11 

(1890) 26-. 
Phenomena, graphic representation. Deprez, 

M. C. R. 92 (1881) 1152- ; Lum. Elect. 4 

(*1881) 100-. 



POWER. 



(1896) 1295-. 
Kinematics. Richard, G. Lum. Elect. 13 

(1884) 17-. 

Law. Ayrton, W. E. Elect. 16 (1886) 31-. 
. Perry, J. Elect. 16 (1886) 32-. 
. Bosanquet, R. H. M. Elect. 16 (1886) 

247. 



net, E. C. R. 84 (1877) 1084-. 
t , and vice versa, machines for. 



-. Thompson, S. P. L. Ps. S. P. 7 (1886) Mercadier, E. A. Tel. 7 (1880) 311- 

265- ; 8 (1887) 76- ; Ph. Mg. 21 (1886) 1- ; , of e 



lectricity into. Erb, W. H. Sch. 

22 (1886) 288-. Mines Q. N. Y. 10 (1889) 123-. 

. Bosanquet, R. H. M. Ph. Mg. 23 (1887) , into heat. Barker, G. F. [1879] Am. 

338-. As. P. 28 (1880) 160-. 

Losses. Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 8 (*1883) of natural forces, utilisation. Arsonval, A. d\ 



510-. 



[1881] Rv. Sc. 2 (1882) 550-, 603. 



by armature currents. Bldthy, 0. T. Elect. , . Street, C. Lum. Elect. 14 (1884) 



37 (1896) 375-, 474. 



360-, 449-. 



. snett, A. T. (et alii). Elect. 37 , . Preece, W. H. Elect. 28 (1892) 



(1896) 420. 



637-. 



769 



6060 Power 



Dynamos 



Theory 6060 



of Niagara Falls, utilisation. Sellers, C. 

Franklin I. J. 132 (1891) 30-. 
, . Forbes, G. [1893-94] I. Elect. 

E. J. 22 (1894) 484-, 534-, 583-; A. Tel. 21 

(1894) 88-. 
, . Martin, T. C. [1896] K. I. P. 

15 (1899) 269-. 
, . Lienenklau*,. [1899] Osnab. 

Jbr. (1899-1900) xxii. 

tides. Bunet, P. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 297. 

water. Zuylen, G. E. V. L. van. [1894] 
's Gravenh. I. Ing. Ts. (1894-95) (Vh.) 76-. 

. Peny, E. Bv. Un. Mines 42 (1898) 

111-. 
, utilisation. Borel, F. Neuch. S. Sc. 

Bll. 13 (1883) 110-. 
, . Boubee, F. C. P. Nap. I. Inc. At. 

8 (1895) No. 9, 13 pp. 
, . Steiger, A. [1896] I. Elect. E. J. 

25 (1897) 521-. 
, at Schaffhausen. Amsler, A. I. 

Elect. E. J. 29 (1900) 175-. 
, in Sweden. Westin, 0. E. Jern-Kont. 

A. 55 (1900) 1-. 

and wind and sun's rays, utilisation. 
Bendt, F. Cztg. Opt. 15 (1894) 87-. 

, utilisation by accumulators. 
Karstcn, G. [1893] Schl.-Holst. Nt. Vr. 
Schr. 10 (1895) 62-. 

windmill and dynamo combined. Blyth, J. 
Glasg. Ph. S. P. 22 (1891) 315. 



Precautions against danger. Arsonval, A. d'. 

Par. S. Bl. Mm. 36 (1884) (C.E.) 767-. 

. Daussin, A. C. K. 100 (1885) 631-. 

. Baynaud, J. C. E. 100 (1885) 

633. 
. Arsonval, A. d'. C. E. 100 (1885) 

733-. 
Problems, graphic solution. Fischer -Hinnen, 

J. Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 397-. 
Progress. Thompson, S. P. Tel. J. 14 (1884) 

215-, 239-, 255-. 
, 1872-97. Esson, W. B. Elect. Ev. 41 

(1897) 627-. 
Properties. Thomson, E. Franklin I. J. 82 

(1881) 427-. 
Purely electric form, question of possibility. 

Cabanellas, G. Les Mondes 1 (1882) 587-. 
Eegulation. Esson, W. B. Elect. 15 (1885) 

59-, 82-. 

for constant potential. Juppont, P. G6n. 
Civ. 7 (1885) 6-. 

. Esson, W. B. Elect. 21 (1888) 

172-. 

of driving engine on warships. Bayle, F. 
Ev. Mar. et Col. 134 (1897) 478-; 138 (1898) 
472-. 

by "third brush." Caldwell, E. [1888] 
Elect. 22 (1889) 217-, 256-. 

. Nichols, E. L. Elect. 22 (1889) 

440-. 
Eesistance of different parts, proportions. 

Thomson, (Sir) W. C. B. 93 (1881) 474-. 
Siemens (Werner), and discovery of dynamo. 

Foerster, E. Cztg. Opt. 18 (1897) 235-. 
Spark limit. Kapp,G. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 



Sparking. Fischer- Hinnen, J. Eclair. Elect. 

9 (1896) 114- ; Elekttech. Z. 19 (1898) 850-, 

867-. 
. Thomas, E. Elect. 40 (1898) 557-. 

at brushes, causes. Dick, E. Elekttech. 
Z. 19 (1898) 802-. 

, cause and effects. Reid, T. [1897] Elect. 
40 (1898) 515-. 

at commutators. Weymouth, F. M. Elect. 
30 (1893) 160-, 189-, 212, 245-, 323-, 511-, 
542-, 569-. 

, prevention. Sayers, W. B. [1893] I. 

Elect. E. J. 22 (1894) 377-, 408-, 435-. 
, . Fischer-Hinnen, J. Elekttech. Z. 18 

(1897) 786. 
Sparkless reversal. Allen, H. N. [1898] I. 

Elect. E. J. 27 (1899) 209-. 
Speed, angular. Reignier, C. Lum. Elect. 30 

(1888) 114-, 310-. 

regulation of prime motors for dynamos. 
Hawker, T. H. S. Elect. 12 (1884) 326. 

Statical moment. Ven, van der. Lum. 
Elect. 10 (*1883) 407-. 

Synthetic study. Anon. Tel. J. 23 (1888) 
112-, 145-, 196-, 251-, 300-, 369-, 428-, 
484-, 544-, 567-, 628-, 692-; 24 (1889) 
32-, 84-, 172-, 237-, 292-, 380-, 446-, 
502-, 592-, 649- ; 25 (1889) 10-, 64-, 257-, 
381-, 497-, 605- ; 26 (1890) 118-, 172-, 
374-, 487, 538, 637- ; 27 (1890) 38-, 206-, 
356, 545-, 772. 

Testing. Booth, J. [1886] Viet. E. S. T. 23 
(1887) 269-. 

. Swinburne, J. Elect. 18 (1887) 8-, 31-, 

. Anon. Elekttech. Z. 9 (1888) 377-. 

, Melbourne Exhibition. Murray, K. L. 

[1889-90] I. Elect. E. J. 18 (1890) 710- ; 19 

(1891) 628-. 

THEORY. 

Chavannes, R. Laus. S. Vd. Bll. 17 (1881) 

597-. 
Frdlich, 0. (xn) Elekttech. Z. 3 (1882) 69-, 

113-. 
Anon. [Lodge, O. J.] Elect. 8 (1882) 57-, 

73-, 89-, 117-, 133-, 148 -, 169-, 204-, 

218-, 249-, 289-, 321- ; 9 (*1882) 5-, 53, 

89, 175-, 437-; 10 (*1883) 5-, 30-, 78-, 

245 ; 11 (*1883) 366-, 390-, 462- ; 14 

(1885) 366-, 410- ; 15 (1885) 210- ; 16 (1886) 

333-. 

Clausius, R. A. Ps. C. 20 (1883) 353-. 
Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 

417-. 
Joubert, J. C. E. 96 (1883) 641- ; J. de Ps. 2 

(1883) 293-. 

Cabantllas, . Par. S. Ps. Se. (1884) 173-. 
Clausius, R. Lum. Elect. 11 (1884) 224-, 

273-. 
Leblanc, M. Lum. Elect. 12 (1884) 161-, 217-, 

400. 

Roicland, H. A. Elect. 13 (1884) 516-, 535-. 
Fitzgerald, J. Elect. 13 (1884) 558-. 
Ven, E. van der. [1884] Haarl. Ms. Teyl. 

Arch. 2 (1886) 1-. 

70 



6060 Dynamos 

Frolich, O. Elekttech. Z. 6 (1885) 128-, 139-, 

227-, 473- ; 7 (1886) 19-. 
(Frolich's.) Clausius, R. Elekttech. Z. 6 

(1885) 414-. 

Vaschy, . A. Tel. 12 (1885) 218-, 421- ; 13 

(1886) 35-, 225- , 401-. 

Frolich, 0. Berl. Ps. Gs. Vh. (1886) 21-. 
Kowalski, E. Bordeaux S. Sc. Mm. 2 (1886) 

309-. 
Meyer, O. E., & Auerbach, F. Elekttech. Z. 7 

(1886) 240-. 
(Frolich's.) Waltenhofen, A. von. Elekttech. 

Z. 7 (1886) 468-, 512 ; 8 (1887) 389-, 532-. 
Frolich, 0. Elekttech. Z. 8 (1887) 161-, 217-, 

394-, 537-. 
(Frolich's.) Zickler, K. Elect. 18 (1887) 

369-, 424-. 

Hopkinson, E. Elect. 19 (1887) 378-. 
Picon, E. V. [1887-88] Lum. Elect. 23 (1887) 

13-, 56-, 112- ; 24 (1887) 169- ; Gen. Civ. 

13 (1888) 347-, 360-, 377-, 394-, 407- ; 

14 (1888-89) 6-, f 44-, 84-. 

Hahn, P. Lum. Elect. 34 (1889) 374-, 423-. 
Sohlmann, J. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 373. 
Farman, . Eclair. Elect. 2 (1895) 348-. 
of closed coil constant current dynamo. 

Carhart, H. S. Franklin I. J. 137 (1894) 

140-, 209-. 

3-conductor machines on double-field system. 
Rothert, A. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 230-, 
247-. 

shunt-dynamos. Achard, A. Lum. Elect. 
22 (1886) 3-. 



Transformation of motion. Bichat, E., <& 

Brillouin,. Nancy S. Sc. fill. 6 (U e Ann., 

1881) (1882) 33-. 
Turbines, application to dynamos. Richard, 

G. Lum. Elect. 10 (*1883) 493-. 
Use for alternating currents. Forderreuther, 

A. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 267-. 

as motors. Szarvady, G. C. E. 102 (1886) 
749-. 

and generators. Mordey, W. M. Ph. 

Mg. 21 (1886) 20-. 
. Walker, S. F. (et alii). Elect. 

16 (1886) 208-, etc. 

for railways. Siemens, E. W. von. (xii) 
Elekttech. Z. 1 (1880) 47-. 

. Cardew, (Lt.) P. Tel. E. J. 19 

(1881) 111-. 

in telegraphy. Rothm, . J. Tel. 8 (1884) 
129-. 

6070 Motors. 

Schneider, G. Dresden Sb. Isis (1873) 52-. 
(International Exhibition.) Guerout, A. Lum. 

Elect. 4 (*1881) 262-. 
Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 7 (*1882) 544-. 
(Philadelphia Exhibition.) Duche, G. Lum. 

Elect. 16 (1885) 449-. 
Vogel, F. D. Nf. Tbl. (1888) 3-. 
Sayers, W. B. Glasg. I. Eng. T. 35 (1892) 

199-. 
Crocker, F. B. Franklin I. J. 137 (1894) 343-. 



Motors 6070 

Lonchampt, H. Mulhouse S. In. Bll. 67 (1897) 

265-. 
Accumulator traction. Epstein, L. [1897] 

I. Elect. E. J. 26 (1898) 666-, 687-, 743-. 



ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS. 

Duncan, L. Elect. 20 (1888) 471-. 
Tesla, N. Elect. 21 (1888) 173-. 
Patten, (Lt.) F. J. Elect. 23 (1889) 572-. 
Rechniewski, W. C. Lum. Elect. 32 (1889) 

301-. 

Tesla, N. Tel. J. 24 (1889) 648-. 
Hospitaller, E. Par. S. Ps. Se". (1891) 204-. 
Hutin, M., & Leblanc, M. C. B. 112 (1891) 

933-. 

Teege, H. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 417-. 
Walckenaer, C. A. Mines 4 (1893) 599-. 
Kennedy, R. Elect. Bv. 35 (1894) 651-. 
Rhodes, W. G. Elect. Bv. 36 (1895) 381-, 

637-; 37 (1895) 22-, 181-, 222-, 309-, 

492-, 598-; 38 (1896) 139- ; 39 (1896) 120-. 
Atkinson, L. B. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 292-. 
Deguisne, C. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. Jbr. (1897-98) 

50-. 
adjustable. Behn-Eschenburg, . Elekttech. 

Z. 14 (1893) 300. 



Asynchronous Motors. 

Brown, C. E. L. Elect. 30 (1893) 358-, 636-. 
Arnold, E. Elect. 30 (1893) 444 ; Elekttech. 

Z. 14 (1893) 256-. 

Ferrini, R. Mil. I. Lomb. Ed. 26 (1893) 412-. 
Behrend, B. A. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 165-. 
Potier, A. J. de Ps. 6 (1897) 341-, 483-. 
Steinmetz, C. P. [1897] Elekttech. Z. 18 

(1897) 743-, 768-, 786- ; Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 

167-. 

Brunswick, E. J. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 573. 
Carus-Wilson, C. A. [1899] E. I. P. 16 (1902) 

135-. 

Wilson, E. I. Elect. E. J. 28 (1899) 321-. 
Behrend, B. A. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 

443. 

Eborall, A.C. I. Elect. E. J. 29 (1900) 799-. 
behaviour with different curves of tension. 

Roessler, G. Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 704-, 

720-, 734-, 746-. 
Brown's. Reckenzaun, A. Elect. Ev. 32 

(1893) 95-. 
, experiments. Banti, A. Elect. Bv. 33 

(1893) 667-; 34 (1894) 60-, 114-. 
, . Arno, R. Elect. Bv. 34 (1894) 717. 
, theory. Sahulka, J. Elekttech. Z. 14 

(1893) 391-. 
currents, polyphase, applications, etc. Potier, 

A. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 540-. 
, , practical operation. Hawkins, T. Sc. 

Abs. 1 (1898) 366. 
, , and revolving fields. Maurain, C. 

Eclair. Elect. 6 (1896) 73-. 
, triphase, effect of unequal loading on 

branches. Grob, H. Ziir. Ps. Gs. Jbr. 

(1899 & 1900) 12. 



771 



6070 



Motors Polyphase and Revolving-Field 6070 



diagrams. Hawkins, C. C. Elect. 42 (1899) 

467-, 528-, 610-, 866-. 
. Goldschviidt, E. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 

693-. 

diphase. Wilson, E. Elect. 37 (1896) 565-. 
friction. Brawn, E. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 

685-. 

. Blanc, F. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 131-. 
function of condensers in circuit. Guilbert, 

F. Eclair. Elect. 10 (1897) 193-. 
Gorges phenomenon, and tandem coupling. 

Eichberg, F. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 

320-. 
for high tension. Kolben, E. Elekttech. Z. 15 

(1894) 597-. 
inventor. Kennedy, E. Elect. Ev. 31 (1892) 

595-. 
with large starting torque. De"ri, M. [1898- 

1900] Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 677-; 4 (1901) 108-. 
magnetic leakage. Breslauer, M. Sc. Abs. 3 

(1900) 507. 
monophase. Thomson, E. (et alii). Elect. 30 

(1893) 578-; 31 (1893) 17, etc. 
. Steinmetz, C. P. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 

439-, 452-. 
, braking. Eichberg, F. [1898] Sc. Abs. 2 

(1899) 322-. 
, condenser connected to tertiary circuit. 

Steinmetz, C. P. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 980. 



theory and calculations. Heyland, A. Elect. 
36 (1896) 505-, 578-, 650-, 719-, 753-. 

calculations. Arnold, E. Elekttech. Z. 14 

(1893) 42-. 
with collector, theory. Moulun, G. Eclair. 

Elect. 17 (1898) 465-. 
design. Kolben, E. Elect. 31 (1893) 590-, 

618-. 
Hutin and Leblanc. Guilbert, F. Lum. Elect. 

48 (1893) 451-. 
improvements. Guilbert, F. Lum. Elect. 49 

(1893) 151-. 
monophase. Eborall, A. G. Elect. Ev. 42 

(1898) 31-, 67-, 136-, 172-, 276-, 355-, 

432-, 500- ; 45 (1899) 510-. 
, relative merit. Berg, E. I. [1897] Sc. 

Abs. 1 (1898) 100-. 
, resolution of oscillating into rotating field. 

Eichberg, F. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 484-. 
, theory. Cahen, H. Elekttech. Z. 16 

(1895) 463-. 

Polyphase Motors. 

Teege, H. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 576-. 
Schilling, G. Wien Ak. Sb. 101 (1892) (Ab. 

2a) 866-. 
Steinmetz, G. P. Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 45-. 



, efficiency ., Boissonnas, A., & Boissonnas, Hanappe, S. Eclair. Elect. 16 (1898) 437-; 



J. Lum. Elect. 50 (1893) 109-. 

, starting. Arrib, E. [1897] Elect. 40 
(1898) 254-. 

, . Maffiotti, G. B., <& Pescetto, F. Sc. 
Abs. 1 (1898) 292. 

, . Arnb, E. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 364-. 

, . Steinmetz, C. P. Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 
572-. 

with period variable. Niethammer, F. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 19 (1898) 748-. 

polyphase. Ehodes, W. G. Elect. Ev. 43 

(1898) 331-. 

, theory. Ossanna, G. Elekttech. Z. 21 

(1900) 712-. 

property. Potier, A. C. E. 124 (1897) 538-, 

642-. 
slip, determination. Hoor, M. Mth. Termt. 

Ets. 17 (1899) 250- ; Mth. Nt. B. Ung. 17 

(1901) 337-. 

, measurement. Eosenberg, E. Sc. Abs. 2 

(1899) 788-. 

and synchronous. Boucherot,P. Eclair. Elect. 

5 (1895) 193-. 
testing. Heyland, . Eclair. Elect. 24 (1900) 

17-, 49-. 
theory. Behn-Eschenburg, . Elekttech. Z. 

14 (1893) 519-, 620. 
. Kennedy, E. Elect. Ev. 35 (1894) 156, 

3 18-. 
. Steinmetz, C. P. Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 

727-. 
. Gorges, H. Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 750-, 

768-, 789-, 804-. 
. Heubach, J. Elekttech. Z. 20 (1899) 

301- , 314- ; 21 (1900) 73-, 97-. 
. Heyland, A. Elekttech. Z. 21 (1900) 

146. 



17 (1898) 89-. 
calculation. Cahen, H. Elekttech. Z. 16 

(1895) 52-, 64-, 610. f 
. Giles, G. Eclair. Elect. 22 (1900) 441- ; 

23 (1900) 286-. 
, graphic method. Heyland, A. Elekttech. 

Z. 15 (1894) 561-. 

coefficients of diffusion. Blondel, A. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 16 (1895) 625-. 
diagrams. Breslauer, M. Elekttech. Z. 21 

(1900) 469-. 
early history. Kennedy, E. Elect. Ev. 36 

(1895) 409-. 
in electric traction. Steinmetz, C. P. Sc. Abs. 

1 (1898) 300. 

first. Thompson, S. P. Elect. 34 (1895) 299. 
theory. Sohlman, J. Elekttech. Z. 12 (1891) 

575-. 
. Behrend, B. Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 

63-. 

. Blondel, A. Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 116. 
. Giles, G. Eclair. Elect. 24 (1900) 281-. 
with variable number of poles, theory. Ziehl, 

E. Elekttech. Z. 18 (1897) 535-. 



Eevolving-Field Motors. 

Bast, 0. de. Ev. Un. Mines 16 (1891) 221-. 
Borgman, I. I. Es. Ps.-C. S. J. 24 (Ps.) (1892) 

15-. 

Eechniewski, W. Elect. 28 (1892) 356-. 
Hanappe, S. Eclair. Elect. 4 (1895) 5-, 58-, 

114-, 159-. 

Thompson, S. P. Elect. 34 (1895) 102-. 
Hanappe, S. Eclair. Elect. 17 (1898) 186-, 

272-, 345-, 399-, 512-, 551-. 



772 



6070 Synchronous 



Motors 



Continuous Current 6070 



asynchronous, theory. Rothert, A. Elekttech. 

Z. 16 (1895) 705-. 
, and calculation. Legrand, L. Eclair. 

Elect. 2 (1895) 19-, 56-, 99-, 341- ; Ev. Un. 

Mines 31 (1895) 111-, 
field-strength. Sahulka, J. Elekttech. Z. 13 

(1892) 119-, 135-. 
magnetic losses. Blondel, A. Eclair. Elect. 

5 (1895) 97-, 166-, 253-, 442-, 540-, 592-. 
rotating vector theory. Ferraris, G. [1893] 

Tor. Ac. Sc. Mm. 44 (1894) 383-. 
. Guilbert, F. Lum. Elect. 51 (1894) 

351-. 
Schuckert. Farman,D. Lum. Elect. 45 (1892) 

23-. 
theory. Geraldy, F. Lum. Elect. 41 (1891) 

. Boucherot, P. Lum. Elect. 50 (1893) 

151-, 220-, 524-, 547. 
. Farman, D. Lum. Elect. 50 (1893) 317-, 

426-, 547. 
. Blondel, A. Lum. Elect. 50 (1893) 351-, 

473-, 516-, 605- ; 51 (1894) 251-, 320-. 
. Leblanc, . Lum. Elect. 50 (1893) 425-. 

Synchronous Motors. 

Ferraris, G. Tor. Ac. Sc. At. 29 (1894) 470-. 
Ossanna, G. Elekttech. Z. 17 (1896) 300-, 

312-. 
action. Behn-Eschenburg, . Elekttech. Z. 

14 (1893) 203-. 

and Blondel' s theory. Guilbert, F. Eclair. 

Elect. 3 (1895) 436-. 
monophase, action. Bedell, F., & Eyan, H. 

J. Franklin I. J. 139 (1895) 197-. 
power transmission by. Picou, R. V: I. Elect. 

E. J. 24 (1896) 377-. 
starting. Olivetti, C. Elect. Bv. 32 (1893) 

555-. 
theory. Rhodes, W. G. L. Ps. S. P. 13 (1895) 

502- ; Ph. Mg. 40 (1895) 56-, 195-. 
. Steinmetz, C. P. Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 

26-, 38-. 
. Colard, . [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 

204. 

Tesla. Swinburne, J. Elect. 21 (1888) 342-. 
, new type. F., C. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 

85-, 619-. 
in a textile mill. M'Kissick, A. F. [1900] 

Sc. Abs. 4 (1901) 130. 
theory. Behn-Eschenburg, . Elekttech. Z. 

15 (1894) 178-, 308. 

. Calun, H. Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 284. 
. Arnold, E. Elekttech. Z. 16 (1895) 662. 
, design and working. Atkinson, L. B. I. 

CE. P. 133 (1898) 113-. 
triphase, formulae. Behn-Eschenburg, H. 

Ziir. Ps. Gs. Jbr. (1893-94) 13- ; Elekttech. 

Z. 17 (1896) 10-, 27-, 86-. 

Applications. Trouve, G. C. E. 93 (1881) 

287-. 
Armature and field-magnet, relative proportion 

in electro-motor and generator. Moon, W. 

Tel. J. 13 (1883) 299-. 



Automobiles. Egger, E. Sc. Abs. 2 (1899) 

. Sparry, E. A. [1899] Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 
352. 

, formula for vehicles not exceeding 30 kilo- 
metres per hour. Simon, P. Sc. Abs. 1 
(1898) 525. 

, tests. Fliess, R. A. [1900] Sc. Abs. 4 
(1901) 337-. 

Calculation. Snell, A. T. Gen. Civ. 14 (1888- 
89) 329-, 346-. 

. Geist, E. H. Elekttech. Z. 11 (1890) 
603-. 

. Bedell, C. H. Franklin I. J. 133 (1892) 
497-. 

Commutation. Kingdon, J. A. Elect. 32 
(1894) 137-. 

Comparison of continuous and polyphase cur- 
rent motors. Duez, . C. E. 121 (1895) 
160-. 

with dynamos. Baumgardt, L. Elekttech. 
Z. 15 (1894) 79-. 

steam locomotive. Moss, L. Am. S. 
CE. T. 23 (1890) 193-. 

Conditions of running. Deutsch, L. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 13 (1892) 228-. 

Construction without iron. Guerout,A. Lum. 
Elect. 7 (*1882) 459-. 



CONTINUOUS CURRENT MOTORS. 

Koosen, J. H. Pogg. A. 91 (1854) 552-. 
Griscom, W. W. Franklin I. J. 80 (1880) 

388-. 

Deprez, M. Lum. Elect. 7 (*1882) 627-. 
Racchetti, A. Ev. Sc.-Ind. 17 (1885) 54-. 
De Grave, L. W. Fed. I. Mn. E. T. 9 (1895) 

195- ; 10 (1896) 434-. 
action. Epstein, J. Frkf. a. M. Ps. Vr. 

Jbr. (1893-94) 40-. 
for aerial machine. Tissandier, G. As. Fr. 

C. E. (1882) 231- ; C. E. 96 (1883) 224-. 
Bessolo's, and C. W. Siemens's open-ring elec- 
tromagnetic motor. Geraldy, F. Lum. 

Elect. 10 (*1883) 462-. 
Boulot. Dieudonne,E. Lum. Elect. 20 (1886) 

594-. 
calculation of current strength. Muller, A. 

Elekttech. Z. 15 (1894) 574-. 
time to attain steady velocity. Houel, 

P. Sc. Abs. 3 (1900) 667-. 
constant speed, theory. Rhodes, W. G. Elect. 

Ev. 40 (1897) 270-. 
, . Joyce, S. (et alii). Elect. Ev. 40 

(1897) 344. 

construction, remarkable. Steinmetz, C. Elekt- 
tech. Z. 11 (1890) 37-. 
Crocker-Wheeler slow-speed. Dunn, G. S. 

Sc. Abs. 1 (1898) 447-. 
Deprez's. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 

1 (*1879) 50-. 
of dome, Nice Observatory. Deprez, M, Nice 

Obs. A. 1 (1899) 14-. 
driven by accumulators. Krebs, A. C. E. 106 

(1888) 932-. 
. Saurin, J. Aer. (1895) 77-. 



773 



6070 Efficiency 



Motors 



Electromagnetic 6070 



effect of varying speeds. Deprez, M. C. B. 

100 (1885) 1128-. 
Froment. Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 

9 (*1883) 193-. 
Griscom, induction effect. Bandsept,A. Les 

Mondes 6 (1883) 52-. 
Immisch. Rechniewski, W. C. Lum. Elect. 

24 (1887) 259-. 
light and powerful. Trouve, G. Par. S. Ps. 

Se. (1887) 22-. 

magnetic field, injurious, experimental deter- 
mination. Baumgardt, L. Elekttech. Z. 16 

(1895) 344-, 374. 
for mining. Mavor, H. A. [1894] Glasg. I. 

Eng. T. 38 (1895) 73-. 
phenomenon. Mordey, W. M. Elect. 17 (1886) 

393-. 
reversing gear. Trouve, G. Par. S. Ps. Se. 

(1887) 22-. 
Siemens and Halske. Anon. Elekttech. Z. 8 

(1887) 436-. 
tests. Sever, G. F. Sch. Mines Q. N. Y. 21 

(1900) 113-, 218-. 
with translatory motion. Pacinotti, A. N. 

Cim. 11 (1900) 385, 386-; 12 (1900) 5-, 7-, 

15-. 

Coupling in series. Cabanellas, G. Cherb. S. 

Sc. Nt. Mm. 19 (1875) 211-. 
Design. Sntll, A. T. Elect. 22 (1889) 310-. 
. Esson, W. B. [1890] I. Elect. E. J. 19 

(1891) 118-, 170-, 218-, 243-. 
. Dunn, G. S. Franklin I. J. 139 (1895) 

384-. 
, economical. Ferrini, E. Mil. I. Lomb. 

Bd. 10 (1877) 347-. 
Driving by electricity. Mavor, H. A. I. Elect. 

E. J. 29 (1900) 889-. 

EFFICIENCY. 

Deprez, M. C. B. 90 (1880) 590-. 
Hospitaller, E. Lum. Elect. 2 (*1880) 305-. 
Arsonval, A. d'. Lum. Elect. 4 (*1881) 315-, 

349-, 381- ; 5 (*1881) 57-, 90-, 249-, 296-. 
Deprez, M. C. B. 95 (1882) 778-, 1056-. 
Du Moncel, T. A. L. Lum. Elect. 7 (*1882) 

551-. 
Clifford, H. E. H. Am. Ac. P. 22 (1887) 

493-. . 
Rechniewski, W. C. Lum. Elect. 23 (1887) 

414-. 

Potter, A. Lum. Elect. 33 (1889) 384-. 
Murphy, J. J. Nt. 44 (1891) 590. 
coefficients. Guzzi, P. Mil. I. Lomb. Bd. 22 

(1889) 796-. 
determination. Epstein, J. Frkf . a. M. Ps. Vr. 

Jbr. (1893-94) 40. , 
. Routin, J. L. Eclair. Elect. 9 



law. Thompson, S. P. L. Ps. S. P. 5 (1884) 

172- ; Ph. Mg. 15 (1883) 124- . 
of system of 2 dynamos. Potier, A. J. de Ps. 

2 (1883) 172-. 
used for transmission of power. 

Levy, M. C. B. 93 (1881) 785-, 842-. 



ELECTRICITY AS A MOTIVE POWER. 

Ronalds, (Sir) F. Tilloch Ph. Mg. 45 (1815) 

261. 

Petrie, W. Edinb. N. Ph. J. 50 (1851) 66-. 
Schmid, A. Presburg Vh. 2 (1857) (Sb.) 22-. 
(Theory and experiments.) Marie-Davy, . 

C. B. 52 (1861) 732-, 845-, 917-. 
Bailie, J. B. Fr. Cg. Sc. 33 (1866) 102-, 322-. 
Ayrton, W. E. Nt. 20 (1879) 568-. 
Binswanger, C. Tel. J. 12 (1883) 474-. 
Forbes, G. V. Nost. Eng. Mg. 29 (1883) 

161-. 
(Electricity as the rival of steam.) Bell, L. 

Franklin I. J. 131 (1891) 212-. 
Snell, A. T. Elect. 30 (1893) 563-, 623-, 675-, 

738-; 31 (1893) 31-, 117-, 223-, 335-, 463-, 

492- ; 32 (1894) 66-, 87-, 445-, 517-, 603-, 

657- ; 33 (1894) 262-, 323-, 385-, 479-, 659-, 

687-, 715-. 
Almeida Lima, J. M. d\ Lisb. J. Sc. Mth. 3 

(1895) 219-. 

ELECTROMAGNETIC MOTORS. 

Jacobi, M. H. L'l. 2 (1834) 394-. 

Magrini, L. A. Sc. Lomb. Yen. 6 (1836) 

154-. 
Callan, N. J. Sturgeon A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 

491-. 
Joule, J. P. Sturgeon A. Electr. 2 (1838) 

122-. 
Lockey, F. [1838] Sturgeon A. Electr. 3 

(1838-39) 14-. 

McConnell, B. R. Silliman J. 33 (1838) 188-. 
Watkins, F. Ph. Mg. 12 (1838) 190-. 
Joule, J. P. [1839] Sturgeon A. Electr. 3 

(1838-39) 437- ; 4 (1839-40) 203-. 
Neef[f], . Pogg. A. 46 (1839) 104- ; 50 

(1840) 236. 

Page, C. G. Silliman J. 35 (1839) 263-. 
Campbell, W. Silliman J. 35 (1839) 343. 
Hill, B. [1841] L. Electr. S. P. (1843) 83-. 
Botto, G. D. [1842] Tor. Mm. Ac. 5 (1843) 

239-. 
(Axial reciprocating engine.) Page, C. G. 

Silliman J. 49 (1845) 131-. 
( , double.) Page', C. G. Silliman J. 

49 (1845) 136-. 

Becker, C. (vn) Arnhem Ntk. 3 (1846) 289-. 
Macleod, J. Calc. J. NH. 6 (1846) 177-. 
Volpicelli, P. Palomba Bac. 4 (1848) 33. 
Marie-Davy, . Mntp. Ac. Mm. 2 (1851-54) 

441-. 
(Electro-axial engine.) Page, C. G. Am. Pol. 

J. 3 (1854) 273-. 

Pellis, P., & Henry, J. C. B. 45 (1857) 367-. 
Pacinotti, A. (x) N. Cim. 10 (1873) 5-. 
Breguet, A. Par. S. Ps. Se. (1878) 180-. 
(Gyroscope.) Fonvielle, W. de, & Lontin, D. 

C. B. 90 (1880) 800-. 
( .) (Fonvielle and Lontin.) Jamin, J. C. 

C. B. 90 (1880) 839-. 
( .) (Jamin.) Fonvielle, W. de. C. E. 90 

(1880) 910. 
( .) Fonvielle, W. de. C. B. 90 (1880) 969- ; 

B. S. P. 30 (1880) 305-. 



774 



6070 Electromagnetic Motors Motors 



6070 



action. Woltenhofen, A. von. Prag Sb. (1882) 

102-. 
comparison with steam motors. Kopp, H. (vi 

Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. C. 20 (1845) 201-. 
construction, new principle. Zollner, F. Pogg. 

A. 101 (1857) 139-. 
Davenport's. Silliman, B. Silliman J. 32 

(1837) (App.) 1-. 
Egger's. Handmann, E. [1877] Wien Ak. 

Sb. 76 (1878) (Ab. 2) 573-. 
experiments. Dumoncel, T. [A. L.] Cherb. 

Mm. S. Sc. 1 (1852) 289-. 
Fessel's. Pliicker, J. Pogg. A. 83 (1851) 

463-. 
improvements. Magrini, A. Mil. I. Lomb. 

Ed. 2 (1865) 370-. 
Kravogl's. Pierre, V. Wien Sb. 57 (1868) 

(Ab. 2) 532-. 
. Waltenhofen, A. von. Dingier 188 (*1868) 

345-. 
model. Zabriskie, J. B. Silliman J. 32 (1837) 

313-. 

. Militzer, H. Z. Mth. Ps. 11 (1866) 262-. 
. Williams-Ellis, (Rev. )J.C. [1870] Camb. 

Ph. S. P. 2 (1876) 197-. 
with oscillating armature. Gruel, C. A . Pogg. 

A. 89 (1853) 153-. 
Page's. Johnson, W. E. Silliman J. 10 (1850) 

473-. 
performance. Joule, J. P. Manch. Lt. Ph. 

S. P. 10 (1871) 152-. 
. Highton, H. Manch. Lt. Ph. S. P. 10 

(1871) 188-. 
reactions in. Sinsteden, W. A. Ps. C. 137 

(1869) 483-. 
with solenoid in sections. Deprez, M. Lum. 

Elect. 10 (*1883) 487-. 
theory. Matter, (Dr.) J. Pogg. A. 86 (1852) 

597- ; 87 (1852) 312-. 
. Meidinger, H. Heidi. Vh. Nt. Md. (1857- 

59) 247-. 
, analytical and experimental. Marie-Davy, 

. C. B. 40 (1855) 954-, 1139-. 
for turning machinery. Sturgeon, W. [1836] 

Sturgeon A. Electr. 1 (1836-37) 75-. 
uniform. Bosanquet, E. H. M. [1882] B. 

S. P. 34 (1883) 445-. 
use of accumulators for. Jacobi, H. [1870] 

St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 15 (1871) 510-. 
electromagnets of iron wire for. Joule, 

J. P. [1839] Sturgeon A. Electr. 4 (1839- 

40) 58-. 
useful effect. Waltenhofen, A. von. Dingier 

183 (1867) 417- ; 188 (*1868) 345-. 
(Waltenhofen). Pierre, V. Dingier 190 

(1868) 1-. 
(Pierre). Waltenhofen, A. von. Dingier 

191 (1869) 89-. 

ELECTEOMAGNETISM AS A MOTIVE 
POWER. 

Botto, G. D. Bb. Un. 56 (1834) 312-. , 
Jacobi, M. H. [1835-37] Arch, de 1'Electr. 3 

(1843) 233- ; St. Pet. Ac. Sc. Bll. 2 (1837) 

17-, 37-. 
M'Gauley, J. W. B. A. Bp. (1835) (pt. 2) 

20- ; (1836) (pt. 2) 24-. 



Anon, (vi 504) Froriep Not. 5 (1838) 97-. 
(Application to navigation.) Jacobi, M. H. 

(vi Adds.) Ph. Mg. 15 (1839) 161-. 
Page, C. G. Silliman J. 35 (1839) 105-. 
Vorsselman de Heer, P. 0. C. Pogg. A. 47 (1839) 

76. 

Forbes, P. Sturgeon A. Electr. 5 (1840) 239-. 
Reden, (Dr.) von. Dingier 78 (1840) 332-. 
Wagner, J. P. Dingier 80 (1841) 372-. 
Majocchi, G. A. (vi Adds.) Majocchi A. Fis. 

C. 11 (1843) 200-, 323-. 
Hunt, E. Franklin I. J. 20 (1850) 334-. 
Page, C. G. Silliman J. 10 (1850 343-. 
Baer, W. Halle Jbr. Nw. Vr. 4 (1851) 263-; 

(xn) Arch. Phm. 119 (1852) 248-. ' 
Hunt, E. CE. I. P. 16 (1857) 386-. 
Wagner, J. [P. non] A. von. [1865] Wien Sb. 

53 (1866) (Ab. 2) 308-. 
Comparison with steam and horses. Scoresby, 

W., <& Joule, J. P. Ph. Mg. 28 (